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A method for introducing young people to the social art of architecture King, Stanley 1970

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A METHOD FOR INTRODUCING YOUNG PEOPLE TO THE SOCIAL ART OF ARCHITECTURE by STANLEY KING Diploma of Architecture, Leicester College of Art, 1953 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE in the School of Architecture We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1970 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f or reference and study. Permission f o r the use of the method described i n the thesis and the use of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s , together with the r e l a t e d s l i d e s e r i e s , forms the subject of separate agreement with the Heads of both the Faculty of Education and the School of A r c h i t e c t u r e or t h e i r representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Copyright reserved by King Graphics Ltd. 1969 and 1970 on a l l i l l u s t r a -tions with the exception of No. 33 and No's. 44 to 50 i n c l u s i v e . School of A r c h i t e c t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT This thesis describes and i l l u s t r a t e s a method f o r i n -vol v i n g young people of ages nine to eighteen years i n the S o c i a l Art of Arc h i t e c t u r e . I t aims to develop an awareness of the various environments i n which we l i v e ; aims to develop per-sonal values i n the young people of the way they wish to l i v e ; and to develop a b i l i t i e s i n them so that they can express t h e i r values and d i r e c t the design of t h e i r future environment. I t aims thereby to a s s i s t the r e v e r s a l of the present trends i n which as Lewis Mumford declares i n The City in History "the in c r e a s i n g l y automatic processes of production and urban expan-sion have displaced the human goals they are supposed to serve." The word " a r c h i t e c t u r e " here applies wherever people dwell, as i n the words of S i r Kenneth Clarke, who i n Civilisa-tion r e f e r s to arc h i t e c t u r e as "a s o c i a l a r t — a n a r t by which men may be enabled to lead a f u l l e r l i f e — . " The study, made under a Fellowship of Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, evolved i n answer to questions from students and teachers, who, following my v i s i t s to classrooms asked f o r a i d and guidance to continue the study of a r c h i t e c -ture and p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r information on the future scene. The f i r s t part of the thesis describes the method as i t i s used i n the classroom. I t progresses from the h i s t o r i c past that l ed to the present scene, analyses the present i n terms of l i f e and perception, and i n v i t e s suggestions i n the l i g h t of future trends. Scenes of present day c i t i e s , suburbs, farms and w i l d e r -ness guide the analysis and comparison of the kind of l i f e that pertains to each environment. Scenes of eating, shopping, and other forms of providing food; scenes of work and play, o f f e r a v a r i e t y of choices from which students s e l e c t t h e i r preferred ways of l i f e and examine the values by a r e c a l l of a l l the t o t a l perception of the scene i n a l l t h e i r senses. The exercise develops the awareness of the environment and acuity of perception and personal values which are next ap-p l i e d to t h e i r design of the future. Drawn as a place c a l l e d Crown C i t y , i t contains w i t h i n i t s boundaries wilderness, farm, suburb and c i t y . I t incorporates the c l a s s i c a l future c i t y forms and the probable trends of development known to a r c h i t e c t s , engineers and planners. I t also incorporates the views of s t u -dents made during the past eight years and i t i s designed to incorporate new ideas. The drawings of Crown C i t y aim to encourage the students to contribute ideas on l i f e not only from North American cu l t u r e but from other c u l t u r e s , and to define t h e i r ideas i n terms of design requirements that r e l a t e to the senses. From t h i s p o i n t , V the s o c i a l and t e c h n i c a l questions that a r i s e from the de-sign requirements can be pursued c l o s e l y associated with the students' personal set of values. The second part of the thesis recounts the studies and observations that led to the design of the method. The a t t i t u d e s of young people, the communication aspects of group response, of images and drawings and cartoons, and the var-ious audio-visual media channels of f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n , r e -l a t e i n a s p e c i a l way to the method. A drawing made on paper placed on the f l o o r produces b e t t e r r e s u l t s than drawing on the blackboard. A drawing board of t h i r t y feet encourages d i s c u s s i o n on the future way of l i f e while a board of twenty fee t i n length produces dis c u s s i o n on overpopulation. P a r t i -c i p a t i o n , which includes young people i n the design process, acquires s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s by emphasizing perception and the f e r t i l i t y of ideas. Faculty Supervisor TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION, AIMS AND METHOD 1 The Commencement of the Study 2 The General Aims and Purpose • . 7 The Professionals Reaction to Publ i c Design P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 The Choice of Young People f o r Involvement 13 • The Method 14 Some C i t y 17 L i f e Styles . . . . . . . . . 29 The C i t y Apartment Way of L i f e 34 Perception . . . . . 35 The Suburban Way of L i f e 36 Perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 The Farm Way of L i f e . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Perception 40 The Wilderness Way of L i f e . . . . . . . . . . 41 Perception 42 Crown C i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 I I . RESPONSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 The Current A t t i t u d e s of the Students . . . . . . . 74 v i i Chapter Page The Change i n Attit u d e s through P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . . 80 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Classroom Setting . . . . . . . 88 Design P a r t i c i p a t i o n 90 The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives 105 I I I . MEDIA , I l l Media Related to P a r t i c i p a t i o n Exercises . . . . . . 112 Models, Maps and Plans 115 Cartoons . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Fi l m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 T e l e v i s i o n 131 Generic and Drawn Images . . . . . . 134 IV. LESSON EXAMPLES . . . . . . . . . 141 False Creek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 V. CONCLUSION - FURTHER STUDY . . . . . . 1 6 1 The Language of Arc h i t e c t u r e 163 L i f e Styles i n Other Cultures 164 Evaluation of Response . . . . . . . 165 Assessment of Method . . . . . . 165 Study of Teaching Environments . . . . . . . . 165 Proposal f o r Continuing Work . . . . . . . . . . 166 SOURCES CONSULTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 References f o r Chapter I 60 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS I l l u s t r a t i o n Page 1 - 1 2 The story of Some C i t y 17- 28 13 - 17 L i f e Style Comparisons 29- 33 18 - 31 Crown C i t y 45-58 32 Sherwood Forest . . . . . . 76 33 No Easy Way 79 34 - 35 Rejected Future C i t i e s 83- 84 36 - 39 Students' C i t i e s 92-95 40 C r a f t Studios 104 41 - 42 Students' Crown C i t y 108-109 43 Playhouse Theatre Draw-In . . . 113 44 - 50 Cartoons 118-124 51 Cariboo 126 52 Touching Streets 138 53 - 54 False Creek Trip. 147-148 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Margaret King A.T.D., who i s my wife, has contributed her s k i l l s as an a r t teacher, her experience of teaching a r c h i t e c t u r e at high school l e v e l , and her s e n s i t i v i t y as a landscape painter. The impulse behind t h i s work comes from her co n v i c t i o n that a more humane develop-ment must be found that avoids the d i f f i c u l t i e s we experienced and observed i n l i v i n g i n a t o t a l l y planned English New Town, and i n con-t r a s t , i n the commercial anarchy of Montreal. The members of my Advisory Committee, at The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, have helped beyond the requirements of the organisation of the thesis by t h e i r enthusiasm and comments on the importance of the work: Hilda Symonds Henry Elder Wolfgang Gerson Bruno Freschi Frank Hardwiok Ben Whittinger Leonard Marsh Supervisor, Urban A f f a i r s Program, Extension Department. D i r e c t o r , School of Ar c h i t e c t u r e . Professor i n Charge of Graduate Studies, School of Ar c h i t e c t u r e . A s s i s t a n t Professor, School of Ar c h i t e c t u r e . Chairman of S o c i a l Studies, Faculty of Education. Chairman of Audio V i s u a l Studies, Faculty of Education. Professor, Foundations Department, Faculty of Education. X Among the hundreds of c h i l d r e n who have been involved, many have helped a f t e r school hours and during holidays with the expressed i n t e n -t i o n of f u r t h e r i n g the work, which bears t h e i r approval. My own c h i l d r e n Jonathan aged f i f t e e n , Rachel aged t h i r t e e n , and Celia aged eleven, a f t e r many years of close involvement are s t i l l ready to o f f e r invaluable assistance. The teachers who have i n v i t e d me to v i s i t schools are l i s t e d be-low. Their comments and p r a c t i c a l use of my v i s i t s helped to shape the method. Apart from my f i r s t approach to V i v i a n Graham School i n Quebec and to U n i v e r s i t y H i l l School on my a r r i v a l i n Vancouver, a l l the v i s i t s have been at the i n v i t a t i o n of the teachers. By t h e i r i n v i t a t i o n s and i n t e r e s t they have provided enormous encouragement. Mr. Peter Glouteney Geography, Grades 3, 4 and 5, V i v i a n Graham School, l i e Perrot, Quebec. Mr. D. Maggs H i s t o r y , Grades 6 and 7, Edgewater School, Pincourt, Quebec, and Oakridge School, Baie D'Urfe, Quebec. Mr. Willard Davidson Geography, Grades 6 and 7, Edgewater School, Pincourt, Quebec. Mr. R. Crowell H i s t o r y , Grades 5 and 6, Edgewater School, Pincourt, Quebec. Mrs. E. Dunbar H i s t o r y , Grades 4 and 5, Edgewater School, Pincourt, Quebec. Mr. J. Davidson Geography, Grades 5 and 6, Edgewater School, Pincourt, Quebec. Mr. G. Norman Whole School, Centennial P r o j e c t , Kensington Elementary School, Montreal, Quebec. Mr. G. Dodge A r t , Grade 10, Macdonald High School, Ste. Anne de Bellvue, Quebec. x i Mrs. M. King Senior Special Education, Dorset School, Baie D'Urfe, Quebec, and Macdonald High School, Ste. Anne de Bellvue. Mr. 0. Stevens Senior Special Education, Macdonald High School, Ste. Anne de Bellvue, Quebec. Mr. D. Barnes H i s t o r y , Grades 9 and 10, Macdonald High School, Ste. Anne de Bellvue, Quebec. Mrs. Glynn Jones Geography, Grade 10, U n i v e r s i t y H i l l Secondary School, Vancouver. Mr. D. Howie Geography, Grade 9, Magee Secondary School, Vancouver. Mrs. Helen Sherrif S o c i a l Studies, Grades 8 and 12, U n i v e r s i t y H i l l Secondary School, Vancouver, Mr. G. Onstad Mrs. Judy Doyle S o c i a l Studies, Grade 11, Alpha Junior Secondary School, Burnaby. Mr. L. Butehart S o c i a l Studies, Grade 7, Southlands Elementary School, Vancouver. In a d d i t i o n the mass drawing i n v o l v i n g young people and the d i s -cussion of the future, each of which furthered the work by the wide exposure, has taken place i n p u b l i c on the following occasions: Kensington Elementary School, Montreal, Centennial P r o j e c t , 1967. Pincourt, Quebec, L i b r a r y Opening, 1967. A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia "Adventure i n A r c h i -tecture" at Vancouver Playhouse, 1968 and 1970. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Vancouver, Hourglass, 1970. Eatons opening of "Vancouver I Love You" E x h i b i t i o n , 1970. The Vancouver School Board arranged mini-courses during February 1970 to demonstrate the method to High School and Elementary School teachers providing an invaluable exchange of views. F i n a n c i a l support during the past two years of study at the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia came from the Grant of Fellowship of Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation. The D i r e c t o r s , i n granting the Fellowship, l e n t the authority of t h e i r p r a c t i c a l concern with the problems of development, and also lent t h e i r esteem. The pu b l i c regard f o r C.M.H.C. i s high and mention of t h e i r backing gained respect and a t t e n t i o n f o r my work. A d d i t i o n a l funds have come from the preparation and sa l e of teaching m a t e r i a l , which appears i n the t h e s i s , through my company, King Graphics Limited, formed during the studies f o r t h i s purpose. Purchasers of material who have a s s i s t e d the study i n t h i s way include the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver School Board, and Schools throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. A METHOD FOR INTRODUCING YOUNG PEOPLE TO THE SOCIAL ART OF ARCHITECTURE CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION, AIMS AND METHOD The Commencement of the Study The General Aim and Purpose The P r o f e s s i o n a l s ' Reaction to Publ i c Design P a r t i c i p a t i o n The Choice of Young People f o r Involvement The Method 2 How do you wish to live? What is your way of life and your situation at present? What do you like about your present surroundings and what would you improve? Architects and clients discuss such questions after v i s i t i n g the site for a new home. The answers form the human goals for the design. They are paramount, above the goals of economics, of management and structure. The method of architectural design discussion has no parallel in the design of the environment at large. As a result, human goals re-main unstated and other goals prevail. This study proposes a method for stating the human goals for the design of the environment. Based on architectural design discussion, i t considers change and the future; life styles; and perception. It addres-ses young people, while they perceive acutely and curiosity for the future runs high, to give them time to prepare for participation in the design of the future environment. The method is intended for use i n Grade Schools where the ubiquity of architecture applies to the study of geography, history, the sciences and mathematics, and the arts. The Commencement of the Study. The Habitat articles that follow mark the commencement of the study in 1962. The view propounded i n the ar t i c l e s , that architects and the study of architecture both have a place in, Grade Schools won the approval of students and teachers. Invitations to v i s i t school came frequently. by Mr. Stanley King who has worked with Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation and later with consultants preparing the Frobisher Bay New Town Report; he then joined Peter Dickinson's office as Assistant Chief Architect on the Bank of Commerce Skyscraper in Montreal. Reproduced from Habitat Vol. V, No. 5, Sept.-Oct. , 1962, p. 12. 3 Elegy Nearby my home west of Montreal are these streets and houses. They are not well-known views and will soon be gone. The houses located in Saint Anne de Bellevue will soon be replaced by a bridge —anyway the balcony centrepiece and the houses to right and left are decay-ing and tottering. Any day now the view will be gone. The sketch just catches a moment in time. Often this spring I have been too late. Exquisite streets noticed on a Saturday morning have been changed by the time I return for another look on Sunday. In two cases the removal of a double balcony and the tarpaper facing of key buildings have altered the appear-ance, making me realize just how brief is the moment in time. It is a moment of evolution. It is appalling that it should happen so quietly. So many of these town streets and squares are gems of urban domestic streetscape and eminently worth studying. They are excellent visual solutions of urban dwelling problems—problems now being featured in the architec-tural press. On that count alone they could be studied by architects and planners, but this subject is much wider and is everybody's business and should not be kept within the profession. So what is to be done? Here, going unused, are full scale educational models for teaching townscape and we have been taught the phrases to describe and analyze and yet we are silent. We should be talking and pointing and showing photographs to councillor, teacher, parent and child. Why is this evolution so appallingly silent? 5 by Stanley King While discussing my drawings, I find people anxious to try to preserve any view that shows charm or character. It is an emotional response without discrimination. I am never asked why I like the views I draw. Love for a street is so vulnerable and beauty can be suddenly destroyed without regard for the opinions of people who made it their en-vironment. This is so different from conversations on separate houses and their interiors. It is a tragedy that the relation between consumer and producer should vary so much inside and outside the lot line. Inside the lot, people have a sense of participation in raising standards of beauty and opinions are well-informed. Outside there is no sense of participation and very little knowledge. We of the architectural profession must help. Commerce can no nothing, for street-scape is not immediately for sale. We have been trained to create towns and we know townscape as environment. We know how art, mathematics, physics, geology and geography are used in the fabric of towns and the different settings in history and liter-ature. All these are school subjects. We should go to the schools with talks and illus-R E V I V A L Reproduced from Habitat Vol. VI, No. 1, Jan.-Feb., 1963, p. 19. trations. We should show pictures of differ-ent streets at home and abroad and blank off key buildings to show their effect. This is not a specialized subject. A child of six knows more than we do about ground texture and the space of a gas station. This aware-ness must be sharpened before it is lost. We must remove the barrier between expert and lay. There was no such barrier between the public and the Renaissance Architect whose finishing school was a tour of the world's best contemporary cities. Much of Renaissance London, Bath and Edinburgh was built to conform with the public's taste. Our status of skilled servant is much the same as it was, but a large gap has grown between the archi-tect and the public. It is entirely up to us to bridge the gap. + + + 7 A method of in v o l v i n g young people i n the S o c i a l Art of Arc h i t e c t u r e began to shape i t s e l f . The'involvement of other v i s i t i n g experts to supplement the a r c h i t e c t formed part of the method, an aspect alluded to but not part of t h i s study. The idea of in v o l v i n g young people i n the design of t h e i r e n v i r -onment appealed to the producers of mass media. The National Film Board commissioned a report. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation gave t e l e -v i s i o n time. Parents expressed high regard for the idea, spoke of i t at publ i c meetings. I t featured i n panel d i s c u s s i o n at the 1966 General Meeting of the Quebec Protestant Home and School A s s o c i a t i o n . Kensington Elementary School i n Montreal, as t h e i r 1967 Canada Centennial P r o j e c t , featured the method and involved the e n t i r e school and the parents. Nevertheless, due to the demands of my a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r a c t i c e , the advancement of the idea progressed slowly. I t showed great promise and a t t r a c t e d encouraging support but the i n t e r e s t i t aroused turned end-l e s s l y around the questions that i t provoked about the future. Commen-cing i n 1968, with a Grant of Fellowship from Central Mortgage and Hous-ing Corporation f o r Graduate Study, I attended the School of Arc h i t e c t u r e at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia to develop the work to the stages presented i n t h i s t h e s i s . The General Aim and Purpose I present a method whereby Grade School students may acquire the S o c i a l Art of Arc h i t e c t u r e which may a s s i s t them when, as adults i n pos-i t i o n s of aut h o r i t y , they face decisions on the design of the 8 environment. I t aims to produce a p r a c t i c a l method of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a -t i o n f o r the des ign of the environment. The method aims to develop an awareness of the var ious e n v i r o n -ments i n which we l i v e ; aims to develop persona l values i n the young people of the way they wish to l i v e ; and to develop a b i l i t i e s i n them so that they can express t h e i r values to d i r e c t the design of t h e i r future environment. I t aims to demonstrate t h a t , as Ruskin advocates , "Arch i t ec ture i s an a r t f o r a l l men to l e a r n , because a l l are concerned wi th i t . " "Arch i t ec ture" wr i t e s Furneaux Jordan "is a s o c i a l a r t . " ^ "—an a r t " says S i r Kenneth C l a r k "by which men may be enabled to lead a f u l l e r l i f e . " 5 By a c q u i r i n g the S o c i a l A r t of A r c h i t e c t u r e , young people , who view the future wi th great a n x i e t y , may f i n d a more promising approach to s o l u t i o n s that technology has f a i l e d on i t s own to f i n d . The approach l i e s through an awareness of the ar t s of l i f e . "We need a r t " wr i tes Jane Jacobs " i n the arrangement of c i t i e s as w e l l as i n the other realms of l i f e to help e x p l a i n l i f e to us . We need a r t most, perhaps, to r e -assure us of our own humanity."^ The method attempts to meet the need and to do so wi th a sense of the desperat ion and urgency present i n our c i t i e s where, as Gied ion wr i t e s "A h o r r o r of mankind a r i s e s from the enormous heaping up of human be ings . O v e r f i l l e d c i t i e s have per force l ed to a bankruptcy of l i f e " ; ^ "ours i s an age" dec lares Mumford " i n which the i n c r e a s i n g l y automatic processes of product ion and urban expansion have d i sp laced the human 9 8 goals they are supposed to s erve ." By developing an awareness of l i f e and of our surroundings the method aims to r e p a i r the foundations where the b a s i c problems l i e . It i s not in tended , by i t s emphasis on the ar t s of l i f e , to be an escape from our r e a l t r o u b l e s , a r e l i e f from f a i l u r e , nor a journey to U t o p i a . The enormity of the problems, of p l a n n i n g , of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , of econ-omics, i s respected . "But" says Giedion "despite the complicated s i t u -a t i o n of the present day, the unchanging values of l i f e remain. Independent of a l l obs truc t ions which impede i t s f u l f i l l m e n t the upper-9 most ques t ion i s : Bow do we wish to live?" The ques t ion forms the heart of t h i s work. I t i s put to the student and fol lowed by another: In what surroundings? The answers set the approach to f u r t h e r study and may inc lude n a t u r a l as w e l l as a r t i -f i c i a l surroundings . The study of the S o c i a l A r t of A r c h i t e c t u r e aims to i n c l u d e , i n u n i t y , the whole environment i n which we l i v e . Ian McHarg wr i tes i n h i s book Design with Nature Our eyes do not d i v i d e us from the w o r l d , but un i te us wi th i t . L e t t h i s be known to be t r u e . Le t us then abandon the S i m p l i c i t y of s epara t ion and g ive u n i t y i t s due. Let us abandon the s e l f m u t i l a t i o n which has been our way and g ive express ion to the poten-t i a l harmony of man-nature. The world i s abundant; we r e q u i r e only a deference born of understanding to f u l f i l l mans' promise. Man i s that uniquely conscious creature who can perce ive and express . He must become the steward of the b iosphere . To do t h i s he must de-s i g n wi th nature.10 By the development of s e n s i t i v i t y to l i f e and percept ion i t i s hoped that an inner s p i r i t u a l advancement might be achieved that appears to be necessary f o r the q u a l i t y of beauty to emerge. S i r Kenneth C l a r k 10 speaks i n h i s Civilisation Series of the views of Abbot Suger i n the Twelfth Century "who argued that we could only come to understand abso-lut e beauty, which i s God, through the e f f e c t of precious and b e a u t i f u l things on our senses. He s a i d 'The d u l l mind r i s e s to truth through that which i s m a t e r i a l ' and 'Man may r i s e to a contemplation of the d i v i n e through the s e n s e s ' . F r a n k Lloyd Wright suggests that Man seems to be dependent upon i n s p i r a t i o n from a higher source. Neither by heredity nor by i n s t i n c t does man succeed i n the l i f e -b e a u t i f u l . He seems to have missed much of t h i s accord, concord and s i m p l i c i t y and instead l e f t a t r a i l of ugliness i n h i s wake, instead of what we c a l l t h i s r e a l i t y of nature—beauty. In a l l mans' attempted c i v i l i s a t i o n s t h i s n a t u r a l r i g h t to beauty seems l e f t to mans' v i s i o n of himself and the a f f a i r seems to r e s t not so much i n h i s education as i n the culture of h i s s p i r i t . 