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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Robert Buchanan and the fleshly controversy : a reconsideration Murray, Christopher David 1970

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ROBERT BUCHANAN AND THE FLESHLY CONTROVERSY: A RECONSIDERATION by CHRISTOPHER DAVID MURRAY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1970 In present ing th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l f u l f i lmen t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s fo r s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of t h i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department The Un ivers i ty o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The i m p o r t a n c e o f R o b e r t Buchanan's o n s l a u g h t upon Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i ' s Poems i n 1871-2 has never been m i n i m i s e d by t h e p o e t ' s b i o g r a p h e r s . T h i s c r u c i a l e p i s o d e u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o R o s s e t t i ' s d e a t h t e n y e a r s l a t e r . Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m a l s o r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e p o e t r y ' s " f l e s h l i n e s s " , w i t h w h i c h a l l R o s s e t t i s t u d e n t s e v e n t u a l l y have t o come t o terms. Some c r i t i c s c o n s i d e r him t o be a r o m a n t i c , t r y i n g t o e x p r e s s h i s a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e e t e r n a l t o be found b e h i n d n a t u r a l phenomena; o t h e r s see him, as Buchanan saw him, as a man v a i n l y t r y i n g t o e t h e r e a l i s e man's b a s e s t d r i v e s , a s e n s u a l m a t e r i a l i s t masquerading as a s p i r i t u a l i d e a l i s t . Buchanan's i n d i c t m e n t has been s a i d t o be c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f "the ' c l a s s i c a l ' o r " c o n s e r v a t i v e s c h o o l o f c r i t i c i s m . " Swinburne's Poems and B a l l a d s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1866, had shocked many. I t was w i d e l y known t h a t R o s s e t t i had been one o f t h e major i n f l u e n c e s upon t h e younger p o e t , and Buchanan e x p r e s s e d t h e o u t r a g e many f e l t a t t h e i m m o r a l i t y o f t h e more mature, and t h u s more r e p r e h e n s i b l e , R o s s e t t i . Buchanan's manner and t o n e were adopted t o i m p r e s s r e a d e r s w i t h h i s j u d i c i o u s i m p a r t i a l i t y , even though p e r s o n a l animus c e r t a i n l y i n s p i r e d h i s c r i t i c i s m . Buchanan d e s p i s e d R o s s e t t i ' s e f f e m i n a c y , h i s l a c k o f s a n i t y , h i s l a c k o f humanity, even; he d e s p i s e d h i s i n t r o s p e c t i o n , h i s e f f e t e l u x u r i a t i o n " i n h i s own e x q u i s i t e emotions." W h i l e such o b j e c t i o n s a r e v i r t u a l l y t h e same as t h o s e made a g a i n s t K e a t s , Buchanan d i d s u b s c r i b e t o t h e r o m a n t i c b e l i e f t h a t t h e s i n c e r e e x p r e s s i o n o f some c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d t r u t h gave p o e t r y i t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f " s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n . " To him, R o s s e t t i ' s i n s i n c e r i t y was t h e most p a t e n t l y o b v i o u s t h i n g about h i s work. Thus i t can be seen t h a t Buchanan used b o t h c l a s s i c a l and r o m a n t i c c r i t e r i a t o a c h i e v e h i s pu r p o s e . Buchanan, on t h e one hand, 1 and Swinburne and W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i , on t h e o t h e r , had been e x c h a n g i n g p o l e m i c a l b r o a d s i d e s f o r a t l e a s t f i v e y e a r s p r i o r t o 1871. The t h e s i s t r a c e s t h e o r i g i n s and t h e c o u r s e o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y , and p r e s e n t s s a l v o e s by b o t h Buchanan and Swinburne w h i c h have h i t h e r t o gone unnoted. R o s s e t t i had n o t f i g u r e d i n t h e c o n t r o v e r s y b e f o r e , b u t i t was Buchanan's h a r s h r e v i e w o f W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s e d i t i o n o f S h e l l e y t h a t prompted t h e p o e t t o o r g a n i z e t h e c r i t i c a l r e c e p t i o n o f Poems i n t h e f i r s t months o f 1870. T h i s f a c t , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , has r e c e i v e d s c a n t a t t e n t i o n i n o t h e r a c c o u n t s o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y , b u t t h i s " w o r k i n g t h e o r a c l e " , b e s i d e s g i v i n g Buchanan a n o t h e r s t i c k w i t h w h i c h t o b e a t R o s s e t t i , must have made t h e a n t i c i p a t e d a t t a c k a l l t h e more d e a d l y when i t f i n a l l y came. The c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y a f t e r R o s s e t t i ' s b r e a k -down i n June 1872 i s d e s c r i b e d , as i s t h e r e l u c t a n t i n v o l v e -ment i n i t o f Walt Whitman, a p o e t whom b o t h s i d e s admired g r e a t l y . To a s s e s s what v a l i d i t y t h a t a t t a c k may have had f o r R o s s e t t i , a c l o s e t e x t u a l c o l l a t i o n has been made between t h e " f i f t h " e d i t i o n o f Poems, t h a t r e v i e w e d by Buchanan i n t h e Contemporary Review o f O c t o b e r 1871, and subsequent r e p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e p o e t r y . I t i s c l e a r t h a t R o s s e t t i d i d r e v i s e s e v e r a l poems because o f t h e v i e w s t h a t Buchanan r e p r e s e n t e d . The o m i s s i o n o f t h e sonnet " N u p t i a l S l e e p " from subsequent c o l l e c t i o n s has l o n g been known t o be d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o Buchanan's a t t a c k . The t h e s i s ends w i t h a b r i e f a c c o u n t o f Buchanan's l i t e r a r y c a r e e r from 1871 u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1901. A c o n f i r m e d m u t i n e e r and c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s t , he g r a d u a l l y l o s t c r e d i t as a p o e t w o r t h y o f s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and now h i s work has found a n e g l e c t t h a t i t may n o t t o t a l l y d e s e r v e . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 I. i THE CRITICAL CONTEXT OF "THE FLESHLY SCHOOL OF POETRY" 6 i i ROBERT WILLIAMS BUCHANAN 19 I I . THE ANTECEDENTS TO "THE FLESHLY SCHOOL OF POETRY" 31 I I I . i THE CRITICAL RECEPTION OF D.G. ROSSETTI'S POEMS 50 i i BUCHANAN'S ATTACKS ON ROSSETTI 65 IV. i ROSSETTI'S REACTION TO BUCHANAN'S ATTACKS. 91 i i THE CONTINUATION OF THE CONTROVERSY. . . . 107 V. THE VALIDITY OF BUCHANAN'S CRITICISM . . . 123 CONCLUSION 147 BIBLIOGRAPHY 149 APPENDIX 160 LIST OF SHORT TITLES OF WORKS FREQUENTLY CITED IN THIS THESIS A n g e l i C a s s i d y D i a r y Doughty Doughty-Wahl Ghose J a y Lang Pamphlet P e n k i l l PGR as W r i t e r F a m i l y L e t t e r s The A n g e l i Papers now i n the U.B.C. L i b r a r y John A. C a s s i d y . "Robert Buchanan and t h e F l e s h l y C o n t r o v e r s y . " PMLA, L X V I I (March, 1952) , 65-93. W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i ' s p e r s o n a l D i a r y , w h i c h i s p a r t o f the A n g e l i P a p e r s . Oswald Doughty. A V i c t o r i a n Romantic: Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960. Oswald Doughty and J.R. Wahl, eds. L e t t e r s  o f Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . 4 v o l s . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1965-67. R e f e r e n c e s a re t o l e t t e r number. S.N. Ghose. Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i and  Contemporary C r i t i c i s m : 1849 - 1882. D i j o n : I m p r i m e r i e D a r a n t i e r e , 19 29. H a r r i e t t J a y . R o b e r t Buchanan. London: F i s h e r Unwin, 190 3. C e c i l Y. Lang. The Swinburne L e t t e r s . 6 v o l s . New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959-1962. R e f e r e n c e s a r e t o l e t t e r number. Robe r t Buchanan. The F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f  P o e t r y and Other Phenomena o f t h e Day. London: S t r a h a n , 1872. The P e n k i l l Papers now i n the U.B.C. L i b r a r y W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i . Dante G a b r i e l  R o s s e t t i as D e s i g n e r and W r i t e r . London: C a s s e l l , 1889. W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i . Dante G a b r i e l  R o s s e t t i : H i s F a m i l y L e t t e r s , w i t h a Memoir, 2 v o l s . London: E l l i s and E l v e y , 189 5. Some R e m i n i s c e n c e s W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i . Some R e m i n i s c e n c e s . 2 v o l s . New York: S c r i b n e r s , 1906. INTRODUCTION R o b e r t Buchanan's a t t a c k on Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i ' s Poems, "The F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y - Mr. D.G. R o s s e t t i , " p u b l i s h e d o v e r t h e pseudonym "Thomas M a i t l a n d " i n t h e Contemporary Review f o r O c t o b e r 1871, has l o n g been seen as the b e g i n n i n g o f a c r u c i a l e p i s o d e i n t h e p o e t ' s l i f e . I t i s beyond q u e s t i o n t h a t Buchanan's e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e i n t o t h e pamphlet, The F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f  P o e t r y and o t h e r Phenomena o f the Day, l e d t o t h e p o e t ' s a t t e m p t e d s u i c i d e i n t h e f i r s t week o f June 1872. The o u t -l i n e s o f the e p i s o d e are c l e a r , b u t much o f the d e t a i l has been o b s c u r e , and the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the c o n t r o v e r s y has n o t been c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d . George S t o r e y h as, f o r example, g i v e n a m a s t e r l y d e s c r i p t i o n o f "Robert Buchanan's C r i t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s " (PMLA, L X V I I December 1953, 1228-1232), b u t no one has c l o s e l y examined Buchanan's n o t o r i o u s r e v i e w t o f i n d o u t j u s t how t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a r e a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e . P r o f e s s o r s Houghton and Stange see Buchanan w r i t i n g i n t h e " s o - c a l l e d c o n s e r v a t i v e o r ' c l a s s i c a l ' t r a d i t i o n o f c r i t i c i s m " b u t do l i t t l e t o e l a b o r a t e t h e i r r e m a r k . 1 I t i s t o be found i n a f o o t n o t e t o t h e i r r e p r i n t o f Buchanan's a r t i c l e i n V i c t o r i a n P o e t r y and P o e t i c s , 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1968), p. 888. A l l subsequent q u o t a t i o n s i n t h i s t h e s i s t a k e n from Buchanan's r e v i e w w i l l be f o l l o w e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e page number i n Houghton and Stange. 2 John A. C a s s i d y ' s "Robert Buchanan and the F l e s h l y C o n t r o v e r s y " (PMLA, L X V I I March 1952, 65-93) has been r e g a r d e d as t h e b e s t t r e a t m e n t o f the s u b j e c t s i n c e i t f i r s t appeared, b u t i t does n o t i n c o r p o r a t e the d i s c o v e r y . o f a p o s s i b l e cause of t h e f e u d : Moxon's r e j e c t i o n i n e a r l y 1866 o f Buchanan's e d i t i o n o f Keats i n f a v o u r o f Swinburne. Much i m p o r t a n t m a t e r i a l has been p u b l i s h e d s i n c e 1952, t h e R o s s e t t i and Swinburne L e t t e r s b e i n g b u t two o b v i o u s examples; so C a s s i d y ' s r e s e a r c h needs u p d a t i n g . The p r e s e n t w r i t e r has had a c c e s s t o the A n g e l i and the P e n k i l l C o l l e c t i o n s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h e s e , t o o , throw much l i g h t on d e t a i l s o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t have l o n g been f o r g o t t e n . C a s s i d y does p o i n t o u t (p. 7 1 ) , however, th e i m p o r t a n t f a c t t h a t R o s s e t t i o r g a n i z e d t h e c r i t i c a l r e c e p t i o n o f h i s Poems our o f f e a r o f a t t a c k by Buchanan. But n e i t h e r he nor any o t h e r h i s t o r i a n o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y seems t o see t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s . I r o n i c a l l y , Buchanan h i m s e l f made much o f the "chorus o f e u l o g y " t h a t g r e e t e d Poems, u s i n g i t as i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e e v i d e n c e o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e "mutual a d m i r a t i o n s c h o o l o f p o e t r y , " b u t he seems never t o have s u s p e c t e d t h a t i t was h i s a n t i c i p a t e d "drop o f g a l l " t h a t caused t h e "ocean o f eau s u c r e e " i n the f i r s t p l a c e (see below, pp. 50-3). I t was j u s t t h i s a n t i c i p a t i o n by R o s s e t t i o f the a t t a c k t h a t made i t s e f f e c t on t h e p r e c a r i o u s m e n t a l b a l a n c e o f i t s v i c t i m t h e more d e a d l y ; and the a t t a c k ' s r e p e t i t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n s i x months l a t e r c o u l d o n l y c o n v i n c e the 3 paranoid Rossetti that he had been s t e a l t h i l y stalked by a man awaiting the moment when his p r a c t i c a l l y defenceless quarry would be most vulnerable. The o r i g i n a l attack, coming as i t did after the i d y l l i c , and a r t i s t i c a l l y productive, summer spent by Rossetti with Janey Morris at Kelmscott, could scarcely have occurred at a more inopportune time for the poet; and i t i s no exaggeration to say that never again was Rossetti to be as happy as he had been i n that summer of 1871. Rossetti was r i g h t to anticipate Buchanan's attack, but he was quick to att r i b u t e i t s motivating force to envy, envy at the "success" Poems had so quickly attained, and thi s i s why so much e f f o r t was devoted by Rossetti and his friends to uncovering the i d e n t i t y of "Thomas Maitland;" once the review was shown to be the work of a fellow-poet, i t s personal motivation could be taken for granted. Buchanan's envy has been the standard explanation for h i s attack ever since. No one i s more scathing i n his treatment of Buchanan than Rossetti's biographer, Professor Doughty, and he i s i n a l i n e that stretches back to Sidney Colvin, Theodore Watts-Dunton and Edmund Gosse. Buchanan's motivation was, i n part at l e a s t , personal. William Michael.Rossetti had once c a l l e d him "a poor and pretentious poetaster" (see below, p. 38), and Swinburne had made some unnecessarily unkind remarks about Buchanan's poet-friend David Gray (see below, p. 42). Buchanan bided his time awaiting the opportunity for revenge, 4 w h i c h came n o t o n l y w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of Poems b u t w i t h t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s e d i t i o n o f S h e l l e y i n l a t e 1869. Buchanan a d m i t t e d i n a l e t t e r t o R o b e r t Browning, w r i t t e n i n March 1872, t h a t i t was Swinburne's s l u r on Gray's p o e t i c a b i l i t y t h a t had ar o u s e d "the one i n s t i n c t f o r r e c r i m i n a t i o n " i n him (see below, p. 4 3 ) ; b u t i t i s t h a t same l e t t e r w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t he saw "the main cause" as " r i g h t e o u s and j u s t . " P e r s o n a l m o t i v a t i o n u n d o u b t e d l y added an u n f o r t u n a t e edge t o Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m o f R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y , but i t was a s i n c e r e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s t h a t Buchanan never a l t e r e d , and t h i s f a c t needs t o be remembered. Buchanan g e n u i n e l y b e l i e v e d t h a t he was r o o t i n g o u t a bed o f n e t t l e s from t h e garden o f E n g l i s h p o e t r y ( h i s f i g u r e ) , and t o t h i s e x t e n t he was prompted by a l o v e o f l i t e r a t u r e and a d e s i r e t o keep i t pure. One o b v i o u s way o f gauging t h e v a l i d i t y o f Buchanan's o b j e c t i o n s t o R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y i s t o examine t o what e x t e n t t h e y were v a l i d f o r t h e poet h i m s e l f , t o f i n d o u t how the p o e t r y was r e v i s e d f o r subsequent p u b l i c a t i o n . The f i f t h " e d i t i o n " o f Poems (the e d i t i o n w h i c h Buchanan reviewed) has t h e r e f o r e been c o l l a t e d w i t h t h e new e d i t i o n o f Poems and B a l l a d s and Sonnets p u b l i s h e d i n 1881, b e f o r e a w i d e r view o f the a t t a c k ' s v a l i d i t y i s t a k e n . Buchanan's charge t h a t R o s s e t t i admired form f o r form's sake and had l i t t l e c o n c e r n f o r a poem's meaning o r , f o r t h a t m a t t e r , i t s r e l e v a n c e t o the co n c e r n s o f i t s r e a d e r s , has s u p p o r t e d t h e v i e w l i n k i n g R o s s e t t i 5 and t h e A e s t h e t e s ; and t h i s a s p e c t , t o o , o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y i s examined. The t h e s i s ends w i t h a b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e e f f e c t o f the whole a f f a i r on Buchanan's r e p u t a t i o n . B e f o r e 1872,he was r e g a r d e d as a poet o f r e a l m e r i t by such c r i t i c s as W i l l i a m Hepworth D i x o n , George Henry Lewes, and R i c h a r d H o l t H u t t o n . A f t e r t h a t date, h i s p o e t i c a s p i r a t i o n s were no l o n g e r s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d , and he t u r n e d t o n o v e l - w r i t i n g and c h u r n i n g o u t t h e p o p u l a r p l a y s o f t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s o f h i s l i f e ; he f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e what many f e l t he s h o u l d have a c h i e v e d . Few o f h i s poems have found t h e i r way i n t o a n t h o l o g i e s o f E n g l i s h , o r even V i c t o r i a n , p o e t r y . One o f the r e s u l t s o f t h e F l e s h l y C o n t r o v e r s y i s t h a t t h e p a s s i o n s i t a r o u s e d have l o n g o b s c u r e d t h e m e r i t s o f a man who has y e t t o f i n d h i s t r u e p l a c e among t h e po e t s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . CHAPTER I i THE CRITICAL CONTEXT OF "THE FLESHLY SCHOOL OF POETRY" R o b e r t Buchanan's r e v i e w o f Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i ' s Poems has always had much s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the b i o g r a p h e r o f t h e p o e t . H i s c r i t i c , t o o , has had t o come t o terms w i t h t h e charge o f f l e s h l i n e s s , and has f r e q u e n t l y o v e r s t r e s s e d the p o e t ' s m y s t i c a l e t h e r e a l i t y . a s a r e s u l t . Q u i t e n a t u r a l l y , i t i s w i t h R o s s e t t i i n mind, e i t h e r h i s l i f e o r h i s p o e t r y , t h a t a r e a d e r comes t o examine t h i s e p i s o d e o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e . Perhaps some new i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e v a l u e o f t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y may be g a i n e d , i f i t i s approached from a r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w . One such approach would be t h a t t a k e n by C a s s i d y : t o view t h e a f f a i r from Buchanan's s i d e , and see what i t meant t o h i s l i f e and a r t . C a s s i d y ' s f i r s t r e d r e s s i n g o f the b a l a n c e was i n v a l u a b l e , b u t i t was n o t u n b i a s s e d , though i t may w e l l be r e g a r d e d as t h e f i r s t n e c e s s a r y s t e p towards i m p a r t i a l i t y . A n o t h e r approach would be" t o t r y t o . i g n o r e the s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f the p r o t a g o n i s t s and t o t r y t o see what each r e p r e s e n t s . The c o n t r o v e r s y i s n o t j u s t one more round i n the n e v e r - e n d i n g s t r u g g l e between a r t i s t and P h i l i s t i n e , o r between m y s t i c and m a t e r i a l i s t , o r r o m a n t i c and c l a s s i c , o r even between a g i f t e d i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y , y e t i t c o n t a i n s elements o f a l l o f t h e s e . But the l i n e s a r e 7 n o t c l e a r c u t . R o s s e t t i was i n some ways as P h i l i s t i n e , as m a t e r i a l i s t , as c o n f o r m i s t even, as Buchanan e v e r was. Buchanan, on t h e o t h e r hand, was an a r t i s t h i m s e l f , a m y s t i c who saw h i m s e l f t h r o u g h o u t h i s l i f e as a r e v o l u t i o n a r y . P r o f e s s o r s Houghton and Stange do p r o v i d e a u s e f u l p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e , however, w i t h t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t Buchanan i s c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e " s o - c a l l e d ' c l a s s i c a l ' o r c o n s e r v a t i v e s c h o o l o f c r i t i c i s m " (see above, p. 1 ) ; and t h i s s t u d y w i l l b e g i n by a s s e s s i n g the v a l i d i t y o f p l a c i n g "The F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y " i n such a c a t e g o r y . Buchanan, by t h e time he came t o r e v i e w R o s s e t t i ' s Poems, had been a j o u r n a l i s t f o r t e n y e a r s and was p a r t i c u l a r l y adept a t assuming whatever p o s t u r e and tone he f e l t s u i t a b l e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e . When w r i t i n g u n s y m p a t h e t i c r e v i e w s , p r o b a b l y because such r e v i e w s i n v a r i a b l y h i n g e d on an e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n , he assumed t h e n e c e s s a r y a t t r i b u t e s o f a judge. Indeed, i n h i s r e v i e w o f Swinburne's Notes on Poems and  Reviews (Athenaeum, November 3 r d , 1866, pp. 564-5),he d e s c r i b e d t r u e l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s i n terms o f h i g h c o u r t j u d g e s , men who c o u l d c a l m l y and f a i r l y a s s e s s t h e m e r i t s o f any p u b l i c a t i o n , w i t h as d i s p a s s i o n a t e a r e g a r d f o r t h e t r u t h as i s e v e r t o be found i n a c o u r t o f law. I n "The F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y , " t h e use o f t h e f i r s t p e r s o n p l u r a l and t h e urbane and a s s u r e d tone seem t o i n d i c a t e Buchanan's attempt t o g i v e h i s r e v i e w an a i r o f i m p a r t i a l i t y , w h i c h , i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a s e , he may w e l l have known t h a t he l a c k e d . He sees h i m s e l f w r i t i n g 8 i n a t r a d i t i o n , w h i c h s t r e t c h e s back a t l e a s t as f a r as Samuel Johnson; and much o f the f o r c e o f h i s c r i t i q u e comes from t h e w r i t e r ' s a i r o f a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e v a l u e s i m p l i c i t i n h i s judgments a r e t h o s e o f h i s most r e s p o n s i b l e and e n l i g h t e n e d c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , and a l s o o f the b e s t o f t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . Not o n l y s h o u l d an e n q u i r y i n t o the n a t u r e o f Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m h e l p t o p l a c e t h i s e n c o u n t e r i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e c r i t i c a l t h o u g h t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b u t i t may h e l p t o e x p l a i n why R o s s e t t i s h o u l d have found i t so damaging. That i t s h o u l d f a i t h f u l l y r e f l e c t man's u n i v e r s e i s the f i r s t r e q u i r e m e n t e v e r demanded o f a r t . R o s s e t t i ' s d e e p -seated i n d i f f e r e n c e t o a l l a g i t a t i n g f o r c e s and a g e n c i e s , a l l tumultuous g r i e f s and s o r r o w s , a l l t h e thunderous s t r e s s o f l i f e , and a l l t h e s t r a i n i n g s t o r m o f s p e c u l a t i o n (p. 890) d i s t u r b s Buchanan v e r y much, as h i s somewhat t u r b u l e n t r h e t o r i c shows. Buchanan sees the a r c h a i c and pseudo-m y s t i c a l m e d i e v a l i s m o f R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y as an e f f e t e , n o t t o say e f f e m i n a t e , w i t h d r a w a l from t h e overwhelming concerns o f h i s age. Buchanan does n ot ask f o r d i d a c t i c u t i l i t a r i a n p o e t r y , b u t the s p i r i t u a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l t u r m o i l o f V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d a f f e c t e d him d e e p l y , and he s t r o v e , as d i d so many o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , t o f i n d t h o s e b e l i e f s t h a t c o u l d r e s t o r e some meaning t o human e x i s t e n c e . I t i s s m a l l wonder t h a t he s h o u l d d e c r y R o s s e t t i ' s r e t r e a t so b i t t e r l y . A f t e r a l l , Matthew A r n o l d h i m s e l f had s a i d o f t h e g r e a t E n g l i s h Romantics t h a t t h e i r b e s e t t i n g f a u l t was t h a t "they 9 did not know enough," that they were ignorant of "the best ideas current" i n t h e i r time, which made a "thorough inter p r e t a t i o n of the world," art's true function, impossible."'" How much less had Rossetti attempted than Wordsworth, Byron or Shelley. That Rossetti has "nothing p a r t i c u l a r to t e l l us or teach us" (p. 891) i s but the f i r s t of several severe indictments. Closer to the neo - c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n c r i t i c i s m , possibly, than the s t i p u l a t i o n that art be relevant i s Buchanan's concern for the e f f e c t that poetry has on i t s audience. After quoting Samuel Johnson's remark that " ' I t i s always a writer's duty to make the world better . . . ,'" M.H. Abrams goes on to say: The pragmatic orientation, ordering the aim of the a r t i s t to the nature, the needs, and the springs of pleasure i n the audience, characterized by far the greatest part of c r i t i c i s m from the time of Horace through the eighteenth century.2 Buchanan, of course, sees Rossetti using a l l his estimable talents for an end absolutely opposite to that of Dr. Johnson; he i s t r y i n g to make the world worse. Rossetti's audience, says Buchanan, consists of those "young gentlemen with animal f a c u l t i e s morbidly developed by too much tobacco and too l i t t l e exercise" (p. 896). The corrupt i s c a l l i n g to the "The Function of C r i t i c i s m at the Present Time" (1864) reprinted i n Houghton and Stange, p. 52 4. 2 The Mirror and the Lamp (New York: Norton, 1958), pp. 20-21. 10 c o r r u p t i b l e . W r i t i n g o f t h e sonnet " N u p t i a l S l e e p , " where a " f u l l - g r o w n man, presumably i n t e l l i g e n t and c u l t i v a t e d , [ i s ] p u t t i n g on r e c o r d f o r o t h e r f u l l - g r o w n men t o r e a d , the most s e c r e t m y s t e r i e s o f s e x u a l c o n n e c t i o n , " Buchanan says such r e v e l a t i o n " i s s i m p l y n a s t y . " But "Nasty as i t i s , we ar e v e r y m i s t a k e n i f many r e a d e r s do n o t t h i n k i t n i c e . " R o s s e t t i ' s p o p u l a r i t y i s due t o h i s shameless o b t r u s i o n o f t h e s e "most s e c r e t m y s t e r i e s . . . as the themes o f whole poems" (p. 891). He i s g u a r a n t e e i n g h i s f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s by t h i s base p a n d e r i n g t o t h e l o w e s t i n s t i n c t s o f men, and i s t h e r e b y making h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the w i d e s p r e a d m o r a l d e c l i n e o f t he E n g l i s h p e o p l e . Laughable as t h i s may appear t o - d a y , one can be c e r t a i n t h a t i t s t r u c k a sure r e s p o n s e i n many a V i c t o r i a n bosom. Buchanan's a s s u r a n c e o f such a response i s i m p l i c i t i n the l o a d e d language he uses t o d e s c r i b e h i s i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e p o e t r y , w h i c h s h a r e s w i t h R o s s e t t i ' s p a i n t i n g t h e same t h i n n e s s and t r a n s p a r e n c e o f d e s i g n , the same c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s i m p l e w i t h t h e g r o t e s q u e , t h e same morbid d e v i a t i o n from h e a l t h y forms o f l i f e , t he same sense o f weary, w a s t i n g , y e t e x q u i s i t e s e n s u a l i t y ; n o t h i n g v i r i l e , n o t h i n g t e n d e r , n o t h i n g c o m p l e t e l y sane; a s u p e r f l u i t y o f extreme s e n s i b i l i t y , o f d e l i g h t i n b e a u t i f u l forms, hues and t i n t s . . . . (p. 890) R o s s e t t i ' s l a c k o f m a n l i n e s s , l a c k o f s a n i t y , l a c k o f humanity even, i s s t r e s s e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h e r e v i e w . Whether the work o f a s k i l l f u l ! r h e t o r i c i a n (as one s u s p e c t s ) o r o f a man supremely s u r e t h a t h i s v a l u e s a r e t h o s e o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , the r e v i e w i s w r i t t e n v e r y much i n t h e same 11 s p i r i t as t h e g r e a t o n s l a u g h t s o f men l i k e G i f f o r d , J e f f r e y , C r o k e r , L o c k h a r t , W i l s o n and Macaulay on t h e D e l i a C r u s c a n s , Wordsworth, K e a t s , L e i g h Hunt, Tennyson and R o b e r t Montgomery r e s p e c t i v e l y . L i k e them he f e e l s l i t t l e need t o d e f i n e h i s terms. I n t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m where o r d e r , m o d e r a t i o n and good sense p r e v a i l , and such terms as 'morbid,' ' h e a l t h y , 1 and 'sane' mean the same t o everyone, t h e e f f o r t r e q u i r e d f o r such d e f i n i t i o n would be s u p e r f l u o u s . Buchanan s h a r e s w i t h the g r e a t c r i t i c s o f p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n s , o r , b e t t e r , e m u l a t e s , t h e i r m a j e s t i c , a u t h o r a t i v e and w o r l d l y tone t o convey a c o n s e r v a t i v e , somewhat r i g i d , and l i m i t e d v iew o f a r t ' s purpose and f u n c t i o n . Buchanan e s t a b l i s h e s a f u r t h e r l i n k between h i m s e l f and such p r e d e c e s s o r s by h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f R o s s e t t i and h i s f r i e n d s as the F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y . F i f t y y e a r s b e f o r e i n Blackwood's E d i n b u r g h Magazine, L o c k h a r t had grouped L e i g h Hunt, S h e l l e y and Keats i n t o "The Cockney S c h o o l o f P o e t r y " , and had found i n K e a t s an i n s a n i t y s i m i l a r t o t h a t Buchanan f i n d s i n R o s s e t t i . S i m i l a r l y , J e f f r e y , a r a t h e r more j u d i c i o u s man t h a n L o c k h a r t o r C r o k e r , c a l l e d Wordsworth, C o l e r i d g e and Southey "The-Lakers," a name w h i c h e n j o y e d some vogue a t the t i m e . B u c h a n a n ' s . r e f e r e n c e t o t h e D e l i a C r u s c a n s — a n d e l s e w h e r e he r e f e r r e d t o t h e F l e s h l y S c h o o l as " l a t t e r - d a y D e l i a C r u s c a n s " (see below, p. 7 0 ) — s e e m s t o s u g g e s t t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f a l a t t e r - d a y G i f f o r d , who would, l i k e G i f f o r d , e a r n e n d u r i n g fame f o r t h e e r a d i c a t i o n 12 o f t h i s n o x i o u s new growth from the garden o f E n g l i s h p o e t r y . I t i s one o f t h e i r o n i e s o f an e p i s o d e f u l l o f i r o n i e s t h a t Buchanan a c h i e v e d o n l y e n d u r i n g n o t o r i e t y , and t h a t he i s remembered s o l e l y , now, f o r h i s a t t a c k on R o s s e t t i . H i s work, t h e r e f o r e , has found a n . o b l i v i o n t h a t i t does n o t , c o m p l e t e l y d e s e r v e . As f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f h i s " c l a s s i c i s m , " i t s h o u l d be no t e d t h a t Buchanan r e j e c t s , as d i d A r n o l d b e f o r e him, t h e r o m a n t i c p r e s c r i p t i o n t h a t "'A t r u e a l l e g o r y o f the s t a t e o f one's own mind . . . i s . . . the h i g h e s t t h i n g t h a t one 3 can a t t e m p t i n p o e t r y . ' " A d r a m a t i c m o n o l o g u i s t o f some t a l e n t h i m s e l f , and t h e r e f o r e n o t l i k e l y t o make t h e s i m p l e e r r o r o f s e e i n g each d r a m a t i c u t t e r a n c e o f a p o e t as a t r u e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t p o e t ' s f e e l i n g s and b e l i e f s , Buchanan n e v e r t h e l e s s sees o n l y the t h i n n e s t o f d i s g u i s e s o f R o s s e t t i ' t r u e p e r s o n a l i t y i n a l l t h e i n d i v i d u a l s f i g u r i n g i n h i s poems Mr. R o s s e t t i i s never d r a m a t i c , never i m p e r s o n a l — always a t t i t u d i n i z i n g , p o s t u r i n g , and d e s c r i b i n g h i s own e x q u i s i t e e motions. He i s t h e B l e s s e d Damozel . . . , he i s "heaven-born H e l e n , S p a r t a ' s Queen," whose "each t w i n b r e a s t i s an a p p l e sweet" [Buchanan seems t o have been o b s e s s e d by t h i s u n mentionable p a r t o f female anatomy]; he i s L i l i t h t h e f i r s t w i f e o f Adam; he i s the r o s y V i r g i n o f the poem c a l l e d "Ave," and t h e Queen i n t h e " S t a f f and S c r i p ; " he i s " S i s t e r H e l e n " m e l t i n g h e r waxen man; he i s a l l t h e s e [women be i t n o t e d ] , j u s t as s u r e l y as he i s Mr. R o s s e t t i s o l i l o q u i z i n g o v e r Jenny i n h e r London l o d g i n g , o r the v e r y n u p t i a l p e r s o n w r i t i n g e r o t i c s o nnets t o h i s w i f e . (p. 891) P r e f a c e t o Poems, 1853, r e p r i n t e d i n Houghton and Stang p. 490. 13 O b j e c t i v e t r u t h t o n a t u r e has been s a c r i f i c e d f o r the l a m e n t a b l e , e f f e m i n a t e , l u x u r i a t i o n i n " h i s own e x q u i s i t e emotions." I t i s no wonder t h a t R o s s e t t i , h i s b r o t h e r W i l l i a m M i c h a e l , and Swinburne s h o u l d have been h o r r i f i e d 4 a t t h e p r o s p e c t o f Buchanan e d i t i n g Keats f o r the Moxon M i n i a t u r e P o e t s s e r i e s . "A mind i n s e n s i t i v e t o c e r t a i n forms o f b e a u t y " i s the way a c r i t i c , d i s p o s e d t o be s y m p a t h e t i c , 5 d e s c r i b e d the S c o t . I t i s t h i s n e u r o t i c s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n o f R o s s e t t i t h a t r e a l l y goads Buchanan's sense o f r i g h t e o u s n e s s t o g r e a t e r h e i g h t s o f i n d i g n a t i o n . " ' N o t h i n g ' " he quotes an u n i d e n t i f i e d w r i t e r as s a y i n g " ' i n human l i f e i s so u t t e r l y r e m o r s e l e s s — n o t l o v e , n o t h a t e , n o t a m b i t i o n , n o t v a n i t y , as the a r t i s t i c o r a e s t h e t i c i n s t i n c t m o r b i d l y d e v e l o p e d t o t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f c o n s c i e n c e and f e e l i n g ' " (p. 894) . W i l l i a m Gaunt i s r i g h t t o see t h e F l e s h l y C o n t r o v e r s y as t h e f i r s t round, i n E n g l a n d , o f the A r t f o r A r t ' s Sake Keats he once d e s c r i b e d as t h i r d - r a t e because he had l i t t l e "humour o r human u n c t i o n ; " because h i s s u b j e c t s "were vague, i n s u b s t a n t i a l , and o f t e n . . . g r o s s l y m o r b i d ; " and because he was "overshadowed by f a l s e models, i n v o l v i n g a v e r y r e t r o g r a d e c r i t e r i o n o f p o e t i c b e a u t y . " The p a r a l l e l s between h i s remarks on R o s s e t t i and t h e s e on Keats a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y p l a i n f o r one t o c o n c l u d e t h a t Buchanan's o b j e c t i o n s t o R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h views e x p r e s s e d e l s e w h e r e . "Prose and V e r s e , " A P o e t ' s S k e t c h  Book (London: C h a t t o and Windus, 1883), p. 176. ^ L a f c a d i o Hearn, P r e - R a p h a e l i t e and Other P o e t s , ed. John E r s k i n e (London: Heinemann, 1923), p. 387. c o n t r o v e r s y . Buchanan r e p r e s e n t s j u s t t h o s e a t t i t u d e s t o a r t — p a r t i c u l a r l y a r t ' s c a p a c i t y f o r m o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n — t h a t t h e A e s t h e t e s were t o f i g h t a g a i n s t . The b o u r g e o i s m o r a l i t y and t h e s t e r n r i g h t e o u s n e s s o f men l i k e Buchanan (Macaulay, C a r l y l e and R u s k i n b e i n g o t h e r examples) were bound t o become t h e b u t t o f t h e i r r e v e r e n t new g e n e r a t i o n o f a r t i s t s . The ra n k s o f P h i l i s t i a were c l o s i n g a g a i n s t the marauders from Bohemia. Gaunt's o b s e r v a t i o n does, however, p e r p e t u a t e the m i s t a k e n view o f R o s s e t t i t h a t Buchanan f i r s t advanced: t h a t he i s t o be s e e n , i n the development o f a e s t h e t i c i s m , as t h e d i s c i p l e o f Keats and an i n s p i r a t i o n t o W i l d e , a view w h i c h i s bas e d , e s s e n t i a l l y , on a m i s r e a d i n g o f h i s p o e t r y . However n e o - c l a s s i c a l some o f Buchanan's s t r i c t u r e s m ight be, he h e l d some b e l i e f s w h i c h cannot be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h a t way. One p r e c o n c e p t i o n t h a t he b r o u g h t t o t h e w r i t i n g and s t u d y o f p o e t r y was h i s b e l i e f t h a t t h e s i n c e r e e x p r e s s i o n o f some c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d t r u t h g i v e s p o e t r y i t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f " s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n . " I t i s because he saw p o e t r y as t h e " s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l s o f l i f e " t h a t Buchanan came t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d R o s s e t t i ' s work. V i s i o n and s i n c e r i t y , Buchanan h e l d , a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t r u e p o e t r y , f o r i f t h e p o e t ' s v i s i o n (or i n s i g h t ) i s s i n c e r e l y e x p r e s s e d t h e n t h e r e s u l t i s b e a u t i f u l . The i d e a s a re t h o s e o f George The A e s t h e t i c A d v e n t u r e (Harmondsworth, Middx: P e n g u i n , 1957), pp. 5 3 f f . 15 7 Henry Lewes; b u t Buchanan s u b s c r i b e d t o them and h e l p e d g p r o p a g a t e them. But t o s p i r i t u a l i z e t h e m a t e r i a l s o f l i f e , t o e x a l t m a t t e r , i s m a t e r i a l i s m . I t becomes a q u e s t i o n , p r e s u m a b l y , o f what m a t e r i a l one w i s h e s t o e x a l t . R o s s e t t i chose t h e wrong s u b j e c t , d i d n o t see i t c l e a r l y , w r o t e f o r the wrong p u r p o s e s , and, t h e r e f o r e , produced bad p o e t r y . There seems no awareness on Buchanan's p a r t t h a t g r e a t p o e t r y might o r i g i n a t e t h r o u g h t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f some i n n e r v i s i o n , i n t h e attempt t o g i v e b o d i l y form t o i m m a t e r i a l t h i n g s , and t h i s i s t h e fundamental e r r o r i n h i s assessment o f R o s s e t t i ' s achievement f o r w h i c h Buchanan p a i d so d e a r l y . Buchanan's i n s i s t e n c e on s i n c e r i t y i s common t o n e a r l y a l l c r i t i c s contemporary w i t h him. The i d e a goes back t o Wordsworth. " P o e t r y , " says Buchanan, " i s p e r f e c t human speech." "The s o u l ' s speech and the h e a r t ' s speech a re c l e a r , s i m p l e , n a t u r a l , and b e a u t i f u l , and r e j e c t the m e r e t r i c i o u s t r i c k s " (p. 895) o f a R o s s e t t i . Wordsworth says much t h e same t h i n g i n an e a r l y l e t t e r ( as, o f c o u r s e , he does i n t h e P r e f a c e t o L y r i c a l B a l l a d s ) , when he asks "Whom must p o e t r y p l e a s e ? " H i s r e p l y shows o b v i o u s p a r a l l e l s t o Lewes p u b l i s h e d a s e r i e s o f a r t i c l e s on l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m i n t h e F o r t n i g h t l y Review, w h i c h were c o l l e c t e d by F r e d N. S c o t t and p u b l i s h e d under h i s e d i t o r s h i p as P r i n c i p l e s  o f Success i n L i t e r a t u r e (Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, 1891). g They a r e t o be found i n an es s a y c a l l e d "The P o e t , o r Se e r , " p u b l i s h e d i n D a v i d Gray and Other Essays (London: Sampson, Low and M a r s t o n , 186 8) . 16 t h e main o u t l i n e o f Buchanan's case a g a i n s t R o s s e t t i : I answer, human n a t u r e as i t ' has been [and e v e r ] w i l l be. B u t , where are we t o f i n d t h e b e s t measure o f t h i s ? I answer, [from w i t h ] i n ; by s t r i p p i n g our own h e a r t s naked, and by l o o k i n g o u t o f o u r s e l v e s t o [wards men] who l e a d t h e s i m p l e s t l i v e s , and most a c c o r d i n g t o n a t u r e ; men who have never known f a l s e r e f i n e m e n t s , way-ward and a r t i f i c i a l d e s i r e s , f a l s e c r i t i c i s m s , e f f e m i n a t e h a b i t s o f t h i n k i n g and f e e l i n g , o r who h a v i n g known t h e s e t h i n g s have outgrown them.^ The c o n c e r n f o r s i n c e r i t y d e r i v e s , says Abrams, from t h e s h i f t o f a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y away from the A r i s t o t e l i a n c o n c e r n f o r the t r u t h t o n a t u r e o f the a c t i o n d e s c r i b e d , away from th e c o n c e r n f o r t h e e f f e c t o f l i t e r a t u r e on i t s a u d i e n c e , t o t h e i n t e r e s t i n the "impulse w i t h i n t h e p o e t o f f e e l i n g s and d e s i r e s s e e k i n g . e x p r e s s i o n . L e i g h Hunt, J.S. M i l l , C a r l y l e , R u s k i n , Lewes and Matthew A r n o l d ("the e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n f o r 'supreme p o e t i c a l s u c c e s s ' was 'the h i g h s e r i o u s n e s s w h i c h comes from a b s o l u t e sincerity'"''""'") each made t h e i r c o n c e p t o f s i n c e r i t y c e n t r a l t o t h e i r l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m . That i t was a m o r a l judgment some r e c o g n i z e d ( f o r Lewes the p r i n c i p l e o f s i n c e r i t y was t h e m o r a l . c r i t e r i o n , the p r i n c i p l e o f v i s i o n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c r i t e r i o n and the p r i n c i p l e o f 12 b e a u t y , o b v i o u s l y , t h e a e s t h e t i c c r i t e r i o n ) . That i t was f u n d a m e n t a l l y i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , none o f them seemed t o L e t t e r w r i t t e n by Wordsworth, i n 1802, t o C h r i s t o p h e r N o r t h , quoted by Abrams, p. 106. Abrams, p. 22. l l M T h e Study o f P o e t r y , " Houghton and Stange, p. 547. Lewes, p. 35. 17 r e c o g n i z e . S p e a k i n g o f the p o e t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f a s u b j e c t beyond the c r i t i c ' s e x p e r i e n c e t h e c r i t i c can o n l y say " I t r i n g s t r u e , " o r the o p p o s i t e . F o r Buchanan, R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y r a n g v e r y f a l s e i n d e e d . I n s i n c e r i t y , says Buchanan, i s t h e one c o n s t a n t o f R o s s e t t i ' s work. More concerned w i t h the sound o f h i s p o e t r y than w i t h i t s sense, R o s s e t t i c o n s i d e r s " p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n . . . g r e a t e r than p o e t i c t h o u g h t " (p. 8 89). From t h i s c o n c e r n f o r e x p r e s s i o n come t h e a r c h a i c a f f e c t a t i o n s o f prosody and d i c t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e p o e t r y abounds. H a v i n g no a u t h e n t i c and i n d i v i d u a l v i s i o n o f h i s own, R o s s e t t i i s d r i v e n t o a s s i m i l a t i o n and i m i t a t i o n o f the work o f o t h e r s . Here Buchanan l i s t s t he major " s o u r c e s " o f R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n : Tennyson, the two Brownings, and h i m s e l f . "He has t h e p a i n t e r ' s i m i t a t i v e power d e v e l o p e d i n p r o p o r t i o n t o h i s l a c k o f t h e p o e t ' s c o n c e i v i n g i m a g i n a t i o n , " says Buchanan. H i s v e r s e s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e n o t " a r t , though [they] a re a l l a r t " (p. 891), and " a l l l o o k as i f t h e y had t a k e n a g r e a t d e a l o f t r o u b l e " (p. 893). I t i s s m a l l wonder t h a t R o s s e t t i s h o u l d have found t h i s r e v i e w so d e b i l i t a t i n g . As f u r t h e r " p r o o f " o f the p o e t ' s h y p o c r i s y , Buchanan u n k i n d l y r e f e r s t o R o s s e t t i ' s well-known a v e r s i o n t o the p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n o f h i s p a i n t i n g s and wonders t h a t he s h o u l d w i s h , i n poems l i k e " N u p t i a l S l e e p , " t o parade " h i s p r i v a t e s e n s a t i o n s b e f o r e a c o a r s e p u b l i c " and t o be " g r a t i f i e d by t h e i r a p p l a u s e " (p. 891). A l l i n a l l , t h e r e v i e w c o n t a i n s a t l e a s t t h i r t y 18 d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t references to Rossetti's falseness, his hypocrisy, and his i n s i n c e r i t y . E s s e n t i a l l y Buchanan's c r i t i q u e i s an elaboration of his l i f e l o n g b e l i e f that "immoral writing [proceeds] primarily from " i n s i n c e r i t y of v i s i o n " (Pamphlet, p. 70). Having decided that Rossetti i s immoral, he t r i e s to show that he i s insincere. Yet the implications of several of h i s statements run contrary to his purpose. For example, i n the passage quoted above (p. 12), he says that Rossetti i s always "describing his own emotions." Here i t i s not Rossetti's i n s i n c e r i t y , however, that i s at i s s u e — i t i s his effeminacy Can easy and, i n those days, a damning point to make). Buchanan's dist a s t e for Rossetti's poetry seems to derive not from the poet's " i n s i n c e r i t y " — t h e complexity of t h i s issue he never recognizes—but from the poetry's revelation of Rossetti's personality. In summary, i t may be said that Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m i s a curious amalgamation of both c l a s s i c a l and romantic c r i t e r i a . His seemingly over-riding concern for s i n c e r i t y i s made subservient to his demand that a work be m o r a l — i t i s Rossetti's f l e s h l i n e s s that Buchanan wanted to est a b l i s h once and for a l l . That such men as Cardinal Manning, Lord de Tabley, and, apparently, Tennyson and Browning shared Buchanan's opinions (Jay, p. 163), even though they may have d i s l i k e d the way i n which they were expressed, seems to indicate that he had managed to a r t i c u l a t e c e r t a i n of the prejudices of his time quite successfully. ROBERT WILLIAMS BUCHANAN Ro b e r t Buchanan was b o r n i n S t a f f o r d s h i r e on August 18, 1841. H i s S c o t t i s h f a t h e r was a d i s c i p l e and f r i e n d o f R o b e r t Owen, the s o c i a l i s t , and, a l t h o u g h an a t h e i s t , on q u e s t i o n s o f e t h i c s he was a s t e r n P u r i t a n , and i n t h i s the son r e s o l u t e l y f o l l o w e d h i s f a t h e r . I n 1850, the f a m i l y moved t o Glasgow, where R o b e r t Buchanan s e n i o r became p r o p r i e t o r and e d i t o r o f t h r e e s o c i a l i s t newspapers. H i s son a t t e n d e d s c h o o l and the U n i v e r s i t y o f Glasgow, where he d e v e l o p e d a p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e f r i e n d s h i p w i t h an a s p i r i n g young p o e t , D a v i d Gray; a t t h i s time he a l s o p u b l i s h e d some of h i s own immature poems. On t h e f i n a n c i a l f a i l u r e o f the f a t h e r i n 1860, b o t h young men.decided t o seek t h e i r l i t e r a r y 13 fame and f o r t u n e i n London. Gray soon d e v e l o p e d a t u b e r c u l a r c o n d i t i o n t h e r e , and, d e s p i t e a l l the generous h e l p o f R i c h a r d Monckton M i l n e s , by t h i s time h i s patron., d i e d i n S c o t l a n d i n December 1861. Buchanan, never shy o r backward, s t r u c k up Buchanan t e l l s the p o i g n a n t s t o r y o f t h e f r i e n d s a r r a n g i n g on the day b e f o r e t h e i r d e p a r t u r e t o meet a t the Glasgow r a i l w a y s t a t i o n . There were two main s t a t i o n s from w h i c h t r a i n s l e f t f o r London. On t h e day, Buchanan went t o one, Gray t o t h e o t h e r . Each t h o u g h t h i s f r i e n d had changed h i s mind, y e t each boarded f o r London, where they met by chance ( a f t e r Gray had a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d a b r o n c h i a l c o n d i t i o n t h r o u g h s l e e p i n g o u t s i d e ) s e v e r a l weeks l a t e r . " D a v id Gray." D a v i d Gray and Other E s s a y s . 