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Genesis of some alpine soils in British Columbia Sneddon, J. I. 1969

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THE GENESIS OF SOME A L P I N E  SOILS  IN B R I T I S H COLUMBIA by JAMES I A N SNEDDON B.S.A.,  University of B r i t i s h  A THESIS  Columbia,  1968  SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in  the  Department of  Soil  Science  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required  as c o n f o r m i n g t o  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA October,  1969  the  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  I further  agree  t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  Department o f S o i l  Science  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  30th October, 1969  Columbia  permission  ABSTRACT The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Canadian  a l p i n e s o i l s has been  hampered due to the l a c k o f knowledge about t h e i r genesis and morphology. The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study were to determine morphology of some a l p i n e s o i l s ; determine  the  t h e i r genesis  through the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p h y s i c a l , chemical and m i n e r a l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s ; c l a s s i f y the s o i l s and i n d i c a t e what f a c t o r s should be c o n s i d e r e d i n making a l t e r a t i o n s t o the present system o f s o i l  classification.  F i v e s o i l s were analysed and t h r e e of these were found t o have been i n f l u e n c e d by v o l c a n i c ash. was  found t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l p i n e s o i l s .  No one process The analyses  i n d i c a t e d c l a y s , amorphous i r o n , aluminum, s i l i c o n o r g a n i c matter were b e i n g e l u v i a t e d . matter was  and  At four s i t e s o r g a n i c  accumulating to form an a c i d i c Chernozem-like  Ah  horizon.  The m i n e r a l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d more  advanced  stages of weathering of m i n e r a l s than expected i n  an a l p i n e environment, pedogenic  with the concomittant formation of  secondary m i n e r a l s .  In an attempt t o c l a s s i f y the s o i l s i t was  found  t h a t o n l y t h r e e out of the f i v e s o i l s s t u d i e d c o u l d be classified.  Two  s o i l s were c l a s s i f i e d as a members of the  B r u n i s o l i c Order, the t h i r d was  p l a c e d i n t o the P o d z o l i c  Order.  The  two  s o i l s which could not be  were excluded as no p r o v i s i o n a t any of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  classified  categorical level  i s made f o r s o i l s with  non-turfy  A l p i n e D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l Ah h o r i z o n s , o v e r l y i n g P o d z o l i c Bf  horizons. Considerations  t h a t should be given a t t e n t i o n i n  r e l a t i o n to the present Canadian s o i l s (a) The  system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of  are:  presence of v o l c a n i c ash i n s o i l s has  morphological  and physico-chemical  on changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n the  influence  soil.  (b) A l p i n e s o i l s are not l i m i t e d to one but can express any  a  morphology  number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  depending on environmental f a c t o r s .  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION  1  LITERATURE REVIEW  .  DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE AREAS  2 5  Geology  5  Climate  8  Vegetation  20  Soils  21  MATERIALS AND METHODS  23  F i e l d Methods  23  Site  24  and S o i l D e s c r i p t i o n s  L a b o r a t o r y Methods Preparation of F i e l d  50 Samples  50  Physical Analyses  50  Mineralogical Analyses  52  Chemical Analyses  53  Statistical  56  Analyses  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  57  Physical Analyses  57  M i n e r a l o g i c a l Analyses  74  Chemical Analyses  90  V Page SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  112  LITERATURE CITED  120  APPENDIX  130  LIST OF TABLES Table I.  Page C l i m a t i c r e c o r d s o f s t a t i o n s adjacent t o study areas  II.  „ .  S e l e c t e d p h y s i c a l analyses of the s o i l s under study  III.  12  58  M i n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n four d i f f e r e n t  size  f r a c t i o n s o f the s o i l s a t s i t e 1, Camelsfoot, determined by X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n procedures IV.  .  M i n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n four d i f f e r e n t  75  size  f r a c t i o n s o f the s o i l s a t s i t e 2, Yanks Peak, determined by X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n procedures V.  Mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n  77 i n four d i f f e r e n t  size  f r a c t i o n s o f the s o i l s a t s i t e 3, Yanks Peak, determined by X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n procedures VI.  Mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n  80 i n four d i f f e r e n t  size  f r a c t i o n s of the s o i l s a t s i t e 4, Fitzsimmons, determined by X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n procedures VII.  M i n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n four d i f f e r e n t  82 size  f r a c t i o n s o f the s o i l s a t s i t e 5, Fitzsimmons, determined by X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n procedures  84  vii Table VIII.  Page P e t r o g r a p h i c analyses of the very  fine  sand f r a c t i o n IX.  86  S e l e c t e d chemical analyses o f the study sites  X.  Composition fraction  91 o f amorphous m a t e r i a l s i n the c l a y (<2y) and i n the s o i l s o f the  study s i t e XI.  S i l i c o n , i r o n and aluminum e x t r a c t e d by two methods and c a l c u l a t e d  XII.  97-98  molar r a t i o s  S i l i c o n , i r o n and aluminum l i b e r a t e d  . . .  101  from  the s o i l on treatment w i t h hydrogen peroxide XIII. XIV.  10 5  Manganese e x t r a c t e d by v a r i o u s treatments Definitive  . .  107  analyses f o r p o d z o l i c (spodic)  and Bf h o r i z o n s  110  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.  Page L o c a t i o n of sample areas and sample s i t e s w i t h i n each area  2.  6  C l i m a t i c r e g i o n s and d i v i s i o n s d e s c r i b e d by Kendrew and Kerr  10  3.  Landscape i n the v i c i n i t y o f Yanks Peak . . . .  4.  The Cheakamus G l a c i e r from Fitzsimmons Range  5.  19  P a l e o s o l b u r i e d beneath 30 cm o f v o l c a n i c ash,  6.  Camelsfoot  25  V e g e t a t i o n and topography a t s i t e 1, Camelsfoot  27  7.  S o i l a t s i t e 1, Camelsfoot  8.  V e g e t a t i o n and topography a t s i t e  29 2, Yanks  Peak 9. 10.  15  32  S o i l a t s i t e 2, Yanks Peak V e g e t a t i o n and topography a t s i t e  34 3, Yanks  Peak  . . .  11.  S o i l at s i t e  3, Yanks Peak  12.  V e g e t a t i o n and topography a t s i t e  39 4,  Fitzsimmons 13.  S o i l a t s i t e 4, Fitzsimmons  14.  V e g e t a t i o n and topography a t s i t e 5, Fitzsimmons  15.  S o i l a t s i t e 5, Fitzsimmons  16.  Water content d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h depth f o r the  s o i l s under study  36  41 44  46 49  59-60  ix Figure 17.  Page Water r e t e n t i o n  curve f o r < 2mm  size  fraction  s i t e 1, Camelsfoot 18.  Water r e t e n t i o n  curve f o r < 2mm  64 size  fraction  s i t e 2, Yanks Peak 19.  Water r e t e n t i o n  curve f o r < 2mm  65 size  fraction  s i t e 3, Yanks Peak 20.  Water r e t e n t i o n  curve f o r < 2mm  66 size  fraction  s i t e 4, Fitzsimmons 21.  Water r e t e n t i o n  curve f o r < 2mm  s i t e 5, Fitzsimmons  67 size  fraction 68  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The  author wishes t o express h i s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i -  a t i o n t o Dr. L.M. L a v k u l i c h o f the Department o f S o i l Science  f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e , guidance and encouragement  throughout the p r o j e c t . S i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o extended t o Mr. L. Farstad,. Head o f B r i t i s h Columbia S o i l Survey S e c t i o n , Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r h i s i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t and f o r making a v a i l a b l e the f a c i l i t i e s  at h i s  disposal. Thanks are due t o Mrs.  Karen Eady and Mr. Dennis  Demarchi f o r t h e i r help i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the vegetative  s p e c i e s and t o Mr. Bruce Kloosterman f o r h i s  help with the s t a t i s t i c a l  analyses.  To h i s wife V a l e r i e the author extends h i s g r a t i t u d e and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r her understanding and c h e e r f u l encouragement d u r i n g the course o f t h i s  study.  INTRODUCTION In Canada a l p i n e s o i l s are c o n f i n e d C o r d i l l e r a which comprises some 90 percent of B r i t i s h Columbia. have been r e p o r t e d  To date, very  few  to the Canadian of the  research  on Canadian a l p i n e s o i l s .  important t h a t more work be  Province studies  It is  c a r r i e d out on these s o i l s f o r  a b e t t e r understanding of t h e i r development and  for a  b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the a l p i n e environment and e c o l o g i c a l r o l e of s o i l s i n these environments. work i s r e q u i r e d  the Additional  f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  scheme f o r these s o i l s , which i s acceptable  to the  National  S o i l Survey Committee of Canada. The  o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study were:  1. To determine the morphology o f some a l p i n e  soils;  2. To c a r r y out i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n p h y s i c a l , chemical and m i n e r a l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s i n endeavour to determine the genesis  of some a l p i n e  3. To c l a s s i f y the s o i l s and t h a t should  be considered  i n the present soils.  soils;  to i n d i c a t e f a c t o r s i n making a l t e r a t i o n s  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Canadian  LITERATURE REVIEW "A system o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  . . . r e f l e c t s a model  as o f a s p e c i f i c time, which i n t u r n i s an aggregate o f knowledge and theory o f t h a t time."  (Cline,  The  1 9 6 1 ) .  t r u t h o f t h i s statement i s r e f l e c t e d i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a l p i n e s o i l s i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system o f the N a t i o n a l S o i l Survey Committee  Some mention has  ( 1 9 6 8 ) .  been made o f Canadian a l p i n e s o i l s i n the p a s t (Farstad and Leahey,  1953;  Rowles, F a r s t a d and L a i r d , 1 9 5 6 ;  and Rowles, 1 9 6 0 ;  Farstad  F a r s t a d , L a i r d and Keser, 1 9 6 4 ; and  N.S.S.C., 1 9 6 3 , 1 9 6 5 , 1 9 6 8 ) and r e s e a r c h work has been r e p o r t e d , though mostly o f an e c o l o g i c a l nature 1963.;,  Brooke,  19.66;  Krajina,  1 9 6 5 ;  and P e t e r s o n ,  -One::study. was r e c e n t l y completed by van- Ryswyk ,'some ^alpine; s o i l s i n B r i t i s h .Columbia.v t  L  1 9 6 4 ) .  ( 1 9 6 9 ) .  on  Elsewhere r e s e a r c h  on talpine s o i l s : lias been r e p o r t e d i n A u s t r a l i a -^Holdsworth iand Woof , , . 1 9 5 2 ) , Great. B r i t a i n *and cRoberts.on,; 1 9 6 6 ) ,, Japan  (Archer,  (Costin;  (Romans, Stevens  (Kumada,. Sato,. Ohsumi and Ohta,  19.6.70.!•.andi.-the. u n i t e d S.tates (Nimlos and McConnell,  19.65.)  to  j c i t e ; airf.ew.;.o.Pedologic .studies .have a l s o been r e p o r t e d on the iclosely. .related, s o i l s o f the A r c t i c rli96.7and  A n t a r c t i c • (McCraw,  •Johnson and C l i n e  1 9 6 7 )  (196.5)  .  (Tedrow and Brown,  .  noted t h a t a l p i n e  were, idef ined. .with an, "exceedingly s t r o n g b i a s  soils  towards.  3 g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n and l a n d s c a p e p o s i t i o n s ,  little  o r no r e l e v a n c e b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e k i n d o f g e n e t i c Retzer  (1956)  recognized process  though h i s d i v i s i o n s  were l a r g e l y a s e p a r a t i o n o f d r a i n a g e and M c C o n n e l l  (19 62 and 1965)  recognized the  presence  cation of alpine s o i l s genetic well  soil  climatic climax s o i l  Costin et  sulting  T e d r o w and h i s  and i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e well drained sites  i n the  ;  classes,  the  the  o f a l p i n e areas though not r e l a t e d  c r i t i c i s m o f J o h n s o n and C l i n e  on s t a b l e  classifi-  a l _ . (1952) , i n  i n the A r c t i c r e g i o n s appear  findings  types  a l p i n e humus s o i l s as b e i n g  s o i l s o f the p o l a r r e g i o n s . (1958)  (1965)  r e c o g n i z e s a number o f  t y p e s w i t h i n two m a j o r d r a i n a g e  c o n s i d e r the  Nimlos  number o f s o i l  In Europe K u b i e n a ' s  (1953)  and p o o r l y d r a i n e d .  Australia,  classes.  and J o h n s o n and C l i n e  of a greater  i n American a l p i n e s o i l s .  profile."  to  co-workers,  t o be b e y o n d  the  (1965) when t h e y r e p o r t p o d z o l i c process  takes  and weakens n o r t h w a r d ,  their place  re-  s u c c e s s i v e development o f P o d z o l s , M i n i m a l  P o d z o l s , A r c t i c Browns, A r c t i c Browns s h a l l o w p h a s e ,  and  finally,  Russian  minimal s o i l  polar deserts.  f o r m a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the  Tundra s o i l s were r e p o r t e d  d r a i n e d members o f t h e  drainage  a l p i n e s o i l s may be r e l a t e d Most o f the w r i t e r s  catena.  to the are  Certain of  s o i l s o f the  i n agreement  importance o f p h y s i c a l weathering i n the alpine s o i l s ,  t o be t h e  however, the processes  the  Arctic.  as t o  genesis  poorly  the, of  the  of chemical weathering  4 are of  l e a s t understood  and h a v e l e d t o  d i s c u s s i o n among r e s e a r c h e r s .  associated  the  greatest  One o f t h e  (Costin et Retzer, of  the  a l . , 1 9 5 2 ; N i m l o s and M c C o n n e l l ,  1956).  Another problem concerns  dominant  pedogenic  cases being put podzolization  Recent between  Major,  1968;  s o i l s , vegetation  1962 and W a r d l e ,  studies  (1967)  1956,  1963,  literature  1966;  on a l p i n e  and E m b l e t o n and K i n g  A l p i n e s o i l s are  the  basis  o f the  1957;  soils  scrutinized.  the  Johnson  and  and  Billings,  1969)  s o i l s w h i l e Hamelin (1968)  illustrated land-  regions. protection,  p l a n n i n g and i n some  cattle  Vilenskii,  to alpine  relation-  (Bamberg  u t i l i z e d i n watershed  196 3; U . S . D e p a r t m e n t  1944).  Cline,  ecological  in alpine  Cawlfield,  Colleges,  and  g l a c i a l and p e r i g l a c i a l  i n game management, i n r e c r e a t i o n  apparent at  place,  1953).  and c l i m a t e  and p r o c e s s e s e n c o u n t e r e d  are  recognition  ( Y o u n g , 19 6 9 and v a n R y s w y c k ,  and e x p l a i n e d many o f t h e  countries  the  and  1968).  have reviewed the  forms  1962  1958; Johnson  1965 and K u b i e n a ,  Bliss,  Recent  material  f o r w a r d f o r g l e i z a t i o n , c a l c i f i c a t i o n and  s t u d i e s have r e v i e w e d the  ships  establish-  process or processes taking  (Drew and T e d r o w ,  1965; K r a j i n a ,  and Cook  problems  w i t h t h e s e s o i l s a p p e a r s t o be t h e  ment o f t h e o r i g i n and u n i f o r m i t y o f p a r e n t  amount  industry  of Interior,  (Starr 1965;  and W e s t e r n L a n d G r a n t U n i v e r s i t i e s Insufficient  attention  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  has b e e n  This i s  and  and  directed  especially  p r e s e n t t i m e when a l l r e s o u r c e s a r e  being  DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE AREAS Three areas were s e l e c t e d where s o i l s were known to occur i n an a l p i n e environment.  These were the  Camelsfoot Range, the Quesnel Highland and G a r i b a l d i Park. Geology The Camelsfoot Range:  The Camelsfoot Range occupies a  graben a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a u l t s along the e a s t e r n edge o f the Coast Range and bounding the F r a s e r R i v e r Cretaceous b e l t , e l e v a t i o n ranges between 1,370 (Holland,  and 2,280 m  1964).  U n d e r l y i n g the Camelsfoot Range are moderately d i p p i n g sandstones, graywackes Jackass Mountain group.  and conglomerates of the  F o s s i l records i n d i c a t e d the  Jackass Mountain Group was  of mid Lower Cretaceous age  and,  with the sedimentary r e c o r d , the mode of o r i g i n has been suggested as b e i n g p a r t l y marine, p a r t l y nearshore water or marine) and p a r t l y s u b a e r i a l McTaggart, 1952  and T r e t t i n ,  ( D u f f e l l and  1961).  A e r i a l photographs i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e g l a c i a l compared w i t h adjacent areas. g l a c i a l e r o s i o n was  (fresh-  Trettin  s l i g h t and t i l l was  activity  (19 61) noted t h a t rare.  He suggested  t h a t i c e movement was,not r a p i d due to major i c e d i v i d e o c c u r r i n g f i f t y m i l e s to the n o r t h .  135"  130°  125°  120"  7 V o l c a n i c ash was  observed i n the a r e a , which c o i n -  c i d e d w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n g i v e n by Nasmith, Mathews and Rouse  (1967) of a 2440 ± 140 years B.P.  ash  w i t h a source i n the r e g i o n of the upper L i l l o o e t R i v e r , s i x t y m i l e s to the  southwest.  The Quesnel Highland:  The Quesnel Highland upland  areas  are remnants of a h i g h l y d i s s e c t e d p l a t e a u which r i s e s 1,520  m i n the west t o over 1,980  from  m i n the e a s t and with  peaks up t o 2,542 m. C l o s e l y f o l d e d s c h i s t o s e , sedimentary  rocks of  P r o t e r o z i c and Cambrian age u n d e r l i e most of the area, (Holland, 1961). dominantly  In the sample area the gray and b l a c k  a r g i l l a c e o u s rocks of the Midas formation are  found w i t h v e i n quartz i n c l u s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  faults  (Holland, 1954). During the P l e i s t o c e n e , i c e covered most of the h i g h areas t o a depth of 2,130  m w h i l e c i r q u e s and f e a t u r e s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a l l e y g l a c i e r s developed d u r i n g the stages of g l a c i a t i o n  (Sutherland Brown, 1963) .  later  Volcanic  c i n d e r cones and vents o c c u r r e d a t the south end of the Quesnel Highland  (Holland, 1964).  The geology o f the area has been r e p o r t e d i n some d e t a i l by Campbell  (1961) , H o l l a n d  Sutherland Brown (1957  and  1963).  (1954  and 1964)  and  8 G a r i b a l d i Park:  The r i d g e n o r t h o f Cheakamus Lake forms  p a r t o f a pendant, extending 8 m i l e s t o the southwest o f the Twin I s l a n d s group  (Roddick, 1965).  t h a t the Twin I s l a n d group-occurred  Roddick r e p o r t e d  as r a t h e r s m a l l  pendants e n g u l f e d i n p l u t o n i c r o c k s .  A t the sampling  sites  p l u t o n i c rock u n d e r l i e s the pedon and made up most o f the g r e a t e r than 2 mm f r a c t i o n m a t e r i a l . d e s c r i b e d the geology  Mathews  (1957, 1958)  and p e t r o l o g y o f the v o l c a n i c rocks  i n the G a r i b a l d i Park area and i n d i c a t e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c l a s s i f y i n g the rocks and range i n composition o f e x t r u s i o n s and i n t r u s i o n s due t o magma d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and gravitative  selection.  Mathews  (1951, 1958) has d e s c r i b e d the g l a c i a t i o n .  