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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Visual discrimination of alphabet letters by preschool children Bain, David Alexander 1970

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VISUAL DISCRIMINATION OF ALPHABET LETTERS BY PRE-SCHOOL•CHILDREN by DAVID ALEXANDER BAIN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY We accept t h i s t h e s i s as co n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 197.0 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r ee t h a t t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rpo se s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia Vancouve r 8, Canada Date ABSTRACT The purpose of t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o a s c e r t a i n from the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e on a l p h a b e t l e g i b i l i t y and g e o m e t r i c form d i s c r i m i n a t i o n what minimum number and n a t u r e o f changes c o u l d be made t o the l e t t e r s B , d , p and Cj t o i n c r e a s e the a b i l i t y o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t o d i s c r i m i n a t e v e r t i c a l , h o r i z o n t a l and r o t a t i o n a l changes i n o r i e n t a t i o n o f the l e t t e r s . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e the stem of each l e t t e r was r e p l a c e d by a s o l i d b l a c k , r i g h t - a n g l e t r i a n g l e . F o r each l e t t e r the s m a l l e s t a n g l e of t h e t r i a n g l e was uppermost , the r i g h t - a n g l e was i n t h e bot tom l e f t - h a n d c o r n e r , and a s m a l l w h i t e c i r c l e was imbedded i n the r i g h t - a n g l e . The base o f t h e t r i a n g l e was e q u a l i n w i d t h t o t h e d i a m e t e r o f the eye o f t h e l e t t e r s . To t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t f o r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n h o r i z o n -t a l , v e r t i c a l and r o t a t i o n a l changes i n o r i e n t a t i o n o f the m o d i -f i e d l e t t e r s would be more d i s c r i m i n a b l e t h a n i d e n t i c a l o r i e n t a -t i o n changes o f the s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s a f o u r - t o - o n e match t o sampl format was u s e d . I n t h i s format one s t i m u l u s l e t t e r was t o be matched w i t h an i d e n t i c a l l e t t e r c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a m a t r i x o f t h r e e l e t t e r s each d e p i c t i n g a d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n o f the s t i -mulus l e t t e r . K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n between the ages o f i f .6 and 5.6 were s e l e c t e d i n terms o f t h e i r pe r fo rmance on two s c r e e n i n g t e s t s . T h i r t y - s i x c h i l d r e n "were i n c l u d e d i n t h e sample w i t h 18 s u b j e c t s i n each t r e a t m e n t g r o u p . One s c r e e n i n g t e s t used s i m p l e g e o m e t r i c shapes t o a s s e s s the c h i l d ' s fundamenta l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n c e p t o f i i s i m i l a r i t y , and h i s a b i l i t y t o respond a d e q u a t e l y t o the f o u r -;co-one match to sample format. The second s c r e e n i n g and t r a i n -i n g t e s t r e i n f o r c e d the c h i l d , v e r b a l l y and w i t h candy t o a t t e n d to o r i e n t a t i o n cues; the s u b j e c t was r e q u i r e d t o manually r e -o r i e n t a response f i g u r e t o match i n sequence a number of sample f i g u r e s each of which r e p r e s e n t e d one of the t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s . The s u b j e c t s were then g i v e n an e r r o r b a s e - r a t e t e s t of t w e n t y - f o u r , f o u r - t o - o n e match t o sample formats c o m p r i s i n g a l l p e r m u t a t i o n s 3 of the s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s b , d , p and Cj . I n accordance w i t h t h e i r s c o r e s on t h i s t e s t ( t o t a l number of c o r -r e c t < d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s ) s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d by the randomized b l o c k s d e s i g n to the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups. For the tr e a t m e n t , the c o n t r o l group was g i v e n the p r e t e s t a g a i n w h i l e the e x p e r i m e n t a l group was g i v e n a t e s t i n i d e n t i c a l format u s i n the m o d i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the g a i n s c o r e s (number of c o r r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s on the treatment t e s t minus number of c o r r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s on the e r r o r b a s e - r a t e t e s t ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m o d i f i e d l e t t e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of o r i e n -t a t i o n a l changes a t the .025 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , and t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between the performance of males and females. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM 1 Review of the L i t e r a t u r e . . 2 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of L e t t e r s of Type 2 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of E r r o r s k-E t i o l o g y of the Problem 5 The Laws of Ob j e c t and D i r e c t i o n a l Constancy . . 6 L e g i b i l i t y S t u d i e s 7 S i z e o f Type 7 K i n d s of Type . 8 L e a d i n g 8 S i m p l i c i t y of O u t l i n e 8 S e r i f s . 9 S t r o k e S i z e 9 Area of White Spaces 9 D i s t i n g u i s h i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 10 S t u d i e s o f Geometric Form D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . . . .10 Developmental A s p e c t s o f the Problem 11 A Review of P o p u l a r P r i m e r L e t t e r Types 13 I n i t i a l T e aching Alphabet .13 Words i n C o l o r 15 Type Common .to Canadian P r i m e r s 16 CHAPTER I I : STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM .17 M o d i f i c a t i o n o f the L e t t e r s b, d, p and q 17 Statement o f H y p o t h e s i s 20 p i v PAGE CHAPTER I I I : METHOD OF EXPERIMENTATION 21 S e l e c t i o n of S u b j e c t s 21 T e s t i n g Format and Pr o c e d u r e s 22 I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g Test . 22 P a r t One 22 P a r t Two 24 Base-Rate Test 27 . E x p e r i m e n t a l Test 27a CHAPTER IV: STATISTICAL PROCEDURES 29 Randomized B l o c k s Design 29 Gain Scores 30 R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s 31 Data A n a l y s i s .31 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e 31 A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e 36 CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 38 R e s e r v a t i o n s i n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research 40 REFERENCES 42 APPENDIX A: INSTRUMENTS 44 I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g Test P a r t I 45 I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g T e s t P a r t I I 46 E r r o r Base-Rate and C o n t r o l Treatment Test 47 E x p e r i m e n t a l Treatment Test . . 4 8 V LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Summary of Tr e a t m e n t - B l o c k s A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e 32 I I E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l Gain Scores over B l o c k s and P a i r s of B l o c k s ; Average Geln Scores E x p e r i m e n t a l and C o n t r o l 33 I I I E f f e c t s of Treatment and Sex Upon Po s t Test Scores; Summary A n a l y s i s of Cov a r i a n c e . 37 IV C e l l Means and A d j u s t e d Means 37a v i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f L e t t e r s o f Type 2 2 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of O r i e n t a t i o n E r r o r s i f 3 M o d i f i c a t i o n of the L e t t e r s b, d, p and c, 17 l\. Example of a Four Choice Match-to-Sample Frame. . . .23 5 One-to-One Match t o Sample S t i m u l i 25 6 Example o f a Four-to-One Base-Rate T e s t i n g Frame. . .27 7 E x p e r i m e n t a l , C o n t r o l , and Average Gain Score Means over P a i r s of B l o c k s 34 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o acknowledge the r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e , c o n s t r u c t i v e , and f r i e n d l y guidance o f the members of my committee, Dr. J . Conry (Chairman), Dr. H. M. C o v e l l , and Dr. R. Conry. DEDICATION T h i s t h e s i s i s d e d i c a t e d t o my mentors (Mr. and Mrs.) G e o f f r e y and C h r i s t i n e Benny whose undaunted p u r s u i t and s h a r i n g of knowledge s h a l l always be an i n s p i r a t i o n t o me. David B a i n CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM The a b i l i t y t o r e a d w e l l i s fundamental t o p r o g r e s s i n f o r -mal academic l e a r n i n g . A l t h o u g h "one of the most b a s i c f e a t u r e s of a reading.program i s the a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e the l e t t e r s o f the a l p h a b e t ( B l a i r , 1 9 6 9 ) 5 " " r e v e r s a l e r r o r s i n l e t t e r d i s c r i m -i n a t i o n p e r s i s t u n t i l a t l e a s t seven y e a r s of age ( H a l l , 1 9 6 8 ) , " i n many cases f o l l o w i n g two y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g . F o r some c h i l d r e n , unable t o l e a r n t o r e a d through c o n v e n t i o n a l t e a c h i n g methods, the problems of l e t t e r c o n f u s i o n and r e v e r s a l may c o n t i n u e 'for a much l o n g e r p e r i o d of time and f r e q u e n t l y the r e s u l t i n g f r u s t r a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n o t h e r a r e a s of the c h i l d ' s l i f e . One of the major problems c o n f r o n t i n g the c h i l d b e g i n n i n g t o r e a d c o n c e r n s d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n of the l e t t e r s lo , d , p and Cj which as Money (1966) has shown are the most d i r e c t i o n a l l y confounded l e t t e r s o f the a l p h a b e t . The f i r s t c o n t r o l l e d e x periments c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i v e l e g i b i l i t y of the l e t t e r s o f the a l p h a b e t were conducted i n 1885 ( S a n f o r d , 1888). C o n s i d e r a b l e d a t a r e l a t e d t o the p e r c e p t i o n o f a l p h a b e t i c forms has been accumulated s i n c e t h a t t i m e . The sans s e r i f f o n t has been adopted t o conform t o the s t y l e of p r i n t by which c h i l d r e n are commonly t a u g h t . A p a r t from t h i s change, how-ever, l i t t l e use has been made of the r e s e a r c h evidence t o i n c r e a s e the d i s c r i m i n a b i l i t y of the l e t t e r s of the a l p h a b e t . The t h e s i s of the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s s u f -f i c i e n t e v idence i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t m i n i m a l 2 temporary changes can be made t o i n c r e a s e the d i s c r i m i n a b i l i t y of g a r t e n and primary l e v e l c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r , t h a t these changes are such t h a t once they have caused improvement i n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of the l e t t e r s , the changes may be p r o g r e s s i v e l y and s y s t e m a t i -c a l l y d ecreased p e r m i t t i n g the l e t t e r s t o conform t o t h e i r con-v e n t i o n a l form. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of L e t t e r s of Type F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l e t t e r s of type i s e s s e n t i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g some of the problems i n h e r e n t i n a stud y of t h i s k i n d . The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s have been summar-i z e d from Z a c h r i s s o n (1965) and B i g e l o w (1967). the l e t t e r s b , d , p , and C| i n t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n t o k i n d e r -REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE h e a d bow point pica F i G . 