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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A method for introducing young people to the social art of architecture King, Stanley 1970

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A METHOD FOR INTRODUCING YOUNG PEOPLE TO THE SOCIAL ART OF ARCHITECTURE by STANLEY KING Diploma of Architecture, L e i c e s t e r College of A r t , 1953  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE i n the School of Architecture We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1970  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis i n p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements  an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  for  that  study.  P e r m i s s i o n f o r the use of the method d e s c r i b e d i n the t h e s i s and  the  use of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the r e l a t e d s l i d e s e r i e s , forms the s u b j e c t of s e p a r a t e agreement w i t h the Heads of b o t h  the F a c u l t y of  E d u c a t i o n and  the S c h o o l of A r c h i t e c t u r e o r t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It  i s understood  t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  C o p y r i g h t r e s e r v e d by K i n g G r a p h i c s L t d . 1969 t i o n s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f No.  S c h o o l of A r c h i t e c t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  33 and No's.  Columbia  and  1970  44 t o 50  on a l l i l l u s t r a inclusive.  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s and i l l u s t r a t e s a method f o r i n v o l v i n g young p e o p l e o f ages n i n e to e i g h t e e n y e a r s i n the S o c i a l A r t of A r c h i t e c t u r e . the v a r i o u s environments  I t aims t o develop an awareness of  i n which we l i v e ; aims to develop p e r -  s o n a l v a l u e s i n the young people o f t h e way they w i s h t o l i v e ; and t o develop a b i l i t i e s  i n them so t h a t they can express  their  v a l u e s and d i r e c t the d e s i g n of t h e i r f u t u r e environment. aims thereby t o a s s i s t  It  the r e v e r s a l o f t h e p r e s e n t t r e n d s i n  which as Lewis Mumford d e c l a r e s i n The City  in  History  "the  i n c r e a s i n g l y automatic p r o c e s s e s of p r o d u c t i o n and urban s i o n have d i s p l a c e d the human g o a l s they a r e supposed  expan-  to serve."  The word " a r c h i t e c t u r e " h e r e a p p l i e s wherever p e o p l e d w e l l , as i n the words o f S i r Kenneth C l a r k e , who i n  tion  Civilisa-  r e f e r s t o a r c h i t e c t u r e as "a s o c i a l a r t — a n a r t by which  men may be e n a b l e d t o l e a d a f u l l e r The and Housing  life—."  s t u d y , made under a F e l l o w s h i p o f C e n t r a l Mortgage C o r p o r a t i o n , e v o l v e d i n answer t o q u e s t i o n s from  s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s , who, f o l l o w i n g my v i s i t s asked f o r a i d and guidance t u r e and p a r t i c u l a r l y  t o classrooms  t o c o n t i n u e the study of a r c h i t e c -  f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on the f u t u r e  scene.  The is  first  p a r t o f the t h e s i s d e s c r i b e s the method as i t  used i n the c l a s s r o o m .  t h a t l e d to the p r e s e n t life  and  future  p e r c e p t i o n , and  I t progresses  scene, analyses  from the h i s t o r i c the p r e s e n t  i n v i t e s suggestions  ness guide  day  i n the l i g h t  the a n a l y s i s and  c i t i e s , suburbs, farms and  a v a r i e t y of c h o i c e s from which s t u d e n t s ways of l i f e  and  play,  and  offer  examine the v a l u e s by a r e c a l l of a l l the  e x e r c i s e develops  senses.  the awareness of the environment  a c u i t y of p e r c e p t i o n and p e r s o n a l v a l u e s which are next  plied  to t h e i r d e s i g n of the f u t u r e .  Drawn as a p l a c e  Crown C i t y , i t c o n t a i n s w i t h i n i t s boundaries suburb and  wilderness,  farm,  I t i n c o r p o r a t e s the c l a s s i c a l f u t u r e c i t y  the p r o b a b l e  trends of development known to a r c h i t e c t s ,  and  planners.  The  forms  I t a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e s the views of s t u -  dents made d u r i n g the p a s t e i g h t y e a r s and i n c o r p o r a t e new  ap-  called  city.  engineers  but  that  select their preferred  t o t a l p e r c e p t i o n of the scene i n a l l t h e i r The  wilder-  Scenes of e a t i n g , s h o p p i n g ,  o t h e r forms of p r o v i d i n g f o o d ; scenes of work and  to  of  comparison of the k i n d of l i f e  p e r t a i n s to each environment.  and  i n terms of  trends. Scenes of p r e s e n t  and  past  i t i s designed  to  ideas.  drawings of Crown C i t y aim  c o n t r i b u t e i d e a s on l i f e not from o t h e r c u l t u r e s , and  d e s i g n requirements  to encourage the  students  only from N o r t h American c u l t u r e  to d e f i n e t h e i r i d e a s i n terms of  t h a t r e l a t e to the s e n s e s .  From t h i s p o i n t ,  V  the s o c i a l and  t e c h n i c a l q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r i s e from the  s i g n requirements  can be pursued  de-  c l o s e l y associated with  the s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l s e t of v a l u e s . The  second  p a r t of the t h e s i s r e c o u n t s the s t u d i e s  and o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t l e d t o the d e s i g n of the method.  The  a t t i t u d e s of young p e o p l e , the communication a s p e c t s of group response,  of images and drawings and  i o u s a u d i o - v i s u a l media channels l a t e i n a s p e c i a l way  c a r t o o n s , and  of f i l m and  to the method.  the v a r -  television, re-  A drawing made on paper  p l a c e d on the f l o o r produces b e t t e r r e s u l t s than drawing the b l a c k b o a r d .  A drawing board  d i s c u s s i o n on the f u t u r e way  of t h i r t y  on  f e e t encourages  of l i f e w h i l e a board  of twenty  f e e t i n l e n g t h produces d i s c u s s i o n on o v e r p o p u l a t i o n .  Parti-  c i p a t i o n , which i n c l u d e s young p e o p l e i n the d e s i g n p r o c e s s , a c q u i r e s s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s by emphasizing fertility  of i d e a s .  Faculty Supervisor  p e r c e p t i o n and  the  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter  I.  Page  INTRODUCTION, AIMS AND METHOD  1  The Commencement of the Study  2  The G e n e r a l Aims and Purpose The P r o f e s s i o n a l s  •  .  7  .  .  11  Reaction to Public  Design P a r t i c i p a t i o n  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  The C h o i c e o f Young P e o p l e f o r Involvement  13 •  The Method  14  Some C i t y  17  L i f e Styles  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  29  The C i t y Apartment Way of L i f e Perception  .  .  .  .  34  .  35  The Suburban Way of L i f e Perception  .  .  .  The Farm Way o f L i f e  .  36 .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  38  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  39  Perception  40  The W i l d e r n e s s Way o f L i f e  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  Perception Crown C i t y II.  RESPONSE .  .  .  .  .  .  .  The C u r r e n t A t t i t u d e s  41 42  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  o f the Students  .  . .  . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . . .  .  45  .  73  . .  .  74  vii  Chapter  Page  The Change i n A t t i t u d e s through P a r t i c i p a t i o n Participation  i n the C l a s s r o o m S e t t i n g  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  Design P a r t i c i p a t i o n  MEDIA  105  ,  I l l  Media R e l a t e d t o P a r t i c i p a t i o n  Exercises  .  .  .  .  .  .  Models, Maps and P l a n s  .  . .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  . .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  125  .  .  .  .  .  .  127  Television  131  G e n e r i c and Drawn Images  IV.  LESSON EXAMPLES  .  F a l s e Creek .  V.  112 115  Cartoons Film  88 90  The Taxonomy o f E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s  III.  80  .  . .  . .  .  . .  .  .  .  .  .  CONCLUSION - FURTHER STUDY .  .  .  .  .  .  .  134  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  141 .  .  .  .  .  .  142  .161  The Language o f A r c h i t e c t u r e  163  L i f e S t y l e s i n Other C u l t u r e s  164  E v a l u a t i o n o f Response Assessment o f Method  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  Study o f T e a c h i n g Environments P r o p o s a l f o r C o n t i n u i n g Work SOURCES CONSULTED .  .  .  .  References f o r Chapter I  .  .  .  . .  . .  .  165  . . .  165  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  165  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  166  .  .  .  .  169  .  .  .  60  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  Illustration  1-12  Page  The s t o r y  13 - 17  L i f e Style  18 - 31  Crown C i t y  of Some C i t y  17- 28  Comparisons  29- 33  45-58  32  Sherwood F o r e s t  33  No Easy Way  . . . . . .  76  79  34 - 35  Rejected Future C i t i e s  83- 84  36 - 39  Students' C i t i e s  92-95  40  41 - 42  43  44 - 50  Craft  Studios  S t u d e n t s ' Crown C i t y  Playhouse  T h e a t r e Draw-In  Cartoons  51  Cariboo  52  Touching  53 - 54  104  108-109  . . .  113  118-124  126  Streets  F a l s e Creek Trip.  138  147-148  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  Margaret as  King  A.T.D.,  who i s my w i f e , has c o n t r i b u t e d h e r s k i l l s  an a r t t e a c h e r , h e r e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h i n g a r c h i t e c t u r e a t h i g h  s c h o o l l e v e l , and h e r s e n s i t i v i t y  as a l a n d s c a p e p a i n t e r .  The impulse  b e h i n d t h i s work comes from h e r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a more humane d e v e l o p ment must be found t h a t a v o i d s the d i f f i c u l t i e s we e x p e r i e n c e d and observed i n l i v i n g i n a t o t a l l y p l a n n e d E n g l i s h New Town, and i n contrast,  i n t h e commercial anarchy o f M o n t r e a l . The members o f my A d v i s o r y Committee, a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia, have h e l p e d beyond t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s by t h e i r  Hilda  Henry  Wolfgang  e n t h u s i a s m and comments on t h e importance o f t h e work:  Symonds  Elder  Gerson  S u p e r v i s o r , Urban A f f a i r s E x t e n s i o n Department.  Program,  Director, School of A r c h i t e c t u r e . P r o f e s s o r i n Charge o f Graduate S t u d i e s , School of A r c h i t e c t u r e .  Bruno  Freschi  Assistant Professor, School of A r c h i t e c t u r e .  Frank  Hardwiok  Chairman o f S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Faculty of Education.  Ben  Leonard  Whittinger  Marsh  Chairman o f Audio V i s u a l Faculty of Education.  Studies,  P r o f e s s o r , F o u n d a t i o n s Department, Faculty of Education.  X Among the hundreds o f c h i l d r e n who have been i n v o l v e d , many have h e l p e d a f t e r s c h o o l hours and d u r i n g h o l i d a y s w i t h t i o n o f f u r t h e r i n g the work, which bears  Jonathan  aged f i f t e e n , Rachel  the expressed  t h e i r approval.  aged t h i r t e e n , and Celia  many y e a r s o f c l o s e involvement  are s t i l l  ready  inten-  My own c h i l d r e n  aged e l e v e n ,  after  to o f f e r i n v a l u a b l e  assistance. The t e a c h e r s who have i n v i t e d me t o v i s i t low.  schools are l i s t e d be-  T h e i r comments and p r a c t i c a l use o f my v i s i t s h e l p e d  method.  Apart  from my f i r s t  and t o U n i v e r s i t y H i l l  approach t o V i v i a n Graham S c h o o l i n Quebec  S c h o o l on my a r r i v a l i n Vancouver, a l l the v i s i t s  have been a t the i n v i t a t i o n o f the t e a c h e r s . i n t e r e s t they have p r o v i d e d enormous  Mr.  Peter  Glouteney  Mr.  D. Maggs  Mr.  Willard  Mr.  R. Crowell  Mrs.  Davidson  E. Dunbar  J.  Davidson  Mr.  G. Norman  G. Dodge  By t h e i r i n v i t a t i o n s and  encouragement.  Geography, Grades 3, 4 and 5, V i v i a n Graham S c h o o l , l i e P e r r o t ,  Quebec.  H i s t o r y , Grades 6 and 7, Edgewater S c h o o l , P i n c o u r t , Quebec, and Oakridge S c h o o l , B a i e D ' U r f e , Quebec.  Mr.  Mr.  t o shape the  Geography, Grades 6 and 7, Edgewater S c h o o l , P i n c o u r t , Quebec. H i s t o r y , Grades 5 and 6, Edgewater S c h o o l , P i n c o u r t ,  Quebec.  H i s t o r y , Grades 4 and 5, Edgewater S c h o o l , P i n c o u r t , Quebec. Geography, Grades 5 and 6, Edgewater S c h o o l , P i n c o u r t , Quebec. Whole S c h o o l , C e n t e n n i a l P r o j e c t , K e n s i n g t o n Elementary S c h o o l , M o n t r e a l ,  Quebec.  A r t , Grade 10, Macdonald H i g h S c h o o l , S t e . Anne de B e l l v u e , Quebec.  xi  Mrs.  M.  King  Senior S p e c i a l Education, D o r s e t S c h o o l , B a i e D ' U r f e , Quebec, and Macdonald High S c h o o l , S t e . Anne de B e l l v u e .  Mr.  0.  Stevens  S e n i o r S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , Macdonald High S c h o o l , S t e . Anne de B e l l v u e , Quebec.  Mr.  D.  Barnes  H i s t o r y , Grades 9 and 10, Macdonald High S c h o o l , S t e . Anne de B e l l v u e , Quebec.  Mrs.  Mr.  Glynn  D.  Mrs.  Jones  Howie  Helen  Geography, Grade 10, U n i v e r s i t y H i l l Secondary S c h o o l , Vancouver. Geography, Grade 9, Magee Secondary S c h o o l , Vancouver.  Sherrif  S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Grades 8 and 12, U n i v e r s i t y H i l l Secondary S c h o o l , Vancouver,  Mr. G. Onstad Mrs. Judy Doyle  S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Grade 11, A l p h a J u n i o r Secondary S c h o o l , Burnaby.  Mr.  S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Grade 7, Southlands Elementary S c h o o l , Vancouver.  L.  In  Butehart  a d d i t i o n the mass drawing i n v o l v i n g young p e o p l e and the d i s -  c u s s i o n of the f u t u r e , each o f which f u r t h e r e d the work by the wide exposure, has t a k e n p l a c e i n p u b l i c on the f o l l o w i n g  occasions:  Kensington Elementary School, Montreal, C e n t e n n i a l P r o j e c t ,  1967.  P i n c o u r t , Quebec, L i b r a r y Opening, 1967. A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia "Adventure i n A r c h i t e c t u r e " a t Vancouver P l a y h o u s e , 1968 and 1970. Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , Vancouver, H o u r g l a s s , Eatons o p e n i n g o f "Vancouver I Love You" E x h i b i t i o n ,  1970.  1970.  The Vancouver S c h o o l Board a r r a n g e d m i n i - c o u r s e s d u r i n g F e b r u a r y 1970  t o demonstrate the method t o High S c h o o l and Elementary S c h o o l  t e a c h e r s p r o v i d i n g an i n v a l u a b l e exchange of v i e w s .  F i n a n c i a l support  d u r i n g t h e p a s t two y e a r s  of study a t the  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia came from t h e Grant o f F e l l o w s h i p o f C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n .  The D i r e c t o r s , i n g r a n t i n g  the F e l l o w s h i p , l e n t the a u t h o r i t y o f t h e i r p r a c t i c a l c o n c e r n the problems of development, and a l s o l e n t  t h e i r esteem.  r e g a r d f o r C.M.H.C. i s h i g h and mention o f t h e i r b a c k i n g and  with  The p u b l i c gained  respect  a t t e n t i o n f o r my work. A d d i t i o n a l funds have come from t h e p r e p a r a t i o n and s a l e o f  t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l , which appears i n t h e t h e s i s , through my company, King Graphics Purchasers  L i m i t e d , formed d u r i n g t h e s t u d i e s f o r t h i s p u r p o s e .  o f m a t e r i a l who have a s s i s t e d the study  i n t h i s way i n c l u d e  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver S c h o o l Board, and Schools  throughout B r i t i s h  Columbia.  A METHOD FOR INTRODUCING YOUNG PEOPLE TO THE SOCIAL ART OF ARCHITECTURE  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION, AIMS AND METHOD  The Commencement o f the Study The G e n e r a l Aim and Purpose The P r o f e s s i o n a l s ' R e a c t i o n t o P u b l i c D e s i g n P a r t i c i p a t i o n The C h o i c e o f Young People f o r Involvement The Method  2  How do you wish What is  your  way of  What do you  like  life  and your  about  and what  to  your  would  live? situation  present you  at  present?  surroundings  improve?  Architects and c l i e n t s discuss such questions a f t e r v i s i t i n g the s i t e f o r a new home.  The answers form the human goals f o r the design.  They are paramount, above the goals of economics, of management and structure.  The method of a r c h i t e c t u r a l design discussion has no p a r a l l e l  i n the design of the environment at large.  As a r e s u l t , human goals r e -  main unstated and other goals p r e v a i l . This study proposes a method f o r stating the human goals f o r the design of the environment. considers change  and the  Based on a r c h i t e c t u r a l design discussion, i t  future;  life  styles;  and perception.  I t addres-  ses young people, while they perceive acutely and c u r i o s i t y f o r the future runs high, to give them time to prepare f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the design of the future environment.  The method i s intended f o r use i n  Grade Schools where the ubiquity of architecture applies to the study of geography, h i s t o r y , the sciences and mathematics, and the a r t s . The Commencement of the Study. The Habitat a r t i c l e s that follow mark the commencement of the study i n 1962. The view propounded i n the a r t i c l e s , that architects and the study of architecture both have a place in, Grade Schools won the approval of students and teachers.  Invitations to v i s i t school came frequently.  3  Elegy  by Mr. Stanley King who has worked with Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation and later with consultants preparing the Frobisher Bay New Town Report; he then joined Peter Dickinson's office as Assistant Chief Architect on the Bank of Commerce Skyscraper in Montreal.  Reproduced from H a b i t a t V o l . V, No. 5, S e p t . Oct. , 1962, p. 12.  Nearby my home west of Montreal are these streets and houses. They are not well-known views and will soon be gone. The houses located in Saint Anne de Bellevue will soon be replaced by a bridge —anyway the balcony centrepiece and the houses to right and left are decaying and tottering. Any day now the view will be gone. The sketch just catches a moment in time. Often this spring I have been too late. Exquisite streets noticed on a Saturday morning have been changed by the time I return for another look on Sunday. In two cases the removal of a double balcony and the tarpaper facing of key buildings have altered the appearance, making me realize just how brief is the moment in time. It is a moment of evolution.  It is appalling that it should happen so quietly. So many of these town streets and squares are gems of urban domestic streetscape and eminently worth studying. They are excellent visual solutions of urban dwelling problems—problems now being featured in the architectural press. On that count alone they could be studied by architects and planners, but this subject is much wider and is everybody's business and should not be kept within the profession. So what is to be done? Here, going unused, are full scale educational models for teaching townscape and we have been taught the phrases to describe and analyze and yet we are silent. We should be talking and pointing and showing photographs to councillor, teacher, parent and child. Why is this evolution so appallingly silent?  5  by Stanley King While discussing my drawings, I find people anxious to try to preserve any view that shows charm or character. It is an emotional response without discrimination. I am never asked why I like the views I draw. Love for  R E V I V A L  a street is so vulnerable and beauty can be suddenly destroyed without regard for the opinions of people who made it their environment. This is so different from conversations on separate houses and their interiors. It is a tragedy that the relation between consumer and  producer should vary so much inside  and  outside the lot line.  Inside the lot,  people have a sense of participation in raising standards of beauty and opinions are well-informed. Outside there is no sense of participation and very little knowledge. We of the architectural profession must help. Commerce can no nothing, for streetscape  is not immediately for sale.  We  have been trained to create towns and we know townscape as environment. We know how art, mathematics, physics, geology and  Reproduced from Habitat Vol. VI, No. 1, Jan.Feb., 1963, p. 19.  geography are used in the fabric of towns and the different settings in history and literature.  All these are school subjects. We  should go to the schools with talks and illus-  trations. We should show pictures of differ-  public and the Renaissance Architect whose  ent streets at home and abroad and blank  finishing school was a tour of the world's best  off key buildings to show their effect. This is  contemporary cities. Much of Renaissance  not a specialized subject.  A child of six  London, Bath and Edinburgh was built to  knows more than we do about ground texture  conform with the public's taste. Our status  and the space of a gas station. This aware-  of skilled servant is much the same as it was,  ness must be sharpened before it is lost. We  but a large gap has grown between the archi-  must remove the barrier between expert and  tect and the public. It is entirely up to us to  lay. There was no such barrier between the  bridge the gap.  +++  7 A method o f i n v o l v i n g young p e o p l e i n t h e S o c i a l A r t o f A r c h i t e c t u r e began t o shape i t s e l f .  The'involvement  supplement the a r c h i t e c t to b u t n o t p a r t o f t h i s The  formed p a r t o f t h e method, an a s p e c t a l l u d e d study.  i d e a o f i n v o l v i n g young p e o p l e  onment appealed  to the producers  commissioned a r e p o r t . v i s i o n time.  i n the design of t h e i r  o f mass media.  The N a t i o n a l F i l m  Board  The Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n gave  tele-  I t f e a t u r e d i n p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n a t t h e 1966  General  o f t h e Quebec P r o t e s t a n t Home and S c h o o l A s s o c i a t i o n .  Elementary  envir-  P a r e n t s e x p r e s s e d h i g h r e g a r d f o r t h e i d e a , spoke o f i t a t  p u b l i c meetings. Meeting  of other v i s i t i n g experts to  S c h o o l i n M o n t r e a l , as t h e i r 1967  Kensington  Canada C e n t e n n i a l P r o j e c t ,  f e a t u r e d t h e method and i n v o l v e d t h e e n t i r e s c h o o l and t h e p a r e n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , due t o t h e demands o f my a r c h i t e c t u r a l the advancement o f t h e i d e a p r o g r e s s e d s l o w l y . and a t t r a c t e d e n c o u r a g i n g  I t showed g r e a t promise  support b u t t h e i n t e r e s t i t aroused  l e s s l y around t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t i t provoked c i n g i n 1968,  w i t h a Grant  The  Commen-  o f F e l l o w s h i p from C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housthe School of A r c h i t e c t u r e  at t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia t o develop i n this  turned end-  about t h e f u t u r e .  i n g C o r p o r a t i o n f o r Graduate Study, I a t t e n d e d  presented  practice,  the work t o t h e s t a g e s  thesis.  G e n e r a l Aim and Purpose  I p r e s e n t a method whereby Grade S c h o o l s t u d e n t s may a c q u i r e t h e S o c i a l A r t o f A r c h i t e c t u r e which may a s s i s t  them when, as a d u l t s i n pos-  i t i o n s o f a u t h o r i t y , they f a c e d e c i s i o n s on the d e s i g n o f t h e  8 environment.  It  aims t o produce a p r a c t i c a l method of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -  t i o n f o r the d e s i g n of  the  environment.  The method aims to develop an awareness of the v a r i o u s e n v i r o n ments i n w h i c h we l i v e ;  aims to develop p e r s o n a l v a l u e s  p e o p l e of  the way they w i s h t o l i v e ;  that  can e x p r e s s t h e i r v a l u e s  they  and t o develop  i n the young  abilities  to d i r e c t the d e s i g n of  i n them so  their  future  environment. It is  aims to demonstrate  that,  as R u s k i n a d v o c a t e s ,  "Architecture  an a r t f o r a l l men to l e a r n , because a l l a r e concerned w i t h  "Architecture" writes  Furneaux J o r d a n " i s  a social art."^  it."  "—an a r t "  says S i r Kenneth C l a r k "by which men may be e n a b l e d to l e a d a f u l l e r life."  5  By a c q u i r i n g the S o c i a l A r t o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , young p e o p l e , view  the f u t u r e w i t h g r e a t  to s o l u t i o n s lies  that  anxiety,  may f i n d a more p r o m i s i n g approach  t e c h n o l o g y has f a i l e d on i t s  through an awareness of  who  the a r t s  of l i f e .  own to f i n d .  The approach  "We need a r t " w r i t e s  Jane Jacobs " i n the arrangement of c i t i e s as w e l l as i n the o t h e r of  life  to help e x p l a i n l i f e  to u s .  We need a r t most,  perhaps,  realms  to  re-  a s s u r e us of our own h u m a n i t y . " ^ The method attempts to meet the need and to do so w i t h a sense of the d e s p e r a t i o n and urgency p r e s e n t writes  "A h o r r o r of mankind a r i s e s  i n our c i t i e s where,  as G i e d i o n  from the enormous h e a p i n g up of human  beings.  O v e r f i l l e d c i t i e s have p e r f o r c e l e d to a b a n k r u p t c y of  "ours i s  an age" d e c l a r e s Mumford " i n which the i n c r e a s i n g l y  life";^  automatic  p r o c e s s e s o f p r o d u c t i o n and urban e x p a n s i o n have d i s p l a c e d the human  9  8 g o a l s they are supposed to s e r v e . " By d e v e l o p i n g an awareness of l i f e  and of our s u r r o u n d i n g s  the  method aims to r e p a i r the f o u n d a t i o n s where the b a s i c problems l i e .  It  i s not i n t e n d e d , by i t s  emphasis  on the a r t s of l i f e ,  to be an escape  from our r e a l t r o u b l e s ,  a relief  from f a i l u r e , nor a j o u r n e y to U t o p i a .  The enormity of the p r o b l e m s , of p l a n n i n g , of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , of omics,  is  a t i o n of  respected.  "But" says G i e d i o n " d e s p i t e the c o m p l i c a t e d  the p r e s e n t  Independent  econ-  day,  the unchanging v a l u e s  of l i f e  o f a l l o b s t r u c t i o n s which impede i t s  situ-  remain.  fulfillment  the u p p e r -  9 most q u e s t i o n i s : Bow do we wish The q u e s t i o n student  to  live?"  forms the h e a r t of t h i s work.  and f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r : In what  I t i s put to  surroundings?  the  The answers  the approach to f u r t h e r study and may i n c l u d e n a t u r a l as w e l l as ficial  surroundings.  to i n c l u d e , writes  in unity,  set  arti-  The study of the S o c i a l A r t o f A r c h i t e c t u r e aims the whole environment i n which we l i v e .  i n h i s book Design  with  Ian McHarg  Nature  Our eyes do not d i v i d e us from the w o r l d , but u n i t e us w i t h i t . L e t t h i s be known to be t r u e . L e t us then abandon the S i m p l i c i t y of s e p a r a t i o n and g i v e u n i t y i t s due. L e t us abandon the s e l f m u t i l a t i o n which has been our way and g i v e e x p r e s s i o n to the p o t e n t i a l harmony of man-nature. The w o r l d i s abundant; we r e q u i r e o n l y a d e f e r e n c e b o r n of u n d e r s t a n d i n g to f u l f i l l mans' p r o m i s e . Man i s t h a t u n i q u e l y c o n s c i o u s c r e a t u r e who can p e r c e i v e and e x p r e s s . He must become the steward of the b i o s p h e r e . To do t h i s he must d e s i g n w i t h nature.10  By the development  of s e n s i t i v i t y  to l i f e  and p e r c e p t i o n i t  hoped t h a t an i n n e r s p i r i t u a l advancement might be a c h i e v e d t h a t t o be n e c e s s a r y  f o r the q u a l i t y o f beauty  to emerge.  is  appears  S i r Kenneth C l a r k  10 speaks i n h i s Civilisation T w e l f t h Century "who  S e r i e s of the views o f Abbot argued t h a t we  l u t e b e a u t y , which i s God, t h i n g s on our s e n s e s .  