1 2 In a d d i t i o n to the s p i r i t u a l e f f e c t of perception the method aims to develop the s p i r i t u a l rewards of united and combined endeavour by a demonstration of involvement that i s open to a l l as p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t aims to equip and encourage people to involve themselves i n the design of the environment. Notwithstanding the evidence around us, the method bases i t s e l f on the f a i t h that our environment w i l l be improved by i n -creased p u b l i c involvement, and that the present scene does not repre-sent p u b l i c a s p i r a t i o n s . In h i s book Cities in the Suburbs, Humphrey Carver maintains that A stranger observing us i n our suburbs might conclude that North Americans had been u t t e r l y subdued i n t o conformity by the great cor-porate systems of democracy and industry. Yet i n fa c t t h i s i s not the t r u t h ; the suburbs give a f a l s e impression of what i s i n our minds. We have f a i l e d to give expression to the motives and pur-poses that govern us; i n the arranging of c i t i e s we have been i n -a r t i c u l a t e . 13 11 F i n a l l y t h e method aims t o ease t h e a l a r m i n g a n x i e t y w i t h w h i c h young p e o p l e v i e w t h e f u t u r e , an a n x i e t y t h a t i s i n c r e a s e d by a d u l t c o n -c e r n w i t h p o l l u t i o n and o v e r p o p u l a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d by t e a c h i n g s w h i c h e l a b o r a t e upon t h e u r b a n problems f o r w h i c h we e v i d e n t l y have no s o l u -t i o n s . The method aims t o ease t h e i r d i s t r e s s by i n d i c a t i n g a r e a s i n w h i c h young p e o p l e can p r e p a r e t h e m s e l v e s f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n , by e m p h a s i s -i n g t h e w e a l t h o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s and by d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e w o r t h o f t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e . The P r o f e s s i o n a l s ' R e a c t i o n t o P u b l i c D e s i g n P a r t i c i p a t i o n Humphrey C a r v e r , s a y s f u r t h e r i n h i s book Cities in the Suburbs To a l a r g e e x t e n t t h e s u b u r b s have been an a c c i d e n t , t h e consequence o f an e l a b o r a t e i n t e r p l a y o f f o r c e s i n l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n , i n t r a f f i c a r r a n g e m e n t s , and i n t h e b i d f o r consumer m a r k e t s . The p e o p l e who a r r i v e i n t h e s u b u r b s have been i n a r t i c u l a t e ; t h e y have n e i t h e r f o r -m u l a t e d n o r e x p r e s s e d t h e i r d e s i r e s . How c o u l d t h e y ? They w e r e n ' t t h e r e when t h e d e c i s i o n s had t o be made.14 I f t h e g e n e r a l aims of t h i s t h e s i s were a c h i e v e d , and s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d t o f o r m u l a t e and e x p r e s s t h e i r d e s i r e s , w o u l d t h e y , when a d u l t , be t h e r e when t h e d e c i s i o n s were made? Would d e s i g n e r s d i s c o u r a g e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , f e a r i n g a Tower o f B a b e l ? I n s t a n c e s o f t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e p u b l i c i n p l a n n i n g i s s u e s grow i n number. Some l o c a l examples t h a t f o l l o w may convey the i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n between e x p e r t s and c i t i z e n s . The C i t y P l a n n e r o f V a n c o u v e r , W. E. Graham, d u r i n g t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s i n v i t e d s u b m i s s i o n s f r o m t h e p u b l i c on t h e i s s u e s and t h e a l t e r n a -t i v e p l a n s f o r V a n c o u v e r , and w i t h R i c h a r d Hayward, t h e D i r e c t d r o f 12 L ong-range P l a n n i n g , h e l d p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n s c o n t i n u o u s l y w i t h c i t i z e n g r o u p s . P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r , t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e S c h o o l o f Community P l a n n i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Chairman o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d , w i t h H i l d a Symonds, S u p e r v i s o r o f Urban A f f a i r s Programs o f t h e E x t e n s i o n Department a t U.B.C, b r o u g h t t e a c h e r s and p l a n n i n g e x p e r t s t o g e t h e r f o r s e m i n a r s d u r i n g t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s . They a r e now p r o d u c i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s o f Urban S t u d i e s , a s s i s t e d by a r e s e a r c h g r a n t f r o m t h e C e n t r a l M ortgage and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . I n V a n c o u v e r , t h e l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s ' groups formed a Composite Com-m i t t e e , and d u r i n g t h e p a s t f o u r y e a r s h e l d e x h i b i t i o n s and m e e t i n g s t o h e a r p l a n n i n g e x p e r t s o f renown. N e a r b y , i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e L i b r a r y and t h e P l a n n i n g Department r e c e n t l y h e l d a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , under t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p o f P l a n n e r , D o n a l d Barcham, t o d i s c u s s t h e f u t u r e o f t h e C i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r . The A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h e l d shows a t t h e V a n c o u v e r P l a y h o u s e T h e a t r e d u r i n g t h e p a s t two y e a r s and encouraged t h e a u d i e n c e o n t o t h e s t a g e t o draw on a huge b o a r d , t h i r t y f e e t l o n g , t h e i r images o f t h e f u t u r e e n v i r o n m e n t . R e c e n t l y M a r a t h o n R e a l t y o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y s o u g h t d e s i g n l e a d s f r o m c i t i z e n s by q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s u r v e y s o f a r e a s o f Va n c o u v e r . The c o n t i n u e d growth o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n may h e r a l d a change i n t h e d e s i g n p r o f e s s i o n s . M a r s h a l l McLuhan, i n an i n t e r v i e w i n the mag a z i n e , Monday Morning3 i n 1968, a d d r e s s e s the p r o b l e m o f d e s i g n o f the e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i c h he s a y s : 13 Requires a knowledge on the part of the designer of a l l the e f f e c t s that that p a r t i c u l a r design or image i s going to have on the whole pu b l i c who are subjected to i t . What i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y nec-essary i n our world i s a knowledge of e f f e c t s before the e f f e c t s take place, and t h i s takes much more knowledge than the knowledge of simply producing the product.15 Designers w i l l need the advice of media s p e c i a l i s t s , psychologists and many other experts, i n a d d i t i o n to the f r u i t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n with people. P a r t i c i p a t i o n has the advantage that i t prepares p u b l i c accep-tance of the design. Undoubtedly, images help d i s c u s s i o n , and a r c h i t e c t s are uniquely s k i l l e d i n producing images of the future for t h e i r c l i e n t s . No other p r o f e s s i o n a l group f i t s the r o l e as a p t l y . I t emphasizes a p a r t i c u l a r t a l e n t i n a r c h i t e c t s , one that has suffered neglect during a preoccupation with b u i l d i n g systems and management, the t a l e n t of por-traying a v a r i e t y of future scenes. The v a r i e t y so f a r displayed i s a f r a c t i o n of i t s p o t e n t i a l , confined by the developers' purse and h i s estimate of p u b l i c taste. "Ugliness, writes Trevelyan, "remains a q u a l i t y of the modern c i t y , rendered acceptable by custom to a p u b l i c that can imagine only what i t has seen. The Choice of Young People for Involvement The work with students applies also to adults and derives from adult a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r a c t i c e . Where i t dwells on the future the young have, of course, a s p e c i a l place. The young represent the future: They are the future. The s e l e c t i o n of young people f o r response does not ex-clude a d u l t s , who often p a r t i c i p a t e as one with them. The emphasis on youth occurs n a t u r a l l y . Students i n High Schools and Elementary Schools 14 and their teachers show more eagerness than other groups to participate, and they extend pressing invitations. Also, they offer advantages over other groups of citizens. They assemble in classrooms without prior motive. They are not there to show themselves i n the community, nor to protect their own i n -terests. They are neither investors, developers, realtors nor builders, nor specialists in university study. The students respond openly, un-affected by special interests. The students remain as a group day after day and so the exercise of response goes beyond the stages of adult public participation that are often limited by d i f f i c u l t i e s of assembly and by lack of time to de-vote to meetings. The exercises f i t into the curriculum study of History, Geography, Economics, Language Arts and the Sciences, and provide a moti-vation for study. The exercises, even in their early form, have a place in the normal school program. Effective communication can be established with adults through young people. Adults identify with the young people through images of their own youth and r e c a l l the changes that have occurred to the envir-onment. Adults and young people appear to achieve a sense of unity during the exercise. The Method F i f t y children gather before a drawing board thirty feet long. I invite them to be architects and to design the city of the future, but f i r s t to look at the past to see what made the city into the present shape ans what might shape the future. V 15 A small trading community drawn on the shore of a r i v e r grows la r g e r to include stores and houses. The c h i l d r e n suggest s o l u t i o n s to the problems that a r i s e i n the community and draw a prosperous town that includes a l l that comes to mind as belonging to towns and c i t i e s . The board i s obscured by a crowd of c h i l d r e n a l l drawing parts of the c i t y . They duck down to permit the c h i l d r e n behind to see the drawing. The board, apart from an area on the r i g h t reserved for the future, i s crammed with b u i l d i n g s and structures of a monstrous modern c i t y . I release the future land f o r development, some rush to f i l l the empty space, some c a l l out f o r them to wait, to plan, to avoid a r e p e t i t i o n of mistakes. But while they exhort t h e i r colleagues and point out the consequences of over population and p o l l u t i o n the developers are s t i l l drawing and the whole board i s f i l l e d . A l l land i s b u i l t over. "We've messed up the future again," bemoans one student among a group who had attended previous sessions. They r e c a l l reading of solutions and d i s a s t e r s of other c i t i e s , and f a l l to arguments about r i v a l s o l u t i o n s . I guide them away from arguments, and ask them to p i c t u r e themselves i n the future. What kind of life do they desire? And3 if all cannot be obtained:, what do they value as most important? Later, I help them to perceive themselves i n the future and to dwell i n t h e i r minds on a part of l i f e , perhaps the hour of eating, i n v a r i e t i e s of s i t u a t i o n s , now and i n the future. The hour and then the day expand to f i l l a l i f e s t y l e . E f f e c t s perceived of sound and s i g h t and touch f i l l i n the d e t a i l s of the image. 16 They apply t h e i r thoughts for the future i n the d i r e c t i o n of the designs f o r a place c a l l e d Crown C i t y . Sketch designs are suggested on the pages that follow. They describe the area and the general settings of p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . They are intended to a i d the imagination so that the students can extend the p i c t u r e to cover a f u l l perception of the scene through a l l the senses. The students are asked to imagine time i n the s e t t i n g before and a f t e r the scene depicted. The students' own ideas develop from the sketches. A l l ideas are acceptable f o r consideration. They study the s o c i a l and technological impl i c a t i o n s of t h e i r ideas. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the Method that follows resembles a presenta-t i o n to a group of students, i t would vary f o r d i f f e r e n t ages and a b i l i t i e s . The presentation to students of about twelve years of age would c o n s i s t of the wording and student p a r t i c i p a t i o n that i s depicted. A f u l l degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n would be expected. The pace would be f a i r l y slow and would cover s i x classroom periods. The h i s t o r i c a l s e c t i o n proceeds qu i c k l y and the s e c t i o n dealing with the students' designs extends to s u i t t h e i r f e r t i l i t y and pace of imagination. Gener-a l l y , f o r older students, the pace increases and the spontaneity of response d e c l i n e s , and f o r students younger than twelve years of age the reverse would apply. I ask the reader to imagine the scene as the students respond. Where drawings appear i n the text the students would see projected s l i d e s , or be the a r t i s t s of the drawings themselves. Y O U A R E INVITED TO BE ARCHITECTS AND TO DESIOW YOUR FUTURE ffURROUNlPIMGG. B Y THE YEAR. 2000 THE CHANGES MIGHT SURPRISE YOU. AAAYBE YOU WILt SCRATCH YOUR HEAPS AK? WOMPER. HOW IT HAPPEMEP. HOW PIC THE PRESENT HAPPEM ? LETS ?&E IF THE YOUNIG GROWTH OF THE CITY HAS ANY CLUES TO HELP US' PECIGN THE FUTURE . LET YOUR IMAGINATION C0M6 BACK. TO THE BEGINNING OF A CITY . AMP WATCH IT GROW AS WE PRAW IT. SOME CITY © KIN6 $«ATHICS UP 1970 @ KU^Ci GRAPHICS l?l> » 1 0 ' « S D M E C I T Y ' « 3 M < :e W A S W I L D E R N E S S , ^uprose you KNEW IT THEN AS A PLACB OW "/OUR. TftAPE You STAKE OUT LOTS • • W T H T H E H E L P O F A R J CH F P . I B N P V O U 0 U Y T H E L A M P A N C ? APVEMl^e F o f c i A L E You S E E T H A T IT COCIU? M A K E A T O W M S I T S | j TOGETHER. WITH OTHER. SETTLE R-S VOU CLEAP-THE LAMP AND BUIC.P HOMES W H O C A N P P - A V M & O A T S ? ALL MERCHANTS MUST PAX" THS TOWN FOP- A LICENCE TO TP-APE THEY /WAY ONLY TRADE AT CERTAIN HOUfcS OM MARKET PAYS AND IN MARKET AREAS IwE MEED M0P£ HouSES I i l l Ilk THE LEADERS SPEAK OUT - THE TOWN MUSTGPEWP MONEY TO IMPROVE ITSELF MEN ARE HIRED TO TAKE CAR & ACE TO A PUMP ANP TO FILL THE PoT HOLES A POLICE STATION IS BUILT AMP STAFPED WITH FbLlcEMEN A FIRE HALL IS BUILT AMD FIRE TRUCKS ANP EQUIPMENT PURCHASED mmmmm i THE TOWM HAS TROUBLE PAYIMC FOR. THE NEW IMPROVEMENTS T H E PEOPLE HAVE L I T T L E M 0 K 4 B Y • T H E Y S H O P LSSff . LAMP VALUES FALL . H E R B S T H E P I P E H A L L T H E T O W N L E A D E R S PROPOSE A PV-AN TO ATTRACT MONEY ANP TOBS THEY BORROW MONEY TO B E REPAID B Y LATER TAXES THE SHALLOW HARBOUR? EOC^B IS FILLED IN TO PPOVIDB FLAT LAND FOR RAILWAY Y A R P S AND INDUSTRY . BICWER SHIPS USE THE IMPROVED HAA£00|>J M E N A N P THEIR FAMILIES ARRIVE TO WORK AMD TO SETTLE m m HOTELS AND OFFICES RISE ABOVE THE STORES - RENT PAYS THE LANDOWNERS R.ICHLY LANP BECOMES EVER. MOftB EXPENSIVE ll i Ul |1 | in't m II! -ULTL 111 jOL B a 8 E E g © e m M E N BUY LAND AND OLD 8UILD1NCTS HOPING TO <=iROW RICH FROM T H E RENTALS OF A NEW LARGE BUU-DINIG. W H A T WOULP Y O U PUT IM NOW TO BUILD THE. TOWN INTO A M O D E R N CITY? .YOU'D PUT HIGH .HIGH APARTMENT BUILPINC& WITH LOTS OF WIUPOWS AMP A POOR.... .... A N D THERE WOULP BE4 MOR-E CAR-S\... PlRE H Y D R A N T S . .ANP GAS STATIONS. ii - z : P R I P S PROM CAR.S Tl THE PEOPLE AP-E TAY WALKING ~utt — YES . WE'P BETTER. IPUT A G R O S S I N G T H E R E CL0UPS L O T S op L P E O P L E BOYS' ON BICYCLES NOTE : ON THESE PACES OF DIALOGUE . THE COMMENTS ARE FROM ftecoft.eiN<;r OF LEMONS . \ A I I R E £ F R A N V APAP-TMENTf C O C A - C O L A S I Q M S LOTS OF COMMERCIAL J*I^N5 MOf^E A P A R T M E N T HOUSED M B W J B U I L D I N G ' S G O I M G . U P A M P vou'p see THE. FPsAMB OP IT. vJOME H I G H R J S S S IT LOOKS A MESS CO M E U P A N P P R A W T H E M AS Y O U THlNfc O F THINGS IS THIS B E ^ l N N l N ^ TO Wok. FAMILIAR, ? IT UOOKS U K E VAMCOUV Eft- CITY BIGGER- BOATS' AMP AToAACie 3H6PS I A 6l#iER- HARBOUR. I PAR-KS OUT IM THE SUBURBS OVBR.PASJEC ANP HIGHWAYS AM AlP-POftJ U T S M O R E H O U S E * ^ T A H L £ Y PARjc I A PfcJJG STORE A S H O P P I N G C S H T R E O U T B T A U U T H E H O U S E S L O T S O F R ^ W C S I I A M P A H o f p i T A u A B U R . I A U CjROUNP 1 _ A. C I T Y H A L L \ WHERE C A M THAT g;o ? toova! S O M E C I T Y I N O T I C E Y O U P O U T M E N T I O N A J C H O O L O H Y E A H . A S C H O O L S l R . ! I T H I N K . W E N E E D M 0 R £ L A M P . WHERe ARC YOU GOING. TO FINP NlOfcE. LAMP W E L L . T H E P - E ' S T H I C A P - E A O P W A T E R , W E COULD FI UU IM. T H E R E SU R E H A V E L LETS S T A M P _ B A C K A N O UOOK f B E E M SOME C H A N G E S' S I M C E T H E O L P E M P A Y S ' —I 10 11. DOWNTOWN IS SO GROWPEP THAT CHOPPERS PREFER- THE SUBURBAN \ CHOPPIMQ CeMTasS P A R T S O F P O W M T O W N BECOME PefEPJErP__ LANp VALUES FALL MAX? TRANSIT IS PROPoTepl TO IMPROVE THE CITY ANP THEN RAPIP TRANSIT TD BftJNC- PEOPLE FROM FAR. AWAY -LANP FARAWAY IS DEVELOPED INTO SETTieMENTf ANP SO WE START ACjAIN To BUILP A CITY. HOW W0ULP YOU BUILP IT ? WEVE AAESiEP UP THE FUTURE A G A I N NV" It 8 COULpNT W E H A V E A N UkipBR^AaUHP ClTY SO T H A T THE C,W)UHP O N TOP IS L E F T N A T U R A L FOU- P A R K S ? COULP THEY HAVE A G R E A T B I G BIG, B I G PIPE THATS ABOVE q M U M P Xofcx O F . ANP EVERY80PY J U S T WALleS THRO' IT A N P T H E STREETS A N P E V E R Y T H I N G WOULP JUST 6 E U S E P FOR. CAP-S ? WHAT ABOUT FRESH A I R "THE T O P VMOULP B E A L L U S B P up WITH F A N S A N P T H I N G S YOU COULP HAVE AIR. CONDITIONING. I N0UU7NT LIKE T H E RESIDENTIAL AREAS UNPER.qRJUMP, THOUGH THE "TBANfPOPJ ANP SHOPPING MIGHT 8E. I THINK THAT WE LIKE TO S E E THE BEAUTY OF THE WORXP NOT vJUST PARK- NOTHINGNESS I T H I N I C IM T H E F U T U R E TO P R E V E N T C A S U A L T I E S O M T H E R O A D S T H E J Y WILL H A V E • O M - A L L T H E W A L K I N G W I L L B E D O N E O M T H E B O T T O M L E V E L N E A R - T H E G R O U N P A N P A L L T H E T R A V E L L I N G B Y C A R £ A N Y T H I N G E L S E W O U L P BE O N A T O P LEVEL 50 C A R S A N P P E O P L E W O U U P N E V E R . C O M E I N C O N T A C T . . " I " IT W O U L D B E E A S I E R Tb H A V E T H E O T H S R . W A M (ZJOUNP B E C A U S E C A R S A R E H E A V I E Q -T H A N P E O P L S tr-DOWN I N S E A T T L E . I T H I N K T H E Y ' V E M A P S A P R A S T I C M I S T A K E W I T H T H E I R M U L T I -L E V E L F R E E W A Y S . T H E Y ' V E GOT T H E M R I G H T D O W N TO T H E W A T E R F R O N T - . . . A N P Y O U (JUST H A V E A L L T H I S S M O G COMING F R O M 3 LEVELS OF T R A F F I C . A L A N E S T ILL T H E R E ' S 12. L A N E S OF T R A F F I C CONSTANT A L U T H E T I N S . . . I'D LlK-g TO U V E ON A N I S L A N D B E C A U S E ITS F E P A R A T E P . . N O C O N F U S I O N . , N O C M J A R R E L S A H D ITI R E A L L Y B E A U T I F U L , T H E WORLD ISNT W A S T E P B Y ciTies fcSMoc;.. . AND TOU COULP GO ON HORSES.. Y O U R J E ALWAYS qptMG. TO HAVE PERSONAL OR POLITICAL A R G U M E N T ? IF YOU W A N T TO KNOW WHATS GOING To K E E P T H E CITY GOING. _ _ 1t T H E B I G . Q U E S T I O N I S -W H A T K I M P O F L I F E P O Y O U W I S H TO L I V E ? I F A L L Y O U W I S H C A N N O T B E O B T A I N E P W H A T PO Y O U V A L U E A S M O S T I M P O R T A N T ? WELL I P D c B To U V E IN A TowN.,.WEVL A MODERN T O W N I M A B - E A o T i F o L . S E T T I N G B Y T H E S G A CONSIDER, EATING . 29. M A N Y D I F F E R E N T W A Y S ' O F B A T I N G A N D O F O B T A I N I N G F O O D C O M E T O M I N P •PANPWlCHEff I N T H E S C H O O L Y A W ? . HAMBURGER, I M A C A F E . C A K E A T A P A R T Y . A R C M i c . CookiINq Y O U R . O W N F O O D . P I C K I N G ; F R U I T . T H I N K A B O U T A F E W P O S S I B L E W A Y S T H A T A P P E A L TO Y O U N E X T • THINK ABOUT THE SURROUNDINGS WHAT PO YOU .IEE IN YOUR- MINP ? C L O S E Y O U R E Y E S ' A N P IN/VAGI N E T H E J T E N E W H A T L I G H T A N P C O L O U R S ? W H A T & U N P S DO Y O U H E A R ? W H A T - S M E L L S A W P T A S T E ? H O W M A N Y P E O P L E A R E W I T H Y O U ? IS I T P A Y T I M E O R N I G H T T I M E ? T H E •SURROUWPINCJS' INFLUEMCB T H E CHOICE THAT A R E OPEN TO Y O U . LOOK NOW AT T H E P t F F E R E N C S t f O F FOUR ENVIRONMENTS' . FOfcM YOUR-OWN LIST OF F E E L I N G S . CON^IPER. OTHER-ACTIVITIES IN E A C H E N V l R O N M B M T TO COMPARB ANP TO T & S T Y O U R O W M CHOICE OF • L I F E S T Y L E S IE & KING GRAPHICS 1910 52. LARGJB F A R M HOUSE - MUG44 J TO R A C E - L A R G E K l T C K B M fc w SOUNDS OF A.NIAAAU? , MACHINERY fMEU- OP ANIMALS . MANURE . CHICKENS' TOUCH OP ANIMAL^ , E A R T H , WOOD COMMUNITY OF FARM WORKERS , NEIGHBOURS RHYTHM OF PLANTING , HARVEf T , BP-EePING farm 14. ^ M A L L uoc H U T . U N L I M I T E D S P A C E H.UUTIMG . FlSHIMC, <5AAJ?EM PRODUCE. pk?S - HEHi* • DUCKS 34 L i f e S t y l e s . Test your own experiences and your own preferences i n the following personal comparisons of l i f e s t y l e s i n c i t y , suburb, farm and wilderness. 1 . The C i t y Apartment Way of L i f e S helter: Apartments of various s i z e s , with balconies, no garden or personal outdoor space. Eating: Small kitchen precludes elaborate meal preparation. Meals can be ordered and d e l i v e r e d . Many restaurants i n apartment v i c i n i t y . Packaged lunches eaten i n p u b l i c parks. Some apartment blocks have a communal room which can be used for p a r t i e s . P r o v i s i o n s : Can be obtained d a i l y . Shopping i n d e l i c a t e s s e n stores and boutiques and s p e c i a l t y shops a feature of c i t y dwelling. Storage i n the apartment i s minimum, small cupboards and small r e f r i g e r a t o r s . F u e l : E l e c t r i c i t y or gas. Central heating thermostat c o n t r o l . T o i l e t : Modern bathroom. Laundry: In basement, coin operated. Laundry companies d e l i v e r y and pick-up s e r v i c e . Repair and Maintenance: Undertaken by management; service companies, cleaning companies. T r a v e l l i n g : By bus or mass t r a n s i t t r a i n or car. Study: Schools w i t h i n walking distance or reached by p u b l i c trans-port. Bedroom f o r study. . C i t y l i b r a r y . Workshop: No p r o v i s i o n i n dwelling. Evening c l a s s e s , clubs. 35 Recreation, Entertainment: Theatres, restaurants, sto r e s , playhouses, movie theatres, very close at hand. A r t g a l l e r i e s , parades i n s t r e e t s and c i v i c squares, museums. Par t i e s l i m i t e d by small space i n the apartment: friends are met i n restaurants and places of entertainment. Camping, horse r i d i n g , boating, beaches, golf sometimes a v a i l a b l e i n pu b l i c parks. T r a v e l l i n g long distances by car or bus usually required. A t h l e t i c s a v a i l a b l e at schools and community centres. P r o f e s s i o n a l sport i n stadiums w i t h i n c i t y l i m i t s . Organized groups i n schools and community centres. L i b r a r i e s , c o l l e g e s , studios, clubs, Adult Education c l a s s e s . Clubs are organized f o r s k i i n g and h i k i n g and nature rambles. Perception Light - Night l i g h t s , i n st r e e t s and store s , s o f t l i g h t i n restaurants. Not much sun. Space - Limited personal space. Varying spaces of parks, s t r e e t s , stores. Sound - L i t t l e c o n t r o l over sound - w i l l sometimes reach i r r i t a t i n g l e v e l s . Touch - Limited to household chores, c r e a t i v e hobbies, hand r a i l s , doors. Smell - Various and uncontrolled; p o l l u t i o n reaching i r r i t a t i n g l e v e l s . S o c i a l - Observation of a c t i v i t y everywhere. P a r t i c i p a t i o n o p t i o n a l . Immigrants l i k e to l i v e i n an area with t h e i r own people to maintain language and customs from t h e i r own home. Their shops and restaurants and schools r e f l e c t t h e i r o r i g i n . Time - Spontaneous, no need to plan ahead, extended day into night l i f e . Aura - Man-made, s o p h i s t i c a t e d , often inhuman, b u i l t by s p e c i a l i s t s , huge s c a l e , tense. 2. The Suburban Home Way of L i f e Shelter: The suburban dweller i s defined by h i s acceptance of the need to commute by t r a i n or car, and i n return expects a more spacious home than that a v a i l a b l e i n the c i t y . Single family homes with varying l o t s i z e s . Large homes with elaborate gardens, small compact homes with a "backyard." Duplexes with communal play areas f o r young c h i l d r e n ; Townhouses with communal play areas f o r young c h i l d r e n . Eating: In the family kitchen or dining room, outdoor barbecues, p i c n i c s on the grass. Occasional snacks at the l o c a l shop-ping centre restaurant or coffee shop or snack bar i n a drug store. Occasional celebrations at a downtown restaurant. P r o v i s i o n s : A weekly t r i p to the supermarket, l o c a l shopping centre to f i l l r e f r i g e r a t o r and fre e z e r , large storage areas. D e l i v e r y of milk and bread e s s e n t i a l since the car i s the only means of transportation. Shopping i n the evening i s popular unless the family has two cars, or a t r a i n s e r v i c e takes the breadwinner to the c i t y . 