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Factor structures in single target ratings of concrete cues and personality attributes. Batt, Barbara Sharon 1970

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FACTOR STRUCTURES IN SINGLE TARGET RATINGS OF CONCRETE CUES AND PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES by BARBARA SHARON BATT B.A. , C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Depar tment o f P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September , 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r ee t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rpo se s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia Vancouve r 8, Canada i i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h n e o p l e make i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o t h e r s . I t has been shown t h a t t h e r e a r e h i g h l y r e p l i c a b l e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among g r oup s o f r a t e d t r a i t s . These r a t i n g p a t t e r n s a r e assumed t o r e f l e c t , i n p a r t , a p r o c e s s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e r a t e r s . Ths p r e s e n t s t u d y s o u g h t t o i n v e s t i o a t e r a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s among g roup s o f c o n c r e t e cues (such, as v o i c e , appea r ance and speech c o n t e n t v a r i a b l e s ) and among cues and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , as w e l l as among t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s t h e m s e l v e s . Sound v i d e o t a p e s v.*ere used t o p r e s e n t a s e r i e s o f n i n e r a t e e s ( t a r g e t s ) t o t he s u b j e c t s . Each t a r g e t was a s s e s s e d on 53 v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g 20 p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , and r a t i n g s were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d t o r e v e a l t h e p a t t e r n s o f r e s p o n s e . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was done f o r each o f t h e n i n e s e t s o f t a r g e t r a t i n g s and t h e r e s u l t i n g f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s were compared . The number o f f a c t o r s o b t a i n e d v a r i e d o n l y s l i g h t l y f r om one t a r g e t t o a n o t h e r , i n d i c a t i n g s i m i l a r i t y a c r o s s t a r g e t s i n i m p r e s s i o n c o m p l e x i t y . S i x g r oup s o f s c a l e s were found t o be r e l a t e d i n e v e r y a n a l y s i s . These r e c u r r i n g c l u s t e r s p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e o f s i m i l a r i t y i n f a c t o r c o n t e n t a c r o s s t a r g e t s . However, s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s were a l s o a p p a r e n t . F a c t o r s w i t h s i m i l a r c o n t e n t somet imes v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n s i z e f rom t a r g e t t o t a r g e t ; and some f a c t o r s w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e n t were r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f o n l y two o r t h r e e t a r g e t s . V a r i a b i l i t y in f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s was no t p r e d i c t e d by e i t h e r o f i i i t h e two c u r r e n t t h e o r i e s o f a t t r i b u t e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( t h e s e m a n t i c h y p o t h e s i s and t h e i n f e r e n t i a l h y p o t h e s i s ) . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y were o f f e r e d , p o s t u l a t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s between t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e s and t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f t h e p e r c e i v e r . i v T A o L E OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r I. I i n t r o d u c t i o n : I T h r e e I s sues in P e r s o n P e r c e p t i o n R e s e a r c h 2 L i t e r a t u r e Rev i ew : The P e r c e p t i o n o f Emot ions and P e r s o n a l i t y A t t r i b u t e s 10 O v e r v i e w : Aims and Hvno the se s o f t h e P r e s e n t S tudy . 22 C h a p t e r I I . [viethod : 27 S u b j e c t s 27 S t i m u l u s M a t e r i a l s 27 R a t i n g S c a l e s 30 De s i gn 32 Data Ana I ys i s 34 C h a p t e r I I I . Re su I t s and D i s c u s s i o n : . . 3 6 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e S c a l e s . . . . . . . . . 36 F a c t o r A n a l y s e s : Compa r i s on s between t h e E i g h t T a r g e t s 43 P e r s o n a l i t y C l u s t e r s in the G e n e r a l F a c t o r s and i n t h e Compar i son S t u d i e s 63 F a c t o r P r o f i l e s o f I n d i v i d u a l T a r g e t s and E v i d e n c e f o r Retv/een-Tarqet D i f f e r e n c e s 66 C h a p t e r IV. Cone I us i o n s : 82 S t i m u l u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e T a r g e t 82 C o g n i t i v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e P e r c e i v e r 83 P e r c e p t i o n o f t h e T a r g e t by the P e r c e i v e r 84 V B i b I i o g r a p h y 88 A p p e n d i x A 93 A p p e n d i x B 98 vi LIST OF TABLES Page T a b l e I Mean r a t i n g s o f t h e e i g h t t a r g e t s on t h e 53 s c a l e s 37 T a b l e IA P r o p o r t i o n o f s i n g l e - t a r g e t means f a l l i n g i n each u n i t i n t e r v a l o f t he s c a l e f o r t h e f i v e s c a l e c a t e g o r i e s 39 T a b l e II S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f r a t i n g s o f t he e i g h t t a r g e t s on t h e 53 s c a l e s 40 T a b l e M A P r o p o r t i o n o f s i n g l e - t a r g e t o f s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f a l l i n g i n n i n e i n t e r v a l s f o r t h e f i v e s c a l e c a t e g o r i e s 41 T a b l e I I I Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y o f T a r g e t A r a t i n g s 44 T a b l e IV Number o f F a c t o r s f o r each t a r g e t and e i g e n v a l u e s f o r each f a c t o r 46 T a b l e V F a c t o r s t r u c t u r e f o r T a r g e t B 47 T a b l e VI F a c t o r s t r u c t u r e f o r T a r g e t C 48 T a b l e VII F a c t o r s t r u c t u r e f o r T a r g e t D 49 T a b l e V I I I F a c t o r s t r u c t u r e f o r T a r g e t E 50 T a b l e IX F a c t o r s t r u c t u r e f o r T a r g e t F 51 T a b l e X F a c t o r s t r u c t u r e f o r T a r g e t G 52 T a b l e XI F a c t o r s t r u c t u r e f o r T a r g e t H 53 T a b l e X l l F a c t o r s t r u c t u r e f o r T a r g e t I 54 T a b l e X I I I F i r s t G e n e r a l F a c t o r ( E v a l u a t i v e : I n t e I l e c t - I n t e g r i t y ) 57 T a b l e XIV Second G e n e r a l F a c t o r ( B r a sh v s . Mi Id-mannered) 59 T a b l e XV T h i r d G e n e r a l F a c t o r (Ne r vou s , Tense v s . Ca lm, Re l axed ) 59 v i i Page T a b l e XVI F o u r t h G e n e r a l F a c t o r ( L oud , A c t i v e V o i c e v s . S o f t , P a s s i v e V o i c e ) 61 T a b l e XVII F i f t h G e n e r a l F a c t o r ( R e c l u s i v e , Q u i e t v s . S o c i a b l e , Ou t go i n g ) 61 T a b l e XV I I I S i x t h G e n e r a l F a c t o r ( D u l l v s . I n t e r e s t i n g ) 62 T a b l e X IX D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s i x G e n e r a l F a c t o r s i n t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e e i g h t t a r g e t s 67 T a b l e XX S p e c i f i c f a c t o r s w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaning 69 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The a u t h o r g r a t e f u l l y acknow ledges the g u i d a n c e , encouragement and p a t i e n c e o f Dr . J . Y u i l l e and D r . R. Knox t h r o u g h o u t a l l s t a g e s o f t h e s t u d y . D r . D. J a c k s o n o f the. U n i v e r s i t y o f Wes te rn O n t a r i o was k i n d enough t o make s u g g e s t i o n s abou t t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . Thanks a r e a l s o due t o t h e n i n e g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s who c o n s e n t e d t o s e r v e as T a r g e t s , and t o P a t r i c i a Woodland who t y p e d and e d i t e d t h e m a n u s c r i p t . 1. C h a p t e r I INTRODUCTI ON Pe r son p e r c e p t i o n may be d e f i n e d as t h e p r o c e s s by wh i ch p e o p l e f o rm i m p r e s s i o n s o f o t h e r s . If t h e te rm " i m p r e s s i o n " i s used t o i n c l u d e v e r y g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o age , s e x , and t h e l i k e , i t can p r o b a b l y be assumed t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f e v e r y s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n form i m p r e s s i o n s o f one a n o t h e r . The p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n f o c u s s e d on in t h i s paper i s one in wh i ch an i n d i v i d u a l o b s e r v e s a n o t h e r f o r t he f i r s t t i m e , and makes some i n f e r e n c e s about h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . O b s e r v a t i o n i n v o l v e s e x p o s u r e t o c o n c r e t e a c t s and q u a l i t i e s such as t h e o t h e r ' s b e h a v i o u r , v e r b a l i z a t i o n s , v o i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a p p e a r a n c e . These d i r e c t l y p e r c e i v a b l e a s p e c t s o f t he o t h e r pe r s on ( o r " t a r g e t " ) , w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as c u e s . They c o n s t i t u t e t h e raw m a t e r i a l f rom wh ich t he o b e r s e r v e r ' s i m p r e s s i o n i s f o r m e d . Cues may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f rom t h e more a b s t r a c t a t t r i b u t e s , t r a i t s . The E n g l i s h language c o n t a i n s hundreds o f a d j e c t i v e t r a i t names - words l i k e i n te I I i g e n t , g r e g a r i o u s and domi n e e r i ng - wh i ch a t t e s t t o t h e human t e n d e n c y t o summar ize c o n c r e t e c u e s . As w e l l as r e f l e c t i n g a s u m m a r i z i n g p r o c e s s , t r a i t names i n d i c a t e an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t many o f t h e cues p e o p l e e x h i b i t a r e c o n s i s -t e n t o v e r t i m e . When someone i s d e s c r i b e d as " i n t e l l i g e n t " , i t i s meant n o t o n l y t h a t he d i s p l a y e d i n t e l l i g e n c e - r e l a t e d cues on a s i n g l e o c c a i s o n . The l a b e l i m p l i e s t h a t such cues s h o u l d be p r e s e n t q u i t e r e l i a b l y when t h a t p e r s o n i s i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t c a l l f o r t h e a t t r i b u t e i n t e l l i g e n c e . A p e r s o n ' s p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l i t y s h o u l d not be c o n f u s e d w i t h what m i g h t be c a l l e d h i s a c t u a l p e r s o n a l i t y . An o b s e r v e r who uses t r a i t names t o d e s c r i b e 2 . a n o t h e r , may, i n s u m m a r i z i n g c u e s , impose an o r g a n i z a t i o n on them t h a t wou ld no t e x i s t i f o b j e c t i v e measurement o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were t a k e n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e e x p e c t a n c i e s t h a t a p e r c e i v e r has abou t t h e p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o u r and a t t r i b u t e s in o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s , may c o r r e s p o n d p o o r l y t o r e a l i t y . A p e r s o n ' s p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l i t y then i s based on t he o r g a n i z a t i o n o f cues t h a t i s imposed by an o b s e r v e r ( o r o b s e r v e r s ) . H i s a c t u a l p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s i s t s o f c o n s t r u c t s i n f e r r e d f rom c o r r e l a t i o n s between o b j e c t i v e measures o f c u e s . IQ i s an example o f a c o n s t r u c t u n d e r l y i n g a c t u a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n c u e s . W h i l e t h e r e c o u l d be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p e r s o n ' s p e r c e i v e d and a c t u a l p e r s o n -a l i t y , t h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e need not be a s i m p l e one . A c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e pe r son p e r c e p t i o n p r o c e s s wou ld r e q u i r e an a s se s sment o f a c t u a l p e r s o n -a l i t y s t r u c t u r e , p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e , and t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t he two. However, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p e r c e i v e d cues t o one a n o t h e r and t o p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , i s i t s e l f a s i z e a b l e p r ob l em and one wh ich has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n f rom p s y c h o l o g i s t s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s an e x p l o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h r e e I s sues i n P e r s o n P e r c e p t i o n R e s e a r c h . The l i t e r a t u r e i n p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n can be o r g a n i z e d a round a number o f t r e n d s , bo th i n t he p rob lems t h a t have i n t e r e s t e d r e s e a r c h e r s and i n t h e methods and m a t e r i a l s t h e y have used t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e p r o b l e m s . Th ree o f t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l i s s u e s have s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e t o t h e p r e s e n t s t udy and a r e d i s c u s s e d be l ow . They a r e : p e r c e p t u a l a c c u r a c y as opposed t o t h e i n f e r e n c e p r o c e s s ; l e v e l s o f c o n s t r u c t s i n p e r c e p t i o n ; and t h e use o f v e r b a l d e s c r i p -t i o n s as compared t o nonve rba l m a t e r i a l s in p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s . 3. S t u d i e s p e r t i n e n t t o t h e s p e c i f i c t o p i c o f p e r c e i v e d cues and t r a i t s in i m p r e s -s i o n f o r m a t i o n .foI Iow t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e i s s u e s . A c c u r a c y o f i n f e r e n c e v s . t h e i n f e r e n t i a l p r o c e s s . The p rob lems t h a t have been i n v e s t i g a t e d in pe r son p e r c e p t i o n can be g rouped i n t o two v e r y g e n e r a l a r e a s . One encompasses p rob lems o f p e r c e p t u a l a c c u r a c y , t h e o t h e r , p rob lems o f t h e i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s . The b e g i n n i n g o f i m p r e s s i o n form t i o n r e s e a r c h can be marked a t D a r w i n ' s (1872) book on t h e e x p r e s s i o n and r e c o g n i -t i o n o f e m o t i o n s . From t h i s p o i n t , u n t i l t he 1 9 3 0 ' s , i n v e s t i g a t o r s were p r e -o c c u p i e d w i t h s t u d y i n g a c c u r a c y in the- a t t r i b u t i o n o f e m o t i o n s . The main f o c u s o f r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t t hen changed t o t h e i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s . S t u d i e s o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t d e t e r m i n e i n f e r e n c e s p e o p l e make, i r r e s p e c t i v e o f a c c u r a c y , have domina ted t he l i t e r a t u r e f rom t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d t o t h e p r e s e n t , a l t h o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h e a c c u r a c y o f bo th e m o t i o n a l and t r a i t j udgement s a r e s t i I I r e p r e s e n t e d . The d i s t i n c t i o n between i n f e r e n t i a l a c c u r a c y and t h e i n f e r e n c e p r o c e s s can be made i n te rms o f a c t u a l and p e r c e i v e d a t t r i b u t e s . The i n f e r e n c e p r o c e s s i s s t u d i e s by m e a s u r i n g p e r c e i v e d a t t r i b u t e s under v a r i e d c o n d i t i o n s . To a s s e s s p e r c e p t u a l a c c u r a c y , i d e a l l y , a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d measure o f an a c t u a l a t t r i b u t e i s compared w i t h an i n d e p e n d e n t , r e l i a b l e and v a l i d measure o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h i s a t t r i b u t e . The g r e a t e r t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e t w o , the l e s s a c c u r a t e the j udgement . The d e c l i n e o f i n t e r e s t in a c c u r a c y r e s e a r c h may be a t t r i b u t e d in p a r t t o measurement p rob lems wh ich have p l a g u e d t h o s e who wou ld a s s e s s t a r g e t s ' a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Most o f t h e s e d i f f i -c u l t i e s have a r i s e n because t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e s have se ldom been a s s e s s e d by m e a s u r i n g b e h a v i o u r a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t h e t a r g e t s ; i n s t e a d , one o f s e v e r a l k i n d s o f r a t i n g s a r e g e n e r a l l y u s ed . F r e q u e n t l y , t h e t a r g e t i s a s ked t o r a t e 4. h i m s e l f on t h e c r i t i c a l a t t r i b u t e s . A second method i s t o use the concensu s o f o t h e r s ' o p i n i o n s o f t h e r a t e e , t h e o t h e r s b e i n g e i t h e r p e e r s o f t h e r a t e e o r a pane l o f " e x p e r t s " . E a r l y i n v e s t i g a t o r s made t h e u n l i k e l y a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s i m p l e s e l f - r a t i n g s o r consensu s r a t i n g s were a c c u r a t e , and p roceeded t o use them as a c r i t e r i o n f o r a s s e s s i n g j udgementa l a c c u r a c y o f t h e t e s t g r oup . In f a c t i s has been found t h a t s y s t e m a t i c r a t i n g t e n d e n c i e s a r e u n a v o i d a b l e whethe r t h e r a t i n g s a r e made by t he t a r g e t h i m s e l f , o r a g roup o f j u d g e s ( see f o r e x a m p l e , C r o n b a c h , 1955; G u i l f o r d , 1954, c h . 11 ) . Some a u t h o r s have d e v i s e d methods o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f r e s p o n s e s t h a t w i l l m i n i m i z e o r s t a t i s t i c a l l y reduce unwanted r a t i n g t e n d e n c i e s ( e . g . Norman, 1963; Norman and H a r s h b a r g e r , 1965). These p r o c e d u r e s i n c r e a s e t h e p l a u s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g s e l f and p e e r r a t i n g s as c r i t e r i o n measures f o r a c t u a l p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; however , i t seerns e v i d e n t t h a t s c o r e s based on a c t u a l t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r a r e p r e f e r a b l e t o r a t i n g s c o r e s . M u l a i k ( 1 9 6 4 ) , t a k i n g a s t r i c t e r v i e w , a d v o c a t e s t h a t o b s e r v e d and a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s be d i s t i n g u i s h e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y , and t h a t o n l y o b j e c t i v e l y measured a t t r i b u t e s and b e h a v i o u r s h o u l d be a d m i s s a b l e f o r a s s e s s i n g a c t u a l t r a i t s . R e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r r a t i n g s o f t r a i t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e i n d i c e s o f a c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a n a l y s e s o f t h e s e r a t i n g s have been v e r y u s e f u l t o r e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d in i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . F o r e x a m p l e , a number o f phenomena o r i g i n a l l y r e ga rded as s y s t e m a t i c s o u r c e s o f r a t i n g e r r o r a r e now s t u d i e d in te rms o f what t hey r e v e a l abou t t h e p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n p r o c e s s . T h a t i s , a p r o c e s s o f menta l r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e s by s u b j e c t s i s somet imes i n f e r r e d f rom r a t i n g c o n s i s t e n c i e s . T h i s i s t he c a s e w i t h " l o g i c a l e r r o r " and s t e r e o t y p e s , two t o p i c s t h a t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . Both phenomena seem t o r e f l e c t a t endency on t h e p a r t o f r a t e r s t o o r g a n i z e t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e s . 5. Types o f C o n s t r u c t s . P e r c e i v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e somet imes r e f e r r e d t o as " c o n s t r u c t s " . P s y c h o l o g i s t s have tended t o s t u d y p r i m a r i l y e m o t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t s . The re a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g p e r c e i v e d c u e s , but t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s t o o , may be r e g a r d e d as c o n s t r u c t s . O f t e n , p e r c e i v e d cues a r e no t t h o u g h t o f as c o n s t r u c t s , o r a t l e a s t t hey a r e no t t h o u g h t o f as c o n s t r u c t s a t the some l e v e l as t r a i t s . Brown (1965) r e f e r s t o t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n in a d i s c u s s i o n o f t he two c o n c e p t s , c o n s t r u c t and d a t a . Data a r e l e s s dependent on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t han c o n s t r u c t s , and t he c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n o f an i m p r e s s i o n as e i t h e r d a t a o r c o n s t r u c t i s r e l a t i v e . Movement and c o l o u r a r e d a t a r e l a t i v e t o t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a f a c e , and t h e f a c e i s d a t a r e l a t i v e t o t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a p e r s o n ' s c h a r a c t e r . Brown s t a t e s however , t h a t " i n i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n , and in p e r c e p t i o n g e n e r a l l y , we n e v e r do seem t o r e a ch t h e l e v e l o f a b s o l u t e d a t a . The re i s a l w a y s some a d m i x t u r e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " . (B rown, 1965, p. 6 1 5 ) . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f c o n s t r u c t r e l a t i v i t y may be o f l i m i t e d u s e f u l n e s s in t h e o r i z i n g abou t i m p r e s -s i o n f o r m a t i o n , u n l e s s t h e r e i s an o b j e c t i v e way o f a s s e s s i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c on t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n t i n u u m . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e may be some g e n e r a l r u l e s t h a t a p p l y t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f a i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e deg ree o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n v o l v e d . In t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was assumed t h a t c o n s t r u c t s wh i ch were i n t u i t i v e l y a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f a b s t r a c t i o n c o u l d be combined t o advan tage in one r a t i n g t a s k , and a n a l y z e d as a s i n g l e group o f v a r i a b l e s . T h i s way i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e t e c t s u b j e c t i v e l y o r g a n i z e d g roups o f v a r i a b l e s made up o f a t t r i b u t e s d i f f e r i n g in t h e i r c l o s e n e s s t o the l e v e l o f a b s o l u t e d a t a . T y p i c a l l y r e s e a r c h e r s r e s t r i c t t h e i r s cope t o p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t s o n l y . The few a t t e m p t s t o r e l a t e p e r c e i v e d a t t r i b u t e s a t two l e v e l s have employed 6. d e s i g n s i n wh i ch two i ndependen t groups o f r a t e r s each r e c o r d e d t h e i r i m p r e s -s i o n s o f one s e t o f v a r i a b l e s . F o r e x a m p l e , S t r i t c h and Seco rd (1965) p r e s e n t e d s u b j e c t s w i t h pho tog raph s o f 24 men ' s f a c e s . One group o f s u b j e c t s r a t e d t h e pho tog r aph s on 18 p h y s i o g n o m i c cue s ( e . g . , eye w i d t h ) , w h i l e a s econd group o f s u b j e c t s r a t e d t h e f a c e s on 15 p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . S i m i l a r l y , D a v i t z (1964b) p l a y e d t a p e r e c o r d i n g s o f v o i c e s i n t e n d e d t o convey d i f f e r e n t e m o t i o n s . Twenty s u b j e c t s r a t e d t h e v o i c e s on f o u r s c a l e s t h a t d e f i n e d t h e v o i c e v a r i a b l e s . Loudne s s . P i t c h , T imb re and Ra te o f Speech . Twenty a d d i t i o n a l j udge s made r a t i n g s on s c a l e s chosen t o r e p r e s e n t t h e t h r e e meaning d i m e n s i o n s , V a l e n c e , S t r e n g t h and A c t i v i t y , d e f i n e d by Osgood, e t . a I ( 1 957 ) . In bo th s t u d i e s , some r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between t h e r a t i n g s made by t h e two g r o u p s . Fo r e xamp le , t h e Loudness r a t i n g s o f t h e v o i c e s made by one group were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e A c t i v i t y r a t i n g s made by t h e second g r oup . Bu t t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c anno t be t a ken as a r e f l e c t i o n of menta l r e s t r u c t u r i n g . The l a t t e r , by d e f i n i t i o n , r e f e r s t o a p r o c e s s o f a t t r i b u t e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t he minds o f s i n g l e s u b j e c t s . Is i t s a f e t o assume t h a t p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s a r e , as Brown s u g g e s t s , n o t a t t he l e v e l o f a b s o l u t e da ta ? S t r i t c h and Seco rd (1956) r e p o r t e v i d e n c e t h a t t he p h y s i o g n o m i c a t t r i b u t e s in t h e i r pho tog r aph s were no t p e r c e i v e d v e r i d i c a l l y . T h i s f i n d i n g i n v o l v e s an a s p e c t o f t h e i r s t u d y n o t y e t m e n t i o n e d . The 24 s t i m u l u s f a c e s were r e p r o d u c e d t o g i v e t h r e e i d e n t i c a l s e t s o f p h o t o -g r a p h s . E i g h t p h y s i o g n o m i c cues ( d i s t i n c t f rom t h e 18 t h a t were r a t e d ) were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a l t e r e d by an a r t i s t so t h a t t h e t h r e e c o p i e s o f each f a c e d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y . The two main r a t i n g g roups were then bo th d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e subg roups so t h a t a s e p a r a t e subgroup r a t e d one v e r s i o n o f each f a c e on e i t h e r p h y s i o g n o m i c o r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Compar i s on s between 7. t he p h y s i o g n o m i c r a t i n g s o f t he g roups showed t h a t t h e a r t i s t ' s changes cau sed d i f f e r e n c e s in t he way t h e u n a l t e r e d cues were r a t e d . Fo r e x a m p l e , the more d i s h e v e l l e d t h e t a r g e t ' s h a i r as a r e s u l t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s c hange s , t h e more c o a r s e - s k i n n e d he was r a t e d by t h e s u b j e c t s , even though c o a r s e n e s s o f s k i n was a c o n s t a n t a t t r i b u t e on t h e t h r e e v e r s i o n s o f a p h o t o g r a p h . To s u g g e s t t h a t i m p r e s s i o n s o f p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s i n v o l v e a deg ree o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s no t t o say t h e r e may no t be m e a s u r e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e amount o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f any two a t t r i b u t e s . However , i t i m p l i e s t h a t t h e same b a s i c p r o c e s s e s may o c c u r f o r p h y s i o g n o m i c and p e r s o n a l i t y judgements a l b e i t t o a d i f f e r e n t e x t e n t . On t h i s a s s u m p t i o n t h e n , i t i s p l a u s i b l e t o o b t a i n r a t i n g s o f cues and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s f rom a s i n g l e group o f t a r g e t s and t o i n t e r c o r r e I a t e them in t h e same m a t r i x . T h i s was t he p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . Ob se r ved and d e s c r i b e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in P e r s o n P e r c e p t i o n . The s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l in a pe r son p e r c e p t i o n s t u d y may be u s e f u l l y c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r v e r b a l o r n o n v e r b a l . The term " v e r b a l m a t e r i a l " i s used h e r e t o d e s i g n a t e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t he r e l e v a n t o t h e r . Nonve rba l m a t e r i a l , on t h e o t h e r hand , i n v o l v e s e i t h e r d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n of t h e o t h e r , o r i n d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n , by way o f a t a p e r e c o r d i n g , p h o t o g r a p h , m o v i e , o r some o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n . E x p e r i m e n t s u s i n g nonve rba l m a t e r i a l r e s e m b l e s i t u a t i o n s in wh ich t h e r e l e v a n t o t h e r i s a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d i n some way, and i m p r e s s i o n s a r e based on c o n c r e t e c u e s . E x p e r i m e n t s u s i n g v e r b a l m a t e r i a l a r e a na l a gou s t o s i t u a t i o n s i n wh ich someone who has o b s e r v e d t h i s o t h e r has d e s c r i b e d t h e o t h e r t o a t h i r d p e r s o n . The t h i r d pe r son t hen forms an i m p r e s s i o n based on t h e s p e a k e r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n . 8. An e x p e r i m e n t by K e l l e y (1950) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e use o f d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n . S u b j e c t s were s t u d e n t s i n a r e a l c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n and t h e t a r g e t , o r p e r s o n r a t e d , was a g u e s t l e c t u r e r . In i n d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n t h e s u b j e c t forms an i m p r e s s i o n f rom c u e s , bu t t h e s e cues may be d i s t o r t e d o r r e s t r i c t e d i n some way by t he med ia u s ed . S t i l l p ho tog r aph s f o r e xamp le , e l i m i n a t e cues i n v o l v i n g movement, w h i l e b l a c k and w h i t e pho tog r aph s and mov ie s e l i m i n a t e c o l o u r c u e s . D e s p i t e t h e s e d r a w b a c k s , e x p e r i m e n t e r s f r e q u e n t l y use i n d i r e c t r a t h e r than d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n methods because each s u b j e c t can be exposed t o e x a c t l y t h e same s t i m u l i . The s t i m u l i can a l s o be used a g a i n , i n r e p l i c a t i o n s o r v a r i -a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . E x p e r i m e n t s i n wh i ch s u b j e c t s a r e a s ked t o base an i m p r e s s i o n on a d e s c r i p -t i o n o f a p e r s o n , f r e q u e n t l y use t h e a d j e c t i v e t r a i t l i s t method i n t r o d u c e d by Asch ( 1 9 4 6 ) . S u b j e c t s a r e p r e s e n t e d a l i s t o f t r a i t s such as i n te I Ii g e n t , s k i l l f u l , warm. They a r e t o l d t h a t t h e t r a i t s c h a r a c t e r i z e a pe r son and t h e y a r e a sked t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n o f t h a t pe r son in some way. The popu -l a r i t y o f t h e t r a i t l i s t method can be a t t r i b u t e d , in p a r t , t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l i s t s lend t h e m s e l v e s e a s i l y t o a v a r i e t y o f s y s t e m a t i c m a n i p u l a t i o n s . A t l e a s t two l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e use o f t r a i t l i s t s s t a n d o u t . S e v e r a l c r i t i c s have q u e s t i o n e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f p u r e l y v e r b a l s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l in s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r a c t u a l p e o p l e ( K e l l e y , 1950; L u c h i n s , 1948; Veness and B r i e r l e y , 1963; W i s h n e r , 1960) . However, e v i d e n c e a c c u m u l a t e d by t h e s e s c e p t i c s t e n d s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y o v e r e s t i m a t e d t h e p rob lems o f g e n e r a l i -z i n g f rom t r a i t l i s t s t o human s t i m u l i . A more s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n t o A s c h ' s method i s t h a t i t f o c u s s e s on a l a t e s t a g e o f t h e sequence in pe r s on p e r c e p t i o n , a p o i n t a t wh i ch some t r a i t i m p r e s -s i o n s have a l r e a d y been f o rmed . Asch h i m s e l f was aware o f t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e 9. a d j e c t i v e l i s t method: I t was a c o n s t a n t f e a t u r e o f o u r p r o c e d u r e t o p r o v i d e t h e s u b j e c t w i t h t he t r a i t s o f a p e r s o n ; but i n a c t u a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e t r a i t s in a pe r son i s a v i t a l p a r t o f e s t a b l i s h i n g an i m p r e s s i o n . S i n c e o b s e r v a t i o n g i v e s us o n l y c o n c r e t e a c t s and q u a l i t i e s , t he a p p l i c a t i o n o f a t r a i t t o a p e r s o n becomes i t s e l f a p r o b l e m . ( A s c h , 1946, p. 289) How does an o b s e r v e r s e l e c t a s u b s e t o f cues f r om a I I t h o s e p r e s e n t ? How does he i n t e r p r e t and i n t e g r a t e t h e c o n c r e t e i n f o r m a t i o n t o a r r i v e a t a more g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n ? These a r e q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e pa s sed o v e r when t r a i t i n f e r e n c e s a r e made on t h e b a s i s o f a t r a i t l i s t . Nonve rba l m a t e r i a l s seem most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s t u d y i n g t h e s e e a r l y p r o c e s s e s t h e n , a l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t o use v e r b a l s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p rob lem o f t r a i t a p p l i c a t i o n , i f t he v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s r e f e r t o c o n c r e t e cue s r a t h e r t h a n t r a i t s (Lay and J a c k s o n , 1969; L u c h i n s , 1957) . The p i t f a l l s o f u s i n g i n d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n methods t o s t u d y t h e a p p l i c a -t i o n o f t r a i t l a b e l s may be l e s s o b v i o u s t han t h o s e a r i s i n g f rom t h e use o f v e r b a l m a t e r i a l s , bu t t hey a r e wor thy o f m e n t i o n . I t has been p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s used f o r i n d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n may r e s t r i c t o r d i s t o r t t he cues a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s u b j e c t . As a r e s u l t , an e x p e r i m e n t e r may be q u i t e l i m i t e d in t h e c o n c l u s i o n s he i s a b l e t o draw f rom h i s f i n d i n g s . O r , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s drawn may be m i s l e a d i n g . A ca se i n p o i n t i s t h e p l e t h o r a o f e x p e r i m e n t s u s i n g s t i l l p ho tog r aph s o f f a c e s t o s t udy r e c o g n i t i o n o f e m o t i o n s . T a g i u r i (1969) s u g g e s t s t h a t these,, by i g n o r i n g movement and c o n t e x t , have c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e and perhaps f a l s e l y t o t he u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how w e l l e m o t i o n s a r e a c t u a l l y r e c o g n i z e d . I n t u i t i v e l y , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t f a c i a l pho tog raph s s u p p l y many o f t h e cues on wh i ch p e r s o n a l i t y judgement s a r e u s u a l l y b a s e d . The p r e s e n t s t udy used sound v i d e o t a p e s i n an e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e s u b j e c t s w i t h a d i v e r s e , bu t 10. rep I i c a b l e a r r a y o f c u e s . One advan tage o f t h i s c o m p l e x i t y was t h a t i t h e l p e d t o make t he t a s k a r e a s o n a b l e and r e a l i s t i c one f o r s u b j e c t s . S e c o n d l y , t h e s t r e n g t h o f a c u e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t c o u l d be pu t i n t o some p e r s p e c t i v e , i f c o r r e l a t i o n s between a w ide v a r i e t y o f o t h e r cues and t h a t t r a i t were a l s o known. L i t e r a t u r e Rev i ew : The P e r c e p t i o n o f Emot i on s and P e r s o n a l i t y A t t r i b u t e s . Judgements o f E m o t i o n s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d d r aw ing s o r pho tog r aph s o f f a c e s f o r s t i m u l i . Many a u t h o r s ( e . g . , Bu zby , 1924; D u n l a p , 1927; H a n a w a l t , 1942, 1944; Ruckm i c k , 1921) t r i e d t o a s s o c i a t e p a r t i c u l a r f a c i a l cues w i t h t h e f e e l i n g s t h e y c o n v e y e d . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s were o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y , and one a u t h o r ( F r o i s - W i t t m a n , 1930) s u g g e s t e d t h a t a t t e m p t s t o a s s o c i a t e s p e c i f i c mu s c l e c o n t r a c t i o n s w i t h each emot i on were i n v a i n . He con tended t h a t t he s i g n i f i c a n c e o f any g i v e n mu s c l e movement depends upon t he t o t a l p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e . S i m i l a r v i e w p o i n t s have been e x p r e s s e d by i n v e s t i g a t o r s bo th o f v o i c e cues in p e r s o n a l i t y judgement s ( A l l p o r t and C a n t r i I, 1939) , and o f t r a i t names i n p e r s o n a l i t y i n f e r e n c e s ( A s c h , 1946) . A few r e l i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a c i a l p a r t s and emot i on s were e s t a b l i s h e d , however . S u r p r i s e and f e a r seem t o be i n f e r r r e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y f r om the e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e upper p a r t o f t h e f a c e ; l a u g h i n g and s m i l i n g , f rom t h e l ower h a l f ( B o r i n g and T i t c h e n e r , 1923; Co leman , 1949; Dun l ap , 1927; S c h l o s b e r g , 1941) . Woodworth (1938) s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f e m o t i o n a l j u d g e m e n t s , i n s t e a d o f j u s t c l a s s i f y i n g judgements as r i g h t o r w rong , s h o u l d e v a l u a t e e r r o r s i z e . He d e v e l o p e d a s i x - s t e p s c a l e , o r d e r i n g emo t i on s so t h a t t h o s e most o f t e n c o n f u s e d were in t h e same o r a d j a c e n t c a t e g o r i e s . The s c a l e p r o ved 11. u s e f u l in o r g a n i z i n g c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s f rom e a r l i e r s t u d i e s u s i n g p h o t o g r a p h s o f f a c e s ( F e l e k y , 1924: G a t e s , 1923; Kanne r , 1931; and R u c k m i c k , 1921) . I t was found t h a t s u b j e c t s had se ldom m i s sed by more t han one s t e p on t h e s c a l e . The paper by Woodworth d o u b t l e s s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e t r a n s i t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i s t s ' i n t e r e s t s f r om p rob lems o f a c c u r a c y i n i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n t o p rob lems o f p r o c e s s . S c h l o s b e r g d i d a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s t o r e f i n e Woodwor th ' s s c a l e , f i r s t s how ing i t t o be c i r c u l a r r a t h e r t h a n l i n e a r ( 1 9 4 1 ) , l a t e r e x p a n d i n g t h e number of d i m e n s i o n s f r om one t o two ( 1 9 5 2 ) , t hen t h r e e ( 1 9 5 4 ) . R e s e a r c h on Woodwor th ' s s c a l e has c o n t i n u e d , but has d w e l t l e s s on e v a l u a t i n g t h e a c c u r a c y o f judgements and more on u n d e r s t a n d i n g S c h l o s b e r g ' s p ropo sed t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s and t h e i r s c a l a r p r o p e r t i e s ( e . g . , A b e l s o n and S e rma t , 1962; Engen, Levy and S c h l o s b e r g , 1958; T r i a n d i s and Lamber t , 1958) . I t w i l l be seen t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y judgements have a l s o been d e s c r i b e d in te rms o f d i m e n s i o n s . Brown (1965) p o i n t s o u t one rea son why t h i s t y p e o f a n a l y s i s r e p r e s e n t s a m a j o r d i s c o v e r y i n t he f i e l d o f pe r s on p e r c e p t i o n . Many s e e m i n g l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s i n t h e r e s e a r c h on p e r c e p t u a l a c c u r a c y a r e r e s o l v e d once i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t emot i on s d i f f e r in t h e e x t e n t t o wh i ch t h e y a r e p e r c e i v e d as s i m i l a r t o one a n o t h e r . More g e n e r a l l y , t h e t a s k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g how i n f e r e n c e s a r e made becomes g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d when t h e m y r i a d of d i f f e r e n t judgements a r e o r d e r e d a l o n g a few d i m e n s i o n s . I n t u i t i v e l y , t h e r e must be c o r r e s p o n d i n g cues on wh i ch d i s t i n c t i o n s in s i m i l a r i t y and d i f f e r e n c e i n e x p r e s s e d e m o t i o n a r e b a s e d , bu t r e s e a r c h on t h i s p rob lem has been s p a r s e . Most o f t h e a t t e m p t s men t i oned e a r l i e r t o match f a c i a l cues w i t h e m o t i o n s were u n d e r t a k e n b e f o r e t h e c o n c e p t o f d i m e n s i o n a l i t y was i n t r o d u c e d . One e x c e p t i o n i s f ound i n some i n f o r m a l o b s e r -12. v a t i o n s made by S c h l o s b e r g ( 1 941 ) . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e d i m e n s i o n he l a b e l s P l e a s a n t n e s s - U n p l e a s a n t n e s s , he s t a t e s " t h e mouth seems t o ' c a r r y ' much of t h i s f a c t o r , " and o f t he ex t remes o f h i s second f a c t o r , A t t e n t i o n - R e j e c t i o n , he s ay s " t h e c o n t r a s t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r i n t h e e y e s " . ( S c h l o s b e r g , 1941, p. 506 . ) S y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f cues u n d e r l y i n g j udgementa l d i m e n s i o n s i s a d v o c a t e d i n a paper by D a v i t z ( 1964a ) . The s t udy by t h i s a u t h o r a l r e a d y men t i oned ( 1 9 6 4 b ) , in wh i ch two s e t s o f r a t i n g s were made o f r e c o r d e d v o i c e s , r e p r e s e n t s an a t t e m p t t o d e l i n e a t e a few of t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P e r s o n a l i t y j u d g e m e n t s . A t t e m p t s t o a s s e s s j u d g e s ' a c c u r a c y in p e r c e i v i n g t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f o t h e r s l ed e v e n t u a l l y t o d i s c o v e r i e s o f some s y t e m a t i c s o u r c e s o f " e r r o r " in t he j udgemen t s . Two o f t h e s e m i s j udgement phenomena, i t has been n o t e d , s u g g e s t t h a t s u b j e c t s have a t endency t o m e n t a l l y r e -o r g a n i z e t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e s . E v i d e n c e f o r t h e e l i c i t a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y s t e r e o t y p e s by cues i s p r e s e n t e d in t h e d i s c u s s i o n i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g . The second phenomenon, t h a t te rmed " l o g i c a l e r r o r " by G u i l f o r d ( 1 9 3 6 ) , i s t he s u c c e e d i n g t o p i c . The word " s t e r e o t y p e " f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r s t o a w i d e l y h e l d s e t o f b e l i e f s a bou t memebrs o f e t h n i c g r o u p s , o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , age g r oup s and t h e l i k e . S t e r e o t y p i c v i e w s o f e t h n i c g roups have r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e because o f t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e in u n d e r s t a n d i n g p r e j u d i c e . The s t e r e o -t y p e s o f i n t e r e s t h e r e , r e l a t i n g t o cues and p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s , were d i s c o v e r e d , in some c a s e s , by a c c i d e n t , in o t h e r c a s e s , by s y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i -g a t i o n . E x p e r i m e n t s in p e r c e p t u a l a c c u r a c y o f t e n show t h a t i n t e r s u b j e c t r a t i n g s o f t he t a r g e t s t end t o ag ree v e r y w e l l even though d i f f e r i n g group membersh ips o f t h e t a r g e t s a r e n o t known. Fo r e x a m p l e , Fay and M i d d l e t o n (1943) had 13. s u b j e c t s l i s t e n t o r e c o r d e d v o i c e s o f f r a t e r n i t y b r o t h e r s , t h e n make judgement s o f each man ' s l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y . The pu rpo se o f t h e s t u d y was t o a s s e s s t he s u b j e c t s ' a b i l i t y make such judgements a c c u r a t e l y . W h i l e t h e a c c u r a c y l e v e l , as measured by t h e a u t h o r s , t u r n e d o u t t o be o n l y about c h a n c e , t h e r e was a r a t h e r h i g h degree o f s o c i a l agreement in judgements f r om c e r t a i n v o i c e s . T h i s f i n d i n g was t a k e n t o i n d i c a t e s t e r e o t y p e s o f both " l e a d e r s h i p v o i c e s " and v o i c e s l a c k i n g in l e a d e r s h i p . In a n o t h e r s t udy by t h e same a u t h o r s ( 1 9 4 1 ) , one s p e a k e r was c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d h i gh on s o c i a b i l i t y , and two were c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d low on t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . These two s t u d i e s , and o t h e r s , r e v i e w e d by Kramer (1963) i n d i c a t e t h a t c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and v o i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a s s o c i a t e d i n s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s . Because t h e i r pu rpose was t o i n v e s t i -g a t e p e r c e p t u a l a c c u r a c y , t h e s e a u t h o r s d i d not a t t e m p t t o i s o l a t e t h e v o i c e g u a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s in q u e s t i o n . S e c o r d (1958) r e v i e w s s t u d i e s wh i ch a t t e m p t t o d e l i n e a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a c i a l f e a t u r e s and p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s . One such s t u d y , d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s pape r ( S t r i t c h and S e c o r d , 1956 ) , s u g g e s t s t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r c e i v e d t r a i t s and t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f p e r c e i v e d c u e , a r e n o t v e r y s t r o n g . However, a s t u d y v a r y i n g a s i n g l e d e t a i l o f g r o o m i n g , t h e use o r l a c k o f use o f l i p s t i c k , o b t a i n e d e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s v a r i a b l e a f f e c t s p e r s o n a l i t y i m p r e s s i o n s ( M c K e a c h i e , 1952) . Ma le s t u d e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d c o l l e g e g i r l s , and r a t e d them on 22 p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s . Each g i r l wore l i p s t i c k t o t h r e e o f s i x i n t e r v i e w s . Compar i s on s o f p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s i n t h e two c o n d i t i o n s showed t h a t f i v e v a r i a b l e s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n . The s t u d i e s j u s t d e s c r i b e d t e s t i f y t h a t some appea rance and v o i c e v a r i a b l e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s i n a s t e r e o t y p i c 14. manner. The re i s n o t enough da ta however , t o p e r m i t s a y i n g much more t h a n t h i s . T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e , f o r e x a m p l e , t o e s t a b l i s h wh ich cues o f t h e i n f i n t e number u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e , a r e most s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r s o n -a l i t y v a r i a b l e s . I t i s no t known how t h e s e cues combine t o fo rm an i n t e g r a t e d i m p r e s s i o n , no r can i t be s a i d how g r e a t a p a r t a s s o c i a t i o n s between cues and t r a i t s p l a y in p e r s o n a l i t y i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n , r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o c e s s ( such as a s suming t h e o t h e r has a p e r s o n a l i t y s i m i l a r t o o n e ' s ow n ) . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between g roups o f t r a i t s have been much more i n t e n s e l y r e s e a r c h e d t h a n p e r s o n a l i t y s t e r e o t y p e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c u e s . As e a r l y as 1931, Newcomb noted i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between r a t e d t r a i t s wh ich he a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t , t o " l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s in t h e minds o f t h e r a t e r s " (Newcomb, 1931, p. 2 8 9 ) . G u i l f o r d (1936) r e f e r s t o t h i s t endency as L o g i c a l e r r o r in t r a i t r a t i n g s . I t seemed t h a t s u b j e c t s ' r a t i n g s o f t a r g e t s were a f f e c t e d by an a p p a r e n t c o h e r e n c e o f v a r i o u s t r a i t c o n c e p t s , a c o h e r e n c e t h a t was n o t bo rne o u t by o b j e c t i v e r e c o r d s based upon o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o u r . A s c h ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e t r a i t l i s t method p r o v i d e d r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h a means o f s t u d y i n g t r a i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i r e c t l y . S u b j e c t s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h p e r s o n l a i t y t r a i t names combined i n l i s t s . Each l i s t d e s c r i b e d a hypo -t h e t i c a l p e r s o n , and s u b j e c t s were a s ked t o i n d i c a t e on a check l i s t of t r a i t names, f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e y t h o u g h t t h e pe r son d e s c r i b e d wou ld p o s s e s s . Asch found t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s t i m u l u s words and t h e i tems on t h e check l i s t , as i ndexed by t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s u b j e c t s c h e c k i n g t h e re spon se a d j e c t i v e , v a r i e d w i d e l y f o r d i f f e r e n t r e spon se word s . Fo r e x a m p l e , a pe r son d e s c r i b e d as i n te I I i g e n t , s k i l l f u l , i n d u s t r i o u s , co I d , de te rm i ned , p r a c t i caI and c a u t i o u s , was f r e q u e n t l y r a t e d r e s t r a i n e d , but s e l dom r a t e d imagi n a t i v e . 15. Asch f e l t t h a t t h e i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s had a dynamic q u a l i t y wh i ch wou ld p r o h i b i t p r e d i c t i n g i n f e r e n c e s f rom p r i o r knowledge o f t h e d e n o t a -t i o n s and c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t he i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s in t h e s t i m u l u s l i s t s . L a t e r s t u d i e s ( B r u n e r , S h a p i r o and T a g i u r i , 1958; J a c k s o n and W a l t e r s , 1964; W i s h n e r , 1960) have shown t h a t t r a i t i n f e r e n c e s a r e in f a c t p r e d i c t a b l e . W i s h n e r , who used c o r r e l a t i o n s between s t u d e n t s ' t r a i t r a t i n g s o f an i n s t r u c t o r t o p r e d i c t r e spon se s in i ndependen t e x p e r i m e n t s u s i n g A s c h ' s p r o c e d u r e c o n c l u d e d , " I n g e n e r a l , a s t i m u l u s t r a i t w i l l have s t r o n g e f f e c t s i f t h e i tems t o be j udged a r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h i t , and weak e f f e c t s i f t hey a r e u n c o r r e I a t e d . " ( W i s h n e r , 1960, p. 111) . J a c k s o n (1962) s u gge s t ed a second c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n t h a t p e r m i t t e d p r e -d i c t i n g t r a i t i n f e r e n c e s f r om a s t i m u l u s l i s t . He p ropo sed t h a t t h e method o f m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s u c c e s s i v e i n t e r v a l s ( T o r g e r s o n , 1958) be used t o e s t i m a t e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e between t r a i t c o n c e p t s and t o d e s c r i b e t h e o r g a n i -z a t i o n o f a s e t o f t r a i t s in te rms o f each t r a i t ' s p o s i t i o n i n m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s p a c e . Two t r a i t s wh ich were j udged t o be p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y c l o s e would have s i m i l a r l o a d i n g s on t h e v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s and would t e n d t o be i n f e r r e d f rom on a n o t h e r . J a c k s o n and W a l t e r s (1964) a p p l i e d t h i s method t o t h e t r a i t s used i n one o f A s c h ' s e x p e r i m e n t s . From t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t r a i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s o b t a i n e d u s i n g m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g , t h e a u t h o r s were a b l e t o p r e d i c t i n f e r e n c e s made by f o u r g roups o f s u b j e c t s in a r e p l i c a t i o n o f A s c h ' s e x p e r i m e n t . The p r e d i c t i o n s were so a c c u r a t e t h a t J a c k s o n s t a t e s , " i t may be a p p r o p r i a t e . . . t o s eek t h e o r i e s and model s i n p s y c h o l o g y wh i ch no t o n l y a t t e m p t t o a c c o u n t f o r a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of t h e v a r i a n c e , bu t s t r i v e t o p r e d i c t a l l t h e r e l i a b l e v a r i a n c e " ( J a c k s o n , 1967, pp. 1 2 - 13 ) . 16. The p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f t r a i t i n f e r e n c e s f rom t r a i t l i s t s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n c e p t o f d i m e n s i o n s . J u s t as some e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s seem more c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r t h a n o t h e r s , so do some p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s seem more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t han o t h e r s . E x a c t l y how t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t r a i t c o n c e p t s s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d i s u n c l e a r , however . Many a u t h o r s i n t e r p r e t t r a i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s as p a r t o f what have been c a l l e d imp I i c i t o r l ay p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w , ( B r u n e r and T a g i u r i , 1954; C r o n b a c h , 1955; Hay s , 1958; J a c k s o n , 1962) p e o p l e have i deas about t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t p a i r s o f t r a i t s w i l l c o e x i s t in t h e same p e r s o n . These t h e o r i e s , o r e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e assumed t o be a c q u i r e d t h r ough p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o t h e r s (Campbe l l and O ' C o n n e l l , 1967; Hay s , 1958; K o l t u v , 1962) . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t r a i t s a r e t h o s e t h a t a r e e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r t o g e t h e r f r e q u e n t l y ; n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t r a i t s a r e t h o s e p e o p l e have l e a r n e d se ldom o c c u r t o g e t h e r , w h i l e u n r e l a t e d t r a i t s may o r may not o c c u r t o g e t h e r . If t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s accepted . , i t must be assumed t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s have v e r y s i m i l a r l ay t h e o r i e s , more s i m i l a r t h a n one m i g h t a n t i c i p a t e i f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t c o m p r i s e t he t h e o r i e s a r e m a i n l y t h e r e s u l t o f p e r s o n a l s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Fo r e x a m p l e , a number o f a u t h o r s ( a . g . , Mensh and W i s h n e r , 1947; Veness and B r i e r l y , 1963) , have s u c c e s s f u l l y r e p l i c a t e d i n f e r e n c e s made i n A s c h ' s s t u d i e s , w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n s . W i shne r (1960) was a b l e t o use c o r r e l a t i o n s between h i s s u b j e c t ' s r a t i n g s t o make a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s o f t he r e s pon se s made by A s c h ' s s u b j e c t s , o b t a i n e d more t h a n a decade e a r l i e r . An a d d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r s u b j e c t agreement i n t h e s e t r a i t i n f e r -ence s i s p r o v i d e d by t h e J a c k s o n and W a l t e r s s t udy ( 1964 ) . C o r r e l a t i o n s between i n f e r e n c e s o f randomly d i v i d e d h a l v e s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t ' s f o u r c o n d i -t i o n s ranged f rom 0.95 t o 0 . 99 . 17. Ext reme i n t e r s u b j e c t s i m i l a r i t y i n i m p l i c i t p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i e s i s o n l y s u r p r i s i n g i f one assumes i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s e n c o u n t e r e d ( d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y ) i n s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e . Lay and J a c k s o n (1969) p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e based on n o r m a t i v e da ta f rom a p e r s o n a l i t y fo rm ( P e r s o n a l i t y Re sea r ch Form, J a c k s o n , 1967) s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a c t u a l p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d in t h e same way as p e r c e i v e d p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . They p ropo se t h a t , i n f a c t , a c t u a l p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s t e n d t o be r e l i a b l y c o r r e l a t e d and t h a t t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e m i r r o r e d a c c u r a t e l y in i m p l i c i t p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i e s . S i m i l a r i t y between s u b j e c t s ' i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s then would be e x p e c t e d because e v e r y o n e would e n c o u n t e r e s s e n t i a l l y the same p a t t e r n s o f t r a i t c o v a r i a t i o n . A s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t he t r a i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e s c r i b e d by Asch and s ub sequen t r e s e a r c h e r s i s o u t l i n e d by M u l a i k ( 1 964 ) . He s u g ge s t s t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s found i n t r a i t r a t i n g s may be l a r g e l y t h e r e s u l t o f s i m i l a r i t i e s i n word mean ing s . An i n d i r e c t t e s t o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was made by p r e s e n t i n g s u b j e c t s w i t h 20 t r a i t words and h a v i n g them r a t e each as t o how s i m i l a r in meaning i t was t o t he p o l e s o f 76 b i p o l a r t r a i t r a t i n g s c a l e s . These r a t i n g s were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d , and t h e r e s u l t i n g f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e was compared t o t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e o b t a i n e d i n two s t u d i e s o f t r a i t i n f e r e n c e . In t h e c ompa r i s on s t u d i e s , wh ich used t h e same 7 6 - i t e m r a t i n g i n s t r u m e n t , s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s o f e i t h e r a c t u a l p e o p l e t h e y knew o r s t e r e o t y p e p e r s o n s . The same f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e was o b t a i n e d i n a l l t h r e e cond i t i o n s . Kuu s i nen (1969b) a l s o c o n c l u d e s t h a t f a c t o r s f ound in t r a i t r a t i n g t a s k s may be based on the r e l a t i o n s between meanings o f t h e t r a i t words . T h i s a u t h o r employed a s t a n d a r d s e t o f 33 p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s in t h r e e s t u d i e s . 18. The f i r s t s t u d y compared f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s when f i v e g roups o f s t i m u l i ( f e l l o w s t u d e n t s , w e l l - k n o w n p e r s o n s , p h o t o g r a p h s , h a n d w r i t i n g s , and i r r e l e v a n t c o n c e p t s ) were r a t e d on t h e s c a l e s . In t h e second s t u d y , a s i n g l e s u b j e c t r a t e d d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y c o n c e p t s t h r e e t i m e s a t one-week i n t e r v a l s . F i n a l l y , in a s t u d y t h a t had 39 pee r s r a t e each o t h e r , t he f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s o b t a i n e d f rom t h e e n t i r e g roup of 39 compared w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e s o f 12 i n d i v i dua l r a t e r s in t h e g r oup . F a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s were s i m i l a r f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n each e x p e r i m e n t , and t h e f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d in t h e t h r e e s t u d i e s were h i g h l y s i m i l a r . S i n c e changes i n n e i t h e r o b j e c t s nor r a t e r s a p p r e c i a b l y a f f e c t e d t h e f a c t o r s o b t a i n e d , Kuu s i nen i n t e r p r e t s t he f a c t o r s as c o n c e p t u a l o r l i n g u i s t i c in n a t u r e . An i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s t a b l e t r a i t i n f e r e n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s in t e rms o f l i n g u i s t i c h a b i t s i n not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n te rms o f i m p l i c i t p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i e s . I f word meanings a r e l e a r n e d t h r o u g h t h e same k i n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e s as i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s , i t wou ld be r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t r a i t meaning r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r a i t e x p e c t a n c y r e l a t i o n s h i p s have much in common. B e h a v i o u r s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f rom wh ich t r a i t names a r e i n f e r r e d wou ld o v e r l a p t o t he e x t e n t t h a t t h e s e words s h a r e d d e n o t a t i v e mean ing . In agreement w i t h t h i s v i e w , Lay and J a c k s o n (1969) s t a t e t h a t t h e s e m a n t i c o v e r l a p h y p o t h e s i s i s ambiguous and not c l e a r l y d i s -t i n g u i s h a b l e f rom an i n f e r e n t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (Lay and J a c k s o n , 1 9 6 9 , p. 19) . The p r e s e n t s t udy was not d e s i g n e d t o r e s o l v e t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y d i r e c t l y . However , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s would e x t e n d t h e r e s u l t s o f o t h e r s t u d i e s i n two ways , e i t h e r o f wh ich c o u l d have some b e a r i n g on t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between t h e two h y p o t h e s e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o c l a r i f y t he r o l e o f p e r c e i v e d cues in t h e f o r m a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y i m p r e s -19. s i o n s , and t o examine t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r c e i v e d a t t r i b u t e s o f s i n g l e t a r g e t s . Tha t t r a i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e h i g h l y r e p l i c a b l e seems t o have been e s f a b l i s h e d beyond d o u b t . On t h i s b a s i s one would e x p e c t t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between a t t r i b u t e s r a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o be s i m i l a r l y s t a b l e . S i n c e t h e s e t o f r a t i n g s c a l e s i n c l u d e d t r a i t c o n s t r u c t s and i n t u i t i v e l y more c o n c r e t e c o n s t r u c t s , t h e p e r c e i v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a i r s o f c u e s , p a i r s o f t r a i t s and c u e - t r a i t p a i r s c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h i s complex o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n s t i t u t e s a me r g i n g o f t he k i n d o f s t e r e o t y p e s d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r w i t h t r a i t n e t w o r k s . P a s s i n i and Norman (1966) have in f a c t s u g g e s t e d e x p a n d i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e i m p l i c i t p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y t o encompass p e r c e i v e d cue s as w e l l as t r a i t s . These a u t h o r s c a r r i e d o u t a s t u d y i n wh ich s u b j e c t s who were v i r t u a l s t r a n g e r s made p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s o f one a n o t h e r . S u b j e c t s were s t u d e n t s i n a c l a s s t h a t was m e e t i n g f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . They were d i v i d e d i n t o g roups and a sked t o r a t e one a n o t h e r on a s e t o f 20 p e r s o n a l i t y i t e m s . No v e r b a l c ommun i c a t i on was p e r m i t t e d b e f o r e t h e r a t i n g s were made and p r e c a u t i o n s were t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t s t u d e n t s were no t a c q u a i n t e d p r i o r t o t he c l a s s m e e t i n g . I t was s a f e t o assume then t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s found in t h e r a t i n g s o f v a r i o u s i tems d i d no t a r i s e f rom r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e a c t u a l a t t r i b u t e s i n t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f t h e t a r g e t s . Y e t , t h e t r a i t o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t was r e v e a l e d by a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f t h e r a t i n g s was t h e same as had been found i n e a r l i e r s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e same 20 s c a l e s but e m p l o y i n g r a t e r s and r a t e e s who were f a i r l y i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t e s (Norman, 1963; Tupes and C h r i s t a l , 1958, 1961) . The f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s o b t a i n e d i n t h e s e e a r l i e r s t u d i e s had been assumed t o r e f l e c t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e t a r g e t s ' a c t u a l p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s . 20. The f i n d i n g s t h a t f a c t o r i n v a r i a n c e in p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s o f a c t u a l o t h e r s was n o t dependent on a c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p between r a t e r s and r a t e e s l ed P a s s i n i and Norman t o p o s t u l a t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a " u n i v e r s a l " p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y i n c o r p o r a t i n g cues as w e l l as p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s : . . .we a r e a s suming t h a t a s i z e a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f p e r s on s t end t o b e l i e v e i n common and f o r w h a t e v e r r ea son s t h a t c e r t a i n c l u s t e r s o f a t t r i b u t e s o c c u r j o i n t l y i n o t h e r pe r s on s w i t h a p r o b a b i l i t y g r e a t e r t h a n 0 . 