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Course of laboratory studies in geography for senior secondary schools Golf, Aristotle George Jubilee 1970

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A COURSE OF LABORATORY STUDIES in OBOSRAFH? FOR SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS by ARISTOTLE GEORGE 4TOBXLEE GOLF 3195532 8.BO.* University of British Columbia, 1959 A TMESIS amMwrnn IN F A C I A L TOEIFILMBMT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T i l DEGREE OF MASTER OF EBU0ATX0H in the Department of Social Studies tfo accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE rtixviRsin OF BRITISH mwmta September, 1970 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes is f o r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ' ABSTRACT Current l i t e r a t u r e emphasizes the need to attempt new approaches i n the teaching o f S o c i a l Studies. Jerome S. Bruner i n his book The Process of Education (1961), claims that the sain objective o f a school must be to "present subject matter e f f e c t i v e l y , - that i s with due regard not only f o r coverage but also f o r structure." Only by teaching the fundamental structure o f a subject i s that subject comprehensible t o the student. Bruner says: " I n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y anywhere i s the same, whether at the f r o n t i e r of knowledge or i n a t h i r d grade c l a s s -room. What a s c i e n t i s t does at his desk or i n h i s laboratory .... i s the same order as what anybody does when he i s engaged i n l i k e a c t i v i t y i f he i s to achieve understanding. The difference i s In degrees, not i n kind. A schoolboy learning physics i s a p h y s i c i s t , and i t i s e a s i e r f o r him to learn physic behaving l i k e a p h y s i c i s t than by doing something e l s e . " Professional geographers advocate the inductive method of teaching so that pupils discover the structure of geography i n the same way as i t i s understood by ths professional geographer. The teaching then should be experimental and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y stimulating, leading from geographical data supplied to reach the desired p r i n c i p l e s and generalisations. To-day children at various l e v e l s of e f f i c i e n c y , learn the inductive method i n t h e i r study of chemistry, biology, and s i m i -l a r sciences* In theory - i f not always i n p r a c t i c e - they study i n laboratories, consider hypotheses, analyze examples, draw tentative conclusions, and make cautious generalisations. S i m i l a r Inductive procedures have increasingly marked the work of professional geographers, sociologists and p o l i t i c a l aeienti-sts. In short, pupils should be taught to become amateur geographers, performing similar (not identical) tasks of those scholars working ©n the frontiers of knowledge. Paraphrasing Jerome Brune, "If children are going to learn geography, they must do things the way geographers do then." This i s th® whole essence of the laboratory approach ~ i t i s a successful way to teach geography because i t Is essentially the way geographers operate, During the last four years I have conducted a continuing experiment into the development of an approach to better geographic teaching. This experiment has attempted to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a laboratory approach to the teaching of geography. The word "laboratory" suggests exploration and adventure on a rather direct, personal basis. Thus, the laboratory approach provides the opportunity for active study at f i r s t -hand basis and direct involvement of the students. It makes provision for the students to do something on their own - using their thinking a b i l i t y and with their own hands. This i s the basis of inquiry-oriented approaches and the new strategies, now being increasingly used in the domain of social studies. But this direct experience does not mean that the laboratory approach in social studies education ignores reading and highly symbolic abstract experiences• The laboratory approach offers much more to the students than listening to the teacher or studying the textbook. It represents a s i g n i f i c a n t means for communicating non-verbal experiences and knowledge to the students. For example, laboratory methods t r a i n individuals to develop t h e i r observational power, and help them acquire s k i l l s . Along with these, the atmosphere i n the laboratory promotes the desire to share experiences. It develops the a b i l i t y of working together, provides f o r Individual, creative a c t i v i t y and heightens p u p i l motivation. Studies of i n s t r u c t i o n a l practices suggest that teaching processes and materials should be coordinated i n a systematic manner. We should, as teachers, spend a great deal of time and e f f o r t i n planning to that teaching materials are d i r e c t l y r elated to a systematic study of a problem. In recent years, considerable emphasis has been placed on i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of learning. The laboratory approach maximizes the opportunity f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of learning, provides f o r c r e a t i v i t y , and o r i g i n a l i t y . The use of laboratory strategies and materials other than dry words and textbooks are s i g n i f i c a n t i n making s o c i a l studies education r e a l and concrete. The laboratory approach i s not a panacea but i t offers an opportunity to make the teaching of geography more Interesting and e x c i t i n g . It has proven possible i n courses i n physioal science to have students perform simple experiments i n order to come closer to understanding the methods of science. I see no conceivable reason why this can't be done i n s o c i a l science. In the Laboratory Approach students and teachers plan to-gether and share materials, an important part of learning -teaching process. Besides fostering the achievement of the cognitive and effective objectives of teaching social studies the Laboratory Approach develops various kinds of s k i l l s -communicative, creative, acquisitive, organizational and mani-pulative. This course is based on the view that the traditional emphasis on expository teaching of Geography by lecture and rote memorization must be replaced by an emphasis on the use of inductive methods through which students learn to use the materials and modes of thought of geographers. In the course i t s e l f , the inductive approach is used, laboratory type studies are used throughout in which principles are applied to materials in the structuring of lessons. The uses of aerial photos described here are desirable in that the tool, the photo, is considered a means not an end. The exercises force the student to face situations whioh re-quire him to generalize. He must make an orderly study of the land use of the area shown in the photograph and then organize the data for the purpose of generalization. The student also gains an appreciation of the problems of the map maker as well as a better understanding of the cultural and physical patterns of the area Included in the photograph. This learning logically provides motivation for seeking similar patterns in the areas contiguous to that studied as well as to distant areas. The elements of geography teaching emphasized In this experimental work are the elements of geographic f i e l d study; observation and recording of informations selection of re-quired data from that which has been observed and recorded and then analyzatlon, syntheslzation and interpretation of a l l this selected data in order to formulate a generalization. The ideas offered here are merely samples of kinds of ex-periments possible in the Bocial studies Laboratory Approach. A flexible approach and a capitalizing on what takes place in both the classroom and the community may develop entirely different ways to involve the student in acting and reacting. "New frontiers" in any category of academic disciplines emerge from territory already explored. Those time-tested and so l i d foundations of the social studies which have served well in the past obviously must not be cast aside in favor of untested educational programs and designs. What are "new frontiers" for some, accordingly, may be old and comfortable territory for others. Some of the concepts and observations set forth In this paper, therefore, are not necessarily new, although many school systems for one reason or another may not have given them consideration or t r i a l . TABLE OF CONTENTS Lettering, Composition and Drafting of Maps Laboratory Exercise: Lettering and Cartographic Drawing I Freehand Lettering II Lettering III Spacing Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: II Map Projections Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exeroise: Laboratory Exercise: III Historical Maps Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exeroise: Mechanical and Pre-Printed Map Structure and Design Black and White Employment of Color Measurement of the Earth Curvature of the Earth Mercator Map Construction Mercator Map Route Plotting Reduction and Enlargement of Maps Construction of the Cylindrical Equal Area Projection Construction of the Polor Stereo-graphic Map Projection Construction of the Polar Azimuthal Map Projection Construction of the Polar Zenithal Map Projection Construction of the Simple Conic Map Projection Homer's World - 500 B.C., Ptolemy's Map - 150 A.D. Hereford Map - 1285, Medieval Map-1485, Waldseemtiller's Map- 1507, Ribero's Map- 1529 Laboratory Exercise: Descelier's Map of Canada IV The Topographic Map Laboratory Exercise: Introduction to the Topographic Map Laboratory Exercise: Topographic Map Interpretation -Vancouver, B.C. Laboratory Exercise: Topographic Map Interpretation -Mitchell Island, B.C. Laboratory Exercise: Topographic Map Interpretation -Meath Park, Sask. Laboratory Exercise: Topographic Map Interpretation -Cheyenne, Wyoming. Laboratory Exercise: Topographic Map Interpretation -Banff, Alta. Laboratory Exercise: Topographic Map Analysis - Canadian Maps Laboratory Exercise: Topographic Map Analysis States Maps United Laboratory Exercise: Land Use Map Interpretation -Britain Laboratory Exercise: Land Use Map Interpretation - Leduc and Ft. Saskatchewan, Sask. Laboratory Exercise: Urban Master Plan Report Laboratory Exercise: Layered Contour Model Construction V Soil Map Interpretation Laboratory Exercise: Soil Map Comparisons - Maritimes, Prairies Laboratory Exercise: Soil Map and Topographic Map Inter-pretation I) Willow Bunch, Sask. Ii) Melville, Sask. i l l ) Hudson Bay, Sask. Iv) Cypress, Sask. v) Kitchiner, Sask. VI Aerial Photograph and Stereogram Interpretation Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exeroise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: The Measurement of Scale Photographic Measurement Basic Photographic Interpretation Determining Coordinate Points Comparing Aerial Photographs Constructing a Topographic Map from a Stereogram A Meandering River Agricultural Patterns in the Marltimes Agricultural Patterns in the St. Lawrence Lowlands Agricultural Patterns in Manitoba Agricultural Petters in Alberta Agricultural Patterns In the Lower Fraser Valley Soil Map and Aerial Photographic Interpretation The Use of Coordinate Points in the Study of a Pulp and Paper M i l l A Paper Mi l l In the Marltimes A Paper M i l l In Michigan An Oil Deposit in Texas An O i l Refinery An Open Pit Mine A Gold Mine The Use of Coordinate Points in the Study of a Thermal Plant Laboratory Exercise: A Thermal Plant Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: A Hydro-Electric Dam The Aluminum Industry in B.C. and Quebec Photo interpretation in Industry An Industrial Slum Industrial Development In the Prairies A Planned Industrial Estate The Use of Coordinate Points in the Identification of Urban Features Urban Settlement on the Edge of the Canadian Shield Coastal Settlement in the Maritimes Settlement Patterns In Newfoundland A Maritimes Port Port Settlement In Michigan A Railway Settlement on the Prairies Comparison of Settlement Patterns in the St. Lawrence Lowlands and the Prairies The Study of the Relationship between Settlement Patterns and Communica-tion Patterns Urban Area Analysis Suburban Settlement The Study of a Commercial District in a Suburban Community Urban Encroachment The Rural-Urban Fringe Field Studies Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: Laboratory Exercise: A Simple Compass Traverse Compass Bearings The Study of a Recreational Area Sketching a Map from a Traverse Plane Table Mapping The Plane Table Method VIII BIBLIOGRAPHY Avery, T. Baird, D. Berry, B. Birch, T. Blair, C. Boggs, A. Brault, E. Bunnett, R. Burpee, P. Bygott, Christensen, D. Clee, D. Davies, L. Dickinson, G. Dury, G. Everson, J. and FltzQerald, B. Gamier, B. Gent11core, R. Gospill, G. Guell, C. Hadfield, A. Hardwlek, P. Hull, 0. Interpretation of Aerial Photos, Burgess Geology and Landforms, Paper 64/21. Dept. of Mines Geography of Market Centers and Retail Distri- bution, Prentice-Hall Maps, Oxford The Canadian Landscape, Copp Clark Maps, Clarke, Irwin Geography In and Out of School, Harrap Physical Geography in Diagrams, Longman Aluminum & Power, Ginn Mapwork and Practical Geography, University Tutorial Press Urban Development, Holt,Rinehart and Winston The Sudbury Region, Holt, Rinehart and Winston Lands of Change, Bellhaven Maps and Air Photographs, Arnold The Land from the Air, Harrap Settlement Patterns, Longmans Practical Work in Geography, Arnold Canada's Changing Geography, Prentice-Hall Practical Geography, Macmillan Geography via Aerial Field Trips, National Council for Geographic Education Maps, Oxford Understanding Maps, Clarke, Irwin Geography of Production, Macmillan Innis, D. Irving, R. Johnson, J. Leeuw, G. de Lloyd, T. Lockey, B. Long, M. Marsh, J. Minshell, R. Money, D. C. Monkhouse, F. Monkhouse, P. Murphy, R. Mustard, C. Philbrick, A. PrItchard, J. Raisz, E. Ramsey, W. Ray, C. Richards, J. Roblin, H. Robinson, A. Robinson, A. Canada: A Geographic Study, McGraw-Hill Readings in Canadian Geography, Holt Rlnehart and V/Ins ton Urban Geography, Pergamon Manitoba Lowlands, Holt, Rlnehart and Winston The Geographer's World, GInn The Interpretation of Ordinance Survey Maps, Geo. Philips World Problems, The English Universities Press The Fishermen of Lunenburg, Holt, Rlnehart and Winston Human Geography from the Air, Macmillan Climate, Soils and Vegetation, University Tu-to r i a l Press Maps and Diagrams, University Press Principles of Physical Geography,Littlefleld & Adams The American City, McGraw-Hill By Map and Compass, Macmillan This Human World, John Wiley Industrial Regions, J. Dent General Cartography, McGraw-Hill Modern Earth Science, Holt, Rlnehart and Winston Aerial Photographic Interpretation, Geological Paper 373 Saskatchewan Geography, Extension Division, University of Saskatchewan Map Projections, Macmillan Elements of Cartography, Wiley The Look of Maps, Wisconsin University Press Robinson, I. Robinson, J. Rothwell, S. Spary, V. Stanford, Q. Strahler, A. Strahler, A. Steers, D. Storm, M. Sully, B. Taylor, G. Tomklns, G. and H i l l s , T. Toynbee, A. VanEs, P.S. Varennes, J. de Wanless, G. Warkent in, Ed. J Watson, S. Winter, E. New Industrial Towns on Canada's Resource Frontier, The University of Chicago Press Resources of the Canadian Shield, Methuen A Geography of Earth Form, Wm. C. Brown Co. Senior Exercises In Mapping, University of London Press Geography: A Study of Its Elements, Oxford University Press Exercises on Landforms, Methuen Physical Geography, John Wiley The Study of Map Projections, University of Urban Growth in Britain, Oxford University Press Aerial Photo Interpretation, Bellhaven Urban Geography, Metheun A Regional Geography of North America, Gage Cities of Destiny, Thames and Hudson Mid-Canada Development Corridor, Acres The Holt World Atlas, Holt, Rlnehart and Winston Aerial Stereo Photographs, Hubbard Scientific • Canada: A Geographical Interpretation, Methuen^ A Lettering Text, Gage Urban Landscapes, Bellhaven House PAMPHLETS Baldwin, M. Soil Classification, Yearbook of Agriculture 1938 Klng-Hele, D. The Shape of the Earth, Scientific American Oct. 19&7 Vol". 217, Mo. H pp 67-76 Leopold, L. River Meanders, Scientific American June 1966, Vol. 214 pp~T0-70 Uilrnan, E, Collected Papers of Edward Ullman, University of washington~Press" AtlaB of Landforms. Wiley Manual of Photographic Interpretation, The American Society of Photogramraetry City of Vancouver - The Issues. City of Vancouver Planning Department . » Comprehensive Plan for Belllngham, Washington. Washington State Department of Commerce & Economic Development „ _ Comprehensive Plan Report- Galveston, Texas, City Planning Department of Galveston Farming In Canada, Canada Department of Agri-culture General Plan for the City of Boston, Boston Redevelopment Authority The Niagara Area Changing Land Uses. Ontario Department of Municipal Affairs • A New Plan for Toronto, The City of Toronto Planning"Board Plan for the City of Beaumont. Texas, Beaumont Planning Department Redevelopment In Downtown Vancouver, Report #5, City Planning Department Water Powers of Canada, Department of Northern Affairs Zoning Controversies In the Suburbs, Research Report #11, Raymond ~& May Associates LIST OF FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS I Illustrations 1. Spacing Guide 2. Eratosthene's Method for Determining the Size of the Earth 3. Method of Squares *J. Construction of the Cylindrical Equal-Area Projection 5. Construction of the Polar Stereographic Projection 6. Construction of the Polar Azimuthal Projection 7. Construction of the Polar Zenithal Projection 8. Construction of the Simple Conic Projection 9. Air Photo Measurement 10. Table for Compass Traverse 11. Making a Sketch from a Traverse 12. The Plane Table 13. Intersection Diagram lh. Resection Diagram 15. Radiation Diagram 16. Closed Traverse Diagram 17. Trlangulatlon Diagram Air Photographs and Stereograms 1. A17796-82 2. #104 The Loop 3. #313 Broadway 4. #18 Pecan 5- A12809-123 6. A13865-128 7. #218 Cedar City 8. BC:5234-099/100 9. A3619-88 10. A16614-151 11. A14899-78 12. A13245-8 13. A17297-84 14. #305 Mass Point 15. A18601-95 16. #307 Bryant Pond 17. #312 Spindle Top 18. #301 Cities Service Refinery 19. #30 4 Santa Rita 20. #302 Hammonton 21. #16 Spillway 22. #14 Ten Dolphins 23. BC: 5273-002/3 24. A17579-39 25. BC: 5083-101 26. BC: 5083-071 27. Al7975-142 28. BC: 5175-137/138 29. A17361-107 30. BC: 5042-54/55 31. #310 Oahu Hawaii 32. A12939-413 33. A14724-131 34. Broad Cove 35. A8462-88 36. #308 Frankfort Light 37. A11188-9 38. A18689-17 39. A12809-123 40. A17028-5 41. #318 Aurora North 42. BC: 5205-211/212 43. BC: 5059-224/225 43. A125H-50 44. A4701-47 I l l Maps 1. Major Resource Development in B.C. 2. Farming in Southern Ontario 3. Principal Manufacturing Centers in Ontario 4. Major Resource Development in Quebec 5. Major Resources in the Marltimes 6 . Forest Regions Map of Canada 7. Homer's World 8 . Ptolemy's Map 9 . . Hereford Map 10. Medieval Map 11. Waldseemttllers Map 12. Ribero's Map 13. Desceliers' Map 14. Blaeuw's Map 15. Vancouver, B.C. 92G 16. Mitchell Island, B.C. 92G/3h 17. Meath Park, Sask. 18. Cheyenne, Wyoming 19. Banff, Alta. 20. Land Use, Bellingham, Washington (1967) 21. Leduc Land Use 22. Ft. Saskatchewan Land Use 23. Willow Bunch Lake 72H/SE 24. Lemberg 62L/11E 25. Crooked River 63D/13E 26. : Shaunavon 72F/9E 27. Guelph 40P/9E 28. Berwick 21H/12E 29. St. David d'Yamaska 31 H/15W 3 0 . Altona 64H/4E 31. Westlock 83I/H5 32. Coquitlam 92<3/7b 33. Lumsden 72I/10w 3 ^ . Regina 72IE 35. Cornerbrook 2D/13E 36. Kalamazoo, Michigan 37. Beaumont East, Texas 38. Whiting, Indiana 39. Santa Rita, New Mexico 4o. Wheatland, Calif. 