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Governmental policies concerning residential condominium development in British Columbia Conradi, Andrew Paul 1971

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GOVERNMENTAL  P O L I C I E S CONCERNING  RESIDENTIAL  CONDOMINIUM DEVELOPMENT IN B R I T I S H COLUMBIA by ANDREW PAUL CONRADI B.A.  (Honours) M c G i l l  University,  1966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  the School of  COMMUNITY AND We  accept  required  THE  this  REGIONAL PLANNING  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  t o the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April,  1971  In the  presenting this thesis  requirements British  it  freely available  for  Columbia,  that  the School  allowed  the Library  f o rextensive copying  o f Community  publication  that  may be g r a n t e d and R e g i o n a l  I t i s understood  of this thesis without  I  o f Community  kph.ll,  79 7 /  thesis  by t h e D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g o r by h i s  that  copying  or  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not  my w r i t t e n  permission.  and R e g i o n a l  Planning,  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada.  Date  make  further  of this  ANDREW PAUL  School  shall  f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  purposes  representatives.  be  I agree  permission  scholarly  fulfilment of  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of  agree  i n partial  CONRADI  The p r o v i s i o n o f adequate housing  f o r a l l i t s people  remains a p r o b l e m a t i c a l o b j e c t i v e f o r Canada.  A new  type  of c o o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g — c o n d o m i n i u m — h a s r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d specific  l e g a l s a n c t i o n i n most p r o v i n c e s  Canada w i t h the e x c e p t i o n  o f Newfoundland, P r i n c e Edward  I s l a n d and the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s . t h i s i n n o v a t i v e housing trends  and housing  and t e r r i t o r i e s i n  This thesis considers  concept i n l i g h t o f the p o p u l a t i o n  needs o f B r i t i s h Columbia and shows t h a t  condominium i s merely one o f a v a r i e t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e housing  types but one t h a t may prove i n c r e a s i n g l y e f f e c t i v e  i n h e l p i n g meet f u t u r e housing  demand.  The h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n o f the condominium concept i s o u t l i n e d a f t e r which the author c a r e f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s between condominiums and o t h e r s i m i l a r forms o f The author a f f i r m s t h a t F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l  housing. housing  p o l i c i e s do not d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t r e s i d e n t i a l iums and f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e s  condomin-  t h a t M u n i c i p a l housing  and b u r e a u c r a t i c procedures do not f r u s t r a t e t h e i r  policies develop-  ment, i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f a s i m i l a r  study  concerning  cooperatives,  a similar  form of h o u s i n g — c o n t i n u i n g  which found t h a t a l a c k of s p e c i f i c P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l p o l i c y had r e t a r d e d t h e i r  formation.  Governmental p o l i c y i s r e v i e w e d  i n g e n e r a l and i t s  s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n t o r e s i d e n t i a l condominium i s assessed author's  development  w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n g e n e r a l l y c o n f i r m i n g the  o r i g i n a l a f f i r m a t i o n and  hypothesis.  Abstract  i i i  T a b l e o f Contents Acknowledgements  v ix  CHAPTER I.  INTRODUCTION  1  The I d e a l and R e a l i t y i n Housing; Housing i n Canada 1945 - Mid 1960's, the Problem Emerges; U r b a n i s a t i o n and P o p u l a t i o n Growth; The Task Ahead; Some A s p e c t s o f the Housing Market; The Emergence o f Condominium - P a s t and P r e s e n t ; The A l t e r n a t i v e s i n Housing; Condominiums i n Canada; Housing and Urban Planning; Hypothesis; D e f i n i t i o n s ; Assumptions; Methodology; L i m i t a t i o n s ; Conclusion. II.  AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF THE CONCEPT OF CONDOMINIUM OWNERSHIP 32 I n t r o d u c t i o n ; The A n c i e n t World; Rome and Roman Law; Condominium i n Europe i n the M i d d l e Ages; Germany-an Example o f C o n f l i c t o f Law; S w i t z e r l a n d and A u s t r i a ; Other European C o u n t r i e s ; C i v i l Law and Common Law; France; C o d i f i c a t i o n o f the Law-The Code Napoleon; Belgium; Other C o u n t r i e s ; France-The 1938 L e g i s l a t i o n ; Spain; Post-War L e g i s l a t i o n ; J u g o s l a v i a ; L a t i n America; Puerto R i c o ; L o u i s i a n a ; Quebec; S c o t l a n d ; England; The U n i t e d S t a t e s ; A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand; Canada; The Far E a s t ; C o n c l u s i o n .  III.  74  THE MODERN CONCEPT OF CONDOMINIUM  The Word " C o n d o m i n i u m " ; Two C o n c e p t s P o l i t i c s a n d R e a l t y ; O t h e r Terms f o r C o n d o m i n i u m ; P r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e Use o f t h e Term; The T h r e e M e a n i n g s ; Two E s s e n t i a l Elements i n a Condominium P r o j e c t ; V a r i e t y i n Form and F u n c t i o n ; Two L e g a l C o n c e p t s o f a U n i t ; The C o n d o m i n i u m a s a C o o p e r a t i v e ; C o n d o m i n iums and C o n t i n u i n g C o o p e r a t i v e s L i m i t e d Liability Housing Companies; Common Law C o n d o m i n i u m s a n d P l a n n e d U n i t D e v e l o p m e n t s w i t h a Home Owner's A s s o c i a t i o n . IV.  FEDERAL POLICY  109  L e g i s l a t i o n as H o u s i n g P o l i c y ; The F i r s t F e d e r a l I n i t i a t i v e i n H o u s i n g , 1 9 1 9 ; The D o m i n i o n H o u s i n g A c t , 1 9 3 5 ; The F i r s t N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t , 1938 and C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Power; Wartime Measures; N a t i o n a l Housing A c t , 1944; C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n A c t , 1 9 4 5 ; The B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s o f F e d e r a l P o l i c y ; N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t , 1 9 5 4 ; The 1 9 6 4 Amendments; F e d e r a l F i n a n c i a l P o l i c y ; R e s i d e n t i a l Condominiums and F e d e r a l P o l i c y ; Impending Changes i n the F e d e r a l Role; Conclusion. V.  PROVINCIAL  POLICY  138  I n t r o d u c t i o n ; Housing L e g i s l a t i o n ; P r o v i n c i a l Condominium H o u s i n g Programmes; Other L e g i s l a t i o n Related t o Housing; Strata Titles Act; Conclusion. VI.  MUNICIPAL  POLICY  165  I n t r o d u c t i o n ; The M u n i c i p a l A c t ; The Vancouver C h a r t e r ; Regional D i s t r i c t s ; Town P l a n n i n g A c t ; O t h e r R e l e v a n t V a n c o u v e r L e g i s l a t i o n ; An E x a m p l e o f a P r o p o s e d M u n i c i p a l Housing P o l i c y - T h e Vancouver P r o p o s a l s ; M u n i c i p a l S u r v e y on R e s i d e n t i a l Condominium P o l i c i e s and B u r e a u c r a t i c P r o c e d u r e s ; Necessity f o r Policy; Possible Municipal F r u s t r a t i o n o f R e s i d e n t i a l Condominium Development; C o n c l u s i o n . VII.  CONCLUSION Condominiums and C o n t i n u i n g C o o p e r a t i v e s ; T r e n d s and F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h .  185  BIBLIOGRAPHY  191  P u b l i c Documents  191  Books  192  Reports  19 3  A r t i c l e s and P e r i o d i c a l s  196  Theses  198  Unpublished M a t e r i a l  19 9  The Press and Magazines  199  Other Sources  200  APPENDICES Appendix A - E n g l i s h "Condominium" Schemes  201 . . . .  201  Appendix B - L e a s e h o l d Condominiums  20 3  Appendix C - Kinds o f E s t a t e s  207  Appendix D - P i l o t P r o j e c t : Champlain H e i g h t s . . .  209  Appendix E - S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t  210  Appendix F - Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  211  Appendix G - Vancouver B u r e a u c r a t i c Procedures  . .  212  Appendix H - Vancouver B u r e a u c r a t i c Procedures  . .  213  Appendix I - CMHC Condominium I n f o r m a t i o n Sheet . .  214  L I S T OF  FIGURES  FIGURE  1.  PAGE  The V a r i e t y i n Form and F u n c t i o n  of  Condominium  2.  82  The S t r a t a T i t l e s  Act -  Diagramatic  Representation  L I S T OF  150  TABLES  TABLE  1.  PAGE  Municipal Policies  S u r v e y on R e s i d e n t i a l C o n d o m i n i u m and B u r e a u c r a t i c P r o c e d u r e s  . . . .  177  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The Dr.  author wishes t o express h i s g r a t i t u d e t o  R.W. C o l l i e r , P r o f e s s o r Brahm Weisman and Miss  Marianthi Constantinu and  for their helpful  encouragement  criticism.  Also to h i s wife Jacqueline  f o r her f a i t h  with-  out which t h i s t h e s i s might n o t have been completed.  CHAPTER  I  I N T R O D U C T I O N The Ideal and Reality  i n Housing; Housing  i n Canada 19 45-mid 19 60's, the Problem Emerges; Urbanisation and Population Growth; The Task Ahead; Some aspects of the Housing Market; The Emergence of Condominium-Past and Present;  The Alternatives  i n Housing;  Condominiums i n Canada; Housing and Urban Planning; Hypothesis;  Definitions;  Assumptions; Methodology; Conclusion.  Limitations;  THE  IDEAL AND THE REALITY IN HOUSING  The Government o f Canada endorsed  the U n i v e r s a l  D e c l a r a t i o n o f Human Rights* o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , p a r t o f which s t a t e s : A r t i c l e 25. Everyone has the r i g h t t o a standard o f l i v i n g adequate f o r the h e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g o f h i m s e l f and of h i s f a m i l y , i n c l u d i n g food, c l o t h i n g , housing and . . . . 1 The Report o f the G u i d e l i n e s Committee o f t h e Canadian Conference  on Housing  a l l Canadians  (1968) d e c l a r e d as a g o a l t h a t " . . .  have t h e r i g h t t o be adequately housed, whether 2  they can a f f o r d i t or not." The F e d e r a l Task F o r c e s t a t e d as a matter that:  "Every Canadian  should be e n t i t l e d  of p r i n c i p l e  t o c l e a n , warm  3 s h e l t e r as a matter o f b a s i c human r i g h t . " The Canadian  Welfare C o u n c i l c l a s s i f i e s the r i g h t s  enumerated i n A r t i c l e 25 above as s o c i a l r i g h t s d i s t i n c t  from  4  c x v i l and p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s .  How does t h e r e a l compare w i t h  the i d e a l , t h a t i s t o say t o what e x t e n t has t h i s r i g h t t o housing been a t t a i n e d i n Canada?  I t has been e s t i m a t e d  that  d u r i n g the y e a r s 1966 and 1967 housing demand exceeded 5  housing a v a i l a b i l i t y by 25,000 u n i t s .  This m  simple  abso-  l u t e terms was the measure o f the housing shortage i n those years.  A c c o r d i n g t o the Task F o r c e , C e n t r a l Mortgage and  Housing  C o r p o r a t i o n (CMHC) e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e were i n  Canada about a million and  5,500,000 h o u s i n g  were s u b s t a n d a r d ,  non-family  users  in  to serve  Until relation  t h e mid  of which a t l e a s t  half  some 5,700,000 f a m i l y  1968.  HOUSING IN CANADA THE  units,  1945  - MID  1960'S  -  PROBLEM EMERGES  1960's C a n a d a ' s h o u s i n g  to the country's  growing  n e e d s and  performance  in  demands f o r h o u s i n g  7  was  very  good.  acceleration  I n t h e mid  i n new  1960's when t h e r e was  f a m i l y and  household  a marked  formation,  new  h o u s i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s d i d n o t i n c r e a s e enough and t h e r e emerged " . . . a s e r i o u s s h o r t a g e o f h o u s i n g i n many o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s  g m a j o r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s by It moment and that  —i.e.,  that  relevant to digress for a perhaps types  stated  a  "housing  that housing 1  problem  and  stated  that  Conference  situation,  crisis"  an  and  emergency e x i s t s  on  of  housing  1  Albert  Rose  Professor A.J. problem  Canadian  that-housing i s not  to  public. ^ Dr.  i s the worst The  1960's  and  a c h o i c e i n ownership  r e t u r n t o the housing  has  of housing  the Canadian  f a c e d s i n c e the Depression. ''" Housing  only d u r i n g the 9  c o o p e r a t i v e , n o n - p r o f i t and  d e s c r i b e d i t as  Diamond has  by  t h e r e s h o u l d be  private, To  on  i t was  the view, expressed  Housing,  has  remark t h a t  and  demand grew f o r a l t e r n a t i v e  repeat  has  is interesting  1967."  Canada  Conference  o n l y an  urgent  f o r low-income  groups  but t h a t i t i s a l s o an i n c r e a s i n g l y s e r i o u s problem middle  income  for  groups.  However, the e x i s t i n g housing stock i n Canada compares w e l l i n some r e s p e c t s w i t h the r e s t of the w o r l d .  For i n -  s t a n c e , 49% of the e n t i r e s t o c k has been b u i l t s i n c e 1945, h i g h e s t r a t i o of new  housing i n the Western World.  i t a t i v e terms Canadian  housing i s second  S t a t e s i n the p r o v i s i o n of baths and average  of 5.3  the  In q u a l -  o n l y t o the U n i t e d  f l u s h t o i l e t s and i t s  rooms per d w e l l i n g makes i t the "roomiest! i n 1  the Western World.  Canada has a h i g h r a t i o of 63 per cent  owner o c c u p i e d d w e l l i n g s and a t 0.7  persons per room has  of the lowest d e n s i t y r a t i o s among the  one  industrialized  13 nations.  URBANISATION AND  POPULATION GROWTH  Canada i s i n c r e a s i n g l y and r a p i d l y becoming an nation  14  w i t h a growing  population,  15  urban  e s t i m a t e d a t 21,324,000  16 on 1 A p r i l  1970.  l i v e i n urban  A t p r e s e n t seven out of every t e n  Canadians  areas and by 19 80 e i g h t out of t e n — s o m e  20 17  m i l l i o n people w i l l do so, mostly i n 29 major urban c e n t r e s , but one t h i r d of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n w i l l l i v e i n e i t h e r 18 M o n t r e a l , Toronto or Vancouver. I f the s t a t i s t i c s are i m p r e s s i v e i n themselves, even more so i s the p h y s i c a l e f f e c t which t h i s massive m i g r a t i o n , equal i n scope, t o the f i r s t s e t t l e m e n t and development of Canada, has had and i s having on the n a t i o n a l landscape. 19  The  19 80 p o p u l a t i o n  f o r e c a s t s f o r Canada, u s i n g  the  "component method" based on v a r i e d assumptions range from  20 o f 23.8  a low  m i l l i o n to a h i g h of 26.7  mainly t o c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , other  facilities  Due  l a c k of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n  mostly i n s e t t l e m e n t s the P r a i r i e s , and  million.  has  on the A t l a n t i c and  and  been d i s t r i b u t e d  Pacific  coasts,  the Great Lakes - S t . Lawrence Lowlands.  21 That i s , on l e s s than one  per  cent of the  Canada among the most h i g h l y u r b a n i s e d  land  which  countries  of  places  the  world. The by  population  of B r i t i s h Columbia has  the Lower Mainland R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  f i v e previous  Board  p r o j e c t i o n s which were p r o j e c t e d  been  projected  (LMRPB) u s i n g and  inter-  p o l a t e d on a semi-log b a s i s to d e r i v e Census year f i g u r e s . S i n c e two o f these p r o j e c t i o n s had t h r e e b a s i c assumptions each w i t h a p r o j e c t i o n , the t o t a l s e t of p r o j e c t i o n s  22  was  23 nine. These range from a low of 2.4 m i l l i o n to a h i g h o f 3.7 m i l l i o n by 19 86 and the LMRPB has accepted the f o l l o w i n g . .. 24 projection:  and  i n the longer  1971  - 2,144,000  1976  - 2,447,000  1981  - 2,793,000  1986  - 3,188,000  range t h e i r e s t i m a t e s  are:  2001  -  4,500,000  2006 -  5,000,000  2021  -  6,300,000  2026 -  6,800,000 26  To c a l c u l a t e the p o p u l a t i o n the  " r a t i o " method was  of the Lower Mainland  used and based on the h i s t o r i c "share"  of the t o t a l P r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n  t h a t was  housed  i n the  27 Lower Mainland  which r e s u l t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g 28  forecasts  f o r the Region: 1971  -  1,158,000  1976  -  1,321,000  1981  -  1,508,000  1986  -  1,722,000  T h i s was f u r t h e r broken down i n t o the Metro and V a l l e y Areas d i s t r i b u t i o n , based on the h i s t o r i c r a t i o between them, 29 w i t h the r e s u l t i n g  forecasts:  Metro Area  V a l l e y Area  1971  -  1,026,000  132,000  1976  -  1,169,000  152,000  1981  -  1,335,000  173,000  1986  -  1,524,000  198,000  These  f o r e c a s t s were f u r t h e r broken down i n t o m u n i c i -  p a l i t i e s but f o r the purposes o f t h i s paper the author does not  consider  i t n e c e s s a r y t o go i n t o such d e t a i l .  f i g u r e s are r e q u i r e d short  then:  the source has been i n d i c a t e d .  I f such In  The  next  20  years  increase  i n  the  that  w i l l  have  p a r t i c u l a r l y municipal  The population less  than cent  the  population  greater in  than  1960.  person  the  In i n  area  of  density  of  1,070  there  region  over  stock  which  t o t a l  1963  the  Its  the  70  per  for  the  cent  Region,  transportation,  with  miles,  of  a  and  30  Mainland  that  see  population—growth  i m p l i c a t i o n  s e r v i c i n g .  square  per  l i k e l y  housing,  land-poor.  800 of  major  for  Lower is  w i l l  Region's  the  h a l f of  is  which  land  per  with  h a l f  w i l l  have  year  2000.  In  been  of  one  Region  mile  per  acre  s m a l l —  this  square 905  an  i s  o n e - f i f t h  Province.  people  about  Province's  usable  about  Netherlands was  the  is  square  of  land  reduced  to  mile,  per  one  31 c i t y  lot  per  person  by  the  These  figures  and  32 trends  the  are  need  a b i l i t y and  indicative  for of  higher  terrace The  family rate  of  the  increased w i l l  be  l a t t e r the  w i l l  source which  l i k e l y  b i r t h  from  l a t t e r  two  and  housing  of  things:  f i r s t l y  33  secondly such  by  part  of  future  as  i n i n  the which  housing  expected per  continue  128,000  the  of  is  rates  formation  h a l f  least  use  145,000  to  augmented  household  land  density  major  118,000  high  at  the  i n e v i t -  garden  appartments  houses.  formation  marriages of  careful  of  the  1961  to  year to  to  increase  by  1976.  increase  early  from  1950's t o  an  estimated  the  1960's.  3 5  net the  to  the  1968. i n a  of  effect they  This  non-family  year  50,000  current  number  period;  i n  2 8,600  up  from  due  increase  is  is  The  post-war  176,000  continuing  demand  a  i n year  the i n  THE  In i t  has  order  been  to  TASK  provide  estimated  AHEAD  adequate  housing  for  Canadians  that:  A minimum of 1 m i l l i o n a d d i t i o n a l units over the next five years would allow the housing market to k e e p p a c e w i t h new d e m a n d p l u s m a k i n g a t least some i n r o a d i n t o t h e c u r r e n t b a c k l o g of overcrowding, obsolescence and g e n e r a l shortage of supply. It is estimated that an a v e r a g e o f 165,000 units per year a r e r e q u i r e d t o meet the demands of new f a m i l y a n d n o n - f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n s w h i l e maintaini n g a minimum replacement program o f 10,000 u n i t s a year. T h u s a n a v e r a g e o f 200,000 u n i t s a year w i l l create a "surplus" of 35,000 u n i t s a n n u a l l y to help r e l i e v e the present shortage and, hopefully, to at least begin to create the kind of vacancy rates which are required i f the m a r k e t i s t o be a t r u l y competetive one. In s e t t i n g a target of 1 m i l l i o n a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s b y 1973, i t s h o u l d be stressed that this i s a minimum o b j e c t i v e ; the Task Force would earnestly hope t h a t actual achievement would run c o n s i d e r a b l y above t h i s . 36  In  195,  826.  l i g h t  a  the  foregoing,  completions  i n  1969  were  37  CMHC for  of  has  reduction  or  80,000  of  replacement  pointed of  family  f a m i l i e s , of  out  that  such  doubling-up  increasing  existing  a  programme  to  the  vacancies,  housing  and  would  extent  an  70,000  of  increasing expansion  allow  rates i n  the  38 number  of  unmarried  At years  e n t i r e l y  measured and that  the  the as  by  same  adults time  eliminate  doubled-up  occupancy housing  of  establishing  this the  programme "backlog"  families,  substandard  conditions  separate would of  dwellings. the  not  i n  housing  otherwise  improve,  households.  needs  crowded One  formation  five as  families  reason of  is  non-  family households, the number of vacancies and demolition of units not necessarily d e f i c i e n t  a l l increase.  The number of  units required to be added by 1973 to prevent a d e t e r i o r a t i o n in housing conditions would be about 180,000 units a year and the number required to completely eliminate overcrowding, doubling-up and use of substandard units i s not known since i t would require the d e f i n i t i o n of needs and requirements— 39 an e t h i c a l question. To prevent a d e t e r i o r a t i o n in housing conditions i n Metropolitan Vancouver the number of new dwellings 40 required during 1965-70 was estimated at 7,000 annually. This might give an idea of the scale of approximate  future  requirements i n the area. In 1969 the t o t a l number of completions i n Metrop o l i t a n Vancouver was 1,916  whereas by the end of March 1970  completions were 4,106 with 10,390 units under construction. However, indications are that demand remained strong since the inventory of newly completed and unoccupied dwelling units 41 declined to 1,3 87 u n i t s . Further indications as to the strong demand are provided by the vacancy r a t e s , which i n Vancouver, for apart42 ments are low or minimal varying by location and type of 43 apartment and are the lowest i n Canada.  A similar situa-  t i o n exists in a l l the major Canadian c i t i e s with the 44 exception of Montreal. Housing starts by A p r i l 1970 across Canada were running about 40 per cent below that month of the previous  year, The  according  M i n i s t e r  180,000  to  the  thought  compared  Government's  that  with  19 69-7  M i n i s t e r  3  Responsible  t o t a l  starts  200,000  the  commitment  i n  for  1970  would  anticipated  were  to  be  month  of  May  Housing.  i f  be  the  about  Federal  maintained  at  an  45 annual per  rate.  cent  Starts  below  May  for  19 69  the  figures  for  urban  1970  were  areas,  a  50.1  drop  to  46 8,392  units The  in  trend  Metropolitan  detached  16,814  from  and  to  units.  more  Vancouver  deuplex  apartments  and  with  single-detached,  starts  1,014  compared  to  row-houses  2,27  8  continued  row,  semi-  apartment  47 and  other  starts  In units  19 6 8  over  by  the  also  end  the  of  March  trend  owner-occupied  to  units  a  1970. predominance  was  in  centres  of  r e n t a l  10,000  of  48 population, Planning be  Board  68,900  than  of  of  a l l  when  there  dwelling  The  one.  a  OF  THE  r e s i d e n t i a l  most  urban  problems  are  ation  of  change  important related  i n  19 65  that  Vancouver  apartments  units. SOME A S P E C T S  quantitatively  In  estimated  i n  units,  29,200 49  urban  to  units  dwelling were  two  Vancouver  apartment  cent  a l l  more  from  HOUSING  of one  the  there  49.2  or  1961  w i l l per  s i t u a t i o n per  cent  of  MARKET  urban  way  19 81  24.7  up  markets  a l l  by  Technical  c o n s t i t u t i n g  making  land  the  are  among  markets,  another  to  the and  most  the  oper-  50 the  urban  land  and  housing  markets.  Mention  has  been made o f the components o f demand and p o p u l a t i o n and  land s c a r c i t y i n M e t r o p o l i t a n  performance o f supply; shortage and t h e r e the  reference  density  Vancouver and a l s o the has been made t o t h e housing  remains t h e problem o f housing c o s t s t o  consumer: Housing i s a u n i v e r s a l need, y e t the p r i v a t e market on which Canadians have r e l i e d i s anything but u n i v e r s a l i n i t s present scope and a p p l i c a t i o n . Housing, i n a word, i s t o o expensive f o r t o o many Canadians. I f i t i s n o t t r u e , as popular charge would have i t , t h a t any Canadian e a r n i n g l e s s than $8,000 a year cannot buy a home i n today's market, i t i s t r u e t h a t t h i s statement does apply i n some m e t r o p o l i t a n areas, w h i l e i n many o t h e r s "average" income w i l l not buy a f a m i l y an "average" home. 51 Not  for shelter the  o n l y do the low income groups s u f f e r i n competing 52  but so do t h e " a f f l u e n t poor,"  53  those  earning  "average" income o f between $5,000-$7,500 a year who a r e 54  f o r c e d t o r e n t accommodation  and whose housing c o s t s a r e  w e l l above the 20-27 per cent o f income CMHC h o l d s  acceptable  55 f o r housing expenses.  The major impact o f the h o u s i n g  shortage i n Vancouver i s on the r e n t e r w i t h a young The  r i s i n g costs of obtaining  family. ^ 5  s h e l t e r are generally  a r e f l e c t i o n of land s c a r c i t y and t h e c o s t o f s e r v i c i n g l a n d 57 58 which r e s u l t s i n h i g h land c o s t s , on h i g h i n t e r e s t r a t e s an the  imperfect  vacancy r a t e s .  competition  i n the market as i n d i c a t e d by low  T h i s shortage, r e f l e c t e d by minimal vacancy  r a t e s , mentioned e a r l i e r , i s an important c o s t f a c t o r i n i t s 59 60 elf. The r i s i n g c o s t o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , construction labour costs.  61  62 and s t r i k e s also contribute to increased A further d i f f i c u l t y  housing  i s t h a t of t h e l a r g e r downpayment  r e q u i r e d , which between 1964 and 1968 i n c r e a s e d  by 44 per cent.  Although  r i s i n g  incomes  have  generally  matched  r i s i n g  64 housing  costs  housing  of  certain  types  comprising  housing  demand.  and  hardest  the  by  low  groups  with  single  divorced  affected  fixed  are  impact  for  income or  the  shortage  certain The  impact  families  housing of  as  move  in  population  felt  on  f i r s t  non-family  widowed  senior  to  is  the  been  also  such  and  wishing  has  but  incomes  students  i n  segments  families*^  l i m i t e d  persons,  young  of  persons,  c i t i z e n s . ^ from  Also  r e n t a l  units  6V to  s e l f  owned  housing.  are  affected  mainly  and  luxuries  that  probably  delay  monthly  charges.  The  middle  and  high  i n  the  l o c a t i o n ,  size  they  can  afford  their  buying  homes  due  i n  to  income  and  higher  families  added  housing  f a c i l i t i e s and  many  downpayrnents  and  68  THE  EMERGENCE  The bear  some  other The in and  there  Middle  B r i t i s h due  s i m i l a r i t y  conditions  Hawaii  to  t i g h t  CONDOMINIUM -  conditions  places  the  OF  and  to  Ages the  those  emerged  include  Columbia  and  on  land  in  wars  conditions,  of  which  condominium  islands  the  e a r l i e r , or the  due  to  high  B r i t i s h  i n  other  Lower  as  shortage  cost  of  for  occupant-ownership  of  dwellings.  walled Puerto  of  i n  c i t i e s Rico  of  housing  population,  dwellings  69 desire  times  Mainland  growing  Columbia  arrangements. i n  such  the a  i n  space  today  of  PRESENT  housing  b u i l d i n g  poverty  AND  obtaining  out  l i m i t e d  mentioned  destruction economic  presently  PAST  and  the  The  importance of condominiums i n other c o u n t r i e s i s  perhaps u s e f u l i n showing i n p e r s p e c t i v e condominiums i n Canada. they may and  the p o t e n t i a l of  Condominiums are important because  be a most e f f e c t i v e means of p r o v i d i n g mass housing  i n some c o u n t r i e s have a l r e a d y  superseded other types of  70 dwellings.  Belgium b u i l d s 90 per cent of i t s t o t a l 71 r e s i d e n t i a l development i n condominium; 98 per cent of the 72 Hawaiian market i s condominium and m A u s t r a l i a 66 per cent 73 o f new housing i s condominium. During 1962-1968 i t was estimated  t h a t between 50,000-60,000 condominium u n i t s were 74  b u i l t i n the U n i t e d  States.  In the urban c o n d i t i o n s of today the u t i l i s a t i o n  of  the condominium concept i n p r o v i d i n g housing can r e s u l t i n greater population  d e n s i t y and  s e r v i c i n g c o s t s , and distributed facilities  thus lower land c o s t , lower  lower c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s because they  among more buyers.  Similarly services  such as maintenance and  and  swimming p o o l s , e t c . 75  be i n c l u d e d a t a p r i c e more people can a f f o r d .  are  can  Another  advantage of condominium i s t h a t , as i n t e n s i v e urban development i s c o n c e n t r a t i n g  ownership, p a r t i c u l a r l y  m u l t i p l e h o u s i n g , i n fewer and provide  of  fewer hands, condominium w i l l  the p o s s i b i l i t y of ownership of homes, which i s  con76 s i d e r e d by some t o be a b a s i c s t r e n g t h o f Canadian s o c i e t y .  C o n d o m i n i u m , t h e r e f o r e , becomes one a l t e r n a t i v e i n t h e choice  o f housing  accommodation a v a i l a b l e t o B r i t i s h  Columbians.  77 The  range of a l t e r n a t i v e s i s given  ium  c a n be r e c o g n i z e d 1.  2.  below,  condomin-  as t h e s e c o n d a l t e r n a t i v e :  a dwelling  owned i n f e e s i m p l e  facilities  o r common c o n t r o l ;  a dwelling  owned i n f e e s i m p l e  property  i n which  and f a c i l i t i e s  proportionate  with  no common  with  some  common  a n d some f o r m o f c o n t r o l  t o the value  or size  of the dwelling  78 and 3.  subject  a dwelling  to the Strata T i t l e s Act; leased  from a c o n t i n u i n g  which the occupant some common equal  lessee  facilities  i s a shareholder,  and w i t h  control irrespective  of the dwelling  cooperative i n with  each l e s s e e  of the size  having  or value  and s u b j e c t t o t h e C o o p e r a t i v e  Associations Act; 4.  a dwelling lessee with of  5.  leased  f r o m a company i n w h i c h t h e o c c u p a n t  i s a shareholder  some common  some f o r m o f c o n t r o l p r o p o r t i o n a t e  the dwelling  a leased  and s u b j e c t  dwelling with  over which t h e occupant either or  with  (a) s u b j e c t  lease, or  facilities t o the value  t o t h e C o m p a n i e s A c t ; and  or without  some common  facilities  l e s s e e h a s no c o n t r o l and  to the Landlord  and T e n a n t A c t a n d /  (b) managed b y t h e B r i t i s h  Columbia  Housing  Management C o m m i s s i o n  subject t o the Short  79 Form o f L e a s e s A c t .  CONDOMINIUMS IN CANADA  In  1969, a l t h o u g h  complete  able,  i t was e s t i m a t e d  units  o f condominium h o u s i n g  statistics  are not a v a i l -  t h a t t h e r e were b e t w e e n  2,0 00-3,000  80 i n c l u d i n g completions, 81 u n i t s u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n and i m m i n e n t s t a r t s o f w h i c h 25 p e r 82 c e n t o f t h e c o m p l e t i o n s were i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The estimates  for British  i n Canada  C o l u m b i a a r e t h a t i n 1969 c l o s e t o 1,000  83 units  were b e i n g d e v e l o p e d  and t h a t d u r i n g 1966-1970 some  84 2,000 u n i t s of  were d e v e l o p e d .  C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing  collected British  statistics  Although  the Vancouver  Office  C o r p o r a t i o n has r e c e n t l y  on c o n d o m i n i u m s t h a t i t f i n a n c e s i n  Columbia,  a t t h e time o f w r i t i n g these s t a t i s t i c s 85 have n o t been a n a l y s e d . The O n t a r i o Housing C o r p o r a t i o n has a n n o u n c e d p l a n s f o r f i v e c o n d o m i n i u m d e v e l o p m e n t s t h a t  8 fi w i l l c o n s t r u c t 8,6 85 u n i t s f o r s a l e by t h e F a l l o f 1974. " N i n e t e e n - s e v e n t y w i l l be t h e y e a r o f t h e C o n d o m i n i u m i n 87 Metro Toronto." estimated  T h e 2,500 c o n d o m i n i u m u n i t s  w i l l be b u i l t  i n townhouse c l u s t e r s  t o w e r s r e p r e s e n t more t h a n  and i t i s e x p e c t e d  condominium u n i t s w i l l annual  starts  and h i g h r i s e  a quarter of a l l the single  o w n e r - o c c u p i e d d w e l l i n g s t o be b u i l t p o l i t a n Toronto  that i t i s  during  family,  1970 i n M e t r o -  t h a t i n a few y e a r s  outnumber s i n g l e 88 and c o m p l e t i o n s .  f a m i l y houses  i n the  HOUSING AND URBAN  It all  i s accepted  the varied  that  PLANNING  Planners  aspects of a c i t y  must be c o n c e r n e d  with  and i t s p r o b l e m s and n e e d s .  90 One o f t h e s e housing  91  involving  and i t i s s u g g e s t e d  the problem housing  problems  of the housing  needs.  92  a basic  need  i s urban  c o n d o m i n i u m s may a i d i n s o l v i n g  shortage  and p r o v i s i o n  f o r future  C o n t i n u i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s have a l s o been  sugges-  93 ted  as a n o t h e r  means t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m .  F o r c e has s t a t e d  The F e d e r a l T a s k  that:  . . . a t l e a s t p a r t of the problem i n the f i e l d o f h o u s i n g and u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t c a n b e t r a c e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t governments i n Canada . . . have n o t s p e l l e d o u t t h e i r p r i m a r y g o a l s and p r i o r i t i e s i n t h i s a r e a . 94 The do  Task Force  then  recommended  that  t h e F e d e r a l Government  s o and d e c l a r e d among t h e p r i n c i p l e s  adopted  that  s h o u l d be  the following:  . . . t h e aim o f t h e government p o l i c i e s s h o u l d be t o g e n e r a t e s u f f i c i e n t h o u s i n g s t o c k o f v a r i o u s f o r m s s o t h a t a l l C a n a d i a n s may e x e r c i s e t h e i r own f r e e d o m o f c h o i c e as t o t h e s t y l e and t e n u r e o f h o u s i n g i n w h i c h "they l i v e . 95 Condominium developments w i l l and  widen t h i s  choice of style  tenure. In a paper  Lipman s t a t e d direction desirable,  that  on t h e s o c i a l  effects  t h e r e were c e r t a i n  i n creating  themes, w h i c h  the kind of housing  and w h i c h i n c l u d e d :  of housing,  Marvin offer  environment  (i)  i n c r e a s i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n man, h i s h o u s i n g and h i s e n v i r o n ment, t h r o u g h e x p e r i m e n t and r e s e a r c h .  (ii)  i n c r e a s i n g the range o f c h o i c e s i n h o u s i n g environment f o r a l l our c i t i z e n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e low income g r o u p s .  (iii)  b u i l d i n g i n t o our h o u s i n g environments the k i n d o f a m e n i t i e s w h i c h make i t more t h a n shelter.  (iv)  p r o v i d i n g the kinds of o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n housing w h i c h a l l o w f o r d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f management, o w n e r s h i p , e t c . and w h i c h e n c o u r a g e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i n d e p e n d e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e low i n c o m e g r o u p . 96  It effective by  i s suggested that i n meeting  condominiums c o u l d  the l a s t  be  three requirements  especially  mentioned  Lipman. Condominium developments  parcels  of land  land p o l i c y planners. Institute problems  has A.G.  and  the u t i l i s a t i o n  always  been  Dalzell,  an e a r l y  o f town p l a n n i n g land  policy  often  and  involve  of urban  of c e n t r a l  of Canada emphasized  today urban  may  land  i . e . , urban  importance to  President  urban  o f t h e Town P l a n n i n g  i n his writings h o u s i n g were l a n d  i s receiving  large  increasing  that  the  basic  problems,  and  attention  97 from  planners. Governments have been and  in  involved  various  levels  various  community  p l a n n e r s f o r some d e c a d e s  i n housing at ways  involving  98 of  Governmental  policies  and w h i l e t h e  concerning continuing  effect  cooperatives  99 has  been  remains  considered, t o be a n a l y s e d .  thexr e f f e c t  on condomxnium  development  HYPOTHESIS In B r i t i s h  Columbia  cooperatives;"'"^"'" c o n t i n u i n g the  latter  being  the  absence o f s p e c i f i c  the  promotion  has  retarded  there  a r e two t y p e s  cooperatives  of  and t i t l e  housing cooperatives,  more commonly known as c o n d o m i n i u m s . Provincial  and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  and M u n i c i p a l  of continuing  Although  policies for cooperatives  102 their  formation  the housing  policies  of the 103  Federal and  Government do n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e " a g a i n s t  the P r o v i n c i a l  condominium The policy  condominiums  Government does have s p e c i f i c  policies  on  housing. author  contends t h a t  and b u r e a u c r a t i c  the lack of s p e c i f i c  Municipal  p r o c e d u r e s does n o t f r u s t r a t e t h e  development o f condominium h o u s i n g  and c o n s e q u e n t l y  will  attempt  t o answer t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : What, i f any,, a r e t h e s p e c i f i c M u n i c i p a l p o l i c i e s and b u r e a u c r a t i c p r o c e d u r e s c o n c e r n i n g residential c o n d o m i n i u m d e v e l o p m e n t , and What, i f a n y , i s t h e i r e f f e c t on s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t ?  DEFINITIONS Condominium,  u n l e s s otherwise c l e a r from t h e c o n t e x t , any o r a l l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : - 105  means  The f o r m o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p and t e n u r e s u b j e c t t o s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n r e g u l a t i n g condominiums, i n which 1.  L a n d b u i l d i n g s and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s a r e subdivided into (a) u n i t s , t h a t a r e s e p a r a t e l y owned i n f e e s i m p l e , and (b) common p r o p e r t y s h a r e d and c o n t r o l l e d by a l l o f t h e . u n i t o w n e r s , and  2.  Policy  I n r e f e r e n c e t o B r i t i s h Columbia a r e s u b j e c t to the S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t , unless r e f e r e d t o as "common-law" o r " n o n - s t a t u t o r y " c o n d o m i n iums .  means: Any r e l e v a n t l e g i s l a t i o n , o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n , s t a n d a r d s o r programme stemming therefrom o r any p o l i c y r e s o l u t i o n , v i e w a t t i t u d e o r i n t e n t i o n whether expressed g e n e r a l l y o r stemming f r o m any s p e c i f i c r e l e v a n t governmental decision.  Bureaucratic  Procedures  means;  The p r o c e d u r e s a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n necessary to l e g a l l y o b t a i n permission t o develop land and c o n s t r u c t b u i l d i n g s a n d f a c i l i t i e s .  ASSUMPTIONS The  assumptions  i n this  thesis are:  T h a t a l l l e v e l s o f G o v e r n m e n t and t h e i r p r o p e r a g e n c i e s i n Canada a r e , o r s h o u l d b e , concerned w i t h improving the e x i s t i n g housing s i t u a t i o n , and That they a r e , o r should be, n o t averse t o adopting p o l i c i e s which w i l l a i d i n t h e accomplishment o f an improvement i n t h e housing situation.  METHODOLOGY  By way o f i n t r o d u c t i o n t h e c u r r e n t h o u s i n g and  f u t u r e urban  housing  needs a r e d e s c r i b e d  situation  and condominium  suggested  as  of meeting  one  a l t e r n a t i v e housing  future housing  necessary  background  subject's  novelty  evolution  of  by  demand.  and  Federal,  useful  to provide  the  study,  condominium i n C h a p t e r I I f o l l o w e d  next  three  Provincial  nature  way  the  given to  the  the  i n Chapter  o f condominium h o u s i n g  III  in  i s drawn b e t w e e n c o n d o m i n i u m s  C h a p t e r , on  some o f  the  - IV,  Municipal  Municipal  has  and  VI  deal  and  Columbia  sent  i n which  Chapter VII  drawn f r o m t h e  whole  The  hypothesis  from a q u e s t i o n n a i r e  been d e v e l o p e d .  with  respectively.  P o l i c y , i n which the  i n part  major o b s e r v a t i o n s  V  Policies  municipalities in British  dominium h o u s i n g the  Chapters  and  tested, i s derived  with  to  one  phenomena. The  is  In o r d e r  perspective  which a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n  latter  and  i n Canada, c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  similar  type  to con-  concludes paper.  LIMITATIONS In of  a d d i t i o n to examining  establishing Federal,  policies  w o u l d be  of debates press  a t the  Provincial  three  references  from which t o deduce limitation  of  this  and  levels  to housing their  search  mentioned  minutes  and and  a f u r t h e r method  Municipal  to conduct a thorough  r e l e a s e s , conference  to discover  legislation  of  as w e l l  the  minutes  as a l l  relevant reports residential  respective policies.  thesis i s that  housing  such a search  etc.  condominiums The  was  main  not  con-  d u c t e d by topic of  (and i s s u g g e s t e d  f o r a thesis)-.  such  and  the author  The  s e c o n d l y , a l a c k of time  of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s  since  and  level,  future  the p a u c i t y  i . e . no  Hansard  resources to carry  a t the M u n i c i p a l l e v e l  w o u l d h a v e t o be  the case o f F e d e r a l housing p o l i c y were  a useful  reasons being f i r s t l y  r e c o r d s a t the p r o v i n c i a l  a search e s p e c i a l l y  as  considered.  out  such  a number However, i n  Barrow's deduced  principles  accepted. Further  those  limitations  are mentioned  i n the  r e g a r d i n g the u s e f u l n e s s of the p o s t a l  municipalities  i n Chapter  text,  survey  e.g.  of  VI.  CONCLUSION  This and  thesis  empirical.  are,  The  major o r i g i n a l  i n the author's In Chapter  range  II a  i s the  Scottish  and  France  experience condominium  contributions  i n housing history  in British  of the  today. found  evolution.  Columbia  of the e v o l u t i o n  detail  and  latter  Neither of these i n any  work  the  and  of  original  l e g a l background  Quebec c o n d o m i n i u m s , i n t h e  i s t o be  of t h i s  follows.  t o which the author's  outline  until  theoretical  I the a u t h o r p r e s e n t s a framework o f  "nutshell"  condominium concept bution  o p i n i o n as  of a l t e r n a t i v e s  Chapter  New  is in parts—descriptive,  the contri-  role  case  of  from  countries"  i n the  in  sources  on  In  Chapter  I I I t h e a u t h o r h a s c a r e f u l l y drawn t h e o  distinction (over which and in  b e t w e e n c o n d o m i n i u m s and s i m i l a r there exists  policy.  of housing  much c o n f u s i o n i n t h e p u b l i c  i n C h a p t e r V has d e s c r i b e d Chapter  forms  VI has o u t l i n e d  Provincial  t h e scope  mind)  housing p o l i c y  of Municipal housing  and  1.  Quoted i n Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , S o c i a l C a n a d a , P a r t 1, ( O t t a w a : 1969) , p. T~.  2.  M i c h a e l Wheeler, (ed.),"Recommendations of the Conference," The R i g h t t o H o u s i n g , ( M o n t r e a l : H a r v e s t House L t d . , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 331.  3.  R e p o r t o f t h e T a s k F o r c e on H o u s i n g and U r b a n ( O t t a w a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 22.  4.  Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l ,  5.  Background Papers f o r the F e d e r a l P r o v i n c i a l Conference on H o u s i n g and U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t , H o u s i n g P o l i c y , P r o b l e m s and P r i o r i t y , ( O t t a w a : December, 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 1. C i t e d by M a r i a n t h i C o n s t a n t i n u , Housing Cooperatives i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s i n Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 4.  6.  T a s k F o r c e , op.  7.  E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , P e r s p e c t i v e 1975, Sixth A n n u a l R e v i e w , (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 100.  cit.,  p.  op.  cit.,  p.  Policies for  Development,  1.  14.  8.  Ibid.  9.  T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e o p i n i o n e x p r e s s e d by D r . H.P. O b e r l a n d e r , ( D i r e c t o r o f t h e S c h o o l o f Community and Regional P l a n n i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia), e t a l . , c o n c e r n i n g one a l t e r n a t i v e , i . e . c o o p e r a t i v e K o u s T n g and c i t e d by C o n s t a n t i n u , op. c i t . , p. 76.  10.  Op.  c i t , supra, note  2.  11.  D r . Rose o f t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work and P r o f . Diamond of the School of A r c h i t e c t u r e , both of the U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o , quoted i n B r i e f submitted t o the F e d e r a l Task F o r c e on H o u s i n g and U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., November 1968, by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l o f C a r p e n t e r s , ( p r e p a r e d by t h e T r a d e U n i o n R e s e a r c h B u r e a u , V a n c o u v e r , B . C . ) , p . 1. i g h t t o H o u s i n g , op. c i t . . , and s e e a l s o D a v i d V. Donnison, A g e n d a f o r Housing" i n I b i d . , 234, 235. T  n  e  R  13.  Task Force,  op_. c i t . , p . 6.  14.  I b i d . , p . 9.  15.  F o r b i r t h s , d e a t h s , i m m i g r a t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n , f o r C a n a d a 1921-69, s e e C a n a d i a n H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s 1969, (Ottawa: CMHC, 1970), T a b l e 76, p . 58. F o r p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s u n d e r v a r i o u s a s s u m p t i o n s s e e W o l f g a n g I l l i n g , et. a_l. , P o p u l a t i o n , f a m i l y , h o u s e h o l d and l a b o u r f o r c e g r o w t h t o 1980, ( O t t a w a : E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967), T a b l e 2-E, p . 25. F o r t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and u r b a n and l a r g e c i t y s h a r e s b y r e g i o n s e e E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , F o u r t h A n n u a l R e v i e w , From t h e 1960's t o 1970's, (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967), p . 186.  16.  Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s c o u v e r , B.C., 28 May 1970.  17.  Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada,  18.  Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, F o u r t h A n n u a l Review, op. c i t . , s u p r a , n . 15, q u o t e d i n C o n s t a n t i n u , o p . c i t . , p . 2.  19.  Task F o r c e ,  op_. c i t . , p . 9.  20.  See I l l i n g ,  op_. c i t . , s u p r a , n . 15, p . 25.  21.  Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, s u p r a , n . 15, p . 4.  22.  Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d (LMRPB), P o p u l a t i o n T r e n d s i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d , (New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C.: 1968) , p . 11.  23.  I b i d . , p.12.  24.  B. C . - B u r e a u o f E c o n o m i c s cit., p . 12.  25.  LMRPB, 0 £ . c i t . , p . 42.  26.  F o r map s e e LMRPB, op_.  27.  Ibid.,  p p . 13-14.  28.  Ibid.,  p . 14.  29.  Ibid.,  p . 17.  30.  Ibid.,  p . 3.  reported  op. c i t . ,  i n The Sun, Vanp p . 41, 186.  F o u r t h A n n u a l Review,  and S t a t i s t i c s ,  cit.  op.  cit,  i n LMRPB, o p .  31.  LMRPB, C h a n c e a n d C h a l l e n g e , (New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C.:  32.  Ibid.  33.  Ibid.,  34.  F o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f h o u s i n g n e e d s a n d demands s e e M a l c o l m McD. B a r r o w , F e d e r a l H o u s i n g P o l i c i e s and t h e D e v e l o p i n g Urban S t r u c t u r e : C o n f l i c t s and R e s o l u t i o n ^ u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s i n Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967) , C h a p t e r I V .  35.  CMHC, C a n a d i a n H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s 1968, ( O t t a w a : Queen's P r i n t e r ^ 1969), p . x i i . F o r t o t a l f a m i l y and n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d f o r m a t i o n s and p r o j e c t i o n s s e e I l l i n g , op_. c i t . , T a b l e 3-4, p . 69 a n d f o r components o f h o u s i n g demand b a s e d on d e m o g r a p h i c t r e n d s s e e E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , op. c i t . , s u p r a , n . 7, T a b l e 6-5, p . 99.  36.  Task F o r c e , o£. c i t . ,  37.  CMHC, H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s , B.C. R e g i o n , M a r c h 1970. ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: 4 A p r i l 1970), p . 1. F o r the Annual h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e s , s e e C a n a d i a n H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s 1969, (Ottawa: CMHC, 1970), T a b l e 1, p .~T.  38.  CMHC, o p . c i t . ,  39.  Ibid.,  40.  M.J. A u d a i n , T h e H o u s i n g S i t u a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r , A B r i e f i n g For Volunteers, ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: U n i t e d Community S e r v i c e s ,  1963), p . 4.  p . 9.  p . 23.  s u p r a , n . 35, p . x i v .  p. x i v .  1966), p . 4.  41.  CMHC, o p . c i t . ,  s u p r a , n . 37, p . 1.  42.  F o r a c o m p a r a t i v e summary o f v a c a n c y r a t e s e e R e a l E s t a t e Trends Supplement, ( V a n c o u v e r R e a l E s t a t e B o a r d , 1970) , T a b l e s 1, 2 a n d 3, p p . 13, 14.  43.  G.R. Brown, An A n a l y s i s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g M a r k e t 1966-68, A J o i n t Report o f t h e Seminar i n Governmental U r b a n L a n d P o l i c i e s , F a c u l t y o f Commerce a n d B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1968), p .  20.  44.  Task Force,  45.  T h e S u n , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 28 May 1970.  46.  CMHC p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a q u o t e d i n T h e S u n , B.C., 10 J u n e 1970.  47.  CMHC, H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s , n. 37, p . A - 3 6 .  48.  CMHC, C a n a d i a n H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s p. v i i i .  49.  Quoted i n t h e Vancouver T e n a n t s O r g a n i z a t i o n Committee ( p r e s e n t l y the Vancouver Tenants Council) B r i e f t o t h e T a s k F o r c e on H o u s i n g a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t ^ (Vancouver,  op. c i t . ,  p . 15.  Vancouver,  B.C. R e g i o n , op_. c i t . , s u p r a , 1969,  ( O t t a w a : 1970) ,  B.C.: 1968), p . 2.  50.  R i c h a r d F. Muth, "Urban R e s i d e n t i a l L a n d a n d H o u s i n g Markets" i n Issues i n Urban Economics, Harvey S. P e r l o f f and Lowdon Wingo, J r . , [ells7) ( B a l t i m o r e : T h e J o h n s H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1968), p . 285.  51.  Task F o r c e ,  52.  I b i d . , p . 15 and C o n s t a n t i n u , ojo. c i t . , p p . 5-6.  53.  Task F o r c e ,  54.  F o r a p p a r t m e n t r e n t s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r s e e Brown, op. c i t . , A p p e n d i x A-X a n d R e a l E s t a t e T r e n d s 196 8, ^ V a n c o u v e r R e a l E s t a t e B o a r d , 1969), p . B-9 a n d S u p p l e ment 1969, p . 17.  55.  Task F o r c e ,  56.  Brown, o p . e x t . , p . 33.  57.  F o r r e s i d e n t i a l land costs i n Metro Vancouver, E s t a t e T r e n d s 1970, o p . c i t . , p . A - 4 .  58.  CMHC, o p . ext.., s u p r a , n . 48, p . x a n d T a b l e 52 a n d f o r i n t e r e s t r a t e levels s e e CMHC, C a n a d i a n H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s F e b r u a r y 1970, p . 7. And a l s o :  op. c i t . ,  op. c i t . ,  op. c i t . ,  p . 14.  p . 15.  p . 15 and C o n s t a n t i n u ,  op. c i t . ,  see Real  I n summary, t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e m a j o r f a c t o r s t r i b u t i n g to the high cost of financing;  1. 2.  