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Modifications in presentation of the farnsworth- munsell 100-hue test for use in the elementary schools Taylor, Dorothy Beatrice 1971

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MODIFICATIONS IN PRESENTATION OF THE FARNSWORTHMUNSELL 100-HUE TEST FOR USE IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS  by ; DOROTHY BEATRICE TAYLOR B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  o f B.C., 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT - •  OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE .DEGREE OF  Master  of Arts  in Educational  We a c c e p t t h i s required  THE  Psychology  t h e s i s as conforming  t o the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH August,  1971  COLUMBIA  In  presenting this  thesis  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  make i t  British  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements f o r  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s of  this  written  representatives. thesis  It  for financial  i s understood that gain s h a l l  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Columbia  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  not be allowed without my  ABSTRACT  a primary this  Because of the  i n c r e a s i n g use  cue d e v e l o p i n g  concept and  study was  of c o l o u r  as  as a c o n t e x t u a l  cue,  conducted to modify p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the  100-Hue Test f o r c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n order t o make i t a useable  instrument  s c h o o l c h i l d who  f o r screening the  elementary  might have d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h  colour  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n though he i s not a c o l o u r d e f e c t i v e , which c o u l d handicap h i s s c h o o l performance. s u b j e c t s were 1 2 4 boys, aged 12  The  years.  They were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r e q u i v a l e n t groups i n r e l a t i o n to I.Q.  The  Ss were Vancouver,  elementary p u b l i c s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Isochromatic  c o l o u r d e f e c t i v e s so t h a t they  quickly identifying  could be  sample - 4 d e f e c t i v e s were found who  anomalies.  Dvorine Pseudo-  p l a t e s were shown to each s u b j e c t as a  means of e s t a b l i s h i n g r a p p o r t and  the  The  B.C.  T h i s percentage of 4»9 was  commonly r e p o r t e d 8,1%  had  congenital  lower than the  standard a d u l t  Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue manual,  b e f o r e b e i n g asked to complete the t e s t .  Group 2 were  r e a d the standard a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s from the manual f o r the  from  f o r the male p o p u l a t i o n .  Group 1 were read the i n s t r u c t i o n s from the  excluded  Panel D-15  Farnsworth  (Dichotomous Test f o r  B l i n d n e s s ) , b e f o r e completing  Colour  t h i s t e s t p l u s the a d u l t  i n s t r u c t i o n s from the 100-Hue manual, b e f o r e  completing  the l a t t e r t e s t .  Group 3 were read a s t a n d a r d i z e d s e t  of m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s which were c r e a t e d f o r t h i s study.  Group 4 were read the same set of m o d i f i e d  i n s t r u c t i o n s with the a d d i t i o n of the use D-15  as p a r t o f the  of the  Panel  instructions.  S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the mean e r r o r s c o r e s for  the 4 groups r e v e a l e d , as hypothesized,  statistically  d i f f e r e n t means between the groups u s i n g the m o d i f i e d those u s i n g the  standard i n s t r u c t i o n s .  m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s without D-15  Group 3,  using  the i n c l u s i o n of the  performed b e s t , f u n c t i o n i n g as w e l l with  Panel  these  i n s t r u c t i o n s as do a d u l t s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that 12 year olds  can  f u n c t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r on the 100-Hue t e s t m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n than  other s t u d i e s with  p o p u l a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n , u s i n g other types p r e s e n t a t i o n s have i n d i c a t e d .  of  and  other  with  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The w r i t e r wishes t o express her g r a t i t u d e t o the Vancouver School Board f o r t h e i r co-operation  and support of t h i s r e s e a r c h  Appreciation  project.  and g r a t i t u d e are a l s o due t o  the members o f her t h e s i s committee  -  Dr. P.  Koopman, Dr. R. Lakowski and Dr. E. D. A l l i s o n . T h e i r advice and encouragement were i n v a l u a b l e i n the completion of t h i s  study.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  PAGE INTRODUCTION  1  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND HYPOTHESES II III  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . .  10  METHODS- AND PROCEDURES  22  Sampling and S u b j e c t s  IV V  3  . . . .  22  Procedures  25  Instruments  29  RESULTS  40  SUMMARY AND DISCUSSIONS . . . .  44  Discussion  46  Defectives  49  C o n c l u s i o n s and I m p l i c a t i o n s  49  BIBLIOGRAPHY  54  APPENDIX  57  A. 100-HUE SAMPLE PROFILES FROM GROUPS I, I I , I I , AND IV  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I n t e r e s t i n c o l o u r v i s i o n and a long h i s t o r y , being a c l a s s i c a l f i e l d psychology.  i t s development of i n q u i r y i n  • The most common d e f i c i e n c y i n c o l o u r  c o l o u r b l i n d n e s s , was  has  vision,  f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by T u b e r v i l l e i n  (Judd, 1943), f i r s t a c c u r a t e l y c l a s s i f i e d i n 1837 i n t e n s i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d by Young, Hemholtz and  1684  by Seebeck;  Maxwell  d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; so t h a t as e a r l y as 1855 i t was  known t o e f f e c t 10% of the male p o p u l a t i o n .  b e t t e r and and  s i m p l e r t e s t s were d e v i s e d , by N a g e l ,  Gradually Stilling  I s h i h a r a among o t h e r s . The demand f o r such t e s t s i n the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n  has been f e l t i n some c o u n t r i e s .  Japan, f o r example, has  made c o l o u r v i s i o n " t e s t i n g i n i t s s c h o o l s compulsory f o r the p a s t twenty y e a r s .  More r e c e n t l y , S c o t l a n d ,  (1962)  has a l s o made c o l o u r v i s i o n t e s t i n g a p a r t o f s c h o o l h e a l t h services.  P u b l i c i t y g i v e n i n r e c e n t y e a r s to schemes f o r  t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g and  mathematics w i t h the use of c o l o u r  has c r e a t e d w i d e s p r e a d i n t e r e s t i n North America as to t h e v a l u e o f the s p e c i f i c uses of c o l o u r i n e d u c a t i o n . However, most e d u c a t o r s and r e s e a r c h e r s have not  yet  become concerned w i t h the problems f o r the c o l o u r d e f i c i e n t c h i l d which i n c r e a s e d use of c o l o u r i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l has  created.  The  need f o r w i d e s p r e a d  screening  2 s e r v i c e s t o a i d such c h i l d r e n who w i l l otherwise be p e n a l i z e d by such l e a r n i n g procedures w i l l increasing  become  obvious. A d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n ( P r a t e r 1968),  investi-  gated c o l o u r uses i n Primary I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and the p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o l o u r d e f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n . Colour r e f e r e n c e s which were s p e c i f i c a l l y used f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes were c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o f u n c t i o n and a c c o r d i n g the  classroom.  t o s k i l l s r e c e i v i n g emphasis i n  The summary of the t o t a l  incidence  r e v e a l e d that c o l o u r was used 12,067 times f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes i n the f i v e primary reading i n the United  States.  series  There were 2,188 r e f e r e n c e s to  c o l o u r t a b u l a t e d i n t h e f i v e primary a r i t h m e t i c s e r i e s . In a r i t h e m e t i c as i n reading, (823  the h i g h e s t  incidence  uses) was a t the f i r s t grade l e v e l .  l e v e l , 79.74% of the c o l o u r r e f e r e n c e s used t o c o n t r o l the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n .  At the r e a d i n e s s  were Results  also  showed t h a t the c o l o u r s which a r e most f r e q u e n t l y confused i n c o l o u r b l i n d n e s s , r e d , green and b l u e , were used more f r e q u e n t l y than others i n both a r i t h m e t i c and reading materials.  Interviews  with  colour b l i n d  students  were conducted t o t e s t t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to samples from the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s examined. r e q u i r e d students  Problems which  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between c o l o u r s d i d prove  3  difficult.  F i r s t grade s u b j e c t s gave the most i n c o r r e c t  responses and  c o l l e g e students  frustration.  greatest  R e s u l t s of i n t e r v i e w s a l s o suggested t h a t  problems which u t i l i z e d negative  showed the  emotional  colour may  produce c o n f u s i o n  r e a c t i o n s i n colour  and  deficient  individuals. In view of the h i g h percentage of c o l o u r r e f e r ences used t o c o n t r o l the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n a t the critical  l e v e l s i n s c h o o l and  the r e s u l t s o f the  inter-  views, colour usage f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes should  be  c a r e f u l l y e v a l u a t e d , a c c o r d i n g to the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study,., ( P r a t e r , i960*). Researchers,  however, have long been i n t e r e s t e d  i n the r o l e of c o l o u r i n l e a r n i n g , and there i s a a b l e body of l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t . o f the l i t e r a t u r e c u r r e n t areas one  of concern.  i s the study  other i s the  (Otto and  the  general themes emerged,  of c o l o u r i n developing  study  A r e c e n t review  Askov, i960*) suggested Two  size-  concepts;  of c o l o u r as a c o n t e x t u a l  the  cue,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n paired-associate learning. R e s u l t s of the s t u d i e s i n concept i n d i c a t e t h a t younger c h i l d r e n use  attainment  c o l o u r as a cue more  f r e q u e n t l y than do o l d e r s u b j e c t s who  tend to use  i n preference  particularly in  to c o l o u r as a cue, and  matching t a s k s .  Corah ( 1 9 6 4 )  form  e x p l a i n e d t h i s tendency  4 i n terms o f P i a g e t ' s while a young c h i l d Piaget,  concept o f cemtration. (whose p e r c e p t i o n ,  That i s ,  according t o  i s not yet decentered) would a t t e n d  only to t h e  dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a c o n f i g u r a t i o n - i . e . , i t s c o l o u r - an o l d e r c h i l d would be f r e e t o a t t e n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g form.  