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Skyline thinning production study. Hemphill, Dallas Campbell 1970

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SKYLINE THINNING PRODUCTION STUDY by  DALLAS CAMPBELL HEMPHILL B.Sc,  University  o f A u c k l a n d , 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  i n t h e Department of FORESTRY  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g required  tothe  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1970  3  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s of  this  representatives. thesis  It  i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  written permission.  Department of  Forestry  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  August  18,  1970  Columbia  not be allowed without my  ii. ABSTRACT  S u p e r v i s o r s : P r o f e s s p r s _ L . ,Adamovich and .C-.UJ. Boyd Thinning  i s r a p i d l y gaining importance i n the  N o r t h w e s t as  old-growth timber  In t h e  thinnings  past,  tracked while  m a c h i n e s , but  operating  velopment  of these  Skylok yarder  C o a s t Tower u s i n g cribed  in detail.  "roads"  need f o r r e d u c i n g  kind  of t e r r a i n ,  exhaustion.  wheeled  soil  has  disturbance,  l e d to the  W a s h i n g t o n Model The  rigged with  a running  s k y l i n e , and  a standing  skyline.  Both s y s t e m s a r e  A time study  was  done on on two  a West  "roads"  des-  for  the  98.  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a computer s i m u l a t i o n model o f  process  i s described.  logging  process  were m o d e l l e d i n s e v e r a l ways, and  and  Model  seven s k y l i n e  yarding  planning  de-  systems were s t u d i e d , a W a s h i n g t o n  f o r t h e West C o a s t Tower, and  shows how  or  of a number o f s k y l i n e s y s t e m s .  Two 98  approach  have, been e x t r a c t e d by the  i n any  reserves  Pacific  the  model c o u l d  logging  be  The  various  elements of the  the thesis  used t o make g u i d e l i n e s f o r  layouts, for sensitivity  analyses,  f o r cost  t i m e p r e d i c t i o n , f o r methods improvement, t o a s s i s t  equipment s e l e c t i o n , the  applicability  the  Pacific  to help  a l l o c a t e m a c h i n e s , and  o f s k y l i n e t h i n n i n g t o an  area  in  t o show  outside  Northwest.  External yarding  the  d i s t a n c e , o v e r a wide r a n g e ,  was  of  i i i .  found to  be  Stocking  was  was  unimportant  an i m p o r t a n t  an optimum r o a d w i d t h  skyline  "road".  yarding  tage  in  than  the  standing  deflection,  are.  abundant this  and i t  suggested.  potential Suggestions  of  factor. for  It  savings  yarding was  a given  s k y l i n e was  running s k y l i n e .  procedure derable  Potential  determining  shown t h a t  length  were  costs. there  and shape  of  shown i n l o a d i n g  and  procedures. The  lack  in  some v e r y room f o r ,  analysis.  for  basic  was m o r e  have  expensive  Improvements L o a d i n g was  cost  are  found to  no to  in tree found to  advanset  up  marking have  consi-  reduction.  made  for  knowledge  and a g r e a t  future is  need  research,  noted. of,  and  There  an e x t e n s i o n  the  is of  IV.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS...  iv  LIST OF FIGURES  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xi  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER  II  DESCRIPTION OF THE OPERATIONS STUDIED  4  STAND DESCRIPTION, AND TREES FOR EXTRACTION  4  MARKING  FALLING AND BUCKING  5  YARDING  .........  7  West C o a s t Tower.  7  The rnachine  7  The  rigging  system  10  The w o r k i n g method  14  Washington  Model  98 S k y l o k Y a r d e r  20  The Machine The  rigging  20 system...  The w o r k i n g method  CHAPTER  III  CHAPTER  IV  *  21 23  LOADING  25  COLLECTION OF DATA  3  MODELING  36  REASONS MODEL  THE OPERATIONS FOR MAKING  0  A SIMULATION  THE- FUNCTIONAL FORM OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE MODEL  H  41  V.