1: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of L e t t e r s of Type 3 f a c e - the s u r f a c e of a p i e c e of type t h a t i m p r i n t s i n k . w a i s t l i n e - h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s l i g h t l y above m a t h e m a t i c a l c e n t r e of the f a c e o r stem, stem - v e r t i c a l member from b a s e - l i n e t o head, ascender - t h a t p a r t o f the .stem r i s i n g above the w a i s t l i n e , descender - t h a t p a r t of the stem f a l l i n g below the base l i n e , bow - curved member e n c l o s i n g open a r e a o r eye. s t r o k e - w i d t h of stem or bow. • s e r i f - f i n i s h i n g f l a i r a t hea.d and/or f o o t of stem; may be t r i a n g u l a r , c u r v e d or s t r a i g h t l i n e , sans s e r i f - type w i t h o u t s e r i f . body - metal or wooden base upon which type i s seat e d and which l i m i t s maximum s i z e of the l e t t e r , p o i n t - v e r t i c a l l e n g t h of the body; 72 p o i n t s = 1 i n c h , p i c a - h o r i z o n t a l w i d t h of the body; 6 p i c a = 1 i n c h . Note: p o i n t and p i c a r e f e r t o the l e n g t h and w i d t h of the body and not t o the a c t u a l s i z e of the l e t t e r . There are t y p e s t h a t have a l a r g e r d e s i g n i n 1 0 - p o i n t than o t h e r s have i n 1 2-point ( Z a c h r i s s o n , 1965)* f o n t - a l l the c h a r a c t e r s i n one s i z e and type f a m i l y . Roman - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t y p e s w i t h t h i c k and t h i n s t r o k e s ( v e r t i c a l s a r e g e n e r a l l y t h i c k w h i l e h o r i z o n t a l s are t h i n ; d i a g o n a l s t r o k e s t h i c k e n as they move t o the r i g h t and t h i n as they move to the l e f t ; may o r may not have s e r i f s ) . G o t h i c - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t y p e s w i t h u n i f o r m f a c e ( h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l and d i a g o n a l s t r o k e s have e q u a l w i d t h ; u s u a l l y w i t h -out s e r i f ) . k C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of E r r o r s The c o n f u s i o n of lo , d , p and Cj , the most d i r e c t i o n a l l y confounded l e t t e r s of the a l p h a b e t (Money, 1966), i s r e f l e c t e d i n the v a r i o u s t i t l e s t h a t have been used t o d e s c r i b e the phenomena. For example, H e n d r i c k s o n (1962) d i s c u s s e s i n v e r s i o n s ; Popp (1964) r e f e r r e d t o h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l and d i a g o n a l d i s o r i e n t a t i o n s ; Money (1966) examined p u s h - p u l l and l e f t - r i g h t m i r r o r r o t a t i o n s , -while B l a i r (1969) d e s c r i b e d r o t a t i o n and r e v e r s a l t r a n s f o r m a -t i o n s , .-... The d i r e c t i o n of the change i n o r i e n t a t i o n — v e r t i c a l , h o r i -z o n t a l , c l o c k w i s e or c o u n t e r - c l o c k w i s e — s h o u l d be p r e c i s e l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y d e s c r i b e d f o r c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d and the p o s s i b l e r e m e d i a t i o n t h a t might be made. The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n of terms i s proposed: Standard d P b D i s o r i e n t a t i o n s Name cr d p 180° Up or Down V e r t i c a l D i s o r i e n t a t i o n P r o d u c t b p d 180° L t v or R i g h t H o r i z o n t a l D i s o r i e n t a t i o n P d b cr 180° C l o c k w i s e or C o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e R o t a t i o n a l D i s o r i e n t a t i o n FIG. 2: C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of O r i e n t a t i o n E r r o r s Of the t h r e e t y p e s of d i s o r i e n t a t i o n s the h o r i z o n t a l C| t o p or p t o C| , and d t o lo o r lo t o dl are the most common (Money, 1966). Davidson (1935) i n a study of 5-6 y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n found the f o l l o w i n g e r r o r r a t e s f o r t ) , d , p and CJ c o n f u s i o n s : 5 h o r i z o n t a l 79-88%, v e r t i c a l 26-33%, and r o t a t i o n a l 33-43%. B l a i r (1969) suggests t h a t a l t h o u g h the t y p e s of e r r o r s and t h e i r r e l a -t i v e f r e q u e n c y of o c c u r r e n c e have; ;reraained c o n s t a n t over the p a s t f o r t y y e a r s the t o t a l number of e r r o r s has decreased a p p r e c i a b l y . E t i o l o g y of the Problem The o r i g i n of the d i s o r i e n t a t i o n s has been v a r i o u s l y . a s c r i b e d . 1. Orton (1928) s u g g e s t s t h a t d i s o r i e n t a t i o n s might be caused by a l a c k of c e r e b r a l dominance ( c i t e d i n Davidson, 1935). Dearborn (1929) and Munro (1932) b e l i e v e d t h a t the p e r c e p t u a l problems were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e f t handedness and eyedness. H i l l e r i c k (1963» i n K a r r a k e r , 1968) found t h a t " o l d e r s u b j e c t s (age not r e p o r t e d ) from n o n - c l i n i c a l p o p u l a t i o n s t y p i c a l l y do not demonstrate any s i g n i f i -c a nt r e l a t i o n s h i p s of r e a d i n g d i s a b i l i t y and l a t e r a l dominance." K a r r a k e r (1968) u s i n g an a d a p t a t i o n of the H a r r i s Test of L a t e r a l Dominance w i t h c h i l d r e n aged 5 . 5 - 6 . 6 found t h a t l a t e r a l dominance was not r e l a t e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l e a r n i n g of the l e t t e r s ; . : " b " and "d". 2. Some a u t h o r s have suggested t h a t speech, h e a r i n g or n e u r o l o g i -c a l impairment or a l a c k of n e u r a l m a t u r i t y may be s o u r c e s of the problem ( H i l d r e t h , 1932; I l g , 1950, c i t e d i n H a l l , 1968). 3 . H a l l (1962) suggested t h a t the problem" might be a t t r i b u t e d t o an i n s u f f i c i e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the concept of s i m i l a r i t y or: sameness, and i n 1968 concluded from h i s experiments t h a t the un d e r s t a n d i n g of sameness was more i m p o r t a n t than the a t t e n t i o n f a c t o r . 6 Zf. H e n d r i c k s o n (1962) suggested t h a t p r e s c h o o l and e a r l y s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n l a c k e d l e f t and. r i g h t as m e a n i n g f u l d i r e c t i o n a l l a -b e l s i n t h e i r v o c a b u l a r i e s . 5. H e n d r i c k s o n f u r t h e r p o s t u l a t e d t h a t w i t h p r e s c h o o l or p r i m a r y c h i l d r e n t h e r e was a f a i l u r e t o f o c u s s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n or t o r e c o g n i z e the importance of changes i n o r i e n t a t i o n i n s p i t e of the a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e t h e s e changes. H i s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n i n p r e t r a i n i n g them to a t t e n d t o the d i r e c -t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the l e t t e r s b and d f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g the names of these l e t t e r s i n a p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e s t a s k . The r e s e a r c h has th u s f a r f a i l e d t o c o n f i r m t h a t any s p e c i f i c o r g a n i c , n e u r o l o g i c a l o r p e r c e p t u a l anomaly i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d by many young c h i l d r e n i n d i s c r i m i n -a t i n g o r i e n t a t i o n changes i n a l p h a b e t l e t t e r s . The Laws of Obj e c t and D i r e c t i o n a l Constancy Perhaps the most p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e phenomena has been o f f e r e d by Money (1966) and Ale x a n d e r (1967) who suggest t h a t the p r e - r e a d i n g c h i l d has not a d e q u a t e l y l e a r n e d t o use the pe r -c e p t u a l l a w s of o b j e c t and d i r e c t i o n a l c o n s t a n c y . The Law of Ob j e c t Constancy "The p r e - r e a d e r l e a r n s d u r i n g a l l the y e a r s o f h i s p r e - s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t any o b j e c t has the same name, meaning or sym b o l i c v a l u e r e g a r d l e s s of changes i n i t s d i r e c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n or r o t a t i o n i n space, and d e s p i t e the a d d i -t i o n , removal, or t r a n s l o c a t i o n or camouflage of component p a r t s . L a t e r the c h i l d must l e a r n t h a t t h i s lav/ does not f u l l y apply-t o the l e t t e r s of the a l p h a b e t and t h a t a new law must be l e a r n e d . " 7 The Law of D i r e c t i o n a l Constancy " L e t t e r s of the same shape have the same symbolic v a l u e o n l y i f t h e i r d i r e c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s i d e n t i c a l i " The t h r e e t y p e s of d i s o r i e n t a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d above are not p e r m i t t e d . However, t h e r e a r e e x c e p t i o n s such as "x" and "o" t h a t can be r o t a t e d i n any d i r e c t i o n w i t h o u t change i n i d e n t i f y , w h i l e the l e t t e r s S , V , E> and H can be r o t a t e d i n some d i r e c -t i o n s but not i n o t h e r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o the e x c e p t i o n s t h e r e a r e o t h e r s o u r c e s of c o n f u s i o n such as upper and lo w e r case l e t t e r s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o n t s t y l e and p r i n t v e r s u s c u r s i v e t y p e . L e g i b i l i t y S t u d i e s Numerous s t u d i e s , p r i n c i p a l l y by T i n k e r (1963) and Z a c h r i s s o n (1965), have been conducted on the r e l a t i v e l e g i b i l i t y of v a r i o u s t y p e s of p r i n t . These r e s e a r c h e s , p r i m a r i l y w i t h a d u l t s , have employed t h r e e d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l t e c h n i q u e s t o e s t a b l i s h e r r o r r a t e s of r e c o g n i t i o n : (a) v a r y i n g the d i s t a n c e between the s u b j e c t and the l e t t e r s t i m u l u s , (b) v a r y i n g the i n t e r v a l of t a c h i s t o s c o p i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of the l e t t e r s t i m u l u s , and (c) p r e s e n t i n g the s t i m -u l u s t o the p e r i p h e r y of the s u b j e c t ' s v i s i o n . A number of v a r i a b l e s have been s t u d i e d i n these e xperiments to a s c e r t a i n which f a c t o r s most a f f e c t l e g i b i l i t y . x * S i z e of t y p e . Sanford i n 1888 wrote t h a t l e g i b i l i t y would be favoured by e n l a r g i n g the s i z e and i n c r e a s i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s o f the l e t t e r s . McNamara (1953) s t a t e d t h a t the s i z e of type a f f e c t s speed of r e a d i n g , but t h a t speed i s not an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of r e a d i n g below the f o u r t h grade. T i n k e r (19.63) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t lower case p r i n t i n g i s much more l e g i b l e than a l l c a p i t a l p r i n t i n g , 8 however, i n d i v i d u a l c a p i t a l l e t t e r s a r e more l e g i b l e than l o w e r case l e t t e r s i n terms of v i s i b i l i t y a t a d i s t a n c e . Lower case l e t -t e r s a re more d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n form t h a n upper case l e t t e r s , have more d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and are more r e a d i l y r e c o g -n i z e d . Dechant (1964) r e p o r t s t h a t "the b e s t evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s i z e of type s h o u l d be between 14 and 18 p o i n t i n grade one and between 12 and 11+ p o i n t i n grades two and t h r e e . . . . " H a l l (1968) found no d i f f e r e n c e between p i c a ( t y p e w r i t e r ) and l a r g e r p r i m a r y type and conclu d e d t h a t l e t t e r s i z e i s not an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n k i n d e r g a r t e n . 