Other s t u d i e s  1964 and Suchman and Trabasso 1966) form p r e f e r e n c e and  therefore  found that  (Gaines  colour/  i s r e l a t e d t o a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e  to performance l e v e l .  c o l o u r as a c o n t e x t u a l  The s t u d i e s o f  cue i n d i c a t e t h a t c o l o u r i s a  significant factor in learning, particularly associate learning. and  to a l l  paired-  S a l t z (I963) a l t e r n a t e d l e a r n i n g  t e s t t r i a l s and presented c o l o u r cues only  l e a r n i n g or only d u r i n g t e s t i n g .  during  He found that  cues enhanced l e a r n i n g under both c o n d i t i o n s .  colour Crannel,  (1964) found t h a t c o l o u r i s u t i l i z e d as a cue i n more difficult stimulus  l e a r n i n g t a s k s , t h a t i s when the cannot be e a s i l y  primary  discriminated.  Otto & Askov (1968) a l s o reviewed the ature  liter-  d e a l i n g w i t h the uses of c o l o u r i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l  materials.  They noted t h a t s t u d i e s tended to be  d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r than experimental.  Jones (1965),  a notable  o f c o l o u r a s an  exception,  examined the  value  a i d t o v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f words and l e t t e r s i n nursery  school c h i l d r e n .  Jones concluded t h a t : "without  c o l o u r the t a s k s were a t l e a s t t h r e e times as d i f f i c u l t  5 even when p o s s i b l e c o l o u r matching was  considered."  He a l s o noted t h a t s u b j e c t s s t r o n g l y p r e f e r r e d coloured t e s t  the  materials.  Gattegno's,  use  ( 1 9 6 2 ) ,  approach to t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g  of a morpho-algebraic  c a l l e d , "words i n c o l o u r "  which uses c o l o u r as the primary s t i m u l i has been r e f e r r e d to by the authors as g a i n i n g i n acceptance.  A similar  method o f t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g to d y s l e x i c s i s a l s o i n use (Bannatyne,  1 9 6 6 ) .  Otto & Askov a l s o found i n t h e i r own t h a t good readers poor readers and  tended to u t i l i z e colour cues more than t h a t grade and developmental l e v e l i s  c r i t i c a l i n determining what works a t one conclusions  studies  the v a l u e of c o l o u r cues, so t h a t  l e v e l may  t h a t the use  not work a t another.  Their  o f c o l o u r cues i n i n s t r u c t i o n  could not be very e x p l i c i t l y p r e s c r i b e d but t h a t the  use  of colour i n i n s t r u c t i o n i s on the i n c r e a s e , concur with Prater's findings. Although the use  o f c u i s s e n a i r e rods i n  t e a c h i n g a r i t h m e t i c i n the primary grades i s q u i t e widespread, t h i s was  not mentioned i n any  o f the  studies  referred to. I t seems c l e a r i n view of the evidence t h a t not only i s the use i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s on the  foregoing  of c o l o u r i n  i n c r e a s e but t h a t  only  6  l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d to the c h i l d most l i k e l y to be handicapped by excessive use of c o l o u r as a primary cue i n l e a r n i n g ; t h a t i s , the c h i l d who  has  some impairment i n the a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e c o l o u r . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the colour d e f i c i e n t i s a l s o important Colour  i n r e l a t i o n to v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g .  coding i n i n d u s t r y i n c r e a s e s with the  of i n v e n t i o n .  child  Complicated  can be made s a f e r and  and  simpler  complexity  o f t e n dangerous procedures  ( f o r the colour normal) by  c o l o u r - c o d i n g procedures ( M i t c h e l l , i 9 6 0 ) .  Examples are  found i n e l e c t r o n i c s , t e l e v i s i o n , computers, m i s s i l e s , a v i a t i o n and  i n chemical  I n d i v i d u a l s who  and m e t a l l u r g i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g .  cannot q u a l i f y f o r these  because of c o l o u r d e f i c i e n t  professions  v i s i o n should be  informed  a t the pre-high s c h o o l l e v e l , i n order to prepare f o r another v o c a t i o n . I t would seem t h a t , c o n s i d e r i n g the  prevalence  of colour i n learning s i t u a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y at elementary s c h o o l l e v e l , adequate screening  the  procedures  should be a p a r t of s c h o o l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . Only one  study was  r e p o r t e d i n the  literature  f o r the past decade t h a t attempted to evaluate  colour  v i s i o n t e s t i n g f o r an e n t i r e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and was  i n 1964  i n B a l t i m o r e , MD.  attempted to evaluate garten and  grade one  Two  other  that  s t u d i e s which  colour v i s i o n t e s t s f o r kinderstudents  have been done by  7 Gallagher,  ( 1 9 6 4 ) and  Lampe, ( 1 9 6 9 ) .  Apart  from  there have been e v a l u a t i o n s done on the Colour t e s t , otherwise  these  Pyramid  the f i e l d seems to be a n e g l e c t e d  A significant  one.  d i s t i n c t i o n must be made here i n  regard to c o l o u r v i s i o n s c r e e n i n g .  Even i f a more wide-  spread use were made of e x i s t i n g t e s t s now s c h o o l s , these would only f a c i l i t a t e  the  of the c o l o u r b l i n d persons, t h a t i s ,  a v a i l a b l e to identification  those who  reds with greens or blues w i t h y e l l o w s .  By  confuse  excluding  c o n g e n i t a l d e f e c t i v e s of t h i s type the problem would not be  solved.  There are an undetermined number of c h i l d r e n  whose d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of c o l o u r s i n the spectrum i s impaired.  Little  data i s a v a i l a b l e on such c h i l d r e n .  We  know r e l a t i v e l y nothing about the problems i n colour d i s c r i m i n a t i o n encountered by such c h i l d r e n .  The  child  i s u s u a l l y unaware of d e f i c i e n c y i n c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and  the teacher would l i k e l y  l e a r n f o r other reasons.  assume t h a t he i s unable to  There i s only one  test for  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s u r f a c e c o l o u r which i s a v a i l a b l e t h a t i s fairly  simple  expensive and  to a d m i n i s t e r  and  which does not  cumbersome apparatus and would t h e r e f o r e  s u i t a b l e f o r the elementary s c h o o l . Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue However, one recommending the use children.  require  The  be  This t e s t i s the  (100-Hue).  problem presents  itself in  of t h i s t e s t with elementary s c h o o l  i n s t r u c t i o n s i n the Farnsworth Manual  3 a r e w r i t t e n f o r a d u l t s and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t procedures ful of  to c h i l d r e n  to date.  have n o t b e e n n o t a b l y s u c c e s s -  T h i s means t h a t b e c a u s e t h e d i f f i c u l t y  communicating the concept  c h i l d r e n twelve the t e s t  of a "colour s e r i e s " to  y e a r s and u n d e r has n o t b e e n  has n o t g e n e r a l l y been used w i t h  simplified,  elementary  school children.  I t would appear t h a t m o d i f i c a t i o n s  .would be n e c e s s a r y  t o make i t u s e f u l t o e l e m e n t a r y  The  Farnsworth  schools.  Dichotomous T e s t f o r C o l o u r B l i n d n e s s -  P a n e l D-15 c o u l d be o f u s e i n t h i s on a s i m p l i f i e d  model s i m i l a r  fore able t o present  regard as i t i s based  t o t h e 100-Hue a n d t h e r e -  the concept  o f c o l o u r s e r i e s more  simply. STATEMENT OF'THE PROBLEM: The suggests  materials presented  i n the foregoing  t h e need f o r an e x p e r i m e n t a l  100-Hue w i t h a n o r m a t i v e  study o f the  sample o f e l e m e n t a r y  children using both the standard i n s t r u c t i o n s  school for adults,  as w e l l as m o d i f i e d p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n . such m o d i f i c a t i o n w i l l  i n c l u d e t h e P a n e l D-15 a s p a r t o f  a t e a c h i n g method t o communicate t h e c o n c e p t series". test  The p r o c e d u r e  o f the e f f i c i e n c y  w i t h and w i t h o u t  related  i n this  study w i l l  of "colour permit a  of the modified presentations  t h e P a n e l D-15 v e r s u s t h e s t a n d a r d  i n s t r u c t i o n s when u s e d hypotheses.  One  with  c h i l d r e n , and c e r t a i n  9  The usefulness  a i m o f t h e s t u d y w i l l be t o d e t e r m i n e t h e  o f r e v i s e d methods o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o  c h i l d r e n as a t e s t f o r colour d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i nthe elementary school.  I t i s hoped t h a t i n p r o v i d i n g a  m o d i f i c a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e 100-Hue s u i t a b l e for  diagnosing  c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n problems i n  elementary school teachers  c h i l d r e n , t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may a i d  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g l e a r n i n g procedures f o r colour  d e f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n w h i c h do n o t r e l y on c o l o u r a s t h e primary  stimulus.  The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s  w i l l be  tested: 1.  Error scores  on t h e F a r n s w o r t h - M u n s e l l  100-Hue u s i n g s t a n d a r d  adult instructions  s h o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n o b t a i n e d when m o d i f i e d w i t h the Panel 2.  scores  i n s t r u c t i o n s , both  D-15 o r w i t h o u t ,  Supplementary Hypothesis:  are used.  The m o d i f i e d  i n s t r u c t i o n which includes also a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Panel  D-15 p r i o r t o t h e 100-Hue t e s t  w i l l produce t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t in  test  scores.  reduction  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE  LITERATURE  Only four previous  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have been  conducted which r e p o r t r e s u l t s concerning  the  performance  o f p r e - a d u l t s u b j e c t s on the 100-Hue t e s t . V e r r i e s t , Vandevyvere and  Vanderdonck,(1962)  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s were concerned p r i m a r i l y with age age. and  changes i n c o l o u r v i s i o n from childhood to o l d  C o n s i d e r i n g the work of, f o r example, Paterson,  (1948), who  found no c o r r e l a t i o n between  performance on the I s h i h a r a and 59 y e a r s , i t was chromatic  concluded  Boice,Tinker  age  change from 20 to  that ordinary  pseudoiso-  p l a t e s are too gross as t e s t s to show any  s i g n i f i c a n t changes w i t h In t h i s study administered  age. t h e r e f o r e , V e r r i e s t et a l  the 100-Hue t e s t to 480  10 t o 6 4 years and  comprising  s u b j e c t s aged from  248 men  and  232 women.  