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An investigation into the metrical structure of "Paradise Lost". Brown, Allan Gordon 1970

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE METRICAL STRUCTURE OF PARADISE LOST by ALLAN GORDON BROWN B.A., University of British Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF . MASTER OF ARTS in the Department , of English We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree tha p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f English  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e June 22. 1970 ABSTRACT This i s a preliminary investigation of the empirical and formal conditions necessary to provide a f u l l description of the metrical structure of Paradise Lost. My study i s immediately concerned with the scansion of a corpus of 2018 lines of the poem. The centre of the study i s the specification of a generative model set to provide structural descriptions, i.e., scansions. Some anomalies of this model are considered in the f i n a l chapter. A scansion i s recorded for each line in the corpus. I provide an impressionistic survey of lexical and syntactic phenomena in the corpus, an analysis of equivalence-substitution metrical analysis, a taxonomy of elision by apocope in the corpus, a brief investigation of elision by syncope and a speculative analysis of caesura. Supervisor CONTENTS Chapter I. INTRODUCTION Metrical Well-formedness (3) Equivalence-Substitution Analysis (6) Elision by Apocope (17) Elision by Syncope (19) Structural Conditions (25) Precis (31) I n i t i a l and Medial Cadences (52) Illustration of f u l l "Q-derivation" (5 III. LEXICO-SYNTACTIC MAPPING II. THE METRICAL MODEL Precis (57) IV. EXAMPLES Sample Derivation (139) V. COMMENTARY Caesura (162) i i i Page APPENDIX A. ELISION BY APOCOPE 168 APPENDIX B. SERIAL "Q-DERIVATIONS" 175 APPENDIX C. LEXICAL ITEMS OF UNCERTAIN STRESS 190 SCANSION TABLE 193 NOTES 253 REFERENCES 268 i v TABLES Page I. I n i t i a l and Medial Cadence Associations of Sample I-XII 145 II. Absolute Occurrence and Significant Percentage Figures for Sample I-XII 146 III. I n i t i a l and Medial Cadence Associations of Sample IV 147 IV. Absolute Occurrence and Significant Percentage Figures for Sample IV 148 V. Superfluous VRS Types 151 v 1 CHAPTER I This study of Milton's prosody i s a preliminary investigation of the empirical and formal conditions necessary to provide a f u l l description of the metrical structure of Paradise Lost.* I w i l l specify the salient characteristics of a hypothetical metrical model capable of generating a structural description of every metrically well-formed line in the poem, and w i l l give a f u l l statement of the formal requirements of such a model. I w i l l then proceed to a detailed consideration of typical lexical and syntactic phenomena in two ten-percent samples of the text, in so far as these phenomena directly condition the metrical structure; and w i l l provide examples of each distinct metrical structure (each distinct scansion) required to satisfy the material of the two samples. I w i l l conclude with a general commentary upon the operation of the metrical model, specifying i t s satisfactory and i t s unsatisfactory characteristics, and providing some suggestions for further investigation into the metrical structure of the poem. My corpus for study i s made up of two ten-percent samples from Paradise Lost. The f i r s t sample (1003 lines), which is identified as Sample I-XII, consists of Book I, lines 1-300, Book VI, lines 1-170, Book VII, lines 1-173 and Book XII, lines 1-300. The second sample (1015 lines) , which i s identified as Sample IV, consists of a l l of Book IV. The f u l l metrical structure of both samples i s set out in the Scansion Table (see p. 193 below). In general, the purpose of metrical analysis i s to provide an abstract description, a scansion, that i s distinct not only in degree but also in kind from some substantial exegesis of the h i s t o r i c a l , social, 2 moral, etc. content of a poetic text. I t i s my opinion that the discurs i v e means for providing t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n may best be represented as a "black box" device (a metrical model '"?") that mediates between two independently v e r i f i a b l e sets of data (shown as A^ and A^ below). A ¥ A 1 2 (metre) (model) (verbal a r t i f a c t ) Let A^ represent the poem as a metrical (or "rhythmical") experience. Let A^ represent the poem as a verbal a r t i f a c t . Our approach to A^ (that i s , our "understanding" of A^) rests upon those i n t u i t i o n s xvhich we possess as native speakers of English. S i m i l a r l y — I have assumed—our understanding of A^ w i l l r e s t upon those i n t u i t i o n s , v i v i d and v i t a l to the degree to which we are p o e t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e , which we may be s a i d to possess as native "speakers" of English verse. Thus, j u s t as the goal of grammatical analysis i s to make e x p l i c i t the set of l i n g u i s t i c i n t u i t i o n s of the native speaker, so i s the goal of metrical analysis the making e x p l i c i t the set of me t r i c a l i n t u i t i o n s of such a speaker. Given the p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p that I have symbolized as A^ . . . ¥ . . . A^, the means to t h i s goal w i l l be the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the m e t r i c a l model I t i s a convenient methodological assumption that two independently v e r i f i a b l e sets of data grounded i n a common object ( i . e . , the poem) are r e l a t e d by a set of rules, which r u l e s , however, w i l l not themselves be susceptible of empirical v e r i f i c a t i o n . Indeed, given the conditions under which they are conceivable, i t follows that they cannot be so v e r i f i e d . (This i s why the "box" i s "black.") Their j u s t i f i c a t i o n , 3 then (which i s t h e i r mode of being) must be formal only. The rules for the operation of my met r i c a l model are developed at length i n Chapter II below. Informally, the model may be considered as providing f o r an association of the poetic text with the m e t r i c a l pattern (here, the pattern of blank verse) by generating a number of s u f f i c i e n t s t r u c t u r a l descriptions ("scansions") to s a t i s f y any and a l l of the verse l i n e s i n the poem. I t i s my assumption that a s a t i s f a c t o r y metrical d e s c r i p t i o n of the poem can be achieved by s p e c i f y i n g such l i n e s as independent members of a continuous 2 s e r i e s . That i s , I take the phenomenon of enjambment to be para-prosodic. The "sense" that i s "variously drawn out from one Verse i n t o another" gives "true musical d e l i g h t " only because the structure of each "Verse" i s 3 independent of the process of "drawing out." More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the model w i l l operate upon a serie s of neutral elements (X,X,...) i n such a way as to a l i g n these elements, which are merely assumed to be generated by a device AUTOMATON, so that t h e i r r e l a t i o n each to each can be seen as an abstract pattern representing the scansion (VRS) of some verse l i n e (Vrs.). The s e r i e s so considered must then be consonant with a numbering r e s t r i c t i o n i n such manner that the number of elements generated to s a t i s f y any scansion VRS w i l l be ten. The elements can then be described as metrical u n i t s , i . e . , units of a blank verse l i n e . More p r e c i s e l y , they w i l l be the units of a scansion VRS of a blank verse l i n e ; that i s , they are f u n c t i o n a l only at an abstract l e v e l (the prosodic level) of the l i n e d i s t i n c t from the s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e a l i z e d verbal or 4 performance l e v e l . Such a serie s of units ("U") i s symbolized as 4 U. ,...U ; where "U " represents the n-th or tenth unit of the s e r i e s . I n n This requirement, that n = 10, i s a regulation f o r the s a t i s f a c t o r y operation of the metrical model.^ I t w i l l be referred to as Condition V . l (see pp. X5"-17 f o r the formal s p e c i f i c a t i o n of t h i s and the other conditions to be discussed below). Four other general conditions are required to specify the p a r t i c u l a r class of blank verse l i n e s ( i . e . , the l i n e s of Paradise Lost) under consideration here. Condition V.2 i s concerned with marking any u n i t U. i n a serie s of metrical units as the scansion e i t h e r of an i c t i c x (metrically prominent) s y l l a b l e or of a n o n - i c t i c s y l l a b l e i n some blank verse l i n e . ^ That i s , the se r i e s of metrical units U,,...U w i l l be marked 1 n so as to be consonant with (or representable as) p a r t i c u l a r sequences of i c t i c and n o n - i c t i c elements of some l i n e . Condition V.3 i s concerned with the permissible s e r i e s of n o n - i c t i c units f o r any portion of a verse l i n e . I t i s the condition that any serie s of n o n - i c t i c units may consist only of n u l l , of one or of two un i t s . That i s , no such series may consist of three or more such units. I t i s further r e q u i s i t e that, by Condition V.4, the i c t i c / n o n - i c t i c marking f or a well-formed l i n e of Paradise Lost must f a l l under the general regulation that the t o t a l number of i c t i c units 7 w i l l always be equal to or greater than fxve, and that the number of n o n - i c t i c units w i l l be not l e s s than three-. That i s , the r e l a t i v e number of n o n - i c t i c to i c t i c units w i l l be e i t h e r 5:5, 4:6 or 3:7. Condition V.5 s p e c i f i e s that the n-th un i t of any series cannot be n o n - i c t i c (that i s , Q the n-th un i t must be i c t i c ) . Considering these r e s t r i c t i o n s , i t follows that the i c t i c units should be represented as the unmarked case (symbolized 5 as [-]) i n the operation of the model, and that the n o n - i c t i c units 9 represent the marked case ([+]). F i n a l l y , i t should be noted that the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Condition V.2 and Condition V.5 i s such that any i n a s e r i e s U, ,•• -U w i l l be associated with e i t h e r of (but at l e a s t one 1 n-1 of) the i c t u s markers [+] and [-], while U w i l l be associated with and n only with the marker [-]. The t o t a l of the s u f f i c i e n t s e r i e s of metrical units generated by the model f o r the corpus of study here ( samples I-XII and IV) may be spoken of as the hypothetical m e t r i c a l structure of the corpus. That i s , t h i s structure w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d as representing a l l metrical c o l l o c a t i o n s discoverable i n the corpus and deemed well-formed. A scansion VRS^ of some series of metrical units U,,...U w i l l exactly r e f l e c t the i c t i c / n o n - i c t i c 1 n d i s p o s i t i o n of s y l l a b l e s for the verse l i n e Vrs.^. The a b i l i t y of the m e t r i c a l model to thus s a t i s f y the sample l i n e s Vrs.,,...Vrs. with the I n s t r u c t u r a l descriptions (scansions) VRS^,...VRS^ w i l l be spoken of as the weak generative capacity of the model (see p. IS below). For example, the f i f t h l i n e of Book I of the poem ( i d e n t i f i e d as 1.5) reveals a d i s p o s i t i o n of n o n - i c t i c and i c t i c s y l l a b l e s (symbolized as "0" or "o" and "S" or "s" respectively) of the form: O S O S O S O S O S . The n o n - i c t i c s y l l a b l e s of the l i n e are "Re-," "us," "re-," "the" and " - f u l . " The i c t i c s y l l a b l e s are "-store," "and," "-gain," " b l i s s - " and "Seat." The s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n for t h i s l i n e w i l l c o n s ist of a s e r i e s U^,...U , where u n i t "U^" i s marked with ";the n o n - i c t i c feature [+], i n association with the f i r s t s y l l a b l e "Re-" ( i d e n t i f i e d as s y l . ^ ) ; and where u n i t "U " i s marked with the i c t i c feature [-], i n association with the second 6 s y l l a b l e "-store" ( i . e . , s y l . ^ ) ; etc. The two s y l l a b l e s of the word "Restore" can also be i d e n t i f i e d by the abbreviation 1.5.1,2; or, with the l i n e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n given, as s y l . 2* The monosyllabic word "Seat" i s i d e n t i f i e d as 1.5.0, or as s y l . Q . The following s u b l i n e a l scansion captures the general metrical structure i n a convenient manner: Restore us, and regain the b l i s s f u l Seat 1.5 o s o s o s o s o s The structure here i s that frequently described as a standard iambic pentameter l i n e ; or, i n Bridges' f u l l e r terms, "a decasyllabic l i n e on a d i s y l l a b i c basis . . . i n r i s i n g rhythm."*^ I f a l i n e such as t h i s i s taken as a prosodic standard or norm, other l i n e s i n any given passage must be r e l a t e d to i t e i t h e r as exact s t r u c t u r a l r e p e t i t i o n s — o t h e r instances of "iambic pentameter"—even at the cost of some rather curious phonological eccentricities;*"'' or as exceptions to i t , with a l l exceptions remaining acceptable as long as they are not too exceptional. Indeed, the h i s t o r y of prosodic analysis or of m e t r i c a l taste i s a l l too frequently but an 12 account of such c o n t r o v e r s i a l acceptances. As I see i t , however, the c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y of a prosodic analysis based upon the two notions of "norm" and "exception to norm" i s that any systematic account of such an analysis must i n e v i t a b l y s u f f e r from a seemingly i n d e f i n i t e p r o l i f e r a t i o n of ad hoc rules s p e c i f y i n g the types of permitted exceptions and f o r s o r t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of m e t r i c a l 13 equivalences. , The alternate procedure (which tends to be that followed 14 by George Saintsbury) i s merely to permit some .exceptions to the standard 15 l i n e and to deem hypermetrical a l l other l i n e s under consideration. 7 The p r a c t i c e i s too expensive to be s a t i s f a c t o r y , e s p e c i a l l y i f another procedure can be followed which w i l l account both f o r the shape of the "standard" l i n e and for that of "exceptional" l i n e s which yet seem to be harmonious with the f i r s t . The metrical model I have devised w i l l accomplish t h i s . The d e s c r i p t i o n VRS^ that the model provides for a l i n e Vrs.^ may be expressed at one l e v e l of competence as a s e r i e s of i c t u s - s p e c i f i e d units [ i ] ^ , [±]2»••• I ~ ] Q i n accordance with Conditions V.1,...V.5. The scansion of 1.5 can thus be given as: [+1,, [ - ] „ , [+]_, [ - ] „ , [ + ] r , [ - ] w 1 2 3 4 5 6 [+]^, t~]g/ t-^rj* *-s t^ i e m o s t convenient expression for the present discussion; although i t should be noted that the p a r t i c u l a r operation of the model w i l l be more completely r e f l e c t e d by the expression of a deeper l e v e l of competence that i s concerned with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of units "U" i n a s e r i e s : ( \(U., ... U.) (U_ (U.,... UL)) U„). 1 4 5 6 9 0 The system of foot scansion as adapted to the p r i n c i p l e s of 16 equivalence and s u b s t i t u t i o n w i l l supply a base of f i v e foot units f o r a "standard" l i n e , e.g., 1.5, of the form: (OS | OS | OS | OS | OS). Any single u n i t "OS" i s deemed equivalent to the trochaic unit "SO," which may be substituted for i t according to a set of graded preferences. The other two equivalence classes possible—momentari^ly disregarding the functions of s o - c a l l e d " t r i s y l l a b i c s u b s t i t u t i o n " — a r e of the p y r r h i c u n i t "00" and the spondaic unit "SS" for some "OS." As f a r as I am aware there i s no general agreement as to the p r e f e r e n t i a l substitutions f o r these l a s t . Certain combinations of what i s termed di-podic s u b s t i t u t i o n are also employed by some prosodists (though not by a l l ) . The dipody of 8 two iambic units "OS | OS," for instance, may be held equivalent to the 17 choriamb "SOOS," perhaps to the di-iamb "OSOS," to the minor i o n i c "OOSS," the major i o n i c "SSOO," possibly to the double spondee "SSSS," perhaps to the second paeonic "OSOO," the t h i r d paeonic "OOSO," or the f i r s t e p i t r i t e "OSSS," the fourth e p i t r i t e "SSSO," and so on with "Centric and E c c e n t r i c s c r i b b l ' d o'er, / Cycle and Ep i c y c l e , Orb i n Orb." There are, for example, frequent instances of s o - c a l l e d trochaic s u b s t i t u t i o n i n the verse of Paradise Lost. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , such s u b s t i t u t i o n i s approved at s y l . ^ 2 (the f i r s t foot) of a l i n e , to the extent of marking a so r t of second blank verse norm; approved also at s y l . ^ g (fourth f o o t ) ; more grudgingly permitted at s y l . ^ _ ^ ( t h i r d foot); anathematized at s y l . 4 (second foot) and deemed impossible at s y l . g _ 0 ( f i f t h f o o t ) . I t i s indeed unpermitted at s y l . , since the occurrence y—u of a n o n - i c t i c u n i t at s y l . Q would v i o l a t e Condition V.5, that the n-th unit of any series (where n = 10) cannot be n o n - i c t i c . Such a d i s p o s i t i o n of [~]g/ t +^Q ^ s r a r e i - n Paradise Lost. See, e.g., "Which of us who beholds the br i g h t surface"(VI.472) and "Beyond a l l past example and future" s o s o 1 ft (X.840). Trochaic s u b s t i t u t i o n at the f i r s t foot, that i s , the i c t i c d i s p o s i t i o n of [-].,, [ + ]„,..., i s f a i r l y common i n the poem. 1 2 E.g. : Purge and disperse, that I may see and t e l l III.54 s o o s o s o s o s There are 215 instances of the structure i n my sample I-XII and 228 instances i n sample IV. The relevant d e r i v a t i o n of VRS here may be 9 abbreviated as: [ ± ] 1 * [ ± ] 2 - W 2 [ ± ] 3 - M 3 [ ± ] 4 ^ [" ]4 An alternate d e s c r i p t i o n of the l i n e , the product of an equivalence-s u b s t i t u t i o n scansion, would presumably require three l e v e l s of de r i v a t i o n to account f o r 1) the norm or base line? 2) the condition(s) of equivalence; 19 3) the e f f e c t of s u b s t i t u t i o n . One putative derivation of the scansion of III.54 may be described by means of the following three-part frame. Norm. OS | OS | OS | OS | OS (i) Equiv. SO | " | " | " | " Subst. SO | OS | OS | OS | OS However, an alternate scansion i s possible for t h i s l i n e , i n v o l v i n g the same i c t i c values but employing a d i f f e r e n t equivalence. That i s , the f i r s t two "fee t " of the l i n e may be conflated as a sing l e choriamb. This second de r i v a t i o n would be as follows: Norm. OS | OS | OS | OS | OS ( i i ) Equiv. SO...OS | " | " | " Subst. SOOS | OS | OS | OS 10 There seems to be no obvious reason f o r p r e f e r r i n g one equivalence structure over the other. Trochaic s u b s t i t u t i o n at the fourth foot i s also considered quite respectable. The structure involved here w i l l require an i c t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of [-] 2 , . . . , [ - ] , [+] , [+] , [-] . E.g.: Illumine, what i s low rai s e and support 1.23 o s o s o s s o o s There are sixty-two instances of the s i g n i f i c a n t c o l l o c a t i o n . . . [ - ] 7 , [ + ] , . . . i n my sample I-XII and f i f t y - n i n e instances i n sample IV. The o relevant d e r i v a t i o n of VRS here i s : [ ± ] 7 - M 7  C ± ] 8 * t + ] 8 There are three apparently equally a t t r a c t i v e equivalence-substitution scansions f o r t h i s l i n e . One involves an equivalence i ) of the trochaic u n i t "SO" f o r the fourth iambic u n i t "OS" at s y l . ; one involves an / —o equivalence i i ) of the choriambic u n i t "SOOS" for the iambs "OS | OS" at s y l . 7 _ Q ; the l a s t involves an equivalence i i i ) of the a n t i p a s t i c u n i t "OSSO" for the iambs "OS I OS" at s y l . c Q . The s u b s t i t u t i o n frame here o — o i s as follows: 11 Norm. OS OS OS OS | OS Equiv. i ) II II SO | " or Equiv. i i ) II II SO...OS or Equiv. i i i ) II II OS. .SO | OS Subst. i ) OS OS OS SO | OS or Subst. i i ) OS OS OS SOOS or Subst. i i i ) OS OS OSSO | OS Again there seems no demonstrable reason for p r e f e r r i n g the derivation of i ) to the d e r i v a t i o n of i i ) to the deri v a t i o n of i i i ) . I intend to suggest no preference by the order I have chosen to set them out. Trochaic s u b s t i t u t i o n at the t h i r d foot i s , i n general, approved somewhat more grudgingly. The structure w i l l involve an i c t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n sustaining the s i g n i f i c a n t c o l l o c a t i o n . . . [ - ] , [+]^,.... E.g. : And shook his throne. What though the f i e l d be l o s t ? 1.105 o s o s s o o s o s There are f i f t y - s e v e n instances of the d i s t i n c t i v e i c t i c c o l l o c a t i o n at s y l . j . i n sample I-XII and seventy-four instances i n sample IV. The required d e r i v a t i o n of VRS i s : [ ± ] 5 - M 5 t±], [+1, 12 The t r i p l e ambiguity of presumed equivalence derivations here i s the same as that f or 1.23 above. The norm and equivalence frames alone are as follows: Norm. OS | OS | OS | OS | OS Equiv. i ) OS j " | SO | " | " or Equiv. i i ) OS | " | SO...OS | " or Equiv. i i i ) OS | OS...SO | OS | " Trochaic s u b s t i t u t i o n at the second foot i s held to be highly suspect, i f not p o s i t i v e l y hypermetrical. I t occurs seventy-four times i n my corpus, f o r t y - f i v e times i n sample I-XII and twenty-nine times i n sample IV. E.g. : From what point of h i s Compass to beware IV.559 o s s o The der i v a t i o n of VRS here involves: [±]. [±] [-3 [+1 The required equivalence derivations are t r i p l y ambiguous, as before, between the use of a unit "SO," a unit "SOOS" or a unit "OSSO." The combination of t h i s l a s t structure of . . . [ - ] , [+].,... with 13 the structure t + ] 2'" * " considered above produces an i n t e r e s t i n g rhythmical e f f e c t as i n , e.g.: Universal reproach, f a r worse to bear VI.34 s o s o o s s s o s Also: By the waters of L i f e , where'er they sat XI. 79 s o s o o s s s o s The d i s t i n c t i v e i c t i c patterning through s y l . ^ ^  occurs f i v e times i n sample I-XII and four times i n sample IV. Milton employs t h i s i n i t i a l structure again i n Paradise Regained, at, e.g.: But to vanquish by wisdom h e l l i s h wiles PR 1.175 s o s o 20 which G. M. Hopkins c i t e s as an instance of a "counterpointed" l i n e . I am not at a l l sure that Hopkins' notion of counterpoint captures any s i g n i f i c a n t m etrical generalization at the l e v e l of my p a r t i c u l a r a n a l y s i s . He seems only to s h i f t from the t h e o r e t i c a l battleground of "norm" vs. "exception(s)" to that of "norm I" vs. "norm I I " (in t h i s case, ' 21 an iambic vs. a trochaic "norm"—or perhaps the other way around). I t i s c e r t a i n , however, that the equivalence-substitution scansion of a l i n e l i k e XI.79 does involve a d d i t i o n a l embarrassments, e s p e c i a l l y 22 when the notions of t r i s y l l a b i c s u b s t i t u t i o n and ca t a l e x i s are considered. A t r o c h a i c unit "SO" may replace the iamb "OS" at syl... another trochee 1-2 < replace the iamb at s Y i - - j 4' a n ^ a spondaic unit "SS" replace the iamb at s y l . under the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of equivalence i ) . A choriambic u n i t "SOOS" may dislodge the two iambs at s y l . _ for equivalence i i ) . Equivalence i i i ) 3—6 14 involves the use of the f i r s t e p i t r i t e "OSSS" across syl.,. . Equivalence iv) introduces the t h i r d e p i t r i t e "SSOS" at s y l . 7 _ Q . Equivalence v) returns 23 a choriamb. I n i t i a l c a t a l e x i s i s followed by an amphibrach "0S0" and a f i r s t e p i t r i t e i n equivalence v i ) , by an amphibrach and a t h i r d e p i t r i t e i n equivalence v i i ) , and by a second paeonic "0S00" and a molossus "SSS" i n equivalence v i i i ) . I f the units of s y l . ^ are subsumed by a c r e t i c "SOS" (which might be a disguized c a t a l e c t i c double trochee "SOS0"), then the anapestic u n i t of "OOS" at syl.^_^ may be followed by what'er you w i l l . I.e.: Norm. OS 1 os 1 OS | OS | OS Equiv. i SO 1 so 1 OS | ss | OS or Equiv. i i SO | so.. .OS | ss | OS or Equiv. i i i SO 1 s0 1 OS. . .ss | OS or Equiv. i v SO 1 so 1 OS | ss. . .OS or Equiv. V SO | so.. .OS | ss. . .OS or Equiv. v i 0S 1 o. ..so | OS.. .ss | OS or Equiv. v i i 0S 1 o. ..so | OS | ss. . .OS or Equiv. viii0S 1 o. ..so.. .o|s. .ss | OS or perhaps so.. . S | 0. OS | The scansion VRS of t h i s l i n e i s generally governed by the following set of d e r i v a t i o n s : 15 [ ± ] 1 ->- [" ]1 [±] 2 -V [ + ] 2 [ ± ] 3 -V C" ]3 [ ± ] 4 -> t + ] 4 [ ± ] 5 -»• W 5 [ ± ] 6 -> [" ]6 [ ± ] 7 -y M 7 C ± ] 8 -y [- ]8 t ± ] 9 -*• C + ]9 M 0 -> [ - ] o Similar examples could be m u l t i p l i e d almost i n d e f i n i t e l y from the r i c h prosodic store of Paradise Lost. I w i l l conclude t h i s survey by noting only one more structure that i s of some i n t e r e s t i n the poem. The i n i t i a l patterning of [-]^» [~] 2 ' ' + ^ 3 ' ^ 4'" " • o c c u r s twenty times i n sample I-XII and eleven times i n sample IV. In eighteen instances of i t s occurrences i n I-XII and i n a l l i t s occurrences i n IV i t i s associated with a further d i s p o s i t i o n of . . . [ - ] , _ , to provide the pattern of, e.g. : Mankind with her f a i r looks, to be aveng'd IV.718 s s 0 o s s o s o s There i s an engaging s o l i d i t y about t h i s structure that Milton seems to have favoured f o r use at c e r t a i n momentous points i n the poem. E.g. : Therefore to h i s great bidding I submit XI.314 s s o o s s 16 als o : So g l i s t e r ' d the d i r e Snake, and i n t o fraud IX.643 s s o o s s and the c l i m a c t i c : So saying, her rash hand i n evil), hour IX. 780 s s o o s s The structure also appears i n Samson Agonistes, as, e.g. : Eye-witness of what f i r s t or l a s t was done SA 1594 s s o o s s (and SA 178, 811). The general de r i v a t i o n of VRS here may be abbreviated as: c ± ] l ->• [-1 1 [±] 2 ->• [-] 2 t ± ] 3 -y [+: 3 [ ± ] 4 -> [+; 4 [ ± ] 5 -> [-] 5 [ ± ] 6 -y [ - J 6 Equivalence derivations could be drawn from a mixed bag of spondees, py r r h i c s , major and minor i o n i c s , and an optional t h i r d e p i t r i t e . As I noted above, the p a r t i c u l a r operation of the met r i c a l model i s to generate s e r i e s of units "U" of the form: ((U ,..,U^)(U (U ,... U g ) ) U Q ) . The s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n (the scansion) of IV.718, e t c . , would therefore.ibe more f a i t h f u l l y r e f l e c t e d by the expression: ( ( [ - ] . , [-]_, 17 [+],, [ + ] . ) ( [ - ] . ( [ - ] . , [+]-, [-]„, [ + ] Q ) H - ] n ) . This, then, w i l l be one 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 from a set of scansions generated by the model, following the Conditions V.1,...V.5 and c e r t a i n rules and sub-rules to be d e t a i l e d below i n Chapter I I , to provide a l l r e q u i s i t e s t r u c t u r a l descriptions for the corpus. Such a d e s c r i p t i o n or scansion i s to be understood as the matching of an abstract, independently generated s e r i e s of metr i c a l units U^,...Un with some m e t r i c a l l y well-formed l i n e of the corpus. In b r i e f , the hypothetical structure of metrical units i s taken to be r e a l i z e d as a se r i e s of words ( i . e . , the matter of the poem) such that the t o t a l s i g n i f i c a n t s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n of the word s e r i e s i s exactly equivalent to the f u l l set of metrical u n i t s , and such that the continuous r e l a t i o n of stress prominences within the word serie s i s exactly and uniquely equivalent to the i c t i c marking of the structure of metrical u n i t s . Stress prominences w i l l be discussed extensively below (in chapter III) as the conditions of l e x i c o - s y n t a c t i c mapping for the model. The conditions of s i g n i f i c a n t s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n j u s t alluded to are those 24 subsumed under the general study of types of e l i s i o n i n Paradise Lost. In b r i e f , Milton's p r a c t i c e here can be described as e l i s i o n by apocope and e l i s i o n by syncope. 2^ An e l i s i o n by apocope i s the reduction of an expected or possible s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n for a serie s of two l e x i c a l items ( i . e . , two words). 27 Such seri e s w i l l be referred to as minor sy n t a c t i c items. For example, the word s e r i e s "Th'infernal"(I.34) with an expected a r t i c u l a t i o n of "t h ' - i n - f e r - n a l " ( / S ^ i n f a r n a l / ) i s reduced by apocope at the contiguity 28 "th+i..." to the three s y l l a b l e s e r i e s " t h i n - f e r - n a l " C/$ i n f a ma 1/) . 18 The word seri e s "Th'infernal" involves e l i s i o n by apocope within the sy n t a c t i c structure of a N[oun] P[hrase], This i s c e r t a i n l y the most common structure for e l i s i o n by apocope i n the poem. Of the ninety-three instances of e l i s i o n by apocope i n my two samples, eighty-two are maintained within a NP structure; the remaining eleven i n V[erb] Pthrase] structures, f u l l Sfentence] structures at the point of PRED[icate] domination or at coordinate CONJ[unctions]. I w i l l provide one example of each such structure involved here. A complete l i s t i n g of these e l i s i o n s i s given i n Appendix A. There are nine substructures of the NP un i t maintaining e l i s i o n by apocope i n the samples. Let the general unit be represented as . . . ] . The commonest substructure here i s that of ART[icle] + ADJ[ective]. Let t h i s substructure be represented as ART + ADJ and i d e n t i f i e d by number marker 1.10. The nine substructures are as follows: 1.10 ART + ADJ Th'infernal 1.34 1.11 ART + NOUN th'Apostate 1.125 1.12 Pre-ART + ART many a VI. 76 1.20 NOUN + ADJ Prison ordained 1.71 1.21 ADJ + NOUN m i l i t a r y obedience IV.955 1.310 PREP[osition] + ART (+N) i ' t h ' midst 1.224 1.311 ADJ + PREP [PREP phrase] worthy of IV.241 1.420 NOUN + PREP (+...N) Glory above 1.39 i . e . coordinate modifier sequence 1.420 i . e . postposed modifier Virtue i n IV.848 1.421 ADJ + CONJ (+ADJ) Purple and IV.596 i . e . phrasal conjunction 19 There are two structures i n the samples where a VP u n i t " sustains t h i s type of e l i s i o n . Let the general u n i t be represented as [...[ . . . ] . The substructures here are: 2.1 T O [ i n f i n i t i v e ] + VERB to accuse IV.67 2.2 PREV[erb] + VERB only enlighten IV.668 There are two general S structures i n the samples, each with two substructures where e l i s i o n by apocope i s maintained. Let the S structure i n which a PRED domination i s s i g n i f i c a n t to the e l i s i o n be represented as „ [ . . ] . . . ] . The substructures are: S PRED 3.11 VERB + ART (+N) were an ignominy 1.115 i . e . predicate nominal 3.12 VERB + Pro-NOUN Be i t 1.245 i . e . inverted predicate Let the S structure i n v o l v i n g a coordinate CONJ be represented as [•••„[ ] . . . ] . The substructures are: S C 3.21 ADV[erb] + CONJ only and IV.251 3.22 NOUN + CONJ F o l l y , as VII.130 comp i . e . coordinate comparative An e l i s i o n by syncope i s the reduction of an expected or possible s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n f o r one l e x i c a l item ( i . e . , one word). For example, the v/ord "Disobedience"(I.1) with a possible a r t i c u l a t i o n of "dis-o-be-di-ence" 29 (/disabiydiyens/) i s reduced by syncope at the vowel contiguity "i+e..." 20 to the four s y l l a b l e s e r i e s "dis-o-be-d[i]ence"(/disabiydyens/). Again, the word "Heav'nly"(1.6) with an expected a r t i c u l a t i o n of "heav-n-ly" 30 (/hevnliy/) i s reduced by syncope at the c l u s t e r "v+n" to the two s y l l a b l e s e r i e s "heav-[n]ly"(/hev[n]liy/). A further use of e l i s i o n by syncope i s made when, e.g., the word "aspiring"(I.38) with an expected a r t i c u l a t i o n of "a-spir-ing"(/aspayrin/) i s reduced at the c l u s t e r "r+..." to the two s y l l a b l e s e r i e s "a-spir[ing]"(/aspayr[in]/) i n order to conform with the requirement of Condition V . l (where n = 10) f o r Milton's 31 decasyllabic l i n e . Both types of e l i s i o n may be noted i n a sin g l e l i n e ; as, e.g.? For hee who tempts, though i n vain, at l e a s t aspers[es] IX.296 o s o s s s o s o s However, the p r a c t i c e of e l i s i o n by syncope cannot be j u s t i f i e d merely by des c r i b i n g , e.g., the word "a s p i r i n g " as a metrical d i s y l l a b l e , since i t i s t r i s y l l a b i c i n VI.899: Of those too high a s p i r i n g , who r e b e l l ' d The d i s y l l a b i c value of the word "a s p i r i n g " may be d i r e c t l y conditioned by the terminal p o s i t i o n of the word i n a verse l i n e . I t i s possible that i f we assume the source of these words to be a kind of met r i c a l lexicon, then an entry {aspiring} could be marked as t r i s y l l a b i c j u s t i n case i t i s not followed by a l i n e boundary. That i s : 21 {aspiring} s y i . i t i + 1 / _ # s y l . . . / x...# JL / • • • / JL i ^-1 1 where # i s a l i n e boundary, and X... i s any series of at le a s t one s y l l a b l e ; and where i and i i are d i s j u n c t i v e l y ordered. Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would also hold f o r the entry {society} which i s d i s y l l a b i c i n the environment #, at IX.249: For s o l i t u d e sometimes i s best s o c i [ e t y ] ; but maintains a four s y l l a b l e value i n the environment X...