2. K i n d s of t y p e . S t u d i e s have g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t Roman i s more l e g i b l e than i t a l i c type ( T i n k e r , 1928: R u s s e l l , 1961), and b o o k p r i n t i s more r e a d a b l e than t y p e w r i t e r p r i n t ( R u s s e l l , 1961). Vernon (1963) i n s t u d y i n g geometric forms suggested t h a t such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a n g u l a r i t y as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h smoothness or f l a t n e s s appears t o be most i m p o r t a n t f o r the p e r c e p t i o n of a f i g u r e by young c h i l d r e n . Money (1966) r e p o r t i n g on a m u l t i d i m e n -s i o n a l a n a l y s i s of a c o n f u s i o n m a t r i x generated from matching ac-t i v i t i e s of f o u r year o l d c h i l d r e n showed t h a t l e t t e r s h a v i n g curved and s t r a i g h t l i n e s o r o b l i q u e and s l a n t e d l i n e s have p r i -o r i t y i n the d i s c r i m i n a l p r o c e s s . 3 . L e a d i n g . L e a d i n g r e f e r s t o the spaces between l e t t e r s ' w i t h -i n a word. F o r grade one, u s i n g 14-18 p o i n t t y p e , 1+-S p o i n t l e a d -i n g i s recommended ( P a t e r s o n and M i e s , 1940; i n Dechant, 1964). 4 . S i m p l i c i t y of o u t l i n e . Sanford (1888) s t a t e d t h a t l e g i b i l i t y 9 i s f a v o r e d by s i m p l i c i t y o f o u t l i n e ( c o n f i r m e d by T i n k e r , 1963) and c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f e a t u r e s upon a s i n g l e a s p e c t . 5' S e r i f s . Too heavy o r too l o n g a s e r i f s h o u l d be a v o i d e d a t the t o p and bottom ends o f d o u b l e s t r o k e s as i n h and U . W i t h l e t t e r s such as 3 , S , and Z s h o r t t r i a n g u l a r s e r i f s would s i m -p l i f y t h e l e t t e r o u t l i n e s ( T i n k e r , 1963 ) • Z a c h r i s s o n (1965) r e -p o r t s t h a t one o f t e n meets w i t h the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t sans s e r i f t y p e s i n g e n e r a l a r e l e s s l e g i b l e t h a n the o l d f ace groups ( w i t h s e r i f ) , however , a r e v i e w o f seven e x p e r i m e n t s f a i l s t o d e m o n s t r a t e the b e n e f i t o f s e r i f s i n t e rms o f l e g i b i l i t y , r e a d i n g speed o r e r r o r r a t e . Z a c h r i s s a n i n t e n o f h i s own e x p e r i m e n t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n l e g i b i l i t y between o l d f a c e and sans s e r i f i n grades one and f o u r . 6* S t r o k e s i z e . W i t h most o f the l e t t e r s b r e a d t h i s more o f an advantage t h a n l e n g t h , o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , f o r i t g i v e s v i -s i b i l i t y t o t h e i r i n t e r n a l space s ( S a n f o r d , 1888). L e t t e r s r e c o g -n i z e d the l e a s t on t a c h i s t o s c o p i c p r e s e n t a t i o n were t h o s e w i t h g r e a -t e s t l i g h t n e s s o f f a c e ( T i n k e r , 1928). L i g h t f a c e i s more l e g i b l e t h a n b o l d f ace ( R u s s e l l , 1 9 6 I ) . There i s no advantage i n h a v i n g one p a r t o f a s t r o k e t h i c k e r t h a n a n o t h e r ; t h e t endency t o use h a i r l i n e s s h o u l d be s t r o n g l y condemned ( T i n k e r , 1963). One o f the p r i m a r y s t i m u l u s d e t e r m i n a n t s o f the d e t e c t i o n t h r e s h o l d i s t h e a r e a o f the t a r g e t ; i n g e n e r a l , the g r e a t e r the a r e a t h e l o w e r t h e t h r e s h o l d (Dernber, 1965). • A r e a of w h i t e s p a c e s . The w h i t e space a s i n H o r t h e eye i n . 10 p i n f l u e n c e s l e g i b i l i t y ; o t h e r t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d , the g r e a t e r the e n c l o s e d a r e a — t h e g r e a t e r the l e g i b i l i t y ( T i n k e r , 1963). 8« D i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t i s i r o n i c t h a t i n a t l e a s t e i g h t s t u d i e s from 1885 t o T i n k e r , 1963, t h e most l e g i b l e l e t t e r s f o r a d u l t s w i t h an average c o r r e l a t i o n o f .62 a r e : k , d , Oj , b , p , 171 and Ui , w h i l e t h e l e t t e r s o f l e a s t l e g i b i l i t y a re C , e , i , n , 1 . T i n k e r s t a t e d t h a t the l e t t e r s o f g r e a t e s t l e g i b i l i t y a re those most marked w i t h d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h a t t h e n e x t most i m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e s o f l e t t e r s a re (a) a r e a o f e n c l o s e d w h i t e space and (b) t h e s i z e o f t y p e . S t u d i e s o f G e o m e t r i c Form D i s c r i m i n a t i o n A number o f s t u d i e s o f l e t t e r - l i k e , r e g u l a r o r i r r e g u l a r geo-m e t r i c forms have r e v e a l e d some i m p o r t a n t f a c t s r e l a t e d t o v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 1. Ghent (1961) c o n f i r m e d H e b b ' s t h e o r y t h a t c h i l d r e n do not p e r c e i v e the whole o f an o b j e c t bu t r a t h e r p e r c e i v e i t i n p a r t s b e g i n n i n g w i t h a f o c a l p o i n t and s c a n n i n g downward. 2. Ghent f u r t h e r d i s c o v e r e d t h a t symmetr i c g e o m e t r i c f i g u r e s w i t h a b r o a d open or c l o s e d base and a d i s t i n c t rounded o r p o i n t e d apex were c o n s i d e r e d t o be r i g h t - s i d e - u p by 4-5 y e a r o l d s and v i c e - v e r s a when the apex p o i n t e d downward. The h i g h e s t amount o f agreement f o r v e r t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n was f o r an e q u i l a t e r a l t r i a n g l e . 3 . Vernon (1963) i n r e p o r t i n g on a number o f s t u d i e s made the 11 f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s : (a) F i g u r e s i n s t r o n g c o n t r a s t t o the background tend t o a t t r a c t one's eye. (b) V a r i a t i o n , s u r p r i s e and i n c o n g r u i t y are a l s o l i k e l y t o a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n ; s u b j e c t s spend more time l o o k i n g a t i n -congruous i t e m s than a t o t h e r s and i n l o o k i n g a t i r r e g u l a r f i g u r e s among a s e r i e s o f r e g u l a r ones. (c) I n each o f a number o f s t u d i e s Vernon found t h a t ' a n o b s e r v e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the f i e l d o r of any a s p e c t o f i t may be made more r a p i d l y and a c c u r a t e l y i n so f a r as h i s a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d toward i t . The more n a r r o w l y and s p e c i f i c a l l y a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d the g r e a t e r the improve-ment i n acc u r a c y of p e r c e p t i o n . Z+. A study by F i t t s r e p o r t e d i n Uhr showed t h a t s u p e r i o r p e r f o r -mance i n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was e v i d e n t w i t h v e r t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d , b i -l a t e r a l l y s y m m e t r i c a l f i g u r e s as opposed t o h o r i z o n t a l l y o r i e n t e d f i g u r e s ; s u b j e c t s show g r e a t e r f a c i l i t y i n r e s p o n d i n g c o n c u r r e n t l y t o two s t i m u l i t h a t a re s y m m e t r i c a l about a v e r t i c a l a x i s . 5. W o h l w i l l (1968) c o n f i r m e d Ghent's (1961) h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g the v e r t i c a l d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of broad b a s e d , p o i n t e d forms and i n a d d i t i o n he noted t h a t the presence of an i n t e r n a l f o c u s s i n g de-t a i l i n e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - d i r e c t i o n a l f i g u r e s i n c r e a s e d the amount of agreement i n e s t i m a t i n g t h e i r d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . Developmental A s p e c t s of the Problem I n c o m b i n a t i o n , the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from many experiments 12 have i l l u m i n a t e d the developmental a s p e c t s of l e a r n i n g and of u s i n g the law s o f v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d above. Da-v i d s o n (1935) p o s t u l a t e d the f o l l o w i n g s t a g e s of o r i e n t a t i o n a l c o n f u s i o n : '.(a) c o n f u s i o n b w i t h d and p w i t h C | , (b) c o n f u s i o n b w i t h d , but not p w i t h CJ , ( c ) c o n f u s i o n b w i t h d a l t h o u g h i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t they f a c e i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s , and f i -n a l l y (d) r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t lo and d a r e a c t u a l l y d i f f e r e n t l e t -t e r s . Vernon (1963) i n s t u d y i n g geometric forms d i s c o v e r e d t h a t two y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n can d i s c r i m i n a t e t r i a n g l e s of d i f f e r e n t shapes when the d i f f e r e n c e i s f a i r l y marked. H e n d r i c k s o n (1962) found t h a t c h i l d r e n observed up-down i n v e r s i o n s ( v e r t i c a l d i s -o r i e n t a t i o n s ) as e a r l y as t h r e e y e a r s of age, w h i l e l e f t - r i g h t i n v e r s i o n s by c o n t r a s t were i n c o n s i s t e n t l y responded t o as l a t e as f i v e y e a r s of age. Ghent (1961) i n s t u d y i n g 4~5 year o l d c h i l d r e n d i s c o v e r e d t h a t they c o n s i s t e n t l y respond t o the o r i e n -t a t i o n o f r e g u l a r or i r r e g u l a r geometric forms as r i g h t s i d e up or u p s i d e down. Vernon (1963) suggested t h a t the a b i l i t y t o match a number of geometric shapes such as diamonds, t r i a n g l e s , t r a p e z o i d s and i r r e g u l a r q u a d r i l a t e r a l s appears t o de v e l o p about f o u r y e a r s of age. Ghent (1961) found t h a t i f the f o c a l p o i n t of a f i g u r e a t which 4-5 year o l d c h i l d r e n b e g i n t h e i r downward s c a n n i n g i s not l o c a t e d i n the upper p o r t i o n the f i g u r e i s con-s i d e r e d t o be upside down. Gibson (1962) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t 40 per cent of the e r r o r s made by f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n were r o t a t i o n s and r e v e r s a l s when f o u r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s -were s t u d i e d . H a l l (1968) s t a t e d t h a t r e v e r s a l e r r o r s i n l e t t e r d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n p e r s i s t u n t i l a t l e a s t seven y e a r s of age p a r t i c u l a r l y 13 i n c o p y i n g . F i n a l l y , i t has been c o n f i r m e d by Davidson (1935), A l e x a n d e r and Money (1967), and B l a i r (1969) t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f -f e r e n c e i n e r r o r r a t e f o r l o w e r case l e t t e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n be-tween sexes i n k i n d e r g a r t e n or n u r s e r y c h i l d r e n a l t h o u g h i n grade one the e r r o r r a t e i s h i g h e r f o r boys than g i r l s . A Review of P o p u l a r P r i m e r L e t t e r Types The I n i t i a l T eaching A l p h a b e t . I n s p i t e of the amount of e v i -dence r e g a r d i n g the p r o c e s s of v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f a l p h a b e t forms amassed s i n c e C a t t e l l i n 1885, no a p p a r e n t l y b e n e f i c i a l tem-p o r a r y or permanent changes have been made t o reduce the pe r c e p -t u a l c o n f u s i o n s of the a l p h a b e t . I n f a c t , the few changes t h a t have been made appear t o be c o n t r a r y t o the r e s e a r c h e v i d e n c e . C o n s i d e r f o r example Pitman's I n i t i a l T e a c h i n g A l p h a b e t ( I . T . A . ) . The c h a r a c t e r s are b a s i c a l l y of the Times Roman c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s e d by t h i c k and t h i n s t r o k e l i n e s and h a i r l i n e s . The v e r t i c a l and d i a g o n a l members are u n i f o r m l y t h i c k w h i l e the c u r -v i l i n e a r members t h i n as they approach e i t h e r the r i g h t ore l e f t . A l l l e t t e r s w i t h a t h i c k v e r t i c a l or d i a g o n a l s t r o k e have e i t h e r one or two t r i a n g u l a r s e r i f s a t e i t h e r head and/or base. The I.T.A. i n d i f f e r i n g from the s t a n d a r d t w e n t y - s i x l e t t e r alphabet:-.has an a d d i t i o n a l e i g h t e e n symbols most of which a r e formed by the j o i n i n g of two l e t t e r symbols as i n Tn ; t h e r e i s A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e has not r e v e a l e d t h a t the I.T.A. symbols have been t e s t e d f o r l e g i b i l i t y . E x a m i n a t i o n of the l e t -t e r s would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t l e g i b i l i t y .has not been a no l e t t e r 1L c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e i r d e s i g n . 