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  (cont'd)  Yarding C y c l e . . . . .  41  Road C h a n g i n g . . . . . .  55  I d l e Time. .  57  THE STRUCTURE OF THE MODEL  57  Methods I m p r o v e m e n t . . .  61  LIMITATIONS OF THE MODEL  6  VERIFICATION CHAPTER V  Page  OF THE.MODEL  67  USING THE MODEL COST CURVES  70 ...  7  0  8  6  9  3  DEFLECTION CONSIDERATIONS  9  3  MARKING  9  7  LOADING  9  9  U5ING THE COST CURVES. CHAPTER VI  CHAPTER V I I  5  DISCUSSION OF NON-SIMULATED FACTORS  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  CHAPTER V I I I CONCLUSIONS  .  1  1  0  0  2  6  REFERENCES CITED  112  APPENDIX I  113  APPENDIX I I  116  APPENDIX I I I  l l  APPENDIX IV  ...118  7  APPENDIX V  I  2 0  APPENDIX V I .  I  2 2  APPENDIX V I I  1  2  5  APPENDIX V I I I  1  2  7  APPENDIX IX  ....132  vi. TABLE OF CONTENTS ( C o n t ' d )  APPENDIX X  134  L I S T OF  vii.  FIGURES  FIGURE  PAGE  1.  S e t t i n g t o be y a r d e d , Road 1602  2.  Thinned D o u g l a s - f i r stand,  near  6 Headquarters  camp  6  3.  Desirable f a l l i n g  4.  The West C o a s t Tower y a r d i n g t h i n n i n g s  5.  The West C o a s t Tower, w i t h t o w e r r e t r a c t e d , moving t o a new l a n d i n g S k y l i n e s y s t e m employed on t h e West C o a s t Tower  10  A three s p r i n g Larsen c a r r i a g e , s i m i l a r t o t h e two s p r i n g v e r s i o n d e s c r i b e d i n t h e text  11  A t h r e e s p r i n g Larsen c a r r i a g e , showing t h e s l a c k - p u l l i n g drum t o p c e n t e r g e a r e d t o t h e s p r i n g s on t h e l e f t  11  6. 7.  8.  9.  Operation  pattern  of the Larsen  7 9 9  slack-pulling  carriage  12  10.  B u t t r i g g i n g u s e d on b o t h y a r d e r s  13  11.  Crop t r e e b e i n g  16  12.  Rigging  13.  Changing roads,  f o r t h e West C o a s t Tower  17  14. 15.  W a s h i n g t o n M o d e l 98 e x t r a c t i n g t h i n n i n g s Shamley c a r r i a g e and r u n n i n g s k y l i n e  22 22  16.  Changing roads,  24;  17.  F r a n k l i n s k i d d e r t a k i n g l o g s from t h e s k y l i n e deck t o t h e p r e - l o a d bunk  26  G r a p p l e s k i d d e r l o a d i n g t h e bunk  26  IB.  a tail  uprooted during yarding tree  f o r t h e Washington y a r d e r . . . . .  16  List  of F i g u r e s  (cont'd)  viii.  FIGURE  PAGE  19  Taking  trailer  o f f truck  20  Transferring  21  Bunk r e a d y  22  A yarding cycle i n a skyline operation  a load  to truck  f o r t h e next  23  Pulling  slack  24  Setting  chokers  25  Breaking  26  Chaser  27  The  28  Example of raw Road 5  out  from  28 28  load  29 thinning ?7  t h e Shamley c a r r i a g e . .  38 38  a turn  unhooking  39  a turn  39  geometry o f a s k y l i n e r o a d data: P u l l  ^0  Slack times f o r 42  29  Example o f raw d a t a : R e t u r n Washington Model 98  30  Real cumulative d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n , and f i t t e d a p p r o x i m a t i o n f o r U n t a n g l e times  46  31  Simulation flowchart  58  32  Schematic method  33  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  times f o r •. .. . f*U-  pre-choking 63  Comparison of a c t u a l and s i m u l a t e d t u r n t t i m e s f o r a r o a d 600 f e e t l o n g , 160 f e e t wide a t t h e back, c o n v e r g i n g on t h e landing ..  68  34  Comparison o f c u m u l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n p l o t s o f t u r n t i m e s , a c t u a l and s i m u l a t e d f o r a r o a d 600 f e e t l o n g and 160 f e e t wide a t t h e back, c o n v e r g i n g on t h e landing 69  35  Comparison of s i m u l a t e d p r o d u c t i v e and change t i m e s f o r t h e West C o a s t Tower t h e Washington 98  road and 71  LIST OF FITURE5  (Cont'd)  ix.  