con-  T h e demand f o r c a p i t a l i s h i g h on a w o r l d w i d e scale. B e c a u s e o f a number o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s - h i g h rate o f i n f l a t i o n , U.S. b a l a n c e - o f - p a y m e n t s d e f i c i t s , t h e war i n V i e t n a m , p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l s ,  e t c . , — c o n f i d e n c e i n the s t a b i l i t y of c u r r e n c i e s has weakened, and l e n d e r s a r e wary a b o u t s u p p l y i n g funds. Not o n l y are i n t e r e s t r a t e s r i s i n g under such c o n d i t i o n s , but the p r e f e r e n c e f o r v a r i o u s types o f s e c u r i t i e s changes t o the d i s a d v a n t a g e of l o n g term fixed-income s e c u r i t i e s s u c h as m o r t g a g e s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s i s f a c e d by a p e r s i s t i n g d i l e m m a on t h e one h a n d , t h e n e c e s s i t y t o p u r s u e f u l l employment p o l i c i e s t o a v o i d m o u n t i n g unemployment under c o n d i t i o n s of e x t r e m e l y r a p i d l a b o u r f o r c e g r o w t h — i . e . p o l i c i e s w h i c h i m p l y e a s i e r money and c r e d i t , as w e l l as a c e r t a i n amount o f i n f l a t i o n ( d e p e n d i n g on t h e c h o i c e o f t r a d e - o f f s b e t w e e n unemployment and p r i c e i n c r e a s e s ) — a n d , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e n e e d t o p u r s u e more d e f l a t i o n a r y p o l i c i e s d e s i g n e d to c o r r e c t i t s b a l a n c e of payments. C a n a d a has become more c l o s e l y t i e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t s o u t s i d e i t s b o r d e r s , and i s t h e r e f o r e l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d n o t o n l y by e x i s t i n g p r e s s u r e s on i n t e r e s t r a t e s , b u t a l s o by d e v e l o p m e n t s i n p r i c e s - - w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l push a r i s i n g from the r e m a i n i n g scope f o r C a n a d i a n p r i c e s and c o s t s t o r i s e more t h a n those i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  3.  4.  5.  W o l f g a n g M. I l l i n g , "The R i s i n g C o s t o f H o u s i n g and P r o b l e m s o f F i n a n c i n g " i n t h e R i g h t t o H o u s i n g , op. c i t . ,  pp. 161-162.  59.  Task F o r c e ,  60.  For see  op.  c i t . , p.  15.  p r i c e s of r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s R e a l E s t a t e T r e n d s 1970, s u p r a , n. 57, p.  1963-70, A-3.  61.  F o r b a s i c wage r a t e s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y R e a l E s t a t e T r e n d s 1969 , s u p r a , n. 42, p. 22.  62,  F o r i n s t a n c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1970 f o r e s t r y and c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s were on s t r i k e .  63,  Brown  op.  64,  Ibid.  p.  12 .  65,  Ibid.  p.  22  66,  Brown  op.  67,  Ibid.  p.  68.  Ibid.  pp.  c i t . , p.  and  12.  Constantinu,  c i t . , p.  21. 2 3-2 5.  see  21.  op_.  c i t . , p.  4/  et.  seq.  69.  J . Leyser, "The O n w e r s h i p o f F l a t s - A C o m p a r a t i v e Study," I n t e r n a t i o n a l and C o m p a r a t i v e Law Q u a r t e r l y , ( V o l . 7, J a n u a r y 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 320, and E.H.Q. S m i t h , "bid Wine i n New B o t t l e s , " Habitat, ( V o l . X I I , Nos. 4-5, 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 2 and A. F e r r e r and K. S t e c h e r , Law o f C o n d o m i n i u m , ( O x f o r d , N.H.: E q u i t y P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , V o l . 1, pp. 26, 29, 33 and 37 and A R o s e n b e r g , C o n d o m i n i u m i n C a n a d a , ( T o r o n t o : C a n a d a Law Book L t d . , 1969) , p . 2-2 and T a s k F o r c e , op_. c i t . , p . 17.  70.  Ferrer  and S t e c h e r , o p .  71.  Quoted  i n L e y s e r , o_£. c i t ,  72.  E. S u l l y , " D e v e l o p e r s Look a t Condominium," ( V o l . X I I , N o s . 4-5, 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 29.  73.  M i c h a e l P i n e , " C i t y R e p a i r , A i r R i g h t s and C o n d o m i n i u m , " H a b i t a t , ( V o l . X I I , No. 4-5, 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 62.  74.  A. S c h r e i b e r , "The L a t e r a l H o u s i n g D e v e l o p m e n t : C o n d o m i n i u m o r Home Owners A s s o c i a t i o n ? , " University of P e n n s y l v a n i a Law R e v i e w , ( V o l . 117, No. 8~5 p^ 1106,  75.  R o s e n b e r g , op_. c i t . , p p - 1-2 and L o o k a t Condominium," Habitat, p . 26. And a l s o :  cit., p.  p. i v . 35, n.  16. Habitat,  R.J. MacLeod, " D e v e l o p e r s ( V o l . X I I , Nos. 4-5, 19 6 9 ) ,  The c o n d o m i n i u m may o f f e r t h e b u y e r a m e n i t i e s and l u x u r i e s w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be b e y o n d h i s means s u c h as a g o l f c o u r s e , v i e w o f t h e o c e a n o r a l a k e , a swimming p o o l , o r an a t t r a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n a r e a . In a d d i t i o n , he may r e c e i v e more h o u s i n g f o r h i s money s i n c e the percentage of land c o s t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the a c t u a l c o s t o f t h e u n i t t e n d s t o be l e s s t h a n t h e percentage f o r a s i n g l e - f a m i l y dwelling. A residential l o t , f o r e x a m p l e , m i g h t r e p r e s e n t 20 t o 25% o f t h e t o t a l c o s t o f an a v e r a g e p r o p e r t y , w h e r e a s i n a c o n d o m i n i u m i t u s u a l l y w o u l d t e n d t o be l e s s , p e r h a p s a r o u n d 10 t o 15 p e r c e n t . f r o m W.R. B e a t o n , "The D e t a c h e d - H o u s e C o n d o m i n i u m , " U r b a n L a n d , ( V o l . 3, 29 M a r c h 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 5. 76.  J . P . R o b e r t s , "Condominium O w n e r s h i p i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, (Vancouver, B.C.: V a n c o u v e r R e a T ~ E s t a t e B o a r d , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . B - l .  77.  The a u t h o r ' s l i s t o f a l t e r n a t i v e s , w h i c h e x c l u d e s — i n the f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e — t h e ease o f , f o r example, a s h a r e d d r i v e w a y o r a p a r t y w a l l , i . e . a common f a c i l i t y i n a semi-detached house o r duplex; a n d - - i n t h e second alternative—common law o r n o n - s t a t u t o r y condominiums; a n d — i n t h e f i f t h a l t e r n a t i v e — c a s e s where T e n a n t s C o u n c i l s o r A s s o c i a t i o n s have been formed and which have b a r g a i n e d w i t h t h e l a n d l o r d t h e r e b y g a i n i n g some, a l b e i t s m a l l , measure o f c o n t r o l over t h e i r h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , a c o m m i t t e e o f t e n a n t s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r , B.C. L i t t l e M o u n t a i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t has been r u n n i n g t h e p r o j e c t s i n c e t h e l a t e F a l l o f 1970 a n d i n t e n d s t o ask f o r e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h Government a p p o i n t e e s on t h e B.C. H o u s i n g Management C o m m i s s i o n (The S u n , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 7 J a n u a r y , 1971). I n V a n c o u v e r , B.C. d u r i n g A p r i l 1971 a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f t e n a n t s o f W a l l and Redekop Ltd., withheld t h e i r rent i n order t o coerce the landlord i n t o j u s t i f y i n g a r e n t i n c r e a s e . A t the time o f w r i t i n g ( A p r i l , 1971) t h e m a t t e r h a s n o t b e e n r e s o l v e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y the r i g h t s o f ownership o f property a r e s u b j e c t t o G o v e r n m e n t a l power t o l e v y t a x e s and t o s e i z u r e o f p r o p e r t y i n t h e e v e n t o f non-payment; t o r e g u l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g l a n d u s e , h e a l t h , e t c . , and t o exp r o p r i a t i o n by t h e Crown o r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  78.  See C h a p t e r  79.  S h o r t Form o f L e a s e s  80.  See C h a p t e r I I f o r t h e C a n a d i a n condominium l e g i s l a t i o n .  81.  R.T. Ryan,  Nos.  V. A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, C.357 a s amended.  "The L e n d e r s '  jurisdictions  V i e w 1,"  Habitat,  with  special  (Vol. X I I ,  4-5, 1969), p . 18.  82.  Smith,  op_. c i t . ,  p . 11.  83.  T h e Hon. G r a c e M c C a r t h y , M i n i s t e r W i t h o u t P o r t f o l i o , Address, t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l A s s e m b l y , Monday 16 F e b r u a r y , 1979, p . 11.  84.  D a v i d D a v i d s o n , " S t r a t a T i t l e D e v e l o p m e n t - Condominium," R e a l E s t a t e T r e n d s i n M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r 1970, ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: V a n c o u v e r R e a l E s t a t e Board"]! T9"71) , p.B-1. P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. J . Lowdon o f CMHC s V a n c o u v e r O f f i c e , 13 November 1970. 1  86.  Richard R. S n e l l , "The Third A l t e r n a t i v e , " Habitat, (Vol. XII, No. 4-5, 1969), p. 23. In Canadian Homes (June 1970), p. 1, i t i s stated that the Ontario Government has plans for 10,000 condominium homes.  87.  Toronto Daily Star, 1970.  88.  Ibid.  89.  See, for examples, the wide range of subjects covered in planning texts and journals. See Barrow, op_. c i t . , pp. 13-16 and 120, 121 for a more detailed discussion of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between urban planning and housing.  90.  Economic Council of Canada, supra, n. 7, p.  91.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , housing reform was one of the a c t i v i t i e s that preceded modern planning and today governmental p o l i c i e s and programmes i n housing and urban renewal are major factors i n c i t y development.  92.  In that i t has been c a l l e d the most effective method of providing mass housing, supra, n. 70 and also half of the ten contributors to an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Operation Housing" i n Western Homes and L i v i n g , (February 1970), pp. 22-30 mention condominiums as part of the solution to meeting future housing needs.  93.  Constantinu, op_. c i t . . , p. 8.  94.  Task Force, op_. c i t . , p. 22.  95.  Ibid.  96.  Marvin Lipman, S o c i a l Effects of the Housing Environment, (Canadian Conference on Housing, Background Paper No. 4~7 September 1968), p. 12.  97.  Mary Rawson, Submission on the Benson White Paper by the Town Planning Institute of Canada, (working draft prepared for the Committee on the Public Presence of the Town Planning Institute of Canada, J u l y , 1970), pp. 4-5. See also p. 18 for elaboration on land taxation and urban problems and planning.  98.  The Dominion Housing Act was passed i n 1935, see also Chapter IV and Albert Rose, Canadian Housing P o l i c i e s , (Canadian Conference on Housing, Background Paper No. 2, June 1968) and Task Force, op_. c i t . , pp. 4-6. Municip a l i t i e s have been involved through zoning and b u i l d i n g regulations and some provinces have had l e g i s l a t i o n respecting housing for some time.  Real Estate Section, 28 February  164.  99.  By  Constantinu,  op_. c i t .  100.  C l a u d e M o r i n , Condominium, ( r e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r the A d v i s o r y G r o u p o f CMHC O t t a w a , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 7-8 i n w h i c h i t i s s t a t e d t h a t condominiums have not been s t u d i e d from a p l a n n e r ' s p o i n t o f view.  101.  Constantinu, III.  op_. c i t . , pp.  9-11.  102.  Constantinu,  op_. c i t . ,  63-71.  103.  Infra.. / Chapter  IV.  •  Infra.,  Chapter  V.  105.  Infra.,  Chapter  106.  Following Constantinu,  1 0 4  pp.  See  also  III. op_. c i t . ' ,  p.  15.  infra  Chapter  t  C H A P T E R  I I  AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF THE CONCEPT OF CONDOMINIUM OWNERSHIP  Introduction;  The A n c i e n t  World;  Roman Law; C o n d o m i n i u m i n E u r o p e Middle of  i n the  A g e s ; Germany-an E x a m p l e o f C o n f l i c t  Law; S w i t z e r l a n d  European C o u n t r i e s ; France;  Rome a n d  and A u s t r i a ; Civil  Codification  Other  Law a n d Common Law;  o f t h e Law-The Code  Napoleon; Belgium; Other C o u n t r i e s ; The  1938 L e g i s l a t i o n ;  Spain;  Post-War  Legislation;  Jugoslavia; Latin  Puerto  L o u i s i a n a ; Quebec;  Rico;  England; The U n i t e d New Z e a l a n d ;  France-  America; Scotland;  S t a t e s ; A u s t r a l i a and  Canada; The F a r E a s t ;  Conclusion.  INTRODUCTION If you would know what a thing is you it came to be what it is . . . . Let begin with the historical background.  This chapter w i l l present  must us 1  know how therefore  an outline of the evolution  of condominium arrangements and t h e i r d i f f u s i o n i n time and space u n t i l the adoption of l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada i n the latter  1960's. For the purposes of t h i s chapter a condominium means  the subdivision of ownership of land and buildings and t h e i r associated f a c i l i t i e s  into separately  owned units and property  belonging i n common to a l l the unit owners and the implied operating r u l e s .  THE ANCIENT WORLD The e a r l i e s t record of a condominium arrangement i s contained i n papyrus i n the Brooklyn Museum which records that a form of condominium was used by the ancient Hebrews 2,500 2 years ago. There i s also the recorded sale of part of a b u i l d i n g nearly 2,200 years ago i n Ancient Babylon during the F i r s t 3 Dynasty.  Some r e s e a r c h e r s arrangements i n A n c i e n t Hebrews, E g y p t i a n s passages  have  found evidence  and C l a s s i c a l  and M u s l i m s  i n Homer's O d y s s e y  o f condominium  t i m e s among t h e G r e e k s ,  and o t h e r s  also  consider  a n d i n H e r o d o t u s as i n d i c a t i o n s 4  of t h e existence  of similar  arrangements.  ROME AND ROMAN LAW  While in  "condominium,"  North America there  condominium a feature  a Latin  word  i s disagreement as t o whether t h e  c o n c e p t , as i t i s m a n i f e s t e d  of real  i s commonly u s e d  property  legal  t o d a y , a c u t a l l y was  practice  i nClassical  Rome.  5  Various  a u t h o r s have been  condominium  solo  forms p a r t usque  as h a v i n g  arrangements i n C l a s s i c a l  arrangements would superficies  cited  be c o n t r a r y cedit  Rome.  t o the legal  However, s u c h principles of  (whatever i s a t t a c h e d  o f i t ) and dominus  ad infera  found evidence o f  soli  (property r i g h t s  est  coeli  t o the land et  e x t e n d up i n t o  inferorum  vel  t h e heavens  and down t o t h e c e n t r e o f t h e e a r t h ) . :  In spite  superficies,  o f t h e s e maxims t h e r e  which permitted  evolved  the erection  the right of  and o w n e r s h i p o f 7  buildings that  on l a n d  following,  would  a n d b a s e d o n , superficies  be t h e s p l i t t i n g  The maxim dominus as  owned b y a n o t h e r .  cujus  est  solum  soli ejus  Martm-Granizo the next  o f ownership o f p a r t s  theorizes step  of a building.  e t c . , m e n t i o n e d above was a l s o est  usque  ad coelum  expressed  (he who h a s t h e  land  h a s up t o t h e h e a v e n s )  i n which there  the  underground r i g h t s thereby  the  maxim a s e x p r e s s e d  And  since the l a t t e r  c o n s t i t u t i n g a weakening  dominus  was  i s no m e n t i o n o f  soli  e t c . , mentioned  sometimes  modified  of  above.  to allow  separate  g ownership o f the mineral evolution  rights  and was  o f superficies  of the r i g h t  followed  i t does  by  the  seem l o g i c a l  individual  ownership of p a r t s  of buildings could  also  Certainly,  o u t o f n e c e s s i t y and on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s  that  evolve. this  9  custom d i d a r i s e  in Classical  Rome  but without  legal  sanction.  CONDOMINIUM IN EUROPE IN THE  I t was ing  secure  within  situation  12th century  the  surround-  fortifications 10  T h i s was  more i n t e n s i v e l y a f i x e d  that a  the  result  supply  of  the w a l l s .  GERMANY - AN The  and o t h e r  a r r a n g e m e n t became common.  the n e c e s s i t y of using  land  the  i n t h e M i d d l e Ages w i t h  o f many towns by w a l l s  condominium of  however,  MIDDLE AGES  EXAMPLE OF CONFLICT OF i n Germany d u r i n g  has been d e s c r i b e d  LAW  the e a r l y decades of  by G o n z a l e z  11  and  Hubner:  12  From t h e 1100's onward we f i n d e x t r e m e l y w i d e s p r e a d i n German Towns s o - c a l l e d ' S t o r y ' o r 'Roomage' Ownership ('Stockwerks-J *Geschoss-J *Gelass-J 'Etageneigentum- )--ownership o f the i n d i v i d u a l stories of a building. Houses were h o r i z o n t a l l y d i v i d e d and t h e s p e c i f i c p a r t s so c r e a t e d . . . were h e l d by d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s i n s e p a r a t e owners h i p . . . e s p e c i a l l y i n Bohemia and S o u t h Germany . . . a n d a b o v e a l l i n S w i t z e r l a n d . 13 1  Again poorer  t h e condominium arrangements  c l a s s e s became common and w i d e s p r e a d  Rome, i n f o r m a l a n d w i t h o u t l e g a l century legal even the  a d o p t e d by t h e  sanction.  t h e r e was however, o f f i c i a l  grounds  and a l s o  the Codifications  and w e r e , a s i n In t h e 19th  opposition  from t h e p o l i c e  and t a x c o l l e c t o r s and  o f t h e law b y P r u s s i a  and by Saxony i n  mid 1 9 t h c e n t u r y d i d n o t a l l o w condominium  A legal  controversy  t o t h e i d e a on  o v e r condominium l a s t e d  ownership.  until  14  t h e coming  15 into  force  o f t h e German C i v i l  Code i n 1900.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Code, ownership was  f o r b i d d e n b u t i t was p r o v i d e d t h a t :  the  States  in  which  house not  to establish  in detail  of part  "Laws a p p r o v e d by  the rules  governing  cases  e a c h e a c h one o f t h e c o - o w n e r s o f an i n d i v i d u a l  has t h e e x c l u s i v e enjoyment 16  hereby  repealed."  continuation  o f customary  of part  This provision  o f such house a r e  nicely  Roman p r i n c i p l e s between customary Roman p r i n c i p l e s  permitted the  condominium arrangements  p a r t s o f Germany w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e g i v i n g  earlier.  of a building  o f law and w e l l  illustrates  law and l a t e r C o d i f i e d o f immoveable p r o p e r t y  i n certain  expression t o  the c o n f l i c t  law based ownership  on t h e mentioned  It law  i s opportune a t t h i s  has been d e f i n e d  Pothier  as:  point  to state  that  French  jurist  by t h e c e l e b r a t e d  " . . . laws t h a t  customary Robert  usage has e s t a b l i s h e d  and t h a t  17 were k e p t u n w r i t t e n ,  through  were, i n t h e c a s e o f F r a n c e , 16th  century.  customary into the  That  there  a long only  tradition."  written  was a r e a l  and w h i c h  down i n t h e e a r l y  conflict  between  l a w and t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f Roman Law p r i n c i p l e s  the p r e v a i l i n g l e g a l doctrine  i s clearly  b o r n e o u t by  following: . . . . Notwithstanding that this peculiar legal i n s t i t u t e [ i . e . condominium] was t o t a l l y i r r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h t h e a l i e n l a w o f t h e R e c e p t i o n [ o f Roman Law p r i n c i p l e s ] i t r e m a i n e d p a r t o f t h e law . . . . I t was p r e s e r v e d as a p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n i n many l o c a l i t i e s e v e n i n t h e f a c e o f s t a t u t o r y prohibitions. 18 In  recognized  Germany t h e c o n d o m i n i u m c o n c e p t was n o t or comprehensively  J. i d i c a t e d above) u n t i l  regulated  legally  expressedly  (except  1951 when a law p e r m i t t i n g  as  apartment  19 o w n e r s h i p was a p p r o v e d ,  followed  by a new l a w i n 1953.  SWITZERLAND AND  Switzerland's to  Germany's i n t h a t  12th the  century  experience  AUSTRIA  i n condominium  h a v i n g b e e n common s i n c e  as m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r ,  i s similar  a t l e a s t the  i t was l a t e r  p r o h i b i t e d by  S w i s s Code o f 1912 b u t p r o v i s i o n was made t h e r e i n t o  respect  the l o c a l  customs w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n d i f f e r i n g  concepts  20 and  regulation  o f condominium i n each Canton.  Switzerland  38 21  has  adopted l e g i s l a t i o n  e n a b l i n g and  and  i t i s of p a s s i n g i n t e r e s t  r e g u l a t i n g condominium  t o note t h a t Turkey,  having  adopted the Swiss C i v i l Code, a u t h o r i z e d condominium ownership 22  b e f o r e the Swiss  although based on the then proposed Swiss  legislation. In A u s t r i a , which has and  a legal  system s i m i l a r  to Germany  S w i t z e r l a n d , i n f o r m a l condominium arrangements had  known f o r many years and  as i n Germany and  been  Switzerland  had  been l e g i s l a t i v e l y p r o s c r i b e d but n e v e r t h e l e s s p e r m i t t e d 1879  and  again i n 1912  1948  as  amended i n 1 9 5 0 .  in  but were f i n a l l y a u t h o r i z e d by law i n 2 3  OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES In many o t h e r European c o u n t r i e s forms of condominium e x i s t e d and were r e c o g n i z e d under customary law,  e.g.  Spain,  24  P o r t u g a l , • Igium, I t a l y  and France.  Examples of these  the customs of the Spanish  Basque P r o v i n c e s  of Spanish  1263 which c o n t a i n e d much customary  law  i n the year  law and which has been c i t e d tions; of  a compilation  as i m p l y i n g condominium  i n P o r t u g a l an a r t i c l e o f the P h i l l i p i n e  and upper s t o r e y ; and  of B r u s s e l s and in Italy  and S a r d i n i a .  situa-  Ordinances  1603, p r o v i d i n g f o r b u i l d i n g s where d i f f e r e n t  the c e l l a r  and  and  are  owners owned  i n Belgium a 16 57 S t a t u t e  the Customs of Antwerp, Ghent and  the " s t a t u t i " of M i l a n and  Louvain;  the usage of Genoa  W h i l e no r e f e r e n c e Isles the  i n connection  16th century  appreciated  that  with  h a s y e t b e e n made t o t h e B r i t i s h  condominium arrangements which  from  on e x i s t e d u n d e r common law i t w i l l be there  a r e two m a i n s c h o o l s  of legal  thought  25 m  t h e modern W e s t e r n w o r l d  as  t h e A n g l o - A m e r i c a n o r Common Law s y s t e m a n d C i v i l Law,  Continental  variously described  o r F r a n c o - G e r m a n s y s t e m on t h e o t h e r  on one h a n d ,  hand a n d  that: . . . t h e f i r s t [ i s ] f o u n d e d upon E n g l i s h Common Law and e q u i t y and t h e r e f o r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n d u c t i v e and e m p i r i c a l and t h e s e c o n d [ i s ] f o u n d e d on t h e l a w o f Rome a n d i t s modern o f f s h o o t s i n many r e c e n t c o d i f i c a t i o n s , and t h e r e f o r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y s y s t e m a t i c a n d d e d u c t i v e . 26 Because o f these d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e l e g a l evolution dealt with  o f t h e condominium i n A n g l o - A m e r i c a n after  consideration  o f the concept  law c o u n t r i e s and w i l l be p r e c e d e d  systems t h e  l a w w i l l be i n the C i v i l  by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  Quebec a n d S c o t l a n d .  FRANCE However, t o r e t u r n from France t h a t lation the  to Continental  the greatest  was d e r i v e d ,  Code N a p o l e o n ,  firstly  i t was  impetus t o condominium  from customary  and t h i r d l y  Europe,  legis-  law, secondly  f r o m t h e 19 3 8  legislation.  from  Some o f F r a n c e ' s  experience i s also  of special  those  in.the  o f condominium  in  interested  Canada s i n c e p a r t  New F r a n c e Civil  antecedents  o u t o f w h i c h grew Quebec C i v i l  owed much t o t h e Code  law and whose  Rennes, L y o n s ,  Confederation,  c o n c e r n i n g forms o f condominium o f Nantes,  Chambery  was common  S a i n t - M a l o , Caen,  and e s p e c i a l l y  and i n O r l e a n s  Grenoble  and P a r i s  owner-  Rouen,  condominium  even s i n g l e  were owned s e p a r a t e l y s u c h was t h e s h o r t a g e o f h o u s i n g . in  1672 p a s s e d  legislation  owners w h i l e t h e of  defining  Coutumes  and a l o c a l  the r i g h t s  (customary  Orleans, Berry, Bourbonnais,  Nivernais  "new"  F r a n c e d u r i n g t h e l a t e r M i d d l e A g e s t h e r e were  In the c i t i e s  ownership  t h e law o f  Napoleon.  many l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s ship.  legislation  o f t h e law o f F r a n c e was a l s o  Code o f 1866, t h e y e a r b e f o r e C a n a d i a n  In  interest to  Paris  "apartment"  laws) o f t h e P r o v i n c e s  Brittany,  custom o f Auxerre  of  rooms  M o n t a r g i s and  contained  articles  27 regulating  condominium  ownership.  CODIFICATION OF THE LAW  It  was f r o m  dominium ownership codification, either  only  t h e s e coutumes passed  into  of French  and i n s p i r a t i o n  adopted  that  the A r t i c l e  the concept  t h e Code N a p o l e o n .  w h i c h was t o i n f l u e n c e  by c o n q u e s t  persuasion  - THE CODE NAPOLEON  Yet t h i s  t h e law o f many c o u n t r i e s  arms and c o l o n i s a t i o n  t o the j u r i s t s  concerned,  o f con-  of other  Article  o r by countries,  664, w h i c h f o l l o w e d  the  257  of  the  ooutume  observations  on  the  original  example o f A r t i c l e  result  of  by  regional  two  the  ownership of  appeal courts  f l o o r s was  Thus t h i s upon the  law  of  not  and  Switzerland)  Code, w h i c h  i n whose d i s t r i c t s  of  later the  exerted  from the  Roman Law  p r i n c i p l e s mentioned  in  the  Code N a p o l e o n d e a l t  of  a h o u s e owned i n p a r t  adopted  later  Article  521  by  the  by  Civil  only  the  influence  tradition,  being  a  deviation  earlier.  i n c l u s i o n of A r t i c l e  w i t h r e p a i r and  Code o f Quebec and i n the  Code  Grenoble.  so much  s e p a r a t e owners.  (1866-1969) r e a d s  the  a  ( u n l i k e Germany, A u s t r i a  t h e o r e t i c a l g r o u n d s as  I m p o r t a n t t h o u g h i t was,  as  separate  Roman c o d i f i e d  p r o h i b i t condominium ownership on  d r a f t of  common, t h o s e o f L y o n s and  countries  did  of Orleans,  English  66 4  reconstruction  This  same  article  renumbered version  as  as  follows: When t h e d i f f e r e n t s t o r e y s o f a h o u s e b e l o n g t o d i f f e r e n t p r o p r i e t o r s , i f t h e i r t i t l e s do n o t r e g u l a t e t h e mode o f r e p a i r i n g and r e b u i l d i n g , i t must be done as f o l l o w s : A l l the p r o p r i e t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e main w a l l s and t h e r o o f , e a c h i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e v a l u e o f t h e s t o r e y w h i c h b e l o n g s t o him; under  The p r o p r i e t o r him;  of  each s t o r e y  makes t h e  floor  The p r o p r i e t o r o f t h e f i r s t s t o r e y makes t h e s t a i r s which l e a d t o i t , the p r o p r i e t o r o f the second s t o r e y makes t h e s t a i r s w h i c h l e a d f r o m t h e f i r s t t o h i s , and so on. However, i t can the  absence of  concerned. in  almost  be  seen  that  special regulations  "And  there  a l l cities  are  provisions  made b e t w e e n  generally  where t h i s  these  such  division  the  apply  parties  s p e c i a l accords. of houses  in  And,  i s practised,  there  are local As  that the  u s a g e s and a s p e c i a l  mentioned  jurisprudence."  above t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f A r t i c l e  664 was  t h r o u g h t h e p r e s t i g e a n d i n f l u e n c e o f t h e Code N a p o l e o n concept passed  into,  o r remained  a p a r t o f t h e modern law  o f many c o u n t r i e s o f t h e w o r l d . A l l t o l d , t h e N a p o l e o n i c Code h a s made an a m a z i n g t r i p around t h e world: introduced into t h i r t y - f i v e s t a t e s , t r a n s l a t e d , c o p i e d , and a d a p t e d i n t h i r t y - f i v e o t h e r s , w i t h an i n f l u e n c e t h a t i s s t i l l l a s t i n g t o d a y . 31  BELGIUM  I t was n o t u n t i l comprehensive governing  1924 t h a t a E u r o p e a n c o u n t r y  legislation  containing a set of basic  condominium ownership.  adopted  rules  In J u l y of that year the  Belgian  Code was amended  Article  664 o f t h e Code N a p o l e o n h a d b e e n  France,  agreements between t h e co-owners i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f  cases  had r e g u l a t e d  by A r t i c l e  577 b i s .  Until  then  law, b u t , as i n  condominium o w n e r s h i p and  jurisprudence  32 had  been e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h The  Belgian  litigation.  legislation  few  inovations  and  Belgian  and  anyway t h e r u l e s g o v e r n i n g  only  a n d was b a s e d  experience,  i f there  i s considered  on p r i n c i p l e s  jurisprudence  were n o s p e c i a l  t o have  drawn f r o m  and l e g a l  contained French  commentaries  c o n d o m i n i u m s were a p p l i c a b l e convenants  and p r o v i s i o n s  between  33 the  co-owners.  T h e two s t r i k i n g  points  about t h i s  Belgian  law a  are  firstly  that  i t was  comprehensive nature  d o m i n i u m o w n e r s h i p and w h i c h made p o s s i b l e  the  the  first  modern l e g i s l a t i o n  g i v i n g express  legal  secondly,  i t included  that  financing  sanction  o f modern  to  of con-  provisions  large-scale  • . . 34 projects.  OTHER COUNTRIES  Before  the  19 3 8 i n F r a n c e , legislation legal  the  operation  of  Thus, Hungary  1931  1942,  and  1947.  countries providing  Bulgaria  the  condominiums  i n 1924,  basic  3 5  and  adopted express  rules  regu-  administrative  Romania i n 1927,  i n 1933,  in  Italy  Sweden i n  i n 1935,  1942  3 6  The the  European  comprehensiveness,  FRANCE - THE  in  other  o f major importance,  t o c o n d o m i n i u m o w n e r s h i p and  bodies. and  legislation  a number o f  of varying  sanction  lating  next  French  diffusion  1938  legislation  and  evolution  LEGISLATION  of  1938  of  the  was  of major  condominium  importance  concept.  One a s p e c t o f t h e F r e n c h c o n d o m i n i u m e x p e r i e n c e s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d . France i s unquestionably the j u r i s d i c t i o n where t h e modern c o n d o m i n i u m i d e a was d e v e l o p e d . . . [and] The Law o f J u n e 28, 1938, has b e e n c a l l e d "a r e m a r k a b l e c o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f r u i t s o f e x p e r i e n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e t e x t w r i t e r s . " 37  The built by  up  the  one  by  very  s e r i o u s drawback t o t h e  agreements  1938  and  legislation,  pre-19 3 8 system  j u r i s p r u d e n c e w h i c h was  was  t h a t the  veglement  overcome  de  oopvopviete  38 could  not  bind  The divided  The  1938  into  societies  chapters.  the  second  chapter  of  title. which repealed A r t i c l e  The  with  first  also  only the  clarifies"  t h e owners o f  deals with  co-ownership or  r e g u l a t e s not  o f e a c h co-owner b u t obligations  in  legislation,  two  and  second  successors  flats  is  building  condominium.  individual  . . . the  with  664  regard  rights  rights t o the  and common  39 parts  of the  building"  and:  I t c r e a t e s an a s s e m b l y o f c o - o w n e r s known as t h e " s y n d i c a t , " and p r o v i d e s f o r i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by an e x e c u t i v e a g e n t known as t h e " s y n d i c " o r t r u s t e e . I t a l s o c o v e r s most o f t h e o t h e r a s p e c t s u s u a l l y r e g u l a t e d u n d e r modern c o n d o m i n i u m s t a t u t e s . 40 The 1943,  1955,  1938  e n a c t m e n t was  1959  4 1  and  1965.  supplemented  and  amended i n  1939,  4 2  SPAIN I n 1939 legislation. legal  Spain  Reference  antecedents  to these  adopted  i n 1885,  was  comprehensive  made e a r l i e r  a few  years  before  i n 1889  an  s e t down some o f t h e  accepted  had  i n the c i t y  co-ownership  to the  t o t h e modern l e g i s l a t i o n  Code i n S p a i n author  condominium  a f t e r more t h a n  in  the adoption half  addition of a  a century  Civil  of  effort,  r u l e s w h i c h were c u s t o m a r i l y  of V a l e n c i a governing  i n a condominium  but  customary  arrangement.  the 4 3  rights  of  on A r t i c l e  664  o f t h e Code N a p o l e o n , and w h i c h was  comprehensive. led  By  19 39 t h e l o n g  to the approval  truly  o f new  acknowledged  legislation  c o m p r e h e n s i v e b u t d i d overcome  w h i c h h a d d e v e l o p e d and w h i c h was  need  not  f o r reform  w h i c h however,  certain  inimical  legal  therefore  was  not  doctrine  t o the development  44 of  a t r u e modern c o n d o m i n i u m  hensive  condominium  law was  stated  i n i t s preamble  social  r e a l i t i e s w i t h which  enacted  " . . .  1946  Article  mentioned  earlier  taking  t h e needs  regulated  into  compre-  a c c o u n t as  inherent  t o the 45 to deal."  LEGISLATION  t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War 1,117  I n 19 60 a  i t i s designed  POST - WAR  After  concept.  t h e Greek C i v i l  condominium  p a s s e d a condominium  by Germany and  t h e N e t h e r l a n d s i n 1951,  Switzerland  19 66 and Luxembourg  Code o f  and A u s t r i a  law i n 19 4 8 Portugal  as  followed  i n 1955,  46 m  recently.  JUGOSLAVIA  J u g o s l a v i a has a type o f c o o p e r a t i v e to  condominium.  tives. new  The  T h e r e a r e two m a i n  first  type organises  apartment b u i l d i n g s  occupants.  The  by  second type  i s similar  types of housing coopera-  planning  selling  that  and c o n s t r u c t i o n  shares to  prospective  i s f o r m e d by o w n e r - o c c u p a n t s  to  of  manage t h e i r b u i l d i n g and  to a t t e n d t o i t s upkeep.  I f the  b u i l d i n g i s " s o c i a l l y " owned, i . e . by the commune, i t can bought by the c o o p e r a t i v e as a whole or by the r e s i d e n t s who All  housing  Union, and  receive t i t l e  t o t h e i r own  apartment.  Cooperatives  t h e i r members are t h e r e f o r e e n t i t l e d t o such p r i v -  i l e g e s as tax exemptions and  other c o n c e s s i o n s 4  to  individual  separate  c o o p e r a t i v e s must j o i n the General  be  granted  only  7  the s o c i a l i s e d s e c t o r of s o c i e t y .  LATIN AMERICA C o n t i n u i n g w i t h the C i v i l to  the New  World, i t was  i n 1928  Law  c o u n t r i e s and  t h a t B r a z i l passed condominium  l e g i s l a t i o n whose r o o t s are t o be found Ordinances of 1603  mentioned  turning  i n the  Phillipine  earlier.  While the 19 2 8 Law, as amended, i s not r e a l l y an adequate condominium s t a t u t e because o f i t s sketchy p r o v i s i o n s , i t needs to be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t s e a r l i e r adoption was very f a r - s i g h t e d and made p o s s i b l e a g r e a t d e a l o f the v i g o r o u s urban growth e v i d e n t i n modern B r a z i l . 48 The  amendments mentioned were passed i n 1943 The  and  i d e a of condominium l e g i s l a t i o n spread  South American c o u n t r i e s q u i t e r a p i d l y but the itself  1948. to other  legislation  took longer to m a t e r i a l i s e and b e f o r e the outbreak of  the Second World War  o n l y C h i l e i n 19 37, had  followed  Brazil's  49 example.  However, m  19 39 t h e r e was  h e l d i n Buenos A i r e s  the f i r s t Pan American Housing Congress, at which an A r g e n t i n i a n advocated condominium ownership which l e d to the Congress  supporting  a resolution calling  f o r t h e enactment o f h o r i z o n -  50 tal  property  legislation.  In A r g e n t i n a continued in  from  the  Congress proposing  h o r i z o n t a l property  Argentina,  f o r condominium  law.  were  the adoption  T h e 1869 C i v i l  introduced  o f a compreCode o f  however, e x p r e s s l y p r o h i b i t e d condominium f o l l o w i n g  Roman Law d o c t r i n e s m e n t i o n e d  year  legislation  19 2 8 onwards and s e v e r a l b i l l s  the Argentine  hensive  pressure  earlier.  Also  i n 1869 t h e  o f a d o p t i o n o f t h e A r g e n t i n e C i v i l Code: . . . t h e r e were no p r a c t i c a l h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s t o be s o l v e d by a l l o w i n g h o r i z o n t a l p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p . E i g h t y y e a r s were t o e l a p s e b e f o r e t h e s h o r t a g e o f h o u s i n g s p a c e i n Buenos A i r e s and o t h e r u r b a n c e n t r e s would l e a d t h e A r g e n t i n e Congress t o r e p e a l A r t i c l e 2617 o f t h e C i v i l Code and t o a p p r o v e a compreh e n s i v e c o n d o m i n i u m s t a t u t e , on S e p t e m b e r 30, 1948. 51 Since  1948 many o t h e r L a t i n  American  countries  have  Of t h e s e  c o u n t r i e s some  52 adopted condominium l e g i s l a t i o n . borrowed d i r e c t l y lation ".  was b a s e d  from o t h e r  on t h e 1939 S p a n i s h  . . was p a t t e r n e d  Bolivian,  c o u n t r i e s e . g . C u b a ' s 1950  after  law and V e n e z u e l a ' s  provisions contained  C o l u m b i a n , Cuban, C h i l e a n , F r e n c h 53 Acts."  Also  i n the Argentine,  and U r u g u a y a n  Horizontal  Property  provisions  r e g u l a t i n g condominium arrangements  existence,  e.g. t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n Ordinances  some c o u n t r i e s h a d c e r t a i n  H a v a n a , 1961, s e c . 341-353, b u t o t h e r s , legal  legis-  already i n  of the C i t y of  even though  their  s y s t e m s were b a s e d on t h e Code N a p o l e o n , h a d no, o r 54 inadequate, p r o v i s i o n s .  In of  19 52 Cuba p a s s e d  interest  to North  a new  Condominium  law w h i c h i s  Americans:  . . . s i n c e i t s e r v e d as a m o d e l f o r t h e P u e r t o R i c a n A c t , and t h u s i t i n d i r e c t l y s e t t h e p a t t e r n f o r most o f t h e c o n d o m i n i u m s t a t u t e s a d o g t e d by t h e s e v e r a l s t a t e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 55 T h e s e i n t u r n h a d some i n f l u e n c e the Canadian In Decree had  1889  t h e new  rules  the Havana C i t y  precedents  extended  1939  f r o m S p a i n , were  to  i n force  as i n a d e q u a t e i n  i n S p a i n and t h e Cuban c o u r t s f o l l o w e d t h e courts i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h e 1939  the Spanish d i d not c o r r e c t law u n t i l  1960  i t took  t o f o r m u l a t e and e n a c t e n t i r e l y  S p a n i s h Law the  until  shortcomings  t h e Cubans o n l y new  of the  two  legislation.  I n 1952 t h e 1950 d e c r e e was r e e x a m i n e d and on t h e b a s i s o f a comparative study o f the h o r i z o n t a l p r o p e r t y s t a t u t e s adopted i n other j u r i s d i c t i o n s , A c t No. 40 7 was f i n a l l y d r a f t e d and a p p r o v e d . Act No. 407 i s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t a t u t e , which i n c o r p o r a t e s most o f t h e b e s t f e a t u r e s c o n t a i n e d i n o t h e r a d v a n c e d laws on t h e s u b j e c t . 56 It of  this  Royal  thus  condominium i n a d d i t i o n  Cuba d i d n o t , however, adopt  their  by  Cuba  these r e g u l a t i o n s , which remained  of the Spanish  1950 b u t w h i l e  years  regulating  independence  Cuba a s t h e y were  of  Code was  Ordinances.  However,  law.  Spanish C i v i l  t o C u b a , P u e r t o R i c o and t h e P h i l l i p i n e s .  Cuban  by  Provinces.  rudimentary  after  on c e r t a i n A c t s p a s s e d  i s perhaps  law s i n c e  of passing i n t e r e s t  t o note  the  t h e Cuban R e v o l u t i o n l e d by F i d e l  fate  Castro.  . . . t h e h o r i z o n t a l p r o p e r t y d e v i c e h a s assumed g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e and i s p l a y i n g an u n e x p e c t e d r o l e u n d e r t h e F i d e l C a s t r o Communist r e g i m e . The Cuban U r b a n R e f o r m A c t o f O c t o b e r 14, 1960 ( s e e t e x t i n 224 I n f o r m a c i o n J u r i d i c a , p . 79 (1962) , p u b l i s h e d by t h e F o r e i g n L e g i s l a t i o n C o m m i t t e e o f t h e S p a n i s h M i n i s t r y of J u s t i c e ) p r o h i b i t s , w i t h c e r t a i n minor e x c e p t i o n s , a l l urban r e a l property lease c o n t r a c t s . I t decrees the s a l e to the tenant of the leased p r e m i s e s , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e payment, d u r i n g a f i x e d number o f y e a r s , o f a sum e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e r e n t payments. A r t . 20 o f t h e A c t p r o v i d e s t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f any and a l l a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Urban Reform C o u n c i l f o r the a r e a i n which the property i s l o c a t e d w i l l s u b j e c t i t t o the h o r i z o n t a l p r o p e r t y r e g i m e by i s s u i n g a r e s o l u t i o n t o t h a t e f f e c t , thus making i t p o s s i b l e f o r the t e n a n t s to purchase the "apartments" they occupy. Presumably t h i s means t h a t t h e C o u n c i l w i l l a l s o draw up t h e m a s t e r d e e d and t h e b y l a w s f o r t h e b u i l d i n g . 57 This  i s interesting  t h r o w s more l i g h t into  on how  t h e communist  s y s t e m and t h e r o l e communist  f o r two  t h e condominium  o r more s t r i c t l y o f condominium  or s o c i a l i s t  reasons.  state  Firstly i t  concept i s f i t t e d  speaking,  the  socialist,  home o w n e r s h i p i n a  about which L e y s e r  and  other 58  Western  a u t h o r s when w r i t i n g  Secondly there  i s a certain  C u b a n U r b a n R e f o r m A c t and t h e t e n a n t condominium  on c o n d o m i n i u m  gain  rehabilitate  "A d r a f t  condominium.  program  between  of housing  ( f o r low and m i d d l e income 59  control  and s e l l  silent.  degree of s i m i l a r i t y  b y W i l l i a m J . Q u i r k and o t h e r s , York would  are  of  o f slum p r o p e r t y which i t would as a  reform-  housing)"  by w h i c h t h e c i t y  to the occupant tenants  the  New  PUERTO RICO  Puerto Rico's early ment was  similar  to that  e x p e r i e n c e i n condominium  o f Cuba and  c o n d o m i n i u m p r o v i s i o n s were e x t e n d e d the c e s s i o n the  the Spanish C i v i l  Code's  t o C u b a i n 1889.  After  o f P u e r t o R i c o t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1898  subsequent  revision  provisions  remained  numbered.  However, time,  of the C i v i l  unchanged though  Code t h e w o r d i n g the a r t i c l e s  at that  t h e r e were no  to  s o l v e d by h a v i n g r e c o u r s e t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l  and  of  these  were r e -  " . . . i t i s also true that  Rico, be  develop-  i n Puerto •  housing problems t h a t form  needed of  60 tenancy.  Urban In  footsteps,  1951,  l a n d was  c h e a p and  readily  Puerto Rico, f o l l o w i n g  amended t h e C i v i l  Code i n e x a c t l y  Spain  sented  i n t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s b a s e d  preferred  C u b a i n 1950.  P r o p e r t y A c t was  t h e Cuban L e g i s l a t i o n became law  and  i n Spain's  as had  Horizontal  i n 1939  available."  i n that year. being that  This  submitted  The  reason  t h e Cuban and  and M o r t g a g e Laws were v e r y legislation  I n 1958  w i t h d r a w n and  o f 1952  on  Cuba's  same t e r m s a bill  pre-  the A r g e n t i n e  another  based  on  i n i t s p l a c e which  t h e Cuban m o d e l  was  Puerto Rican C i v i l  similar.^  greatly  the  and  Codes  1  influenced  that  later  adopted  throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s : It i s also to Puerto Rico's c r e d i t that i t furnished t h e i m p e t u s f o r t h e d r i v e i n C o n g r e s s t o amend s e c t i o n 234 o f t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t i n o r d e r t o a u t h o r i z e t h e FHA t o i n s u r e m o r t g a g e s on c o n d o m i n i u m d w e l l i n g s t h u s o p e n i n g t h e way f o r a new s o u r c e o f f i n a n c i n g and c r e a t i n g t h e m a i n i n c e n t i v e f o r t h e a d o p t i o n o f comprehensive h o r i z o n t a l s t a t u t e s i n a l l b u t one o f t h e s t a t e s . 62  Having  entered  o f w h i c h a r e common iana, law  a North American  law, c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l  Quebec and S c o t l a n d  jurisdictions  jurisdiction,  before  proceeding  i n England, North America  be g i v e n  most to Louis-  t o t h e common and e l s e w h e r e .  LOUISIANA  When t h e S t a t e in  of Louisiana  the e a r l y 19th century  omitted spite  Article  f r o m t h e new C i v i l  of Article  adopted  t h e Code  Napoleon  664 o f t h a t c o d e was  Code o f L o u i s i a n a .  However, i n  505 o f t h e L o u i s i a n a Code w h i c h s t a t e s :  The o w n e r s h i p o f t h e s o i l c a r r i e s w i t h i t t h e o w n e r s h i p o f a l l t h a t i s d i r e c t l y a b o v e and u n d e r i t . . . . 63  the  next  article  provided  as f o l l o w s :  A l l t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , p l a n t a t i o n s and w o r k s , made on o r w i t h i n t h e s o i l , a r e s u p p o s e d t o be done by t h e owner, a n d a t h i s e x p e n s e , a n d t o b e l o n g t o h i m , u n l e s s t h e c o n t r a r y be p r o v e d , w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e t o t h e r i g h t s o f t h e t h i r d p e r s o n s who h a v e a c q u i r e d o r may a c q u i r e by p r e s c r i p t i o n t h e p r o p e r t y o f a s u b t e r r a n e a n p i e c e o f ground under t h e b u i l d i n g o f a n o t h e r , o r any p a r t o f t h e b u i l d i n g . 64 It  had been  felt  that this  article  recognised the  65 o f p a r t ownership i n a b u i l d i n g . 66 Lasoyne v Emerson, h o w e v e r , t h e Supreme C o u r t possibility  " . . .  adhered  t o an e n t i r e l y  orthodox  In the case o f of Louisiana  and c o n s e r v a t i v e  point  67 of view Law  . . . ."  concept  ences  by r e f e r r i n g  expressed  t o A r t i c l e 506.  i n Article  to the t r a d i t i o n a l  Roman  505 and by m a k i n g no r e f e r -  In property adopted quote  Louisiana  1962  statute by  explains  In why  rather  than  American  act  from  Common  been  a  Louisiana  the  Puerto  its  Rican  C i v i l  certain  law law  ommissions statute,  concepts  out  Act, i n  that  i t  is  deemed  as  the  following  French  Canadian  and to  these  d i r e c t l y into  e n t i r e l y  d i r e c t l y  con-  or  Rico  had  into  a l i e n  and  i t  to  and  the  Louisiana  both  made  accommodate changes  that  after  Puerto  Arkansas  statute  c a r r i e d  law  unfortunate  modelled  and  engrafting  the  another  Louisiana  the  Rican  perhaps  upon  h o r i z o n t a l  j u r i s d i c t i o n :  not  system,  were  thus  r e l i e d  Law  was  Puerto  j u r i s d i c t i o n s .  changes  common  law  Act  comprehensive  connection  modifying  pointed  the  being  the  Quebec  law  has  after  this  dominium  It  a  patterned  Arkansas.  well  enacted  Louisiana  real  property  inappropriate.6  8  QUEBEC  In  the  Province  was,  c o d i f i c a t i o n  166  3  u n t i l  of  Paris  that  to  "  of  c i v i l  time, .  .  of  .  Quebec,  or  law  completed  since our  was  Louis  XIV  countries  of  Lower  had  Canada, i n  i t  then  From  1866.  extended  Canada,  as  the  Acadia  Custom  and  the  69 Island  of  Newfoundland  . . . "  Quebec  had  been  custom  that  under  feudal  law. The  Custom  of  o f f i c i a l l y compiled  i n  c i v i l In  ensure  that  1675 the  and  i n  law the  is  the  only  applicable  1510  c o d i f i c a t i o n the  Paris  made  1866,  i n  reformed i t  Canada.  Intendant  Superior  to  Canada. i n  It  U n t i l  1580.  constituted  was  was  the  basis  of  70 Duchesneau  Council  and  a l l  was  directed  i n f e r i o r  to  courts  decide cases according to the Edicts and Ordinances of the King of France and the Custom of P a r i s .  U n t i l that time,  that i s from 1608 when Champlain founded Quebec, some land grants had been made under the Custom of the Vexin Francais, some, under the Custom of Paris and others under the Custom of Normandy.^ The confusion as to the v a l i d i t y of English and French c i v i l law which prevailed i n Quebec after  i t s cession to the  B r i t i s h Crown was not completely cleared by the passage of the Quebec Act, 1774, Quebec.  which reintroduced French c i v i l law into  This was because of the u n f a m i l i a r i t y of English 72  judges with French c i v i l law and i t s related jurisprudence. There was nothing more uncertain and more confused than the laws of Lower Canada by the middle of the nineteenth century and many lawyers looked with envy at the Code Napoleon and the C i v i l Code of Louisiana that had made order out of chaos. Codification, i t was s a i d , would also enable lawyers, n o t a r i e s , and judges to know the exact state of the law i n Lower Canada, when i t was becoming more and more d i f f i c u l t since the enactment of the Code Napoleon to obtain copies or commentaries on the old laws of France. 73 In 1857  the Attorney-General of Lower Canada,  Etienne C a r t i e r i n i t i a t e d a law that established  Georges-  a Commission  to reduce the c i v i l law i n Lower Canada into two codes. framing the two codes,  i.e.,  the C i v i l Code and the Code of  C i v i l Procedure the Commissioners were bound by section 6 to:  In  . . . embody therein such provisions only as they s h a l l hold to be actually i n force, and they s h a l l give the s u t h o r i t i e s on which they believe them to be so; they may suggest such amendments as they s h a l l think d e s i r a b l e , but s h a l l state such amendments separately and d i s t i n c t l y , with the reasons on which they are founded. 74 Section 7 of the Act stated that the Codes should be: . . . framed upon the same general p l a n , and s h a l l contain, as nearly as may be found convenient, the l i k e amount of d e t a i l upon each subject, as the French Codes known as the Code C i v i l , the Code de Commerce, and the Code de Procedure C i v i l . 7 5 In suggesting the adoption of A r t i c l e 664 of the Code Napoleon the Commission had t h i s to say: This a r t i c l e provides for the case, of a rather rare occurrence here, when the different storeys of the same house belong to d i s t i n c t p r o p r i e t o r s , and determines the manner and the proportions in which each of them must contribute to the necessary repairs and reconstructions: each makes along those which are i n his own i n t e r e s t or which are caused by his f a u l t , whilst he contributes, i n proportion to his i n t e r e s t only to those which are to the common advantage of a l l . This a r t i c l e , conformable to A r t i c l e 664 of the Code Napoleon, i s for us a new d i s p o s i t i o n , adopted not i n amendment but i n addition to the law actually i n force. 76 U n t i l the enactment of the New C i v i l Code i n 1866 condominium arrangements were presumably regulated by the provisions of the Custom of P a r i s .  The sources of the new  law which became A r t i c l e 521 of the C i v i l Code of Lower Canada are given as: Orleans 257. - Lamoignon, t i t . 20, a r t . 32. - 2 Bousquet, p. 146. - 7 Locre, pp. 442, 443. - 2 Pand. Franc. 436. - C.N. 664. 77  Even  though a u t h o r i t i e s  s u c h as t h e C o d i f i e r s  and  78 Migneault buildings spite ing  have mentioned t h a t existed  i n Quebec, 521  of A r t i c l e  prior  cases  ownership i n  Rosenberg has s t a t e d  t o the passage of B i l l i n 1969  c o - o w n e r s h i p o f immoveables  b e e n no d i v i s i o n s  of part  of buildings  " . . .  by s t o r e y s  that i n 29  concern-  there  have  or apartments except  79 in  t h e form o f c o o p e r a t i v e s .  in  1965:  Dessaulles,  however,  stated  A c o n d o m i n i u m d o e s e x i s t i n Westmount a s a r e s u l t o f a g r e a t d e a l o f e n e r g y and i n i t i a t i v e . The a g r e e m e n t i s some t w e n t y - t w o p a g e s l o n g and h a s s e v e r a l p a g e s of p l a n s a t t a c h e d t o i t . The C i t y o f Westmount d o e s s e n d s e p a r a t e t a x b i l l s and s e p a r a t e m o r t g a g e s were o b t a i n e d . 