1. As T i n k e r (1963) has p o i n t e d o u t , the tendency t o use h a i r l i n e s s h o u l d be s t r o n g l y condemned. F o r example, when a h a i r l i n e i s used f o r the h o r i z o n t a l member o f "Qu the p r o b a b i l i t y i s i n c r e a s e d t h a t the f i g u r e w i l l be confused v/ith "O " o r "C 2. When the l e t t e r "A " i s i n the form "Q " r a t h e r than t h a t o f "3H t h e r e i s a s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t w i l l be confused w i t h 3 . T i n k e r (1963) and o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t e r s i n c l u d i n g Sanford (1888) have emphasized t h a t a - d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s one o f the most i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s of l e t t e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s appear t o emphasize s i m i l a r i t y r a t h e r than d i f f e r e n c e s : (a) G O QD (b) oe lie co (h J h Jh Zf. The f i g u r e s above a l s o appear t o f a v o u r c o m p l e x i t y as does "1^  " r a t h e r than s i m p l i c i t y as advocated by most r e s e a r c h e r s . 5. The t r i a n g u l a r s e r i f s on the I.T.A. l e t t e r s such as those on the " H " would a l s o appear t o i n c r e a s e c o n f u s i o n as w i t h " b " . One can imagine t h a t i f c o n f u s i b i l i t y i s h i g h among complex f i g u r e s p r i n t e d i n a s t a n d a r d i s e d type,, the r a t e of c o n f u s i o n v / i l l be much h i g h e r when the l e t t e r s are d e p i c t e d i n c h a l k by a c a r e -l e s s t e a c h e r . The l e t t e r s b , d , p , and C| i n the I.T.A. a l p h a b e t are not merely d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s of the same f i g u r e . The stem of the l e t t e r CJ ( S t a n d a r d Times Roman) has a l e n g t h y t a i l t h a t 15 c u r v e s upward t o the l e f t and i s u n l i k e l y to be confused w i t h the o t h e r l e t t e r s . The l e t t e r s io , d , and p d i f f e r not o n l y i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n , but a l s o i n the number of s e r i f s each l e t t e r has: the " lo " has o n l y one s e r i f t o the l e f t of the head; the " d " has two s e r i f s , one t o the l e f t of the head and one to the r i g h t a t the base of the stem; the " p " has t h r e e s e r i f s , one t o the l e f t of the head and one on each s i d e of the base of the stem. I n each case the s e r i f s are s m a l l and t r i a n g u l a r and a s the ex-p e r i m e n t a l evidence (£achrisson, 1965, seventeen s t u d i e s ) i n d i c a t e s they would make no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e to l e g i b i l i t y . Words i n C o l o r . Gattegno and Hineman i n d i s c u s s i n g Words i n C o l o r (Money, 1966) d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s themselves t o the problem i n s t a t i n g t h a t "ID, d , p and Gj are confused because the shapes d i f f e r o n l y by asymmetry and symmetry u s u a l l y s e r v e s t o i n t e g r a t e p a r t s r a t h e r than p r o v i d e d r a s t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s . " I n ?/ords i n C o l o r the l e t t e r s are s e p a r a t e l y i n t r o d u c e d i n the above o r d e r and i n d i f -f e r e n t c o l o r s ; " p " i s brown, " d " i s dark green, " C j " i s g o l d or aqua depending upon i t s sound. The type used i n Words i n C o l o r c o r r e s p o n d s f a i r l y c l o s e l y to the F u t u r a demi-bold condensed i t a l i c c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e q u a l t h i c k -ness of s t r o k e on the h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l and d i a g o n a l members. There i s a v e r y s l i g h t n a r r o w i n g of the s t r o k e where c u r v i l i n e a r members i n s e r t i n t o the stem. The eye of the l e t t e r s lo , d , p and C| are o v a l shaped; the v e r t i c a l l e n g t h i s g r e a t e s t . These f o u r l e t t e r s d i f f e r i n c o l o r and o r i e n t a t i o n o n l y . Some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Words i n Color, are not i n . 16 a c c o r d w i t h the e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e . (a) A c c o r d i n g t o T i n k e r (1928) and R u s s e l l (1961) s t u d i e s have g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t Roman i s more l e g i b l e t h a n i t a l i c t y p e . (b) T i n k e r (1963) s t a t e s t h a t o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l the g r e a t e r the e n c l o s e d a r e a the g r e a t e r the l e g i b i l i t y . The condensed form of Words i n C o l o r r e -duces the s i z e of the open a r e a , ( c ) Vernon (1963) s u g g e s t s t h a t the g r e a t e r the c o l o r g r a d i e n t between f i g u r e and ground the g r e a t e r the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of the f i g u r e . Words i n C o l o r , how-ever, i s of a v a r i e t y of c o l o r s a g a i n s t a common b l a c k background and the l e g i b i l i t y i s t h u s decreased i n . p r o p o r t i o n t o the r e d u c t i o n of the c o l o r g r a d i e n t . Type Common to Canadian P r i m e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o C o v e l l (1966) the s t y l e of p r i n t suggested by a m a j o r i t y of the Departments of E d u c a t i o n i n Canada i n t h e i r s c r i p t w r i t i n g c u r r i c u l a has been s e l e c t e d f o r use i n the pr i m e r gee Me Go. E x a m i n a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t t h i s type i s of the Go t h i c f a m i l y , sans s e r i f , w i t h e q u a l s t r o k e w i d t h on v e r t i c a l , h o r i z o n t a l and d i a g o n a l members. The type may be f u r t h e r c l a s s i f i e d as F u t u r a L i g h t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e l a t i v e l y narrow s t r o k e w i d t h w i t h a c i r c u l a r eye and bow. The same c h a r a c -t e r i n d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s i s used f o r the l e t t e r s ID , ci ,p and CJ . The stem l e n g t h of these l e t t e r s i s 3/16 of an i n c h ; the diameter of the bow i s 2/16 of an i n c h and the stem r i s e s o n l y 1/16 of an i n c h above the bow. Bigelow (1967) recommended t h a t the diameter of the bow should be s l i g h t l y l e s s than h a l f the l e n g t h of the stem. I n view of t h i s recommendation the l e n g t h of the stem i n the above type should be extended f o r optimum d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . CHAPTER I I 17 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM A r e v i e w of the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r p r e -s c h o o l k i n d e r g a r t e n or n u r s e r y c h i l d r e n the most c o n f u s i n g l e t t e r s of the a l p h a b e t are b, d , p and CJ , and t h a t t h e r e are a. number of a t t r i b u t e s common to o t h e r l e t t e r s of the a l p h a b e t t h a t make them l e s s s u b j e c t t o c o n f u s i o n . The o b j e c t of the p r e s e n t study was t o i n c o r p o r a t e those a t t r i b u t e s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o maximum d i s c r i m i n a b i l i t y i n t o a tempo-r a r y m o d i f i c a t i o n of the l e t t e r s b , d , p and CJ s u i t a b l e i n form f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n t o k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n , and m i n i m a l l y m o d i f i e d i n a c c o r d w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s of programmed l e a r n i n g so t h a t the m o d i f i c a t i o n s might be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y faded as the c h i l d r e n were p r o g r e s s i v e l y t aught t o d i s c r i m i n a t e the l e t t e r s i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l form. RS b , d , p AND C| MODIFICATION OF THE LETTERS The m o d i f i e d form o f the l e t t e r s was as f o l l o w s : P-IP S'<\ cUck b=b FIG 3' M o d i f i c a t i o n of the l e t t e r s b, d, p and g. 18 The m o d i f i e d symbols i n c o r p o r a t e the f o l l o w i n g a t t r i b u t e s demonstrated by the r e s e a r c h evidence t o c o n t r i b u t e t o maximum d i s c r i m i n a b i l i t y . 1. (a) A n g u l a r i t y as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h smoothness or f l a t n e s s ; c u r v e d and s t r a i g h t l i n e s or o b l i q u e and s l a n t e d l i n e s a s s i s t young c h i l d r e n i n the p e r c e p t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of geometric f i g u r e s (Money, 1966). (b) A t r i a n g u l a r f i g u r e w i t h a broad base and a d i s t i n c t apex i n the h i g h e s t p o s i t i o n i s p e r c e i v e d to be u p r i g h t by p r e ~ s c h o o l c h i l d r e n (Ghent, 1961). Thus, i n the above f i g u r e s the stem has been expanded to a t r i a n g l e t o combine c u r v e d , s t r a i g h t and s l a n t e d l i n e s w h i l e the apex of the t r i a n g l e i s always i n the h i g h e s t p o s i t i o n . 2. (a) The use of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Tinker , 1 9 6 3 ) > (b) The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f e a t u r e s upon a s i n g l e a s p e c t ( T i n k e r , 1963), (c) The i n c l u s i o n of an i n t e r n a l f o c u s s i n g d e t a i l (Wohl-w i l l , 1968), and (d) The narrow f o c u s s i n g of a t t e n t i o n t o s p e c i f i c d i s c r i m -i n a t i n g d e t a i l s (Vernon, 1963)-Each aspect improves the r a p i d i t y and ac c u r a c y of percep-t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i n the above f i g u r e s a s m a l l i n t e r n a l w h i t e c i r c l e i n c o n t r a s t t o the s o l i d b l a c k stem has been l o c a t e d t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o the n i n e t y degree ang l e o f the t r i a n g l e t h a t i s always o r i e n t e d i n the same manner t o d e t e r h o r i z o n t a l o r 19 r o t a t i o n a l d i s o r i e n t a t i o n s . F u r t h e r , i n terms of the r e s e a r c h evidence i t i s l i k e l y t h a t b o t h the apex of the t r i a n g l e and the white dot w i l l be p e r c e i v e d o f as two c o n s t a n t l y l o c a t e d f o c i of a t t e n t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o which the eye of the f i g u r e i s p o s i t i o n e d ; t h u s , the l i k e l i h o o d of h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l and r o t a t i o n a l d i s -o r i e n t a t i o n s may be f u r t h e r reduced. 