and h i s t o r y o f a l p i n e g l a c i a t i o n i n the Mount G a r i b a l d i map area.  Most o f h i s d e s c r i p t i o n can e q u a l l y apply to the  sample area which was immediately  t o the n o r t h e a s t .  The  snout o f the O v e r l o r d g l a c i e r o c c u r r e d a t l e s s than one ,and a h a l f m i l e s t o the east o f the sample area. A cinder  cone was found l e s s than 13 km t o the south-  west, about which Mathews  (1958) d e s c r i b e d ". . . . l a p i l l i ,  ash and bomb fragments e j e c t e d d u r i n g Strombolian e r u p t i o n s at  the C i n d e r Cone." Climate Though more than 75 percent o f the Province ofi B r i t i s h  Columbia l i e s a t an e l e v a t i o n o f g r e a t e r than 910 m (Brink  9 and F a r s t a d , 19 49)  almost a l l of the long term m e t e o r o l o g i c a l  s t a t i o n s are s i t u a t e d below t h a t contour.  Some i n d i c a t i o n  o f the c l i m a t i c environment of the s i t e s can be from s h o r t term data appearing  i n miscellaneous  obtained publications  and by i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the long term data from s t a t i o n s c l o s e s t to the s i t e s .  In making i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or mountain c l i m a t e s o u t l i n e d by Brink  (1949)  should be taken i n t o account. Table  I gives the long term c l i m a t i c records  s t a t i o n s adjacent Transport, The  t o study  (Canada Department of  1967) .  Camelsfoot Range:  the northern Interior  areas  of  The Camelsfoot Range l i e s c l o s e to  edge of the western d i v i s i o n of the  South  ' c l i m a t i c r e g i o n " d e c r i b e d by Kendrew and  (1955) as m i l d c o n t i n e n t a l . being c o l d i n winter  and  The  Kerr  uplands are d e s c r i b e d  c o o l i n summer, they have more p r e -  c i p i t a t i o n than the v a l l e y s and  are not as  cloudy.  At lower e l e v a t i o n s a i r movement tends to be by v a l l e y s .  as  channelled  At higher e l e v a t i o n s , as i n the a l p i n e , a i r  movement i s not i n f l u e n c e d to the same degree by  landform.  In the area at the head of the g e n e r a l l y s o u t h - f a c i n g v a l l e y s a s t r e a m l i n i n g e f f e c t was vegetation pattern. a  'venturi e f f e c t  1  T h i s was  observed i n the ground  i n t e r p r e t e d as being due  brought about by winds blowing up  the  v a l l e y s and becoming c o n s t r i c t e d at the approach to the  to  V  f  Figure  2  C l i m a t i c regions and d i v i s i o n s d e s c r i b e d b y Kendrew and K e r r .  *© L o c a t i o n o f s a m p l e s i t e s . Numbers r e f e r t o s t a t i o n s l i s t e d i n key on f o l l o w i n g page.  O ,  QUEEN  ^  CHARLOTTE^A ISLANDS  Scale of Miles 100 sas^l  •or  11 v a l l e y head.  A f r o s t a c t i o n o r i g i n was  s t r e a m l i n i n g was formation  has  only observed at v a l l e y heads.  been recorded  streams the data f o r the  Princeton  at 2,350 m,  'Old Glory"  No i n -  s t a t i o n east  of  i n the same c l i m a t i c r e g i o n ,  be u s e f u l .  most frequent  and  SW  and  SE i n summer; calms are very r a r e  and w i n t e r ,  the  i n f l u e n c e of the major  may  in f a l l  The  and  as  f o r t h i s area, however,  c o n s i d e r i n g minimal topagraphic air  discounted  NW  and  wind d i r e c t i o n s were  NW  SE i n s p r i n g and NW,  SW  (Kendrew and  Kerr  1955). The  Camelsfoot Range l i e s i n the r a i n shadow o f  Coast Mountains.  The  p r e c i p i t a t i o n pattern  for  the r e g i o n with the g r e a t e s t  and  the s p r i n g r e c e i v i n g the  e s p e c i a l l y dry.  follows  amount f a l l i n g  least.  No  that  i n winter  season i s  Almost a l l of the w i n t e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n  comes as snow, as weather s t a t i o n s i n the area r e c o r d mean monthly temperature of l e s s than 0°C f i v e months per year.  a  for a period  of  There were i n d i c a t i o n s , v o l c a n i c  *Key to s t a t i o n s l o c a t e d on F i g u r e are t a b u l a t e d i n Table I.  2 whose c l i m a t i c records  1. G a r i b a l d i  7. H o r s e f l y Lake  2. A l t a Lake  8. Quesnel A i r p o r t  3. Pemberton Meadows  9. B a r k e r v i l l e  4. B r a l o r n e  10. Dome Creek  5. Dog  11. Moha  Creek A i r p o r t  6. B i g Creek  the  TABLE I — Climatic records of stations adjacent to study areas Lat N Long V/ Elev Station  o  Camelsfoot  51 CO 122 11 2124  Big Creek  51 44 123 00  i  o  i  m  Precipitation Mean Mean Annual - cm Rain-Snowf a l l f a l l Total Annual Jan  Temperature G Absolute No. Months July  Max Min  -Jabove* below fluct 10 0 0  Year's Record Temp Precip  945  19.6 124.5  32.1  2.4  - 1 0 . 4 13.5  39  -47  3  5  5  25+  25+  Bralorne 50 51 122 55 1066 Dog Creek A. 51 38 122 15 1027 Mo ha 50 53 122 16 549  39.8 259,1  65.7  4.4  - 7.5 14.9  38  -36  4  4  4  10+  21.7 161.5  37o8  3.8  - 9o0 16.0  34  -41  5  5  3  10  25+ 10+  23.1  32.7  M  53 20 121 35 1274  57.5 574o3 114.9  53 45 121 05  670  49.7 261.1  52 23 121 17  788  53 02 121 31  544  Horsefly Lake 0  Fitzsimmons Alta Lake Pemberton Meadows Garibaldi  M  M  M  M  -  1.5  - 9.2 12.4  36  -47  2  5  5  75.8  4o3  - 9.2 16.2  42  -49  5  5  50.3 200.9  70.4  4.2  - 8.9 15.1  33  -44  4  5  34.9 190.5  53.9  4.8  - 9.5 16.6  41  -47  5  M  -  25+  52 53 121 26 1783  Yanks Peak Barkerville Dome Creek  Quesnel A  M  95.3  25+  25+ 10+  10+  3  10  10-  5  5  25+  10+  50 02 122 53 1950 50 07 122 59  648  81.7 635.0 145.2  5.7  - 4 . 3 14.9  34  -31  4  3  5  10  10  50 27 122 56  222  67.6 264.7  94.1  7.3  - 5 . 1 20.9  38  -40  5  3  3  25+  25+  49 59 123 08  365 115.0 394.5 154.5  M  M  M  M  M  M  M  ^Months with mean monthly temperatures above 10 C Months with mean monthly temperatures below 0°C  +  "^Months with mean maximum temperatures above 0°C and mean minimum temperatures below 0°C **Data missing  -  -  25+  13 ash accumulations i n the l e e of the r i d g e c r e s t and of  lack  a s t a b i l i z i n g v e g e t a t i v e cover, t h a t the a l p i n e area  where the s o i l s were sampled  remained e s s e n t i a l l y snow  free a l l winter. Assuming a l a p s e r a t e o f 2°C per 310 m o f e l e v a t i o n the  Camelsfoot Range a l p i n e area has a mean annual temper-  ature between -4.4  and -1.6°C.  Lapse r a t e constants are  u s e f u l f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , however  temperature  and annual v a r i a t i o n s must be c o n s i d e r e d .  inversions  The l a c k o f  snow i n the area at the time of sampling suggested t h a t the of  s p r i n g and summer temperatures were h i g h e r than e i t h e r the o t h e r two sampling a r e a s , where snow s t i l l o c c u r r e d  i n patches a t the time of sampling. Smith  (1964) i n d i c a t e d t h a t mean annual s o i l  atures were g e n e r a l l y 1.1°C  temper-  h i g h e r than mean annual a i r ^  temperatures and i n c o l d c l i m a t e s the d i f f e r e n c e tended t o i n c r e a s e due t o the i n s u l a t i o n o f snow. t h a t the sample area was  I f the  snow f r e e i n w i n t e r was  assumption correct-,  s o i l temperatures below f r e e z i n g would occur f o r a cons i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of the year; a minimum of f i v e months i s suggested from the long term annual a i r temperature a v a i l a b l e from adjacent s t a t i o n s .  I f Longley's  data  (1967)  h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t heat i s r e l e a s e d by condensing water vapour on f r o z e n s o i l p a r t i c l e s , i s c o r r e c t and w i t h the; g r e a t e r i n s o l a t i o n e f f e c t experienced a t h i g h a l t i t u d e s , the  s o i l s o f the sample area would be expected t o warm up  14 r a p i d l y i n the s p r i n g and e a r l y summer. With most p r e c i p i t a t i o n coming i n the w i n t e r months little  i f any becomes e f f e c t i v e s o i l water i n windblown  areas.  Windblown areas would r e p r e s e n t more a r i d c o n d i t i o n s  than snow r e c e i v i n g areas.  S i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s have been  recorded by Bamberg and Major (1962) and Wardle The  (1968), Nimlos and McConnell  (1968).  Quesnel Highland:  The Quesnel Highland  as d e s c r i b e d by Kendrew and Kerr and  lies  i s continental  i n the e a s t e r n  d i v i s i o n o f the north i n t e r i o r c l i m a t i c r e g i o n .  "The  chief  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the long c o l d winter l i a b l e to i n t e n s e c o l d when c o n t i n e n t a l a i r sweeps out of the north  and  storms over the rampart of the r o o k i e s " (Kendrew and  Kerr,  1955). The  l a c k of s t a t i o n s above the v a l l e y f l o o r s i n t h i s  r e g i o n makes wind d i r e c t i o n d i f f i c u l t and Kerr  to predict.  Kendrew  (19 55) make the u n c e r t a i n p r e d i c t i o n t h a t s o u t h e r l y  winds were most frequent i n winter and n o r t h e r l y winds i n summer.  The  symmetrical  area and  l a c k of f l a g g e d and  deep snow cover and  though stunted t r e e s o f the sample cushion krummholz i n d i c a t e d  low wind i n t e n s i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n  the winter months. P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s spread over the whole year with summer and  f a l l r e c e i v i n g the most.  the sample area at 1,275  B a r k e r v i l l e c l o s e to  m e l e v a t i o n r e c e i v e s 102  cm  per  Figure 3  Landscape i n v i c i n i t y o f Yanks Peak  In the Quesnel Highland the symmetrical  though  stunted t r e e s of the sample area and l a c k o f flagged o r cushion krummholz i n d i c a t e d deep snow cover and low wind  intensities.  16 year w i t h a mean annual s n o w f a l l of 462 f a l l s i n the months September t o May. t a t i o n f i g u r e s and snow depths, h i g h e r , were expected Winter  cm,  most of which  Similar precipi-  and p o s s i b l y  slightly  i n the sample area.  i s longer and c o l d e r i n t h i s r e g i o n than i n  the south due,  i n p a r t , t o the longer w i n t e r n i g h t s and  i n c u r s i o n s of p o l a r a i r from the NW.  Winter  temperature  i n v e r s i o n s occur i n t h i s r e g i o n and can be seen on the long term data f o r Quesnel and Kerr  and B a r k e r v i l l e .  (1955) e x p l a i n e d t h i s as being due  examining  Kendrew  to g r a v i t a t i o n  of s u r f a c e cooled a i r t o the v a l l e y bottoms and  possibly  to shallow l a y e r s o f c o n t i n e n t a l a r c t i c a i r moving i n from the NE and f a i l i n g to r i s e t o h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s . The g r e a t depths of snow i n the a l p i n e area  (evidence  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned) would r e s u l t i n a h i g h e r mean annual s o i l temperature 1964)  than mean annual a i r temperature  (Smith,,  w i t h the s o i l r a r e l y f r e e z i n g below the snow cover. M e l t i n g snow would maintain s o i l water a t c l o s e to  f i e l d c a p a c i t y i n t o l a t e summer; i n c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s , and aspects i n the area snow patches have been observed which endured i n t o the succeeding w i n t e r . G a r i b a l d i Park: the L i t t o r a l Kerr  (1955).  G a r i b a l d i Park l i e s a t the south end of  ' c l i m a t i c r e g i o n ' d e s c r i b e d by Kendrew and "The  o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e i s the mildness  humidity of the w i n t e r f o r the l a t i t u d e i n c r e a s i n g t o  and  17 enormous depth i n the mountains . . . the mountains, even t h e i r lower slopes down almost to s e a - l e v e l , are under many f e e t of snow from November to March." The  G a r i b a l d i Park a l p i n e sample area l i e s i n an  area whose wind s t r e n g t h s are not e s p e c i a l l y h i g h f o r an ocean coast f a c i n g the w e s t e r l i e s , and whose wind d i r e c t i o n has  a s t r o n g topographic  1955).  i n f l u e n c e (Kendrew and  Kerr,  Cushion and f l a g g e d krummholz at the sample  sites  i n d i c a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e wind a c t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n w i n t e r months. The  L i t t o r a l r e g i o n r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t amount  of p r e c i p i t a t i o n of any r e g i o n i n the p r o v i n c e .  Fall.and  w i n t e r r e c e i v e d the most p r e c i p i t a t i o n while summer r e c e i v e d the l e a s t .  Mathews  (1951) recorded  some s h o r t term data  at G a r i b a l d i Lake and u s i n g drainage b a s i n data f o r the Cheakamus R i v e r b a s i n estimated be about 254  cm per year.  the t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n to  Brooke  (1966) and P e t e r s o n  i n d i c a t e d maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r the area between 915  and  1,220  m.  (1964)  occurred  Some of the f a l l and most o f the  w i n t e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n came as snow which accumulated to depths of over  760  cm.  BrOoke's  (1966) t a b u l a t i o n of snow  depth data i n d i c a t e d an approximate snow depth average of 300  cm at e l e v a t i o n s between 915  and  In the sample area snow depth was  1,220  m.  v a r i a b l e due  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n by wind. Some d r i f t s endured from one  ;  to season  to the next and  these were being  winter sports.  The  was  e x p l o i t e d f o r year-round  area r e c e i v e d s u f f i c i e n t snow and  c o o l enough to support g l a c i e r s , the f i r n  r e g i o n of G a r i b a l d i Lake was higher  at an e l e v a t i o n only  than t h a t of the sample s i t e s Brooke  l i n e i n the 30.5  m  (Mathews, 1951).  (1966) observed t h a t annual temperature  ranges f o r a l l windward s t a t i o n s were remarkably uniform and  a l t i t u d e was  a stronger  c l i m a t i c c o n t r o l than l a t i t u d e  for  c o a s t a l windward s t a t i o n s . Leeward upland s t a t i o n s  e x h i b i t e d more c o n t i n e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than t h e i r windward c o u n t e r p a r t s .  Brooke a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t a  t r a n s i t i o n from a c o a s t a l to an i n t e r i o r c l i m a t e between A l t a Lake and  Pemberton Meadows.  occurred  Temperature,  i n v e r s i o n s were not apparent from the data f o r the r e g i o n , though Walker  (1961) d e s c r i b e d  the manner  littoral and  occurrence of summer and w i n t e r i n v e r s i o n s which do occasionally.  L o c a l i n v e r s i o n s and  ;  occur  f r o s t pockets, however,  are l i k e l y a r e l a t i v e l y common occurrence where a i r d r a i n age  is restricted.  Assuming a lapse r a t e of 2°C  m e l e v a t i o n change, the sample area has temperature of between -3.9°C and  per  310  a mean annual,  -1.1°C.  V a r i a b l e depths of snow i n the a l p i n e area would r e s u l t i n f l u c t u a t i n g s o i l temperatures from area to  area.  Permafrost w i t h i n 76 cm of the s u r f a c e t o a depth of at l e a s t 1,220  cm occurs on a s h e l t e r e d exposure on  western p a r t of The  Cinder  Cone  (Mathews, 1951).  the  19  Figure  4  The Cheakamus G l a c i e r from Fitzsimmons Range  The area r e c e i v e d  s u f f i c i e n t snow and was c o o l  enough t o support g l a c i e r s .  20 S o i l water  supply w i l l  area a c c o r d i n g to the  vary throughout  snow d r i f t  pattern  the  alpine  and d u r a t i o n o f  snow c o v e r .  Vegetation The v e g e t a t i v e t h r e e sample a r e a s . a t e a c h s i t e was  c o v e r was d i f f e r e n t A brief  the  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  sample s i t e  The v e g e t a t i v e  came c l o s e s t t o t h e  v e g e t a t i o n d e s c r i b e d by K r a j i n a of  the  site  a l p i n e zone.  w e r e Cassiope  The p l a n t mevtensiana  (1965)  p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n c i t e d by t h e The Q u e s n e l H i g h l a n d : the  sample s i t e s  perennial alpine  and  the  surface  The p r e s e n t  r e s u l t o f the  latter  half  of the  climatic  as b e i n g i n d i c a t i v e at  empetriformis.  climatic  climax  cover i n the  and g r a s s e s .  throughout  the  region and  Clumps o f  area.  C h a r c o a l was  area i n d i c a t i n g that  amount o f t r e e c o v e r i n  l i m i t e d t r e e c o v e r was m o s t a c t i v i t y of miners i n the century.  the  author.  o v e r most o f the  last  vicinity  climax  c o n s i s t e d d o m i n a n t l y o f sedges  a r e a may h a v e h a d a g r e a t e r  past. the  same  f o r b s w i t h some r e e d s  the  cover i n the  Phyllodoce  The v e g e t a t i v e  f i r were s c a t t e r e d  found at  the  vegetation  indicators present  T h e s e s p e c i e s make up a p o r t i o n o f t h e  of  each o f  recorded.  The C a m e l s f o o t R a n g e : of  at  Weir  likely  area i n  (1964)  notes  the the  the  presence, alpine  Park:  The v e g e t a t i v e  cover i n the  s a m p l e s i t e s was made up o f s e d g e s ,  m o s s e s and f o r b s ,  and s c a t t e r e d  g e n e r a l l y krummholz l i f e ecological the  area  for  range.  Garibaldi the  p o t e n t i a l and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e  region of  reeds,  grasses,  alpine f i r with  form.  a  The a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been r e c e n t l y r e p o r t e d  a r e a b y a number o f w o r k e r s  1964; B r o o k e ,  (Archer,  1966 and P e t e r s o n ,  and for  196 3 ; B r i n k ,  1959,  1964).  Soils R e p o r t s and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a l p i n e s o i l s P r o v i n c e are v e r y l i m i t e d .  However, Rowles e t  i n d e s c r i b i n g the mountainous areas o f the dicated  al.,  t h a t most o f t h e u n c o n s o l i d a t e d m o u n t a i n  w e l l developed s o i l s  approaching Podzols.  a r e a s w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A l p i n e Meadow R a n k e r s , R e n d z i n a s and P o d z o l s a r e zonal s o i l s of Krajina's  the (1956)  Province i n -  w e r e composed o f L i t h o s o l s w i t h some weak t o  istic  in  deposits  moderately  Poorly  drained  soils. the  (1965) A l p i n e  characterZone,  developed under the p r e v a i l i n g pedogenic processes s k e l e t a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , weak p o d z o l i z a t i o n and  of  strong  gleization. In the  southern part  o f the  P r o v i n c e and i n  northern  W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e v o l c a n i c a s h was r e p o r t e d as b e i n g a  common c o n s t i t u e n t of the s u r f a c e h o r i z o n s (van Ryswyk', 1969;  and  of a l p i n e  S t a r r and C a w l f i e l d , 1963).  B r i t i s h Columbia, van Ryswyk  (1969) r e p o r t e d  the  In  occurrence  of s o i l s w i t h A l p i n e D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l Ah h o r i z o n s l y i n g P o d z o l i c Bf h o r i z o n s .  soils  over-  These s o i l s appeared to  be  s i m i l a r t o the Ptarmigan s e r i e s i n Montana d e s c r i b e d  by  Nimlos and McConnell  (1962) though they d i d not i n d i c a t e  the presence of v o l c a n i c Young  ash.  (1969) d e s c r i b e d  the presence of A l p i n e  D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s , Degraded A l p i n e D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s o r g a n i c s o i l s i n the A l p i n e r e g i o n o f Mount W e l l s ,  and  British  Columbia. A l p i n e s o i l s have been examined i n the course o f e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s i n the v i c i n i t y of G a r i b a l d i Park (Archer, 1963;  Brooke, 1966  and  Peterson,  1964).  s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d the presence of s o i l s c l a s s i f i e d A l p i n e Rawmarks and Anmoor-like areas.  