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Modifications in presentation of the farnsworth- munsell 100-hue test for use in the elementary schools Taylor, Dorothy Beatrice 1971

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MODIFICATIONS IN PRESENTATION OF THE FARNSWORTH-MUNSELL 100-HUE TEST FOR USE IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS by ; DOROTHY BEATRICE TAYLOR B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT - • OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE .DEGREE OF Master o f A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1971 In presenting th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s fo r s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on o f th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT Because of the increasing use of colour as a primary cue developing concept and as a contextual cue, th i s study was conducted to modify presentations of the 100-Hue Test for colour discrimination i n order to make i t a useable instrument for screening the elementary school c h i l d who might have d i f f i c u l t i e s with colour discrimination though he i s not a colour defective, which could handicap his school performance. The subjects were 1 2 4 boys, aged 12 years. They were divided into four equivalent groups i n r e l a t i o n to I.Q. The Ss were Vancouver, B.C. elementary public school children. The Dvorine Pseudo-Isochromatic plates were shown to each subject as a means of establishing rapport and quickly i d e n t i f y i n g colour defectives so that they could be excluded from the sample - 4 defectives were found who had congenital anomalies. This percentage of 4»9 was lower than the commonly reported 8,1% for the male population. Group 1 were read the standard adult instructions from the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue manual, before being asked to complete the t e s t . Group 2 were read the standard adult instructions from the Farnsworth manual for the Panel D-15 (Dichotomous Test for Colour Blindness), before completing this test plus the adult instructions from the 100-Hue manual, before completing the l a t t e r t e s t . Group 3 were read a standardized set of modified instructions which were created for this study. Group 4 were read the same set of modified instructions with the addition of the use of the Panel D-15 as part of the i n s t r u c t i o n s . S t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the mean error scores for the 4 groups revealed, as hypothesized, s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t means between the groups using the modified and those using the standard i n s t r u c t i o n s . Group 3, using modified instructions without the i n c l u s i o n of the Panel D-15 performed best, functioning as well with these instructions as do adult subjects. The r e s u l t s indicate that 12 year olds can function s i g n i f i c a n t l y better on the 100-Hue test with modified i n s t r u c t i o n than other studies with other populations of children, using other types of presentations have indicated. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The writer wishes to express her gratitude to the Vancouver School Board for t h e i r co-operation and support of thi s research project. Appreciation and gratitude are also due to the members of her thesis committee - Dr. P. Koopman, Dr. R. Lakowski and Dr. E. D. A l l i s o n . Their advice and encouragement were invaluable i n the completion of t h i s study. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND HYPOTHESES 3 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . . 10 III METHODS- AND PROCEDURES 2 2 Sampling and Subjects . . . . 22 Procedures 25 Instruments 29 IV RESULTS 40 V SUMMARY AND DISCUSSIONS . . . . 4 4 Discussion 46 Defectives 4 9 Conclusions and Implications 49 BIBLIOGRAPHY 54 APPENDIX 57 A. 100-HUE SAMPLE PROFILES FROM GROUPS I, II, I I , AND IV CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I n t e r e s t i n colour v i s i o n and i t s development has a long h i s t o r y , being a c l a s s i c a l f i e l d of i n q u i r y i n psychology. • The most common d e f i c i e n c y i n colour v i s i o n , colour b l i n d n e s s , was f i r s t described by T u b e r v i l l e i n 1684 (Judd, 1943), f i r s t a c c u r a t e l y c l a s s i f i e d i n 1837 by Seebeck; i n t e n s i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d by Young, Hemholtz and Maxwell during the nineteenth century; so that as e a r l y as 1855 i t was known to e f f e c t 10% of the male popu l a t i o n . Gradually b e t t e r and simpler t e s t s were devised, by Nagel, S t i l l i n g and I s h i h a r a among other s . The demand f o r such t e s t s i n the school p o p u l a t i o n has been f e l t i n some c o u n t r i e s . Japan, f o r example, has made colour v i s i o n "testing i n i t s schools compulsory f o r the past twenty years. More r e c e n t l y , Scotland, (1962) has a l s o made colour v i s i o n t e s t i n g a part of school h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . P u b l i c i t y given i n recent years to schemes f o r teaching reading and mathematics with the use of colour has created widespread i n t e r e s t i n North America as to the value of the s p e c i f i c uses of colour i n education. However, most educators and researchers have not yet become concerned w i t h the problems f o r the colour d e f i c i e n t c h i l d which increased use of colour i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l has created. The need f o r widespread screening 2 services to a i d such children who w i l l otherwise be penalized by such learning procedures w i l l become increasing obvious. A doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n (Prater 1968), i n v e s t i -gated colour uses i n Primary Instructional materials and the possible implications for colour d e f i c i e n t children. Colour references which were s p e c i f i c a l l y used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes were categorized according to function and according to s k i l l s receiving emphasis i n the classroom. The summary of the t o t a l incidence revealed that colour was used 12,067 times for i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes i n the f i v e primary reading series in the United States. There were 2,188 references to colour tabulated i n the f i v e primary arithmetic s e r i e s . In arithemetic as i n reading, the highest incidence (823 uses) was at the f i r s t grade l e v e l . At the readiness l e v e l , 79.74% of the colour references were used to control the learning s i t u a t i o n . Results also showed that the colours which are most frequently confused i n colour blindness, red, green and blue, were used more frequently than others i n both arithmetic and reading materials. Interviews with colour b l i n d students were conducted to test their reactions to samples from the i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials examined. Problems which required students to d i s t i n g u i s h between colours did prove 3 d i f f i c u l t . F i r s t grade subjects gave the most incorrect responses and college students showed the greatest f r u s t r a t i o n . Results of interviews also suggested that problems which u t i l i z e d colour may produce confusion and negative emotional reactions i n colour d e f i c i e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . In view of the high percentage of colour r e f e r -ences used to control the learning s i t u a t i o n at the c r i t i c a l l e v e l s i n school and the r e s u l t s of the i n t e r -views, colour usage for i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes should be c a r e f u l l y evaluated, according to the findings of t h i s study,., (Prater, i960*). Researchers, however, have long been interested i n the role of colour i n learning, and there i s a s i z e -able body of l i t e r a t u r e on the subject. A recent review of the l i t e r a t u r e (Otto and Askov, i960*) suggested the current areas of concern. Two general themes emerged, one i s the study of colour i n developing concepts; the other i s the study of colour as a contextual cue, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n paired-associate learning. Results of the studies i n concept attainment indicate that younger children use colour as a cue more frequently than do older subjects who tend to use form i n preference to colour as a cue, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n matching tasks. Corah ( 1 9 6 4 ) explained t h i s tendency 4 i n terms of Piaget's concept of cemtration. That i s , while a young c h i l d (whose perception, according to Piaget, i s not yet decentered) would attend only to the dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a configuration - i . e . , i t s colour - an older c h i l d would be free to attend to a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , including form. Other studies (Gaines 1964 and Suchman and Trabasso 1966) found that colour/ form preference i s r e l a t e d to a b i l i t y to discriminate and therefore to performance l e v e l . The studies of colour as a contextual cue indicate that colour i s a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n learning, p a r t i c u l a r l y paired-associate learning. Saltz (I963) alternated learning and test t r i a l s and presented colour cues only during learning or only during t e s t i n g . He found that colour cues enhanced learning under both conditions. Crannel, (1964) found that colour i s u t i l i z e d as a cue i n more d i f f i c u l t learning tasks, that i s when the primary stimulus cannot be e a s i l y discriminated. Otto & Askov (1968) also reviewed the l i t e r -ature dealing with the uses of colour i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials. They noted that studies tended to be descriptive rather than experimental. Jones (1965), a notable exception, examined the value of colour as an ai d to v i s u a l discrimination of words and l e t t e r s i n nursery school children. Jones concluded that: "without colour the tasks were at lea s t three times as d i f f i c u l t 5 even when possible colour matching was considered." He also noted that subjects strongly preferred the coloured test materials. Gattegno's, ( 1 9 6 2 ) , use of a morpho-algebraic approach to teaching reading c a l l e d , "words i n colour" which uses colour as the primary st i m u l i has been referred to by the authors as gaining i n acceptance. A s i m i l a r method of teaching reading to dyslexics i s also i n use (Bannatyne, 1 9 6 6 ) . Otto & Askov also found i n t h e i r own studies that good readers tended to u t i l i z e colour cues more than poor readers and that grade and developmental l e v e l i s c r i t i c a l i n determining the value of colour cues, so that what works at one l e v e l may not work at another. Their conclusions that the use of colour cues i n i n s t r u c t i o n could not be very e x p l i c i t l y prescribed but that the use of colour i n i n s t r u c t i o n i s on the increase, concur with Prater's findings. Although the use of cuissenaire rods i n teaching arithmetic i n the primary grades i s quite wide-spread, t h i s was not mentioned i n any of the studies referred to. It seems clear i n view of the foregoing evidence that not only i s the use of colour i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials on the increase but that only 6 l i m i t e d attention has been paid to the c h i l d most l i k e l y to be handicapped by excessive use of colour as a primary cue i n learning; that i s , the c h i l d who has some impairment i n the a b i l i t y to discriminate colour. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the colour d e f i c i e n t c h i l d i s also important i n r e l a t i o n to vocational t r a i n i n g . Colour coding i n industry increases with the complexity of invention. Complicated and often dangerous procedures can be made safer and simpler (for the colour normal) by colour-coding procedures (Mitchell, i 9 6 0 ) . Examples are found i n e l e c t r o n i c s , t e l e v i s i o n , computers, m i s s i l e s , aviation and i n chemical and metallurgical engineering. Individuals who cannot qua l i f y f o r these professions because of colour deficient v i s i o n should be informed at the pre-high school l e v e l , i n order to prepare f o r another vocation. It would seem that, considering the prevalence of colour i n learning situations p a r t i c u l a r l y at the elementary school l e v e l , adequate screening procedures should be a part of school health services. Only one study was reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e for the past decade that attempted to evaluate colour v i s i o n t e s t i n g for an entire school d i s t r i c t and that was i n 1 9 6 4 i n Baltimore, MD. Two other studies which attempted to evaluate colour v i s i o n tests for kinder-garten and grade one students have been done by 7 Gallagher, (1964) and Lampe, (1969). Apart from these there have been evaluations done on the Colour Pyramid tes t , otherwise the f i e l d seems to be a neglected one. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t i n c t i o n must be made here i n regard to colour v i s i o n screening. Even i f a more wide-spread use were made of exi s t i n g tests now available to schools, these would only f a c i l i t a t e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the colour b l i n d persons, that i s , those who confuse reds with greens or blues with yellows. By excluding congenital defectives of t h i s type the problem would not be solved. There are an undetermined number of children whose discrimination of colours i n the spectrum i s impaired. L i t t l e data i s available on such children. We know r e l a t i v e l y nothing about the problems i n colour discrimination encountered by such children. The c h i l d i s usually unaware of deficiency in colour discrimination and the teacher would l i k e l y assume that he i s unable to learn for other reasons. There i s only one test for discrimination surface colour which i s available that is f a i r l y simple to administer and which does not require expensive and cumbersome apparatus and would therefore be suitable f o r the elementary school. This t e s t i s the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue (100-Hue). However, one problem presents i t s e l f i n recommending the use of t h i s t e s t with elementary school children. The instructions i n the Farnsworth Manual 3 are w r i t t e n f o r a d u l t s and a p p l i c a t i o n of the presen t procedures to c h i l d r e n have not been n o t a b l y s u c c e s s -f u l to date. T h i s means t h a t because the d i f f i c u l t y o f communicating the concept of a " c o l o u r s e r i e s " t o c h i l d r e n twelve years and under has not been s i m p l i f i e d , the t e s t has not g e n e r a l l y been used w i t h elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . I t would appear t h a t m o d i f i c a t i o n s .would be necessary to make i t u s e f u l to elementary s c h o o l s . The Farnsworth Dichotomous Test f o r Colour B l i n d n e s s -Panel D-15 could be o f use i n t h i s r e g ard as i t i s based on a s i m p l i f i e d model s i m i l a r to the 100-Hue and t h e r e -f o r e a b l e t o present the concept of c o l o u r s e r i e s more simply. STATEMENT OF'THE PROBLEM: The m a t e r i a l s presented i n the f o r e g o i n g suggests the need f o r an experimental study of the 100-Hue w i t h a normative sample o f elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n u s i n g both the standard i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r a d u l t s , as w e l l as m o d i f i e d p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n . One such m o d i f i c a t i o n w i l l i n c l u d e the Panel D-15 as p a r t of a t e a c h i n g method to communicate the concept o f " c o l o u r s e r i e s " . The procedure i n t h i s study w i l l permit a t e s t o f the e f f i c i e n c y o f the m o d i f i e d p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h and without the Panel D-15 versus the standard i n s t r u c t i o n s when used with c h i l d r e n , and c e r t a i n r e l a t e d hypotheses. 9 The aim o f t h e stu d y w i l l be to determine the u s e f u l n e s s o f r e v i s e d methods o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o c h i l d r e n as a t e s t f o r c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n the elementary s c h o o l . I t i s hoped t h a t i n p r o v i d i n g a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e 100-Hue s u i t a b l e f o r d i a g n o s i n g c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n problems i n el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may a i d t e a c h e r s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g l e a r n i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r c o l o u r d e f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n w h i c h do not r e l y on c o l o u r as the p r i m a r y s t i m u l u s . The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be t e s t e d : 1. E r r o r s c o r e s on the F a r n s w o r t h - M u n s e l l 100-Hue u s i n g s t a n d a r d a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s s h o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n s c o r e s o b t a i n e d when m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s , b o t h w i t h t h e P a n e l D-15 or w i t h o u t , a r e used. 2. Supplementary H y p o t h e s i s : The m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e s a l s o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the P a n e l D-15 p r i o r t o t h e 100-Hue t e s t w i l l produce t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n t e s t s c o r e s . CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Only four previous investigations have been conducted which report r e s u l t s concerning the performance of pre-adult subjects on the 100-Hue t e s t . Verriest, Vandevyvere and Vanderdonck,(1962) These investigators were concerned primarily with age changes i n colour v i s i o n from childhood to old age. Considering the work of, for example, Boice,Tinker  and Paterson, (1948), who found no c o r r e l a t i o n between performance on the Ishihara and age change from 20 to 59 years, i t was concluded that ordinary pseudoiso-chromatic plates are too gross as tests to show any s i g n i f i c a n t changes with age. In t h i s study therefore, Verriest et a l administered the 100-Hue test to 480 subjects aged from 10 to 6 4 years and comprising 248 men and 232 women. A minimum of 30 subjects were included i n each five-year c l a s s i f i c a t i o n more or less equally divided as to sex. Those subjects were excluded who were discovered to have congenital colour defects, whose co-operation was poor, or who did not complete the t e s t quickly enough. The time allowed for subjects less than 15 years old for completing one box was 2 minutes 20 seconds. The r e s u l t s were c l a s s i f i e d according to colour, age and sex, and were submitted to an analysis of variance. 