20 l i t e r a r y f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h W i l l i a m Hepworth D i x o n , John W e s t l a n d M a r s t o n , George Henry Lewes, Thomas Love Peacock, C h a r l e s D i c k e n s and R o b e r t Browning, as w e l l as M i l n e s . He embarked on a c a r e e r i n j o u r n a l i s m ; and, w i t h t h e h e l p o f such i n f l u e n t i a l f r i e n d s and a f t e r two y e a r s o f h a r d s h i p and p o v e r t y , he began t o p u b l i s h poems, f i c t i o n and r e v i e w s i n the l i t e r a r y p e r i o d i c a l s w h i l e e a r n i n g h i s l i v i n g as a news-paper r e p o r t e r . He m a r r i e d Mary J a y i n 1861, who d i e d c h i l d l e s s , a f t e r l o n g b e i n g an i n v a l i d , i n 1882. Buchanan was d e v o t e d t o h i s w i f e , and she t o him, b u t h e r p e r p e t u a l l y d e l i c a t e c o n d i t i o n may w e l l have t h w a r t e d i m p u l s e s i n a p a s s i o n a t e and e n e r g e t i c man t h a t were l a t e r t o f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n h i s w r i t i n g s . I n 1863, Buchanan p u b l i s h e d a c o l l e c t i o n o f "pseudo-c l a s s i c " poems, U n d e r t o n e s , w r i t t e n , he a d m i t s , under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Peacock ( J a y , p. 103); and i n one o f them, a s y m p a t h e t i c c r i t i c was t o say much l a t e r , he "touched the 14 high-water-mark o f h i s p o e t i c a l achievement." The c r i t i c a l r e s p o nse was s l i g h t b u t e n c o u r a g i n g . About t h e second e d i t i o n , p u b l i s h e d a y e a r l a t e r , D i x o n i n t h e Athenaeum was e n t h u s i a s t i c , and t h e I l l u s t r a t e d Times saw Buchanan's i n t e l l i g e n c e , workmanship and d r a m a t i c power as "almost The poem i s t h e e p i l o g u e , "Mary on E a r t h , " d e d i c a t e d t o h i s w i f e . The c r i t i c , a c o - a u t h o r o f some o f Buchanan's p l a y s , was Henry Mu r r a y , i n R o b e r t Buchanan and Other E s s a y s (London: W e l l b y , 1901), p. 73. 21 u n e q u a l l e d i n t h e h a l f - c e n t u r y . " I n 1865, he p u b l i s h e d I d y l s  and Legends o f I n v e r b u r n , d r a m a t i c monologues i n a homely S c o t s i d i o m much c l o s e r t o Buchanan's t r u e b e n t , poems p r a i s e d by Lewes f o r t h e i r l a c k o f "showy p o e t i c a l g r a c e s , " and f o r the p o e t ' s i n d e p e n d e n t , i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e , poems wh i c h "as h i s s o u l becomes l a r g e r w i l l become r i c h e r , " and w h i c h p r o c l a i m e d Buchanan as "a man o f o r i g i n a l g e n i u s " ( F o r t n i g h t l y Review, I , June 1865, 455). Such p r a i s e d i d n o t h e l p the s a l e o f h i s poems enough f o r Buchanan t o l i v e o f f h i s p o e t r y , and he c o n t i n u e d h i s c a r e e r i n j o u r n a l i s m . H a v i n g a c q u i r e d a knowledge o f D a n i s h , he was s e n t by the M o r n i n g S t a r t o S c h l e s w i g - H o l s t e i n as a war c o r r e s p o n d e n t t o c o v e r B i s m a r c k ' s i n v a s i o n i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1864. He went on t o Copenhagen where he met Hans C h r i s t i a n Andersen (Jay, p. 101). He p u b l i s h e d h i s own t r a n s l a t i o n s o f o l d D a n i s h b a l l a d s , and wrote s c h o l a r l y e s s a y s on t h e s u b j e c t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , h i s t r a i n i n g i n j o u r n a l i s m and'-his need t o make money f o s t e r e d i n Buchanan a f a c i l i t y f o r w r i t i n g what p e o p l e wanted. Even H a r r i e t t J a y , h i s s i s t e r - i n - l a w , adopted d a u g h t e r , and b i o g r a p h e r , t a l k s o f "the i g n o b l e p o t b o i l i n g " o f t h i s p e r i o d o f h i s c a r e e r (p. 157), and h i s l a s t y e a r s were t o see him c a p i t a l i z i n g on t h i s f a c i l i t y i n h i s p r o d u c t i o n o f a s t r i n g o f p o p u l a r s u c c e s s e s on t h e London s t a g e . A r t h u r Waugh, who was by no means u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o Buchanan, t a l k s o f h a b i t s i n g r a i n e d when any j o u r n a l i s t i c work was b e t t e r than none, w h i c h l e d him t o work "upon l i n e s 22 w h i c h he saw e l s e w h e r e s u c c e s s f u l , and i n w h i c h he knew he 15 c o u l d h i m s e l f succeed most e a s i l y . " T h i s d i d n o t a f f e c t h i s e a r l y p o e t r y , b u t i t a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y a f f e c t e d h i s c r i t i c i s m , as t h e r e v i e w o f Swinburne's Poems and B a l l a d s i n the Athenaeum was t o show. I n 1866, Buchanan p u b l i s h e d London Poems, w h i c h i s seen by many t o be h i s b e s t work. The l o c a l e o f h i s d r a m a t i c monologues has moved s o u t h , and a g a i n he d i s p l a y s a r e a l t a l e n t , w h i c h shows the i n f l u e n c e s o f b o t h Wordsworth and D i c k e n s , f o r the p o e t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f men and women o f humble o r i g i n ("costermongers and t h e i r t r u l l s " s n e e r e d Swinburne l a t e r ) . W r i t i n g o f p e o p l e s p i r i t u a l l y maimed by t h e i r environment,Buchanan a c h i e v e s t h e s i m p l i c i t y and p u r i t y o f s t y l e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s b e s t work, and o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y s l i p s i n t o the s e n t i m e n t a l i t y w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s w o r s t . The poems r e c e i v e d an e n t h u s i a s t i c r e c e p t i o n . The Month found them " h e a l t h y , b r i g h t and g e n i a l " d e s p i t e the p o e t ' s dark and u n i n v i t i n g s u b j e c t s . R e f e r r i n g t o t h e f a v o u r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n made by Buchanan's two p r e v i o u s volumes, and t o t h e r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n o f Poems and B a l l a d s , i t c o n t i n u e d , "He has not f l a s h e d upon us w i t h the meteor b r i l l i a n c y o f Mr. S w i n b u r n e — a b r i l l i a n c y w h i c h seems a l r e a d y t o have become somewhat l u r i d — b u t h i s advance has been g r a d u a l and d e c i d e d , and appears t o promise some v e r y h i g h achievements" (V, "Robert Buchanan," R e t i c e n c e i n L i t e r a t u r e and Other  Papers (London: W i l s o n , 1915), p. 156. 23 O c t o b e r 1866, 424). Others j o i n e d t h e chorus o f p r a i s e . The Morning S t a r remarked on the poems' " r e a l i s m b e i n g so p r e - R a p h a e l i t e , " w h i c h p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e d W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i ' s acknowledged d i s t a s t e f o r the p o e t r y he saw quoted a p p r o v i n g l y i n such r e v i e w s (Some R e m i n i s c e n c e s , I I , 523). The I l l u s t r a t e d Times t a l k e d o f "the p r o s p e c t o f a v e r y g r e a t p o e t . Suddenly overcome by d i s l i k e f o r London, " B a b y l o n i a " as he d e s c r i b e d i t i n h i s "Preamble" t o - I d y l s and Legends o f  I n v e r b u r n , and s u f f e r i n g from f i t s o f d e p r e s s i o n caused i n p a r t by h i s f a t h e r ' s d e a t h i n 1866, Buchanan moved t o Oban i n the H i g h l a n d s soon a f t e r h i s London Poems were p u b l i s h e d . T w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s o l d and o n l y s i x y e a r s a f t e r he had l e f t Glasgow, he c o u l d view h i m s e l f w i t h some complacency as he s e t t l e d i n S c o t l a n d . H i s p o e t r y , much c r e d i t a b l e newspaper work,and some a r t i c l e s o f more s e r i o u s i n t e n t had e s t a b l i s h e d him as a t a l e n t e d newcomer i n the l i t e r a r y w o r l d . H i s p o e t r y d i s p l a y e d h i s sympathy f o r t h e u n d e r - p r i v i l e g e d , and was commended f o r the poe t ' s p u r i t y o f d i c t i o n and h i s g i f t f o r rhythm. H i s p r o s e showed some l e a r n i n g (though f r e q u e n t e r r o r s o f f a c t b e t r a y e d a c e r t a i n c a r e l e s s n e s s ) and a r e a l a b i l i t y f o r w r i t i n g f o r c e f u l and r e a d a b l e E n g l i s h . H i s c r i t i c a l memoir on David. Gray won wide a c c l a i m f o r i t s The remarks o f t h e M o r n i n g S t a r and I l l u s t r a t e d Times a r e t o be found i n t h e p u b l i s h e r ' s p u f f s f o r London Poems i n the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a t t h e back o f D a v i d Gray and Other E s s a y s . 24 s i m p l i c i t y and s i n c e r i t y , and f o r i t s author's t a l e n t f o r n a r r a t i o n . Buchanan was now g e n e r a l l y regarded as one o f the b r i g h t e s t of the new g e n e r a t i o n making i t s way up Parnassus. P u b l i s h e r s began to approach him w i t h o f f e r s o f worthwhile work. Moxon's, i n 1865, asked him to prepare an e d i t i o n of Keats f o r t h e i r M i n i a t u r e Poets s e r i e s , and p a i d him ,^10 f o r h i s l a b o u r , o n l y t o r e j e c t i t and o f f e r the p r o j e c t t o Swinburne (see below, p. 32). Three years l a t e r he d i d e d i t Henry  Wadsworth Longfellow f o r Moxon's Popular Poets. There were s i g n s , however, t h a t Buchanan was not one of the most equable members of h i s g e n e r a t i o n . His t r i p l e -b a r r e l e d , but anonymous a t t a c k on Swinburne i n the f a l l o f 1866 might have caused h i s more j u d i c i o u s r e a d e r s , i f they had d e t e c t e d i t s a u t h o r s h i p , t o r e c o n s i d e r the young man's sense of p r o p o r t i o n , a q u e s t i o n a l r e a d y r a i s e d by the ex t e n t and v a r i e t y o f Buchanan's p o t b o i l i n g a c t i v i t i e s . There were, a l s o , two o t h e r episodes i n Buchanan's l i t e r a r y c a r e e r a t t h i s time t h a t might have caused him to be seen i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . In 186 8, Sampson Low and Marston handed him a p o o r l y -w r i t t e n manuscript of the l i f e o f J . J . Audubon, the c e l e b r a t e d American o r n i t h o l o g i s t , t o prepare f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . Buchanan's c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f Audubon as v a i n and proud i n The L i f e and  Adventures of Audubon the N a t u r a l i s t (1868) outraged h i s widow; and the p u b l i c a t i o n , i n 189 7, o f Audubon, and h i s  J o u r n a l s by the granddaughter, Maria Audubon, was the f a m i l y ' s avowed attempt to set the record st r a i g h t . There seems l i t t l e doubt that Buchanan was not sympathetic to his subject, that his r e l a t i v e ignorance of b i r d lore and his i n t e r e s t i n Audubon's adventures rather than his achievements detracted from his treatment of the great n a t u r a l i s t . But the book was a success and gave Audubon a wider c i r c l e of admirers than a more scholarly work might have done. Buchanan managed to offend another s e n s i b i l i t y at t h i s time, and to provide an i n t e r e s t i n g prelude to the more f a t e f u l attack on Rossetti. In David Gray and Other Essays he expressed his d i s l i k e for Matthew Arnold's luxuriation i n his loss of f a i t h i n his poetry when there were so many other p o s i t i v e things he could be doing and writing about. In two l e t t e r s to the Spectator i n reply to a review of David Gray, Buchanan c a l l e d Arnold ','a thin egotist, f a i n t l y i n f l a t e d with i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y ; " "a t r i f l e r , a t h e o r i s t , who has only h a l f l i v e d , and therefore sees only one side of human l i f e and thought" (Spectator, February 15, 1868, p. 197); "a d i l e t t a n t e ; " and g u i l t y of " s e l f - i n f l a t e d egotism and retrograde perfection" (February 22, 1868, p. 227). Arnold, i n a l e t t e r to his mother, described Buchanan, not inaccurately, as a "clever, The story of Buchanan's publication of Audubon i s t o l d by Francis H. Herrick i n Audubon the N a t u r a l i s t , 2 Vols. (New York: Dover, 1968), I, 22. The family's attempt was not wholly successful since Buchanan's L i f e was re-issued i n Dent's Everyman ed i t i o n . 26 18 b u t raw and i n t e m p e r a t e , S c o t c h y o u t h . " He saw t h i s o n s l a u g h t as b e i n g m o t i v a t e d by Buchanan's s u s p i c i o n t h a t i t had been A r n o l d who had s e v e r e l y , b u t anonymously, c r i t i c i z e d h i s London Poems. Thus R o s s e t t i was n o t t h e f i r s t t o see Buchanan's i n t e m p e r a t e remarks t o be p e r s o n a l l y m o t i v a t e d , and Buchanan was b e g i n n i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a r e p u t a t i o n f o r b e l l i g e r e n c e arid m a l i c e w h i c h c o u l d do him no good. Buchanan's f a u l t s , however, were m a i n l y on t h e s u r f a c e . He was v a i n : h i s work i s f u l l o f a l l u s i o n s t o h i m s e l f and h i s p o e t r y ; and the v e r y speed o f h i s s u c c e s s c o u l d o n l y c o n v i n c e him t h a t t h e w o r l d s h a r e d h i s own h i g h e s t i m a t e o f h i s a b i l i t i e s and achievements. He was s e l f - r i g h t e o u s , and saw h i m s e l f as one o f the s t r o n g e r m o r a l b u l w a r k s a g a i n s t w h i c h the waves o f l i c e n c e would have t o b a t t e r . F o r , as Henry Murray s a y s , one must "keep i n mind one p r e g n a n t f a c t r e g a r d i n g Buchanan;" i t was h i s " i n n a t e tendency and c u l t i v a t e d h a b i t t o l o o k a l m o s t e n t i r e l y a t t h e e t h i c a l v a l u e of any l i t e r a r y work." To him "'a Poet was P r o p h e t and 19 P r o p a g a n d i s t o r n o t h i n g . 1 " He was n o t s l o w t o condemn u n e t h i c a l b e h a v i o u r o f any k i n d , and i t must have been f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t w i t h no one, o u t s i d e h i s f a m i l y , d i d he e v e r s t a y f o r l o n g on f r i e n d l y terms. Brought up a p u r i t a n , he L e t t e r s o f Matthew A r n o l d , ed. G.W.E. R u s s e l l , 2 V o l s . (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1895), I , 389. 19 Murray, op_. c i t . , p. 9. 27 was n o t an a s c e t i c , f o r h i s mother d e n i e d him none of h i s m a t e r i a l needs. Thus he e v e r had t a s t e s l i k e l y t o prove e x p e n s i v e . From h i s f a t h e r he i n h e r i t e d a l o v e o f s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t was u l t i m a t e l y h i s r u i n . Y e t he was e v er a p u r i t a n , and h i s i n f l e x i b i l i t y o f mind, h i s i n c a p a c i t y t o see more t h a n one s i d e t o a q u e s t i o n , and h i s f o r t h r i g h t n e s s once h i s mind was made u p . c o u l d o n l y make him appear a b i g o t . Nor was he slow t o j u d g e , though slow t o r e c o n s i d e r an o p i n i o n . He was i n c l i n e d t o be c h a u v i n i s t i c , w i t h h i s o c c a s i o n a l t r a v e l s o n l y b o l s t e r i n g h i s i n s u l a r B r i t i s h sense o f s u p e r i o r i t y . He had t h e q u i c k temper, the l o n g memory of t h e S c o t t i s h clansmen from whom he s p r a n g . He was a f i g h t e r , and when he f o u g h t he used any weapons t o w i n . A dverse c r i t i c i s m o f h i s p o e t r y he a f f e c t e d , l i k e Swinburne, n o t t o be c o n c e r n e d about. Y e t u n f a i r c r i t i c i s m , as he c o n s i d e r e d i t , went f a r i n p r o v i d i n g the m o t i v a t i o n f o r h i s a t t a c k on R o s s e t t i . He c o u l d a t t a c k him, t o o , f o r the chorus o f p r a i s e t h a t g r e e t e d R o s s e t t i ' s Poems, b e i n g u n m i n d f u l o f the f a c t , a p p a r e n t l y , t h a t h i s own e a r l y p o e t r y was most p r a i s e d by f r i e n d s l i k e Lewes o r D i x o n and h i s employer, th e M o rning S t a r . On t h e p o s i t i v e s i d e , Buchanan was generous and warm-h e a r t e d ; remembering h i s own p r i v a t i o n s i n London, he h e l p e d s t r u g g l i n g a r t i s t s i n a l l f i e l d s a l l h i s l i f e ; h i s p o e t r y and n o v e l s are f u l l o f h i s sympathy f o r the o p p r e s s e d and downtrodden. He p r i d e d h i m s e l f on h i s manly ou t s p o k e n n e s s ; no f e e l i n g o f o b l i g a t i o n e v e r r e s t r a i n e d him from g i v i n g h i s 28 o p i n i o n ( o f t e n when i t was n o t wanted); b u t he was l o y a l and had a p r o f o u n d sense o f j u s t i c e , as h i s championing o f D a v i d Gray amply d e m o n s t r a t e s . He was s i n c e r e and ho n e s t : he r e a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t he was prompted by a l t r u i s t i c m o t i v e s i n t h e F l e s h l y C o n t r o v e r s y . "The main cause," he wrote t o Ro b e r t Browning i n March 1872, " i s . . . r i g h t e o u s and 20 good." The g r e a t e s t t e s t a m e n t t o the man's q u a l i t i e s , says R o b e r t s o n N i c o l l , i s t h e f a c t t h a t he c o u l d have been l o v e d by t h r e e such f i n e women as h i s mother, h i s w i f e and h i s adopted d a u g h t e r . N i c o l l makes i t c l e a r t h a t , i n h i s o p i n i o n , 21 t o l o v e Buchanan was no easy f e a t . Buchanan's weakness was t h a t he d i d not know h i m s e l f as w e l l as he m i g h t , though i n t i m e s o f q u i e t i n t r o s p e c t i o n he c o u l d admit h i s f a i l i n g s o p e n l y and h o n e s t l y . When caught up i n the h e a t o f b a t t l e , h i s s t r o n g emotions b e t r a y e d him i n t o making s t a t e m e n t s t h a t do n o t be a r r a t i o n a l i n s p e c t i o n . Not u n i n t e l l i g e n t , he was n o t an i n t e l l e c t u a l . "He was open," says W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i , r i g h t l y , " t o t h e i m p u t a t i o n o f b e i n g ' i l l - c o n d i t i o n e d ' — i r r i t a b l e , l i t i g i o u s , s e l f - a s s e r t i v e , and when r o u s e d i n t o i r e , n o t d u l y s c r u p u l o u s " (Some  R e m i n i s c e n c e s , I I , 525). There i s a s t o r y , a p p a r e n t l y t r u e , t h a t he stormed a f t e r some u n f o r t u n a t e e d i t o r , who had n o t T.J. Wise, A Swinburne L i b r a r y (London: P r i v a t e l y p u b l i s h e d , 1925), p. 69. 21 W. R o b e r t s o n N i c o l l , A Bookman's L e t t e r s (London: Hodder and S t o u g h t o n , 1913), p. 324. 29 accepted some of h i s work, b r a n d i s h i n g a s h i l l e l a g h and bent on p h y s i c a l c h a s t i s e m e n t — i t was a misunderstanding, i t l a t e r t r a n s p i r e d , and the e d i t o r had accepted the p i e c e . He was, s u r p r i s i n g l y f o r someone who f a i l e d to a p p r e c i a t e the mysticism of R o s s e t t i , a m y s t i c . His Book o f Orm, p u b l i s h e d i n 1870, c o n t a i n s dark n o r t h e r n v i s i o n s and dreams, which attempt to i l l u s t r a t e the dilemma o f the man who has l o s t h i s God. Lewes and other sympathetic c r i t i c s d e p l o r e d t h i s s t r a i n i n Buchanan. Having been brought up i n h i s f a t h e r ' s Godless world, Buchanan, d i s c o v e r e d C h r i s t i a n i t y i n h i s teens, and was, u n t i l the l a t e e i g h t e e n - s i x t i e s , an ardent b e l i e v e r . But the harshness of a God who c o u l d gaze s t o n i l y on the v a s t e x t e n t of human misery r a i s e d doubts i n him t h a t were never l a i d . For a man as dogmatic as h i m s e l f such doubts were d e b i l i t a t i n g , and he swung from p e r i o d s when he c o u l d accept a l l to p e r i o d s of the most profound melancholy. C e r t a i n l y t h i s a g n o s t i c i s m mellowed Buchanan and tempered l a t e r i n h i s l i f e h i s m i l i t a n t moral z e a l . There seems l i t t l e doubt t h a t Buchanan shared the s e x u a l problems of many of h i s contemporaries. Everyone who knew her speaks very h i g h l y of h i s w i f e ' s c h a r a c t e r and accomplish-ments; and photographs of her show her to be a t y p i c a l , demure V i c t o r i a n female. As e a r l y as 1866 ( f i v e years a f t e r her marriage) she was so i n c a p a c i t a t e d by rheumatism t h a t she had to be c a r r i e d from room to room (Jay, p. 125), and she d i e d c h i l d l e s s a f t e r a l ong i l l n e s s . Buchanan's w r i t i n g , as many have noted, d i s p l a y s "a mind i t s e l f d i s e a s e d , obsessed w i t h 30 deep i n h i b i t i o n s , u n n a t u r a l l y f a m i l i a r w i t h a l o n g t r a d i t i o n 22 o f s c a t o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . " I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o su g g e s t t h a t Buchanan saw and a t t a c k e d i n R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y t e n d e n c i e s w h i c h he r e c o g n i z e d and f e a r e d i n h i m s e l f . He may even have e n v i e d , perhaps u n c o n s c i o u s l y , R o s s e t t i ' s 23 rumoured s e x u a l s u c c e s s e s . I f t h i s i s s o , i n t h i s , as i n much e l s e , he appears t h o r o u g h l y V i c t o r i a n . A complex, c o n f u s e d man s t r u g g l i n g w i t h many o p p o s i n g i m p u l s e s , and e v e r t r y i n g t o conform o u t w a r d l y w i t h t h e concerns o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w h i l e e v e r t r y i n g t o a r t i c u l a t e them, Buchanan w i t h h i s h y p o c r i s y , s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s and i n t o l e r a n c e , can be seen as the embodiment o f j u s t t h o s e a t t r i b u t e s l e a s t l i k e l y t o be s y m p a t h e t i c t o g r e a t a r t . I f he f e l t t h i s p a r a d o x i c a l s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , he ne v e r acknowledged i t . J.H. B u c k l e y , The V i c t o r i a n Temper ( C a m b r i d g e H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951), p. 162. 2 3 . . . E v e l y n Waugh seems t o make t h i s s u g g e s t i o n m the r a t h e r ambiguous d e s c r i p t i o n o f Fanny C o r n f o r t h , who was "by n a t u r e c o a r s e and s o u l l e s s , and no doubt rumours o f R o s s e t t i ' s p r o l o n g e d c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h e r gave c o l o u r t o the a t t a c k s l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t him by Robe r t Buchanan i n 1871." "Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i : A Ce n t e n a r y C r i t i c i s m , " F o r t n i g h t l y Review, C X X I I I (May 1928), 602. P r o f e s s o r Fredeman s u g g e s t s t h a t f o r R o s s e t t i h i m s e l f , though p o s s i b l y f o r no one e l s e , Buchanan's a t t a c k s c o n t a i n e d a l l u s i o n s t o R o s s e t t i ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Janey M o r r i s ; t h i s i m p o r t a n t a r t i c l e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d on p. 122. " P r e l u d e t o t h e L a s t Decade: Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i i n t h e Summer o f 1872," B u l l e t i n o f the John Rylands L i b r a r y , L I I I (Autumn 1970), 75-121. CHAPTER I I THE ANTECEDENTS TO "THE FLESHLY SCHOOL OF POETRY" R o b e r t Buchanan took h i s f i r s t t i l t a t R o s s e t t i and the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s i n h i s n o v e l e t t e "Lady L e t i t i a ' s L i l l i p u t Hand," wh i c h was s e r i a l i z e d i n Temple Bar i n t h e f i r s t f o u r months o f 1862. S i n c e t h e r e i s no r e c o r d o f R o s s e t t i ' s r e a c t i o n , i t may be assumed t h a t i t s m i l d s a t i r e o f a P r e -R a p h a e l i t e p a i n t e r went u n n o t i c e d ; and the p o r t r a i t b e a r s as much resemblance t o M i l l a i s as i t does t o R o s s e t t i : U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r h i s d e v o t i o n t o a r t , he had t o o much p o c k e t money, and c o u l d do as he p l e a s e d . H i s f r i e n d s were r i c h p e o p l e , and he had money: i n d e e d he had f i r s t s t u d i e d a r t - s i m p l y as an amateur, and i t was o n l y a f t e r a h a r d f i g h t t h a t he was a l l o w e d t o become a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t , a " t r a d e " w h i c h h i s f r i e n d s c o n s i d e r e d e x t r e m e l y low (IV, March 1862, 5 5 5 ) . 1 R o s s e t t i was mourning the d e a t h o f h i s w i f e E l i z a b e t h i n the p r e v i o u s month and would have p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o what was, a f t e r a l l , one o f the many p e t t y g i b e s t h a t he and h i s f r i e n d s had had t o endure. I t i s g e n e r a l , f a s h i o n a b l e , and i n c i d e n t a l , n o t b e i n g a t a l l c e n t r a l t o the f i c t i o n i n wh i c h i t i s found. The g i b e t e l l s a l i t t l e o f i t s a u t h o r , p e r h a p s ; b u t t h a t t h e r e was no r e a c t i o n t o i t i s s c a r c e l y s u r p r i s i n g . The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e t o Buchanan by any o f t h e R o s s e t t i D a v i d Gray, Buchanan's f r i e n d , had d i e d i n December 1861, so f o r Buchanan i f f o r no one e l s e , t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l e i s u r e d r i c h would have had v e r y b i t t e r o v e r t o n e s . 32 c i r c l e i s made by Swinburne i n a l e t t e r t o W i l l i a m M i c h a e l d a t e d J a n u a r y 4 t h , 1866. I n i t Swinburne t e l l s o f h i s own work i n p r e p a r i n g h i s e d i t i o n o f Byron's p o e t r y f o r the Moxon M i n i a t u r e P o e t s s e r i e s , and c o n t i n u e s : An i l l u s t r i o u s S c o t c h p e r s o n by the name o f Buchanan had done, i t seems, a l i k e o f f i c e f o r K e a t s , and received«fc10 i n r e t u r n . T h i s sum t h e p u b l i s h e r i s w i l l i n g t o l o s e , and t o c a n c e l t h e poor d e v i l ' s work, i f I w i l l do Keats i n s t e a d on th o s e terms: and won't I ? and wouldn't I g r a t i s ? T h i s f o r t h c o m i n g S c o t c h e d i t i o n o f K e a t s , who h a t e d the S c o t c h as much as I do (Scotus I c o n s i d e r Northumbrian by a d o p t i o n and S c o t c h no l o n g e r ) has l o n g been a t h o r n i n my s i d e : and a p a r t from the d e l i g h t o f t r a m p l i n g on a S c o t c h P o e t a s t e r , I s h a l l g r e a t l y e n j o y b r i n g i n g o u t a p e r f e c t e d i t i o n o f K e a ts . . . (Lang, 9 5 ) . Swinburne's e d i t i o n o f Keats never appeared, and n e i t h e r d i d Buchanan's; Swinburne went t o some l e n g t h s t o ensure t h a t Buchanan would n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e p u b l i s h e r ' s d e c i s i o n had been e n g i n e e r e d by h i m s e l f (Lang, 9 6 ) . I t i s f i t t i n g t h a t i t s h o u l d be Swinburne who r e l i s h e s t h e p r o s p e c t " o f t r a m p l i n g on a S c o t c h P o e t a s t e r , " f o r i t was Swinburne who waged most o f the w a r f a r e i n the e n s u i n g c o n t r o v e r s y , and i t was Swinburne's work w h i c h a t t a i n e d t h e g r e a t e s t m e r i t i n t h e c o n t r o v e r s y w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y plumbing t h e deepest depths o f bad t a s t e . I t was h i s d e l i g h t i n i n v e c t i v e t h a t answered Buchanan's penchant f o r m o r a l p o l e m i c ; had t h e r e been no Swinburne t h e r e would have been v e r y l i t t l e r e s p o n s e from the R o s s e t t i b r o t h e r s t o g i v e nourishment t o t h e S c o t ' s a p p e t i t e f o r f e u d . Swinburne's d e s c r i p t i o n o f Buchanan s u g g e s t s t h a t he appears t o have been a c q u a i n t e d w i t h h i s name and work f o r some t i m e , 33 b u t i m p l i e s t h a t W i l l i a m M i c h a e l might n o t have h e a r d o f him. Such was n o t t h e c a s e . I t i s a c u r i o u s i r o n y t h a t i t s h o u l d be a R o s s e t t i , and more i r o n i c t h a t i t s h o u l d n o t be t h e much more v o l a t i l e Dante G a b r i e l , b u t the s t a i d , r e s p e c t a b l e , and u n e m o t i o n a l W i l l i a m M i c h a e l , who s h o u l d r e p l y : I c o n f e s s a p e c u l i a r a b horrence o f Buchanan, and s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t h i s C a l e d o n i a n f a e c e s a re n o t t o bedaub t h e c o r p s e o f K e a t s . ^ I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , t o o , t h a t i t s h o u l d a l s o be W i l l i a m M i c h a e l who e s t a b l i s h e d t h e s c a t o l o g i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e exchanges t h a t were t o t a k e p l a c e between t h e R o s s e t t i s , Swinburne and t h e i r i n t i m a t e s f o r t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s . Much l a t e r he e x p l a i n e d h i s p u b l i c s l u r on Buchanan's p o e t i c a b i l i t y (see below pp. 38-9) as b e i n g "the o p i n i o n w h i c h I th e n t r u l y e n t e r t a i n e d , founded upon e x t r a c t s from Buchanan's poems c i t e d i n l a u d a t o r y r e v i e w s . . . " (Some R e m i n i s c e n c e s , I I , 523). I t can be seen t h a t t h i s " p e c u l i a r a b h o r r e n c e " was based upon t h e man's work and was n o t p e r s o n a l s i n c e W i l l i a m M i c h a e l goes on t o say, "Of Mr. Buchanan h i m s e l f I had no knowledge, and am n o t c o n s c i o u s o f h a v i n g e v e r seen him" ( I b i d . , 525) . Dante G a b r i e l ' s comment t o Swinburne i s more r e s t r a i n e d t h a n h i s b r o t h e r ' s , b u t the o p i n i o n o f Buchanan's l i t e r a r y a b i l i t i e s i s t h e same: . . . the p u d d l i n g o f K e a t s w i t h Buchanan i s a Quoted by George S t o r e y , "Robert Buchanan's C r i t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s , " p. 1229, from Georges L a f o u r c a d e , Swinburne's  H y p e r i o n and o t h e r Poems (London: Faber and Gwyer, 1928), f n . pp. 30-1. 34 f e a r f u l thought. In f a c t i t i s very s e r i o u s l y to be r e g r e t t e d as a good s e l e c t i o n of Keats was needed (Doughty-Wahl, 663). That the f e e l i n g was mutual was to be only too amply demon-s t r a t e d i n the next few y e a r s ; and, i f T. E a r l e Welby i s to be b e l i e v e d , Buchanan "was l o o k i n g f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r 3 r e p r i s a l " as a r e s u l t o f t h i s episode. With i t s s e n s u a l i t y , paganism, and blasphemy, Swinburne's Poems and B a l l a d s b u r s t upon the p l a c i d V i c t o r i a n l i t e r a r y scene i n the l a t e summer of 1866. The n o t o r i e t y o f such poems as " A n a c t o r i a , " "Dolores," or " F a u s t i n e " was heightened by the knowledge t h a t Swinburne had been compelled to withdraw from Moxon's (and, q u i t e p o s s i b l y , thereby leave the p r o j e c t e d Keats) and be r e p u b l i s h e d by the d i s r e p u t a b l e John Camden Hotten. John Morley's s i n c e r e outrage a t the p o e t r y , recorded i n the Saturday Review (August 4th, 1866), was matched by Buchanan's somewhat l e s s s i n c e r e and unsigned review i n the Athenaeum o f the same day. Buchanan, f o u r years Swinburne's j u n i o r , adopted a p a t r o n i z i n g tone c a l c u l a t e d to r e f l e c t very f a i t h f u l l y the sense of moral shock t h a t many must have f e l t on f i r s t r e a d i n g Poems and B a l l a d s . A t t r i b u t i n g Swinburne's p o e t i c excesses to the f a u l t s o f youth and, i t must be noted, p o s s i b l e " e v i l a d v i s e r s , " Buchanan c h a s t i s e s him f o r be i n g " d e l i b e r a t e l y and i m p e r t i n e n t l y i n s i n c e r e as an a r t i s t , " ever the c a r d i n a l s i n i n the Scot's a e s t h e t i c s . The Back Numbers (London: Constable, 1929), p. 153. 35 poems "are unclean, w i t h l i t t l e power; and mere uncleanness r e p u l s e s . Here i n f a c t we have G i t o , seated i n the tub of Diogenes, conscious of the f i l t h and whining a t the s t a r s " (Athenaeum, August 4th, 1866, p. 137). Swinburne's l e t t e r s r e c o r d h i s " q u a s i - v e n e r e a l enjoyment" at such abuse, w i t h i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s concerning h i s suspected homosexual p r o c l i v i t i e s and i t s d i s p l a y , always a hallmark of Buchanan's i n v e c t i v e , of a good knowledge o f the more s a l a c i o u s p a r t s of c l a s s i c l i t e r a t u r e . The a r t i c l e a l s o l i s t s the more d i s r e p u t a b l e haunts of n i n e t e e n t h century Europe (Holywell S t r e e t , the parade at B r i g h t o n , and the J a r d i n Mabile) and w r i t e r s of n i n e t e e n t h century l i t e r a t u r e ( A l f r e d de Musset, George Sand, and V i c t o r Hugo), and, b e s i d e s P e t r o n i u s , r e f e r s to Ovid and B o c c a c c i o w i t h a r e l i s h soon to be r e c o g n i z e d as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i t s author. Not content w i t h t h i s onslaught on Swinburne, which i s c e r t a i n l y d i r e c t e d as much at the man as a t h i s work, Buchanan b e t r a y e d f o r those who p e n e t r a t e d the i d e n t i t y of " C a l i b a n " f u r t h e r animosity towards the poet i n "The S e s s i o n of the Poets" p u b l i s h e d over t h a t pseudonym i n the S p e c t a t o r s i x weeks l a t e r . Having h i n t e d i n the review at one of Swinburne's reputed weaknesses he lampoons o t h e r s , u s i n g the poet's f a v o u r i t e anapests: Why, j u s t as the hour of supper was chiming, The o n l y event of the evening o c c u r r e d . Up jumped, w i t h h i s neck s t r e t c h i n g out l i k e a gander, Master Swinburne, and squealed, g l a r i n g out t h r o ' h i s h a i r , " A l l V i r t u e i s bosh! H a l l e l u j a h f o r Landor! I d i s b e l i e v e wholly i n e v e r y t h i n g ! — T h e r e ! " 36 W i t h language so a w f u l he d a r e d then t o t r e a t "em,— M i s s Ingelow f a i n t e d i n Tennyson's arms, Poor A r n o l d r u s h e d o u t , c r y i n g " S o e c l ' I n f i c e t u m ! " And g r e a t b a r d s and s m a l l b a r d s were f u l l o f a l a r m s ; T i l l Tennyson, f l a m i n g and r e d as a gypsy, S t r u c k h i s f i s t on t h e t a b l e and u t t e r ' d a s h o u t , "To the door w i t h t h e boy! C a l l a cab! He i s t i p s y ! " And they c a r r i e d the naughty young gentleman o u t . ( S p e c t a t o r , XXXIX September 1 5 t h 1866, 1028). Buchanan d e s c r i b e d h i m s e l f i n the poem as " l o o k i n g moony, c o n c e i t e d , and narrow"; h i s v a n i t y c o u l d n ever e x c l u d e him from a l i s t o f the major contemporary p o e t s , and h i s prudence might have seen t h i s as a u s e f u l d i s g u i s e . C a l i b a n ' s 4 i d e n t i t y was s o o n . e s t a b l i s h e d , as was the a u t h o r s h i p o f t h e 5 r e v i e w o f Poems and B a l l a d s i n the Athenaeum. H a v i n g been a t t a c k e d by men o f some s t a t u r e , and always r e l i s h i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n t r o v e r s y , Swinburne p u b l i s h e d h i s defence o f Poems and B a l l a d s , Notes on Poems  and Reviews, i n e a r l y November, 1866. He r e f u s e d t o concede t h a t he o r h i s work c o u l d i n any way be a f f e c t e d by u n f a v o u r -a b l e r e v i e w s ; y e t he c a l l e d h i s c r i t i c s " v u l t u r e s " and h i s ti m e s "an age o f h y p o c r i t e s , " c l a i m i n g h i s p o e t r y t o be genuine and s i n c e r e , and t h a t he, u n l i k e Byron o r S h e l l e y , had no t " o p e n l y and i n s u l t i n g l y mocked and r e v i l e d what t h e E n g l i s h C.K. Hyder, Swinburne's L i t e r a r y C a r e e r and Fame (New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1963), p. 95. 5 Swinburne r e f e r r i n g t o Buchanan's r e v i e w o f Notes on  Poems and Reviews mentioned s e e i n g "R.B. the second i n the Asinaeum" i n a l e t t e r t o W i l l i a m M i c h a e l , d a t e d November 12t h , 1866 (Lang, 163). o f t h e i r day h e l d most s a c r e d . " The q u e s t i o n h i s d e t r a c t o r s seem t o be a s k i n g , he s a i d , though t h i s was n o t t r u e o f 7 Buchanan, i s "whether o r n o t t h e f i r s t and l a s t r e q u i s i t e o f a r t i s t o g i v e no o f f e n c e " (Notes, p. 2 0 ) . Swinburne, as was t o become c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f h i s p r o s e on whatever t o p i c , peppered h i s r e p l y w i t h i n c i d e n t a l g i b e s , the b e s t known b e i n g h i s g r a t u i t o u s , and funny, d e s c r i p t i o n o f " F a u s t i n e " as b e i n g "the r e v e r i e o f a man g a z i n g on the b i t t e r and v i c i o u s l o v e l i n e s s o f a f a c e as common and as cheap as the m o r a l i t y o f r e v i e w e r s . . . " (Notes, p. 1 5 ) , a n o t h e r b e i n g t h e s p l e n d i d "crumb o f a d v i c e " t o h i s c r i t i c s (Notes, p. 2 0 ) , and l a s t l y one, t o w h i c h Buchanan was t o r e p l y l a t e r , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e " h o a r s e r c h o i r " o f i d y l - w r i t i n g i m i t a t o r s o f Tennyson: We have i d y l s good and bad, u g l y and p r e t t y ; i d y l s o f the farm and m i l l ; i d y l s o f t h e d i n i n g - r o o m and the deanery; i d y l s o f t h e g u t t e r and the g i b b e t . I f the Muse o f t h e minute w i l l n o t f e a s t w i t h " g i g -men" and t h e i r w i v e s , she must mourn w i t h c o s t e r -mongers and t h e i r t r u l l s (Notes, p. 2 2 ) . I f such remarks r o u s e d Buchanan's i r e , he d i d n o t show i t i n h i s r e v i e w o f Swinburne's d e f e n c e , w h i c h opens w i t h a l e g a l metaphor i n w h i c h Swinburne i s seen i n the dock as an o f f e n d e r a g a i n s t m o r a l i t y w h i l e Buchanan and h i s f e l l o w - c r i t i c s are Notes on Poems and Reviews (London: H o t t e n , 186 6 ) , pp. 6,7. H e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as N o t e s . 7 Buchanan i n a r e c e n t e s s a y , " I m m o r a l i t y i n A u t h o r s h i p " ( F o r t n i g h t l y Review, V I , September 1 5 t h , 1866), had s a i d , and h i s r e v i e w o f Swinburne's p o e t r y i s c o n s i s t e n t , t h a t "immoral w r i t i n g proceeds p r i m a r i l y from i n s i n c e r i t y o f v i s i o n " (p. 296). 38 "the unbiassed o f f i c i a l s who calmly s t a t e t h e i r case a g a i n s t him" (Athenaeum, November 3rd, 1866, p. 564). The mere f a c t t h a t Buchanan should f e e l he needs to e s t a b l i s h h i s o b j e c t i v i t y might be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t he knew he l a c k e d i t . However t h a t may be, the tone of h i s a r t i c l e i s not as h o s t i l e , even i f i t i s j u s t as uncompromisingly r i g h t e o u s as the o r i g i n a l review. I t ends: Mr. Swinburne's t r u c u l e n t pamphlet, however, w i l l not prevent us from hoping to see the author i n a b e t t e r frame of mind, and winning t h a t p u b l i c testimony of u n i v e r s a l esteem which i s always ready to be awarded as the crown of the pure, the s i n c e r e , and the i n s p i r e d poet (Athenaeum, November 3rd, 1866, p. 565). Two weeks l a t e r W i l l i a m M i c h a e l p u b l i s h e d h i s pamphlet, Swinburne's Poems and B a l l a d s : A C r i t i c i s m . I t s opening sentence contained a deprecatory remark about the r e c e n t success of London Poems, and i s the f i r s t blow aimed a t Buchanan by any member of the R o s s e t t i c i r c l e i n p u b l i c : The advent of a new poet i s sure to cause a commotion of one k i n d or another; and i t would be hard were t h i s otherwise i n times l i k e ours, when the advent of even so poor and p r e t e n t i o u s a p o e t a s t e r as a Robert Buchanan s t i r s storms i n teapots (p. 7). W i l l i a m M i c h a e l l a t e r defended t h i s r a t h e r u n f o r t u n a t e , and u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , r e m a r k — C a s s i d y m e l o d r a m a t i c a l l y and i n f e l i c i t o u s l y terms i t "the s t i l e t t o blow of a meddlesome and treacherous bystander" (Cassidy, p. 6 9 ) — a s being the r e s u l t of r e a d i n g Buchanan's poetry t h a t c r i t i c s had c i t e d i n t h e i r reviews as praiseworthy (see above, p. 33); he a l s o admitted t h a t i t was w r i t t e n as an answer to "The S e s s i o n 39 o f the P o e t s " w i t h i t s " g r a t u i t o u s " a t t a c k on Swinburne, g w h i c h " r u m o u r — s i n c e t h e n c o n f i r m e d by h i m s e l f — a s c r i b e d . . . t o Mr. Buchanan." W i l l i a m M i c h a e l a l s o conceded t h a t he has "more than once been t o l d by f r i e n d s " t h a t Buchanan's animus a g a i n s t h i s b r o t h e r " s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as a v i c a r i o u s e x p r e s s i o n o f resentment a t something w h i c h I m y s e l f had w r i t t e n " ( F a m i l y L e t t e r s , I , 294-5). That t h i s i s t r u e i s c o n f i r m e d by Buchanan's a d m i s s i o n i n L a t t e r Day Le a v e s , r e p r i n t e d i n h i s s i s t e r - i n - l a w ' s a c c o u n t o f the c o n t r o v e r s y , t h a t from the moment he r e a d W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s pamphlet he c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f " f r e e t o s t r i k e a t t h e whole C o t e r i e , w h i c h I f i n a l l y d i d , a t the moment when a l l the j o u r n a l s were s o u n d i n g e x t r a v a g a n t paeans o v e r the poems o f Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i " ( J a y , pp. 161-2). There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t w e l l - m e a n i n g W i l l i a m M i c h a e l m a t e r i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o Buchanan's b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e was a c o t e r i e o f p o e t s who s h a r p l y r e s e n t e d h i s c r i t i c i s m more than t h a t o f o t h e r s ; and t h a t he was the b u t t o f t h e i r g o s s i p , t o o , a l s o was drawn t o Buchanan's a t t e n t i o n ("the v o i c e o f calumny w h i s p e r e d t h a t i n s u l t s had been heaped upon h i s own f r i e n d s and s y m p a t h i z e r s " 9 (J a y , p. 159). W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s pamphlet was n o t a l l W i l l i a m M i c h a e l i s r e f e r r i n g , h e r e , p r e s u m a b l y , t o Buchanan's a d m i s s i o n o f i t s a u t h o r s h i p w h i c h he made i n c o u r t i n June 1876. 9 Swinburne's and R o s s e t t i ' s l e t t e r s a r e f u l l o f e x c r e t o r y and e x e c r a t o r y r e f e r e n c e s t o Buchanan, one o f the more memorable b e i n g Swinburne's on t h e d i s c o v e r y t h a t i t was Buchanan who had r e v i e w e d W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s S h e l l e y (see below, pp. 47-8), (Lang, 343). 