Suger i n the  c o u l d o n l y come to u n d e r s t a n d abso-  through the e f f e c t of p r e c i o u s and b e a u t i f u l  He s a i d  t h a t which i s m a t e r i a l ' and  'The d u l l mind r i s e s  'Man  may  rise  to t r u t h through  to a c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f the  d i v i n e through the s e n s e s ' . F r a n k L l o y d Wright s u g g e s t s t h a t  Man seems t o be dependent upon i n s p i r a t i o n from a h i g h e r s o u r c e . N e i t h e r by h e r e d i t y nor by i n s t i n c t does man succeed i n the l i f e beautiful. He seems to have missed much o f t h i s a c c o r d , concord and s i m p l i c i t y and i n s t e a d l e f t a t r a i l o f u g l i n e s s i n h i s wake, i n s t e a d of what we c a l l t h i s r e a l i t y of n a t u r e — b e a u t y . I n a l l mans' attempted c i v i l i s a t i o n s t h i s n a t u r a l r i g h t to beauty seems l e f t to mans' v i s i o n of h i m s e l f and the a f f a i r seems to r e s t not so much i n h i s e d u c a t i o n as i n the c u l t u r e of h i s s p i r i t . 1 2  In a d d i t i o n t o the s p i r i t u a l e f f e c t of p e r c e p t i o n the method aims to d e v e l o p the s p i r i t u a l rewards o f u n i t e d and combined  endeavour by a  d e m o n s t r a t i o n of i n v o l v e m e n t t h a t i s open t o a l l as p a r t i c i p a n t s .  It  aims t o equip and encourage p e o p l e t o i n v o l v e themselves i n the d e s i g n o f the environment. bases i t s e l f  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the e v i d e n c e around u s , the method  on the f a i t h  t h a t our environment w i l l be improved by i n -  c r e a s e d p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t , and t h a t the p r e s e n t scene does not r e p r e sent p u b l i c a s p i r a t i o n s .  In h i s book Cities  in  the  Suburbs,  Humphrey  Carver maintains that  A s t r a n g e r o b s e r v i n g us i n our suburbs might conclude t h a t N o r t h Americans had been u t t e r l y subdued i n t o c o n f o r m i t y by the g r e a t c o r p o r a t e systems of democracy and i n d u s t r y . Y e t i n f a c t t h i s i s not the t r u t h ; the suburbs g i v e a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n of what i s i n our minds. We have f a i l e d t o g i v e e x p r e s s i o n to the motives and p u r poses t h a t govern us; i n the a r r a n g i n g of c i t i e s we have been i n a r t i c u l a t e . 13  11 Finally young people  t h e method aims t o ease t h e a l a r m i n g  anxiety with  which  v i e w t h e f u t u r e , an a n x i e t y t h a t i s i n c r e a s e d by a d u l t  con-  c e r n w i t h p o l l u t i o n and o v e r p o p u l a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d b y t e a c h i n g s  which  e l a b o r a t e u p o n t h e u r b a n p r o b l e m s f o r w h i c h we e v i d e n t l y h a v e no  solu-  tions.  The method aims t o e a s e t h e i r d i s t r e s s b y i n d i c a t i n g  w h i c h young p e o p l e ing  the wealth  themselves  of p o s s i b i l i t i e s  the worth o f t h e i r  The  can prepare  own  f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n , by emphasis-  and by d e v e l o p i n g  their  confidence i n  experience.  Professionals' Reaction  Humphrey C a r v e r ,  areas i n  to Public Design  says  Participation  f u r t h e r i n h i s b o o k Cities  in  the  Suburbs  To a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e s u b u r b s h a v e b e e n a n a c c i d e n t , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e of an e l a b o r a t e i n t e r p l a y of f o r c e s i n land s p e c u l a t i o n , i n t r a f f i c a r r a n g e m e n t s , and i n t h e b i d f o r consumer m a r k e t s . T h e p e o p l e who a r r i v e i n t h e suburbs have been i n a r t i c u l a t e ; they have n e i t h e r f o r m u l a t e d n o r e x p r e s s e d t h e i r d e s i r e s . How c o u l d t h e y ? They w e r e n ' t t h e r e w h e n t h e d e c i s i o n s h a d t o b e made.14  If learned be  t h e g e n e r a l aims o f t h i s  t o f o r m u l a t e and e x p r e s s  t h e s i s were a c h i e v e d , and s t u d e n t s  t h e i r d e s i r e s , w o u l d t h e y , when a d u l t ,  t h e r e w h e n t h e d e c i s i o n s w e r e made?  participation,  Would d e s i g n e r s  discourage  their  f e a r i n g a Tower o f B a b e l ?  Instances  of the involvement  g r o w i n n u m b e r . Some l o c a l  of the public i n planning  issues  e x a m p l e s t h a t f o l l o w may c o n v e y t h e i n t e r e s t  i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n between e x p e r t s and c i t i z e n s . The years  City Planner  invited  t i v e plans  o f V a n c o u v e r , W.  submissions  E. G r a h a m , d u r i n g t h e p a s t  three  f r o m t h e p u b l i c on t h e i s s u e s and t h e a l t e r n a -  f o r Vancouver, and w i t h R i c h a r d Hayward, t h e D i r e c t d r o f  12 Long-range P l a n n i n g , h e l d p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n s c o n t i n u o u s l y w i t h  citizen  groups. Peter Oberlander,  the D i r e c t o r of the School  o f Community  Planning  a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Chairman o f t h e V a n c o u v e r School  B o a r d , w i t h H i l d a Symonds, S u p e r v i s o r o f U r b a n A f f a i r s  of t h e E x t e n s i o n Department a t U.B.C, brought teachers experts  together  producing research  f o rseminars during  p u b l i c a t i o n s f o rteachers grant  the past  hear planning and  experts  the City The  g r o u p s f o r m e d a C o m p o s i t e Com-  h e l d e x h i b i t i o n s and meetings t o  N e a r b y , i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e L i b r a r y  o f Planner, Donald Barcham, t o d i s c u s s t h e f u t u r e  o f New W e s t m i n s t e r . Architectural  Institute of B r i t i s h  the Vancouver Playhouse Theatre the audience onto t h e stage their  during  n a i r e surveys The  of areas  continued  the design  magazine,  Railway  C o l u m b i a h e l d shows a t  the past  two y e a r s  t o draw on a huge b o a r d ,  images o f t h e f u t u r e environment.  Canadian P a c i f i c  in  Corporation.  t h e P l a n n i n g Department r e c e n t l y h e l d a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c meetings,  under t h e chairmanship of  four years  o f renown.  T h e y a r e now  o f Urban S t u d i e s , a s s i s t e d by a  In Vancouver, the l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s ' the past  and p l a n n i n g  three years.  from t h e C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing  m i t t e e , and d u r i n g  Programs  sought design  and encouraged  thirty  feet  long,  Recently Marathon R e a l t y of the leads from c i t i z e n s by q u e s t i o n -  of Vancouver.  g r o w t h o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n may h e r a l d a c h a n g e  professions.  Monday Morning  3  M a r s h a l l McLuhan, i n an i n t e r v i e w i n t h e i n 1968,  the environment, w h i c h he s a y s :  addresses  the problem o f design o f  13 R e q u i r e s a knowledge on the p a r t o f the d e s i g n e r of a l l the e f f e c t s t h a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r d e s i g n or image i s going to have on the whole p u b l i c who a r e s u b j e c t e d to i t . What i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y n e c e s s a r y i n our w o r l d i s a knowledge o f e f f e c t s b e f o r e the e f f e c t s take p l a c e , and t h i s takes much more knowledge than the knowledge of s i m p l y p r o d u c i n g the product.15  D e s i g n e r s w i l l need the a d v i c e of media s p e c i a l i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s and many o t h e r e x p e r t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o the f r u i t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h people.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n has  tance o f the d e s i g n . are uniquely s k i l l e d No  the advantage t h a t i t p r e p a r e s p u b l i c  Undoubtedly,  images h e l p d i s c u s s i o n , and  architects  i n p r o d u c i n g images o f the f u t u r e f o r t h e i r  o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l group f i t s  the r o l e as a p t l y .  p a r t i c u l a r t a l e n t i n a r c h i t e c t s , one  t h a t has  accep-  clients.  I t emphasizes a  suffered neglect during a  p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h b u i l d i n g systems and management, the t a l e n t o f p o r t r a y i n g a v a r i e t y o f f u t u r e scenes.  The v a r i e t y so f a r d i s p l a y e d i s a  f r a c t i o n o f i t s p o t e n t i a l , c o n f i n e d by the d e v e l o p e r s ' purse and h i s estimate of p u b l i c  taste.  " U g l i n e s s , w r i t e s T r e v e l y a n , "remains  a quality  of the modern c i t y , rendered a c c e p t a b l e by custom to a p u b l i c t h a t imagine  o n l y what i t has  can  seen.  The C h o i c e o f Young P e o p l e f o r  Involvement  The work w i t h s t u d e n t s a p p l i e s a l s o t o a d u l t s and d e r i v e s from adult architectural practice.  Where i t d w e l l s on the f u t u r e the young  have, o f c o u r s e , a s p e c i a l p l a c e . a r e the f u t u r e . c l u d e a d u l t s , who  The  The young r e p r e s e n t the f u t u r e : They  s e l e c t i o n o f young p e o p l e f o r response does n o t  o f t e n p a r t i c i p a t e as one w i t h them.  youth o c c u r s n a t u r a l l y .  Students  The emphasis  i n High S c h o o l s and Elementary  exon  Schools  14 and their teachers show more eagerness than other groups to p a r t i c i p a t e , and they extend pressing i n v i t a t i o n s .  Also, they o f f e r advantages over  other groups of c i t i z e n s . They assemble i n classrooms without p r i o r motive.  They are not  there to show themselves i n the community, nor to protect t h e i r own i n terests.  They are neither investors, developers, r e a l t o r s nor b u i l d e r s ,  nor s p e c i a l i s t s i n u n i v e r s i t y study.  The students respond openly, un-  affected by s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . The students remain as a group day a f t e r day and so the exercise of response goes beyond the stages of adult public p a r t i c i p a t i o n that are often limited by d i f f i c u l t i e s of assembly and by lack of time to devote to meetings.  The exercises f i t into the curriculum study of History,  Geography, Economics, Language Arts and the Sciences, and provide a motivation f o r study.  The exercises, even i n t h e i r early form, have a place  i n the normal school program. E f f e c t i v e communication can be established with adults through young people.  Adults i d e n t i f y with the young people through images of  t h e i r own youth and r e c a l l the changes that have occurred to the environment.  Adults and young people appear to achieve a sense of unity  during the exercise.  The Method F i f t y c h i l d r e n gather before a drawing board t h i r t y feet long.  I  i n v i t e them to be architects and to design the c i t y of the future, but f i r s t to look at the past to see what made the c i t y into the present shape ans what might shape the future. V  15 A small  t r a d i n g community drawn on the s h o r e of a r i v e r grows  l a r g e r to i n c l u d e s t o r e s and  houses.  The  c h i l d r e n suggest s o l u t i o n s  to  the problems t h a t a r i s e i n the community and  draw a p r o s p e r o u s town t h a t  i n c l u d e s a l l t h a t comes to mind as b e l o n g i n g  to towns and  b o a r d i s obscured by  is  board, apart  from an a r e a on  crammed w i t h b u i l d i n g s and  mistakes.  f o r them to w a i t , to p l a n ,  consequences of over p o p u l a t i o n  group who  had  fall  attended previous  of  life  value  do as  they  most  ask  the  desire?  and  3  if  I  empty  p o i n t out  A l l land i s b u i l t  the still  over.  s t u d e n t among a  sessions.  of s o l u t i o n s and  And  future,  to a v o i d a r e p e t i t i o n of  d i s a s t e r s of o t h e r  all  cannot  cities,  I g u i d e them away from  them t o p i c t u r e themselves i n the f u t u r e .  be  obtained:,  what  What do  kind they  important?  Later, I help dwell  f o r the  p o l l u t i o n the d e v e l o p e r s are  to arguments about r i v a l s o l u t i o n s .  arguments, and  drawing.  to f i l l  the f u t u r e a g a i n , " bemoans one  They r e c a l l r e a d i n g and  and  the whole b o a r d i s f i l l e d .  "We've messed up  city.  s t r u c t u r e s of a monstrous modern c i t y .  But w h i l e they e x h o r t t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s  drawing and  the  the r i g h t r e s e r v e d  r e l e a s e the f u t u r e l a n d f o r development, some rush s p a c e , some c a l l out  The  a crowd of c h i l d r e n a l l drawing p a r t s of the  They duck down t o p e r m i t the c h i l d r e n b e h i n d to see The  cities.  them to p e r c e i v e  themselves i n the f u t u r e and  i n t h e i r minds on a p a r t o f l i f e ,  v a r i e t i e s of s i t u a t i o n s , now day  expand to f i l l  and  touch f i l l  a life  and  style.  perhaps the hour of e a t i n g , i n  i n the f u t u r e .  The  E f f e c t s perceived  i n the d e t a i l s of the  to  image.  hour and  then  of sound and  the  sight  16 They a p p l y t h e i r thoughts  f o r the f u t u r e i n the d i r e c t i o n of  d e s i g n s f o r a p l a c e c a l l e d Crown C i t y .  the  Sketch d e s i g n s are suggested  on  the pages t h a t f o l l o w .  They d e s c r i b e the a r e a and  of  They a r e i n t e n d e d to a i d the i m a g i n a t i o n so t h a t  possible solutions.  the s t u d e n t s can extend scene  through  the p i c t u r e to cover a f u l l p e r c e p t i o n o f the  a l l the s e n s e s .  The s t u d e n t s a r e asked  the s e t t i n g b e f o r e and a f t e r the scene The  students' own  the g e n e r a l s e t t i n g s  i d e a s develop  acceptable f o r consideration.  t o imagine  time i n  depicted. from the s k e t c h e s .  A l l ideas are  They study the s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r i d e a s . The  d e s c r i p t i o n of the Method t h a t f o l l o w s resembles  a presenta-  t i o n t o a group of s t u d e n t s , i t would v a r y f o r d i f f e r e n t ages abilities.  The  and  p r e s e n t a t i o n t o s t u d e n t s of about twelve y e a r s of  age  would c o n s i s t of the wording and s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a t i s d e p i c t e d . A f u l l degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n would be e x p e c t e d .  The pace would  f a i r l y slow and would c o v e r s i x c l a s s r o o m p e r i o d s . s e c t i o n proceeds d e s i g n s extends ally,  q u i c k l y and to s u i t  d e c l i n e s , and  historical  the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h the s t u d e n t s '  their f e r t i l i t y  and pace of i m a g i n a t i o n .  f o r o l d e r s t u d e n t s , the pace i n c r e a s e s and  response  The  be  Gener-  the s p o n t a n e i t y of  f o r s t u d e n t s younger than twelve y e a r s of  age  the r e v e r s e would a p p l y . I ask the r e a d e r to imagine  the scene  as the s t u d e n t s  respond.  Where drawings appear i n the t e x t the s t u d e n t s would see p r o j e c t e d s l i d e s , o r be  the a r t i s t s  of the drawings  themselves.  Y O U A R E INVITED TO B E A R C H I T E C T S A N D T O DESIOW Y O U R FUTURE ffURROUNlPIMGG. B Y THE YEAR. 2000 THE CHANGES MIGHT SURPRISE YOU. AAAYBE YOU WILt SCRATCH YOUR HEAPS AK? WOMPER. HOW IT HAPPEMEP. HOW PIC THE PRESENT HAPPEM ? LETS ?&E IF THE YOUNIG GROWTH OF THE CITY HAS ANY CLUES TO HELP US' PECIGN THE FUTURE . LET YOUR IMAGINATION C0M6 BACK. TO THE BEGINNING OF A CITY . AMP WATCH IT GROW AS WE PRAW IT.  SOME CITY © KIN6 $«ATHICS UP 1970  @ KU^Ci GRAPHICS l?l> » 1 0  ' «SDME KNEW  CITY'«3M<:e IT THEN  WAS  WILDERNESS,  AS A PLACB  ^ u p r o s e you  OW "/OUR. TftAPE You S E E T H A T M A K E  You  STAKE  FP.IBNP  VOU  OUT L O T S • • W T H T H E 0 U Y T H E LAMP  HELP  I T COCIU?  A T O W M S I T S | j  O F A RJCH  ANC? APVEMl^e  FofciALE  TOGETHER. WITH OTHER. SETTLE R-S VOU CLEAPTHE LAMP AND BUIC.P HOMES  WHO  C A N PP-AVM & O A T S ?  ALL MERCHANTS MUST PAX" THS TOWN FOP- A LICENCE TO TP-APE IwE  MEED M0P£ HouSES I  THEY /WAY ONLY TRADE AT CERTAIN HOUfcS OM MARKET PAYS AND IN MARKET AREAS  T H E LEADERS SPEAK OUT - THE TOWN MUSTGPEWP MONEY TO IMPROVE ITSELF  MEN ARE HIRED TO TAKE CAR & ACE TO A PUMP ANP TO FILL THE PoT HOLES  i l l Ilk  A POLICE STATION IS BUILT STAFPED WITH FbLlcEMEN  THE TOWM HAS TROUBLE THE NEW IMPROVEMENTS HERBS THE PIPE HALL  AMP  A FIRE HALL IS BUILT AMD FIRE TRUCKS ANP EQUIPMENT PURCHASED  mmmmm PAYIMC FOR.  T H E S H O P  i  PEOPLE HAVE L I T T L E M 0 K 4 B Y • LSSff . LAMP VALUES FALL .  T H E Y  THE A  TOWN LEADERS  PROPOSE  PV-AN T O ATTRACT MONEY A N P TOBS  THEY  REPAID  BORROW M O N E Y TO B E B Y LATER TAXES  T H E SHALLOW HARBOUR? EOC^B IS FILLED IN TO PPOVIDB FLAT L A N D F O R RAILWAY Y A R P S A N D I N D U S T R Y . BICWER SHIPS USE THE IMPROVED HAA£00|>J  M E N A N P THEIR FAMILIES TO W O R K A M D TO S E T T L E  ARRIVE  m m HOTELS AND OFFICES RISE ABOVE THE STORES -  RENT PAYS THE LANDOWNERS R.ICHLY LANP BECOMES EVER. MOftB EXPENSIVE -ULTL  i  Ul ll|1 | in't m II!  Ba EE jOL  111 M E N BUY LAND A N D OLD 8UILD1NCTS HOPING T O <=iROW RICH F R O M T H E R E N T A L S  8 g  © e m  OF A N E W LARGE BUU-DINIG.  W H A T WOULP Y O U PUT IM N O W TO B U I L D THE. T O W N INTO A M O D E R N CITY? .... A N D T H E R E WOULP BE MOR-E CAR-S\... 4  .ANP  .YOU'D PUT HIGH .HIGH APARTMENT BUILPINC& WITH LOTS OF WIUPOWS AMP A POOR.... GAS STATIONS. LOTS op PlRE H Y D R A N T S . ii -z: PEOPLE P R I P S PROM Tl THE PEOPLE AP-E TAY W A L K I N G  CAR.S  L  ~utt  Y E S . WE'P IPUT A G R THERE  —  BETTER. O S S I N G  BOYS' O N BICYCLES CL0UPS  NOTE : ON THESE PACES OF DIALOGUE . THE COMMENTS A R E FROMftecoft.eiN<;rOF LEMONS .  \AIIRE£  FRANV  APAP-TMENTf COCA - COLA  SIQMS  LOTS  MOf^E A P A R T M E N T  OF COMMERCIAL  J*I^N5  HOUSED  COME P R A W  MBWJ UP THE.  BUILDING'S A M P vou'p FPsAMB  GOIMG.  vJOME  HIGH  RJSSS  AS O F  see OP  IT. IS  THIS  BE^lNNlN^ TO  Wok.  FAMILIAR, ?  IT UOOKS U K E VAMCOUV Eft- CITY IT LOOKS A MESS  U P A N P T H E M  Y O U THlNfc THINGS  B I G G E R - BOATS'  AMP  AToAACie 3H6PS PAR-KS  I A 6l#iER-  HARBOUR.  I  OUT IM T H E SUBURBS  MORE  I  HOUSE*  OVBR.PASJEC ANP HIGHWAYS  A PfcJJG  A M AlP-POftJ  A  SHOPPING  OUT  B T A U U  STORE  C S H T R E T H E HOUSES I NOTICE P O U T A OH  AMP LOTS  A  BUR.IAU  OF  I  PARjc  ^TAHL£Y UTS  YOU  MENTION  JCHOOL  Y E A H . A  SCHOOL  A HofpiTAu  R^WCS  I  1_  CjROUNP \ WHERE  A. C I T Y  C A M THAT  HALL  g;o ?  SlR.! WE  I  THINK.  N E E D  M0R£  L A M P .  WHERe A R C YOU  GOING. TO F I N P NlOfcE. L A M P WELL. THIC  —I  THEP-E'S AP-EA O P  W A T E R , W E COULD  FI UU I M .  toova!  SOME  CITY  LETS S T A M P _ B A C K A N O UOOK f  T H E R E SURE HAVE L B E E M SOME CHANGES' S I M C E T H E O L P E M PAYS'  10  11.  DOWNTOWN IS SO GROWPEP THAT  PARTS  CHOPPERS PREFER- THE SUBURBAN \ CHOPPIMQ CeMTasS  O F POWMTOWN  BECOME PefEPJErP__ L A N p VALUES FALL  ANP THEN RAPIP TRANSIT TD BftJNC- PEOPLE FROM FAR. AWAY -  MAX? TRANSIT IS PROPoTepl TO IMPROVE THE CITY  L A N P FARAWAY IS DEVELOPED INTO SETTieMENTf ANP SO WE START ACjAIN To BUILP A CITY. HOW W0ULP YOU BUILP IT ?  It 8  WEVE AAESiEP UP THE FUTURE  COULP THEY HAVE A BIG  AGAIN  NV" COULpNT W E AN  HAVE  THRO'  THATS  Xofcx  OF.  IT  A N P T H E STREETS ANP E V E R Y T H I N G WOULP JUST 6 E U S E P FOR. CAP-S ?  SO T H A T THE  C,W)UHP O N T O P IS LEFT  PIPE  A N P E V E R Y 8 0 P Y J U S T WALleS  UkipBR^AaUHP  ClTY  BIG, B I G  ABOVE q M U M P  I T H I N I C IM T H E F U T U R E TO P R E V E N T C A S U A L T I E S O M T H E R O A D S T H E J Y WILL H A V E •OM - ALL T H E W A L K I N G WILL B E D O N E O M T H E BOTTOM L E V E L NEAR- THE GROUNP A N P  GREAT  ALL THE TRAVELLING C A R  WOULP  NATURAL  FOU- P A R K S  ?  WHAT ABOUT F R E S H  "THE T O P VMOULP B E ALL  £ ANYTHING  U S B P up  FANS A N P  50  AIR  BE  BY  ELSE  O N A TOP  CARS A N P  LEVEL  PEOPLE  WOUUP N E V E R . C O M E IN  YOU COULP H A V E AIR. CONDITIONING.  CONTACT. IT W O U L D" B E  WITH  THINGS  Tb H A V E WAM  I N0UU7NT LIKE T H E RESIDENTIAL AREAS UNPER.qRJUMP, THOUGH THE "TBANfPOPJ ANP SHOPPING MIGHT 8 E . I THINK THAT WE LIKE TO S E E T H E BEAUTY OF T H E WORXP NOT vJUST PARK- NOTHINGNESS  CARS THAN  EASIER  THE  I  "  OTHSR.  (ZJOUNP A R E  .  BECAUSE  HEAVIEQ-  PEOPLS  trDOWN I N S E A T T L E . I T H I N K T H E Y ' V E  MAPS  A P R A S T I C M I S T A K E WITH T H E I R  MULTI-  LEVEL  FREEWAYS.  RIGHT  D O W N TO T H E  T H E Y ' V E GOT  THEM  WATERFRONT-...  A N P Y O U (JUST H A V E  ALL THIS SMOG  COMING F R O M 3 LEVELS OF T R A F F I C . A L A N E S T I L L T H E R E ' S 12. L A N E S OF T R A F F I C ALU THE  I'D LlK-g TO U V E BECAUSE  ITS  ON A N I S L A N D  F E P A R A T E P . . NO  THE  CONFUSION., NO CMJARRELS AHD ITI  R E A L L Y B E A U T I F U L , T H E WORLD  ISNT  WASTEP BY  YOURJE  ciTies fcSMoc;..  . A N D TOU COULP GO ON H O R S E S . .  A L W A Y S qptMG. TO H A V E  OR POLITICAL TO  KNOW  ARGUMENT?  TOWN  IP  DcB  IM A  PERSONAL  IF YOU W A N T  WHATS GOING To K E E P  CITY G O I N G . WELL  CONSTANT  TINS...  To U V E IN  _ _  1t  A TowN.,.WEVL A MODERN  B-EAoTiFoL .SETTING  BY  WHAT  THESGA  KIMP  PO Y O U W I S H IF  ALL YOU  CANNOT WHAT AS  THE  BIG. QUESTION  BE  OF  LIFE  TO  LIVE?  WISH OBTAINEP  PO Y O U  MOST  IS-  VALUE  IMPORTANT?  29. CONSIDER,  EATING .  M A N Y  D I F F E R E N T  THINK  ABOUT  WAYS'  OF  THAT  A P P E A L  A N D FOOD  B A T I N G  COME  T O M I N P  SCHOOL  WAYS  YAW?.  CLOSE  Y O U R  EYES'  A N P  IN/VAGI N E  WHAT  LIGHT  A N P  W H A T  & U N P S  DO Y O U  WHAT  -SMELLS  A W P  THE  COLOURS  J T E N E  ?  C A F E .  C A K E  A  POSSIBLE  Y O U  N E X T • T H I N K ABOUT T H E SURROUNDINGS W H A T PO YOU .IEE IN YOUR- MINP ?  HAMBURGER, I M A  F E W TO  O F OBTAINING  •PANPWlCHEff I N THE  A  A T  A  H E A R  ?  P A R T Y . T A S T E  ?  RCMic . HOW  CookiINq  YOUR.  OWN  IS  FOOD. P I C K I N G ;  F R U I T  M A N Y IT  PEOPLE  P A Y TIME  O R  A R E  WITH  YOU ?  N I G H T T I M E  ?  .  THE  •SURROUWPINCJS'  CHOICE  THAT  ARE  LOOK NOW A T T H E  INFLUEMCB  THE  O P E N TO Y O U .  PtFFERENCStf  O F FOUR  ENVIRONMENTS'. FOfcM Y O U R - O W N  LIST  OF  FEELINGS.  CON^IPER. OTHER-ACTIVITIES IN E A C H E N V l R O N M B M T TO C O M P A R B ANP TO T&ST Y O U R O W M CHOICE OF •  LIFE  STYLES IE  & K I N G GRAPHICS  LARGJB  fc  FARM  1910  HOUSE  52.  - MUG44  J TO R A C E  -  LARGE  KlTCKBM  w  SOUNDS OF A.NIAAAU? , MACHINERY fMEU- OP ANIMALS . MANURE . CHICKENS' TOUCH OP ANIMAL^ , E A R T H , WOOD COMMUNITY OF FARM WORKERS , NEIGHBOURS RHYTHM OF PLANTING , HARVEf T , BP-EePING  farm  14.  ^MALL  uoc  H.UUTIMG  HUT.  .  UNLIMITED  FlSHIMC,  SPACE  <5AAJ?EM PRODUCE.  pk?S - HEHi* • DUCKS  34 L i f e Styles.  T e s t your own  e x p e r i e n c e s and your own p r e f e r e n c e s  i n the f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n a l comparisons o f l i f e  styles i n city,  suburb,  farm and w i l d e r n e s s .  1.  The C i t y Apartment  Shelter:  Apartments  Way  of L i f e  o f v a r i o u s s i z e s , w i t h b a l c o n i e s , no garden o r  p e r s o n a l outdoor space. Eating:  S m a l l k i t c h e n p r e c l u d e s e l a b o r a t e meal p r e p a r a t i o n . can be o r d e r e d and d e l i v e r e d . vicinity.  Packaged  Meals  Many r e s t a u r a n t s i n apartment  lunches eaten i n p u b l i c parks.  Some  apartment b l o c k s have a communal room which can be used f o r parties. Provisions:  Can be o b t a i n e d d a i l y .  Shopping i n d e l i c a t e s s e n  and b o u t i q u e s and s p e c i a l t y shops a f e a t u r e o f c i t y  dwelling.  S t o r a g e i n the apartment i s minimum, s m a l l cupboards small Fuel:  Modern  Laundry:  or gas.  bathroom.  pick-up  Laundry companies  delivery  cleaning  Undertaken by management; s e r v i c e  companies,  companies.  By bus o r mass t r a n s i t  t r a i n or c a r .  S c h o o l s w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o r reached by p u b l i c port.  Workshop:  and  service.  R e p a i r and Maintenance:  Study:  C e n t r a l h e a t i n g thermostat c o n t r o l .  I n basement, c o i n o p e r a t e d .  Travelling:  and  refrigerators.  Electricity  Toilet:  stores  Bedroom f o r s t u d y . . C i t y  No p r o v i s i o n i n d w e l l i n g .  library.  Evening c l a s s e s ,  clubs.  trans-  35 Recreation, Entertainment:  Theatres, restaurants, stores,  movie t h e a t r e s , v e r y c l o s e a t hand.  Art galleries,  i n s t r e e t s and c i v i c s q u a r e s , museums. s m a l l space  parades  P a r t i e s l i m i t e d by  i n the apartment: f r i e n d s a r e met i n r e s t a u r a n t s  and p l a c e s o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t . beaches,  playhouses,  Camping, h o r s e r i d i n g , b o a t i n g ,  g o l f sometimes a v a i l a b l e i n p u b l i c p a r k s .  l o n g d i s t a n c e s by c a r o r bus u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d . a v a i l a b l e a t s c h o o l s and community c e n t r e s . s p o r t i n stadiums w i t h i n c i t y l i m i t s . s c h o o l s and community c e n t r e s . clubs, Adult Education classes. s k i i n g and h i k i n g and n a t u r e  Travelling  Athletics  Professional  Organized  groups i n  Libraries, colleges,  studios,  Clubs a r e organized f o r  rambles.  Perception L i g h t - N i g h t l i g h t s , i n s t r e e t s and s t o r e s , s o f t l i g h t i n restaurants.  Not much sun.  Space - L i m i t e d p e r s o n a l space. streets,  V a r y i n g spaces  of p a r k s ,  stores.  Sound - L i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r sound - w i l l sometimes r e a c h irritating  levels.  Touch - L i m i t e d t o household rails,  c h o r e s , c r e a t i v e h o b b i e s , hand  doors.  S m e l l - V a r i o u s and u n c o n t r o l l e d ; p o l l u t i o n r e a c h i n g irritating  levels.  S o c i a l - O b s e r v a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y everywhere. optional.  Participation  Immigrants l i k e t o l i v e i n an a r e a w i t h  t h e i r own p e o p l e t o m a i n t a i n language and customs from t h e i r own home. and  schools  reflect  T h e i r shops and r e s t a u r a n t s their  origin.  Time - Spontaneous, no need t o p l a n ahead, extended day i n t o night  life.  A u r a - Man-made, s o p h i s t i c a t e d , o f t e n inhuman, b u i l t by s p e c i a l i s t s , huge s c a l e ,  2.  tense.  The Suburban Home Way o f L i f e  Shelter:  The suburban d w e l l e r  i s d e f i n e d by h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f the  need t o commute by t r a i n or c a r , and i n r e t u r n expects a more s p a c i o u s home than t h a t a v a i l a b l e i n the c i t y . homes w i t h v a r y i n g  lot sizes.  Single  family  L a r g e homes w i t h  elaborate  gardens, s m a l l compact homes w i t h a " b a c k y a r d . "  Duplexes  w i t h communal p l a y a r e a s f o r young c h i l d r e n ; Townhouses w i t h communal p l a y a r e a s f o r young c h i l d r e n . Eating:  I n t h e f a m i l y k i t c h e n o r d i n i n g room, outdoor b a r b e c u e s , p i c n i c s on the g r a s s .  Occasional  ping  o r c o f f e e shop o r snack b a r i n a drug  centre  store. Provisions:  restaurant  Occasional  A weekly t r i p  to f i l l  snacks a t the l o c a l  c e l e b r a t i o n s a t a downtown r e s t a u r a n t . t o t h e supermarket, l o c a l shopping  r e f r i g e r a t o r and f r e e z e r , l a r g e s t o r a g e  Delivery of milk  centre  areas.  and b r e a d e s s e n t i a l s i n c e the c a r i s the  o n l y means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . popular unless  shop-  Shopping i n the e v e n i n g i s  t h e f a m i l y has two c a r s , or a t r a i n  takes t h e breadwinner t o the c i t y .  service  37 Fuel:  Oil-fired  f u r n a c e , e l e c t r i c o r gas h e a t i n g .  Open l o g f i r e i n  many homes. Toilet:  One  complete  bathroom and a t o i l e t and washbasin c o n s t i t u t e  a 1 / 2 bathroom.  Newer homes c o n t a i n a master bedroom  bathroom w i t h shower. Laundry:  Basement u t i l i t y  R e p a i r and Maintenance:  room w i t h automatic washer and d r y e r .  Much of t h i s undertaken  s c a p i n g o f t e n by a f i r m i n l a r g e r Travelling:  T r a i n , bus  bus Study:  or car.  s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e two  by homeowner, l a n d -  gardens.  Suburban a r e a s w i t h poor  t r a i n or  or t h r e e c a r s p e r f a m i l y .  School w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e .  Bedrooms a r e u s u a l l y  large  enough to make i n t o study rooms. Workshop:  Basements a r e o u t f i t t e d as workshops.  Recreation, Entertainment:  Camping - t e n t s s e t up i n the garden f o r  " s l e e p o v e r " p a r t i e s f o r young c h i l d r e n .  Long t r i p s  n e c e s s a r y t o r e a c h park a r e a s f o r o v e r n i g h t camping. i n g i n the garden  or l o c a l park o r on l o n g t r i p s .  are Picnick-  Hiking,  climbing, b o a t i n g , f i s h i n g , s k i i n g , horse r i d i n g , g o l f - i n some suburbs  are w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e .  b r i n g most i n t o range.  A s h o r t d r i v e would  S p o r t - o r g a n i z e d hockey - s o c c e r -  f o o t b a l l , b a s e b a l l , i n d o o r s k a t i n g r i n k s and p l a y i n g e x i s t i n most suburban a r e a s . trip  t o stadium.  