41. Meridosia, Michigan 42. Ten Dolphins, I l l i n o i s 43. Kltimat, 103I/2E 44. Arvida, 22D/6E 45. Copper C l i f f , 41I/6E 46. Vancouver 92 G/6a 47. Ft. Saskatchewan 83 H/llg 48. Annacls Island 92 G/2c 49. The Pas 50. Lunenburg 21A/8w 51. Heart's Content 1N/14E 5 2 . Pictou 11E/10E 5 3 . Frankfort, Michigan 5 4 . Hanna 72M/12W 5 5 . St. Joachim 21M/2W 56. Aurora North, I l l i n o i s 5 7 . Richmond 92G 6 / F 58. Vancouver North 92G6/b 59. Hamilton West 60. Beamsville, Ontario 61. Queen Elizabeth Park. IWBItttrO^, COMPOSITION. ASP DRAFTIffQ OF MAPS. The function of lettering on maps i s the identification of data and locations. The lettering on maps provides the reader with an intellectual contest for viewing the map* In some oases, notably small scale maps, the reader's reaction i s f i r s t to the lettering. The two basic requirements of good map lettering then are readability and unobatrusivenoes or clarity* i.e. the lettering does not obscure the base detail. Several considerations must be made before a map i s lettered. 1 . Sise of lettering - choice based on sis® of feature and apace available* • note the else of letters indicates their relative Importance. 2. Orientation of lettering - letters designed to be read In the horizontal form* Hote exceptions, (e.g.) good bad 3. Style of lettering - square mechanical looking or subtle curves, etc. 4. Distinction and contrast between names. 5 . Harmony of effect - alphabets on map should harsenics with map detail. Procedure: For our purpose In freehand lettering we w i l l require a penholder and a Bk$ BJ, 03, 64, apeedball nibs* Reraember to ait ereet and comfortably. Below is a guide to the use of B and C speedb&ll pens* B pane - hold pen straight. a) III b) strokes 11 CD — letter a, b » $ strokes o l C pens - hold pen at 45° angle. a) shape 1 1 1 - start just below the line and go up to i t , round the bottom and top of your vertical stro&o. b) strokes letter g - % strokes C 3 | 3 Be sure to use a scrap of paper to practice on and to get rid of the surplus ink. Hover push the speedball nib upward! QEHERAL SP&CIifQ TOES word examples 1. Greatest space between upright strokes. M N D a . Medium space between upright strokes and surved strokes* DNO 3. Least space between curved strokes. o o c Ho space between. LT VA WS LO FN CARgQQRAPHY Laboratory Sxerclse I* Freehand Lettering (us© tho 85 or 8*» and or C3 alba) 1. Draw, on a sheet of ruled paper, H rows of vertical strokes about 3/8* long and spaced about l f f apart. Alternate your pens* Start and stop the stroke at the ruling of the paper. 2. Follow the same procedure, but make th© vertical strokes 5/8" long. 3. On the second row of lines, draw horizontal strokes of the same length across the tops of the verticals. JU Draw two rows of crescents to the l e f t and two rows of crescents to the right, one row with each nib. 5. Draw two rows of circles, (i.e.) the Joining of crescents to the l e f t and right. One row with B nib, the other 0 nib. XX. Lettering - Pencil, go over in Ink. 1. On an unlined sheet of paper, lightly rule a series of lettering guidelines, spaced approximately as shown: 3/16** ^ b p ~ Mi 3/16 l/l€n between rows. 2. Using the illustrations provided as a guide, letter the upper ease and lower ease alphabet and numerals 0~$, repeating each let t e r or numeral as necessary to attain an acceptable result. Use upright lettering, with strokes In the proper sequence. Use a 04 nib for upper ease and a B5 nib for lower case. XIX. Spacing Using the appropriate pen e l s e , &6 and/or C5» letter horizontally, with proper spacing, the following: Use upright capitals and capitals with lower ease. Geography ii LEGEND Scale of Mileo Vancouver mrmmmt mmtmtcM,* fm-tnwmn Procedures Mechanical lettering Leroy seta are available in a wide range of sizes and faces, For our purposes, however, the Geography lab* seta w i l l be found quite adequate. Each set supplied should contain the following! templates, scribes (with scribes reat), penholder, pens. Check to be sure your set i s complete. With reference to the printed Instructions accompany-ing lettering set, attempt some experimental lettering using different pen sises and templates. Laboratory Exercise 1* Using a clean sheet of drawing paper, l e t t e r the following names i n upright a l l caps, caps and lower case, caps and small capo, using any convenient range of templates and pen siaes: Canada, Br i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, Bloosiington. Directly below these words le t t e r each again with a B pen nib using visual spacing as your guide. Write a brief comment de-scribing the results of mechanical spacing versus visual. 2. Using a Leroy penholder and #1 or #3 pan, print the following names freehand (upright lettering caps and l. o . ) . Adopt a lettering sise commensurate with pen size: Yukon, Quebec, Hew York, Vancouver. Procedure t Pre-prlnted Lettering Letraset - This 10 a relatively crude form of stick-up lettering i n that names must be composed from p re-printed alphabets, and the variety of faces and sises i s limited. Its great advantage i s comparatively low cost. laboratory Exercise From the sample sheets, letter the following! l i v e r , scale, isotherm, map, water, legend, Canada. tm STRUCTURE AUD DB5I0M (BLACK AND WHITE) ybWflft.m. Exercise Assume you wish to prepare a map of Vancouver Island to i l l u s t r a t e a research paper. Th© purpose of this p a r t i -cular map i s to show the outline and shape of Vancouver Island, i t s hydrography, Its absolute location and location relative to the adjacent mainland, and the location and names of major settlements. Ho representation of terrain i s to appear, nor are transportation and communication routes to be shown. Th® map 1© to be designed to convey i t s message (relative to the above purpose) as d e a r l y and a© effectively as possible. Prepare such a map according to the following speci-fications i 1. Overall page format Bh X 11 M. 2. Projection - any projection appropriate to the purpose. 3. Scale - any scale appropriate to the page format* 4. Generalization of linework - as necessary to achieve the purpose for which the map i s desired. 5* fioraeclature - as necessary to achieve the purpose -hand lettering only. (B or C nibs). 6. Ho colour to be used on the map. 7* Directional sign. Do &ot trace a map from your atlas* Use the Interpolation method of meridians and parallels for producing a suitable outline map of Vancouver Island* nmwumm OF mt&tm Laboratory, Exorcise Reference information portrayed on the Major Resource Development maps of The Bank of Nova Scotia Review Dec X96€ - The Ontario Economy Jan 1907 - The Prairie Provinces Feb 1967 * British Coluasbia Mar 1967 - Quebec. Prepare a map of your own raaking to show the same information. 1. format Ok x 11" layout to suit. 2. Base date - use any appropriate base map; generalise to suit the purpose. 3. Somen dature - sake a selection of lettering appropriate to the purpose; use either freehand or Leroy lettering or Hapldegraph Pen. 4. Use black and white and colour; the l e t t e r may be attained by use of Prisraa-colour (or other coloring pencils) or coloured inks, but not tempera (poster type) paints. LEGEND • MAJOR CEKTCSS ^ C O A L © 5JS.SE METALS B IRON oae <5" A S B E S T O S + GYPSUM MAJOR POWER INSTALLATIONS A EXITING A US'OER C O N S T R U C T I O N OX PLANKED MAJOR PULP AND PAPER MILLS a EXISTING • UNDER CONSTRUCTION M A J O R R E S O U R C E S IN T H E A T L A N T I C R E G I O N I55UED WITH THE B A N K O F N O V A S C O T I A MONTHLY REVIEW NOVEMBER 1966 e- s / PRINCE EDWARD f\ ^ V ^ I S L A N D I ) B R U N S W I C K - ^ % ^ 1 " CAPE BRETON ISLAND M A I N E CD / LABRADOR C A R O L LAKE U/A8USH LAKi NFLD. gWtO.YHEOT? OF COLOUR Laboratory Exercise On the outline map provided, select appropriate colours to emphasize the most important aspects of the map. Use the Agricultural Hap of Canada p. $ In the Canadian Oxford Atlas as a guide in your colour selection. Write a brief paragraph to Justify your choices of colours on your completed map. < CANADA *1 /* S\ XI I. A MAP PROJECTIONS For a picture of the world as a whole, a map la only a poor substitute for a globe. The f i r s t lesson i n map-making is the faet that the surface cannot simply b© peeled o f f th© globe and flattened into a map* The surface must be torn or stretched before i t w i l l flatten out* This i s precisely what i s accomplished by s c i e n t i f i c map projection. Distortions are distributed under mathematical control to maintain accuracy In some areas at the sacrifice of accuracy in others. In a few special maps distortion Is relieved by cutting or inter-rupting the less-important areas. Because no map can t e l l the whole truth, each map t e l l s only the truth which i s useful to those who must use i t . LABORATORY SXEBCT3E I ?4easurem@nt of the Earth Erafeoa thenes fm Method Man has been concerned about th© earth on which he l i v e s f o r many centuries. During very early times t h i s concern was l i m i t e d , n a t u r a l l y , to the immediate v i c i n i t y of his homej l a t e r I t expanded to the distance of markets or exchange places} and f i n a l l y , with the development of means of transportation man became Interested i n h i s whole world. Much of t h i s early "world Interest** was evidenced by speculation concerning the s i s e , shape, and composition of the earth. The early Greeks, i n t h e i r speculation and th e o r i z i n g , ranged from the f l a t disc advocated by Homer to Pythagoras 1 s p h e r i c a l figure - an idea supported one hundred years l a t e r by A r i s t o t l e . Pythagoras was a mathematieiaft and to hira the most perfect figure was a sphere. He reasoned that the gods would create a perfect figure and therefore the earth was created to be sp h e r i c a l In shape. Anaxiaienes, :-an early Greek s c i e n t i s t , believed strongly that the earth was rectangular In shape. Since the s p h e r i c a l shape was the most widely supported during the Greek Era, e f f o r t s to determine i t s s i s e followed. Plato determined the circumference of the earth to be *!0,0QO miles while Archimedes estimated 30,000 miles. Plato*s figure was a guess and Archimedes * a more conservative approximation. Meanwhile, i n Egypt, a Greek scholar and philosopher, Eratosthenes, set out to make more e x p l i c i t measurements. He had observed that on the day of the summer s o l s t i c e , the midday sun shone to the bottom of a well In the town of Syene (Aswan). At the same time, he observed the sun was not d i r e c t l y overhead at Alexandria; instead, i t cast a shadow with the v e r t i c a l equal to l/50th of a c i r c l e (7° 12'). To these observations, Eratosthenes applied cert a i n "known" facts (1) that on the day of the summer s o l s t i c e , the midday sun was d i r e c t l y over the l i n e of the summer Tropic Zone (Tropic of Cancer) - Syene was there-fore concluded to be on this lines ( 2 ) the l i n e a r distance between Alexandria and Syene was 500 miles i (3) Alexandria and Syene lay on a d i r e c t north-south l i n e . Question i 1. I f the sun's distance froaa the earth i s very great, and therefore i t s incoming rays to earth are p a r a l l e l , what i s the circumference of the earth i n u l l e s ? (Assume a spherical earth.) 2. I t i s remarkable that such accuracy was obtained i n view of the fa c t that most of the "known" facts and his observations were i n c o r r e c t . Explain. E R A T O S T H E N E S ' M E T H O D F O R D E T E R M I N I N G T H E S I Z E O F T H E E A R T H Figure 1 2 lABGiATOKY EXERCISE 2 Illustration of Curvature of Earth's Surface and t^t9v^m^on^ott ^ Horisont a l Pis tan o ® , _ Pin early Mediterranean navigator sailing frora the Island of Rhodes to th® harbour of Alexandria, Egypt, could sight from a distance offshore the great marble beacon of the l i g h t -house on the Island of Pharos (on© of the seven "wonders" of the ancient world) at th© entrance to the harbour. Assume that the top of the beacon stood 120 feet above mean sea le v e l , that the ship's deck was 10 feet above the waterline and that the weather was clear. (Distance offshore » 1.317 feet high)« 1. At what distance from shore could the top of the l i g h t -house just be discerned above the horitson? ASSUIB© calm sea conditions and no refraction effects. 2. If, on closer approach, the vertical angle from a point 10 feet above the base to the top of the lighthouse was observed from the ship to be 10°, approximately how far was the ship o f f the island? Ignore the effects of at-aospheric refraction. Illustrate your answers with sketches. LABORATORY EXERCISE - Mercator Map Construction We wish to construct a Heroator map of Vancouver Island hounded by longitudes 123°W and 129°W, and by latitudes 48°?f and 51°&; and that th© scale along the equator i s to be 1° « 1 inch. Using drawing paper draw a line to represent the most southerly latitude (48°H) and using th® equatorial scale divide i t into the appropriate number of intervals (in this case 1 inch Intervals) to correspond with the lines of longitude from 123°W to 1 2 9 % . At the intervals marked erect meridians as perpendi-culars and label ©ach one. To find the distance of the other parallel north of 48° proceed as follows. Look up in the table following the figures corresponding to 48° and **90„ take the difference and multiply thus? H9 48c (33&*'W - 327^*173) x 1 x 1 • 1.50* inches. S l a l l a r l y complete the computations for the other parallels. Table: ; eater Projection ffable Distance of Parallels from the Equator in Minutes: begrees : Minutes I 48 3274.173 49 3364.456 ! 50 3456*581 51 3550.654 ' 52 3646.787 * Hot® the increasing Interval between parallels towards the pole. By referring to an*atlas, plot the approximate outline of Vancouver Island. You stay use the completed map outline In the completion of the map Structure and Design lab exercise. LABORATORY EXERCISE - Sieroator Map Route Plotting Mercator, In his famous Carta Marina of 15^9> Introduced to the world a projection that has become a standard for marine charts. In designing the projection named after hira, Keroator Incorporated attributes that make i t well suited for use in marine navigation*.Principal among these are: (i) A rectangular projection grid with straight-line parallels and meridians, so that north can be measured from any meridian. (11) Meridians and parallels intersect at right angles ( f a c i l i t a t i n g route plotting), ( i i i ) A parallel spacing such that scale i s constant about any point and hence directions are true from any point, (iv) Loxodromes are straight lines. Construction: We wish to construct a Mercator projection between *0°H and 60°M and between 0° and 80°& longitude. Since the paper format allows 10" to cover 80° of longitude, (with 1/2w on either margin of the projection) 1° of longitude w i l l be represented by 1/8". Draw a line toward th© lower margin of the paper sheet (about 1 1/2® above the margin) to represent the $0tb p a r a l l e l . Since i t covers S o 0 longitude, i t w i l l be 10" long. Divide It into 5/8" l i n e a l units (since grid interval i s to be 5°)» Rule in the meridians as parallel straight lines intersecting and to the *J0th parallel. To f i n d the distance of the next p a r a l l e l (45°Jf), from the 49th p a r a l l e l already drawn, proceed as follows: Look up in the table o f meridional parts the figures correspond-ing to 40° and 45° t take the difference and multiply thus: (3013.4 - 2607.7) x 1/60 x 1/8 » inches. (Since, at pro-j e c t i o n s c a l e , 1° of longitude • 1/8" and the table of meri-dional parts i s given In minutes of equatorial arc.) TABLE: 1 Distances of P a r a l l e l s from the Equator 40° 2607.683 45° 3^13.427 50° 3456.$$1 55° 3948.830 60° 4507.133 Because the distance between raeridians on a l l p a r a l l e l s is made the same as that on the equator, the remainder of the process i s s i m i l a r to that outlined above. 1. By reference to an a t l a s , p l o t the approximate coastlines of Great B r i t i an, France, Spain and Portugal, Newfoundland, Mova Scotia, and Massachusetts. 2. Using; a globe, p l o t th© coordinate points of a great c i r c l e route from Cape Clear, Ireland, to Sable Island. Transfer the chosen points to the Mercator projection and Join thera with straight l i n e s . 3. S t a r t i n g from Cape Clear, what are th© f i r s t three courses a ship would have to steer to approximate the great c i r c l e route to Sable Island? 4. Why would you not use th© Gnoraonic projection f o r route p l o t t i n g , i n l i e u of the Mercator? LABOHATO RY EXERCISE - Reduction and Enlargement Th©' o r i g i n a l map Is covered with a g r i d of uni t squares, e i t h e r by r u l i n g f a i n t l i n e s on the map i t s e l f , o r by laying over i t a su i t a b l y ruled piece of t r a c i n g -paper, or a c e l l u l o i d g r i d can be used. The closer the g r i d , obviously the more accurate w i l l be the r e s u l t ; a one-inch map could carry a quarter-inch g r i d . Rule another network o f squares, enlarged o r reduced as desired, and copy the d e t a i l , square by square, by eye on to the drawing-paper, noting p a r t i c u l a r l y any Important intersections o f d e t a i l with the g r i d l i n e s * It I s , of course, the change of scale of the side of the square that produces the desired amount of enlargement or reduction. To enlarge three times, for example, the side o f the square on the drawing-paper w i l l be increased three times, that i s , the area w i l l be enlarged nine times. Exercise: 1, Draw a 1" grid on th© outline map of Bowen Island. 2. Another grid with square sides equivalent to a scale of 1/100,000 should be drawn on a separate sheet of plain paper. Th& detail should then be drawn by copying exactly where th© outline of the Island intersects th® grid lines. LABORATORY EXERCISE The Construction of th© C y l i n d r i c a l Equal-Area .Projection,.,. ; m  Orient a sheet of drawing paper with the long axis h o r i z o n t a l and draw a circle» with a radius of 2", about 1* from the l e f t hand side of the paper. From i t s center draw a hor i z o n t a l l i n e extending th® diameter of the c i r c l e and to the f a r margin of the paper to represent the equator. Draw a l i n e at 1 to the equator to represent the polar axis* Using a pro-t r a c t o r mark o f f i n 15° i n t e r v a l s , angles from the center. Draw a l i n e tangent to th© c i r c l e at the equator. 0 ° 1 5 ° * 0° 4 S P fcO° 1S° Draw lines at (i^ 5 inter v a l s p a r a l l e l to th® tangent' l i n e to represent the meridians from 165°$ to 6 0 % . These l i n e s should be 1/2 a apart.