40 e u l o g y o f Swinburne's p o e t r y , and, a l t h o u g h i n answer t o Buchanan, he goes t o some l e n g t h s t o i n d i c a t e the genuineness o f Swinburne's p o e t i c p a s s i o n , some o f h i s judgments s t i l l b e i n g sound, he may have g i v e n Buchanan some ammunition f o r h i s main a t t a c k o f 1 8 7 2 . ^ . C e r t a i n l y t h i s pamphlet seems t o have d i v e r t e d Buchanan's i r e from Swinburne t o t h e R o s s e t t i s , whom Buchanan r e g a r d e d as h a v i n g been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o u r s e t h a t Swinburne's t a l e n t had f o l l o w e d . Buchanan, however, may have t a k e n one more swing a t Swinburne and W i l l i a m M i c h a e l a t the end o f t h i s e a r l y round o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y i n "Mr. Swinburne, h i s Crimes and h i s C r i t i c s " i n the E c l e c t i c Review f o r December 1866. And i f t h i s anonymous r e v i e w was n o t w r i t t e n - b y Buchanan, i t sub-s t a n t i a t e s , a t l e a s t , t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t i n h i s a t t a c k on the F l e s h l y S c h o o l , he was o n l y s a y i n g what many o t h e r s b e l i e v e d t o be t r u e . I t i m p l i e s the e x i s t e n c e o f a c o t e r i e w i t h the o p e n i n g r e m a r k . t h a t Notes on...Poems and B a l l a d s must have been "a w o e f u l . d i s a p p o i n t m e n t " t o " a l l t h o s e p r o p h e t s " who had announced i t t o . b e . a. l a t t e r d a y . " E n g l i s h - Bards . and S c o t c h R e v i e w e r s " (p. 4 9 4 ) , and f l a t l y , s t a t e s t h a t the "unmeasured and c o a r s e s c u r r i l i t y " o f Swinburne's pamphlet would encourage no one.to r e a d h i s p o e t r y . T h e . r e v i e w e r g i v e s . t h e o p ening I n Swinburne's "mighty i n t o x i c a t i o n - o f p o e t i c d i c t i o n . . . h e f o r g e t s - t h e o f t e n , s t i l l . n o b l e r o f f i c e o f s e l f - m a s t e r y and r e t i c e n c e " (p.. 20.);. l a t e r ..William M i c h a e l b l u n t l y , pronounces,.as Buchanan was t o .do, B a u d e l a i r e ' s i n f l u e n c e on Swinburne t o be "a bad one" (p. 4 6 ) . 41 sentence o f W i l l i a m Michael's C r i t i c i s m as evidence of the contemptible nature of the work o f such "an admiring and r i d i c u l o u s c r i t i c " (p. 495), then quotes Buchanan's Athenaeum a r t i c l e q u i t e l i b e r a l l y (something Buchanan would be very capable o f doing) b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g to the q u e s t i o n of the m o r a l i t y o f Swinburne's work. He concedes the poet's " e x t r a o r d i n a r y genius"—Buchanan never d i d d i s g u i s e h i s admiration f o r Swinburne's t e c h n i c a l v i r t u o s i t y — b u t d eplores the f a c t t h a t he has "no sense o f the moral sublime." E s s e n t i a l l y he i s a pagan, " d e f i c i e n t i n moral s e n s i b i l i t y , " w orshipping s e n s u a l i t y , b e l i e v i n g i n the body but w i t h no sense whatever of i t s i n h e r e n t d i v i n i t y ("Michael Angelo, and Canova, and Flaxman b e l i e v e d i n the body; but to them i t was the Shechinah o f the s o u l , " p. 496). The w r i t e r , s u r e l y Buchanan, says a t one p o i n t : "We would f a i n d w e l l a l i t t l e on Mr. Swinburne's schoolmasters, the minds which seem to have i n f l u e n c e d h i s , but we w i l l not" (p. 504). No doubt R o s s e t t i and B a u d e l a i r e would be those "schoolmasters," a l s o , perhaps, the d i a b o l i s t , M i l n e s (who i n t r o d u c e d Swinburne to de Sade's J u s t i n e ) . A r e t u r n blow, p o s s i b l y i n a d v e r t e n t though h a r d l y l i k e l y to be, t h a t h i t Buchanan p a r t i c u l a r l y hard, came i n Swinburne's review o f "Mr. Arnold's New Poems" a year l a t e r . R e f e r r i n g to Wordsworth's d o c t r i n e t h a t p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n was more important to a poet than the mastery o f p o e t i c technique, Swinburne wrote: 42 There i s no such t h i n g as a dumb poet o r a h a n d l e s s p a i n t e r . The essence o f an a r t i s t i s t h a t he s h o u l d be a r t i c u l a t e . I t i s mere impudence o f weakness t o a r r o g a t e t h e name o f poet o r p a i n t e r w i t h no o t h e r c l a i m t h a n a s u s c e p t i b l e and i m p r e s s i o n a b l e sense o f outward o r i n w a r d b e a u t y , p r o d u c i n g an i m p o t e n t d e s i r e t o p a i n t o r s i n g . The p o e t s t h a t are made by n a t u r e are not many; and whatever " v i s i o n " an a s p i r a n t may p o s s e s s , he has n o t t h e " d i v i n e f a c u l t y " i f he cannot use h i s v i s i o n t o any p o e t i c p urpose. There i s no c a n t more p e r n i c i o u s t o such as t h e s e , more wearisome t o a l l o t h e r men, than t h a t w h i c h a s s e r t s t h e r e v e r s e . . . . Such t a l k as t h i s o f Wordsworth's i s t h e p o i s o n o f poor s o u l s l i k e D a v i d Gray ,, ( F o r t n i g h t l y Review, I I , October 1 s t , 1867, 428). When Buchanan showed t h i s t o . R i c h a r d Monckton M i l n e s , Gray's p a t r o n as w e l l as Swinburne's f r i e n d , M i l n e s "was much s u r p r i s e d and vexed, and s a i d . . .: '0 he (Swinburne) d i d t h i s t o annoy me!" Buchanan, once Swinburne's i n t e n t i o n o f annoying anyone was s u s p e c t e d , p r o b a b l y t h o u g h t t h e t a r g e t t o be h i m s e l f , and c a l l e d t h e comment "most i l l - t i m e d , o f f e n s i v e and c r u e l " ; vowing t h e n and t h e r e t o avenge i t i f e v e r the o p p o r t u n i t y s h o u l d o c c u r ( J a y , p. 161). I t must have seemed t o him t h a t h i s enemies, as he now saw them, were g o i n g out o f t h e i r way t o goad him, and few men have been more i r a s c i b l e , more e a s i l y b a i t e d , t h a n R o b e r t Buchanan. A f i t t i n g , and, one might have t h o u g h t , s u f f i c i e n t , r i p o s t e appeared f o u r y e a r s l a t e r i n Buchanan's f o o t n o t e t o a r e v i e w o f a n o t h e r g i f t e d S c o t t i s h p o e t s t r u c k down i n h i s y o u t h : When Swinburne r e p u b l i s h e d t h i s e s s a y i n E s s a y s and  S t u d i e s (1875) the r e f e r e n c e was a m p l i f i e d by a f o o t n o t e , w h i c h , m u c h . l a t e r , Buchanan e r r o n e o u s l y d e s i g n a t e d as t h e f i r s t cause o f h i s anger a t t h e f l e s h l y s c h o o l . 43 Mr. A l g e r n o n C h a r l e s Swinburne, a u t h o r o f " A t a l a n t a i n C a l y d o n , " went some y e a r s ago f a r out o f h i s way t o c a l l D a v i d Gray a "dumb p o e t " — meaning by t h a t a p e r s o n o f g r e a t p o e t i c a l f e e l i n g , b u t no adequate powers o f e x p r e s s i o n . So many e x c e l l e n t c r i t i c s have r e s e n t e d b o t h h i s i m p e r t i n e n c e and t h e u n f e e l i n g language i n w h i c h i t was e x p r e s s e d , t h a t Mr. Swinburne i s d o u b t l e s s ashamed enough o f h i s words by t h i s t i m e . . . . When Mr. Swinburne and t h e s c h o o l he f o l l o w s a re c o n s i g n e d t o the l i m b o o f a f f e t u o s o s , D a v i d Gray's d y i n g sonnets w i l l be p a r t o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f humanity ("George Heath, t h e Moor l a n d P o e t , " Good Words, March 1871, p. 175). A y e a r l a t e r , i n a v e r y r e v e a l i n g l e t t e r t o R o b e r t Browning, w h i c h g i v e s Buchanan's j u s t i f i c a t i o n . f o r h i s a t t a c k on R o s s e t t i , Buchanan c o n c l u d e s , c o n c e r n i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f h i s m o t i v a t i o n : I n t he whole morale o f the a f f a i r I w i l l o n l y p l e a d g u i l t y t o one i n s t i n c t o f r e c r i m i n a t i o n . When t h e s e men, not c o n t e n t w i t h o u t r a g i n g l i t e r a t u r e , v i o l a t e d t h e memory o f the poor boy who went home from me t w e l v e y e a r s ago t o d i e , I made a r e l i g i o u s vow t o have no mercy; and I have had none. Thus f a r I have been r e v e n g e f u l . The main cause i s n e v e r t h e l e s s r i g h t e o u s and good.12 Buchanan was j u s t t he k i n d o f man t o f i g h t a n o t h e r ' s cause even more f i e r c e l y t h a n he m i g h t . f i g h t h i s own; he was a l s o q u i t e c a p a b l e o f e l a b o r a t i n g a r a t i o n a l e f o r b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s w h i c h were b a s i c a l l y i r r a t i o n a l . The deep wound t o h i s ego caused by W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s c a l l i n g him a p o e t a s t e r was f o r g o t t e n i n h i s f e r v o u r t o p r o t e c t D a v i d . G r a y ' s name from Swinburne's s l a n d e r . F o r . t h e s o u r c e o f t h i s l e t t e r see f o o t n o t e on p. 28, above. 44 I n e a r l y F e b r u a r y 1868, t o r e t u r n t o t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l e x p o s i t i o n o f the c o n t r o v e r s y , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l p u b l i s h e d h i s e d i t i o n o f Poems o f Walt Whitman, and t h e r e , as i f t o p l a c a t e an enemy a l r e a d y seen t o be dangerous, and c e r t a i n l y d e m o n s t r a t i n g W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s a b s o l u t e i m p a r t i a l i t y when i t came t o t h e t r u t h (or f e a r a t i n v o l v i n g Whitman's name i n t h e i m b r o g l i o ) , he took some t r o u b l e t o acknowledge the f a c t t h a t R o b e r t Buchanan was one o f the v e r y few "more d i s c e r n i n g " c r i t i c s t o a p p r e c i a t e Whitman's p o e t r y , who had w r i t t e n an " e u l o g i s t i c r e v i e w " w h i c h s h o u l d be l i s t e d among 13 the few f a v o u r a b l e n o t i c e s o f Whitman i n E n g l a n d . I t i s a n o t h e r o f the i r o n i e s o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t Buchanan and the R o s s e t t i s s h o u l d , q u i t e s e p a r a t e l y , have been such warm s u p p o r t e r s o f Whitman's p o e t r y i n England a t a t i m e when h i s r e p u t a t i o n i n A m e r i c a was n o t a t a l l h i g h . But Whitman, a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e pamphlet o f 1872, seems t o have been r e g a r d e d as n e u t r a l ground; no e v i d e n c e has been d i s c o v e r e d o f an u n f a v o u r a b l e . r e v i e w by Buchanan o f W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s e d i t i o n , and i n The F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y he seems t o commend W i l l i a m M i c h a e l f o r e x c i s i n g the f i f t y l i n e s o f f l e s h l y p o e t r y t h a t Whitman had w r i t t e n (p. 9 7 ) . "Walt Whitman" was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Broadway, and was r e p r i n t e d i n D a v i d Gray and Other E s s a y s , pp. 201-220. I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t H o t t e n , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s p u b l i s h e r o f Whitman, i n h i s announcement o f the new work uses Buchanan's name w i t h t h o s e o f W i l l i a m M i c h a e l and M.D. Conway as e v i d e n c e o f t h e growing a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e American p o e t (Athenaeum, F e b r u a r y 1 s t , 1868, p. 182). 45 L a t e r i n t h a t same month, Buchanan p u b l i s h e d D a v i d Gray and O t h e r E s s a y s , and t h i s t o o was r e l a t i v e l y m i l d i n t o n e . I t d i d c o n t a i n a r e f e r e n c e t o Swinburne's Notes on Poems and Reviews (see passage q u o t e d on p. 37 a b o v e ) , and, w i t h a c e r t a i n t y t h a t b e t r a y s h i s v a n i t y (or h i s p a r a n o i a ) Buchanan assumed he was t h e t a r g e t o f the l i n e s . h e q u o t e s : A g i f t e d young contemporary, who seems fo n d o f t h r o w i n g s t o n e s i n my d i r e c t i o n , 1 ^ f i e r c e l y u p b r a i d s me f o r w r i t i n g " i d y l s o f t h e g a l l o w s and t h e g u t t e r , " and s i n g i n g songs o f " c o s t e r -mongers and t h e i r t r u l l s . " 1 5 S i n c e Buchanan i s here a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h h i s p o i n t t h a t any s u b j e c t c o u l d be s u i t a b l e f o r p o e t i c t r e a t m e n t , and s i n c e i t s u i t e d him t o d i s t o r t Swinburne's comments on the i m i t a t o r s o f Tennyson's manner t o r e a d as a c r i t i c i s m o f Buchanan's c h o i c e o f m a t t e r , h i s remarks h e r e are n e c e s s a r i l y c u r t a i l e d . But t h a t Buchanan c o u l d see Swinburne's comments as a f i e r c e a t t a c k on h i m s e l f i s h i g h l y i l l u m i n a t i v e o f the man w i t h whom Swinburne and W i l l i a m M i c h a e l were d e a l i n g , a man a l m o s t as s e n s i t i v e t o c r i t i c i s m as Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i h i m s e l f . That they r e c o g n i z e d t h i s f a c t , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s P r e f a c e t o Poems by Walt Whitman seems t o i n d i c a t e . There would a l s o seem t o be no m i s t a k i n g Swinburne's i n t e n t i o n s i n a l e t t e r t o Buchanan d a t e d J a n u a r y 26, 1869, though Buchanan.could w e l l have c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f t o be the The p l u r a l seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t Buchanan c o n s i d e r e d Swinburne's s l u r c o n c e r n i n g D a v i d Gray i n "Mr. A r n o l d ' s New Poems" t o be i n t e n t i o n a l . "On My Own T e n t a t i v e s , " D a v i d Gray and O t h e r E s s a y s , p. 291. 46 v i c t i m o f Swinburne's i r o n y . I n the m i l d e s t p o s s i b l e language, f o r him a t l e a s t , Swinburne r e g r e t s t h a t he r e c e i v e d a t i c k e t t o Buchanan's r e a d i n g o f h i s own p o e t r y t h e p r e v i o u s day, t o o l a t e t o a v a i l h i m s e l f o f the i n v i t a t i o n . He ends by s a y i n g (a l i t t l e c u r t l y perhaps) t h a t he i s "none the l e s s o b l i g e d t o you f o r the a t t e n t i o n , though I have m i s s e d the p l e a s u r e o f h e a r i n g you r e a d . B e l i e v e me, y o u r s s i n c e r e l y , A.C. Swinburne" (Lang, 286A)."^ F o r o v e r two y e a r s , t h e n , n e i t h e r Swinburne nor the R o s s e t t i s had g i v e n any p u b l i c o f f e n c e t o Buchanan, and had a p p a r e n t l y been q u i t e c i v i l t o him. Buchanan, however, had l o s t none o f h i s o r i g i n a l a n i m o s i t y , as h i s r e v i e w o f W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s e d i t i o n o f S h e l l e y c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s . I t a l s o shows t h a t Buchanan had changed h i s t a r g e t , and was a i m i n g a t t h o s e he f e l t had i n f l u e n c e d Swinburne so e v i l l y . M i s s J a y ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t Buchanan knew h i m s e l f t o be t h e v i c t i m o f a w h i s p e r i n g campaign ( J a y , p. 1 5 9 ) , must a l s o be borne i n mind when t h i s n e x t e p i s o d e i s d e s c r i b e d . F o r w i t h i t , two v e r y i n s e c u r e men, a l i k e i n some ways, p o l e s a p a r t i n o t h e r s , were about t o become more and more c l o s e l y bound t o each o t h e r i n mutual h a t r e d and d i s g u s t , and were about t o b e g i n a k i n d o f w e i r d , macabre, and f a t a l dance where each a n t i c i p a t e d the Buchanan, t o r a i s e f u n d s , had p r o j e c t e d a s e r i e s o f p o e t r y r e a d i n g s i n 1869 o f w h i c h t h i s was t h e f i r s t . They met w i t h some c r i t i c a l (Buchanan b e i n g f a v o u r a b l y compared w i t h D i c k e n s by the Examiner) and f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s , b u t , because o f h i s nervous c o n d i t i o n a t t h e t i m e , the s t r a i n was t o o g r e a t , and he had t o g i v e up t h e i d e a ( J a y , p. 15 8 ) . 47 o t h e r ' s move, and then c o u l d p o i n t t o t h a t move as e v i d e n c e o f h i s opponent's d e p r a v i t y . W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i ' s P o e t i c a l Works o f P e r c y  Bysshe S h e l l e y appeared i n J a n u a r y , 1870, and r e c e i v e d a t the hands o f the anonymous r e v i e w e r o f the Athenaeum (January 2 9 t h , 1870) a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e v e r e a p p r a i s a l . Buchanan was, o f c o u r s e , t h e r e v i e w e r , and he was bent on making S h e l l e y ' s e d i t o r l o o k as incompetent a f o o l as he p o s s i b l y c o u l d . A c c o r d i n g t o the S c o t , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l l a c k s t h e n e c e s s a r y " i m p a r t i a l i t y and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n " t o be S h e l l e y ' s b i o g r a p h e r , t h e n e c e s s a r y " t a s t e b o t h i n c o n c e p t i o n and p h r a s e o l o g y " and the n e c e s s a r y c r i t i c a l acumen t o be S h e l l e y ' s e d i t o r . Buchanan r e g r e t s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e p o e t ' s j u v e n i l e " t r a s h " i n the e d i t i o n , and b e t r a y s h i s p r u r i e n c e by q u o t i n g i n f u l l one o f S h e l l e y ' s s c h o o l b o y c o m p o s i t i o n s i n L a t i n , and th e n s a y i n g , " I t i s no s a t i s f a c t i o n . . . t o know t h a t S h e l l e y , when he was a s c h o o l b o y , was g u i l t y o f f a l s e q u a n t i t i e s , e x e c r a b l e L a t i n i t y and bad t a s t e . " Buchanan d e p l o r e s t h e t e x t u a l c o r r e c t i o n s made, w h i c h , f o r l a c k o f a u t h e n t i c MSS "must be p u r e l y c o n j e c t u r a l , and t h e c a r e f u l r e a d e r w i l l f i n d t h a t Mr. R o s s e t t i . i s a n y t h i n g b u t a t r u s t w o r t h y i n t e r p r e t e r " (p. 155). He ends a l o n g r e v i e w by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t W i l l i a m M i c h a e l "has m i s t a k e n h i s v o c a t i o n as u n d e r t a k i n g t h e r o l e o f commentator," and t h a t o n l y f o r f u t u r e e d i t o r s and " r e a d e r s who a r e fond o f t e x t u a l c r i t i c i s m " w i l l t h e work "have a c e r t a i n v a l u e " (p. 156). Buchanan s u p p o r t s h i s argument 48 t h r o u g h o u t w i t h ample q u o t a t i o n s from t e x t and n o t e s ; i t i s t o a l l appearances a not u n j u s t r e v i e w , i f u n n e c e s s a r i l y -p e r s o n a l . However, the f o l l o w i n g w e e k , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l c o m p l a i n e d t o the e d i t o r t h a t r e a d e r s o f the r e v i e w might r e c e i v e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t e x t u a l emendations o f a dubious n a t u r e had been made w h o l e s a l e ; such was-not the case (Athenaeum, F e b r u a r y 5 t h , 1870, p. 197). G i v e n t h e oppor-t u n i t y t o r e p l y t o W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s o b j e c t i o n s t o h i s c r i t i q u e , Buchanan was n o t t h e man t o miss an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e s t a t e h i s v i e w s , b u t i n so d o i n g he more c l e a r l y d i s p l a y e d t h e animus b e h i n d them. U s i n g language r e m i n i s c e n t o f W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s "so poor a n d . p r e t e n t i o u s a p o e t a s t e r " o f t h r e e y e a r s b e f o r e , and thus r e v e a l i n g the r o o t causes o f h i s m a l i g n i t y , Buchanan wrote t h a t i t was W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s " p r e t e n s i o n as a c r i t i c a l commentator".that had been c o n s i d e r e d , and We t h o u g h t we had d i s t i n c t l y e x p r e s s e d our o p i n i o n t h a t a c o n j e c t u r a l r e v i s i o n o f S h e l l e y ' s poems must be u n t r u s t w o r t h y f o r want o f MSS. and o f a s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i o n ; t h a t the c o r r e c t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Mr. R o s s e t t i ' s t e x t are n o t always c o n v i n c i n g ; and t h a t many o f t h o s e w h i c h he s u g g e s t s b u t does no t i n c o r p o r a t e i n the t e x t are such a s . t o r a i s e g r a v e doubts o f h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s as a c r i t i c o f p o e t r y (Athenaeum, F e b r u a r y 5 t h , 1870, p. 198). I t i s q u i t e p r o b a b l e t h a t i t was t h i s rough h a n d l i n g t h a t prompted W i l l i a m M i c h a e l t o urge h i s b r o t h e r t o i g n o r e Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m s o f h i s p o e t r y e i g h t e e n months l a t e r . I t i s a l s o q u i t e p r o b a b l e t h a t i t was t h i s exchange t h a t t e r m i n a t e d Buchanan's f o u r - y e a r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the: Athenaeum, 49 because by December 3 0 t h , 1871 Buchanan c o u l d r o u n d l y accuse i t s e d i t o r o f b e i n g p a r t i a l t o t h e R o s s e t t i s , and d e c l a r e t h a t " f o r e v e r y one who reads y o u r j o u r n a l , a dozen w i l l r e a d my r e p r i n t e d c r i t i c i s m , and w i l l be a b l e t o see you i n 17 y o u r t r u e c o l o u r s " (p. 887) . One e f f e c t t h a t Buchanan's v i r u l e n t r e p l y t o W i l l i a m M i c h a e l c e r t a i n l y d i d have was t o a l a r m Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i , now j u s t about t o p u b l i s h h i s own p o e t r y f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . I t i s s m a l l wonder t h a t he was a p p r e h e n s i v e o f t h e r e c e p t i o n t h a t h i s work might r e c e i v e a t the hands o f a Buchanan. I t w i l l be remembered t h a t he r e v i e w e d Poems and B a l l a d s i n i t s columns, and i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a f a i r l y a c u t e r e v i e w o f The R i n g and the Book i n the j o u r n a l i n 1868. CHAPTER I I I i THE CRITICAL RECEPTION OF D.G. ROSSETTI'S POEMS In h i s P r e f a c e t o t h e Works o f Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l says t h a t Poems was " f o r some c o n s i d e r a b l e w h i l e . . . h a i l e d w i t h g e n e r a l and l o f t y p r a i s e , chequered by o n l y moderate s t r i c t u r e o r demur" (p. i x ) ; i n h i s well-known l e t t e r t o Thomas H a l l C a i n e , Buchanan r e f e r s t o h i s a t t a c k on Poems as "a mere drop o f g a l l i n an ocean o f eau s u c r e e . " 1 F o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s , b o t h t h e s e e s t i m a t e s o f the c r i t i c a l r e c e p t i o n o f t h e p o e t r y are n o t q u i t e a c c u r a t e . Indeed, n e a r l y e v e r y one o f Buchanan;'s s t r i c t u r e s had been made by someone e l s e b e f o r e a p p e a r i n g i n the famous a r t i c l e . C e r t a i n l y o t h e r h o s t i l e r e v i e w s were e x p r e s s e d i n m i l d e r language than Buchanan's, b u t t a l k o f "eau s u c r e e " o r " g e n e r a l and l o f t y p r a i s e " i s a d i s t o r t i o n o f the f a c t s . I t i s , however, an u n d e r s t a n d a b l e d i s t o r t i o n . R o s s e t t i d i d t a k e g r e a t p a i n s t o ensure the e a r l y f a v o u r a b l e r e c e p t i o n o f Poems. T h i s h i s b r o t h e r e v e r sought t o deny, b u t R o s s e t t i ' s "working t h e o r a c l e , " p r o b a b l y t h e most well-known example o f i t i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , has l o n g been r e a s o n a b l y w e l l documented. What has been o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d , and never g i v e n i t s due prominence i n a c c o u n t s o f the c o n t r o v e r s y , i s The l e t t e r i s g i v e n i n f u l l i n H a l l C a i n e ' s R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i (London: E l l i o t S t o c k , 1882), pp. 71-2. 51 the f a c t t h a t R o s s e t t i d i d t h i s i n an attempt t o muzzle 2 Buchanan. S e v e r a l o f R o s s e t t i ' s l e t t e r s w r i t t e n i n F e b r u a r y 1870 (two months b e f o r e Poems' p u b l i c a t i o n ) t a l k of the need t o drown out Buchanan's a n t i c i p a t e d " s p i t e " w i t h a chorus o f p r a i s e . A l e t t e r t o Swinburne (February 14) p u t s t h e m a t t e r c l e a r l y (and c o a r s e l y — t h e s c a t o l o g i c a l language o f the R o s s e t t i c i r c l e when d i s c u s s i n g Buchanan never v a r i e d ) : By the bye I e x p e c t t h e B-B-Buchanan t o be down upon me o f c o u r s e now i n The Athenaeum, and am a n x i o u s t o time my appearance when i t seems l i k e l y t h a t f r i e n d s can speak up a l m o s t a t once and so j u s t c a t c h the obscene organ o f h i s speech a t t h e v e r y moment when i t i s h i t c h e d up f o r an u t t e r a n c e , and perhaps compel t h e b r a i n o f w h i c h i t i s a l s o the s e a t , t o r e c o n s i d e r i t s views and chances (Doughty Wahl, 9 23) . I n a l e t t e r t o h i s p u b l i s h e r , F.S. E l l i s , w r i t t e n on t h e same day, R o s s e t t i r e p e a t e d h i m s e l f p r a c t i c a l l y word f o r word h o p i n g " t o keep s p i t e a t bay . . . i f a few good men were i n the f i e l d a t t h e o u t s e t " (Doughty-Wah1, 924). Why R o s s e t t i c o u l d be so s u r e . t h a t Buchanan would a t t a c k him i s n o t c l e a r ; t h a t he thought t h a t the S c o t c o u l d be m u z z l e d i n t h i s way seems a l i t t l e n a i v e ; and Buchanan would have been f l a t t e r e d had he known t h a t the "ocean o f eau s u c r e e " had been i n s p i r e d by him. I t c e r t a i n l y gave him, Doughty does n o t even mention Buchanan by name when g i v i n g R o s s e t t i ' s r e a s o n s f o r o r g a n i z i n g the r e c e p t i o n f o r Poems d e s p i t e h i s a c c e s s t o , and e a r l i e r p u b l i c a t i o n o f , some o f R o s s e t t i ' s l e t t e r s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h i s i s t h e t r u t h (p. 443). C a s s i d y does mention i t b u t makes l i t t l e o f i t (p. 7 1 ) . 52 i r o n i c a l l y enough, a n o t h e r s t i c k w i t h w h i c h t o b e a t R o s s e t t i . The immediate cause o f R o s s e t t i ' s f e a r was t h e knowledge t h a t i t was Buchanan who had anonymously r e v i e w e d W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s e d i t i o n o f S h e l l e y i n the Athenaeum a t the end o f J a n u a r y , 1870. But R o s s e t t i might have i m a g i n e d t h a t t h i s would have eased th e Scotsman's i n t e m p e r a t e f e e l i n g s a g a i n s t the c o t e r i e . One may s u r m i s e t h a t he knew b e t t e r . Buchanan's d e s i r e t o s t i f l e t h e s o u r c e o f a new s c h o o l . o f p o e t r y was no s e c r e t , and such an a m b i t i o n had p r o b a b l y r e a c h e d th e e a r s o f 4 R o s s e t t i . I t i s a l s o q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t R o s s e t t i ' s o v e r -wrought i m a g i n a t i o n saw p o t e n t i a l enemies under e v e r y b u sh, and t h a t a t t h i s t i me Buchanan .had no i n t e n t i o n o f r e v i e w i n g Poems. The f a c t t h a t he d i d r e v i e w i t , v e r y h a r s h l y , some time a f t e r p u b l i c a t i o n (when R o s s e t t i might have imagined P r o f e s s o r Fredeman, i n t h e a r t i c l e c i t e d , quotes an u n p u b l i s h e d l e t t e r w r i t t e n by W i l l i a m B e l l S c o t t as s a y i n g , "Robert Buchanan's a t t a c k was i n consequence o f so many l a u d a t o r y n o t i c e s h a v i n g been p l a n t e d by G. h i m s e l f b e f o r e p u b l i c a t i o n . " S c o t t , o f c o u r s e , i s n o t e n t i r e l y a c c u r a t e , b u t h i s was a r e a s o n a b l e enough assumption c o n c e r n i n g Buchanan's m o t i v a t i o n , w h i c h h i s own l a t e r remarks j u s t i f y ( J a y , p. 162). 4 One r e c a l l s R o s s e t t i ' s l e t t e r t o Tennyson on t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f Poems and B a l l a d s , where he d e n i e s t h a t he was the s o u r c e "of the q u a l i t i e s " i n Swinburne's p o e t r y w h i c h d i s p l e a s e d Tennyson, and goes on t o a s s e r t " t h a t no one has more s t r e n u o u s l y combated" "the wayward e x e r c i s e " o f Swinburne's g e n i u s t h a n h i m s e l f (Doughty-Wahl, 693). I n h i s b i o g r a p h y o f R i c h a r d Monckton M i l n e s , James Pope-Hennessy quotes a l e t t e r o f Buchanan's t o M i l n e s , d a t e d A p r i l 1871, where the S c o t d e p l o r e s "the ' v i l e s e t ' w h i c h Swinburne had 'got among': ' s l a v e s who f l a t t e r and p o l l u t e him,' wrote Buchanan o f t h e P.R.B., 'mean c r a w l e r s on the s k i r t s o f l i t e r a t u r e . ' " Monckton M i l n e s : The F l i g h t o f Youth (London: C o n s t a b l e , 1951), f n . , p. 133. 53 h i m s e l f t o have a c h i e v e d s u c c e s s r e l a t i v e l y unscathed) must have added c o n s i d e r a b l y t o R o s s e t t i ' s p a r a n o i d c o n v i c t i o n t h a t he was t h e v i c t i m o f a r u t h l e s s and s t e a l t h y enemy who had u n r e l e n t i n g l y hunted him down f o r a t l e a s t e i g h t e e n months. I t was, t h e n , t h e d e s i r e t o drown o u t Buchanan's a n t i c i p a t e d a t t a c k t h a t prompted t h e "chorus o f e u l o g y " (Buchanan's phrase) w h i c h began, a l i t t l e p r e c i p i t a t e l y (as R o s s e t t i f e a r e d i t w o u l d ) , w i t h S i d n e y C o l v i n ' s r e v i e w i n t h e P a l l M a l l G a z e t t e o f A p r i l 21, 1870,four days b e f o r e Poems was p u b l i s h e d by F.S. E l l i s . C o l v i n was t o r e v i e w i t a g a i n , t w i c e , i n t h e W e s t m i n s t e r ; and ranged ready were Swinburne i n the F o r t n i g h t l y ; M o r r i s (who had been somewhat r e l u c t a n t ) i n t h e Academy; John S k e l t o n i n F r a s e r ' s ; Joseph K n i g h t i n t h e G l o b e , Sunday Times, and G r a p h i c ; Dr. Gordon Hake i n t h e New M o n t h l y ; and H.B. Forman i n T i n s l e y ' s . W.B. S c o t t f a i l e d t o s e c u r e t h e N o r t h B r i t i s h , b u t G.A. Simcox was r e p o r t e d t o be s y m p a t h e t i c . The Athenaeum, Buchanan's p i t c h , caused some c o n c e r n t o R o s s e t t i u n t i l i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t Dr. W e s t l a n d M a r s t o n would do i t s r e v i e w o f Poems. I n N o r t h A m e r i c a even, E.C. Stedman was e n l i s t e d - i n Putman's. There were such l o o p h o l e s as the S p e c t a t o r , the Q u a r t e r l y , Blackwoods, the S a t u r d a y , and the Contemporary, b u t R o s s e t t i wanted t o ensure a p r e d o m i n a n t l y 5 f a v o u r a b l e r e c e p t i o n f o r h i s work, and i n t h i s he succeeded. Most o f t h e r e v i e w s a r e t o be found i n Ghose, as i n d i -c a t e d by page r e f e r e n c e s wherever t h e y are quoted i n t h e t e x t . Ghose i s n o t a c c u r a t e , n o r . p a r t i c u l a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n h i s s e l e c t i o n , so wherever p o s s i b l e (as i s t h e case w i t h Swinburne o r C o l v i n ) t h e o r i g i n a l r e v i e w i s used. 54 Swinburne's p a n e g y r i c i n the F o r t n i g h t l y ( V I I , June 1870, 551-579) i s one o f the most fulsome i n the language. He d i d i n d e e d " c u t i t f a t , " as he p r o m i s e d t h e a p p r e h e n s i v e R o s s e t t i he would (Lang, 345). He f l a t l y s t a t e s , as i f he knew what Buchanan's o b j e c t i o n s would be, t h a t t h e r e are no poems "so r i c h a t once and so p u r e " as R o s s e t t i ' s (553), and t h e n u n h e s i t a t i n g l y compares R o s s e t t i ' s sonnets w i t h t h o s e o f Shakespeare, f i n d i n g R o s s e t t i ' s t o "have a n o b l e r f u l n e s s o f form, a more s t a t e l y and s h a p e l y b e a u t y . o f b u i l d ; t hey are o f p u r e r l e s s t u r b i d w a t e r t h a n the o t h e r s are a t t i m e s " (554). Of "The House o f L i f e , " Swinburne s a y s , "In a l l t h e g l o r i o u s poem b u i l t up o f a l l t h e s e poems t h e r e i s no g r e a t q u a l i t y more n o t a b l e t h a n the sweet and s o v e r e i g n u n i t y o f p e r f e c t s p i r i t and s e n s e , o f f l e s h l y form and i n t e l l e c t u a l f i r e " (557) . F o r t w e n t y - e i g h t pages th e a l l i t e r a t i v e , a s s o n a n t , r i c h l y imaged language pours o u t , w i t h no h i n t t h a t Swinburne might have any r e s e r v a t i o n s whatever about R o s s e t t i ' s a r t . He a n t i c i p a t e s Buchanan's charges t h a t the p o e t r y was n o t r e l e v a n t , and g i v e s a s p i r i t e d d efence o f a r t f o r a r t ' s sake ( a t a time when he had a l r e a d y d e c i d e d t o l e a v e t h a t phase o f h i s own c a r e e r b e h i n d him, Lang, 149), w i t h t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f "Jenny" ( f o r him t h e b e s t poem o f a l l ) : Swinburne uses t h e a d j e c t i v e f l e s h l y s e v e r a l times i n h i s r e v i e w ; one can r e a s o n a b l y s u r m i s e t h a t i t was h e r e t h a t Buchanan found t h e word, and t h e e n d u r i n g n o t o r i e t y o f h a v i n g i t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s name i n the O x f o r d E n g l i s h  D i c t i o n a r y . 55 I t s p l a i n n e s s o f speech and s u b j e c t g i v e s i t power t o to u c h t h e h e i g h t s and sound t h e depths o f t r a g i c t hought w i t h o u t l o s i n g t h e f o r c e o f i t s h o l d and g r a s p upon the p a l p a b l e t r u t h s w h i c h men o f t e n seek and c r y o u t f o r i n p o e t r y , w i t h o u t knowing t h a t t h e s e a r e o n l y good when g r e a t l y t r e a t e d , and t h a t t o a r t i s t s who can t r e a t them g r e a t l y a l l t i m e s and a l l t r u t h s are e q u a l , and the p r e s e n t , though a s s u r e d l y no worse, y e t a s s u r e d l y no b e t t e r t o p i c t h a n th e p a s t . A l l t h e i n e f f a b l y f o o l i s h j a r g o n and j a n g l e o f t h e c r i t i c a s t e r s about c l a s s i c s u b j e c t s and r o m a n t i c , remote o r immediate i n t e r e s t s , d u t i e s o f t h e p o e t t o f a c e and h a n d l e t h i s t h i n g i n s t e a d o f t h a t o r h i s own age i n s t e a d o f a n o t h e r , can o n l y s e r v e t o dark e n c o u n s e l w i t h o u t knowledge: a p o e t o f t h e f i r s t o r d e r r a i s e s a l l s u b j e c t s t o the f i r s t r a n k , and p u t s the l i f e - b l o o d o f an e q u a l i n t e r e s t i n t o Hebrew forms o r Greek, m e d i e v a l o r modern, y e s t e r d a y o r y e s t e r a g e . Thus t h e r e i s here j u s t t h e same l i f e - b l o o d and b r e a t h o f p o e t i c i n t e r e s t i n t h i s e p i s o d e o f a London s t r e e t and l o d g i n g as i n the song o f "Troy Town" and the song o f "Eden Bower;" j u s t as much, no j o t more (572). I f Swinburne's r e v i e w s e t t h e tone f o r R o s s e t t i ' s f r i e n d s , none c o u l d o v e r l o o k ( t o the e x t e n t t h a t he could) some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e p o e t r y p r e s e n t e d t o t h e average r e a d e r . The younger poet c o u l d p r a i s e R o s s e t t i ' s s t y l e f o r i t s "sweet l u c i d i t y and s t e a d y c u r r e n t , " f o r i t s " f u l n e s s o f l i v i n g t h o u g h t and s u b t l e s t r e n g t h o f n a t u r e " (553), b u t , f o r C o l v i n , i t l a c k e d " j o y f u l and g e n i a l s i m p l i c i t y " and was one o f t h e major o b s t a c l e s t o a wide a p p r e c i a t i o n o f R o s s e t t i (Westminster, XLV, J a n u a r y 1871, 9 1 ) . One o f t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n s t o be d i s c u s s e d by a l l o f R o s s e t t i ' s f r i e n d s was t h i s o b s c u r i t y . F o r Swinburne, even, the d a r k n e s s o f R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y " i s as a deep w e l l - s p r i n g a t noon may be, even where the sun i s s t r o n g e s t and t h e w a t e r b r i g h t " and d e r i v e s from t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the p o e t r y o f "the i n n e r m o s t 56 r e c e s s e s o f t h e p o e t ' s c h a r a c t e r " (553). F o r Colvin,some f o r t i t u d e was n e c e s s a r y t o p e n e t r a t e t h i s d a r k n e s s , b u t "the de t e r m i n e d r e a d e r w i l l a l m o s t always f i n d . . . t h a t t h i s i s the o b s c u r i t y n o t o f emptiness o r c o n f u s i o n , b u t o f c l o s e n e s s and c o n c e n t r a t i o n " ( P a l l M a l l G a z e t t e , from the a d v e r t i s e -ments a t t h e end o f the 5 t h e d i t i o n o f Poems). F o r S t i l l m a n , the d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e p o e t r y , "almost a r i d d l e t o the u n l e a r n e d , " was due t o "the s u b j e c t i v i t y o f h i s t r e a t m e n t " (Putmari's M agazine , Ghose, p. 121). Forman a g r e e d , s a y i n g t h a t "The House o f L i f e " was d i f f i c u l t because i t grew "under the f i t f u l i n f l u e n c e s o f a v a r i e d l i f e on a mature man's whole b e i n g " ( T i n s l e y ' s Magazine, V I I , 1871, 153). R o s s e t t i ' s symbolism and m y s t i c i s m posed p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s , and h i s f r i e n d s ' r e v i e w s d e v o t e d much space t o u n r a v e l i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . F o r M o r r i s , the p o e t ' s m y s t i c i s m was s u c c e s s f u l n o t because i t t u r n s "human l i f e i n t o symbols o f t h i n g s vague and m i s u n d e r s t o o d " b u t because i t gave " t o the v e r y symbols the p e r s o n a l l i f e and v a r i e t y o f mankind." I t i s t h i s r e a l i z i n g m y s t i c i s m w h i c h p r o v i d e s the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e sonn e t s o f "The House o f L i f e , " "which, though . . . n o t f r e e from o b s c u r i t y , the b e s e t t i n g v i c e o f s o n n e t s , a r e i n e v e r t h e l e s s unexampled f o r depth o f tho u g h t and s k i l l and f e l i c i t y o f e x e c u t i o n . . ." (Academy, Ghose, p. 117). Forman, t o o , c i t e s R o s s e t t i ' s g r e a t power f o r " r e a l i z i n g m e n t a l phenomena" ( T i n s l e y ' s , p. 154). But i t was C o l v i n who went f u r t h e s t i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s c r u c i a l a s p e c t o f R o s s e t t i ' s a r t . "The p r o p e n s i t i e s o f [ h i s ] i m a g i n a t i o n , " he 57 w r o t e , are such " t h a t t h e t h o u g h t s , e v e n t s , f a c t s , f e e l i n g s o f w h atsoever k i n d . . . a r e a p t t o come b e f o r e him not s i m p l y o r as they by themselves a r e , b u t by the c i r c u i t o u s way o f p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , o r i f n o t t h a t , a t any r a t e o f c o n c r e t e f i g u r e and symbol." R o s s e t t i ' s m y s t i c i s m i s o f such a k i n d t h a t he b e l i e v e s "of a l l t h i n g s i n s u b s t a n t i a l o r t r a n s i t o r y t h a t t h e y have b e h i n d them essences s o l i d and e n d u r i n g " (Westminster, p. 7 3 ) . Much o f t h e s e r e v i e w s c o n t a i n f l a t a s s e r t i o n w i t h l i t t l e a t t e m p t a t j u s t i f i c a t i o n . C o l v i n ( P a l l M a l l G a z e t t e ) wrote o f R o s s e t t i ' s "immense p r o f i c i e n c y . . . i n the t e c h n i c a l a r t o f p o e t r y ; h i s u n s u r p a s s e d command o f l y r i c a l m e t r e , melody and d i c t i o n . " S k e l t o n a s s e r t e d ( F r a s e r ' s , Ghose, p. 116) t h a t h i s " i m a g i n a t i v e v i s i o n has g i v e n s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s t o R o s s e t t i ' s work, such as c o h e r e n c e , d i r e c t n e s s , s i m p l i c i t y , c o n c e n t r a t i o n and i n s i g h t . . . ." On t h e e v e r p o p u l a r q u e s t i o n o f the p o e t ' s s i n c e r i t y , o f w h i c h Buchanan was t o make so much, Dr. Hake (New M o n t h l y , from the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s a t t h e back o f t h e 5 t h e d i t i o n o f Poems) c o u l d p r a i s e t h e p o e t r y ' s " m a s c u l i n e e a r n e s t n e s s , " w h i c h bore "the mark o f s u f f e r i n g " and was thus "a f i t t i n g s t u d y f o r a l l who under a f f l i c t i o n need s t r e n g t h , under t r i a l , r e s i g n a t i o n . " S t i l l m a n (Putman's, Ghose, p. 122) a s s e r t e d t h a t "There i s no a f f e c t a t i o n and no w i l l i n g weakness . . . i n [ R o s s e t t i ' s ] a r t . " Forman ( T i n s l e y ' s , p. 150), r a t h e r ponderous h i m s e l f , found "a w e i g h t o f e a r n e s t n e s s i n e v e r y page and a burden o f 58 bestowed c a r e i n e v e r y l i n e . " C o l v i n , t o o , i n S w i n b u r n i a n terms (Westminster, p. 7 0 ) , commended R o s s e t t i ' s " f l a m i n g p e r s o n a l s i n c e r i t y , " w h i c h , w i t h t h e i r " f i r s t - h a n d e motion," were th e "most o b v i o u s " q u a l i t i e s o f the poems; w h i l e Swinburne h i m s e l f , n o t t o be outdone, d e c l a r e d t h a t a "more b i t t e r sweetness o f s i n c e r i t y was never p r e s s e d i n t o v e r s e t h a n b e a t s and burns h e r e under t h e v e i l and g i r d l e o f g l o r i o u s words" (p. 554). B e s i d e s t h o s e h i n t e d a t i n the v e r y d i c t i o n o f t h e r e v i e w s , o c c a s i o n a l f l a w s were found i n the p o e t r y . Forman c o n s i d e r e d "Dante a t Verona" h a r d l y as compressed as i t might be. And C o l v i n , a l o n g w i t h h i s s t r i c t u r e s about R o s s e t t i ' s o v e r -e l a b o r a t e s t y l e , n o t e d t h e l a c k o f thought about " o u t s i d e t h i n g s " o f a p o e t , who may be t o o " i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c " and t o o l i t t l e "concerned w i t h t h e many" (pp. 91-2). I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t C o l v i n c o u l d be more o b j e c t i v e t h a n R o s s e t t i ' s o t h e r f r i e n d l y r e v i e w e r s because h i s W e s t m i n s t e r a r t i c l e appeared e i g h t months a f t e r Poems, when Buchanan's t h r e a t e n e d a t t a c k was no l o n g e r so p o t e n t a f a c t o r . There were, as might be e x p e c t e d , f r i e n d l y r e v i e w s by t h o s e o u t s i d e the immediate R o s s e t t i c i r c l e ; a l m o s t a l l o f them, however, h i n t a t p r o b l e m s , i f n o t f a i l u r e s , i n t h e p o e t r y . One such was by W e s t l a n d M a r s t o n ( f r i e n d t o b o t h R o s s e t t i and Buchanan) i n the Athenaeum, who s y m p a t h i z e d w i t h R o s s e t t i ' s view t h a t "the l a w f u l p r o v i n c e o f A r t [ i s ] a l m o s t u n l i m i t e d " and commended h i s o r i g i n a l i t y (Ghose, p. 112). 