3 . (a) The c o n t r a s t or i n c o n g r u i t y of a f i g u r e w i t h i n a s e r i e s of f i g u r e s (Vernon, 1963)? (b) The c o n t r a s t of a f i g u r e a g a i n s t i t s ground (Vernon, 1963), and (c) The l a r g e n e s s o f the a r e a of the f i g u r e (Dember, 1965); each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s the speed and a c c u r a c y o f percep-t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i n the above f i g u r e s a l a r g e , b o l d b l a c k stem a g a i n s t a whit e background has been chosen. k. Other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n m o d i f y i n g the l e t t e r s t o p r o v i d e maximum d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t o k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n a r e : (a) A l a r g e w h i t e a r e a w i t h i n the eyes ( T i n k e r , 1963) has been a c h i e v e d through the use o f c i r c u l a r eyes a c c e n t u a t e d by a p e r i m e t e r o f even s t r o k e w i d t h ; (b) The s t y l e of the c o n v e n t i o n a l type to which the m o d i f i -c a t i o n s have been made and t o which the m o d i f i e d form c o u l d p o s s i b l y be r e t u r n e d i s t h a t most common t o Canadian p r i m e r s — G o t h i c s t y l e , F u t u r e L i g h t ( C o v e l l , 1966) w i t h a minor m o d i f i c a t i o n i n t h a t the l e n g t h o f the stem has been i n c r e a s e d to t w i c e the dia m e t e r o f the bow ( B i g e l o w , 1967); (c) The maximum s i z e of p r i n t recommended f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n 20 or grade one c h i l d r e n — 1 8 - p o i n t — h a s been adopted (De-chant, 1964); (d) The base of the t r i a n g l e c o r r e s p o n d s t o the d i a m e t e r of the bow and i s 2/16 of an i n c h wide t o pro.vide an a p p r o x i -mately b i l a t e r a l symmetry about a v e r t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d f i g u r e ; (e) The e n c l o s e d white dot i s 3/64 of an i n c h i n d i a m e t e r ; ( f ) I f a c h i l d i s a b l e to l e a r n t o d i s c r i m i n a t e the m o d i f i e d form of the l e t t e r s more r a p i d l y and a c c u r a t e l y than w i t h the c o n v e n t i o n a l form of the l e t t e r s the m o d i f i c a t i o n s are such t h a t they can be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y faded by p r o g r e s s i v e l y mailing the base of the t r i a n g l e s m a l l e r and s m a l l e r as the c h i l d i s taught t o d i s c r i m i n a t e the c o n v e n t i o n a l form. STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n (a) between the ages of if.6 and 5 '6 (b) who had a fundamental u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the concept of s i m i l a r i t y and ( c ) who were a b l e t o respond s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t o a match-to-sample format ( c o n t a i n i n g one s t i m u -l u s and one matching f i g u r e w i t h i n f o u r response c h o i c e s ) would make s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer e r r o r s , a t the .05 l e v e l , i n matching the l e t t e r s c| , b , p and Cj each w i t h i t s e l f (a) i f the s u b j e c t s had been p r e v i o u s l y r e i n f o r c e d to a t t e n d t o v e r t i c a l , h o r i z o n t a l or r o t a t i o n a l changes i n o r i e n t a t i o n and (b) i f the t r i a n g u l a r stemmed l e t t e r s were used, than they would make u s i n g the F u t u r a L i g h t G o t h i c type when each type was (a) 1 8-point, (b) b o l d b l a c k a g a i n s t a white f i n e - g r a i n mat and ( c ) the l e n g t h of the stem was t w i c e the d i a m e t e r o f the eye. CHAPTER I I I 21 METHOD OF EXPERIMENTATION SELECTION OF SUBJECTS I n the r e s e a r c h o f Ghent (1961), H e n d r i c k s o n (1962), Wohl-w i l l (1964), Popp (1964), Karraker (1968), H a l l (1968) and B l a i r (1969) the average ages s t u d i e d ranged from it.9 t o 5.6 y e a r s , males and females u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . The average number o f c h i l -d r e n per treatment group o b t a i n e d from p r e s c h o o l k i n d e r g a r t e n s and n u r s e r i e s was twenty. I n the p r e s e n t study f i f t y - t w o c h i l d r e n from ages if.6 t o 5«6 w i t h s i x months o r more of t y p i c a l k i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i e n c e were s e l e c t e d by the p r e t e s t s . F i v e o f these c h i l d r e n o b t a i n e d a sc o r e g r e a t e r than twenty out of t w e n t y - f o u r on the e r r o r base-r a t e t e s t and were e l i m i n a t e d from the sample because t h e i r g a i n s c o r e s on the tr e a t m e n t t e s t c o u l d be expected t o exceed the "maxi-mum sco r e p o s s i b l e . Seven c h i l d r e n were randomly e l i m i n a t e d from the sample t o o b t a i n the d e s i r e d t o t a l o f f o r t y s u b j e c t s who were a s s i g n e d t o the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups by the randomized b l o c k s d e s i g n ( d e s c r i b e d under s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s ) . . Three of these s u b j e c t s were u n a v a i l a b l e f o r the treatment t e s t . The b l o c k p a r t n e r s f o r two o f these s u b j e c t s were e l i m i n a t e d from the sample i n accordance w i t h the r u l e s f o r the randomized b l o c k s d e s i g n . The t r e a t m e n t t e s t s c o r e f o r one c o n t r o l female was p r e d i c t e d by r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s (see s t a t i s t i c a l methods). I n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s t h e r e were t h i r t y - s i x s u b j e c t s , e i g h t e e n males and 22 eighteen females with an equal number of each sex in the control and experimental groups. Only two children failed the pretests. The subjects were selected from four different kindergartens located within the working and middle class areas and the univer-sity of Br i t i sh Columbia d i s t r ic t so as to provide a broad sam-pling of the average preschool chi ld . TESTING FORMAT AND PROCEDURES Many experimenters who have tested preschool children have used the match to sample format in which the matching stimulus was contained within a number of different but similar response alternatives. Popp (1964), Blair (1969), Hendrickson (1962) and Wohlwill (1968) used a two response choice format; Ghent (196I) used ten response choices; Smith (1928) used 26 response alter-natives, while Davidson (1935) and Hall (1968) required a match of five identical letters within a forty letter matrix. Thus, on three of the four tests used in the present study a match to sample format was used with one matching stimulus within a matrix of four response alternatives. In i t i a l Screening Test Part One of the i n i t i a l screening test (Appendix A) in accord with the hypothesis selected subjects in terms of (a) their ab i l i ty to respond satisfactorily to a four choice match to sample format, and (b) a fundamental understanding of the con-cept of s imilari ty. 23 The t e s t was o r g a n i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. A c i r c l e , square, c r o s s and t r i a n g l e , each of e i g h t e e n p o i n t t y p e , were p r e -s e n t e d t o the s u b j e c t i n i n d i v i d u a l frames f o r a match t o sample response. The f i r s t t h r e e frames c o n s i s t e d of two response c h o i c e s ; the second t h r e e frames each had t h r e e response c h o i c e s , w h i l e the f o l l o w i n g e i g h t frames had f o u r response c h o i c e s each. F o r each-frame the s t i m u l u s used and the o r d e r o f i t s c o r r e s p o n -d i n g response c h o i c e s was random. A | O X • FIGURE U: Example of a Four Choice Match-to-Sample Frame The t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y and f o r each frame the s u b j e c t was r e q u i r e d t o u n d e r l i n e the m atching response c h o i c e as i n the diagram above. I f an i n c o r r e c t c h o i c e was made.in the f i r s t s i x frames, the s u b j e c t was i m m e d i a t e l y i n f o r m e d of h i s e r r o r , and the c o r r e c t response was i n d i c a t e d by the examiner. V e r b a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t was p r o v i d e d f o r c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . I n each case, o n l y the i n i t i a l response was r e c o r d e d . To q u a l i f y f o r f u r t h e r t e s t i n g , s u b j e c t s must have responded c o r r e c t l y t o at l e a s t s i x of the e i g h t , f o u r - c h o i c e frames. No r e i n f o r c e m e n t or feedback was p r o v i d e d f o r performance on the e i g h t q u a l i f y i n g 2 4 frames. I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g T e s t , P a r t 2 . (Appendix A) T h i s . t e s t , i n a c c o r d w i t h the h y p o t h e s i s , was d e s i g n e d t o i n t r o d u c e , f o c u s and r e i n f o r c e the s u b j e c t ' s a t t e n t i o n t o v e r t i c a l , h o r i z o n t a l and r o t a t i o n a l changes i n o r i e n t a t i o n . C o n s i d e r a b l e study was made to s e l e c t a s t i m u l u s t h a t would f u l f i l l the f o l l o w i n g r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h i s s e c t i o n of the s c r e e n i n g t e s t . (a) The s t i m u l u s had t o be such t h a t i t s o r i e n t a t i o n c o u l d be changed i n a v e r t i c a l , h o r i z o n t a l o r r o t a t i o n a l manner w h i l e each of i t s o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s remained the same. (b) The s t i m u l u s and i t s : o r i e n t a t i o n s had t o be more f a m i l i a r , m e a n i n g f u l and d i s c r i m i n a b l e to the s u b j e c t than the l e t t e r s O, p and C| y o r i e n t a t i o n ' cues must be ob v i o u s and f a m i l i a r . (c) The s t i m u l u s had t o be as s i m p l e as p o s s i b l e i n d e s i g n and d i s s i m i l a r t o e i t h e r the s t a n d a r d o r the m o d i f i e d l e t t e r s i? , d the t r e a t m e n t t e s t s I n f a v o u r of e i t h e r the s t a n d a r d or m o d i f i e d form of the l e t t e r s . (d) The s t i m u l u s and the t e s t i n g t a s k had to be such as to. f o c u s the s u b j e c t ' s a t t e n t i o n on r e l e v a n t cues of o r i e n t a t i o n and pe r -m i t the examiner t o p r o v i d e feedback and r e i n f o r c e m e n t to the s u b j e c t f o r r e s p o n d i n g i n the r e q u i r e d manner. E x t e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t v e r y few s t i m u l i would P and C| i n o r d e r not t o b i a s the s u b j e c t s l a t e r r e s p o n s e s on 25 f u l f i l l a l l of these r e q u i r e m e n t s . C h i l d r e n l e a r n a t an e a r l y age to d i s c r i m i n a t e the v a r i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n s of shoes and cups. However, the shoe i s too complex a s t i m u l u s t o a^cc^aXelj^'re^Tes&dt: graphically. I t i s too d i f f i c u l t t o d e p i c t the very s u b t l e o r i e n t a t i o n cues of a shoe t h a t a c h i l d — t h r o u g h f a m i l i a r i t y — i s a p p a r e n t l y a b l e t o p e r c e i v e . A cup, l i k e many o t h e r s t i m u l i , may be s i m p l y d e p i c t e d , but i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a re too s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e t o the l e t t e r s t i m u l i . An u p r i g h t cup f o r example i s not u n l i k e a P or ^ | , w h i l e u p s i d e down i t i s s i m i l a r t o a d or lo . Some f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s such as a t o o t h or h a i r b r u s h , a comb or a spoon can not be s u i t a b l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n each o f the d i f -f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s . The r e q u i r e m e n t s would seem t o be f u l f i l l e d — a s much as p o s s i b l e — b y the d e p i c t i o n o f a s i m p l e p r o f i l e o f a man's f a c e w i t h w e l l marked o r i e n t a t i o n cues. 9 Q © © F I G U R E 5: One-to-One Match-to-Sample S t i m u l i C h i l d r e n a re f a m i l i a r w i t h a human p r o f i l e , and the changes i n i t s o r i e n t a t i o n a r e m e a n i n g f u l to them. However, s i n c e t h e p r o f i l e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more complex i n d e t a i l than the l e t t e r s 26 b } d, p and CJ , i t might be more d i f f i c u l t i n a f o u r c h o i c e format t o d i s c r i m i n a t e changes i n o r i e n t a t i o n of the p r o f i l e t han i t would be to d i s c r i m i n a t e those of the l e t t e r s t i m u l i . To sim-p l i f y the t a s k , t o ^ f o e u s the c h i l d ' s a t t e n t i o n on r e l e v a n t o r i e n -t a t i o n cues, and t o p e r m i t immediate feedback and r e i n f o r c e m e n t , a one-to-one match t o sample format was s e l e c t e d . A sheet of w h i t e paper, e i g h t and o n e - h a l f by e l e v e n i n c h e s , w i t h e i g h t o n e - i n c h h i g h p r o f i l e s , each r e p r e s e n t i n g e i t h e r a v e r -t i c a l , h o r i z o n t a l or r o t a t i o n a l change i n o r i e n t a t i o n was p r e -sented i n d i v i d u a l l y t o each s u b