#, at VIII.586: What higher i n her society thou f i n d ' s t and Him with her lov'd s o c i e t y , that now IX.1007 However, the entry {society} also maintains a four s y l l a b l e value i n the environment #, at VIII. 383: Among unequals what society A s i m i l a r ambivalence holds f o r the various forms of the word "Heaven" or "Heav'n" that occur with such frequency throughout the poem. The entry {heav'n} i s monosyllabic i n the environment ...X X... at, e.g. , 1.27: Say f i r s t , f o r Heav'n hides nothing from thy view The r e l a t e d entry {heav'ns} behaves s i m i l a r l y at, e.g., 1.9: In the Beginning how the Heav'ns and Earth The entry {heav'n} i s also monosyllabic i n the environment #, at 1.73: As far remov'd from God and l i g h t of Heav'n The d i s y l l a b i c entry {heaven}, however, appears i n the environment ...X X..., as at V.432: As may compare with Heaven? and to taste and also at VIII.483: With what a l l Earth or Heaven could bestow As a noun-modifier the entry {heaven's} i s d i s y l l a b i c i n the environment ...X X... also, as at 1.612: Th i r Glory wither'd. As when Heaven's F i r e I t i s also d i s y l l a b i c i n the same environment when represented by e i t h e r of the s p e l l i n g s i ) "Heav'n" or i i ) "Heaven," as: i That s c a l ' d by steps of Gold to Heav'n Gate III.54 i i That singing up to Heaven Gate ascend V.198 The form "Heaven Gate" also appears with the same metr i c a l value at VII.618, X.22 and X.88. 23 The a l t e r a t i o n i n grammatical function of these l a s t forms from the NOUN-dominated entry {heav'n} may condition t h e i r d i s y l l a b i c m etrical value. On the other hand, i t may be the case that there are two discrete items i n a metr i c a l lexicon, say {heav'n} and {heaven} which are of monosyllabic and d i s y l l a b i c value res p e c t i v e l y and which carry these values, as i t were, d i r e c t l y into the verse l i n e . There would then be two en t r i e s , d i s y l l a b i c and t r i s y l l a b i c , for the word "as p i r i n g , " as {aspir'ng} and {aspiring}; two ent r i e s of {soci'ty} and {society}; etc. The notion of double l e x i c a l e n t r i e s seems to be supported by the vari a n t metrical values maintained by the words "Raphael" and "Michael." A t r i s y l l a b i c entry {raphael} appears i n the environment ...X X... i n VI.363: U r i e l and Raphael h i s vaunting foe, A d i s y l l a b i c entry {raph'el} appears i n the same environment i n VIII.64: And Raphael now to Adam's doubt propos'd The entry {raph'el} also appears i n the environment # X... at, e.g., V.224: Raphael, s a i d hee, thou hear'st what s t i r on Earth and at V.22'1. However, the entry {raphael} appears i n the environment # at, e.g., V.561: Thus Adam made request, and Raphael and at VII.40. 24 The t r i s y l l a b i c entry {michael} appears i n the environment # at 11.294: Of Thunder and the Sword of Michael i n the environment of ...X X... at XI.466: To whom thus Michael. Death thou hast seen and i n the environment # at VI.411: Michael and h i s Angels prevalent The d i s y l l a b i c entry {mich'el} appears i n the environment # at XI.412: Michael from Adam's eyes the Film remov'd and i n the environment ...X X... at, e.g., XI.295: To Michael thus h i s humble words address'd and at XI.334, XI.453, etc. Perhaps the c l e a r e s t evidence for such a system of double e n t r i e s i s to be found by examining a passage that was alte r e d from the 1667 ed. 32 to the 1674 ed. of the poem. In the f i r s t e d i t i o n X.548 read: Of rendring up. Michael to him r e p l i ' d The m e t r i c a l entry i s of the d i s y l l a b i c form {mich'el}. In the second e d i t i o n , however, the alternate entry {michael} i s used. 25 Of rend'ring up, and p a t i e n t l y attend My d i s s o l u t i o n . Michael r e p l i ' d . XI.551-552 Yet, suggestive though these passages may be, they do not, I f e e l , provide a f i n a l proof (or a disproof) f o r e i t h e r of the explanatory systems I have adumbrated here. I am compelled to leave the lar g e r t h e o r e t i c a l question open and to proceed with my study on the basis merely of a desc r i p t i v e s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the e l i s i o n classes of apocope and syncope necessary to absorb those redundant s y l l a b l e s that Milton "supernumerary / To [his] j u s t number found." I t should be emphasized that these conventions of e l i s i o n are not to be considered as enforcing or even as strongly suggesting a convention 33 of performance for the verse. The same holds true for the marking of i c t i c and n o n - i c t i c s y l l a b l e s dealt with i n chapter III below. That i s , although i t i s the case that a phonological stress prominence w i l l u s ually sp e c i f y an i c t i c marking, an i c t i c marking need not specif y a phonological stress prominence. The i c t i c marker serie s of any verse l i n e i s an abstract d e s c r i p t i o n of the me t r i c a l structure of that l i n e ; i t i s not an i n s t r u c t i o n f o r performance. I w i l l conclude t h i s chapter by summarizing the f i v e general s t r u c t u r a l conditions (Condition V.1,...V.5) that subsume the d i s p o s i t i o n of m etrical units discussed above. V . l There i s a series of metrical units U,,...U , where U I n n represents the tenth u n i t of the s e r i e s . 26 »X . • • • X ••• ...U....U i n i n where i <_ n, and n = 10 V.2 Every u n i t of the series U ,...U i s to be represented as unmarked ( i c t i c ) or marked (non-ictic) U. 1 u±[+] u.[-] where the rewrite condition i s d i s j u n c t i v e ; but, V.2 i f and only i f V.5. V.3 Any s e r i e s of marked units may consist only of n u l l , of one or of two u n i t s . ...U ... -»• .. .U [+] . . . i f and only i f U, ...U. h 3 where " h . . . j " [ - a ] , where [a] represents a "same as" condition f o r any marker se r i e s [+], [+] ; and h = i - 1 , j = i+1, h ^ 1, i < 10. Note that the r e s t r i c t i o n here i s only to prevent a s e r i e s *...[+] [+] [+3 Any other sequence formed by s e t t i n g as [+], such as ... [-] [+] [+]... or ...[+] [+] [-]..., i s permissible; as, of course, i s the s e r i e s ...[-] [+] [-].../ since the complex symbol [a] r e f e r s only to the marked features. 27 V .4 The number of unmarked units i n the series U,,...U w i l l 1 n always be equal to or greater than f i v e , while the number of marked units w i l l always be equal to or not less than three. .. .U -»- . . .U. [±] ... 1 l i f and only i f [+]^,...[+] where n >_ 3, n <_ 5; and V .4 i f and only i f V . 5 . V .5 The n-th u n i t of any s e r i e s U ,...U w i l l be unmarked. 28 CHAPTER II The metrical model i s a device which w i l l provide any line of verse Vrs. of the corpus with a metrical description VRS, such that this description i s consonant with the five general structural Conditions V.1,...V.5. The model w i l l be said to weakly generate a set of descriptions for the corpus i f every line Vrs. in the corpus can be satisfied by some description VRS. The model w i l l be said to strongly generate a set of descriptions for the corpus i f and only i f every description VRS satisfies at least one line Vrs.; that i s , there i s no description VRS^ that is not realized as at least one line Vrs.^. It turns out that the model I develop here does have a weak generative capacity, though not a strong generative capacity, for the verse samples immediately under consideration. It also turns out that, though the model functions quite satisfactorily in many respects, i t appears to contain an internal contradiction such that i t w i l l generate a number of descriptions in defiance of Condition V .4, at least one of which must necessarily be generated i f the model i s to have a weak generative capacity sufficient for the poem as a whole. It i s not clear to me whether, on the one hand, Condition V.4 i s simply too restrictive for the poem as a whole (although i t i s generally satisfied within the poem, and i s satisfied completely within my two samples) or whether, on the other hand, any aberrant line v^s-^ that i s accidentally satisfied by a description VRS^ in defiance of Condition V.4 should be considered as hypermetrical (i.e., metrically ill-formed) and the model s t i l l be considered weakly generative for the poem as a whole whether or not i t 29 generates V RS^/ and b e considered strongly generative i f some further restriction(s) could be devised such that i t would not generate VRS, . h I return to this matter below on pp. /f<y-/6o. A metrical description VRS i s a series of metrical units U,,...U (per V.1,...V.5). The relationship between any description 1 n VRS. and any line Vrs.. (that i s , the way in which VRS. "describes" Vrs..) 1 1 l l is to be considered as a consonance between two outputs of the i-metrical model. That i s , the model w i l l generate a sufficient series of metrical positions (Z ,...Z ) directly relatable tcsome series of syllables (syl.-,...syl. ) in the samples by the applications of a set of rules, 1 n which w i l l be referred to below as the ( f i r s t and second) stages of a "P-derivation." I t w i l l also generate a sufficient series of metrical units (U,,...U ) by a bil a t e r a l l y related set of rules which are taken to I n be a subset of the rules of that derivation. This second set of rules i s referred to below as a f u l l "P-derivation." The output of the f u l l "P-derivation" w i l l be a set of metrical units (U,,...U ) exactly reflecting 1 n the general distribution series of: ((U,,...U.)(U_(U.,...U_))U_). The j . 4 D o y o elements within the domain XJf, ...U. w i l l be said to constitute the " i n i t i a l 1 4 cadence" of a verse line; and the elements within the domain U^,...Ug to constitute the "medial cadence" of the line, with this medial cadence being specified as either "marked" or "unmarked" according to the disposition of "[+]" or " [ - ] " in regard to the unit U c. The operation of the model may be illustrated by the following diagram: 30 AUTOMATON Specification Rule V.3 per V.4 V.5 v f u l l "P-derivation" VRS f i r s t stage of "P-derivation" v second stage of "P-derivation" X Vrs. per V . l per V.2 (syl.) per V.2 (u.) The distinction noted here in the domain of Condition V.2 i s to specify that the second stage of "P-derivation" provides for the satisfaction of V.2 in terms of some metrical position (and fin a l l y in terms of some realized syllable, s y l . ^ ) , whereas the bila t e r a l equiv-alence of VRS and Vrs. provides for the satisfaction of V.2 in terms of some metrical unit U^. The AUTOMATON i s the source of the indefinite, metrically unspecified series X,X,.... PRECIS There are five major stages in the seri a l derivations that comprise the metrical model. It w i l l be convenient to outline these stages at this point and then to present them formally below. §.0 General form of "P-derivation" §.1 Specification Rule "0" §.11 F i r s t stage of "P-derivation" §.110 Rule formats §.1101 Redundancy condition §.12 Serial applications of §.110 §.13 Blank verse standard §.20 Second stage of "P-derivation" specification of as U §.201 Condition V.l §.21 Metrical positions Z,,...Z I n §.22 General condition of enjambment §.30 F u l l "P-derivation" §.301 Format of "P"..."Q"..."T" §.302 Subrules " T T , " "p," "a" §.303 Expansion condition ..."Q"... §.31 Summary §.320 Specification of §.302 §.321 Sequential l i s t of "P..." derivations I n i t i a l cadences 32 §.40 F u l l "Q-derivation" Medial cadences §.410 Cadence sequence markers §.411 Count series for §.410 §.412 Redundancy condition for §.411 §.42 Rewrite rules of §.40 §.5 Expansion of complex "T" Terminal condition The chapter is concluded by a summary l i s t of the i n i t i a l and medial cadences generated by the model according to §.30 and §.40 and by three sample expansions of §.40 according to the rules of §.42. §.0 General form A "P-derivation" involves the rule schema: (I, (P, ,...P (I (II,...II) (R,...R)) (I (I,...E) (T T )) ! l n l+l j+1 I n where i+1 = j ; and where I i s a recursive instruction (here represented with a subscript symbol " I " that specifies an indefinite number of applications of instruction "I") such that the subscript "n" of any rule schema (II,R,Z) is equal to the subscript of an instruction "I" where n (I...(rule schema)...)... 33 Note that since Ij i s an indefinite recursive instruction, the applications of the rule schema (P.,...P . . . T.,...T ) w i l l be continuous within i n i n the domain of any "P-derivation." Following from this, a convention is set up such that any instruction "I " w i l l apply u n t i l , but only until i t becomes vacuous. This convention w i l l apply throughout the subsequent series of derivations. §.1 Specification rule The f i r s t rule to apply in the se r i a l derivations that constitute the model converts the metrically unspecified series X,X,... produced by the AUTOMATON to a series of unmarked units, as: X,X,... ~? X[—] , X [—],*•• Let the rule be symbolized as " 0 . " Following the convention outlined in §.12 below, any unmarked unit "X[-]" may be represented by the symbol "S." Rule 0, then, provides for the rewrite: X/X f••• —^  SfSf**««* §.11 F i r s t stage of "P-derivation" This stage w i l l result in the specification of the indefinite series of unmarked units (S,S,...) as a series U, ,...U , where "U" i s 1 n any metrical unit of a verse line, and n = 10. This stage w i l l involve the expansion of "P^,..." and the specification of each unit "U/' in the series U ,...U in terms of the ictus markers [+] and [-]. 34 §.110 Rule formats The rules relevant to the f i r s t stage of "P-derivation" are as follows: rule P rule II rule IT rule R rule R' rule E rule E1 rule T S, S,. ssss ssso sss sso ss so 000 -»- ssss -> SSSO OSSS -*• SSO -> OSS -> SO -»• OS •+ SSS (These rules could also be set out in another format, such that rule Tf, for example, would regulate the rewrite of an element "X" as: X -* O / SSS This alternate format, however, does not seem to possess any special advantage for the model as i t i s presently explicated. I have chosen to use the f i r s t format since i t conforms with the format of §.42.) §.1101 Redundancy condition There i s as well a redundancy condition of the form: * X [a] [-a] where x = 'I'+l 35 That i s , i f any unit i s (i) marked, or (ii) unmarked at a level ty of the derivation, i t w i l l become (i) unmarked, or (ii) marked when i t f a l l s within the domain of some rewrite rule at a level x of the derivation. §.12 Rule applications The results of the application of these rules i s recorded below. Successive rule applications (levels of the derivation) are noted as (1), (2), etc. to the right of the series of general symbols (0,S), where "O" i s associated under a general marking convention with U\ and "S" i s associated with U\ [-]. The domain of each rule application (beyond that of the f i r s t general rule 0) i s marked with an underscore. The various applications of the redundancy condition from a level ty, e.g. (4) to a level x» e.g. (5) are indicated by the arrow (AUTOMATON yields X,X,X,X , . • • Rule Result Level 0 S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S (1) S S S S S S S S S S (2) inapplicable n I S S S O S S S S S S (3) Rule Result Level n 2 s s s o s s s o s s (4) II_ inapplicable n' o s s s s s s o s s (5) + n 2 o s s s o s s s s s (6) 11^  inapplicable Rx 0 S S O 0 S S S S S (7) R2 O S S 0 O S S O S S (8) R inapplicable + R' O O S S O S S O S S (9) R2 O O S S 0 O S S S S (10) R^  inapplicable Zx O O S O O O S S S S (11) z 2 O O S O O O S O S S (12) E 3 O O S O O O S O S_0 (13) E^ j inapplicable E| 0 0 O S O O S O S O (14) + E' O O O S O O O S S')0 (15) 2 ' + E 3 O O O S O O O S O S (16) E^ inapplicable T l O S O S O 0 O S O S (17) T 2 O S 0 S 0 S 0 S O S (18) T 3 inapplicable 37 The f i n a l rule application here would be that of: P^ yields ! where ! represents a terminal application of the condition of non-vacuous recursion. §.13 Blank verse standard The f i r s t stage of my derivation i s completed by the generation at level (18) of the series: 0 S 0 S 0 S 0 S 0 S. It is at this point that the model may be recognized as a device concerned with the scansion specifically of a blank verse line. That i s , upon the assumption of the condition U^,...u"n, n = 10, and the re-marking of every "0" as [+] and every "S" as [-], the result of level (18) of this expansion of "P^..." would be the specification of the so-called normal iambic pentameter line. Further, and more significantly, i t i s to be noted that a set of a l l requisite blank verse scansions ("norm" and "exceptions" alike) can be generated harmoniously through the application of a proper subset of the rules involved in the generation of level (18). The precipitation of level (18) thus marks the blank verse standard of the model. Another model sufficient for the scansion of, say, the so-called trochaic tetrameter line would generate a standard analogous to my level (18) consisting of the series: S 0 S 0 S 0 S 0; and so on. §.20 Second stage of "P-derivation" The concern here i s to specify the condition under which any unit "U." may be associated with a marked or an unmarked i c t i c value 38 as a metrical position "Z^." (See §.21 below.) The stage of derivation consists solely of the condition that any unit "U\" whose structural history (i.e., the history recorded as rule (1),...(18)) i s of the form: where Y,Y,... is a series of one or more [±] specified units; and where n >_ 1, and j - i = n, and jn ^  1, and j[+] and k[-]; and (i) jn+1 = i ; or (ii) k-1 = jn, and kn >. 1, and kn+1 = i ; and where I i s a recursive instruction, and 1^0; and where E. yields D. , l x or E| yields U\ ; and conditions (i) and ( i i ) , and the conditions involving E., E! are disjunctively ordered. [+] i s to be specified as U , where z -»• [-] x 39 §.201 Condition V . l Note that the rewrite condition of Z. yields U., where the i i rule schema subscript i s an " i " such that i = 3, w i l l f u l f i l l the condition of the government of V.l upon the series U., ...U that l n n = 10; and that the instruction of ..) set out for the general form of a "P-derivation" (see §.0), provides that such w i l l be the case. §.21 Metrical positions Under the terms of condition §.20, the series of metrical units U,,...U i s to be directly associated with a series of metrical I n positions Z^,...Z . This series w i l l be found susceptible of lexical and syntactic mapping (see Chapter III) under the general condition that a lexical or a minor syntactic item "W" maps a marker Z. containing l . . .m a substructure "Z" into a marker W. formed by replacing "Z" by "W"; l . . .m where "Z" = Z, ,...Z , where n >. 1, and n <. 10, and Z,Z,... = a series I n — — of one or more metrical positions; and "W" = W^,...Wn» where n >_ 1, 35 and n <. 10 and w,w,... = a series of one or more syllables; and "lexical item" refers to any series of syllables "#w^ ,...wn#" and "syntactic item" refers to any series of syllables "#w^ ,...,#...#,...w#" where the symbol "#" represents a word boundary, and w,w,... = a series of one or more syllables, and the conditions on subscript "n" are as previously specified. §.22 Enjambment Following from these conditions, i t would appear that the general condition for enjambment w i l l be that there i s a major syntactic 40 item "w"' (that i s defined as "syntactic item") that maps a marker Z. , similarly into a marker W! ,; where some Z. w i l l be such 1...m 1...m j that "j-1" i s the subscript of a [±]-specified Z, such that j - l [-] [-] [-] -> 0 / [+] [+] . r ( i . e . , where Z. , , Z. J D-l 3 w i l l be realized only as syl. , sy l . . ) , where any U \J JL TX • < where n... > 10, and where m* >. 10. Z j - l ' .30 F u l l "P-derivation" It w i l l be convenient to begin the description of the f u l l "P-derivation" by providing a diagram (following from that on p. 30) of the main areas of the derivation. F u l l "P-derivation" "P" (A,. . .N) V "Q" U±]A, . . .N) \ tw r" V.3 V.5 The symbol series (A,...N) represent the thirteen classes of metrical cadences that w i l l be described below (and see the Summary Table on p. St). 41 §.301 Rule format The conditions of a f u l l "P-derivation" are satisfied when, f i r s t , the rule (I ("P"...)) i s to be expanded as: (I ("P"..."Q"..."T")); (Note that the recursive instruction I^ applies throughout to complex "P," "Q" and "T"; although, because of the convention regarding non-vacuous recursion, the instruction w i l l apply once only to complex "T.") §.302 Subrules and, second, the expansion condition of "P"..."Q" implies the subregularity of: (..."P" (I, (TT. ,a_ ,...TT ,p ,o ))...) l l l 1 n n n where the recursive instruction Ij upon the subrules (TT,P,O) provides for an indefinite expansion of direct, continuous applications of the type (IT (...)), (p (...)),... , such that any result (subrule(...)^) within a particular expansion of "(ir,p,a) M and within the general expansion of "P" w i l l be consonant with the convention regarding non-vacuous recursion (i.e., any result (rule...subrule(...)^) w i l l be such that for any prior result (rule...subrule(... )^), where h < i , then h 5* i) ; §.303 Complex "Q" and, third, the expansion condition ..."Q"... implies the subregularity of: 42 where the recursive subscript marker "!" provides for an indefinite expansion by simple rewrite stages of the type Q -»• Q^ ; •*• Q^ ;..., such that for any Q^ , i / 0 (see the "Q-derivation" given in §.42). §.31 Summary The model w i l l provide a scansion VRS made up of three parts. The f i r s t four units of the scansion are gathered as a series ((U^,...U^)...) under the regulation of complex "P." The series i s spoken of as the i n i t i a l cadence of VRS. The next five units of a scansion are gathered as the series (... (U,_ (U^ ,.. .U.))...) , spoken of as the medial cadence 5 6 9 of VRS, under the regulation of complex "Q." The medial cadence i s specified as "marked" when i s associated with [+] and as "unmarked" when U,. i s associated with [-] . The last unit of the scansion i s isolated as the single element series (...U^ ) under the regulation of complex "T." It i s spoken of as the terminal condition of VRS. The result of the rule schema ("P"..."Q"..."T") i s thus the VRS series <<u1,...u4)<u5<u6,...u9))u0). §.320 Subrules The expansion of complex "P" is effected by means of mapping onto the set of rules (P,...£'...) the set of subrules (ir,p,o,...). The former rules are stated above i n my consideration of f i r s t stage "P" expansion. The subrules are as follows: 43 structural index : 1234 structural change: 1234 -*• 2314 structural index : 1234 structural change: 1234 1324 "a" structural index : 1234 structural change: 1234 •*• 1243 §.321 I n i t i a l Cadences The satisfaction of this set and subset may be expressed by the following sequence of derivations, which w i l l be termed the sequence of f u l l "P..." derivations. The sequences of metrical units that result from these derivations w i l l be identified by the cadence symbols "A," "B," etc., and also by relevant series of the general symbols "0" and "S" which can be considered as representing the cadence sequences at a level of U^,...Un immediately prior to the specification of super-script "z" to any "u\." A derivation shown as, e.g., "A!" specifies a terminal application of the convention of non-vacuous recursion. Rule Cadence •P1 A or "#SSSS..." P ^ A! 44 Rule Cadence 1^  B or "#SSSO..." II B! li^ C or "#OSSS..." Ti'^is D or "#SSOS..." II^ p E or "#SOSS..." J[,1a1 El R± F or "#OSSO..." R ^ G or "#SSOO..." R 1P 1 H or "#SOSO..." R 1a 1 J or "#SOOS..." R 2ir 2 K or "#OOSS. .." R 2P 2 L or "SOSOO..." R„a„ J ! 2 2 R^  K! M or "#00S0..." (unrealized in i n i t i a l position) V i L ! Z^ *N or "*#CO0S..." Z'1T\1 *N! T N or "#OSOS..." T„ N! 2 The symbol "#" here represents any i n i t i a l l ine boundary; and represents the domain of ..."Q" . . ."T." 45 §.40 F u l l "Q-derivation" Medial Cadences It i s now possible to establish the domain of the expansion condition ..."Q"..., which w i l l be termed a f u l l "Q-derivation." To recapitulate, this portion of the f u l l "P-derivation" involves the expansion of: Q + Q,»---% where the recursive subscript marker "!" provides for an indefinite expansion by simple rewrite stages of the type Q -*• Q^ ; Q2?..., such that for any Q^ , i ? 0 . §.410 Markers The rules employed in the "Q-derivations" provide for a full y recoverable structure of cadence sequence markers specified, f i r s t , for the condition: ([+])+ , represented as (marker)"X"; or ([-])+ , represented as "X"; and, second, for the condition: X^, or where any X subscript " i " w i l l be ( ) represented as a cadence sequence "... ..." that i s a proper subset of ..."Q"...; or w i l l be *( ) represented as a sequence "...* ..." that i s not a proper subset of ... "Q"... , and hence not realizable within any D]_'«'« u n series of the model. Both representable and noh-representable elements, of course, are necessarily specified to establish the fully recoverable structure of cadence markers. §.411 Count series The elements of the structure (i.e. , the several rules of the 46 "Q-derivation") are identified by an independently generated count series whose leftmost figure i s given, in the manner of a convenient analogue, the character "0" when the rule i s a (rule)^, such that "([+]) + ,..., ( ) ^ ,••."; and is given the character "S" when the rule is a (rule)^, such that "([-]) + ,...( K,...." Further, the count series incorportaes a condition such that when a rule i s a (rule).., such that "0..,...0..,..." and "S.,,...S. " where "0. . -* 0. .,," 1 3 1 3 J 3+1 and " s ' j i -* s * j « + i " 3 , 1 ( 3 3 + 1 = J'+1'' then, any ( ) i f any ( a11*3' any ( ^ a n v ^ ' j * I n particular set of rules, however, only any ( ' j+i ^ a m * o n l y i f ( - ^ j ' * ^^*' o n l y O.223[440] i f and only i f S.223). §.412 Redundancy condition The count series further involves a redundancy condition such that for any (imle) k whose terms are that X. -*• 3 \ *4 , or that X. -3 then, *Xk •+ ^ and *4 - ^ w i l l also be considered as (rule)^, and identified by count figure 0.^ or S. in the recoverable count structure. The count series, further-it more, are harmonious and fu l l y recoverable. 47 • 4 2 Rules of complex "Q" The rewrite rules of the f u l l "Q-derivation" are as follows: QM QM 0.1 S.l QM . .M or *M 0.10 (0.10) *M -v L *L 0.2 0.20 B *B B *B 0.21 0.210 0.22 0.220 B -»• E *E 0.211 0.2110 E *E 0.212 0.2120 E *E 0.213 0.2130 B *B 0.220 O.2200 0.221 0.2210 0.222 0.2220 0.2212 0.2213 0.223 0.2230 0.2231 0.22310 0.2232 0.22320 0.2233 0.22330 0.2234 0.22340 0.22341 0.22342 0.223420 0.223421 0.223431 0.2234310 0.223441 0.2234410 0.2234411 0.22344110 0.2234421 0.22344210 0.2234422 0.22344220 0.22344310 0.223442 O.2234420 0.223443 0.2234431 O.22344310 0 0.2234432 * J E M *M 0.22343 0.223440 0.2234400 Cf. S.223 *M -y 0 0.2234410 0M or . .M *M S.10 (S.10) N *N S.2 S.20 E *E S.21 S.210 G *G D *D S.22 S.220 S.221 S.2210 K *K S.222 S.2220 M *M S.223 S.2230 Cf. 0.223[440] *M -»• 0 S.22310 51 M -*• F *F S.2231 S.223100 F *F S.2232 S.22320 B *B S.2233 S.22330 0 E *E S.223300 S.22331 S.223310 E G *G S.22332 S.223320 §.5 Terminal condition The expansion of complex "T" i s of the form: U n * V"1 f <V"P"---"Q" )) Thus, the expansion of complex "T" results in: T^ yields [-] T 2 yields ! For a sample derivation of one scansion VRS, see Chapter IV, pp. 137-/^3, Summary Li s t of Cadences Marker A B D E K L M N I n i t i a l Cadence S S S S • • • S S s o... o s s s... s s o s... s o s s... o s s o... s s o o.. . s o s o... S 0 0 s... 0 0 s s... o s o o... o s o s... Marker A B B C C D E E F F G G H H J J K L M N Medial Cadence « • • 0 2 S S S • • ...0 s s s o.. «• * S S S S 0 • • ...0 o s s s.. • • • S ,0 S S S • • ...0 s s o s.. ...0 s o s s.. •••S S O S S•• ...00 s s o.. . ..S 0 S S 0. , ...O S S o o.. ...S S S O 0.. ...0 s o s o.. .. .s s o s o.. ...0 s o o s.. .. .s s o o s.. ...s o o s s.. ...s o s o o.. ...S 0 o s o.. ...S 0 S 0 s.. 53 I w i l l conclude this description of the metrical model (Ij("P"..."Q"..."T")) by il l u s t r a t i n g the rules that represent the f u l l "Q-derivation" with two expansions each (pertaining to the descriptions of the two samples) from the total set of twenty-four metrical unit sequences (see the summary l i s t on p. 52 above) that provide the structural descriptions (VRS) for each line (Vrs.) of the samples. Note that the expansion of (L + "Q"...) i s identical for both samples. I have provided a summary of the f u l l VRS derivations of the required series U l " " " U n °^ t* 1 S m o <* e^ b v l i s t i n 9 t b e twenty-four count series that identify the metrical sequences of ..."Q"..., along with the relevant series of the general symbols "0" and "S" specified by them in Appendix B. Expansion of (L + "Q"...) for sample I-XII and sample IV. 0S00 + "Q"... II ' Q " ->• QM 0.1 QM • M 0.10 or L *M (0.10) L *M ->- L *L 0.20 L *L ->- L *B 0.210 L *B -»• L E 0.213 i.e. , ...SSOSS.. L E -V L B 0.220 i.e. , * * #SSSS0»• L B ->• L G 0.221 i.e. , ...sssoo.. L G -> L H 0.2213 i.e., ...ssoso.. L H ->• L *J 0.22330 L *J -+ L J 0.2234 i.e., ...ssoos.. L J -y 0 0.22341 Productivity of (L + "Q"...) : O S O O S S O S S [S] O S O O S S S S O [S] O S O O S S S O O [S] O S O O S S O S O [S] o s o o s s o o s [s] Expansion of (E + "Q"...) for sample I-XII, SOSS + "Q"... "Q" + £M £M ...M or E *M E *M -> E *N E *N •+ E *E E *E -v E D E D -> E *K E *K •+ E *M E *M -*• E F E F -*• E F_ E F E B E B -»• E E E E ->• E G EG-*- E H E H E H E H E J S.l S.10 (S.10) S.20 S.210 S.221 ; S.2220 S.223C440] O.223[440] S.2231 S.2232 S.2233 S.22331 S.22332 . . . 0.2231 . . . 0.2232 . . . 0.2233 i.e.,-...OSSOS. i.e., ...OOSSO. i.e., ...SOSSO. i.e., ...OSSSO. i.e., ...OSOSS. i.e., ...OSSOO. i.e., ...OSOSO. i.e., ...SSOSO. i.e., ...OSOOS. E J -*• E * J E * J ->- E G E G -»• E *L E *L E *C E *C -*• E *A E *A E *B E *B 0 . . Productivity of (E + "Q"...) Expansion of (E + "Q".. SOSS + "Q"... "Q" -> QM 0.1 QM ->• ...M 0.10 or E *M (0.10) E *M E *L 0.20 0.22340 0.22342 i.e., . . . S S S 0 0 . . 0.2234310 0.2234410 0.2234420 0.22344310 • 0.2234432 : S 0 S S 0 S S 0 S [ S ] S O S S O O S S O f S ] S O S S S O S S O [S] s o s s o s s s o t s ) s o s s o s o s s [S] s o s s o s s o o [S] s o s s o s o s o [S] s o s s s s o s o t s ] S O S S O S O O S [S] S O S S S S S O O [S] ) for sample IV. E *L E *B E E E G E H E H E F E *F E *B E *B E E E *E E *E ->• E *B E *B -> E *E E *E -*• E G E H E H E *J E *J •*• E M E M •*• E F E *F E *B 0 0.210 0.211 0.2120 0.2200 0.2220 0.223 0.2231 0.2232 0.22330 0.223440 i.e., ...0S0SS, Productivity of (E + "Q"...) : S.223[44] S.2231 S.22320 S.22330 S.223300 S 0 S S 0 S 0 S S [S] S O S S O S S O O [S] S O S S O S O S O [S] S O S S S S O S O [S] S O S S S O O S O [S] S O S S O O S S O [S] i.e., ...0SS00. i.e., ...OSOSO. i.e., ...SSOSO. i.e., ...SOOSO. i.e., ...OOSSO. 57 CHAPTER III I w i l l now i l l u s t r a t e the general tendencies of lexico-syntactic mapping for the model by a survey of samples I-XII, IV, and of some further lines drawn openly from the poem as a whole. The process of mapping involves the replacement of some complex "Z" by some complex "W" according to the formal requirements outlined in §.21, p. 3<? above. It w i l l be convenient to speak of this process by means of a controlled ambiguity as "setting" a unit "0" or a unit "S" (i.e., a "Z" determinable as [+] or [-) respectively) at "position" Z^, where subscript " i " in any series Z^,...Zn specifies, and w i l l be referred to as some " s y l . . . " I PRECIS The most significant lexico-syntactic mapping tactics here may be gathered into three general classes of 1) Lexical Items, whose i c t i c disposition i s independent of syntactic structure; 2) a class of items that I refer to as Syntactic Series, whose i c t i c disposition i s conditioned by their surface relation as a series of two or more identical parts of speech— as noun appositives, for example, or a multiple adjective construction; and 3) a large class of items that I have associated as Sentential and Phrasal Elements, whose i c t i c disposition is governed directly by their various syntactic functions. The material w i l l be examined in the following order: Lexical Items § 1.10 Emphatic pronouns "hee,..." §1.11 per §1.10 for, e.g., "their,..." §1.20 Vowel length "Cherub,..." §1.21 Per §1.20 for, e.g., "fewerd" §1.30 Uncertain lexical stress "without, §1.31 Per §1.30 for, e.g., "access,..." §1.40 Prominent pre-tonic stress §1.41 Prominent post-tonic stress §1.50 Derivative "PREV" stress §1.51 Nominal forms of §1.50 Syntactic Series §2.10 PRO-N[oun] + PRO-N §2.11 Compounded form of §2.10 §2.20 NOUN + NOUN §2.21 Compounded form of §2.20 §2.22 NOUN + PRO-N §2.30 N-mod[ifier] + N-mod §2.31 Compounded form of §2.30 §2.4 VERB + VERB §2.50 V[erb]-mod + V-mod §2.51 Compounded form of §2.50 Sentential and Phrasal Elements §3.10 AUXtiliary] §3.11 EX[clamation] particle 59 §3.120 S[entence]-mod §3.121 Compounded form of §3.120 §3.13 CONJ (coordinate conjunction) §3.210 DETterminer] §3.211 DEM[onstrative] DET §3.2111 DET' (as N-mod) §3.212 V0C[ative] particle §3.213 CONJ . . phr[asal] §3.220 V-mod §3.221 TO (infinitive) §3.222 PREV particle (i.e., separable form of §1.50) §3.30 BE (existential form of "be") §3.31 PREP Further examples of §1.31 (items of uncertain lexical stress) are given in Appendix C §1.10 The metrical prominence of certain lexical items in the poem i s 36 to be inferred from forms of alternate spelling. For example, there i s both an emphatic and an unemphatic form for four personal pronouns in the text. These forms are: "hee" (emphatic) beside "he" (unemphatic), "shee" and "she," "wee" and "we," and "mee" and "me."37 Emphatic "hee" occurs in 1.34, setting S at s y l . & , as: . . . Serpent; hee i t was, . . . s 60 and From granting hee, as I • . . IV.104.4 s The form also occurs at, e.g.: 1.84.4 If thou beest hee; . . . s XII.38.1 Hee with a crew, . . . s XII.90.8 . . . since hee permits s Contrast the unemphatic form at: VI.111.9 . . ., where he stood o IV.21.1 He brings, and round about . . . o Emphatic "shee" occurs in VII.39, setting S at syl.._, as: b . . ., shee an empty dream s and For softness shee and sweet . . . IV.298.4 s Also, e.g.: V.384.1 Shee needed, Virtue-proof, . . . s Contrast the unemphatic form at: IV.603.1 She a l l night long . . . o Emphatic "wee" occurs in VII.95, setting S at s y l . 