Rankers  (Gleysols).  These as  (Regosols), L i t h o s o l s , and  V o l c a n i c ash was  noted i n some  MATERIALS AND METHODS  F i e l d Methods A s i t e o r s i t e s were sample areas.  s e l e c t e d a t each of the  The s o i l s were d e s c r i b e d f o l l o w i n g the  nomenclature and procedures p r e s c r i b e d by the N.S.S.C. (196 8) and sampled  by maximum e x p r e s s i o n o f morpho-  l o g i c a l genetic horizons.  Samples o f v e g e t a t i o n  were a l s o taken a t each s i t e f o r subsequent identification.  24 S i t e and S o i l  Descriptions  S i t e 1 - CAMELSFOGT Location:  L a t . 51° 00.9' N, Long. 122° 11.1' W.  Camels-  f o o t Range and 3.7 m i l e s W o f Hogback Mountain  (Yalakom R i v e r 920/1 E, 1:50,000 map  sheet). Position:  A t 2,124 m e l e v a t i o n f a c i n g S and on a 6 p e r cent s l o p e .  Geology:  The bedrock and channers and f l a g s i n the pedon c o n s i s t o f conglomerate and sandstone o f the Jackass Mountain group.  In the v i c i n i t y o f  t h i s s i t e and t o the leeward o f the r i d g e  crest  a p a l e o s o l was found b u r i e d beneath 30 cm or more of- v o l c a n i c ash. The ash c o n s i s t s o f about 35 p e r c e n t p e l l e t s up t o 3 mm i n diameter. Drainage:  Well d r a i n e d - P e r m e a b i l i t y : Moderate Runoff: medium.  Vegetation:  Carex Carex  pyvenioa spp.  Cassiope Dryas  mertensiana ootopetela  L i c h e n spp. Lupinus  lepidus  Moss sp.  var.  lobbii  Figure 5  Paleosol buried beneath 30 cm o f v o l c a n i c ash, Camelsfoot  Phyllodooe  empetrif'ovmis  Salaquilla  sp.  Salix  avctica  Salix  nivalis  Other Features:  Temperature at 20 cm  7.5°C  at 25 cm  7.5°C  and at 43 cm  7.2°C  on August 8,  1968  Surface cobbles and stones - 20 - 30 p e r c e n t . Horizon L-F  Depth cm 0.6-0  Loose l i t t e r of f r e s h and p a r t l y  de-  composed v e g e t a t i v e p a r t s . Ahl  0  - 6.3  Very dark brown dark brown  (10YR  (10YR  2/2  2.5/2  m),  very  d) loamy sand;  moderate coarse t o very f i n e  sub-  angular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g t o f i n e  gran-  u l a r ; very f r i a b l e ; abundant f i n e and very f i n e r o o t s ; 35 percent angular g r a v e l s ; c l e a r wavy boundary; 5 t o 7.5 Ah2  6.3  - 12.5  cm t h i c k ; pH  Dark r e d d i s h brown  (5YR  4.6. 2.5/2  m)., very  dark g r a y i s h brown to dark brown (10YR  3/2.5  d) sandy loam; moderate  coarse to very f i n e subangular  blocky  27  Figure 6  V e g e t a t i o n and t o p o g r a p h y a t s i t e  1,  Camelsfoot  28 breaking t o f i n e g r a n u l a r ; very friable;  few medium and f i n e t o very  f i n e r o o t s ; 45 percent angular g r a v e l s and  channers;  abrupt wavy boundary;  5 t o 10 cm t h i c k ;  pH 4.4.  Dark y e l l o w i s h brown (10YR 4/4 m), dark brown t o dark y e l l o w i s h brown (10YR  4/3.5 d) sandy loam; weak  subangular  course  b l o c k y breaking t o weak  very f i n e subangular  b l o c k y ; very  f r i a b l e ; v e r y few f i n e and medium r o o t s ; 30 t o 40 percent channers and f l a g s ; c l e a r wavy boundary; 7.5 t o 10 cm t h i c k ;  pH 4.4.  L i g h t o l i v e brown t o o l i v e  yellow  (2.5Y  5.5/6 m), l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown  (2.5Y  6/4 d) loam; weak coarse sub-  angular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g t o weak very f i n e subangular  b l o c k y ; very  friable;  40 t o 80 percent channers and f l a g s ; abrupt wavy boundary;. 20 t o 25 cm thick;  pH 4.6.  Shattered bedrock w i t h many thick clay.  moderately  and t h i n c o a t i n g s o f s i l t and  Figure 7  S o i l at s i t e 1, Camelsfoot  S i t e 2 - YANKS PEAK Location:  L a t . 52° 53' N, Long. 121°  26' W.  Two  miles  N of Yanks Peak on saddle between the headwaters of L i t t l e  Snowshoe and A s t e r  (Quesnel Lake, 93A. Position:  At 1,783  1:250,000 map  creeks  sheet).  m e l e v a t i o n f a c i n g NE on a 5 percent  slope. Geology:  Bedrock and angular g r a v e l s i n the pedon cons i s t of b l a c k f i n e g r a i n e d s i l t y q u a r t s i t e ( m e t a s i l t s t o n e ) and b l a c k and  dark-gray  p h y l l i t e and s l a t e , a l m o s t - a l l h i g h l y f o l d e d , of  the Midas formation.  Some g r a v e l s i d e n t i -  f i a b l e with the Snowshoe formation were p r e s ent as a r e s u l t of g l a c i a l Drainage:  Well d r a i n e d - P e r m e a b i l i t y : Moderate Runoff: medium.  Vegetation:  action.  Anemone  occidentaLis  Arenar-ia  laterifolia  Festuaa  sp.  Hoplopappus Junaus Junaus  sp.  parryi spp.  Moss spp. Muhlenbergia  sp.  Pediaularis  bvaoteosa  31 Ranunculus  veveeundus  Sibbaldia  pvocumbens  Trollius  laxus  Other Features:  Temperature at  25 cm  10°C  and a t  45 cm  10°C  on A u g u s t 9 ,  196 8  O c c a s i o n a l l y c h a r c o a l was  found  i n the  surface  horizons. Horizon L-F  Depth cm 4 - 0  L i t t e r of fresh  and p a r t l y  r o o t s and v e g e t a t i v e Ah  0 - 1 5  Very dark gray (N 4 / d) fine  abundant f i n e  15 t o  Very dark gray (10YR 4 / 1 d) moderate f i n e to  fine  fine  silt  gravel,  loam;  clear  gray  silt  fine  roots;  pH 4 . 0 .  loam; breaking  plentiful 6 7 percent  c l e a r wavy b o u n d a r y ;  cm t h i c k ;  wavy  subangular blocky friable;  fine  pH 4 . 0 0 .  (N 3 / m ) , d a r k  very gravelly  weak  granular;  20 cm t h i c k ;  granular;  and v e r y  gray  and v e r y  50 p e r c e n t g r a v e l ;  boundary; 15-38  (N 3 / m ) , d a r k  subangular blocky to  roots;  Bm  parts.  very g r a v e l l y  friable;  decomposed  20 t o  25  gure 8  Vegetation and topography at s i t e 2, Yank Peak  33  C  38+  Very dark gray  (N 3/ m) , very dark  gray t o dark gray  (5Y 3.5/1  d) very  g r a v e l l y loam, d i s p e r s e d through s h a t t e r e d bedrock; v e r y few f i n e very f i n e r o o t s ; pH  4.2.  and  •  Figure 9  Soil  at site  2, Y a n k s Peak  S i t e 3 - YANKS PEAK Location:  Same g e n e r a l l o c a t i o n and approximately yards NE and d o w n h i l l o f s i t e  Position:  50  2.  A t 1 , 7 8 3 m e l e v a t i o n f a c i n g NE on a 10 p e r cent s l o p e .  Geology:  Bedrock and angular g r a v e l s i n the pedon composed o f f i s s i l e gray s e r i c i t i c  and a r g i l -  laceous s c h i s t s , mostly deformed by f o l d i n g , and v e i n q u a r t z . rock suggests  The l i t h o l o g y o f the bed-  i t i s a member o f the Midas  formation and the v e i n quartz i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the I m p e r i a l v e i n . Drainage:  Well d r a i n e d - P e r m e a b i l i t y : Moderate Runoff:  Vegetation:  Medium.  Caltha Carex  leptosepala spp.  Hieraoium Junaus  spp.  spp.  Lacopodium  alpinum  Moss spp. Senecio  triangular"is  Sibbaldia  proaumbens  Valeriana  sitchensis  Valerianella Veratrum  loousta viride  F i g u r e 10  V e g e t a t i o n and topography a t s i t e Peak  3, Yanks  37  Other F e a t u r e s :  Temperature at 25 cm  7.8°C  and at 50 cm  7.8°C  on August 9, 196 8. O c c a s i o n a l l y c h a r c o a l was  found i n the s u r f a c e h o r i z o n .  T h i s s i t e at the time o f sampling appeared t o be a d r i e r s i t e i n terms of s o i l water than s i t e  Horizon L-F  2.  Depth cm 2-0  L i t t e r of f r e s h and p a r t l y  decomposed  r o o t s and v e g e t a t i v e p a r t s ; pH 3 . 6 . Ae  0 - 7.5  Gray t o g r a y i s h brown  (10YR 5/1.5  m),  l i g h t gray t o l i g h t brownish gray (10YR 6/1.5  d) g r a v e l l y s i l t  loam;  moderate medium to f i n e subangular b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; abundant f i n e and very f i n e r o o t s ; 30 p e r c e n t g r a v e l ; abrupt wavy boundary; 5 t o 10 cm t h i c k ; pH Bf  7.5-18  3.6.  Dark y e l l o w i s h brown  (10YR 4 / 4 m) ,  y e l l o w i s h brown to l i g h t brown  (10YR 5.5/5  yellowish  d) g r a v e l l y  silt  loam; moderate coarse p l a t y b r e a k i n g to  moderate coarse to f i n e subangular  b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; p l e n t i f u l f i n e and very f i n e r o o t s ; 26 p e r c e n t g r a v e l ; c l e a r wavy boundary; 7.5 t o 12,5 t h i c k ; pH  3.9.  cm  L i g h t o l i v e brown  (2.5Y 5/4 m),  g r a y i s h brown t o l i g h t gray  brownish  (2.5Y 5.5/2 d) g r a v e l l y  silt  loam; moderate coarse t o medium angular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g t o f i n e subangular b l o c k y ; f i r m ; few f i n e roots;  30 percent g r a v e l ;  gradual  wavy boundary; 30 t o 38 cm t h i c k ; pH 4.2. Very dark gray o l i v e gray  (N 3/ m), gray t o  (5Y 5/1.5 d) very  g r a v e l l y sandy loam; 5 8 p e r c e n t g r a v e l s i z e d s c h i s t s ; pH 4.4.  Figure  11  Soil  at  site  3, Yanks  Peak  40 S i t e 4 - FITZSIMMONS Location:  L a t . 50° 0 2 ' N Long. 122° 5 1 ' W, Fitzsimmons Ridge and 1/2 m i l e E o f S i n g i n g Pass and 2 3/4 m i l e s NE of O v e r l o r d Mountain 9 2 J , 1:250,000 map  Position:  (Pemberton,  sheet)  At 1,950 m e l e v a t i o n f a c i n g SSW on a 19 percent s l o p e .  Geology:  The bedrock and angular t o subangular  gravels  i n the pedon c o n s i s t o f p h a n e r i t i c f i n e t o medium g r a i n e d gabbros and quartz A cindercone  occurs  there i s evidence  Moderately  7 m i l e s t o the SW and  of extensive v o l c a n i c  a c t i v i t y i n the map Drainage:  area.  well drained - Permeability:  Moderate - Runoff: Medium. Vegetation:  Antenaria  sp.  Antenaria  umbrinella  Avenaria  sp.  Carex  phaeocephala  Carex  speotabilis  Carex  sp.  Junous  parryi  Plaleum  alpinum  Potentilla Silene  diorites.  villosa parryi  Sibbaldia  prooumbens  Valeria  sitchensis  F i g u r e 12  V e g e t a t i o n and topography a t s i t e Fitzsimmons  42  Other Features:  T e m p e r a t u r e a t 5 0 cm 1 0 ° C , Surface stone  Horizon L-F  and r o c k 3 0 t o 4 0  1968  percent.  Depth cm 0.6-0  L i t t e r o f f r e s h and p a r t l y vegetative  Ah  on O c t o b e r 3 ,  0  12.5  remains.  D a r k brown t o brown dark  decomposed  (10YR 4/3  m),  g r a y i s h brown t o g r a y i s h brown  (10YR 4.5/2  d) g r a v e l l y  loam; s t r o n g  medium t o f i n e s u b a n g u l a r  blocky  breaking to fine granular;  friable;  abundant f i n e and v e r y f i n e r o o t s ; 26 p e r c e n t  a n g u l a r g r a v e l and  c l e a r wavy b o u n d a r y ; 10 t o 14 t h i c k ; pH Bfh  12.5 - 30  stones; cm  4.0.  D a r k y e l l o w i s h brown  (10YR 3.5/4  brown t o d a r k y e l l o w i s h brown 4/3.5  d) g r a v e l l y  (10YR  sandy loam; s t r o n g  coarse t o f i n e subangular friable;  m),  blocky;  a b u n d a n t f i n e and v e r y  r o o t s ; 31 p e r c e n t  fine  a n g u l a r g r a v e l - and  s t o n e s ; c l e a r wavy b o u n d a r y ; 17 t o 20 cm t h i c k ; BC  30  - 44  t  pH  4.4.  Dark y e l l o w i s h brown l i g h t o l i v e brown  (10YR 4 / 4  (2.5Y 5/4  d)  m),  43 g r a v e l l y sandy loam; s t r o n g coarse to f i n e subangular  blocky;  friable;  p l e n t i f u l f i n e and very f i n e r o o t s ; 46 percent angular g r a v e l and stones; abrupt wavy boundary; 12 t o 16 cm t h i c k ; pH 4.5. C  44+  G r a y i s h brown t o o l i v e brown (2.5Y 4.5/3 m), p a l e o l i v e  (5Y 6/3.5 d)  very g r a v e l l y sandy loam; common, medium, prominent, brownish y e l l o w and y e l l o w i s h brown  (10YR 6/8 and  5/8 m) m o t t l e s ; coarse angular  pseudo  b l o c k y ; f i r m , very few f i n e r o o t s ; 6 3 percent angular g r a v e l ; pH 4.6.  44  Figure  13  Soil  at s i t e  4,  Fitzsimmons  S i t e 5 - FITZSIMMONS Location:  Same as g e n e r a l l o c a t i o n and on o p p o s i t e  side  of s m a l l k n o l l from s i t e 4. Position:  A t 1,950 m e l e v a t i o n f a c i n g NNE and on a 6 t o 8 percent  Geology:  slope.  The bedrock and angular  t o subangular g r a v e l s  i n the pedon c o n s i s t o f p h a n e r i t i c f i n e t o medium g r a i n e d quartz d i o r i t e s gneisses and granitics. Drainage:  Well d r a i n e d - P e r m e a b i l i t y : Moderate Runoff: Medium.  Vegetation:  Abies  lasiocarpa  Anemone  occidentalis  Antineria  umbvinella  Arenaria  sp.  Carex  nigricans  Carex  sp.  Cladonia  sp.  Erigeron  sp.  Juncus  parryi  Lecidea  granulosa  Luetkea  pectinata  Lycopodium Poa  sitchense  arctica  Polytrichum Sibbaldia Solorina  piliferum procumbens crocea  F i g u r e 14 - V e g e t a t i o n and t o p o g r a p h y Fitzsimmons Site which i s  5 is  located at  lowest i n the  at  the base o f the picture.  site  5,  snowbank,  47 Other Temperature a t 25 cm  Features:  and a t 50 cm 3,  8°C 8°C, on October  1968.  Surface stone and rock 30 t o 40 Horizon L-F  percent.  Depth cm 0.6-0  L i t t e r of fresh  and p a r t l y  decomposed  v e g e t a t i v e remains. Ah  0 - 1 0  Dark brown  (7.5YR 3 . 5 / 2  g r a y i s h brown t o brown gravelly  m), dark (10YR 4 / 2 . 5  d)  loam; moderate coarse to f i n e  subangular b l o c k y ; very f r i a b l e ; abundant f i n e and very f i n e 33 percent angular g r a v e l ;  roots; abrupt  wavy boundary; 8 t o 12 cm t h i c k ;  pH  4.0. Bfh  10  -  21.5  Brown to dark brown y e l l o w i s h brown  (7.5YR 4/3  (10YR 5/5  d)  m), gravelly  sandy loam; moderate coarse t o f i n e angular b l o c k y and moderate  fine  subangular b l o c k y ; f r i a b l e ; p l e n t i f u l f i n e and very f i n e r o o t s ; 40 angular g r a v e l ;  percent  c l e a r wavy boundary;  8 t o 12 cm t h i c k ;  pH  4.6.  Light  o l i v e brown  pale o l i v e  (2.5Y 5/4  (5Y 6/3 d) very  m), gravelly  sandy loam; moderate coarse t o f i n e angular b l o c k y and subangular b l o c k y ; friable;  few f i n e and very f i n e r o o t s  60 percent angular g r a v e l ;  abrupt  wavy boundary; 10 t o 16 cm  thick;  pH  4.8.  Olive  (5Y 4.5/3  m) p a l e o l i v e  (5Y 6/3 d) very g r a v e l l y  sandy loam;  coarse angular pseudo b l o c k y ; moist hard; very few f i n e r o o t s ; 57 percent angular g r a v e l ;  pH  4.9.  49  F i g u r e 15  Soil  at s i t e  5,  Fitzsimmons  50  Laboratory Methods  P r e p a r a t i o n of F i e l d  Samples  The bulk s o i l samples were subsampled on a r r i v a l a t the l a b o r a t o r y , f o r pH and f i e l d the remainder  water  determinations,  were a i r d r i e d a t room temperature.  The.  samples were weighed and ground between sheets o f brown paper with a wooden r o l l e r to pass a 2 mm i n quart ' s e a l e r ' j a r s . was  s i e v e and s t o r e d  The g r e a t e r than 2 mm  weighed and t a b u l a t e d as a percentage  size  fraction  of the p r e v i o u s l y  weighed unsieved sample and r e t a i n e d f o r s p e c i f i c  gravity  determinations. A l l p h y s i c a l , and chemical analyses were c a r r i e d out i n d u p l i c a t e , unless otherwise  indicated.  P h y s i c a l Analyses Bulk D e n s i t y , F i e l d Water Content and Hygroscopic Water: A p p r o p r i a t e s i z e d samples were oven d r i e d at  105°C f o r  24 hours and bulk d e n s i t y ( c o r e ) , f i e l d water and h y g r o s c o p i c water  contents were  calculated  (Black,  1965). P a r t i c l e Size A n a l y s i s : than 2 mm  P a r t i c l e s i z e a n a l y s i s of the l e s s  f r a c t i o n , f i n e e a r t h , was  c a r r i e d out;  removal of o r g a n i c matter by hydrogen peroxide 1965)  following (Black,  and f r e e i r o n oxides by sodium d i t h i o n i t e - c i t r a t e  51 procedure  (Mehra and Jackson, 1960); by the p i p e t t e method  (Black, 1965) and u s i n g the apparatus d e s c r i b e d by and Green  (1961).  Clark  The f i n e c l a y f r a c t i o n was determined  g r a v i m e t r i c a l l y on a measured a l i q u o t taken from a p o r t i o n of the t o t a l c l a y a f t e r c e n t r i f u g a t i o n Jackson, 1956).  (Baver, 19 56 and  Removal o f carbonates was not c o n s i d e r e d  necessary as a l l samples were r e l a t i v e l y S o i l Water R e t e n t i o n :  acidic.  S o i l water r e t e n t i o n was measured  at m a t r i c t e n s i o n s o f f i f t e e n , one, one t h i r d , and one tenth bars u s i n g the procedure o u t l i n e d by Richards and U.S. S a l i n i t y Laboratory S t a f f tions.  (1965)  (1954), w i t h two excep-  A p e r i o d o f f o u r t o f i v e days was allowed f o r ,the  samples t o reach e q u i l i b r i u m and t o m a i n t a i n a more even water vapour g r a d i e n t i n s i d e the e x t r a c t o r s , t h r e e sponge rubber s t r i p s were glued v e r t i c a l l y t o the s i d e s with the bottom o f the s t r i p s immersed i n water, w h i l e the equipment was  i n operation.  S p e c i f i c G r a v i t y o f the G r a v e l s :  Specific gravity  determin-  a t i o n s were made u s i n g a t o r s i o n balance and water a t 20°C as the displacement l i q u i d  (Berry and Mason, 1959).  Deter-  minations were made on s i x g r a v e l s i z e d p a r t i c l e s per site.  .  M i n e r a l o g i c a l Analyses M i n e r a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n by X-ray D i f f r a c t i o n : . s i z e s e p a r a t i o n was of K i t t r i c k and  carried  Hope (1963) the  separated, medium and clay The  (0.2-2 y ) , s i l t medium and  s a t u r a t e d , Mg  K s a t u r a t e d and  f o l l o w i n g the  (2-50  y)  procedure  following fractions  fine clay  f i n e and  t r e a t e d to make the Mg  out  Particle  (less than 0.2  and  y),  very f i n e sand  coarse c l a y  saturated g l y c o l  further  slides,  solvated, K saturated,  heated to 300°C and  to 500°C, f o l l o w i n g the  coarse  (50-100 y)  f r a c t i o n s were  following p a r a l l e l oriented  being  K s a t u r a t e d and  procedure o u t l i n e d  by  heated  Jackson  (1956). I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the and by  p a r a l l e l oriented clay  randomly o r i e n t e d s i l t s and  very f i n e sands was  o b t a i n i n g X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s by means of  mineral made a  P h i l i p s X-ray d i f f r a c t o m e t e r equipped with a p r o p o r t i o n a l counter and CuK  pulse height analyser using n i c k e l  radiation  generated at 40 k i l o v o l t s and  filtered  20  milliamperes. P e t r o g r a p h i c Analyses: m a g n i f i c a t i o n was  used to examine the  f r a c t i o n , which was s l i p with an  A polarizing  mounted on  microscope with X200 very f i n e sand  a g l a s s s l i d e under a cover-  index of r e f r a c t i o n o i l of 1.640.  counts were c a r r i e d out  on  each s l i d e .  Over  200  53 Differential analyser  Thermal A n a l y s e s :  A D u p o n t 900  thermal  and a d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a n n i n g c a l o r i m e t e r c e l l  a t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e f r o m a m b i e n t t o 60 0°C was u s e d characterize  the  thermal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  c l a y w i t h o r g a n i c m a t t e r and f r e e a c o n t r o l l e d atmosphere  of  of less  with  to  than  2 y  i r o n o x i d e s unremoved i n  nitrogen.  Chemical Analyses Measurement o f p H : c h l o r i d e i n a 1:2 Taylor,  1955)  (Atkinson et  pH was m e a s u r e d soil  and i n a al.,1958)  i n 0.01 M c a l c i u m  to s o l u t i o n r a t i o 1:1  soil  ( S c h o f i e l d and  to water  ratio  u s i n g a Beckman Z e r o m a t i c pH  meter. T o t a l Carbon:  T o t a l c a r b o n was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a  Gasometric Carbon A n a l y z e r ' induction (Black,  furnace  comprising of a high  and a s e m i - a u t o m a t i c  1965 and L e c o ,  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  1959).  carbon  'Leco  frequency  determinator  The pH v a l u e s m e a s u r e d  amount o f c a r b o n a t e s  present would  above be  negligible. Determination of Total Nitrogen: b y t h e m a c r o - K j e l d a h l method Total Sulphur:  N i t r o g e n was  ( A t k i n s o n et. al_. ,  S u l p h u r was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g a  Combustion S u l f u r A n a l y s i s Apparatus' frequency 1959) .  i n d u c t i o n furnace  determined 1958). 