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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Goals and their realization in planning and building an instant town : Gold River Lozovsky, Nicolas 1970

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GOALS AND THEIR REALIZATION IN PLANNING AND BUILDING AN INSTANT TOWN: GOLD RIVER by NICOLAS LOZOVSKI Diplome d 1Architecte, ALBA, Lebanon, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF ' MASTER IN ARCHITECTURE i n the School of Architecture We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f A r c h i t e c t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date A p r i l . 1970 ABSTRACT The development of resources has always been one of the important factors of Canadian economy. As Canada's resource and i n d u s t r i a l f r o n t i e r extends further to the north, l a s t i n g and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t communities have become increasingly d i f -f i c u l t to create. The f i r s t settlements were not permanent and the inhabitants' needs and demands were limited. With time needs and demands evolved and became more complex i n nature. The evolution of such settlements from camps, through company towns, to incorporated towns can be traced i n terms of these demands and needs. Instant resource towns, unlike, camps or company towns, are the r e s u l t of a rather complicated planning process. The goal formulation of this process i s much more complex, involving many external factors. Goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n , especially where e x p l i c i t goals are concerned, becomes not only a function of the c r i t e r i a set, or the needs of the inhabitants, but also of the d i f f e r e n t needs and interests of each of the in d i v i d u a l planning and policy making bodies. The purpose of this thesis i s to examine the process involved i n the creation of Gold River, an instant town. The planning and building processes w i l l be examined i n order to determine the discrepancies between the goals specified, both, e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t , i n the planning process and the f i n a l product. The aim of the study i s , therefore, to analyse the d i f f e r e n t . . i i circumstances and factors that lead to the creation of Gold River and the philosophy of the diff e r e n t people who contributed to i t . The planning process, concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y with Gold River, i s analysed. An attempt i s made to differenciate between the di f f e r e n t e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t goals of each of the i n d i -vidual planning bodies involved. Through the analysis of this process, both, positive and negative results are studied. The method of study consists of a comparison of goals expressed i n the planning process, by:;the di f f e r e n t bodies interested, with the results achieved. Such comparison w i l l allow the author to determine to what extent some of the goals have been achieved and w i l l show how the performance of the physical environment relates to the expectations. The study i s based on the results of a questionnaire gathered on a f i e l d t r i p to the town. The goals of the diff e r e n t planning bodies were determined by interviewing the parties concerned and by analysing published pamphlets concerning Gold River development. The study also describes Gold River i n i t s di f f e r e n t aspects as the author saw i t from dir e c t observation and from information obtained from other sources. Furthermore, an evaluation of the physical, economic and s o c i a l aspects of the town i n terms of user s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was derived from the questionnaire. The analysis and evaluation of achievements reveals some of the causes of user d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , high population turnover and i n s t a b i l i t y to be inherent i n the planning process. Achieve-ments are considered from the point of view of both: the di f f e r e n t planning bodies and the inhabitants. The conclusions support the hypotheses that: - Discrepancies between the inhabitants' expectations of the town and the actual r e a l i t y have profound s o c i a l implications. - Goal misinterpretation and p a r t i a l r e a l i z a t i o n i s due to lack of communication between the di f f e r e n t bodies involved i n the planning process. - In the planning process goals should be expressed e x p l i c i t l y and c l e a r l y . The study has also shown that the problem of i s o l a t i o n , lack of d i v e r s i t y , population turnover and, lack of growth, which plagued resource towns i n the past, s t i l l are major problems i n the incorporated, ultramodern, instant town of Gold River. This indicates that i n the planning for such towns: - The size and density of the community should be taken into consideration. - Growth and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of industries, as factors necessary to make a place l a s t i n g and l i v a b l e , should be kept i n mind. - It should be emphasized that the s t a b i l i t y of a community i s a function of the population turnover. - It i s necessary to provide for substantial recreational f a c i l i t i e s . The phenomenon of Instant towns i s a recent innovation i n this province and should be better understood and thus improved. This study i s an attempt to contribute to a better understanding of the factors involved i n the creation of such a town and therefore may be instrumental i n the creation of other, better towns. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ..i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF DIAGRAMS v i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x Chapter I. RESOURCE COMMUNITIES 1 A. Basic Problems of Resource Communities B. Evolution of Settlements and Legi s l a t i o n C. Instant Towns - A Step Ahead of Company Towns II . THE DETERMINATION OF GOALS 18 A. The Planning Process as the Expression of Different P r i o r i t i e s B. Goal C r i t e r i a C. The Reality of Goal Formulation I I I . STATEMENT OF GOALS IN THE PLANNING OF GOLD RIVER 34 A. Implicit and E x p l i c i t Goals B. Description of the Planning Process IV. DESCRIPTION OF GOLD RIVER 82 A. The Physical Layout of the Town B. Analysis of the Community and Its Different Aspects V. EVALUATION OF RESULTS 145 A. The Questionnaire and i t s Interpretation B. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and i t s Reasons C. Analysis of Achievements VI. CONCLUSION 176 A. Goals versus Achievements B. Modification of the Planning Process C. General Suggestions BIBLIOGRAPHY 199 APPENDIX 205 v i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. Tabulation of Implicit and E x p l i c i t Goals 56A I I . Tabulation of Responses to the Questionnaire 167A II I . Evaluation of Total and P a r t i a l Achievement 181A v i i LIST OF DIAGRAMS Diagram Page,: 1. The P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 20 2. The R e a l i t y o f G o al F o r m u l a t i o n 32 3. Government's Goal S p e c i f i c a t i o n 37 4. Company's Goal S p e c i f i c a t i o n 47 5. P l a n n e r ' s Goal S p e c i f i c a t i o n 51 6. A r c h i t e c t ' s Goal S p e c i f i c a t i o n 54 7. The P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s - Stage 1 71; 187 8. The P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s - Stage 2 $6; 191 9. The P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s - Stage 3 78 10. R o l e - o f I n f o r m a t i o n and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n -I n i t i a l Stage 124 11. C a p i t a l R e d i s t r i b u t i o n Model 127 12. D i s c r e p a n c y Between Theory and P r a c t i c e a t the Economic L e v e l 133 13. Community Needs 142 14. The Suggested S t a r t i n g P o i n t i n P l a n n i n g 184 15. M o d i f i c a t i o n of the P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s -Stage 1 186 16. M o d i f i c a t i o n o f the P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s -Stage 2 190 v i i i LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS P l a t e Page I . Gold R i v e r on Vancouver I s l a n d 87 I I . Photographs - G e n e r a l View o f Gold R i v e r 89 I I I . Development Map 91 IV. P l a n - P r e s e n t B u i l d i n g s i n Gold R i v e r 92 V. Photographs - Housing 1 95 V I . Photographs - Housing 2 96 V I I . Photographs - Housing 3 97 V I I I . P l a n - Town Center ( p r e s e n t ) 103 IX. P l a n - Town C e n t e r (proposed) 104 X. Photographs - Town Center 1 105 X I . Photographs - Town C e n t e r 2 106 X I I . Photographs - S c h o o l s I l l ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The writer i s indebted to Professors Wolfgang Gerson and Bruno Ereschi for their guidance and interest throughout the course of the preparation of thi s thesis. The writer would l i k e also to thank Professors Robert C o l l i e r , Chris McNiven and Brahm Wiesman for the i r valuable help i n the c o l l e c t i o n of background material, and wishes to express his indebtedness to the many persons of Gold River and those involved i n the planning of Gold River who made the i r time and assistance available during the preparation of this thesis. F i n a l l y , the writer would l i k e to express his gratitude to the CHMC for i t s grant which made the study possible. CHAPTER I RESOURCE COMMUNITIES Dramatic population growth along with the accelerated demands fo r higher standards of l i v i n g create a constant demand for new physical developments, extended f r o n t i e r s , and increased supplies of raw material. In B r i t i s h Columbia resource develop-ment plays a very important economic r o l e . The development of resources has always been one of the important factors of B r i t i s h Columbia's as well as Canada's economy. The by-product of t h i s development has been the creation of completely new communities to populate -and f a c i l i t a t e the exploitation of new resource industries. A. Basic Problems of Resource Communities New developments take place either i n urban areas where they often become a burden to the existing c i t y , or they are created i n f r o n t i e r areas at resource s i t e s . Such settlements often grow at random without the backing of a d e f i n i t e govern-mental policy, and are thus dispersed a l l over the province with very l i t t l e opportunity of interaction. They are designed to house and service the workers and administrators of the nearby resource. One of the distinguishing features of these new towns i s that they are 'planned' i n marked contrast to e a r l i e r towns where communities were allowed to 'just grow'. Since these instant 2 towns are created primarily to s a t i s f y the demands of trade and industry, the individual inhabitant and his needs are often overlooked. As B r i t i s h Columbia's resource f r o n t i e r extends further north and away from the densely populated areas, l a s t i n g and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t communities have become more and more d i f f i c u l t to create, for both, the planning and the building of such towns has met with many obstacles, several of which cannot be e l i m i -nated because they are inherent i n the nature of the s i t e , i t s remoteness, i s o l a t i o n , d i f f i c u l t t e r r a i n and lack of communication f a c i l i t i e s . Other factors, such as the dependence of new towns on a single industry which i s highly vulnerable to economic f l u c t u -ations and above a l l the heterogeneous population contribute to the constant feelings of insecurity of the s e t t l e r s and the temporary nature of such settlements. Such towns are composed of young families with children, young single men, and::'foreign elements of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and national backgrounds, with nothing i n common except the quest for money. Last, but not least, i s the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t influence of the company and i t s administrators who are often unable to deal with the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l , as well as economic life-problems of these towns. Planners have t r i e d their best i n planning communities which would not only attract workers but also keep them. While planning for these new towns has been of a high quality and i s 3 often -undertaken by renown planners, i t has been based upon prin c i p l e s and techniques which are meant to deal with conditions pre v a i l i n g i n densely built-up, highly urbanized areas, hardly appropriate to the special conditions of the isolated and remote resource-based towns. In planning for these towns, the regional framework within which they are b u i l t - i . e . the i n i t i a l stage of selection of the s i t e as well as the physical design and plans prepared for i t - have rarely been taken into consideration. In most cases no serious consideration has been given either to communication d i f f i c u l t i e s or to problems of an a l i e n and completely hetero-geneous population for which the towns are b u i l t . Other factors such as the above mentioned fluctuation of the market, and changes and advances i n technology often bring the industry to a stop. The very fact that these towns are based on one single enterprise determines their lack of perman-ence and the basic i n s t a b i l i t y of the towns' community. To remedy this s i t u a t i o n attempts have been made to situate these new towns i n strategic positions and to encourage a number of secondary industries to develop i n order to turn the resource towns into permanent settlements and give t h e i r population more security i n alternative future job-opportunities. Most of these remedies have f a i l e d , f o r some towns s t i l l remain single enter-prise towns and the fear of becoming a 'ghost town' i s ever present i n the minds of i t s inhabitants. 4 So f a r the exploitation of the resources and the organi-zation of new towns has not been very successful. One of the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c weaknesses of such towns i s the constant turnover of the working personnel. Such a turnover not only brings economic losses to the investing company i n terms of the t r a i n i n g of new personnel each time, but also has f a r reaching effects, such as a general reluctance to invest i n the exploitation of primary resources and especially i n the development of secondary industries on the s i t e . The reason for the turnover i s not only the very nature of the population i t s e l f , but also the t o t a l lack of i d e n t i t y and hopes for permanence or future security which the worker i n v a r i -ably experiences i n such towns. The creation of an instant community requires the involve-ment of private e n t i t i e s as well as public action. Such s e t t l e -ments are created i n order to provide working power to the industry. The decision to develop the potential of certain human and natural resources may be economic or p o l i t i c a l , but i n either case i t has profound s o c i a l implications. The inhab-i t a n t s ' reactions to such settlements become thus considerations of prime importance. B. The Evolution of Settlements and Leg i s l a t i o n A b r i e f survey of the h i s t o r i c a l evolution of resource towns shows that i n the beginning the unskilled labour force 5 which was attracted to the resource was not very demanding of l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The f i r s t settlements were based on single industry enterprises and were b a s i c a l l y transient i n nature. Camps - The f i r s t such settlements were camps, established primarily for male workers where the buildings were owned by the operating company. The e a r l i e s t camps were established by the forest industry. One of the f i r s t camps was erected i n 1858 at M i l l Bay north of Victoria."'" By 1866, there were small logging camps on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast as well. In 1883, at the present s i t e of Vancouver c i t y , the forest seemed l i m i t l e s s and there was not even settlement enough to i n v i t e a landing. About 1900 the f i r s t few men reached as f a r as Knight Inlet around 200 miles 2 from Vancouver. Since these camps were regarded as temporary l i v i n g and boarding f a c i l i t i e s provided by the resource developer or the company, no attempt was made at any kind of planning. As f a r as the company was concerned, the camps were there to serve the company's need f o r an available labour force necessary for the extraction or exploitation of the natural resource. Whatever other needs the labourers may have had besides food and shelter, did not interest the company. Furthermore, the company's constant attempt to spend as l i t t l e as possible on the l i v i n g quarters led to cheap construction and as few f a c i l i t i e s as possible. These f i r s t camps were erected as close as possible to the 6 actual cutting s i t e and moved to new locations when the standing timber was liquidated. In those days such caravans were a rather common sight: The two team of oxen hitched to the wagon, which was loaded with hay, grub, blankets, tents, because they were going to camp on the job. Behind the wagon they hooked on a stone boat with the cook stove, buckets, dishes, and the Chinese cook. Often,also shacks or bunkhouses were b u i l t by the company. There was l i t t l e privacy there, for the early bunkhouses were just barracks with no partitions separating the beds from each other. They were primitively furnished with unfinished, board fl o o r s and plywood walls. The buildings were either haphazardly scattered or arranged i n rather d u l l geometrical patterns. Later, when the r a i l r o a d came into existence, entire camps were b u i l t on railway bogeys and moved from one s i t e to another.^ In general, the bunkhouses were put up around the cook house where the cook hired by the company prepared meals for a l l the workers. To reduce the expenses for service, c a f e t e r i a techniques w:ere used. In another building, completely separated from the bunk-houses were the washroom f a c i l i t i e s and often also those for the laundry to minimize the expense of i n s t a l l i n g another set of plumbing. In very few camps could one f i n d a recreation h a l l . People were supposed to eat, sleep and work day after day. They had 7 neither the time nor the opportunity for any s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s besides that of drinking. At t h i s stage the governmental p o l i c i e s regarding camps were very f l e x i b l e and p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent. The government was mainly interested i n establishing new camps and developing resources i n order to attract new investment into the country. Regulations did not exist and often the l i v i n g conditions i n such camps could become rather unbearable: but i n a l l the big camps there were proper bunkhouses with beds, a l i v e with bed-bugs.5 The only women ever seen i n these camps were the wives.of the employees i n the management position, and that only very ra r e l y . The workers could never bring t h e i r wives since there was no accomodation to house families. It i s only natural that under such l i v i n g conditions the turnover was high and discontent rampant. This led eventually to general strikes i n 1934 and the formation of a union of lumberworkers with goals to humanize the l i v i n g conditions i n +u 6 the camps. Only i n 1946 did the government pass "Regulations for the Sanitary Control of Industrial Camps" based on the "Health Act" of 1911. These regulations established norms and minimum standards for sanitary conditions such as a required minimum f l o o r area per worker, drainage, construction, food, as well as other required basic f a c i l i t i e s i n a camp. These regulations were to be administered and controlled by the Medical Health 8 7 Officers of the areas where the camps were located. The whole p r i n c i p l e of camps and camp l i f e had now to be reconsidered. Improvements took place; more f a c i l i t i e s were provided for the workers and wages were raised. With progress i n technology and improved transportation techniques, such as the d i f f e r e n t types of motor vehicles adapted to the te r r a i n , i t became possible to operate within a larger radius from the camp as a center. Camps tended to stay for longer periods i n one location and became also larger i n siz e . The company was now w i l l i n g to invest a l i t t l e more i n housing f a c i l i t i e s . In today's camps attempts are made to secure some privacy for the worker. Although rooms are shared by two people only, the union s t i l l asks for one man rooms to have more privacy. Each bunkhouse has i t s own washroom f a c i l i t i e s and beds have Q s p r i n g - f i l l e d matresses. In erecting these camps, the company usually contacts a catering organization to organize the camp and take the respon-s i b i l i t y f or housing as well as boarding f a c i l i t i e s . Since the company relieves i t s e l f of the burden and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of organizing and running the camp, i t s relationship with the employees i s maintained on a more acquiescent basis and i s improved, for any bad feelings about housing or food can be vented on a th i r d external party. Today, with the p o s s i b i l i t y of t r a i l e r ownership, a larger 9 number of workers can bring t h e i r families along, and move around when necessary with t h e i r own t r a i l e r and the whole family. The remaining problems are moving costs and the a v a i l -a b i l i t y of educational f a c i l i t i e s . Unincorporated communities — Along with the camps there exist the unincorporated communities. They grow i n an unorganized area adjacent to a marginal sawmill where the housing f a c i l i t i e s are erected on a Crown's leased land or on a Crown grant. Often they come into existence with no permission, just by the 'squatter's r i g h t ' . The l i v i n g standards i n such communities are very low and very l i t t l e c a p i t a l i s invested i n public services. Streets are unpaved, there are no sewages, water i s supplied from a well and there i s no f i r e protection. There i s no l o c a l govern-ment and people i n general regard a l l suggested improvement as unnecessary and unwanted. The only public service i s the school which i s provided by the l o c a l school d i s t r i c t . Such settlements depend on the market and the fluctuation of prices. When the prime industry for some reason or other closes down, these settlements die. The government's position here i s very vague and undefined: no strong resolutions are taken i n order to encourage or support such communities. The question of their existence i s l e f t to free enterprise and the i n i t i a t i v e of individuals. Whatever the consequences, they must be borne by the inhabitants. 10 Company towns — A l t h o u g h most camps were i n t e n d e d t o be temporary, some have grown i n t o permanent towns. As workers e s t a b l i s h e d themselves i n such towns, they made attempts t o b r i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e d p r o v i s i o n s f o r some h o u s i n g o f a b e t t e r k i n d than t h a t p r o v i d e d by the bunkhouses. I t a l s o n e c e s s i t a t e d some e d u c a t i o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . These towns a r e e s s e n t i a l l y company towns where a l l t he b u i l d i n g s , as i n the camps, are owned by the company: f o r example T a h s i s on Vancouver I s l a n d , c l o s e t o Gold R i v e r , or T r a i l i n B r i t i s h Columbia's m a i n l a n d . N o n e t h e l e s s , they can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the camps by the f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d t o be permanent s e t t l e m e n t s h o u s i n g not o n l y the male elements but a l s o f a m i l i e s . Companies have i n v e s t e d i n such towns m a i n l y i n the hope t h a t when the worker i s accompanied by h i s f a m i l y and has some r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and s c h o o l i n g guaranteed f o r h i s c h i l d r e n , t h e r e may be more of a chance i n r e t a i n i n g him and r e d u c i n g the t u r n o v e r . The f i r s t such towns grew around 1909 a t Swason Bay and Ocean P a l l s . 9 A l t h o u g h over 50$ o f the workers a r e males w i t h no f a m i l i e s , the towns have d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s w hich d i f f e r e n c i a t e them from the camps. They a r e planned and t o some e x t e n t l a n d s c a p e d . There a r e roads i n the town between the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s , as w e l l as between the town and the o u t s i d e w o r l d . A l t h o u g h bunkhouses a r e s t i l l the major f e a t u r e o f such towns, t h e r e are enough houses, a s c h o o l , a p u b l i c b u i l d i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n and g a t h e r i n g s as w e l l as s h o p p i n g . f a c i l i t i e s t o g i v e the 11 settlement the aspect of a town rather than a camp. These towns are well kept and on the average provide acceptable l i v i n g conditions, nevertheless they have a major shortcoming - the landlords, the employer and the town's governing body are a l l one and the same body - the company. This fact creates much stress and discontent. Notwithstanding the above shortcoming, i t i s evident that as far as l i v i n g conditions and perhaps even where the s o c i a l and psychological atmosphere i s concerned, the company town i s a step ahead of the camp. "The Company Town Regulation Act""^ was established i n 1919 i n order to provide access of the general public to the company towns as well as ensure the right of the public to use the roads i n company towns. Its major clauses deal with water supply, sewages, public health, roads, land subdivision, land r e g i s t r a t i o n and taxation. An int e r e s t i n g feature about the B r i t i s h Columbia company towns Act i s that i t s administration was given to the Department of Lands and Forests rather than to the Department of Municipal A f f a i r s . This i s , perhaps, symptomatic of the fact that f i r s t importance i n Canada has been placed upon i n d u s t r i a l development, the extrac-t i o n and processing of raw materials, rather than upon the development of communities as l i v i n g places. The mine, m i l l , or plant has. p r i o r i t y and the community i s a necessary though secondary venture that grows up i n the v i c i n i t y of the works operation.H C. Instant Towns - A Step Ahead of Company Towns The company towns thus answered basic needs, especially 12 during the pioneer times, by providing better housing and sanitary conditions. But with time and changes i n people's outlook, the company towns even with their low rents and good houses could not s a t i s f y the inhabitants who now f e l t d i s -s a t i s f i e d and frustrated because they did not and could not participate and have a say i n the building of the town. They resented the omnipresence of the company and the absence of the p o s s i b i l i t y of private ownership. The company, too, was not s a t i s f i e d with such a situation, for i t had to patronize, organize and invest i n the town and try to s a t i s f y people's needs and wishes. Furthermore, since only the company workers could l i v e i n such towns and only for the duration of t h e i r employment by the company, the turnover came to be rather high and the general atmosphere strained. Such factors were instrumental i n preventing the creation of any more new company towns and i n turning many of them into incorporated municipalities. Such an arrangement i s to the company's favour, since while ensuring a constant labour force, the company can now get back the money invested and does not have to manage the town. The burden of dealing with a l l sorts of problems concerning housing, education or recreation can now be carried by the community. It i s evident that i n order to make a place l i v a b l e r e a l open towns would have to be created i n conjunction with the development of a resource or an industry. Both, the government 13 and the companies, became aware of this fact and i n 1965 through an Ammendment of the Municipal Act permission was given to 12 create Instant Municipalities. Gold River was one of the f i r s t of such Municipalities. Such instant towns were to be developed i n conjunction with the development of the natural resource with a municipality incorporated within an unorganized t e r r i t o r y . Through l e g i s -l a t i o n the company was supposed to build the town and provide for the basic needs of the future inhabitants. An interim government was to be appointed while the inhabitants would be a r r i v i n g and s e t t l i n g . At this stage the company, at least i n p r i n c i p l e , would have to withdraw from the town and act solely as the provider of jobs to the inhabitants. The inhabitants would have the opportunity to buy houses and f u l l y structure and participate i n the shaping of community l i f e . The p r o v i n c i a l government i n turn supplies borrowing powers to the municipality, provides police and f i r e protection for the f i r s t three years and when the community i s mature enough and i s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i t would become self-governing. This theoretical and almost ideal s i t u a t i o n was designed i n answer to the actual needs and requirements of the potential inhabitants i n the present, but w i l l perhaps be no more satisfactory for future needs. For, i t i s inte r e s t i n g to note, that while i n the l a t e nineteenth century and early twentieth century workers got along reasonably well i n the camps, they no more did so 14 l a t e r . They were then, supplied with company towns which, i n turn, acceptable only for a period, have now become unsatis-factory. To s a t i s f y the needs and more sophisticated demands of today's highly s k i l l e d and specialized workers instant towns have been created. At each stage l e g i s l a t i o n just managed to catch up with the demands of the workers. The role of l e g i s l a t i o n concerning the single industry settlements was to regulate their functioning and to protect the workers from employer abuses as well as to protect the interests of the inhabitants i n general. Some of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n had roots i n common law and t r a d i t i o n , while i n other cases i t was the result of the pressure of the public opinion or public concern about certain Unaccep-table conditions. The government enforced laws for new s e t t l e -ments and only i n the case of instant towns i t became the i n i t i a t o r of a new type of l e g i s l a t i o n which provided f o r such d e t a i l s as water supply, sewages as well as public health. I t i s quite evident that the evolution of these basic settlements i s a function of the need expressed by the people for better l i v i n g conditions. It i s also a function of the general improve-ment of the standard of l i v i n g . l e g i s l a t i o n evolved from the Health Act, through the Company Town Legi s l a t i o n to the Instant Town Legi s l a t i o n . With the growing of the demands of the workers, the evolu-tion i n understanding the needs of the workers also took place 15 and attempts were made to humanize the process of providing the basic requirements. Furthermore the government, previously completely withdrawn, became more and more involved. With, time people's needs and demands change, so do tech-nology, i n d u s t r i a l management and labour techniques. Neverthe-le s s , the basic problems concerning resources development seem t o have remained the same: the supply of a working force for the prime industry and the necessity to s a t i s f y the workers so as to ensure some s t a b i l i t y and reduce turnover. To solve precisely these problems camps evolved through company towns into instant incorporated towns. Although the actual instant towns are supposed to be self-governing, they are s t i l l much l i k e the company towns i n that there i s one employer and one resource. They are r e a l l y 'modern company towns' rather than open towns. The instant towns are at present the most recent attempts to solve the problem of settlement. Their creation has become a rather complex process since i n t h e i r planning a number of di f f e r e n t bodies are involved. This leads to a rather perplexing si t u a t i o n of defining the f i n a l goals regarding the general aspects of the town, d e t a i l s of layout, and f a c i l i t i e s . Perhaps, the most complex stage i n the planning of a town i s the goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n stage where the e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t goals of the di f f e r e n t bodies involved may sometimes reinforce each other and at other times be i n c o n f l i c t . It i s t h i s 16 process of goal formulation and the f i n a l r esults as applied to a s p e c i f i c case of the instant town of Gold River that w i l l he dealt with i n t h i s study. F o o t n o t e s J . J . Deutsch e t a l . , Economics o f P r i m a r y P r o d u c t i o n  i n B r i t i s h . Columbia. V o l . I . "The F o r e s t P r o d u c t s - B r i t i s h Columbia," (Vancouver: 1959), p. 23. 2 C l a i g J . McArthur and Franc Waters, B. C. C e n t e n n i a l  of L o g g i n g (Vancouver: The Truck Logger and Gordon B l a c k P u b l i c a t i o n s L t d . ) , 196$), p. 19. 5 I b i d . , p. 20. 4 / Kramer Adams, L o g g i n g R a i l r o a d s of the West ( S e a t t l e : S u p e r i o r P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1961), p. 96. 5 M y r t l e Bergen, Tough Timber: The Loggers o f B r i t i s h  Columbia ( T o r o n t o : P r o g r e s s Books, 1967), p. 24. 6 I b i d . , pp. 34-47. 7 See Appendix A - "The H e a l t h A c t . " g I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from i n t e r v i e w w i t h l o g g e r s i n Gold R i v e r . q I r a M. Robinson, New I n d u s t r i a l Towns on Canada's Resource F r o n t i e r s ( C h icago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1962), p. 171. ^ See Appendix B - "The Company Town A c t . " I n s t i t u t e o f L o c a l Government, Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , S i n g l e E n t e r p r i s e Communities i n Canada ( K i n g s t o n : Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1953), p. 57. 12 See Appendix C - " I n s t a n t Towns L e g i s l a t i o n . " CHAPTER II THE DETERMINATION OF GOALS The c r u c i a l difference between planning a structure for some exotic animal and planning one for the nonexotic human being i s that an expert on animal behaviour has an essential voice i n the animal project but no expert on human behaviour has anything to say about the human's habitat. As a resu l t the animal gets a d i s t i n c t l y better deal.-*-When thi s 'exotic animal' does not perform to the l i m i t of i t s capacity and sulks or seems unhappy, i t gets expert attention. When the human being's habitat produces 'social trauma and psychological stress", he i s l e f t to himself with 2 the problem. This i s a curious state of a f f a i r s . Most of us spend most of our time i n space planned for human occupancy. It i s apt to be very well equipped so fa r as physical comfort i s concerned but rarely, i f ever, i s i t designed with conscious knowledge of the goals and values of the people who w i l l use i t . Since the quality of the s o c i a l and psychological milieu i s far more c r u c i a l to human performance than the quality of the plumbing, t h i s seems i d i o t i c . 5 A. The Planning Process as the Expression of Different P r i o r i t i e s Planning can be defined as a method or a way of ra t i o n a l decision-making where means and ends are analysed and evaluated i n order to assess how they can best be brought together at minimum cost and.maximum e f f i c i e n c y . B a s i c a l l y , the planning process passes through the following stages: - goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n - decision-making 19 - plan execution - evaluation and reorientation In the above d e f i n i t i o n of planning i t i s i m p l i c i t l y assumed that goals can be c l e a r l y defined and measured, but i n r e a l i t y the objectives of the planning process s h i f t with questions of f e a s i b i l i t y and the analysis of the means and ends becomes problematic. The above mentioned stages, according to S. Chapin, occur i n cycles which proceed i n a c i r c u l a r rather than a s t r a i g h t - l i n e sequence, with one sequence of action moving into a second, and a second into a t h i r d and so on.4 When this process i s visualized as a function of time, the cycles are no more c i r c u l a r , but become helixes (see Diagram 1) for, the process advances with time and there i s a continuous s h i f t within the goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n stage where no new goal i s i d e n t i c a l to an old one. Goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n changes become therefore a function of: - The progressive modification of ends and means which i n turn are a function of f e a s i b i l i t y . - Administrative circumstances where purpose and performance intervene. - P o l i t i c a l background noise. - Technology and p o l i c i e s within the s o c i a l structure. Planning can thus become a rather d i f f i c u l t and often confusing process. Apart from the above mentioned objectives, a l l community planning i s , or should be based upon considerations ^ of a humane nature such as people's psychological and emotional 20 0 GOAL SPBCiF/CtiTfOAi • DECiS/OA/ © PL/?A/ SX£C6Jr/0// 0 EfMi/#T/0/V 4 &£0£/£Aff/}fWM 21 needs, standards of l i v i n g , and the opportunity for the ind i v i d u a l to develop a l l his p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . P o l i t i c a l and economic decisions as well as the geography or history of the place also intervene. But planners, according to Herbert J. Gans are victimized by the i r f a l l a c i o u s b e l i e f that physical environment was a major determinant of society and culture and, i n addition, they mistakenly believed that the good l i f e would grow only i n an environment based upon principles of professional planning.5 In the conventional planning process, planners, therefore, seem to pursue th e i r own professional goals rather than those of the people. They make decisions that af f e c t other people's l i v e s on the basis of their own values. The question that arises here i s whether the purpose of planning i s to plan for buildings and space, or to meet s o c i a l goals and solve s o c i a l problems. Although personal biases have played havoc i n many planning processes, the c r u c i a l problem i n any planning has always been an economic one - i . e . where public and private expenditure i s involved, or how to allocate money and resources. Prom the above i t i s evident that ... planning has p a r a l l e l s with other f i e l d s , but i t also has d i s t i n c t i v e features. Three of these features that d i f f e r e n t i a t e planning from other f i e l d s are: (l) i t s m u l t i d i c i p l i n a r y t i e s , (2) i t s innovational bias, and (3) i t s j o i n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the sciences and arts.