80 When t h e a u t h o r made e n q u i r i e s he was  a s s u r e d by t h e C i t y  misinformed  assessor  as t o t h e s e p a r a t e  Bill  29,  Quebec's  t h a t M.  into  of s i x years  Real Estate  B o a r d who  a  condominium B i l l .  closely  with  Dessaulles  condominium  legislation, 1969  o f work i n i t i a t e d  instructed In t h i s  t h e Nadeau  was  Commission  passed first  T h i s was  the  by t h e M o n t r e a l  Pierre Dessaulles  p r o j e c t M.  was  h a v i n g been  the Assembly the year b e f o r e .  culmination  "condominium"  tax b i l l s .  by t h e N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y i n November introduced  about t h i s  Dessaulles  f o r the Revision  to draft worked of the  81 Civil  Code  of the Province  o f Quebec.  The B i l l was  derived  82 partly  f r o m t h e 1965  French  amendments t o t h e C i v i l "of  Code  legislation as A r t i c l e  c o - o w n e r s h i p o f immoveables  and c o n s i s t s 441  established  of  e t seq. e n t i t l e d by  declaration"  in  the  Title  o f O w n e r s h i p , and  repeals A r t i c l e  521  copied  f r o m t h e Code N a p o l e o n . One  unique aspect  management o f  a  o f t h e Quebec law  concerns  the  condominium:  The law o f f i c e r s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f J u s t i c e who s t u d i e d the Board's d r a f t extremely thoroughly a r r i v e d a t what i s an e n t i r e l y new f o r m u l a w h i c h r e p l a c e s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f owners w h i c h e x i s t s i n other j u r i s d i c t i o n s . I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n d i d n o t p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e , was u n w i e l d y , and t h a t i t s h o u l d be c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e management f u n c t i o n s and e x e r c i s e d by one o r more p e r s o n s who w o u l d be " a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h e i m m o v e a b l e " and who w o u l d h a v e b r o a d l y speaking, t h e d u t i e s and powers o f t r u s t e e s . . . at f i r s t t h e B o a r d . . . was d i f f e r e n t a b o u t t h i s new system, m o s t l y on a c c o u n t o f i t s n o v e l t y and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no e x p e r i e n c e i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o be drawn f r o m . . . [ b u t i t now a p p r o v e s ] t h i s concept. 83 Since gauged.  this  law  i s so r e c e n t  However, i t w i l l  apartments  i n the  heart  i t s effect  b e n e f i t p e r s o n s who  of urban areas  which  cannot y e t live  can  in  now  be  cooperative become  84 organised luxury  as  condominiums.  One  apartment c o o p e r a t i v e s  c o n d o m i n i u m by holders.^  of the  plans  best  to turn  d e c l a r a t i o n , i f favoured  by  known  itself the  Montreal into  lessee  a  share-  5  SCOTLAND  It as the  has  i t stands law  been s a i d  [ i t ] gives  of the  the Anglo-Saxon  civilized  of us  the  law  of Scotland  " .  a p i c t u r e o f what someday w i l l  nations,—namely  s y s t e m and  that:  the C o n t i n e n t a l  a combination  be  between  system.Because  Scots  Law, t h o u g h d e r i v e d  f r o m Roman Law, F e u d a l  Law, C o n t i n -  87 e n t a l Law,native recently closer  customary  law and n a t u r a l law  and more  i n f l u e n c e d by A n g l o - A m e r i c a n Law h a s a m a r k e d l y  affinity  with  t h e Franco-German s c h o o l  than  with the  88 Anglo-American turning  i t will  be c o n s i d e r e d  point  before  t o t h e common l a w j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Dessaulles  has s t a t e d t h a t :  o r common o w n e r s h i p e x i s t s of  at this  law."  co-ownership  and i s based> on t h e same p r i n c i p l e s  Roman l a w and t h e same s e r v i t u d e s  [Quebec]  "In Scotland  t89]  r e C 0  g j_ n  z e c  j  o  u  r  9 0  91 Bell,  The most r e c e n t o f t h e " S c o t t i s h l e g a l i n 1829 s t a t e d :  trinity,"  A s p e c i e s o f r i g h t d i f f e r i n g f r o m common p r o p e r t y t a k e s p l a c e among t h e owners o f s u b j e c t s p o s s e s s e d i n s e p a r a t e p o r t i o n s , b u t s t i l l u n i t e d by t h e i r common i n t e r e s t . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d i n l a w a s "Common Interest". I t a c c o m p a n i e s and i s i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h t h e s e v e r a l r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t y . 92 This  "Common I n t e r e s t " i s f o u n d  most f r e q u e n t l y i n  93 flatted  houses  which takes regulates  o r tenements.  effect  the rights  a manner s i m i l a r  i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a Deed o f C o n d i t i o n s  and o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e p r o p r i e t o r s i n  to Article  much g r e a t e r d e t a i l detailed  only  t h e case  be  entered  664 o f t h e Code N a p o l e o n b u t i n  and a t t o o g r e a t  c o n s i d e r a t i o n here.  in  The "Law o f t h e Tenement"  a l e n g t h t o be a g i v e n  I n 1925 t h e l a w was l a i d  o f Smith vs G u l i a n i .  A Deed o f C o n d i t i o n s  i n t o by t h e p r o p r i e t o r s and i s a c o n t r a c t  down may  setting  out  the  basis  and  cost  f o r the  sharing  and  Scottish  management o f descriptions  flatted  ownership were, i n the  the  of  houses or  words o f  tenement,  jointly  repairs  owned  tenements w i t h  a Scots  facilities. separate  lawyer:  . . . f o r c e d on us c e n t u r i e s ago by t h e f a c t t h a t E d i n b u r g h was an o v e r p o p u l a t e d w a l l e d c i t y and i t s c i t i z e n s had t o b u i l d upwards; money was s c a r c e and had t o be k e p t i n c i r c u l a t i o n ; so t h e s e p a r a t e f l a t s were s o l d . Customs a r o s e o u t o f j o i n t o w n e r s h i p and e v e n t u a l l y l a w y e r s d e c i d e d what, i n law, was the n a t u r e o f t h e r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s c r e a t e d t h e r e by. 95 As  Lord  J u s t i c e - C l e r k Thompson so  aptly  expressed i t 96  in  1958:  "Custom has Exactly  Scotland  but  why  since  Scots  schools  the  d i d not  urban c o n d i t i o n  h a l l o w e d what c o n v e n i e n c e d i c t a t e d . " condominium c o n c e p t  i n England, given  i s not  apparent.  lawyers at that  the  continental  time  the  flourished in s i m i l a r medieval  I t has  been suggested  that  flocked  to c o n t i n e n t a l  law  precedents  influenced  development  in  97 this  field.  with  the  of  the  I t i s p e r h a p s more t h a n a c o i n c i d e n c e  popularity  664  from A r t i c l e It  of  257  the of  i s also  i n f l u e n c e of  there  the  Tenement s h o u l d  to A r t i c l e  will  of  Law  bear  Faculty  i n p r i n c i p l e such a  Code N a p o l e o n  the  Custom o f  interesting to  Continental  England.  added  since  influence  the  Law  similarity  t h a t was  derived  Orleans. speculate  comprehensive  result in similar legislation i s the  of Orleans  that  as  t o when  condominium  i n Scotland.  of proposed  the  statutes  Additionally  legislation  in  I n t h e common l a w o r A n g l o - A m e r i c a n l e g a l s y s t e m s t h e c o n c e p t o f p-.rt o w n e r s h i p i n b u i l d i n g s h a s b e e n a c c e p t e d i n E n g l a n d f o r any c e n t u r i e s .  New S q u a r e , L i n c o l n ' s  Inni n  London has been c i t e d as an example of "superimposed  free-  98 holds."  The t h r e e  Littleton,"  references  a c a s e d a t e d 1508, a n d H a l s b u r y .  I n Coke on L i t t l e t o n inheritance  commonly q u o t e d a r e "Coke on 99  i t i s stated:  "A man may h a v e a n  i n an upper chamber, t h o u g h t h e l o w e r  buildings  and s o i l e be i n a n o t h e r . . . "'^OO a n d i n H a l s b u r y ' s Laws o f England i t i s stated: F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f o w n e r s h i p , l a n d may b e d i v i d e d h o r i z o n t a l l y , v e r t i c a l l y o r o t h e r w i s e , and e i t h e r b e l o w o r above t h e g r o u n d . Thus s e p a r a t e o w n e r s h i p may e x i s t i n s t r a t a o f m i n e r a l s , i n t h e s p a c e o c c u p i e d by a t u n n e l , o r i n d i f f e r e n t s t o r e y s o f a b u i l d i n g . 101 The  Law o f P r o p e r t y  following provision: parts  of buildings  1925, s . 205  "...  land  (ix) contains the  includes  . . . buildings or  (whether t h e d i v i s i o n i s h o r i z o n t a l o r 102  v e r t i c a l o r made i n a n y o t h e r way) . . . ." The until  freehold  sale of flats  a f t e r W o r l d War I I .  i n E n g l a n d was uncommon  In discussing  a S c o t t i s h case i n  1935 L o r d B u c k m i n s t e r s a i d i n r e f e r e n c e t o E n g l a n d : The d i v i s i o n o f a s i n g l e b u i l d i n g i n t o a s e r i e s o f tenements h e l d i n f e e simple i n s e p a r a t e ownership is not a familiar incident of proprietorship i n E n g l a n d , b u t i t e x i s t s , and has f o r a l o n g t i m e e x i s t e d , a n d w i t h t h e g r o w t h o f f l a t s i t may become l e s s uncommon i n t h e f u t u r e . Where i t o c c u r s , t h e r i g h t s o f t h e s e v e r a l owners a r e r e g u l a t e d e i t h e r by a s y s t e m o f m u t u a l c o v e n a n t s o r b y e a s e m e n t s a r i s i n g from express o r i m p l i e d grant o r a c q u i r e d by u s e r . 103  Although now  "...  such d i v i s i o n  of  ownership i n a b u i l d i n g  become a p e r m a n e n t p a r t  of  the  E n g l i s h way  has  of  104 life."  I t i s effected without  legislation, can,  but  such l e g i s l a t i o n  h o w e v e r , be  covenants.  The  are  r e l u c t a n t to  the  land.  the  t r a n s f e r of  created latter  by  Leyser  b e n e f i t of  enabling  been p r o p o s e d .  e a s e m e n t s and  Rights  obligations  difficulty  since  by  the  courts  a f f i r m a t i v e covenants running  suggests  flats  has  causes the  enforce  the  that  i n fee  various  workable  with  schemes  s i m p l e were p o s s i b l e  due  for  perhaps  105 only  t o the  ingenuity  of E n g l i s h  solicitors  and  these  are  106 comparatively covered  present with  free  i n such c o n t r a c t s  see  The  Wilberforce  law  is unsatisfactory  regard  to enforcing  which have g i v e n report  from l i t i g a t i o n .  rise  recomends the  schemes, one,  for  Appendix  and  (Strata Titles)  the  British  a list  of  items  A.  Committee r e p o r t  states  inconvenient  m a i n t e n a n c e and  repair  that  the  especially obligations  t o mortgage s e c u r i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s . adoption  f o r new  larger projects,  ing  For  Act,  1961  Columbia, A l b e r t a  s i m i l a r t o the  o f New and  construction  of  The  two  Conveyanc-  S o u t h W a l e s , upon w h i c h  Saskatchewan  legislation  a l s o based. The r e p o r t a l s o recommends a s i m p l e r A s m a lnl e r c o n d o m i• n i• u m p r o j. e c t. s . 107  model  for  is  In the United States  " . . .  quite a few instances  may be found of the conveyance of freehold estates i n separate parts of b u i l d i n g s , long before the adoption of 108 s p e c i a l condominium statutes"  and those instances which gave  r i s e to l i t i g a t i o n originated i n j u r i s d i c t i o n s scattered a l l over the United States.  Thus apartment ownership has been  accepted under common law for well over a century i n the 109 United States. In a sense related to apartment ownership, or ownership of part of a b u i l d i n g i s the establishment of t i t l e and conveyancing of a i r r i g h t s , e . g . , r i g h t s over railway  to,  i n the case of a i r  tracks which evolved i n the United States  some decades ago, e s p e c i a l l y i n C h i c a g o .  1 1 0  However, i n the United States the, . . . need to adopt comprehensive statutes has been dramaticized by the occasional reluctance of courts to accord l e g a l recognition to condominium ownership as a d i s t i n c t form of tenancy. Ill The most succinct explanation of the necessity  for  comprehensive condominium l e g i s l a t i o n i n a Common law j u r i s d i c t i o n i s the following: The common law furnishes an inadequate background to solve [the] problems of condominium operation. An i n i t i a l purchaser of a condominium unit could bind himself contractually to pay for b u i l d i n g r e p a i r , j a n i t o r i a l s e r v i c e , a i r conditioning replacement and elevator r e p a i r . But a second purchaser would not be bound by that contract unless he assumed i t s obligations. Obligations could be made "covenants running with the land" to bind subsequent purchasers, but court enforcement of affirmative  covenants i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e . D e l e g a t i o n o f managerial authority t o a c o u n c i l o f c o - o w n e r s m i g h t be u p h e l d as an " a g e n c y c o u p l e d w i t h an i n t e r e s t , " b u t a g a i n , court effectation i s unreliable. The common law's i n a d e q u a c i e s make i m p l e m e n t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i m p e r a t i v e t o c o n d o m i n i u m o p e r a t i o n . 112 However, an A m e r i c a n legislation account  proved  example o f how t h e l a c k  surmountable  of enabling  i s p r o v i d e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g  o f a "common-law" c o n d o m i n i u m :  The example o f t h e e l e v e n v e t e r a n s who p u r c h a s e d t h e i r s e p a r a t e a p a r t m e n t s i n New Y o r k i n 1947 i l l u s t r a t e s the c r e a t i o n o f a condominium-type s t r u c t u r e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b e f o r e t h e t e r m was g e n e r a l l y e m p l o y e d . I n t h i s c a s e i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r e a c h p u r c h a s e r t o h a v e a f e e ownership i n a separate p o r t i o n o f the r e a l e s t a t e i n o r d e r t o take advantage o f t h e V e t e r a n s ' A d m i n i s t r a t i o n q u a r a n t e e on home m o r t g a g e s u n d e r t h e t h e n - e x i s t i n g law and r e g u l a t i o n s . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by m a k i n g e a c h o f t h e e l e v e n owners a t e n a n t i n common o f t h e l a n d a n d b u i l d i n g , e x c l u d i n g f r o m t h e l a n d and b u i l d i n g t h e " a r e a s o c c u p i e d by t h e a p a r t m e n t s , and t h e n c o n v e y i n g t o e a c h one o f t h e e l e v e n h i s own p a r t i c u l a r a r e a w h i c h c o m p r i s e d t h e s p a c e i n t h e a p a r t m e n t t h a t he was b u y i n g . 113 In States  t o enact s p e c i a l  Hawaii. the  1958 P u e r t o R i c o was t h e f i r s t  condominium l e g i s l a t i o n  R o s e n b e r g h a s drawn a t t e n t i o n  impetus  t o condominium development  of building  space  inside  f o l l o w e d by  to the s i m i l a r i t y of i n Europe d u r i n g the  M i d d l e A g e s and P u e r t o R i c o and H a w a i i . a lack  area of the United  In t h e former  the f o r t i f i e d  condominium arrangements and i n t h e l a t t e r  area  cases  case  led to  the building 114  space 1969  was r e s t r i c t e d  n o t b y w a l l s b u t by t h e o c e a n .  By  a l l t h e s t a t e s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f Vermont had passed  enabling  legislation,  as h a d t h e D i s t r i c t  of  Columbia.  Both A u s t r a l i a recent  years  and New Z e a l a n d  schemes f o r a p a r t m e n t o w n e r s h i p .  enactment  i n two A u s t r a l i a n S t a t e s  the  cooperative  stock  favourable of  changes  cooperative  b u i l d i n g s were p a s s e d t o those  a year  the Conveyancing  (Strata Titles)  t h e s u b j e c t o f an e x c h a n g e o f i d e a s  Strata Titles t h e New  the authors  i n England.  Act.  Wales  This  Condominium  law s i n c e t h e d r a f t from  financiers,  lawyers,  insurance  of the standard  accoun-  companies  Australian text  h a v e w r i t t e n t h a t t h e r e was no  South Wales  "made i n A u s t r a l i a " that  i n addition  . 116 servants.  Although  for  t o be a w e l l founded  businessmen, bankers,  f o rservices  o f d i s c u s s i o n New S o u t h  was  on  easements  adopted  i s considered  , ... and p u b l i c  t o the  legislation  i n Victoria;  act  tants,  Prior  o f condominium  i n t h e law a f f e c t i n g  However i n 1961 a f t e r  in  was g a i n i n g i n p o p u l a r i t y a n d c e r t a i n  t h e r e w e r e schemes s i m i l a r  enacted  have d e v e l o p e d  precedent  law a n d t h a t i t c a n be f a i r l y  i t i s understandably  the A u s t r a l i a n l e g i s l a t i o n  labelled  nevertheless  h a s many f e a t u r e s  true  similar to 117  E u r o p e a n and L a t i n  American condominium  New S o u t h W a l e s was f o l l o w e d  legislation.  i n 1967 by t h e S t a t e o f 118  Victoria  which enacted  a Strata Titles  Act.  New  Zealand  »>*  which  also experienced  a marked g r o w t h i n c o o p e r a t i v e s  t o be m o v i n g t o w a r d s a d o p t i o n l•> e g i- s1 4l -a-t i o n . H 9  o f comprehensive  appears  condominium  In the Canadian common law j u r i s d i c t i o n s the schemes s i m i l a r to those worked out i n England for the freehold or 120 long term leasehold transfer of apartments were not u t i l i z e d while cooperatives and companies were the form manifested in answer to the needs of people who desired to "own" apartments . Rosenberg has written that there i s l i t t l e doubt that at common law i n Canada i t i s possible to own separate parts of a b u i l d i n g or a i r space and that there are a number of schemes throughout Canada which could be c a l l e d condominium schemes to some extent but, he adds, they  " . . .  are however,  of l i t t l e h i s t o r i c a l significance since they do not involve 121 the subdivision of a b u i l d i n g . : the necessity  The same author shows  for s p e c i a l enabling l e g i s l a t i o n by pointing  out the following ways by which, at Common Law a non-statutory condominium unit could be separated from the common property: 1. If the common elements are subject to separate r e a l t y tax, a l i e n for unpaid taxes could r e s u l t in separation. 2. A conveyance of the unit without i t s common i n t e r e s t would r e s u l t in separation i f such a conveyance were allowed under the Act. 3. An encumbrance enforceable against the common elements alone, i f foreclosed (and i f allowed by the A c t ) , would r e s u l t i n separation. A l l the Canadian Acts provide protection against these contingencies. 122  By the end o f 1969 o n l y Newfoundland,  P r i n c e Edward  I s l a n d and the N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s had not f o l l o w e d the example  o f B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a , the f i r s t  Provinces  i n Canada t o enact s p e c i a l  condominium  two  legislation  123 i n 1966.  J  <  The B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan are very s i m i l a r  i n t h e i r p r o v i s i o n s and are modelled  the Conveyancing  ( S t r a t a T i t l e s ) A c t 1961, o f New  The O n t a r i o , Manitoba and New Territory similar  after  South Wales.  Brunswick A c t s and Yukon  Ordinance are s i m i l a r  t o each o t h e r and, i n p a r t ,  t o some American l e g i s l a t i o n .  They do, however,  c o n t a i n some p r o v i s i o n s t h a t a r e q u i t e n o v e l . A c t i s i n many r e s p e c t s s i m i l a r  t o the U n i t e d 124  Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Model A c t . special  Acts  mention e a r l i e r i n t h i s  The Nova S c o t i a States'  Federal  The Quebec law r e c e i v e d  chapter.  THE FAR EAST In the F a r E a s t , Japan whose l e g a l  system i s an  o f f s h o o t o f the Code Napoleon, had an inadequate l e g a l vision occurred  i n the C i v i l Code u n t i l 1962.  The changes  i n post-war Japan n e c e s s i t a t e d new  pro-  which  l e g i s l a t i o n which  125 was  enacted m  sidering  1963.  Hong Kong i s a l s o r e p o r t e d l y con-  legislation. *' 1 2  CONCLUSION  In c o n c l u s i o n was of  a t odds w i t h Roman Law customary  tradition. Napoleon,  law  In France which  dictions  the concept passed  because  of i t s global  of the concept.  deteriorated  of the trend  common law  and  North America Australia  o f t h e Roman into  sanction  Code  caused  I n t h e Common Law  no b a r r i e r  t o s u c h an  War,  law  countries.  v i a F r e n c h Law  arrange-  housing  extent c a u s i n g the  t o modern c o n d o m i n i u m l e g i s l a t i o n  civil  juris-  t o condominium World  a  The  concept  i n both  arrived  in  i n t h e c a s e o f Quebec and v i a  i n t h e c a s e o f some W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n P r o v i n c e s .  concept  came f r o m E u r o p e  to Latin  America  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f r o m whence i t i n f l u e n c e d Canadian  condominium  legal  the  influence  i n the aftermath of the F i r s t  c o n d i t i o n s had start  shown t h a t  y e t f l o u r i s h e d with the  t h e common law was  ments, but  been  i n those c o u n t r i e s  greater d i f f u s i o n  The  t h e n i t has  legislation.  and  thence  some o t h e r  to  1.  L o r d C o o p e r , The S c o t t i s h L e g a l T r a d i t i o n , O l i v e r and Boyd L t d . , 1960), p. 5.  2.  I n New p . 43.  Y o r k Law J o u r n a l , ( V o l . 150, 26 J u l y 1963), C i t e d i n R o s e n b e r g , op_. c i t . , pp. 2-2.  3.  Ferrer  and S t e c h e r ,  4.  Ibid.,  pp.  15-16  and n. 6 &  5.  Ibid.,  pp.  16-17  and n.  6.  Ibid.,  p . 17  7.  Ibid.,  p. 17,  8.  T. M a c k e n z i e , S t u d i e s i n Roman Law, B l a c k w o o d and S o n s , 1862), p . 155.  9.  Ferrer  and S t e c h e r , op. c i t . , p .  10.  Ibid.,  p.  11.  Cited  12.  H u b n e r , H i s t o r y o f G e r m a n i c P r i v a t e Law L e g . s e r i e s 19181 c i t e d by C. Q u i e n a l t y L o u i s i a n a Law R e v i e w ( V o l . 19, 688, 1959  13.  Ibid.  14.  Leyser,.op.  15.  Ferrer  16.  Ibid.,  17.  P o t h i e r , O e u v r e s , ( V o l . 15), p . 1. Quoted and S t e c h e r , op. c i t . , p. 18, n. 19.  18.  Hubner q u o t e d i n Q u i e n a l t y ,  19.  L e y s e r , op. c i t . , p.  20.  Ibid.,  21.  R o s e n b e r g , op. c i t . , p .  op. c i t . , p .  and n. n.  16  (Edinburgh:  15.  7.  8-14. & Leyser,  op. c i t . , p.  33.  17. (Edinburgh:  William  17.  18.  i n Ibid.,  p . 19,  c i t . , pp.  and S t e c h e r , p. 19,  p . 36.  n.  25.  33-34.  op. c i t . , p .  n. 25,  174, ( C o n ' t and i n "Comments", ) p . 668.  19.  and L e y s e r , op. c i t . , p .  op. c i t . , pp.  in  34. Ferrer  668-669.  36.  and F e r r e r  and S t e c h e r , 2-4,  n.  16.  0 £ . c i t . , p.  22.  23.  Ibid. , p.  3-2.  24.  I b i d . , chapter  25.  Cooper, op_. c i t . , p.  26.  I b i d . , pp.  27.  Ferrer and Stecher,  28.  P.B. Migneau.lt, Le Droit C i v i l Canadien Base sur les "Repetitions Ecrvts sur le Code~C~ivil" de Frederic Mourlon avec Revue de la. Jurisprudence de nos Tribunaux, Tome Troisieme, (Montreal: C. Theoret, 1897), p. 90.  29.  Ley ser, op_. c i t . , p. 34.  30.  Marcel P l a n i o l , Treatise on the C i v i l Law, 12 e d . , V o l . Part 2, Section 2523, [LouTsTana: 1959TT~P• 488.  31.  Melvin Kranzberg, "The Napoleonic Code" i n Law i n a Troubled World, pp. 39-40, c i t e d by Ferrer and Stecher, op. c i t . , pT 2 6.  32.  Leyser,  33.  Ferrer and Stecher,  34.  I b i d . , p. 30.  35.  I b i d . , p. 26 & p. 29.  36.  I b i d . , pp. 32-33.  37.  I b i d . , p. 27, n. 64.  38.  Leyser, op_. c i t . , p.  39.  P . J . Rohan and M.A. Reskin, Condominium Law and Practice Forms, (New York: Matthew Bender, 19 69)7""PP« 2-2.  4Q-.  Ferrer and Stecher,  41.  Ibid.,  42.  Pierre Dessaulles, Condominium - Some Aspects of the New Law - B i l l 29, (Montreal Real Estate Board, 19F9") 7~P• ~ T T  43.  Sebastian del V i s o , quoted in Ferrer and Stecher, p. 35.  44.  Ferrer and Stecher,  3. 5.  5-6.  0£. c i t . ,  op. c i t . ,  chapter  3.  1,  p. 34. op. c i t . ,  p. 30, n. 84.  35.  op. c i t . , p.  -  27.  p.26.  op. c i t . ,  pp.  38-39.  ojo. c i t . ,  45.  Quoted i n I b i d . , p. 38.  46.  Rosenberg, op_. c i t . , p. 2-4 and F e r r e r and S t e c h e r , op. c i t . , p. 21, n. 39 and L e y s e r , op_. c i t . , p. 31, n. 1, L e y s e r mentions Poland as having passed l e g i s l a t i o n but does not mention the d a t e . F e r r e r and Stecher omit any mention o f Poland.  47.  C h a r l e s P. McVicker, T i t o i s m , P a t t e r n f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Communism, (New York: S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1957), p. 204.  48.  F e r r e r and S t e c h e r , op. c i t . ,  49.  I b i d . , p. 41, n. 50.  50.  I b i d . , pp. 43-44.  51.  I b i d . , p. 43.  52.  i . e . those c o u n t r i e s not mentioned i n the t e x t i n c l u d e Uruguay 1946; Peru 1946; Ecuador 1946; B o l i v i a 1949; Cuba 1950; Panama 1952; Mexico 1954; Venezuela 1957; Dominican R e p u b l i c 1958; Guatemala 19 59 and E l S a l v a d o r 1961; I b i d . , chapter 3.  53.  I b i d . , p. 42.  54.  I b i d . , chapter 3.  55.  I b i d . , pp. 47-48.  56.  I b i d . , p. 49.  57.  I b i d . , p. 49, n. 10.  58.  See L e y s e r , op_. c i t . ,  59.  W i l l i a m J . Q u i r k , e t aJL. , "A D r a f t Program o f Housing Reform - The Tenant Condominium," ( f o r low and middleincome housing,) C o r n e l l Law Review, 53; 361 (February 1968) and a l s o I b i d . , 54:811, ( J u l y , 1969).  60.  F e r r e r and S t e c h e r , op_. c i t . , p. 49.  61.  I b i d . , p. 49.  62.  I b i d . , p. 56.  63.  Q u i e n a l t y , op. c i t . ,  64.  C i t e d i n F e r r e r and S t e c h e r , op_. c i t . , p. 57.  65.  Q u i e n a l t y , op_. c i t . ,  p. 41.  p. 31, n. 1.  p. 679.  p. 680.  66.  220 La 951, 57 So. 2d 906 (1952) and followed i n Haney vs Dunn, 96 So. 2d 243 (1957) c i t e d i n Ferrer and Stecher, op. c i t . , p. 57.  67.  I b i d . , p.  68.  I b i d . , p. 58.  69.  Commission of Jacques Duchesneaux, The Intendant of J u s t i c e , Police and Finances for Canada, June 1675, E. and 0. V o l . 3, (1854), p . 4 2 . quoted i n C a s t e l , The C i v i l Law System of the Province of Quebec, (Toronto: Butterworths, 1962). Author's t r a n s l a t i o n from the o r i g i n a l quote i n French.  70.  Castel,  71.  I b i d . , p.  12.  72.  I b i d . , p.  22.  73.  I b i d . , p. 23.  74.  An Act to Provide for the C o d i f i c a t i o n of the Laws of Lower Canada r e l a t i v e to C i v i l Matters and Procedure, (1857), 20 V i c t ; c. 43 quoted by C a s t e l , op_. c i t . , p. 25.  75.  Ibid.  76.  Third Report of the C o d i f i e r s , Book 2, " C i v i l Code of Lower Canada," (QueEec; printed by George E. Desbarats, 1865), p. 393.  77.  I b i d . , p. 488. In the French text under "Book SecondP r e s c r i p t i o n , T i t l e Fourth of Real Servitudes, Chapter Second - of Servitudes established by law."  78.  Migneault, op_. c i t .  79.  Rosenberg, op. c i t . , p. 2-13. See also W.P. Rosenfeld, "The Sale of Individual Apartment S u i t e s , " 18 Faculty of Toronto Law Review 12 (1961).  80.  Pierre Dessaulles, "Condominium for Quebec," i n Montreal Real Estate and Business Review, (1965) , pp. 97-103.  81.  I b i d . , p.  82.  Dessaulles,  83.  Ibid.  57.  op_. c i t . , p.  14.  97. ojp. c i t . , supra (n. 42), p.  2.  84.  Montreal Star, 26 November 1969.  85.  Montreal Star, 1 December  86.  Professor Levy Ullman of P a r i s , quoted by Cooper ojp. c i t . , p. 29.  87.  Cooper, op_. c i t . , p. 9 . , and T . B . Smith, Scotland, (London: Stevens and Sons, 1962), p. 3.  88.  Cooper, o_£. c i t . , p.  89.  Easements i n Common Law correspond generally with s e r v i tudes i n Roman Law, Mackenzie, op. c i t . , p. 169.  90.  Dessaulles,  91.  Cooper, op. c i t . , p.  92.  B e l l , P r i n c i p l e s , s. 1086 quoted by Gloag and Henderson, Introduction to the Law of Scotland, 5th E d . , (Edinburgh: W. Green and SonTTEd., 1WS2), pp. 508-509.  93.  Dessaulles, ojp. c i t . , supra, (n. 80), pp. 100-101 and Gloag and Henderson, op_. c i t . , pp. 509-510.  94.  Ibid.  95.  W.F. Dickson, "Freehold T i t l e to F l a t s , " 28 L. Inst. J 133 (1954) quoted by Ferrer and Stecher, op. c i t . , p~. Tl.  96.  In Thomson vs St. Cuthberts Co-op. Assoc. L t d . 1958 S.C. 380 at p. 389 quoted i n Smith, ojp_. c i t . , p. 483.  97.  Ferrer and Stecher, OJD. c i t . , p. 71. In which mention i s made of the European precedents, Cooper, op_. c i t . , p. 9. Discusses the powerful a t t r a c t i o n of Bologna, P i s a , P a r i s , Orleans, Leyden and Utrecht for Scots Law students.  98.  Buckland and McNair, Roman Law and Common Law, 78 (1936) c i t e d by Ferrer and Stecher, o£. c i t . , p. 65.  99.  72 Eng. Rep 262 (1508) cited by Ferrer and Stecher, cit., p. 65.  op. c i t .  1969.  11.  supra,  (n. 80), p. 100.  10.  op.  op.  10 0.  Co. L i t t . 42b quoted by Ferrer and Stecher, p. 65, n. 84.  cit.,  101.  Halsbury's Laws of England, 2nd. e d . , V o l . 27, p. 603, quoted i n Ferrer and Stecher, 0 £ . c i t . , p. 65.  102.  Quoted by F e r r e r and S t e c h e r , op. c i t . , p. 65.  103.  Smith and G u i l i a n i (1924) S.C. 247 and (1935) S.C. (H.L.) 45 quoted by Rosenberg, op_. c i t . , p. 2-11 and F e r r e r and S t e c h e r , op_. c i t . , p. 72.  104.  Edward F. George, The Sale o f F l a t s , 2nd, Ed. (London: .1959), p. v i i c i t e d by F e r r e r and S t e c h e r , op. c i t . , p. 66.  105.  L e y s e r , op. c i t . , p. 51.  106.  Rosenberg, op. c i t . , p. 2-9.  107.  W i l b e r f o r c e Committee Report, Report o f t h e Committee on P o s i t i v e Covenants A f f e c t i n g Land, Cmd 2719^ (London: HMSO, 19 65) , p. 2. Quoted i n Rosenberg, op_. c i t . , pp. 2-  10.  108.  F e r r e r and Stecher, ojp. c i t . , p. 59, n. 66 f o r l i s t o f U.S. c a s e s .  109.  I b i d . , p. 62.  110.  S t u a r t S. B a l l , " D i v i s i o n i n t o H o r i z o n t a l S t r a t a o f the Landscape Above the S u r f a c e , " 39 Y a l e Law J o u r n a l 616  (1930), p. 651.  111.  F e r r e r and S t e c h e r , op_. c i t . , p. 59.  112.  John Mixon, "Apartment Ownership i n Texas: C o o p e r a t i v e and Condominium," 1 Houston Law Review, 226, 239  (1964) .  113.  Rohan and Reskin, ojp. c i t . , pp. 4-5.  114.  Rosenberg, op. c i t . ,  115.  S c h r e i b e r , op_. c i t . , p. 1106, n . 14.  116.  See A.F. Rath, P.J. Grimes and J.E. Moore, S t r a t a T i t l e s , (Sydney, N.S.W.:Law Book Co. L t d . , 1966), C i t e d by Rosenberg, op. c i t . , pp. 2-12.  117.  Rosenberg, op. c i t . ,  118.  Ibid.,  p. 2-13.  119.  Ibid.,  p. 2-13.  120.  Ibid.,  p. 2-13, 2-14.  121.  Ibid.,  p. 2-13.  p. 2-8.  p. 2-12.  122.  I b i d . , pp.  7-7.  123.  B.C., "Strata T i t l e s Act" was effective 1 September 1966; ^ A l b e r t a , "Condominium Property A c t , " proclaimed 1 August 19 66; Ontario, "The Condominium A c t , " proclaimed 1 September 19 67; Manitoba, "Condominium A c t , " effective 25 May 1968; Nova Scotia/"" "Condominium Property Act" proclaimed 1 June 196 8; Saskatchewan, "The Condominium Property Act" proclaimed 1 November 1968; Yukon T e r r i t o r y , "The Co dominium Ordinance" effective 9 December 1968; New Brunswick, "The Condominium Property Act" assented to 18 A p r i l 19 69; Quebec, "An Act respecting co-ownership of immoveables," assented to 2 8 November 19 69. anc  124.  Rosenberg, op_. c i t . , p. 1-5 (XII, 4-5 , 1969) , pp. 5-12.  125.  Ferrer and Stecher,  126.  Rosenberg, op_. c i t . , p. 2-14. In the P h i l l i p i n e s the Old Spanish C i v i l Code A r t . 396 remains in force merely having been renumbered to a r t . 490 of the 1949 P h i l l i p i n e C i v i l Code. Ferrer and Stecher, op. c i t . , p. 48, n. 1.  op. c i t . ,  and various authors Habitat pp.  80-81.  C H A P T E R  I I I  THE MODERN CONCEPT OF The Word and  "Condominium"; Two C o n c e p t s  R e a l t y ; O t h e r Terms  encountered Meanings;  CONDOMINIUM - Politics  f o r Condominium;  Problems  i n t h e U s e o f t h e Term; T h e T h r e e  Two E s s e n t i a l E l e m e n t s  i n a Condominium  Project;  V a r i e t y i n Form and F u n c t i o n ,  Concepts  o f a U n i t ; T h e C o n d o m i n i u m as a C o o p e r a t i v e ;  Condominiums Liability  and C o n t i n u i n g  Legal  Cooperatives, Limited  C o m p a n i e s , H o u s i n g C o m p a n i e s , Common  Lav/ Condominiums with  Two  and P l a n n e d U n i t D e v e l o p m e n t s  a Home Owners' A s s o c i a t i o n .  THE WORD  The word signified Its  joint  present  respect  "condominium"  original  had  Roman Law  treatises  legislation  and more r e f i n e d  De C o n d o m i n i o T e r r i t o r a l i ,  chiefly  Tubingen,  The O x f o r d  " . . . joint of various  do n o t d e f i n e  reflects  i n Britain  the  former the term  " c o n d o m i n i u m " means s o l e l y  and  political  sovereignty  property  condominium.  Latin  1682 . . . ."  meanings u n d e r s t o o d  real  rule or  by Germans, e . g . Fromanus  and W e b s t e r ' s d i c t i o n a r i e s  c o n d o m i n i u m i n t h e same way and t h i s  a  than  REALTY  significance.  i s the subject  o f the 17th-18thc.  joint  in  i n E u r o p e t h e Roman C o n c e p t a l s o  condominium a s :  Condominium  The O x f o r d  by  CONCEPTS - P O L I T I C S AND  and p o l i t i c a l  describes  sovereignty.  generally  concept.  t h e M i d d l e Ages  a territorial  Dictionary  word w h i c h  meaning o r meanings i n  as e s t a b l i s h e d  i s much d i f f e r e n t  THE TWO  In  and r e s t r i c t e d  property  many j u r i s d i c t i o n s the  i s a Latin  1 2 o w n e r s h i p ( o r c o - o w n e r s h i p ) i n Roman Law.  elaborate  of real  "CONDOMINIUM"  and t h e U n i t e d  and a n o t h e r  In the United  meanings a r e u n d e r s t o o d , w i t n e s s Webster's  the d i f f e r e n t States.  In  a  territorial  term  i s used f o r  S t a t e s two definition:-  . . . j o i n t d o m i n i o n o r s o v e r e i g n t y : a : Roman Law: o w n e r s h i p by two o r more p e r s o n s h o l d i n g u n d i v i d e d f r a c t i o n a l s h a r e s i n t h e same p r o p e r t y a n d h a v i n g t h e r i g h t t o a l i e n a t e t h e i r share resembling tenancy i n common i n A n g l o - A m e r i c a n l a w r a t h e r t h a n j o i n t tenancy w i t h i t s r i g h t s o f s u r v i v o r s h i p b: j o i n t s o v e r e i g n t y o r r u l e b y two o r more s t a t e s o v e r a c o l o n y o r p o l i t i c a l l y dependent t e r r i t o r y . . . .  There the  better  political  a r e t h e n two c o n c e p t s  known h i s t o r i c a l concept  o f condominium and p e r h a p s  examples o f t h e t e r r i t o r i a l  a r e t h e sometime German-Danish  condominium  o v e r S c h l e s w i g - H o l s t e i n ; t h e A n g l o - E g y p t i a n c o n d o m i n i u m over' the  Sudan a n d t h e A n g l o - F r e n c h  The  short-lived  Organization  c o n d o m i n i u m o v e r t h e New  p r o p o s a l t o form a North A t l a n t i c  condominium o v e r Cyprus  furnishes  Hebrides  Treaty  a more r e c e n t  3 example o f t h i s In  this  c o n c e p t o f condominium. thesis  the author  i s concerned  only with the  c o n c e p t o f c o n d o m i n i u m a s a scheme f o r t h e c o - o w n e r s h i p o f land, buildings territorial  and a s s o c i a t e d  political  f a c i l i t i e s and n o t w i t h t h e  condominium.  OTHER TERMS FOR CONDOMINIUM  In even  though  North America  enabling legislation  "horizontal property"; ship"; Other  "apartment terms  t h e word c o n d o m i n i u m i s u s e d  "strata  ownership";  a r e used  may r e f e r  t o condominium as  l o t ownership";  o r "co-ownership  e.g. i n I t a l y  t h e term  popularly,  "unit  owner-  o f immoveables".  i s "condominio";  in France England the  "co-ownership"; i n Spain  "flat  "horizontal  property"; i n  freehold"  and i n S c o t l a n d  ownership" or " f l y i n g  term " f l a t t e d  apartment b l o c k .  h o u s e " o r " t e n e m e n t " means a  condominium  I n German c o u n t r i e s  or  "storey"  "roomage"  4  o w n e r s h i p and i n J a p a n " c o m p a r t e d o w n e r s h i p "  are t h e terms  used.  PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN THE  The word  "condominium"  USE  OF THE  has r e c e i v e d  TERM  considerable  5  publicity  i n recent  years  but the concept  that  this  word  denotes with respect t o r e a l property i s not g e n e r a l l y g stood. I n d e e d i n 1967, a C a n a d i a n a u t h o r s t a t e d t h a t word  "condominium"  suffers  from the d i s a d v a n t a g e  underthe  o f meaning  7 nothing then  t o most  people,  and how  i s an open q u e s t i o n .  far this  The 1969  has changed  since  Report of the F e d e r a l  T a s k F o r c e on H o u s i n g and U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t n o t e d t h a t condominium arrangements had o n l y r e c e n t l y been i n t r o d u c e d in  Canada b u t t h a t  t h e y were n o t g e n e r a l l y  known and  less  8 accepted the  at that  topic with  standings of  time.  The a u t h o r h a s f o u n d  a wide c i r c l e  as t o t h e v a r i e t y  i n discussing  o f a c q u a i n t a n c e s many m i s u n d e r possible  i n the nature  and f o r m  a condominium development. "Condominium" i s a word  invested with  a restrictive  t h a t has r e g r e t a b l y been 9 m e a n i n g by some. F o r example  the  Random House D i c t i o n a r y o f the E n g l i s h Language d e f i n e s  condominium as  " . . . an apartment house . . . "  which i s t o  r e s t r i c t i t s meaning t o r e s i d e n t i a l use and i t s form t o a block. the  In a r e c e n t pamphlet p u b l i s h e d by a Bank t h e r e appears  f o l l o w i n g statement:  "Condominiums can be e i t h e r  vertical  i n the form o f a h i g h r i s e s t r u c t u r e , o r h o r i z o n t a l i n the town house form."" "^ 1  T h i s i s h a r d l y the whole t r u t h and would  r e s t r i c t the meaning o f the term and b e l i e Another example can be c i t e d  its flexibility.  from advertisements i n Vancouver  newspapers f o r ". . . A T e r r a c e Garden Home . . . f e a t u r i n g —Fee  simple ownership (not a Condominium)."''"'*"  While t h i s  may be so, the wording may g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n t o some t h a t simple ownership o r f e e - s i m p l e i s n o t p o s s i b l e i n a condominium. F u r t h e r examples can be g i v e n i n t h i s r e s p e c t . d e f i n i t i o n o f condominium was d r a f t e d  One  thus:  . . . i n d i v i d u a l ownership i n f e e simple o f a onef a m i l y u n i t i n a m u l t i - f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e coupled w i t h ownership o f an u n d i v i d e d i n t e r e s t i n the l a n d and i n a l l o t h e r p a r t s o f the s t r u c t u r e h e l d i n common w i t h a l l o f the o t h e r owners o f o n e - f a m i l y u n i t s . 12 T h i s would r e s t r i c t the concept t o f a m i l y - u n i t s and another author d e f i n e d condominium as "a f r e e h o l d i n t e r e s t i n 13 a h o r i z o n t a l s l i c e i n a v e r t i c l e column o f a i r "  which  e x c l u d e s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f l e a s e h o l d condominiums which, i n Canada a r e p e r m i s s a b l e i n Manitoba and Quebec under t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e condominium e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n Chapter V and Appendix B ) .  (but see a l s o  THE THREE MEANINGS  The t e r m all  of the  "condominium" c a n be u s e d  any o r  following: ^ 1  -  a form o f l a n d  -  a project  -  a unit,  tenure o r ownership  s o owned  i n a project  interest  s o owned, w i t h  i n t h e common  TWO ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS  There  individual  inherent  i n t h e Condominium  division  of property  into  owned w h e t h e r f r e e h o l d  i t s owner's  property.  IN A CONDOMINIUM  a r e two e s s e n t i a l  between s e p a r a t e  to  t o denote  and  elements o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p common i n d i v i s a b l e  concept.  units  PROJECT  that  or leasehold,  Firstly  there  ownership i s the  a r e t o be i n d i v i d u a l l y a n d t h e common  property  b e owned i n common b y t h e owner's o f t h e u n i t s ; a n d  secondly, manage  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  the property.  "This  f r a m e w o r k t o e n a b l e t h e owners t o concept  use  t o be made o f t h e p r o p e r t y ,  and  to the location  a,nd  common  is  i n d i f f e r e n t t othe  to the design  o f t h e b o u n d a r i e s between 15  ownership."  of the buildings, individual  VARIETY  IN FORM AND  FUNCTION  C o n d o m i n i u m s , p e r se c a n c o v e r a v a r i e t y The or  word cost  istics  "building" and  carries  no  connotations of the s o c i a l  o f t h e owner o r o c c u p a n t s  i n form,  1.  either  horizontal,  3.  lateral in  i . e . row  a cluster  a high r i s e  and/or  or not  include  a multiple  and p u b l i c  to  suggests  as  (b) low  follows:  rise  storeys  or  less;  whether  (see F i g u r e I ) .  residential,  unit  b l o c k o r b l o c k s and m i g h t  establishments  term  commercial,  or a mixture of these types of  condominium might  house o r houses  or  only  detached dwellings,  development  or r e c r e a t i o n a l  A residential  classified  The  storeys;  C o n d o m i n i u m s , t h e n , c a n be industrial  author  h o u s i n g o f two  d e t a c h e d , e.g.  character-  i t refers  The  (a) h i g h r i s e  o f more t h a n t h r e e  2.  be  function  "building".  that  earlier.  condominiums c o u l d  vertical, i.e.  o f the  i n the sense  t h r e e meanings mentioned  that,  projects.  a l o n e says n o t h i n g o f i t s form,  condominium i s s i m i l a r the  of  a traditional  family  block or blocks also  include  use.  and/or  commercial  institutions.  An i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r h o u s i n g c o n c e p t i n F l o r i d a i s the s i n g l e family d e t a c h e d house condominium. It i s a d e p a r t u r e from t h e t y p i c a l r e s i d e n t i a l condominiums n a m e l y , l o w - r i s e and h i g h - r i s e a p a r t m e n t s and t o w n h o u s e s . 17 An contains  example m i g h t  residential  be where a h i g h r i s e  apartments,  each  condominium  of the apartments  would  be i n d i v i d u a l l y owned while the remainder of the property including the roof, the basement, parking area and f a c i l i t i e s such as elevator system, heating system, tennis courts, swimming p o o l , sauna bath and gardens e t c . , would be owned in common i n d i v i s a b l y by the owners of the apartment u n i t s . An administrative framework enables the owners to manage the property for the common benefit and each apartment owner must contribute to the common expenses of the b u i l d i n g and facilities. In t h i s example i t i s imaginable that such a b u i l d i n g , if  located downtown i n a large c i t y might be subdivided with  the ground floor occupied by commercial establishments such as a restaurant,  flower shop and barber with, say, the next  two or three floors occupied as business offices p r a c t i t i o n e r s or even a school or l i b r a r y . could be the r e s i d e n t i a l apartments. shops, o f f i c e s ,  or medical  Above a l l t h i s  In such a b u i l d i n g the  school, l i b r a r y and apartment occupants could  either own the space they occupied or lease i t from the owners Such a b u i l d i n g with such d i f f e r e n t users might require quite complicated administrative arrangements but the drawing up of a workable administrative framework would surely not defeat expert lawyers or large scale urban land developers and property managers. Condominiums have been developed for a l l income groups and c e r t a i n projects have been s p e c i f i c a l l y designed for a  C O N D O M I N I U M is  n n —^ — Kr> 1  ft  n  n  -5 fe$)&£f,  teases  2.  A Project With t h i s Ownership  3.  A Unit i n Such a Project and  T—}  J.\  A Type of Ownership  A  II.  |D  1.  |_n _ B J!_D j:j _n _oj-3  B  A. B. C. D.  can be form:  V e r t i c a l -. Either High or Low Horizontal - of One or More.Strata L a t e r a l Detached - of one or More Stra ' Mixed -  and  III.  i  "OUT-  r  Commercial  (iii)  Industrial  (v)  TJTiTlTi Tl "Tl  "D"D  rm Irm 1 cm T85&&g •a  FIGURE I THE VARIETY IN FORM AND FUNCTION OF CONDOMINIUM  (vi)  in  Function:  Residential  (ii) (iv)  1  o^ll m m  (i)  -in  Institutional Recreational  or  A Mixture of the Above.  Figure I  The Variety i n Form and Function of Condominium  special  sector  and  Government o f  the  of  the  views t h i s type of  h o u s i n g m a r k e t , e.g. the  Province  housing with  of  r e t i r e d people  British  special  Columbia  favour  as  being  20 suitable  for r e t i r e d people. A n o t h e r example o f  the  flexibility  of  the  condominium 21  concept  i s the  of  t h i s type of  m  Vancouver  recreational  or  resort  condominium.  Examples  development w h i c h have been r e c e n t l y  advertised  22  Sun  Valley,  Whistler  are  Idaho.  absence of  the  Both of  live  owner t h e  chalet  own  M o u n t a i n , B.C.  these are  i n y o u r own  Idaho a d v e r t i s e m e n t  Idaho from your living  at Whistler  development advertisement  t h i s W i n t e r and  Valley,  located 23  ski resorts.  exhorts:  "Ski  at  The Whistler  condominium c h a l e t ! " 24 can  states:  be  rented.  "Ski  Condominium C h a l e t 1  i n t h i s fabulous year  and  The  . . . Sun An  . . . .  the  Sun Valley,  investment  round playground  In  in Rental  management i s a v a i l a b l e i n y o u r a b s e n c e t o show a handsome 25 investment return." Y e t a n o t h e r example o f t h i s t y p e o f C o n d o m i n i u m i s p r o v i d e d by t h e following: F r e e p o r t , G r a n d Bahama - I n t h i s a c t i v e r e s o r t c i t y o f h o t e l s o p e r a t e d by l a r g e h o t e l c h a i n s , t h e r e i s one l u x u r y c o n d o m i n i u m h o t e l owned by h u n d r e d s o f small investors. The C o r a l B e a c h H o t e l o f 300 s u i t e s on a f i v e a c r e s i t e i s the o n l y condominium h o t e l i n the Bahamas. The c o m p l e x i n F r e e p o r t ' s e x c l u s i v e r e s o r t a r e a , L a c a y a , o f f e r s " t h e l i t t l e guy" a c h a n c e t o be p a r t owner o f a h o t e l p r o j e c t w h i l e g i v i n g him a v a c a t i o n r e t r e a t when he n e e d s i t . When he i s n o t u s i n g h i s a p a r t m e n t t h e investor's u n i t becomes a one-bedroom h o t e l s u i t e . W h i l e he i s absent, the i n v e s t o r shares i n the p r o f i t s of the h o t e l - not o n l y h i s s u i t e , but i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l , r e s t a u r a n t and b e v e r a g e f a c i l i t i e s . 26  Another ium.  example  A chain of m i l l i o n  Gulf  dollar  Inc."  and w h i c h w i l l  picnic  tables  landscaped  provide  and p l a n t i n g s .  grounds, heated  Each campsite w i l l his site  called  i s being developed  States  by t h e c a m p s i t e  condominium r e s o r t s  O i l Company i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g ,  America,  let  i s provided  a paved p a t i o ,  i n the United  utility  hook-ups,  surroundings w i l l  swimming p o o l s  be i n d i v i d u a l l y  i n which  " V e n t u r e Out i n  f o r campers  Plush  condomin-  and  include  playgrounds.  owned and t h e owner c a n  when he i s a b s e n t and d i v i d e  the  rent  with  27 the  developer. Theoretically  varied  and c a n be m i x e d b u t t h i s  enabling certain  legislation  and Quebec a l l o w  an e n a b l i n g  may  be a f f e c t e d  might e x p l i c i t l y  types o f development.  Manitoba while  t h e u s e and t y p e o f c o n d o m i n i u m i s  allow  In Canada  leasehold  amendment i s b e i n g  by l a w .  The  or disallow  for instance,  only  condominium development considered  in British  28 Columbia.  Otherwise r e s t r i c t i o n s 29  p l a n n i n g bylaws ium co-owners  and d e c i s i o n s  themselves.  comment on l e a s e h o l d THE  Having system of land specific in  a  TWO  projects  condominium.  be t h e r e s u l t  of the developers  and  of condomin-  But see a l s o Appendix B f o r f u r t h e r  condominiums. LEGAL CONCEPTS OF A UNIT  considered tenure  will  the nature  o f condominium  and t h e f l e x i b i l i t y  l e t us c o n s i d e r  as a  o f f o r m and u s e i n  the nature o f a s i n g l e  unit  T h e r e a r e two Law is  legal  c o n c e p t i s o f a cube of a part  concepts of a u n i t .  The  of space w h i l e the C i v i l  of a b u i l d i n g  t o which  Common  Law  t h e owner h a s  concept  an  30 exclusive  rxght of use.  However:  T h e r e i s ample a u t h o r i t y t h a t b o t h a p a r t o f a b u i l d i n g and a cube o f s p a c e c o n s t i t u t e l a n d and may be t h e o b j e c t o f t h e b u n d l e o f r i g h t s c o m p r i s i n g ownership. 31 Theoretically  the estate  (or c l a s s  of  ownership) 32  created There  i n an a i r s p a c e c o u l d be  are problems  example—if  terms  w i t h the a i r space  a building  t r e s p a s s might  shifted  occur since  o f a cube  of a b u i l d i n g .  freehold  and  theory—to  settled  ownership would  o f space r a t h e r While there  or non-freehold.  then  cite  one  theoretically  be d e s c r i b e d i n  than the p h y s i c a l  partitions  i s a proposed t h e o r e t i c a l  remedy  33 for  this  legal  i t i s mentioned  difficulty  Columbia, w i t h which  concerned, the term owned p a r t  enabling the  "strata  legislation,  p l a n must  l o t " used  this  thesis  to describe  o f a condominium p r o j e c t ,  a i r space t h e o r y .  strata  theoretical  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a i r space t h e o r y .  In B r i t i s h  ually  as b e i n g m e r e l y one  an  i s basically individ-  suggests that  the S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t , s u b s c r i b e s In f a c t  " . . .  this  define  i s not the case  the boundaries of  the to  for a  each 34 s t r a t a l o t by r e f e r e n c e t o f l o o r s , w a l l s and c e i l i n g . " This p h y s i c a l structures theory holds that the 35 i n d i v i d u a l owner w i l l h o l d "an e x c l u s i v e e s t a t e " in his unit, 36 o r s t r a t a l o t . What k i n d of ownership or e s t a t e i s c r e a t e d  in  the s t r a t a l o t i n B r i t i s h  Act  states  that  the  deposit  Columbia?  The S t r a t a  l a n d may be s u b d i v i d e d  of a s t r a t a plan  Titles  i n t o s t r a t a l o t s by  w h i c h may be d e a l t w i t h  same manner and f o r m a s any l a n d  the t i t l e  i n the  t o which i s  37 registered  under t h e Land R e g i s t r y  dimensional is  issued  Act with of  strata lots  Act.  a Certificate  i n t h e same f o r m p r o v i d e d the a d d i t i o n thereon  t h e words  "Strata Titles  owner's s h a r e  F o r each  three  of Indefeasible  under t h e Land  Title  Registry  at the top of the c e r t i f i c a t e 3)" a n d s h o w i n g t h e  A c t (Section  i n t h e common p r o p e r t y  created  by t h e s t r a t a  38 plan. the  The C e r t i f i c a t e  p e r s o n named t h e r e i n  entitled  i n fee-simple"  of Indefeasible " i s absolutely  Title  certifies  that  and i n d e f e a s i b l y  t o the land described  as a s t r a t a l o t  39 in  the s t r a t a plan. The  "bundle o f r i g h t s comprising  above i n c l u d e s unit  in.the  Columbia  the units are held  owners a r e t e n a n t s  For  then the  as mentioned  i n common i n r e s p e c t  may e x i s t  room w i t h  such  cases  could  rise  floors.  be r e s t r i c t e d  In B r i t i s h  the unit  o f t h e common  of limited high  while  common  property. 41  property.  condominium has a  a w a s h i n g machine and d r y e r  facilities  respective  earlier.  i n f e e simple  example where a r e s i d e n t i a l  laundry  quoted  t h e i n t e r e s t and r i g h t s o f t h e owner o f t h e  common p r o p e r t y  However, t h e r e  ownership"  on e v e r y  floor  to the residents of  The visions  "bundle  of rights"  i s also  of the enabling l e g i s l a t i o n  Columbia  under which,  f o r example, bylaws p r o v i d e  management,  subject to the pro-  f o r the  in British  control,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , u s e and e n j o y m e n t o f t h e s t r a t a 42  lots  and common p r o p e r t y .  essence by  a new f o r m  legislation,  of real  Perhaps  i t c a n be s a i d  that i n  p r o p e r t y ownership has been  created  a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f an e s t a t e i n f e e s i m p l e 43  w h i c h c o u l d p e r h a p s be c a l l e d  an " e s t a t e i n c o n d o m i n i u m , "  e v e n t h o u g h common l a w h a s e v o l v e d U  can  4-  A  4  a rule  t h a t no new e s t a t e s  4  be c r e a t e d .  