5 , and t h a t a t t r i b u t e s i n one c l u s t e r a r e b e l i e v e d t o o c c u r more o r l e s s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h o s e wh i ch form o t h e r c l u s t e r s . And i f we assume f i n a l l y t h a t c e r t a i n p h e n o t y p i c a s p e c t s o f d r e s s , demeanor, p h y s i c a l s i z e , movement and t h e l i k e a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e s e syndromal s t e r e o t y p e s , we have a t l e a s t a p o t e n t i a l b a s i s f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t he p r e s e n t s t u d y . ( P a s s i n i and Norman, 1966, p. 48) The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h t e s t e d t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f d r e s s , e t c . , a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e s e p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i e s . The r a t i n g s c a l e s p r e s e n t e d t o s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e d t h e 20 p e r s o n a l i t y i tems f rom t h e f o u r pape r s j u s t d i s c u s s e d , a l o n g w i t h i tems r e f e r r i n g t o an a s s o r t m e n t of c u e s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n made by P a s s i n i and Norman (1966) o f t h e i r r e s u l t s i m p l i e s t h a t s u b j e c t s s h o u l d combine cues and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s i n t h e i r c o n c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e r a t e d a t t r i b u t e s . The b a s i c f i v e - f a c t o r p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e s h o u l d r e c u r bu t each f a c t o r s h o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e t h o s e cues wh i ch a r e i n c p o r o r a t e d i n t o i t . The c h o i c e o f s p e c i f i c cues t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e r a t i n g s c a l e was a r b i -t r a r y t o some e x t e n t because so few p r i o r s t u d i e s had been done t h a t m i g h t p r o v i d e g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s . One c o n s i d e r a t i o n was t h e need t o i n c l u d e s c a l e s r e f e r r i n g t o d i v e r s e a s p e c t s o f t h e t a r g e t s ' a ppea r ance and b e h a v i o u r . Fo r c o n v e n i e n c e , t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f cues were d e l i n e a t e d . One c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d s c a l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o cues p e r c e i v e d v i s u a l l y . The o t h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were based on two a s p e c t s o f a u d i t o r y c u e s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e , 21 . t h e c o n t e n t o f what t a r g e t s s a i d , may be c a l l e d v e r b a l c u e s ; t h e second c a t e g o r y i s t h a t o f v o i c e cues - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f speech i ndependen t o f speech c o n t e n t . These t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f cues have been used i n a number o f s t u d i e s t o d e s c r i b e c h a n n e l s o f c ommun i c a t i on ( e . g . , Meh rab i an and F e r r i s , 1967; M e h r a b i a n and W i e n e r , 1967; S h a p i r o , 1966; R o s e n t h a l , 1967) . The f r e q u e n t use o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r breakdown o f cues i s p a r t l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e t h r e e c h a n n e l s can be s e p a r a t e d e x p e r i m e n t a l l y . By e m p l o y i n g s i l e n t f i l m s , t r a n s c r i p t s , e l e c t r o n i c a l l y f i l t e r e d speech and t h e l i k e , an i n v e s t i g a t o r can p r e s e n t o n e , two o r a l l t h r e e s e t s o f cues t o s u b j e c t s , t hen e v a l u a t e t h e i r r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o an i m p r e s s i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , We ine r and Meh ra -b i a n (1968) r e p o r t two s t u d i e s i n wh ich s u b j e c t s were asked t o a s s e s s t he a t t i t u d e o r f e e l i n g s o f a s p e a k e r t owa rd a n o t h e r p e r s o n , on t h e b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . In one s t udy (Meh rab i an and W i e n e r , 1967) v e r b a l c o n t e n t and v o i c e t o n e were v a r i e d on a t a p e r e c o r d i n g . A p o s i t i v e , n e g a t i v e o r n e u t r a l wo rd , spoken in a p o s i t i v e , n e g a t i v e o r n e u t r a l t o n e o f v o i c e was t he s t i m u l u s u n i t . S u b j e c t s were asked t o a t t e n d t o both t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , o n l y t o v o i c e t o n e , o r o n l y t o v e r b a l c o n t e n t , i n j u d g i n g a s e r i e s o f t h e s e v o c a l i z a t i o n s f o r t h e f e e l i n g s c o n v e y e d . When both t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n were a t t e n d e d t o , t he v e r b a l c o n t e n t o f t h e word p l a y e d a n e g l i -g i b l e p a r t in t h e c ommun i c a t i on o f a f f e c t , w h i l e v o i c e t one had a l a r g e e f f e c t . A s i m i l a r e x p e r i m e n t (Meh rab i an and F e r r i s , 1967) used f a c i a l pho tog r aph s t o add v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e two k i n d s p r o v i d e d by M e h r a b i a n and W i e n e r . The v i s u a l component had a p p r o x i m a t e l y one and a h a l f t i m e s t he w e i g h t o f t h e v o i c e t one component in t h e s u b j e c t s ' i m p r e s s i o n o f a f f e c t c o n v e y e d . The 22. p r e s e n t s t u d y was c o n s i d e r e d p r e l i m i n a r y t o p e r s o n a l i t y i m p r e s s i o n s t u d i e s in wh i ch v i s u a l , v o i c e and v e r b a l cues would be s t u d i e d i n t h i s way. O v e r v i e w : Aims and Hypo the se s o f t h e P r e s e n t S t udy . The p r e s e n t s t u d y was i n t e n d e d as an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c o g n i t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p e r c e i v e d cues and t r a i t s t h a t u n d e r l i e i m p r e s s i o n s of o b s e r v e d i n d i v i d u a l s . I t was a p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y , e x p e c t e d t o s u g g e s t h ypo -t h e s e s f o r f u r t h e r , more s p e c i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . A f o u r - m i n u t e v i d e o t a p e o f each o f n i n e t a r g e t s p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n . The d a t a c o n s i s t e d o f r a t i n g s made by s u b j e c t s o f t h e s e n i n e t a r g e t s . R a t i n g s were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d t o r e v e a l t h e r a t i n g c o n s i s t e n c i e s f r om wh i ch t h e c o n c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s was i n f e r r e d . A s p e c i a l p o i n t s h o u l d be made abou t t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s , s i n c e t he p r e s e n t s t u d y d i f f e r e d in one ma jo r r e s p e c t f r om a l l t h e f a c t o r a n a l y t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t have been r e v i e w e d . The d e s i g n of any s t u d y wh ich has s u b j e c t s r a t e d c o n c e p t s o r t a r g e t s on a v a r i e t y o f a t t r i b u t e s can be r e p r e s e n t e d by a t h r e e -d i m e n s i o n a l m a t r i x . T h i s r a t i n g pa rad i gm i s c ompa rab l e t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d by Osgood, erf aj_. (1957, pp. 8 5 - 8 7 ) . In pe r s on p e r c e p t i o n r e s e a r c h , t h e t h r e e axes o f t h e m a t r i x r e p r e s e n t s u b j e c t s , t a r g e t s and a t t r i b u t e s , so t h a t each c e l l i n t h e d a t a m a t r i x r e p r e s e n t s a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t ' s a s s e s smen t o f a p a r t i c u l a r t a r g e t on a p a r t i c u l a r a t t r i b u t e . The d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s and o t h e r s t u d i e s o f p e r c e i v e d a t t r i b u t e s wh i ch have employed t h e same r a t i n g d e s i g n , l i e s i n t he t r e a t m e n t o f t he raw d a t a m a t r i x . P a s t i n v e s t i g a t o r s ( e . g . K u u s i n e n , 1969a; 1969b; M u l a i k , 1964; Norman, 1963; P a s s i n i and Norman, 1966) have c o l l a p s e d t h e i r d a t a m a t r i x o v e r t h e a x i s r e p r e s e n t i n g s u b j e c t s , t h u s o b t a i n i n g a s i n g l e (mean) r a t i n g f o r 23. e v e r y t a r g e t on each a t t r i b u t e . The c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d between any two a t t r i b u t e s i s based on t h e two s e t s o f t a r g e t means w i t h one s e t r e f e r r i n g t o each o f t h e a t t r i b u t e s . In t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r a t i n g s on a p a r t i c u l a r s c a l e were riot summed o v e r a l l s u b j e c t s . I n s t e a d , t h e r a t i n g s f o r each t a r g e t were a n a l y z e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . R a t h e r t h a n one t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l d a t a m a t r i x t h e r e were t e n t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l m a t r i c e s w i t h t h e two axes r e p r e s e n t i n g a t t r i b u t e s and s u b j e c t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d between any two a t t r i b u t e s was based on two s e t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t r a t i n g s made w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a s i n g l e t a r g e t . What does t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n a n a l y s i s mean in t e rms o f t he s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t a r e found? A d i s t i n c t i o n made by Norman and G o l d b e r g (1966) bea r s on t h i s q u e s t i o n . These a u t h o r s s t a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e two k i n d s o f r e l a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e d a t a o f a t y p i c a l p e e r - r a t i n g s t u d y , i n wh i ch r a t i n g s o f numerous t a r g e t s a r e comb ined . F i r s t t h e r e a r e t he r e l a -t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s based on t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l s t a t u s o f t h e r a t e e s on t h e t r a i t s b e i n g a s s e s s e d . Second , t h e r e a r e t h o s e r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s a r i s i n g f rom the s y s t e m a t i c r a t i n g t e n d e n c i e s o f t he s u b j e c t s . I f r a t i n g s by a group o f s u b j e c t s o f a s i n g l e t a r g e t a r e c o r r e l a t e d , t h e s e l a t t e r r e l a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s -p re sumab l y r e p r e s e n t i n g menta l s t r u c t u r e s h e l d by t h e r a t e r s - must be t h e o n l y ones o p e r a t i n g i n rhe d a t a . F u r t h e r m o r e , when a n a l y s i s of s i n g l e t a r g e t r a t i n g s a r e o b t a i n e d f o r s e v e r a l t a r g e t s , i t becomes p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e r a t e r s ' menta l o r c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e s f rom one t a r g e t t o a n o t h e r . D e s p i t e t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e t h a t f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s remain s t a b l e f rom one r a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n t o a n o t h e r , i t i s n o t c e r t a i n t h a t r a t i n g s by t h e same s u b j e c t s wou ld be i n v a r i a n t f rom one t a r g e t t c a n o t h e r . In f a c t , in 24. s t u d i e s where v e r b a l c o n c e p t s were r a t e d on s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s , Osgood, e t aj_. ( 1957) r e p o r t i n v a r i a n c e f o r d i f f e r e n t r a t i n g g roups when r a t i n g s were summed o v e r s u b j e c t s w i t h i n each g r o u p , b u t he t e r o geneou s f a c t o r s t r u c -t u r e s when r a t i n g s o f s i n g l e c o n c e p t s were i n d e p e n d e n t l y c o r r e l a t e d . (Osgood, e t a L , 1957, pp. 170-188. ) I t appea red t h a t meanings o f c e r t a i n s c a l e s changed w i t h the c o n c e p t s b e i n g j u d g e d . From t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f p r e d i c t i n g i m p r e s s i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r c o n c r e t e a t t r i b u t e s , t h e e x i s t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r s t a b l e t r a i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s o f l i m i t e d v a l u e u n l e s s t h e s t a b i l i t y h o l d s i n i m p r e s s i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s . The t r e a t m e n t o f d a t a i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y p e r m i t t e d e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t a r g e t X a t t r i b u t e i n t e r a c t i o n s . The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from each o f t h e t a r g e t ' s f a c t o r a n a l y s i s can be b roken down as f o l l o w s . The d a t a showed t h e number o f i ndependen t f a c t o r s w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r t han one . I t showed t h e r e l a t i v e s i z e o f t h e e i g e n v a l u e s f o r each f a c t o r e x t r a c t e d . And f i n a l l y , i t showed t h e c o n t e n t o f each f a c t o r e x t r a c t e d , i n te rms o f t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g s o f t h e 53 s c a l e s u s ed . The number, s i z e and c o n t e n t o f f a c t o r s f o r a s e t o f r a t i n g s may be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f l e c t i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e r a t e r s i m p r e s s i o n s , t h e way in wh i ch t h e r a t e r s ' a t t e n t i o n was d i s t r i b u t e d o ve r t h e v a r i o u s p e r c e i v e d d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e o t h e r , and t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s . The outcome o f an a n a l y s i s , b roken down i n t h i s way, can be compared , f i r s t a g a i n s t t h e r e s u l t s o f s i m i l a r s t u d i e s , i ndependen t of t h e p r e s e n t o n e , and a l s o a g a i n s t t h e r e s u l t s o f t he o t h e r f a c t o r a n a l y s e s in t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The o n l y i ndependen t s t u d i e s t h a t w i l l be used f o r c ompa r i s on a r e t h o s e d e s c r i b e d i n Norman (1963) and P a s s i n i and Norman (1966) because t he same p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s were used i n t h e s e and t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . 25. These s t u d i e s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as t h e " c o m p a r i s o n s t u d i e s " . These a u t h o r s f ound t h a t f i v e s e t s o f f o u r s c a l e s t ended t o group t o g e t h e r c o n s i s t e n t l y -r e s u l t i n g i n a s e t of f i v e r e c u r r i n g f a c t o r s . S i n c e t h e p r e s e n t s t udy o b t a i n e d r a t i n g s on t h e same 20 s c a l e s , and 33 o t h e r s b e s i d e s , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t a l l f a c t o r a n a l y s e s wou ld y i e l d a t l e a s t f i v e f a c t o r s . The re was no b a s i s f o r p r e d i c t i n g how t h e i n c l u s i o n o f o t h e r v a r i a b l e s would a f f e c t t h i s s t r u c t u r e . The s i m p l e s t outcome would o c c u r i f t h e p e r c e i v e d cues n e i t h e r fo rmed i n d e -pendent f a c t o r s , no r d i s r u p t e d t h e f i v e f a c t o r s e s t a b l i s h e d in e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , but d i s t r i b u t e d t h e m s e l v e s i n some way on t h i s b a s i c s e t o f f i v e . Such a r e s u l t , i f o b t a i n e d , wou ld empha s i z e t h e adequacy and s t a b i l i t y o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s in d e s c r i b i n g i m p r e s s i o n s o f o b s e r v e d o t h e r s . The e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s found t h a t t h e i r f i v e r e c u r r i n g f a c t o r s a c c o u n t e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y equa l p o r t i o n s o f t he f a c t o r v a r i a n c e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y r e p r e s e n t e d a r e o f s i m i l a r i m p o r t a n c e i n p e r s o n -a l i t y i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n . However, s i n c e t h e i r a n a l y s e s were based on r a t i n g s o f many t a r a e t s , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s f i n d i n g f o r i m p r e s s i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l t a r g e t s a r e u n c e l a r . One m i g h t e x p e c t t h a t t he f i v e p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s , i f t h e y emerged, wou ld be s i m i l a r in s i z e f o r each t a r g e t ; o r t hey m i gh t be d i f -f e r e n t f o r each t a r g e t w i t h t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n t h a t no one f a c t o r wou ld be c o n s i s t e n t l y l a r g e r o r s m a l l e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s . As f o r t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e f a c t o r s , t h e s t u d i e s o f t h e p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i -g a t o r s s u g g e s t o n l y t h a t t h e f i v e s e t s o f f o u r s c a l e s t h a t were found t o be c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l a t e d wou ld be r e l a t e d i n much t he same way i n t h i s s t u d y . Compar i s on s between t h e i n d i v i d u a l t a r g e t a n a l y s e s were e x p e c t e d t o s u g g e s t i f and how t a r g e t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t e r a c t w i t h r a t i n g t e n d e n c i e s o f o b s e r v e r s . I n s o f a r as a pe r s on s r a t i n g s o f any two o t h e r s in an i d e n t i c a l 26. s i t u a t i o n a r e gove rned by h i s i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n s abou t what p a i r s o f c o n s t r u c t s ( e i t h e r cues o r t r a i t s ) go t o g e t h e r , and/o r by t h e s h a r e d word mean ings o f t h e v a r i o u s s c a l e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g n u l l s t a t e m e n t s w i l l h o l d t r u e : 1. a s i m i l a r number of f a c t o r s w i l l emerge f o r e v e r y t a r g e t ; 2. t h e s i z e o f f a c t o r s i n c o r r e s p o n d i n g o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s w i l l be s i m i l a r f o r e v e r y t a r g e t ; 3. t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e f a c t o r s , in te rms o f i tem l o a d i n g s on p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r s , w i l l be s i m i l a r f o r a l l t a r g e t s . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s do not h o l d t r u e , i t can be p o s t u l a t e d t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he o b j e c t gove rn c o m p l e x i t y , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a t t e n -t i o n , and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s , and both t h e i n f e r e n t i a l h y p o t h e s i s and t h e s e m a n t i c h y p o t h e s i s o f a t t r i b u t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as t h e y have been s t a t e d t o d a t e , w i l l be i n a d e q u a t e t o e x p l a i n t h e d a t a . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s i n c e t h e r e a r e no s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s a v a i l a b l e t o e v a l u a t e t h e d a t a w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a b o v e - s t a t e d n u l l h y p o t h e s e s , r e s u l t s w i l l o n l y be s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e way in wh i ch t h e c o g n i t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a p e r c e i v e r i n t e r a c t s w i t h o b j e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 27. C h a p t e r I I METHOD S u b j e c t s . S u b j e c t s were 35 male and 35 female v o l u n t e e r s r e c r u i t e d from i n t r o d u c t o r y c o u r s e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i r t e e n a d d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s were d i s c a r d e d , e i g h t because t h e y m i s s e d t h e second o f two t e s t s e s s i o n s , and f i v e because t h e y had p r i o r a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h one o f t h e r a t e e s . S t i m u l u s M a t e r i a l s . Sound v i d e o t a p e s o f n i n e male p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l . These s t u d e n t s were v o l u n t e e r s who knew t h e purpose of t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The advantages of u s i n g v i d e o t a p e s as s t i m u l i have been mentioned. They a f f o r d e d a r e a s o n a b l e a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o v o i c e , v e r b a l c o n t e n t , and v i s u a l cues as they o c c u r i n t h e f a c e t o f a c e o b s e r v a t i o n o f a c t u a l p e o p l e , y e t a s s u r e d t h a t s t i m u l i were i d e n t i c a l f o r e v e r y s u b j e c t . There were a v a r i e t y of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t governed t h e c h o i c e o f t a r g e t s . One was t h e d e s i r e t o c o n t r o l t h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t p e r c e i v e d group membership might have on i m p r e s s i o n s . I t has been w e l l d e monstrated t h a t t h e r e a r e p e r s o n a l i t y s t e r e o t y p e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c u l t u r a l s u b g r o u p s ; how-e v e r , the i n t e n t o f t h e s t u d y was t o f o c u s on v o i c e , appearance and a t t i -t u d i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t c o u l d v a r y w i t h i n such s u b g r o u p s , and which a r e l e s s o f t e n t h e s u b j e c t o f s t u d y i n i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n r e s e a r c h . In k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s a im, t a r g e t s were chosen t o be homogeneous w i t h r e s p e c t t o age, and s e x , and t h e r e were no t a r g e t s whose n a t i v e language was not E n g I i s h . 2a, T a r g e t s were chosen f rom the p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , because t h i s g roup was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , and most members were no t known t o f reshman s u b j e c t s . As has been m e n t i o n e d , a l l t a r g e t s were t o be o f t h e same s e x , and an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n was made t o use males r a t h e r t h a n f e m a l e s . A few ma le g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s were u n -s u i t a b l e because t hey were o l d e r t h a n t h e group as a w h o l e , o r because t h e y had a c c e n t s . S u b j e c t s were n o t t o l d t h a t t a r g e t s were p s y c h o l o g y g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , bu t o n l y t h a t t hey were s t u d e n t s . I t was f e l t t h a t f reshmen m i gh t have s t e r e o t y p e s a b o u t t h e members o f t h i s s m a l l e r s u b g r o u p , and t h a t t h e s e s t e r e o t y p e s m i gh t o b s c u r e i m p r e s s i o n s t h a t would o t h e r w i s e o c c u r . T h i s i s m e r e l y a n o t h e r a s p e c t of t h e p rob lem j u s t d i s c u s s e d , S t e r e o t y p e s i n v o l v e t h e a t t r i b u t i o n o f common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n a s ubg r oup , as w e l l as t h e a t t r i b u t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o members o f d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s , and i t was hoped t h a t bo th t h e s e t y p e s o f s t e r e o t y p i c r e s p o n d i n g wou ld be m i n i m i z e d . In o r d e r t o compare the g e n e r a l i t y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r c e i v e d a t t r i b u t e s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o have a r e a s o n a b l y l a r g e number o f t a r g e t s . However , t h e d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s v i e w e v e r y t a r g e t imposed a p r a c t i c a l l i m i t on t h e number o f t a r g e t s t h a t c o u l d be u sed . N ine r a t e e s was t h e maximum number t h a t c o u l d be v i ewed and r a t e d i n ' two 90 m inu te se s s i o n s . Sound v i d e o t a p e s , about f o u r m i n u t e s in l e n g t h , were made o f each t a r g e t . The s t u d e n t s were f i l m e d i n d i v i d u a l l y w h i l e s e a t e d i n an a r m c h a i r f a c i n g t h e camera . The backg round was a p l a i n b l a c k w a l l . The d i s t a n c e o f t h e camera f rom each t a r g e t was such t h a t t h e p e r s o n was e n t i r e l y v i s i b l e e x c e p t f o r h i s l ower l e g s . 29. T a r g e t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o g i v e t h e i r own v i e w s on two s p e c i f i e d t o p i c s : (1) p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s o r i d e a s , and ( 2 ) p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s . D e f i n i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f t he t a r g e t s ' speech i n t h i s way made i t p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a s t a n d a r d s e t o f speech c o n t e n t s c a l e s t h a t wou ld p e r m i t c o m p a r i s o n s a c r o s s t a r g e t s . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c s t h a t were chosen were ones on wh i ch i t was v i r t u a l l y c e r t a i n , f i r s t o f a l l , t h a t e v e r y t a r g e t wou ld have s ometh i n g t o s a y , and s e c o n d , t h a t v i e w p o i n t s wou ld v a r y f r om one t a r g e t t o a n o t h e r . To encou rage t h i s n a t u r a l v a r i a b i l i t y , no r e s t r i c t i o n s were p l a c e d on t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e t a l k s , o t h e r t h a n t h e two broad t o p i c s , and t a r g e t s were no t p e r m i t t e d t o v i ew t he f i l m s o f o t h e r s t u d e n t s u n t i l a f t e r t h e i r own f i Im was c o m p l e t e . I t was i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e two d i f f e r e n t t o p i c s wou ld t a p d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t a r g e t s ' p e r s o n a l i t i e s , so t h a t r a t e r s wou ld t e n d t o f e e l t h e y had some r e a l b a s i s f o r mak ing d i v e r s e p e r s o n a l i t y e v a l u a t i o n s , and a l s o t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r c ompa r i n g two t o p i c s o f speech c o n t e n t i n t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s . The r e s u l t i n g t a l k s on p o l i t i c s i n c l u d e d a c r i t i q u e o f B e n n e t t government i n t he p r o v i n c e o f B.C., two q u i t e d i f f e r e n t comments on campus p o l i t i c s , a t h e o r y o f war and why i t c o n t i n u e s , and a d e f e n s e o f r i o t s and v i o l e n c e as a means t o s o c i a l change i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Some o f t h e i n t e r e s t s t h a t t a r g e t s d i s c u s s e d were s n o w - s h o e i n g , s k y d i v i n g , c o o k i n g and m u s i c , t r a v e l and r e a d i n g n o v e l s . The p o l i t i c a l v i e w s were a lway s p r e s e n t e d f i r s t so t h a t any t o p i c o r d e r e f f e c t s wou ld be c o n s t a n t f o r a l l t a r g e t s . T a r g e t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o be as n a t u r a l as p o s s i b l e i n t h e i r g e n e r a l manner o f s p e a k i n g and g e s t u r e s so t h a t t h e r e would be n a t u r a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e s e r e s p e c t s . 30. R a t i n g S c a l e s . S u b j e c t s r e c o r d e d t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e t a r g e t s on 53 e i g h t - p o i n t b i p o l a r r a t i n g s c a l e s . These s c a l e s were g rouped i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s in t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , so t h a t a l l i tems i n a p a r t i c u l a r group o c c u r r e d i n s u c c e s -s i o n . The sequence o f i tem g r o u p i n g s was v a r i e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y however , i n t h r e e forms o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h e o r d e r o f i tems w i t h i n f o u r o f t h e g roups was randomly v a r i e d i n t h e s e t h r e e f o r m s . The f i v e g r o u p i n g s t h e m s e l v e s were made a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a s p e c t of t h e t a r g e t t h a t was b e i n g a s s e s s e d . V o i c e , v i s u a l , v e r b a l c o n t e n t and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s t i t u t e d f o u r o f t he c a t e g o r i e s , w h i l e t h e a d d i t i o n a l one i n c l u d e d t h e two s u b j e c t i v e judgements of l i k i n g and s i m i l a r i t y t o s e l f . The r e a s on s f o r t h e c h o i c e o f v a r i o u s i tems a r e g i v e n be l ow . The i tems t h e m s e l v e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Append i x A. (1) V i s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The re were e i g h t s c a l e s (numbered f rom 1 t o 8) in t h i s c a t e g o r y , and t h e y were c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e v i d e o t a p e d i d no t r e p r o d u c e e i t h e r v e r y f i n e d e t a i l o r c o l o u r . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s i t u a t i o n , wh i ch had t a r g e t s s e a t e d a t a l l t i m e s , p r e c l u d e d many cue s t h a t m i g h t have been i m p o r t a n t i f more f reedom o f movement had been a l l o w e d . S c a l e s in t h i s c a t e g o r y t h e n , were t a i l o r e d t o t h e s p e c i f i c v i s u a l s i t u a t i o n , and t e n d e d t o be r a t h e r g e n e r a l . The re were one o r two s c a l e s r e f e r r i n g t o each o f movements, body b u i l d , d r e s s and f a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . (2) V o i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The re were e l e v e n s c a l e s (numbered f rom 9 t o 19) wh i ch r e f e r r e d t o t h e t a r g e t ' s v o i c e and manner o f s p e a k i n g . The i tems f o r t h i s c a t e g o r y were based on t he l i t e r a t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i n g v o i c e cues and i n f e r e n c e s abou t e i t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ( A l l p o r t , 1939) o r e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s ( F a i r b a n k s and H o a g l i n , 1941; S k i n n e r , 1935; D a v i t z , 1963b). 31. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s wh i ch had been found i m p o r t a n t in t h e s e s t u d i e s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a l s e t o f s c a l e s i f t hey seemed a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s p e a k e r s in t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n , and i f t h e y c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d by a b i p o l a r s c a l e . If two s c a l e s appea red on i n s p e c t i o n t o be r e d u n d a n t , one was e l i m i n a t e d . Such a B£J_or\_ s c r e e n i n g was n e c e s s a r y because t h e s u b j e c t sample s i z e and f a c t o r a n a l y t i c method demanded t h a t some l i m i t be p l a c e d on t h e number o f i t e m s . (3) Speech c o n t e n t . Twe l ve s c a l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d t o a s s e s s r e a c t i o n s t o t h i n g s t h e t a r g e t s s a i d and how w e l l t h e y e x p r e s s e d t h e m s e l v e s (numbers 20 t o 31 ) . T h e r e were s i x s c a l e s based on each o f t h e two t o p i c s , p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n s and p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s . The s c a l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d a f t e r a l l t h e t a p e s were c o m p l e t e so t h a t c o n t e n t v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d wou ld be a p p l i c a b l e t o e v e r y t a r g e t ' s t a l k on t h e t o p i c in q u e s t i o n . The two s e t s o f s i x i tems were a lway s i n a f i x e d o r d e r , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t he o r d e r used in t a r g e t s ' t a l k s . Tha t i s , i tems p e r t a i n i n g t o p o l i t i c a l v i ews a l w a y s p r e c e e d e d i m m e d i a t e l y t h e i tems p e r t a i n i n g t o i n t e r e s t s . The o r d e r o f t h e i tems w i t h i n each s e t o f s i x was v a r i e d randomly i n t he t h r e e o r d e r f o rms . (4) L i k i n g and S i m i l a r i t y . T h i s s e t o f s c a l e s c o n s i s t e d o f o n l y two i tems (numbers 32 and 33) one r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s u b j e c t s l i k i n g f o r t h e t a r g e t , t h e o t h e r t o t h e p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e t a r g e t t o t h e s u b j e c t . One t h i n g t h e s e two s c a l e s have i n common i s t h e i r g e n e r a l n a t u r e ; t hey r e f e r t o t h e s u b j e c t s s i m i l a r i t y t o and l i k i n g o f t h e o t h e r as a w h o l e . (5) P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The re were twen ty s c a l e s used t o o b t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s . These s c a l e s have been used i n o t h e r p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n s t u d i e s ( e . g . Norman, 1963; P a s s i n i and Norman, 1966 ) , and were t h e r e s u l t o f an o r d e r l y r e d u c t i o n o f a l l t r a i t names in t he E n g l i s h language ( see Norman, 1963, f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e ) . The p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s were d e s c r i b e d a t each extreme by both a d j e c t i v e t r a i t names and d e s c r i p t i v e s e n t e n c e s . The 20 items can be broken down i n t o f i v e groups c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the f a c t o r s t h a i ' r e c u r r e d i n t h e comparison s t u d i e s . The f i v e f a c t o r names and t h e items t h e y r e f e r t o a r e : E x t r o v e r s i o n (34 - 37) Ag r e e a b I e n e s s (38— 41 ) , C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s (42 - 4 5 ) , Emo t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y (45 -49) and C u I t u r e (50 - 5 3 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i k i n g and s i m i l a r i t y t o i m p r e s s i o n o f cues and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s was an i s s u e o f s e c o n d a r y importance i n t h e s t u d y . A l t h o u g h not r e l a t e d t o the main q u e s t i o n s o f t h e r e s e a r c h , t h e items were i n c l u d e d because of t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e l i k i n g and p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y have been assumed t o p l a y i n o u r p e r c e p t i o n s of o t h e r s . For example, H e i d e r (1958) makes much of the two c o n c e p t s , w h i l e Anderson ( e . g . , 1965) has used r a t i n g s o f l i k i n g a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y as a response i n s t u d y i n g i m p r e s s i o n f o r m a t i o n . Pes i gn. Each s u b j e c t was r e q u i r e d t o view and r a t e a l l n i n e t a r g e t s . In a d d i t i o n , one of t h e t a r g e t s was o b s e r v e d and r a t e d a second t i m e , t o p r o v i d e r e l i -a b i l i t y d a t a . The t o t a l t i m e demanded of e v e r y s u b j e c t was two t o t h r e e h o u r s . In o r d e r t o reduce f a t i g u e e f f e c t s , each s u b j e c t came f o r two s e s s i o n s , one t o one and a h a l f hours l o n g , one week a p a r t . The s h o r t e r s e s s i o n s a l s o made i t e a s i e r t o f i t t e s t i n g i n t o s u b j e c t s ' t i m e t a b l e s . The one week i n t e r v a l between s e s s i o n s was a s c h e d u l i n g c o n v e n i e n c e as w e l l . The a c t u a l t i m e i n t e r v a l o f one week between s e s s i o n s was not c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e , and 13 s u b j e c t s were r e s c h e d u l e d when th e y c o u l d not a t t e n d t h e second s e s s i o n w i t h members of t h e i r group. W h i l e an a t t e m p t was made t o run s u b j e c t s i n groups o f s i x , r i g o r o u s c o n t r o l o f group s i z e was i m p o s s i b l e , 33. s i n c e s u b j e c t s a r r i v i n g l a t e f o r a s e s s i o n c o u l d no t be a d m i t t e d , and were e i t h e r r e s c h e d u l e d o r d ropped f rom t h e e x p e r i m e n t . The t a r g e t t h a t s u b j e c t s were e ' p o s ed t o t w i c e ( Pe r s on A) was used both f o r p r a c t i c e and a s se s sment o f r a t i n g r e l i a b i l i t y . A l l s u b j e c t s o b s e r v e d t h i s t a p e a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e two s e s s i o n s . The r e m a i n i n g t a p e s were d i v i d e d i n t o two s e t s ( Pe r s on s B, C, D and E; P e r s on s F, G, H and I ) , and one s e t was shown a t each s e s s i o n . A p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f t he s u b j e c t s (38 o f 70) v i e w e d t h e f i r s t s e t o f t a r g e t s a t t h e i r i n i t i a l s e s s i o n , and t he second s e t i n t he l a s t s e s s i o n ; f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e s u b j e c t s t h i s o r d e r was r e v e r s e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e f o u r t a r g e t s i n each s e t was randomized f o r e v e r y v i e w i n g g r oup . The c o u n t e r b a l a n c i n g of s e t s and r a n d o m i z a t i o n w i t h i n s e t s was i n t e n d e d t o randomly d i s t r i b u t e t h e e f f e c t s of t a r g e t o r d e r on t h e r a t i n g s . The r e s t r i c t i o n on c o m p l e t e r a n d o m i z a t i o n ( i . e . , t h e use o f two f i x e d s o t s ) was m e r e l y t o f a c i l i t a t e t he r e s c h e d u l i n g o f s u b j e c t s who c o u l d no t a t t e n d t h e second s e s s i o n w i t h t h e i r g r oup . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n , s u b j e c t s were r ead t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i oris : T h i s i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e way p e o p l e p e r c e i v e and r e a c t t o o t h e r s . S t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t we b e g i n t o form i m p r e s -s i o n s o f o t h e r s as soon as we meet them. In t h i s s e s s i o n and t h e n e x t one you a t t e n d , you w i l l be shown v i d e o t a p e s o f male u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . You w i l l see each pe r s on on t h i s s c r e e n . He w i l l t a l k f o r s e v e r a l m i n u t e s , f i r s t about some p o l i t i c a l i d ea s o r b e l i e f s he ha s , t hen abou t one o r more o f t h e t h i n g s he does i n h i s s p a r e t i m e . P l e a s e l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y t o e v e r y t h i n g he s a y s ; you s h o u l d a l s o a t t e n d c l o s e l y t o d e t a i l s o f h i s a p p e a r a n c e , movements; v o i c e , and h i s manner of s p e a k i n g . Form an i m p r e s s i o n about t he k i n d o f p e r s o n he seems t o be and how much you t h i n k you wou ld l i k e h im . A f t e r he has f i n i s h e d s p e a k i n g , you w i l l f i l l o u t a q u e s t i o n n a i r e g i v i n g y o u r i m p r e s s i o n s o f h im . Then you w i l l 34. watch a n o t h e r p e r s o n , f i l l o u t a q u e s t i o n n a i r e about him, and so on - u n t i I you have seen t h e f i v e p e o p l e t o be shown t o you i n t h i s s e s s i on. You a r e not t o t a l k t o one a n o t h e r , e i t h e r w h i l e you a r e w a t c h i n g t h e tape o r whi le you make you r r a t i n g s . You a r e t o form y o u r own i m p r e s s i o n s about t h e f i v e p e o p l e you see. N o t i c e t h a t t h e r e a r e e i g h t p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s on each s c a l e . The two extremes a r e d e s c r i b e d v e r b a l l y ; i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t l e s s extreme i m p r e s s i o n s . You a r e t o c i r c l e t h e c h o i c e t h a t seems most a p p r o p r i a t e in each c a s e . Sometimes a p a r t i -c u l a r s c a l e may seem d i f f i c u l t t o f i l l o u t . In t h e s e c a s e s j u s t do t h e b e s t you can. Don't spend t o o long on any one s c a l e , but be s u r e you read t h e s c a l e d e s c r i p t i o n c a r e f u l l y . I ' l l g i v e you t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h e f i r s t p e r s o n , but don't b e g i n t o f i I I i t o u t u n t i l t h e p i c t u r e goes o f f , as you a r e t o c o n c e n t r a t e f u l l y on the f i l m You w i l l have t o remember what the person was l i k e so you can f i l l t h e s c a l e s o u t a f t e r -wards . Are t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s about the pr o c e d u r e ? D u r i n g t h e v i e w i n g of a tape the room was darkened. As soon as t h e tape was run the l i g h t s were t u r n e d on and s u b j e c t s began r a t i n g t h e t a r g e t they had j u s t seen. When a l l s u b j e c t s in a group had f i n i s h e d r a t i n g a t a r g e t t h e n e x t s t i m u l u s t a p e was shown. At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e second s e s s i o n , p a r t s o f t h e S e s s i o n I i n s t r u c t i o n s were r e p e a t e d . S u b j e c t s were a l s o warned t h a t t h e f i r s t t a p e shewn t o them would be one t h e y had seen i n t h e e a r l i e r s e s s i o n . They were asked t o r a t e t h i s p e r s o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s of him d u r i n g t h e second v i e w i n g , r e g a r d l e s s of how t h e y had r a t e d him b e f o r e . Data A n a l y s i s , S c a l e r a t i n g s were a n a l y z e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y f o r each of t h e t a r g e t s . In a l l t h e r e were t e n f a c t o r a n a l y s e s : one f o r each of t h e e i g h t t e s t 35. t a r g e t s and two f o r t h e p r a c t i c e - r e l i a b i l i t y t a r g e t . The r a t i n g s o f bo th male and f ema l e s u b j e c t s were p o o l e d and a n a l y z e d as one s amp le . 36. C h a p t e r I I! RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r main s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n c o n s i d e r s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s c a l e s . The means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r a l l s c a l e s were t a b u l a t e d and t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were compared a c r o s s t h e f i v e s c a l e c a t e g o r i e s . The second s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s e s . E i g h t f a c t o r a n a l y s e s were run on t h e d a t a , one f o r each t a r g e t . The e i g h t r e s u l t i n g f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s a r e compared w i t h an emphas i s on t he s i m i l a r i t i e s f r om one s t r u c t u r e t o a n o t h e r . The t h i r d s e c t i o n l ook s a t c l u s t e r s o f p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s wh i ch r e c u r r e d in t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s and compares t h e s e c l u s t e r s t o p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s o b t a i n e d in s t u d i e s t h a t used t h e same s e t o f s c a l e s . The f i n a l s e c t i o n examines and e v a l u a t e s b e t w e e n - t a r g e t d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e made o f t h e s e d i f f e r -ences and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u r r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e S c a l e s . The means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and r e l i a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s c a l e s were o f g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e many o f t he i tems had not been used i n any o t h e r s t u d i e s . In a d d i t i o n , i t was t h o u g h t t h a t i r r e g u l a r i t i e s in t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r s c a l e c o u l d be i n d i c a t i v e o f s p e c i a l p e c u l i -a r i t i e s i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n p r o c e s s f o r t h a t a t t r i b u t e . Means. The r a t i n g p o s i t i o n s on each e i g h t - p o i n t s c a l e were keyed so t h a t h i gh s c a l e v a l u e s were a s s i g n e d t o t he p o s i t i v e end o f t h o s e s c a l e s t h a t seemed t o be e v a l u a t i v e . S c a l e s wh ich i n t u i t i v e l y i n v o l v e d no v a l u e judgement were keyed a r b i t r a r i l y ( s ee Append i x A ) . T a b l e 1 shows t h e mean r a t i n g s TABLE I MEAN RATINGS OF THE EIGHT TARGETS ON THE 53 SCALES (N T a r g e t s V i s u a l 1 B c D p F G H 1 Sea l e numbers 1 5.3 4 .9 6.2 5.5 5.2 6 .3 5. 1 6 .0 2 3.1 2.6 3.3 4 . 8 2.4 3.6 2.5 3.5 3 4 . 3 5.3 3.7 4 .4 5.4 4 .6 5.0 4 . 0 4 5.3 4.8 6 .0 5.6 5.4 5.1 5.0 4 .5 5 2 .3 3.1 6 .0 3.6 6.0 3.0 3.2 4 .4 6 5.2 5.2 4.1 5.2 4 .8 2.9 3.9 6 .0 7 5.6 5.2 3.5 5.1 5.7 3.3 4 .8 3.4 8 4 .0 3.2 6.7 4 .5 5.2 3.4 4 .5 4.6 V o i c e S c a l e numbers B C D E F G H 1 9 4 .8 4 .7 5. 1 5.4 4.5 5.3 4 .6 5.1 10 4 .0 4 .5 4 .7 5.9 4.1 5.7 6.0 6.2 1 1 5.6 4 .7 4 .6 4.2 6 .3 4.6 5.0 4.1 12 6.6 6 .3 5.1 5.6 6 .3 4 .0 3.6 4 .5 13 6.2 5.7 3.7 4 .6 5.4 3.7 3.7 3.8 14 4.1 4 .4 4 .8 4 .6 4 .0 4 .9 5.0 4 .8 15 3.7 3.7 3.8 2.9 4 . 1 3.4 2 .9 4 . 0 16 4 .2 4.4 5.3 3.7 5.5 3.3 3.8 3.0 17 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.7 5.5 5.8 5.3 5.6 18 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.0 19 5.3 5.0 5.4 4 .8 6. 1 5.3 5.4 4 . 1 V e r b a l C o n t e n t B C D E F G H 1 S c a l e numbers 20 6. 4 6.0 4.6 5. 3 5. 9 4 . 2 4 . 9 4 .7 21 5. 1 4.7 5.2 3. 1 5. 0 4 . 7 4 . 9 5.1 22 4 . 9 4.6 5.7 5. 3 5. 2 6 . 3 4 . 4 6.6 23 5. 8 5.7 4 .9 5. 2 6. 0 3 . 9 5. 5 4 . 3 24 5. 0 5.1 3.6 6. 0 4 . 9 2 . 5 4 . 5 2.7 25 5. 5 6 . 1 5.8 5. 9 6 . 0 6 . 0 6. 1 6.5 26 4 . 3 6.2 4 .5 3. 7 3. 5 2 . 2 4 . 3 3.3 27 6 . 5 6.1 5.4 5. 5 6. 3 3. 6 4 . 5 4 .6 28 7. 0 6 .0 5.9 5. 3 6. 6 5. 5 5. 2 6 .3 29 6 . 2 7.0 4 .9 4 . 2 5. 3 4 . 0 5. 8 5.0 30 4 . 2 2 . 1 3.8 5. 4 6. 4 5. 1 4 . 0 6.0 31 5 . 5 3.3 4 .6 3. 2 5. 6 5. 4 2 . 9 3.9 37a . T a b l e I c o n t i n u e d T a r g e t s L i k i n g , S i m i l a r i t y B C D E F G H 1 S c a l e numbers 32 5.4 5.8 5.8 4 .6 6 .0 4 .6 5.3 4 .9 33 4 . 3 4 . 0 4.6 3.7 4.6 3.8 4 .0 4 . 3 P e r s o n a 1i t y B C D E F G H 1 S c a l e numbers 34 5.1 5.1 5.2 4 . 1 6.4 3.8 3.8 3.5 35 5.6 5.7 5. 1 4 .7 6.5 4 . 1 4 .2 4.1 36 5.7 6.6 4 . 1 4 .6 5.3 3.3 5.2 4 .2 37 4 . 8 4 .4 5.6 2.9 6.4 5.7 3.8 4.1 38 4 . 8 5.4 5.6 4 .5 6 .0 5.4 4 .8 5.1 39 5.6 5.6 5.1 4 .7 5.4 4 .9 5.0 5.0 40 4 .5 5.0 5.3 4 . 1 5.3 5.4 4 .8 5.7 41 5.5 5.4 5.8 4 .3 6 .0 5.7 4.6 ' 5.4 42 4 .9 4 .0 4.9 4 .6 3.9 4 .9 4.1 5.1 43 6.0 5.6 5.7 4 .6 5.6 5.8 5.0 6. 1 44 5.9 5.3 5.7 4 .5 5.6 6.0 4 .9 5.7 45 6.2 5.7 5.3 5.2 5.4 5.0 5.0 5.5 46 6.0 5.6 3.5 5. 1 5.4 3.3 4 .7 3.6 47 5.5 5.5 3.6 5.0 5.1 4 . 1 4 .9 4.1 48 5.9 5.7 3.9 5.6 5.0 4.6 5.2 4 .9 49 6.1 6.4 5.6 5.3 6 .0 5.4 5.8 5. 1 50 5.1 5.3 6 .0 5.6 6 .3 3.8 4 . 9 4 .7 51 7.2 6.2 5.5 6 .3 6.2 3.3 5.7 4 .9 52 5.9 5.4 5.5 5.1 5.8 4.9 4 .5 4 . 8 53 5.4 5.3 5.2 4 .8 6. 1 3.0 5.4 3.9 38. o f t h e e i g h t t a r g e t s on each o f t h e 53 s c a l e s (N=70). These a v e r a g e s range f rom 2.0 t o 7 . 2 . The summary t a b l e o f t h e means ( T a b l e 1A) shows how t h e a ve r a ge s were d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r t h e range o f t h e e i g h t - p o i n t s c a l e . S e p a r a t e summary d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e g i v e n f o r each o f t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f r a t i n g s c a l e s . The p r o p o r t i o n s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d s i m i l a r l y f o r a l l f i v e s c a l e c a t e g o r i e s w i t h t he b u l k o f t h e means f a l l i n g i n t h e two i n t e r v a l s 4.0 t o 4.9 and 5.0 t o 5.9. S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s . T a b l e 2 shows t he s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f s c a l e r a t i n g s on t h e 53 s c a l e s f o r t h e e i g h t t a r g e t s . The s m a l l e s t s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was 0 . 8 , t he l a r g e s t 2 . 5 . As w i t h t he means, t h e s e f i g u r e s were t a b u l a t e d and summar ized s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e f i v e s c a l e c a t e g o r i e s ( T a b l e 2 A ) . The d i f f e r -ences in t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s were no t g r e a t b u t do d e s e r v e comment. If i t i s assumed t h a t t he r e l a t i v e l y c o n c r e t e a t t r i b u t e s i n t h e V i s u a l and V o i c e c a t e g o r i e s were l e s s ambiguous and more o b j e c t i v e t han t he p e r s o n a -l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e r e s h o u l d be more i n t e r s u b j e c t agreement ( l o w e r v a r i a n c e ) f o r t h e s e c o n c r e t e r e f e r e n t s c a l e s . The summary t a b l e ( T a b l e 2A) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s t ended t o be t r u e . The modal c a t e g o r y f o r v i s u a l and v o i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s had a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1.2 - 1.3, w h i l e t h e modal c a t e g o r y f o r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s had a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1.4 t o 1.5. However, t h e r e were some v i s u a l and v o i c e s c a l e s f o r wh i ch t he v a r i a n c e s were c o n s i s t e n t l y l a r g e (numbers 3, 7, 8 and 14) and t h i s was no t the ca se f o r any o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s . The a t t r i b u t e s r e f e r r e d t o by t h e s e h i g h v a r i a n c e s c a l e s do i n f a c t d i f f e r f rom t h e o t h e r c o n c r e t e a t t r i b u t e s i n a way t h a t would be e x p e c t e d t o c o n t r i -bu te t o i n t e r s u b j e c t d i s a g r e e m e n t . A M f o u r s c a l e s l i s t e d r e f e r t o c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s t h a t v a r i e d o v e r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e t a p e ( d i r e c t n e s s o f g a z e , t e n s e n e s s 39. TABLE I A PROPORTION OF THE EIGHT TARGET MEANS FALLING IN EACH UNIT INTERVAL OF THE SCALE FOR THE FIVE SCALE CATEGORIES Type o f Sea 16 Sea Ie I n t e r v 3 I s 1 .0-1.9 2 . 0 - 2 . 9 3 . 0 - 3 . 9 4 . 0 - 4 . 9 5 . 0 - 5 . 9 6 . 0 - 6 . 9 7 . 0 - 8 . 0 V i s u a l (N^=64) .00 .08 .23 .29 .31 .13 .00 V o i c e (N=88) .00 .02 .15 .33 .41 .09 .00 V e r b a l C o n t e n t (N=96) .00 .05 .11 .26 .33 .22 .02 L i k i n g , S imi I a r i t y (N=16) .00 .00 .13 .56 .25 .02 .00 P e r s o n a l i t y (N=160) .00 .01 .09 .27 .50 .13 .01 ^ N f o r each s c a l e i n d i c a t e s t h e number o f means on wh i ch p r o p o r t i o n i s based (number o f i tems X number o f t a r g e t s . TABLE I I STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF RATINGS OF THE EIGHT TARGETS ON THE 53 SCALES (N=70) V i s u a l S c a l e numbers B C 1 1.5 1.4 2 1.5 1.3 3 1.9 1.8 4 1.2 1.3 5 1.3 1.6 6 1.3 1 .2 7 1.9 1.9 8 2.0 1.6 T a r g e t s D E F 1 . 1 1.3 1 .6 1 .5 1.6 1 .2 1 .6 1 .9 1.7 1 . 1 1.2 1 .2 1.4 1 .7 1 .2 1 .2 1.3 1.3 1 .8 1.8 1.5 1 .3 1.8 1.6 G H 1 .3 1.7 1.2 .5 1 .2 1.5 .8 1 .8 1.7 .4 1.3 1.3 .3 1 .6 1 .5 . I 1.3 1.0 .5 1 .7 1.7 .8 1 .8 1.9 Voi c e S c a l e numbers B C 9 1 .3 1.4 10 1.4 1 .5 1 1 1.5 1.8 12 1 .2 1.0 13 1.4 1 .4 14 2.0 1 .9 15 1.0 1.3 16 1.7 1.5 17 I.I 1 .2 18 I.I 1.0 19 1.2 1.4 D E F 1 .2 1.4 1.3 1 .4 1 .2 1 .2 1 .4 1 .8 1 .2 L 5 1 .3 1 .2 1 .4 1.8 1.5 1 .7 1.6 1 .9 1 .0 1 1.2 1 .4 1.6 1.2 1 . 1 1.2 1 . 1 1 .0 1 .2 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 .7 1.3 G H 1 .2 1 .4 1.5 .0 1 . 1 1.1 .6 1 .6 1.3 .7 1 .8 1 .7 .6 1 .8 1 .6 .8 1 .8 1.7 .2 .9 1 .6 .2 1 .4 1.3 .9 1 .0 1 . 1 .8 1 .0 1.2 .2 1 .2 1 .4 V e r b a l C o n t e n t B C D E F G H 1 20 1 .6 1.4 1 .6 1 .9 I . 5 - 1.7 1.9 1 .7 21 1.5 1.8 1 .3 1 .6 1.9 1.5 1 .5 1 .8 22 1.8 1.9 1 .4 1.8 2.2 1.2 2.0 I.I 23 1.7 1.7 1.5 1 .9 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.7 24 1.4 1.6 1.2 1 .8 1.6 I.I 1 .6 1 .2 25 2 .0 1.7 1 Q 1 .8 1.9 1.7 1 .7 1 .5 26 1 .8 1.4 1 .6 1 .7 1 .6 1 . 1 1 .7 1 .7 27 1.5 1.5 1.5 1 .7 1.5 1.8 2.0 1.6 28 1.3 2.5 1 .8 1 .8 1.3 2 .0 2.4 1 .4 29 1.7 1.2 1.6 1 .8 1 .4 1.7 1.6 1.5 30 2.0 2.2 2 .3 1.8 1.3 1.9 2.4 1 .6 31 2. 1 1.5 1 .9 1 .6 1.8 1 .4 1.5 1 .2 40a. T a b l e I I c o n t i nued L i k i ng , S i m i I a r I t y S c a l e numbers P e r s o n a I i t y S c a l e numbers B C 32 1.5 1 .2 33 1.8 1.6 B C 34 1.8 1.3 35 1.6 1.2 36 1.3 I.I 37 1 .7 1 .4 38 1.2 1 .2 39 1.6 1 .3 40 1.4 i .3 41 1.5 1 .2 42 1.3 1. 1 43 1.4 1.2 44 1.4 1.2 45 1.2 1.1 46 1 .2 1 .6 47 1.6 1.3 48 1.3 1.3 49 1 .5 1.2 50 1.5 1.5 51 1 .0 1.1 52 1.0 1. 1 53 1.8 1.7 T a r g e t s D E F 1.3 1.8 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.6 D E F 1 .4 1.6 1 . 1 1.5 2.0 1.2 1.4 1 .7 1.5 1 .5 1 .6 1.4 1.4 1.6 1.3 1.6 1 .6 1.7 1 .6 1.6 1.3 1 .4 1 .4 1 .2 1 .6 1.5 1.3 1 .7 1.4 1 .2 1 .6 1.2 1 .3 1.4 1.4 1 .8 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.5 1 .6 1,3 1.5 1.5 1 .8 1.5 1.0 1 .5 1.3 1 .3 1 .6 1 .4 I.I 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.9 1 .4 G H 1 1.5 1 .3 1.4 1.8 1.6 1.6 G H 1 1 .1 1 .4 1.3 i .4 1.6 1.5 1 .6 1.5 1.8 1 .4 1.4 1.5 1 . 1 1.4 1 .2 1 .6 1 .5 1.7 1.3 1.4 1 . 1 1 . 1 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.3 1 . 1 1.3 1 .5 I.I 1 .2 1.3 1 .2 1.4 1 .3 1.3 1.3 1 .5 1 .5 1 .6 1 .5 1 .5 1 .5 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.6 1 .7 1 .4 1.5 1 .7 1 .5 1 .4 1 .5 | ,4 1.3 1.3 1 .2 1 .6 1 .7 41 TABLE I I A PROPORTION OF STANDARD DEVIATIONS FALLING IN NINE INTERVALS FOR THE FIVE SCALE CATEGORIES Sea Ie I n t e r v a I s 0.8 - 1.0 - 1.2 - 1.4 - 1.6 - 1.8 - 2.0 - 2.2 - 2.4 -0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 Type o f Sea Ie V i s u a l ( f/=64) .00 .06 .34 .17 .20 .20 .02 .00 .00 V o i c e (N=88) .03 .19 .30 .22 .15 .10 .01 .00 .00 V e r b a l C o n t e n t (N=96) .00 .03 .09 .20 .29 .25 .07 .03 .03 Li k i n g , S imi l a r i t y (N=16) .00 .00 .19 .25 .31 .25 .00 .00 .00 P e r s o n a l i t y (N-160) .00 .11 .28 .36 .21 .04 .01 .00 .00 i N f o r each s c a l e i n d i c a t e s number o f s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s cn wh i ch p r o p o r t i o n i s based (number o f i tems X number o f t a r g e t s ) . 42. o f movements, amount o f movement, r e g u l a r i t y o f pauses i n s p e e c h ) . V i s u a l and V o i c e s c a l e s w i t h c o n s i s t e n t l y low v a r i a n c e s by c o n t r a s t , r e f e r r e d t o a t t r i b u t e s t h a t would tend t o remain c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t a t a p e ( e . g . , a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f f a c e , body b u i l d , resonance of v o i c e ) . Perhaps f o r any g i v e n moment of the t a p e t h e r e would be no d i f f e r e n c e s i n judgement v a r i a -b i l i t y f o r t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s , but when one judgement must be g i v e n f o r f o u r m inutes of o b s e r v a t i o n , s u b j e c t s d i f f e r i n the p o r t i o n s of t a p e t h a t they r e c a I I and j u d g e . The s c a l e s i n the two c a t e g o r i e s V e r b a l C o n t e n t and L i k i n g - S i m i l a r i t y were e x p e c t e d t o have s l i g h t l y h i g h e r s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s t h a n t h e s c a l e s in t h e o t h e r t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s because most of the former r e q u i r e d t h a t the s u b j e c t compare t h e t a r g e t t o h i m s e l f . R a t i n g s would t h u s be e x p e c t e d t o r e f l e c t i n t e r s u b j e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s and p e r s o n a l i t y . I t can be seen from T a b l e 2A t h a t the modal c a t e g o r y f o r both V e r b a l C o n t e n t s c a l e s and L i k i n g - S i m i l a r i t y s c a l e s had a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 1.6 t o 1.7, h i g h e r t h a n the modal c a t e g o r y f o r t h e o t h e r t h r e e s c a l e g r o u p i n g s . R e i i a b i I i t i e s . S c a l e r e l i a b i l i t y was a s s e s s e d by t h e t e s t - r e t e s t method. A l l s u b j e c t s r a t e d T a r g e t A a t the b e g i n n i n g o f both s e s s i o n s and a c o r r e -l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was o b t a i n e d f o r e v e r y s c a l e by p a i r i n g each s u b j e c t ' s f i r s t and second T a r g e t A s c o r e . T h i s way o f a s s e s s i n g r e l i a b i l i t y was s h o r t of i d e a l ; i t was assumed t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d would u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e s c a l e r e l i a b i l i t i e s because of t h e randomized i n t e r v e n i n g t a r g e t s . A l l s u b j e c t s viewed and r a t e d T a r g e t A a t t h e same two o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s in t h e s e t c f 10 f i l m s , p o s i t i o n s one and s i x . The f o u r i n t e r v e n i n g t a r g e t s would be e x p e c t e d t o i n t r o d u c e c o m p arison e f f e c t s t h a t would change t h e s u b j e c t s ' 43. p e r c e p t i o n s i n t h e second r a t i n g o f T a r g e t A. Because t h e i n t e r v e n i n g t a r g e t s were d i f f e r e n t f o r s u b j e c t s i n d i f f e r e n t v i e w i n g groups ( see p.33). t h e s e comparison e f f e c t s would be e x p e c t e d t o d i f f e r s y s t e m a t i c a l l y among s u b j e c t s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e e s t i m a t e s were u s e f u l i n d i c e s o f minimum r e l i a -b i l i t y , and a l s o p e r m i t t e d c o m p a r i s o n s among t h e v a r i o u s s c a l e s . T a b l e 3 shows t h e means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e two T a r g e t A r a t i n g s , as w e l l as t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s between the two s e t s o f s c o r e s . The o b t a i n e d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from +.09 t o + .66 w i t h a median of +.45, low by c o n v e n t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s . However, a l l but seven of t h e s e r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e ( i . e . , r - . 2 5 , N=70). The e i g h t items f o r which r e l i a b i l i t y was n o n s i g n i f i c a n t d i d not appear t o be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r i n t h e i r s c a l e c o n t e n t , means o r s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s . However, most of t h e V e r b a l C o n t e n t items ( 2 0 , 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 29, 30) and t h e two L i k i n g - S i m i l a r i t y items had r e l i a b i l -i t i e s above t h e median of 0.45. I t may be t h a t i m p r e s s i o n s of t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s o r any which t h e s u b j e c t j u d g e s i n r e f e r e n c e t o h i m s e l f , a r e more s t a b l e because the s u b j e c t i s a c o n s t a n t s t a n d a r d f o r comparison which o f f s e t s t h e v a r i a b l e comparison e f f e c t s o f o t h e r t a r g e t s . F a c t o r A n a l y s e s : Comparisons between t h e E i g h t T a r g e t s . S c a l e r a t i n g s f o r t h e e i g h t t e s t - t a r g e t s were i n d e p e n d e n t l y f a c t o r a n a l y z e d on t h e computer. In each a n a l y s i s t h e p r o c e d u r e was as f o l l o w s . R a t i n g - s c a l e s c o r e s were i n t e r c o r r e I a t e d and s q u a r e d , and m u l t i p l e - c o r r e l a t i o n e s t i m a t e s of communaI i t i e s were o b t a i n e d . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was th e n c a r r i e d o u t a n a l y t i c a l l y u s i n g a p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s and a v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e . The computer programme was s e t t o e x t r a c t 100$ of the common f a c t o r v a r i a n c e , but no s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e number of f a c t o r s t o be e x t r a c t e d TABLE I I I MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND TEST-RETEST REL IAB IL ITY ' OF TARGET A RATINGS ( r < „ 2 4 no t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e , N=70) S e s s i o n I S e s s i o n 2 V i s u a 1 X S.D. X S.D. r S c a l e number 1 3.6 1 .8 3.5 1.4 .61 2 1.9 1.3 2.4 .9 .48 3 4 .4 2.1 4 . 3 1 o .25 4 5.3 1 .3 5.4 1 .0 .36 5 4.1 1.8 4.1 1.6 .35 6 4 .9 i .4 4 .8 1.2 .56 7 5.3 1.9 5.0 1 .8 .39 8 5.3 1.6 5.0 1 .4 .20 V o i c e x S c a l e number 9 3.2 10 4 .2 I I 5.7 12 3.5 13 2.5 14 5.1 15 3.7 16 4 .6 17 3.7 18 4.4 19 4 .7 S.D. x 1.4 3.3 1.5 4.2 1.6 5.4 1.8 3.5 1.3 3.2 2.2 5.2 1.3 3.9 1.7 4 .9 1.3 3.8 1.7 4 .0 1.6 4.5 D. r 2 .35 4 .46 4 .24 7 .18 3 .30 8 .42 .50 .25 2 .37 A .24 5 .47 V e r b a l C o n t e n t X S.D. X S.D. r S c a l e number 20 2.9 1.7 3.3 1.7 .60 21 2.7 1.4 2.6 I .3 .60 22 5.2 2.2 5.1 1 .9 .61 23 3.0 1.8 3.2 1 .7 .53 24 4 .9 2.0 4 . 8 1.9 .59 25 6.3 1 .8 6.0 1.8 .46 26 5.7 1.8 6. 1 1.3 .46 27 3.8 1.9 4 .5 1.6 .33 28 5.5 1.8 5.6 1.9 .49 29 4 .0 1 .7 4 .6 1.6 .47 30 2.8 2.2 2 .3 1.7 .55 31 3.2 1.8 3.1 1 .4 .15 Table I | | c o n t ! n u e d Soss on 1 Session 2 Li ki ng, S i m ! l a r l t y X S.D. X S.D. r Scale number 32 4.2 1.7 3.9 1 .6 .66 33 3.2 1.8 3.1 1.3 .62 Persona 1ity X S.D. X S.D. r Scale number 34 5.2 1.6 5.4 1.3 .32 35 5.7 1.5 5.5 1.4 .09 36 4.5 1.6 4.9 1.4 .23 37 4.0 1.8 3.8 1.5 .5! 38 4.4 1 .7 4.6 1.5 .66 39 4.5 1.6 4.6 1.6 .37 40 3.7 1.5 3.5 1.3 .51 41 4.0 1.8 3.8 1.6 .51 42 2.7 1 .2 3.0 I.I .61 43 3.4 1.6 3.6 1.3 .45 44 4.1 1.3 4. 1 i.3 .44 45 4.0 i.6 4.0 1.3 .44 46 4.8 1.7 4.8 1 .6 .51 47 5.7 1 .6 5.3 1.5 .45 48 4.6 1.4 4.5 1.3 .43 49 5.6 2.1 5.5 1.7 .36 50 4.1 1.9 3.8 1.4 .53 51 2.8 1.4 3.0 1.4 .54 52 3.5 1.2 3.5 I.I .27 53 4.0 1 .7 3.7 1.5 .48 45. was g i v e n . A l l o f t h e f a c t o r s w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s g r e a t e r t h a n one were e x t r a c t e d . Number o f F a c t o r s . F i v e o f t h e e i g h t a n a l y s e s y i e l d e d 11 f a c t o r s (B, E, F, G, I ) , one r e s u l t e d i n 12 (H) and t he r e m a i n i n g two had 13 f a c t o r s . The d i s c r e p a n c i e s in t h e number o f f a c t o r s f r om t a r g e t t o t a r g e t were deemed t o o m i n o r t o i n v e s t i g a t e f u r t h e r . S i ze o f F a c t o r s . The e i g e n v a l u e f o r a f a c t o r can be used as an i ndex o f t h a t f a c t o r ' s s i z e . F a c t o r s i z e t h u s measured was assumed t o r e f l e c t t h e d i m e n s i o n ' s impo r t ance i n t h e s u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n . T a b l e 4 p r e s e n t s t h e e i g e n v a l u e o f e v e r y f a c t o r e x t r a c t e d in t h e e i g h t ana - l y se s . These r e s u l t s a r e u n l i k e t h o s e o f t h e c ompa r i s on s t u d i e s i n wh i ch t h e f i v e p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s o b t a i n e d were a p p r o x i m a t e l y equa l i n s i z e . Fo r a l l t a r g e t s t h e f i r s t f a c t o r i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r t h a n t h e r e s t , w i t h e i g e n v a l u e s r a n g i n g f rom 6.9 t o 11.0. E i g e n v a l u e s f o r t h e second f a c t o r r a n g e , o v e r t a r g e t s , f rom 3.2 t o 4 . 7 . The d e c r e a s e in s i z e o f a d j a c e n t f a c t o r s i s f a i r l y g r a d u a l f r om t h e second f a c t o r o n . W h i l e t he number o f f a c t o r s o b t a i n e d in t he a n a l y s e s s u g g e s t s t h a i " t he i m p r e s s i o n s fo rmed o f each t a r g e t were f a i r l y c o m p l e x , i t does n o t seem t h a t s u b j e c t s formed a rounded p i c t u r e b a l a n c i n g many e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n s . I n s t e a d , i t would appea r t h a t t h e p e r c e p t i o n s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s i n g l e dominant i m p r e s s i o n a g a i n s t a backg round o f m i n o r one s . Fo r a few t a r g e t s , e . g . , D and G, t h e d a t a s u g g e s t two dominant i m p r e s s i o n s r a t h e r t h a n o n e , s i n c e t h e second f a c t o r i s a p p r e c i a b l y l a r g e r t h a n t he t h i r d . C o n t e n t o f F a c t o r s . F a c t o r l o a d i n g s were c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t i f t h e y exceeded - 0.29 and t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e r e a d i n g and c o m p a r i s o n of t a b l e s , l o a d i n g s below t h i s c u t o f f p o i n t a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d . The d e c i s i o n t o assume s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r l o a d i n g s a t and beyond t h i s magn i tude was based on an 46. TABLE IV NUMBER OF FACTORS FOR EACH ARGET AND EIGENVALUES FOR EACH FACTOR F a c t o r Number T a r g e t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 B 9.5 3.6 2.9 2.6 2.4 1 .9 1 .7 1 .4 1 .2 1 . 1 I.I -C 7.2 3.5 2 .4 2 .3 2.1 2 . 1 1 .9 1 .5 1 .4 1 .4 1.2 I.I 1 .0 D 6.9 4.2 3.0 2.7 2.5 2.2 1 .9 1 .7 1 .6 1.3 1 .2 I.I 1 .0 E 9.9 3.9 3.6 2 .8 2.3 2.0 1 .7 1.5 1 .3 1 .2 1 .0 -F 1 1.0 3.2 2 .4 2 .2 2.0 1 .8 1.7 1 .6 1.4 1. 1 1.0 -G 7.3 4 .7 3.0 2 .4 2.2 1 .9 1 .8 1 .5 1 .5 1 .4 I.I -H 8.5 4 .3 3.2 3 .0 2.5 2 .0 1 .5 1 .3 1.3 1.2 1.0 1.0 -1 7.7 4 . 1 3.5 3.1 2.6 1 .9 1 .9 1 .4 1 .2 1 .2 I.I — 47. TABLE V FACTOR STRUCTURE FOR TARGET B V i sua I A b b r e v i a t e d Scale S c a l e number D e s c r i p t i o n I 2 1 G r o o m i n g : d i s h e v e l l e d / n e a t 2 D r e s s : c a sua1/ fo rma 1 3 Gaze : i n d i r e c t / d i r e c t 4 F a c e : 34 u n a t t r a c t i v e / a t t r a c t i ve 5 Smi1 i ng : s e1dom/ f r equen t 6 Body bu i I d : h e a v y / 1 i g h t 7 Movements: t e n s e / r e 1 axed 8 Movements: few/many V o i c e 9 Speech : l o u d / s o f t 10 S p e e c h : -31 F a s t / s l o w 1 1 Speech : 50 s i u r r e d / d i s t i n c t 12 P a u s e s : 31 l o n g / s h o r t 13 P a u s e s : f r e q u e n t / s e l d o m 14 P a u s e s : - 33 r e g u 1 a r / i r r e g u 1 a r 15 Voi c e : 1ow/h i gh-p i t c h e d 16 V o i c e : 45 monotone/exp r e s s i ve 17 Voi c e : b o i s t e r o u s / g e n t l e 18 V o i c e : b 1 a r i n g / r e s o n a n t 19 Vo i c e : 49 unp1ea s an t /p1ea s an t F a c t o r Number 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II h 2 53 35 39 30 30 41 - 5 3 53 - 3 3 -42 53 68 34 63 - 49 - 59 69 36 - 5 0 -32 61 61 49 -65 60 33 - 5 0 62 - 49 67 - 4 3 - 44 55 -67 52 20 57 40 49 68 -52 43 65 -56 45 - 47 60 4 7 a . T a b l e V c o n t i n u e d Verba I c o n t e n t A b b r e v i a t e d c , M , „ _ F a c t o r Number S c a l e S c a l e 2 number D e s c r i p t i o n I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II h " i 8 l i f i ^ e s ^ W p o o r l y / w e l l 75 66 21 I d i s a g r e e d / a g r e e d 56 47 22 Nove l t o m m e / f a m i l i a r 31 57 44 23 DuI I / i n t e r e s t i n g 62 60 24 C o n s e r v a t i v e / r a d i c a l 61 48 25 I d i d n ' t / d i d u n d e r - 72 60 s t a n d them I n t e r e s t s 26 Common/unusual 41 -32 54 27 E x p r e s s e d p o o r l y / w e l l 54 - 3 3 49 28 T h i n g s I w o u l d n ' t / 46 -57 61 wou ld want t o do 29 D u l l / e x c i t i n g - 80 83 30 T h i n g s I n e v e r / o f t e n do -44 46 31 N o n s o c i a I / s o c i a I - 64 47 L i k i ng , S imi l a r i t y 32 I d i s l i k e d him/I I i k e d h im 33 D i s s i m i l a r t o me/ s i m i I a r 44 31 33 - 48 74 - 35 63 P e r s o n a I i t y 34 S i l e n t / t a l k a t i v e 65 53 35 S e c r e t i v e / f r a n k , open 6! 59 36 C a u t i o u s / a d v e n t u r o u s - 40 33 37 R e c l u s i v e / s o c i a b l e -71 65 38 I r r i t a b I e/goodna tu red -44 46 -32 68 39 J e a l o u s / n o t j e a l o u s -35 32 -35 31 66 40 H e a d s t r o n g / m i l d , - 50 49 61 g e n t l e 41 N e g a t i v i s t i c / c o o p e r a t i v e -77 75 42 C a r e l e s s / f u s s y , t i d y 34 42 41 43 Undependab le/dependab le 50 -54 53 44 U n s c r u p u l o u s / s c r u p u l o u s 61 -30 55 45 Q u i t t i n g , f i c k l e / 41 - 39 30 -49 68 p e r s e v e r i ng 46 Ne r vou s , t e n s e / p o i s e d -48 41 55 47 A n x i o u s / c a l m 35 - 5 0 58 48 E x c i t a b l e / c o m p o s e d 33 -66 71 T a b l e V c o n t i n u e d 47b. P e r s o n a l i t y c o n t i n u e d A b b r e v i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e number D e s c r i p t i o n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 II h 2 F a c t o r Number 49 H y p o c h o n d r i a c a l / 33 -41 51 no t h ypoch . 50 A r t i s t i c a l l y i n s e n s i t i v e / 3 3 61 I s e n s i t i v e 51 U n r e f I e c t i v e , na r r ow/ 54 36 f i n te I I i g en t 52 C r u d e , b o o r i s h / 47 -32 I p o I i s h e d , r e f i ned 53 S i m p l e , d i r e c t / 30 ; imag i n a t i ve No te Dec ima l p o i n t s o m i t t e d f o r f a c t o r l o a d i n g s and c o m m u n aI i t i e s . A l l v a l u e s rounded t o two s i g n i f i c a n t d i g i t s . L o a d i n g s < 0.30 o m i t t e d . 