^Draw lines' p a r a l l e l to th© equator i n t e r s e c t i n g the c i r c l e at points A, 8 etc. to represent the p a r a l l e l s of l a t i t u d e at 15° i n t e r v a l s . Extend the p a r a l l e l s through 165° to 60°¥ longitude. Label each of the l i n e s of l a t i t u d e and longitude c a r e f u l l y . Complete the projection by r e f e r r i n g to an atlas and p l o t t i n g the outline of Horth America and South America. compare the shape of Alaska on this projection with i t s shape on a Mereator projection. LABORATORY gygROlSE The Construction of the Polar Stereo-graphic Projection Construction* Orient a sheet of drawing paper with the long axis vertical and draw a c i r c l e , 3" diameter, with i t s center about 3 M above the lower edge of the sheet and midway be-tween the sheet margins. From Its center, draw a vert i c a l line through the centre (XA) and extend i t upward to the upper margin of the sheet. Draw a tangent and extend It to the Right and Left hand sheet margins. Using a protractor mark off 30°, 6*0° angles from the center of the c i r c l e . Draw a second c i r c l e tangent to X, (with a radius equal to X@). Within this c i r c l e draw other circles representing the 30° and 60° parallels of latitude with r a d i i of X8# and XF respectively. Complete the larger c i r c l e with radial lines representing the meridians• Using your atlas transfer the coordinates (latitude and longitude) of a sufficient number of points to establish a map of North America. Complete the exercise by lettering with the appropriate speedball nibs. Label carefully. LABORATORY EXERCISE The Construction of the Polar Agltauthal Projection . Construction; Orient a sheet of drawing paper with the long axis vertical and draw a ci r c l e with a 2* radius, about 4" above the lower edge of the sheet, and midway between the margins. Prom i t s center draw a horisontal line extending the diameter of the c i r c l e . Draw a tangent parallel to the horizontal line and extend i t to the Bight and Left margins of the sheet* Using a protractor mark o f f 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° angles from the center of the c i r c l e , and label them M, L, H and X respectively. X rt / V L / ^ A 2 . \ From point X join XN, XL and XK. Draw a ci r c l e tangent at X, using XM as the radius of the 0° pa r a l l e l . Similarly using XL and XN draw circles (within the larger one) repre-senting the 30° and 60° parallels. Draw i n the meridians and label them. Using your atlas plot a map of Worth America on the finished projection. LABORATORY EXERCISE The Constraction of the Polar Zenithal Orthographic Projection Orient a sheet of drawing paper with the long axis vertical and draw a half c i r c l e , with a radius of 3" about 1/2* above the lower edge of the sheet and midway between the sheet margins. From i t s center (P) draw a horizontal line EE extending the diameter of the c i r c l e . Draw a tangent parallel (AB) to the horizontal line (ER) and ex-tend i t to the Right and Left margins of your paper. Draw a c i r c l e with radius of EP tangent to line AB. Using a protractor mark off in 15° intervals angles from center P. From horizontal line ER draw perpendicular lines extending to the upper margin of the sheet, which bisect the upper c i r c l e at 15°* 30°, 45°, 60°, 75° and at the point of tan gen cy (Y). Complete the construction as shown below. Using your atlas plot the approximate coastlines of North America, South America, Greenland, Europe and USSR. Locate several capital c i t i e s on your drawing. Complete in ink and label carefully a l l meridians and parallels. Draw a l i n e from Vancouver to Murmansk. Plot the coordinates of t h i s l i n e onto an overlay of a Mercator Projection. Comment on the r e s u l t s . LABORATORY EXERCISE The Construction of the Simple Conic Map Projection  Procedure i Orient a sheet of drawing paper with the long axis vertical and draw a serai-circle, 1 3/4 B radius, with i t s center about 1" above the lower edge of the sheet and mid-way between the sheet margins. from i t s center draw a vertical line through the c i r c l e and extend i t upward to the upper margin of the sheet* Extend the equatorial axis /' E,E* to the Right and Left hand sheet margins. We wish to make the projection tangent at the 15° parallel with i t s apex directly over the north pole* Using a protractor mark off 45° from the equator for both seg-ments of the semi-circle. Draw a line tangent at 4$° to out the extended equatorial and polar axis at A and P. Extend a line at 45° parallel to E, E* to represent the standard p a r a l l e l . Using your protractor stark o f f the remaining parallels, at 15° intervals, from 0° to 90° along line A, P. About 2" from the top of the drawing sheet draw a semi-circle with radius AP centered at Y to represent the 0° p a r a l l e l . At point Y extend a line at right angles to XY, to the Right and Left margins of the sheet• The other parallels are drawn as concentric circles with center Y and radii equal to PB, PC etc. Make the line XY th® 30°E meridian and from point Y use a protractor to draw in the other meridians at 15° intervals* To complete the projection draw in the meridians as straight lines radiating from point Y« Using as many coordinate points as necessary complete the outline of Europe, Africa and Asia on the projection* Comment on the results of your map projection as com-pared to the results shown on the Polar Zenithal Ortho-graphic Projection. HISTORICAL MAPS Long before recorded history, men were drawing maps on the sand, in the snow or on dried animal skins. Tahitlans used wood to make r e l i e f maps and aborigines of the Marshall Islands made charts out of bamboo that showed ocean currents as well as Islands. The Babylonians of 400 B.C. believed their kingdom was in the center of a round world surrounded by brine and they recorded i t that way on a clay tablet. Egyptians put charts into coffins to guide the dead i n the nether world. Long before the explorers 'discovered* Canada, the Indians and Eskimos were making their own maps of the country, and later they did so for the explorers. The 'good people* of the Algonkin village of Lachine In 1541, It is recorded, l a i d * certain l i t t l e stickes' on the ground to give a picture of the Ottawa and the upper St. Lawrence rivers. An Indian chief on Georgian Bay used charcoal to sketch his country on tree bark for Champlain in 1615. More recent Eskimo maps, drawn on animal skins, show elaborate coast lines with wood carvings attached to represent islands. Maps have always been a pleasure to look at, although cartographers have not always subordinated decoration to i n -formation . Early map-makers decorated their sheets with pictures of howling winds, fearsome monsters, and geographical features that came straight out of their own heads. *To some cartographers,' wrote Dr. Glyndwr Williams of the University of London, 'a blank space on a map was an admission of failure. * So they put in islands, rivers, even whole continents* 'They made the map a t t r a c t i v e In appearance, 1 Dr. Williams wrote i n The Beaver magazine, •and (this) often helped i t to s e l l more quickly than the works of less i n s p i r e d cartographers.' The following s e l e c t i o n of maps represent the v i s i b l e ex-pression of man's knowledge about the known world (Ecumene) at various times throughout h i s t o r y . You w i l l see how slowly and progressively man learned to symbolize the earth's surfact on maps • LABORATORY EXERCISE 1 Homer's World - 500 B.C. Pig. 1 1. What countries did the Greeks trade with during this time? 2. Which part of the map seems to be most accurate? Why? 3« The Greeks of Homer's time believed the world to be f l a t , and disc-shaped, bounded by an endless ocean. Ve r i f y t h i s statement by studying figure 1. 4. Determine the importance of each of the centers shown on the map• 5. Explain the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the body of water around the periphery of the map. Ptolemy's Map - 150 A.D. Pig* 2. 1. What continents are not represented on t h i s map? 2. Which continent Is most accurately drawn? 3. Which part of Europe was s t i l l unexplored? 4. Identify the large i s l a n d of Taprobana. This mis-placed i s l a n d appears on the f i r s t maps of the Renaissance 1300 years l a t e r . 5. Identify the seas and oceans that were explored by the Preeks of Ptolemy's day. 6. What Is the difference in longitudinal extent of the Mediterranean Basin on the Ptolemy map as compared to a modern map of the same area? LABORATORY EXERCISE .2 Hereford Map - 1285 Pig. 3 1, The Hereford map la one of the best examples of a T-ln-0 map. Study the map to explain the origin of this term. 2. Why are Jerusalem and Paradise so conspicuous on this map of the Dark Ages? 3* With reference to a present day atlas, prepare a l i s t of the concepts which map makers of this period possessed. Use the headings; correct concepts, i n -correct concepts and unknown concepts. Anonymous Medieval Map - 1485 0 Pig. 4 1. Compare this map to the world map of Ptolemy. 2. How does the map show the medieval Christian beliefs of this period? 3. Identify the parts into which the world of this period was divided. 4. How are mountains symbolized on the map? 5. Attempt to identify the peninsula Engrovelant. Waldseemttller's Map - 1507 Fig. 5 1. What important discoveries are mapped on Waldseemuller map as compared to Ptolemy's and the map of 1485? 2. What was known of Canada's coastline in 1507? 3. What region of the earth had not been mapped at this time? Rib ere'a Map - 1529 Pig. 6 1. Compare Ribero's map and Waldseerauller's map. L i s t the major differences. 2. Why i s the western coastline of the Americas shown as a dotted line? 3. What continent i s s t i l l not shown on maps up to t h i s period? 4. Rlbero shows the world on a map of i t s f u l l 360° circumference. What explorer's discoveries probably Influenced the drawing of this map? 5. Compare the Ptolemaic picture of Asia with that of Rlbero. rs. How do they d i f f e r ? LABORATORY EXERCISE When Pierre Dessellers was making maps of Canada in the 16th century, cartographers added imaginary beasts like uni-corns as well as real animals, and drew in unexplored areas as they'd like them to appear. 1. Note the confusions in representation in the western portion, based upon fragmentary Indian reports and mythical explorations. 2. Write a brief comparison and contrast of this map and the Blaeuw 1630 (Pig. 8) in terms of symbolization and map content. CO 1630 ^ ^ t ^ ^ ^ K S ^ E ^ ^ ^ S S S cutting tip of Brazil gal (east) and Spam (west). Note polar projections, correcting polar distortion. -- - • i • ' THE TOPOGRAPHIC MAP The topographic map i a an accurate and s c i e n t i f i c p o r t r a i t of a portion of the earth's surface. Of a l l documents i t most nearly portrays a l l the v i s i b l e landscape phenomena with which we are commonly associated. I t shows things as they e x i s t t o -gether i n t h e i r d i f f e r i n g v a r i e t i e s of patterns and d i s t r i b u -t i o n s . The s k i l l of the cartographer brings out many elements which can be i d e n t i f i e d separately or seen i n t h e i r mutual i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s . . The topographic map has many, uses f o r many people but f o r the geographer and geography teacher i t i s an indispensable document. However, i t s many-sided reference i s only valuable i n so f a r as the user can in t e r p r e t i t i n t e l l i g e n t l y . In essence It uses the language of symbols and a systematic analysis o f the groups of symbols quickly reveals the s i m p l i c i t y of the methods of graphic representation. A knowledge of scale Is e s s e n t i a l f o r the inter p r e t a t i o n of dimension. Given the a b i l i t y to read a map, i . e . , being conversant with the symbolio language, scale and d i r e c t i o n , geographical Interpretation can be attempted. The following notes should a s s i s t i n developing an under-standing of the methods of representation on a topographic map. GENERAL 1. Every topographic map contains four e s s e n t i a l elements — a t i t l e (usually the name of the most well-known l o c a l i t y on the map)5 a directions a scale, and a reference (some-times called 'key1 or 'legend'). 2. Each topographic map i s one of a series of a particular material survey. The representation of features i s the same as on every sheet in a series. Each sheet i s identi-fied by i t s t i t l e and a series number, 3. Some map sheets carry an overlay grid. The grid bears no relation to latitude and longitude and i s merely an a r t i f i c i a l device placed on the map for the purpose of reference. Grids are sometimes in 1000 yard squares or kilometre squares. When giving a good reference always state the 'easting' before the 'northing'. The graticules in the map border relate to divisions of latitude and longitude. 4. There are normally five distinctly different colours used on topographic maps - brown, blue, green, black and red - to represent the mapped features. Brown, blue and green are used for the representation of natural (non-human) features, and black and red for cultural (man-made) features. However, this division does not always hold true, for instance, orchards (man-made) may be coloured green and man-made lakes are shown in blue. The colours brown, blue and green are generally drawn in softer tones than the harsher, stronger colours of black and red in order to f a c i l i t a t e more readily the differentiation between the natural and cultural land-s capes, Browni R e l i e f features - contours. Blue: Water features - sea, lakes, r i v e r s , swamp, i c e . Green: Vegetation - natural ( f o r e s t , scrub, etc.) and cu l t u r a l (orchards, plantations). Red: Important roads, built-up urban areas, sub-divisions l i n e s . Black: Railways, roads, buildings of a l l kinds, names, boundaries. SCALE: Scale i s a reduction, a proportion or a r a t i o . A map soale s i g n i f i e s the proportion which a length on the map bears to the actual distance on the ground. Every map must indicate the scale. Map scales may be shown -1. By a statement - 'one inch to one mile' or 'ten chains to one inch'. 2. By a representative f r a c t i o n (R.P.) - the numerator i n d i c a t i n g the length on the map ( i n any u n i t , inch or centimetre) and the denominator the corresponding distance on the ground. The R.P. 1 , invaria b l y shown as 1:63,360, i s a scale to the proportion of one inch on the map representing 63,360 inches (or one mile) on the ground. I f only the R.P. of a map i s given, conversion to any unit i s easy, e.g., 1:40,000 i s one inch on the map to 40,000 inches (.6? miles) on the ground, or, one centimetre on the map represents 40,000 centimetres (400 metres) on the ground. 3. By linear scales On the basis of scale, maps may be divided into three groups -1. Chorographic Maps. Small-scale maps of large areas as are found in atlases. Generally the R.P. is from 1:2,000,000 to 1:80,000,000. 2. Topographic Maps. Maps of smaller areas on a larger scale. The division between 'large-scale' and 'small-scale' maps is very arbitrary. Some authorities accept 1:250,000 as a dividing line. 3« Cadastral Maps. Very large-scale maps or plans usually showing property divisions, individual holdings and boundaries. These are surveyors' maps. RELIEF The corrugations of the land surface are the roost d i f f i c u l t of topographic features to show on a map. At different times many attempts have been made to make the surface configuration 'stand up' on a f l a t map. There i s a two-fold problem - to show the actual height of a l l parts of an area above sea level and also the distinctive nature of slopes. No universally satisfactory system has yet been devised by catographers and the best maps incorporate a number of the systems, analysed below, depending on map scale, detail, nature of the terrain and information available. Early mapraakers used purely eonvential methods of repre-senting surface form. H i l l features were shown diagrama-t i c a l l y , usually profile drawings alike in outline and size irrespective of differences in height and slope. Another rudimentary method - 'hairy caterpillars' shewed r e l i e f features in plan, at least in theory. These crude methods can s t i l l be seen today in some school texts and atlases. Spot-Heights and Trigonometrical Points. These show the actual height of the position above sea level. The points chosen are generally on the summits of h i l l s , ridges, mountains or a prominent r e l i e f feature. Spot heights are not marked on the ground and are noted on maps to identify a summit or feature which could not otherwise be represented by contours. Trigonometrical points are marked on the ground being used in basic survey. Hachures The method of hachurlng has been widely used since the end of the eighteenth century and is used today in some of the best European maps. Hachures are lines of varying thickness drawn directly down the slopes where the gradient i s steepest. They indicate on the map the direction which running water would follow on the ground. The thickness of the hachures ia proportional to the steepness of the slope - heavily drawn where slopes are steep and fine where they are gentle. Graphically they are one of the most satisfactory methods of showing r e l i e f particularly in areas of bold r e l i e f . However, spot heights and contours must be used in conjunction with hachures for an accurate map. H i l l Shading Hill-shading maps show r e l i e f by a gradational shading of a l l slopes, the depth of shading varying with the steepness of the slope. In maps with Oblique h i l l -shading a shadow is assumed to be thrown over the area by an imaginary light to the northwest at an angle of *I5°. The light illuminates northwesterly, northerly and westerly slopes being in the deepest shadows. Some map3 employ Vertical hill-shading in which case a light is assumed to to f a l l directly on the map surface illuminating near-flat areas and casting shadows on slopes, the steeper the slope the darker the 3hadow. As with hachures, hill-shading cannot be used alone i f an accurate map is required. Contours The best single method of showing r e l i e f on the fla t surface of a map. A contour line is a line of constant altitude joining a l l places at the same elevation above mean sea level. A form line (sometimes called 'form contour') is similar in appearance to a contour line but is sketched, not a surveyed, contour. Form lines give only a rough impression of the r e l i e f and are more commonly used for inaccessible areas. The difference in height between two successive contours i s called the Vertical Interval (V.I.). The vertical interval can be compared to the rise of a step, in which case the tread of the step is the Horizontal  Equivalent (H.E.). The vertical interval is constant on any one map but may vary from map to map in any one series depending on the nature of r e l i e f in different areas. The effectiveness of contours in showing r e l i e f depends largely on the V.I. used. A series of contour lines with a carefully chosen V.I. gives direct information about altitude and the nature of the slopes. Spot heights are frequently used in inter-polation. In better maps, hachuring and/or hill-shading is used for graphic effect and ready comprehension. Layer Colouring This method of showing r e l i e f is dependent upon and auxiliary to contours. The area between any two selected contours is tinted according to a colour scheme modified from the spectrum. The method is more satisfactory for areas of varied r e l i e f . Direction The top of the topographic map faces north. There are three 'norths1 to note:-1. True North The direction of the North Pole from the observor's position. 2. Grid North Where there is a grid on a map, grid north is the direction of the grid lines from the bottom to the top of the map. 3. Magnetic North The direction of the compass needle. A reference Is always made to the annual declination of the compass needle. LABORATORY EXERCISE: Aa Introduction to the Topographic Map Use any standard topographic map. Refer to the diagram which appears in the map margin 3howing the directions for setting a map. 1. Explain b r i e f l y : a) Grid north (G.N.) b) Magnetic Worth (M.N.) c) True North (T.N.). 