2 , as: What wee, not to explore . . . s 61 and For wee to him . . . IV.444.2 s Also, e.g.: VI.289.9 . . . e v i l , but wee style s X.1048.8 . . . reviling; wee expected s Contrast, e.g.: IV.624.7 . . . we must be ris'n o X.1049.9 . . ., which we thought o Emphatic "mee" occurs i n XII.276, setting S at s y l ^ , as: Of mee and a l l Mankind; . . . s and Know ye not mee? . . . IV.828.4 s Also, e.g.: II.18.1 Mee though just right . . . s Contrast, e.g.: IV.40.9 . . . Ambition threw me down o VIII.458.9 . . . f e l l on me, call' d o 62 §1.11 A similar specification of metrical prominence follows from the double "their" and "thir." The latter i s by far the most frequently used form, and so the rare appearances of the former seem even more emphatic by 38 representing the marked case. Emphatic "their" occurs, for instance, in 1.267, setting S at s y l . , as: . . . share with us their part s and Not equal, as their sex . . . IV.296.5 s Also, e.g.: XII.107.4 Wearied with their iniquities, . . . s 39 VI.690.4 Equal in their Creation . . . s The unemphatic form "t h i r , " as the unmarked case, i s overwhelmingly frequent i n the poem. In sample I-XII i t occurs to set O at every position except syl.g (where, of course, i t could only be placed i n defiance of the restriction of Condition V.5 that the n-th unit of any well-formed series cannot be non-ictic). Through an accidental hiatus i n sample IV, the form occurs only at s y l . ^ , s y l . 2 , s y l . 3 , syl.,., s y l > 7 and s y l . g . E.g. : VI.71.1 Thir perfet ranks; . . . o IV.522.1 Thir ruin! Hence . . . o From t h i r Creator, . . . o Hide thir diminisht heads; . . . o Under th i r God-like . . . o Fanning th i r odoriferous . . . o In silence t h i r bright . . . o Drew many, whom thi r place . . . o More grateful, to t h i r Supper . . . o . . ., and t h i r great Senate choose o . . ., here t h i r Prison ordained o . . . , into t h i r inmost bower o . . . gain by thir delay 64 E.g.: VI.42.9 . . ., and for th i r King o IV.943.9 . . . to serve t h i r Lord o §1.20 One instance of metrical prominence established for a lexical item directly from considerations of vowel length involves the high back vowel /u:/. I suggest that a distributional regularity here w i l l follow 40 the general rule: u -»• [+long] / [stop]. This rule, by applying prominent word stress to post-tonic syllables, provides for, e.g., the setting of S at s y l . ^ i n : 1.157 Fall'n^Cherub, to be weak . . s s Also: 1.324.2 Cherub and Seraph . . . s s 1.534.9 . . ., a Cherub t a l l s s The form occurs twice in sample IV, to set S at syl.j. i n : IV.844 So spake the Cherub, and . . . s s IV.971.7 Proud limitary Cherub, but . . . • s s Also: III.636.7 . . . a st r i p l i n g Cherub he appears s s 65 VI.771.7 of Cherub rode sublime s s VII.198.2 Cherub and Seraph, s s The lengthening rule applies to the pre-tonic syllable of "supreme," to set S at s y l . i n : I.248 . . ., force hath made supreme s s Also: and: 1.735.8 . . ., whom the supreme King s s That he, the Supreme good, . . . s s Comus 217.4 A metrical prominence i s established for /u:/ i n the environment 41 of / b/ i n medial position, to set S at syl'g i n : IV.594 . . . this less volubil Earth s s IX.436.3 Then voluble and bold, . . . s s §1.21 A similar prominence of /u:/ seems to be inferrable from a form of spelling. I.e., in 1.234: i And fuell'd entrails i i fewel* d 1X1 feweId (Hughes ed.) (1667 ed. and 1674 ed., per Visiak) (Darbishire ed.) 66 In this instance forms i i and i i i apparently record an articulation of 42 /f(y)u:3ld/, thus setting S,0 at s y l . . However, this particular 2,3 inference cannot be supported by a comparison with other examples, since the word occurs only once in Milton's poetry. The related form "fuel" occurs'-.once in Samson Agonistes 1351:". . . by adding fuel to the flame" (1671 ed.). §1.30 Spelling variants are not always available to suggest i c t i c patterning for words in which some uncertainty of lexical stress obtains. Sometimes a significant derivational history may be posited for such words—as in §1.40, §1.41 below—but in other cases, such as that of disyllabic prepositions, i t appears that decisions for i c t i c patterning must be put forward, at the risk of a circular argument, on the basis of a few instances of a resultant i c t i c patterning that i s found intuitively satisfying. A paradigm for the preposition "without" can be set up this 43 way. If the word i s taken to maintain a rising lexical stress pattern of /2,1/ (with stress "1" as the highest word stress) then the syllables "with/' + "out,." w i l l set an i c t i c pattern of 0?,S at a contiguity of s y l . ^ + syl._. as, for example, i n : Or glittering Star-light without thee i s sweet IV.656 o s o s s o s s o s where syl. . = syl.-l 6 and s y l . . = s y l . _ D 7 67 It seems to me that the scansion of the line as represented here provides an internal metrical balance (similar to that of IV.718, etc., considered in Chapter I, pp. 15-16), a sort of mirror image parity within i t s e l f , that jus t i f i e s the tentative assumption of the stress pattern /2,1/. The general form of this metrical balance i s : '(* + X).-. yields (ty + x) + (* +X) yields ip + x + X + ^ where ip = "OS" and x = "OSS" The same stress pattern of /2,1/ holds for the word "within" to set 0,S at, e.g.: Within the Mount of God, . . . VI.5 o s o s o s A similar uncertainty of lexical stress obtains for the preposition "into." I have taken a stress pattern of /I,2/ to be the unmarked case here; as at, e.g., IV.738.5,6: . . ., into t h i r inmost bower s o In one location at least both syllables of the word are realized as non-i c t i c , to set the pattern of 0 C0 [S :S] i n VII.135 at s y l . ^ _ ^ , as: Into his place, and the great Son return'd o o s s 68 Although no instance of "into" e x i s t s — t o my knowledge—in Milton's verse such as to indicate unambiguously a favoured stress pattern, the cognate form "unto" does occur in a piece of early writing to clearly enforce a pattern of /2,1/. Small loss i t i s that thence can come unto thee, I know my tongue but l i t t l e Grace can do thee ("At a Vacation Exercise," 9-10) If Milton's intention here were only as clear as the stress pattern no hesitation could remain in assigning a fixed value for "into." However, I am unwilling to do so. The "Exercise" in general and this couplet in particular smacks too much of the heavily jocular to be f i n a l l y persuasive. I am more inclined to think that the young poet ("aetat 19") i s rather purposely distorting the stress pattern of his preposition—as a mock, 45 perhaps, at the pronunciation of some fellow student or don? §1.31 A number of other words in the samples also provoke questions 46 regarding probable stress collocations; such as, e.g., "access," in IV.137: Access deni'd; . . . The word maintains a doubtful stress pattern due to a double derivation, as i) Fr. ACCES, from Lat. ACCESSUS, from AC-CEDERE; and as i i ) direct from ACCESSUS. The probable articulation of i) i s ['aeksas] and of i i ) i s [ak'ses], 47 Both forms appear to have been common by the end of the sixteenth century. My decision for adopting pattern i ) , for the metrical value of S,0, i s 69 based on the possible formation of a long vowel quantity at the syllable peak [ae:] by adopting the consonant cluster [^ks] as coda for this peak (as in, e.g., "backs" [ba?ks] or "axe" [aeks]). Such a formation i s not possible from the alternate syllable peak [e], since this would involve 48 the unpermitted onset cluster [*ks^]. Although Milton tends generally to favour a phonologically 49 collapsed form of the preterite ending {-d} he sometimes adopts the full y articulated form of, e.g., "unadorned" with a four-syllable value in Her unadorned golden tresses wore IV.305 There i s a clear parity in Comus 23: The unadorned bosom of the Deep Many of the proper names in Paradise Lost sustain a probable articulation based on their original forms. The name "Proserpin," for example, requires a stress pattern of /2,1,3/ according to the Lat. • 50 PROSERPINA, and thus sets 0 S O at s y l . 5 _ ? in IV.269, as: Of Enna, where Proserpin gath'ring flow'rs o s o The same stress pattern w i l l hold for the name "Silvanus" at IV.707: Pan or Silvanus never slept, . . . o s o I have assumed a stress pattern of /1,3,3/, with a consequent metrical value of S 0 0 for the name "Nyseian" at s y l . in IV.255, as: 70 . . .; nor that Nyseian Isle s o o This pattern is enforced here by taking the syllable peak /fey/ (of syl.g) as one element of a strongly marked assonance series consisting of "[injspir'd"(273), "might"(274), "[Para]dise"(274), "strive"(275), "Ny [seian]"(275), "Isle"(275) and "Tri[ton]"(276). 5 1 I.e.: . . ., and th' inspir'd Castalian Spring might with this Paradise Of Eden strive; nor that Nyseian Isle Girt with the River Triton, . . . IV.273-276 §1.40 Some other stress collocations probable in mid-seventeenth century English for lexical items in the samples are as follows. A 52 prominent pre-tonic articulation occurs with "transgress" in VII.47, setting S S at s y l . , as: 3,4 If they transgress, . . . §1.41 53 A prominent post-tonic articulation occurs with "aspect" in VI.81, setting S S at syl._ ., as: In battailous aspect, s s Also, see "inmate," as: XII.166.8,9 . . ., as inmate guests s s 71 §1.50 A similar class of stress collocations suggestive of metrical prominence i s to be deduced by means of a synchronic derivational morphology for VERB forms that represent a compounded series of PREV + VERB. Although h i s t o r i c a l support can sometimes be given for these collocations 55 (as, e.g., with "pre-," "con-" and "un-" in my examples), their 56 interpretation w i l l rest chiefly on an analysis of deep morphology. My operational procedure here has been to posit a cleep morphological 57 structure for certain lexical items, such as "prepar'd," of the general The diagram provides a schematization of the assumed structure of the lexical item "#W#" in terms of three levels of two-place logical predicates (shown as left-most branches) in association with three levels of logical arguments (centre and right-most branches). The significance of the elements here i s as follows: form: w. {-d} represents the past-tense morpheme PRAE represents the putative root: "degree" (of the PREV). PARA represents the putative root: "ready" (of the VERB). 72 PROV represents a general pro-verb form. An alternate description for #W# can be given by means of the general argument-predicate schema: ((argument)(3 argument)(predicate)) which i s an abbreviated notation for the condition: 58 for a l l "argument," there i s an "argument," such that "predicate." Employing this notation, which i s much more economical of space than the tree-diagram, the deep morphological structure of "prepar'd" can be described as: ((W) (3W) ((PROV) (3PROV) ({-d}) (PRAE) (PARA))) The element "PRAE" issassumed, i n i t s function as compounded PREV, to provide a prominent pre-tonic stress for the syllable "pre-," occuring in 1.70, to set S S at s y l . , as: y, u . . . Justice had prepar'd s s A similar assumption of prominent pre-tonic stress for the word 59 "conceiving" can be made ex p l i c i t by the structural description: ((W) (3W) ( (PROV) @rPR0V) ({-!)}) (CUM) (CEPT))) 60 where {-n} represents the gerundive morpheme. CUM represents the putative root: "association" (of the PREV). CEPT represents the putative root: "take" (of the VERB). 73 The element "CUM" i s to be realized (as above) as the syllable "con-," occuring i n 1.234, to set S S at s y l . , as: 7,8 . . . thence conceiving Fire s s Another instance of stress prominence may be recorded for the 61 word "undaunted" as follows: ((W) (iW) ((PROV) (3PR0V) ({-d}) (UN) (DOMA))) 62 where UN represents the putative root: "negation." DOMA represents the putative root: "tame." Note that the syntactic attribute feature N p ( « " + N) is n o t a necessary argument of the deep morphology here, being assigned, presumably, by a subsequent set of preposing and deletion transformations. The element "UN" is to be realized as the syllable "un-," occuring in VI.113, to set S S at sy l . , as: o ,b And thus his own undaunted.heart . . . s s §1.51 Sometimes such a prominence may be recorded for a lexical noun such that the explicatory morphology must include an argument for a general pro-nominal form, which I represent here as "NOM," that w i l l govern the structure N< ). I have assumed this to be the case regarding the noun "Eccentric" so that the word maintains the basic structural description: 74 ((W) (3W) ((PROV) (3PR0V)((N0M) (3NOM) ({-k}) (EK) (KENT)))) where {-k} represents the attributive suffix (per Lat. "-icus" or Gk. "-ucoo"). EK represents the putative root: "out of." KENT represents the putative root: "centre." This structure provides for the assignment of the stress pattern /2,1,3/ to set S S 0 at VTII.83.5-7: With Centric and Eccentric scribbl'd o'er s s o The reading here i s supported by a parity with the prosodic structure of the word "Epicycle," with a stress pattern of /2,3,1,3/ in the following line: Cycle and Epicycle, Orb in Orb VIII.84 The parity may be represented as follows, with stress values shown sublineally: i X + (Y) + centric yields X + 0 + centric 2 3 1 3 2 0 1 3 X + (Y) + cycle yields X + Y + cycle 2 3 13 2 3 1 3 i i X + 0 + centric yields eccentric 2 ^ 1 3 2 1 3 X + Y + cycle yields epicycle 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 3 75 Another instance of stress prominence may be recorded for the word "despair" by means of the structural description: ((W) (3W) ( (PROV) (3PR0V)((N0M) (3N0M) (DE) (SPER)))) where DE represents the putative root: "negation." SPER represents the putative root: "hope." The element "DE" i s to be realized as the syllable "de-" (cf. the distinct surface realization of "un-" of the other deep "negation" root "UN"), occuring in IV.115, to set S S at s y l . , as: y ,u . . . pale, i r e , envy and despair o s s On the metrical value of 0 set for the phrasal conjunction at s y l . , see §3.213 below. This type of pre-tonic stress emphasis i s , however, not especially common for the nouns in Milton's verse. In 11.800, for example, the pre-tonic syllable of the noun "repast" i s clearly set as non-ictic in immediate contiguity with the emphatic (metrically prominent) determiner " t h e i r . " 6 3 My Bowels, their repast; . . . s o s 76 Syntactic Series The class of minor syntactic items to be considered here may be described in terms of their surface relationships as a series W? W?... of repeated or reduplicated parts of speech, such that for any W? identifiable by the minor syntactic feature marker [w°], there i s at least one W£ 6' identically identifiable by the marker [w°], where h = i-1, or h+... = i-1. §2.10 A series of reduplicated pronoun (PRO-N) forms occurs in VI.165, setting S S at sy l . _ Q, as: To heav'nly Souls had been a l l one; . . . s s That i s , the word "one" i s here identified as W° by the marker [w°], where "w°" specifies the surface realization of something like " i s a ; N[OUN] i s ; W i s N[OUN]; ((W)(3W)(UNUM))," where UNUM represents the "putative'root: "plenary." Following from this, the word " a l l " i s identified as W° by the marker [w0]; and h = i-1. n The same type of metrical conditioning holds for the PRO-N + PRO-N series "they a l l " in VI.819 to set S S at sy l . - 0 , as: . . . the stronger proves, they a l l s s In this instance the word " a l l " i s identified as W? by the marker [w°] and the word "they" i s identified as W° ; a similar deep specification of 77 "...((W)(3W)(UNUM))..." obtains; and h = i-1. And see the PRO-N + PRO-N series of "thou mine" i n IV.637.5,6: God i s thy Law, thou mine: to know no more s s The series may be realized in the form PRO-N+...PRO-N+..., as in IV.25, with the PRO-N forms "what...what...what..." Of what he was, what i s , and what must be o s o s s s o s o s where the iterant structure of: "what + (he) + was" + "what + (X) + i s " + "what + (X) +...+ be" sets S...S...S at syl. . In this instance 2 , D f 8 the word "what." i s identified as W?, the word "what " i s identified as 8 l 5 W ° , and "what " as W°; where h+1 = h+... = i-1. h+1 2 h §2.11 The iterant PRO-N + PRO-N structures in the corpus are sometimes compounded to appear as a single lexical item. This i s the case with the structure "them(+)selves" i n VII.158, which i s compounded as the item "themselves" to set S S at syl._ as: -> ,6 They open to themselves at length the way s s The structure "thy(+)self" supports a similar metrical prominence i n IV.448.5,6: Like consort to thyself . . . s s 78 and in IV.890.7,8: §2.20 . . . Thou wouldst thyself, no doubt s s 66 The iterant series N[OUN] + N[OUN] i s represented by a reduced conjunctive structure depending upon the marker identity of "NOUN i s ' with "NOUN i s " occuring i n , e.g., XII.177, to set S S at s y l ^ 2» as; Frogs, Lice and Flies . . . s s A three-part series of N + N + N occurs in IV.722 to set S S S at s y l . 6 _ g , as: The God that made both Sky, Air, Earth and Heav'n s s s In this instance the word "Earth" i s identified as W?, "Air" as W° , l h+1 "Sky" as W£; and h+1 = h+... = i-1. This particular structure, which is f i n a l l y dependent upon only one syntactic feature identity, i s f a i r l y common i n Paradise Lost. It occurs, for example, in the well known 11.621, setting a series of S , . . .S at s y l . , ,., as: 1—D Rocks, Caves, Lakes, Fens, Bogs, Dens, . . . s s s s s s See also, e.g.: Consummate lovely smil'd; Air, Water, Earth s s s VII.502 79 where the metrically significant syllable collocation of "...Air, Walter], Earth" sets S S...S at syl._ 0 ',0,0 §2.21 The N + N structure may also appear in compounded form, as where "man(+)kind" occurs as "mankind" in IV. 107, to set S S at syl... as: Mankind created, . . . s s and i n IV.315, to set S S at s y l . , as: y ,u . . . troubl'd a l l mankind s s The seventeenth century compound "lantskip," maintaining an iterant N + N structure of "lant(+)skip," occurs i n , e.g., 11.491 to set S S at syl.,. _, as: b, / Scowls o'er the dark'n'd lantskip . . . s s and That Lantskip: And of pure now purer air IV.153 s s These instances represent a deep structure involving the marker identity of "NOUN i s ,- ((W) (3W) (SUBST) (SHAP))" for the marker [w°] of W?, where W? is realized as "-skip" and "NOUN i s ; ((W)(3W)(SUBST)(LAND))" for 1 the marker [w°] of W^ , where W° is realized as "lant-"; where SUBST i s the h n putative ;(ontealized) root: "substance," SHAP i s the putative root: "contour," 80 LAND is the putative root: "extension"; and where h = i-1. §2.22 A series of -N forms in appositive construction occurs in XII.167, setting S S at s y l . , as: y , o . . . he makes them slaves s s In this instance the word "slaves" i s identified as W? by a marker [w°], with the significant (and simplified) syntactic feature "N[OUN] i s ; etc."; and the word "them" i s identified as W° by the marker [w°], which maintains n the significant features "is a ; N[OUN] i s O ; etc." The series here i s that of PRO-N + N. A similar appositive structure occurs in XII.226, setting S S at s y l . . ,, as: And thou Moon . . . s s Like that of §2.10, this series may be realized in the attenuated form of PRO-N +...+ N, as in IV.957, to set S...S at syl._ as: 2 ,4 And thou sly hypocrite, . . . s s In this instance the word "hy[pocrite]" i s related by a feature format of "N i s ; etc." to the word "thou" (as PRO-N) whose marker [w°] maintains the significant features " i s a ; N i s ; etc." Similar conditions hold for the analogous series N + PRO-N. Such a series occurs, for example, at 1.47, setting S for the PRO-N at s y l . , as: 8 81 . . . perdition, there to dwell s s where the word "there," as a PRO-N, i s identified by the equivalence of it s marker [w°] with the marker [w°] of the N[OUN] "perdition" (possibly through a deleted structure of "*perdition + is + there"). .30 The structure of reduplicated modifiers i s probably the most common occurrence of the W? W?...series in the corpus. This structure always implies a W°, such that i+1 = j , where subscript " j " specifies the f i r s t , or only, syllable of a head term. The structure occurs, for example, in XII.21, setting S S S at syl« 2 ^, as: With large Wine-offerings . . . s s s That i s , the word "Wine" maintains the mapping condition of W°, identified by a marker [w°], which represents the significant syntactic features " i s a ; and N p [ . . . ( . ,.N)]." The word "large" maintains the condition of W°, where h = i-1; and i s identified by a marker [w°] which represents the identical relevant features. Further, the word "off[erings]" maintains the mapping condition of W^ , such that subscript " j " specifies the tonic syllable "off-," and where i+1 = j . And: Of that life-giving Plant, but only us'd IV.199 s s s where the word "giv[ingj"maintains the mapping condition W?, with the 82 tonic syllable "giv-" identified by a marker [w°], in relation to the word " l i f e , " maintaining the condition , where h = i-1, to set S S at n sy l . ; and where the word "Plant" here maintains the mapping condition 3,4 W°, where i+1 = j , to set S at s y l . ^ . Another instance of this structure occurs i n XII.371, setting S S at s y l . , in conjunction with the NOUN-dominated S at sy l . as: With earth's wide bounds, . . . s s s 68 Note that the genitive form of "earth's" here satisfies the requirement of the relevant syntactic features "is a ; and [...( . ..N)]." The same structure obtains with the best known line of the poem: Of Man's F i r s t Disobedience, . . . 1.1 s s s See also, e.g., V.220, where the iterant N-mod structure sets S S at s y l . ^ i n conjunction with the NOUN-dominated S at s y l . ^ , as: With pity Heav'n's high King, . . . s s s §2.31 Reduplicated modifier forms—along with PRO-N + PRO-N and N + N forms—are sometimes compounded as a single lexical item. Nevertheless, the syntactic feature, .relations within the compounds may reasonably be considered as equivalent to those of the uncompounded forms; especially since seventeenth century orthographic practice seems to have been somewhat 83 uncertain in this matter. For example, the compound structure "Tenfold" i n VI.78 sets S S at s y l . . , as: i , z. Tenfold the length of this terrene: . . . s s And: Of those fourfooted kinds, . . . W. 3<?y s s s where the compounded N-mod structure of "fourfoot[ed]" sets S S at s y l ^ in conjunction with the word "kinds," maintaining the mapping condition of W° (as, e.g., "Plant" as analyzed in §2.30) to set S at syl.g. §2.4 Another reduplicated structure which i s dependent upon only one 69 syntactic feature identity occurs m V.411, setting S,...S at syl.g_ Q, as: . . ., whereby they hear, see, smell, touch, taste s s s s s The iterant forms here, of course, are (VERB). , , (VERB), , (VERB).. n+... n I The structure occurs again in IV.2, to set S S at syl._ c , as: b ,b Th'Apocalypse, heard cry i n Heav'n aloud s s In this instance the word "cry" i s identified as W? and the word "heard" J I as W°. I have not detected any lexically compounded forms of this h structure in the poem. 84 §2.50 Modification structures similar to those considered above in §2.30 may be found with a VERB as head term. For example, in 1.268, the iterant structure of V-mod + V-mod...+ VERB sets S S at s y l . Q _, as: y , u . . . Mansion, or once more s s The head term here i s the word "try," at 1.269.6: With r a l l i e d Arms to try . . . s The structure of V-mod + V-mod...+ VERB occurs in IV.22, to set S S at sy l . ., in conjunction with the VERB-dominated item " f l y " of sy l . , as: One step no more than from himself can f l y s s s §2.51 The iterant V-mod structure may be realized in a compounded form as, e.g., in IV.657: But wherefore a l l night long shine these, . . . s s s where the structure of V-mod + V-mod...+ VERB provides the metrical collocation of S S for the compounded form "wherefore" at syl._ , and the prominence of S for "shine" at s y l > 7 . The form "wherefore" occurs again in VI.116, to set S S at s y l . , as: Remain not; wherefore . . . s s 85 The head term here i s the word " f a i l , " at VI.117.2: There f a i l where Virtue . . . s The structure also occurs i n , e.g., XI.79, to set S S at s y l . in 7,8 conjunction with the VERB-dominated "sat" of s y l . ^ , as: By the waters of Lif e , where'er they sat s s s Sentential and Phrasal Elements The f i r s t four classes of minor syntactic items to be considered here are a l l generally conditioned by the domain: [... . . . ] . §3.10 One such item i s the verbal auxiliary feature. It i s convenient to treat this feature (AUX) as being subsumed under the following rule format: Environment: t • • • • • • ] Feature Specification: AUX •*• 0 / ppgnt*" +yp (• • - + V B) 1 Environment Condition: f r e e 7 ^ There is an instance of this mapping for a form of "have" in 1.70, where the AUX feature sets 0 at s y l . , as: o . . . Justice had prepar'd o 86 The form occurs also in IV.994.3, as: At least had gone to rack, o The form "be" is mapped in 1.109, to set 0 at s y l . ^ , as: . . . else not to be overcome? o The variant "was" occurs in IV.693.6, as: . . . was inwoven shade o The form "could" appears at VII.75 and at IV.93 to set 0 at s y l . and 8 s y l . ^ respectively. I.e.: . . . human knowledge could not reach o But say I could repent . . . o My analysis here conflates modals and forms of "be" or "have" as 71 both directly governed by AUX. The two elements appear contiguously at 1.269, to set 0 0 at s y l . Q a, as: . . . to try what may be yet / Regain'd o o Milton's disposition of the "be" AUX i s sometimes related to an absolute constriction, as in VI.335 where AUX sets O at syl.g, as: . . . to his aid was run / By Angels o 87 The construction also occurs in X.229, where AUX sets 0 at s y l . ^ , as: Meanwhile ere thus was sinn 'd and judg'd on Earth o An analogous structure i s developed through VII.502-504 by an intricate set of three compounded passives. That i s , the underlying structuresf.i6f i (by)-Fowl...((was)-*flew)...Air + frequent...(*AND) i i (by)-Fish...((was)-*swam)...Water + frequent...(*AND) i i i (by)-Beast...((was)-walkt)...Earth + frequent are compounded as Air, Water, Earth, By Fowl, Fish, Beast, was flown, was swum, was walkt Frequent o o o to set O...O...O in 503 at s y l . ^ , s y l . ^ , s y l . g . Note that the quasi-impersonal construction here provides for a f u l l line metric o f O S S S O S O S O S (with the word series "Fowl, Fish, Beast" associated as N + N + N per §2.20 to set S S S at s y l . 2 _ 4 ) ; rather than an open construction of "*was flown by Fowl, was swum by Fish, etc." which would set out a line metric o f * 0 S 0 S 0 S 0 S .... Milton's purpose here i s probably to slow down the rhythm of his verse by the emphatic ...S S... at 502.7,8 and ...S S S... at 503.2-4 and by the complex syntactic pattern to prepare for the account of "the Master work"(505), the creation of Man. 88 §3.11 The particle "O" of "exclamation" (homophonous with the vocative "0" considered below in §3.212) i s used with some frequency in Paradise Lost. The exclamation particle (EXI) i s probably related immediately to a S structure along the general lines of: 72 „[...EX1...] yields _[EX!...+„_(...)+ . . . ,„,(...)...] S S NP VP The feature specification i s simply EX! •+ S. The environment i s free. The EX! particle i s realized i n 1.75, to set S at s y l . ^ , as: O how unlike the place . . . s The particle occurs also at 1.84.6, as: If thou beest hee; But 0 how f a l l ' n ! how chang'd s EX! appears as the second element of the conjoined parenthetic sentence: "But O how f a l l ' n . " The structure here i s : TCONJ+...+EX1+ (X)+ (*is + fall'n+...how)] S NP VP Note that CONJ i s realized as the disjunction "But"(syl. 5) and that the dummy form (X) i s here coreferential with the "hee" at s y l . ^ . In IV.79 the particle sets S at s y l . ^ , as: 0 then at last relent: . . . s 89 §3.120 Another class of syntactic elements occuring with considerable freedom within the S structure i s that of adverbs functioning as total 73 sentence modifiers (S-mod). Let the environment of S-mod be set tentatively as: 7^ st(X') . . . p ^ t - . ^ f . . ^ , (S-mod)) . . . ) . . . (X')] where the element(s) of a x,(...) are displaceable units that may be set as some (X'). The feature specification at least i s unambiguous: S-mod S. The environment i s free. The element occurs frequently in i n i t i a l sentence position, as in 1.125, to set S at s y l . ^ , as: So spake th'Apostate Angel, . . . s S-mod i s here realized as the word "So." It i s realized as "Thus" in IV.902.1, as: Thus he i n scorn. . . . s The surface realizations of S-mod are sometimes ambiguous with those of V-mod ( see §3.220 below). The word "now," for example, I take to function as a total sentence modifier (of temporal deixis) rather than a o V-mod (adverb of time) in VI.207, to set S at s y l . ^ , as: . . .: now storming fury rose s 90 A similar function obtains for the word "ere" in IV.623, to set S at s y l . ^ . as: Tomorrow ere fresh Morning streak the East s In IV.100 S-mod i s realized as the word "but," which functions here as a governing agent of total sentence modification rather than as a subordinating CONJ, to set S at s y l . ^ , as: Which would but lead me . . . s §3.121 The deep S-mod element may appear in surface realization as a compounded lexical form. The word "therefore," for example, occurs i n XII.287 to set S S at s y l . , as: 2,3 And therefore was Law . . . s s And: I therefore, I alone . . . IV.935 s s Milton's favourite term of narrative transition i s the "Meanwhile" of, e.g., VII... 162 and IV.539, where the S-mod compound sets S S in both cases at s y l . , as: 1,2 Meanwhile inhabit lax, . . . s s Meanwhile in utmost longitude . . . s s 91 The uncertainty of seventeenth century orthographical practice noted above in §2.31 i s repealed again in the variant spellings of "som times" and "sometimes" between the 1667 and 1674 eds. of Paradise Lost for the compounded S-mod elements that set S S in 11.632.9,0 and 11.633.7,8 as: Explores his solitary f l i g h t ; som[e]times s s He scours the right hand coast, som[e]times the l e f t s s §3.13 75 The environment of the coordinating conjunction (CONJ ) can be considered as: [...N+... [CONJ +...N...]...]. The feature specification of CONJg i s not as clear as could be wished. It seems to me that a specification of (ii) CONJ -»• S represents the unmarked case here; but there are ambiguities in what appears to be the marked case of (i) CONJ -*• O (cf. §3.213 below), as well as some uncertainties of prosodic readings, that leave me hesitant to include anything more than an open specification format in this study. Let the feature specification of CONJ , then, be considered as: CONJ + s (u) O S l i i where the complex symbol (u) represents a series of metrical conditioning factors, some of which w i l l be outlined below. 92 There i s an instance of the operation of (ii) in 1.72, where the CONJ_ "and" sets S at syl.,., as: S 6 In utter darkness, and th i r portion set s o (Note the unemphatic "thir" that sets 0 at s y l . .) The same form of CONJ sets S at syl.,. in IV.489, as: o . . ., I yielded, and from that time see s In VII.121 CONJ i s realized as the disjunction "nor" to set S at s y l . ^ , as: To ask, nor l e t thine own inventions hope s The element i s realized as the disjunction ^but" in VII.150, to set S at s y l . ^ , as: But lest his heart . . . s Some of the conditions governed by the complex symbol (y) are as follows. i CONJ •+ (y) O 7 6 when (y) specifies the environment of / +PREP..., unless i t i s the case that PREP..,+X..., where X represents a deep deleted copulative structure; 93 but rule (i) i f X', representing a realized copulative structure; also, rule (i) when (y) specifies the environment of / +W° ., h...,1 where W° . represents some iterant syntactic series marker n..., 1 For example, the CONJ "and" appears in the environment of / +"from"... in IV.662, to set 0 at syl.,., as: o By morrow Ev'ning, and from Land . . . o In VI.93 "And" appears in the environment of / +"in"... to set 0 at sy l . ^ , as: And in fierce hosting meet, . . . o The form "and" appeaars also i n the environment of / +"to"... and / +"from"... in XII.89 and XII.123 to set 0 at s y l . 4 and syl.g respectively, as: From Reason, and to servitude reduce o Which he w i l l show him, and from him w i l l raise o As I have noted, the reading of rule (i) apparently retorts to the unmarked form of CONJg -*• ...S under the condition that the environment of / +PREP..,+X... i s such that "X" represents a deep deleted copulative structure, but i f the structure i s realized, then not. 94 Let this condition be explicated by the complex symbol (v), which w i l l be assumed to represent a sub-regularity of ('u) , such that CONJ (v) 0 (-v) S where (v) specifies the environment of / +(PREP)..,+X'. The complex symbol (v) governs the metrical value of CONJ "and" in, e.g., IV.121, to set 0 at s y l . 7 , as: A r t i f i c e r of fraud; and was the f i r s t o s Note that the element (PREP) i s deleted in this instance. On the metrical prominence of "was," cf. the AUX governed "be" forms i n §3.10 above and the BE governed forms in §3.30 below. The complex symbol (-v) governs the metrical prominence of the CONJ "and" in VIII.621, to set S at s y l . as: Us happy, and without Love no happiness s o o The underlying function of the complex symbol (-v) here i s to specify the deleted structure "C0NJ+...+(*tHe£S+is)+no...." Note the non-ictic series 77 of 0 0 for the preposition "without." The other variant of rule (i) that I noted above is concerned with an environmental condition for the C0NJ_ of / +W5 .. This s — — n... , i condition may be similarly explicated by the complex symbol (o), which 95 w i l l also be assumed to represent a sub-regularity of (vO , such that CONJg -*• (o) O The symbol (o) represents the environment for CONJ "or" in 1.268, to set 0 at s y l . , as: In this unhappy Mansion: or once more o s s where the iterant V-mod series "once+more" i s the realization of a structure W° + W?, where h... = i-1 (cf. §2.50). h... l The next five classes of minor syntactic items to be considered are a l l governed by the domain: „ f ]. NP §3.210 The determiner feature (DET) of a NP can be metrically realized as either O or S; that i s , i t s feature specification i s of the form: f ° DET -*• < The determiner as article (ART) i s always realized as 0; as, for example, in 1.1, where ART sets O at s y l . g , as: . . ., and the Fruit o and: Then when the Dragon, . . . IV.3 o The general environment for the placement of DET, which satisfies 96 the ART condition as well as those noted below, can be represented as: jjp [...