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Los as redemptive agent in the prophecies of William Blake Macmillan, Sybil 1971

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LOS AS REDEMPTIVE AGENT IN THE PROPHECIES OF WILLIAM BLAKE by SYBIL MACMILLAN B.A. (Hon.), University of British Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of English We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1971 In present ing th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l f u l f i lmen t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make i t f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It i s understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on of th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Depa rtment The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 30 TYlf^ch (ff/ Of the Sleep of Ulro! and of the passage through Eternal Death! and of the awakening to Eternal L i f e . (Jerusalem, plate 4, 11. 1-2) Abstract In the prophecies of William Blake, the chief agent in bringing about the Apocalyptic restoration of fa l l e n man i s the poet-prophet Los. In The Songs of Innocence and of Experience, the poet-prophet appears as the Bard who c a l l s the lapsed soul to return to Innocence, the state of integrated vision. In the minor prophecies, as Blake moves into the frag-mented mind of the individual in the state of Experience to show us the movement back to the integrated vision of Innocence, the poet-prophet emerges as Los. He i s uncertain of his role, since Blake has not yet granted him the guiding influence of the inspiration of Jesus. With The Four Zoas comes the f i r s t complete statement of the myth of the f a l l and resurrection of man, represented by Albion, and with this myth comes the definition of the role of Los as the part of Albion who retains more of the Divine Vision than any of the other Zoas. At the crucial point in the myth of the f a l l , Jesus inspires Los, who then begins to build redemptive works of art amid the chaos, although, f i n a l l y , restoration of Albion i s not achieved in this poem. In Milton, the f i n a l movement toward Apocalypse begins. Although much of the poem deals with the appearance of the his-t o r i c a l poet-prophet, Milton, within the mythic world of Los, the redemptive work proceeds as Los, with his family, builds Golgonooza, the ci t y of art, as well as redemptive forms for the Spectres of the Dead, those formless abstractions which exist in a disordered mind. Jerusalem is a presentation of the Apocalyptic reunion of Albion and completes the movement begun in Milton. In this f i n a l prophecy, Los never doubts the Divine Vision of Jesus, and having subdued his Spectre, he works toward the resurrection with a l l his arts. Through Los, inspired as he is by Jesus, Albion achieves renewed vision and a l l the Zoas return to their rightful positions within him. His work done, Los returns to the Mental Warfare of Eternity in the form of Urthona, his equivalent within the re-surrected Albion. Man, fa l l e n from Innocence, is restored to Innocence through the work of one of the parts of his mind. Table of Contents Chapter Number Page Number Introduction. . . . . . 1 I. Los as Redemptive Agent . . . . . . . . 5 II. Los in the Minor Prophecies . . . . . . . 18 III. Los in The Four Zoas 42 IV. Los in Milton 69 V. Los in Jerusalem 88 Conclusion 1°5 Bibliography H I 1 Introduction Bom in 1757, William Blake arrived into the Age of Reason.. However, times were changing so that i t was evident that whatever was, was not necessarily right.* The common man moving from village to the town, demanded a necessary reorganization of systems. The turbulent age from 1760 to 1815 was shaped, of course, by the American and French Revolutions; and i t was also shaped by the Industrial Revolution. There is a unity between a l l three of thesej the movement of industry from the village to the factory was pushed on by the same forces that made the p o l i t i c a l movements. A common restlessness runs under that time, a discontent with the traditional ways o€ doing and thinking, and an urge to band men together in new a l l i a n c e s . 2 In opposition to the established order, Blake spoke out in sympathy with the common man, protesting the laws of a society which resisted necessary change. Typical of Blake*s point-of-view was his belief that imposed poverty was relieved only by false charity. "Compell the poor to live upon a Crust of bread, by soft mild arts, "Smile when they frown, frown when they smile% & when a man looks pale "With labour & abstinence, say he looks healthy & happy;/ 1 The climate of the times is best discussed by Jacob Bronowaki, William Blake and the Age of Revolution (New York: Harper & Row, 1965). For Blake's opposition to the philosophical climate of the time, see Northrop Frye, "The Case Against Locke," in Fearful  Symmetry, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1962), pp. 3-29. 2 Bronowski, William Blake, p. 4. 2 "And when his children sicken, let then die; there are enough "Born, even too many, & our Earth w i l l be overrun ••Without these arts." 3 Such was 8lake's view of the attitudes of the time. In an age of which he disapproved, Blake remained true to his imagination and his vision of the unity of a l l mankind. He f e l t that i f others could recognize this unity, even p o l i t i c a l suppression would end. As a poet.prophet, or a r t i s t in the widest sense of the word, he believed that he had a duty to lead men toward this internal revolution of vision as opposed to the bloody external revolution of p o l i t i c a l powers. In Blakean terms, a prophet i s not merely someone who predicts the future. Every honest man is a Prophet; he utters his opinion both of private & public matters. Thus: If you go on So, the result i s So. He never says such a thing shall happen let you do what you w i l l . A Prophet i s a Seer, not an Arbitrary Dictator. It is man's fault i f God is not able to do him good, for he gives to the just 6c to the unjust, but the unjust reject his g i f t . (Annotations to Watson, Keynes, P. 392) An epigraph to Milton. "Would to God that a l l the Lord's people were Prophets", expresses the wish for vision and, hence, for unity for a l l men. William Blake, The Four Zoas in The Complete Writings of William Blake, ed. Geoffrey Keynes (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), Night the Seventh, 11. 117-122. Subsequent references are to this edition. 3 In Milton, Blake sees himself as a poet-prophet, identifying with his mythic counterpart Los, whose function w i l l be examined at length. 4 . . . I became One Man with him arising in my strength. •Twas too late now to recede, Los had enter'd into my soul: His terrors now posses'd me whole! I arose in fury & strength. (Milton, plate 22, 11. 12-14) In the myth, i t is Los who retains vision in the f a l l and leads man back to unity with the aid of the Divine Vision of Jesus. Blake was more extreme than were his contemporaries in his view of the role of the poet and of his art. Evidently, Blake means by "art" a creative l i f e rooted in the arts, but including what more traditional language c a l l s charity.5 Seen in this way the l i f e of such a man as Jesus is a work of art. Because the poet or a r t i s t perceives the Divine Vision of unity through the unobstructed operation of his Poetic Genius or imagination, he has the responsibility of communicating his vision to other men. ^This study focuses upon Blake's ideas - the development of his concept of Los as seen in the written works, spe c i f i c a l l y in the prophecies. It is not a study of the text in relation to the ill u s t r a t i o n s . Such a study, while beyond the scope of this thesis, i s an interesting area for further study and i s , indeed, the next logical step in the study of Los. 5Northrop Frye, "The Keys to the Gates," in Some Br i t i s h  Romantics, ed. James V. Logan, John E. Jordan, & Northrop Frye (Ohio State University Press, 1966), p. 37. 4 According to Blake, most of what the enlightened can do for the unenlightened i s negative: their task is to sharpen the d i a l e c t i c of the human and natural visions by showing that there are only the alterna-tives of apocalypse and annihilation.& The implications of restoral of vision are religious, social, psychological and p o l i t i c a l , ~in other words., operating in a l l phases of Man's existence. Blake f e l t that his art would help his readers "cleanse the doors of perception" so that they too could perceive the Divine Vision in an intensity equal to his own, so that eventually man would be reunited with man in brotherhood as part of the Divine Family of Jesus. In his poetry, Blake introduces a redemptive agent corres-ponding to himself as a r t i s t , who helps to bring about the restoral of vision to those who have lost i t . In the myth of Albion, this agent i s Los. Since the basic principles involved in The Songs of Innocence and of Experience are the same as those in the myth, the Bard of the Songs corresponds to Los. In the myth, we are shown a l l aspects of the f a l l and resurrection of Albion, internal and external, while in the Songs we are exposed only to the external change of perceptual a b i l i t i e s in the individual. Hence Los appears as a highly sophisticated development of the con-cept of the Bard, more ostensibly so after his inspiration by and identification with Jesus in Night the Seventh of The Four  Zoas. As redemptive agent, Los is v i t a l to the resurrection of the fa l l e n man, Albion. 6"The Keys to the Gates," p. 38. 5 Chapter One The existence of a redemptive agent in Blake's poetry pre-supposes the context of a fallen condition with the poss i b i l i t y of resurrection. The most complete form of art is a c y c l i c vision, which, like the Bible, sees the world between the two poles of f a l l and redemption. In Western art this is most clearly represented in the miracle-play sequences and encyclopedic symbolism of the Gothic cathedrals, which often cover the entire imaginative f i e l d from creation to the Last Judg-ment, and always f i t integrally into some important aspect of i t . * William Blake explores this context in The Songs of Innocence and  of Experience and in the myth of Albion, presented with varying focus from the minor prophecies^ to the major works The Four Zoas, Milton, and Jerusalem. Blake's basic subject matter in the Songs is this f a l l of the individual from Innocence into Experience and the growth of the individual out of. the fa l l e n condition into a new Eden which transcends the original. The original state of Innocence is that of the child who views the world as benevolent and protective. In this world, the poet appears as the Piper who lacks knowledge of a f a l l e n existence. Spontaneous and trusting, he f i r s t appears ^Northrop Frye, Fearful Symmetry; A Study of William Blake (Boston: Beacon Press, 1962), pp. 109-110. ^The F i r s t Book of Urizen, Europe, The Song of Los, The Book  of Ahania, and The Book of Los. 6 Piping down the valleys wild Piping songs of pleasant glee . . . celebrating his own joy. He encounters a vision of a child, representing the infant Jesus, who symbolises the divine imagi-nation. 4 The child demands that the Piper communicate his world picture in more and more material terms, f i n a l l y disappearing when the Piper resorts to pen and ink. The weeping of the child, though ostensibly for joy, and his disappearance suggest that the child i s aware of what the Piper must endure when he inevit-ably loses his vision by f a l l i n g out of Innocence into the more material and less visionary world of Experience. Although the f a l l i s thus anticipated in the world of Innocence, there is no need for a redemptive agent u n t i l the f a l l actually occurs. The poet simply rejoices in his own situation. In the myth of Albion, the parallel to the Piper is Urthona, the prelapsarlan form of Los when he is part of the unfalien Albion. Of him we know l i t t l e except that he too produces music,^ the form of art closest to the original inspiration and most active upon the imagination. Music is the medium of the Piper when he most clearly perceives the vision of the child. Urthona exists only when the parts of Albion, called Zoas, dwell in the W i l l i a m Blake, The Complete Writings of William Blake, ed. Geoffrey Keynes (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), p. 111. A l l references are to this edition and are cited within the text. ^Fearful Symmetry, p. 235. 5Fearful Symmetry, p. 291. 7 perfect harmony of the unfallen or the resurrected state. In the Songs, the fal l e n state of Experience is presided over by the Bard, who is the redemptive agent. He himself is in a state similar to that of the Piper, the difference lying in the fact that the Bard has transcended the state of Experience in which the individual sees the universe as e v i l and sees the benign paternalism of God, the Lamb, as the raging wrath of the Tyger, whereas the Piper is not aware of this unhappy state. The Bard shows his sympathetic awareness of this state when we see him address the Earth in the "Introduction to The Songs-of Experience." The form of the Bard's inspiration i s the "Holy Word," which is parallel to the Piper's inspiration by the child who, in one of his aspects, is representative of the child Jesus. The perception of vision distinguishes the Bard from the mass of humanity, represented by the Earth, who is oblivious to such vision. The impassioned nature of the Bard's cry to Earth suggests that he, too, had once been immersed in a similar state of oblivion to the benevolent unity of the universe as embodied v-y in the vision of Jesus. As an individual, he has grown to a point at which he realizes that his total environment is not e v i l and, at that moment of growth, has accepted the "Holy Word" That walk'd among the ancient trees, Calling the lapsed Soul . . . . ("Introduction to The Songs of Experience," 11. 5-6) 8 As in Paradise Lost, Jesus walked in Eden after the f a l l of Adam. The function of the Bard fuses with the function of the "Holy Word", for, just as Jesus spoke to Adam, the Bard speaks to Earth, repres-o entatlve of a l l men immersed in the state of Experience. The im-portance of Holy Inspiration in the restoration of Vision i s emphasised this early in the Blake canon. A further characteristic of the Bard that i s consistent with his role as a redemptive agent is his perception of time. He sees simultaneously "Present, Past & Future". We a l l can see the present in terms of the past, but the Bard sees the present in terms of both past and future, providing a divine single unified moment in time which is the moment of a r t i s t i c creation, For In this period the Poet's Work is Done, and a l l the Great Events of Time start forth & are conceiv'd in such a Period, Within a Moment, a pulsation of the Artery. (Milton, plate 29, 11. 1-3) This moment of fusion of time is part of Eternity and exists in a context separate from the time in which fallen man lives. It i s this moment that Northrop Frye c a l l s John Milton, Paradise Lost, in John Milton; Complete Poems and  Major Prose,(ad. M.Y. Hughes (New Yorkt The Odyssey Press, 1957), Book X, 11. 85 f f . ^Northrop Frye, "Blake's Introduction to Experience," in Blake:  A Collection of C r i t i c a l Essays, ed. Northrop Frye (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1966), p. 25. 8"Blake's Introduction to Experience," p. 25. 9 a vertical timeless axis crossing the horizontal flow of time at every moment, providing in that moment a s t i l l point of a turning world, a moment neither in nor out of tine, a moment that Blake in the prophecies c a l l s the moment in each day that Satan cannot f i n d . 9 As well as having vision in the form of contact with the "Holy Word", the Bard has knowledge of Eternity, a condition d i f f i c u l t for fallen nan who is accustomed to the measurable, fixed clock time to conceive of. - Since he has this greater perception, the Bard acts as redemptive agent In that he c a l l s f a l l e n man to ri s e to his level, for a l l contain the capacity foi/this growth, although a l l do not achieve i t . The c a l l to Earth i s i t s e l f in the form of a poem, hence i t i s a work of art in two ways. From Blake's point-of-view i t embodies the self l e s s doctrine of charity and concern for other than oneself and, as such, is in accord with the vision of unity as i t proceeds from the imagination.* 0 Secondly, as a poem, i t is a work of art in the more usual sense of an art i f a c t produced by an a r t i s t , or in this case, by a poet, the Bard. Blake himself can be considered as producing works of art on both these levels, as can his counterpart Los;in the myth of Albion. We see the Bard acting as a leader of men in a second poem, "The Voice of the Ancient Bard", f i r s t included with The Songs of Innocence, although more effective as a conclusion to The Songs of  Experience where Blake placed i t in 1 8 1 5 . I t i s parallel to the invocation in the "Introduction to The Songs of Experience". However, unlike the Earth, the individual addressed by the Bard, the "Youth Q "Blake's Introduction to Experience," p. 24. 1 0 John Middleton Murry, William Blake (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964), p. 202. 10 of delight," i s on the brink of the world of restored Innocence in which Doubt is fled, & clouds of reason, Dark disputes & a r t f u l teasing. ("The Voice of the Ancient Bard", 11. 4-5) In contrast the Bard comments upon the world of Experience in which Folly i s an endless maze, Tangled roots perplex her ways. How many have fal l e n there! They stumble a l l night over bones of the dead, And feel they know not what but care And wish to lead others, when they should be led. ("The Voice of the Ancient Bard", 11. 6-11) The person who should lead them i s , of course, the Bard. Thus, when "The Voice of the Ancient Bard" is placed at the end of The Songs of  Experience, these Songs begin and end with a consciousness of the role of the Bard in c a l l i n g those in the state of Experience to an Apocalyptic emergence into a higher restored innocence. As we saw parallels between the Piper of Innocence and Urthona in the unfalion Albion, similarly we can see parallels between the Bard and Los, the redemptive agent in the myth of the fa l l e n Albion. While in the Songs the f a l l is presented in terms of a great shift o f point-of-view or shift of perception of the external world, in the myth we see exactly what happens within the mind when this s h i f t takes place. In presenting the myth, Blake characterizes the redemptive D.G. Gillham t Blake's Contrary States (Cambridge University Press, 1966), p. 214. 11 poet-prophet figure as a part of man's mind that works toward the reunification of the other fragments to restore the vision of unity. In order to see Los as parallel to the Bard in bringing about the restoration of vision, we must understand the f a l l as i t appears in the mythic structure. In the myth of Albion, the f a l l , which involves the shift of point-of-view from Innocence to Experience, occurs when Albion, one of the Eternals, who dwell in the world outside of our concept of time and space, lapses into sleep in Beulah; which, in i t s protected nature, is similar to the state of Innocence. Having tarried too long in Beulah, Albion becomes dis-oriented and the parts of his being, personified by Blake as Zoas, strive against each other. Seeking divinity, Urizen, the Zoa of Reason, tries,to change places with Luvah, the Zoa of Love, who in turn t r i e s to seize Urizen*8 position. In the disruption, the unifying Zoa, Tharmas, s p l i t s from the feminine element of his character and becomes chaotic in seeking her. The Zoa of creativity and art, Urthona, is separated from the other fragments and f a l l s 12 into Generation, becoming the mythic character Los, who, like the Bard, maintains contact with Divine Inspiration. Los' redemptive functions of arresting the F a l l , of exhorting and leading the Zoas to reintegration, of producing works of art in the form of his actions and-4ns the form of material productions which inspire men to unity For a more extensive summary of the myth, see Harold Bloom, Blake's Apocalypse (New Yorki Anchor Books, 1963), p. 203 f f . 12 and vision, w i l l be examined at length in the following chapters of the thesis. The importance of the mythic character Los is established by the time The Four Zoas was written (dated 1795-1804;,'in the Keynes edition). He is the hero of the piece." Los was the fourth immortal starry one, & in the Earth Of a bright Universe, Empery attended day & night, Days & nights of revolving joy. Urthona was his name In Eden; in the Auricular Nerves of Human L i f e , Which is the Earth of Eden, he his Emanations propagated. Fairies of Albion, afterwards Gods of the Heathen. Daughters of Beulah, Sing His f a l l into Division & his Resurrection to Unity: His f a l l into the Generation of decay & death, & his Regeneration by the Resurrection from the dead. (The Four Zoas, Night I, 11. 