2. Draw a diagram (use a protractor) showing the re-lationship of T.N., G.N., and M.N. 3. What is meant by "magnetic declination"? *J. What is the annual magnetic change on your map? 5. What would be the difference between G.N. and M.N, TODAY as indicated on your map? 6. Write down grid locations (CO-ORDINATES) for 5 features on your map. (e.g.) gravel p i t , railway bridge, lighthouse, marsh, cemetery, highway inter-section, mountain peak, etc. 7. Using the graph paper provided complete a cross-section of an "interesting" section of your map. Be sure to compute the vertical exaggeration on your cross-section and indicate the vertical and horizontal scales. 8. Indicate T.N. bearings of the features In question 6. Setting the map. With the map on a f l a t surface line up the compass axis with a north-south grid line. Do not move the map when taking the bearings. LABORATORY EXERCISE; Topographic Map Interpretation  Materials: Vancouver, B.C. 920. 1. What i s th© rnap scale? 2. What i s the contour i n t e r v a l ? 3. What i s the highest point on Gambler Island? 4. What i s the highest point i n Garabaldl Park? 5 . What i s the highest point south of th® Fraser River? 6. What Is the distance from: a) Departure Bay to Horseshoe Bay? b) Horseshoe Bay to Squamish? c) New Westminster to Abbots ford? 7. Name s i x islands In the Fraser River. 8. How many mile3 of harbour are there i n Burrard I n l e t , measuring from Point Atkinson to Point Grey? 9. Name ten smaller communities on the north side of the Fraser River. 10. What are th© two largest lakes shown on the map? 11. L i s t the services at Oibson's Landing. 12. How many Indian Reserves are there on the 3ea-Schelt Penn.? 13. What Is the prospect of Boundary Bay becoming a \ deep-sea port? LABORATORY EXERCISE: M i t c h e l l Island Topographic, Map Analysis Materials: Topographic Map 92 G/3h 1. Stat© the contour i n t e r v a l . 2. Stats the highest contour i n the southern part of the map. 3. State the highest contour on the map. 4. What i n d i c a t i o n of elevation i s shown on Lulu Island? 5. How f a r Is i t from the school to the highest point of land shown on the map? 6. In what general d i r e c t i o n are you t r a v e l l i n g through the Dens Island Tunnel? ?. I f you were playing golf at Praserview Golf Course, could you see a 45* launch i n Graveside Beach? 8. What indicates that parts of Lulu Island produce early f r u i t and vegetables? 9. Name two forms of entertainment on Lulu Island. 10. Within what municipality does M i t c h e l l Island l i e ? 11. State the elevation of Oakridge Shopping Centre. 12. Mame the chief land us© of eastern Lulu Island. 13. Why are there no contours on Lulu Island? 14. Why would a dyke surround Lulu Island? 15. What i s the date of the map? What changes might have occurred i n the southern h a l f of the map since i t s printing? 16. What kinds of industry are found on the map? Why i s the greatest concentration o f industry found on the north bank of the North Arm of the Fraser River? 17. How many parks are shown on the map? Which i s the largest in area? Why? 18. Draw a generalized sketch of the map on Bh x 11 inch paper. Indicate the various forms of land use on the map. (Be sure to Indicate the new and o l d r e s i d e n t i a l areas). Include only the major transportation routes. LABORATORY EXERCISE: Topographic Map Analysis- Heath Park.Sask. 1. State the grid references for the following: a) Meath Park Post Office. b) Meath Park School. c) Cemetery south of Meath Park. d) Janow Corners School. 2. Identify the following features: a) 161741 . b) 225770. 3. What is the elevation of the feature at 215793? 4. What is the highest spot height shown on the map? 5. Measure the distance from the Post Office at Meath Park to the feature at 215793. 6 . Estimate the population of Meath Park. 7. Give evidence from the map to indicate the function of Meath Park. 3, List four evidences from the map to support the statement that Meath Park i s located on the Prairies. — 1 5 _ 14 •••• B o u n d a r i e s : I n t e r n a t i o n a ! , with m o n u m e n t . . p r o v i n c i a l • • — c o u n t y d i s t r i c t — — ~ — » — — t o w n s h i p or p a r i s h — -- s e c t i o n Sine ' city or t o w n p a r k , r e s e r v e , etc . -H o r i y o i M a l c o n t r o l p o i n t , w i t h e l e v a t i o n . . . A 5S2 B e n c h m a r k , with e l e v a t i o n * 3025 o p o t e l e v a t i o n ; p r e c i s e , a p p r o x i m a t e . - . 4 5 8 2 .757 i H i s t o r i c a l s i t e ; C e m e t e i y • ' M i n e or o p e n c u t ; Q u a r r y *>C S a n d or g r a v e l p 11 £ . F o r e s h o r e f l a t s " L i g h t h o u s e 3$r W h a r f o r p i e r ; B r e a k w a t e r j £ j i _ > - — L e v e e o r d y k e . , : R o c k y reef S w a m p o r m a r s h ^ *>.<• a* I n u n d a t e d l a n d , s e a s o n a l ~17—Z~Z--Z-I n t e r m i t t e n t k i k e , s t r e a m  fS\_XJ i n d e f i n i t e s h o r e l i n e , s t r e a m ^ C ^ ^ - ' " ^ R a p i d s , l a r g e , s m a l l ; B r i d g e J^ =&===||~ D i t c h or f l u m e S I c e f i e l d o r G l a c i e r W o o d e d a r e a ; u n c l a s s i f i e d , s c r u b V i n e y a r d ; O r c h a r d DK H o u s e ; B u i l d i n g S c h o o l ft C h u r c h ; C h u r c h w i t h s p i r e ' + P o s t O f f i c e /* R a d i o S t a f i o n -> T o w e r ; C h i m n e y e n - ' ?& W e l l ; T a n k 0 e C u t t i n g - g r g n , n i ? E m b a n k m e n t — j ^ t t t i T C l i f f S ^ Z S T C o n t o u r s : e l e v a t i o n — i — - 7 d e p r e s s i o n - ^ - ^ V - - " . " a p p r o x i m a t e ~ - 2 S o - - y j 1' • ti ' T i : : f LABORATORY EXERCISE: Topographic Map Interpretation -Cheyenne, Wyoming 1. Locate the highest point of land on the map. 2. In what di r e c t i o n does the land slope? 3. What Is the la t i t u d e of the area shown? 4. Notice the great number of windmills. Give reasons for t h e i r l o c a t i o n . 5. What i s the p r e v a i l i n g wind d i r e c t i o n l i k e l y to be? 6. What i s the position of t h i s area i n respect to large bodies of water? 7. Is the r a i n f a l l heavy or light ? Give reasons f o r answer. 8. What kind of natural vegetation i s i n t h i s area? 9. What Is the main use o f land i n this area? 10. What evidence indicates on the map what crops are grown? 11. In t h i s area which came f i r s t , the railways, the roads or the s e t t l e r s ? Give your reasons f o r your answer. 12. Is the population density heavy or l i g h t ? 13. A number of the settlements are i n s i m i l a r locations. What are the kinds of locations? 14. Why has the ci t y of Cheyenne developed where It is? 15. What are the industries l i k e l y to be in the towns? 16. At what season of the year would the c i t y of Cheyenne be busiest? 17. What type of raining or quarrying, i f any, i s there in the area? 18. Drax* a sketch map to shot? the location of Cheyenne i n r e l a t i o n to the Great Plains Region. Scale 1 : 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 10 15 20 Statute Miles CHEYENNE, WYOMING; COLORADO; NEBRASKA L.A. No. 2249 LABORATORY EXERCISE: Picture and Large Scale Map (Banff, Alta) 1. What is th© main source of income for this region? 2, Which physical region of North America i s this region located in? 3- What 5 recreational activities are available in this area? (Give evidence from either picture or map to s upport answers). 4. What la the elevation above sea level of Tunnel Mountain? ;  5. What is the relative elevation of Tunnel Mountain? 6. How many horisontal feet do you travel In the Gondola ride to the top of Sulphur Mountain? 7. Stat® in feet the rise in elevation that occurs as you travel up the Gondola Li f t ? ,n  8. What is the actual length of the Gondola ride up Sulphur Mountain? _ 9. List four forms of transportation. (Evidence must be given). 10. What i s the distance i n a i r miles from the P i c n i c Shelter i n Sundance Canyon to the nearest edge of the Buffalo Paddock? 11. What i s the major form of natural vegetation? 12. Which peak was th® picture l i k e l y taken from? 13. How were the valleys formed that are shown i n the picture? LABORATORY EXERCISE: Topographic Map Analysis (Canada) We are to study a series of topographic maps for the purpose of gaining experience in describing and interpreting the features and patterns evident on the particular sheets. The maps have been divided into five categories for study. 1. Landforms) ) 2. Drainage ) ) 3. Industry ) select one map from each category 4. Settlement ) ) select four maps from ©aeh category 5. Agriculture) Students are to study one map from each of the f i r s t three categories. For categories 4 and 5» students are to select one map from each, of th© four subdivisions, e.g. Marltimes, Ontario and Quebec, the Prairies, British Columbia. The Assignment Landforms- ^ Describe briefly the r e l i e f and vegetation. Be sure to include a bibliography of a l l your reference material. Comment on the effects of glaciation and explain any prominent land features. Construct a cross-section of an interesting section of your map. • Mote the minimum, maximum and average elevations. 2. Drainage-Describe the general distribution of drainage features on the nap. Draw a sketch map of th© map area showing the main drainage features. Explain any prominent drainage features. 3. Industry-Write a brief description of the industry located on your map. Mote sources of nearby power and comment on the transportation network as i t i s related to the Industry. Note the source of the industry's raw materials. Draw a sketch map to show the relationship of the industry to other similar industries in Canada. Suggest what are the basic requirements common to a l l industry and industrial regions. 4 • Set'tjLement-Compar® and contrast the settlement pattern as evidenced from your study of the map. Draw sketch maps to show the relationship between the settlement patterns of each region and their natural environment. Indicate the reason for the location of the main city and relate i t to i t s natural environment. 5• Agriculture-Write a brief abstract discussing the inter-dependence of r e l i e f , climate, vegetation and s o i l in each of the four sub-regions. Show how these factors have contributed to the agricultural economy of each region. Include in your essay climate graphs and sketch maps where applicable. Discuss the larger region rather than the specificJ LABORATORY EXERCISE: tf. S. Topographic Map Analysis The following U. S» topographic maps have been divided into four categories, (i.e.) Landforms, Settle-ment, Industry and Agriculture for study. You are to choose one map from each category for analysis and interpretation. The Assignment 1. Landforms Describe briefly the r e l i e f and vegetation. Mote the minimum, maximum and average elevations of your sheet. Explain any prominent land features. Construct a cross-section of an interesting section of your map. 2. Settlement Comment on the settlement pattern of your map. Draw a sketch map to show the relationship between the settlement pattern and the natural environment. 3. Industry Write a brief description of the industry located on your map. Note sources of nearby power and comment on the transportation network as i t i s related to the industry. Note the source of industry's raw materials, Draw a map to show th© relationship of the industry to other similar industries in North America. 4. Agriculture Write a brie f essay discussing the interdependence of r e l i e f , climate, vegetation and s o i l on your map as i t relates to the agricultural activity. Include in your essay climate graphs and sketch maps relating to the agriculture of this region. List of U.S. Topographic Maps 1. Landforms Harriaburg, Pa, Ennls, Mont. Malvern j, Ark. Sundance, Wyo. Leaburg, Ore. Bray, Calif. Utica, N.Y. Safe Harbour,Pa. ) Loveland Pass,Cold.) Wataura Dam,Tenn. ) 1:62,500 Plum Grove,Tenn-Va.)1:24,000 Ventura, Calif. ) Menominee,111.-Iowa) Sumdum, Alaska ) Sheep Mountain, ) Table, S. Dak. ) Chief Mountain,Mont) 2. Settlement Cheyenne, Wyo. ManChester,N.H. Canton, 111. Seattle,Wash. Biloxi, Miss. Porter, Ind. Jonesboro, 111.-Uo. 3. Industry Bakersfield, Calif. Toledo, Ore. Grand Coulee Dam, Wash. Malvern, Ark. Corpus Christl, Texas Indiana, Pa. Ocean City, M.D. Chattanooga,Tenn. 1:62,500 Pittsburg West,Pa. Galveston, Texas Boling, Texas Terra Haute, Ind. P ort smout h, N. H.-Me. Mew Bedford South, Mass* Pond du Lac,Wise* Brooklyn, N.Y. Augusta, Me, Jacksonville,Pla. Arkadelphia, Ark. Point Comfort,Texas Watauga Dam, Tenn. Chattanooga, Tenn. Shasta Dam, Calif. 1:62,500 Ventura, Ca l i f . Texas City, Texas Galveston, Texas Boling, Texas Terra Haute,Indiana Santa Rita,N. Hex. Whiting, Ind. Beaumont East,Tex. 1:24,000 1:24,000 4. Agriculture Bakersfield, C a l i f . ) Allegan, Mich. ) Provencal, La* )1:62,500 Frankfort, Mich, ) 1:62,500 Wiggins,Mies. ) Wheatland, C a l i f . ) Arkadelphia, Ark. ) F r i a n t , C a l i f . ) Tracy, C a l i f . >i,2*,oeo Ventura, C a l i f . ) * Traverse City,Mich.) Crowder, Miss, ) Mich. ) LABORATORY EXERCISEt Land Use Hap Interpretation Study the Br i t i s h Land Use maps available (i.e.) Cardiff, Portsmouth and Klrby Moorslde, and also refer to the pro-posed Land Use of Bellingham, Washington (Jan. 1967)» to discover a system of land use classification. Develop your own modification of these schemes for showing land use. We are going to attempt to classify land use using map overlays. Each student w i l l choose one topographic map from the l i s t given and attempt to classify land use under the following headings« Prepare a map overlay (complete with color scheme) legend to i l l u s t r a t e the present land use of your map sheet, * Use the l i s t below as a guide. 1. Residential (a) low density [b) medium density 2. Commercial 3* Industrial c) high density a) local b) central a) light b) heavy 4. Parkland and open space 5. Rural land - agricultural 6. Transportation (a) road (b) r a i l (c) a i r (d) water 7* Unused land Prepare a second overlay to Illustrate your proposals for future land use of your map sheet* Prepare a short abstract supporting your proposals for future land use on your map sheet. List of Topographic Maps 1. Saint John 21 Q/8a 12. 2. Halifax 11 D12/h 13. 3. St. John's 1 N/lOba 14. 4. Quebec 21 LA4b 15. 5. Niagara Palls 30 M/3a 16. 6. Medicine Hat 72 L/2b 17. 7. Ottawa 31 G/5& 18. 8. Lachlne 31 H/5g 19» 9. Ste.-Anne-De-Bellevue 20. 31 H/5e 21. 10. Predricton 21 0/15g 22. 11. Bedford Basin 11 D/12g Dundas 30 M/5d Ste. Pby 21 L/l4c Orimsley 30 M/4h Olace Bay 11 J/4e Beamsville 30 M/3® Verdun 31 H/5h Outremont 31 H/12a West Toronto 30 M/lle Victoria 92 B/6W Laval 31 H/12e Toronto 30 M/11W LABORATORY EXERCISEt Leduc and Ft. Saskatchewan Land Use Map Analysis 1* In both maps of land use, what two functions stand out as the most prominent users of space? 2. Describe the general location of the rest of the town in relation to the r a i l line through both towns. 3« In relation to the railway through town, which way does the main street of Leduc and the main street of Ft. Saskatchewan run? 4. In both towns, what type of land use i s there near the r a i l lines? Why would you expect this? What does this t e l l you about the main function of the town? 5. Comment on the road pattern of the two towns, e.g. Do they have through routes? New suburbs etc. 6. Compare the area of the two towns. 7. In both towns, describe the location of superior and inadequate residential areas in relation to the r a i l line. Why is this a general pattern that is found in many towns and cities a l l over the world? 8. What features appear to be limiting the area into which Leduc can expand? into which Ft. Saskatchewan can expand? 9. If you did not know, what feature would enable you to guess that Ft. Saskatchewan was a prairie town? 10. What does the term 'urban land use' mean? LEDUC, l and use (pop. 2,846) FORT SASKATCHEWAN, land use. (pop. 3,766). LABORATORY EXERCISE? Urban Master Plan Report A Master Plan is a statement of policy prepared as a guide to future physical development. Such a plan outlines what the community wants in the future and suggests how present and future improvements and land uses should be related. The Master Plan should be based on a study of resources, problems, needs, and potentials of the community. Usually the Master Plan is set forth in a series of maps and proposals for future Improvements. One or more of these maps Indicate areas suitable for industry, business, homes, farming, recreation, and other uses. For example: (a) A land-use map of the entire area, indicating the general location and amounts of land to be allocated for residential, commercial, Industrial, public transportation and agricultural purposes. (b) A circulation plan, showing the location and types of major routes required for the efficient movement of people and goods Into, about and through the local area. The Comprehensive or Master Plan should also consist of a statement of community objectives and needed explanatory materials. Consideration should be given to public and private financial resources. The plan suggested for the future should be feasible! Study the British Land Use maps available (I.e.) Cardiff, Portsmouth and Kirby Moorside, and also refer to the proposed Land Use of Belllngham, Washington (Jan. 1967) to discover a system of land us© classification. Develop your own modifica-tion of these schemes for showing land use. Assignments Prom the urban topographic maps available select one and be prepared to orally account for the distribution of the present land use, You w i l l be required also to produce an overlay of a master plan for the town or city you have selected. Use the following questions to assist you in the prepara-tion of your oral presentation. 1. Account for the site location of th® city chosen, (e.g.) his t o r i c a l , transportation center,etc. 2. Write a brief historical sketch of the city. 3. In your discussion of present land use, what funotions stand out as the most prominent users of space? H, Describe the general location of the rest of the town in relation to th® major transportation routes. 5. What features appear to be limiting the area into which the town can expand? 6. What type of land use i s there near the r a i l lines? Why would you expect this? What does this t e l l you about the town? 7. In your town, describe the location of superior and Inadequate residential areas in relation to the major transportation routes. Why i s this a general pattern that i s found in many towns and ci t i e s a l l over tho world? The following questions are to be used as a guide in the formulation of your mastar plan and statement of community objectives: 1. What are the needs of the people in your city? Show how these needs have been considered in drawing up your master plan. 2. How w i l l this town plan make the l i f e of the people in the city better? 