48. FABLE VI FACTOR STRUCTURE FOR TARGET C V i sua I A b b r e v i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e F a c t o r Number number D e s c r i p t i o n I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 h 2 1 G rooming : -35 - 3 3 56 d i s h e v e l l e d / n e a t 2 D r e s s : 36 38 c a s u a I / f o r m a I 3 G a z e : 51 56 i nd i reef/6i r e c t 4 F a c e : 32 -30 37 53 u n a t t r a c t i ve/ a t t r a c t i ve 5 S m i l i n g : - 45 26 s e I d o m / f r e q u e n t 6 Body b u i I d : -61 41 h e a v y / I i g h t 7 Movements: 74 60 t e n s e / r e I axed 8 Movements: - 32 60 49 few/many V o i c e Abbrev i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e _ number D e s c r i p t i o n I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 h 9 Speech : 57 - 3 3 62 I o u d / s o f t 10 Speech : 47 36 -35 66 f a s t / s I o w I I S peech : 63 65 s I u r r e d / d i s t i n e t 12 P a u s e s : - 36 40 - 32 57 l o n g / s h o r t 13. P a u s e s : 36 34 53 f r e q u e n t / s e I d o m 14 Pau se s : 43 35 r e g u I a r / i r r e g u I a r 15 V o i c e : -30 19 l ow/h i gh - p i t c h e d 16 V o i c e : ' 49 53 monotone/exp re s s i ve 17 V o i c e : 68 55 boi s t e r o u s / g e n t I e 18 V o i c e : ~ 65 43 71 b I a r i n g / r e s o n a n t 19 V o i c e : 45 37 40 71 u n p I e a s a n t / p I e a s a n t 48a . Tab I e V I c o n t i nued V e r b a l C o n t e n t P o I i t i c aI V i ews A b b r e v i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e number D e s c r i p t i o n 1 2 3 4 20 E x p r e s s e d 75 poo r 1y/we11 21 1 d i s a g r e e d / 32 70 ag reed 22 Nove l tomme/ fam i 1 i a r 23 Du11/i n t e r e s t i ng 63 24 C o n s e r v a t i v o / - 38 rad i ca1 25 1 d i d n ' t / d i d 61 u n d e r s t a n d them I n t e r e s t s 26 Common/unusual 27 E x p r e s s e d p o o r l y / 55 we I I 28 T h i n g s I w o u l d n ' t / wou ld want t o do 29 DuI I /exc i t i ng 30 T h i n g s I n e v e r / o f t e n do 31 N o n s o c i a I / s o c i a I L i k i n g , S imi l a r i t y 32 I d i s l i k e d h im/ 55 39 I i ked h im 3 3 D i s s i m i l a r t o 61 me/s imi l a r 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 h 2 61 67 - 80 71 51 37 50 59 49 37 - 33 61 - 50 45 -34 -45 65 -45 41 69 59 36 31 80 49 Pe r s ona I i t y 34 S i l e n t / t a l k a t i v e 35 S e c r e t i v e / f r a n k , open 36 C a u t i o u s / a d v e n t u r o u s 37 R e c l u s i v e / s o c i a b l e 38 I r r i t a b l e / 41 g o o d n a t u r e d 43 -31 61 •35 59 76 30 49 50 51 74 40 T a b l e VI c o n t i n u e d 48o. Pe r s ona I i t y A b b r e v i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e o number D e s c r i p t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 13 h 2 39 J e a l o u s / 31 -47 39 58 no t j e a l o u s 40 H e a d s t r o n g / 64 54 mi 1 d , g e n t l e 41 N e g a t i v i s t i c / 48 54 c o o p e r a t i ve 42 C a r e l e s s / -66 54 f u s s y , t i d y 43 Undependab1e/ 33 30 30 34 38 66 dependab 1 e 44 U n s c r u p u l o u s / 49 47 s c r upu1ou s 45 Q u i t t i n g , f i c k l e / 44 - 37 30 58 p e r s e v e r i n g 46 N e r v o u s , t e n s e / 72 66 po i sed 47 A n x i o u s / c a l m 58 52 48 E x c i t a b l e / 41 -39 42 63 composed 49 H y p o c h o n d r i a c a l / 64 66 no t h ypoch . 50 A r t i s t i c a l l y 54 31 54 i n sens i t i v e/ sens i t i ve 51 U n r e f 1 e c t i v e , 45 55 n a r r o w / i n t e l 1 i g e n t 52 C r u d e , b o o r i s h / 36 30 - 60 75 po1 i s h , r e f i ned 53 S i m p l e , d i r e c t / 37 -35 50 imag i n a t i ve Note Dec ima l p o i n t s o m i t t e d f o r f a c t o r l o a d i n g s and c o m m u n a 1 i t i e s . A l 1 v a l u e s rounded t o two s i g n i f i c a n t d i g i t s . L oad i ng s < 0 . 3 0 o m i t t e d . TABLE V I 1 FACTOR STRUCTURE FOR TARGET D Vi sua I A b b r e v i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e number D e s c r i p t i o n I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 F a c t o r Number 1 G rooming : -60 d i sheveI I ed/neat 2 D r e s s : - 54 c a s u a I / f o r m a I 3 Gaze : i nd i reef/6i r e c t 4 F a c e : -71 u n a t t r a c t i v e / a t t r a c t ! v e 5 S m i l i n g : 34 61 s e I d o m / f r e q u e n t 6 Body bui Id : 39 h e a v y / I i g h t 7 Movements: - 39 t e n s e / r e I axed 8 Movements: 58 few/many Vo i ce 9 Speech : 50 46 I o u d / s o f t 10 Speech ': 64 f a s t / s I o w I I S peech : -47 s I u r r e d / d i s t i n e t 12 P a u s e s : 61 I o ng/ sho r t 13 P a u s e s : -52 56 f r e g u e n t / seIdom 14 P a u s e s : -32 reg u I a r/ i r r e g u I a r 15 V o i c e : 67 Iow/h i g h -p i t c h e d 16 V o i c e : -40 55 monotone/ e x p r e s s i ve 17 V o i c e : 57 -38 bo i s t e r o u s / gen t le Tab Ie VII c o n t i nued 49a . Voi c e Sea I e number Abb rev i a t e d Sea I e D e s c r i p t i o n 18 19 Vo i c e : b I a r i ng/ r e s o n a n t Voi c e : u n p I e a s a n t / p I e a s a n t F a c t o r Number 5 6 7 8 9 -40 39 36 -41 12 13 h 61 49 V e r b a l C o n t e n t P o I i t i caI V i ews 20 E x p r e s s e d poor Iy/weI I 21 I d i s a g r e e d / ag reed 22 Nove I t c : me/ fami I i a r 23 D u l l / i n t e r e s t i ng 24 C o n s e r v a t i v e / rad i caI 25 I d i d n ' t / d i d u n d e r s t a n d them I n t e r e s t s 26 Common/unusual 27 E x p r e s s e d poor Iy/weI I 28 T h i n g s I w o u l d n ' t / would want t o do 29 DuI I/exc i t i ng 30 T h i n g s I n e v e r / o f t e n do 31 N o n s o c i a l / soc i a I •33 46 46 - 59 -44 43 -47 50 74 37 72 37 33-42 75 66 32 52 85 66 39 33 60 42 70 68 68 55 42 78 58 81 L i k i ng , S imi I a r i t y 32 I d i s l i k ed h im/ 51 -30 31 68 I I i ked him 33 D i s s i m i I a r t o 59 55 me/s imi I a r T a b l e V|| c o n t i nued 49b. P e r s o n a I i t y A b b r e v i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e number D e s c r i p t i o n 34 S i l e n t / t a 1 k a t i ve 35 S e c r e t i v e/ f r a n k , open 36 C a u t i o u s / a d v e n t u r o u s 37 Rec1 us i ve/ s o c i ab1e 38 1 r r i t a b 1e/ g oodna tu r ed 39 J ea1ous/ not j e a l o u s 40 H e a d s t r o n g / m i l d , g en t 1e 41 Negat i v i s t i c / c o o p e r a t i v e 42 Ca re 1 e s s / f u s s y , t i d y 43 Undependab1e/ dependab1e 44 Un sc rupu1ou s/ s c rupu1ou s 45 Qui f t i ng, f i c k l e / p e r s e v e r i ng 46 Ne r vou s , t e n s e / p o i sed 47 Anx i ou s /ca Im 48 E x c i t a b 1e/ composed 49 Hypochond r1aca1/ no t h ypoch . 50 A r t i s t i c a l ly i nsens i t i ve/ sens i t i ve 51 U n r e f l e c t i v e , n a r r o w / i n t e 1 1 i g e n t 52 C r u d e , b o o r i s h / p o i i s h e d , r e f i ned 53 S i m p l e , d i r e c t / imagi n a t i v e F a c t o r Number I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I I 12 13 h 45 -44 56 64 60 -69 57 62 56 58 50 - 3 3 42 51 84 76 62 38 68 -34 41 53 41 -30 - 50 66 63 31 60 46 50 -72 63 -77 72 -74 67 -44 43 53 54 31 54 45 55 36 30 -60 75 37 -35 50 Note Dec imal p o i n t s o m i t t e d f o r f a c t o r l o a d i n g s and c o m m u n a I i t i e s . A l l v a l u e s rounded t o two s i g n i f i c a n t d i g i t s . L oad i n g s < 0 .30 o m i t t e d . 50. TABLE VIII FACTOR STRUCTURE FOR TARGET E V i s u a l Abbreviated Scale Scale Factor Number number D e s c r i p t i o n I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II h 1 Groomi ng: 53 -32 56 dishevel led/neat 2 Dress: casua1/forma 1 -71 72 3 Gaze: i n d i r e c t / d i r e c t -33 -41 -39 56 4 Face: u n a t t r a c t i v e / a t t r a c t i v e -57 48 5 Smi1ing: seldom/frequent 36 -37 50 6 Body bui Id: heavy/1ight -49 -34 48 7 Movements: tense/re 1 axed -64 59 8 Movements: few/many 34 50 44 Voice Speech: 58 41 loud/soft Speech: 51 37 fast/sl o w Speech: -32 -60 54 s l u r r e d / d i s t i n c t Pauses: -58 51 long/short Pauses: -78 70 frequent/ seldom Pauses: 55 39 regu1ar/ i rregu1ar Voi ce: -54 -41 67 low/h igh pitched Voice: -49 -38 61 monotone/ express i ve Voice: 61 -39 62 bo i s t e r o u s / gentle 50a. TABLE VIII continued Voi ce Scale number Abbrev iated Sea le D e s c r i p t i o n I Factor Number 6 7 8 9 10 18 Voice: b l a r i n g / resonant 19 Voice: unpIeasant/ pleasant 60 -52 h 56 51 Verbal Content P o l i t i c a l Views 20 Expressed poor Iy/weI I 21 I disagreed/ agreed 22 Novel t o me/ f a m i I i a r 23 D u l l / i n t e r e s t i ng 24 Conservative/ rad i caI 25 I d i d n ' t / did understand them In t e r e s t s 26 Common/unusual 27 Expressed poor Iy/weI I 28 Things I wouldn't/ would want t o do 29 DuI I/exc i t i ng 30 Things I never/ o f t e n do 31 Nonsocial sociaI -77 -66 55 -46 -47 -33 45 -39 -48 -62 -74 -51 -51 48 -52 -51 69 71 51 39 54 57 37 58 76 71 65 70 52 L i k i n g , S i m i I a r i t y 32 I d i s l i k e d him/ I Iiked him 33 D i s s i m i l a r to me/ -34 -69 -67 78 57 50b. TABLE VI11 continued Persona I i t y Abbreviated Scale Scale Factor Number number D e s c r i p t i o n I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II h 34 Si l e n t / 58 32 -33 67 t a l k a t i v e 35 S e c r e t i v e / 53 -34 63 frank, open 36 Cautious/ -67 63 adventurous 37 Reelusive/ 74 59 soc iabIe 38 I r r i tab Ie/ -77 70 goodnatured 39 Jea l o u s / -53 55 not j e a l o u s 40 Headstrong/ -74 65 m i l d , gentle 41 N e g a t i v i s t i c/ -39 -49 51 cooperative 42 Care l e s s / 62 61 fussy, t i d y 43 Undependable/ -33 -53 66 dependable 44 Unscrupulous/ -64 55 scrupulous 45 Q u i t t i n g , f i c k l e / -43 -42 -38 66 perseveri ng 46 Nervous, tense/ -79 74 poi sed 47 Anxious/calm -67 59 48 E x c i t a b l e / -47 44 50 composed 49 Hypochondri acaI/ -63 65 not hypoch. 50 A r t i s i c a I l y i nsens./ -36 -62 69 s e n s i t i v e 51 U n r e f l e c t i v e , narrow/ -38 -30 -53 70 i nteI 1igent 52 Crude, boo r i s h / -42 -38 -38 61 po1ished, ref i ned 53 Simple, d i r e c t / -76 77 imagi n a t i v e Note: Decimal points omitted f o r f a c t o r loadings and communaIities. A l l values rounded t o two s i g n i f i c a n t d i g i t s . Loadings <0.30 omitted. TABLE IX 5 1 . FACTOR STRUCTURE FOR TARGET F Abbrev i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e F a c t o r Number 2 Number D e s c r i p t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 h 1 G room ing : - 44 50 d i s h e v e l l e d / n e a t 2 D r e s s : c a s u a l / 59 -31 69 f o rma I 3 Gaze : i n d i r e c t / 47 -41 53 d i r e c t 4 F a c e : u n a t t r a c t i v e / 49 40 a t t r a c t i v e 5 S m i l i n g : s e l dom/ -41 36 46 f r e q u e n t 6 Body b u i l d : heavy/ 57 -41 66 I i g h t 7 Movements: t e n s e / 62 53 r e I axed 8 Movements: few/many -55 43 V o i c e 9 S p e e c h : l o u d / s o f t - 78 67 10 Speech : f a s t / s l o w -64 50 11 Speech : s l u r r e d / 59 _ 57 d i s t i n e t 12 P a u s e s : l o n g / s h o r t 53 46 13 P a u s e s : f r e q e u n t / 52 36 seIdom 14 P a u s e s : r e g u l a r / 34 31 46 i r r e g u l a r 15 V o i c e : l ow/h i gh - 5 2 36 p i t c h e d 16 V o i c e : monotone/ 35 42 43 e x p r e s s i v e 17 V o i c e : b o i s t e r o u s / 39 38 -54 78 g e n t l e 18 V o i c e : b l a r i n g / 35 -44 41 66 r e s o n a n t 19 V o i c e : u n p l e a s a n t / 48 32 43 70 p I e a s a n t P o l i t i c a l V i ews 20 E x p r e s s e d p o o r l y / 77 71 we I I 21 I d i s a g r e e d / 67 71 a g reed 22 Nove l t o me/ - 65 54 fami I i a r TABLE IX ( c o n t i n u e d ) 51 . a , Sea I e Number A b b r e v i a t e d Sea I e D e s c r i p t i o n 23 Du I I/i n t e r e s t i n g 24 C o n s e r v a t i v e / r a d i c a I 25 I d i d n ' t / d i d u n d e r s t a n d them 1 54 32 60 F a c t o r Number 4 5 6 7 8 51 37 9 10 11 - 4 3 59 44 59 I n t e r e s t s 26 Common/unusual 37 32 27 E x p r e s s e d p o o r l y / w e l l 70 60 28 T h i n g s I wouIdnot/wouId - 43 48 57 want t o do 29 DuI I/exc i t i ng 36 66 66 30 T h i n g s I n e v e r / -35 47 o f t e n do 31 N o n s o c i a ! / s o c i a l - 48 28 L i k i n g , S i mi I a r i t y 32 I d i s l i k e d h im/ I I i ked h im 33 Di s s im i I a r t o me/ s i m i l a r t o me 79 69 82 67 P e r s o n a I i t y 34 S i l e n t / t a I k a t i v e - 69 63 35 S e c r e t i v e / f r a n k , o p e n 45 53 36 C a u t i o u s / a d v e n t u r o u s 30 -31 40 37 RecI us i v e / s o c i ab I e -76 71 38 I r r i t a b Ie/good-n a t u r e d 55 30 37 -37 74 39 J e a l o u s / n o t j e a l o u s 30 49 40 Heads t rong/mi Id, 72 44 75 g e n t Ie 68 41 N e g a t i v i s t i c / c o o p e r a t i v e 65 - 3 3 42 C a r e I e s s / f u s s y , t i dy -68 52 43 Undependab Ie/ 60 -30 66 dependab Ie 35 44 U n s c r u p u l o u s / s c r u p u I o u s 44 -31 45 Q u i t t i n g , f i c k l e / p e r s e v e r i ng 59 30 61 46 N e r v o u s , t e n s e / po i sed 37 37 39 51 .b. Abbrev i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e Number D e s c r i p t i o n P e r s o n a I i t y 47 A n x i o u s / c a l m 48 E x c i t a b l e / c o m p o s e d 49 H y p o c h o n d r i a c a l / no t hypoch . 50 A r t i s t i c a l l y i n s e n s . / sens i t i ve 51 U n r e f I e c t i v e , n a r r o w / i n te I I i g e n t 52 C r u d e , b o o r i s h / po I i s h e d , r e f i ned 53 S i m p l e , d i r e c t / imagi n a t i ve TABLE IX ( c o n t i n u e d ) F a c t o r Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 h 37 57 69 43 42 52 38 44 31 57 36 34 33 64 54 35 64 77 -51 45 N o t e : Dec ima l p o i n t s o m i t t e d f o r f a c t o r l o a d i n g s and c o m m u n a I i t i e s . A M v a l u e s rounded t o two s i g n i -f i c a n t d i g i t s . L o a d i n g s O.30 o m i t t e d . 52 . TABLE X FACTOR STRUCTURE FOR TARGET G Abbrev i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e Number D e s c r i p t i o n 1 G rooming : d i sheve I I ed/neat 2 D r e s s : c a s u a l / forma I 3 Gaze : i n d i r e c t / d i r e c t 4 F a c e : u n a t t r a c t i v e / a t t r a c t i v e 5 Smi I i ng : se Idom/ f r e q u e n t 6 Body b u i l d : heavy/ I i g h t 7 Movements: t e n s e / re I axed 8 Movements: few/many - 30 -67 F a c t o r Number 5 6 7 8 -34 32 35 10 -65 37 40 42 h 28 27 60 49 54 30 56 59 Vo i c e 9 S p e e c h : l o u d / s o f t 44 53 65 10 Speech : f a s t / s l o w -47 47 1 1 S p e e c h : s l u r r e d / d i s t i n c t 61 -41 66 12 P a u s e s : l o n g / s h o r t 55 42 13 P a u s e s : f r e q u e n t / se1dom 64 48 14 P a u s e s : r e g u l a r / i r r e g . 46 35 61 15 V o i c e : l ow/h i gh 37 p i t c h e d 44 46 16 V o i c e : monotone/ e x p r e s s i ve 52 54 17 V o i c e : b o i s t e r o u s / g e n t 1e 58 - 33 56 18 V o i c e : b l a r i n g / r e s o n a n t 42 28 19 V o i c e : u n p l e a s a n t / p l e a s a n t 31 42 -31 64 P o I i t i caI V i ews 20 E x p r e s s e d p o o r l y / we I I 21 I d i s a g r e e d / ag reed 22 Nove l t o me/ - 30 fami I i a r 32 -71 70 -34 -61 56 -41 43 52a . TABLE X ( c o n t i n u e d ) Abbrev i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e Number D e s c r i p t i o n i 2 3 F a c t o r Number 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II h 2 23 D u 1 i / i n t e r e s t i ng 24 C o n s e r v a t i v e / r a d i c a 1 25 1 d i d n ' t / d i d u n d e r s t a n d them 43 43 - 6 3 -38 - 4 5 - 3 6 75 45 42 1 n t e r e s t s 26 Common/unusual 27 E x p r e s s e d p o o r l y / w e l l 28 T h i n g s 1 w o u l d n ' t / wou ld want t o do 29 D u l 1 / e x c i t i n g 30 T h i n g s 1 n e v e r / o f t e n do 31 N o n s o C i a 1 / s o c i a 1 33 - 3 0 - 33 -4 1 70 40 83 50 30 - 32 53 72 52 48 76 42 L i k i n g , S imi 1ar i t y 32 1 d i s 1 i ked h im/ 1 1 i ked h im 33 D i s s i m i l a r t o me/ 56 55 40 -34 65 50 s i m i l a r t o me P e r s o n a I i t y 34 S i 1 e n t / t a 1 k a t i v e -56 35 56 35 S e c r e t i v e / f r a n k , open 36 30 41 36 C a u t i o u s / a d v e n t u r o u s 33 - 4 0 55 37 Rec1 us i v e / s o c i ab1e 65 53 38 1 r r i t a b 1e/goodnatured 56 - 32 53 39 J e a l o u s / n o t j e a l o u s - 4 6 38 40 Heads t rong/mi 1d, g e n t l e 67 57 41 N e g a t i v i s t i c/ 31 - 3 5 38 42 C a r e l e s s / f u s s y , t i d y - 56 52 43 Undependab1e/dependab1e -38 -64 71 44 U n s c r u p u l o u s / s c r upu1ou s 33 38 36 -31 60 45 Q u i t t i n g , f i c k l e / p e r s e v e r i ng -67 58 46 N e r v o u s , t e n s e / - 79 73 52b. TABLE X ( c o n t i n u e d ) Sea I e Number Abbrev i a t e d Sea l e De s c r i p t i o n P e r s o n a I i t y F a c t o r Number 5 6 7 8 10 47 Anx ious/ca1m -71 48 Exc i t ab 1e/composed - 63 49 Hypochond r i a c a 1 / no t h y p o c h o n d r i a c a l 50 A r t i s t i ca11y i n s e n . / s e n s i t i v e 78 51 U n r e f l e c t i v e , na r r ow/ i n t e l 1 i g e n t 74 52 C r u d e , b o o r i s h / po1 i s h e d , r e f i ned 41 34 - 33 53 S i m p l e , d i r e c t / imag i n a t i ve 62 -37 34 - 76 34 61 69 65 66 67 65 66 Note Dec ima l p o i n t s ommited f o r f a c t o r l o a d i n g s and c o m m u n a I i t i e s . A l l v a l u e s rounded t o two s i g n i f i c a n t d i g i t s . L oad i n g s < 0 . 3 0 o m i t t e d . TABLE XI FACTOR STRUCTURE FOR TARGET H Abbrev i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e F a c t o r Number Number D e s c r i p t i o n I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 G rooming : d i sheve I I ed/neat 2 D r e s s : c a s u a l / -77 forma I 3 Ga ze : i n d i r e c t / d i r e c t 4 F a c e : u n a t t r a c t i v e 40 a t t r a c t i v e 5 SmiI i ng : se I dom/ 30 f r e q u e n t 6 Body bu i Id : heavy/ I i g h t 7 Movements: t e n s e 40 re taxed 8 Movements: few/many 51 Vo i ce 9 Speech : l o u d / s o f t - 30 10 Speech : f a s t / s l o w -59 11 S p e e c h : s l u r r e d / 32 d i s t i n e t 12 P a u s e s : l o n g / s h o r t - 73 13 P a u s e s : f r e q u e n t / - 63 se Idom 14 P a u s e s : r e g u l a r / - 54 i r r e g u I a r 15 V o i c e : l ow/h igh 30 p i t c h e d 16 V o i c e : monotone/ 43 e x p r e s s i ve 17 V o i c e : b o i s t e r o u s / - 3 2 - 4 5 g e n t Ie 18 V o i c e : b l a r i n g / - 4 7 r e s o n a n t 19 V o i c e : u n p l e a s a n t / 51 p l e a s a n t P o l i t i ca I V iews 20 E x p r e s s e d p o o r l y / 48 32 we I I 21 I d i s a g r e e d / 72 a g r e e d 22 Nove l t o me/ 56 fami l i a r TABLE X i ( c o n t i n u e d ) Abbrev i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e F a c t o r Number Number D e s c r i p t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 23 Dul I / i n t e r e s t i n g 72 24 C o n s e r v a t i v e / - 6 3 r ad i caI 25 I d i d n ' t / d i d 32 39 u n d e r s t a n d them I n t e r e s t s 26 Common/unusuaI 27 E x p r e s s e d p o o r l y / 3 2 we I I 28 T h i n g s I w o u l d n ' t / wouId want t o do 29 D u l I / e x c i t i n g 30 T h i n g s I n e v e r / o f t e n do 31 N o n s o c i a I / s o c i a I -41 62 47 71 •56 -36 - 32 -31 58 L i k i ng 32 33 S im i Ia r i t y I d i s I i ked him 73 I i k e d him D i s s i m i I a r t o me/52 s i m i Ia r t o me 33 55 P e r s o n a I i t y 34 S i l e n t / t a 1 k a t i ve 62 35 S e c r e t i v e / f r a n k , 62 open 36 C a u t i o u s / a d v e n t u r o u s 37 Rec1 us i v e / s o c i a b1e 74 38 1 r r i t a b 1e/good- -60 n a t u r e d 39 J e a l o u s / n o t -61 j e a l o u s 40 Heads t rong/mi 1d -81 g e n t l e 41 N e g a t i v i s t i c / 34 - 43 c o o p e r a t i ve 42 C a r e l e s s / f u s s y , t i d y 43 Undependab1e/ 46 dependab1e 44 U n s c r u p u l o u s / 43 - 4 0 s c r u p u l o u s 45 Q u i t t i n g , f i c k l e p e r s e v e r i ng 46 N e r v o u s / p o i sed -61 -30 35 - 34 -37 -33 - 5 0 -40 •51 2 12 h 71 56 56 62 51 56 54 57 50 81 74 49 62 59 62 56 61 76 61 41 45 56 67 64 53D. 47 Anx i ous/ca1m 48 E x c i t a b 1e/ composed 49 Hypochondr i a c a 1 / n o t hyp. 50 A r t i s t i ca M y . 67 i n s en s i t i v e / s e n s . 51 U n r e f 1 e c t i v e / 63 i n t e 1 1 i g en t 52 C r u d e , b o o r i s h / 53 po1 i shed 53 S i m p l e , d i r e c t / 58 i m a g i n a t i v e 9 TABLE XI ( c o n t i n u e d ) Abb rev i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e F a c t o r Number Number D e s c r i p t i o n I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I I 12 h ' P e r s o n a I i t y - 49 -31 56 - 39 30 - 66 73 -67 65 62 -43 73 - 3 0 - 30 55 47 Note Dec ima l p o i n t s o m i t t e d f o r f a c t o r l o a d i n g s and c o m m u n a I i t i e s . A l l v a l u e s rounded t o two s i g n i f i c a n t d i g i t s . L o a d i n g s < 0 .30 o m i t t e d . 54. TABLE XI I FACTOR STRUCTURE FOR TARGET I A b b r e v i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e F a c t o r Number „ Number D e s c r i p t i o n I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II h 1 G rooming : 38 -57 69 d i s h e v e l l e d / n e a t 2 D r e s s : c a s u a l - 4 3 28 forma I 3 Gaze : i n d i r e c t / -57 48 d i r e c t 4 F a c e ; u n a t t r a c / 39 - 38 32 63 a t t r a c t i v e 5 S m i l i n g : s e l d o m / -38 29 f r e q u e n t 6 Body b u i I d : 57 32 52 h e a v y / s I i gh t 7 Movements: - 75 73 t e n s e / r e l a x e d 8 Movements: 46 -31 35 35 57 few/many V o i c e 9 S p e e c h : l o u d / 39 65 67 s o f t 10 Speech : f a s t / 68 67 s low 11 Speech : s l u r r e d / -37 37 d i s t i n c t 12 P a u s e s : l o n g / 63 58 s h o r t 13 P a u s e s : f r e q u e n t / 62 46 se Idom 14 P a u s e s : r e g u l a r / 22 i r r e g u l a r 15 V o i c e : low/hi 'gh -47 45 p i t c h e d 16 V o i c e : monotone -69 59 e x p r e s s i ve 17 V o i c e : b o i s t e r o u s / 56 37 66 g e n t l e 18 V o i c e : b l a r i n g / 35 59 60 r e s o n a n t 19 V o i c e : u n p l e a s a n t / - 32 30 64 68 p l e a s a n t P o l i t i c a l V iews 20 E x p r e s s e d p o o r l y / 3 7 -47 54 we I I 21 I d i s a g r e e d / 58 49 a g reed 54a . TABLE XI I ( c o n t i n u e d ) Abbrev i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e F a c t o r Number Number D e s c r i p t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 22 Nove1/fami 1i a r 31 - 5 3 23 D u l l / i n t e r e s t i n g 56 -33 24 C o n s e r v a t i v e / -31 -31 -31 r a d i ca1 25 1 d i d n ' t / d i d - 65 u n d e r s t a n d them 10 54 52 45 54 I n t e r e s t s 26 27 28 29 30 31 Common/unusual 30 E x p r e s s e d p o o r l y / 6 8 wel I T h i n g s I w o u I d n ' t / w o u I d I i ke t o do DuI I /exc i t i ng T h i n g s I n e v e r / o f t e n do Non soc i a l / s o c i a I 52 74 35 L i k i n g , S imi l a r i t y 32 77 33 I d i s I i ked h im/ I i ked him D i s s i m i l a r t o me/71 s i m i l a r t o me P e r s o n a I t t y 34 S i l e n t / t a l k a t i v e 35 S e c r e t i v e / f r a n k , open 36 C a u t i o u s / a d v e n t u r o u s 37 R e c l u s i v e / s o c i ab I e 38 I r r i t a b l e / g o o d n a t u r e d 39 J e a l o u s / n o t j e a l o u s 40 H e a d s t r o n g / m i l d , g e n t l e 41 N e g a t i v i s t i c / c o o p e r a t i v e 42 C a r e l e s s / f u s s y , t i d y 43 Undependab l e/ d e p e n d a b l e 44 U n s c r u p u l o u s / s c r u p u l o u s 47 62 -54 -39 74 42 34 65 36 31 - 34 45 47 36 34 66 -30 -58 -49 66 71 34 71 65 43 73 33 34 85 58 62 65 50 56 65 62 72 53 47 58 40 54b. TABLE XI I (continued) Scale Number Abbrev i ated Sea I e Descr i p t i o n Persona I i ty 45 Q u i t t i n g , f i c k l e / perseveri ng 46 Nervous, tense/ -75 po i sed 47 Anxious/calm -72 48 E x c i t a b l e / 46 -41 49 H ypochondriaca1/ 68 not hyp. 50 A r t i s - r i c a l ly 64 i n s e n s i t i v e / s e n s . 51 U n r e f l e c t i v e , 74 n a r r o w / i n t e l I . 52 Crude, bo o r i s h / 37 -31 po i i s h e d , r e f . 53 Simple, d i r e c t 59 imagi n a t i v e Factor Number 5 6 7 8 34 9 10 I I 34 -53 47 40 69 68 56 65 54 70 61 64 Note Decimal points vaIues rounded omitted f o r f a c t o r t o two s i g n i f i c a n t loadings and communaIities. A l l d i g i t s . Loadings < 0.30 omitted. 55. a r b i t r a r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s tem d e s c r i b e d by F r u c h t e r ( 1954 , p. 151 ) : " L o a d i n g s o f .2 o r l e s s a r e u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d as i n s i g n i f i c a n t , l o a d i n g s o f .2 t o .3 as low, .3 t o .5 as m o d e r a t e , .5 t o .7 as h i g h , and above .7 as v e r y h i g h . " When t h e terms m o d e r a t e , h_ig_h and v e r y h i g h a r e used i n t h e t e x t t o d e s c r i b e t h e s i z e o f l o a d i n g s , t h e y r e f e r t o the above c a t e g o r i e s . The e i g h t t a b l e s , 5 t h r ough 12 g i v e t h e l o a d i n g s on t h e f a c t o r s o b t a i n e d f o r 2 T a r g e t s B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I r e s p e c t i v e l y . Communa l i t y e s t i m a t e s (h ) f o r t h e 53 s c a l e s a r e g i v e n i n t he r i g h t hand co lumn o f e v e r y t a b l e . An i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e t a b i e s r e v e a l s s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f f a c t o r l o a d i n g s f rom t a r g e t t o t a r g e t . Fo r e x a m p l e , t h e c o n t e n t o f T a r g e t B ' s f i r s t f a c t o r bea r s some r e semb lance to ' t he c o r r e s p o n d i n g f a c t o r f o r T a r g e t C, b u t i s q u i t e d i s s i m i l a r t o t h e l a r g e s t f a c t o r f o r T a r g e t s D and E. The l a t t e r two i n t u r n , a r e u n l i k e each o t h e r . To e v a l u a t e t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s s y s t e m a t i c a I y t h e 53' s c a l e l o a d i n g s on e v e r y f a c t o r were i n t e r -c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e l o a d i n g s on each o f t he 92 r e m a i n i n g f a c t o r s . T h i s p r o v i d e d a c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e (Harman, 1967, p. 271) between each pa i r o f f a c t o r s . The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n between two f a c t o r s was .75 ( t h e f i r s t and f i f t h f a c t o r s o f T a r g e t s F and E r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . S i n c e t h e r e i s no way o f a s s e s s i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of t h e s e i n d i c e s , an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n was made t o c o n s i d e r any p a i r s w i t h c o r r e l a t i o n s a t o r e x c e e d i n g ± .40 as " s i m i l a r " . T h i s i n c l u d e d 255 o f 3,781 c r o s s - t a r g e t p a i r s o r about 1% o f t h e r e l e v a n t p a i r s o f f a c t o r s . These p a i r s and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e l i s t e d in A p p e n d i x B. B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e l a r g e s t f a c t o r s , a s y s t e m a t i c s e a r c h was made of t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x t o i d e n t i f y g roups o f f a c t o r s t h a t were s i m i l a r t o one a n o t h e r in c o n t e n t . S i x g roups o f f a c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d wh ich were p s y c h o -l o g i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l and wh i ch i n c l u d e d a t l e a s t one f a c t o r f rom e v e r y t a r g e t 56. a n a l y s i s . These were c a l l e d G e n e r a l F a c t o r s and were l a b e l l e d G^ t h r o u g h G^. The c o n t e n t o f each g e n e r a l f a c t o r was a r b i t r a r i l y d e f i n e d in terms o f t h o s e s c a l e s t h a t had l o a d i n g s a t o r e x c e e d i n g ± .30 on a t l e a s t f o u r o f t h e f a c t o r s i n t h e g r oup . Each o f t h e s i x g e n e r a l f a c t o r s i s d i s c u s s e d be l ow . F i r s t Gene r a l F a c t o r . ( E v a l u a t i v e : U n i n t e l l i g e n t , Low I n t e g r i t y v s . I n t e l -l i g e n t , H igh I n t e g r i t y ) . The f i r s t Gene ra l F a c t o r was l a b e l l e d E v a l u a t i v e : Inte I I e c t - I n t e g r i t y . Twe l ve f a c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d t h a t seemed t o b e l o n g t o t h i s group ( see T a b l e 13) . The t w e l v e f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d t he f i r s t f a c t o r o f T a r g e t s B, C, F, G, H and I, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e dominant i m p r e s s i o n formed o f most t a r g e t s was a l o n g an Inte I I e c t - I n t e g r i t y d i m e n s i o n . The f a c t o r was o f r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r impo r t ance in t h e i m p r e s s i o n s o f T a r g e t s D and E. T h i s outcome s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e h i gh o v e r a l l s a l i e n c e o f t h e s c a l e g r o u p i n g was n o t an a r t i f a c t a r i s i n g f rom t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f s c a l e s u sed . The G^ f a c t o r was d e f i n e d by 20 o f t h e 53 s c a l e s . W h i l e t h i s r e p r e s e n t s a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l s c a l e s , t h e f a c t o r does no t seem t o be s i m p l y an outcome o f g e n e r a l s e m a n t i c mean ing . V e r b a l C o n t e n t and P e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s p r e d o m i n a t e and w i t h i n t h e s e two s c a l e g r o u p s , t h e s a l i e n t i tems r e f e r p r i m a r i t o how w e l l t h e t a r g e t e x p r e s s e d h i m s e l f , how s i m i l a r h i s p o l i t i c a l v i e w s and i n t e r e s t s were t o t h e s u b j e c t s ' own, h i s p e r c e i v e d i n t e g r i t y and h i s p e r c e i v e d i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . From the 19 V i s u a l and V o i c e s c a l e s o n l y the h i g h l y e v a l u a t i v e s c a l e r e f e r r i n g t o a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f f a c e (4) and t h e two v o i c e s c a l e s r e f e r r i n g t o e x p r e s s i v e n e s s (16) and p l e a s a n t n e s s (19) o f t h e s p e a k e r ' s t one appea red in t h e group o f s c a l e s d e f i n i n g G^. The two s c a l e s L i k i n g and S i m i l a r i t y both o c c u r i n t h e d e f i n i n g g r oup . The re a r e e i g h t p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s i n t h e g r o u p i n g . Four o f t h e s e ( 5 0 , 5 1 , 52 , 53) c o n s t i t u t e a s e t t h a t c o n s i s t e n t l y o c c u r r e d in s t u d i e s done by 57. TABLE XI I I FIRST GENERAL FACTOR (EVALUATIVE: INTELLECT - INTEGRITY) Sea I e Number Abbrev i a t e d Sea I e D e s c r i p t i o n Load i ng s f o r 20 S e l e c t e d S c a l e s on 12 S i m i l a r F a c t o r s T a r g e t and F a c t o r Numbers B-1 C-1 D-8 E-3 E-5 E~9 F-1 F-4 G-1 G-9 H - 1 4 16 19 20 21 23 25 27 28 F a c e : u n a t t r a c t i v e v s . a t t r a c t i v e Voi c e : monotone v s . e x p r e s s i v e V o i c e : u n p l e a s a n t vs , p l e a s a n t P o I i t i caI V Jews : e x p r e s s e d p o o r l y v s . e x p r e s s e d we I I P o I i t i c a I VJews: d i s a g r e e d v s . a g reed P o I i t i caI V i ews: d u l l v s . i n t e r e s t i n g PoI i t i caI V i ews: v s . d i d u n d e r s t a n d I n t e r e s t s : e x p r e s s e d poor Iy v s . we II I n t e r e s t s : t h i n g s I ,32 ,49 .34 .45 .49 -.75 .75 52 . 49 .48 37 .77 d i dnot .56 .62 .72 .54 .46 32 63 ,61 ,55 ,72 ,37 ,46 ,66 ,47 ,75 .48 ,32 .74 .51 -wou l dno t v s . wou ld I t o do I n t e r e s t s : d u l l v s . ke 29 e xc i t i ng 32 I d i sI i ked him vs I I i ked him 33 D i s s i m i l a r t o me v s . s imi l a r 38 I r r i t a b l e v s . good - - .41 n a t u r e d 43 Undependab le v s . depend - .50 .33 a b l e , r e s p o n s i b l e 44 U n s c r u p u l o u s v s . .61 .49 s c r u p u I o u s 45 Q u i t t i n g , f i c k l e v s . .41 .44 p e r s e v e r i ng 50 A r t i s t i c a l l y i n s e n s i - .61 .54 t i v e v s . a r t i s . s e n s i t i v e 51 U n r e f I e c t i v e , narrow .54 .45 v s . i n t e I I i gen t 52 C r u d e , b o o r i s h v s . - .36 p o I i s h e d , r e f i ned 53 S i m p l e , d i r e c t v s . .30 .37 i mag i n a t i ve - .51 44 .51 .31 .34 .69 - .67 - .77 .33 .53 .35 .32 - .77 67 -,54 .51 ,32 .37 - .70 - . 48 ,36 .66 ,79 33 .31 ,71 ,61 .63 .45 .40 .40 .51 .48 .72 .72 .32 .32 1-1 ,39 A ,44 ,43 ,38 ,42 .64 -.42 .38 - .62 ,69 ,55 ,60 ,44 56 55 ,32 ,34 ,73 ,52 ,37 ,58 ,56 ,68 .52 .74 .77 .71 ,30 ,32 -30 ,38 36 53 .64 58 .35 76 -34 .78 - .74 - .41 - .62 ,46 .43 .67 .63 .53 .58 .64 .74 .37 .59 58.. Norman (1963) and P a s s i n i and Norman(1966) and wh ich t h e s e a u t h o r s l a b e l l e d t h e C u l t u r e f a c t o r . A second c l u s t e r i d e n t i f i e d in t he c o m p a r i s o n s t u d i e s and l a b e l l e d C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s , i s p a r t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d , w i t h t h r e e o f i t s f o u r s c a l e s ( 4 3 , 44, 45) a p p e a r i n g . The e i g h t h p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e , I r r i t a b l e -Goodna tu r ed (38) seems t o l i e o u t s i d e t h e c e n t r a l meaning o f t h e f a c t o r , e x c e p t f o r i t s e v a l u a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n . Second Gene r a l F a c t o r . ( B ra sh v s . M i l d - m a n n e r e d . ) The second G e n e r a l F a c t o r , i n f e r r e d f rom a group o f t e n s i m i l a r f a c t o r s , was l a b e l l e d B ra sh v s . M i l d - m a n n e r e d . Ten s c a l e s had l o a d i n g s a t o r e x c e e d i n g +.30 on f o u r o r more o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , and t h e s e i tems a l l r e f e r r e d t o e i t h e r v o i c e o r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( see T a b l e 14 ) . The t h r e e V o i c e s c a l e s s a l i e n t t o t h e d i m e n s i o n a r e b o i s t e r o u s - g e n t l e ( 1 7 ) , l o u d - s o f t (9) and b I a r i n g ~ r e s o n a n t ( 1 8 ) . Th ree o f t h e seven P e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s ( 4 3 , 44 , 45) a r e from t h e C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s f a c t o r found in t h e c o m p a r i -son s t u d i e s , and t h r e e o t h e r s ( 38 , 40 , 41) a r e f rom a f a c t o r l a b e l l e d A g r e e -a b l e n e s s i n t h e c ompa r i s on s t u d i e s . The f i n a l s c a l e i n t he g roup i s C r u d e , B o o r i s h v s . P o l i s h e d , R e f i n e d . T h i r d Gene r a l F a c t o r . ( Anx i ou s v s . C a l m ) . T a b l e 15 shows t he s c a l e s and f a c t o r s t h a t d e s c r i b e the t h i r d Gene r a l F a c t o r . The s c a l e s t h a t met t he c r i t e r i o n of s a l i e n c e were t h e two V i s u a l i t e m s , t e n s e n e s s o f movements (7) and d i r e c t n e s s o f gaze ( 3 ) , a l o n g w i t h f i v e P e r s o n a l i t y i t e m s . The l a t t e r i n c l u d e d t he f o u r s c a l e s t h a t were subsumed under t h e l a b e l E m o t i o n a l S t a b i l i t y in t h e c o m p a r i s o n s t u d i e s ( 4 6 , 47 , 48 , 49) as w e l l as t he J e a l o u s y s c a l e ( 3 9 ) . F o u r t h G e n e r a l F a c t o r . ( V o i c e : L oud , A c t i v e v s . S o f t , P a s s i v e . ) The f o u r t h G e n e r a l F a c t o r ( see T a b l e 16) i s d e s c r i b e d e n t i r e l y i n t e rms o f V o i c e s c a l e s ( 9 , 10, 15, 16, 17, 18 ) . S i n c e t h r e e o f t h e s e v o i c e a t t r i b u t e s 59. TABLE XIV SECOND GENERAL FACTOR (BRASH v s . MILD-MANNERED) A b b r e v i a t e d L o a d i n g s f o r 10 S e l e c t e d S c a l e s on S c a l e S c a l e 10 S i m i l a r F a c t o r s No. D e s c r i p t i o n s T a r g e t and F a c t o r Number B-2 6-8 C-3 D- l E-5 F - l G-2 H-3 1-4 1-5 9 Speech : Loud - .57 .50 - - .44 - .65 -v s . S o f t 17 Vo i c e : .43 .68 .57 .39 .39 .58 .45 .56 _ B o i s t e r o u s v s . G e n t l e 18 V o i c e : B l a r i n g - - .65 — - • 35 • 42 - .59 -v s . Resonant 38 1 r r i t a b l e v s . -44 .46 - .58 .77 .55 .56 .60 - .36 G o o d - n a t u r e d 40 H e a d s t r o n g v s . .50 .49 - .84 .74 .72 .67 .81 .34 .66 Mi Id-, G e n t l e 41 N e g a t i v i s t i c .77 - - .62 . 