14-23) As seen in the previous quotation, Los himself undergoes a process 13 of f a l l . Existing within Albion, he becomes a microcosm of what happens to the whole man. While Los is the agent for the redemption of Albion, he himself is inspired to integration and vision by the Divine Vision of Jesus, as the Bard is similarly inspired by the "Holy Word." On yet another level, Albion represents a l l men, for his changes symbolize the changes that take place in a l l of us. Revolu-tion must take place in each man before nations can change. The violence of p o l i t i c a l revolution as seen in the French Revolution i« useless because i t Is cyclic^not apocalyptic, and the new order It is possible that this could refer to Albion also. Dual reference is used by Blake. Harold Bloom, however, agrees that the individual referred to is Los, as context would indicate. See Harold Bloom, Blake's Apocalypse (New York: Anchor Books, 1965), p. 209. 13 w i l l become like the old and w i l l , in turn, be overthrown. 1 4 Let us examine what Blake meant by the Apocalypse of Last Judgement. In terms of the myth, the Apocalypse is the reuniting of the separated parts of Albion. To achieve reunion, the Zoas must f i r s t reject selfhood and reunite with their feminine halves, their emana-tions. Simultaneously, Albion must be restored to his original form, selfless in his union with Jerusalem, his emanation. Reunion is brought about by Los inspired by the Divine Vision of Jesus, and involves, essentially, the restoration of vision in Albion as the movement from Experience to higher Innocence, as demonstrated in the Songs, involves a similar restoration of perspective and transcend-ence of e v i l . Albion's change in attitude is best reflected in his concern for the safety of his friend Jesus, whom he now perceives as a man like himself: Albion stood in terror, not for himself but for his Friend Divine) & Self was lost in the contemplation of faith And wonder at the Divine Mercy & at Los's sublime honour. "Do I sleep amidst danger to Friends? 0 my Cities & Counties, "Do you sleep? rouze up, rouze up! Eternal Death is abroad!" (Jerusalem, plate 96, 11. 30-34) Albion has learned the lesson of selflessness taught by Jesus whose "Divine Appearance was the likeness and similitude of Los" (Jerusalem, plate 96, 1. 7). Los has retained vision and has •^Northrop Frye refers to such series of events as the Ore cycle. See Fearful Symmetry, pp. 209 f f . 14 succeeded in communicating i t to the other Zoas, thus helping them to attain the vision themselves. As suggested earlier, the doctrine of the Apocalypse or Last Judgement is similar to the movement in the Songs from Experience into higher Innocence, Although a l l men have the capacity for this growth, a l l men do not f u l f i l l their potential: some remain in Experience. In the myth of Albion, we see the inner workings of an individual who does recreate his original vision. When fallen man does heed the Bard or the part of himself which urges vision, the f i n a l Apocalypse w i l l take place. In heeding the part of himself which urges perception, man is heeding his own imagination or Poetic Genius, represented by Los in the myth of Albion. As Los, the poet-prophet "kept the Divine Vision in time of trouble" (Jerusalem, plate 95, 1. 20), similarly, part of the individual, the Poetic Genius, moves the individual toward the apocalyptic reunion of man. That the Poetic Genius i s part of a universal force or power is a doctrine set forth in the tractate " A l l Religions are One": PRINCIPLE 1st. That the Poetic Genius is the true Man, and that the body or outward form of Man is derived from the Poetic Genius. Likewise that the forms of a l l things are derived from their Genius, which by the Ancients was called an Angel & S p i r i t & Demon. PRINCIPLE 5th. The Religions of a l l Nations are derived from each Nation's different reception of the Poetic Genius which is every where call'd the Sp i r i t of Prophecy. 15 PRINCIPLE 7th. As a l l men are alike (tho* i n f i n i t e l y various), So a l l Religions &, as a l l similars, have one source. The true Man is the source, he being the Poetic Genius. (A l l Religions are One, > P. 9 8 ) When perception is exercised in accord with the imagination or Poetic Genius, unity is recognised. My Eyes more & more Like a Sea without shore Continue Expanding, The Heavens commanding, T i l l the Jewels of Light, Heavenly Men beaming bright, Appear'd as One Man . . . . (let t e r to Thomas Butts, 2 October 1800, 11. 45-51) This restoration of vision is the Apocalypse. In terms of the myth of Albion, restored vision results in the perfect f l e x i b i l i t y of the senses and freedom from the static r i g i d i t y of f a l l e n time and space, the condition described when the Bard of The Songs of Experience states that resurrected man "might control1/ The starry pole." It i s in this condition that we see the resurrected man at the end of Jerusalem; Creating Space, Creating Time, according to the wonders Divine Of Human Imagination throughout a l l the Three Regions immense Of Childhood, Manhood & Old Age; & the a l l tremendous unfathomable Non Ens Of Death was seen in regenerations t e r r i f i c or complacent, varying According to the subject df discourse; & every Word & Every Character Was Human according to the Expansion or Contraction, the Translucence or Opakeness of Nervous fibres: such was the variation 16 of Time & Space Which vary according as the Organs of Perception vary; & they walked To & fro in Eternity as One Man, reflecting each in each & clearly seen And seeing, according to fitness & order. (Jerusalem, plate 98, 11. 31-40) The Apocalypse, then, can be seen as relevant to each man, as was the growth through the states of Innocence and Experience to higher Innocence shown in the Songs. In the myth of the f a l l of Albion, Blake has looked into the psyche of each individual and has traced his struggle toward maturity in terms of a f a l l into dis-order and a f i n a l return to a basic reintegration of the components of his being. As a child, the individual exists in^a:benign-world of protection and trust. As the child develops, facets of his mind developi Reason, Passion,urge for Unity, and Imagination. As the facets develop, the individual loses co-ordinated, balanced perspec-tive, just as an adolescent child loses physical co-ordination as the parts of his body develop at different rates. With the loss of per-spective comes the loss of the total vision of the benign universe. Like Albion, the individual becomes a battleground foe the facets of his psyche as each tries to find i t s role. In the myth of Albion, Blake, then, is restating basically the same doctrine as he expressed in The Songs of Innocence and Experience. The difference l i e s in the situation of the reader. The Songs reveal only the resultant change of vision, whereas the myth reveals the internal conditions resulting in that change. The Bard can only c a l l the "lapsed soul", whereas Los, as well as calling, can work within the individual as a blacksmith forging forms, themselves works of art, 17 which embody s p i r i t s and give them a chance to be recognised as either truth or error. The doctrine of both the Songs and the myth concerns the recovery of man's original vision of the unity in a benevolent universe, not by returning to i t , but by recreating i t . The act of creation, in i t s turn, is not producing something out of nothing, but the act of setting free what ve already possess.*5 The redemptive agent inspired by the Divine Vision of Jesus is active in both the Songs and the myth, the difference lying in the fact that Los acts on a much more comprehensive plane than the Bard, as we shall see as we proceed with our discussion of the prophecies. ^Northrop Frye, "The Keys to the Gates," in Some Brit i s h Romantics, ed. James N. Logan, John E. Jordan, and Northrop Frye (Ohio State University Press, 1966), p. 40. 18 Chapter Two - Los In the Minor Prophecies We cannot see Los playing the complete role of redemptive agent unt i l Blake presents us with the whole myth of Albion in The Four Zoas. However, fragments of the myth are Introduced in the minor prophecies,The Fir s t Book of Urizen, Europe, The Song ofJLos, The Book of Ahanla, and The Book of Los, and, in thesd fragments, appear the main characters of the story: Urizen, Ore, Los and Enitharmon. Therefore a study of Los properly begins within these minor prophecies. In this examination, I have adopted the order set forth in the Keynes edition of 1966. Other editors place the poems in various orders, having attitudes similar to that expressed by David V. Erdman: a rough chronology is observed, but only when thematic or generic relations f a i l to offer more meaningful groupings. A definitive chronological sequence of Blake's writings is impossible from present knowledge.* Keynes, however, attempts the chronological order, restating arguments from the 1925 Nonesuch Press edition: It was pointed out that Blake's writings, whatever form they take, are so interdependent that 'any other attempt at c l a s s i f i c a t i o n must result in the violent and arbitrary separation of pieces which/ David V. Erdman, ed., The Poetry and Prose of William  Blake (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1965), Preface, p. x x i i i . 19 should properly cone together.' It was claimed in addition that 'the development of Blake's symbolic system and of his doctrines is also elucidated by this plan.' 2 It i s for this latter reason that I chose the chronological order of the Keynes edition, the editor of which admits, as does Erdman, that "the dates assigned to some of the pieces are necessarily conjectural." Discussions of Los tend toward one of two poles. The f i r s t can be represented by Laura DeWitt Janes' comments in William  Blake: The Finger on the Furnace.^ She produces a l i s t de-fining the characters in the prophetic books: LOS: He is Urthona as he appears in his Savior role in time-space. His name was changed to Los, an anagram of Sol or Sun, and he represents TIME. He was the only Zoa who kept the Divine Vision while travelling through the Vegetated Universe, and hence was the only one who could restore man to Eden. * Such r i g i d i t y of function and identity i s not total l y valid for Los even as he appears in the major prophecies. In the minor prophecies, *cartainly, the statement is erroneous, for who would expect that the fallen Los of Europe or of The Song  of Los, in which his sons distribute Urisenic law, would restore Geoffrey Keynes, ed., The Complete Writings of William  Blake (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), The Editor's Preface, p. x i . 3Laura DeWitt James, William Blake: The Finger on the Furnace (New York: The Vantage Press, 1956). 4James, p. 7. 20 man to Eternity? While Miss James' statement may be adequate for the purpose intended, presumably that of quick identification in terms of the total myth, i t is extremely oversimplified, not allowing for the development of Blake's concept of his character, or for the fluctuation of the character within his symbolic role. The other pole is represented by Stanley Gardner in Infinity on the Anvil, in the introductory statements "On the Nature of Poetic Symbolism"i no mythological figure in Blake represents one single concept consistently through a l l the writings. N 0r indeed do his figures even progress in meaning to a developing pattern as does Langland's Piers. It i s impossible to define Ore, Los, Enitharmon, and the rest of Blake's hierarchy, and allow the definition to stand whenever the name appears. The Los of Europe i s manifestly a personality quite different from the Los of The Book of Urisen.* While much of what Mr. Gardner says i s true, I w i l l show that there is indeed a developing pattern in Blake's concept of Los, the crucial point being in the second version of Night the Seventh 6 in The Four Zoas, when Los is inspired by Jesus. Before this turning point, Los' function does fluctuate, overlapping occasionally with that of Ore, his son, who i s associated with the sun as is Los. After the divine inspiration, Stanley Gardner, Infinity on the Anvilt A C r i t i c a l Study  of Blake's Poetry (Oxford* Basil Blackwell, 1954), p. 7. ^This version is designated the "a" version in the Keynes edition. 21 Los' actions are directed more e x p l i c i t l y toward the redemption of Albion, for i t is only after this inspiration that Los himself, at this point appearing as a microcosmic version of the larger figure Albion, can become united with his own parts which consist of his Spectre and his Emanation. In the minor prophecies (before he is inspired by Jesus), Los appears in various ways. A unity of development is main-tained around him in the form of recurring images and symbols which are used in this context to define character. Los is associated constantly with his furnaces, the f i r e s of which, like the sun, are representative of the creative imagination. A typical passage occurs in The Book of Lost Roaring indignant, the bright sparks Endur'd the vast Hammer; but unwearied Los beat on the Anvil, t i l l glorious An immense Orb of f i r e he fram'd, (The Book of Los, plate 5, 11. 31-34) He appears with hammer, anvil, and forge, a l l of which help to control the furnaces for directed creative purposes. As the nature of the surrounding symbols may vary, so the nature of Los varies, although he maintains a unity of identity as Eternal Prophet. With his forge, he can produce chains that are redemptive in that they arrest the f a l l , and destructive, In that they bind and re s t r i c t freedom. As a symbol, the Mundane Egg, our vegetative universe, is dual in nature also. Seen as a stage in man's development, i t too is redemptive in that i t arrests endless f a l l outside the bounds of Time and Space. Yet when the 22 six thousand years of Man's vegetative existence are up, the Egg is r e s t r i c t i n g and inhibiting to the reunited man ready to ascend. Hence, in this instance, Los must destroy what he has created fn order to f a c i l i t a t e the reunion of man. In other terms, constructs of the mind, such as certain legal and social institutions, while lending a temporary sense of security to the individual, must be transcended when the individual, having a renewed vision of the unity of a l l men, no longer needs them. In his criticism, Mr. Gardner compares Blake's characters to Langland's Piers Plowman. However, as a character in a mythic structure, Los need not function on the same level of consistency as a character in an allegory such as Piers Plowman. Allegory i s "a literary device in which abstractions are personified,** 7 a form abhorred by Blake because of i t s frequent use in conveying doctrines of "Moral Virtues*, those re s t r i c t i v e rules for behavior taught by the church. Blake preferred symbolism,"Haliterary device in which psychological r e a l i t i e s r i s e from the subconscious and take sensorial form. . . .Allegory is to poetry what dogma is to Q r e l i g i o n . " Let us then turn to the minor prophecies to see Blake's treatment of Los before that character is inspired by Jesus. With The Fir s t Book of Urizen, printed in 1794, Blake told his f i r s t S. Foster Damon, A Blake Dictionary: The Ideas and Symbols  of William Blake (Providence, Rhode Island: Brown University Press, 1965), p. 17. 8A Blake Dictionary, p. 17. For a f u l l e r comment on allegory by Blake himself, see A Vision of the Last Judgment, Keynes, pp. 604 f f . 23 sketchy version of the f a l l of nan into disintegration in terms of mythic figures. 9 As i t s t i t l e suggests, the work focuses on Urizen, the Zoa of Reason, and on "the primeval Priest's assura'd power." He seeks stasis, "a solid without fluctuation," in opposition to the perfect f l e x i b i l i t y of the senses as they exist in Eternity where The w i l l of the Immortal expanded Or contracted his a l l flexible sensest Death was not, but eternal l i f e sprung. (The Fir s t Book of Urizen,*0 plate 3, 11. 36-39) In solitude, "alone", and separate, Urizen proclaims knowledge of the "secrets of wisdom". This secrecy emphasizes his separation from a l l in Eternity, and with It, he seeks power. He Inscribes laws in his Book of Brass, symbolic of the tyrannical r i g i d i t y of the laws which deal, in r e a l i t y , with that which is not l e g i s l a t i b l e . "Laws of peace, of love, of unity, "Of pity, compassion, forgiveness; "Let each chuse one habitation, "His ancient i n f i n i t e mansion, "One command, one joy, one desire, "One curse, one weight, one measure, "One King, one God, one Law." (BoPy,plate 4, 11. 34-40) In his separation, he builds himself a world " l i k e a black globe" Frye comments upon "the unusual organic consistency of Blake's symbolism: we cannot trace i t back to a time when i t s main outlines were not clear to him." (Fearful Symmetry, p. 205). A l -though the main outlines may have been clear to Blake a l l along, he does not present more than small pieces to the reader u n t i l The Four Zoas, and he certainly changes his concept of the role of Los in terms of the total structure. *°Hereafter abbreviated as BoU. 24 which is viewed with disgust by the Eternals. When we see Los for the f i r s t time, he is simply keeping watch for the Eternals, the unfalien beings of perfect vision, over the newly created world of Urlzen. Immediately his relation-ship to the Eternals is established! he occupies a position of trust. In this position, he reminds us of another representative of the creative imagination, the poet Blake who occupies a similar position of trust, as we see in the invocation to the poem! Eternals! I hear your c a l l gladly. Dictate swift winged words & fear not To unfold your dark visions of torment. (BoU, plate 2, 11. 5-7) Both the poet and his mythic character are employed by the crea-tures of the unfalien world. The only suggestion that Los and Urizen were once parts of one integrated man, Albion, comes as we see Los howling after Urizen is torn from his side in the dreadful separation of Reason from Imagination. Los howls with a l l the energy of the undirected creative imagination! Groaning, gnashing, groaning T i l l the wrenching apart was healed. (BoU, plate 7, 11. 2-3) The healing shows Los* basic tendency toward recovery and foreshadows **In Milton, a later work, Blake and Los become more closely identified. 25 his own reintegration as well as the reintegration of the whole nan. In contrast, we do not see Urizen healing; instead he f a l l s into a dreamless sleep called "Death" by the Eternals. Frightened by. the condition of Urizen, Los "rouz'd his f i r e s " , and, in doing so, begins his symbolic function as black** smith, tending the fi r e s of the creative forge. As well as relating Los to the other blacksmiths of mythology, Hephaistos, Vulcan, and Thor, the work of the blacksmith and the tools he employs remind the reader that Blake's engraving process employed metal and f i r e , * 2 as illustrated in the fourth chamber of the printing house in Hell in The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (Keynes, P. 155). Working with the forge, Los binds the "changes" of Urizen (the development of the vegetative body) with "rivets of iron & brass", a process that, although r e s t r i c t i v e , i s redemptive in that i t arrests Urizen's f a l l . Also, Los throws nets "round about" to achieve cessation of f a l l , and divides Time by forging a chain of i t , an action which again establishes stasis. The imagery of the chain carefully unites Los' relationship to Time with his actions at the forget The Eternal Prophet heav'd the dark bellows, And tum'd restless the tongs, and the hammer Incessant heat, forging chains new & new, Numb*ring with links, days & years. (BoU, plate 10, 11. 15-19) Fearful Symmetry, pp. 252-3. 26 Even when his actions seem most re s t r i c t i v e , they are redemptive in their duality. Chains re s t r i c t but also arrest f a l l . Paradoxi-cally, the re s t r i c t i v e measures are aimed towards the return to Eternity where such was the variation of Time & Space Which vary according las the organs of perception vary. (Jerusalem, plate 98, 11. 37-38) Los gives Urizen a fixed form, "a solid without fluctuation" which is the human body, i t s e l f a redemptive work of art in that the vegetative body is necessary, "as no l i f e reaches eternity without f i r s t going through the physical world."