+_ +...+(N)] In, e.g., VI.161, the element ( ) of this scheme i s realized as an unspecified pre-determiner (PKE-DETj_ ), "some," to set 0 at syl.3» as: From me some Plume, . . . o In, e.g., IV.92, the element ( ) i s realized as a specified indefinite determiner (DET., , r , ,_) , "such," to set 0 at syl.,., as: [+specj l-def] 5 In misery; such joy . . . o §3.211 An example of another class of DET elements realizable as 0 may be seen in 1.97, at s y l . , as: o . . . outward luster; that f i x t mind o 78 In this instance "that" i s specified as a DEMfonstrative] article (DEM) in the particular structure: xm[...DEM' + (0")-N' '+...+ N')] NP mod where ...N'' represents a NP argument set in a relation of mod modification to Nj 97 and the determiner predicate of N'' i s n u l l , mod and DEM' i s coreferential with N' Also: . . and this high seat your Heav'n IV.371 o where DEM, realized as "this," sets 0 at s y l . . 6 See also, e.g., 1.238, where "his" i s specified as an article (ART ), pers 79 the so-called "personal pronoun" i n the same structure, to set 0 at syl.g, as: .Him follow*d his next Mate o The DEM element "that" may also be realized as S i n the metrical structure of a verse line. For example, XII.162.9 i s so realized; i.e.: . . . second in that Realm s The general structure here appears to be: ^ [ . . . i n + (DEM' + (N^...+N'))] where N' represents a lexically empty NOUN whose features are 0 . 80 mapped onto DEM'; where the relevant features (F) are such that ((N) ON) ((F) (3F) (N))) i.e., for a l l N (or "realm"), there i s a N, such that for a l l F (or "that"), 98 there i s a F, such that F i s N. Informally, the proposition i s that there i s a "realm" such that the "realm" i s "that." Also: . . . to taste that Tree IV.427 s where DEM, again realized as "that," sets S at s y l . . An analogous construction appears in III.733, where "that" maps S onto s y l ^ , as: That spot to which I point . . . s . X l l l The mapping of N-lexical features onto a DET element may be accomplished through the realization of the DET in the class of N-mod (see the study of 1.97.8 above). For example, i t seems reasonable to assume that the (article? adjective? pre-adjectival? noun-appositive?) element of VII.161.1 i s so realized. I.e.: One Kingdom, Joy and Union . . . s s The conditioning structure here would be: N P [ - ' ( D E T q n t + < » ; > — + 81 where DET^nfc specifies both a quantitative modification of N' ("Kingdom") and a quasi-NOUN ("One") maintaining a relevant predicate feature of [UNUM], as a putative root of: "unity." (See the deep analysis of "prepar'd" (1.70), etc. set out i n §1.5 above.) 99 The mapping condition also obtains i n , e.g., IV.421 and XII.6, to set S S at s y l . , and syl._ respectively, as: 1,2 5,6 This one, this easy charge, of a l l the Trees s s Thus thou hast seen one World begin and end s s §3.212 Milton's f a i r l y frequent use of the Latin based vocative case determination for proper and common nouns can also be examined as an instance of metrical mapping in the NP environment, as: NPt---N< )i y i e l d s Npt---V(voc)---n yields Np[VOC+...+N(...)] The feature specification here i s simply: VOC S. The environment condition i s free. The structure of % m [VOC+...+„(...)], realized as „_[0+„(Heav'n)] NP N NP N occurs i n VI.114, to set S S at sy l . , as: 1,2 0 Heav'nl that such resemblance . . . s s An identical structure, immediately repeated, occurs in 1.128, to set S S at s y l . and S S at s y l . , as: O Prince, 0 Chief of many Throned Powers s s s s 100 Also: . . . thou add? 0 name IV.950 s s where VOC sets S at s y l . and the following (name) sets S at s y l . n . In VI. 723 paired V0C+.. ,+N(...) structures set S S at s y l . ^ ^  3 0 ( 3 S...S at s y l . , while the stress convention for /u:/ (see §1.20) sets 4 ,b S at syl.j., as: O Father, 0 Supreme of heav'nly Thrones s s s s s to provide a f u l l line metric of: S S O S S S O S O S . In XII.64 the vocative structure i s realized as N p[0+execrable+ „,(Son)], where the VOC particle sets S at s y l . , , as: N 1 0 execrable Son so to aspire s s In XII.270 there i s an apparent instance of a vocative construction in which the unit N(...) i s realized as null (possibly because of the quasi-apposItive phrase "Enlight'ner of my darkness," appearing in line 271). That i s , the structure here w i l l be „„[0+.. .+»,(0) ] , to set S at s y l . _ , as: NP N 7 . . . interpos'd. 0 sent from Heav'n, s Enlight'ner of my darkness, . . . §3.213 The general environment structure for the unit of phrasal 82 conjunction "and" i s : „[...._[...N + CONJ , +...N]...]. The feature S NP pnr 101 specification i s : CONJ^^ O (compare §3.14). The environment condition is presumably free; although, like that of CONJ , I have not yet been able to isolate completely the set of structural conditions for this unit. An instance of the mapping of C0NJ^ r may be noted at VI.6, where i t functions to set 0 at s y l . ^ , as: Where light and darkness . . . o Also: Daughter of God and Man, accomplisht Eve IV.660 o where CONJ . sets 0 at syl.,.. phr J 5 There i s an interesting metrical parity between III.424 and VII. 212 which tends to support the specification of CONJ . 0. In phr both instances four metrical units are realized as four syllables as postposed modification phrases in a NP construction. I.e.: . . . a boundless Continent / Dark, waste, and wild III.423-424 s s O S and Outrageous as a Sea, dark, wasteful, wild VII.212 s s o s The parity structure here i s : "Dark" = "dark" = S "waste" = "waste-" = S "and" = " - f u l " = 0 "wild" = "wild" 3 s 102 The last classes of minor syntactic items to be examined in this chapter are conditioned by the general domain of: ^ t . . . . . . ] . §3.220 A number of words governed by a V-mod unit may be isolated from those frequently similar expressions considered above in terms of S-mod government (cf. §3.120). The metrical feature specification of these units, like those of the S-mod class, i s : V-mod S. Their environment condition i s free. The word "So," for instance, homophonous with the S-mod governed "so" of e.g., VII.132.1, occurs i n VII.54 under the government of V-mod to set S at s y l . ^ , as: So unimaginable as hate i n Heav'n s The V-mod unit similarly governs the word "Now" to set S at s y l . ^ of IV.16, as: Now rol l i n g , boils . . . s §3.221 It i s d i f f i c u l t to determine whether the so-called " i n f i n i t i v e particle" may best be described in terms of i t s metrical significance as a lexical adjunct to a VERB or as a discrete though dependent element of a VB (Verbal) structure. That i s , the word "to" might be the realization of a predicate feature [+T0] specified in a deep morphological structure 103 of the general form: ((W)(3W)((PROV)(3PR0V)...(+T0)...)). However, I have adopted the latter analysis here because of an apparent congruence of the metrical significance of this form with the verbal auxiliary (AUX) considered i n §3.10 above, and in l i e u of overriding reasons for the former (lexical) analysis. 0 through sample I-XII at any of eight positions in a line; a l l , that i s , except s y l . and s y l . ^ . The exception of s y l . ^ here i s clearly an accidental hiatus in the sample, since the position of s y l . ^ i s not excepted in sample IV. Syl-Q i s excepted i n both samples, of course, by the generality of the restriction (Condition V.5) that the n-th unit of any series cannot be non-ictic. The various appearances of the feature TO may 83 be described in ad hoc manner as follows: The word "to" occurs f a i r l y frequently in both samples, setting TO -> o / PRED +VB) ] E.g. : To set the envier VI.89.1 o To f i l l the Earth, IV.733.1 o E.g.: Wise to f l y pain, . o IV.948.2 E.g. : Strongly to suffer . 1.147.3 o 0 Sun, to t e l l thee . IV.37.3 o 104 What wee, not to explore . . . VII.95.4 o But rather to t e l l how, . . . IV.236.4 o Thy mortal sight to f a i l ; . . . XII.9.5 o On the green bank, to look . . . IV.458.5 o . . . else not to be overcome 1.109.6 o . . . bent to unhoard the cash IV.188.6 o . .; fool, not to think how vain VI.135.7 o . ., thou mine: to know no more IV.637.7 o . . the t o i l of Battle to repose 1.319.8 o . . had practis'd to deceive IV.124.8 o . ., ambitious to win VI.160.9 o . ., where thou might'st hope to change IV.892.9 105 §3.222 The class of minor syntactic items distinguished by the realization of a separable PREV particle has a general environment condition of: [... ( +VB)]. The i c t i c feature specification here i s : PREV-*- S[a] / +[a] ..X[±] ... where the symbol [a] specifies an identity of i c t i c value holding between the PREV value and that of the f i r s t unit of the a l l i e d VERB form; and where ...X[±]... represents a series of null or more units of the VERB form, where the metrical value [±] i s not so specified by the value [a] of PREV 84 The separable or uncompounded PREV forms are similar to and sometimes identical with the compounded forms considered above in §1.50. The form "upstood," for example, which appears in VI.446 to set S S at s y l . i s metrically equivalent to the uncompounded form "up stood" which y, u appears in VII.321 to set S S at s y l . c I.e.: -> ,o He sat; and in th'assembly next upstood s s The smelling Gourd, up stood the corny Reed s s A similar congruence holds between the forms "upraise" and "up risen" which occur in 11.372 and V.139 respectively to set S S at s y l . , as: 106 In our Confusion, and our Joy upraise s s Of day-spring, and the Sun, who scarce up risen s s The realized elements of uncompounded PREV may also be quite distinct from any form appearing i n a compounded form, as i s the PREV governed "high" that in association with the VERB governed "rais'd" sets S S at s y l . Q i n IV.226, as: y ,u That Mountain as his Garden mould high rais'd s s A separable PREV element may appear to function as a PREP, as in s y l . . of XI.319, as: 6 . . ., and to my Sons relate[;] /On this Mount s I have assumed that "to" i s set here as a displaced particle (from "*relate to") functioning as a governing agent for the syntactic compound. The structure of the compound with i t s obvious intercalation of the direct speech unit beginning "On this Mount . . ."(320) and concluding with ". . .talk'd" (322) i s made clear by adopting the Darbishire revision of terminal 85 punctuation at line 319 from a semi-colon to a colon, as: . . ., and to my Sons relate: / On this Mount §3.30 Somewhat similar considerations to those put forth in §3.2111 above are involved in the analysis of the so-called "existential" form of 107 the verb "be." I take this form of "be" to be directly dominated by a VERB node, and therefore to be an;argument of the class: ((BE)(3BE)(E)) i.e . , for a l l BE ("be"), there i s a BE, such that BE i s E; where E i s a predicate [ENS], and ENS i s a putative root of: "existence." The metrical feature specification for a unit BE i s simply: BE -*• S. The environment condition i s free. A unit BE with the feature [E] w i l l , for example, set S at s y l . 8 in XII.59, as: . . .; great laughter was i n Heav'n s The same unit BE, with the surface realization "am," sets S at s y l . i n 8 VII.168, as: . . . , because I am who f i l l s §3.31 Metrically relevant features may also be associated with some other part of speech i n realization from a lexically empty VERB node. For example, i n VII.91, the preposition "in" sets S at s y l . through such an 6 association, as: Mov'd the Creator i n his holy rest s 108 The underlying structure here i s : „[...._(.. .+Creator) + ... ( ((*rest)+in)... ((*in)+.. .rest))... ] S NP VP VB NP An alternate reading of the mapping conditions for this expression could involve an interpretation of "in" as the governing agent of a L0C[ative] construction. The preposition, then, would be considered to maintain a metrical prominence through direct association with the deep 87 CASE element of a set of NP structures. However, since such an alternate reading would necessitate a parallel reinterpretation of (at least) the NP structures examined above in §3.210 through §3.213 as well as the various iterant N-forms of §2.10 through §2.31, I must rest here merely with the suggestion of this direction for further inquiry. 109 CHAPTER IV I w i l l now present an example of each line Vrs.^ from samples I-XII and IV that i s described by some distinctive scansion VRS. i generated by the model. I w i l l provide three scansion formats for these lines: the relevant series of non-ictic / i c t i c units (symbolized as "o" and "s," set sublineally), the relevant association of cadence types (as "A," "B," etc., with, e.g., "...C" representing the marked medial cadence and "...C" representing the unmarked cadence), and the " i c t i c number code" for each line type. See p. 52 above for a summary l i s t of the i n i t i a l and medial cadence types. The i c t i c number code is a count of marked units that provides a useful convention for describing the surface metric of a line. The standard of i c t i c distribution for any Vrs. involves a count of both i c t i c and non-ictic syllables. The total count of i c t i c and non-ictic syllables w i l l be the total number of syllables in the line. The instances of i c t i c (unmarked) syllables may be specified along with the instances of non-ictic (marked) syllables by an enumeration merely of contiguous non-ictic syllables in the Vrs., including the occurrence of such syllables at the beginning and at the end of the line, with a null occurrence designated by zero.*5** E.g. : In the wide Wilderness, there they shall found XII.224 o o s s o s s o o s The i c t i c distribution of the line may be captured by the number code 20102.0;... This number signifies that the line contains five non-ictic 110 syllables (i.e., 2 + 1 + 2 = 5 ) . since the count of non-ictic syllables i s inclusive and there are six occurrences of series of non-ictic syllables specified (with two null series), i t follows that the line contains five i c t i c syllables, even though these are not directly represented by the number code. The line may be a r t i f i c i a l l y presented to show more clearly the distribution of i c t i c and non-ictic syllables as follows: in+the+WIDE+WIL+der+NESS+THERE+they+shall+FOUND 2 0 1 0 2 0 The Vrs. samples below are arranged in^a descending series of the i c t i c number codes of their respective scansions. There i s probably no especial metrical significance in this arrangement, but i t displays an innocently pleasing symmetry. I have provided brief notes on the lexico-syntactic mappings involved in the examples. Elisions by apocope and syncope are underscored. Cadence Distribution I c t i c Number Code K F I-XII: 1 — IV: 3 202010 That i s , the scansion VRS consists of the i n i t i a l cadence K (OOSS...) in association with the marked medial cadence F (...0OSS0...) along with the constant terminal condition (...S). There i s one instance of a matching Vrs. in sample I-XII and three instances in sample IV. I l l E.g. : Into his place and the great Son return'd VII.135 o o s s o o s s o s "into" as 0 0 at s y l . (i.e., per Chapter III, §1.30). And by her yielded, by him best receiv'd IV.309 o o s s o o s s o s K H I-XII: 7 — IV: 12 201110 To have reported: gladly then he mixt VI.21 o o s s o s o s o s TO at s y l . ^ (i.e., per Chapter III, §3.221); AUX at s y l . 2 (i.e., per §3.10); pretonic stress (per §1.40) sets ictus on "re-" (syl.^) to obviate a series of *0 O O at s y l . ^ _ 3 . Of that life-giving Plant, but only us'd IV.199 o o s s o s o s o s N-mod series at s y l . (per §2.30). 3,4 K E I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 2011000 That i s , the material of sample I-XII i s barren with regard to this VRS type; while sample IV i s minimally productive, with one instance of Vrs. for the scansion. Of those fourfooted kinds, himself now one IV.397 o o s s o s o s s s Compounded N-mod series at s y l . . (per §2.31). 3,4 112 Cadence Distribution Code K G I-XII: 1 -- IV: 5 201020 In the wide Wilderness, there they shall found o o s s o s s o o s XII.224 AUX at syl.g (i.e., as VI.21.2 above). On the green bank, to look into the clear o o s s o s s o o s IV.458 TO at s y l . c ; "into" as /I,2/ at s y l . (per §1.30; and compare, e.g., VII.13.2,3 of scansion type J D below). K B I-XII: 3 — IV: 2 2010010 Nor the deep tract of Hell, say f i r s t what cause o o s s o s s s o s 1.28 As I bent down to look, just opposite o o s s o s s s o s IV.460 TO at syl. K M I-XII: 1 -- IV: 1 200210 To do aught good never w i l l be our task o o s s s o o s o s 1.159 TO at s y l . ; AUX at s y l . . On a Sun-beam, swift as a shooting Star o o s s s o o s o s IV.556 K F I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 2001010 113 Cadence Distribution Code And without whom am to no end, my Guide o o s s s o s s o s IV.442 "without" as /2,1/ at s y l ; . •, BE at syl._; "no" as N-mod at sy l . _ . Z , J o 7 L J I-XII: 6 — IV: 1 120200 He trusted to have equall'd the most High o s o o s s o o s s 1.40 TO at s y l . 4 . Ithuriel and Zephon, with wing'd speed o s o o s s o o s s IV.788 Note the unelided form of " . . . i - e l " at s y l . , to conform with 3 ,4 Condition V . l . L H I-XII: 26 — IV: 23 120110 The force of those dire Arms? yet not for those o s o o s s o s o s 1.94 For never can true reconcilement grow o s o o s s o s o s IV.98 AUX at sy l . . ; N-mod + N at syl._ r (cf. " f i r s t + dis[obedience]", 1.1) 4 3 ,o L E I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 1201000 Was gather'd, which cost Ceres a l l that pain o s o o s s o s s s IV.271 DEM at syl. 114 Cadence Distribution Code L G I-XII: 2 — IV: 2 120020 His kindred and false Gods, into a land o s o o s s s o o s XII.122 CONJ ^  at s y l . ^ . Note the realization as S of the i n i t i a l syllable of "into" (syl. 7) to obviate a series of *0 0 0. The ART "a" at s y l . g cannot, of course, bear ictus. Partakers, and uncropt f a l l s to the ground o s o o s s s o o s Pretonic stress at syl.g, per type N B (IV) and F E (I-XII). 89 IV.731 L B I-XII: 1 — IV: 1 1200010 The P i l o t of some small night-founder'd Skiff o s o o s s s s o s 1.204 N-mod series at s y l . 5-8' Like consort to thyself canst nowhere find o s o o s s s s o s IV.448 PRO-N series, compounded, at s y l . 5,6' N F I-XII: 30 — IV: 18 112010 Thir government, and thi r great Senate choose o s o s o o s s o s XII.225 Unemphatic "thir" at s y l . . , s y l . . . 1 b To wreck on innocent f r a i l man his loss o s o s o o s s o s IV. 11 N-mod series at syl. 4,7* 115 Cadence Distribution Code N C I-XII: 0 -- IV: 1 1120000 And Mutual amity so s t r a i t so close IV.376 o s o s o o s s s s Note the iterant COMP[arative] structure at s y l . _ Q (and see the references 7,y cited against XII.2.5 for N F below). N J I-XII: 31 — IV: 15 111200 The adversary Serpent, and bring back XII.312 o s o s o s o o s s Yet not anough had practis'd to deceive IV.124 o s o s o s o o s s TO at s y l . ; pretonic stress sets ictus at s y l . to obviate *0 0 O at s y l . (per line type E J, sample I-XII). /—y N H I-XII: 247 - IV: 275 111110 Deprives them of thir outward liberty XII.100 o s o s o s o s o s Unemphatic "thir" at syl.,.. Betwixt Astrea and the Scorpion sign IV.998 o s o so s o s o s CONJ . at s y l . . . •> o N E I-XII: 24 — IV: 27 1111000 The last, for of his Reign shall be no end o s o s o s o s s s XII.330 116 Cadence Distribution Code To trample thee as mire: for proof look up o s o s o s o s s s IV.1010 N G I-XII: 14 -- IV: 22 111020 Within the Mount of God, fast by his Throne o s o s o s s o o s VI.5 "Within" as /2,1/ at s y l . 1,2* Are ever clear. Whereof hee soon aware o s o s o s s o o s IV. 119 Emphatic "hee" at s y l . N D I-XII: 6 — IV: 4 1110100 Of what we are. But since thou hast voutsaf't o s o s o s s o s s VII.80 AUX at syl. But f i r s t with narrow search I must walk round o s o s o s s o s s IV.528 AUX at s y l . Q . O N B I-XII: 43 — IV: 31 1110010 Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal taste o s o s o s s s o s 1.2 DEM at syl.2« Note the ictus-bearing WH-form at s y l . 7 , coreferential with "Tree" ( s y l . c ) . 117 Cadence Distribution Code Which Gabriel spying, thus bespake the Fiend o s o s o s s s o s IV.1005 V-mod at syl.,.; compounded PREV at s y l . _ . o 7 N A I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 11100000 90 Mozambic, off at Sea North-East winds blow o s o s o s s IV.161 Compounded N-mod series at s y l . 7,8' N M I-XII: 17 — IV: 26 110210 And shook his throne. What though the f i e l d be lost? o s o s s o o s o s 1.105 On Juno smiles, when he impregns the Clouds o s o s s o o s o s IV.500 Unemphatic "he" at s y l . ^ . N K I-XII: 1 — IV: 2 1102000 Thir multitude, and to his Son thus spake VII.138 o s o s s o o s s s Unemphatic "th i r " at s y l . . ; CONJ,. at s y l . _ . Undaunted. If I must contend, said he IV.851. o s o s s o o s s s AUX at s y l . . ; inversion sets S S at syl.-. to garantee Condition V.5. o y ,u A For the stress pattern of "Nyseian," see Chapter III, §1.31. 118 Cadence Distribution Code N L I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 110120 Of Eden strive; nor that Nyseian Isle o s o s s o s o o s IV.275 N N I-XII: 1 -- IV: 0 1101100 As being the contrary to his high w i l l o s o s s o s o s s 1.161 N F I-XII: 6 -- IV: 6 1101010 Though bent on speed, so here the Arch-Angel paus'd o s o s s o s s o s 91 COMP as agent of simile at s y l . c . XII. 2 On th'other side: which when th'arch-felon saw o s o s s o s s o s IV.179 N- compound series at s y l . ; and see line type N H (sample I-XII) on / ,b — the elision at s y l ^ . N C I-XII: 1 — IV: 0 11010000 Or how the Sun shall i n mid Heav'n stand s t i l l o s o s s o s s s s XII.263 The discontinuous verbal structure here appears to set the AUX at syl.,.. as S. 119 N J I-XII: 5 — IV: 3 1100200 Will he convey up thither to sustain XII.75 o s o s s s o o s s TO at s y l . ; pretonic stress at sy l . takes ictus to obviate the series o 9 *0 O O. Cf. XII.122.7 (line type L G for sample I-XII). To recommend cool Zephyr, and made ease IV.329 o s o s s s o o s s N H I-XII: 37 — IV: 48 1100110 Who durst defy th'Omnipotent to Arms 1.49 o s o s s s o s o s The el i s i o n at s y l . ^ appears to augment the tendency of the syllable Om-" to a pretonic accession of ictus. Th'Apocalypse, heard cry in Heav'n aloud IV.2 o s o s s s o s o s Contrast the elision at sy l . . with 1.49.5; iterant V series at syl._ c . ± b ,o N E I-XII: 0 -- IV: 1 11001000 Which taught thee yet no better, that no pain IV.915 o s o s s s o o s s V-mod series at syl._ r . a ,b N G I-XII: 1 — IV: 1 1100020 Abject and lost lay these, covering the Flood o s o s s s s o o s 1.312 120 Cadence Distribution Code To do what else though damn'd I should abhor o s o s s s s o o s IV.392 AUX at syl. N B I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 11000010 Luxuriant; meanwhile murmuring waters f a l l o s o s s s s s o s IV.260 Compounded S-mod series at syl. 4,5* F J I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 102200 With violence of this conflict, had not soon o s s o o s o o s s IV.995 AUX at s y l . 8* F H I-XII: 14 — IV: 10 102110 What wee, not to explore the secrets ask o s s o o s o s o s VII.95 Emphatic "wee" at syl« 2; TO at syl.^ . And should I at your harmless innocence o s s o o s o s o s IV.388 The discontinuous verbal structure (to "melt," line 389) sets the AUX at s y l . ^ as S (compare XII.263.5 of line type N C_ above). F E I-XII: 1 — IV: 1 1021000 Thir march was, and the passive Air upbore o s s o o s o s s s VI. 72 121 Unemphatic "thir" at s y l . . ; stressed PREV at s y l . Q (cf. IV.1005.7 of line type N B for sample IV). To mark what of thir State he more might learn o s s o o s o s s s IV.400 TO at sy l . ^ ; unemphatic "thir" at s y l . ^ ; unemphatic "he" at s y l . 7 . F B I-XII: 5 — IV: 0 1020010 Without Mediator, whose high Office now o s s o o s s s o s XII.240 "Without" as /2,1/ at s y l . . For S at syl.,. see 1.2.7 of line type N B 1, 2 o for sample I-XII. F H I-XII: 7 — IV: 1 1010110 Among them to set up his Tabernacle o s s o s s o s o s XII.247 TO at s y l . 4 . Severe, but in true f i l i a l freedom plac't o s s o s s o s o s IV.294 N-mod series at s y l . 5,6* F G I-XII: 3 — IV: 0 1010020 And therefore was Law given them to evince o s s o s s s o o s XII.287 Compounded S-mod series at s y l . . ,; TO at s y l . Q . 2,5 o 122 F B I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 10100010 But wherefore a l l night long shine these, for whom o s s o s s s s o s IV.657 Compounded V-mod series at syl._ ; DET sets O at s y l . under the overriding government of Condition V.4. C F I-XII: 5 — IV: 2 1002010 Is lost, which always with right Reason dwells o s s s o o s s o s XII.84 As Man ere long, and this new World shall know o s s s o o s s o s IV.113 V-mod series (to "know") at s y l . ; contrast non-ictic "and" at syl._ with, e.g., 1.1.8 of line type C H for sample I-XII; AUX at s y l . . C J I-XII: 3 — IV: 0 1001200 Of unblest feet. Him follow'd his next Mate o s s s o s o o s s 1.238 PREV at s y l . 2 . C H I-XII: 42 — IV: 29 1001110 Of Man's F i r s t Disobedience, and the Fruit o s s s o s o s o s 1.1 N-mod series at s y l . ; CONJ 2,3 5 at syl.g. One step no more than from himself can f l y o s s s o s o s o s IV.22 V-mod series (to "fly") at s y l . ; AUX at s y l . . 123 Cadence Distribution Code C E I-XII: 1 — IV: 1 10011000 And him thus answer'd soon his bold Compeer o s s s o s o s s s 1.127 V-mod at s y l . ^ . Our eye-lids; other Creatures a l l day long o s s s o s o s s s IV.616 N series at s y l . . 2,3 C G I-XII: 3 — IV: 2 1001020 Of things so high and strange, things to thi r thought VII.53 o s s s o s s o o s And send forth a l l her Kings; there w i l l be room o s s s o s s o o s IV.383 C B I-XII: 3 — IV: 4 10010010 And in fierce hosting meet, who wont to meet o s s s o s s s o s VI. 93 That Lantskip: And of pure now purer air o s s s o s s s o s IV.153 Compounded N series at syl._ ,; N-mod series at syl. . "And" appears 2,3 / , o to function here as a S-mod agent of "manner," thus setting S at s y l . ^ . Contrast "...approach, and to the heart inspires"(line 154). o 124 Cadence Distribution Code C M I-XII: 2 — IV: 4 1000210 Return'd not lost: On to the sacred h i l l o s s s s o o s o s VI. 25 V-mod series at s y l . , .; dislocated VERB particle (from "led" 26) at s y l . . Which now sat high in his Meridian Tow'r o s s s s o o s o s IV. 30 PREP sets ictus at syl._ to obviate *0 0 O at syl._ _. o 5—7 C F I-XII: 1 — IV: 0 10001010 Remain not; wherefore should not strength and might o s s s s o s s o s VI.116 Compounded V-mod series at s y l . ^ ,.; AUX at sy l . ^ ; attenuated V-mod series at s y l . , _; CONJ . at syl.,.. j , / pnr y C H I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 10000110 But Heav'n's free Love dealt equally to a l l o s s s s s o s o s IV. 68 N-mod series at s y l . 2,3' J F I-XII: 12 -- IV: 3 022010 Equal in number to that Godless crew s o o s o o s s o s VI. 49 DEM at s y l . ^ . 125 Cadence Distribution Code Now to th'ascent of that steep savage H i l l s o o s o o s s o s IV.172 S-mod at s y l . ; N-mod series at s y l . . 1 7 , O J C I-XII: 1 — IV: 0 0220000 Palpable darkness, and blot out three days s o o s o o s s s s XII.188 J J I-XII: 8 — IV: 3 021200 Seem'd in thy World erroneous to dissent s o o s o s o o s s VI.146 TO at sy l . ; pretonic PREV stress at sy l . . 8 y Equal with Gods; aspiring to be such s o o s o s o o s s IV.526 TO at s y l . . . J H I-XII: 82 — IV: 112 021110 Wak't by the ci r c l i n g Hours, with rosy hand s o o s o s o s o s VI. 3 O for that warning voice, which he who saw s o o s o s o s o s IV. 1 EX! at s y l . . J E I-XII: 9 — IV: 12 0211000 Siege and defiance: Wretched man! what food s o o s o s o s s s XII.74 CONJ . at syl.„. phr 2 126 Cadence Distribution Code Satan, and couldst thou faithful add? 0 name IV.950 s o o s o s o s s s VOC at s y l . Q . J G I-XII: 6 — IV: 6 021020 Nor of the Muses nine, nor on the top VII.6 s o o s o s s o o s COMP series at s y l . ^ , s y l . ^ . Leaps o'er the fence with ease into the Fold IV.187 s o o s o s s o o s The stress pattern of / l , 2 / for "into" obviates the series *0 0 O at S y l'7-9* J D I-XII: 1 « IV: 1 0210100 Into the Heav'n of Heav'ns I have presum'd VII.13 s o o s o s s o s s Stress pattern of /I,2/ for "Into" (cf. line type L G for sample I-XII); AUX at syl.g,- pretonic PREV stress at s y l . g (cf. line type N J for sample I-XII). Part of my Soul I seek thee, and thee claim IV.487 s o o s o s s o s s Note the iterant PRO-N +...+ PRO-N at s y l . J B I-XII: 15 — IV: 14 0210010 Then with transition sweet new Speech resumes s o o s o s s s o s XII. 5 127 Cadence Distribution Code Warring in Heav'n against Heav'n's matchless King s o o s o s s s o s IV.41 N-mod series at sy l . _ ... J M I-XII: 4 -- IV: 14 021210 Fearless assault, and to the brow of Heav'n s o o s s o o s o s VI. 51 CONJ at syl., Shee as a v e i l down to the slender waist s o o s s o o s o s IV.304 Emphatic "Shee" at syl . J K I-XII: 1 -- IV: 1 0202000 Moors by his side under the Lee, while Night s o o s s o o s s s 1.207 Ey'd them askance, and to himself thus plain'd IV.504 s o o s s o o s s s CONJ at s y l . c . S 5 J F I-XII: 3 ~ IV: 3 0201010 Since through experience of this great event 1.118 s o o s s o s s o s DEM at s y l . 7 . 92 Th'animal Spirits that from pure blood arise IV.805 s o o s s o s s o s 128 Cadence Distribution Code J J I-XII: 4 — IV: 1 0200200 Back on thy foes more glorious to return s o o s s s o o s s VI. 39 For the i c t i c patterning across s y l . Q see line type J J above. 8 ,y Army of Fiends, f i t body to f i t head s o o s s s o o s s IV.953 Note the iterant pattern on N-moda+...+ N-modQ, where subscript "a' specifies a semantically coreferential set of elements at syl.. .9* J H I-XII: 16 — IV: 12 0200110 Deign to descend now lower, and relate s o o s s s o s o s VII.84 CONJ at syl.g. As he suppos'd, a l l unobserved, unseen s o o s s s o s o s IV.130 Unemphatic "he" at syl. J E I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 02001000 God i s thy Law, thou mine: to know no more s o o s s s o s s s IV.637 The e l i p t i c a l structure of P R O - N Q + ( * V E R B ) + P R O - N ^ , in parallel with NOUN ("God") + V E R B ("is") + . . . + NOUN.("Law"), where "a" signifies the a p relation "subject of" and "3" signifies the relation "object of" sets an i c t i c value of S S at s y l . c V-mod series (to "know") at s y l . . n . 129 Cadence Distribution Code J G I-XII: 1 — IV: 0 0200020 Servant of God, well done, well hast thou fought s o o s s s s o o s VI. 29 AUX at s y l . H J I-XII: 1 — IV: 0 012200 Growing into a Nation, and now grown s o s o o s o o s s XII.164 Stress pattern of /1,2/ for "into" (cf. line type L G for sample I-XII); non-ictic CONJ at s y l . , in contrast with, e.g., VI.51.5 of line type J M o for sample I-XII. H H I-XII: 1 — IV* 3 012110 Irrevocable, that his Regal Throne s o s o o s o s o s XII.323 93 Mount Amara, though this by some suppos'd s o s o o s o s o s IV.281 H E I-XII: 1 — IV: 0 0121000 Swallows him with his Host, but them lets pass s o s o o s o s s s XII.196 The preposed construction for the PRO-N "them" emphasizes the i c t i c placement at s y l . . o H B I-XII: 2 -- IV: 0 0120010 Universal reproach, far worse to bear s o s o o s s s o s VI. 34 130 Cadence Distribution Code H B I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 01100010 Adam from his f a i r Spouse, nor Eve the Rites s o s o s s s s o s IV.742 The COMP at s y l . ^ i s the second element of the iterated structure "nor+...+nor" (lines 741-742). E F I-XII: 4 — IV: 2 0102010 Mov'd our Grand Parents in that happy State s o s s o o s s o s 1.29 DEM at s y l . ? . Flow'rs of a l l hue, and without Thorn the Rose s o s s o o s s o s Stress pattern of /2,1/ for "without." 94 IV.256 E J I-XII: 3 — IV: 0 0101200 95 Whereto thus Adam fatherly displeased s o s s o s o o s s XII.63 S-mod at s y l . , ; PREV as negative element "dis-" at s y l . obviates *0 0 O. 3 y E H I-XII: 28 — IV: 28 0101110 That with no middle fli g h t intends to soar s o s s o s o s o s 1.14 "no" functions here as the f i r s t element of a N-mod series at s y l . 3,4* Hee for God only, shee for God i n him s o s s o s o s o s IV.299 131 Cadence Distribution Code Emphatic "Hee" at s y l . , ; emphatic "shee" at syl.,.. X b E E I-XII: 3 — IV: 1 01011000 Favor unmerited by me, who sought s o s s o s o s s s XII.278 Negative PREV at s y l . 3 . Satan, now f i r s t inflam'd with rage, came down s o s s o s o s s s IV.9 V-mod series (to "came") at syl. 3,4* E G I-XII: 1 — IV: 2 0101020 Jordan, true limit Eastward; but his Sons s o s s o s s o o s XII.145 Compounded N-mod series at syl.,. _. b, / Aught whereof hee hath need, hee who requires s o s s o s s o o s IV.419 Emphatic "hee" at s y l . ^ , s y l . 7 . E D I-XII: 1 ~ IV: 0 01010100 Last with one midnight sstroke a l l the first-born s o s s o s s o s s XII.189 The syllable "-night" (syl. ) i s set as 0 in correspondence with the 5 requirement of Condition V.4. 132 Cadence Distribution Code E B I-XII: 1 — IV: 1 01010010 Through the world's wilderness long wander'd man s o s s o s s s o s XII.313 N-mod series at s y l . 7,8' Who would not, finding way, break loose from Hell s o s s o s s s o s IV.889 AUX at syl« 2; dislocated V-mod element "not" sets S at s y l . 3 < E M I-XII: 0 — IV: 4 0100210 Not to know mee argues yourselves unknown s o s s s o o s o s Emphatic "mee" at s y l . ^ . 96 IV.830 E F I-XII: 3 — IV: 0 01001010 Just for unjust, that i n such righteousness s o s s s o s s o s XII.294 Negative PREV at syl« 3. E H I-XII: 1 — IV: 1 01000110 Man t i l l then free. Therefore since hee permits s o s s s s o s o s XII.90 Compounded S-mod series at syl._ .; emphatic "hee" at s y l . Q . o ,b o Worse; of worse deeds worse sufferings must ensue s o s s s s o s o s IV. 26 133 Cadence Distribution Code G N I-XII: 1 — IV: 0 0021100 I see him, but thou canst not, with what Faith s s o o s o s o s s XII.128 AUX at syl.,.. 6 G H I-XII: 15 — IV: 9 0020110 That Shepherd, who f i r s t taught the chosen Seed s s o o s s o s o s 1.8 DEM at s y l . ^ . Sole partner and sole part of a l l these joys s s o o s s o s o s IV.411 Iterant N-mod +...