'Leco  comprising of a high  and a s u l p h u r t i t r a t o r  (Leco,  54 Exchangeable  C a t i o n s and Exchange C a p a c i t y :  Exchangeable  c a t i o n s were determined as o u t l i n e d by A t k i n s o n e t a l . , (1958) u s i n g 1.0  N ammonium a c e t a t e a t pH 7.0  extracting solution.  Exchangeable  as the  c a l c i u m , magnesium,  potassium and sodium were determined w i t h a Techtron atomic a b s o r p t i o n spectrophotometer Type C a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y was distillation  of absorbed NH^  AA-5.  determined by  i n t o b o r i c a c i d and  with standard s u l p h u r i c a c i d u s i n g bromphenol indicator  (Atkinson e t al.', 1958) .  c a p a c i t y was  direct  titrated  blue  The c a t i o n exchange  a l s o determined a f t e r s o i l samples were  e q u i l i b r a t e d by shaking with 0.01  N CaCl  2  a c c o r d i n g t o the method d e s c r i b e d by C l a r k  for five (1965).  d i f f e r e n c e between the two exchange c a p a c i t i e s was as the pH dependent  days The tabulated  c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y .  D i t h i o n i t e - and Oxalate - e x t r a c t a b l e I r o n , Aluminum, S i l i c o n and Manganese:  Unground l e s s than 2 mm  samples  were e x t r a c t e d f o l l o w i n g the d i t h i o n i t e - c i t r a t e - b i c a r b o n a t e procedure of Mehra and  Jackson  (1960).  Samples ground to 100 mesh were e x t r a c t e d ing Day  follow-  the a c i d ammonium o x a l a t e procedure of McKeague and (1966). Iron, aluminum, s i l i c o n and manganese were d e t e r -  mined on the e x t r a c t s with a 'Perkin Elmer 404' absorption  spectrophotometer.  atomic  55 Pyrophosphate-dithionite-extractable Carbon:  Iron, Aluminum and  Pyrophosphate-dithionite-extractable  iron  aluminum and carbon were e x t r a c t e d f o l l o w i n g the procedure o u t l i n e d by Franzmeier, Hajek and Simonson (1965). and  Iron  aluminum were determined w i t h a P e r k i n Elmer 40 4  atomic a b s o r p t i o n spectrophotometer.  Carbon was determined,  by a method developed by L a v k u l i c h e t a l . S o i l S c i . In press)  (19 70. Can. J .  with a Leco Gasometric Carbon  Analyzer.  E x t r a c t i o n o f Amorphous M a t e r i a l s from the F i n e E a r t h and Clay F r a c t i o n s and Determination  of Selected Constituents:  Separation o f the c l a y f r a c t i o n and the e x t r a c t i o n o f amorphous o x i d e s , hydroxides  and a l u m i n o - s i l i c a t e s was  c a r r i e d out as d e s c r i b e d by Yuan (1968) with the f o l l o w i n g modifications: a) E x t r a c t i o n of amorphous m a t e r i a l s was c a r r i e d out on both the f i n e e a r t h and c l a y f r a c t i o n s . b) The supernatant  s o l u t i o n s and washing s o l u t i o n s  from o r g a n i c matter d e s t r u c t i o n were r e t a i n e d . c) Clay suspensions were used i n a l l cases f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e measurement of c l a y used f o r extraction. The  e x t r a c t s were analyzed  for silicon,  i r o n , alum-  inum and manganese with a P e r k i n Elmer 404 atomic absorption  spectrophotometer.  56 S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses;  Correlation  determined a t the U n i v e r s i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t s were  o f B r i t i s h Columbia computing  c e n t r e u s i n g an IBM 360/67 computer and the UBC TRIP subroutine  program. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s used i n the t e x t are  given i n Appendix I.  RESULTS AND  Physical  DISCUSSION  Analyses  The r e s u l t s of s e l e c t e d p h y s i c a l analyses are shown i n Table I I and i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s 16, 17, 18, 19, and 21.  A l l the data are expressed  20  on an oven dry b a s i s  where a p p l i c a b l e . Bulk D e n s i t y :  Owing to the f r i a b l e nature o f the peds  and the amount of g r a v e l i n the pedons, c l o d s and turbed cores were d i f f i c u l t were determined and  to o b t a i n .  Bulk  undis-  densities  on cores from two h o r i z o n s of s i t e s 1, 2  3, from one h o r i z o n a t s i t e 4 and on none from s i t e  Where bulk d e n s i t i e s were determined p r o f i l e , they i n c r e a s e d with F i e l d Water Content:  5.  on two h o r i z o n s per  depth.  In comparing f i e l d water content  and  water content a t v a r i o u s t e n s i o n s , i t must be kept i n mind t h a t f i e l d water content i s determined  on a complete  while the water content at the v a r i o u s t e n s i o n s was mined on the l e s s than 2 mm  separates.  The  deter-  t r u e water  contents would have been lower i f the complete s o i l been  soil  had  used. F i e l d water contents were i n f l u e n c e d by the  c h a r a c t e r and content ,of o r g a n i c matter present i n the  TABLE I I — Selected p h y s i c a l analyses o f the s o i l s under study  Horizon  Depth cm  Sand  % Particle size Analysis on <2mm f r a c t i o n Silt Clay Fine Clay+ >2mm  Text. Class  %  Bulk • Field Density Water  %  Hygr. Water  S i t e 1 Camelsfoot A h l  0  Ah2  6 . 3 - 1 2 . 5  - . 6 . 3  74.2  2 2 . 3  3 . 5  0.62  3 4 . 6  69.3  2 5 . 6  5 d  1.54  4 5 . 1  Bm  1 2 . 5 - 2 0  54.3  36.3  9.4  3 . 6 1  29.2  CB  20  50.9  4 0  8.5  2.77  4 1 . 4  - 4 3  o  6  LS SL SL L  2 1 . 9  5.2  —  2 7 . 1  3 . 6  1.15  -  2 1 . 4  4 . 2  1 . 4 8  1 3 . 9  2 . 6  80.2  8 . 4  l o 2 9  2 2 . 4  3 . 0  2 4 . 4  1 . 6  2 3 . 1  0 . 9  S i t e 2 Yanks Peak L-F Ah Bm C  4  -  0 56o9  1 5 . 4  3.74  5 0 . 0  3 4 . 2  50.C  1 4 . 3  4 . 9 7  6 7 . 0  3 8 . 3  4 7 . 0  1 4 . 7  3 . 2 0  6 9 . 1  0  - 1 5  2 7 . 7  15  - 3 8  38+  GrSiL GrSiL GrL  — 1.43  S i t e 3 Yanks Peak L-F Ae  0  B f  7 . 5 - 1 8  2  -  BC  18  C  50+  1 2 8 . 1  7.2  1.35  3 9 . 4  1 . 9  —-  4 3 . 6  3 . 3  1 . 6 6  1 9 . 6  1 . 0  1 4 . 6  0 . 8  5 2 . 6  3 . 6  0 -  7.5  - 5 0  2 9 . 1  56.0  1 4 . 9  3 . 1 7  3 1 . 6  54.3  1 4 . 1  3 . 1 4  26.4  3 3 . 4  5 0 . 7  1 5 . 9  4 . 0 7  2 9 » 8  7.1  1 . 8 0  5 7 . 8  3 5 . 1  3 0 . 6  58.3  SiL SiL SiL GrSL  —  S i t e 4 Fitzsimmons Ah  0  - 1 2 . 5  B f h  1 2 . 5 - 3 0  BC  30  C  44+  -hh  4 4 . 6  1 0 . 9  2.33  2 6 . 6  5 6 . 0  3 5 . 9  8 . 1  2 . 0 1  3 1 . 0  5 4 . 9  3 7 . 3  7 . 8  l o 7 4  4 6 . 0  53.5  3 6 . 4  1 0 . 1  1.72  6 2 . 7  4 4 . 5  L SL SL QrSL  0.91  —  4 1 . 4  5 . 1  —  2 6 . 6  2 . 9  —  1 0 . 0  1  71.4  5.4  —  4 2 . 1  4 o 8  —  1 6 . 1  2 . 0  —  1 3 . 9  1 . 0  0  6  S i t e 5 Fitzsimmons Ah B f h  0 10  - 1 0  4 3 . 6  4 6 . 2  1 0 . 2  2 . 4 8  3 3 . 4  - 2 1 . 5  6 6 . 5  2 4 . 0  9*5  6 . 8 1  4 1 . 1  BC  2 1 . 5 - 3 6  54.6  3 6 . 5  8  9  3 . 6 6  5 9 . 6  C  36+  56.3  3 4 . 2  9 , 5  2.46  57.3  ' A l l percentages by weight *% o f t o t a l c l a y  0  L SL GrSL GrSL  59  Figure 16  Water content d i s t r i b u t i o n with depth for the s o i l s under study —*  x F i e l d water content  Site I  I Site  1-  Iz  z  ill t- 4 0  UJ  z o o  < 5  20  Iz o o  I/10 bar 1/3 bar  cc  UJ H  2|  L *  I  s  bar  15 10  20  SOIL  cr £  I/10 bar 1/3 bar  40  I  20  i  15 bars  bars 10  3 0 cm DEPTH  H Z  2 0 3 0 4 0 cm SOIL DEPTH  3  Site  u  z 40 O o or IxJ 20  10  bar  20  30 4 0  SOIL  50  DEPTH  cm  F i g u r e 16  —  (continued)  •— x  F i e l d water content.  Site  10  20 3 0 4 0 cm SOIL DEPTH  Site  10  4  5  2 0 3 0 4 0 cm SOIL DEPTH  61 soil.  A c o r r e l a t i o n between f i e l d water content and  carbon was  total  found s i g n i f i c a n t a t the one percent l e v e l .  Other c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l s o i n d i c a t e d but these merely r e f l e c t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o r g a n i c matter content. S i t e s 1, 2 and 3 were sampled i n e a r l y August. i n f o r m a t i o n was  a v a i l a b l e as t o the pre-sampling weather  c o n d i t i o n s , though shrouded  No  i t i s known t h a t both sample  areas,were  i n clouds f o r s e v e r a l days p r i o r t o sampling.  The s u r f a c e h o r i z o n a t s i t e 1 was  at a water content  e q u i v a l e n t to t h a t at 15 bars t e n s i o n . The remainder  pf  the pedon had a water content almost e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t at  1 bar t e n s i o n .  S i t e s 2 and 3 had water contents e q u i v -  a l e n t t o t h a t between 1/3  and 1 bar t e n s i o n s .  S i t e s 4 and 5 were sampled i n e a r l y October which was  the b e g i n n i n g of the wet  i n f o r m a t i o n was though  i t was  season.  Again no weather  a v a i l a b l e immediately p r i o r t o sampling,  known i t had been r a i n y and cloudy f o r  s e v e r a l weeks p r i o r t o sampling i n the v a l l e y a t A l t a Lake. The Ah h o r i z o n o f both s i t e s 4 and 5 had  field  moisture contents i n the r e g i o n e q u i v a l e n t t o 1/10 water content.  Both s i t e s had a decreased f i e l d  bar  water  content i n t h e i r C h o r i z o n s , which were both at water contents e q u i v a l e n t to t h a t between 1 and 15 b a r s . The  f i e l d water content at s i t e 1 r e f l e c t e d  d e s i c c a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s a t the s u r f a c e of the s i t e .  the Site  6 2 r e f l e c t e d uniform conditions throughout at  reflected  exposed p o s i t i o n o f the  s l i g h t l y less  and i n d i c a t e d a p o s s i b l e r e c e n t surface.  Sites  surface.  pedon  a slight desiccating effect the  the  the  recharge  4 and 5 r e f l e c t e d  the  w i t h a decrease w i t h depth o f f i e l d H y g r o s c o p i c Water C o n t e n t : a t e n s i o n between colloid  content  o f the  soil.  It  is  c a t i o n exchange  clay fraction.  a t i o n was w i t h c a t i o n e x c h a n g e  c a p a c i t y of the  content  is held  the  one p e r c e n t  content  and  c a p a c i t y and  capacity.  The h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e  total  amorphous  Baver  (1956)  total  soil  exchange  the  c o l l o i d a l organic complexes.  sites  exchangeable  cation  exchange content.of  would o r i g i n a t e  The c o r r e l a t i o n  showed a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n Na and K and t h e  s c o p i c i t y but n o t between exchangeable  Ca and Mg t h e cations.  the  inversely  organic matter  the  most c a s e s ,  level  c o l l o i d s a n d a l s o showed t h a t  c a p a c i t y was i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e  ients  the  The m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l -  o f v a r i o u s c l a y s y s t e m s was  as many o f t h e  at  largely non-liquid  p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the volume o c c u p i e d by the cations.  weather,  content.  showed t h a t h y g r o s c o p i c i t y i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e  water  the  (Buekman and B r a d y , 196 8 ) .  was f o u n d b e t w e e n h y g r o s c o p i c w a t e r  exchange  at  wet  Hygroscopic water  A c o r r e l a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t at  o x i d e s i n the  recent  site  31 and 1 0 , 0 0 0 b a r s a n d v a r i e s w i t h  and moves i n v a p o u r f o r m  carbon content,  Site 3  of water  water  with  on  coeffichygro-  two d o m i n a n t ,  in  63 Hygroscopic moisture g e n e r a l l y tended to with depth, sites  1,  i n c r e a s i n g only i n the  0.1, 0.33,  Figures for  1.0  The w a t e r r e t e n t i o n v a l u e s  and 1 5 . 0 b a r s  obtained  t e n s i o n are p l o t t e d i n  1 7 , 1 8 , 1 9 , 20 a n d 2 1 .  The w a t e r r e t e n t i o n  values  a l l horizons decreased w i t h i n c r e a s i n g t e n s i o n . The d e c r e a s e  1,  horizons of  3 and 4 .  S o i l Water R e t e n t i o n : at  illuvial  decrease  i n water r e t e n t i o n w i t h depth at  4 and 5 c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e d e c r e a s e  content.  i n organic  sites  matter  The c l a y and amorphous m a t e r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n  w i t h i n the pedons d i d n o t appear enced the water r e t e n t i o n  t o have m a r k e d l y  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x h i b i t e d by  water r e t e n t i o n curves for these  the  sites.  The s u r f a c e m i n e r a l h o r i z o n s o f s i t e s  1,  c o n t a i n e d t h e g r e a t e s t amounts o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r Table VIII)  influ-  o f any o f t h e m i n e r a l h o r i z o n s .  4-and 5 (See  These h o r i z o n s  showed t h e m o s t r a p i d d r o p i n w a t e r r e t e n t i o n b e t w e e n  0.1  and 0 . 3 3 b a r s .  1,  The s u r f a c e m i n e r a l h o r i z o n s o f s i t e s  4 and 5 a l s o c o n t a i n e d 3 1 , 10 and 35 p e r c e n t v o l c a n i c r e s p e c t i v e l y i n the v e r y f i n e sand f r a c t i o n Sites  (See T a b l e V I I I ) .  1 and 5 w h i c h c o n t a i n e d t h e m o s t a s h e x h i b i t e d  sharpest  drop i n water content w i t h i n i t i a l  water t e n s i o n i n the  at the  increases  the in  s u r f a c e m i n e r a l h o r i z o n and i n  a d d i t i o n had t h e h i g h e s t w a t e r percent,  ash  contents,  15 b a r w a t e r t e n s i o n .  i s t i c s were n o t e x h i b i t e d a t  site  4.  greater  The same  t h a n 20 character-  Figure  17  WATER R E T E N T I O N CURVE FOR -2mm. SIZE FRACTION SITE I C A M E L S F O O T  PERCENT  WATER  CONTENT  Figure  18  65  WATER R E T E N T I O N CURVE FOR <2mm. SIZE FRACTION SITE 2 YANKS PEAK  J 60  PERCENT. WATER  CONTENT  I 70  F i g u r e 19  WATER RETENTION CURVE FOR -=2mm. SIZE FRACTION SITE 3 YANKS PEAK  PERCENT WATER CONTENT  F i g u r e 20  WATER  RETENTION  CURVE  FOR * 2mm. SIZE FRACTION SITE  4 FITZSIMMONS  PERCENT WATER  CONTENT  F i g u r e 21 WATER RETENTION CURVE FOR ^2iiiira. S5&E FRACTION SITE § FITZSIMMONS  PERCENT WATER CONTENT  69 The s i m i l a r w a t e r r e t e n t i o n , of  a l l m i n e r a l horizons at  site  at  lower water  tensions  2 may be e x p l a i n e d as  b e i n g due t o t h e more n e a r l y u n i f o r m d i s t r i b u t i o n o f earth  separates,  phous m a t e r i a l  organic matter  (See T a b l e s I I ,  The g r e a t e r site  and c l a y a s s o c i a t e d  amor-  I X and X ) .  water r e t e n t i o n o f the Bf h o r i z o n ,  3 , o v e r t h e Ae h o r i z o n c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e  amount o f c l a y  fine  of  greater  a s s o c i a t e d amorphous m a t e r i a l i n t h e B f  horizon. Organic matter the g r e a t e s t  content  appeared  t o have e x h i b i t e d  i n f l u e n c e on t h e w a t e r r e t e n t i o n  between h o r i z o n s at each s i t e .  properties  Some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  c e r t a i n h o r i z o n s were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e v o l c a n i c  ash  content.  V o l c a n i c ash water r e t e n t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s  suggested  i n the  literature  ( S o i l Survey S t a f f ,  M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y , 1964) . t e n t i o n was i n f l u e n c e d t o some d e g r e e b y t h e  are  1967 and  Water  re-  amount o f  amorphous m a t e r i a l o f b o t h m i n e r a l and o r g a n i c o r i g i n , i n the  soil,  h o w e v e r t h i s was n o t s t r o n g l y e v i d e n t i n  data nor d i d i t  the  appear w a r r a n t e d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  I t was r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e w a t e r r e t e n t i v i t y o f t h e w h o l e s o i l w o u l d be l e s s fine  earth  fraction.  s o i l was c a l c u l a t e d o b t a i n e d were  t h a n t h a t d e t e r m i n e d on  the  The w a t e r r e t e n t i v i t y o f t h e w h o l e ( R i c h a r d s , 1965) h o w e v e r t h e  unsatisfactory.  values  70 P a r t i c l e Size Analyses: of a s o i l  The  particle size  i s an e x p r e s s i o n of the  distribution  p r o p o r t i o n s of  v a r i o u s s i z e s of p a r t i c l e s which i t c o n t a i n s . tions  are  classes the  r e p r e s e n t e d by  (Day,  1965).  the  The  P a r t i c l e size classes  than 0.2  fine clay i s  mined u s i n g the  propor-  The  the  textural  analyses data of the  size  are based  ( S o i l Survey  expressed as  micron f r a c t i o n .  The  r e l a t i v e weights of the  U.S.D.A. scheme of s i z e l i m i t s  1951).  the  on  Staff,  less  c l a s s was  < 2 mm  deter-  fraction  (N.S.S.C., 1968). Textures of the h o r i z o n s ranged from loamy sand to s i l t  loam.  Silt  loam t e x t u r e s o c c u r r e d a t the  Peak s i t e s r e f l e c t i n g the nature of the,bedrock. t e x t u r e s at s i t e s 1,  The  4 and  bedrock of sandstone and itics  at s i t e s 4 and  schistose  and  argillaceous  loamy sand and  sandy loam  5 r e f l e c t e d the  nature of  conglomerate at s i t e 1 and  s i l t w i t h depth, w h i l e the  with depth, to the the that  CB  horizon.  of the The  Bm  The  total  the gran-  5.  S i t e 1 showed a decrease i n sand and in  Yanks  clay  h o r i z o n and  an  increase  f r a c t i o n increased • started  to decrease i n  fine clay d i s t r i b u t i o n  paralleled  clay.  data i n d i c a t e d  have been e l u v i a t e d .  that  S i l t and  the  s h a t t e r e d bedrock at the  the  interpretation  silt,  c l a y , and  fine  c l a y c o a t i n g s observed  bottom of the  that e l u v i a t i o n has  soil  clay on  supported  taken p l a c e .  71 On r e p e a t i n g the p a r t i c l e s i z e a n a l y s i s removing the f r e e distribution  i r o n oxides the data showed a s i m i l a r  f o r the sand and s i l t  ever the. amount o f c l a y w i t h depth i n d i c a t i n g  sized  i n both c l a y  fraction.  fractions  decreased  into  larger  For t h i s reason a h o r i z o n w i t h s u f f i c i e n t  accumulation t o q u a l i f y  c o a t i n g s on the c o a r s e r  Sites  I t was noted t h a t there fractions.  2 and 3 showed an i n c r e a s e i n sand and a  decrease i n s i l t with depth.  At s i t e 2 the t o t a l  showed a s l i g h t decrease with depth w h i l e the f i n e showed a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n the Bm h o r i z o n . t o t a l clay and  clay  as a Bt h o r i z o n was not r e c o g n i s e d  as such but as a Bm i n the f i e l d . were s i l t  How-  t h a t i r o n and aluminum oxides have  acted as cementing agents bonding the c l a y separates.  without  clay clay  At s i t e 3 the  showed a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n the BC h o r i z o n  the f i n e c l a y d i s t r i b u t i o n p a r a l l e l e d  t h a t of the t o t a l  clay. The indicated  sand and s i l t  d i s t r i b u t i o n a t s i t e s 2 and 3,  t h a t weathering o f p a r t of the sand f r a c t i o n t o  s i l t had taken p l a c e , the amount of weathering having decreased with depth.  The t o t a l c l a y d i s t r i b u t i o n a t s i t e  2 suggested t h a t c l a y had been formed a t the expense of the silt the  f r a c t i o n and t h i s had taken p l a c e most a c t i v e l y a t surface.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f i n e c l a y  t h a t some e l u v i a t i o n  indicated  o f t h i s f r a c t i o n had taken p l a c e .  -  72  At s i t e  3 both  the  c o a r s e and f i n e  c l a y had b e e n  to e l u v i a t i o n ,  the  greatest accumulation  subjected  occurring i n  the  BC h o r i z o n . The s a n d  and s i l t d i s t r i b u t i o n  r e l a t i v e l y uniform i n the horizon contained the  BC h o r i z o n w h i l e t h e equal  The d i f f e r e n c e s  the  change i n the  of  pedon.  i n the  The d e c r e a s e i n f i n e cation not  t h a t the  the  result  i n the  of  at  site  clay  fraction : and  the  c o n t e n t may be due  to  s u r f a c e h o r i z o n o r more  The t o t a l  or  lithologic  clay distribution  had t a k e n  place  C h o r i z o n was n o t  indicated  and t h a t  decreased with depth.  considered  o f c l a y i n the  the  The amount illuvial.  