CONDOMINIUMS AND CONTINUING  It  i s necessary  characteristics relate  this  at this  COOPERATIVES  point having  described the  o f c o n d o m i n i u m s and t h e c o n d o m i n i u m c o n c e p t t o  t o , and d i s t i n g u i s h  cooperative housing,  between, o t h e r  s i n c e condominiums  fall  forms o f  generally into  45 that  category. Cooperative  housing  . . . c o n s i s t s b a s i c a l l y o f people g e t t i n g together t o p r o v i d e h o u s i n g f o r t h e m s e l v e s by j o i n t a c t i o n i n e i t h e r b u i l d i n g o r f i n a n c i n g o r management and m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e i r h o u s i n g u n i t s . 46 T h e r e a r e two t y p e s  of cooperative housing  the Continuing Cooperative  or Cooperative  in British  Columbia,  i n P e r p e t u i t y and  47 the T i t l e continuing  Cooperative  o r Condominium.  T h e r e a r e a few  cooperative projects i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  The  Western Cooperative Housing Society was incorporated i n 1966 and i t s f i r s t project p a r t i a l l y completed i n 1969. two other  Since then  projects have started construction while four more  are under consideration, only one of which is i n the c i t y of Vancouver, and together with the Simon Fraser University Students Cooperative constitutes  the t o t a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  although the Carpenter's Union i s considering cooperative 48 housing projects for xts members. In contrast, 49 housing companies which w i l l be discussed below, were established 49 between 1958-1970 i n Vancouver alone. In B r i t i s h Columbia continuing cooperatives are r e g i s tered as corporations under the Cooperative Associations 50 Act, Act.  while condominiums are subject to the Strata T i t l e s The Cooperative Associations Act, which gives a general  description of cooperative enterprise and the general p r i n c i p l e s under.which i t i s to be organised, operated and 51 administered,  subjects a l l types of cooperatives,  i.e.  pro-  d u c e r ' s , consumer's, housing and b u i l d i n g cooperatives except 52 c r e d i t unions ative"  and condominiums to i t s p r o v i s i o n s .  "Cooper-  insurance companies i n B r i t i s h Columbia are i n fact  registered under the Companies Act or are subject to Federal jurisdiction.  5 3  If l e g i s l a t i o n can be viewed as a vehicle for implement i n g P r o v i n c i a l Government p o l i c y then i t i s clear that one form of cooperative, i . e .  the t i t l e cooperative or condominium  subject either uing but  to as  a  more  i s  included  credit In  a  tenant  of  occupant  the  apartment the  over  the  is  a  to  property  his  a l l  and  i t  alone,  is  with  greater  favour  than  not  subject  to  is  other  types  cooperative  association shareholder  the is  the  c o n t i n -  separate  act  cooperatives  the  which i n  the  shareholder.  that  l a n d l o r d ' s  of  a  viewed  excluding  condominiums.  continuing  The  to  with  concerning  or  which  unions a  act  complex  cooperative,  only  is  s p e c i a l  of  a  action,  the  owns  the  of  land  association  The  lessee  occupant  extent  has of  and  b u i l d i n g . leases  r e l a t i o n s h i p  some  his  apartment  which  occupant's  who  an  control  influence  depend-  54 ing in  partly B r i t i s h  are a  on  owned  i n  Annual  under  the  size  Columbia, fee  continuing  the  the  of  as  the  mentioned  simple.  P r o v i n c i a l  occupant  Grant  of  New-Home  In  e a r l i e r ,  However,  cooperative  Home-owner  corporation.  both  a  the  a  condominium  strata  strata  lot  lessee  are  e n t i t l e d  p . a .  and  to  $170  B u i l d i n g  lots owner  and  to  assistance  Assistance  Act  (renamed  55 the of the i t  P r o v i n c i a l a  continuing common  is  the  one  cooperative unlike  association  that  the  blanket  mortgages  A c q u i s i t i o n  property,  In is  Home  are  prospective  mortgaging  are  of  a  whereas  negotiated  which  can  not  tenants  arrange  lot  the  i n  land  is  a an  The  i n  owners and  continuing  mortgage  owner  i n  strata owns  1970).  Act  common who  are,  cooperative  advantage to  of and  b u i l d i n g s .  condominium  financing  occupants  s u i t  there  i n d i v i d u a l  since his  a needs.  one of the most e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of ownership of  a  56 fee simple estate. holder defaults  If a continuing cooperative  on his share of mortgage payments the  tion as a whole, i . e .  associa-  the other shareholders, to prevent  foreclosure, would between them have to assume the share.  share-  defaulter's  This s i t u a t i o n would not arise i n a condominium except  as regards an owner's share of common expenses. Although during the economic depression of the 1930's nearly a l l the housing cooperatives  i n the United States  57 failed i n Canada this was not the case for i t was not u n t i l 1938 that the f i r s t continuing cooperative was established 58 in Sydney, N.S.  However, j o i n t l i a b i l i t y , i n a b i l i t y to  arrange i n d i v i d u a l mortgages  and the lack of an estate i n fee  simple are the major disadvantages of continuing cooperatives 59 v i s a v i s condominiums. A condominium s t r a t a l o t i s 60 assessed and taxed separately  whereas a continuing cooperati  i s assessed and taxed as an a s s o c i a t i o n , and such blanket assessment  could r e s u l t i n blanket l i e n s upon f a i l u r e to pay  even i f such f a i l u r e i s the r e s u l t of only one shareholder being unable to pay his share. If a condominium owner wishes to s e l l h i s s t r a t a he should receive the market p r i c e , and thus may benefit a c a p i t a l gain or suffer  a capital loss.  lot from  In a continuing  cooperative the shareholder's shares i n the association may  (a)  be s o l d a t t h e i r  then r e s e l l s shareholder  market v a l u e  them t o t h e n e x t may  receive  percentage of the value  t o the a s s o c i a t i o n  occupant or  the par value  plus  which  (b) t h e v e n d i n g a certain fixed  of the shares during  the period  they  61 were h e l d  by h i m .  cooperative may  shares  be much e a s i e r  ation  than  to s e l l  short  notice  One a d v a n t a g e  the  to return  it  cooperative  enacts.  t o move a r i s e s . agent's  association  committee  for  Act i n detail  In a d d i t i o n  and l e g a l  down  such  through  has been c o n s i d e r e d  that  i n the Cooperative f o r condominiums  i s b o u n d by t h e F i r s t Act.  at  fees.  i s administered  as i s t h e c a s e  of the Strata T i t l e s  cooperatives  associ-  and t h e b y l a w s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s  where t h e s t r a t a c o r p o r a t i o n Schedules  shares t o a cooperative  These a r e n o t l a i d  Associations  continuing  t o a d v a n t a g e p r i v a t e l y owned p r o p e r t y  i f t h e need  management  of  over the s a l e o f a s t r a t a l o t i s t h a t i t  a t r a n s f e r does n o t i n v o l v e A  of a sale  This  lack  and S e c o n d  of direction  a s h o r t c o m i n g by  C o n s t a n t i n u who h a s s t a t e d ; Housing cooperatives i n v o l v e complexities of r e a l e s t a t e p r o p e r t y t a x a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s h a r i n g o f c o s t s w h i c h a r e n o t common t o o t h e r t y p e s of c o o p e r a t i v e s . A c l e a r and d e t a i l e d d e f i n i t i o n o f these complexities i s necessary. T h i s would a l s o a i d f u l l understanding o f the l e g a l nature o f these c o o p e r a t i v e s . 62 This Titles  Act.  n e e d h a s b e e n met f o r c o n d o m i n i u m s by t h e S t r a t a The a u t h o r q u o t e d  a b o v e goes on t o recommend:  THAT TO THE B R I T I S H COLUMBIA STATUTES BE ADDED AN ACT WHICH WILL DEFINE THE REGULATIONS, DESCRIBE THE PROCEDURES, THE RIGHTS, DUTIES AND BYLAWS INVOLVED IN THE FORMATION AND OPERATION OF A HOUSING COOPERATIVE PROJECT. or  alternatively  THAT TO THE E X I S T I N G COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATIONS ACT OF THE B.C. STATUTES-, A SECTION BE ADDED WHICH WILL DEFINE AND DESCRIBE THE LEGAL S P E C I F I C A T I O N S EXCLUSIVE TO HOUSING COOPERATIVES . . . . (3: s u c h as c i t y b y - l a w s and t a x a t i o n on l a n d and i m p r o v e m e n t s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e p r o j e c t owned by an a s s o c i a t i o n ) 63 3  64 Under t h e Vancouver C h a r t e r is  19 y e a r s  o f age, a B r i t i s h  owner o f any r e a l is as  property  a strata  s u b j e c t and who  held  i n h i s own  l o t owner  who  i s "the r e g i s t e r e d  right  i n the c i t y "  e n t i t l e d t o h a v e h i s name e n t e r e d on t h e l i s t o f e l e c t o r s an owner e l e c t o r . The s h a r e h o l d e r o c c u p a n t o f a c o o p e r a t i v e  apartment list  i s also entitled  of owner-electors  t o h a v e h i s name e n t e r e d  i f he i s o f 19 y e a r s  on t h e  o f age and a  65 B r i t i s h s u b j e c t , and: (i)  t h e p r i n c i p a l l e s s e e o f a s u i t e u s e d s o l e l y as a d w e l l i n g , i n a b u i l d i n g o f which a c o r p o r a t i o n i s t h e r e g i s t e r e d owner; p r o v i d e d (A) s u c h c o r p o r a t i o n o p e r a t e s on a n o n - p r o f i t b a s i s ; and (B) t h e memorandum o f a s s o c i a t i o n o f s u c h a c o r p o r a t i o n s t i p u l a t e s t h a t s u c h b u i l d i n g s h a l l be owned and o p e r a t e d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f o c c u p a n t s h a r e h o l d e r s o n l y ; and (C) s u c h p r i n c i p a l l e s s e e i s t h e h o l d e r o f s h a r e s i n the c o r p o r a t i o n approximately e q u i v a l e n t i n value t o the c a p i t a l cost of the s u i t e . . .  66 Under the M u n i c i p a l A c t a Canadian  citizen  or other  a strata  British  l o t owner i f he i s  s u b j e c t o,. 19 y e a r s  o f age  67 and is  "who  i s t h e owner o f r e a l  entitled  property  t o h a v e h i s name e n t e r e d  i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y "  on t h e l i s t  of electors  as  68 continuing cooperative: . . . who occupies with his household as his ordinary residence a suite that i s owned by a corporation i n which he holds c a p i t a l stock equivalent in value to the c a p i t a l value of the suite and that i s an owneroccupied apartment b u i l d i n g as defined i n the Provinc i a l Home-owner Grant Act; i s e n t i t l e d to have his name entered on the l i s t of electots as an owner-elector.  The P r o v i n c i a l Home-owner Grant Act  does not i n fact define an "owner-occupied apartment b u i l d i n g " 69 merely defining an "owner-occupied b u i l d i n g " as follows: owner-occupied b u i l d i n g " means a parcel of land (a) the owner of which i s a corporation the memorandom of association of which stipulates that any b u i l d i n g or buildings owned or operated by the corporation s h a l l be owned and operated exclusively for the benefit of sharholders i n the corporation who are occupants of the b u i l d i n g or b u i l d i n g s ; and (b) that i s shown as a separate taxable parcel on a taxation r o l l for the current year prepared under the Taxation Act or on a real-property tax r o l l for the current year prepared by the C o l l e c t o r of a municipality; and (c) that has a b u i l d i n g or buildings i n which there i s an e l i g i b l e apartment residence. Under both the Vancouver Charter and the Municipal Act there are three classes and r e s i d e n t - e l e c t o r s ,  of e l e c t o r s : - owner,-,  and the significance  tenant,-,  of being an  owner-  elector in the C i t y of Vancouver i s that only the ownerelectors may vote on by-laws r e q u i r i n g the assent of t h i s of e l e c t o r ,  that i s to say, on c e r t a i n by-laws  class  authorizing  70 Council to borrow money. S i m i l a r l y under the Municipal Act c e r t a i n by-laws authorizing a council to borrow money r e quire the assent of only the  owner-electors.  Since uses,  i n  engaged such  a  the i n  condominium case  a  of  a  strata  business  corporation  projects  for  would  lot  p r o f i t have  can  include  owner  being  then  one  under  vote  a a  be  of  corporation  the  and  mixture  Municipal  e n t i t l e d  Act  to  have 7  i t s  name  entered  It  is  u n l i k e l y  in  an  apartment  s i m i l a r  e n t i t l e d  as  an  real  vote  of  Cooperative Charter  in  a  a a  the  occupied  as  property  and  the  an  lot  not  operated  being  a  were i t  owner-elector.  would  be  but  even  an  because  i t  a  under a be  i t  the  i n  a be  would  not  be  of  the  Vancouver could  registered  the  a  not  lessee  corporation being  i f  would  corporation a  operated  apartment  corporation  would  not  i n  merely  business  vote,  an  cooperative  S i m i l a r l y  since  as  corporation  owner-elector  owner  whereas  could  electors  business  b u i l d i n g ,  owner-elector  of  continuing  Association.  strata  cooperative  l i s t  business  cooperative  to  owner  the  that  business  continuing  the  on  in  a  vote  owner  of  continuing  registered  owner  73 of  r e a l  property.  CONDOMINIUMS  In p r i n c i p l e s  AND  Canada  LIMITED  there  s i m i l a r  to  a  are  LIABILITY  projects  condominium.  HOUSING  which  are  COMPANIES  organised  Constantinu  on  refers  to  74 two  such  projects  which  involve  the  B r i t i s h  Columbia  Teachers  75 Federation continuing  (BCTF)  but  cooperatives  which and  are  are  in  fact  more  incorporated  s i m i l a r  as  to  limited  7 6 l i a b i l i t y  companies  jects  company  the  under  owns  the  the  Companies  land,  Act.  building(s)  In and  such  pro-  f a c i l i t i e s  and  l e a s e s the apartments t o the s h a r e h o l d i n g  occupant  lessees. Originally  t h e BCTF C o o p e r a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n (BCTF  77 Coop)  bought  construction was  then  which  t h e l a n d and c o n t r a c t e d w i t h  of the b u i l d i n g  s e t up and was  then  sold  and f a c i l i t i e s .  completely  the shares  t h e hands o f t h e o c c u p a n t  BCTF Coop as managers to  be s o l d  was  as  a r e from  a limited  and t o d a y  liability  company  a p a r t m e n t s t o be r e f l e c t e d  only  about  and a l i m i t e d  voting rights.  h o l d e r h a s one v o t e holding while  more  lessees.  entirely  the shares  demand  from  were them  20 p e r c e n t o f t h e  The c h o i c e t o i n c o r p o r a t e  the d i f f e r e n t  a cooperative values  i n the v o t i n g r i g h t s  liability  was  of the of the  between a c o n t i n u i n g housing  company  r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e amount  the value  than  share-  of h i s share-  t h e s h a r e h o l d e r s have v o t i n g powers of their  shareholding.  t h e l e s s e e o f a two b e d r o o m a p a r t m e n t w i l l shares  arises  In a c o n t i n u i n g c o o p e r a t i v e each  i n a company  commensurate w i t h  to  Coop  lessees.  cooperative  stance  Company  r e t a i n e d the  r a t h e r than  Perhaps t h e main d i f f e r e n c e  over  passed  Originally  that profession.  due t o t h e d e s i r e t o e n a b l e  occupant  company  occupant  l e s s e e s who  for a fee.  A Housing  by t h e BCTF  only to teachers but s u f f i c i e n t  not forthcoming  occupants  owned  t o the incoming  Thus t h e o w n e r s h i p o f t h e h o u s i n g into  a builder for  For i n subscribe  the l e s s e e of a bachelor apartment,  since  the  value  voting  of  the  apartments d i f f e r .  power b e a r s  Strata Titles In  Act  the  a similarity which  case of  BCTF Coop t h e r e  the  share  are  resulting  i s as  The  follows.  total  in a  the  the  area  occupiers  are  The  assessed  $x  per  to  special  the  particular  total  monthly  sq.  ft.  f e e t of  This  is  square  This the  figure is  particular  particular  management. handled  separately  where m o n t h l y m a i n t e n a n c e and  payments h a v e b e e n m i x e d up l e s s e e s due  the  amount t h e  mortgage repayments are  have been cases  from a  building in  i n square  the  b u i l d i n g and  method o f e s t a b l i s h i n g  First  i n the  i n the  by  the  mortgage repayments.  area  f i g u r e of  apartments which r e s u l t s  the  m o r t g a g e on  the  V.  c o m p a n i e s managed by  for taxation.  the  t h e n m u l t i p l i e d by  there  two  calculated excluding  t h e n d i v i d e d by feet  the  i n Chapter  of monthly expenses r e c o v e r a b l e  apartment occupant costs  t o t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d under  i s discussed  i s a blanket  company i s a s s e s s e d  T h i s method o f a s c r i b i n g  but  mortgage  r e s u l t i n g ^ i n e x t r a expense assessments necessary  to  t o make  up  78 the  losses  of being  sustained  i n the  a lessee rather  than  m o r t g a g e s and  t a x a t i o n are  in  with  connection  However one advantages of being lessee not  important  an  the  continuing  a strata  The  owner as  same as  disadvantages  regards  those  blanket  discussed  earlier  cooperatives.  p o i n t remains  in a continuing  that  confusion.  t o be  mentioned.  l o t owner r a t h e r  cooperative  t o some p e o p l e  t h a n an  o r company a r e and  i n any  The occupant  perhaps  case the  share-  holding  l e s s e e s o f such  Columbia  can vote  c o o p e r a t i v e s and c o m p a n i e s  as o w n e r - e l e c t o r s  owner g r a n t and home a c q u i s i t i o n earlier. atives  Nevertheless  o r companies  condominiums r e g i s t e r e d cases paid to the  this  and r e c e i v e t h e home-  g r a n t o r l o a n as m e n t i o n e d  the p o s s i b i l i t y  finding  c o u l d o n l y be done a f t e r  to that  plan.  perhaps  to convert to Act.  I n some  w o u l d want t o go  and r e g i s t r a t i o n o f  ownership  a l l i t s legal  and s e p a r a t e mortgages,  cooper-  t h e mortgage has been  the occupants  I f they d i d t h e i r  of f e e simple with  implications  o f such  under the S t r a t a T i t l e s  t h e t r o u b l e and e x p e n s e o f a s u r v e y strata  exists  i t advantageous  o f f , even assuming t h a t  in British  and  would  convert  financial  i f required, could  be n e g o t i a t e d b u t a m o r t g a g e e w o u l d h a r d l y c o n v e r t  a b l a n k e t mortgage i n t o ,  s a y , 50 s e p a r a t e m o r t g a g e s w i t h  much  enthusiasm. The  Honourable Grace  McCarthy, M i n i s t e r without  Port-  79 folxo,  has s t a t e d :  I can see a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y i n e x i s t i n g apartment b l o c k s and g a r d e n a p a r t m e n t s w h i c h a r e now b e i n g r e n t e d becoming e i t h e r s u b d i v i d e d under t h e S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t o r i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s s o l d t o members o f a cooperative. I n t h i s c a s e , t h e new P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l most l i k e l y be u s e d . U n d e r t h e new P r o v i n c i a l Home A c q u i s i t i o n s A c t a G r a n t o f up t o $500 o r a s e c o n d m o r t g a g e l o a n (on v e r y e a s y t e r m s ) o f up t o 42,500 i s a v a i l a b l y t o t e n a n t s who h a v e b e e n r e n t i n g f o r two y e a r s t o p u r c h a s e an o l d e r h o u s i n g unit.  . . . I p r e d i c t t h a t many e x i s t i n g a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s be s u b d i v i d e d and many p e o p l e who p r e f e r t o l i v e i n a p a r t m e n t w i l l be a b l e t o buy a s u i t e w i t h t h e h e l p the proposed l e g i s l a t i o n . . .  will an of  T h i s s u b d i v i s i o n of o l d e r apartment b l o c k s i s m e r e l y one s p e c i a l way o f u s i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t and t h e o l d e r p r e m i s e s p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Home A c q u i s i t i o n s A c t . It  r e m a i n s t o be  seen whether c o n t i n u i n g  cooperatives  81 and  housing  the  passage  suppose tives  companies w i l l of  the  convert  Strata Titles  t o condominiums but  Act  i t seems r e s o n a b l e  t h a t more c o n d o m i n i u m s , r a t h e r  or  limited  liability  housing  than continuing  companies, w i l l  since  to coopera-  be  established. Since with  the  whereas  Voters from  19 66  only  19 5 8--when t h e  a period  panies  r e g i s t e r e d with  of  Thus t h e  ative,  and  existence may  12  year:;, the  the  least  manifestation  of  which  because of  their  number and  alternative to  h a v e b e e n an continuing  the  first  companies,  continuing  one  important  British  continuing  stability,  a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r i n the  cooperatives.  in  com-  49.  i n only  appeared  before  housing  number o f h o u s i n g  these housing  years  an  such  R e g i s t r a t i o n was  ten  of  of  Hall  owner-electors—until  cooperatives,  82 of  lessees  total  Voters  from c o n t i n u i n g  at Vancouver C i t y  t o v o t e as  i . e . v o t i n g power, and  Columbia a t  companies have r e g i s t e r e d  occupant  entitled  1970,  which d i f f e r  new  R e g i s t r a t i o n Department  c o m p a n i e s were f i r s t  point,  three  cooper-  suggest  cooperatives. retarded  the This  development  H a v i n g d e s c r i b e d t h e two t y p e s i.e.  continuing cooperatives  liability  housing  projects  organised  incorporated rests ture  companies mention  i s made i n p a s s i n g o f  on t h e same p r i n c i p l e s  i n t h e common  law.  cooperatives  and c o n d o m i n i u m s a s w e l l a s l i m i t e d  by t h e S t r a t a T i t l e s  as "common  of housing  as a c o n d o m i n i u m  A c t b u t whose l e g a l  These a r e r e f e r r e d  to i n the  law condominiums" o r " n o n - s t a t u t o r y  COMMON LAW CONDOMINIUMS FOR  foundation litera-  condominiums.  AND THE NEED  ENABLING L E G I S L A T I O N  It is possible to have a kind of condominium project at common law without enabling legislation, though whether or not i t can be truly., called a condominium depends on the d e f i n i t i o n used. 83 British, projects  i s mentioned  do  not manifest  to  those  positive lots  i n Chapter  tort  experience  I I and s u c h  For instance, separate  t a x a t i o n o f each  of the s t r a t a  on t h e u s e o f t h e p r o j e c t .  of strata  corporation enacting  84 restrictions  l o t separately,  a system o f e n f o r c i n g  c o v e n a n t s as between remote p u r c h a s e r s  and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  implicitly  Act or similar  t o mortgage each s t r a t a  and c o n t r a c t l i a b i l i t y ,  i n such  projects usually  that appertain  under t h e S t r a t a T i t l e s  l o t , the a b i l i t y  limited  and C a n a d i a n  characteristics  registered  legislation. strata  American  In f a c t , many o f the e s s e n t i a l elements o f the condominium, such as t h e a b i l i t y o f the u n i t owners t o e n f o r c e p o s i t i v e covenants a g a i n s t other u n i t owners and a g a i n s t the owner's a s s o c i a t i o n , the a b i l i t y o f the owner's a s s o c i a t i o n t o e n f o r c e t h e same p o s i t i v e covenants a g a i n s t the u n i t owners, t h e l i m i t a t i o n o f l i a b i l i t y a g a i n s t each u n i t owner as o c c u p i e r o f t h e common p r o p e r t y , t h e r i g h t t o separate r e a l t y tax assessment and separate t a x a t i o n and the a b i l i t y t o mortgage s e p a r a t e l y can only be f u l l y and adequately achieved w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f legislation. Another author has s t a t e d f u r t h e r reasons f o r t h e enactment o f e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n : s a f e r f o r the l e n d e r , purchaser  t o render  t h e condominium  and other p a r t i e s and t o permit  a c e r t a i n u n i f o r m i t y which w i l l remove the mysterious of condominium ownership from lawyers,  developers,  nature  l e n d e r s and  p r o s p e c t i v e home-owners. Having d i s c u s s e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between condominiums and  continuing cooperatives,  panies  limited  liability  housing  and the n e c e s s i t y f o r condominium e n a b l i n g  com-  legislation  there remains one more s i m i l a r o r g a n i s a t i o n which should be considered aid  t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t from a condominium.  i nclarifying  necessary  This  will  f u r t h e r the concept o f condominium and i s  because f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e w i l l be made t o i t i n 8 7  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f zoning  t o which i t i s r e l a t e d  which f o l l o w s  i n Chapter V I . CONDOMINIUMS AND PLANNED UNIT DEVELOPMENTS WITH A HOME OWNER'S ASSOCIATION There e x i s t i n the U n i t e d Homes A s s o c i a t i o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n  States organisations  called  w i t h Planned U n i t Developments  w h i c h have been d e f i n e d  as  follows:  A planned u n i t development i s a r e s i d e n t i a l land subd i v i s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l l y owned homes w i t h n e i g h b o r h o o d owned open a r e a s and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . It i s a r e l a t i v e l y new a p p r o a c h t o a t i m e p r o v e n c o n c e p t o f r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d use. B a s i c a l l y i t i n c o r p o r a t e s a v a r i a t i o n of the " v i l l a g e square" i d e a . 90 and  can  be  traced  back c o n c e p t u a l l y 91 A Homes A s s o c i a t i o n :  to medieval  England.  . . . i s an i n c o r p o r a t e d n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n o p e r a t i n g under r e c o r d e d l a n d agreements through which (a) e a c h l o t owner i n a d e s c r i b e d l a n d a r e a i s automat i c a l l y a member and (b) e a c h l o t i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y s u b j e c t to a charge f o r a p r o p o r t i o n a t e share of the e x p e n s e s o f t h e homes a s s o c i a t i o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s , s u c h as common p r o p e r t y m a i n t e n a n c e . In functions  light of  of  the  earlier  condominiums the  a homes a s s o c i a t i o n c a n condominium.  be  d i s c u s s i o n of  forms  planned u n i t development  s e e n t o be  It i s in fact  the  very  s i m i l a r to  a f o r m o f common law  and with  a  condominium  92 and  one  its  similarity  choice in  to  a statutory  between o r g a n i s i n g  family  dwellings  s i n g l e p a r c e l of 93  various of  been e s t a b l i s h e d  c a s e s where d e v e l o p m e n t  single a  has  the  natures. advantages  50  years.  condominium t h e r e  a condominium or takes the  with  land with A recent and  f o r over  fee  associated  of  exists a  free-standing  ownership b u i l t  on  common f a c i l i t i e s  analysis, published  disadvantages  the  of  a homes a s s o c i a t i o n  form of  simple  Because  in  of  1969,  condominium  form  o f o r g a n i s a t i o n i n s u c h c a s e s compared t o t h e home owners' a s s o c i a t i o n came t o no f i r m g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n as t o w h i c h 94 f o r m i s p r e s e n t l y more a d v a n t a g e o u s . T h i s , however,  contrasts  w i t h an o p i n i o n  e x p r e s s e d i n 1964  that:  I n t h e s i n g l e - f a m i l y home c o n t e x t — w h e t h e r d e t a c h e d , s e m i - d e t a c h e d , o r t o w n h o u s e s , t h e homes a s s o c i a t i o n i s a s u p e r i o r f o r m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t o t h e condominium.9 5 The in  1964  conclusion  was  perhaps  condominium development  terms.  The  "lateral"  and  c o n d o m i n i u m as t h e  project  based  on  inadequate experience  is invalid  i n such  categorical  form of o r g a n i s a t i o n  i s experiencing  for a  a s u b s t a n t i a l measure  of 96  popularity  as  The C a n a d a and to Act  "detached-house  author  f o u n d no  as m e n t i o n e d  statutory  condominiums" i n F l o r i d a .  examples  previously  will  condominiums r e g i s t e r e d  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  of such developments confine  under  his  in  attention  the S t r a t a  Titles  1.  T h e s e two t e r m s i . e . " j o i n t o w n e r s h i p " and are used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n t h i s paper.  2.  R o s c o e Pound, J u r i s p r u d e n c e , ( V o l . 5, 1 9 5 9 ) , p p . 162, 163 c i t e d i n F e r r e r and S t e c h e r , op. c i t . , p . 14.  3.  Gen. G r i v a s , Memoirs o f G e n e r a l G r i v a s , Longmans, 1964) , p . 1"8~5~.  4.  Ferrer  5.  e . g . a r t i c l e s i n C a n a d i a n Homes, ( F e b r u a r y 1969 and J u n e 1 9 7 0 ) ; H a b i t a t , ( V o l . X I I , No. 4-5, 1 9 6 9 ) ; A m e r i c a n Homes, ( J a n u a r y 1 9 7 0 ) ; V a n c o u v e r L i f e , ( V o l . 17, No. 12, J u n e 1 9 6 9 ) ; R i s k , "Condominiums and C a n a d a , " U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Law J o u r n a l , ( V o l . 18, No. 1, 196~8l and R o s e n b e r g , o p . c i t . , t o name a few f a i r l y r e c e n t a r t i c l e s and b o o k s .  6.  C l a u d e M o r i n , op_. c i t . , are quoted.  7.  Ibid.,  8.  Report of the Task F o r c e ,  9.  M o r i n , op_. c i t . , p .  and S t e c h e r ,  p.  op.  cit.,  Chapter  "co-ownership"  (London:  4.  p . 2, where r e s t r i c t i v e  definitions  4. op_. c i t . , p .  17.  4.  10.  R o y a l Bank o f C a n a d a , no d a t e .  11.  A d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r Mary H i l l Homes i n P o r t C o q u i t l a m , B.C. s e e n by t h e a u t h o r d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f 1970.  12.  CE. 2 H  o  m  e  Mortgage  M a t t e r s , V o l . 2, No.  Ramsey, "Condominium: The New T i t l e G u a r a n t y Co., 1961.  Look  4,  i n Coops,"  13.  S p a h n , ( T r a n s c r i p t ) , The E m e r g i n g P r o f i l e o f Condominium , Condominium I n s t i t u t e , T h i r d A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e ^ ( B e r k l e y , C a l i f o r n i a : 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 12.  14.  M o r i n , op_. c i t . ,  1  5  •  p.  2.  R e p o r t o f O n t a r i o Law R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n on t h e Law o f Condominium"! ( P r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o , D e p a r t m e n t o f tn~e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 4.  16.  R.B.  Dennison  applications  (Vol. XII,  17. 18.  Beaton,  19.  20.  op_.  4-5,  e.g.  in  1969),  Press  21.  c i t .  p.  at  Release,  Condominium,"  Columbia,  Romney  and  and  r e a l  estate No.  23.  The  «  26. 27.  Sun,  Vancouver,  American  Vancouver, Star,  Davidson,  29.  Ontario  30.  Morin,  31.  W.K.  32.  op.  Law op_.  Kerr, John  Ferrer  from  c i t . ,  Reform c i t .  "Resort  4-5,  3.  Dawson,  of  the  Province  Vancouver  Condominiums:  for  1969).  June  r e l a x a t i o n , Connecticut  L i f e ,  Sunday,  (Vol.  24  ,  1968),  June  B . C . ,  Sunday,  Section, Woman's  p.  20.  p.  Law  17,  January  the  r e t i r e -  No.  1970  12,  -  see  Day  Commission,  p.  January  December quoted  op.  1970. 1969.  i n  c i t . ,  Statutory  (May op.  1963),  c i t . ,  F r a n k S. Sengstock and Mary A Goal for a l l Americans,"  (46:3:1969), p . 404.  24  Reader's  p.  5.  4.  Review,  Stecher,  6  9.  p.  B - l .  "Condominium,  Law  and  1,  1970),  (July,  28.  Isabel  investment,"  Travel  Chandler;  Digest,  St.  XII,  1970.  Rohan,  (17:12:  The  Montreal  Hon.  Government  July  B . C . ,  L i f e ,  J u l i e  (Vol.  Homes.  Vancouver Sun,  the  p r e s c r i p t i o n  (Vol.  2,  of  8  P . J .  industry's  "Condo . . . what?" J u n e 1968), p p . 6-9.  4  Habitat,  Habitat, (Vol. X I I , No. see Beaton, OJO. c i t . , p.  P o r t f o l i o ,  22.  2  multiples  Habitat,  3.  Office  Without  Review,  so  "Les  condominium,"  V i c t o r i a , B.C. see p. 33 a n d i n F l o r i d a  housing ment  ,  look  B r i t i s h  K.B.  Dessaulles,  du  1969), p p . 26-45.  Minister of  Pierre  N o . 4-5, 1969), p p . 59-60.  "Developers  No.  and  practique  p.  Implementation," p.  1239  and  see  also  2.  C. Sengstock, "Homeownership; J o u r n a l of Urban Law,  a l -  33.  Ibid.,  n . 159.  34.  Strata Titles  35.  S e n g s t o c k and S e n g s t o c k ,  36.  For the various kinds  37.  Strata Titles  38.  J.H.R. R o b e r t s o n p. 17-3.  39.  L a n d R e g i s t r y A c t , R.S.B.C., 1960, c . 208, 1, F o r m F .  40.  Strata Titles  41.  M o r i n , ojo. c i t . , p . 4 and S t r a t a T i t l e s 1966, c . 46, F i r s t S c h e d u l e , 3 ( f ) .  42.  S t r a t a T i t l e s A c t , S.B.C., 1966, c . 46, s . 13(1) and (2) and F i r s t and S e c o n d S c h e d u l e s .  43.  T h i s p h r a s e was u s e d b y J o h n G e i s l e r i n " P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n , " 4-5, H a b i t a t , X I I , 1969, p p . 6, 12.  4 4.  See A p p e n d i x T.  45.  Constantinu,  46.  Ibid.,  p . 7.  47.  Ibid.,  p p . 9-11.  48.  I b i d . , p p . 31-33 and t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n , 5 A u g u s t 1970. The W e s t e r n C o o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g S o c i e t y i s now d e f u n c t . A U n i t e d C o o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g S o c i e t y was i n c o r p o r a t e d on 6 M a r c h 1970. See C h a p t e r V I .  49.  Mr. H a r v e y o f t h e V o t e r s ' R e g i s t r a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t a t V a n c o u v e r C i t y H a l l , t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n 20 May 1970.  50.  Cooperative  51.  Constantinu,  52.  C r e d i t Unions A c t ,  A c t , S.B.C. 1966, c . 46, 3 . 4 . ( l ) ( d ) . op_. c i t . , p . 405.  o f e s t a t e s e e A p p e n d i x C.  A c t , op_. c i t . , c . 46, s . 3 ( 1 ) . i n R o s e n b e r g , op_. c i t . , A p p e n d i x C,  Schedule  A c t , S.B.C., 1966, c . 46, s . 5 ( 1 ) . A c t S.B.C.  ojo. c i t . , p p . 9-11.  A s s o c i a t i o n Act, R.S.B.C, OJO. c i t . , p . 62. S.B.C,  1961, c . 14.  1960, c . 77.  53.  I n f o r m a t i o n from C o o p e r a t i v e Union o f Canada, Vancouver, B.C., telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n on 15th August 1970.  54.  Sengstock and Sengstock, op_. c i t . , p.  55.  P r o v i n c i a l Home Owner Grant A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 308 as amended and t h e P r o v i n c i a l New Home B u i l d i n g A s s i s t a n c e A c t , S.B.C., 1967, c. 39, renamed the P r o v i n c i a l Home A c q u i s i t i o n A c t S.B.C., 1970, c. 40.  56.  S c h l i t t , "Condominiums," New York Law J o u r n a l , (2:147: 1962), c i t e d by Sengstock and Sengstock, op. c i t . , p. 411,  57.  James MacDonald i n " C o o p e r a t i v e and N o n - P r o f i t Housing A Panel Discussion," The R i g h t t o Housing, op. c i t . ,  58.  Sengstock and Sengstock, o£. c i t . , p. 411, n. 185.  59.  Rosenberg, op. c i t . ,  60.  Ibid.,  61.  C o n s t a n t i n u , op_. c i t . , p. 10.  62.  I b i d . , p. 46.  63.  I b i d . , p. 73.  64.  Vancouver C h a r t e r , S.B.C.,1953,c.55;s.7  65.  Ibid,  66.  M u n i c i p a l A c t , R . S . B . C , 1960, c.  67.  Ibid.,  s. 31 ( a ) ( i ) ( A ) .  68.  Ibid.,  s. 31 ( a ) ( i ) ( B ) .  69.  P r o v i n c i a l Home Owner Grant A c t , R.S.B.C, 1960, c. s. 2.  70.  Vancouver C h a r t e r , S.B.C. 1953, c. 55, s. 184; s. s. 245; s. 267.  71.  M u n i c i p a l A c t , R.S.B.C, 1960 , c. 255, s. 247 ( b ) .  72.  Ibid.,  73.  Vancouver C h a r t e r , S.B.C, 1953, c. 55, s. 7 ( b ) .  p.  435.  p. 3-4.  13-2.  s.7 ( a ) ( i i ) ,  (A)(B)  and  (a)(1).  (C). 255.  s. 3 1 ( i i ) .  308,  242;  74.  C o n s t a n t i n u , op_. c i t . , p. 30. C o n s t a n t i n u was i n e r r o r (a) i n s t a t i n g t h a t t h e p r o j e c t s were h e l d by t h e BCTF u n d e r t h e S o c i e t i e s A c t and (b) t h e r e a r e i n f a c t n o t two b u t 49 c o m p a n i e s i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r a l o n e . I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m Mr. H a r v e y , V o t e r s R e g i s t r a t i o n , C i t y H a l l , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. and Mr. B e n t l e y , BCTF Coop, by t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n — 2 0 May 1970.  75.  i . e . Oakmont H o u s i n g  76.  Companies A c t ,  77.  The B.C.T.F. i s i n c o r p o r a t e d u n d e r t h e S o c i e t i e s . A c t , R.S.B.C. 194 8, c . 311 and t h e B.C.T.F. Coop i s i n c o r p o r a t e d u n d e r t h e C o o p e r a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n s A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, c . 77 and t h e two h o u s i n g c o m p a n i e s u n d e r t h e C o m p a n i e s A c t , . R . S . B . C . 1948 c . 58.  78.  The i n f o r m a t i o n on p r o j e c t s s u c h as t h e Oakmont H o u s i n g Co. L t d . , was o b t a i n e d f r o m Mr. B e n t l e y f r o m t h e BCTF Coop i n a s e r i e s o f t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n May  Co.  L t d . , and  R.S.B.C. 1948,  c.  Oakridge  5 8 as  Towers L t d .  amended.  1970.  79.  The Hon. G r a c e M c C a r t h y , M i n i s t e r W i t h o u t P r e s s R e l e a s e , p . 3, ( u n d a t e d — p r e s u m a b l y  80.  The Hon. G r a c e M c C a r t h y , A d d r e s s , t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , (Monday, 16 F e b r u a r y , 1970), p.  Portfolio, Summer 1970).  10.  81.  Mr.  82.  C o n s t a n t i n u , op_. c i t . , p . 8. The e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e w o u l d , i n f a c t , be a f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to the " s o c i a l c u l t u r a l " f a c t o r s mentioned.  83.  R o s e n b e r g , op.  c i t . , p.  1-3.  84.  R o s e n b e r g , op.  c i t . , p.  1-3.  85.  Ibid.,  86.  Morin,  87.  And s e e Uwe R o s s e n , Z o n i n g f o r C o m p r e h e n s i v e l y Planned Developmer.ts, u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s i n Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969) , p. 31.  Bentley  p.  o f t h e BCTF knows o f none w h i c h have done  so.  1-4.  op_. c i t . , p.  11.  88.  89.  F e d e r a l Housing A u t h o r i t y , Planned U n i t w i t h a Homes A s s o c i a t i o n (Land P l a n n i n g 6), ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : r e v i s e d e d i t i o n  Development B u l l e t i n No.  1964).  B y r o n R. Hanke, " P l a n n e d U n i t D e v e l o p m e n t and L a n d U s e Intensity," U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a Law R e v i e w ,  (3:114:1965), p . 18.  90.  U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 50, The Homes A s s o c i a t i o n Handbook, 1964, f o r e w o r d .  91.  Hanke, op_. c i t . , p p . 19-20.  92.  S t . F r a n c i s Wood, San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a c i t e d i n U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 50, o p . c i t . , forward.  93.  Schreiber,  op. c i t . , pp.  94.  I b i d . , p.  1155.  95.  B e a t o n , op_. c i t . , p . 3.  96.  Urban  Land  Institute,  1104-1162.  op_. c i t . , p . 10.  CHAPTER FEDERAL  Legislation Initiative  POLICY  as H o u s i n g P o l i c y ; The F i r s t i n Housing,  H o u s i n g A c t , 1935; Act,  IV  1919;  Federal  The Dominion  The F i r s t  National  Housing  19 3 8 a n d C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Power; Wartime  Measures; Mortgage  N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t , 1944; and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o a  Basic P r i n c i p l e s of Federal  A c t , 1945; T h e  Policy;  National  H o u s i n g Act,19 54; T h e 19 64 Amendments; Financial Policy; and F e d e r a l Federal  Federal  R e s i d e n t i a l Condominiums  P o l i c y ; Impending  Role;  Central  Conclusion.  Changes i n t h e  LEGISLATION AS  In t h i s its  chapter, F e d e r a l Housing  evolution w i l l  ground,  be  i t is felt,  residential  discussed.  can  any  c o n d o m i n i u m s be  Albert  HOUSING POLICY  Rose has  of housing  policy  policy."'"  He  and  stated  Only  Policy  per  a g a i n s t such  Federal policy  se  and  a back-  concerning  placed i n perspective.  d i s c u s s e d the problem  whether Canada i n f a c t  of the has  any  nature such  that:  . . . l e g i s l a t i o n i s not tantamount t o housing p o l i c y per se o r t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n i n t e n d e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t e n a c t i n g s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n . 2 And  added: The m a j o r e s s e n t i a l s i n C a n a d i a n h o u s i n g p o l i c y a r e l e g i s l a t i o n , f i n a n c i a l resources, responsibility f o r i n i t i a t i n g a c t i o n , and a p p r o p r i a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements. 3  Rose c o n c l u d e d  that  to maintain  that  t h e r e i s no  Federal  housing  4 policy  i s ridiculous  and  stated  further:  . . . i t i s now a p p a r e n t t h a t C a n a d a no l o n g e r s u f f e r s from a l a c k of "housing p o l i c y " , i f h o u s i n g p o l i c y i s e q u a t e d i n an s u b s t a n t i a l m e a s u r e w i t h housing l e g i s l a t i o n . 5 The but w i l l (which  author  and  resources w h i l e an  interested  i n housing  c o n s i d e r at the F e d e r a l l e v e l mainly  in fact  action)  i s , of course,  the  specifies  the  responsibility  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements.  allocated important  i n support  of housing  the  for  policy  legislation  initiating  Financial  policy  and  measure o f a government's degree  programmes, of  commitment, f l u c t u a t e and a r e so much dependent upon the whole o f government spending and p e r c e p t i o n o f n a t i o n a l ities  as w e l l as the n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  and economic s i t u a t i o n t h a t they deserve It  prior-  political  separate  treatment.  i s accepted t h a t i n i g n o r i n g t h i s aspect o f housing  a l i m i t a t i o n i s p l a c e d upon the c l a i m o f examining  policy  Federal  "housing p o l i c y " as d e f i n e d by Rose above, but i t i s f e l t t h a t n e v e r t h e l e s s the l e g i s l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n components of  housing p o l i c y can stand a p a r t f o r the purpose  Barrow equated  l e g i s l a t i o n i n s u b s t a n t i a l measure w i t h  and C o n s t a n t i n u i n examining i n B r i t i s h Columbia Rose has s t a t e d  of a n a l y s i s . policy,  housing p o l i c y and C o o p e r a t i v e s  considered only l e g i s l a t i o n . ^  Indeed  that:  Under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the a n a l y s t can do no b e t t e r than i n f e r the most important elements of n a t i o n a l housing p o l i c y from the enactment of l e g i s l a t i o n , and the encouragement or discouragement o f v a r i o u s aspects of the t o t a l n a t i o n a l housing programme. 7  THE  FIRST FEDERAL INITIATIVE IN HOUSING, 1919  The  f i r s t F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g housing was  enacted i n 1919 and i t s purpose  was t o g i v e employment t o g  ex-servicemen  r e t u r n i n g from World War I .  l i m i t e d programme, i . e . F e d e r a l Housing  The  consequent  P r o j e c t was s u c c e s s f u l  but the Government d i d not c o n s i d e r e i t h e r housing o r unemployment a proper f x e l d f o r Government a c t i o n .  9  The Federal  economic d e p r e s s i o n  Government t o a c t i n t h e f i e l d  on an u n p r e c e d e n t e d the  housing  scale.  situation  inauguration committee's  report  a n d t o make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  lenders per on  cent.  extensive  DOMINION HOUSING ACT,  defined  loans  as " a p p r o v e d  60 per cent  The i n t e r e s t  The  Housing  1935  lenders".  share  the t r a d i t i o n a l  lending  T h e maximum  loan  Government 20  at five  a t three  institu-  o f which t h e approved  and t h e F e d e r a l  r a t e was f i x e d  t h e F e d e r a l Government's  revolutionized  Federal  t o home-buyers by  r a t i o n was t o be 80 p e r c e n t ,  provided  others,  f o r "the  o f house-building."^"'"  l e d to the f i r s t  This Act authorized  - to - value  among  D o m i n i o n H o u s i n g A c t i n 1935.  THE  lenders  of housing,  A c o m m i t t e e was s e t up t o s t u d y  of a national policy  legislation—the  tional  o f t h e 1930's c a u s e d t h e  p e r c e n t and  per cent.  This Act  pattern:  I t e f f e c t e d the f o l l o w i n g changes: (1) a h i g h e r r a t i o loan; (2) s u b s i d i z e d i n t e r e s t r a t e b y Crown p a r t i c i pation i n the loan; (3) an i n i t i a l l o a n t e r m o f t e n years; (4) a c o n t r a c t o f r e n e w a l f o r a f u r t h e r t e n y e a r s a t t e r m s t o be a g r e e d upon a t t h e i n i t i a l m a t u r i t y ; (5) b l e n d e d equal m o n t h l y m o n t h l y r e p a y m e n t s o f p r i n c i p a l and i r ^ r e s t ; (6) t h e payment o f t a x e s m o n t h l y i n a d v a r .2 s o a s t o c r e a t e a t a x f u n d f o r f u t u r e t a x p a y m e n t s ; an (7) t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f minimum standards o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , subject t o o n - s i t e i n s p e c t i o n s to ensure c o m p l i a n c e . A l l o f t h e s e were d r a s t i c c h a n g e s i n t h e m o r t g a g e r e a l m a n d o p e n e d t h e g a t e s o f homeo w n e r s h i p t o many t o whom i t was p r e v i o u s l y d e n i e d . 12 The  A c t was n o t as e f f e c t i v e  especially  i n the f i e l d  a s i t was h o p e d  o f low-income  i t could  housing.  have  been,  In the  passage of  which the the  19 37  the  the  Federal  Dominion Housing Act  was  augmented  by  Home Improvement L o a n s G u a r a n t e e A c t Government c o u l d  grant  i m p r o v e m e n t o f e x i s t i n g homes.  b e e n more e f f e c t i v e  guaranteed  This Act  was  under  loans  said to  i n p r o m o t i n g h o u s e b u i l d i n g and  for have  repair  14 than the  Dominion Housing A c t  THE  The 1938  and  NATIONAL HOUSING ACT  f i r s t National  i t s p u r p o s e was  homes.  T h e r e were t h r e e  cations  of  operate  and  lenders,  the  Housing Act  to a s s i s t  conditions  terms a f f e c t i n g the  for the  means o f  limited-dividend  housing  construction  of  was  passed  in  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  I laid  down t h e  under which  low  Part  1938  (NHA)  making o f  housing  a u t h o r i t i e s and  OF  i n the  parts--Part  provided  local  itself.  qualifi-  they  loans.  new  should  Part  II  r e n t a l housing units corporations  III provided  and for  by  through  assistance  15 t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r low under the  aegis  of  the  Department  administer  the A c t ^ - - t h e  from which  i t could  1  Housing Corporation  be  cost housing.  National  s a i d the  agency  o f F i n a n c e was Housing  present  i s descended.  An  operating  created  to  Administration,  C e n t r a l Mortgage  and  CONSTITUTIONAL POWER  The background  operation fact  of the  NHA  h i g h l i g h t s the  i n Canadian housing  which  "most  important  i s undeniably  that  17 Canada i s a F e d e r a l cial  jurisdiction  Act,  Section  Provinces sidered 92:  92,  state."  as  Housing  specified  which enumerates the  have j u r i s d i c t i o n .  t o be  i n the  The  falls  within  British  North  subjects  America  over which  following subjects  relevant to housing,  Provin-  i n subsections  are  of  the con-  Section  1 8  2.  D i r e c t Taxation w i t h i n the Province R a i s i n g o f a Revenue f o r P r o v i n c i a l  8.  Municipal  I n s t i t u t i o n s i n the  Province  10.  L o c a l Works and  11.  The I n c o r p o r a t i o n Objects  13.  Property  16.  Generally a l l Matters of merely N a t u r e i n t h e P r o v i n c e . 19 Although  provision assigned  and  the  . . . .  o f Companies w i t h  Rights  i n the  Provincial  Province local  or  private  constitutional responsibility  of housing t o the  Undertakings  Civil  f o r the Purposes  to  i n d i v i d u a l s and  Provinces  by  judicial  for  f a m i l i e s has  the  been  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  20 Section has  92,  nevertheless  constructed  the  the  Federal  Government m  framework i n w h i c h P r o v i n c i a l  the  NHA  housing  21 policies and  may  Municipalities.  stitutional is are  operate,  fact  predicated indeed  the  by  the  p r o v i s i o n o f money t o  However, t h e  must be  upon l o c a l creatures  other  that Federal initiative of the  most i m p o r t a n t  policy  and  Provinces, con-  implementation  s i n c e the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 22 Provinces, t h i s means t h a t  only with in  Provincial  a Federal  permission  can a M u n i c i p a l i t y p a r t i c i p a t e  programme, by v i r t u e o f P r o v i n c i a l  legislation  23 enabling  t h e s i g n i n g o f agreements.  Housing A c t i s t h e enabling Province  In B r i t i s h  legislation  t o draw up a g r e e m e n t s w i t h  Columbia the  authorizing the  the Federal  and M u n i c i p a l  Governments f o r t h e purpose o f c o n s t r u c t i n g F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c housing  p r o j e c t s and u n d e r t a k i n g  urban renewal  projects  24 and  sharing It  participate  t h e c o s t s o f such p r o j e c t s . i s because l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e i s necessary  to  i n Federal  I of the  19 3 8 NHA was u s e d fact  although  extensively, nevertheless  that negligible  would  programmes t h a t  u s e was made o f P a r t s  seem t h a t p r o v i n c i a l  and m u n i c i p a l  Part  from  " . . . the  I I and I I I ,  i t  g o v e r n m e n t s were  25 indifferent  to the f a c i l i t i e s  which the A c t o f f e r e d . "  WARTIME MEASURES During occurred  with  mobilised,  t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War t h e u r b a n i s a t i o n  increased  together  with  industrialisation the already  that  as t h e economy was  inadequate housing  stock  26 p r o d u c e d an i n t o l e r a b l e h o u s i n g A Crown C o r p o r a t i o n , 19 41 by t h e F e d e r a l the  shortage  i n urban  centres.  W a r t i m e H o u s i n g L t d . , was s e t up i n G o v e r n m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e n e e d s and a l l o c a t e  new h o u s e s c o n s t r u c t e d  according  t o t h e n e e d s , and t o  27 control  and f i x r e n t s  of housing  units.  T h i s was o f  course  part of the Federal Government's wartime emergency  legislation  including control over p r i c e s , wages, rents, a l l o c a t i o n of 28 material and conscription. Rose has said that Wartime Housing Limited . . . can be seen now as a rudimentary federal housing agency, one of whose major tasks was d i r e c t negotiation with the elected and appointed o f f i c i a l s of municipal governments. 29 In 19 4 3 the Advisory Committee on Reconstruction established by the Federal Government set up a Sub-Committee on Housing and Town Planning with the following terms of reference: To review the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and the administrat i v e organization r e l a t i n g to housing and community planning, both urban and r u r a l , throughout Canada and to report such changes i n l e g i s l a t i o n or organization and procedure as may be necessary to ensure the most effective implementation of what the Sub-Committee considers to be an adequate housing program for Canada during the years immediately following the war. 30 The foundation of Federal housing p o l i c i e s as reflected  in  the NHA of 1944 which followed the F i n a l Report of the SubCommittee i s contained i n the four following basic proposals of the Sub-Committee: 1.  A three-pronged program of action involving l e g i s l a t i o n to induce a greater supply of housing to meet requirements of: (a) the large metropolitan areas: (b) the smaller c i t i e s  and towns; and  (c) the farm areas. 2.  A housing p o l i c y geared to meet the needs of the three established income groups; lower t h i r d , middle t h i r d , and upper t h i r d .  3.  L e g i s l a t i o n t o make e f f e c t i v e u s e o f town p l a n n i n g , e f f i c i e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by b r i n g i n g d i f f u s e d h o u s i n g p r o g r a m s u n d e r one a c t ; and what t h e Sub-Committee c o n s i d e r e d a c r i t i c a l element, the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l governments.  4.  Recommendations a s r e g a r d s methods t h a t be u s e d t o r e d u c e b u i l d i n g c o s t s . 