3. Is your master plan really a plan for the future? Justify Its use in 198OJ Speculate as to the changes in modes of transportation and housing types which might be available in I960. On this basis, evaluate your master plan of the future. LABORATORY EXERCISE: The Layer Contour Model Construction Prom a topo sheet select the landform3 which you wish to il l u s t r a t e . Base the model on the map of this landscape. Simplify and enlarge the contour pattern of the chosen feature. Trace and cut out the shapes of successive contours at selected intervals. Use s t i f f card, strawboard, plywood or other suitable material. The vertical interval is governed by the thickness of the material used and this i s a matter of personal choice depending on the area covered and the com-plexity of the contouring. For layer models i t Is usually better not to over-exaggerate the vertical scale. Superimpose the shapes upon one another and fix with an adhesive under pressure. Clamp the bottom layer to a firm base of block-board to prevent twisting as the layers dry out. If the 'steps' are to be f i l l e d in to give the natural slope, the vertical scale should be Increased. In this case, P o l y f i l l a or Pyruma make good f i l l e r s . Smooth down the f i l l i n g with fine sandpaper so that the edges of the layers Just peep through. Before applying colour f i l l the pores of the material with a good solution of size. Prom the models made in this manner, note: 1. The relationship between contour, slope and shape. 2. The relationship between the component features of landforms and the pattern of a landsoape as a whole. 3. The terms of physical geography associated with land-scape structure, viz. dip-slope, scarp slope, spur, re-entrant, col, saddle, etc. THE INTERPRETATION OF SOIL MAPS The immediate object of a soil survey is the classification and mapping of the soils of an area according to their Inherent physical and chemical characteristics. The interpretation of the characteristics of the different soil units in terms of productivity and adaptability for use is also an Important feature of any agricultural program. List of Soil Maps and References 1. Soil Survey Maps (a) Uorth East Sheet 9X2, sheet 3 (b) South East Sheet #12, sheet % (c) North west Sheet #12, sheet 2 (d) Regina 7 2 I East (e) Regina 7 2 I West (f) Prince Albert North Carrot River 013 (g) Swift Current Prairies Marltimes (a) St. Stephen Sheet (b) Penfleld - Fredricton Junction (c) McAdam - Canterbury Moncton - Tormentine - Albert Codys - Petiteodlac (f) Saint John - Sussex References: a) The Canada Land Inventory - ARDA 1966 b) Soil Survey Report #12, Southern Saskatchewan c) Soils of the Regina Hap Area 721 d) Soil Erosion by Water - Publication #1083 e) Guide to Farm Practice in Saskatchewan 1966 f) Saskatchewan Farm Business Summary #13,1966 g) Soil Zones of Alberta h) Soil Zones of Saskatchewan 1) A Guide to Understanding Saskatchewan Soils J) Soil Survey Bulletins 1 ) Andover -Plaster Rock, New Brunswick 11) Woodstock, H.8. i l l ) Southwestern H.B. iv) Southeastern N.8. LABORATORY EXERCISE: So i l Map Comparison Select one s o i l sheet from the Prairies Region and one from the Marltimes Region for interpretation. 1. Determine the dominant s o i l types in both areas (i.e . patterns) and describe their main character-i s t i c s . 2. Using the legend, attempt to determine the most favorable agricultural areas on each map sheet. Is there any relationship between soils and agri-cultural practices? 3. Using the reference material l i s t e d , write a general description of each map sheet. Mention the topo-graphy, climate and any other factors which may have influenced the development of the soils and which may have a bearing on the agricultural ac t i v i t i e s in each area« LABORATORY EXERCISE; Soil and Topographic Map Interpretation To he done for each map exercise Each student Is to attempt the interpretation of one of the following exercises. A. Willow Bunch Lake - 724 Saskatchewan So i l Map Willow Bunch Lake - 72 H/SE Topographic Map 1. Prepare a s o i l overlay of the topo map to ill u s t r a t e the types of s o i l found in the map area. Construct a legend to indicate the type of crops that could be grown in the various s o i l zones of the map. 2. On the topo map mark the best areas for agriculture. 3. List any physical and cultural features which are not shown on the topo map but appear on the s o i l map. 4. Is there any relationship between the location of [ s o i l types and re l i e f ? Explain. 5. Determine the map coordinates of Willow Bunch on both maps. 6. What s o i l type is found at coordinates 590746 of the topo map? 7. Determine the gradient of the railway from Willow Bunch to coordinates 6 3 8 6 3 8 . 8* Is there any specific s o i l type associated with poor drainage? 9. List th© limitations on agriculture you have dis-covered in the top© map area. 10. Construct an annotated cross-section across the center of th® topo map and ill u s t r a t e (using color) the different s o i l types found along your cross-section and main features of land use. B. Melville - 62L Saskatchewan Soil Map Lemberg - 62L/11B Topographic Map. 1. Do questions 1 - 4 as the Willow Bunch assignment. 2. What cultural features are shown on the topo map that are not shown on the s o i l map In th© towns of Heudorf and Lemberg. 3. What does the word "Pheasant" on the topo map refer to? 4. Is there any indication on either map as to what has caused the many small lakes on the topo map? 5. Determine the map coordinates of Neudorf on both maps. 6* What s o i l type i s found at topo map coordinates 363064? 7. Determine the gradient of the railroad bed from Neudorf to Lemberg. 8. Construct an annotated cross-section across the center of the topo map and ill u s t r a t e (using color) the different s o i l types found along your cross-section and main features of land use. 9. List th® limitations on agriculture you have discovered In the topo map area. Hudson Bay - 630 Saskatchewan S o i l Map Crooked River - 63D/13E Topographic Map 1. Do questions 1 - 4 as per the Willow Bunch exercise. 2. Determine the map coordinates of Peesane on both maps. 3. What s o i l type i s found at topo map coordinates 884466? 4. Determine the gradient of the railroad bed from Peesane to Crooked River. 5. List the limitations on agriculture you have dis-covered in the topo map area. 6. Is there any specific s o i l type associated with poor drainage? 7. Construct an annotated cross-section across the center of the topo map and ill u s t r a t e (using color) the different s o i l types found along your cross-section and main features of land use. Cypress _ 72P Soil Map Shaunavon - 72F/9B Topographic Map 1. Do questions 1 - 4 as per the Willow Bunch exeroise. 2. Determine the map coordinates of Scotsguard on both maps. 3. What s o i l type is found at topo map coordinates 881112? 4. Determine the gradient of the railroad bed from Admiral to Scotsguard. 5. Is there any specific s o i l type associated with poor drainage? 6 . List the limitations on agriculture you have discovered in th© topo map area. 7. Construct an annotated cross-section across the center of the topo map and Illustrate (using color) the different s o i l types found along your cross-section and main features of land use. s* Kitchener - 40P-0 Saskatchewan Soil Map Guelph - 40P/9E Topographic Maps 1 . Do questions 1 - 4 as per the Willow Bunch exercise. 2. Determine the map coordinates of Acton on both maps. 3. What s o i l type i s found at topo map coordinates 291698? 4. Determine the gradient of the railroad bed from Ouelph to Acton. List the limitations on agriculture you have discovered in the topo reap area. Is there any specific s o i l type associated with poor drainage? Construct an annotated cross-section across the center of the topo map and il l u s t r a t e (using color) the different s o i l types found along your cross-section and main features of land use. THE MEASUREMENT OF SCALE IN AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY The scale of an a e r i a l photograph Is the r e l a t i o n between a distance on the photograph and the corresponding distance on the ground. SCALE «° Distance on the Photograph Distance on the Ground For example: Assume that the length of a pip e l i n e on the ground i s 10,000 feet and the measured length of the pip e l i n e on the v e r t i c a l photograph i s 6 inches. The scale of the photo-graph Is found as follows: S = Photo distance n 6 Inches - .5 f t . 8 3 1 Ground distance 10,000 f t . 10,000 f t . 20,000 S i m i l a r l y , the scale of a photograph can be determined from the r e l a t i o n between the f o c a l length ( f ) , of the camera above the ground. f , X X , \ « c a . \er\^ Note: most a e r i a l cameras 19 L — —>/\ ~ have lengths of 6*, C\CV/O.V.OM X i X 8.25" or 12" (.5'. .6875, 1.0') P r i n c i p a l point TERRAIN SCALE o f o c a l length  Height above ground For example: Focal length of the cameral which took the photograph i s 12 inches and was flown at an a l t i t u d e of 20,000'• S o f - 12 Inches « 1 f t . °» 1 H 20,000 feet 20,000 feet 20,000 LABORATORY EXERCISE: Scale and Photo Measurement Solve the following problems using the formulas outlined. 1. The length of a pip e l i n e measures 5.50 Inches on an a e r i a l photograph. The scale of the photograph i s given as 1:6000 (500 f t . per Inch). Solve for the length of the pipeline on the ground. 2. Two points along a railway are known to be axactly one mile apart. I f the corresponding photo distance i s .330 feet, what i s the scale of the photograph? 3. An A e r i a l oamera has a f o c a l length of 6 inches. The a i r -c r a f t i s f l y i n g at an elevation of 6,500 feet above mean sea l e v e l over average ground elevations of 1,500 feet. Determine the soale of the photograph. 4. Express 4 inches to one mile as a scale i n figures. 5. Express 1:1,000,000 as so many miles to an inch. 6. The distance between two farm houses on a topographic map measures two Inches, The map soale i s known to be 1:24,000. The same distance on an a e r i a l photograph i s measured at 4.80 Inches. What Is the scale of the a e r i a l photograph? 7. Refer to the City Planning Photograph of L i t t l e Mountain, Measure the dimensions of several accessible features on the photo and convert these to ground distances. Then, check these distances by actual f i e l d measurement. Compare. LABORATORY EXERCISE: Basic Photographic Interpretation Materials: Aerial Photograph - A17796-82 1. The landscape shown On the photo can be divided into two regions. On a sketch map show the boundary between the agricultural and the non-agricultural land. List the basic differences between the two areas, 2. On your sketch map of the aerial photo also Indicate the following: I) the cultivated i i ) farm buildings i i i ) pasture lands i v) rock outcrops v) wooded areas vi) swamps vi i ) lakes v l i l ) main roads. 3. Determine Worth from the time of day and the shadows on the a i r photograph and indicate i t on your sketch map. AIR PHOTO DIVISION - E N E R G Y , M I N E S & R E S O U R C E S - C A N A D I A N G O V L C O P Y R S B I LABORATORY EXERCISE: Determining Coordinate Points Materials: Stereogram #18 Pecan, Mississippi Using your stereoscope determine the coordinates of the following: Feature 1. Pecan orchards 2 . Terraced Fields 3. Sawmills 4. Drive-in theatre 5. Pole treating plant 6. Railway car (on siding) Left Coordinates Stereogram Right Coordinates PECAN Stereogram No. 18 LABORATORY EXERCISE: Comparing Aerial Photographs  Materials: Topographic maps: Yamaska River - A 12809 -123 New Glasgow - A 13865 -128 1. Compare the two areas under the headings: (I) r e l i e f (II) farming and vegetation ( i l l ) settlement pattern, size and number of houses. 2. What additional types of maps do you feel you need in order to form a reasonably accurate perspective of the processes operating In the areas which have produced the diverse cultural impressions upon them? 3. Using photograph A 13865 - 128, draw a sketch-map of the layout of a farm. Label the farm buildings, the farm house, and other associated features. AIR PHOTO DIVISION - ENERGY, MINES & RESOURCES - CANADIAN GOVT, COPYRIG LABORATORY EXERCISE; Construction of a Topographic Map from a Stereogram  Materials; Stereogram #218 Cedar City, Michigan Using the stereogram construct a topographic map of the h i l l located within the coordinates C.45 - 2.55 and C.95 -1.85. Draw the h i l l complete with contour lines and a l l cultural features. Begin your outline of the h i l l at a contour level of 100 feet, using a contour interval of 25 feet. The highest elevation of the h i l l i s 738 feet. CEDAR CITY Leelanau County, Michigan May 11, 1953 RF = 1:91,000 H = 30 300 feet Stereogram No. 218 Prepared from USGS photography by the University of I l l i n o i s Committi?- r.v A t r i a l Photoir^aDhv LABORATORY EXERCISE: Meandering River  Materials: Topographic map: B.C. 5234 - 099 and 100 Stereogram: Fort Nelson River Lowlands 1. The surface of Fort Nelson Lowland slopes gently north-ward (down the picture). Give reasons to support this statement. 2. What is the broad area called through which the river flows? 3. Why does the river meander in such loops? What part do meanders play in the widening of river valleys? Supplement this answer by means of a number of diagrams. 4. Study the river course. What are the white patches? Are they on the inside or the outside of the river bends? Where Is the deep water channel In meanders usually found? 5. Determine whether or not the area has been glaciated. State evidence. 6. What do the tree covered areas on the photo suggest about the drainage pattern of the stereogram? 7. On an outline map of North America, mark in and name four major meandering rivers. 8. In some instances meander loops become very pronounced and may even be cut off from the river. These are called oxbow lakes. Prepare a transparent overlay or a sketch of the stereogram to show the flood plain of the river, the river and the oxbow lakes. B.C. GOV'T AIR PHOTO STEREOGRAN prepared by AIR SURVEY DIVISION, VICTORIA B.C. LABORATORY EXERCISE: A g r i c u l t u r a l Patterns In the Marltimes  Materials: Topographic map: Berwick 21 H/12E L a k e v i l l e , Nova Scotia - A3619-88 (1" « 1320') 1. What are the possible uses made of water stored i n the lake? 2. What type of climate do you think occurs here? Give evidence to support your answer. 3. Describe the shape of the land. Why Is the topography suited to an a g r i c u l t u r a l economy? Why would t h i s be a good a g r i c u l t u r a l region? ^. Suggest, using evidence from the picture, the major crops grown i n t h i s area. State your reasons c l e a r l y . 5. Draw a sketch map of the a e r i a l photo to divide the map area in t o a g r i c u l t u r a l and non-agricultural land. 6, Compare and contrast t h i s photo with the Beamsville a e r i a l photo (A 4701-47) with the p a r t i c u l a r reference to a) the approximate percentage of unimproved land; b) approximate percentage of land i n orchard; c) what other crops appear prominently? d) compute the approximate population density per square mile using an average of 4 persons per r u r a l house-hold. LABORATORY EXERCISE; Agricultural Patterns In the St. Lawrence Lowlands  Materials: Topographic map: 31H/15W Aerial photo: St. David - d'Yamaska, Quebec Prepare a transparent overlay of the aerial photograph. 1, As before, locate and identify the following on your overlay: a) the built-up area of the town b) drainage c) former ox-bow lakes d) transportation routes e) a sawmill f) a church g) hospital h) 50, 75 and 100 foot contours i) several spot heights (where contours cross roads) j) use an arrow to indicate the direction the river i s flowing. 2. Determine the scale of the a i r photo. 3. Describe the r e l i e f of the area shown on your aerial photograph. k. Suggest two reasons why the town developed at Its present location. Compare Its site with that of Clyde, Alberta (A-14899-78). 5. Compare the pattern of farmstead distribution with that of Clyde. Do you detect any site preference shown by the average farmer in each area? 6. Do the maps and a i r photos supply any c r i t e r i a which w i l l aid you in appraising the comparative future potential growth of the two areas (Clyde and St. David d'Yamaska)? 7. The type of farming shown in the aerial photograph i s of an intensive nature. Explain where in Canada i s arable farming practiced on 'extensive' lines? what are the main differences between the two methods? Determine by research what types of farming are carried on in this part of Quebec. AIR PHOTO DIVISION - E N E R G Y , M I N E S & R E S O U R C E S - C A N A D I A N GOVT, C O P Y R I G * SHEET31 H/15WEST HALF ; hard surface, heavy duly. ; Hard surface, heavy duty _ hard surface, medium duty ^J*"* ' " M ^ > bote surface, graded and drained ~ £ c = = B f c JSj^L^. •' Other Roads MSfS^ i ^ j'Cart Track. Snow or Winter Road Jfir^Li """"li LTr?!' or fortaoe Wooded Areas, h e a v y . . . — .Telephone, trunk route .. . /Boundaries. International . Provincial ... . - : CONTOUR INTERVAL 25 FEET Elevations in Feet above Mean Sea Level ^ - - ..no • «. n_ County S C A L E 1:50:000 " •-- * " *£;..*"• o::'J! oo Ste* Towers on~Wood Poles'! ^ Miles , LABORATORY EXERCISE: A g r i c u l t u r a l Patterns i n Manitoba  Materials: Topographic map: 64H/4E A e r i a l photograph - Altona - A16614-151 Prepare a transparent overlay of the a e r i a l photograph. 1. As before, locate and Identify the following on your overlay: a) main roads b) drainage di t c h c) intermittent streams d) farmsteads e) ploughed land f) shelter b e l t s g) an overpass h) the 825 foot contour l i n e . 2. Farms i n the P r a i r i e s are usually measured i n terms of sections. I f each square contained between the main roads Is a seotion or 640 aores In s i z e , determine: a) the soale of the a e r i a l photo b) the average size of farms i n t h i s part of Manitoba. 3. Construct a table to compare the Information you derived from question 2(b) with that of the information pertaining to the s i z e of farms i n Clyde, Niagara and St. David d'Yamaska photographs. Are there any basic differences between the areas? Why? 4. Attempt to i d e n t i f y the feature running diagonally across the a e r i a l photo. Is t h i s feature shown on the topo-graphic map? Why, or, why not? 5. Attempt by research, to determine the crops grown on the farms In t h i s area. 6. Draw a 4" x 4" enlargement of the farm buildings on one of the farms shown on the a e r i a l photo. LABORATORY EXERCISE: Agricultural Patterns in Alberta Materials: Topographic map: 831/45 Aerial photo: Westlook (Clyde), Alberta Al4899-78 Prepare a transparent overlay of the aerial photograph. 1. As before, locate and Identify the following on your overlay: a) the built-up area of the town b) main transportation routes c) a school d) post office e) grain elevators f) marsh area south of the town g) ploughed land h) wooded land i ) main planted crop (type) 5) the 2150 and 2175 foot contours. 2. Describe the r e l i e f of the aerial photograph. 3. State the type of vegetation shown. Give reasons for Its location. 4. Draw a cross-section of your overlay map to show the nature of the r e l i e f . Mark a l l the principal natural and cultural features which appear along your cross-section. 5. Suggest why the town of Clyde has grown up in this parti-cular location. 6. What is the possible future of the town likely to be? 7. Mark off an area of 3 square miles west of Clyde on the map. Trace each building and habitation in this area. Estimate the number of farmsteads in the area you have delimited. How far apart are they? Compare this distribution of settlement carefully with the settlement patterns shown on the St. David d'Yamaska map and photo and the Niagara photo (A 4701-47) and map. 8. Account for the difference in the size and shape of the average farm in each area? ! PHOTO DIVISION - E N E R G Y , M I N E S & R E S O U R C E S - C A N A D I A N GOVTT C O P Y R S S I LABORATORY EXERCISE: Agricultural Patterns in the Lower Fraser Valley  Materials: Topographic map.: Coquitlam, B.C. 9207/b Aerial photo: Pitt River, B.C. A13245-8 Prepare a transparent overlay of the aerial photograph. The photograph was taken 25 miles east of Vancouver. 