j e c t . On each p r e s e n t a t i o n o n l y one p r o f i l e was v i s i b l e . The c h i l d was r e q u i r e d t o match t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of the s t i m u l u s p r o f i l e by manually r e o r i e n t i n g a response c a r d . T h i s c a r d , of c l e a r p l a s t i c , had a b l a c k b o r d e r s u r r o u n d i n g a p r o f i l e t h a t was i d e n t i c a l t o the s t i m u l u s p r o f i l e . The response p r o f i l e was e q u a l l y v i s i b l e from both s i d e s of the response c a r d (Appendix A ) . Each time t h a t the response c a r d was p r e s e n t e d t o the s u b j e c t , i t was v e r t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d w i t h the fa c e p o i n t i n g toward the s u b j e c t ; i n t h i s manner, i t was i n a d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h a t o f the s t i m u l u s p r o f i l e . The c h i l d was d i r e c t e d t o "make the p i c t u r e ( the response c a r d ) l o o k the same as t h i s p i c t u r e ( t h e s t i m u l u s p r o f i l e ) and to t e l l the examiner when he was f i n i s h e d . " The examiner t h e n in f o r m e d the s u b j e c t as t o whether h i s response was r i g h t o r wrong.. I f the response was not c o r r e c t , the examiner s a i d , "No, i n t h i s p i c t u r e ( s t i m u l u s ) the h a i r i s up ( o r down), or the nose p o i n t s t h i s way or t h a t way—make t h i s p i c t u r e l o o k the same as t h i s one." A l l c h i l d r e n c o n t i n u e d t o m a n i p u l a t e the response 2?... c a r d u n t i l I t was p r o p e r l y o r i e n t e d , they were then rewarded v e r -b a l l y and w i t h a s m a l l , r e a d i l y consumed candy. Base-Rate Test S u b j e c t s who reached c r i t e r i o n on p a r t one and who e v e n t u a l l y matched a l l p r o f i l e s on p a r t two of the i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g t e s t were i n d i v i d u a l l y p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e "base-rate t e s t (Appendix A ) . T h i s t e s t was used t o . e s t a b l i s h a b a s i c e r r o r r a t e f o r each sub-j e c t i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n s of t h e s t a n d a r d l e t -t e r s lo , d , p and C| i n 18-point type i n t w e n t y - f o u r , f o u r - t o -one match t o sample frames. There were s i x frames f o r each s t i m -u l u s f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l p e r m u t a t i o n s of the f o u r l e t t e r s . F o r each frame the s u b j e c t was r e q u i r e d t o u n d e r l i n e the response l e t t e r t h a t matched the s t i m u l u s l e t t e r . I FIGURE 6:'. Example of a Four-to-One E r r o r Base-Rate T e s t i n g Frame The s u b j e c t s were not p r o v i d e d w i t h any feedback or r e i n -forcement f o r t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . I n the case where a s u b j e c t changed h i s r e sponse, o n l y h i s f i r s t response was r e c o r d e d . The score f o r each t e s t was the t o t a l number o f . c o r r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s . 27 a I n terms o f t h e i r t o t a l s c o r e s on t h i s t e s t , s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d t o homogeneous groups and then randomly i n t o the e x p e r i -mental and c o n t r o l groups as per the randomised b l o c k s d e s i g n (see s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s ) . E x p e r i m e n t a l Test A l l s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d and a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r the e x p e r i -m ental or the c o n t r o l groups i n terms of the t o t a l number of c o r -r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s t h e y made on the e r r o r b a s e - r a t e t e s t . S i n c e a p e r i o d of one week or more i n t e r v e n e d between the e r r o r base-r a t e and the treatment t e s t s , b oth the e x p e r i m e n t a l and the con-t r o l s u b j e c t s were i n d i v i d u a l l y p r o v i d e d w i t h a r e f r e s h e r ex-p e r i e n c e . The r e f r e s h e r i m m e d i a t e l y preceded the t r e a t m e n t t e s t s and was comprised of f o u r frames o f b o t h p a r t s one and two o f the i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g t e s t s . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e was d e s i g n e d to r e -f a m i l i a r i z e the s u b j e c t s w i t h the f o u r - t o - o n e response c h o i c e format, and to r e i n f o r c e them a g a i n f o r a t t e n d i n g to o r i e n t a t i o n cues. The same t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s were used here as p r e v i o u s l y . F o l l o w i n g the r e f r e s h e r e x p e r i e n c e the c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s were i n d i v i d u a l l y g i v e n an a d d i t i o n a l t w e n t y - f o u r frames o f the s t a n -dard l e t t e r s i d e n t i c a l t o the e r r o r b a s e - r a t e t e s t . The e x p e r i -mental group was p r e s e n t e d w i t h a t e s t i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f the c o n t r o l group except t h a t the m o d i f i e d symbols were used i n p l a c e of the s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s . No feedback or r e i n f o r c e m e n t was p r o -v i d e d f o r the s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o these t e s t s . I f the s u b j e c t c o r r e c t e d h i s response, o n l y h i s f i r s t r e s p onse was s c o r e d . The t o t a l s c o r e f o r each t e s t w a s t he t o t a l number of c o r r e c c r i m i n a t i o n s . 29 CHAPTER IV STATISTICAL PROCEDURES AND RESULTS RANDOMIZED BLOCKS DESIGN Assignment of the s u b j e c t s t o the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups i n terms of t h e i r s c o r e s on the b a s e - r a t e t e s t ( t o t a l num-ber of c o r r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s ) f o l l o w e d the methods p r e s c r i b e d f o r the randomized b l o c k s d e s i g n as d e s c r i b e d by Edwards (1968). 1. S u b j e c t s were rank o r d e r e d from low t o h i g h s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on the e r r o r b a s e - r a t e t e s t . 2. The r a n k - o r d e r e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of f o r t y s u b j e c t s was t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o twenty b l o c k s of two s u b j e c t s each. 3. The s u b j e c t s w i t h i n each of the twenty b l o c k s were then r a n -domly a s s i g n e d t o the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups (one sub-j e c t from each b l o c k t o each group w i t h a t o t a l of twenty sub-j e c t s per g r o u p ) . 4 . Where a s u b j e c t was not a v a i l a b l e f o r the t r e a t m e n t r e t e s -t i n g , as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , b o t h he and h i s b l o c k p a r t n e r were e l i m i n a t e d from the sample. I n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s t h e r e were t h i r t y - s i x s u b j e c t s d i v i d e d i n two's i n t o e i g h t e e n b l o c k s . A c c o r d i n g to Edwards, s u b j e c t s a s s i g n e d t o e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups by the above method " w i l l be more homogeneous on t h e i r response t o the dependent v a r i a b l e i n the absence of t r e a t -ment e f f e c t s than s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d c o m p l e t e l y a t random." A l s o , 30 he s t a t e s t h a t "by t a k i n g i n t o account the d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g between b l o c k s i n the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e " i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t a s m a l l e r e r r o r mean square w i l l be o b t a i n e d f o r t h e same number of o b s e r v a t i o n s than i f a randomized group d e s i g n had been used ;(Edwards, p. 155-1%, 1 9 6 8 ) . " GAIN SCORES In each of the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s the term g a i n s c o r e i s d e f i n e d as the t o t a l number of c o r r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s on the treatment t e s t ( c o n t r o l o r e x p e r i m e n t a l ) minus the t o t a l number of c o r r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s on the e r r o r b a s e - r a t e t e s t . A g a i n s c o r e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s u b j e c t . F o r c o n t r o l group sub-j e c t s g a i n s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d as the d i f f e r e n c e between th e t o t a l number of c o r r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s on two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s of the same t e s t . For the e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s , g a i n s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d from the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on two d i f f e r e n t t e s t s . The e r r o r b a s e - r a t e t e s t used s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s of t h e a l p h a b e t w h i l e the e x p e r i m e n t a l t e s t , a l t h o u g h i d e n t i c a l i n a l l o t h e r r e s p e c t s , used the m o d i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s . G e n e r a l l y g a i n s c o r e s are c a l c u l a t e d as the d i f f e r e n c e be-tween the t o t a l number of c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s o b t a i n e d on a p r e -t e s t and on a post t e s t . These t e s t s are e i t h e r i d e n t i c a l o r p a r a l l e l t o each o t h e r . U s u a l l y the s u b j e c t i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a treatment e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i n t e r v e n e s between the two t e s t s and the g a i n s c o r e i s c a l c u l a t e d t o i n d i c a t e the e f f e c t of the t r e a t -ment on subsequent p e r f o r m a n c e — t h e p o s t t e s t . The p r e s e n t experiment i s not d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the s u b j e c t ' s performance f o l l o w i n g the t r e a t m e n t , but r a t h e r d u r i n g the t r e a t m e n t . The e x p e r i m e n t a l t e s t u s i n g the m o d i f i e d symbols a c t s as both the treatment e x p e r i e n c e and the post t e s t . The h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of the l e t t e r s lo , d , p and C| w i l l be more a c c u r a t e 'when the m o d i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s are used than when the s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s a r e used. Thus, i n the p r e -sent experiment, i t was j u s t i f i e d t o c a l c u l a t e a g a i n s c o r e by s u b t r a c t i n g the t o t a l number of c o r r e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s o b t a i n e d when the s t a n d a r d symbols were used from the t o t a l number of c o r -r e c t r e s p o n s e s o b t a i n e d when the m o d i f i e d symbols were used. REGRESSION ANALYSIS To p r e d i c t the treatment s c o r e f o r a c o n t r o l female, un-a v a i l a b l e f o r r e t e s t i n g , the U.B.C. 360 computer program TRIP ( t r i a n g u l a r r e g r e s s i o n package) was employed. The p r e - , p o s t - , .and g a i n s c o r e data, was used i n the INMSDIC and the SIMREG sub-r o u t i n e s . From the f i r s t r o u t i n e p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i -c i e n t s , means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d , and from the A second r o u t i n e a s i m p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n i n the form y = a + bX was computed from the c o r r e l a t i o n a r r a y . DATA ANALYSIS A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of the tr e a t m e n t and b l o c k s e f f e c t was t e s t e d by Dr. Seong-S. Lee's a d a p t a t i o n t o the U.B.C. 3 6 0 computer of the BMD08V a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e program f o r any h i e r a r c h i c a l d e s i g n w i t h e q u a l c e l l s i z e s . E x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g a i n s c o r e s over e i g h t e e n b l o c k s or l e v e l s were a n a l y s e d i n the complete f a c t o r i a l model where both b l o c k s and t r e a t m e n t s are independent v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g the dependent v a r i a b l e , g a i n s c o r e . TABLE I SUMMARY OF TREATMENT-BLOCKS ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE Score of V a r i a n c e Sum of Squares d. f . MS F Treatments 1 2 1 . 