° In i t s simplified form the planning process can be con-sidered to be the expression of three major p r i o r i t i e s : - Physical - spacial form, physical layout and., design. 22 - Economic - c a p i t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and c i r c u l a t i o n , expenditure and. investment return. - Social - administrative a c t i v i t i e s , l e g i s l a t i v e acts, and community development programs. Expressed i n terms of the humane aspect these p r i o r i t i e s can be summarized as: - A decent home and suitable environment for every family. - Jobs for a l l and a minimum family income. 7 - Adequacy and equality i n public services and f a c i l i t i e s . Physical planning i s concerned with buildings, land, u t i l i t y l i n e s and other f a c i l i t i e s which serve the dwellers i n carrying out th e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Its main objective i s the a l l o -cation and prevision of space for the immediate needs as well as the future ones. It i s d i f f i c u l t to deny that people do react to th e i r physical environment and especially to t h e i r immediate housing problems and those of their neighbourhood. The oldest type of building i s the dwelling, which was perhaps man's f i r s t primitive solution to his most c r u c i a l problems - that of protection from the elements, beasts and human enemies. Later i t became the answer to the need of privacy. There i s evidence that the physical environment affects the perception of oneself, i t contributes to or relieves stress, and influences^ health and i l l n e s s . People seem to have troubles i n understanding th e i r environment because of the 23 complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between i t s p a r t s , and others a t t a c h symbolic meanings to the p h y s i c a l world. For e f f e c t i v e p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g i t i s important to know how people use t h e i r present p h y s i c a l environment and i t s symbolic components. I t i s a l s o important to know the impact of the environment on them and t h e i r preferences concerning the environment. What a l l the above f i n d i n g s may imply i n p r a c t i c e i s a matter of p r i o r i t i e s . I t seems that i f the human f a c t o r i s kept i n mind then i n p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g a h i g h p r i o r i t y w i l l be placed on housing without n e c e s s a r i l y g i v i n g up other p h y s i c a l development o b j e c t i v e s . Whatever the case may be, the planner i s n e c e s s a r i l y faced with economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . I t i s here that the economic p r i o r i t y i n t e r v e n e s . Although the p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g of a c i t y has a major r o l e to p l a y i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of the goals f o r jobs and incomes, which i s r e a l l y an economic p r i o r i t y , i t i s i t s e l f a f u n c t i o n of economic and f i n a n c i a l f a c t o r s such as the p r o j e c t e d e f f e c t i v e demand and a v a i l a b i l i t y of f i n a n c i n g means. S e n s i b l e economic pl a n n i n g c o n t r i b u t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the s t a b i l i t y and cohesion of a community. Studies made have shown, f o r example, that a l a r g e number of small businessmen i n a community c o n t r i b u t e d to i t s s t a b i l i t y f o r a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the money earned by the r e s i d e n t s c i r c u l a t e d w i t h i n the community. Furthermore: - Such i n t e r p r i s e s provided jobs, even though part-time i n some cases. 24 - The businessmen were active leadership forces mainly because g they had invested i n the.community. Naturally, the existence of such small businessmen i s to a large extent a function of the design of the physical develop-ment of the community. In economic planning, then, considerations are made regarding not only the process of production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods and services, employment and income, but also those of laws, contracts, and established practices of economic a c t i v i t y . Although economic objectives and physical form and arrangement of the urban environment are important p r i o r i t i e s of the planning process, s o c i a l objectives and aims have also to be taken into consideration. Public services and recreational f a c i l i t i e s and t h e i r quality and quantity play an important role i n a community. Through these services and f a c i l i t i e s the available human resources i n the community can be polarized and geared to the advancement of major community goals. It i s here that 'social planning' should be added to the t r a d i t i o n a l land-space-use program of the physical planning. Although t r a d i t i o n a l physical planning i s s t i l l necessary for e f f i c i e n t housing, aesthetic considerations and the modernization programs of c i t i e s , more attention should be paid to i t s s o c i a l and economic problems. Through s o c i a l planning goals which are non-physical and which concern the entire society can be outlined. Social planning i s a problem-solving a c t i v i t y . Concerned with s o c i a l problems and s o c i a l objectives, 25 i t involves a number of inter-related systems leading to agreement upon values, goals and means. These i n turn lead to p r i o r i t y determination, a l l o c a t i o n of resources, the development of effective strategies and ultimately to action programs.^ B. Goal C r i t e r i a D e f i n i t i o n : A goal i s i n general the objective of an e f f o r t or ambition born out of a need; i t i s a condition which i s desired and towards which the person w i l l s t r i v e over a period of time. A goal therefore, i s an i d e a l response to human needs or wants carried over time. Where planning i s concerned, goal-formulation i s the f i r s t step of the planning process. This f i r s t step of the planning process should consist of a c r i t i c a l examination of goals and goal-values stated as the objective of the process. It i s at th i s stage that the meaning of goals and goal-values as well as the implications of t h e i r meaning are examined. Here two facts have to be considered: - The p o s s i b i l i t y and impossibility of attaining such goals. - The cost of pursuing and reaching them. Undesired effects are examined, especially i n terms of the s a c r i f i c e of other goals and values. Alternative possible goals, t h e i r implication, consequences and r i s k s are also considered. Since i n the planning process, several d i f f e r e n t people are often involved, the c r i t i c a l examination of goals becomes rather complex. For, planning the needs i n terms of goal-formulation as well as the decision-making process are both 26 p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes. In making a d e c i s i o n about the p r i o r i t y of a need and i n choosing the o b j e c t i v e - the g o a l , the i n d i v i d u a l ' s performance i s determined by the o v e r a l l nature of the need or problem, and a l s o by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l needs. The choice of a g o a l i s thus a f f e c t e d by the g e n e r a l goals the i n d i v i d u a l has erected f o r h i m s e l f , by the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p l a c e or r e l a t i v e s t anding to others concerned w i t h the same g o a l , and by the place of the g o a l i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s own scheme of g o a l s . The i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f enters thus i n t o the process of g o a l f o r m u l a t i o n and s p e c i f i c a t i o n . T h i s i s perhaps why planners have so o f t e n been accused of making d e c i s i o n s and choosing goals s o l e l y on the b a s i s of t h e i r v a l u e s . E f f o r t s are being made to render the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p l a n n i n g goals more o b j e c t i v e and perhaps even measurable, through the use of d i r e c t questions to probe f o r r e s p o n s i v e -ness on p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s of g o a l forms that are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ' l i v a b i l i t y ' i n the c i t y , and i n a complementary l i n e of q u e s t i o n i n g ( i t seeks) to get at past behaviour that might a l s o shed l i g h t on g o a l s . Nevertheless, the s e l e c t i o n of goals and g o a l combinations i n the p l a n n i n g process s t i l l remains a s u b j e c t i v e matter and a f u n c t i o n of value judgements. Although the a r c h i t e c t or the planner may base t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of community or other goals upon the combination of t h e i r past experiences and observations, on q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and contact w i t h the p u b l i c , they s t i l l b r i n g i n t o the process of 27 goal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n their own biases and cannot escape from the i r many misconceptions of people's values. As a res u l t any planning and especially c i t y planning has been an art p l i e d by a profession dedicated to a set of narrow ar c h i t e c t u r a l goals and a land-use and design program for r e a l i z i n g them. As a r e s u l t , c i t y planning has not paid much attention to people's goals, eff e c t i v e means or ... the urgent problems of the c i t i e s . ^ One may of course ask here what constitutes a v a l i d basis for the goal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the masses or the public i n general? It i s being more and more stressed that The f i r s t step i n planning anything - a new town or a pizza parlor - i s to f i n d out the par t i c u l a r yearnings, kinks and aberrations of the groups that make up the l i t t l e world you are dealing with.-1-3 But how does one f i n d the yearnings, kinks and aberrations of people? Goals come often i n combinations, they involve a number of alternative goals, one goal may lead into another and s t i l l another. Very seldom does a goal remain s t a t i c over a given span of time. These goals are mostly implied and not p l a i n l y expressed. They are v i r t u a l l y contained i n people's yearnings and needs and may even be involved i n general b e l i e f such as group goals which are widely held and adhered to. E x p l i c i t l y stated goals are seldom expressed. Few goals, whether public or private are expressed, i n d e t a i l , leaving nothing to mere implication. Almost no goals are d e f i n i t e . From these interwoven and i m p l i c i t l y expressed goals the 28 planners have to select goal-combinations and give them substance i n order to be able to specify the goals of the planned a c t i v i t y . Goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n has thus become a rather thorny issue for i t i s complexly interwoven into the action sequence, •sometimes varying according to the policy implica-tions behind the goal, sometimes varying with the actors dominating a par t i c u l a r issue at a particular time, and sometimes varying with the p o l i t i c a l climate prevailing at that time. ^ C. The Reality of Goal Formulation Had man been dreamless would he have had his re l i g i o n s , his symbolism and his a l l e g o r i e s , his poetry and much of his art? ... So we have to conclude that dreams are one of the most remarkable factors that have entered into the fab r i c a t i o n of c i v i l i z a t i o n as we know i t today. ^ There i s nothing new i n the idea of creating a new town. Through man's history c i t i e s have been created either out of a need or just out of the whims of kings, p o l i t i c i a n s , generals, or reformers. There also has always been, and perhaps s t i l l i s , a myth of the i d e a l c i t y . Ideal c i t i e s have only been vis u a l i z e d i n Utopian extremes for they are conceived far from r e a l i t y , upon non- o p e r a t i o n a l foundations. Nevertheless, the dreams of ide a l c i t i e s , where imagination reaches out into r e a l i t y , are the st a r t i n g point of the conception of a town and the goal formulation process. The conception of a new c i t y i s a rather complex process, for i t i s the resu l t of many factors. One of these factors i s a purely personal and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c one, such as the need to 29 create, to actualize one's dreams and, perhaps, even to ensure one's immortality through the erected stones. In some cases such a conception i s the resu l t of a t h i r s t for power and ambition. The goals formulated i n thi s case would be purely i m p l i c i t and often intangible, for the conceived c i t y becomes a subjec-t i v e representation of personal needs, dispositions or tendencies rendered objective i n terms of images. These personal needs, dispositions and tendencies are often unconscious and the f o r -mulated goals are conditioned to a large extent by the af f e c t i v e and emotional l i f e of the person. But, although needs and especially frustrated and unsatisfied ones, are the impulse i n the process of goal formulation, i f l e f t alone they remain s t e r i l e . Man's mind has organizing and regulating powers, but without imagination i t can neither innovate nor create. When the human being, stimulated by a need constructs and invents new combinations and synthesis, he can only do i t with the help of mental images - imagination. In the f i r s t stage of goal formulation a combination of imagination and needs r„is represented i m p l i c i t l y i n the form of images - i n a r t i c u l a t e and undefined. With time t h i s dream i s exteriorized and actualized. In the process of externalization and r e a l i z a t i o n several factors intervene. The c i t y i s , or at least should be, planned for people, and t h e i r needs should be considered. In the mind of the 30 architect or the planner the conception of a c i t y and i t s char a c t e r i s t i c s i s close to the ide a l of a dream. Out of this dream i s thus born the utopia of an id e a l c i t y . At thi s stage the c i t y i s represented i n terms of verbal descriptions accom-panied, perhaps, with graphic representations. Goals are formulated and stated, and an attempt i s made to express verbally e x p l i c i t and well defined goals. But these goals are s t i l l very i d e a l i s t i c and u n r e a l i s t i c f or they are the goals of utopia. This utopia, i f i t ever were to be realized has to be adjusted to r e a l i t y . I t i s here that the discrepancy between the o r i g i n a l intention and the f i n a l action i s introduced. In the process of adjustment, factors such as choice, p r i o r i t i e s , r e s t r a i n t s , and economic, p r a c t i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , personal or public p o l i c i e s and general f e a s i b i l i t y interfuse. Such a process i s b a s i c a l l y one of decision-making. Decision making i n the process of goal-formulation i s dif f e r e n t from the decision-making process per se, i . e . that of the planning process i n general. In the planning process the decision-making stage takes place when the course of action for the fulfilment of goals i s considered and evaluated. In the decision-making process i n the goal formulation stage, certain i m p l i c i t goals are selected i n the l i g h t of the di f f e r e n t factors mentioned above. Here a l l i m p l i c i t goals are: - Examined within the framework of the prevailing p r a c t i c a l conditions. 31 - Evaluated i n terms of t h e i r f e a s i b i l i t y and consequences. - Modified, r e s t r i c t e d or extended. As the resu l t of th i s process some i m p l i c i t goals can be arti c u l a t e d e x p l i c i t l y (see Diagram 2 ) . It i s necessary to mention here that the process of goal formulation becomes more and more i n t r i c a t e as the number of the involved bodies and t h e i r goals increases. Each body then separately forms i t s own goals and transforms these goals i n the process of transfer from input to product. In the f i n a l goal formulation a l l the i m p l i c i t goals, a l l the dreams and needs of the d i f f e r e n t individuals are thus involved and hopefully expressed. Only those goals which are i n fact mutually exclu-sive, i . e . those which are d i r e c t l y opposed to each other and cannot interfuse, are eliminated from the f i n a l product. F o o t n o t e s 1 C. M. Deasy, "When A r c h i t e c t s C o n s u l t P e o p l e , " P s y c h o l o g y Today. V o l . I l l , Wo. 10 (March, 1970), p. 54. 2 I b i d . 5 I b i d . ^ F. S t u a r t Chapin J r . , "Foundation o f Urban P l a n n i n g , " Urban L i f e and Form, ed. Werner Z. H i r s c h (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1963), p. 224. 5 Robert W. Glasgow, "The Ayn Rand Syndroms: A Conversa-t i o n w i t h H e r b e r t J . Gans," P s y c h o l o g y Today. V o l . I l l , No. 10 (March, 1970), p. 58. Chapin, OP_. e x t . , p. 223-7 Harvey S. P e r l o f f , "Common Goals and the L i n k i n g o f P h y s i c a l and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , " Urban P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l P o l i c y ed., B e r n a r d J . F r i e d e n and Robe r t M o r r i s (New York: B a s i c Books, I n c . , P u b l i s h e r s , 1968), p. 350. 8 A l v i n L. S c h o r r , Slums and S o c i a l S e c u r i t y (Washington D. C : Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ) , p. 3. 9 P e r l o f f , op. c i t . , pp. 353-355. U. S. Committee t o the T w e l f t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conferenc of S o c i a l Work 1964, S o c i a l P r o g r e s s Through S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , p Chapin, op_. c i t . , p. 226. 12 C a l v i n H a m i l t o n , "People and P l a n s , " P s y c h o l o g y Today. V o l . I l l , No. 10 (March, 1970), p. 16. 13 Deasy, op_. c i t . , p. 54. 14 Chapin, 0£. c i t . , p. 229. 15 J . H. Rob, " C i v i l i z a t i o n and C u l t u r e , " E n c y c l o p a e d i a  B r i t a n i c a , (1970 ed., V o l . V ) , p. 830. CHAPTER III STATEMENT OP GOALS IN THE PLANNING OP GOLD RIVER A. Implicit and E x p l i c i t Goals "Goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s a l o g i c a l point of entry into the c i r c u l a r sequence ... i d e n t i f i e d with the planning process.""*" But the term goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n i n i t s e l f i s rather elusive i n nature for i t i s linked with many di f f e r e n t frames of action. Although the term goal has been defined simply as "design, 2 purpose or object," one has to ask the questions, "by whom" and "for whom". Such questions do not always refer to one sp e c i f i c person or group with i d e n t i f i a b l e needs, aims or one e x p l i c i t goal i n mind. Thus the question as what constitutes a v a l i d basis for goal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , the selection of goal combinations and the establishment of standards to be used i n determining which goals should be given preference becomes an important aspect of the whole process of goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n . The nebulousness of id e n t i f y i n g goals that have one and the same meaning to both the average urbanite and the decision maker i s d i f f i c u l t enough, but how are goals to be arrayed and given meaning in.combinations that have never been articulated or viewed before by the general public or even the decision maker i n any goal form of physical development.* This precisely seems to have been the case i n the planning and building of Gold River, mainly because of the number of dif f e r e n t bodies involved i n the decision making such as: the government, the company and the di f f e r e n t professionals (the architect, the planner, etc.). As most approaches are value-laden, s p e c i f i c or e x p l i c i t goals expressed overtly are only a 35 part of i m p l i c i t goal combinations which are the result of the value judgements which decision makers form. In the case of Gold River, a number of resolutions, state-ments and commitments were made, but goals were not explicitly-stated and decisions and executions regarding the development of the town were l e f t to the di s c r e t i o n of the different parties involved i n the process of planning and building. Some of the i m p l i c i t goals were i n the form of a general understanding that: - Plans and provisions should be made i n order to provide accomodation, amenities and services i n i t i a l l y for those employees of the Tahsis Company who would be working i n the pulp m i l l . - It was expected that not only employees of the Tahsis logging d i v i s i o n may choose to l i v e i n Gold River but also the employees from other nearby logging and mining centers. - Hopes were high that Gold River may become a to u r i s t center since i t could provide the prospective t o u r i s t with large quantities of high quality f i s h i n the nearby r i v e r s , lakes and the Muchalet Inlet. In addition, the magnificent mountains with th e i r streams and forests are great camping and hiking s i t e s and could provide the hunter with p l e n t i f u l game. - Some also hoped that Gold River, due to i t s geographical situation would become the major d i s t r i b u t i o n point for the North-Western section of Vancouver Island and thus the nucleus for the development of the region. 3 6 The only goal e x p l i c i t l y stated i n the f i n a l agreement was that of housing the Tahsis Company employees. Underlying and i n d i r e c t l y linked to this e x p l i c i t goal was a number of unstruc-tured i m p l i c i t goals the aim of which was to turn Gold River into a d i v e r s i f i e d regional center. As we have seen, the three parties involved i n the planning of Gold River were the government, the Tahsis Company and the professional people (architect, planner, etc.). Although a l l agreed on the above mentioned goal, t h e i r i m p l i c i t goals, value judgements and interests were completely d i f f e r e n t . This w i l l be evident i n the following analysis of the goals of the d i f -ferent parties involved. The government - The creation of Gold River necessarily implied an investment of foreign c a p i t a l i n the province since the Tahsis Company i s i n part owned by foreign investors. It involved the immediate creation of some f i v e hundred new job openings helpful i n curbing unemployment. Furthermore, the creation of a new plant would have brought with i t a considerable increase i n tax revenue to the prov i n c i a l treasury. Basi c a l l y , the government had two goals i n mind: - Increased gain to the treasury. - Well-being of the would-be inhabitants. (See Diagram 3) The government's f i r s t preoccupation, then, was to examine whether the creation of a new town would i n the long run, instead I I 0 to N j <5 m. ? '•ij -s) ! I i f x 1 1 R s si K So f R I 55 N J Uj Ni ^ « V» I ^  i ."V '•u ^ ^ 38 of becoming a burden to the taxpayer, bring an increased gain to the treasury. Detailed studies showed that the treasury would indeed gain i n the long run. In creating resource towns although i t i s important to consider the material or c a p i t a l gains benefit further consid-erations such as the general well-being of the inhabitants must be kept i n mind. The government's second task, therefore, was to determine whether the actual B r i t i s h Columbia laws and acts concerning housing, sanitary and socio-economic conditions would insure the creation of an acceptable place i n which to l i v e and raise children. In r e a l i t y whenever there i s a new development the govern-ment i s d i r e c t l y concerned with adequate sanitary conditions and school f a c i l i t i e s . Through the approval of d i f f e r e n t by-laws the government can control the way the land i s used and by lending money for construction through the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation i t can impose i t s own building standards. Other things such as the fashioning of the physical environment, road lay-outs, landscaping and the general lay-out of the town and i t s buildings i s l e f t to the discretion of the parties concerned, i . e . the company and i t s consultants. For a long time there has been no e x p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n of the goals or principles upon which the planning and building of resource towns was based. The policy of l a i s s e r - f a i r e and a quick-return p r o f i t with large gains for a minority seem to have 39 been the motive force behind the building of resource towns i n the past. This short-term v i s i o n inevitably predisposes a populist government to short-run, spectacular projects and diverts i t from long-run, perhaps i n i t i a l l y disruptive p o l i c i e s , and leads to an emphasis on material developments l i k e roads and bridges as opposed to immaterial (and also perhaps long-run) p o l i c i e s l i k e education.4 Presently public opinion has become more aware of resource development problems and questions the v a l i d i t y of the short-run planning and quick-return p r o f i t p o l i c i e s . With public awareness and involvement i n the planning process more stress i s being put on long-term planning. Already the fact that an instant town's l e g i s l a t i o n has been i n s t i t u t e d by the government indicates positive support for new development i n v i r g i n areas and an encouragement for the creation of new communities. It shows that the government's policy i s to promote resource development. Mr. Don South stated that there i s i n V i c t o r i a a trend i n s i s t i n g on some basic features which constitute the Letters-5 Patent for a new community. Some of these features are: - To incorporate into a municipality, (purely for taxation reasons i n order to become self-supporting), the land where the plant and the i n d u s t r i a l development w i l l be situated. - To attempt to locate the town adjacent or related to an existing community or settlement. - To encourage future developments of the community and think i n 40 terms of regional centers rather than just settlements for the purpose of industry and resource development. One of Mr. South's general comments was that "a govern-mental policy on new resource towns i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s non-existent", this being due to the fact that the government does not want to commit i t s e l f to any long-range policy. The government's attitude i s not to have any r i g i d statements but on the contrary to be as f l e x i b l e as possible i n order to judge every case by i t s e l f i n i t s own context and thus be able to modify and re-adjust i t s thinking and attitude to the people's requirements and demands. As far as the government i s concerned i t s e x p l i c i t goals are vague and unspecified, whereas as far as the i m p l i c i t goals are concerned, there are a number stemming from the di f f e r e n t Governmentalladministrative bodies or departments involved (Highways, B. C. Hydro, etc.). To date, the government's attitude has been one of careful study but no r e a l or clear goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n regarding long-term planning. It seems that where the government i s concerned, there i s no r e a l need for long-term planning and r i g i d p o l i c i e s and that such steps should be taken only i f there i s a c r i s i s i n the country. The government's policy i n such matters i s thus curative rather than preventive, i . e . instead of taking action before a c r i s i s occurs, i t w i l l try to remedy only a sick s i t u a t i o n . 41 Perhaps, the government i s not r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n l o n g -term p l a n n i n g and we may then ask what i s the o b j e c t i v e o f p r o v i n c i a l economic p o l i c y ? B l a c k and P e r r y suggest t h a t the o v e r r i d i n g o b j e c t i v e o f the government i n power must be t o remain i n power, or t o win a t the p o l l s . T h i s view seems t o g i v e an u n f o r t u n a t e s h o r t - r u n p o l i c y b i a s t o many p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , and i f the economists who l e c t u r e d on economic p o l i c y a r e t o be b e l i e v e d , as a r e s u l t o f t h i s s h o r t - r u n p o l i c y b i a s , we a r e not a c h i e v i n g our economic p o t e n t i a l . ' Whatever the case may be t h e r e seems t o be a g e n e r a l agreement r e g a r d i n g the purpose o f r e s o u r c e development which can be s i m p l y s t a t e d as the w e a l t h , h e a l t h and h a p p i n e s s o f mankind.8 One may of c o u r s e ask what i s meant by h a p p i n e s s ? How can one determine what makes o t h e r s happy? A r i s t o t l e had d e f i n e d h a p p i n e s s as a complex aggregate o f d i f f e r e n t goods i n c l u d i n g e x t e r n a l o r b o d i l y goods, such as h e a l t h and w e a l t h as w e l l as b o d i l y p l e a s u r e s ; s o c i a l goods, such as l o v e , f r i e n d s h i p , honor and j u s t i c e ; and i n t e l l e c t u a l goods, such as knowledge, under-s t a n d i n g and wisdom. I n the U. S. D e c l a r a t i o n o f Independence (1776) Thomas J e f f e r s o n wrote about men's r i g h t t o " l i f e , l i b e r t y and the p u r s u i t of h a p p i n e s s " . T h i s was t o be one of the b a s i c r i g h t s t h a t the government pledged t o s e c u r e f o r the American c i t i z e n . I t must be noted t h a t J e f f e r s o n d i d not promise each man h a p p i n e s s but o n l y the r i g h t t o pursue i t , f o r no government can guarantee t h a t a l l i t s c i t i z e n s w i l l be happy, i t can o n l y f u r n i s h the 42 conditions which w i l l enable the ci t i z e n s to pursue happiness. The government may be able to provide adequate supply of wealth, such as subsistance, the comforts and conveniences of l i f e as well as medical care and health protection, recreational and educational f a c i l i t i e s , but i t cannot provide man with happiness, for happiness i s an inner personal and private state of the l i f e of the in d i v i d u a l . According to Haig-Brown, the actual judge i n Gold River, happiness may be only reached through s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , but Any d e f i n i t i o n of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n i s almost as elusive as a d e f i n i t i o n of happiness. ... It i s more l i k e l y to be i n things s p i r i t u a l and mental than i n things physical and material. The only rule for l e g i s l a t o r s and planners i s that men must be l e f t free to search for i t , so long as the i r freedom does not impede the search of others. Beyond th i s the only aids they can be given are education and upbringing, and abundant scope for search when the time comes. I f a society does not direct the use of i t s resources to these ends, i t can not be using or serving the key resources, i t s people, as i t should." To define the purpose of resource development as wealth, health and especially happiness i s a rather vague goal s p e c i f i -cation f o r the terms wealth, health and above a l l happiness not only mean di f f e r e n t things to different people, but cannot even be defined. "I want to be happy," goes the popular song, and i t voices the universal desire of mankind; but i f anyone were to say, "I want to be happy because ..." he couldn't complete the sentence except by saying, "because I want to be happy. "-^ 4 3 The Tahsis Company - This company i s the "basic promoter and i n i t i a t o r as well as the major investor i n the development. Some of i t s goals i n planning and building Gold River were c l e a r l y stated. Being comprised of business people mainly, the company's main concern was ' p r o f i t ' and the rationale behind i t s actions was p r o f i t oriented. The company produces and s e l l s pulp and for t h i s i t needs two things: the raw material i . e . a Farm Tree Licence to obtain i t , and the labour force i . e . the people, to turn the trees into d o l l a r s . The company obtained Farm Tree Licence No. 19 on the West coast of Vancouver Island and started to look for a pulp-mill s i t e . Having found one on the Muchalet Inlet, i t now had to think of providing the labour force with some basic commodities such as shelter. A s i t e was chosen i n the v i c i n i t y of the pulp-mill, for the proximity of work and residence was given the p r i o r i t y over other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . ^ The pulp-mill operation would be profitable only i f an adequate and stable labour force could be ensured. But today, because of high competition the pulp-mill plants are becoming larger and more automated. Although this may demand less people to run the pulp-mill, i t requires more specialized and s k i l l e d workers to do the work. Since the t r a i n i n g of such workers takes time and involves investment, the company's main concern was to keep i t s trained workers happy and s a t i s f i e d 44 with, t h e i r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s and t h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , a v o i d i n g thus a h i g h t u r n o v e r . The company hoped t h a t by c r e a t i n g a brand new and modern town a l o n g the suburban l i n e s , a l l o w i n g the worker t o b r i n g h i s f a m i l y , educate h i s c h i l d r e n , and have some r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , i t would be a b l e t o keep i t s workers and reduce c o n s i d e r a b l y the n e c e s s a r y expenses i n c u r r e d by c o n s t a n t change and r e t r a i n i n g o f w o r k e r s . I n 1944 the company c r e a t e d the town of T a h s i s which was b o t h , a company town and a s i n g l e i n d u s t r y town. Having e x p e r i e n c e d the problems and the f i n a n c i a l c o s t i n v o l v e d i n h o u s i n g w o r k e r s , the company d e c i d e d t h a t i t would be e a s i e r , cheaper, and perhaps, more e f f i c i e n t j u s t t o s u p e r v i s e and d i r e c t t h e b u i l d i n g of Gold R i v e r and then a t i t s c o m p l e t i o n t u r n i t over t o t h e community which would manage and govern i t s e l f . T h i s would not o n l y save the company the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n r u n n i n g a town but as the town w i l l have i t s own m u n i c i p a l i t y and thus become independent of the company, the s t i g m a a t t a c h e d t o the n o t i o n of a company town would be removed. The company's d e c i s i o n was f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by, perhaps, a n o t h e r most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r . The company i n t h i s case h a v i n g a town s i t e i n the p r o x i m i t y o f the p l a n t , r u n and a d m i n i s t e r e d by the town's own i n h a b i t a n t s , would be a b l e t o c o n c e n t r a t e more f u l l y and e f f i c i e n t l y i t s e f f o r t s on the management and the o p e r a t i o n o f the p l a n t . 45 12 Mr. Prank Grab mentioned that i n the beginning i t was out of despair and necessity that they went into the building of the town, because no one else would build i t for them. Later, aft e r having reconsidered the problem, the company executives were glad they chose to do i t themselves because they decided that i t was i n t h e i r interest to build the town and provide the best possible l i v i n g conditions i n order to attract and r e t a i n the best possible s k i l l e d and trained workers. Thus the often mentioned statement that Gold River was b u i l t to provide Tahsis Company with a stable and available labour force i s correct. To create a stable community was therefore the aim of the company's executives and the d i f f e r e n t factors contributing to the s t a b i l i t y of the community had to be determined and taken into consideration while planning for the town. Previous experience and studies made of company towns have shown that unmarried men are more l i k e l y to be mobile and are unstable elements i n such towns. Families with children are a more stable element and would stay i n one place more l i k e l y i f provided with the necessary housing, shopping, health, recre-a t i o n a l and educational f a c i l i t i e s . The company therefore aimed at building a town which would attract families. In t h i s ease the two main factors considered were: - Families with children are accustomed to l i v e i n single family detached houses. 46 - The income range of the potential head of family l i v i n g ihothe town would be a function of position held i n the pulp-mill. Taking these factors into consideration, the company was able to decide that i n the f i r s t building stage community f a c i l i t i e s should be b u i l t for 5 5 0 employees of which 75% were considered to be the heads of a family with children. The community f a c i l i t i e s were to have suburban ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; mostly single family dwellings worth 2 0 to 25 thousand dollars each, b u i l t on i n d i v i d u a l l o t s , with lawns and backyards, i n the proximity of school, shopping and recreational f a c i l i t i e s . The company expressed the desire to improve and even subsidize certain community f a c i l i t i e s but i n rather vague terms with no d e f i n i t e l i m i t s to i t s budget. The company con-sidered subsidies as necessary e v i l s and as an investment without which.it would have l i t t l e chance to make a good p r o f i t on the operation as a whole. The human factors were simply considered as a means to achieve the f i n a l goal: the success of the operation and of the m i l l . The company also hoped to improve labour and management relationships by withdrawing from the administration of the town and, as mentioned before, to make people forget about the old company towns which were not very popular as i s shown by the following quote: Rent and taxes may be low i n a company town but the people who l i v e there frequently seem anxious to get out. 'It gets so monotonous,' one housewife says,''when everything i s company oriented.'