c l a y w i t h d e p t h was a f u r t h e r  accumulation  The s a n d horizons  and s a n d  of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n  of formation  c l a y found  The f i n e  the  almost  sampling depth.  in silt  result  than  Clay decreased w i t h depth to  that i i i s i t u clay formation intensity  The A h  and more s i l t  between s u r f a c e h o r i z o n s  more i n t e n s e w e a t h e r i n g are  l e s s sand  Ah h o r i z o n .  decreased throughout the  likely  4 was  C h o r i z o n had a c l a y c o n t e n t  to t h a t of the  underlying horizons  site  B f h , BC and C h o r i z o n s .  relatively  underlying horizons.  at  indi-  C horizon  was  eluviation.  and s i l t d i s t r i b u t i o n  i n the  5 was r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m .  s a n d d e c r e a s e d and i n c r e a s e d ,  respectively,  h o r i z o n and i n c r e a s e d , and d e c r e a s e d , Ah h o r i z o n , r e l a t i v e  to the  BC and C The s i l t i n the  respectively,  amounts i n t h e  BC and C  and  Bfh in  the  73 horizons. uniform  The t o t a l c l a y d i s t r i b u t i o n was e s s e n t i a l l y  throughout the pedon with a s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r amount  of c l a y i n the Ah h o r i z o n .  The amount o f f i n e c l a y i n -  creased w i t h depth t o the Bfh h o r i z o n and decreased  i n the  BC and C h o r i z o n s . As  i n s i t e 4, a l i t h o l o g i c o r s t r a t i g r a p h i c change  was i n d i c a t e d by the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s i l t  and sand.  Some  e l u v i a t i o n o f the f i n e c l a y had taken p l a c e as evidenced by the f i n e c l a y data. The  percentage o f m a t e r i a l g r e a t e r than 2 mm i n -  creased w i t h depth a t s i t e s 2, 4 and 5.  At s i t e 1 no  depth r e l a t i o n s h i p was e v i d e n t and a t s i t e 3 the g r e a t e r than 2 mm f r a c t i o n i n c r e a s e d with depth below the Ae h o r i z o n , which had r e l a t i v e l y more g r a v e l than the Bf h o r i z o n below. The  i n c r e a s e with depth o f the g r e a t e r than 2 mm  f r a c t i o n was i n t e r p r e t e d p a r t l y as r e f l e c t i n g the i n t e n s i t y of weathering with depth but a l s o as r e f l e c t i n g the a c t i o n of the i c e as i t s h a t t e r e d the u n d e r l y i n g bedrock and i n c o r p o r a t e d t h i s i n the t h i n l a y e r o f d r i f t t h a t i t l a i d down. Some s t r a t i f i c a t i o n was e v i d e n t the s u r f a c e h o r i z o n s o f s i t e s 1 and 5.  (See Table  II)  in  A more r i g o r o u s  s e p a r a t i o n of the p a r t i c l e s i z e s may have i n c r e a s e d the evidence  supporting  i n the pedons  l i t h o l o g i c or s t r a t i g r a p h i c changes  (Barshad, 1964).  74 S p e c i f i c G r a v i t y of the  Gravels:  ities  o f the  sites  t o be  2.39,  values  gravels 2.31,  covered  gravels  at  2.43,  the  2.56  1,  range expected  encountered at  each  The r e s u l t s o f t h e shown i n T a b l e s  Mineral  2,  III,  Identification  3,  4 and 5 was  and 2 . 6 5 , for  grav-  found  respectively. the  The  constituent  site.  Mineralogical  are  The mean s p e c i f i c  Analyses  selected  mineralogical  I V , V , V I , V I I and  analyses  VIII.  by X - r a y D i f f r a c t i o n :  The  minerals  in  the  study were i d e n t i f i e d u s i n g the  criteria  in  the  literature  and W h i t t i g , 1 9 6 5 ) . Q  Site  (Jackson,  1 Camelsfoot:  clay mineral clay  1964  V e r m i c u l i t e was t h e  i n the  fractions.  1956,  silt,  published  dominant  to  c o a r s e c l a y and medium and o  A minor  and medium c l a y f r a c t i o n s . to dominant  i n the  Quartz  coarser size  and f e l d s p a r  fractions  in  amount  o f m i x e d l a y e r v e r m i c u l i t e - c h l o r i t e was d e t e c t e d i n  major  fine  C h l o r i t e and 10 A m i c a w e r e d e t e c t e d  t r a c e t o m i n o r amounts i n a l l f r a c t i o n s .  fine  major  the were  diminishing  in relative  q u a n t i t i e s w i t h decrease i n s i z e o f the  no f e l d s p a r  and o n l y a t r a c e o f q u a r t z b e i n g d e t e c t e d , i n  the  medium and f i n e No p r e c i s e  clay  separate,  fraction.  t r e n d s were i d e n t i f i e d  d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns obtained.  from the  mineral  I t was assumed t h a t m o s t  TABLE I I I — Mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n i n four d i f f e r e n t s i z e f r a c t i o n s of the s o i l s at s i t s 1 , Camelsfcot, determined by X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n procedures  Horizon  Depth cm  Chlorite  1 0 % Mica  MontKaol- m o r i l l i n i t e onite  Vermi- Mixed c u l i t e Layers  Quartz  Medium and f i n e c l a y < Ahl Bm CB  0 -6 . 3 1 2 . 5 - 2 0 2 0 - 4 3  2 2 0  0 0 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  3 4 4  0 -6 . 3 1 2 . 5 - 2 0 2 0 - 4 3  1 1 2  0 1 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 - 6 . 3 1 2 . 5 - 2 0 2 0 - 4 3  2 1 1 - 2  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0  -  5  3 3 3  j  0  u  .  2  .  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  1 - 2 1 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  3 3 - 2 3  1 1 1  1 1 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  u  *  Very fine sand 5 0 - 1 0 G u . Ahl Bm C  0 - 6 . 3 1 2 . 5 - 2 0 2 0 - 4 3  0 1 1  1 1 1  0 0 0  Expressed.as r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t i e s 0 . None 1 . Trace 0 - 1 0 $ 2 Expressed as r e l a t i v e occurrence 0 . Absent 1 . Present 2 . Minor  0 0 0  0 0 0  . Minor 1 3  . Major  0 0 0  0  3 4 4  -  3  5  $  4  . Dondnant  ^  +  2 2 2  0 0 0  i 0 0 0  1 1 1  0 0 0  Silt 2 Ahl Bm C  -  4 2 3  2  o  1 - 0 1 - 0 1 - 0  2 2 2  Coarse c l a y 2 Ahl Bm C  0  Crystalline iron oxides  F e l d - Amphispar bole Olivine  +  3 2 2  3  . Major 3  5  -  6  5  $  4  ? Not p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d  . Dominant 6  5  76 of the c h l o r i t e was In the medium and  i n h e r i t e d from the parent m a t e r i a l .  f i n e c l a y f r a c t i o n there was  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the v e r m i c u l i t e had c h l o r i t e by way described in  the  (1965).  Replacement of potassium  10 A micas to form v e r m i c u l i t e was  as having taken p l a c e .  surface  The  reduction  area.  an i n d i c a t i o n of  s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to weathering w i t h The  and  increase  s l i g h t l y reduced amount of vermic-  u l i t e present i n the medium and surface horizon  also indicated  i n the amounts of  f e l d s p a r with g r a i n s i z e was  t h e i r increased in  been weathered to  of mixed l a y e r v e r m i c u l i t e - c h l o r i t e as  by Jackson o  quartz and  some  the  f i n e c l a y f r a c t i o n of o  lack of 10 A mica and  the  dominance  of v e r m i c u l i t e i n the coarse c l a y f r a c t i o n of the same horizon  suggested the most intense weathering o f the  m i n e r a l s was  taking place  i n the  d i f f e r e n t i a l movement o f one was detected. S i t e 2 Yanks Peak: characterized occurred  surface horizon.  A l l tabulated  s i z e f r a c t i o n s were o  by the presence of 10 A mica, t r a c e amounts  t i o n s , major and  dominant q u a n t i t i e s occurred  fine clay f r a c i n the s i l t  coarse c l a y f r a c t i o n s .  Traces of k a o l i n i t e were  in  size fractions.  and  smaller  the  coarse c l a y and medium and  detected  Montmorillonite,  along with t r a c e amounts of v e r m i c u l i t e , was in  No  m i n e r a l r e l a t i v e t o another  i n the very f i n e sand and medium and  the s i l t  clay  detected ,  fine clay fractions i n  and  TABLE IV -— Mineral distribution in four different sise fractions of ths soils at site 2 , Yanks Peak, determined by X-ray diffraction procedures Horizon  Depth cm  Chlorite  Monti o 8Kaol- morillMica inite onite  Vermiculite  Mixed Layers  Feldspar  Quartz  Amphibole  Olivine  Crystalline iron oxides  Medium and fine clay < 0 . 2 | j * Ah Bm C  0 1 5 3 8 +  -15  - 3 8  0 0 0  1  1 1 - 0  0 0 1 - 0  1 1 1-0  3 3 3  Coarse clay 2 0  Ah Bm  15  3 8 +  C  - 1 5 - 3 8  0 0 0  3 - 4 3 3  1-2 1  0  1 - 2 1 - 0 1 - 0  1 0 0  -  0 0  0  0  0 0 0  0 0 0  1 2 2  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  3 2 2  1 1 1  0 0 0  0 0  0 0 0  4 4 4  1 1 1  0 0 0  0  1 1 - 2 1 - 2  1 0 0 0  0 0 0  .  2  p  0  *  Silt 2 - 5 0 U *  0 1 5 3 8 +  Ah Bm G  - 1 5 - 3 8  3 2 1  2 3 4  0 1  0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  1  Very fine sand 5 0 - 1 0 0 p . + Ah Bm C  0 1 5 3 8 +  -15  - 3 8  0 0 0  1 1 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  .  0 0 0  1  1 1  1 1 1  Exoresssd as relative Quantities 0. None 1 . Trace 6-10$ 2 , Minor 1 0 - 3 5 $ 3 ° Major 3 5 - 6 5 $ 4 . Dominant 6 Kxi^GOGod as "^s.l-stlve occurrsnce b Absent 1, Rrssent 2 , Minor 3 . ?4ajor 4 = > Dominant ? Not positively identified 0  5  -  1  0  78 t r a c e and major amounts, r e s p e c t i v e l y . i t e d to the s i l t  lim-  s i z e d f r a c t i o n and mixed l a y e r montmor-  i l l o n i t e - v e r m i c u l i t e to the medium and of  C h l o r i t e was  the s u r f a c e h o r i z o n .  Quartz  fine clay  fraction  followed a s i m i l a r  d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n to s i t e 1 with f e l d s p a r o c c u r r i n g in  t r a c e amounts and only i n the very f i n e sand and  fractions.  Traces of o l i v i n e were d e t e c t e d i n the  and very f i n e sand f r a c t i o n s .  silt silt  Traces of c r y s t a l l i n e  oxides were a l s o d e t e c t e d i n the very f i n e sand  iron  fraction,  however, they were not i d e n t i f i e d as to m i n e r a l s p e c i e s . o Most of the 10 A mica appeared to be i n h e r i t e d : f r o m the parent m a t e r i a l and the m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e was (Jackson, 1964,  1965  forming  at  i t s expense  and Mackenzie, 1965).  It  a l s o appeared t h a t some of the m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e  was-  being f u r t h e r weathered r e s u l t i n g i n the formation of. k a o l i n i t e though there was.some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t p a r t of the k a o l i n i t e may  have been i n h e r i t e d .  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  c l a y minerals i n the coarse c l a y f r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t pedogenic a l t e r a t i o n of the c l a y minerals was i n t e n s e i n the Ah h o r i z o n . e r a l s with decrease  The decrease  the most  i n primary min-  i n g r a i n s i z e again i l l u s t r a t e d  r e l a t i v e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of minerals to weathering  the  with  i n c r e a s e i n s u r f a c e area. S i t e 3 Yanks Peak:  Traces of c h l o r i t e and mixed l a y e r  m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e - v e r m i c u l i t e were d e t e c t e d i n both  clay  79 fractions i n the  of site  2, otherwise  the  distribution  s i l t and c l a y s i z e d f r a c t i o n s  similar  to  site  2.  The v e r y f i n e  was  sand  of  minerals  essentially  fraction  differed  o in that neither  10 A m i c a n o r o l i v i n e was  The s e q u e n c e o f w e a t h e r i n g essentially pedogenic  the  same as  and n o t  at  inherited  s i t e .3 was p e d o g e n i c a l l y stage than s i t e further  at  2 where the  i n d i c a t i o n of i t s  development chlorite  site  than s i t e  have i n f l u e n c e d  the  a stage of  The p r e s e n c e o f clay  fractions  c o n t e n t o f t h e s e two  The a l t e r n a t i v e  may sites  interpretation  i n t h e s e s o i l s do n o t  taking place  i n podzols  was  correspond  (Brydon,  1968).  and was t h e  C h l o r i t e was p r e s e n t i n a l l major  clay fractions. o  clay fractions  vermiculite.  indicated  weathering  p r e s e n c e o f o l i v i n e was  1948) .  be  was  then t h i s  size  m i n e r a l present i n the  The s i l t  fraction  also  silt contained  amounts o f 10 A m i c a w h i c h d e c r e a s e d t o m i n o r  i n both of  sites  kaolinite  a more a d v a n c e d  clay mineral  Fitzsimmons:  fractions  major  the  o f 10 A m i c a s u g g e s t s p a r e n t m a t e r i a l  w i t h those g e n e r a l l y Kodama and R o s s ,  3 appeared to  r e l a t i v e l y more y o u t h f u l  that processes taking place  and b o t h  If  at both  3 (Jackson,  more t h a n p e d o g e n e s i s .  4  2.  site  s o l e l y i n t h e Ae h o r i z o n o f b o t h o  and d i s t r i b u t i o n  Site  at  detected.  Traces  along w i t h t r a c e to minor  amounts  amounts  of k a o l i n i t e , montmorillonite  mixed l a y e r v e r m i c u l i t e - m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e  were o n l y  and  detected  TABLE V — Mineral distribution in four different size fractions of the soils at site 3, Yanks Peak, determined by X-ray, diffraction procedures Horizon  Depth cm  Chlorite  10 A Mica  MontKaol- morillinite onite  Vermi- Mixed culite Layers Quartz  Feldspar  Amphibole Olivine  Crystalline iron oxides  Medium and fine clay 0.2(1* Ae Bf BC C  0 - 7.5 7.5-18 18 -50 50+  1-0 0 0 0  1 4 4 1  1 1 1 1  0 1 1 0  3 2 1 4  1-0 1 1 0  1 1 1-2 1-2  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1-2 1 2 2  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  3 3 3 3  1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  o  0 0 0  0 0 0 0  4 4 4 4  1 1 1 1  0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1  Coarse clay 2-0.2u* Ae Bf BC C  0 - 7.5 7.5-18 18 -50 50+  1-0 0 0 0  3-4 3-U  3 3  1-0 1-0 1 1-2  2 1-0 1-0 1  0 0 2 1  1-0 0 0 0  Silt 2-50u.  +  Ae Bf BC C  0 - 7.5 7.5-18 18 -50 50+  2 2 1 2-3  4 4 3-2 3  0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  Very fine sand 50-10GVL  +  Ae Bf BC C  0 - 7.5 7.5-18 18 -50 50+  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  •siExpressed as relative quantities 0. None 1. Trace 0-10$ 2. Minor 10-35$ 3. Major 35-65$ Expressed as relative occurrence 0. Absent 1. Present 2. Minor 3. Major 4. Dominant  +  o  4. Dominant 65-100$ ? Not positively identified  81 i n the medium and  fine clay f r a c t i o n .  Quartz  and f e l d s p a r  were d e t e c t e d i n d e c r e a s i n g amounts w i t h depth, a t r a c e of quartz and no f e l d s p a r being d e t e c t e d i n the medium and fine clay.  Traces of amphibole c r y s t a l l i n e i r o n  oxides  and p o s s i b l y e p i d o t e were d e t e c t e d i n the very f i n e sand fraction. C h l o r i t e and  o 10 A mica appeared to be i n h e r i t e d  the parent m a t e r i a l .  The  appearance of v e r m i c u l i t e i n the o  coarse c l a y f r a c t i o n and the r e l a t i v e decrease i n d i c a t e d t h a t v e r m i c u l a t e had (Jackson, 1965).  stages f u r t h e r . was  The  i n 10 A mica  formed a t the l a t t e r s expense  In the medium and  the process of weathering  from  fine clay  fraction  appeared to have gone s e v e r a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was  t h a t the v e r m i c u l i t e  being weathered to m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e v i a a t r a n s i t o r y  i n t e r m e d i a t e of mixed l a y e r v e r m i c u l i t e - m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e . The k a o l i n i t e i n the medium and f i n e c l a y f r a c t i o n b e l i e v e d to be pedogenic and and  formed by the  " s i l i c a t i o n " of m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e  "alumination"  (Jackson, 1964,  A l t s c h u l e r , Dwornik and Kramer, 1963).  was  Kaolinite  1965; formation  i n s o i l s of g r a n i t i c o r i g i n has been p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d (Stephen,  1952)  though i n t h i s case the s o i l s because, of  t h e i r l o c a t i o n and p o s i t i o n on the landscape would not have been expected age.  The  ash may  to have reached  such an advanced pedogenic  i n f l u e n c e of the weathering  have had  products of v o l c a n i c  some, i n f l u e n c e though Kanno  t h a t k a o l i n formation had been observed  (1962) i n d i c a t e d  i n some o l d members  TABLE VI — Mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n i n four d i f f e r e n t s i z e f r a c t i o n s of the s o i l s at s i t e 4 , Fitzsimmons determined by X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n procedures Horizon  Depth cm  Chlorite  io X Mica  Kaolinite  Montmorillonite  Vermiculite  Mixed Layers  Medium and fine c l a y .< Ah Bfh C  0 -12.5 12.5-30 44+  1 3 3  1 2 2  1 1-2 1  1 1-0 1  3 1-2 1-0  Crystalline iron Epidote oxides  Feldspar  Amphibole  1 1 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  1-2  1-2 2  0 0 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  2 2 2  2 2 2-1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  3 3 3  2 2 2-1  0 0 1  ?  1 1 1  Quartz  0.2\i"  1 0 1  Coarse c l a y 2-0.2jj* Ah Bfh C  0 -L2.5 12.5-30 44+  3 3 3-4  2 2-1 2-3  0 0 0  0 0 0  1-2 1-2 1-2  0 0 0  S i l t 2-50u  +  Ah . Bfh C  0 -L2.5 12.5-30 44+  3-4 3 3  3 3 3  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  Very f i n e sand 50-lOCu" " 1  Ah Bfh C  0 -12o5 12.5-30 44+  1 0 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  Expressed as r e l a t i v e q u a n t i t i e s 0. None 1. Trace 0-10$" 2. Minor 10-35$ 3. Major 35-65$ Expressed as r e l a t i v e occurrence 0. Absent 1. Present 2. Minor 3. Major 4. Dominant  4<. Dominant 65-100$ ? Not p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d  00  83 o f humic a l l o p h a n e  soils with strongly acid reactions,  d i d not i n d i c a t e the Site at  5  Fitzsimmons:  site  5 otherwise  t e n t and p r o c e s s e s e s s e n t i a l l y the interpreted clay the in the  age o f t h e  o l d members.  No m i x e d l a y e r m i n e r a l s w e r e  t h a t had t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e pedon  same as a t  site  4.  The d e g r e e o f  4 appeared  weathering  clay fraction of s i t e felspar,  5.  The r e l a t i v e  protection against  weathering.  finer sized  that other  golith  f o r the  accounted  increase  fractions at  c o a t i n g had a f f o r d e d  site  site  the 5 there  than the weathering o f the  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the  5  some  On c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h  p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y m i n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n a t was an i n f e r e n c e  in  a m p h i b o l e and p o s s i b l y  i n d i c a t e d t h a t w e a t h e r i n g h a d n o t b e e n as i n t e n s e 4 o r t h a t amorphous  fine  t o have a l s o t a k e n p l a c e  c r y s t a l l i n e i r o n o x i d e s i n the  site  were  as h a v i n g t a k e n p l a c e o n l y i n t h e medium and  the p r i m a r y m i n e r a l s  as a t  detected  t h e p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a r y m i n e r a l c o n -  fraction of s i t e coarse  he  re-  clay minerals-  T h i s a g a i n p o i n t e d t o t h e v o l c a n i c a s h as h a v i n g h a d an influence  on t h e m i n e r a l o g y o f t h e  secondary minerals  in  the  pedon, Petrographic Analyses:  The m i n e r a l o g y o f t h e v e r y  s a n d f r a c t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d  in a semi-qualitative  The s a n d g r a i n s w e r e p l a c e d i n one o f two g r o u p s were t h e n c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n each g r o u p .  The  fine manner.  and  constituents  TABLE VII.:— Mineral distribution in four different size fractions of the soils at site 5> Fitz simmons, determined by X-ray diffraction procedures Horizon  Depth cm  Chlorite  Mont10 % Kaol- morillMica inite onite  Vermi- Mixed culite Layers Quartz  Feldspar  Crystalline Amphiiron bole Epidote oxides  Medium and fine clay <£0.2u* Ah Bfh C  0 -10 10 -21.5  36+  1  3 3  1 0 1-2  1 0 2  1 0 1-2  3-4 3  1  0 0 0  1-0 0 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  2 1 1  1 1 1-0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  2 2-1 2  2-1 2-3 2  1 1 0  0 0 0  1 1 1  2-1 2 2-1  1 1 1  2 1 1  1 1 1  Coarse clay 2-0.20.