FIGURE 36  37  38  39  40  41  42  43  44  45  46  PAGE Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d l o g g i n g c o s t s f o r West C o a s t Tower, w i t h and w i t h o u t t a i l tree rigged. Roads c o n v e r g i n g a t landing  72  Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d l o g g i n g c o s t s f o r West '-oast Tower, f o r v a r i o u s r o a d widths. Width a t l a n d i n g 40 f e e t  73  Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d l o g g i n g c o s t s f o r West C o a s t Tower, f o r r o a d s o f v a r i o u s widths. Roads 80 f e e t wide a t l a n d i n g . .  74  Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d l o g g i n g c o s t s f o r West C o a s t Tower, f o r v a r i o u s r o a d w i d t h s . Width a t l a n d i n g 1 2 0 f e e t . .  J5  Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d l o g g i n g c o s t s f o r West C o a s t Tower, f o r v a r i o u s r o a d w i d t h s , Width a t l a n d i n g 1 6 0 f e e t  76  Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d West C o a s t Tower, w i t h tree rigged. Parallel  logging costs f o r and w i t h o u t tail roads  77  Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d l o g g i n g c o s t s f o r Washington Model 9 8 , f o r v a r i o u s r o a d widths.  78  Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d l o g g i n g c o s t s f o r West C o a s t Tower w i t h and w i t h o u t tail t r e e , and W a s h i n g t o n Model 9 8 . Parallel roads ••••  -  8t  1  Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d y a r d i n g c o s t s f o r West C o a s t Tower and Washington Model 9 8 , assuming " o p t i m a l " l o a d i n g method  81  Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d l o g g i n g c o s t s f o r West C o a s t Tower, f o r p r e s e n t work method and p r e - c h o k i n g  82  Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d y a r d i n g c o s t s f o r Washington Model 98 and West C o a s t Tower, u s i n g p r e s e n t and " o p t i m a l " l o a d i n g methods.. 83  LIST QF FIGURES  (Cont'd)  x  FIGURE 47  48  49  PAGE Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d y a r d i n g c o s t s f o r West C o a s t Tower, u s i n g p r e s e n t and " o p t i m a l " l o a d i n g methods  84  Comparison o f combined r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n and y a r d i n g c o s t s , f o r West C o a s t Tower and W a s h i n g t o n Model 98, y a r d i n g one and both ways ....'.  85  Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d l o g g i n g c o s t s f o r West C o a s t Tower and Washington Model 98 at K a i n g a r p a , New Z e a l a n d . . . .  87  50  Comparison o f s i m u l a t e d l o g g i n g c o s t s f o r West C o a s t Tower f o r 120 f e e t wide p a r a l l e l r o a d s , removing 113 and 200 p i e c e s p e r acre  51  Dispersion of simulated f i t t e d curves  52 53  t i m e s about t h e 92  S t a t i c f o r c e s and r u n n i n g carriage Two  haul  road  patterns  skyline  for uphill  98 l o g g i n g . . . . 104  xi. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The a u t h o r ciation  wishes t o express  h i s t h a n k s and a p p r e -  to thefollowing: Dr.  CW.  B o y d , Mr. L. A d a m o v i c h , Mr. G.G.  Young,  and D r . D.D. Munro o f t h e F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e i r  encouragement,  c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , and h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s stages  at a l l  of the study. Tom Boyd, J o h n Z i n g g ,  Jim Axelson,  R.Q. B o h l i g and  t h e DT6 and DT7 crew members o f t h e W e y e r h a e u s e r Company at Longview, Washington, f o r t h e i r gathering  cheerful assistance i n  the data.  Lou S k u d d e r , Tony H a r r i s , Bob B o y l e , o f t h e New Z e a l a n d data.  and C B . D o u g l a s  F o r e s t S e r v i c e , who s u p p l i e d me w i t h  local  Jim S p i e r s , a l s o o f the Forest S e r v i c e , arranged f o r  me t o work w i t h  Weyerhaeuser.  E. H o g l and J . R a v e n , o f t h e I n t e r s t a t e T r a c t o r Company and W a s h i n g t o n I r o n Works r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o r s u p p l y ing  me w i t h d a t a  on t h e i r  D.B. Malmberg, for  products.  