*3 Uncomfortable in the perfect flux of Eternity, tyrannical Urizen sought easily-controlled stasis as an end in i t s e l f t Los gives him a static form as a means toward achieving Eternity again. Because of i t s contrast to the conditions of perfect flux, the newly-created form shocks Los. Having been "rent from Eternity" himself, he is unaware of the purpose of the vegetative form and reacts to i t in feart The bellows & hammer are silent now; A nerveless silence his prophetic voice Siez*d . . . . (BoU. plate 13, 11. 37-39) He is the a r t i s t rejecting nature, 1 4 later to become totally and s e l f i s h l y immersed in i t s sensual aspect. ^ F e a r f u l SymmetryT p. 251. ^ F e a r f u l Symmetry, p. 258. 27 In the silence, Los pi t i e s Urizen with the sort of pity in which^sympathy is tinged with a feeling of superiority. In Blakean terms, Los* soul divides as a result of this expression of "female" or s e l f i s h w i l l and the female part of Los, Enitharmon, becomes separate from her male counterpart. Los becomes immersed in sensuality with Enitharmon and f a l l s as did Albion, the whole man. When they see Man begetting his likeness On his own divided image. (BoU, plate 19, 11. 15-16) the Eternals are so offended that they give way to their anger and enclose Los and Enitharmon in a tent called "Science", which so obscures Los' vision that "no more Los beheld Eternity." When the poet loses vision through total surrender to pity and sensua-l i t y , his balanced perspective is destroyed and he becomes mired in the abstract reasoning Blake c a l l s "Science." Los, as a r t i s t , has not yet discovered that the vegetative forms are the means to reintegration, not the f i n a l forms for man. The f i r s t child of Los and Enitharmon is Ore, whom Los binds to a rock with the Chain of Jealousy because he envies Enitharmon's affection for the child. The cries of the bound child Waken the tyrant Urizen, who sets up his restricting laws a l l over the world. Los thus initiates the Ore cycle,*5 f o r when Ore *^Fearful Symmetry, pp. 207 f f . The cycle represents external revolution which, essentially, maintains the status quo. A revolutionary force becomes as tyrannical as the government i t overthrows -- the French Revolution i s , of course, a most relevant example, because i t must maintain power i t s e l f . 28 matures, he w i l l burst out to defeat Urizen, only to become old and r e s t r i c t i v e himself, u n t i l he in turn i s defeated by a violent youth. The cycle must eventually be transcended by internal revo-lution in each man, as we shall see in The Four Zoas. Fallen and confused, Los uses his f i r e s to separate Enitharmon from Urizen and Ore. The creative f i r e s are perverted to serve the s e l f i s h end of jealousy. In The F i r s t Book of Urizen, we hear no more b£ Los. We have seen him keeping watch for the Eternals and binding down and res t r i c t i n g Urizen, who was attempting to set himself up as a tyrant. The symbols of the blacksmith have been established as Los works with the vegetative body and with Time. Also, we have seen him divided from the female side of his nature, with the result that he has lost immediate control of i t . In other terms, through pity and sensuality he has lost his vision of Eternity. He and Enitharmon have produced Ore and, as a result of Los* selfishness, have bound him with the Chain of Jealousy, thus Initiating the Ore cycle. Los i s far from the selfless leader of men who w i l l restore mankind to Eternity. He is not yet comparable to the Bard of the "Introduction'to The Songs of Experience." In Europe, printed in 1794, we see Los functioning on an extremely low level. Blake presents him ironically] "And Los, possessor of the moon, joy'd in the peaceful night." (Europe, plate 4, 1. 7) As "possessor of the moon," Los is ineffectual, the moon being the 29 symbol associated with Enitharmon, as the sun is associated with Los himself when he is active as the creative imagination. While she is separate from him, he cannot prevent her from exercising her female w i l l by sending their sons to " . . . t e l l the Human race that Woman's love i s Sin; "That an Eternal l i f e awaits the worms of sixty winters "In an allegorical abode where existence hath never come. "Forbid a l l Joy, & from her childhood shall the l i t t l e female "Spread nets in every secret path." (Europe, plate 5, 11. 5-9) The ideas expressed above are Blake's view of the philosophy of the Christian era ushered in by the birth of the traditional figure of Jesus, presented in this poem in parodied Miltonic verse (plate 4, 11. 1-4). To Blake, this denial of sensuality is as wrong as total immersion in i t . Los enjoys the peaceful night in which "strong Urthona takes his rest," not realizing the serious implications of the sleep of the original form of the imagination. He ca l l s upon Ore, whom he bound down in The Fi r s t Book of Urizen, to r i s e : "And we w i l l crown thy head with garlands of the ruddy vine; "For now thou art bound, "and I may see thee in the hour of bli s s , my eldest born." (Europe, plate 4, 11. 25-27) As Ore, the s p i r i t of revolution, rises in fury, Los disappears from the poem, foreshadowing the c r i s i s Blake w i l l reach in The  Four Zoas concerning which of the two w i l l play the chief role in the redemption of man. Since, as s p i r i t s of energy associated 30 with f i r e and the sun, each overlaps upon the other, as signified by one being the son of the other, they cannot exist together unless one is subservient to the other. Two equal masculine entities cannot exist together, whether i t be in a herd of elk, in a human family, or in a myth exploring the aspect of man's psyche. In The Four Zoas. Blake f i n a l l y focused on the version of Night the Seventh in which Jesus inspires Los In his redemptive role. Ore, the force of external revolution, w i l l be modified to serve Los, the s p i r i t of Internal revolution in the mind of each man. In Europe. Enitharmon f a l l s asleep and "a female dream" occurs, men having been separated from one another by her teachings. Enitharmon laugh'd in her sleen, to see (0 woman's-triumph!) Every house a den, every man bound) the shadows are f i l l ' d With spectres, and the windows wove over with curses of iron: Over the doors "Thou shalt not," & over the chimneys "Fear" is written. • . . (Europe, plate 12, 11. 25-28) Only when the s t r i f e reaches France does Los come back on the scene in apocalyptic furyt Then Los arose: his head he rear'd in snaky thunders clad, And with a cry that shook a l l nature to the utmost pole, Call'd a l l his sons to the s t r i f e of blood. (Europe, plate 15, 11. 9-11) Here he i s using his voice not to lead man to vision, but to c a l l him to corporeal war. 31 In Europe, a new symbol is introduced, "the wine of Los", which is eventually transformed into the wine that is the blood of Jesus and the apocalyptic vintage of nations. Los c a l l s upon h i 8 sons to "Bind a l l the nourishing sweets of earth "To give us b l i s s , that we may drink the sparkling wine of Los!" (Europe, plate 4, 11. 19-20) His request i s valid but with heavy irony, for we, as initiated readers, realise that indeed the production and consumption of the wine w i l l bring b l i s s , but i t w i l l not be the b l i s s of intoxica-tion as Los, here under the influence of Enitharmon, suggests, but rather the b l i s s of apocalyptic reunion with Eternity, as we shall see in later poems. In Europe, u n t i l the end of the poem, Los is as far from being the leader of men as we shall ever see him. Finally he ariees in Ore-like wrath, symbolic of p o l i t i c a l revolution rather than of renewal of vision through growth out of selfhood. He rises to war rather than to lead the individual Albion to higher Innocence, As Harold Bloom points out, "the poem ends, with obviously deliberate indecision, in the Europe of early 1793. . ,," 1 6 when Blake could not be sure how the most recent example of external revolution, the French Revolution, would end. The resulting chaes and tyranny in France convinced Blake of the f u t i l i t y of such revolution, and he expresses the f u t i l i t y by making Ore participant in an endless 1 6Bloom, p. 171. 32 cycle which can be transcended only by apocalyptic reunion of Albion's Zoas through the work of Los. 1^ In The Song of Los, printed in 1795, Los* role as poet-prophet is stated, i f not demonstrated. The poem, written in the voice of Los himself, is introduced by Blake: I w i l l sing you a song of Los, the Eternal Prophet: He sung i t to four harps at the tables of Eternity. (The Song of Los, plate 3, 11. 1-2)18 Blake is using the image of the poet-prophet figure as a minstrel or an Anglo-Saxon scop, t e l l i n g his prophetic poem in the mead-ha l l of the Eternals. Befitting his elevated position, Los sings to four harps which parallel the four-fold vision of the Eternals and the four Zoas of man.. As in the beginning of The F i r s t Book  of Urizen, Los is in a position which suggests that the Eternals have confidence in him, and that foreshadows his role as the Zoa who can lead the other Zoas to reunion which results in the re-surrection of Albion. Los i s separated from the Eternals, although he i s among them. Unlike them, he moves in the fal l e n world and his song is concerned with events in that world. Obviously he has not lost knowledge of Eternity, but rather moves freely through a l l levels 17 Although, with Bloom, "I tend to sympathize...with Middleton Hurry's bias against p o l i t i c a l interpretation...," (Bloom, p. 165), I feel that Blake's temporary va c i l l a t i o n bet-ween Ore, the s p i r i t of external revolution, and Los, the s p i r i t of internal revolution, as redemptive agent can be seen in the context of the events in France in the early 1790*s, when the revolutionaries changed from liberators to bloody tyrants. 18 Hereafter cited as SoL. 33 of existence as does the Bard of the "Introduction to The Songs of Experience." In The Song of Los, Los t e l l s how Urizen*s laws are dis-tributed to mankind by the children of Los with the cruel results innate in the re s t r i c t i v e laws themselves, showing what happens when the creative imagination lapses and is forced to act entirely under the directives of reason. Adam shudder'd! Noah faded! black grew the sunny African When Rintrah gave Abstract Philosophy to Brama in the East. Moses beheld upon Mount Sinai forms of dark delusion. To Trismegistus, Palamabron gave an abstract Law: To Pythagoras, Socrates & Plato. (SoL, plate 3, 11. 10-19) Each nation becomes immersed in fixed laws and religion of sta t i c particular details, forgetting that: The Religions of a l l Nations are derived from each Nation's different reception of the Poet16;Genius, which is everywhere call'd the Spirit of Prophecy. (A l l Religions Are One, Keynes, p. 9 8 ) So immersed do the nations become that " l i k e a dream, Eternity was obliterated & erased" from their perceptions. In this context, the nations are macrocosms of what happens in the microcosm of each individual man when he becomes governed by the element of reason in his psyche, loses his faith in the Divine Wisdom as perceived by his imagination, and f a l l s into disorder. 34 In The Song of Los, Los is working upon several levels at once. As a poet, he is narrating his vision to the Eternals. His children work for Urizen: ...the terrible race of Los & Enitharmon gave Laws & Religion to the sons of Har, binding them more And more to Earth, closing and restraining T i l l a Philosophy of Five Senses was complete. (SoL, plate 4, 11. 13-16) This "Philosophy" emphasizes the r e s t r i c t i v e aspects and the misuse of the vegetative form created to arrest the f a l l . Yet another son of Los howls at the binding of man, him-self bound down with the Chain of Jealousy. The howling, heard by the Kings of Asia, causes them to move toward release: And each ran out from his Web, From his ancient woven Den; For the darkness of Asia was startled At the thick-flaming, thought-creating f i r e s of Ore. (SoL, plate 6, 11. 3-6) As Ore rises, Urizen weeps and man moves toward corporeal war. The Grave shrieks "with delight" at the prospect of so much fodder. Jesus appears bri e f l y in The Song of Los. He i s given a "Gospel"' and although, "a man of sorrows", he is not helpful in alleviating the suffering of man. Instead, his gospel appears to be part of the binding Urizenic religious law, under the influence of which The human race began to wither, for the healthy built Secluded places, fearing the joys of Love, And the diseased only propagated. (SoL, plate 3, 11. 25-27) 35 This Jesus figure is far from the Divine Vision who w i l l inspire Los. At this point in the development of Blake's concept of the function of the poet-prophet, Los himself i s not an active agent of redemption. Instead, the function f a l l s upon one of his sons, Ore, who works to destroy the r e s t r i c t i v e , non-redemptive forces, of the other sons, Rintrah and Palamabron, who, at this point, are merely tools of the restr i c t i n g paternal law-giver Urizen. It appears that Ore, representing active eternal revolution, i s the redemptive agent, instead of Los, who represents the force which would restore man through the achievement of reorganized vision. As with Europe, we can see that Blake has not yet fixed upon Los. Los appears only twice in The Book of Ahania,*-9 printed in 1795, for the Book i s the story of the struggle between Urizen and the fi e r y s p i r i t of rebellion, here embodied as his own son, Fuzon, instead of as Ore. As Northrop Frye sayst The use of a son of Urizen in the place of Ore in a poem engraved in 1795 indicates that Blake is becoming increasingly aware that by "Ore" he means something inseparably attached to Urizen.20 Since Blake is s t i l l emphasising the redemptive qualities of Since The Book of Ahanla carries on the story of Urizen, Keynes logically speculates that " i t was probably intended to be The Second Book of Urizen, but Blake changed his mind." (Keynes, p. 895) Blake abandoned the book after printing one copy (Keynes, P. 896). 20 Fearful Symmetry, p. 214. 36 the s p i r i t of rebellion, Los hovers uneasily in the background; moreover, i t is Urizen who operates the forge. He works upon a protective shield and operates without heat. It was forg'd in the mills where the winter Beats incessantt ten winters the disk Unremitting endur'd the cold hammer. (The Book of Ahania, 2 1 plate 2, 11. 23-25) This coldness is a symbolic representation of the cool, calcula-ting nature of Urizen's intellectually controlled a c t i v i t i e s . In contrast, the hot forge of Los causes metal to flow and be molded, but such flux i s antithetical to a l l that Urizen desires. Because the shield i s so inadequately forged without the benefit of the f i r e s of the creative imagination, i t is pierced by Fuzon's beam of f i r e s . Urizen's cold and hence unproductive loins are divided by that same beam of f i r e , causing him to be separated Erom Ahania, his female portion, or Emanation. At this point, Blake returns focus to the beam of li g h t . But the firey beam of Fuzon Was a p i l l a r of f i r e to Egypt Five hundred years wand'ring on earth, T i l l Los siez'd i t and beat in a mass With body of the sun, (BoA, plate 2, 11. 44-48) The force that has injured the r i g i d law-gives Urizen, immersed in selfhood, belongs with the light of the creative imagination as symbolized by the sun, usually associated with Los, who binds Hereafter abbreviated as BoA, 37 i t to Urizen in The First Book of Urizen and forges i t in The Book  of Los. Los and the s p i r i t of revolution, be he Ore or Fuzon, have this much in common: both have energy with which to struggle with the tyrannical Urizen. Los* energy is that of the creative imagi-nation; Orc-Fuzon's is that of physical violence. Los* main action in The Book of Ahania takes place after Fuzon i s crucified in a manner which reminds us of the death of Jesus and of the fact that, in a time of revolution, the lofty aspirations of the revolutionaries die or are perverted. Disease, representing orthodox religion, is rampant and "bones of man'* hurtle amid "clouds of disease." The Eternal Prophet beat on his anvils; Enrag'd in the desolate darkness He forg'd nets of iron around And Los threw them around the bones. (BoA. plate 4, 11. 27-30) Here we see Los working with his forge, striving to retain some degree of order to prevent total disintegration. However, as the creative imagination by i t s e l f is not effective in halting the conflict between reason and the s p i r i t of revolution, Los does not stop the conflict between Urizen and Fuzon. Not u n t i l Los is inspired by Jesus can he elevate man to transcendence of endless cycle through the restoration of integrated vision. The Book ends with Ahania pleading with Urizen to accept her in the joy of sexual love. Rejected when Urizen rejected sexuality through immersion in selfhood, she bemoans her state of being held " i n these chains of darkness." The conclusion echoes the "Earth's 38 Answer" in The Songs of Experience, as noted by Harold Bloom in Blake's Apocalypse. 2 2 In Ahania's situation, however, there is no Bard to c a l l her and to watch over her, for Los i s not yet defined in his role at this point, not even succeeding in con-t r o l l i n g the struggle between Urizen and his son. In this poem, there is no salvation for Ahania -- i t ends in a bitter and hopeless outburst against her situation, for she can find re-demption only through reunion with Urizen who is too power-hungry and s e l f i s h to unite with her. Los is associated with the f i e r y forge, in contrast to the cold forge of Urizen. Aside from his name, we recognize him as much by his association with the forge as by his actions, redemp-tive only to the extent that they arrest the flux of the f a l l . The Book of Ahania shows Blake's indecision concerning the roles of Los and Ore (here Fuzon), a v a c i l l a t i o n which comes to a c r i s i s in The Four Zoas. The disruption of the Eternal, Albion, is related for a f i a a l time in the minor prophecies In The Book of Los, printed in 1795. This time the focus is on Los, the Eternal Prophet. When we see him f i r s t , he i s raging and breaking chains which bound him to the watching of Urizen, the position of trust assigned to him in The F i r s t Book of Urizen by the Eternals. Los finds himself enclosed in ...a solid Without fluctuation, hard as adamant, Black as marble of Egypt, impenetrable. . . . (The Book of Urizen. 2 3 plate 4, 11. 4-6) 2 2Bloom, p. 195. ^Hereafter abbreviated as BoL. 39 Feeling his senses restricted by the solid sought by the r i g i d , reasoning Urizen, Los breaks free in "Prophetic vrath" for, unlike Urizen, he cannot endure res t r i c t i o n of his senses. Breaking free from the r i g i d i t y which is analogous to Urizenic thought, Los rejects one solution open to man fal l e n into the state of Experience. Instead of accepting res t r i c t i o n , Los chooses to continue his f a l l , during which: "tho* day or night was not, their spaces Were measur'd by his incessant whirls In the horrid vacuity bottomless." (BoL, plate 4, 11. 34-36) Even while f a l l i n g , Los organizes Time, anticipating his function of introducing the stabilizing order necessary to give man the opportunity to grow towards reintegration and Eternity. Like Blake, and alike a l l creative s p i r i t s , Los must find his own system, for he cannot accept one imposed upon him from without. Only when Los* wrath subsides and he begins to think himself does his descent slow and become a d r i f t i n g , "oblique" movement. This tempering of one aspect of the individual's psyche with another, energetic wrath with thought, successfully stops the f a l l and emphasizes the importance of the integration of the parts of man's mind, an integration which is fundamental to Blake's myth of Albion. Los begins to assume human form with " f i n i t e inflexible organs" and, as a result of the working of his mind, begins to cope with the void, 40 t i l l the Vacuum Became element, pliant to rise Or to f a l l or swim or to f l y , With ease searching the dire vacuity. (BoL, plate 4, 11. 50-53) He adapts himself to his environment and organizes i t , "separating the heavy from the thin." In this separation, heavy solids sink and, the "thin" r i s i n g , light i s now perceived, surely a step toward restoration of vision. Los sees Urizen's backbone, which he had seen formed in The F i r s t Book of Urizen. He reacts by building tic instruments of the creative powersi the furnaces, the anvil, and the hammer, with which he can control Urizen. In his forge, Los creates the sun, which becomes his symbol, tempering i t as a blacksmith does his metals (BoL, plate 5, 11. 