* Ah Bfh C  0 -10 10 -21.5 36+  1 1  3-4  2 2  3  2-3 2-3  1  1-0 1-0 1-0  2  3  0  0 0 0  Silt 2-50u.  +  Ah Bfh C  0 -10 10 -21.5  36+  3 3 3  2-3  2 2  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  Very fine sand 50-10Cu.  +  Ah Bfh G  0 -10 10 -21.5  36+  1 1 1  1 1 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  ^Expressed as relative quantities - 0 . None 1. Trace 0-10$ 2 . Minor 10-35$ 3 . Major 35-65$ Expressed as relative occurrence 0 . Absent 1. Present 2 . Minor 3 . Major 4 . Dominant  +  3 3 3  4o Dominant 65-100$ ? Not p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d oo  85 of the v o l c a n i c ash group were f u r t h e r c l a s s e d a c c o r d i n g to morphology or phenocryst  composition  to t h a t d e s c r i b e d by Smith, Okazaki The  i n a manner  and A a r s t a d  similar  (1968).  c o n s t i t u e n t s of the non-ash group were c l a s s i f i e d *  a c c o r d i n g to appearance as opaque, non-opaque, ferromagnesi a n and weathered and/or coated m i n e r a l s . minerals consisted largely  opaque  of m e t a l i c oxides and s u l p h i d e s .  The non-opaque minerals c o n s i s t e d l a r g e l y f e l d s p a r s . The  The  ferromagnesian  of quartz  and  m i n e r a l s c o n s i s t e d of dark  s i l i c a t e m i n e r a l s mostly comprising amphibole, pyroxene, b i o t i t e , o l i v i n e and c h l o r i t e coated m i n e r a l s comprised to i d e n t i f y due  and the weathered and/or  of minerals which were d i f f i c u l t  to t h e i r s t a t e of weathering  and/or the  amount of c o a t i n g m a t e r i a l c o v e r i n g them. The opaque m i n e r a l s were present i n the l e a s t amounts of the non-ash f r a c t i o n a t a l l s i t e s . At s i t e s 2 and  3 the non-opaque m i n e r a l s  i n abundance w i t h depth. stituted  At s i t e s  the major percentage  s i t e s 1 and 5 they decreased, Site  ;  decreased  3, 4 and 5 they  con-  of the m i n e r a l s present;. then i n c r e a s e d w i t h  At  depth.  4 e x h i b i t e d an i n c r e a s e d content i n the C h o r i z o n i n  the amount of non-opaque m i n e r a l s . At s i t e 1 the ferromagnesian  minerals  about 50 percent of the non-ash f r a c t i o n , percentage  o c c u r r i n g i n the Bm h o r i z o n .  Uncoated non-opaque.  comprised  the g r e a t e s t Sites  2 and  3 had  TABLE VIII — Petrographic analyses of the very fine sand fraction Volcanic ash  % Non-ash fraction Horizon  Ferro- Weathered Non- magne- coated % Opaque opaque sian minerals Total  Depth cm  a Volcanic ash fraction  Phenocrysts Ferro- Total Coarse Fine vesi- vesiNon- magne- No. cular cular Platy Tubular Opaque opaque sian Counts  Site 1 Camelsfoot Ahl Bm CB  0 - 6.3 12.5-20 20 -43  1 2 1  32 29 33  49 49 49  18 10 17  Ah Bm C  0 -15 15 -38 38+  0 1 0  60 28 10  2 3 2  38 66 88  49 38 0  14 25 0  12 15 0  4 0 0  3 8 0  8 3 0  239 233 235  40 0 0  20 0 0  40 50 0  0  0 0  0 25 0  0 0 0  221 211 169  9 0 0 0  55 0 0 0  27 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  9 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  240 242 253 223  30 50 0  25 0 0  15 0 0  0 0 0  10 0 0  5 0 0  202 216 206  40 8 0  16 0 0  8 92 0  0 0 0  12 0 0  15 0 0  220 211 216  Site 3 Yanks Peak  -  Ae Bf BC C  31 11 17 10 0 0 Site 2 Yanks Peak 2 0 2 25 0 0  0 - 7.5 7.5-18 18 -50 50+  1 1 2 1  90 87 87 54  3 5 5 5  6 7 6 41  5 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  Site 4 Fitzsimmons Ah Bfh C  0 -12 5 12.5-30 44+ 0  0 1 1  49 49 55  14 19 27  37 29 17  10 1 0  15 50 0  Site 5 Fitzsimmons Ah Bfh C  0 -10 10 -21.5 36+  1 0 1.  61 42 54  Glass-encased phenocrysts  24 21 25  14 31 20  35 6 0  9 0 0  oo  87  the lowest percent present w i t h the Ae h o r i z o n o f s i t e 3 c o n t a i n i n g a lower percentage -horizons.  than the r e s t  of the  At s i t e 4 they i n c r e a s e d w i t h depth and at s i t e  5 c o n s t i t u t e d about 25 percent of the group. h o r i z o n contained s l i g h t l y l e s s at s i t e  than the Ah and C h o r i z o n s  s i t e s e x h i b i t e d the same d i s t r i b u t i o n  weathered and or coated m i n e r a l s . ages i n c r e a s e d with depth. depth.  At s i t e 2 the  decreased  i n c r e a s e d again i n the C.  distribution  was  i n the  uniform to the C where there was  again i n the  V o l c a n i c ash was a l l the s i t e s .  percent i n t h e i r  with Bm  a large  i n c r e a s e d i n the  C.  d e t e c t e d i n the s u r f a c e h o r i z o n s  S i t e s 1 and 5 both contained over  30  s u r f a c e Ah h o r i z o n , while s i t e 1 contained  the most ash i n the t o t a l pedon. 2 and  percent-  At s i t e 3 the  i n c r e a s e and a t s i t e 5 the d i s t r i b u t i o n Bfh t o decrease  of  At s i t e 4 they decreased  At s i t e 1 the percentages  h o r i z o n and  sites  Bfh  5. No two  of  The  3 was  almost n e g l i g i b l e ;  The  amount d e t e c t e d a t  2 and 5 percent r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h i s  was  while s i t e 4 contained 10 percent i n the  s u r f a c e Ah h o r i z o n . The mineralogy t h a t at l e a s t  of the very f i n e  three of the s i t e s ,  sand f r a c t i o n  1, 4 and 5,  had  i n f l u e n c e d by a d d i t i o n s of v o l c a n i c ash to t h e i r At s i t e 1 the percentage fraction  suggested  distribution  indicated been  surfaces.  of the non-ash  t h a t the parent m a t e r i a l was  stratified  88 or the s o i l had been s u b j e c t t o c o n g e l i t u r b a t i o n which seemed t o be borne out by the depth a t which v o l c a n i c ash was i d e n t i f i e d .  However, s u r f i c i a l l y there was no  evidence o f c o n g e l i t u r b a t i o n f e a t u r e s on the s l o p e s , where the s i t e was l o c a t e d . There was an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t s i t e 2 i s p e d o g e n i c a l l y younger than s i t e 3 as pedogenesis has r e s u l t e d i n most of the, d i t h i o n i t e r e s i s t a n t , c o a t i n g m a t e r i a l  being  e l u v i a t e d out o f the solum o f s i t e 3; while s i t e 2 has not been s u b j e c t e d material.  to s u f f i c i e n t leaching to e l u v i a t e t h i s  Though not i n d i c a t e d i n the t a b l e , almost a l l  of the counts i n the weathered coated column o f these two  s i t e s were coated by an u n i d e n t i f i e d ,  apparently  amorphous, b l a c k opaque m a t e r i a l . The and  percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n o f minerals  5 suggest t h a t there has been some s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n  the parent m a t e r i a l . and  at s i t e s 4  The present  p e r i g l a c i a l environment  abundance o f g l a c i a l d r i f t i n the v i c i n i t y o f the  s i t e s supports the case f o r some d i f f e r e n t i a l s o r t i n g having taken p l a c e i n the parent m a t e r i a l without any major l i t h o l o g i c a l change having been i n v o l v e d . The  major d i f f e r e n c e s between the v o l c a n i c ash a t  the two l o c a t i o n s , the Camelsfoot Range and G a r i b a l d i Park, was i n the phenocrysts.  The v o l c a n i c ash a t s i t e s  4 and 5 was made up of a g r e a t e r percentage o f non-opaque  and ferromagnesian g l a s s encased phenocrysts than the ash from s i t e 1 which was  was  composed of a percentage  of opaque phenocrysts as w e l l as non-opaque and ferromagnesian. The minimal amount of ash t h a t was  d e t e c t e d at  s i t e s 2 and 3 suggested t h a t the s i t e s d i d not l i e i n the main path of ash d e p o s i t i o n .  The dominance of f i n e  v e s i c u l a r , p l a t y and t u b u l a r shards suggested t h a t these c l a s s e s of shards are the l e a s t dense and were c a r r i e d the g r e a t e s t d i s t a n c e s . D i f f e r e n t i a l Thermal A n a l y s i s :  The d i f f e r e n t i a l  thermal  a n a l y s i s curves were i n t e r p r e t e d u s i n g the c r i t e r i a i n the l i t e r a t u r e  ( C h i c h e s t e r , Youngberg and Harward,  K i r k m a n , M i t c h e l l and Mackenzie, McHardy, 1964  and Tan,  Broad exothemic  1966;  1969;  M i t c h e l l , Farmer and  1969). peaks between 100°C and 200°C  suggested the presence of amorphous m a t e r i a l and allophane i n a l l h o r i z o n s at a l l s i t e s , though h e i g h t s u s u a l l y decreased with depth.  The peak  possibly  the peak heights  d i d not correspond to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of amorphous m a t e r i a l s i n the c l a y f r a c t i o n , as determined by chemical analyses  (See Table X), but corresponded more t o d i s - ;  t r i b u t i o n of o r g a n i c matter. The presence of g o e t h i t e was  suggested by an  endothemic peak i n the r e g i o n of 290°C i n the BC and C,  90 horizons of s i t e  3 and t h e C h o r i z o n o f s i t e  i r o n o x i d e s were d e t e c t e d fine  sand f r a c t i o n s  5.  Crystalline  by X - r a y d i f f r a c t i o n i n the  of sites  2,  3,  4 and  very  5.  Chemical Analyses The r e s u l t s  of selected chemical analyses  are  shown  i n Table I X . pH:  The pH v a l u e s , m e a s u r e d  i n t h e Ae h o r i z o n o f s i t e site  1.  development,  e x h i b i t i n g the  sites  in their  two s i t e s surface  3 t o 6.10  r a n g e d from  4.27  i n t h e CB h o r i z o n o f  The m a j o r i t y o f v a l u e s w e r e a r o u n d pH 5 . The s i t e s  values  i n water,  B horizon  3 , 4 and 5 , a l s o showed t h e  surface  horizons.  exhibited slightly  h o r i z o n s over the  T h e s e two s i t u a t i o n s o f more i n t e n s e  strongest  While the  l o w e s t pH  remaining  increased values  in  their  immediately underlying h o r i z o n .  were i n t e r p r e t e d  l e a c h i n g i n the  c y c l i n g s l i g h t l y o v e r - r i d i n g the  first  as b e i n g t h e case,  result  and b a s e  leaching effect  in  the  latter. The d i f f e r e n c e  b e t w e e n pH v a l u e s m e a s u r e d  and i n c a l c i u m c h l o r i d e v a r i e d b e t w e e n units.  Sites  1.85  i n water  a n d 0 . 5 8 pH  1,  2 and 3 showed d i f f e r e n c e s  o f o v e r 1 pH  unit while sites  4 and 5 showed d i f f e r e n c e s  of less  than  1 pH u n i t . S u r p r i s i n g l y t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n  TABLE IX — Selected chemical analyses o f the study s i t e s Horizon  Depth cm  pH H 0 2  CaCl  2  Total C%  co/ O/o  11%  Base C/N C . E . C * Satn.$  Exchangeable Cations Ca M g K  Na  pH dependent C  •C•  S i t e 1 - Camelsfoot Ahl Ah2  Bm CB  0  - 6.3  6o3-12o5 12.5-20 20  -43  5.65 5.35 5.55 6.10  4.55  7.02  4.38  4.47  4.40 4.58  3.18  0.93 0.52 0.36  0.59  0 07 o  0.50 0.16  0.43 0.34  24.77  4.29  1.85  12.3  2.35  0.50  0.09  0.17  2 2  19.9  2.90  0.14  0.12  0.18  13o91  14.27  6.30 1.31  2.97 0.36  1.92  3.68  0.065  7.6  32.72  58.6  —  8.6  26.15  25.4  0.028  8.8  25.31  0.003  8.4  16.81  15.29  2.96  — 0  1 5  S i t e 2 - Yanks Peak L-F Ah  Bm C  4 - 0 0. - 1 5 15  - 3 8  38+  5o30  4.40  26.42  5.12  4.07  4.07  5.05  4.05  2.16  5.17  4.15  1.18  1.93 0.56 0.34 0.23  —  13.7  0.046  0.025 0.019  7.3 6.4 5.1  23.25  41.7 24.2  13.48  19.0  1.64  Oo59  0.17  0.16  9.91  7.01  25.5  0.85  0.47  0.12  0.28  5.63  3.77 0.66 0.77  2.61  3.88  0.52  1.13  0.18  61.01  0.28  14.21  S i t e 3 - Yanks Peak L-F Ae Bf BC C  2 - 0 0 - 7.5 7.5-18 18  - 5 0  50+  4.45  3.60  23.64  4.27  3.60  2.31  4.50  3.90  2.02  4.87  4.20  5.75  4.35  1.32  _  17.9  0.021  8.6  0.016  15.5  0.31  0.27 0.13 0.05  0.002  0.27  0.10  0.002  6.2 2.7  63.54  17.9  15.39  11.2  14.61  4.32 4.33  mm.  0.06  0.10  0.36 0.36  0.89  N.D.  0.12  0.12  0.52  1.95  1.24  0.12  0.13  0.68  1.63 0.63  0.39 0.L4  0.67 0.37  8.7  0.58  0.74 0.27 0.22  15.81  5.8  0.10  0.31  19.3  0.61  0.42  0.10  0.30  11.3 7.4  1.61  0.99  0.51  0 6l  0.25  0.11  0.69 0.35  8.8  26.2 79.5  10.53  13.43  S i t e 4 - Fitzsimmons Ah Bfh BC C  0 -12.5  0.62  0.053  11.2  19.66  0.047  10.2  24.47  2.91  0.53 0.25  0.79  0.01  0.009  4.90  4.03  12.5-30  5.08  4.45  6.94 5.39  -44  5.15  4.45  5.35  4.60  30  44+  —  11.6 11.3  13.35  7.43  17.5  19.81  _ 6.03  S i t e 5 - Fitzsimmons Ah Bfh BC C  0 10  - 1 0  4.83  -21.5  5.38  21.5-36  36+  3.95  10.38  0.86  0.087  0.35  0.038  5.33  4.55 4.75  3.11 1.19  0.13  5o83  4.88  0.33  0.04  Meq per 1 0 0 g N a D . Not detectable  — 0.008  12.1 8.9  33.64 17.85  o  9.2  6.85  20.2  0.72  0.26  0.10  0.30  8.3  3.84  36.7  0.59  0.38  0.10  0.34  26.13 16.32  _  2.71  92 between pH and o r g a n i c matter.  C o r r e l a t i o n s were found  to e x i s t between the pH measured i n c a l c i u m c h l o r i d e the d i t h i o n i t e , o x a l a t e , and soil  aluminum and  sodium hydroxide e x t r a c t a b l e  a l s o the sodium hydroxide e x t r a c t a b l e  aluminum from the c l a y f r a c t i o n . s o i l pH and  R e l a t i o n s h i p s between  aluminum have been noted i n the  (Clark, 1966;  Heddleson, McLean and  and  Handreck, 1963).  Jones and  and  T o t a l Carbon, Nitrogen  and  C/N  literature  Holowaychuk, 1960  Ratio:  The  ;  percentage of  t o t a l carbon decreased with depth at a l l s i t e s . T h i s r e f l e c t e d r o o t p e n e t r a t i o n more than i t d i d o r g a n i c matter eluviation.  S i t e 3 which showed the l e a s t r o o t d e n s i t y  i n the p r o f i l e y i e l d e d the lowest carbon content i n the  on  analysis  laboratory. The  n i t r o g e n content  the s u r f a c e h o r i z o n s  at a l l s i t e s was  greatest i n  and decreased with depth.  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n at the one  percent  l e v e l between  n i t r o g e n and  t o t a l carbon i n d i c a t e d t h a t most of  n i t r o g e n was  i n o r g a n i c combination.  The  The  the  relatively  low  C/N  r a t i o s indicated that  the o r g a n i c matter at a l l s i t e s  was  f a i r l y w e l l humified.  However Crocker  t h a t i n pioneer nitrogen.  (19 60)  indicated  communities t h e i r i s a r a p i d b u i l d up  of  P o s s i b l y t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  a l p i n e environments, making f o r narrow C/N  ratios.  The  degree of h u m i f i c a t i o n s i t e s was  of the o r g a n i c matter at the  not measured but morphology of the  study  profiles  does not g i v e the impression of a h i g h degree of humification.  L i t e r a t u r e values ranged from about 9 f o r  chernozems to 22 f o r podzols  ( R u s s e l l , 1961).  Values  o b t a i n e d f o r a l p i n e s o i l s i n Montana, Colorado Washington State tended McConnell,  1964;  to be s l i g h t l y higher  Retzer, 1962  with depth.  The  (Nimlos  and S t a r r , 1963)  values o b t a i n e d from the study T o t a l Sulphur:  and  than  and  the  sites.  t o t a l sulphur at a l l s i t e s  The h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t  decreased  at the 1  percent l e v e l , with o r g a n i c matter i n d i c a t e d t h a t most of the sulphur was  i n o r g a n i c combination.  were i n the r e g i o n of 100:1 was  expected  1961;  and  10:1,  C:S  and N:S  ratios  r e s p e c t i v e l y , which  from values quoted i n the l i t e r a t u r e  (Alexande  R u s s e l l , 1961) .  Exchangeable C a t i o n s and Base S a t u r a t i o n :  The  percent  base s a t u r a t i o n decreased w i t h depth i n the solum and s t a r t e d to i n c r e a s e again i n the BC and C h o r i z o n s a t each site. The Ca  ++  , Mg  ++  the pedon. mostly Na  +  exchangeable c a t i o n s i n order of dominance, , Na  +  + and K , tended  A slight was  noted  to decrease w i t h depth i n  i n c r e a s e i n one or more c a t i o n s , i n the C h o r i z o n at a l l s i t e s .  o r g a n i c h o r i z o n at s i t e 3, K  +  In the  dominated the exchange comple  i n d i c a t i n g p o s s i b l e luxury consumption o f K  by the  vegetation. The  percent base s a t u r a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  c a t i o n s i n the pedon was i n f l u e n c e d by and r e f l e c t e d the depth and i n t e n s i t y o f weathering, the presence and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the elements i n the r e g o l i t h , the degree o f l e a c h i n g t a k i n g p l a c e i n the pedon and the counter  effect  of base c y c l i n g by the v e g e t a t i o n . C a t i o n Exchange C a p a c i t y and pH Dependent Exchange C a p a c i t y : The  c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y decreased  at a l l s i t e s , except  with depth  s i t e 4 where there was an i n c r e a s e i n  the Bfh h o r i z o n before d e c r e a s i n g with depth.  Organic  s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l y i e l d e d values i n the r e g i o n o f 60 meq/ 100  g, Ah h o r i z o n s 20-30 meq/100 g and C h o r i z o n s ranged  from 16 t o l e s s than 4 meq/100 g. The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n , s i g n i f i c a n t a t the one percent  l e v e l , was with t o t a l carbon.  accounted f o r the decrease depth.  This  correlation  i n c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y with  The i n c r e a s e i n c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y i n the  Bfh h o r i z o n o f s i t e 4 may be r e l a t e d t o the degree o f decomposition  of the o r g a n i c matter i n t h i s h o r i z o n i n  r e l a t i o n t o the h o r i z o n above.  Organic matter appears t o  have made the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the exchange capac i t y i n a l l these  s o i l s , as no c o r r e l a t i o n s o f any s i g n i f -  i c a n c e were made with s o i l t e x t u r e .  However, i n the h o r i z o n s  95 with lowest o r g a n i c carbon contents  the exchange c a p a c i t i e s  approached the values a s s o c i a t e d with the t e x t u r a l  class  (Buckman and Brady, 1 9 6 9 ) . The  pH dependent c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y  with depth at a l l s i t e s except  at s i t e s 3 and  4 where a  s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n the Bf and Bfh h o r i z o n s , was before c o n t i n u i n g to decrease  the depth.  The  decreased  found,  pH dependent  c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t i e s of a l l h o r i z o n s , except h o r i z o n s of s i t e s 2 ,  3,  3,  8 meq/100  were g r e a t e r than The  4 and  the C  5 and the BC h o r i z o n of  site  g.  pH dependent C.E.C. i s the d i f f e r e n c e i n exchange  c a p a c i t y between t h a t measured c l o s e t o or at the s o i l  pH,  i n c a l c i u m c h l o r i d e , and t h a t measured under n e u t r a l conditions.  The  d i f f e r e n c e r e s u l t s from the r e l e a s e of  exchange s i t e s under n e u t r a l c o n d i t i o n s which have been blocked by the aluminum at lower pH values Black, 1 9 6 8 ) .  Black  (1968)  1966;  (Clark,  a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t pH dependent  exchange p o s i t i o n s were p r i n c i p a l l y i n the o r g a n i c matter. T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was  i n d i c a t e d i n the t a b u l a t e d data.  I t has been suggested  (Clark, 1966)  t h a t a pH  dependent C.E.C. of 8 meq/100 g be c o n s i d e r e d a lower f o r spodic h o r i z o n s provided o r g a n i c matter and requirements  are met.  The  data obtained  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s c r i t e r i a may s t r o n g l y to e x t r e m e l y , a c i d  f r e e oxide  from the  be complicated  limit  study  i n very  s o i l s containing r e l a t i v e l y  96 l a r g e amounts of f r e e aluminum o r s o i l s which have been i n f l u e n c e d by v o l c a n i c ash and i t s weathering  E x t r a c t e d Amorphous M a t e r i a l s Clay F r a c t i o n s :  The values  are shown i n Table X.  from the F i n e E a r t h and obtained  alumina and s i l i c a .  percentage o f t o t a l amorphous m a t e r i a l i n the  c l a y f r a c t i o n tended t o i n c r e a s e all  i n the e x t r a c t i o n s  The i r o n aluminum and s i l i c o n are  expressed as f e r r i c oxide, The  products.  