59 The S a t u r d a y Review p r a i s e d t h e " g r e a t b e a u t y " o f t h e sonnets and found " S i s t e r H e l e n " t o be t h e m a s t e r p i e c e o f the book s i n c e i t u n i t e d " i n a v e r y n o b l e manner th e two g r e a t q u a l i t i e s o f t h e h i g h e r p o e t r y — p a s s i o n and i m a g i n a t i o n , " b u t o n l y t o f i n d R o s s e t t i ' s t h o u g h t s and e x p r e s s i o n s t o be f r e q u e n t l y " e x o t i c and f a r - f e t c h e d " , " r e m i n d i n g us o f the o r c h i d - h o u s e r a t h e r t h a n o f the garden o r even o f t h e c o n s e r v a t o r y " (Ghose, pp. 127-8). Simcox, anonymous i n t h e N o r t h B r i t i s h , a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d t h e "beauty o f t h e v e r s e s , . . . t h e i r wide range o f s u b j e c t , t h e i r narrow and a p p r o p r i a t e m u s i c , t h e i r l y r i c f i r e , t h e i r l o f t y t o n e , and t h e i r h i g h l e v e l o f uncommon p e r f e c t i o n ; " b u t , f o r him, the v e r y q u a l i t i e s o f the p o e t r y would ensure i t s l i m i t e d p o p u l a r i t y (Ghose, p. 126). The Broadway, wh i c h f r e q u e n t l y p u b l i s h e d Buchanan's work, showed i t s i m p a r t i a l i t y by a d m i r i n g the p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t y o f t h e p o e t r y , f i n d i n g the sonnets t o be t h e "most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c poems," whose words, " l o a d e d w i t h meaning," need "not so much the l o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g as the p o e t i c mind t o be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d . " A f t e r n o t i n g the P l a t o n i s m i n R o s s e t t i ' s l o v e - p o e t r y , t h e c r i t i c drew a t t e n t i o n t o "the r e a l i s t i c touches o f t h e most e a r t h l y s o r t " t o be found i n "Jenny" and "A L a s t C o n f e s s i o n , " e v i d e n c e o f t h e t r u t h o f t h e o l d adage t h a t " t o t h e pure a l l t h i n g s a r e p u r e " (Ghose, p. 125. Ghose does n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e v i e w from O l d and  New, B o s t o n , w h i c h he a l s o q u o t e s , i s m e r e l y a r e p u b l i s h i n g o f t h e o r i g i n a l Broadway a r t i c l e . ) The Western L a k e s i d e 60 M o n t h l y of C h i c a g o saw t h i s sensuous element i n t h e p o e t r y i n e v i t a b l y d e r i v i n g from R o s s e t t i ' s p i c t o r i a l s k i l l ; t h e p o e t r y i s sensuous o n l y , however, f o r "sensuousness becomes s e n s u a l i t y i f m o r a l c u l t u r e i s n e g l e c t e d and t h a t i s n o t t h e case w i t h R o s s e t t i . . . ." E a r l i e r i n t h i s r e v i e w "The House o f L i f e " was u n k i n d l y , and w i t t i l y , seen t o be as " a r t i f i c i a l as an a r c h i t e c t ' s p l a n s " (Ghose, pp. 138-9). A r t i f i c i a l i t y , i r r e l e v a n c e , i m m o r a l i t y and i t s l a c k o f i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t e n t were the main o b j e c t i o n s o f t h o s e c r i t i c s r anged a g a i n s t R o s s e t t i ' s Poems. M i n o r blemishes,- became, f o r them, i n s u r m o u n t a b l e o b s t a c l e s . t o any c l a i m by R o s s e t t i t o be c a l l e d p o e t . The h o s t i l e r e v i e w s began as e a r l y as May 26, 1870, when A l f r e d A u s t i n s u g g e s t e d . i n the S t a n d a r d t h a t M o r r i s and Swinburne were p a r t o f a " p i o u s c o n s p i r a c y " t o p u f f the book ( e x c e r p t s o f t h e i r r e v i e w s were used l i b e r a l l y by E l l i s i n h i s a d v e r t i s i n g ) , " s i n c e b u s i n e s s . i s nowadays e v e r y t h i n g . " A f t e r c a s t i g a t i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t y and l a c k o f s p o n t a n e i t y o f p o e t r y t o o o b v i o u s l y b o r n o f " l a b o r i o u s p a i n s , " a f t e r d e p l o r i n g R o s s e t t i ' s s u b j e c t i o n t o . t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the V i t a Nuova, the c r i t i c ended where he began w i t h t h e a d v i c e t h a t R o s s e t t i r e l y "not t o o s t r o n g l y on p e o p l e who do n o t c r i t i c i z e " (Ghose, p. 118). I n June, an anonymous c r i t i c i n the Contemporary (XIV, 480-rl) found a f u s i o n o f " f l e s h and s p i r i t " i n t h e p o e t r y , and i t s s t y l e s u g g e s t i n g " a f f e c t a t i o n , r e t i c e n c e , o r l i t e r a r y c y n i c i s m . " ( T h i s r e v i e w has been a s c r i b e d t o Buchanan and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y w i t h h i s known reviews.) The S p e c t a t o r a l s o noted R o s s e t t i ' s " i n j u r i o u s tendency to e l a b o r a t i o n and to excess of l i t e r a r y d e c o r a t i o n , " and concluded t h a t the degree of success Poems would a t t a i n r e s t e d on the q u e s t i o n of "whether o r not there be not too much a r t i n p r o p o r t i o n to the i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g , " e s s e n t i a l l y Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m , i f expressed much more m i l d l y . There were s e v e r a l poems l i k e "The B l e s s e d Damozel," "Jenny" and "A L a s t C o n f e s s i o n " of "rare power," but a l a r g e number were " s t r a i n e d , m a n n e r i s t i c , e l a b o r a t e d beyond nature" (June 11, 1870. Ghose, p. 131). In J u l y , the American reviews began to appear, and w i t h them came the f i r s t charges of immorality. In the N a tion (XI, J u l y 14, 1870, 29-30), the p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t y o f the p o e t r y was s t r e s s e d ; as was the " a f f e c t a t i o n " and " e s s e n t i a l f a l s e n e s s and weakness" o f a s t y l e t h a t u n s u c c e s s f u l l y masks R o s s e t t i ' s inadequacies of e x p r e s s i o n , p o s s i b l y because "he has no g r e a t amount of thought to express." T a l k i n g of " N u p t i a l Sleep," the c r i t i c saw i t as evidence of R o s s e t t i ' s " c l e a n indecency . . . , a s o r t o f d e l i b e r a t e h o v e r i n g between n u d i t y and nakedness," which was "as low as Mr. R o s s e t t i ever g e t s " (p. 29). To the reviewer i n the A t l a n t i c (XXVI, J u l y 1870, 115-118)> who a l s o found "no g r e a t i n t e l l e c t u a l powers" i n R o s s e t t i ' s "mystic and d e v o t i o n a l p i c t u r e s , " and found "numbers of a f f e c t a t i o n s , . . . not a l l h i s own;" " N u p t i a l Sleep" was q u i t e o f f e n s i v e and c o n s i d e r e d to be "too few removes from Mr. Whitman's alarming frankness" concerning 62 s e x u a l m a t t e r s (p. 117). Blackwood's f o r August ( C V I I , 178-183) c o n t a i n e d such a h a r s h r e v i e w t h a t R o s s e t t i was c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t was b o r n o f t h e m a l i c e o f a r i v a l p o e t , i f not o f the p u b l i s h e r t u r n e d down i n f a v o u r o f E l l i s , and a t one s t a g e even s u s p e c t e d M o r r i s o f h a v i n g w r i t t e n i t (Doughty-Wahl, 1063-5). I t was Mrs. O l i p h a n t , t h e n o v e l i s t , who c a l l e d the d e t a i l s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e " p r e t t y p i c t u r e " o f "The B l e s s e d Damozel" " c u r i o u s l y e a r t h l y and commonplace." "The f l e s h l y i m a g i n a t i o n o f the musing maiden . . . i s . . . the most s t r a n g e l y p r o s a i c c o n c e p t i o n o f heaven we have e v e r met i n p o e t r y . " A f t e r 7 c o n c l u d i n g t h a t t h e " b l e s s e d damozel i s o f the e a r t h , e a r t h y , " the w r i t e r goes on t o d e p l o r e the use o f a r c h a i c r e f r a i n s i n "Troy Town" and "Eden Bower," and f i n d s t h e book unmemorable. She d e s c r i b e s a f e e l i n g many must have had on r e a d i n g R o s s e t t i : "A c o n f u s i n g sense t h a t he ought t o have done b e t t e r , o r t h a t we ought t o have f e l t more d e e p l y , i s upon us as we r e a d " (p. 183). In the N o r t h American Review f o r O c t o b e r , J.R. Dennett g (whom C a s s i d y w r o n g l y i d e n t i f i e s as J.R. L o w e l l ) , i n a l e n g t h y c r i t i q u e w h i c h Buchanan was t o quote f r e e l y , a g a i n a t t a c k e d R o s s e t t i f o r h i s a f f e c t a t i o n , " h i s s e n t i m e n t i n e x c e s s , and An e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h c r o p s up a g a i n and a g a i n i n the c o n t r o v e r s y ; "Dennett" i n the n e x t r e v i e w , f o r example, uses i t . g A l g e r n o n C. Swinburne (New York: Twayne, 1964), p. 136. R o s s e t t i t h o u g h t t h a t L o w e l l had done the N a t i o n r e v i e w . CDoughty-Wahl, 1064). • 63 e x c e s s i v e s e n s i b i l i t y , " and admired t h e "warmth and v i v i d n e s s o f the imagery t h a t embodies h i s f e e l i n g s and d e s i r e s " o n l y t o d e p l o r e the f a c t t h a t " o f thought and i m a g i n a t i o n " t h e p o e t r y c o n t a i n s "next t o n o t h i n g " (p. 4 74). F o r D e n n e t t , the p o e t r y embodied too much o f R o s s e t t i ' s e s s e n t i a l l y f a l s e m e d i e v a l i s m and was t o o l i t t l e c oncerned w i t h "the b r e a t h i n g l i f e around him." Buchanan, o f c o u r s e , made the same charge a g a i n s t t h e p o e t r y and found i n t h i s r e v i e w the i d e a t h a t even i n d r a m a t i c p i e c e s l i k e " S i s t e r H e l e n " t h e " s u b s t r a t u m " i s e s s e n t i a l l y s u b j e c t i v e — R o s s e t t i d e c k i n g h i m s e l f i n h i s " f a v o u r i t e m e d i e v a l d r e s s " (pp. 474-5). The p o e t r y ' s undue sensuousness i s c o n t i n u a l l y s t r e s s e d , t h e l o v e e x p r e s s e d i n i t , " i f never q u i t e mere a p p e t i t e , b e i n g n e v e r , on t h e o t h e r hand, a f f e c t i o n " (p. 476). One o f the l a s t h o s t i l e r e v i e w s , p u b l i s h e d a f t e r Buchanan's f i r s t o n s l a u g h t upon R o s s e t t i , i s t o be found i n one o f the most i n f l u e n t i a l o f t h e B r i t i s h p e r i o d i c a l s : the Q u a r t e r l y (CXXXII, J a n u a r y 1872, 59-84). The o b s c u r i t y , t h e l a c k o f u n i t y o f t h e "House o f L i f e , " t h e l a b o r i o u s p i c t u r e s q u e n e s s , t h e g r o s s p r o f a n i t y i n "Love's Redemption" o f u s i n g t h e s a c r a m e n t a l b r e a d and wine as l o v e imagery, t h e s t r a i n and e l a b o r a t e n e s s o f the d i c t i o n a r e a l l once a g a i n p o i n t e d o u t ; s o , t o o , i s t h e p o e t ' s i n c a p a c i t y t o come t o terms w i t h contemporary themes, as demonstrated by t h e "cheap d i s p l a y o f a f f e c t e d s e n t i m e n t and i m p o t e n t p h i l o s o p h y " o f "Jenny." I n t e r s p e r s e d as they were among the f a v o u r a b l e r e v i e w s , 64 such h a r s h judgments R o s s e t t i c o u l d a f f o r d t o i g n o r e ; though h i s l e t t e r s show t h a t s e v e r a l o f them d i d wound him, and subsequent " e d i t i o n s " o f Poems d i d c o n t a i n t a c i t acknowledgment o f t h e i r v a l i d i t y (and h e r e i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t R o s s e t t i d i d make t e x t u a l changes i n the s i x t h " e d i t i o n " o f 1872, w h i c h are t o be found i n the A p p e n d i x ) . The N a t i o n (p. 3 0 ) , f o r example, had d e p l o r e d t h e f o o t n o t e t o "My S i s t e r ' s S l e e p " i n w h i c h R o s s e t t i p o i n t e d o u t t h a t he had a n t i c i p a t e d Tennyson's use o f the In_ Memoriam s t a n z a by s e v e r a l weeks; i n the 1881 e d i t i o n the f o o t n o t e does n o t appear. F e e l i n g q u i t e s e c u r e about h i s p o e t r y ' s s u c c e s s , R o s s e t t i c o u l d w r i t e t o F . J . S h i e l d s i n August 1870 t h a t The book has p r o s p e r e d q u i t e beyond any e x p e c t a t i o n s o f mine, though j u s t l a t e l y s i g n s o f d e p r e c i a t i o n have been apparent i n t h e p r e s s (Blackwood t o w i t ) , I am o n l y s u r p r i s e d t h a t n o t h i n g o f a d e c i d e d k i n d i n the way o f o p p o s i t i o n s h o u l d have appeared b e f o r e . However I have a l s o been s u r p r i s e d (and p l e a s a n t l y ) t o f i n d such t h i n g s p r o d u c i n g a much more t r a n s i e n t and momentary i m p r e s s i o n o f u n p l e a s a n t n e s s t h a n I s h o u l d have e x p e c t e d . . . (Doughty-Wahl, 1065). R o s s e t t i had a n o t h e r y e a r t o w a i t f o r "something o f a d e c i d e d k i n d i n the way o f o p p o s i t i o n , " b u t when i t came i t d e s t r o y e d h i s p r o f e s s e d e q u a n i m i t y v e r y s w i f t l y . i i BUCHANAN'S ATTACKS ON ROSSETTI I t i s never easy t o be s u r e o f anyone's m o t i v a t i o n f o r a c e r t a i n a c t , a t times n o t even o f one's own. I n the case of B u c h a n a n 1 s . a t t a c k on R o s s e t t i , however, t h e r e i s t o o much e v i d e n c e o f h i s i l l w i l l f o r i t t o be doubted. I n the pamphlet he c o u l d d e c l a r e t h a t , " I r e j e c t a l t o g e t h e r the i n s i n u a t i o n t h a t my c r i t i c i s m was based on p r i v a t e grounds. I do not know Mr. R o s s e t t i , have no g r i e v a n c e a g a i n s t him, and I can q u i t e b e l i e v e t h a t i n p r i v a t e l i f e he i s a most exemplary p e r s o n " (p. 67) , w h i c h l a s t remark does seem i r o n i c , and must have appeared so t o R o s s e t t i . P r i v a t e l y t h e n , and p u b l i c l y l a t e r , he d i d admit t h a t something more th a n the l o v e o f l i t e r a t u r e c o l o u r e d h i s w r i t i n g . But i n h i s l e t t e r t o R o b e r t Browning (see above, p. 4 3 ) , a man he r e s p e c t e d and f o r whom he. would t r y t o p u t the ..causes f o r "The F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y " i n t h e . b e s t l i g h t p o s s i b l e , Buchanan p l e a d e d " g u i l t y t o one i n s t i n c t o f r e c r i m i n a t i o n , " t h a t o f . r e p a y i n g Swinburne f o r h i s s l u r on D a v i d Gray i n "Matthew A r n o l d ' s New Poems." I n " L a t t e r Day Leaves," quoted e x t e n s i v e l y by h i s b i o g r a p h e r , he c i t e d S w i n b u r n e ' s . " f i e r c e " Notes on Poems and Reviews and W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s c a l l i n g him "a poor and p r e t e n t i o u s p o e t a s t e r who was c a u s i n g storms i n teacups [ s i c ] " as s u f f i c i e n t cause t o c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f " f r e e t o s t r i k e a t t h e whole C o t e r i e , a t t h e moment when a l l the j o u r n a l s were sou n d i n g e x t r a v a g a n t paeans o v e r the poems o f Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i " ( J a y , pp. 162-3). W h i l e th e animus t h a t Swinburne had a r o u s e d w i t h h i s r e f e r e n c e t o Gray may n o t have been r e c o g n i z e d by R o s s e t t i and h i s f r i e n d s , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l was aware t h a t h i s remark had h e l p e d t o i n f l a m e the Scotsman (see above, p. 39 ) , and W i l l i a m B e l l S c o t t knew t h a t i t was the " p l a n t i n g " o f the " e x t r a v a g a n t 9 paeans" o v e r Poems t h a t a l s o i r k e d him. I n p u b l i c , R o s s e t t i , C o l v i n , Forman and Swinburne c o u l d a t t r i b u t e envy t o Buchanan a t Poems' s u c c e s s , and t h e y c o u l d c i t e Buchanan's l u r k i n g b e h i n d a pseudonym (a major t a c t i c a l e r r o r ) as e v i d e n c e of h i s impure m o t i v a t i o n , i n p r i v a t e they were p r o b a b l y aware ( w i t h S c o t t ) t h a t t h e r e were v a l i d causes f o r h i s animus. There i s one f u r t h e r element t o Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m w h i c h c l a i m s r e c o g n i t i o n . I t was d e v o t e d t o p r o v i n g R o s s e t t i t o be an a r t i f i c i a l , i n s i n c e r e v e r s i f i e r ; a p o e t a s t e r , i n f a c t , though Buchanan never used th e word t o d e s c r i b e him. Buchanan b e n t a l l h i s c o n s i d e r a b l e energy t o e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e p o e t i c advent o f the b r o t h e r o f t h e a u t h o r o f t h a t v e r y damaging remark was t o be j u s t as tempestuous as i t had been s a i d t o be f o r t h e a u t h o r o f London Poems. Buchanan a t t a c k e d Poems on f i v e d i f f e r e n t known o c c a s i o n s , and t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t he wrote " C o t e r i e G l o r y , " " F l e s h i n g t h e F l e s h l y " and even-/ "Mr. Buchanan and the F l e s h l y P o e t s " ( a l l o f w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below) b e s i d e s o t h e r s . Whether Buchanan meant t o cause a n o t h e r s t o r m i n a t e a c u p o r n o t , H a r r i e t t J a y does say t h a t h i s y i e l d i n g " t o the t e m p t a t i o n t o be smart and funny a t the See above, f o o t n o t e 3, p. 52. 67 expense o f a c l i q u e whose a n t i c s were, t o h i s t h i n k i n g a t l e a s t , h i g h l y a bsurd" (p. 159) was one o f the reaso n s f o r h i s a t t a c k . No one has e v e r seen t h i s as a comic e p i s o d e i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , because, presumably, o f i t s t r a g i c r e s u l t s . But Buchanan, u s i n g a pseudonym known t o h i s a s s a i l a n t s and w r i t i n g j u s t b e f o r e the pamphlet appeared, c o u l d w r i t e t h a t "The M u t u a l A d m i r a t i o n S c h o o l o f P o e t r y i s s c a r c e l y r e a d o u t o f London, and produces no i m p r e s s i o n whatever on the p u b l i c ; the f a c t b e i n g t h a t s e n s u a l i s t s and spooneys a re n o t so common as some c r i t i c s p e r s i s t i n t e l l i n g us" ( " C r i t i c i s m as One o f the F i n e A r t s , " S a i n t P a u l ' s Magazine, X, A p r i l 1872, p. 389). Here i s Buchanan m i n i m i z i n g R o s s e t t i ' s s i g n i f i c a n c e as a po e t a s s u r e d l y , b u t a l s o i m p l y i n g t h a t he h i m s e l f d i d not t a k e t h i s a f f a i r as s e r i o u s l y as he i s supposed, and he c l a i m e d , t o have t a k e n i t . S i n c e i t i s the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s t o examine the e f f e c t r a t h e r than the i n t e n t o f Buchanan's a t t a c k , t h i s b e g u i l i n g q u e s t i o n w i l l be s e t a s i d e a f t e r the c a v e a t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t Buchanan, a man n o t d e v o i d o f humour, may have been, and may c o n t i n u e t o be, m i s u n d e r s t o o d . P l a y f u l o r n o t , Buchanan's m a l i c i o u s i n t e n t cannot be d e n i e d . Once i t i s a f f i r m e d , however, t h e whole c r i t i c i s m i s thrown i n t o q u e s t i o n . When one makes so tenuous and i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a p r i n c i p l e as " s i n c e r i t y o f v i s i o n " the t o u c h s t o n e o f one's a e s t h e t i c s , i t i s o n l y t o o easy t o f i n d i n th e p o e t r y o f t h o s e one d i s l i k e s a r e m a r k a b l e l a c k o f t h i s e s s e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t . A f t e r a l l o w a n c e i s made f o r Buchanan's animus, and i t i n v e s t s e v e r y a c c u s a t i o n o f f a l s i t y , h y p o c r i s y 68 and i n s i n c e r i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e s e a t t a c k s abound, i t remains t o h i s c r e d i t t h a t t hey were n o t i n v a l i d a t e d by s p i t e . F o r many pe o p l e R o s s e t t i remains a fraud"'" 0, and Buchanan d i d r a i s e a q u e s t i o n , t h a t o f the s e n s u a l i t y o f R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y , w i t h w h i c h a l l o f i t s s e r i o u s s t u d e n t s have t o come t o terms. I t i s e n t i r e l y l i k e l y , as has been n o t e d , t h a t ' R o s s e t t i had h e a r d rumours t h a t Buchanan c o n s i d e r e d him t o be the s o u r c e o f a dangerous new development i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y ( i n t h e pamphlet he r e f e r s t o R o s s e t t i as "the gentleman who i s f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as the head o f t h e s c h o o l " p. 3 1 ) , and t h a t any a t t a c k s on Swinburne and W i l l i a m M i c h a e l were b u t minor s k i r m i s h e s p r e p a r a t o r y f o r a f u l l - b l o o d e d a s s a u l t on t h e enemy's t o o v u l n e r a b l e c e n t r e . An e a r l y t e s t i n g o f t h a t v u l n e r a b i l i t y might have been the anonymous r e v i e w o f Poems, whi c h i s a s c r i b e d t o Buchanan,"'""'" t h a t appeared i n t h e Contemporary f o r Jun e , 1870. Here a r e t h e f i r s t r e f e r e n c e s t o the " s c h o o l t o w h i c h R o s s e t t i b e l o n g s ; " t o the " c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f c u l t u r e and p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e w h i c h c o n s p i r e d t o produce a book l i k e Poems; t o t h e sensuous v i v i d n e s s " ( a l b e i t " f u s e d i n t o w h i t e l i g h t by s p i r i t u a l s u g g e s t i o n " ) w h i c h "runs t h r o u g h a l l t h e poems" (p. 480) and shows t h e " f u s i o n o f ' f l e s h ' and The most r e c e n t , and o u t s p o k e n , b e i n g G e o f f r e y G r i g s o n i n h i s r e v i e w o f P r o f e s s o r Doughty's L i f e i n E n c o u n t e r , X V I I (November 1961), 68-72. "^By S.N. Ghose, where P r o f e s s o r Fredeman found i t . The W e l l e s l e y Index c i t e s P r o f e s s o r Fredeman i n i t s a s c r i p t i o n t o Buchanan. 69 ' s p i r i t ' w h i c h b e l o n g s t o t h e s c h o o l ; " and t o a " q u a l i t y i n the s t y l e w h i c h i t would be wrong t o c a l l a f f e c t a t i o n , o r r e t i c e n c e o r l i t e r a r y c y n i c i s m ; b u t y e t t h e r e i s something i n i t w h i c h s u g g e s t s a l l t h e s e names" (p. 481). T h i s r e v i e w had no a p p a r e n t e f f e c t on R o s s e t t i , s i n c e he remembered i t , two months l a t e r , as b e i n g u s e f u l f o r the f u r t h e r p u f f i n g o f h i s 12 Poems i n the c o n t i n u i n g war he saw h i m s e l f waging. I f Buchanan d i d n o t w r i t e the r e v i e w ( i n the pamphlet he says t h a t he r e a d R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y f o r the f i r s t t i m e i n the summer of 1871, p. 5 6 ) , he would have endorsed i t c o m p l e t e l y . Nine months l a t e r he e x p r e s s e d h i s o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e R o s s e t t i c i r c l e v e r y c l e a r l y i n d e e d . T h i s t i m e , however,the a t t a c k appeared over Buchanan's name i n a r e v i e w o f "George Heath, t h e M o o r l a n d P o e t " (Good  Words, March 1871, 170-177), the f i r s t o f f i v e known a s s a u l t s . R e f e r r i n g t o K e a t s , R o b e r t N i c o l l and D a v i d Gray, Buchanan w r i t e s , G e n i u s , m u s i c , d i s e a s e , d e a t h — t h e o l d , weary, monotonous t u n e , have we n o t h e a r d enough o f i t ? Not y e t . I t w i l l be r e p e a t e d a g a i n and a g a i n and a g a i n , t i l l t h e whole w o r l d has g o t i t by h e a r t , and i t s f u l l b e auty and s i g n i f i c a n c e are apprehended by e v e r y woman t h a t b e a r s a son. A t t h e p r e s e n t moment i t comes p e c u l i a r l y i n season: f o r England happens t o be i n f e s t e d by a s c h o o l o f p o e t i c t h o u g h t w h i c h t h r e a t e n s f r i g h t f u l l y t o c o r r u p t , d e m o r a l i s e , H i s l e t t e r t o F.S. E l l i s , d a t e d August 19, 1870 (Doughty-Wahl, 1064), has a p o s t s c r i p t b e g i n n i n g I t h i n k i t would be time t o quote something new as w e l l as o l d when a d v e r t i s i n g , t o make head a g a i n s t t h e f o e . The W e s t m i n s t e r and N o r t h B r i t i s h have been c i v i l , though s h o r t . So a l s o I t h i n k was the Contemporary, b u t t h a t I have n o t by me. 70 and r e n d e r e f f e m i n a t e the r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n ; a p l a g u e from I t a l y and F r a n c e ; a s c h o o l a e s t h e t i c w i t h o u t v i t a l i t y , and b e a u t i f u l w i t h o u t h e a l t h ; a s c h o o l o f f a l s e t t o e s i n n u m e r a b l e — f a l s e l o v e , f a l s e p i c t u r e , f a l s e p a t r i o t i s m , f a l s e r e l i g i o n , f a l s e l i f e , f a l s e d e a t h , a l l l u r k i n g p a l p a b l e o r d i s g u i s e d i n the p o i s o n e d c h a l i c e o f a f a l s e s t y l e . J u s t when the l a t t e r D e l i a C r u s c a n s c h o o l i s b l o o m i n g out i n the f u l l h e c t i c f l u s h o f mutual a d m i r a t i o n w h i c h i s t h e due p r e l i m i n a r y t o sudden d e a t h , j u s t when v e r s e - w r i t e r s who never l i v e d a r e b i t t e r l y r e g r e t t i n g t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i e , and t h i n k i n g the b e s t p r e p a r a t i o n i s t o grimace a t God and v i o l a t e the dead,13 i t may do us good t o r e a d the o l d s t o r y o v e r a g a i n . . . . (pp. 170-1) There i s no r e c o r d o f R o s s e t t i e v e r h a v i n g seen t h i s , and Swinburne's l e t t e r s do not show t h a t he d i d t h e n , though he 14 d i d quote from i t i n Under th e M i c r o s c o p e . Here, i n p a r v o , i s Buchanan's whole case a g a i n s t R o s s e t t i . S i x months l a t e r i t was t o be expanded i n t o t h e n o t o r i o u s . a r t i c l e i n t h e Contemporary, w h i c h was i t s e l f , a y e a r l a t e r , i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the n o t o r i o u s pamphlet w i t h whole c h a p t e r s d e v o t e d t o t h e c o r r u p t i o n and d e m o r a l i z a t i o n o f V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d . S i n c e "The F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y , " t h e second o f h i s a s s a u l t s , has a l r e a d y been examined i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s , and i t s v a l i d i t y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the l a s t , l i t t l e more need be s a i d o f i t h e r e . I t s i t e r a t i o n and r e i t e r a t i o n o f t h e p o e t ' s i n s i n c e r i t y must have caused R o s s e t t i 13 A r e f e r e n c e t o Swinburne's remarks about D a v i d Gray i n "Matthew A r n o l d ' s New Poems," see C h a p t e r I I , p. 42, as Buchanan's l a t e r f o o t n o t e i n t h i s a r t i c l e makes c l e a r . 14 C.K. Hyder, Swinburne R e p l i e s ( S y r a c u s e , S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), pp. 7 and 75. 71 s e r i o u s annoyance; though i n a l e t t e r to h i s p u b l i s h e r he s a i d of the review t h a t "For once abuse comes i n a form t h a t even a bard can g r i n a t without grimacing" (Doughty -Wah1, 1177). For a l l the poet's d i s c l a i m e r s t h i s r e p e t i t i o n and e l a b o r a t i o n o f the o b j e c t i o n s of others coupled w i t h Buchanan's own was by f a r the most damaging, at l e a s t p o t e n t i a l l y , of any review t h a t R o s s e t t i had y e t s u f f e r e d . The poet's l a c k of o r i g i n a l i t y t o the p o i n t o f p l a g i a r i s m ; h i s d e l i g h t i n a r c h a i c form and d i c t i o n f o r t h e i r own sake to the detriment of the honest e x p r e s s i o n of the " t r u t h s of the s o u l ; " the t o r t u r e d l a b o r i o u s n e s s t h a t g i v e s R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y none o f Swinburne's "genuine s p o n t a n e i t y ; " the "mature" poet's p r o s e l y t i z i n g i n the s e r v i c e of the e v i l of f l e s h l i n e s s ; never b e f o r e had any i n d i c t m e n t of R o s s e t t i ' s Poems been as comprehensive; and never b e f o r e had such charges been expressed so f o r c e f u l l y . What reduced the review's p o t e n t i a l f o r d e s t r o y i n g R o s s e t t i ' s r e p u t a t i o n as a poet, and what makes i t , f o r the c y n i c a l , even more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of V i c t o r i a n prudery than i t i s o f V i c t o r i a n r i g h t e o u s n e s s , i s i t s tone. Buchanan's over-statement, h i s s t r a i n i n g r h e t o r i c and h i s o v e r - i n s i s t e n c e on R o s s e t t i ' s i n s i n c e r i t y seem to be the d e v i c e s of someone who p r o t e s t s too much; and, worse, behind them was to be seen evidence of an unpleasant s i d e t o Buchanan's c h a r a c t e r . The pamphlet was much more s e l f - r e v e l a t o r y , as w i l l be seen, but i n the a r t i c l e , the r e p e t i t i o n w i t h i n f i v e l i n e s of a catalogue o f R o s s e t t i ' s females' b e h a v i o u r — t h e y " b i t e , s c r a t c h , scream, 72 b u b b l e , munch, sweat, w r i t h e , t w i s t , w r i g g l e , foam, and s l a v e r . . . " (p. 8 9 3 ) — b e t r a y s a c e r t a i n r e l i s h and i m a g i -n a t i v e power, w h i c h , f o r the ac u t e o b s e r v e r a t l e a s t , were becoming marked c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i t s a u t h o r . One o f the f i r s t a s p e c t s o f t h e Contemporary a r t i c l e t h a t f a s c i n a t e d R o s s e t t i and h i s f r i e n d s was the i d e n t i t y o f the "Thomas M a i t l a n d " whose name was appended t o i t , and the f i r s t p r i n t e d r e a c t i o n s t o t h e a t t a c k c e n t r e d on t h i s u n f o r t u n a t e i s s u e . S i d n e y C o l v i n , a new member o f the R o s s e t t i c i r c l e , once t h e i d e n t i t y o f M a i t l a n d had been e s t a b l i s h e d , was r e p o r t e d i n the Athenaeum (December 2, 1871) t o be p r e p a r i n g a r e p l y t o the a r t i c l e , "by Thomas M a i t l a n d , a nom de plume assumed by Mr. R o b e r t Buchanan." A week l a t e r , i n language c a l c u l a t e d t o goad Buchanan i n t o r e v e a l i n g h i m s e l f , C o l v i n d e n i e d any i n t e n t i o n o f so d o i n g . On December 16, Buchanan p u b l i c l y a d m i t t e d a u t h o r s h i p o f the a r t i c l e , b u t d e n i e d t h a t he had used a pseudonym (which he swore on o a t h , f o u r and a h a l f y e a r s l a t e r , t h a t he had not added t o t h e a r t i c l e ) , and added t h a t A l e x a n d e r S t r a h a n , the p u b l i s h e r o f the Contemporary, " i s b e s t aware o f the i n a d v e r t e n c e w h i c h l e d t o t h e s u p p r e s s i o n " o f h i s name. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , S t r a h a n , i n a l e t t e r p r i n t e d i m m e d i a t e l y above Buchanan's, d e n i e d t h a t Buchanan was the a u t h o r : "You might w i t h e q u a l p r o p r i e t y , a s s o c i a t e the a r t i c l e w i t h the name o f Mr. R o b e r t Browning, o r o f Mr. Robe r t L y t t o n o r any o t h e r R o b e r t . " The e d i t o r o f the Athenaeum d r y l y n o t e d t h a t "Mr. Buchanan's l e t t e r i s an e d i f y i n g commentary on Me s s r s . S t r a h a n s 1 ; " and, d e p l o r i n g b o t h p a r t i e s ' 73 complacent a t t i t u d e t o the pseudonym, c o n t i n u e d ; "we p r e f e r , i f we a r e r e a d i n g an a r t i c l e by Mr. Buchanan, t h a t i t s h o u l d be s i g n e d by him, e s p e c i a l l y when he p r a i s e s h i s own poems; and t h a t l i t t l e ' i n a d v e r t e n c i e s ' o f t h i s k i n d s h o u l d n o t be l e f t u n c o r r e c t e d t i l l t h e p u b l i c f i n d them o u t . " W i t h t h a t remark, Buchanan's a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e Athenaeum ended, i f i t had n o t f o u r i s s u e s e a r l i e r . ^ On December 19th t h e P a l l  M a l l G a z e t t e summarized the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n t h e Athenaeum and i n so d o i n g r e f e r r e d t o t h e Contemporary a r t i c l e as " t h i s f i e r c e o n s l a u g h t o f a p o e t upon h i s b r e t h r e n o f t h e c r a f t " (p. 4 ) . G r a d u a l l y t h e a t t empt t o d i s c r e d i t Buchanan by a t t r i b u t i n g h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o wounded v a n i t y and envy began t o g a i n ground. On December 2 3 r d , S t r a h a n w r o t e t o t h e P a l l M a l l  G a z e t t e and, s a y i n g n o t h i n g t o c l a r i f y t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e use o f t h e nom de plume, t r i e d r a t h e r l a m e l y t o deny t h a t h i s a p p a rent d e n i a l o f Buchanan's a u t h o r s h i p i n h i s l e t t e r t o t h e Athenaeum was i n t e n d e d as s u c h . S t r a h a n d i d e x p r e s s h i s c o n c e r n , as w e l l he m i g h t , t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f the pseudonym was b e i n g used by R o s s e t t i and h i s f r i e n d s " t o d i v e r t a t t e n t i o n from th e main i s s u e — t h e m e r i t s o f . t h e F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y " (p. 3 ) . On December 3 0 t h , R o s s e t t i h i m s e l f p u b l i s h e d "The S t e a l t h y S c h o o l o f C r i t i c i s m " (see below, p.100) i n t h e Athenaeum, a g a i n B e s i d e s Swinburne's Poems and B a l l a d s and W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s S h e l l e y , he had r e v i e w e d The R i n g and t h e Book i n i t s pages. On November 25, 1871 i t s r e v i e w o f The Drama o f K i n g s had p l a y -f u l l y s u g g e s t e d t h a t Buchanan's l o v e o f r e p e t i t i o n s , a l l i t e r a t i o n s and such d e v i c e s was e v i d e n c e " t h a t a Swinburne s c h o o l i s g r o w i n g up" (p. 6 83). 74 making much o f the pseudonym, and a t t r i b u t i n g " m a l i c i o u s i n t e n t i o n " t o t h e S c o t (p. 793). On December 30th Buchanan wrote a g a i n t o t h e Athenaeum, d e n y i n g t h a t he had p r a i s e d h i s own p o e t r y and r e p e a t i n g t h a t the pseudonym "was a f f i x e d t o my a r t i c l e when I was f a r out o f r e a c h — c r u i s i n g on t h e shores o f the Western H e b r i d e s " (p. 887), t h i s l a s t b e i n g t h e i n a d v e r t e n c y w h i c h had l e d t o S t r a h a n ' s a c t , presumably. Buchanan f o r f e i t e d much sympathy by the p e t u l a n t tone o f h i s l e t t e r : " I t i s i n v a i n p e r h a p s , t o p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the comments o f such a judge as you, b u t f o r e v e r y one who reads y o u r j o u r n a l a dozen w i l l r e a d my r e p r i n t e d c r i t i c i s m , and w i l l be a b l e t o see you i n y o u r t r u e c o l o u r s . " I n December, Temple  Bar (XXXIV, 99-100) came o u t s o l i d l y i n s u p p o r t o f Buchanan. Drawing a t t e n t i o n t o the Contemporary a r t i c l e , the w r i t e r agreed w h o l e h e a r t e d l y w i t h the views t h e r e e x p r e s s e d : "Mr. R o s s e t t i and h i s a d m i r e r s have been t o l d a few wholesome t r u t h s . There i s i n a l l the w r i t i n g s o f t h i s s c h o o l a f l e s h -l i n e s s , w h i c h i s meant t o be n a t u r a l , b u t i s e x a g g e r a t e d and unwholesome . . . . One l i t t l e b a l l a d w i t h t h e t e a r f u l r i n g i n i t , one s i n g l e song where we can f e e l t h a t t h e poet i s t h i n k i n g more o f what he says t h a n o f how he says i t , i s w o r t h a c a r t l o a d o f t h e s e volumes." To R o s s e t t i ' s d e f e n c e came R i c h a r d H e n g i s t Home who i n s e r t e d a p r e f a c e t o t h e n i n t h e d i t i o n o f O r i o n , w h i c h appeared b e f o r e the end o f 1871 ( R o s s e t t i w r o t e t o h i s p u b l i s h e r on December 31 f o r a.copy o f i t , Doughty-Wahl, 1204), d e p l o r i n g Buchanan's a r t i c l e as t h e l a t e s t e v i d e n c e o f V i c t o r i a n 75 a s c e t i c i s m , and c o n c l u d i n g , "Are we g r a v e l y t o be t o l d , a t t h i s day, t h a t the f l e s h and the d e v i l are a l m o s t cognate terms, and t h a t the s p i r i t and the d e v i l n e ver cause men t o commit e v i l deeds?" (Ghose, p. 166). I n F e b r u a r y 1872, Henry Buxton Forman, went a g a i n t o the h e l p o f h i s e m b a t t l e d f r i e n d i n "The ' F l e s h l y S c h o o l ' S c a n d a l " ( T i n s l e y ' s Magazine, X, 89-102). B e g i n n i n g w i t h a motto from S h e l l e y ("As a b a n k r u p t t h i e f t u r n s t h i e f - t a k e r i n d e s p a i r , so a d i s a p p o i n t e d a u t h o r t u r n s c r i t i c " ) , Forman devotes much o f h i s space t o Buchanan's "meaningless and u n m i t i g a t e d s p i t e " (p. 8 9 ) , and the q u e s t i o n o f t h e pseudonym; he c o r r e c t l y f o r e c a s t s t h a t Buchanan "has now g a i n e d f o r h i s name an u n e n v i a b l e n o t o r i e t y t h a t i s l i k e l y t o s t i c k t o him f o r the r e s t o f h i s c a r e e r " (p. 9 0 ) . A f t e r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t i s "a g r o s s mind" t h a t sees " N u p t i a l S l e e p " as a r e c o r d " o f the most s e c r e t m y s t e r i e s o f s e x u a l c o n n e c t i o n " (p. 9 4 ) , Forman t u r n s t o the p o e t r y and shows a deep a p p r e c i a t i o n and knowledge o f R o s s e t t i ' s work. One by one he r e f u t e s Buchanan's c h a r g e s , w i t h h i s defence o f the o f f e n d i n g passage i n "A L a s t C o n f e s s i o n " b e i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y j u s t (p. 9 7 ) . He d e a l s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f the d e r i v a t i v e n a t u r e o f R o s s e t t i ' s a r t , and c o n c l u d e s w i t h a b r i e f b u t p e r s u a s i v e defence o f p r e r a p h a e l i t e prosody. The o n l y complete answer t o the S c o t i s then marred by f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o h i s " v i r u l e n t p e r s o n a l animus" e n s h r i n e d i n h i s " i n d e c e n t and s c u r i l o u s f a r c e " (p. 102). S.N. Ghose no t e s (p. 158), v e r y p e r c e p t i v e l y , t h a t "the p r o b a b l e a u t h o r " o f " C o t e r i e G l o r y " (Saturday Review, F e b r u a r y 76 24, 1872, pp. 2 39-2 40) was none o t h e r than R o b e r t Buchanan h i m s e l f . There i s much i n the a r t i c l e t o s u p p o r t the i d e a . There are s e v e r a l t u r n s o f phrase t h a t have Buchanan's r i n g t o them ( f o r example, i n the Contemporary a r t i c l e he t a l k e d o f R o s s e t t i " p a r a d i n g h i s p r i v a t e s e n s a t i o n s b e f o r e a c o a r s e p u b l i c , " here he t a l k s o f the " c o a r s e c l i m a t e o f p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n " ) ; the " P r e - R a f f a e l i t e s " are l i k e n e d , once a g a i n , t o the D e l i a C r u s c a n s c h o o l ; the w r i t e r r e f e r s b l a n d l y t o m e d i e v a l and R e n a i s s a n c e l i t e r a t u r e as b e i n g t h e new s c h o o l ' s i n s p i r a t i o n ; a g a i n Buchanan ( i f he i t was) d e s c r i b e s l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m i n l e g a l terms. The tone o f the a r t i c l e i s r e s t r a i n e d , as b e f i t s a p e r i o d i c a l known f o r i t s s c h o l a r l y o b j e c t i v i t y , w i t h the w r i t e r c a l m l y t r a c i n g the r e g r e s s i o n o f a c r i t i c t o a f a n a t i c , the r e j e c t i o n o f c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n f a v o u r o f t h e b l i n d f a i t h o f a b e l i e v e r , and s t a t i n g t h a t such i s t h e case o f t h o s e who so immoderately p r a i s e d Poems. The w r i t e r then t u r n s t o Forman's r e c e n t defence o f R o s s e t t i , ( t h i s , t o o , can be seen as e v i d e n c e o f Buchanan's a u t h o r s h i p ) w h i c h , he c l a i m s , i s more damaging t h a n Buchanan's a t t a c k (a t y p i c a l s e l f - d i s p a r a g i n g remark) s i n c e i t comes from " ' t h a t w o r s t o f enemies, y o u r w o r s h i p p e r ' " (p. 240). Buchanan, n o t a t a l l u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , names h i m s e l f s e v e r a l t i m e s i n the a r t i c l e , and, appended a l a r g e q u o t a t i o n from " C o t e r i e G l o r y " t o the pamphlet. B e f o r e the pamphlet appeared, though p r o b a b l y a f t e r he had w r i t t e n i t , Buchanan made h i s t h i r d and f o u r t h a t t a c k s on R o s s e t t i . I n "Tennyson's Charm" ( S a i n t P a u l ' s Magazine, X, 77 March 1872, 282-303), he elaborated upon his objections to Rossetti's d i c t i o n . After seeing a chance to r e i t e r a t e his main objection to Rossetti and his friends—"Georges Sand, Baudelaire, and a l l the l a t e s t school of French novelists (not to speak of t h e i r feeble imitators of the so-called Fleshly School of Poetry), are d i d a c t i c writers . . . d i d a c t i c i n the service of Passion and Vice" (p. 295)—he then goes on to write of Tennyson's "recent imitators . . . eagerly gathering up and wearing the meretricious finery he threw away, with writers l i k e Mr. Dante Rossetti . . . L a t i n i s i n g our mother-tongue i n drawl a f t e r drawl of laboured a f f e c t a t i o n . " At t h i s point he gives a long footnote l i s t i n g several examples of Rossetti's l a t i n a t e d i c t i o n ("Death i s a seizure of 'malign  v i c i s s i t u d e ; ' a kiss 'a consonant interlude' of l i p s ; a moan 'the sighing wind's a u x i l i a r y ; ' the sky 'soft-complexioned'") concluding, "Here i s Euphues come again with a vengeance, i n the shape of an amatory foreigner i l l - a c q u a i n t e d with English, and seemingly modelling his style on the 'conversation' of Dr. Samuel Johnson" (p. 298). In two references t o t a l l i n g a bare one hundred words, Rossetti's a r t i f i c i a l i t y i s again emphasized with this incongruous c o l l e c t i o n of 'influences' 16 on "the amatory foreigner." Nowhere else did Buchanan express his objection to Rossetti's vocabulary quite so succi n c t l y , Cassidy says that, with t h i s a r t i c l e , Buchanan's "main object was patently to repair the s l i g h t on Tennyson" i n the Contemporary (p. 80). 78 and f o r one contemporary, G.M. H o p k i n s , whose p o e t r y i s n o t e -worthy f o r i t s Anglo-Saxon d i c t i o n , i t must have been p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l i d . The f o u r t h a t t a c k , q u i t e p o s s i b l y w r i t t e n when Buchanan had seen the pamphlet t h r o u g h t h e p r e s s and was h e a r t i l y s i c k o f the whole b u s i n e s s , was t h a t q u o t e d above (p. 6 7 ) , 'Walter 17 H u t c h e s o n ' s 1 " C r i t i c i s m as One o f the F i n e A r t s . " T r u l y Buchanan d e c l a r e s t h a t w h i l e c r i t i c i s m "may d e l a y a r e p u t a t i o n , i t cannot k i l l i t , " and, on the same page as h i s r e f e r e n c e t o the "Mutual A d m i r a t i o n S c h o o l o f P o e t r y ' s " l a c k o f i m p act o u t s i d e London comes an i m p a s s i o n e d a p p e a l f o r an end t o a l l u n s i g n e d c r i t i c i s m ! L a t e r , w i t h u n c o n s c i o u s i r o n y ( ? ) , he d e p l o r e s c r i t i c s assuming "the e d i t o r i a l t o n e , " and t o t h o s e t h e r e b y " d e c l i n i n g s e l f - r e v e l a t i o n , o r are u n p l e a s a n t when r e v e a l e d may be added, i n modern t i m e s , the 18 names o f Mr. Lewes . . . and the Duke o f A r g y l l " (p. 394). C o u l d such a remark come from a man unaware o f how u n p l e a s a n t he r e v e a l e d h i m s e l f t o be i n h i s own c r i t i c i s m ? S i n c e C a s s i d y (pp. 78-80) g i v e s much contemporary r e a c t i o n t o b o t h a r t i c l e and pamphlet, i t i s unnecessary h e r e t o r e p e a t I n a l e t t e r t o R o s s e t t i , d a t e d A p r i l 27, 1872, S i d n e y C o l v i n , p r e p a r i n g the r e c e p t i o n f o r the pamphlet, d e c l a r e s t h a t he has " s e t rods i n p i c k l e f o r the F o r t n i g h t l y Review, Athenaeum, S a t u r d a y , D a i l y News, and P a l l M a l l ; and t h e r e s h a l l n o t be a whole bone l e f t i n the Buchanan-Maitland-Hutcheson s k i n . . . ." A n g e l i , A-41. 18 T h i s i s v e r y p r o b a b l y a repayment t o Lewes f o r the snub r e c e i v e d from" him i n Regent's P a r k ( C a s s i d y , p. 8 1 ) , and, i f s o , shows Buchanan's " i n s t i n c t f o r r e c r i m i n a t i o n " once a g a i n . 79 a c c u s a t i o n and c o u n t e r - a c c u s a t i o n . I t would seem t h a t b o t h s i d e s were w e l l - s u p p o r t e d , and such an a r t i c l e as " N o v e l t i e s i n P o e t r y and C r i t i c i s m " ( F r a s e r ' s Magazine, n.s. V, May 1872, 588-596) p r o v i d e s a r e a s o n a b l y w e l l - b a l a n c e d view o f the s t a t e o f the c o n t r o v e r s y a t t h i s t i m e , s a y i n g o f R o s s e t t i t h a t "though he i s o f t e n a r t i f i c i a l , f a n t a s t i c , and w i l f u l l y o b s c u r e , he has a. r e a l power wh i c h cannot be e x p l a i n e d away by c a l l i n g him f l e s h l y , s ub-Tennysonian, o r any o t h e r names" (p. 596). The p u b l i c a t i o n date o f The F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y and O ther Phenomena o f the Day i s n o t known. I t was a d v e r t i s e d f o r immediate p u b l i c a t i o n b e f o r e the end o f A p r i l , 1872; and R o s s e t t i had seen i t by May 15 when W i l l i a m M i c h a e l n o t e d i n h i s d i a r y t h a t " T h i s l i t t l e book o f Buchanan's seems l i k e l y t o c r e a t e a good d e a l o f hubbub." R o s s e t t i ' s own i n n e r t u r m o i l began w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t on page one o f the P r e f a c e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e a t t a c k s made on Buchanan s i n c e the Contemporary were "the i n v e n t i o n s o f cowards, t o o s p o i l t w i t h f l a t t e r y t o b e a r c r i t i c i s m . " T h i s a c c u s a t i o n o f c o w a r d i c e was one o f the major reas o n s f o r R o s s e t t i ' s breakdown t h r e e weeks a f t e r f i r s t s e e i n g i t . D e s p i t e h i s d i s c l a i m e r s about any knowledge o f R o s s e t t i ' s 19 " p r i v a t e l i f e , " p o s s i b l y i n s e r t e d t o a v o i d l e g a l r e p e r c u s s i o n s , Buchanan th e n proceeds t o g i v e a r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n o f contemporary The comment from "Tennyson's Charm," quoted on page 77, demonstrates Buchanan's l a c k o f p e r s o n a l knowledge o f R o s s e t t i , even i f i t does n o t d i s p e l t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t R o s s e t t i ' s " a m a t o r i n e s s " and h i s " f o r e i g n n e s s " were e q u a l l y repugnant t o t h e S c o t . 80 Bohemia, i m p l y i n g t h a t i t i s i n h a b i t e d by R o s s e t t i s , Swinburnes and even A r n o l d s ( " t h e i r r e l i g i o n i s c a l l e d c u l t u r e , t h e i r narrow-mindedness i s c a l l e d i n s i g h t , " p. 6 ) . He a l s o r e p e a t s s t a t e m e n t s made i n t h e Contemporary about "the s e l f - c o n t r o l and easy a u d a c i t y o f a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e " o f a man c h r o n i c l i n g " h i s amorous s e n s a t i o n s , " w i t h heavy s t r e s s , a g a i n , on R o s s e t t i ' s " m a t u r i t y " : he i s " f a r t o o s e l f - p o s s e s s e d t o i n d u l g e i n t h e r i o t o u s f o l l i e s o f t h e a u t h o r o f ' C h a s t e l a r d , ' and i n f i n i t e l y t o o s e l f - c o n s c i o u s t o busy h i m s e l f w i t h the d a i n t y t a l e - t e l l i n g o f the a u t h o r o f the ' E a r t h l y P a r a d i s e ' " l n \ 20 (p. 31). On the q u e s t i o n o f the f l e s h l i n e s s i n R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y , Buchanan quotes from R o s s e t t i ' s defence o f the sonnet "Love-Sweetness" i n "The S t e a l t h y S c h o o l o f C r i t i c i s m " — F o r here a l l the p a s s i o n a t e and j u s t d e l i g h t s o f  the body are d e c l a r e d — s o m e w h a t f i g u r a t i v e l y , i t i s  t r u e , b u t u n m i s t a k a b l y — t o be as_ naught i f not  en n o b l e d by the c o n c u r r e n c e o f the s o u l a t a l l t i m e s (Buchanan's i t a l i c s ) . — i n o r d e r t o l a n d h a r d on the one u n f o r t u n a t e word i n R o s s e t t i ' s s t a t e m e n t w i t h a f o o t n o t e s a y i n g , "My c o m p l a i n t p r e c i s e l y i s , t h a t Mr. R o s s e t t i ' s ' s o u l ' c o n c u r s a v a s t d e a l t o o e a s i l y " (p. 5 8 ) . L a t e r Buchanan r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n o f "what [ R o s s e t t i ] Buchanan had a v e r y h i g h r e g a r d f o r W i l l i a m M o r r i s ' s g i f t f o r n a r r a t i v e p o e t r y , and o n l y i n c l u d e d h i s name i n h i s f i r s t g e n e r a l i n d i c t m e n t because he knew t h a t he was one o f the R o s s e t t i c i r c l e . E l s e w h e r e he s a y s : "Now o f a l l contemporary p o e t s , w i t h perhaps the e x c e p t i o n o f Mr. M o r r i s , L o n g f e l l o w i s the b e s t t e l l e r o f s t o r i e s . . . ." P r e f a c e t o Buchanan's e d i t i o n o f The P o e t i c a l Work o f Henry Wadsworth L o n g f e l l o w (London, Moxon, 186 8) p. i x . 