31 Rose h a s c a l l e d  ciation  this  report  "a m i l e s t o n e  o f p o t e n t i a l assumption o f s o c i a l  could  i n t h e enun-  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by  32 government."  NATIONAL HOUSING ACT OF The r a t i o n a l e o f t h e NHA  o f 1944  1944 i s seen t o be, i n the  words o f t h e p r e a m b l e t o t h e A c t , . . . t o P r o m o t e t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n o f new H o u s e s , t h e Improvement o f H o u s i n g and C o n d i t i o n s and t h e E x p a n s i o n o f Employment i n t h e P o s t w a r P e r i o d . 33 The in  m a i n c h a n g e s i m p l e m e n t e d by t h e NHA o f 19 44 w e r e ,  t h e c a s e o f home-ownership f i n a n c i n g :  amortization  period  the  of the loan-to-value  increase  could the  of the  f r o m t e n t o b e t w e e n t w e n t y and t h i r t y  b o r r o w 95 p e r c e n t  next  the increase  ratio  of the f i r s t  so t h a t  $2,000;  years;  the mortgagor  85 p e r c e n t o f  $2,000 and 70 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e m a i n d e r .  The i n t e r e s t  r a t e was s e t by t h e g o v e r n m e n t and was r e l a t e d t o l o n g - t e r m  34 G o v e r n m e n t bond  interest rates.  Various re-enacted  measures c o n c e r n i n g  and e x t e n d e d  i n some c a s e s  low-rental  h o u s i n g were  and p r o v i s i o n s  concerning  slum c l e a r a n c e extension and  loans  housing  , .  policy.  were i n c l u d e d .  T h e home i m p r o v e m e n t and  p r o v i s i o n s were c o n t i n u e d  research  and community  were e s t a b l i s h e d as p a r t  o f Government  36  1945  CENTRAL MORTGAGE AND HOUSING CORPORATION ACT OF The  following year,  NHA t h e F e d e r a l wholly  planning  1945,  Government e n a c t e d  owned Crown C o r p o r a t i o n ,  i n order  to administer the  legislation  to create a  t h e C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and  37 Housing Corporation  (CMHC).  Housing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  CMHC r e p l a c e d  the National  and was t o s u p e r s e d e o r a b s o r b  a l l the  38 lesser  agencies  such as Wartime H o u s i n g L t d .  U n d e r t h e CMHC A c t a M i n i s t e r o f t h e Crown sible "and  f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e NHA, thus  the housing  policy  i s respon-  to supervise  CMHC,  and programme o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t  39 of Canada." including Directors. Directors Board  The c o r p o r a t i o n  i s r u n by a Board  the President, Vice-President  and e i g h t  The P r e s i d e n t , V i c e - P r e s i d e n t form t h e E x e c u t i v e  are outlined i n Section  Committee. 18 w h i c h  of Directors other  a n d two o t h e r T h e powers o f t h e  states that  on b e h a l f  o f H e r M a j e s t y a n d i n p l a c e o f t h e M i n i s t e r t h e B o a r d may h a v e , e x e r c i s e and p e r f o r m a l l r i g h t s , p o w e r s , d u t i e s , l i a b i l i t i e s and f u n c t i o n s o f t h e M i n i s t e r a n d t h e H o u s i n g A c t s o r u n d e r any c o n t r a c t e n t e r e d i n t o u n d e r the s a i d A c t s , except t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e M i n i s t e r u n d e r t h e s a i d A c t s t o p a y moneys o u t o f t h e C o n s o l i d a t e d Revenue F u n d , o r u n d e r S e c t i o n 22 o f t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t , t o make g r a n t s f o r s l u m c l e a r a n c e .  In  1947  the  NHA  was  amended  t o make d i r e c t m o r t g a g e l o a n s  g i v i n g CMHC  " t o e n s u r e an  authority  adequate source  of  41 mortgage f i n a n c i n g amendments t o o f w h i c h was the  Federal  the  throughout NHA  Section  the  Dominion."  were p a s s e d 35  (now  Government c a n  i n 1949,  Section  the  35A).  the of  and  development of  construction the  (c) t h e  of the cent  of  of housing p r o j e c t s  for a housing p r o j e c t  h o s t e l or d o r m i t o r y the  capital  Federal  the  planning, 25  design  per  cent  or  type.  and  In  profits  construction  of the  of which  concluded  (1),  for  of  and  existing  accommodation  such p r o j e c t s  75  and  borne  loses  are  per  responsible the  by  for  Province  cost.  that  FEDERAL POLICY towards the  Government h o u s i n g p o l i c y was  principles  (b)  accommodation  conversion  leaving  any  acquis-  for rent  for housing  section  with  f o r the  or h o u s i n g  f o r s a l e or  BASIC PRINCIPLES OF  B a r r o w has  1.  and  Under t h i s  (a)  G o v e r n m e n t w h i c h w o u l d a l s o be  THE  Federal  cost  important  f o r housing purposes;  a c q u i s i t i o n , i m p r o v e m e n t and  the  to bear  land  h o s t e l or d o r m i t o r y type  buildings  most  undertake i n conjunction  P r o v i n c i a l Government o r Agency p r o j e c t s ition  Further  ( 2 ) , and  (3)  end  b a s e d on formed  of  the  the  the  1940's  following  core:  E v e r y C a n a d i a n f a m i l y d e s i r e s home-ownership and t h e r e f o r e p r o v i s i o n o f t h i s f o r m o f h o u s i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n was t o be a m a j o r o b j e c t i v e .  2. 3.  4.  5.  The private market i s the best way of supplying the housing needs of the nation. The Government's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y would be discharged i f i t made i t a t t r a c t i v e for private i n s t i t u t i o n a l lenders to enter the housing market. But some d i r e c t government involvement would be necessary to even out the regional d i s p a r i t i e s . Subsidizing low-rental housing should be rejected. If the market i s considered the best way of supplying housing for the nation, one cannot very well accept subsidized housing as part of p o l i c y . F e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s should be c a r e f u l l y considered. Unless the provinces are prepared to co-operate with the Federal Government and indeed i n i t i a t e the necessary projects, nothing should be done. 42 Barrow noted that the Federal Government had c l e a r l y  established i t s e l f  as an important source of funds for home-  ownership and intended to influence community planning and consequently  l o c a l government.  he had deduced were  " . . .  He noted also that the p r i n c i p l e s  not designed to f a c i l i t a t e  construction for moderate and low-income  families."  housing  4 3  Adequate funds for home-ownership were not forthcoming from private c i t i z e n s '  c a p i t a l from  CMHC or from the approved  lenders to clear up the backlog of housing needs from wartime and to keep pace with the demand from growing family  formations  44 and immigration. Woodward has t h i s to  say:  The approved lenders, the majority of which were l i f e insurance companies, had responded well to the challenges of each successive change i n the Housing Acts. Nevertheless, i t was becoming increasingly apparent that i t was not within t h e i r f i n a n c i a l capacity to provide the mortgage funds required to meet Canada's growing housing needs. New sources of mortgage funds had to be found and towards t h i s end a new National Housing Act was passed i n 1954. 45  Mr.  R.H.  supply  Winters,  the M i n i s t e r of Reconstruction  and  stated:  . . . . The main o b j e c t o f t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o b r o a d e n t h e s u p p l y o f m o r t g a g e money by m a k i n g t h a t f o r m o f i n v e s t m e n t more a t t r a c t i v e , i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f l e n d e r s and m a k i n g more f u n d s a v a i l a b l e f o r m o r t g a g e l e n d i n g . 46  NATIONAL HOUSING ACT  OF  19 54  o f 195 4 b r o u g h t  B a r r o w h a s s t a t e d t h a t t h e NHA a series  about  of major changes:  I t b r o u g h t c h a r t e r e d banks i n t o t h e mortgage l e n d i n g field. I t terminated the system o f j o i n t l e n d i n g . To r e p l a c e t h a t s y s t e m , i t made p r o v i s i o n s t o i n s u r e m o r t g a g e l o a n s s u p p l i e d by a p p r o v e d l e n d e r s t o a s s i s t i n f i n a n c i n g new h o u s i n g . The new A c t p r o v i d e d t h a t a l l m o r t g a g e l o a n s were t o e x t e n d o v e r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s w i t h a p o s s i b l e maximum o f t h i r t y y e a r s . Before t h i s t i m e t h e m a t u r i t y t e r m was a m a t t e r d e c i d e d on by t h e l e n d e r and t h e b o r r o w e r , t h e l a t t e r b e i n g o f t e n i n t h e more u n f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n . 47 Amendments complement  t h e new  t o t h e Bank A c t were NHA.  were  Between  ments  t o t h e NHA  ratio  o f i n s u r e d mortgage  sewage t r e a t m e n t Until industry i.e.  and 1962  concerning  loans, federal  p r o j e c t s and u n i v e r s i t y  the late  concentrated  the s i n g l e  passed  1954  also necessary  the  f u r t h e r amend-  loan-to-value  loans  f o r municipal  housing  1950's t h e C a n a d i a n h o u s e on t h e p r o d u c t i o n  family detached  to  projects. building  o f one m a i n  h o u s e on v a c a n t  product  land which  48 was  the only  type  eligible  f o r NHA  financing.  I t has been  pointed  out  by  many c r i t i c s  Government's p o l i c y housing  u n i t s and  was  concerned  hardly  1964  that u n t i l  only with  at a l l with  the  the  Federal  the  production  distribution  of  of  49 housing  among t h e  Rose has  pointed  various out  income g r o u p s .  that  i t was  percentage of p u b l i c housing starts  had  risen  THE  1964  In "  , . National  AT  n  concern the only  profit  . , , „51 Housing Act.  subject  corporations agencies  struction  re-titled  development". contributions loans  and  or  the  total  social  these  t h e s i s they the  housing  should  be  mentioned  part  for plan  The  a Province,  included  The  to  M u n i c i p a l i t y or f o r the  cost and  "Urban  sharing  conand  and  Federal plus  were r e c o g n i s e d  a u t h o r i t y w h i c h must a p p r o v e u r b a n r e n e w a l p l a n s  for  the  given  NHA  Re-  implementation,  Provinces  t i m e r e c o g n i t i o n was  any  Part. I l l o f the  the  first  non-  p r o j e c t or h o s t e l s  projects.  total  limited  a u t h o r i z i n g loans  preparation  loans.  1  be  "Urban R e n e w a l " , a change f r o m  insured  directly  will  viewed.  of  not  a charitable corporation  low-rental  This  provisions  i n which the  e x p a n d e d by owned by  do  Rose  perspective  or purchase of a housing  r o o m i n g h o u s e s as was  Since  of t h i s  to provide  s e c t i o n was  of t h e i r  of  the  cent.^  r e - w r o t e most o f  of Federal p o l i c y  dividend  starts  that  AMENDMENTS  TT  i n passing  array  1964  1967  by  elaborate,  Amendments were p a s s e d w h i c h , t o q u o t e  . . . virtually  ., the  unit  5 per  t o about  only  To  to  the  as  and  necessity  for  assisting  i n the relocation  renewal.  I n 1969 t h e F e d e r a l Government d e c i d e d  nearly the  Housing", housing  process  and i t s a i m s .  as P a r t I V was t i t l e d ,  agencies  which c l e a r l y  f o r the Provinces  make l o a n s housing of  affected  a l l urban renewal p r o j e c t s i n order  entire  role  of the people  to assist  i n this  t o suspend  to reconsider  In the f i e l d  of "Public  m e n t i o n was made o f P r o v i n c i a l  pointed  t h e way t o a n i n c r e a s e d  field.  CMHC was p e r m i t t e d t o  a Province, Municipality or public  agency t o a c q u i r e  90 p e r c e n t  by t h e  land f o r p u b l i c housing  of the cost of acquisition  t o a maximum  and s e r v i c i n g .  was c o m p l e m e n t e d b y t h e p r o v i s i o n a l l o w i n g f o r l o a n s struct,  acquire  and o p e r a t e  p u b l i c housing  was a u t h o r i z e d t o c o n t r i b u t e 50 p e r c e n t losses  o f p u b l i c housing  and w i t h  a Municipality  the Province's  Province  up t o 75 p e r c e n t  bearing  the rest,  the M u n i c i p a l i t y . proceeds  a r e shared  o f f i c e and:  some o f w h i c h  b a s i s through  where  CMHC  cost with the  i trecovers  a r e then  on t h e same b a s i s .  i n areas  growth.  of the c a p i t a l  The s e r v i c e d l o t s  a first-come first-served  concurrence, t o  development  l a c k o f s e r v i c e d l a n d i s hampering housing provide  p r o j e c t s and CMHC  f o r a p e r i o d o f up t o 50 y e a r s .  a s s e m b l e raw l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l  can  t o con-  of the operating  U n d e r S e c t i o n 35A CMHC may u n d e r t a k e w i t h upon i t s i n i t i a t i v e  This  sold  The l o t s the l o c a l  from  and t h e  a r e s o l d on CMHC  . . . purchasers are expected to s e l e c t l o t s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the proposed house d e s i g n . Plans and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e h o u s e r e q u i r e a p p r o v a l by CMHC w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e h o u s e i s f i n a n c e d t h r o u g h t h e f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e NHA. To a s s u r e o r d e r l y development of the p r o j e c t , c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l h o u s e s must be s t a r t e d w i t h i n s i x months o f l o t p u r c h a s e and c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n 18 months a f t e r commencement o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . 52 Costs  of municipal  Municipality  i n the  sales  or recovered  over  prices  a period of  s e r v i c e s not  general tax r a t e are through  Federal to the  has  been mentioned  Government  a c t i n the  administer funds  and  sibility  (which  field  legislative  by  i n c l u d e d i n the l o t improvement  charges  was  POLICY  p r e v i o u s l y t h a t the the  of housing),  first has  framework o f h o u s i n g  level  of  basically policy,  role  t o encourage the P r o v i n c e s  been t o  t o s e t up  f o r meeting housing forming  needs.  to accept The  "the h e a r t o f our  of  the  Government  i t s programmes, t o p r o v i d e m o r t g a g e and  Federal policy  the  years.  FEDERAL FINANCIAL It  local  recovered  provide and  other  their  respon-  implementation  of  housing  during  policy  53 the p a s t supply and  25  years  home o w n e r s h i p .  to  the  been the  effort  o f m o r t g a g e money, t o m a n i p u l a t e  to set out  vailing  has  to provide the  interest  t o a p p r o p r i a t e terms t o encourage F u n d s were made a v a i l a b l e  m a r k e t s , down payments were r e d u c e d amount l o a n e d  and  an  adequate  rate  individual  under the  pre-  i n proportion  the a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d i n c r e a s e d .  Barrow has s t a t e d ' t h a t t h e r e an NHA m o r t g a g e : ^  All  loan-to-value  2.  down payment r e q u i r e d ;  3.  interest  4.  a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d ; and  5.  debt  are d i r e c t l y  components o f  4  1.  ratio;  rate;  service ratio.  o f these,  are five  except  55  t h e downpayment w h i c h  affected  b y Government  i s indirectly affected,  legislation  or regulation.  . 56 Thus t h e l o a n - t o - v a l u e r a t i o cent  of the f i r s t  the value with except  now  having  insurance  in  September  25  $25,000 f o r a l l h o u s i n g  rate for direct 1969.  The  l e n d e r s under P a r t I i s  b e e n f r e e d by amendment i n 19 69.  The mortgage  and 1 1/4 p e r c e n t .  l o a n s by CMHC was 9 1/2 p e r c e n t  T h e a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d was amended i n  t o be up t o 40 y e a r s  years  of the balance o f  f o r w h i c h t h e maximum l o a n i s $18,000.  f e e s a r e between 1 p e r c e n t  interest  1969  t h e maximum l o a n b e i n g  r a t e f o r loans by approved  free,  The  $20,000 and 80 p e r c e n t  apartments  interest  f o r h o m e o w n e r s h i p i s 95 p e r  f o r new and e x i s t i n g  has been t h e u s u a l term  housing but  f o r Condominiums  in British  57 Columbia. The of  relying  will  insure  fact  remains  t h a t t h e F e d e r a l Government's  on t h e money m a r k e t (CMHC w i l l  where p r i v a t e f u n d s  only  t o provide  policy  l o a n s w h i c h CMHC  l e n d d i r e c t l y u n d e r S e c t i o n 40 58 are not available) i s s t i l l the  mainstay o f i t s housing p o l i c y  and y e t t h e r e  " i s an o v e r a l l "  59 s h o r t a g e o f mortgage f u n d s " . and  The T a s k F o r c e  Urban development, however, c a r r i e d  on t h e  on H o u s i n g tradition.by  recommending that:^ The F e d e r a l Government s e e k t o e n c o u r a g e and co-ordinate the e f f o r t s of private lending i n s t i t u t i o n s t o meet t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f C a n a d a ' s r e s i d e n t i a l m o r t g a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s by s e t t i n g a n n u a l t a r g e t s , by c a n v a s s i n g t h e s e l e n d e r s t w i c e a n n u a l l y to ensure that t h e i r investment i n t e n t i o n s are a d e q u a t e t o meet t h e s e g o a l s , a n d by p a y i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e needs o f t h e v a r i o u s r e g i o n s of Canada. A s p e c i a l e f f o r t be made t o e n l i s t t h e i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f Canada's r a p i d l y growing p e n s i o n funds i n t h e f i e l d o f r e s i d e n t i a l mortgage financing. The institutions  Task F o r c e c o n s i d e r e d such  as b u i l d i n g  recommended  that  if  lenders  existing  mortgage note that a Part  a similar fail  the role  societies  to allocate  sufficient  goals.  i n F r a n c e t h e 1938 c o n d o m i n i u m  only  residential  I t i s interesting to law c o n s i s t e d o f  cooperative building  RESIDENTIAL CONDOMINIUMS  lending  i n B r i t a i n but  s y s t e m be s e t up i n C a n a d a  f u n d s t o meet n a t i o n a l  I dealing with  of special  societies.^  1  AND FEDERAL HOUSING POLICY  I n C a n a d a c o n d o m i n i u m o w n e r s h i p , by g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n , has a l w a y s b e e n p o s s i b l e u n d e r t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g Act. E v e n s o , t h e r e c e n t amendments t o t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t made s p e c i f i c n o t e o f t h i s t y p e o f h o u s i n g . But' s i n c e h o u s i n g comes w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n complementary p r o v i n c i a l e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n has n o t , u n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , b e e n e n a c t e d . 62  The  amendments m e n t i o n e d  i n t h e above q u o t a t i o n  were  63 added  i n the  Section 2  1968-69.  session  7 t o condominium u n i t s  of Parliament  and r e f e r i n  which a r e d e f i n e d  i n Section  (6a) a s f o l l o w s : ( 6 a ) ' c o n d o m i n i u m u n i t ' means a b o u n d e d s p a c e i n a b u i l d i n g d e s i g n a t e d o r d e s c r i b e d as a s e p a r a t e u n i t on a r e g i s t e r e d c o n d o m i n i u m o r s t r a t a l o t plan or d e s c r i p t i o n or s i m i l a r plan or d e s c r i p t i o n r e g i s t e r e d p e r s u a n t t o t h e laws o f a p r o v i n c e , and i n t e n d e d f o r human h a b i t a t i o n , a n d i n c l u d e s any i n t e r e s t i n l a n d a p p e r t a i n i n g t o o w n e r s h i p o f the u n i t . Cooperative housing p r o j e c t s ,  tered  as p u r s u a n t  defined  as b e i n g  regis-  t o t h e l a w s o f C a n a d a o r t h e P r o v i n c e s and 64  the  Yukon T e r r i t o r y a l s o  and  are treated  equally  receive with  s p e c i a l mention  condominium u n i t s  i n t h e NHA  i n terms o f  65 insurable  loans  of discharging tive  a loan  housing project  regards of  for the construction secured  of,  by a m o r t g a g e o n ,  o r condominium u n i t .  an i n s u r a b l e  loan  an e x i s t i n g d w e l l i n g  and f o r t h e p u r p o s e 66 a coopera-  However, a s  f o r t h e p u r c h a s e o r improvement  u n i t , a condominium i s s p e c i f i c a l l y  mentioned b u t a cooperative  housing project  i s not,  and would  67 appear n o t t o q u a l i f y . housing  association  i s not insurable  the  associations  the  A c t a l s o makes f u r t h e r  holders,  instrument  project.  a loan  unless  of incorporation conditions  a t l e a s t 80 p e r c e n t  68 completed  In addition,  to a  cooperative  CMHC a p p r o v e s a n d b y l a w s : and  concerning  the share-  o f whom must o c c u p y t h e  In which  t h e case o f a cooperative  i s incorporated  constructed  housing  t o c o n s t r u c t h o u s e s and w h i c h  h o u s e s and c o n v e y e d  t o obtain  having  them t o t h e members o r s h a r e -  holders of the a s s o c i a t i o n — t h e A c t provides shareholders  association  an i n s u r e d  loan  f o r members o r  f o r t h e house and f o r  69 it  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  a blanket if  a loan  t o a home owner.  m o r t g a g e c a n be c o n v e r t e d  the association s e l l s  I n t h i s way  to individual  mortgages  t h e h o u s e s t o members o r s h a r e -  holders . CMHC i s c h a r g e d w i t h  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  of d i s t r i -  buting . . . information leading t o the construction or prov i s i o n o f more a d e q u a t e and i m p r o v e d h o u s i n g accommod a t i o n i n C a n a d a . 70 Rose h a s commented  that  . . . i t was n e v e r t h e p o l i c y o f t h e C o r p o r a t i o n t o "shout from t h e r o o f t o p s ' i n an e f f o r t t o a d v e r t i s e o r s e l l t h e a v a i l a b l e h o u s i n g programmes. 71 CMHC h a s ,  however, d e v o t e d  Habitat,  Volume X I I , Numbers  condominium. relates  The q u e s t i o n  a whole i s s u e o f i t s j o u r n a l , 4-5, i n 1969 t o t h e s u b j e c t o f  of d i s t r i b u t i o n  of information  t o t h e comments on p u b l i c m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  ignorance  about t h e c o n c e p t o f condominium mentioned i n  Chapter I I I . Constantinu  has mentioned  a lack of information  about  72 continuing the  setting  cooperatives.  CMHC h a s a s s i s t e d and e n c o u r a g e d  up o f an o r g a n i s a t i o n known as t h e C o o p e r a t i v e  Housing Foundation  i n v o l v i n g t h e Canadian Labour  Congress  and the Cooperative Union of Canada.  Their aim i s to i n t e r e s t 73 sponsoring groups and to provide expert consultants and  thus a fundamental difference and condominiums i s implied. cooperatives  between continuing  cooperatives  That i s , that while continuing  develop spontaneously  from the ideas and efforts 74  of the cooperators without promotion by t h i r d p a r t i e s , condominiums (unless constructed by a cooperative  association  and then conveyed to the s t r a t a l o t owner i n the way mentioned earlier)  are advertised by the developers who wish to s e l l  the dwelling u n i t s .  In t h i s way d i s t r i b u t i o n of information  on the condominium concept i s aided. Differences  of opinion between CMHC and developers  have arisen over the p o s s i b i l i t y of placing r e s t r i c t i o n s on the resale and leasing of s t r a t a l o t s .  CMHC has always  i n s i s t e d that the bylaws of a Strata Corporation should contain nothing which would require a s t r a t a l o t owner to obtain the Strata Corporation's consent to the sale or leasing by the owner of his s t r a t a l o t . 75 In any case, no r e s t r i.c t i .o n s on 76 resale are permitted i n projects  financed under the NHA.  This question w i l l be considered further i n Chapter V where the Strata T i t l e s Act w i l l be discussed. CMHC has been involved i n t r i a l condominium projects whereby d i r e c t financing was made available and the  first  applications which were approved were for a row housing project  for sale to employees of Rayonier Canada (B.C.) L t d .  in the one-industry town of Rumble Beach, and a row housing  and  apartment  authorized  project  t o undertake a l i m i t e d  t o merchant  builders,  I n 196 8 CMHC was  i n P o r t Moody.  programme o f d i r e c t  some o f w h i c h  involved  loans  condominium  78 projects is  i n L a d n e r , Richmond a n d P o r t Moody, B.C.  presently  involved  p r o j e c t which  i n Edmonton's  i s a proposal  first  CMHC  experimental housing 300 c o n d o m i n i u m  to construct  79 townhouses. The briefly  outlined  condominium —Insured there  whole range  of Federal housing p o l i c y  because  development  Mortgage  appears  a l t h o u g h u n d o u b t e d l y most under  Loans  t h e NHA w i l l  rather  than under  part  t h e occupants pay r e n t  earlier  t o t h e agency  by Q u i r k i s r e l e v a n t  Part I  the other parts housing  on t h e c o n d o m i n i u m  i n t h e management o f t h e b u i l d i n g .  mentioned  residential  be u n d e r  t o be no r e a s o n why a g o v e r n m e n t a l  c o u l d n o t develop a p r o j e c t based wherein  has been  agency  concept  b u t have some  Indeed i n that  t h e scheme the idea of  80 a  "tenant-condominium"  widening  i s proposed.  This  of the concept but i f the concept of leasehold  dominiums c a n b e e n t e r t a i n e d ,  V I and V I A o f t h e NHA  "Housing and L o a n s  condominium p r o j e c t s .  b e i n g made t o w a r d units  Projects)  arrangements  Parts  respectively  and L a n d A s s e m b l y ,  f o r Student Housing  residential  I f i t can, then  (Being e n t i t l e d  f o r R e n t a l Purposes  con-  a s i t i s i n Quebec and M a n i t o b a ,  t h e n why n o t t h e t e n a n t condominium? II,  i s perhaps a  could  Public  Housing  be u s e d f o r  In Ontario progress i s  for the sale  t o t e n a n t s whose income h a s r i s e n  of public  to the point  housing where  they c o u l d a f f o r d to buy  but whether a m o d i f i e d  condominium  arrangement i s e n v i s a g e d i s not known. Indf "d perhaps the l a n d assembly p r o v i s i o n s are most r e l e v a n t s i n c e condominiums  themselves can r e p r e s e n t an  i n t e n s i v e use of land and s i n c e economies of s c a l e accrue t o large scale projects. condominium  Seen i n t h i s l i g h t  land assembly and  t o g e t h e r appear t o have g r e a t p o t e n t i a l as t o o l s  f o r r e d u c i n g the c o s t s of p r o d u c i n g h o u s i n g u n i t s .  In  O n t a r i o the land assembly programme of the O n t a r i o Housing C o r p o r a t i o n encourages condominium  housing through the 82  p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e d b u i l d i n g  sites.  IMPENDING CHANGES IN THE FEDERAL ROLE The F e d e r a l Task F o r c e recommended the e s t a b l i s h m e n t 83 of a Department  o f Housing and Urban A f f a i r s  and w i t h the  announcement on 8 October 1970 o f the c r e a t i o n o f a S e c r e t a r i a t o f Urban A f f a i r s i n the Speech from the Throne w i t h Mr. Robert Andras as M i n i s t e r , f u r t h e r F e d e r a l Government i n t e r v e n t i o n on the Canadian urban scene can be expected. However, no p o l i c y statement has been i s s u e d a t the time of writing.  This review of this  the  taken the  and  critique essential Municipal  present  i n a wider p e r s p e c t i v e .  continuing  sented  form o f a  e v o l u t i o n of F e d e r a l housing  manner, i t i s hoped t h e  been p l a c e d and  C h a p t e r has  cooperatives  contrasted.  of F e d e r a l part  of  Policy  the  policies.  total  merely array  an  legislation.  Federal The  in Federal  This Chapter  historical  policies  place  policy  i s not  of has  In  have  condominiums been  pre-  meant t o be  expose viewed  as  a  an  of F e d e r a l , P r o v i n c i a l  and  1.  A l b e r t Rose, Canadian Housing P o l i c i e s , (Ottawa: Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Background paper prepared f o r the Canadian Conference on Housing, October 1968), pp. 1-4.  2.  I b i d . , p. 101.  3.  I b i d . , p. 3.  4.  I b i d . , p. 104.  5.  I b i d . , p. 101.  6.  Barrow, p. 8.  7.  Rose, op. c i t . , p. 32.  8.  Barrow,  9.  I b i d . , p. 26.  10.  I b i d . , p. 27.  11.  Quoted by Barrow,  12.  H. Woodward, Canadian Mortgages, (Toronto: C o l l i n s and Company, 1957) , p. 10, quoted by Barrow, ojo. c i t . , p. 29 .  13.  Barrow,  14.  I b i d . , pp. 30, 31.  15.  N a t i o n a l Housing A c t , 1938.  16.  Barrow,  17.  Rose, op_. c i t . , p. 2.  18.  A.E. Grauer, Housing (Ottawa: A Study prepared f o r the Royal Commission on D o m i n i o n — P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s , 1939), p. 34, quoted by C o n s t a n t i n u , op. e x t . , p. 100.  19.  B r i t i s h North America A c t , 1867, s. 92.  20.  Rose, op. c i t . , p. 3.  op. c i t . , p. 17, and C o n s t a n t i n u , op_. c i t . ,  op_. c i t . , p. 25.  op_. e x t . , p. 27.  op_. c i t . , p. 30.  ojo. c i t . , p. 32.  21.  Ibid.,  p.  49.  22.  A.N. McKay and D.W. S l a t e r , "The S c o p e o f U r b a n P o l i c y , " U r b a n S t u d i e s : A C a n a d i a n P e r s p e c t i v e , e d i t e d by N.H. L i t h w i c k and G i l l e s Pacquet"/ ( T o r o n t o : M e t h u e n P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1968), p . 220.  23.  Ibid.,  24.  M.J. A u d a i n c i t e d i n C o n s t a n t i n u , o p . c i t . , p . 61. The A c t i s t h e H o u s i n g A c t , S.B.C. 1950, c . 31 as amended.  25.  Barrow,  26.  Ibid.,  27.  Ibid.  28.  R o s e , ojo. c i t . , p .  29.  Ibid.,  30.  F i n a l R e p o r t o f t h e Sub-Committee on H o u s i n g and P l a n n i n g , c i t e d " by B a r r o w , op. c i t . , p . 35.  31.  R e p o r t quoted i n Barrow,  32.  R o s e , ojo. c i t . , p .  33.  Quoted  pp.  23,  34.  B a r r o w , ojo. c i t . , p .  36.  35.  Ibid.  36.  Ibid.,  37.  C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n A c t ,  38.  R o s e , cjp. c i t . , p .  39.  Ibid  40.  Quoted i n Barrow,  41.  Woodward q u o t e d i n I b i d .  42.  B a r r o w , I b i d . , pp. pp. 36, 37.  43.  Barrow,  pp. 4,  5.  ojo. c i t . , p . p.  p.  34.  21.  22.  i n Ibid.,  p.  32.  CJQ. c i t . , p .  Community  35.  23. 24.  37. 1945.  24.  and B a r r o w o £ . c i t . , p .  38.  Ibid.  42,  ojo. c i t . , p .  43.  43.  See a l s o R o s e , ojo. c i t . ,  45.  Woodward, op_. c i t . , p p . 20-28 q u o t e d by B a r r o w ,  46.  House o f Commons D e b a t e s , ( V o l . I , 1954), p p . 998, q u o t e d by B a r r o w , I b i d . ~ 7 p . 46.  47.  Barrow,  48.  Rose,  49.  See f o r i n s t a n c e B a r r o w , R o s e , o p . c i t . , p . 38.  50.  Rose,  51.  Ibid.,  52.  Ibid.,  p p . 37, 38.  op_. e x t . ,  op. c i t . ,  op.cit.,  p p . 47,  48, 49 a n d  p . 39.  p . 42.  CMHC, NHA  Federal  53.  Rose,  54.  Barrow,  55.  The d e b t s e r v i c e ing formula:  op. c i t . ,  P r o v i n c i a l Land Assembly,  x  =  p p . 62, 63. ratio  =  (DSR) i s c a l c u l a t e d  z  t h e a n n u a l payment r e q u i r e d t o r e p a y t h e mortgage a t a g i v e n r a t e o f i n t e r e s t f o r a given period o f amortization; t a x e s f o r s c h o o l and g e n e r a l the p r o p e r t y ; and  z  net  DSR  by t h e f o l l o w -  ^LX  Y = =  (Ottawa:  p . 37.  op. c i t . ,  DSR  56.  999  p . 45.  P a m p h l e t 5024, 1967), p . 2.  Where  Ibid.  p u r p o s e s on  income.  when e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e s h o u l d n o t e x c e e d 27% a s s p e c i f i e d by CMHC u n d e r t h e NHA.  Now d e t e r m i n e d by N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g L o a n R e g u l a t i o n s . C a n a d i a n H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s , ( O t t a w a : CMHC, 1969). C  M  H  C  57.  C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Mr. J . Lowden o f CMHC, V a n c o u v e r , November 1970.  58.  Task F o r c e ,  op. c i t . ,  p p . 24, 26.  13  59.  Ryan, o_£. c i t . , p.  60.  T a s k F o r c e , op.  61.  Ferrer  62.  S m i t h , op_. c i t . , p.  63.  RSC, 1968-69, c. 45, s.  64.  F o r d e t a i l s o f t h e i m p a c t o f t h e NHA on C o o p e r a t i v e H o u s i n g s e e C o n s t a n t i n u , op. c i t . , p a s s i m , and B a r r o w , o p . c i t . , pp. 70, 71.  65.  NHA,  s.  7(1)(a)(i).  66.  NHA,  s.  7(1)(a)(iv).  67.  NHA,  S.  7(1) (a) ( i i i ) .  68.  NHA,  s. 8 ( 1 ) ( a ) ;  69.  NHA,  s.  8(2).  70.  NHA,  s.  31.  71.  R o s e , op_. c i t . , p.  72.  C o n s t a n t i n u , op_. c i t . , pp.  73.  MacDonald  74.  Miller, " C o o p e r a t i v e Apartments: Real E s t a t e or Securities?" B o s t o n U n i v e r s i t y Law R e v i e w , ( V o l . 45, 1965), p . 469 , q u o t e d i n S e n g s t o c k and S e n g s t o c k , op_. c i t . , p. 429.  75.  R.W. F o r d and R.E. F o w l e r , "The L e n d e r s ' V i e w I I , " Habitat, ( V o l . X I I , No. 4-5, 1969), p. 21.  76.  Ryan, op_. c i t . , p.  77.  F o r d and F o w l e r ,  78.  Ibid.,  79.  The  80.  See C h a p t e r  and  17.  cit..,  p.  26.  S t e c h e r , op_. c i t . , p.  i n The  p.  27.  3.  1(1).  (b) and ( c ) .  52. 74,  82.  Right to Housing,  op.  cit.,  18.  op_. c i t . , p .  19.  21.  Edmonton J o u r n a l , T h u r s d a y I I , n.  59.  23  July  1970.  p.  283.  81.  The Hon. S . J . R a n d a l l , "Housing P o l i c i e s i n O n t a r i o , " The R i g h t t o Housing, op. c i t . , pp. 258, 259.  82.  Ibid.  83.  Task F o r c e ,  op. e x t . , p.  72.  C H A P T E R  P R O V I N C I A L  V  P O L I C Y  Introduction; Housing L e g i s l a t i o n ; P r o v i n c i a l Condominium Housing Programmes; Other L e g i s l a t i o n Related to Housing; Strata T i t l e s A c t ; Conclusion.  This and  Chapter  attempts  to outline  programmes o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h  particular  reference to the role  The  q u e s t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s i n the previous Chapter.  discussion  British  policy  s i n c e i t has  financial  Whether t h e s e a matter  (a) l e g i s l a t i o n ;  The interested  with  policy  was  of that  t o have a h o u s i n g (b) i t a l l o c a t e s  (c) i t h a s i n i t i a t e d  housing  (d) i t h a s an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework."''  factors  amount t o an a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g  of definition  i s being  housing  In the l i g h t  c a n be s a i d  resources f o r housing;  programmes and  need  Columbia  Columbia  policy  o f condominiums.  considered  is  the housing  as t o t h e need  and p r o o f  policy that the  satisfied.  Vancouver Housing i n housing  Association,  a v o l u n t a r y group  and i n c o r p o r a t e d u n d e r  the Societies  2 Act,  stated  in  1967:  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , . . . o u r p r o v i n c e h a s no c o m p r e h e n s i v e housing p o l i c y . I t i s true that substantial assistance i s g i v e n by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government t o n o n - p r o f i t p r o s o c i e t i e s b u i l d i n g f o r e l d e r l y people. A Provincial gramme o f c a p i t a l g r a n t s t o new home p u r c h a s e r s h a s a l s o r e c e n t l y been i n a u g u r a t e d , b u t t h e p r i m a r y purpose o f t h i s l a t t e r programme a p p e a r s t o be t o e n c o u r a g e home o w n e r s h i p . The British to  Association  Columbia  assist  poorer  programmes;  then  criticised  t h e Government o f  f o r n o t t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f F e d e r a l programmes families  by i n i t i a t i n g  and c o n t r a s t e d B r i t i s h  public  Columbia  housing  unfavourably  with  Ontario that  i n t h i s regard.  Furthermore the  a P r o v i n c i a l Housing Department w i t h  s h o u l d be  established  and  pointed  to  the  Association a Minister  other  stated  as  head  Provinces  4  w h i c h have P r o v i n c i a l H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n s . Community brief need  Planning Association  t o the  of  Canada a l s o  P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t on  f o r such  1966,  In  the  submitted  this subject  i.e.  a the  a c o r p o r a t i o n . ~*  However, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n . . . p r e f e r e n c e t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a crown c o r p o r a t i o n . . . has r e f u r b i s h e d t h e h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y a p p r o a c h by a p p o i n t i n g f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and municipal o f f i c i a l s t o c o n s t i t u t e a P r o v i n c i a l H o u s i n g Management C o m m i s s i o n . 6 which  i s , however, not  comparable  to,say,  the  Ontario  Housing  Corporation: When t h e was  s e t up  British  i n 1967  C o l u m b i a H o u s i n g Management  i t was  Commission  s a i d of i t :  T h i s body w i l l s u p p l a n t t h e s y s t e m o f l o c a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s , w h i c h were c o m p r i s e d o f p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s serving voluntarily. The n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d c o m m i s s i o n w i l l manage a l l p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o v i d e d under government a u s p i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Federal, P r o v i n c i a l and M u n i c i p a l p a r t n e r s h i p i n t e r e s t s w i l l be s e r v e d by e m p l o y e e s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e owners w i l l be d i r e c t , and a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f a u t h o r i t i e s w i l l be a v o i d e d . 7 The —two of one by  members o f  employees of  CMHC a p p o i n t e d employee o f  the by  the  i t , for specific  District  the  Commission  Province  Regional D i s t r i c t  or M u n i c i p a l i t y  or  for general  a p p o i n t e d by  i t ; in addition  business,  are,  t o which  is  employees  appointed  or M u n i c i p a l i t y  i.e. pertaining  a project  i t ; two  located  to  business:  that  therein.  appointed Regional g  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework f o r housing other than  housing, Hon.  public  i s composed o f a M i n i s t e r Without P o r t f o l i o , the  Grace McCarthy who has a s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  housing, a Housing  Commissioner, who i s a l s o Deputy M i n i s t e r  of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , and a S p e c i a l Housing  Assistant.  An  a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t c o n c e r n i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework i s t h a t w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n , by the P r o v i n c i a l Government, o f Regional D i s t r i c t s  which are i n e f f e c t  federations of l o c a l  9  governments,  the P r o v i n c e a l l o w s a u t h o r i t y over  public  housing t o be granted t o R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s upon agreement of a l l t h e l o c a l governments For the same reasons  concerned. as o u t l i n e d i n Chapter  IV the  q u e s t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s w i l l not be c o n s i d e r e d and a t t e n t i o n w i l l be focused on l e g i s l a t i o n as t h e embodiment o f t h e P r o v i n c e ' s housing BRITISH The i n Chapter  COLUMBIA  Housing  policy. HOUSING  LEGISLATION  A c t o f 1950^^ has a l r e a d y been mentioned  I V - - i t merely  a u t h o r i z e d the P r o v i n c e t o e n t e r  i n t o F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l - M u n i c i p a l j o i n t p r o j e c t s under P a r t 11 VI--Public Housing—of  the NHA,  and a l s o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of housing a u t h o r i t i e s e.g. the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y . One  o t h e r f e a t u r e of P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y i s B r i t i s h  1  Columbia's 13  programme o f e s t a b l i s h i n g l a n d banks i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas pursuant  t o s e c t i o n s 35A and 35C o f the NHA, mentioned i n the  previous  chapter.  The E l d e r l y C i t i z e n s ' Housing A i d A c t p r o v i d e s f o r " s e n i o r c i t i z e n s " housing with grants t o R e g i o n a l  Districts,  M u n i c i p a l i t i e s or n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n s which s i n c e 1970 are as f o l l o w s — (a) i n the case of s e l f - c o n t a i n e d low r e n t a l housing  33 1/3 per cent of the c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n (or  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x i s t i n g housing) w i t h the s p o n s o r i n g agency making a cash grant t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n or r e c o n s t r u c t i o n equal t o 10 p e r cent o f the c o s t ; and  (b) in' the  case  o f low r e n t a l b o a r d i n g homes 35 p e r cent o f the c o s t of construction  (or r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x i s t i n g housing) w i t h  14 the s p o n s o r i n g agency p u t t i n g up 15 p e r cent o f the c o s t . As mentioned i n Chapter I I I , under the P r o v i n c i a l  15 Home Owner Grant A c t o f 1957  as amended, homeowners i n -  c l u d i n g s t r a t a l o t owners, r e c e i v e d an annual  grant--$160  i n 1970—to o f f s e t l o c a l p r o p e r t y t a x e s .  16 Under t h e P r o v i n c i a l Home A c q u i s i t i o n A c t of $500 or $525,  (depending  grants  on the date o f e n t i t l e m e n t ) were  a v a i l a b l e t o persons who had between 1 A p r i l 1966 and 9 February  19 6 8 completed  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new home o r had  by J u l y 1 19 68 entered i n t o a b i n d i n g c o n t r a c t t o purchase premises  or stock i n a new or e x i s t i n g c o n t i n u i n g c o o p e r a t i v e  17  or housing company and who had been r e s i d e n t s o f the P r o v i n c e f o r one year and who intended t o occupy the b u i l d i n g f o r f i v e years or more.  18  Under s e c t i o n 3A o f the same A c t  (a) a grant o f  $1,000 f o r new premises, o r $500 f o r o l d e r premises, o r (b) a l o a n secured as a second mortgage o f $5,000 f o r new premises, o r $2,500 f o r o l d e r premises, i s a v a i l a b l e t o a person who has i n t h e case o f new premises c o n s t r u c t i o n o f , o r undertaken  (a) completed t h e  t o buy the premises  the con-  s t r u c t i o n o f which was n o t s t a r t e d b e f o r e 9 February 196 8 i n the case o f a grant and n o t o c c u p i e d b e f o r e 9 February 19 69 i n the case o f a loan; or undertaken  t o purchase  a c o n t i n u i n g c o o p e r a t i v e o r housing company; first  occupant;  (b) who i s t h e  (c) has been a r e s i d e n t o f B r i t i s h  f o r a t l e a s t one year; or i n the case o f o l d e r (a) has been a tenant f o r a t l e a s t 2 y e a r s and the o l d e r premises between 1 A p r i l and,  shares i n  Columbia  premises (b) purchased  1970 and 31 March 1971  i n both the case o f both new and o l d e r premises, i n t e n d s  to remain  i n the d w e l l i n g f o r a t l e a s t f i v e y e a r s .  However, an owner i n an I n d i a n Reserve i n c o r p o r a t e d pursuant t o s. 10A o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t i s o n l y e n t i t l e d t o a g r a n t and n o t t o a l o a n under the P r o v i n c i a l New-Home B u i l d i n g A s s i s t a n c e A c t (now e n t i t l e d the P r o v i n c i a l Home A c q u i s i t i o n A c t which c o n s o l i d a t e s a l l such  legislation  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l Home Owner Grant Act) . In the case o f a mortgage the terms and c o n d i t i o n s are p r e s c r i b e d by r e g u l a t i o n — t h e i n t e r e s t r a t e w i l l n o t  rate  charged  by CMHC f o r f i r s t  m o r t g a g e s on s i n g l e  family  19 dwellings. standing  the  who if the of  not exceed  dies,  t h e amount o f t h e f i r s t  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  first  must  wage e a r n e r  amount i s f o r g i v e n and t h e m o r t g a g e  l o a n must exceed  I f the p r i n c i p a l  mortgage.  not exceed  The  loans  mortgage.  mortgage  or  i t for five  and  years.  t o a s e c o n d home o r r e p a y  I f a homeowner  h i s home he may I f n o t he may  the grant.  a l o a n , i f t h e homeowner w i s h e s t o s e l l  payment  The  and t h e a m o r t i z a t i o n p e r i o d  has r e c e i v e d a g r a n t w i s h e s t o s e l l  grant  removed.  the cost of the property  that of the f i r s t  he h a s o c c u p i e d  any o u t 20  has b e e n made, t h e o u t s t a n d i n g  so  transfer  In the  before  do  case  full re-  amount on t h e l o a n ,  including  a c c r u e d i n t e r e s t owing a t t h e time o f t h e s a l e , 21 must be r e p a i d . T h e r e has b e e n a t l e a s t one c a s e o f a c o n d o m i n i u m owner who d i d n o t r e p a y w h e r e u p o n t h e P r o v i n c e 22 seized is  his strata  entitled  preceding and  $25  lot.  annually  year's  A m o r t g a g o r who  to a refund  payments  ities  f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n  o r up t o $50  $14,000 h a s of  frustrated  purchasing  suitable  f o r new  i s the  a l s o a d v a n c e fund's of e x i s t i n g  r e n t a l but i n p l a c i n g a c e i l i n g  h i s repayments  of ten per cent  f o r o l d e r premises whichever The P r o v i n c e w i l l  meets  premises 23  less. to Municipal-  homes f o r s u b s i d i z e d  acquisition  a c t i o n as a r e s u l t accommodation  of h i s  price  of the  a t such  a  of  difficulty 24 price.  A Housing, c i a l  Urban  policy  Housing the  s t a t i s t i c a l Renewal  can  and  the  l o c a l case  usually  be  Urban  Department  that  Province  w i l l  the  2  are to  of  p o s s i b i l i t y the  types the  of  It  the  the  former's  Public  Annual w i l l  of  P r o v i n -  D i r e c t o r , Report  be  i n i t i a t i v e  of  remembered is  i n i t i a t i v e — t h e  usually  Province  i n i t i a t i v e .  hostel-type  The  housing  under  of  P r o v i n c i a l  strata  is  vis  the  under  the  i t s e l f ,  A c q u i s i t i o n  reviewed.  with  being  permitting  the  treatment  older Act,  the  premises was  The  reference  cooperatives,  blocks  housing  P r o v i n c i a l  Act  the  and  homeowner  under  appartment  of  annual  and  equal  Act  thus  owners  therefore  continuing  Act  lot  cooperatives  loans  T i t l e s  themselves Home  or  ownership  T i t l e s  of  III.  of  III  receive  There  existing  Strata a v a i l  to  grants  a  R E S I D E N T I A L CONDOMINIUMS  continuing  Strata  vis  to  Chapter  of  Act.  owners the  of  components  the  A f f a i r s .  Chapter  e l i g i b l e  condominiums  under  i n  accept  AND  i n  receive  these  importance to  POLICY  A c q u i s i t i o n  between  Report  Municipal  however,  mentioned  companies,  Home  the  D i v i s i o n  the  result  Assembly  P r o v i n c i a l  shareholders  and  the  5  As  grant  i n  i . e .  approves not,  of  Land  Municipal  than  PROVINCIAL  occupant  found  i n i t i a t i v e  merely  and  Renewal  of  rather  N H A .  summary  and  the  subdivided strata  lot  provisions  mentioned  i n  PROVINCIAL CONDOMINIUM HOUSING  Although  the P r o v i n c i a l  PROGRAMMES  G o v e r n m e n t h a s "no s t a t e d  26 policy and  on c o n d o m i n i u m s "  demonstration  condominium  i t has i n i t i a t e d  project  be c o n s t r u c t e d 132  by w h i c h w i l l  3-bedroom t o w n h o u s e s  $5,000 a n d $7,000 a n n u a l l y .  an i n n o v a t i v e  f o rfamilies  e a r n i n g between  The p r o j e c t w i l l  be b u i l t  by  Dawson D e v e l o p m e n t s L i m i t e d , o f V a n c o u v e r on 6.9 a c r e s o f City It  owned l a n d  will  2 1/2 at  a t Champlain  be r e a d y  million  dollars  Provincial  able  i n 1971  f o r occupancy  1  w i t h a 35 y e a r  Home A c q u i s i t i o n  (see A p p e n d i x D ) .  East  and w i l l  f r o m CMHC s h o u s i n g  7 7/8 p e r c e n t i n t e r e s t  and  H e i g h t s , South  Grants  make u s e o f  i n n o v a t i o n s fund amortization period  will  The P r o v i n c i a l  Vancouver.  a l s o be  Government  avail-  sees  h o m e o w n e r s h i p i n condominiums  f o r low income f a m i l i e s  as a  partial  housing  advantage  to  alternative  to public  and t h u s  m u n i c i p a l t a x p a y e r s where t h e y p a y 12  1/2  a s an  per cent of  27 the o p e r a t i n g l o s s e s . Another  programme, c a l l e d  condominiums and s e n i o r Housing  Management C o m m i s s i o n w i l l  Province w i l l for site  citizens.  a pilot  provide interim  project  The B r i t i s h  Columbia  o f up t o $120,000  This project,  f o r which a  be a d e m o n s t r a t i o n  10 o r 12 c o n d o m i n i u m a p a r t m e n t  units  $15,000 e a c h .  f o r people  I t i s designed  involves  a c t as d e v e l o p e r and t h e  financing  i n Victoria.  h a s y e t t o be f o u n d w i l l  t h e "5-5-5 p l a n "  f o rsale over  project of  f o r approximately  60 y e a r s o f  age  with  fixed  incomes o f l e s s  a home t h a t i s no l o n g e r m a i n t e n a n c e and r i s i n g  than  suitable  property  acre  1 October  site  calls  i n city-owned  In both t o p u t up  1970  A similar  i n principle  f o r 100 a p a r t m e n t s  Champlain  of these  f o r them due t o s i z e ,  taxes.  Vancouver which r e c e i v e d approval Council  $5,000 a y e a r who own  scheme f o r  from  City  on a  Heights.  p r o j e c t s the a p p l i c a n t i s expected  $5,000 c a s h r e a l i z e d f r o m t h e s a l e o f t h e i r  home a n d o b t a i n a f i r s t  1.2  mortgage o f  previous  $5,000 f r o m CMHC a n d a  s e c o n d m o r t g a g e o f $5,0 00 u n d e r t h e P r o v i n c i a l  Home A c q u i s i t i o n  28 Act which  i s paid only  after  occupation.  OTHER L E G I S L A T I O N RELATING TO HOUSING  Although Provincial  housing  Town P l a n n i n g and  policy  effect Charter  forms t h e c o r e o f  i s made i n p a s s i n g  Act, M u n i c i p a l A c t , Vancouver Charter,  statutes also affect  Regulations housing  and t h e L e a s e h o l d VI.  Regulations  The L a n d l o r d  t h e scope o f t h i s  i n general.  Landlord  Act will  The  Vancouver be c o n s i d e r e d  and Tenant A c t , which  study,  of the  A c t w h i c h as  o f t h e Town P l a n n i n g A c t , M u n i c i p a l A c t ,  Chapter  outside  reviewed  mention  T e n a n t A c t and t h e L e a s e h o l d  Provincial  in  the l e g i s l a t i o n  i s really  was r e v i s e d i n 1970  and i s  p e r h a p s one o f t h e most modern p i e c e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada c o n c e r n i n g  residential  tenancies.  There  remains  h o w e v e r , one more i m p o r t a n t without which t h i s namely  study would  the S t r a t a T i t l e s  condominium  development  THE  Although for  Provincial  Statute  to discuss,  n e v e r have been u n d e r t a k e n ,  A c t , w h i c h makes p o s s i b l e in British  Columbia.  STRATA T I T L E S  "self-owned s u i t e s "  some t i m e i n B r i t i s h  modern  ACT  have been  i n existence  C o l u m b i a and a r e a d v e r t i s e d  i n the  29 V a n c o u v e r Sun  as " s u i t e s  for sale"  f o r m o f what t h e a u t h o r d e s c r i b e s continuing  cooperatives,  the a u t h o r i z a t i o n  this  fact  and t h e n o v e l t y  author w i l l  the  Act—but  the  . . initiated  been  regulated  booklet  o f condominium  Institute  on t h e s u b j e c t  Because Columbia of  representation. that  of the Attorney  the A c t  was  General's 32  General,"  but  C o l u m b i a had a d v o c a t e d  and had p u b l i s h e d i n September  of the  the p r o v i s i o n s  of the Attorney  of B r i t i s h  lies  in British  2 for a diagramatic  by o f f i c i a l s  (STA)  Columbia.  G r a c e M c C a r t h y has s t a t e d  legislation  Act  and r e g u l a t i o n  i n some d e t a i l  a t the d i r e c t i o n  Real Estate  condominium  consider  see F i g u r e  The Hon.  Department  of the c r e a t i o n  Titles  form of ownership i n B r i t i s h  the  ".  or  3  and b o t h o f w h i c h a r e  importance of the S t r a t a  condominium of  companies ^  legislation. The  in  as h o u s i n g  take the  t h e development o f which has 31  c o n s i d e r e d by C o n s t a n t i n u , by  they u s u a l l y  1965.  an 33  informative  The STA 1966  Columbia  i s Chapter  of B r i t i s h  on 1 S e p t e m b e r  and came i n t o e f f e c t  42 o f t h e S t a t u t e s  was amended by C h a p t e r 1968,  46 o f t h e S t a t u t e s  1966.  of B r i t i s h  It  Columbia  and one r e g u l a t i o n u n d e r t h e a c t h a s b e e n p a s s e d by t h e  35 L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r - - B . C . Reg. was n e c e s s a r y storey  to include  dwellings  196/66.  