A minimum o f 30 s u b j e c t s were i n c l u d e d i n each f i v e - y e a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n more or l e s s e q u a l l y d i v i d e d as to Those s u b j e c t s were excluded  who  sex.  were  d i s c o v e r e d to have c o n g e n i t a l c o l o u r d e f e c t s , whose c o - o p e r a t i o n was q u i c k l y enough.  poor, or who  d i d not  The time a l l o w e d  complete the  for subjects  less  than 15 years  o l d f o r completing  20 seconds.  The r e s u l t s were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g  c o l o u r , age  and  of v a r i a n c e .  one box was  sex, and were submitted  test  2 minutes to  to an a n a l y s i s  11 The  d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance due  highly s i g n i f i c a n t .  to age were  The mean t o t a l e r r o r scores f o r  s u b j e c t s i n the t h r e e younger groups (aged from 10 to  24)  were as f o l l o w s : Table 10  1  I  14 years  M  F  No. of subjects  22  27  Lowest score  24  16  160  194  ' 194  75.3  83.1  Highest score Mean  92.5  Total  15  19 years  -  -  M  F  24 y e a r s  M  F  49  25  31  56  60  34  94  16  16  8  8  4  4  4  124  94  124  162 108  162  42.3 25.5  36.3  60.1  Total  20  44.5  51.5  Total  The mean e r r o r score a c h i e v e d by s u b j e c t s aged from 20 - 24 years was other age means. are confirmed  found  to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r than a l l  Thus f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d by other s t u d i e s  f o r the 100-Hue t e s t , namely, t h a t colour  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n improves g r a d u a l l y u n t i l the beginning adulthood way.  and afterwards  d e t e r i o r a t e s i n the same gradual  Brown, (1950), Janouskova, (1957), G i l b e r t ,  Lakowski,  of  (1957),  (1958). While i t seemed reasonable  to attribute  the  general t r e n d o f performance on the 100-Hue to genuine p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , V e r r i e s t , et a l . , concede t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s may  be p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  the high e r r o r scorep among the youngest s u b j e c t s .  12 F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s showed t h a t the d e f i c i e n c y i n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of the youngest o l d e s t s u b j e c t s was  p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable  b l u e - g r e e n and  r e d d i s h hues.  s i m i l a r i t y was  noted to the  l o s s e s which can- be  i n the  In t h i s r e s p e c t  a  d e f i c i e n c y observed i n  c o n g e n i t a l c o l o u r d e f e c t s of the to the  and  T  r i t a n type,  and  also  induced i n young a d u l t s  t h e i r wearing f i l t e r s which s e l e c t i v e l y absorb  by  short  wave-length r a d i a t i o n s . I t must, however, be mentioned t h a t there an accumulation of e r r o r s i n these r e g i o n s case of the  20 -  2 4 year o l d age  group.  was  even i n the Thus i t seems  t h a t the 100-Hue t e s t i s f a u l t y i n that d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s too d i f f i c u l t r e l a t i v e l y i n the blue-green and regions.  In view of t h i s f a c t , i t would be  to i n f e r too much concerning  the nature of  misleading  colour  v i s i o n i n younger s u b j e c t s from t h e i r performance t h i s t e s t alone and  red  comparison w i t h t h a t of  on  tritanomalous  subjects. The  f i n e n e s s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t h a t  f e a s i b l y be measured by a t e s t may the  complexity and  i t s presentation.  depend i n p a r t  on  d i f f i c u l t y inherent  in  such f a c t o r s are l i k e l y to  be  conceptual As  can  of g r e a t e r importance i n the  case o f the youngest  subjects, explanation  observed r e s u l t s i n  of the  13 p h y s i o l o g i c a l terms may.be out of p l a c e .  I f some areas  of the t e s t r e q u i r e f i n e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n than others, the above assumption, the accumulation regions test  should be g r e a t e r f o r those  c o n c e p t u a l l y most  o f e r r o r s i n these  s u b j e c t s who  V e r r i e s t , et. a l . report  t e s t - r e l i a b i l i t y measure f o r c h i l d r e n under 15,  for  find  was  a  25  who  or t h r e e months.  In a d d i t i o n , no advantage on the t e s t was to t r a i n i n g or experience  i n other  no  obtained by the r a n k i n g method,  normal s u b j e c t s between the ages of 15 and  were r e t e s t e d a f t e r two  due  the  difficult.  F i n a l l y , although  c o - e f f i c i e n t of 0.93  on  found  i n colour d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  contexts. Subjects whose p r o f e s s i o n r e q u i r e d them to work  w i t h c o l o u r d i d not make s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower t o t a l e r r o r s c o r e s than n o n - s e l e c t e d t h a t i s , 18 - 24 The  s u b j e c t s i n the same age  years.  second study  the e a r l i e s t one  to be  considered  seems to be  to date which as i t s primary o b j e c t i v e  i n v e s t i g a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of u s i n g the Munsell  group,  Farnsworth-  100-Hue t e s t w i t h c h i l d r e n . Lumbroso and Proto,  (1963), p o i n t out i n t h e i r  paper, t h a t the examination of colour v i s i o n i n c h i l d r e n presents  p a r t i c u l a r problems i n t h a t the c o - o p e r a t i o n  such s u b j e c t s i s o f t e n poor.  The  100-Hue t e s t  has  of  14 u s u a l l y b e e n c o n f i n e d f o r use w i t h a d u l t s f o r i t r e q u i r e s the  subject's co-operation i n performing  can and  i n c a r r y i n g out a r e l a t i v e l y  without  help. Although  as y o u n g a s 10  y o u n g e r t h a n 10  difficult  e t . a l . had  years i n t h e i r  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  first  Verriest,  the t e s t a d m i n i s t e r e d to  children  P r o t o were t h u s  t o p r o v i d e d a t a a s t o the p e r f o r m a n c e  s u b j e c t s on t h e I t was younger than the t e s t  found  t o be  With the  5-6  on the  i n the 7 - 1 0  age  test  the  hesitated  s c o r e s o f t h o s e who  contents  i n the m a j o r i t y of  no more t h a n t h e s t a n d a r d time  longer than  but  the  results.  i n g e n e r a l to r e q u i r e  o f two  minutes to  e a c h box . The  follows:  perfectly.  o f e a c h box  t i m e were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e  C h i l d r e n o v e r 7 y e a r s were f o u n d  5-6  the  v e r y y o u n g s u b j e c t s were a l l o w e d t h r e e t o the  complete  in  group n e a r l y a l l the  four minutes to arrange  allotted  children  co-operate  year' o l d s ,  s u b j e c t s a r e r e p o r t e d t o have c o - o p e r a t e d The  such  impossible to t e s t  5 y e a r s o l d as t h e y d i d not  situation.  cases, while  of  the  100-Hue.  e x a m i n e r managed t o c a r r y  from  included subjects previous  Lumbroso and  he  task  i n no  years.  study,  as w e l l a s  results  years  r e p o r t e d f o r twelve  o l d , and  34  from  7-10  normal  children  years are  as  15 Table I I 5 - 6 year o l d group  Minimum e r r o r s c o r e Maximum e r r o r s c o r e Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n  100 335 177 65.7  7 - 1 0 year o l d group  Minimum e r r o r s c o r e Maximum e r r o r s c o r e Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n  31 311 138 63.9  I f these r e s u l t s a r e compared w i t h F a r n s w o r t h s 1  norms, i t can be seen t h a t t h e mean e r r o r s c o r e s f o r b o t h groups a r e g r e a t e r than t h a t o f the 90th p e r c e n t i l e o f t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n ( e r r o r s c o r e of 120) and t h a n t h a t r e p o r t e d by V e r r i e s t e t . a l . f o r the 10 - 14 age group ( e r r o r s c o r e o f 8 3 . 1 ) . I t was a l s o found t h a t b o t h groups o f s u b j e c t s showed an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f e r r o r s i n the g r e e n - b l u e r e g i o n o f t h e t e s t and a l s o i n t h e r e d r e g i o n f o r t h e 5-6  year olds.  This confirms the r e s u l t s reported  by V e r r i e s t e t . a l . c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e a r e a s of t h e t e s t . Lumbroso and P r o t o c o n c l u d e from t h e s e r e s u l t s t h a t t h e 100-Hue i s s u i t a b l e f o r use i n s t u d y i n g t h e c o l o u r v i s i o n o f c h i l d r e n under 10 y e a r s o f age.  In  view o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s statement f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e c l a i m i s not further  clarified.  1 6  It  seems t h a t t h r e e s e p a r a t e  interpretations  might be made. (1) Young c h i l d r e n a r e c a p a b l e on t h e 100-Hue  of performing  test.  (2) The 100-Hue i s a s u i t a b l e  instrument f o r  s t u d y i n g the colour d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of children.  ( 3 ) The 100-Hue i s a u s e f u l d i a g n o s t i c colour  vision  i n young s u b j e c t s .  None o f t h e s e p o s s i b l e  interpretations  t o be s u p p o r t e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l (1) A p p a r e n t l y year  t e s t of  only a  evidence as reported.  ' m a j o r i t y ' of the 5  o l d s and ' n e a r l y a l l '  o l d group co-operated  appear  -  o f the 7 - 1 0  i n the t e s t  6 year  situation.  No f i g u r e s a r e g i v e n c o n c e r n i n g t h e numbers who  failed,  b u t i t seems t h a t  g r o u p were a l l c h i l d r e n the t e s t . the It  capable  intelligence  of the s u b j e c t s i s r e p o r t e d .  might be s u p p o s e d t h a t  test  t h e more  intelligent  of co-operating i n  s i t u a t i o n a t a younger age.  s u c h knowledge a b o u t used,  of performing  U n f o r t u n a t e l y no a s s e s s m e n t o f  c h i l d r e n may be c a p a b l e the  i n n e i t h e r age  Without  the group o f s u b j e c t s  i t i s impossible to c o n s i d e r the f i n d i n g s  of this  i n v e s t i g a t i o n as having  application.  general  17  The d e g r e e t o w h i c h measurement o f c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as such  i s contaminated  by-  g e n e r a l l e a r n i n g f a c t o r s and l e v e l o f m e n t a l development, i s not considered i n t h i s although the observed  improvement o f  a n c e w i t h a g e w o u l d seem t o s u g g e s t  study, perform-  their  relevance. The s c o r e s o b t a i n e d b y c h i l d r e n i n t h i s were g r e a t e r than those adult population.  o f 90%  study  o f the normal  The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s  f i n d i n g i s t h a t p r e - a d u l t s u b j e c t s s h o u l d be considered as forming a d i f f e r e n t whose p e r f o r m a n c e must be a s s e s s e d reference t o separate  population with  norms.  I f f a c t o r s such a s i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e o f g r e a t importance  i n d e t e r m i n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e  t e s t , i t may p r o v e t h a t c o n t r o l f o r s t a b i l i z ing  age norms a l o n e i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t f o r a n  adequate assessment o f the c h i l d ' s ability.  