49 .65 - .43 - -v s . C o o p e r a t i v e 43 Undependab le -34 - - .41 . 53 . 60 - - - .66 v s . Dependab le 44 U n s c r u p u l o u s ..30 — - • 63 . 64 . 44 .33 . 40 - .71 v s . S c r u p u l o u s 45 Q u i t t i n g , . 3 9 - - - .42 .59 - - - .34 F i c k l e v s . P e r s e v e r i n g 52 C r u d e , B o o r i s h - .30 - . 38 .35 34 - - -v s . Po1 i shed TABLE XV THIRD GENERAL FACTOR (NERVOUS, TENSE v s . CALM, RELAXED) A b b r e v i a t e d Load i n g s f o r 7 S e l e c t e d S c a l e s S c a l e S c a l e on 9 S i m i l a r F a c t o r s No. D e s c r i p t i o n s T a r g e t and F a c t o r Number B-6 B-10 C-2 D-2 E-2 F-10 G-3 H-10 1-3 3 Gaze : 1ndi r e c t v s . - - .51 .- .41 .47 - .34 .57 Di r e c t 7 Movements: Tense .50 .32 .74 .39 .64 .62 .67 .73 .75 v s . R e l a x e d 39 J e a l o u s v s . No t .35 - .31 .33 .53 - - - -J e a l o u s 46 N e r v o u s , Tense .48 - .72 .72 .79 - .79 .51 .75 v s . P o i s e d 47 A n x i o u s v s . C a l m - .60 .58 .77 .67 - .71 .49 .72 48 E x c i t a b l e v s . - .66 .41 .74 .47 - .63 .66 .41 Composed 49 Hypochond r i a ca1 .41 - .64 .44 .63 - - - -v s . Not Hypocondr ia-60 . ( 9 , 17, 18) were a l s o s a l i e n t in t h e second Gene ra l F a c t o r , t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e two g r o u p i n g s may seem a r b i t r a r y . However, t h e t e n f a c t o r s i n t h e G^ c l u s t e r and t h e 12 f a c t o r s in t h e G^ c l u s t e r have o n l y t h r e e f a c t o r s in common. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the two c l u s t e r s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t a l s o . G^ i s p r i m a r i l y a p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n h a v i n g a few v o i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t , w h i l e G^ i s e n t i r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e o f V o i c e q u a l i t y and i s pe rhaps an a r t i f a c t a r i s i n g f rom t h e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f v o i c e s c a l e s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S u b j e c t s a p p a r e n t l y d i d not d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e p r e s e n t e d by many o f the Vo i co s e a l e s . The d a t a do s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s v o i c e d i m e n s i o n can be an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t he s u b j e c t s ' i m p r e s s i o n , even though t h e f a c t o r i n c l u d e s no c o n s i s t e n t e v a l u a t i v e o r p e r s o n a l i t y component. The e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n comes p r i m a r i l y f rom t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e o f T a r g e t E. Fo r t h i s r a t e e t he v o i c e f a c t o r i s by f a r t h e l a r g e s t o n e , i m p l y i n g t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t i n c t i v e v o i c e can dominate o t h e r components o f t h e i m p r e s s i o n . F i f t h G e n e r a l F a c t o r . ( R e c l u s i v e , Q u i e t v s . S o c i a b l e , O u t g o i n g ) The f i f t h G e n e r a l F a c t o r was i n f e r r e d f rom n i n e o f t he s i m i l a r f a c t o r s ( see T a b l e 17) . Of t h e f i v e s c a l e s m e e t i n g t h e c r i t e r i a f o r s a l i e n c e , f o u r were P e r s o n a l i t y i t e m s ; t h e f i f t h was t he V e r b a l C o n t e n t i t e m , N o n s o c i a l v s . S o c i a l I n t e r e s t s ( 3 1 ) . Th ree o f t h e P e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s (34 , 3 5 , 37) were f rom a group o f f o u r l a b e l l e d E x t r o v e r s i o n by Norman ( 1 963 ) . The r e m a i n i n g p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e was t he i tem N e g a t i v i s t i c v s . C o o p e r a t i v e ( 4 1 ) . As a group t h e s c a l e s c l e a r l y r e f e r t o a d i m e n s i o n o f s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S i x t h G e n e r a l F a c t o r . ( D u l l v s . I n t e r e s t i n g ) . The s i x t h G e n e r a l F a c t o r was i n f e r r e d f rom e l e v e n s i m i l a r f a c t o r s ( s ee T a b l e 18 ) . There were seven s a l i e n t s c a l e s i n c l u d i n g t h e two i tems L i k i n g and S i m i l a r i t y ( 32 , 33) and f i v e 61 . TABLE XVI FOURTH GENERAL FACTOR (LOUD ACTIVE VOICE v s . SOFT, PASSIVE VOICE) A b b r e v i a t e d L o a d i n g s f o r 6 S e l e c t e d S c a l e s on S c a l e S c a l e 12 S i m i l a r F a c t o r s No. D e s c r i p t i o n s T a r g e t and F a c t o r Number B-5 C-3 D-5 D-7 E - l F-9 G-2 G-8 H-2 H-12 1-2 1-4 9 V o i c e : - .68 .38 - .61 .54 .58 .33 .32 .40 - 56 Bo i s t e r o u s v s . G e n t l e 10 Speech : F a s t - .47 - .64 .51 .64 - .47 .59 - .68 -v s . SIow 15 V o i c e : H i g h - - .30 .67 - .54 - - - .30 - .47 -p i t c h e d v s . L o w - p i t c h e d 16 V o i c e : E x - - - .55 - .49 - - .52 .43 - .69 -p r e s s i v e v s . Monotone 17 Speech : Loud .65 .57 - .46 .58 .78 .44 - .30 .67 .39 .65 v s . S o f t 18 V o i c e : - .65 .40 .39 .60 .44 .42 - .47 - .39 .59 B l a r i n g v s . Re sonan t TABLE XVI I F IFTH GENERAL FACTOR (RECLUSIVE, QUIET v s . SOCIABLE, OUTGOING) A b b r e v i a t e d L o a d i n g s f o r 5 S e l e c t e d S c a l e s on S c a l e S c a l e 9 S i m i l a r F a c t o r s No. D e s c r i p t i o n s T a r g e t and F a c t o r Number B-2 B-5 C-5 D-4 E-4 F-7 G-4 H-2 1-7 31 1 n t e r e s t s : .64 - .69 .46 .69 - .50 .58 -S o c i a l v s . n o n -s o c i a 1 34 S i 1 e n t v s . - .65 .43 .45 .58 .69 .35 .62 .74 T a 1 k a t i ve 35 S e c r e t i v e v s . - .61 ~ .64 - - .36 .62 .42 F r ank , Open 37 R e c l u s i v e v s . .71 - .76 .62 .74 .76 .65 .74 .65 Soc i a b l e 41 N e g a t i v i s t i c vs . .77 - - .38 - .33 .31 .34 -C o o p e r a t i ve 62. TABLE XVi ! i SIXTH GENERAL FACTOR (DULL v s . INTERESTING) Abbrev i a t e d S c a l e S c a l e Number D e s c r i p t i o n 23 P o l i t i c a l V i e w s : du l I v s . i n t e r e s t i n g 27 I n t e r e s t s : e x p r e s s e d p o o r l y v s . e x p r e s s e d wel 28 I n t e r e s t s : t h i n g s I w o u l d n ' t v s . would want t o do 29 I n t e r e s t s : duI I v s . exc i t i ng 30 I n t e r e s t s : t h i n g s I neve r v s . o f t e n do Load i ng s f o r 7 S e l e c t e d S c a l e s 11 S imi Iar F a c t o r s T a r g e t and F a c t o r Numbers B-1 C-6 D-6 E-5 F-2 F-4 G-5 G-7 G-9 - .47 - .50 - - .63 .33 .33 - - - .70 - - .40 I .57 .50 - .51 .43 .48 .70 - .32 .80 .34 .43 .51 - .66 .40 -- .45 .50 - .35 - .83 .34 -32 D i s l i k e d him v s . l i k e d .48 - - ,69 h im 34 .40 ,34 33 D i s s i m i l a r t o me v s . s i m i Ia r t o me .51 ,10 -on H-6 1-1 - .56 - .68 .62 .52 .47 .74 .71 .35 .33 .77 .55 .71 63. V e r b a l C o n t e n t s c a l e s (23, 27, 28, 29, 30). The p o l e s DuI I - 1 n t e r e s t i n g seem a p p r o p r i a t e t o d e s c r i b e t h e d i m e n s i o n r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s e s c a l e s . P e r s o n a I i t y C l u s t e r s i n t he G e n e r a l F a c t o r s and i n t he Compar i s on S t u d i e s . One goa l o f t h e s t u d y 'was t o r e l a t e p e r s o n a l i t y i n f e r e n c e s t o p e r c e p t i o n s o f more c o n c r e t e g roups o f c u e s , and t o compare t h e s e s c a l e c l u s t e r s in t u r n t o t h e f i v e r e c u r r i n g p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s o b t a i n e d by Norman(1963) and P a s s i n i and Norman (1966). The f a c t o r s t h a t t h e s e a u t h o r s l a b e l l e d E x t r o v e r s i o n , A g r e e a b I e n e s s , C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s , E m o t i o n a l S t a b i l i t y and C u l t u r e had as dominant s c a l e c l u s t e r s t he i tems 34 - 37, 3 8 - 4 1 , 42 - 45, 46 - 49, 50 - 53, r e s p e c t i v e l y . From t h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Gene r a l F a c t o r s i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s e c l u s t e r s d i d r e c u r i n t he da ta o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . P e r s o n -a l i t y i tems were s a l i e n t f o r f o u r o f t h e s i x G e n e r a l F a c t o r s . The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n c o n s i d e r s t h e f a i t h f u l n e s s w i t h wh ich each o f t h e f i v e c l u s t e r s was r e p r o d u c e d . E x t r o v e r s i o n . The o n l y G e n e r a l F a c t o r t h a t i n c l u d e d i tems f rom t h e E x t r o -v e r s i o n c l u s t e r was G,_, wh i ch had t h e t h r e e i tems 34, 35 and 37. The f o u r t h p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e i n G^, N e g a t i v i s t i c - C o o p e r a t i v e , i s n o t f o r m a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t he E x t r o v e r s i o n group by Norman and P a s s i n i . However, e x a m i n a t i o n o f t he f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s o b t a i n e d by t h e s e a u t h o r s f r om f o u r d i f f e r e n t samp le s r e v e a l s t h a t in t h r e e o f t h e f o u r a n a l y s e s t h e N e g a t i v i s t i c - C o o p e r a t i v e s c a l e l oads beyond .30 on the E x t r o v e r s i o n f a c t o r as w e l l as t h e A g r e e a b I e n e s s f a c t o r ( P a s s i n i and Norman, 1966, T a b l e s 1 and 2). There i s o n l y one no t ewo r t h y d e v i a t i o n f rom t h e c o m p a r i s o n s t u d i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o n t e n t o f an E x t r o v e r s i o n f a c t o r , and t h a t i s t he f a i l u r e o f t he C a u t i o u s - A d v e n t u r o u s s c a l e t o be s a l i e n t . The one V e r b a l C o n t e n t s c a l e 64. in G s u g g e s t s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . The s i n g l e r a t e d cue t h a t was c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l a t e d t o t he p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s in t h i s g roup was i tem 3 1 , S o c i a l v s . N o n s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f some of t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s d e s c r i b e d by t a r g e t s ( e . g . s k y d i v i n g , c a r r a c i n g ) s u g g e s t s t h a t s u b j e c t s ' a t t e n t i o n was somet imes drawn t o b e h a v i o u r t h a t i n v o l v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e p h y s i c a l r i s k , bu t l i t t l e s o c i a l r i s k . T h i s may have led s u b j e c t s t o i n t e r p r e t t h e C a u t i o u s - A d v e n t u r o u s s c a l e p r i m a r i l y in te rms o f p h y s i c a l d a r i n g , where t hey m i g h t o t h e r w i s e f a v o u r an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n terms o f r i s k i n g s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n o r embar ra s sment . A g r e e a b I e n e s s and C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . i tems f rom t h e A g r e e a b I e n e s s c l u s t e r a r e s a l i e n t f o r f o u r of t h e G e n e r a l F a c t o r s , but o n l y G^ i n c l u d e s more t han one o f t h e s c a l e s . S i n c e G^ has t h r e e o f t h e f o u r s c a l e s f rom each o f t h e A g r e e a b I e n e s s and C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s c l u s t e r s i t can be c o n s i d e r e d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e two. The f i n d i n g o f a " d u a l 5 1 f a c t o r has p a r a l l e l s i n t he f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s p r e s e n t e d by P a s s i n i and Norman (1966, T a b l e s 1 and 2 ) . The d a t a f rom f o u r i n d e p e n d e n t l y f a c t o r e d samp le s shows t h a t t h e A g r e e a b I e n e s s f a c t o r i n v a r i a b l y had e i t h e r two o r t h r e e s c a l e s l o a d i n g beyond .30 f rom t h e C o n s c i -e n t i o u s n e s s g r o u p . The s c a l e C r u d e , B o o r i s h v s . P o l i s h e d , R e f i n e d on t h i s f a c t o r a l s o has p r e c e d e n t s in t h e d a t a of t h e compa r i s on s t u d i e s . However , t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e i tem J e a l o u s - N o t J e a l o u s (39) t o g roup w i t h t h e s e t 38 , 40, 41 i s a d e v i a t i o n f rom e a r l i e r s t u d i e s f o r wh ich t h e r e i s no ready e x p l a n a t i o n . C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s and C u l t u r e . The t h r e e C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s s c a l e s o c c u r i n g in G^ a r e a l s o i n G^. The f o u r C u l t u r e s c a l e s a r e found ' i n G^ as w e l l . T h i s second i n s t a n c e o f two f a c t o r s me rg i ng a l s o r e p r e s e n t s a c o m b i n a t i o n found in P a s s i n i and Norman ( 1 9 6 6 ) . 65 . E m o t i o n a l S t a b i l i t y . The f i n a l c l u s t e r of s c a l e s i n the f i v e - f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c ompa r i s on s t u d i e s appea r s i n G^. As in o t h e r a n a l y s e s ( P a s s i n i and Norman, 1966, T a b l e 1) t h e p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e , J e a l c u s - N c t J e a l o u s , emerged in t he same f a c t o r as the i tems 46 t o 49 . The o n l y n o n - p e r s o n a l i t y i tems in t h e t h i r d Gene r a l F a c t o r a r e t h e two V i s u a l s c a l e s r e f e r r i n g t o d i r e c t n e s s o f gaze and t e n s e n e s s o f movements. The ab sence o f V e r b a l C o n t e n t and V o i c e i tems on t h i s G e n e r a l F a c t o r s e t s i t a p a r t f rom t h e f i v e o t h e r s . In summary, t he f i v e p e r s o n a l i t y c l u s t e r s r e p e a t e d l y o b t a i n e d in t h e c o m p a r i s o n s t u d i e s were r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e f i d e l i t y i n f o u r of t h e s i x G e n e r a l F a c t o r s . T h i s means t h a t t h e s c a l e g r o u p i n g s t ended t o be p r e s e n t in t h e a n a l y s i s o f a l l e i g h t t a r g e t r a t i n g s . The re were two ma jo r d e v i a t i o n s f r om t h e s i m p l e f i v e - f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e . F i r s t , t h e Gene r a l F a c t o r s G^ and G^ were composed o f two r a t h e r t han one c l u s t e r f rom t h e group o f f i v e . Second , s i n g l e i tems f rom one c l u s t e r somet imes o c c u r r e d on a f a c t o r w h i c h had 3 o r 4 i tems f rom a n o t h e r c l u s t e r . Both o f t h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f i v e p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s a r e no t c o m p l e t e l y i n dependen t . T h i s i s in l i n e w i t h Norman ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t "some deg ree of o b l i q u i t y may e x i s t among c e r t a i n p a i r s o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y . " (Norman, 1963, p. 5 8 1 ) . Pe rhap s t h i s o c c u r s when t h e same cues have meaning f o r two p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i ndependen t c I u s t e r s . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l i t y c l u s t e r s i n G, , G „ , G 7 a n d G,- t h e r e a r e v i 1 ' Z ' 3 5 one o r more c u e s , and i n each G e n e r a l F a c t o r one o f the t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f cues shows a c l e a r p r edom inance . In G^ and G^ t h e r e l a t e d cues a r e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y f r om the V e r b a l C o n t e n t s ubg roup . In t he o n l y r e l a t e d cues a r e f rom t h e V o i c e s u b g r o u p , w h i l e in G 7 o n l y V i s u a l cues a p p e a r . 66. One i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s f i n d i n g i s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i n an i m p r e s s i o n a r e based on d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s e n s o r y i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y has o n l y t e n t a t i v e s u p p o r t , s i n c e t h e t e n d e n c y f o r cues in t h e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s t o c l e a v e i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y c l u s t e r s may have a r i s e n f rom u n i n t e n t i o n a l b i a s e s i n t h e s c a l e s u s ed . I t may be , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t Ne r vou sne s s i s conveyed as much by V o i c e cues as by V i s u a l c u e s , bu t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e V o i c e cues may not have been d e s c r i b e d by any o f t h e s c a l e s t h a t t he s u b j e c t s were g i v e n . A second d i f f i c u l t y in i n t e r p r e t i n g t he impo r t ance o f s e n s o r y c h a n n e l s in t h e i n f e r e n c e s made i s t he c o r r e l a t i o n a l d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y . The d e s i g n i s i n a d e q u a t e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c a u s a l r e l a -t i o n s h i p s between cues and p e r s o n a l i t y i n f e r e n c e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s and C u l t u r e a r e t h e o n l y p e r s o n -a l i t y c l u s t e r s t h a t l oad c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h t h e L i k i n g i tem ( 3 2 ) . A p p a r e n t l y t a r g e t s r a t e d as C o n s c i e n t i o u s and h i g h in C u l t u r e t ended a l s o t o be l i k e d by s u b j e c t s , b u t p e r c e i v e d E x t r o v e r s i o n , A g r e e a b I e n e s s and E m o t i o n a l S t a b i l i t y were n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l a t e d t o L i k i n g . F a c t o r P r o f i l e s o f I n d i v i d u a l T a r g e t s and E v i d e n c e f o r B e t w e e n - T a r g e t D i f f e r e n c e s T a b l e s 5 t o 12 wh i ch show t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s f o r t h e e i g h t t a r g e t s , can be summar ized t o s i m p l i f y b e t w e e n - t a r g e t c o m p a r i s o n s o f f a c t o r c o n t e n t . T a b l e 19 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s i x G e n e r a l F a c t o r s f o r e v e r y t a r g e t . The u n f i l l e d s q u a r e s i n d i c a t e f a c t o r s t h a t e i t h e r were no t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y meaningtfiu I I , o r were m e a n i n g f u l bu t s p e c i f i c t o o n l y a few t a r g e t s . The t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s s e v e r a l p o i n t s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e f i r s t and second f a c t o r i n e v e r y a n a l y s i s was a G e n e r a l F a c t o r . T h i s means t h a t i n v a r i a b l y t h e two most i m p o r t a n t components o f i n d i v i d u a l t a r g e t i m p r e s s i o n s were d i m e n s i o n s common t o t h e i m p r e s s i o n s a c r o s s a l l t a r g e t s . 67. TABLE XIX DISTRIBUTION OF THE SIX GENERAL FACTORS IN THE FACTOR STRUCTURES OF THE EIGHT TARGETS T a r g e t B T a r g e t C 2 3 G, G. F. F. 4 3 Gr- G„ F c G, r 10 F11 F12 F13 G 3 G 6 T a r g e t D T a r g e t E T a r g e t F T a r g e t G T a r g e t H T a r g e t I G. G, 4 2 s G 5 G 4 R 6 G 4 G1 G„ '6 G, G 0 G, G c G„ G G 3 G2 G 6 G, G G, 6 4 3 G„ G . G, G^ t v a l u a t i v e : In te I I e c t - 1 n t e g r i t y G Q B r a sh v s . Mi Idmannered 4-G , N e r v o u s , Tense v s . Ca lm, R e l a x e d G, Loud, A c t i v e V o i c e v s . S o f t , P a s s i v e V o i c e 4 G,_ R e c l u s i v e , Q u i e t v s . S o c i a b l e , O u t g o i n g G., D u l l v s . I n t e r e s t i n g o 68. I t i s a l s o c l e a r f rom T a b l e 19 however , t h a t t h e v a r i o u s G e n e r a l F a c t o r s were no t of t h e same impo r t ance f o r each t a r g e t . The f a c t o r d e s c r i b e d as E v a l u a t i v e : In te I I e c t - 1 n t e g r i t y (G^) was pe rhaps t he most c o n s i s t e n t i n t e rms o f i m p o r t a n c e a c r o s s r a t e e s . F o r s i x o f t h e e i g h t t a r g e t s (D and E b e i n g t h e e x c e p t i o n s ) , G^ c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e l a r g e s t f a c t o r . C o n v e r s e l y , G^ and G^ se ldom c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e f i r s t , second o r t h i r d f a c t o r . They t ended t o be o f l e s s e r i m p o r t a n c e ; bu t t h e r e were e x c e p t i o n s , as i n t he f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s o f T a r g e t s B, F, H and I . A s i d e f rom the b e t w e e n - t a r g e t d i f f e r e n c e s in t h e impo r t ance o f G e n e r a l F a c t o r s , t a r g e t i m p r e s s i o n s d i f f e r e d i n t h e s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s t h a t emerged. Some s c a l e c l u s t e r s had no c l e a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaning ( e . g . , T a b l e 8, T a r g e t F, F a c t o r 3) and may no t have r e f e l c t e d s t a b l e r a t i n g t e n d e n c i e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were f a c t o r s t h a t were t he r e s u l t o f two c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l a t e d s c a l e s but w h i c h l a c k e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Most n o t a b l y , a l l t a r g e t s had a f a c t o r in wh i ch t h e s c a l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g f r e q u e n c y and l e n g t h o f pauses in speech were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o a d e d , but t h e r e m a i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y l oaded s c a l e s on t h e s e f a c t o r s showed no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s . The re were some f a c t o r s however , t h a t d i d not meet t h e c r i t e r i a o f G e n e r a l F a c t o r s , b u t wh i ch seemed t o o c o h e r e n t no t t o be a component o f t h e i m p r e s s i o n . Th ree such f a c t o r s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n T a b l e 20. They a r e n o t un ique f a c t o r s s i n c e each c o r r e l a t e s beyond .40 w i t h one o r two o t h e r s , bu t t h e y a r e no t r e p r e s e n t e d as c o n s i s t e n t l y as t h e Gene r a l F a c t o r s . The e i g h t f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s d i f f e r e d then i n both t h e r e l a t i v e s i z e o f s i m i l a r f a c t o r s and f a c t o r c o n t e n t . U n l e s s t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s can be d i s m i s s e d as t h e r e s u l t o f e r r o r v a r i a b i l i t y , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t he p r e s e n t s t udy a r e i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e f a c t o r i n v a r i a n c e r e p o r t e d by o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s ( e . g . Norman, 1963; P a s s i n i and Norman, 1966; K u s s i n e n , 1969; M u l a i k , 1964) . 69. TABLE XX SPECIF IC FACTORS WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL MEANING T a r g e t B, F a c t o r 3 P e r s o n a l Depth R e f l e c t e d in I n t e r e s t s F a c t o r L oad i n g S c a l e D e s c r i p t i o n .41 I n t e r e s t s : Common v s . Unusua l .44 I n t e r e s t s ; T h i n g s I o f t e n do v s . T h i n g s I n e v e r do .32 J e a l o u s v s . Not J e a l o u s .30 Q u i t t i n g , F i c k l e v s . P e r s e v e r i n g .61 A r t i s t i c a l l y I n s e n s i t i v e v s . A r t i s t i c a l l y S e n s i t i v e .36 U n r e f l e c t i v e , Narrow v s . I n t e l l i g e n t .47 C r u d e , B o o r i s h v s . P o l i s h e d , R e f i n e d C o r r e l a t e s w i t h T a r g e t C, F a c t o r 10, .42 C o r r e l a t e s w i t h T a r g e t E, F a c t o r 9 , .50 T a r g e t C, F a c t o r 3 Agreement w i t h P o l i t i c a l V iews F a c t o r Load i ng S c a l e D e s c r i p t i o n .70 P o I i t i caI V i ews: D i s a g r e e d v s . Ag reed .38 P o I i t i ca I V i ews : R a d i c a l v s . C o n s e r v a t i v e .39 D i s l i k e d him v s . L i k e d h im .61 D i s s i m i I a r t o me v s . S imi I a r t o me .30 I r r i t a b l e v s . G o o d - n a t u r e d .30 Undependab l t v s . Dependab le C o r r e l a t e s w i t h T a r g e t E, F a c t o r 5 .56 T a r g e t D, F a c t o r 3 A t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f Appea rance and Manner F a c t o r L o a d i n g S c a l e D e s c r i p t i o n .60 Groomi ng: D i sheve1 led v s . Neat .71 F a c e ; U n a t t r a c t i v e v s . A t t r a c t i v e .47 Speech : S l u r r e d v s , D i s t i n c t .32 P a u s e s : R e g u l a r v s , , 1 r r c g u 1 a r .40 V o i c e : Monotone vs , , E x p r e s s i v e .31 V o i c e : B l a r i n g v s . Resonant .30 1 d i s 1 i ked h im v s . 1 1 i ke d h i m .30 Undependab le v s . Dependab le .63 C r u d e , B o o r i s h v s . Po1 i s h e d , Ref i ned C o r r e l a t e s w i t h T a r g e t H, F a c t o r 9 , .42 70. The r o l e o f e r r o r c o u l d not be e v a l u a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y , b u t t h e r e was n o n - s t a t i s t i c a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e d e p a r t u r e s f r om i n v a r i a n c e were no t due m e r e l y t o c h a n c e . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h i s s t u d y and t h o s e r e p o r t i n g f a c t o r i n v a r i a n c e were c o n s i d e r e d . Were t h e r e any un i que a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o c e d u r e o r a n a l y s i s t h a t wou ld l ead t o t he p a r t i c u l a r d e p a r t u r e s f rom i n v a r i a n c e o b t a i n e d ? The a n a l y s i s o f t h e e i g h t t a r g e t r a t i n g s s i n g l y , r a t h e r t h a n as a g roup s t a n d s o u t as a p o s s i b i l i t y . An e m p i r i c a l p r e c e d e n t f o r c e r t a i n m e t h o d o l o g y - t o - d a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s d i s c u s s e d be l ow. Osgood e t a_l_ (1957) r e p o r t o b t a i n i n g t h r e e g e n e r a l s e m a n t i c f a c t o r s when r a t i n g s of v e r b a l c o n c e p t s on b i p o l a r s c a l e s were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d , p r o v i ded  t h a t r a t i n g s were summed o v e r both s u b j e c t s and c o n c e p t s w i t h i n each r a t i n g p o p u l a t i o n . In d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s , t h e t h r e e f a c t o r s were r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t in s i z e , r e g a r d l e s s o f the s e t o f c o n c e p t s r a t e d o r t h e s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n . Tha t i s , t h e E v a l u a t i v e d i m e n s i o n u s u a l l y a c c o u n t e d f o r one h a l f t o t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f t h e common v a r i a n c e , t h e P o t e n c y d i m e n s i o n a c c o u n t e d f o r h a l f as much v a r i a n c e as t h e f i r s t , and t h e A c t i v i t y d i m e n s i o n was equa l t o o r s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r in magn i t ude t h a n the s e c o n d . Any o t h e r f a c t o r s e x t r a c t e d t y p i c a l l y a c c o u n t e d f o r no more t h a n h a l f t h e amount o f v a r i a n c e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e second and t h i r d f a c t o r s . These f i n d i n g s p a r a l l e l t h e f a c t o r i n v a r i a n c e r e p o r t e d by Norman (1963) and o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f p e r s o n a l i t y p e r c e p t i o n . D i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d by Osgood e t aj_ when f a c t o r a n a l y s e s were run i n d i v i d u a l l y f o r 19 r a t e d c o n c e p t s (Osgood, e_t aj_, 1957. pp. 176 -188) . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h r e e d e p a r t u r e s f r om i n v a r i a n c e were a p p a r e n t . F i r s t , t he c o r r e l a t i o n s between p a i r s o f r a t i n g s c a l e s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t r a t e d . A p p a r e n t l y s c a l e s go t o g e t h e r in d i f f e r e n t ways f o r d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s . Fo r e x a m p l e , g r a c e f u I (awkward) goes p o s i t i v e l y 71 . w i t h s o f t (hard_) f o r t h e c o n c e p t FAMILY L I F E , bu t n e g a t i v e l y f o r t h e c o n c e p t KNIFE. In a d d i t i o n , meanings of s c a l e s change depend ing on t h e c o n c e p t b e i n g j u d g e d . Sharp ( d u J J ) a p p l i e d t o ME c o r r e l a t e s h i g h l y w i t h words l i k e s u c c e s s -fu I ( u n s u c c e s s f u I ) , bu t a p p l i e d t o KNIFE i t c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h words l i k e rough ( smoo th ) . A second f i n d i n g o f t h e s e a u t h o r s was t h a t t h e same f a c t o r ( e . g . , E v a l u a t i v e ) wou ld show c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a b i l i t y in i m p o r t a n c e , both in te rms o f t he a b s o l u t e amount o f t o t a l v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r and t h e amount a c c o u n t e d f o r r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r f a c t o r s . W h i l e t h e e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r was t h e most :. i m p o r t a n t one f o r most c o n c e p t s , t h e r e were some e x c e p t i o n s . Fo r e x a m p l e , a S t a b i l i t y f a c t o r was t h e most i m p o r t a n t one f o r BOULDER, P o t e n c y was l a r g e s t f o r T IME, and A c t i v i t y was l a r g e s t f o r ME. F i n a l l y , Osgood, et_ aj_ f ound t h a t t h e t h r e e g e n e r a l s e m a n t i c f a c t o r s were no t i n v a r i a b l y p r e s e n t , as t hey had been in a n a l y s e s t h a t c o l l a p s e d r a t i n g s o v e r c o n c e p t s . F o r e v e r y c o n c e p t j udged t h e r e was an E v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r bu t p a r t i c u l a r s c a l e s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s f a c t o r v a r i e d m a r k e d l y . The P o t e n c y f a c t o r was a b s e n t f o r two of t he 19 r a t e d c o n c e p t s (KN IFE , DAWN) and f o r e l e v e n o f t he c o n c e p t s t h e r e was no A c t i v i t y f a c t o r ( e . g . FOREIGNER, S IN ) . In t h e s e e l e v e n a n a l y s e s t he A c t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c seemed t o be d i s t r i b u t e d abou t o t h e r f a c t o r s . The f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s o b t a i n e d when r a t i n g s o f v e r b a l c o n c e p t s are-i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y a n a l y z e d show s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s t hen t o t h e d i f f e r i n g f a c t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s when r a t i n g s o f human t a r g e t s a r e a n a l y z e d i n t h e s e two ways. A n a l y s i s o f r a t i n g s summed a c r o s s many c o n c e p t s g i v e s a s e t o f f a c t o r s wh i ch a r e s t a b l e in c o n t e n t and s i z e , as does a n a l y s i s of r a t i n g s summed o v e r human t a r g e t s . A n a l y s i s o f r a t i n g s f o r i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e p t s r e s u l t s in f a c t o r s wh i ch a r e v a r i a b l e in c o n t e n t and s i z e , as does a n a l y s i s 72. o f r a t i n g s f o r i n d i v i d u a l human t a r g e t s . T h i s makes i t p l a u s i b l e t o a t t r i b u t e some o f t h e d e p a r t u r e s f r om f a c t o r i n v a r i a n c e i n t he p r e s e n t s t u d y t o t h e use o f s e p a r a t e a n a l y s e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l t a r g e t d a t a . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f v a r i a b i l i t y in f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e as a s y s t ema t i c -phenomenon wouId be f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d i f d e v i a t i o n s f rom a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n t a r g e t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . To t h i s end some of t h e d a t a f o r t a r g e t s showing ' •actor i r r e g u l a r i t i e s was c l o s e l y e x a m i n e d . V a r i a b i l i t y in F a c t o r S i z e . T a r g e t s D and E were s e l e c t e d as t he r a t e e s f o r whom d e v i a t i o n s f r om t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f f a c t o r s i z e appeared g r e a t e s t . In T a r g e t D ' s f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e G^, t y p i c a l l y t h e l a r g e s t , ranked s e v e n t h i n terms o f s i z e . The second G e n e r a l F a c t o r ( G ? ) r anked as l a r g e s t . The f i r s t G e n e r a l F a c t o r was s i m i l a r l y d i s p l a c e d i n T a r g e t E ' s f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e , bu t i n t h i s c a se i t was t h e f o u r t h G e n e r a l F a c t o r t h a t was dom inan t . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e a n o m a l i e s were made in terms o f raw s c o r e means ( see T a b l e 1) and s c a l e - p a i r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e i tems s a l i e n t t o t h e f a c t o r s in q u e s t i o n . T a r g e t D. The means f o r a l l t h e s c a l e s d e f i n i n g G^ and G^ ( see T a b l e s 13 and 14) and f o r any a d d i t i o n a l s c a l e s l o a d i n g on T a r g e t D ' s f i r s t and e i g h t h f a c t o r s were i n s p e c t e d . I t was rea soned t h a t i f a t a r g e t was p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g ex t r eme on some a t t r i b u t e , r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r t a r g e t s , t h i s m i gh t a f f e c t s u b j e c t s ' a t t e n t i o n t o t h a t a t t r i b u t e and o t h e r r e l a t e d o n e s . These d i f f e r e n c e s in a t t e n t i o n wou ld in t u r n a f f e c t r a t i n g s in such a way t h a t the u sua l f a c t o r p a t t e r n s wou ld be u p s e t . S i n c e t h e f a c t o r a n a l y s e s make use o f s t a n d a r d s c o r e s , b e t w e e n - t a r g e t d i f f e r e n c e s i n raw s c o r e means on a p a r t i c u l a r s c a l e a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y i ndependen t o f d i f f e r e n c e s in c o r r e l a t i o n s and f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s . The e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t T a r g e t D would have ex t reme ( v e r y h i gh o r v e r y low) mean r a t i n g s f o r most i tems on t h e B r a s h - M i l d - m a n n e r e d f a c t o r , was no t borne o u t . In f a c t on most s c a l e s s a l i e n t t o G t h e means f o r t h i s r a t e e were t h i r d , f o u r t h o r f i f t h h i g h e s t on an o r d e r e d contimuum of means f o r t h e e i g h t t a r g e t s . The same was t r u e f o r most s c a l e means s a l i e n t t o t h e f a c t o r . However , a few p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n s t a n c e s of ex t reme means d i d e x i s t . T a r g e t D was r a t e d somewhat low on two G^ s c a l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o P o l i t i c a l V i e w s . These were t h e i tem r e f l e c t i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t h e one w i t h p o l e s l a b e l l e d DuI I - 1 n t e r e s t i n g . In a d d i t i o n t h e i tem on I n t e r e s t s , Common v s . Unusua l (wh i ch d i d no t u s u a l l y l oad on t h e B r a s h - M i l d - m a n n e r e d f a c t o r , b u t d i d f o r T a r g e t D) had a h i g h e r mean t h a n f o r a l l o t h e r t a r g e t s bu t one . Pe rhap s s u b j e c t s remembered t h i s t a r g e t p r i m a r i l y i n te rms o f h i s i n t e r e s t because t h e l a t t e r were p e r c e i v e d as r a t h e r u n u s u a l , w h i l e h i s e x p o s i t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l v i ews was f ound t o be both a b s t r u s e and d u l l . T h i s r a t h e r l a b o u r e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g a i n s some s t r e n g t h f rom c o r r e l a t i o n s and f a c t o r l o a d i n g s . I tern 40 (Head s t r ong v s . M i l d , G e n t l e ) , t y p i c a l l y a v e r y i m p o r t a n t s c a l e on G^, c o r r e l a t e s 0 .38 w i t h Common v s . Unusua l I n t e r e s t s f o r T a r g e t D, b u t f o r no o t h e r t a r g e t does t h i s s c a l e p a i r c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i -c a n t l y . F o r some rea son the n a t u r e o f t h i s t a r g e t ' s i n t e r e s t s were u n i q u e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e H e a d s t r o n g v s . M i l d , G e n t l e . The The a u t h o r ' s knowledge o f t h e e x a c t v e r b a l c o n t e n t on t he e i g h t t a p e s p e r m i t s s p e c u l a t i o n abou t a p o s s i b l e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s . T a r g e t D was t h e o n l y t a r g e t who d e s c r i b e d i n t e r e s t s t h a t c o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d as in t h e F i n e A r t s . O t h e r s c i t e d t r a v e l , r e a d i n g , v a r i o u s s p o r t s - t h i n g s l e s s l i k e l y t o be p e r c e i v e d as r e l e v a n t t o " m i l d n e s s " . A l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t he i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u g g e s t e d i s t h e e x c e e d i n g l y h i g h l o a d i n g o f i tem 25 on T a r g e t D ' s G 1 f a c t o r . T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e n o t i o n t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p o l i t i c a l v i ews was an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e f o r T a r g e t D, As T a b l e 13 shows, t h i s l o a d i n g (.75) was h i g h e r t h a n t h e s c a l e had on any o t h e r i n s t a n c e o f G . , and i t was a h i g h e r l o a d i n g t h a n any o t h e r s c a l e had 74. on T a r g e t D ' s e i g h t h f a c t o r . If G^ i s a f a c t o r based p r i m a r i l y on v e r b a l c o n t e n t o f p o l i t i c a l v i e w s , i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t a f e e l i n g o f c o n f u s i o n about what was s a i d m i g h t weaken t h e a s s o c i a t e d i m p r e s s i o n s . T a r g e t E. The means f o r s c a l e s l o a d i n g on T a r g e t E ' s f i r s t , t h i r d and f i f t h f a c t o r were compared t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g means f o r t h e seven o t h e r t a r g e t s . F o r a l l t h r e e f a c t o r s a number o f key s c a l e s were found t o have e x t r eme means. The seven V o i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s wh i ch loaded on T a r g e t E ' s l a r g e s t f a c t o r showed a s i m p l e p a t t e r n w i t h r e s p e c t t o e x t r e m i t y . The r a t e e was a t t r i b u t e d t h e s o f t e s t , l o w e s t , most r e s o n a n t v o i c e , t he second most i n d i s -t i n c t speech and g e n t l e v o i c e , and t h e t h i r d s l o w e s t and monotone e x p r e s s i o n . Thus he was c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d t owa rd one p o l e on a l l a t t r i b u t e s c o m p r i s i n g t h e G^ f a c t o r . The re was no compa rab l e u n i f o r m i t y f o r o t h e r t a r g e t s on t h e s e s c a l e s . Pe rhap s t he f a c t t h a t i n t h i s one c a s e t he c o g n i t i v e l y r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s had a c o r r e s p o n d i n g o b j e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , made t h e c l u s t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y s a l i e n t and c o h e r e n t t o s u b j e c t s . The two i n s t a n c e s o f G^ t h a t appeared in T a r g e t E ' s a n a l y s i s o c c u r r e d as t he t h i r d and f i f t h f a c t o r s . The s e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s g e n e r a l f a c t o r i n t o two f a c t o r s can be shown t o be p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l . W h i l e E ' s t h i r d f a c t o r i n c l u d e s s c a l e s d e s c r i p t i v e o f how we I I he e x p r e s s e d h i m s e l f ( 1 1 , 14, 16, 20 , 23 , 25 , 2 7 ) , h i s f i f t h f a c t o r r e f l e c t s r e a c t i o n s t o s u b s t a n t i v e c o n t e n t o f what he s a i d ( 2 1 , 2 3 , 24, 2 8 , 2 9 ) . S i m i l a r i t y s c a l e s and s c a l e s f rom t h e A g r e e a b I e n e s s p e r s o n a l i t y c l u s t e r a r e s a l i e n t o n l y f o r t h e f i f t h f a c t o r . Common t o t h e two f a c t o r s a r e t h e L i k i n g s c a l e , two s c a l e s in t h e C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s p e r s o n a l i t y c l u s t e r and two i n t h e C u l t u r e c l u s t e r . None of t he means f o r T a r g e t E were ex t reme f o r s c a l e s s a l i e n t o n l y t o the t h i r d f a c t o r . T h a t i s , t h e r a t e e was p e r c e i v e d as e x p r e s s i n g h i m s e l f m o d e r a t e l y 75. w e l l r e l a t i v e t o t h e o t h e r s . F o r s c a l e s s a l i e n t o n l y t o t h e f i f t h f a c t o r t h e p i c t u r e i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . T h i s t a r g e t ' s p o l i t i c a l v i e w s were r a t e d by f a r t h e most r a d i c a l (24) and d i s a g r e e a b l e (21) o f any ; he was p e r c e i v e d as t h e T a r g e t most d i s s i m i l a r t o t h e s u b j e c t (33) and he was c o n s i d e r e d t h e most i r r i t a b l e ( 3 8 ) , h e a d s t r o n g ( 4 0 ) , n e g a t i v i s t i c (41) and u n s c r u p u l o u s (44) o f t h e r a t e e s . S u b j e c t s were a p p a r e n t l y f a c e d w i t h a pe r son who was e x p r e s s i n g d i s a g r e e a b l e i d e a s , bu t s t a t i n g them a t l e a s t m o d e r a t e l y w e l l . T h e i r impre s -s i o n s emerge as two i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r g a n i z e d c l u s t e r s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e more t y p i c a l s i n g l e l a r g e one . A n o t h e r way o f s t a t i n g t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would be t o say t h a t s u b j e c t s were f a c e d w i t h a c o g n i t i v e i n c o n s i s t e n c y o r imba l ance wh i ch t hey r e s o l v e d t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ( A b e l s o n , 1959) . A " c o n s i s t e n t " i m p r e s s i o n c o u l d be d e f i n e d as one a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s ' i m p l i c i t t h e o r y , o r e x p e c t a t i o n o f what a t t r i b u t e s u s u a l l y go t o g e t h e r . A n a r r o w e r d e f i n i t i o n , a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s ca se wou ld r e q u i r e t h a t a f f e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s be i n v o l v e d i n t h e i m p l i c i t t h e o r y . V a r i a b i l i t y in F a c t o r C o n t e n t . The t h r e e f a c t o r s d e s c r i b e d i n T a b l e 20 a r e e v i d e n c e o f v a r i a b i l i t y in f a c t o r c o n t e n t as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e r a t e e . The raw s c o r e means were a g a i n t h e main t o o l used f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e t a r g e t d i f f e r e n c e s . P e r s o n a l Depth in I n t e r e s t s . The t h i r d l a r g e s t f a c t o r in T a r g e t B ' s a n a l y s i s was l a b e l l e d " P e r s o n a l Depth i n I n t e r e s t s " . I t encompassed f i v e P e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s and two s c a l e s c o n c e r n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f I n t e r e s t s . I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e o r d e r e d means f o r t h e e i g h t t a r g e t s on t h e s e s c a l e s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r a t e e was c o n s i d e r e d t h e l e a s t J e a l o u s , t h e most p e r s e v e r i n g , t h e most i n t e l l i g e n t and the most p o l i s h e d o f t h e g r oup . However, h i s mean s c o r e s on t h e two I n t e r e s t s c a l e s were no t e x t r e m e . The s p e c i a l c l u s t e r i n g o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d no t be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e un i quene s s o f t h e t a r g e t ' s e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t s , o r whe the r t h e s u b j e c t s t h e m s e l v e s pu r sued t h e s e i n t e r e s t s . P e r h a p s t h e f a c t o r a r o s e f rom some a s p e c t o f what t h e t a r g e t s a i d t h a t was r e l a t e d t o , bu t no t d i r e c t l y d e s c r i b e d by , t h e s e two s c a l e s . T u r n i n g t o t h e t r a n s c r i p t o f t h e t a r g e t ' s t a p e , one f i n d s t h a t he d e s c r i b e d h i s m a j o r i n t e r e s t as t r a v e l l i n g f o r pu rpo se s o f b r o a d e n i n g h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p e o p l e . Some o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s s pon taneous comments about t h e r a t e e s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e was i ndeed s o m e t h i n g i n t h i s d i s c o u r s e t h a t s u g g e s t e d c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s n o t t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s . One s u b j e c t w r o t e , " Even when s p e a k i n g o f h i s p o l i t i c a l v i e w s . . ' " . A n o t h e r s t a t e d , " R a t h e r t han l o v i n g h i s b r o t h e r i t seems he would be i n c l i n e d t o s t u d y h i m . " However, t h e r e was no s c a l e on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t c o u l d c a p t u r e t h i s a s p e c t o f V e r b a l C o n t e n t , j u s t as t h e r e was no s c a l e d e s c r i b i n g t h a t q u a l i t y o f T a r g e t D ' s i n t e r e s t s t h a t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s m i l d and g e n t l e . A p p a r e n t l y t h e n , some f a c t o r v a r i a b i l i t y r e f l e c t e d t h e c o m p l e x i t y and d i v e r s i t y o f T a r g e t s ' e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t s . P r o b a b l y a l m o s t any a s p e c t o f p e r s o n a l i t y can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a P e r s o n a l I n t e r e s t , whereas P o l i t i c a l V iews seem i n h e r e n t l y r e l a t e d t o i n t e l l e c t u a l and mora l p e r s o n a l i t y components . Had t he I n t e r e s t s s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d s c a l e s t h a t c a t e g o r i z e d t h e s e a c t i v i t e s ( e . g . , s p o r t s , m u s i c , a r t ) , more r e l i a b l e c o n s i s t e n c i e s between s t a t e d i n t e r e s t s and p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s m i g h t have emerged. The re wou ld then have been l e s s v a r i a b i l i t y i n f a c t o r c o n t e n t , bu t no t n e c e s s a r i l y i n f a c t o r s i z e . F a c t o r v a r i a b i l i t y as found in t h e c o n t e n t o f D ' s f i r s t f a c t o r and B ' s t h i r d f a c t o r i s c o n s e q u e n t l y i n t e r p r e t e d as t r i v i a l i n meaning and no t a r e f l e c t i o n o f b a s i c p r o c e s s e s . 77. Agreement w i t h P o l i t i c a l V i e w s . T h i s f a c t o r bea r s some r e semb l ance t o T a r g e t E ' s f i f t h f a c t o r , and l i k e the l a t t e r i t w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d as t he r e s u l t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . T h i s r a t e e was a s s e s s e d as h a v i n g somewhat r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l v i ews ( a l t h o u g h l e s s e x t r eme t h a n T a r g e t E ) , w i t h wh i ch s u b j e c t s were in o n l y ba re ag reement . However, l i k e T a r g e t E, T a r g e t C was p e r c e i v e d as e x p r e s s i n g h i m s e l f w e l l and in an i n t e r e s t i n g , u n d e r s t a n d a b l e way. I terns c o n c e r n i n g s p e a k i n g s t y l e ( 16 , 20 , 2 3 , 2 5 , 27) g rouped on t h e t a r g e t s l a r g e s t f a c t o r , whi le on t h e f o u r t h f a c t o r t h e two i tems c o n c e r n i n g s u b s t a n t i v e c o n t e n t of p o l i t i c a l v i ews ( 2 1 , 24) were s a l i e n t . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t h e s e two a s p e c t s o f t h e t a r g e t ' s p o l i t i c a l v i e w s because t h e y were p e r c e i v e d as d i s c r e p a n t . A t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f Appea rance and Manner . I t was no t c l e a r why t h i s g r o u p i n g o f s c a l e s emerges in T a r g e t D ' s a n a l y s i s . From T a b l e 1 i t can be seen t h a t t h e r a t e e was j u d g e d t o have t he most a t t r a c t i v e f a c e o f any t a r g e t . S i n c e t h i s s c a l e ( i t e m 4) was the i tem w i t h t h e h i g h e s t l o a d i n g on D ' s t h i r d f a c t o r , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o p o s t u l a t e t h a t t h e f a c t o r ' s impo r t ance r e s u l t e d f rom unusua l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e t a r g e t ' s a p p e a r a n c e . However , an e x p l a n a t i o n i n te rms o f a t t e n t i o n canno t a c c o u n t f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a un i que f a c t o r . An i n s p e c t i o n o f s c a l e p a i r c o r r e l a t i o n s showed t h a t t h e t h r e e v o i c e v a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b e d by s c a l e s 14, 16, and 18, were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s s c a l e (4) f o r T a r g e t D. But f o r each o f t h e seven r e m a i n i n g t a r g e t s , f a c e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s was r e l a t e d t o a t most one of t h e s e V o i c e a t t r i b u t e s . Why do r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x i s t in t h e p e r c e p -t i o n o f one t a r g e t bu t not i n o t h e r s ? To say t h a t s c a l e meanings can change when a p p l i e d t o d i f f e r e n t t a r g e t s seems t o beg t h e q u e s t i o n . A s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , bu t one w i t h i n t e r e s t i n g r a m i f i c a t i o n s , i s o f f e r e d . The s c a l e c l u s t e r b r i n g s t o t h e a u t h o r ' s mind a c e r t a i n t y p e o f 78. p e r s o n - he c o u l d be c a l l e d t h e T h e s p i a n . Pe rhap s r a t e r s have menta l s t e r o -t y p e s c o n s i s t i n g o f a t t r i b u t e c l u s t e r s , wh i ch c u t a c r o s s the more g e n e r a l t r a i t a s s o c i a t i o n s . Suppose t h e s e c l u s t e r s e x i s t and a r e evoked by an i n d i v i d u a l t a r g e t who has a c e r t a i n s u b s e t o f t he c l u s t e r ' s d e f i n i n g a t t r i b u t e s . T h e n , c o n t r a r y t o t h e t h e s i s o f W i s hne r ( 1 9 6 0 ) , W a l t e r s and J a c k s o n (1964) and o t h e r s , i n f e r e n c e s f rom s t i m u l u s a t t r i b u t e s wou ld no t a lway s be p r e d i c t a b l e f rom knowledge o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a t t r i b u t e s . C o m b i n a t i o n s o f t r a i t s wh i ch evoked a s t e r e o t y p e wou ld imp ly o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s t e r e o -t y p e a l t h o u g h t h e s e wou ld no t n e c e s s a r i l y be i m p l i e d by t h e t r a i t s t a k e n s i n g l y . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in f a c t o r s i z e and c o n t e n t r e l y h e a v i l y on c o n j e c t u r e , bu t c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . Th ree p r o c e s s e s have been s u g g e s t e d t o a c c o u n t f o r b e t w e e n - t a r g e t f a c t o r v a r i a b i l i t y . D i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t e n t i o n as an outcome o f e x t r e m i t y i n some key c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c . The r e l a t i v e s i z e o f f a c t o r s may be a f f e c t e d by a t y p e o f c o n t r a s t phenomenon. If a t a r g e t i s in some r e s p e c t o u t s t a n d i n g r e l a t i v e t o c ompa r i s on t a r g e t s , more a t t e n t i o n may be g i v e n t o t h i s ex t reme a t t r i b u t e and r e l a t e d a t t r i b u t e s . As a r e s u l t t he c l u s t e r o f a t t r i b u t e s becomes more i m p o r t a n t t han i s u s u a l , a l t h o u g h i t s b a s i c c o n t e n t wou ld no t be a l t e r e d . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n was p o s t u l a t e d t o a c c o u n t f o r T a r g e t E ' s a t y p i c a l l y l a r g e v o i c e f a c t o r . E s s e n t i a l l y t h e same phenomenon was used t o e x p l a i n t h e s m a l l s i z e o f T a r g e t D ' s e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r . In t h i s ca se i t appea red t h a t s u b j e c t s a t t e n d e d l e s s t o a group o f a t t r i b u t e s t han u sua l because t h e c o n t e n t of what t h e t a r g e t s a i d was d u l l and/or d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d . The re may be key a t t r i b u t e s in some c l u s t e r s wh ich must a t t a i n a minimum l e v e l o f i n t e n s i t y i f t h e a t t r i b u t e s a r e t o be g i v e n t h e u sua l amount o f a t t e n t i o n . 79. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of an a t t r i b u t e c l u s t e r r e s u l t i n g f r om i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t he t a r g e t ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . When t h e r e i s a s e r i o u s d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e t a r g e t s a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a c l u s t e r o f t a r g e t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x p e c t e d by s u b j e c t s , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e c l u s t e r may r e s u l t . Tha t i s , two u n i f i e d c l u s t e r s i ndependen t f rom each o t h e r w i l l form w i t h t h e i n c o n s i s t e n t a t t r i b u t e s eme rg i n g i n d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s . The o r i g i n a l f a c t o r t hen becomes two , each one reduced in s i z e and r e t a i n i n g o n l y p a r t of t h e o r i g i n a l ' s c o n t e n t . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n was used t o a c c o u n t f o r p e c u l i a r i t i e s in t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s o f T a r g e t s C and E. In bo th c a s e s i t was t h e f i r s t G e n e r a l F a c t o r t h a t was d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . E v o c a t i o n o f a s t e r e o t y p e by a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s . I f c e r t a i n o f a t a r g e t ' s a t t r i b u t e s c a l l up a s t e r e o t y p e in s u b j e c t s ' m i n d s , t h e c l u s t e r o f a t t r i b u t e s wh i ch make up t h e s t e r e o t y p e may emerge as a f a c t o r . Thus , c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s wh i ch a r e not u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i l l become so t h r o u g h t h e m e d i a t i n g r e c o l l e c t i o n o f a c e r t a i n " t y p e " . Fo r any i n d i v i d u a l r a t e r i t may be t h e r e s emb l ance o f t h e t a r g e t t o a s p e c i f i c a q u a i n t a n c e t h a t e l i c i t s an unusua l p a t t e r n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n was used t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e emergence o f T a r g e t D ' s t h i r d f a c t o r . I t s h o u l d be empha s i zed t h a t t h e common f a c t o r a n a l y t i c d e s i g n wh i ch c o l l a p s e s r a t i n g s o v e r t a r g e t s as w e l l as s u b j e c t s wou ld c o n c e a l any p r o c e s s e s such as t h o s e o u t l i n e d above. Each o f t h e t h r e e phenomena p o s t u l a t e d i s p a r t l y a f u n c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e s . However , t h e method of a n a l y z i n g each t a r g e t ' s r a t i n g s i n d e p e n d e n t l y i s a l s o i n a d e q u a t e . I n t e r a c t i o n s between t a r g e t s and s c a l e s were no t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e v e a l e d by the a n a l y s i s a l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l t a r g e t d i f f e r e n c e s i m p l i e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f such i n t e r a c t i o n s . 80. T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f D i f f e r e n c e s between T a r g e t ' s F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e s . Two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t r a i t ne two rk s were d i s c u s s e d in t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n . The t r a i t i n f e r e n c e h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t p e o p l e l e a r n f rom s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e wh i ch t r a i t s t e n d t o " go t o g e t h e r " . I n d i v i d u a l s t hu s d e v e l o p i m p l i c i t p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r i e s ; e v e r y t r a i t comes t o imply e v e r y o t h e r t r a i t w i t h a c e r t a i n p r o b a b i l i t y . The e m p i r i c a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d s t a b i l i t y o f t h e s e p r o b a b i -l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s led t o t h e a d d i t i o n a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e t h e o r i e s a r e v i r t u a l l y u n i v e r s a l ( P a s s i n i and Norman, 1966) . The second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t a t e s t h a t t r a i t names a r e r e l a t e d by v i r t u e o f o v e r l a p in t h e meanings o f the word s . S t a b i l i t y o f t r a i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s by t h i s h y p o t h e s i s a r gue s f o r t he s t a b i l i t y o f word mean ings under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . What then a r e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t a r g e t s ' f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s ? The a u t h o r knows of no s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e i n f e r e n t i a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t wou ld s p e c i f i c a l l y p r e d i c t d i f f e r e n c e s between t a r g e t s ' f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s . However , t he g e n e r a l n o t i o n o f l e a r n e d i n f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d e a s i l y be m o d i f i e d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , m i g h t be e x p l a i n e d as f o l l o w s . C e r t a i n g roups o f t r a i t s have f r e q u e n t l y been e x p e r i e n c e d as c o e x i s t i n g bu t s y s t e m a t i c d e v i a t i o n s f r om t h e t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e have a l s o been e n c o u n t e r e d . A Q u e b e c S e p a r a t i s t may f i n d t h a t most i n te I I i g e n t , s c r u p u l o u s and i n t e r e s t i ng peop Ie he has known a r e a l s o S e p a r a t i s t s . O c c a s i o n a l l y i n te I I i g en t and i n t e r e s t i ng Ot tawa s u p p o r t e r s a r e e n c o u n t e r e d bu t he f i n d s t h a t t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s a r e u n s c r u p u l o u s . S t e r e o t y p e s may s i m i l a r l y be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e g e n e r a l r u l e o f t r a i t c o v a r i a t i o n o r t h e " g e n e r a l r u l e " may s i m p l y be t h e a ve r a ge of i n numerab l e s t e r e o t y p e s . The s e m a n t i c o v e r l a p h y p o t h e s i s o f t r a i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s can a l s o be m o d i f i e d t o a l l o w f o r v a r i a b i l i t y a c r o s s t a r g e t f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s . F o l l o w i n g t he example 81. o f Osgood e t aj_, one may assume t h a t t r a i t names t a k e on d i f f e r e n t meanings when a p p l i e d t o d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . Thus i n te I I i g en t i s a p p l i e d in a nar row sen se i f t a r g e t and r a t e r have d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s . I t means we I I - spoken b u t no t i ns i g h t f u I and t h e s e two shades o f meaning d i f f e r in t h e i r deg ree o f s e m a n t i c o v e r l a p w i t h o t h e r t r a i t names. The r e s u l t s can be v e r y b r i e f l y summar ized as f o l l o w s . The d a t a p r o v i d e d o n l y p a r t i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t he f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e e i g h t t a r g e t s wou ld be t h e same. The number o f f a c t o r s v a r i e d o n l y s l i g h t l y f r o m one t a r g e t t o a n o t h e r and t he g e n e r a l f a c t o r s a r e e v i d e n c e f o r s i m i l a r i t y in f a c t o r c o n t e n t a c r o s s t a r g e t s . However, s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s were a l s o a p p a r e n t . F a c t o r s w i t h s i m i l a r c o n t e n t somet imes v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n s i z e f rom t a r g e t t o t a r g e t : some f a c t o r s w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e n t were r e p r e s e n t e d i n t he s t r u c t u r e s o f o n l y two o r t h r e e t a r g e t s . S t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between cues and p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and t h e r e was d a t a s u g g e s t i n g t h a t d i f f e r e n t c l u s t e r s o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s e n s o r y i n f o r m a t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e p e r s o n a l i t y c l u s t e r s o b t a i n e d in pe r son p e r c e p t i o n s t u d i e s u s i n g the same 20 p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s were r e p r e s e n t e d q u i t e f a i t h f u l l y in t h e G e n e r a l F a c t o r s . 82. C h a p t e r IV CONCLUSIONS A model can now be p ropo sed t o d e s c r i b e t h e p r o c e s s o f p e r c e i v i n g an i n d i v i d u a l t a r g e t . S t i m u l u s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e T a r g e t . A s t i m u l u s pe r s on o r t a r g e t has a l a r g e number o f a c t u a l a t t r i b u t e s , p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l , wh i ch can p o t e n t i a l l y be measured and a s s i g n e d 3 n a b s o I u t e v a l u e . Each o f t h e t a r g e t ' s a t t r i b u t e s can a l s o p o t e n t i a l l y be a s s i g n e d a £ejjrtjye y_al_ue_, i n te rms o f t h e v a l u e s on t h a t a t t r i b u t e h e l d by a l l o t h e r members of a p o p u l a t i o n . The t a r g e t s a t t r i b u t e s can be d i v i d e d i n t o c l u s t e r s , in wh i ch a l l a t t r i b u t e s h a v i n g t h e same r e l a t i v e v a l u e a r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e same c l u s t e r . Gene r a l c l u s t e r s can a l s o be d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e who le p o p u l a t i o n . A t t r i b u t e s a r e s a i d t o form a g e n e r a l c l u s t e r i f t h e y t e n d t o have t h e same r e l a t i v e v a l u e s w i t h i n a l l t a r g e t s w h i l e v a r y i n g a c r o s s t h e t a r g e t s i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . C l u s t e r s can be s a i d t o v a r y in i m p o r t a n c e , t he l a t t e r b e i n g a f u n c t i o n o f t h e number o f a t t r i b u t e s i n c l u d e d in t h e c l u s t e r and t he s t r e n g t h o f t h e t endency f o r t h e a t t r i b u t e s t o s h a r e r e l a t i v e v a l u e s . In any s i t u a t i o n o n l y a l i m i t e d s u b s e t o f a t a r g e t ! s a t t r i b u t e s a r e m e a s u r e a b l e . The s u b s e t w i l l u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t a nonrandom c o l l e c t i o n f rom t h e t o t a l s e t o f a t t r i b u t e s so t h a t t h e a t t r i b u t e c l u s t e r s t h a t a r e p o t e n t i a l l y d e f i n a b l e i n one s i t u -a t i o n w i l l d i f f e r i n c e r t a i n ways f rom t h o s e t h a t wou ld emerge i f measures o f a l l - a t t r i b u t e s were o b t a i n e d . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e w i l l be f ewe r c l u s t e r s , each w i t h f e w e r a t t r i b u t e s and t h e r e l a t i v e impo r t ance o f one c l u s t e r t o a n o t h e r may be changed . 83 . C o g n i t i v e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e P e r c e i v e r . The p e r c e i v e r can d i s c r i m i n a t e many (bu t no t n e c e s s a r i l y a l l ) o f t h e m e a s u r e a b l e a t t r i b u t e s o f a t a r g e t . He can a s s i g n a b s o I u t e v a l u e s t o t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s in t h e sense o f e s t i m a t i n g j . n . d . ' s f r om a t h r e s h h o I d . The p e r c e i v e r can a l s o a s s i g n the t a r g e t a re I a t i ve v a l u e on each d i s c r i m i nab Ie a t t r i b u t e . T h i s r e l a t i v e v a l u e i s based on t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e s t he p e r c e i v e r has a s s i g n e d t o o t h e r t a r g e t s in whom he has d i s c r i m i n a t e d t h e a t t r i b u t e . That i s , t h e p e r c e i v e r has some memory r e p r e s e n t a t i o n based on p r e v i o u s l y e n c o u n t e r e d t a r g e t s w h i c h e n a b l e s him t o a s s i g n a r e l a t i v e v a l u e t o each o f a t a r g e t ' s p e r c e i v e d a t t r i b u t e s . The p e r c e i v e r can d i v i d e t h e t a r g e t ' s p e r c e i v e d a t t r i b u t e s i n t o c l u s t e r s , each c l u s t e r c o n s i s t i n g o f a t t r i b u t e s s i m i l a r in t h e i r r e l a t i v e v a l u e s . The p e r c e i v e r ' s memory r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s l y e n c o u n t e r e d t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e s i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o g e n e r a l c l u s t e r s . Each c l u s t e r c o n s i s t s o f a t t r i b u t e s wh i ch have f r e q u e n t l y been p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g s i m i l a r r e l a t i v e v a l u e s . W i t h i n such a c l u s t e r t h e r e may be s u b c l u s t e r s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t s y s t e m a t i c e x c e p t i o n s '• t o t he p e r c e i v e d p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i v e v a l u e s have been r e p e a t e d l y e x p e r i e n c e d . A l s o r e p r e s e n t e d in t he p e r c e i v e r ' s memory a r e c l u s t e r s formed from t h e p e r c e i v e d a t t r i b u t e s o f a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l o r c l a s s o f i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e d t o be s i m i I a r . G e n e r a l c l u s t e r s i n t h e memory r e p r e s e n t a t i o n v a r y in i m p o r t a n c e depend i ng on t h e number o f a t t r i b u t e s t h e y i n c l u d e , t h e c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h wh i ch t h e c l u s t e r s a r e p e r c e i v e d , and t h e s a l i e n c e o f t he a t t r i b u t e s in t h e c l u s t e r t o t h e p e r c e i v e r ' - s v a l u e s y s t e m . An i m p o r t a n t c l u s t e r w i l l t e nd t o i n c l u d e many a t t r i b u t e s wh i ch a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g s i m i l a r v a l u e s and wh i ch a r e o f h i g h i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e p e r c e i v e r . 