11 The differences i n performance due to age were highly s i g n i f i c a n t . The mean t o t a l error scores for subjects i n the three younger groups (aged from 10 to 24) were as follows: Table I 1 10 14 years 15 - 19 years 20 - 24 years M F Total M F Total M F Total No. of subjects 22 27 49 25 31 56 60 34 94 Lowest score 24 16 16 16 8 8 4 4 4 Highest score 160 194 ' 194 124 94 124 162 108 162 Mean 92.5 75.3 83.1 60.1 44.5 51.5 42.3 25.5 36.3 The mean error score achieved by subjects aged from 20 - 24 years was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller than a l l other age means. Thus findings reported by other studies are confirmed f o r the 100-Hue test, namely, that colour discrimination improves gradually u n t i l the beginning of adulthood and afterwards deteriorates i n the same gradual way. Brown, (1950), Janouskova, (1957), G i l b e r t , (1957), Lakowski, (1958). While i t seemed reasonable to a t t r i b u t e the general trend of performance on the 100-Hue to genuine physiological differences, V e r r i e s t , et a l . , concede that psychological factors may be partly responsible for the high error scorep among the youngest subjects. 12 Further analysis of the r e s u l t s showed that the deficiency i n discrimination of the youngest and oldest subjects was p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable i n the blue-green and reddish hues. In t h i s respect a s i m i l a r i t y was noted to the deficiency observed i n congenital colour defects of the T r i t a n type, and also to the losses which can- be induced i n young adults by t h e i r wearing f i l t e r s which s e l e c t i v e l y absorb short wave-length radiations. It must, however, be mentioned that there was an accumulation of errors i n these regions even i n the case of the 2 0 - 2 4 year old age group. Thus i t seems that the 100-Hue test i s f a u l t y i n that discrimination i s too d i f f i c u l t r e l a t i v e l y i n the blue-green and red regions. In view of this f a c t , i t would be misleading to i n f e r too much concerning the nature of colour v i s i o n i n younger subjects from t h e i r performance on t h i s t e s t alone and comparison with that of tritanomalous subjects. The fineness of discrimination that can f e a s i b l y be measured by a test may depend i n part on the complexity and conceptual d i f f i c u l t y inherent i n i t s presentation. As such factors are l i k e l y to be of greater importance i n the case of the youngest subjects, explanation of the observed r e s u l t s i n 13 physiological terms may.be out of place. I f some areas of the test require f i n e r discrimination than others, on the above assumption, the accumulation of errors i n these regions should be greater for those subjects who f i n d the test conceptually most d i f f i c u l t . F i n a l l y , although V e r r i e s t , et. a l . report no t e s t - r e l i a b i l i t y measure for children under 15, a c o - e f f i c i e n t of 0.93 was obtained by the ranking method, for normal subjects between the ages of 15 and 25 who were retested a f t e r two or three months. In addition, no advantage on the t e s t was found due to t r a i n i n g or experience i n colour discrimination in other contexts. Subjects whose profession required them to work with colour did not make s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower t o t a l error scores than non-selected subjects i n the same age group, that i s , 18 - 24 years. The second study to be considered seems to be the e a r l i e s t one to date which as i t s primary objective investigates the p o s s i b i l i t y of using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test with children. Lumbroso and Proto, (1963), point out i n t h e i r paper, that the examination of colour v i s i o n i n children presents p a r t i c u l a r problems i n that the co-operation of such subjects i s often poor. The 100-Hue tes t has 14 u s u a l l y been c o n f i n e d f o r use with a d u l t s f o r i t r e q u i r e s the s u b j e c t ' s c o - o p e r a t i o n i n performing as w e l l as he can and i n c a r r y i n g out a r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t t a s k without h e l p . Although V e r r i e s t , e t . a l . had i n c l u d e d s u b j e c t s as young as 10 years i n t h e i r study, i n no p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was the t e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d to c h i l d r e n younger than 10 y e a r s . Lumbroso and Proto were thus the f i r s t t o provide data as to the performance of such s u b j e c t s on the 100-Hue. I t was found to be impossible to t e s t c h i l d r e n younger than 5 years o l d as they d i d not co-operate i n the t e s t s i t u a t i o n . With the 5 - 6 year' o l d s , the examiner managed to c a r r y on the t e s t i n the m a j o r i t y of cases, w h i l e i n the 7 - 1 0 age group n e a r l y a l l the s u b j e c t s are r e p o r t e d to have co-operated p e r f e c t l y . The very young s u b j e c t s were a l l o w e d three to f o u r minutes to arrange the contents of each box but the scores o f those who h e s i t a t e d longer than the a l l o t t e d time were not i n c l u d e d i n the r e s u l t s . C h i l d r e n over 7 years were found i n g e n e r a l to r e q u i r e no more than the s t a n d a r d time o f two minutes to complete each box . The r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d f o r twelve normal c h i l d r e n from 5 - 6 years o l d , and 34 from 7 - 1 0 years are as f o l l o w s : 15 Table I I 5 - 6 year o l d Minimum e r r o r score 100 group Maximum e r r o r score 335 Mean 177 Standard Deviation 65.7 7 - 1 0 year o l d Minimum e r r o r score 31 group Maximum e r r o r score 311 Mean 138 Standard D e v i a t i o n 63.9 I f these r e s u l t s are compared w i t h Farnsworth 1s norms, i t can be seen that the mean e r r o r scores f o r both groups are greater than t h a t of the 90th per c e n t i l e of the adult p o p u l a t i o n ( e r r o r score of 120) and than th a t r e p o r t e d by V e r r i e s t e t . a l . f o r the 10 - 14 age group ( e r r o r score of 83 .1) . I t was a l s o found that both groups of subjects showed an accumulation of e r r o r s i n the green-blue r e g i o n of the t e s t and a l s o i n the red reg i o n f o r the 5 - 6 year o l d s . This confirms the r e s u l t s reported by V e r r i e s t e t . a l . concerning these areas of the t e s t . Lumbroso and Proto conclude from these r e s u l t s t h a t the 100-Hue i s s u i t a b l e f o r use i n studying the colour v i s i o n of c h i l d r e n under 10 years of age. In view of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s statement f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , i t i s unfortunate that the c l a i m i s not f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d . 1 6 I t seems t h a t t h r e e separate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s might be made. (1) Young c h i l d r e n are capable of performing on the 100-Hue t e s t . (2) The 100-Hue i s a s u i t a b l e instrument f o r s t u d y i n g the colour d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of c h i l d r e n . ( 3 ) The 100-Hue i s a u s e f u l d i a g n o s t i c t e s t of col o u r v i s i o n i n young s u b j e c t s . None of these p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s appear to be supported by the experimental evidence as r e p o r t e d . (1) A p p a r e n t l y o n l y a ' m a j o r i t y ' of the 5 - 6 year o l d s and 'nearly a l l ' of the 7 - 1 0 year o l d group co-operated i n the t e s t s i t u a t i o n . No f i g u r e s are gi v e n concerning the numbers who f a i l e d , but i t seems t h a t i n n e i t h e r age group were a l l c h i l d r e n capable of performing the t e s t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y no assessment of the i n t e l l i g e n c e of the s u b j e c t s i s r e p o r t e d . I t might be supposed t h a t the more i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d r e n may be capable of c o - o p e r a t i n g i n the t e s t s i t u a t i o n a t a younger age. Without such knowledge about the group of s u b j e c t s used, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to c o n s i d e r the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n as having g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . 17 The degree t o w h i c h measurement of c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as such i s co n t a m i n a t e d by-g e n e r a l l e a r n i n g f a c t o r s and l e v e l o f mental development, i s not c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y , a l t h o u g h t h e o b s e r v e d improvement o f p e r f o r m -ance w i t h age would seem to suggest t h e i r r e l e v a n c e . The s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y were g r e a t e r than t h o s e of 90% o f the normal a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s f i n d i n g i s t h a t p r e - a d u l t s u b j e c t s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as f o r m i n g a d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n whose performance must be a s s e s s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o s e p a r a t e norms. I f f a c t o r s such as i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e of g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g performance on t h e t e s t , i t may prove t h a t c o n t r o l f o r s t a b i l i z -i n g age norms a l o n e i s not s u f f i c i e n t f o r an adequate assessment o f the c h i l d ' s v i s u a l a b i l i t y . U n t i l s uch a s p e c t s of the t e s t a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d , i t cannot be c o n s i d e r e d as a u s e f u l d i a g n o s t i c i n s t r u m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , i t app e a r s t h a t not a l l the c h i l d r e n t e s t e d by Lumbroso and P r o t o , (1963), were a b l e t o p e r f o r m t h e t e s t under the s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s s p e c i f i e d by F a r n s w o r t h . For example, the younger children could not f u l f i l the time requirement and approximately 14% were unable to complete one box even a f t e r four minutes. Unfortunately no information is given as to the instructions used. However,it appears that the conditions of the test would have to be a l t e r e d i f i t i s to be used with children. Another study, Luscombe, (1966), was the f i r s t experimental study to attempt to modify the presentation of the 100-Hue test with children. The 100-Hue, as well as the Ishihara Pseudo-Isochromatic Plates were administered to 174 boys aged 7 - 1 5 years. Subjects were grouped and three stages of presentation were used. Results on the Ishihara need not concern us here as i t was used primarily as a means of comparing the performance of normals on tests which d i f f e r i n nature and construction. A l l subjects were tested twice on the Ishihara and the 100-Hue, i d e n t i c a l instructions being given on both occasions. This investigation was concerned primarily with maturation factors e f f e c t i n g colour v i s i o n from 7 - 1 5 years, i n t e l l i g e n c e a f f e c t s on colour t e s t scores and e f f e c t on te s t scores with a modification i n presentation. 19 Results confirmed the findings of other studies (Verriest et. a l . , 1962, Lumbroso and Proto, 1963, Brown, 1950, Janouskova, 1955, G i l b e r t , 1957, Lakowski, 1958) that colour v i s i o n tends to improve with age. Scores of the oldest group of subjects were i n f e r i o r on both tests to those reported for adults i n other investigations. According to the findings, lack of comprehension of the standard instructions was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to age; 7 - 9 year olds performed better than the 11 - 13 year old group with the modified presentation however. The modified presentation was li m i t e d to 40 subjects 7 - 1 5 years of age. A perceptual device was used as an a i d to understanding the i n s t r u c t i o n s . This was a white card with Munsell coloured papers attached, i d e n t i c a l l y coloured to match the colour caps contained i n one section of the 100-Hue. Subjects were to l d to follow the same pattern with the colour caps of the test as they saw on the card. However, di r e c t matching of caps to papers was not permitted. When subsequent sections of the tests were administered, subjects were no longer permitted to see the demonstration card but were to l d to 'make the same kind of pattern' as they had before. Purportedly a l l the subjects i n this group of subjects 'understood the test c o r r e c t l y ' . 20 Mean error scores for a l l subjects, even when those who misinterpreted -the instructions were excluded, were considerably greater than those reported by Lumbroso and Proto, (1963), f o r 7 - 1 0 year olds, and by Verriest et. a l . (1962) f o r 10 - 14 year olds. Intelligence a f f e c t on colour v i s i o n tests such as the 100-Hue was indicated by the sample of 10 subjects who d i f f e r e d i n being 15 I.Q. points higher than the other subjects and who scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y better on the 100-Hue t e s t . Since t h i s variable was not controlled for i n the previous two studies under review no v a l i d comparisons can be made. Retest scores showed n e g l i g i b l e improvement, much less than those reported f o r adults i n other studies (Farnsworth, 1943, Lakowski, 1965). In summary, this study indicated that the modification of the instructions for the 100-Hue could be an important variable i n determining scores on the 100-Hue with children. However, the experimental evidence presented showed no improvement i n the scores of children who were given the modified presentation that could not be accounted for by chance. A recent study (Lakowski and Montgomery, 1968), on deaf children, introduced another modification of the 100-Hue which would seem to be more ef f e c t i v e as a means of making the in s t r u c t i o n s more understandable to younger children, even those with a severe handicap. 21 The deaf c h i l d r e n were g i v e n t h e F a r n s w o r t h P a n e l D-15, a t e s t w h i c h p a r a l l e l s i n p r e s e n t a t i o n and t e s t m a t e r i a l used, t h e 100- Hue. There i s one e x c e p t i o n , however; the c o l o u r d i f f i c u l t y on the P a n e l D-15 i s much s m a l l e r as t h e r e a r e l a r g e r d i f f e r e n c e s between the n e i g h b o u r i n g c o l o u r c a p s . The P a n e l D-15 was a d m i n i s t e r e d b e f o r e the 100-Hue s i n c e no v e r b a l -i z a t i o n t o the s u b j e c t s o f the i n s t r u c t i o n s was p o s s i b l e . By t h i s means, the e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the s u b j e c t s were e n a b l e d t o comprehend the concept of " c o l o u r s e r i e s " w h i c h made a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the 100-Hue not o n l y p o s s i b l e but s u c c e s s f u l t o a s i g n i f i c a n t degree w i t h c h i l d r e n . Due t o the l i m i t e d and s p e c i a l i z e d n a t u r e o f the sample used i n t h i s s t u d y , f u r t h e r c o r r o b o r a t i o n w i t h l a r g e r , normal p o p u l a t i o n s would seem to be n e c e s s a r y t o v e r i f y t h e f i n d i n g s . The s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d i n the f o r e g o i n g , i n d i c a t e t h e need f o r more e v i d e n c e as t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the use o f the 100-Hue w i t h normal c h i l d r e n a t the elementary s c h o o l l e v e l and the u t i l i z i n g o f even more e f f e c t i v e m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n p r e s e n t a t i o n t o a i d i n t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o f how t o p e r f o r m on t h i s t e s t . CHAPTER I I I METHODS & PROCEDURES SAMPLING AND SUBJECTS: The subjects were 24 boys, aged 12 years, from Vancouver, B.C. elementary schools that comprised the sample. They were d i v i d e d i n t o four equivalent groups i n r e l a t i o n to I.Q. Equivalence of groups was obtained by the "following method: The groups were checked and matched by i n s p e c t i o n f o r I.Q. and then the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean I.Q. scores of these groups was t e s t e d by computing t - s c o r e s . A s t a t i s t i c a l computation of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the means u s i n g t - s c o r e s as the method r e s u l t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : Table I I I  t-scores on I.Q.s I I I .39 .30 df I I I .12 .29 df IV .33 .30 df IX .26 . 29 df .52 .30 df I I I .71 .29 df None of the above t - s c o r e s are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t as the score has t o be of 1.645 value (df 30) to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l . Table IV Means and Standard Deviations on I .Q. Scores Group N Mean I.Q. Standard Deviations I 31 116.6 9.4 II 31 117.2 8.5 III 30 116.8 9.5 IV 32 118.0 10.3 I.Q. scores were obtained from the Henman-Nelson, Form B, group test (P.14, table IX) manual, which gives the mean value for t h i s t e s t as 105.82 and the standard deviation as 14.12 for students i n grades 3 to 6. Students were selected with I.Q. scores of 100 or more due to experimental evidence that a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n exists between I.Q. and the a b i l i t y to discriminate colour (Lakowski, 1969). Boys were used as subjects as they are usually l a t e r i n maturing than g i r l s (Verriest, 1962) and because previous research indicates that colour? deficiency i n females i s f a r less common than i t i s i n males (less than 0.5% of females are colour b l i n d compared to 8.1% of males). 2 4 \ 25 To keep the age variable controlled subjects were chosen to have variance i n age of less than 12 months. This control was excercised because age has been shown to be a s i g n i f i c a n t variable i n colour v i s i o n t e s t s . (Lakowski, 1958, V e r r i e s t , 1962). Age was therefore held constant i n each of the four groups. PROCEDURE: The Dvorine Pseudo-Isochromatic plates were shown to each subject i n each of the four groups as a means of establishing rapport. It was also a means of quickly i d e n t i f y i n g possible colour defectives so that they could be excluded from the sample. The four groups were divided up as outlined i n the Method Section. Each group was given four variations i n i n s t r u c t i o n s . Group one received the manual instructions f o r the 100-Hue. Group two received the Panel D-15 manual instructions and test and the manual instructions for the 100-Hue. Group three received the standardized modified i n s t r u c t i o n s , and group' four received modified instructions which included the Panel D-15 as part of these i n s t r u c t i o n s . The following i s the procedure: Step 1 - Group 1: Administration of the 100-Hue to one group of 31 subjects. Each subject was given the 26 standard adult instructions from the Farnsworth manual. These read as follows: "The object of t h i s t e s t i s to arrange the caps i n order according to colour. Please transfer them from t h i s panel (indicate) to t h i s panel (indicate) and place them so that they form a regular colour series between these two""caps (in d i c a t e ) . It should take "you about two minutes. However, accuracy i s more important than speed - so you w i l l be t o l d when the two minutes are up, but the panel won't be taken away from you. Arrange them as best you can and don't dawdle." Step 2 - Group 2: Administration of the Farnsworth Panel D-15 and the 100-Hue to each of 31 subjects, i n d i v i d u a l l y , using the standard manual inst r u c t i o n s only f o r each of the two t e s t s . The Panel D-15 manual instructions read as follows: "The object of the test i s to arrange the buttons i n order according to the colour. Take the button from t h i s panel (indicate) which looks most l i k e t h i s button and place i t here (indicate space next to the fi x e d reference cap). Take the button which looks most l i k e that and place i t here; continue doing t h i s u n t i l a l l the buttons are arranged i n order." I f the subject does not seem to grasp the problem, further help i s given: "After each button i s placed i t may be necessary to say, 'Now which of these buttons (indicate) i s most l i k e the l a s t one? (indicate) (one a l t e r a t i o n was made; substitution of the words "colour cap" i n place of the word "Button" i n order to make the instructions more uniform with the instructions f o r the 100-Hue)." 