o f Crown Z e l l e r b a c h , S e a s i d e ,  i n f o r m a t i o n on h i s company's Dr.  P.G. Haddock  operations.  of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Oregon,  xii. Columbia, f o r h e l p f u l advice on s i l v i c u l t u r a l aspects of the study. Mrs. Waldron, f o r typing the manuscript. Finally,  I would l i k e to express s p e c i a l appre-  c i a t i o n to my wife N o r i , f o r her patience and understanding,  and a s s i s t a n c e i n the l a t t e r  preparation.  stages of manuscript  1 CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  Commercial  t h i n n i n g of the second-growth f o r e s t s  of  the P a c i f i c  as  old-growth reserves  for  Northwest  i s important  on l o g g i n g  cultural  a rotation,  v i d e s an e a r l i e r tection  not o n l y  Worthington  and S t a e b l e r ,  the horses  yard  table.  i n the f i n a l  has been  t h i n n i n g s with  T h i s heavy,  yield  crop,  propro-  tractors  have  ago ( S p i e r s , 1956; a need  minimal s o i l  damage, on any k i n d o f t e r r a i n .  c l e a r c u t yarding  that  (Malmberg, 1968;  and c r a w l e r  used twenty y e a r s  that  tional  i n c r e a s e s t h e wood  and d i s e a s e  skidders  1962), but t h e r e  and s t a n d  resource  1961).  Adamovich, could  effect  r e t u r n , and g i v e s b e t t e r  insects,  Rubber-tired replaced  Thinning  financial  forest  o f ex-  f o r t h i n n i n g , and f o r s i l v i -  improves q u a l i t y  from f i r e ,  and t h e market  f o r t h e immediate  attractive  improvement.  expansion,  Improving t h e economics  c o s t s , but f o r t h e g r e a t e r  becomes f i n a n c i a l l y  a rapid  approach exhaustion  small logs increases.  traction  over  i s experiencing  f o r machines disturbance Adapting  tradi-  methods has u s u a l l y been u n p r o f i -  comparatively  i m m o b i l e m a c h i n e r y , when  used  f o r t h i n n i n g , was e x p e n s i v e  g i n g , l o g s , and r e s i d u a l and  per acre,  trees.  t o s e t up, and damaged Lower volumes p e r p i e c e  and t h e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y  damage, have r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e c e n t line  The an  logging  development  economic and e n g i n e e r i n g  is  still  is  needed t o t a k e  trees to of sky-  ( O ' L e a r y , 1969;  and W i l l i a m s o n ,  systems d e v e l o p e d  compensate f o r t h e p r e s e n t  1968).  must be s u b j e c t e d t o  analysis f o r optimal lack of experience.  use, to Equipment  e v o l v i n g and a c o n t i n u a l r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f methods  The in  of standing  systems i n Washington and Oregon  Adamovich, 1968, 1969; B i n k l e y  advantage of i n n o v a t i o n s .  w r i t e r was employed  by t h e Weyerhaeuser  Company  t h e summer o f 1969 i n s k y l i n e t h i n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s  St.  H e l e n s T r e e , F a r m , Longview, W a s h i n g t o n .  timber teen  on t h e T r e e  years;  logged  there  forty  Farm w i l l are vast  to sixty  exploitable.  areas  years  o f second  heterophylla plicata  lesser  and a l d e r  economically  rubra  t o p o g r a p h y v a r i e s from  (Mirb.)  c u r r e n t l y being hemlock  western r e d cedar  (Alnus  fif-  growth on l a n d  ago, which a r e now  volumes o f w e s t e r n  (Refn.) S a r g . ) ,  Donn.) The  than  D o u g l a s - f i r (Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i  with  on  Old-growth  bB c u t o u t i n l e s s  F r a n c o ) makes up most o f t h e s t a n d s thinned,  rig-  (Tsuqa (Thuja  Bong.).  gently r o l l i n g to  3. mountainous, but i s g e n e r a l l y steep and broken. i s f a v o r e d by a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d  The  region  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network,  c o n s t r u c t e d t o l o g the old-growth  forest.  