81 means by t h e s o u l ; " and f e a r s "from the sonnet he q u o t e s , t h a t he r e g a r d s the f e e l i n g f o r a young woman's p e r s o n , f a c e , h e a r t , and mind, as i n i t s e l f q u i t e a s p i r i t u a l s e n t i m e n t . I n t h e poem e n t i t l e d " L o v e - L i l y " he e x p r e s s l y o b s e r v e s t h a t Love cannot t e l l L i l y ' s "body from h e r s o u l " — t h e y are so i n e x t r i c a b l y b l e n d e d . I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s c o n f u s i o n o f the two w h i c h , f i l l i n g Mr. R o s s e t t i as i t e t e r n a l l y does w i t h what he c a l l s " r i o t o u s l o n g i n g , " becomes so i n t o l e r a b l e t o r e a d e r s w i t h a l e s s m y s t i c sense o f a n i m a l f u n c t i o n (p. 6 9 ) . Always h y p e r - s e n s i t i v e t o any c r i t i c i s m , R o s s e t t i must have c o n s i d e r e d such remarks h i g h l y p e r s o n a l and v e r y damaging f o r a l l t h e i r l a c k o f r e a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p o e t o r h i s work. Damaging the pamphlet u n d o u b t e d l y was t o R o s s e t t i , b u t i t d i d Buchanan l i t t l e good t o o . H i s s t y l e , h i s c a r e l e s s n e s s , h i s r e v e a l i n g a s i d e s , and h i s knowledge o f e r o t i c l i t e r a t u r e g i v e new i n s i g h t s i n t o h i s own p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , p e r h a p s , b u t d i d n o t encourage a s y m p a t h e t i c r e a d i n g by h i s p e e r s . As l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , t o o , t h e pamphlet adds l i t t l e o f any r e a l v a l u e t o what Buchanan had w r i t t e n b e f o r e . W i t h i t s p u b l i -c a t i o n can be c h a r t e d t h a t p o i n t i n h i s c a r e e r as a s e r i o u s man o f l e t t e r s when h i s h a r d - e a r n e d r e p u t a t i o n began t o w i t h e r . The f i r s t c h a p t e r i s d e v o t e d t o a s u r v e y o f p o e t r y w r i t t e n i n E n g l a n d under the i n f l u e n c e o f Amour C o u r t o i s , a " f e v e r -c l o u d g e n e r a t e d f i r s t i n I t a l y . . . f i n a l l y , a f t e r s u c k i n g up a l l t h a t was most unwholesome from the s o i l o f F r a n c e , t o f i x i t s e l f on E n g l a n d , and b r e e d i n i t s d i r e f u l shadow a r a c e o f monsters whose l o n g l i n e has n o t ceased . . . ." (p. 1 0 ) . "Poor o l d " Donne, D a v i e s , Carew, W i l l i a m Drummond, the two 82 F l e t c h e r s , H a b i n g t o n , Crashaw (the accompanying remark;: "a R o s s e t t i o f t h e p e r i o d w i t h t w i c e t h e ge n i u s and h a l f the advantages" g i v e s some i d e a o f Buchanan's i g n o r a n c e o f b o t h Crashaw's and R o s s e t t i ' s l i v e s ) , S u c k l i n g , Browne ("the E l i z a b e t h a n K e a t s " ) , a l l were t a i n t e d by the e p i d e m i c t h a t c u l m i n a t e d i n Cowley (p. 1 3 ) . The a n t i d o t e o f e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y c l a s s i c i s m p r a c t i c a l l y c u r e d the d i s e a s e b u t a " f r e s h i m p o r t a t i o n o f t h e obnoxious m a t t e r from F r a n c e " (p. 1 5 ) , the w r i t i n g s o f C h a r l e s B a u d e l a i r e , caused i t t o b r e a k o u t a g a i n . There f o l l o w s a c h a p t e r on B a u d e l a i r e ' s i n f l u e n c e on Swinburne w i t h w h i c h few o f Buchanan's o l d e r r e a d e r s would have d i s -a g r eed: " A l l t h a t i s w o r s t i n Mr. Swinburne b e l o n g s t o B a u d e l a i r e . The o f f e n s i v e c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t , the o b t r u s i o n o f u n n a t u r a l p a s s i o n , the blasphemy, the w r e t c h e d a n i m a l i s m , are a l l t a k e n i n t a c t our o f ' F l e u r s de Mai'" (p. 2 2 ) . Buchanan even quotes from B a u d e l a i r e ' s f i r s t poem ("Au L e c t e u r " ) " H y p o c r i t e l e c t e u r , — m o n s e m b l a b l e , — m o n f r e r e ! " (p. 2 3 ) , a p p a r e n t l y unaware t h a t i t was p r e c i s e l y t o t h e Buchanans o f t h i s w o r l d t h a t the poem was d i r e c t e d . He c o n c l u d e s w i t h a st a t e m e n t on B a u d e l a i r e w h i c h i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s views on R o s s e t t i (and w h i c h a g a i n i n d i c a t e s Buchanan's r a t h e r P h i l i s t i n e s c o r n f o r i n t r o s p e c t i o n ) : Here I must l e a v e t h e w r i t i n g s o f C h a r l e s B a u d e l a i r e o n l y o b s e r v i n g i n c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , i n s p i t e o f t h e i r seeming o r i g i n a l i t y , t hey b e l o n g r e a l l y t o the I t a l i a n s c h o o l i n so f a r as they a re the p o s i n g s o f an a f f e c t e d p e r s o n b e f o r e a m i r r o r , the s e l f - a n a t o m y o f a morbid n a t u r e , t h e s a t i a t e d l o v e - s o n n e t s o f a s e n s u a l i s t who i s out o f tune w i t h the w o r l d and o u t o f harmony w i t h t h e l i f e o f man (p. 29). 83 Buchanan, a f t e r e x p r e s s i n g h i s b e l i e f t h a t Swinburne " i s o b v i o u s l y c a p a b l e o f r i s i n g o u t o f t h e f l e s h l y s t a g e a l t o g e t h e r " (p. 3 1 ) , then t u r n s t o "the head o f the s c h o o l , " ("who avows h i s poems t o be p e r f e c t l y 'mature, 1 and who has t a k e n many y e a r s o f r e f l e c t i o n b e f o r e f o r m a l l y a p p e a l i n g t o p u b l i c judgement"). The Contemporary a r t i c l e f o l l o w s a l m o s t v e r b a t i m , a f t e r w h i c h comes Buchanan's response t o "The S t e a l t h y S c h o o l o f C r i t i c i s m , " w h i c h i s l i t t l e more th a n a new a s s o r t m e n t o f f l e s h l i n e s s c u l l e d from "The House o f L i f e . " F l a t a s s e r t i o n f o l l o w s f l a t a s s e r t i o n : Sonnet V I I , "Love's L o v e r s , " i s m e a n i n g l e s s , b u t i n t h e b e s t manner o f Carew and Dr. Donne; and the same may be s a i d o f Sonnet V I I I , " P a s s i o n and Worship." Sonnet I X , "The P o r t r a i t , " i s a good sonnet and good p o e t r y , d e s p i t e the e p i t h e t s o f "mouth's mould" and " l o n g l i t h e t h r o a t . " Sonnet X, the "Love L e t t e r , " i s f l e s h l y and a f f e c t e d , b u t s t o p s s h o r t o f n a s t i n e s s . Sonnet XI i s a l s o i n n o c u o u s . Sonnets X I I t o XX are one p r o f u s e sweat o f a n i m a l i s m , . . . (p. 6 0 ) . A t one p o i n t Buchanan c o n t r a d i c t s what he has s a i d e a r l i e r c o n c e r n i n g p o e t i c s u b j e c t s , "which any w r i t e r may be f a i r l y l e f t t o choose f o r h i m s e l f " (pp. 46-7), when he d e p l o r e s the " p e r s i s t e n t c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t s r e p u l s i v e i n themselves and c a p a b l e o f f l e s h l y t r e a t m e n t . " He c i t e s , w i t h as l u r i d a d e s c r i p t i o n o f each as i s n e c e s s a r y t o 'prove' h i s p o i n t , "Jenny" ("a p r o d u c t i o n , " he had a l r e a d y s a i d , w h i c h was " s uggested" t o R o s s e t t i by Buchanan's own " q u a s i - l y r i c a l poems"), "Eden Bower," and " N u p t i a l S l e e p " as r a t h e r f l i m s y e v i d e n c e o f t h i s p e r s i s t e n c e (p. 6 8 ) . I n " P e a r l s from the Amatory P o e t s " Buchanan g i v e s h i s 84 p r i n c i p a l c r i t e r i o n for judging poetry once again: The morality of any book i s determinable by i t s value as l i t e r a t u r e — i m m o r a l writing proceeding primarily from i n s i n c e r i t y of v i s i o n , and there-fore betokened by a l l those signs which enable us to ascertain the value of art as art. In the present case the matter i s ludicrously simple; for we perceive that the s i l l i n e s s and i n s i n c e r i t y come, not by nature, but at second hand; Mr. Rossetti and Mr. Swinburne being the merest e c h o e s — s t r i k i n g l y o r i g i n a l i n t h i s — t h a t they merely echo what i s v i l e , while other imitators reproduce what i s admirable (p. 70). The remainder of the chapter i s devoted to showing some close, some fa r , and many non-existent, p a r a l l e l s between the e a r l i e r English poets and the Fleshly School. I t i s l i t t l e more than a compilation of English e r o t i c verse; having drawn the reader's attention to Carew's "The Rapture" i n his discussion of the "House of L i f e , " Buchanan here recommends Donne's eighteenth elegy to the reader fascinated by Swinburne's "Love and Sleep, as known by the Moderns" (p. 76). He then turns to the "slovenly and laboriously limp" d i c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Rossetti's poetry, and gives copious examples of i t , using i t to prove his thesis "that i n s i n c e r i t y i n one respect argues i n s i n c e r i t y i n a l l " (p. 81). The l a s t chapter, "Prospects of the F i n a l Degradation of Verse," returns to the snake of sensualism of London, 1872, and contradicts what Buchanan said a month e a r l i e r i n "Tennyson's Charm," i f not the entire pamphlet, by saying: Now God fo r b i d that I should charge any l i v i n g English poet with desiring to encourage debauchery and to demoralise the public. I believe that both Mr. Swinburne and Mr. Rossetti are honest men, pure according to t h e i r l i g h t s , loving what i s b e a u t i f u l , conscientiously following what i n s p i r a t i o n l i e s within them (p. 83). 85 No l o n g e r c o l d - b l o o d e d l y t r y i n g to promote p a s s i o n and v i c e , R o s s e t t i and Swinburne are merely misguided men who know not what they do. As an a f t e r t h o u g h t , s t r e n g t h e n i n g the impression t h a t the chapter was w r i t t e n h a s t i l y , Buchanan b r i n g s one l a s t charge a g a i n s t Swinburne and R o s s e t t i by s a y i n g t h a t they "use Verse as the v e h i c l e of whatever thoughts are too t h i n or too f a n t a s t i c . . . to stand without the a i d of r h y t h m i c a l props" (p. 88). Notes appended to the pamphlet quote v a r i o u s reviews s u p p o r t i n g Buchanan's c o n t e n t i o n s , and an attempt to j u s t i f y h i s championing of Whitman, s i n c e he r e a l i z e d t h a t he was open t o the charge of being i n c o n s i s t e n t by h i s support o f another " f l e s h l y " poet when c a s t i g a t i n g R o s s e t t i and Swinburne. What d e t r a c t e d from such v a l i d i t y as was to be found i n the pamphlet, and what made i t s p u b l i c a t i o n probably the g r e a t e s t mistake of Buchanan's c a r e e r , was i t s f l e s h l y tone, the obvious enjoyment Buchanan d e r i v e d from w r i t i n g i t . His i m a g i n a t i o n c a r r i e d him away. The s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n the sonnet XXI, "Parted Love," i s , f o r example, the l o v e r " d e s p a i r i n g l y w a i t i n g " f o r h i s lady who "has r e t i r e d to get b r e a t h and arrange her c l o t h e s " (p. 61). On the next page, i n h i s g l e e f u l hunt f o r the f l e s h l y , Buchanan concedes, "we get n o t h i n g very s p i c y t i l l we come to Sonnet XXXIX." "Eden's Bower" i s found to be concerned w i t h "the g e n e r a l a r t s of f o r n i c a t i o n " (p. 68). Such t r a n s p a r e n t h y p o c r i s y i s laughable ( p o s s i b l y i n t e n t i o n a l l y s o ) , and R o s s e t t i ' s f r i e n d s made the most of i t . But behind Buchanan's d e s c r i p t i o n of the "Leg d i s e a s e " a f f l i c t i n g London, 86 behind h i s " P e a r l s from the Amatory Poets," behind the whole F l e s h l y Controversy i s d i s c e r n i b l e the d i s e a s e d i m a g i n a t i o n of a s i c k man. "No one can be b e t t e r aware," admits Buchanan, of the i n s i d i o u s a l l u r e "of the charm of w r i t e r s l i k e B a u d e l a i r e " (p. 20), and h i s r e a l l y wide knowledge of e r o t i c European l i t e r a t u r e a t t e s t s t o the f a c t . T a l k i n g of the rampant s e n s u a l i t y of h i s time, and p r o s t i t u t i o n i n London at t h i s time was p a r t i c u l a r l y r i f e , he says, "Look which way I w i l l , the h o r r i d t h i n g t hreatens and p a r a l y z e s me" (p. 2). Or again, d e s c r i b i n g "the models of the female Leg" everywhere d i s p l a y e d , he sees "the whole d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e as f a r as the t h i g h , w i t h a f r i n g e of paper cu t i n i m i t a t i o n of the female drawers and embroidered i n the female f a s h i o n ! " (p. 3). Again, "The Leg, as a d i s e a s e , i s s u b t l e , s e c r e t , . d i a b o l i c a l . I t r e l i e s not merely on i t s own i n t r i n s i c a t t r a c t i o n s , but on i t s a t r o c i o u s s u g g e s t i o n s . I t becomes a s p e c t r e , a p o r t e n t , a mania" (p. 4). While he may have been t r y i n g to be funny at times i n the pamphlet, here, s u r e l y , i s a s i c k man f i g h t i n g something he f i n d s f r i g h t e n i n g i n h i m s e l f , p u t t i n g on r e c o r d evidence o f h i s own u n n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e s t o sex. "To the pure a l l t h i n g s are pure" i s an adage t h a t was used s e v e r a l times i n t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y ; i t was Buchanan's own i m p u r i t y t h a t d e t e c t e d the i m p u r i t i e s i n R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y ; and h i s contemp-o r a r i e s were not slow to p o i n t t h i s out. C l a i m i n g t o a r t i c u l a t e a h e a l t h y a t t i t u d e t o sensualism, Buchanan was not mentioning the unmentionable so much as he was a d v e r t i s i n g i t i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y m e r e t r i c i o u s and s e l f - r e v e l a t o r y way. I t was as 87 much t h i s d i s t a s t e f u l s i d e t o h i s c h a r a c t e r as i t was the e f f e c t s o f h i s a t t a c k on R o s s e t t i t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d e c l i n e o f Buchanan's r e p u t a t i o n a f t e r 1872. One o f the e a r l i e s t r e v i e w s o f the pamphlet, " F l e s h i n g t h e F l e s h l y , " appeared on the f r o n t page o f t h e Echo f o r March 18, 1872. Joseph K n i g h t ( f r i e n d and b i o g r a p h e r o f R o s s e t t i and, l a t e r , t h e e d i t o r o f Notes and Q u e r i e s ) s u s p e c t e d t h e n , and ' c o n f i r m e d ' a few weeks l a t e r t h a t i t s a u t h o r was 21 none o t h e r t h a n R o b e r t Buchanan. As the t i t l e would s u g g e s t , the p e r s o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y was p l a y e d up i n a most l u r i d way: " I n o r d e r t o bear tamely the charges and i n s u l t s h u r l e d p e l l - m e l l a t the heads and h e a r t s o f Mr. Swinburne and Mr. R o s s e t t i , t h e y would r e a l l y need to.be th e v e r i e s t a e s t h e t i c i s e d s i m u l a c r a o f humanity Mr. Buchanan seems t o t h i n k them;" Buchanan's c o n v i c t i o n t h a t E n g l a n d i s a t the mercy o f a c o n s p i r a c y t o work i t s m o r a l d o w n f a l l i s t h e n r i d i c u l e d as h a v i n g l i t t l e b a s i s i n f a c t (a view n o t i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t i n " C r i t i c i s m as One o f the F i n e A r t s " ) ; b u t t h e n Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m i s d e s c r i b e d as " u n i n s t r u c t e d and u n j u s t , " " u n n e c e s s a r i l y o f f e n s i v e " ( t h i s a f t e r the w r i t e r ' s own comments quoted a b o v e ? ) , and h i s p r a c t i c e o f q u o t i n g passages out of c o n t e x t p r o d u c i n g "a g r o s s e r and more e x c l u s i v e l y s e n s u a l i m p r e s s i o n " i n t h e pamphlet t h a n t h e y do i n t h a t o r i g i n a l I n a l e t t e r from F o r d Madox Brown t o W i l l i a m M i c h a e l , d a t e d June 17, 1872, Brown w r i t e s " I opened a l e t t e r from K n i g h t t o G a b r i e l t h i s morning s t a t i n g t h a t he i s now c o n v i n c e d RB h i m s e l f wrote t h e a r t i c l e i n t h e Echo." A n g e l i P a p e r s , A-147. 88 s e t t i n g . The c r i t i c c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e c o n t i n e n t a l (Buchanan's c h a u v i n i s m once a g a i n ? ) " P l a t o n i c p a s s i o n f o r t h e f l e s h i s a phase o f s e n t i m e n t " n o t l i k e l y t o l a s t l o n g i n E n g l a n d . Whether Buchanan's o r n o t , t h i s a r t i c l e was c o n s i d e r e d by R o s s e t t i t o be h i s work, and, as w i l l be shown, i t s e f f e c t on t h e p o e t was d i s a s t r o u s . A week l a t e r , t h e Athenaeum, r e f u s e d t o . d i s c u s s "a w o r t h -l e s s and d i s c r e d i t a b l e . t r e a t m e n t o f what might have been a p e r f e c t l y j u s t and i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n o f c r i t i c i s m " (p. 651), and d e v o t e d a l l i t s space t o a h i s t o r y o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y , f i x i n g v e r y d e f i n i t e l y Buchanan's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e use o f t h e pseudonym ( " A l i a s e s so t a k e n up and dropped a g a i n a r e r e a l l y p r o p e r t o o n l y one c l a s s of. the community"), and r e s t a t i n g the view o f R o s s e t t i and h i s f r i e n d s t h a t the " s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t " o f Buchanan's "performance i s n o t i t s m a t t e r , b u t t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f i t s a u t h o r s h i p and p u b l i c a t i o n . " There f o l l o w s a p e r s o n a l a t t a c k on Buchanan f a r s t r o n g e r t h a n a n y t h i n g t h e S c o t w r o t e o f R o s s e t t i (but t o be exceeded by as g r e a t a margin a g a i n when Swinburne produced Under the' M i c r o -scope a month l a t e r ) . Buchanan's " i n t o l e r a b l e g r o s s n e s s , " h i s " w o n d e r f u l i n s t i n c t " f o r the s a l a c i o u s , "the a s t o n i s h i n g f o r c e and r e l i s h " o f h i s v o c a b u l a r y , h i s good memory f o r t h e " c o a r s e r i m p r o p r i e t i e s " o f s i x t e e n t h , and s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y v e r s e , a r e a l l p o i n t e d o u t a t t h e r i s k o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e pamphlet's s a l e s t o the "'pimpled c l e r k s ' i t a f f e c t s t o denounce" (p. 650). 89 On June 1, 1872, t h e S a t u r d a y Review a l s o began "Mr. Buchanan and t h e F l e s h l y P o e t s " w i t h a h i s t o r y o f t h e c o n t r o -v e r s y , b u t hoped t h a t "the p e r s o n a l q u e s t i o n a t i s s u e " i n i t s h o u l d be f o r g o t t e n so t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n a l o n e c o u l d be s e t t l e d . The r e v i e w e r r e p e a t s , i n s t r o n g e r l a n g u a g e , the o b j e c t i o n s i n " C o t e r i e G l o r y " t o "the unwholesomeness . . . o f the mutual a d m i r a t i o n " i n which the s c h o o l "appear t o l i v e move and have t h e i r b e i n g . " But he, t o o , f i n d s Buchanan t o s u f f e r "from a m o r b i d l y q u i c k and s e n s i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f unsavoury s u g g e s t i o n s " and n o t t o appear " t o have c u l t i v a t e d w i t h much s u c c e s s t h e p o e t ' s f a c u l t y o f l o o k i n g a t t h e b e s t and p u r e s t s i d e o f t h i n g s " (p. 700) . A l l t h i s h a v i n g been s a i d t h e c r i t i c t h e n . l a u n c h e d i n t o a d i r e c t and t e l l i n g a s s a u l t on R o s s e t t i and h i s p o e t r y , r e i t e r a t i n g Buchanan's i d e a s i n a re m a r k a b l y B u c h a n a n l i k e t o n e : . . . ho n e s t p l a i n n e s s o f speech i s n o t the c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c o f . t h e F l e s h l y S c h o o l , any more t h a n s i m p l e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d n e s s o f t h o u g h t . I t i s t h e i r s i c k l y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e i r e m a s c u l a t e d d e l i g h t i n b r o o d i n g o v e r and t o y i n g w i t h m a t t e r s w h i c h h e a l t h y , manly men p u t o u t o f t h e i r t h o u g h t s , n o t by an e f f o r t , b u t u n c o n s c i o u s l y , by a n a t u r a l and wholesome i n s t i n c t — i t i s , i n s h o r t , t h e i r u t t e r u nmanliness w h i c h i s a t once so d i s g u s t i n g , and, so f a r as th e y e x e r c i s e any i n f l u e n c e , so m i s c h i e v o u s . And on the whole we a r e not s u r e t h a t Mr. R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y i s n o t more m i s c h i e v o u s i n i t s way th a n Mr. Swinburne's. I n the l a t t e r t h e r e i s a t tim e s a f i t f u l b r e e z i n e s s from o u t -o f - d o o r s , w h i l e w i t h Mr. R o s s e t t i the s h u t t e r s seem t o be always c l o s e d , t h e b l i n d s down, t h e r e a r e c a n d l e s f o r s u n s h i n e , and the atmosphere i s o f a c l o s e heavy k i n d t h a t reminds one a l t e r n a t e l y o f the s i c k r o o m and t h e c o n s e r v a t o r y . . . (p. 7 01). Whether a l l t h e s e o n s l a u g h t s were Buchanan's handiwork o r 90 n o t , t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e i r v i c t i m c o u l d s c a r c e l y have been g r e a t e r i f they had been what R o s s e t t i c o n s i d e r e d them t o be: the c a l c u l a t e d and c o l d - b l o o d e d hounding o f t h e poet t o h i s grav e . F o r anyone who d i d n o t know him, such p a r a n o i a might have been u n t h i n k a b l e , and R o s s e t t i ' s r e a c t i o n o ut o f a l l p r o p o r t i o n . A s t u d y o f h i s l i f e shows him t o have been p a r t i c u l a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o h o s t i l e c r i t i c i s m , and what l i t t l e r e s i s t a n c e he might have been a b l e t o mount was v e r y much undermined by h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n s i n c e the death o f h i s w i f e i n 1862. CHAPTER IV i ROSSETTI'S REACTION TO BUCHANAN'S ATTACKS To someone l i k e Buchanan, who a f t e r w a r d s a d m i t t e d t h a t he had n ever seen R o s s e t t i , t h e o b j e c t o f h i s a t t a c k m ight w e l l have appeared t o be a normal man e n j o y i n g a l l the f r u i t s o f the r e c e n t s u c c e s s o f h i s p o e t r y . R e p o r t s o f the p r i c e s h i s p a i n t i n g s were f e t c h i n g , t o o , would have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the i m p r e s s i o n o f a happy, s u c c e s s f u l and s e c u r e man; f o r Buchanan (who had s u f f e r e d v e r y r e a l p r i v a t i o n i n h i s e a r l y days i n London) s h a r e d w i t h R o s s e t t i the v i e w t h a t s u c c e s s i s i n l a r g e p a r t measurable i n terms o f money. R o s s e t t i ' s s u c c e s s e s i n a n o t h e r a r e a p r o b a b l y gave c o l o u r , as E v e l y n Waugh s a y s , t o Buchanan's a t t a c k (he d i d c a l l him an "amatory f o r e i g n e r " ) ; a p p e a r i n g i n h i s p o e t r y as a p l a t o n i s t w i t h e t h e r e a l views o f women, i n p r i v a t e l i f e R o s s e t t i was "an u n r o m a n t i c s e n s u a l i s t " l i v i n g w i t h "an a p p a r e n t l y s o u l l e s s woman," Fanny C o r n f o r t h . 1 Waugh might have mentioned R o s s e t t i ' s l i a i s o n w i t h Janey M o r r i s , w h i c h seems t o have been consummated a t t h i s t i m e , b u t F.M. F o r d does, f o r t h e i m a g i n a t i v e , round o u t the p i c t u r e by s a y i n g : "He l i v e d h i s l i f e as i t came; s a t i s f i e d h i s d e s i r e s as t hey 2 came and l e t t h e n a t u r a l e f f e c t s ensue from n a t u r a l c a u s e s . " See above, p. 2 3 and f o o t n o t e . 2 R o s s e t t i : A C r i t i c a l E s s a y on h i s A r t (London: Duckworths, n . d . ) , pp. 153-4. 92 R o s s e t t i was n o t o n l y e n j o y i n g a s e x u a l freedom t h a t h i s t r a d u c e r q u i t e p o s s i b l y e n v i e d , b u t he was e n j o y i n g i t a b s o l u t e l y u n c e n s o r e d , and t h i s c o u l d w e l l have g a l l e d the S c o t . I n t i m a t e knowledge o f R o s s e t t i ' s c h a r a c t e r , o r o f h i s a r t , Buchanan d i d n o t have; and i t i s d o u b t f u l i f i t would have been a m o d e r a t i n g i n f l u e n c e on h i s c r i t i c i s m i f he had had i t . He assumed, i f he c a r e d about i t , t h a t R o s s e t t i was no more s u s c e p t i b l e t o c r i t i c i s m , however h a r s h , t h a n anyone e l s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a r t s . Such was n o t t h e c a s e . E v e r s i n c e h i s c h i l d h o o d , R o s s e t t i had always been some-what i s o l a t e d from h i s f e l l o w s . L i v i n g a w i t h drawn i n w a r d l i f e , happy enough i n h i s f a m i l y , he d i d not o f t e n p l a y games w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n , and was o f t e n moody and uncommunicative. H i s i n t e r e s t s o u t s i d e p a i n t i n g and p o e t r y were always r e m a r k a b l y l i m i t e d . He was twenty-two b e f o r e the o p p o s i t e sex h e l d any a t t r a c t i o n f o r him, and i t was then t h a t he f e l l i n l o v e w i t h h i s f u t u r e w i f e , E l i z a b e t h S i d d a l . S u b s e q u e n t l y h i s o v e r t h r o w o f h i s mother's p u r i t a n i c a l e t h i c was t o t a l . He became c h r o n i c a l l y l a z y and i n c a p a b l e o f s u s t a i n i n g t h e d i s c i p l i n e and s e l f - d e n i a l n e c e s s a r y t o a c q u i r e the t e c h n i c a l s k i l l o f a m aster a r t i s t . V e r y e a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r d i d he demonstrate h i s p a t h o l o g i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y t o c r i t i c i s m . The vehemence o f the r e s p o n s e t o h i s , Holman Hunt's and M i l l a i s ' e x h i b i t i o n i n 3 1851 p u t him i n t o a s t a t e o f " i n d o l e n c e and i n s t a b i l i t y " t h a t E v e l y n Waugh, R o s s e t t i : H i s L i f e and Works (London: Duckworths, 1931), p. 48. 93 l a s t e d f o r s e v e r a l months. A f t e r t h a t h a r r o w i n g e x p e r i e n c e he n e v e r s u b m i t t e d p i c t u r e s t o t h e R o y a l Academy, and r a r e l y d i s p l a y e d them p u b l i c l y ; even h i s p a t r o n s h a v i n g t o promise no p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n o f h i s work as a c o n d i t i o n o f p u r c h a s e . The work i t s e l f , i n i t s emphasis on form, s t a b i l i t y and harmony, i n i t s a s p i r a t i o n t o the e t e r n a l t r a n q u i l l i t y o f some o t h e r w o r l d o f t h e s p i r i t , seems a r e j e c t i o n by the a r t i s t o f t h e g r o s s , h u r l y b u r l y , i m p e r f e c t w o r l d w h i c h was V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d . A b o r n l e a d e r , a l l h i s l i f e R o s s e t t i was s u r r o u n d e d by men who admired him i f t h e y d i d n o t w o r s h i p him, and, as a r e s u l t , he had v e r y l i t t l e e x p e r i e n c e o f h a r s h c r i t i c i s m t o p r e p a r e him f o r t h e . t r i a l ahead. N e v e r t h e l e s s by 1870, he was 4 so i n h i b i t e d , so a l i e n a t e d from h i s f e l l o w men, so unsure o f h i s p i c t o r i a l g i f t s , and so e x t r a v a g a n t i n h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e , t h a t he s p e n t much o f h i s time p a i n t i n g l u c r a t i v e r e p l i c a s o f s u c c e s s f u l c a n v a s e s . One s e r i o u s impediment t o a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i v i t y was t h e o n s e t o f i n s o m n i a , w h i c h W i l l i a m M i c h a e l d a t e s a t 1867 (PGR  as W r i t e r , p. 157). Unable t o r e s t and un a b l e t o work, R o s s e t t i ' s l i f e was overshadowed by d e p r e s s i o n . I n 1869 he began t o l o s e h i s s i g h t , a p s y c h i c and s y m b o l i c f a i l u r e , t h a t R o s s e t t i was c o n v i n c e d had p h y s i c a l r a t h e r t h a n p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i g i n s . A t P e n k i l l i n August 1869, he had come v e r y c l o s e t o W i l l i a m M i c h a e l p u t s R o s s e t t i ' s b e i n g "too i s o l a t e d " above h i s p r i d e and s e n s i t i v i t y as the major c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n a t t h i s t i m e (PGR as W r i t e r , p. 157). 94 t a k i n g an a p p a r e n t l y d e l i b e r a t e f a l l down a s t e e p c l i f f . To c u r e h i s i n s o m n i a he took s e d a t i v e s , and began t o d r i n k h e a v i l y , and i t was i n 1869 t h a t he began t o t a k e c h l o r a l h y d r a t e , which d i d s t u p i f y him s u f f i c i e n t l y f o r him t o a c h i e v e some k i n d o f 5 s l e e p . Says P r o f e s s o r Fredeman ( i n the a r t i c l e c i t e d p. 3 0 ) , I n a man o f R o s s e t t i ' s m e l a n c h o l i c and r e c l u s i v e temperament, p h l e g m a t i c and l e t h a r g i c m e t a b o l i s m , and s e d e n t a r y and i r r e g u l a r h a b i t s , the drugs tended o n l y t o e x a c e r b a t e the c o m p l a i n t s they were t a k e n t o r e l i e v e . But whether h i s i l l s were r e a l o r i m a g i n a r y , symptomatic o r c a u s a l , the e f f e c t s were p a l p a b l e and d e v a s t a t i n g . The b e g i n n i n g o f R o s s e t t i ' s d e c l i n e , the a c c e n t u a t i o n o f b a s i c c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s known s i n c e h i s c h i l d h o o d , can be seen t o d e r i v e from the emotions a r i s i n g from h i s w i f e ' s d e a t h i n 1862. S i n c e the t r u t h o f t h a t e vent has y e t t o be e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o know what R o s s e t t i ' s t r u e emotions were c o n c e r n i n g i t . G r i e f a t h e r d e a t h , o r remorse a t h i s own unconcern o r unawareness o f h e r t r u e c o n d i t i o n on t h a t f a t e f u l n i g h t , c o m p l i -c a t e d by g u i l t because o f what he a c t u a l l y d i d and f e a r o f the c e n s u r e (or worse) t h a t he would s u f f e r i f the t r u t h were known, t h e s e o r some c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e , e x a c e r b a t e d by o t h e r c o n t r i b u t o r s t o n e u r o s i s ( h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Janey M o r r i s b e i n g a good f i r s t c h o i c e ) , c o u l d have been enough t o d e b i l i t a t e the most s t o i c and u n i m a g i n a t i v e o f men. Such emotions would R.D. A l t i c k makes the i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t c h l o r a l t a k e n w i t h S c o t c h as a c h a s e r r e s u l t s i n s y n e r g i s m : each i n t e n s i f y i n g the o t h e r ' s e f f e c t , "so t h a t the r e s u l t t o R o s s e t t i ' s m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h was f a r more i n s i d i o u s t h a n i t would have been i f he had t a k e n [each] s e p a r a t e l y . " The S c h o l a r  A d v e n t u r e r s (New Y ork: M a c m i l l a n , 1951), p. 262. 95 have been f u r t h e r complicated by the gnawing sense o f inadequacy t h a t Buchanan's charge of cowardice, as he under-stood i t , c e r t a i n l y made apparent. The f e a r of f a i l u r e , of p u b l i c opprobium, which had dogged and i n c a p a c i t a t e d R o s s e t t i from h i s e a r l i e s t y e a r s , became, not unreasonably, the p a r a n o i d c o n v i c t i o n (much supported by Ford Madox Brown's assurances t h a t t h i s was indeed so^) t h a t he was the v i c t i m of an o r g a n i z e d c o n s p i r a c y . A n t i c i p a t e d as i t was, Buchanan's a t t a c k went f a r to c o n f i r m him i n h i s b e l i e f . As might be expected of a man c o n g e n i t a l l y l a z y and racked by the p s y c h o l o g i c a l handicaps d e s c r i b e d , R o s s e t t i , never s t r o n g p h y s i c a l l y , was i n a g r e a t l y weakened s t a t e by 1871. There i s an ominous e n t r y i n W i l l i a m Michael's D i a r y ( f o r November 29, 1871), which suggests some p h y s i c a l d e b i l i t y t h a t i s not mentioned so e a r l y i n the b i o g r a p h i e s : G t r o u b l e d me not a l i t t l e by t e l l i n g me t h a t he spat b l o o d to-day; and t h i s not f o r the f i r s t time, as the same t h i n g had o c c u r r e d a t Kelmscott. Another d e b i l i t y , o n l y mentioned i n r e c e n t b i o g r a p h i e s ( f o r P a u l l F r a n k l i n Baum i t h e l d a l l the mystery of my Uncle Toby's wound), was the h y d r o c e l e w i t h which he had been a f f l i c t e d s i n c e 1866. Despite a l l these handicaps and a f f l i c t i o n s , i n October 1871, R o s s e t t i c o u l d r e t u r n to London a f t e r as i d y l l i c and a r t i s t i c a l l y p r o d u c t i v e s t a y at Kelmscott as he c o u l d have In W i l l i a m Michael's D i a r y (May 26, 1872), Brown i s r e p o r t e d as s a y i n g t h a t "a dead s e t a t a l l a r t i s t s and men of our c o n n e c t i o n " was behind Buchanan's a t t a c k . 96 w i s h e d ; he had n o t been i n b e t t e r form f o r a l o n g t i m e . But a s t o r m was about t o b reak o v e r h i s head t h a t would s e t back h i s p o e t i c a m b i t i o n s t e n y e a r s and w h i c h was g o i n g t o l e a v e him a b r o k e n man. To W i l l i a m B e l l S c o t t on O c t o b e r 2 (Doughty-Wahl, 1174), he wrote t h a t he was " g e t t i n g i n t o the p o e t i c groove" and, a t t h i s r a t e , would have "a n o t h e r book ready by the end o f t h r e e months." A l i t t l e l a t e r , and not i n any way t o be c o n s t r u e d as the r e a s o n f o r R o s s e t t i ' s l e a v i n g K e l m s c o t t , as Doughty's e d i t i n g o f t h i s l e t t e r i n t h e L i f e (p. 486) would i n d i c a t e , comes t h i s u n c o n s c i o u s l y i r o n i c comment: I see by a d v e r t i s e m e n t s I f i g u r e as the f i r s t v i c t i m i n a s e r i e s (I presume) under the t i t l e o f t h e ' F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y ' i n the Contemporary  Review f o r O c t o b e r b u t haven't seen i t y e t . When R o s s e t t i d i d see the a r t i c l e , he c o u l d w r i t e t o E l l i s c l a i m i n g t h a t "For once abuse comes i n a form t h a t even a b a r d can manage t o g r i n a t w i t h o u t g r i m a c i n g , " b u t S c o t t ' s r e a c t i o n g i v e s a b e t t e r i d e a o f i t s Impact, c a l l i n g i t " f e r o c i o u s . . . the most d e a d l y a t t a c k on t h e m o r a l i t y o f the s e t and s c h o o l t h a t c o u l d be penned. N o t h i n g l i k e i t has been done i n c r i t i c i s m i n l a t e y e a r s " ( L e t t e r t o A l i c e Boyd, O c t o b e r 20, P e n k i l l , P2-71). The tone o f R o s s e t t i ' s l e t t e r s a t t h i s t i me i n d i c a t e s t h a t he was n o t unduly u p s e t by t h e a r t i c l e , how-e v e r . W i l l i a m M i c h a e l s t r e s s e s t h a t h i s b r o t h e r was " d i s p l e a s e d , i n d i g n a n t , perhaps i n c e n s e d , and d i s p o s e d t o '.give as good as he g o t ; ' b u t s t i l l n o t s e r i o u s l y wounded o r d e e p l y m o r t i f i e d , so f a r as the Contemporary a r t i c l e went" ( F a m i l y L e t t e r s , I , 299). A g a i n s t t h i s must be s e t , when a l l o w a n c e s f o r t h e 97 n o t o r i o u s i n a c c u r a c i e s and m a l i c e o f the work are made, S c o t t ' s l a t e r s t a t e m e n t i n A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l Notes (p. 169) t h a t the a r t i c l e was " l i k e a s low p o i s o n " g r a d u a l l y i m p a i r i n g what l i t t l e i n n e r b a l a n c e R o s s e t t i s t i l l r e t a i n e d . S c o t t t a l k s of one o f the g r e a t g e n i u s e s o f the age " v i s i b l y b r e a k i n g down under the p a l t r y i n f l i c t i o n o f an a r t i c l e . " He r e c a l l s a midsummer (an o b v i o u s i n a c c u r a c y ) p a r t y when R o s s e t t i , t h e l a s t t o a r r i v e , b u r s t i n t o t h e room " s h o u t i n g the name o f R o b e r t Buchanan, who, i t appeared he had d i s c o v e r e d t o be the w r i t e r " o f the d i s t r a c t i n g p i e c e . P l a y i n g t h i s e p i s o d e down (F a m i l y L e t t e r s , I , 297-298), W i l l i a m M i c h a e l does n o t deny t h a t i t took p l a c e o r t h a t t h i s k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r was t y p i c a l o f R o s s e t t i a t t h i s t i m e . I n f a c t R o s s e t t i was a p t t o f l y o u t o f c o n t r o l a t t h e l e a s t check t o h i s d e s i r e s , e s p e c i a l l y when i n t h e company o f h i s i n t i m a t e s ; and i t became p a r t o f Dr. M a r s h a l l ' s e f f e c t i v e t r e a t m e n t t h a t he s h o u l d , i n t h e summer of 1872, be l o o k e d a f t e r by r e l a t i v e s t r a n g e r s as much as p o s s i b l e . I t i s p r o b a b l y j u s t t o say t h a t R o s s e t t i was n o t g r e a t l y u p s e t by the a r t i c l e , ; b u t the p e r s i s t e n c e o f h i s s e a r c h f o r i t s a u t h o r does i n d i c a t e t h a t he was p e r t u r b e d . S i n c e a l l h o s t i l e c r i t i c i s m was seen by R o s s e t t i and h i s c i r c l e t o be m o t i v a t e d by s p i t e , and s i n c e Buchanan's r e s e n t -ment o f t h e c o t e r i e was w e l l known, t o e s t a b l i s h him as t h e pseudonymous w r i t e r was t o be a b l e t o a t t r i b u t e t o him t h e most o b v i o u s m o t i v a t i o n , envy, envy a t R o s s e t t i ' s r e m a r k a b l y s w i f t s u c c e s s ; and t h e r e f o r e i t was a l l - i m p o r t a n t t o i d e n t i f y Thomas M a i t l a n d p o s i t i v e l y b e f o r e any k i n d o f r e t a l i a t i o n c o u l d be 98 made. By O c t o b e r 20, E l l i s had a s s u r e d R o s s e t t i t h a t " t h a t g r o s s humbug Bobby Buchanan" (Doughty-Wahl, 1181, n.) was i n d e e d the c u l p r i t ; b u t W i l l i a m M i c h a e l , knowing t h a t Buchanan was so concerned about r e p o r t s o f Swinburne's i l l h e a l t h as t o send round a s p e c i a l i s t f o r him, doubted t h a t t h e S c o t c o u l d be so s o l i c i t o u s o f the h e a l t h o f anyone on whom he was l a u n c h i n g so v i c i o u s an a t t a c k (Doughty-Wahl, 1178, n ) . T h i s e p i s o d e does seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t Buchanan d i d n o t see h i s a t t a c k as p e r s o n a l , t h a t Buchanan must have l i k e d Swinburne, and may have wanted t o e s t a b l i s h a f r i e n d s h i p w i t h him. T h i s l a s t s u g g e s t s a n o t h e r m o t i v a t i o n f o r h i s a t t a c k : j e a l o u s y a t b e i n g e x c l u d e d from what was, a p p a r e n t l y , one o f t h e c h o i c e i n n e r l i t e r a r y w o r l d s o f t h e time (such a f e e l i n g animates Buchanan's e a r l i e s t o n s l a u g h t on t h e group, "Lady L e t i t i a ' s L i l l i p u t Hand."). D e s p i t e E l l i s ' s l e t t e r o f O c t o b e r 20, M a i t l a n d ' s i d e n t i t y was n o t f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a n o t h e r month. Owing t o a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , Simeon Solomon was r e p o r t e d t o deny t h a t Buchanan was t h e i r man. A f t e r many rumours, i t was n o t u n t i l a l e t t e r by Knowles (the e d i t o r o f the Contemporary Review) was seen by R o s s e t t i i n l a t e November t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n was f i n a l l y s e t t l e d ( D i a r y , November 2 9 ) , and i t was a n o t h e r two weeks b e f o r e Buchanan p u b l i c l y acknowledged h i s handiwork. E v e r s i n c e O c t o b e r 2 0 t h , however, R o s s e t t i had been engaged i n s e v e r a l l i t e r a r y a t t e m p t s t o g i v e as good as he g o t . Says S c o t t i n h i s l e t t e r o f t h a t day a l r e a d y q u o t e d: "G makes rhymes w i t h o u t end on a u t h o r and p u b l i s h e r " o f the a r t i c l e . The rhymes ranged from l i m e r i c k s , o f w h i c h t h e r e are s e v e r a l s t i l l e x t a n t , t o a parody o f Tennyson's "The S i s t e r s " e n t i t l e d "The B r o t h e r s " ( b e i n g , presumably, M a i t l a n d and Buchanan), w h i c h was, a c c o r d i n g t o W i l l i a m M i c h a e l , "a v e r y good h i t " 8 ( D i a r y , December 25) b u t was t h e r e f o r e open t o l e g a l a c t i o n . I n h i s D i a r y (October 21) W i l l i a m M i c h a e l n o t e d t h a t G a b r i e l was "minded t o w r i t e and p r i n t a l e t t e r c a s t i g a t i n g Buchanan." On O c t o b e r 27, S c o t t r e p o r t e d t h a t G a b r i e l was " e n d i t e i n g [ s i c ] a pamphlet" ( P e n k i l l , P 2 - 7 1 ) , b u t W i l l i a m M i c h a e l notes f o u r days l a t e r t h a t i t was u n f i n i s h e d , and on November 2 0 t h a t G a b r i e l " d i d n o t f e e l any g r e a t a r d o u r t o c o m p l e t i n g i t . " Once Buchanan had been f o r c e d i n t o the open, R o s s e t t i q u i c k l y completed t h e pamphlet and i t was p a r t i a l l y p r i n t e d by November 29, o n l y f o r E l l i s t o r e j e c t i t f o r p u b l i c a t i o n on the a d v i c e o f h i s l a w y e r . "The S t e a l t h y S c h o o l o f C r i t i c i s m " W i l l i a m M i c h a e l d e s c r i b e s i n h i s D i a r y f o r December 16 (the day o f i t s p u b l i c a t i o n i n the Athenaeum, 792-4) as " b e i n g t h e more s e r i o u s p o r t i o n o f T h i s was t o appear on t h e t i t l e - p a g e o f R o s s e t t i ' s p r o p o s e d pamphlet: As a c r i t i c , the P o e t Buchanan T h i n k s Pseudo much s a f e r than Anon. I n t o M a i t l a n d he's s h r u n k , Y e t t h e s m e l l o f the skunk Guides the s h u d d e r i n g nose t o Buchanan. (Doughty-Wahl, 1181) g The o n l y a c c e s s i b l e s t a n z a o f a poem s t i l l e x t a n t , b u t w hich t h i s w r i t e r has n o t found, i s t h a t w h i c h P r o f e s s o r Doughty quotes i n t h e L i f e . Buchanan i s " g l o a t i n g o v e r h i s m i s e r a b l e c o n d uct": I n our C o n t e m p t i b l e Review I s t u c k the beggar t h r o u g h and t h r o u g h (Oh Robert-Thomas i s d r e a d t o see) (p. 486). 100 the r e j o i n d e r which he had w r i t t e n t o Buchanan." I t was a reasonably measured and d i g n i f i e d r e p l y . R o s s e t t i does i n s i s t a l i t t l e too much on Buchanan's " m a l i c i o u s i n t e n t i o n " and the l u d i c r o u s i d e a t h a t one poet c o u l d p o s s i b l y judge another's work i m p a r t i a l l y ; t h i s p e r s o n a l nature o f Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m i s s t r e s s e d by the p e r s i s t e n t r e p e t i t i o n o f synonyms f o r 'attack' and ' a t t a c k e r , ' as w e l l as by the t i t l e . U n l i k e the Athenaeum s i x months l a t e r (see above, p. 88), R o s s e t t i then went on to answer Buchanan's main i n d i c t m e n t s , a t a c i t admission of t h e i r f o r c e and v a l i d i t y , which some of h i s f r i e n d s and h i s b r o t h e r (Diary, passim), s t i l l smarting from Buchanan's r i p o s t e of two years b e f o r e , f e l t was bestowing more n o t i c e on Buchanan than he was worth. Thus i t i s to Buchanan's c r e d i t t h a t he e l i c i t e d from R o s s e t t i one of h i s few p u b l i s h e d prose statements on h i s po e t r y . S e n s i t i v e t o Buchanan's main charge, R o s s e t t i , grandly vague, defended " N u p t i a l Sleep" as bei n g a "sonnet-stanza" i n a g r e a t e r poem, "embodying, f o r i t s s m a l l c o n s t i t u e n t share, a beauty of n a t u r a l u n i v e r s a l f u n c t i o n , only to be reprobated i n a r t i f dwelt on . . . to the e x c l u s i o n of those o t h e r h i g h e s t t h i n g s o f which i t i s the harmonious concomitant" (p. 793). O f f e n d i n g passages i n "A L a s t C o n f e s s i o n , " "Willowwood, I , " "Eden Bower" and "Jenny" are most c a r e f u l l y e x p l a i n e d . The most important statement i n the a r t i c l e i s R o s s e t t i ' s c l a i m t o "take a wider view than some poets or c r i t i c s , o f how much, i n the m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s a b s o l u t e l y g i v e n to man to d e a l w i t h as d i s t i n c t from h i s s p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n s , i s admissable w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f A r t , . . . " 101 (p. .79 3) .. And i t i s on t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h i s one s t a t e m e n t ( b e s i d e s h i s p o e t r y , o f c o u r s e ) t h a t f o r many o f t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n o f a r t i s t s R o s s e t t i became the l e a d e r o f t h a t b u r g e o n i n g new movement i n t h e a r t w o r l d : 1 ' a r t pour 1 ' a r t . S i n c e t h e i s s u e o f t h e Athenaeum (December 16, 1871) w h i c h c o n t a i n e d "The S t e a l t h y S c h o o l o f C r i t i c i s m " a l s o c o n t a i n e d t h e l e t t e r from th e S c o t a d m i t t i n g h i s a u t h o r s h i p o f "The F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y " and t h r e a t e n i n g t o r e p u b l i s h i t i n an expanded form, R o s s e t t i . i m m e d i a t e l y r e s o l v e d , on the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Buchanan's p a m p h l e t , t o produce h i s own extended r e p l y ( D i a r y , December 1 7 ) . That R o s s e t t i had been r e l u c t a n t t o go as f a r as he d i d i n h i s paper war w i t h Buchanan i s i n d i c a t e d by S i d n e y C o l v i n ' s r e f u s a l t o answer Buchanan's a r t i c l e , p r o b a b l y i n h i s l o n g a r t i c l e on R o s s e t t i ' s work t o be p u b l i s h e d t h e f o l l o w i n g month. A f t e r d e f e n d i n g h i m s e l f from p o s s i b l e charges o f l a c k o f l o y a l t y , and s a y i n g t h a t any f u r t h e e f f o r t s h o u l d be saved u n t i l t h e appearance o f Buchanan's "mature c o n c o c t i o n , " C o l v i n ends by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t f r i e n d s o f R o s s e t t i coming t o h i s d e f e n c e g i v e t o Buchanan's "venomous g i b b e r i s h j u s t t h a t semblance o f p l a u s i b i l i t y w h i c h i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t i t s h o u l d l a c k w i t h a l l e l s e " ( A n g e l a , A-41, n.d F.ive months l a t e r C o l v i n o r g a n i z e d the warm r e c e p t i o n o f Buchanan's pamphlet (see above, p. 78 ) , p o s s i b l y because.he was aware o f how much damage had been done t o R o s s e t t i by t h i s e p i s o d e . There a r e , o f c o u r s e , many gaps i n t h e knowledge o f R o s s e t t i ' s c o n d i t i o n i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1872; and t h e e x a c t d a t e 102 of the p u b l i c a t i o n of Buchanan's pamphlet i s u n c e r t a i n . In h i s D i a r y f o r May 15, W i l l i a m M i c h a e l r e p o r t s t h a t h i s b r o t h e r came round to see him w i t h Buchanan's book: He seems s u f f i c i e n t l y u ntroubled by i t — s a v e as regards one phrase on p. 1, "cowards," which i s intended t o apply to him more than anyone e l s e . As to t h i s he s c r i b b l e d denunciatory l e t t e r t o be sent to B, wh. he showed me. I advised him not to send i t ; indeed I c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s word "cowards" has, where i t comes, almost as l i t t l e meaning as r e l e v a n c y , and cannot be understood to convey any s u b s t a n t i a l charge of want o f courage, p h y s i c a l or even moral. The a r t i c l e i n the Echo, " F l e s h i n g the F l e s h l y , " t h r e e days l a t e r , w i t h i t s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t i f R o s s e t t i and Swinburne d i d not answer Buchanan's " i n s u l t s and charges" "they would r e a l l y need t o be the v e r i e s t a e s t h e t i c i s e d smulacra o f humanity Mr. Buchanan seems to t h i n k them," p e r t u r b e d the poet a good d e a l , a l l the more when i t was suggested and l a t e r "confirmed" t h a t 9 Buchanan was i t s author. By t h i s time, a p p a r e n t l y , R o s s e t t i ' s h o l d on h i m s e l f was so i n s e c u r e t h a t he s e r i o u s l y c o n s u l t e d h i s b r o t h e r on the a d v i s a b i l i t y of c h a l l e n g i n g Buchanan to a d u e l (Doughty, p. 509). On June 1, i n s t e a d of coming out s o l i d l y i n support of him as he had been assured by C o l v i n t h a t i t would, the Saturday Review i n i t s d i s c u s s i o n of Buchanan's pamphlet repeated many of Buchanan's charges i n language no l e s s measured than the o r i g i n a l (see above, p. 89). The damage R o s s e t t i ' s p e r t u r b a t i o n i s c h r o n i c l e d i n h i s b r o t h e r ' s D i a r y f o r Monday, May 20. W i l l i a m M i c h a e l " s t r e n u o u s l y urged G to t h i n k and see as l i t t l e of these matters as he can; and above a l l t o take no steps . . . ." 