27 The manual instructions for the 100-Hue were used (see step 1 - group 1 ) . Step 3 - Group 3: The modified instructions were standardized as follows and were read to each subject: " F i r s t of a l l , what colour i s t h i s cap (Motioning)? Now choosing one colour cap from a l l these (scanning finger across top of tray) I'd like-you to find one that's almost exactly the same colour as t h i s one you've c a l l e d "blue" (or colour name given) and place i t r i g h t here (point). You may t r y several caps u n t i l you're s a t i s f i e d i t s the closest i n colour." "Now I'd l i k e you to pick the very next closest cap i n colour to t h i s l a s t one you've just put down. Remember, i t must be the very next closest colour, almost exactly the same but not quite. Place i t right beside the l a s t one (point). (Use t h i s one at a time procedure for f i r s t two caps of tray #1. For the presentation of tray #2, say, "Remember, f i n d the very next closest colour to t h i s cap (point to stationary cap), almost exactly the same, but not quite." "Continue doing t h i s u n t i l a l l the caps are i n order. They w i l l form a colour series between these two caps (motioning). It usually takes about two minutes to arrange them i n sequence, but accuracy i s more important than speed. Do you understand?" (When presenting trays #3 and #4, say, "Run your finger along the edge here (motioning) to make sure they are i n the correct order. You may make any changes you wish. 28 Step 4 - Group 4: A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s which i n c l u d e d the Panel D-15 as p a r t of the t e a c h i n g method to each of a group of 32 s u b j e c t s . The Panel D-15 was a d m i n i s t e r e d f i r s t with the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : "The o b j e c t of t h i s t e s t i s t o arrange the col o u r caps i n order a c c o r d i n g t o c o l o u r . Take the cap from t h i s panel ( i n d i c a t e ) which loo k s the most l i k e t h i s cap and place i t here beside i t (wait u n t i l s e l e c t i o n i s made and p l a c e d c o r r e c t l y ) . Now take the cap which looks the most l i k e the one you've j u s t put down and p l a c e i t here ( i n d i c a t e ) . Continue doing t h i s u n t i l a l l the caps are arranged i n order." A f t e r the Panel D-15 i s arranged by s u b j e c t s , i f t h e r e are any very great d i f f e r e n c e s i n hue between the arranged c o l o u r caps, as, "Is t h i s one (motioning) the very next c l o s e s t i n c o l o u r to t h i s one be s i d e i t ? " I f the answer i s "yes", and s u b j e c t s do not attempt to rearrange caps then the order i s accepted and no f u r t h e r i n q u i r y i s made. This i s because the s u b j e c t may be c o l o u r d e f e c t i v e and t h e r e f o r e unable t o p e r c e i v e the d i f f e r e n c e between the hues. When the Panel D-15 was completed the f i r s t t r a y of the 100-Hue was presented w i t h the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : 29 "This i s the same kind of t e s t as the one you've just f i n i s h e d ; that i s , you arrange the caps i n order according to colour." Then the exact wording of the "modified" instructions was read to the subjects with no v a r i a t i o n s . (See Step 3-Group 3). INSTRUMENTS: A. The 100-Hue The Farnsworth Munsell 100-Hue test for colour discrimination was devised by Farnsworth for the purpose of measuring hue discrimination with samples with constant value and chroma but varying only i n hue. Test materials sample a l l the hues quantified according to Munsell's s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and under standard conditions of l i g h t i n g , a l l the papers appear equal i n chroma and value to normal subjects. Its primary uses are; f i r s t , to separate persons with normal colour v i s i o n into classes of superior, average, and low colour discrimination, and second, to measure the zones of colour confusion of colour defective persons. The diagnostic properties of the test stem from the fact that defective subjects w i l l be unable to arrange the hues i n perfect order but w i l l make mistakes i n those regions of colour space affected by the defect. The defective w i l l not be able to make use of cues from 30 chroma o r v a l u e a s a l l t h e p a p e r s a r e s i m i l a r t o them. One o f t h e g r e a t m e r i t s o f t h e 100-Hue i s t h a t t h o s e e l e m e n t s s u i t a b l e f o r d e t e c t i n g s m a l l v a r i a t i o n s i n c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e a l s o s u i t a b l e f o r d e t e c t i n g c o l o u r c o n f u s i o n . As t h e c o l o u r e d caps were c h o s e n t o c o v e r t h e e n t i r e c o l o u r c i r c l e i t happens t h a t i n some a r e a s c e r t a i n c o n s e c u t i v e c a p s f o l l o w t h e c o n f u s i o n l i n e s o f a l l known d i c h r o m a t s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o e s t i m a t e w h i c h o f t h e c a p s a r e c o n f u s e d b y d e u t a n s , p r o t a n s , t r i t a n s and t e t a r t a n s . I n a d d i t i o n t o d e t e c t i n g c l a s s -i c a l t y p e s o f d i c h r o m a t s , V e r r i e s t , (1964), has r e c e n t l y shown t h a t t h e 100-Hue c a n d e t e c t t h e s o - c a l l e d s c o t o p i c t y p e o f c o n f u s i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f many s u b j e c t s w i t h a c q u i r e d c o l o u r d e f e c t s . The c o l o u r c i r c l e encompasses 85 hues i n a l l w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e m i n u t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w h i c h c an be d e t e c t e d b y t h e 100-Hue. The t e s t c o n s i s t s o f a s c o r i n g s h e e t and f o u r wooden b o x e s t h a t t o g e t h e r h o l d t h e 85 movable c a p s , i n w h i c h M u n s e l l c o l o u r s a r e mounted. The caps were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r g r o u p s o f a b o u t 21 i n o r d e r t o s u b d i v i d e t h e l a r g e number o f s t i m u l i i n t o s m a l l e r t a s k u n i t s . The a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n g r o u p s became t h e f o u r s e r i e s o f th e t e s t , one r e d t o y e l l o w , a s e c o n d f r o m y e l l o w t o b l u e - g r e e n , a t h i r d b l u e - g r e e n t o b l u e a n d t h e f o u r t h J • /'•>•>/•••///// H!XX^X> Fig. 2. Specimens of normal, average, discrimina-tion patterns, 2 trials. Fig. 3. Specimens of norma!, low discrimination pattern, 2 trials. Fig. 4. Specimen of Color defective pattern; Protan. Average of T »ri;il». 31 v/mm % / ; f l l \ \ ^ \ v Fig. 5. Specimen of color defective pattern; Dcutan. Average of 2 trials. ,K \ v r v \ ? : : : » / ' • / / r <:/'/.. / / /••• V-.x\vx\\ V/ ' • -X'-'x ^ \,\xv>x"--. \:>-x\.x JoXX/Xf M'• X \XX >. Fig. 6. Specimen of color defective pattern; Tritan. Average of 2 trials. •A", i i i /"' / / " / / ' / X X ' y. '_\/-r\-.v.'..--Vj...: • X H I ! • • i^-X^\ \\-<\X XT'xVv * Protons ••...;..;..i.iJ..\..V->.-\ \ v \ V N V "X = Ooutans /'//! i r\\ \ \\\'A'VV'X • r: p I *^  XyVsN x; 1 , .'.-V \ \ .y • s -s Tritcns Viil. 7. Distribution of mid-points from 112, t c M * .on color defective subjects: il> 'prot.m<. 50 deutans and 12 triians. 32 from blue to purple-red. The different coloured caps each numbered on the back can be moved about f r e e l y during the performance. Each box also contains two extra immobile caps, the f i r s t and l a s t of the neigh-bouring s e r i e s . LIGHTING: For the administration of the test, standard i l l u m i n a t i o n i s required of about 25 foot candles provided by Illuminant C type of lamp. SCORING: The underside of the caps are numbered to allow the examiner to score the t e s t . I f a perfect arrangement has been made the numbers are consecutive. I f not, the numbers are noted on a scoring sheet, and an error score calculated for each cap by adding the differences between the number of the cap and the number of the caps placed adjacent to i t . These error scores are plotted on the c i r c u l a r abscissa of a graph ( see F i g . 