27-45). His work continues for nine ages u n t i l , having been dipped into the Deeps (the cosmos) the globe "stood self-balanc*d." Having begun the creation of the universe, Los binds the sun to the spine of Urizen, who l i e s in torment. In The Book of Los, Blake has established some of the func-tions of the Eternal Prophet. Los divides Time, establishing an order so that man w i l l be given an opportunity to reorganize. Also, Los tends his creative forge and, with i t , brings the sun into existence. The sun becomes the symbol of Los' creative powers and, as such, is the li f e - g i v i n g force in the vegetative universe. Los binds the sun to Urizen's vegetative body, binding creative inspiration to reason, an act which symbolizes the fettering of the creative and imaginative powers as they occur in f a l l e n man. The vegetative form of man must be used and then 41 transcended so that the imaginative powers can be flexible and free again, and so that the parts of man's psyche can work to-gether. Blake presents fragments of the myth of Albion in the minor prophecies. In these fragments, we see the beginnings of the concept of Los as the redemptive agent, although his powers are limited by his own f a l l as part of Albion. S t i l l present, how-ever, is a confusion with the role of Ore, the s p i r i t of revolu-tion in the material world. As pointed out earlier, Blake resolves the confusion in Night the Seventh of The Four Zoas, in which Los is inspired by Jesus 2^ to bring about revolution within man.. Los leads toward apocalyptic reunion of the whole man, as the Bard in the "Introduction" to The Songs of Experience is attempting to lead Earth to a reintegration and restoration of vision. In the,last three prophecies, The Four Zoas, Milton, and Jerusalem, we see the process in f u l l size, and in them, the function of Los is c l a r i f i e d . * Obviously, the Jesus of inspiration is not the Jesus we have seen as "man of sorrows" in SoL, or as the child whose birth in Europe heralds the beginning of the 1800 years of Enitharmon's rule through "Thou Shalt Not" laws. (Keynes, p..243) 42 Chapter Three - Los In The Four Zoas While In the minor prophecies we are given only pieces of Blake's total myth of the f a l l , we are given several versions of it in The Four Zoas, f i r s t called Vala or The Death and Judgement  of the Ancient Man a DREAM of Nine Nights.* The varying accounts emphasize the fact that none of the component parts of man, called Zoas, have comprehensive vision, this unity having been lost in the f a l l . We have versions and episodes which interweave and intersect as do the parts of a dream. In the introductory passage to Night the Fi r s t , Blake t e l l s us a l l we can know as absolute about the inter-relationships of the Zoas and, hence, about their f a l l : Four Mighty Ones are In every Man; a Perfect Unity Cannot Exist but from the Universal Brotherhood of Eden, The Universal Man, to Whom be Glory Evermore, Amen. What are the Natures of those Living Creatures the Heavenly Father only Knoweth, No Individual knoweth (not), nor can know in a l l Eternity.^ (Night the F i r s t , 11. 9-13) Having warned us, by implication, about seeking one un-alterable version of the f a l l , Blake presents several, each, H i t l e page of The Four Zoas, Keynes, p. 263. In the Keynes edition, Blake*s late additions and corrections are printed in i t a l i c s . (Notes, Keynes, p. 897) 43 of course, concerning Los as the fallen form of Urthona, whose existence is crucial to the resurrection of Albion. If we are the attentive sort of readers whom Blake wishes to attract, we piece the story together from the accounts of Enitharmon, Ahania, Tharmas, Urizen, the Shadow of Enitharmon, and the Spectre of Urthona. Blake is very definite about the readers he wants, as he states in a letter to Dr. Trusler, dated 23 August 1799: You say that I want somebody to Elucidate my Ideas. But you ought to know that what is Grand is necessarily obscure to Weak Men. That which can be made explicit to the Idiot i s not worth my care. The wisest of the Ancients consider*d what is not too Explicit as the f i t t e s t for Instruction, because i t rouzes the faculties to act. I name Moses, Solomon, Esop, Homer, Plato. (Keynes, p. 793) If we are not deterred by Blake's demands, we s i f t through Albion's dream to find what happens inside man when he f a l l s from Innocence into Experience."' In summary, we find Albion, symbolic of each man, relaxing in sexual ease to such an extent that, instead of being refreshed by the relaxation, he loses the delicate balance of the four component parts of his psyche, the balance which is necessary to maintain man in Eternity (or in the state of serene Innocence). Love and sexual passion (Luvah) desire too much power, unseating the reason (Urizen). The reasoning power desires the passionate intensity and divine power of love. In terms of the myth, Urizen gives the "Horses of Light", symbolic of the The changes in perception of and reaction to the eternal world as a result of the f a l l Blake has explored in The Songs of  Innocence and of Experience. See Chapter One. 44 reasoning power ased correctly, to Luvah (or permits Luvah to steal them). Thus Luvah has the power which should belong to reason. In return, Urizen receives the wine of the Almighty, which should belong to Luvah, as the power of love, sp i r i t u a l or carnal. Thus the reasoning power, Urizen, assumes divinity in drunken perversion of the symbolic representation of the blood of Jesus, the wine which we shall see in the apocalyptic Harvest and Vintage of Nations. The positions of Luvah and Urizen being exchanged, each out of place, the whole man f a l l s . Urthona, the prophetic Zoa of the Imagination, who is part of God in man, or the Poetic Genius, and Tharmas, the ordering "Parent pow'r", find themselves in chaos. Thus the parts of man are in confusion, and Jerusalem, man's emanation, is abandoned to ruin. The whole man, having lost a l l perspective, succumbs to a sleep which is similar to the state of Experience in i t s lack of perception. The whole poem i s , in effect, Albion's dream while he sleeps. The Four  Zoas begins in the midst of the f a l l into disorder, and only when the mythic characters indulge in reminiscence and mutual accusa-tion do we learn of the contributing circumstances, each version being highly influenced by the subjectivity of i t s narrator. In the fallen world, one of the Zoas, Los, retains more of the Divine Vision than the others, and therefore works to halt the f a l l , to reunite the whole man, and to bring him back to Eternity. Los, who was Urthona, is born into the vegetative world through Divine Mercy. As Northrop Frye points out, we are not given much information 45 about Urthona.* We see him functioning in Eternity after the re. surrectiom ...Urthona rises from the ruinous Walls In a l l his ancient strength to form the golden armour of science For intellectual War. (Night the Ninth, 11. 852-854) In this situation, he works as the creative imagination must in the mind of the individual who has the complete vision of the state of Innocencet he synthesizes what the individual perceives through his integrated psyche to form the Divine Vision of Unity with which that individual takes part in l i f e and responds actively with love, reason, imagination, and a feeling of unity with a l l men. Urthona's f a l l takes place, as does the f a l l of Albion himself, because of the actions of Urizen and Luvah. Urizen admits that, as he f e l l , "I seiz'd thee, dark Urthona." (Night the F i f t h , 1. 225) The Spectre of Urthona gives the details f i r s t to Tharmas (Night the Fourth,L.lS4ff.) and later to the Shadow of Enitharmon (Night the Seventh, 1. 278 f f . ) . Perhaps i t is because Urthona appears more as victim than perpetrator of the f a l l that Los, his fa l l e n form, retains more vision than any of the other Zoas, and can, therefore, be the agent of redemption. In presenting the birth of Los, Blake employs the same technique he used to narrate the f a l l of the whole man, Albion. ^Fearful Symmetry, p. 291. See the following pages for Frye's complete statement on Urthona. 46 Again we oust piece the story together* Essentially Urthona him-self undergoes a separating f a l l similar to Albion's. ...."I saw "My loins begin to break forth into the veiny pipes & writhe "Before me in the wind englobing, trembling with strong vibrations, "The bloody mass began to animate. I, bending over, "Wept bitter tears incessant. S t i l l beholding how the piteous form "Dividing & dividing from my loins, a weak & piteous "Soft cloud of snow, a female pale & weak, I soft embrac'd "My counterpart & c a l l e d i t Love. I nam'd her Enitharmon . . . ." (Night the Fourth, 11. 93-100) The female aspect of Urthona is separate, hence out of control and free to do e v i l . The Spectre of Urthona describes his own birth: "A shadow blue, obscure & dismal, from the breathing Nostrils "Of Enion I issued into the a i r , divided from Enitharmon. "I howl'd in sorrow." (Night the Fourth, 11. 105-107) Los must do battle with the Spectre throughout his career as redemptive agent, for the Spectre i s : ...the isolated subjective aspect of existence in this world, the energy with which man or any other l i v i n g thing copes with nature . . . . In a poet the Spectre of Urthona is what is usually called the "man" in him, the identity that grapples directly with nature and gets along in the world, that earns a liv i n g and meets other people and supports a family and acquires opinions. It furnishes the pride, self-respect and personal ambition without which no genius could function. 5 Fearful Symmetry, pp. 292-3 47 Obviously, when the Spectre of Urthona is not under the control of Los (as the creative imagination), i t becomes a se l f i s h power which seeks only self-aggrandizement, and thus wars against the force of selfless imaginative power necessary for Los* redemptive functions, Los and Enitharmon are born into the vegetative world from the womb of Enion, the mother figure of the fallen world and f i t t i n g emanation of Tharmas, "Parent pow'r" and unifying aspect of the fallen world. The facts of the birth are important as they result in Tharmas' eventual recognition of Los as Urthona (Night the Fourth, 1, 131), a recognition which temporarily halts s t r i f e and moves Tharmas to assign Los the task of rebuilding the fal l e n universe, as he (Tharmas) hopes a return to some sort of order w i l l result in reunion with Enion. At the time of the birth, emphasis is placed on the fallen nature of the eventt ... with fierce pain, she bfcought forth on the rocks her sorrow & woe: Behold two l i t t l e Infants wept upon the desolate wind, (Night the F i r s t , 11. 191-2) However grim their birth may be, the survival of Los and Enitharmon is a result of the mercy of the daughters of Beulah, those benign fiemale beings whose domain is "from Great Eternity a mild & pleasant rest" (Night the F i r s t , 1. 94), and whose function is to watch over the sleepers in Beulah to prevent them from f e l l i n g into "Eternal Death" (Night the F i r s t , 1. 100). Although they are t e r r i f i e d at the f a l l of Albion, one of the daughters helps Enion and her children: 48 Asco&ish'd sat her sisters of Beulah to see her soft affection  To Enion & her children, & they ponder'd these things wond*ring, And they Alternate kept watch over the Youthful terror. They saw not yet the Hand Divine, for i t was not yet reveal*d,  But they went on in silent Hope & Feminine repose. (Night the F i r s t , 11. 227-232) Although Jesus, as manifestation of the "Hand Divine", i s not yet guiding Los, his intervention i s foreshadowed by the mercy of the daughters of Beulah. The fal l e n form of Urthona, then, is Los, who divided from his female aspect, Enitharmon, and from the Spectre of Urthona. (An additional part, the Shadow of Enitharmon, exists only for a short time, as a result of a Urizenic plot in Night the Seventh.) In divitfien, Los becomes a microcosm of Albion, the whole man, who is divided and fragmented to such a degree that he has lost the Divine Vision, just as the individual moving from Innocence to Experience loses the perception of God as lamb. As the aspect of Albion who w i l l work toward reintegration, Los, with Enitharmon, becomes aware of certain powers l e f t to him from his identity in Eternity. He employs them in various ways, directed in the early Nights of the dream by the other fall e n Zoas, each of whom is trying to be God, the ultimate controlling force. The development of these powers continues with limited success u n t i l Los is inspired by Jesus, sent by the Eternals to aid him in resurrecting the fallen Albion. The 49 children become aware of their specific powerst His head beamed light & in his vigorous voice was prophecy. He could controll the time & seasons & the days & years; She could controll the spaces, regions, desert, flood & forest,... (Night the F i r s t , 11. 239-241) Through time and space, not i n t r i n s i c a l l y desir£able conditions when compared to Eternity, the Zoas are arrested in their f a l l and given a chance to re-organize in hopes of achieving unity and reascending. The child Los outlines their function: "But we, immortal in our own strength, survive by stern debate " T i l l we have drawn the Lamb of God into a mortal form. "And that he must be born is certain, for One must be A l l "And comprehend within himself a l l things both small & great, "We therefore, for whose sake a l l things aspire to be & li v e "Will so receive the Divine Image that amongst the Reprobate „ "He may be devoted to destruction^fiVa mother's womb," (Night the F i r s t , 11. 290-298) Because he retains some of the knowledge and s k i l l s of the unfallea existence, Los knows that he and Enitharmon w i l l be instrumental in causing the incarnation of Jesus in the vegetative universe, although he has not yet begun the production of the vegetative bodies so crucial to the redemptive process. The bodies w i l l provide forms for the abstract " t e r r i f i c Passions 6c Affections/ Of Spectrous Dead" (Night the Eighth, 11. 208-9), so that at the 50 time of the apocalypse, error can be recognized and cast off.° From birth, Jesus w i l l be devoted to the destruction of the vege-tative bodies, not that they are e v i l in themselves, but because, with their limited perceptive capabilities, they must be trans-cended, Blake at no time suggests that the mortal body is e v i l ; on the contrary, he refers to Generation as the "image of Regeneration" (Jerusalem, plate 7, 1, 65), To him, the birth, death, and resurrection of Jesus in The Four Zoas i s symbolic of how the body should be used and transcended (Night the Eighth, 11. 260-267). Among the f i r s t of Los' redemptive actions is his refusal to work for Urizen (Night the F i r s t , 11. 331-334). In doing so, he resists domination by the delusive, rationalizing power of reason which can ask: "Why should the Divine Vision corapell the sons of Eden "To forego each his own delight, to war against his spectre? "The Spectre is the Man. The rest is only delusion & fancy." (Night the Fi r s t , 11. 339-341) Having successfully resisted Urizen's appeal to selfhood, Los agrees to work for Tharmas after the inevitable collapse of The Spectres of the Dead can be compared to abstract, un-formed ideas. When an idea is given form (as when written down as a poem), i t can be recognized and accepted or discarded. This i s essentially what happens when the Spectres (abstractions) are given form. Aspects of them which are unacceptable (such as selfishness) can be le f t behind with the vegetative body when, in the apocalypse, that form is transcended, Urizen, on the other hand, holds power by keeping the Spectres unformed and, there-fore, vague. The Tree of Mystery symbolizes the Urizenic religious doctrine of unquestioned obedience to laws, the reasons for which are as vague as the reason, in orthodox Christianity, for the Edenic prohibition concerning the f r u i t of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and E v i l . 51 Urizen's Mundane Egg (Night the Third, 11. 135 f f . ) , which was produced without the aid of the creative imagination. Agreement between Los and Tharmas, however, is not without d i f f i c u l t i e s . Los rightly resists Tharmas* claim of godhead, but wrongly asserts his own: "And Los remains God over a l l , weak father of worms & clay. "I know I was Urthona, keeper of the gates of heaven, "But now I am a l l powerful Los, & Urthona but my shadow." (Night the Fourth, 11. 41-43) As punishment, Tharmas, once the Zoa of unity, but now chaotic in his f a l l e n state, divides Los from his female aspect, Enitharmon (Night the Fourth, 11. 56 f f . ) . Reunion occurs when, through concern for Los* preservation, the Spectre of Urthona explains the identity of Los to Tharmas. Tharmas recognizes Los as his son by Enion. Although Tharmas s t i l l asserts godhead, Los works for him, motivated, at least in part, by fear: Terrified, Los beheld the ruins of Urizen beneath, A horrible Chaos to his eyes, a formless unmeasureable Death Whirling up broken rocks on high into the dismal a i r And fluctuating a l l beneath in Eddies of molten f l u i d . (Night the Fourth, 11. 161-164) Beginning to work, Los organizes the powers he was born with: ...in his hand the thundering Hammer of Urthona forming under his heavy hand the hours, The days & years, in chains of iron round the limbs of Urizen Llnk'd hour to hour & day to night & night to day & year to year, In periods of pulsative furor; mills he form'd & works Of many wheels resistless in the power of dark Urthona. (Night the Fourth, 11. 179-183) 52 Time is created within which the fa l l e n Zoas w i l l be given an opportunity to reintegrate through incarnation in the vegetative universe, Los misunderstands the intervention of the Saviour who found the limits of Opacity and of Contraction <so that "Limit/ Was put to Eternal Death" (Night the Fourth, 11, 275-276), As in The Book  of Urizen, Los himself loses vision and f a l l s : . . . t e r r i f i e d at the Shapes Enslav*d humanity put on, he became what he beheIds He became what he was doing: he was himself transform'd. (Night the Fourth, 11. 284-286) So immersed does Los become that his furnaces go out; that i s , his powers of creativity decline sharply and man reaches the lowest point in the f a l l into Experience, that of complete involvement in the vegetative universe. Los then creates in a new way, a way befitting his new form. He embraces Enitharmon, who gives birth to a child, Ore. 7 In un-redemptive jealousy which shows the extent of his f a l l , Los chains down Ore with the Chain of Jealousy, thus i n i t i a t i n g the Ore cycle discussed ear l i e r in Chapter Two and explored at length by Northrop Frye, 8 a cycle which must be transcended before the resurrection of Albion. It is interesting to note that Blake presents the birth of Ore, the f i e r y s p i r i t of rebellion and external revolution, taking place when the creative imagination is in i t s most fal l e n form. When man is immersed in the world of Experience, he uses his energy to create violence and revolution, for the visionary "furnaces" are out. 8Fearful Symmetry, p, 207 f f . 53 While Ore is a child, Los begins to build a structure which we w i l l see grow in importance as we follow Blake's myth through the later poems, Milton and Jerusalem. The structure i s , of course, Golgonooza, the great city of redemptive art. In The Four Zoas, however, the cit y does not r i s e out of joy: ....Los around her (Enitharmon} builded p i l l a r s of iron And brass & s i l v e r & gold fourfold, in dark prophetic fear, For now he fear'd Eternal Death & uttermost Extinction: He builded Golgonooza on the Lake of Udan Adan, Upon the Limit of Translucence then he builded Luban. Tharmas laid the Foundation & Los finish'd i t in howling Woe. (Night the F i f t h , 11. 73-78) As S. Foster Damon suggests, "the beginning of revolt [the birth of OrcJ starts the poetic instinct's creation." 9 Perhaps more important, Los builds the structure out of fear of "Eternal Death", a fact which foreshadows the later function of Golgonooza as the place in which Los and Enitharmon build the redemptive works of art which are the vegetative bodies for the Spectres of the Dead (Night the Seventh, 1. 