visual  U n t i l such aspects of the t e s t  a r e i n v e s t i g a t e d , i t c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a s a u s e f u l diagnostic instrument. In  a d d i t i o n , i t appears that not a l l the  c h i l d r e n t e s t e d by L u m b r o s o and P r o t o , were a b l e t o p e r f o r m standard  (1963),  t h e t e s t under the  c o n d i t i o n s s p e c i f i e d by  Farnsworth.  For example, the younger c h i l d r e n could not f u l f i l the time requirement and approximately 14% were unable t o complete one box even a f t e r f o u r minutes.  Unfortunately  no i n f o r m a t i o n i s  given as to the i n s t r u c t i o n s used.  However,it  appears t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s o f the t e s t would have to be a l t e r e d i f i t i s to be used with children. Another study, Luscombe, (1966), was the f i r s t experimental  study t o attempt to modify the p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f the 100-Hue t e s t w i t h c h i l d r e n . The Isochromatic 7-15  100-Hue, as w e l l as the I s h i h a r a PseudoP l a t e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  years.  t o 174 boys aged  Subjects were grouped and three  o f p r e s e n t a t i o n were used.  stages  R e s u l t s on the I s h i h a r a  need not concern us here as i t was used p r i m a r i l y as a means o f comparing the performance of normals on t e s t s which d i f f e r i n nature and c o n s t r u c t i o n . were t e s t e d twice  A l l subjects  on the I s h i h a r a and the 100-Hue,  i d e n t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s being g i v e n on both  occasions.  This i n v e s t i g a t i o n was concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h maturation f a c t o r s e f f e c t i n g c o l o u r v i s i o n from 7-15  years,  i n t e l l i g e n c e a f f e c t s on colour  test  scores and e f f e c t on t e s t scores with a m o d i f i c a t i o n in  presentation.  19 R e s u l t s confirmed  the f i n d i n g s o f other  studies  ( V e r r i e s t e t . a l . , 1962, Lumbroso and P r o t o , 1963, Brown, 1950, Janouskova, 1955, G i l b e r t , 1957, Lakowski, 1958) t h a t c o l o u r v i s i o n tends to improve with age.  Scores o f  the o l d e s t group of s u b j e c t s were i n f e r i o r on both t e s t s to those r e p o r t e d f o r a d u l t s i n other i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o the f i n d i n g s , l a c k of comprehension of the standard  i n s t r u c t i o n s was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  r e l a t e d t o age; 7 - 9 11 - 13 year  year olds performed b e t t e r than the  o l d group w i t h the m o d i f i e d  presentation  however. The m o d i f i e d subjects 7 - 1 5  p r e s e n t a t i o n was l i m i t e d to 40  years of age.  A p e r c e p t u a l d e v i c e was  used as an a i d to understanding was a white card with Munsell  the i n s t r u c t i o n s .  This  c o l o u r e d papers  attached,  i d e n t i c a l l y c o l o u r e d to match the colour caps  contained  i n one s e c t i o n of the 100-Hue.  Subjects were t o l d to  f o l l o w the same p a t t e r n with the c o l o u r caps of the t e s t as they  saw on the c a r d .  However, d i r e c t matching of  caps t o papers was not p e r m i t t e d .  When subsequent  s e c t i o n s of the t e s t s were administered,  s u b j e c t s were  no l o n g e r permitted to see the demonstration card but were t o l d to 'make the same k i n d of p a t t e r n ' as they had before. subjects  P u r p o r t e d l y a l l the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s group of 'understood the t e s t  correctly'.  20 Mean e r r o r scores f o r a l l s u b j e c t s , even when those who  m i s i n t e r p r e t e d -the i n s t r u c t i o n s were excluded,  were c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than those r e p o r t e d by Lumbroso and P r o t o , (1963), f o r 7 - 1 0  year o l d s , and by  e t . a l . (1962) f o r 10 - 14 year  olds.  I n t e l l i g e n c e a f f e c t on c o l o u r v i s i o n such as the 100-Hue was s u b j e c t s who  the other s u b j e c t s and who  p o i n t s h i g h e r than  s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r on  S i n c e t h i s v a r i a b l e was  f o r i n the p r e v i o u s two  tests  i n d i c a t e d by the sample of 10  d i f f e r e d i n b e i n g 15 I.Q.  the 100-Hue t e s t .  Verriest  not  s t u d i e s under review no  comparisons can be made.  controlled valid  Retest s c o r e s showed n e g l i g i b l e  improvement, much l e s s than those r e p o r t e d f o r a d u l t s i n other s t u d i e s (Farnsworth, 1943,  Lakowski, 1 9 6 5 ) .  In summary, t h i s study i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m o d i f i c a t i o n of the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the 100-Hue c o u l d be an important v a r i a b l e i n determining s c o r e s on the 100-Hue w i t h c h i l d r e n .  However, the experimental  evidence presented showed no improvement i n the scores of c h i l d r e n who  were given the m o d i f i e d p r e s e n t a t i o n  t h a t could not be accounted A r e c e n t study  f o r by chance.  (Lakowski and Montgomery, 1968),  on deaf c h i l d r e n , i n t r o d u c e d another m o d i f i c a t i o n of the 100-Hue which would seem to be more e f f e c t i v e as a means o f making the i n s t r u c t i o n s more understandable to younger c h i l d r e n , even those with a severe  handicap.  21  The Panel  d e a f c h i l d r e n were g i v e n  the Farnsworth  D-15, a t e s t w h i c h p a r a l l e l s i n p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d  t e s t m a t e r i a l u s e d , t h e 100- Hue. exception,  T h e r e i s one  however; t h e c o l o u r d i f f i c u l t y  on t h e P a n e l  D-15 i s much s m a l l e r a s t h e r e a r e l a r g e r d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g was  administered  before  i z a t i o n t o the subjects By the  colour  caps.  The P a n e l  D-15  t h e 100-Hue s i n c e no v e r b a l o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s was p o s s i b l e .  t h i s means, t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  results indicate that  s u b j e c t s w e r e e n a b l e d t o comprehend t h e c o n c e p t o f  " c o l o u r s e r i e s " w h i c h made a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e 100-Hue not  only possible but successful to a s i g n i f i c a n t  degree  with children. Due  t o t h e l i m i t e d and s p e c i a l i z e d nature  sample u s e d i n t h i s  study,  l a r g e r , normal populations  further corroboration  ofthe  with  w o u l d seem t o be n e c e s s a r y t o  verify the findings. The  studies reviewed i n the foregoing,  indicate  t h e n e e d f o r more e v i d e n c e a s t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e use  o f t h e 100-Hue w i t h n o r m a l c h i l d r e n a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y  s c h o o l l e v e l and the u t i l i z i n g  o f e v e n more e f f e c t i v e  modifications i n presentation  to aid i n their  ing  test.  o f how t o p e r f o r m o n t h i s  understand-  CHAPTER I I I METHODS & PROCEDURES SAMPLING AND SUBJECTS: The s u b j e c t s were 24 b o y s , aged 12 y e a r s , from Vancouver, B.C. elementary sample.  s c h o o l s t h a t comprised t h e  They were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r e q u i v a l e n t groups  i n r e l a t i o n t o I.Q.  E q u i v a l e n c e o f groups was o b t a i n e d  by t h e " f o l l o w i n g method:  The groups were checked and  matched by i n s p e c t i o n f o r I.Q.  and then the s i g n i f i c a n c e  o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e mean I.Q. s c o r e s o f t h e s e groups was t e s t e d by computing t - s c o r e s . computation  A  statistical  o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e means u s i n g  t - s c o r e s as the method r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : Table I I I t - s c o r e s on I.Q.s I  IX  II  III  IV  .39 .30 d f  .12 .29 d f  .33 .30 d f  .26  .52 .30 d f  .29  df  III  .71 .29 d f  None o f t h e above t - s c o r e s a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t as the s c o r e has t o be o f 1.645 to be s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05  level.  v a l u e ( d f 30)  Table  IV  Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s on I .Q. Group  N  Scores Mean  I.Q.  Standard Deviations  I  31  116.6  9.4  II  31  117.2  8.5  III  30  116.8  9.5  IV  32  118.0  10.3  I.Q.  scores were o b t a i n e d from the Henman-  Nelson, Form B, group t e s t  (P.14, t a b l e IX) manual, which  g i v e s the mean value f o r t h i s t e s t as 105.82 and the standard d e v i a t i o n as 14.12  f o r students i n grades 3 to 6.  Students were s e l e c t e d w i t h I.Q.  scores o f  100  or more due t o experimental evidence t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between I.Q. and the a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e c o l o u r (Lakowski,  1969).  Boys were used as s u b j e c t s as they are u s u a l l y l a t e r i n maturing than g i r l s  ( V e r r i e s t , 1962) and  because  p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t colour? d e f i c i e n c y i n females i s f a r l e s s common than i t i s i n males than 0.5% of  males).  (less  of females a r e c o l o u r b l i n d compared to  8.1%  24 \  25 To keep the age v a r i a b l e c o n t r o l l e d s u b j e c t s were chosen to have v a r i a n c e i n age o f l e s s than 12 months.  T h i s c o n t r o l was  e x c e r c i s e d because age has  been shown to be a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n c o l o u r tests.  (Lakowski, 1958, V e r r i e s t , 1962).  Age  vision  was  t h e r e f o r e h e l d constant i n each o f the f o u r groups. PROCEDURE: The Dvorine Pseudo-Isochromatic p l a t e s were shown to each s u b j e c t i n each of the four groups as a means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g r a p p o r t .  I t was a l s o a means of  q u i c k l y i d e n t i f y i n g p o s s i b l e c o l o u r d e f e c t i v e s so t h a t they could be excluded from the sample. The f o u r groups were d i v i d e d up as o u t l i n e d i n the Method S e c t i o n . in instructions.  Each group was  Group one r e c e i v e d the manual  i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the 100-Hue. Panel D-15  Group two r e c e i v e d the  manual i n s t r u c t i o n s and t e s t and the manual  i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the 100-Hue. standardized  modified  received modified D-15  given f o u r v a r i a t i o n s  Group t h r e e r e c e i v e d the  i n s t r u c t i o n s , and group' f o u r  i n s t r u c t i o n s which i n c l u d e d the Panel  as p a r t o f these i n s t r u c t i o n s .  The f o l l o w i n g i s  the procedure: Step 1 - Group  1:  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the 100-Hue t o one group o f 31 s u b j e c t s .  Each s u b j e c t was given the  26  standard a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s from Farnsworth  manual.  