1. As before, locate and identify the following on your overlay: a) Pitt River b) Alouette River c) The area of Pitt Polder d) Addington Point e) Sheridan H i l l f) forested areas g) Haney h) Loon Lake i ) area of reclaimed land J) Barnston Island. 2. What portion of the aerial photo i s shown on the map? 3. Four types of terrain are clearly distinguishable on the photograph. What d i f f i c u l t i e s would man encounter here? 4. What evidence Is there that much of the land i s very flat? 5. The Pitt Polder appears as a distinct area on the photograph. What country in Europe has extensive polder lands? 6. Determine the heights of (a) Sheridan H i l l , (b) Loon Lake, (c) mountains on west side of Pitt River. 7. Are the bridges on the air photo shown on the map? 8. What is the probable destination of the log booms in the photograph? 9. How are the sand bars in the river shown on the map? 10. What evidence i s there on the map to indicate that some of the land in this area has been reclaimed? Suggest a reason for the intensive cultivation shown on the aerial photograph. Determine by research what types of crops are grown in this part of the Fraser Valley. LABORATORY EXERCISE: A e r i a l Photograph and S o i l Map Inter-pretation i n the Pr a i r l e a  Materials: Topographic map: Lumsden, Sask. 72I/10W A e r i a l photo: Craven, Sask. A17297-84 S o i l map: Regina, Sask. 721 East 1. Determine the scale of the a e r i a l photograph. 2. Is the r i v e r v a l l e y used f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes? State your proof. 3. Draw an overlay of the area of the topo map shown on the a i r photo. Indicate only those physical and c u l t u r a l features which are shown on the a i r photo but not on the map. 4. Why has the route of Highway 20 been changed? 5. What has determined the location of the town of Craven? 6. Draw an enlarged sketch of Craven and indicate the elevator, the post o f f i c e , school, the water tank, the dam and the highway. Compare your map with the town of Clyde, Alberta. Why do they have s i m i l a r services? 7. How many ox-bow lakes are v i s i b l e on the a i r photo? On topo map? Account f o r any discrepancies. 8. Prepare an overlay of the s o i l map to the same scale as the topo map to show the variety of s o i l s i n the area. Draw on the contours at 100 foot i n t e r v a l s . Use your overlay to de*-termine how many d i f f e r e n t s o i l types are shown on the a i r photo. Use a legend. 9. Can the boundaries of the P r a i r i e Levels be determined from the s o i l map? Explain. 10. Explain the linear nature of the distribution of some soi l s . 11. What i s the possible source of the green colored soils on the map? 12. According to your soils overlay determine f i r s t , second and third choices of the best agricultural land on the air photo. Mark these on your overlay, 13. Prepare a l i s t of the major crop hazards to grain production In the Regina soils map region. IH. Using the topo sheet construct a profile from X to X. Sketch the features from the photo onto the pro f i l e . LABORATORY EXERCISEt The Use of Coordinate Points In the study of a Pulp and Paper M i l l Materials; Stereogram #305, Moss Point Pulp and Paper M i l l , Mississippi. The overall landforra on the photograph is typical of the lower east Gulf Coastal Plain. A portion of a drowned river valley and the meandering river channel Is clearly shown. This exercise is to familiarize students with the us© of coordinate points and the layout and f a c i l i t i e s of a pulp and paper m i l l . The following TABLE A i s a l i s t of features shown on the stereogram. TABLE B, i s a l i s t of coordinate points which correspond to the features in Table A. In the space provided to the right of Table A place the oorrect coordinates for each feature. TABLE A Coordinate Points 1. Administration and office buildings 2. Pulpwood piles 3. Crane used to pile pulpwood 4. Wood supplies (received by truck, r a i l and barge) 5. Chemical waste pond - . 6. Discharge of chemical waste into river • 7. Surge basin 8. Paper making machine i 9. Public school '  10. Canal (furnishing fresh water to the plant) 11. Canal crossed by stream 12. Pecan orchards ____ TABLE B 1. B.25 - 2.47 2. A.00-4.95 3. B.05-3.17 4. B. 10-2.80 5. B.65-3.56 6. A.80-2.49 7. B.35-2.88 8. B.03-2.82 9. A.9-2.30 10. A.60-2.05 11. A.85-2.80 12. B.iJO-3.51. 1 1 1 1 1 ' ' l B ' i ' i I i i i i |C| i i i I i i i , |D, 1 1 1 1 • 1 • I B 1 ' 1 ' ' ' ' • 1 ic1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 1 • I D ' 1 1 ' ( — MOSS POINT Stereogram No. 305 LABORATORY EXERCISE: A Paper Mi l l In the Marltlmes Materials: Topographic map: 2 D/13E Aerial photo: A18601-95 1. Newfoundland's economic development has been restricted by geographical limitations. Foundation of the economy is the exploitation of natural resources. Grand Falls was the f i r s t paper mi l l built in Newfoundland. What advantages does Grand Falls have for the development of this industry? 2. What climatic factors favor forest growth In this area? 3. Draw a sketch map of the paper plant to show the following: a) log storage area. b) Large quantities of water are required for paper-making. Locate the dam, powerhouse and switchyard. c) The f i r s t stage of paper-making consists of breaking the logs Into small pieces. Locate the storage area of these chips. d) Locate the conveyors used to move the log chips to the paper machines. e) Paper is made by paving a mixture of pulp fibres and water onto a long moving belt. Locate the buildings which house these machines. f) Identify the type of transportation used to send the paper to world markets. 4. Is there any evidence of pollution control of waste liquids from the power plant? Has the establishment of the paper m i l l attracted any other industries to Grand Palls? The population of Grand Palls, when the map was printed, was 6,606. Guesstimate the population today. Does the street pattern of the community reflect several distinct periods of growth? Illustrate your answer with a sketch. Include the following on your sketch: a) business core b) new residential areas 1) shopping center 11) schools c) newest residential areas not shown on th© map. Examine the various street patterns and see how many different ones can be Identified. Classify them as rectangular, hexagonal, concentric, or combinations of these. Use a rough sketch to Illustrate your answer. LABORATORY EXERCISE: A Paper M i l l In Michigan Materials: Topographic map: Kalamazoo, Michigan Stereogram: #307 - Bryant Pond 1. Determine the stereogram coordinates of the Allied Paper Company at Kalamazoo, Michigan. What evidence Is there of this type of industry? 2. Describe the manner in which the city of Kalamazoo has built up around the plant. 3. What i s the height of Bryant Pond? *J. Account for the fact that Bryant Pond (C.8-3.8) i s light-toned in color on the stereogram. 5. What man-made feature present in the photo Indicates that the Kalamazoo River i s not navigable (that i s large ships cannot use i t ) . 6. If the left-hand side of the stereogram i s south, what direction does the Kalamazoo River flow toward? 7. Locate and label the following features on both map and stereogram: a) major roads and railroads b) drainage features e) waste treatment plants d) the feature at C.8 - 1.6 the feature at A.5 - 3.1 the feature at B.7 - 1.0 e) the older and newer parts of the city f) a small commercial area. BRYANT FOND Kalamazoo County, Michigan March 26, 1962 RF = 1:13,000 H - 9,600 feet Stereogram No. 307 Prepared from Abrams photography by the University of I l l i n o i s Committee on Aerial Photography LABORATORY EXERCISE: Photo Interpretation of an Oil Deposit Materials: Topographic map: Beaumont East, Texas Stereogram: #312 - Spindle Top, Texas Spindle Top, one of the f i r s t known salt domes of the Gulf Coast, is located near Beaumont, Texas. O i l was f i r s t discovered here in 1900, and has produced more wealth than any area of similar size in the world. The dome is centered near C.7-2.40. Large tank farms on two sides of the dome provide bulk o i l storage and pipelines can be seen within the area. 1. Identify the circular feature Just north of Zuramo on the stereogram, and the features found at A.10-2,0, C.1.0-3.5, D.15-1.75, and B.40-1.36. 2. Suggest the probable function of the rectangular and circular water areas. 3. Determine the height of Spindle Top. What advantages does this area have for the activities taking place here? 4. On a sketch or overlay, locate and label the following features on both the map and stereogram: a) radio tower f) built up area of Beaumont b) ?/IcPadden Bend Cutoff g) pipelines c) main highways d) main railroads e) main drainage features 5. Construct a profile from Spindle Top School to the bench mark near Gladys. Mark a l l the natural and cultural features which appear along the section. LABORATORY EXERCISE; An O i l Refinery  Materials: Topographic map: Whiting 7.5' Stereogram: #301 - Cities Service Refinery 1. Note the area on the stereogram that is being developed Into a ship turning basin. Locate this area on the map. 2. What Is the height of the road across the Lake George Canal? 3. What major interchange is evident on the stereogram? Is this a good location for this highway? 4. Locate the Cities Service Refinery on the map and stereo-gram. Why is this a good location for this industry? 5. O i l Is the main cargo in this area. Are there Imports or exports? How does the o i l get from the ships to the storage tanks? 6. Is there any way of making better use of this industrial area? 7. Locate the following patterns on the map and stereogram: a) Outline the built-up areas having urban character-i s t i c s . b) Mark the major land and water transportation lines passing through the area shown on the stereogram. What is the main hindrance to r a i l transport in this area? c) Outline the principal industrial sites and mark the probable locations of light industrial establishments. d) Land primarily used for o i l storage. CITIES SERVICE REFINERY East Chicago, I l l i n o i s , U.S.A. August 20, 1959 RF m 1:23,700 H = 9,800 f t . Stereogram No. 301 Prepared by the University of I l l i n o i s Committee on A e r i a l Photography LABORATORY EXERCISE: Photo Interpretation of an Open Pit Mine Materials: Topographic man: Santa Rita 7.5 Stereogram: #304 Prepare an overlay of the stereogram: a) shade in the area which has been, or is being mined. b) the area where mine waste is being dumped c) the mine buildings and townsite. 1. Determine the surface height of the mine and Its approxi-mate depth. 2. What two types of mining are evident on the stereogram? 3. Give the stereogram coordinates of a l l water towers shown. 4. What are leaching ponds? 5. Why are fexv of the r a i l lines shown on the map not shown on the stereogram? 6. Is the ore processed at the mine site? Explain. 7. What evidence Is there to Indicate the type of climate found In this area? 8. Try to estimate the vertical exaggeration of the stereogram. 9. Consult a referenoe book to determine whether or not this Is an area of important mining activity. SANTA RITA Stereogram No. 304 Grant County, New Mexico, USA Prepared from USDA-SCS photography January It, 1937 by the University of I l l i n o i s RF = 1:38,S0O H = 14,800 Committee on A e r i a l Photography. LABORATORY EXERCISE: Photo Interpretation of a Gold Mine  Materials: Topographic map: Wheatland, C a l i f o r n i a Stereogram: #302 1. What type of mine i s looated at Hammonton? 2. How does i t d i f f e r from the mine at Santa Rata? Which mine would require the smallest i n i t i a l c a p i t a l outlay? 3. Determine the approximate height of the mine t a i l i n g s . 4. Determine the percentage of the mine t a i l i n g s shown on the stereogram compared to the t o t a l shown on the map. 5. Why are there no contour l i n e s i n the area of the mine t a i l i n g s ? 6. Account f o r the dif f e r e n t shape of the mine t a i l i n g s at Santa Rita and Hammonton. 7. Identify the dredge which i s working a nevr face. Why i s t n e other dredge reworking an o l d s p o i l bank? 8. There i s no evidence of bulk handling f a c i l i t i e s on the stereogram or map. Why i s this so? 9. Hammonton can be seen i n the upper part of the stereogram. Compare i t s location with that of the Santa Rita town s i t e . 10. Give evidence to suggest the type of climate found In the area of the map sheet. HAMMONTON Yuba County, C a l i f o r n i a September 1, 1937 RF = 1:21,000 H (=) 14,400 feet Stereogram No. 302 Prepared from USDA-AAA photography by the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Committee on A e r i a l Photography LABORATORY EXERCISE; Thermal Plant  Materials; Topographic map: Spillway, Michigan Stereogram § 16 This i s a photograph of a large thermal electric plant on the Kalamazoo River. Prepare a sketch of the photograph identifying the following features: 1. Dam 2. Spillway 3. Transformer yard A. Coal pile 5. T a l l chimney8 6. Boiler house 7. Mark with an X the location of the discharge point of heated coolant water from the plant. SPILLWAY Kalamazoo County, Michigan March 26, 1962 RF = 1:11,200 H = 9,600 feet Stereogram No. 16 Prepared from Abrams photography by the University of I l l i n o i s Committee on A e r i a l Photography LABORATORY EXERCISE: Thermal Plant Materials: Topographic map: Ten Dolphins, I l l i n o i s Stereogram # 14 The Central I l l i n o i s Power Company thermal e l e c t r i c power plant on the I l l i n o i s River near Meredosia, I l l i n o i s , Is shown. Identify the following features from the table of co-ordinates: 1. A.9-2.10 2. B.25-2.15 3. A.7-2.40 4. C.15-2.150 5. A.3-1.50 6. C.25-1.90 7. A.9-1.85 8. C.31-1.90. LABORATORY EXERCISE: Hydro E l e c t r i c Dam Materials: Topographic map: The W.A.C. Bennett Dam, B.C. Stereogram: BC 5273-002,003 The harnessing of the Peace River and Columbia River for e l e c t r i c power puts B r i t i s h Columbia into the b i g leagues of hydro development. Now completed, the Peace Project w i l l have a capacity of some 2,950,000 kilowatts at two s i t e s , almost equal to the capacity of a l l the power developments i n the province at the present time. Prepare a transparent overlay of the stereogram and locate the features mentioned i n the following description. The W.A.C. Bennett Dam i s 600 feet high, h a l f a mile thick at the base, and stretches for lh miles across the v a l l e y . Sixty m i l l i o n cubic yards of gravel, sand,and rock were trans-ported by a s p e c i a l l y designed conveyor a distance of four miles from a g l a c i a l moraine to the damslte and fed through the processing plant. The conveyor has now been dismantled, but the processing plant and p i l e s of unused material can be seen up-stream from the dam at l e f t center. Locate the processing plant and p i l e s of unused material on your overlay. Of the diversion tunnels shown i n t h i s stereogram, only the one at the extreme l e f t remains open and the flow of water can be seen at the tunnel o u t l e t . This tunnel has been closed since t h i s photography was exposed and the reservoir Is f i l l i n g . Locate the diversion tunnels and tunnel outlets on your overlay. Ultimately the reservoir w i l l cover an area of 600 square miles and w i l l flood 75 miles west to Pinlay Porks, then 70 miles south and 80 miles north from the forks. Draw a sketch map to show the location and extent of Bennett Dam in i t s regional setting. Upstream at the l e f t flank of the dam the control gate towers of the ten penstocks are shown under construction. Locate the penstocks on your overlay. These penstocks w i l l conduct the water to the turbines of the power house which i s housed in an underground cavern, 67 feet wide and 890 feet long, and l o -oated 500 feet below bed rock. When a l l the turbines have been Installed, the ultimate generating capacity w i l l be 2.3 million kilowatts. How w i l l the Installed capacity of Bennett Dam compare tilth other major hydro-electric dams in North America? Downstream from the l e f t flank of the dam, at the bottom of the c l i f f , can be seen the excavation for the tailraces, which returns the water to the river after passing through the power house. Locate these on your overlay. At the right flank of the dam the spillway channel, pro-vided to discharge excess floodwater, has been excavated and work continues on the gates at the upstream end. Locate the spillway channel on your overlay. The switchyard, for the transmission of power, i s shown under construction at the top of this c l i f f . Locate the switch-yard on your overlay. The camp for the construction workers is seen in the upper lef t of the stereogram. Locate the camp on your overlay. 1. Draw a cross-section diagram to illustr a t e how a hydro-electric dam works. 2. What types of power exist other than hydro-electrical? 3. What are the ideal geographical factors necessary for the generation of hydro- electric power? What major regions of the world have some or a l l of these factors? 4. Using the Canada Year Book construct a horizontal bar graph to show the amount of available and developed water power in British Columbia, the Prairies, Ontario, the Marltimes, Newfoundland, Quebec and the Northwest Territories. Use the following questions to help you interpret your graph: a) What province leads Canada in developed water power? b) Estimate the proportion of Canada's developed water power possessed by this province. c) What province ranks second in developed water power? d) What proportion of the nation's developed water power is possessed by the two provinces that you have named a) and c)? (In what geographic region i s most of the water power of these provinces found? In addition there are three major centers in the St. Lawrence Lowlands. Name them.) e) What province leads Canada in available potential water power? What province ranks second, by a small margin? f) Note the large potential existing in the Prairie Prov-inces, Newfoundland and the Yukon. Are any of these potential sites being developed at present? g) What great source has recently been developed in the Prairie Provinces? h) On a map of Canada, locate the major hydro-electric dams in Canada. B. C. GOV'T AIR PHOTO STEREOGRAM prepared by AIR SURVEY DIVISION, VICTORIA B.C. LABORATORY EXERCISE: Photo Interpretation i n the study of Aluminum Industry Materials: Topographic maps: Kltimat - 1G3I/2E Arvida - 22D/6E A e r i a l photo: A17579-39 Stereograms: B.C. 5083-101 Kitimat townsite) Scale B.C. 5083-071 Kitimat Smelter )1"» 2640' References; The Canadian Landscape - B l a i r p 119-121 Regional. Geography of Canada-Scarfe & Tompkins p. 182 - 86 Using the stereograms and a i r photo, r e f e r to the check l i s t below, of features and write down as many items as you can i d e n t i f y . Following the name of each feature, indicate a l e v e l of confidence f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (I.e.) p o s i t i v e , probably or possible. Four lane, divided highway Two lane, paved roads Non-surfaced roads Woods, roads or t r a i l s Dwelling houses Apartment houses Schools Churches and cemeteries Drive-In movies Race track Golf course At h l e t i c F i elds Rock quarries Power l i n e s F i r e lookout towers O i l storage tanks T r a f f i c c i r c l e s and interchanges Overpasses - underpasses Railroads Business D i s t r i c t s Bridges Dams Swamps or marshes Ploodplains or deltas Coniferous forests Hardwood forests Orchards Vineyards Shipyards and drydocks Boat docks and piers Bathing benches Resorts and hotels Blast furnaces Large chimneys Transformer yards Questions: 1. What evidence can you find to indicate that there is a difference in the climate of Kitimat and Arvida? 