37 F u e l : O i l - f i r e d furnace, e l e c t r i c or gas heating. Open log f i r e i n many homes. T o i l e t : One complete bathroom and a t o i l e t and washbasin c o n s t i t u t e a 1 / 2 bathroom. Newer homes contain a master bedroom bathroom with shower. Laundry: Basement u t i l i t y room with automatic washer and dryer. Repair and Maintenance: Much of t h i s undertaken by homeowner, land-scaping often by a f i r m i n l a r g e r gardens. T r a v e l l i n g : T r a i n , bus or car. Suburban areas with poor t r a i n or bus ser v i c e s require two or three cars per family. Study: School w i t h i n walking distance. Bedrooms are usually large enough to make in t o study rooms. Workshop: Basements are o u t f i t t e d as workshops. Recreation, Entertainment: Camping - tents set up i n the garden f o r "sleep over" p a r t i e s f or young c h i l d r e n . Long t r i p s are necessary to reach park areas f o r overnight camping. P i c n i c k -ing i n the garden or l o c a l park or on long t r i p s . Hiking, climbing, boating, f i s h i n g , s k i i n g , horse r i d i n g , g o l f - i n some suburbs are w i t h i n walking distance. A short d r i v e would bri n g most i n t o range. Sport - organized hockey - soccer -f o o t b a l l , b a s e b a l l , indoor skating r i n k s and playing f i e l d s e x i s t i n most suburban areas. P r o f e s s i o n a l games require a t r i p to stadium. Track events, swimming and cross country competitions are e a s i l y arranged between suburban schools. Entertainment mostly from the people's own resources. School 38 plays, drama groups. Movie theatres are becoming popular i n some suburban areas. Live theatre and music require a t r i p to the c i t y centre. P a r t i e s and v i s i t i n g have adequate space and f a c i l i t i e s . Organized groups are often centred on the churches and use the space provided; that i s , Keep-Fit c l a s s , Brownies, Scouts, Art and c r a f t c l a s s e s , Badminton, bridge clubs. Schools are also a f o c a l point of the community and are i n great demand a f t e r school f o r many organizations. The P.T.A. provides group involvement. Ceremonies, f e s t i v a l s and parades take place from shopping centre parking l o t s or pu b l i c parks. Perception Light - Daylight, s u n l i g h t , f i r e l i g h t , b r i g h t highway l i g h t s , b r i g h t shopping centres. Space - Varied - adequate indoor and outdoor space f o r small f a m i l i e s . Monotonous r e p e t i t i o n of same spaces, same volumes. Sound - Good c o n t r o l of noise. Touch - Household chores and gardening and cre a t i v e work and maintenance i n and around property gives some v a r i e t y . Smell - Under c o n t r o l , flower gardens, trees, grass. S o c i a l - P a r t i c i p a t i o n unavoidable. Neighbours close and to some extent competitive. Sometimes d i f f i c u l t to con t r o l s o c i a l pressure. Some suburban areas w i l l be a mixture of immigrants, some representing as many as 39 t h i r t y - t h r e e countries. Others w i l l have a high pro-p o r t i o n of one country and t h i s w i l l r e f l e c t i n t h e i r customs and schools. Time - Preoccupied with transportation time. Aura - Small scale v a r i e t y of gardens. Personal gardens and backyards. Personal i n t e r i o r s and basement decor. Family atmosphere. 3. The Farm Way of L i f e Shelter: Single family homes, often housing three generations, large farm house or smaller cottage. Orchards and pastures, barns, vegetable gardens surround dwelling. (In Eastern Canada the woodlot forms a feature - where the wood cut to burn i n a wood stove i s replaced each year by new growth.) Eating: Family kitchen, summer kitchen, outdoor barbecue, p i c n i c s . V i s i t i n g neighbours, snacks i n v i l l a g e coffee shop. Wood stove used often i n emergency - food preparation and cooking f o r many leads to large kitchen with much time spent i n i t . P r o v i s i o n s : Canning and b o t t l i n g f r u i t and vegetables. Reliance on d e l i v e r y of bakery and dairy produce, large storage areas. Deep freeze, pantry, basement, shed. In bad weather food stores have to l a s t f o r many weeks. Shopping - by catalogue order - occasional t r i p s to shopping centres and c i t y centre. L o c a l v i l l a g e stores - general store - v i s i t e d weekly. F u e l : O i l , wood, e l e c t r i c i t y , hot water radiators» T o i l e t : Earth c l o s e t s , indoor bathrooms converted from a bedroom. 40 Laundry: Machines i n kitchen or basement. Repair and Maintenance: These s k i l l s u s ually p r a c t i s e d by the owner; much time given to i t . T r a v e l l i n g : Truck, pick-up, car, j e e p - t r a c t o r . Snow plow. Study: School f a r away, reached by bus. Study i n bedrooms or dining room. Workshop: Workshop i n barns and out-buildings to house machinery and t o o l s . Recreation, Entertainment: F i s h i n g , camping, pi c k n i c k i n g and horse r i d i n g - on lakes, streams and woodlands near the farm. Beach, boating, rock climbing, g o l f and a t h l e t i c events - may mean t r a v e l l i n g some distance. Skiing cross country on own land. Downhill s k i i n g at a r e s o r t . Entertainment space at home and i n the garden f o r p a r t i e s and dinners, barbecuing outdoors, p i c n i c s . T e l e v i s i o n . Organized groups of weekly a c t i v i t i e s i n community b u i l d i n g s , church h a l l s . Barn dances, Brownies, Guides, Cubs and Scouts. S o c i a l groups dependent on church organization. Some r u r a l areas are served by a t r a v e l l i n g l i b r a r y . F e s t i v a l s r e l a t e d to churches, rodeos, country f a i r s . Perception L i g h t - Daylight, s u n l i g h t , f i r e l i g h t , moonlight. Space - Outside space ordered, aesth e t i c and v a r i e d . Personal space good, sometimes l i m i t e d . Barns and sheds. Open sky. 41 Sound - Certain noisy a c t i v i t i e s , good c o n t r o l of noise. C a t t l e and b i r d s . Touch - Various use of tools and mat e r i a l s , earth and garden produce. Food preparation. Smell - Various and c o n t r o l l e d , n a t u r a l smells, fresh a i r . S o c i a l - Involvement i n community necessary f o r s u r v i v a l -reasonable c o n t r o l of s o c i a l pressures because of i s o l a t i o n from neighbours. Rural areas r e f l e c t the character and customs of immigrants. Time - Involved with seasonal tasks, c e r t a i n sense of pres-sure. Day and night defined. Aura - Large scale b u i l d i n g s . Calm. Unpretentious. Builders part of the community. 4. The Wilderness Way of L i f e Shelter: Cabin or s h e l t e r s e l f made. Tent f o r temporary dwelling. Eating: In hut, barbecuing, p i c n i c s . P r o v i s i o n s : Simple and i n large q u a n t i t i e s . Some food grown; Hunt-ing and f i s h i n g . Storage i n hut and suspended from trees i n cache. Underground storage with i c e cut from lake. Fuel: Wood, cut and sawn by s e l f . T o i l e t : Water c a r r i e d from lake or stream, heated on stove. Earth c l o s e t , dug by s e l f . Laundry: In hut, d r i e d outside or on l i n e s i n hut. Iron heated on stove. Repair and Maintenance: By s e l f , upkeep of t o o l s , care and storage 42 of great importance. Travelling: Long car journeys, canoe, horse, mule or foot. Study: School far away, reached by bus. Correspondence course. Workshop: Outdoor shelter to store and protect tools and wood. Recreation, Entertainment: Camping, picnicking, nature hikes, skiing, boating, fishing, hunting, horse riding. These become a necessity, where in other environments they are pleasures. Athletics, sport contests and competitions of s k i l l s - log-ging, shooting. Reading. Occasional v i s i t s from neighbours. Observation of wild l i f e . Hand crafts, painting. Trips to nearest village. Entertainment is mostly that which nature and one's own resources provide. Record player, transistor radio. No organized groups. Ceremonies and festivals at annual celebrations and fairs the occasion for a v i s i t to local town. Perception Light - Daylight, sunlight, f i r e l i g h t , moonlight. Space - Unlimited outside, cramped conditions for housekeep-ing and chores. Sound - Complete control over noise. Touch - Unlimited handling of materials, tools, food. Smell - Wood smoke, cooking, fresh a i r , trees, earth closet. Control over odour. Social - Contacts limited. Complete control over social involvement. 43 Time - Absorbed i n chores, getting food, preparing and cooking i t , maintaining and improving dwelling. Aura - Natural arid harmonious. The pride of personal humble constructions. By considering your preference f o r each part of the day you b u i l d a p i c t u r e of your future way of l i f e and the p i c t u r e forms the d e s c r i p -t i o n f o r your c o n t r i b u t i o n to the design of Crown C i t y . The choices i n the survey are not an " e i t h e r , " "or" choice. Several a l t e r n a t i v e s might be chosen at d i f f e r e n t times. This may apply to a l t e r n a t i v e s i n t o t a l environment so that a person may choose w i l d e r -ness l i v i n g i n the l a t e summer or for s k i i n g i n the winter, and the c i t y f o r the r e s t of the year. The chosen environment i s to be the main base, the home. Choose an a c t i v i t y and proceed through t y p i c a l and s p e c i a l days. Start with a consideration of what i s done now i n the present environment. Define that which pleases you now so that the same condi-tions can be recreated. Describe, as accurately as you can, the e f f e c t s i n your design that you perceive through the senses i n r e l a t i o n to the l i s t that follows: Touch: Of wind, of water, and of textures, of f o l i a g e and animals and people. Heat from the sun, from f i r e s , or from c e n t r a l heating. Sound: Of men's or women's v o i c e s , of t r a f f i c , of a c t i v i t y . Speci-f i c sounds as i n poetry, music or the sounds of nature. Degrees of s i l e n c e i n order to hear s p e c i f i c sounds. 44 L i g h t : Daylight, night l i g h t and a l l v a r i a t i o n s of translucence, sparkle, g l a r e , f l a s h , r e f l e c t i o n , etc. Form. Surface texture. Colours, b r i g h t , warm, r e s t f u l . Odour: Smells and tastes of nature, of food, of people, of t r a f f i c , smells of materials, smells o f ' f i r e and of manufacturing processes. Time: Duration and frequency of a c t i v i t i e s . Hour. Season. Night or day. Or i e n t a t i o n and the sun's movement. Space: Movement i n space, t r a v e l i n space, s i z e and degree of enclo-sures, both n a t u r a l and man-made, both i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r , The view of space. Community: The number of people around the a c t i v i t y , crowds, family, couples or s o l i t u d e . Aura: The t o t a l sensations of the place that make one f e e l secure or e x c i t e d , or to have sensations of majesty or d i g n i t y . The expression of c r i t e r i a of aura includes the aesthetic design of b u i l d i n g s . I t includes expressions of beauty i n nature and i n works or a r t , of harmony and disc o r d . A Journey now in t o the future with your choice of l i f e s t y l e s and with a mental p i c t u r e of the surroundings you would wish to perceive. Apply them to the d e s c r i p t i o n of Crown C i t y that follows. Phrase your own ideas whenever the pict u r e s do not meet your own image. RAPlC? T R A N S I T 2oo **.p.K. oner too - ISO M K & S T H E DESION OF THE FUTURE CITY NEEDS YOUR IDEAS AMD CHOICES. AS YOU LOOK AT THE DRAWINGS THINK OF ALL THAT YOU WISH TO DO AND ADD SCENES OF YOUR OWN .ALSO THINK OF HOW YOU WOULD APPROACH OR. LEAVE THE SCENE . CHOOSE WHAT YOU WISH TO SEE. TO HEAR .TO TOUCH , T O SMELL , AND WHETHER. YOU ARE ALONE OR WITH OTHERS. GRAPUALC/ DEVELOP YOUR PlRECTIONS FOR THE PESICN OF co CROWN C I T Y VA CITY CBNTfca £ SUBURBS WIUPERNCSS F A R M L A N D CROWN CITY BOUNCfeAY RAPIP TRANSIT CROWN CITV LIES IN A VALLEY . IT CONTAINS FOUR E N V l R O D E N T S SUBURB , FARMLAND A N P VNILPERNESS . BACH WILL REMAIN FOR ALWAYS VP CITY C O N S I D E R . T H S S K - Y t, T H E S E A S O N S F R O M T H E FORBCOUR.T TO THE CITY C E N T R E WITH A View OVER, THE WHALE OF CROWN CITY, ITS FApsMS AMP WILPETRMESS BEYONP , TO T H E BOUNPARY AT THE ^UMAAIT <»P THE HILLS HbW W0UL£> Nou tASe T H I S A R E A ? FOOTNOTES ''"Stanley King, "Elegy," Habitat3 Vol. V, No. 5 (Ottawa: Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation) Septemb er—October 1962, pp. 12—13. 2 Stanley King, "R e v i v a l , " Habitat3 V o l . VI, No. 1 (Ottawa: Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation) January-February 1963, p. 19. 3 John Ruskin, Edinburgh Lectures Vol. 1, quoted i n The Lamp of Beauty, Selected and edited by Joan Evans (London: Phaidon Press, 1959), p. 258. 4 Robert Furneaux Jordan, European Architecture in Colour (London: Thames and Hudson, 1962). ^ S i r Kenneth Clark, Civilisation3 The L i s t e n e r , 1 May 1969 (London: B.B.C. P u b l i c a t i o n s ) , p. 608. ^Jane Jacobs. The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1961), p. 372. ''sigfried Giedion, Space3 Time and Architecture (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1963), p. x x v i i i . 8 Lewis Mumford, The City in History (New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 1961), p. 570. 9 Giedion, loc. cit. "^Ian McHarg, Design with Nature3 (Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Natural History Press, 1969). 1 : L C l a r k , op. cit. 3 V o l . 81, No. 2084, p. 309 and 312. 12 Frank Lloyd Wright, Architecture (New York: Doubleday and Company Inc., 1962), p. 11. 13 Humphrey Carver, Cities in the Suburbs (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1962), p. 117. REFERENCES 61 REFERENCES The quotations that follow, i n chronological order corresponding to the s t o r i e s of Some C i t y , i n d i c a t e the type of material that might be found l o c a l l y and i n d i c a t e sources f or further reading. They support some parts of the a l l e g o r i c a l s t o r i e s of Some C i t y , the remaining parts are c o n j e c t u r a l . Sakolski, A. M. The Great American Land Bubble. New York: Harper and Bros., 1932, p. 7. From Washington's Interest in Western Lands by Herbert B. Adams-Johns. George Washington wrote to a Captain William Crawford i n 1763, 'Any person, therefore who neglects the present opportunity of hunting out good lands, and i n some measure marking and d i s -t i n g u i s h i n g them f o r h i s own, i n order to keep others from s e t t l i n g them, w i l l never regain i t . I f you w i l l be at the trouble of seeking out the lands, I w i l l take upon me the part of securing them, (as soon as there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of doing i t ) , and w i l l , moreover, be at a l l the cost and charge of sur-veying and patenting the same.' Sakolski, A. M. The Great American Land Bubble. New York: Harper and Bros., 1932, p. 4. From the B r i t i s h Government Indian Agent i n Northern Colonies, The S i r William Johnson Papers, V o l . V, p. 129. 62 'One h a l f of England i s now land mad,' wrote George Croghan, of P h i l a d e l p h i a , one of the land schemers, to S i r William John-son, on March 30, 1766, 'and everybody there has t h e i r eyes f i x e d on t h i s country.' Howiston, John, i n Sketches of Upper Canada3 quoted i n N. Sutherland and E. D e y e l l , Making Canadian History. Toronto: W. J . Gage L t d . , 1967, p. 75. I t contains only one house and a s o r t of church; but a portion of land there has been surveyed i n t o b u i l d i n g - l o t s , and these being now offered f o r s a l e , have given the place a claim to t h i s a p e l l a t i o n of a town. There are many towns l i k e Chatham i n Upper Canada, and almost a l l of them have or i g i n a t e d from the speculations of scheming i n d i v i d u a l s . When a man wished to d i s -pose of a piece of land, or to render one part of h i s property valuable by b r i n g i n g s e t t l e r s upon the other, he surveys a few acres i n t o b u i l d i n g l o t s . These he advertises f o r sale at a high p r i c e , and people immediately f e e l anxious to purchase them, conceiving t h e i r s i t u a t i o n must be very e l i g i b l e indeed, other-wise they would not have been selected f o r the s i t e of a town . . . Wade, Richard C. The Urban Frontier. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959, p. 16. St. Louis was . , . surveyed and l a i d out i n 1779 i n 1/2 acre l o t s 12 blocks along the r i v e r but only 6 away from i t . In 1783 63 there was an attempt to keep 30' along the r i v e r as a common st r e e t but th i s too passed i n t o p r i v a t e hands, By 1800 a l l but a few scattered p l o t s of land had been s o l d . Wade, Richard C. The Urban Frontier. Cambridge: Harvard Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1959, p. 281. From Pittsburgh C i t y Council papers February 9, 1818. 'The i n j u r y complained of-. . . i s wholly occasioned by Butchers, and a l o t of mongrel merchants who attend r e g u l a r l y the fe r r y s and market place i n the evenings preceding market days and then and there monopolize pork, beef, flower ( s i c ) , meal, cheese, honey, b u t t e r , eggs, potatoes and i n short every commodity f o r table use.' The next day they sold at an advance of 30 to 50%. Convinced that the mu n i c i p a l i t y could act, the signers urged 'your i n t e r f e r e n c e i n some way to lessen the i n t o l e r a b l e e v i l . 1 The c i t i e s responded by incr e a s i n g f i n e s on f o r e s t a l l e r s , r i g -i d l y enforcing trading hours, and r e s t r i c t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of traders i n the market. Samhaber, Ernst. Merchants Make History3 trans. E. Osers. London: Geo. G. Harrap, 1963, p. 321. In every small settlement there was a merchant—the most impor-tant and most powerful man i n the v i l l a g e . His store would look odd enough: b a r r e l s of syrup standing on the f l o o r , sausages hanging from the r a f t e r s , mice scurrying about, n i b b l i n g the sacks of f l o u r , ploughshares and scythes stacked against the 64 w a l l , knives of every s i z e , bales of cotton, woollens and l i n e n s , paper, nibs and ink. Anything a farmer needed he would f i n d at the s t o r e . The shopkeeper himself was away most of the time. He might be r i d i n g h i s mule from farm to farm, o f f e r i n g c l o t h or buying up g r a i n : he might be taking h i s covered wagon along the bumpy Cumberland T r a i l to P h i l a d e l p h i a , New York, or Baltimore to stock up with ploughshares or to s e l l wheat. He would always grant c r e d i t . He would chalk up a man's debt. Accounts were s e t t l e d when the harvest was i n . As a r u l e h i s customers would pay not i n cash but i n k i n d — w i t h the grain or the wool they had produced and which the merchant would accept against the farmers' i n f l a t e d debts. Wade, Richard C. The Urban Frontier. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959, p. 281. From St. Louis, Ordinances May 21, 1822, and St. Louis Minutes May 3, 1824. St. Louis p r o h i b i t e d any 'grocer, huxter or any other dealer i n provisions from buying more than s i x pounds of but t e r , s i x dozen eggs, or f i f t y pounds of bacon or hams before ten o'clock. In a d d i t i o n , l o c a l o f f i c i a l s kept c o n t r o l over vendors through r e n t a l of s t a l l s , revoking the p r i v i l e g e s of those who v i o l a t e d r egulations. St. Louis Mayor Lane—'The whole secret of improving a market consists i n producing f a i r competition; and that i s done by simply b r i n g i n g a l l the vendors and purchasers together.' 65 Wade, Richard C. The Urban Frontier. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959, p. 283. From Missouri Gazette July 13, 1816, and Missouri Republican A p r i l 9, 1823. In St. Louis: As ea r l y as 1816 one e d i t o r declared that 'several s t r e e t s are rendered impassible by the want of common footway or drains to carry o f f the r a i n water. Nuisances are to be met with i n every shape from one end to the other.' Seven years l a t e r : 'Jonathan' annoyed by the delay of o f f i c i a l s on the question s a t i r i c a l l y gave 'Hints f o r the Mayor and Aldermen.' By a l l means prevent the paving of Main Street. That Street i s the only navigable water-course THROUGH the c i t y f o r c r a f t of lar g e r s i z e , though there are seve r a l that w i l l answer w e l l f o r scows and dugouts. Wade, Richard C. The Urban Frontier. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959, p. 84. From Lexington, Trustees Book, August 5, 1805, and Cumins, "Sketches of a Tour" i n Thwaites, ed., Western Travels , V o l . IV, p. 76. In Lexington, f or example, the trustees h i r e d 'Davy,' a free negro to take 'four dead cows out of the s t r e e t . ' Wade, Richard C. The Urban Frontier. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959, p. 284. From the C i n c i n n a t i Advertiser June 4 and July 30, 1823. The swarms of hungry hogs . . . are ready to swallow our young 66 c h i l d r e n and h a l f grown young men and women' as soon as the 'usual supply of garbage' declined. — a month l a t e r one c h i l d was mangled and another a t t a c k e d — Wade, Richard C. The Urban Frontier. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959, p. 284. From Frances Trollope Domestic Manners, p. 39, In truth the pigs are constantly seen doing Herculean service i n t h i s way through every quarter of the c i t y , and though i t i s not very agreeable to l i v e surrounded by herds of these unsavoury animals, i t i s w e l l that they are so numerous, . . . f o r without them the s t r e e t s would soon be chocked up with a l l sorts of substances i n every stage of decomposition. Stegner, Wallace. Wolf Willow^ which i s the story of the Saskatchewan town. New York: The Vik i n g Press, 1962, p. 246. I t began crude, but i t began strenuous. The f i r s t meeting of the v i l l a g e c o u n c i l was held on March 30, 1914, when the popula-t i o n was 112. I t s f i r s t act was to e s t a b l i s h the town nuisance ground on land donated by Pop Martin. In doing so i t corrobor-ated a tr u t h known whenever men have gathered i n t o permanent communities, we are the d i r t i e s t species and must make p r o v i s i o n fo r our wastes. At the end of May, when we arr i v e d , Whitemud was a straggle of shacks, a general s t o r e , a frame h o t e l , a r a i l r o a d boarding house, and some d e r a i l e d dining and box cars rigged f o r housekeeping. In wet weather the town's one s t r e e t was gouged and furrowed; i n dry i t was a r i v e r of gray powder, with saddle 67 horses and teams dozing at the h i t c h i n g bars and f l i e s r i s i n g and s e t t l i n g over mounds of dung. By July 9 a l i v e - w i r e Board of Trade had opened bids f o r plank sidewalks, thereby earning the gratitude of every woman i n the place. S a k o l s k i , A. M. The Great American Land Bubble. New York: Harper and Bros., 1932, p. 275. From The Gilded Age, A Tale of Today. Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner. Mr. B i g l e r s ' plan t h i s time, about which he talked loudly was the b u i l d i n g of the Tunkhannock, Rattlesnake and Youngwomanstown Ra i l r o a d , which would not only be a great highway to the west, but would open to the market inexhaustible coal f i e l d s and un-t o l d m i l l i o n s of lumber. The plan of operations was very simple. 'We'll buy the lands' explained he, 'on long time, backed by the notes of good men: and then mortgage them f o r money enough to get the roads w e l l on . . . and s e l l the lands at a b i g advance, on the strength of the road.' Sakolski, A. M. Land Tenure and Land Taxation. New York: Robert Schalkenbach Foundation, 1957, p. 231. From A l f r e d N. Chandler, Land Title Origins. Regarding h i s C i t y of Brotherly Love, Penn wrote i n 1683: 'With-i n one year of my a r r i v a l , the value of the l e a s t d e s i r a b l e l o t i n P h i l a d e l p h i a increased to four times t h e i r value when f i r s t l a i d out, and the best l o t s were worth f o r t y times, without any 68 improvement thereon. And though i t seems unequal that the absent should be thus b e n e f i t t e d by the improvements made by those that are upon the place, e s p e c i a l l y when they have served no o f f i c e , run no hazard nor as yet defrayed any p u b l i c charge, yet t h i s advantage does c e r t a i n l y redound to them, and whoever they are, they are great debtors to the country.' Shultz, Earle and Walter Simmons. Offices in The Sky. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1959. . . . o f f i c e b u i l d i n g was a p r i m i t i v e a f f a i r . P r a c t i c a l l y no s e r v i c e was provided. Elevators were s t i l l i n the future; a man had to clamber up as many as f i v e f l i g h t s of s t a i r s to h i s o f f i c e . Plodding upward, wheezing arid s n o r t i n g , t h i s luckless fellow c a r r i e d f u e l f o r h i s stove or f i r e p l a c e , f o r there was no c e n t r a l heat. Shultz, E a r l e and Walter Simmons. Offices in The Sky. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1959, p. 23. From a l e t t e r to A l d i s and Company dated February 5, 1881, from Peter Brooks. Having thought over a b u i l d i n g on the 89-1/2-foot l o t on Monroe Street next west of the F i r s t National Bank, I think, by u t i l i z -i ng a l l of the space on the main f l o o r and by b u i l d i n g up eight s t o r i e s with also basement—if the earth can support i t i n the opinion of the a r c h i t e c t — t h a t i t may be large enough to warrant 69 an elevator. I f you can get t h i s l o t for $100,000 cash I am rather i n c l i n e d to purchase i t . Shultz, E a r l e and Walter Simmons. Offices in The Sky. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1959, p. 23. From a l e t t e r dated 22 March 1881 to A l d i s from Peter Brooks. T a l l b u i l d i n g s w i l l pay w e l l i n Chicago her e a f t e r , and sooner or l a t e r a way w i l l be found to erect them. The quotations that follow r e l a t e to the structure of Crown C i t y , and to perception, as a sample of the contents of the books consulted. Faltermayer, Edmund K. Redoing America. Toronto: C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l a n Canada L t d . , 1969, p. 77. He r e f e r s to e f f o r t s by the State of Wis-consin to b r i n g about a s t a t i c r u r a l environment. The government's power to b r i n g about land-use changes by pay-ing money or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , to prevent change, has taken on some so p h i s t i c a t e d refinements i n recent years. In some i n -stances, l o c a l and state governments, instead of buying land o u t r i g h t , have acquired 'less than fee simple' i n t e r e s t s , i . e . , easements f o r p i c n i c k e r s or fishermen to traverse the property or a sayso over the land's future use. The state of Wisconsin, f o r example, has purchased 'scenic easements' from r u r a l land-owners to protect the view from the Great River Road along the M i s s i s s i p p i River, and some experts have advocated that govern-ments buy 'development r i g h t s ' from farmers and others i n order to preserve open space near urban areas. In 1965 a Wisconsin 70 c i r c u i t court upheld the state's r i g h t to use i t s eminent domain powers to purchase scenic easements, p a r t l y on the grounds that the p r o t e c t i o n of the motorist's view i s a legitimate 'public purpose.' Giedion, S. Space, Time and Architecture. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963. Ebenezer Howard wrote i n 1898 i n h i s book Tomorrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform of a co-operatively organised s o c i e t y . 'The c i t y was planned as a s e r i e s of concentric c i r c l e s . In the centre a group of c i v i c b u i l d i n g s surrounded by a common, then a c i r c u l a r grand avenue 400 fe e t wide with trees and greenery. At the outer c i r c l e l i e s the a g r i c u l t u r a l b e l t , and an area i s set aside f o r manufacturing.' Carver, Humphrey. Cities in the Suburbs. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1962, p. 36. A c i t y in a garden, a compactly b u i l t town surrounded by pas-t o r a l landscape. . . . 'The clean and busy s t r e e t s w i t h i n , the open country without' quotes Howard from Ruskin's Sesame and Lilies. For a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes the cost of land would be wiped out as long as the townsite remained the property of the community. Howard sums up i n these words the two simple expedients by which h i s scheme would b r i n g immense economic ben e f i t s to s o c i e t y : 71 F i r s t : by buying land before a new value i s given to i t by migra-t i o n , the migrative people obtain a s i t e at an extremely low f i g u r e , and secure the coming increment f o r themselves and those who come a f t e r them. Second: by coming to a new s i t e they do not have to pay large sums f o r o l d . b u i l d i n g s , f o r compensation f o r disturbance and f o r heavy l e g a l charges. Howard's v i s i o n of Tomorrow (the t i t l e of h i s book i n i t s f i r s t e d i t i o n ) had a c l a r i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y that made an immediate appeal. Carver, Humphrey. Cities in the Suburbs. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1962, p. 118. There must be an i n s t i t u t i o n a l embodiment of the future 'we' who come to l i v e i n the suburbs, a form of p u b l i c trustee to repre-sent the i n t e r e s t s of the future residents while the suburbs are i n the making. This must be a p u b l i c body with powers to buy the community land, to make plans f o r each Town Centre, and to s t a r t developing i t s b u i l d i n g and open spaces. The quotations on l i g h t r e f e r to the images of perception. Appleyard, Donald, Kevin Lynch and John R. Myer. The View from the Road. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1964, p. 7, The q u a l i t y of l i g h t w i l l a lso a f f e c t what i s seen, so that a view against the sun, emphasising s i l h o u e t t e , w i l l be grasped 72 quite d i f f e r e n t l y from one with the sun at the s i d e , where texture and d e t a i l become d i s t i n c t . A r t i f i c i a l l i g h t i s a r e -source f o r d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n , f o r changing apparent s p a t i a l form, f o r producing v i s u a l sequences. At night, the f a m i l i a r daytime landmarks and a c t i v i t i e s may be picked out to give a reassuring sense of c o n t i n u i t y . The l i g h t s of other v e h i c l e s i n d i c a t e and en l i v e n the road. On s p e c i a l occasions a new world of l i g h t may be made. l e Corbusier. The Chapel at Ronohamp^ trans. Jacqueline Cullen. London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l Press, 1957, p. 47. The key i s l i g h t and l i g h t i l l u m i n a t e s shapes and shapes have an emotional power. — o b s e r v e the play of shadows, learn the game . . . precise shadows, c l e a r cut or d i s s o l v i n g . Projected shadows, sharp. Projected shadows, p r e c i s e l y delineated, but what enchanting arabesques and f r e t s . Counterpoint and fugue. Great music. Try to look at the p i c t u r e upside-down or sideways. You w i l l discover the game. CHAPTER II RESPONSE The Current Attitudes of the Students The Change i n Attit u d e s through P a r t i c i p a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Classroom Setting Design P a r t i c i p a t i o n The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives 74 The Current Attitudes of the Students The drawing by students of the development of the c i t y encourages them to express t h e i r concerns for i t s future. The r e s u l t i s shocking. I t reveals an awful emotional s t r e s s i n c h i l d r e n about the future and about the c i t y . The c i t y seems to represent overpopulation, increased p o l l u t i o n , loss of n a t u r a l areas, increased crime. In open suburban areas I have found worry about the population explosion. Tied to t h i s view of the c i t y i s the view of the world running out of food, poisoning i t s e l f with smoke and i n s e c t i c i d e s , and ending i n a vast explosion of hydrogen bombs. News reporting must be p a r t l y to blame. Marshall McLuhan's con-cept that reported news must always be bad to balance the good a d v e r t i s -ing and P.R. releases i s very evident. Even the very young appear to view the c i t y as an approaching ogre to be feared, whose presence r e s u l t s i n the loss of one vacant l o t playground a f t e r another to the bulldozer. My experience has been that the c h i l d r e n can ask very cogent questions at about the age of s i x . At t h i s time the c h i l d r e n venture i n t o t h e i r surrounding neighbourhood of play-worlds that are often the fallow land of the developer and when the children's play-worlds are destroyed and b u i l t over they very b i t t e r l y want to know the r u l e s . Do we teach c h i l d r e n to fear the c i t y ? We communicate anxiety by our t i g h t hand-holding, don't get l o s t , cross now, hurry; the fear that we transmit to a c h i l d that might get l o s t i n a downtown s t r e e t or 75 be k i l l e d by the t r a f f i c . We teach them that beyond our p r o t e c t i o n l i e s a world to fear i n the c i t y . When we drive i n the c i t y we communicate anxiety to the c h i l d . Father comes home ragged from h i s b a t t l e s downtown. As a c o r o l l a r y consider the e f f e c t of the dog and the mailman. A f r i e n d knocks at our door, we greet them with c r i e s of joy, take t h e i r coats and t a l k and s i t with them. The dog knows by t h i s that the v i s i t o r i s a f r i e n d , and wags i t s t a i l and nuzzles up. There i s one v i s i t o r whose r a t t l e at the door i s not answered, who leaves, through the l e t t e r -box, droppings that we pick up and tear apart, whom we allow to depart unchallenged and never i n v i t e i n t o the house. This v i s i t o r must there-fore be an enemy, to be attacked with courage and chased away. The i n t e n s i t y of the outcome from our inadvertent teaching of the dog about the mailman suggests the source of an intense r e a c t i o n i n c h i l d r e n against the c i t y . I have been shocked at i t s i n t e n s i t y when 1 have given i t release. I have seen groups of adults, when conversing with young students about the future c i t y , shocked to s i l e n c e by the students' expressions of concern. Expressions of d i s l i k i n g of the c i t y and hopelessness f o r the future have become so commonplace i n my v i s i t s that I accept t h i s condi-t i o n as b a s i c i n my approach to a f f e c t i n g the children's a t t i t u d e s . At the same time, the c h i l d r e n show a f a s c i n a t i o n f or both the c i t y and f o r the future. The s t r e s s appears to be emotional. The c h i l d r e n are not i n any very bad s i t u a t i o n . They appear w e l l - f e d , w e l l clothed and l i v e i n good suburbs. My experience has been that, the c h i l d r e n can ask very cogent questions at about the age of s i x . At t h i s time the c h i l d r e n venture into their' surrounding neighbourhood of play-worlds that are often the fallow land of the developer and when the children's play-worlds are destroyed and b u i l t over they very b i t t e r l y want to know the r u l e s . ' 7//AT WAS SHBMMMP F O R E S T 77 Recently, at a l o c a l school, twelve-year old c h i l d r e n held a de-bate on the motion, "man w i l l eventually destroy himself." The motion was c a r r i e d . I was disturbed that such a subject should form the motion fo r a debate i n c h i l d r e n so young. When I enquired f u r t h e r , the c h i l d r e n answered, "The teacher asked us i f we would l i k e to hold a debate and, i f so, what subject would we l i k e to debate. Someone said—Man w i l l eventually destroy himself. The teacher asked who else wanted to debate that motion and we a l l d i d . " Another example occurred i n the popular s e l e c t i o n of a charming book c a l l e d The Little House, by V i r g i n i a Lee Burton,"'" that i s a favour-i t e of seven to ten-year olds. I t t e l l s of a house i n the country and i t s place i n the family and i n the seasons. A cloud appears on the h o r i -zon, and heralds the approach of the c i t y which eventually surrounds the l i t t l e house. Some descendants of the o r i g i n a l family f i n d the house and arrange to have i t taken out of the c i t y and f i n d i t a haven s i m i l a r to i t s f i r s t s i t u a t i o n i n the country. The l i b r a r y at my daughter's school contained a copy, which was usually out on loan, and she asked that I buy her one of her own. The popularity of the book provides a measure of t h e i r f e e l i n g s of sympathy with the story. In mixed classes of up to twelve years o l d , the unruly, r e b e l -l i o u s boys often s i t together and they are e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d . I f i n d them to be most responsive and to be f u l l of questions, and a l i v e with i n t e r e s t . I have found Indian c h i l d r e n r e a d i l y h e l p f u l with the mass drawing, and most able to extend t h e i r thoughts from the drawings to the sounds and smells and touch suggested i n the p i c t u r e . 78 The c h i l d r e n of ages twelve to sixteen years with learning d i f f i -c u l t i e s seem to f i n d the c i t y i n t o l e r a b l e , and h o r r i f y i n g l y noisy, d i r t y and confusing. They tend, i n self-defense, to c r i t i c i s e the c i t y . G i r l s of nine to t h i r t e e n often express a desire f o r the b u c o l i c l i f e of ponies and parkland and at the same time a desire f or happy m i l l i n g crowds, and for l i v e l y shopping s t r e e t s . Amongst boys from nine to twelve years old I have found great i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l systems of transportation and new c i t y forms and a s u r p r i s i n g l y high degree of knowledge. In many cases c h i l d r e n knew a l l the information that, to my knowledge, had been published i n the popular press and on T.V., which in d i c a t e s that they are very receptive to t h i s type of m a t e r i a l . They seem to be at home with the thoughts of rapid t r a i n s t r a v e l l i n g at two hundred mph, of Plug-In c i t i e s and underwater c i t i e s , and space s a t e l l i t e s . The academically b r i g h t boys have shown f a s c i n a t i o n with the i n t e l l e c t u a l considerations of c i t y management, land and b u i l d i n g i n v e s t -ment and commerce. Students as young as twelve and t h i r t e e n years have shown an i n -ter e s t i n p o l i t i c a l structures of the c i t y . In one case a group of c h i l d r e n defined i n some d e t a i l the p o l i t i c a l and administrative s t r u c -ture that they required f o r t h e i r i d e a l c i t y . They desired a C i t y State under a d i c t a t o r s h i p , with i t s own c i t y army, and parents and c h i l d r e n separated, with workshops instead of schools and a l l c h i l d r e n with I.Q. of l e s s than one hundred being banished from the c i t y . I have met t h i s i n s i m i l a r form i n Montreal and i n Vancouver. 33 80 I have discussed with c h i l d r e n aged t h i r t e e n of a mathematics bent the p o s s i b i l i t y of having an exercise i n d i f f e r e n t forms of taxa-t i o n and they were very eager to pursue the study. Any information that I gave them on costs of development, income from development and costs and income of d i f f e r e n t transportation systems i n t e r e s t s them inten s e l y . Children aged fourteen to eighteen have shown an i n t e r e s t i n the s o c i a l aspects of the c i t y , dwelling on the problems of the slum and of the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth. Boys, more than g i r l s , express a wish to make plans and models and to design c i t y forms. G i r l s , more than boys, comment on the sophis-t i c a t i o n of c i t y l i f e . A s u r p r i s i n g l y large number of students have never t r a v e l l e d be-yond t h e i r home c i t y . I have found many c h i l d r e n up to the age of t h i r -teen and fourteen who have not t r a v e l l e d beyond t h e i r d i s t r i c t to v i s i t other areas of the c i t y . Those who have t r a v e l l e d widely contribute the most to the discussions. Usually t h i s marks the d i f f e r e n c e between r i c h and poor d i s t r i c t s . The Change i n A t t i t u d e s through P a r t i c i p a t i o n The search f o r material on the future c i t y has taken a d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n as a r e s u l t of the r e a c t i o n of students. At f i r s t , I r e f e r r e d b r i e f l y to the future. The e a r l y stages of my work emphasized the present c i t y and an explanation of the past that led to the present. The students showed i n t e r e s t i n the f a c t that the changes that appeared i n the drawing occurred i n one geographical l o c a t i o n . They enjoyed the 81 s t o r i e s , laughed at the drawings, but they d i sp layed most i n t e r e s t when-ever I touched on the f u t u r e . I have asked s tudents , who four or f i v e years before had been with me dur ing these l e s sons , what they could r e -member and they have answered that my d e s c r i p t i o n of the future c i t i e s has remained fresh i n t h e i r minds. I have had parents speak i n p u b l i c i n support of these lessons saying that the future c i t y had been the main t o p i c of conversat ion at meal times for years a f t e r my t a l k to the c h i l d r e n . During l i v e l y d i s c u s s i o n of the future amongst the students there i s o f ten a sense that the c h i l d r e n have entered a time zone of t h e i r own and the adul t s can only wait and fo l low them as they enter a future of communications and r a p i d t r a n s i t systems that would enable them to avoid the c i t y a l t o g e t h e r . They quest ion the worth of the c i t y . They see i t as a growing entanglement of problems. "Why go to a l l the trouble of downtown develop-ment?" they say. "It j u s t seems to create more problems." "With v i d e o -phones and new invent ions i n communication you won't need to go downtown to meet people ," s a i d a s tudent . "And," s a i d another, "with automation , and I . B . M . ' s doing a l l the work, why go i n t o downtown to s i t around and . look at each other a l l day." With the lessons of change s t i l l i n t h e i r minds t h e i r thoughts f l y away from the f a m i l i a r c i t y and suburb to something new, somewhere e l s e , and they ask about new forms of c i t y . The ideas of Ebenezer Howard, Radburn, and Geddes, of garden c i t i e s , green b e l t s and s a t e l l i t e towns i n t e r e s t the students g r e a t l y , 82 and they approve of the ideas. But the ideas of Le Corbusier, Santa E l i a , Peter Cook and others, of dwelling i n apartments i n t a l l b u i l d i n g s so that the countryside around i s open, without houses, are turned down f l a t . The idea of l i v i n g i n an apartment i s out. Any suggestions of an applied c i t y design that does not allow for i n d i v i d u a l freedom of choice of hous-ing design i s also out. I have found t h i s r e a c t i o n constantly. The f i r s t group to react i n t h i s way were nine years o l d . They were very firm. Two boys, who had recently moved from apartments to houses i n the suburbs, were loquacious. Since then t h e i r views have been echoed by students of a l l ages. Their r e a c t i o n put a l o t of h i g h l y esteemed a r c h i t e c t u r a l s o l u -tions f o r the future i n the waste basket. For some time afterwards I was d i f f i d e n t about suggesting solutions but l e t the students develop t h e i r own ideas i n discussions. I found that they thought of nothing new, and that they derive a l l t h e i r ideas from a c t u a l experience or from p u b l i c a -t i o n s . I found also that t h e i r ideas f o r the future, while they were regarded by the proposers with a f f e c t i o n , antagonized the other students. They needed guidance to avoid stalemate. They accepted c e r t a i n parts of the various planning and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s o l u t i o n s . They accepted the p r i n c i p l e of the s a t e l l i t e town and approved the green b e l t s around them. They approved the p r i n c i p l e of Plug-In dwellings, providing that the u n i t that was plugged i n was not pre-designed but could be designed by the i n d i v i d u a l . They d i s l i k e d the massive structures of Peter Cook's Plug-In C i t y ; f o r them the b e t t e r s t r u c t u r e was the lower In-Line C i t y though with reservations on i t s uniformity. 84 vhuPEiNTS' ft\E4ECTEP FUTUPJE CITIBS . 2S 85 I should mention that though the studies were i n Montreal, we were i n the pre-Expo era, before Habitat had been conceived. Later, when Habitat was b u i l t , the students had the r e a l experience of walking around, running around, a structure of the future. Invariably they loved Habitat. They r e c a l l e d i t with d e l i g h t . Their hope was r e a l of some a l t e r n a t i v e to the apartment s l a b . Of a l l that was s a i d of Habitat, i t should be noted that the c h i l d experiences therein a fashion of l i v i n g of the future by a t o t a l touch and sensory learning experience. A l l other countries make do with paper i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the future; only Canada provides a r e a l example. To return to the pre-Habitat days, the q u a l i f i e d acceptance by the c h i l d r e n of a modified Plug-In-In-Line form of future structure led to another and more acceptable form of future c i t y . I t i s c a l l e d Crown C i t y . Crown C i t y grew as a c h i l d of the Montreal d i s t r i c t , of the a t t r a c t i v e farm land and v i l l a g e s of Quebec and the s k i slopes of the Laurentians. The Laurentians have a micro-climate b e t t e r by f a r than the micro-climate of Montreal. Summers shine c l e a r and fresh while Montreal swelters; winters sparkle c l e a r blue and white while Montreal i s c o l d , grey, overcast and d i r t y . Any s k i e r and any a s p i r i n g voyageur regrets the wasted hours spent away from the Laurentians. Therefore a future form of c i t y that took advantage of the s k i i n g , the b e t t e r climate and the view of the surrounding farm land soon came to mind. Once the idea had formed enough to be sketched and described, i t became a shining hope i n the minds of a l l my friends who shared the love of the Laurentians. 86 The c h i l d r e n took to i t , and took i t over, immediately. Conse-quently they modified i t to s u i t themselves and i n i t s modified form, which soon emerged, i t has served as a base f o r the design of the future for students i n Montreal and Vancouver. In Montreal the name applied to the s i t u a t i o n of the c i t y on the crown of a h i l l . In Vancouver, the name Crown has been taken to mean Crown land. Pictures describe the a r c h i t e c t u r a l form of Crown C i t y . Defined plans and d e n s i t i e s that I had made were never shown to the students. I intend to present a c i t y of questions, not of answers, which are f o r the students to pursue. The C i t y however had a b a s i c s t r u c t u r e . Crown C i t y weathered the f i r s t storms of a p p r a i s a l by the students. Perhaps the l o c a l o r i g i n of b i r t h gave i t strength. The r e -c r e a t i o n properties a t t r a c t e d the students. Above a l l I b e l i e v e i t succeeds by the f a c t that i t avoids the objections to other c i t y forms. The f i r s t queries were associated with the f l i g h t from the c i t y and concerned wilderness areas. "Where would you keep a horse i f you had one?" I would draw a horse on the h i l l s across the v a l l e y . "Ah, you could see i t from the c i t y . " "I want i t so that I can b u i l d a place of my own somewhere, have some land conquering," s a i d a student. This suggestion has reoccurred often. I t may a r i s e from the preceding exer-ci s e s which show the pioneer development, which c h i l d r e n f i n d a t t r a c t i v e . I have found students to become t o t a l l y absorbed i n the c o l l e c t i o n of ideas f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the new c i t y . As a r e s u l t the population of Crown C i t y has never been discussed. Nor has i t s s i z e been mentioned, nor i t s l o c a t i o n f i x e d . Were the question to a r i s e , study of the 87 " f e e l i n g " of d i f f e r e n t d e n s i t i e s and populations would follow. The r a r i t y of new ideas from students emphasizes the function of Crown C i t y , not as a place f o r new ideas but to provide a place to put the old ideas as they are rediscovered. The students walk backwards to Crown C i t y . They s i t on i t s slopes and think about the old c i t y . They bri n g to mind a l l the good points of the old as featuress f o r the new. They r e c o l l e c t features i n group disc u s s i o n and generate a greater de-gree of r e c o l l e c t i o n among themselves. In t h i s way they cast the o l d , that means the e x i s t i n g , i n a b e t t e r l i g h t . Thoughts of departure encourage an awareness and a fond-ness f o r the e x i s t i n g environment. The e x i s t i n g c i t y , and the future, o f f e r values that apply personally to the student. As P a t r i c k Geddes, i n h i s book Cities in Evolution, writes: In short, here, as elsewhere c h i l d r e n and a r t i s t s may see more than the wise. For as there can be no nature study, no geography worth the name apart from the love and the beauty of Nature, so i t i s with the study of the city.2 The achievement of such a stage by a student who formerly viewed both the c i t y and the future with horror i s an enormous improvement i n a t t i t u d e . Were i t j u s t a betterment f o r learning i t would be reward enough. The evident happiness among the students about Crown C i t y makes i t s t i l l more rewarding. On occasions the change i n a t t i t u d e has brought emotional r e l i e f , as i f a t e r r i b l e fear that had hung over the c h i l d f o r years had been removed. I have seen t h i s occur, not only i n young c h i l d r e n but i n eighteen-year-old students. I t marks t h i s whole 88 exercise as important beyond academic measure, touching on mental s t r e s -ses of alarming proportions i n the young people. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Classroom Setting I have often found the classroom to be an awkward place for r e -sponse. The r i g i d rows of desks and the d i s c i p l i n e imposed on the students to speak only when given express permission discourages a free exchange of ideas. On one occasion, p a r t l y by accident, ideas flowed from a group aged seventeen to eighteen years at U n i v e r s i t y H i l l , who were i n t e l l i g e n t but who were i n c l i n e d to be unresponsive and had a reputation f o r being uncooperative. I had planned a drawing to encourage a flow of idea. I expected that the drawing would spark the usual objections i n the g i r l s who would favour non-building, non-development. I wanted to record t h e i r comments. The tape recorder, I had noticed, picked up low frequency sounds w e l l but not the high frequency sounds and I was a f r a i d that I would lose the g i r l s v o i c e s . To get a b e t t e r grouping for the sound I placed the r o l l of brown wrapping paper on the f l o o r and u n r o l l e d the paper below and i n f r o n t of the recorder. The group gathered to watch the drawing, made with thick charcoal stocks. The room was s l i g h t l y darkened because I projected s l i d e s on a screen at one s i d e of the room. I k n e l t to draw which reduced any author-i t y I had brought with me, and the teacher Helen S h e r r i f k n e l t beside. Soon we had a row of people, each side of the paper, drawing ideas while those who spoke stood beside and watched. Within f i f t e e n minutes we had 89 a drawing over f o r t y feet long f u l l of ideas and the g i r l s who spoke des-cribed c l e a r v e r b a l images. The drawing flowed i n t o the c o r r i d o r , and we held i t up between us. I t showed, apart from a l l e l s e , a fount of ideas among the students. Drawing on paper r o l l e d out on the f l o o r succeeded on another occasion at Alpha School i n Burnaby, with the help of the teachers Gary Onstad and Judy Doyle, also with students of seventeen to eighteen years old. Several classes joined together number about one hundred and s i x t y students i n a double s i z e d classroom. We r o l l e d out the paper i n three pieces, one about t h i r t y f e e t long, the others of f i f t e e n feet each. The present c i t y f i l l e d one f i f t e e n foot sheet. The future f i l l e d the other f i f t e e n foot sheet. The t h i r d , h a l f used, showed ideas f o r r e c r e a t i o n . The drawings of ideas f o r r e c r e a t i o n at Alpha School and the draw-ing at U n i v e r s i t y H i l l were both s i m i l a r i n subject matter. They con-s i s t e d of a c o l l e c t i o n of separate ideas. I t appears that an idea develops i n about four feet width and can e x i s t without tr o u b l i n g a neighbouring idea. I t i s important to avoid the need f o r organising the conjunction of ideas i n t h i s stage of the exercise. The drawing on the f l o o r has an important aspect when used i n the classroom. The students p a r t i c i p a t e more r e a d i l y i n a drawing on the f l o o r than i n a drawing on the blackboard. I found that students were uneasy when standing at the blackboard. This appears to be a danger zone f o r them. Drawing on the f l o o r overcame t h e i r uneasiness. Another aspect may be the r e l a t i o n of the drawing to the sand patch which i s , and always has been, a s a t i s -f a c tory surface f o r doodling with a s t i c k or with a foot. A place f o r 9 0 the u n i v e r s a l language that Walt Disney's Professor Von Duck c a l l s "sandscript." The Alpha School had one other aspect which I consider a very im-portant element i n the success of the exercise. The f l o o r was carpeted. The students had no h e s i t a t i o n i n l y i n g and i n s i t t i n g on the f l o o r to draw. They had a relaxed a i r which would po s s i b l y have been d i f f e r e n t i f they could only squat f o r short periods. At U n i v e r s i t y H i l l , on a t i l e f l o o r , that discouraged close contact, the students relaxed less e a s i l y . Without the drawing on the f l o o r the r i g i d i t y induced by the rows of desks can be softened by asking the students to arrange themselves before the blackboard without desks, s i t t i n g on the f l o o r i f p o s s i b l e , or with chairs and no desks. Often the seats cannot be detached from the desks and the desks form a b a r r i e r . The students show great reluctance i n moving through the b a r r i e r of desks to j o i n me at the drawing board. S l i d e s , when shown to one side of the room throughout the draw-in, screened very small, b r i n g the students forward to see the p i c t u r e s . They arrange themselves informally and the draw-in proceeds more e a s i l y . Design P a r t i c i p a t i o n Many expressions of zoning or density are too abstract to support the personal i d e n t i t y of the student, and I have found that students i d e n t i f y themselves with t h e i r expressions to a powerful degree. When t h e i r plans f o r the future concern t h e i r own l i f e s t y l e and t h e i r own appreciation of the surroundings they can r e l y on t h e i r expressions as 91 an extension of t h e i r i d e n t i t y , and can, i f necessary, defend them when they are attacked. I found t h i s to be an important f a c t o r . For example, I had one instance with some boys of t h i r t e e n to fourteen years of age that brought out strong emotions from an i d e n t i t y with a plan f o r the future. The boys, who were very b r i g h t , l i v i n g i n a suburban area to the south of Vancouver, were eager to draw up t h e i r own ideas f o r the future. They mentioned underground c i t i e s that would leave the landscape untouched on top of the c i t y . The teacher expressed i n t e r e s t and though the boys protested, "Oh, S i r , you w i l l grow a l l f u r r y l i k e a mole," and " b i t s of mud w i l l drop i n t o your soup," most of them designed underground or underwater c i t i e s . I held the designs up before the class and asked the designer to t e l l us more about h i s c i t y . I t soon became c l e a r that the boys a l l had t h e i r own ideas about the organization of the c i t y and attacked r i v a l concepts. As a r e s u l t , the more d e t a i l e d drawings drew the heaviest c r i t i c i s m . The boys that had t r i e d hardest were the most severely c r i t i -c ized and were nearly reduced to tears. Lewis Mumford i n h i s book The City in History writes a chapter on the underground c i t y that might be guiding us past t h i s point. He writes of the b e l l i c o s e nature of man that pursues t e c h n i c a l goals, and creates underground c i t i e s , as an a r t of war. He w r i t e s , "We must not only un-learn the a r t of war, but acquire and master, as never before, the arts of l i f e . " 3 A few examples follow of the type of design that caused the furore. <=>s • . •• 111 • » LT Residential Buildings » i > » .... Government " Commercial Water and Sewage " M • i 96 Also, I have observed that students who are wrestling with a prob-lem of f i t t i n g two ideas i n t o a design are upset by the a r r i v a l of a t h i r d idea and r e j e c t i t . C o n f l i c t over r i v a l planning concepts has occurred many times, and I f i n d that c o n f l i c t can be expected to occur as a natural course of events unless the dis c u s s i o n i s guided away in t o safer areas. The d i s c u s s i o n of concepts occurs l a t e r but premature discussion i s f r u i t -l e s s on the following counts: 1 . The most energetic students who have provided f u l l designs f o r d i s c u s s i o n lay themselves open to attack on grounds that they are u n q u a l i f i e d to defend. They tend to become d i s -couraged from o f f e r i n g a lead i n further discussion. 2. The d i s c u s s i o n of abstract planning terms r e s u l t s i n the need f o r expert advice beyond the scope of the group of students, and d i s c u s s i o n i s postponed. The study of the urban environment i s obviously an enormous task and the enormity i t s e l f i s discouraging. The i n t r o d u c t i o n aims to sim-p l i f y and reduce the s i z e of the problem so that the student can take the f i r s t steps e a s i l y . The students express t h e i r c r i t e r i a f o r design i n terms that 1 . require no expert knowledge of terms, 2. encourage furt h e r enquiry, 3. give the designer u s e f u l guidance. 9 7 Planning concepts and systems are not examined u n t i l a l a t e r stage. The responses concentrate discussion on areas i n which students of any age can j o i n . They encourage awareness of the present environment and encourage s k i l l s of expression. The students choose a future a c t i v i t y and compare i t with the present forms of the a c t i v i t y . They enjoy the thought of eating, and extend t h e i r thoughts to other parts of the day: at home r e s t i n g and sleeping, eating, g e t t i n g p r o v i s i o n s , work, play, t r a v e l l i n g . More d e t a i l e d headings include cooking, laundry and r e p a i r and maintenance of the home. The headings provide a way of comparing l i f e s t y l e s i n d i f f e r e n t environments, c i t y , suburb, farm and wilderness, and i n other c u l t u r e s . The comparisons form a design process. Jane Jacobs writes of t h i s de-sign process i n her book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities: C i t y designers should return to a strategy ennobling both to ar t and to l i f e : a strategy of i l l u m i n a t i n g and c l a r i f y i n g l i f e and helping to explain to us i t s meaning and o r d e r — i n t h i s case, help-ing to i l l u m i n a t e , c l a r i f y and explain the order of c i t i e s . 4 The tendency to see the c i t y apartment as merely a cramped ve r s i o n of the suburban house changes when students see the restaurants, c i t y parks and theatres as part of a l i f e s t y l e . They compare a meeting of friends f o r a meal at home i n the suburb with a meeting of fri e n d s i n a f a v o r i t e restaurant i n the c i t y . The 98 restaurant extends the home. The method a l s o encourages the students to search f o r those features i n the c i t y that match the features of the suburban home. They search f o r the r i c h features of c i t y l i f e , the places where people gather to enjoy themselves. The emphasis on the richness of the c i t y l i f e helps c h i l d r e n who are depressed by thoughts of overpopulation. I have known cases when c h i l d r e n have been excited and exhilarated by a sense of r e l i e f at thoughts of the r i c h sides of l i f e i n a dense population. Problems of the poor people and of t h e i r future u s u a l l y a r i s e i n the disc u s s i o n s . The questions, "What would you do as a poor person, what conditions would be necessary f o r you to enjoy l i f e without much money?" guide the student i n t o deeper research. They imagine an e n v i r -onment sui t e d to t h e i r pockets and enjoyable without spending much money. The emphasis on p u b l i c and free amenities appeals to c h i l d r e n . A short walk to work or to the park, rather than a d r i v e , means freedom to the c h i l d as w e l l as a necessity f o r a poor person. I have found the con-s i d e r a t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s of everyday l i f e more f r u i t f u l than the presentation of the problems of slums as a b l i g h t , and as a s o c i a l planning problem. The students next consider the surrounding of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . They analyse the s t i m u l i of the environment on t h e i r senses, and then design a surrounding to enhance the a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r future d a i l y l i f e . In e f f e c t they become t h e i r own a r c h i t e c t s . Does t h i s seem novel? Over a century ago John Ruskin, l e c t u r i n g at Edinburgh, i n v i t e d people 99 to each become a r c h i t e c t s : 'Well, but what are we to do?' you w i l l say to me; 'we cannot make a r c h i t e c t s of ourselves?' Pardon me, you can—and you ought. A r c h i t e c t u r e i s an a r t f o r a l l men to l e a r n , because a l l are con-cerned with i t ; and i t i s so simple, that there i s no excuse for not being acquainted with i t s primary r u l e s , any more than for ignorance of grammar or of s p e l l i n g , which are both of them f a r more d i f f i c u l t sciences.^ I have found that students need help to perceive t h e i r surroundings. The guiding p r i n c i p l e s that follow consider each stimulus on the senses separately. Movement, touch, hearing, smell and sight j o i n other elements that a r c h i t e c t u r e , as a s o c i a l a r t , brings to the perception of l i f e ; the considerations of the e f f e c t s of people around one, of occasion, and of beauty and harmony. The l i s t that follows can be used i n the classroom to encourage mental images and to enlarge the r e c a l l of experience, and can be used to analyse the perception of a place. Touch: Of wind, of water, and of textures, of f o l i a g e and animals and people. Heat from the sun, from f i r e s , or from c e n t r a l heating. Sound: Of men's or women's voi c e s , of t r a f f i c , of a c t i v i t y . Speci-f i c sounds as i n poetry, music or the sounds of nature. Degrees of s i l e n c e i n order to hear s p e c i f i c sounds. L i g h t : Daylight, night l i g h t and a l l v a r i a t i o n s of translucence, sparkle, g l a r e , f l a s h , r e f l e c t i o n , etc. Form. Surface texture. Colour: An extension of the sense of L i g h t . I t i s l i s t e d as a separate item to help the formation of mental images because colour i s u s u a l l y regarded by the students as a separate item from l i g h t . The s p e c i f i c colours are avoided and i n -stead such adjectives as " b r i g h t , warm, r e s t f u l " are requested. The avoidance of s p e c i f i c colours avoids the arguments that accompany p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n of colour. Odour: Smells and tastes of nature, of food, of people, of t r a f f i c , smells of materials, smells of f i r e and of manufacturing processes. Time: Duration and frequency of a c t i v i t i e s . Hour. Season. Night or day. O r i e n t a t i o n and the sun's movement. Space: Movement i n space, t r a v e l i n space, s i z e and degree of enclo-sures, both n a t u r a l and man-made, both i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r . The view of space. Community: The number of people around the a c t i v i t y , crowds, family, couples or s o l i t u d e . This sense of Community and Space i s c l o s e l y connected; as one student wrote, "a you and me space." Aura: The t o t a l sensations of the place that make one f e e l secure or e x c i t e d , or to have sensations of majesty or d i g n i t y . The expression of c r i t e r i a of aura includes the aest h e t i c design of b u i l d i n g s . I t includes expressions of beauty i n nature and i n works of a r t , of harmony and d i s c o r d . The students use the same l i s t to b u i l d an image of the future. The kind of expressions that are sought from the students are l i s t e d a f t e r the senses. The number of words that appear a f t e r the senses v a r i e s f o r the d i f f e r e n t age of student. Students aged fourteen years have found the l i s t that follows acceptable and added many more descri p -tions . Touch: Warm, rough, smooth, granular, jagged, b r i t t l e , wet, slimy, cushioned, s i l k y , malleable, wind on the s k i n , sun on the s k i n , of grass, of f o l i a g e . . . . Sound: Loud, sharp, g r a t i n g , soothing, hypnotic, resonant, stimu-l a t i n g , s t a r t l i n g . . . . Li g h t : Hard, s o f t , smooth, intense, g l a r e , d i r e c t , f i l t e r e d , dappled, translucent, d u l l , even, f l i c k e r i n g . . . . Colour: B r i g h t , s o f t , pale, warm, c o o l , calm, t r a n q u i l , saturated, sti m u l a t i n g . . . . Odour: Pervasive, strong, pungent, unpleasant, s u f f o c a t i n g , f r e s h , r e l a x i n g , comforting. . . . Time: B r i e f , spontaneous, long, weary, boring, s e q u e n t i a l , ordered, p e r i o d i c , seasonal. . . . Space: Open, enclosed, fenced, vast, h o r i z o n t a l , long, cramped, claustrophobic. . . . Community: Privacy, crowds, groups, separation, l e i s u r e , clubs, structured. . . . Aura: Calm, s t i m u l a t i n g , majestic, d i g n i f i e d , f e s t i v e , t r a n q u i l , gay, expensive, d i s t u r b i n g , r e l i g i o u s . . . . I have found that the completion of the exercise brings great 102 s a t i s f a c t i o n to the students. The image that they create i n the mind of a future place gives them v i s i o n , where before t h e i r minds were blank. I t i s obviously a great achievement of imagination. The students who have t r i e d the whole exercise have shown an urge to express t h e i r ideas i n other forms than words. I have ventured very l i t t l e i n t o t h i s next stage, only to produce t e l e v i s i o n programs which featured charcoal drawings on brown paper. I have f e l t that the motiva-t i o n to create expressions i s very strong at t h i s point and should be guided i n t o media that are e x c i t i n g and expressive. Students at Alpha School, Burnaby, i n a program of urban study conducted by Gary Onstad and Judy Doyle which used the group drawing and s l i d e s , have recently produced expressions i n drama, dance and song i n a d d i t i o n to some prac-t i c a l proposals of development. The study of perception increases the importance and e f f e c t i v e -ness of f i e l d t r i p s . In t h e i r book The Child's Conception of Space, Piaget and Inhelder point out that "perception i s the knowledge of ob-6 j e c t s r e s u l t i n g from d i r e c t contact with them." The k i n e t i c and sensor-i a l e f f e c t s that the students perceived by d i r e c t contact on the s i t e are r e c a l l e d i n the classroom, and v i c e versa; lessons i n perception conducted i n the classroom are r e c a l l e d on the s i t e . I t i s an extremely d i f f i c u l t task to r e l a t e abstract concepts to an a c t u a l s i t e or v i c e versa, and to approach the study through perception gives the students a d i r e c t i o n f o r the f i r s t easy steps. The study of the senses therefore encourages f i e l d t r i p s and en-courages the students to experience the r e a l places and not to r e l y on 103 simulation. I t a l s o encourages the students to get out of the bus or car that conveyed them to the s i t e i n order to study the whole e f f e c t s . The r e a l experience of a community a c t i v i t y , f o r example, a parade, r e l a t e s to the parade s t r e e t or square as an example of percep-t i o n of s e n s o r i a l and k i n e t i c e f f e c t s , i n the same order that s o l i t u d e r e l a t e s to landscape. The a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t i e s of gathered crowds are therefore h i g h l i g h t e d and contrasted with other occasions of s o l i t u d e . " P r i n c i p l e s " : writes Le Corbusier i n Concerning Town Planning, "sun, space, verdure; A r c h i t e c t u r e develops from w i t h i n outwards (the key of modern planning)."^ The following example, composed by Anne Wolverton, t h i r t e e n years, of U n i v e r s i t y H i l l , Vancouver, shows how the l i s t guided the student to a f u l l s p e c i f i c a t i o n of her idea. CRAFT STUDIOS These C r a f t Studios should be i n a b u i l d i n g up above the ground preferably with the a v a i l a b l e materials f o r extensive work i n the f i e l d s of drawing, p a i n t i n g , ceramics, graphic and other such courses. SENSES 1. Space: large, a i r y , f ree These rooms should be i n a b u i l d i n g which i s very f r e e , n a t u r a l . I t should be very textured and should be b u i l t from very n a t u r a l elements. 2. Colour: warm, comfortable, f r i e n d l y I f i t i s to be painted i t should be done i n very warm, r i c h c o l -ours maybe i n some places stained so i t shows the n a t u r a l texture of the wood. 3. Touch: rough, n a t u r a l , unobstructed s Q) c o o ^ -C - ° * - g TS C o o 3 * 3 -G C 3 * ^ vn o o •~ o I K 40 105 Everything should be very textured, rough w a l l s , doors and c e i l i n g . 4. Aura: warm, f r i e n d l y , comfortable The f e e l i n g here should be that of a f r i e n d l y no l i m i t atmosphere. There should be a f r i e n d l y , h e l p f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p going on. 5. L i g h t : n a t u r a l , many windows, sunlight Here there should be many windows with sunlight coming i n at i t s best advantage. I f there i s other l i g h t needed i t should be warm, glowing l i g h t . 6. Smells: non-antiseptic, f r e s h , painty There should be busy but fresh smells f l o a t i n g around. 7. Time: day, going, free There should be a time l i m i t here. I t should be i n the day. 8. Sound: busy, hum, voices, machines, quiet, breathing, whispers There should be a v a r i a t i o n of sounds here, depending on the room. 9. Community: young, o l d , groups, separate There would be i n d i v i d u a l projects but what we want i s a group response towards helping each other. The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives The method r e l a t e s to the A f f e c t i v e Domain of the Taxonomy of Edu-8 c a t i o n a l Objectives by B. S. Bloom as follows: 1.0 Receiving - Attending 1.1 Awareness - of Change - A demonstration of change by r e c o l l e c t i o n of childhood. - Awareness of change i n e x i s t i n g s t r e e t s . 1.2 Willingness to Receive - That e x i s t i n g settlements are subject to change. 106 - The idea that e a r l y settlements had much the same problems as we face today. - The drawn evolution of the early settlement. 1.3 Controlled or Selected A t t e n t i o n - On the parts that change. - On the various s t o r i e s of the s o c i a l and economic evolution of Some C i t y . 2.0 Responding 2.1 Acquiescence i n Responding - To p i c t u r e i n the mind the image of today's c i t y and suburb. 2.2 Willingness to Respond - By c a l l i n g out the objects i n the image i n t h e i r minds that go to change the drawing of the early settlement to a drawing of the c i t y of today. - By some who j o i n me i n drawing or who e n t i r e l y make the drawing themselves. 2.3 S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Response - By drawing t h e i r v e r s i o n of the future c i t y that i s t h e i r own design. - In that they can make no e r r o r . 3.0 Valuing 3.1 Acceptance of a Value - That the future must be considered. - That the e x i s t i n g c i t y contains features that are necessary and de s i r a b l e i n the future. 3.2 Preference f o r a Value - In the e x i s t i n g environment by the ex-amination of present environment by considering l i f e s t y l e s . 3.3 Commitment - To a l i f e - s t y l e - "the kind of person I am - the kind of l i f e I wish to l i v e . " 4.0 Organisation 4.1 Conceptualisation of a Value - Of the e f f e c t s on the senses that are appropriate to the p a r t i c u l a r part of the l i f e s t y l e being considered. - Representation of the values i n drawings, words or other media, that describe an a c t i v i t y , or occupa-t i o n and i t s immediate surroundings, i t s place. 4.2 Organisation of a Value System - The gathering of the separate parts of the l i f e s t y l e i n t o a time continuum. - The s e l e c t i o n of an o v e r a l l a c t i v i t y environment. - The appropriate o v e r a l l environment i s described. 107 5.0 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n by a Value or Value Complex 5.1 Generalized Set - Of values and p r i o r i t i e s of l i f e s t y l e and surroundings by which a l l choices of environment can be judged. 5.2 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n - By a regard f o r ways of l i f e , l i f e s t y l e s , both ones own and others. - By an awareness of surroundings. - By a s e n s i t i v i t y f o r the e f f e c t s of the surroundings. - By an approach to impending change at the l e v e l of the e f f e c t on l i f e and on the senses. - By a respect f o r the opinions and a s p i r a t i o n s of the other people involved i n changes to the environment. 108 41 FOOTNOTES ^"Virginia Lee Burton, The Little House (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1942). 2 P a t r i c k Geddes, Cities in Evolution (London: Ernest Benn L t d . , 1968), p. 321. 