454 f f . ) . The building of the c i t y shortly after the birth of Ore brings into opposition the two forces « internal revolution through art and external revolution through bloodshed -- which Blake w i l l choose between in Night the Seventh. As has been suggested earlier, the crucial point in Los* 'A Blake Dictionary, p. 164. career and, indeed, in Blake's total myth, comes in Night the Seventh of The Four Zoas. Blake wrote two versions of the Night, one labelled "a" in the Keynes edition and emphasizing Los' in-ihspiration by Jesus and reunion with the Spectre of Urthona, and the other, labelled "b" and making no reference to the Spectre or the inspiration by Jesus. Keynes suggests that the version without the inspiration of Jesus ("b") was written as the later of the two.10 Northrop Frye, however, does not agree: The reader w i l l notice that there are two versions of Night VII, and that the only one we have spoken of so far is the one beginning "Then Urizen arose." [Keynes• version "a"] The other is certainly earlier, (Keynes' version "b'jj and in symbolism is an undifferentiated mixture of the present Nights VII and VIII. Most of what was valuable in i t was transferred to Jerusalem} John Middleton Murry, too, feels that the "inspir'd" reunion of Los and the Spectre of Urthona (as found in Keynes* version "a") is in keeping with the later developments of Blake's myth. Con-cerning The Four Zoas, Murry writes: The last phase of the book belongs, s p i r i t u a l l y and creatively, to the same order of illumination as Milton. A l l the fundamental insights which make of Milton so rapturous an adventure are unmistakeably present in the last phase of The Four Zoas; and,... the eternal moment of creative vision out of which Milton inevitably grew, is clearly indicated in Night VII of The Four Zoas. 1 2 Harold Bloom concludes"on internal evidence" that Keynes' version *°Keynes, p. 320 fn, H Fearful Symmetry, p. 298. 12 Murry, p. 158. 55 "a" was the later of the two.*3 We shall see as we proceed to examine the events of Night the Seventh that the intercession of Jesus to cause the reunion of the parts of the fal l e n Los is crucial to Los* directed action toward the resurrection of Albion which follows. Blake found that, after presenting the f a l l of the redemptive agent, he must provide for the restoration of selfless vision in that agent so that he could help the fallen man, Albion, to r i s e again. The fallen individual in Experience cannot r i s e again u n t i l he achieves a certain mental statef Blake found that he could not explain how that state i s achieved when the imagination i s dulled by the f a l l , except f i n a l l y through Divine Mercy in the form of Jesus. From this realization, Blake proceeded to conclude The Four Zoas, and to write the two parts of the f i n a l poem, Milton and Jerusalem. Let us return to The Four Zoas to see a definite change in Los after his inspiration by Jesus in Night the Seventh. Before the moment of inspiration, a Urizenic plot is in progress, the purpose of which is "To bring the Shadow of Enitharmon beneath our wond rous tree, "That Los may evaporate like smoke & be no more, "Draw down Enitharmon to the Spectre of Urthona, "And let him have dominion over Los, the terrible shade." (Night the Seventh, 11. 113-116) The plot succeeds to some extent, for Los and Enitharmon are separated and she hides in the labyrinthine branches of the Tree of Mystery, an act which represents the coy withholding of herself l 3Blooa, p. 266. 56 as sanctioned by conventional religion, the latter symbolized by Urizen's Tree. Enitharmon herself is divided from her Shadow, which is recognized and loved by the Spectre of Urthona. Pregnant through the love of the Spectre, the Shadow bursts the gates of Enitharmon's heart (Night the Seventh, 11. 323-324). As a result, Enitharmon w i l l never again be able to close her heart against Los. Los feels pity for her because she is hurt, but this time i t i s not a dividing, superior feeling) on the contrary, i t is a true, sympathetic pity, for the loving "Spectre enter'd Los's bosom" (Night the Seventh, 1. 336). Being receptive and open, Los unites with his Spectre, who, "inspir'd", explains the situation] 1 "Tho' horrible & Ghastly to thine Eyes, tho' buried beneath "The ruins i f the Universe, hear what inspir'd I speak, & be si l e n t . " I f we unite in one, another better world w i l l be "Open'd within your heart & loins & wondrous brain, "Threefold, as i t was in Eternity, & this, the fourth universe, "Will be Renew'd by the three 6c consummated in the Mental f i r e s . . . . " (Night the Seventh, 11. 351-356) The Spectre, "by Divine Mercy inspir'd" convinces Los, who opens within and resolves to "quell my fury & teach/Peace to the soul of dark revenge & repentance to Cruelty" (Night the Seventh, 11. 368-369). Los, the Spectre, and Enitharmon reunite and the true, focused labour of redemption begins, initiated by the Divine Vision. But This Union Was not to be Effected without Cares & Sorrows & Troubles Of six thousand Years of self denial and(many Tears del.J of bitter Contrition. (Night the Seventh, 11. 398-400) 57 Los and Enitharmon eat the f r u i t of the Uritenic Tree of Mystery and, hence, worry about futurity, fearing that the Lamb of God "Will give us to Eternal Death, f i t punishment for such "Hideous offenders: Uttermost extinction in eternal pain: "An ever dying l i f e of s t i f l i n g & obstruction: shut out "Of existence to be a sign & terror to e l l who behold, "Lest any should in futurity do as we have done in heaven. "Such is our state; nor w i l l the Son of God redeem us, but destroy." (Night the Seventh, 11. 426-431) These fears foreshadow Los* reaction to the death of Jesus in Night the Ninth, when he fears that the loss of the vegetative body means "Eternal Death." Overcoming his fears through selfless concern for the Spectres of the Dead, Los is the complete a r t i s t again and Golgo-nooza r e a l l y begins to take shape. Los and Enitharmon together produce their special redemptive works, the vegetative embodiments for the spectres who lack forms.^ Los creates the forms and Enitharmon colours them, working in union as did William and Catherine Blake in producing the printed, material forms of Blake's redemptive ideas.*5 Rintrah and Palaroabron,*6 sons of Los, appear " i n infant innocence" and even Ore i s relatively quiet now ^See footnote 6. 1 5Murry, p. 168. * 6Rintrah and Palamabron become important characters in Milton, but are mentioned only bri e f l y in The Four Zoas. 58 that Blake has established focus upon Los. As the Eldest brother is the father's Image, so Ore became As Los, a father to his brethren, & he joy'd in the dark lake . . . . (Night the Seventh, 11. 479-480) The inspiration of Jesus is so effective that Los feels love even for Urizen, a fact that reveals the extent of his restored vision. He no longer hates individuals, as vould a person with the limited vision of the state of Experience; instead, as we shall see in Night the Eighth (1. 379 f f . ) , he hates the e v i l that Urizen has in him. In his work, Los is aided by the strength of Tharmas and Urthona, as well as by a l l his sons and daughters. A l l are unified by the love of Jesus. In Los' redemptive works are A l l mortal things made permanent that they may be put off Time after time by the Divine Lamb who died for a l l And a l l in him died, 6 t he put off a l l mortality. (Night the Eighth, 11. 482-484) While the redemptive a r t i f i c e s take shape, Urizen rises one f i n a l time, seeking "To undermine the World of Los 6 c Eni-tharmon" (Night the Eighth, 1. 98). The e v i l in Urizen takes separate form: Terrified 6 c astonish'd, Urizen beheld the battle take a form Which he intended not: a Shadowy {male d e l j hermaphrodite, black & opake; The soldiers nam'd i t Satan . . . . (Night the Eighth, 11. 102-104) 59 Deluded by the Shadowy Female (Night the Eighth, 1. 145 f f . ) , and "tangled in his own net" (Night the Eighth, 1. 181), Urizen repents. From this point, the chief enemy of Los and Enitharmon is Satan, a force which Los explains: "There is a State nam'd Satan; learn distinct to know, 0 Rahab! "The difference between States & Individuals of those States. "The State nam'd Satan never can be redeem'd in a l l Eternity; "But when Luvah in Ore became a Serpent, he descended into "That State eall'd Satan." (Night the E i g h t h , i l l . 379-383) The unredeemable state must be abhorred, but we can s t i l l love the individual, just as we saw that Los loves Urizen. In their struggle against Satan, Los and Enitharmon are aided by Jesus who Pitying ... descended thro' Jerusalem's gates To put off Mystery time after time; & as a Man Is born on Earth, so was he born of Eair Jerusalem In oystery's woven mantle, & in the Robes of Luvah. (Night the Eighth, 11. 260-263) He i s crucified on the Tree of Mystery, an act which represents the attempt of orthodox r e l i g i o n to destroy the doctrine of love. Los knows that Jesus dies because of Satan, but f a i l s to under-stand the actual crucifixion. At the time of the crucifixion, Los is frightened at the death and does not perceive Jesus standing beside him in s p i r i t . When Jesus begins "separating/Their s p i r i t from their body" (Night the Ninth, 11. 4-5), Los is quite reasonably afraid, as is any 60 Individual facing death, no matter how sure he i s of another form of existence. Terrified at Non Existence, For such they deem'd the death of the body, Los his vegetable hands Outstretch'd; his right hand branching out in fibrous strength, Seiz'd the Sun; His l e f t hand, like dark roots, cover'd the Moon, And tore them down, cracking the heavens across from immense to immense. (Night the Ninth, 11. 5-9) As Harold Bloom points out,^-7 Los begins apocalyptic des-truction of the fixed vegetable world without conscious redemptive purpose. While Los' reaction i s psychologically valid as the reaction of the individual facing the death of the body, i t is not a deliberate redemptive action such as we might expect from Los after he has been inspired by the Divine Vision. On the other hand, we oust remember that Los JL_s a fallen form only Urthona would have complete vision. Blake is attempting to pro-duce the instant of movement from Experience to Innocence, from the temporal world to Eternity. Since that instant i s only an instant, Blake has d i f f i c u l t y in presenting i t through the relat i v e l y slow medium of the printed page. The problem Blake encounters i s in t r i n s i c in the attempt to present the internal events in the resurrection of the fa l l e n man. Los' work culminates as the Last Judgement begins, with "millions" standing in "flames of mental fire,/Bathing their limbs in the bright visions of Eternity" (Night the Ninth, 11. 44-45). The destruction of the Tree of Mystery in the f i r e symbolizes the 1 7Bloom, p. 291. 61 end of the perverted mysterious religions. Albion awakes and sees Jerusalem, his emanation, "which now descendeth out of heaven, a c i t y , yet a Woman" (Night the Ninth, 1. 222). The dead r i s e . The judge who condemned Jesus begs forgiveness. Urizen, renewed, takes on the planting of seed and reunites with the resurrected Ahania. Luvah and Vala are returned to the loins of man. Tharmas and Enion appear as innocent children and the s p i r i t s of a l l the Zoas "were exhal'd/In a l l their ancient innocence" (Night the Ninth, 11. 571-572). One of the Eternals (those beings who did not f a l l ) , viewing the end of the vegetative world, speaks with the Divine conscious-ness of the unity being renewed by the apocalypse. He knows "That Man subsists by Brotherhood & Universal Love. "We f a l l on one another's necks, more closely we embrace. "Not for ourselves, but for the Eternal Family we l i v e . "Man liveth not by Self alone, but in his brother's face "Each shall behold the Eternal Father & love & joy abound." (Night the Ninth, 11. 637-642) This is the state Los knows after being inspired by the Divine Vision. This is the state of higher Innocence, that of the l i t t l e black boy in The Songs of Innocence and of Experience, who is recalled to us by the song of the African Black concerning the return to his native land (Night the Ninth, 11. 687-691). Finally, this is the state of the reintegrated Albion, the man who achieves the kind of vision found in Eternity, called Innocence in the Songs. 62 The apocalyptic imagery of the resurrection of Albion i s that of the Harvest and Vintage of Nations in which the chaff and grapes are eliminated, leaving only the grain and juice, con-verted to the bread and wine of communion, which i s the body and blood of Jesus. The crushing of the grapes is painful: But in the Wine Presses the Human Grapes sing not nor dance, They howl & writhe in shoals of torment, in fierce flames consuming In chains of iron & in dungeons circled with ceaseless f i r e s , In pits & dens & shades of death, in shapes of torment & woe; . . . . (Night the Ninth, 11. 748-751) Physical destruction is not pleasant, but i t is necessary for re-surrection in Eternity where a l l merge to become one, as symbolized by the bread and wine of Jesus. The wine is the wine we saw in Europe; here, however, i t i s seen in i t s f i n a l apocalyptic strength, having aged as Blake's concepts developed. It is the wine which Urizen usurped, now returned to i t s ri g h t f u l place. In the apocalypse, Urthona reappears weak and lame, but he carries his hammer. By the completion of The Four Zoas, "Los, who i s Urthona, rose in a l l his regenerate power," to grind the grain of Nations in order to make the bread, as his contribution to the unity as symbolized by the communion imagery. Finally renewed, Urthona i s arisen in his strength, no longer now Divided from Enitharmon, no longer the Spectre Los./ 63 Where is the Spectre of Prophecy? where the delusive Phantom? Departed: & Urthona rises from the ruinous Walls In a l l his ancient strength to form the golden armour of science For intellectual War, The war of swords departed now, The dark Religions are departed & sweet Science reigns. (Night the Ninth, 11. 849-855) Since he is no longer necessary as redemptive agent, Los is replaced by Urthona in the resurrected state, who takes part in the i n t e l -lectual warfare of Eternity in which no one dies unrenewed. The warfare, as exercise of sport and joy, can be related to the occupation of the Piper of The Songs of Innocence, which is simply to celebrate joy, inspired by the Divine Vision. However, the state of Urthona is more sophisticated, for he has retained aware-ness of the tribulations of the vegetative world and his vision has been reconstructed to transcend these tribulations. In Fearful Symmetry, Northrop Frye argues that there is l i t t l e evidence that Los helps to bring about the apocalypse. . . . i t is not r e a l l y the work of Los, though the opening action i s ascribed to him: i t is the old revolutionary doctrine of the spontaneous re-appearance of Ore, this time, for some unexplained reason, to be the last one ..../ The Four Zoas has given us an imaginatively coherent account of how we got from an original Golden Age to the world we are now i n . It has not given us an imaginatively coherent account of how we can get from eighteenth century Deism to the Last Judgement through the power of Los, not Orc.lS Harold Bloom agrees that "nothing in the poem accounted for the origins of i t s marvelous apocalypse."19 Fearful Symmetry, pp. 308-309. Bloom, p. 310. 64 Both Frye and Bloom overstate the case. As we have just seen. Los has been working constantly toward the reintegration of Albion by creating works of art such as the forms for the Spectres of the Dead and by attempting to lead the Zoas towards reintegra-tion. Time and Space were created as the mercies of Eternity so that man's mind might reorganize i t s e l f , Los himself, as we have seen, has been inspired to unity by Jesus and leads others to the Divine Vision of Unity. Los' work throughout the poem, then, does account for the apocalyptic resurrection of Albion, As previously discussed, Los' apocalyptic destruction of the vegetative universe does create problems; however, we must realize that Los is not Urthona, the creative imagination with f u l l vision as i t exists in Eternity or in Innocence. Los' action can be explained by the fact that he i s , though not perfect himself, inspired by the perfect man, Jesus. Los' action can be attributed to this inspiration. As we saw before, Blake is attempting to show the restoration of vision to fallen man by the power of the creative imagination, Los. The d i f f i -culty arises when the imagination f a l l s too (as in Night the F i f t h ) . The only answer for Blake at this point is an act of mercy -- the inspiration by Jesus. From The Four Zoas on, Blake shows a growing concern with Jesus, as we shall see in Milton and Jerusalem, and, in his new concern, he abandoned The Four Zoas, never doing f i n a l revisions or etching i t on copper. z0 20 Keynes* notes, p. 897. 65 Jesus becomes important in the prophecies for the f i r s t time in The Four Zoas. Before this poem, he appeared only briefly, once as the Ore figure in Europe, 2 1 arriving to herald the beginning of Enitharmon's reign as represented by orthodox Christianity, and again in The Song of Los, in which he is given a gospel which appears to be part of the binding Urizenic law. In The Four Zoas, Jesus is a figure of mercy. He finds the limits of Opacity and of Contraction, Satan and Adam, thus bounding the f a l l of Albion. He inspires the Spectre of Urthona to reunion with Los. He inspires the furnaces, symbolic of the creative imagination, and prevents them from forming more rest, r i c t i v e chains. Constantly appearing in Luvah's "robes of Blood7 he represents true selfless love, the unfalien condition of Luvah himself. Of the Seven Eyes of God elected to watch over Albion, Jesus is the seventh. When the Eternals meet, i t is As one Man a l l the Universal family; & that One Man They c a l l Jesus the Christ. (Night the F i r s t , 11. 472-473) In the building of Golgonooza, Jesus is present as an inspirational force and the Daughters of Beulah see the ci t y , i t s e l f a work of art, and the human body of Jesus (Night the Eighth, 11. 42.44), as are. a l l works of art when seen in the right perspective. Jesus dies to put off the vegetative form, and separates Los and Eni-tharmon from their vegetative bodies to free their s p i r i t s , an 21 See Chapter Two. 22 See Chapter Two. 66 act which causes Los to begin the controversial apocalyptic destruction. As we shall see, in Milton and Jerusalem. Jesus' role becomes more defined and Los becomes more certain in his role as he depends upon and trusts Jesus more and more. Los and Jesus become identi-fied to the extent that Albion, in Jerusalem, sees Jesus in the form of Los. From the point of inspiration in Night the Seventh, Blake continues to develop his doctrine of renewal of vision through internal revolution, a doctrine he had originally explored in The Songs of Innocence and of Experience. He discards Ore and p o l i t i c a l revolution in favour of Los and perceptual revolution in each fal l e n man. This doctrine i s carried through the f i n a l prophecies, Milton and Jerusalem. 69 Chapter Four - Los in Milton In MiIton, Blake explores yet another way of presenting the set of ideas which he dealt with in The Songs of Innocence and of  Experience, in the experimental minor prophecies, and in The Four  Zoas. In the Songs, he shows how an individual's perception of the external world changes as that individual moves from Innocence to the fallen world of Experience and returns to a renewed Innocence. Using the myth of Albion, in the minor prophecies and in the more comprehensive The Four Zoas, Blake shows what happens inside the individual during the f a l l into Experience and the struggle for restoration to Innocence, or Eternity. In the myth, the individual, represented by Albion, has the express aid of one of the fa l l e n Zoas, Los, who, as representative of the creative imagination, can function effectively himself only after integra-tion of his various aspects. Los' integration is achieved through the inspiration of Jesus, In Milton, Blake shows the achievement of the Divine Vision by an historical character who is treated in mythic terms. Thus Blake incorporates a specific example into his myth to vary the presentation of the doctrine. The choice of Milton as the specific character who has the potential for vision, but who, through selfhood, has not yet achieved i t , is suggested earlier in the Blake canon, in The  Marriage of Heaven and Hell. In the Marriage, Blake makes i t clear that he believes Milton to be a sound, i f misguided^poet, who did not achieve his potential: 70 The reason Milton wrote in fetters when he wrote of Angels & God, and at liberty when of Devils & Hell, is because he was a true Poet and of the Devil's party without knowing i t . * To Blake, the "Angels & God" of orthodox (or Puritan) Christian-i t y , which Milton embraced, are representative of the reason when i t seeks to rule alone and to cast out love, desire, and energy from man. Blake f e l t that Milton's true potential was revealed by the fact that he wrote unconvincingly of the forces of domina-ting reason, and convincingly about the forces of energy, or "the Devils & Hell . " Like Milton, Blake f e l t the necessity of writing "To Justify the Ways of God to Men,"2 but the God of Milton is not the God of Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained. Blake's God is referred to in the eighth line of the poem by the resounding t i t l e of "Eternal Great Humanity Divine" and the development of Milton in Blake's poem is from the Puritan to this Blakean idea of God.3 In Milton, Blake presents Milton's journey through the vegetative universe of Los and Enitharmon toward restored vision and redemption. Milton i s influenced to leave his heaven, in which we see him "pond'ring the intricate mazes of Providence,/ Unhappy tho' in heaven" (Milton, plate 2, 11. 