single storey  The  1968 Amendment  townhouses, o r s i n g l e  on a s i n g l e l o t s i n c e by t h e o r i g i n a l  36 wording  2,  i n Section  two s t r a t a were n e c e s s a r y .  Since  37 the of  amendment, v e r t i c a l , one o r more s t o r e y s  The  into strata lots strata lots  treated of  o r s t r a t a have been  3 o f t h e STA a u t h o r i z e s  Section land  h o r i z o n t a l or l a t e r a l  the subdivision of  a r e t h e condominium  i n t h e same way as l a n d  i n d e f e a s i b l e fees  possible.  by t h e a c t o f d e p o s i t i n g  created  projects  a s t r a t a plan.  units  and may be  r e g i s t e r e d i n the r e g i s t e r  under the Land R e g i s t r y  A c t which  applies  38 t o condominiums.  Upon d e p o s i t  owners o f t h e s t r a t a l o t s body .  corporate  ."  of the s t r a t a plan the  c o n s t i t u t e and a r e members o f  u n d e r t h e name "The Owners S t r a t a P l a n  and r e f e r e d  t o as a s t r a t a c o r p o r a t i o n ,  Companies  A c t does n o t a p p l y .  perpetual  succession,  a  No.  . .  t o which the  The s t r a t a c o r p o r a t i o n has  a common s e a l  ( w h i c h i s g o v e r n e d by  39 the  First  S c h e d u l e ) and may s u e and be s u e d .  The land  s t r a t a plan  and d e f i n e s  ence t o f l o o r s ,  includes  the boundaries walls  a survey  of the parcel of  of the s t r a t a lots  and c e i l i n g s  and u n l e s s  by  refer-  otherwise  A BY-LAWS AND OTHER PROVISIONS  STRATA PLAN  STRATA LOT OWNERS DUTIES  I COMMON PROPERTY  STRATA LOTS  STRATA CORPORATION VOTING WEIGHT  PORTION OF COMMON PROPERTY ATTACHED TO STRATA LOTS  PORTION OF COMMON EXPENSES PAYABLE BY STRATA LOT OWNERS  STRATA CORPORATION S POWERS AND DUTIES • MEETINGS AND PROCEDURES 1  P R O J E C T O P E R A T I O N  FIGURE II  THE STRATA TITLES ACT - DIAGRAMATIC REPRESENTATION O  s t i p u l a t e d i n the s t r a t a p l a n the boundaries w i l l be t h e c e n t r e o f such f l o o r s , w a l l s and c e i l i n g s .  I t follows  f o r e t h a t the b u i l d i n g must t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y complete d e p o s i t i n g the s t r a t a plan.  The common p r o p e r t y  as b e i n g whatever i s i n c l u d e d i n the survey  40  that i s not a s t r a t a l o t .  before  i s shown  o f the p a r c e l  As mentioned i n Chapter I I I  l e a s e h o l d condominiums a r e n o t p r o v i d e d amendment i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The  there-  41  f o r but an e n a b l i n g  However see Appendix B.  s t r a t a p l a n must s p e c i f y the u n i t e n t i t l e m e n t  o f each s t r a t a l o t .  T h i s determines the v o t i n g r i g h t s o r  weight o f each s t r a t a l o t owner  (but see a l s o t h e F i r s t  Schedule S e c t i o n 26) and the p r o p o r t i o n o f the i n d i v i s a b l e common p r o p e r t y  t h a t accrues  t o each owner as a tenant i n  common and the p r o p o r t i o n payable by each owner o f the c o n t r i butions  l e v i e d by the s t r a t a c o r p o r a t i o n f o r o p e r a t i n g  42 expenses e t c . are c o n t a i n e d being  Further p r o v i s i o n s concerning  voting rights  i n S e c t i o n 22, e.g. i n the case o f an i n f a n t  an owner and an owner b e i n g unable t o c o n t r o l h i s  property.  S i n c e the s t r a t a p l a n must s p e c i f y t h e u n i t en-  t i t l e m e n t and s i n c e t h e s t r a t a p l a n i s d e p o s i t e d b e f o r e the s t r a t a .lots a r e s o l d t h i s means t h a t the developer  determines  the u n i t e n t i t l e m e n t by e i t h e r — t a k i n g a percentage o f the c o s t o r v a l u e t o the t o t a l c o s t or v a l u e — o r a percentage  43 of t h e area t o the t o t a l  area.  Under the STA a mortgagee may vote  i n place of the  s t r a t a l o t owner i f he has g i v e n w r i t t e n n o t i c e o f h i s mortgage  to  the s t r a t a corporation.  f o r m may be u s e d w i t h points  touched  three  In p r a c t i c e a standard  mortgage  a d d i t i o n a l covenants which  cover  upon i n t h e STA:  1.  A c o v e n a n t on t h e p a r t o f t h e m o r t g a g o r t h a t he w o u l d p a y any l e v i e s o r any c o n t r i b u t i o n s l e v i e d a g a i n s t h i m by a s t r a t a c o r p o r a t i o n p r o m p t l y when d u e .  2.  A c o v e n a n t b y t h e m o r t g a g o r t h a t he w o u l d c a r r y out t h e d u t i e s r e q u i r e d by t h e s t r a t a by-laws s u c h as p a y i n g r a t e s and t a x e s , r e p a i r i n g and maintaining h i s s t r a t a l o t .  3.  A c o v e n a n t b y t h e m o r t g a g o r t o g i v e an a s s i g n m e n t o f h i s power t o v o t e t o t h e m o r t g a g e e . The m o r t g a g e e must t h e n g i v e w r i t t e n n o t i c e o f t h i s power t o v o t e t o t h e s t r a t a c o r p o r a t i o n , and t h e m o r t g a g e e w i l l t h e n be n o t i f i e d o f a n y m e e t i n g s , he c o u l d t h e n g i v e a p r o x y t o t h e s t r a t a owner i f he s o d e s i r e s t o v o t e a t s u c h m e e t i n g s . Alterna t i v e l y , he c a n i s s u e a g e n e r a l u n r e s t r i c t e d p r o x y t o t h e s t r a t a owner t o v o t e a t a l l m e e t i n g s b u t w h i c h c a n be r e v o k e d a t any t i m e i f t h e m o r t g a g e e so d e s i r e s . In t h i s event, t h e mortgagee can r e q u e s t t h e s t r a t a c o r p o r a t i o n t o send i t c o p i e s o f n o t i c e s o f a l l m e e t i n g s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e agenda f o r s u c h m e e t i n g s s o t h a t t h e m o r t g a g e e may know w h e t h e r i t w i s h e s , a t any p o i n t t o r e v o k e i t s g e n e r a l p r o x y and t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e m e e t i n g i t s e l f . 45 In C h a p t e r s  ative  covenants  discussed.  I I and I I I t h e p r o b l e m s  running  with  U n d e r t h e STA s e c t i o n s  system o f easements b o t h owners i s c r e a t e d .  i n favour  i n respect  strata  cover,support,  w a t e r , sewage, d r a i n a g e , heating  11  a t common l a w were and 12  the necessary  and a g a i n s t  These easements which  registration plan,  the land  involving affirm-  strata l o t  are implied  o f each s t r a t a l o t i n c l u d e d  without  in a  s h e l t e r , passage o r p r o v i s i o n o f  gas, o i l , e l e c t r i c i t y ,  and c o o l i n g s y s t e m s , a n d o t h e r  services  garbage, s u c h as  telephone,  r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n ,  pipes, wires,  c a b l e s , chutes  In Chapter continuing provides  or ducts.  c o o p e r a t i v e was m e n t i o n e d .  concerning  the control,  enjoyment o f t h e s t r a t a laws s e t f o r t h automatically  shall  f o rrunning  The STA, S e c t i o n 13,  be r e g u l a t e d by b y - l a w s  lots  a n d common p r o p e r t y . and Second  Schedules  upon d e p o s i t o f a s t r a t a and a r e e f f e c t i v e  plan  until  registered  with  a L a n d R e g i s t r a r and r e f e r e n c e  First  a n c e and r e p a i r ,  Schedule  contains  the strata  corporation entry  and t o p a y h i s r a t e s , t a x e s h i s property  and by h i s b e h a v i o u r  the s t r a t a  b y any p u b l i c etc.  An  i n a s t a t e o f good with  other  people's  and n o t u s e h i s p r o p e r t y i n o r hazard  to others  and t o  c o r p o r a t i o n o f any c h a n g e o f o w n e r s h i p o r  any  mortgage o r o t h e r  The  second Schedule  lot  f o r any p u r p o s e w h i c h may be i l l e g a l  reputation  added  f o r mainten-  and l e v i e s ,  not interfere  a way as t o be a n u i s a n c e  notify  thereto  t h e d u t i e s o f an owner  a n d t o c a r r y o u t work o r d e r e d  e n j o y m e n t o f common p r o p e r t y , such  must b e  1  owner must a l s o m a i n t a i n repair  effect  plan. *'  which a r e t o permit  authority  take  amended, r e p e a l e d o r  by new b y - l a w s , w h i c h t o be e f f e c t i v e  The  The b y -  i n a Land  superseded  to the strata  a  management, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , u s e a n d  i n the F i r s t  Office  o r b y means o f any  I I I the absence o f r u l e s  that the b u i l d i n g  Registry  through  dealing i n connection  enacts  of the b u i l d i n g  with  t h a t an owner s h a l l  h i s property.  n o t use h i s  or'injurous t othe  o r make undue n o i s e o r k e e p any  animals i f so n o t i f i e d by the s t r a t a corporation. strata plan expressly  stipulates  If  the use of a s t r a t a  the  lot,  the owner may not use the l o t for any other purpose. The duties of the s t r a t a corporation are covered i n Section 14 and parts of the F i r s t Schedule.  One of these  duties concerns the insurance of the b u i l d i n g against  fire  to  i t s replacement value unless otherwise decided by the owners and to which the provisions of Section 15 apply.  Other  duties c a l l for the corporation to keep the common property i n a state of good and serviceable  r e p a i r , and to comply  with notices and orders emanating from any public or l o c a l authority. Further duties of the corporation, mentioned in the F i r s t Schedule are to c o n t r o l , manage, and administer the common property for the benefit of a l l owners.  Further  maintenance duties are d e t a i l e d concerning elevators and other fixtures  and f i t t i n g s  to common property,, lawns and  gardens, etc.  The corporation must also produce the insurance  p o l i c y or p o l i c i e s and the premium receipt or receipts required by c e r t a i n persons. Sections  if  Other duties are prescribed i n  18 and 19 concerning the d i s p o s i t i o n of the  b u i l d i n g and prodedures to be followed i f i t were destroyed. The corporation must under Section 20 have a mail box i n the b u i l d i n g for the purpose of being served' documents including ordinary m a i l , summons, notices, documents.  orders and other  legal  The sections  o f t h e STA b u t m a i n l y  Schedule. of  powers o f a c o r p o r a t i o n  Sections  common p r o p e r t y  land  included  more common In  i n Section  8, 9, and 10 c o n c e r n  and t h e e x e c u t i o n  easements o r r e s t r i c t i v e the  a r e found  plan  property. Section  down.  14 t h e f i n a n c i a l  These i n c l u d e  powers o f t h e c o r p o r a t i o n  for  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses s u f f i c i e n t  ment and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  the establishment  of a  f o r t h e c o n t r o l , manage-  o f t h e common p r o p e r t y ,  premiums and any o t h e r  fund  obligations.  payment o f The c o r p o r a t i o n  t h e power t o d e t e r m i n e t h e amounts t o be r a i s e d and t o  levy  c o n t r i b u t i o n s on t h e owners i n p r o p o r t i o n  entitlement  and t o r e c o v e r  Further these  provide  otherwise  powers a r e l a i d  common p r o p e r t y ;  personal  lot;  grant  property  Schedule,  f o r u s e by owners a s  b o r r o w money i n p e r f o r m a n c e  i t and t h e i n t e r e s t  amenities  share  i s i n default.  down i n t h e F i r s t  o f i t s powers; s e c u r e  administrative  any  unit  t h a t t h e c o r p o r a t i o n may p u r c h a s e , h i r e o r  acquire  or e x e r c i s e  to their  b y an a c t i o n i n C o u r t  o f e x p e n s e s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o an owner who  by  or b e n e f i t i n g  and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f  laid  has  the d i s p o s i t i o n  and a c c e p t a n c e o f  are  insurance  14 and t h e F i r s t  covenants burdening  i n a strata  i n various  expenses  or services  thereon; fund; with  of i t s duties  r e p a y m e n t o f money b o r r o w e d  i n v e s t money i n t h e  make a g r e e m e n t s  concerning  an owner o r o c c u p a n t  e x c l u s i v e use o r s p e c i a l  privileges  of a  strata  concerning  common p r o p e r t y necessary  t o an owner; a n d do a l l t h i n g s  f o r t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e by-laws and c o n t r o l ,  management and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n The except,  resolution.  b y - l a w s c a n n o t be added  t o , amended o r r e p e a l e d  S c h e d u l e , by u n a n i m o u s  A u n a n i m o u s r e s o l u t i o n must i n c l u d e  t o vote  at  three-quarters  membership—both  operate  lots  of the t o t a l  u n i t e n t i t l e m e n t and  resolutions are defined  to p r o h i b i t or r e s t r i c t  i n Section  c h a n g e any e a s e m e n t i m p l i e d  included  registered  could  or created  n o t be i n c l u d e d  i n t h e s t r a t a l o t deeds under  t h e Land R e g i s t r y  However,  of strata  dealing  by t h e STA. i n by-laws  since  2.  o f any b y - l a w  a devolution  o r any t r a n s f e r , l e a s e , m o r t g a g e o r o t h e r  such r e s t r i c t i o n s  a l l those  and a s p e c i a l r e s o l u t i o n must be p a s s e d b y  b y - l a w o r a d d i t i o n o r amendment t o o r r e p e a l  can  be  property.  a n d , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e S e c o n d S c h e d u l e , by s p e c i a l  entitled  no  o f t h e common  i n the case o f the F i r s t  resolution  least  reasonably  or to  Although i t could  a strata lot i s  A c t under which  a vendor  47 can  stipulate forright The  ation's the  First  of f i r s t  Schedule provides  powers a n d d u t i e s  Council  directions  at general  composed o f b e t w e e n t h r e e annual general council  meeting  f o r the Strata  t o be e x e r c i s e d  of the Corporation, given  refusal.  subject  meetings.  Corpor-  and p e r f o r m e d by  t o r e s t r i c t i o n s and The C o u n c i l i s  a n d s e v e n members e l e c t e d a t an  and a l l m a t t e r s b e f o r e t h e  a r e determined by a simple  majority.  The F i r s t  Schedule  further provides  filling  of vacancies,  ment o f  agents  powers and keeping  on  behalf  of  the  by  the  corporation, delegation  months a f t e r  accounts  owners and  which are  down.  the  A  meetings c a l l e d  be  held  i f r e q u i r e d by  of  the  omission  mortgagee does not business  of the  strata  defined. present at  which  half  at the  not tion  on  any  at general  meeting  with  present  are  the meeting. by  that  subse-  other  meetings,  owner o r  meeting.  those  The  and  i t i s adjourned present  per  considered At  a general  one-man-one-vote b u t  no  may  but  of  are is  not later  after  one  a quorum and  can  meeting r e s o l u t i o n s  thus  owner may  poll  types  t o a week  a simple vote  p a i d h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s to expenses, except A  cent  given  to vote  then  may  first  quorums  entitled  a show o f hands and  r e q u i r i n g unanimity.  three  to twenty-five  meetings  t i m e i f a quorum i s n o t  are determined based  invalidate  first  held  S e v e n d a y s n o t i c e must be  I f a quorum o f h a l f  hour those  proceed  owners e n t i t l e d  and  plan with  except  t o g i v e n o t i c e t o any  transacted  to  regulated  extraordinary general  entitlement.  the  open  g e n e r a l m e e t i n g must be  registration  general  of  mortgagees.  quent g e n e r a l meetings h e l d once a y e a r  total  t o be  m e e t i n g s o f a l l owners a r e  laid  accidental  employ-  d u t i e s t o p a r t u c u l a r c o u n c i l members, and  General procedures  r e m o v a l o f c o u n c i l members,  quorums, c h a i r m a n , m e e t i n g s ,  o f m i n u t e s and  inspection  f o r the  be  majority  i f he on  demanded  has  a resolui n which  case  the  votes  voters. ing  correspond  Proxies  and  may  Further  be  either  and  i n the  16  strata  procedural  details  and  21  of the  the  person,  of  duties  of the  as  Court  by  an  i t .  The  c o r p o r a t i o n or might  meeting. successive  concerning and  deposit  earlier. t o be  f o r reasons  in a strata  appointed presented  l o t , to  the  a d m i n i s t r a t o r would, to have the  such of these  f u r t h e r matter  a s s e s s m e n t and  tax  of  purposes.  Strata Corporation  and  the  apportioned  proportion to their  unit  the  For  project i s considered  v a l u a t i o n are then  the  administrative  administrator  Columbia  l o t or  powers  powers  the  and  and  duties  order.  17—valuation  in  in writ-  for  numbering  Strata Corporation,  namely S e c t i o n  the  regulation  f o r an  interest  T h e r e r e m a i n s one  the  the  any  196/66—was mentioned  of B r i t i s h  having  the  one  acceptance,  provides  any  accepted  provides  i n C o u n c i l t o make c e r t a i n  by  only  proxies,  S e c t i o n 23  Supreme C o u r t  the  for a particular  plan  the  exclusion  appointed  f o r r e s u b d i v i s i o n of  by  and  or  must be  c o - o w n e r s and  p l a n - - B . C . Reg.  Section  Court  general  under the A c t ;  a strata  but  entitlement of  provides  Lieutenant-Governor regulations  unit  trustees.  Section  of  allowed,  p r o v i s i o n s concern  interest  lots  are  to the  as  i n the  to  consider  condominium p r o j e c t f o r  the  purpose of v a l u a t i o n  a single  taxes  STA  p a r c e l owned  assessed  among t h e  entitlement  strata and  based  on  by the  l o t owners  f o r which  they  are  liable.  rate, any  The s t r a t a  t a x , o r charge  lien,  charge,  corporation i s not l i a b l e  a n d common p r o p e r t y c a n n o t  sale  or other process  f o r any  be s u b j e c t t o  i n respect o f unpaid  taxes.  CONCLUSION  In is  based  British  on t h e l e g i s l a t i o n  ownership dominium against  summary, t h e n ,  Columbia's  reveiwed.  i t , giving  Provincial  policy  As f a r a s c o n -  as t r a d i t i o n a l  homes, c o n t i n u i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s and h o u s i n g  tinuing two  condominium p r o j e c t s  mental hoped, take  demonstration  (when c o m p l e t e d ) w i l l  similar This  Provincial necessary  Chapter  of  The  by t h e P r o v i n c e a r e e x p e r i -  the success  of which,  encourage developers  i t is  t o under-  housing  i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o be a c r i t i q u e o f  policy  background  as a whole b u t i s p r e s e n t e d as  to a consideration of residential  condominium i n such  other  con-  projects.  condominium development. of  something  However,  c o m p a n i e s do n o t h a v e .  initiated  projects  companies.  legislation,  c o o p e r a t i v e s and h o u s i n g  home  does n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e  i t t h e same t r e a t m e n t  condominium does have s p e c i f i c  policy  I t emphasises  and a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e e l d e r l y . i s concerned  housing  However, t h e s c o p e  policy  c a n be c o n t r a s t e d t o t h a t o f  P r o v i n c e s as a measure o f i t s adequacy.  condominium i n B r i t i s h  of the role  Columbia  I f the role  i s compared w i t h  the r o l e  of  condominium  i n Ontario,  generally  considered  t o be  one  48 of  t h e most  apparent is  progressive  that  i n terms o f h o u s i n g p o l i c y  i n the l a t t e r ' s  much g r e a t e r  and a c c o r d e d  policy high  the r o l e  as " t h e r e s i d e n t i a l  building  condominium  priority.  The O n t a r i o H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n 1964  of  i tis  (OHC), e s t a b l i s h e d i n  arm o f t h e  provincial  49 government"  has  s h i p Made E a s y " the  s e v e n m a i n programmes  (HOME).  "Encouragement  One  of these  labelled  "Home Owner-  s e v e n programmes i s  o f condominium h o u s i n g  through the  50 p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e d b u i l d i n g s i t e s " w h i c h i s a i d e d by the "main t h r u s t i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f home o w n e r s h i p . . .  51 the l a n d for five dwellings  assembly program" . The OHC has a n n o u n c e d p l a n s c o n d o m i n i u m p r o j e c t s w h i c h w i l l p r o d u c e 8,6 85 by t h e F a l l  o f 1974  and o t h e r p r o j e c t s  are under  52 consideration. plans  to date  paltry.  Against  this  British  Columbia's announced  ( f o r one h u n d r e d and t w e n t y - e i g h t u n i t s )  are  1.  See q u o t a t i o n from Rose, i n Chapter IV, n. 3.  2.  Vancouver Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , B u l l e t i n No. 65, (Vancouver, B.C.: A p r i l , 1967), p. 1 and see Audain, op. c i t . , pp. 15-17 f o r more on v o l u n t a r y housing groups.  3.  Vancouver  4.  A c c o r d i n g t o Rose, op. c i t . , pp. 53-92 a l l o f the P r o v i n c e s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia and Saskatechewan had e s t a b l i s h e d such c o r p o r a t i o n s by 1968.  5.  Community P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada i n B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i e f t o the P r o v i n c i a l Government on Need f o r a B.C. Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , (25 J u l y 1966).  6.  J . E . Brown i n "The P u b l i c S e c t o r - a P a n e l D i s c u s s i o n , " The Right t o Housing, op. c i t . , p. 252.  7.  J.T. W i l l i a m s , Report o f Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , 1967 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1968), p. W41.  8.  P u b l i c Housing, A P o s s i b l e F u n c t i o n o f the F r a s e r B u r r a r d R e g i 6 n a l " ~ D i s t r i c t , (Vancouver^" B.C.: A T e c h n i c a l Committee"! 1968) , p. 32.  9.  Ibid.  Housing A s s o c i a t i o n , op_. c i t . , p. 1  10.  Housing A c t , S.B.C, 1950, c. 31,as amended.  11.  I b i d . , s. 3 .  12.  I b i d . , s. 11.  13.  Brown, op. c i t . , p. 252.  14.  E l d e r l y C i t i z e n ' s Housing A i d A c t , S.B.C, s. 2, as amended.  15.  Op. c i t . , i n Chapter I I I , n. 55.  16.  1970, c. 40 f o r m e r l y t h e P r o v i n c i a l New-home B u i l d i n g A s s i s t a n c e A c t , S.B.C, 1967, c. 39.  1955, c. 19,  17.  As d e s c r i b e d  18.  T h e s e g r a n t s a r e s t i l l a v a i l a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Hon. Dan C a m p b e l l and t h e Hon. G r a c e M c C a r t h y , A Home o f Y o u r Own, ( B o o k l e t p u b l i s h e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , no d a t e . )  19.  Ibid.  20.  P r o v i n c i a l Home A c q u i s i t i o n A c t , s . 3A(6).  21.  Campbell  22.  C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Mr. J . Lowden, CMHC, V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 13 November 1970.  23.  P r o v i n c i a l Home A c q u i s i t i o n A c t , s . 3A(5).  24.  L e t t e r from P e t e r C r i s p , V i c t o r i a , C o n s t a n t i n u , 23 S e p t e m b e r 1969.  25.  P u b l i c Housing, A P o s s i b l e Function o f the F r a s e r - B u r r a r d R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , o p . c i t . , p . 10.  26.  L e t t e r f r o m t h e Hon. G r a c e M c C a r t h y 6 A u g u s t 1970.  27.  Hon. G r a c e M c C a r t h y i n an A d d r e s s t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e , 16 F e b r u a r y , 1970 and P r e s s R e l e a s e 7 December 1970.  28.  Hon.Grace M c C a r t h y , A d d r e s s t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e , 16 F e b r u a r y , 1970; Hon. Dan CampEell, A d d r e s s t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e , 13 F e b r u a r y 1970; Hon. G r a c e M c C a r t h y , P r e s s R e l e a s e ) 2T F e b r u a r y 19 70; Hon. I s a b e l Dawson, P r e s s R e l e a s e , 8 J u l y , 1970; a n d T h e P r o v i n c e , V a n c o u v e r , 2 O c t o b e r , 1970. The  by t h e author i n Chapter I I I .  and M c C a r t h y ,  Sun, A d v e r t i s i n g  o£.  cit.  B.C. t o M a r i a n t h i  t o the author  S e c t i o n n o . 220, V a n c o u v e r , B.C.  30.  See C h a p t e r I I I .  3-"-*  2 £ ' Eii.*  32.  L e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r , 0 £ . c i t . , s i n c e t h i s was w r i t t e n the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l has p r e s e n t e d a b i l l t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e t o enable the r e g i s t r a t i o n o f t i t l e t o a i r space, B i l l 37, 1971.  33.  Roberts,  ojo. c i t . , p . B - l .  34.  See Appendix E.  35.  B r i t i s h Columbia G a z e t t e , P a r t I I , V i c t o r i a , 29 September 1 9 6 6 .  36.  Watson T. Hunter, Q.C., " B r i t i s h Columbia," Habitat, V o l . X I I , No. 4 - 5 , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 10 and Rosenberg, op. c i t . , pp. 5 - 1 , 5 - 2 , n. 1 .  37.  See F i g u r e I , Chapter I I I .  38.  Land R e g i s t r y A c t , R.S.B.C, 1 9 6 0 , s. 2 A .  39.  STA, s. 1 and s.  40.  I b i d . , s. 1 and s.  41.  G.A. W i l l i a m s , Land Agent of the C o r p o r a t i o n of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver i n C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the author, February 1 9 7 1 .  42.  STA, s. 4 and s.  43.  Hunter, op_. c i t . , p.  44.  STA, s.  45.  Hun€er, op_. c i t . , pp. 11, 12. The mortgage f o r the Rumble Beach, B.C. p r o j e c t c o n t a i n e d s i m i l a r c l a u s e s , Rosenberg, op_. c i t . , p. 12-7, n. 14.  46.  Rosenberg, op_. c i t . , p. 4-5 has drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the f o l l o w i n g from Rath, Grimes and More, 0 £ . c i t . , pp. 32, 33:  c. 2 0 8 ,  B.C.,  as amended,  6.  4.  5(1). 11.  7.  A matter of some i n t e r e s t i s whether a new s e t o f bylaws must n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w the F i r s t - S e c o n d Schedule pattern. I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a l l the F i r s t and Second Schedule by-laws might be r e p e a l e d and a new s e t o f bylaws i n t r o d u c e d , n o t d e s i g n a t e d as e i t h e r F i r s t or Second Schedule by-laws, and e i t h e r p r o v i d i n g t h e i r own code o f amendment or c o n t a i n i n g no p r o v i s i o n s f o r amendment. There appears t o be n o t h i n g i n the [New South Wales] A c t t o p r e v e n t such a course b e i n g f o l l o w e d . . . Upon r e g i s t r a t i o n o f the S t r a t a p l a n , and f o r some time t h e r e a f t e r , u s u a l l y o n l y one person w i l l be the owner o f a l l the l o t s and the common p r o p e r t i e s . That person may be bound by c o n t r a c t t o e f f e c t amendments t o the by-laws. The s o l e owner at t h i s stage c o n s t i t u t e s the c o u n c i l o f  the an  body  corporate  extraordinary  should Thus, sole  give by  following  p r o p r i e t o r purpose  the  by-laws.  by-laws  of  .  .  and  general  himself  the  .  may  the the  .  .  pass  In .  procedure  achieving  substitute  .  meeting. notice  .  .  convene theory, .  .  .  .  the  resolutions a l t e r a t i o n  he  for  could  them  'repeal'  an  e n t i r e l y  .  ,  'unanimous' desired  .  he  required  outlined  .  any  Presumably,  and  may  a l l  . for  i n the  d i f f e r e n t  set. 47.  See  48.  See,  49.  Rosenberg, for  The  Hon.  The  Right  ojo.  instance, S . J . to  c i t . Rose  Randall, Housing,  50.  I b i d . ,  p.  258.  51.  I b i d . ,  p.  259.  52.  S n e l l ,  op_.  c i t .  ,  p.  ,  p. op.  n.  12.  c i t . ,  pp.  50,  "Housing op.  23.  12-6,  c i t . ,  P o l i c i e s p.  257.  51. i n  Ontario,"  C H A P T E R  M U N I C I P A L  VI  P O L I C Y  I n t r o d u c t i o n ; The M u n i c i p a l A c t ; The Vancouver C h a r t e r ; R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s ; Town P l a n n i n g  Act;  Other Relevant Vancouver L e g i s l a t i o n ; An Example o f a Proposed M u n i c i p a l Housing P o l i c y The Vancouver P r o p o s a l s ; M u n i c i p a l Survey on R e s i d e n t i a l Condominium P o l i c i e s and Bureauc r a t i c Procedures;  Necessity for Policy;  Possible Municipal Frustration of Residential Condominium Development; C o n c l u s i o n .  INTRODUCTION  This  chapter  attempts  framework o f M u n i c i p a l illustration  the hypothesis,  policy bearing  form o f c o o p e r a t i v e of  continuing  policies  basic  and c o n s i d e r s  their  as t h e b a c k g r o u n d i n mind  t o the t e s t i n g  t h a t condominiums a r e a found  i n the case  that a lack of s p e c i f i c  development.  legislation  as an  the case o f the C i t y o f  and t h a t C o n s t a n t i n u  cooperatives  retarded The  policy  of Municapal p o l i c y  Vancouver's housing of  housing  t o o u t l i n e the l e g i s l a t i v e  1  affecting  of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the housing  Municipal  field  t h e powers and d u t i e s i s contained  i n the  2 Vancouver Charter palities refe  are "creatures"  Act.  of the Province  ed t o above a r e P r o v i n c i a l A c t s ;  consider the  and t h e M u n i c i p a l  them i n t h i s  chapter.  sections of the Acts  their  Although  and b o t h t h e s t a t u t e s  i t i s appropriate to  T h e method u s e d  relevant  Munici-  to housing  to discover  was t o s e a r c h  indicies. THE MUNICIPAL ACT This Act applies to a l l l o c a l  Columbia  excepting  to housing  in British  V a n c o u v e r , b u t i n c l u d i n g V a n c o u v e r as a  member m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t h e G r e a t e r District.  governments  The p a r t s  Vancouver  Regional  and s e c t i o n s o f t h e A c t t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t  a r e as f o l l o w s :  A. P a r t s : .1.  P a r t IV Assessment and T a x a t i o n  2.  P a r t XII A c q u i s i t i o n and D i s p o s a l o f P r o p e r t y , i n c l u d i n g compensation and l e a s i n g ( s . 464-503);  3.  P a r t XXI Community P l a n n i n g (s. 694-723) which d e a l s , among other t h i n g s , w i t h an O f f i c i a l Community P l a n , A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission, Zoning, S u b d i v i s i o n of Land, and B u i l d i n g Regulations;  B. Other 1.  (s. 317-437);  Sections:  2.  Compensations f o r land taken f o r sewer and storm d r a i n s ( s . 531) ; B u i l d i n g s dangerous and a nuisance t o p u b l i c h e a l t h and s a f e t y (s. 635);  3.  Buildings - Fire protection regulations  4.  B u i l d i n g s e r e c t e d o r used i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f by-laws ( s . 735);  5.  B u i l d i n g s d i l a p i t a t e d or dangerous t o p u b l i c s a f e t y or h e a l t h (s. 873);  C. F u r t h e r ' s e c t i o n s  (s. 642);  s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o housing.:  1.  Powers t o c o n t r a c t under the NHA  (s. 214-215);  2.  Power t o e s t a b l i s h and manage housing accommod a t i o n f o r the aged, i n f i r m and d i s a b l e d t o a c q u i r e and h o l d r e a l and p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y (s.640);  D. Duty t o make s u i t a b l e p r o v i s i o n f o r the poor and d e s t i t u t e (s. 639).  THE VANCOUVER CHARTER The  p a r t s and s e c t i o n s of the Vancouver C h a r t e r  related  t o housing are as f o l l o w s : A. P a r t s : 1.  P a r t IV B u i l d i n g s  (s. 304-308);  2.  P a r t X Real P r o p e r t y  3.  P a r t XXVI Compensation f o r Real P r o p e r t y or I n j u r e d (s. 531-558);  (s. 339-454); Expropriated  4.  P a r t XXVII P l a n n i n g and Development ( s . 559-574) which, among othe t h i n g s d e a l s w i t h Development P l a n s , Zoning, P e r m i t s , B u i l d i n g By-laws and an A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commission);  B. Other S e c t i o n s : 1.  Subdivision of property  (s.  292);  2.  D e m o l i t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s a nuisance h e a l t h or s a f e t y ( s . 324 a ) ;  3.  Leasing o f land  4.  V a r i o u s s e c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g Crown l a n d s ;  o r danger t o p u b l i c  ( s . 190, 1 9 3 ) .  C. S e c t i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y  concerning  housing:  1.  Power t o a c q u i r e r e a l p r o p e r t y and renovate o r cons t r u c t b u i l d i n g f o r the p r o v i s i o n and management o f housing accommodation f o r such persons as t h e c o u n c i l s h a l l think f i t (s. 193);  2.  Standards f o r m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s  3.  Power to e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n homes f o r the aged, i n f i r m or d i s a b l e d (s. 330(n));  (s. 330(k));  D. Duty t o make s u i t a b l e p r o v i s i o n f o r the poor and d e s t i t u t e (s. 1 8 3 ) .  REGIONAL  DISTRICTS  R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , mentioned e a r l i e r , by  are regulated  s. 765-798F o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t and apply t o Vancouver  as a member m u n i c i p a l i t y o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver District.  Regional  The S e c t i o n s 765-798F p e r t a i n , among o t h e r t h i n g s ,  to R e g i o n a l P l a n s , T e c h n i c a l P l a n n i n g Committees, A d v i s o r y P l a n n i n g Commissions and the f u n c t i o n s or powers o f t h e Regional D i s t r i c t s .  The G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l  District 3  r e c e n t l y assumed p u b l i c housing  as one o f i t s f u n c t i o n s .  TOWN PLANNING ACT 4  Under  this  draw up O f f i c i a l zoning  also  similarly  Charter  Municipalities  Town P l a n s ,  and b u i l d i n g  Town P l a n n i n g  Act  to expropriate property,  regulation  Commission. confered  i n much g r e a t e r  a r e empowered t o  b y - l a w s and t o e s t a b l i s h  following  from Vancouver municipal  by t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t and V a n c o u v e r detail.  examples  are outlined  legislation  -  of municipal  to illustrate  i n the housing  VANCOUVER  legislation  p a s s e d by C i t y  Council  drawn  t h e scope o f  field.  V a r i o u s b y - l a w s made p u r s u a n t t o t h e V a n c o u v e r have been  a  However, a l l o f t h e s e powers a r e  AN EXAMPLE OF OTHER RELEVANT LEGISLATION  The  t o pass  concerning housing  Charter  namely:  5  the  zoning  rodent,  l o d g i n g house  recommended all  and d e v e l o p m e n t , b u i l d i n g ,  matters concerning housing^  in British  which would  Government  standardize  i n 19 57 h a d consolidate  such a by-law o f Vancouver  Columbia  (to the author's  t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n t h e Speech  the P r o v i n c i a l  health,  the C i t y  Throne a t the opening of the L e g i s l a t u r e that  A study  and a l t h o u g h  a t t e m p t e d by e i t h e r  any o t h e r M u n i c i p a l i t y  knowledge)  by-laws.  t h e passage o f a by-law which would  has n o t y e t been or  and t i d y  plumbing,  intended  from t h e  i n J a n u a r y 1971 to present  and c o o r d i n a t e h o u s i n g  a  Bill  regulations  7 throughout  the Province  i . e . a standard  stated  housing by-law  .  That  t h e P r o v i n c e h a s t o do t h i s  i s probably  e x p l a i n e d by  g  the  following: M a i n t a i n i n g s t a n d a r d s i n h o u s i n g has a l s o been a l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but the r o l e of c i t i e s i n the p a s t has n o t b e e n p o s i t i v e o r c o n s t r u c t i v e . The r e g u l a t i o n o f h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s and o c c u p a n c i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e low i n c o m e h o u s h o l d s i s n o t popular. 9  However,  pursuant  R e n t a l Accommodation Council  i n 1969  t o t h e Rent C o n t r o l A c t  Grievance  a similar  . ..  .  similar  AN  was  established  by  to administer regulations contained i n  A of the by-law"^ c o n c e r n i n g residential  Board  the Vancouver  tenancies.  standards  t o be o b s e r v e d  The M u n i c i p a l D i s t r i c t  b y - l a w and o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  Schedule  in  of Surrey  have a l s o  has  considered  11  . . ..  legislation.  EXAMPLE. OF A PROPOSED MUNICIPAL HOUSING POLICY THE VANCOUVER PROPOSALS  In January published This for  1970  the Vancouver C i t y  t h e Vancouver  Urban  Renewal  Study,  r e p o r t a u t h o r i z e d by CMHC, c o n t a i n s an  "overall  policy  f o r the r o l e  Planning  Department  1971-75  Proposals.  (a) r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  o f government  i n improving  12 housing ded ting  and t h e p h y s i c a l  programmes these  called  and  involving  Improvement  local  area of the  city.  citizen  (b) recommen-  f o r implemen-  participation  and  and D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes f o r  13 each  of the c i t y ;  (c) recommended p r o c e d u r e s  programmes,  Community  condition"  As (a) be  f a r as  various built  housing  types of housing;  per  year  of  the  funds r e q u i r e d ,  but  Provincial  sharing  basis  cost  being  project  i s concerned  no  assumed.  (b)  the  5 year period  specific are In  the  number o f and  proposals  made, no  addition  report  (c) for  recommends units  the  to  amount  of  Municipal-  change i n the  sometimes a  present  specific  l o c a t i o n i s mentioned. 14 The  and  recommended h o u s i n g  a m e n i t y by  improving  programme  housing  to  conditions  improve  would  welfare  provide  for: 1.  p u b l i c h o u s i n g e i t h e r through the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t or C i t y , p r i m a r i l y f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s and t h e h a n d i c a p p e d ; t h e c i t y t o s t i m u l a t e s e n i o r c i t i z e n and low-rental p r o j e c t s by n o n - p r o f i t g r o u p s by m a k i n g f u n d s a v a i l able through the m i l l i o n d o l l a r r e v o l v i n g fund f o r h o u s i n g a p p r o v e d by r a t e p a y e r s as p a r t o f t h e 197175 F i v e Y e a r P l a n ;  2.  *  .  3.  c i t y i n i t i a t e d "experimental housing" F e d e r a l i n n o v a t i v e programmes;  4.  f o r low i n c o m e f a m i l i e s F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s t o c o n t i n u e t o e n c o u r a g e home o w n e r s h i p w i t h i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s and i n s i n g l e f a m i l y dwellings; and  -5.  F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s t o e n c o u r a g e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f o l d e r homes r e q u i r i n g m a j o r r e p a i r s i n a r e a s n o t l i k e l y t o r e d e v e l o p by 1981. In  reference  to  (1)  a b o v e , i t i s assumed t h a t  and  P r o v i n c i a l Governments w i l l  the  financial  be  i n the  currently  b u r d e n and  form of 12  1/2  a share per  cent  under  that  continue  the  i n the while  city's cost  of  future  Federal  t o a c c e p t most contribution rental  receiving f u l l  of  will  subsidies, taxes.  In reference to not define  (3) above, although the report does  "experimental housing" i t w i l l be remembered that  the projected low income and senior c i t i z e n s  condominium  1  townhouses and apartments i n Champlain Heights, described in the previous chapter, and the continuing mentioned elsehwere such a category.  cooperatives  i n t h i s chapter would probably f a l l into  However, the report does not  specifically  recommend any policy or programmes for either continuing cooperatives  or condominiums as a form of ownership, merely  16  stating  that the present p o l i c y of providing s i t e s for  various types of housing should continue. In reference to  (5) above the c i t y i s proposing new  or modified NHA provisions and a new P r o v i n c i a l programme of grants. The report does not specify whether a p o l i c y of leasing or s e l l i n g c i t y owned land should be adopted, or guidelines  for either course of a c t i o n .  This question provides  scope for further c i t y policy and t h i s aspect of c i t y  resi-  d e n t i a l land p o l i c y or lack of i t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the  follow-  ing examples, where i n one case land i s sold and i n another land i s leased.  In the case of the continuing cooperative  proposed for Champlain Heights the C i t y Council Planning and Development Committee approved the non-profit United Cooperative Housing S o c i e t y ' s plan to construct 10 5 low income three and four bedroom townhouse u n i t s .  In what Constantinu  described as an ad hoc decision C i t y Council had  earlier  passed a r e s o l u t i o n whereby a 6.6 acre s i t e i n c i t y owned Champlain Heights would be reserved for sale to  cooperative  17 groups only.  However, i n the event the s i t e was leased  to the Society at 80 per cent of market value. reserve s i t e s i.e.  for the other form of housing  The c i t y could  cooperative  condominium on the same b a s i s — n o n - p r o f i t — a n d the  question of the p o s s i b i l i t y of leasehold condominiums under the S.T.A. would be r a i s e d .  (see Appendix B). 18  In the other case 94 r e s i d e n t i a l lots One Family Dwelling D i s t r i c t , were offered  zoned R . S . - l ,  for sale based on  a fixed p r i c e with p r i o r i t y being given to persons wishing to b u i l d homes for themselves.  Other conditions  were that construction must commence within 18 months of the date of sale and the rate of i n t e r e s t for sale of l o t s on terms was to be 9 3/4 per cent and applications to purchase were to be accompanied by a cheque to the value of 5 per cent of the property as a guarantee of good f a i t h . Many of the proposed programmes of the c i t y would u t i l i s e the land assembly provisions of the NHA and the m i l l i o n d o l l a r revolving housing fund of the c i t y both of which have been mentioned elsewhere  in t h i s paper.  AND  BUREAUCRATIC PROCEDURES  In o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r the e x i s t e n c e and e x t e n t of any s p e c i a l M u n i c i p a l p o l i c i e s or b u r e a u c r a t i c procedures c e r n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l condominium ities  chosen  a t random were  con-  development e l e v e n M u n i c i p a l -  surveyed by p o s t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  The two q u e s t i o n s posed  were:  19  What, i f any, are the p o l i c i e s o f your m u n i c i p a l i t y c o n c e r n i n g condominium housing development? What, i f any, are the s p e c i a l procedures to develop a condominium p r o j e c t i n your (e.g. r e z o n i n g i s o f t e n n e c e s s a r y ) ?  necessary municipality  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the survey w i l l have been a f f e c t e d p o s s i b l y by the q u e s t i o n s b e i n g of an open n a t u r e , the d i f f e r ent p o s i t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e b i a s e s o f the respondents  and  more i m p o r t a n t l y by the f a c t t h a t i t i s probably r a r e f o r a M u n i c i p a l i t y t o have a f o r m a l l y ennunciated and accepted comprehensive housing p o l i c y i n which- condominiums may conceived to play a r o l e .  Furthermore  be  no R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s  were q u e s t i o n e d s i n c e very few, t o the b e s t of the author's knowledge have assumed any housing f u n c t i o n and those  that  have c o n f i n e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s and p u b l i c housing. are f e l t  In s p i t e of these l i m i t a t i o n s , however, the responses to p r o v i d e v a l i d answers. The r e s u l t s are shown i n T a b l e I .  r e p l y and Nanaimo's respondents  answer was unusable.  Richmond d i d not Of the o t h e r  none s t a t e d a f f i r m a t i v e l y t h a t they had  special  p o l i c i e s or bureaucratic procedures and six stated that had none.  they  Vancouver, New Westminster and Kamloops  stated that they "encouraged" condominium development while Penticton "favoured" such development. It w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the author's d e f i n i t i o n of p o l i c y i n Chapter I included: . . . any policy r e s o l u t i o n , view, attitude or i n t e n tion whether expressed generally or stemming from any s p e c i f i c relevant govermental d e c i s i o n . It can be concluded therefore that save for  generally  favourable attitude towards r e s i d e n t i a l condominium development expressed by some respondents, the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s have no s p e c i a l policy  or bureaucratic procedures  ing  As mentioned e a r l i e r Constantinu s  such development.  concern1  study also found no s p e c i a l policy  for continuing cooper-  atives . The extent of encouragement by M u n i c i p a l i t i e s to condominium housing may be s i m i l a r to that of the City of Vancouver i n connection with continuing  cooperatives.  Vancouver advertised i n the press for proposals for a Cooperative Housing Development on a parcel of City owned land, the same parcel for which condominium development favoured. advertised an  S i m i l a r l y the D i s t r i c t "opportunity"  of  North  is  Vancouver  to develop a unique low density  townhouse or c l u s t e r housing scheme.  The advertisement was 20  directed to "condominium and apartment  developers."  The c o n c l u s i o n reached above based on the survey o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n as t o whether s p e c i a l p o l i c y or b u r e a u c r a t i c procedures should be c o n s i d e r e d necessary f o r condominium housing development.  The author  f e e l s t h a t , s i n c e t o b e n e f i t from the p r o v i s i o n s o f the NHA i n i t i a t i v e must come from l o c a l government, or R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t )  (Municipality  then i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h M u n i c i p a l  development p l a n s and/or R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p l a n s , a M u n i c i p a l or R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t housing p o l i c y should be formulated i n which condominiums should be c o n s i d e r e d , and t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be adopted by the M u n i c i p a l i t y or R e g i o n a l I f t h i s i s not the case the zoning map may a substitute.  T h i s p o i n t and the d i f f i c u l t y  policy  District. become  of deducing  M u n i c i p a l p o l i c y mentioned i n Chapter I i n r e f e r e n c e t o the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g . Vancouver " C i t y C o u n c i l w i l l a l l o w the development of townhouses i n rooming-house and duplex zones on s i t e s of a minimum  21 s i z e 12,000 s q . f t . "  In so d o i n g Vancouver made an " e x p e r i -  22 mental p o l i c y "  d e c i s i o n a f f e c t i n g housing by amending the  Zoning and Development By-law.  Furthermore i t i s p o s s i b l e  t h a t some townhouses w i l l be condominiums, but the c r u c i a l p o i n t i s t h a t townhouses, condominiums,  ( d e f i n e d i n the by-law) and not  (which are not d e f i n e d or mentioned i n the  by-law) are s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r e d t o . I t so happens, however, t h a t the example mentioned i n the p r e v i o u s paragraph i s i n f a c t one of the programmes  TABLE I MUNICIPAL SURVEY ON RESIDENTIAL CONDOMINIUM POLICIES AND  MUNICIPALITY  SPECIAL  POLICY  SPECIAL  BUREAUCRATIC PROCEDURES  PROCEDURES  RESPONDENT  Vancouver  No - but condominium encouraged f o r Champlain Heights  No  Deputy D i r e c t o r of p l a n n i n g  New Westminster  Condominium encouraged and attempts made t o a t t r a c t development  No  City  Senior  Planner  Planner  Burnaby  No  No  Richmond  —  —  —  Nanaimo  —  —  Building  Port A l b e r n i  No  —  P r i n c e George  No  No  City  Dawson Creek  No  —  City Clerk  Planning Administrator Manager  D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g and Inspections  Kamloops  Condominium encouraged  No  Penticton  Condominium  —  Assistant  No  Senior  Victoria  No  favoured  Inspector  Planner  Planner  outlined the of  i n Vancouver's proposed  zoning  housing  policy  policies  publication  are not generally  i n one f o r m a l document b u t i n t h e r e c o r d s o f  o f d e c i s i o n s and recommendations  reports,  However,  a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e p o i n t made  that Municipal housing  t o be f o u n d myriads  policy.  change m e n t i o n e d o c c u r r e d b e f o r e t h e  the proposed  earlier  housing  i s still,  of tabled  or untabled  valid.  NECESSITY FOR POLICY  It  c o u l d be s a i d  that  t h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e  of Municipal or Regional housing described the r o l e play  i n an e a r l i e r that  paragraph,  condominium  the f i r s t  was  i . e . general policy  (and o t h e r t y p e s  i n conjunction with  ment p l a n w h i c h c o u l d i n f a c t particular  by s t a t i n g  o r more s p e c i f i c  level  which would d e a l w i t h  should policy  a Municipal or Regional move f r o m  of housing  of policy  develop-  the general to the  the quantity, location  f o r the various types  stating  o f housing)  i n a comprehensive M u n i c i p a l o r R e g i o n a l housing  formulated  cost  policy;  levels  and  envisaged.  approximate A  second  m i g h t a l s o be c o n c e i v e d  land use c o n t r o l s  and development  23 procedures  and how t h e s e  dominium h o u s i n g  should t r e a t  real  f o r con-  projects.  From F i g u r e I i n C h a p t e r one  proposals  o f t h e meanings o f t h e term p r o p e r t y ownership  and t h a t  IIIi t will "condominium"  be r e c a l l e d  that  i s a type o f  condominium p r o j e c t s can  take  four basic  a condominium  f o r m s and be u s e d i n s i x  project  b y - l a w s be t r e a t e d  high  and d e v e l o p m e n t  rise  Simply because ium d o e s ment  land  i s physically  conditions  u s e and d e v e l o p m e n t  For instance a  i n terms o f l a n d use  merely a high  confusion;  f o r example  has  that  grounds  rise  talk  which r e s u l t s  i n terms  be d i s c u s s e d  that  below.)  on t h e s u b j e c t o f from and/or  causes  Davidson i n connection with  " I ti s essential  treat-  (except perhaps i n the  which w i l l  some l o o s e  i s condomin-  for special  o r exemptions)  by-laws  condominiums  f o r condominiums  stated  n o t u n i q u e on a c c o u n t  the form o f ownership o f a p r o j e c t  T h e r e has been zoning  grounds?  and t h e t y p e o f o w n e r s h i p i s i m m a t e r i a l .  for special  case of l a t e r a l  I f s o on what  apartment p r o j e c t  n o t appear t o c o n s t i t u t e  (i.e.  Should  u s e and d e v e l o p m e n t  type o f ownership.  by-laws  apartment p r o j e c t  of  are p h y s i c a l l y  the nature of t h e i r  condominium  of land  i n a s p e c i a l way?  Condominium p r o j e c t s of  i n terms  b a s i c ways.  new z o n i n g  condominiums  by-laws  24 be d e s i g n e d . . . ." statement  The a u t h o r d o e s n o t q u a r r e l w i t h t h e  as such t a k e n o u t o f c o n t e x t , b u t f e e l s  misleading  i n that  i n context  i.e. i n specific  condominium  i t c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d  condominium  zoning.  Hon.  Grace McCarthy's  as c a l l i n g  A n o t h e r example  reference to  for special  i s furnished  statement t h a t planning  i t is  by t h e  officials  " a r e aware o f t h e n e e d f o r z o n i n g f o r c o n d o m i n i u m s b u t c o u n c i l s ( w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s ) w i l l n e e d t o be e d u c a t e d . "  The view expressed e a r l i e r by the author that,  given  zoning, with the exception of l a t e r a l condominiums, no s p e c i a l zoning i s necessary by the following  for condominium development i s supported  quotations:  It i s commonplace to talk of condominiums as i f they were a dwelling type. They are not. The condominium i s e s s e n t i a l l y a form of property ownership and i t therefore makes no sense to l e g i s l a t e for them i n a zoning by-law that regulates the use of land not i t s ownership. 26 It i s u n r e a l i s t i c to treat a development d i f f e r e n t l y purely because of the ownership pattern alone. The impact on the surrounding area and the demand for public services would be the same whether an apartment b u i l d i n g i s a r e n t a l unit cooperative or condominium. 27 Most of the Southern C a l i f o r n i a Communities that have accepted condominium developments have been able to f i t these projects into e x i s t i n g zoning ordinances, usually medium or high density r e s i d e n t i a l zones, with appropriate set-back provisions for a relinquishment of minimum yard requirements to be accounted for by common area greenery. Some communities i n Orange County are f i t t i n g condominium projects into planned development zoning ordinances whilst others are drafting o r i g i n a l provisions to provide for " h i g h - r i s e " condominium development . . . . Zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations should be applicable to condominium projects according to t h e i r use, without regard to the l e g a l form of t h e i r ownership, just as they are applicable to other land uses without regard to the form of ownership. 