fields  P r o f e s s i o n a l games r e q u i r e a  T r a c k e v e n t s , swimming and  cross country  c o m p e t i t i o n s a r e e a s i l y a r r a n g e d between suburban s c h o o l s . Entertainment mostly  from the p e o p l e ' s own  resources.  School  38 p l a y s , drama groups.  Movie t h e a t r e s a r e becoming p o p u l a r i n  some suburban a r e a s .  L i v e t h e a t r e and music r e q u i r e a t r i p  to the c i t y c e n t r e . and  facilities.  P a r t i e s and v i s i t i n g have adequate space  Organized  groups a r e o f t e n c e n t r e d on  the churches and use the space p r o v i d e d ;  that i s , Keep-Fit  c l a s s , Brownies, S c o u t s , A r t and c r a f t c l a s s e s , Badminton, bridge clubs.  Schools  a r e a l s o a f o c a l p o i n t o f the community  and  a r e i n g r e a t demand a f t e r s c h o o l f o r many o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  The  P.T.A. p r o v i d e s  and  parades take p l a c e from shopping c e n t r e p a r k i n g  public  group i n v o l v e m e n t .  Ceremonies,  festivals l o t s or  parks.  Perception L i g h t - D a y l i g h t , s u n l i g h t , f i r e l i g h t , b r i g h t highway b r i g h t shopping  centres.  Space - V a r i e d - adequate i n d o o r families.  lights,  and outdoor space f o r s m a l l  Monotonous r e p e t i t i o n o f same  spaces,  same volumes. Sound - Good c o n t r o l o f n o i s e . Touch - Household chores and gardening  and c r e a t i v e work and  maintenance i n and around p r o p e r t y  g i v e s some v a r i e t y .  S m e l l - Under c o n t r o l , f l o w e r gardens, t r e e s , g r a s s . S o c i a l - P a r t i c i p a t i o n unavoidable. some e x t e n t  competitive.  control s o c i a l pressure.  Neighbours c l o s e and t o  Sometimes d i f f i c u l t t o Some suburban areas w i l l be  a m i x t u r e o f immigrants, some r e p r e s e n t i n g as many as  39 thirty-three countries.  Others w i l l have a h i g h  p o r t i o n o f one c o u n t r y and t h i s w i l l r e f l e c t  pro-  i n their  customs and s c h o o l s . Time - P r e o c c u p i e d w i t h  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n time.  Aura - Small s c a l e v a r i e t y o f gardens. backyards. Family  3.  P e r s o n a l gardens and  P e r s o n a l i n t e r i o r s and basement  decor.  atmosphere.  The Farm Way o f L i f e  Shelter:  S i n g l e f a m i l y homes, o f t e n h o u s i n g farm house o r s m a l l e r c o t t a g e . v e g e t a b l e gardens surround  three generations, large  Orchards and p a s t u r e s ,  dwelling.  barns,  ( I n E a s t e r n Canada the  woodlot forms a f e a t u r e - where t h e wood c u t t o b u r n i n a wood s t o v e i s r e p l a c e d each y e a r by new growth.) Eating:  F a m i l y k i t c h e n , summer k i t c h e n , outdoor V i s i t i n g neighbours,  barbecue, p i c n i c s .  snacks i n v i l l a g e c o f f e e shop.  Wood  s t o v e used o f t e n i n emergency - food p r e p a r a t i o n and c o o k i n g f o r many l e a d s t o l a r g e k i t c h e n w i t h much time spent Provisions:  Canning and b o t t l i n g f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s .  R e l i a n c e on  d e l i v e r y o f b a k e r y and d a i r y produce, l a r g e s t o r a g e Deep f r e e z e , p a n t r y , basement, shed.  in i t .  areas.  I n bad weather food  s t o r e s have t o l a s t f o r many weeks.  Shopping - by c a t a l o g u e  o r d e r - o c c a s i o n a l t r i p s t o shopping  c e n t r e s and c i t y  centre.  L o c a l v i l l a g e s t o r e s - g e n e r a l s t o r e - v i s i t e d weekly. Fuel: Toilet:  O i l , wood, e l e c t r i c i t y , h o t water radiators» E a r t h c l o s e t s , i n d o o r bathrooms c o n v e r t e d  from a bedroom.  40 Laundry:  Machines i n k i t c h e n o r basement.  R e p a i r and Maintenance:  These s k i l l s u s u a l l y p r a c t i s e d by the owner;  much time g i v e n t o i t . Travelling: Study:  Truck, pick-up, car, j e e p - t r a c t o r .  S c h o o l f a r away, reached by b u s .  Snow plow.  Study i n bedrooms o r  d i n i n g room. Workshop: and  Workshop i n barns and o u t - b u i l d i n g s t o house  machinery  tools.  Recreation, Entertainment:  F i s h i n g , camping, p i c k n i c k i n g and h o r s e  r i d i n g - on l a k e s , streams  and woodlands near the farm.  Beach,  b o a t i n g , r o c k c l i m b i n g , g o l f and a t h l e t i c events - may mean t r a v e l l i n g some d i s t a n c e .  S k i i n g c r o s s c o u n t r y on own l a n d .  Downhill skiing at a resort.  E n t e r t a i n m e n t space a t home and  i n the garden f o r p a r t i e s and d i n n e r s , b a r b e c u i n g picnics. Television.  O r g a n i z e d groups  i n community b u i l d i n g s , church h a l l s . Guides, Cubs and S c o u t s . organization. library.  S o c i a l groups  o f weekly  outdoors, activities  Barn dances,  Brownies,  dependent on church  Some r u r a l a r e a s a r e s e r v e d by a t r a v e l l i n g  Festivals related  to churches, rodeos, country  fairs. Perception Light - Daylight, sunlight, f i r e l i g h t ,  moonlight.  Space - O u t s i d e space o r d e r e d , a e s t h e t i c and v a r i e d . space good, sometimes l i m i t e d . Open s k y .  Personal  Barns and sheds.  41 Sound - C e r t a i n n o i s y a c t i v i t i e s , good c o n t r o l o f n o i s e . C a t t l e and b i r d s . Touch - V a r i o u s use o f t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s , e a r t h and garden produce. Smell - Various  Food p r e p a r a t i o n . and c o n t r o l l e d , n a t u r a l s m e l l s , f r e s h a i r .  S o c i a l - Involvement i n community n e c e s s a r y reasonable  for survival -  c o n t r o l of s o c i a l pressures  i s o l a t i o n from n e i g h b o u r s .  R u r a l areas  because o f r e f l e c t the  c h a r a c t e r and customs o f immigrants. Time - I n v o l v e d w i t h sure.  seasonal  Day and n i g h t  Aura - L a r g e s c a l e b u i l d i n g s .  t a s k s , c e r t a i n sense o f p r e s defined. Calm.  Unpretentious.  B u i l d e r s p a r t o f t h e community.  4.  The W i l d e r n e s s  Shelter: Eating:  Cabin  Way o f L i f e  o r s h e l t e r s e l f made.  In hut, barbecuing,  Provisions:  cache.  dwelling.  picnics.  Simple and i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s .  i n g and f i s h i n g .  Fuel:  Tent f o r temporary  Some food grown;  Hunt-  Storage i n h u t and suspended from t r e e s i n  Underground s t o r a g e w i t h  i c e c u t from l a k e .  Wood, c u t and sawn b y s e l f .  Toilet:  Water c a r r i e d from l a k e o r stream, h e a t e d on s t o v e .  Earth  c l o s e t , dug b y s e l f . Laundry:  I n h u t , d r i e d o u t s i d e o r on l i n e s i n h u t .  I r o n h e a t e d on  stove. Repair  and Maintenance:  By s e l f , upkeep o f t o o l s , c a r e and s t o r a g e  42 of great importance. Travelling: Study:  Long car journeys, canoe, horse, mule or foot.  School f a r away, reached by bus.  Workshop:  Correspondence  course.  Outdoor shelter to store and protect tools and wood.  Recreation, Entertainment:  Camping, p i c n i c k i n g , nature hikes, s k i i n g ,  boating, f i s h i n g , hunting, horse r i d i n g . necessity, where i n other environments  These become a  they are pleasures.  A t h l e t i c s , sport contests and competitions of s k i l l s - l o g ging, shooting.  Reading.  Observation of wild l i f e . nearest v i l l a g e .  Occasional v i s i t s from neighbours. Hand c r a f t s , painting.  Entertainment i s mostly that which nature  and one's own resources provide. radio.  Trips to  No organized groups.  Record player, t r a n s i s t o r  Ceremonies and f e s t i v a l s at  annual celebrations and f a i r s the occasion for a v i s i t to l o c a l town. Perception Light - Daylight, sunlight, f i r e l i g h t , moonlight. Space - Unlimited outside, cramped conditions f o r housekeeping and chores. Sound - Complete control over noise. Touch - Unlimited handling of materials, t o o l s , food. Smell - Wood smoke, cooking, fresh a i r , trees, earth c l o s e t . Control over odour. S o c i a l - Contacts l i m i t e d . involvement.  Complete control over s o c i a l  43 Time - Absorbed  i n c h o r e s , g e t t i n g f o o d , p r e p a r i n g and  cooking i t , m a i n t a i n i n g and improving d w e l l i n g . A u r a - N a t u r a l arid harmonious.  The p r i d e o f p e r s o n a l humble  constructions.  By c o n s i d e r i n g your p r e f e r e n c e f o r each p a r t o f the day you b u i l d a p i c t u r e o f your f u t u r e way o f l i f e  and t h e p i c t u r e forms the d e s c r i p -  t i o n f o r y o u r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the d e s i g n o f Crown C i t y . The c h o i c e s i n the s u r v e y a r e n o t an " e i t h e r , " " o r " c h o i c e . S e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s might be chosen a t d i f f e r e n t to  times.  T h i s may a p p l y  a l t e r n a t i v e s i n t o t a l environment so t h a t a p e r s o n may choose w i l d e r -  ness l i v i n g  i n the l a t e summer o r f o r s k i i n g i n the w i n t e r , and the c i t y  for  the r e s t o f the y e a r .  the  home.  days.  The chosen environment i s t o be the main b a s e ,  Choose an a c t i v i t y and p r o c e e d through t y p i c a l and s p e c i a l  S t a r t w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f what i s done now i n t h e p r e s e n t  environment.  D e f i n e t h a t which p l e a s e s you now so t h a t the same c o n d i -  t i o n s can b e r e c r e a t e d . D e s c r i b e , as a c c u r a t e l y as you can, the e f f e c t s i n your d e s i g n t h a t you p e r c e i v e through the senses i n r e l a t i o n t o the l i s t  Touch:  that  follows:  Of w i n d , o f w a t e r , and o f t e x t u r e s , o f f o l i a g e and a n i m a l s and p e o p l e .  Heat from the s u n , from f i r e s ,  or from  central  heating. Sound:  Of men's o r women's v o i c e s , o f t r a f f i c , o f a c t i v i t y . fic  Speci-  sounds as i n p o e t r y , music o r the sounds o f n a t u r e .  Degrees o f s i l e n c e i n o r d e r t o hear s p e c i f i c  sounds.  44 Light:  D a y l i g h t , n i g h t l i g h t and a l l v a r i a t i o n s o f t r a n s l u c e n c e , sparkle, glare, f l a s h , r e f l e c t i o n , etc. texture.  Odour:  Form.  Surface  C o l o u r s , b r i g h t , warm, r e s t f u l .  Smells and t a s t e s o f n a t u r e , o f f o o d , o f p e o p l e , o f t r a f f i c , s m e l l s o f m a t e r i a l s , s m e l l s o f ' f i r e and o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g processes.  Time:  D u r a t i o n and frequency or day.  Space:  of a c t i v i t i e s .  Hour.  Season.  Night  O r i e n t a t i o n and t h e sun's movement.  Movement i n space,  t r a v e l i n space,  s i z e and degree o f e n c l o -  s u r e s , b o t h n a t u r a l and man-made, b o t h  i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r ,  The view o f space. Community:  The number o f p e o p l e  couples Aura:  around the a c t i v i t y , crowds, f a m i l y ,  or s o l i t u d e .  The t o t a l s e n s a t i o n s o f the p l a c e t h a t make one f e e l  secure  or e x c i t e d , o r t o have s e n s a t i o n s o f majesty o r d i g n i t y . The  e x p r e s s i o n o f c r i t e r i a o f a u r a i n c l u d e s the a e s t h e t i c  design of b u i l d i n g s . nature  I t i n c l u d e s e x p r e s s i o n s o f beauty i n  and i n works o r a r t , of harmony and d i s c o r d . A  Journey  now i n t o t h e f u t u r e w i t h your c h o i c e o f l i f e  w i t h a mental p i c t u r e o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s Apply  s t y l e s and  you would w i s h t o p e r c e i v e .  them t o the d e s c r i p t i o n o f Crown C i t y t h a t f o l l o w s .  Phrase your  own i d e a s whenever the p i c t u r e s do n o t meet your own image.  RAPlC? T R A N S I T  2oo **.p.K. oner too  -  ISO  M K & S  T H E DESION OF T H E F U T U R E CITY NEEDS YOUR IDEAS AMD CHOICES. AS YOU LOOK AT T H E DRAWINGS THINK OF ALL THAT YOU WISH TO DO AND ADD SCENES OF YOUR OWN .ALSO THINK OF HOW YOU WOULD APPROACH OR. LEAVE THE SCENE . CHOOSE WHAT YOU WISH TO SEE. TO HEAR .TO TOUCH , T O SMELL , A N D WHETHER. YOU ARE ALONE OR WITH OTHERS. GRAPUALC/ DEVELOP YOUR PlRECTIONS FOR THE PESICN OF  co  CROWN C I T Y VA  CITY CBNTfca  WIUPERNCSS  £ SUBURBS  FARMLAND  CROWN CITY BOUNCfeAY  RAPIP TRANSIT  CROWN CITV  VP CITY  LIES IN A V A L L E Y . IT CONTAINS  S U B U R B , FARMLAND  FOUR  ENVlRODENTS  A N P VNILPERNESS . B A C H WILL REMAIN FOR ALWAYS  CONSIDER.  T H S S K - Y  t, T H E  SEASONS  FROM  T H E FORBCOUR.T TO T H E CITY C E N T R E WITH A View OVER, THE WHALE O F CROWN CITY, ITS FApsMS A M P WILPETRMESS BEYONP , TO T H E BOUNPARY A T THE ^UMAAIT <»P THE HILLS HbW W 0 U L £ > Nou tASe T H I S  AREA?  FOOTNOTES  ''"Stanley K i n g , " E l e g y , " Habitat V o l . V, No. 5 (Ottawa: C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n ) Septemb e r — O c t o b e r 1962, pp. 12—13. 3  2 S t a n l e y K i n g , " R e v i v a l , " Habitat V o l . V I , No. 1 (Ottawa: C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n ) J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y 1963, p. 19. 3  3  John R u s k i n , Edinburgh Lectures Vol. 1, quoted i n The Lamp o f Beauty, S e l e c t e d and e d i t e d by Joan Evans (London: Phaidon P r e s s , 1959), p. 258.  4  Robert Furneaux J o r d a n , European Thames and Hudson, 1962).  Architecture  ^ S i r Kenneth C l a r k , Civilisation (London: B.B.C. P u b l i c a t i o n s ) , p. 608.  The L i s t e n e r , 1 May  3  ^Jane J a c o b s . The Death and Life York: V i n t a g e Books, 1961), p. 372.  of Great  in Colour  American  ' ' s i g f r i e d G i e d i o n , Space Time and Architecture H a r v a r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1963), p. x x v i i i . 3  (London:  1969  Cities  (New  (Cambridge, Mass.:  8 Lewis Mumford, The and World, 1961), p. 570.  City  in History  (New  York: H a r c o u r t Brace  9  G i e d i o n , loc.  cit.  "^Ian McHarg, Design H i s t o r y P r e s s , 1969). 1 : L  C l a r k , op. cit.  3  with  Nature  V o l . 81, No.  3  (Garden C i t y , N.Y.:  2084, p. 309 and  Natural  312.  12 Frank L l o y d W r i g h t , Architecture (New York: Doubleday and Company I n c . , 1962), p. 11. 13 Humphrey C a r v e r , Cities in the Suburbs ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1962), p. 117.  REFERENCES  61  REFERENCES  The q u o t a t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w , i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r to  corresponding  the s t o r i e s of Some C i t y , i n d i c a t e the type o f m a t e r i a l t h a t might be  found  l o c a l l y and i n d i c a t e s o u r c e s  some p a r t s o f the a l l e g o r i c a l  f o r further reading.  They  support  s t o r i e s o f Some C i t y , the remaining  parts  are c o n j e c t u r a l .  S a k o l s k i , A. M.  The  Great  B r o s . , 1932, p. 7. H e r b e r t B.  American  Land  From Washington's  Bubble.  New  Interest  in  Y o r k : Harper and  Western  Lands  by  Adams-Johns.  George Washington wrote to a C a p t a i n W i l l i a m Crawford i n 1763, 'Any p e r s o n ,  t h e r e f o r e who  n e g l e c t s the p r e s e n t o p p o r t u n i t y of  h u n t i n g out good l a n d s , and i n some measure marking and t i n g u i s h i n g them f o r h i s own, settling  i n o r d e r to keep o t h e r s from  them, w i l l n e v e r r e g a i n i t .  I f you w i l l be a t the  t r o u b l e of s e e k i n g out the l a n d s , I w i l l take upon me of  s e c u r i n g them, (as soon as t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y  it),  dis-  the p a r t o f doing  and w i l l , moreover, be a t a l l the c o s t and charge o f s u r -  v e y i n g and p a t e n t i n g the same.'  S a k o l s k i , A. M. Bros.,  The Great  1932, p. 4.  Northern  American  Land  Bubble.  New  From the B r i t i s h Government  Y o r k : Harper and  I n d i a n Agent i n  C o l o n i e s , The S i r W i l l i a m Johnson P a p e r s , V o l . V, p. 129.  62 'One  h a l f of England i s now  of P h i l a d e l p h i a , one son, on March 30, f i x e d on t h i s  p.  wrote George Croghan,  of the l a n d schemers, to S i r W i l l i a m John-  1766,  'and  everybody t h e r e has  their  eyes  country.'  Howiston, John, i n Sketches E. D e y e l l , Making  l a n d mad,'  of  Canadian  Upper  Canada  quoted i n N.  3  History.  Toronto:  W.  Sutherland  and 1967,  J . Gage L t d . ,  75. I t c o n t a i n s o n l y one house and  a s o r t of c h u r c h ; but a p o r t i o n  of l a n d t h e r e has been surveyed b e i n g now  i n t o b u i l d i n g - l o t s , and  these  o f f e r e d f o r s a l e , have g i v e n the p l a c e a c l a i m to  a p e l l a t i o n of a town. Upper Canada, and  this  There a r e many towns l i k e Chatham i n  almost a l l of them have o r i g i n a t e d from the  s p e c u l a t i o n s of scheming i n d i v i d u a l s . pose of a p i e c e of l a n d , or to render  When a man one  wished to d i s -  p a r t of h i s  property  v a l u a b l e by b r i n g i n g s e t t l e r s upon the o t h e r , he surveys acres i n t o b u i l d i n g l o t s . h i g h p r i c e , and people  a  few  These he a d v e r t i s e s f o r s a l e a t a  immediately  f e e l anxious  to purchase them,  c o n c e i v i n g t h e i r s i t u a t i o n must be v e r y e l i g i b l e i n d e e d ,  other-  w i s e they would not have been s e l e c t e d f o r the s i t e of a town  . . .  Wade, R i c h a r d C. P r e s s , 1959,  The p.  S t . L o u i s was l o t s 12  Urban  Frontier.  Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y  16. . , . surveyed  and  laid  b l o c k s a l o n g the r i v e r but  out i n 1779  i n 1/2  o n l y 6 away from i t .  acre In  1783  63 t h e r e was an attempt street but this  t o keep 30' a l o n g the r i v e r as a common  t o o passed i n t o p r i v a t e hands,  By 1800 a l l b u t  a few s c a t t e r e d p l o t s o f l a n d had been s o l d .  The Urban  Wade, R i c h a r d C.  P r e s s , 1959, p. 281.  Frontier.  Cambridge: Harvard  University  From P i t t s b u r g h C i t y C o u n c i l papers  February  9, 1818. 'The  i n j u r y complained  o f - . . . i s w h o l l y o c c a s i o n e d by B u t c h e r s ,  and a l o t o f mongrel merchants who a t t e n d r e g u l a r l y  the f e r r y s  and market p l a c e i n the evenings p r e c e d i n g market days and then and  t h e r e monopolize  pork, b e e f , f l o w e r ( s i c ) , meal,  cheese,  honey, b u t t e r , eggs, p o t a t o e s and i n s h o r t e v e r y commodity f o r t a b l e use.' Convinced  The next day they s o l d a t an advance o f 30 t o 50%.  t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d a c t , t h e s i g n e r s urged  'your i n t e r f e r e n c e i n some way t o l e s s e n t h e i n t o l e r a b l e The c i t i e s  responded by i n c r e a s i n g f i n e s on f o r e s t a l l e r s ,  i d l y e n f o r c i n g t r a d i n g h o u r s , and r e s t r i c t i n g  evil.  1  rig-  the a c t i v i t i e s  of t r a d e r s i n the market.  Samhaber, E r n s t .  Merchants  Make History  3  t r a n s . E. Osers.  London: Geo.  G. H a r r a p , 1963, p. 321. In e v e r y s m a l l s e t t l e m e n t t h e r e was a m e r c h a n t — t h e t a n t and most p o w e r f u l man i n t h e v i l l a g e .  impor-  H i s s t o r e would l o o k  odd enough: b a r r e l s o f syrup s t a n d i n g on the f l o o r , hanging  most  sausages  from the r a f t e r s , mice s c u r r y i n g about, n i b b l i n g t h e  sacks o f f l o u r , p l o u g h s h a r e s and s c y t h e s s t a c k e d a g a i n s t t h e  64 w a l l , k n i v e s of every s i z e , b a l e s of c o t t o n , w o o l l e n s p a p e r , n i b s and  ink.  the s t o r e .  shopkeeper h i m s e l f was  The  Anything  a farmer  and  linens,  needed he would f i n d away most of the  at  time.  He might be r i d i n g h i s mule from farm to farm, o f f e r i n g c l o t h b u y i n g up g r a i n : he might be bumpy Cumberland T r a i l to  t a k i n g h i s covered wagon along  to P h i l a d e l p h i a , New  s t o c k up w i t h p l o u g h s h a r e s  grant c r e d i t .  or t o s e l l wheat.  He would c h a l k up  s e t t l e d when the h a r v e s t was  York, or  in.  pay not i n cash but i n k i n d — w i t h  a man's debt. As  or  the  Baltimore  He would always Accounts were  a r u l e h i s customers would  the g r a i n o r the wool  they  had produced and which the merchant would a c c e p t a g a i n s t the farmers'  Wade, R i c h a r d C. P r e s s , 1959, St.  inflated  The  Urban  p. 281.  L o u i s Minutes May St.  debts.  Frontier.  Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y  From S t . L o u i s , Ordinances 3,  May  21, 1822,  and  1824.  L o u i s p r o h i b i t e d any  'grocer, huxter  o r any  other dealer i n  p r o v i s i o n s from b u y i n g more than s i x pounds of b u t t e r , s i x dozen eggs, or f i f t y pounds of bacon o r hams b e f o r e t e n o ' c l o c k . addition, local o f f i c i a l s r e n t a l of s t a l l s ,  kept  c o n t r o l over vendors  In  through  r e v o k i n g the p r i v i l e g e s of those who  violated  regulations. St.  L o u i s Mayor L a n e — ' T h e whole s e c r e t of improving  c o n s i s t s i n producing  f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n ; and  a market  t h a t i s done by  s i m p l y b r i n g i n g a l l the vendors and p u r c h a s e r s  together.'  65 Wade, R i c h a r d C.  The Urban  P r e s s , 1959, p. 283.  Frontier.  Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y  From M i s s o u r i G a z e t t e J u l y 13, 1816, and  M i s s o u r i R e p u b l i c a n A p r i l 9, 1823. I n S t . L o u i s : As e a r l y as 1816 one e d i t o r d e c l a r e d t h a t  'several  s t r e e t s a r e r e n d e r e d i m p a s s i b l e by the want o f common footway o r d r a i n s t o c a r r y o f f the r a i n water.  Nuisances a r e t o be met  w i t h i n e v e r y shape from one end t o the o t h e r . ' Seven y e a r s l a t e r :  'Jonathan' annoyed by the d e l a y o f o f f i c i a l s  on t h e q u e s t i o n s a t i r i c a l l y  gave 'Hints f o r the Mayor and  Aldermen.' By a l l means p r e v e n t t h e p a v i n g o f Main S t r e e t .  That S t r e e t i s  the o n l y n a v i g a b l e w a t e r - c o u r s e THROUGH the c i t y f o r c r a f t o f l a r g e r s i z e , though t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l t h a t w i l l answer w e l l f o r scows and dugouts.  Wade, R i c h a r d C.  The Urban  P r e s s , 1959, p. 84.  Frontier.  Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y  From L e x i n g t o n , T r u s t e e s Book, August 5, 1805,  and Cumins, "Sketches o f a T o u r " i n T h w a i t e s , e d . , Western  Travels  ,  V o l . IV, p. 76. In L e x i n g t o n , f o r example, t h e t r u s t e e s h i r e d negro t o take  Wade, R i c h a r d C.  'Davy,' a f r e e  ' f o u r dead cows out o f the s t r e e t . '  The Urban  P r e s s , 1959, p . 284.  Frontier.  Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y  From t h e C i n c i n n a t i A d v e r t i s e r June 4 and J u l y  30, 1823. The swarms o f hungry hogs  . . . a r e ready t o swallow our young  66 c h i l d r e n and h a l f grown young men and women' as soon as the ' u s u a l s u p p l y o f garbage' — a  declined.  month l a t e r one c h i l d was mangled and another a t t a c k e d —  Wade, R i c h a r d C.  The Urban  P r e s s , 1959, p. 284.  Frontier.  Cambridge: Harvard  From F r a n c e s T r o l l o p e Domestic  University  Manners,  p. 39,  In  t r u t h the p i g s a r e c o n s t a n t l y seen d o i n g H e r c u l e a n  service  in  t h i s way through e v e r y q u a r t e r o f the c i t y , and though  not v e r y a g r e e a b l e t o l i v e surrounded by herds o f these  i t is  unsavoury  a n i m a l s , i t i s w e l l t h a t they a r e so numerous, . . . f o r w i t h o u t them the s t r e e t s would soon be chocked up w i t h a l l s o r t s o f substances i n every stage of decomposition.  Stegner, Wallace. town.  Wolf  Willow^  which i s the s t o r y o f the Saskatchewan  New Y o r k : The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1962, p . 246.  I t began c r u d e , b u t i t began s t r e n u o u s .  The f i r s t meeting o f  the v i l l a g e c o u n c i l was h e l d on March 30, 1914, when the p o p u l a t i o n was 112. ground  Its first  a c t was t o e s t a b l i s h  on l a n d donated by Pop M a r t i n .  the town n u i s a n c e  I n d o i n g so i t c o r r o b o r -  a t e d a t r u t h known whenever men have g a t h e r e d i n t o permanent communities, for  we a r e the d i r t i e s t  our w a s t e s .  s p e c i e s and must make p r o v i s i o n  A t the end o f May, when we a r r i v e d , Whitemud was  a s t r a g g l e o f s h a c k s , a g e n e r a l s t o r e , a frame h o t e l , a r a i l r o a d b o a r d i n g house, and some d e r a i l e d d i n i n g and box c a r s r i g g e d f o r housekeeping.  I n wet weather the town's one s t r e e t was gouged  and furrowed; i n d r y i t was a r i v e r o f gray powder, w i t h s a d d l e  67 h o r s e s and teams d o z i n g a t the h i t c h i n g b a r s and f l i e s and s e t t l i n g over mounds o f dung. of  rising  By J u l y 9 a l i v e - w i r e Board  Trade had opened b i d s f o r p l a n k s i d e w a l k s , thereby e a r n i n g  the  g r a t i t u d e of e v e r y woman i n the p l a c e .  S a k o l s k i , A. M.  The  Great  B r o s . , 1932, p. 275.  American  Land  Bubble.  From The  Gilded  Age,  New  A Tale  Y o r k : Harper and  of  Today.  Mark  Twain and C h a r l e s Dudley Warner. Mr. B i g l e r s ' p l a n t h i s time, about which he t a l k e d l o u d l y the  b u i l d i n g o f the Tunkhannock,  R a t t l e s n a k e and Youngwomanstown  R a i l r o a d , which would n o t o n l y be a g r e a t highway but  was  t o the west,  would open to the market i n e x h a u s t i b l e c o a l f i e l d s and un-  t o l d m i l l i o n s o f lumber. The p l a n o f o p e r a t i o n s was v e r y s i m p l e . e x p l a i n e d he,  'on l o n g t i m e , backed by the n o t e s o f good  men:  and then mortgage  them f o r money enough  on . . . and s e l l  the l a n d s a t a b i g advance, on the s t r e n g t h  of  to g e t the roads w e l l  the r o a d . '  S a k o l s k i , A. M.  Land  Tenure  and  Land  Taxation.  Schalkenbach F o u n d a t i o n , 1957, p . 231.  Land  'We'll buy the l a n d s '  Title  New  York: Robert  From A l f r e d N. C h a n d l e r ,  Origins.  R e g a r d i n g h i s C i t y o f B r o t h e r l y Love, Penn wrote i n 1683: in  one y e a r o f my  arrival,  'With-  the v a l u e o f the l e a s t d e s i r a b l e l o t  i n P h i l a d e l p h i a i n c r e a s e d t o f o u r times t h e i r v a l u e when f i r s t l a i d o u t , and the b e s t l o t s were worth f o r t y  t i m e s , w i t h o u t any  68 improvement t h e r e o n .  And  though  i t seems unequal  that  s h o u l d be thus b e n e f i t t e d by the improvements made by  the absent those  are upon the p l a c e , e s p e c i a l l y when they have s e r v e d no  office,  run no h a z a r d nor as y e t d e f r a y e d any p u b l i c charge, y e t advantage  does c e r t a i n l y redound  they a r e g r e a t  .  had  to them, and whoever they a r e ,  Offices  in  The  Sky.  Indianapolis:  1959.  . . o f f i c e b u i l d i n g was  s e r v i c e was  this  d e b t o r s to the c o u n t r y . '  S h u l t z , E a r l e and W a l t e r Simmons. Bobbs-Merrill,  that  provided.  t o clamber  a primitive affair.  E l e v a t o r s were s t i l l  Practically  no  i n the f u t u r e ; a  up as many as f i v e f l i g h t s of s t a i r s  man  to h i s  office. P l o d d i n g upward, wheezing arid s n o r t i n g , t h i s  luckless fellow  c a r r i e d f u e l f o r h i s s t o v e o r f i r e p l a c e , f o r t h e r e was  no c e n t r a l  heat.  S h u l t z , E a r l e and W a l t e r Simmons. Bobbs-Merrill,  1959,  F e b r u a r y 5, 1881, Having  thought  p. 23.  Offices  in  The  Sky.  Indianapolis:  From a l e t t e r t o A l d i s and Company dated  from P e t e r Brooks. over a b u i l d i n g on the 89-1/2-foot  l o t on Monroe  S t r e e t n e x t west o f the F i r s t N a t i o n a l Bank, I t h i n k , by i n g a l l o f the space on the main f l o o r and by b u i l d i n g up stories with also basement—if  utilizeight  the e a r t h can s u p p o r t i t i n the  o p i n i o n o f the a r c h i t e c t — t h a t i t may  be  l a r g e enough t o warrant  69 an e l e v a t o r .  I f you  rather i n c l i n e d  can get  1959,  A l d i s from P e t e r  Offices  p. 23.  in  The  Sky.  Indianapolis:  From a l e t t e r dated 22 March 1881  The and  w i l l be  quotations  to p e r c e p t i o n ,  The  found to e r e c t them.  as a sample of the c o n t e n t s of the books  Canada L t d . , 1969,  sooner or  t h a t f o l l o w r e l a t e to the s t r u c t u r e of Crown C i t y ,  Redoing  F a l t e r m a y e r , Edmund K.  consin  to  Brooks.  T a l l b u i l d i n g s w i l l pay w e l l i n Chicago h e r e a f t e r , and l a t e r a way  am  to purchase i t .  S h u l t z , E a r l e and W a l t e r Simmons. Bobbs-Merrill,  t h i s l o t f o r $100,000 cash I  p.  77.  