103 t h a t t h e s e r e i t e r a t e d charges o f "unman1iness" i n f l i c t e d on the h y p e r s e n s i t i v e p oet i s a t t e s t e d t o by h i s c o l l a p s e the n e x t day, and P r o f e s s o r Fredeman has p e r s u a s i v e l y argued t h a t t h i s was i n d e e d the f i n a l blow f o r R o s s e t t i . C o n v i n c e d t h a t h i s v e r y manhood was i n doubt, and c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e r e a l l y was a w i d e - r a n g i n g c o n s p i r a c y t o hound him i n t o the g r a v e , R o s s e t t i " a l l o w e d h i m s e l f t o g e t worked" i n t o "a nervous and d i s t r e s s e d c o n d i t i o n " on June 2, 1872. R o s s e t t i ' s s t a t e d i d n o t d u l l h i s b u s i n e s s i n s t i n c t s i n c e he s o l d a p i c t u r e f o r ,£,735 (a p r i c e , "which i s t r u l y v e r y l a r g e , " s a i d W i l l i a m i n h i s D i a r y ) on t h a t Sunday morning, and o n l y t h e n succumbed t o t h e p r e s s u r e s t h a t t h e c o n t r o v e r s y had b r o u g h t t o a head. As P r o f e s s o r Doughty p o i n t s o u t , t h e r e was much e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t R o s s e t t i ' s b e l i e f t h a t he was the v i c t i m o f p e r s e c u t i o n , and t h a t , even by h i s i n t i m a t e s . He had s u s p e c t e d , q u i t e w r o n g l y , t h a t M o r r i s had w r i t t e n t h e u n f a v o u r a b l e r e v i e w o f Poems i n Blackwood's the p r e v i o u s summer ( M o r r i s 1 m o t i v e s b e i n g n o t h a r d t o f i n d ) ; and Hunt and Woolner, f r i e n d s o f v e r y l o n g s t a n d i n g , had " v i r u l e n t l y " c r i t i c i z e d some o f R o s s e t t i ' s w a t e r - c o l o u r s (Doughty, p. 512). Browning, once R o s s e t t i ' s i d o l , and c e r t a i n l y p r i v y t o , and s y m p a t h e t i c w i t h , Buchanan's views o f R o s s e t t i ' s work, was now no l o n g e r much admired by the younger p o e t , p o s s i b l y , as Doughty s u g g e s t s , because rumours o f h i s s i d i n g w i t h Buchanan had re a c h e d R o s s e t t i (pp. 5 1 5 - 6 ) . R o s s e t t i l o n g ago had f e l t t he need t o c o n v i n c e Browning's l e t t e r t o I s a b e l l a B l a g d e n , w r i t t e n i n June 1870, a n t i c i p a t e s Buchanan's o b j e c t i o n s t o R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y 104 Tennyson t h a t i t was not h i s own i n f l u e n c e t h a t had l e d t o Swinburne's p o e t i c excesses (see above, p. 52), and the l i s t o f those disenchanted w i t h R o s s e t t i , s w e l l e d as i t was by those who found h i s s u r l i n e s s and l a c k o f manners u n a t t r a c t i v e ( t r a i t s induced p a r t l y by R o s s e t t i ' s f e a r o f the world's h o s t i l i t y ) , c o u l d range much f u r t h e r . His neighbours at Cheyne Walk, f o r example, o b j e c t e d to the presence of the poet is menagerie (with i t s sounds and s m e l l s ) , and R o s s e t t i ' s subsequent recove r y was marked by h i s very d i s t i n c t a v e r s i o n t o r e t u r n i n g t h e r e . The g e n e r a l o u t l i n e of the sequence o f events f o l l o w i n g and uses the same word as an example of h i s f a u l t y prosody: Y e s , — I have read R o s s e t t i ' s poems—and p o e t i c a l they are, — s c e n t e d w i t h p o e t r y , as i t w e r e — l i k e t r i f l e s o f v a r i o u s s o r t s you take out o f a cedar or sandal-wood box; you know I hate the effeminacy o f h i s s c h o o l , — t h e men t h a t dress up l i k e women,—that use o b s o l e t e forms, too, and a r c h a i c a c c e n t u a t i o n s to seem s o f t — f a n c y a man c a l l i n g i t a l i l y _ , — l i l l i e s and so on; Swinburne s t a r t e d t h i s , w i t h ot h e r l i k e B e l i a l i s m s , — w i t n e s s h i s h a r p - p l a y e r , e t c . I t i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t when the o b j e c t i s to i m i t a t e o l d b a l l a d - w r i t i n g , when the t h i n g might be; then, how I hate "Love," as a l u b b e r l y naked young man p u t t i n g h i s arms here and h i s wings t h e r e , about a p a i r o f l o v e r s , — a f e l l o w they would k i c k away i n r e a l i t y . L e t t e r s of Robert Browning, ed. Thurman L. Hood (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1933), pp. 137-8. W i l l i a m C. de Vane g i v e s f u r t h e r evidence of Browning's agreement w i t h Buchanan's main o b j e c t i o n s when he quotes from -Domett's d i a r y where Browning's h a t r e d of a l l a f f e c t a t i o n i s r ecorded, as h i s d e r i s i o n f o r "'the c a n t " 1 about the " ' d e l i c a t e Harmony'" o f "Jenny's" rhymes, and h i s a d d i t i o n to Buchanan's parody of them (Houghton and Stange, p. 89 6) of the l i n e s : But grog would be sweeter And s t r o n g e r and warmer, e t c . "The H a r l o t and the T h o u g h t f u l Young Man: A Study of the R e l a t i o n between R o s s e t t i ' s Jenny and Browning's F i f i n e a t the F a i r , " SP, XXIX ( J u l y 19 32), 4 82. 105 t h a t f a t e f u l Sunday has l o n g been known. M e d i c a l a d v i c e was i m m e d i a t e l y s o u g h t , and Dr. Hake's house a t Roehampton was recommended as a change o f scene. R o s s e t t i ' s p a r a n o i d d e l u s i o n s i n c r e a s e d i n f r e q u e n c y and intensity.''""'" On t h e n i g h t o f June 8, R o s s e t t i h e a r d a v o i c e w h i c h , s a i d W i l l i a m , " t w i c e c a l l e d o u t a t him a term o f g r o s s and u n b e a r a b l e o b l o q u y " (Doughty, p. 520); he t h e n proceeded t o d r a i n a b o t t l e o f laudanum and went i n t o a coma. H i s b r o t h e r , d r i v e n c l o s e t o t h e p o i n t o;f i n s a n i t y h i m s e l f , c a l l e d the R o s s e t t i f a m i l y t o Roehampton, f e a r i n g the w o r s t . The p oet r e c o v e r e d s u f f i c i e n t l y t o r e t u r n w i t h F o r d Madox Brown t o h i s home a t F i t z r o y Square; and i t was t h e l o y a l Brown who d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e p h y s i c i a n s ' p o t e n t i a l l y d i s a s t r o u s recommendation t h a t R o s s e t t i be p l a c e d W.B. S c o t t ' s l e t t e r t o A l i c e Boyd o f June 8, 1872 i s t h e b e s t contemporary a c c o u n t o f the p o e t ' s c o n d i t i o n a t t h i s t i m e : A t f i r s t h i s d i s e a s e was s i m p l y wounded e g o t i s m and monomania about the pamphlet and i t s a u t h o r , by and by h i s c o n s t a n t c r y was t h a t he c o u l d not f i g h t , he had no manhood and would have t o d i e o f shame. I t seems the word 'cowards' i s used i n t h e pamphlet, and some papers have accused th e s c h o o l o f p o e t s as unmanly and so on. H i s n e x t d e l u s i o n , because we now a l l saw t h a t he was s u f f e r i n g under d e l u s i o n s , even p h y s i c a l d e l u s i o n s , was t h a t a c o n s p i r a c y was formed t o c r u s h him. Browning's new book came w i t h an a f f e c t i o n a t e word from Browning i n the f r o n t o f i t , and G a b r i e l , a l t h o u g h a t f i r s t t o uched by t h i s even t o t e a r s , soon began t o f i n d a l l u s i o n s t o h i m s e l f i n i t , and t h e n Browning was h i s g r e a t e s t enemy, de t e r m i n e d t o hunt him t o d e a t h . The n e x t s t e p was d e c i s i v e , he d e c l a r e d t h e w a l l s t o be mined and p e r f o r a t e d by s p i e s , and t h a t a l l he d i d and s a i d was known t o t h e c o n s p i r a t o r s . . . . Immediately the m e d i c a l men were gone, G a b r i e l swore t h e y t o o were i n t h e c o n s p i r a c y . . . ( P e n k i l l , P 2 - 4 ) . "Browning's new book" was F i - f i n e a t t h e F a i r , w h i c h c o u l d v e r y w e l l have c o n t a i n e d some o f Browning's r e a l o b j e c t i o n s t o R o s s e t t i ' s f l e s h l i n e s s as P r o f e s s o r de Vane argues i n the a r t i c l e c i t e d . 106 i n an asylum (and w i t h w h i c h recommendation W i l l i a m M i c h a e l had agreed) and whose "common-sense" t r e a t m e n t f o r h i s f r i e n d was u l t i m a t e l y adopted under P r o f e s s o r M a r s h a l l ' s s u p e r v i s i o n ( P e n k i l l , P 2 - 9 ) . A f u r t h e r change o f scene was d e c i d e d upon and R o s s e t t i ' s s o j o u r n i n S c o t l a n d began under the eyes o f George Hake and Brown (soon r e p l a c e d by W i l l i a m B e l l S c o t t ) , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l b e i n g so overwrought t h a t the d o c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d h i s p r e s e n c e t o be e i l l - a d v i s e d . W i t h an o r d e r e d d a i l y regimen, R o s s e t t i g r a d u a l l y improved, and h i s r e a d i n g and c o n v e r s a t i o n d e x t e r o u s l y l e d away from dangerous t o p i c s , R o s s e t t i g r a d u a l l y r e c o v e r e d t h e d e s i r e t o p a i n t , and w i t h the o n s e t o f autumn came the urge t o r e t u r n t o K e l m s c o t t , t h e scene o f h i s p r o d u c t i v e p e r i o d a y e a r b e f o r e . I n l a t e September, he went s t r a i g h t t h e r e o n l y s p e n d i n g an hour o r two i n London en r o u t e , and t h e r e he was j o i n e d by Janey M o r r i s s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y c r i p p l e d ( c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h h i s breakdown was a h e m i p l e g i a , w h i c h l e f t him lame f o r s e v e r a l months), R o s s e t t i n e v e r f u l l y r e c o v e r e d . f r o m the i l l - e f f e c t s o f the summer o f 1872. I t i s f a i r t o say t h a t t o Buchanan must go the blame f o r b r i n g i n g t o a head a p r o c e s s o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n t h a t R o s s e t t i had undergone f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e he p u b l i s h e d h i s p o e t r y . Thus i t i s f a i r t o assume t h a t Buchanan's a c t i o n h a s t e n e d th e death o f the p oet i n F e b r u a r y 1882, and t h a t w h atever the immediate cause o f R o s s e t t i ' s d e a t h , i t was h i s m a t e r i a l l y weakened c o n d i t i o n t h a t a l l o w e d t h e p o e t t o succumb t o h i s f i n a l a i l m e n t so e a s i l y . i i THE CONTINUATION OF.THE CONTROVERSY For the r e m ainder o f t h e y e a r t h e c o n t r o v e r s y s w i r l e d on 12 p a s t the now i n d i f f e r e n t R o s s e t t i , w i t h Swinburne t a k i n g up arms a g a i n w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n i n e a r l y J u l y o f Under the M i c r o s c o p e . R o s s e t t i , i n May, had t h o u g h t " i t t a l e n t e d , b u t i t s tone somewhat e x c e p t i o n a b l e , . a s showing t o o i n t i m a t e a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e m i n u t i a e o f t h e h o s t i l e w r i t i n g s " ( D i a r y , May 3 ) , b u t he d i d "seem t o a g r e e , " t h r e e weeks l a t e r , t h a t i t would g i v e r e v i e w e r s something o t h e r t h a n Buchanan's p r o d u c t i o n t o t a l k a b o u t , b u t " e n j o i n e d Swinburne t o say l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g 13 about h i m s e l f " i n i t ( D i a r y , May 2 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o P r o f e s s o r Swinburne had s u f f e r e d a r a t h e r t a c t l e s s and independent a t t a c k a t t h e hands o f M o r t i m e r C o l l i n s i n h i s n o v e l Two Plunges  f o r a P e a r l , w h i c h had been s e r i a l l y p u b l i s h e d from J a n u a r y t o November 1871 i n London S o c i e t y . C o l l i n s was an i n t i m a t e o f Buchanan's b u t he was a l s o a f r i e n d o f B e r t r a m Payne o f Moxon's w i t h whom Swinburne had f a l l e n o u t . I n t h e c h a r a c t e r R e g i n a l d Swynfen, Swinburne's weakness f o r a l c o h o l was lampooned as was h i s p r i d e o f b i r t h ("good f a m i l y " was c i t e d by Swynfen as b e i n g t h e one i n d i s p e n s a b l e r e q u i s i t e f o r becoming a good p o e t ) . The exchange o f l e t t e r s between Swinburne and R o s s e t t i c o n c e r n i n g t h i s shows Swinburne n o t t o be v e r y much concerned and R o s s e t t i t o be the epitome of common-sense (Lang, 40 8 and 410, Doughty Wahl, 1187, 1189). 13 On the i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n o f t h e r i f t t h a t d e v e l o p e d between R o s s e t t i and Swinburne a t t h i s t i m e (they never met a f t e r R o s s e t t i ' s breakdown), t h e r e i s something new t o be added. D e s p i t e t h e i n j u n c t i o n n o t t o , Swinburne d i d m e n t i o n R o s s e t t i by name a t l e a s t t w i c e i n Under th e M i c r o s c o p e , and r e f e r r e d t o him s e v e r a l t i m e s , and t o l e t t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a n d (and t o r e p e a t i t a few pages l a t e r ) , a f t e r R o s s e t t i ' s a t t e m p t e d s u i c i d e , d i s p l a y s an u n f o r t u n a t e l a c k o f t a c t on t h e p a r t o f the younger p o e t : 108 Hyder, "Swinburne's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s l a r g e l y i g n o r e d " Under the  M i c r o s c o p e (Swinburne R e p l i e s , p. 1 2 ) ; i t c r e a t e d much l e s s s t i r t h a n had Buchanan's much i n f e r i o r pamphlet two months e a r l i e r . P r o b a b l y the l i t e r a r y w o r l d had t i r e d o f the c o n t r o -v e r s y ; o r i t may have c o n s i d e r e d t h a t Buchanan's a t t a c k d i d n o t m e r i t such a t t e n t i o n ; o r , f i n a l l y , Swinburne's r e p l y might have been th o u g h t f a r t o o savage f o r i t s p u r p o s e . I t i s , w i t h o u t doubt, one o f the b e s t p i e c e s o f s u s t a i n e d i n v e c t i v e i n t h e language, worthy t o t a k e i t s p l a c e w i t h S w i f t ' s and Pope's work o f the p r e v i o u s c e n t u r y . S i n c e Swinburne a f f e c t e d n e ver t o be touched by h o s t i l e c r i t i c i s m (a pose he never abandoned), he approaches s e v e r a l examples o f r e c e n t anonymous c r i t i c i s m w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v i t y o f a s c i e n t i s t e x a m i n i n g t h e l o w e s t forms o f l i f e . Over h a l f the pamphlet i s d e v o t e d t o A l f r e d A u s t i n ' s r e c e n t comparison o f Tennyson w i t h Byron i n P o e t r y o f the P e r i o d , which i n c l u d e s Swinburne's d e l i n e a t i o n ( o n l y a f t e r c a r e f u l l y s t a t i n g t h a t i t . i s h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r the p o e t t h a t prompts such remarks, and n o t , as he w i l l l a t e r charge Buchanan, h i s envy) o f Tennyson's major f a i l u r e i n Morte d ' A l b e r t , a s he d e l i g h t e d i n c a l l i n g the I d y l l s o f the K i n g ; I t i s l o n g s i n c e Mr. C a r l y l e e x p r e s s e d h i s o p i n i o n t h a t i f any p o e t o r o t h e r l i t e r a r y c r e a t u r e c o u l d r e a l l y be " k i l l e d o f f by one c r i t i q u e " o r many, the sooner he was so d e s p a t c h e d the b e t t e r ; a s e n t i m e n t i n w h i c h I f o r one humbly b u t h e a r t i l y c o n c u r . C.K. Hyder, ed., Swinburne R e p l i e s ( S y r a c u s e : S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p. 37. A l l subsequent q u o t a t i o n s from Under th e M i c r o s c o p e w i l l be t a k e n from Hyder. P r o f e s s o r Lang's s t a t e m e n t on t h i s q u e s t i o n remains the b e s t s h o r t summary o f what i s known and can r e a s o n a b l y be c o n j e c t u r e d c o n c e r n i n g i t (Lang, f n . 421). 109 t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f Whitman's p o e t i c m e r i t s t h a t g i v e s ample i n d i c a t i o n o f Swinburne's l a t e r c e l e b r a t e d r e v e r s a l o f o p i n i o n on the A merican; and t o a few d i s p a r a g i n g remarks about L o w e l l ' s " T h a n k s g i v i n g Ode" ("wooden v e r s e sawn i n t o unequal p l a n k s and tagged i n c o n g r u o u s l y w i t h t u n e l e s s b e l l s o f rhyme t o r n from the a u t h o r ' s l a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l cap" (p. 6 8 ) ) . I n t e r s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t a r e t o be found o c c a s i o n a l and 14 i n c i d e n t a l g i b e s a t Buchanan o f t r u l y b i t i n g w i t . When Swinburne's whole a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s s e d on the S c o t , savage i r o n y r e s u l t s . Peppered w i t h damaging r e f e r e n c e s t o Buchanan's l a t e l y p u b l i s h e d Drama o f K i n g s , the F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y , h i s l e t t e r s t o the Athenaeum, h i s p o e t r y , and h i s e s s a y s , Swinburne scourges the "polyonymous m o r a l i s t " f o r h i s i n s i n -15 c e r i t y , m a l e v o l e n c e , envy, i g n o r a n c e , v a n i t y , and the p e r n i c i o u s h a b i t o f p r a i s i n g h i s own w o r k . 1 ^ Buchanan's conduct 14 I n a f o o t n o t e o b v i o u s l y r e f e r r i n g t o Buchanan's s t a t e m e n t s on t h e F l e s h l y S c h o o l ' s prosody and d e p l o r i n g a n o t h e r c r i t i c ' s i n e p t i t u d e on t h e same t o p i c c o n c e r n i n g W a l t Whitman, Swinburne says he c o u l d w i s h t h i s d i s c u s s i o n "away, c o n s i g n e d t o the more c o n g e n i a l page o f some t e n t h - r a t e p o e t i c u l e worn o u t w i t h f a i l u r e , and now s q u a t i n h i s h o l d l i k e t h e t a i l l e s s f o x he i s , c u r l e d up t o s n a r l and whimper beneath th e i n a c c e s s i b l e v i n e o f song" (p.64), "^"Time may have h i d d e n from the eye o f b i o g r a p h y the f a c t s o f Shakespeare's l i f e . . .; b u t none need f e a r t h a t the n e x t age w i l l have t o lament the m a t e r i a l s f o r a l i f e o f Buchanan," i s one o f Swinburne's m i l d e r comments on the S c o t ' s l i f e l o n g h a b i t f o r p r e f a c i n g h i s work w i t h a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l anecdote (p. 75). 16 " I t i s r e a l l y t o be r e g r e t t e d t h a t the new h a b i t o f s e l f -c r i t i c i s m s h o u l d n e v e r have been s e t t i l l now . . . . A l l s t u d e n t s o f p o e t r y must lament t h a t i t d i d n o t o c c u r t o M i l t o n f o r example t o e x p r e s s i n p u b l i c h i s a d m i r a t i o n o f " P a r a d i s e L o s t . " I t might have h e l p e d s u p p o r t the r e p u t a t i o n o f t h a t poem a g a i n s t the s e v e r e s e n t e n c e p a s s e d by Mr. Buchanan on i t s f r e q u e n t l y f l a t and p r o s a i c q u a l i t y " (p. 74). 110 i s l i k e n e d t o t h a t o f L a b e r i u s C r i s p i n u s i n Jonson's P o e t a s t e r , "whose l i f e i s s p e n t i n t h e s t r u g g l e t o make h i s way among h i s b e t t e r s by a happy a l t e r n a t i o n and a d m i x t u r e o f calumny and s e r v i l i t y " (p. 7 3 ) ; and t h e S c o t i s l e f t i n t h e l a s t p a r a g r a p h , s t r i p p e d o f a l l human d i g n i t y , an i n n o c u o u s , "though v e r y u g l y , " s e r p e n t , doomed " t o go upon i t s b e l l y and e a t d u s t a l l the days o f i t s l i f e " (p. 8 7 ) . One o f Swinburne's l e s s happy g i b e s , e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s remembered t h a t i t was a s i m i l a r r e f e r e n c e t o Gray t h a t prompted the S c o t ' s vengeance i n the f i r s t p l a c e , r e f e r s t o t h e " v e r s i c l e s o f one D a v i d Gray, a poor young p o e t i c u l e o f the same b r e e d as h i s p a n e g y r i s t (who . . . d i e d w i t h o u t g i v i n g any s i g n o f f u t u r e d i s t i n c t i o n i n the f i e l d o f pseudonymous l i b e l ) " (p. 7 5 ) ; t h e bad t a s t e o f such remarks might e x p l a i n t h e pamphlet's f a i l u r e t o r e a c h a second e d i t i o n . A f t e r such a d r u b b i n g Buchanan t r i e d t o g i v e as good as he g o t , b u t "The Monkey and t h e M i c r o s c o p e " ( S a i n t Paul,' s  M a g azine , X I , August 1872, 2 4 0 ; . C a s s i d y , pp. 82-3) i s about as i n e f f e c t i v e as i t s t i t l e m i ght s u g g e s t . F o r t y l i n e s o f d o g g e r e l n a m e - c a l l i n g o f the most p u e r i l e k i n d , i t may show Buchanan's c a p a c i t y f o r r e t a l i a t i o n , h i s dogged i n d e s t r u c t i b i l i t y , b u t i t s u r e l y demonstrates h i s f o l l y i n p a y i n g so much n o t i c e , and o f such d i s m a l w o r t h , t o a p r o d u c t i o n which had gone i g n o r e d by n e a r l y everyone e l s e . 17 The f e u d c o n t i n u e d w i t h Buchanan, a p p a r e n t l y b e i n g f o r c e d See C a s s i d y , p. 81, who f o l l o w s J a y , p. 164. I l l t o p u b l i s h h i s S a i n t Abe and h i s Seven Wives and White Rose  and Red anonymously t o escape the vehement s c o r n o f r e v i e w e r s i n c e n s e d a t the e f f e c t t h a t Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m was known t o have had on R o s s e t t i . J u s t who t h e s e r e v i e w e r s were i s n o t a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n . Edmund Gosse, Simcox, C o l v i n , Forman, S k e l t o n , and K n i g h t p r o b a b l y s u b s c r i b e d t o the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s u g l y b u s i n e s s ; and Swinburne's l e t t e r s c o n t i n u e o f t e n 18 t o r e f e r t o Buchanan, o f t e n most d e r i s i v e l y and s c u r r i l o u s l y . The d e r i s i o n found i t s way i n t o p r i n t t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r , w i t h Swinburne making a t l e a s t t h r e e s e p a r a t e a s s a u l t s on Buchanan i n 1875, b e g i n n i n g w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f The Works 19 o f George Chapman. I n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n , Swinburne d e s c r i b e s the h e r o o f one o f Chapman's p l a y s as b e i n g one "who assumes the mask o f as many pseudonyms as e v e r were assumed by a p r u d e n t member o f the l i b e l l o u s o r d e r o f r a s c a l l y r h y m e s t e r s t o v e n t h i s v i l l a i n i e s i n s h a m e f u l s o c i e t y " (p. x x i i i ) . L a t e r t h e r e i s mention o f a " s c r i b b l i n g S c o t o f t h e e x c r e m e n t a l s c h o o l o f l e t t e r s " (p. x x v i i ) , and o f the d i r t y t a c t i c s o f a "verminous 18 I n an i m p o r t a n t l e t t e r t o Theodore Watts (as he t h e n was), d a t e d December 12, 1872, Swinburne g i v e s h i s r e a l r e a s o n f o r w r i t i n g Under the M i c r o s c o p e as b e i n g "the e x a m i n a t i o n o f c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s o f t h e day r e g a r d i n g B y r o n , Tennyson, and Whitman;" h i s a t t e n t i o n t o Buchanan b e i n g m o t i v a t e d by " a f f e c t i o n f o r a f r i e n d r a t h e r than . . . p e r s o n a l i r r i t a t i o n . " Swinburne " c o u l d n o t b u t r e c o g n i z e the d e p l o r a b l e t r u t h t h a t the v i l e s t o f l i v i n g s c r i b b l e r s had power t o i n f l i c t grave annoyance and s e r i o u s s u f f e r i n g on one o f the. n o b l e s t and t o me d e a r e s t among men and p o e t s " (Lang, 449). 19 P u b l i s h e d i n London by C h a t t o and Windus i n 1875. 112 pseudonymuncule . . . who may p r e f e r f o r one r a s c a l l y moment the chance o f infamy as a s l a n d e r e r t o the c e r t i t u d e o f o b s c u r i t y as a s c r i b b l e r " (p. x x x i v ) . Buchanan t e s t i f i e d t h a t he saw thes e remarks when c a l l e d t o the s t a n d i n the case o f T a y l o r v s . Buchanan. I n 1875, a l s o , Swinburne r e p u b l i s h e d h i s c r i t i q u e o f Matthew 2 0 A r n o l d ' s p o e t r y (see above, p. 41) i n Es s a y s and S t u d i e s . As an o b v i o u s attempt t o goad the S c o t he added a s c u r r i l o u s f o o t n o t e t o h i s p r e v i o u s s l i g h t i n g r e f e r e n c e t o D a v i d Gray i n whi c h he acc u s e d the dead p o e t o f p l a g i a r i s i n g from "such o b s c u r e a u t h o r s as Shakespeare and Wordsworth," and, because o f "the g r i e v o u s harm done by f a l s e t e a c h i n g and g r o u n d l e s s encouragement," n o t b e i n g s t r o n g enough t o know h i s own p o e t i c weakness (p. 153). I t was t h i s a m p l i f i c a t i o n o f h i s o r i g i n a l g i b e a t Gray t h a t Buchanan w r o n g l y remembered much l a t e r t o be the o r i g i n a l impetus f o r the Contemporary a r t i c l e . As C a s s i d y s a y s : "One p o i n t w h i c h cannot be doubted i s Buchanan's a s s e r t i o n t h a t the note enraged him t o the p o i n t o f d e s i r i n g revenge" (p.83). I n the summer o f 1875, an anonymous poem e n t i t l e d Jonas  F i s h e r : A Poem i n Brown and White was p u b l i s h e d . R e p e a t i n g , i n a v e r s e o f a q u a l i t y and s t y l e n o t u n l i k e Buchanan's (at i t s w o r s t ) , most o f t h a t S c o t ' s r e s e r v a t i o n s about the s t a t e o f contemporary E n g l a n d , and p a r t i c u l a r l y about t h e e f f e m i n a t e i m m o r a l i t y o f contemporary E n g l i s h p o e t s , the l o n g poem c o u l d v e r y e a s i l y have been seen as Buchanan's work. I t was, however, P u b l i s h e d by C h a t t o and Windus, 1875. 113 t h a t o f James C a r n e g i e , E a r l o f Southesk. Swinburne assumed Buchanan t o be t h e a u t h o r , a n d . c e l e b r a t e d h i s l a t e s t oppor-t u n i t y t o r e v i l e him w i t h t h i s : He whose h e a r t and s o u l and tongue Once above-ground stunk and s t u n g , Now l e s s noisome than b e f o r e , S t i n k s h e r e s t i l l b u t s t i n g s no more (The Examiner, November 20, 1875, p. 1304). A week l a t e r Swinburne, i n an anonymous r e v i e w , a s c r i b e d Jonas F i s h e r t o e i t h e r Buchanan o r the d e v i l , b u t c o n c l u d e d t h a t the fo r m e r must be i t s a u t h o r . T h i s Buchanan d e n i e d i n the Athenaeum o f December 4. On December 11, i n t h e Examiner, t h e r e appeared a l o n g l e t t e r e n t i t l e d "The D e v i l ' s Due" and s i g n e d "Thomas M a i t l a n d , " i n w h i c h Buchanan was a g a i n named as the a u t h o r and was c a s t i g a t e d as the " m u l t i - f a c e d i d y l l i s t o f t h e g u t t e r , " the l e t t e r e n d i n g w i t h a parody o f Buchanan's and S t r a h a n ' s l e t t e r s t o the Athenaeum i n December 1871, i n w h i c h t h e y had a t t e m p t e d t o j u s t i f y t h e o r i g i n a l use o f t h e pseudonym. Knowing t h a t t h e a u t h o r o f t h i s was Swinburne, who was n o t a f f l u e n t , and h o p i n g . t o damage him s e r i o u s l y by showing him t o be a man o f s t r a w , t h e i r a t e S c o t sued the owner o f t h e Examiner, Mr. P.A. T a y l o r , M.P., f o r t h e l a r g e sum o f f i v e thousand pounds; t h e case coming t o c o u r t a t t h e end o f J u n e , 1876. A f t e r t h r e e days o f charge and c o u n t e r - c h a r g e , i n w h i c h much o f the h i s t o r y o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y was t r a c e d , i n w h i c h Buchanan's own p o e t r y was r e a d i n c o u r t and pronounced f l e s h l y , i n w h i c h the judge condemned th e f l e s h l y tone o f Buchanan's a t t a c k s on the s c h o o l b u t a l s o s t a t e d t h a t much o f t h e s c h o o l ' s p o e t i c p r o d u c t i o n s h o u l d n e v e r have been w r i t t e n ( " i f a l l o f i t was 114 c o n s i g n e d t o t h e f i r e to-morrow the w o r l d would be v e r y much b e t t e r , " Times, J u l y 3 r d , 1876, p. 5 ) , the j u r y found f o r Buchanan, b u t awarded him a p a l t r y j£ 150 damages. E x p r e s s i n g a view o f t h e m a t t e r t h a t many must have s h a r e d , G.A. S a l a summed i t up as a " d i s m a l c a s e , " made the more so by a "wordy b a r r i s t e r h o l d i n g up t o p u b l i c odium" Swinburne, O'Shaughnessy, M o r r i s ("the A r i o s t o o f our age") and R o s s e t t i ("the wondrous p a i n t e r . . . and the a u t h o r o f a number o f e x q u i s i t e s o nnets w h i c h . . . 'Time w i l l n o t w i l l i n g l y l e t d i e ' " ) ( I l l u s t r a t e d London 21 News, LX I X , J u l y 8 t h , p. 4 2 ) . R o s s e t t i f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the t r i a l l a y low a t Bognor R e g i s , f e a r f u l t h a t he might be subpoenaed and b r o u g h t back i n t o the c e n t r e o f the s o r d i d b u s i n e s s . W i t h t h i s case o v e r t h o s t i l i t i e s c e a s e d , Swinburne, so f a r as can be a s c e r t a i n e d , n e v e r r e f e r r i n g t o Buchanan i n p r i n t a g a i n . One o f t h e u n f o r t u n a t e back e d d i e s o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y r e s u l t s from t h e i r o n i c a l f a c t t h a t b o t h s i d e s o f i t were v e r y a c t i v e i n p r o m o t i n g Walt Whitman's c r i t i c a l a c c e p t a n c e , a t a time when the American's p o e t i c r e p u t a t i o n was n o t h i g h . Of the S c o t ' s p a r t i n t h i s H a r o l d B l o d g e t t s a y s : " L i t e r a r y h i s t o r y w i l l c o unt i t one o f Buchanan's h i g h e s t honours t h a t he r e c o g n i z e d Whitman's g e n i u s e a r l y and f o u g h t l u s t i l y f o r Whitman's 22 r e c o g n i t i o n . " I t was Buchanan, however, who b r o u g h t t h e The f o l l o w i n g Monday ( J u l y 8 t h , 1876) the P a l l M a l l  G a z e t t e p u b l i s h e d a cockney poem (by H.D. T r a i l l ) o f no g r e a t m e r i t p o i n t i n g up the m o r a l o f the whole a f f a i r ( C a s s i d y , p. 88). 22 W a l t Whitman i n E n g l a n d ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934), p. 76. 115 American's name i n t o the c o n t r o v e r s y (as was no t e d i n c h a p t e r I I , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l was v e r y c a r e f u l t o p o i n t o u t Buchanan's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Whitman's cause i n the l a t e s i x t i e s i n h i s p r e f a c e t o Poems o f Walt Whitman), because he was aware o f the app a r e n t i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n championing Whitman w h i l e a t t a c k i n g R o s s e t t i . To The F l e s h l y S c h o o l o f P o e t r y Buchanan appended a l e n g t h y note e x p l a i n i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between the " i m i t a t i v e and s h a l l o w " f l e s h l y p o e t s and the " o u t r a g e o u s l y o r i g i n a l and c r e a t i v e , " s p i r i t u a l l y pure and h e a l t h y , b a r d (p. 9 6 ) . Buchanan d e p l o r e s t h e " f i f t y l i n e s o f a t h o r o u g h l y i n d e c e n t k i n d " i n Whitman's work, b u t such "sheer e x c e s s o f a g g r e s s i v e l i f e " i s t o be found i n Shakespeare, A r i s t o p h a n e s , R a b e l a i s and V i c t o r Hugo among o t h e r s (p. 9 6 ) ; he c o n t i n u e s : I t i s i n a thousand ways u n f o r t u n a t e f o r Walt Whitman t h a t he has been i n t r o d u c e d t o the E n g l i s h p u b l i c by Mr. W i l l i a m R o s s e t t i , and been l o u d l y p r a i s e d by Mr. Swinburne. D o u b t l e s s t h e s e g e n t l e -men admire the American p o e t f o r a l l t h a t i s b e s t i n him; b u t t h e B r i t i s h p u b l i c , h a v i n g h e a r d t h a t Whitman i s immo r a l , and h a v i n g a l r e a d y a dim guess t h a t M e s s r s . Swinburne and R o s s e t t i a r e n o t o v e r -r e f i n e d , has come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t h i s n a s t i n e s s a l o n e has been h i s recommendation. A l l t h i s d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t Mr. W i l l i a m R o s s e t t i has e x p u r g a t e d t h e f i f t y l i n e s o r so i n h i s e d i t i o n (p. 9 7 ) . I t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t Swinburne's l a t e r change o f o p i n i o n c o n c e r n i n g Whitman's p o e t i c m e r i t can be a t t r i b u t e d , i n p a r t , t o t h e s e remarks. Both W i l l i a m M i c h a e l and Buchanan m a i n t a i n e d c o n t a c t w i t h Whitman i n the n e x t few y e a r s / and worked independent o f each 116 o t h e r t o promote Whitman's cause. S e e i n g a n o t i c e i n the Athenaeum (March 11, 1876) w h i c h r e p r i n t e d the p r i n c i p a l p o i n t s o f an a r t i c l e i n t h e West J e r s e y P r e s s o u t l i n i n g Whitman's r e j e c t i o n by the American l i t e r a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t and the p o e t ' s subsequent penury, Buchanan l e a p t t o h i s defence i n a t y p i c a l manner. On March 13, he e x p r e s s e d h i s " E n g l i s h i n d i g n a t i o n , " i n a l e t t e r t o the D a i l y News (p. 2 ) , a t t h e " d e t e r m i n e d d e n i a l , d i s g u s t and s c o r n " o f the American p u b l i s h e r s , e d i t o r s , and w r i t e r s , Buchanan u s i n g Whitman's " m o s t l y s h a r k s " t o d e s c r i b e t h e p u b l i s h e r s and s i m i l a r abuse f o r t h e o t h e r s . He c o n t i n u e d : As C h r i s t had H i s crown o f - t h o r n s (I make the comparison i n a l l r e v e r e n c e ) , and as S o c r a t e s had h i s hemlock cup, so W a l t Whitman has h i s f i n a l g l o r y and doom though i t comes m i s e r a b l y i n t h e shape o f l i t e r a r y o u t l a w r y and o f f i c i a l p e r s e c u t i o n . Buchanan ended by u r g i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a committee t o c o l l e c t s u b s c r i p t i o n s f o r a t l e a s t 500 c o p i e s o f Whitman's complete works. The l e t t e r s t i r r e d up a s t o r m on b o t h s i d e s o f the A t l a n t i c . W i l l i a m M i c h a e l , e v e r ready t o h e l p Whitman no m a t t e r i n whose company, c o r r o b o r a t e d Buchanan's s t a t e m e n t s i n 24 a l e t t e r t o t h e News the f o l l o w i n g day. M.D. Conway wrote P r o f e s s o r Fredeman p o s s e s s e s a l e t t e r from Buchanan t o the A merican p o e t and c r i t i c E.C. Stedman, d a t e d November 28, 1873, i n w h i c h Buchanan b l a n d l y s t a t e s t h a t " I t h i n k I may c l a i m c r e d i t f o r h a v i n g won Whitman what t a r d y honour he i s g e t t i n g here . . . ." 24 Swinburne's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c comment t o W i l l i a m M i c h a e l on t h i s m a t t e r cannot be o v e r l o o k e d : "Du r e s t e , you must a l l o w me t o o b s e r ve t h a t i t g i v e s us a p l e a s i n g f o r e t a s t e o f t h e m i l l e n i a l p e r i o d t o see the l i o n ( y o u r s e l f ) l y i n g down (not w i t h the lamb but) w i t h the skunk." A f t e r r e f e r r i n g t o the "American ' e a g l e ' and t h e H e b r i d e a n p o l e c a t , " he c a l l s a r e c e n t t r e a t i s e by 117 i n the New York T r i b u n e ( A p r i l 26) t h a t he was "compelled t o deny Mr. Buchanan's g r o s s e x a g g e r a t i o n s . " Whitman h i m s e l f w r o t e t o W i l l i a m M i c h a e l (May 5 ) : " I do n o t approve Conway's l e t t e r . . ., an i n s u l t t o Mr. Buchanan t h r o u g h me . . . e v e r y p o i n t i n B's March 11th l e t t e r t o t h e News, i s w e l l t a k e n , & t r u e w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y a l l about t h e American c r i t i c s , p u b l i s h e r s , e d i t o r s , " p o e t s " & even what he says about my "impoverishment" i s much, much n e a r e r t h e t r u t h , t h a n Mr. Conway's and L o r d Houghton's r o s e - c o l o r e d i l l u s i o n 25 v a r n i s h . . . " A t t h e end o f s e v e r a l l e t t e r s from Whitman t o W i l l i a m M i c h a e l , he p o l i t e l y asks him, i f i t i s c o n v e n i e n t , t o show them t o Buchanan, w h i c h , i t can be assumed, they never were. And Whitman d i d w r i t e a s h o r t note o f g r a t i t u d e t o 2 6 Buchanan d i r e c t . F o r a w h i l e t h e S c o t r a n an independent s u b s c r i p t i o n s e r v i c e f o r t h e A m e r i c a n , b u t e v e n t u a l l y , because o f the h o s t i l i t y engendered by T a y l o r v s . Buchanan, was f o r c e d t o g i v e i t up. On J a n u a r y 8 t h , 1877 he wrote t o Whitman t h a t because "the tone adopted by c e r t a i n o f your f r i e n d s here became so u n p l e a s a n t . . . I r e q u e s t e d a l l s u b s c r i p t i o n s e t c . t o be 27 p a i d o v e r t o R o s s e t t i , and r e c e i v e d no more m y s e l f . " There Whitman on p o e t r y , "the most b l a t a n t b r a y o f i m p o t e n t and impudent i g n o r a n c e I e v e r h e a r d e x c e p t from the t h r o a t o f B a v i u s Buchanan o r Maevius M a i t l a n d " (Lang, 729). 25 Walt Whitman: The Correspondence 1842-1885, Edwin H. M i l l e r , ed., 3 v o l s . (New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), I I I , 44. 2^0p_. c i t . , 36-7. 27 Op. c i t . , f n . 64. 118 can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t Buchanan had m a t e r i a l l y a s s i s t e d the A m e r i c a n , and had a l s o g i v e n him much s u p p o r t and encouragement when few o t h e r s d i d . . But i t was p r o b a b l y b e s t f o r Whitman t h a t W i l l i a m M i c h a e l remained h i s c h i e f l i e u t e n a n t i n E n g l a n d , s i n c e Buchanan's g i f t f o r making enemies would sooner o r l a t e r have handicapped th e cause. Buchanan's l a s t g e s t u r e f o r Whitman was h i s l e t t e r t o P r e s i d e n t C l e v e l a n d o f June 1 3 t h , 1885 a s k i n g , i n v a i n , f o r a government p e n s i o n f o r the aged . 28 p o e t . C a s s i d y i s u n a b le t o go much beyond Jay (p. 16 7) i n h i s s e a r c h f o r a r e a s o n f o r Buchanan's attempt t o make amends t o R o s s e t t i , s i x months b e f o r e t h e p o e t ' s d e a t h , w i t h h i s i n s c r i p t i o n t o God and t h e Man. B oth a t t r i b u t e i t t o the S c o t ' s d i s c o v e r y o f R o s s e t t i ' s s t a t e o f h e a l t h , and a sense o f remorse t h a t he might u n w i t t i n g l y have c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t . And, as C a s s i d y s a y s , " i n 1881 Buchanan was a v e r y d i f f e r e n t man from the n e u r o t i c and p s y c h o t i c d i s p u t a n t o f 1871 and 1872" (p. 88). The n o v e l was d e d i c a t e d : To An O l d Enemy 1 would have s n a t c h ' d a bay l e a f from t h y brow, Wronging the c h a p l e t on an honoured head; I n peace and c h a r i t y I b r i n g thee now A l i l y f l o w e r i n s t e a d . Pure as t h y p u r p o s e , b l a m e l e s s as t h y song, Sweet as t h y s p i r i t , may t h i s o f f e r i n g be; F o r g e t th e b i t t e r blame t h a t d i d thee wrong, And t a k e the g i f t from me! 2 8 L e t t e r s o f W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i c o n c e r n i n g Whitman, B l a k e and S h e l l e y , C l a r e n c e Gohdes and P a u l l F. Baum, eds. (Durham: Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934), f n . p. 105. 119 I n h i s D i a r y f o r J a n u a r y 6, 1882, W i l l i a m M i c h a e l c a l l s t h e s e l i n e s "a handsome r e t r a c t i o n f o r p a s t i n v i d i o u s a t t a c k s " ; and n o t e s the i r o n i c a l f a c t t h a t "G t h i n k s the v e r s e s may r e a l l y be i n t e n d e d f o r Swinburne," b u t H a l l C a i n e and Watts-Dunton 29 c o n v i n c e d him t o the c o n t r a r y . A f t e r R o s s e t t i ' s d e a t h , Buchanan a f f i x e d two f u r t h e r s t a n z a s i n the second e d i t i o n o f the n o v e l (August 1882) a d d r e s s e d t o "Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . " I n h i s p r e f a c e , Buchanan, who s i n c e "The Monkey and the M i c r o -scope" had n o t i n d u l g e d i n any f u r t h e r l i t e r a r y a c t i o n a g a i n s t the F l e s h l y S c h o o l so f a r as can be d i s c o v e r e d , made one more r e t r a c t i o n i n wh i c h he p r a i s e d R o s s e t t i ' s " e x q u i s i t e work." He a d m i t t e d , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , h i s l a c k o f o b j e c t i v i t y w i t h a remark c o n c e r n i n g the "incompetency o f a l l c r i t i c i s m , however h o n e s t , w h i c h [ i s ] c o n c e i v e d a d v e r s e l y , h a s t i l y , and from an u n s y m p a t h e t i c p o i n t o f view"; he ended by r e g r e t t i n g t h a t he s h o u l d have e v e r r a n k e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h e P h i l i s t i n e s , e n c o u r a g i "them t o r e s i s t an e n n o b l i n g and r e f i n i n g l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e . . . ." He took "melancholy p l e a s u r e " from the f a c t t h a t R o s s e t t i u n d e r s t o o d and a c c e p t e d the s p i r i t o f the d e d i c a t i o n , as he had been i n f o r m e d by H a l l C a i n e . H a v i n g thus f u l l y and handsomely a d m i t t e d h i s e r r o r , Buchanan became once a g a i n the v i c t i m o f c o n t i n u i n g obloquy as the h a s t i l y w r i t t e n l i v e s o f R o s s e t t i began t o r e a c h the market I n one o f them,, however, H a l l C a i n e ' s o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n o f Thomas H a l l C a i n e , R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f R o s s e t t i (London: C a s s e l l , 1928), p. 226. 120 R e c o l l e c t i o n s o f Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i (London: E l l i o t S t o c k , 1882), he was g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o defend and j u s t i f y h i s a t t a c k on t h e p o e t w h i c h he d i d a t some l e n g t h , and i t was here t h a t he s a i d t h a t when t h e Contemporary a r t i c l e was p u b l i s h e d "the newspapers were f u l l o f p a n e g y r i c ; mine was a mere drop o f g a l l i n an ocean o f eau s u c r e e . " Buchanan g i v e s as h i s m o t i v a t i o n f o r the paper war t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e r e c e p t i o n g i v e n t o h i s a t t a c k , " w h i c h t u r n e d i r r i t a t i o n i n t o w r a t h , w r a t h i n t o v i o l e n c e . " Of Swinburne's t h r e e o n s l a u g h t s i n 1875 he s a y s : " i f you compare what I have w r i t t e n o f R o s s e t t i w i t h what h i s a d m i r e r s have w r i t t e n o f m y s e l f , I t h i n k you w i l l admit t h a t t h e r e has been some cause f o r me t o c o m p l a i n , t o shun s o c i e t y , t o f e e l b i t t e r . a g a i n s t t h e w o r l d ; b u t , h a p p i l y , I have a t h i c k e p i d e r m i s , and the courage o f an a p p r o v i n g c o n s c i e n c e . " L a t e r , h e makes " f u l l a d m i s s i o n o f R o s s e t t i ' s c l a i m s t o the p u r e s t k i n d o f l i t e r a r y renown, and i f I were t o c r i t i c i z e h i s poems now,^ I s h o u l d w r i t e v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y . But n o t h i n g w i l l shake my c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e c r u e l t y , the u n f a i r n e s s , the p u s i l l a n i m i t y , has been on t h e o t h e r s i d e , n o t on mine" ( f n . pp. 71-2). A l l t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y t o b r i n g t h e F l e s h l y C o n t r o v e r s y up t o d a t e i s t o p o i n t o u t t h a t w i t h e v e r y b i o g r a p h y o f R o s s e t t i came a d i s c u s s i o n o f Buchanan's a t t a c k , and i n e v e r y d i s c u s s i o n envy, m a l i c e and b a s e r m o t i v e s were a t t r i b u t e d t o the S c o t . On J u l y 1 s t , 1882, Buchanan w r o t e t o t h e Academy t h a t R o s s e t t i "never was a f l e s h l y p o e t a t a l l ; n e v e r , a t any r a t e , f e d upon t h e po i s o n o u s honey o f F r e n c h a r t . " 121 The p r o c e s s began w i t h J o s eph K n i g h t i n 1882, when he w r o t e o f " t h i s c u r i o u s l y unprovoked and u n j u s t i f i a b l e a t t a c k " and c a t e g o r i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t R o s s e t t i ' s e a r l y demise was caused 31 by i t . C a s s i d y g i v e s a good summary o f what Buchanan had t o b e a r i n h i s l i f e t i m e (pp. 90-3). A f t e r J a y , whose v e r s i o n o f the c o n t r o v e r s y was p r a i s e d f o r i t s m o d e r a t i o n and j u s t i c e , h i s has been the o n l y a c c o u n t w r i t t e n from Buchanan's p o i n t o f v i e w , and has been h a i l e d by Jerome H. B u c k l e y , and many o t h e r s , as an a d m i r a b l e r e v i e w o f the causes and consequences 32 33 o f the c o n t r o v e r s y . S i n c e Buchanan's death i n 19 01, no one has been h a r s h e r w i t h him than R o s s e t t i ' s l a t e s t b i o g r a p h e r . P r o f e s s o r Doughty a s c r i b e s " j e a l o u s y , j o u r n a l i s t i c m o t i v e s o f s e l f - a d v e r t i s e m e n t and monetary g a i n " t o Buchanan, c a l l s him "a v u l g a r h y p o c r i t e , " and c o n c l u d e s : "Low i n mind, low i n t a s t e , low i n b r e e d i n g , and as an a p o s t l e o f m o r a l i t y , e v i d e n t l y i n s i n c e r e ; such was Buchanan" (p. 499). P r o f e s s o r Fredeman, however, i n the a r t i c l e c i t e d , does a c h i e v e an o b j e c t i v i t y i n h i s most d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y o f t h i s c r u c i a l p e r i o d i n R o s s e t t i ' s l i f e t h a t the more p a r t i s a n 31 L i f e o f Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i (London: W a l t e r S c o t t , 1887), p. 140. 