28  POSSIBLE MUNICIPAL FRUSTRATION OF  RESIDENTIAL  CONDOMINIUM DEVELOPMENT  The treatment was  foregoing  argument  t o condominiums  qualified  laws  the  be  zones p e r m i t lateral  and d e v e l o p m e n t  instance  single  of municipal  a strata plan,  condominiums  family dwelling  o n l y one d w e l l i n g  condominium  by-laws  concerning  the development of r e s i d e n t i a l  in residential  special  lateral  considered.  o c c u r where p r o p o s e d l a t e r a l  located such  now  only possible  frustrating  would  i n zoning  by t h e a u t h o r ' s r e s e r v a t i o n  condominiums w h i c h w i l l The  f o r not according  project  on one  zoning  by-  condominiums a r e t o be  z o n e s where  lot.  In such cases  c a n n o t be d e v e l o p e d s i n c e  t o be r e g i s t e r e d ,  can o n l y  show one  parcel  29 (a synonym  for "lot"  ) which i s subdivided  into  strata  lots  30 w h i c h a r e d e f i n e d by w a l l s , in  a lateral  t h a n one  project  strata  ium w o u l d be  ceilings  the s t r a t a  and  floors.  p l a n would have  i n fact  a free-standing  single  family  then c l e a r l y  n o t be p e r m i s s a b l e .  However, i f t h e z o n i n g and  i n question provides  family  circumvented CD-I,  residential by r e z o n i n g  Comprehensive  condomindwelling  such a development  zone, t h i s to—using  Development.  fitted obstacle  Vancouver  would  development  f o r a zone w h i c h e n a b l e s  o r d i n a r y d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h c a n n o t be single  t o show more  l o t (which i n t h e c a s e o f a l a t e r a l  house)on the p a r c e l ,  by-law  Since  into  the  extraordinary  c a n be as an  example—  Only i f such r e z o n i n g i s  denied or i f the municipal zoning and development by-law cannot accommodate the l a t e r a l condominium i n the manner described, i . e . by not having a s p e c i a l zone or device, and only then, can municipal policy be said to  then  frustrate  r e s i d e n t i a l condominium development.  CONCLUSION In general then, since condominium i s a form of ownership and not a use of land, Municipal p o l i c y at the secondary or s p e c i f i c  l e v e l and Municipal bureaucratic pro-  cedures cannot be held to frustrate r e s i d e n t i a l condominium development.  In the s p e c i f i c case of l a t e r a l condominiums,  however, unless Municipal flexibility,  by-laws provide the  necessary  the p o s s i b i l i t y does e x i s t of f r u s t r a t i n g the  development of a l a t e r a l r e s i d e n t i a l condominium.  If  this  be the case in any Municipality the passage of an appropriate amendment to the by-law to provide the r e q u i s i t e i s recommended.  flexibility  1.  C o n s t a n t i n u , ojo. c i t . ,  pp. 63-71.  2.  S.B.C. 1953, as amended,  3.  See P u b l i c H o u s i n g , A P o s s i b l e F u n c t i o n o f t h e F r a s e r B u r r a r d R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: A T e c h n i c a l C o m m i t t e e , M a r c h 1968) and R.C. Andrews, C h a i r m a n s R e p o r t 1970, ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 27 J a n u a r y , 1971). The F r a s e r - B u r r a r d D i s t r i c t h a s b e e n renamed t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t .  c . 55 as amended and R.S.B.C. 1960, respectively.  c.  255,  1  4.  S.B.C. 1925,  c . 55  5.  B y - l a w no. 4193 b a s e d on t h e N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code o f C a n a d a , a m o d e l document p u b l i s h e d by t h e N a t i o n a l Res e a r c h C o u n c i l , Ottawa. The P r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n d i c a t e d i n e a r l y F e b r u a r y 1971 t h a t t h i s code w o u l d be applied throughout the Province.  6.  A u d a i n , ojo. c i t . , pp.  7.  As r e p o r t e d  i n The  a s amended.  51-52.  Sun, V a n c o u v e r , B.C.,  21  January  V a n c o u v e r U r b a n Renewal S t u d y 1971-75 P r o p o s a l s , c o u v e r C i t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , 1970), p . 73. 9.  R.S.B.C. 1960,  c.  1971.  (Van-  338.  10.  By-law  n o s . 4448 and  4465,  (1969).  11.  C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h Mr. Council.  12.  V a n c o u v e r U r b a n Renewal S t u d y , op. c i t . , l e t t e r o f t r a n s mittal. CMHC p a i d f o r 75 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o s t o f t h e study w i t h t h e C i t y p a y i n g 25 p e r c e n t u n d e r P a r t V o f t h e NHA.  13.  Ibid.,  14.  I b i d . , p p . 86-88.  15.  I b i d . , p . 87. The d e t a i l s h a v e n o t y e t b e e n w o r k e d o u t . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r t e n a n t s a t t h e L i t t l e M o u n t a i n p r o j e c t h a v e a t t a i n e d an i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r m e a s u r e o f c o n t r o l o f t h e management o f t h e p r o j e c t . The C i t y d o e s n o t t a k e a s t a n d on t h i s m a t t e r h o w e v e r .  Bruce York of the Vancouver Tenants  p. i x .  16.  I b i d . , p . 99. S i n c e t h i s was w r i t t e n C o u n c i l r e s o l v e d to s e l l c e r t a i n s i t e s i n Champlain H e i g h t s f o r Condominium d e v e l o p m e n t o n l y . T h e S u n , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 22 M a r c h , 1971.  17.  Constantinu,  18.  Lots  19.  F o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e see Appendix F.  20.  T h e S u n , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 16 J a n u a r y  21.  Ibid.,  22.  Ibid.  1-94  op_. c i t . , p p . 67,  110.  ( I n c l u s i v e ) D.L. -339, P l a n n o . 13659.  21 J a n u a r y  1971.  1971.  23.  A s a n example o f d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e d u r e a n o u t l i n e o f t h a t f o l l o w e d i n V a n c o u v e r i s a t t a c h e d as A p p e n d i c e s G a n d H.  24.  Davidson, op. c i t . , p. B - l .  25.  McCarthy, Address  26.  M a r t i n Chesworth, Apartment Study, (North Vancounver, B.C.: C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g and P r o p e r t y Department, 1968), P a r t One, p . 44.  27.  American S o c i e t y o f P l a n n i n g O f f i c i a l s , Information R e p o r t No. 159, C o n d o m i n i u m , ( C h i c a g o : J u n e 1962), p .  . . .,  ojp. c i t . , p . 11.  11.  28.  W a l l a c e , L . M i t c h e l l I I , " F e e i n Condominium, I V Government R e g u l a t i o n s , A. Community P l a n n i n g , " S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a Law R e v i e w , ( V o l . 37 , 1964) , p p . 106, 107. S e e ' a l s o C a l i f o r n i a C i v i l Code s . 1370 a n d C a l i f o r n i a B u s i n e s s and P r o f e s s i o n s Code, s . 4525.  29.  L a n d R e g i s t r y A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, c . 208 a s amended, s. 2 .  30.  STA, s . 3(2)b.  0  C H A P T E R  V I I  C O N C L U S I O N  Condominiums and Continuing Cooperatives; Trends and Further Research.  CONDOMINIUMS AND CONTINUING COOPERATIVES Condominiums have gained acceptance  for s i m i l a r  reasons today as caused t h e i r evolution and spread in the Today, however, the modern concept of condominium i s  past.  subject  to d e t a i l e d l e g i s l a t i o n and although condominiums are a type of cooperative they have certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which i n our present economy and law are clear advantages over the other variety of cooperative housing.In spite of widespread misunderstanding about the nature of the condominium concept,  i n the present Canadian  economy, condominiums (or t i t l e cooperatives) widens the range of housing types a v a i l a b l e , to be effective stock  existence  are more l i k e l y  i n meeting housing demand and adding to housing  than continuing cooperatives.  differences  whose  In addition to the  a r i s i n g from the different  form of ownership  between condominiums and continuing cooperatives  an important  factor i s that the former are generally b u i l t and marketed by private enterprise developers.  This process  utilizes  the s k i l l and experience of housing developers i n locating and acquiring a s i t e ,  constructing, financing,  and s e l l i n g the finished u n i t s .  advertising  Continuing cooperatives  are  generally b u i l t by non-profit cooperative associations which are lacking i n the s k i l l and experience of p r o f i t developers and consequently many have not been  seeking  successful.  This i s not to say that condominiums are not important i n cooperative enterprise since recently four have received f i n a n c i a l assistance assistance,  projects  from c r e d i t unions.  Such  pioneered in B r i t i s h Columbia, has been attributed  to the need to combat a decline i n c r e d i t union membership by involvement i n the provision of housing to c r e d i t union members.  In one case the Abbotsford C r e d i t Union organised  the Abbotsford Co-op Housing Association which late i n 19 69 completed a 30 unit condominium project--thus  providing an  example of the t o t a l integration of condominiums within cooperative  enterprise.  Although Federal Government policy gives b a s i c a l l y the same benefits  to condominiums as to t r a d i t i o n a l homes and  to continuing cooperatives upon the l a t t e r .  i t does impose extra conditions  There seems to be further scope for the  general condominium concept of ownership to be exploited by the Federal Government or CMHC i n ar.;. angements whereby public housing tenants could own t h e i r own u n i t . differentiates  fundamentally i n i t s treatment of condominiums  and continuing cooperatives. specific  P r o v i n c i a l policy  The former are regulated by a  "tailor-made" act while the l e g i s l a t i v e  of the l a t t e r  is too general and inadequate.  framework  Municipal  p o l i c y , apart from general decisions to allow for a variety of housing types and ad hoc decisions to reserve a s i t e has little  i f any bearing on either form of housing  cooperative  Development since i n terms of zoning and development  by-laws  the form of ownership i s immaterial, only i n the case of l a t e r a l condominiums might municipal policy be c r u c i a l .  TRENDS AND FURTHER RESEARCH Due to the constraints of time and lack of data an analysis of the impact of Governmental p o l i c y i n terms of actual r e s i d e n t i a l condominium development i n B r i t i s h Columbia could not be made.  However, i t can be stated that the majority  of developments i n B r i t i s h Columbia to date  (February 2  have been of the town- or row- house design type. recently begun to c o l l e c t s t a t i s t i c s i t finances under the NHA  on condominiums  1971) CMHC has that  (for an example of the items see  Appendix I ) . Condominium development offers  scope for further  research of i n t e r e s t to urban planners for many reasons. Although most r e s i d e n t i a l high r i s e development i n c i t y has been for r e n t a l projects,  centres  i n terms of high density impact  on the surrounding area the form of ownership i s not d i r e c t l y material to the actual physical impact.  What w i l l be of  i n t e r e s t to planners and others i s the extent to which home owners rather than tenants might come to l i v e i n the centre.  city  Home owners can vote upon money by-laws i n B r i t i s h  Columbia whereas tenants cannot, and even though t h i s may change i n the future, home owners are widely f e l t to have more of a stake and i n t e r e s t i n municipal a f f a i r s  and to be more  stable i n terms of population turnover. dominium r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s  The impact of con-  as well as those of r e n t a l  projects w i l l no doubt i n t e r e s t Parks Boards. Condominiums as s o c i a l systems which have been likened to m i n i - m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i l l undoubtedly a t t r a c t  interest  since  planners and others have i n the past been concerned with neighbourhood s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s .  A number of points of  come r e a d i l y to mind—community vs.  interest  privacy—participation,  control and education through involvement.  To paraphrase  Sopocles and Jane Jacobs—the c i t y i s indeed the people and also a network of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  The  Sun,  Davidson,  Vancouver,  B.C.,  ojo. c i t . , p . B - l .  7 January  1971.  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Public British  Documents  C o l u m b i a , Companies A c t , amended. . c.  Cooperative A s s o c i a t i o n s A c t , R.S.B.C, 77 as amended.  . Credit amended. .  R.S.B.C. 1948, c . 58 as  Unions A c t ,  S.B.C,  1961,  c . 14 as  E l d e r l y C i t i z e n s Housing A i d A c t , c.  .  1960,  1960,  R.S.B.C,  19 a s amended. Housing A c t ,  S.B.C,  1950,  c . 31 a s amended.  . L a n d R e g i s t r y A c t , R . S . B . C , 1960, c . 208 a s amended. . L a n d l o r d and T e n a n t A c t , R . S . B . C , 1948 , c . 174, as amended. .  Municipal Act, amended.  . c.  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D e s s a u l l e s , P i e r r e . "Condominium f o r Quebec," E s t a t e and Business Review. 1965.  M o n t r e a l Real  F o r d , R.W. and R.E. Fowler. "The Lenders' View I I , " V o l . X I I , No. 4-5, 1969, p. 19. Habitat.  V o l . X I I , No. 4-5, 1969. t o condominium.  Habitat.  The whole i s s u e was  devoted  Hanke, Byron R. "Planned U n i t Development and Land Use Intensity," U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a Law Review. V o l . 3, No. 114, 1965. Hunter, Watson T. " B r i t i s h Columbia," No. 4-5, 1969, p. 10.  Habitat.  Vol. XII,  L e y s e r , J . "The Ownership of F l a t s - A Comparative Study," I n t e r n a t i o n a l and Comparative Law Q u a r t e r l y . V o l . 7, January 1958. MacLeod, Roderick J . "Developers Look a t Condominium," H a b i t a t . V o l . X I I , No. 4-5, 1969, p. 27. McKay, A.N. and D.W. S l a t e r . "The Scope o f Urban P o l i c y , " Urban S t u d i e s : A Canadian P e r s p e c t i v e . N.H. 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V o l . 53, February 196 8, p. 361 and V o l . 54, J u l y 1969, p. 811. Ramsey, C h a r l e s , E. "Condominium: The New Look i n Coops," 3, Home T i t l e Guaranty Co., 1961. R i s k , R.C.B. "Condominiums i n Canada," U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Law J o u r n a l . V o l . 18, No. 1, 1968. Roberts, J.P. "Condominium Ownership i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Real E s t a t e Trends i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. Vancouver, B.C.: Vancouver Real E s t a t e Board, 1966. Romney, K.B. and P.J. Rohan. "Resort Condominiums: the housing industry's p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r relaxation, retirement and r e a l e s t a t e investment," C o n n e c t i c u t Law Review. V o l . 2, No. 1, 1969. R o s e n f e l d , W.P. "The S a l e of I n d i v i d u a l Apartment S u i t e s , " F a c u l t y of Toronto Law Review. V o l . 18, No. 12, 1T6T:  R o y a l Bank o f Canada. no d a t e .  :  Mortgage M a t t e r s .  Ryan, R.T. "The Lenders' View I , " No. 4-5, 1969, p. 17.  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U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s i n Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 1969.  The Press American British  Gazette, V i c t o r i a ,  Star,  Toronto Daily  Montreal, Star,  Edmonton J o u r n a l ,  The  P r o v i n c e , Vancouver,  The  Sun, V a n c o u v e r ,  B.  Alberta.  C.  Western  1970.  1969.  Edmonton,  B.C.  "Operation Housing,"  . . . .  P.Q.  Toronto, Ontario.  The  "Condo  B.C.  1970.  C a n a d i a n Homes, J u n e Montreal  Magazines  1970.  Homes, J a n u a r y Columbia  and  What?",  Homes and L i v i n g .  Vancouver  Life.  February  V o l . 17,  12  June  Press Release. The Hon. G r a c e M c C a r t h y , M i n i s t e r W i t h o u t P o r t f o l i o , V i c t o r i a , B.C., 16 F e b r u a r y 1970; 27 F e b r u a r y 1970 and 7 December 1970. . The Hon I s a b e l Dawson, M i n i s t e r W i t h o u t V i c t o r i a , B.C., 8 J u l y 1970. ...  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Personal interview with  Harvey,  Mr.  B.  A P P E N D I C E S  APPENDIX English  A  "Condominium"  Schemes  A t y p i c a l c o n t r a c t f o r the t r a n s f e r of w i l l c o v e r the f o l l o w i n g main a s p e c t s :  a flat  1.  Payment by t h e P u r c h a s e r o f a f i x e d perpetual y e a r l y rent charge.  plus  2.  T r a n s f e r by t h e V e n d o r , t o t h e P u r c h a s e r o f t h e F l a t s i t u a t e d as shown on an a n n e x e d p l a n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e e a s e m e n t r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s m e n t i o n e d i n an a t t a c h e d S c h e d u l e .  3.  Purchaser covenants  simple  (A)  (B) (C)  (D) (E) (F)  Grant of a r i g h t of case of d e f a u l t .  5.  Vendor  (B)  (C)  fee  a  to:  B i n d a l l p e r s o n s d e r i v i n g t i t l e u n d e r him t o observe the r e s t r i c t i o n s s e t f o r t h i n the Schedule. Pay t h e y e a r l y r e n t c h a r g e . Keep t h e F l a t , and a l l w a l l s , p a r t y w a l l s , s e w e r s , d r a i n s , p i p e s , c a b l e , w i r e s and a p p u r t e n a n c e s i n good c o n d i t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r so as t o s u p p o r t , s h e l t e r and p r o t e c t the p a r t s of the b u i l d i n g o t h e r than the Flat. C o n t r i b u t e a f i x e d p a r t o f t h e common e x p e n s e s . Keep t h e F l a t i n s u r e d a g a i n s t l o s s o r damage by f i r e . P e r m i t Vendor t o e n t e r the F l a t t o examine t h e c o n d i t i o n t h e r e o f and make good any d e f e c t s f o r w h i c h V e n d o r may be l i a b l e .  4.  (A)  sum  in  re-entry  i n favor  of Vendor  in  covenants:  To impose t h e same r e s t r i c t i o n s on o t h e r Purchasers. To m a i n t a i n t h e m a i n s t r u c t u r e , gas and w a t e r p i p e s , d r a i n s and e l e c t r i c c a b l e s , t h e m a i n e n t r a n c e s , p a s s a g e s , l a n d i n g s s t a i r c a s e s , bound a r y w a l l s and fences. To d e c o r a t e t h e e x t e r i o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g i n s u c h manner as s h a l l be a g r e e d by a m a j o r i t y o f t h e owners o r l e s s e e s o f t h e f l a t s .  6.  V e n d o r d e c l a r e s t h a t he h o l d s t h e common p a r t s and t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e c o v e n a n t s made b y a l l t h e P u r c h a s e r s , as t r u s t e e f o r s u c h P u r c h a s e r s .  7.  V e n d o r r e m a i n s l i a b l e on t h e c o v e n a n t s made by h i m so l o n g a s he r e m a i n s t h e owner o f t h e r e n t charge r e s e r v e d .  8.  One o r more s c h e d u l e s a r e a t t a c h e d to s p e l l o u t t h e d e t a i l s about: (A) (B) (C) (D)  to the contract,  The r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed i n r e s p e c t o f t h e Flat, The e a s e m e n t r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s i n c l u d e d i n the t r a n s f e r , The r i g h t s a n d p r i v i l e g e s e x c e p t e d a n d r e s e r v e d from t h e t r a n s f e r , T h e c o s t s and e x p e n s e s i n r e s p e c t o f w h i c h t h e purchaser i s t o contribute.  A t y p i c a l c o n t r a c t f o r t h e s a l e o f a f l a t b y means of a long term l e a s e w o u l d be s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s t o a sale freehold. The main d i f f e r e n c e s would be: (a)  Term - t h e t r a n s f e r i s n o t made i n p e r p e t u i t y , b u t f o r a l o n g t e r m , s u c h a s 99 y e a r s . (b) L e s s e e a g r e e s n o t t o make a l t e r a t i o n s o r remove fixtures. (c) L e s s e e a g r e e s n o t t o u n d e r l e t t h e p r e m i s e s d u r i n g t h e c l o s i n g y e a r s o f t h e l e a s e t e r m , and t o s u r r e n d e r p o s s e s s i o n a t the e x p i r a t i o n o f such term. O t h e r w i s e , t h e terms o f a c o n t r a c t f o r t h e s a l e o f a f l a t by means o f a l o n g - t e r m l e a s e w o u l d be s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e same as t h o s e f o r t h e s a l e o f a f l a t f r e e h o l d .  Source: Edward G e o r g e , "The S a l e o f F l a t s , " 19, The C o n v e y a n c e r and P r o p e r t y Lawer (M.S.), 19 55, p . 7. c i t e d by F e r r e r and S t e c h e r , o p . c i t . , p p . 66-68.  APPENDIX B Leasehold  502. 502.1  Freehold  Condominiums  Condominium title  generally  on Leasehold  Land  essential  The O n t a r i o , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a , S a s k a t c h e w a n and Nova S c o t i a A c t s r e q u i r e t h a t t h e t i t l e o f t h e d e v e l o p e r be f r e e h o l d w h i c h prima f a c i e means t h a t a c o n d o m i n i u m p r o j e c t i n t h e s e f i v e p r o v i n c e s c a n n o t be d e v e l o p e d on l e a s e hold land. However, w i t h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e owner o f t h e f r e e h o l d t h e r e may be a method o f d e v e l o p i n g a l e a s e h o l d condominium p r o j e c t i n t h e s e p r o v i n c e s . T h i s method i s f u l l y o u t l i n e d i n 6 502.3 i n f r a . The M a n i t o b a A c t , o n t h e o t h e r hand, a l l o w s condominium p r o j e c t s on f r e e h o l d o r l e a s e h o l d land. 3 6  The d e s i r a b i l i t y o f h a v i n g a c o n d o m i n i u m p r o j e c t on leasehold land i s obvious. Many p r o j e c t s w h i c h a p p e a r t o b e most s u i t a b l e f o r c o n d o m i n i u m d e v e l o p m e n t a r e d e v e toped on leasehold land. "The C o l o n n a d e " on B l o o r S t r e e t i n T o r o n t o , w h i c h w o u l d be an i d e a l p r o j e c t f o r c o n d o m i n i u m , i s b u i l t on l a n d owned by V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e , and l e a s e d u n d e r a 9 9 - y e a r lease. The O n t a r i o Housing C o r p o r a t i o n has a p l a n whereby, i n s t e a d o f s e l l i n g land f o r development, they a r e l e a s i n g i t on a l o n g t e r m b a s i s . Many o f t h e f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have r e c e n t l y adopted p o l i c i e s whereby, i n s t e a d o f m o r t g a g i n g p r o p e r t y , t h e y f i r s t p u r c h a s e t h e l a n d and l e a s e i t back t o t h e o w n e r s , and t h e n m o r t g a g e t h e b u i l d i n g a n d l e a s e h o l d i n t e r e s t of the developer. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e M a n i t o b a Government had a s p e c i f i c r e a s o n f o r p r o v i d i n g t h a t t h e M a n i t o b a A c t would apply t o l e a s e h o l d e s t a t e s . There i s a development scheme b y t h e C i t y o f W i n n i p e g u n d e r w h i c h i t i s h o p e d t o d e v e l o p a l a r g e number o f h o u s i n g u n i t s on l e a s e h o l d l a n d s , and t o s e l l them a s s e p a r a t e c o n d o m i n i u m u n i t s . 502.2  The Manitoba  approach  The method u s e d i n t h e M a n i t o b a A c t l e a v e s a l a r g e number o f p r o b l e m s u n a n s w e r e d . The A c t s i m p l y p r o v i d e s t h a t " l a n d " means l a n d , w h e t h e r l e a s e h o l d o r i n f e e s i m p l e , u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e R e a l P r o p e r t y A c t , a n d t h a t "owner" means t h e owner o f t h e f r e e h o l d e s t a t e o r e s t a t e s o r l e a s e h o l d estate  or estates  i n a u n i t a n d common  interest.  38  3 9  A number o f A m e r i c a n s t a t u t e s provide f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f l e a s e h o l d e s t a t e s i n t h e same manner. However, t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s do n o t b e g i n t o answer t h e many p r o b l e m s o f l e a s e h o l d condominium developments. In such a d e v e l o p m e n t t h e d e v e l o p e r i s a t e n a n t o f t h e f r e e h o l d owner. When he. s e l l s a c o n d o m i n i u m u n i t he a s s i g n s h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r u n i t a n d t h e common e l e m e n t s t o t h e p u r c h a s e r , who t h e r e b y assumes t h e b u r d e n o f a p o r t i o n o f a l l t h e t e n a n t ' s c o v e n a n t s under t h e head l e a s e . I f , t h e n , as w i l l a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y be t h e c a s e , t h e h e a d l e a s e c o n t a i n s a t e n a n t ' s c o v e n a n t t o p a y t a x e s , what w o u l d be t h e e f f e c t o f one o f t h e u n i t p u r c h a s e r s f a i l i n g t o p a y t h e t a x e s on h i s unit? S u r e l y t h i s would c o n s t i t u t e a d e f a u l t under t h e head l e a s e , g i v i n g t h e f r e e h o l d owner t h e r i g h t o f r e - e n t r y o r f o r f e i t u r e o f t h e whole l e a s e . I f t h i s i s so, then every o t h e r u n i t p u r c h a s e r w i l l be i n j e o p a r d y , s i n c e t h e y w i l l a l l b e d e p e n d e n t on one a n o t h e r f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e c o v e n a n t s i n t h e head l e a s e . One o f t h e e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of condominium—the independence o f t h e u n i t o w n e r — w i l l be d e s t r o y e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f t h e head l e a s e i s i n d e f a u l t and t h e f r e e h o l d owner r e - e n t e r s o r f o r f e i t s t h e l e a s e , o r t h r e a t e n s t o do s o , does t h i s n o t c o n s t i t u t e a b r e a c h o f t h e d e v e l o p e r ' s covenant w i t h t h e u n i t p u r c h a s e r f o r q u i e t enjoyment? I f , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e e f f e c t o f s u c h b r e a c h o f a c o v e n a n t i n t h e head l e a s e i s n o t t o p l a c e t h e whole l e a s e i n d e f a u l t but only that p o r t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o the p a r t i c u l a r unit, this of necessity implies a fragmentation of the lease. S u r e l y t h i s c o u l d n o t r e s u l t w i t h o u t t h e 'consent o f t h e l a n d l o r d , o r express s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n . In Manitoba, t h e r e f o r e , a c o u r t faced o f any t e n a n t ' s c o v e n a n t by a u n i t owner w i l l alternatives. I t can f i n d e i t h e r : (a) (b)  with a breach h a v e two  T h a t t h e whole o f t h e head l e a s e i s i n d e f a u l t , o r That the l a n d l o r d ' s r i g h t s a r e fragmented so t h a t he h a s o n l y a f r a c t i o n a l r i g h t a g a i n s t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l owner.  U n d e r t h e s e c o n d a l t e r n a t i v e t h e l a n d l o r d w o u l d be i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g a s many i n d i v i d u a l l e a s e s as t h e r e were u n i t s . I f t h i s i s t h e i n t e n t i o n , t h e n a number o f a d d i t i o n a l provisions are necessary. The c o n s e n t o f t h e l a n d l o r d t o any r e g i s t r a t i o n a s a c o n d o m i n i u m must be r e q u i r e d . S u r e l y h i s r i g h t s c a n n o t b e s o f r a g m e n t e d w i t h o u t h i s knowledge or consent. I f there i s such a fragmentation, the p r o p o r t i o n s must be s p e c i f i e d . Presumably t h e l o g i c a l r a t i o f o r a p p o r t i o n i n g a l l •: ?: t h e o b l i g a t i o n s u n d e r t h e h e a d l e a s e w o u l d be i n t h e u n i t •• ^ p o r t i o n s f o r o w n e r s h i p o f t h e common  e l e m e n t s o r payment o f common e x p e n s e s . T h e r e would have t o be a p r o v i s i o n t o t h a t e f f e c t i n t h e s t a t u t e . There a r e a number o f o t h e r d e t a i l e d p r o v i s i o n s t h a t w o u l d be necessary t o properly cover the fragmentation of the lease i n t h i s way.  502.2  Alternative  method  T h e r e i s an a l t e r n a t i v e method o f d e v e l o p i n g a c o n d o m i n i u m p r o j e c t on l e a s e h o l d l a n d t h a t i s s u i t a b l e f o r any j u r i s d i c t i o n where t h e r e i s a c o n d o m i n i u m s t a t u t e , w h i c h i t i s s u g g e s t e d w o u l d , i n a s i m p l e , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d way, and u s i n g i n s t r u m e n t s a n d methods w i t h w h i c h l a w y e r s a n d c o n veyancers are f a m i l i a r , accomplish the d e s i r e d r e s u l t . The method p r o p o s e d r e q u i r e s c l o s e c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e owner o f t h e l a n d and t h e d e v e l o p e r . Assume t h a t t h e O n t a r i o H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n owns l a n d on w h i c h a 2 0 0 - u n i t c o n d o m i n i u m p r o j e c t i s t o be e r e c t e d , and t h e l a n d i s t o be l e a s e d f o r 99 y e a r s a t a r e n t a l o f $20,000 p e r y e a r . The H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n w o u l d e n t e r i n t o a l e a s e w i t h t h e d e v e l o p e r f o r 99 y e a r s , w h i c h w o u l d e n a b l e him t o c o m p l e t e t h e b u i l d i n g a n d o b t a i n t h e n e c e s s a r y i n t e r i m financing. T h e r e w o u l d be an a g r e e m e n t t h a t on c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g t h e 9 9 - y e a r l e a s e w o u l d be s u r r e n d e r e d a n d t h e p r o j e c t w o u l d be r e g i s t e r e d u n d e r t h e A c t by t h e O n t a r i o H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n as owner. The c o r p o r a t i o n w o u l d t h e n simultaneously l e a s e b y s e p a r a t e l e a s e s e a c h o f t h e two hundred u n i t s t o the developer. Each l e a s e would, o f course, i n c l u d e t h e common i n t e r e s t and w o u l d be f o r a p e r i o d o f 99 years. I f t h e u n i t s were i d e n t i c a l i n v a l u e a n d i n u n i t p r o p o r t i o n s , t h e r e n t u n d e r e a c h l e a s e , w o u l d be $100 p e r annum. The H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n w o u l d t h e n h a v e t h e same r e v e n u e — t h a t i s , $20,000 p e r y e a r — b u t f r o m two h u n d r e d s e p a r a t e l e a s e s . The d e v e l o p e r w o u l d s e l l e a c h o f t h e u n i t s , t h a t i s t h e l e a s e h o l d i n t e r e s t i n e a c h u n i t t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s common i n t e r e s t , t o each p u r c h a s e r . The l e a s e h o l d i n t e r e s t i n e a c h u n i t a n d common i n t e r e s t c o u l d be s e p a r a t e l y m o r t g a g e d . E a c h u n i t w o u l d be s e p a r a t e l y t a x e d a n d t h e t e n a n t o f e a c h u n i t a n d common i n t e r e s t w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r these taxes. T h e l a n d l o r d ' s and t e n a n t ' s c o v e n a n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o e a c h u n i t and common i n t e r e s t w o u l d be c o m p l e t e l y separate. The f i n a n c i a l i n d e p e n d e n c e , w h i c h i s a n e c e s s a r y e l e m e n t o f t h e c o n d o m i n i u m c o n c e p t , w o u l d be a s c o m p l e t e a s in a freehold project. I n one r e s p e c t o n l y w o u l d t h e p r o j e c t d i f f e r from a f r e e h o l d p r o j e c t : e a c h o f t h e u n i t owners would have i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s s e p a r a t e r e a l t y t a x o b l i g a t i o n and h i s s e p a r a t e o b l i g a t i o n f o r m o r t g a g e p a y m e n t s , t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o pay h i s separate "land r e n t . " 4 0  The o n l y r e a l l i m i t a t i o n r e m a i n i n g on t h e c o m p l e t e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f e a c h u n i t owner w o u l d be one t h a t e x i s t s i n a l l condominium p r o j e c t s , t h a t i s , h i s p o t e n t i a l l i a b i l i t y i n t h e e v e n t t h a t o t h e r u n i t owners f a i l t o meet t h e i r f a i r s h a r e o f t h e common e x p e n s e s . The f o r m o f t h e l e a s e w i t h t h e H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , o r w i t h t h e l a n d owner i n o t h e r c a s e s , w o u l d c o n t a i n v e r y few c o v e n a n t s . The m a j o r c o v e n a n t s a f t e r t h e c o v e n a n t t o pay r e n t , w o u l d be (1) t o c o m p l y w i t h a l l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e d e c l a r a t i o n , b y - l a w s and s t a t u t e ; (2) t o p a y common e x p e n s e s a s and when a s s e s s e d ; a n d (3) t o p a y r e a l t y t a x e s . Would t h e c o u r t s s a y t h a t t h i s was a p l a y b y t h e d e v e l o p e r t o do i n d i r e c t l y t h a t w h i c h t h e s t a t u t e d i r e c t l y prohibits? They s h o u l d n o t . Not o n l y would a l l o w i n g such an a p p r o a c h be b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e condominium c o n c e p t ; i t would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e A c t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e "owner" a t t h e t i m e o f r e g i s t r a t i o n i s t h e owner i n f e e s i m p l e . I n t h e example r e f e r r e d t o , t h e "owner" w o u l d be t h e O n t a r i o H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . A l l C a n a d i a n A c t s c l e a r l y p e r m i t u n i t s and common i n t e r e s t s , o n c e c r e a t e d , t o be l e a s e d (as w e l l as s o l d o r m o r t g a g e d ) independently.  36 O n t a r i o , s. 2(1); B r i t i s h Columbia, s. 3 ( 2 ) ( a ) ; A l b e r t a and S a s k a t c h e w a n , s . 3 ( 3 ) ; Nova S c o t i a , s . 3. See a l s o R.C.B. R i s k , "Condominiums and C a n a d a , " 18 U. o f T . L . J . 1 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , a t p . 16. 3 7  3 8  See A.  s s . l ( n ) , (p) , 2 ( 2 ) , 4 ( 2 ) , 20 (3) (b) . l(n),  (p).  39 E.g., of  Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut  and D i s t r i c t  Columbia. 40  T h i s i s n o t i n any way a r e a l i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f e a c h u n i t owner, b u t m e r e l y an a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t l y assumed. Source: R o s e n b e r g , o p . c i t . , p p . 5-10, 5-14. Note:  The D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r i s a t t e m p t i n g d e v e l o p e d a l e a s e h o l d c o n d o m i n i u m on D i s t r i c t  t o have owned l a n d .  APPENDIX Kinds  of  C  Estates  I n summary, t h e t e r m " e s t a t e " s i g n i f i e s o w n e r s h i p o f a possessory i n t e r e s t i n land. Homeownership i s o w n e r s h i p o f a p o s s e s s o r y i n t e r e s t i n a b u i l d i n g l o c a t e d on l a n d and land i t s e l f . Homeownership i s t h e o w n e r s h i p o f an e s t a t e in land. T h r o u g h t h e y e a r s , t h e common law has g i v e n r e c o g n i t i o n to s i x kinds of estates. The number s i x a p p e a r s t o be a f i x e d one as t h e common law e v o l v e d a r u l e t h a t no new e s t a t e s c o u l d be c r e a t e d . The e s t a t e s w h i c h h a v e g a i n e d r e c o g n i t i o n a r e as f o l l o w s : 5  1.  The f e e s i m p l e . S u c h an e s t a t e c o n f e r s upon i t s h o l d e r a b s o l u t e o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d so f a r as o u r , o r any, law c a n c o n c e i v e o f i t . I t i s o w n e r s h i p of i n f i n i t e duration.  2.  The and the  3.  The l i f e e s t a t e . S u c h e s t a t e c o n f e r s upon i t s h o l d e r the r i g h t t o e x e r c i s e dominion over land d u r i n g t h e l i f e o f some p e r s o n .  4.  The e s t a t e f o r y e a r s . This i s a lease. I t s owner has a p o s s e s s o r y i n t e r e s t i n l a n d f o r a s p e c i f i c p e r i o d of time. The p e r i o d may be v e r y s h o r t , s u c h as a week o r e v e n a day; o r v e r y l o n g , as one h u n d r e d y e a r s .  5.  Tenancy from year t o y e a r . T h i s i s an e s t a t e i n w h i c h t h e owner may e x e r c i s e d o m i n i o n o v e r l a n d for a s p e c i f i c p e r i o d of time w i t h automatic s u c c e s s i v e renewals. T h u s , a r e n t e r , who r e n t s f r o m month t o month, i s a s s u r e d o f a r e n e w a l o f h i s e s t a t e f o r one month a d d i t i o n a l t o t h a t i n w h i c h he i s e x e r c i s i n g his r i g h t s over the land.  6.  Tenancy a t w i l l . When a p e r s o n o c c u p i e s a n o t h e r ' s l a n d w i t h e i t h e r p a r t y f r e e to t e r m i n a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p such occupancy i s achieved w i t h the permission o f t h e owner. The o c c u p a n c y i s an i n t e r e s t i n l a n d t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s an e s t a t e d e n o m i n a t e d as a t e n a n c y at will.  fee t a i l . T h i s e s t a t e c o n f e r s upon t h e g r a n t e e h i s descendants ownership of the l a n d w i t h o u t r i g h t of a l i e n a b i l i t y .  7  The f i r s t t h r e e e s t a t e s a r e c a l l e d f r e e h o l d a term i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l d i g n i t y . The are c a l l e d non-freehold estates.  estates, latter  Homeownership i m p l i e s some g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n o n e ' s h a b i t a t t an i s e n j o y e d by a " r e n t e r " o r " t e n a n t " . Homeownership i ; p o r t s t o a layman s o m e t h i n g more t h a n an e s t a t e f o r y e a r s o r any o t h e r l e s s e r e s t a t e . Homeownership i s t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f an e s t a t e f o r y e a r s , o r t e n a n c y f r o m year t o year, or a tenancy a t w i l l . W i t h o u t f u r t h e r comment, a s t u d y o f h o m e o w n e r s h i p w i l l c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h t h e nonf r e e h o l d e s t a t e s o n l y f o r the purpose of comparison. ;  In t h e p o p u l a r mind one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l concomitants o f h o m e o w n e r s h i p i s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an " e q u i t y . " An e q u i t y r e p r e s e n t s the i n v e s t m e n t - s e c u r i t y f a c t o r o f ownership. Investment i m p l i e s the a b i l i t y t o c o n v e r t e q u i t y i n t o a cash reality. Such c o n v e r s i o n r e q u i r e s a l i e n a b i l i t y , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e x c l u d e d by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f e e t a i l and a b s e n t as a p r a c t i c a l m a t t e r i n a l i f e e s t a t e , w h i c h i s t e r m i n a b l e by death—a certainty. T h e r e f o r e , the only e s t a t e t h a t p r o p e r l y c o n c e r n s a s t u d y of homeownership i s the f e e s i m p l e e s t a t e . 8  9  A f e e s i m p l e e s t a t e d e n o t e s an e s t a t e i n l a n d c o n s t i t u t i n g the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e aggregate o f r i g h t s , powers, p r i v i l e g e s , and i m m u n i t i e s . I t i s t h e maximum amount o f l e g a l o w n e r s h i p known t o A n g l o - A m e r i c a n jurisprudence. I t i s an e s t a t e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e by two e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s : its p o t e n t i a l l y i n f i n i t e d u r a t i o n , and i t s i n h e r i t a b i l i t y by c o l l a t e r a l as w e l l as l o c a l descendants. 1 0  1 1  (Author's comment: "(Part this  II Residential  P a r t the  contract  an  R.S.B.C. 1960,  293  29  of  a tenancy  interest c.  207  in British  Tenancies)  relationship  o n l y , and  the tenant  N.B.  35.  landlord  and  the purposes tenant  agreement does n o t  i n land." as  For  Columbia:-  L a n d l o r d and  of  i s one  confer Tenant  of  on Act,  amended.)  ^1 C o k e , Commentary Upon L i t t l e t o n 6 27 (1853). 7 A. C a s n e r & W. L e a c h , C a s e s and T e x t on P r o p e r t y (1951). 8 9 Se-" s u p r a , p. 330. See s u p r a , pp. 328-9. "^Moynihan, (1962) .  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Law  11 Source:  Id., a t 30. S e n g s t o c k and  of Real  Property  fl2l Of h o m e o w n e r s h i p , b u t n o t o f h o u s i n g . S e n g s t o c k , op. c i t . , pp. 380-381.  APPENDIX D PILOT PROJECT: CHAMPLAIN HEIGHTS The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s p e r t a i n t o t h e u n i t p r i c e o f e a c h o f t h e 128 townhouses w h i c h w i l l be b u i l t i n C h a m p l a i n Heights i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  They  The townhouse w i l l be b u i l t on 6.9 a c r e s o f l a n d . e a c h c o n t a i n t h r e e bedrooms a n d f u l l b a s e m e n t .  The s e l l i n g p r i c e i n c l u d e s a l l f i n a n c i n g s e l l i n g e x p e n s e s and m o r t g a g e f e e s . The s e l l i n g $16,200 and i s p a y a b l e a s f o l l o w s : Selling Price Home A c q u i s i t i o n G r a n t CMHC 1 s t M o r t g a g e C a s h Down Payment  $1,000 14,700 500  expenses, price i s  $16,200  16,200  A l l o w i n g t a x e s o f $350.00 p e r y e a r , l e s s t h e homeowner g r a n t o f $160.00 and a s s u m i n g a 35 y e a r a m o r t i z a t i o n and 7-7/8% i n t e r e s t r a t e , t h e m o n t h l y payments w o u l d be a s f o l l o w s : P r i n c i p a l and I n t e r e s t Taxes ( a f t e r grant  $101.74 16.00  Total  117.74 Minimum Income a s s u m i n g 27% G.D.S. R a t i o  Source:  $437.00/month  News R e l e a s e f r o m t h e O f f i c e o f t h e Hon.Grace McCarthy, M i n i s t e r W i t h o u t P o r t f o l i o , Government o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 7 December 1970.  Strata Titles Act [Consolidated  for convenience  only, July  1. This Act may be cited as the Strata Titles Act.  1,1968.]  1966, c. 46, s. 1.  2 . In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, "building" means the building or buildings shown in the strata plan; " common property " means so much of the land for the time being comprised in a strata plan that is not comprised in any strata lot shown in the plan; " Court" means the Supreme Court of British Columbia; " owner" means the person registered in the books of any Land Registry Office as owner in fee-simple of a strata lot, whether entitled thereto in his ownrightor in a representative capacity or otherwise; "Registrar" means a Registrar within the meaning of the Land Registry  Act;  " special resolution " means a resolution passed at a general meeting of the strata corporation of which at least fourteen days' notice specifying the purpose of the special resolution has been given by a majority of not less than three-fourths of the total unit entitlement of the strata lots, and not less than three-fourths of all members; " strata corporation " means the corporation created by section 6; " strata lot" means a lot shown as such in a strata plan; " strata plan " means a plant that (a) is described in the heading thereto as a strata plan; (b) shows the whole or any part of the land comprised in the plan as being divided into two or more strata lots, whether on one level or more, and whether or not connected with another or others; (c) complies with the requirements of section 4, and includes a plan of resubdivision of any strata lot or strata lots in a strata plan; " unanimous resolution " means a resolution unanimously passed at a duly convened meeting of the strata corporation at which all persons entitled to exercise the powers of voting conferred by or under this Act are present personally or by proxy at the time of the motion; " unit entitlement" in respect of a strata lot means the unit entitlement of that strata lot, specified or apportioned in accordance with clause (/) of subsection (1) of section 4 or subsection (5) of section 16. 1966, c. 46, s. 2; 1968, c. 54, s. 2.  tffandtoto ^- (*) subdivided into strata lots by the deposit of a strata lots. strata plan, and the strata lots created thereby, or any one or more of them, may devolve or be transferred, leased, mortgaged, or otherwise dealt with in the same manner and form as any land the title to which is registered under the Land Registry Act. (2) A strata plan shall not be accepted for deposit by the Registrar unless (a) the title to'the land included in the strata plan is registered in the register of indefeasible fees; and (b) the land included in the strata plan is shown as a single parcel on a subdivision plan deposited pursuant to the Land RegisL a n d m  a  vb e  try Act.  (3) The Registrar shall examine the application and the instrument and strata plan produced in support thereof, and, if satisfied that they are in order and in compliance with all the applicable requirements of the Land Registry Act, shall assign to the strata plan a serial deposit number and issue such new certificates of title for the strata lots shown upon the strata plan as may be necessary. (4) Upon the issue of the new certificate of title, the former certificate shall be cancelled in like manner as provided in section 159 of the Land Registry Act in the case of a transfer of the whole or a portion of . lands included in a certificate of title. (5) A strata plan shall be deemed, upon registration, to be embodied in the register and, notwithstanding any other Act, the owner shall hold . his strata lot and his share in the common property subject to any interests affecting the same for the time being notified on the registered strata plan and subject to any amendments to strata lots or common property shown on that plan. 1966, c. 46, s. 3. strata plans.  4 (1) A strata plan shall (a) delineate the plane boundaries of the land included in the strata plan and the location of the building in relation thereto; (6) bear a statement containing such particulars as may be necessary to identify the title to the land included in the strata plan; (c) include a drawing illustrating the strata lots and distinguishing the strata lots by numbers or letters in consecutive order; (d) define the boundaries of each strata lot by reference to floors, walls, and ceilings; (e) show the approximate floor area of each strata lot; (/) have endorsed upon it a schedule specifying in whole numbers the unit entitlement of each lot and a number equal to the aggregate unit entitlement of all lots, which unit entitlement shall determine (i) the voting rights of owners; (ii) the quantum of the undivided share of each owner in the common property; and  ( i i i ) the proportion payable by each owner of contributions levied under section 14; (g) have endorsed upon it the address at which documents may be served on the strata corporation; and (/i) contain such other data as may be prescribed by regulation. (2) Unless otherwise stipulated in the strata plan, the common boundary of any strata lot with any other strata lot or with common property is . .. the centre of. the floor, wall, or ceiling, as the case may be. (3 ) Every strata plan tendered for deposit in a Land Registry Office (a) shall be accompanied by the certificate of a British Columbia land surveyor that the building shown on the strata plan is within the external boundaries of the land that is the subject of the strata plan, or that appropriate and necessary easements or other interests exist to provide for any part or parts of the building that is or are not within the boundaries; and (6) shall be accompanied by whatever number of copies thereof may be required by the Registrar for taxing authorities; and (c) shall comply with all regulations which may from time to time be made by the Surveyor-General for the purposes of this Act; and (d) shall be signed by the owner of the land included in the strata plan and witnessed in like manner as instruments required to be registered under the Land Registry Act; and (e) shall comply with subsection (1). (4) (a) Upon registration of an instrument or instruments evidencing a transfer of common property by a strata corporation, the Registrar shall cause the strata plan in which the property transferred was included to be amended by deleting that property therefrom. (b) Upon registration in accordance with the Land Registry Act of an instrument or instruments evidencing transfer of lands to a strata corporation, the Registrar shall cause the appropriate strata plan to be amended accordingly. (5) The Registrar shall register a charge against the common property included in the strata plan by endorsing a memorandum thereof on the strata plan. 1966, c. 46, s. 4; 1968, c. 54, s. 3. 5. (1) The common property shall be held by the owners as tenants in common in shares proportional to the unit entitlement of their respective strata lots. (2) Save as in this Act provided, no share in the common property shall be dealt with except with the strata lot of the owner, and any instrument dealing with a strata lot shall operate to deal with the share of the owner in the common property, without express reference thereto. (3) The Registrar shall show on every certificate of title for a strata lot included in a strata plan the owner's share in the common property created by that plan. 1966, c. 46, s. 5.  corporation.  (1) ( ) Th owner or owners of the strata lots included in a strata plan and his or their successors shall, upon deposit of the strata plan in a Land Registry Office, constitute and be members of a body corporate under the name " T h e Owners, Strata Plan N o . " (the number to be specified shall be the registration number of the strata plan). (b) In this subsection, " owners " includes the persons entitled to the land included in the strata plan under subsection (3) of section 18. fl  e  (2) The Companies Act and the Companies Clauses Act do not  apply to a strata corporation. (3) Subject to this Act, the strata corporation is responsible for the enforcement of the by-laws, and the control, management, and administration of the common property. (4) A strata corporation (a) has perpetual succession; (b) shall have a common seal; (c) may sue and be sued; (d) may, as representative of the owners of the strata lots included in the strata plan, sue for and recover damages and costs, or either, in respect of any damage or injury to the common property caused by any person, whether an owner or not; and (e) may be sued in respect of any matter connected with the land included in the strata plan for which the owners are jointly liable. (5) A judgment against the strata corporation shall for all purposes be deemed to be a judgment against the owners of the strata lots included in the strata plan in respective amounts proportionate to their unit entitlements as shown on the strata plan, and execution may be made accordingly. 1966, c. 46, s. 6. ofnwrtgagees 0  ^• Where an owner's interest is subject to a registered mortgage, the mortgage may provide that the power of voting conferred on an owner by or under this Act be exercised in all cases or in specified cases by the mortgagee. (2) Subsection (1) does not apply to allow a mortgagee to vote unless the mortgagee has given written notice of his mortgage to the strata corporation. 1966, c. 46, s. 7.  rfcommoS ^- (1) ^ by unanimous or special resolution may direct the property. strata corporation to transfer or charge common property, or any part thereof. (2) Where a resolution is duly passed under subsection (1) and all persons other than owners having registered or statutory interests or estates in the land included in the strata plan which have been notified to the strata corporation have, in the case either of a transfer or a charge, consented in writing to the release of those interests or estates in respect 4652-6 3  n eo w n e r s  of the land comprised in the proposed transfer or, in the case of a charge, have approved in writing of the execution of the proposed charge, the strata corporation shall execute the appropriate instrument, and the instrument is valid and effective without execution by any person having an interest in the common property, and the receipt of the strata corporation for the purchase money, rent, premiums, or other moneys payable to the strata corporation under the terms of the transfer or charge shall be a sufficient discharge, and shall exonerate the persons taking under the transfer or the charge, as the case may be, from any responsibility for the application of the moneys expressed to have been so received. (3) Every such instrument presented for registration under the Land Registry Act shall be endorsed with or accompanied by a certificate under the seal of the strata corporation that the resolution was duly passed, that the instrument conforms with the terms thereof, and that all necessary consents were given. (4) In favour of purchasers of the common property and in favour of the Registrar, the certificate mentioned in subsection (3) is conclusive evidence of the facts stated therein. (5) The Registrar shall register each transfer by issuing to the transferee a certificate of title for the land transferred, and no notification of the transfer shall be made on any certificate of title or folium of the register. (6) Upon registration of a transfer of common property, the Registrar shall, before issuing a certificate of title, amend the registered strata plan by deleting therefrom the common property comprised in the transfer. 1966, c. 46, s. 8. cOT n"an t? e  n  jjfthe strata p l a n .  