17-18) by the song of a Bard. The song presents the story of the sons of Lost iWilliam Blake, "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell," The Com-plete Writings of William Blake, ed. Geoffrey Keynes (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), plate 5-6. W i l l i a m Blake, Milton, The Complete Writings of William  Blake, ed. Geoffrey Keynes (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), p. 480. Subsequent references appear in the text of the thesis. Bloom, p. 334. 71 Rintrah, Palamabron, and Satan. As the Bard in the "Introduction" to The Songs of Experience attempts to influence the Earth, the Bard in Milton succeeds in influencing Milton to seek vision and to abandon selfhood, (Milton, plate 14, 11. 20.24) In his journey, Milton becomes an associate of Los, as well as a model for both Los and Albion, as each grows toward resurrection. At the end of the poem, when Milton is united with his emanation A l l Animals upon the Earth are prepar'd in a l l their strength To go forth to the Great Harvest & Vintage of the Nation. (Milton, plate 42, 1. 39 plate 43, 1. 1) The apocalypse i t s e l f does not come about u n t i l Jerusalem, Blake's last prophetic poem. Milton and Jerusalem, then, are inseparable, and constitute a double epic, a prelude and a fugue on the same subject, for Milton is Blake's longest, greatest and most elaborate "Preludium."* Although a l l the basic doctrines such as the f a l l and sleep of Albion form an essential background to Milton, the conflict among the four Zoas is not stressed as the h i s t o r i c a l character is absorbed in the mythic structure. Indeed, there is l i t t l e emphasis on any of the Zoas other than Los. Only Urizen receives more than passing reference, along with his sons and the sons of Luvah. Urizen fights with Milton, seeking to hinder his passage, but is defeated when Milton gives him a sculpted clay body, thus giving him a recognizeable form, as Los Fearful Symmetry, p. 323 72 and Enitharmon give forms to the Spectres of the Dead. Los and Enitharmon can now recognize Urizent Then Los & Enitharman Q s i c ] knew that Satan is Urizen, Drawn down by Ore & the Shadowy Female into Generation. (Milton, plate 10, 11. 1-2) Similar to the way that Ore and the Shadowy Female draw down the unredeemable Satan into Generation, Los and Enitharmon draw down Jesus, the redemptive inspirational force. Albion himself sleeps on his couch throughout except for a brief period, after which he f a l l s back to sleep again. In Milton, much of the emphasis is on Blake himself, who becomes a character in the poem, conscious of himself as a poet-prophet and uniting with L o S v . a n d Milton. In the Preface, he longs for a new time, presumably post-Apocalyptic: ...when the New Age is at leisure to Pronounce, a l l w i l l be set right, & those Grand Works of the more ancient & consciously & professedly Inspired Men w i l l hold their proper rank, & the Daughters of Memory shall become the Daughters of Inspiration. (Preface, p. 480) As a visionary character in his own poem, Blake appears more confident of his role than he did in The Four Zoas, for here he identifies himself and voices his own ideas, stepping out from behind the relative anonymity of created characters. Blake further states his own apocalyptic purpose in the l y r i c "And did those feet in ancient time", concerning the establish-ment of the New Age in England: 73 I w i l l not cease from Mental Fight, Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand T i l l we have built Jerusalem In England's green & pleasant Land, (Preface, p. 481, 11. 13-16) Blake feels that he occupies the role of Los in eighteenth century England. Blake emphasizes his own poetic and prophetic qualities in his Miltonic invocation of the Muses. The location of his talent i s ...the Portals of my brain, where by your ministry daughters of Beulah The Eternal Great Humanity Divine planted his Paradise..., (Milton, plate 2, 11. 7-8) thus implicitly identifying Jesus, the inspirational force, with the imagination or Poetic Genius, also located in the brain. Like Los, Blake recognizes the force of Divine inspiration. Blake's garden at Felpham i s the setting for the climatic action of the poem. Here Ololon, Milton's emanation, descends looking for him. Comparison between Los and Enitharmon and Blake and his wife Catherine i s implied, for just as Ololon descends to Los and Enitharmon in Beulah, she descends in a parallel fashion to Blake and his wife in Felpham. At the end of the poem, s t i l l in his garden, Blake has witnessed much of the immortal doings. Having heard the trumpets of Albion's four Zoas, he swoons, only to return to his vegetative state: 74 My bones trembled, I f e l l outstretch'd upon the path A moment, & my Soul return*d to i t s mortal state To Resurrection 6c Judgement in the Vegetable Body, And my sweet Shadow of Delight stood trembling by my side. (Milton, plate 42, 11. 25-28) By returning to i t , Blake emphasizes the importance of the vege-tative body in achieving reintegration in Time. Leaving for a moment Blake's involvement as a character in the poem, let us examine in detail the song of the Bard which causes Milton to return to the vegetative existence and to become involved in the myth of Albion. In the song, we see once again, as in the Book of Urizen and The Four Zoas, Los creating a human body for Urizen. Again Los becomes what he beholds, separate from Enitharmon and the Spectre. The Bard covers the rest of the by-now-familiar process "quarried" from The Four Zoas,^ with a conciseness for which we are grateful: Subduing his Spectre, they builded the Looms of Generation; They builded Great Golgonooza Times on Times, Ages on Ages. Fi r s t Ore was born, then the Shadowy Female: then A l l Los's Family. At last Enitharmon brought forth Satan, Refusing Form in vain. . . . (Milton, plate 3, 11. 38-41) Having encountered these processes before, we are familiar with their implications. Even Satan is given form so that he may be recognized and rejected. This large family includes a l l l i f e , Fearful Symmetry, p. 314. 75 even f l i e s and trees. The more usual types of sons and daughters perform many of the redemptive functions of Los and Enitharmon: And every Generated Body in i t s inward form Is a garden of delight & a building of magnificence, Built by the Sons of Los in Bowlahoola & Allamanda: And the herbs & flowers & furniture & beds & chambers Continually woven in the Looms of Enitharmon*s Daughters, In bright Cathedron's golden Dome with care & love & tears. (Milton, plate 26, 11. 31-36) Once again, we see male and female co-operating to produce the vegetative body, creating forms for the formless so that they too may be redeemed. The bodies are redemptive because no one can be judged without f i r s t passing through generation, "the image of Regeneration" (Jerusalem, plate 7, 1, 65). Similarly, no one can achieve the complete vision of higher Innocence without having passed through the tribulations of self-restricted vision called Experience. Working with his Sons, Los controls the forming of the three classes of aortal men (Milton, plate 6, 11. 33-35), a concept explored for the f i r s t time in Milton. These three classes, the Elect, the Redeemed, and the Reprobate, are represented by Los* three sons: Satan, Palamabron, and Rintrah respectively (the latte r pair having been mentioned bri e f l y in The Four Zoas and in The Song of Los). Satan, the Elect, is the Reasoning Negative, in relation to the Redeemed and Reprobate, who are Contraries. As Los and Enitharmon recognize, Satan is Urizen, believing not by 76 f a i t h , but only by demonstration. He can never attain Eternal Li f e in Blake*s terms: For the Elect cannot be Redeem*d, but Created continually By Offering & Atonement in the cruelties of Moral Law. (Milton, plate 5, 11. 11-13) His function is that of miller, grinding down a l l that opposes his m i l l . Because of his approach to opposition, he is a "negation" for nothing positive is gained through the suppression of opposition. Rintrah is the Reprobate and has a l l the prophetic wrath of his class, "those forst'd to destruction" of a l l that is false and uninspired, To this class Jesus belongs: He died as a Reprobate, he was Punish'd as a Transgressor, Glory! Glory! Glory! to the Holy Lamb of God! (Milton, plate 13, 11. 27-28) The Reprobate li v e in faith, perceiving the Divine Vision with no doubts at a l l . They do not temper their vision to make i t socially acceptable, but remain true only to the vision. Rin-trah* s instrument is the plow, which breaks up the f l a t , regular surface of the land so that seed may be planted. Rintrah is like the Nietzschean figure who breaks down the old, accepted, and outmoded ideas of a society to prepare i t for new concepts. Palamabron's class is best explained by the instrument he uses, the harrow. It follows the plow, smoothing over the rough, 77 torn-up ground. Palamabron makes the prophetic wrath socially acceptable. However, as Harold Bloom points out, "to be harrowed is to be tormented or distressed, and this darker aspect of the word w i l l be relevant to Palamabron."6 He is of weak fai t h , therefore subject to Satanic bullying, as shown when Satan, seem-ingly out of sympathy, usurps Palamabron's function for a day, sending him to the mills (Milton, plate 7, 1. 6 f f . ) . The result i s , of course, chaos, for which Palamabron is blamed. From the discussion above, we can see how, in contrast to Satan, Rintrah and Palamabron function together positively, for "Without Contraries is no progression" (The Marriage of Heaven and  Hell, p. 149). Although different in nature, they exist most effectively together: The former are the persecuted and outcast prophets: the latter are the timid well-meaning orthodox whose good qualities emerge only after the prophets have hammered their timidity to pieces. The clash of contraries i s thus an essential part of the"redemp-tion"of mankind.7 At the great assembly called to judge the trouble caused by Satan, the three classes reveal themselves. Like Urieen and Tharmas in The Four Zoas, Satan, in selfhood, proclaims himself God, thus showing how completely he has lost the Divine Vision. 6 Bloom, Blake's Apocalypse, p. 344, 78 Thus Satan rag'd amidst the Assembly, and his bosom grew Opake against the Divine Visiont the paved terraces of His bosom inward shone with f i r e s , but the stone becoming opake Hid him from sight in an extreme blackness and darkness, And there a World of deeper Ulro was open'd in the midst Of the Assembly. In Satan's bosom, a vast unfathomable Abyss. (Milton, plate 9 , 11. 30-35) Rintrah, the Reprobate, builds columns of f i r e , symbolic of his prophetic wrath, between Palamabron and Satan. Palamabron is protected from Satan by Divine Mercy in the form of Rintrah*s intervention. At the conclusion of the Bard*s didactic song, "there was murmuring in the Heaven of Albion" (Milton, plate 14, 1. 4) to such an fearful extent that "The loud voic'd Bard terrify'd took refuge in Milton's bosom" (1. 9). Having learned from the song, Milton recognizes his own condition: "I in ray Selfhood am that Satan: I am that E v i l One! "He i s my Spectre! in my obedience to loose him from my Hells, "To claim the Hells, my Furnaces, I go to Eternal Death." (Milton, plate 14, 11. 30-32) He travels to the world of Los and Enitharmon, entering the story of Albion, while "His real and immortal Self" sleeps in Eden (Milton, plate 15, 11. 10-15). As Milton enters the vegetative world, "a wanderer lost in 79 dreary night** (Milton, plate 15, 1. 16), Los, "Prophet of Eter-nity", performs his redemptive functions aimed toward the resur-rection of Albion, much aided by his children. When he sees Milton, urged by the ever restive Enitharmon, he actually hinders him. Los does not recognize Milton and fears that he comes to loose Satan upon the sleeping Albion. Milton overcomes a l l obstacles, and Los soon repents, having recollected a prophecy from Eternity: At last when desperation almost tore his heart in twain He recollected an old Prophecy in Eden recorded And often sung to the loud harp at the immortal feasts: That Milton of the Land of Albion should up ascend Forwards from Ulro from the Vale of Felpham, and set free Ore from his Chain of Jealousy . . . . (Milton, plate 20, 11. 56-61) With this knowledge, he overrules Enitharmon and begins to act. This unexpected recollection i s parallel to the Divine Inspiration by Jesus in Night the Seventh of The Four Zoas. Both are unantici-pated acts of instantaneous awareness. Both lead to reunion with Enitharmon, once through love, and once through domination because of superior knowledge. Following each act, Los proceeds with his a r t i s t i c , redemptive functions, aided by his emanation. In Milton, after the recollection of the prophecy, Los is powerfully conscious and confident of his identity: "I am that Shadowy Prophet who Six Thousand Years ago " F e l l from my station in the Eternal bosom. Six Thousand Years "Are finished. I return! both Time & Space obey my w i l l . " (Milton, plate 22, 11. 15-17) 80 He knows his purpose as the fourth Zoa, and is certain of his relationship to the Divine Family, as well as of the approaching end of Time. He has a confidence which i s in direct contrast to his situation in the minor prophecies before the Divine inter-vention. Blake's own confidence in his doctrine i s reflected in Los* awareness of his purpose: "We were plac*d here by the Universal Brotherhood & Mercy "With powers f i t t e d to circumscribe this dark Satanic death, "And that the Seven Eyes of God may have space for Redemption. "But how this i s as yet we know not, and we cannot know " T i l l Albion i s arisen; then patient wait a l i t t l e while." (Milton, plate 23, 11. 50-54) Although Rintrah and Palamabron, to whom these words are aimed, are not immediately convinced, Los* teaching is sound. Some of the redemptive creation of Time and Space i s done by the sons of Los; some is done by Los himself: But others of the Sons of Los build Moments & Minutes & Hours And Days & Months & Years & Ages & Periods, wondrous buildings; And every Moment has a Couch of gold for soft repose, (A Moment equals a pulsation of the artery) Every Time less than a pulsation of the artery Is equal in i t s period & value to Six Thousand Years, For in this Period the Poet's Work is Done, and a l l the Great Events of Time start forth & are conceiv'd in such a Period, Within a Moment, a Pulsation of the Artery. (Milton, plate 28, 11. 44-47 & 62-63 plate 29, 11. 1-3) 81 Time Is redemptive because, in i t , through creativity of a r t i s t s inspired by their Poetic Genius, or the Divine Vision of Jesus, fa l l e n man can be brought to see, once again, the unity of the cosmos, which is One Man, Jesus. The "Pulsation of the Artery" Is the instantaneous moment of a r t i s t i c creation and, as such, bears a microcosmic relationship to the six thousand years of fall e n Time in which, through the a r t i s t r y of Los, redemptive forms are created to aid Albion in the achievement of integration. The Sons of Los build the sky, "an immortal Tent." The image of the tent i s one of temporality, emphasizing the fact that this created, vegetable world is not permanent. The more usual image of the sky, that of the Mundane Shell, is one of f r a g i l i t y also, the comparison being that of a bird's egg. The image of the bird's egg captures perfectly the function of this universe. It is a stage 4n man's development which nourishes l i f e u n t i l that l i f e is ready to emerge. When the creature inside the egg is ready, the shell becomes res t r i c t i v e and must be broken. Similarly, when man is ready, he must move out of the vegetative world, or Experience, into the more mature world of Eternity, of higher Innocence. As well as working with Time, Los works with Space, usually the domain of Enitharmon. Los' Space, however, is visionary. Bloom, Blake's Apocalypse, p, 375, 82 For every Space larger than a red Globule of Man's blood Is visionary, and is created by the Hammer of Los: And every Space smaller than a Globule of Man's blood opens Into Eternity of which this vegetable Earth i s but a shadow. The red Globule i s the unwearied Sun by Los created To measure Time and Space to Mortal Men every morning. (Milton, plate 29, 11. 19-24) In a very compact fusion of image, Blake has combined some of his main ideas concerning time, space, and creativity. The globule of blood represents the smallest particle of matter v i s i b l e to the naked eye, without the aid of the instruments of demonstration. Things smaller than this, man must see with other than the physical eye; hence smaller spaces are openings into Eternity, for they are vi s i b l e to the imaginative eye only. The image of blood reminds us of Luvah's robe worn by Jesus, showing us his selfless love through the crucifixion. The fact that the globule is a sun-like globe reminds us that Jesus, in selfless love, is also the Divine Imagination and that Los is the prophet of this creative Imagina-tion, the sun being one of the symbols associated with the fi r e s of his forge. The sun is vi s i b l e to Man and helps him measure daily Los' redemptive Time and Space. Los is the creator of "the glorious Sun each morning" and also creates the evening light, the moon. The length of time given to the vegetative world is six thousand years, after which "Death" which, ironically, i s our l i f e , w i l l end and the parts of man w i l l re-unite in Eternity. In the process of reaching the reunion, Albion is aided by Los. Man is influenced toward vision by the poet-prophet figure --83 such a person as the Bard in The Songs of Innocence and of ExperiA ence. In Milton, we see several creative prophetic figures, in-cluding, of course, Milton himself, a l l of whom merge after attain-ing selflessness and unity with their own emanations, each being parallel to Albion the whole man. Before Milton becomes active in seeking vision, he himself is influenced by the inspirational song of a poet-prophet. As we have seen, the Bard*s song concerned the three classes of the sons of Los and the gentle, insidious nature of Satan. The Song is sung, like The Song of Los, around the mead h a l l - l i k e tables of the Eternals. It i s punctuated frequently with the phrase "Mark well my words! they are of your eternal salvation"',* emphasising Blake's view of the poetic and prophetic function. Because of the subject of his song, the false pity and false love of Satan, the Bard is questioned by the Eternals upon the completion of the song. F i l l e d with prophetic wrath, he answers his questioners: "I am Inspired! I know i t is Truth! for I Sing "According to the inspiration of the Poetic Genius "Who is the eternal all-protecting Divine Humanity, "To whom be Glory & Power & Dominion Evermore, Amen." (Milton, plate 13, 1. 51 plate 14, 11. 1-3) Divinely inspired, and taking refuge in Milton's bosom, the Bard unites with Milton, thus reinforcing our view of Milton as bard. The his song, Bard is effective Milton realises: in his redemptive function for, through 84 "I in ray Selfhood am that Satan: I am the E v i l one!" (Milton, plate 14, 1. 30) Realizing that selfhood is contrary to the Divine Vision, and lest he be caught in this state, or "Unannihilate", at the time of the Last Judgement, Milton descends to Eternal Death, the vegetative l i f e , to subdue his spectre and to unite with his emanation, Ololon. He enters his own shadow, the vegeta-tive body, while his real self seems to sleep. Thus he recalls the f a l l of Albion, reminding us once more of the larger context of the myth. With the Bard within him, Milton encounters and unites with the other poet-prophets as he travels through the vegeta-tive universe, thus forming the link between a l l the poet-prophets in the poem. Unrecognized, part of Milton enters Blake's foot. Blake, with Milton, is embraced by Los: ...he kissed me and wish'd me health And I became One Man with him arising in my strength. 'Twas too late now to recede. Los had enter'd into my soul: His terrors now posses'd me whole! I arose in fury & strength. (Milton, plate 22, 11. 