-^ 48 The company also hoped that the instant town w i l l eventually provide l o c a l self-government, i n t e l l i g e n t neighbors, and a sense of community and progress, a l l i n a natural setting that may be both extraordinarily healthful and incredibly beautiful. ^ In other words the company's goals were a l l derivatives of actually one goal - that of making maximum p r o f i t . (See Diagram 4 ) . The planner - In 1 9 5 9 Mr. D. K. Nauman, the selected planner for the development, was approached by East A s i a t i c Company, the co-owner with the Canadian International Paper Company of the Tahsis Company. At that time the company was thinking of choosing a town s i t e i n the proximity of the pulp-mill which was being b u i l t on the Muchalet Inlet. The f i r s t thing that the planner questioned was,the choice made by the company to have the pulp-mill on the west coast of Vancouver Island. When faced with the company's strong reluctance to change the s i t e , he suggested to have the community i n Campbell River and to commute workers to the pulp-mill and invest i n the transportation system and the road network rather than i n the town. His argument was that i t i s unwise to create small communities i n the wilderness when one could increase the size of an already existing community. He was convinced that towns with less than 20,000 people cannot support themselves and provide enough variety and quality i n services i n order to create 49 15 a desirable environment and a happy community. In 1964 the planner was once more contacted and asked to study the best possible s i t e i n the proximity of the pulp-mill. He had to take f o r granted that the decision of the company concerning the s i t e of the pulp-mill and the future town's proximity to i t was i r r e v e r s i b l e . An a e r i a l survey of the region situated around the pulp-mill s i t e and covering a surface of a t h i r t y mile radius was made. Although the object was to fin d a town s i t e as close as possible to the plant, the town's p o s s i b i l i t i e s of development i n the future were also taken into consideration. The f i r s t projected estimates of the town's size were those of 3,000 people with around 600 houses. Some close but rather small si t e s were found. These were 'pockets' of f l a t land . scattered i n the v i c i n i t y of the m i l l . The idea of building a town of high density on these 'pockets' was considered, but was rejected because of limited growth p o s s i b i l i t i e s and the assump-tion that people do not l i k e to raise families i n high density areas. Since the company's aim was mainly to attract t h i s class of people, (young families with children), the whole purpose behind the building of the town would have been defeated. F i n a l l y , the option was made for a s i t e situated at the junction of the Heber and Gold r i v e r s , ten miles from the plant. The s i t e comprised 820 acres of mostly marshy land and could provide housing f a c i l i t i e s for 13,000 people. The planner thus 50 had no choice of the s i t e and his work was reduced to the planning of the town i t s e l f . His task consisted of planning the town i n such a way so as to permit the desirable growth and situate i t i n the proximity of the proposed highway so that i t would not be too isolated from the future t r a f f i c and could eventually become a milestone, being only sixty miles from Campbell River. The design of the ultimate town was based on a neighbour-hood concept where each new development would be a stage i n the growth of the town, with the town at each stage remaining a complete unit i n i t s e l f . The street lay-out was based on the consideration of the topographical and geographical aspect of the s i t e . Contours were followed and the projected roads were to remain i n the lower part of the t e r r a i n so as to avoid damp-ness i n the houses which were to be situated above the road l e v e l . The main e x p l i c i t goals set by the planner were thus: - Planning for a town with growth p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . - Providing communication f a c i l i t i e s with the external world. - Design i n terms of a neighbourhood concept. (See Diagram 5). Other, less e x p l i c i t goals, were: - To create as much as possible variety by a non-uniform street pattern. - To economize the most on services by making the best use of them, (for example no back-lanes). - To plan for choice. - To create a large t r a i l e r camp which would allow newcomers to stay at low cost with the knowledge that they are free to, C/2/T£AG# 51 !0 TS. § 15 1 NJ I 52 either move away, or have time to "buy or build eventually a house of th e i r own. Although the planner t r i e d by a l l means to encourage and maintain his suggestion a l l through the planning process, his demands were only p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d . There i s a t r a i l e r camp i n Gold River but i t i s too small and has not been integrated within the town i t s e l f . The architect -It was decided that the town should provide the best f a c i l i t i e s possible i n an environment at t r a c t i v e to those who w i l l be l i v i n g i n the town. The Tahsis company appointed a consortium of town planners, engineers, landscape architects and other consultants under the di r e c t i o n of McCarter, Nairne & Partners, Architects and Consulting Engineers, with the instructions to effect the l a t e s t thinking i n town planning, municipal f-engineering and a coordinated design of buildings. ° The architects acted mainly as coordinators and designers for they were already presented with a chosen s i t e and the single family dwelling requirement. They t r i e d to give the town a suburban character and wanted by increasing the density of i t s center to recreate there a pseudo-urban situation. Taking into consideration the fact that i n the future Gold River might become a regional center for the west coast of Vancouver Island, attempts were made: - To create a strong central core of the town. - Have small l o t s , a varied housing and good i n s t i t u t i o n a l buildings. 53 - To create a shopping area which would attra c t a l l the smaller communities i n logging and mining companies to Gold River and thus increase the population of the town. - To design the town center i n such a way so as to provide f a c i l i t i e s for any unexpected growth of the town and make i t the f o c a l point. The architects wanted to create l i f e i n the center by building apartment buildings i n i t s proximity. Such f a c i l i t i e s would be cheaper than single family houses and would have the same function as the old houses i n an urban area. They would be rented out and would be accessible to transient population and the less r i c h . On the other hand the architects wanted the single family houses to be as big as possible i n order to s a t i s f y that group of people who think that much space i s important for growth. The major e x p l i c i t goals of the architects can be summarized as: - The creation of an att r a c t i v e and pleasant environment. - Provision f o r community l i f e . (See Diagram 6 ) . The coordination of works had as i t s goal the supervision and elimination of overlapping a c t i v i t i e s between the di f f e r e n t consultants (the mechanical, e l e c t r i c a l , s t r uctural engineers, the contractors and project a r c h i t e c t s ) . In carrying out t h e i r assigned task the architects had to take into consideration not I •Vi Vi K VJ . 5 . V) ^ 4$ 55 only the f i n a n c i a l f e a s i b i l i t y aspect of the question but also try to think i n terms of people l i v i n g i n the towns. They had to provide and allocate f o r recreational f a c i l i t i e s and a l l the indispensable i n s t i t u t i o n a l , educational and commercial amenities which are necessary and which provide a town with community l i f e . Their main goal was to create an a t t r a c t i v e and pleasant environ-ment to l i v e i n ; i n this they were restrained by the fact that Tahsis Company was not always ready to back them f i n a n c i a l l y . The a r c h i t e c t s 1 position was rather d i f f i c u l t for they were caught between contradictory aims: - The company wanted to provide f i n a n c i a l l y the bare minimum, just s u f f i c i e n t to make the place l i v a b l e . - The. professional challenge i n having the opportunity to create a unique si t u a t i o n . - The assumed interests of the future inhabitants which i n order to be s a t i s f i e d demanded the maximum of f a c i l i t i e s and 17 expected the company to subsidize them. The architects had to be the f a i r judges between the company and the assumed demands of the prospective inhabitants. The contractor - The contractors proposed for every proposed project a design which had to be approved by the architect i n order to be accepted. The contractor's goal was to win the tender and make a p r o f i t . In order to win the contractor usually made proposals based on assumptions as to what would 56 the c l i e n t (company) and the architect accept. The contractor used his own judgment for decision-making on his previous experiences and on v i s i t s made to places already functioning i n similar conditions. The e x p l i c i t goal of any contractor would thus be: - To provide the town or the future users with the adequate f a c i l i t i e s . - To respond as closely as possible to the requirements posed by the architect. But their ultimate e x p l i c i t goal i s always ' p r o f i t ' . As we have seen a l l the parties involved i n the planning process as well as i n building Gold River had diff e r e n t goals. These goals were mostly i m p l i c i t and th e i r s p e c i f i c a t i o n was presented i n a vague and elusive form. No one planning body-wanted to commit i t s e l f by c l e a r l y stating s p e c i f i c goals. B. Description of the 'Planning Process Having passed through the goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n stage, the planning of Gold River could move now into the stages of decision-making, planr-execution, evaluation and reorientation. "The planning process has to do with a sequence  of action which begins with establishing certain goals, involves certain decisions as to alternative ways of achieving these goals and eventually takes the form of steps f o r carrying out decisions, followed by evaluation and perhaps a new sequence of a c t i o n . " 1 " The planning of Gold River aimed at f u l f i l l i n g primarily s o c i a l and economic objectives going f a r beyond the physical GO A L -S OJ 1 ft N* fe I • / • 2 • 3 • 4 • s o 6 • 7 o 8 o 9 o /o o // o /z • /3 • /4 o /S o /6 • '7 o /8 o /9 • 2o o 2 / o 22 o 23 • 24 o 25 o 26 o 2 7 • 28 • ze> • 30 • 31 • 32 o 33 o 34 o 35 o < 36 o 3 7 o 38 o 36> o 4o o 4/ o 42 o 43 o 44 o 4S • 4-6 o 47 o 4S o 4e> • So o o S/ o 52 • S3 o 54 • SS • SS SUCCESS OF y/-/£ 0/>£/e#T'ou P£op/y P~0/2 TAVE co/yp/9/vy £7~4BL£ L4SO/2 F0&ZE. JH/AJM: AAV ?E*AVS 0S/secf/0(V/?L C£AA7EAZ G0A.0 /Z/IAE& /aecf/0As/?c CEAAFEAZ /A/ y//eA=vy0A2E UAEA?/ ytA, AAE/?/7H A?AA& AA/?A>E>/AAESS OE C/y/-?£A/S UAE/.L - &EE/AA<$ or /A/Mve/r^Mr* £>9U/S LrAV^6A/e/AA<5 A? A/• /^CiZEE-y^BlE FlACEyo/./(/£ //V L/?u/s EAVsv/e/Ajc? /f/v A?cc£P7'?&t-E PCAICE 7e>/2ArYSEc*/Ai.p&EAA s/?7~/s/^y y/AE? A A A 7 " / ? 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FOP GAAOACE PAZ0IAA0E F0AZ F0yc/AZ£ £>EIAEC0A>A/EA/7 AA/& <$P0U>y/S P/Z0IA/S/0ASS FOP C?P0UAy/V OETAAE CEAVyEAZ. f AJC/ZEA)S£ P0P0C47/OAA AAA&P E/9SE 0EA/s/yy FlAO/0 CAZEA?rAAY<S <9 SAS/9LC T0U/A/ /BOALD JAAE yOU/K/ SP0J/9CEA/7 y0 # 3Eyy£SA/EAA7 EAA30PE y/A/?y T0HA/V /S A?C0//Pe.E/-E 0A/Ajr A}?EA)CAA S/y)GE £>ESSC?/<1 A}-CC0A2D/A/G 7~0 AAE/&AA&0P A/000 COAACEPy I/VC/2 EA?SE A^EA/S/yy 0F yAAE CEAVyEAZ. 7011A/V CEAAftSAZ F0C/9C *=>0A AA y FlSecA&O- OPJSA?A^ S//-(/A?y/0AA AAV /~AAE CEAVy^AZ y)PPA/ZTAA£A/T &0A/-D/AA<$S AAV /AA£ <C<57y/<£VZ <7Tf£A}Cf/'0AA F0AZ &TAAEAZ COM/WY/TA ES ASAAAVAC/PA?/./yy /^TTfZ^cr MA1/2/2/EA> PEOPl £ UAO/2ACEA2S &/VP PA//A/L/ES A9S E>OA'C/C/^y/0/V GOOD s/9Av/yA?py co/vo/'y/o/vs S£> 0C T *0 A^ /<? A. P/9C/L / T/E~E> &0At\ &/AV& S A=0.e E" A>iAC/9 0AA SCZA/0O c FAtc/A/yes /AAST/yoy/0AA^L FACAC/.7/e& C0A4AA(/AVAy Y FA9C/L ly/ES PA20IA/A>E FO/Z COAAA/C/A//ry L/FE PA20\A/^>/OAAS EO/Z A? E C y / O A A AZ ECPEA? y/OA/sl L FA?C/A./y/E£> CjAP/Aj JO JAAE FAZ01AAA/C//9L yAZEA?S0A2y A/AjA^E A? PAZOEAy PS? 0FESS/O AVAIL C./-/& t L E AA c? E BE A? FA&AZ J-CA&GE &Eyn/££AA C0/AA>/9A/y'/A^A^&A^^A^/lA//. C00/2D1A/A97E F0& EFFACAFAVcy £COAy0A*y 0AV SEV2V/CES A=>AZ0A/0y£ ^£S0CA2C£ £>eiAE~A.OPA/£AAy £AVC0£/AZA?(2>£ AVG4V C0AyA/0AVATAE5 PI r PI 0 N, H 1 s N. (N —IEG£17D-EXPLICITLY STATED GOA?LS O /MP L/C/ T GO AILS T A B L E I T A B U L A T I O N O F I M P L I C I T A N D ^ E X P L I C I T G O A L S 57 form and arrangement of buildings, streets, u t i l i t i e s , etc. The planning of the town took effect largely through the operations of the company. Since i t required the application of specialized techniques of analysis, forecasting, design and survey, other bodies became involved. Thus i n the planning of Gold River d i f f e r e n t goals and objectives of the d i f f e r e n t bodies involved were to fuse into an e f f o r t to shape and create an environment within which the inhabitant could grow and thrive. This at least seemed to be the objective of a l l the e x p l i c i t l y stated goals. Nevertheless, this was true only t h e o r e t i c a l l y : the force of implcit goals nourished by s e l f - i n t e r e s t i n d i f f e r e n t forms: p r o f i t , prestige, fear of committing oneself to a decision, professional pride, etc., seemed to be the major motivation behind most of the decision-making process. This trend revealed i t s e l f not only i n the actual choice of the s i t e of the pulp-m i l l and the town, but also i n a l l the other minor decisions taken regarding roads, types of housing, recreation, community services and others. Although the decision-making process was mainly a function of the d i f f e r e n t bodies involved i n the planning of Gold River, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to deny the importance of the influence of the physical environment, t e r r a i n , location, the very make-up and perhaps even history of the area. The h i s t o r i c a l background - Muchalat Inlet and the valley of 58 Gold River, which empties into i t , were formerly inhabited by a number of independent l o c a l Indian tribes of the Nootka Clan. During the beginnings of the 19th century, these tribes engaged i n constant skirmishes while competing for each other's r i c h f i s h i n g grounds, (Gold River was one of the few f i s h i n g grounds i n the region i n which sockeye run). This eventually reduced them to a handful of survivors who ultimately consolidated into a single t r i b e , the Muchalat. In the second half of the 19th century this t r i b e settled on a s i t e i n the northern mouth of the i n l e t , but as i t s members declined i n number, they eventually decided to j o i n the Moachat tr i b e and moved down to Friendly 19 Cove, where they settled by l a t e 1890's. . Friendly Cove i s on the southern t i p of Nootka Island. Here the history of B r i t i s h Columbia §lni the Western Shores began, for i t was here that the f i r s t white men brought by Captain James Cook i n 1778 on HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery then anchored i n Nootka Sound set foot on the western shores. Nootka Sound thus came to be known as the "Cradle of History" for Canada's western shores. Around 1780 Captain John Meares established a trading post and b u i l t the f i r s t ship, the North West America, on the north-western coast at Friendly Cove on Nootka Island. Captain Vancouver arrived at Nootka i n 1792 to meet with Captain Juan Francisco de l a Bodega y Quedra of Spain to negotiate a treaty 59 f o r t h i s t e r r i t o r y . l a t e r s t i l l , Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s r e f e r r e d t o h u n t i n g t r i p s t o T a h s i s and up the r i v e r t h r o u g h 20 t h e y e a r s 1860 t o 1943. I n 1944, Olson L o g g i n g Company logg e d o f f the h i l l s i d e s b ehind the p r e s e n t t o w n s i t e which i s near the I n d i a n c h i e f Maquinnas's w i n t e r v i l l a g e , where the c h i e f e n t e r t a i n e d C a p t a i n Cook and C a p t a i n Quedra of S p a i n i n 1792. V/. F. Gibson took over s h o r t l y a f t e r and l o g g e d i n the v a l l e y . I n the s p r i n g o f 1945, Gibson B r o t h e r s began c l e a r i n g l a n d f o r a s a w - m i l l s i t e . M i l l c o n s t r u c t i o n began i n June o f t h a t y e a r and the m i l l began c u t t i n g e x p o r t lumber on September 20th . I n 1952 the T a h s i s Company L i m i t e d , a s u b s i d i a r y of the 21 E a s t A s i a t i c Company, took over as o p e r a t o r s . The company's o p e r a t i o n s c e n t e r on i t s Tree Farm L i c e n c e Wo. 19, which ranges from T a h s i s i n the n o r t h , t o s o u t h and e a s t o f Gold R i v e r , 36 m i l e s away. T a h s i s Tree Farm c o v e r s 458,000 a c r e s , h a l f o f w h i c h i s p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t l a n d . The company i s a l s o the major quota h o l d e r i n the Nootka P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t , l y i n g t o the west of the Tree Farm L i c e n c e No. 19. The company's major l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s are l o c a t e d a t F a i r Harbour and a t Gold R i v e r . A number of independent l o g g i n g companies a l s o l o g under c o n t r a c t w i t h the T a h s i s Company, b o t h i n the Tree Farm L i c e n c e and the P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t . The company o b t a i n s i t s l o g s about e q u a l l y from 60 i t s own operations and from contractors. Although the company's operations were at f i r s t l i mited to logging, there had always been some thought about using the timber for pulp-mill purposes. Even though a pulp-mill was b u i l t and i s now i n operation, the large, modern saw-mill s t i l l i s , as i t has been for the past twenty years, the heart of the company's operations. The saw-mill cuts about 140,000,000 fbm a year,' 74% of which i s hemlock and 21% Douglas f i r . Cedar logs and peelers are sold on the Vancouver l o g market. Pulp logs and chips from the saw-m i l l are used i n the Gold River pulp-mill. To cater to the needs of the employees of the saw-mill the company b u i l t a town. This town was ess e n t i a l l y a company town. When on A p r i l 1, 1965 the East A s i a t i c Company (Canada) Ltd., was joined as equal partner i n the ownership of the Tahsis Company by Canadian International Paper Company, a new era opened for the Tahsis Company. Work began immediately on a 750 ton per day bleached kraft pulp-mill at the mouth of the Gold River on the Muchalat I n l e t . 2 2 Site selection for the pulp-mill - The decision to build the pulp-mill at the mouth of Gold River was inevitable because this i s the only sizable f l a t area on the west side of Vancouver Island adjacent to the tree farming rights of the company. The delta land, which formerly had been occupied only by the company's Gold River Logging Division, had to be f i l l e d to 61 c r e a t e a 175 a c r e s i t e f o r the p u l p - m i l l . About 1,250,000 c u b i c y a r d s o f f i l l were dredged from the i n l e t , c r e a t i n g a 23 harbour o f up t o 35 f e e t minimum depth. y A l t h o u g h i t would have been a d v i s a b l e t o s i t u a t e the p u l p -m i l l n ear an e x i s t i n g community, i n t h i s case the p o s s i b l e c h o i c e b e i n g e i t h e r T a h s i s o r Campbell R i v e r , n e i t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y seemed o p e r a t i o n a l . There i s no space f o r the l o c a t i o n of a p u l p - m i l l p l a n t i n T a h s i s , and the town does not have a p o s s i b i l -i t y f o r the ex p a n s i o n o f h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r some 600 a d d i -t i o n a l f a m i l i e s . Campbell R i v e r was e l i m i n a t e d m a i n l y because of the c o n d i t i o n of the roads a t t h a t t i m e : the a c c e s s road was not o n l y a p r i v a t e one and was i n poor shape f o r an e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f l o g s , but the t r u c k s would have had t o pass through the M a c M i l l a n - B l o d e l t e r r i t o r y w hich would have l e d t o unnecessary c o m p l i c a t i o n s . R a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , was never c o n s i d e r e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an adequate and f u n c t i o n a l p u l p - m i l l s i t e , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o have: - The s i t e e a s i l y s u p p l i e d w i t h the raw m a t e r i a l ( l u m b e r ) . - Access t o the means o f e x p o r t i n g the p u l p . - Water s u p p l y o f some 40 m i l l i o n g a l l o n s per day. - A f l a t , d r y and hard l a n d f o r the f o u n d a t i o n s o f the m i l l . - A s i z a b l e acreage of l a n d f o r e x t e n t i o n purposes. - L i n k s w i t h some water f r o n t a g e f o r the s t o c k i n g o f l o g s . 62 - The p o s s i b i l i t y of power ( e l e c t r i c i t y and/or gas) supply. - A good road connecting the pulp-mill with an established adjacent community.. The selected s i t e s a t i s f i e d a l l the above mentioned requirements with the exception of the l a s t one. The s i t e was neither i n the v i c i n i t y of an established community, nor had a good road leading to one. On the s i t e of the future pulp-mill there were only some logging camps and an Indian settlement. Thus, as f a r as the decision regarding the choice of the s i t e was. concerned the company alone carried out the decision without consulting any other e l i g i b l e body. Its choice seems to have been motivated f i r s t and foremost by the pride i n being the i n i t i a t o r of a nucleus of c i v i l i z a t i o n i n wilderness. Although the company could foresee a l l the d i f f i c u l t i e s and problems involved i n commencing a new development, i t could not r e s i s t the temptation of prestige and the s a t i s f a c t i o n of having ventured and completed such a task - an ultra-modern pulp-mill and a new concept of a town. This prestige and s a t i s f a c t i o n would have been substantially reduced i f the pulp-mill and the labour force would have been plugged into an already existing community. There also seemed to have been the attitude that i t i s preferable to start with a new town rather than become involved with some existing town's f a c i l i t i e s and i t s problems. The company thus opted for an 'instant' town with i t s 'instant' problems. 63 Site selection of the town - Once i t was decided to build the pulp-mill on the delta at the mouth-of Gold River, the problem of providing a satisfactory accomodation for the employees of the m i l l and the Gold River Logging Division had to be considered. The company was faced with the following alternatives: - Erecting a camp adjacent to the m i l l . - Driving the workers back and fort h to Campbell River. - Building a new town. Since the e f f i c i e n t operation of the pulp-mill necessarily required r e l i a b l e and s k i l l e d workers, who would not l i k e l y be lured to l i v e i n a camp where o r d i n a r i l y only rather transient characters l i v e , the idea of erecting a camp was eliminated. The idea of bringing workers regularly from Campbell River was rejected because of the ensuing complications such as the over-time payment which would have had to be allocated for the time spent by the workers on the road, or delays which could occur during transportation. Such an arrangement not only would have raised the company's expenditure but also would have been rather inconvenient, especially i n winter, when roads get blocked by snow and may become hazardous. Also, since a pulp-m i l l operates 24 hours a day with workers working i n three s h i f t s , any arrest of production due to the absence or the i n a b i l i t y of workers to take over t h e i r s h i f t s on time would necessarily incur a f i n a n c i a l l o s s . Furthermore, the road had to be repaired and even p a r t i a l l y r e b u i l t and the alternative of providing another means of 64 transportation (rapid trains, gondolas, helicopters, etc.), was considered out of question mainly because of the large f i n a n c i a l investment involved. It was thus that the decision to build a town i n the proximity of the plant was made. At this stage consultants were hired to study the situation and make suggestions to the company. While the consultants worked on the cost-benefit studies and diff e r e n t planning problems, the company contacted high l e v e l government o f f i c i a l s . When the government's attitude was discovered to be favourable, the company decided to venture further with the study of the town. If at the time the government's attitude to the new development had been unfavourable, and, perhaps, i f the govern-ment had promised some subsidies, the company would have been 'convinced' to build the pulp-mill i n Campbell River. But the government hoped, by promoting the new development, that Gold River would become a regional center. The f i n a l decision-making was thus l e f t to the company which planned as i t saw f i t . Having decided to build the town near the pulp-mill, decision had to be made regarding the choice of the s i t e . The choice of the s i t e was made af t e r taking into consideration the following factors: - climatic conditions - size of possible extension - s o i l conditions 65 - a c c e s s t o main roads - water - sewage The b e s t p o s s i b l e s i t e was found t o be a t the j u n c t i o n o f the Gold and Heber r i v e r s , n i n e m i l e s from the p u l p - m i l l s i t e where the Gold R i v e r canyon suddenly opens up i n t o a broad and s p a c i o u s v a l l e y t h a t i s b o t h b e a u t i f u l and l a r g e enough t o a l l o w f o r t he town's growth i n the f u t u r e . The s i t e i s about 60 m i l e s by road from Campbell R i v e r , a community o f 9,000 on the I s l a n d Highway t h a t runs down the e a s t c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d , c o n n e c t i n g Nanaimo w i t h f a s t f r e q u e n t 24 f e r r i e s t o Vancouver. The company was now f a c e d by a b a s i c c h o i c e t o be made: - E i t h e r b u i l d a company town. - Or i n c o r p o r a t e a m u n i c i p a l i t y . The company had a l r e a d y b u i l t one town - T a h s i s . T a h s i s had never proved t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y e i t h e r t o the employer o r the employees. The e x p e r i e n c e w i t h T a h s i s prompted the company t o abandon the i d e a o f b u i l d i n g a company town and t o t r y t o i n i t i a t e an independent town i n c o r p o r a t e d as a m u n i c i p a l i t y . The concept o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y a t t r a c t e d the company m a i n l y because o f the f a c t t h a t i n such a case b o t h , the l a n d and the development, c o u l d be s o l d t o the i n h a b i t a n t s and the company a f t e r an i n i t i a l i n v e s t m e n t c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y r e p o s s e s s 6 6 the invested c a p i t a l . Where company towns are concerned the company owns such towns and the c a p i t a l invested i n such towns becomes eventually 'frozen' for an i n d e f i n i t e period. What makes the instant town s t r u c t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t from a straight old company town i s an element of sponsorship from the government. Ori g i n a l l y , says Don South of B r i t i s h Columbia's Department of Municipal A f f a i r s , the idea was merely 'a gleam i n the eye of Dan Campbell, when he was a backbencher.' Then Campbell became minister for municipal a f f a i r s and companies that were planning resource development f i r e d that gleam. I f the companies bought up land i n a proposed area and i f they could s a t i s f y the government that a new community could expect to l a s t there for a reasonable time the government would issue Letters Patent f o r the incorporation of a self-governing municipality. The government would then appoint an interim council and, i f necessary, grant the new town special borrowing powers. For both residents and l o c a l businessmen, the role of the government dispels the fly-by-night atmosphere that infects some company towns. For the company's part, i t services the land and builds houses and apartments for i t s own employees. It s e l l s the houses at cost (with a buy-back clause, i n case an owner decides to leave). ' The incorporation of Gold River - Although Gold River was not to be a 'company town' i n any sense of the term, i t was conceived and fostered by the Tahsis Comapny Ltd., following the company's decision to build a pulp-mill i n connection with i t s extensive timber holdings i n the area. To have thus the town incorporated as a municipality of the D i s t r i c t of Gold River, changes i n l e g i s l a t i o n had to be made. Legisl a t i o n enacted i n 1 9 6 5 pursuant to the Provincial Municipal Act permits the incorporation of a Municipality, i n 67 conjunction with the development of a natural resource, upon p e t i t i o n of f i v e landowners within the defined area. Negotiations between the Provincial Government and Tahsis Company resulted i n a contractual agreement covering the d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l -i t i e s for the development of the proposed townsite. The Tahsis Company was said to be responsible towards the Provincial Government for surveying and clearing the land, planning and subdividing streets and l o t s , paving streets, constructing a complete storm sewer system, i n s t a l l i n g street l i g h t i n g and underground cables for e l e c t r i c i t y , telephone and t e l e v i s i o n . In the agreement i t was stipulated that no p r o f i t i n r e a l estate w i l l accrue to the developer. The prices of serviced l o t s were set at purchase price plus the cost of servicing. Following submission of the necessary p e t i t i o n , Letters Patent incorporating the D i s t r i c t of Gold River was issued on August 26, 1965. 2 6 Size determination and population prevision - Consideration was being made for a town of 11,000 people, but no one r e a l l y believed i n this figure which was too optimistic and extremely u n r e a l i s t i c . While selecting the s i t e previsions were made i n order to have space for eventual growth. Although the estimate of the town's population was determined empirically i t came to be very accurate. Having decided upon the size of the pulp-mill the company knew the exact number of employees needed to operate i t . 68 The following estimates were made: Number of workers needed i n the m i l l 350 Number of workers needed i n the logging d i v i s i o n 200 Total number of workers needed 550 For every four workers an a l l o c a t i o n of one serviceman was made: Number of servicemen needed 550/4 = 137 Total number of persons 687 Furthermore, to insure a more stable personnel and attract people who would eventually s e t t l e , a ration of 3/4 of the population was assumed to be men with families. From previous experience, from other pulp-mill personnel studies, the r a t i o of 4.5 persons per family was adopted (a s l i g h t l y higher one 27 than the number adopted for the average Canadian family). The f i n a l estimate of the town's population thus came to be: Number of single men =1/4 of the t o t a l population = 687/4 = 172 Number of married men = 3/4 of the t o t a l population = 687/4 x 3 = 516 Number of dependents = 3/4 of the t o t a l population x (4.5-1) =1,806 Total number of persons 2.495 In the outline for the development of Gold River i n March 1966 the architects wrote: It i s expected that the population of the town when the pulp-mill commences operation i n June 1967, w i l l 69 be 2,500 people, increasing to 3,000 people i n the following year.^o A l l those previsions were very r e a l i s t i c and the i n i t i a l building phase proposed by the architects was to include 350 homes, 220 apartment units, a hotel, some bunkhouses and a t r a i l e r camp. At thi s stage the company required a layout for the houses and was rather skeptical regarding the idea of apartments but being faced with the eventual 172 single men i t decided to go on with the construction of those apartments. The architect's point was to create f l e x i b i l i t y and to give the opportunity to the new-comers to eventually rent an apartment for a certain time before having to buy a house. Being faced with an unexpected r i s e i n prices and with a high bid the company decided f i n a l l y to reduce the number of detached houses to 218 and to build as advised by the architect 36 town houses and 64 garden apartments. By t h i s decision the range i n price was more f l e x i b l e and the inhabitants had some choice and some variety was introduced i n the overall appearance of the town. At this stage therefore: 1. The size of the town was determined by - Taking into consideration the number of potential workers for the Tahsis Company. - Making empirical calculations concerning the t o t a l number of population rather accurately, s a t i s f y i n g thus the company's requirements. 70 2. The p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the growth o f t h e town was i n s u r e d by: - A l l o c a t i n g the n e c e s s a r y s u i t a b l e l a n d . - O u t l i n i n g the development as a whole i n i t s p r o j e c t e d f i n a l s t age ( g r o s s c e n t e r ) and i n the c o n t e x t o f the r e g i o n s a t i s f y i n g thus the government 1s hopes o f c r e a t i n g a p o s s i b l e r e g i o n a l c e n t e r . 3. The g o a l o f the company, t h e a r c h i t e c t and the p l a n n e r t o c r e a t e a l i v a b l e and a c c e p t a b l e p l a c e f o r the workers t o l i v e i n was a t t a i n e d by: - C r e a t i n g some v a r i e t y i n the type of h o u s i n g . - P r o v i d i n g adequate f a c i l i t i e s such as a s c h o o l , a shopping c e n t e r , p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and t h e l i k e . 4. An attempt was made t o i n s u r e a s t a b l e l a b o u r f o r c e and c r e a t e a s t a b l e community by: - C r e a t i n g a suburban environment i n which people would f e e l a t home. - Making i t p o s s i b l e f o r the people t o own t h e i r own houses and thus s a t i s f y t he needs o f the p o t e n t i a l w o r k e r s . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s per se - Hav i n g a n a l y s e d g o a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n p rocedures o f the d i f f e r e n t b o d i e s , the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and p l a n -e x e c u t i o n a t the d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f the p r o j e c t can be b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d s c h e m a t i c a l l y . (See Diagrams o f s t a g e s 1, 2, and 3 ) . Stage 1 (Diagram 7) r e p r e s e n t s t h e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s and st a g e s o f n e g o t i a t i o n c a r r i e d between the p a r t i e s i n t e r e s t e d . Open n e g o t i a t i o n was c a r r i e d a t a low l e v e l between the 72 government on the one hand and the architects—company-representatives on the other. Here the negotiation took place between the architects—company representatives block and each governmental department separately. This process was slow, impractical, and i n e f f i c i e n t because of lack of coordination between the d i f f e r e n t governmental departments primarily because: - Each department had i t s own in t e r n a l regulations, p o l i c i e s , standards and requirements. - Each was ignorant of the others' p o l i c i e s . The re s u l t was not only an overlapping of the d i f f e r e n t functions but also delays, contradictions, frustrations, and f i n a l l y uncommitted attitudes. As negotiation at the lower l e v e l went on, at the higher governmental l e v e l negotiation concerning important issues and problems were carried between the highly placed c i v i l servants and the company administrators. It was here that the basic decisions were made. Most of t h i s decision-making was secret and was not revealed to the lower hierarchy. The policy statement was thus at the cabinet l e v e l and remained unrevealed since a l l negotiation at that l e v e l was carried behind closed doors. A similar situation, but on a smaller scale, concerning less "important" issues, occurred i n each department of the d i f f e r e n t governmental bodies involved i n the planning process. Such procedures resulted from a lack of communication between the concerned members and led to shortcomings and discrepancies i n the transfer of policy information. 7 3 The government, seemingly co-operative i n dealing with the company's developer, was not only un-coordinated within, but also had no c l e a r l y stated policy regarding developments i n general. The high degree of informal communication and i n t e r -action within the government's administration, thus led to a certain informality and f l e x i b i l i t y , which the government seemed to cherish for the l a t t e r could be used as a guise of i t s i m p l i c i t intention to r e f r a i n from leadership a c t i v i t i e s i n town develop-ments. Although the company could have been faced with and was expecting serious delays because of the lack of departmental coordination, i t was helped by the personal intervention and concern as well as enthusiasm of highly placed c i v i l servants. In this way the necessary amendments i n the existing l e g i s l a t i o n and other important procedures were made. Lack of administrative coordination and integration combined with personal inte r e s t , concern and enthusiasm, drove the project to a speedy completion giving i t l i t t l e time to mature. The execution of Gold River i s represented best by the following remark: Take a big chunk of v i r g i n B r i t i s h Columbia land. Lace i t with wide, curbed, paved roads, burrow i t with sewers, prick i t with ornamental l i g h t i n g , furnish i t with mint-new houses. Do a l l t h i s i n .months, not years. Add people. Mix. Result: a geographic alchemy called an Instant Town. " The lack of coordination revealed i t s e l f most c l e a r l y 74 i n the road problem. Although the government agreed to the building of Gold River and had the inhabitant 1s welfare i n mind, the construction of a public road, which was of primary importance f o r commuting to Campbell River, took more than two years, creating along a series of problems for the inhabitants as well as the company. Without a proper road, Gold River, for the f i r s t year e f f e c t i v e l y kept the residents v i r t u a l prisoners. Then the 50-mile road to Campbell River was completed and the sense of l i b e r a t i o n i t gave Gold Riverites has them vocally c a p i t a l i z i n g The Road whenever they refer to i t . 