+ N-mod structure at syl., _ (see the study of IV.953 a a 1 1...5 1 as line type J J above); C0NJ^ r at s y l . ^ . G G I-XII: 3 — IV: 2 0020020 Far differing from this World, thou hast reveal'd s s o o s s s o o s VII.71 DEM at syl.g. Short pleasures, for long woes are to succeed s s o o s s s o o s IV.535 TO at s y l . 8' D F I-XII: 8 — IV: 6 0012010 Hurl'd headlong flaming from th'Ethereal Sky s o s o s s o s 1.45 134 Cadence Distribution Code On the pretonic stress at the point of elision by apocope at s y l - 7 see the study of line type N H for sample I-XII. Mankind created, and for him this World s s o s o o s s o s IV.107 Compounded N series at s y l . 1,2' D J I-XII: 8 -- IV: 8 0011200 Great things, and f u l l of wonder in our ears s s o s o s o o s s VII.70 Henceforth; my dwelling haply may not please s s o s o s o o s s IV. 378 Compounded V-mod series (to "dwell," line 377) at s y l . ; AUX at s y l . . 1,2 o D H . I-XII: 86 -- IV: 100 0011110 A l l night the dreadless Angel unpursu'd s s o s o s o s o s VI. 1 97 Murmuring, and with him fled the shades of night, s s o s o s o s o s IV.1015 D E I-XII: 7 — IV: 12 00111000 More safe I sing with mortal voice, unchang'd s s o s o s o s s s VII.24 Negative PREV at s y l . . y 135 Cadence Distribution Code That Mountain as his Garden mould high rais'd s s o s o s o s s s IV.226 DEM at s y l . ; COMP at syl« 4 (cf. XII.2.5 of line type N F) D G I-XII: 11 — IV: 9 0011020 0 execrable Son so to aspire s s o s o s s o o s XII.64 VOC at s y l . , ; TO at s y l . . . Cross-barr'd and bolted fast, fear no assault s s o s o s s o o s IV.190 N-mod series at syl. 1,2-D D I-XII: 1 — IV: 3 00110100 Thee also happier, shall not be withheld s s o s o s s o s s VII.117 Pretonic stress at s y l . (per VI.72.9 of line type F E for sample I-XII) O then at last relent: i s there no place s s o s o s s o s s IV. 79 EX! at s y l . ^ ; S-mod at s y l . 2 . D B I-XII: 16 -- IV: 12 00110010 Where boldest; though to sight unconquerable s s o s o s s s o s VI.118 Negative PREV at s y l . 7 . 136 137 Cadence Distribution Code D J I-XII: 1 -- IV: 2 00100200 Say f i r s t , for Heav'n hides nothing from thy view s s o s s s o o s s 1.27 Thrice chang'd with pale, i r e , envy and despair s s o s s s o o s s IV.115 N series at s y l - 4 _ 6 ; CONJ ^ at s y l . g ; pretonic PREV stress at s y l . g to obviate *0 0 O at syl. 7-9" D H I-XII: 3 — IV: 9 00100110 Said then the lost Arch-Angel, this the seat s s . o s s s o s o s 1.243 98 S-mod at syl._; N-mod + N series at s y l . . c . Z 4—o Blest pair; and O yet happiest i f ye seek s s o s s s o s o s IV.774 EXI at s y l . . ; V-mod Series at syl._ 4 5,6 D G I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 00100020 . ImbrowntJ the noontide Bow'rs: Thus was this place IV.246 s s o s s s s o o s 99 Pretonic PREV stress at s y l . ^ ; compounded N-mod series at s y l . ^ ,.. B J I-XII: 1 — IV: 1 0002200 Transfix us to the bottom of this Gulf s s s o o s o o s s 1.329 Pretonic PREV stress at s y l . , ; DEM at s y l . . i y 138 Cadence Distribution Code None l e f t but by submission and that word s s s o o s o o s s IV. 81 S-mod at s y l . _ ; DEM at s y l . Q . j y B H I-XII: 6 — IV: 7 0002110 Indisolubly firm; nor obvious H i l l s s s o o s o s o s VI. 69 Doubled PREV stress at syl. 1,2* Then when I am thy captive talk of chains s s s o o s o s o s IV.970 V-mod series (to "talk") at s y l . 1,2* B E I-XII: 1 — IV: 1 00021000 Brought Death into the World, and a l l our woe s s s o o s o s s s 1.3 On the stressing of "into," cf. VII.13.1,2 of line type J D for sample I-XII. Sin-bred, how have ye troubl'd a l l mankind IV.315 s s s o o s o s s s N-mod series (to "shame," line 313) at syl... _; compounded N sereis at ± ,2 syl. 9,0' B G I-XII: 2 — IV: 1 0002020 Henceforth what i s to come I w i l l relate s s s o o s s o o s Compounded S-mod series at s y l . 0; TO at s y l . ; AUX at s y l . . 112 D o XII.11 139 Cadence Distribution Code Ah wherefore! he deserv'd no such return IV.42 s s s o o s s o o s EX! at s y l . . ; compounded S-mod series at s y l . . B B I-XII: 0 — IV: 1 00020010 I therefore, I alone f i r s t undertook IV.935 s s s o o s s s o s Compounded S-mod series at s y l . ^ ^' N o t e the marking of s y l . ^ as 0 in order to conform with Condition V.$. A H I-XII: 2 — IV: 2 00001110 O Prince, 0 Chief of many Throned Powers 1.128 s s s s o s o s o s VOC at s y l . ^ , s y l . ^ . Note the disyllabic articulation of "Throned."^"00 Not only enlighten, but with kindly heat IV.668 s s s s o s o s o s V-mod series at s y l . . The elision by apocope at s y l . , augments the tendency of the pretonic syllable "en-" to take ictus. I w i l l conclude this chapter by giving a sample scansion for one line (of the type G H) and by setting out i n tabular form the absolute countjfigures and the significant percentage figures of the 101 line scansions required for the two samples. To recapitulate b r i e f l y , the structural matrix of any scansion 140 VRS i s : » • • • U 4 ) ( U 5 ( U 6 »• • • where the series (U^,...U^) i s spoken of as the i n i t i a l cadence of a line; the series (U_(U.,...U.)) as the medial cadence of a line, 5 6 9 and as unmarked when U,. i s specified by the i c t i c feature [-], and as marked when U_ is specified by [+]; 3 and the single element series (...UQ) i s spoken of as the terminal condition of a line. The i n i t i a l cadence of VRS here (type G) maintains an i c t i c value of: [-], [-], [+], [+]. The medial cadence i s unmarked (type H), maintaining the value: [-], [-], [+], [-], [+]. The terminal condition, which i s unchanged throughout both samples, maintains the i c t i c value of: [-]. Cf. the informal discussion of this line type in Chapter I, pp. 15-16, and the notes on i t s syntactic structure on p.133 above; and the rules of the metrical model as presented on p. 3 3 f f . "P," involving the sub regularity of "TT ,.. .p ,.. .a,... " where the rule "P" of f u l l P-derivation i s included in the class of rules "P..." of the f i r s t P-derivation (see Chapter II, §.llff.), as "P" E "P...," E.g. : Sole partner and sole part of a l l these joys s s o o s s o s o s IV.411 The i n i t i a l cadence i s generated by an expansion of complex 141 such that X,X, S,S,... (perG ) S,S,... •* SSSS (per "P ...") or S,S,... •+ SSSS (per "P^ '.V then SSSS -*• !SSSS (per P,ff,) 1234 2314 and SSSS •*• SSSO (per n ; L) and SSSO -»• ISSSO (per II IT ) 1234 2314 and SSSO -*• OSSS (per II') + + and OSSS •* OSSO (per R^ so that OSSO -*• SSCO (per R,^ ,) 1234 2314 In brief: [± ] -»• [-} "Sole,,," l+-)2 M 2 "...part-..." [±]3 -»• [+13 "...-ner..." [ ± 14 [ + 1 4 "...and..." The medial cadence i s generated by an expansion of complex 'Q" as follows: "Q" •*• ...Q+OOSO (per 0.1) ...Q+00S0 -»-*...000S0 (per 0.10) or ...*000S0 ( " ) ...*000S0 ...*00S00 (per 0.20) ... *oosoo ... *sssso ...*sssso *...sssso *... sssso -»• ... *ososs ...*ososs *...ososs *...ososs ...*ossoo ...*ossoo -*• *...ossoo *...ossoo ...*ososo ...*ososo -y *...ososo *...ososo -*• ...ssoso (per 0.220) (per §.412) (per 0.2220) (per §.412) (per 0.2230) (per §.412) (per 0.22310) (per §.412) (per 0.2232) In brief: [±], [ ± ] . [ ± ] , M , [ + ] , [-1, t+1, ..sole..." ..part..." ..of..." • • 3.1 X • • • ..these..." The terminal condition i s : "T" -*• ...S or [-] 0-. [-] 0 •Doys' that: To recapitulate, the generation of VRS here has been such l ^ , . . . ^ . . . •> [ - ] , [ - ] , [ + ] , [ + ] , . . . or SSOO... "Sole partner and.. 143 • • • • • • ^ ••• I™™] or ...S... "... sole..." ...Ugf...U ... •»• . . . [ - ] , [+], [-], [+],... or ...SOSO... "...part of a l l these..." UQ... ...[-] or ...S "...joys" for a f u l l line scansion of: S S O O S S O S O S . The set of i n i t i a l and medial cadence associations involved i n the VRS series of sample I-XII i s displayed in Table I (p. / ^ r ) , where a null occurrence of association i s represented as "*" and the absolute count figures for each association in the sample i s given as, e.g., "2" for the two associations of i n i t i a l cadence "A" with the marked medial cadence "H." Table II records the absolute occurrence figures and the significant percentage figures i n sample I-XII for the thirteen cadence types in respect to i n i t i a l and medial position. Tables III and IV record the individual cadence associations and the absolute and significant percentage figures respectively for the material of sample IV. Although the productivity of cadence type "N" (OSOS...) i s dominant in i n i t i a l position—satisfying our intuitions about the characteristic "iambic" quality of the verse—the strong productivity of type "D" (SSOS...) and type "J" (SOOS...) cadences, interwoven with those of type "N," clearly demonstrate a major tendency on Milton's part toward varied articulation i n the f i r s t portion of his verse line. The f i n a l balance of the metrical technique, however, involves a different 144 characteristic for the latter portion of the line. This portion, especially the domain of sy l . , contrasts with the i n i t i a l variety by a marked regularity. Cadence type "H" (...[±]S0S0...) is eminently productive in medial position, especially when the marked and unmarked cases are conflated. The less frequent unmarked case, however, i s alone of greater frequency than the marked "B" cadence (...0SSS0...), which i s the only r i v a l for prominence in this medial position. The proportions here between "H" and "B" involve a significant percentage relation of 10:9 for sample I-XII and of 10:7 for sample IV and an even larger absolute count relation in both samples, of 105:88 for I-XII and of 104:65 for IV. in TABLE I B B C C D E E F F G A B C D E F G H J K L N * * * * * * 3 16 1 5 * 2 15 3 * 43 * * * * * * * * 1 1 * * i * 1 9 * * * * * * 1 6 24 5 8 4 * 12 * 1 1 * * 30 * 2 1 3 4 11 3 1 1 6 * 1 * * 6 14 G H H J J * 2 * * * * g * 1 * * 42 * 3 * * 86 3 8 1 * 28 1 3 * 3 14 7 * * 3 * 15 * * * 2. * 1 * 1 82 16 8 4 * 7 * * * 2 * 26 * 6 1 247 37 31 5 K L M N * * * * * * * * * * 2 * * 2 7 * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 * * * * 1 * 4 * * * j. * * * * * 1 * 17 1 TABLE II Absolute Occurrence Figures Init. Med.[+] Med.[-] Med.[±] A 2 * * * B 10 88 1 89 C 60 1 1 2 D 154 9 * 9 E 45 47 1 48 F 30 60 15 75 G 19 38 10 49 H 5 513 105 618 J 161 55 16 71 K 13 * 2 2 L 36 * 2 2 M * * 31 31 N 464 * 2 2 Significant Percentage Figures % Init. % Med.[±] % Med.[+] % Med.[-] 0 * * * 1 9 9 0 6 0 0 0 15 1 1 * 5 5 5 0 3 8 6 2 2 5 4 1 1 62 52 10 16 7 5 2 1 0 * 0 4 0 * 0 * 3 * 3 46 0 * 0 147 t o * H 00 * U ) U > (si * O l tTi to U l I O t O * U > t o 0~> * » H M ft * t o G\ t o * to vO to ft t O h - i 00 U ) * t o * VD O * H> * 00 * H* * t o * ft » ft 0^  ft * CO * * * * * |ro * * * * * o * D (-< I O M I O U l * O 00 O VD t o * * * * * * * * * * * * |*d * * |o a * |sc * ci * I* s t-< TABLE IV Absolute Occurrence Figures Init. Med.[+] Med.[-] Med.[±] A 4 1 * 1 B 11 65 4 69 C 43 1 * 1 D 168 8 * 8 E 39 56 3 59 F 14 34 11 45 G 11 47 6 53 H 4 578 104 682 J 185 28 7 36 K 25 * 7 7 L 28 * 1 1 M * * 55 55 N 483 * * * Significant Percentage Figures % Init. % Med.[±] % Med.[+] % Med.[-] 0 0 0 * 1 7 7 0 4 0 0 * 17 1 1 * 4 6 6 0 1 4 3 1 1 5 4 1 0 67 57 10 19 4 3 1 2 1 * 1 3 0 * 0 5 * 5 48 149 CHAPTER V The rules of the "Q" derivation (see Chapter II, §.42) are clearly too powerful as they stand. The model as so constituted i s overproductive in two respects, generating (1) a number of VRS types that are not reflected by any series of Vrs. in the samples, and (2) a number of VRS types in defiance both of Condition V.3 and Condition V.4. It w i l l be useful to provide a l i s t in tabular form (Table V following) of those superfluous VRS types that I have spoken of above (p. 28) as marking a weak rather than a strong generative capacity of the metrical model. This is a sort of mirror-image representation of Tables I and III above, in which those cadence associations that are in fact required for the scansion of at least one Vrs. in samples I-XII and IV are noted as "*," and the overproduced associations are represented by a group of symbols, <x^ ,... ,6^,... .. ,6 ,... , whose significance i s as follows: "ct^" i s the class symbol for those associations, like *A 13, that violate Condition V.3 by maintaining only one marked unit (0) in the series U,,...U . 1 n "a^" i s the class symbol for those associations, like *A H_, that similarly violate Condition V.3 by maintaining only two marked units. "3^" symbolizes the class (which i s here a class containing one member) represented by the association *L L which violates Condition V.3 by maintaining only three unmarked units (i.e. , that part of the Condition which specifies that the number of unmarked units must be 150 equal to or . greater than five). "62" symbolizes the class of associations, such as *L G, that also violate this part of Condition V.3 by maintaining only four unmarked units. "Y^" is the class symbol for cadence associations, like *G H, that violate Condition V.4 by maintaining a series of three marked units (*0 0 0 ) . "Y2" symbolizes those associations which, like *G C, similarly violate Condition V.4 by maintaining a series of four marked units (*0 0 0 0) . "6" symbolizes the eighty-five unproductive cadence associations generated by the rules of "Q" derivation; both those which, like ?F C, are consonant with Conditions V.1,...V.5, and those which, like *F C, would violate Condition V.4. " 6 0 " symbolizes the eleven residual associations of the general form ...L and ...N, products of the unused "Q" rules 0.2 and S.2 respectively, that are not deviant with respect to Condition V.3 and / or Condition V.4. It should be notdd that there i s a certain overlap between the general classes 8^,... and y^r... whereby, for instance, the cadence association *L L is represented as as well as 8^, since i t s putative f u l l - l i n e metric of *0 S 0 0 0 0 S 0 0 [S] maintains the unpermitted series *0 0 0 0; and likewise that the association *L G i s represented as y n as well as 8 , to distinguish the unpermitted series *0 0 0. 151 a Q Oj Ot Oi O J Oj o » N J N ) N > t o t o O j O j * TO -< t o t o * TO - < ! t o M * TO -< t O H * TO -< Ot tO l-> TO TO - < TO t O M I O t O TO t o TO t o O j TO -< Ot O t o t o O t o O J o > O j O J -< t o O j o> - < t o t o t o O J O J t o t o t o I O O J O J O j Ot Ot Ot Oi Ot TO TO -< TO -< TO -< O J t O M H M N N H O Ot Ot Ot Ot Ot Ot t o t o Oi Ot Ot Ot Ot Ot Ot Oi Oi Ot Ot Ot t o t o I— 1 t o - < t — 1 O J O J O J O J O J O J O J t o t o t o O J OI OI t o > w o IO D H itt *3 I "9 CD IO a |a I * f< It" I S z 152 The existence of these overproductivities poses an interesting general question regarding the nature of a metrically well-formed line as well as a more demanding question which is crucial to the specification of a model which w i l l fully satisfy the requirements of verse scansion. I am presently unable to provide a l l the necessary answers here and must be content merely to outline some of the areas in which I think such answers are to be sought. It i s a reasonable assumption that the notion of metrical well-formedness w i l l imply a correlative notion of metrical ill-formedness or hypermetricality. The latter should involve a graded system of metrical deviance (analogous to that of grammatical deviance) ranging from sets of structures of high occurrence and considerable prosodic interest through those of meagre and minimal productivity to those which are in some specifiable manner clearly deformed. Two related problems arise here, of (i) isolating the system of grading within the system of s e r i a l derivations of the model, and (ii) , which is directly dependent upon (i) and must f i n a l l y derive from i t , of selecting discriminatory and yet feasible c r i t e r i a to specify the limits of metrical well-formed-ness for VRS types of meagre or minimal productivity. A s t a t i s t i c a l survey of productivities (such as that set out in Tables I and III above) does not in fact provide a coherent account of such limits, since those figures of special interest, those recording only two, three or four associations for a particular set of line types, are not significant numerically for the corpus as a whole. It may thus be the 153 case that one scansion VRS^ with, say, two realizations of Vrs.^ in one of the samples may f i n a l l y be described with most convenience as hypermetrical, while another scansion VRS.., also with two realizations of Vrs... in a sample, may turn out to be of some prosodic interest even though i t remains meagrely productive throughout the entire poem. This latter condition may also obtain for one or more of the unproductive associations (i.e., the class of "6" associations, such as ?F C) which are merely accidentally unproductive for the corpus under immediate consideration. It i s at least the case that one and perhaps two of the unpermitted cadence associations of class c t ^ , . . . are realized by examples of Vrs. in the poem. There i s an instance of a line in sample IV holding an ambiguous metrical value, one of whose readings f a l l s into the apparently unpermitted class of cadence associations. I.e.: [he . . . began] Through wood, through waste, o'er h i l l , o'er dale his roam. IV.538 The basic syntactic structure here i s "he . . . began . . . his roam," in a pattern of PRO—N + VERB + (NP: Direct Object), thus employing "began" as a quasi-transitive verb. If the eight word series of "through . . . dale" is considered as a set of four parallel modification phrases to the putative noun "roam,"*0* then the series must provide a sequence of eight i c t i c units, by general parity with the use of (reduplicated) governing COMP agents and with high stress nouns. The reading provides for: i) *AB S S S S S S S S O S (i.e., class a ) 154 On the other hand, once the unique function of "began" as a quasi-transitive verb i s acknowledged, i t may well be the case that the set of contextual constraints in reference to the VERB w i l l resolve trans as classes of equivalent "VERB + (NP: Object)" government on the open series "(...+ wood), „„(...+ waste), .„,(...+ h i l l ) , „„(...+ dale)" NP NP NP NP and that the prepositions "through . . . through . . . o'er . . . o'er" are set in a simple quantifying relation to their respective nouns akin to that of "his" to "roam," as ":jjp( + N ) , etc." This reading, which i s recorded in the Scansion Table below, provides for: i i ) NH O S O S O S O S O S Although reading i) for the classification of ct^ has been dubious here, there i s no doubt as to the unpermitted classification of a 2 for the well known 11.621: Rocks, Caves, Lakes, Fens, Bogs, Dens, and shades of death s s s s s s o s o s The cadence association i s *A H, injviolation of Condition V.3. The association' also provides a clear VRS reading for 11.560: Fixt Fate, free w i l l , foreknowledge absolute s s s s s s o s o s (The i c t i c value of "foreknowledge" also provides a reading of S S 0 at II.559.5-7.) There do not appear to be compelling reasons for ignoring the possible prosodic interest of these lines merely because of their 155 meagre productivity. Their offence against Condition V.3 i s certainly more distressing. That none of the other twenty-four cadence 102 associations classifiable as seem to be represented in the poem does indictate, though, that the designation of *A H_ here i s an accident of cross reference; that i s , that the association *A H may be a member both of the unpermitted class "a^" and of a permitted class, say " o ^ , " and that these classes are related according to a disjunctive rewrite condition of: (A H) + where the unpermitted value of (A H) -*• *A H i s the unmarked result of the rewrite just in case the marked result of (A H) -*• A E_' i s not chosen. An augmented line of derivations so constituted would be required to satisfy the related class of associations as well. A consideration of the sometimes identical—as *L H—class of "y associations brings out the crucial requirement of specifying those restrictions upon the s e r i a l derivations of the model which w i l l obviate overproductivities offensive to Condition V.4. It would be satisfying to create the effect of such restrictions by means of increasing the scope of an otherwise unchanged line of rules such as are necessary for the production of, e.g., cadence associations D B, D E, D F, etc. If rule "T" (see Chapter II, § . l l b ) were made applicable in the domain of "P...Q" as well as in the domain of "P," 156 i t could be directed to the unpermitted association *G H (the unwanted result of 0.2212, see §.42) to provide for the generation of the viable association D H i n the following manner: SSOO + ...Q+OOSO... (per 0.1) SSOO + ...*00S0... (per 0.10) SSOO + ...OSOSO... (per 0.2212) SSOO + OSOSO + [S] (per "T") or*S S 0 0 0 S 0 S 0 [S] (i.e., *G H) then ...OOO... -*• ...OSO... (per "T") +++ +-+ or S S 0 S 0 S 0 S O [S] (i.e., D H) Such augmented applications of "T" are not always usefully productive. When "T" i s operative through the domain of "P...Q" for, e.g., the association *B F (class y^) i t applies as: *S S S 0 0 0 S S 0 [S] (*B F) when ...000... ->• ...OSO... +++ +-+ or S S S 0 S O S S 0 [S] (?B F) only to result i n the anomalous ?B F_ (class 6). The same barren activity holds for a l l augmented applications of "T" for the f u l l set of 157 associations: C B -F F \ + ' L H j I N where the result i s simply to alter class y^ associations of the general form ...X[+]Y... to class 6 associations of the form ...X[-]Y.... On the other hand, a series of interesting results obtain from the application of augmented "T" to the f u l l set of: r A i • The result of such an application on *G H has been noted above. The common pattern of the f u l l set of applications i s that of, e.g., *G B -» D B. That i s : *S S 0 0 0 S S S 0 [S] (*G B) when ...000... •> ...OSO... +++ +-+ or S S 0 S 0 S S S 0 [S] (D B) The other resultant permitted cadence associations directly derivable from *G... are: D D, D E, D G and D H. The unpermitted cadence association of *D A (class a ) i s ineffectively derived from *G A. The 158 associations similarly derivable from *L... are: N A, N B, N D, N E, N G, N H and N J. The four other possible associations for the pair *G... and *L... are of considerable, i f somewhat enigmatic interest. These are the associations of class y^, with ...C, ...F, ...L and ...L, involving the unpermitted sequence *0 0 0 0. They w i l l require a revised structural index for rule "T" to allow for two alternate applications of "T " and "T2" such that: index: ...XOOOY... 12345 where X represents a rewrite of the ordered pair <0,S> so that change: X -> 0 (i) 1 1 X ( ii) 1 1 so that change: ...OSOOY... (i) or "T " 12345 and: ...SOSOY... (ii) or "T " 12345 The applications of "T^, T^" to the cadence association *G C are both barren, resulting respectively in the class 6 association ?D C and ?G C. The application of "T^" to *G F produces the viable association D F, as: 159 *S S O O 0 0 S S O [ S ] (*G F) when ...OOOOS... ->• ...OSOOS... 12345 12345 or S S O S 0 0 S S O [S] (D F) But the application of "T 2" to *G F produces only the unwanted class 6 association ?G F. The applications of "T , T^" to *G L are both barren, producing the class 6Q association ?D L and the class 6 association ?G L respectively. In the case of application to the association *G N, rule "T^" i s barren, producing the class 6^ association ?D N, but rule "T^" then produces the viable association G N. The applications of "T^, 7^" to the four relevant associations of *L... reflect the results upon *G F for *L C and *L F. That i s , the operation here i s as follows: *L C per T yields N C *L C per T 2 yields ?L C (class 6) *L F per T yields N F *L F per T 2 yields ?L F (class 6) The applications of "T^, T 2" to the last associations *L L and *L N are barren throughout. The results of this rule augmentation as noted here strongly suggest that the f u l l set of derivations within the domain of "P...Q" could be ordered entirely by seria l disjunctive rules of the type "T^,...." It might well be that the system of metrical grading alluded 160 to above could then be incorporated directly into the model, preferably 103 as a proper subset of the rules for "P...Q." As Adam said to the angel, "something yet of doubt remains." Just what i s the significance of the cadence series in a f u l l line metric? The question is one of degree. As a hypothetical entity, a product and a part of the metrical model, the cadence series has proven to be essential and the assumption of the series i s formally j u s t i f i e d , per definiens, directly by the formal accuracy and completeness of the model i t s e l f . The series has also proven useful as a measuring device, revealing the phenomena of variety and regularity in the i n i t i a l and medial portions of Milton's line noted above (pp. It i s true that these phenomena could also be measured by means of shorter series consisting, say, of two metrical units (representing a "foot") or, for that matter, merely of one unit. However, the process of measurement here would involve several additional steps, each of which would require 104 individual ju s t i f i c a t i o n . That i s , the relationship between the ictus-specified string U^,...u"4 and the string U^, U&,...Ug, in terms of two-unit series, would need to be explicated roughly as follows: (1) assumption of general series: U. , • • • U n where n = i + 1 (2) specification of particular series: (2a) U. , • • • u -»• u, + u 2 n (2b) 4 161 (2c) •*• u + U,. 5 6 (2d) * U 7 + U 8 (2e) * °9 + U0 (3) description of U^,..vU 4 in terms of (2) : (3a) U_ + U, + ... ^ 1 ... + u 3 + u 4 J + °2 + U3 + U4 (4) description of U_, U ,.. 5 6 ••v (4a) U_ + Ti U F + 0 5 6 5 (5) U c + \3r -*• 0 + 5 6 6 (4b) U9 + U0 * U9 + 0 (3b) 0 + U + .. i " U 6 + °7 + U 8 ... + U ? + u 8 (3c) U + U + U + ... v-»- Ti + U„ + U + TJ + U g + 0 • 6 7 8 9 (3d) U + 0 + ... ~\ . . .•x-r v V - U 9 The information (a s t a t i s t i c a l account of occurrence) to be gathered by means of these series formulations i s made accessible in a more direct manner by the use of cadence series. Compare: (1) assumption of general series: U.,...U i n where n = i + 3 (2) assumption of markedness: U.,...U •+ [±]U.,...U /U.,...U + X I n i n l n 162 (3) specification of particular series: (3a) U. ,...U #U,,...U. x n 1 4 (31) •*• ...[±] 5, U6,...Ug (4) specification of marked series: ...t±]5, u6,...ug - u 5, u6,...u9 The formal economy of the system, then, appears to be reasonably satisfactory. Yet i t would be interesting also to establish the degree of empirical reality that may be adduced for the cadences as series of 105 s y l . ^ , . . . s y l . ^ and s y l . ^ , . . . s y l . g in any line. I suggest that cadence series may be thus employed as governing agents for the structural description of traditional caesura placement. Caesurae most frequently occur to separate (i) the fourth and f i f t h , (ii) the f i f t h and sixth, or ( i i i ) the sixth and seventh syllables 106 of the English blank verse line. If these separations or pauses are considered to be integral and necessary components of metrical structure, then their common appearances w i l l be definable as the realization of a "caesura segment," symbolized as introduced at some point in the derivation of U,,...U , as: 1 n X •> t, / ...U. + + U x D where, in position ( i ) , specifies U^, and U. specifies U_; 3 5 where, in position (ii) , specifies U^, and U. specifies U_; 3 6 etc.; and where the specification of U. . as U. _, U_ etc. in respect 1,3 4,5' 5,6' 163 to the rewrite of at the position ... ... i s the manner in which U. . governs the structure of the caesura. i,l A brief examination of the relevant unit positions of U4,...U"7 involved in the disposition of caesurae ( i ) , . . . ( i i i ) shows that they may be arranged in three ordered pairs, as: (i) <i,x>; (ii) <x,j>; ( i i i ) <i,x>; where " i " or " j " in each case represents the outermost unit "0\ /' of a cadence series. The regularity here suggests that the function of such pairs as <i,x> and <x,j> in specifying the common or "neutral" appearance of caesurae at ( i ) , ( i i i ) and (ii) i s directly dependent upon the function of " i , j " as independently generated elements of cadence series, which series are thus to be spoken of as governing, through the medium of U. ., the structure of caesura in blank verse. It remains to observe that such are the neutral structures of caesura, which are neither the only possible structures nor the only structures employed by Milton. Caesurae appear at a l l of the nine 107 possible positions in his decasyllabic line, as: 1:2 Plagues; they astonisht a l l resistance lost VI.838 2:3 Yet f e l l ; remember, and fear to transgress VI.912 3:4 Astonisht: none among the choice and prime 11.423 164 4:5 Seasons return, but not to me returns III.41 5:6 Our two f i r s t Parents, yet the only two III.65 6': 7 Part rise in crystal Wall, or ridge direct VII.293 7:8 Of hazard as of honour, due alike 11.453 8:9 Like gentle breaths from Rivers pure, thence raise IV.806 9:0 And Bush with f r i z z l ' d hair implicit: last VII.323 These several structures could be described as eccentric variations from a probablistic norm or common condition of caesural 108 placement. I prefer to regard them as representing alternate realizations of the neutral conditions of caesurae ( i ) , . . . ( i i i ) outlined above. That i s , I suggest that the rules of caesural placement could be augmented so as to provide for six additional caesurae, (i v ) , . . . ( i x ) , which would presumably represent a marked set in relation to the unmarked set of (i) , . . . ( i i i ) . Following from this i t would become feasible to record the "eccentric" caesurae in ah economical fashion merely by providing a structural history for some caesural position . . . ( i i i ) , . . . (v)... that specified the caesura "(v)" as derived from a sub rule (£,v) of the general rule matrix (£,...). 165 It i s also possible to consider the phenomenon of caesura as para-prosodic (like enjambment—see p. 3 above), as dependent either upon an eccentric, optional s t y l i s t i c variation in the usage of a 109 particular writer or upon mere syntactic contingency. In the f i r s t instance, however, the specification of caesura by means of the rule matrix (£,...) would involve the making exp l i c i t of just those s t y l i s t i c "options" in verse form whose recording i s a major task of any metrical analysis. The question of syntactic contingency i s more serious. The caesura recorded at 1:2 in line VI.838, for instance, occurs at the point of contiguity of two f u l l sentence structures. (The semicolon at "Plagues; they . . . " which occurs in both 1667 and 1674 eds. i s an irrelevant marker and should not suggest a continuous string within one sentence structure.) The two sentences are roughly as follows: "...Thunders . . . infix'd Plagues" + "they . . . lost . . . resistance." Vide.: F u l l soon Among them he arriv'd; i n his right hand Grasping ten thousand Thunders, which he sent Before him, such as in thir Souls infix'd Plagues; they astonisht a l l resistance lost, Alljcourage; . . . VI.834-839 The terminal f a l l i n g juncture at "Plagues-f" necessitates a strong "performance" pause between s y l . ^ and syl.,, of the line, which may be enough to suggest the (perhaps) irrelevant caesural pause. On the other hand, i t could be that the two pauses bear no essential connection. It is impossible to determine in the matter without a comprehensive and secure analysis format for the mapping of such major syntactic items as 166 the [. . .] + _ [ • • •] contiguity involved here, and my study has not yet provided such a format. One other observation regarding metrical structure that relates interestingly to a deep structure of cadence series i s an interpretation set out by F.T. Prince of the rather anomalous but frequently acknowledged phenomenon of a superordinate stress pattern spoken of as the individual "rhythm" of a l i n e . ^ 0 There seem to be as many interpretations of such "rhythm" as there are interpreters. Prince, however, provides quite a neat formulation of Milton's practice based on Italian use. The two rules required here are: I The line has a theoretic ten syllables . . . II The tenth syllable must always have, or be capable of being given, a stress; one other stress must f a l l , in any one line, on either the fourth or the sixth syllable. I l l If this open series of at least two "stresses" i s interpreted in the terms of my model, with a f i n a l obligatory rule of -»• s y l . ^ , then the Italian system can be represented as follows: Let there be U, ,...U 1 n where n = 10 and U -*- U[-] ; n and, i f U„[+], then U^[-], 4 6 or, i f U.[+], then U.