11-14) A l l the poet-prophets, the Bard, Milton, Blake, and Los, are united and seek together the restoration of vision in man and man's reunion and resurrection into the perfect world of Innocence. In the vegetative world, Milton is f i n a l l y recognized. Los speaks to his sons concerning him: 85 "0 noble Sons, be patient yet a l i t t l e ! "I have embrac'd the f a l l i n g Death, he is become One with Me . . . . (Milton, plate 23, 11. 32-33) Counselling Rintrah and Palamabron against attempting to rush the Apocalypse through corporeal war, Los interprets this union as a signal of the nearness of the Apocalypse, having remembered the old prophecy from Eternity quoted e a r l i e r . Milton recognizes his own prophetic role. Like the other poet-prophets in the poem, he realizes that he must transcend his selfhood before he himself can become an integrated person. His own integration must take place before he can lead others: "Mine is to teach Men to despise death & to go on "In fearless majesty annihilating Self, laughing to scorn "Thy Laws & terrors, shaking down thy Synagogues as webs. "I come to discover before Heav*n & Hell the Self righteousness "In a l l i t s Hypocritic turpitude, opening to every eye "These wonders of Satan's holiness, shewing to the Earth "The Idol Virtues of the Natural Heart, & Satan's Seat "Explore in a l l i t s Selfish Natural Virtue, & put off "In Self annihilation a l l that i s not of God alone. "To put off Self & a l l I have, ever & ever. Amen." (Milton, plate 38, 11. 40-49) Finally, in order to become the poet that Blake knew he should be, Milton must unite with his female portion. He teaches Ololon, his emanation, in similar words to those quoted above. He conquers her so that she recognizes herself as subject to him. She "fled into the depths/Of Milton's Shadow, as a Dove upon the stormy Sea" (Milton, plate 42, 11. 5-6). Following the union, 86 the Starry Eight, one of whom is Milton,"became/One Man, Jesus the Saviour, wonderful!" (Milton, plate 42, 11. 10-11). The poet-prophets a l l unite in Jesus, the symbol of complete vision. Jesus is himself identified with their creative powers: ...the sports of wisdom in Human Imagination Which is the Divine Body of the Lord Jesus, blessed for ever. (Milton, plate 2, 1. 26 plate 3, 11. 1-4) He i s active in the redemptive functions, establishing the limits, the limit of Opacity being Satan, and the limit of Contraction being Adam. Beyond these limits man cannot f a l l , hence they protect man. There is no limit of expansion, for, as we shall see in Jerusalem, the f l e x i b i l i t y of the Eternals is i n f i n i t e . Just as Jesus inspires the reunion of Los with his spectre and emanation in The Four Zoas, he aids the union of Milton and Ololon also. Uniting in One with Ololon, & the appearance of One Man, Jesus the Saviour, appear'd coming in the clouds of Ololon. (Milton, plate 21, 11. 59-60) Acting through Ololon, Jesus assists the reunion. Finally, a l l unite in the Divine Family, the multitudinous aspect of Jesus. Although the poet-prophet figures achieve reunion them-selves, at the end of the poem, Albion i s not ready to r i s e : He strove to rise to walk into the Deep, but strength f a i l i n g / 87 Forbad, & down with dreadful groans he sunk upon his couch In moony Beulah, Los, his Strong Guard, walks round beneath the Moon. (Milton, plate 39, 11, 50-52) The time is not.right, as i t has to be, for the individual to move from fragmented Experience into the higher Innocence of unified vision. Instead of the reintegration of Albion, we have seen the reintegration of the poet-prophet figures, a step necessary before the poet-prophet can f u l f i l l his pro-phetic function which i s to work towards the restoration of vision'in the fallen man, Albion. In Milton, we have seen how a bard, having undergone a process of f a l l himself, achieves the f u l l Divine Vision again. In Milton, the key to Los* self-organization i s , as in The Four Zoas, a Divine inspiration; this time i t is the recol-lection of a prophecy from Eternity, In Jerusalem, we see the achievement of Albion's resurrection through the friendship of Los who i s constant in his actions, being once again inspired by Jesus. 88 Chapter Five - Los in Jerusalem With Jerusalem, Blake's f i n a l great poem, dated 1804 on the frontispiece, comes the Apocalypse anticipated in Milton. As in Milton, Blake intrudes in his own role as poet.prophet. Each chapter is headed by an address to a group of people, the f i r s t being to the public in general, the second to the Jews, the third to the Deists, and the fourth to the Christians. Each exhorts the addressed group to attain, or to revise their r e l i -gion so as to attain, the correct religious perspective so that each individual w i l l be "wholly One in Jesus our Lord, who is the God of Fire and the Lord of Love." This exhortation is the function of the Bard and, in purpose, is parallel to the "Intro-duction to The Songs of Experience". Within the poem, the ex-horting i s done by Los. Blake enters the poem to comment upon the action and to invoke the Divine S p i r i t . In the invocation, he states his theme with f u l l Miltonic echoes: Trembling I s i t day and night, my friends are astonish'd at me, Yet they forgive ray wanderings. I rest not from my great task! To open the Eternal Worlds, to open the immortal Eyes Of Man inwards into the Worlds of Thought, into Eternity Ever expanding in the Bosom of God, the Human Imagination. 0 Saviour pour upon me thy S p i r i t of meekness & love! Annihilate the Selfhood in me: be thou a l l my l i f e ! (Jerusalem, plate 5, 11. 16-22) 89 In Jerusalem, Blake focuses away from the Zoas, They re-ceive only passing attention as the parts of Albion, but f i n a l l y , in this most polished of the prophecies, their roles and their disintegration are not described. While the Zoas are not emphasized, Albion, the fallen man, becomes similar to the figure of Urizen in the e a r l i e r prophecies. He is the reasoning individual, separated from his female portion or emanation, Jerusalem. At one point, he is^surrounded by the symbols that had earlier been associated with Urizen, in order to emphasize the si m i l a r i t i e s between the two. Cold snows drifted around him: ice covered his loins around. He sat by Tyburn's brook, and underneath his heel shot up A deadly Tree: he nam'd i t Moral Virtues and the Law Of God who dwells in chaos hidden from the human sight.. (Jerusalem, plate 28, 11. 13-16) Albion is immersed in the sta t i c r i g i d i t y of Urizenic thought, and as such, appears more like an equal of Los than like the whole man he was in Eternity. Having been shifted away from the Zoas, the focus is placed upon Jesus. He appears frequently to perform acts of mercy, often at the request of Los, to whom he appears very similar at the con-clusion of the poem. In fact, Los rarely functions alone in this poem. He is inspired, as an a r t i f i c e r , by the same force that Blake, his fellow artificer, invoked at the beginning of the poem. This emphasis on Jesus is an extension of the doctrine fixed upon 90 in Night the Seventh of The Four Zoas and developed in the f i n a l two major prophecies. With the change of focus, the function of Los changes too. He appears as friend to Albion throughout, more as an equal than as a component part, labouring for him though Albion resists his aid. Los' view in aiding his friend i s similar to that of Jesus. To his resisting spectre Los explains' "I w i l l compell thee to assist me in my terrible labours: To beat "These hypocritical Selfhoods on the Anvils of bitter Death. "I am inspired. I act not for myself; for Albion's sake "I now am what I am!" (Jerusalem, plate 8, 11. 15-18) Because he is directed and confident through the inspiration of Jesus, he is able to win the conflict with his spectre. The close relationship between Los and Jesus is emphasized by the fact that Jesus too gives himself for Albion's sake in selfless friendship. "Fear not Albion: unless I die thou canst not li v e ; "But i f I die I shall arise again & thou with me. "This is Friendship & Brotherhood: without i t Man is Not." (Jerusalem, plate 96, 11. 14-16) At the end of the poem, as a signal that he has regained the Divine Vision, Albion shows that he has learned from the prophetic examples of Los and Jesus by feeling selfless concern for his friends. Albion stood in terror, not for himself but for his Friend Divine; & Self was lost in the contemplation of faith And wonder at the Divine Mercy & at Los* sublime honour. (Jerusalem, plate 96, 11. 30-32) 91 In friendship, Los and Albion should function as contraries, Los being the creative imagination and Albion being the reasoning power (tempered by love and desire for unity — the other Zoas). In Eternity, friends function as contraries, s t i r r i n g each other to mental warfare as do Rintrah the Reprobate and Palamabron the Redeemed. Martin K, Nurmi explains the doctrine: The contraries Blake i s most interested in are the two classes of men, the energetic creators and the rational organizers, or the "devils" and the "angels," as he c a l l s them in The Marriage. Both classes are necessary, and both must strive positively and vigo-rously each in i t s own way i f man is to live the Human L i f e . 1 However, through the f a l l , Albion has lost the Divine Vision and his sons pervert the true nature of contraries, making "a Negation." . . . . i t i s the Reasoning Power, An Abstract objecting power that Negatives every thing. This i s the Spectre of Man, the holy Reasoning Power, And in i t s Holiness is closed the Abomination of Desolation. (Jerusalem, plate 10, 11. 13-16) What they produce i s the spectrous, Urizenic form of Albion to whom Los must teach the true nature of friendship. The fallen,reasoning Albion whom we find in Jerusalem has much in common with Los' own spectre who speaks against the friendship: AMartin K. Nurmi, "On The Marriage of Heaven and Hell," in Discussions of William Blake, ed. John Grant (Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1961), p. 99. 92 "Wilt thou s t i l l go on to destruction? " T i l l thy l i f e i s a l l taken away by this deceitful Friendship? "He drinks thee up like water, like wine he pours thee "Into his tuns: thy Daughters are trodden in his vintage." (Jerusalem, plate 7, 11. 9-12) The spectre is resisting Los* rejection of selfhood in Los* love for his friend. In his choice of imagery -- the wine and vintage — Blake is reminding us of the apocalyptic nature of Los' s e l f -lessness. His love is like that of the Clod of Clay in The Songs  of Experience: "Love seeketh not Itself to please, "Nor for i t s e l f hath any care, "But for another gives i t s ease "And builds a Heaven in Hell's despair." ("The CLOD & the PEBBLE", 11. 1-4) This is the selfless point-of-view of an individual who perceives the Divine Vision, an individual in the state of higher Innocence who, while aware of the existence of "Hell's despair", is also aware of the "Heaven" of brotherly love. Because of his nature, the spectre cannot understand self-less love. Los recognizes and subdues him. "Thou art my Pride & Self-righteousness: I have found thee out. "Thou art reveal*d before me in a l l thy magnitude 6 c power. "Thy Uncircumcised pretences to chastity must be cut in sunder. "Thy holy wrath 6 c deep deceit cannot avail against me, "Nor shalt thou ever assume the triple-form of Albion's Spectre, "For I am one of the l i v i n g : dare not to mock my inspired fury./ 93 "If thou wast cast forth from my l i f e , i f I was dead upon the mountains, "Thou mightest be pitied & lov*d; but now I am livi n g , unless "Thou abstain ravening I w i l l create an eternal Hell for thee, "Take thou this Hammer & in patience heave the thundering bellows; "Take thou these Tongs, strike thou alternate with me, labour obedient," (Jerusalem, plate 8, 11. 30-40) From this definition of the spectre, we realize that he is anti-thetical to a l l that Los as poet-prophet stands for. As Los is the part of the individual comparable to the imagination or Poetic Genius which leads that individual to perception of the Divine Vision, the spectre i s that part of man which would keep him immersed in the self-encompassing, restricted vision of Experience in which the universe appears not as One Man but as fragmented and threatening. With the inspiration of Jesus, Los subdues the spectre in order to help Albion. Los performs a redemptive prophetic function by creating Generation, our vegetative world, "Image of Regeneration" (Jerusalem, plate 7, 1. 65) and "Birthplace of the Lamb of God", (1. 67) from which the Lamb, Jesus, w i l l die in order to save man. In creating, Los and his sons are dealing with forms "Permanently creating, to be in Time Reveal'd & Demolished", as Los himself teaches the doubting Enitharmon (Jerusalem, plate 92, 11. 13-20). It i s into this world that a l l fa l l e n forms descend in order to achieve redemption. Milton returned to this world, as we saw, in order to cast off selfhood which he had carried with him into his own conventional heaven when he died. While Generation is re-demptive in that the vegetative bodies stop the f a l l by their r i g i d 94 stasis, i t must be transcended when the time is right for reunion with Eternity. Hence Los i s redemptive through creation and, paradoxically, through destruction of what he has created. Also related to Los* function in establishing the merciful world of Generation in Tine and Space is his function of naming the l i m i t s . The limits were originally founded by Jesus so that man could not f a l l into Non-Entity. The doctrine of the limits is introduced in Milton, but more f u l l y explored here. Los explains the concept: "There is a limit of Opakeness and a limit of Contraction "In every Individual Man, and the limit of Opakeness "Is named Satan, and the limit of Contraction is named Adam. "But when Man sleeps in Beulah, the Saviour in Mercy takes "Contraction's Limit, and of the Limit he forms Woman, That "Himself may in process of Time be born Man to redeem. "But there is no Limit of Expansion; there is no Limit of Translucence "In the bosom of Man for ever from eternity to eternity." (Jerusalem, plate 42, 11. 29-36) These limits, clearly redemptive in that they bound the extent of the f a l l , are misinterpreted by the Deist Voltaire, 2 who, with his limited vision, perceives only the r e s t r i c t i v e aspects. Like the individual in the state of Experience, he sees beneficial acts as "the cruel work of God." Los defends the limits against Voltaire, for he realizes their true nature. 2 Once again, as In Milton, Blake incorporates an hi s t o r i c a l character within the myth of Albion. 95 In Jerusalem, we see Los create the Mundane Shell out of the v e i l of Vala which is the net that "the fallen world flings around us," or vegetative nature. In this v e i l , Albion had captured the souls of the Dead by casting i t Into the "Deep." Thus the souls are saved from endless f a l l and are brought within the realms of Time and Space, so that the Mundane Shell becomes The Habitation of the Spectres of the Dead, & the Place Of Redemption & of awakening again into Eternity. (Jerusalem, plate 59, 11. 8-9) The world of Los and Enitharmon is in the midst of this sh e l l , as are Cathedron»s Looms upon which are woven the forms for the Spectres of the Dead. Being given form, they are con-cretized and can be recognized to be cast out or redeemed and resurrected to Eternal l i f e . Thus, disembodied abstractions are embodied in redemptive works of art; that i s , human bodies, as ideas can be embodied in organized words or poems. Blake, as poet, acts in a fashion parallel to Los, concretizing abstrac-tions into forms, his poems, so that they may be recognized. Los* daughters work sel f l e s s l y in weaving the forms for the Spectres, revealing love for their fellow creatures which i s , in Blake's view, recognizing them in the correct perspective of brotherhood. 3 Fearful Symmetry, p. 381, 96 ...the intoxicating delight that they take in their work Obliterates every other e v i l ; none pi t i e s their tears, Yet they regard not pity 6 c they expect no one to Pity For they labour for l i f e 6 c love regardless of anyone But the poor Spectres that they work for always incessantly. (Jerusalem, plate 59, 11. 35-38) Their attitude toward the Spectres of the Dead is parallel to that of Los toward Albion and is an expression of the Divine Vision of Unity. The merciful Looms l i e within the c i t y of art, Golgonooza, built by the sons and daughters of Los. The building materials are of redemptive qualities: The stones are pity, and the bricks, well wrought affections Enamel'd with love 6 c Kindness, & the t i l e s engraven gold, Labour of merciful hands: the beams 6 c rafters are forgiveness: The mortar 6 c cement of the work, tears of honesty: the nails And the screws 6 c iron braces are well wrought blandishments And well contrived words, firm fixing, never forgotten, Always comforting the remembrance: the floors humility: The ceilings, devotion: the hearths, thanksgiving. (Jerusalem, plate 12, 11. 30-37) This building involves a curious fusion of the concepts of art. F i r s t , the c i t y i s a redemptive work of art in the Blakean sense because of the nature of i t s materials, a l l of which are attributes 4 of men who li v e their lives " i n accord with the Imagination," as 4 Murry, p. 202 97 Jesus did. Through imagination, such men perceive the unity and benevolence of the universe. Hence the cit y conforms with Blake's concept ofart as a mental attitude evident in relation, ship with other l i v i n g creatures. The second and more tradi-tional concept of art involved in the cit y is that of the material a r t i f a c t . The aesthetic value of the structure, in Blakean terms, is reflected in i t s outward manifestation as an architectural wonder. These two concepts of art are fused in Blake's idea of Golgonooza, and as an a r t i s t i c masterpiece, the cit y i s seen as a human form by the Daughters of Beulah (The Four Zoas, Night the Eighth, 11. 36-38). To Blake, the human body was the ultimate work of redemptive art produced by Los, for "Imagination could be achieved only through the Body"^ and imagination is the force in man which leads him to outgrow the self-restricted vision of Experience and perceive the Divine Vision of unity, as Albion must. A further concept in Blake's theory of art is revealed within Golgonooza. The cit y contains works of art which reflect l i f e . A l l things acted on Earth are seen in the bright Sculptures of Los's Halls, & every Age renews i t s powers from these works With every pathetic story possible to happen from Hate or Wayward Love; & every sorrow & distress is carved here, Every A f f i n i t y of Parents, Marriages & Friendships are here In a l l their various combinations wrought with wondrous Art,/ 5 Murry, p. 200. 98 A l l that can happen to Man in his pilgrimage of seventy years. (Jerusalem, plate 16, 11. 61-67) As Harold Bloom says in Blake's Apocalypse, "not only can a l l earthly actions be seen in Los's sculptures, but the power that moves them depends on the sculptures for i t s renewal." 6 In i t s redemptive nature, art is also self-perpetuating, for one mani-festation of the Divine Imagination inspires others. As well as revealing his prophetic function by creating redemptive material forms, Los works in a fashion clearly parallel to the role of the Bard of the "Introduction to The Songs of  Experience" and to that of Blake himself as poet, for "Los built the stubborn structure of the Language" (Jerusalem, plate 40, 1, 59). His s k i l l with language is shown when he exhorts the Sons of Albion to aid him in persuading Albion to return through the Gates of Los. As a result of his moving speech, the Sons With one accord in love sublime, &, as on Cherubs wings, They Albion surround with kindest violence to bear him back Against his w i l l thro' Los's Gate to Eden. (Jerusalem, plate 44, 11. 1-3) The redemptive process is aided by poetry only temporarily, for man cannot be persuaded to vision against his w i l l (when he is not ready) and Albion reverts. In a l l the functions mentioned so far, Los has been 6 Harold Bloom, Blake's Apocalypse, p. 426. 99 working toward the redemption and reunion of Albion. Throughout his actions in this poem, he has called upon Jesus for aid. Finally, in Chapter Two, he is e x p l i c i t l y identified as prophetic by the Divine Family of the Eternals: they with one accord delegated Los, Conjuring him by the Highest that he should Watch over them (Sons of Albion] T i l l Jesus shall appear; & they gave their power to Los Naming him the Spirit of Prophecy, calling him El i j a h . (Jerusalem, plate 44, 11. 28-31) Los, therefore, is entrusted with the protection of the fall e n Man. Throughout Jerusalem, Los works with the Divine Inspira-tion, frequently ca l l i n g upon Jesus. In the culmination of the poem, Jesus appears to Albion in a form very similar to Los' . The relationship between the two and the fusion of their redemptive functions must be examined. The nature of Jesus, the Saviour, i s delineated at the be-ginning of Jerusalem: "I am in you and you in me, mutual in love divine..,, (plate 4, 1. 