5 ° During the f i r s t stages of decision-making and plan-execution the potential inhabitants of Gold River were not only excluded from p a r t i c i p a t i o n but also l i t t l e concern f o r individuals' s p e c i f i c needs and interests was shown. When a l l the major decisions were taken at the high l e v e l between the government and the company, and after the Municipal Act was amended permitting the incorporation of the town, an interim council was appointed. Here the stage 2 (Diagram 8) i n the planning process commenced. The council was composed of the following individuals: - the superintendent of the pulp-mill - a logger - a housewife - a pulp-mill worker - the manager of the saw-mill 75 In the meantime the municipal clerk who was hired i n conjunction with the architects and the planner worked on the municipal by-laws. In th e i r f i n a l form the by-laws duplicated almost i n t e g r a l l y those of a highly urbanized area. They are of s p e c i f i c and r e s t r i c t i v e nature. Here again the inhabitants of the town were excluded from p a r t i c i p a t i o n , for both, the by-laws as well as the council, came into existence before the town was se t t l e d . Diagram 8 shows c l e a r l y that at this stage decision-making was mainly geared towards the organization and the maintainance of the established order. The appointed interim council's function was to enforce the by-laws which i n turn were to support the company's main interest - the establishment and the maintain-ance of a stable community as a whole by l i m i t i n g the rights of the in d i v i d u a l . The by-laws are thus of preventive rather than a curative nature. The r e s t r i c t i v e and i n f l e x i b l e nature of these laws soon became f r u s t r a t i n g and the in d i v i d u a l f e l t the municipality tresspasssing on the l i m i t s of his freedom. The in d i v i d u a l who decides to leave the well organized suburban l i f e with a l l i t s r e s t r i c t i v e laws, for the new town i n the wilderness, expects to have more freedom i n return. He may want to paint his house a special colour, or fence his garden the way he wants, or have a couple of dogs running loose "51 i n his backyard. J He can do neither, for there are r e s t r i c t i v e laws regarding p r a c t i c a l l y every aspect of his l i f e and property. 76 77 Stage j5 (Diagram 9) thus r e f l e c t s the attempts made by the frustrated individuals to reshape the environment i n t h e i r own fashion and readjust the r e s t r i c t i v e by-laws to t h e i r own needs and views. This stage i s the implementation and the re-orientation of the former planning process. Here the goals, p o l i c i e s , plan-executions are re-evaluated i n the l i g h t of and as a function of the people who now had the mandate to elect a representative council and set new goals, p o l i c i e s , and move through the whole planning process again. This stage i s b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the previous stages i n that the democratic pr i n c i p l e of representation i s introduced into the process involving 'user p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' . - The elected council now prepares the p o l i c i e s and l e g i s l a t i o n amending the established by-laws. - The new goal specifications are suggested by the residents and implemented through their intervention. - Decision-making i s carried out by referendum. - The plan-execution i s the application of the decisions and laws. - Evaluation i s carried out through observation whereby comments and complaints are collected and studied. - This stage leads to further re-orientation and goal s p e c i f i c a -tion. Here as well as i n the other process the same remark can be made, i . e . unfortunately the council i s composed of non-professional p o l i t i c i a n s whose views of the ultimate goals are 79 stated with great d i f f i c u l t y . There are commonly accepted i m p l i c i t goals but no c l e a r l y stated e x p l i c i t ones. When the goals are i m p l i c i t , they are the r e f l e c t i o n of one's personality and d i f f e r from individual to individual especially i n the manner they are ultimately realized. This leads again to shortcomings and discrepancies. The main problem remains - a lack of co-ordination and a know-how of expressing oneself -hence non-communication. Vaguely stated goals lead, therefore, to lack of co-ordin-ation and communication. Since, i n the planning process many diffe r e n t variables and goals are involved, this shortcoming becomes a major problem. The success of any planning process then depends to a large extent on the degree of communication between the diff e r e n t bodies involved. The a b i l i t y to communicate successfully i s b a s i c a l l y a function of the a b i l i t y to state c l e a r l y and succinctly, hence e x p l i c i t l y , one's ideas, opinions, aims and goals. Footnotes F. Stuart Chapin J r . , "Foundation of Urban Planning," Urban L i f e and Form, ed. Werner Z. Hirsch (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963), p. 225. "Aims," The Concise Oxford Dictionary ( 4 t h ed., 1954). Chapin, ojo. c i t . , p. 226. 4 R. A. Shearer, "Exploiting our Economic Potential," Public Policy and the B r i t i s h Columbia Economy, ed. R. Shearer (Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, 1958), p. 144. 5 For further d e t a i l see Appendix D. Interview with Mr. Donald South of B r i t i s h Columbia's Department of Municipal A f f a i r s , October 8, 1969. 7 Shearer, op., c i t . , p. 151. Reverend R. M. Goodal, Transactions of the f i f t e e n t h  B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resource Conference~TVancouver: The Conference, 1964), p. 30. 9 Roderick Haig-Brown, The Li v i n g Land (Toronto: MacMillan, 1961), p. 252. Mortimer J. Adler, Great Ideas from the Great Books (New York: Washington Square Press Inc., 196577 P« 62. Mr. Frank Grabb at the Architectural Institute of B r i t i s h Columbia Seminar, Vancouver: March 28, 1969. 12 Interview with Mr. Frank Grabb, Division Manager, Tahsis Company, Vancouver: October 1, 1969. 1^ Lois Light, "Instant Utopia," Imperial Review, Vol. LIII, No. 3 (June 1969), p. 23. 1 4 Ibid., p. 22. Interview with Mr. D. F. Nauman, planner, Vancouver: January 15, 1969. McCarter, Nairne and Partners, "Outline for the Development of the Town of Gold River," (unpublished report, A p r i l 4, 1966), p. 3. 17 Interview with Mr. Gibson, the architect i n charge of the Gold River projects on behalf of the McCarter, Nairne, and Partners o f f i c e , Vancouver: February 18, 1969. 81 18 Chapin, op_. c i t . , p. 224. 19 P h i l i p Drucker, The Northern and Central Nootkian  Tribes (Washington, U. S. Govt. Print. Off., 1951). 20 Margaret A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A History (Toronto: The MacMillan i n Canada, 1958), pp. 7-15. 21 Information supplied by Tahsis Company Ltd., Tahsis Sawmill Division. 2 2 "The Story of Tahsis Company Ltd.," (Pamphlet.) 2 5 Ibid. 2 4 Ibid. 2 5 Light, op_. c i t . , pp. 23-24. "The D i s t r i c t of Gold River," p. 2, (Mimeographed.) 27 Mr. Frank Grabb at the Architectural Institute of B r i t i s h Columbia Seminar, Vancouver: March 28, 1969-p o McCarter, op_. c i t . , p. 1. 2 9 Lois Light, "Anatomy of an Instant Town," B. C. Motorist (March - A p r i l , 1969), p. 20. 5 0 Ibid., p. 21. J It i s said that everything i n Gold River i s ' e l e c t r i c ' even the Dog-pound - a fact which constantly upsets the inhabitants. CHAPTER IV DESCRIPTION OP GOLD RIVER The author made several t r i p s to Gold River and gathered information and data through interviews and observation.con-cerning the inhabitants' attitudes towards the physical, s o c i a l , and economic aspects of the town. In this way he was able to acquire a r e l a t i v e overall view of the actual situation. With the help of students from the Schools of Social Work, Planning and Architecture, he was able to interview key resource persons from the community and those who were involved i n the planning and building of the town. A questionnaire^" administered to 10$ of the occupants of each of the d i f f e r e n t dwellings was aimed at an attitude survey of the population of Gold River. The information concerning the di f f e r e n t income groups being unavailable at the time of the study, a choice of the individual's dwelling seemed to be the only other appropriate and available way of determining his income and to some extent his s o c i a l status.within the community. Assuming that the a l l o c a t i o n of one's expenditure to housing i s d i r e c t l y proportional to one's income the above mentioned sample was made. The questionnaire was evenly distributed i n order to cover the available range of the di f f e r e n t comments and advice supplied by the di f f e r e n t groups comprising the town's population. The d i f f e r e n t types of the existing housing f a c i l i t i e s i d e n t i f i e d and considered at the time were: 83 Number of detached single family houses 22 " " town houses 4 " " condominium 1 " " t r a i l e r s 6 " " walk-up apartments 7 " " garden apartments 5 " " Heber-Lodge (bunkhouses) 1 " " logging camp inhabitants 2 " " Indian reserve houses 2 In each case one occupant, the owner or a tenant were interviewed. In addition to the above a Forest service employee (ranger) was also interviewed. By interviewing people from the different types of housing and electing an evenly distributed random sample of 10$ of the population, i t was possible to get-to a certain extent a f e e l i n g of the community atmosphere and a broader view on the most important issues. Interaction between the town's inhabitants, the attitude of the inhabitants towards each other and the company, feelings of belongingness, involvement i n community l i f e or estrangement, maladjustment, feelings of inadequecy and inadaptation were studied. The questionnaire was divided into twelve topics with a t o t a l of 66 questions. Most of the questions were purposely l e f t open-ended i n order to gather more of the i m p l i c i t information they might have drawn from the interviewees and thus possibly 84 discover some of the less evident and less e x p l i c i t problems. It must be admitted that such a method may not be very s c i e n t i f i c and that the interviewer may get i n the process of the evaluation of the questionnaire involved with his own emotions or attitudes and hence be unable to render an unbiased analysis of the questionnaire and the s i t u a t i o n . Nevertheless, only such a method, u n s c i e n t i f i c as i t may be, would allow one to get a "feel i n g " of the community and bring into the open issues and secondary problems which otherwise would remain below the surface of open expression. The questionnaire, thus, was more s p e c i f i c a l l y a framework and t o o l permitting the author to reg i s t e r the average c i t i z e n ' s response to some issue and l e t him talk f r e e l y on the subject without r e s t r i c t i n g him to s p e c i f i c questions. This method naturally opened a wider scope of action for gossip and mal-intention, and often irrelevant accusations supplied by the overactive imagination of certain individuals. Such answers were within reasonable doubt eliminated. Interviews were also made of those who were the members of a profession or represented some organization i n the town. A representative sample of the attitudes, ways of thinking, problems and reactions of the different groups comprising the community was obtained i n this way. The following group-representatives were interviewed: Members of the l o c a l government (council members). " " " " schools (teachers, students, school-board). 85 Members of the l o c a l church (pastors). m i l l (administrators and workers), s o c i a l clubs (Rod and Gun Club, Kinsmen Club). Chamber of Commerce (service people), police (RCMP). Having t r i e d to tackle the residents of the town f i r s t as individuals with a s p e c i f i c s e l f - i d e n t i t y , then as members of a s o c i a l organization with a group-identity, an attempt was made to see how people perceive the town as individuals and as the representatives of an organization, trade and profession. The basic problems i n the i r p r i o r i t i e s and degree of importance at each l e v e l could thus be studied. In this way i t was hoped to f i n d : - A correlation between the individual's functioning as a member of the community and the physical layout of the town. - The functioning of the community as a whole within the framework of the physical layout of the town. A. The Physical Layout of the Town Gold River, as shown i n Chapter III, i s located at the junction of the Gold and Heber r i v e r s about nine miles from Muchalat Inlet on the West coast of Vancouver Island six t y miles from Campbell River. It i s connected with Campbell River by a p a r t i a l l y paved road and with the pulp-mill by a recently paved road. There i s a project, whereby, i n the near future the road II II 86 between Gold River and Campbell River, which i s now a public road, w i l l be extended from Gold River to Woss Lake and Port Hardy. Gold River i s situated on a plateau between the two riv e r s and i s surrounded by high mountains covered with forests. One has to drive f o r two whole hours through forests and a rather savage countryside from Campbell River to get to Gold River. The sight of a town i n these almost v i r g i n surroundings i s quite unexpected. The contrast of the town, which i s brand new and modern, with i t s surroundings which are so savage, i s rather s t r i k i n g . The hand of man and his w i l l i s f e l t very strongly. The roads are a l l paved and follow the curves of the contours of the s i t e . The houses are scattered a l l over the s i t e , but one soon r e a l i z e s that the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s rather uniform. The town has well defined boundaries with large empty pockets i n some areas. Contrasting with the scattered individual houses which are nevertheless evenly distributed, i s the brown compact mass of the blocks forming the walk-up apartments i n the center of the town. In the geographical center of the town, next to the walk-up apartments, i s a huge empty space. On the south-west, this area i s hemmed with the commercial-center buildings, the adjacent parking area and the empty space being reserved for future u t i l i z a t i o n . Further observation reveals, on a h i l l adjacent to the LEGEND PRIMARY ROADS (showing niilu.igc between dots) 88 commercial center, the very symbol of community a c t i v i t y - the hotel with i t s beer-parlor and restaurant. A l i t t l e further, a very neat building - the public safety building, and at the entrance of the town, just l i k e two watchmen, two gas stations with t h e i r c o l o r f u l signs. One must search for quite a long time to be able to situate the church which i s a rather small, wooden structure resembling a barn. The elementary school with an int e r e s t i n g shape (four hexagons), but a brownish-grey color, too similar tb. the ground, does not detach i t s e l f s u f f i c i e n t l y to attract one's attention. The secondary school cannot even be seen from the entrance of the town. In general, the impression that one gets i s that this i s a planned community, a new one where everything i s too much i n i t s place and where important previsions were made for the future development of the community. One has the f e e l i n g that no allowance was made for organic or natural growth. In other words, we can say that Gold River seems not to be a complete unit yet and that i t i s not i n any way i n harmony with i t s e l f . W i l l i t ever be? We are here very far from the concept of the medieval towns which at any moment of history, though i n a process of growth, were s t i l l a complete unit i n themselves. Today these towns, although centuries old, are s t i l l very much a l i v e , for theirs was an organic growth. Gold River l i k e 89 90 other new towns has been a r t i f i c i a l l y conceived, planned and zoned. The area i d e n t i f i e d as section A (see attached map) was cleared i n February, 1965, and the f i r s t completed and occupied houses were the 45 detached single-family units which front on Dogwood Crescent. The logging personnel and the i r families were moved into these houses. They were the f i r s t residents of the town, since they were being relocated from the pulp-mill s i t e . Most of the loggers' families l i v e there s t i l l today. Construction continued on Section 33 and thereafter on Section C. In the meantime the town center and other public buildings were being b u i l t . The second labour force to be called into Gold River were the technicians and the management personnel of the pulp-mill. They occupied the second stage housing available i n section B. Last to arrive were the operational personnel housed i n section C. The town-site was divided into zones based on the idea of having the "center commercial", the "public institutional" and the "fringe commercial" situated i n the center and along the road going to the pulp-mill. The "multiple family r e s i d e n t i a l " i s situated on both sides of the road. There i s a t r a i l e r park situated i n the south of the town which seems to be a unit by i t s e l f , i solated from -the town. The logging camp i s also isolated from the town. It i s situated four miles from the town on a logging road. There seems to be sal .\ Iga &HOPri>K. MRU- boWLIJK f i l l , 3 « 4 U 4 ftJYyJ fSXt £lSB3| 1 PL/?J(=- IV FLAN- re£5£A/r 3WID/A/$$ /A,' /z/ys/z. ro 9 3 very l i t t l e communication between these people and the town i t s e l f . The single men working i n the pulp-mill l i v e for the moment i n the old construction camp which s t i l l stands on the s i t e allocated for the community play-ground. These people have more opportunity to f e e l that they belong to the community due to their proximity to the town center. The town center comprises actually the hotel, the shopping complex, the bowling and b i l l i a r d building, the B. C. Telephone building, the church, the municipal o f f i c e and the community center each i n a t r a i l e r , the public security building, two service stations and the elementary and secondary school. There i s a park area on the west side of the town and there are three tod parks under construction. Land that was not suitable for the present housing i s to be used for parks and playgrounds because of the slope and bad foundation s o i l . Housing - The housing stock of G-old River at present i s composed of: - 218 detached family houses - 108 walk-up apartments - 36 row-houses - 64 garden apartments - 22 condominium - 64 t r a i l e r s - 6 houses for Indians near the pulp-mill. 94 There are also f i f t y rooms i n the hotel where a certain number of single, working-men from the pulp-mill l i v e . The detached single family houses are on l o t s of approximately 800 square feet and are derived from f i v e basic designs. They vary i n the number of bedrooms, i n the external f i n i s h , i n their position with regard to the road and t h e i r orientation. It i s ea s i l y noticeable that a l l these houses have something i n common -a uniformity which i s rather annoying. But, on the other hand, they seem to be properly b u i l t , neat and well kept. These houses can only be bought. The price varies between 19,000 and 23,000 d o l l a r s . People think that i t i s too high a price for such a house. Nevertheless, one should consider that i t was b u i l t i n a remote area where labour i s expensive. The Tahsis Company employees get a second mortgage of 5,000 dollars free of interest. This makes i t possible for them to buy a house with a down payment of 1,300 d o l l a r s . But i t excludes those who do not work for Tahsis Company, s p e c i f i c a l l y service-men, because they have to invest 6,300 dollars to st a r t with -a rather large sum for them. Some of the residents f e l t that they have been able to r e a l i z e the dream of th e i r l i f e "to become a home-owner". Out of twenty-two interviews there were some complaints about the e l e c t r i c i t y b i l l being too high, about leakage i n the basement, about cheap construction, inadequate parking space and a small l o t . But there was no r a d i c a l c r i t i c i s m of the overa l l housing 9 5 98 concept and people seemed to l i k e the unfinished basement the most. The walk-up apartments are b u i l t close to the commercial center and are grouped around an i n t e r n a l open space with a private pool, especially reserved for i t s occupants. Each block i s a three f l o o r building with a corridor of d i s t r i b u t i o n on each f l o o r . The ground f l o o r has a sun-deck very much appreciated by the occupants. These units are for rent. A two bedroom apartment i s rented for $141.50 per month, while a three bedroom one i s rented f o r $175 per month. One should add SI5 for e l e c t r i c i t y and heat. A l l of the seven families interviewed thought that the price was too high. The people who rent these apartments are service people who cannot afford to own a house or teachers who come to Gold River for a contract of one or more years, but who do not want to t i e themselves down to the place. These apartments are also rented by people who have no children. Out of the seven families interviewed four had no children. People seemed to appreciate such a place while the children were small, but they thought that i t was very d i f f i c u l t with children above the three age l e v e l . There were complaints about noise, about no privacy from the neighbours and about the kitchen being too small. On the other hand people seemed to l i k e the pool, even those who did not swim, because i t made the r e s i d e n t i a l unit d i f f e r e n t and perhaps 'better' than the rest 99 of the community. There was a large turnover i n the residents of these apartments. The row-houses situated i n the eastern part of the town are inhabited by home-owners with a twenty-five year mortgage. Some people are forced to buy.these houses because they are cheaper than the detached houses. There too, are complaints about noise and lack of privacy, the absence of a back entrance, and cheap building. But on the other hand, people l i k e the location, the view and the space allocated to them. It seems that people are bothered by the fact that there are other people who l i v e too close and that they are forced to meet thei r neighbours outside, i n front of the door at times' when they do not f e e l l i k e meeting anyone. This lack of privacy could have been avoided by a dif f e r e n t design. The garden-apartments are grouped i n blocks of four where each apartment has i t s own entrance which pleases everyone. These apartments are rented on a monthly basis. A three bedroom suite costs $ 1 6 5 , which i s rather expensive because one should add the cost of e l e c t r i c i t y ( $ 4 0 ) , telephone ( $ 6 ) and t e l e v i s i o n ($7); this brings the t o t a l payment to $218 per month. Most people i n the garden apartments have children, contrary to what happens i n the walk-up apartments. Here, people again complained about noise and the fact that they do not have a piece of land or a garden of th e i r own, although 100 there i s more privacy here than i n the row-housing. The condominium i s b u i l t on the same pr i n c i p l e as the walk-up apartments, except that the apartments here are for sale. There i s a central entrance which leads to a staircase leading to the d i f f e r e n t f l o o r s . A two bedroom suite .costs $15,000. People think that this i s a f a i r price but claim that the absence of a private entrance gives them a f e e l i n g of a loss of i d e n t i t y and that they do not f e e l the house belongs to them. They have no out-door privacy, no yard and think of the owner as a t h i r d person - "Dawson". They regret very much the fact that there i s no "pride of ownership" and that they were forced into buying these apartments rather than a single family detached house because of f i n a n c i a l considerations. Out of twenty-two available apartments only three are sold. The t r a i l e r camp i s run by a private enterprise. It i s very compact with l i t t l e space between in d i v i d u a l t r a i l e r s . There i s absolutely no outside privacy and no space for children to play outdoors. There i s a project to take out each second t r a i l e r , so that there would be more space between them. The people l i v i n g there l i k e the compactness of the t r a i l e r , but not of the camp and consider that they have an economical way of l i v i n g . Because they can leave whenever they l i k e , they f e e l free. They have a pride of ownership because the t r a i l e r i s t h e i r own, but they claim that the t r a i l e r court i n Gold 2 River i s bad and needs improvement. In the logging camp loggers l i v e i n bunkhouses. Each two share a room and pay a rent of $2.50 per day including f u l l 101 board. The logging camp i s l i k e an army camp where everything i s scheduled. The loggers' community i s the logging camp and the town of Gold River i s considered by them to be outside th e i r community. People i n thi s camp are very unstable and think of the place as the lowest of i t s kind. They resent the loggers who have families and l i v e i n Gold River. This resent-ment and i s o l a t i o n lead to many hard feelings and contributes to the general i n s t a b i l i t y of the camp residents. There i s a tremendous turnover of 230% per year i n thi s camp. The Heber-Lodge camp i s composed of bunkhouses where 67 single men l i v e . These r e s i d e n t i a l quarters were going to be demolished i n June 1969 and the single men w i l l have the choice of either leaving the community, renting a room i n the hotel, sharing an apartment with some friends, or renting a room i n a family detached house. In a community of young families the position of single men i s a very d i f f i c u l t one. They f e e l that i t i s hard to make friends with married people because th e i r way of l i f e i s di f f e r e n t . There i s almost no s o c i a l l i f e or entertainment apart from the pub and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to get introduced to g i r l s . There are six Indian families l i v i n g near the pulp-mill on an Indian Reserve land. They seem happy, work as loggers and do not mind the fact that they are isolated from the town. They even regret that one Indian family moved from the reserve into the town. 102 The town center - Gold River's town center i s comprised of a commercial center, a hotel and a church, which are a l l grouped i n the physical center of the town layout. These buildings have been designed to f u l f i l and, i n fact, are f u l f i l l i n g basic functions i n the community, such as providing certain services and providing the meeting place on neutral grounds for the d i f f e r e n t members of the community. As there i s an evident lack of recreation f a c i l i t i e s because of the size of the community, this center becomes also the place which provides d i f f e r e n t members of the community with their basic recreation. The location of the s i t e for the town center was chosen with the idea to provide the town with an area where the eventual commercial, s o c i a l , as well as administrative a c t i v i t i e s would take place, there unlike the r e s i d e n t i a l area, continuous a c t i v i t y would be going on. It could be used for shopping, business, as well.as to s a t i s f y the need for being i n the company of other people. As-'the growth of the town could not be predicted, the planners and the architects reserved a large central l o t of 22 acres for the commercial and c i v i c center. To date there are only the following buildings: bowling and b i l l i a r d s , Super-valu, and the plaza around which are disposed the li q u o r store, drug store, pharmacy, hardware store, beauty parlor, barber, a small restaurant, laundromat, etc., as well as certain o f f i c e s (doctors, bank, the Chamber of Commerce, etc.). ^-"^ -•—' J - ' JL\. JL T JLi JLV - "•' O > 1 7 V>J P£/97E- V/J7 ft/?A/- TOk/AS CEA/TE/2 {preset) Pl#T*-IX PlfiAJ- CS/Vm (/browse**) 106 107 A l l these buildings are joined by a covered passway and are scattered into an organic pattern, the idea being to give the impression of a crowded shopping center. The shopping center i s surrounded by a huge, paved parking l o t . The large amount of empty land situated i n the center of the town i s to be used for the future expansion of commercial and c i v i c centers with the eventual growth of the town. This precaution was taken i n order to have such f a c i l i t i e s always i n the center and to avoid land speculation i n the future. But, the serious disadvantage of the present si t u a t i o n i s that this center which should have been the heart of the town, i s just an isolated island separated from the rest of the town by a belt of empty land. The assumption was made that the center of the town would attrac t people to go walking, since i t i s within ten minutes from the most remote spot of the housing development (except for the t r a i l e r park), nevertheless, most people, even for a minor shopping t r i p take t h e i r car. Only at lunch-time and i n the evenings teenagers go for walks there, just for the change, or to meet other teenagers. Provisions are made to build a c i v i c center between the road and the shopping center. It would be separated from the main street by a fore-court plaza considered as the "welcome mat" for the center. There would also be a town gate, a clock tower, a c i v i c building comprising the municipal h a l l , a 108 public l i b r a r y , and o f f i c e units. Unfortunately, t h i s i s s t i l l at the project stage and w i l l not be b u i l t i n the near future because of f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . Wow, instead of the c i v i c building there stands a ten-foot cross, put there by the legion. The public l i b r a r y and community center are i n a t r a i l e r owned by Tahsis Company and formerly used as a school. The municipal o f f i c e s are also i n a t r a i l e r . To the east, on the opposite side of the road, i s the public safety building with quarters reserved for the RCMP, the o f f i c e s of the magistrate, the Court, the F i r e Department and the Department of Motor Vehicles. This building i s brand new, of concrete construction, and at f i r s t glance one tends to think of i t , i n comparison with the other buildings, as the c i v i c center. The hotel i s situated to the south of the town center area. It i s a modern fifty-room building, "Gold River Inn". It was developed by the Delta Hotels Limited. There i s a restaurant, considered to be the fancy place i n Gold River, a snack bar, and a beer parlor. In the evenings the hotel and the bowling a l l e y , open after the closing hours of the shopping center, become the town center. In order to attract d i f f e r e n t firms and protect t h e i r interests, a policy of leasing shops i n such a way that there w i l l be only one of each kind, was adopted by the MacKenzie Management Limited, i n charge of the leasing. This necessarily leads to the absence of competition - a fact which makes certain 109 people think that the cost of l i v i n g i n Gold River i s higher than i t should he. The lack of variety, especially i n clothes shops, or specialized a r t i c l e s , induces most people to go to Campbell River for t h e i r monthly shopping t r i p . Groceries and everyday necessity are s t i l l bought i n Gold River. The schools - There are two brand new schools i n Gold River. They are a part of the newly formed school d i s t r i c t , "Vancouver Island West, D i s t r i c t #84". The schools are financed by the taxes from the municipality of Gold River, the Tahsis saw-mill, as well as by the iron mine and concentrator at Zeballos. In the early stages of Gold River, two t r a i l e r s were used as classrooms for the children of the f i r s t s e t t l e r s . Later a decision was made to build f i r s t , a $750,000 elementary school, then, a $1,000,000 secondary school. These schools were to become the basic permanent public buildings of the area and i n the future provide education for the entire region. The elementary school i s situated i n the north part of the town near the f i r s t housing development. The secondary school seems to be rather isolated and i s south of the town. These two schools are a part of a complex reserved for community l i f e ( c i v i c and commercial center, hotel, community recreation). The location of the two schools i s such that they are at the opposite ends of the area which comprises the above mentioned 110 complex. Presently, the two schools are out of proportion i n r e l a t i o n to the actual needs of the population. The elementary school was designed for 450 students, while the secondary school can accomodate 400 students. There are now 350 students i n the elementary school and 120 i n the secondary school. These two large and modern schools could eventually become symbols of a growing community with which i t s members could i d e n t i f y . Also, newcomers may be attracted to the community because i t can provide up-to-date education for t h e i r children. The elementary school i s composed of f i v e hexagons, comprising eighteen classrooms, one administrative block and one gymnasium. The classrooms are grouped into six units around a central core. Each unit can be used by a separate class. A l l the hexagons are connected by covered passways which protect the students from r a i n , snow and sun. Prom the highway one can have an overa l l view of the complex since the school i s much lower than the road. The materials used i n construction are primarily wood of gray-brown color. The gymnasium has a linoleum f l o o r and has been designed to be used f o r d i f f e r e n t community meetings and a c t i v i t i e s . Since the p a r t i t i o n s between classes are mobile, i t i s possible to change the dimensions of the classes. Thus, two or three classes can be joined together i f needed. The pr i n c i p l e of the design i s that of f l e x i b i l i t y which provides much opportunity to experiment and u t i l i z e the l a t e s t methods I l l 112 of teaching. The school i s equipped with excellent audiovisual and art equipment. In the school, teachers are trying progressive methods of teaching and an attempt i s being made to abolish the regular classroom p r i n c i p l e . Every student follows the trend and speed i n which he i s interested and of which he i s capable. The application of these new methods of teaching (team teaching, joined classes, use of teaching aids and individual programming) i s being implemented. A l l t h i s puts a great s t r a i n on the instructors, for such methods demand continuous work and updating. Complaints have been made about the location of the school because i t i s b u i l t on a f i l l e d - i n dump and the deficiency of good foundations has led to the gradual sinking of the p e r i f e r a l covered passway. Complaints have also been made about the location of washrooms which have only external access. Nevertheless, the students as well as the parents and the teachers seem to be very happy with the school, i t s design and functioning. So does the administrative body. This school i s considered to be one of the most up-to-date schools i n B r i t i s h . Columbia and the population of Gold River appreciates this f a c t . The secondary school - i n May 1967, construction began on the secondary school; i n 1968 i t started functioning and f i n a l l y on June 1, 1968 i t was o f f i c i a l l y inaugurated. The school i s composed of two blocks. One of the blocks 113 i s a one-floor "building with a spine c i r c u l a t i o n . The classrooms are arranged i n the t r a d i t i o n a l fashion except for a large supply of f a c i l i t i e s and provisions made for audiovisual education. There are excellent laboratory f a c i l i t i e s , an auditorium, and some classes are f u l l y equipped for courses i n home economics (sewing, cooking, washing, housekeeping). There are also classes equipped to teach c l e r i c a l and business courses (typing, short-hand, ca l c u l a t i n g machines) and a large workshop (welding, mechanics, carpentry). The l i b r a r y has booths with audiovisual equipment for personal use of the students. The second block i s the gymnasium. It has a stage and corresponding f a c i l i t i e s . The two blocks are joined by a covered passage and a paved court. The school i s a r t i f i c i a l l y l i t and ventilated. This i s why one i s struck by the marked lack of windows when approaching the school from the road. The secondary school i s also situated below the road l e v e l and seems to be isolated from the actual town. It i s for the moment too large for the needs of the town. Here as well as where the elementary school i s concerned, the planner and the School Board had to conceive an instant school, pre-built before the actual demands of the community were known. The teaching methods are based upon the philosophy that every student should be capable.of completing the twelfth grade of the secondary school so as not to be discriminated against i n the future as a drop-out. Although the school s t i l l requires 114 the completion of a d i s t i n c t number of years for graduation, ind i v i d u a l attention i s given to each student. Competition between students i n terms of grades or ranking i s eliminated and each student i s graded r e l a t i v e to his own capacity and diligence as well as his di s p o s i t i o n to work and learn. Students work on di f f e r e n t projects and are in d i v i d u a l l y directed by the teacher. This, of course, i s possible because of the small number of students i n each class. On the other hand, the small number of students makes i t d i f f i c u l t for the school system to provide them with a large variety of courses, especially technical and vocational ones. This problem w i l l be solved as the number of the students increases. One way of increasing the enrolment i s by att r a c t i n g students from outside the community. For this purpose, plans have been made to build sleeping and boarding quarters. In the near future, a playground which w i l l be used by a l l the community as well as the school, w i l l be b u i l t on the location of the present Heber Logging Camp. What makes the secondary school isolated from the community i s that very few communal a c t i v i t i e s take place within the school. The l i b r a r y i s too small and the community has no access to i t . The f l o o r of the gymnasium i s wooden and permis-sion to enter i s given only to those who remove their shoes or wear slippers. Smoking i n the gymnasium i s forbidden. Such rules make i t almost impossible for s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s or large parties to take place. 