32 The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s (New Y o rk: Random House, 196 8) , p. x x v i . 33 When Buchanan d i e d , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l was asked by the M o r ning L e a d e r , presumably because o f t h e o l d a n i m o s i t i e s , t o do an o b i t u a r y o f him, an i n v i t a t i o n t o w r i t e abuse (as he saw i t ) t h a t he r e f u s e d . Roger W i l l i a m P e a t t i e , W i l l i a m M i c h a e l  R o s s e t t i as C r i t i c and E d i t o r ( U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , London U n i v e r s i t y , 1966), p. 558, f n . 146. 122 Doughty and C a s s i d y l a c k . C i t i n g much u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l , p r i n c i p a l l y W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s D i a r y and W i l l i a m B e l l S c o t t ' s l e t t e r s , P r o f e s s o r Fredeman c a r e f u l l y examines the events t h a t l e d up t o R o s s e t t i ' s breakdown i n June 1872, and c o n c l u d e s t h a t i t s causes c o u l d l i e i n the " d i f f e r e n c e s between Buchanan's Contemporary a r t i c l e and the l a t e r pamphlet" (p. 116). These d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d have s u g g e s t e d t o R o s s e t t i t h a t Buchanan knew o f the r e c o v e r y o f the p o e t r y i n m a n u s c r i p t from E l i z a b e t h S i d d a l ' s g r a v e ; and t h a t he was h i n t i n g t h a t R o s s e t t i ' s " a f f a i r w i t h Jane M o r r i s was p u b l i c knowledge" (p. 119). C e r t a i n l y , t o a man i n R o s s e t t i ' s p r e t e r n a t u r a l l y weakened c o n d i t i o n , many o f Buchanan's remarks c o u l d have been f u r t h e r envenomed by i r o n i c undertones d e s i g n e d f o r h i s v i c t i m ' s e a r a l o n e . There s t i l l remain q u e s t i o n s t h a t need a n s w e r i n g . How, f o r example, was R o s s e t t i so s u r e t h a t Buchanan was g o i n g t o a t t a c k him? Was h i s c e r t a i n t y the b e g i n n i n g s o f h i s p a r a n o i a o r d i d he know something now o b s c u r e d by time? Was Buchanan's a t t a c k t o n g u e - i n - c h e e k ? And was he outmanoeuvred when h i s enemy d e l i b e r a t e l y took i t s e r i o u s l y , even when he knew t h a t Buchanan was b e i n g l e s s than s i n c e r e ? D i d Buchanan e v e r meet W i l l i a m M i c h a e l o r Swinburne? Oh the l a s t q u e s t i o n C a s s i d y s p e c u l a t e s a l i t t l e , b u t t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t the a n t a g o n i s t s d i d meet. C a s s i d y does not d i s c u s s the v a l i d i t y o f Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m , and how i t m o d i f i e d contemporary a t t i t u d e s t o R o s s e t t i , and i t i s t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s t h a t the l a s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be devoted. CHAPTER V THE VALIDITY OF BUCHANAN'S CRITICISM Had h i s m o t i v a t i o n been more a l t r u i s t i c t h a n i t was, had h i s c r i t i c i s m o f R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y been l e s s c o l o u r e d by p e r s o n a l a n i m o s i t y t h a n i t was, Buchanan c o u l d have p r o d u c e d , p a r a d o x i c a l l y enough, a much more t e l l i n g i n d i c t m e n t o f t h e p o e t r y t h a n he d i d . H i s whole argument r e s t s somewhat t o o p r e c a r i o u s l y on the prem i s e t h a t R o s s e t t i i s a s e n s u a l p o e t , t h a t he i s d i d a c t i c i n the s e r v i c e o f v i c e . Buchanan charged him and h i s f r i e n d s w i t h b e i n g "bound by solemn league and covenant t o e x t o l f l e s h l i n e s s as the d i s t i n c t and supreme end o f p o e t i c and p i c t o r i a l a r t ; " and o f v a l u i n g " p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n " h i g h e r t h a n " p o e t i c t h o u g h t , " t h e r e b y i m p l y i n g " t h a t t h e body i s g r e a t e r t h a n the s o u l . . . " (Houghton and Stange, p. 889). Having r e a d the p o e t r y w i t h t h i s c o n c l u s i o n a l r e a d y formed, Buchanan c o u l d see R o s s e t t i ' s a r c h a i s m s o f form, h i s q u a i n t m e d i e v a l o r obs c u r e L a t i n a t e d i c t i o n , and h i s i m i t a t i o n o f Tennyson and t h e Brownings (not t o mention h i m s e l f ) as i n s i n c e r e s h i f t s o f manner r e f l e c t i n g the b a s i c i m m o r a l i t y o f m a t t e r . I n h i s r a t h e r s i m p l i s t i c , and much t o o sweeping, v i e w , " i n s i n c e r i t y i n one r e s p e c t argues i n s i n c e r i t y i n a l l , and where we f i n d a man c h o o s i n g w o r t h l e s s s u b j e c t s and a f f e c t i n g t r a s h y models [ i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t Buchanan i s r e f e r r i n g t o Cowley, Donne and Crashaw], we may r e l y on f i n d i n g h i s t r e a t m e n t , down t o t h e t i n i e s t d e t a i l , f r i v o l o u s , a b s u r d , and r e c k l e s s " (Pamphlet, p. 8 1 ) . Why d i d Buchanan t h i n k t h a t 124 Rossetti was b a s i c a l l y insincere? Because, he must have f e l t , no man could honestly promote vice. Buchanan had come to believe that man was b a s i c a l l y good, therefore anyone denying the fact was a hypocrite. Thus i t was c r u c i a l to his much too simple argument that Rossetti was shown to be f l e s h l y ; once that was s a t i s f a c t o r i l y proved a l l the rest followed. Unfortunately for Buchanan, the age i n which he l i v e d needed l i t t l e more than the righteous assertion of such a charge for many people to accept i t . Despite much available ammunition Buchanan r e a l l y did not make even this aspect of his case as well, or as honestly, as he could have done. Buchanan was not the f i r s t to detect a certain unsavouriness i n Rossetti's poetry; as has been noted i n Chapter I I I , some of Rossetti's friends, long before they knew of the furor that Buchanan was to cause, declared that Poems was not f i t for the drawing-room t a b l e . 1 Later J.A. Symonds, not a person l i g h t l y given to such objections, deplored Rossetti's lack of taste being brought to the reader's attention by the "habitual emphase of his st y l e to d e t a i l s which should have been slurred over. His defined i n c i s i v e way of writing fixes the mind repulsively on physical images and 'poems of privacy.' The e f f e c t i s vulgar This could be part of the reason why Colvin and the rest were at such pains to attack Buchanan's use of a pseudonym; i t was an ad hominem attempt to portray Buchanan as an envious fellow-poet i n order to di v e r t attention away from an argument whose central v a l i d i t y they had already t a c i t l y admitted. Buchanan played into t h e i r hands by allowing Rossetti's friends such an eminently plausible offence; and, to avoid the same charges l a t e r , he was forced to publish the hurriedly written pamphlet in his own name, when surprise and c r e d i b i l i t y were a l l but l o s t . 125 and i l l - b r e d . We s h r i n k from i t as from something n a s t y . . . " ( M a c m i l l a n ' s Magazine-, XLV,.. February. 1882 , 327). I f so w e l l -known a d e n i z e n o f Bohemia as Symonds c o u l d d e p l o r e t h e l a c k o f r e t i c e n c e i n R o s s e t t i ' s s o n n e t s , the t y p i c a l V i c t o r i a n ' s r e a c t i o n can e a s i l y . b e i m a g ined. . One o f Buchanan's f a i l u r e s was t h a t i n h i s . b l a n k e t i n d i c t m e n t he d i d n o t p i c k h i s examples o f R o s s e t t i ' s f l e s h l i n e s s - as c a r e f u l l y . a s he might have done, and i n o v e r s t a t i n g h i s case he l o s t the e a r . o f many who had re a c h e d s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g . t h i s a s p e c t o f .the p o e t r y . There i s some t r u t h , however, i n Buchanan's: a s s e r t i o n . , s u p p o r t e d i n r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r ..language by Symonds,. t h a t R o s s e t t i ' s l o v e -p o e t r y seems, the r e c o r d . o f a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e when compared w i t h t h a t o f Swinburne, which.he saw as :the r e l a t i v e l y h a r m l e s s p r o d u c t o f the o v e r - h e a t e d emotions o f an i m a g i n a t i v e y o u t h . Buchanan w a s . a p p a r e n t l y t r y i n g t o i s o l a t e R o s s e t t i as one o f the d e p l o r a b l e , i n f l u e n c e s .on t h e g i f t e d , and, Buchanan f e l t , s u p e r i o r , younger poet;, he was t r y i n g . t o f i n d i n Swinburne's g e n e r a l l y acknowledged master the s o u r c e o f h i s a n i m a l i s m (see Buchanan's l e t t e r t o Monckton M i l n e s quoted above, f o o t n o t e 4, p. 72). . S e n s u a l i t y t h e r e . u n d o u b t e d l y i s . i n R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y , b u t not t o t h e e x t e n t , o r o f the nature., t h a t Buchanan c l a i m e d . I s o l a t e d p h r a s e s a r e as. o b - j e c t i o n a b l e , from t h e V i c t o r i a n p o i n t o f view., as many- d e c l a r e d them...to be; and Buchanan i s q u i t e p o s s i b l y r i g h t i n - a t t r i b u t i n g , t h i s t o R o s s e t t i ' s g i f t f o r s e e i n g t h i n g s v i v i d l y , and g i v i n g i n h i s p o e t r y t h e t e l l i n g (and P r e - R a p h a e l i t e ) d e t a i l , t h a t m i g h t o r might n o t be so e a s i l y apprehended i n a p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e same s u b j e c t , 126 b u t w h i c h i n p o e t r y i s n e v e r m i s s e d : Yet s t i l l t h e i r mouths, b u r n t r e d , Fawned on each o t h e r where t h e y l a y a p a r t . ( " N u p t i a l S l e e p , " Poems, p. 193) Above the l o n g l i t h e t h r o a t The mouth's mould t e s t i f i e s o f v o i c e and k i s s . ("The P o r t r a i t , " Poems, p. 197) Buchanan's o t h e r examples o f R o s s e t t i ' s f l e s h l i n e s s , t h o s e from "A L a s t C o n f e s s i o n , " "Willowwood, I , " and "Eden Bower" (Houghton and Stange, p. 893), i f not l i t e r a l l y d e p i c t i n g what Buchanan saw them t o d e p i c t s — a n d here c o n s c i o u s d i s h o n e s t y seems t o be the o n l y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r h i s use o f them f o r h i s purpose-^ n e v e r t h e l e s s do s u p p o r t h i s main, i f somewhat vague, c o n t e n t i o n t h a t "the f l e s h l y f e e l i n g i s everywhere." I n R o s s e t t i ' s d e f e n c e , i t s h o u l d be s a i d t h a t i n any p o e t who d e a l s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e sexes t h e r e i s bound t o be d e t a i l c a p a b l e o f s u p p o r t i n g such a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . But when Buchanan l o o k s a t whole poems, the e v i d e n c e adduced i s n o t v e r y c o n v i n c i n g . Of "Jenny," a f t e r s a y i n g t h a t n e i t h e r the s u b j e c t nor t h e p o e t i c t r e a t m e n t o f t h a t s u b j e c t were o b j e c t i o n a b l e i n t h e m s e l v e s (on b o t h o f w h i c h counts he was l a t e r t o c o n t r a d i c t h i m s e l f , Pamphlet, p. 6 8 ) , and a p p a r e n t l y unaware o f the a d m i s s i o n s he was making, he can o n l y c o n c l u d e t h a t he found i t " f a s c i n a t i n g l e s s t h r o u g h i t s human t e n d e r n e s s than because i t , l i k e a l l t h e o t h e r s , p o s s e s s e d an i n h e r e n t q u a l i t y o f a n i m a l i s m " d e t e c t a b l e i n t h e poem's "whole tone [ w h i c h ] , w i t h o u t b e i n g more th a n u s u a l l y c o a r s e , seems h e a r t l e s s " (p. 894) . Of "The B l e s s e d Damozel" he makes the p o t e n t i a l l y i l l u m i n a t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n (one w h i c h P a t e r 127 was t o make) t h a t i t i s p l a c e d f i r s t i n Poems because i t i s "a key t o t h e poems w h i c h f o l l o w " (p. 891); and he quotes t h i s s t a n z a ( u s i n g h i s i t a l i c s ) , b u t f a i l s t o make even the most e l e m e n t a r y p o i n t s c o n c e r n i n g i t s s e n s u a l i t y : And s t i l l she bowed h e r s e l f and stoo p e d Out o f the c i r c l i n g charm; U n t i l h e r bosom must have made. The b a r she l e a n e d on warm, And the l i l i e s l a y as i f a s l e e p A l o n g h e r bended arm (p. 892). There are many t h i n g s t h a t c o u l d be seen t o be f l e s h l y i n "The B l e s s e d Damozel," b u t he does n o t i t a l i c i s e t h e s e l i n e s f o r the r e f e r e n c e t o female anatomy c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n (he d i d t h a t w i t h "Troy Town"); nor even t o d e p l o r e (as he must have d e p l o r e d ) t h e rhyme o f "charm," "warm," and "arm;" b u t mer e l y i n o r d e r t o say t h a t "they a r e q u i t e w i t h o u t m e r i t , and alm o s t w i t h o u t meaning" (p. 892). Of the blasphemous s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the damozel i s p i n i n g away i n heaven o f p h y s i c a l l o n g i n g f o r h e r earthbound l o v e r , t h e r e i s n o t a word; o f the t o o , t o o , s o l i d l y f l e s h l y c o n c e p t i o n o f the damozel, t h e r e i s n o t a word; nor does Buchanan make a n y t h i n g o f t h e ap p a r e n t i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f o t h e r s o u l s b e i n g " l i k e t h i n f l a m e s " w h i l e she i s so s o l i d l y c o r p o r e a l . Buchanan d i d have a case t o make a g a i n s t R o s s e t t i , b u t , i n h i s f r a n t i c s e a r c h f o r s u r f a c e i n d e l i c a c i e s and i n h i s b l a n k e t d e n u n c i a t i o n s o f poems n o t c o n t a i n i n g t h e s e i n d e l i c a c i e s , he f a i l e d t o produce as c o h e r e n t an argument as he c o u l d have done, and he f a i l e d , t o o , t o remind t h e r e a d e r t h a t much o f R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y i s n o t open t o t h e s e o b j e c t i o n s . That they do have some v a l i d i t y , however, i s shown by R o s s e t t i ' s r e v i s i o n s o f the p o e t r y f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1881. 128 On the q u e s t i o n o f f l e s h l i n e s s , R o s s e t t i was p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e , as the h i s t o r y o f "Jenny," and h i s remarks c o n c e r n i n g t h a t poem i n "The S t e a l t h y S c h o o l o f C r i t i c i s m , " show. The b e s t way o f g auging h i s o p i n i o n of t h e v a l i d i t y o f Buchanan's charge i s by t r y i n g . t o e s t i m a t e . t h e e x t e n t o f i t s e f f e c t on h i s p o e t r y . To t h i s end.a c l o s e t e x t u a l comparison has been made between the " f i f t h " e d i t i o n o f Poems, ( t h a t r e v i e w e d by Buchanan i n O c t o b e r 1871) and the new e d i t i o n o f ..Poems and B a l l a d s and  Sonnets w h i c h appeared i n 1881. I n the c o u r s e o f t h i s c o l l a t i o n , some seventy-one changes were d i s c o v e r e d which can be c l a s s i f i e d under t h r e e h e a d i n g s : t h o s e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m ; t h o s e t h a t may be a t t r i b u t a b l e ; and. t h o s e t h a t c l e a r l y a r e n o t . An.appendix has been p r o v i d e d . w h i c h g i v e s b o t h o r i g i n a l and emended v e r s i o n o f e v e r y . l i n e o f p o e t r y (or t i t l e ) t h a t was changed, and a l s o the .degree o f . p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t such a change i s t o be a t t r i b u t e d , t o Buchanan 1 s. a t t a c k (see below, pp. 160-171). I n t h e l a s t c a t e g o r y may f a i r l y be p l a c e d , the d i f f e r e n t o r d e r o f t h e poems, the use o f the " S o n n e t s . f o r P i c t u r e s , and o t h e r Sonnets" t o make.up the l a t e r "House o f L i f e , " and t h o s e emendations t h a t R o s s e t t i was c o n t i n u a l l y . m a k i n g , i n Poems from 1870 u n t i l h i s d e a t h . For. the. purposes., o f t h i s c o l l a t i o n any change i n . a l i n e o f p o e t r y i s r e g a r d e d as one change., whether i t be an a l t e r a t i o n i n p u n c t u a t i o n o r the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f s e v e r a l new words; the i n s e r t i o n o f a new s t a n z a o r s t a n z a s (as i s t h e case w i t h " S i s t e r H e l e n " ) , o r the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f one s t a n z a f o r a n o t h e r (as i s . t h e case w i t h "Sudden L i g h t " ) , a l s o c o n s t i t u t e one change. 129 Only one a l t e r a t i o n can be a t t r i b u t e d w i t h any degree o f c e r t a i n t y t o Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m : t h e o m i s s i o n o f t h e sonnet " N u p t i a l S l e e p " from t h e l a t e r v e r s i o n o f "The House o f L i f e . " There are . f o u r t e e n emendations which., may. be a t t r i b u t e d t o Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m , two o f w h i c h .are not i n v o l v e d i n the q u e s t i o n . o f t h e .poetry 1 s f l e s h l i n e s s , -however; and t h e r e a r e f i f t y - s i x w h i c h do not appear, to.-be r e l a t e d . , t o Buchanan's more s p e c i f i c c h a r g e s . F o r example., the. o b s c u r i t y o f . " S i s t e r H e len" i s c l a r i f i e d by t h e a d d i t i o n . o f a s t a n z a .("'Three days ago, on h i s marriage.morn, S i s t e r H e l e n , He s i c k e n e d and l i e s s i n c e t h e n f o r l o r n ' " ) , and.many o f the emendations c l e a r l y , add f o r c e and c l a r i t y , s e v e r a l making such a c o n t r i b u t i o n t h r o u g h the use o f a l l i t e r a t i o n (e.g.., t h e a l t e r a t i o n i n "A L a s t C o n f e s s i o n , " p. 68; o r t h a t i n "The Stream's S e c r e t , " p. 156); and such changes as t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f " s t e e l " f o r " b l a d e " i n the l a s t l i n e o f "A L a s t C o n f e s s i o n " (p. 83) .with i t s s u g g e s t i o n o f c h i l l , p r e c i s i o n , and f i n a l i t y a r e improvements t h a t any poet might make. About the o m i s s i o n .of " N u p t i a l . S l e e p " . from .the . l a t e r v e r s i o n o f "The House .of L i f e " t h e r e is., l i t t l e t h a t - n e e d s to.be s a i d ; i t i s t h e one emendation d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o Buchanan's a t t a c k s , as W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s f o o t n o t e i n i t s . f i r s t a u t h o r i z e d , r e p u b l i c a t i o n 2 a f t e r R o s s e t t i ' s . d e a t h v e r i f i e s . The poem, c a s t i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n , u n l i k e t h o s e b e f o r e and. a f t e r i t , does not.seem t h a t W.M. R o s s e t t i , ed..,. The Poems o f .Dante G a b r i e l : R o s s e t t i  w i t h I l l u s t r a t i o n s from h i s .Pictures.., and D e s i g n s .(.London:. E l l i s and E l v e y , 1904), I I , 232. 130 much more unwholesome than "The K i s s " or "Supreme Surrender." I t i s c e r t a i n l y the one sonnet t h a t Buchanan p e r s i s t e d i n c a l l i n g f l e s h l y , and i t i s undoubtedly very s e n s u a l , as R o s s e t t i h a l f admitted i n "The S t e a l t h y School o f C r i t i c i s m , " but i t i s a p i t y he suppressed i t , f o r i t i s not the pure animalism Buchanan c o n s i d e r e d i t to be. The Scot was almost as outspoken, and c e r t a i n l y allowed h i s i m a g i n a t i o n f u l l r e i n , i n h i s o b j e c t i o n s t o the a f f e c t e d d i c t i o n and s e n s u a l i t y o f "The K i s s : " . . . i n sonnet IV another and h i g h e r stage i s reached, f o r the lady g i v e s her l o v e r a "consonant i n t e r l u d e " (which i s the F l e s h l y f o r " k i s s " ) , and —"somewhat f i g u r a t i v e l y , i t i s t r u e , but u n m i s t a k a b l y " — proceeds, as a mother s u c k l e s a baby, t o a f f o r d him f u l l f r u i t i o n ; — I was a c h i l d beneath her touch ( ! ) , — a man When b r e a s t to b r e a s t we c l u n g , even I and s h e , — A s p i r i t when her s p i r i t l o o k t t h r o ' me,— A god when a l l our l i f e - b r e a t h met to fan  Our l i f e - b l o o d , t i l l l o v e ' s emulous ardours ran, F i r e w i t h i n f i r e , d e s i r e i n d e i t y . (Pamphlet, p. 59) Yet R o s s e t t i stuck to h i s guns, and d i d not a l t e r t h i s poem at a l l . P robably the b e s t way to t r e a t the f o u r t e e n changes which may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o Buchanan's a t t a c k i s t o examine t h o s e r e s u l t i n g from s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i o n s , and then to look a t those t h a t o b v i o u s l y reduce a poem's s e n s u a l i t y , even i f Buchanan d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y o b j e c t to the passage emended. Buchanan was not the o n l y person to deplore the blasphemy o f the second sonnet of "The House of L i f e , " "Love's Redemption," nor was he, o f course, the o n l y one to f i n d " N u p t i a l Sleep" 131 r e v o l t i n g ; f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s t e x t u a l e x a m i n a t i o n one c o u l d a l m o s t s u b s t i t u t e "Mrs. Grundy" f o r Buchanan's name; i t i s n ot o n l y Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m i n i t s e l f b u t the v iew i t r e p r e s e n t s t h a t i s h e r e b e i n g examined, but he d i d c r i t i c i z e t h e s onnet t w i c e i n t h e pamphlet. On page 59, i n answer t o R o s s e t t i ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " N u p t i a l S l e e p " i s a s o n n e t - s t a n z a o f a l a r g e r w h o le, Buchanan r e - a s s e r t s t h a t the sonnet sequence i s " f l o o d e d w i t h s e n s u a l i s m from th e f i r s t l i n e t o the l a s t . " He t h e n quotes R o s s e t t i as s a y i n g t h a t t h e l o v e o f the f i r s t s o n n e t , " B r i d a l Love", i s a " c r e a t u r e o f p o i g n a n t t h i r s t And e x q u i s i t e hunger," and goes on t o s u g g e s t t h a t the sacrament o f the n e x t s o n n e t , "Love's Redemption," i s an o b v i o u s metaphor f o r "the a c t o f s e x u a l c o n n e c t i o n " (as he p u t s i t on page 7 8 ) , r a t h e r t h a n , w h i c h was u n d o u b t e d l y R o s s e t t i ' s i n t e n t i o n , s u g g e s t i n g the m y s t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e communion o f t w i n s o u l s . The emended v e r s i o n o f t h e s o n n e t , w i t h i t s f o u r a l t e r a t i o n s e l i m i n a t i n g the blasphemous use o f the sacrament b u t s t r e s s i n g t h e r e l i g i o u s n a t u r e o f the l o v e by t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f the word " t e s t a m e n t " , i s l e s s o b j e c t i o n a b l e , b u t n o t as s a t i s f a c t o r y , f o r , as P a u l l Buchanan l a t e r s a i d t h a t "Tennyson avowed t o me v i v a voce t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d R o s s e t t i ' s sonnet on ' N u p t i a l S l e e p ' the ' f i l t h i e s t t h i n g he had e v e r r e a d ' " ( J a y , p. 162). W i l l i a m M i c h a e l ' s D i a r y does r e c o r d h i s b e i n g t o l d by F r e d e r i c k L o c k e r t h a t Tennyson "speaks o f some o f G's sonnets as the f i n e s t i n the language" (November 24, 1871). But n e i t h e r t h i s nor F r a n c i s T. P a l g r a v e 1 s s t a t e m e n t t h a t "'The p a s s i o n and i m a g i -n a t i v e power o f t h e s onnet ' N u p t i a l S l e e p ' i m p r e s s e d [Tennyson] d e e p l y ' " (quoted by W i l l i a m M i c h a e l , op_. c i t . , 234 from H a l l a m Tennyson's Memoir, I I , 505) e x p l i c i t l y deny Buchanan's v e r s i o n o f Tennyson's o p i n i o n . 132 F r a n k l i n Baum s a y s , " t h e s e s t e t f i t s t he e a r l i e r form o f the 4 sonnet b e t t e r t h a n i t s l a t e r v e r s i o n . " I n Sonnet V I , "Supreme S u r r e n d e r , " " h a r v e s t - f i e l d " was s u b s t i t u t e d f o r " f a l l o w f i e l d " i n t h e opening l i n e s : To a l l t h e s p i r i t s o f l o v e t h a t wander by A l o n g the love-sown f a l l o w f i e l d o f s l e e p My l a d y l i e s a p p a r e n t ; and t h e deep C a l l s t o t h e deep; and no man sees b u t I . Buchanan quotes t h e s e l i n e s (p. 60) t o g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t R o s s e t t i i s her e g l o r y i n g i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e naked, conquered female (the f e r t i l i t y o f the c r i t i c ' s i m a g i n a t i o n n o t b e i n g i n d o u b t ) . " F a l l o w f i e l d " , though i t a l i c i s e d w i t h t h e rem a i n d e r o f t h e second l i n e , where "the whole b u s i n e s s o f l o v e i s c h r o n i c l e d i n s u b l i m e and d a r i n g metaphor" (p. 6 0 ) , Buchanan does n ot examine c l o s e l y . Presumably he saw the female (very c l e a r l y ! ) as a s l e e p , e x h a u s t e d from l o v e m a k i n g , and "lovesown", meaning i m p r e g n a t e d , d o u b t l e s s . The p o s s i b l e s t e r i l i t y o f " f a l l o w f i e l d " he does n o t c o n s i d e r . C e r t a i n l y R o s s e t t i ' s a l t e r a t i o n does change t h e emphasis, f o r " f a l l o w " s u g g e s t s t h a t w i t h s l e e p p a s t t h e f i e l d w i l l a g a i n be t i l l a b l e , whereas " h a r v e s t f i e l d " s u g g e s t s s l e e p as t h e r e s u l t o f lovemaking w i t h l e s s s u g g e s t i o n o f f u r t h e r a c t i v i t y (perhaps t h e r e i s some h i n t , t o o , o f t h e p o e t ' s own c h r o n i c i n s o m n i a ! ) , t h a t t h e s l e e p i s a p e r i o d n o t f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n b u t o f f r u i t i o n . Buchanan drew a t t e n t i o n (p. 60) t o "the l o n g l i t h e t h r o a t " and "the mouth's mould" as examples o f f l e s h l i n e s s i n "The 4 Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i , The House o f L i f e , ed. P a u l l F. Baum (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1928), p. 69.. 133 P o r t r a i t . " Not a l t e r i n g t h e second, R o s s e t t i changed th e f i r s t t o t h e g r a n d l y vague and m e lodious " e n t h r o n i n g t h r o a t " (which W i l l i a m M i c h a e l g l o s s e d as " c o l u m n a r " ) , t h e r e b y g o i n g from t h e extreme o f r e a l i s m t o t h e extreme o f m e a n i n g l e s s p o e t i c a l i t y , and d e m o n s t r a t i n g i n t h i s one a l t e r a t i o n two o f h i s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a u l t s . C o n t i n u i n g h i s eager s e a r c h f o r , and t r i u m p h a n t d i s c o v e r y o f , f l e s h l i n e s s , Buchanan f l o u r i s h e d , w i t h h i s u s u a l i t a l i c s and e x c l a m a t i o n marks, a n o t h e r metaphor p u r s u e d " t o t h e v e r y p i t o f b e a s t l i n e s s " i n Sonnet XXXIX, " V a i n V i r t u e s : " V i r g i n s . . . whom the f i e n d s compel T o g e t h e r now, i n the snake-bound s h u d d e r i n g sheaves Of a n g u i s h , w h i l e t h e s c o r c h i n g Bridegroom l e a v e s T h e i r r e f u s e maidenhood (!) abominable! (p. 62) R o s s e t t i changed "the s c o r c h i n g b r i d e g r o o m " t o "the p i t ' s p o l l u t i o n , " s o , p resumably, he c o u l d see the f o r c e o f Buchanan's o b j e c t i o n , even t o the p o s s i b l e e x t e n t o f s u b c o n s c i o u s l y remembering Buchanan's own word; b u t " T h e i r r e f u s e maidenhood" he d i d n o t a l t e r . The r a t h e r u n f o r t u n a t e "garbage" (of the n i n t h l i n e ) was much improved by t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f " t r i b u t e . " A n o t h e r change i n t h a t s e r i e s o f sonnets (from X I I t o XX) t h a t Buchanan c a l l e d "one p r o f u s e sweat o f a n i m a l i s m " (p. 6 0 ) , i s t o be found i n sonnet XV, "Winged Hours," where " c o n t e n d i n g k i s s e s " ( l i n e 8) becomes " c o n t e n d i n g j o y s " i n t h e l a t e r e d i t i o n , t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g what l i t t l e s e n s u a l i t y the sonnet c o n t a i n e d . Two changes t h a t may be a t t r i b u t e d , i n p a r t a t l e a s t t o Buchanan's remarks, a r e t h e a l t e r a t i o n s o f t h e burdens i n "Eden Bower." The S c o t d i d say t h a t "Mr. R o s s e t t i i s g r e a t i n 'bowers'" 134 (p. 6 3 ) , and had c a s t i g a t e d t h e use o f a r e f r a i n as b e i n g " o f a p i e c e w i t h o t h e r a f f e c t a t i o n s " o f the F l e s h l y S c h o o l i n the o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e . R o s s e t t i a l t e r e d the r a t h e r u g l y chimes o f "bower," " f l o w e r , " "bower," and "hour" o f the o r i g i n a l t o the more e c o n o m i c a l " S i n g Eden Bower!" and " A l a s t h e hour!" o f the l a t e r v e r s i o n . Of t h o s e changes t h a t cannot be d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o any s p e c i f i c remark by Buchanan, b u t w h i c h , n o n e t h e l e s s , reduce the s e n s u a l i t y o f the p o e t r y , a p a r t i c u l a r l y o b v i o u s one i s t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a new s t a n z a in."Sudden L i g h t . " The o r i g i n a l s t a n z a , p i c t u r i n g l o v e r s l y i n g t o g e t h e r and t h e poet e x p r e s s i n g t h e hope t h a t i n f u r t h e r i n c a r n a t i o n s t h e y would r e p e a t t h e same l o v e - e x p e r i e n c e , i s r e p l a c e d by a much l e s s e f f e c t i v e s t a n z a b e g i n n i n g w i t h .the awkward "Has t h i s been thus b e f o r e ? " , and a l e s s c l o s e l y r e a l i z e d and r a t h e r . r h e t o r i c a l r e n d e r i n g o f t h e o r i g i n a l t h o u g h t . O ther no l e s s i m p o r t a n t changes.are t o be found i n the s e v e n t h s t a n z a . o f "The B l e s s e d Damozel." "Amid d e a t h l e s s l o v e ' s a c c l a i m s " c e r t a i n l y reduces t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e poem f o r e r o t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and goes t o s u p p o r t i t s P l a t o n i c theme o f the a b s o l u t e permanence o f t r u e l o v e , as does th e r e p l a c i n g o f " T h e i r v i r g i n a l c h a s t e names" o f t h e f o u r t h l i n e o f t h i s s t a n z a by " T h e i r heart-remembered.names," w i t h i t s r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t emphasis. One may c o n c l u d e t h a t R o s s e t t i d i d i n d e e d tone down the s e n s u a l i t y , o f h i s p o e t r y f o r i t s l a t e r r e p u b l i c a t i o n , b u t on the w h o l e , and c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p o e t ' s n o t e d l a c k o f r e s o l u t i o n , he 135 showed h i m s e l f t o be r e m a r k a b l y s t e a d f a s t i n h i s r e f u s a l t o a l l o w Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m t o make much impact on h i s p o e t r y . By 1881, o f c o u r s e , t h e p a s s i o n s and p r e j u d i c e s i n f l a m e d by the c o n t r o v e r s y had l o n g s i n c e d i e d down, b u t R o s s e t t i was s t i l l as s u s c e p t i b l e t o p r a i s e o r blame as e v e r he was, so he might have been e x p e c t e d t o bend f u r t h e r b e f o r e t h i s w i nd t h a n he a c t u a l l y d i d . One o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r Buchanan's f a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e r impact on b o t h t h e p o e t and i t s r e a d e r s was due, one must s u r m i s e , t o h i s f a i l u r e t o l o o k deeper i n t o the p o e t r y , and t h e s o u r c e s o f i t s i n s p i r a t i o n . Few p o e t s o f the f i r s t r a nk have been s u b j e c t t o more debate c o n c e r n i n g t h e t r u e n a t u r e and m e r i t o f t h e i r p o e t i c achievement th a n has R o s s e t t i . Buchanan's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s d e b a t e , and i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t one, has been t o encourage th e tendency t o a p o l a r i z a t i o n o f the c r i t i c a l r esponse t o R o s s e t t i ' s a r t . Had he been r e a l l y c o n c erned t o e s t a b l i s h t h e t r u t h about R o s s e t t i , t h e r e i s much t h a t he c o u l d have s a i d more damaging than what he d i d s a y ; t h e r e a r e major f l a w s i n the p o e t r y . But by s e e i n g t h o s e f l a w s as symptomatic o f the p o e t ' s b a s i c i m m o r a l i t y , Buchanan drew a t t e n t i o n away from th e v a l i d a e s t h e t i c q u e s t i o n s t h e p o e t r y does r a i s e , t o the e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n s so p o p u l a r w i t h h i s r e a d e r s . Had he l e f t such q u e s t i o n s t o be i m p l i e d from h i s d e l i n e a t i o n o f R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t i c f a u l t s , w hich h i s l a c k o f s u b t l e t y and e x c e s s o f r i g h t e o u s n e s s l e f t him i n c a p a b l e o f d o i n g , h i s c r i t i c i s m would have made a w o r t h w h i l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f R o s s e t t i ' s a r t . B u t , p l u n g e r as he was, Buchanan s t a k e d a l l and l o s t n e a r l y a l l . As a r e s u l t , h i s 136 c r i t i c i s m r e p r e s e n t s t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r the two main s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t on R o s s e t t i . There i s much i n R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y t h a t i s j u s t as a r t i -f i c i a l , o v e r - e l a b o r a t e , o b s c u r e , o r m e r e l y m e l o d i o u s l y p o e t i c a l as Buchanan c l a i m e d t h e r e was. I f he had c o n c e n t r a t e d h i s e n e r g i e s upon p i l i n g example upon example o f such f a u l t s and d e v o t e d l e s s t o e m b e l l i s h i n g e s s a y and pamphlet w i t h t h e a t r i c a l a n a l o g y o r . r h e t o r i c a l , e x c u r s i o n s i n t o the h i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h and European pornography, and i f he c o u l d have chosen th o s e examples c a r e f u l l y enough.to a n t i c i p a t e . m o s t o f t h e o b j e c t i o n s t h a t R o s s e t t i and Forman r a i s e d , t h e n , however d i r e i t might have been (which, s u r e l y , was n o t t o d r i v e R o s s e t t i t o t h e b r i n k o f t h e a b y s s ) , he would have a c h i e v e d . h i s purpose. But Buchanan f a i l s t o show any r e a l .understanding o f what R o s s e t t i was about. He d i d make t h e . cheap and. r e l a t i v e l y o b v i o u s -points about R o s s e t t i ' s d i c t i o n and p r o s o d y , b u t t h e s e -flaws were r e g a r d e d m e r e l y as b e i n g t h e s u p e r f i c i a l b l e m i s h e s o f a p a t e n t l y i n s i n c e r e man. There i s o f t e n a sense o f s t r a i n i n R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y ; and a sense., t o o , t h a t words, l i k e " enthroning", a p p l i e d t o t h r o a t ( i n t h e s o n n e t , "The P o r t r a i t " ) , . o r " a u s p i c i o u s " when used t o d e s c r i b e t h e b e l o v e d ' s s o u l ( i n . " L o v e ' s N o c t u r n " ) , s u b s e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e d b y the much more f e l i c i t o u s . " t r a n s l u c e n t " , a r e b e i n g used l e s s f o r t h e i r sense t h a n t h e i r sound- R a t h e r than making h i s c r a s s comments about R o s s e t t i ' s rhyming and s t r e s s i n g o f the l a s t s y l l a b l e s o f words l i k e " l i l y " and "Haymarket", Buchanan, by l i s t e n i n g . a l i t t l e more i n t e n t l y , . c o u l d have r e c o g n i z e d t h i s as an attempt, a t e n l i v e n i n g t h e p a t t e r n s o f E n g l i s h p r o s o d y , a t 137 times v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y , a t o t h e r t i m e s q u i t e c l u m s i l y , as when " u n t r o d , " "God," and " c l o u d " a re rhymed i n "The B l e s s e d Damozel." The l a r g e r q u e s t i o n o f R o s s e t t i ' s o b s c u r i t y demands a much c l o s e r s c r u t i n y t h a n t h e i m p a t i e n t Buchanan c o u l d g i v e i t . Even a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e poem l i k e "A L a s t C o n f e s s i o n " needs some c a r e t o u n r a v e l i t s form and t o f i n d the p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t embedded i n t h a t form. But Buchanan, a g a i n , i s ready t o make the v a l i d enough comment t h a t the d r a m a t i c monologue i s Browningesque ( a d m i s s i o n i n i t s e l f o f i t s c o m p l e x i t y ) and, a f t e r d r a w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o some s p u r i o u s f l e s h l i n e s s i n t h e poem, l e t i t d r o p . On the much more complex imagery a t t h e c l o s e o f such s o n n e t s as " L o v e s i g h t " o r "Love-Sweetness," Buchanan i s s i l e n t , w h i c h perhaps i s j u s t as w e l l ; f o r i t i s o n l y when R o s s e t t i ' s imagery p e r m i t s a s e x u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t Buchanan's i m a g i n a t i o n b e g i n s t o s t i r . I n . f a c t , t h e r e i s no r e c o g n i t i o n w h a t s o e v e r o f the c o m p l e x i t y and v a r i e t y o f R o s s e t t i ' s work; a l l i s r e d u c e d t o t h e common denominator o f f l e s h l i n e s s , and n o t even t h e most o b v i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a re p o i n t e d o u t . W h i l e R o s s e t t i ' s " b r e a d t h o f p o e t i c i n t e r e s t " i s n o t , pe r h a p s , much w i d e r t h a n Buchanan s a i d i t was, t h e r e i s a marked c o n t r a s t i n the s t y l e s t o be found i n R o s s e t t i ' s work; i f t h e sonnets do n o t a p p e a l , t h e r e a r e the b a l l a d s ; and t h e r e a re few c r i t i c s who would c a v i l a t the g r a c e and s i m p l i c i t y o f such l y r i c s as "The Woodspurge" o r "Sudden L i g h t . " As a t a c t i c a l d e v i c e Buchanan does concede t h e f o r c e and beauty o f a phrase here o r an image t h e r e , b u t he does n o t s i n g l e o u t one poem f o r u n q u a l i f i e d p r a i s e . I n i t s e l f Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m i s n o t p e r c i p i e n t o r thorough 138 enough t o m e r i t much d i s c u s s i o n ; y e t i t can be seen t o mark a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t d i v e r g e n c e o f o p i n i o n on R o s s e t t i . J u s t as the p o e t ' s work ranges from the o r n a t e , o b s c u r e , and a l l e g o r i c a l t o the s i m p l e , d i r e c t , and c o n c r e t e , so does c r i t i c i s m o f R o s s e t t i t e n d t o p o l a r i z e . One group t a k e s i t s l e a d from Buchanan, and, d r o p p i n g h i s m o r a l r e s e r v a t i o n s , sees him as one o f t h e f i r s t o f t h e a e s t h e t e s , one o f the f i r s t o f the d e c a d e n t s , i n t h e h i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . The o t h e r group, r e a c t i n g away from Buchanan's c r a s s i n s i s t e n c e on R o s s e t t i ' s m a t e r i a l i s m , tends t o emphasize the p o e t ' s m y s t i c a l s p i r i t u a l i t y . Buchanan's s t a t e m e n t t h a t R o s s e t t i d e l i g h t e d . i n form f o r form's sake (the a e s t h e t i c c o r o l l a r y t o d e l i g h t i n t h e body f o r the body's sake) was one w h i c h g a i n e d r a p i d credence i n t h e 1880's. Buchanan had s u g g e s t e d a s i m i l a r view o f t h e P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s i n "Lady L e t i t i a ' s L i l l i p u t Hand" as e a r l y as 1862, p r o b a b l y because he had h e a r d the l i t e r a r y g o s s i p o f t h e day. Swinburne, a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Poems and B a l l a d s , had t a l k e d o f t h r o w i n g o v e r " G a b r i e l and h i s f o l l o w e r s i n a r t ( l ' a r t pour l ' a r t ) " i n a l e t t e r t o W i l l i a m M i c h a e l (Lang, 149), so t h a t he c o u l d g i v e h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y message l o u d and c l e a r i n Songs  B e f o r e S u n r i s e . W a l t e r P a t e r , t o o , had e u l o g i z e d W i l l i a m M o r r i s ' s a e s t h e t i c p o e t r y i n the W e s t m i n s t e r Review (XC, O c t o b e r 186 8, 300-312), and i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t Buchanan had t h i s a r t i c l e (among o t h e r s ) i n mind when he t a l k e d o f t h e F l e s h l y S c h o o l l o s i n g "the v e r y f a c t s o f day and n i g h t " " i n a w h i r l o f a e s t h e t i c t e r m i n o l o g y " (Houghton and Stange, p. 889). I t was the n o t o r i e t y , however, o f Buchanan's a t t a c k t h a t f i r m l y f i x e d , f o r t h e many 139 not acquainted with Bohemia, R o s s e t t i ' s l e a d i n g r o l e i n t h i s dangerous new development from across the Channel. By 1880, when Buchanan was about to withdraw h i s e n t i r e i n d i c t m e n t o f R o s s e t t i , there were others ready to take up h i s c r y . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r aspect of i t was taken up by Harry Q u i l t e r i n "The New Renaissance; o r , The Gospel of I n t e n s i t y " (Macmillan's Magazine, X L I I , September 1880, 391-400), where he d e s c r i b e d t h a t new s o c i a l phenomenon, the A e s t h e t e , and t r a c e d i t s o r i g i n s back to the P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , and i t s c u r r e n t vogue t o the p u b l i c i z i n g t a l e n t s of Swinburne, P a t e r , and Burne-Jones. The p o e t r y of R o s s e t t i , whose " c h i e f t e n e t , " i n an age of deep i n t e l l e c t u a l u n r e s t and shaken b e l i e f s , was " t h a t n o t h i n g was worth doing but 'love'" (p. 397); and the c r i t i c i s m of t h a t p o e t r y , w r i t t e n mostly by f r i e n d s of the poet, and c o n c e n t r a t i n g s o l e l y on i t s beauty and "not i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l burden" (p. 398), a l s o promoted the cause of a e s t h e t i c i s m . In a l a t e r , more sympathetic a r t i c l e ( w r i t t e n a f t e r R o s s e t t i ' s d e a t h ) , Q u i l t e r s t a t e d q u i t e f l a t l y t h a t " R o s s e t t i w i l l stand l e s s as the p a i n t e r - p o e t than as the l e a d e r of the g r e a t a r t i s t i c movement of England i n the n i n e t e e n t h century" ("The A r t of R o s s e t t i , " Contemporary Review, X L I I I , February 1883, 201). J.C. S h a i r p re-examining Q u i l t e r ' s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n repeated i n " A e s t h e t i c P o e t r y : Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i " Buchanan's charge t h a t R o s s e t t i ' s "worship of sensuous beauty, f o r i t s own sake, i s not the growth o f a vigorous age, s t r o n g i n manhood, but i s the mark o f a l a t e and decadent c i v i l i z a t i o n " (Contemporary Review, XL I I , J u l y 1882, 20). Rephrasing much o f Buchanan's e a r l i e r 140 i n d i c t m e n t , and r e p h r a s i n g i t i n language the S c o t c o u l d w e l l have used h i m s e l f , S h a i r p hammered home R o s s e t t i ' s r o l e i n t h e a e s t h e t i c movement, and s e c u r e d , f o r the time b e i n g , a t l e a s t , R o s s e t t i ' s tenuous c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n o f a r t i s t s . R o s s e t t i h i m s e l f had c o n t r i b u t e d t o . t h a t c o n n e c t i o n by h i s s t a t e m e n t i n "The S t e a l t h y S c h o o l o f C r i t i c i s m " t h a t h i s view of t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r p o e t r y was p r o b a b l y w i d e r t h a n t h a t o f most o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , and t h i s was seen as a m a n i f e s t o by such men as George Moore, Oscar W i l d e and John A d d i n g t o n Symonds. Moore, i n an a l t e r c a t i o n w i t h Buchanan of a l l p e o p l e , i s q u o t e d as c a l l i n g h i m s e l f "a t r u e descendent o f R o s s e t t i and Swinburne" ( C a s s i d y , p. 9 1 ) . W i l d e , w r i t i n g i n 1882, p r a i s e s R o s s e t t i ' s " p e r f e c t p r e c i s i o n and c h o i c e o f language, a s t y l e f l a w l e s s and f e a r l e s s , a s e e k i n g f o r a l l sweet and p r e c i o u s m e l o d i e s and a s u s t a i n i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the m u s i c a l v a l u e o f each word," a l l o f w h i c h was t o be "opposed t o t h a t v a l u e w h i c h i s m e r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l . " " * Symonds s t r e s s e d , i n the same y e a r , t h a t t h e man i n R o s s e t t i " i s l e s s i m p o r t a n t than t h e a r t i s t . I t i s i n h i s power o f p r e s e n t i n g p i c t u r e s t o t h e m e n t a l eye, i n h i s command ov e r d e l i b e r a t e e f f e c t s o f words and rhythms, t h a t he shows h i m s e l f r e a l l y g r e a t , " n o t i n h i s o r i g i n a l i t y o f thought o r s e n t i m e n t , o f w h i c h t h e r e i s l i t t l e ("Notes on Mr.D.G. R o s s e t t i ' s New Poems," p. 326). But whereas the a e s t h e t e s saw "The E n g l i s h R e n a i s s a n c e o f A r t , " The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s , Jerome H. B u c k l e y , ed., p. 483. 141 R o s s e t t i as an amoral poet, F.W.H. Myers, i n a p e r c e p t i v e essay p u b l i s h e d i n 1883, saw R o s s e t t i as the l e a d e r o f a movement making a r t a r e l i g i o n , w i t h i t s worship o f beauty being p a r t o f the new s o c i a l impetus not to wealth but to c u l t u r e ; Buchanan's o b j e c t i o n s had come f u l l c i r c l e . Myers' purpose was t o s t r e s s R o s s e t t i ' s P l a t o n i c d e s i r e t o " e x t r a c t the utmost s e c r e t , the o c c u l t message, from the phenomena of L i f e and Being," and he answers Symonds by i n s i s t i n g t h a t i n R o s s e t t i ' s love p o e t r y , the l o v e r s have l o s t the i d i o s y n c r a c i e s of i n d i v i d u a l beings i n t h e i r m y s t i c a l union w i t h the i n f i n i t e , hence thought and sentiment are l e f t f a r behind. The poet, u l t i m a t e l y , i s t r y i n g to express the i n e x p r e s s i b l e . A l l of t h i s R o s s e t t i would, no doubt, have accepted as a sound r e a d i n g o f h i s work, and he probably would have commended t h i s eloquent, and P a t e r i a n , attempt a t j u s t i f y i n g a e s t h e t i c p o e t r y , though he r e f u s e d to see h i m s e l f as the p r o g e n i t o r of the a e s t h e t e s . A f t e r conceding Sha i r p ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t R o s s e t t i ' s poems do seem t o be the "ex p r e s s i o n o f a century which i s r e f i n i n g i t s e l f i n t o q u i e t i s m and mellowing i n t o decay," Myers c o n t i n u e s : 7 Yet thus much we may s a f e l y a f f i r m , t h a t i f we c o n t r a s t a e s t h e t i c i s m w i t h pure hedonism—the p u r s u i t of p l e a s u r e through a r t w i t h the p u r s u i t o f p l e a s u r e simply as p l e a s u r e — t h e one has a tendency t o quicken and e x a l t , as the oth e r t o deaden and v u l g a r i z e , the " R o s s e t t i and the R e l i g i o n o f Beauty," Essays: Modern (London: Macmillan, 1883) . 