84. The p e r c e i v e r has a l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y f o r a t t e n t i o n and c a n n o t a t t e n d f u l l y and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o a l l a t t r i b u t e s o f a complex s t i m u l u s . H i s a t t e n t i o n a t a g i v e n t i m e w i l l depend on t h r e e t h i n g s : t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f each d i s c r i m i n a b Ie a t t r i b u t e t o t h e p e r c e i v e r ' s v a l u e s y s t e m ; t h e e x t r e m i t y o f each d i s c r i m i n a b Ie a t t r i b u t e ' s r e l a t i v e v a l u e : and t h e e x t e n t t o wh i ch t h e t a r g e t ' s d i s c r i m i nab Ie a t t r i b u t e s fo rm c l u s t e r s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d t o c l u s t e r s in t h e p e r c e i v e r ' s memory. P e r c e p t i o n o f t h e T a r g e t by t h e P e r c e i v e r . In a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n t h e p e r c e i v e r i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a nonrandom s u b s e t o f t h e t a r g e t ' s p o t e n t i a l l y m e a s u r a b l e a t t r i b u t e s . F o r e x a m p l e , in t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e p e r c e i v e r s watched f o u r - m i n u t e v i d e o t a p e s i n wh i ch t h e t a r g e t s t a l k e d abou t t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s manner o f s t i m u l u s p r e s e n t a t i o n undoub-t e d l y emphas i zed c e r t a i n t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e s a t t h e expense o f o t h e r s . F u r t h e r s y s t e m a t i c s e l e c t i o n o f t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e s t a k e s p l a c e as t h e p e r c e i v e r a t t e n d s s e l e c t i v e l y t o t h e complex a r r a y o f s t i m u l i . The r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f each a t t r i b u t e i s a s s e s s e d by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p e r c e i v e r ' s memory r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and t h i s v a l u e in t u r n a f f e c t s s u b s e q u e n t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s . When a t t r i b u t e s r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e g e n e r a l memory c l u s t e r a r e p e r c e i v e d , t h e y t e n d t o be o r g a n i z e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n in memory. T h i s means t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e s o f some a t t r i b u t e s may be d i s t o r t e d t o make t h e a c t u a l p a t t e r n c l o s e t o t h e p a t t e r n in memory and a t t r i b u t e s t h a t a r e no t p r e s e n t in t h e a c t u a l s t i m u l u s a r r a y , b u t wh i ch a r e p r e s e n t in t h e memory c l u s t e r , w i l l be i n f e r r e d . However, i f t h e a c t u a l a t t r i b u t e p a t t e r n i s t o o d i f f e r e n t f rom t h e g e n e r a l memory c l u s t e r t h e t a r g e t w i l l be p e r c e i v e d as an e x c e p t i o n t o t h e r u l e and a t t e m p t s w i l l be made t o i n t e g r a t e the a t t r i b u t e s in te rms o f p a s t e x c e p t i o n s ( e . g . , by t h e p r o c e s s e s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and evoked s t e r e o t y p e s ) . Thus t h e c o n t e n t o f c l u s t e r s i n t o 85. wh i ch t h e p e r c e i v e r o r g a n i z e s the t a r g e t ' s a t t r i b u t e s r e p r e s e n t s an i n t e r -a c t i o n between t h e a c t u a l t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e c l u s t e r s and t h e c l u s t e r s r e p r e -s e n t e d in t h e p e r c e i v e r ' s memory. The impo r t ance o f t h e v a r i o u s c l u s t e r s in t he p e r c e i v e r ' s i m p r e s s i o n s i m i l a r l y r e f l e c t s bo th t a r g e t and p e r c e i v e r a s p e c t s . The a c t u a l t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e c l u s t e r s d i s c r i m i nab Ie in a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r i n impo r t ance p a r t l y due t o s p e c i a l demands o f t h e s i t u a t i o n and p a r t l y due t o t h e impo r t ance o f t h e v a r i o u s c l u s t e r s in t h e t a r g e t ' s t o t a l s e t . The p e r c e i v e r t hen a t t e n d s s e l e c t i v e l y t o t h e s e d i s c r i m i nab Ie a t t r i b u t e c l u s t e r s w i t h h i s a t t e n t i o n p a r t l y c o n t r o l l e d by h i s p e r s o n a l v a l u e s as t o what a t t r i b u t e s a r e i m p o r t a n t . A t t e n t i o n w i l l a l s o be a f u n c t i o n o f s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c m o t i v a -t i o n s , p e r c e i v e d e x t r e m i t y ( "unusua I n e s s " ) o f a t t r i b u t e s , and c o i n c i d e n c e between t h e t a r g e t ' s a t t r i b u t e c l u s t e r s and t h o s e in t h e p e r c e i v e r ' s memory. Thus t h e impo r t ance o f an a t t r i b u t e c l u s t e r can not be p r e d i c t e d s o l e l y f r o m knowledge o f i t s a c t u a l , o b j e c t i v e i m p o r t a n c e in t h e t a r g e t , no r f rom knowledge o f t h e p e r c e i v e r ' s memory r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e c l u s t e r s . The s i x G e n e r a l F a c t o r s o b t a i n e d i n t h e s t udy a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as t he r e s u l t o f g e n e r a l memory r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s wh i ch c o r r e s p o n d e d r e l a t i v e l y w e l l w i t h t he a t t r i b u t e s evoked by t h e s i t u a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t i n s t a n c e s o f each g e n e r a l f a c t o r had o n l y modera te c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r ( ne ve r g r e a t e r t han 0 .75 ) i s t a k e n as a r e f l e c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e " f i t " o f t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e c l u s t e r s t o t h e g e n e r a l memory c l u s t e r s . D i f f e r e n c e s in t h e r e l a t i v e s i z e o f t h e s i x g e n e r a l f a c t o r s in t h e e i g h t t a r g e t s s i m i l a r l y r e f l e c t v a r i a b i l i t y in t h e t a r g e t ' s a c t u a l d i s c r i m i nab Ie a t t r i b u t e c l u s t e r s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t Gene r a l F a c t o r wh i ch emerged as t he l a r g e s t i n most o f t he e i g h t t a r g e t a n a l y s e s w i l l i I l u s t r a t e some o f t h e p ropo sed p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g c l u s t e r i m p o r t a n c e . F i r s t , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n d e f i n e d two a s p e c t s o f t h e t a r g e t as p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t . These were h i s p o l i t i c a l v i e w s and h i s p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t , t he two t o p i c s he was a s ked t o t a l k a b o u t . I t can be p o s t u l a t e d t h a t o f t h e s e two t o p i c s t h e f i r s t i s more c o n s i s t e n t t han t h e second in t h e k i n d o f a t t r i b u t e s t o wh i ch i t r e l a t e s , both i n a c t u a l and memory c l u s t e r s . T h i s i s because p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s , a l m o s t by d e f i n i t i o n , r e f l e c t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y e m p h a s i s , w h i l e p o l i t i c a l c o n c e r n s a r e i n t e g r a l l y bound w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l and mora l m a t t e r s . F i n a l l y , t h e e v a l u a t i v e a s p e c t o f t h i s a t t r i b u t e c l u s t e r v e r y l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s impo r t ance s i n c e e v a l u a t i v e meaning seems t o be a m a j o r f a c e t o f a l l i m p r e s s i o n s . T h i s i s shown by t h e dominance o f t he e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r i n t h e work o f Osgood e t aj_ ( 1 957 ) . T h i s model f o r t h e p e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n p r o c e s s p l a c e s c o n s i d e r a o l e emphas i s on the i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e t a r g e t a t t r i b u t e s and t h e c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s o f t h e p e r c e i v e r . In most pe r son i m p r e s s i o n s t u d i e s t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p has been c o m p l e t e l y n e g l e c t e d because i t i s masked by t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . When t r a i t l i s t s a r e used as s t i m u l i t h e method o v e r l o o k s t h e f a c t t h a t a t r a i t i s m a n i f e s t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways by d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . When a c t u a l p e o p l e o r e used as s t i m u l i , bu t t r a i t r a t i n g s a r e c omb i ned , t h e e f f e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l t a r g e t p e c u l i a r i t i e s a r e a l s o l o s t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e q u e s t i o n o f whe the r t h e r e i s an i n t e r p l a y between t a r g e t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p e r c e i v e r p r o c e s s i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s c r i t i c a l f o r t h e m a j o r t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h e s e s t u d i e s . Do p e r c e i v e d t r a i t s change meaning as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e t r a i t s w i t h wh i ch t hey a r e combined? How p e r v a s i v e i s t h e phenomenon o f f a c t o r i n v a r i a n c e , and how 87. s h o u l d i t be i n t e r p r e t e d ? The m a j o r c o n c l u s i o n drawn f rom t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t a r g e t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s do seem t o a f f e c t t h e pe r s on p e r c e p t i o n p r o c e s s in ways t h a t i n v e s t i g a t o r s o f t h i s p r o c e s s have no t r e c o g n i z e d . A need f o r new d e s i g n s and m e t h o d o l o g i e s e x i s t s i n t he r e s e a r c h a r e a . The method o f i n d i v i d u a l t a r g e t a n a l y s i s p e r m i t s some e v a l u a t i o n o f t he i n t e r a c t i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n t he p r e c e d i n g pa r a g r aph but i t i s no t an o p t i m a l method. F a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f a t h r e e - w a y c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , d i f f e r i n g f rom t h e u sua l two-way m a t r i x by t h e a d d i t i o n o f a t a r g e t d i m e n s i o n , wou ld be one method o f a n a l y s i s s u p e r i o r t o t h a t used i n t he p r e s e n t s t u d y . F a c t o r i a l d e s i g n s c o u l d a l s o be used in t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i o n s . 88. BIBLIOGRAPHY A b e l s o n , R.P. Modes o f r e s o l u t i o n o f b e l i e f d i l e m m a s . J o u r n a l of  Conf I i c t R e s o l u t i o n , 1959, 3_, 343-352. A b e l s o n , R.P. and Se rmat , V. M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l i n g o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1962, 6 3 , 546-554. A l l p o r t , G.W. and C a n t r i l , H. J u d g i n g p e r s o n a l i t y f rom v o i c e . J o u r n a I  o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1939, 43, 37-55. 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I n f e r e n c e o f a t t i t u d e s f r o m nonve rba c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n two c h a n n e l s . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g  P s y c h o l o g y , 1967, 3j_, 248 -252 . 91 . M e h r a b i a n , A. and W i e n e r , M. Decod ing of i n c o n s i s t e n t c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1967, 6, 109-114. Mensh, I.N. and W i s h n e r , J . A s c h ' s " on f o r m i n g i m p r e s s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y " : f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y , 1947, 16, 188-191. M u l a i k , S.A. A r e p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s r a t e r ' s c o n c e p t u a l f a c t o r s ? Journa l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1964, 28 , 506 -511 . Newcomb, T. An e x p e r i m e n t d e s i g n e d t o t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f a r a t i n g t e c h n i a u e . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1931, 2 2 , 279 -289 . Norman, W.T. Toward an adequa te taxonomy o f p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s : r e p l i c a t e d f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s i n pee r n o m i n a t i o n p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s . J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1963, 66 , 574 -583 . Norman, W.T. and G o l d b e r g , L.R. R a t e r s , r a t e e s and randomness i n p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1966, 4 , 4 4 - 49 . Norman, W.T. and H a r s h b a r g e r , T.R. M a t c h i n g components o f s e l f - r e p o r t and p e e r - n o m i n a t i o n p e r s o n a l i t y measu re s . P s y chomet r i k a , 1965, 30 , 481 -490 . Osgood, C . E . , S u c i , G . J . and Tannenbaum, P.H. The Measurement o f  M e a n i n g . U rbana : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1957. P a s s i n i , F.T. and Norman, W.T. A u n i v e r s a l t h e o r y o f p e r s o n a l i t y ? J ou rna I  o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1966, 4_, 4 4 - 49 . Ro sen tha l . . R. C o v e r t c ommun i c a t i o n s and t a c i t u n d e r s t a n d i n g in t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i m e n t . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1967, 356 -367 . Ruckm i ck , C A . A p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y o f t h e e m o t i o n s . P s y c h o l o g i c a I  Monog raphs , 1921, 30_, (No. 3, 3 0 - 3 5 ) . S c h l o s b e r g , H.A. A s c a l e f o r judgement o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . J ou rna I  o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1941, 29_, 497 -510 . S c h l o s b e r g , H.A. The d e s c r i p t i o n o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s i n t e rms o f two d i m e n s i o n s . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1952, 44 , 222 -237 . S c h l o s b e r g , H.A. Th ree d i m e n s i o n s o f e m o t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 1954, 6J_, 81 - 88 . S e c o r d , P.F. F a c i a l f e a t u r e s and i n f e r e n c e p r o c e s s e s i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n . In R. T a g i u r i and L. P e t r u l l o ) E d s . ) , Pe r s on  P e r c e p t i o n and I n t e r p e r s o n a l B e h a v i o r , 1958, pp. 300 -315 . 92. S h a p i r o , J . G . Agreement between c h a n n e l s o f c ommun i c a t i on in i n t e r -v i e w s . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1966, 3 0 , 535 -538 . S k i n n e r , B.F. The v e r b a l summator and a method f o r t h e s t u d y o f l a t e n t s p e e c h . J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1936, 2, 7 1 - 107 . S t r i t c h , T.M. and S e c o r d , P .F . P e r s o n a l i t i e s in f a c e s : IV. I n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s in t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f f a c e s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y , 1956, 24 , 170-284. T a g i u r i , R. P e r s o n p e r c e p t i o n . In G. L i n d z e y and E. A r on son ( E d s . ) , The Handbook o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 2nd e d i t i o n , v o l . 3. R e a d i n g , Ma s s . : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y , 1969. T o r g e r s o n , W.S. Theo r y and Methods o f S c a l i n g . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1958. T r i a n d i s , H.C. and Lambe r t , W.W. A r e s t a t e m e n t and t e s t o f S c h l o s b e r g ' s t h e o r y o f e m o t i o n , w i t h two k i n d s o f s u b j e c t s f r om G r e e c e . J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1958, 56 , 321 -328 . Tupe s , E.C. and C h r i s t a l , R.E. S t a b i l i t y o f p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t r a t i n g f a c t o r s o b t a i n e d under d i v e r s e c o n d i t i o n s . USAF WADC t e c h . N o t e , 1958, No. 5 8 - 6 1 . Tupe s , E.C. and C h r i s t a l , R.E. R e c u r r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s based on t r a i t r a t i n g s . USAF ASP T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t , 1961, No. 6 1 - 6 7 . V e n e s s , Thelma and B r i e r l e y , P o r o t h y , W. Fo rming i m p r e s s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y ; two e x p e r i m e n t s . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of S o c i a l and  C I i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 3 , 2 , 11-19. W i e n e r , M. and M e h r a b i a n , A. Language w i t h i n Lanuage. New Y o r k : A p p I e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1968. W i s h n e r , J . R e a n a l y s i s o f " i m p r e s s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y " . P s y cho Iog i ca I  Rev i ew, I960, 67_, 9 6 - 1 1 2 . Woodworth, R.S. E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : H o l t , 1938. APPENDIX A RATING QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS L a b e l s o f s c a l e e x t r emes a re a i v e n , The s c a l e c on t i nuum numbered f r om I t o 8 and s c o r i n g was such t h a t t he l a b e l appoe a t l e f t , be l ow, d e s c r i b e d t he l o w - s c o r i n g end of t h e s c a l e , (I) V i s u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 1. G room ing : d i s h e v e l l e d n e a t 2 . D r e s s : c a s u a l f o r m a l 3. G a z e : i n d i r e c t d i r e c t 4 . F a c e : u n a t t r a c t i v e a t t r a c t i v e 5. S m i l i n g : s e l dom f r e q u e n t 6. Body B u i l d : heavy s l i g h t 7 . Movements: t e n s e r e l a x e d 8. Movements: few many (2) Vo i c e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 9 , Speech : 1 oud s o f t 10. Speech : f a s t s 1 ow 1 1 . Speech : s l u r r e d d i s t i n e t 12. Pauses : long s h o r t 13. Pauses : f r e q u e n t i n f r e q u e n t 14. Pau se s : r e g u l a r i r r e g u 1 a r 15. Vo i ce qua 1 i t y : low-p i t c h e d h i g h - p i t c h e d 16. V o i c e qua 1i t y : monotone e x p r e s s i ve 17. Voi ce qua 1i t y : bo i s t e r o u s g e n t l e 18. Vo i ce qua 1 i t y : b 1 a r i ng r e s o n a n t 19. Vo i ce qua 1 i t y : unp l e a s a n t p l e a s a n t 94. (3) Speech C o n t e n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 20 . P o 1 i t i ca1 V i e w s : e x p r e s s e d p o o r l y e x p r e s s e d we 11 21 . Po1 i t i ca1 V i e w s : d i s a g r e e d ag reed 22 . P o l i t i c a l V i ews: nove1 t o me fami l i a r 23 . Po 1i t i ca1 V i e w s : du11 i n t e r e s t i n g 24 . Po l i t i ca1 V i e w s : c o n s e r v a t i v e r ad i ca1 25 . P o l i t i c a l V i e w s : d i d n ' t u n d e r s t a n d them 1 d i d u n d e r s t a n d them 26 . 1 n t e r e s t : common unusua 1 27 . 1 n t e r e s t s : e x p r e s s e d p o o r l y e x p r e s s e d we 11 28 . 1 n t e r e s t s : : w o u 1 d n ' t 1i ke t o do wouId 1i ke t o do 29 . 1 n t e r e s t s : : du l 1 e x c i t i ng 30. 1 n t e r e s t s : t h i n g s 1 n e v e r do t h i n g s 1 o f t e n do 31 . 1 n t e r e s t s ; ; n o n - s o c i a l s o c i a 1 L i k i n g and S imi ; I a r i t y 32 . 1 d i s 1 i ked h i m 1 1i ked h im 33 . Di ss i mi 1ar t o me s i m i l a r t o me P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 34 . S1 LENT TALKATIVE Says v e r y l i t t l e . G i v e s T a l k s a l o t t o e v e r y b o d y . t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f b e i n g i n t r o s p e c t i v e and o c cu p i e d w i t h t h o u g h t s . 35 . SECRETIVE FRANK, OPEN Keeps h i s t h o u g h t s and Comes o u t r e a d i l y w i t h h i s r e a l f e e l i n g s t o h i m s e l f . f e e l i n g s on v a r i o u s q u e s t i o n s so O f t e n l e a v e s you t h a t you know where you s t a n d w i t h p u z z l e d as t o t h e h im . E x p r e s s e s h i s f e e l i n g s sad m o t i v e s f o r h i s a c t i o n s . o r gay, e a s i l y and c o n s t a n t l y . I n s c r u t a b l e . Does no t Easy t o u n d e r s t a n d , g i v e away i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e f un o f i t . 36. CAUTIOUS A v o i d s t h e s t r a n g e and new. Looks a t a l I a s p e c t s o f a s i t u a t i o n o v e r - c a u t i o u s l y . Keeps c l e a r o f d i f f i c u l t i e s . U n i n q u i r i n g . L a c k i n g in d e s i r e t o t r y new t h i n g s . 37. RECLUSIVE Does n o t seem t o m i s s company o f o t h e r s . Goes own way. 38 . IRRITABLE G e t s i r r i t a b l e , awkward o r r e s e n t f u l i f p r o p e r t y o r o t h e r r i g h t s a r e t r e s p a s s e d o n . I n c l i n e d t o be " c l o s e " and g r a s p i n g . Is g e n e r a l l y s u r l y , h a r d and sp i t e f u I . 39 . JEALOUS Becomes r e a d i l y j e a l o u s o f p e o p l e . U n r e a s o n a b l y h o s t i l e . 40. HEADSTRONG G e t s h i s own way r e g a r d l e s s o f o t h e r s . B lames o t h e r s , n o t h i m s e l f whenever t h e r e i s a c o n f l i c t o r t h i n g s go wrong . H e a d s t r o n g , p r e d a t o r y - t e n d s t o use o t h e r s f o r h i s own ends 4 1 . NEGATIVISTIC I n c l i n e d t o r a i s e o b j e c t i o n s t o a p r o j e c t , c y n i c a l o r r e a l i s t i c . " C a n n o t be d o n e " . U n i n t e r e s t e d o r u n f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e t o j o i n i n g i n . I n c l i n e d t o be " d i f f i c u l t " . 42 . CARELESS R a t h e r c a r e l e s s o f d e t a i l . L a z y . C a r e l e s s o v e r e x p e n d -i t u r e s . Has no d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e l a x i n g . E n j o y s e a s e . ADVENTUROUS Rushes in c a r e f r e e f a s h i o n t o new e x p e r i e n c e s , s i t u a t i o n s . Ready t o meet a n y t h i n g . Has a g r e a t a p p e t i t e f o r I i f e . SOCIABLE L i k e s t o be in l a r g e g r o u p s . Seeks p e o p l e o u t f o r t h e s ake o f company. L i k e s p a r t i e s as o f t e n as p o s s i b l e . Not f ond o f b e i n g a l o ne . GOOD-NATURED Does no t mind when p e o p l e use h i s p r o p e r t y , t i m e o r e n e r g y . Gene rou s , g i v e s p e o p l e t he b e n e f i t o f t h e doubt when t h e i r m o t i v e s a r e in q u e s t i o n . NOT JEALOUS MILD, GENTLE G e n t l e - t e m p e r e d . B lames h i m s e l f ( o r nobody) i f t h i n g s go wrong . C00PERATIVE G e n e r a l l y t e n d s t o say ye s when i n v i t e d t o c o o p e r a t e . O u t g o i n g . Ready t o meet p e o p l e a t l e a s t h a l f way. F i n d s ways o f c o -o p e r a t i n g d e s p i t e d i f f i c u l t i e s . FUSSY, TIDY T i d y , o v e r - p r e c i s e , e s p e c i a l l y o v e r d e t a i l s . D r i v e s o t h e r p e o p l e t o be t h e same. S t r i c t , f u s s y , p e d a n t i c . I n s i s t s on e v e r y t h i n g b e i n g o r d e r l y . ( I n t h e s e r e s p e c t s r a t h e r u n c o m f o r t a b l e t o l i v e w i t h ) . Seems u n a b l e t o r e l a x . M i s e r l y . 43 . UNDEFENDABLE RESPONSIBLE Does no t seem t o t a k e r e s p o n - Has a sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o s i b i l i t i e s s e r i o u s l y . Undepend- h i s p a r e n t s , commun i ty , e t c . Can a b l e . T h o u g h t l e s s . Re fu se s be depended upon t o be l o y a l t o t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a g reed s t a n d a r d s . T r u s t w o r t h y , h i s a ge . 44. UNSCRUPULOUS I n c l i n e d t o somewhat shady t r a n s a c t i o n s . Not t o o c a r e -f u l about r i g h t and wrong where own w i s he s a r e c o n c e r n e d Not p a r t i c u l a r l y j u s t , h o n e s t o r u n s e l f i s h . 45 . QUITTING, FICKLE G i v e s up r a t h e r e a s i l y . Led a s t r a y f r om main pu rpo se s by s t r a y i m p u l s e s . S l i p s h o d -does no t f i n i sh a j o b t h o r o u g h l y . SCRUPULOUS C a r e l e s s about p r i n c i p l e s o f c o n d u c t . Gu i ded by i d e a l s o f t r u t h f u l n e s s , h o n e s t y , u n s e l f i s h - ^ h e s s . S c r u p u l o u s l y u p r i g h t where p e r s o n a l d e s i r e s c o n f l i c t w i t h p r i n c i p l e s . PERSEVERING Sees a j o b t h r ough i n s p i t e o f d i f f i c u l t i e s o r t e m p t a t i o n . S t r o n g -w i l l e d . P e r s i s t i n g i n h i s m o t i v e s P a i n s t a k i n g and t h o r o u g h . 46. NERVOUS, TENSE POISED E a s i l y emba r r a s s ed o r pu t o f f S e l f - p o s s e s s e d , h a r d . Does n o t b a l a n c e in c o n v e r s a t i o n . Ge t s l o s e composure , e . g . , t h r o u g h c o n f u s e d in emergency . e m o t i o n a l p r o v o c a t i o n . B l u s h e s , shows e x c i t a b i l i t y , becomes i n c o h e r e n t . Not g e n e r a l e m o t i o n a l i t y , bu t momentary " n e r v o u s n e s s " . 47 . ANXIOUS W o r r i e s c o n s t a n t l y . S e n s i t i v e , h u r r i e d ; seems t o s u f f e r f r om a n x i e t i e s w i t h o u t adequate c a u s e . S l i g h t s u p p r e s s e d a g i t a t i o n much of t h e t i m e . CALM C a l m , t o u g h . " W h a t ' s t h e f u s s a b o u t " a t t i t u d e . 48 . EXCITABLE COMPOSED Ge t s e m o t i o n a l ( a n g e r , f e a r , Remains r e l a t i v e l y ca lm in f a c e of j o l l i t y , s e x , s o r r ow o r d i s - d ange r , s o c i a l h i l a r i t y , t e m p t -g u s t ) on s l i g h t p r o v o c a t i o n . a t i o n . Shows few s i g n s o f F r e q u e n t l y e m o t i o n a l and e m o t i o n a l e x c i t e m e n t . (Not p a s s i o n a t e l y e x c i t e d . Shows m e r e l y c o n t r o l s i m p u l s e s , bu t marked s i g n s o f emot i on even s c a r c e l y seems t o have them, i f c o n t r o l l e d . 49 . HYPOCHONDRIACAL NOT HYPOCHONDRIACAL D w e l l s on i l l n e s s e s o r h u r t s Absence o f " h y p o c h o n d r i a c a l " . a good d e a l . Is a f r a i d he i s g o i n g t o d i e when he has a r e l a t i v e l y t r i v i a l i l l n e s s . Fu s se s a good dea l o v e r b o d i l y symptoms. 50. ARTISTICALLY INSENSITIVE Not showing t a s t e in c l o t h e s , e t c . Not i n t e r e s t e d in a r t i s t i c s u b j e c t s . I n s e n s i -t i v e t o e s t h e t i c e f f e c t s . ARTISTICALLY SENSITIVE A r t i s t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e i n c l o t h e s , s u r r o u n d i n g s , a r t . F a s t i d i o u s . Not t o o e a s i l y p l e a s e d . 5 1 . UNREFLECTIVE, NARROW R a t h e r i g n o r a n t . U n r e f l e c t i v e Does n o t read much o r e n j o y i n te I I ec tua I p rob I ems. Na r r ow, s i m p l e i n t e r e s t s . INTELLECTUAL Has w ide i n t e r e s t and know ledge , e s p e c i a l l y in i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t t e r s . Is t h o u g h t f u l and i n t r o -s p e c t i v e about l i f e . E n j o y s a n a l y t i c a l p e n e t r a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s i n smaI I g r o u p s . 5 2 . CRUDE, BOORISH Clumsy in s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . C rude in s p e e c h , manner, e t c . POLISHED, REFINED P o l i t e and c h a r m i n g i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . D e a l s w i t h p e o p l e g r a c e f u l l y and s k i l l f u l l y . Re-f i n e d w i t h s p e e c h , manner, e t c . F a m i l i a r w i t h good e t i q u e t t e . 53 . S IMPLE, DIRECT S o l v e s q u e s t i o n s in a l o g i c a l , m a t t e r - o f - f a c t f a s h i o n wh ich o f t e n i g n o r e s f i n e p o i n t s o r unusua l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . H e a v i l y and " b l i n d l y " l o g i c a l , r e f u s i n g t o see i n t a n g i b l e s . More i n t e r e s t e d in m a t e r i a l t han menta l a s p e c t s o f a s i t u a t i o n . IMAGINATIVE I n c l i n e d t o be gove rned by a v i v i d i m a g i n a t i o n . T h i n k s o f unusua l a s p e c t s and a n g l e s o f a q u e s t i o n . S e n s i t i v e t o a m u l t i t u d e o f e m o t i o n a l and o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s no t r e a l i z e d by t h e a ve rage p e r s o n . I n t u i t i v e , more i n t e r e s t e d i n menta l t han m a t e r i a l and p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f a s i t u a t i o n . 98. APPENDIX B PAIRS OF CROSS-TARGET FACTORS f o r wh ich t h e COEFFICIENT o f CORRESPONDENCE EQUALS o r EXCEEDS ± .40 C o r r e l a t i o n C o r r e l a t i o n T a r g e t P a i r :B v s . C T a r g e t P a i r : B v s .F 1 B- 1 v s . c- 1 .74 32 B- 1 v s . F- 1 .50 2 B- 1 v s . c- 1 1 .42 33 B~ 1 v s . F- 4 .62 3 B- 2 v s . c- 9 -.41 34 B- 2 v s . F - 1 - . 4 9 4 B- 3 v s . c- 10 .42 35 B- 2 v s . F- 7 .52 5 B- 4 v s . c- 1 1 - . 4 3 36 B- 5 v s . F- 7 - . 4 5 6 B- 4 v s . c- 12 .49 37 B- 5 v s . F- 9 .55 7 B- 6 v s . C - 2 - . 46 38 B- 6 v s . F- 10 - . 5 4 8 B- 6 v s . C - 3 - . 4 4 39 B- 6 v s . F - 1 1 - . 4 8 9 B- 6 v s . C - 1 1 -.51 40 B-10 v s . F- 1 - . 4 4 10 B- 9 v s . C - 2 - . 4 0 41 B - l 1 v s . F- 2 .42 1 1 B- 9 v s . C - 9 - . 4 0 42 B - l 1 v s . F- 4 - . 4 8 T a r g e t P a i r : B vs . D T a r g e t P a i r : B vs .G 12 B- 1 v s . D- 8 .58 43 B- 1 v s . G - 9 - . 5 3 13 B- 2 v s . D- 1 - . 4 4 44 B- 5 v s . G - 1 1 -.41 14 B- 2 v s . D- 4 - . 5 0 45 B- 7 v s . G - 3 - . 4 2 15 B- 4 v s . D- 9 - . 5 0 46 B- 7 v s . G - 8 .50 16 B- 8 v s . D- 1 .46 47 B- 8 v s . G - 2 - . 5 5 17 B- 10 v s . D- 2 .55 48 B - l 1 v s . G - 7 - . 42 18 B- 1 1 v s . D- 6 - . 4 7 49 B - l 1 v s . G - 9 .45 T a r g e t Pa i r :B vs . E T a r g e t Pa i r :B vs . H 19 B- 1 v s . E - 3 - . 7 3 50 B- 1 v s . H- 1 .63 20 B- 1 v s . E- 5 - . 4 8 5 1 B- 4 v s . H- 5 .40 21 B- 2 v s . E- 4 -.51 52 B- 5 v s . H- 2 .63 22 B- 2 v s . r_ 5 .46 53 B- 5 v s . H- 12 .60 23 B- 3 v s . E- 9 - . 5 0 54 B- 6 v s . H- 1 1 .45 24 B- 4 v s . E- 10 .45 55 B- 8 v s . H- 3 - . 4 4 25 B- 5 v s . E- 1 - . 4 6 56 B-10 v s . H- 10 .48 26 8 - 5 v s . E- 4 .48 57 B - l 1 v s . H- 6 - . 6 0 27 B- 5 v s . E~ 8 .49 28 B- 6 v s . E- 2 .60 29 B- 8 v s . E- 5 -.41 30 B- 10 v s . E- 2 .50 31 B- 1 1 v s . E- 5 .40 APPENDIX B ( C o n ' t ) C o m e I a t i T a r g e t P a i r : B v s . 1 58 B- 1 vs. 1- 1 .40 59 B- 1 vs. 1- 4 - . 4 0 W B- 2 vs. 1- 9 .42 61 B- 4 v s . 1- 8 - . 5 4 62 B- 5 v s . 1- 3 - . 4 0 63 B- 5 v s . 1- 4 - . 4 4 64 B- 5 v s . 1- 7 .46 65 B- 8 v s . 1- 1 - . 4 3 66 B-1 1 v s . 1- 1 - . 6 2 T a r g e t Pe i r : C v s .D 67 C - 1 v s . D- 8 .56 68 C - 2 v s . D- 2 -.61 69 C - 3 v s . D- 1 .40 70 C - 3 v s . D- 7 .57 71 C - 5 v s . D- 4 .44 72 C - 5 v s . D- 6 .46 73 C - l l v s . D- 9 .59 T a r g e t Pc i r : C v s . E 74 C - 1 v s . E- 3 - . 6 5 75 C - 1 v s . E- 5 - 45 76 C - 2 v s . E- 2 - . 7 0 77 C - 3 v s . E- 1 .69 78 C - 4 v s . E- 5 - . 5 6 79 C - 5 v s . E- 4 .65 80 C-12 v s . E- 7 -.41 T a r g e t Pa i r :C v s . F 81 C - 1 v s . F- 1 .61 82 C - 1 v s . F- 4 .60 83 C - 3 v s . F-10 .44 84 C - 2 v s . F- 9 - . 6 9 85 C - 5 v s . F- 7 - . 4 4 86 C - 9 v s . F- 6 .47 87 C - l l v s . F - l 1 .43 C o r r e l a t i T a r g e t Pa i r :C v s . G ea C - 1 v s . G - 1 .42 89 C - 1 v s . G - 9 - . 6 0 90 C - 2 v s . G - 3 - . 5 4 91 C - 3 v s . G - 2 .50 92 C - 5 v s . G - 4 .65 93 C - 6 v s . G - 5 - . 4 5 94 C - l 1 v s . G - 6 .58 95 C - l 1 v s . G - 10 - . 4 3 96 C - l 2 v s . G - 1 .40 T a r g e t Pa r:C v s . H 97 C - 1 v s . H- 1 .66 98 C - 2 v s . H- 10 - . 6 6 99 C - 2 v s . H- 1 1 - . 4 5 100 C - 3 v s . H- 2 - . 5 4 101 C - 3 v s . H- 12 - . 5 3 102 C - 5 v s . H- 2 .45 103 C - 6 v s . H- 6 - . 4 8 104 C - 7 v s . H- 7 -.61 105 C - 8 v s . H- 1 1 .49 106 C - l 2 v s . H- 9 -.41 107 C - l 3 v s . H- 3 -.41 T a r g e t P a i r : C v s . 1 108 C - 1 v s . 1 1 .46 109 C - 2 v s . 1- 3 - . 5 6 1 10 C - 3 v s . 1- 2 .42 1 1 1 C - 3 v s . 1- 4 .55 1 12 C - 5 v s . 1- 10 - . 4 4 1 13 C - l 1 v s . 1 8 .42 1 14 C - l 3 v s . 1 - 5 .48 100. APPENDIX B ( C o n ' t ) C o r r e l a t i o n T a r g e t P a i r : D v s . E 1 15 D- 1 v s . E- 5 - . 6 3 1 16 D- 2 v s . E- 2 .69 1 17 D- 4 v s . E- 4 .53 1 18 D- 5 v s . E- 1 - . 5 6 119 D- 6 v s . E~ 4 .43 120 D- 7 v s . E- 1 .49 121 D- 8 v s . E- 5 -.41 122 D- 9 v s . E- 3 - . 4 2 123 D- 9 v s . E-10 - . 4 4 124 D-10 v s . E - l 1 .45 125 D- l 1 v s . E- 7 .60 126 D-12 v s . E- 3 - . 6 0 T a r g e t P a i r : D v s . F 127 D- 1 v s . F - T .54 128 D- 2 v s . F - 6 - . 5 2 129 D- 4 v s . F - 7 - . 6 6 130 D- 6 v s . F - l 1 - . 4 8 131 D- 7 v s . F - 9 - . 5 8 132 D- 8 v s . F- 1 .48 133 D-12 v s . F- 4 .41 T a r g e t Pa i r: D v s . G C o r r e I a t i on T a r g e t Pa i r: D vs . I 146 D- 1 v s . 1 - 4 .42 147 D- 1 v s . 1 - 5 .45 148 D- 2 v s . 1 - 3 .61 149 D- 4 v s . 1 - 7 .45 150 D- 5 v s . 1 - 2 - . 4 8 151 D- 6 v s . 1- 1 . - . 6 2 152 D- 7 v s . 1 - 2 .40 153 D- 8 v s . 1- 4 - . 4 4 154 D- 9 v s . 1 - 8 .42 155 D-10 v s . 1- 3 .42 156 D-12 v s . 1- 3 - . 4 5 157 D- l 3 v s . 3 - . 4 8 T a r g e t Pa i r: E v s . F 158 E- 1 v s . F- 9 - . 5 9 159 E- 2 v s . F- 6 - . 4 2 160 E- 2 v s . F- 10 - . 4 0 161 E- 3 v s . F - 4 - . 6 9 162 E- 4 v s . F- 7 - . 52 163 E- 5 v s . F- 1 - . 7 5 164 E- 6 v s . F- 3 - . 4 8 165 E- 7 v s . F- 6 - . 4 3 .43 - . 5 0 .44 - . 4 7 .48 .58 - . 4 4 .48 - . 4 0 .48 - . 4 9 - . 5 6 - . 4 9 134 D - l v s . G - 2 .41 T a r g e t Pa i r : E v s . 135 D- 2 v s . G - 3 .54 166 E- 1 v s . G - 2 136 D- 8 v s . G - 9 - . 5 2 167 E- 1 v s . G - 8 137 D- 9 v s . G - 6 .45 168 E- 2 v s . G - 3 169 E- 3 v s . G - 6 Ta r g e t ^a i r: D v s . H 170 E- 3 v s . G - 9 138 D - l v s . H- 3 - . 5 2 171 E- 3 v s . G - 4 139 D- 2 v s . H- 10 .60 172 E- 6 v s . G - l 1 140 D- 3 v s . H- 9 .42 173 E- 7 v s . G - 2 141 D- 4 v s . H- 2 .49 174 E- 7 v s . G - 7 142 D- 6 v s . H- 6 .53 175 E- 7 v s . G - 9 143 D- 8 v s . H- 1 .41 176 E- 8 v s . G - 5 144 D- 9 v s . H- 5 - . 5 5 177 E- 9 v s . G - 1 145 D-12 v s . H-12 .53 178 E- 10 v s . G - 6 APPENDIX B ( C o n ' t ) C o r r e l a t i o n T a r g e t P a i r : E v s .H 179 E- 1 v s . H- 2 - . 6 2 180 E- 1 v s . H-12 - . 6 4 181 E- 2 v s . H-10 .56 182 E- 2 v s . H - l 1 .42 183 E- 3 v s . H- 1 - . 4 5 184 E- 3 v s . H-10 .40 185 E- 3 v s . H - l 1 .43 186 E- 3 v s . H-12 - . 4 0 187 E- 4 v s . H- 2 .51 188 E- 5 v s . H- 1 - . 4 7 189 E- 5 v s . H- 3 .41 190 E- 5 v s . H- 6 - . 4 2 191 E- 8 v s . H- 7 - . 4 7 192 E- 9 v s . H - 1 - . 4 6 193 E- 10 v s . H- 5 .51 194 E- 10 v s . H- 6 .40 T a r g e t P a i r : E v s . 1 195 E- 1 v s . 1- 2 .59 196 E- 1 v s . 1- 4 .48 197 E- 2 v s . 1- 2 - . 4 0 198 E- 2 v s . 1- 3 .57 199 E- 5 v s . 1- 1 - . 4 0 200 E- 5 v s . 1- 5 - . 4 8 201 E- 6 v s . 1- 9 - . 4 2 202 E- 7 v s . 1- 5 .40 203 E- 9 v s . 1- 1 - . 4 4 204 E- 10 v s . 1- 8 - . 7 3 T a r g e t Pa i r : F vs .G 205 F- 2 v s . G - 5 - . 4 3 206 F- 3 v s , G - l 1 .46 207 F - 4 v s . G - 9 - . 5 5 208 F- 5 v s . G - 2 .42 209 F - 9 v s . G - 2 - . 4 4 210 F - 9 v s . G - 3 - . 4 5 C o r r eI a t i T a r g e t Pa i r: F v s . H 21 1 F- 1 v s . H- 1 .54 212 F- 4 v s . H- 1 .42 213 F- 6 v s . H- 4 .41 214 F- 7 v s . H- 2 - . 5 5 215 F- 9 v s . H- 2 .57 216 F - 9 v s . H-12 .65 217 F-10 v s . H-10 -.41 T a r g e t Pa i r: F v s . l 218 F- 1 v s . 1- 1 .44 219 F- 4 v s . 1- 1 .52 220 F- 5 v s . 1- 8 .43 221 F- 6 v s . 1- 6 .43 222 F- 7 v s . 1- 7 - . 5 3 223 F - 9 v s . 1- 4 - . 4 9 224 F-10 v s . 1- 3 - . 4 6 T a r g e t Pa i r: G v s . H 225 G - 1 v s . H- 1 .62 226 G - 2 v s . H- 2 - . 4 0 227 G - 2 v s . H- 3 - . 5 7 228 G - 2 v s . H-12 - . 4 0 229 G - 3 v s . H-10 .66 230 G - 5 v s . H- 6 .53 231 G - 7 v s . H- 4 .48 232 G - 9 v s . H- 1 -.51 T a r g e t Pa i r: G v s . 1 233 G - I v s . 1- 1 .71 234 G - 2 v s . 1- 4 .40 235 G - 2 v s . 1- 5 .54 236 G - 3 v s . 1- 3 .62 237 G - 3 v s . 1- 7 - . 4 0 238 G - 4 v s . 1- 7 .43 239 G - 4 v s . 1-10 - . 4 0 240 G - 6 v s . 1- 8 .50 241 G - 8 v s . 1- 2 - . 7 0 242 G - 9 v s . 1- 1 - . 4 6 243 G - l 1 v s . 1- 4 .53 APPENDIX B (Con T a r g e t P a i r 244 H- 1 v s . 245 H- 2 v s . 246 H - 2 v s . 247 H- 2 v s . 248 H- 3 v s . 249 H- 4 v s . 250 H- 5 v s . 251 H- 7 v s . 252 H- 9 v s . 253 H- 9 v s . 254 H-10 v s . 255 H- 12 v s . C o r r e l a t i o n H v s . I - 1 .62 - 2 - . 5 0 - 4 - . 4 0 - 7 .45 - 5 - . 5 9 - 6 .46 - 8 - . 4 6 - 4 -.41 - 5 .41 -1 1 - . 4 2 - 3 .61 - 4 - . 5 9 

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