2. Why was the Kitimat site chosen for a smelter? In what ways does i t differ or parallel Arvida Ts site? 3. List the important features that you think make Arvida and Kitimat planned towns. State any differences that would occur from each being an unplanned town such as Piotou, Nova Scotia. 4. In what direction i s Kitimat most likely to expand? Ex-plain the disadvantages of expanding in the other directions. 5. Using the stereograms of Kitimat and the aerial photo of Arvida, prepare transparent overlays of each. Locate by number the following features: a) Shopping plasa or business core b) multiple dwellings c) single family dwellings d) hospital e) transformer substation f) transmission lines g) pot lines h) sewage disposal plant. 6. Plot the city schools of Kitimat and Arvida on tracing paper. How are they located in relation to the residential districts? 7. Why was the smelter at Arvida not built at Port Alfred? 8. Draw a sketch map to show how Kitimat and Arvida receive their power supply. 9. What advantages does Kitimat have over Arvida as an aluminum producing center? GOVT AIR PHOTO STEREOGRAI prepored by AIR SURVEY DIVISION, VICTORIA B.C. 10. Consider and i l l u s t r a t e how both Kitimat and Arvida are situated in r e l a t i o n to the source o f raw materials. LABORATORY EXERCISE; Photo Interpretation i n Industry Materials; Topographic map: Copper C l i f f 41 I/6E A i r photo: A 17975 -142 1. Carefully study the a e r i a l photograph of Copper C l i f f . Draw a rectangle around the area on the topographic sheet i l l u s t r a t e d by the photograph. How many square miles does the photograph cover? At what time of day was the photograph taken? 2. Describe the r e l i e f and drainage i n the area. 3. The Sudbury-Copper C l i f f area i s an Important mining area. Since 1921, i t s population has grown continually. When the mineral deposits have become exhausted a major decline In population w i l l r e s u l t , followed hopefully by an adjustment to a new economic base. Where could ex-pansion of the town take place? What other Industries might locate i n the area? 4. Prepare a transparent overlay of the a e r i a l photo. Locate and Identify the following features on your overlay, using correct cartographic techniques: a) major road and r a i l l i n e s b) pipeline and storage tanks c) t a i l i n g s dump d) smelter buildings e) re f i n e r y buildings f) lakes g) chimneys, 5. Many small steps are followed under the general heading of smelting. After the ore has been ground up into fine sand, i t Is placed In large tanks. The ground-up rock that stays at the bottom of the tank is called tailings. This waste material i s carried away through a pipeline and dumped in an area called a tailings dump. Locate these features on your overlay. 6. Two of the smokestacks at the Copper C l i f f smelter are over 500 feet t a l l . Why must they be so t a l l ? 7. Obviously there is some problem of a i r pollution in this area. If you had to live in Copper C l i f f , where would be the most desirable location? The least desirable loca-tion? Which way was the wind blowing when the photo was taken? Is there any indication that this Is the wind direction most of the year? 8. Make two l i s t s under the headings of contrasts and similarities, comparing Copper C l i f f and Ft. Saskatchewan (e.g. site, buildings, f a c i l i t i e s , number of employees). 9. As a source of Information what advantage does the map have over the photograph? The photograph over the map? LABORATORY EXERCISE: An Industrial Slum Materials: Topographic map: 92 G6/a Aerial photo: B.C. 5175-137/138 (Scale 1" • 2640') False Creek originally was a shallow inlet from English Bay to Vernon Drive. Large portions have been reloaimed over the years west to Main Street and along the shores. Between 1886 and 1888 the railways started False Creek's development as a transportation and industrial area u t i l i s i n g the water and r a i l f a c i l i t i e s . These uses continue today in far from optimal conditions. 1. Four bridges span the inl e t . Account for their locations. 2. Convert the scale of the stereogram to a representative fraction, 3. What type of Industries are evident along both sides of the inlet? Oive evidence from the stereogram. Why do you think they are located here? 4. Small boats are visible near one end of the Burrard Street Bridge. What are the boats used for? 5. Give evidence from the stereogram to support the statement that the Granville Street Bridge carries more t r a f f i c than the other bridges. Why should this be so? 6. What evidences can you find to show that the physical features of the land have influenced man-made features? 7. Draw a generalised sketch of the stereogram. Label the following on your sketch: a) four bridges b) C.P.R. Rail Yard c) C.N.R. Rail Yard d) Granville Island e) Downtown area f) Georgia Viaduct g) Underdeveloped land areas. 8. A l l the industries In False Greek are on the wane because this is not the best place for them. Support this state-ment from evidence on the stereogram. 9. The False Creek area comprises 596 acres of land presently zoned for heavy and light industry. What do you think the land use acreage should be? Include residential, govern-mental, industrial, etc. 10. Because Vancouver i s now almost completely developed, physical change to accommodate i t s expanding economy and rising population w i l l come mainly through redevelopment. Specify how you would redevelop the land surrounding False Creek with a sketch map. m i mmtwrni <^mmmm\ %\ :5J**.-?5RII2# Br I / ' RIK: flaw 36 1 OC r~ir "'ii Ii— i rmrT i r " ; P I UUfc i n k LABORATORY EXERCISE: Port Saskatchewan, Alberta - an example of Industrial Development in the Prairies MATERIALS: Topographic map: 83 H/llg Aerial photo: A 17361-107 1. Prepare a transparent overlay of the aerial photograph and identify the following: a b] c d e Ross Creek the provincial J a i l the grain elevators the recreational areas the Sherritt Gordon Nickel Refinery the Dow Chemical Plant the central commercial core of the town the 2025 foot contour (which corresponds to the valley edge) the t r a i l e r park a gas well the gas pipeline the C. N. railway line settling ponds. 2. From the shadow of the water tower (146') determine whether the photo was taken before or after noon* 3. Has Ross Creek had any effect on the built-up area of the town? 4. Prepare an overlay to show: a) the periods of city expansion b) the city schools c) the areas Into which the built-up area of the town is most likely to expand in the future. 5. How are the city sohools located In relation to the r e s i -dential districts? 6. The extremely t a l l stack Is characteristic of a l l refineries and i s used to dispense noxious fumes and smoke. Locate i t on your f i r s t overlay. Is i t likely that a i r pollution w i l l become a problem to the town? Why or why not? 7. What raw materials are used at the refinery? Where do they come from? How do they get to the refinery? 8. The centers of employment are not concentrated in one central area as in many towns, but are distributed in several zones. Locate these areas of governmental,In-dustrial and commercial employment. Describe their position In relation to each other. 9. What reasons probably prompted the two major companies to locate their industries in the Port Saskatchewan area? LABORATORY EXERCISE! A Planned I n d u s t r i a l Estate. Materials: Topographic map: 92 G/2e A e r i a l photo: B.C. 5042 5 V 5 5 Early i n 1953 Grosvenor Estates, giant B r i t i s h landowning and development organization, bought a drab, three-mile-long sand bar In the Fraser River and announced plans to turn i t i n t o a unique m u l t i - m i l l l o n - d o l l a r I n d u s t r i a l project. The "sand bar" was Annacis Island, a hitherto somewhat ne-glected piece of r e a l estate just below New Westminster which had received i t s name 125 years e a r l i e r from a Hudson's Bay Company fur trader. Grosvenor proposed to turn the Island - 1200 acres of what appeared to be low-lying, poor q u a l i t y farmland - Into a plush landscaped I n d u s t r i a l estate complete with paved streets, under-ground u t i l i t y services and a l l the amenities of modern l i f e . This was to be Annacis I n d u s t r i a l Estate, a 30-year planned i n d u s t r i a l development project envisaging an expenditure of $225 m i l l i o n to create a s i l k purse from the proverbial sow's ear. k Prepare a transparent overlay of one-half of the stereogram. Using the topographic map provided complete the following assign-ment by loc a t i n g the features on your overlay. a) Fraser River g) Annacis Channel b) Poplar Island h) the C.N. Railway c) Lulu Island 1) sawmill on Lulu Island d) Annacis Island J) subdivision of Elsona e) Queensborough k) subdivision of A n n i e v l l l e f) the 5 0 foot contour 1) Planned I n d u s t r i a l Estates. Questions: 1. The scale of the stereogram Is 1" « 2640 feet. Convert this to a representative fractional scale. 2. Determine the areas In square miles of: a) the portion of Lulu Island shown on the stereogram. b) the planned industrial estates on Annacis Island, 3. What Is the height of Poplar Island? 4. Determine the direction of the wind. 5. Why was the location of the Queensborough Bridge a good choice? Explain. 6. Why was the bridge built? 7. Are there any other places where a crossing of the Fraser River i s presently being constructed? Illustrate your answer with a sketch map. 8. Draw a cross-section from the park north of Elsona to the park southeast of Annleville. Comment on the r e l i e f of this area as depioted on your cross-section. Us a vertical scale of 1" « 100'. jr. 9. Draw on an overlayj the gross land use of the stereogram. Use the legend below for your analysis; Residential - R Commercial - C Industrial - N Transportation - T Open Land Improved - P Open Land Unimproved - V 10. Explain how the islands have developed. B.C. GOV'T AIR PHOTO STEREOGRAM prepared by AIR SURVEY DIVISION, VICTORIA B.C. LABORATORY EXERCISEt Use of Coordinate Points f o r location of urban features. Materials; Stereogram #310 Diamond Head. Island of Oahu, Hawaii A large part of Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii Is shown on the photograph. This exercise i s to f a m i l i a r i z e students with the use of coordinate points and location of urban features. Table A i s a l i s t of coordinate points on the stereogram. Identify the features i n Table B, l i s t i n g them opposite the points. TABLE A Features 1. B.2-3.10 2. B.6-2.3 3. A.1-3.10 '  4. A.8-1.20 5. D.0-290 to D.5-2.10 6. A.92-2.96 . •  7. A.9-2.40 8. B.1-1.70 9. B.7-2.80 10. A.1-3.10 11. A.3-1.30 12. C.9-1.90 TABLE B 1. Oolf course 2. A small cloud 3. St. Louis College 4. Walklki Beach Hotels 5. Diamond Head volcanic cone (center) 6 . A park 7. Swimming pool on Walklki Beach 8. Tunnel providing access Into the crater 9. Coral reefs 10, Cloud shadow 11, A race track 12, A very low cone (overgrown by the c i t y ) . LABORATORY EXERCISE: A Settlement on the Boundary of the Canadian Shield  Materials: Topographic map - The Pas, Manitoba Aerial photograph - A 12939-413 Prepare a transparent overlay of the aerial photograph. Do hot attempt to show each building on your overlay, rather show only those buildings which are commonly found on topo-graphic maps, (e.g.) schools, post offices, etc. If possible use a color scheme to Identify probable land use on the air photo, (e.g. residential, Industrial, commercial). If not, explain the d i f f i c u l t i e s you would encounter In determining the land use patterns of The Pas. Do not attempt to Include contour lines on your overlay. Your completed overlay should Include the following: a) a directional sign b) a scale- 1" « 1350' c) a legend d) correct topographic map symbols e) correct cartographic lettering f) land use classified. 1. The Pas wa3 originally a center of trapping and fur trad-ing. Today, It is the most important transportation node in Northern Manitoba. Research evidence to support these statements. 2. Does the street pattern of this community reflect several distinct periods of growth? Illustrate your answer with a sketch. 3. Is there any evidence to suggest why the town of The Pas should have been built on the southern rather than the northern bank of the river? 4. In the lumber yard to the east of the town there are large stacks of sawn lumber. Why are these stacks some-times le f t outside for months? What other method of doing the same thing Is often used? 5. What possible future does The Pas have? Is there evidence of new industries and/or subdivisions,etc.? LABORATORY EXERCISE: Coastal Settlement i n the Marltimes Materials: A e r i a l photograph - A-14724-131 Topograph map - 21 A/8W- Lunenburg, Nova Scotia Prepare a transparent overlay o f the a e r i a l photo. 1. Locate and Identify the following features on your overlay, using correct cartographic techniques: a) surrounding bodies of water b) the major transportation patterns c) the built-up areas of the town d) school, golf-course, race track e) the 50, 100, and 150 foot contours. 2. Draw a cross-3ection of your a e r i a l photo to show the nature of the r e l i e f . Describe i t b r i e f l y . Label major physical features on i t . 3. Give evidence from the photo to indicate what i s the p r i n c i p a l occupation of the populous. 4. Determine the area of Lunenburg harbour. Why was the town located on t h i s harbour and not on Back Harbour? 5. Draw a rough sketch map to show the location of Lunenburg In r e l a t i o n to Its regional s e t t i n g . 6. Explain the map symbol along the coast between Mosher Head and Splndler Cove. 7. Lunenburg has two main sections, the Old Town and the New Town. Identify these two areas on your overlay. Explain the difference i n the street patterns of these two areas. 8. How do the farms i n the Lunenburg area d i f f e r from those i n the Clyde or Altona a i r photographs? 9. The coastal area has been slightly submerged so the ocean waters have Invaded the lower valleys giving rise to buoys or estuaries. This is called an Irregular coastline. How does this part of the Nova Scotia coast compare with the British Columbia coast? 10. Is there any evidence of glaciation in the area? 11. The population of Lunenburg In 1866 was 3,091. Today i t is 3,056. Why has Lunenburg never become a large port? LABORATORY EXERCISE: Settlement Patterns of Coastal Newfoundland _ Materials: Topographic sheet - Heart's Content IN/14E A i r photo - Broad Cove, Newfoundland Prepare a transparent overlay of the a e r i a l photograph. 1. As before, locate and i d e n t i f y the following on your overlay: a) built-up area of the town b) post o f f i c e . c) cemetery d) Broad Cove Pond e) transportation routes f) the 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 foot contours g) woodland areas h) marsh or swamp areas. 2. Determine the scale of the a e r i a l photo. 3. Draw a cross-section of your completed a e r i a l photo to show the nature of the r e l i e f . Describe the r e l i e f In a sentence or two. Use the formula V.E. - A l r P h o t o S c a l e V e r t i c a l gr ph scale to determine the v e r t i c a l exaggeration of your cross-section. Use a v e r t i c a l scale of 1" » 200 feet. 4. Is there evidence of any a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s on the a e r i a l photo? Explain. 5. Why are the f i e l d s i r r e g u l a r l y shaped? 6. What do you think came f i r s t - the road pattern or the settlements? Which factors seem to have been mostly operative In surveyors' designs of the road pattern? 7. Draw a rough sketch to show the location of Broad Cove in relation to the rest of the island. What i s the characteristic form of the villages like Broad Cove? Population pattern of Newfoundland is shown to be unique among island communities. Approximately 90% of the people live along the coast and the remaining 10% are largely concentrated in a very few places in the interior, (e.g. Grand F a l l s ) . Explain why this pattern has developed. LABORATORY EXERCISE; Marltimes Port Settlement Materials: Topographic map 11E/10E Aerial photo A8M62-88 - Pictou, Nova Scotia 1. As before, locate and identify the folloiirlng on your overlay. dry dock built-up area of the town surrounding bodies of water race track orchards cemetery post office railroad two lane roads only the 50, 100,and 150 foot contours. 2. Determine the scale of the aerial photo. 3. Describe the r e l i e f surrounding the town of Pictou. 4. Give evidence from the photo to suggest the main occupation of the populous. 5. What type of orchard crop might be evident In the aerial photo? 6. Determine the area of Pictou Harbour. Why has the town developed In i t s present location. 7. Is the town growing in Importance? Give evidence to support your answer. 8. Prepare an overlay of the coast as i t would appear i f the level of the sea rose 100 feet In relation to the land. Show probable sites of settlements along the new coastline and give preference numbers to each. The origin of colonial settlements in the Marltimes were chiefly military and strategic in concept. Two settlement types evolved, oriented toward fishing or agriculture. Town planning on the whole was unimaginative, although site and situation were often most advantageously chosen. Compare Pictou and Lunenburg (I) In each case which shows the greater proportion of (a) industry (b) commercial and public buildings (c) transport f a c i l i t i e s ? ( i i ) What is the main contrast between these two areas? ( i i i ) Which area has the larger population? (iv) Which area is easier to cross by car? Give reasons from the pictures in both oase3. AIR P H O T O D I V I S I O N - ENERGY, MINES & RESOURCES - CANADIAN GOVT. NEW GLASGOW; JSolePt 1 1 E / . O E 60 LABORATORY EXERCISE: A Fort Settlement In Northern Michigan Materials: Topographic map : Frankfort, Mich. Stereogram #308 Frankfort Light 1. Locate the following patterns on the map and stereogram on a transparent overlay: a) Identify the residential and recreational areas within the city. b) Outline the primary commercial areas \*lthin the city, c) Outline principal industrial areas. 2. How can one differentiate the residential and commercial areas of the town? 3. What Is the width of the harbour entrance? Compare It to Vancouver. 4. Determine the stereogram coordinates of the North Break-water lighthouse. 5. Why was i t necessary to construct the two breakwaters (seawalls) around the harbour entrance? 6. Determine the height of a) the water tower, b) the h i l l s opposite the town. 7. List two 'pieces of evidence' which 3how that this loca-tion i s a 'break-of-cargo' point, that Is, that goods are loaded from one type of transportation to another. 8. Draw a sketch map to show the location of Frankfort Light in relation to the rest of Michigan. LABORATORY EXERCISE; Railway Settlement In the Prairies Materials: Topographic map: Hanna, Alta. 72m/12W Aerial photo: A 11188-8 Hanna is located in eastern Alberta about one hundred and thirty miles north of Calgary* It was once a wealthy vrheat growing area but i t was ruined by drought and only small areas are used for farming now. Most of the land Is devoted to grazing and cattle. Hanna is a railway junction and heavy t r a f f i c flows through Hanna. The small areas of lakes In the north dry up in the summer. 