7 P a r t of Buchanan's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the understanding of R o s s e t t i ' s a r t being p r e c i s e l y t h i s : t h a t he confused a e s t h e t i c i s m w i t h hedonism, as d i d so many of h i s contemporaries. 142 emotions and appetencies of man. I f onl y the a r t i s t can keep c l e a r o f the sensuous s e l f i s h n e s s which w i l l , i n i t s t u r n , degrade the a r t which y i e l d s i t ; i f o n l y he can worship beauty w i t h a s t r o n g and s i n g l e h e a r t , h i s emotional nature w i l l a c q u i r e a grace and e l e v a t i o n which are not, indeed, i d e n t i c a l w i t h the e l e v a t i o n o f v i r t u e , the grace o f h o l i n e s s , but which are none the l e s s a p r i c e l e s s enrichment of the complex l i f e o f man (p. 332). There were other reasons, t o o, why the aesthetes should have admired R o s s e t t i , but they a l s o l e a d back to Buchanan. The t o t a l r e v o l t a g a i n s t the ugly m a t e r i a l i s m of the n i n e t e e n t h century i m p l i c i t i n R o s s e t t i ' s o t h e r - w o r l d l y mysticism, h i s withdrawal from the p r e s s i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l , p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l problems of the age, h i s r e f u s a l t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the t h e o l o g i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c debates t h a t racked h i s f e l l o w V i c t o r i a n s , these, too, made him e s p e c i a l l y a t t r a c t i v e t o the r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n of a r t i s t s . Indeed/the t h i n g s t h a t Buchanan abhorred about R o s s e t t i were j u s t what they admired i n him; and, q u i t e probably, i t was the f a c t t h a t Buchanan d i s l i k e d R o s s e t t i ' s " i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " so i n t e n s e l y t h a t made i t so a t t r a c t i v e t o h i s s u c c e s s o r s . Oscar Wilde's extravagant and e l a b o r a t e l y i n s i n c e r e p o s t u r i n g s were designed to antagonize the Buchanans of h i s day (though a much mellowed Robert Buchanan d i d w r i t e l e t t e r s t o the Times on Wilde's b e h a l f ) . Beyond the aesthetes came the Decadent g e n e r a t i o n , and Barbara Charlesworth has taken Buchanan's p o s i t i o n to i t s extreme i n her argument t h a t R o s s e t t i , too, had as h i s i d e a l , f o l l o w i n g P a t e r ' s famous counsel f i r s t adumbrated i n "Poems by W i l l i a m M o r r i s , " "the attainment of as many moments as p o s s i b l e o f h e i g h t e n e d s e n s o r y awareness." M i s s C h a r l e s w o r t h t r a c e s R o s s e t t i ' s d i s i n t e g r a t i o n t o t h e v a l u a t i o n o f such moments a t the expense o f h i s awareness o f h i s own i d e n t i t y , t he e x q u i s i t e moment becoming more i m p o r t a n t t h a n the s e l f . P l a u s i b l e though i t may be, the argument c o u l d never be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y p r o v e d , and sheds l i t t l e l i g h t on t h e p o e t r y ; b u t i t does show how one o f t h e extreme approaches t o R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y can, by s u b t l e s h a d i n g , merge i n t o the o t h e r : The w o r l d o u t s i d e t h e s e l f t o w h i c h [ R o s s e t t i ] l o o k e d f o r a s t a n d a r d was a s p i r i t u a l , e t e r n a l r e a l m o f l o v e and b e a u t y . Through t h e concept o f t h e moment he t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h a l i n k between t h a t r e a l m and the mind; h i s thought was t h a t i n a s t a t e o f h e i g h t e n e d p e r c e p t i o n the c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e c o g n i z e s i n o b j e c t s and per s o n s t h e s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y o f wh i c h t h e y a re a r e f l e c t i o n . 9 J u s t as Buchanan's i n s i s t e n c e on R o s s e t t i ' s s e n s u a l i t y found a ready r e s p o n s e i n l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n s , s o , i n r e a c t i o n t o t h a t i n s i s t e n c e , has t h e r e been a tendency among c r i t i c s , e s p e c i a l l y R o s s e t t i ' s champions, t o emphasize h i s s p i r i t u a l i t y . T h i s i s the c e n t r a l c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n t h a t Buchanan's a t t a c k r a i s e s . I s R o s s e t t i ' s a r t r e a l l y an i n s i n c e r e e t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l (as Buchanan and many o t h e r s see i t ; G e o f f r e y G r i g s o n b e i n g t h e l a t e s t ) o r i s i t a m y s t i c ' s attempt t o g i v e a l o c a l h a b i t a t i o n and a name t o t h e shadowy v i s i o n s o f the po e t ' s i m a g i n a t i o n (as R o s s e t t i ' s a d m i r e r s see i t ) ? I t i s a q u e s t i o n B a r b a r a C h a r l e s w o r t h , Dark Passages (Madison: U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1965), p. x v . 9 C h a r l e s w o r t h , p. 17. 144 t h a t d e f i e s easy s o l u t i o n . W i t h any p o e t , e s p e c i a l l y one so c o n s c i o u s o f t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d as a p a i n t e r and so n o t e d an a d m i r e r o f f e m i n i n e beauty as R o s s e t t i , p a r t o f h i s v e r y s t o c k i n t r a d e i s t o e l e v a t e p h y s i c a l phenomena t o t h e l e v e l o f r i c h l y s u g g e s t i v e symbol. "The Woodspurge" i s a p e r f e c t example o f t h i s a s p e c t o f R o s s e t t i ' s a r t ; and, p o s s i b l y , "The H o n e y s u c k l e " (one wonders t h a t Buchanan's r i c h i m a g i n a t i o n d i d n o t make a n y t h i n g o f t h a t s u g g e s t i v e l i t t l e poem), w i t h i t s more c l e a r l y s e n s u a l o v e r t o n e s , i s an even b e t t e r example o f i t . To the e x t e n t t h a t R o s s e t t i uses such t h i n g s as t h e s e f l o w e r s t o s y m b o l i z e h i s e m o t i o n s , and thus imbue the p h y s i c a l w o r l d w i t h some k i n d o f r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r h i m s e l f , he i s l i k e any o t h e r r o m a n t i c p o e t . But t h e w o r l d o f t h e s o n n e t s , o f "Love's N o c t u r n " and "The Stream's S e c r e t , " i s a v e r y d i f f e r e n t one from t h a t o f most modern p o e t s . Buchanan d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d i t , d i s l i k e d i t and c a l l e d i t names; b u t t h e r e can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t i t was i n t h e s e i n t e n s e l y s u b j e c t i v e poems t h a t R o s s e t t i was f o l l o w i n g t h e t r u e b e n t o f h i s Dantesque n a t u r e , and was t r y i n g t o e x p r e s s the e v a n e s c e n t i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e o f a w i t h d r a w n , h i g h l y i m a g i n a t i v e , and s e n s i t i v e man. What has t o be remembered i s t h a t i t i s f e m i n i n e beauty w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e e n t r y i n t o t h i s w o r l d ; j u s t as i t d i d f o r Dante. I t has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t was R o s s e t t i ' s " c o n c e p t i o n o f i d e a l b e a u t y , as r e v e a l e d i n womanhood, and t h e p o e t ' s a r d e n t l o n g i n g f o r t h i s i d e a l , w h i c h form t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l b a s i s f o r a l l h i s 145 creations.""'"^ R o s s e t t i f o l l o w s h i s g r e a t namesake i n h i s s u b l i m a t i o n o f h i s p h y s i c a l p a s s i o n and h i s e l e v a t i o n and e t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s s p i r i t u a l l o n g i n g s f o r an o t h e r w o r l d ; b u t f o r R o s s e t t i , u n l i k e Dante, t h a t o t h e r w o r l d i s e s s e n t i a l l y pagan. The b a s i s o f R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y i s the P l a t o n i c s e a r c h f o r one's s o u l m a t e , n o t t h e p r o g r e s s i v e e x a l t a t i o n o f l o v e from the p h y s i c a l t o t h e s p i r i t u a l t o the d i v i n e , w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s i t s development i n Dante's m a s t e r p i e c e . However, i t i s a l m o s t an a c t o f f a i t h t o see R o s s e t t i i n t h e s e terms; f o r the Buchanans, t h e Waughs, and the G r i g s o n s o f t h i s w o r l d , R o s s e t t i ' s v e r y e a r t h l y a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h c o a r s e and s o u l l e s s c r e a t u r e s l i k e Fanny C o r n f o r t h , o r w i t h the o n l y a p p a r e n t l y s o u l f u l ones l i k e Janey M o r r i s , t h i s m y s t i c i s m i s j u s t the p r e t e n t i o u s window-d r e s s i n g o f . a c a l c u l a t i n g h y p o c r i t e . Humphry House has g i v e n one o f t h e most b a l a n c e d s t a t e m e n t s o f t h e m y s t i c a l view of t h e p o e t : " I t i s more i m p o r t a n t t o say o f R o s s e t t i t h a t he had some power o f making s p i r i t u a l t h i n g s and t h e d e t a i l s o f r e l i g i o u s myth c o n c r e t e , t h a n t h a t he had an e t h e r e a l i z e d a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e physical."''"''" But i t i s h a r d t o see "the d e t a i l s o f r e l i g i o u s myth" b e i n g any more th a n p a r t o f t h e e l a b o r a t e b u t e x t r a n e o u s d e c o r o f R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y , and t h i s s t a t e m e n t does not t o u c h t h e r e a l s o u r c e s o f R o s s e t t i ' s m y s t i c i s m , w h i c h do have t h e i r o r i g i n i n the d e l i g h t o f n o t h i n g F r a n z H u e f f e r i n the T a u c h n i t z e d i t i o n o f Poems by Dante  G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i , p. x x x i , q u o t e d by P a u l l F r a n k l i n Baum, The  House o f L i f e , p. 26. " ^ A l l i n Due Time (London: H a r t - D a v i s , 1955), p. 157. 146 more e t h e r e a l t h a n the female body. There i s a m i d d l e ground i n t h i s debate w h i c h seems t o be the most t e n a b l e p o i n t from w h i c h t o probe t h i s d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n . Theodore Watts-Dunton i n "The T r u t h about R o s s e t t i " ( N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , X I I , March 1883, 404-423) sees him as " s p i r i t u a l i z i n g t h e f l e s h , " combining, the s e n s u a l i t y o f c l a s s i c i s m w i t h the sense o f the mystery b e h i n d p h y s i c a l phenomena o f r o m a n t i c i s m . H i s v i e w o f the g r e a t movements i n a r t o f t h e l a s t t h r e e c e n t u r i e s may be t o o s i m p l i s t i c , b u t h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f R o s s e t t i ' s p u r p o s e . ( p o s s i b l y s h a r e d , o r m o d i f i e d , by Swinburne) does come c l o s e s t t o b e i n g t h e most v a l i d : To e l i m i n a t e a s c e t i s m from r o m a n t i c a r t , and y e t t o remain r o m a n t i c , t o r e t a i n t h a t m y s t i c i s m which a l o n e can g i v e l i f e t o r o m a n t i c a r t , and y e t t o be as sensuous as t h e T i t i a n s w h o . r e v i v e d sensuousness a t the s a c r i f i c e o f m y s t i c i s m , was t h e q u e s t , more o r l e s s c o n s c i o u s , . o f R o s s e t t i ' s g e n i u s (p. 412). R o b e r t Buchanan, i n a c r i t i c i s m n o t r e a l l y i n t e n d e d t o throw l i g h t upon R o s s e t t i ' s p o e t r y so much as t o c a s t a s p e r s i o n s on the p o e t ' s c h a r a c t e r and t h e r e b y r a i s e s u s p i c i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the p o e t ' s t r u e aims, was n o t p e r c e p t i v e enough nor p a i n s t a k i n g enough t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e r e a l problems R o s s e t t i ' s a r t poses. But h i s a t t a c k i s one o f t h e major f a c t s i n t h e p o e t ' s l i f e and work, one w i t h w h i c h a l l R o s s e t t i ' s s t u d e n t s have t o come t o terms. From i t . s t e m the two main branches o f R o s s e t t i c r i t i c i s m ; and i t i s o n l y by some accommodation o f b o t h v i e w s , common enough once i f Watts-Dunton i s a t a l l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e e n l i g h t e n e d c r i t i c i s m o f h i s t i m e , t h a t f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s i n t o Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i ' s a r t i s t i c achievement a r e t o be made. CONCLUSION The F l e s h l y C o n t r o v e r s y marked the t u r n i n g p o i n t i n Rob e r t Buchanan's c a r e e r . H i t h e r t o , he had been seen as worthy o f s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a poet o f undoubted m e r i t . The p a s s i o n s engendered by the C o n t r o v e r s y f o r c e d him t o p u b l i s h h i s work anonymously f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . t o a v o i d t h e b i t t e r c e n s u r e t h a t i t was bound t o draw from t h e f r i e n d s o f R o s s e t t i , who were o u t r a g e d a t t h e e f f e c t s the a t t a c k had had on the po e t . The C o n t r o v e r s y brought.. t o . t h e s u r f a c e , f o r a l l t o s e e , th e Scotsman's " i n s t i n c t f o r r e c r i m i n a t i o n " (as he d e s c r i b e d i t ) , and he became a c o n f i r m e d . r e b e l t h e r e a f t e r . He seems t o have had s k i r m i s h e s w i t h most o f the. l e a d i n g l i t e r a r y l i g h t s o f h i s day: George-Moore, W i l l i a m A r c h e r , George B e r n a r d Shaw, Rudyard. K i p l i n g , Edmund Y a t e s (an o l d f r i e n d and one time e m p l o y e r ) , and George. Henry Lewes. H i s need, f o r money t o repay gambling l o s s e s caused him...to-..write o v er f i f t y p l a y s f o r the London.stage o f the 1880Vs and 1890's, some o f them major p o p u l a r s u c c e s s e s performed by t h e l e a d i n g a c t o r s o f the day. Buchanan seemed t o l o s e s i g h t o f h i s y o u t h f u l and i d e a l i s t i c p o e t i c a m b i t i o n s , and seemed, a f t e r 1872, not t o t a k e h i s p o e t i c g i f t s as s e r i o u s l y as once he d i d . He d i d n u r s e , however, t h e a m b i t i o n t o s ucceed Tennyson .as Poet L a u r e a t e , and b a l l a d s such as t h a t o f "Judas I s c a r i o t " o r "The L i g h t s o f L e i t h " (which R o s s e t t i a p p a r e n t l y e n j o y e d ) , and n a r r a t i v e poems such as " P h i l B l o o d ' s Leap" o r "The Wedding o f Shon Ma c l e a n " r e c e i v e d wide a c c l a i m , 148 and a r e u s u a l l y l i s t e d as b e i n g among Buchanan's b e s t work. I f he no l o n g e r took h i s p o e t r y as s e r i o u s l y as he once d i d , i t may be p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t n e a r l y a l l the c r i t i c a l b a s t i o n s were manned by a r e a l l y v i r u l e n t enemy ( t h e r e were e x c e p t i o n s , James A s h c r o f t Noble b e i n g one). I t may be f a n c i f u l t o su g g e s t t h a t i t was Buchanan's angry f r u s t r a t i o n a t n o t b e i n g a d m i t t e d t o t h e magic i n n e r c i r c l e o f the l e a d i n g younger p o e t s o f h i s day (he was q u i t e f r i e n d l y w i t h Tennyson and Browning) t h a t h e l p e d t o prompt h i s a t t a c k ; he c o u l d n o t j o i n them, so he f o u g h t them. There can .be no q u e s t i o n t h a t w i t h t h e a t t a c k he l o s t whatever r e p u t a t i o n he had l a b o r i o u s l y and h o n e s t l y earned. A f t e r i t he was a p o e t i c o u t c a s t , and h i s work d i d n o t f i n d i t s way i n t o . t h e a n t h o l o g i e s o f E n g l i s h p o e t r y , i n v a r i a b l y p r e p a r e d by tho s e who s y m p a t h i z e d w i t h R o s s e t t i , t h a t began t o r e a c h t h e market, i n t h e 1880's. Buchanan d i e d i n 1901, a f i n a n c i a l l y .and s p i r i t u a l l y b roken man.. I t would, be a s e n t i m e n t a l e x a g g e r a t i o n t o c l a i m t h a t the C o n t r o v e r s y c r i p p l e d . h i m , as i t . d i d R o s s e t t i — h i s was t o o r o b u s t a c h a r a c t e r f o r t h a t — b u t . i t d i d . b r i n g him i l l - r e p u t e t h u s b l i g h t i n g a . p r o m i s i n g c a r e e r i n p o e t r y . Now t h a t t h e p a s s i o n s o f t h e C o n t r o v e r s y . h a v e b u r n t low, perhaps a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s unread p o e t might b r i n g some works o f r e a l m e r i t back i n t o t h e l i g h t o f day. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY I. Unpublished M a t e r i a l The A n g e l i Papers, i n c l u d i n g W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i ' s D i a r y and many unpublished l e t t e r s o f the R o s s e t t i c i r c l e , now i n -the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The P e n k i l l Papers, of which the most u s e f u l to t h i s t h e s i s were the l e t t e r s of W i l l i a m B e l l S c o t t , now i n the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Fredeman, W i l l i a m E. "Prelude to the L a s t Decade: Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i i n the Summer of 1872." P a r t I o f which i s t o be p u b l i s h e d i n The B u l l e t i n of the John Rylands  L i b r a r y , L I I I (Autumn, 1970) , 75-121. P e a t t i e , Roger W. " W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i as C r i t i c and E d i t o r , Together w i t h a C o n s i d e r a t i o n of h i s L i f e and C h a r a c t e r . " D i s s . ; U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , London; 1966. P f e i f f e r , Emily. "The Posthumous C r i t i c s of a Dead Poet, and D eathless Poetry." W i l l i a m . M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i ' s M i s c e l l a n i e s , [XIV], i n the p o s s e s s i o n of P r o f e s s o r Fredeman. I I . A r t i c l e s a) Contemporary C r i t i c i s m of the R o s s e t t i s , Swinburne and M o r r i s . "Among the Books of Seventy-One." Temple Bar, XXIV (December 1871), 99-100. [Baynes, T.S.] "Swinburne's Poems." Edinburgh Review, CXXXIV ( J u l y 1871), 71-99. Buchanan, Robert. "The F l e s h l y School of Poetry: Mr. D.G. R o s s e t t i . " Contemporary Review, XVIII (October 1871), 334-350. . "Notes on Poems and Reviews, by Algernon C h a r l e s Swinburne." Athenaeum, 2036 (November 3, 1866), 564-5. . "Poems and B a l l a d s , by Algernon C h a r l e s Swinburne." Athenaeum, 2023 (August 4, 1866), 137-8. 150 . "The P o e t i c a l Works o f P e r c y Bysshe S h e l l e y , e d i t e d by W.M. R o s s e t t i . " Athenaeum, 2205 (January 29, 1870) , 154-6. . "The S e s s i o n o f t h e P o e t s . " S p e c t a t o r , XXXIX (September 15, 1866), 1028. C o l v i n , S i d n e y . "The P o e t i c a l W r i t i n g s o f Mr. Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . " W e s t m i n s t e r Review, XLV (January 1871), 56-92. " C o t e r i e G l o r y . " S a t u r d a y Review, X X X I I I (February 24, 1872), 239-240. [Courthope, W i l l i a m J.] "The l a t e s t Development o f L i t e r a r y P o e t r y : Swinburne, R o s s e t t i , M o r r i s . " Q u a r t e r l y Review, CXXXII (January 1872), 59-84. "Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i ' s Poems." N a t i o n , XI ( J u l y 14, 1870), 29-30. D e n n e t t , J.R. " R o s s e t t i ' s Poems." N o r t h American Review, CXI (October 1870), 471-480. Forman, Henry Buxton. "Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i , P o e t . " T i n s l e y ' s Magazine, V I I I (March 1871), 150-160. . "The ' F l e s h l y S c h o o l ' S c a n d a l . " T i n s l e y ' s Magazine, X (February 1872) , 89-102. [ H o w e l l s , W i l l i a m D.] "Poems by Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . " A t l a n t i c , XXVI ( J u l y 1870), 115-118. "Mr. Swinburne as C r i t i c . " S p e c t a t o r , XL (September 5, 1867), 1109-1111. "Mr. Swinburne, h i s Crimes and h i s C r i t i c s . " E c l e c t i c Review, XI (December 1866), 498-508. Myers, F r e d e r i c k W.H. " R o s s e t t i and t h e R e l i g i o n o f Beauty." E s s a y s : Modern. London: M a c m i l l a n , 1883. " N o v e l t i e s i n P o e t r y and C r i t i c i s m . " F r a s e r ' s Magazine, n.s. V (May 1872), 588-596. P a t e r , W a l t e r H. "Poems by W i l l i a m M o r r i s . " W e s t m i n s t e r  Review, XC (October 1868), 300-312. "Poems, by Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . " Contemporary Review, XIV (June 1870), 480-1. R o s s e t t i , Dante G a b r i e l . "The S t e a l t h y S c h o o l o f C r i t i c i s m . " Athenaeum, 2303 (December 16, 1871), 792-4. \ 151 Q u i l t e r , Harry. "The A r t of R o s s e t t i . " Contemporary Review, XLIII (February 1883), 190-203. . "The New Renaissance; or, The Gospel of I n t e n s i t y . " Macmillan's Magazine, XLII (September 1880) , 391-400 . S h a i r p , J.C. " A e s t h e t i c Poetry: Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . " Contemporary Review, XLII ( J u l y 1882), 17-32. S k e l t o n , John. "The Poems of Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . " F r a s e r ' s Magazine, n.s. I (June 1870) , 609-622. [Statham, H.H.] " R o s s e t t i ' s Poems." Edinburgh Review, CLV ( A p r i l 1882), 322-337. Swinburne, Algernon C. "The Poems o f Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . " F o r t n i g h t l y Review, VII (June 1870), 551-579. Symonds, John Addington. "Notes on Mr. R o s s e t t i ' s New Poems." Macmillan's Magazine, XLV (February 1882), 318-328. Watts [-Dunton], Theodore. "The T r u t h About R o s s e t t i . " Nineteenth Century, X I I I (March 1883), 404-423. . " R o s s e t t i a n a . " E n g l i s h Review, I (January 1909), 323-332. b) C r i t i c i s m by, or c o n c e r n i n g , Buchanan. "Buchanan and R o s s e t t i . " Bookman (New Y o r k ) , XII (August 1901), 24-6. Buchanan, Robert. "The E t h i c s o f C r i t i c i s m . " Contemporary Review, LXXVII (February.19 00), 221-230. . "George Heath, the Moorland Poet." Good Words (March 1871), pp. 170-177. . "Immorality i n A u t h o r s h i p . " F o r t n i g h t l y Review, VII (September 15, 1866), 289-300. . "Lady L e t i t i a ' s L i l l i p u t Hand." Temple Bar, IV (March 1862), 551-569; V ( A p r i l 1862), 114-131. . "Mr. John Morley's Essays." Contemporary Review, XVII (June 1871), 319-337. . "Tennyson's Charm." S a i n t Paul's Magazine, X (March 1872), 282-303. 152 . W r i t i n g as "Walter Hutcheson." " C r i t i c i s m as One of the F i n e A r t s . " S a i n t Paul's Magazine, X ( A p r i l 1872), 386-395. Canton, W i l l i a m . "The E a r l i e r Work o f Robert Buchanan." Bookman (London), X (July 1896), 108-9. C a s s i d y , John A. "Robert Buchanan and the F l e s h l y Controversy." PMLA, LXVII (March 1952), 65-93. de Vane, W i l l i a m C l y d e . "The H a r l o t and the Thoughtful Young Man: A Study of the r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n . R o s s e t t i 1 s Jenny and Browning's F i f i n e a t the F a i r . " S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y , XXIX (J u l y 1932), 463-484. " F l e s h i n g the F l e s h l y . " Echo, May 18, 1872, p. 1. "The F l e s h l y School o f Poetry, by Robert Buchanan." 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S [ a l a ] , George Augustus. "Echoes of the Week." I l l u s t r a t e d  London News, LXIX ( J u l y 8, 1876), 42. 153 Storey, George C. "Robert Buchanan's C r i t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s . " PMLA, LXVII (December 1953), 1228-1232. Swinburne, Algernon C. "Mr. A r n o l d 1s New Poems." F o r t n i g h t l y  Review, I I (October 1867), 414-445. Symons, A r t h u r . "Robert Buchanan." Studi e s i n Prose and Verse. London: Dent, 1904. Waugh, A r t h u r . "Robert Buchanan." Reti c e n c e i n L i t e r a t u r e and  o t h e r Papers. London: Wilson, 1915. c) Recent C r i t i c i s m o f R o s s e t t i . Bowra, CM. "The House of L i f e . " The Romantic Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 49. Doughty, Oswald. " R o s s e t t i ' s Conception of the ' P o e t i c ' i n Poetry and P a i n t i n g . " Essays by D i v e r s Hands (T r a n s a c t i o n s of the Royal S o c i e t y of L i t e r a t u r e . n.s. XXVI). London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953. Fredeman, W i l l i a m E. "Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . " F r e d e r i c E. F a v e r t y , ed. The V i c t o r i a n Poets: A Guide to Research, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. . " R o s s e t t i ' s 'In Memoriam 1: An E l e g i a c Reading of The House of L i f e . " B u l l e t i n o f the John  Rylands L i b r a r y , XLVII (March 1965), 298-341. G r i g s o n , G e o f f r e y . "An E t i o l o g y of Success." Encounter, XVII (November 1961), 68-72. House, Humphry. "Pre-Raphaelite P o e t r y . " A l l i n Due Time. London: Ha r t - D a v i s , 19 55. H u e f f e r [ F o r d ] , Ford Madox. "Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . " Bookman (London), XL (June 1911), 113-120. Packer, Lona Mosk. " W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i and the Q u i l t e r C o n t roversy: 'The Gospel of I n t e n s i t y ' . " V i c t o r i a n  S t u d i e s , VII (December 1963), 170-183. 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The F l e s h l y School of Poetry and other Phenomena o f the Day. London: Strahan, 1872. . God and the Man. London: Chatto and Windus, 1903 (1881). . A Look Round L i t e r a t u r e . London: Ward, 1887. . The L i f e and Adventures of Audubon the N a t u r a l i s t . London: Dent, 19 24 (1868). Everyman E d i t i o n . . A Poet's Sketch-Book. London: Chatto and Windus, 18 83. Doughty, Oswald and J.R. Wahl, eds. L e t t e r s of Dante G a b r i e l  R o s s e t t i . 4 v o l s . Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1965-7. Dowden, Edward. L e t t e r s o f Edward Dowden and h i s Correspondents. London: Dent, 1914. Gohdes, C l a r e n c e and P a u l l F. Baum, eds. L e t t e r s o f W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i concerning Whitman, Blake and S h e l l e y . Durham: Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934. Haight, Gordon S. The George E l i o t L e t t e r s . 7 v o l s . New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954-6. Hake, T. Gordon. 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Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i : His Family L e t t e r s , with a Memoir. London: E l l i s and E l v e y , 1895. , ed. Poems by Walt Whitman. London: Hotten, 1868. , ed. The Poems of Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i w i t h I l l u s t r a t i o n s from h i s own P i c t u r e s and Designs. London: E l l i s and E l v e y , 1904. , ed. The P o e t i c a l Works of Percy Bysshe S h e l l e y . 2 v o l s . London: Moxon, 1870, . R o s s e t t i Papers. London: Sands, 1903. Some Reminiscences. 2 v o l s . New York: S c r i b n e r , 1906. . Swinburne's Poems and B a l l a d s , A C r i t i c i s m . London: Hotten, 1866. , ed. The Works of Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . 2 v o l s . London: E l l i s , 1911. S c o t t , W i l l i a m B e l l . A u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l Notes of the L i f e of W i l l i a m B e l l S c o t t . W i l l i a m Minto, ed. 2 v o l s . London: Osgood, 1906 (1892). 156 Shaw, Bernard. C o l l e c t e d Letters,.1874 - 1897. Dan H. Lawrence, ed. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1965. Swinburne, Algernon C Essays and S t u d i e s . London:. Chatto and Windus, 1875. . Notes on Poems and Reviews. London: Hotten, 1866. , ed. The Works of George Chapman. London: Chatto and Windus, 1875. Whitman, Walt. The Correspondence, 1842 - 1885. Edwin H. M i l l e r , ed. 3 v o l s . New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. Wilde, Oscar. The L e t t e r s . Rupert Ha r t - D a v i s , ed. London: Ha r t - D a v i s , 1962. b) Secondary Sources. Abrams, M.H. The M i r r o r and the Lamp. New York: Norton, 1958. A l t i c k , R i c h a r d D. The S c h o l a r Adventurers. New York: Macmillan, 1951. A n g e l i , Helen R o s s e t t i . . Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i : His F r i e n d s  and Enemies. London: M i l l e r , 19 49. Benson, A.C. R o s s e t t i . London: Macmillan, 19 04. B l o d g e t t , H a r o l d . Walt Whitman in. England. I t h a c a , N.Y.: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934. C o r n e l l S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h , v o l . XXIV. Buckley, Jerome H. The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s . . New York: Random House, 1968. . The V i c t o r i a n Temper. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951. Caine, T. H a l l . . R e c o l l e c t i o n s of Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . London: E l l i o t Stock, 1882. . R e c o l l e c t i o n s of R o s s e t t i . London: C a s s e l l , 1928. C a s s i d y , John A. Algernon.C. Swinburne. New York: Twayne, 1964. Twayne's E n g l i s h Authors S e r i e s , 10. Charlesworth, Barbara. Dark Passages. Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin P r e s s , 1965. 157 Chew, Samuel C. Swinburne. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1966 (1929) . Decker, C l a r e n c e R. The V i c t o r i a n Conscience. New York: Twayne, 1952. Doughty, Oswald. A V i c t o r i a n Romantic: . Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . 2nd ed. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960. E l t o n , O l i v e r . A Survey of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e : 1830 - 1880. 2 v o l s . London: A r n o l d , 1920. Fredeman, W i l l i a m E. P r e - R a p h a e l i t i s m : A B i b l i o c r i t i c a l Study. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. Gaunt, W i l l i a m . The A e s t h e t i c Adventure. Harmondworth, Middx.: Penguin, 1957 (1945). Ghose, S.N. Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i and.Contemporary C r i t i c i s m . D i j o n : Imprimerie D a r a n t i e r e , 1929. Gosse, Edmund. .The L i f e o f Algernon C h a r l e s - Swinburne. London: Macmillan, 1917. Hamilton,. Walter.. ..The A e s t h e t i c Movement i n England. London: Reeves and Turner, 1882. . Hearn, L a f c a d i o . Pre-Raphaelite.and other Poets. John E r s k i n e , ed. London: . Heinemann, 19 23. Heath-Stubbs, John.. The D a r k l i n g . P l a i n . . London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1950. H e r r i c k , F r a n c i s Holat.. Audubon.the N a t u r a l i s t . 2 v o l s . New York: Dover, 196 8 (1938). Hough, Graham. The L a s t Romantics. London:. Methuen, 19 61 (1949) . Houghton, Walter E. .. The V i c t o r i a n Frame of Mind: 1830 - 1870. New Haven:. Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press,.1967 (1957). Houghton, Walter E.. and G. Robert. Stange., eds.. . V i c t o r i a n Poetry and P o e t i c s . 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1968. H u e f f e r [ F o r d ] , Ford Madox. R o s s e t t i : A C r i t i c a l Essay on His A r t . London: Duckworth, n.d. (1896). Hyder, C. Kenneth- S w i n b u r n e ' s . L i t e r a r y Career and Fame. New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1963 (1933). 158 Jackson, Holbrook. The Eigh t e e n N i n e t i e s . London: Cape, 1927 (1913). Jay, H a r r i e t t . Robert Buchanan. London: F i s h e r Unwin, 1903. Knight, Joseph. The L i f e o f Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i . London: Walter S c o t t , 1887. Lafourcade, Georges. Swinburne's Hyperion and ot h e r Poems. London: Faber and Gwyer, 192 8. Lewes, George Henry. P r i n c i p l e s o f Success i n L i t e r a t u r e . F r e d N. S c o t t , ed. Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, 1891. Megroz, R.L. Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i : P a i n t e r Poet of Heaven  i n E a r t h . London: Faber and Gwyer, 192 8. Merriam, H a r o l d G. Edward Moxon: P u b l i s h e r of Poets. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19 39. Noel , Hon. Roden.. Essays on Poetry and Poets. London: Kegan P a u l , Trench, 1886. P a t e r , Walter H. A p p r e c i a t i o n s . London: Macmillan, 1889. Pope-Hennessy, James. Monckton-Milnes: The F l i g h t o f Youth. London: Co n s t a b l e , 1951. S k e l t o n , . John.. The T a b l e - T a l k of S h i r l e y . London: Blackwood, 1895. Stedman, Edward. -C. The V i c t o r i a n Poets. London: Chatto and Windus, 1887. S t i l l m a n , W.J. The Autobiography of a J o u r n a l i s t . 2 v o l s . London: R i c h a r d s , 1901. Stodart-Walker, A r c h i b a l d . Robert Buchanan: The Poet of Modern  R e v o l t . London: R i c h a r d s , 1901. T r o x e l l , Janet.Camp. Three R o s s e t t i s . Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937. Walker, Hugh. The L i t e r a t u r e o f t h e . V i c t o r i a n E r a . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1940 (1910). Waugh, Evelyn.. R o s s e t t i : .His L i f e and Works. London: Duckwor 1931 (1928). Welby, T. E a r l e . . Back .Numbers. London: Co n s t a b l e , 19 29. 159 . A Study of Swinburne. London: Faber and Gwyer, 1926. . The V i c t o r i a n Romantics. London: Howe, 1929. Welland, D.S.R. The P r e - R a p h a e l i t e s i n L i t e r a t u r e and A r t . London: Harrap, 1953. Wise, Thomas J . A Swinburne L i b r a r y . London: P r i n t e d f o r P r i v a t e C i r c u l a t i o n , 1925. , ed. L e t t e r s from. Dante G a b r i e l R o s s e t t i to Algernon C h a r l e s Swinburne. London: P r i n t e d f o r P r i v a t e C i r c u l a t i o n , 1921; APPENDIX A T e x t u a l Comparison between t h e 5th " e d i t i o n " o f Poems and t h e new e d i t i o n o f Poems, and B a l l a d s and Sonnets i n 1881. On t h e l e f t h a n d s i d e o f the page i s the 1871 v e r s i o n , on the r i g h t t h e 1881 emendation. The p a g i n a t i o n on the r i g h t r e f e r s t o Poems, 1881, u n l e s s p r eceeded by B and S, which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r e v i s e d v e r s i o n i s t o be found i n B a l l a d s  and Sonnets. The column o f numbers i n the c e n t r e o f the page r e f e r t o t h e degree o f p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the a l t e r a t i o n can be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o Buchanan's a t t a c k : 1 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t i s d e f i n i t e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e (as i n the case o f the o m i s s i o n o f " N u p t i a l S l e e p " ) , 2 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i t i s p r o b a b l y a t t r i b u t a b l e , and 3 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the a l t e r a t i o n i s not c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e r e s u l t o f Buchanan's c r i t i c i s m . "The Heard h a r d l y , some of h e r new f r i e n d s Amid t h e i r l o v i n g games Spoke evermore among themselves T h e i r v i r g i n a l c h a s t e names; (p.3) We w i l l s t e p down as t o a stream, (p.4) ssed Damozel"* 3 Around h e r , l o v e r s , newly met 2 'Mid d e a t h l e s s l o v e ' s a c c l a i m s , Spoke evermore among themselves 2 T h e i r heart-remembered names; (p.5) 3 As unto a s t r e a m we w i l l s t e p down, (p.6) "Love Some whose buoyance w a i t s n o t s l e e p , (p.9) Lamps o f an a u s p i c i o u s s o u l (p.10) One d u l l b r e a t h a g a i n s t her g l a s s (p.14) And t o dreamland p i n e away. (p.14) s N o c t u r n " 3 Some t h a t w i l l n o t w a i t f o r s l e e p , (p.96) 3 Lamps o f a t r a n s l u c e n t s o u l (p.97) 3 One d u l l b r e a t h a g a i n s t h e r g l a s s ; (p.101) 3 And t o dreamworld p i n e away. (p.101) 161 "Eden Bower" (Eden bower's i n f l o w e r . ) 2 ( S i n g Eden Bower 1) (And 0 t h e bower and the hour I) 2 (A l a s the hour 1) (pp.31-40) (pp.82-91) That day when death was s e n t t o break (p.45) "Ave" 3 That day when M i c h a e l * came t o break (p.49) *A Church l e g e n d o f t h e B l e s s e d V i r g i n ' s d e a t h . The c h e r u b i m , a r r a y e d , c o n j o i n t , (p.45) The cherubim, s u c c i n c t , c o n j o i n t , (p.49) "The S t a f f and S c r i p " 'Who owns the s e l a n d s ? ' the P i l g r i m s a i d , (p.47) An e x t r a s t a n z a i s i n s e r t e d a f t e r t h a t e n d i n g : No Messenger, (p.52) 'Who r u l e s t h e s e l a n d s ? ' the P i l g r i m s a i d . (p.34) The Queen i s p a l e , h e r maidens a i l ; And t o the or g a n - t o n e s They s i n g b u t f a i n t l y , who sang w e l l The m a t i n - o r i s o n s , The l a u d s and nones, (p.39) 162 "A L a s t C o n f e s s i o n " Her f a c e was e v e r p a l e , as when one stoops (p.68) Leaves my b r a i n b u r n i n g . That's the wound he gave, (p.76) W i t h i n t h e w h i r l i n g b r a i n ' s entanglement That she o r I o r a l l t h i n g s b l e d t o death.(p.82) Soon when she shows t h e cr i m s o n b l a d e t o God. (p.83) 3 Her f a c e was p e a r l y p a l e , as when one s t o o p s (p.154) 3 Leaves my b r a i n b u r n i n g . That's the wound he gave (p.162) 3 W i t h i n t h e w h i r l i n g b r a i n ' s e c l i p s e , t h a t she 3 Or I o r a l l t h i n g s b l e d o r burned t o d e a t h . (p.168) 3 Soon when she shows the c r i m s o n s t e e l t o God. (p.169) "Dante a t Verona" A t dawn beneath the boards t o r o t . ) 3 (p.103) An e x t r a s t a n z a i s then i n s e r t e d : 3 Such was t h e hope t h a t l o v e d i d b l e n d 3 (p.105) I t may be memory d i d r e c a l l (p.106) 3 W h i l e c o u r t i e r s , used t o s m i l e and w i n c e , 3 (p.108) A t dawn beneath the s t a i r s t o r o t . (p.70) Such t h i s R e p u b l i c ! - - n o t t h e Maid He y e a r n e d f o r : she who y e t s h o u l d s t a n d W i t h Heaven's a c c e p t e d hand i n hand, I n v u l n e r a b l e and u n b e t r a y ' d : To whom, even as t o God, s h o u l d be Obeisance one w i t h l i b e r t y . ) (p.70) Such was t h e hope t h a t l o v e d a r ' d b l e n d (p.72) I t may be memory might r e c a l l (p.73) W h i l e c o u r t i e r s , used t o c r i n g e and w i n c e , (p.75) 163 "Jenny F l u n g i n t h e w h i r l p o o l ' s s h r i e k i n g f a c e 3 (p.109) W i t h R a f f a e l ' s o r Da V i n c i ' s hand (p.119) 3 Three e x t r a l i n e s are i n s e r t e d a f t e r : Your p i e r g l a s s s c r a w l e d w i t h diamond 3 r i n g s , (p. 123) F l u n g i n the w h i r l p o o l ' s s h r i e k i n g f a c e ; (p.115) W i t h R a f f a e l ' s , Leonardo's hand (p.125) Your p i e r g l a s s s c r a w l e d w i t h diamond r i n g s ; And on y o u r bosom a l l n i g h t worn Y e s t e r d a y ' s r o s e now droops f o r l o r n But d i e s n o t y e t t h i s summer morn. (p.129) "The P o r t r a i t " Y e t t h i s , o f a l l l o v e ' s p e r f e c t p r i z e , 3 Y e t o n l y t h i s , o f l o v e ' s whole p r i z e , (p.127) (p.133) A t n i g h t - t i m e t h e s e t h i n g s r e a c h mine 3 A t n i g h t - t i m e t h e s e t h i n g s r e a c h mine e a r , (p.130) e a r ; (p.136) " S i s t e r H e l e n " An e x t r a s t a n z a i s i n s e r t e d a f t e r t h a t e n d i n g : And t h e y and we, between H e l l and Heaven!)(p.137) 'Three days ago, on h i s marriage-morn, S i s t e r H e l e n , He s i c k e n e d , and l i e s s i n c e then f o r l o r n . ' 'For bridegroom's s i d e i s t h e b r i d e a t h o r n , L i t t l e b r o t h e r ? ' (0 M other, Mary M o t h e r , C o l d b r i d a l c h e e r , between H e l l and Heaven.) (p.14) 164 For three days now he has l a i n abed, (p.137) A word i l l heard, between H e l l and Heaven!)(p.139) 'He sees me i n e a r t h , i n moon and sky, (p.139) E a r t h , moon and sky, between H e l l and Heaven!) (p.139) Oh, never more, between H e l l and Heaven!) (p.140) No more, no more, between H e l l and Heaven!) (p.140) A f u r t h e r s i x stanzas i n t r o d u c i n g the b r i d e are i n s e r t e d a f t e r : The way i s lo n g , between H e l l and Heaven!) (p.142) An e x t r a stanza i s i n s e r t e d a f t e r : The naked s o u l , between H e l l and Heaven!) "Str As wan as your towers be to-day, (p.148) And i t ' s t here I ' l l wed with ye.' (p.150) Three days and n i g h t s he has l a i n abed, (p.15) What word now heard between H e l l and Heaven?)(p.17) 'In a l l t h a t h i s s o u l sees, there am I, (p.17) The s o u l ' s one s i g h t , between H e l l and Heaven!) (p.17) No, never j o i n e d , between H e l l and Heaven!) (p.17) Not twice t o g i v e , between H e l l and Heaven!)(p.17) 3 (pp.20-21) 3 (p.23) :on Water" 3 As wan as your towers seem to-day, (p.28) 3 And i t ' s t here y o u ' l l wed w i t h me.' (p.30) 165 "The Stream's S e c r e t " S t i l l s h o o t t h e dead l e a v e s down? (p.156) 3 S t i l l s h o o t t h e dead d r i f t down? (p.105) "My S i s t e r ' s S l e e p " * * T h i s l i t t l e poem . . .'In Memoriam.' 3 F o o t n o t e o m i t t e d (p.169) "One G i r l " (p.186) 3 t i t l e became "Beauty (Sappho)" (B and S, p.288) The House o f L i f e " B r i d a l B i r t h " When h e r s o u l knew a t l e n g t h the Love i t 3 When h e r s o u l knew a t l e n g t h the Love i t nursed (p.189) n u r s ' d ( B a n d s , p.164) Now, s h i e l d e d i n h i s w i n g s , (p.189) 3 Now, shadowed by h i s w i n g s , (B and S, p.164) "Love's Redemption" (p.190) 2 t i t l e became "Love's Testament" (B and S, p.165) Unto my l i p s d o s t evermore p r e s e n t 2 Unto my h e a r t d o s t evermore p r e s e n t The body and b l o o d o f Love i n sacrament; 2 C l o t h e d w i t h h i s f i r e , t h y h e a r t h i s te s t a m e n t ; 166 Who w i t h o u t speech h a s t owned him, and 3 i n t e n t And murmured o'er the cup, Remember me!— 2 0 what from thee the g r a c e , f o r me the 3 p r i z e , (p.190) Who w i t h o u t speech h a s t owned him, and, i n t e n t And murmured, 'I am t h i n e , t h o u ' r t one w i t h me!' 0 what from thee t h e g r a c e , t o me the p r i z (B and S, p.165) (p.193) " N u p t i a l S l e e p " 1 O m i t t e d "Supreme S u r r e n d e r " To a l l the s p i r i t s o f l o v e t h a t wander by 3 To a l l the s p i r i t s o f Love t h a t wander by A l o n g the love-sown f a l l o w f i e l d o f s l e e p 2 A l o n g the love-sown h a r v e s t f i e l d o f s l e e p (p.194) (B and S, p.169) Lo! I t i s done. Above the l o n g l i t h e t h r o a t (p.197) "The P o r t r a i t " 2 Lo! I t i s done. Above t h e e n t h r o n i n g t h r o a t (B and S, p.172) Through our c o n t e n d i n g k i s s e s o f t unheard, (p.20 3) "Winged Hours" 2 F u l l o f t t h r o u g h our c o n t e n d i n g j o y s unheard. (B and S, p.187) 167 "The C h o i c e " They d i e n o t , — n e v e r h a v i n g l i v e d , — b u t cease; (p.223) I 3 They d i e n o t , — f o r t h e i r l i f e was death-b u t c e a s e ; (B and S, p. 233) I I I M i l e s and m i l e s d i s t a n t though the grey 3 M i l e s and m i l e s d i s t a n t thought t h e l a s t l i n e be, (p.225) l i n e be, (B and S, p.235) "Vai n V i r t u e s " Of a n g u i s h , w h i l e the s c o r c h i n g b r i d e - 2 Of a n g u i s h , w h i l e the p i t ' s p o l l u t i o n groom l e a v e s l e a v e s N i g h t sucks them down, the garbage of the 2 N i g h t sucks them down, t h e t r i b u t e o f t h e p i t , p i t , To gaze, b u t , y e a r n i n g , w a i t s h i s w o r t h i e r 3 To gaze, b u t , y e a r n i n g , w a i t s h i s d e s t i n e d w i f e , (p.227) w i f e (B and S, p.247) "The One Hope" Ah! l e t none o t h e r w r i t t e n s p e l l s o e ' e r 3 Ah! l e t none o t h e r a l i e n s p e l l (p.238) (B and S, p.263) 168 "Sudden L i g h t " * A new s t a n z a i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h i s one: Then, n o w , — p e r c h a n c e a g a i n ! . . . . 0 round my eyes your t r e s s e s shake! S h a l l we n o t l i e as we have l a i n 2 Thus f o r Love's sake, And s l e e p , and wake, y e t never break the c h a i n ? (p.244) Has t h i s been thus b e f o r e ? And s h a l l n o t thus t i m e ' s e d d y i n g f l i g h t S t i l l w i t h our l i v e s our l o v e r e s t o r e I n d e a t h ' s d e s p i t e , And day and n i g h t y i e l d one d e l i g h t once more? (p.242) "The P a s s o v e r i n the H o l y F a m i l y " What shadow o f death the Boy's f a i r brow 3 What shadow o f Death t h e Boy's f a i r brow subdues (p.266) subdues (p.266) " L i l i t h " (p.269) 3 t i t l e became "Body's Beauty" i n The House o f L i f e Draws men t o watch the b r i g h t n et she can 3 Draws men t o watch the b r i g h t web she can weave, (p.269) weave (B and S, p.240) " S i b y l l a P a l m i f e r a " (p.270) 3 t i t l e became " S o u l ' s b e a u t y " i n The House o f L i f e (B and S, p.239) "Venus" (p.271) 3 t i t l e became "Venus V e r t i c o r d i a " 169 And h e r grove glow w i t h l o v e - l i t f i r e s o f Troy. (p.271) 3 And t h r o u g h h e r d a r k grove s t r i k e the l i g h t of T r o y . (p.270) "A Match w i t h the Moon" And i n a g l o b e o f f i l m a l l v a p o u r i s h 3 And i n a g l o b e o f f i l m a l l l i q u o r i s h (p.279) (p.276) "The Monochord" I s i t t h e moved a i r o r the moving sound 3 I s i t t h i s s k y ' s v a s t v a u l t o r ocean's (p.282) sound (B and S, p.241) *Both s t a n z a s from t h e s e poems were amended f o r the s i x t h " e d i t i o n " o f 1872. The new t h i r d s t a n z a o f "Sudden L i g h t " i n t h a t " e d i t i o n " remained unchanged i n 1881, b u t R o s s e t t i t r i e d t h i s s e v e n t h s t a n z a f o r "The B l e s s e d Damozel" b e f o r e amending i t f o r t h e new e d i t i o n : Around h e r , l o v e r s newly met In j o y no sorrow c l a i m s , Spoke evermore among themselves T h e i r r a p t u r o u s new names; And the s o u l s mounting up t o God Went by h e r l i k e t h i n f l a m e s . 170 

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