the  These read as f o l l o w s :  "The o b j e c t of t h i s t e s t i s t o arrange the caps i n order a c c o r d i n g to c o l o u r . Please t r a n s f e r them from t h i s p a n e l ( i n d i c a t e ) to t h i s p a n e l ( i n d i c a t e ) and p l a c e them so t h a t they form a r e g u l a r c o l o u r s e r i e s between these two""caps ( i n d i c a t e ) . It should take "you about two minutes. However, accuracy i s more important than speed - so you w i l l be t o l d when the two minutes are up, but the p a n e l won't be taken away from you. Arrange them as b e s t you can and don't dawdle." Step 2 - Group 2: A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Farnsworth  Panel  D-15  and the 100-Hue t o each of 31 s u b j e c t s , i n d i v i d u a l l y , u s i n g the standard manual i n s t r u c t i o n s only f o r each of the two The Panel D-15  tests.  manual i n s t r u c t i o n s read as  follows: "The o b j e c t of the t e s t i s to arrange the buttons i n order a c c o r d i n g t o the c o l o u r . Take the b u t t o n from t h i s panel ( i n d i c a t e ) which looks most l i k e t h i s button and place i t here ( i n d i c a t e space next to the f i x e d reference cap). Take the b u t t o n which looks most l i k e t h a t and p l a c e i t here; continue doing t h i s u n t i l a l l the buttons are arranged i n o r d e r . " I f the s u b j e c t does not seem to grasp  the  problem, f u r t h e r help i s g i v e n : " A f t e r each button i s p l a c e d i t may be necessary to say, 'Now which of these buttons ( i n d i c a t e ) i s most l i k e the l a s t one? ( i n d i c a t e ) (one a l t e r a t i o n was made; s u b s t i t u t i o n of the words " c o l o u r cap" i n p l a c e of the word "Button" i n order t o make the i n s t r u c t i o n s more uniform with the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the 100-Hue)."  27  The manual i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the 100-Hue were used  (see s t e p 1 - group 1 ) .  Step 3 - Group 3: The m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s were s t a n d a r d i z e d as f o l l o w s and were read to each  subject:  " F i r s t of a l l , what c o l o u r i s t h i s cap (Motioning)? Now choosing one c o l o u r cap from a l l these (scanning f i n g e r a c r o s s top o f t r a y ) I'd l i k e - y o u to f i n d one t h a t ' s almost e x a c t l y the same c o l o u r as t h i s one you've c a l l e d " b l u e " (or c o l o u r name given) and p l a c e i t r i g h t here ( p o i n t ) . You may t r y s e v e r a l caps u n t i l you're s a t i s f i e d i t s the c l o s e s t i n c o l o u r . " "Now I'd l i k e you to p i c k the very next c l o s e s t cap i n c o l o u r t o t h i s l a s t one you've j u s t put down. Remember, i t must be the very next c l o s e s t c o l o u r , almost e x a c t l y the same but not q u i t e . P l a c e i t r i g h t b e s i d e the l a s t one ( p o i n t ) . (Use t h i s one a t a time procedure f o r f i r s t two caps of t r a y #1. For the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t r a y #2, say, "Remember, f i n d the very next c l o s e s t c o l o u r to t h i s cap ( p o i n t t o s t a t i o n a r y cap), almost e x a c t l y the same, but not q u i t e . " "Continue d o i n g t h i s u n t i l a l l the caps are i n order. They w i l l form a c o l o u r s e r i e s between these two caps (motioning). It u s u a l l y takes about two minutes to arrange them i n sequence, but accuracy i s more important than speed. Do you understand?" (When p r e s e n t i n g t r a y s #3 and #4, say, "Run your f i n g e r a l o n g the edge here (motioning) t o make sure they are i n the c o r r e c t o r d e r . You may make any changes you wish.  28 Step  4 - Group 4:  Administration  of modified instructions  which  i n c l u d e d t h e P a n e l D-15 a s p a r t o f t h e t e a c h i n g method t o e a c h o f a g r o u p o f 32 s u b j e c t s . The  Panel  following  D-15 was a d m i n i s t e r e d  first  with the  instructions:  "The o b j e c t o f t h i s t e s t i s t o a r r a n g e t h e c o l o u r caps i n o r d e r a c c o r d i n g t o c o l o u r . Take t h e cap f r o m t h i s p a n e l ( i n d i c a t e ) w h i c h l o o k s t h e most l i k e t h i s cap and p l a c e i t h e r e b e s i d e i t ( w a i t u n t i l s e l e c t i o n i s made and p l a c e d c o r r e c t l y ) . Now t a k e t h e cap w h i c h l o o k s t h e most l i k e t h e one you've j u s t put down a n d p l a c e i t h e r e ( i n d i c a t e ) . Continue d o i n g t h i s u n t i l a l l the caps a r e arranged i n order." A f t e r the Panel if  D-15 i s a r r a n g e d  by s u b j e c t s ,  t h e r e a r e any v e r y g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n hue  between t h e a r r a n g e d  c o l o u r caps,  this  the very next  one ( m o t i o n i n g )  colour to t h i s is  the  it?"  closest i n  I f t h e answer  " y e s " , a n d s u b j e c t s do n o t a t t e m p t  rearrange no  one b e s i d e  as,"Is  further  caps then t h e o r d e r inquiry  i s made.  to  i s accepted and This i s because  s u b j e c t may be c o l o u r d e f e c t i v e a n d  t h e r e f o r e unable  t o perceive the difference  between t h e h u e s . When t h e P a n e l of  D-15 was c o m p l e t e d  the f i r s t  tray  t h e 100-Hue was p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g  instructions:  29  " T h i s i s the same k i n d of t e s t as the one you've j u s t f i n i s h e d ; t h a t i s , you arrange the caps i n order a c c o r d i n g to c o l o u r . " Then the exact wording of the i n s t r u c t i o n s was variations.  "modified"  read to the s u b j e c t s w i t h  no  (See Step 3-Group 3 ) .  INSTRUMENTS: A. The  100-Hue The  Farnsworth M u n s e l l  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was o f measuring hue value and  100-Hue t e s t f o r  d e v i s e d by Farnsworth f o r the  colour purpose  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i t h samples with  chroma but  v a r y i n g only i n hue.  sample a l l the hues q u a n t i f i e d a c c o r d i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and  under standard  Test  constant materials  to Munsell's  c o n d i t i o n s of  a l l the papers appear equal i n chroma and  value  lighting, to normal  subjects. Its  primary uses a r e ; f i r s t , to separate  persons  w i t h normal c o l o u r v i s i o n i n t o c l a s s e s of s u p e r i o r , average, and measure the  low  c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and  zones of c o l o u r c o n f u s i o n  second, to  of c o l o u r d e f e c t i v e  persons. The  d i a g n o s t i c p r o p e r t i e s of the t e s t stem  from the f a c t t h a t d e f e c t i v e s u b j e c t s w i l l be unable to arrange the hues i n p e r f e c t order but w i l l make mistakes i n those regions The  of c o l o u r space a f f e c t e d by the  d e f e c t i v e w i l l not be able to make use  defect.  of cues from  30  chroma  or value One  those in  colour  the papers are s i m i l a r  o f the great  elements  colour  as a l l  discrimination are also  confusion.  areas  certain consecutive  a l l known  type  t h e 100-Hue  of confusion  acquired  colour The  which  The wooden boxes  into  test  four  The  arbitrarily  the  test,  number  chosen to  that  i n some  possible  (1964),  to  o f many  lines estimate  protans, class-  has r e c e n t l y  the s o - c a l l e d  encompasses differences  consists  scotopic  subjects  together  with  hold  chosen  a third  i n colour  b y t h e 100-Hue. and four  t h e 85 m o v a b l e  caps, i n  o f about  of stimuli  into  groups  The caps 21 i n o r d e r  smaller  became  task  the four  a second  blue-green  i n a l l  sheet  a r e mounted.  groups  85 h u e s  of a scoring  one r e d t o y e l l o w ,  blue-green,  were  to detecting  c a n be d e t e c t e d  colours  large  can detect  circle  which  the  Verriest,  the minute  that  which Munsell  f o r detecting  by deutans,  In a d d i t i o n  variations  the confusion  I t i s also  characteristic  colour  discrimination  follow  i s that  defects.  indicates  divided  caps  o f dichromats,  that  caps  i t happens  a r e confused  and t e t a r t a n s .  types  shown  circle  dichromats.  o f the caps  tritans ical  colour  small  suitable  As t h e c o l o u r e d  the entire  which  o f t h e 100-Hue  suitable f o rdetecting  cover  of  merits  them.  to  t o blue  from  were to  subdivide  units. series of  yellow to  and the fourth  31  /mm  v  • /'•>•>/•••///// H!XX^X>  % / ; f l l \ \ ^ \ v  Fig. 2. Specimens of normal, average, discrimination patterns, 2 trials.  Fig.  5.  Specimen of color defective Dcutan. Average of 2 trials.  ,K \ v r v \ ? : : : » / ' • / /  pattern;  <:/'/.. /  r  /  /•••  • -X'-'x  V-.x\vx\\ V/ '  ^ \,\xv>x"--. \:>-x\.x  JoXX/Xf M'• X \XX > . . Fig.  3.  Fig.  Specimens of norma!, low discrimination pattern, 2 trials.  6.  Specimen of color defective Tritan. Average of 2 trials.  pattern;  •A", i i i /"' / / " / / ' / X X ' y.  '_\/-r\-. .'..--Vj...: •  J  v  X  H  I  !  * Protons s= Ooutans Tritcns Fig.  4.  Specimen of Color defective Protan. Average of T »ri;il».  pattern;  Viil.  • • i^-X^\ \\-<\X XT'xVv  ••...;..;...iJ..\..V-.-\ \ \ V V "X /'//! i r\\ \ \\\'A'VV'X >  i  v  N  •• r p I*^ XyVsN x; :  7. Distribution of mid-points from 112, .on color defective subjects: il> 'prot.m<. 50 deutans and 12 triians. 1  , .'.-V \  \  .y  tcM*  •  s  -  32  from blue to p u r p l e - r e d .  The  different  c o l o u r e d caps  each numbered on the back can be moved about d u r i n g the performance.  Each box a l s o contains  e x t r a immobile caps, the f i r s t and bouring  freely  l a s t of the  two  neigh-  series.  LIGHTING: For the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t , i l l u m i n a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d o f about 25 f o o t  standard  candles  p r o v i d e d by I l l u m i n a n t C type of lamp. SCORING: The underside  of the  caps are numbered to  a l l o w the examiner to score the t e s t .  I f a perfect  arrangement has been made the numbers a r e I f not, the numbers are noted  consecutive.  on a s c o r i n g sheet,  an e r r o r score c a l c u l a t e d f o r each cap by adding  and the  d i f f e r e n c e s between the number of the cap and the number of  the caps p l a c e d adjacent  to i t .  These e r r o r scores  are p l o t t e d on the c i r c u l a r a b s c i s s a of a graph ( see F i g . 1),  the r a d i a l l i n e s of which c a r r y the numbers of the  c o l o u r caps.  The f i r s t  i n n e r a b s c i s s a i s number 2,  lowest p o s s i b l e score and p e r f e c t s e r i a l order.  the one which  The  represents  second i s numbered 3,  the  the  33 lower e r r o r score,  representing  caps.  p l o t t e d on the graph f o r the e r r o r  The p o i n t s  t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f adjacent  score of each cap are connected t o show a p r o f i l e Axes of c o n f u s i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of colour subjects  clearly.  defective  emerge when e r r o r scores a r e p l o t t e d i n t h i s way. A t o t a l e r r o r score i s obtained by s u b t r a c t i n g  two  from each cap e r r o r score and adding the r e s u l t a n t s  together.  A p e r f e c t arrangement gives a t o t a l  error  score of zero. INTERPRETATION: Variations  i n d i s c r i m i n a t i v e a b i l i t y as t e s t e d  by the 100-Hue a r e found by Farnsworth t o be approximately normally d i s t r i b u t e d . excluding  About 68% o f the a d u l t  population  d e f e c t i v e s make a t o t a l e r r o r score of between  20 and 100 on the f i r s t t e s t .  