i n the B h o r i z o n s  at  s i t e s except s i t e 2 which e x h i b i t e d a decrease with  depth.  T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the amorphous  were being  constituents  i l l u v i a t e d , i n e i t h e r amorphous o r i o n i c  i n the B h o r i z o n s .  At s i t e 2 the i n d i c a t i o n was  form,  that  e l u v i a t i o n w i t h i n the pedon was not as marked a process as a t the other The  sites.  amorphous i r o n oxide and alumina tended t o .  i n c r e a s e and s i l i c a t o decrease i n the c l a y f r a c t i o n o f the B h o r i z o n s .  Again s i t e 2 was the e x c e p t i o n where.,  s i l i c a and alumina decreased with depth and f e r r i c oxide increased. and  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i l l u v i a t i o n o f i r o n  aluminum was t a k i n g p l a c e  i n the s o i l pedon.  A j  p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s i l i c a i s t h a t i t r e f l e c t s some d i s s o l u t i o n o f c r y s t a l l i n e by the e x t r a c t i n g s o l u t i o n .  clays  The maximum amount o f s i l i c o n  having been brought i n t o s o l u t i o n where the p r o t e c t i v e c o a t i n g o f amorphous i r o n and aluminum was t h i n n e s t .  At  TABLE X — Composition of amorphous materials in the clay fraction (<2u) and in the soils of the study sites Component % Horizon  Depth cm  Fraction  SiO,  A1„GL  SiO. <  Ahl  0  -  6.3  Bm  1 2 . 5 - 2 0  CB  20  - 4 3  Soil Am.Clay Soil Am.Clay Soil Am.Clay  Bm C  0  - 1 5  Soil Am Clay Soil Am.Clay Soil Am.Clay 0  15  - 3 8  38+  Bf  0  -  7.5  7.5-18  BC  18  C  50+  - 5 0  Soil Am.Clay Soil Am.Clay Soil Am.Clay Soli Am.Clay  n  0.69  0.71  6.44  9 . 5 6  1.51  16.30  5.20  9.05  8.16  4.93  4.93  2 . 3 4  1.15  3 . 4 0  3 . 5 7  3 . 1 9  58.36  31.64  9.99  3 . 4 8  3.12  4 . 9 7  5.06  2 . 4 4  0 . 7 7  3 . 9 1  3 . 5 2  4 . 9 8  5.45  4.92  3.91  8 . 1 7  6 5 . 9 7  28.57  2  4 . 3 0  0.43  1.04  6 . 3 7  17.14  0.65  8.93  1 7 . 2 4  6.24  1 4 . 1 0  0.81  2 5  1.57  9.86  57.20  59.61  8 . 0 7  3 2 . 3 2  3.1k  1 2 . 5 6  0.39  1 5 . 2 2  0  9 3 . 7 0  3 7 . 8 6  6.47  0.27 0.18  0  o  o  2 7  1 6 . 7 6  1.63  1.28  55.66 3  0.26  0 . 2 1 7 . 8 7  8.81  0.74  2 . 0 7  4 0 . 9 5 2 . 2 4 4 4 . 4 2  16.75  1.24  0.22  47.23  11.24  1 . 6 8  NaOH Dith  Fe  Si  3 5 . 7 3  2 3 . 6 5  2 . 0 4  52.72  1 2 . 3 1  7.56  5 7 . 0 7  3 . 6 8  3 2 . 7 4  7.06  40.11  4.91 10.56  3 8 . 4 5  3 5 . 7 2  6 0 . 1 3  4.61  2 1 . 5 3  4 9 . 9 9  9 . 9 0  -  4 . 6 2  179.08  0 o l 0  16.82  1 6 6 . 5 0  2 . 2 6  569.20  0.40  1 5 . 9 9  3 3 9 . 2 6  0.94  1 4 . 0 2  3.64  19.90  1.80  0.26  Yanks Peak  1 3 . 3 8  2 . 1 4  78.75  Pith NaOH  Yanks Peak  73.83 8.57  % Amorphous Material in Clay  Camelsfoot  3 . 8 9  Site Ae  1  ^2°3 Fe„0„  Al O„  78.50  Site Ah  H A  Fe„0„  Site  Mole Ratio SiO,  10.58  1 3 . 8 5  2 . 0 0  1 0 . 0 0  2.66  1.29  3.84  0 . 5 6  1 3 . 3 5  4 5 . 7 0  1.48  5.19  0.46  0.63  1.92  1.88  5 . 9 7  0.52  38.82  1.74  4 . 4 9  0 . 6 8  1 . 9 7  1.19  9.55  0.18  4 1 . 5 2  1.90  7 . 1 0  0.43  1 0 . 7 9  722.90  18.10 1 5 . 4 7  1 3 . 1 3  1.17  6 9 5 . 8 8  1.62  2 5 6 . 6 2  1.40  290.81  1.62  1 7 5 . 6 4  0 . 3 4  1 6 9 . 9 7  1.36  TABLE X (Continued) — Composition of amorphous materials i n the c l a y f r a c t i o n ( < 2 p . ) and i n the s o i l s o f the study s i t e s x a Component $ Horizon  Depth cm  Fraction  Si0  2  A 1  2  °3  Fe  2°3  R  ^ 2 2°3  « i n 4. • Mole^Ratio 2 ^ 3 ^ 2°3 2°3 b l U  L  Fe  * Amorphous Material ^ C  l  a  y  Pith NaOH F e  NaOH "Dith S  i  S i t e 4 Fitzsimmons Ah Bfh C  - 2 2o 5 Soil Am. Clay Soil 12.5-30 Am. Clay Soil 44+ Am.Clay 0  4.35 77.59 2.95 40.15 2.82 59*87  0.49 12 54 2.02 42.96 1.46 33.95 0  1.16 9o86 1.32 16.88 0.54 6.23  5.71 8.09 2.28 1.64 3 . 4 6 3.80  15.00 10.50 2.48 1.58 3.29 2.99  0.66 1.99 2.39 3.98 4.21 8.63  16.49 8.55 2.44 2.07 3.42 3.05  0.92 3.85 8.18 11.97 3.84 9.92  22.71 29.03 20.99  40.08 8.75 42.23 36.23 54.63 23.97  4.72 4.12 1 . 0 0 3 . 4 4 2.64 2.86  20.82 4.08 3 4 . 0 9 24.99 17.81 16.67  6.30 3.71 4 . 4 4 9.21 2.03 4.06  S i t e 5 Fitzsimmons Ah  0  -10  Bfh  10 - 2 1 . 5  C  3 6 +  Soil Am„Clay Soil Am.Clay Soil Am.CLay  7.62 78.16 5.31 51.89 2.50 60 83 o  0.78 15.53 3.67 42.53 1.25 33.84  1 . 3 4 6 . 3 0 0.70 5.58 0.51 5.32  10.08 8.77 3.08 2.78 3.50 3.98  24.04 57.95 2 3 . 3 0  <J3  CO  99 site of  2 the  the  silica  and a l u m i n a d i s t r i b u t i o n was t h e  f e r r i c oxide d i s t r i b u t i o n , supporting  inverse  this  interpretation. The s i l i c a to decrease at  the  t o s e s q u i o x i d e mole r a t i o v a l u e s  tended  w i t h d e p t h and r a n g e d f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10  surface  to 2 at the base o f the pedon.  The  silica  t o a l u m i n a m o l e r a t i o v a l u e s showed a s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n and r a n g e ,  w i t h a s l i g h t decrease  where a l u m i n u m h a d b e e n  i n v a l u e i n the B h o r i z o n s  illuviated.  The a l u m i n a t o i r o n o x i d e r a t i o a t  sites  1,  4 and,  5 i n c r e a s e d w i t h d e p t h and t h e v a l u e s r a n g e d f r o m 1 a t surface the  to 9 at  the base o f the pedon.  same r a t i o t e n d e d t o d e c r e a s e  At sites  2 and 3  w i t h d e p t h , most  values  w e r e l e s s t h a n 1 w i t h t h e v a l u e o f 2 i n t h e Ae h o r i z o n site  3.  T h e r e was an i n d i c a t i o n  content  t h a t the v o l c a n i c  fine earth  at  The h i g h d e g r e e  t h e one p e r c e n t  level,  between the  amorphous c o n s t i t u e n t s  fraction  clay  constituents  as  of correlation^  o b t a i n e d f o r the and t h e  extractions  f r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e d s i m i l a r though not  marked r e l a t i o n s h i p s . significant  distri-  pedons.  The v a l u e s o b t a i n e d i n m a k i n g s i m i l a r on t h e  at  ash  o f t h e s e s o i l s h a s h a d an i n f l u e n c e on t h e  b u t i o n o f amorphous m a t e r i a l i n t h e  the  o f the  fine  f r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  were a s s o c i a t e d m o s t l y w i t h the  values  clay  earth  amorphous fraction.  100 The  r a t i o s o f d i t h i o n i t e e x t r a c t a b l e i r o n t o sodium  hydroxide e x t r a c t a b l e i r o n showed the g r e a t e r  efficiency  of d i t h i o n i t e i n e x t r a c t i n g i r o n from the s o i l than sodium hydroxide. with  The e f f i c i e n c y of e x t r a c t i o n tended t o i n c r e a s e  depth and was g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e s t i n the B h o r i z o n s .  At s i t e s 2 and 3 the d i t h i o n i t e was about 10 times more e f f i c i e n t than a t s i t e s 1, 4 and 5 where i t was up t o 50 times more e f f i c i e n t than sodium hydroxide. The  r a t i o s o f sodium hydroxide e x t r a c t a b l e t o d i t h i o n -  i t e e x t r a c t a b l e s i l i c o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t sodium  hydroxide  c o u l d be up t o 10 times as e f f i c i e n t i n e x t r a c t i n g s i l i c o n as d i t h i o n i t e though a t some s i t e s i t was e q u a l l y or l e s s efficient. Some amorphous c o n s t i t u e n t s were l o s t i n the peroxi d a t i o n o f o r g a n i c matter p r i o r t o amorphous c o n s t i t u e n t determinations  (Farmer and M i t c h e l l , 1963; F o l l e t t , McHardy,  M i t c h e l l and Smith, 1965), these s o l u t i o n s were r e t a i n e d , analyzed  and the r e s u l t s t a b u l a t e d  (Table X I I ) .  S i l i c o n , Iron and Aluminum E x t r a c t e d by Two Methods and C a l c u l a t e d Molar R a t i o s : and  The amounts of s i l i c o n , i r o n  aluminum e x t r a c t e d were t a b u l a t e d as oxides The  dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate solution extracted  s i l i c o n i n a r e l a t i v e l y random manner, while and  (Table X I ) .  iron  oxide  aluminum tended t o be e x t r a c t e d i n the g r e a t e s t quan-  tities  from the B h o r i z o n s .  TABLE X I  — S i l i c o n , i r o n and aluminum extracted by two methods and c a l c u l a t e d molar r a t i o s Dithionite Extraction S i 0  Depth cm  Horizon  2  %  Fe 0 2  3  %  A 1  2  0  sio2  3  %  R  2 ° 3  _Oxalate  sio2  A1 0 2  A1 0 5  3  S i 0  3  ?  <£ F  e  2 °  Fe 0 2  3  of  A 1  2  0  3  cf  3  Extraction  S i 0  R  2  2 ° 3  sio2  A 1  2  0  f £ 3 3  F 3  2°3  Ox./D: Fe  S i t e 1 Camelsfoot Ahl Bm CB  0  -  6  .  12.5-20 20  -IS  30 . 3 7 0  0.800  0.573 0.374  1.487 1.144  0.69  1.85  0.66  1.001  0.50  0 . 6 6 1  0.49  0.97 0.96  1,05 0.91  0 . 3 4 0  0 0 4 5 0 . 2 S 0 3  0.545  0.772 0.872 0 . 3 7 5  0.97  1 . 3 9 3 2,362  0.05  0.05  2.230  1.42  0 . 4 1  0 , 3 0 2 0 , 3 7 4 0.282  0.08 0 . 5 6  2.53 0.95 2.32  0.13  0.21  1.23  Oo76  0 . 0 7  0.33  0 . 7 1  0.45 1.66  0 . 0 7  0o21  0.20  2 . 8 4  4,24  9.31  0,59 0.33  S i t e 2 Yanks Peak Ah Bm C  -  0 15  1  - 3 8  38  50 . 6 4 2  1.616  0.283  0.71  0.588  2 . 2 1 6  0.189  0.50  0.802  3o903  0 . 1 8 9  0.40  3 . 8 4  5.29 7.22  0 27  0.045  0.942  0.13  0 . 2 0 9  1.154  0,08  0.385  1.181  o  0.29  0*50  0 , 5 8  0.51  0.52  0.37  0 . 3 0  S i t e 3 Yanks Peak Ae Bf BC C  0  -7.5 7 . 5 - 1 8  18  - 5 0  50+  0.036 0.026  0 3 6 0  0.263 0.439  0.472  0.151  0 . 9 1  2.96  0.50  4.089  0.416  0 . 2 0  1.79  0.16  Oo381  3 . 0 8 8  0.340  0.23  1.90  0 . 1 7  0 . 4 6 0  0.338  2.445  0 . 2 0 8  0.26  2,75  0.13  0 . 8 3 5  0 , 2 9 5 0 , 6 0 7 0,233  0 . 0 5 1  0 . 1 5 9  0.163  e  2.S92  0.02 0.92 0.36  3*29 0.52  0 . 2 7  S i t e 4 Fitzsimmons Ah Bfh C  0 « 1 2 . 5 1 2 . 5 - 3 0  4 4 +  0.321  0.83  3.67  0.471  1.458 1.458  1.795  0.34  0.45  0.439  0 . 6 4 3  0 . 5 2 9  0.85  1 . 4 1  0.695  0.35 1.93 1.29  .  0.049 0.017 0.131  0.07 0.01  0 . 9 5 5 1.561 0.337  1 , 3 4 9  1.223  0.20  0.699  0.12  1,15  0.02  1.35 4.95  0 . 1 8  0.65 1 . 0 7  0.60  S i t e 5 Fitzsimmons Ah Bfh C  0 10  3 6 +  - 1 0  0 . 5 8 8  0.986  0.416  0 . 9 1  - 2 1 . 5  0.674  1.330  1.360  0 . 5 8  0.620  0.615  0.416  1.35  2.40 0.84  0.66  2.53  1.06  1.60  0.054 0.293  0.862  1 . 1 9 6  0.06  1.115  3.904  0 . 1 5  0 . 0 8 0.13  0 . 0 0 9  0.386  0.02  0.02  O.964  2 . 1 7  0.87  5.49  0.84  3.90  0.63  102 The  silica:  s e s q u i o x i d e r a t i o s r e f l e c t e d the accum-  u l a t i o n s o f i r o n and aluminum oxides i n the B h o r i z o n s a s l i g h t decrease  with  i n the r a t i o i n d i c a t e d a t t h a t p o i n t ,  the r a t i o v a l u e s ranged from 1.35 t o 0.20 with the m a j o r i t y of  values below 1.0.  The s i l i c a  : alumina r a t i o ranged  from 7.22 t o 0.84 with the lowest values g e n e r a l l y occurr i n g i n the B h o r i z o n s and r e f l e c t i n g the r e l a t i v e u l a t i o n s of alumina.  The alumina : i r o n oxide  ranged from 0.08 t o 1.93.  Values  accum-  values,  o f 0.50 and under were  recorded a t s i t e s 2 and 3, both s i t e s being r e l a t i v e l y uni n f l u e n c e d by v o l c a n i c ash, values c l o s e t o o r g r e a t e r 1.00 a t s i t e s 1, 4 and 5 which contained over  than  10 percent  v o l c a n i c ash i n t h e i r s u r f a c e h o r i z o n s . S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s (at the one percent  level)  were d e t e c t e d between d i t h i o n i t e - c i t r a t e - b i c a r b o n a t e ext r a c t a b l e aluminum and aluminum e x t r a c t e d by sodium hydroxide  and o x a l a t e .  S i m i l a r c o r r e l a t i o n s were d e t e c t e d  between i r o n e x t r a c t i o n s , only the o x a l a t e e x t r a c t a b l e i r o n c o r r e l a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t a t the two percent The  level.  acid-ammonium-oxalate s o l u t i o n e x t r a c t e d  r e l a t i v e l y random amounts of s i l i c a  as was e x t r a c t e d by  d i t h i o n i t e though the q u a n t i t i e s e x t r a c t e d were g e n e r a l l y a h a l f t o a tenth as much.  Only the CB h o r i z o n a t s i t e 1  y i e l d e d more o x a l a t e e x t r a c t a b l e s i l i c a .  Iron and  aluminum oxides were e x t r a c t e d i n the g r e a t e s t amounts from the B h o r i z o n s i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r  accumulation.  The s i l i c a  : s e s q u i o x i d e r a t i o s ranged  i n value  1.42 t o 0.01 w i t h most o f the values w e l l below 1.0. relationship The s i l i c a  was d i s c e r n i b l e : alumina  from No  between h o r i z o n s o r s i t e s .  r a t i o s showed a random  w i t h v a l u e s ranging from 3.29 t o 0.02.  distribution  The lowest  ratio  v a l u e s o c c u r r e d a t those s i t e s with v o l c a n i c ash present i n appreciable  (more than 10 percent) q u a n t i t i e s .  The alumina  i r o n oxide values ranged between 9.31 and 0.33 with the largest  v a l u e s o c c u r r i n g a t s i t e s 1, 4 and 5, again  the-ash i  associated s o i l s .  From 0.7 t o 4 times as much aluminum was e x t r a c t e d by o x a l a t e as by d i t h i o n i t e .  Again the s i t e s where v o l c a n i c  ash was present i n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts showed the g r e a t e s t oxalate  : dithionite  e x t r a c t a b l e aluminum v a l u e s .  Acid-ammonium-oxalate e x t r a c t e d from 0.0 7 t o 1.07, though g e n e r a l l y between 0.50 and 0.85, times as much i r o n :  as d i d d i t h i o n i t e .  The magnitude o f the r a t i o s o f these  two e x t r a c t i o n s g e n e r a l l y decreased with depth was a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n t o t a l carbon.  Schwertmann  amorphous i r o n hydroxide  a t the one percent l e v e l with  (1968) i n d i c a t e d t h a t high  o f o r g a n i c matter.  t o be p a r t l y borne out by the  data though there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n o x a l a t e e x t r a c t a b l e i r o n oxide and the t o t a l content.  :  content i n the s o i l was a s s o c i a t e d  with h o r i z o n s showing accumulations T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n appeared  and there  between  carbon  104 Some of the products o f o r g a n i c matter decomposition have been i n d i c a t e d as b e i n g amongst the major agents r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m o b i l i z a t i o n , t r a n s l o c a t i o n and t a t i o n o f s e s q u i o x i d e s i n the s o i l pedon .Duchaufour,  precipi-  (Bloomfield,  1953;  1965; van Schylenborgh, 196 2 and Stobbe, 1961).  I f t h i s i s t r u e , c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t , i n the data c o l l e c t e d , d i d not show d i r e c t to  relationships  the t o t a l carbon content p r e s e n t , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the  m o b i l i t y o f s e s q u i o x i d e s must be r e l a t e d to a minor f r a c t i o n of  the t o t a l o r g a n i c matter content o f the  soil.  Hydrogen Peroxide E x t r a c t a b l e Iron Aluminum and When s o i l  o r g a n i c matter was  Silicon:  o x i d i z e d with hydrogen peroxide  water s o l u b l e c h e l a t e d o x a l a t e s o f i r o n and aluminum were formed  (Farmer and M i t c h e l l ,  1963).  The degree of s o l u -  b i l i z a t i o n o f these two components p l u s s i l i c o n  was  determined. The i r o n , aluminum and s i l i c o n v a l u e s were expressed as i r o n oxide, alumina and s i l i c a  i n Table X I I .  Iron and  aluminum, though not d e t e c t a b l e i n every case, appeared t o be more r e a d i l y s o l u b l i z e d than s i l i c o n . i z e d tended t o decrease with depth. o r g a n i c matter content was  Amounts s o l u b l -  A r e l a t i o n s h i p to  expected and a s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n a t the one p e r c e n t l e v e l was  found to occur.:  Manganese E x t r a c t e d by V a r i o u s Treatments:  Manganese has  been shown t o be of some g e n e t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the mid  105 TABLE X I I —  Horizon  S i l i c o n , i r o n and aluminum l i b e r a t e d from the s o i l on treatment w i t h hydrogen peroxide.  Depth cm  SiC~I  Peroxide Extracted A1 0 % 2  Fe^O  S i t e 1 Camelsfoot  Ahl  Bm CB  0-6.3  12.5-20 20-43  0.198  ND 0.024  0.461  0.248 0.025  0.105 0.009 ND  0.030 ND ND  0.014 ND ND  S i t e 2 Yanks Peak  All Bm C  0-15 15-38 38  0.008 ND ND  S i t e 3 Yanks Peak Ae  Bf  BC C  0-7.5 7.5-18  18-50 50+  ND  ND  ND ND  ND  ND  0.013  0.001  0.319 0.614 0.012  0.164 0.128 ND  1.039 0.052  0.652 0.013  ND 0.004  ND ND  S i t e 4 Fitzsimmons  Ah Bfh C  0-12.5 12.5-30 44  0.021 0.008 ND S i t e 5 Fitzsimmons  Ah Bfh C  0-10 10-21.5 36+  0.415 ND ND  ND  ND  106 western United States 1962).  (Daniels, Brasfield  and R i e c k e n ,  M a n g a n e s e was d e t e r m i n e d o n a l l s o l u t i o n s ,  after  e x t r a c t i o n s w e r e made, and t h e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d w e r e examined t o see: the other  w h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s manganese  components e x t r a c t e d ; what g e n e t i c  manganese m i g h t h a v e t o s o i l  had w i t h  relationship  d e v e l o p m e n t and how much o f  t h e m a t e r i a l s e x t r a c t e d was composed o f  manganese.  O n l y d i t h i o n i t e and h y d r o g e n p e r o x i d e  solutions  were found t o have e x t r a c t e d m e a s u r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s manganese  (Table X I I I ) .  No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e  f o u n d b e t w e e n manganese physical properties  and any o f t h e o t h e r  e x t r a c t e d more maganese  from the p r e v i o u s l y u n t r e a t e d  sodium h y d r o x i d e  than the  soil.  e x t r a c t i o n o f manganese. t r e n d was f o r manganese sites  At sites  B h o r i z o n s and i n c r e a s e  1,  inhibit  2 and 3 , t h e  t o accumulate i n the  4 and 5 manganese  and 5 d i s t r i b u t i o n p a r a l l e l e d t h a t  w i t h d e p t h and a t \  f o r the  1 and 2 manganese  site  complete general  in  the  again i n the C h o r i z o n s .  content o f the hydrogen p e r o x i d e s o l u t i o n s .  At sites  to  B horizons,  tended to decrease  No u n i f o r m t r e n d was i n d i c a t e d i n t h e  solutions.  extraction  T h i s appeared  i n d i c a t e amorphous s e s q u i o x i d e s and s i l i c a  w h i l e at  chemical or  measured.  The d i t h i o n i t e e x t r a c t i o n , a f t e r extraction,  of  manganese At sites  :  4  dithionite  content  decreased  3 t h e o p p o s i t e t r e n d was s h o w n .  107  TABLE X I I I — Manganese extracted by various treatments Horizon  Depth cm  Dithionite Extract. MhOJg  H 0 Extract. MnO# 2  2  Post. NaOH Post. NaOH D i t h . E x t r a c t . D i t h . Extract Soil Clay MnO$ Mn.0%  S i t e 1 Camelsfoot Ah Bm CB  0-6.3 12.5-20 20-43  0.030 0.036 0.017  0.015 0.011 0.003  0.028 0.048 0.0U  0.068 0.115 0.029  0.039 0.052 0.034  0.026 0.059 0.094  S i t e 2 Yanks Peak Ah Bm C  0-15 15-38 38+  0.027 0.042 0.027  0.011 0.005 0.001  S i t e 3 Yanks Peak Ae Bf BC C  0-7.5 7.5-18 18-50 50+  0.007  ND  0.003  0.012  0.011 0.026 0.011  0.001 0.003 0.003  0.049 0.045 0.020  0.053 0.103 0.086  0.102 0.038 0.041  0.039 0.030 0.103  0.074 0.015 0.029  0.028  S i t e 4 Fitzsimmons Ah Bfh C  0-12.5 12.5-30 44+  0.050 0.022 0.024  0.013 0.009 0.010  S i t e 5 Fitzsimmons Ah  Bfh C  0-10 10-21.5 36+  0.009  0.008 0.037  0.011 0.004 0.006  0.043 0.211  108 Manganese h a s b e e n  f o u n d t o be more s o l u b l e  under  r e d u c i n g c o n d i t i o n s and i n s o i l s o f l o w pH (Buckman and Brady,  1969).  The r a n g e o f c o n d i t i o n s e n c o u n t e r e d  at  the  5 s i t e s and l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n  indicated  further  interpretations  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y  c o u l d be made. distributions  Daniels et  al.,  before  (1962)  found s i m i l a r  to those at  sites  1,  P l a n o s o l s and t o t h o s e a t  sites  4 and 5 i n G r a y - B r o w n  Podzolic s o i l s .  