3 Lewis Mumford, The City in History (New York: Harcourt Brace World, 1961), p. 481. ^Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1961), p. 375. "*John Ruskin, The Lamp of Beauty, Writings on Art by John Ruskin, selected and edited by Joan Evans (London: Phaidon Press, 1959), p. 258. J . Piaget and B. Inhelder, The Childs Conception of Space, trans-l a t e d from the French by F. J . Langdon and J . L. Lunzer (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956), p. 17. ''le Corbusier, Concerning Town Planning, t r a n s l a t e d by C l i v e Entwistle (London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l Press, 1947). g B. S. Bloom, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Affective Domain: The Cognitive Domain (New York: David Mckay Company, 1967). CHAPTER I I I MEDIA Media Related to P a r t i c i p a t i o n Exercises Cartoons Film T e l e v i s i o n Generic and Drawn Images 1 1 2 Media Related to P a r t i c i p a t i o n Exercises Format. An unexpected aspect arose i n the change of format from the blackboard to the T.V. and f i l m screen and the overhead pro j e c t o r . The blackboard measures four feet high by some sixteen f e e t long. The T.V. screen and f i l m screen are of the r a t i o four to three. Urban development grows mainly i n a h o r i z o n t a l movement and p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n drawing by the c h i l d r e n can be e a s i l y encouraged on the hor-i z o n t a l board. The classroom blackboard i s h o r i z o n t a l i n the r a t i o of four to one. At the "Adventures i n A r c h i t e c t u r e " i n the Playhouse i n Vancouver the board on which the c h i l d r e n drew measured four feet by twenty-four f e e t , a r a t i o of s i x to one. The students require no s k i l l s i n perspective or i n p i c t u r e composition f o r a drawing of a growing c i t y on such a format. In contrast, the four to three r a t i o of the T.V. and f i l m screen and the square r a t i o of the overhead projector c a l l f o r perspective and composition s k i l l s that no c h i l d could be expected to command at the pace of drawing required f o r the in t r o d u c t i o n of dynamics of c i t y growth. A small h o r i z o n t a l s t r i p , which ignores the space above and below, means that the drawing has to be very small i n the case of the overhead p r o j e c t o r , and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to draw speedily to a very small s c a l e . In the case of the f i l m , which can be a f i l m of a large and long drawing, the space above and below the drawing d i s t r a c t s the eye. The h o r i z o n t a l dimension appears to have an e f f e c t on the type of discus s i o n that ensues. A board t h i r t y feet long was t r i e d out at the 114 Playhouse Theatre on A p r i l 4 of t h i s year. The discussion that ensued considered the types of development and types of l i f e s t y l e possible i n the future. At a taping i n the C.B.C. studios i n Vancouver f o r "Hourglass" f i v e days previously, the students drew on a board twenty fee t long. They discussed overcrowding and p o l l u t i o n i n the future. In a school classroom a few weeks e a r l i e r , the students drew on a board sixt e e n feet long. They discussed the e x i s t i n g c i t y . The d i f f e r e n c e appears to be caused by the amount of h o r i z o n t a l space on the board that the students need to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the drawing of the e x i s t i n g c i t y . They draw the future on whatever space remains. If there i s not enough space, the future becomes over-developed. Concern f o r an o v e r - b u i l t future follows. The s i z e of the drawing w i t h i n the board has to be large enough so that a human f i g u r e can be drawn, and seen by a crowd of students. The drawing of a human f i g u r e with the spoken words, "there's you s i t t i n g on the fence," or some other occupation, appears to be an e s s e n t i a l element i n i n v o l v i n g the student. They laugh, and enter i n t o the draw-ing. The s i z e of such a f i g u r e has to be abour two inches high to be seen by a group of t h i r t y to f i f t y students. This makes the f i r s t s e t t l e r s ' huts about s i x inches high. These heights set a s c a l e of drawing. The students do not s t i c k to the s c a l e , d i f f e r e n c e i n scale does not upset them, but t h e i r drawings are consequently large. I have found that they require more than f i f t e e n feet to make, without my assistance, a drawing of the e x i s t i n g c i t y . Below t h i s I have to organ-i z e them to some degree. Most classrooms have a sixteen foot board on 115 one w a l l and extra board space on another. The e x i s t i n g c i t y f i l l s the sixteen foot board and the future f i l l s the other board. In the taping at the C.B.C. studio, the students were confined to a twenty foot long board. They had i n s u f f i c i e n t space; a mere f i v e feet remained f o r the future. As each student contributed, the previous open spaces changed i n t o b u i l t up areas, and a l l parks disappeared under b u i l d i n g s . They f i l l e d water areas to make more land. The future grew as crowded and messy as the present. The students expressed r e a l concern that t h i s indeed r e f l e c t e d the prospect for the future. The board had looked enormous before they s t a r t e d . Should I say, the land had looked enormous? With a board t h i r t y f e e t long the future develops le s s densely with room f o r the parks and open spaces that come to mind as being a necessary contrast to the crowded drawings that represent the present. An a t t r a c t i v e s t y l e of l i f e looks p o s s i b l e . A l t e r n a t i v e s have room and can be discussed. Models, Maps and Plans. Many c h i l d r e n enjoy making models, and I encourage those who wish to do so. Models of b a l s a wood, cut with s c i s s o r s and tacky-taped together have proved s u c c e s s f u l . Cardboard boxes are equally s u c c e s s f u l and can take drawing and colour. The model communicates very powerfully and should only be used i n a s s o c i a t i o n with the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l experience of the area i t portrays. Models are strong agents i n the formation of a t t i t u d e s , as every a r c h i t e c t who has used models i n presenting designs to c l i e n t s knows. 116 There are dangers In i t s strength; the a t t i t u d e encouraged i s that of detached omnipotency, or as the c h i l d r e l a t e s to the toy farm or d o l l s house. The viewer does not r e l a t e to the model as i f suspended above i t as i n an a i r p l a n e , but rather as a giant to a miniature land. As a t e s t , try out the d i f f e r e n c e i n perception by s i t t i n g i n a chair and l y i n g on the f l o o r and imagining y o u r s e l f ten inches t a l l . The aspect i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t and the perception e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . A model represents t h i s complete d i f f e r e n c e by a small measure, les s than one tenth of an inch i n a model of f i f t y feet to the inch s c a l e . A c h i l d standing beside such a model i s r e l a t i v e l y three thousand feet t a l l , and surely t h i s means a t o t a l a b s t r a c t i o n from r e a l i t y . The map and the model both represent scenes from high view points. They must be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to scenes from more common view points. As an a r c h i t e c t I am f a m i l i a r with the use of models, plans and maps i n my d a i l y work. I have acquired a great respect f o r t h e i r power to communicate, i n a pr e c i s e way, general information. This means a l s o , the power to mislead. That these media do often mislead i s one cause of the appearance of today's c i t i e s . As an example, apartments are des-igned to a scale of thirty-two feet to one inch. The drawing i s put up on a w a l l and approved from about four feet to s i x feet distance. This represents a distance from the r e a l b u i l d i n g of about two thousand f e e t . As a consequence, the apartments of Vancouver's West End look at t h e i r best when seen from across English Bay at about two thousand feet distance. 117 P l a s t i c models of b u i l d i n g s look garish i n colour and look w e l l i n tones of grey. The approved design which i s presented i n model form i s approved i n muted grey, more often as an incident than a main point. Most new downtown bu i l d i n g s are grey, however. In the era before the p l a s t i c model, when water colour sketches were the media of presentation, red roofs and white trim and green landscaping looked b e t t e r on the drawings and r e s u l t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t environment. The plan, the most used graphic image of the future, a f f e c t s the viewer with l e s s power than the model but the greater frequency of use more than makes up f o r i t s weaker power. I t often misleads us and the saddest words of the planner and a r c h i t e c t might be, " I t looked w e l l on plan." I fear that excessive use of the plan and map and model, as a main element of communication, may mislead children's thoughts from the r e a l e f f e c t s that make personal values. Marshall McLuhan, i n Understanding Media, quotes Prince Modupe on t h i s point, who, i n h i s autobiography "I Was a Savage," t e l l s how he had learned to read maps at school and how he had taken back home to h i s v i l l a g e a map of a r i v e r h i s father had t r a v e l l e d f o r years as a trader: My father thought the whole idea was absurd. He refused to i d e n t i f y the stream he had crossed at Bomako, where i t i s no deeper he s a i d , than a man i s high, with the great wide spread waters of the vast Niger d e l t a . Distances as measured i n miles had no meaning for him. Maps are l i a r s , he t o l d me b r i e f l y . From h i s tone of voice I could t e l l that I had offended him i n some way not known to me at the time. The things that hurt one do not show on a map. The truth of a place i s i n the joy and the hurt that come from i t . I had best not put my t r u s t i n anything as inadequate as a map, he counselled . . . I un-derstand now, although I d i d not at the time, that my a i r y and easy sweep of map-traced staggering distances b e l i t t l e d the journeys he had measured i n t i r e d f e e t . With my b i g map-talk, I had effaced the magnitude of h i s cargo-laden, heat weighted treks.1 B Y R . 0 8 E . R T C O L L I M S . C H I L D R E N A R R I V E F R O M T H E M O O N C O L O N y T O D A Y TO B E G I N E A R T H - O R I E N T A T I O N . HA! T H E W A L L S DIDN'T S W I T C H T H E M -S E L V E S O F F L A S T NIGHT. I C O U L D G E T A R O B O T T H A T W O U L D DO IT... B U T I D O N ' T W A N T TO. N O T YET. ...BUT THE BEDROOM OF CITIZEN GEORGE DAEDALUS IS FILLED WITH ARTIFICIAL SUN-LIGHT, AS HE REPLAYS THE TV MORNING NEWS. THIS MONTH, GEORGE HAS RENTED A J - P HOLOGRAM WALL OF A SLEEPY MEXICAN VILLAGE KIDS L IKE T H O S E B R E A K F A S T P E L L E T S G O O D F O R T H E M , TOO... J U S T L I K E M Y A P P E A R A N C E - F A S T S Y N T H E T I C T O A S T , A N D **•*• ^"^rS^. ^ ^ ^ ^ • * • • ' ' » BflEXT DAY, FRED (COMPUTER NAME M A C C O N E W i BSB 5 0 4 ) RETURNS TO VILLE TRUDEAU C L E A N T H E A P A R T M E N T L -A [—" ^SOy BEAN STEAK , \ | _/ SPECIAL , H M M . BREAKFAST DOWN THE ^ SUCTION CHUTE. SOY STEAKS HERE WHEN I RETURN FROM COMPULSORY LEARNING. ANP APJUST THE SCREENWALLS UKES SOY STEAKS. PLAN WEEKEND ORIENTATION FOR MOON KIDS...TWO-DAY SCRAMJET WORLD FUN TOUR... ROBOT NFL FOOTBALL GAME. , O LATER, ON THE MOVING SIDEWALKS UNDER THE OSHTOHAM WEATHER DOME. SO BEAUTIFUL COMING DOWN HERE FOR COM-PULSORY LEARNING... EH? WHAT5 THAT? GEORGE, A TRAVEL AGENT WORKS AT HOME. THE COMPUTERS KNOW HIM AS OflEDfl <92a 502 46? UST TALK FACE-TO-'FACE GEORGE/ CANT ON VIDEOPHONE/ HAD TO TALK FACE-TO-FACE. VIDEOPHONE 21 NO-HANGOVER COCKTAIL, FRED POOR FRED.., WORRIED. WE'LL WORK IT OUT... HMM MUST TELL HIM ABOUT THE COMPUTER'S NEW MEMORY PLAYBACK...TUNE IT TO 1969. I WAS TEN THEN, AND LIFE WAS SO SIMPLE, SO GOOD, NO COMPUTERS, NO DAE PA 928 502 +67... JUST ME, GEORGE DAEDALUS. ..AH^, THE COMPUTERS OUTNUMBER US, GEORGE. REPAIR THEMSELVES. WATCH, US ALL THE TIME... THEY'RE TAKING OVER/ Illustration: Gerry Sevier I THE PROVINCE . VANCQUVeP. . 7. J U N E 6 9 Wc Kl AUGHT SvNt>ICATg JNC kND GARBAGE. NO WALKING OUTSIDE IN THE RAIN WITH PAPER BAGS, SOGGY ON THE BOTTOM READY TO SPILL ALL OVER THE PLACE. E PAKTZ / i • . - • -i<r\ mm** m ' LEVATORS ARE THE GREATEST. ONLY APARTMENT HOUSES HAVE THEM. NOBODY EVER USES THE STAIRS UNLESS THE ELEVATOR IS BROKEN. WE USE THE STAIRS ALL THE TIME TO HAVE CLUB MEETINGS 'CAUSE NO ONE'S EVER THERE. R k S H T DOWN THE HALL IS THE INCINERATOR CHUTE. YOU JUST DROP EVERYTHING AND IT GOES STRAIGHT DOWN/ BAM! IN THE BASEMENT WE HAVE A MILK MACHINE. YOU NEED MILK. EVEN WHEN THE STORES ARE CLOSED, JUST / PRESS BAND THE ELEVATOR TAKES YOU RIGHT DOWN. V I ONLY I STILL 4 GOTTA GO TO THETy ! | STORE FOR BREAD. SJ. WISH THEY ^ J H Y NOT? WE HAVE A WASHING MACHINE AND A DRYER DOWN THERE. -iDNLY MOM DOESN'T use . THE DRYER. SHE SAYS SHE LIKES THE SMELL OF THE CLOTHES BETTER WHEN SHE HANGS THEM ON THE LINE?. I HAT'S UPSTAIRS ON THE ROOF. PRESS R ON THE ELEVATOR. NOW THAT'S A GREAT PLACE. YOU CAN LOOK AROUND AND SEE THE TALL BUILDINGS DOWNTOWN OR A JET AIRLINER OR FIREWORKS IN THE SUMMER T'S LIKE M Y OWN SPECIAL HIDEOUT. IN THE FALL AND SPRING; WHEN IT'S NOT TOO COLD, 1 CAN READ AND DO MY , - "y HOMEWORK OUT THERE. g $L .ND l C A N G R O W T H I N G S IN A F L O W E R P O T E X C E P T NOTHING G R E W V E T . I P L A N T E D A PEACH PIT LAST SUMMER A N D IT S T I L L H A S N ' T C O M E UP. 1 KEPT A FISH" TANK WITH MYTUR' THERE, TOO. I NAMED HIM JASON ROBARDS, JR. AFTER AN ACTOR I SAW IN A MOV/E ABOUT THIS KID. ONLY THE TURTLE DIED. " ^ H E R E ' S M O R E A B O U T 39IO T H A T I C A N T E L L YOU A B O U T , B U T I D O N ' T W A N T Y O U TO T H I N K I ' M S H O W I N G O F F OR A N Y T H I N G . NEXT WEEK'. A NEW STORY-125 Cartoons S t r i p cartoon may be very s u i t a b l e f or the communication of the h i s t o r i c a l material and human act i o n s , being popular with c h i l d r e n and having the q u a l i t y of pace. The graphic development of the changing c i t y form requires pace to bri n g about a p r o j e c t i o n i n t o the future and to show the rhythm of s o c i a l development. By pace, a cont i n u i t y can be achieved. Science f i c t i o n s l i p s i n whenever the gap widens between the present and the future. I do not know how quic k l y a comic s t r i p can communicate. S e r i a l s t o r i e s t o l d by comic s t r i p appear to be slowed down to lengthen the s t o r i e s . The pace becomes laboured and the medium lacks depth f o r long a t t e n t i o n . The use of c a p i t a l type rather than lower case may be a device for slowing pace. Nearly a l l comic s t r i p l e t t e r i n g i s i n c a p i t a l s , WHICH MAY BE A CONVENIENCE FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC REDUCTION, BUT I WOULD ASK THE READER TO CONSIDER WHETHER OR NOT THE USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS HAS MADE THE READING OF THIS PARAGRAPH SLOWER UP TO THIS POINT THAN WOULD HAVE BEEN THE CASE WITH lower case l e t t e r s . I f so, we are agreed. Most comic s t r i p s have t h e i r brakes on. The use of the cartoon to gain response may have p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I have t r i e d one example i n the s e r i e s of drawings that follow. They were to accompany a story published i n a book, with the i n t e n t i o n that the students would read the s t o r y , and then add captions to the cartoons and colour them. By f i r s t intimations the story i n the book i s too bor-ing, and the drawings are not defined enough to guide the colouring. 127 I t t e l l s o f m i n e r s i n t h e C a r i b o o G o l d Rush s u r p r i s e d by an I n d i a n , who i n v i t e s them t o a f e a s t , and, s h o c k e d by t h e i r o f f e r o f w h i s k e y t o a maiden, throws t h e w h i s k e y on t h e f i r e , t o a r e a c t i o n o f c h a g r i n , e d u c a t i o n and esteem. F i l m F i l m i n c l u d e s t h e m o t i o n f i l m and s l i d e s and f i l m s t r i p . A l l a r e s u i t a b l e f o r showing t h e growth o f t h e c i t y , t h e s t o r i e s o f s o c i a l de-v e l o p m e n t and t h e l i f e s t y l e and p e r c e p t i o n . I have made examples of each i n s l i d e and f i l m s t r i p and examples o f t h e p h y s i c a l g r o w t h i n m o t i o n f i l m . V i e w e r s p a r t i c i p a t e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y when shown f i l m t h a n when shown t h e b l a c k b o a r d d r a w i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s a f o r m of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e w i t h s l i d e and f i l m s t r i p s h owing. I have c o n d u c t e d f i l m show-i n g s m y s e l f and t h e y have been used by s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s i n my absence a t d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s , and w i t h d i f f e r e n t g r a d e s . The r e s u l t s e n c ourage t h e c o n t i n u e d p r o d u c t i o n o f f i l m as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e d r a w - i n . The s i z e o f p r o j e c t i o n and t h e speed o f showing a r e b o t h v a r i a b l e . The s t o r i e s o f Some C i t y I u s u a l l y show p r o j e c t e d a t about two f e e t w i d t h and r u n a t i n t e r v a l s o f f o u r seconds t o show t h e c y c l e o f d e v e l o p -ment. Some o f t h e s l i d e s have been shown f o r a l o n g p e r i o d , o f f i f t e e n m i n u t e s o r more, w h i l e a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l development were d i s c u s s e d . The s l i d e s o f u r b a n p h y s i c a l g r o w t h g a i n much more r e s p o n s e when shown on a v e r y l a r g e s c r e e n f i f t e e n f e e t w i d t h , though s m a l l e r s c r e e n -i n g down t o f i v e f e e t w i d t h g a i n s a r e s p o n s e . The i n t e r v a l s have b e e n 128 s i m i l a r to Some C i t y , run at about four seconds f o r sequences and also as s t i l l s over a longer period f o r the more complex drawings. The scenes of s t r e e t s , and the drawings of s t r e e t s and i n t e r i o r s , have more e f f e c t and greater response when shown very large. When screened f i v e feet width and below, the drawing or photo i t s e l f i s r e -marked upon but when screened s i x feet to f i f t e e n feet the content gains more n o t i c e . I have p r a c t i s e d f i l m making and video tape productions using drawing, both i n d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n filmed as I draw and, t e n t a t i v e l y , i n stop frame drawing. The d i r e c t drawing has had to be very quick i n order to come w i t h i n the twentyminute period f o r use i n the classroom. I have increased my speed of drawing so that the phases from v i r g i n country to modern c i t y , from modern c i t y to the immediate future and from the immediate future to the d i s t a n t future each take approxi-mately three and a h a l f minutes of drawing. Three and a h a l f minutes of f i l m f i t s the c a i s s e t t e used i n p r o j e c t i o n from the Super-8 f i l m loop. At t h i s speed I am moving too quickly f o r the speed of the Super-8 f i l m of eighteen frames per second and a d i s t r a c t i v e strobing f l i c k e r of arm movement appears on the screened f i l m . This means that I must confine my movements or use sixteen mm f i l m at twenty-four frames per second, which i s both more expensive to buy and more cumbersome to screen. The s o l u t i o n may l i e i n f i l m i n g at twenty-four frames and screening at sixteen to eighteen frames per second. Stop frame drawing can be adjusted to any p a r t i c u l a r time required but I have found d i f f i c u l t i e s i n stop frame work, which require a drawing 129 of a quarter of an inch l i n e and then photographing one frame of a movie camera. I f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to maintain a l i v e l y c o n t i n u i t y ; a drawing can take by t h i s method some t h i r t y minutes to draw peck by peck and when shown on the screen w i l l l a s t ten seconds. I intend to t r y more stop frame f i l m i n g . Not every l i n e need show, several b u i l d i n g s might suddenly appear without i n t e r r u p t i o n to the c o n t i n u i t y , and bursts of development would be s i m i l a r to r e a l c i t y growth. The use of cuts to r e a l i t y i n f i l m i n g , changing from drawings to shots of a r e a l s t r e e t scene, has been considered and w i l l be t r i e d when the three f i l m s already produced are edited and have the sound track added f or showing i n the classroom. There seems to be some reason to doubt that t h i s would be e n t i r e l y s u c c e s s f u l . The photographs of act u a l s t r e e t s would cause a break i n medium from the drawing and the return to the drawing a f t e r the f i n i s h of the photograph of r e a l i t y would mean another period of mental adjustment. Showing the s t r e e t i n coloured moving f i l m , with sound track, would seem a b e t t e r way of communicating " s t r e e t " than would a quick l i n e sketch, but t h i s has to be considered i n the l i g h t of the obje c t i v e s . F i r s t l y the f i l m aims to show the co n t i n u i t y of trends from the past, through the present and in t o the future. Continuity i n media i s neces-sary. Coloured moving films with sound track are easy to produce to show the present but require actors and actresses and sets to show the past and the future. Secondly, the classroom communication of " s t r e e t " i s not intended as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r a v i s i t , but as an explanation of cause and e f f e c t i n preparation f o r a v i s i t . I t lays a groundwork by a focus 130 on s p e c i f i c elements and on s p e c i f i c causes that lead to the v i s u a l e f f e c t s . F i l m made by students has a d d i t i o n a l and s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s . I t has properties of time between f i l m i n g and screening that make i t d i f f e r -ent from other responses. The students respond to the environment i n the s e l e c t i o n of subject matter f o r f i l m i n g . They e d i t as they respond to t h e i r own f i l m . The viewing students respond to the f i n a l screening d i f f e r e n t l y than f o r other f i l m s . The pride of the students who manage the showing of t h e i r f i l m brings involvement and commitment of the students to t h e i r views shown on the screen. The media channel of student f i l m i n g i s le s s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e and not as manageable as the chalk t a l k f o r the p a r t i c u l a r speed of image formation and response that i s needed for the encouragement of con-versations and the demonstration of change. I have found i t d i f f e r e n t , not j u s t i n the content and making of the f i l m , but i n the whole aspect of f i l m showing. Important elements of communication that do not r e l a t e to the f i l m content a f f e c t the response. They change the normal method of teaching and every aspect i s important. The operator of the pro-j e c t o r a t t r a c t s most a t t e n t i o n and then a t t e n t i o n turns to the projector (which may not work), then on the p u l l i n g down of the screen, then on the room, darkened, which brings a sense of privacy and r e l a x a t i o n . The f i l m then proceeds, and afterward, there i s a return to the b r i g h t l y l i t classroom and the s u r v e i l l a n c e of the teacher. Obviously, these are powerful aspects of communication and the use of them requires more s tudy. 131 T e l e v i s i o n T e l e v i s i o n promises to be the best media channel f o r the stages that involve the students. I t has advantages over other media both i n the showing and i n the making. I t emphasizes the students' part i n the exercise, gives t h e i r views a sense of immediacy that i s lacking i n f i l m . The making of the t e l e v i s i o n program i n s p i r e s the c h i l d r e n to respond and to express t h e i r views. Buckminster F u l l e r r e f e r s to t e l e v i s i o n as the Third Parent. He observes that t e l e v i s i o n , because i t employs the most a r t i c u l a t e among us, and because the c h i l d t h i r s t s f o r information, becomes a more power-f u l feature than the other two parents. Perhaps t h i s explains the eagerness of young people to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t e l e v i s i o n production. I t gives them an opportunity, at long l a s t , to converse with t h e i r t h i r d parent. Two t e l e v i s i o n programs i n v o l v i n g students, taped at the U.B.C. Faculty of Education, have been shown to many audiences of teachers and the general p u b l i c . The tapes are unfinished and were made f o r research rather than p u b l i c viewing, yet they are popular and often requested. Teachers ask f o r the tapes f o r classroom showing, and I am pre-paring to make them ready, with a questionnaire to gather an assessment of t h e i r e f f e c t on the students. One shows the growing c i t y drawn by myself at the d i c t a t i o n of the students. The duration i s eleven minutes. The second t e l e v i s i o n tape of designs f o r False Creek shows the method of approaching a planning 132 problem through the consideration of a c t i v i t i e s and perception. Students describe t h e i r drawings. The duration i s twenty-five minutes. The purpose of the f i r s t tape i s to prompt a response from the students i n the classroom as i f I were present and f o r t h i s reason I kept the camera on to the drawn image and avoided shots of the studio and avoided shots of the c h i l d r e n . The second tape shows how students tackled an adult question. I t demonstrates a method. The drawings were prepared i n the classroom and i t i s a classroom exercise; the f i r s t part describes a journey i n a bus to the s i t e of False Creek, and as the students r e c a l l t h e i r impressions, I compose a p i c t u r e of the area to include t h e i r r e c a l l e d images. I have found d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the making of the t e l e v i s i o n program. The added items of l i g h t i n g and camera must be borne i n mind while guiding the students and encouraging responses. Shadows must be avoided, the drawing must be v i s i b l e and not obscured by myself or the students. The students' faces have to be v i s i b l e and they have to be arranged without checking the spontaneity of t h e i r response. I have to avoid tying myself up with cables. These d i f f i c u l t i e s are nothing when set against the v i t a l i t y i n the students when we are i n the studio compared to t h e i r i n e r t i a i n the classroom. The studio a t t r a c t s them and they come f o r taping a f t e r school hours and i n holidays with eager excitement. They respond strongly. A minor s t i p u l a t i o n on dress adds i n t e r e s t i n a charming way: they are asked not to wear white as i t disturbs the s e t t i n g of the tones i n t e l e v i s i o n and causes a bloom on the screen. This affords an 133 opportunity f o r the g i r l s to discuss what they w i l l wear. Dressing down to colours and informal wear gives the g i r l s and the boys pleasure. The r e s u l t on the colour t e l e v i s i o n screen i s a relaxed i n f o r m a l i t y and v a r i e t y of colour. They draw with charcoal blocks which are sold under the trade name CHARKOLE. A r t i s t ' s charcoal i s too t h i n . Paper and charcoal has greater contrast than chalkboard drawing, and greater tonal differences than f e l t pen. D i f f e r e n t tones can be made by pressing l i g h t l y or by pressing hard. The past can be drawn f a i n t l y and the present drawn hea v i l y over i t to represent the development of one l o c a t i o n . The t e l e -v i s i o n transmission increases the tonal differences and gives the p i c -ture greater depth. Erasing i s not necessary. This marks an important d i f f e r e n c e between the charcoal paper drawing and the chalk on blackboard drawing of the classroom. I b e l i e v e the t o t a l l y a d d i t i v e nature of the charcoal drawing creates a b e t t e r image of the rapid growth of the c i t y . Where erasing i s necessary a greater c o n t r o l i s also necessary over the s t u -dents to prevent a c c i d e n t a l erasing by one student of another's drawing. Also, the drawing has a greater presence i f i t cannot be erased, and b u i l d i n g (that i s , drawing) becomes appropriately d e l i b e r a t e and immoveable. The paper must not be white but coloured or toned. Usually I use ordinary matt brown wrapping paper i n several l a y e r s . The C.B.C. prepared an orange paper board which looked magnificent i n colour transmission. 