[-]. o 4 U. and U„ are, of course, two of the outtermost units of the i n i t i a l 4 6 and medial cadences, while U (n = 10) i s under the direct government 167 of the terminal condition "T." When Prince put forward his version of the Italian rules in 1953 he appeared to claim their relevance directly at such a level as U^,.. .u" n . He later revised his interpretation of the rules to have them apply derivatively to a "notional basic line of ten 112 syllables alternately unstressed and stressed," by which means they become rules of "rhythm" rather than of prime metrical structure as such. It does seem that a f u l l metrical description of Paradise Lost must involve the establishment of such "rhythmic" conditions for s y l . ,...syl. and s y l . and the seemingly related—or at least p a r a l l e l — H b 0 conditions of caesural placement with the general rules for the derivation of each requisite series U^,...U of the poem. The details of this relationship, however, are s t i l l beyond the scope of my present study, which must rest, as i t began, with a certain though imperfect notion of that total, complex prosodic harmony set in mazes intricate. Eccentric, intervolv'd, yet regular Then most, when most irregular they seem. 168 APPENDIX A E l i s i o n by Apocope A l l instances of e l i s i o n by apocope i n sample I-XII and sample IV are l i s t e d below i n the order i n which they appear i n the poem. The e l i d e d segments are marked with an underscore and with the metrical value they sustain. For the conventions of s t r u c t u r a l abbreviations and number markers see pp. 18-19 above. Line Sample Structure Marker 1.15 th'Aonian ART + ADJ 1.10 1.18 th'upright s ART + ADJ 1.10 I. 34 t h ' i n f e r n a l ART + ADJ 1.10 I.39 Glory above o 1.45 th'Ethereal NOUN + PREP coordinate modifier ART'+ ADJ 1.420 1.10 1.49 th'Omnipotent s ART + ADJ 1.10 1.71 Prison ordained NOUN + ADJ 1.20 1.74 th'utmost ART + ADJ 1.10 I.81 th'Arch-Enemy s ART + NOUN 1.11 I.106 the unconquerable ART + ADJ o 1.10 169 Line Sample Structure Marker 1.115 were an VERB + ART predicate nominal 3.11 1.12 3 th'excess o ART + NOUN 1.11 1.125 th'Apostate ART + NOUN 1.11 1.129 th'imbattl'd ART + ADJ 1.10 1.141 Glory e x t i n c t s NOUN + ADJ predicate complement 1.20 1.156 t h 1 Arch-fiend ART + NOUN 1.11 1.178 th'occasion ART + NOUN 1.11 1.196 many a o PRE-ART + ART 1.12 1.202 th'Ocean ART + NOUN 1.11 1.224 i ' t h PREP + ART 1.310 1.245 Be i t VERB + PRO-N inverted predicate 3.12 1.259 th'Almighty o ART + NOUN 1.11 1.265 Th'associates ART + NOUN 1.11 1.266 th'oblivious ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.2 Th'Apocalypse o ART + NOUN 1.11 170 Line Sample Structure Marker IV.5 the inhabitants ART + NOUN 1.11 IV.10 th'Accuser ART + NOUN 1.11 IV.67 to accuse TO + VERB verbal i n f i n i t i v e 2.1 IV.86 Th'Omnipotent s ART + NOUN IV.126 th'Assyrian ART + ADJ 1.11 1.10 IV.164 many a o IV.172 th'ascent P RE-ART + ART ART + NOUN 1.12 1.11 IV.179 th*other ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.179 th'arch-felon ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.209 the East ART + NOUN 1.11 IV.229 many a o IV.234 IV.241 IV.251 many a o worthy of o only and s PRE-ART + ART PRE-ART + ART ADJ + PREP 1.12 1.12 1.311 ADV + CONJ coordinate conjunction 3.21 IV.268 th'Eternal ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.273 t h ' i n s p i r ' d o ART + ADJ 1.10 171 Line Sample Structure Marker IV.341 th'Earth ART + NOUN 1.11 IV.345 th'unwieldy s ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.345 unwieldy Elephant ADJ + NOUN s 1.21 IV.354 th'Ocean ART + NOUN 1.11 IV.354 th'ascending o ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.371 continue, and VERB + CONJ coordinate conjunction 3.210 IV.456 th'expanse o ART + NOUN 1.11 IV.550 th'Angelic o ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.552 Th'unarmed ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.566 th'Almighty's o ART + NOUN 1.11 IV.595 th'East ART + NOUN 1.11 IV.596 Purple and o ADJ + CONJ phrasal conjunction 1.421 IV.610 th'hour ART + NOUN 1.11 IV.618 body or o NOUN + CONJ coordinate conjunction 3.220 IV.634 beauty adorned NOUN + ADJ o 1.20 172 Line Sample Structure Marker IV.668 only enlighten PREV + VERB s 2.2 IV.716 the unwiser IV.758 s be i t ART + ADJ VERB + PRO-N inverted predicate 1.10 3.12 IV.779 th'accustom'd ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.802 Fancy, and o NOUN + CONJ coordinate conjunction 3.220 IV.805 Th'animal ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.848 Virtue i n NOUN + PREP postposed modifier 1.420 IV.886 th 1esteem ART + NOUN 1.11 IV.955 m i l i t a r y obedience ADJ + NOUN s 1.11 IV.956 th'acknowledg'd ART + ADJ o 1.10 IV.965 t h ' i n f e r n a l ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.977 th'Angelic o ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.985 th'other ART + ADJ 1.10 IV.996 Th'Eternal o ART + NOUN 1.11 VI.33 testimony of o NOUN + PREP postposed modifier 1.420 Line Sample Structure VI. 76 many a o PRE-ART + ART VI. 77 many a o PRE-ART + ART VI.79 th'Horizon ART + NOUN VI.96 th'Eternal ART + ADJ VI.100 Th'Apostate o ART + NOUN VI.119 th'Almighty 1s o ART + NOUN VI.136 th'Omnipotent ART + NOUN VII. 3 th'Olympian o ART + ADJ VII.11 th'Almighty s ART + ADJ VII.19 th'Aleian ART + ADJ VII.74 timely of o ADV + PREP predicate complement VII.76 t h ' i n f i n i t e l y s ART + ADJ VII.122 t h ' i n v i s i b l e ART + ADJ VII.130 F o l l y , as o NOUN + COMP coordinate comparati VII.136 th'Omnipotent ART + ADJ 174 Line Sample Structure Marker XII.2 the Arch-Angel s ART + NOUN 1.11 XII.44 C i t y and o NOUN + CONJ phrasal conjunction 1.421 XII. 101 t h * i r r e v e r e n t ART + ADJ 1.10 XII.172 glory and o NOUN + CONJ phrasal conjunction 1.421 XII.182 th'Egyptian o ART + ADJ 1.10 XII.183 th'Earth ART + NOUN 1.11 XII.205 th'obdurate ART + ADJ 1.10 175 APPENDIX B Serial "Q" derivations and f u l l line metrical values. Sample I-XII Line Type (K + "Q" + "T") S.l S.10 S.20 S.210 S.2210 S.2220 S.223 S.2231 S.22320 S.2233 S.22331 S.22332 0.223[440] 0.2231 0.22320 0.22330 0.2234400 0.2234410 0 0 S S S 0 0 S 0 S 0 0 S S 0 0 S S 0 S 0 0 S S 0 S S S 0 S O O S S O S O S S S 0 0 S S 0 S S 0 0 S O O S S O S O S O S Sample I-XII Line Type (L + "Q" + "T") 0.1 0.10 0.20 0.210 0.213 0.220 0.221 0.2213 0.22330 0.2234 0.22341 O S O O S S O S S S 0 S 0 0 S S S S 0 S 0 S 0 0 S S S 0 0 S 0 S 0 0 S S 0 S 0 S 0 S 0 0 S S 0 0 S S Sample I - X I I Line Type (N + "Q" + "T") 176 S.l S.10 S.20 S.210 S.221 0 S 0 s 0 s s 0 s s S.222 0 s 0 s s 0 0 s s s S.223 O.223[440] 0 s 0 s s 0 0 s 0 s S.2231 • . . 0 s 0 s 0 0 s s 0 s S.2232 • • • 0 s 0 s s 0 s s 0 s S.2233 . . . 0 s 0 s 0 s s s 0 s S.22331 • • • 0 s o s 0 s 0 s s s S.22332 • • • 0 s 0 s 0 s s 0 0 s • • * . 0.2231 0 s 0 s 0 s o s o s • • • 0.2232 0 s 0 s s s 0 s 0 s • • • 0.2233 0 s 0 s 0 s 0 0 s s • • • 0.2234 0 s 0 s s s 0 0 s s . . . O.22342 0 s 0 s s s s 0 0 s . . . 0.2234310 . . . 0.2234410 . . . 0.2234422 0 s 0 s 0 s s s s s . . 0.22344310 . . 0.2234432 177 Sample I-XII 0.1 0.10 0.20 0.21 0.211 O.2120 O.2200 0.221 0.2212 0.2232 0.22330 0.22340 0.22341 Sample I-XII S.l S.10 S.20 S.210 S.2210 S.2220 S.223 S.2231 S.2232 S.2233 S.22331 S.22332 Line Type (F + "Q" + "T") 0 S S 0 0 S S S 0 S 0 S S 0 0 S 0 S S S 0 S S 0 S 0 S S 0 0 0 s s o s s s o o s s o s o s s o s o s Line Type (C + "Q" + "T") O.223[440] 0 S s s s 0 0 s 0 s . . . 0 S s s 0 0 s s 0 s . . . 0 S s s s 0 s s 0 s . . . 0 S s s 0 s s s 0 s . . . 0 S s s 0 s 0 s s s . . . 0 s s s 0 s s 0 0 s 0.2231 0 s s s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0.22320 0.2233 0 s s s 0 s 0 0 s s 0.2234400 0.2234410 0Tt>t>£ZZ*O S S O O S O O S O S s o s o s o o s o s s s s o s o o s o s s o s s s o o s o s („i.. + „8., + H) sdAj, omzz*o cezz'o oz£zz-o T£ZZ*0 oxzz'o TTZ'O TZ'O OZ'O OTO T*0 IIX-I aidures S S S S O O S O O S s 0 0 s s s s 0 0 s s s 0 0 s s s 0 0 s s s 0 0 s 0 s o o s s 0 s 0 s s s 0 o s s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0 0 s s 0 0 s s 0 s 0 0 s s s s 0 s 0 s 0 0 s s 0 s s s 0 s 0 o s s 0 s s 0 s s 0 0 s s 0 s s 0 0 s 0 0 s s 0 s 0 0 s s 0 0 s s s s 0 0 s s 0 0 s s s 0 s s 0 s 0 0 s z£frf£Zz*o 0Zt>t>£ZZ"O T^ezz *o oT£t>ezz*o Zfr£ZZ*0 t>£ZZ*0 ££ZZ*0 Z£ZZ'0 T£ZZ*0 [0frt>]£ZZ*O Z££ZZ*S T££ZZ'S ££ZZ*S Z£ZZ*S T£ZZ*S £ZZ'S ZZZ'S TZZ'S OTZ'S OZ'S OT'S T'S IIX-I 9Tdures 8Z.T 179 Sample I-XII Line Type (E + "Q" + "T") S.l S.10 S.20 S.210 S.221 S.2220 S.2230 S.2231 S.2232 S.2233 S.22331 S.22332 O.223[440] 0.2231 0.2232 0.2233 0.22340 0.22342 0.2234310 0.2234410 0.2234420 0.22344310 0.2234432 S 0 S S 0 S S 0 S S S 0 S S 0 0 S S 0 S S 0 S S S 0 S S 0 S S O S S O S S S O S S O S S O S O S S S S O'S S 0 S S 0 0 s s o s s o s o s o s s o s s s s o s o s s o s s o s o o s s s o s s s s s o o s Sample I-XII Line Type (G + "Q" + 0.1 0.10 0.20 0.220 0.221 0.2220 0.2230 0.22310 0.2232 0.22330 0.22340 0.223420 0.2234310 0.22344110 0.2234421 0.22344310 0.2234432 S S 0 0 S S S 0 0 S S S 0 0 S S 0 S 0 S S S 0 0 S 0 S 0 S S 181 Sample I-XII S.l S.10 S.20 S.210 S.221 S.2220 S.223 S.2231 S.2232 S.2233 S.22331 S.22332 Line Type (D + "Q" + "T") S s 0 s 0 s s 0 s s O.223[440] S s 0 s s 0 0 s 0 s . . . s s 0 s 0 0 s s 0 s . . . s s 0 s s 0 s s 0 s . . . s s 0 s 0 s s s 0 s . . . s s 0 s 0 s 0 s s s s s 0 s 0 s s 0 0 s 0.2231 s s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0.2232 s s 0 s s s 0 s 0 s 0.2233 s s o s 0 s 0 0 s s 0.2234 s s 0 s s s 0 0 s s 0.223420 0.223431 s s 0 s s 0 s 0 0 s O.22344210 0.2234432 Sample I-XII Line Type (B + "Q" + "T") 0.1 0.10 0.20 0.210 0.211 s s s o o s o s s s 0.223 S S S O O S S O O S 0.2231 S S S 0 0 S 0 S 0 S 0.22320 0.2233 S S S 0 0 S 0 0 S S 0.22340 0.22341 Sample I-XII Line Type (A + "Q" + "T") 0.1 0.10 0.20 0.210 0.2110 0.2230 0.2231 S S S S O S O S O S 0.22320 0.22330 0.2234400 0.2234410 183 Sample IV Line Type (K + "Q" + "T") S.l S.10 S.20 S.210 S.2210 S.2220 S.223 S.2231 S.2232 S.2233 S.22331 S.22332 O.223[440] 0.2231 O. 22320 0.22330 O.2234400 0.2234410 0 0 s s s 0 0 s 0 s 0 0 s s 0 0 s s 0 s 0 0 s s s 0 s s 0 s 0 0 s s 0 s s s 0 s 0 0 s s 0 s 0 s s s 0 0 s s 0 s s 0 0 s 0 0 s s 0 s 0 s 0 s Sample IV Line Type (L + "Q" + "T") 0.1 0.10 0.20 0.210 0.213 0 S 0 0 s s 0 s s s 0.220 0 S o 0 s s s s 0 s 0.221 0 S 0 0 s s s 0 0 s 0.2213 0 s 0 0 s s 0 s 0 s 0.22330 0.2234 0 s 0 0 s s 0 0 s s 0.22341 184 Sample IV S.l S.10 S.20 S.21 S.221 S.222 S.223 S.2231 S.2232 S.2233 S.22331 S.22332 Line Type (N + "Q" + "T") 0 S 0 s s s 0 s s s 0 S 0 s 0 s s 0 s s 0 S 0 s s 0 0 s s s O.223[440] 0 s 0 s s 0 0 s 0 s . . . 0 s 0 s 0 0 s s 0 s . . . 0 s 0 s s 0 s s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0 s s s 0 s . . . 0 s 0 s 0 s 0 s s s . . . 0 s 0 s 0 s s 0 0 s 0.2231 0 s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0.2232 0 s 0 s s s 0 s 0 s 0.2233 0 s 0 s 0 s 0 0 s s 0.2234 0 s 0 s s s 0 0 s s 0.22342 0 s 0 s s s s 0 0 s 0.223431 0 s 0 s s 0 s 0 0 s 0.223441 0 s 0 s 0 0 s s s s 0.2234422 0 s 0 s 0 s s s s s 0.2234431 0 s 0 s s s s s 0 s 0.2234432 Sample IV 0.1 0.10 0.20 0.210 0.211 0.2120 0.220 0.2210 0.2212 0.2232 0.2233 0.22340 0.22341 Sample IV S.l S.10 S.20 S.210 S.2210 S.2220 S.223 S.2231 S.22320 S.2233 S.22331 S.22332 185 Line Type (F + "Q" + "T") 0 S S 0 0 S 0 S S S 0 S S 0 S S S S 0 S O S S O O S O S O S o s s o s s o s o s o s s o o s o o s s Line Type (C + "Q" + "T") 0.223[440] 0 S s s s 0 0 s 0 s . . . 0 S s s 0 0 s s 0 s ... 0 S s s 0 s s s 0 s ... O S s s 0 s 0 s s s . . . 0 s s s 0 s s 0 0 s 0.2231 0 s s s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0.2232 0 s s s s s 0 s 0 s 0.22330 0.2234400 0.2234410 Sample IV S.l S.10 S.20 S.21 S.221 S.222 S.223 S.2231 S.2232 S.2233 S.223310 S.22332 186 Line Type (J + "Q" + "T") S 0 0 s 0 s 0 s s s S 0 0 s 0 s s 0 s s S 0 0 s s 0 0 s s s O.223[440] S 0 0 s s 0 0 s 0 s . . . S 0 0 s 0 0 s s 0 s • • • S 0 0 s s 0 s s 0 s • • » S 0 0 s 0 s s s 0 s • • • s 0 0 s 0 s s 0 0 s 0.2231 s 0 0 s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0.2232 s 0 o s s s 0 s 0 s 0.2233 s 0 0 s 0 s 0 0 s s 0.2234 s 0 0 s s s 0 0 s s 0.223420 0.2234310 0.2234410 0.2234420 0.22344310 0.2234432 187 Sample IV Line Type «(H + "Q" + "T") 0.1 0.10 0.20 0.21 s o s o o s s s o s 0.2110 0.2230 0.2231 S 0 S 0 0 S 0 S 0 S 0.22320 0.22330 0.223440 0.2234410 Sample IV Line Type (E + "Q" + "T") 0.1 0.10 0.20 0.210 0.211 S O S S O S O S S S 0.2120 O.2200 0.223 S O S S O S S O O S 0.2231 S O S S O S O S O S 0.2232 S 0 S S S S 0 S 0 S 0.22330 O.223[440] S.223 S 0 S S S 0 0 S 0 S • • . S.2231 S O S S O O S S O S . . . S.22320 . . . S.22330 . . . S.223300 188 Sample IV 0.1 0.10 0.20 0.220 0.221 0.2220 0.2230 0.22310 0.2232 0.22330 0.22340 0.22341 Sample IV S.l S.10 S.20 S.210 S.221 S.222 S.223 S.2231 S.2232 S.2233 S.22331 S.22332 Line Type (G + "Q" + "T") S S O O S S S O O S S S 0 0 S S 0 S 0 S Line Type (D + "Q" + "T") S s 0 s 0 s s 0 s s S s 0 s s o 0 s s s 0.223[440] s s 0 s s 0 0 s 0 s . . . s s 0 s 0 0 s s 0 s . . . s s 0 s s 0 s s 0 s . . . s s 0 s 0 s s s 0 s Si iS 0 s 0 s 0 s s s • • • s s 0 s 0 s s 0 o s 0.2231 s s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0 s 0.2232 s s 0 s s s 0 s 0 s 0.2233 s s 0 s 0 s 0 0 s s 0.2234 s s 0 s s s 0 0 s s 0.22342 s s 0 s s s s 0 0 s 0.2234310 0.22344210 0.2234432 Sample IV Line Type (B + "Q" + "T") 0.1 0.10 0.20 0.21 0.211 0.223 0.2231 0.22320 0.2233 0.22340 0.22341 Sample IV 0.1 0.10 0.20 0.210 O.2110 0.2230 0.2231 0.22320 O.22330 0.2234400 0.2234410 S S S O O S S S O S S S S 0 0 S 0 S S S S S S O O S S O O S s s s o o s o s o s s s s o o s o o s s Line Type (A + "Q" + "T") s s s s o s o s o s 190 APPENDIX C This l i s t contains some further examples of words (per §1.31) drawn from Sample IV that maintain an uncertain pattern of lexical stress or syllabification. Item Value Line "Telassar" O S O 214.3-5 The word bears a stress pattern in conformity with i t s root, • Heb. THE-LAS-AR. "Crisped" S O 237.8,9 A parity expression of this disyllabic value i s found i n Comus 984: Along the crisped shades and bow'rs o s o s o s o s "Hesperian" O S O 250.5-7 • The stress pattern i s set by the ultimate Gk. root ecnrepioo (via Lat. HESPERIUS). Note the elision by syncope. "Amalthea" O S S O 278.2-5 The stress pattern i s probably /3,1,2,3/. The word i s a • transliteration of Gk. auaA0e ta , from a-yaX0a<toa, from yaftGaacra) ("soften" or "soothe"). "Purlieu" O S 404.3,4 Milton's choice of spelling here, rather than the seventeenth 191 ' Item Value Line century alternate form "purley," suggests a stress pattern of /2,1/. "Accessible" O S O S 546.1-4 113 Contrast the reading of /1,2/ for "Access"(137.1,2). "Th'unarmed" O S O 552.1-3 The t r i s y l l a b i c form has a parity in Comus 582: Against th'unarmed weakness . . . o s o s o s o Note the elision by apocope. "winged" SO 576.4,5 There is a parity for the disyllabic form in VII.572.6,7 and "Upon the Circumcision," line 1: Thither w i l l send his winged Messengers s o o s o s o s o s Ye flaming Powers, and winged Warriors bright o s o s o s o s o s "spectators" O S O 676.5-7 114 A strong medial stress i s probable. "Uzziel" O S O 782.1-3 i The word takes high medial stress from i t s Heb. form UZ-ZI-EL 192 Item Value Line "Invincible" O S O S 846.1-4 The probable stress pattern i s /3,1,3,2/.^"^ "mooned" SO 978.8,9 Cf. the disyllabic form in "On the Morning of Christ's Nativity," line 200: And mooned Ashtaroth o s o s o s "Teneriff" O S O 987.2-4 The spelling here appears to indicate a regression of stress 116 from the third to the second syllable (contrast the form "Tenerife"). 193 SCANSION TABLE Book I, 1-300 pp. 194-203 Book VI, 1-170 pp. 204-208 Book VII, 1-173 pp. 209-213 Book XII, 1-300 pp. 214-223 Book IV, 1-1015 pp. 224-252 The examples of VRS are given i n three formats. The leftmost column supplies a f u l l line metric, where "o" represents a [+] i c t i c value and "s" represents a [-] i c t i c value. The centre column provides the symbols of the cadence association.=?involved to support that f u l l line metric. The rightmost column supplies the i c t i c number code for each VRS. The i c t i c number code is a count of a l l series of marked units, including null series and line i n i t i a l and terminal series (see above, pp. 109-110). My format for the f u l l line metric here uses without change the symbols of the sublineal scansion. The VRS consists of the i n i t i a l cadence C (OSSS...) i n association with the marked medial cadence H (...OSOSO...) and the terminal condition (...S). The distribution of the marked units i s 1 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 0 . The VRS is represented as: E.g.: Of Man's F i r s t Disobedience, and the Fruit 1.1 O S s s o s o s o s o s s s o s o s o s C H 1001110 194 Book I l l o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s s s o o 0 s s s B E 00021000 o Sf • o s o o s s o s N F 112010 5 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s s o o s o s D L 0010210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 s o o s o s o s 0 1 ; S J H 021110 10 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s o o s o s o s O S J H 021110 -o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 15 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s s o s o s N i i 1100110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s s o s s s o o s E G 1010020 20 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 25 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s s s o o s s 0 J 00100200 o o s s o s s s o s K B 2010010 s o s s o o s s o s E F 0102010 30 s o o s s s o o s s J J 0200200 s o s s o o s s o s E F 0102010 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 3 o s s o s s o s D F 00101010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 35 s s o s o o s s o s D F 0012010 195 Book I 36 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s o s o s o s o s N F 111110 40 o s o o s s o o s s L J 120200 s o s s s o s s o s E F 01001010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D II 0011110 o s o s s o s s o s N F 1101010 45 s s o s o o s s o s D F 0012010 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s 0 o s s O .X 0 s L H o s o s' o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 50 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 q s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 55 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s s s o s o s o s C H 1001110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 s o s s o s o s s s E E 01011000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 60 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o s s s o s s o o s C G 1001020 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 65 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 70 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 196 Book I 71 o S O S o s o s s s N E 1111000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s OiiO S o s o s s s J E 0211000 75 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 s o o s o s o s s s J E 0211000 o S O S o o s s o s N F 112010 o S O S o s o s o s N H 111110 s S O S o s o s o s D H 0011110 80 s S O S o s o s o s D H 0011110 o S O S o s s s o s N B 1110010 o S O S s s o o s s N J 1100200 £ 0 0 s 0 s o s 0 s •X H C3L 1 » » 00 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 85 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 s o s s o s o o s s E J 0101200 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 90 s o o s s s o o s s J J 0200200 o S O S o o s s o s N F 112010 o s S s o s o s o s c H 100110 s o o s o o s s o s J F 022010 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 95 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o S O S o s o o s s N J 111200 o S O S o s o s o s N H 111110 s O O S o s s o o s J G 021020 100 s O O S o s o s o s J H 021110 o S O S o s o s o s N H 111110 o S S. s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o S O S o o s s o s N F 112010 o S O S o s o s o s N H 111110 105 o S O S s o o s o s N M 110210 197 Book I 106 s o s s o s o s o s E ,H 0101110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s s s s o o s o s c M 1000210 110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o o s s o s J F 022010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 115 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s s o s s o s J F 0201010 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 120 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s 5 o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 125 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s s s o s o s s s c E 10011000 s s s s o s o s o s A H 00001110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 130 s o o s s o o s o s J M 020210 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 135 o o s s o s o s o s K H 201110 o s s s o s o s o s C: .H 1001110 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 140 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 Book I 141 o s o s s s o s o s N H s s o s o s o s o s D H o s o s o s s s o s N B o s o s s s o o s s N J 145 o s s o s s o s o s F H o s o s o s o s o s N H s o o s o o s s o s J F o s o s o s o s o s N H o s o s o s o s o s N H 150 o s o s s s o s o s N H s o o s o s o s o s J H o s o s o s o s o s N H s o o s o s o s o s J H s s o s o o s s o s D F 155 o s o s o s o s o s N H s s o s o s s s o s D B s s • s o o s o s o s B H s o o s o s o s o s J H o o s s s o o s o s K M 160 s s o o s s o s o s G H o s o s s o s o s s N N s o s s o s o s o s E H s o o s o s o s s s J E o s o s s o s s o s N F 165 o s o s s o s s o s N F o s s o s s s o o s F G s s o o s s s o o s G G o s s s o s o s o s c H o s o s o s o o s s N J 170 o s o s o s o o s s N J 6 o o s o s o s o s J H s o o s o s s s o s J B o s o s o s o s o s N H o s o s s s o s o s N H 175 s o s s o o s s o s E F 1100110 0011110 1110010 1100200 1010110 111110 022010 111110 111110 1100110 021110 111110 021110 0012010 111110 00110010: 0002110 021110 200210 0020110 1101100 0101110 0211000 1101010 1101010 1010020 0020020 1001110 111200 111200 021110 0210010 111110 1100110 0102010 199 Book I 126: • o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 180 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s s o s s o s J E 0201010 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 185 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s s o o s s s o s F B 1020010 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 190 o s o 6 © S i ' : 0 s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 195 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 s s o s o s o s o s D H. 0011110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 200 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 0 o s S s o s o s wit • M 0 0 1 1 0 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s s o s s o o s o s D M 0010210 o s o o s s s s o s L B 1200010 205 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s s o o s s s J K 0202000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s s s D E 00111000 210 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 200 Book I 211 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 o s o s o o s S O S N F 112010 s o o s o o s s o s J F 022010 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 215 s o o S S S O S O S J H 0200110 s o o s O s s S O S J B 0210010 o s o s O s o O S S N J 111200 s o o s o s o S O S J H 021110 o s o s o s s O O S N G 111020 220 s o s s o s o S O S E H 0101110 s s s s o s o S O S A H 00001110 o s o s o o s S O S N F 112010 s s o s o s o S O S D H 0011110 o s o s s s o S O S N H 1100110 225 s o s s o s o S O S E H 0101110 o s o s o s o S O S N H 111110 o s o s o s s O S S N D 1110100 o s s o o s o S O S F H 102110 o s o s o s o S O S N H 111110 230 o s o s o s s S O S N B 1110010 o s o s o s s S O S N B 1110010 s o o s o s o S O S J H 021110 o s o s o s o S O S N H 111110 o s o s o s s S O S N B 1110010 235 s s o s o s o S O S D H 0011110 o s o s o s o S O S N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s s s o s o O S S c J 1001200 s s o O S S O S O S G H 0020110 240 o s o S O S o S O S N H 111110 s o o s o o s S O S J F 022010 o s o s o s o S O S N H 111110 s s o S S S O S O S D H 00100110 o s o S O S S S O S N B 1110010 245 o s o s o s s S O S N B 1110010 201 Book I 246 s s o s o o s s o s D F 0012010 s o o s s o o s o s J M 020210 s s o s o s o s s s D E 00111000 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 250 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 255 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 s o o s o s o o s s J J 021200 260 s o o s o s o s s s J E 0211000 s o o s o s s o o s J G 021020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 "s o o s o s o s " o' J H 021110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 265 o s o o s s o o s s L J 120200 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s o o s s c J 1001200 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 270 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o s o o s s o s D F 0012010 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 275 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 280 s o o s s o s s o s J F 0201010 202 Book I 281 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s s o s s o o s o s D M 0010210 o s o s s o o s o s M M 110210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 285 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 290 s o s s o s o s s s E E 01011000 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s s s o o s s o s c F 1002010 295 o s s o o s s s o s F B 1020010 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110. s o o s o s s o o s J G 021020 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 300 o s o s o 5 o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 305 o s s o s s o s o s F H 1010110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o 5 s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 310 o o s s o s o s o s K H 201110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s s s s o o s N G 1100020 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 315 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 203 Book I 316 320 325 330 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o o s s J J 021200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s s o o s o o s s B J 0002200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 204 Book VI 1 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s 5 o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 5 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 o s o s o o o s s o s N F 112010 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 - •• s s o s s o o s o s D M 0010210 10 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s o o s s s o s F B 1020010 15 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o 5 o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s o s s s o s s o s D F 01001010 20 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o o s s o s o s o s K H 201110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s o s o 5 N H 111110 o o s s o s o s s s K E 2011000 25 o s s s s o o s o s c M 1000210 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s o o s s s s o o s J G 0200020 30 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o s o o s s s o s H B 0120010 35 o 5 o s o s o s o s N H 111110 205 Book VI 36 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s s o o s s o s c F 1002010 s o o s s s o o s s J J 0200200 40 o s o s o s s o s s N D 1110100 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 45 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 s o o s o o s s o s J F 022010 50 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s s o o s o s J M 021210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 55 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 60 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 65 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s s o o s o s o s B H 0002110 70 o s o s o s o s o s . N H 111110 206 Book VI 71 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s o o s o s s s F E 1021000 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 75 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o o s s o s D F 0012010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 80 o s o s o s o 5 o s N H 111110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 85 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o Ssr-O s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 90 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o o s s o s o s o s K H 201110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s s s o s s s o s c B 10010010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 95 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 s o /o s o s o "s s - J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s s s o s c B 10010010 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 100 o s s o o s s s o s F B 1020010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 105:1 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 oozoozo r r s s o o s s s o o s OfrT OTITIT H N s o s o 5 o s o s o OTIIOOT H 3 s o s o s o s s s o OZOTZO 0 r s o o s s o s o o s OTTTTI H N s o s o s o s o s o OTZOTT W M s o s o o s s o s o sei OTITTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTTTTI H M s o s o s o s o s o OZOTZO 3 r s o o 5 s o s o o s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o 0£T OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTOOTTOO a a s o s s s o s o s s OTTOZOO H 0 s o s o s s o o s s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OOOTTTT a N s s s o s o s o s o SZT OTTTOTO H a s o s o s o s Si s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTZOT H a s o s o s o o s s o OTZOTOO W a s o s o o s s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OZT OTTTTT H N s o s o s o 5 o s o OTOOTTOO a a s o s s s o s o s s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTOTOOOT a 0 s o s s o s s s s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o STT OTTOOTOO H a s o s o s s s o s s OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTOOTZO a c 5 o s s s o s o o s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTT OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTOZ H s o s o s o s s o o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o 90T Z.OZ 208 Book VI 141 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 s o s o o s s s o s H B 0120010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 145 o s s s o o s s o s c F 1002010 s o o s o s o o s s J J 021200 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s o s s o s o s o s . E H 0101110 150 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200. o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s s s o s c B 10010010 155 o s o s o s o s o sf _ y 'N H • 111110 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 160 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 165 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 170 o s o s o s s s o s ' N B 1110010 209 Book VII 1 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H . 111110 5\ o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 s o o s o s s o o s J G 021020 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s O C 6 s o s o s • o s J H 021110 10 s O o s o o s s o s J F 022010 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s o o s o s s o s s J D 0210100 o s o s o s o s o s N H 11110 15 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 s o o s o s o s s s J E 0211000 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 20 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200-s s o s s s o s o s D H 00100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 s s o s o s o s s s D E 00111000 25 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s o o s o s o o s s J J 021200 30 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o S 5 s o s o s o s c H 1001110 35 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 210 Book VII 36 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 40 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o o s s o o s s L J 120200 s o o s o s o o s s J J 021200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 45 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 50 s s o s s o s s o s D F 00101010 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s s s o s s o o s c G 1001020 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 55 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 60 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o o s s o s D F 0012010 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o s s o s o o s s E J 0101200 65 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 70 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 211 Book VII 71 s s o o s s s o o s G G 0020020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 • s o o s o s o o s s J J 021200 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 75 o s s s o s o o s s c J 1001200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 80 o s o s o s s o s s N D 1110100 s o o s o s o o s s J J 021200 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 85 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 90 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o s o s o s s o s s N D 1110100 95 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o o s s o s s s o s K B 2010010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 100 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 105 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 212 Book VII 106 s o o s s o o s o s J M 020210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s o s s o s o s F H 1010110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 115 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s s o s s D D 00110100 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 120 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s s o s s o s o s F H 1010110 s s o s s o s o o s D L 0010120 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 125 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 130 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s o s o 5 o s D H 0011110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 135 o o s s o o s s o s K F 202010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s o s s o o s s s N K 1102000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 140 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 213 Book VII 141 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 s s o s o s s s o s D B . 