The e r r o r s are random,  seldom occur on r e t e s t , and a r e not bunched i n any one region  o f the colour  space.  This  i n d i c a t i v e o f normal competence.  i s taken to be 10% o f the  score between 0 and 16, showing s u p e r i o r 16%  o f the p o p u l a t i o n  but  have normal c o l o u r  discrimination.  show low d i s c r i m i n a t i v e vision.  e r r o r score of more than 100.  population  ability  This group make a t o t a l This group shows no  improvement on r e t e s t s but have no area of minimum s e n s i t i v i t y as i n d e f e c t i v e s .  34 Colour v i s i o n d e f e c t s a r e thus i d e n t i f i e d by the  c l u s t e r i n g o f maximum e r r o r s i n two r e g i o n s  c o l o u r c i r c l e which a r e n e a r l y o p p o s i t e .  o f the  The type of  d e f e c t i s i n f e r r e d from the d i r e c t i o n o f the axes shown on the graph and the degree o f d e f e c t from t h e extent of the  distortion.  I n d i v i d u a l degrees of s u p e r i o r i t y o f  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e , on the other hand, more  simply  assessed by r e f e r r i n g t o the t o t a l e r r o r s c o r e .  General  c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and c o l o u r anomaly a r e f a c t o r s independent of each other.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t anomolous  trichromats  may do w e l l on the 100-Hue whereas normal  trichromats  may do p o o r l y .  TEST RELIABILITY: Performance on the 100-Hue f o r a d u l t s considerably  between f i r s t t e s t and r e t e s t .  o f 30% r e d u c t i o n i n t o t a l e r r o r score Farnsworth.  An average  i s r e p o r t e d by  Scores on t h i r d t e s t i n g show l i t t l e f u r t h e r  improvement. is  improves  C o r r e l a t i o n between f i r s t t e s t and r e t e s t  .82, and w i t h the t h i r d .6?. Farnsworth suggests t h a t experience i n handling  t e s t m a t e r i a l may e x p l a i n improvement on r e t e s t measures s i n c e the i n i t i a l improvement on r e t e s t i s considerable i t may be i n f e r r e d t h a t the format of the t e s t anc  u n f a m i l i a r and d i f f i c u l t  These conceptual conceptual  presents  t a s k even f o r a d u l t s .  d i f f i c u l t i e s a f f e c t performance.  as opposed to p e r c e p t u a l  This  d i f f i c u l t y of the  35 100-Hue might be expected to be of even g r e a t e r  import-  ance when the performance of c h i l d r e n i s considered. FARNSWORTH DICHOTOMOUS TEST FOR COLOUR BLINDNESS: (PANEL D-15) The  Panel D-15 i s designed  t o i n d i c a t e colour  b l i n d n e s s c l e a r l y and q u i c k l y , i . e . to d i s t i n g u i s h dichromats, the f u n c t i o n a l l y c o l o u r b l i n d from t h e moderately c o l o u r d e f e c t i v e and the normal (normal and anomalous t r i c h r o m a t s ) .  As a v o c a t i o n a l t e s t i t can be  used to e l i m i n a t e with c e r t a i n t y those who cannot d i s t i n g u i s h between such c o l o u r s as r e d and green, green and b l u e , blue and pink, y e l l o w and b l u e or between green and brown (or t a n or amber).  I t i s not intended t o  d i s t i n g u i s h degrees of c o l o u r a p t i t u d e t o normals. PRESENTATION: Test m a t e r i a l s c o n s i s t of a rack panels,  s c o r i n g sheets,  of 2 hinged  15 c o l o u r caps, p l a c e d i n the  rack, c o n t a i n pigments on upper surface and s c o r i n g numbers on the under s i d e . provided  Two numbered diagrams a r e  on the s c o r i n g sheets t o use i n c o n s t r u c t i n g  the p a t t e r n t h a t shows the type of colour d e f e c t . At the beginning  of the t e s t the c o l o u r caps  No. 1 to No. 15 a r e arranged i n t h e cover  i n a row i n random  order  panel o f t h e rack, so that the s u b j e c t can  e a s i l y s e l e c t them f o r placement i n the lower p a n e l .  36  The  standard a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s are as f o l l o w s : "The o b j e c t of the t e s t i s to arrange the buttons i n order a c c o r d i n g t o the c o l o u r . Take the button from t h i s panel ( i n d i c a t e ) which looks most l i k e t h i s button and p l a c e i t here ( i n d i c a t e space next to the f i x e d r e f e r e n c e cap). Take the button which looks most l i k e that and p l a c e i t here; and the button most l i k e t h a t , and p l a c e i t here; continue doing t h i s u n t i l a l l the buttons are arranged i n o r d e r . "  I f the s u b j e c t does not seem to grasp the problem, f u r t h e r help i s g i v e n . " A f t e r each button i s p l a c e d i t may be necessary to say, Now which of these buttons ( i n d i c a t e ) i s most l i k e the l a s t one? ( i n d i c a t e ) " To prevent dawdling w i l l be l i m i t e d to two to i t .  S u b j e c t s who  s u b j e c t s may  minutes, rush may  be t o l d  they  but should not be h e l d be asked to review i t  and make changes to "get them a l l i n o r d e r " . LIGHTING: While t h i s t e s t i s l e s s dependent on q u a l i t y of i l l u m i n a t i o n than most t e s t s of c o l o u r v i s i o n r e s u l t s r e q u i r e average  reliable  d a y l i g h t or an I l l u m i n a n t "C"  lamp. SCORING: By c l o s i n g the cover on the c o l o u r cap  case  and t u r n i n g i t over the s c o r i n g numbers on the unders i d e are r e v e a l e d .  The  examiner i s merely r e q u i r e d to  r e c o r d the numbers on the s c o r i n g sheet i n the order i n  37 which they were arranged by the s u b j e c t .  I f there  are  no e r r o r s i n placement a p l o t t i n g of i t r the diagram i s not r e q u i r e d .  I f there i s any  divergence  c o r r e c t arrangement a r u l e r or cardnshould  from the be used to  connect the p o i n t s on the diagram i n the order i n which they were recorded "Reference  beginning  w i t h the p o i n t marked  Cap".  INTERPRETATION: The  t e s t i s scored as a u n i t , e i t h e r  or " f a i l i n g " .  A c i r c u l a r pattern indicates  "passing"  "passing";  a p a r a l l e l or l a c i n g p a t t e r n i n d i c a t e s " f a i l i n g " . (Fig. I I ) .  Patterns  of normal and  are shown i n F i g u r e s 1,  See  colour-weak v i s i o n  2 and 3 (passing s c o r e s ) .  The  p a t t e r n s of colour b l i n d s u b j e c t s are shown i n F i g u r e s 4,  5, and  6  ( f a i l i n g scores).  i n d i c a t e d on the The  The  c h a r t as "protan",  three t y p i c a l axes are "deutan" and  type of d e f i c i e n c y i s i n d i c a t e d by the  most n e a r l y p a r a l l e l to the  crossover  "tritan".  index l i n e  lines.  RELIABILITY: The  t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y i s as s t a t e d i n the  manual i n d i c a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e drawn from subjects. TEST Passed  733 1  Failed  1 28  163  33 The  Panel D-15 as w e l l as the 100-Hue t e s t  i n v o l v e the concept o f " c o l o u r s e r i e s " but the 100-Hue d e t e c t s small d i f f e r e n c e s i n hue whereas the D-15 has l a r g e c o l o u r d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s e r i e s which a r e g e n e r a l l y much more e a s i l y d i s c e r n e d .  I t i s because of t h i s  s i m i l a r i t y i n u t i l i z i n g the same concepts t h a t i t i s suggested t h a t the D-15 be used as a t e a c h i n g device f o r c h i l d r e n b e f o r e a d m i n i s t e r i n g the 100-Hue i n order to communicate the " c o l o u r s e r i e s " concept more r e a d i l y . Some f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n may be necessary  than t h a t  found i n t h e manual i n s t r u c t i o n s i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the Panel D-15, and these  changes i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i f they  a r i s e , w i l l be r e p o r t e d .  FIG.  Figure 2 — N O R M A L  VISION  MINOR  II  39  Figure 5 — D E F E C T I V E  ERRORS  VISION—GREEN BLINDNESS  (DEUTERANOPIA)  8  1? Figure 3  NORMAL  VISION  ONE  ERROR  (SEE  TEXT)  Figure  6  DEFECTIVE  8  Figure  7  ANOMALOUS  TRICHROMATIC  VISION  VISION  BLUE  1! BLINDNESS  (TRITANOPIA)  CHAPTER IV RESULTS  ANALYSIS OF THE DATA: The U.B.C. Computing Centre T r i a n g u l a r Regression  Programme Packe (TRIP) was implemented to  f i n d means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d .  S i n c e no  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were f o u n d , t h i s s t a t i s t i c was d i s c o u n t e d and a l l f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was done on t h e s i m p l e r s t a t i s t i c s , mean and s t a n d a r d  d e v i a t i o n s (see  Table V ) . Table V Means and S.D. f o r t h e Four Groups Group  N.  Mean  S.D.  I  31  99.55  51.25  II  31  74-74  39.22  III  30  55.00  30.28  IV  32  70.44  32.97  .  T w o - t a i l e d t - t e s t s were used t o determine whether t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n means between the v a r i o u s experimental  groups were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  different.  Table VI g i v e s the t - s c o r e s a t the i n d i c a t e d degrees of freedom.  4iL Table VI t - S c o r e s between Groups I II  II  III  2.56 30 d f  ITT  4.76 29df  2.78 29 d f  IV  3.11 30df  0.6 30df  3.41 29df  The l e v e l s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  of the t - s c o r e s f o r  each of the groups i s shown i n Table V I I . Table VII Levels of I II  Significance II  Ill  .01  III  .005  .01  IV  .005  n.s.  .005  42 Table  VIII  Comparison of Means between Average and High I.Q. Subjects Means I.Q. Average  High  Standard I.Q. Average  102.4  96.5  59.2  42.9  69.2  8Q.6  37.6  41.2  Gp. I l l  56.9  53.1  39.4  13.3  Gp.  31.1  59.7  34.6  23.3  Gp.  I  Gp.  II  IV  t-scores:  3.02 s i g n i f i c a n c e to .01 a t (Group IV, average vs high)  Deviations High  15d . f .  R e s u l t s show t h a t : a) From Table V i t can be seen Group 3 has the  lowest  mean score, 55*00 i n d i c a t i n g the method of p r e s e n t a t i o n i n v o l v e d here has e l i c i t e d the best response. a l s o of i n t e r e s t to note the h i g h s.d. 51.25 One  It i s i n Group  as compared to the others, 30.23, 32.97, and 39.22,  respectively.  These r e s u l t s can be i n t e r p r e t e d as  s u p p o r t i n g the f i r s t hypothesis and do not appear to support the supplementary h y p o t h e s i s . b) In Table VI a l l o f the t - s c o r e s except between Groups I I and ficant.  IV are l a r g e enough to be  signi-  This r e l a t i o n s h i p i s borne out i n Tables  and  IV where t h e r e i s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , no  and  little  and 74.74.  for that  VI  significance  v i s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e , the means being 70.44 This would i n d i c a t e a l a c k of  f o r the supplementary h y p o t h e s i s .  support  43  In Table V I I very good s i g n i f i c a n c e i s evidenced i n a l l comparisons except t h a t as a l r e a d y mentioned, with l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e a t .01 or higher.  These r e s u l t s can be i n t e r p r e t e d as support-  i n g hypothesis one and as not s u p p o r t i n g the s u p p l e mentary h y p o t h e s i s . In Table V I I I by i n s p e c t i o n one can see t h a t there i s l i t t l e  d i f f e r e n c e between the I.Q. range f o r  a l l but Group IV.  