134 The t e l e v i s i o n program proceeds i n the same way as the exerc i se i n the c lassroom. The students do not rehearse and t h e i r responses are the l i v e l i e r for the spontane i ty . Generic and Drawn Images The v i s u a l presenta t ion that prompts, f or example, the mental image of "store" i n the viewer has one important proper ty . I t must avoid being the wrong s t o r e . Each viewer has a d i f f e r e n t mental image of t h i s one s tore that represent them a l l . The image i s a concept made by r e c a l l i n g memories of many s t o r e s . A photograph of a s tore could never hope to avoid reference to d e t a i l s i n which s tores d i f f e r . A photograph of a scene i s not as u s e f u l as a simple drawing i n producing a mental image i n the mind of the v iewer. The image of the s tore that comes to mind i s not a general image of a l l s tores but one s tore that represents all stores. The students c a l l out "Eatons" to represent a l l department s tores and "Coca-Cola" s igns to represent a d v e r t i s i n g . There are s trong i n d i c a t i o n s that the image that viewers form i n the mind, when c a l l i n g out what they r e c a l l , i s t h e i r own image. A s m a l l g i r l c a l l s out "dr ipping c a r s . " Her eye l e v e l i s low, her concern i s to avoid an o i l y mess. A man c a l l s out " l ines on the road f o r car p a r k i n g . " This sug-gests a r e c a l l of an image. A car d r i v e r looks f o r such l i n e s ; they form part of the image of the c i t y of one who dr ive s a c a r . No c h i l d has r e f e r r e d to them. S i m i l a r l y , young c h i l d r e n seldom c a l l out " t r a f f i c l i g h t s , " whereas adul ts u s u a l l y do. Young c h i l d r e n c a l l out "dogs" and "animals ." E l d e r l y people c a l l out "hosp i ta l" and "Medical C e n t r e . " 135 This suggests that people c a l l out r e c o l l e c t i o n s from experience, much as c h i l d r e n draw what they know rather than what they see. The r e c a l l e d images encompass a wide area. In the discussions that follow, other c i t i e s are ref e r r e d to, as an explanation of an image that has come to mind. The following quotes are by students of twelve to t h i r t e e n years o l d , taken from t r a n s c r i p t s of lessons. They i l l u s t r a t e the range of images to other areas. I had drawn a r e s i d e n t i a l area and the question of costs arose. When I was i n C a l i f o r n i a , I saw, w e l l , they had l i k e an urban renew-a l p r o j e c t . A mass low cost housing project and i t became so grue-some, l i k e every house i s the same, the same colour, everything, and i t ' s so ugly when you go out on t h i s freeway and a l l you see f o r miles around are the exact same type of house, exactly, you know, the same colour. I guess i t helped the problem but i t ruined the landscape. In another case, I had drawn a freeway system entering the c i t y . Down i n S e a t t l e , I think they've made a d r a s t i c mistake with t h e i r m u l t i - l e v e l freeways. They've got them r i g h t down the waterfront and they've got t h i s urban decay s e t t i n g i n , i t s coming; everything i s being run down and you j u s t have a l l t h i s smog coming from three l e v e l s of t r a f f i c , four lanes, t i l l there's twelve lanes of t r a f f i c , constant, a l l the time i t s there, causing t h i s problem, and i t ' s an eyesore r e a l l y , and, but t h e i r problem i s , i f they'd gone under-ground, see, they have done t h i s i n one spot, but they haven't done t h i s enough. I t was too expensive, so they b u i l t overhead and now they've got a problem of t h i s urban decay s e t t i n g i n . In the next example, I had drawn a house and connected i t to a store, with the comment: Upstairs can be the bedrooms up here . . . when you go along the s t r e e t sometimes you can see over the top of the store and you can 1 3 6 see bedroom windows behind which are now being used as o f f i c e s . . . but there comes a stage where the old b u i l d i n g i s p u l l e d down and a new b u i l d i n g i s put up and t h i s i s when the c i t y s t a r t s to look modern. A student commented: I think that's when the c i t y s t a r t s to look t e r r i b l e because that's what they were doing i n Montreal and a l l over the place there were p i l e s of rubble a l l the time and I think that's bad. Note that the remarks from the students i n d i c a t e a r e c a l l of images of r e a l scenes, f a r removed from the scenes that were drawn on the board. The reactions to drawings seem to i n d i c a t e that the images that form i n the mind while watching the drawing i n process do not depend on an accurate simulation of an urban scene. I t i s enough that a represen-t a t i o n of the scene i s i n d i c a t e d . The lack of f i n i s h i n the drawings i s no impediment, rather i t i s an advantage. The c h i l d r e n get a b e t t e r sense of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the evolution of the c i t y described i n drawings that they f e e l they them-selves could have done. To quote Bettinghaus, "As a general conclusion, we can say that the c l o s e r the match i n communication s k i l l s between the source and the 2 r e c e i v e r , the more e f f e c t i v e w i l l be the communication." More than that, the "general" representation of the parts of an urban scene more nearly matched the kind of image i n the mind than an accurate representation of a p a r t i c u l a r scene. Rudolph Arnheim writes i n Image and Thought, of the conjecture by psychologists that fragments of photographic images occurred i n the 137 mind's eye which then formed a mental g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , and t h e i r discovery that the image i t s e l f was general. When, early i n our century, the experiment was a c t u a l l y made, sev-e r a l reputable i n v e s t i g a t o r s found, independently of each other, that generality was p r e c i s e l y what observers a t t r i b u t e d to the appearance of the images they saw. A l f r e d Binet, the father of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g , subjected h i s two young daughters, Armande and Marguerite, to prolonged and exacting i n q u i r i e s . At one occasion, he had Armande observe what happened when he uttered the word 'hat'. He then asked her whether she had thought of a hat i n general or of a p a r t i c u l a r hat. The c h i l d ' s answer i s a c l a s s i c of i n t r o s p e c t i v e r e -p o r t i n g : C est mal d i t : en g e n e r a l — j e cherche a me representer un de tous ces objets que l e mot irassemble, mais je ne m'en represente aucun.' ('In general' expresses i t badly: I try to represent to my-s e l f one of a l l the objects that the word brings together, but I do not represent to myself any one of them.)3 The "general" representation that was made by the students of the parts of the environment, because i t matched the " g e n e r a l i t y " of the men-t a l image, also brought to mind other sensations that belong to the scene. This helps to explain the great success of the drawn image of the c i t y made with the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the students. The evocation of the mental image brings r e c a l l of the s e n s i t i v i t y to the f e e l , the sounds, the smells of the environment and of our movement i n i t s spaces that forms the base of a l l our learning. The communication based on a mutual l e v e l of experience of l e a r n -ing becomes more powerful. As Wilbur Schramm, i n The Process and Effects of Mass Communication, says: ". . . a message i s much more l i k e l y to succeed i f i t f i t s the pattern of understandings, a t t i t u d e s , values and goals than a receiver has; or at l e a s t i f i t s t a r t s with t h i s pattern 4 and t r i e s to reshape i t s l i g h t l y . " T O U C H l M q S T R E E T S 139 The analysis of the f i r s t lessons and the readings on the Theory of Communications have not shaken my f a i t h i n the use of drawing. In terms of "cueing" that draws the eye to the desired place on the board or screen, the chalk at the end of an evolving l i n e excels as a cynosure of a l l eyes. The sense of a n t i c i p a t i o n caused by watching a person draw, wondering what w i l l evolve, increases attentiveness. A vigorous drawing that the viewer f e e l s he could himself have drawn en-courages involvement. I t can be a l t e r e d at whim. The photograph, on the other hand, permits no a d d i t i o n or a l t e r a t i o n . Drawings show the evolution of the c i t y from past through present i n t o future i n one medium which maintains the momentum of change. Photography can only show the present and the past. Drawings are li n k e d with fun. The cartoons i n the paper are c a l l e d "comics" or "funnies." A drawing and caption i s a medium f o r the j oke. The humour of the drawing helps to d i s p e l the gloom i n the s t u -dent's mind about the c i t y and the future. The presence of humour and fun does not mean that the serious points are overlooked. Humour makes a good weapon i n the f i g h t f o r any cause. For example, Jack Paar once described a cartoon which was h i s f a v o u r i t e and i t makes the point w e l l . The drawing showed a patio or balcony of an apartment and around about were other apartment blocks. On a patio a table was l a i d f o r a meal and a lady beside i t was c a l l i n g , "Honey, come and s i t down, your soup's get t i n g d i r t y . " FOOTNOTES Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media (Toronto: Signet Books, 1967), p. 145. 2 Erwin P. Bettinghaus, Notes f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the manual, Re-search, Principles, and Practice in Visual Communication, National Pro-j e c t i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Communications (East Lansing: Michigan State U n i v e r s i t y , 1960). 3 Rudolph Arnheim, Image and Thought from G. Kepes Sign Image and Symbol (New York: George B r a z i l l e r , 1968), p. 67. 4 Wilbur Schramm, The Process and Effects of Mass Communication (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1955), p. 16. CHAPTER IV LESSON EXAMPLES False Creek 142 False Creek U n i v e r s i t y H i l l Secondary School, Vancouver; January to February 1970. The following notes and essays represent the experience i n many classrooms. A project c a r r i e d out with Grade Eight and Grade Twelve with Mrs. Helen S h e r r i f , teacher of S o c i a l Studies, concerned the south side of False Creek near downtown Vancouver. The C i t y owns the area, now nearing the end of i t s i n d u s t r i a l and lumbering era. I t may be turned i n t o parkland, r e s i d e n t i a l or i n d u s t r i a l land depending on the wishes of the p u b l i c who were i n v i t e d to submit t h e i r opinions by the C i t y Planning Department. The occasion served as an opportunity f o r a project of study with-out at f i r s t intending to submit ideas from the students. However, the r e s u l t s from the students reached a high c a l i b r e and they were submitted. To the s u r p r i s e and disappointment of ourselves and C i t y o f f i c i a l s no other Vancouver school submitted ideas. U n i v e r s i t y H i l l Secondary School January 8, 1970 Teacher: Mrs. H. S h e r r i f Grade 8 S o c i a l Studies 20 students Aim: To r e l a t e current planning i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n False Creek to the students recent studies of the Renaissance C i t y . Method: Chalk Talk Sketch map of False Creek on blackboard. Drawing of False Creek with s k y l i n e of Vancouver beyond. 143 I n d u s t r i a l use described. Some C i t y s l i d e s shown. De s c r i p t i o n of senses r e l a t e d to future development. Discussion by cl a s s of various ideas. D i v i s i o n of c l a s s i n t o c l i e n t s and a r c h i t e c t s . C l i e n t s i n s t r u c t , a r c h i t e c t s draw. Natural Park, music centre, adventure playground, c r a f t centre, r i d i n g s t a b l e , gym and health centre, stadium. As a Research Project the students were asked to write about a Renaissance C i t y and to f i n d c i t i e s that do not feature open water. Notes of the f i r s t lesson: 9:00 a.m. - Map of False Creek and bridges recognized immed-i a t e l y - rough sketch map drawn on blackboard. In Vancouver the C i t y Planning Department i s asking C i v i c groups f o r opinions about development of south side of False Creek. Renaissance period i s being studied by the clas s - the R c i t y depended on water. Renaissance water c i t y - ceremonies - processions -f e s t i v a l s - commerce. Question: Do a l l towns have water i n the form of r i v e r , lake or sea? High P r a i r i e - does i t have a r i v e r - can the clas s f i n d a c i t y which does not have open water? No recogn i t i o n of False Creek area or i t s a c t i v i t i e s -no recogn i t i o n of Cambie bridge. 144 9:15 a.m. - Drawing i n b u i l d i n g s North of False Creek. Recognition of b u i l d i n g shapes quick. Hotel Vancouver -Q.E. - Post O f f i c e . Scale of skyscrapers drawn i n . One c h i l d had v i s i t e d False Creek f o r boat b u i l d i n g . Question - Describe d i f f e r e n t kinds of q u a l i t i e s of water -t i d a l - s t i l l - canal - bridge b u i l d i n g s b u i l t up to water - boats - f l o a t i n g b u i l d i n g s - f l o a t i n g gardens. Q u a l i t i e s of Water - Sound la p s , t i n k l e s , roars, crashes, echoing - r e f l e c t s . 9:30 a.m. - Lig h t shimmer, sparkle, b l i n d i n g , r e f l e c t i o n s , l i g h t bounces upwards. Space view - d i s t a n t space - quiet - s i l e n c e - open open sky - mountain - horizon - space on the ground -long view. 9:40 a.m. - Logging - h i s t o r y of development - industry -covered i n Some C i t y s l i d e s . Some C i t y s l i d e s shown qui c k l y . 9:50 a.m. - Senses l i s t e d f o r students to consider: Space -Ligh t - Colour - Warmth - Touch - Smell - Aura - Time -Sound - Community. Question: Is there a c i t y which has not been b u i l t around open water? Select a c i t y , b u i l t extensively i n the renaissance period, and describe how the water was used. Describe the b u i l d i n g s . Developing the Waterfront on False Creek C l i e n t s - a r c h i t e c t process c o l l e c t i o n of ideas. 1 145 Question: What would you want to do yourself or p a r t i c i p a t e in? Students c a l l out ideas which are w r i t t e n on the board: Food - restaurant; bowling r e c r e a t i o n h a l l ; nightclub; boating; music centre; adventure playground; n a t u r a l park; small c h i l d r e n s ' park; sport; cinema; Tom Sawyer's Park; Sudden V a l l e y (park) - b u i l d your own house of n a t u r a l materials - r e c r e a t i o n a l h a l l - l i b r a r y - data centre - r i d i n g stable - mini car - drag s t r i p - pedestrian transportation - no roads - domed dance h a l l - gym and health centre - hockey r i n k - sports centre - open sports stadium - covered walkways - r a i n p r o t e c t i o n - underground - stores - s e r v i c e s . 10:20 a.m. - Select one a c t i v i t y - r e l a t e i t to survey of the senses. Mrs. S h e r r i f comments - P r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s wasted on Grade Eight l e v e l . Students are i n s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of t h e i r surroundings. Grade Twelve would respond and are nearer leaving school and taking t h e i r place i n s o c i e t y . This could be r e l a t e d to Economics Course. Grade Twelve to be included i n the bus tour of False Creek. Second Lesson: A t r i p to False Creek by bus on Thursday January 15th. Grade Eight students, who were present at previous lesson, and Grade Twelve students. 146 Clear and sunny weather. 2:30 p.m. - Bus was f o r t y - f i v e minutes l a t e and v i s i t to Marathon o f f i c e was cancelled. The route led along Broadway across G r a n v i l l e Bridge, down G r a n v i l l e to Dunsmuir to Cambie Bridge, along Sixth Avenue to West Coast Salvage and Vancouver Iron and Engineering Works. Students a l i g h t e d and s t r o l l e d around the area, v i s i t i n g the West Coast Salvage Works. Then around G r a n v i l l e Island and back to the Planetarium. They again a l i g h t e d and walked around the landscaped garden. 4:30 p.m. - Returned to school by Spanish Banks. Each student c a r r i e d the following drawings. The bus contained a microphone f o r a commentary during the journey. In a d d i t i o n we arranged f o r a recording but I omitted to switch on the r e c e i v e r extension. The following notes, w r i t t e n immediately a f t e r the journey, give an o u t l i n e of the commentary. Notes made p r i o r to bus t r i p : Land use i s a state of t r a n s i t i o n - I n d u s t r i a l use changing to high density r e s i d e n t i a l use. (North of False Creek going through the same t r a n s i t i o n . ) High land value f o r c i n g industry to go. As land becomes very valuable, economic trends lead toward r e -ducing and e l i m i n a t i n g water areas. This trend i s being checked by p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n False Creek area. (Refer to Vancouver Iron and Engineering Works lease controversy.) 147 B^^u^UANp/HiaHiurB - OFTEN seat-*. 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T O O C H , $ M e u . etc . 149 His t o r y of lumber m i l l s , commercial f i s h i n g boats, mixed i n -dustry Leases on land owned by the c i t y on (South Shore) leases expire 1970 to 1973. Commentary: - On the route we w i l l imagine a ten year p r o j e c t i o n . The scene that might then apply w i l l be described as i f i t existed now. - Apartments gather round open space (note Beach Avenue and Stanley Park) also at the gates of U.B.C. , two new blocks under construction opposite golf course. - Note l i n k between bus route and commercial area. If another form of mass t r a n s i t was introduced the l o c a t i o n of s t a t i o n s would a l t e r the pattern. - Note evidence of change (construction i n progress or recent completion). These changes ir i the past year w i l l help you to imagine the p o s s i b l e immense changes i n the next ten years. - West Tenth - shopping areas are grouped around important n u c l e i such as Safeway and i n ten years' time t h i s shopping area may look more l i k e Park Royal i n West Vancouver. The whole of Broadway i s a commercial s t r i p , the l i q u o r store and food stores forming centres around which small stores and services gather. These again may develop with pedestrian walkways above the s t r e e t s , and o f f i c e s above the stores. - Conversion of r e s i d e n t i a l areas to commercial can be seen by a house windows on the second f l o o r and a store underneath. I f you spot one of these a l t e r a t i o n s note the name of the s t r e e t and i f p o s s i b l e the number of the house. - How many buil d i n g s under construction have we passed - make a note of the name of the s t r e e t . - A change i n mass t r a n s i t - we would a l l be t r a v e l l i n g under-ground, seeing nothing of the areas through which we are t r a v e l -l i n g today - only aware of the sta t i o n s of entry and a r r i v a l . Which would you prefer? - Using a L i s t of Perception you can analyse t h i s bus journey. Taking a ten year p r o j e c t i o n , what would you prefer - think of the sight s and sounds and smells - use of L i s t s of Perception - where would the s t a t i o n be - on Broadway? On Tenth Avenue? The area from the s t a t i o n to the l a r g e s t store w i l l be economic-a l l y f e r t i l e and support many small stores. - Downtown w i l l become more crowded. The P r o v i n c i a l government b u i l d i n g w i l l contain eight thousand people. A l l w i l l require lunch. Where w i l l they eat? Where w i l l they s t r o l l i n the lunch hour? - The water edge at False Creek encroaches on the water. Look at the view. Consider the future. The whole area can be changed i n a short time to landscaping to the standard of the Planetarium garden. What would you l i k e to enjoy on False Creek? Consider the f e e l of the ground, the sounds and smells. Consider the sun and shade. Later the students made recordings of t h e i r impressions. They commented on my remarks at the beginning of the journey and spoke at length of t h e i r impressions received when they had a l i g h t e d from the bus. 151 Their response suggests that the v i s u a l i n t e r e s t of downtown obscured my commentary and that they perceive incomparably more when on the ground away from the bus. Third Lesson: At U n i v e r s i t y H i l l Secondary School, Friday January 16th, to Grade Eight. Review of the s i t e v i s i t and of the l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s suggested by the students. Perception considered. D i v i s i o n of c l a s s i n t o a r c h i t e c t s or wr i t e r s f o r future develop-ment. Class given period to write and draw. Both drawing and des c r i p t i o n s c o l l e c t e d . Research m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d - Venice -London - Rome - Copenhagen. Fourth Lesson: On January 21st to Grade Eight. Ideas f o r future development of False Creek: Described by c h i l d r e n from the l i s t of perception i n the sever a l senses: C r a f t Studios; Adventure Playground; Amusement Park; Theatre - re c r e a t i o n - dwelling over (Denman Pla c e ) ; Music Room; Park (natural, open space); Underground c i t y shopping r e c r e a t i o n (drawing); Restaur-ant; Gym (drawing a l s o ) ; Data Centre; O f f i c e and apart-ment tower (drawing); Dwelling. Verbal d i s c u s s i o n i n t o tape recorder, one at each end of the room. Discussion slow - students h e s i t a n t . Charcoal and paper ready but unused. More drawings and descriptions c o l l e c t e d . 152 U n i v e r s i t y H i l l Secondary School, Grade Eight, lessons on January 8th, January 15th, January 16th. Research projects i n progress - January 21st. Design projects i n progress.-February 2nd. Taping of dis c u s s i o n -February 2nd. Rehearsal of descriptions of drawings f o r T.V. tape -February 12th. A.V. Studio 10:30 to 12:00, Tape made - February 13th. The video tape features the ideas of the students and showed t h e i r drawings. I t demonstrates the method. I t l a s t s about twenty min-utes. The students showed excitement and nervousness and enjoyed the replaying of the tape. U n i v e r s i t y H i l l Secondary School January 22, 1970 Teacher: Mrs. H. S h e r r i f Grade 12 S o c i a l Studies 21 students Half the number of students had v i s i t e d the downtown area and False Creek on the bus t r i p . The Plan of the Lesson: 1) To explain the C i t y ' s p o l i c y to enquire of p u b l i c opinion on the future of False Creek. 2) To show the s l i d e s that are shown to the p u b l i c groups by C i t y Planning Department. 3) To explain a r c h i t e c t / c l i e n t r e l a t i o n i n house b u i l d i n g and r e l a t i o n to C i t y . 4) To ask f o r a c t i v i t i e s they personally would wish to j o i n i n on False Creek. 