00110010 145 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s o o s o o s s o s J F 022010 o s o o s s o o s s L J 120200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 150 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s s o o s o s o s B H 0002110 155 o s p s s o s s o s N F 1101010 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 160 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 165 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 170 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 173 o s s s o s o; ss> S 0 5 S c H 1001110 Book XII 1 s s s o o s o s o s B H 0002110 o s o s s o s s o s N F 1101010 o s o ss so s O'^  s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 5 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 10 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s s o o s s o o s B G 0002020 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 15 s o o s s o o s o s J M 020210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s p s ;o s p s p s D H 0011110 20 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s s o s o s p s c H 1001110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s s o s o s o s p s D H 0011110 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 25 o s o s o s o s p s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s p s N H 111110 s o o s o o s s o s J F 022010 s o o s o s o s p s J H 021110 30 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 o s o s o s s o p s N G 111020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 35 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 Book XII 36 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s s s o s o s N H iioono o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 11110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 11110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o s s o s o o s s E J 0101200 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o •S 0 ^ o O S s s K/ r 1 M 1 000 o s o s o s S '-'S o s N B 1110010 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 216 Book XII 71 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o o s o s o s s s J E 0211000 75 o s o s s s o o s s N'*'J 1100200 o s o o s s o o s s L J 120200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s o s o s C H 1001110 80 s s s o o s o s o s B H 002110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 o s s s o o s s o s C F 1002110 85 s o o s o s o SCO s J H 021110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 90 s o s s s s o s o s E H • 01000110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o o s s o s o s o s K H 201110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 95 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 s s o s o s o s s s D E 00111000 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 100 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 105 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 217 Book XII 106 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 110 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o o s s N J 1100200 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 115 s s o s o s o s s s D E 00111000 s o o s o o s s o s J F 022010 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s o s s o s o s o s F H 0101110 o s o o s s o S: . o s L H 120110 120 o s o s 5 o s s o s N F 1101010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o o s s s o o s L G 120020 s s o s s o s s o s D F 00101010 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 125 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 s s o o s o s o s s G N 0021100 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 130 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 135 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s s s J E 0211000 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 140 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 218 BOOK XII 141 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 145 s o s s o s s o o s E G 0101020 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 s ooo s o s o s s s J E 0211000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 150 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 155 o s s o s s o s o s F H 1010110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s CKiO s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 s o o s o s o o s s J J 021200 160 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o o s s H J 012200 165 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 s s o s o s o s s s D E 00111000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o s s o o s s o s E F 0102010 170 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 175 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 219 BOOK XII 176 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 180 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 185 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o o s o o s s s s J c 0220000 s o s s o s s o s s E D 01010100 190 o s o o s s s o s s L E 1200100 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 195 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o s o o s o s s s H E 0121000 o o s s o s s s o s K B 2010010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 200 s s o s s o o s o s D M 0010210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s o o s o s o s E H 102110 205 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s s s o o s s o o s B G 0002020 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 210 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 220 Book XII 211 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 s o o 5 o s o s o s J H 021110 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 215 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 220 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o o s s o o s s L J 120200 s s o s o s o s s s D E 00111000 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 o o s s o s s o o s K G 201020 225 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 s o o s o s o s s s J E 0211000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 230 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o o s s s o o s II G 120020 235 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 240 o s s o o s s s o s F B 1020010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o o s s s o o s G G 0020020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 245 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 221 Book XII 246 o s o s o s s o s s N D 1110100 o s s o s s o s o s F H 1010110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o o s s o s o s o s K H 201110 250 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s o s o s • c H 1001110 255 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 260 s o^  :o s o o s s o s J F 022010 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s s o s s s s N c 11010000 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 265 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 270 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 o s s s o o s s o s c F 1002010 275 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s s s o o s s N J 1100200 s o s s o s o s s s E E 01011000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 280 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 222 Book XII 281 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 s s o s s o s s o S £ D F 00101010 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 285 o s s s o s s o o s c G 1001020 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s s o s s s o o s F G 1010020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 290 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s s o s o o s s o s D F 0012010 s o s s s o s s o s E E 01001010 295 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o o s s o s J F 022010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 300 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 o s o s o s s o s s N D 1110100 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 11110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 305 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 11110 o s s o s s o s o s F H 1010110 s o o s s o o s o s J M 020210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 310 o s o s o s o s o s N H 11110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 11110 o s Of ss o s o o s s N J 111200 s o s s o s s s o s E B 01010010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 315 s s s o o s o s o s B H 0002110 223 Book XII 316 320 325 330 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o s o o s o s o s H H 012110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s s o o s o s D M 0010210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 224 Book IV 10 15 20 25 30 35 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o s s o s o s s s E E 01011000 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o o s s o s o s o s K H 201110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s o s s s s o s o s E H 01000110 s s o s s o o s o s D M 0010210 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 s s s s o o s s o s A F 00002010 o s s s s o o s o s c M .1000210 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o o s s o o s s o s K F 202010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 225 Book IV 36 o o s s o s o s o s K H 201110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 40 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 s s s o o s s o o s B G 0002020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o o s s o s s o o s K G 201020 45 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 s o o s s o o s o s J M 020210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 50 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 55 o s o s s o o s o s M M 110210 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 60 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 65 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s s s o s o s D H 00100110 s s s o o s o s o s B H 0002110 o s s s s s o s o s c H 10000110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 70 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 Book IV 71 s s o s s o o s o s D M 0010210 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o o s s s o o s G G 0020020 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 75 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s s o s s D D 00110100 80 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s s o o s o o s s B J 0002200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s • N H 111110 85 s o o s s o o s o s J M 020210 s 5 o s s s o s o s D H 00100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 90 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 95 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s o S'SS o o s N G 111020 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 100 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 105 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 227 Book IV 106 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s s o s o o s s o s D F 0012010 s s o s o o s s o s D F 0012010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o o s s o s c F 1002010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 115 s s o s s s o o s s D J 00100200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s s •o o s N G 111020 120 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 125 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 130 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o o s s o s D F 0012010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 135 o o s s o s o s o s K H 201110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s s s J E 0211000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 140 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 Book IV 141 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s s s o s o s N H l i o o i i o o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 145 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 150 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s s s o s c B 10010010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 155 s o o s o s s o o s J G 021020 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 160 o s o s b s p s o s t N H 111110 o s o s o s s s s s N A 11100000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 165 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s s o s s o s N F 1101010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 170 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s o s o s o s s s N E 111000 s o o s o o s s o s J F 022010 s o o s o s s o o s J G 021020 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 175 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 229 Book IV 176; o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o s o s s o s s o s N F 1101010 180 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 185 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 s o o s s o s s o s J F 0201010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 190 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s s s o o s s D J 00100200 s s s o o s o s o s B H 0002110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 195 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o o s s o s o s o s K H 201110 200 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 205 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s o o s s s N K 1102000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 11110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 OOZTTT r N s s o o s o 5 o s o ST/Z 0T00TZ0 a r s o s s s o s o o s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OfrZ OTTTTT , H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTOZT H i s o s o s s o o s o OZOTTT D N s o o s s o s o s o gez OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OOOTTTT a N s s s o s o s o 5 o OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTOTO H a s o s o s o s s o s OTTTZO H £ s o s o s o s o o s oez OTTTZO H a s o s o s o s o o s OOOTTTT a N s s s o s o s o s o OOZTTT r N s s o o s o 5 o s o OOOTTTOO a a s s s o s o s o s s OTTOOZO H r s o s o s s s o o s gzz OTTTTT H N s o s o s o 5 o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTOOOZO H c s o s o s s s o o s OOOTTTT a N s s s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o ozz OTZOTOO w a s o s o o s s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OOOTTTT a ,N s s s o s o s o s o OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTOOT H D s o s o s o s s s o STZ OTOZZO a r s o s s o o s o o s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTZOTT W N s o s o o s s o s o TTZ A I >[oog oez 231 Book IV 246 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 s s o s s s s o o s D G 001000020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 s o o s s o o s o s J M 020210 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s s s o o s o s c M 1000210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o s s o s s o s E F 0102010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s s s s o s N B 11000010 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 11110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s o?o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s o s s o s s D D 00110100 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o o s s o s s s L E 1201000 0 S o s 0 s o s w z> / 1 1 0 1 JO o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s o s s o s o o s N't L 110120 s o o s o s o o s s J J 021200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 OOOTZOOO a a s s s o s o o s s s sie OTZOTT w N s o s o o s s o s o OTTIOTO H a s o s o s o s s o s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTOOT H D s o s o s o s s s o OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTE OTOZOZ a s o s s o o s s o o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTOZ H 51 s o s o s o s s o o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o soe OTZOZO W r s o s o o s s o o s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTOOTZO a r s o s s s o s o o s OTTIOTO H a s o s o s o s s 6 s OTTTOOT H 3 s o s o s o s s s o ooe OTTIOTO H a s o s o s o s s o s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTOZT H i s o s o s s o o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o 5 o s s S6Z OTTOTOT H a s o s o s s o s s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTOZTT a N s o s s o o s o s o 06Z OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTOTO H 3 s o s o s o s s o s OTTTTT H M s o s o s o s o s o OOOTTTOO a a s s s o s o s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o S8Z OTTTOOT H 0 s o s o s o s s s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OOOZOTOO a s s s o o s s o s s OTTZTO H H s o s o s o o s o s T8Z AI Moog zez 233 Book IV 316'. o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 3&0 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s o o s o s o s s s J E 0211Q00 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 325 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s s o s s o s D F 00101010 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o o s s o s o s o s K H 201110 o s o s s s o o s s N J 1100200 330 s s o s s s o s o s D H 00100110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 s o o s s o o s o s J M 020210 o o s s o s S" o O f t S K G 201020 3351 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 340 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o o s s N J 1100200 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 345 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 350 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 2 Book IV 351 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 355 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s s s o s o s D H 00100110 s s s o o s o s o s B H 0002110 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 360 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s s o s s N D 1110100 365 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s s o s s o o s s s D K 00102000 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 370 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 s o o s s o s s o s J F 0201010 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 375 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o o s s s s N c 1120000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 380 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s SffiO o s N G 111020 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s s s o s s o o s c G 1001020 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 385 o s o s s o s s o s N F 1101010 235 Book IV 386 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 390 s o o s s s o s o s J H 0200110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s s s s o o s N G 110020 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 395 s o o s o s o s s s J E 0211000 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o o s s o s o s s s K E 2011000 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 400 o s s o o s o s s s F E 1021000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 405 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 410 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 s o o s o s s o o s J G 021020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 415 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 s o s s o s s o o s E G 0101020 420 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 236 Book IV 421 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s s s o s D B 00110010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 425 s s o s o s o s s s D E 00111000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s s s J E 0211000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 430 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 s s o s s o o s s s D K 00102000 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s s s o s s o o s c G 1001020 435 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 440 o s s s o s s s o s c B 10010010 s o s s o s S ' - o o s E G 0101020 o o s s s o s s o s K F 2001010 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 445 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o o s s s s o s L B 1200010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 450 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s s o s o s o s s s D E 00111000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 455 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 237 BOOK IV 456 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o o s s o s s o o s K G 201020 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 460 o o s s o s s s o s K B 2010010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 465 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 470 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s s- N H 11 oo no o s o s o s o s o s N ff 111110 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 475 s o o s o s s o o s J G 021020 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s o o s o s o s s s J E 0211000 s s o s s s o s o s D H 00100110 480 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 s o o s o s s o o s J G 021020 485 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o o s o s s o s s J D 0210100 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 490 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 238 BOOK IV 491 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 495 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s o s s s o o s o s El. M 0100210 o o s s o s s o o s K G 201020 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o s s o s s s o s E B 01010010 500 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s 6 0 s o 0 s A/ H 1 1 1 »>o s o o s s o o s s s J K 0202000 505 s s o s o s o s s s D E 00111000 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 510 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o o s s s o o s o s K M 200210 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 515 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 s o o s s o o s .o s J M 020210 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 520 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 525 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 239 BOOK IV 526 s o o s o s o o s s J J 021200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s s o s s N D 1110100 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 530 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o o s s o s s o o s K G 201020 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 535 s s o o s s s o o s G G 0020020 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 540 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o '•is o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 545 s s o s s o o s o s D M 0010210 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 550 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 555 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 o o s s s s o s o s K H 2000110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 560 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o S6S OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTOZT H 1 s o s o s s o o s o OOZTTT r N s s o o s o s o s o OTTTOTO H 3. s o s o s o s s o s OTTOZT H 1 s o s o s s o o s o 06S OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OOZTTT r N s s o o s o s o s o OTOZOTO d 3 s o s s o o s s o s 58 S OOZTTT r N s s o o s o s o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o 5 o s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTOOTT H N. s o s o s s s o s o 08S OOOZOTOO x a s s s o o s s o s s OTTTOOT! H N s o s o s s s o s o OTTTOTO H 3 s o s o s o s s o s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o S/LS OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTZOTOO W a s o s o o s s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTOZ H X s o s o s o s s o o OLS OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o S9S OZOTTT 3 N s o o s s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTZOOTO W a s o s o o s s s o s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s T9S AI xooa OfrZ OTOZTOO a a s o s s o o s o s s 0€9 OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OOZTTT f N s s o o s o s o s o SZ9 OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H M s o s o s o s o s o OZOTTT D N s o o s s o s o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTOZ H •* s o s o s o s s o o 0Z9 OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OOOTTTOO a a s s s o s o 5 o s s OOOTTOOT a D s s s o s o s s s o OTTOZT H i s o s o s s o o s o ST 9 OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTZO H C s o s o s o s o o s OTTTZO H c s o s o s o s o o s OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o 019 OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o S09 OTTOOZO H r s o s o s s s o o s OTTTOOT H D s o s o s o s s s o OTTZOT H a s o s o s o o s s o OZOTZO D r • s o o s s o s o o s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s 009 OOOTTZO a r s s s o s o s o o s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTOZT H 1 s o s o s s o o s o 96S AI xooa Tt>Z OTTTTOO H a S o s o s o s o s s S99 OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTOZTT a N s o s s o o s o s o OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s 099 OTTTTT • H N s o s o s o s o s o OOOTTTT a N s s s o s o s o s o OXOOOTOT a a s o s s s s o s s o OTOTOTT a M s o s s o s s o s o OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o SS9 OTOOTTOO a a s o s s s o s o s s OTTOOZO H r s o s o s s s o o s OOOTTZO a r s s s o s o s o o s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OZOTTT D N s o o s s o s o s o 0S9 OTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OOOTTTT a N s s s o s o s o s o OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o OTTTOZ H s o s o s o s s o o OTZOZO w r s o s o o s s o o s Sfr9 OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o OTTZOT H a s o s o s o o s s o OZOTTT D N s o o s s o s o s o OTTTZO H r s o s o s o 8 o o s OTOOTTOO a a s o s s s o s o s s 0t>9 OOOTTTT a N s s s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o sso s o s o s o OOOTOOZO a r s s s o s s s o o s OTOOTTT' a N s o s s s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o S£9 OTTTOOT H 0 s o s o s o s s s o OTOOTTOO a a s o s s s o s o s s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OOZOOTT r N s s o o s s s o s o TC9 AI 3003 Zt>Z OTTTTI H N s o s o s o s o s o 00L OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTZOOTO W a s o s o o s s s o s OTOOTTOO a a s o s s s o s o s s OTTOZT H s o s o s s o o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o S69 OTOZZO a f s o s s o o s o o s OTOZTT a N s o s s o o s o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s 069 OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTOOT H D s o s o s o s s s o OTTTTT H M s o s o s o s o s o OTTTOTO H a s o s o s o s s o s S89 OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTOOTZO a r s o s s s o s o o s OOOTTTT a N s s s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTOOTT H M s o s o s s s o s o 089 OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTZOOO H a s o s o s o o s s s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OOOTTTT a N 5 s s b s o s o s o OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s SZ.9 OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o OTTTOOT H D s o s o s o s s s o OTOZTT a N s o s s o o s o s o OOOTTZO a r s s s o s o s o o s 0L9 OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTOOOO H V s o s o s o s s s s OZOOZT 0 1 s o o s s s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o 999 AI xooa et>z OTTTTI H N. s o s o s o s o s o OZOTTT D M s o o 6 s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTOZTT J N s o s s o o s o s o OZOOZT D 1 s o o s s s o s o OTTTOOT H D s o s o s o s s s o OZL OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s SZL OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OZL OTTOTOT H 3 s o s o s s o s s o OTTOZOO H D s o s o s s o o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTOTOTT 1 N s o s s o s s o s o OOOTTTT 3 N s s s o s o s o s o STL OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTZO H c s o s o s o s o o s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTZOTT W N s o s o o s s o s o OIL OTOZTT J N s o s s o o s o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OOOTTZO 3 r s s s o s o s o o s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s SOL OTTZOOO H a s o s o s o o s s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTOOZO H r s o s o s s s o o s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s TOL AI Mooa t>t>z OTTTOZ a OTOTOTT 1 OOOTTIOO a OTTTZO H OTTTTT H OOZTTOO r OTTTTT H OO0TTT0O a OOOTTZO a OTTTTT H OTTTTT H OTTTOOT H OTOOTTOO a OTTTTT H OTTTTT H OTTTZO H OTTTTT H OTTTTT H OTOOTTT a OTTOOTT H OOOTTTOO a OTTTTT H OTTTTT H OTOOTZO a OTTOZT H OTTTTT H OTTTT H OTTOOOOT H OTOOOTTO a OTOOTTOO a OOZTTT r OTTTZO H OTZOOOT w OTTTTT H OTTTTT H 51 s o s o s o s s o o QLL N s o s s o s s o s o a s s s o s o s o s s f s o s o s o s o o s IM s o s o s o s o s o a s s o o s o s o s s 59/. M s o s o s o s o s o a S S S O S O S O S S r s s s o s o s o o s N s o s o s o s o s o N s o s o s o s o s o 09£ 0 s o s o s o s s s o a s o s s s o s o s s N s o s o s o s o s o N s o s o s o s o s o f S O S O S O S O O S S5£ N s o s o s o s o s o N s o s o s o s o s o N s o s s s o s o s o N s o s o s s s o s o a s s s o s o s o s s OSZ. N s o s o s o s o s o N s o s o s o s o s o f s o s s s o s o o s 1 s o s o s s o o s o N s o s o s o s o s o N s o s o s o s o s o 0 s o s o s s s s s o H s o s s s s o s o s a s o s s s o s o s s N s s o o s o s o s o ot>Z. r s o s o s o s o o s 0 s o s o o s s s s o N s o s o s o s o s o N S O S O S O S O S O 9£/. AI xooa OTOTOZO a r s o s s o s s o o s OOZTT r N s s o o s o s o s o OZOTTT D N s o o s s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTZOTOO W a s o s o o s s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTZOZO W r s o s o o s s o o s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTOOZO H r s o s o s s s o o s OOOTTTT a N s s s o s o s o s o OTZOZO w r s o s o o s s o o s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s lOTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTOOTZO a C s o s s s o s o o s OOZOZT r 1 s s o o s s o o s o OITTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OZOTTOO D a s o o s s o s o s s 01 IOO 1 1 7T N S o 5 o 5 s 0 ^ 0 OTTOOTT H M s o s o s s s o s o OTZOOOT W D s o s o o s s s s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o TOTZOZ a s o s s o o s s o o OOOTTTOO a a s s s o s o s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTOOT H D s o s o s o s s s o OTTTOTO H a s o s o s o s s o s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTOOTOO H a s o s o s s s o s s OOOTTTOO a a s s s o s o s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s S08 008 S6Z. 06/. S8Z. OBL SLL TLL AI xooa 9t>Z 247 BOOK IV 806 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s s s o s o s o s ASH 00001110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 810 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 815 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o o s s o s D F 0012010 820 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 825 o s s s o s o s o s C H 1001110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o s o o s o s o s H H 012110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 830 s o s s s o o s o s E M 0100210 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 o s s o o s o s o s F H 102110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s o s o s C H 10001110 835 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o o s s N J 111200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 840 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 248 BOOK IV 841 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 s s o s s s o s o s D H 00100110 845 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s o s o s c H 1001110 s s o s s s o s o s D H 00100110 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 850 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s o o s s s N K 1102000 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 855 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o o s s J J 021200 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 860 o s o s s o o s o s N M 110210 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 o s o s o o s s o s N F 112010 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 865 s o o s o s s s o s J B 0210010 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o o 5 s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 870 o s o s o s s o o s N G 111020 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 875 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s 0T6 OTTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTZOZO W r s o s o o s s o o s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s 506 OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTOZOO H 3 s o s o s s o o s s OTOOTTOO a a s o s s s o s o s s OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o 006 OTOOTOZ a s o s s s o s s o o OTZOTT w N s o s o o s s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTOZT H 1 s o s o s s o o s o OTOZOOT J. D s o s s o o s s s o 568 OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTOZTT 3 N s o s s o o s o s o OTZOTT W N s o s o o s s o s o 068 OTOOTOTO a a s o s s s o s s o s OTZOZO w r s o s o o s s o o s OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTTTOTO H 3 s o s o s o s s o s OTTTOOT H D s o s o s o s s s o 588 OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o OTTOZT H 1 s o s o s s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OOTOTTT a N s s o s s o s o s o 088 OTTTOZ H >I s o s o s o s s o o OTTTOOT H 0 s o s o s o s s s o OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s 9Z.8 AI xooa 6t>Z 250 BOOK IV 911 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 915 o s o s s s o s s s N E 11001000 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s s s o s s s o s c B 10010010 s s o s s s o s o s D H 00100110 s s s o o s o s o s B H 0002110 920 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 11110 s s o o s s o s o s G H 0020110 o s o s s s o s o s N H 1100110 925 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o o s s D J 0011200 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 o s o s o s s s o s N B 1110010 930 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 o s o s o s o s s s N E 1111000 935 s s s o o s s s o s B B 00020010 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s s o o s D G 0011020 s o s s o s o s o s E H 0101110 s o o s o s o s o s J H 021110 940 o s o s o s s o s s N D 1110100 s o o s o s o s s s J E 0211000 o s o o s s o s o s L H 120110 o s o s o s o s o s N H 111110 s s o s o s o s o s D H 0011110 945 o s o s o s o s s s N E 111100 OTTTTT H N. s o s o s o s o s o 086 OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTZOTOO W a s o s o o s s o s s OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OOOTTTT a N s s s o s o s o s o OTZOZO w r s o s o o s s o o s SZ.6 OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OOTOTTOO a a s s o s s o s o s s OTTZOOO H a s o s o s o o s s s 0i6 OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OOZTTOO r a s s o o s o s o s s OTOOTTT 9 N. s o s s s o s o s o OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o OTTTZO H f s o s o s o s o o s S96 OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OZOTTOO D a s o o s s o s o s s OTTZOT H a s o s o s o o s s o OTZOTT W N s o s o o s s o s o OTOOTTOO a a s o s s s o s o s s 096 OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OT00TZO a r s o s s s o s o o s OTTTOOT H D s o s o s o s s s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o SS6 OTTTTT H M s o s o s o s o s o OOZOOZO r r s s o o s s s o o s OTTTZO H s o s o s o s o o s OZOTTOO D a s o o s s o s o s s OOOTTZO a r s s s o s o s o o s 0S6 OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTTTOTO H a s o s o s o s s o s OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o 9f6 AI xooa TSZ OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s STOT OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OOOTTT a N s s s o s o s o s o 01 OT OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OOOTTTT a N s s s o s o s o s o OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OOZTZO r r s s OI o s o s o o s OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o SOOT OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTTTTT H N. s o s o s o s o s o OTTTZO H r s o 5 o s o s o o 9 OTTOOTT H N s o s o s s s o s o OTTOZT H 1 s o s o s s o o s o 000T OTTTTOO H a s o s o s o s o s s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OOOTTTOO 3 a s s s o s o s o s s • OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OOZZOT r a s s O o s o o s s o S66 OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OTTOOZO H r s o s o s s s o o s OTOOTOOT a D s o s s s o s s s o 066 OTTOOTOO H a s o s o s s s o s s OTTTTT H N. s o s o s o s o s o OTTZTO H H s o s o s o o s o s OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o OZOTTOO D a s o o s s o s o s s S86 OTTTZO H r s o s o s o s o o s OTOOTTOO a a s o s s s o s o s s OTOOTTT a N s o s s s o s o s o OTTTTT H N s o s o s o s o s o T86 A I xooa zsz 253 NOTES A l l quotations below, unless otherwise specified, are from Paradise Lost, ed. Merritt Y. Hughes (New York: The Odyssey Press, 1935). I have made some use of Paradise Lost: 1667 (Menston, Yorkshire: The Scolar Press, Ltd., 1968); of the text of the poem in Complete Poetry  and Selected Prose, ed. E.H. Visiak (London: The Nonesuch Press, 1948), as a convenient facsimile of the 1674 edition; and of Paradise Lost, Vol. I of The Poetical Works of John Milton, ed. Helen Darbishire (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1967), particularly for the detailed textual commentary. 