In t h i s group the average I.Q.  s u b j e c t s have a mean score of 5 9 . 7 .  This group  d i f f e r e n c e , when a t - s c o r e was computed, was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t to the .01 l e v e l .  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND  The aim  DISCUSSION  of t h i s study was  to determine the  e f f i c a c i o u s n e s s of r e v i s e d methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Farnsworth-Munsell  100-Hue t e s t f o r colour  dis-  c r i m i n a t i o n , r e n d e r i n g i t s u i t a b l e f o r use i n the elementary  school. I t was  hypothesized  t h a t e r r o r s c o r e s on the  100-Hue would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher when the  standard  a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s were used than when m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s more s u i t a b l e both w i t h the Panel D-15 It was  f o r elementary  school children,  and without were used.  a l s o hypothesized that the most  s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n scores would occur when the m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s i n c l u d e d use of the  Farnsworth  Dichtomous T e s t f o r Colour B l i n d n e s s - Panel D-15 p a r t of the  as  instructions.  Four groups o f 124 twelve year o l d boys were compared u s i n g four d i f f e r e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n s of i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the 100-Hue.  Group, one was  g i v e n the  standard a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s from the Farnsworth only.  Group two was  g i v e n the standard a d u l t  i n s t r u c t i o n s from the Farnsworth D-15  which was  manual  manual f o r the  completed b e f o r e being g i v e n the  a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the 100-Hue.  Panel standard  Group three  45 r e c e i v e d m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the 100-Hue.  Group  f o u r r e c e i v e d t h e m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s which a l s o i n c l u d e d t h e P a n e l D-15 as p a r t o f t h e m o d i f i e d p r e s e n t a t i o n . As t h e r e s u l t s a l r e a d y shown i n d i c a t e , the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s was s u b s t a n t i a t e d .  Scores f o r group one were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r a t the .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i o n to the other three  groups.  The second h y p o t h e s i s was not s u p p o r t e d by the data.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n t h e s c o r e s  o c c u r r e d f o r t h e group which r e c e i v e d t h e m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s o n l y (Group 3 ) .  Group f o u r which had the  same i n s t r u c t i o n s as group t h r e e b u t a l s o had the P a n e l D-15,  had a mean e r r o r s c o r e o f 70.4.  When t h i s compared  to t h e group t h r e e mean o f 55.0 and a t - s c o r e i s computed, i t i s found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e .01 l e v e l , w i t h a t - s c o r e o f 3.41. The  o v e r a l l r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t 12 y e a r o l d s  can perform a s w e l l as a d u l t s u b j e c t s on t h e 100-Hue when t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e m o d i f i e d , i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e y now understand  t h e t e s t b e t t e r than the o t h e r s t u d i e s  w i t h c h i l d r e n showr,, because o f lower s c o r e s compared t o a l l the other populations. The l o w e s t s c o r e s i n t h i s s t u d y , t h a t o f group t h r e e w i t h a mean o f 55.00 a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d by V e r r i e s t , (1963), f o r a d u l t s i n t h e prime o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e 30-34 y e a r age group which had a mean e r r o r s c o r e o f 54.7.  46 DISCUSSION The  r e s u l t s i n group 4 were q u i t e s u r p r i s i n g  i n t h a t the i n c l u s i o n o f the Panel D-15  as part of the  m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s d i d not r e s u l t i n lower than d i d Group 3's w i t h the m o d i f i e d T h i s i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t the use  scores  i n s t r u c t i o n s alone. o f the Panel  w i t h the a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s previous  D-15  to a d m i n i s t e r i n g the  100-Hue i n group 2 r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower  scores  than with the 100-Hue a l o n e . Thus i t seems t h a t a model which i n c o r p o r a t e s the  concept of " c o l o u r s e r i e s " i n a s i m p l e r form had  d e f i n i t e e f f e c t i n a i d i n g the was  expected of him.  The  i n d i c a t e that modified  a  c h i l d to understand what  r e s u l t s i n Group three  i n s t r u c t i o n s more a c c e s s i b l e to  the elementary s c h o o l c h i l d ' s l e v e l of  understanding  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f i c a c i o u s f o r g r a s p i n g " c o l o u r s e r i e s " concept and  producing  the  b e t t e r scores.  I t seems t h a t once the c h i l d has grasped the c o n c e p t , i n c l u s i o n of Panel D-15 i n f a c t was  d i d nothing t o a i d  d e t r i m e n t a l to the more average I.Q.  For example, although  the i n c l u s i o n of the Panel  him,  boys. D-15  i n group f o u r d i d not e f f e c t the s c o r e s of the above average I.Q.  subjects  (they d i d almost as w e l l i n group  four as d i d the same I.Q. i t was  the average I.Q.  l e v e l c h i l d i n group t h r e e ) ,  c h i l d t h a t found a d d i t i o n a l  i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h the Panel  D-15  d e t r i m e n t a l to performance.  47 T h i s more a v e r a g e s u b j e c t s c o r e d a p p r e c i a b l y l o w e r i n Group 4 t h a n  d i d h i s I.Q. p e e r  i n Group 3. ( See T a b l e  I t would appear t h a t the i n c l u s i o n o f t h e Panel somehow s l i g h t l y  D-15 was  c o n f u s i n g , perhaps i n t h e sense t h a t t o o  much d a t a was i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n . a great handicap  V.)  t o t h e above a v e r a g e c h i l d  T h i s was n o t b u t was  a p p r e c i a b l y more s o f o r t h e n o r m a l . Since  I.Q. was h e l d c o n s t a n t  matching, i n t e l l i g e n c e variable.  f o r a l l groups by  d i d not appear i n t h i s  However, i n Group 4 where P a n e l  study  as a  D-15 was  u s e d a n d a c o m p a r i s o n was made b e t w e e n h i g h a n d l o w I.Q. g r o u p s i t was o f some  significance.  DISCUSSION OF EARLIER  STUDIES: i  In the study Vanderdonck,  V a n d e v y v e r e and  ( 1 9 6 2 ) , i n which ages r a n g i n g  64 were a d m i n i s t e r e d adult  by V e r r i e s t ,  instructions  t h e 100-Hue u s i n g t h e s t a n d a r d  i t was f o u n d  aged t e n t o f o u r t e e n y e a r s  t h a t the group o f boys  had a mean e r r o r s c o r e o f  92.5.  This i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  results  i n Group one o f t h e p r e s e n t  e r r o r was 9 9 . 5 5 * i n the present  different  to the  s t u d y whose mean  I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s how  study  f r o m 10 t o  significant  t h e s c o r e s b e t w e e n Group 1 w i t h t h e  h i g h e s t mean e r r o r s c o r e , and Group 3 w i t h t h e m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s and t h e lowest relation  t o t h i s age group.  mean e r r o r s c o r e i s , i n I.Q.'s were n o t r e p o r t e d  f o r t h e V e r r i e s t study so t h a t t h i s i s a p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e which needs t o be c o n s i d e r e d when the r e s u l t s o f the s t u d i e s a r e compared. Lumbroso and P r o t o , (1963), s t u d y d e a l w i t h c h i l d r e n under 10 y e a r s of age and i n v o l v e d o n l y 46 c h i l d r e n , which i s a v e r y l i m i t e d sample.  The mean e r r o r s c o r e f o r t h e 7 - 1 0  y e a r age group (N = 34) o f 138 would be d i r e c t l y comparable to Group one o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i t h i t s mean o f 99.55. A t - s c o r e o f 4*14 f o r t h i s comparison shows o u r group i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t beyond t h .01 l e v e l .  Again  s t a n d a r d a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s were used i n both c a s e s .  Also,  a g a i n no c o n t r o l f o r I.Q. was done i n t h e Lumbroso and Proto study. The most i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t i n r e s u l t s emerge when t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s compared t o r e s u l t s found by Luscombe, (1966) w h i c h i s the o n l y o t h e r study w i t h young c h i l d r e n u s i n g the 100-Hue and a m o d i f i e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of instructions.  The model or m o d i f i e d  instructions  Luscombe used w i t h one group o f 40 s u b j e c t s aged 7 - 1 5 y e a r s has a l r e a d y been d e s c r i b e d i n c p a t e r two. The s c o r e s f o r t h i s group who f e l l i n t o t h e 11 - 13 y e a r o l d age b r a c k e t were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the same age  group h a v i n g s t a n d a r d a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s o n l y .  The  mean e r r o r s c o r e s f o r the 11 and 13 year o l d s averaged 161.1  and 187.9.  T h i s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than t h e  f i n d i n g s o f both p r e v i o u s s t a u d i e s , V e r r i e s t e t a l and  49 Lumbroso and Proto which have been c i t e d and c e r t a i n l y c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than the mean e r r o r s c o r e s f o r those r e c e i v i n g a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s o n l y (Group 1) 99.5 and d r a m a t i c a l l y g r e a t e r than the group r e c e i v i n g m o d i f i e d instructions  (Group 3) 55.0 i n the present study.  Even  w i t h t h e group o f t e n s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h e r I.Q. scores i n r e l a t i o n to the other s u b j e c t s a mean average  error  score of 220.5 was recorded. DEFECTIVES: Four o f the 124 s u b j e c t s t e s t e d were found to have c o n g e n i t a l anomalies.  The percentage was thus  4-9  which i s c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than t h a t commonly r e p o r t e d of.3.5%. I t was p o s s i b l e to q u i c k l y i d e n t i f y s u b j e c t s w i t h the use o f the Dvorine  these  Pseudo-Isochromatic  p l a t e s and to double check these r e s u l t s u s i n g the Panel D-15.  They were of course excluded from the sample and  r e u l t s r e p o r t e d to the s c h o o l nurse. CONCLUSIONS AND Implications f o r further  IMPLICATIONS  Research:  Although the r e s u l t s of t h i s study  indicate  t h a t the 100-Hue u s i n g m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s can be s u c c e s s f u l l y used t o d e t e c t v a r i a t i o n s i n c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n with twelve year o l d s o f normal  intelligence,  f u r t h e r s t u d i e s would be n e c e s s a r y on younger p o p u l a t i o n s  50 w i t h i n the elementary s c h o o l to i n d i c a t e whether  some  other m o d i f i c a t i o n s might be necessary to ensure understanding of the t e s t and g a i n c o - o p e r a t i o n i n younger children. For  example, with the present age group of 12  year o l d s , a d e f i n i t e a t t i t u d e of independence toward completing the t e s t s u c c e s s f u l l y was observed a f t e r the f i r s t t r a y had been completed.  