1), the r a d i a l l i n e s of which carry the numbers of the colour caps. The f i r s t inner abscissa i s number 2, the lowest possible score and the one which represents perfect s e r i a l order. The second i s numbered 3, the 33 lower error score, representing transposition of adjacent caps. The points plotted on the graph for the error score of each cap are connected to show a p r o f i l e c l e a r l y . Axes of confusion c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of colour defective subjects emerge when error scores are plotted i n t h i s way. A t o t a l error score i s obtained by subtracting two from each cap error score and adding the resultants together. A perfect arrangement gives a t o t a l error score of zero. INTERPRETATION: Variations i n discriminative a b i l i t y as tested by the 100-Hue are found by Farnsworth to be approximately normally d i s t r i b u t e d . About 68% of the adult population excluding defectives make a t o t a l error score of between 20 and 100 on the f i r s t t e s t . The errors are random, seldom occur on re t e s t , and are not bunched i n any one region of the colour space. This i s taken to be in d i c a t i v e of normal competence. 10% of the population score between 0 and 16, showing superior discrimination. 16% of the population show low discriminative a b i l i t y but have normal colour v i s i o n . This group make a t o t a l error score of more than 100. This group shows no improvement on retests but have no area of minimum s e n s i t i v i t y as i n defectives. 34 Colour v i s i o n defects are thus i d e n t i f i e d by the c l u s t e r i n g of maximum errors i n two regions of the colour c i r c l e which are nearly opposite. The type of defect i s i n f e r r e d from the d i r e c t i o n of the axes shown on the graph and the degree of defect from the extent of the d i s t o r t i o n . Individual degrees of su p e r i o r i t y of discrimination are, on the other hand, more simply assessed by r e f e r r i n g to the t o t a l error score. General colour discrimination and colour anomaly are factors independent of each other. It i s possible that anomolous trichromats may do well on the 100-Hue whereas normal trichromats may do poorly. TEST RELIABILITY: Performance on the 100-Hue for adults improves considerably between f i r s t t e s t and re t e s t . An average of 30% reduction i n t o t a l error score i s reported by Farnsworth. Scores on t h i r d t e s t i n g show l i t t l e further improvement. Correlation between f i r s t t est and retest i s .82, and with the t h i r d .6?. Farnsworth suggests that experience i n handling t e s t material may explain improvement on retest measures since the i n i t i a l improvement on retest i s considerable i t may be infer r e d that the format of the test presents anc unfamiliar and d i f f i c u l t task even for adults. These conceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s a f f e c t performance. This conceptual as opposed to perceptual d i f f i c u l t y of the 35 100-Hue might be expected to be of even greater import-ance when the performance of children i s considered. FARNSWORTH DICHOTOMOUS TEST FOR COLOUR BLINDNESS: (PANEL D-15) The Panel D-15 i s designed to indicate colour blindness c l e a r l y and quickly, i . e . to di s t i n g u i s h dichromats, the f u n c t i o n a l l y colour b l i n d from the moderately colour defective and the normal (normal and anomalous trichromats). As a vocational test i t can be used to eliminate with certainty those who cannot distinguish between such colours as red and green, green and blue, blue and pink, yellow and blue or between green and brown (or tan or amber). It i s not intended to disti n g u i s h degrees of colour aptitude to normals. PRESENTATION: Test materials consist of a rack of 2 hinged panels, scoring sheets, 15 colour caps, placed i n the rack, contain pigments on upper surface and scoring numbers on the under side. Two numbered diagrams are provided on the scoring sheets to use i n constructing the pattern that shows the type of colour defect. At the beginning of the test the colour caps No. 1 to No. 15 are arranged i n a row i n random order i n the cover panel of the rack, so that the subject can ea s i l y select them for placement i n the lower panel. 36 The standard adult instructions are as follows: "The object of the test i s to arrange the buttons i n order according to the colour. Take the button from t h i s panel (indicate) which looks most l i k e t h i s button and place i t here (indicate space next to the fixed reference cap). Take the button which looks most l i k e that and place i t here; and the button most l i k e that, and place i t here; continue doing t h i s u n t i l a l l the buttons are arranged i n order." I f the subject does not seem to grasp the problem, further help i s given. "After each button i s placed i t may be necessary to say, Now which of these buttons (indicate) i s most l i k e the l a s t one? (indi c a t e ) " To prevent dawdling subjects may be told they w i l l be l i m i t e d to two minutes, but should not be held to i t . Subjects who rush may be asked to review i t and make changes to "get them a l l in order". LIGHTING: While t h i s test i s less dependent on quality of i l l u m i n a t i o n than most tests of colour v i s i o n r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s require average daylight or an Illuminant "C" lamp. SCORING: By closing the cover on the colour cap case and turning i t over the scoring numbers on the under-side are revealed. The examiner i s merely required to record the numbers on the scoring sheet i n the order i n 37 which they were arranged by the subject. I f there are no errors i n placement a p l o t t i n g of itr the diagram i s not required. I f there i s any divergence from the correct arrangement a r u l e r or cardnshould be used to connect the points on the diagram i n the order i n which they were recorded beginning with the point marked "Reference Cap". INTERPRETATION: The test i s scored as a unit, either "passing" or " f a i l i n g " . A c i r c u l a r pattern indicates "passing"; a p a r a l l e l or lacing pattern indicates " f a i l i n g " . See (Fig. I I ) . Patterns of normal and colour-weak v i s i o n are shown i n Figures 1, 2 and 3 (passing scores). The patterns of colour blind subjects are shown i n Figures 4, 5, and 6 ( f a i l i n g scores). The three t y p i c a l axes are indicated on the chart as "protan", "deutan" and " t r i t a n " . The type of deficiency i s indicated by the index l i n e most nearly p a r a l l e l to the crossover l i n e s . RELIABILITY: The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y i s as stated i n the manual indicated by the following figure drawn from 163 subjects. TEST Passed F a i l e d 733 1 1 28 33 The Panel D-15 as well as the 100-Hue test involve the concept of "colour s e r i e s " but the 100-Hue detects small differences i n hue whereas the D-15 has large colour differences i n the series which are generally much more e a s i l y discerned. It i s because of this s i m i l a r i t y i n u t i l i z i n g the same concepts that i t i s suggested that the D-15 be used as a teaching device for children before administering the 100-Hue i n order to communicate the "colour s e r i e s " concept more r e a d i l y . Some further explanation may be necessary than that found i n the manual instructions i n administering the Panel D-15, and these changes i n administration, i f they a r i s e , w i l l be reported. F I G . I I 39 Figure 2 — N O R M A L V I S I O N M I N O R E R R O R S Figure 5 — D E F E C T I V E V I S I O N — G R E E N B L I N D N E S S ( D E U T E R A N O P I A ) 8 Figure 3 N O R M A L V I S I O N O N E E R R O R ( S E E T E X T ) 1? 1! Figure 6 D E F E C T I V E V I S I O N B L U E B L I N D N E S S ( T R I T A N O P I A ) 8 Figure 7 A N O M A L O U S T R I C H R O M A T I C V I S I O N CHAPTER IV RESULTS ANALYSIS OF THE DATA: The U.B.C. Computing Centre T r i a n g u l a r Regression Programme Packe (TRIP) was implemented to f i n d means, standard d e v i a t i o n s and c o r r e l a t i o n co-e f f i c i e n t s between the v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d . Since no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found, t h i s s t a t i s t i c was discounted and a l l f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was done on the simpler s t a t i s t i c s , mean and standard d e v i a t i o n s (see Table V). Table V Means and S.D. f o r the Four Groups Group N. Mean S.D. I 31 99.55 51.25 I I 31 74-74 39.22 I I I 30 55.00 30.28 IV 32 70.44 32.97 . Two-tailed t - t e s t s were used to determine whether the d i f f e r e n c e i n means between the various experimental groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Table VI gives the t-scores a t the i n d i c a t e d degrees of freedom. 4iL Table VI t-Scores between Groups I II III II 2.56 30 df ITT 4.76 29df 2.78 29 df IV 3.11 30df 0.6 30df 3.41 29df The l e v e l s of significance of the t-scores for each of the groups i s shown i n Table VII. Table VII Levels of Significance I II I l l I I .01 III .005 .01 IV .005 n.s. .005 42 Table VIII Comparison of Means between Average  and High I.Q. Subjects Means I.Q. Average High Standard I.Q. Average Deviations High Gp. I 102.4 96.5 59.2 42.9 Gp. II 69.2 8Q.6 37.6 41.2 Gp. I l l 56.9 53.1 39.4 13.3 Gp. IV 31.1 59.7 34.6 23.3 t-scores: 3.02 significance to (Group IV, average vs .01 at 15d high) . f . Results show that: a) From Table V i t can be seen Group 3 has the lowest mean score, 55*00 indicating the method of presentation involved here has e l i c i t e d the best response. It i s also of inte r e s t to note the high s.d. 51.25 i n Group One as compared to the others, 30.23, 32.97, and 39.22, respectively. These re s u l t s can be interpreted as supporting the f i r s t hypothesis and do not appear to support the supplementary hypothesis. b) In Table VI a l l of the t-scores except for that between Groups II and IV are large enough to be s i g n i -f i c a n t . This r e l a t i o n s h i p i s borne out i n Tables VI and IV where there i s , respectively, no significance and l i t t l e v i s i b l e difference, the means being 70.44 and 74.74. This would indicate a lack of support for the supplementary hypothesis. 