2 That i s , I consider the metrical structure of the poem to consist of a compounded series of "ideal" lines, whose ultimate interdependence provides what we int u i t as the total (metrical) "gestalt" of the poem. For a general consideration of such a "gestalt," see A. Willem De Groot, "The Description of a Poem," in Proceedings of the Ninth International  Congress of Linguists, ed. Horace G. Lunt (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1964), pp. 294-300; and also the less e x p l i c i t suggestions in C.S. Lewis, "Metre," REL, I (Jan., 1960), 46. 3 Milton's prefatory comment on "The Verse." On Milton's possible use of enjambment sequences as metrically intact series, see James Whaler, Counterpoint and Symbol: An Inquiry into the Rhythm of Milton's Epic Style (Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger, 1956), pp. 15-16. Whaler's thesis involves the concept of a five-foot series that i s , in effect, a single line series continued through enjambments (see esp., pp. 27-37). An argument for a multiple line enjambment reading of Paradise Lost is put forward in Donald Ramsay Roberts, "The Music of Milton," P£, XXVI (1947), 331-332. Roberts' interpretation, however, sets merely the iambic unit as a governing factor, with foot series varying from three to eight in the examples he gives. An argument for a five-foot series in Milton's verse that does not consider enjambment as an effective conditioning factor i s advanced in John S. Diekhoff, "Terminal Pause in Milton's Verse," SP, XXXII (1935), passim. Diekhoff's position i s supported in G. Stanley Koehler, "Milton on 'Numbers,' 'Quantity,' and 'Rime'," SP, LV (1958), 215-216 and B.A. Wright, Review of Whaler, Counterpoint . . ., MLR, LIII (1958), 244. The suggestion that Milton's lines are essentially controlled by syllable count and only accidentally by "measure"[i.e., feet] i s provided by M. Whitely, "Verse and i t s Feet," RES, n.s., IX (1958), 270-271. A simpler version of the syllable count theory i s given i n F.T. Prince, The Italian Element in Milton's Verse (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1962), pp. 142-143. See also Robert Bridges, Milton's Prosody, ed. of 1921 (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1965), pp. 83-84. Some further commentary on the metrical integrity of Milton's Blank verse line i s to be found in Ants Oras, "Spenser and Milton: Some 254 Parallels and Contrasts ;in the Handling of Sound," in Essays on the  Language of Literature, ed. Seymour Chatman and Samuel R. Levin (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1967), pp. 22-23; Helen Darbishire, "Milton's Poetic Language," ESS, n.s., X (1957), 48-50; Johannes C. Andersen, The Laws of Verse (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1928), p. 99; Robert Beum, "So Much Gravity and Ease," in Language and Style in Milton, ed. Ronald David Emma and John T. Shawcross (New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., Inc., 1967), pp. 339-340. 4 M. Whiteley investigates the "balance of notional [abstract] and actual [phonological] lines," op. c i t . , 272-273. On the distinction of abstract and performance levels, see George B. Pace, "The Two Domains: Meter and Rhythm," PMLA, LXXVI (1961), esp. 415-416. See also Roger Fowler, "Structural Metrics," in Essays . . ., ed. Chatman and Levin, p. 159; Samuel R. Levin, "Suprasegmentals and the Performance of Poetry," QJS, XLVIII (1962), 369; Lascelles Abercrombie, Principles of English  Prosody: The Elements (London: Martin Seeker, 1923), pp. 92-98. 5 See Walter Thomas, "Milton's Heroic Line Viewed from an Historical Standpoint," MLR, III (1907), 18-20, 24; F.T. Prince, "Comment" on whiteley, 279. On the sufficiency of a two value metrical "stress" system, see John D. Allen, Elements of English Blank Verse: Shakespeare to Frost, in Quantitative Studies in Prosody (East Tennessee State Univ. Press, 1968), p. 9. 7 See F.T. Prince, "The Verse," in Paradise Lost: Books I and II (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1962), p. 189. For a contrasting opinion, that the number of "fe e t " [ i c t i c units] i s never more than five, see S. Ernest Sprott, Milton's Art of Prosody (Oxford: Basil Blackwood, 1953), pp. 38-39; and Bridges, p. 40. g See Koehler, 211-212; John Addington Symonds, Blank Verse (London: John C. Nimmo, 1895), p. 86. 9 Taking the non-ictic units as the marked case haseproven convenient for the derivations set out in Chapter II. It is also useful for describing a surface metric by the convention of an " i c t i c number code" (see Chapter IV and the Scansion Table). Bridges, p. 1. 255 For a cogent, i f somewhat rabid account of the possible phono-logical distortions here, see John Nist, "The Word-Group Cadence: Basis of English Metrics," Linguistics, VI (1964), passim. 12 See Paul Fussell, Jr., Theory of Prosody in Eighteenth-Century  England (New London, Conn.: Connecticut College, 1954). 13 See, for example, Enid Hamer, The Metres of English Poetry, 4th ed. (London: Methuen & Co., 1964), pp. 9-19. 14 The theoretical basis of Saintsbury's procedure is loosely gathered into "Appendix I: Equivalence, Substitution, and Foot-Arrangement in English," A History of English Prosody, 2nd ed. (New York: Russell & Russell Inc., 1961), I, 381-387. See also his chapter "Milton," II, 207-272. 15 This practice, of course, nefarious though i t i s , may exactly reflect the c r i t i c a l standards of some historical period and so possess an independent interest. Johnson's "Rambler" papers on Milton are blatant examples of this. See, e.g., his comments on foot substitution in the paper No. LXXXVI (Jan. 12, 1751), in The Rambler (London: J. Parsons, 1793), II, 147-152. ^ 60n the notion of a metrical "base" line, see Abercrombie, Principles . . ., pp. 84-98. 17 Suggested in Saintsbury, I, xvn. 18 See Bridges, pp. 41-42 for a discussion of "surface" and "future" as intentional s t y l i s t i c variations. F.T. Prince claims that X.840 can be regularized by recognizing a "long" vowel at sy l . ^ ; see The Italian Element . . ., p. 135. As far as I am concerned, the lines must be deemed hypermetrical. 19 There may well be other theoretical requirements here—at least, considering the ambiguity of the equivalence condition, i t would only be charitable to assume that there are. I have not encountered anything like a complete and systematic statement of these requirements in the literature. The three part descriptive frame i s my own. 256 20 See the letter to Dixon of October 10, 1878, in The Correspondence  of Gerard Manley Hopkins and Richard Dixon, ed. Claude Colleer Abbott (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1955), p. 18; cf. his remarks in the "Lecture Notes: Rhetoric," in The Note-Books and Papers of Gerard Manley Hopkins, ed. Humphry House (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1937), pp. 238, 241. 21 For Hopkins' views/on the "uncertainty" of scanning English verse as "rising" or " f a l l i n g , " see "Lecture Notes: Rhetoric," in Note-Books . . • p.231; the letter to Dixon of January 14, 1880, in Correspondence . . ., p. 40; and see Marcella Marie Holloway, The Prosodic Theory of Gerard  Manley Hopkins (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, Inc., 1947), pp. 49-50. 22 Trisyllabic substitution i s frequently used by Saintsbury to accomodate the redundant syllables in an "iambic" construction like the blank verse line. I w i l l follow Bridges in the employment of a system of elision to accomplish this. See pp. 17-25 below. 23 Saintsbury notes his disapproval of the amphibrach in English verse in History . • ., I, 386. Bridges considers i t to be a typical Erf"jlish foot and rechristens i t "Britannic;" see Milton's Prosody, pp. 97-99. 24 See Bridges, pp. 19-37; Robert 0. Evans, Milton's Elisions, Humanities Monograph no. 21 (Gainesville, Fla.: Univ. of Florida Press, 1966), passim; Prince, ed., pp. 191-192; Sprott, pp. 54-98. And see Johnson's dictates in "Rambler," LXXXVIII (Jan. 19, 1751), The Rambler, II, 157-162. 25 For some general comments on these classes of elis i o n , see Seymour Chatman, "Comparing Metrical Styles," in Style in Language, ed. Thomas A. Sebeok (Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1966), pp. 162-164; and A Theory of Meter, Janua Linguarum, N.R. XXXVI (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1965), pp. 109-112. For some particular comments on Milton's practice, see John S. Diekhoff, "Milton's Prosody in the Poems of the Trinity MS," PMLA, LIV (1939), 158-164; Bernard Groom, The Diction  of Poetry from Spenser to Bridges (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press, 1955), pp. 85-87; William Bridges Hunter, Jr., "The Sources of Milton's Prosody," P£, XXVIII (L949), 135-141[the principal "source," apparently, was the tradition of the Puritan hymnody]; George A. Kellog, "Bridges' Milton's Prosody and Renaissance Metrical Theory," PMLA, LXVIII (1953), 280-284. 257 26 See the general comments in M.L. Howe, "Anapestic Feet in Paradise Lost," MLN, XLV (1930), passim; Helge Kokeritz, Shakespeare's  Pronunciation (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1953), pp. 282-283; and the comparison of Donne's practice of apocope with that of Milton in Michael F. Moloney, "Donne's Metrical Practice," PMLA, LXV (1950), 238. 27 The class of major syntactic items—i.e., word series involving enjambment—is l e f t unspecified in this study, except for a cursory instruction in my outline of the formal requirements of the metrical model. See p. Lf.o and note 35. 28 Cf. Kokeritz, pp. 274-275; Evelyn H. Scholl, "New Light on Seventeenth Century Pronunciation from the English School of Lutenist Song Writers," PMLA, LIX (1944), 438-442. 29 See E.J. Dobson, English Pronunciation: 1500-1700, 2nd ed. (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1968), II, 877-878; Kokeritz, pp. 286-291; Scholl, 411-414; Symonds, pp. 94-95. 30 Dobson, English Pronunciation . . ., II, 897; "Milton's Pronun-ciation," in Language and Style . . ., ed. Emma and Shawcross, p. 182; Scholl, 424-426. See also James W. Abel, "Syllabic [n,l]," QJS, XLVIII (1962), 155; Hamer,. pp. 89-90. 31 Further on the matter of redundant terminal syllables, see Hamer, p. 91; Ants Oras, "Milton's Blank Verse," in SAMLA Studies in Milton, ed. J. Max Patrick (Gainesville, Fla.: Univ. of Florida Press, 1953), pp. 160-171; John T. Shawcross, "The Chronology of Milton's Major Poems," PMLA, LXXVI (1961), 358 [in par t i a l disagreement with Oras]; J.C. Smith, "Feminine Endings in Milton's Blank Verse," TLS (Dec. 5, 1936), 1016. 32 See Paradise Lost: 1667; Darbishire, ed., I, 256. Note that in this, the ten book version of the poem, the passage i s set in Book X. It is set in Book XI in the 1674 ed. For a historical consideration of these conventions, see Fussell, pp. 68-80; and the impressionistic study in Saintsbury, II, 238-250. 34 The matter of sufficient and satisfactory performance instruction, whether for verse or prose, i s very much of an open question. For some general suggestions on this see Robert P. Stockwell, "The Place of Intonation in a Generative Grammar of English," Language, XXXVI (1960), 258 360; and the detailed analysis in Ralph Vanderslice, Synthetic Elocution  . . . with Special Reference to Prosodic Features, Working Papers in Phonetics, 8 (Los Angeles: Univ. of California, 1968), esp. pp. 87-99. 3 5 T h i s condition appears to be generally although not absolutely held through the poem in the case of such minor syntactic items as, say, Noun Phrases. There are at least two instances in the poem where the syllabic substance of a NP extends completely through the ten units of a l i n e : "The black tartareous cold Infernal dregs"(VII.238) and "The dark unbottom'd i n f i n i t e Abyss"(II.405). There are also some instances of enjambment across a NP, as: "his f a i r / Enchanting Daughter" (X.352-353), "inlaid with pure / Amber"(VI.758-759), "the gray / Dawn" (VII.373-374), "the clear / Smooth Lake"(IV.458-459) and "the Sun's / Bright Temple"(V.273-274). There is one occasion in the poem in which enjambment may be said to occur within the boundaries of a single lexical item, with "Eurynome, the wide- / Encroaching Eve"(X.581-582). The epithet "wide[-]Encroaching" may be considered either as a compound modifier, "wide + Encroaching," or a single expression which follows Milton's f a i r l y common practice of placing a translation (here of Gk. eupuviovm) in direct apposition to a head term. The only other instance of a hyphenated form of enjambment in Milton's English verse i s "one might walk to Mile- / End Green"("A Book was writ of late . . .," lines 7-8). There are arguments for the "verse paragraph"[i.e., line series involving prosodically significant enjambment] as a metrical unit in Theodore H. Banks, Jr., "Miltonic Rhythm: A Study of the Relation of the F u l l Stops to the Rhythm of Paradise Lost," PMLA, XLII (1927), 144-145; and George R. Stewart, Jr., The Techniques of English Verse (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1930), p. 163. Cf. note 3 above. 36 Milton's emphatic and unemphatic spellings are examined in Dobson, "Milton's Pronunciation," in Language and Style . . ., ed. Emma and Shawcross, pp. 163, 189-190 n. 15; and John T. Shawcross, "One Aspect of Milton's Spelling: Idle Final 'E' ," PMLA, LXXVIII (1963), 507. Contemporary printing practices relevant here are considered in Kokeritz, pp. 23-24. The significance of spelling variants i s fulsomely denied in Robert M. Adams, "The Text of Paradise Lost: Emphatic and Unemphatic Spellings," MP, LII (1954), passim. 37 See Dobson, English Pronunciation . . ., II, 454-463. Additional support for interpreting the distinct form "their" as a mark of an intentional lengthening or strengthening of the syllable peak is given by Milton's spelling the word as "thire" in a Commonplace 259 Book entry, where the expression "thire choycest youth" exactly parallels "Their choicest youth . . . " i n Samson Agonistes 264. See William Riley Parker, Milton: A Biography (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1968), II, 911. 39 This i s the spelling of the 1667 ed. It is also the spelling of the 1674 ed., as recorded by Visiak. Hughes, who usually follows the second edition, unaccountably prints "th i r . " 40 Dobson, English Pronunciation . . ., II, 687; and see Darbishire, ed. , xxiv, 1'f 323. The rule employed here should probably be augmented by certain contextual constraints; however, i t i s not clear to me at present just what these constraints should consist of. 41 See Elizabeth Holmes, "Some Notes on Milton's Use of Words," ESS, X (1924), 120-121. 42 On the uncertain articulation of /yu/ or /u:/ circa. 1600, see Kokeritz, pp. 235-236. 43 Cf. B.A. Wright, "Stressing of the Preposition 'without' in the Verse of Paradise Lost," NQ, N.S., V (1958), passim. 44 For a contrary reading, see Wright, 203. 45 Cf. Parker, I, 44-49. 46 Kokeritz, p. 395. On the metrical significance in general of this phenomenon of "hovering accent," see Harris Fletcher, "A Possible Origin of Milton's 'Counterpoint' or Double Rhythm," JEGP, LIV (1955), 522 [the "possible origin" i s Milton's experience of writing Latin verse]; Bror Danielsson, Studies on the Accentuation of Polysllabic Latin, Greek,  and Romance Loan-Words in English (Stockholm: Almquist S Wiksell, 1948), pp. 447-448; Kokeritz, pp. 332-334 [contra Danielsson]; Saintsbury, "Appendix II: Common Syllables in English, and Degrees in Quantity," I, 388-391; Shawcross, "Chronology . . .," 348. 47 See further in Evert Mordecai Clark, "Milton's English Poetical Vocabulary," SP, LIII (1956), 226-229. Contrast the form "accessible" that conditions a metrical value of 0 S 0 S at IV.546 (per Danielsson, p. 562). 260 49 Cf. Oras, "Spenser and Milton," in Essays . . ., ed. Chatman and Levin, pp. 22-23. ^°See Dobson, "Milton's Pronunciation," in Language and Style . . ., ed. Emma and Shawcross, p. 160. ^See Beum, "So Much Gravity," in Language and Style • . ., p. 349. Note that the AUX governed "might" in line 274 w i l l take ictus through the power of this overriding assonance series (contrast the general function of §3.10). 52 Dobson, English Pronunciation . . ., II, 928-931. 53 Danielsson, p. 252. 54 On the verb + particle series (as dominated by a VERB node) see Bruce Fraser, "Some Remarks on the Verb-Particle Construction in English," in Georgetown University Monograph on Languages and Linguistics, ed. F.P. Dinneen, No. 19 (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown Univ. Press, 1966), esp. pp. 48-49; Benjamin Lee Whorf, "A Linguistic Consideration of Thinking in Primitive Communities," in Language, Thought, and Reality, ed. John B. Carroll (Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1966), pp. 70-71. On the PREV unit in general see Dwight Bolinger, "Contrastive Accent and Contrastive Stress," Language, XXXVII (1961), 90-93; Jerzy Kurylowicz, The Inflectional Categories of Indo-European (Heidelberg: Universitatsverlag, 1964), pp. 171-176; Yakov Malkiel, "Genetic Analysis of Word Formation," in Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol. I l l : Theoretical  Foundations, ed. Thomas A. Sebeok (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1966), pp. 321-322. 55 See Hansjakob Seiler, "On the Syntactic Role of Word Order and of Prosodic Features," Word, XVIII (1962), 123-124, 131. 56 See D. Terence Langendoen, The Study of Syntax (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1969), pp. 128-139; P.H. Matthews, "The Inflectional Component of a Word-and-Paradigm Grammar," JL, I (1965), 143-149. 57 Cf. Dobson, English Pronunciation . . ., II, 856-858. 58 The symbol conventions here are taken from Benson Mates, Elementary  Logic (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1965), p. 44. 261 59 Cf. Dobson, English Pronunciation . . ., II, 859. 60 For a diachronic survey of the gerundial construction see Kurylowicz, pp. 166-167. 6^Cf. Dobson, English Pronunciation . . ., II, 952-953. 62 For further analysis of the "negation" root see Dobson, "Milton's Pronunciation," in Language and Style . . ., ed. Emma and Shawcross, p. 189, n. 9; Arnold Stein, "Structures of Sound in Milton's Verse," KR, XV (1953), 271 [a study of "rhetorical emphasis"]; Whorf, "Linguistic Consideration," in Carroll, ed., p. 71. 63 Such at least i s the reading of the 1667 ed. and the reading adopted by Darbishire. Hughes provides the "thir" of the 1674 ed. 64 Roger Fowler provides some discussion of the general relation of syntactic structure(s) to metrical prominence in "'Prose Rhythm' and Metre," in Essays on Style and Language, ed. Fowler (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966), pp. 83-84. He observes, for example, that "units of grammar have their own stress patterns which . . . may or may not correspond with those of the metrical matrix that they are made to occupy"(p. 84). My point, of course, is that the "stress patterns" of these "units of grammar" serve, in part, to form and substantiate that very matrix. See also the comments of George R. Stewart, Jr. on "stressable and unstressable" parts of speech in "The Iambic-Trochaic Theory in Relation to Musical Notation of Verse," JEGP, XXIV (1925), 64-65; John Thompson's concern with "the levels of the abstract metrical pattern [i.e., U. as [±]], of the language of speech [i.e., the distribution of #W#, #...#W'#*..#], and of the line of verse [i.e., U....U ] that l n comes from the relation of the f i r s t two," The Founding of English Metre (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1966), p. 3; see also Thompson, pp.3-4, n. 4, 10-14; and W.K. Wimsatt Jr., "Verbal Style: Logical and Counter-logical," PMLA, LXV (1950), 10, on the function of meter in "various tension" with "sense." The fact that this marker identity usually implies a "to the l e f t of" surface condition, and always implies a "contiguous with" condition, suggests that this class of items might be susceptible of a deep structure analysis—as, for instance, the transformational history of s e r i a l adjective (N-mod) embedding—in which subscript " i " would specify the "head" of a repeated or iterant "phrase." However, I cannot at present make out in detail just what the f u l l requirements of such a deep analysis would need to be. 262 66 For a study of the stress patterning for N + N series see E.M. Uhlenbeck, "Limitations of Morphological Process: Some Preliminary Remarks," Lingua, XI (1962), 431-432; J. Van Roeyy "A Note on Noun + Noun Combinations," ES, XLV (1964), 48-49. 6 7 My i c t i c valuation here is supported by George R. Stewart Jr., The Techniques of English Verse (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1930), p. 165. 68 See the analysis in Carlota S. Smith, "Determiners and Relative Clauses in a Generative Grammar of English," Language, XL (1964), 44-46; O. Mutt, "The Adjectivization of Nouns in English," ZAA, XII (1964), passim. 69 For a similar i c t i c valuation see Thomas, "Milton's Heroic Line ," 28 70 There is an ad hoc tendency about this and most of the following rule formats that is in part a result of the inevitably impressionistic character of the partial survey that I have been required to be satisfied with here. It i s in part also a result of the general character of this study, which is more in the nature of a set of prolegomena for a structural description of Milton's metrical practice rather than a f u l l explication of that practice. It is true that the rule specifying the metrical value of AUX i s f a i r l y simple and that a s a t i s f a c t o r i l y augmented rule would probably not involve too many further particulars. In general, I think, a full> formal description of this aspect of metrical structure would provide for the immediately relevant syntactic structures of any item to be shown f i r s t , in surface form, by means of a labelled bracketing as, e.g., P R E D t . . . +yp(••.+VB)]. No further analysis would be required to be given i f this format sufficed to explain a l l the relevant metrical phenomena of the feature (i.e., AUX) under immediate consideration and i f a l l the syntactic elements maintained within the outermost labelled structure (here that of pggpl***^ could be taken as constants regarding metrical conditioning for the feature (AUX) and for a l l other features in p R E D t . . . ] . However, i f this was not the case, then the explanatory environment format would be augmented by further obligatory specifications of deeper syntactic structures in a second, third, etc. format. Following William Diver, "The Modal System of the English Verb," Word, XX (1964), 323-330. 263 72 I am employing the Verb Phrase (VP) node here merely as a convenient abbreviation for "is a [grammatical] predicate of." 73 On the various placement of adverbs in a S structure, see Samuel Jay Keyser, Review of Adverbial Positions in English, by Sven Jacobson, Language, XLIV (1968), 366-367. On deictic S-mod forms see, e.g., John Lyons, "Towards a 'Notional' Theory of the 'Parts of Speech'," JL, II (1966), 231; Charles J. Fillmore, "Deictic Categories in the Semantics of 'Come'," FL, II (1966), 222;and Chomsky, per note 74. The analysis of sentence adverbs is by no means complete; cf. Robert P. Stockwell, Paul Schachter and Barbara Hall Partee, Integration of Trans- formational Theories on English Syntax (Los Angeles: Univ. of California, 1968), I, 29. 74 Following from the suggestion concerning "Sentence Adverbs" in Noam Chomsky, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, 1965), p. 102. 75 See the discussion i n , e.g., L i l a R. Gleitman, "Coordinating Conjunctions in English," Language, XLI (1965), 284-286; Smith, "Determiners . . .," 39-40. Cf. the structuralist analysis in Taylor Stoehr, "Syntax and Poetic Form in Milton's Sonnets," ES, XLV (1964), 296-299. 76 See the comments on a "conjunction as . . . an accessory grammatical element," in Milka Ivic, "The Grammatical Category of Non-Omissible Determiners," Lingua, XI (1962), 202. 77 Contra, Wright, "Stressing of the Preposition 'without'. . .," 203. 78 See R.B. Lees," The Constituent Structure of Noun Phrases," AS, XXXVI (1961), 163; Emmon Bach, "Some Notes on "The Constituent Structure of Noun Phrases'," AS, XXXVIII (1963), passim. 79 Roderick A. Jacobs and Peter S. Rosenbaum, English Transformational  Grammar (Waltham, Mass.: Blaisdell Publishing Co., 1968), pp. 93-98; Paul M. Postal, "On the so-called 'Pronouns' in English," in Monograph series. . ed. Dinneen, pp. 178-187. 80 See the preceding note; and the brief discussion i n Charles J. Fillmore, "On the Syntax of Preverbs," Glossa, I (1967), 99-100. 264 81 Following Seymour Chatman, "Pre-Adjectivals in the English Nominal Phrase," AS, XXXV (1960), 86. 82 Following Carlota S. Smith, "Ambiguous Sentences with AND," in Modern Studies in English: Readings in Transformational Grammar, ed. David A. Reibel and Sanford A. Schane (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969), p. 76. 83 The feature specification and environment condition must fi n a l l y be augmented by further rule refinements. It may be, indeed, that these additions could be captured most economically by the use of a lexical analysis (i.e., including a feature [+T0]) for the particle harmonious with an analysis of the relevant PREV, etc. elements of contiguous VERB forms. However, i t i s not presently clear to me just how this could be accomplished. The comment of George Young on the metrical value of "to" that "ictus on a preposition or i n f i n i t i v e particle i s established only by the iambic standard" is typical of the cavalier treatment meted out by traditional prosodists to this small, defenceless particle.. See An English  Prosody on Inductive Lines (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1928), pp. 223-224. 84 See the references in note 54 above. 85 Darbishire, ed., I, 250. 86 See, e.g., Ronald David Emma, "Grammar and Milton's English Style," in Language and Style . . ., ed. Emma and Shawcross, p. 250, n.28. 87 See Charles J. Fillmore, "A Proposal Concerning English Prepositions," in Monograph Series . . ., ed. Dinneen, esp. pp. 22-27; Fillmore, "The Case for Case," in Universals in Linguistic Theory, ed. Emmon Bach and Robert T. Harms (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc., 1968), esp. pp. 23-31; Stockwell, et a l . , esp. I, 31-32, 50-56. The associations of PREP with the metrical conditioning of (v) for CONJ adumbrated in §3.13 suggest that such a re-ordered analysis might prove f i n a l l y to be more harmonious than that adopted in the present study. 88 See John Lotz, "Metric Typology," in Style in Language, ed. Sebeok, 146. For some discussion on the scansion of this line see Symonds, p. 79. 265 90 The stress pattern of this word appears to be cognate with that of "Teneriff"(IV.987.2-4) examined in Appendix C; and cf. Allan H. Gilbert, A Geographical Dictionary of Milton (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1919), pp. 199-200. 91 For a general survey of this structure see James Whaler, "Grammatical Nexus of the Miltonic Simile," JEGP, XXX (1931), esp. 329-331. See also Chomsky, pp. 178-179; R.B. Lees, "Grammatical Analysis of the English Comparative Construction," Word, XVII (1961), 182-183; Carlota S. Smith, "A Class of Complex Modifiers in English," Language, XXXVII (1961), 350, 364-365. Winifred Nowottny provides a somewhat flaccid commentary on Milton's comparatives in The Language Poets Use (London: The Athlone Press, 1968), pp. 22-24. 92 Although the word "Spirit(s)" i s usually, as here, monosyllabic in Paradise Lost, i t occurs as a disyllable at, e.g., IV.128.1,2, "Spirit of happy sort: . . ." and IV.793.8,9, ". . . some infernal S p i r i t . " s o o s o s s o s o s o 93 The origin of the word.is obscure; see Gilbert, pp. 18-20. The form may be cognate with Heb. AM-MAH ("bearer of water"). If so, the t r i s y l l a b i c form would be expected to follow the standard Hebrew stress pattern of /3,1,3/. The same stress pattern w i l l obtain i f the word is alternately derived from Lat. AMARA-CUS, from Gk. ctyapoiKoa ("aromatic," specifically of plants). Milton's intimate acquaintance with a l l three languages makes such a portmanteau conflation quite probable. 94 Contra Wright, 203. 95 On the relative infrequency of this stress pattern of a terminal /...,3,3/ in Milton's verse, see Oras, "Spenser and Milton," in Essays. . ., ed. Chatman and Levin, pp. 22-23. 96 Compare the use of emphatic "mee" and unemphatic "me" to set S and O respectively at s y l . ^ and s y l . ^ of IV.828: Know ye not mee? ye knew me once no mate, s o o s o s o s o s 97 The same elision by syncope sets S S at syl.,. _ in IV.260, b, / ". . .; meanwhile murmuring waters f a l l " and at s y l . in IV.453, — — a,y s s s s s o s " . . . from thence a murmuring sound." o s o s s ' s 266 98 On "then" as a S-mod of deictic time reference, see Fillmore, "Deictic Categories . . .," 222. 99 Cf. "unhoard"(IV.188.7,8), "bespake"(IV.1005.7,8), etc. s s s s Cf. Oras, loc. c i t . ^°*Presumably i t i s the surface realization of a deep deleted S structure: "He roams . . .." 102 I cannot establish i t as a fact that they do not exist in Paradise  Lost. However, I have examined the poem with some care without yet discovering any of them. 1 0 3The fact that my original rule "T" is functionally identical to Seymour Chatman's principle of "metrical promotion" supports the suggestion. See A Theory of Meter, pp. 123-127. 104 Cf. the examination of equivalence-substitution frames in Chapter I, pp. 7-14. 105 For some analogous speculation on the empirical reality of the "foot," see Sheridan Baker, "English Meter Is_ Quantitative," CE, XXI (1960), 313-314; Thompson, p. 12; whiteley, 269; Ernest Schanzer, "Correspondence on 'Verse and i t s Feet'," RES, n.s., X (1959), passim [contra whiteley]; and note 3 above. ^^Caesural placement in Renaissance verse i s examined extensively in Ants Oras, Pause Patterns in Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama: An  Experiment in Prosody, Humanities Monograph No. 3 (Gainesville, Fla.: Univ. of Florida Press, 1960), esp. pp. 10-19, 37-53. By the eighteenth century the rules began to harden and the "great Cham" was to consider licentious anything other than a pause between the sixth and seventh syllables. See "Rambler" No. XC (Jan. 26, 1751), in The Rambler, II, 167-172. 107 Cf. Bridges, pp. 23-24. See Johnson's comments in the "Rambler" paper cited in note 105. 267 109 See, e.g Thompson, p. 34 and n. 1. 110, There i s a study of such "rhythm" in the verse of Samson Agonistes in Frank Kermode, "Samson Agonistes and Hebrew Prosody," Durham Univ. Journal, N.S., XIV (1952), 59-60. Egerton Smith investigates this "rhythm" as the patterning of what he terms "secondary stress," in The Principles  of English Metre (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1923), pp. 18-23; and see Stewart, Techniques . . ., pp. 79, 90. Henry Lanz provides an interesting study of the "triple rhythm" of Shelley's Alastor in The Physical Basis of Rime (Stanford, Ca l i f . : Stanford Univ. Press, 1931), pp. 230-234. See also, e.g., Northrop Frye's "musical" analysis in "The Rhythm of Recurrence: Epos," in Anatomy of Criticism (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1957), esp. pp. 251-262; Robert Graves' quasi-anthropological speculation in "Harp, Anvil, Oar," in The Crowning Privilege (London: Cassell s Co., 1955), pp. 86-109; Joseph Malof's hi s t o r i c a l survey in "The Native Rhythm of English Meters," TSLL, V (1964), passim; and Sir Donald Tovey's intriguing "score" for the f i r s t seven lines of Paradise Lost in The Forms of Music (New York: Meridian Books, 1957), pp. 181-184. "Comment," in whiteley, 279; and see his "Prefatory Note" to the 2nd impression of The Italian Element . • .(1962). I l l , The Italian Element p. 143. 112 113, My stressing of the adjectival form follows Danielsson, p. 562. 114. Danielsson, p. 566. 115 For the distinct terminal stress here see Danielsson, p. 565. 116 Gilbert, pp. 289-290. 268 REFERENCES I Texts Milton. Complete Poetry and Selected Prose, ed. E.H. Visiak. London: The Nonesuch Press, 1948. . Paradise Lost, ed. Merritt Y. Hughes. New York: The Odyssey Press, 1935. . Paradise Lost: 1667. 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