Although i n i t i a l  i n s t r u c t i o n s were reviewed b r i e f l y w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n of  t r a y 2, ( i . e .  "now remember t o f i n d the cap that i s  almost e x a c t l y the same as t h i s one - motioning t o demonstration cap - but not q u i t e " ) , the m a j o r i t y of the boys showed n o t i c e a b l e impatience and r e s o r t e d to remarks l i k e , "Yes, I know", or, "Its the same as the l a s t one, )  isn't i t ? " not  In the experiment*>'r's judgement  t h i s would  be the case w i t h younger s u b j e c t s whose a t t e n t i o n  span i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e r and who would l i k e l y  have  more d i f f i c u l t y r e t a i n i n g the concept of "sameness" and remembering  what was r e q u i r e d o f them.  I t seems t h i s  s o r t o f reminder might be necessary throughout the t e s t and c e r t a i n l y as each i n d i v i d u a l t r a y was p r e s e n t e d . It a l s o remains t o be demonstrated whether or not  c h i l d r e n w i t h an I.Q. of below 100 or i n the low  average range and lower could s u c c e s s f u l l y complete the 100-Hue w i t h the m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s thus the  more t o t a l elementary s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n .  encompassing  51 Of a l l the methods the one that modified i n s t r u c t i o n s the  f a c t that  seems to get the best r e s u l t s and  the Panel D-15 d i d not prove  would not n e c e s s a r i l y  uses the  efficacious  h o l d f o r younger groups.  Perhaps  m a n i p u l a t i o n as w i t h Panel D-15 as w e l l as o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n would prove to be more e f f e c t i v e with a younger p o p u l a t i o n .  52 CONCLUSIONS Because of the i n c r e a s i n g use primary cue i n d e v e l o p i n g cue,  t h i s study was  of c o l o u r as a  concepts and as a  contextual  conducted to modify p r e s e n t a t i o n s  the 100-Hue t e s t f o r c o l o u r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n order make i t a useable s c h o o l c h i l d who  instrument  f o r s c r e e n i n g the  might have d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h  of  to  elementary colour  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n though he i s not a c o l o u r d e f e c t i v e , which could handicap h i s s c h o o l performance. The  s u b j e c t s were 124  boys, aged 12  years.  They were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r e q u i v a l e n t groups i n r e l a t i o n to I.Q.  The  s u b j e c t s were Vancouver, B.C.,  public school c h i l d r e n .  The  elementary  Dvorine Pseudo-Isochromatic  p l a t e s were shown to each s u b j e c t as a means of i n g r a p p o r t and t h a t they  of 4»9 was  q u i c k l y i d e n t i f y i n g colour d e f e c t i v e s so  could be excluded  were found who  establish-  had  from the sample - 4 d e f e c t i v e s  c o n g e n i t a l anomalies.  This percentage  lower than the commonly r e p o r t e d 8.1%  f o r the  male p o p u l a t i o n . Group 1 were read the standard a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s from the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue manual, b e f o r e asked to complete the t e s t .  Group 2 were read  being  the  standard a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s from the Farnsworth manual f o r the Panel D-15 before  completing  (Dichotomous Test f o r Colour  Blindness),  t h i s t e s t plus the a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s  from the 100-Hue manual, b e f o r e  completing  the l a t t e r  test.  53 Group 3 were read a s t a n d a r d i z e d set of m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s which were c r e a t e d f o r t h i s study.  Group  4 were read the same set of m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s w i t h the a d d i t i o n of the use the  of the Panel D-15  as p a r t of  instructions. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the mean e r r o r f o r the  4 groups r e v e a l e d , as hypothesized,  statistically  d i f f e r e n t means between the groups Using the m o d i f i e d those u s i n g the standard i n s t r u c t i o n s . m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n s without D-15  and  Group 3, u s i n g  the i n c l u s i o n of the  performed best, f u n c t i o n i n g as w e l l with  Panel  these  i n s t r u c t i o n s as do a d u l t s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t 12 year o l d s  can  f u n c t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r on the 100-Hue t e s t m o d i f i e d i n s t r u c t i o n than other s t u d i e s w i t h  with  other  p o p u l a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n , u s i n g other types of p r e s e n t a t i o n s have i n d i c a t e d .  BIBLIOGRAPHY Askov, E. and Otto, W. The r o l e of c o l o u r i n l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n , Review of r e s e a r c h . J o u r n a l of S p e c i a l Education, 2. (2) 155-165, 1968r Bannatyne, A.D. The Colour Phonics System i n J . Money (Ed)., The D i s a b l e d Reader. B a l t i m o r e , The John Hopkins P r e s s . 1966. B r i a n , C. R. and Goodenough, F. R e l a t i v e potency of c o l o u r and form p e r c e p t i o n a t v a r i o u s ages. J o u r n a l of Experimental Psychology, 12, 197-213, 1929. Brown J .  Corah,  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the colour v i s i o n of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 1950.  N. L. Colour and form i n c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t u a l behaviour. P e r c e p t i o n and Motor S k i l l s , 18, 313-316, 196X  Corah, N. L. and Jones, S. A. and M i l l e r , B. The R e l a t i o n of v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e and c o l o u r form d i s c r i m i n a t i v e a b i l i t y t o c h i l d r e n ' s colour-matching and form-matching behaviour. J o u r n a l of Psychology, 62, 221-228, 1966. C r a n n e l l , C. W. Code l e a r n i n g and c o l o u r . J o u r n a l of psychology, 58, 295-299, 1964Dvorine, I . Dvorine Pseudo-Isochromatic P l a t e s . (2nd. ed."^ 1953 ). Waverly Press, Inc., B a l t i m o r e , Maryland. Farnsworth, D. Farnsworth Dichbtomous T e s t f o r Colour B l i n d n e s s - Panel D-15. Farnsworth & Munsell Colour Co. Inc., B a l t i m o r e , My. Farnsworth  D. and M u n s e l l , E. Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue T e s t . Farnsworth & M u n s e l l Colour Inc., B a l t i m o r e , My.  Co.  G a l l a g h e r , J . R. V i s u a l Screening o f p r e - s c h o o l and f i r s t grade c h i l d r e n . A r c h i v e s o f Opthamology, 72, 200, 1964.  55 Gattegno,  C. Words i n Colour, Background and P r i n c i p l e s . E n c y c l o p e d i a of B r i t t a n i c a Press, Chicago, 1962.  Heidbreder, E. and Bensley, M.L. and Ivy, M. The attainment of concepts - C r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s i n c o n t e x t . J o u r n a l of Psychology, 6 6 , 45-69, 1948. Henman-Nelson, T e s t of Mental A b i l i t y Form B, Houghton M i f f i n Co., Boston, N.Y., A t l a n t a , D a l l a s , P a l a A l t o , 19617' Huang, I .  A b s t r a c t i o n o f form and c o l o u r i n c h i l d r e n as a f u n c t i o n of the stimulus o b j e c t s . J o u r n a l o f General Psychology, 66, 5 9 - 6 2 , 1945.  Janouskova, R. Colour v i s i o n and age. C z e c h o s l o v a k i a J o u r n a l of Opthomology, 1955. Jones,  J . K. C o l o u r as an a i d to v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n i n early reading. B r i t i s h Journal of Educational ,. Psychology,  35,  25-27,  1965.  Kagan, J . and Lemkin, J . Form: Colour and s i z e i n c h i l d r e n ' s c o n c e p t u a l behaviour. Child Development, 3 2 , 25-28, 1961. Ealmus, H. Diagnosis and Genetics of D e f e c t i v e Colour V i s i o n . Permagon P r e s s , Oxford and London, 1965. Lakowski, R. and Montgomery, G.W.G. Colour d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n p r o f o u n d l y deaf c h i l d r e n , Paper read a t 2nd S c o t t i s h Symposium on c o l o u r . September 1968. Lakowski, R. Age and c o l o u r v i s i o n . Advancement of Science, 15, 231-236, 1958. Colour v i s i o n t e s t s ; What do they t e s t ? Report from Edinburgh U n i v e r s i t y P s y c h o l o g i c a l L a b o r a t o r y . A p r i l 1966. A c r i t i c a l v a l u a t i o n of colour v i s i o n t e s t s . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of P h y s i o l o g i c a l Opthomology, 23, 136-209, 1966. ... .'. R. P s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n c o l o u r v i s i o n t e s t i n g . Proceedings of the F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l Colour Congress, Stockholm, 19691 M. R i s h t e r , Masterschmidt, V e r l a g , Gottingen, i n p r e s s . ;  56 Lamp, J.M.  E v a l u a t i v e study of c o l o u r - v i s i o n t e s t s f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n and 1st grade p u p i l s , J o u r n a l of School Health, 39, 311-14, 1969.  Lewis M. and Ashby, Faye. ( C i v i l Aeromedical I n s t . , F.A.A., Oklahoma C i t y , Okla.) D i a g n o s t i c t e s t s o f c o l o u r d e f e c t i v e v i s i o n — Annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y , 1956-66. O f f i c e of A v i a t i o n Medicine Report, 67-8, p.10, 1967. Lumbroso, B.D. and P r o t o , F. »L esame d e l senso cromatica medianti i l t e s t d i Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue i n s o g g e t t i n o r m a l i d i 10 a n n i * . B o l l . O c u l i s t , 42, 794. T  Luscombe, G. Performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test of Pre-Adult S u b j e c t s . M.A. T h e s i s (unpublished), Edinburgh, i 9 6 0 . MacLatchey, R.S. Colour v i s i o n t e s t i n g . Trans. Opthamological S o c i e t y , U.K., 71, 623, 1951. P r a t e r , M.J. Colour uses i n primary i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r colour d e f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n . Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , 1967. Shearron, G.F. Colour d e f i c i e n c y and r e a d i n g achievement i n primary s c h o o l boys. Reading Teacher, 22:5 10-12, March 1969. Synolds, D. and Pronko, R. An e x p l o r a t o r y study of colour v i s i o n i n c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l of Genetic Psychology, 74, 17-21, 1949. V e r r i e s t , G. and Vandenyvere, R. and Vanderdonck, R.N.B. Nouvelles r e c h e r c h e r s se r a p p o r t a n t a 1 i n f l u e n c e du sexe et de 1* age sur l a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n chromatique, a i n s i gu' a l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n p r a t i g u e des r e s u l t a t s due t e s t 100-hue de Farnsworth-Munsell. Rev. Opt. 41, 499-509, 1962. T  Weiss, W. and Margolus, G. The d f f e c t of context s t i m u l i on l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n . Journal o f Experimental Psychology, 48, 318-322, 1954.  APPENDIX  

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