a n d  9. (1) The owners, by unanimous or special resolution, may direct  corporation execute on their behalf a grant of easement or a restrictive covenant burdening the land included in the strata plan; or (b) to accept on their behalf a grant of easement or a restrictive covenant benefiting the land included in the strata plan. (2) Where a resolution has been duly passed under subsection (1) and all persons other than owners having registered or statutory interests or estates in the land included in the strata plan which have been notified to the strata corporation have consented in writing to the release of those interests or estates in respect of the land comprised in the proposed grant, the strata corporation shall execute the appropriate instrument, and it is valid and effective without execution by any person having an interest in the land included in the strata plan, and the receipt of the strata corporation is a sufficient discharge and shall exonerate all persons taking under the instrument from any responsibility for the application of the moneys expressed to have been so received. (3) Every such instrument presented for registration under the Land Registry A ct shall be endorsed with or accompanied by a certificate under 4652-7  t n es t r a t a 6  ( ) a  t o  the seal of the strata corporation that the resolution was duly passed and that all necessary consents were given. (4) In favour of persons dealing with the strata corporation under this section and in favour of the Registrar, the certificate mentioned in subsection (3) is conclusive evidence of the facts stated therein. 1966, c. 46, s.9. Acquisition of more common property.  10. (1) The owners, by unanimous or special resolution, may direct the strata corporation to acquire in accordance with the direction any land to be added to the common property. (2) Every document evidencing acquisition of land under subsection (1) that is presented for registration under the Land Registry Act shall be endorsed with or accompanied by a certificate under the seal of the strata corporation that the resolution was duly passed. (3) Upon applying to register title to land acquired under this section, the strata corporation shallfilewith the Registrar an amendment to the strata plan or an amended strata plan satisfactory to the Registrar together with as many copies thereof as he shall require. (4) It shall not be necessary to name as grantees the owners of the strata lots or refer to their unit entitlements in any conveyance to them if these words are used to describe the grantees: " The owners, Strata Plan No. , [address], a corporation subsisting under the Strata Titles Act on behalf of the strata lot owners thereof." 1966, c. 46, s. 10. 11. (1) In respect of each strata lot included in a strata plan, there shall be implied, without registration, (a) in favour of the owner of the strata lot, and as appurtenant thereto, an easement for the subjacent and lateral support thereof by the common property and by every other strata lot capable of affording support; (b) as against the owner of the strata lot and to which the strata lot shall be subject, an easement for the subjacent and lateral support of the common property and of every other strata lot capable of enjoying the support of that strata lot; (c) in favour of the owner of the strata lot, and as appurtenant thereto, easements for the passage or provision of water, sewage, drainage, gas, oil, electricity, garbage, heating and cooling systems, and other services (including telephone, radio, and television services) through or by means of any pipes, wires, cables, chutes, or ducts for the time being existing in the land included in the strata plan to the extent to which those pipes, wires, cables, chutes, or ducts are capable of being used in connection with the enjoyment of the strata lot; and (d) as against the owner of the strata lot, and to which the strata lot shall be subject, easements for the passage or provision of water, sewage, drainage, gas, oil, electricity, garbage, heating and cooling systems, and other services (including tele-  phone, radio, and television services) through or by means of any pipes, wires, cables, chutes, or ducts for the time being existing within the strata lot, as appurtenant to the common property and also to every other strata lot capable of enjoying such easements. (2) All ancillary rights and obligations reasonably necessary to make easements effective apply in respect of easements implied or created under this Act. 1966, c. 46, s. 11. Easement for shelter.  By-laws.  1 2 . (1) The owner of a strata lot included in a strata plan is entitled to have his strata lot sheltered by every part of the building shown in the strata plan capable of affording shelter. (2) The right created by subsection (1) is an easement to which every part of the building shown in the strata plan capable of affording shelter is subject. (3) The easement for shelter created by this section entitles the owner of the dominant tenement to enter on the servient tenement to replace, renew, or restore any shelter. 1966, c. 46, s. 12. 13. (1) The building shall be regulated by by-laws. (2) The by-laws shall provide for the control, management, administration, use, and enjoyment of the strata lots and common property, and shall include (a) the by-laws set forth in the First Schedule, which shall not be added to, amended, or repealed except by unanimous resolution; and (6) the by-laws set forth in the Second Schedule, which shall not be added to, amended, or repealed except by special resolution; and until by-laws are made in that behalf, the by-laws set forth in the First and Second Schedules have force and effect from the time of the deposit of the strata plan in the Land Registry Office. (3) No by-law or addition to or amendment or repeal of any by-law shall operate to prohibit or restrict a devolution of strata lots or any transfer, lease, mortgage, or other dealing therewith or to destroy or modify any easement implied or created by this Act. (4) No addition to or amendment or repeal of any by-law under clause (a) of subsection (2) has any effect until the strata corporation gives notification thereof in the form prescribed by regulation to the Registrar. Upon receiving the notification, the Registrar shall make reference thereto on the deposited strata plan. (5) The strata corporation shall, on the application of an owner or mortgagee of a strata lot or any person authorized in writing by him, make available for inspection the by-laws for the time being in force. (6) The by-laws for the time being in force bind the strata corporation and the owners to the same extent as if such by-laws had respectively been signed and sealed by the strata corporation and each owner and contained covenants on the part of the strata corporation with each 4652-9  owner and on the part of each owner with every other owner and with the strata corporation to observe and perform all the provisions of the by-laws. 1966, c. 46, s. 13. powers of  1  corporation  (*) ^ duties of the strata corporation include the following:— To 3 keep insured the building to the replacement value thereof againstfireand such other risks as may be prescribed under this Act, unless the owners by unanimous or special resolution otherwise resolve: (b) To insure against such other risks as the owners may from time to time determine by special resolution: (c) Subject to section 19, forthwith to apply insurance moneys received by it in respect of damage to the building in rebuilding and reinstating the building so far as the same may lawfully be effected: (d) To pay premiums on any policies of insurance effected by it: (e) To keep in a state of good and serviceable repair and properly maintain common property: (/) To comply with notices or orders by any competent public or local authority requiring repairs to or work to be done in respect of the land included in the strata plan or the buildings; and the strata corporation, for the purpose of effecting any insurance under clause (a), shall be deemed to have and has an insurable interest to the replacement value of the building, and for the purpose of effecting any other insurance under this subsection shall be deemed to have and has an insurable interest in the subject-matter of the insurance. (2) The powers of the strata corporation include the following:— (a) To establish a fund for administrative expenses sufficient for the control, management, and administration of the common property, for the payment of any premiums of insurance, and the discharge of any other obligations of the strata corporation: (b) To determine the amounts to be raised for the purposes aforesaid: (c) To raise amounts so determined by levying contributions on the owners in proportion to the unit entitlement of their respective strata lots; and (d) To recover from any owner by an action for debt in any Court of competent jurisdiction any sum of money expended by the strata corporation for repairs to or work done by it or at its direction in complying with any notice or order by a competent public or local authority in respect of that portion of the building comprising the strata lot of that owner. (3) (a) Subject to clause (b), any contribution levied as aforesaid shall be due and payable on the passing of a resolution to that effect and in accordance with the terms of the resolution, and may be recovered as a debt by the strata corporation in an action in any Court of competent  4652-10  r  ne  m s u r e  an<  jurisdiction from the owner at the time when the resolution was passed and from the owner at the time when the action was instituted both jointly and severally. (b) The strata corporation shall, on the application of an owner or any person authorized in writing by him, certify (i) the amount of any contribution determined as the contribution of the owner; (ii) the manner in which the contribution is payable; (iii) the extent to which the contribution has been paid by the owner; and (iv) the amount of any rate paid by the strata corporation under section 17 and not recovered by it; and in favour of any person dealing with that owner, the certificate is conclusive evidence of the matter certified therein. (4) The policy of insurance authorized by this section and taken out by the strata corporation in respect of the building shall not be brought into contribution with any other policy of insurance, save another policy authorized by this section in respect of the same building. 1966, c. 46, s. 14. insurance.  -^5 (j) where a building is insured to its replacement value, an owner may effect a policy of insurance in respect of any damage to his strata lot in a sum equal to the amount secured, at the date of any loss referred to in the policy, by mortgages charged upon his strata lot. (2) Where a policy of insurance as described in subsection (1) is in force, (a) payment shall be made by the insurer under the policy to the mortgagees whose interests are noted thereon in order of their respective priorities, subject to the terms and conditions of the policy; (b) subject to the terms and conditions of the policy, the insurer is liable to pay thereunder (i) the value stated in the policy; or (ii) the amount of the loss; or (iii) the amount sufficient, at the date of the loss, to discharge mortgages charged upon the strata lot, whichever is the least amount; (c) where the amount so paid by the insurer equals the amount necessary to discharge a mortgage charged upon the strata lot, the insurer is entitled to an assignment of that mortgage; and (d) where the amount so paid by the insurer is less than the amount necessary to discharge a mortgage charged upon the strata lot, the insurer is entitled to a mortgage of the mortgage to secure the amount so paid on terms and conditions agreed upon as provided in subsection (4), or, failing agreement, on the same terms and conditions as those contained in the mortgage by the owner. _ 4 6 5 2  n  (3) Where a building is uninsured or has been insured to less than its replacement value, an owner may (a) effect a policy of insurance in respect of any damage to his strata lot in a sum equal to the replacement value of his strata lot less a sum representing the amount to which his strata lot is insured under any policy of insurance effected on the building; and, (b) notwithstanding any existing policies, effect a policy of insurance in respect of damage to his strata lot in a sum equal to the amount secured, at the date of any loss referred to in the policy, by mortgages charged upon his strata lot, and clauses (a), (b), (c), and (d) of subsection (2) apply in respect of any payment under the policy; and, for the purposes of this subsection, the amount for which a strata lot is insured under a policy of insurance effected in respect of the building shall be determined by multiplying the value stated in the policy by the unit entitlement of the strata lot and dividing the product so obtained by the sum of the unit entitlements of all strata lots. (4) For the purposes of clause (d) of subsection (2) and clause (6) of subsection (3), any insurer and mortgagee or mortgagees may at any time, whether before or after a policy of insurance has been effected by an owner, agree upon the terms and conditions of the mortgage of a mortgage. (5) Nothing in this section shall limit the right of an owner to insure against risks other than damage to his strata lot. (6) The policy of insurance authorized by this section and taken out by an owner in respect of damage to his strata lot shall not be brought into contribution with any other policy of insurance, save another policy authorized by this section and taken out in respect of damage to the same strata lot. 1966, c. 46, s. 15. o S S o t s  1  1  (*) Subject to the provisions of this section, this Act applies to any resubdivision of any strata lot or strata lots included in a strata plan by the deposit in the Land Registry Office of another strata plan. (2) Upon deposit of a strata plan of resubdivision of a strata lot or strata lots included in a strata plan on deposit in the Land Registry Office, the Registrar shall amend the strata plan on deposit as prescribed by regulation. (3) Notwithstanding section 6, the owners of strata lots in a strata plan of resubdivision are not a body corporate but are, upon deposit of the strata plan of resubdivision, members of the strata corporation formed on deposit of the original strata plan. (4) On deposit of a strata plan of resubdivision, strata lots comprised therein become subject to the burden and have the benefit of any easements affecting the strata lot or strata lots in the original strata plan that is or are included in the plan of resubdivision.  4652-12  (5) The Schedule endorsed on a strata plan of resubdivision, as required by section 4, shall apportion among the strata lots the unit entitlement of the strata lot or strata lots in the original strata plan that is or are included in the plan of resubdivision. 1966, c. 46, s. 16. Valuation for assess merit and tax purposes.  desTractfonot the b u i l d i n g ,  17. (1) For the purposes of valuation of land and improvements for assessment and taxation, the land and improvements included in a strata plan shall be valued as a single parcel of land with improvements thereon as if it were all owned by one owner, and for that purpose, but no other, the land and improvements shall be deemed to be owned by the strata corporation. (2) During the period that elapses from the time of registration of the strata plan and the making of a valuation for the purposes of assessment and taxation, the valuation then in force shall be deemed to be a valuation made in accordance with subsection (1). (3) For the purposes of assessment and taxation, (a) the values of the land and of the improvements as determined under subsection (1) shall be apportioned between or among all of the strata lots included in the strata plan in proportion to the unit entidement of the respective strata lots as shown on the strata plan: (b) each strata lot shall be deemed to be a separate parcel of land and improvements having values equal to those apportioned to it under clause (a); and (c) the strata corporation is not liable for any rate, tax, or charge, and common property shall not be subject to any lien, charge, sale, or other process in respect of unpaid taxes. 1966, c. 46, s. 17. • (*) P ^ building being deemed to be destroyed, the strata corporation shall forthwith lodge with the Registrar of Titles a notification of the destruction in the form prescribed by regulation. (2) Upon receipt of notification under subsection (1), the Registrar shall make an entry thereof on the relevant strata plan in accordance with the regulations. (3) Upon entry being made under subsection (2), the owners of strata lots in the strata plan are entitled to the land included in the strata plan as tenants in common in shares proportional to the unit entidement of their respective strata lots. (4) The owners of all strata lots, by unanimous or special resolution, may direct the strata corporation to transfer the land included in the strata plan, or any part or parts thereof. (5) Where a resolution has been duly passed under subsection (4) and all persons other than owners having registered or statutory interests or estates in the land included in the strata plan which have been notified to the strata corporation have consented in writing to the release of those interests or estates in respect of the land comprised in the proposed dis4652-13 1  1  8  u  o n  position, the strata corporation shall execute the appropriate instrument, and the instrument is valid and effective without execution by any person having an interest in the land included in the strata plan, and the receipt of the strata corporation is a sufficient discharge, and shall exonerate the persons taking under the transfer from any responsibility for the application of the moneys expressed to have been so received. (6) Every instrument under this section presented for registration under the Land Registry Act shall be endorsed with or accompanied by a certificate under the seal of the strata corporation that the resolution was duly passed and that all necessary consents were given. (7) In favour of a purchaser of the land included in the strata plan and in favour of the Registrar, the certificate mentioned in subsection (6) is conclusive evidence of the facts stated therein. (8) Upon presentation for registration under the Land Registry Act of an instrument of transfer of the land included in the strata plan by the strata corporation under this section, the Registrar, before issuing a certificate of title, shall make the entry prescribed by subsection (2). (9) Where land is transferred by the strata corporation under this section, (a) the owners of the strata lots in which the land is included shall surrender to the Registrar their duplicate certificates of title for cancellation; and (b) the Registrar, after cancelling the folia of the register constituted by the certificates of title relating to the strata lots, shall register the transfer by issuing to the transferee a certificate of title for the land transferred. 1966, c. 46, s. 18. D|structk.not 1 9 (1) For the purposes of this Act, the building is deemed to be destroyed on the happening of the following events:— (a) When the owners by unanimous or special resolution so resolve; or (b) When the Court is satisfied that, having regard to the rights and interests of the owners as a whole, it is just and equitable that the building shall be deemed to have been destroyed and makes a declaration to that effect. (2) In any case where a declaration has been made under clause (b) of subsection (1), the Court may by order impose such conditions and give such directions (including directions for the payment of money) as it thinksfitfor the purposes of adjusting as between the strata corporation and the owners and as amongst the owners themselves the effect of the declaration. (3) (a) Where the building is damaged but not deemed to be destroyed, the Court may by order settle a scheme, including provisions (i) for the reinstatement in whole or in part of the building; and (ii) for transfer or conveyance of the interests of owners of strata lots which have been wholly or partially destroyed to the other owners in proportion to the unit entitlements of the strata lots Ate* 1 of which they are the owners. 4652-14 A  J  (b) In the exercise of its powers under this subsection, the Court may make such orders as it deems necessary or expedient for giving effect to the scheme, including orders (i) directing the application of insurance moneys received by the strata corporation in respect of damage to the building; (ii) directing payment of money by the strata corporation or by owners or by some one or more of them; (iii) directing such amendment of the strata plan as the Court thinks fit, so as to include in the common property any enlargement thereof; and (iv) imposing such terms and conditions as it thinks fit. (4) For the purposes of this section, an application may be made to the Court by the strata corporation or by an owner or by a registered mortgagee of a strata lot. (5) On any application to the Court under this section, any insurer who has effected insurance on the building or any part thereof (being insurance against destruction of strata lots or damage to the building) has the right to appear. (6) The Court may from time to time vary any order made by it under this section. (7) (a) The Court, on the application of the strata corporation or any member thereof, may by order make provision for the winding-up of the affairs of the strata corporation. (b) By the same order, the Court may declare the strata corporation dissolved as of and from a date specified in the order. (8) On any application under this section, the Court may make such order for the payment of costs as it thinksfit.1966, c. 46, s. 19. Service of documents on body corporate.  Administrator,  20. (1) The strata corporation shall, at or near the front building alignment of the parcel, cause to be continually available a receptacle suitable for purposes of postal delivery, with the name of the strata corporation clearly designated thereon. (2) A document may be served on the strata corporation or the council thereof by post enclosed in a prepaid letter addressed to the strata corporation or the council, as the case may be, at the address shown on the strata plan or any amendment thereof, or by placing it in the receptacle referred to in subsection (1). (3) For the purposes of this section, " document " includes summons, notice, order, and other legal process. 1966, c. 46, s. 20. (1) The strata corporation or any person having an interest in a strata lot may apply to the Court for appointment of an administrator. (2) The Court may in its discretion, on cause shown, appoint an administrator for an indefinite period or for afixedperiod on such terms and conditions as to remuneration or otherwise as it thinks fit. The remuneration and expenses of the administrator shall be an administrative expense within the meaning of this Act.  (3 ) The administrator shall, to the exclusion of the strata corporation, have the powers and duties of the strata corporation or such of those powers and duties as the Court shall order. (4) The administrator may delegate any of the powers so vested in him. (5) The Court may in its discretion, on the application of the administrator or any person referred to in subsection (1), remove or replace the administrator. (6) On any application made under this section, the Court may make such order for the payment of costs as it thinksfit.1966, c. 46, s. 21. voting rights. 2 2 . (1) Any powers of voting conferred by or under this Act may be exercised, (a) in the case of an owner who is an infant, by his guardian; (6) in the case of an owner who is for any reason unable to control his property, by the person who for the time being is authorized by law to control that property. (2) Where the Court, upon the application of the strata corporation or of any owner, is satisfied that there is no person able to vote in respect of a lot, the Court (a) shall, in cases where a unanimous resolution is required by this Act, and (6) may, in its discretion in any other case, appoint the Public Trustee or some other fit and proper person for the purpose of exercising such powers of voting under this Act as the Court shall deterrnine. (3) The Court may order service of notice of such application on such person as it thinksfitor may dispense with service of such notice. (4) On making any such appointment, the Court may make such order as it thinks necessary or expedient to give effect to such appointment, including an order as to the payment of costs of the application, and may vary any order so made. 1966, c. 46, s. 22. Regulations.  2 3 . The Lieutenant-Governor in Council may make regulations not inconsistent with this Act for and with respect to (a) the manner and form of depositing a strata plan; (&) the fees to be paid for any procedure or function required or permitted to be done under this Act; and (c) the alteration or prescribing of any procedure or exercise of any power, right, or duty, statutory or not, under any other Statute, to me extent necessary to give full force and effect to this Act; and (d) all matters which by this Act are required or permitted to be prescribed, or which are necessary or convenient to be prescribed, for carrying out or giving effect to this Act. 1966, c. 46, s. 23.  24. (1) For the purposes of the Wife's Protection Act, a strata lot shall be deemed to be land upon which is situate a dwelling. (2) The Plans Cancellation Act does not apply to a strata plan. 1966, c. 46, s. 24. 25. This Act shall come into force and effect on thefirstday of September, 1966. 1966, c. 46, s. 25.  S C H E D U L E S FIRST S C H E D U L E Duties of an Owner  1. An owner shall (a) permit the strata corporation and its agents, at all reasonable times on notice (except in case of emergency, when no notice shall be required), to enter his strata lot for the purpose of inspecting the same and maintaining, repairing, or renewing pipes, wires, cables, and ducts for the time being existing in the strata lot and capable of being used in connection with the enjoyment of any other strata lot or common property, or for the purpose of maintaining, repairing, or renewing common property, or for the purpose of ensuring that the by-laws are being observed; (b) forthwith carry out all work that may be ordered by any competent public or local authority in respect of his strata lot other than work for the benefit of the building generally and pay all rates, taxes, charges, outgoings, and assessments that may be payable in respect of his strata lot; (c) repair and maintain his strata lot, and keep it in a state of good repair, reasonable wear and tear and damage by fire, storm, tempest, or act of God excepted; (d) use and enjoy the common property in a manner that will not unreasonably interfere with the use and enjoyment thereof by other owners or their families or visitors; (e) not use his lot, or permit the same to be used, in a manner or for a purpose that will cause a nuisance or hazard to any occupier of a lot (whether an owner or not) or his family; (/) notify the strata corporation forthwith upon any change of ownership or of any mortgage or other dealing in connection with his strata lot.  Further Duties of Strata Corporation 1. The strata corporation shall (a) control, manage, and administer the common property for the benefit of all owners; (ft) keep in a state of good and serviceable repair and properly maintain the fixtures and fittings (including elevators) used in connection with the common property; (c) where practicable establish and maintain suitable lawns and gardens on the common property; (d) maintain and repair (including renewal where reasonably necessary) pipes, • wires, cables, chutes, and ducts for the time being existing in the parcel and capable of being used in connection with the enjoyment of more than one strata lot or common property; (e) on the written request of an owner or mortgagee of a strata lot, produce to such owner or mortgagee, or person authorized in writing by the owner : or mortgagee, the policy or policies of insurance effected by the strata  corporation and the receipt or receipts for the last premium or premiums in respect thereof.  Further Powers of Strata Corporation 3. The strata corporation may (a) purchase, hire, or otherwise acquire personal property for use by owners in connection with their enjoyment of common property; borrow moneys required by it in the performance of its duties or the exercise of its powers; (c) secure the repayment of moneys borrowed by it, and the payment of interest thereon, by negotiable instrument, or mortgage of unpaid contributions (whether levied or not), or mortgage of any property vested in it, or by combination of those means; (d) invest as it may determine any moneys in the fund for administrative expenses; (e) make an agreement with any owner or occupier of a strata lot for the provision of amenities or services by it to the strata lot or to the owner or occupier thereof; (/) grant to an owner the right to exclusive use and enjoyment of common property, or special privileges in respect thereof, the grant to be determinable on reasonable notice, unless the strata corporation by unanimous resolution otherwise resolves; (g) do all things reasonably necessary for the enforcement of the by-laws and the control, management, and administration of the common property.  Council of the Strata Corporation 4. The powers and duties of the strata corporation shall, subject to any restriction imposed or direction given at a general meeting, be exercised and performed by the council of the strata corporation. 5. The council shall consist of not less than three nor more than seven owners and shall be elected at each annual general meeting. Where there are not more than three owners, the council shall consist of all owners. 6. Except where the council consists of all the owners, the strata corporation may, by resolution at an extraordinary general meeting, remove any member of the council before the expiration of his term of office and appoint another owner in his place, to hold office until the next annual general meeting. 7. Any casual vacancy on the council may be filled by the remaining members of the council. 8. Except where there is only one owner, a quorum of the council is two where the council consists of four or less members, three where it consists of five or six members, and four where it consists of seven members. 9. At the commencement of each meeting, the council shall elect a chairman for the meeting, who shall have a casting as well as an original vote; and if any chairman so elected vacates the chair during the course of a meeting, the council shall choose in his stead another chairman, who shall have the same rights of voting. 10. At meetings of the council all matters shall be determined by simple majority vote. 11. The council may (a) meet together for the conduct of business, adjourn and otherwise regulate its meetings as it thinks fit, and it shall meet when any member gives to the other members not less than seven days' notice of a meeting proposed by him, specifying the reason for calling the meeting; (b) employ for and on behalf of the strata corporation such agents and servants as it thinks fit in connection with the control, management, and administration of the common property, and the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of the strata corporation;  (c) subject to any restriction imposed or direction given at a general meeting, delegate to one or more of its members such of its powers and duties as it thinks fit, and at any time revoke such delegation. 12. The council shall (a) keep minutes of its proceedings; (b) cause minutes to be kept of general meetings; (c) cause proper books of account to be kept in respect of all sums of money received and expended by it and the matters in respect of which receipt and expenditure take place; (d) prepare proper accounts relating to all moneys of the strata corporation, and the income and expenditure thereof, for each annual general meeting; (e) on application of an owner or mortgagee, or any person authorized in writing by him, make the books of account available for inspection at all reasonable times. 13. A l l acts done in good faith by the council are, notwithstanding it be afterwards discovered that there was some defect in the appointment or continuance in office of any member of the council, as valid as if the member had been duly appointed or had duly continued in office.  General Meetings 14. A general meeting of owners shall be held within three months after registration of the strata plan. 15. Subsequent general meetings shall be held once in each year, and not more than fifteen months shall elapse between the date of one annual general meeting and that of the next 16. All general meetings other than the annual general meetings shall be called extraordinary general meetings. 17. The Council may whenever it thinks fit, and shall upon a requisition in writing made by owners entitled to twenty-five per centum of the total unit entitlement of the strata lots, convene an extraordinary general meeting. 18. Seven days' notice of every general meeting specifying the place, the date, and the hour of meeting, and in case of special business the general nature of such business, shall be given to all owners and first mortgagees who have notified their interests to the strata corporation, but accidental omission to give notice to any owner or to any first mortgagee or non-receipt of notice by any owner does not invalidate any proceedings at any such meeting.  Proceedings at General Meetings 19. All business shall be deemed special that is transacted at an annual general meeting, with the exception of the consideration of accounts and election of members to the council, or at any extraordinary general meeting. 20. Save as in these by-laws otherwise provided, no business shall be transacted at any general meeting unless a quorum of persons entitled to vote is present at the time when the meeting proceeds to business. One-half of the persons entitled to vote present in person or by proxy shall constitute a quorum. 21. If within one-half hour from the time appointed for a general meeting a quorum is not present, the meeting shall stand adjourned to the same day in the next week at the same place and time; and if at the adjourned meeting a quorum is not present within one-half hour from the time appointed for the meeting, the persons entitled to vote present shall be a quorum. 22. At the commencement of a general meeting, a chairman of the meeting shall be elected. 23. At any general meeting a resolution by the vote of the meeting shall be decided on a show of hands, unless a poll is demanded by any owner present in person or by proxy. Unless a poll be so demanded, a declaration by the chairman that a resolution has, on the show of hands, been carried is conclusive evidence of  the fact without proof of the number or proportion of votes recorded in favour of or against the resolution. A demand for a poll may be withdrawn. 24. A poll, if demanded, shall be taken in whatever manner the chairman thinks fit, and the result of the poll shall be deemed to be the resolution of the meeting at which the poll was demanded. 25. In the case of equality in the votes, whether on a show of hands or on a poll, the chairman of the meeting is entitled to a casting vote in addition to his original vote:  Votes of Owners 26. On a show of hands, each owner shall have one vote; on a poll, the votes of owners shall correspond with the unit entitlement of their respective strata lots. 27. On a show of hands or on a poll, votes may be given either personally or by proxy. 28. An instrument appointing a proxy shall be in writing under the hand of the appointer or his attorney, and may be either general or for a particular meeting. A proxy need not be an owner. 29. Except in cases where, by or under this Act, a unanimous resolution is required, no owner is entitled to vote at any general meeting unless all contributions payable in respect of his strata lot have been duly paid. 30. Co-owners may vote only by proxy jointly appointed by them or by one of the co-owners appointed by the other or others, and in the absence of such proxy or co-owner are not entitled to a vote on a show of hands except when a unanimous resolution is required by this Act, but any one co-owner may demand a poll. On any poll, each co-owner is entitled to that part of the vote applicable to a strata lot that is proportionate to his interest in the strata lot. The joint proxy (if any) on a poll shall have a vote proportionate to the interests in the strata lot of the joint owners who do not vote personally or by individual proxy. 31. Where owners are entitled to successive interests in a lot, the owner entitled to the first interest is alone entitled to vote, whether on a show of hands or a poll. 32. Where an owner is a trustee, he shall exercise the voting rights in respect of the lot to the exclusion of persons beneficially interested in the trust, and those persons shall not vote.  Common Seal 33. The strata corporation shall have a common sea], which shall at no time be used except by authority of the council previously given and in the presence of the members of the council or at least two members thereof, who shall sign every instrument to which the seal is affixed, except that where there is only one member of the strata corporation, his signature is sufficient for the purpose of this clause. 1966, c. 46, First Sch.  SECOND SCHEDULE  1. An owner shall not (a) use his strata lot for any purpose which may be illegal or injurious to the reputation of the building; (b) make undue noise in or about any strata lot or common property; (c) keep any animals on his strata lot or the common property after notice in that behalf from the council. 2. When the purpose for which a strata lot is intended to be used is shown expressly or by necessary implication on or by the registered strata plan, an owner shall not use his strata lot for any other purpose, or permit the same so to be used. 1966, c. 46, Second Sch. Printed by A . S U T T O N , Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty in right of the Province of British Columbia. 1 9 6 9 1M-869-6771  APPENDIX F QUESTIONNAIRE  Dear S i r : During the l a s t year I have been engaged i n r e s e a r c h on condominium housing i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h my work at the School of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Condominium housing u s u a l l y takes the form of m u l t i - u n i t p r o j e c t s of any type and can be d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : A form of l a n d ownership, T i t l e s A c t , i n which:-  s u b j e c t t o the  Strata  1. l a n d , b u i l d i n g s and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s subdivided i n t o : (a) s t r a t a i n fee (b) common by the strata  are  l o t s t h a t are s e p a r a t e l y owned s i m p l e , and p r o p e r t y shared and c o n t r o l l e d S t r a t a C o r p o r a t i o n of which a l l l o t owners are members.  An important p a r t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s the d i s c o v e r y of any p o l i c i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o such housing i n the l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s of the P r o v i n c e . As a means of o b t a i n i n g such i n f o r m a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s are put t o you: What, if concerning  any, are the condominium  -policies housing  of  your municipality development?  What, if any, are the special procedures to develop a condominium project in your (e.g. re-zoning is perhaps necessary)?  necessary municipality  I f such i n f o r m a t i o n i s not a v a i l a b l e t o you, p l e a s e forward the q u e s t i o n s t o any o f f i c i a l a b l e t o answer them. P l e a s e m a i l your r e p l y t o : Andrew C o n r a d i  Hoping t o hear from you a t your e a r l i e s t Yours s i n c e r e l y , Andrew C o n r a d i  convenience,  APPENDIX G (continued)  PROCEDURE FOR PROCESSING PLANS FOR BUiLDii'MG AND DEVELOPMENT PERf'/il' "S (OUTRIGHT USE) INITIAL APPLICATION  Cr.C .iI.~>  P L A N : ; Si.'ixirris TO B I ' I I L - I N G i^AmriENr : v AND AT.E E C U CClU'LElLNisa AN'J F O R ' J S EI M ' ' r . R ItC Z O N I N G AND BSVEU5?K E N T 3V-u'-w. TLAN EXAMINATION AND J D E V E I O F X - N T ?r?j.IT A P F L I C A T I O : ; AI»E C C H FIETEO AND -A J L A N CAS'J EX I i FILED SHOWING T H E LOCATION O r THE VLAN.  Fcro;  FIRf V/ARDE.'i- Flf!Z MARSHAL-  ENGiMEcRi^G  ' S SCIIE C A S E S . H E A P P L I C A N T I S R E Q U E S T ED 70 TAiLE A SET OP PLANS TO THE pIRE WAP.DES"TOf IKE MARSHAL FOR <\pc'RO'.'A.L I'MJCR T H E P I K E n-UIS CH F t W i S C l A L F I R E KAKSILtL A C T .  DEPARTMENT  TKE DAY FCLl/V S J TiiE DATE 0? A!*i-LICA ARE S E I N G 'jEi,,1.-i-.rJ.r::.7 v. J Ctl 6 SECTIONS \a , T S TOR ETJ;E E T CROT-S ICr-.ECK I O N , FOR n i s FLt-E" LAN • E:..;;:. [NOS, A I R P O L L TlON cc N T R O L , HIGHWAYS S I C . TH3 VIANS A?.E CS: ::'.L\LLY R E T U R N E D TO T'iE SUtiDXS , Dc.FAR'V.ENT Hi 2 err 3 O:;ALLY :  OA-iS, OR C C C A S  MUCH  to:;c£a.  f;OTIrlCATIO:-J EV  DUILOIriO  ci?>.-.r:Ti.;i;ir  sus^iv:;:.:;  IP ENGINEERING D E P W I T E N I R E V E S T S W P E R M I T TO C E HELD TOR C L E ' / . V N C : - : ut C^OSSO.ETIS , E T C . . :;-:E APPLICANT IS SENT A POST CARU A.37I3INr. HTM T O CONTACT r.!E r"NC I N . E B I N N P . E l / ^ r HENT FOR DSIAtLS. =  PLANNING  DEPARTMENT  THE KAY THE FLAN3 ARE RELVR :o BY E N Y A:<E S E N ; TO THE PLANNING CE:'AR-.V.S: TO E N S I Y E Ti:.\T T^E FROVOiF.D DF.VELOV.'.; 13 NOi IN AN AREA REQUIP.EO F H SC:-. .5, FAKKS, HICHFGT( RE EON INC, RESi'SOIVIS ION C-t REDEVELOPMENT. IF IN S'-'C:* AN' A?J1\, T: : E PLANS ARE LEFT FO?. CLEARANCE. IN SCtE CASEo Tt!E PLANS ARE REFEiaES TO THE UES'.CN PANEL FCil APPROVAL. V:{E:-»:-: THESE IS NO HOLD, 1>/£ FLANS ARE NOT LEFT IN FLAWING D E F A C E NT. IF FLANS ARE LEFT IN .LY RETURNED IN PLANNING THEY AS? CE TIONAL >'.\Y SOT 3E KErvUNED  HEALTH BUILDING  I H SOIF. CASES . PIANS ARE SENT TO HEALTH DEPARTMENT POR THEIR AptRCVAL L'l-TjER THE HEALTH BY-UVW.  DEPARTMENT-  P L A N S AP.E C O C K E D B Y E'.'ILS.IN< FC?. C O M P L I A N C E W I T H Z C N I N U A K E N T BY-LAW. (i.e. F L O C 3 S P A C E R A T I O , PARKING, Y A R D S , L I C H I KSliS, E T C . )  CiTA/lTME.-JT  r  P L A N S A H Z CHECKED B Y 3'JILDI! M E N T FOR C O M P L I A N C E W I T H B L ' I L D I N C J Y LAW. (i.e. sraiicruRE. E X I T S , C U S S GP C O N D U C T I O N , CRADES , E T C . ) T H E SET T I M E S P E N T B Y T H E B U I L D I N G DETAXtKECT I N CHECKING T H E PLANS RUNS F P U ' . CNE HOUR T O K A N Y HOURS S P S E A D OVER S E V E R A L D A Y S OR 1  UQTlflCXnCU  BY rUiLPl'.'G DZPAamcfjT  III THE HA.ICSITY C? CASE5 , DiE PL.\?JS DO M3T Ca«:-'LK WHOLLY V-'ITH THE WliDINC ANQ 20IUNU A.-.TJ DE'VELO^.ENT AI.'D THE CON • ^-ACTClt G-N..K Is EEQ'JU.ED TO AMEIiD THE ?LAN3 A.'O SUBMIT FLsKTiita CON'S:P2?A3LE TIME 12 SPENT EXPLAINTNC ANTJ Pl-C^^StW T>tE V « : > i U S ITEMS A.VJ A L S O  A?.Cl;i'fECT,  INFCR^.VO ri N,  BUILDING A M D DEVELOPMENT  P£n;j/TS is^uec  W I E t ! TiLF. F L A N S « : C H P L Y WITH TI'.S BY-IJV-S AND ANY "HOLDS" HAVE BEEii CLE.'?::3 liY tSCI.NtaiN-: ASD/CA PLANNING. Tl'E G I L D I N G A!.0 r E V E L O ' M E . ' i : PERMITS K.U. ISiK-Ji,  Source:  City of Vancouver, B.C. See also Rossen, op. c i t . , for a description of the Development Permit System i n the City of Vancouver.  PROCEDURE FOR PROCESSING FLAMS FOR BUILDING AND DEVELOPMENT PERMITS (CONDITIONAL USE) INITIAL  APPLICATION  iV:;t:« v > ' i':.Tr r rE'L : UfTJt' i-t-\N-r.i '•ANS  SL'FMITTEO  TU  M I LDI'.Y. DEw-KYt'.ENT ;  A:.O y.-.t. CHECKED -:oa  i'v.i  c a u L E T E N E : ^ A::.  -J-J:-: 2R THE BY-LAW, FLAN  ANO FIXA>:I:;.\  DEVEi.Oi'-  • ON I-VR.: A:.J AS I-UCATIO:.* A X E C ^ I -  OF.VE:  1  CVhOy.X I S F I t . E U " H E LCCA1HA OF T!l£ PLAN. AND  ING  A  V/ARt-EH - F I R E f.iA/'ISHAi.  SHOE-  IV: SCMC  CASE-;  £0 TO TAiCK  THE  ;s  A;VI.:'LV::  v:  \ STT O f PLANS TO THE "IM-:  WAP.DE^ O i ; F!i:F. ^ - i i - M . F-JR  CNLTiK T H E F IKE H Y - I A ACT.  A-'KM'.'A: :  0!! i :'.CV;:;CIAL  f IRE rWKliKAL  ENGi^ERING FLANNiNG  O:--E  SET  EERING  TI-.I.;  i::!^ir  .i-'Q J E r s  r  OVV.E:.T  5Ki-t&\yj.:;v ING  c:-  ENGINEERING THE  r-vo .r'.v'?U<H .Fs.r  y:-^i{.c  ITOLNICAL  SOME  Of  AND  THE  AJ»E  SENT  FOX C H E C K I N G  AND FCrt  ETC.)  FLANS  D.\;E  VL\NS  A:U :;E10UY,'  INv  ARE  0?  7:1s  TIA:>;  DF.;.'O.T:.E:.T J  IS S E N T  THE  S.V.E  TO  THE  HA::::: ..: SOARD.  THE  POLLUTION' CCN17.0L,  PIANNINL;  e . SrTREL'N-  TO T H E  CM  NGTIrJCATIO'J OY  AT I S  ENGINTHE  THE FOR  c?ossiw:s, A I R  i!  r-'AY S , E V C .  THE  PLANS ARE G E N E R A L L Y A/.'P;KNED TO T H E B U I L D IV.- C E I ? A R I S .1 OA 3 D A Y S ,  TON-  SV-LA>*. ( i . S1ACS RATIO,  PRESENTATION  -  AL;. i  VAR-;-  DEVEL-  \i:ryc<  t>iv:-.?r.v.CHECKS  S E V E R S , V.'.VIER, ST-Xi~i  ArVMCA-  TO  DAY  orv.Ef'.s AT.E SENT TO ? L . \ - . . : : f : : . .  FOI-(Mit*.  T:'.E ;>AV  DEPARTMENT  DEPARTMENT  PLMUIMQ  OCCASIONALLV V.CCW LONGER.  D2P.VlTf.'2HT  RE:VRNZD T O T H E IN 2 WEEKS, S I T  -E:AX::- .A\T ,  :r  CASES  TA:<£L  I S HOT I F LETj BY T H E PI A N N IN*.; D E P A R T M E N T . T l i l S A D D I T I O N A L U T v V N A I ION I S 'JS'JALLY F.EQv TKF.D P.EFU'.E T H E L'E'-'E L O ; W . N T P E R M I T  I  PEf-.uns  D?.vci-c-?;Ji'»T  TE<:H -.:fc\:. Pi WIT  •-•KEN  :HE  MENT ATiLICANT  ISSUED  y.',!i3 10  A P P L I C A T I O N I S A P I R C V E D BY T H E PLANN::*' BOARD, T H E D E V E L O P IS ISSL'ED AND  t>; Ti-t P L A N N I N G  CHF.  EEPARIXEl.T.  NOTIFICATION IP  D Y E'JILOKiG DZPARTf.lErJT  ENnit.TrTMNC  PERMIT  nr.PA'J-iyES'T p e . v j F S T ? r v ?  TO ? E H E i r  HLt T O  F C ? CLr..\?ANC': 0~  J  . SUEDIVISIOS E T C . , THE A P P L I C A N T I S GENT A f C S T C v K D A D V I S I N G CON TACTc cT: H E E N U t N Z E U t i C D S P A R T TAILS.  I  HEALTH IN  CAJaES .  D E P A S T M t S ' f FOR K E A L 1 H BY-LAW.  BUILDING  DEPARTMENT  ON R C C E I P T OF TdZ P L A N S  FRO'. P L A N N I N G  or.?.\3TK£:;;, TV:E IS  CHTCKED  3L'IUIW '-•LAST  yen  BY-LAV.  (i.e.  Siai'CTUaS. EXITS,  Or' CO:;S:R'-C:ICN,  ETC.)  NOTlFiCAT.'O.'i E Y DO'ILDI.'JQ  D^PA.^TMZfJT  K rW D O C Q T L iU YLHY H O L YW TH I P TAL .A i?JN .S B Y L V ' ^t T .Uir ' I E ^ D Y S IS JZ ' O, la va i CPH ;<T E ^P A N ITNG IN  TKI  C?  CVS^J , THZ  :  hOT  BUILDING  AI-D L":-7v'iLCr:CNT TH:I A T I C I U T ^ C T .  ca  a;:.T3  Esocia.v3  TO  C0HT.L\CTi3,  .v^a  PLANS  A W S!1EJ!IT F L 7 . i M E i II.7r.-;L\TJ0M. COJJSLOruV^L: TIM2 I S ANJ  DISCUSSINC  T.i?  V'.-ICUS  A L S O I N c i i y x x i K i;a  Kl'lLDUiC  AT .J CItnC"K'it.C i'lf/LLYOS"  W J t E . V Ti;E BY-I.VJ  ...••1 r . . n i  P E R M I T  PIANJ AMY  T i f P:  Ul'nt  l3SUc*0  Ti!F. BLHLDINO HAVE B E E N PERMIT IS I S S U E D .  ITiltS  /2 :i:.i:iztr:s. ,  ANT,  C£PARTM£NT  PL»J.S A.1E  SENT  TO 1-XALTH  T H E I R A P r S C V A L -N'JLR  IKS  PL  H-MLH--70  File:  B.90.3.05 INFORMATION RE DEVELOPMENT PERMIT APPLICATION'"  The following information is to assist persons making development permit applications, (1) (2)  (1)  as regards:  The minimum amount of information that must be submitted with any development permit application. The Zoning and Development Fee By-law providing for the payment of fees at the time of f i l i n g of the application for the processing of ALL • development permit applications.  DRAWINGS AND INFORMATION REQUIRED TO BE SUBMITTED WITH DEVELOPMENT PERMIT APPLICATIONS  As may be applicable, the following information must be shown on the required drawings op plans and submitted prior to or at the same time as the f i l i n g of a development permit application:DETAILED SKETCH PLANS, IN TRIPLICATE, CLEARLY INDICATING:-  _  (Scale not less than 1/16" or 1/20" to 1') with legal description, size of site and adjoining street names.  SITE PLAN  Size and location, including required yards or setbacks, from a l l property lines of existing buildings, proposed buildings or additions, including accessory buildings. Size and location of off-street parking and off-street loading and unloading spaces, including screening, curbing, surfacing and access from streets or lanes. Landscaped areas. Finished grades of site relative to street grades and floor levels of buildings. • ELEVATIONS  (Scale not less than 1/B" to 1') with a l l elevations of proposed building or additions. Details of exterior finishes and materials for each elevation. Height of building above finished site grades.  FLOOR PLANS  (Scale not less than 1/8" to 1') Dimensioned layout and use of each floor of a l l existing and proposed buildings, additions and accessory buildings.  ROOF PLANS  (Scale not less than 1/8" to 1') general layout of a l l Heating, Ventilating, A i r Conditioning or mechanical structures or equipment including ductwork etc; with elevations as necessary and details of a l l horizontal and vertical screening. •  .  THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION MUST ALSO BE INDICATED ON THE DRAWINGS: A statement, including an analysis of each floor etc. (1)  . '.  ••  .  (2)  of:  The Floor Space Ratio for the development, as applicable in the appropriate District Zoning ' Schedule of the Zoning and Development By-law. The number of off-street parkinq and off-street loadinq and unloadino spaces REQUIRED and PROVIDED. (Sections 12 and 13 Zoning and Development Bylaw refer)  The foregoing are the MINIMUM requirements of information to be shown on the required Sketch Plans. Development permit applications may not be accepted unless a l l the required information Is submitted at the same time as the application is made. Further, where applicable, explanatory drawings must be submitted showing compliance of a development w1th al1 Daylight Access, Horizontal and Vertical Light Angles as well as Side Yard Containing Angles, Height and Length, Bulk and Width requirements of the appropriate D i s t r i c t Zoning Schedule. -  NOTE: •  A l l copies of plans or drawings submitted shall be drawn on substantial paper of cloth--fully dimensioned, accurately . . figured, e x p l i c i t and complete.  FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CALL '  ZONING BRANCH SECOND FLOOR CITY HALL EAST WING 873-7613  W. E. Graham, DIRECTOR OF PLANNING 14/10/70  SEE OVER REGARDING PROCESSING FEES  In the case of any development cernvil a p p l i c a t i o n uncle,- tha -follov.'ir.g D i s t r i c t Schedules and S e c t i o n s , the fee s h a l l be $25.00; (RA-1) (RS-1) (RS-2) (RS-3) (RT-1) (RT-2) (RM-1) (RH-2) (RM-3) (RM-4) (C-l) (C-2) (C-3) (C-4) . (C-5) (CM-1) (H-l) (M-2) (P-l)  D i s t r i c t Schedule, Section 2A (1) " " " 2A (1) and i2) .... .. 2A. (1) to (4) i n c l u s i v e " " • "• 2A (1) " "• " , •• ' 2A (3) and (4) " " 2A ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) , (5A), (6) and (7A) " " " 2A (3) and (4) " •" . . . " 2A (3) to (7) i n c l u s i v e . ' • ' . (T4/9/55 — * 4 1 9 8 ) " " " 2A (3) to (7) i n c l u s i v e ' '" " " 2A (4) to (8) i n c l u s i v e " " 2A (19) to (21) i n c l u s i v e " " " 2A (36) to (40) i n c l u s i v e " " '• . "2A (42) to (46) i n c l u s i v e " " 2A (40) " . " . " 2A (48) to (52) i n c l u s i v e " . •' " "" " 2A (42A) " ." • . " , . 2A (55A) ." . • "• .-• " 2A (59A) " ". 2A (1) to (5) i n c l u s i v e  SCHEDULE 2 Type of Development 1.  Fee  For a one-family d w e l l i n g , additions t h e r e t o , accessory b u i l d i n g i n connection therewith, v a l i d a t i o n s and r e l a x a t i o n s  2.  ..-IV.. $  3.00  $  12.00  gross f l o o r area or portion thereof  $  1.00  Maximum fee  $ 150.00  For a new p r i n c i p a l b u i l d i n g or use, or f o r an a d d i t i o n to an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g or use, being i n a l l cases, other than a one-family d w e l l i n g : (14/9/65—*4193) Up to 5,000 square feet of gross f l o o r area For each a d d i t i o n a l 1,000 square feet of  3.  For a l l parking, areas . ( P r i v a t e ) , .parking areas ( P u b l i c ) , storage y a r d s , car sales l o t s , truck gardens, marinas, t r a i l e r c o u r t s , and other developments which i n the opinion of the D i r e c t o r of Planning are s i m i l a r Up to 12,000 square f e e t of s i t e area  $  12.00  of s i t e area or part thereof  $  1.00  Maximum fee  $  20.00  $  6.00  For every a d d i t i o n a l 2,000 square  4.  feet  For accessory b u i l d i n g s or uses to a p r i n c i p a l b u i l d i n g or use already e x i s t i n g (being other . . . t h a n a one family dwelling) f o r v a l i d a t i o n s and r e l a x a t i o n s i n cases other than a one family d w e l l i n g ; f o r day c a r e , homecraft, kindergartens, and s i m i l a r development and uses as determined by the D i r e c t o r of Planning; and f o r changes i n the use of an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g , with no additions (14/9/65—*4198)  - SCHEDULE 3 Type of A p p l i c a t i o n 1.  An a p p l i c a t i o n to amend the text of the Zoning By-law—  2.  An a p p l i c a t i o n to amend the zoning d i s t r i c t plan (Schedule D) of the Zoning and Development By-law  Fee  Up to 50,000 square f e e t of land area  $  50.00  For each a d d i t i o n a l 1,000 square feet of land a r e a , or part thereof.  $  1.00  W. E. Graham, DIRECTOR OF PLANNING  SEE OVER  APPENDIX I CMHC C o n d o m i n i u m I n f o r m a t i o n  These sheets maintained  Sheet  b y CMHC c o n t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  information:  Reference Unit  number  Type  Number o f Bedrooms L.F.A. Sales Land  Price Cost  Adjustments Basic Rate  Sale Appr.  Down Payment Previous  Tenancy  Age Number o f D e p e n d e n t s Occupation Purchaser's  Income  Date o f S a l e  Source:  CMHC, V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h  Columbia.  

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