115 The pulp-mill - The 60 m i l l i o n d o l l a r m i l l includes a number of design innovations. The operating f l o o r has been b u i l t on a single l e v e l . And the concept of a central corridor, with nearly a l l operators within each other's view, has been f u l l y developed. A i r and water po l l u t i o n have been combated at every step;: of the design. Extensive precautions are being taken to recover chemicals (and t h e i r smell) at each stage of the operation, rather than waiting to c o l l e c t them a l l at the end and then attempting to scrub them out.^ Special care i s being taken to recover f i b r e from the affluent, so that the m i l l w i l l meet the most stringent require-ments of the Federal Fisheries Department. Because Gold River i s a famous f i s h i n g stream, and there i s a highly prized type salmon pool near i t s mouth, special dye tests were conducted to determine the flow of the r i v e r and t i d a l currents. A 1,700 foot tunnel was d r i l l e d through s o l i d rock to carry the m i l l ' s effluent away from the rivermouth and out into the main stream of Muchalat Inlet, where i t discharges fa r below the surface for the best possible d i f f u s i o n . B. An Analysis of the Community and Its Different Aspects A sense of security i s one of the basic needs of the i n d i v i d u a l . It reveals i t s e l f not only as the demand to s a t i s f y his immediate material needs, such as shelter and food, but 116 projects i t s e l f into the future through man's hopes and expec-tations. In thi s form i t i s especially important to the ind i v i d u a l who has a family. Under the present conditions, i n new settlements, th i s sense of security i s frustrated since the ind i v i d u a l has very l i t t l e guarantee of the settlement's l l i f e - s p a n , i t s future and his as well. Along with the need for security there i s also a need to participate, contribute and s a t i s f y the sense of fulfilment. These too, are frustrated i n new settlements for they are a function of growth - which i s often absent i n such communities. Growth takes place only i f there i s s t a b i l i t y , because only then w i l l investment, hence development come i n . Although material conditions are important for the well-being of the ind i v i d u a l , they are not s u f f i c i e n t by themselves. The question arises how to s a t i s f y the psychological needs of the in d i v i d u a l i n such communities. In other words, what factors should be taken into consideration when planning for new communities, i n order to s a t i s f y the basic personal needs of the i n d i v i d u a l . These factors are i m p l i c i t l y expressed through the values people hold and the i r expectations. People and the i r expectations - An assumption, that the people who would be attracted to Gold River could be c l a s s i f i e d into four categories according to profession and occupation, was made early i n the planning stage. These four categories were: 117 - the pulp-mill workers, - the loggers, - the service people, - and eventually the secondary industry employees. Furthermore the planners took for granted the fact that unmarried men were more mobile than married ones and they assumed that i f enough married men were attracted to the town and brought th e i r families with them i t would, perhaps, be possible to create a stable community and reduce the turnover. Families, i n other words, can lead f u l l and active l i v e s i n the outposts, but single men don't. Most of the turnover i n mining and pulp and paper labor forces are single men. And they probably contribute to the higher-than-elsewhere beer and liq u o r consumption.5 Since this category of married working-men l i v e usually i n a suburban environment, plans were made to create such an environment with a l l i t s related f a c i l i t i e s , such as a school and shopping f a c i l i t i e s . The company',- made a serious attempt to create a l i v i n g place corresponding as closely as possible to the stereotype char a c t e r i s t i c s presented i n the dif f e r e n t advertisements concerning new towns where the descriptions given are those of: a f u l l y planned and zoned townsite. The houses are modern homes with lawns, sidewalks and paved streets. Three schools. Church services. Modern shopping center, medical and dental care and a modern f u l l y equipped 70 bed hosp i t a l . Boating and f i s h i n g are peerless during summer months. A large part of the surrounding area i s covered with lakes and r i v e r s . " 118 Stress through the advertisement i s put on the existence of a planned town, modern housing with a l l the characteristics of the 'better' part of the urban centers (lawns and sidewalks). Children are taken care of i n the Three Schools: so i s community l i f e (Church services). Commercial f a c i l i t i e s are up-to-date (Modern shopping center) and no one has to worry about his health (Modern hos p i t a l) . In addition to a l l the above modernized suburban f a c i l i t i e s one can enjoy outdoor l i f e p r a c t i c a l l y i n his backyard without having to t r a v e l miles to some lake or r i v e r . The man who reads such an advertisement i s thus lured to these towns which seem to combine suburban f a c i l i t i e s with outdoor advantages. The stress, evidently, i s on a l l the att r a c t i v e aspects of such towns, l i t t l e i s said about monotony and normalization, or about the lack or rather the absence of choice regarding jobs or friends where "often the only way to 7 change a job or friends, i s to move away". Nothing i s said about the single employer and the dependance of the town and i t s inhabitants on this employer for any continued existence. Let us now examine an ad-vertisement describing Gold River and the impact of the motivational forces of this advertisement on the worker and his decision-making regarding employment with the company and moving with his family into the town. The advertisement claims that 119 To ensure modern, att r a c t i v e housing for these people, the new town of Gold River i s being carved out of the forest - an 'open' town where anyone can l i v e and work. Carefully planned to be a f i n e :.e place to l i v e , Gold River w i l l have a population i n just two years of about 3,OOQ,iwith paved, curbed streets, underground wiring, cable t e l e v i s i o n , a modern shopping centre and a complete public school complex. It i s located i n a setting of great beauty, close to the cradle of B. C. history, where Capt. Cook met Chief Maquinna, and Capt. Vancouver protected B r i t i s h rights i n long bargaining with the Spaniard Quadra. It i s primarily young men and younger families with children who are lured by the description of the town and especially by the promise of di f f e r e n t subsidies available to the company's employees such as: - Second mortgage for housing and free transportation of belongings to Gold River at the company's expense for married men. - Reduced hotel rates f o r single men. - Possible promotion suggesting higher wages and better s o c i a l status. Most northern towns are young people's towns. B i r t h rates are high and the average age low. Young people are often the only one's who'll go north.° In Gold River for example: both school principals are 3 2 , the doctor i s 2 9 , and the mayor i s an old man of 44. These young families have at the st a r t very l i t t l e money and cannot afford to buy a house of th e i r own i n the c i t y or even i n i t s suburbs or other towns. Here i s an opportunity of 120 being able to own a home of their own and furthermore of making fast money without having to forego a l l the f a c i l i t i e s and advantages of suburban l i f e . It i s not so much the wages that attract them, these are syndicate rates, but rather the oppor-tunity of making extra overtime money. Furthermore, the constant stress on modern and attractive housing, modern shopping center, and public schools seems to be mainly geared to the wives, for "a contented woman helps to provide a stable and steady employee""^" and supports the claim that: Pulp and paper and mining companies are always concerned with a wife's happiness. "No man w i l l stay long i f he's got a wife who wants to go home," a mine manager has explained.^ Also the fact that Gold River i s a new town and unique i n i t s p o l i t i c a l setting (instant municipality), seems to offer an opportunity to people who are interested i n leadership, and who, because of th e i r s o c i a l status or competition from more competent and older men are l e f t out of leadership positions i n the c i t y . The advertisement stresses the fact that Gold River i s an 'open' town where anyone can l i v e and work. The expectations, expressed i n interviews, of the d i f f e r e n t men and th e i r families who come to Gold River could be summarized as: - Maximum income and minimum expenditure. - Ownership of a house. - Improved s o c i a l status. 121 - Possible leadership i n the community. - More freedom i n terms of space, i . e . larger l o t s and lawns. - More freedom i n terms of fewer.restrictions on personal freedom (pets, housing arrangements, landscaping, etc.). - Easier access to recreational f a c i l i t i e s . The type of people attracted to the community are therefore mostly young, recently married couples with children and ambition to climb up the s o c i a l scale. Most of them do not have much education but have a certain s k i l l and trade. When they come to a new town the man goes to see the job and the boss, the wife looks at the houses and inquires about schools. They accept to l i v e i n such a remote place i f the pay i s good and the school i s good and there i s an opportunity for promotion. If one of these factors does not s a t i s f y them, they go to another resource town. But even i f they are at the beginning s a t i s f i e d , after having settled, other p r i o r i t i e s and needs appear. Although many of the people's expectations have been f u l f i l l e d , there s t i l l remains an evident lack of recreational f a c i l i t i e s . This has become a major issue i n the town. The inhabitants have asked for a theatre, skating, pools, golf, etc., but the municipality does not have enough money and the inhabi-tants do not want to finance these f a c i l i t i e s by themselves. Because the people are primarily p r o f i t oriented and not interested i n building a community, they are always ready to take up jobs elsewhere for higher wages. This fact necessarily 122 13 leads to a high turnover and gives the town a transient character. This lack of community s p i r i t i s accentuated even more by the s h i f t work i n the pulp-mill, the res u l t of which i s that eventually two neighbours can never meet because of th e i r time tables, or never f e e l privacy i n the apartments, because when one sleeps the other makes noise because he does not sleep and vice-versa. On the other hand, women always see the same neighbours and f i n a l l y get annoyed with the monotony of their l i f e . The loggers seem to be more stable because of th e i r type of work. Since they usually come from a logging camp and not from an urban area, a community l i k e Gold River i s a big town according to th e i r standards. They seem to be happy and s a t i s f i e d . The pulp-mill workers, being highly s k i l l e d mechanics are ambitious and nervous, anxious for promotion and i n general much more demanding. About one t h i r d of the workers are single men. They b a s i c a l l y come because of wages and opportunities. These people are the most transient category of the community. They have no t i e s with the community and are not accepted by i t . They are l e f t with drinking as a hobby and wait for the weekend to get out of the town. The lack of inte r e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the evenings, after working hours, does not make things^any easier. Although there are club a c t i v i t i e s , night classes, bowling and b i l l i a r d s , the 123 beer parlor seems to be the most v i s i t e d place where gossip and drinking become the main occupations of the town's populace. Although the problem here appears to be manifold, i t derives b a s i c a l l y from the fact that there i s a marked discre-pancy between the image of Gold River and l i f e i n i t as the inhabitants had conjured up, and the r e a l i t y . This discrepancy leads to basic dissatisfaction and eventually adds to the causes of high turnover. The question arises here whether the company can be t o t a l l y blamed for having through advertising and dif f e r e n t pamphlets given a f a l s e picture of Gold River and the available opportunities. To what extent i s the inhabitant to be blamed? Does he read between the l i n e s and has projected his own hopes and desires into the image of Gold River - an image which i s r e a l l y his own creation and not the company's? It i s here that intervene the di f f e r e n t r e a l i t i e s : - Those as envisaged by the potential inhabitant, who reads the description of the town - The representation of the town as seen by the company and f i n a l l y , - The town i t s e l f as actually perceived by the inhabitant when he goes to l i v e there. What happens i s , that when the potential inhabitant arrives i n town, he evaluates i t i n terms of the image of the town he has formed from advertisements. What he perceives does not correspond to the company's representation. (See Diagram 10) 1 ^ <5 !?• Q Q <V «t JO » • . vj I 125 Here a c o n f l i c t often arises. Disappointment combines with resentment and feelings of being cheated. Most people i n such cases become agressive and c r i t i c a l , partly because of the discrepancies between the i r dreams and the r e a l i t y , partly because they come to a ready made environment to which they did not contribute and for which they did not sweat. They expect to take more and more but not to give. To be able to build meaningful relationships there must not be the f e e l i n g on the part of the ci t i z e n s that everything i s ready-made, cut and dried, and that they have nothing to do with i t . The people must f e e l that the f a c i l i t i e s give them the opportunity for the i r own contribution as individuals, as families, and as co-citizens of a community.^4 The general apathy of the inhabitants concerning any active contribution to the improvement of the town i s best represented by their attitude to the p o l i t i c a l organization of the town. People are unaware of the p o l i t i c a l structure of the town and are not interested to know. Many s t i l l think that i t i s a company town owned and run by the Tahsis Company.' Others are transient people, who come to take - to make fast money and leave. Others s t i l l come because they are dissat-i s f i e d with t h e i r former employment and are looking for promo-tion, i f they do not fi n d i t , they become b i t t e r and at the f i r s t opportunity they leave. Nevertheless, there are people who come to the town with no i l l u s i o n s , with a pioneer s p i r i t , ready to work hard and 126 found a home for themselves and their children. These people want to contribute i n the shaping of the community based on some common values and p r i n c i p l e s . They are f u l l y aware of the necessary long-term investment of patience and energy. It i s these people who contribute to the s o c i a l l i f e of the community through various clubs and s o c i a l organizations. The Economic aspect - Since Gold River was b u i l t i n order to supply the Pulp-mill with necessary labour force, i t i s only natural that most of the town's inhabitants are the employees of the Tahsis Company. The major and often only source of thei r income are the wages they receive for work i n the m i l l or i n logging operations. The existing stores, where the individual spends his money, have a monopoly of f i v e years and are not l o c a l i n s t i t u -tions but have their head o f f i c e s outside the community. The products sold i n these shops are a l l manufactured or grown also outside the community. Thus the money spent on everyday necessities, groceries or any other accessories bought i n the town does not stay there but i s immediately channeled to some external investor. This involves, both the i n i t i a l cost of the goods and the p r o f i t made. (See Diagram 11). It could be argued that the only money which remains i n the town i s that which the inhabitants pay to the l o c a l l y investing servicemen, EX TE/Z AS/? L U/O/2 L D 128 but these too have to l i v e and buy from the same shops and eventually this money, at least i n part goes outside the community. Where housing i s concerned, the money spent on rent by the inhabitants covers the investment and p r o f i t made on borrowed money which again i s external to the community (developers, contractors, CHMC, mortgage companies, etc.). From Diagram 11 i t i s clear that most of the money constantly i s on the way out of the community. It does neither c i r c u l a t e , nor i s i t invested i n the community. This makes the town and i t s inhabitants almost t o t a l l y dependent on the external world. Anything that affects the pulp-mill production, such as fluct u a t i n g prices of the pulp or diminished demand, could make the very existence of the town problematic. Even such things as fluctuation i n the price of food and other everyday necessities brings about an immediate disequilibrium. Due to the absence of any a g r i c u l t u r a l , secondary industry, or some d i v e r s i f i e d sources of income, the town i s far from being s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and i t s continued existence i s rather precarious. Furthermore, a rather unhealthy situation i s created by a monopoly policy applied to new stores i n the shopping center. This policy ensures the investing company of not having any competition by forbidding anyone else to s e l l the same goods. This policy extends over f i v e years and allows the investor to 129 be the s o l e p r o v i d e r of the g i v e n goods. This p r a c t i c e may-i n s u r e the i n v e s t o r w i t h a s t a b l e c l i e n t e l l e but on the other hand f r u s t r a t e s the customer who would l i k e to have the choice and the o p p o r t u n i t y to compare p r i c e s . In t h i s way,': no matter what the p o t e n t i a l customer i s t o l d and how reasonable the p r i c e s of goods are, he always tends to f e e l cheated s i n c e he cannot compare and see f o r h i m s e l f . In the m i l l the wages are payed a c c o r d i n g to union agree-ments and r e g u l a t i o n s . Nevertheless, the employees r e c e i v e h i g h e r incomes by working overtime and t a k i n g advantage of the s u b s i d i a r y p o l i c i e s of the company. This makes t h e i r average 17 y e a r l y income between $8,200 and $8 , 3 0 0 . The employees of the school board a l s o r e c e i v e d i f f e r e n t s u b s i d i e s . The only people who do not r e c e i v e s u b s i d i e s and f e l l cheated are d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e people who are employees of the companies wi t h head o f f i c e s o u t s i d e the community. Of the i n t e r v i e w e d people, 66% thought t h a t wages i n Gold R i v e r were f a i r and 82% claimed that the cost of l i v i n g was l ft h i g h . The l a t t e r c l a i m l e a d s to the f a c t that many t h i n g s , even g r o c e r i e s , are bought o u t s i d e the community. This i n t u r n a f f e c t s the shops which, l a c k i n g customers, cannot provide much v a r i e t y and are o f t e n o b l i g e d to r a i s e t h e i r p r i c e s i n order to 19 cover overhead and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n expenses. Suggestions to have some small 'corner s t o r e s ' were made. These could be run by some of the homeowners or e v e n t u a l l y t h e i r 130 wives. The p r o f i t would probably be i n s u f f i c i e n t to support a family but i t could become a secondary income and above a l l the money would remain i n the community. It would also provide some variety and an opportunity to escape from feelings of being monopolized by large business companies running the present shopping center. But such marginal business i s s t r i c t l y forbidden by the by-laws of the town and no mixing of 'resid e n t i a l ' and 'commer-c i a l ' a c t i v i t i e s i s permissible. Since such 'corner stores' would be functional only when they would be located i n the r e s i d e n t i a l zone, not only because of th e i r proximity to the potential customer, but also, because of economic reasons - (the shop could be located i n the house of the owner and hence incur no extra investment), the actual by-laws make their existence impossible. At present the registered licenced businesses i n Gold River are: Head Business Local investor o f f i c e outside community Tahsis Company Super-Value TV and Cable Vision Man's Wear Painter contracts Bowling Doctor Plumber T r a i l e r park Taxi Co. Music shop Janitor service Hardware X X X X X (part time) X X X (part time) X X X X X 131 Head o f f i c e Business Local investor outside community Propane gas X Two e l e c t r i c contractors X (part time) Drug store X Beauty parlour X Barber X Contractor X (part time) Laundromat X Delta Hotel X Dawson Developers X Cafe X Insurance & Real Estate X Trust Service X Caters X 2 Service Stations X B. C. Liquor store X The l o c a l investors can thus be subdivided into two groups. The f i r s t group has an insured income from a stable source (the m i l l ) and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s do not require headquarters. They can e a s i l y manage without any investment just by s e l l i n g their s k i l l and knowledge, (part time contractors). The second group i s i n a more d i f f i c u l t position because of the fact that t h e i r prime investment must be the headquarters and that the price of rent must be included i n the p r o f i t made. For example a square foot i n the shopping center i s rented at $4 per month which i s a very high price for an individual l o c a l investor to pay at the s t a r t , i f i n addition to the rent he has to pay the e l e c t r i c i t y , heat and telephone b i l l s . The l o c a l physician paid 1400 i n rent and an additional $200 for e l e c t r i c i t y , telephone, heat, etc. per month. Marginal businesses l i k e the laundromat have evidently f i n a n c i a l problems. Others, 132 such as a shoe r e p a i r shop or second-hand f u r n i t u r e s t o r e cannot a f f o r d even a s t a r t . A l t h o u g h 43% o f the t o t a l b u s i n e s s e s i n Gold R i v e r a r e l o c a l , the g r o s s t a x a t i o n r a t e shows t h a t 95% i s p a i d by the b u s i n e s s e s which have t h e i r head o f f i c e s o u t s i d e the community and o n l y 5% i s p a i d by the l o c a l i n v e s t o r s . The m i l l s i t e b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n the boundary of the m u n i c i p a l i t y , the m i l l becomes an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t o r i n t a x a t i o n . Out o f an a n n u a l s a l e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y $28,000,000, the T a h s i s company p a i d $750,000 i n g r o s s t a x a t i o n . The r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g r o s s t a x a t i o n i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y : M i l l 75 % Apartments 4.3 % Improved l o t s 13 % Commercial 4.8 % T r a i l e r Court 0.4 % Others 3.5 % On the whole, i t can be s a i d t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l l y , a t l e a s t , the company planned t o s a t i s f y the workers' e x p e c t a t i o n s . I n p r a c t i c e t h i n g s were d i f f e r e n t . The e x p l i c i t g o a l of the company was t o make money and hence t o i n v e s t the bare minimum i n t o the town, whereas the w orkers' g o a l was t o get out o f the company the maximum p o s s i b l e , e i t h e r i n the form of wages or f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s c o u l d o n l y l e a d t o c o n f l i c t . (See Diagram 1 2 ) . The s o c i a l a s p e c t - Towns are s o c i a l f a c t s o f many dim e n s i o n s ; t h e y a r e unique forms of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s or s o c i a l systems. 0 0 0 I k x M x I 0 0 8 0 a fl o D 0 0 a C3 CD C=3 ZZ2 133 V <x I x . ! Si 134 The dif f e r e n t aspects of a s o c i a l organization are sub-systems of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , normative integration, kind and degree of s o c i a l cohesion among i t s residents, the nature of s o c i a l control and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements and th e i r operation. A town, therefore, generates forms of s o c i a l relationships. These relationships are developed i n da i l y l i v i n g and through d a i l y contacts with neighbours, co-workers, servicemen and others. One can think of a town as a form of human community i n which there are par t i c u l a r ecological forces of integration, i n which human beings acquire certain behaviour patterns as a res u l t of association with one another, and i n which i n s t i t u t i o n s and forms of s o c i a l organization give to human l i f e a ch a r a c t e r i s t i c aspect calle d urban.20 A human community may be defined as an organized p o l i t i c a l , municipal and s o c i a l body of men, women and children l i v i n g i n the same l o c a l i t y . Can a community be b u i l t for people? A town may be b u i l t , i t may be occupied by people but a community has to grow, i t i s b u i l t up by_ people, for a community i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the aspirations of i t s people, i t i s not a s t e r i l e thing that has come off a drafting board.21 Above a l l , i t must be remembered, that a community structure manifests i t s e l f i n a spacial and temporal pattern, i t i s the resul t of growth, integration and s o c i a l i z a t i o n . It i s precisely t h i s temporal aspect which i s absent i n instant towns such as Gold River. Gold River was planned and b u i l t without the pa r t i c i p a t i o n 135 of i t s inhabitants. Once the town was completed the inhabitants moved i n , a l l p r a c t i c a l l y at the same time. They took over a town with no t r a d i t i o n or history. They had no common heritage and a d i v e r s i t y of values. They had come primarily to make money as much and^as fast as they possibly could. Thus, i n this new society, l i k e i n any other modern society, wealth and power became an end i n themselves. The goals of most of the people at the start were the u n i v e r s a l i s t i c goals i n monetary and bureaucratic terms as prescribed by any i n d u s t r i a l society. They had only one set of values - those involving i n d i v i d u a l success. There was no f e e l i n g of being s o c i a l l y integrated. The sense of being involved i n meaningful means-ends relationships was t o t a l l y absent. This "absence of an established harmony," according to Durkheim, "far from producing freedom, produces resentment and apathy - the war of 22 each against a l l . " This seems to have been the s i t u a t i o n at the beginning i n Gold River. The fact that most of the people were employees of the m i l l and hence were i n a position to compete with each other, often for the same job and promotion, made them regard each other as potential enemies. They were also a l l strangers to each other, a l l equally ignorant about the whereabouts of f a c i l i t i e s and the general town lay-out. Furthermore, the cross-sectional image of the inhabitants, p r a c t i c a l l y of utmost uniformity, contributes to a great extent 1 3 6 t o t h e a l r e a d y u n h e a l t h y atmosphere. Old p e o p l e , who a r e a s t a b i l i z i n g element i n any community, were and s t i l l a r e absent. The u n i f o r m age c o m p o s i t i o n o f the town l e a d s t o many s t r e s s e s and s t r a i n s n e c e s s i t a t i n g e m o t i o n a l adjustment, f o r Gold R i v e r i n h a b i t a n t 1 s average age d i f f e r s g r e a t l y from t h e n a t i o n a l average and t h a t of the communities from w h i c h the newcomers a r r i v e . I t has a l s o been shown t h a t the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of a 27) community depends on the b a l a n c e o f o c c u p a t i o n . J I n a w e l l b a l a n c e d community people's o c c u p a t i o n s a r e complimentary; each p r o v i d e s a c e r t a i n s e r v i c e f o r the o t h e r s , l e a d i n g t o i n t e r -dependency and c o h e s i o n . T h i s i s not the case i n Gold R i v e r . A l l a r e s t a t u s s e e k e r s w i t h i n the same company. They a r e not s a t i s f i e d and do not a c h i e v e a sense of s e l f - r e s p e c t w i t h i n t h e i r own group. At the b e g i n n i n g , i n Gold R i v e r , the o n l y s t a b l e elements i n the town were the g o v e r n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . They were a t the time l i t t l e known t o the p e o p l e , misunderstood and r a t h e r f e a r e d . There was a l s o an RCMP s u p p l i e d by the F e d e r a l Govern-ment t o ensure o r d e r and p r o t e c t i o n o f the i n h a b i t a n t s . The l o c a l government was a p p o i n t e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government and was supposed t o l o o k a f t e r p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s . There were o t h e r l e s s i m p o r t a n t b o d i e s a t t h i s s tage such as the f i r e b r i g a d e , the town c l e r k and h i s h e l p e r s , and the s c h o o l board. 137 The adjustment to the new environment involved - Getting acquainted with the physical aspect of the town and i t s f a c i l i t i e s . - Discovering the neighbourhood and the people l i v i n g there. - A process of a c c u l t u r a l i z a t i o n whereby an exchange of opinions and values as well as the study of ways of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n certain a c t i v i t i e s took place. This led slowly to an eventual understanding and a p a r t i a l recovery of the sense of 'belonging'. There i s ample evidence i n new communities both of the need to recover the sense of 'belonging' which was l o s t by migration and of the capactiy of the ~. newcomers to form s o c i a l groups i n th e i r new setting. There i s also the need that drives people to associate with one another and/or seek membership i n groups. The degree of the cohesion of a group, or the magnitude of the desire to a f f i l i a t e with others i s a function of the nature of the needs that the i n d i v i d u a l can s a t i s f y i n the company of others. People associate with other people or belong to pa r t i c u l a r groups i n order to a t t a i n i n d i v i d u a l goals or to gain approval, support or prestige. They may also be i n search for an evaluation of t h e i r own opinions, feelings and a b i l i t i e s . In new communities, 'defensive' associations i n terms of the socio-economic needs are formed f i r s t . In Gold River they were the unions ( m i l l and logging) and the Chamber of Commerce 138 (service people). The aim of these unions was to protect the immediate interests and rights of the workers and secure wage re d i s t r i b u t i o n . These organizations acted as a stepping stone leading to the formation of other s o c i a l groups. Having secured needs of prime importance (survival), other s o c i a l i z a t i o n s took place at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , s t a r t i n g f i r s t by service clubs and church a c t i v i t i e s , l a t e r by xtfomen's associations, f i r e brigade, children's associations, tenants* association and others. A by-product of this s o c i a l i z a t i o n process was the break-down of the inhabitants although into d i f f e r e n t classes, yet not r e a l l y s o c i a l classes as such. These classes could be distinguished as: - white c o l l a r (employees of the m i l l ) , - blue c o l l a r (employees of the m i l l ) , - service people (independent). S t i l l another s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n can be made according to the type of housing owned or leased: - home-owner (prestige) - apartment (no prestige), - t r a i l e r camp (discriminated). Some single men try to integrate within the community by renting rooms from the home-owners, yet they form a class by themselves. Whether they l i v e i n the hotel, the Heber Lodge, 139 or the camp, they are generally discriminated against and l e f t out of the major community a c t i v i t i e s . In Gold River, s o c i a l status i s reflected therefore by income, position held i n the m i l l , previous place of work, as well as the position held i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l organizations. People are thus grouping themselves into more or less r e s t r i c t e d c i r c l e s . Since members of smaller communities l i k e that of Gold River have a much greater personal association with a l l th e i r neighbours than do people who l i v e i n larger communities, there i s very l i t t l e privacy. Although such closeness breeds community s p i r i t , i t also can act as a barrier, for people have to l i v e the role required of them and their position, the way the society expects of them. You can't put on a i r s , ... It's too close-knit a society for a phony.^5 The growth of s o c i a l l i f e .and the growth of a sense of community require adequate and appropriate meeting-places. In planning, opportunities must be provided for the development of recreational and other s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s but these should not a l l be developed instantly. Rather they must, i f they are to be e f f e c t i v e , be an outgrowth of the wishes of the people l i v i n g i n the community. D One of the aspects of healthy s o c i a l l i f e i s thus the need for recreational a c t i v i t i e s and l e i s u r e time occupation. There must also be a place for major c u l t u r a l forces or products to 140 develop, for a s o c i a l order i s often a function of i t s c u l t u r a l aspect. In Gold River these a c t i v i t i e s are limited to outdoor sports. The company was at the start unwilling to invest money into recreational f a c i l i t i e s and the community has neither enough c a p i t a l nor enough people interested i n one s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y to cooperate i n building some f a c i l i t i e s such as a golf t e r r a i n . As far as children are concerned, the available recreational f a c i l i t i e s are at the school. They become therefore regulated, and lack the necessary casual c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The play-ground planned for the secondary school has not yet been b u i l t . Besides bowling children cannot do much, except walk the streets or l o i t e r around the hotel contemplating i t s beer parlour. Although the inhabitants of the town seem to have the psychological need for the knowledge that d i f f e r e n t recreational f a c i l i t i e s are available, they do not seem to have the urge to use them when provided with such f a c i l i t i e s . In summary i t may be claimed that There are two d i f f e r e n t , though closely related, aspects of the problem of s o c i a l development. F i r s t , i n view of the close dependence of s o c i a l groupings and relationships on physical environments i n the old communities, which has been established...., i t i s c l e a r l y of the f i r s t importance that those who build for new communities.should have this i n .mind, and should plan i n such ways as experience shows to favour the growth of a sense of community. This has, indeed, been the s i n of those who envisaged-the new towns as 141 the home of communities which would be 'balanced and self-contained', l i n k i n g employment with housing and providing l e i s u r e . ^ ' Although good planning provides the basis for a healthy community, i t does not ensure such a community. In order to achieve such a community there must be a common ef f o r t made by the cit i z e n s who choose and struggle for common goals. The sense of achievement and common ef f o r t are basic. They are reflected i n a s t a b i l i z a t i o n of values, the creation of commonly accepted unwritten laws and i n a tightening of internal community t i e s . A sign of a healthy community i s the creation of organiza-tions by some dynamic leaders and the formation of a nucleus deeply involved i n community voluntary planning. For, the fact of having struggled together to improve health or recreational f a c i l i t i e s gives a sense of achievement and s o l i d a r i t y . Theoretically, i n a society i n which individuals were socialized to accept attainable positions as the proper and necessary f u l f i l l m e n t of their role i n l i f e , men would f e e l "free" and s a t i s f i e d . The sense of freedom, of being one's own master and of achieving what one thinks one wants to achieve, exists only where the means-ends relationship defined by society i s stable - that i s where men do i n fact get what they have been taught to want. F o o t n o t e s See Appendix D. 2 P r e s e n t l y the t r a i l e r c o u r t t i s 'rezoned' by the owner. 3 The numbers g i v e n a re f o r the s c h o o l y e a r 1968-69. 4 Bob McMurray, "Pulp M i l l s Race C l o c k on E f f l u e n t s , " The  P r o v i n c e ( F e b r u a r y 5, 1970), p. 40. Ken F r e d e r i c k , "The Company Town - E x i t the L a n d l o r d , " Campus (Januar y 1970), p. 15. 6 "A M i n i n g Town J u s t A i n ' t What I t Used To Be," (Adver-t i s e m e n t ) , Campus (January 1970), p. 5. 7 8 T a h s i s Co. L t d . , Gold R i v e r . (Pamphlet.) F r e d e r i c k , ap_. c i t . , p. 26. q F r e d e r i c k , op. c i t . , p. 15. 10 L o i s L i g h t . "Anatomy of an I n s t a n t Town," B. C. M o t o r i s t (March - A p r i l , 1969), p. 21. 1 1 G. V/. Whitehead, " K i t i m a t - P a s t , P r e s e n t and F u t u r e , " T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the 1 6 t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources  Conference ( " V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1966), p. 110. 12 F r e d e r i c k , l o c . c i t . , p. 15. 13 F o r t u r n o v e r r a t e s i n Gold R i v e r see Appendix F. Whitehead, op_. c i t . , p. 99. 15 See Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - P a r t 5, i n Appendix D. There i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between each i n d i v i d u a l ' s answer t o p a r t s 5a and l O i of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 17 I n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by the l o c a l bank manager. 