1. Draw an annotated sketch map of the area shown in the photo using information from the topographic map as well as from the photo to show both the physical and cultural features. 2. Describe the r e l i e f of the area shown on the map. (Use both contour lines and bench marks.) 3. Identify the light colored long narrow strips north of the town shown on the air photo. k. Attempt to describe the function of the buildings north of the town. 5. Make a l i s t of a l l the features shown on: a) both the topo map and air photo b) the topo map only c) the air photo only. 6. Has any new expansion of the town taken place since the topo map was printed? If not, why not? 7. Attempt to determine the activity taking place immediately south of the race track and across the tracks. LABORATORY EXERCISE: A Comparison of Settlement Patterns Materials; Topographic maps: 62 H/10E, 31 H/15W Aerial photos: A-18689-17 St. Anne, Manitoba A- 12809-123 St, David d'Yomaska 1. Compare and contrast in table form the two aerial photos with particular reference to the following: a) r e l i e f b) river development e) average farm size and shape d) crops e) road network f) forest cover g) settlement patterns h) activities other than agricultural. 2. Describe the plan of the village of St. Anne (A-18689-17). What kind of site i s this? Why i s there no village site evident on photo A-12809-123? 3. What are the functions of the rural village of St. Anne? 4. How many square miles does each aerial photo cover? Draw a simple square mile grid on tracing paper, using the map scale as a basis. LABORATORY EXERCISE: Comparing Settlement Patterns with Communication Patterns  Materials: Topographic map: St. Joachim 21 M2/W A e r i a l photo: A 17028-5 1. Determine the gradient of the highway from Beaupre to La Miche. Why was t h i s route chosen rather than a coastal one? 2. Determine the depth In feet of the St. Anne-Du-Nord River v a l l e y . Is i t a fast or slow flowing r i v e r ? 3. Now study the land use. About what proportion i s forested? From the photograph, would you say that the forest Is dense or scrubby? Is there any evidence of commercial use of the timber? About how much of the land In the photograph seems to be cultivated? 4. Identify the crops grown i n thi s area and account f o r t h e i r locations. 5. Is there any evidenoe of hydro-electric development or pote n t i a l development i n the area? Give examples. 6. Does the information on the map or photo suggest any reasons f o r the s i t u a t i o n of St.-Joachim? 7. Locate a s l u i c e on the map and photo. What i s i t s function? 8. Identify the a c t i v i t y taking place north of Highway 15 between Beaupre and St.-Joachim. Oive reasons f o r your decision. 9. Using a sheet of tracing paper make single topic maps to show: a) land above 500' b) the drainage pattern (major streams) c) principal transportation routes d) settlement (show towns by solid shading and Individual buildings by dots.) Use the four single topic maps to answer the following questions: a) Describe the settlement pattern between BEAUPRE and RIVIERE-des-ROCHES. b) What conclusions could you come to about the density of population? c) What effects does r e l i e f have on settlement pattern In this area? d) What are the effects of r e l i e f on communications and transportation routes in the area? Instructions: Now overlap one tracing sheet on the other. e) Do you think that transportation and communication routes coinoide with patterns of settlement? LABORATORY EXERCISE: Urban Area Analysis Materials: Stereograph #318 - Aurora North, Topo Ref. Aurora North, III. 1. Are the following features located on the stereogram: Mercyville Sanitarium, Hurds Island? 2. Determine the height of Stolp Island and St. Michaels School. 3. State the map and stereo coordinates of Marmion Military Academy. 4. Have any new bridges been built across the river since the map was printed? If a new bridge was to be built, where would the best location for It be? Why? 5. Locate the following patterns from the map and stereogram on an overlay: (use appropriate colors and symbols) (a) Plot the location of city schools shown on the stereogram. How are they located in relation to the residential districts? (b) Mark the major land and water transportation lines passing through the city. (c) Outline the older and newer parts of the c i t y . (d) Identify the principal industrial area. (e) Outline the central business d i s t r i c t . (f) Mark the recreational areas. (g) Outline sections of the residential area by differing characteristics of the residences and lots. (h) Mark the principal administrative and governmental buildings. AURORA II Kane County, Ill i n o i s , USA Date Unknown RF = 1:24,200 H = 8,000 feet Stereogram No. 318 Prepared by the University of Illinois Committee on Aerial Photography LABORATORY EXERCISE: Suburban Settlement Materials: B.C. 5205 211/212 Tunnel - Eraser Lowland Topographic Map: 920 Prepare a transparent overlay of one-half of the stereo-gram. Using the topographic provided complete the following assignment by locating the features on your overlay. a) Deas Slough f) Dikes on Deas Island b) Shopping center of Ladner g) Reclaimed land of Ladner c) Ladner post office marsh d) KIrkland Island h) Reclaimed land of Deas e) Ladner Slough Island i) B. C. Perries Dock j) A High School. Questions: 1. Why was a tunnel built in preference to a bridge? 2. In what direction i s the river flowing? 3. What industries are evident on the map and aerial photo? 4. What Is the height of the Ladner shopping center? 5. What Is the purpose of the square pond north of the town? 6. If you were not aware of the t i t l e of this stereogram, how would you support the statement that i t i s located in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia? 7. What induced man to settle in this region of the Lower Mainland? 8. Why did he choose this particular site of a l l those available? 9. What kind of settlement do you think developed on the original site of Ladner? 10. Does the street pattern of this community reflect several distinct periods of growth? Illustrate your answer with a sketch. 11. List the kinds of services that Ladner provides for the surrounding populace. B.C. GOV'T AIR PHOTO STEREOGRAM prepared by AIR SURVEY DIVISION, VICTORIA B.C. LABORATORY EXERCISE: A Commercial D i s t r i c t i n a Suburban Setting  Materials: Stereogram B.C. 5059: 224/225 Topographic Map: 92G6/b The stereogram covers the F i r s t Narrows of Burrard Inlet and adjacent areas. Draw a generalized sketch and locate the following features on I t . Be sure to include a d i r e c t i o n a l arrow on your sketch. a) Stanley Park g) Woodland area b) Capilano River h) Commercial establishments c) Railway bridge buildings d) River sand bars I) Parking l o t s e) Heliport J) Railway yards f) Residential area k) A school. 1. Given the scale of the stereogram i s 1" = 1000*, determine the width (In miles) of the F i r s t Narrows. 2. Why was a h e l i p o r t b u i l t i n t h i s area? 3. In the v i c i n i t y of Sentinel H i l l , the roads and contours are cl o s e l y aligned. Discuss the adaptation of roads to r e l i e f i n the area. 4. Why has the woodland area remained r e l a t i v e l y undeveloped? 5. Is the lo c a t i o n of the r a i l l i n e and r a i l yards a good one? Explain. 6. Is there any evidence to suggest that t h i s area i s at tidewater? 7. A large area of the commercial section of the stereogram i s used f o r parking. What commercial a c t i v i t i e s take place In t h i s area? Why have these commercial establishments located here? Unlike a map on which only a selected amount of detail is represented, an aerial photograph is an actual picture of the landscape. Make a l i s t of the features which appear on the stereogram, but which are not shown on the topographic map. Now make a l i s t of the features which seem to be more clearly emphasized on the map than on the aerial photo. B.C. GOV'T AIR PHOTO S T E R E O G R A M prepared by AIR SURVEY DIVISION, VICTORIA B.C. . . — - f • _ - . „ • I # l-va.--Second \ j I V • F S ill i S"J'™™ BeatA : Poo LABORATORY EXERCISE : Urban encroachment in The Golden Horseshoe Materials; A 12511-50 Topographic Map Hamilton West The photograph A-1P511-50 i s of a suburban area, near Dundas, Ontario, along the brow of the Niagara Escarpment. Draw a sketch of the a i r photograph indicating the following: a) urban areas b) rural areas (farmland) c) the escarpment d) the railway e) th© highway. The photo was taken In 1951. Between 1951 and 1956, 2,000 acres of fruitland were lost to urban land use®. At the time of the photo much former farmland had been taken over for residential use. Taxation burdens on farmlands near c i t i e s were driving farms out of business. Prepare an overlay of your sketch and using the topo-graphic map information indicate areas which are presently urban. What percentage of the photograph Is s t i l l rural farm-land? Analyze the factors which contributed to the urban en-croachment shown in this area. In the Lower Fraser Valley today one of the most crucial decisions to be made i s whether agriculture and urban development can live side by side. Draw a rough sketch map of the Lower Fraser Valley and divide the region into urban, rural and areas of urban develop-ment . LABORATORY EXERCISE: The Rural-Urban Fringe Materials: Vlneland, Ontario A4701-M? (1:18720) Topographic Map: Beamsville, Ontario. The aerial photograph shows a section of the Niagara Fruit Belt of Ontario. Unparalleled combinations of climate, f e r t i -l i t y of s o i l , and nearness to markets make the Niagara area priceless as an agricultural area. 1. Study the map and the air photo area; find the elevation of the railway, the bench mark (BM), and the highest point in the area. Now draw a section from north to south following the road that crosses Highway No. 8 at the bench mark. Use a vertical scale of 1" «= 800 feet. Indicate the escarpment face on your section. 2. Is the land more level above (south of) the escarpment or below (north:of) It? 3. Comment on the distribution of woodland and suggest reasons why these areas have not been cleared. k. Note carefully the distribution of orchards. In which section (above or below the Escarpment) are most of the orchards located? 5. Note the location of the railway and the main roads. Why do they run from east to west? Suggest reasons why they are found north of the Escarpment. Why was the Queen Elizabeth Way probably easy to build? 6. Now study the settlement. Would you c a l l the rural settle-ment dense or sparse? Which part i s more densely settled, that north or south of the Escarpment? What i s most noticeable about the distribution of the houses and farms? Note the many f a c i l i t i e s , for a rural area, available in the d i s t r i c t covered by the photograph. 7. How wide is the plain between Lake Ontario and the Escarp-ment? Does i t rise gently or steeply from the lake? Note that Highway No. 8 closely follows the 350-foot contour line. Between Vineland and Jordan there is at this level a small, but quite distinct bluff. This represents the old south shoreline of Lake Iroquois. Where Is the north shore-line? The land between the shoreline and the Escarpment Is known locally as "The Bench". It is a somewhat r o l l i n g , elevated terrace of clays, sands, and gravels. 8. Locate the three main villages of the plain. What common factor do you notice in their location? Which village is the largest and most important? What f a c i l i t i e s suggest that It is the most important? 9. Trace the course of the Escarpment across the map. Why are the chief north-south roads that cross i t found near the eastern and western edges of the map? What evidence is there that the area above the Escarpment i s less pros-perous and developed than that below it? 10. In such an Intensively used area, does any land In the photograph appear to be wasted? 11. Draw a sketch map of the part of the topographic mak repre-sented by the photograph. LABORATORY EXERCISE: Field Study: Compass Traverse The system i s similar to dead reckoning navigation where distances and directions are measured. In performing a traverse, the surveyor starts at a known position with a known azimuth (direction) to another point and measures angles and distances between a series of survey points. With the angular measure-ments, the direction of each line of the traverse can be computed; and with the measurements of the length of the lines, the position of each control point computed. When the traverse returns to the starting point or another point of known position, i t i s a closed traverse, otherwise the traverse i s said to be open. Object: To produce a simple sketch map of a traverse u t i l i s i n g compass bearings and distance measurements. Materials t- sight compass - predetermined pace - station markers ~ table showing Station, Bearing and Distance. Procedure: The use of compass and pace w i l l be demonstrated before the D f i e l d study is started. Students are to proceed to the area designated as Station A or 1 and begin th© f i r s t section of the traverse. In your group of three, two people should be responsible for the compass bear-ings and the third the distance measurement. This procedure should be alternated at each station. Be sure to check the accuracy of your bearings at each station. Each group must hand in a completed sketch map of the traverse. TABLE FOR COMPASS TRAVERSE STATION BEARING DISTANCE (FT.) A B C D E F 0 H I J TRAVERSE X 1 2 3 k 5 e 7 3 9 10 TRAVERSE X LABORATORY FIELD STUDY: Queen Elizabeth Park: Compass Bearings: Object: To determine the compass bearings of several buildings and topographical features from given points in Queen Elizabeth Park. Materials: Compass Procedure: Point A. From the small bridge above arboretum take compass bearings of the following buildings: 1) B. C. Hydro Building 2) City Hall 3) Marine Building 4) Smoke Stack of the General Hospital 5) Vancouver Hotel Quarry Garden Along the stone wall there are brass directional arrows pointing to Mt. Baker, Golden Ears, Mt. Seymour, Grouse Mountain, the Lions, and Hollyburn Ridge. Determine the compass bearings for each of these points. Point B. Moving to the school ground (somewhere near the soccer field) take bearings of the following: 1) B. C. Hydro Building 2) City Hall 3) Marine Building 4) Smoke Stack of General Hospital 5) Vancouver Hotel 6) Mt. Seymour 7) Grouse Mountain 8) The Lions. M ^ M T P M . , , l . F X B L ^ J . g l l u P l t Queen Ellsabeth f Park Objecti To 'make an association between sketch maps andi the actual landscape using bearings and the plotting of d i s t r i c t topographic features. Materials t Ooiapaas Sketch Map: Queen Elisabeth Park Proeeduret 1. Locate the highest point of land on your map using the symbol. 2. Label the surrounding roads on your map. 3. Sketch in the arbureturn and the tennis courts. 4. Locate the Golf Course, by writing *Golf Course* i n the appropriate place on your map. 5. Locate, using the symbol ( ) a l l buildings in Queen Elisabeth Park. 6. Locate by taking bearings: the Curling Hlnk and Baseball Stadium. ?. Draw In the 3^0* and 390* Contour Lines (Colored Pencil). 8. ©raw cross- sections from points X to 1 and from A to B, 9, Indicate (by lino and bearing) the approximate direction. of Oity Hall, and B. C. Hydro Building. Hot®: You w i l l need two copies of th© map. One for your f i e l d work and on© for the f i n a l copy to be handed i n . Be sure to use a legend on your f i n a l map. Colors are essential to make your map understandable. 10. Indicate on a sketch map the roads that have been added and those which have been removed. 11. On your map locate 2 largo lakes. Making a Sketch .Map, of a, Traverse 1. Determine your pace. A. Mark off a 100' stretch of ground. B. Starting each time with toe on line, pace i t ten times. Count'steps each time,(e.g.) 48 steps, 50 steps, 51 steps, etc. C. Find the average number of steps: t o times a 5 0 s t e p s a v e r a S e * D» Divide 100' by average of steps. This i s the length n f, „ n t t v t „ n n a 100' * 2' pace, of your pace. 5 Q a t e p s 2. Proceed to area for mapping. Note degree bearing for direction you walk. Count steps to each landmark and note both. Total steps for each degree bearing. Degree Bearing Field Notes Total 120° starting stone wall from to le f t wagon road 100 paces 50 paces ~(200rJ~~ A. Convert steps Into footage; 2' (pace) x 100 paoes-200' B. Select a map scale. Scale 1" - 200'. C. Convert footage Into map inches 200' 200' to Inch » 1 inch Degree Bearing Field Notes 120° starting from wagon road 100 paces 200' 1* D, D. How to note declination 90° at point B ,o ^ M f e r r e ^ l l s ^ e ^ d i n g for point B. Making a Sketch of a Traverse (2) Select a large sheet of paper for a map. Top side of the paper should point north. Draw vortical lines to serve as meridian lines. 1. Turn the compass housing u n t i l your f i r s t degree reading (on f i e l d notes) Is In line with the dlrectlon-of-travel arrow on your compass. 2. Place compass on map with orienting arrow parallel to meridian lines. 3. Turn map around slowly u n t i l magnetic needle point to $ In line with orienting arrow (on compass). * l . Make dot for starting point and draw line along side of compass base. This line i s pointing in the direction of A A B LABORATORY EXERCISE: Plane-table Mapping Plane-table mapping as the name Implies is a method of mapping which uses a f l a t drawing board mounted on a tripod upon which details of the area to be mapped are sighted and recorded to make a f a i r l y accurate sketch map. Equipment consists of: a) a drawing board b) a tripod c) a compass d) an alidade (sight rule) e) drawing materials (paper, pencil, etc.) Methods If Surveying With the Plane-table There are four methods If plane-table mapping: a) radiation b) intersection c) traversing d) resection. The Plane-Table Method 1. Orient the table over the station. 2. Set the board to a compass direction, trace compass outline and Indicate magnetic north on your sheet. 3. Orient table at each station. 4. Sight with both eyes open. -Keep the map uncluttered by not drawing the rays f u l l length. *Level table. If a round pencil doesn't r o l l off the board i t i s level enough. * T l l t the pencil outward away from the rule so that the point i s smack against the rule. *Keep the pencil vertical when drawing lines. •Don't put pencil holes in the paper. Orient table at A ^ Sight onto B Draw line AB-Indefinite length Sight on C Move table to b counting strides on the way Mark b according to the map's scale Orient table at B Back sight on A. Intersection - Flag pole a a Set up plane-table In eenter of f i e l d . Guess Its position and place the ruling edge of the alidade on the line Joining this estimated position and the most distant of the points. Orient the table on this most distant point. Draw In the rays back to your position, a triangle w i l l of error result. This triangle can be reduced in size by re-orientating the table either by turning i t clockwise or anti-clockwise. Radiation (fJ W o Orient table and aim shot3 at the various points around you. After sighting upon them measure their distances and scale these off on the rays. Closed Traverse with a Plan-table Z N O Sc*r u p Orient table at A Sight on D and B Count strides to B Orient table at B Back Sight on A Sight on D and c Stride to C Orient table at C Check sight on A, B, and D. 5 A 5 £ U l Kg. Orient the table at A Sight on a l l visible objects Stride to B Sight at B to other points for intersection. 

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