America. He  consulted.  Toronto: C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n  r e f e r s to e f f o r t s by  the S t a t e of Wis-  to b r i n g about a s t a t i c r u r a l environment. government's power to b r i n g about land-use changes by  i n g money o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , to p r e v e n t change, has some s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e f i n e m e n t s i n r e c e n t y e a r s . stances,  l o c a l and  taken  ' l e s s than f e e s i m p l e '  land  interests, i.e.,  easements f o r p i c n i c k e r s or f i s h e r m e n to t r a v e r s e  the  property  o r a s a y s o over the l a n d ' s  f u t u r e use.  f o r example, has  ' s c e n i c easements' from r u r a l  owners to p r o t e c t  purchased  s t a t e of W i s c o n s i n , land-  the view from the Great R i v e r Road a l o n g  M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r , and ments buy  The  on  In some i n -  s t a t e governments, i n s t e a d of b u y i n g  o u t r i g h t , have a c q u i r e d  pay-  some e x p e r t s  have advocated t h a t  'development r i g h t s ' from farmers and  to p r e s e r v e open space near urban a r e a s .  others  In 1965  the  governin  order  a Wisconsin  70 circuit powers the  c o u r t u p h e l d the s t a t e ' s r i g h t  t o use i t s eminent  domain  t o p u r c h a s e s c e n i c easements, p a r t l y on the grounds t h a t  p r o t e c t i o n o f the m o t o r i s t ' s view i s a l e g i t i m a t e  'public  purpose.'  Space,  G i e d i o n , S. Press,  Time  and Architecture.  Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y  1963.  Ebenezer Howard wrote i n 1898 i n h i s book Tomorrow:  Path  to  Real  Reform  a  Peaceful  of a co-operatively organised s o c i e t y .  c i t y was p l a n n e d as a s e r i e s of c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s .  'The  I n the  c e n t r e a group o f c i v i c b u i l d i n g s surrounded by a common, then a c i r c u l a r grand avenue 400 f e e t wide w i t h t r e e s and g r e e n e r y . the  outer c i r c l e  At  l i e s the a g r i c u l t u r a l b e l t , and an a r e a i s s e t  aside f o r manufacturing.'  C a r v e r , Humphrey.  Cities  in  the  Suburbs.  Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto  P r e s s , 1962, p. 36. A c i t y in  a garden, a compactly b u i l t  t o r a l landscape.  town s u r r o u n d e d by p a s -  . . . 'The c l e a n and busy s t r e e t s w i t h i n , the  open c o u n t r y w i t h o u t ' quotes Howard from Ruskin's Sesame  and  Lilies. For as  a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes the c o s t o f l a n d would be wiped out l o n g as the t o w n s i t e remained the p r o p e r t y o f the  community.  Howard sums up i n these words the two s i m p l e e x p e d i e n t s by which his  scheme would b r i n g immense economic b e n e f i t s  to s o c i e t y :  71 F i r s t : by b u y i n g l a n d before  a new  v a l u e i s g i v e n to i t by  t i o n , the m i g r a t i v e p e o p l e o b t a i n a s i t e a t an extremely f i g u r e , and s e c u r e the coming increment who  come a f t e r  f o r themselves  site  and  they do not have to pay  sums f o r o l d . b u i l d i n g s , f o r compensation heavy l e g a l  those  large  f o r d i s t u r b a n c e and  charges.  Howard's v i s i o n o f Tomorrow e d i t i o n ) had  low  them.  Second: by coming to a new  for  migra-  a clarity  (the t i t l e  o f h i s book i n i t s f i r s t  and o r i g i n a l i t y  t h a t made an immediate  appeal.  Cities  C a r v e r , Humphrey. P r e s s , 1962,  p.  in  the  Suburbs.  Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of  Toronto  118.  There must be an i n s t i t u t i o n a l embodiment o f the f u t u r e 'we'  who  come to l i v e i n the suburbs, a form of p u b l i c t r u s t e e to r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r e s t s o f the f u t u r e r e s i d e n t s w h i l e the suburbs in  the making.  are  T h i s must be a p u b l i c body w i t h powers t o buy  the community l a n d , t o make p l a n s f o r each Town C e n t r e , and  to  s t a r t d e v e l o p i n g i t s b u i l d i n g and open s p a c e s .  The q u o t a t i o n s on l i g h t r e f e r t o the images o f p e r c e p t i o n .  A p p l e y a r d , D o n a l d , K e v i n Lynch and John R. Myer.  Road.  Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1964,  The p.  View  from  the  7,  The q u a l i t y o f l i g h t w i l l a l s o a f f e c t what i s s e e n , so t h a t a view a g a i n s t the sun, emphasising  s i l h o u e t t e , w i l l be  grasped  72 quite differently  from one w i t h the sun a t the s i d e , where  t e x t u r e and d e t a i l become d i s t i n c t .  Artificial  light  s o u r c e f o r d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n , f o r changing apparent form, f o r p r o d u c i n g v i s u a l sequences.  At night,  daytime landmarks and a c t i v i t i e s may be p i c k e d reassuring  sense o f c o n t i n u i t y .  i n d i c a t e and e n l i v e n t h e r o a d .  i s arespatial  the f a m i l i a r  out t o g i v e a  The l i g h t s o f o t h e r On s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s  vehicles a new w o r l d  of l i g h t may be made.  le Corbusier.  The Chapel  at Ronohamp^  London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s , The  trans. Jacqueline  Cullen.  1957, p. 47.  key i s l i g h t and l i g h t i l l u m i n a t e s shapes and shapes have  an e m o t i o n a l power. — o b s e r v e the p l a y o f shadows, l e a r n the game . . . p r e c i s e shadows, c l e a r c u t o r d i s s o l v i n g . Projected  shadows, s h a r p .  shadows, p r e c i s e l y d e l i n e a t e d , b u t what e n c h a n t i n g  arabesques and f r e t s . Try  Projected  C o u n t e r p o i n t and fugue.  Great music.  t o l o o k a t the p i c t u r e upside-down o r sideways.  discover  the game.  You w i l l  CHAPTER I I  The The  RESPONSE  C u r r e n t A t t i t u d e s o f the Students  Change i n A t t i t u d e s through Participation  i n the Classroom S e t t i n g  Design The  Participation  Participation  Taxonomy o f E d u c a t i o n a l  Objectives  74 The C u r r e n t A t t i t u d e s of the  The  Students  drawing by s t u d e n t s of the development of the c i t y  them t o express  t h e i r concerns  for i t s future.  The  encourages  r e s u l t i s shocking.  I t r e v e a l s an a w f u l e m o t i o n a l s t r e s s i n c h i l d r e n about the f u t u r e and about the  city.  The  c i t y seems t o r e p r e s e n t o v e r p o p u l a t i o n , i n c r e a s e d p o l l u t i o n ,  l o s s of n a t u r a l a r e a s , i n c r e a s e d c r i m e .  In open suburban areas I have  found worry about the p o p u l a t i o n e x p l o s i o n . c i t y i s the view of the w o r l d smoke and bombs.  r u n n i n g out of f o o d , p o i s o n i n g i t s e l f  i n s e c t i c i d e s , and ending  to blame.  c e p t t h a t r e p o r t e d news must always be bad  M a r s h a l l McLuhan's  to b a l a n c e  releases i s very evident.  ogre t o be f e a r e d , whose presence  My  a f t e r another  to the b u l l d o z e r .  e x p e r i e n c e has been t h a t the c h i l d r e n can ask v e r y  over they v e r y b i t t e r l y want to know the t e a c h c h i l d r e n to f e a r the c i t y ?  by our t i g h t h a n d - h o l d i n g , transmit to a c h i l d  don't  into  t h a t a r e o f t e n the f a l l o w  l a n d of the d e v e l o p e r and when the c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y - w o r l d s  Do we  cogent  time the c h i l d r e n v e n t u r e  t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g neighbourhood of p l a y - w o r l d s  t h a t we  approaching  r e s u l t s i n the l o s s of one v a c a n t l o t  q u e s t i o n s a t about the age of s i x . A t t h i s  and b u i l t  con-  the good a d v e r t i s -  Even the v e r y young appear to view the c i t y as an  playground  with  i n a v a s t e x p l o s i o n of hydrogen  News r e p o r t i n g must be p a r t l y  i n g and P.R.  T i e d to t h i s view of the  We  are d e s t r o y e d  rules. communicate a n x i e t y  get l o s t , c r o s s now,  h u r r y ; the  fear  t h a t might g e t l o s t i n a downtown s t r e e t  or  75 be k i l l e d by a world  the t r a f f i c .  We  to f e a r i n the c i t y .  a n x i e t y to the c h i l d .  When we  s i t w i t h them.  The  dog knows by  whose r a t t l e a t the door i s not answered, who droppings  unchallenged  t h a t we  p i c k up and  dog  this  t h a t the  There i s one  t e a r a p a r t , whom we  and never i n v i t e i n t o the house.  their visitor  the  letter-  a l l o w to d e p a r t  T h i s v i s i t o r must t h e r e chased  away.  i n t e n s i t y of the outcome from our i n a d v e r t e n t t e a c h i n g of  about the mailman suggests  c h i l d r e n a g a i n s t the c i t y . have g i v e n i t r e l e a s e .  Expressions  I have been shocked a t i t s i n t e n s i t y when 1  I have seen groups of a d u l t s , when c o n v e r s i n g  the same time,  the  concern.  of d i s l i k i n g  of the c i t y and h o p e l e s s n e s s  f u t u r e have become so commonplace i n my t i o n as b a s i c i n my  the  the s o u r c e of an i n t e n s e r e a c t i o n i n  w i t h young s t u d e n t s about the f u t u r e c i t y , shocked to s i l e n c e by s t u d e n t s ' e x p r e s s i o n s of  A  visitor  l e a v e s , through  f o r e be an enemy, to be a t t a c k e d w i t h courage and The  the mailman.  g r e e t them w i t h c r i e s of j o y , take  i s a f r i e n d , and wags i t s t a i l and n u z z l e s up.  box,  communicate  from h i s b a t t l e s downtown.  c o n s i d e r the e f f e c t of the dog and  f r i e n d knocks a t our door, we t a l k and  d r i v e i n the c i t y we  F a t h e r comes home ragged  As a c o r o l l a r y  c o a t s and  teach them t h a t beyond our p r o t e c t i o n l i e s  v i s i t s that I accept  approach t o a f f e c t i n g  f o r the this  condi-  the c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s .  the c h i l d r e n show a f a s c i n a t i o n f o r b o t h  At  the c i t y and f o r  the f u t u r e . The v e r y bad suburbs.  s t r e s s appears to be e m o t i o n a l .  situation.  The  c h i l d r e n a r e not i n any  They appear w e l l - f e d , w e l l c l o t h e d and  l i v e i n good  My e x p e r i e n c e has been that, the c h i l d r e n c a n ask very cogent q u e s t i o n s a t about the age o f s i x . At t h i s time the c h i l d r e n venture i n t o t h e i r ' s u r r o u n d i n g neighbourhood o f p l a y - w o r l d s t h a t a r e o f t e n the f a l l o w l a n d o f the d e v e l o p e r and when the c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y - w o r l d s a r e d e s t r o y e d and b u i l t over they v e r y b i t t e r l y want to know the r u l e s .  '  7//AT  WAS  SHBMMMP  FOREST  77 R e c e n t l y , a t a l o c a l s c h o o l , t w e l v e - y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n h e l d a deb a t e on the motion, "man w i l l e v e n t u a l l y d e s t r o y h i m s e l f . " was  carried.  for  a debate i n c h i l d r e n so young.  I was d i s t u r b e d t h a t such a s u b j e c t s h o u l d form t h e motion When I e n q u i r e d f u r t h e r , t h e c h i l d r e n  answered, "The t e a c h e r asked us i f we would l i k e if  The motion  s o , what s u b j e c t would we l i k e t o debate.  eventually destroy himself.  t o h o l d a debate and,  Someone s a i d — M a n  will  The t e a c h e r asked who e l s e wanted t o debate  t h a t motion and we a l l d i d . " Another example o c c u r r e d i n t h e p o p u l a r s e l e c t i o n o f a charming book c a l l e d The Little  House,  by V i r g i n i a Lee Burton,"'" t h a t i s a f a v o u r -  ite  o f seven t o t e n - y e a r o l d s .  its  p l a c e i n t h e f a m i l y and i n the s e a s o n s .  zon, and h e r a l d s t h e approach l i t t l e house.  It tells  o f a house i n t h e c o u n t r y and A c l o u d appears on t h e h o r i -  o f the c i t y which  Some descendants  e v e n t u a l l y surrounds t h e  of the o r i g i n a l f a m i l y f i n d  t h e house  and a r r a n g e t o have i t taken o u t o f t h e c i t y and f i n d i t a haven s i m i l a r to  its first  s i t u a t i o n i n the country.  The l i b r a r y a t my daughter's  s c h o o l c o n t a i n e d a copy, which was u s u a l l y out on l o a n , and she asked t h a t I buy h e r one o f h e r own.  The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e book p r o v i d e s a  measure o f t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f sympathy w i t h the s t o r y . In  mixed c l a s s e s o f up t o twelve y e a r s o l d , t h e u n r u l y , r e b e l -  l i o u s boys o f t e n s i t t o g e t h e r and they a r e e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d . them t o be most r e s p o n s i v e and t o be f u l l interest.  I find  o f q u e s t i o n s , and a l i v e w i t h  I have found I n d i a n c h i l d r e n r e a d i l y h e l p f u l w i t h t h e mass  drawing, and most a b l e t o extend t h e i r thoughts from t h e drawings t o the  sounds and s m e l l s and touch suggested i n t h e p i c t u r e .  78 The  c h i l d r e n of ages twelve to s i x t e e n y e a r s w i t h l e a r n i n g  c u l t i e s seem to f i n d and c o n f u s i n g .  the c i t y  diffi-  i n t o l e r a b l e , and h o r r i f y i n g l y n o i s y , d i r t y  They tend, i n s e l f - d e f e n s e , to c r i t i c i s e  the  city.  G i r l s of n i n e to t h i r t e e n o f t e n express a d e s i r e f o r the b u c o l i c life  of p o n i e s and p a r k l a n d and a t the same time a d e s i r e f o r happy  m i l l i n g crowds, and  for lively  shopping  streets.  Amongst boys from n i n e to twelve y e a r s o l d I have found g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l systems of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and new s u r p r i s i n g l y h i g h degree  of knowledge.  the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t , to my p r e s s and  on T.V.,  type of m a t e r i a l . trains  and space The  forms and  In many cases c h i l d r e n knew a l l  which i n d i c a t e s t h a t they a r e v e r y r e c e p t i v e t o t h i s They seem t o be a t home w i t h the thoughts o f P l u g - I n c i t i e s and  of r a p i d underwater  satellites.  a c a d e m i c a l l y b r i g h t boys have shown f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h  the  i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f c i t y management, l a n d and b u i l d i n g ment and  a  knowledge, had been p u b l i s h e d i n the p o p u l a r  t r a v e l l i n g a t two hundred mph,  cities,  city  invest-  commerce.  Students  as young as twelve and  t h i r t e e n y e a r s have shown an i n -  t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s of the c i t y . c h i l d r e n d e f i n e d i n some d e t a i l  In one case a group of  the p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c -  t u r e t h a t they r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r i d e a l c i t y . under a d i c t a t o r s h i p , w i t h i t s own  They d e s i r e d a C i t y S t a t e  c i t y army, and p a r e n t s and  children  s e p a r a t e d , w i t h workshops i n s t e a d o f s c h o o l s and a l l c h i l d r e n w i t h of  l e s s than one hundred b e i n g b a n i s h e d  from the c i t y .  in  s i m i l a r form i n M o n t r e a l and i n Vancouver.  I have met  I.Q. this  33  80 I have d i s c u s s e d w i t h c h i l d r e n aged t h i r t e e n of a mathematics bent  the p o s s i b i l i t y  t i o n and  of h a v i n g an e x e r c i s e i n d i f f e r e n t forms of  they were v e r y eager to pursue the s t u d y .  Any  information that  I gave them on c o s t s of development, income from development and and  income o f d i f f e r e n t  taxa-  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems i n t e r e s t s  costs  them i n t e n s e l y .  C h i l d r e n aged f o u r t e e n to e i g h t e e n have shown an i n t e r e s t i n the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of the c i t y , d w e l l i n g on the problems of the slum and the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of  wealth.  Boys, more than g i r l s , express and  to design c i t y  t i c a t i o n of c i t y  forms.  a w i s h to make p l a n s and models  G i r l s , more than boys, comment on the s o p h i s -  life.  A s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e number of s t u d e n t s have never t r a v e l l e d yond t h e i r home c i t y . teen and  of  f o u r t e e n who  I have found many c h i l d r e n up  to the age  have not t r a v e l l e d beyond t h e i r d i s t r i c t  of  bethir-  to v i s i t  o t h e r areas of the c i t y .  Those who  most to the d i s c u s s i o n s .  U s u a l l y t h i s marks the d i f f e r e n c e between r i c h  and  poor  The  Change i n A t t i t u d e s through  have t r a v e l l e d w i d e l y c o n t r i b u t e the  districts.  The  Participation  s e a r c h f o r m a t e r i a l on the f u t u r e c i t y has  d i r e c t i o n as a r e s u l t of the r e a c t i o n of s t u d e n t s . briefly  to the f u t u r e .  p r e s e n t c i t y and The  students  The  taken a d e f i n i t e  At f i r s t ,  e a r l y s t a g e s of my work emphasized  an e x p l a n a t i o n of the p a s t t h a t l e d to the  showed i n t e r e s t i n the f a c t  i n the drawing o c c u r r e d i n one  I referred the  present.  t h a t the changes t h a t appeared  geographical location.  They enjoyed  the  81 stories,  laughed a t the d r a w i n g s , b u t they d i s p l a y e d most i n t e r e s t when-  ever I touched on the f u t u r e .  I have asked s t u d e n t s , who f o u r or  five  y e a r s b e f o r e had been w i t h me d u r i n g these l e s s o n s , what they c o u l d r e member and they have answered t h a t my d e s c r i p t i o n of has remained f r e s h i n t h e i r minds.  the f u t u r e  cities  I have had p a r e n t s speak i n p u b l i c  i n s u p p o r t of these l e s s o n s s a y i n g t h a t the f u t u r e c i t y had been  the  main t o p i c o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a t meal times f o r y e a r s a f t e r my t a l k to  the  children. D u r i n g l i v e l y d i s c u s s i o n of the f u t u r e amongst the s t u d e n t s is  there  o f t e n a sense t h a t the c h i l d r e n have e n t e r e d a time zone of t h e i r own  and the a d u l t s can o n l y w a i t and f o l l o w them as they e n t e r a f u t u r e of communications and r a p i d t r a n s i t systems t h a t would enable them to a v o i d the c i t y  altogether.  They q u e s t i o n the worth o f the c i t y . entanglement o f p r o b l e m s . ment?" they s a y .  They see  i t as a growing  "Why go to a l l the t r o u b l e of downtown d e v e l o p -  "It j u s t seems to c r e a t e more p r o b l e m s . "  "With v i d e o -  phones and new i n v e n t i o n s i n communication you won't need to go downtown to meet p e o p l e , " s a i d a s t u d e n t .  " A n d , " s a i d a n o t h e r , "with automation ,  and I . B . M . ' s d o i n g a l l the work, why go i n t o downtown to s i t  around and .  l o o k a t each o t h e r a l l d a y . " With the l e s s o n s o f change s t i l l fly  i n t h e i r minds t h e i r  away from the f a m i l i a r c i t y and suburb to something new,  else,  and they ask about new forms of The i d e a s  cities,  thoughts somewhere  city.  o f Ebenezer Howard, Radburn, and Geddes, of garden  green b e l t s  and s a t e l l i t e  towns i n t e r e s t  the s t u d e n t s  greatly,  82 and  they approve of the i d e a s .  P e t e r Cook and  But  the i d e a s of Le C o r b u s i e r , Santa  Elia,  o t h e r s , of d w e l l i n g i n apartments i n t a l l b u i l d i n g s so  t h a t the c o u n t r y s i d e around i s open, w i t h o u t houses, are t u r n e d down f l a t . The  i d e a of l i v i n g  i n an apartment i s out.  Any  s u g g e s t i o n s of an a p p l i e d  c i t y d e s i g n t h a t does not a l l o w f o r i n d i v i d u a l freedom of c h o i c e of housing  d e s i g n i s a l s o out.  first  I have found  group t o r e a c t i n t h i s way  firm.  Two  b o y s , who  had  this reaction constantly.  were n i n e y e a r s o l d .  The  They were v e r y  r e c e n t l y moved from apartments t o houses i n the  suburbs, were l o q u a c i o u s .  S i n c e then t h e i r views have been echoed by  s t u d e n t s of a l l ages. T h e i r r e a c t i o n put a l o t o f h i g h l y esteemed a r c h i t e c t u r a l t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e i n the waste b a s k e t .  solu-  F o r some time a f t e r w a r d s  d i f f i d e n t about s u g g e s t i n g s o l u t i o n s b u t l e t the s t u d e n t s develop own  ideas i n d i s c u s s i o n s .  I found  t h a t they thought  I found  r e g a r d e d by  the p r o p o s e r s w i t h a f f e c t i o n , a n t a g o n i z e d to avoid stalemate.  the p r i n c i p l e of the s a t e l l i t e  by  They approved t h a t was  the i n d i v i d u a l .  They a c c e p t e d  town and approved  certain  They  the green b e l t s  accepted around  the p r i n c i p l e of P l u g - I n d w e l l i n g s , p r o v i d i n g t h a t  plugged  i n was  not p r e - d e s i g n e d b u t c o u l d be  designed  They d i s l i k e d the massive s t r u c t u r e s of P e t e r  Cook's P l u g - I n C i t y ; f o r them the b e t t e r s t r u c t u r e was City  publica-  the o t h e r s t u d e n t s .  p a r t s of the v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s o l u t i o n s .  the u n i t  and  a l s o t h a t t h e i r i d e a s f o r the f u t u r e , w h i l e they were  They needed guidance  them.  was  their  of n o t h i n g new,  t h a t they d e r i v e a l l t h e i r i d e a s from a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e or from tions.  I  though w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s on i t s u n i f o r m i t y .  the lower  In-Line  84  vhuPEiNTS' ft\E4ECTEP FUTUPJE CITIBS .  2S  85 I s h o u l d mention t h a t though the s t u d i e s were i n M o n t r e a l , were i n the pre-Expo e r a , b e f o r e H a b i t a t had been c o n c e i v e d . when H a b i t a t was  built,  the s t u d e n t s had  They r e c a l l e d i t w i t h d e l i g h t .  some a l t e r n a t i v e t o the apartment s l a b . H a b i t a t , i t s h o u l d be noted of l i v i n g  Later,  the r e a l e x p e r i e n c e of w a l k i n g  around, r u n n i n g around, a s t r u c t u r e of the f u t u r e . loved Habitat.  we  I n v a r i a b l y they  T h e i r hope was  Of a l l t h a t was  t h a t the c h i l d e x p e r i e n c e s  said  r e a l of of  therein a fashion  of the f u t u r e by a t o t a l touch and s e n s o r y l e a r n i n g  experience.  A l l o t h e r c o u n t r i e s make do w i t h paper i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the f u t u r e ; o n l y Canada p r o v i d e s a r e a l  example.  To r e t u r n t o the p r e - H a b i t a t days,  the q u a l i f i e d acceptance  by  the c h i l d r e n of a m o d i f i e d P l u g - I n - I n - L i n e form of f u t u r e s t r u c t u r e l e d to another City.  and more a c c e p t a b l e form of f u t u r e c i t y .  I t i s c a l l e d Crown  Crown C i t y grew as a c h i l d of the M o n t r e a l d i s t r i c t , of  a t t r a c t i v e farm l a n d and v i l l a g e s of Quebec and Laurentians.  the s k i s l o p e s of the  The L a u r e n t i a n s have a m i c r o - c l i m a t e b e t t e r by  the m i c r o - c l i m a t e of M o n t r e a l .  Summers s h i n e c l e a r and  f a r than  fresh while  M o n t r e a l s w e l t e r s ; w i n t e r s s p a r k l e c l e a r b l u e and w h i t e w h i l e i s c o l d , g r e y , o v e r c a s t and  dirty.  Any  s k i e r and any  and  Therefore a  t h a t took advantage of the s k i i n g , the b e t t e r c l i m a t e  the view of the s u r r o u n d i n g farm l a n d soon came t o mind.  i d e a had  Montreal  a s p i r i n g voyageur  r e g r e t s the wasted hours spent away from the L a u r e n t i a n s . f u t u r e form o f c i t y  the  Once the  formed enough to be s k e t c h e d and d e s c r i b e d , i t became a s h i n i n g  hope i n the minds of a l l my Laurentians.  f r i e n d s who  shared  the l o v e o f the  86 The  c h i l d r e n took to i t , and  q u e n t l y they m o d i f i e d i t to s u i t which soon emerged, i t has for  students  i n Montreal  took i t o v e r , immediately.  themselves and  i n i t s modified  and Vancouver.  In M o n t r e a l  name Crown has been taken to mean Crown l a n d . a r c h i t e c t u r a l form of Crown C i t y .  In Vancouver, the  P i c t u r e s d e s c r i b e the  students.  the f a c t first  that i t avoids  storms of a p p r a i s a l by  concerned  had  one?"  you  c o u l d see i t from the c i t y . " own  wilderness areas.  the f l i g h t  from the  of  students  Crown C i t y has  I t may  city.  never been d i s c u s s e d .  nor i t s l o c a t i o n f i x e d .  city  "Ah,  " I want i t so t h a t I can b u i l d a p l a c e said a student.  a r i s e from the p r e c e d i n g  to become t o t a l l y absorbed  i d e a s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the new  forms.  i f you  a c r o s s the v a l l e y .  c i s e s which show the p i o n e e r development, which c h i l d r e n f i n d I have found  re-  Above a l l I b e l i e v e i t  somewhere, have some l a n d c o n q u e r i n g , " reoccurred often.  The  "Where would you keep a h o r s e  I would draw a h o r s e on the h i l l s  s u g g e s t i o n has  The  the  the o b j e c t i o n s to o t h e r c i t y  q u e r i e s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  and  my  to pursue.  Perhaps the l o c a l o r i g i n of b i r t h gave i t s t r e n g t h .  succeeds by  city  a basic structure.  c r e a t i o n p r o p e r t i e s a t t r a c t e d the s t u d e n t s .  The  that I  I i n t e n d to p r e s e n t a  q u e s t i o n s , not of answers, which a r e f o r the s t u d e n t s  Crown C i t y weathered the f i r s t  of  the name a p p l i e d to  D e f i n e d p l a n s and d e n s i t i e s  had made were never shown to the s t u d e n t s .  C i t y however had  form,  s e r v e d as a base f o r the d e s i g n of the f u t u r e  the s i t u a t i o n of the c i t y on the crown of a h i l l .  of  Conse-  As a r e s u l t  Nor has  i n the  This exer-  attractive. collection  the p o p u l a t i o n of  i t s s i z e been mentioned,  Were the q u e s t i o n to a r i s e , study of the  87 " f e e l i n g " of d i f f e r e n t d e n s i t i e s and p o p u l a t i o n s would f o l l o w . The  r a r i t y of new  i d e a s from s t u d e n t s  Crown C i t y , not as a p l a c e f o r new  i d e a s but  the o l d i d e a s as they are r e d i s c o v e r e d . Crown C i t y .  The  They s i t on i t s s l o p e s and  emphasizes the f u n c t i o n of to p r o v i d e a p l a c e to put s t u d e n t s walk backwards to  t h i n k about the o l d c i t y .  b r i n g to mind a l l the good p o i n t s of the o l d as f e a t u r e s s f o r the They r e c o l l e c t f e a t u r e s i n group d i s c u s s i o n and  generate  They new.  a greater  de-  gree of r e c o l l e c t i o n among themselves. In t h i s way better light.  they c a s t the o l d , t h a t means the e x i s t i n g , i n a  Thoughts of d e p a r t u r e  ness f o r the e x i s t i n g environment. o f f e r values  encourage an awareness and The  e x i s t i n g c i t y , and  t h a t a p p l y p e r s o n a l l y to the s t u d e n t .  i n h i s book Cities  in  Evolution,  a  fond-  the f u t u r e ,  As P a t r i c k Geddes,  writes:  In s h o r t , h e r e , as elsewhere c h i l d r e n and a r t i s t s may see more than the w i s e . F o r as t h e r e can be no n a t u r e s t u d y , no geography worth the name a p a r t from the l o v e and the beauty of N a t u r e , so i t i s w i t h the study of the c i t y . 2  The both  the c i t y and  attitude. enough. it  achievement of such a stage by a s t u d e n t who  the f u t u r e w i t h h o r r o r i s an enormous improvement i n  Were i t j u s t a b e t t e r m e n t f o r l e a r n i n g i t would be The  e v i d e n t h a p p i n e s s among the s t u d e n t s  s t i l l more rewarding.  brought emotional child  f o r m e r l y viewed  On  occasions  reward  about Crown C i t y makes  the change i n a t t i t u d e has  r e l i e f , as i f a t e r r i b l e f e a r t h a t had hung over  f o r y e a r s had been removed.  the  I have seen t h i s o c c u r , not o n l y i n  young c h i l d r e n but i n e i g h t e e n - y e a r - o l d  students.  I t marks t h i s whole  88 e x e r c i s e as important beyond academic measure, t o u c h i n g on mental s t r e s ses of a l a r m i n g p r o p o r t i o n s i n the young  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Classroom  I have o f t e n found rigid  people.  Setting  the c l a s s r o o m t o be an awkward p l a c e f o r r e -  sponse.  