18 See Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - s e c t i o n 4a, i n Appendix D. ^ Food c o s t s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2% h i g h e r ; which i s presumably the c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . ( I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from t h e S u p e r - V a l u s t o r e manager.) 144 2 0 " S o c i o l o g y , " E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n i c a (1970 e d . ) , V o l . XX, p. 797. 21 Whitehead, op_. c i t . , p. 111. 2 2 " S o c i a l S t r a t i s f i c a t i o n , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n c y c l o p e d i a o f the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , ed. D a v i d 1. S i l l s (New Y ork: M a c M i l l a n and F r e e P r e s s , 1968), V o l . XV, p. 306. 2 ^ J . H. N i c h o l s o n , New Communities i n B r i t a i n (London: The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of S o c i a l S e r v i c e , I n c . , 1961), pp. 48-62. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 176. 2 ^ F r e d e r i c k , op_. c i t . , p. 15. ?6 Whitehead, op_. c i t . , p. 111. 2 7 N i c h o l s o n , op. c i t . , p. 149. 2 8 " S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n , " op. c i t . , p. 306. CHAPTER V EVALUATION OE RESULTS Instant towns have often been referred to as being "born already grown up". Such towns are expected to provide, almost instantly, the physical, s o c i a l and even economic environment necessary for the growth of a healthy and balanced community. But growth and maturity are slow and deliberate processes and instant towns rather than being "born grown up" seem to be "born prematurely", unformed and unstructured, often struggling for their very existence. One of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c weaknesses of such towns has been the constant turnover of the working personnel. Different environmental factors contribute to this turnover i n resource towns. These factors can be broken down into three main cate-gories: the physical, s o c i a l and economic. A town's s t a b i l i t y and i t s continued existence depends on these factors, and on the inhabitants' s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . As we have seen from the preceding chapter, the physical, economic and especially the s o c i a l aspects of Gold River are fa r from being "grown up". The town actually seems to be s t i l l s u ffering from "growing pains" and many of the basic problems have not yet been resolved. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s strong and the turnover comparatively high."*" The existing problems i n Gold River not only originate i n the physical, s o c i a l and economic environments, but many of them are inherent i n the nature and the psychological make-up of the 146 people who come to the town. These problems can be outlined under f i v e main headings: - i s o l a t i o n , - turnover, - absence of growth, - size of the community and i t s density, - absence of adequate recreational f a c i l i t i e s . I solation - The town i s situated at an almost two-hour drive from any other community. This gives i t s inhabitants the f e e l i n g of being l o s t i n the wilderness. Peelings of insecurity are created by the knowledge that the town's existence depends on the outside world (food supply, investment, decisions concerning the town's future, etc.). This physical, and somewhat economic i s o l a t i o n , combines with a psychological as well as a s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n of the individual within the community. The move to a new place involves the breaking of old t i e s based on kinship and neighbourhood and adjustment must be made to new standards of conduct. A break i s made with the old customary ways of doing things. A l l this gives a sense of deprivation and an uneasiness. Men of working age are least affected, provided that the move does not involve a disturbance of employment or a long journey to work. Women and especially wives with young children often suffer a degree of i s o l a t i o n which gives r i s e to anxiety, or even neurosis. The older children of primary school age, whose physical health seems to have improved, 147 often resort to damage which may well be a reaction to the disturbance of the way of l i v i n g to which they were accustomed, and especially the pattern of their play. Turnover - Although i s o l a t i o n i s to a large extent responsible for the fact that people leave the town, there are other factors too. One of the major reasons for people leaving the town i s some disagreement with the employer or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the kind of employment, wages or working hours. The absence of any other employer forces the people who quit their jobs with the company to leave town. These people are promptly replaced and the r e s u l t i n g s i t u a t i o n i s that of a "hotel community" where no one knows who i s going to leave or who the newcomer w i l l be. Absence of growth - Being mainly a single industry town, growth i n Gold River can take place either i f the company decides to expand the m i l l and increase the number of workers, or i f the industry could be d i v e r s i f i e d and attract some secondary industries. In the former case company does not seem to want to expand; i n the l a t t e r , investors are very cautious and do not want to r i s k t h e i r c a p i t a l i n an unsettled place. As far as the government i s concerned, i t does not seem to be taking any i n i t i a t i v e whatsoever. Any signs of growth would mean new hope for the future and more security to the inhabitants. This i n i t s turn could reduce the turnover and help to create a stable community with some future perspective.. 148 Size and density of the community - The town was planned to cater to the needs of a suburban community of 3,200 individuals. The meaningful existence of a suburb i s determined primarily by the existence of an urban center i n i t s proximity. Such an urban center near Gold River does not exist and the town's suburban physical characteristics are not only absurd but result i n a rather dense and uniform pattern of buildings. The r e s u l t i n g environment which i s i n fact the product of a drafting board lacks the spontaniety of suburban areas. It i s , i n addition, regulated by a set of rules and by-laws to which the inhabitants must conform and try to lead a l i f e similar to the standard:;; suburban way. It i s evident that such a si t u a t i o n can only lead to f r u s t r a t i o n due to lack of personal freedom. Economic considerations and a p r o f i t oriented approach lead to the high density policy. This high density of the town's population i s another reason for more stress and anxiety. Combined with other factors, the small size of the community and the r e l a t i v e high density contribute to a large extent to the already unstable atmosphere i n the town. Recreational f a c i l i t i e s - are of prime importance i n isolated communities. In Gold River such a c t i v i t i e s are reduced to the minimum. If properly organized such a c t i v i t i e s could serve as energy outlets and many a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and f r u s t r a t i o n could be compensated and sublimated through the different recreational 149 a c t i v i t i e s . Such a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d a l s o s e r v e as the meeting grounds and c o n t r i b u t e t o the moulding o f a community s p i r i t i n the town. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s i s not so. There a r e a few f a c i l i t i e s and t h e r e i s no community o r g a n i z e r who c o u l d h e l p the i n h a b i t a n t s t o o r g a n i z e and h e l p community l i f e t o e v o l v e . A. The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and I t s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s u b m i t t e d t o 51 people from the community chosen i n such a way as t o get the a t t i t u d e s o f d i f f e r e n t persons towards c e r t a i n b a s i c problems and i s s u e s o f the town. S i n c e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d when e i t h e r the whole or a t l e a s t a p a r t o f the f a m i l y was p r e s e n t , the answers t o the q u e s t i o n s r e f l e c t the a t t i t u d e of a f a m i l y on the whole r a t h e r than o f an i n d i v i d u a l . I n T a ble I I - " T a b u l a t i o n of Responses t o the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " , an attempt i s made t o c l a s s i f y the answers t o the d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . P o s i t i v e answers denote the succ e s s o f the s p e c i f i c i t e m , n e g a t i v e answers denote t h e i r f a i l u r e . C e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s l e f t unanswered were c o n s i d e r e d as n e u t r a l o r 'no o p i n i o n ' answers. With the h e l p o f the t a b l e j u x t a - o p p o s e d answers can be compared and a f i n a l s c o r e can be c a l c u l a t e d . No m e a n i n g f u l comparison can be made u n l e s s t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the t o t a l s o f p o s i t i v e and the t o t a l of n e g a t i v e s c o r e s . Furthermore the d i f f e r e n c e s a r e 150 proportional to the s a t i s f a c t i o n or the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n f e l t by the inhabitants concerning a f a c i l i t y , service, or a problem. It should also be kept i n mind that only 10% of the dwellers were interviewed and that such a sampling i s r e l a t i v e . Some of the survey's questions have not been tabulated, for they are of an unc l a s s i f i e d nature. They are nevertheless discussed and interpreted. The questionnaire and data c l a s s i f i -cation can be found i n Appendix D and Appendix E. Face sheet information (refer to Questionnaire.) - Here information about the interviewed people can be found. Out of 51 interviewees 28 were female because of the fact that there was more chance of finding women rather than men at home during daytime. Six out of 51 interviewees were bachelors, nine had no children, and nineteen had two or three children (the average being 2.3 per family). The age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the children was denser i n the pre-school and primary school age range. Most of the families interviewed were young families with small children distributed as follows: Number of children of pre-school age - 31 Number of children of elementary school age - 34 Number of children of high school age - 20 The elementary school has already become overcrowded, for i t i s smaller than the High School and has to cater to a larger number of children. 151 Nine of the interviewees were white c o l l a r employees' families, forty-two were blue c o l l a r . From the 28 interviewed women 21$ are employed, the rest are housewives. Women have a d i f f i c u l t y to find jobs: f i r s t because of the i r children who have to be taken care of and for whom there i s no well organized day care center. But also because a woman cannot take on any job since anonymity i n a small town does not exist and for the sake of status one hesitates to take up any employment. In addition to the jobs cited i n Table 5 of Appendix E, women work as nurses, school teachers and jou r n a l i s t s . As far as education i s concerned, 20$ of the interviewed people had some technical or university education. Table 7 of Appendix E shows that 28 persons have been i n the town for more than two years while 23 have been there for le s s than two years: 45$ are thus newcomers. Table 8 of Appendix E shows that 27 persons plan to stay more than one year while 24 persons intend to move before the year i s up: 47$ are thus expecting to move shortly. Tables 7 and 8 show, therefore, that almost half of the community's population are either newcomers or transient elements. We can also conclude that the population of the town, i s , as predicted, mostly composed of young married people with small children who come mainly from B r i t i s h Columbia (80$). These people are not yet d e f i n i t e l y established i n the town - a fact which leads to a high turnover and a large number of newcomers. 152 Transportation and communication (refer to Questionnaire -section 1.) - The planner hoped at the start to develop the f i r s t basic neighbourhood and concentrate a l l housing f a c i l i t i e s around the town's central core. The assumption being that walking to the commercial center, or hotel instead of driving around the town would become the practice. But, i t seems that whether people go to work, to shop, to drink or out of town, they always use their cars or c a l l a t a x i . Although there i s a good bbus service, i t s lack of punctuality annoys some people (25%) and the car i s r e a l l y the main means of transportation. The priest uses an airplane to v i s i t remote communities, and the Indians use boats to v i s i t t h e i r r e l a t i v e s . The existing situation does not seem to bother the inhabitants much. The only complaints are about the condition of the roads leading to the outside, and to the t r a i l e r court which i s isolated from the actual town and has a very poor road connecting i t with the town center. This fact contributes s t i l l more to the i s o l a t i o n of i t s inhabitants. The road to the outside of the community needs to be repaired and made safe for winter driving. There were many complaints regarding the location of schools which are situated at the extreme end of the town. Children cannot walk to school alone for the walk i s too long for the younger ones and dangerous for a l l since there i s no side walk. There seems to be a need for a bus service organized by the school-board or public transportation organized by the municipality. 153 Since most people have at least one car, this problem does not r e a l l y affect everyone. Nevertheless i t remains an important problem for i t indicates that such considerations were omitted i n the planning process. As far as radio and t e l e v i s i o n are concerned, there seems to be a need for a larger variety of channels and a far better reception. There were also complaints about the price of the hook-up. L i t t l e variety, bad reception and high cost accentuate again the community's i s o l a t i o n . Since the l o c a l newspaper seems to be good and manages to serve well the inhabitants, the delays i n the delivery of the outside newspapers do not bother the inhabitants. Interestingly enough, there are s t i l l people i n Gold River (6$) who are not even aware of the existence of the l o c a l newspaper. This shows how isolated and ignorant of community a c t i v i t i e s some people remain. Except for the quality of the roads and the quality and variety i n t e l e v i s i o n and radio reception, the basic needs of transportation and communication seem to have been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y resolved. As f a r as the above mentioned short-comings are concerned, i t i s a matter of time, for there are discussions about improving both the roads and the t e l e v i s i o n and radio reception. The people of the community (refer to Questionnaire - section 2.) -154 This part of the questionnaire aimed at the determination of some basic facts about the people comprising the community as well as the examination of attitudes between dif f e r e n t groups. In general, neighbours were considered to be pleasant, except i n the cases of row-housing and apartments where there was, i t seems, some unpleasantness between the diff e r e n t occupants. To the question whether there was a group i n the community that one did not approve; negative answers were given by most of the interviewees. Only 12% disapproved of the t r a i l e r camp people, camp-inhabitants and unmarried people. Their reactions seem to have been purely defensive, for they, most probably, viewed such people as transient and unstable elements. Job opportunity was f o r 68% of the inhabitants the reason for coming to Gold River. To others i t was a matter of being transferred. Traditions - values - attitudes (refer to Questionnaire - section 3.) - The purpose of this section was to discover how the inhab-itants see the community and how the general character of the town could be described. 20% of the answers were negative (apathetic, gossipy, int e r n a l c o n f l i c t ) , whereas the other 80% were positive (progressive, f r i e n d l y , cooperative). People usually see the community through themselves, they project their own feelings, fears and anxieties into the community. The 20% who did answer negatively can be considered negative 155 elements i n themselves. This r a t i o i s not high considering the existing high rate of working personnel turnover. Economics and employment (refer to Questionnaire - section 4.) -There are no j u s t i f i a b l e complaints about the l e v e l of wages and people agree that there i s an opportunity of earning good money, especially by working overtime. This i s often reflected on family l i f e where the husband i s not at home for prolonged periods and during awkward hours. It creates stress and i s detrimental to the emotional health of the children. On the other hand the cost of l i v i n g i s considered to be high by 82% of the interviewees. Everything, somewhat special, must be imported from outside the town and costs more because of the transportation factor. One should add here that people often compare actual prices i n the town with those payed by them some time ago outside the community. This i s a false comparison, for prices are generally climbing throughout the country. Other people who come to Gold River are indebted and hope that they w i l l be able to economize i n this remote community. They are rather disappointed when they find out that they s t i l l spend as much as they did i n the urban centers. Shopping f a c i l i t i e s seem to be the main source of d i s s a t i s -faction, concerning especially the policy of the Ucona Holdings i n giving monopoly to merchants. Many people expressed the need for d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of shopping f a c i l i t i e s and 60% f e l t the 156 need f o r a c o r n e r s t o r e . T h i s may reduce the number of people shopping i n Campbell R i v e r and those who never buy a n y t h i n g i n Gold R i v e r . 48% o f the people c o n s i d e r the T a h s i s Company f o r e i g n t o the town, f o r the i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s a r e ta k e n i n the head o f f i c e i n Vancouver. Furthermore, f r e q u e n t and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c -t o r y changes i n p o l i c y and management of the company r e f l e c t themselves i n the a l r e a d y somewhat d i f f i c u l t and s t r a i n e d labour-management r e l a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , 38% o f the people t h i n k t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the company and i t s employees i s a c c e p t a b l e . L o c a l government and the RCMP ( r e f e r t o Q u e s t i o n n a i r e - s e c t i o n 5 . ) - Out o f 2 9 persons who knew t h a t the c o u n c i l i n Gold R i v e r i s an e l e c t e d one, 2 1 f e l t t h a t T a h s i s company's i n f l u e n c e was very s t r o n g . T h i s i n d i c a t e s the s t i l l minor r o l e p l a y e d by the l o c a l government i n the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s and the r a t h e r prominent r o l e o f the company i n a l l the a f f a i r s c o n c e r n i n g the community. A l t h o u g h i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l f o r the company t o d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l over the town s i n c e i t i s by f a r the l a r g e s t t a x p a y e r ; such a s i t u a t i o n does not c r e a t e a v e r y h e a l t h y atmosphere. There i s a c t u a l l y a c o n f l i c t o f p r i n c i p l e s , s i n c e the prime i n t e n t i o n of the company, as s t a t e d , was t o p r o v i d e the town w i t h an independent m u n i c i p a l i t y . But as the company s t i l l has 157 some rather important investments i n the housing, shopping center and r e a l estate, i t t r i e s to ensure i t s own interest by-influencing decision makings. As f a r as the RCMP i s concerned, people are s a t i s f i e d and unanimously agree that police protection i n Gold River i s good and adequate. Community planning (refer to Questionnaire - section 6.) -People are content with the general street layout and the physical layout of the town, but there are major complaints about the absence of sidewalks, small back-yards, slopes of the streets and even the absence of back-lanes. Nevertheless, these complaints are minor, for 54% of the interviewed l i k e the idea of l i v i n g i n a planned community and only 22% d i s l i k e i t . Although most people appreciate the unique se t t i n g of the town, i t s novelty and planning,they resent the uniformity and i s o l a t i o n . 66% of the people were convinced of the necessity of c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community planning. Others were either absolutely opposed or i n d i f f e r e n t to the question. Those opposed argued that since a large proportion of Gold River's inhabitants were transient people, i t i s unfair and unacceptable to l e t such people have a say i n the community planning or i n decision making, for these people would not be there to bear any of the consequences. Housing (refer to Questionnaire - section 7.) - This part of the 158 questionnaire brings together the opinions of people l i v i n g i n a l l the di f f e r e n t types of housing because of the nature of i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n . In general, the answers can be c l a s s i f i e d into two types: - Those given by the owners. - Those given by the tenants. Although the home-owners thought that the price of the houses was high, they were b a s i c a l l y s a t i s f i e d with the other f i n a n c i a l arrangements. They are mostly Tahsis Company employees with large families, on the average with three children. They cherish the large basements and roomy houses with a view. Most people complained about the lack of choice as f a r as type and price of the houses was concerned. This complaint was not only that of the owners but also that of the tenants. The fact that no f i n a n c i a l arrangement for the purchase of a house for service people i s available was resented as much as the fact that no single family detached houses are available f o r rent. The t r a i l e r court people complained about lack of play-ground for children and the density of t r a i l e r s i n the court. Complaints were also made concerning the heating system because of high b i l l s . 50$ of the people deplored the absence of privacy i n apartments, t r a i l e r s , town houses and even i n the detached houses. The f a u l t here seems to l i e with the general layout of the 159 houses and the i r proximity. The apartment tenants complained also about noise due to i n s u f f i c i e n t soundproofing. Notwithstanding a l l the above complaints, housing situation right now i s not undergoing any c r i s i s and seems to be on the whole rather satisfactory. Neighbourhood (refer to Questionnaire - section 8.) - Although the planner had i n mind to build a town which at each stage would constitute a complete unit and would integrate i t s inhab-itants into one neighbourhood, the outcome i s d i f f e r e n t . From the answers of the people concerning the town as a unit, 28$ had some extended notion of neighbourhood but did not include a l l of the town. 60$ had only a limited concept of the town's neighbourhood. To most people the neighbourhood i s determined by the acquaintances i n the immediate proximity of their homes and other people met through th e i r children. Furthermore, the fact that the town i s subdivided into sections influences people into thinking of themselves as belonging to a certain section. Although 22$ of the people think that section A. i s the prestige area of the town, i n r e a l i t y this section i s only the oldest one i n town. The loggers who occupy mainly t h i s section are already settled and rather stable elements. This section has therefore, a very low turnover and seems to be the calmest part of the town. Only 8$ of interviewees attached any impor-tance of section B. where the high income group of the pulp-mill (management) l i v e . 160 Where low-prestige areas are concerned opinions vary-between the t r a i l e r camp, the apartments or the Indian Reserve. Strangely enough, no mention i s made of the logging camp and the Heber Lodge. Perhaps these are not considered to be a part of the town's community. In general some 60% of the individuals agreed that there i s no such thing as low or high prestige areas i n Gold River. The statement applied only to houses located i n the town i t s e l f and does not include the t r a i l e r camp or the reserve. The fact that many of the professionals are tenants because they do not get the f i n a n c i a l advantages offered by the company to t h e i r employees i n purchasing houses, makes i t rather d i f f i c u l t to generalize and c l a s s i f y apartments as low-prestige areas. Education (refer to Questionnaire - section 9.) - This part of the questionnaire was set up i n order to get the f e e l i n g of the population towards the educational i n s t i t u t i o n s and the system, and see i f there i s any s p i r i t of awareness i n the community. Only 21% were d i s s a t i s f i e d with the l o c a l schools. Among these were native Indians who considered that i t i s too far for them and that they need a bus system because they l i v e on the reserve near the pulp-mill. Other objections were made concerning the elementary school being situated on and "sinking" into a swamp; or that the schools are not i n the center of the actual 161 town and the secondary school i s too far and the children have to cross a main road to get there. Only 16% were d i s s a t i s f i e d with the quality of teaching s t a f f , the objection being the lack of d i s c i p l i n e and too much freedom granted to the children. To the question regarding the par t i c u l a r advantages of the design of the primary school, the answers were scattered, including statements such as: can extend, no rows, looks better, more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , etc.. In general, there was not much awareness about the design of the buildings and even one could state that with rare exceptions there was a certain ignorance and unawareness of the advantages and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of such a school. When people were asked i f there was a Parent Teacher Association, and i f there was an opportunity for ci t i z e n s to take part i n the school's decisions, the answers were in. general negative. Nevertheless, there was an awareness that there could and should be cooperation between parents and teachers i n order to get better r e s u l t s . The general impression was that the parents were l e f t out of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n school a f f a i r s . There seems to be a ba r r i e r between them and the school because they do not f u l l y understand what i s happening there, due perhaps to the lack of education of some parents. Certain people, nevertheless, noted that the School Board 162 i s open to a l l suggestions, but parents who have attended the meetings of the Board do not f e e l at home there and only rarely come back to another meeting. Objections have also been made that the secondary school does not have enough s t a f f to provide a f u l l y varied program. Their program i s limited especially i n the vocational f i e l d and i t i s d i f f i c u l t for sub-average students because they do not have a choice i n technical classes. For the needs of the present community the school s t a f f i s large and too expensive. Hope-f u l l y , the above shortcomings w i l l cease to exist i n the future because the School Board i s doing i t s best to give a l l possible opportunity to the students. Almost everyone knew about the existence of adult education classes and many people have already taken courses i n typing, sewing, painting, music, f i r s t aid, ceramics or trade q u a l i f i -cations. Only about 30% had a negative attitude towards such classes mainly because of lack of time. Everyone thinks that evening classes are a good idea. If they become popular, the gap actually existing between the school's and the parents could disappear and the schools would then become more integrated into the l i f e of the community. Certain people s t i l l hesitate to attend evening classes because they lack education and are s e l f -conscious about i t . The question: "Does the educational system i n G-old River 163 p r o v i d e adequate o p p o r t u n i t y f o r your c h i l d r e n ? " , was asked i n o r d e r t o f i n d out i f c e r t a i n people would f e e l unhappy about s t a y i n g i n Gold R i v e r because o f the remoteness of the a c h o o l s from b i g c e n t e r s and whether t h i s c o u l d be a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e the town. Only f i v e persons answered n e g a t i v e l y . I n g e n e r a l , we can say t h a t the a t t i t u d e of the i n h a b i t a n t s o f Gold R i v e r towards the s c h o o l s and the e d u c a t i o n a l system i s q u i t e f a v o u r a b l e . N o n e t h e l e s s , one can f e e l a c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l as w e l l as p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s o l a t i o n of the s c h o o l s . Because of t h e i r l o c a t i o n , t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y and t h e i r newness, these s c h o o l s a r e a f o r e i g n element i n t h i s new community where many o t h e r t h i n g s a r e incongruous and s t i l l out o f p r o p o r t i o n . R e c r e a t i o n and r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s ( r e f e r t o Q u e s t i o n n a i r e -s e c t i o n 10.) - The purpose o f t h i s s e c t i o n was t o determine what people do i n t h e i r f r e e time and i f t h e r e i s a need f o r some more r e c r e a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s f a c i l i t i e s from t h e i r p o i n t o f view. A l l o f the i n t e r v i e w e d persons had some s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , p r e s e n t or f u t u r e . Some s u g g e s t i o n s , such as the need f o r a community c e n t e r o r p l a y -ground, were v e r y r e a l i s t i c . O t h e r s , such as a f o o t b a l l f i e l d , a c o u n t r y c l u b or a g o l f course were l e s s r e a l i s t i c , m a i n l y 164 because of the size of the town. Nevertheless, people i n G-old River do f e e l a need for more recreation and some stimulation. The absence of adequate parks and playgrounds i n the proximity of the houses was brought up by 68% of the interviewees. Although an arrangement has been made for a tot park, the lo c a t i o n i s not very well chosen. The need for an urban sit u a t i o n and for more interaction on some unorganized and neutral t e r r i t o r y i s reflected by the fact that adults' and teenagers' meeting place revolves around the hotel and i t s f a c i l i t i e s . Only 20% of the interviewed people participated i n r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . For the present demand there seems to be no shortage of such f a c i l i t i e s i n the town. 36% of the people thought that church had a major role to play i n the community, the rest thought i t was of no importance. This seems to be yet another sign of a new community, with no t r a d i -tions, occupied by a heterogeneous and young population, for the church i n an established community i s an important i n s t i t u -t i o n . 58% of the people thought that tourism should be encouraged, for i t would be one way of d i v e r s i f y i n g the industry of the town. Only 50% of the population attends or belongs to some s o c i a l club, the other half leads a secluded, 'work and home' oriented l i f e . Health and welfare (refer to Questionnaire - section 11.) - The 1 6 5 aim of thi s section was to determine the attitude of the people to the existing s o c i a l and health f a c i l i t i e s . Although most people are aware of the existence of s o c i a l problems, they are neither astonished, worried or frightened by them. 6 4 $ thought that there were no s o c i a l problems as such and actually only 28% showed concern. The two problems considered as major were the breaking down of marriages and the youth problem - both the resu l t of the absence of a strong community with set values leading to i n s t a b i l i t y and f r u s t r a t i o n . 4 4 % thought that the absence of some a c t i v i t y where a l l the family could participate was a serious problem. As f a r as health f a c i l i t i e s are concerned the fact that there are adequate f a c i l i t i e s i n Campbell River does not s a t i s f y the population. The absence of such f a c i l i t i e s i n Gold River underlines even more the sense of i s o l a t i o n and creates fear. Although the ambulance service i s satisfactory, the bad road to Campbell River diminishes i t s value. The attitude of the people towards the l o c a l doctor can be summarized by a t y p i c a l f a t a l i s t i c deduction which runs around town: "No good doctor would come to such a small community as Gold River. I f a doctor comes, i t means he i s bad. If he i s bad we have to fight him - so l e t us fi g h t the doctor." U n t i l now, three doctors have come and gone because they found 3 the stress just too much to bear. On the whole people think that Health and Welfare are 166 providing adequate services through, the public nurse. They are not aware that other services such as councelling, leadership and community planning could be also provided. There i s a general f e e l i n g that modern health services such as hospital, X-rays etc., should have been provided by the company. It i s the company again which i s held responsible for a l l the d e f i c i -encies and shortcomings i n this f i e l d . a General questions (refer to Questionnaire - section 12.) - Two general questions were asked - what people l i k e most and what they d i s l i k e most about Gold River. It i s rather s t r i k i n g that the majority answers were the scenery and the i s o l a t i o n . Two ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Gold River which were neither planned nor b u i l t , but which were there long before Gold River was even thought of. Also inte r e s t i n g are the answers where some people l i k e d most the smallness of the town and some (the same number) d i s l i k e d precisely this very same ch a r a c t e r i s t i c . Some l i k e d the quietness, others d i s l i k e d i t , some l i k e d nothing about the town, others d i s l i k e d nothing. Evidently, i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to please a l l the people a l l of the time. The answers to the questionnaire are c l a s s i f i e d and summar-ized i n the "Tabulation of Responses to the Questionnaire", Table II. The interpretation of the answers to the questionnaire w i l l be used i n the search for the d i f f e r e n t causes of d i s s a t -i s f a c t i o n and i n the analysis of goal r e a l i z a t i o n . 167 B. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and I t s Reasons T a b u l a t e d responses i n Table I I , show t h a t out of the 37 t a b u l a t e d r e a c t i o n s 15 a r e n e g a t i v e responses which can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g major area s o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n : - I s o l a t i o n o f the community: the poor shape o f r o a d s , i r r e g u l a r bus s e r v i c e and l i m i t e d r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n r e c e p t i o n l e a d t o f r u s t r a t i o n and n o s t a l g i a . The above a r e a b a s i c o m i s s i o n due t o the l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n between the d i f f e r e n t p l a n n i n g b o d i e s . - Lack o f adequate r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s : t he absence o f a community c e n t e r , p a r k s , a decent p l a y g r o u n d , t o t parks and some o t h e r i n d o o r f a c i l i t i e s l e a d t o boredom and l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r community i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s a g a i n i s an o m i s s i o n o f p l a n n i n g because such f a c i l i t i e s a r e o f prime importance and a r e the b a s i c needs i n a community l i v i n g i n i s o l a t i o n . P r e s e n t l y the m u n i c i p a l i t y has g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s t o g et money t o p r o v i d e these f a c i l i t i e s w h i l e a t the i n i t i a l s t a g e i t would have been s i m p l e r t o i n c l u d e the c o s t i n the g e n e r a l budget made f o r the town. - H e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s : m e d i c a l s e r v i c e i s b e i n g p r o v i d e d by a p r i v a t e p h y s i c i a n . The problem i s t o get one and t o s a t i s f y p eople w i t h h i s s e r v i c e s . I n the absence of adequate f a c i l i t i e s d o c t o r s h e s i t a t e t o come t o Gold R i v e r and those who come have d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o p i n g w i t h the people and t h e i r m e n t a l i t y . Through a j o i n t e f f o r t x - r a y equipment has been r e c e n t l y SATISFACTION V A D/SSFT/SFFCT/O/U f A %> OF % OF POS/T/VE /VEGFJ/VE C/PTE50/?/ZED RESPONSES ^ESPOUSES D/SSFf/SF/iCT/ONS FACE 377EEf CREATE P STPBCE COFfA/L/Tj/TY PHO 1/fSO/Z FOeCE /OO (SOS ^4 £ e yt/~/~/2PCT FEOP/E r / ? w t / e s /OO -> T£4/VSFOJZ/-/?T7<£>A/ £///•////</ 3 2 8 TaFA/sPOP7F//a// ovfe/pe <$.p. 72 /sola t/a/y P/fD/O /?A/D TV- /OO /solatiotj NE14/S PFPEg /OO LOC/^l AVEbSS PFPE/Z 82 74-PEOPLE OF y//E cowcv/ry /4 £>/5C/Z/fif//V/?r/<?'</ 80 J2 • FfEEyS yOO£ EKPECftfr/OVS 72. 24 ECOAJOM/CS FMD EA/PtoyASEA/7 LEVEL OP M/PC,ES SO /O <9C7U*H &HOPP/HG P4C/L/7/E5 40 60- no variety CO 57 OF C/1///VO 74 . 82 rr>a/?of>oCe FEEL/A/QS rok/A&os JFFSJS co. 44 48 -LF50Z FND HFfJFQEMENT KEtAjioHS 38 48 LOCAL G01/E&A/WE/V7 /9A/0 FOL/CE GOl/EeMEA/f/A/PEPEA/&EA/T FXOfif /A/Flt/EA/CE 76 48 lack of freec/orr/ /oo COA/FfLJA//-ry F'l rfAJA/ /A/G OI/E/2/9(.<. sr/ZEey £F?yooT 30 /O GEA/S/Z/?L PtfYs/c<9L itpyoor 66 74 F'EEL/A/^S COA/CE/ZA///VG W /9 FC/9A/A/EO COHM/V/yy S2 22 . /-/OUS/AJQ F//V/9A/C//9C 4AJ<S ES-/ES/7~5 S-97/£Py?cr0/Zy 66 . /6 , F&/y*/cy u//r/y//y r/'F //ocse J 66 1 78 F/2/y/lcy F/2&A* A/e/$//&oes 37 ' 50 f>hy6 /ca / 7oyouC SL/PF/C/Es/y- isy?/z /£7~y //y //oc>G/y/^ 27 57 f6ys/ca/ layout E£>i/C4r/0W '0CFT7O/V OFf/ye FCFOOiS. 