A Weyerhaeuser  Company r a i l r o a d connects western p o i n t s of the f o r e s t to the m i l l complex at Longview, w h i l e t r u c k roads r a d i a t e from the v a r i o u s r o a d - r a i l r e l o a d s , many of them along o l d railroad  grades. Two  s k y l i n e t h i n n i n g systems were s t u d i e d ; the  j e c t of the a n a l y s i s was chine was  not t o demonstrate t h a t any  b e t t e r than another,  obma-  but t o i n d i c a t e the c o n d i -  t i o n s to which each was. adapted.  Time study data was  used  to c o n s t r u c t a computer s i m u l a t i o n model, w i t h seven uses of the model i n mind: 1.  Constructing guidelines f o r planning logging layouts  2.  Studying the s e n s i t i v i t y of each system to change i n v a r i a b l e s such as y a r d i n g d i s t a n c e , s k y l i n e road w i d t h , and s t a c k i n g  3.  C o n s t r u c t i n g a set of curves to p r e d i c t prod u c t i o n times and c o s t s f o r a given l a y o u t  4.  Experimenting  5.  A s s i s t i n g equipment s e l e c t i o n  6.  D e c i d i n g how to a l l o c a t e v a r i o u s machines t o different conditions  7.  Studying the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the systems t o New Zealand c o n d i t i o n s .  w i t h changes i n working methods  A g l o s s a r y of l o g g i n g t e r m i n o l o g y  may  be found i n Appendix I .  4  CHAPTER I I  DESCRIPTION OF  Two  THE  OPERATIONS STUDIED  t h i n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s were s t u d i e d i n t h e Road  12  a r e a on S t . H e l e n s  in  hilly  terrain  Tree  a t 900  near  the Headquarters  feet  elevation.  (See  Farm: f i r s t l y ,  t o 1200  camp on  feet  on Road  elevation;  1602,  secondly,  g e n t l e s l o p e s a t 700  Appendices  to  800  I I and I I I ) .  STAND DESCRIPTION, AND MARKING TREES FOR EXTRACTION T o t a l stand area. of  f i g u r e s were u n a v a i l a b l e f o r e i t h e r  T h e r e were about  250  6000 t o 7000 c u b i c f e e t  this  volume was  stems p e r per  D o u g l a s - f i r , 20  cedar,  and  10  logged  and  b u r n e d about 1910,  that  year;  old.  The  acre.  percent  alder.  Headquarters  about 1920,  About  percent  The with  most o f t h e f i r and  acre, with  hemlock, 5  Road 1602 a few  a r e a had  been l o g g e d  on Road 1602  and  of  percent been  trees dating  most o f t h e t r e e s d a t i n g from taken  percent  hemlock were about 56  a r e a had  A marking t a l l y  65  a volume  from years  burned  then. showed 47  stems  p e r a c r e marked f o r r e m o v a l which were 45  D o u g l a s - f i r , and  2 hemlock.  i n c l u d e d i n the  A l d e r and  down volume was  not  5.  calculations. clearcut;  Alder  patches,  w h i c h were u s u a l l y not per  meter b r e a s t 23  inches.  height  o f 11.1  According acre  had  skyline for  an  12  e x t r a 1000  from t r e e s c u t  dia-  tally,  1473  cubic  extracted;  D o u g l a s - f i r , and this  96  feet  (6543  percent  4 percent  of  hemlock.  volume t o about 1820  was  misleading,  cubic  cubic  In any  able;  i t accounted the  case,  f e e t per  the  Trainee a uniform  was  of the  probably  accounting  Further  volume would  gave a 50 twice  c r u i s e was  c e d a r which  the  percent  and  occurred.  underestimate  iffor b o t h stands  They c h o s e c r o p  yard-  question-  number o f stems  more r e a l i s t i c ,  f o r e s t e r s marked t h e  density.  principles,  e s p e c i a l l y cedars,  f o r none o f t h e  marking t a l l y  i s 94,  1  the  e x c e s s i v e l y damaged d u r i n g  validity  t r e e s removed, and  acre, that  acre.  from^uproots*, being  since after  to s i l v i c u l t u r a l  f e e t wide were c u t ,  after  ing.  to  average  a range of 7 t o  been marked a c c o r d i n g  have been e x t r a c t e d  of the  an  alder  with  were t o be  marking t a l l y  "roads"  Probably  stems o f  inches,  t o the  was  About 15  and  acre. The  stand  b o t t o m s , were  cruised accurately  marked t r e e s had  A l d e r would have i n c r e a s e d per  be  extracted.  