The  rows of desks and  the d i s c i p l i n e imposed on  the  students  t o speak o n l y when g i v e n express p e r m i s s i o n d i s c o u r a g e s a f r e e  exchange of i d e a s . On one  o c c a s i o n , p a r t l y by a c c i d e n t , i d e a s flowed  aged s e v e n t e e n b u t who  to e i g h t e e n y e a r s a t U n i v e r s i t y H i l l , who  were i n c l i n e d  uncooperative. expected who  to be u n r e s p o n s i v e  I had planned  and had  from a group were i n t e l l i g e n t  a reputation f o r being  a drawing t o encourage a f l o w of i d e a .  t h a t the drawing would spark the u s u a l o b j e c t i o n s i n the  would f a v o u r n o n - b u i l d i n g , non-development.  comments.  The  would l o s e the g i r l s v o i c e s .  girls  I wanted to r e c o r d t h e i r  tape r e c o r d e r , I had n o t i c e d , p i c k e d up low  sounds w e l l b u t not the h i g h frequency sounds and  I  I was  To get a b e t t e r g r o u p i n g  frequency  afraid  that I  f o r the sound I  p l a c e d the r o l l  of brown wrapping paper on the f l o o r and u n r o l l e d  paper below and  i n f r o n t of the r e c o r d e r .  The group gathered  the  to watch  the drawing, made w i t h t h i c k c h a r c o a l s t o c k s . The  room was  s c r e e n a t one ity  s l i g h t l y darkened because I p r o j e c t e d s l i d e s on a  s i d e of the room.  I had b r o u g h t w i t h me,  Soon we  had  those who  a row  and  I k n e l t t o draw which reduced the t e a c h e r H e l e n  author-  Sherrif knelt beside.  of p e o p l e , each s i d e of the paper,  spoke s t o o d b e s i d e and watched.  any  drawing i d e a s w h i l e  W i t h i n f i f t e e n minutes we  had  89 a drawing over f o r t y f e e t l o n g f u l l of i d e a s and c r i b e d c l e a r v e r b a l images. we  h e l d i t up between us.  The  the g i r l s who  spoke  drawing flowed i n t o the c o r r i d o r ,  des-  and  I t showed, a p a r t from a l l e l s e , a f o u n t of  i d e a s among the s t u d e n t s . Drawing on paper r o l l e d out on the f l o o r succeeded  on  another  o c c a s i o n a t A l p h a S c h o o l i n Burnaby, w i t h the h e l p of the t e a c h e r s Gary Onstad and Judy D o y l e , a l s o w i t h s t u d e n t s of seventeen old.  S e v e r a l c l a s s e s j o i n e d t o g e t h e r number about one hundred and  s t u d e n t s i n a double p i e c e s , one  f i f t e e n foot sheet. The  s i z e d classroom.  We  r o l l e d out the paper i n t h r e e  one  f i f t e e n foot sheet.  The  The  future f i l l e d  drawings of i d e a s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a t A l p h a S c h o o l and  of a c o l l e c t i o n of s e p a r a t e i d e a s .  develops  i n about f o u r f e e t w i d t h and  neighbouring  idea.  I t i s important  I t appears  an i m p o r t a n t  the o t h e r  the draw-  They  con-  t h a t an i d e a  can e x i s t w i t h o u t  troubling a  to a v o i d the need f o r o r g a n i s i n g the  c o n j u n c t i o n of i d e a s i n t h i s s t a g e of the e x e r c i s e . f l o o r has  The  t h i r d , h a l f used, showed i d e a s f o r r e c r e a t i o n .  a t U n i v e r s i t y H i l l were b o t h s i m i l a r i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r .  sisted  sixty  about t h i r t y f e e t l o n g , the o t h e r s of f i f t e e n f e e t each.  present c i t y f i l l e d  ing  to eighteen years  The  drawing on  a s p e c t when used i n the c l a s s r o o m .  The  the  students  p a r t i c i p a t e more r e a d i l y i n a drawing on the f l o o r than i n a drawing the b l a c k b o a r d . blackboard.  I found  T h i s appears  on  t h a t s t u d e n t s were uneasy when s t a n d i n g a t the to be a danger zone f o r them.  f l o o r overcame t h e i r u n e a s i n e s s .  Another a s p e c t may  be  Drawing on  the  the r e l a t i o n of  the drawing t o the sand p a t c h which i s , and always has been, a s a t i s f a c t o r y s u r f a c e f o r d o o d l i n g w i t h a s t i c k or w i t h a f o o t .  A place for  90  the u n i v e r s a l language t h a t Walt D i s n e y ' s  P r o f e s s o r Von Duck c a l l s  "sandscript." The A l p h a S c h o o l had  one  o t h e r a s p e c t which I c o n s i d e r a v e r y  p o r t a n t element i n the s u c c e s s of the e x e r c i s e . The  s t u d e n t s had no h e s i t a t i o n  draw. if  They had  f l o o r was  in sitting  f o r short periods.  carpeted.  on the f l o o r  a r e l a x e d a i r which would p o s s i b l y have been  they c o u l d o n l y squat  tile  i n l y i n g and  The  im-  to  different  At U n i v e r s i t y H i l l ,  on a  f l o o r , t h a t d i s c o u r a g e d c l o s e c o n t a c t , the s t u d e n t s r e l a x e d l e s s  easily. Without the drawing on the f l o o r the r i g i d i t y of desks can be s o f t e n e d by a s k i n g the s t u d e n t s  i n d u c e d by  t o arrange  themselves  b e f o r e the b l a c k b o a r d w i t h o u t  desks, s i t t i n g  or w i t h c h a i r s and no desks.  O f t e n the s e a t s cannot be detached  desks and  the desks form a b a r r i e r .  i n moving through  the b a r r i e r  S l i d e s , when shown t o one  The  on the f l o o r i f p o s s i b l e ,  Design  themselves  of desks to j o i n me  a t the drawing  s i d e of the room throughout  i n f o r m a l l y and  from  the  s t u d e n t s show g r e a t r e l u c t a n c e  s c r e e n e d v e r y s m a l l , b r i n g the s t u d e n t s forward They arrange  the rows  the  board.  draw-in,  t o see the p i c t u r e s .  the draw-in proceeds  more e a s i l y .  Participation  Many e x p r e s s i o n s of z o n i n g o r d e n s i t y are too a b s t r a c t t o support the p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y identify  themselves  of the s t u d e n t , and  I have found  that students  w i t h t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s to a p o w e r f u l degree.  t h e i r p l a n s f o r the f u t u r e c o n c e r n a p p r e c i a t i o n of the s u r r o u n d i n g s  t h e i r own  life  s t y l e and  their  When own  they can r e l y on t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s as  91 an e x t e n s i o n of t h e i r i d e n t i t y , and can, i f n e c e s s a r y , defend them when they a r e a t t a c k e d . For  example,  I found t h i s  to be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r .  I had one i n s t a n c e w i t h some boys of t h i r t e e n to  f o u r t e e n y e a r s o f age t h a t b r o u g h t out s t r o n g emotions from an i d e n t i t y w i t h a p l a n f o r the f u t u r e .  The b o y s , who were v e r y b r i g h t , l i v i n g  in a  suburban a r e a to the s o u t h of Vancouver, were eager to draw up t h e i r i d e a s f o r the f u t u r e .  They mentioned underground c i t i e s  l e a v e the l a n d s c a p e untouched on top of the c i t y . i n t e r e s t and though the boys p r o t e s t e d , "Oh, f u r r y l i k e a mole," and " b i t s o f mud  own  t h a t would  The t e a c h e r e x p r e s s e d  S i r , you w i l l grow a l l  w i l l drop i n t o your soup," most of  them d e s i g n e d underground or underwater  cities.  I h e l d the d e s i g n s up b e f o r e the c l a s s and asked the d e s i g n e r to t e l l us more about h i s c i t y . had t h e i r own concepts.  I t soon became c l e a r t h a t the boys a l l  i d e a s about the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c i t y and a t t a c k e d  rival  As a r e s u l t , the more d e t a i l e d drawings drew the h e a v i e s t  criticism.  The boys t h a t had t r i e d h a r d e s t were the most s e v e r e l y  criti-  c i z e d and were n e a r l y reduced t o t e a r s . Lewis Mumford i n h i s book The City the of  underground c i t y  in History  w r i t e s a c h a p t e r on  t h a t might be g u i d i n g us p a s t t h i s p o i n t .  the b e l l i c o s e n a t u r e o f man  t h a t pursues t e c h n i c a l g o a l s , and  underground c i t i e s , as an a r t o f war.  He w r i t e s , "We  He w r i t e s creates  must not o n l y  un-  l e a r n the a r t of war, but a c q u i r e and master, as never b e f o r e , the a r t s of  life."  3  A few examples furore.  f o l l o w o f the type o f d e s i g n t h a t caused the  <=>s  LT  • . ••• 111 • R e s i d e n t i a l Buildings » i > » .... Government " Commercial Water and Sewage " M •  »  i  96 A l s o , I have observed lem o f f i t t i n g  two  t h a t s t u d e n t s who  are w r e s t l i n g with a prob-  i d e a s i n t o a d e s i g n a r e upset by  the a r r i v a l of a  t h i r d i d e a and r e j e c t i t . C o n f l i c t over r i v a l p l a n n i n g concepts has and of  I find  that c o n f l i c t  can be expected  to occur as a n a t u r a l  course  events u n l e s s the d i s c u s s i o n i s guided away i n t o s a f e r a r e a s .  d i s c u s s i o n of concepts l e s s on the f o l l o w i n g  1.  counts:  d i s c u s s i o n l a y themselves  they a r e u n q u a l i f i e d couraged 2.  open to a t t a c k on grounds  to defend.  that  They tend t o become d i s discussion.  d i s c u s s i o n of a b s t r a c t p l a n n i n g terms r e s u l t s i n the need  for  e x p e r t a d v i c e beyond the scope  steps  of the group of s t u d e n t s ,  postponed.  study o f the urban  and reduce  the f i r s t  designs  The  the enormity  plify  have p r o v i d e d f u l l  from o f f e r i n g a l e a d i n f u r t h e r  and d i s c u s s i o n i s  The  The  o c c u r s l a t e r b u t premature d i s c u s s i o n i s f r u i t -  The most e n e r g e t i c s t u d e n t s who for  and  o c c u r r e d many t i m e s ,  environment  i s o b v i o u s l y an enormous t a s k  i t s e l f i s discouraging. the s i z e o f the problem  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n aims to s i m -  so t h a t the s t u d e n t can  take  easily.  The s t u d e n t s express  their criteria  1.  r e q u i r e no e x p e r t knowledge o f  2.  encourage f u r t h e r e n q u i r y ,  3.  g i v e the d e s i g n e r u s e f u l  f o r d e s i g n i n terms t h a t  terms,  guidance.  97  P l a n n i n g concepts  and systems a r e n o t examined u n t i l a l a t e r  stage.  The  responses  c o n c e n t r a t e d i s c u s s i o n on areas i n which s t u d e n t s o f any  age  can j o i n .  They encourage awareness o f the p r e s e n t environment and  encourage s k i l l s and  of expression.  The s t u d e n t s choose a f u t u r e a c t i v i t y  compare i t w i t h t h e p r e s e n t forms o f the a c t i v i t y .  thought  o f e a t i n g , and extend  at  t h e i r thoughts  home r e s t i n g and s l e e p i n g ,  They enjoy the  t o o t h e r p a r t s o f the day:  eating,  getting provisions,  work,  play,  travelling.  More d e t a i l e d headings  i n c l u d e c o o k i n g , l a u n d r y and r e p a i r and  maintenance o f t h e home.  The headings environments, The  p r o v i d e a way o f comparing l i f e  c i t y , suburb,  styles i n different  farm and w i l d e r n e s s , and i n o t h e r  comparisons form a d e s i g n p r o c e s s .  s i g n p r o c e s s i n h e r book, The Death  cultures.  Jane Jacobs w r i t e s o f t h i s de-  and Life  of  Great  American  Cities:  C i t y designers should r e t u r n t o a s t r a t e g y ennobling both t o a r t and t o l i f e : a s t r a t e g y of i l l u m i n a t i n g and c l a r i f y i n g l i f e and h e l p i n g t o e x p l a i n t o us i t s meaning and o r d e r — i n t h i s c a s e , h e l p i n g t o i l l u m i n a t e , c l a r i f y and e x p l a i n t h e o r d e r o f c i t i e s . 4  The of  tendency  t o s e e t h e c i t y apartment as merely  a cramped v e r s i o n  t h e suburban house changes when s t u d e n t s see the r e s t a u r a n t s , c i t y  parks and t h e a t r e s as p a r t o f a l i f e  style.  They compare a meeting o f f r i e n d s f o r a meal a t home i n t h e suburb w i t h a meeting o f f r i e n d s i n a f a v o r i t e r e s t a u r a n t i n t h e c i t y .  The  98 r e s t a u r a n t extends  the home.  The method a l s o encourages f e a t u r e s i n the c i t y s e a r c h f o r the r i c h g a t h e r to enjoy  the s t u d e n t s t o s e a r c h f o r those  t h a t match the f e a t u r e s of the suburban home. f e a t u r e s of c i t y l i f e ,  the p l a c e s where people  themselves.  The emphasis on the r i c h n e s s of the c i t y are  d e p r e s s e d by  thoughts of o v e r p o p u l a t i o n .  l i f e helps c h i l d r e n  of the r i c h s i d e s of l i f e  who  I have known cases when  c h i l d r e n have been e x c i t e d and e x h i l a r a t e d by a sense of r e l i e f thoughts  They  at  i n a dense p o p u l a t i o n .  Problems o f the poor p e o p l e and of t h e i r f u t u r e u s u a l l y a r i s e i n the d i s c u s s i o n s .  The q u e s t i o n s , "What would you do as a poor  person,  what c o n d i t i o n s would be n e c e s s a r y f o r you t o enjoy l i f e w i t h o u t much money?" g u i d e the s t u d e n t i n t o deeper r e s e a r c h .  They imagine an e n v i r -  onment s u i t e d t o t h e i r p o c k e t s and e n j o y a b l e w i t h o u t spending much money. The emphasis on p u b l i c and f r e e a m e n i t i e s a p p e a l s t o c h i l d r e n .  A short  walk t o work o r t o the p a r k , r a t h e r than a d r i v e , means freedom  t o the  c h i l d as w e l l as a n e c e s s i t y f o r a poor p e r s o n . s i d e r a t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s  of everyday  I have found the con-  l i f e more f r u i t f u l  than the  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the problems o f slums as a b l i g h t , and as a s o c i a l planning  problem.  The s t u d e n t s next c o n s i d e r the s u r r o u n d i n g o f t h e i r They a n a l y s e the s t i m u l i of the environment  on t h e i r s e n s e s , and  d e s i g n a s u r r o u n d i n g t o enhance the a c t i v i t i e s life.  I n e f f e c t they become t h e i r own  activities.  of t h e i r f u t u r e  architects.  then  daily  Does t h i s seem n o v e l ?  Over a c e n t u r y ago John R u s k i n , l e c t u r i n g a t E d i n b u r g h , i n v i t e d  people  99 to  each become a r c h i t e c t s :  ' W e l l , but what a r e we t o do?' you w i l l say to me; 'we cannot make a r c h i t e c t s of o u r s e l v e s ? ' Pardon me, you c a n — a n d you ought. A r c h i t e c t u r e i s an a r t f o r a l l men to l e a r n , because a l l a r e concerned w i t h i t ; and i t i s so s i m p l e , t h a t t h e r e i s no excuse f o r not b e i n g a c q u a i n t e d w i t h i t s primary r u l e s , any more than f o r ignorance of grammar or of s p e l l i n g , which a r e both of them f a r more d i f f i c u l t sciences.^  I have found The  t h a t s t u d e n t s need h e l p to p e r c e i v e t h e i r  guiding p r i n c i p l e s  separately.  surroundings.  t h a t f o l l o w c o n s i d e r each s t i m u l u s on the senses  Movement, t o u c h , h e a r i n g , s m e l l and  s i g h t j o i n other  t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r e , as a s o c i a l a r t , b r i n g s to the p e r c e p t i o n of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the e f f e c t s of p e o p l e of  beauty and The  life;  of o c c a s i o n ,  and  harmony.  list  t h a t f o l l o w s can be used i n the c l a s s r o o m  m e n t a l images and analyse  around one,  elements  t o e n l a r g e the r e c a l l of e x p e r i e n c e ,  to encourage  and  can be used  to  the p e r c e p t i o n o f a p l a c e .  Touch:  Of wind, of w a t e r , and and  people.  of t e x t u r e s , of f o l i a g e and  Heat from the sun,  animals  from f i r e s , or from  central  heating. Sound:  Of men's or women's v o i c e s , of t r a f f i c , of a c t i v i t y . fic  sounds as i n p o e t r y , music o r the sounds of  Degrees of s i l e n c e i n o r d e r Light:  D a y l i g h t , n i g h t l i g h t and  to hear s p e c i f i c  a l l v a r i a t i o n s of  sparkle, glare, flash, r e f l e c t i o n , etc.  Speci-  nature.  sounds. translucence,  Form.  Surface  texture. Colour:  An  e x t e n s i o n of the sense of L i g h t .  I t i s l i s t e d as a  s e p a r a t e i t e m t o h e l p the f o r m a t i o n of m e n t a l images because c o l o u r i s u s u a l l y regarded by i t e m from l i g h t .  The  the s t u d e n t s as a s e p a r a t e  s p e c i f i c c o l o u r s a r e avoided and i n -  s t e a d such a d j e c t i v e s as " b r i g h t , warm, r e s t f u l " a r e The  avoidance  requested.  of s p e c i f i c c o l o u r s a v o i d s the arguments t h a t  accompany p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of c o l o u r . Odour:  Smells and  t a s t e s of n a t u r e , of f o o d , of p e o p l e , of  s m e l l s of m a t e r i a l s , s m e l l s of f i r e and of  traffic,  manufacturing  processes. Time:  D u r a t i o n and o r day.  Space:  frequency  of a c t i v i t i e s .  O r i e n t a t i o n and  Movement i n space,  Hour.  Season.  the sun's movement.  t r a v e l i n space, s i z e and degree of e n c l o -  s u r e s , b o t h n a t u r a l and man-made, b o t h i n t e r i o r and The view of Community:  Night  exterior.  space.  The number of p e o p l e around the a c t i v i t y , crowds, f a m i l y ,  couples or s o l i t u d e . c l o s e l y connected;  T h i s sense of Community and  Space i s  as one s t u d e n t w r o t e , "a you and  me  space." Aura:  The  t o t a l s e n s a t i o n s of the p l a c e t h a t make one  o r e x c i t e d , or t o have s e n s a t i o n s of majesty The  e x p r e s s i o n of c r i t e r i a of aura i n c l u d e s the  d e s i g n of b u i l d i n g s . n a t u r e and  The  or  feel  secure  dignity. aesthetic  I t i n c l u d e s e x p r e s s i o n s of beauty  i n works of a r t , of harmony and  s t u d e n t s use the same l i s t  in  discord.  t o b u i l d an image of the f u t u r e .  The k i n d o f e x p r e s s i o n s t h a t a r e sought  from  the s t u d e n t s a r e  listed  after  the senses.  The number o f words t h a t appear a f t e r the senses  v a r i e s f o r the d i f f e r e n t age of s t u d e n t . have found the l i s t  Students aged f o u r t e e n  that follows acceptable  years  and added many more d e s c r i p -  tions .  Touch:  Warm, rough, smooth, g r a n u l a r , j a g g e d , b r i t t l e , wet, s l i m y , cushioned,  s i l k y , m a l l e a b l e , wind on the s k i n , sun on the  s k i n , of grass, of f o l i a g e . Sound:  Loud, s h a r p ,  grating, soothing, hypnotic,  lating, startling. Light:  . . . resonant,  . . .  Hard, s o f t , smooth, i n t e n s e , g l a r e , d i r e c t ,  filtered,  d a p p l e d , t r a n s l u c e n t , d u l l , even, f l i c k e r i n g . Colour:  Odour:  P e r v a s i v e , s t r o n g , pungent, u n p l e a s a n t , . . .  p e r i o d i c , seasonal.  . . .  Open, e n c l o s e d ,  f e n c e d , v a s t , h o r i z o n t a l , l o n g , cramped,  claustrophobic.  . . .  Community:  P r i v a c y , crowds, groups, s e p a r a t i o n , l e i s u r e ,  structured. Aura:  suffocating, fresh,  B r i e f , spontaneous, l o n g , weary, b o r i n g , s e q u e n t i a l , ordered,  Space:  saturated,  . . .  r e l a x i n g , comforting. Time:  . . .  B r i g h t , s o f t , p a l e , warm, c o o l , calm, t r a n q u i l , stimulating.  stimu-  . . .  Calm, s t i m u l a t i n g , m a j e s t i c , d i g n i f i e d , f e s t i v e , gay,  clubs,  expensive,  disturbing, religious.  I have found t h a t the c o m p l e t i o n  tranquil,  . . .  o f the e x e r c i s e b r i n g s  great  102 satisfaction  to the s t u d e n t s .  The  image t h a t they  a f u t u r e p l a c e g i v e s them v i s i o n , where b e f o r e It  i s o b v i o u s l y a g r e a t achievement of The  s t u d e n t s who  into  forms than words.  I have f e l t  and  expressive.  S c h o o l , Burnaby, i n a program of urban study  produced e x p r e s s i o n s t i c a l proposals study  ness of f i e l d  i n drama, dance and  should  be  Students a t A l p h a  conducted by Gary Onstad  Judy D o y l e which used the group drawing and  P i a g e t and  very  t h a t the m o t i v a -  i s v e r y s t r o n g a t t h i s p o i n t and  i n t o media t h a t a r e e x c i t i n g  The  I have v e n t u r e d  t h i s next s t a g e , o n l y to produce t e l e v i s i o n programs which  t i o n to c r e a t e e x p r e s s i o n s  and  blank.  imagination.  f e a t u r e d c h a r c o a l drawings on brown paper.  guided  t h e i r minds were  have t r i e d the whole e x e r c i s e have shown an urge  to express t h e i r i d e a s i n o t h e r little  c r e a t e i n the mind of  s l i d e s , have r e c e n t l y  song i n a d d i t i o n to some p r a c -  of development. of p e r c e p t i o n i n c r e a s e s the importance and  trips.  In t h e i r book The  I n h e l d e r p o i n t out  Child's  Conception  effective-  of  Space,  t h a t " p e r c e p t i o n i s the knowledge of  ob-  6 jects  resulting  i a l effects  from d i r e c t  t h a t the s t u d e n t s  are r e c a l l e d  i n the c l a s s r o o m ,  conducted i n the c l a s s r o o m difficult  t a s k to r e l a t e  v e r s a , and a direction The  contact with  p e r c e i v e d by d i r e c t  study  The  kinetic  sensor-  c o n t a c t on the s i t e  are r e c a l l e d  on the s i t e .  I t i s an  extremely  a b s t r a c t concepts to an a c t u a l s i t e or v i c e  easy  through p e r c e p t i o n g i v e s the  students  steps.  of the senses t h e r e f o r e encourages f i e l d  courages the s t u d e n t s  and  and v i c e v e r s a ; l e s s o n s i n p e r c e p t i o n  to approach the study f o r the f i r s t  them."  to e x p e r i e n c e  the r e a l p l a c e s and  t r i p s and  not  to r e l y  enon  103 simulation. car  I t a l s o encourages the s t u d e n t s  t o get out of the bus  t h a t conveyed them t o the s i t e i n o r d e r t o study the whole The  parade,  or  effects.  r e a l e x p e r i e n c e of a community a c t i v i t y , f o r example, a  r e l a t e s to the parade s t r e e t o r square  as an example of  percep-  t i o n of s e n s o r i a l and k i n e t i c e f f e c t s , i n the same o r d e r t h a t s o l i t u d e relates  to landscape.  The  attractive qualities  of g a t h e r e d  t h e r e f o r e h i g h l i g h t e d and c o n t r a s t e d w i t h o t h e r o c c a s i o n s of " P r i n c i p l e s " : w r i t e s Le C o r b u s i e r i n Concerning s p a c e , v e r d u r e ; A r c h i t e c t u r e develops  Town Planning,  crowds are solitude. "sun,  from w i t h i n outwards (the key  of  modern p l a n n i n g ) . " ^ The of  f o l l o w i n g example, composed by Anne Wolverton,  University H i l l ,  a full  Vancouver, shows how  the l i s t g u i d e d  thirteen years, the s t u d e n t  to  s p e c i f i c a t i o n of her i d e a .  CRAFT STUDIOS These C r a f t S t u d i o s s h o u l d be i n a b u i l d i n g up above the ground p r e f e r a b l y w i t h the a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s f o r e x t e n s i v e work i n the f i e l d s of drawing, p a i n t i n g , c e r a m i c s , g r a p h i c and o t h e r such courses. SENSES 1.  Space:  large, airy,  free  These rooms s h o u l d be i n a b u i l d i n g which i s v e r y f r e e , n a t u r a l . I t s h o u l d be v e r y t e x t u r e d and s h o u l d be b u i l t from v e r y n a t u r a l elements. 2.  Colour:  warm, c o m f o r t a b l e ,  friendly  I f i t i s t o be p a i n t e d i t s h o u l d be done i n v e r y warm, r i c h c o l ours maybe i n some p l a c e s s t a i n e d so i t shows the n a t u r a l t e x t u r e of the wood. 3.  Touch:  rough, n a t u r a l ,  unobstructed  s c o Q)  o  -°  *  ^  -C  -g  TS C  o o  3 *  3  -G  C  ^ vn o  o  •~ o  3 *  I  K  40  105 E v e r y t h i n g s h o u l d be v e r y t e x t u r e d , rough w a l l s , doors and ceiling. 4.  Aura:  warm, f r i e n d l y ,  comfortable  The f e e l i n g h e r e s h o u l d be t h a t o f a f r i e n d l y no l i m i t atmosphere. There s h o u l d be a f r i e n d l y , h e l p f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p g o i n g on. 5.  Light:  n a t u r a l , many windows, s u n l i g h t  Here t h e r e s h o u l d be many windows w i t h s u n l i g h t coming i n a t i t s b e s t advantage. I f t h e r e i s o t h e r l i g h t needed i t s h o u l d be warm, glowing l i g h t . 6.  Smells:  non-antiseptic, fresh, painty  There s h o u l d be busy b u t f r e s h s m e l l s f l o a t i n g 7.  Time:  day, g o i n g ,  free  There s h o u l d be a time l i m i t h e r e . 8.  Sound:  around.  I t s h o u l d be i n the day.  b u s y , hum, v o i c e s , machines, q u i e t , b r e a t h i n g , whispers  There s h o u l d be a v a r i a t i o n o f sounds h e r e , depending on the room. 9.  Community:  young, o l d , groups,  separate  There would b e i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s b u t what we want i s a group response towards h e l p i n g each o t h e r .  The Taxonomy o f E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s  The method r e l a t e s  t o t h e A f f e c t i v e Domain o f the Taxonomy o f Edu-  c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s by B. S. Bloom  8  as f o l l o w s :  1.0  Receiving - Attending  1.1  Awareness - o f Change - A d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f change by r e c o l l e c t i o n o f childhood. - Awareness o f change i n e x i s t i n g s t r e e t s .  1.2  W i l l i n g n e s s t o R e c e i v e - That e x i s t i n g s e t t l e m e n t s a r e s u b j e c t to change.  106 - The i d e a t h a t e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t s had much the same problems as we f a c e today. - The drawn e v o l u t i o n o f the e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t . 1.3  C o n t r o l l e d o r S e l e c t e d A t t e n t i o n - On the p a r t s t h a t change. - On the v a r i o u s s t o r i e s o f t h e s o c i a l and economic e v o l u t i o n o f Some C i t y .  2.0  Responding  2.1  A c q u i e s c e n c e i n Responding - To p i c t u r e i n the mind the image of today's c i t y and suburb.  2.2  W i l l i n g n e s s t o Respond - By c a l l i n g out the o b j e c t s i n the image i n t h e i r minds t h a t go t o change the drawing of t h e e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t t o a drawing o f the c i t y of today. - By some who j o i n me i n drawing o r who e n t i r e l y make the drawing themselves.  2.3  S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Response - By drawing t h e i r v e r s i o n o f the f u t u r e c i t y t h a t i s t h e i r own d e s i g n . - I n t h a t they can make no e r r o r .  3.0  Valuing  3.1  A c c e p t a n c e o f a V a l u e - That the f u t u r e must be c o n s i d e r e d . - That the e x i s t i n g c i t y c o n t a i n s f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y and d e s i r a b l e i n the f u t u r e .  3.2  Preference  3.3  Commitment - To a l i f e - s t y l e - "the k i n d o f p e r s o n I am - the kind of l i f e I wish to l i v e . "  4.0  Organisation  4.1  C o n c e p t u a l i s a t i o n o f a V a l u e - Of the e f f e c t s on the senses t h a t a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o the p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f the l i f e s t y l e being considered. - R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the v a l u e s i n drawings, words o r o t h e r media, t h a t d e s c r i b e an a c t i v i t y , o r occupat i o n and i t s immediate s u r r o u n d i n g s , i t s p l a c e .  4.2  Organisation  f o r a V a l u e - I n the e x i s t i n g environment by the exa m i n a t i o n o f p r e s e n t environment by c o n s i d e r i n g l i f e styles.  o f a V a l u e System - The g a t h e r i n g o f the s e p a r a t e p a r t s o f the l i f e s t y l e i n t o a time continuum. - The s e l e c t i o n o f an o v e r a l l a c t i v i t y environment. - The a p p r o p r i a t e o v e r a l l environment i s d e s c r i b e d .  107 5.0  C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n by a V a l u e  or V a l u e  Complex  5.1  G e n e r a l i z e d Set - Of v a l u e s and p r i o r i t i e s of l i f e s t y l e and s u r r o u n d i n g s by which a l l c h o i c e s of environment can be judged.  5.2  C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n - By a r e g a r d f o r ways of l i f e , l i f e s t y l e s , b o t h ones own and o t h e r s . - By an awareness of s u r r o u n d i n g s . - By a s e n s i t i v i t y f o r the e f f e c t s of the s u r r o u n d i n g s . - By an approach t o impending change a t the l e v e l of the e f f e c t on l i f e and on the s e n s e s . - By a r e s p e c t f o r the o p i n i o n s and a s p i r a t i o n s of the o t h e r p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n changes to the environment.  108  41  FOOTNOTES  ^ " V i r g i n i a Lee B u r t o n , The Little Company, 1942).  House  (Boston: Houghton  Mifflin  2 P a t r i c k Geddes, Cities 1968), p. 321.  in  Evolution  (London: E r n e s t Benn L t d . ,  3  Lewis Mumford, The City World, 1961), p. 481.  in  History  ^Jane J a c o b s , The Death and Life Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books, 1961), p. 375.  (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t Brace  of  Great  American  Cities  (New  "*John R u s k i n , The Lamp of Beauty, Writings on Art by John Ruskin, s e l e c t e d and e d i t e d by Joan Evans (London: Phaidon P r e s s , 1959), p. 258. J . P i a g e t and B. I n h e l d e r , The Childs Conception of Space, l a t e d f r o m the F r e n c h by F. J . Langdon and J . L. Lunzer (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1956), p. 17. ''le C o r b u s i e r , Concerning Town Planning, E n t w i s t l e (London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e s s , 1947).  t r a n s l a t e d by  trans-  Clive  g  Domain:  B. S. Bloom, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Affective The Cognitive Domain (New Y o r k : D a v i d Mckay Company, 1967).  CHAPTER I I I  Media R e l a t e d  MEDIA  to P a r t i c i p a t i o n  Exercises  Cartoons Film Television G e n e r i c and Drawn Images  112  Media R e l a t e d t o P a r t i c i p a t i o n E x e r c i s e s  Format. the  An unexpected a s p e c t a r o s e i n the change o f format from  b l a c k b o a r d t o the T.V. and f i l m s c r e e n and the overhead p r o j e c t o r .  The b l a c k b o a r d measures f o u r f e e t h i g h by some s i x t e e n f e e t l o n g .  The  T.V. s c r e e n and f i l m s c r e e n a r e o f the r a t i o f o u r t o t h r e e . Urban development  grows m a i n l y i n a h o r i z o n t a l movement and p a r t i -  c i p a t i o n i n drawing by the c h i l d r e n can be e a s i l y encouraged on the h o r i z o n t a l board. f o u r t o one. Vancouver  The c l a s s r o o m b l a c k b o a r d i s h o r i z o n t a l i n the r a t i o o f A t t h e "Adventures i n A r c h i t e c t u r e " i n t h e Playhouse i n  the b o a r d on which t h e c h i l d r e n drew measured f o u r f e e t by  t w e n t y - f o u r f e e t , a r a t i o of s i x t o one.  The s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e no s k i l l s  i n p e r s p e c t i v e o r i n p i c t u r e c o m p o s i t i o n f o r a drawing o f a growing  city  on such a format. In  c o n t r a s t , t h e f o u r t o t h r e e r a t i o o f t h e T.V. and f i l m s c r e e n  and the square r a t i o o f t h e overhead p r o j e c t o r c a l l composition s k i l l s  t h a t no c h i l d  f o r p e r s p e c t i v e and  c o u l d be expected t o command a t the  pace o f drawing r e q u i r e d f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f dynamics  of c i t y  growth.  A s m a l l h o r i z o n t a l s t r i p , which i g n o r e s the space above and below, means t h a t the drawing has t o be v e r y s m a l l i n the case o f t h e overhead p r o j e c t o r , and i t i s d i f f i c u l t In the  t o draw s p e e d i l y t o a v e r y s m a l l  the case o f t h e f i l m , which c a n be a f i l m o f a l a r g e and l o n g space above and below  t h e drawing d i s t r a c t s  scale. drawing,  the eye.  The h o r i z o n t a l d i m e n s i o n appears t o have an e f f e c t on t h e type o f d i s c u s s i o n t h a t ensues.  A b o a r d t h i r t y f e e t l o n g was t r i e d out a t t h e  114 Playhouse  T h e a t r e on A p r i l 4 of t h i s y e a r .  c o n s i d e r e d the types of development and the f u t u r e .  The  d i s c u s s i o n t h a t ensued  types of l i f e s t y l e p o s s i b l e i n  A t a t a p i n g i n the C.B.C. s t u d i o s i n Vancouver f o r  " H o u r g l a s s " f i v e days p r e v i o u s l y , the s t u d e n t s drew on a b o a r d feet long.  They d i s c u s s e d overcrowding  twenty  and p o l l u t i o n i n the f u t u r e .  In  a s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m a few weeks e a r l i e r , the s t u d e n t s drew on a board sixteen feet long. The  They d i s c u s s e d the e x i s t i n g  d i f f e r e n c e appears  space on the b o a r d  the amount of h o r i z o n t a l  t h a t the s t u d e n t s need to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  of  the e x i s t i n g c i t y .  If  t h e r e i s not enough s p a c e ,  for  t o be caused by  city.  They draw the f u t u r e on whatever space  drawing  remains.  the f u t u r e becomes o v e r - d e v e l o p e d .  Concern  an o v e r - b u i l t f u t u r e f o l l o w s . The  s i z e of the drawing w i t h i n the b o a r d has  to be l a r g e enough  so t h a t a human f i g u r e can be drawn, and seen by a crowd of s t u d e n t s . The  drawing  of a human f i g u r e w i t h the spoken words, " t h e r e ' s you  on the f e n c e , " or some o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n , appears element i n i n v o l v i n g ing.  The  the s t u d e n t .  s i z e o f such a f i g u r e has  seen by a group o f t h i r t y s e t t l e r s ' h u t s about drawing.  t o be abour two students.  i n c h e s h i g h t o be  T h i s makes the  first  These h e i g h t s s e t a s c a l e o f  The s t u d e n t s do not s t i c k to the s c a l e , d i f f e r e n c e i n s c a l e t h e i r drawings a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y  large.  t h a t they r e q u i r e more than f i f t e e n f e e t t o make, w i t h o u t  a s s i s t a n c e , a drawing ize  essential  They l a u g h , and e n t e r i n t o the draw-  s i x inches high.  does n o t u p s e t them, b u t found  to f i f t y  to be an  sitting  o f the e x i s t i n g c i t y .  them t o some degree.  I have my  Below t h i s I have t o  organ-  Most classrooms have a s i x t e e n f o o t b o a r d  on  115 one w a l l and  e x t r a board  s i x t e e n foot board In  and  space  on a n o t h e r .  the f u t u r e f i l l s  The  existing city  the o t h e r  fills  the  board.  the t a p i n g a t the C.B.C. s t u d i o , the s t u d e n t s were c o n f i n e d to  a twenty f o o t l o n g b o a r d .  They had  remained f o r the f u t u r e .  i n s u f f i c i e n t space; a mere f i v e  feet  As each s t u d e n t c o n t r i b u t e d , the p r e v i o u s  open spaces  changed i n t o b u i l t up a r e a s , and  buildings.  They f i l l e d water areas t o make more l a n d .  as crowded and messy as the p r e s e n t . t h a t t h i s indeed r e f l e c t e d  The  a l l parks d i s a p p e a r e d The  l o o k e d enormous b e f o r e they s t a r t e d .  f u t u r e grew  s t u d e n t s expressed  the p r o s p e c t f o r the f u t u r e . Should  under  real  concern  The board  I say, the l a n d had  had  looked  enormous? With a b o a r d  t h i r t y f e e t l o n g the f u t u r e develops  w i t h room f o r the parks and open spaces necessary An  less  densely  t h a t come to mind as b e i n g a  c o n t r a s t t o the crowded drawings t h a t r e p r e s e n t the p r e s e n t .  a t t r a c t i v e s t y l e of l i f e  looks p o s s i b l e .  A l t e r n a t i v e s have room and  can be d i s c u s s e d .  Models, Maps and P l a n s . encourage those who s c i s s o r s and  wish  tacky-taped  Many c h i l d r e n enjoy making models, and  t o do so.  Models of b a l s a wood, cut w i t h  t o g e t h e r have proved  boxes a r e e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l and  I  successful.  Cardboard  can take drawing and c o l o u r .  The model communicates v e r y p o w e r f u l l y and s h o u l d o n l y be used i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e of the a r e a i t p o r t r a y s . Models a r e s t r o n g agents a r c h i t e c t who  i n the f o r m a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s , as  has used models i n p r e s e n t i n g d e s i g n s  every  to c l i e n t s knows.  116 There a r e dangers In i t s s t r e n g t h ; the a t t i t u d e encouraged i s t h a t o f detached omnipotency, o r as the c h i l d r e l a t e s to the toy farm or d o l l s house. The v i e w e r does not r e l a t e t o the model as i f suspended as i n an a i r p l a n e , b u t r a t h e r as a g i a n t t o a m i n i a t u r e try  out the d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r c e p t i o n by s i t t i n g  the f l o o r and i m a g i n i n g  y o u r s e l f ten inches  land.  As a t e s t ,  i n a c h a i r and l y i n g  tall.  d i f f e r e n t and the p e r c e p t i o n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t .  above i t  The a s p e c t A model  on  i s entirely  represents  t h i s complete d i f f e r e n c e by a s m a l l measure, l e s s than one t e n t h o f an i n c h i n a model of f i f t y  f e e t t o the i n c h s c a l e .  such a model i s r e l a t i v e l y  t h r e e thousand f e e t t a l l ,  means a t o t a l a b s t r a c t i o n from The map  A c h i l d standing and s u r e l y  beside  this  reality.  and the model b o t h r e p r e s e n t  scenes from h i g h view p o i n t s .  They must be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to scenes from more common view p o i n t s . As an a r c h i t e c t I am f a m i l i a r w i t h maps i n my to  d a i l y work.  general information.  That these media do o f t e n m i s l e a d  of the appearance of today's c i t i e s . igned  As an example,  t o a s c a l e of t h i r t y - t w o f e e t to one i n c h .  T h i s means a l s o , i s one  cause  apartments a r e d e s -  The drawing i s put up  on a w a l l and approved from about f o u r f e e t t o s i x f e e t d i s t a n c e . represents  This  a d i s t a n c e from the r e a l b u i l d i n g of about two thousand f e e t .  As a consequence,  the apartments of Vancouver's West End l o o k a t t h e i r  b e s t when seen from a c r o s s E n g l i s h Bay a t about two thousand f e e t distance.  and  I have a c q u i r e d a g r e a t r e s p e c t f o r t h e i r power  communicate, i n a p r e c i s e way,  the power to m i s l e a d .  the use o f models, p l a n s  117 P l a s t i c models of b u i l d i n g s l o o k g a r i s h i n c o l o u r and in  tones of grey.  The  approved d e s i g n which i s p r e s e n t e d  look w e l l  i n model form  i s approved i n muted g r e y , more o f t e n as an i n c i d e n t than a main p o i n t . Most new  downtown b u i l d i n g s a r e g r e y , however.  p l a s t i c model, when water c o l o u r sketches r e d r o o f s and w h i t e t r i m and drawings and The  f o r i t s weaker power.  looked b e t t e r on  the  the g r e a t e r frequency I t often misleads  us  of and  and  a r c h i t e c t might be,  " I t looked  I f e a r t h a t e x c e s s i v e use  of the p l a n and map  and model, as  a main element of communication, may the r e a l e f f e c t s t h a t make p e r s o n a l  mislead  on t h i s p o i n t , who,  c h i l d r e n ' s thoughts from  Media,  i n h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y " I Was  l e a r n e d to r e a d maps a t s c h o o l and how  v i l l a g e a map  well  values.  M a r s h a l l McLuhan, i n Understanding  had  presentation,  image of the f u t u r e , a f f e c t s  l e s s power than the model but  the s a d d e s t words of the p l a n n e r  the  environment.  p l a n , the most used g r a p h i c  use more than makes up  on p l a n . "  were the media of  green landscaping  resulted i n a different  the v i e w e r w i t h  In the e r a b e f o r e  of a r i v e r h i s f a t h e r had  quotes P r i n c e Modupe a Savage," t e l l s how  he had  he  taken back home to h i s  t r a v e l l e d f o r years  as a t r a d e r :  My f a t h e r thought the whole i d e a was a b s u r d . He r e f u s e d t o i d e n t i f y the stream he had c r o s s e d a t Bomako, where i t i s no deeper he s a i d , than a man i s h i g h , w i t h the g r e a t wide spread waters of the v a s t Niger d e l t a . D i s t a n c e s as measured i n m i l e s had no meaning f o r him. Maps a r e l i a r s , he t o l d me b r i e f l y . From h i s tone of v o i c e I c o u l d t e l l t h a t I had o f f e n d e d him i n some way not known to me a t the time. The t h i n g s t h a t h u r t one do not show on a map. The t r u t h of a p l a c e i s i n the j o y and the h u r t t h a t come from i t . I had b e s t not put my t r u s t i n a n y t h i n g as i n a d e q u a t e as a map, he c o u n s e l l e d . . . I und e r s t a n d now, a l t h o u g h I d i d not at the time, t h a t my a i r y and easy sweep of map-traced s t a g g e r i n g d i s t a n c e s b e l i t t l e d the j o u r n e y s he had measured i n t i r e d f e e t . With my b i g map-talk, I had e f f a c e d the magnitude o f h i s c a r g o - l a d e n , h e a t weighted t r e k s . 1  BY  R.08E.RT  COLLI M S  .CHILDREN ARRIVE F R O M THE M O O N C O L O N y T O D A Y TO B E G I N EARTH-ORIENTATION.  HA! T H E W A L L S D I D N ' T S W I T C H T H E M S E L V E S O F F L A S T NIGHT. I C O U L D G E T A R O B O T T H A T W O U L D DO IT... B U T I D O N ' T W A N T TO. N O T Y E T .  ...BUT THE BEDROOM OF CITIZEN GEORGE DAEDALUS IS FILLED WITH ARTIFICIAL SUN- THIS MONTH, GEORGE HAS RENTED A J - P LIGHT, AS HE REPLAYS THE TV MORNING NEWS.HOLOGRAM WALL OF A SLEEPY MEXICAN VILLAGE  KIDS LIKE THOSE B R E A K F A S T P E L L E T S G O O D F O R T H E M , TOO... J U S T L I K E M Y A P P E A R A N C E - F A S T SYNTHETIC TOAST, AND  **•*•  ^"^rS^. ^ ^ ^ ^  •*••''»  BflEXT DAY, FRED (COMPUTER  NAME M A C C O N  E W i BSB  5 0 4 ) RETURNS TO VILLE  TRUDEAU  CLEAN THE APARTMENTLA [—" ^ S O y BEAN STEAK , \ | _/ S P E C I A L , H M M .  BREAKFAST DOWN THE ^ SUCTION CHUTE. SOY STEAKS HERE WHEN I RETURN FROM COMPULSORY LEARNING.  PLAN WEEKEND ORIENTATION FOR MOON KIDS...TWO-DAY SCRAMJET WORLD FUN TOUR... ROBOT NFL FOOTBALL GAME. ,  O  LATER, ON THE MOVING SIDEWALKS UNDER THE OSHTOHAM WEATHER DOME. SO BEAUTIFUL COMING DOWN HERE FOR COMPULSORY LEARNING... EH? WHAT5 THAT?  ANP APJUST THE SCREENWALLS UKES SOY STEAKS.  GEORGE, A TRAVEL AGENT WORKS AT HOME. THE COMPUTERS KNOW HIM AS  OflEDfl <92a 502 4 6 ?  HAD TO TALK FACE-TO-FACE. VIDEOPHONE 21 NO-HANGOVER COCKTAIL, FRED THE COMPUTERS OUTNUMBER US, GEORGE. REPAIR THEMSELVES. WATCH, US ALL THE TIME... THEY'RE TAKING OVER/  Illustration: Gerry Sevier  UST TALK FACE-TO'FACE GEORGE/ CANT ON VIDEOPHONE/  POOR FRED.., WORRIED. WE'LL WORK IT OUT... HMM MUST TELL HIM ABOUT THE COMPUTER'S NEW MEMORY PLAYBACK...TUNE IT TO 1969. I WAS TEN THEN, AND LIFE WAS SO SIMPLE, SO GOOD, NO COMPUTERS, NO DAE PA 928 502 +67... JUST ME, GEORGE DAEDALUS. ..AH^,  I  T H E PROVINCE . VANCQUVeP. . 7. J U N E  69  Wc Kl AUGHT SvNt>ICATg JNC  kND GARBAGE. NO WALKING OUTSIDE IN THE RAIN WITH PAPER BAGS, SOGGY ON THE BOTTOM READY TO SPILL ALL OVER THE PLACE.  E  PAKTZ  - •  -i<r\  /  i•  mm**  .  m  '  LEVATORS ARE THE GREATEST. ONLY APARTMENT HOUSES HAVE THEM. NOBODY EVER USES THE STAIRS UNLESS THE ELEVATOR IS BROKEN. WE USE THE STAIRS ALL THE TIME TO HAVE CLUB MEETINGS 'CAUSE NO ONE'S EVER THERE.  IN THE BASEMENT WE HAVE A MILK MACHINE. YOU NEED MILK. EVEN WHEN THE STORES A R E CLOSED, JUST / PRESS B A N D THE ELEVATOR TAKES YOU RIGHT DOWN. V I ONLY I STILL 4 GOTTA GO TO THETy | STORE FOR BREAD. SJ. WISH THEY R k S H T DOWN THE HALL IS THE INCINERATOR CHUTE. YOU JUST DROP EVERYTHING AND IT GOES STRAIGHT DOWN/ BAM!  !  ^ J H Y NOT? WE HAVE A  WASHING MACHINE AND A DRYER DOWN THERE. iDNLY MOM  -  DOESN'T use . THE DRYER. SHE SAYS SHE LIKES THE SMELL OF THE CLOTHES BETTER WHEN SHE HANGS THEM ON THE LINE?.  I HAT'S UPSTAIRS ON THE ROOF. PRESS R ON THE ELEVATOR. NOW THAT'S A GREAT PLACE. YOU CAN LOOK AROUND AND SEE THE TALL BUILDINGS DOWNTOWN OR A JET AIRLINER OR FIREWORKS IN THE SUMMER  T'S LIKE M Y OWN SPECIAL HIDEOUT. IN THE FALL A N D SPRING; WHEN IT'S NOT TOO COLD, 1 CAN READ AND DO MY , - " y HOMEWORK OUT T H E R E . g  $L.ND l  C A N G R O W T H I N G S IN A F L O W E R P O T E X C E P T NOTHING G R E W V E T . I P L A N T E D A PEACH PIT LAST SUMMER A N D IT S T I L L H A S N ' T C O M E U P .  " ^ H E R E ' S M O R E A B O U T 39IO T H A T I C A N T E L L YOU ABOUT, B U T I DON'T W A N T Y O U TO T H I N K I ' M S H O W I N G O F F O R A N Y T H I N G .  1  FISH"  KEPT A TANK WITH MYTUR' THERE, TOO. I N A M E D HIM J A S O N ROBARDS, JR. AFTER A N ACTOR I SAW IN A MOV/E ABOUT THIS KID. ONLY T H E TURTLE DIED.  NEXT WEEK'.  A NEW STORY-  125 Cartoons  S t r i p c a r t o o n may be v e r y s u i t a b l e f o r the communication o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l and human a c t i o n s , b e i n g p o p u l a r w i t h c h i l d r e n and having  the q u a l i t y o f pace.  The g r a p h i c development o f the changing  city  form r e q u i r e s pace t o b r i n g about a p r o j e c t i o n i n t o the f u t u r e and t o show the rhythm o f s o c i a l development. achieved.  By pace, a c o n t i n u i t y can be  S c i e n c e f i c t i o n s l i p s i n whenever the gap widens between the  p r e s e n t and the f u t u r e . I do not know how q u i c k l y a comic s t r i p s t o r i e s t o l d by comic s t r i p appear t o be slowed stories. attention.  can communicate.  Serial  down t o l e n g t h e n the  The pace becomes l a b o u r e d and the medium l a c k s depth  f o r long  The u s e o f c a p i t a l type r a t h e r than lower case may be a  d e v i c e f o r s l o w i n g pace.  N e a r l y a l l comic s t r i p l e t t e r i n g i s i n c a p i t a l s ,  WHICH MAY BE A CONVENIENCE FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC REDUCTION, BUT I WOULD ASK THE  READER TO CONSIDER WHETHER OR NOT THE USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS HAS  MADE THE READING OF THIS PARAGRAPH SLOWER UP TO THIS POINT THAN WOULD HAVE BEEN THE CASE WITH lower  case l e t t e r s .  I f s o , we a r e agreed.  Most  comic s t r i p s have t h e i r b r a k e s on. The u s e o f the c a r t o o n t o g a i n response may have  possibilities.  I have t r i e d one example i n the s e r i e s o f drawings t h a t f o l l o w .  They  were t o accompany a s t o r y p u b l i s h e d i n a book, w i t h the i n t e n t i o n t h a t the s t u d e n t s would r e a d the s t o r y , and then add c a p t i o n s t o the and c o l o u r them.  By f i r s t  cartoons  i n t i m a t i o n s the s t o r y i n the book i s too b o r -  i n g , and the drawings a r e not d e f i n e d enough t o guide the c o l o u r i n g .  127 It  tells  who  o f m i n e r s i n t h e C a r i b o o G o l d Rush s u r p r i s e d by an  invites  a maiden,  them t o a f e a s t , a n d , s h o c k e d by  t h r o w s t h e w h i s k e y on t h e f i r e ,  e d u c a t i o n and  their  Indian,  o f f e r of whiskey to  to a r e a c t i o n of  chagrin,  esteem.  Film  F i l m i n c l u d e s t h e m o t i o n f i l m and s l i d e s suitable  f o r showing  velopment  and  the l i f e  each i n s l i d e and motion  the growth of the c i t y ,  and  examples  filmstrip.  the s t o r i e s  s t y l e and p e r c e p t i o n .  filmstrip  and  of s o c i a l  p o s s i b l e w i t h s l i d e and i n g s m y s e l f and different  of the p h y s i c a l growth i n  filmstrip  showing.  I have conducted f i l m  t h e y h a v e b e e n u s e d b y s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s i n my  s c h o o l s , and w i t h d i f f e r e n t  The stories  size  t h a n when  N e v e r t h e l e s s a form of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s  grades.  c o n t i n u e d p r o d u c t i o n o f f i l m as an a l t e r n a t i v e o f p r o j e c t i o n and  o f Some C i t y  The  r e s u l t s encourage  m i n u t e s or more, w h i l e a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l development slides  variable. feet  were  fifteen  discussed.  o f u r b a n p h y s i c a l g r o w t h g a i n much m o r e r e s p o n s e w h e n  shown on a v e r y l a r g e s c r e e n f i f t e e n down t o f i v e  the  t o show t h e c y c l e o f d e v e l o p -  Some o f t h e s l i d e s h a v e b e e n s h o w n f o r a l o n g p e r i o d , o f  The  at  to the draw-in.  the speed o f showing a r e b o t h  of f o u r seconds  show-  absence  I u s u a l l y show p r o j e c t e d a t a b o u t two  w i d t h and r u n a t i n t e r v a l s  ing  of  film.  shown t h e b l a c k b o a r d d r a w i n g .  ment.  de-  I h a v e made e x a m p l e s  V i e w e r s p a r t i c i p a t e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y w h e n shown f i l m  The  A l l are  f e e t w i d t h , though s m a l l e r  feet width gains a response.  The  screen-  i n t e r v a l s have been  128 s i m i l a r to Some C i t y , r u n a t about f o u r seconds f o r sequences and as s t i l l s  over a l o n g e r p e r i o d f o r the more complex  drawings.  The scenes of s t r e e t s , and the drawings of s t r e e t s and  interiors,  have more e f f e c t and g r e a t e r response when shown v e r y l a r g e . s c r e e n e d f i v e f e e t w i d t h and below,  also  When  the drawing or photo i t s e l f  marked upon b u t when s c r e e n e d s i x f e e t to f i f t e e n f e e t  i s re-  the c o n t e n t g a i n s  more n o t i c e . I have p r a c t i s e d f i l m making and v i d e o tape p r o d u c t i o n s u s i n g drawing, b o t h i n d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n f i l m e d as I draw and, i n s t o p frame drawing.  The d i r e c t drawing has had t o be v e r y q u i c k i n  o r d e r t o come w i t h i n the twentyminute I have i n c r e a s e d my  p e r i o d f o r use i n the c l a s s r o o m .  speed of drawing so t h a t the phases  v i r g i n c o u n t r y t o modern c i t y , from modern c i t y and from the immediate  from  to the immediate  future  f u t u r e t o the d i s t a n t f u t u r e each take a p p r o x i -  mately t h r e e and a h a l f minutes of drawing. of f i l m f i t s  tentatively,  Three and a h a l f  minutes  the c a i s s e t t e used i n p r o j e c t i o n from the Super-8  film  loop.  A t t h i s speed I am moving too q u i c k l y f o r the speed o f the Super-8 f i l m o f e i g h t e e n frames p e r second and a d i s t r a c t i v e flicker  of arm movement appears on the s c r e e n e d f i l m .  must c o n f i n e my movements or use s i x t e e n mm  strobing  T h i s means t h a t I  f i l m a t t w e n t y - f o u r frames  per second, which i s b o t h more e x p e n s i v e t o buy and more cumbersome t o screen.  The s o l u t i o n may  l i e i n f i l m i n g a t t w e n t y - f o u r frames  and  s c r e e n i n g a t s i x t e e n t o e i g h t e e n frames per second. Stop frame drawing can be a d j u s t e d to any p a r t i c u l a r b u t I have found d i f f i c u l t i e s  time r e q u i r e d  i n s t o p frame work, which r e q u i r e a drawing  129 of a q u a r t e r o f an i n c h l i n e and then p h o t o g r a p h i n g one frame o f a movie camera.  I find  i tdifficult  to maintain a l i v e l y  c o n t i n u i t y ; a drawing  can take by t h i s method some t h i r t y minutes t o draw peck by peck and when shown on the s c r e e n w i l l s t o p frame f i l m i n g .  last  t e n seconds.  I i n t e n d t o t r y more  Not every l i n e need show, s e v e r a l b u i l d i n g s might  suddenly appear w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n t o the c o n t i n u i t y , and b u r s t s o f development would be s i m i l a r t o r e a l c i t y  growth.  The use o f c u t s t o r e a l i t y i n f i l m i n g , changing from drawings t o s h o t s o f a r e a l s t r e e t s c e n e , has been c o n s i d e r e d and w i l l be t r i e d when the t h r e e f i l m s a l r e a d y produced a r e e d i t e d and have the sound added f o r showing i n the c l a s s r o o m .  track  There seems t o be some r e a s o n to  doubt t h a t t h i s would be e n t i r e l y s u c c e s s f u l .  The photographs o f a c t u a l  s t r e e t s would cause a b r e a k i n medium from the drawing and the r e t u r n t o the drawing a f t e r t h e f i n i s h o f the photograph o f r e a l i t y would mean another p e r i o d o f m e n t a l adjustment. Showing  t h e s t r e e t i n c o l o u r e d moving f i l m , w i t h sound  track,  would seem a b e t t e r way o f communicating " s t r e e t " than would a q u i c k  line  s k e t c h , b u t t h i s has t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n the l i g h t o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s . Firstly  t h e f i l m aims t o show the c o n t i n u i t y o f t r e n d s from the p a s t ,  through the p r e s e n t and i n t o sary.  the f u t u r e .  C o n t i n u i t y i n media i s n e c e s -  C o l o u r e d moving f i l m s w i t h sound t r a c k a r e easy t o produce t o show  the p r e s e n t b u t r e q u i r e a c t o r s and a c t r e s s e s and s e t s t o show the p a s t and the f u t u r e .  S e c o n d l y , the c l a s s r o o m communication o f " s t r e e t " i s  not i n t e n d e d as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r a v i s i t , b u t as an e x p l a n a t i o n o f cause and e f f e c t i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a v i s i t .  I t l a y s a groundwork by a focus  130 on s p e c i f i c elements and  on s p e c i f i c causes  t h a t l e a d to the v i s u a l  effects. F i l m made by s t u d e n t s has  a d d i t i o n a l and s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s .  It  has p r o p e r t i e s of time between f i l m i n g and s c r e e n i n g t h a t make i t d i f f e r ent from o t h e r r e s p o n s e s .  The  s t u d e n t s respond  the s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t m a t t e r to t h e i r own differently  film.  for filming.  respond  to the f i n a l s c r e e n i n g  The p r i d e of the s t u d e n t s who  the showing o f t h e i r f i l m b r i n g s involvement students  They e d i t as they  The v i e w i n g s t u d e n t s respond  than f o r o t h e r f i l m s .  to the environment i n  and  manage  commitment of the  to t h e i r views shown on the s c r e e n .  The media c h a n n e l of s t u d e n t f i l m i n g i s l e s s r e a d i l y  available  and not as manageable as the c h a l k t a l k f o r the p a r t i c u l a r speed image f o r m a t i o n and response v e r s a t i o n s and  of  t h a t i s needed f o r the encouragement of  the d e m o n s t r a t i o n  of change.  I have found  con-  i t different,  not j u s t i n the c o n t e n t and making of the f i l m , b u t i n the whole a s p e c t of f i l m showing.  Important  to the f i l m c o n t e n t a f f e c t of t e a c h i n g and  elements of communication t h a t do not the r e s p o n s e .  (which may  o p e r a t o r of the p r o -  not work), then on the p u l l i n g down of the s c r e e n , then  then p r o c e e d s ,  c l a s s r o o m and  of p r i v a c y and  on  relaxation.  The  and a f t e r w a r d , t h e r e i s a r e t u r n to the b r i g h t l y l i t  the s u r v e i l l a n c e of the t e a c h e r .  p o w e r f u l a s p e c t s of communication and s tudy.  The  then a t t e n t i o n t u r n s to the p r o j e c t o r  the room, darkened, which b r i n g s a sense film  They change the normal method  every a s p e c t i s i m p o r t a n t .  j e c t o r a t t r a c t s most a t t e n t i o n and  relate  O b v i o u s l y , these  are  the use of them r e q u i r e s more  131 Television  T e l e v i s i o n promises  t o be the b e s t media c h a n n e l f o r the s t a g e s  t h a t i n v o l v e the s t u d e n t s .  I t has advantages over o t h e r media b o t h i n  the showing and i n the making.  I t emphasizes the s t u d e n t s ' p a r t i n the  e x e r c i s e , g i v e s t h e i r views a sense  of immediacy t h a t i s l a c k i n g i n f i l m .  The making o f the t e l e v i s i o n program i n s p i r e s and  to express  their  Buckminster observes  the c h i l d r e n t o respond  views.  F u l l e r r e f e r s t o t e l e v i s i o n as the T h i r d P a r e n t .  He  t h a t t e l e v i s i o n , because i t employs t h e most a r t i c u l a t e among  us, and because the c h i l d  t h i r s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , becomes a more power-  f u l f e a t u r e than the o t h e r two p a r e n t s . eagerness  Perhaps t h i s e x p l a i n s the  o f young p e o p l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t e l e v i s i o n p r o d u c t i o n .  g i v e s them an o p p o r t u n i t y , a t l o n g l a s t , t o converse w i t h t h e i r  It  third  parent. Two t e l e v i s i o n programs i n v o l v i n g s t u d e n t s , taped a t t h e U.B.C. F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , have been shown t o many audiences the g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  o f t e a c h e r s and  The tapes a r e u n f i n i s h e d and were made f o r r e s e a r c h  r a t h e r than p u b l i c v i e w i n g , y e t they a r e p o p u l a r and o f t e n r e q u e s t e d . Teachers  ask f o r t h e tapes f o r c l a s s r o o m showing, and I am p r e -  p a r i n g t o make them ready, w i t h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o gather an assessment of t h e i r e f f e c t on the s t u d e n t s . One  shows t h e growing c i t y drawn by myself  the s t u d e n t s .  The d u r a t i o n i s e l e v e n m i n u t e s .  a t the d i c t a t i o n of  The second  television  tape o f d e s i g n s f o r F a l s e Creek shows t h e method o f approaching  a planning  132 problem  through  the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s and p e r c e p t i o n .  d e s c r i b e t h e i r drawings. The purpose  Students  The d u r a t i o n i s t w e n t y - f i v e minutes.  o f the f i r s t  tape i s to prompt a response  from  the  s t u d e n t s i n the c l a s s r o o m as i f I were p r e s e n t and f o r t h i s r e a s o n I kept the camera on t o the drawn image and a v o i d e d s h o t s of the s t u d i o and a v o i d e d s h o t s of the c h i l d r e n . The  second  demonstrates  tape shows how  a method.  