64- 22 quac/ry OP 7*e yepcs/sy^ SJ-<IF/= 60 ' 7G P/Z/FfE/2y SCHOOL DES/<$/y 40 7G E/>ocs)7/0/i/4i sys7Esy A V CJ./Z . /s s47/SF/?cro/zy 74- /O PEC/2EFIJ-/0/V FA/D /?£L/<5/00£, PC7/V/J/ES recrea tioq P/IE TPEPE PPEQi/PrE FP/2AZS PMC F>tpyG/200A/DS 32 63 Fl/FLFB/L/j-y OF &£C/2CFpOHA//9L F/?C/t//V£S 7OO rec rea tj'orj PVFLF!3/£/fy OF i^/0/lSF/F'P//Y^ F/ZC/c/f/ES /oo dii/ers/f/c a 6 orj roO/Z/SM A.'OT EA'COO/ZFC,E£> E/VOVGF 6 S8 .1 3OC//)L F'/zoece^s 64 " 3 4 /£> THE HEALTH SEfZVICE F) DE QU PTE /OO /jeo/th YOUTH PfZO&LBM /M G./2. SO 3 8 .^fZ-B MBD-'C^L 5E/2Y/CES & DE QO A) J£ 3 91 hea/t/j { /S E/iE /ZCPMCy rtrtS'Jl F>/VC£ ^/ZEQUFTE 74 /6 \ 2 o f % o f POS/f/l/E: /5ESF>OA/SE£> 20/9 - af.: /YFG/9.//VF ^ E S P O U S E S _ . 1648 T A B L E I I — T A B U L A T I O N O F R E S P O N S E S T O T H E ' ^ Q U E S T I O N N A I R E 168 bought by the community and negotiations are taking place to provide hospital f a c i l i t i e s . At present the factor of i s o l a t i o n and the inadequate health f a c i l i t i e s render the situation c r i t i c a l especially for pregnant women. These shortcomings are also a basic omission at the planning stage; free enterprise cannot take care of such things. - Lack of variety: the lack of choice leads to the f e e l i n g of a loss of freedom. This lack of choice i s b a s i c a l l y a function of the size of the community. These feelings have been expressed regarding primarily the shopping f a c i l i t i e s . But, we have to take into consideration that a town of 2,300 people cannot support too many shops. Furthermore, since the shopping center i s very modern, rents are necessarily high and only a monopoly policy can insure any p r o f i t . This naturally elimin-ates competition, hence choice. The lack of choice and variety i n housing i s reflected i n mass production and standardization -the result of an attempt to reduce cost. - Lack of privacy: this point has already been brought up i n the discussion regarding the general layout of houses: their d isposition i n some cases accentuates this sense of a loss of privacy and anonymity which i s already rather marked i n a town of this size. This, once more, can be considered as the result of standardization, the size of the community, as well as too quick and unpondered decisions concerning the layout at the planning stage. 169 - D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n : the e x i s t e n c e of o n l y one b a s i c i n d u s t r y l e a d s t o f r i c t i o n . T h i s i s f i n a l l y one of the major problems. People f e e l s t r o n g l y about the n e c e s s i t y of some o t h e r i n d u s t r y and t o u r i s m i s one of the g r e a t hopes a t the moment. Perhaps, a p o l i c y s h o u l d have been e s t a b l i s h e d from the s t a r t and s t r o n g measures t a k e n i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t and i n s u r e some secondary i n d u s t r i e s r a t h e r t h a n l e t t h i n g s take t h e i r own cours e and happen by themselves. The d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g h o u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s , e x o r b i t a n t p r i c e s and h i g h l a b o u r wages a r e f a c t o r s which d i s c o u r a g e i n v e s t o r s , who i n a d d i t i o n t o the h i g h i n i t i a l c o s t have no assura n c e of the c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e of the town. They a r e thus a f r a i d t o r i s k c a p i t a l i n any l o n g term i n v e s t m e n t . U n l e s s such i n d u s t r y i s planned and sponsored by the government, t h e r e i s no hope of any secondary i n d u s t r i e s coming t o Gold R i v e r . At p r e s e n t the T a h s i s Company admits t h a t a secondary i n d u s t r y would be a v e r y d e s i r a b l e element i n the community, f o r i t w i l l c r e a t e new employment o u t l e t s and p o s s i b l y c o n t r i b u t e i n s t a b i l i z i n g the town's p o p u l a t i o n . - S t a b i l i t y : t he h i g h t u r n o v e r i s d e p l o r e d by the company as w e l l as by the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the town. People l e a v e the community when they l o s e or q u i t t h e i r j o b . I n o t h e r words, most people l e a v e the town when they have problems w i t h t h e i r employer. The f a c t t h a t f e e l i n g s towards the T a h s i s Company and the labour-management r e l a t i o n s a r e not v e r y good i s , 170 \j perhaps, a p a r t i a l reason the problem of turnover. Work at the m i l l i s a continuous tension and r e f l e c t s very strongly on the town's atmosphere and even at school. When there i s an accident or some labour-management trouble i t i s automati-c a l l y reflected on the behaviour of the c h i l d r e n . 4 In addition to a l l of the above, the majority of the people are s t i l l convinced that the company rules the town and directs i t s government. Di s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a constantly present factor i n every community, but i t i s important to note that i n the case of Gold River the reason for some of i t i s the result of basic miscall culations and omissions made during the planning process. Most of the factors causing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n seem to be due to the lack of coordination between the di f f e r e n t planning bodies -hence due to a lack of unity i n planning. This lack of coordin-ation and unity lead to a lack of variety i n - Work ( d i v e r s i t y ) . - Services (growth and competition). - Design (standardization and mass production i n housing). But, not a l l the f a u l t l i e s with the planning, for there i s a strong correlation between the size of the town and the possible range of variety which can be offered. Perhaps i f Gold River was larger, some of the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n could be reduced and eliminated. 171 C. Analysis of Achievements It i s generally accepted that the creation of a town i n wilderness from nothing i s a great achievement. This i s the case of Gold River, for the very day the m i l l opened the town was ready to offer a l l i v a b l e place to families with children. Primary f a c i l i t i e s were provided almost instantly the day people started moving i n . This undoubtedly i s a great achievement i n the f i e l d of planning and organization. The town right from the beginning provided: - Job opportunities for some 600 employees. - Housing f a c i l i t i e s with advantageous puchasing conditions for company employees. - Good protection and order ( f i r e brigade and RCMP). - Communal f a c i l i t i e s , especially where the schools and the teaching s t a f f are concerned. Furthermore, the physical aspect of the town, i t s location within the surrounding scenery, i t s street lay-out and the primary school design should be praised. Each in d i v i d u a l detached single family house i s within i t s e l f very well designed and offers at least some privacy within. Although the community i n Gold River lacks the integrated s p i r i t and frie n d l i n e s s of some of other older communities, i t must be admitted that among the diff e r e n t groups of inhabitants there are close t i e s o^f friendship and cooperation. This fact i n i t s e l f can be considered to be a great achievement for there 172 was no community planning as such and people came from d i f f e r e n t places and with d i f f e r e n t backgrounds and s t i l l were able to get assimilated, to some extent at least, into the community. This l a t t e r achievement i s re f l e c t e d i n the creation of a l o c a l newspaper which i s a sign of the beginnings of some public concern and has become the common denominator of community l i f e . Furthermore, the very fact that 80% of the people f e l t that there i s no discrimination i s a healthy sign of, i f not a un i f i e d community, at least one which i s not l i a b l e to be plagued by discriminatory problems so common elsewhere. It i s also int e r e s t i n g to note that although s o c i a l and youth problems do exist, they are limited and far less than what i s usually expected i n f r o n t i e r communities. One of the most important aspects of G-old River i s that young people have the unique opportunity to start a new community and adapt i t to th e i r needs. They have the opportunity to \ govern themselves and perhaps r e a l i z e t h e i r ideals and aspirations. Unlike the old day pioneers, they can start a ne^ w l i f e i n an ultramodern town where they can safely raise t h e i r children. Unfortunately, many are not aware of this opportunity and to them the town s t i l l preserves the company ownership stigma. The lack of the people's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the town's administra-tive l i f e i s minimal. The bond between people and the elected representatives, as shown i n Diagram 9, i s s t i l l very weak. Time and awareness are the two necessary factors i n the strengthening of such bonds. 173 We have spoken of achievements i n g e n e r a l terms. I n r e a l i t y each body r e g a r d s achievement i n terms o f i t s own s e t g o a l s and t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n . Thus, where Gold R i v e r i s concerned, achievement seen by the p l a n n e r , the a r c h i t e c t s , o r the company may or may not c o i n c i d e w i t h the i n h a b i t a n t s ' v iew o f achievement. S i n c e towns are b u i l t , a t l e a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y , f o r p e o p l e , the i d e a l s i t u a t i o n would be one where a l l p a r t i e s would view t h e same achievements and have the same g o a l s . Where the i n h a b i t a n t s a r e concerned they see achievement i n terms o f the degree t o which t h e i r needs have been f u l f i l l e d - i . e . t h e i r g o a l s s a t i s f i e d . I t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o determine people's g o a l s and needs. One way o f f i n d i n g out whether people's g o a l s have been s a t i s f i e d i s by a s k i n g them q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s and f a c i l i t i e s o f the town. P o s i t i v e r e sponses t o such q u e s t i o n s may be assumed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the g o a l s concerned have been a c h i e v e d . Thus i t can be c l a i m e d t h a t achievement can be measured i n terms o f s a t i s f a c t i o n s and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , a t l e a s t where the i n h a b i t a n t s a r e concerned. S a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n t hen would be expressed i n terms o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e responses (see T a b u l a t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s i n Table I I ) . Furthermore, from Table I I : -Sum o f percentages of p o s i t i v e responses = 2,019 -Sum o f percentages o f n e g a t i v e responses = 1,648 - T o t a l = 3,667 174 I f 3,667 i s c o n s i d e r e d t o r e p r e s e n t 100%, th e n the average percentage s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l be 100 x 2.019 = 55%. The 3,667 average percentage d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n would then be e q u a l t o 45%. I n 1969 i n G-old R i v e r the t u r n o v e r over 10 months was 57%.^ Over a p e r i o d o f 12 months the t u r n o v e r can be c a l c u l a t e d t o be 69.4% which i s r a t h e r h i g h . But i f we c o n s i d e r t h a t f o r e s t a b l i s h e d communities the t u r n o v e r i s s a i d t o be 20% per 12 months, then the t u r n o v e r i n Gold R i v e r i n excess t o the normal t u r n o v e r i s 69.4 - 20 = 49.4% The t u r n o v e r i n e s t a b l i s h e d and s t a b l e communities i s due t o causes such as m a r r i a g e , d e a t h , b i r t h , s i c k n e s s o r t r a n s f e r , e t c . Any excess t u r n o v e r can be c l a i m e d t o be due to some shortcomings i n the immediate environment - f a c i l i t i e s or s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the t u r n o v e r i n Gold R i v e r i n excess t o the normal t u r n o v e r percentage g i v e n c o r r e s p o n d s r a t h e r c l o s e l y t o the percentage d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n determined by the q u e s t i o n n a i r e : and c a l c u l a t e d from Table I I : 49.4% as compared t o the c a l c u l a t e d 45%. Footnotes For turnover rates i n Gold River see Appendix F. o J. H. Nicholson, New Communities i n B r i t a i n (London: The National Council of Social Service, Inc., 1961), p. 147. J Letter from D. Norman Burs, M.D., f i r s t physician of Gold River, March, 1969. 4 Information obtained from one of the school teachers i n Gold River. For turnover rates i n Gold River see Appendix F. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION The present study has been an attempt to enumerate and analyise the reasons and factors which lead to the creation of Gold River. Since towns are dynamic e n t i t i e s , and i n a constant state of change, observations made, at diff e r e n t periods of time, of the physical, economic and s o c i a l aspects of the town w i l l not always be the same. It should, therefore, be kept i n mind that the physical, economic or s o c i a l aspects recorded, correspond to a certain time, s p e c i f i c a l l y that of the winter months of 1969. It i s evident that the findings i n this study are limited to one town. Any generalization concerning the problems of instant towns and their solutions must involve a similar study carried out on the other remaining f i v e instant towns i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Nevertheless, there always remain some constant common factors or aspects between dif f e r e n t towns as well as a certain consistencies within each community in t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . With these factors and consistencies i n mind one can try to find general reasons for discontent as well as s a t i s f a c t i o n concerning primarily the population. Discontent and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l show the extent of discrepancies between the basic decisions made by the planning bodies during the planning process and their f i n a l execution. A correlation made between goal s p e c i f i -cation and the re s u l t i n g product, as well as the s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of the inhabitants, may give a clear picture 177 of the shortcomings of th i s s p e c i f i c planning process. This study can be considered as the st a r t i n g point for further studies on instant towns, for i t has been primarily a study of the planning process and i t s implimentation i n the building of one s p e c i f i c town - Gold River. It i s hoped that such a study w i l l be instrumental i n r a i s i n g some questions concerning the current ways of planning for such towns. This may lead to more awareness of the problems concerning instant towns and possibly help to avoid repeating some of the basic mistakes committed i n the planning process of Gold River. The present study has shown that: - In the planning process goals are often not expressed e x p l i -c i t l y and c l e a r l y . - There i s i n s u f f i c i e n t communication between the di f f e r e n t bodies involved i n the planning process, whereby goals are misinterpreted and only p a r t i a l l y r e a l i z e d . - The success of a town i n terms of growth and s t a b i l i t y depends on reduction of the turnover of the population, which i s to a large extent a function of the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of the inhabitants. - Substantial recreational f a c i l i t i e s are necessary. - D i v e r s i f i e d Industries are necessary for development, growth and permanence of instant towns. A. Goals Versus Achievements When Tables "Tabulation of i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t goals" 178 (Table I) and "Tabulation of responses" (Table II) are compared, the correlation between the i n i t i a l goals and results can be analysed. Since goals are not always c l e a r l y stated, some i n t e r -pretation and interpolation i s necessary. In this way i t i s possible to determine acceptability, unacceptability and neutral-i t y of each goal for each of the di f f e r e n t planning bodies involved. The c r i t e r i a of acceptability, unacceptability and neu-t r a l i t y , of both, e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t goals are as follows: - Acceptability: a goal i s termed acceptable when i t i s not i n contradiction with a planning body's or bodies' general policy and attitude regarding the issue i n question or an e x p l i c i t l y stated goal.. - Unacceptability: a goal i s termed unacceptable when i t i s i n contradiction with a planning body's or bodies' general policy and attitude regarding the issue i n question or an e x p l i c i t l y stated goal. - Neutrality: a goal i s neutral when i t does not induce either a positive or a negative reaction of a planning body or bodies. Since achievement i s a function of the extent of the r e a l i -zation of a goal, attained achievement can be measured when goals are compared with r e s u l t s . The question arises here as to 1 7 9 how can one determine the extent to which a goal is realized. Two assumptions about goals and their motivational origin were made: - We can speak of particular goals as those goals which are concerned with, either particular issues related to the interests of a small group, or those encompassing the whole nation. These are necessarily the goals of the different planning bodies involved. In the f i r s t case for example such a particular goal would be the profit to be made by the company, or the professional challenge to the architects and planners, In the second case i t would be promoting resource development by the government. - General goals, or those directed towards the consumer, i . e . the inhabitants of the town, which are directed towards the fulfilment of the consumer's expectations. These would be for example such goals as to provide education, recreation or health f a c i l i t i e s . Each of these goals, whether particular or general is conceived and evaluated in different ways and is an answer to the different needs and interests of each individual planning body. The term achievement can be very relat ive. To have some basis for judging the extent of achievement a criterion has to be chosen. We may thus assume the existence of three degrees of achievement: - Total achievement: when goals are carried through as they 180 have been stated or when the result meets the expectations of the consumer. - P a r t i a l achievement: when there was an evident attempt to carry through the goal but for certain reasons only p a r t i a l execution was attained, or when the people's expectations were only p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d . One reason of the p a r t i a l attainment of a goal may be the reluctance of the other planning bodies to make a compromise. For example the goal to make Gold River a center of the region did not seem to concern the contractor i n the le a s t . - F a i l u r e : when stated goals of certain planning bodies or body are not carried out, or when the carried out goals do not meet the expectations of the people and lead to discontent. In the f i r s t case for example the t r a i l e r camp was to be integrated into the town but i t was not. The goal of creating a larger town rather than a small town was not carried through. The building of the town adjacent to a settlement was not executed. To have any meaningful evaluation of resu l t s , i t i s necessary to separate the results into two categories: - Achievement or f a i l u r e from the point of view of the planning body as a whole (projectors). - Achievement or f a i l u r e from the point of view of people (users). Projector results are thus the f u l l achievement, p a r t i a l achievement, or f a i l u r e determined by the degree of the fulfilment of the di f f e r e n t goals of each of the planning bodies. (see Table III) 181 User results are determined i n terms of the expressed opinions and reactions of the inhabitants of the town regarding the s p e c i f i c goals expressed and stipulated by the planning bodies (see Table I I I ) . Using the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of goals into i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t , the effect of such goals on the users can be studied. In Table III a l l of the above results are c l a s s i f i e d and evaluated. It has to be remembered that the determination of user results has been obtained from the comparison of the d i f f e r e n t goals expressed by the planning bodies and a comparison of those goals with the results tabulated i n Table I I . The Table shows that: - Out of 56 stated goals there were 10 on which there was basic disagreement between the d i f f e r e n t planning bodies. - In the category of general goals, i . e . those geared towards the users' needs, out of 40 goals 18 were not achieved according to the users' responses, while 22 can be considered achieved. - In the category of p a r t i c u l a r goals out of 16 stated goals 4 were f a i l u r e s while 12 can be considered achieved. 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PEC/EL0PAYESVT EPAOcSPPdE AAEkV COA-AA/CA/yyTyes o a X • GOrlLS EXPLICITLY STATED GOALS IMPLICIT GOPLS PCCEPT&BLE L/ppecE PTA9BL e /yepypPL TYPE: OE GOALS P P//£]-/CL/lA9SS G GEPEP/9L fcESUL 75 A E)CE/El/EMEU]~ F FAILURE MEUT^AL T A B L E III— E V A L U A T I O N O F T O T A L AND P A R T I A L A C H I E V E M E N T S 182 - In the category of particular goals considered achieved 6 out of 12 were stated e x p l i c i t l y (50%). - In the category of general goals considered achieved only 5 out of 22 were e x p l i c i t l y stated (23%). B. Modification of the Planning Process As shown i n chapter II, the heli x continuous chain of the successive stages of goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n , decision-making, plan-execution, evaluation and re-orientation to be carried out e f f i c i e n t l y and lead to the least possible number of discrepan-cies, must be based upon a c l e a r l y stated s t a r t i n g point. Since goal s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s the s t a r t i n g point i t i s evident that at this stage goals have to be stated as c l e a r l y as possible. The basic task of this stage then, i s to establish a common vocabulary among the d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s involved i n the planning process. This can be attained only through intensive preliminary group work. The s t a r t i n g point of the planning process would involve active and close cooperation between the government and the com-pany, designers and contractors. There should be a basic agreement to state e x p l i c i t l y and c l e a r l y goals, p r i o r i t i e s , basic p r i n c i -ples and p o l i c i e s . This can be achieved by creating i n t e r d i s c i -plinary commissions and committees. The role of these commissions and committees would be to analyze similar situations and report on the way of l i f e and the expectations of the people who 183 go to new communities. In this way the future consumer's needs and expectations w i l l become evident and can thus be taken into consideration. In creating a new town i t i s of prime importance to have a l l the available information on the potential inhabitant and his way of l i f e i n order to understand his p r i o r i t i e s . I f the inhabitants' needs and (expectations are known and are taken into consideration, possibly, discrepancies between the inhabitants' expectations and the realized town would be reduced. This would d e f i n i t e l y improve the psychological and s o c i a l atmosphere of the town and, perhaps, even reduce the turnover. At this stage of preliminary group-work exchange of opinions, confrontation, leading to basic agreement over ideas and a t t i -tudes can take place (see Diagram 1 4 ) . The main purpose of th i s stage should be the search for a commonly accepted and agreed upon 'vocabulary'. This would eliminate misunderstandings due to misinterpretation of ideas and statements and would lead to improved communication. The next stage i s one where the decision-making body i s structured and the proper functioning of this decision-making process i s ensured. This would not present any d i f f i c u l t i e s i f every party or individual would be aware of his as well as the others' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Once the awareness of respective respon-s i b i l i t i e s i s established a re-organization and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of 184 185 the roles of the dif f e r e n t bodies involved i n the planning process should take place. This may eventually lead to more t o t a l l y r e a l i z a b l e goals. At t h i s stage some basic changes should be introduced into the planning process (Diagram 7 ) . The lack of communication can be eliminated by creating, at the governmental l e v e l , an i n t e r -departmental committee d i r e c t l y responsible to the cabinet. This committee would deal with the person responsible for the project and the coordinating architect and an independent planning committee which would base i t s decisions on the results gathered by a s o c i o l o g i c a l research group (see Diagram 15). This group should consist of planners, architects, s o c i a l workers, sociologists, economists and geographers. The function of the s o c i o l o g i c a l research group would be to act as an advisor, and at the same time represent through documented research, the opinions, needs and attitudes of the potential inhabitants of the towns to be b u i l t . The group would have a twofold role of: - Carrying out detailed studies from dif f e r e n t points of view on similar cases of new towns already functioning. It would also make crjicss-sectional studies of attitudes and needs of di f f e r e n t groups which such towns would attract as potential inhabitants. - Acting as an advisory to the planning committee coupcsed of the governmental interdepartmental committee, the company's repre-sentative and the architect coordinator. 187 188 The goal of introducing the s o c i o l o g i c a l research group and the planning committee i s to: - Eliminate discrepancies between the inhabitants' expectations and r e a l i t y . - Eliminate discrepancies between the publicized aspects of the town and r e a l i t y . We can also assume that since decisions taken by the planning bodies would be based upon the representative needs of the inhabitants as presented by the s o c i o l o g i c a l research group, people's needs i n the town would be more or less s a t i s f i e d . The by-laws which t h e o r e t i c a l l y represent the needs for security and protection of the inhabitant would then actually coincide with those needs and would become protective-by-laws rather than r e s t r i c t i v e ones. In the case of Gold River the needs of the inhabitants were not represented i n the planning process, this i s why the by-laws had to be r e s t r i c t i v e since the protection of each inhabitant and the community as a whole had to be ensured. Laws enacted are usually answers to needs and become protective, but laws which preceed needs, as was the case of Gold River, cannot but be r e s t r i c t i v e . Instead of answering people's needs they often contradict or frustrate them. The same reasoning applies to the case of the interim government which would then, not v i r t u a l l y but r e a l l y , represent the interests of the inhabitants of the town because then i t s role would be to maintain order i n terms of the inhabitants' 189 needs (see Diagram 16 as compared t o Diagram 8 ) . T h i s would l e a d t o b e t t e r r e s u l t s i n the P l a n n i n g Stage 3 (Diagram 9 ) , where the term " a f f e c t the e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r " c o u l d be exchanged f o r "improve the e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r " . Under such c o n d i t i o n s i t would be p o s s i b l e t o keep the i n t e r i m government f o r a s h o r t e r p e r i o d whereby the town c o u l d a t t a i n s t a b i l i t y and d e m o c r a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n a s h o r t e r t i m e . C. G e n e r a l S u g g e s t i o n s Having proposed changes and m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s , an attempt now may be made t o t r y and g i v e some g e n e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the i n i t i a l s t a g e s i n b u i l d i n g new towns. The town and i t s l o c a t i o n have t o be l o o k e d upon from the r e g i o n a l development p o i n t of view. The town s h o u l d f i t i n t o an o v e r a l l r e g i o n a l p l a n o f d e s i r a b l e s e t t l e m e n t s which i n t u r n s h o u l d be the r e s u l t o f a thorough s t u d y o f the r e g i o n . S i n c e i s o l a t i o n seems t o be one of the most r e s e n t e d f a c t o r s i n a new community, i t i s of prime importance t o l i n k these towns w i t h a r e g i o n a l c e n t e r by easy and e f f i c i e n t communication f a c i l i t i e s . I s o l a t i o n b e i n g a f u n c t i o n of the s i z e of the community, i t i s a d v i s a b l e t o c o n c e n t r a t e as many f a c i l i t i e s as p o s s i b l e and b r i n g t o g e t h e r more than one p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y t o ensure a town of some m e a n i n g f u l s i z e . D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n employment i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the f u t u r e s i z e of a town and i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the development of a w e l l b a l a n c e d community. By i n t r o d u c i n g N | Hi I ! s vo r 1 9 1 192 d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i t may be possible to eliminate the stress r e s u l t i n g from the one employer situation and the absence of choice. Building towns involves the creation of new communities. The success of such communities depends mainly on their s t a b i l i t y . It i s therefore necessary to reduce the turnover to as low a percentage as possible. This does not necessarily eliminate mobility, which has become a cha r a c t e r i s t i c aspect of modern society. The attempt to reduce turnover and the search for s t a b i l i t y do not imply stagnancy but a balanced mobility which leads to change and growth. People's s a t i s f a c t i o n i s strongly linked with the existence of hope. Hope i s a function of expansion and growth. It appears that i n order to s a t i s f y people i t i s necessary not only to plan r e a l i s t i c a l l y for growth, but also ensure i t . Growth i s reflected i n new opportunities through the opening of secondary industries which ensure new job opportunities as well as material benefits. Since choice and variety are important components of man's contentment, i t i s evident that job opportunities and f a c i l i t i e s , whether housing, shopping, educational or recreational, to be effect i v e must have the above mentioned q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . I t , therefore, follows that competitive i n s t i t u t i o n s should be promoted and monopolies eliminated. Cooperative arrangements and organizations should be made i n order to allow people to 193 f e e l that the town belongs to them and i s not run by an outsider to the community. Whenever there i s the danger of a business being monopolized by a company with headquarters outside the community, i t i s advisable to i n i t i a t e cooperative arrangements. The shopping center i n Gold River, for example, could have been run on such basis, i f at the st a r t there would have been community organ-iz e r s aware of the negative effects of "one store of each type" arrangements directed mostly by outside investors. The creation of such "coops" could lead to stronger involvement and more pa r t i c i p a t i o n . Not only people involved i n such "coops", but possibly the rest of the inhabitants would f e e l that they have more choice and are not imposed upon by outsiders. In t h i s manner a sense of belonging could be promoted, for people would have direct interests (investment and p r o f i t ) i n the town. It i s possible to go further and state that the inhabitants of resource towns should have the opportunity and be encouraged to become share-holders i n the prime industry. By doing so, i t would be possible to improve the relationship between the management and the workers, for, again personal interest would be involved. It would also be advisable to introduce and stimulate inhabitant p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e and decision making procedures of the town. Participation, involvement and 194 cooperation are three very important elements that should never be forgotten by planners and should be re-considered and re-examined at each stage of the planning process. The implemen-tation of these three factors should be the prime concern of community organizers. More stress should be put upon considerations regarding the a v a i l a b i l i t y of doctors, dentists, and hospital needs. Presently, i t seems, that police and f i r e brigades have the p r i o r i t y i n Gold River. Health services should be included and b u i l t at the same time as the school or recreational f a c i l i t i e s and a l l should be b u i l t at the same time as the rest of the town. Their cost would not be an additional burden, but could be included i n the basic cost of the town. An adequate and appropriate meeting place i n the town for the community should be on.the same l i s t of p r i o r i t i e s as health or recreational f a c i l i t i e s . In Gold River, the absence of a permanent community center coupled with the fact that the schools are at the extreme ends of the town does not encourage i n the least community a c t i v i t i e s or meetings. There i s a need for a c u l t u r a l , educational and recreational center i n the f o c a l point of the town. The role of thi s center would be to gather people and provide a c t i v i t i e s i n the central point of the town. This could lead to more intensive community l i f e . It should not be forgotten that the basic size of the 195 community i s s i g n i f i c a n t and should be taken into consideration when the type of the town to be b u i l t i s being considered. It i s i n general accepted that what people want i s a suburban environment. But, i t i s also generally forgotten that a sub-urban environment becomes absurd i n the absence of an urban center. Although the material conditions of suburban l i f e can be duplicated i n terms of street patterns, individual houses, land subdivision and servicing, we do not have suburbia as such, for many diff e r e n t factors intervene. New communities, such as Gold River, are composed of a r e l a t i v e l y small number of individuals. There i s only one employer. There i s no sizable urban center nearby. These factors combined with the constant anxiety of the i n d i v i d u a l over the fluctuation of prices or changes i n policy, possibly leading to the closure of the plant, lead;:; to a f r u s t r a t i n g insecurity and feelings of i n s t a b i l i t y regarding the future. In planning for new towns, choice, variety and growth must be insured. The present planned communities re-create the suburban physical environment which i s v a l i d , only when such towns are within a reasonable distance from a highly urban-ized center. What we actually have i s a suburbia i n the wilder-ness f i l l e d with boredom and monotony, with no close centers for recreation or variety, and with too few people to have any intense community or s o c i a l l i f e . 1 9 6 In these communities young people have no alternatives but to work i n the prime industry or move out of town - which they often do. In the same way, many parents f e e l obliged to leave the town because of the lack of opportunities for the future of the i r children. In the case of small communities which are unable to support an urban center, i t would, perhaps, be advisable to avoid sub-urban type environment and instead create a semi-rural environ-ment with large l o t s , p o s s i b i l i t i e s of growing orchards or a garden. This would supply d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and some additional income. Furthermore, i t i s a well known fact that when man t i l l s the s o i l and invests his energy into i t , he feels t i e d to the land and w i l l not move away easi l y . Also, when density i s reduced, the r e s t r i c t i v e by-laws would decrease: lesser r e s t r i c t i o n would mean an increased sense of freedom and, perhaps, i n the long run a f e e l i n g of belonging to the community. What we actually have i n Gold River i s a ' l i l i p u t i a n ' arrangement of dense suburbia i n a rather r u r a l environment, lacking the density and the size of a town and surrounded by widespread unutilized land. The houses are jammed on small l o t s and i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y impossible to buy a cheap farm because the land price i s a r t i f i c i a l l y boosted. In planning for resource towns, planning for people should always be taken into consideration, for i f people are w i l l i n g 197 to go to remote places and forego certain advantages of the centers, then at least they should be offered a minimum of security and a future. Physical and s o c i a l considerations should, therefore, be handled j o i n t l y , and physical and s o c i a l planners should j o i n forces to create stable and l a s t i n g communities. When people talk or think of the "good l i f e " , they do not only v i s u a l i z e i t i n terms of design, landscaping, land-use or open space, but also see i t i n terms of meaningful relationships within the community i t s e l f . That i s why We need to humanize the planner's perspective so that he may view his r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to society i n a more meaningful vein. 