The  cubic footage  feet  not  acre.  b o a r d f e e t ) per the  valley  "down" c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f v e r y d e f e c t i v e - o l d -  growth s n a g s , which c o u l d  were c u t  i n the  per  areas.  with  white  stems f o r form  paint, and  F i g u r e 1.  S e t t i n g t o be y a r d e d , Road 1602. Large gaps were c r e a t e d by c l e a r c u t t i n g a l d e r patches.  F i g u r e 2.  Thinned Douglas camp*  f i r s t a n d , near  Headquarters  7. dominance, not  being  prescription.  The  s k y l i n e roads ten chopping  "X  n i  8  tied  to a q u a n t i t a t i v e s i l v i c u l t u r a l  engineering  or twelve f e e t  i n the  tail  fallen  alder,  timber  Figure  Douglas-fir,  was  yarded.  fallers  vance of y a r d i n g .  "roads",  area,  c l e a r c u t areas  of n e a r l y  3*  BUCKING  They t r i e d  to f a l l  i s , at 45  f o r easy e x t r a c t i o n . ( S e e  Desirable f a l l i n g  of  pure  a month o r two the  trees i n a  degrees t o the Figure  pattern.  in  3).  ad-  her-  skyline  d i r e c t i o n of y a r d n ig  Figure  before  camp.  worked t o g e t h e r ,  ringbone pattern, that  and  chose.  Note the area  marking  ribbon,  Road 1602  Headquarters  FALLING AND Two  of the  2 shows a t h i n n e d  near the  wide w i t h  t r e e s they  F i g u r e 1 shows p a r t the  crew f o l l o w e d ,  8. All  trees  were l e f t  a few o l d - g r o w t h l o g s geable  by t h e  which  i n tree  lengths,  except  were bucked i n t o  small thinning  sizes  for mana-  rigging.  YARDING West  Coast  Tower  The m a c h i n e . tem f o r  The West  skyline yarding  Coast  with  Tower i s  an e x t e n d a b l e  a portable spar,  on a G e n e r a l M o t o r s c r a w l e r t r a c t o r  (Figures  The  powers the  Terex  a 239  tractor  transmission.  feet  long,  base  of  telescoping  the  outriggers  tower i s are  is  is  to  height  and i s  as  well  as  12  operations;  From A p r i l  a full  a steel  m o u n t e d on t h e  required; there  are  a third  they  a  is  three-speed  box s e c t i o n 49  feet.  right track  32  The,,,  frame.  two h y d r a u l i c a l l y  No  pow-  optional.  were  Two w e r e i n u s e  used f o r they  were t r a n s f e r r e d time  at  this  made t h e m s u s c e p t i b l e  to  intolerable  a detailed mechanical see  Appendix  IV.  at  t h i n n i n g most  since  Tower,  yarder,  s k y l i n e t h i n n i n g i n second  clearcuts.  through July  small timber  Coast  5).  growth  a p p l i e d i n t h i n n i n g i n Washington and Oregon,  on some  For  of  mounted  4 and  coupled with  The t o w e r  adapted to  timber,  also  Diesel,  g u y l i n e drums, w i t h It  in  which  horsepower D e t r o i t  Allison  ered  motor,  sys-  loose  bark  to  the  of  the  year.  clearcuts  on t h e  scarring^ during  d e s c r i p t i o n of  Road  the  trees thinning. West  Figure  4.  The West C o a s t Tower y a r d i n g  thinnings  i  Figure  5.  The West C o a s t Tower, w i t h tower r e t r a c t e d , moving t o a new l a n d i n g .  10. The  rigging  system.  operated  a tight  skyline  powered s l a c k - p u l l i n g the r i g g i n g  The  West Coast  system, w i t h  carriage.  Tower s t u d i e d  a Larsen s p r i n g -  Figure 6  illustrates  system.  c a r r i a g e _5lac^EUlliBaJ i n e — \/ nnainjine drum v  Figure  6.  duct.  Larsen  springs,  8 show a n o t h e r ,  but worked on two  feet  t h e same  sheaves on t o p  on t h e s k y l i n e .  The  150  of m a i n l i n e t h r o u g h  on  a drum on t h e c a r r i a g e .  pro-  only  two  principle. of the c a r r i a g e support i t  slack-pulling  to  extending  Coast  three s p r i n g , Larsen  t h e c a r r i a g e i n t h e o p e r a t i o n had  The  springs  on t h e West  c a r r i a g e i s a Weyerhaeuser-built  F i g u r e s 7 and  carriage;  springs  S k y l i n e s y s t e m employed Tower .  The  h a u lb a c k  J-  line,  which p u l l s  the c a r r i a g e ,  i s wound  T h i s drum i s powered by  the l e n g t h of the  carriage.  