0 0 1 1 2 1 . 0 0 7 . 5 3 B l o c k s 2 3 4 . 2 2 1 7 1 3 . 7 8 Treatment x B l o c k s 2 7 3 - 0 0 1 7 1 6 . 0 6 TOTAL 6 2 8 . 2 2 3 5 A n a l y s i s of thes e r e s u l t s shows that the treatment e f f e c t i s s i g n i f i c a n t ( c< < . 0 5 ) . The d a t a from Table I I i s summarized i n the graph i n F i g u r e 7 . E x a m i n a t i o n of the graph r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e i s an apparent b l o c k e f f e c t . The g a i n s c o r e s f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups were pooled to o b t a i n an average g a i n s c o r e f o r each of the n i n e p a i r s of b l o c k s . I n s p e c t i o n of the graph r e v e a l s t h a t a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r average g a i n was made by c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s who had o b t a i n e d the l o w e s t s c o r e s on the p r e t e s t ( b l o c k s 1 - 6 ) . I t would appear t h a t p r a c t i c e w i t h e i t h e r the s t a n d a r d or the m o d i f i e d l e t t e r s had r e s u l t e d i n improvement i n d i s c r i m i n a t i o n TABLE I I EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GAIN SCORES OVER BLOCKS AND PAIRS OF BLOCKS; AVERAGE GAIN SCORES EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL Average Ga i n Scores P a i r s of Gain Scores Gain Scores B l o c k s Exp. Cont. B l o c k s Exp. Cont. Exp. + Cont. 1 6;-o 3.0 -2 6.0 3.0 1,2 6.0 3.0 4.5 3 8.0 0.0 L 0.0 1.0 • 3 ,if 4.0 0.5 2.25 3 9.0 6.0. 6 -2 .0 0.0 5,6 3.5 3.0 3.25 7 -2 .0 0.0 8 -2 .0 2.0 7,8 - 2 . 0 1.0 - 0 . 5 9 1.0 -if.O 10 11.0 -1.0 9.10 6.0 -2.5 1.75 11 8.0 - 3 . 0 . 12 1.0 " - i f . 0 11,12 4.5 -3 .5 0.5 13 1.0 -1.0 14 9.0 - 3 . 0 13,14 5.0 - 2 . 0 1.5 15 1.0 - 2 . 0 16 -1.0 7.0 15,16 0.0 2.5 I . 2 5 17 7.0 - 3 . 0 18 4.o -2 .0 17,18 5.5 -2.5 . 1.5 3k FIGURE 7: E x p e r i m e n t a l , C o n t r o l , and Average Gain Score Means over P a i r s of B l o c k s 35 by these s u b j e c t s . I n b l o c k s 1-If the e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s u s i n g the m o d i f i e d symbols have improved two t o f o u r t i m e s as much as the c o n t r o l subjects.. • At l e a s t p a r t of the g a i n f o r b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s i n b l o c k s 1-6 might be e x p l a i n e d by the r e g r e s s i o n t o the mean e f f e c t where s u b j e c t s who sco r e a t the extremes of a t e s t tend t o have s c o r e s c l o s e r t o the mean when r e t e s t e d on the same or a p a r a l l e l t e s t . The r e g r e s s i o n e f f e c t might a l s o e x p l a i n , a t least i n p a r t , why the c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s i n b l o c k s 17 and 18 ob-t a i n e d an average g a i n s c o r e of minus t h r e e p o i n t s on the po s t t e s t . The same e x p l a n a t i o n , however, w i l l not h o l d f o r the ex-p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s i n the b l o c k s 17 and 18 who averaged a g a i n o f p l u s 5 .5 p o i n t s on the p o s t t e s t . The f a c t t h a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l s c o r e s i n b l o c k s 17 and 18 do not r e g r e s s t o the mean, p l u s the f a c t t h a t w h i l e the e x p e r i m e n t a l "subjects i n b l o c k s 9-14 show a h i g h p o s i t i v e g a i n t h e ' c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s i n the same b l o c k s show a low n e g a t i v e g a i n would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t a t l e a s t one o t h e r f a c t o r i s h a v i n g a d i f f e r e n -t i a l e f f e c t upon c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s . The n o v e l t y of the modified, c h a r a c t e r s or the l a c k of n o v e l t y of the s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s may account f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t . No apparent e x p l a n a t i o n can be found to e x p l a i n . e i t h e r the n e g a t i v e or z e r o , e x p e r i m e n t a l g a i n s i n r e s p e c t i v e l y the 7, 8 and 15} 16 b l o c k s , nor the p o s i t i v e g a i n by the c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s i n b l o c k s 15 and 16. I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t may be s t a t e d t h a t the r e g r e s s i o n e f f e c t i s most pronounced f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s i n 36 b l o c k s 1-6j and. f o r t h e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s i n b l o c k s 17 and 18. P r a c t i c e w i t h e i t h e r t h e s t a n d a r d or the m o d i f i e d symbols may a c c o u n t f o r t h e g a i n s i n b l o c k s 1-6. I t appear s t h a t the n o v e l t y o f t h e m o d i f i e d symbols and t h e l a c k o f n o v e l t y o f the s t a n d a r d sj/mbols may a c c o u n t i n p a r t f o r t h e v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s i n b l o c k s 9-14 and i n b l o c k s 17 and 18. I n any c a s e , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d have had a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t a t v a r i -ous p r e t e s t ach ievement l e v e l s and have e s s e n t i a l l y d i v i d e d the sample i n t o s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t s u b g r o u p s . A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e . A s i m p l e t - t e s t was c a l c u l a t e d t o t e s t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between male s and f e m a l e s on t h e p r e t e s t , and i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ( D a v i d s o n , 1935; A l e x a n d e r and Money, I 9 6 0 ; and B l a i r , 1969). No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found a t the .05 l e v e l . As a f i n a l a n a l y s i s o f the e f f e c t s o f t r e a t m e n t and sex upon g a i n s c o r e s the p o s t - t e s t means were a d j u s t e d f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e t e s t means u s i n g the U . B . C . i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e BMDX69 M u l t i v a r i a t e . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e and C o v a r i a n c e computer program u s i n g t h e f a c t o r i a l w i t h r e p l i c a t i o n s d e s i g n . I n t h i s d e s i g n , t r e a t m e n t ( c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l ) and sex a re t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w i t h g a i n s c o r e the dependent v a r i a b l e w i t h n i n e r e p l i c a t i o n s w i t h i n each c e l l . . A g a i n the F - v a l u e f o r t r e a t m e n t a f t e r a d j u s t m e n t f o r p r e -t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .025 l e v e l , w h i l e the e f f e c t s o f s ex and the i n t e r a c t i o n between t r e a t m e n t and sex i s 3 7 not s i g n i f i c a n t at the . 2 5 l e v e l . Thus, i t may be s t a t e d t h a t the performance of both males and females was improved through the use of the m o d i f i e d symbols, and t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the performance of males and females whether they were i n the c o n t r o l or e x p e r i m e n t a l groups. TABLE I I I EFFECTS OF TREATMENT AND SEX UPON POST TEST SCORES; .SUMMARY ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE Source of V a r i a n c e Sum of Squares d.f . MS F Treatment Sex Treatment x Sex R e p l i c a t i o n s (T x S) C o v a r I a t e 1 2 2 . 0 9 = 1 1 6 . 8 0 2 . 7 8 4 7 5 . 2 6 4 1 6 . 9 6 .1 • l . 1 '• 3 1 ' " 1 ' 1 2 2 . 0 9 1 6 . 8 0 2 . 7 8 1 5 . 3 3 4 1 6 . 9 - 6 7 . 9 6 * 1 . 1 0 0 . 1 8 2 7 . 2 0 TOTAL 1 0 3 3 . 8 9 3 5 f i 4 = . 6 3 where X = p r e t e s t ( c o v a r i a t e ) y = post t e s t * o<< . 0 5 TABLE IV CELL MEANS AND ADJUSTED MANS C e l l Means Mean . Adjusted. Means Mean Males Females Males F emales E x p e r i m e n t a l 16.22 14.11 15.16 16.08 14.16 15.12 C o n t r o l 11.89 10.89 11.39 11.84 11.03 11.44 Mean 14.05 12.50 13-96 12.59 51 CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS From the r e s u l t s o f the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s i t may be con-c l u d e d i n accordance w i t h the l i m i t a t i o n s s t a t e d i n the hypothe-s i s t h a t the average k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d , male or female, between the ages of if.6 and 5«6 made s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer e r r o r s i n d i s -c r i m i n . a t i n g the l e t t e r s ID , cj , p and C| when the m o d i f i e d c h a r a c t e r s were used than when the s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s were used. C o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d by p r e t e s t s . The f i r s t t e s t assessed, t h e i r fundamental u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the concept of s i m i l a r i t y and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o respond s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t o a f o u r - t o - o n e , match-to-sample format. T h i s format c o n t a i n e d one s t i m u l u s and one ma t c h i n g f i g u r e w i t h i n f o u r response a l t e r -n a t i v e s each d e p i c t i n g e i t h e r .a h o r i z o n t a l , v e r t i c a l , o r r o t a -t i o n a l change i n o r i e n t a t i o n of the s t i m u l u s f i g u r e . The second t e s t comprised a t e s t i n g - t r a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n which the s u b j e c t was r e i n f o r c e d f o r a t t e n d i n g t o o r i e n t a t i o n cues as he manually r e o r i e n t e d a response f i g u r e t o match v a r i o u s l y o r i e n t e d s t i m u -l u s f i g u r e s . A t h i r d t e s t , the e r r o r b a s e - r a t e t e s t , used the f o u r - t o - o n e , match-to-sample format t o e s t a b l i s h b a s e - l i n e e r r o r r a t e f o r each s u b j e c t d i s c r i m i n a t i n g the l e t t e r s lo , d , p and .CJ. I n terms of s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on the e r r o r b a s e - r a t e t e s t s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d t o the c o n t r o l o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups by the randomized b l o c k s d e s i g n . The t r e a t m e n t f o r the c o n t r o l group comprised a r e a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n of the e r r o r b a s e - r a t e t e s t . The tr e a t m e n t f o r the 39 e x p e r i m e n t a l group was i d e n t i c a l t o the c o n t r o l t r eatment except t h a t the m o d i f i e d symbols were used. The s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s were F u t u r a L i g h t G o t h i c t y p e , 1 ' 8 -p o i n t , b o l d b l a c k a g a i n s t a w h i t e f i n e - g r a i n mat. The l e n g t h of the stem was extended to t w i c e the d i a m e t e r of the eye. The m o d i f i e d l e t t e r s were i d e n t i c a l t o the s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s except f o r the stem. The stem of the m o d i f i e d l e t t e r s was a s o l i d b l a c k , r i g h t - a n g l e t r i a n g l e w i t h the s m a l l e s t a n g l e i n the h i g h e s t p o s i -t i o n , the r i g h t - a n g l e was i n the lower l e f t - h a n d c o r n e r , and the base of the t r i a n g l e was e q u a l t o the diameter of the eye of the l e t t e r . A s m a l l w h i t e c i r c l e was imbedded i n the n i n e t y -degree a n g l e . I t was f u r t h e r apparent from the a n a l y s i s t h a t t h e r e was an apparent b l o c k e f f e c t t h a t d i v i d e s the sample i n t o s e v e r a l sub-groups. A r e g r e s s i o n e f f e c t i s apparent f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s who had o b t a i n e d low s c o r e s on the e r r o r base-r a t e t e s t , and f o r c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s