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" L ' i m a g i n a i r e e t l e R e e l , " A r c h i t e c t u r e d'Au.iourd'hui. No. 146 (Octobre-Novembre, 1969), PP. 3-9. W i l l i a m s , R o b e r t A. "Toward a P l a n n i n g P o l i c y f o r B r i t i s h Columbia," P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of B. C. N e w s l e t t e r . V o l . I I , No. 6 (October, 1968), pp. 3-12. W i n k e l , Gary H. "The Nervous A f f a i r Between B e h a v i o u r S c i e n t i s t s and D e s i g n e r s , " P s y c h o l o g y Today. V o l . I l l , No. 10 (March, 1970), pp. 31-35. U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l B r i t i s h Columbia U n i v e r s i t y : F a c u l t y o f Graduate S t u d i e s , Department o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . " P l a n n i n g f o r the R e g i o n a l Development i n B. C : W i t h S p e c i a l A p p l i c a t i o n t o N o r t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d . " U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C , 1965. B e a t t y , M. e t . a l . ' P r o j e c t : Gold R i v e r : S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f a Planned Community.' Un p u b l i s h e d s t u d e n t p r o j e c t , Department of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r -s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, A p r i l , 1969. C l e g g , E. T. "A R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g A n a l y s i s of a S i n g l e E n t e r p r i s e Community S e t t l e m e n t s . " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , Department o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958. Endersby, S t a n l e y A. " K i t i m a t , B. C : An E v a l u a t i o n of i t s P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g and Development." U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , Department o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. Gil m o u r , J . F. "The F o r e s t I n d u s t r y as a Determinant of S e t t l e m e n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia: The Case f o r I n t e g r a t i o n 203 Through R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g . " U n p u b l i s h e d Master's T h e s i s , Department of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. McC a r t e r , N a i r n e and P a r t n e r s . " O u t l i n e f o r the Development of the Town o f Gold R i v e r . " U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t , A p r i l 4, 1966. The M u n i c i p a l i t y of Gold R i v e r . "The D i s t r i c t of Gold R i v e r : G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n . " (Mimeographed.) T a h s i s Company L t d . . "Gold R i v e r . " (Pamphlet.) . "The S t o r y o f T a h s i s Company L t d . . " (Pamphlet.) U. S. Housing and Home Fi n a n c e Agency. " M o b i l i t y and M o t i v a t i o n . " U. S. P u b l i c Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Washington D. C , 1958. I n t e r v i e w s C h a v a r i e , Sh. E. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mrs. Sh. E. C h a v a r i e , Alderman i n the Town of Gold R i v e r . Gold R i v e r : October 25, 1969. C o s t e l l o , H. P. I n t e r v i e w w i t h C o r p o r a l H. P. C o s t e l l o , ROMP C o r p o r a l and V i c e - P r e s i d e n t of the Kinsmen Club o f Gold R i v e r . Gold R i v e r : October 25, 1969. D a r n e l l , V. R. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. V. R. D a r n e l l , Owner of the Copper K e t t l e R e s t a u r a n t i n Gold R i v e r , Chairman of the R e t a i l Merchants o f Gold R i v e r and e x e c u t i v e member o f the Gold R i v e r Tenants A s s o c i a t i o n . Gold R i v e r : October 24, 1969. Donovan, B. J . I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mrs. B. J . Donovan, News C o r r e s -pondent f o r the Upper I s l a n d Newspaper. Gold R i v e r : October 25, 1969. Dou g l a s s , R. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. R. Douglass/- P r e s i d e n t o f the Gold R i v e r Chamber o f Commerce. Gold R i v e r : October 25, 1969. G a r r i s o n , L. L. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. L. L. G a r r i s o n , Manager o f the Toronto Dominion Bank i n Gold R i v e r . Gold R i v e r : October 25, 1965. 204 G i b s o n , B. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. B. Gibson, A r c h i t e c t i n charge of the Gold R i v e r p r o j e c t on b e h a l f o f M c C a r t e r , N a i r n e and P a r t n e r s . Vancouver: F e b r u a r y 18, 1969. Grabb, F. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. F. Grabb, D i v i s i o n Manager, T a h s i s Company. Vancouver: October 1, 1969. M a c M i l l a n , J . ¥. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. J . W. M a c M i l l a n , P e r s o n n e l Manager, T a h s i s Company p u l p - m i l l , Gold R i v e r : October 24, 1969. McKay, D. J . S. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Reverend D. J . S. McKay, R e s i d e n t A n g l i c a n P a s t o r i n Gold R i v e r and Chairman o f the Gold R i v e r R e c r e a t i o n Commission. Gold R i v e r : October 24, 1969. M i l l e r , N. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. N. M i l l e r , Owner-Manager of T r a i l e r C o u r t . Gold R i v e r : October 25, 1969. Nauman, D. K. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. D. K. Nauman, P l a n n e r . Vancouver: January 15, 1969. P a u l s o n , N. H. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. N. H. P a u l s o n , M u n i c i p a l C l e r k and T r e a s u r e r o f Gold R i v e r . Gold R i v e r : F e b r u a r y 25, 1969. P o o l , J . I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. J . P o o l , P r e s i d e n t of Dawson Development L t d . . Vancouver: March 28, 1969. Rush, B. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. B. Rush, P r o j e c t E n g i n e e r , Town S i t e , T a h s i s Company. Vancouver: January 10, 1969. Seg u i n , J . L. I n t e r v i e w w i t h M r s . . J . L. Seguin. R e g i s t e r e d Nurse and P r e s i d e n t of the K i n e t t e Club i n Gold R i v e r . Gold R i v e r : October 25, 1969. South, D. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. D. South, D i r e c t o r of R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . Vancouver: October 8, 1969. T a y l o r , L. A. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. L. A. T a y l o r , Deputy F i r e C h i e f i n Gold R i v e r . Gold R i v e r : October 24, 1969. W e t t i g , T. I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. T. Wettig, R e c r e a t i o n C o - o r d i n a t o r i n Gold R i v e r . Gold R i v e r : October 25, 1969. APPENDIX A THE HEALTH ACT ( Revised Statutes of B.C. , 1911 , chap. 98 , sec. 9 ) Board of Health. ^ 9. (1.) The Provincial Board may further from time to time make regulations applicable to lumber camps, mining camps, sawmills, 1114 railway - construction camps, and other places where labour is employed throughout the P r o v i n c e : — (a.) Respecting any particular industry and the conditions under which the same may be carried on for the purpose of preventing nuisances and the outbreak or spread of disease: (6.) F o r the cleansing, regulating, and inspection of lumbering camps, and of mining camps, and of railway-construction works, and of other places where labour is employed: (c.) F o r providing for the employment of duly qualified medical practitioners by employers of labour i n lumbering camps, and i n mining camps, and on railroad-construction works, and other works where labour is employed, and for the erection of permanent or temporary hospitals for the accommodation of persons so employed: (d.) F o r providing for the construction, arrangement, and inspection of houses for the accommodation of men employed i n lumbering and mining camps and i n railway-construction work. (2.) Regulations made under this section may be general i n their General or special, application, or may be made applicable specially to any particular locality or industry. 1911, c. 20, ss. 1, 2. AB2MD1X B l'H£ COMPANY TOWN ACT ( S t a t u t e s of B.C. , 1919 , c h a p . 14 ) CHAPTER 14. A n Act to make Provision for Access by the Public to Company Towns. [Assented to 29th March, 1919.] HI S M A J E S T Y , by and with tlie advice and consent of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, enacts aa fol lows:— 1. This A c t may be cited as the " Company Towns Regulation short title. Act." 2. In this A c t — - Interpretation. " Company " includes corporations, copartnerships, persons, and associations of persons; and, when used with reference to a company town, means the company carrying on the industrial operation or business in respect of which any area has been declared a company town under this A c t : " Roads," " streets," or " ways " includes bridges, viaducts, cul-verts, subways, and embankments. 3. Where any one hundred or more persons employed by any com- power to declare . . , , . , ,. , . . , company towns. pain - 111 or about any industrial operation or business carried on by the company are living or sojourning on lands owned, occupied, or controlled, either directly or indirectly, by the company, the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may, by order published in one issue of the Gazette, declare those lauds, together with any adjoining lands within an area to be described in the order, to be a " company t o w n " within the meaning of this A c t ; and may in like manner from time to time alter or revoke that order and make others. 4. (1.) Where, in any company town, any roads, streets, or ways night of public . * * ' . to use roads In are opened, maiiilamed, or used by Ihe company or by its employees, company towns, and are by any order of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council pursuant to section G declared to be roads, streets, or ways for the purposes •17 207 ' C H A P . 14 C O M P A N Y T O W N S R E G U L A T I O N . 9 G E O . 5 of this Act, His Majesty, his agents and servants, and every member of the general publip shall have the right at all times, without further licence than the provisions in this Act contained, to use and enjoy all those roads, streets, and ways as free and uninterrupted rights-of-way, ingress, egress, and regress, for persons, animals, and vehicles, loaded and unloaded, for all purposes, through, along, and over the area comprised in the company town. Provision for filing (2.) Upon the written request of the Minister of Lands, the com-pany shall within two months from the receipt of the request file in the office of the Miuister of Lands at Victoria a plan showing all roads, streets, and ways opened, maintained, or used by the company in the company town referred to in the request. revision for public 5. (1.) Where the usual means of transportation to and from any Towns.at c c , m p a n > company town consist wholly or in part of transportation by water, the company carrying on any industrial operation or busi-ness therein shall provide and maintain a safe and convenient public wharf and proper wharf facilities in the company town adequate for the purposes of landing, embarking, and shipping passengers and freight, together with convenient and proper approaches and ways connecting the wharf with the roads, streets, and ways to which this Act applies within the company town. Right of public (2.) Subject to the provisions of subsection (3), His Majesty, his to u»e vr ar. agents and servants, and every member of the general public shall have at all times, without further licence than the provisions in this Act contained, free access to and the use of the wharf, wharf facilities, approaches, and ways for the purposes mentioned in sub-section (1). Rights of public (3.) The rights conferred upon the general public under the pro-subject to payment . \ ' , „ , , „ „ of wharfage and to visions of this section shall be subject-to the payment of wharfage business nccBSsitics of company. and warehousing charges at such rates as may be approved by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council from time to time, and shall also be subject to the industrial and business necessities of the company, but so that the rights of ingress, egress, and regress conferred by this Act shall not be obstructed. rowers of Lieut.- 6- The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may from time to time, Governor In Council. fey p u b l i s h e d j n Q n e i s s u e Q f t f a e Gazette:— (a.) Declare any roads, streets, or ways in any company town to be roads, streets, or ways for the purposes of this Act: (ft.) Declare whether or not any company town is one to which the provisions of section 5 apply; and may annul either in whole or in part any declaration so made. industrial require- ' 7. Nothing in this Act shall prevent any company from exercising p r o ° o c t c a . C O I j p ' i n y from time to time its right to utilize for building-sites or for any bona-fide business or industrial purpose of the company any road, street, or way to which this Act applies. 48 •208 1 9 1 9 C O M P A N Y T O W N S R E G U L A T I O N . 1^:CHAP^'£&~ i'^'^'?~^/r:^'^ 8. Without in any way limiting the rights conferred by the pro- Roads in company visions of this Act, nothing in this A ct or in any order made wtthYnnmeanfnT,ofS thereunder shall be construed to constitute a dedication of or to H i g h w a y 3 Act-establish any road, street, or way as a highway within the meaning of the " Highways Act." 9. Everv companv which obstructs or interferes with His Majesty obstruction by com-• J-I r /> i j , Pany an offence. or any person in the exercise of any right conferred by or under this Act in respect of the use and enjoyment of any road, street, way, wharf, wharf facility, or approach shall be guilty of an offence against this Act. 1 0 . Everv company failing or refusing to provide or maintain any Failure of company 1 •> ° a l to provide wharf, wharf, wharf facility, approach, or wav which by this Act the com- or file plan of roads, u ' J an offence. pany is required to provide or maintain, or failing or refusing to file any plan which by this Act the company is required to file, shall be guilty of an offence against this Act. 1 1 . Every company guilty of an offence against this Act shall be Penalty, liable, on summary conviction, to a penalty not exceeding five hun-dred dollars, and in the case of a continuing offence to a further penalty of twenty dollars for each day during which the offence continues. V I C T O R I A , B . C . : Printed by W I L L I A M H . C D X L I N , Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 1019. APPENDIX C JWSXANT TOWiM LEGISLATION CHAP. 2 8 MUNICIPAL (AMENDMENT) 13-14 ELIZ. 2 Amendai. io. 4 Subsection (5) of section 10 is amended by striking out the words " have, for one month immediately preceding the day of voting, been " from the third and fourth lines and substituting the word " are ", so that the subsection shall read as follows:— "(5) The persons entitled to vote at a poll held under this section shall be British subjects of the full age of twenty-one years who and cor-porations which are the owners of real property within the area proposed to be incorporated." Enacts 1. 1CU. Establishment of munici-palities in conjunction with natural-resource development. Amends s. 11. 5. The Act is further amended by inserting the following as section 10A : — " 10A. (1) Notwithstanding section 10, where, in the opinion of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, it is in the public interest to establish a municipality in conjunction with the development of a natural resource, the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may, by Letters Patent, incorporate the residents of any area of land in unorganized territory into a munici-pality upon the receipt of a petition from at least five owners of land within the area of the proposed municipality. "(2) Until the first Council is elected, a municipality incorporated under this section is deemed to be a village for the purposes of subsec-tions (2) and (3) of section 231." 6. Section 11 is amended (a) by inserting after the word " granting " in the first line the words " or issuing " ; (b) by striking out the words "incorporating a municipality, or granting " from the second line and substituting the word " or " ; (c) by striking out the words and figures "under section 21, 24, 25, or 26 " from the third line; {d) by inserting after the word " municipality " in the third and fourth lines the words " or the proposed municipality " ; and (e) by inserting after the word " petition " in the fourth line the words ", or from those designated by the Minister," so that the section shall read as follows:— " 1 1 . The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may, when granting or issuing Letters Patent or supplementary Letters Patent, vary the bound-aries of the municipality or the proposed municipality from those set out in the petition, or from those designated by the Minister, for the purpose of making the same regular or in conformity with the boundaries of neigh-bouring municipalities, or to exclude or include an area from or in the municipality." APPENDIX D THE QUESTIONNAIRE PACE SHEET Sex of Interviewee Number of children Ages of children Occupation of father " mother Education of father " mother How long have you l i v e d i n G-old River? Where did you come from? How long do you plan to remain i n Gold River? 211 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 1. Transportation and Communication (a) What are your usual means of transportation - within the town of Gold River? To work Outside the community (b) What forms of improvement would you l i k e to see i n transportation? within Gold River? ' outside Gold River? (c) How many radio stations do you receive? How many T.V. channels do you receive? What improvements are necessary i n the above? (d) When do you receive your d a i l y newspaper? Is t h i s satisfactory? (e) How meaningful i s your l o c a l newspaper? 212 2. People of the Community (a) How do you f e e l about your neighbors? (b) Are there any groups i n the community you do not approve of? (c) Why did you come to Gold River? (d) Did Gold River community meet your expectations? Explain. l i k e d i s l i k e 2 1 3 3« Traditions - Values - Attitudes (a) Is there any par t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which best describes the people of Gold River? (b) Which word best describes progressive conservative co-operative i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t industrious your community? fri e n d l i n e s s tolerance of difference community-mindedness i n d i v i d u a l i t y apathetic 214 Economics and Employment (a) How do you f e e l about the l e v e l of wages? (b) Do you think there i s a need for a corner store i n your neighborhood? (c) Do you have any feelings about the cost of l i v i n g i n Gold River? (d) What do you purchase i n Campbell River? (e) What are the general feelings toward the Tahsis Company? (f) What sort of relations exist between labor and management 215 Local Government and Police (a) What type of government exists i n your community? (b) What role does c i v i c government play i n r e l a t i o n to the Tahsis company? (c) What opportunities are there for c i t i z e n participation? i . e . P-T-A, Service (d) Do you have adequate police protection? (e) What i s the community's relationship toward the R.C.M.P. 216 6. Community Planning (a) Do you have any suggestions for improving the future planning of G-old River? (service, industry, etc.) (b) Do you l i k e the ov e r a l l street layout? Explain. (c) Do you f e e l that the c i t i z e n s should have a part i n the community's planning? (d) Would you prefer a diff e r e n t physical layout? Explain. (e) What are your feelings concerning l i v i n g i n a planned community? Explain. (f) What do you f e e l are the unique cha r a c t e r i s t i c s with regards to the planning, of your community? (g) What advantages do these unique cha r a c t e r i s t i c s bestow on your community? 217 Housing (a) Are you a home owner? (b) Do you have a mortgage, and on what terms? (c) Do you think the f i n a n c i a l arrangements are satisfactory Explain. (d) How many people are i n your household? (e) What do you l i k e about your house? (f) What do you d i s l i k e about your house? (g) Do you f e e l your house has enough privacy? within the house from the neighbors (h) Do you think there i s enough variety i n the housing? Explain. 218 8. Neighborhood (a) On the map provided, can you delineate what you consider to be your neighborhood? (b) On what c r i t e r i a do you decide such delineation? - know most people i n area - children of the area play together - physical appearance - other (c) Is there a prestige housing area i n G-old River? - i f so, where? (d) Is there a low prestige housing area? - i f so, where? 219 9 . Education (a) Are you s a t i s f i e d with the location of the schools? (b) Are you s a t i s f i e d with the quality of the teaching s t a f f ? (c) Are there any pa r t i c u l a r advantages to the design of the primary school? (d) Is there a P.T.A.? Are you a member? Is there an opportunity for c i t i z e n s to take part i n school decisions? (e) Would you attend Adult Education classes i f they were available? (f) Does the educational system i n Gold River provide adequate opportunities for your children? 220 10. Recreation and Religious A c t i v i t y (a) What do the children do for recreation? (b) Do you f e e l there are adequate parks and playgrounds near your home? (c) What recreational f a c i l i t i e s does Gold River need? (d) What are the meeting places for the various age groups? children teen-agers adults (e) Do you participate i n any r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s ? Specify. (f) What role does the church play i n your community? Explain. (g) What form does adult recreation take? i n the evenings on weekends during holidays (h) What effect does Tourism have on your community? (i) Do you take part i n any club a c t i v i t i e s ? Specify. 2 2 1 1 1 . Health and Welfare (a.J Are there any pa r t i c u l a r s o c i a l problems i n the community? If so, what? (b) Are there any par t i c u l a r health needs? If so, what? (c) Is there a need for Day Care i n your community? (d) Are there any a c t i v i t i e s which allow f u l l family participation? (e) Is marital breakdown a problem i n your community? (f) Does this community have a youth problem? I f so, please explain. (g) Are medical services adequate? Comment. (h) Are you s a t i s f i e d with the emergency ambulance procedures available? (i) Are the prov i n c i a l Health and Welfare services meeting the community needs? (j) In what way could the community provide lacking Health and Welfare services? General Questions (a) What do you l i k e most about l i v i n g i n Gold River? (b) What do you l i k e least about l i v i n g i n Gold River? APPENDIX E DATA CLASSIFICATION FACE SHEET INFORMATION Female T o t a l 28 51 Table 2 - Number of C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l y 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 or more T o t a l Numbers i n t e r v i e w e d 9 6 9 10 4 5 1 101 T a b l e 2 - Ages of C h i l d r e n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 -T o t a l s 6 7 9 9 4 8 2 8 6 6 3 3 6 1 3 4 1 15 T o t a l 101 T a b l e 4_ - O c c u p a t i o n o f Males P u l p M i l l L o g g i n g White c o l l a r B l u e C. White C. B l u e C. T o t a l s 6 25 1 6 S e r v i c e P r o f e s s i o n a l Other ' T o t a l 2 11 51 T a b l e 5_ - O c c u p a t i o n o f Females S e c r e t a r y i n P u l p M i l l - 1 H e l p w i t h husband's b u s i n e s s - 2 S t o r e C l e r k ' - 1 K i t c h e n H e l p e r - 1 S a l e s C l e r k - 1 A l l o t h e r s - housewives Table 1 - Sex o f I n t e r v i e w e e Male T o t a l s 23 224 Table 6 - Education - Males Z'r fir.8 • Gr. Sr. Gr. Gr. Some . -NK - or les s 9 10 11 12. Univ. Degree Tech. Total Totals 7 10 0 6 4 14 4 3 3 51 Table 7 - Length of Stay i n Gold River Less than over 2 mos. 2-6 mos. 7-11 mos. . 1-2 yr. 2 yrs. Total Totals 1 3 6 13 28 51 Table 8 - How Long People Plan to Remain i n Gold River Don't know Less than 1 yr• l-£ yrs. Indefinite Total Totals 9 15 8 19 51 Where people came from Number of Interviewees Within B. C. Outside B. C. Campbell River 5 Aus t r a l i a 1 Comox 1 Cornwall, Ont. 1 Coquitlam 1 Ft. William, Ont. 1 Courtenay 1 Fredericton 2 Fa i r Harbour 1 Ontario 1 Friendly Cove 3 Quebec City 1 Kelowna 1 Saskatoon 1 Kitimat 3 Toronto 1 Ladysmith 1 Winnipeg 1 Mission 1 10 « Nanaimo 1 Nelson 1 Ocean F a l l s 1 s Port A l i c e 1 Prince George 1 Richmond 1 Salmon Arm 1 T r a i l 1 Vancouver 7 V i c t o r i a 3 White Rock 1 §E Woodfibre 2 39 s Pulp M i l l Towns 225 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 1. Transportation and Communications a) What are your usual means of transportation - within the town of Gold River? To work: own car 44 car pools 2 walk 3 other 2 (co. transport.) Outside the community: own car 43 bus (public transp.) ... 4 airplane 1 boat 3 b) What forms of improvement would you l i k e to see i n transportation? Within Gold River: none 47 Improvement of roads 2 (road to t r a i l e r court) Improvement of public transport .. 2 (buses for schools, c i r c u i t bus) Outside Gold River: None 12 Improvement of roads 24 Improvement of public transport. . 12 c) How many radio stations do you receive? How many T.V. Channels do you receive? T.V. Channels — 2 (Ch. 6 6b 12) sometimes reception poor. Every person had complaints about such poor reception. Radio Reception i s limited mostly to night hours. What improvements are necessary i n the above? —l o w e r i n i t i a l hook-up for T.V. (presently $50 and $7 per month) — b e t t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n s f or reception of T.V. and Radio. d) When do you receive your d a i l y newspaper? The Province - available the same day of publication The Colonist - " " " " " " The Sun - 11 " day after publication 226 Local newspaper — "Between The Gold and The Heber" published bi-weekly or monthly Don't know i t exists 3 Satisfactory 41 Unsatisfactory 7 Note that each school publishes a newspaper. The m i l l also publishes one. A l l of the above are produced by voluntary e f f o r t . People of the Community a) How do you f e e l about your neighbors? Pleasant 3 5 Indifferent 6 Unpleasant 7 No answer 3 b) Are there any groups i n the community you do not approve of None 40 No response 5 Yes 6 There was no agreement on groups d i s l i k e d . c) Why did you come to Gold River? Because of work or business a v a i l a b i l i t y ... 27 Advancement i n job 6 Transferred 8 Location 7 Better economic conditions 1 Just happened 1 No answer 1 d) Did Gold River community meet your expectations? Yes 3 6 No 12 Indifferent 3 Traditions - Values - Attitudes a) Is there any par t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which best describes the people of Gold River? No response 9 227 We received comments ranging from: —want improvement — f r o m a l l over the world —c o n s t i p a t e d —normal — a f t e r opportunity — t r a n s i e n t community — g o s s i p y — c l i q u e —young age l e v e l —modern b) Which word best describes your community? frien d l i n e s s 14 tolerance of difference ...4 progressive 9 internal c o n f l i c t 3 apathetic 7 conservative 1 community minded .... 5 industrious 1 cooperative 4 i n d i v i d u a l i t y 1 4. Economics and Employment a) How do you f e e l about the l e v e l of wages? high 12 f a i r 33 low 6 no response none b) Do you think there i s a need for a corner store i n your neighbourhood? yes 30 no 20 no answer 1 c) Do you have any feelings about the cost of l i v i n g i n Gold River? high 41 f a i r 7 no response 3 d) What do you purchase i n Campbell River? Most of the people buy groceries and everyday supplies i n Gold River, but go to Campbell River for monthly big shopping, clothing and shoes. e) What are the general feelings toward the Tahsis Company? Good 11 Fair 11 Poor 24 No response 5 228 f ) What s o r t of r e l a t i o n s e x i s t between l a b o r and management? Good 9 P a i r 10 Poor 24 No response 8 L o c a l Government and P o l i c e a) What type o f government e x i s t s i n your community? There i s a m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h an e l e c t e d c o u n c i l , but out o f 51 i n t e r v i e w e d , t h e r e a r e 22 persons who do not know what type o f government t h e r e i s . ( T a h s i s Go. or d i r e c t e d by T a h s i s Co.) b) What r o l e does c i v i c government p l a y i n r e l a t i o n t o the T a h s i s Co. I n f l u e n c e d by T a h s i s 24 Independent 8 No answer 19 c) What o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e t h e r e f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? O p p o r t u n i t y 31 No o p p o r t u n i t y 6 No answer 14 d) Do you have adequate p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n ? e) Community's r e l a t i o n s h i p toward the R.C.M.P. Gen e r a l f e e l i n g i s t h a t t h e r e i s enough p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n and R.C.M.P. i s c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g f r i e n d l y and t h e r e a r e good r e l a t i o n s . Community P l a n n i n g a) Do you have any s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g the f u t u r e p l a n n i n g of Gold R i v e r ? ( s e r v i c e , i n d u s t r y , e t c . ) S u g g e s t i o n T o t a l no. tim e s suggested More i n d u s t r y 12 More s t o r e s 11 Swimming p o o l 5 More parks 5 I c e r i n k s 5 More houses 4 Si d e w a l k s 3 More f a c i l i t i e s f o r tee n a g e r s 3 229 T o t a l no. times Suggestion suggested Movie Theatres 3 More f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n 2 Less p l a n n i n g 2 H o s p i t a l p l a n n i n g 2 G o l f Course 1 Larger backyards 1 S t r e e t s too steep 1 Restaurant 1 D r i v i n g School 1 Trees 1 Improve Housing c o n s t r u c t i o n 1 Free housing e n t e r p r i s e 1 Enlarge town 1 Backlanes 1 b) Do you l i k e the o v e r a l l s t r e e t l a y o u t ? yes 45 no 6 i n d i f f e r e n t none c) Do you f e e l t h a t the c i t i z e n s should have a part i n the community's planning? yes 33 no 13 i n d i f f e r e n t 5 d) Would you p r e f e r a d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l l a y o u t ? yes 7 no 34 i n d i f f e r e n t 3 no answer 7 e) What are your f e e l i n g s concerning l i v i n g i n a planned community? L i k e 27 D i s l i k e 11 I n d i f f e r e n t 6 No answer 7 f ) What do you f e e l are the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with regard to the p l a n n i n g of your community? g) What advantages do these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s bestow on your community? 230 Planned f o r the f u t u r e .... 4 New town 6 S t r e e t l a y o u t 4 E x p e n s i v e l i v i n g ..1 C e n t r a l i z e d l a y o u t 4 I s o l a t e d 1 Underground w i r i n g 9 No o p i n i o n 13 l o c a t i o n 8 U n i f o r m i t y i n h o u s i n g 1 Housing a) Are you a home owner? Homeowner 30 R e n t e r 17 T r a i l e r 4 b) Do you have a mortgage, and on what terms? The homeowners a r e the o n l y ones t o have a mortgage. Those who work f o r T a h s i s Company have a 25 y e a r term w i t h a 2% mortgage o f $5000 f r e e o f charge. Those employed by the S c h o o l Board have a s u b s i d y . c) Do you t h i n k the f i n a n c i a l arrangements a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y yes 20 no 5 don't know 5 d) How many people a r e i n your household? Household o f 1 4 2 8 3 7 4 11 5 10 6 4 7 5 more 2 II it ti II ti II it it tt tt n tt it it e) What do you l i k e about your house? The r e l e v a n t answers were i n o r d e r of impor t a n c e . roomy l a y o u t no answer view basement 231 f ) What do you d i s l i k e about your house? The r e l e v a n t answers were i n o r d e r o f importance. no answer n o t h i n g n ot w e l l b u i l t n o t soundproof s m a l l e x p e n s i v e g) Do you f e e l your house has enough p r i v a c y ? W i t h i n your house: yes 34 no 9 no answer ... 8 From your n e i g h b o r : yes 19 no 25 no answer ... 7 h) Do you t h i n k t h e r e i s enough v a r i e t y i n the housing? yes 14 no 29 i n d i f f e r e n t 4 no answer 4 8. Neighborhood a) On the map p r o v i d e d , can you d e l i n e a t e what you c o n s i d e r t o be your neighborhood? ( t o be done on a map) l i m i t e d neighborhood 12 extended " 11 14 whole town 6 S p e c i a l s e c t i o n t r a i l e r park 5 l o g g i n g 2 Reserve 2 No answers '. . . 10 b) On what c r i t e r i a do you d e c i d e such d e l i n e a t i o n ? Know most people i n a r e a 20 C h i l d r e n p l a y t o g e t h e r 15 P h y s i c a l appearance 5 Other 1 No answer 10 232 c) I s t h e r e a p r e s t i g e h o u s i n g a r e a i n Gold R i v e r ? I f so, where? A - 6 , . 11 B - 4 C - 1 No , 29 No answer ..', . . 11 d) I s t h e r e a low p r e s t i g e h o u s i n g area? Yes 12 No 30 No answer 9 9. E d u c a t i o n a) Are you s a t i s f i e d w i t h the l o c a t i o n of the s c h o o l s ? Yes 33 No 11 No answer 7 b) Are you s a t i s f i e d w i t h the q u a l i t y o f the t e a c h i n g s t a f f ? Yes 30 No 8 No answer 13 c) Are t h e r e any p a r t i c u l a r advantages t o the d e s i g n o f the p r i m a r y s c h o o l ? Yes 20 No 8 Don' t know 4 No answer 19 d) I s t h e r e a P.T.A.? Are you a member? I s t h e r e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c i t i z e n s t o ta k e p a r t i n s c h o o l d e c i s i o n s ? There was no P.T.A. hence t h e r e a r e no members. C o n c e r n i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o ta k e p a r t : Yes 13 No 15 No answer .... 15 Don 1 t know ... 8 233 e) Would you a t t e n d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o c l a s s e s i f they were a v a i l a b l e ? Yes 31 No 15 No answer 6 f ) Does the e d u c a t i o n a l system i n Gold R i v e r p r o v i d e adequate o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r y o u r c h i l d r e n ? Yes 38 No 5 No answer 8 10. R e c r e a t i o n and R e l i g i o u s A c t i v i t y a) What do the c h i l d r e n do f o r r e c r e a t i o n ? Not much 13 P l a y on s t r e e t s 5 S p o r t s a c t i v i t y ,... 11 B o w l i n g 5 Boy S c o u t s 5 S k a t i n g 4 b) Do you f e e l t h e r e a r e adequate par k s and playgrounds near your home? Yes 16 No 34 No answer 1 c) What r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s does Gold R i v e r need? T o t a l no. o f S u g g e s t i o n t i m e s suggested Swimming p o o l 22 More i n d u s t r y 15 Movie t h e a t r e s 12 G o l f c o u r s e 4 Community c e n t r e 4 F o o t b a l l f i e l d 3 Tennis c o u r t 2 More f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n 1 Country c l u b 1 L a r g e r b o w l i n g a l l e y 1 N i g h t c l u b 1 D i s c o t e q u e 1 Indoor R e c r e a t i o n a l complex 1 Indoor r e c r e a t i o n 1 234 d) What are the meeting places f o r the various age groups? Children: Community h a l l 11 Street 2 School gym 4 Bowling 2 Playground 2 Teenagers: Poolroom 11 Coffee shop 17 Bowling a l l e y 11 Hotel 8 School 4 Shopping centre 3 Adults: Beer parlor 17 Parties 11 Hotel 10 Community h a l l 6 School 5 Bowling a l l e y 5 Clubs 3 e) Do you participate i n any re l i g i o u s a c t i v i t y ? yes 10 no 41 51 f) What role does the church play i n your community? 18 people f e l t that the church had a positive and major role to play i n the community. 18 people also f e l t that the church played a very minor role i n the community. 7 people did not know what rol e , i f any, the church played i n the community. 8 people had no reply. g) What form does adult recreation take? The weekends were used for fi s h i n g , boating, camping and going to Campbell River. In the evenings adult recreation took many forms, i . e . home l i f e , v i s i t i n g , T.V., dancing, parties, bowling, night school, bingo, cards, clubs, tennis, reading, etc. Holidays were used to leave the community, i . e . Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and points east. 235 h) What e f f e c t does Tourism have on your community? 12 people f e l t t h a t t o u r i s m was v e r y good f o r the community .o 12 people a l s o f e l t o t h a t t h e r e was not enough 5 people f e l t t h a t the f u t u r e would see a l o t more t o u r i s t s 21 had no r e p l y 3 d i d not want t o u r i s t s i n the a r e a . i ) Do you take p a r t i n any c l u b a c t i v i t y ? yes 25 no 26 H e a l t h and W e l f a r e a) Are t h e r e any p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l problems i n the community yes 17 no 32 no answer 3 The s o c i a l problem breakdown: s t e a l i n g 3 d r i n k i n g 4 v a n d a l i s m 3 l a c k o f l e a d e r s h i p 2 gay people 2 d o c t o r 1 d i s c o n t e n t e d w ives 1 d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n 1 b) Are t h e r e any p a r t i c u l a r h e a l t h needs? c l i n i c 16 b e t t e r s e v i c e from d o c t o r ... 2 h o s p i t a l 13 no r e p l y 2 d e n t i s t 10 o p t o m e t r i s t 1 no 7 i n c u b a t o r 1 new d o c t o r ... 6 needs two d o c t o r s _2 60 Some gave more th a n one answer. c) I s t h e r e a need f o r Day c a r e i n your community? No 31 don't know 4 yes 7 t h e r e i s one _J5 no r e p l y .... 6 51 236 Are t h e r e any a c t i v i t i e s w hich a l l o w f u l l f a m i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? no 22 no r e p l y .... 8 b o w l i n g 8 p i c n i c 4 swimming .... 4 f i s h i n g 3 b a l l games .. 2 camping 2 not too much .. 2 s k a t i n g 1 walks 1 d r i v e s 1 ch u r c h 1 b o a t i n g 1 f a m i l y n i g h t s a t home 1 outdoor a c t i v -i t i e s 1 Rod and Gun Club 1 not a problem .. 1 s c h o o l f u n c t i o n s 1 66 e) I s m a r i t a l breakdown a problem i n your community? no .... 23 no r e p l y 7 Don't know .. 4 yes ... 12 no worse than elsewhere . 5 51 f ) Does t h i s community have a y o u t h problem? yes 19 Causes: not enough t o do no 25 m a r i t a l breakdown no answer .. - 7 d r i n k i n g pregnancy h i p p i e s v a n d a l i s m g) Are m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s adequate? Needs: b e t t e r d o c t o r 16 c l i n i c 26 d e n t i s t 10 no needs 7 b e t t e r emergency s e r v i c e . 5 h e a l t h c e n t r e 2 X-ray machine 2 nurse 1 h) Are you s a t i s f i e d w i t h the emergency ambulance procedures a v a i l a b l e ? yes 37 no 3 no r e p l y 3 c o s t s too much 3 v e h i c l e not. s u i t a b l e 2 don't know 2 road a problem _1 51 237 i ) Are the Provincial Health and Welfare services meeting the community needs? yes 16 don't know 11 no 17 no _7 51 j) In what way could the community provide lacking Health and Welfare Services? No reply 25 By building a c l i n i c 8 By building a hospital . . 4 In the same way the X-ray machine was provided 3 By providing a nurse . 1 Through clubs sponsoring them 1 Should be provided by company; then run by town 1 By opening the town up; it.might attract medical people 1 By f i r s t aid man providing i n doctor's absence 1 Community i s too small to provide them 1 It i s too soon to provide them 1 They w i l l gradually be added as needed 1 They are a waste of time 1 Don' t know 1 No lacking services '. _1 51 12. General Questions a) What do you l i k e most about l i v i n g i n Gold River? scenery 13 outdoor l i f e 8 job opportunities ... 5 nothing 5 f r i e n d l i n e s s 4 quietness 4 small town 4 b) What do you l i k e least about l i v i n g i n Gold River? i s o l a t i o n 8 high cost of l i v i n g . 7 lack of f a c i l i t i e s .. 6 no complaints 5 nothing to do 4 shortage of single women ........ 4 small town 4 

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