43 In Table VII very good significance i s evidenced i n a l l comparisons except that as already mentioned, with l e v e l s of significance at .01 or higher. These r e s u l t s can be interpreted as support-ing hypothesis one and as not supporting the supple-mentary hypothesis. In Table VIII by inspection one can see that there i s l i t t l e difference between the I.Q. range for a l l but Group IV. In t h i s group the average I.Q. subjects have a mean score of 5 9 . 7 . This group difference, when a t-score was computed, was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t to the .01 l e v e l . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION The aim of this study was to determine the efficaciousness of revised methods of presentation of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue test for colour d i s -crimination, rendering i t suitable for use i n the elementary school. It was hypothesized that error scores on the 100-Hue would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher when the standard adult instructions were used than when modified instructions more suitable for elementary school children, both with the Panel D-15 and without were used. It was also hypothesized that the most s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n scores would occur when the modified instructions included use of the Farnsworth Dichtomous Test f o r Colour Blindness - Panel D-15 as part of the i n s t r u c t i o n s . Four groups of 124 twelve year old boys were compared using four di f f e r e n t presentations of instructions for the 100-Hue. Group, one was given the standard adult instructions from the Farnsworth manual only. Group two was given the standard adult instructions from the Farnsworth manual for the Panel D-15 which was completed before being given the standard adult instructions for the 100-Hue. Group three 45 r e c e i v e d modified i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the 100-Hue. Group four r e c e i v e d the modified i n s t r u c t i o n s which a l s o i n c l u d e d the Panel D-15 as part of the modified p r e s e n t a t i o n . As the r e s u l t s already shown i n d i c a t e , the f i r s t hypothesis was s u b s t a n t i a t e d . Scores f o r group one were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher a t the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to the other three groups. The second hypothesis was not supported by the data. The most s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n the scores occurred f o r the group which received the modified i n s t r u c t i o n s only (Group 3 ) . Group f o u r which had the same i n s t r u c t i o n s as group three but a l s o had the Panel D-15, had a mean e r r o r score of 70.4. When t h i s compared to the group three mean of 55.0 and a t-s c o r e i s computed, i t i s found to be s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l , with a t-score of 3.41. The o v e r a l l r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that 12 year olds can perform as w e l l as adu l t subjects on the 100-Hue when the i n s t r u c t i o n s are modified, i m p l y i n g t h a t they now understand the t e s t b e t t e r than the other s t u d i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n showr,, because of lower scores compared to a l l the other populations. The lowest scores i n t h i s study, that of group three w i t h a mean of 55.00 are s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i m i l a r to those reported by V e r r i e s t , (1963), f o r a d u l t s i n the prime of understanding, the 30-34 year age group which had a mean e r r o r score of 54.7. 46 DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s i n group 4 were quite surprising i n that the i n c l u s i o n of the Panel D-15 as part of the modified instructions did not r e s u l t i n lower scores than did Group 3's with the modified instructions alone. This i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n that the use of the Panel D-15 with the adult instructions previous to administering the 100-Hue i n group 2 resulted i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower scores than with the 100-Hue alone. Thus i t seems that a model which incorporates the concept of "colour s e r i e s " i n a simpler form had a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t i n aiding the c h i l d to understand what was expected of him. The r e s u l t s i n Group three indicate that modified instructions more accessible to the elementary school child's l e v e l of understanding were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more ef f i c a c i o u s for grasping the "colour s e r i e s " concept and producing better scores. It seems that once the c h i l d has grasped the concept,inclusion of Panel D-15 did nothing to aid him, i n fact was detrimental to the more average I.Q. boys. For example, although the i n c l u s i o n of the Panel D-15 i n group four did not e f f e c t the scores of the above average I.Q. subjects (they did almost as well i n group four as did the same I.Q. l e v e l c h i l d i n group three), i t was the average I.Q. c h i l d that found a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n with the Panel D-15 detrimental to performance. 47 T h i s more average s u b j e c t scored a p p r e c i a b l y lower i n Group 4 than d i d h i s I.Q. peer i n Group 3. ( See Table V.) I t would appear t h a t the i n c l u s i o n of the Panel D-15 was somehow s l i g h t l y c o n f u s i n g , perhaps i n the sense t h a t too much data was i n c l u d e d i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s was not a g r e a t handicap to the above average c h i l d but was a p p r e c i a b l y more so f o r the normal. Since I.Q. was h e l d constant f o r a l l groups by matching, i n t e l l i g e n c e d i d not appear i n t h i s study as a v a r i a b l e . However, i n Group 4 where Panel D-15 was used and a comparison was made between h i g h and low I.Q. groups i t was o f some s i g n i f i c a n c e . DISCUSSION OF EARLIER STUDIES: i In the study by V e r r i e s t , Vandevyvere and Vanderdonck, (1962), i n which ages r a n g i n g from 10 to 64 were a d m i n i s t e r e d the 100-Hue u s i n g the s t a n d a r d a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s i t was found t h a t the group of boys aged t e n to f o u r t e e n years had a mean e r r o r score of 92.5. T h i s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t to the r e s u l t s i n Group one of the present study whose mean e r r o r was 99.55* I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s how s i g n i f i c a n t i n the present study the scores between Group 1 with the highest mean e r r o r s c o r e , and Group 3 with the m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s and the lowest mean e r r o r score i s , i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s age group. I.Q.'s were not r e p o r t e d f o r the V e r r i e s t study so t h a t t h i s i s a p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e which needs t o be considered when the r e s u l t s of the s t u d i e s are compared. Lumbroso and Proto, (1963), study deal w i t h c h i l d r e n under 10 years of age and i n v o l v e d only 46 c h i l d r e n , which i s a very l i m i t e d sample. The mean e r r o r score f o r the 7 - 1 0 year age group (N = 34) of 138 would be d i r e c t l y comparable to Group one of the present study w i t h i t s mean of 99.55. A t - s c o r e of 4*14 f o r t h i s comparison shows our group i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t beyond t h .01 l e v e l . Again standard a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s were used i n both cases. A l s o , again no c o n t r o l f o r I.Q. was done i n the Lumbroso and Proto study. The most i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t i n r e s u l t s emerge when the present study i s compared to r e s u l t s found by Luscombe, (1966) which i s the only other study w i t h young c h i l d r e n u s i n g the 100-Hue and a modified p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n s . The model or modified i n s t r u c t i o n s Luscombe used w i t h one group of 40 subjects aged 7 - 1 5 years has already been de s c r i b e d i n cpater two. The scores f o r t h i s group who f e l l i n t o the 11 - 13 year o l d age bracket were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the same age group having standard a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s only. The mean e r r o r scores f o r the 11 and 13 year olds averaged 161.1 and 187.9. This i s considerably greater than the f i n d i n g s of both previous s t a u d i e s , V e r r i e s t et a l and 49 Lumbroso and Proto which have been ci t e d and c e r t a i n l y considerably greater than the mean error scores for those receiving adult instructions only (Group 1) 99.5 and dramatically greater than the group receiving modified instructions (Group 3) 55.0 i n the present study. Even with the group of ten subjects with higher I.Q. scores i n r e l a t i o n to the other subjects a mean average error score of 220.5 was recorded. DEFECTIVES: Four of the 124 subjects tested were found to have congenital anomalies. The percentage was thus 4-9 which i s considerably lower than that commonly reported of.3.5%. It was possible to quickly i d e n t i f y these subjects with the use of the Dvorine Pseudo-Isochromatic plates and to double check these r e s u l t s using the Panel D-15. They were of course excluded from the sample and r e u l t s reported to the school nurse. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  Implications for further Research: Although the r e s u l t s of th i s study indicate that the 100-Hue using modified instructions can be successfully used to detect variations i n colour d i s -crimination with twelve year olds of normal in t e l l i g e n c e , further studies would be necessary on younger populations 50 within the elementary school to indicate whether some other modifications might be necessary to ensure under-standing of the tes t and gain co-operation i n younger children. For example, with the present age group of 12 year olds, a d e f i n i t e attitude of independence toward completing the t e s t successfully was observed a f t e r the f i r s t tray had been completed. Although i n i t i a l i n s t r uctions were reviewed b r i e f l y with the presentation of tray 2, ( i . e . "now remember to find the cap that i s almost exactly the same as thi s one - motioning to demonstration cap - but not quite"), the majority of the boys showed noticeable impatience and resorted to remarks l i k e , "Yes, I know", or, )"Its the same as the l a s t one, is n ' t i t ? " In the experiment*>'r's judgement t h i s would not be the case with younger subjects whose attention span i s considerably shorter and who would l i k e l y have more d i f f i c u l t y r e t a i n i n g the concept of "sameness" and remembering what was required of them. It seems thi s sort of reminder might be necessary throughout the t e s t and c e r t a i n l y as each i n d i v i d u a l tray was presented. It also remains to be demonstrated whether or not children with an I.Q. of below 100 or i n the low average range and lower could successfully complete the 100-Hue with the modified instructions thus encompassing the more t o t a l elementary school population. 51 Of a l l the methods the one that uses the modified instructions seems to get the best r e s u l t s and the f a c t that the Panel D-15 did not prove ef f i c a c i o u s would not necessarily hold f o r younger groups. Perhaps manipulation as with Panel D-15 as well as or a l i n s t r u c t i o n would prove to be more e f f e c t i v e with a younger population. 52 CONCLUSIONS Because of the increasing use of colour as a primary cue i n developing concepts and as a contextual cue, t h i s study was conducted to modify presentations of the 100-Hue test for colour discrimination i n order to make i t a useable instrument for screening the elementary school c h i l d who might have d i f f i c u l t i e s with colour discrimination though he i s not a colour defective, which could handicap his school performance. The subjects were 124 boys, aged 12 years. They were divided into four equivalent groups i n r e l a t i o n to I.Q. The subjects were Vancouver, B.C., elementary public school children. The Dvorine Pseudo-Isochromatic plates were shown to each subject as a means of e s t a b l i s h -ing rapport and quickly i d e n t i f y i n g colour defectives so that they could be excluded from the sample - 4 defectives were found who had congenital anomalies. This percentage of 4»9 was lower than the commonly reported 8.1% for the male population. Group 1 were read the standard adult instructions from the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue manual, before being asked to complete the t e s t . Group 2 were read the standard adult instructions from the Farnsworth manual for the Panel D-15 (Dichotomous Test for Colour Blindness), before completing t h i s test plus the adult instructions from the 100-Hue manual, before completing the l a t t e r t e s t . 53 Group 3 were read a standardized set of modified instructions which were created for this study. Group 4 were read the same set of modified instructions with the addition of the use of the Panel D-15 as part of the i n s t r u c t i o n s . S t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the mean error for the 4 groups revealed, as hypothesized, s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t means between the groups Using the modified and those using the standard i n s t r u c t i o n s . Group 3, using modified instructions without the inc l u s i o n of the Panel D-15 performed best, functioning as well with these instructions as do adult subjects. The r e s u l t s indicate that 12 year olds can function s i g n i f i c a n t l y better on the 100-Hue test with modified i n s t r u c t i o n than other studies with other populations of children, using other types of presentations have indicated. BIBLIOGRAPHY Askov, E. and Otto, W. The role of colour i n learning and i n s t r u c t i o n , Review of research. Journal of Special Education, 2. (2) 155-165, 1968r Bannatyne, A.D. The Colour Phonics System i n J. Money (Ed)., The Disabled Reader. Baltimore, The John Hopkins Press. 1966. Brian, C. R. and Goodenough, F. Relative potency of colour and form perception at various ages. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 197-213, 1929. Brown J. An investigation into the colour v i s i o n of schoolchildren. B r i t i s h Journal of Educational  Psychology, 1950. Corah, N. L. Colour and form i n children's perceptual behaviour. Perception and Motor S k i l l s , 18, 313-316, 196X Corah, N. L. and Jones, S. A. and M i l l e r , B. The Relation of verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e and colour-form discriminative a b i l i t y to children's colour-matching and form-matching behaviour. Journal of Psychology, 62, 221-228, 1966. Crannell, C. W. Code learning and colour. Journal of  psychology, 58, 295-299, 1964-Dvorine, I. Dvorine Pseudo-Isochromatic Plates. (2nd. ed."^  1953 ). Waverly Press, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland. Farnsworth, D. Farnsworth Dichbtomous Test for Colour  Blindness - Panel D-15. Farnsworth & Munsell Colour Co. Inc., Baltimore, My. Farnsworth D. and Munsell, E. Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test. Farnsworth & Munsell Colour Co. Inc., Baltimore, My. Gallagher, J. R. Visual Screening of pre-school and f i r s t grade children. Archives of Opthamology, 72, 200, 1964. 55 Gattegno, C. Words i n Colour, Background and P r i n c i p l e s . Encyclopedia of B r i t t a n i c a Press, Chicago, 1962. Heidbreder, E. and Bensley, M.L. and Ivy, M. The attainment of concepts - C r i t i c a l features i n context. Journal of Psychology, 6 6 , 45-69, 1948. Henman-Nelson, Test of Mental A b i l i t y Form B, Houghton M i f f i n Co., Boston, N.Y., Atlanta, Dallas, Pala Alto, 19617' Huang, I. Abstraction of form and colour i n children as a function of the stimulus objects. Journal  of General Psychology, 66, 59 - 6 2 , 1945. Janouskova, R. Colour v i s i o n and age. Czechoslovakia  Journal of Opthomology, 1955. Jones, J. K. Colour as an aid to v i s u a l perception i n early reading. B r i t i s h Journal of Educational ,. Psychology, 35, 25 - 2 7 , 1965. Kagan, J. and Lemkin, J. Form: Colour and size i n children's conceptual behaviour. Child  Development, 3 2 , 25-28, 1961. Ealmus, H. Diagnosis and Genetics of Defective Colour  V i s i o n . Permagon Press, Oxford and London, 1965. Lakowski, R. and Montgomery, G.W.G. Colour discrimination i n profoundly deaf children, Paper read at 2nd  Scottish Symposium on colour. September 1968. Lakowski, R. Age and colour v i s i o n . Advancement of  Science, 15, 231-236, 1958. Colour v i s i o n t e s t s ; What do they t e s t ? Report from Edinburgh University Psychological  Laboratory. A p r i l 1966. A c r i t i c a l valuation of colour v i s i o n tests. B r i t i s h Journal of Physiological Opthomology, 23, 136-209, 1966. ... .'.; R. Psychological variables i n colour v i s i o n t e s t i n g . Proceedings of the F i r s t International  Colour Congress, Stockholm, 19691 M. Rishter, Masterschmidt, Verlag, Gottingen, i n press. 56 Lamp, J.M. Evaluative study of colour-vision tests for kindergarten and 1st grade pupils, Journal of  School Health, 39, 311-14, 1969. Lewis M. and Ashby, Faye. ( C i v i l Aeromedical Inst., F.A.A., Oklahoma City, Okla.) Diagnostic tests of colour defective v i s i o n — Annotated bibliography, 1956-66. Office of Aviation  Medicine Report, 67-8, p.10, 1967. Lumbroso, B.D. and Proto, F. »LT esame del senso cromatica medianti i l t e st di Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue i n soggetti normali d i 10 anni*. B o l l . O c u l i s t, 42, 794. Luscombe, G. Performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test of Pre-Adult Subjects. M.A. Thesis (unpublished), Edinburgh, i 9 6 0 . MacLatchey, R.S. Colour v i s i o n t e s t i n g . Trans. Opthamological Society, U.K., 71, 623, 1951. Prater, M.J. Colour uses i n primary i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials and possible implications for colour deficient children. Doctoral  Dissertation, 1967. Shearron, G.F. Colour deficiency and reading achievement i n primary school boys. Reading Teacher, 22:5 10-12, March 1969. Synolds, D. and Pronko, R. An exploratory study of colour v i s i o n i n children. Journal of  Genetic Psychology, 74, 17-21, 1949. Ve r r i e s t , G. and Vandenyvere, R. and Vanderdonck, R.N.B. Nouvelles recherchers se rapportant a 1 T influence du sexe et de 1* age sur l a discrimination chromatique, a i n s i gu' a l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n pratigue des r e s u l t a t s due test 100-hue de Farnsworth-Munsell. Rev. Opt. 41, 499-509, 1962. Weiss, W. and Margolus, G. The df f e c t of context sti m u l i on learning and retention. Journal  of Experimental Psychology, 48, 318-322, 1954. APPENDIX 

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