Manganese was a p p a r e n t l y  reducing conditions pH,  2 and 3 i n  and/or  reducing conditions  pH i n t h e  prairie  a function of  former  c a s e and o f  and an u n d e t e r m i n e d  factor  in  the  latter. The p e r c e n t a g e o f manganese e x t r a c t e d to the  total  amount o f s i l i c o n ,  was g e n e r a l l y o f a l o w o r d e r quantities  extracted  1969).  compare w i t h t o t a l  soil  soils  The t o t a l manganese c o n t e n t  has b e e n r e p o r t e d is affected  moisture,  though  extracted the  amounts f o u n d  by v a r i o u s  ( R e i d and W e b s t e r ,  factors,  in  (Buckman and B r a d y ,  o f some A l b e r t a s o i l s  and i t was s t a t e d t h a t manganese i n  temperature,  notably,  and o r g a n i c m a t t e r ,  soil  the  reaction,  respectively  1969).  D e f i n i t i v e Analyses for P o d z o l i c (Spodic) The r e s u l t s  relation  i r o n and a l u m i n u m  of magnitude,  temperate r e g i o n m i n e r a l surface  in  of analyses  and B f H o r i z o n s :  d e f i n i t i v e for podzolic  (spodic)  and B f h o r i z o n s o f t h e A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n s y s t e m s  of  109 soil classification  ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 1967  196 8) were l i s t e d i n Table XIV.  and N.S.S.C,'  A c c o r d i n g to the  present  c r i t e r i a the B h o r i z o n s of each s i t e were e v a l u a t e d as to t h e i r Canadian and American d e s i g n a t i o n s :  Canadian  American  Site 1  Bm  Spodic  Site 2  Bm  Cambic  Site 3  Bf  Spodic  Site 4  Bfh  Spodic  Site 5  Bfh  Spodic  The 4 and 5.  c r i t e r i a f o r Bf h o r i z o n s were met In a d d i t i o n , at s i t e s  content was  3,  5, the o r g a n i c matter  such t h a t the h o r i z o n s were d e s i g n a t e d  McKeague and Day 0.6  4 and  at s i t e s  Bfh.  (1969) have r e c e n t l y suggested  that  percent o x a l a t e e x t r a c t a b l e aluminum might be a use-  ful single c r i t e r i o n  f o r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g podzol B h o r i z o n s  i n the Canadian system of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . criterion definition  A  single  f o r a h o r i z o n as d i a g n o s t i c as a  podzol B h o r i z o n would appear to present a r a t h e r narrow view of the genesis of p o d z o l i c B h o r i z o n s . suggested \  Using  c r i t e r i a , the f o l l o w i n g h o r i z o n s met  the  the  \  c r i t e r i a designated  f o r Bf h o r i z o n s , the Bm  and CB  horizons  at s i t e 1, the Bfh and C h o r i z o n s at s i t e 4 and the Ah Bfh h o r i z o n s at s i t e 5.  and  S i t e s i n f l u e n c e d by v o l c a n i c ash  TABLE XIV — D e f i n i t i v e analyses f o r podzolic (spodic) and B f horizons. Oxalate Extractable' Horizon  Depth cm  Fe  %  Al  %  Fe+Al  %  OM/ Fe  Dithionite Extractable  Pyro-Dith.Extractable  Fe  Fe  %  Al  %  Fe+Al  %  %  Al  a  C*  <%  Pe+Al+C clay  15 bar % wats  S i t e 1 Camelsfoot Ahl Bm CB  0-6.3 12.5-20 20-43  0.54 0.61 0.26  0.74 1.25 1.18  1.28 1.86 1.44  14.3 9.0 3.9  0.56 1.04 0.80  0.18 0.53 0.35  0.74 1.57 1.15  0.50 0.79 0.21 Oo33  1.60 0.28  0.800 0.296  21.6 10.1 5.8  0.104 0.120  15.6 8.3 5.2  S i t e 2 Yanks Peak Ah Bm C  0-15 15-38 38+  0.66 . 0.16 0.81 0.20 0.83 0.15  0.82 1.01 0.98  10.7 4.6 2.5  1.13 1.55 2.73  0.15 0.10 0.11  1.28 1.65 2.84  0.80 1.30  0.09 0.66 0.09 0.38  0.41 2.34 0.71 0.20  1.99 0.96 0.37  0.27 0.12 0.06  1.31 0.253 0.48 0.098 0.10 0.075  7.9 6.6 .5.3 3.4  0.73  0 84 0.22  1,22 0.41  3.46 0.682 0.75 0.137  17.0 12.8 4.4  0.91 1.65 0.65  0.58 0.53 0.19  0.59 3.37 0.446 1,42 2.06 0.422 0.27 0.19 0.068  22.9 9.8 3.3  Site 3 Yanks Peak Ae Bf BC C  0-7.5 7.5-18 18-50 50+  0.33 2.86 2.16 1.71  0.08 0.22 0.18 0.11  0.41 3.08 2.34 1.82  12.1 1.2 0.2 0.3  0.25 2.02 0.58 0.11  0.16 0.32 0.13 0.09  S i t e 4 Fitzsimmons Ah Bfh C  0-12.5 12.5-30 44+  0.67 1.09 0.27  0.37 0.71 0.65  1.04 1.80 0.92  17.9 8.5 5.0  1.02 1.02 0.45  0.17 0.95 0.28  1.19 1.97  0  S i t e 5 Fitzsimmons Ah Bfh C *  0-10 10-21.5 36+  0.60 0.78 0.27  0.63 2.07 0.51  1.23' 2.85 0.78  29.8 6.9 2.1  0.69 0.93  0.43  0.22 0.72 0.22  Carbon O  Ill appeared to e x h i b i t a r e l a t i v e l y high aluminum content B horizons  as w e l l as i n o t h e r s .  the c r i t e r i o n r e q u i r e d e x t e n s i v e i n d i c a t e d here and elsewhere  in  As the authors acknowledge, testing.  From the f i n d i n g s  (Bhoojedhur, 1969)  c r i t e r i o n would have to be m o d i f i e d  the  to i n c l u d e other  suggested criteria  for precise d e f i n i t i o n . The  s o i l h o r i z o n d e s i g n a t i o n s would not have changed  u s i n g the p r e v i o u s N.S.S.C. (1963) c r i t e r i a based on  dith-  ionite extractable iron. The 1, 3, 4 and  c r i t e r i a f o r a s p o d i c h o r i z o n was  met  at s i t e s  5.  The U.S.  c r i t e r i a f o r d e f i n i t i o n o f a spodic  ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 1967)  horizon  uses a r a t i o which takes i n t o  account the f i n e n e s s o f the s o i l .  T h i s was  i t had been p o i n t e d out t h a t the c o a r s e r the  necessary as horizon  t e x t u r e the more pronounced the spodic c h a r a c t e r of the h o r i z o n w i l l be f o r a g i v e n amount of i l l u v i a l  material  (Franzmeier e j t a l . , 1965). The  analyses  indicated that a single c r i t e r i o n i s  r a t h e r meaningless f o r the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f a p o d z o l i c B horizon.  In a d d i t i o n the t e x t u r a l b i a s t h a t was  the d e f i n i t i v e c r i t e r i a f o r spodic h o r i z o n s  inherent i n  is s t i l l  Bf h o r i z o n s , namely t h a t the c o a r s e r the t e x t u r e the the m o r p h o l o g i c a l  expression.  true f o r greater  In f i n e t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s  cause of the g r e a t e r t o t a l s u r f a c e area, i t takes  be-  relatively  111a l a r g e r amounts o f amorphous i r o n and a l u m i n u m t o g i v e t h e same m o r p h o l o g i c e x p r e s s i o n as e x h i b i t e d i n coarser materials.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The s o i l s s t u d i e d w e r e f r o m t h r e e s e p a r a t e environments. field  alpine  T h e i r m o r p h o l o g y was d e s c r i b e d i n  and t h e y w e r e f u r t h e r  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  the  laboratory  analyses. The s o i l s a t with cold  a l l sites  (cryic) climates  have d e v e l o p e d i n (mean a n n u a l  c l o s e t o o r b e l o w 0°C mean a n n u a l generally  areas  temperatures  soil  temperatures  higher).  The s o i l s a t  sites  1,  4 and 5 w e r e w e l l  to  w e l l d r a i n e d w i t h dark non-Chernozemic surface d e v e l o p e d from the  characteristic  B h o r i z o n s i n which the major  products  w e r e amorphous  iron,  degree had i n f l u e n c e d the  of  o f the  soil:  secondary m i n e r a l development,  amorphous  constituents  and s o i l  or  characteristics retention,  pH d e p e n d e n t  morphology.  in  fraction.  additions  which to a l e s s e r  s o i l water  of,  fine clay  to surface  following  and  undetermined  and m i n o r amounts  had been s u b j e c t  vitreous volcanic materials,  properties  and  accumulation  s i l i c a t e c l a y s mostly i n the  three sites  grasses  a l u m i n u m and an  amount o f o r g a n i c c o n s t i t u e n t s  All  horizons;  o f a l p i n e and s u b a l p i n e r e g i o n s ;  illuvial  some c a s e s ,  moderately  a c c u m u l a t i o n and d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f a  c y c l i c growth o f x e r o - o r mesophytic sedges, forbs  are  of  greater and  sequence C.E.C,  113 The  s o i l s a t s i t e s 2 and 3 were w e l l d r a i n e d and  had developed under a parkland  type o f v e g e t a t i o n made up  of reeds,sedges and forbs and t o a l e s s e r extent  alpine  fir. S i t e 2 had an o r g a n i c mor  type s u r f a c e h o r i z o n  over a n o n - t u r f y Ah h o r i z o n which i n t u r n was u n d e r l a i n by a B h o r i z o n which had been s l i g h t l y m o d i f i e d by s o i l forming  processes,  though not s u f f i c i e n t l y t o e x h i b i t the  properties d e f i n i t i v e for a podzolic or textural horizon. S i t e 3 had an o r g a n i c mor type an e l u v i a t e d l i g h t - c o l o u r e d h o r i z o n  s u r f a c e h o r i z o n over  (Ae) which i n t u r n was  u n d e r l a i n by a p o d z o l i c Bf h o r i z o n i n which the major accumulation  product  was  showed a s l i g h t accumulation  amorphous i r o n .  The BC h o r i z o n  o f s i l i c a t e c l a y though not  s u f f i c i e n t t o meet the requirements o f a t e x t u r a l h o r i z o n . The  t e x t u r e o f the s o i l s ranged from s i l t  loamy sand.  Water r e t e n t i o n curves  loam t o  showed the g r e a t e r  water r e t a i n i n g c a p a c i t y o f the s u r f a c e h o r i z o n s , t h i s was c o r r e l a t e d with o r g a n i c matter content.  V o l c a n i c ash  may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the water r e t e n t i v i t y a t some sites. Quartz and f e l d s p a t h i c minerals were found t o be most common i n the very f i n e sand f r a c t i o n s i n a l l the s o i l s except a t s i t e 1 where ferromagnesian minerals were most common.  Q u a n t i t i e s o f v o l c a n i c ash were present a t  3 o f the s i t e s and there were i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h i s had  114 i n f l u e n c e d some of the p r o p e r t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s these s i t e s .  of  The most commonly o c c u r r i n g c l a y m i n e r a l s o  were the 10 A micas, v e r m i c u l i t e and c h l o r i t e .  The  of  pedogenic weathering was  of  m o n t m o r i l l o n i t e and k a o l i n i t e at some s i t e s .  r e f l e c t e d i n the occurrence  The s o i l s were v e r y s t r o n g l y t o extremely r e a c t i o n and t h i s was  found t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y  i n r e l a t i o n t o amorphous aluminum. o r g a n i c matter, was  degree  acid:in significant  T o t a l carbon, and thus  found to i n f l u e n c e the w a t e r h o l d i n g  and c a t i o n exchange p r o p e r t i e s of the s o i l s .  Nitrogen  and s u l p h u r were l a r g e l y i n the o r g a n i c form and the narrow C:N  r a t i o s encountered i n d i c a t e d t h a t most of the o r g a n i c  matter was w e l l h u m i f i e d . for  The p e r c e n t base s a t u r a t i o n  was  the most p a r t l e s s than 50, the p e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n  r e f l e c t i n g the opposing a c t i o n s o f l e a c h i n g and base . cycling. The content of t o t a l amorphous c o n s t i t u e n t s amorphous aluminum was v o l c a n i c ash.  and  g r e a t e s t i n the s i t e s c o n t a i n i n g •  Iron and aluminum showed a more p a r a l l e l  d i s t r i b u t i o n when e x t r a c t e d by sodium h y d r o x i d e , d i t h i o n i t e c i t r a t e - b i c a r b o n a t e and acid-ammonium-oxalate than which e x h i b i t e d a more random d i s t r i b u t i o n . i r o n and aluminum tended t o accumulate at  a l l s i t e s except s i t e 2.  more i r o n and oxalate.more  silica  Amorphous  i n the B h o r i z o n s  D i t h i o n i t e tended t o e x t r a c t aluminum.  The amount o f  i r o n and aluminum e x t r a c t e d by hydrogen  peroxide was  silica,  115 found t o be almost n e g l i g i b l e i n most cases, however, they should be c o n s i d e r e d where subsequent e x t r a c t i o n s o f these c o n s i t u e n t s are c a r r i e d out, e s p e c i a l l y i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h amorphous o r g a n i c matter. . Measurable q u a n t i t i e s of manganese were e x t r a c t e d by d i t h i o n i t e and hydrogen peroxide i n q u a n t i t i e s c o r r e s ponding  t o l i t e r a t u r e values of manganese a v a i l a b l e as a  primary n u t r i e n t i n temperate r e g i o n s o i l s .  No  correl-  a t i o n s were found with e x t r a c t e d manganese. A c c o r d i n g t o the d e f i n i t i v e analyses f o r p o d z o l i c (spodic) and Bf h o r i z o n s the American system o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was  l e s s r e s t r i c t i n g at these  The geomorphological  soil  sites.  h i s t o r y , f i e l d morphology  and  l a b o r a t o r y analyses of these s o i l s i n d i c a t e t h a t they are f o r the most p a r t p e d o l o g i c a l l y young.  Simonson  (1959)  wrote: Horizon d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s a s c r i b e d t o a d d i t i o n s , removals, t r a n s f e r s and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s w i t h i n the s o i l system. Examples o f important changes t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o development of h o r i z o n s are a d d i t i o n s of o r g a n i c matter removals of s o l u b l e s a l t s and carbonates, t r a n s f e r s of humus and s e s q u i o x i d e s , and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f primary m i n e r a l s i n t o secondary m i n e r a l s . I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t these kinds of changes, as w e l l as o t h e r s , proceed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y in a l l soils. I t i s f u r t h e r suggested t h a t the balance w i t h i n the combination of changes governs the u l t i m a t e nature of the s o i l p r o f i l e . A b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of Jenny's  (1941) concepts  of the f a c t o r s of s o i l formation would have rendered  the  116 above r e d u n d a n t , however c o n c e p t s o f t o be p e r p e t u a t e d b y mans r e l i a n c e orientated  classification  indicated  the  i n each pedon. the of  soil  profile  study  m u l t i p l i c i t y o f changes t a k i n g t y p e o f change  h a d become s t r o n g l y could not  readily  a change o r m o d i f i c a t i o n  findings  process  analyses of the  Where more t h a n one  classification  without  on s i n g l e  h a v e b e e n made e l s e w h e r e  B r o c k and v a n d e r M a r e l ,  tended  systems.  The d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h e soils  z o n a l i t y have  expressed the  place in system  accommodate t h e  i n the  system.  (Brydon,  1965;  soils  Similar van  den  1968/1969).  The s o i l s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d A m e r i c a n and W o r l d S y s t e m s as  Canadian  into  the  Canadian,  follows:  World  American  Site  1  Lithic Alpine Dystric Brunisol  L i t h i c Cryorthod  Dystric  Cambisol  Site  2  Lithic Alpine Dystric Brunisol  Lithic Dystric Cryochrept  Dystric  Cambisol  Site  3  Orthic Ferric  Typic Cryorthod  Humo-Ferric Podzol  Site  4  L i t h i c Cryorthod  Humo-Ferric Podzol  Site  5  L i t h i c Cryorthod  Humo-Ferric Podzol  Sites Canadian  HumoPodzol  4 and 5 c o u l d n o t  System o f s o i l  be c l a s s i f i e d  classification.  using  The h o r i z o n  the se-  quence a t both s i t e s corresponded t o t h a t d e f i n e d f o r the Sombric-Humo-Ferric  Podzol.  However, the s o i l s are ex-  cluded from t h i s g r e a t group by the c r i t e r i a f o r the sombric  (Ah) h o r i z o n s .  to sombric  The Ah h o r i z o n s correspond c l o s e l y  (umbric) h o r i z o n s and w i t h s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n  to the c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d f o r sombric h o r i z o n s , c o u l d be accommodated. The American  system o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p l a c e s s i t e s  1, 4 and 5 i n t o the same g r e a t group.  However, the c l a s s i f  i c a t i o n i s not p r e c i s e as t h i s g r e a t group to r e c o g n i z e the umbric  (Cryorthod)  fail  (sombric) epipedon, which was found  at s i t e s 1, 4 and 5. The World c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme has s i m i l a r  short-  comings t o the U.S.D.A. and Canadian Systems, p l u s i t tends t o be l e s s p r e c i s e and more  encompassing.  S i t e s 1, 4 and 5 appeared t o be g e n e t i c a l l y  related  and s i m i l a r l y i n f l u e n c e d by s u r f a c e a d d i t i o n s o f v o l c a n i c ash.  The f o l l o w i n g schematic r e l a t i o n s h i p was p o s t u l a t e d  f o r these s i t e s : Regosol  I Alpine Dystric Brunisol  Site 1  I "Alpine-Sombric-Humo-Ferric  Podzol"  S i t e s 4 and 5  S i t e s 2 and 3 were not i n f l u e n c e d by v o l c a n i c ash, the f o l l o w i n g schematic r e l a t i o n s h i p was p o s t u l a t e d f o r  these  sites:  Regosol  1 Alpine Dystric Brunisol  Site  2  Site  3  I "Alpine Humo-Fertic Podzol"  The C a n a d i a n recognises alpine the  System o f s o i l  soils  at  the  classification  (1968)  subgroup l e v e l , these  A l p i n e E u t r i c and A l p i n e D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l s .  suggested that alpine classified  i f the  s o i l s may be more  f o l l o w i n g are  (a)  None o f t h e  (b)  Three o f the  soils  It  is  meaningfully  considered:  studied  soils  are,  studied  had a " t u r f y "  Ah,  had p o d z o l i c B  horizons, (c)  The s o i l s acidic  influenced  Ah  horizons  and a m o r p h o l o g y alpine (d)  areas,  At s i t e  1 the  not  by v o l c a n i c a s h o f low base previously  exhibited  saturation considered  in  and B h o r i z o n c o u l d be d e s i g n a t e d  a Bt i f a l l cementing  agents  removed.  h o r i z o n was t e r m e d a Bm  However t h e  because f i e l d indications  (Fe and A l )  as  o b s e r v a t i o n s d i d not  of clay i l l u v i a t i o n .  give  are  any  119  If the above are considered  i t becomes more obvious  that s o i l s of the alpine region are not morphologically and genetically simple. • Thus, one or two classes i n a natural c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system do not appear to be s u f f i c i e n t to c l a s s i f y s o i l s i n the alpine environment.  LITERATURE CITED  A l e x a n d e r , M . 1961. 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C o m p o s i t i o n o f amorphous m a t e r i a l s i n t h e c l a y f r a c t i o n o f some e n t i s o l s , i n c e p t i s o l s , and s p o d o s o l s . S o i l S c i . 107:242-248.  APPENDIX  I  U.B.C.  T r i p s u b r o u t i n g program c o r r e l a t i o n  coefficients.  Values  for  as  16 o b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t  follows:  Significant  p <_ 0 . 0 1  correlation  coefficient  ± 0.6662  Significant  p _< 0 . 0 2  correlation  coefficient  ± 0.6016  Significant  p <_ 0 . 0 5  Correlation  coefficient  ± 0.5061  Correlation pH C a C l  2  Between  Correlation  Coefficient  and D i t h E x . * A l 0 %  0.5567  and O x . E x . * A l 0 %  0.5109  2  3  2  3  and S o i l - N a O H E x . * A l 0 %  0.5630  and C l a y - N a O H E x . * A l 0 %  0.5573  N%  and T o t a l Carbon%  0.9448  C.E.C.  and T o t a l Carbon%  0.8738  and H y g r . Water%  0.9145  and S u l p h u r %  0.979 8  2  2  3  3  Total Carbon%  and O x . / D i t h .  E x . * Fe  and H y g r . Water%  0.6822 0.8195  and H 0  2  Ex.* Si0 %  0.7794  and H 0  2  Ex.* A1 0 %  0.8954  and H 0  2  Ex.* Fe 0 %  0.8321  2  2  2  2  2  2  3  3  (r)  Dith. Ex.* Al 0 % 2  and O x . E x . * A 1 0 %  3  2  0.7043  3  and  S o i l NaOH E x . * A 1 0 %  0.8189  and  C l a y NaOH E x . * A 1 0 %  0.8277  2  3  2  3  Dith.Ex.* Fe 0 % 2  and O x . E x . * F e 0 %  3  2  0.6232  3  and  Soil Dith.  Ex.* Fe 0 %  0.9068  and  Clay Dith.  Ex.* Fe 0 %  0.9476  2  3  2  3  S o i l NaOH Ex.*  S i 0 % and C l a y NaOH E x . * S i 0 % 2  0.7356  2  S o i l NaOH Ex.*  A l 0 % a n d C l a y NaOH E x . * A l 0 % 2  3  2  3  0.9727  S o i l NaOH Ex.*  F e 0 % a n d C l a y NaOH E x . * F e 0 %  Soil  Dith.  Ex.*  Fe 0 %and Clay D i t h .  2  Ex.  2  3  2  3  =  Extractable.  3  E x . * Fe 0 % 2  3  0.7018  0.8651  

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