The  s t u d e n t s t a c k l e d an a d u l t q u e s t i o n .  drawings were p r e p a r e d i n the c l a s s r o o m  It and  it  i s a c l a s s r o o m e x e r c i s e ; the f i r s t p a r t d e s c r i b e s a j o u r n e y i n a bus  to  the s i t e o f F a l s e Creek,  and as the s t u d e n t s r e c a l l t h e i r  I compose a p i c t u r e o f the a r e a t o i n c l u d e t h e i r r e c a l l e d I have found d i f f i c u l t i e s The  impressions,  images.  i n the making o f the t e l e v i s i o n program.  added items of l i g h t i n g and camera must be borne i n mind w h i l e  g u i d i n g the s t u d e n t s and e n c o u r a g i n g r e s p o n s e s . a v o i d e d , the drawing students.  The  Shadows must be  must be v i s i b l e and not obscured by myself o r the  s t u d e n t s ' f a c e s have to be v i s i b l e and  they have t o be  arranged w i t h o u t c h e c k i n g the s p o n t a n e i t y o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e .  I have to  a v o i d t y i n g m y s e l f up w i t h c a b l e s . These d i f f i c u l t i e s the s t u d e n t s when we classroom.  The  s c h o o l hours strongly.  and  a r e n o t h i n g when s e t a g a i n s t the v i t a l i t y i n  a r e i n the s t u d i o compared to t h e i r i n e r t i a i n the  s t u d i o a t t r a c t s them and  they come f o r t a p i n g a f t e r  i n h o l i d a y s w i t h eager e x c i t e m e n t .  A minor s t i p u l a t i o n on d r e s s adds i n t e r e s t  They  respond  i n a charming  way:  they a r e asked not to wear w h i t e as i t d i s t u r b s the s e t t i n g o f the tones i n t e l e v i s i o n and causes a bloom on the s c r e e n .  This affords  an  133 opportunity  f o r the g i r l s  t o d i s c u s s what they w i l l wear.  Dressing  down t o c o l o u r s and i n f o r m a l wear g i v e s the g i r l s and the boys The  pleasure.  r e s u l t on the c o l o u r t e l e v i s i o n s c r e e n i s a r e l a x e d i n f o r m a l i t y and  v a r i e t y of colour. They draw w i t h name CHARKOLE.  c h a r c o a l b l o c k s which a r e s o l d under the t r a d e  A r t i s t ' s c h a r c o a l i s too t h i n .  g r e a t e r c o n t r a s t than c h a l k b o a r d  Paper and c h a r c o a l has  drawing, and g r e a t e r t o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s  than f e l t pen.  D i f f e r e n t tones can be made by p r e s s i n g l i g h t l y o r by  pressing hard.  The p a s t can be drawn f a i n t l y and the p r e s e n t  h e a v i l y over i t t o r e p r e s e n t  drawn  the development o f one l o c a t i o n .  The t e l e -  v i s i o n t r a n s m i s s i o n i n c r e a s e s the t o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s and g i v e s the p i c ture greater  depth.  Erasing i s not necessary.  T h i s marks an important  difference  between the c h a r c o a l paper drawing and the c h a l k on b l a c k b o a r d of the c l a s s r o o m .  I b e l i e v e the t o t a l l y a d d i t i v e nature  of the c h a r c o a l  drawing c r e a t e s a b e t t e r image o f the r a p i d growth o f the c i t y . erasing i s necessary dents t o p r e v e n t  a greater c o n t r o l i s a l s o necessary  a c c i d e n t a l e r a s i n g by one s t u d e n t  drawing  Where  over the s t u -  o f another's drawing.  A l s o , the drawing has a g r e a t e r p r e s e n c e i f i t cannot be e r a s e d , and b u i l d i n g ( t h a t i s , drawing) becomes a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e l i b e r a t e and immoveable. The use  paper must n o t be w h i t e b u t c o l o u r e d  or toned.  o r d i n a r y matt brown wrapping paper i n s e v e r a l l a y e r s .  prepared  an orange paper board which looked m a g n i f i c e n t  transmission.  Usually I The C.B.C.  i n colour  134 The t e l e v i s i o n program proceeds i n the same way as the i n the c l a s s r o o m .  The s t u d e n t s  the l i v e l i e r f o r the  exercise  do not r e h e a r s e and t h e i r responses  are  spontaneity.  G e n e r i c and Drawn Images  The v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t p r o m p t s , f o r example, the mental image o f " s t o r e " i n the v i e w e r has one i m p o r t a n t p r o p e r t y . a v o i d b e i n g the wrong s t o r e . of  this  one s t o r e  I t must  Each v i e w e r has a d i f f e r e n t m e n t a l image  t h a t r e p r e s e n t them a l l .  by r e c a l l i n g memories o f many s t o r e s .  The image i s  a concept made  A photograph of a s t o r e c o u l d  never hope to a v o i d r e f e r e n c e to d e t a i l s  i n which s t o r e s d i f f e r .  A  photograph o f a scene i s n o t as u s e f u l as a s i m p l e drawing i n p r o d u c i n g a m e n t a l image i n the mind o f the v i e w e r .  The image o f the s t o r e  comes to mind i s not a g e n e r a l image of a l l s t o r e s b u t one s t o r e  represents  all  stores.  The s t u d e n t s  call  that that  out "Eatons" to r e p r e s e n t  all  department s t o r e s and " C o c a - C o l a " s i g n s to r e p r e s e n t a d v e r t i s i n g . There a r e s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the image t h a t v i e w e r s the m i n d , when c a l l i n g out what they r e c a l l , A small g i r l her concern i s  c a l l s out " d r i p p i n g c a r s . "  t h e i r own image. Her eye l e v e l i s  out " l i n e s  of an image.  on the road f o r c a r p a r k i n g . "  has r e f e r r e d to them.  This  A c a r d r i v e r l o o k s f o r such l i n e s ;  form p a r t of the image of the c i t y of one who d r i v e s a c a r .  sug-  they  No c h i l d  S i m i l a r l y , young c h i l d r e n seldom c a l l out " t r a f f i c  l i g h t s , " whereas a d u l t s u s u a l l y d o . "animals."  low,  to a v o i d an o i l y mess.  A man c a l l s gests a r e c a l l  is  form i n  Young c h i l d r e n c a l l out "dogs" and  E l d e r l y p e o p l e c a l l out " h o s p i t a l " and " M e d i c a l C e n t r e . "  135 T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t p e o p l e c a l l out r e c o l l e c t i o n s from e x p e r i e n c e , much as c h i l d r e n draw what they know r a t h e r than what they s e e . The r e c a l l e d images encompass a wide a r e a .  I n the d i s c u s s i o n s  t h a t f o l l o w , o t h e r c i t i e s a r e r e f e r r e d t o , as an e x p l a n a t i o n o f an image t h a t has come t o mind. The  f o l l o w i n g quotes  a r e by s t u d e n t s o f twelve t o t h i r t e e n y e a r s  o l d , taken from t r a n s c r i p t s o f l e s s o n s . images t o o t h e r a r e a s .  They i l l u s t r a t e the range o f  I had drawn a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a and the q u e s t i o n  of c o s t s a r o s e .  When I was i n C a l i f o r n i a , I saw, w e l l , they had l i k e an urban renewa l project. A mass low c o s t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t and i t became so gruesome, l i k e every house i s the same, the same c o l o u r , e v e r y t h i n g , and i t ' s so u g l y when you go o u t on t h i s freeway and a l l you see f o r m i l e s around a r e the e x a c t same type o f house, e x a c t l y , you know, the same c o l o u r . I guess i t h e l p e d the problem b u t i t r u i n e d the landscape.  In another c a s e , I had drawn a freeway  system e n t e r i n g the c i t y .  Down i n S e a t t l e , I t h i n k they've made a d r a s t i c m i s t a k e w i t h t h e i r m u l t i - l e v e l freeways. They've got them r i g h t down the w a t e r f r o n t and they've g o t t h i s urban decay s e t t i n g i n , i t s coming; e v e r y t h i n g i s b e i n g r u n down and you j u s t have a l l t h i s smog coming from t h r e e l e v e l s o f t r a f f i c , f o u r l a n e s , t i l l t h e r e ' s twelve l a n e s o f t r a f f i c , c o n s t a n t , a l l the time i t s t h e r e , c a u s i n g t h i s problem, and i t ' s an e y e s o r e r e a l l y , and, b u t t h e i r problem i s , i f they'd gone underground, s e e , they have done t h i s i n one s p o t , b u t they haven't done t h i s enough. I t was t o o e x p e n s i v e , so they b u i l t overhead and now they've g o t a problem o f t h i s urban decay s e t t i n g i n .  In the next example, I had drawn a house and connected i t t o a s t o r e , w i t h the comment:  U p s t a i r s can be the bedrooms up h e r e . . . when you go a l o n g the s t r e e t sometimes you c a n see over the top o f the s t o r e and you c a n  136  see bedroom windows b e h i n d which a r e now b e i n g used as o f f i c e s . . . but t h e r e comes a s t a g e where the o l d b u i l d i n g i s p u l l e d down and a new b u i l d i n g i s put up and t h i s i s when the c i t y s t a r t s t o look modern.  A student  commented:  I t h i n k t h a t ' s when the c i t y s t a r t s to l o o k t e r r i b l e because t h a t ' s what they were d o i n g i n M o n t r e a l and a l l over the p l a c e t h e r e were p i l e s of r u b b l e a l l the time and I t h i n k t h a t ' s bad.  Note t h a t the remarks from the s t u d e n t s  i n d i c a t e a r e c a l l of images of  r e a l s c e n e s , f a r removed from the scenes t h a t were drawn on the b o a r d . The  r e a c t i o n s to drawings seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t the images t h a t  form i n the mind w h i l e w a t c h i n g the drawing i n p r o c e s s an a c c u r a t e  s i m u l a t i o n of an urban scene.  do not depend  I t i s enough t h a t a  on  represen-  t a t i o n of the scene i s i n d i c a t e d . The  l a c k of f i n i s h i n the drawings i s no  an advantage.  The  impediment, r a t h e r i t i s  c h i l d r e n get a b e t t e r sense of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  e v o l u t i o n of the c i t y d e s c r i b e d i n drawings t h a t they  f e e l they  them-  s e l v e s c o u l d have done. To  quote B e t t i n g h a u s ,  "As  a general  c o n c l u s i o n , we  can say  the c l o s e r the match i n communication s k i l l s between the source  that  and  the  2 r e c e i v e r , the more e f f e c t i v e w i l l be  the  communication."  More than t h a t , the " g e n e r a l " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p a r t s of u r b a n scene more n e a r l y matched the k i n d of image i n the mind than accurate  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r  Rudolph Arnheim w r i t e s i n Image  an an  scene.  and  Thought,  p s y c h o l o g i s t s t h a t fragments of p h o t o g r a p h i c  of the c o n j e c t u r e  images o c c u r r e d  i n the  by  137 mind's eye which then formed a mental g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , and t h a t the image i t s e l f was  their  discovery  general.  When, e a r l y i n our c e n t u r y , the experiment was a c t u a l l y made, seve r a l r e p u t a b l e i n v e s t i g a t o r s found, i n d e p e n d e n t l y of each o t h e r , t h a t g e n e r a l i t y was p r e c i s e l y what o b s e r v e r s a t t r i b u t e d to the appearance of the images they saw. A l f r e d B i n e t , the f a t h e r of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g , s u b j e c t e d h i s two young d a u g h t e r s , Armande and M a r g u e r i t e , to p r o l o n g e d and e x a c t i n g i n q u i r i e s . At one o c c a s i o n , he had Armande observe what happened when he u t t e r e d the word 'hat'. He then asked her whether she had thought of a hat i n g e n e r a l o r of a p a r t i c u l a r hat. The c h i l d ' s answer i s a c l a s s i c of i n t r o s p e c t i v e r e porting: C e s t mal d i t : en g e n e r a l — j e cherche a me r e p r e s e n t e r un de tous ces o b j e t s que l e mot irassemble, mais j e ne m'en represente aucun.' ('In g e n e r a l ' expresses i t b a d l y : I t r y to r e p r e s e n t to mys e l f one of a l l the o b j e c t s t h a t the word b r i n g s t o g e t h e r , but I do not r e p r e s e n t to myself any one of them.)3  The  " g e n e r a l " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t was  made by  the s t u d e n t s  of  the  p a r t s of the environment, because i t matched the " g e n e r a l i t y " of the ment a l image, a l s o brought to mind o t h e r s e n s a t i o n s scene.  This helps  the c i t y made w i t h  to e x p l a i n the g r e a t s u c c e s s  t h a t belong  of the drawn image of  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the s t u d e n t s .  the mental image b r i n g s r e c a l l of the s e n s i t i v i t y the s m e l l s of the environment and  to the  The  evocation  to the f e e l ,  of  the sounds,  of our movement i n i t s spaces t h a t  forms the base of a l l our l e a r n i n g . The  communication based on a mutual l e v e l of e x p e r i e n c e  i n g becomes more p o w e r f u l . of Mass Communication, succeed  i f i t fits  As W i l b u r  s a y s : ".  . .a  to reshape i t s l i g h t l y . "  and  Effects to  a t t i t u d e s , values  or at l e a s t i f i t s t a r t s with  4 tries  Process  message i s much more l i k e l y  the p a t t e r n of u n d e r s t a n d i n g s ,  g o a l s than a r e c e i v e r has; and  Schramm, i n The  of l e a r n -  and  this pattern  T O U C H l M q  S T R E E T S  139 The a n a l y s i s of the f i r s t of Communications  l e s s o n s and the r e a d i n g s on the Theory  have n o t shaken my  f a i t h i n the use of drawing.  In terms of " c u e i n g " t h a t draws the eye t o the d e s i r e d p l a c e on the b o a r d o r s c r e e n , the c h a l k a t the end of an e v o l v i n g l i n e e x c e l s as a cynosure o f a l l e y e s .  The sense of a n t i c i p a t i o n caused by w a t c h i n g a  p e r s o n draw, wondering what w i l l e v o l v e , i n c r e a s e s a t t e n t i v e n e s s .  A  v i g o r o u s drawing t h a t the v i e w e r f e e l s he c o u l d h i m s e l f have drawn encourages i n v o l v e m e n t .  I t can be a l t e r e d a t whim.  The photograph, on  the o t h e r hand, p e r m i t s no a d d i t i o n or a l t e r a t i o n . Drawings  show the e v o l u t i o n o f the c i t y from p a s t through p r e s e n t  i n t o f u t u r e i n one medium which m a i n t a i n s the momentum of Photography  can o n l y show the p r e s e n t and the p a s t .  Drawings called  change.  are l i n k e d w i t h fun.  " c o m i c s " or " f u n n i e s . "  The c a r t o o n s i n the paper a r e  A drawing and c a p t i o n i s a medium f o r the  j oke. The humour of the drawing h e l p s to d i s p e l the gloom i n the s t u dent's mind about the c i t y and the f u t u r e .  The p r e s e n c e of humour and  f u n does not mean t h a t the s e r i o u s p o i n t s a r e o v e r l o o k e d . a good weapon i n the f i g h t f o r any cause. d e s c r i b e d a c a r t o o n which was  F o r example,  Humour makes  J a c k Paar once  h i s f a v o u r i t e and i t makes the p o i n t w e l l .  The drawing showed a p a t i o or b a l c o n y of an apartment and around about were o t h e r apartment b l o c k s .  On a p a t i o a t a b l e was  a l a d y b e s i d e i t was  "Honey, come and s i t down, your  getting  dirty."  calling,  laid  f o r a meal and soup's  FOOTNOTES  M a r s h a l l McLuhan, Understanding 1967), p. 145.  Media  (Toronto: Signet  Books,  2 E r w i n P. B e t t i n g h a u s , Notes f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the manual, Research, Principles, and Practice in Visual Communication, N a t i o n a l Proj e c t i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Communications (East L a n s i n g : M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1960).  3 Symbol  Rudolph Arnheim, Image and Thought from G. Kepes Sign (New Y o r k : George B r a z i l l e r , 1968), p. 67.  Image  and  4  W i l b u r Schramm, The Process and Effects of Mass (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1955), p . 16.  Communication  CHAPTER IV LESSON EXAMPLES False Creek  142 F a l s e Creek  University H i l l 1970.  Secondary S c h o o l , Vancouver; January  t o February  The f o l l o w i n g n o t e s and e s s a y s r e p r e s e n t the e x p e r i e n c e i n many  classrooms.  A p r o j e c t c a r r i e d out w i t h Grade E i g h t and Grade Twelve  w i t h Mrs. H e l e n  S h e r r i f , t e a c h e r o f S o c i a l S t u d i e s , concerned  s i d e o f F a l s e Creek near downtown Vancouver.  the south  The C i t y owns the a r e a ,  now n e a r i n g the end o f i t s i n d u s t r i a l and lumbering  era.  I t may be  t u r n e d i n t o p a r k l a n d , r e s i d e n t i a l or i n d u s t r i a l l a n d depending on the wishes o f the p u b l i c who were i n v i t e d to submit  t h e i r o p i n i o n s by the  C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. The  o c c a s i o n s e r v e d as an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a p r o j e c t o f study w i t h -  out a t f i r s t  i n t e n d i n g t o submit  r e s u l t s from  the s t u d e n t s reached  i d e a s from the s t u d e n t s .  a h i g h c a l i b r e and they were  To the s u r p r i s e and d i s a p p o i n t m e n t o t h e r Vancouver s c h o o l submitted  University H i l l  Mrs. H.  Grade 8  Social Studies  submitted.  of o u r s e l v e s and C i t y o f f i c i a l s no  ideas.  Secondary S c h o o l  Teacher:  However, the  January  8, 1970  Sherrif  20 s t u d e n t s Aim:  To r e l a t e c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n F a l s e Creek to the s t u d e n t s r e c e n t s t u d i e s o f the Renaissance  Method:  Chalk  City.  Talk  Sketch map  o f F a l s e Creek on b l a c k b o a r d .  Drawing o f F a l s e Creek w i t h s k y l i n e of Vancouver beyond.  143 I n d u s t r i a l use d e s c r i b e d . Some C i t y s l i d e s  shown.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f senses r e l a t e d  to f u t u r e  D i s c u s s i o n by c l a s s of v a r i o u s  ideas.  D i v i s i o n of c l a s s i n t o c l i e n t s and Clients instruct,  development.  architects.  a r c h i t e c t s draw.  N a t u r a l Park, music  c e n t r e , adventure p l a y g r o u n d , c r a f t c e n t r e , s t a b l e , gym  riding  and h e a l t h c e n t r e , stadium.  As a R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t the s t u d e n t s were asked to w r i t e about a R e n a i s s a n c e C i t y and to f i n d c i t i e s  t h a t do not f e a t u r e  open  water. Notes of the f i r s t 9:00  a.m.  lesson:  - Map  of F a l s e Creek and b r i d g e s r e c o g n i z e d immed-  i a t e l y - rough s k e t c h map In Vancouver  drawn on b l a c k b o a r d .  the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department  groups f o r o p i n i o n s about development F a l s e Creek.  i s asking  Civic  of south s i d e of  R e n a i s s a n c e p e r i o d i s b e i n g s t u d i e d by the  c l a s s - the R c i t y depended R e n a i s s a n c e water c i t y  on water.  - ceremonies - p r o c e s s i o n s  -  f e s t i v a l s - commerce. Question:  Do a l l towns have water i n the form of r i v e r ,  or sea?  lake  High P r a i r i e - does i t have a r i v e r - can the  c l a s s f i n d a c i t y which does not have open water? No r e c o g n i t i o n of F a l s e Creek a r e a o r i t s a c t i v i t i e s no r e c o g n i t i o n of Cambie b r i d g e .  -  144 9:15  a.m.  - Drawing i n b u i l d i n g s N o r t h o f F a l s e Creek.  R e c o g n i t i o n o f b u i l d i n g shapes q u i c k . Q.E. One  - Post O f f i c e .  H o t e l Vancouver -  S c a l e o f s k y s c r a p e r s drawn i n .  c h i l d had v i s i t e d F a l s e Creek f o r b o a t b u i l d i n g .  Q u e s t i o n - D e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f q u a l i t i e s o f water tidal - s t i l l  - c a n a l - b r i d g e b u i l d i n g s b u i l t up t o  water - b o a t s - f l o a t i n g b u i l d i n g s - f l o a t i n g gardens. Q u a l i t i e s o f Water - Sound  laps, tinkles, roars,  crashes,  echoing - r e f l e c t s . 9:30  a.m. - L i g h t shimmer, s p a r k l e , b l i n d i n g , l i g h t bounces  reflections,  upwards.  Space view - d i s t a n t space - q u i e t - s i l e n c e - open open s k y - mountain - h o r i z o n - space on t h e ground l o n g view. 9:40  a.m. - L o g g i n g - h i s t o r y o f development - i n d u s t r y c o v e r e d i n Some C i t y  slides.  Some C i t y s l i d e s shown q u i c k l y . 9:50  a.m. - Senses l i s t e d  f o r students to consider:  Space -  L i g h t - C o l o u r - Warmth - Touch - S m e l l - A u r a - Time Sound - Community.  Question:  I s t h e r e a c i t y which has n o t been b u i l t  Select a c i t y , b u i l t  around open water?  e x t e n s i v e l y i n the renaissance  and d e s c r i b e how t h e water was u s e d .  period,  D e s c r i b e the b u i l d i n g s .  D e v e l o p i n g t h e W a t e r f r o n t on F a l s e Creek C l i e n t s - a r c h i t e c t process c o l l e c t i o n of ideas.  1  145 Question:  What would you want to do y o u r s e l f or p a r t i c i p a t e i n ?  Students c a l l out  i d e a s which are w r i t t e n on the b o a r d :  Food - r e s t a u r a n t ; b o w l i n g r e c r e a t i o n h a l l ;  nightclub;  b o a t i n g ; music c e n t r e ; adventure p l a y g r o u n d ; n a t u r a l park; s m a l l c h i l d r e n s ' park; s p o r t ; cinema; Tom Park; Sudden V a l l e y (park) - b u i l d your own  Sawyer's  house of  natural materials - recreational h a l l - library c e n t r e - r i d i n g s t a b l e - m i n i c a r - drag s t r i p t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - no  data pedestrian  roads - domed dance h a l l - gym  and  h e a l t h c e n t r e - hockey r i n k - s p o r t s c e n t r e - open s p o r t s s t a d i u m - c o v e r e d walkways - r a i n p r o t e c t i o n - underground - stores - services. 10:20  a.m.  - S e l e c t one  a c t i v i t y - r e l a t e i t to survey of  the  senses. Mrs.  S h e r r i f comments - P r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s wasted on Grade Eight l e v e l .  Students are i n s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of  their  surroundings. Grade Twelve would respond and and  taking their place i n society.  t o Economics Course. bus  Second L e s s o n :  are nearer  leaving  school  T h i s c o u l d be r e l a t e d  Grade Twelve to be  included i n  the  t o u r o f F a l s e Creek.  A trip  to F a l s e Creek by bus  on Thursday January  15th. Grade E i g h t s t u d e n t s , who Grade Twelve  students.  were p r e s e n t  at previous  lesson,  and  146 C l e a r and  sunny weather.  2:30  - Bus was  p.m.  f o r t y - f i v e minutes l a t e and v i s i t  to  Marathon o f f i c e was c a n c e l l e d . The  r o u t e l e d a l o n g Broadway a c r o s s G r a n v i l l e B r i d g e ,  down G r a n v i l l e t o Dunsmuir t o Cambie B r i d g e , a l o n g  Sixth  Avenue t o West Coast Salvage and Vancouver I r o n and E n g i n e e r i n g Works. the a r e a , v i s i t i n g  Students  a l i g h t e d and  the West Coast  strolled  around  Salvage Works.  Then around G r a n v i l l e I s l a n d and back t o the Planetarium. landscaped 4:30  p.m.  They a g a i n a l i g h t e d and walked around  garden.  - Returned  Each s t u d e n t c a r r i e d  The bus In a d d i t i o n we  to s c h o o l by Spanish  Banks.  the f o l l o w i n g drawings.  c o n t a i n e d a microphone f o r a commentary d u r i n g the arranged  receiver extension.  The  the  f o r a r e c o r d i n g but I o m i t t e d  journey.  to s w i t c h on  f o l l o w i n g n o t e s , w r i t t e n immediately  the  after  the  j o u r n e y , g i v e an o u t l i n e of the commentary. Notes made p r i o r  t o bus  trip:  Land use i s a s t a t e of t r a n s i t i o n - I n d u s t r i a l use changing h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l use.  (North of F a l s e Creek g o i n g  through  High  the same t r a n s i t i o n . )  to  land value f o r c i n g industry  to  go.  As  l a n d becomes v e r y v a l u a b l e , economic t r e n d s l e a d toward r e -  d u c i n g and  e l i m i n a t i n g water a r e a s .  This trend i s being  by p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n F a l s e Creek a r e a .  checked  (Refer t o Vancouver  I r o n and E n g i n e e r i n g Works l e a s e c o n t r o v e r s y . )  147  B^^u^UANp/HiaHiurB  - OFTEN  seat-*.  WeST  L O  TH  ^fou A^e IM TKe  TEETHE**-  puTOfLg,  HOW IM A Bur  PUTUft£  I M As S U B W A W W H A T  ©  Mt5tM  t  TRAVEL-  TRAIN.  DIFFERENCES  wouup TOO perceive;  PUILDIN* i T A f t - T f f  (BepPsooM. INVMINE  YOU M » * H T  PRe.Se? NY  SHoppiM^  HOMES  $T(U5ST£ .  WINPOWC  &> THE(R_ t ^ R P e N S "  oveR.)  C H A N ^ P TO >SToW5S  ViE,  1  TbOP-N-ef  oVSrV-  OYER-'  t^p^N^VlUUe  BP-IPGE-  @)  . AR-OONP  CAK6ie 4 CONNA.Ufi.HT BfUP^S- (g) .  IMPOSTP4A.U  AR-EA .  Rfupoe NtVTg  ©  loO  1  T H r S N To TH6  HIGH.  T H S P(FPaR£N£e  V A S i C O U Y S P - CUTV ©WINS  THIS L A N D .  ASIcS  'WHAT  CATt^eNS  WHAT  IS  PO THg  IS  8pJPC,G © I N VI© W .  THE PLAMNIN^ WANT  PONE  PO\NKTO\NN  '• i o ' . s  W)HlCH  pePAA^MeNxT  WITH IT?  YOUR- A M t S W E R - ?  COH^lOefi- :-  I.  2.  VMHAT A C T I V I T I S 5 WOOUP VOO U K . 6 To JOIM IM A T pAUSe C p g £ K ? WHAT  ePFeCTS  Voo • To see  VsJOULP -.00 VMAMT AftOUWP  . T O O C H  , $Meu.  etc.  149 H i s t o r y o f lumber m i l l s , commercial d u s t r y Leases on l a n d owned by l e a s e s e x p i r e 1970  to  f i s h i n g b o a t s , mixed i n -  the c i t y on (South Shore)  1973.  Commentary: - On  the r o u t e we w i l l  t h a t might  imagine a t e n y e a r p r o j e c t i o n .  The  then a p p l y w i l l be d e s c r i b e d as i f i t e x i s t e d  - Apartments g a t h e r round open space  scene now.  (note Beach Avenue and  S t a n l e y Park) a l s o a t the gates of U.B.C. , two new  b l o c k s under  c o n s t r u c t i o n opposite golf course. - Note l i n k between bus  r o u t e and commercial  form o f mass t r a n s i t was  area.  I f another  i n t r o d u c e d the l o c a t i o n o f s t a t i o n s  would a l t e r the p a t t e r n . - Note e v i d e n c e o f change ( c o n s t r u c t i o n i n p r o g r e s s or r e c e n t completion). imagine  These changes i r i the p a s t y e a r w i l l h e l p you t o  the p o s s i b l e immense changes i n the next t e n y e a r s .  - West Tenth - shopping a r e a s a r e grouped  around  important  nuclei  such as Safeway and i n t e n y e a r s ' time t h i s shopping a r e a l o o k more l i k e Park R o y a l i n West Vancouver. Broadway i s a commercial  strip,  The whole o f  the l i q u o r s t o r e and  s t o r e s forming c e n t r e s around which s m a l l s t o r e s and gather.  These a g a i n may  may  food services  d e v e l o p w i t h p e d e s t r i a n walkways above  the s t r e e t s , and o f f i c e s above the s t o r e s . - C o n v e r s i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s t o commercial  can be seen by a  house windows on the second f l o o r and a s t o r e underneath.  If  you s p o t one o f t h e s e a l t e r a t i o n s n o t e the name o f the s t r e e t and  i f p o s s i b l e the number of the house.  - How  many b u i l d i n g s under c o n s t r u c t i o n have we  note of the name o f the  passed  - make a  street.  - A change i n mass t r a n s i t - we would a l l be t r a v e l l i n g ground, s e e i n g n o t h i n g of the areas through which we ling  underare  today - o n l y aware of the s t a t i o n s of e n t r y and  travel-  arrival.  Which would you p r e f e r ? - Using a L i s t  of P e r c e p t i o n you can a n a l y s e t h i s bus  journey.  T a k i n g a t e n y e a r p r o j e c t i o n , what would you p r e f e r - t h i n k of the s i g h t s and sounds and s m e l l s - use o f L i s t s - where would the s t a t i o n be - on Broadway? The  of P e r c e p t i o n  On Tenth Avenue?  a r e a from the s t a t i o n t o the l a r g e s t s t o r e w i l l be  ally  economic-  f e r t i l e and s u p p o r t many s m a l l s t o r e s .  - Downtown w i l l become more crowded. building w i l l lunch.  c o n t a i n e i g h t thousand  Where w i l l  they eat?  The P r o v i n c i a l government people.  Where w i l l  A l l w i l l require  they s t r o l l i n the  l u n c h hour? - The water edge a t F a l s e Creek encroaches at  the view.  C o n s i d e r the f u t u r e .  on the water.  The whole a r e a can  Look be  changed i n a s h o r t time t o l a n d s c a p i n g t o the s t a n d a r d of the P l a n e t a r i u m garden. Creek?  Consider  What would you l i k e  t o enjoy on F a l s e  the f e e l o f the ground, the sounds and s m e l l s .  C o n s i d e r the sun and  shade.  L a t e r the s t u d e n t s made r e c o r d i n g s of t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s . commented on my  They  remarks a t the b e g i n n i n g of the j o u r n e y and spoke a t  l e n g t h o f t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s r e c e i v e d when they had  a l i g h t e d from the  bus.  151 T h e i r response s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e v i s u a l i n t e r e s t o f downtown obscured my commentary and t h a t they p e r c e i v e incomparably more when on t h e ground away from t h e b u s .  