who had o b t a i n e d h i g h s c o r e s on the e r r o r b a s e - r a t e t e s t . P r a c t i c e w i t h e i t h e r the s t a n d a r d or the m o d i f i e d symbols may account f o r the g a i n s among p r e v i o u s l y low s c o r i n g s u b j e c t s . The n o v e l t y of the m o d i f i e d symbols and the l a c k of n o v e l t y of the s t a n d a r d symbols may account i n p a r t f o r t h e v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t upon c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s w i t h i n the m i d d l e and upper range! of b l o c k s . No s i g n i -f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between the performance of males and females on e i t h e r the p r e t e s t or the p o s t t e s t . RESERVATIONS IN INTERPRETATION, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Be f o r e the m o d i f i e d symbols can be adopted i n any e d u c a t i o n a l , r e m e d i a l or p r e v e n t i t i v e measure t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t must be made. 1. Vernon (1963) r e p o r t e d t h a t f i g u r e - g r o u n d c o n t r a s t , and s e r -i a l v a r i a t i o n o r i n c o n g r u i t y of v i s u a l s t i m u l i f o c u s s e d one's a t t e n t i o n upon the c o n t r a s t i n g o r n o v e l s t i m u l u s . H e n d r i c k s o n (1962) emphasized the importance o f a t t e n t i o n i n the d i s c r i m i n a l p r o c e s s o f d e t e c t i n g d i r e c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the l e t t e r s b,d,p and q. A l t h o u g h no measurements were ta k e n i t was apparent d u r i n g the tre a t m e n t t e s t s t h a t s u b j e c t s g i v e n the m o d i f i e d sym-b o l s f o c u s s e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n more f u l l y upon the t a s k and had a l o n g e r l a t e n c y of response than s u b j e c t s u s i n g the s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s . Thus, the q u e s t i o n must be asked what p o s s i b l e r o l e d i d the f a c t o r s (a) d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a t t r i b u t e s of the m o d i f i e d sym-b o l s , (b) boredom w i t h r e p e a t e d use of the s t a n d a r d symbols, and (c) n o v e l t y of the m o d i f i e d symbols, i n d i v i d u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e t o the s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s c o r e on the r e t e s t u s i n g the m o d i f i e d symbols? 2. Were the m o d i f i e d symbols p e r c e i v e d of by the s u b j e c t s as m o d i f i e d l e t t e r s o f the a l p h a b e t ? I f the answer i s no, c o u l d c h i l d r e n be taught t o p e r c e i v e them as such? I f so, c o u l d l e a r n - ' i n g w i t h the m o d i f i e d symbols be t r a n s f e r r e d t o the use of the 41 s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s through the method re c o m m e n d e d — p r o g r e s s i v e s h o r t e n i n g of the base of the t r i a n g l e ? 3. I s the d e s i g n of the m o d i f i e d symbols such as t o promote maximum p o s i t i v e change t o the g r e a t e s t number and v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t s ? Should the w i d t h of the base of the t r i a n g l e , or the d i a m e t e r of the imbedded dot be changed? 4. Can the t a s k i n v o l v i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of l e t t e r s w i t h i n a f o u r - t o - o n e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e format be g e n e r a l i z e d to the d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n of the m o d i f i e d symbols w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a word? Would t h e i r be a c o n f o u n d i n g e f f e c t from or upon a d j a c e n t l e t t e r s ? 3. Two c h i l d r e n were e l i m i n a t e d by p a r t I o f the p r e t e s t . They f a i l e d t o r e a c h the c r i t e r i o n of s i x or more c o r r e c t d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n s out of the e i g h t q u a l i f y i n g frames of f o u r response a l t e r n a t i v e s each. A p p a r e n t l y these c h i l d r e n e i t h e r d i d not have s u f f i c i e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the concept of ''sameness5' and/or were unable to respond t o the f o u r - t o - o n e match t o sample m a t r i x . I t would seem l i k e l y t h a t c h i l d r e n i n t h i s c a t e g o r y would have the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g o r i e n t a t i o n a l changes and f u t u r e - r e s e a r c h s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y f o c u s upon r e m e d i a t i n g t h e i r problems. These q u e s t i o n s and o t h e r s can o b v i o u s l y be answered o n l y through f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . As mentioned e a r l i e r a r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e has not r e v e a l e d t h a t such stud5r has been conducted 41a upon the I.T.A. or the Words i n C o l o r a l p h a b e t s . When c o n s i d e r -i n g the number of problems t h a t l e a r n i n g to r e a d p r e s e n t s t o a young c h i l d , and t h a t the a b i l i t y t o r e a d w e l l i s fundamental t o p r o g r e s s i n the f o r m a l academic p r o c e s s — f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h of t h i s n a t u r e i s c e r t a i n l y mandatory. 42 REFERENCES ALEXANDER, D., MONEY, J . Reading D i s a b i l i t y and the Problems of D i r e c t i o n Sense. The Reading Teacher (1967), p, AOA - A 0 9 . BIGELOW, M. A l p h a b e t s and D e s i g n s . M i n n e a p o l i s , Minnesota. Burgess P u b l i s h i n g Co., 196?. BLAIR, J.R. V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : Lower Case L e t t e r C o n f u s i o n . E r i c . M i c r o f i c h e : ED 029770. Sept., 1969. CHALL, J . L e a r n i n g t o Read: The Great Debate. M c G r a w - H i l l , 1967. ' COVELL, H.M. See Me Go. Toronto. Ryerson P r e s s , 1966. DAVIDSON, H.P. A Study of the C o n f u s i n g L e t t e r s B, D, P and Q. J o u r n a l o f G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y . V. 47, 1935, p. 485-468. DECHANT, E.V. Improving the Teaching of Reading. P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1964. DEMBER, W.N. Psy c h o l o g y of P e r c e p t i o n . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Win-s t o n , 19£>5. EDWARDS, A.L. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods (2nd. E d i t i o n ) , H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 196o\ EDWARDS, A.L. E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l R esearch (3rd, EdltTonTT H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 19^ FT" GHENT, L. R e c o g n i t i o n by C h i l d r e n of R e a l i s t i c F i g u r e s P r e s e n t e d i n V a r i o u s O r i e n t a t i o n s . Canadian J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g y . V. 14, p. 2A9-256,.I960. " GHENT, L. I n f l u e n c e of the O r i e n t a t i o n of Geometric Forms on T h e i r R e c o g n i t i o n by C h i l d r e n . P e r c e p t u a l and Motor S k i l l s . V. 12, p. 95-101, 1961. GHENT, L. Form and I t s O r i e n t a t i o n : A C h i l d ' s - E y e View. Ameri-can J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g y . V. 74? p. 177-190, 1961. GHENT, L. E f f e c t s o f O r i e n t a t i o n on R e c o g n i t i o n of Geometric Forms by Retarded C h i l d r e n . C h i l d Development. V. 35> p. 1127-1136. GIBSON, E . J . A Developmental Study of the D i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f L e t t e r - L i k e Forms. J o u r n a l o f Comparative and P h y s i o l o -g i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . V. 55, p . 897-90T7 19^2. GIBSON, E . J . The Ontogeny of Reading. American P s y c h o l o g i s t . V. 25, No. 2, p. 136-143, 1970. " ~ "~~ 43 HALL, V.C. V a r i a b l e s A f f e c t i n g the Performance of Young C h i l d r e n on a L e t t e r D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Task. E r i c . M i c r o f i c h e : ED 020797, May, 1968. HENDRICKSON, . The E f f e c t s o f A t t e n t i o n and Motor Response P r e t r a i n i n g on L e a r n i n g t o D i s c r i m i n a t e B and D i n K i n d e r -g a r t e n C h i l d r e n . 1962. KARRAKER, R. J . Teaching B e g i n n i n g Readers t o D i s c r i m i n a t e Be-tween S i m i l a r L e t t e r s of the A l p h a b e t . E r i c . M i c r o f i c h e : ED 020860, March, 1968. McANINCH, H. I n v e s t i g a t i o n of R e c o g n i t i o n V a r i a n c e of P e r c e p t u a l S t i m u l i A s s o c i a t e d w i t h Reading P r o f i c i e n c y . E r i c . M i c r o f i c h e : ED 030552, Oct., 1969. MONEY, J . The D i s a b l e d Reader. The Johns Hopkins P r e s s , 1966. OSGOOD, C.E. Method and Theory i n E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1964. POPP, H.M. V i s u a l D i s c r i m i n a t i o n of Al p h a b e t L e t t e r s . The Reading Teacher, p. 221-225, J a n . , 1964-POTEET, J.A. R o t a t i o n or R e v e r s a l ? A Proposed D e f i n i t i o n . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n . V o l . 34, No. 10, 1968. RUDEL, R.G. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n of D i r e c t i o n o f L i n e i n C h i l d r e n , J o u r n a l of Comparative and P h y s i o l o g i c a l P s y c h o l o g y . I l l _ I I ' I II I Jir ' 111 .11 " __ I |'- •' ' . . . . L../IJ . V o l . 56, No. 5, p7 892-B9B, 19o3. SANFORD, E.C. The R e l a t i v e L e g i b i l i t y of the Small L e t t e r s . American J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y . V. 1, p. 402-435, May, m y : ^ ^ L -SMITH, H.K. P e r c e p t i o n and Reading. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading Assoc., 1968. TINKER, M.A. The R e l a t i v e L e g i b i l i t y o f the L e t t e r s , the D i g i t s , and of C e r t a i n M a t h e m a t i c a l S i g n s . J o u r n a l of G e n e r a l  P s y c h o l o g y . V. 1, p. 472-493, J u l y - O c t . , 1928. TIMER, M.A. L e g i b i l i t y of P r i n t . Iowa S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. UHR, L. E d i t o r : P a t t e r n R e c o g n i t i o n . VERNON, M.D. The P s y c h o l o g y o f P e r c e p t i o n . Penguin, 1963. VERNON, M.D. Experiments i n V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n . Penguin, 1963. WOHLWILL, J.F. D i s c r i m i n a t i o n of Form O r i e n t a t i o n i n Young C h i l d r e n . C h i l d Development. V. 35, p. 1113-1125, 1964* ZACHRISSON, B. S t u d i e s i n the L e g i b i l i t y of P r i n t e d T e x t . A l m q v i s t W i k s e l l s , . B o k t r y c k e r i Ab. U p s a l a , 1963. COMPUTER PROGRAMS B J E E R I N G , J . H . I m p l i m e n t a t i o n o f the T R I P ( t r i a n g u l a r Regres-s i o n Package) on the U.B.C. 3oO Computer. JACKSON, S. I m p l i m e n t a t i o n of the U.C.L.A. BMDX69 M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e and C o v a r i a n c e Program on the U.B.C. 360 Computer. LEE, S.S. I m p l i m e n t a t i o n of the U.C.L.A. B M D O 8 4 Analysis of V a r i a n c e Program on the U.B.C. 360 Computer. APPENDIX A INSTRUMENTS I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g Test P a r t I n i t i a l S c r e e n i n g Test P a r t E r r o r Base-Rate and C o n t r o l Treatment Test E x p e r i m e n t a l Treatment Test fMTML SCREEN/NG TEST PT.1 1 • s •I" A • 2 A|A H- • • A • + • A • °i • A n A |A • • i -S A |A • • a A • S + • • • A • o • A • • MMF ACE •• SEX SCHOOL INITIAL SCREENING TEST PART 11 J. 7 IV) — Q_ CT Q_ _Q -X) Q_ ~D c r ~D c r ~0 Q_ _Q Q_ c r Q_ c r _Q ~D D~ _Q _Q a _ a _ _Q c r D_ Q_ " 0 c r c r ~D "T5 _Q Q_ c r ~D Q_ ~5 - Q c r ~T3 ~D Q_ to VM OB - J m cr _Q ~0 _Q " 0 cr cr ~D _Q Q_ ~0 _Q cr ~D cr _ o cr cr _Q cr cr _Q ~~0 "0 Q_ -Q cr Q_ a_ _Q _o _Q o_ cr ~0 a_ Q_ _Q cr cr cr cr _Q CROSS-OUT EITHER: ERROR BASE- RATE TE<ST4 CONTROL TREATMENT A/A ME AG£_j_ SEX SCHOOL 5. 6. 1. 6. II. 12. d P b ^ I P d b p K b P d b l b d P p | b d P d i c k P b d P o l d P b d b P b I d b P d l b P d ^ I P b d 13 14 15 16 17 16 i d 20 21 22 25 24 p K p b d dlb p d At d b p d b i d p b b u p d b pip d b p d b p b d p P | P b d H P b d b i d b p k 

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