7) and "I am not a God afar off, I am a brother and friend; "Within your bosoms I reside, and you in me ...." (plate 4, 11. 18-19) Sharing this relationship to Jesus with a l l mankind, Los asks the Sons of Albion 100 "Why stand we here trembling around "Calling on God for help, and not ourselves in whom God dwells, "Stretching a hand to save the f a l l i n g Man?" (Jerusalem, plate 43, 11. 12-14) Jesus himself appears as the Divine Vision in One Man to the individual with f u l l vision. So Jesus teaches Albion: "We li v e as One Manj for contracting our i n f i n i t e senses "We behold multitude, or expanding, we behold as one, "As One Man a l l the Universal Family, and that One Man "We c a l l Jesus the Christ; and he in us, and we in him "Live in perfect harmony in Eden, the land of l i f e , "Giving, receiving, and forgiving each other*s trespasses," (Jerusalem, plate 38, 11. 17-22) This i s l i f e in Eternity to which Albion returns when, aided by Los, he regains unified vision and can perceive Jesus as a man, for God Appears & God is Light To those poor Souls who dwell in Night, But does a Human Form Display To those who Dwell in Realms of day. ("Auguries of Innocence," 11. 129-132) However, Albion cannot be forced into vision any more than the individual in Experience, can,"as the Will must not be bended but in the day of Divine/Power"(Jerusalem, plate 44, 11. 18-19). Until such time, Los acts as appointed guardian. In times of struggle, Los is seen frequently "Shouting loud for aid Divine", emphasizing his dependency upon Jesus. Other times, the Saviour descends like a deus ex machina at just the right moment: 101 Also Los, sick & t e r r i f i e d , beheld the Furnaces of Death And must have died, but the Divine Saviour descended Among the infant loves & affections, and the Divine Vision wept Like the evening dew on every herb upon the breathing ground. (Jerusalem, plate 42, 11. 5-8) The Divine Vision is here described in terms similar to the "Holy Word"7.in the "Introduction to The Songs of Experience," which is "weeping in the evening dew." (Keynes, p. 210) Both references emphasize Divine concern for man. In Jerusalem, Jesus works with Los in order to establish the limits, the significance of which was explored ea r l i e r . The creative fur-naces themselves are divinely inspired as instruments with which Los can forge his redemptive forms. While Jesus constantly helps Los, Los protects the Divine Vision, identified with the imagination, by fighting to subdue his spectre, for the spectre threatens the "Divine Body": The Spectre is the Reasoning Power in Man, & when separated From Imagination and closing i t s e l f as in steel in a Ratio Of the Things of Memory, It thence frames Laws and Moralities To destroy Imagination, the Divine Body, by Martyrdoms & Wars. (Jerusalem, plate 74, 11. 10-13) The vision is perceived only when the individual is in an open frame of mind (the state of Satan is a closed state). When 'Reference to the "Holy Word" is carefully overlapped with reference to the Bard in order to emphasize their close relation-ship. 102 Jerusalem, the emanation of Albion, is envious, her condition threatens the Lamb of God, for, in closed selfhood, she w i l l lose her vision of him. Los retains his faith throughout; hence he can work toward total redemption, the vision being protected. Although Los has been working with the Divine Vision of Jesus within Time and Space in order to arrest the f a l l of Albion, when the point of development is right, Time and Space w i l l end. In Jerusalem, Jesus "Opens Eternity in Time & Space, triumphant in Mercy." When the time arrives, Los reacts differently from a similar situation in The Four Zoas, comforting his children who fear the loss of the body: "Fear not, my sons, the Waking Death; he is become One with me. "Behold him here! We shall not Die! we shall be united in Jesus." (Jerusalem, plate 93, 11. 18-19) His f a i t h firm, reflecting Blake's own firmness of concept, Los calmly watches l i f e breathed into Albion., In contrast to the violent end of The Four Zoas, the quiet-ness of the resolution of Jerusalem gives us a feeling of growth rather than of explosive realization. ...we find in Jerusalem almost no working up of climax. ...We look back to see where the reversal of perspective occurred, but find nothing very tangible. . . .9 8 Separated from him when he f e l l , as we saw in The Four Zoas and Milton. 0 Fearful Symmetry, p. 358. 103 Instead, when he has grown to vision under the influence and guardianship of Los, Albion is reunited, achieving perfect f l e x i -b i l i t y of the senses. He sees Jesus, A Man & they conversed as Man with Man in Ages of Eternity. And the Divine Appearance was the likeness & similitude of Los. (Jerusalem, plate 96, 11. 6-7) This apocalyptic vision of unity i s the vision of the individual who has moved out of the state of Experience into higher Inno-cence. In seeing what happens within Albion, we are seeing the process that may take place in each individual, for each has the potential for such growth, influenced by his own imagination or Poetic Genius, as Albion was influenced by Los inspired by Jesus. In Jerusalem, the role of Los is closely fused with that of Jesus, completing the movement begun by Blake in Night the Seventh of The Four Zoas. Los retains the Divine Vision, most of the poem taking place after Los* own internal struggles, as seen in Milton, are complete. At the beginning of Jerusalem, Los vows himself friend and protector of Albion, in spite of the super-f i c i a l , quickly subdued objections from his spectre. As friend of Albion, Los influences him toward restoration of vision, creating redemptive forms for abstractions so that they may be recognized, producing the city of art as a workshop, and exhorting him to faith and vision as the Bard does Earth and as Blake does his public. At the culmination of the poem, "the Poet's Song draws to i t s period," i t s purpose being completed when Albion rises. The 104 redemptive furnaces disappear to be replaced by the instruments of Eternal sport, the weapons of Mental Warfare, which are the bows and arrows of the poem "And did those feet in ancient time", appearing at the beginning of Milton. The weapons w i l l be used to build Jerusalem in i t s aspect of liberty for England, and indeed, for a l l mankind since Jerusalem in i t s female form is the emanation of Albion, who represents not just England, as suggested by his name, but men of a l l nations. There is no need for a redemptive agent as the Eternals begin their sport: And the Bow is a Male & Female, & the Quiver of the Arrows of Love Are the children of this Bow, a Bow of Mercy & Loving-kindness laying Open the hidden Heart in Wars on mutual Benevolence, Wars of Love: And the Hand of Man grasps firm between the Male 6 c Female Loves. (Jerusalem, plate 97, 11. 12-15) The Apocalypse is complete., Los, inspired by Jesus, has been the principal agent in Man's restoration. 105 Conclusion In the prophecies, the function of the poet-prophet figure who is the Bard in The Songs of Innocence and Experience is f u l f i l l e d by Los, the fallen form of Urthona. Los* role changes sl i g h t l y in focus as he becomes more closely associated with Jesus. As the six thousand years of Time and Space prog-ress, the duality of Los as both destructive and creative de-creases. The immature Los is sulky and wrathful in the minor prophecies. In The Four Zoas, the process of inspiration by Jesus begins and Los* destructiveness is directed toward the vegetative universe, the r i g i d i t y of which impedes the resur-rection when the point of development is right. As Blake's own concept of Los* redemptive nature becomes clearer, his presentation becomes more directed. By Milton and Jerusalem, Los, with Jesus, is the chief agent in the achievement of the reunion of Albion. In the minor prophecies, Blake's concept of Los' function i s not clear. The Los of The Book of Urizen is different from the Los of The Song of Los. Continuity of character is preserved through the continuity of such associated symbols as the furnaces, the forge, the hammer, the anvil, and the sun. As the development of Blake's concept continues, emphasis on associated symbols decreases sharply, although Los remains the creative blacksmith even in Jerusalem. 106 In the early nights of The Four Zoas, the immature Los is a wrathful child, warring with everyone. When he is inspired by Jesus, he becomes more like the mature poet-prophet of the later prophecies. A violent Apocalypse is prepared and enacted. The symbolic Harvest and Vintage of Nations found in The Four Zoas is to be abandoned for a gentler reunion in Jerusalem. By the time of Milton, Blake was sure of Los' redemptive function and identified with him. Los himself i s ex p l i c i t con-cerning the role, wavering only occasionally when distracted by Enitharmon or by his sons. The function of Jesus is emphasized and the f i n a l Apocalyptic reunion is prepared for. Jerusalem is the f i n a l Apocalypse. Los c a l l s on Jesus con-stantly and is sure of his role as friend to Albion. His struggle with his spectre over the friendship is undeniably present but the outcome is never in doubt. Los has fa i t h and, with It, brings Albion to reunion. A poet-prophet figure works for renewal, having achieved unity himself by defeating the spectre of his selfhood. We see Los sometimes losing the Divine Vision as in The Four Zoas before the inspiration of Jesus. After the inspiration by the Divine Vision, essentially a Divine act of intervention, Los has Vision himself, wavering only when he sees the destruction of Jesus' vegetated body. Once Apocalyptic events begin, Los is reassured and recognizes that Jesus is s t i l l present, for indeed, he has been standing beside Los and Enitharmon throughout. 107 When the individual influenced by the poet-prophet grows to the extent that he sees a l l existence as the unity of the Divine Family, he is in a state of renewed, higher Innocence, Such an individual recognizes that the greatest e v i l is selfhood, but that e v i l can be transcended. This state of mind i s , in Blakean terms, the result of an Apocalypse and is similar, in i t s joy, to the original state of the child in primary Innocence. During the Apocalypse, when vision is restored, the poet-prophet becomes Urthona, reunited with the Eternals and functioning in a manner similar to the Piper of primary Innocence, with no consciousness of s e l f . The function of Los' art in our vegetative world is to bring man to a consciousness of unity. To Blake, the word "art" had at least two implications, each of which is closely dependent upon the other and each of which involves Los. The f i r s t i s explained by John Middleton Murry in his chapter on Golgonooza. He quotes the inscription from the Laocoon plates. The Eternal Body of Man is The Imagination, that i s , God Himself, The Divine Body,..., Jesus; we are his Members. It Manifests i t s e l f in his Works of Art. (In Eternity A l l is Vision). 1 Art, then, is " l i f e permeated and eternally renewed by the a l l -comprehending, a l l renewing Imagination -- a way of l i f e which Blake believed had been lived by Jesus and his true disciples...."2 1 John Middleton Murry, William Blake (New York! McGraw-Hill, 1964), p. 198. 2 Murry, p. 202. 108 A r t i s t s , then, include a l l great men who live in this fashion whether or not they produce works of art. They perceive the unity or order in the universe. But poets, or those who imagine and express this indestructible order, are not only the authors of language and of music, of the dance, and archi-tecture, and statuary, and painting: they are the institutors of laws, and the founders of c i v i l society, and the inventors of the arts of l i f e , and the teachers who draw into a certain propin-quity with the beautiful and the true, that partial apprehension of the agencies of the invisible world which is called r e l i g i o n . 3 The a r t i s t , or poet, is a person who perceives a certain vision of unity and who lives governed by the Imagination. After the reunion with his Spectre in Night the Eighth of The Four Zoas, Los has become an a r t i s t in this sense. Los is a r t i s t in the second sense of the word also. He produces works of Art. Golgonooza, while representative of the imaginative and unified aspects of Los, is also one great work of art. Like a l l great works of art, i t i s redemptive. Even i t s building materials refl e c t i t s religious qualities, as quoted in Chapter Five. (Jerusalem, plate 10, 11, 30-37) Such is i t s nature that the Daughters of Beulah see i t as a Human form And knew he was the Saviour, Even Jesus: 6c they worshipped. (The Four Zoas, Night the Eighth, 11, 43-44) P.B. Shelley, "A Defence of Poetry," in English Romantic  Poetry and Prose, ed, Russell Noynes (New York: Oxford University Press, 1956), p. 1098. 109 Within the city i t s e l f exist works of art in the usual sense. A l l things acted on Earth are seen in the bright Sculptures of Los*s Hall, & every Age renews i t s powers from these works With every pathetic story possible to happen from Hate or Wayward Love; & every sorrow & distress is carved here, Every a f f i n i t y of Parents, Marriages & Friendships are here In^all their various combinations wrought with wondrous Art, A l l that can happen to Man in his pilgrimage of seventy years, (Jerusalem, plate 16, 11, 61-67) Within the city, Los and his family produce arti f a c t s which have redemptive functions. They make forms for the formless Spec-tres of the Dead. With these forms, the Spectres ere concretized into generation, "the image of Regeneration" (Jerusalem, plate 7, 1. 65), so that Error can be recognized and cast off in the Apocal-ypse, when the vegetative bodies are destroyed. As evident in the crucifixion, the real individual lives on after the death of the body, although the body i t s e l f i s a necessary s t a g e . T h e r e -fore, Los is the ultimate a r t i s t producing redemptive works of art. The symbols surrounding Los, his furnaces, hammer, and anvil, are associated with his a r t i s t i c function: 4 In Milton, Blake returns from a visionary state to resurrec-tion and judgment in the vegetative body (Milton, plate 42, 11. 26-27). 110 The breaking up of ore, the smelting in the furnaces, the release of the molten metal, and the casting into new form, while the slag is discarded, represented to Blake the poetic process i t s e l f . 5 Because a l l that is redemptive can be seen in generation, there are parallels for the furnaces in the human body: The Bellows are Animal Lungs, the Hammers the , Animal Heart, The Furnaces the Stomach for Digestion.... (Jerusalem, plate 53, 11. 12-13) Hence the body i t s e l f is an image for the redemptive poetic process. In identifying with Los, the perpetrator of redemptive deeds, Blake himself acted as a poet-prophet in the widest sense, for he f e l t i t was his duty to lead men toward a vision of unity of a l l mankind, toward internal revolution instead of external revolution. A l l poets, prophets, and a r t i s t s work toward one end, in Blake's view, that i s , the bringing about of integrated vision in each man. The actions of Los in guiding the fallen man to restored vision are the working out of Blake's own relig i o n of art. 'A Blake Dictionary, p. 147 I l l Selected Bibliography Texts William Blake. The Poetry and Prose of William Blake, ed. David V. Erdman. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1965. . The Complete Writings of William Blake, ed. Geoffrey Keynes. London: Oxford University Press, 1966. . The Prophetic Writings of William Blake, ed. D. J . Sloss and J. P. R. Wallis. London: Oxford University Press, 1926. Bibliography G. E. Bentley, Jr., and Martin K. Nurmi. A Blake Bibliography. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1964. Biography Gilc h r i s t , A. Life of William Blake, ed. W. Graham Robertson. New York: John Lane Company, 1907. Wilson, Mona. The Life of William Blake. London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1948. Criticism Adams, Hazard. William Blake: A Reading of the Shorter Poems. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1963. Bloom, Harold. Blake's Apocalypse: A Study in Poetic Argument. New York: Anchor Books, 1965. Bodkin, Maude. Archetypal Patterns in Poetry. London: Oxford University Press, 1934. Bronowski, J . A Man Without a Mask. London: Seeker and Warburg, 1944. 112 Bronowski, J . William Blake and the Age of Revolution. New York: Harper & Row, 1965. Bruce, Harold. Blake in this World. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1925. Damon, S. Foster. A Blake Dictionary: The Ideas and Symbols of  William Blake. Providence, Rhode Island: Brown Univer-sity Press, 1965. . William Blake: His Philosophy and Symbols. Glou-cester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1958. Dobree, Bonamy. English Literature in the Early Eighteenth  Century; 1700-1740. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1959. E l i o t , T.S. The Sacred Wood. London: Methuen, 1960. Erdman, David V. "Blake: The Historical Approach" in Discussions  of William Blake, ed. John E. Grant. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1961. . Prophet Against Empire. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1954. Fisher, Peter. Valley of Vision. University of Toronto Press, 1961. Frye, Northrop. "Blake's Introduction to Experience" in Blake:  A Collection of C r i t i c a l Essays, ed. Northrop Frye. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1966. . Fearful Symmetry: A Study of William Blake. Boston: Beacon Press, 1965. . "Keys to the Gates" in Some Brit i s h Romantics. J. V. Logan, J. E. Jordan, and Northrop Frye. Ohio State University Press, 1966. . "William Blake" in The English Romantic Poets and Essayists, ed. Carolyn Washburn Houtchens and Lawrence Huston Houtchens. New York: MLA, 1957. Gardner, Stanley. Infinity on the Anvil: A C r i t i c a l Study of  Blake's Poetry. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1954. Gillham, D.G. Blake's Contrary States. Cambridge University Press, 1966. Gleckner, R. The Piper and the Bard. Detroit: Wayne State Univer-si t y Press, 1959. 113 Hagstrum, Jean. "Blake's Blake" In Essays in History and Litera-ture, ed. Heinz Bluhm. Chicago: R. R, Donnelley & Sons Company, 1965. . William Blake: Poet and Painter. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1964. . "William Blake Rejects the Enlightenment" in Blake: A Collection of C r i t i c a l Essays, ed. Northrop Frye. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1966. . "Wrath of the Lamb" in From Sensibility to Romanticism, ed. F. W. Hilles & H. Bloom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1965. Harper, George M i l l s . "Apocalyptic Vision and Pastoral Dream in Blake's Four Zoas," South Atlantic Quarterly, LXIV (1965), 110-124. Hirsch, E. D. J r . Innocence and Experience: An Introduction to Blake. New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1964. Humphrey, A. R. "The Literary Scene" in The Pelican Guide to English Literature: Volume IV, ed. Boris Ford. Great Britain: Penguin Books, 1957. Hungerford, E. B. Shores of Darkness. New York: Columbia Univer-sity Press, 1941. James, Laura De Witt. William Blake: The Finger in the Furnace. New York: Vantage Press, 1956. K i r a l i s , Karl. "Intellectual Symbolism in Blake's Later Prophetic Writings" in Discussions of William Blake. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1961. Miles, Josephine. Eras and Modes in English Poetry. Berkeley 6 c Los Angeles, 1957. Murry, John Middleton.^William Blake. London: Alden Press, 1933. Nurmi, Martin K. "Blake's Marriage of Heaven and Hell: A C r i t i c a l Study," Kent State University Bulletin. Kent. 1957. Percival, Milton Oswin. Circle of Destiny. New York: Octagon Books Inc., 1938. Roston, Murray. Prophet and Poet: The Bible and the Growth of  Romanticism. London: Faber and Faber, 1965. 114 Saurat, Denis. Blake and Modern Thought. London: Constable & Co. Ltd., 1929. Schorer, Mark. William Blake: The P o l i t i c s of Vision. New York: Vintage Books, 1946. Stephen, Sir Leslie. History of English Thought in the Eighteenth  Century. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1962. Shelley, P.B. "A Defence of Poetry" in English Romantic Poetry and Prose, ed. Russell Noynes. New York: Oxford Univ-ersity Press, 1956. Swinburne, A.C. William Blake: A C r i t i c a l Essay. London: John Camden Hotten, 1868. Wicksteed, Joseph H. Blake's Innocence and Experience. London: J. M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1928. 

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