T h i r d Lesson:  At University H i l l  Secondary  School, Friday  January  16th, t o Grade E i g h t . Review o f t h e s i t e v i s i t  and o f t h e l i s t  of a c t i v i t i e s  suggested  by the s t u d e n t s . Perception considered. D i v i s i o n of c l a s s i n t o a r c h i t e c t s or w r i t e r s f o r future development.  C l a s s g i v e n p e r i o d t o w r i t e and draw.  descriptions collected.  Both drawing and  Research m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d - V e n i c e -  London - Rome - Copenhagen.  Fourth Lesson:  On January 2 1 s t t o Grade E i g h t .  Ideas f o r f u t u r e development  of False  Creek:  D e s c r i b e d by c h i l d r e n from t h e l i s t  of perception i n the  s e v e r a l s e n s e s : C r a f t S t u d i o s ; Adventure  Playground;  Amusement Park; T h e a t r e - r e c r e a t i o n - d w e l l i n g over (Denman P l a c e ) ; Music Room; Park Underground ant;  city  ( n a t u r a l , open s p a c e ) ;  shopping r e c r e a t i o n  (drawing); Restaur-  Gym (drawing a l s o ) ; Data C e n t r e ; O f f i c e and a p a r t -  ment tower  (drawing); D w e l l i n g .  V e r b a l d i s c u s s i o n i n t o tape r e c o r d e r , one a t each end o f t h e room.  D i s c u s s i o n slow - s t u d e n t s h e s i t a n t .  paper ready b u t unused. collected.  More drawings  C h a r c o a l and  and d e s c r i p t i o n s  152 University H i l l 8th,  Secondary  January 15th, January 16th.  21st.  S c h o o l , Grade E i g h t , l e s s o n s on January R e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s i n p r o g r e s s - January  D e s i g n p r o j e c t s i n p r o g r e s s . - F e b r u a r y 2nd.  F e b r u a r y 2nd.  T a p i n g of d i s c u s s i o n -  R e h e a r s a l o f d e s c r i p t i o n s of drawings  F e b r u a r y 12th.  A.V.  S t u d i o 10:30  f o r T.V.  tape -  t o 12:00, Tape made - F e b r u a r y 13th.  The v i d e o tape f e a t u r e s the i d e a s of the s t u d e n t s and showed t h e i r drawings. utes.  I t demonstrates  the method.  I t l a s t s about  The s t u d e n t s showed e x c i t e m e n t and nervousness  twenty  min-  and enjoyed the  r e p l a y i n g of the t a p e .  University H i l l  Secondary  Teacher:  Mrs. H.  Grade 12  S o c i a l Studies  School  January 22,  1970  Sherrif  21 s t u d e n t s H a l f the number of s t u d e n t s had v i s i t e d Creek on the bus  the downtown a r e a and  False  trip.  The P l a n o f the L e s s o n : 1)  To e x p l a i n the C i t y ' s p o l i c y on the f u t u r e of F a l s e  2)  To show the s l i d e s  to enquire of p u b l i c  opinion  Creek.  t h a t a r e shown to the p u b l i c groups  by  C i t y P l a n n i n g Department. 3)  To e x p l a i n a r c h i t e c t / c l i e n t r e l a t i o n i n house b u i l d i n g  and  r e l a t i o n to C i t y . 4)  To ask f o r a c t i v i t i e s in  on F a l s e  Creek.  they p e r s o n a l l y would w i s h t o j o i n  153 Notes on the  Lesson:  - T r i e d my ejector's - Two  own  p r o j e c t o r and  found  a s m a l l s p r i n g broken i n  slide.  s c h o o l s l i d e p r o j e c t o r s were f e t c h e d , t r i e d and  unworkable, the t h i r d was  u s a b l e a f t e r minor adjustment, b u t  remained j e r k y and most of the s l i d e s - F a l s e Creek a r e a s k e t c h e d  found  stuck.  on b l a c k b o a r d , h e i g h t s of  existing  s k y s c r a p e r s e s t a b l i s h e d - r e l a t i v e h e i g h t s of proposed h i g h r i s e developments s k e t c h e d i n . - The  importance of o r i e n t a t i o n demonstrated - s u n l i g h t on  i n g s , shadows c a s t by  build-  skyscrapers.  - S l i d e s were shown of use of c i t y areas f o r d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s : a)  The  c i t y s t r e e t f o r p r o c e s s i o n s and  b)  The use of e n c l o s e d waterway. and Expo.  The  water a r e a .  festivals.  Reference  to V e n i c e  r e l a t i o n of b u i l d i n g s to e n c l o s e d  N i g h t use of t h i s a r e a - c o n c e r t s , shows,  a s h e l t e r e d p u b l i c arena. c)  O r i e n t a t i o n , s u n l i g h t and  shadowed a r e a s .  d)  E n c l o s u r e under b r i d g e s .  Activity  on p e d e s t r i a n  bridges. e)  Harbour and marina a c t i v i t i e s - s h i p p i n g goods.  f)  Rapid  and mass t r a n s i t w i t h i n complex b u i l d i n g  commercial shopping - Students were asked  and  forms -  residential.  f o r t h e i r i d e a s f o r d e v e l o p i n g F a l s e Creek -  a c t i v i t i e s which they would l i k e to j o i n i n .  Three minutes  154 o n l y remained.  The two tape r e c o r d e r s d i d n o t p i c k up the  students' voices. Second L e s s o n :  January 23rd, twenty-one Grade Twelve  students.  S l i d e p r o j e c t o r and s c r e e n a t f r o n t o f c l a s s r o o m ,  tape  near s c r e e n .  S l i d e s shown  of  Students  s t o o d o r s a t near s c r e e n .  Some C i t y and F a l s e Creek f u t u r e .  The  students  recorder  S l i d e s shown b r i e f l y .  d i s c u s s e d t h e i r i d e a s f o r the f u t u r e :  White paper p u l l e d a c r o s s the f l o o r from a r o l l . c o a l drawing as the s t u d e n t s Lights s t i l l  c a l l e d out t h e i r  o u t , one s l i d e s t i l l  Char-  suggestions.  on s c r e e n showing a  harbour area, p e d e s t r i a n s , d w e l l i n g s , t r e e s , marina. Students  enjoyment and p a r t i c i p a t i o n e x c e l l e n t .  l a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r ideas.  Articu-  Audio-tape s u c c e s s f u l  - s t u d e n t s n e a r e r mike, sound bounced up from f l o o r and from List  blackboard.  of student's  spoken comments w h i l e  drawing:  - O r i e n t a t i o n / b r i g h t b u i l d i n g s on n o r t h s i d e o f F a l s e Creek t o c a t c h s u n l i g h t . - Tall  t r e e s open, n a t u r a l s o r t o f Park - i n f r o n t o f  highrise. - Boat t o u r s - sound w i l l no motor b o a t s - Revolving  reflect  - paddle b o a t s  from h i g h b u i l d i n g s -  - no n o i s e .  restaurant.  - A r c h i t e c t u r a l comment on u n i t y o f d e s i g n . - P e d e s t r i a n b r i d g e s - covered  bridges.  155 - Don't l i k e i t junky .- P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n i s too junky  - no r a c e course near  parks.  - Maintenance. - Design - Not  control.  realistic  (access too  difficult).  - H o v e r c r a f t n o i s e too much. - Rowing r a c e s f o r e i g h t s - has - Enclose - Living -  a special  quality.  lagoon. area.  Amphitheatre.  - Mixing  too many i d e a s  together.  - Q u a l i t y o f environment. - Open  squares.  - Foreign area - sidewalk  c a f e s - benches - u m b r e l l a s  -  canopies. - Mixture  of c u l t u r e s and  architectural  - Ponds.  Japanese s o r t of ponds.  - No b u s t l e of c i t y - a slow up  styles.  area.  - Underground p a r k i n g . - L o t s of p l a n t i n g and t r e e s . - Atmosphere r u i n e d by gobs of - Gradual bowling Paper now  change/physical  people.  change from a r e a t o a r e a -  greens or c r i c k e t - beach around - t e n n i s .  s t r e t c h e s across classroom  forty feet long. along l o o k i n g at  and  out of door.  I t i s h e l d up i n c o r r i d o r and  ideas.  About  s t u d e n t s walk  156 Notes by the t e a c h e r H e l e n S h e r r i f : U n i t on U r b a n i z a t i o n i n Economics. Aim: 1 )  I n depth study o f F a l s e Creek a r e a w i t h view t o c u r r e n t a c t i v i t i e s and e s p e c i a l l y  2)  f u t u r e developments,  With F a l s e Creek as a base an e x a m i n a t i o n o f o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f Vancouver as " a r e a s " - t h a t i s ,  industrial,  f i n a n c i a l , i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade, land value,  land  u t i l i z a t i o n , government (civic  f i n a n c e and z o n i n g by-laws  participation)=  Materials: 1)  S l i d e s - Some C i t y and F a l s e Creek. E x p l a n a t i o n s - a)  descriptions  b)  fast  growth  c)  cartoons  d)  F a l s e Creek today.  I n t e r r u p t i o n r e PA 2)  Carbon on paper -  Notes by H e l e n S h e r r i f on t h e Second L e s s o n : Ideas c a l l e d out - good atmosphere - many c a t c h i n g i d e a - more and more p a r t i c i p a t i o n — s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d - p u t t i n g i d e a s  into  form - s e e i n g Mr. K i n g on hands and knees and drawing w i t h c h a r c o a l e d hands - reduces e x p e r t a l o o f n e s s - b u t r e s p e c t i s still  t h e r e - i d e a s caught, added t o - Drummond, D e l i l e , Jane,  C r a i g drawing - change i n atmosphere w i t h D e l i l e s a y i n g " I wouldn't have any o f t h i s i f I l i v e d  t h e r e " - o t h e r s aware o f  problems - p o l l u t i o n - maintenance - n e g a t i v e s dominant - maybe  157 they know what they don't want but need a s s i s t a n c e t o c o n s i d e r positive  possibilities.  F a l s e Creek Submission  to Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department.  f o l l o w i n g i d e a s were s u b m i t t e d  The  to the Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g department  as a r e s u l t o f the p r e v i o u s e x e r c i s e s . Ideas from Grade E i g h t : - A p a r k d e s i g n e d by s i x s t u d e n t s w i t h these comments: F r e e n a t u r a l , no r e s t r i c t i v e s i g n s . Areas  f o r "Adventure,"  supervision. for  P i c n i c tables at  and  intervals.  with construction p o s s i b i l i t i e s  and  A commando-type t r a i n i n g ground, w i t h rope  nets  c l i m b i n g , rope s w i n g i n g , e t c . , a l s o s u p e r v i s e d .  - Amusement  Park.  - Riding stables. - A n i m a l F o u n d l i n g C e n t r e / C h i l d r e n ' s Zoo. - H e a l t h and R e c r e a t i o n A r e a s w i t h gymnasium and c o v e r e d  Olympic  Pool. - Music Dome w i t h l i s t e n i n g - Tourist  chairs.  facilities.  - Underground  shopping.  - Dwelling areas. - Craft Studios. Ideas from Grade Twelve: --Parks - s e c l u d e d o r i e n t a l c o n t e m p l a t i o n a r e a . equipped  f o r young c h i l d r e n .  rowboats, p a d d l e b o a t s .  Playground  Water o r i e n t e d p a r k ,  Rowing E i g h t s c o u r s e  canoes,  (with s t i p u l a t i o n  158  t h a t t h e r e be no motor b o a t s i n the creek a t a l l . ) - Shopping  P l a z a s and b o u t i q u e s - Open market by w a t e r f r o n t -  Pedestrian bridge with boutiques. - R e c r e a t i o n - I n t e r n a t i o n a l P l a z a w i t h f o r e i g n r e s t a u r a n t s and b o u t i q u e s - Dome and Marina - Apartment houses - G r a n v i l l e Island, b i r d  sanctuary  t r i a n area.  T r a n s p o r t below grade.)  Some examples  (No c a r s i n t h i s a r e a , t o t a l l y  pedes-  follow:  Hideaway P a r k l a n d : Completely noise.  surrounded  by bamboo - s e c l u d e s a r e a - c u t s out  B i g mound o f e a r t h moved i n - r o c k Huge w a t e r f a l l s t r e a m i n g down. cades down w i t h w a t e r .  facing.  Japanese c u t - l e a f maple c a s -  Cave b e h i n d w a t e r f a l l w i t h i n c e n s e b u r n e r s , p r i m i t i v e a r t on w a l l s - w i s e man ( l o n g w h i t e b e a r d ) . E n t r a n c e t o cave around back. W a t e r f a l l runs i n t o a l a r g e pond w i t h c r o a k i n g b u l l f r o g s , a s t o n e l a n t e r n i n the middle and Japanese g o l d f i s h . The p l a c e i s so b e a u t i f u l t h a t no one w i l l l i t t e r be l i k e l i t t e r i n g i n your own l i v i n g room.  i n i t-i t ' d  Wooded t r a i l s - f e e l i n g o f s e r e n i t y - working people s h o u l d be a b l e t o come h e r e and f o r g e t the d i r t y p o l l u t e d c i t i e s and r e l a x - t h e i r c a r e s w i l l be a m i l l i o n m i l e s away. Market P l a c e :  C o l e e n W i l k s - Debbie C l a r k e  A l o n g the edge o f the l a g o o n , l i e open f r u i t s t a n d s , benches, tables, small trees. I n a d d i t i o n t o the above, p a i n t e r s and b a l l o o n salesmen, e t c . , take p a r t i n a c t i v i t i e s on the p l a z a s u r r o u n d i n g the market p l a c e . In the c e n t r e o f the l a g o o n , l i e s a double-spouting f o u n t a i n , bordered with f a n t a s t i c a l l y c o l o u r e d s p o t l i g h t s f o r evening v i e w i n g , G o n d e l i e r s a l s o take p e o p l e f o r t o u r s o f the l a g o o n .  159 Above the lagoon i s a b r i d g e f o r shops and p e d e s t r i a n s o n l y . No v e h i c l e s ! The shops would make up a s o r t of a European village. The shops would s e l l wine, cheese, European s o u v e n i r s etc. They would be c o l o u r f u l l y d e c o r a t e d and s t y l e d i n a v e r y unique way. T r e e s would be s c a t t e r e d throughout a r e l a x e d p a r k - l i k e atmosphere.  the e n t i r e a r e a to g i v e i t  The e n t i r e a r e a would be f r e e of telephone p o l e s , overhead w i r e s , s i g n s overhanging the t h o r o u g h f a r e , e t c . The  sidewalks  and p l a z a would be b r i g h t l y  coloured.  Rowing E i g h t s C o u r s e : Because of F a l s e Creek's n a t u r a l water environment I b e l i e v e t h a t a t l e a s t p a r t o f the development s h o u l d be water o r i e n t a t e d . There i s no r e a s o n why the water cannot be c l e a n e d up so t h a t even swimming would be p o s s i b l e . Near the e n t r a n c e of the c r e e k , I would l i k e to see a m a r i n a . A s e r i e s of f l o a t s w i t h f i n g e r f l o a t s r u n n i n g out of them c o u l d j u t out from a l o n g the shore. A c o n c r e t e apron would b o r d e r the s h o r e . As w e l l as b e i n g u s e f u l t o boatmen, a marina i s a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g p l a c e f o r w a l k i n g around i n . A marina does not need to become o i l y or d i r t y . Some marinas a r e t h i s way but j u s t through n e g l e c t . In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the marina I would l i k e to see a boat r e n t a l operation. T h i s c o u l d r e n t s a i l b o a t s , peddle b o a t s , row b o a t s and canoes. In t h i s , p e o p l e c o u l d e x p l o r e f a r t h e r i n t o the creek. T h i s would be q u i t e unique i n t h a t p e o p l e c o u l d e x p l o r e f o r themselves by water r i g h t i n t o the h e a r t o f the c i t y . To h e l p p r e s e r v e the peace o f the c r e e k I t h i n k t h a t powerboats s h o u l d be k e p t out o f the c r e e k except f o r the e n t r a n c e where the marina would be. Down the middle o f the creek i s an i d e a l p l a c e f o r a rowing eights course. The water i s calm and t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t w i d t h f o r t h r e e or f o u r s i d e by s i d e . The G r a n v i l l e S t . and the Cambie S t . b r i d g e s p r o v i d e an i d e a l p l a c e to view such r a c e s . On l a n d b e h i n d the marina t h e r e would be a few low b u i l d i n g s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the m a r i n a . Behind the marina and s t r e t c h i n g a l l a l o n g the shore would be a park. Through t h i s park would run c a n a l s and streams. Up some of t h e s e , canoes would be a b l e to n a v i g a t e . These c o u l d be b r i d g e d by n a t u r a l r u s t i c looking bridges. The  park,  away from the m a r i n a would be  comparatively  160 undeveloped. An a i r o f peace and t r a n q u i l i t y would p r e v a i l . The a r e a would be w e l l used f o r Vancouver s a d l y l a c k s parks near the c e n t e r o f the c i t y . " F a l s e Creek" The F a l s e Creek a r e a has the p o t e n t i a l of b e i n g a b e a u t i f u l escape r o u t e f o r thousands o f V a n c o u v e r i t e s ; e s p e c i a l l y those who spend most o f t h e i r days i n t a l l , c a r b o n - c o p i e d apartment buildings. I f e e l t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no apartment b u i l d i n g s c l o s e t o the water and t h a t a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o the a r e a s h o u l d be underground a l o n g w i t h o t h e r n e c e s s a r y w i r e s and p i p e s . The atmosphere " F a l s e Creek" s h o u l d p r e s e n t s h o u l d be "au n a t u r e l . " The o u t l y i n g a r e a around t h e c r e e k c o u l d c o n s i s t of B o t a n i c a l Gardens o r O r i e n t a l Gardens. A system o f c a n a l s r u n n i n g i n l a n d from the c r e e k , l i t t l e i s l a n d s , l i t t l e b r i d g e s , f l o w e r s and t e a houses a l l be p o s s i b i l i t i e s . A great area of parkland (NO ZOOS i n c l u d e d ) s h o u l d o u t l y the a r e a and q u i e t n e s s s h o u l d be t h e theme. The l a n d immediately around the c r e e k would be l a n d s c a p e d , poss i b l y sandy beaches w i t h shade t r e e s and w i t h t h e s h o r e l i n e d i v i d e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l a r e a s . However t h i s a r e a s h o u l d n o t be overcrowded w i t h b u i l d i n g s . There s h o u l d be w e l l spaced s i d e w a l k c a f e s , p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t d i s p l a y , a n t i q u e shops or even beer gardens. A c e n t r a l p l a z a would be another suggestion. The c r e e k , o f c o u r s e , would have t o be kept p e r f e c t l y c l e a n as t h e r e would be swimming i n c e r t a i n a r e a s . The amount o f p r i v a t e l y owned b o a t s would have t o be c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d and an u l t r a - m o d e r n m a r i n a developed. Public cruises across False Creek by paddle steamer o r s a i l boat c o u l d be a r r a n g e d . Motor b o a t s would be f o r b i d d e n due t o exhaust fumes and n o i s e s . Boati n g events such as rowing r a c e s c o u l d be s t a g e d and a f l o a t i n g band s t a n d c o u l d o p e r a t e i n the c r e e k . In c o n c l u d i n g I f e e l t h a t any a c t i v i t y o r excitement s h o u l d be o r i e n t e d r i g h t a t the c r e e k and t h a t the o u t l y i n g a r e a s h o u l d g r a d u a l l y t u r n more and more towards n a t u r e u n t i l once a g a i n one runs up a g a i n s t the apartments.  CHAPTER V The  CONCLUSION - FURTHER STUDY Language o f A r c h i t e c t u r e  L i f e S t y l e s i n Other  Cultures  P r o p o s a l f o r C o n t i n u i n g Work  162 The  d e s i g n o f the method has f o l l o w e d the p r o c e s s  d e s i g n , advancing  g r a d u a l l y i n c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the u s e r s , i n  t h i s case t h e s t u d e n t s the most important  and t h e i r t e a c h e r s .  stage, i t s use, follows  The method has these p r o p e r t i e s . students  t h e need f o r e f f o r t  As w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r a l  the e f f o r t .  and  s o l u t i o n s , o f cause and e f f e c t .  The f u t u r e images show the unreadiness  The p a s t o f Some C i t y i n d i c a t e s the c y c l e o f problems The l i f e  s t y l e s show the compari-  sons and p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f v a r i o u s ways o f l i f e . s e t s the s t u d e n t s  on the path  confidence  The study  of p e r c e p t i o n  of awareness and p r e p a r e d n e s s ,  i n t h e i r own i m p r e s s i o n s  A t h e a r t t h i s work teaches  communications.  one on which  and e x p e r i e n c e . A c u i t y of perception  forms a p a r t , as does t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f i d e a s and o f f e e l i n g s . the i d e a s c o n s i s t o f c r e a t i v i t y and t e c h n o l o g y .  In turn  N e i t h e r p a r t stands  its  own.  The p e r c e p t i o n r e q u i r e s e x p r e s s i o n which r e q u i r e s  The  study  of s o c i e t y requires i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e .  boundaries  design  next.  t o a v o i d chaos, and show t h e i r  for  they can g a t h e r  of a r c h i t e c t u r a l  on  understanding.  The work c r o s s e s the  o f many s c h o o l s u b j e c t s .  To be o f p r a c t i c a l use i n s c h o o l s , the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e work t o each s c h o o l s u b j e c t must now be d e t a i l e d . follow.  Appropriate  f o r study  t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l i s now a v a i l a b l e o r under  t i o n through my company K i n g G r a p h i c s  Geography:  Some s u g g e s t i o n s  prepara-  Limited.  The c h o i c e o f s i t e f o r Crown C i t y and f o r the v a r i o u s  parts of i t , r e l a t e d  t o l a n d , w a t e r , c l i m a t e , sun and  vegetation. History:  Periods of s o c i a l h i s t o r y bearing q u a l i t i e s  that'students  163 f i n d a t t r a c t i v e today: t o c o n s i d e r a r e c r e a t i o n  of past con-  d i t i o n s f o r Crown C i t y . Economics:  The economic f e a s i b i l i t y  transportation Mathematics:  o f Crown C i t y .  E f f e c t s of  and l a n d use on i t s p a r t s .  Dimension r e l a t e d  t o human u s e , time and space r e l a t e d  to v e r t i c a l and i n c l i n e d t r a v e l i n Crown C i t y . variations  Historical  i n measure t o a c h i e v e e f f e c t s as i n Greek and  E g y p t i a n and R e n a i s s a n c e a r c h i t e c t u r e . Sciences:  The s k i n o f b u i l d i n g s .  heat r e l a t e d  Physics of acoustics,  to structure.  l i g h t and  P e r c e p t i o n o f the environment.  E c o l o g i c a l maintenance o f Crown C i t y . The A r t s :  E x p r e s s i o n s o f p e r c e p t i o n o f n a t u r e , p e o p l e , time by the  m a s t e r s and by s t u d e n t s i n language, drama, drawing and painting signs  and music and f i l m .  Drawing and m o d e l l i n g o f de-  o f Crown C i t y and i t s p a r t s .  The e f f e c t s o f media  on d e s i g n .  The Language o f A r c h i t e c t u r e  It  is  almost  a truism  society.  It  the  political,  it  whole  does  belongs.  geological  It or  The f o l l o w i n g illustrations  to  more.  say that It  economic is  climatic  an equally region  is  architecture  a most  precise  and cultural precise to which  reflects indicator world  indicator it  to of  of which  the  belongs.^  examples and o t h e r examples r e q u i r e  d e s c r i p t i o n and  t o be made a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s w i t h the i n t e n t i o n  they g u i d e s t u d e n t s i n t o t h e i r own s e a r c h f o r c l u e s .  that  164 1.  The bedroom window s e t back above a s t o r e i n d i c a t e s a change from a d w e l l i n g with flowers  t o a s t o r e and t h e r e f o r e a change from a garden,  and t r e e s and lawns and c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g , t o a  shopping s i d e w a l k ; the change from a q u i e t l a n e traffic  artery with t r a f f i c  to a noisy  l i g h t s and c o n t r o l l e d s t r e e t  crossings. 2.  The r u n down commercial a r e a w i t h p a r k i n g s t o r e s i n the downtown c e n t r e  l o t s and u n p a i n t e d  i n d i c a t e s a development p l a n i n  the o f f i n g w i t h t a l l b u i l d i n g s and perhaps a c o u r t y a r d fountains 3.  and e x p e n s i v e r e s t a u r a n t s  and s t o r e s .  The wide e n t r a n c e doors and e n t r a n c e porches o f o l d e r houses i n d i c a t e an a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e among f a m i l i e s b e f o r e and  4.  with  t h e cinema  television.  The predominance o f common E n g l i s h b r i c k i n c e r t a i n a r e a s cates  a growth o f development d u r i n g  indi-  a one way t r a d e o f lumber  to England and b r i c k as s h i p s b a l l a s t on the r e t u r n t o Canada.  L i f e S t y l e s i n Other  The  Cultures  i n v i t a t i o n f o r ideas  of t h e i d e a s  on v a r i o u s  life  s t y l e s and t h e e x p r e s s i o n  i n drawings and through p e r c e p t i o n may make involvement  e a s i e r f o r newcomers t o our c u l t u r e .  The n a t u r a l dominance o f those who  a r t i c u l a t e f l u e n t l y and have f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h our c u l t u r e i s reduced. To pursue t h i s thought a program has begun i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Professor  Frank Hardwick o f the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n ,  B r i t i s h Columbia, and a group o f t e a c h e r s  U n i v e r s i t y of  who a r e t o g e t h e r  proposing a  165 publication.  1.  The  I am  The  to l i f e  s t y l e s and  aim  p o i n t s of  the s t u d e n t s  study:  from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s  to p e r c e p t i o n . on l o c a l  geographical  i n a manner a p p r o p r i a t e to v a r i o u s c u l t u r e s .  E v a l u a t i o n of Response.  cultures;  two  development of d e s i g n s by s t u d e n t s  areas  young p e o p l e  these  d e s c r i p t i o n of l i f e by  related 2.  concerned w i t h  of  (a) each age  E v a u l a t i o n of responses i s r e q u i r e d from  group; (b) v a r i o u s a p t i t u d e s ; (c) d i f f e r e n t  (d) d i f f e r e n t socio-economic  backgrounds.  The  e v a l u a t i o n would  to l e a r n more o f :  1.  T h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o s o c i e t y and  2.  The  their  environments.  a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Assessment of Method.  and  expression.  Assessment o f the method and  of  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v a r i o u s media f o r the purposes of a c h i e v i n g :  1.  Increase  of  2.  A c u i t y of p e r c e p t i o n .  3.  Abilities  of  understanding.  expression.  The  assessment would d i r e c t the d e s i g n of f u r t h e r t e a c h i n g a i d s and  ect  m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o the method.  Study of T e a c h i n g  Environments.  t e a c h i n g environments i s r e q u i r e d .  The  t e a c h i n g environments f o r the e f f e c t s of experts;  (b) space and  room s i z e ;  A study  dir-  of the e f f e c t s of v a r i o u s  study would examine and (a) the p r e s e n c e of  ( c ) group s i z e and  compare  visiting  disposition;  166 (d) f l o o r and  ground s u r f a c e ; (e) l i g h t i n g and  t e a c h i n g environments to be examined would  sound.  The  range of  cover:  1.  The  2.  Open p u b l i c a r e a s .  3.  P l a c e s devoted  4.  T e l e v i s i o n s t u d i o s ( f o r program p r o d u c t i o n i n v o l v i n g the s t u d e n t s ) .  The  classroom.  to a d e f i n i t e c i v i c  aim of the study would be  purpose.  to d e f i n e optimum environments f o r  the d i f f e r e n t phases of the method.  P r o p o s a l f o r C o n t i n u i n g Work  The  c o n t i n u i n g work r e q u i r e s the c o o p e r a t i o n of c i v i c groups, of  P l a n n i n g Departments, o f d e v e l o p e r s , o f S c h o o l B o a r d s , t e a c h e r s , and v i s i t i n g  experts.  It requires central f a c i l i t i e s  students  c o n t a i n i n g audio  v i s u a l s t u d i o s , r e s o u r c e l i b r a r y , and  d i s c u s s i o n a r e a s , and  f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and measurement.  P r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n s have begun  f o r the o r g a n i s a t i o n of the c o n t i n u i n g work by f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Environmental  1.  2.  A forum where young p e o p l e  Design.  The  arrangements  the f o r m a t i o n of a C e n t r e would s e r v e  Centr e as:  may  a)  express  t h e i r views on the f u t u r e ,  b)  l e a r n of c u r r e n t and proposed changes t o the environment,  c)  meet w i t h e x p e r t s i n p l a n n i n g .  A s t u d i o f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n of a t e l e v i s i o n s e r i e s f o r g e n e r a l broadcasts  of the images and views expressed  by  the young  people.  FOOTNOTES  ^R. Furneaux J o r d a n , European Architecture Thames and Hudson, 1961), p. 12 and 17.  in  Colour  (London:  SOURCES CONSULTED  169  SOURCES CONSULTED  On A r c h i t e c t u r e and the F u t u r e  The  A p p l e y a r d , D., K. L y n c h , and J . R. Myer. b r i d g e : M.I.T. P r e s s , 1964. Arnheim, R. Art and Visual n i a P r e s s , 1954.  Perception.  Cities  C a r v e r , Humphrey. P r e s s , 1962.  in  the  View  from  the  Road.  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Garden C i t y , N.Y.:  .  Lon-  Doubleday, 1962.  York: G r o s s e t and Dunlap, 1941. 1958.  On Urban H i s t o r y  Day, C l i v e .  History  Geddes, P a t r i c k .  of Cities  G i e d i o n , S. Space, P r e s s , 1963. Mumford, L.  Commerce. in  Time  The City  S a k o l s k i , A. M. The B r o s . , 1932.  Evolution.  in  History.  Great  Wolf  New  American  The Rise  S h o l t z , E. and W. Simmons. M e r r i l l , 1959. Stegner, Wallace.  London: E r n e s t Benn L t d . , 1968.  and Architecture.  Samhaber, E r n s t . Merchants H a r r a p , 1963. S c h l e s i n g e r , A. M.  London: Longman Green, 1938.  Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y  Y o r k : H a r c o u r t Brace W o r l d j 1961.  Land  Bubble.  Make History,  of  the  Offices  Willow.  S u t h e r l a n d , N i e l and E. D e y e l l . Gage, 1967.  New  Y o r k : Harper and  t r a n s . E. O s e r s .  City.  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