153 Notes on the Lesson: - T r i e d my own projector and found a small spring broken i n ejec t o r ' s s l i d e . - Two school s l i d e projectors were fetched, t r i e d and found unworkable, the t h i r d was usable a f t e r minor adjustment, but remained jerky and most of the s l i d e s stuck. - False Creek area sketched on blackboard, heights of e x i s t i n g skyscrapers established - r e l a t i v e heights of proposed high r i s e developments sketched i n . - The importance of o r i e n t a t i o n demonstrated - sunlight on b u i l d -ings, shadows cast by skyscrapers. - S l i d e s were shown of use of c i t y areas f o r d i f f e r e n t functions: a) The c i t y s t r e e t f o r processions and f e s t i v a l s . b) The use of enclosed waterway. Reference to Venice and Expo. The r e l a t i o n of b u i l d i n g s to enclosed water area. Night use of t h i s area - concerts, shows, a sheltered p u b l i c arena. c) O r i e n t a t i o n , sunlight and shadowed areas. d) Enclosure under bridges. A c t i v i t y on pedestrian bridges. e) Harbour and marina a c t i v i t i e s - shipping goods. f) Rapid and mass t r a n s i t w i t h i n complex b u i l d i n g forms -commercial shopping and r e s i d e n t i a l . - Students were asked f o r t h e i r ideas f o r developing False Creek -a c t i v i t i e s which they would l i k e to j o i n i n . Three minutes 154 only remained. The two tape recorders did not pick up the students' voices. Second Lesson: January 23rd, twenty-one Grade Twelve students. S l i d e projector and screen at front of classroom, tape recorder near screen. Students stood or sat near screen. S l i d e s shown of Some C i t y and False Creek future. Slides shown b r i e f l y . The students discussed t h e i r ideas f o r the future: White paper p u l l e d across the f l o o r from a r o l l . Char-c o a l drawing as the students c a l l e d out t h e i r suggestions. Lights s t i l l out, one s l i d e s t i l l on screen showing a harbour area, pedestrians, dwellings, trees, marina. Students enjoyment and p a r t i c i p a t i o n e x c e l l e n t . A r t i c u -l a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r ideas. Audio-tape s u c c e s s f u l - students nearer mike, sound bounced up from f l o o r and from blackboard. L i s t of student's spoken comments while drawing: - O r i e n t a t i o n / b r i g h t b u i l d i n g s on north side of False Creek to catch s u n l i g h t . - T a l l trees open, natural s o r t of Park - i n fr o n t of h i g h r i s e . - Boat tours - sound w i l l r e f l e c t from high b u i l d i n g s -no motor boats - paddle boats - no noise. - Revolving restaurant. - A r c h i t e c t u r a l comment on unity of design. - Pedestrian bridges - covered bridges. 155 - Don't l i k e i t junky .- P a c i f i c National E x h i b i t i o n i s too junky - no race course near parks. - Maintenance. - Design c o n t r o l . - Not r e a l i s t i c (access too d i f f i c u l t ) . - Hovercraft noise too much. - Rowing races f o r eights - has a s p e c i a l q u a l i t y . - Enclose lagoon. - L i v i n g area. - Amphitheatre. - Mixing too many ideas together. - Q u a l i t y of environment. - Open squares. - Foreign area - sidewalk cafes - benches - umbrellas -canopies. - Mixture of cultures and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s . - Ponds. Japanese sort of ponds. - No b u s t l e of c i t y - a slow up area. - Underground parking. - Lots of p l a n t i n g and trees. - Atmosphere ruined by gobs of people. - Gradual change/physical change from area to area -bowling greens or c r i c k e t - beach around - tennis. Paper now stretches across classroom and out of door. About f o r t y feet long. I t i s held up i n c o r r i d o r and students walk along looking at ideas. 156 Notes by the teacher Helen S h e r r i f : Unit on Urbanization i n Economics. Aim: 1 ) In depth study of False Creek area with view to current a c t i v i t i e s and e s p e c i a l l y future developments, 2) With False Creek as a base an examination of other sections of Vancouver as "areas" - that i s , i n d u s t r i a l , f i n a n c i a l , i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade, land value, land u t i l i z a t i o n , government finance and zoning by-laws ( c i v i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) = M a t e r i a l s : 1 ) Sl i d e s - Some C i t y and False Creek. Explanations - a) des c r i p t i o n s b) f a s t growth c) cartoons d) False Creek today. Inte r r u p t i o n re PA 2) Carbon on paper -Notes by Helen S h e r r i f on the Second Lesson: Ideas c a l l e d out - good atmosphere - many catching idea - more and more p a r t i c i p a t i o n — students involved - putting ideas i n t o form - seeing Mr. King on hands and knees and drawing with charcoaled hands - reduces expert aloofness - but respect i s s t i l l there - ideas caught, added to - Drummond, D e l i l e , Jane, Craig drawing - change i n atmosphere with D e l i l e saying "I wouldn't have any of t h i s i f I l i v e d there" - others aware of problems - p o l l u t i o n - maintenance - negatives dominant - maybe 157 they know what they don't want but need assistance to consider p o s i t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . False Creek Submission to Vancouver C i t y Planning Department. The following ideas were submitted to the Vancouver C i t y Planning department as a r e s u l t of the previous exercises. Ideas from Grade Eight: - A park designed by s i x students with these comments: Free and n a t u r a l , no r e s t r i c t i v e signs. P i c n i c tables at i n t e r v a l s . Areas f o r "Adventure," with construction p o s s i b i l i t i e s and supervision. A commando-type t r a i n i n g ground, with rope nets fo r climbing, rope swinging, e t c . , a l s o supervised. - Amusement Park. - Riding s t a b l e s . - Animal Foundling Centre/Children's Zoo. - Health and Recreation Areas with gymnasium and covered Olympic Pool. - Music Dome with l i s t e n i n g c h a i r s . - T o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s . - Underground shopping. - Dwelling areas. - C r a f t Studios. Ideas from Grade Twelve: --Parks - secluded o r i e n t a l contemplation area. Playground equipped f o r young c h i l d r e n . Water oriented park, canoes, rowboats, paddle boats. Rowing Eights course (with s t i p u l a t i o n 1 5 8 that there be no motor boats i n the creek at a l l . ) - Shopping Plazas and boutiques - Open market by waterfront -Pedestrian bridge with boutiques. - Recreation - In t e r n a t i o n a l Plaza with f o r e i g n restaurants and boutiques - Dome and Marina - Apartment houses - G r a n v i l l e Island, b i r d sanctuary (No cars i n t h i s area, t o t a l l y pedes-t r i a n area. Transport below grade.) Some examples follow: Hideaway Parkland: Completely surrounded by bamboo - secludes area - cuts out noise. Big mound of earth moved i n - rock f a c i n g . Huge w a t e r f a l l streaming down. Japanese c u t - l e a f maple cas-cades down with water. Cave behind w a t e r f a l l with incense burners, p r i m i t i v e a r t on walls - wise man (long white beard). Entrance to cave around back. W a t e r f a l l runs i n t o a large pond with croaking b u l l f r o g s , a stone lant e r n i n the middle and Japanese g o l d f i s h . The place i s so b e a u t i f u l that no one w i l l l i t t e r i n i t - i t ' d be l i k e l i t t e r i n g i n your own l i v i n g room. Wooded t r a i l s - f e e l i n g of serenity - working people should be able to come here and forget the d i r t y p o l l u t e d c i t i e s and relax - t h e i r cares w i l l be a m i l l i o n miles away. Market Place: Coleen Wilks - Debbie Clarke Along the edge of the lagoon, l i e open f r u i t stands, benches, ta b l e s , small trees. In a d d i t i o n to the above, painters and balloon salesmen, etc. , take part i n a c t i v i t i e s on the plaza surrounding the market place. In the centre of the lagoon, l i e s a double-spouting fountain, bordered with f a n t a s t i c a l l y coloured s p o t l i g h t s f o r evening viewing, Gondeliers also take people f o r tours of the lagoon. 159 Above the lagoon i s a bridge f o r shops and pedestrians only. No v e h i c l e s ! The shops would make up a sort of a European v i l l a g e . The shops would s e l l wine, cheese, European souvenirs etc. They would be c o l o u r f u l l y decorated and s t y l e d i n a very unique way. Trees would be scattered throughout the e n t i r e area to give i t a relaxed p a r k - l i k e atmosphere. The e n t i r e area would be free of telephone poles, overhead wires, signs overhanging the thoroughfare, etc. The sidewalks and plaza would be b r i g h t l y coloured. Rowing Eights Course: Because of False Creek's natural water environment I b e l i e v e that at l e a s t part of the development should be water orientated. There i s no reason why the water cannot be cleaned up so that even swimming would be p o s s i b l e . Near the entrance of the creek, I would l i k e to see a marina. A s e r i e s of f l o a t s with f i n g e r f l o a t s running out of them could j u t out from along the shore. A concrete apron would border the shore. As w e l l as being u s e f u l to boatmen, a marina i s a very i n t e r e s t i n g place f o r walking around i n . A marina does not need to become o i l y or d i r t y . Some marinas are t h i s way but j u s t through neglect. In connection with the marina I would l i k e to see a boat r e n t a l operation. This could rent s a i l b o a t s , peddle boats, row boats and canoes. In t h i s , people could explore f a r t h e r i n t o the creek. This would be quite unique i n that people could explore for themselves by water r i g h t i n t o the heart of the c i t y . To help preserve the peace of the creek I think that powerboats should be kept out of the creek except for the entrance where the marina would be. Down the middle of the creek i s an i d e a l place for a rowing eights course. The water i s calm and there i s s u f f i c i e n t width f o r three or four side by sid e . The G r a n v i l l e St. and the Cambie St. bridges provide an i d e a l place to view such races. On land behind the marina there would be a few low b u i l d i n g s i n connection with the marina. Behind the marina and s t r e t c h i n g a l l along the shore would be a park. Through t h i s park would run canals and streams. Up some of these, canoes would be able to navigate. These could be bridged by n a t u r a l r u s t i c looking bridges. The park, away from the marina would be comparatively 160 undeveloped. An a i r of peace and t r a n q u i l i t y would p r e v a i l . The area would be w e l l used for Vancouver sadly lacks parks near the center of the c i t y . "False Creek" The False Creek area has the p o t e n t i a l of being a b e a u t i f u l escape route f o r thousands of Vancouverites; e s p e c i a l l y those who spend most of t h e i r days i n t a l l , carbon-copied apartment b u i l d i n g s . I f e e l that there should be no apartment bu i l d i n g s close to the water and that a l l transportation to the area should be underground along with other necessary wires and pipes. The atmosphere "False Creek" should present should be "au n a t u r e l . " The o u t l y i n g area around the creek could consist of Botan i c a l Gardens or O r i e n t a l Gardens. A system of canals running inland from the creek, l i t t l e i s l a n d s , l i t t l e bridges, flowers and tea houses a l l be p o s s i b i l i t i e s . A great area of parkland (NO ZOOS included) should outly the area and quietness should be the theme. The land immediately around the creek would be landscaped, pos-s i b l y sandy beaches with shade trees and with the shoreline divided i n t o d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l areas. However t h i s area should not be overcrowded with b u i l d i n g s . There should be w e l l spaced sidewalk cafes, possible without d i s p l a y , antique shops or even beer gardens. A c e n t r a l plaza would be another suggestion. The creek, of course, would have to be kept p e r f e c t l y clean as there would be swimming i n c e r t a i n areas. The amount of p r i -v a t e l y owned boats would have to be c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d and an ultra-modern marina developed. Public cruises across False Creek by paddle steamer or s a i l boat could be arranged. Motor boats would be forbidden due to exhaust fumes and noises. Boat-ing events such as rowing races could be staged and a f l o a t i n g band stand could operate i n the creek. In concluding I f e e l that any a c t i v i t y or excitement should be oriented r i g h t at the creek and that the outly i n g area should gradually turn more and more towards nature u n t i l once again one runs up against the apartments. CHAPTER V CONCLUSION - FURTHER STUDY The Language of Arc h i t e c t u r e L i f e Styles i n Other Cultures Proposal f o r Continuing Work 162 The design of the method has followed the process of a r c h i t e c t u r a l design, advancing gradually i n close c o l l a b o r a t i o n with the users, i n t h i s case the students and t h e i r teachers. As with a r c h i t e c t u r a l design the most important stage, i t s use, follows next. The method has these p r o p e r t i e s . The future images show the students the need f o r e f f o r t to avoid chaos, and show t h e i r unreadiness fo r the e f f o r t . The past of Some C i t y i n d i c a t e s the cy c l e of problems and s o l u t i o n s , of cause and e f f e c t . The l i f e s t y l e s show the compari-sons and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of various ways of l i f e . The study of perception sets the students on the path of awareness and preparedness, one on which they can gather confidence i n t h e i r own impressions and experience. At heart t h i s work teaches communications. Acuity of perception forms a part, as does the expression of ideas and of f e e l i n g s . In turn the ideas c o n s i s t of c r e a t i v i t y and technology. Neither part stands on i t s own. The perception requires expression which requires understanding. The study of s o c i e t y requires i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e . The work crosses the boundaries of many school subjects. To be of p r a c t i c a l use i n schools, the a p p l i c a t i o n of the work to each school subject must now be d e t a i l e d . Some suggestions f o r study follow. Appropriate teaching material i s now a v a i l a b l e or under prepara-t i o n through my company King Graphics Limited. Geography: The choice of s i t e f o r Crown C i t y and f o r the various parts of i t , r e l a t e d to land, water, climate, sun and vegetation. Hi s t o r y : Periods of s o c i a l h i s t o r y bearing q u a l i t i e s that'students 163 f i n d a t t r a c t i v e today: to consider a re c r e a t i o n of past con-d i t i o n s f o r Crown C i t y . Economics: The economic f e a s i b i l i t y of Crown C i t y . E f f e c t s of transportation and land use on i t s pa r t s . Mathematics: Dimension r e l a t e d to human use, time and space r e l a t e d to v e r t i c a l and i n c l i n e d t r a v e l i n Crown C i t y . H i s t o r i c a l v a r i a t i o n s i n measure to achieve e f f e c t s as i n Greek and Egyptian and Renaissance a r c h i t e c t u r e . Sciences: The s k i n of b u i l d i n g s . Physics of aco u s t i c s , l i g h t and heat r e l a t e d to st r u c t u r e . Perception of the environment. E c o l o g i c a l maintenance of Crown C i t y . The A r t s : Expressions of perception of nature, people, time by the masters and by students i n language, drama, drawing and pai n t i n g and music and f i l m . Drawing and modelling of de-signs of Crown C i t y and i t s parts. The e f f e c t s of media on design. The Language of Ar c h i t e c t u r e It is almost a truism to say that architecture reflects society. It does more. It is a most precise indicator of the whole political, economic and cultural world to which it belongs. It is an equally precise indicator of the geological or climatic region to which it belongs.^ The following examples and other examples require d e s c r i p t i o n and i l l u s t r a t i o n s to be made a v a i l a b l e to teachers with the i n t e n t i o n that they guide students i n t o t h e i r own search f o r clues. 164 1. The bedroom window set back above a store indicates a change from a dwelling to a store and therefore a change from a garden, with flowers and trees and lawns and c h i l d r e n playing, to a shopping sidewalk; the change from a quiet lane to a noisy t r a f f i c a r t e r y with t r a f f i c l i g h t s and c o n t r o l l e d s t r e e t crossings. 2. The run down commercial area with parking l o t s and unpainted stores i n the downtown centre indicates a development plan i n the o f f i n g with t a l l b u i l d i n g s and perhaps a courtyard with fountains and expensive restaurants and sto r e s . 3. The wide entrance doors and entrance porches of older houses i n -dic a t e an a c t i v e s o c i a l l i f e among f a m i l i e s before the cinema and t e l e v i s i o n . 4. The predominance of common Engli s h b r i c k i n c e r t a i n areas i n d i -cates a growth of development during a one way trade of lumber to England and b r i c k as ships b a l l a s t on the return to Canada. L i f e Styles i n Other Cultures The i n v i t a t i o n f o r ideas on various l i f e s t y l e s and the expression of the ideas i n drawings and through perception may make involvement easier f o r newcomers to our c u l t u r e . The n a t u r a l dominance of those who a r t i c u l a t e f l u e n t l y and have f a m i l i a r i t y with our cul t u r e i s reduced. To pursue t h i s thought a program has begun i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with Professor Frank Hardwick of the Faculty of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and a group of teachers who are together proposing a 165 p u b l i c a t i o n . I am concerned with these two points of study: 1. The d e s c r i p t i o n of l i f e by the students from d i f f e r e n t cultures r e l a t e d to l i f e s t y l e s and to perception. 2. The development of designs by students on l o c a l geographical areas i n a manner appropriate to various c u l t u r e s . Evaluation of Response. Evaulation of responses i s required from young people of (a) each age group; (b) various aptitudes; (c) d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s ; (d) d i f f e r e n t socio-economic backgrounds. The evaluation would aim to l e a r n more of: 1. Their a t t i t u d e s to s o c i e t y and t h e i r environments. 2. The appropriate l e v e l s of understanding and expression. Assessment of Method. Assessment of the method and of the ef f e c t i v e n e s s of various media f o r the purposes of achieving: 1. Increase of understanding. 2. Acuity of perception. 3. A b i l i t i e s of expression. The assessment would d i r e c t the design of further teaching aids and d i r -ect modifications to the method. Study of Teaching Environments. A study of the e f f e c t s of various teaching environments i s required. The study would examine and compare teaching environments f o r the e f f e c t s of (a) the presence of v i s i t i n g experts; (b) space and room s i z e ; (c) group s i z e and d i s p o s i t i o n ; 166 (d) f l o o r and ground surface; (e) l i g h t i n g and sound. The range of teaching environments to be examined would cover: 1. The classroom. 2. Open p u b l i c areas. 3. Places devoted to a d e f i n i t e c i v i c purpose. 4. T e l e v i s i o n studios (for program production i n v o l v i n g the students). The aim of the study would be to define optimum environments f o r the d i f f e r e n t phases of the method. Proposal f o r Continuing Work The continuing work requires the cooperation of c i v i c groups, of Planning Departments, of developers, of School Boards, teachers, students and v i s i t i n g experts. I t requires c e n t r a l f a c i l i t i e s containing audio v i s u a l s tudios, resource l i b r a r y , and d i s c u s s i o n areas, and arrangements fo r data c o l l e c t i o n and measurement. Preliminary discussions have begun f o r the organisation of the continuing work by the formation of a Centre f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Environmental Design. The Centre would serve as: 1. A forum where young people may a) express t h e i r views on the future, b) l e a r n of current and proposed changes to the environment, c) meet with experts i n planning. 2. A studio f o r the preparation of a t e l e v i s i o n s e r i e s f o r general broadcasts of the images and views expressed by the young people. FOOTNOTES ^R. Furneaux Jordan, European Architecture in Colour (London: Thames and Hudson, 1961), p. 12 and 17. SOURCES CONSULTED 169 SOURCES CONSULTED On Ar c h i t e c t u r e and the Future Appleyard, D., K. Lynch, and J . R. Myer. The View from the Road. Cam-bridge: M.I.T. Press, 1964. Arnheim, R. Art and Visual Perception. Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r -n i a Press, 1954. Carver, Humphrey. Cities in the Suburb. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1962. l e Corbusier. The Modular, trans. Peter De Francia and Anna Bostock. London: Faber and Faber, 1961. . Concerning Town Planning, trans. C l i v e Entwistle. London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l Press, 1948. Crosby, Theo. Architecture City Sense. London: Reinholt, 1965. Cullen, Gordon. Townscape. London: A r c h i t e c t u r a l Press, 1962. Feldman, Edmund Burke. Art as Image and Idea. New Jersey: Prentice H a l l Inc., 1967. Furneaux, Jordan R. European Architecture in Colour. London: Thames Hudson, 1961. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage Books, 1961. Kahn, H. and A. J . Weiner. The year 2000. New York: Macmillan, 1967. Kepes, G. Sign, Image and Symbol. New York: George B r a z i l l e r , 1968. H a l l , E. T. The Silent Language. Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday, 1959. . The Bidden Dimension. Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday, 1966. Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press, 1960. McHarg, Ian L. Design with Nature. Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Natural History Press, 1969. 170 Moholy, Nagy L. Vision and Motion. Chicago: Paul Theobald, 1946. More, Thomas. Utopia. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1965. Rasmussen, E. Experiencing Architecture. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1964. Ruskin, J . The Seven Lamps of Architecture. London: Noonday, 1961. . The Lamp of Beauty. Selected and edited by Joan Evans. Lon-don: Phaidon Press, 1959. Wells, H. G. The Discovery of the Future, London: J . Cape, 1921. _. Men Like Gods. New York: Macmillan, 1923. Wright, Frank Lloyd. Architecture. Garden C i t y , N.Y.: Doubleday, 1962. . On Architecture. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1941. . The Living City. New York: Horizon, 1958. On Urban History Day, C l i v e . History of Commerce. London: Longman Green, 1938. Geddes, P a t r i c k . Cities in Evolution. London: Ernest Benn L t d . , 1968. Giedion, S. Space, Time and Architecture. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963. Mumford, L. The City in History. New York: Harcourt Brace Worldj 1961. Sakolski, A. M. The Great American Land Bubble. New York: Harper and Bros., 1932. Samhaber, Ernst. Merchants Make History, trans. E. Osers. London: Harrap, 1963. Schlesinger, A. M. The Rise of the City. New York: Macmillan, 1933. Sholtz, E. and W. Simmons. Offices in the Sky. Indianapolis: Bobbs M e r r i l l , 1959. Stegner, Wallace. Wolf Willow. New York: The Vi k i n g Press, 1955. Sutherland, N i e l and E. D e y e l l . Making Canadian History. Toronto: W. J . Gage, 1967. 171 Trevelyan, G. M. Illustrated English Social History. V o l . 4. Harmonds-worth: Penguin Books, 1964. Tunnard, Christopher. American Skyline. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1955. Wade, R. D. The Urban Frontier. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959. On Communications and Learning Aranguren, J . L. Human Communications, trans. Frances Partridge. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967. Berlo, D. The Process of Communications. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1960. Bruner, J . S. Towards a Theory of Instruction. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1966. Bloom, B. S. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Affective Domain: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David Mckay Company, 1967. Bugelski, B. R. The Psychology of Learning. New York: H o l t , 1956. H i l g a r d , F. R. Theories of Learning. New York: Appleton-Century-C r o f t s , 1948. Hovland, C. I., A. A. Lumsdaine and F. D. S h e f f i e l d . Experiments in Mass Communication. New York: Science E d i t i o n s , 1965. McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. Piaget, J . and B. Inhelder. The Child's Conception of Space, trans. F. J . Langdon and J . L. Lunzer. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1956. Schramm, W. L. The Process and Effects of Mass Communication. Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1955. Thompson, Robert. The Psychology of Thinking. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1966. Vernon, M. D. Visual Perception. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1937. The Psychology of Perception. London: London U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965. i Wertheimer, M. Productive Thinking. New York: Harper and Bros., 1945. 

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