up  two  11.  Figure  8.  A t h r e e s p r i n g L a r s e n c a r r i a g e , showing t h e s l a c k - p u l l i n g drum t o p c e n t e r g e a r e d t o t h e s p r i n g s on t h e l e f t .  12. Its is  mode o f o p e r a t i o n ,  as f o l l o w s : Going ahead  slack-pulling it  tensions  line  illustrated  i n Figure  on t h e m a i n l i n e  p u l l s the  o f f t h e drum.  the springs.  "slacked" the springs  Then,  9,  As t h e drum r e v o l v e s , when t h e m a i n l i n e i s  cause t h e s l a c k - p u l l i n g  A friction  t o be  reeled i n , pulling  the mainline  feeds  t h r o u g h t h e c a r r i a g e and down t o t h e  the mainline  in.  line  sheave  ground.  2  t i g h t m a n in ie  Figure  9.  Operation carriage.  o f the Larsen  s l a c k m a n in i le  slack-pulling  13. The line, inch  1500  rigging feet  haulback,  10Q  foot  the  c e n t e r one  and  butt  ted 10).  so t h a t from  3000 f e e t The  and  of 5/16-inch  a sliding  of a b u l l  3/4-inch,  along the l i n e  o f f t h e end by t h e b u t t one,  which c o u l d  two,  hook s h a c k l e d  Butt r i g g i n g  hook.  (Figure  or t h r e e chokers.  be t u r n e d t o open o r c l o s e  used  the  but waspprev^en-  from  the  flying off.  c h o k e r s were 1 / 2 - i n c h .  F i g u r e 10.  1/2-  hook s h a c k l e d o v e r  t h r o a t s o f t h e hooks k e p t t h e c h o k e r s The  of  sky-  strawline i n  o u t s i d e guys were  consisted  slide  hook c a r r i e d  "Butterflies"  two  rigging  i t could  sliding  Each  of 1-ineh  7/8-inch.  on t h e m a i n l i n e eye line  o f 2000 f e e t  o f 5 / 8 - i n c h m a i n l i n e , 2600 f e e t  sections.  The  consisted  on b o t h y a r d e r s .  14  The  working  method  S e t t i n g up; The correct  e n g i n e e r i n g crew s h o u l d  position  o f the yarder,  gence o f r a d i a t i n g may be s i t e d sulting  skyline  have c l e a r l y  especially  roads.  o f f the center l i n e  marked t h e  at the conver-  Otherwise,  the yarder  of the s k y l i n e road, r e -  i n e x c e s s i v e "hangups" on c r o p t r e e s ( F i g u r e 1 1 ) . On t h e y a r d e r  a single-stage hydraulic cylinder,  set  inside  t h e boom b a s e , e x t e n d s  leg  braces  extend  with  t h e tower; t h e two  stiff  t h e t o w e r , and a r e l o c k e d i n p l a c e  w i t h two p i n s . Each g u y l i n e r u n s  through  two 1 0 - i n c h  f a s t e n s t o a s h a c k l e on t h e tower head. ferrules  hook o n t o  w i n c h drums. age  b l o c k s and  Guys w i t h  poured  t h e b l o c k s , and a r e t i g h t e n e d by t h e  In some i n s t a n c e s , f i n d i n g  sufficient  anchor-  f o r t h e guys among s m a l l s e c o n d - g r o w t h stumps i s p r o -  blematical. The bits  yarder  c a n be kept  more o r l e s s  o f wood under t h e t r a c k s , b u t both  the weight  o f t h e machine.  The s t u d y  lines  had been t a k e n  with  t r a c k s must  on t h e West  Tower came t o an end when t h e tower b u c k l e d T h i s c o u l d be t r a c e d t o i m p r o p e r  level  "setting  up so f a r as t o l i f t  bear  Coast  at the base.  up"; t h e guythe right(tower)  15.  side was  o f f t h e ground. greatest  The b e n d i n g moment o f t h i s  near t h e base o f t h e t o w e r .  skyline, while "fighting tower  forward.  jerked  back,  Changing The was  The to  "roads";  hooker  chokers.  pulled  the strawline a tail  19 ).  turn  o u t , and t h e s k y l i n e  could  eye was used  The u n i t  hooker  continued set-  tree being  slacked.  to pull  the straw-  A b i t strap  slack  i n the  s k y l i n e so that i t Then t h e h a u l b a c k  the  s t r a w l i n e through the t a i l b l o e k ,  the  corner block.  The  rigged.  on t h e o l d r o a d , t h e h a u l b a c k  be unhooked from i t s a n c h o r .  activities  about  ( f o r job descriptions of  d i s c o n n e c t e d from t h e c a r r i a g e and p u l l e d  haulback  line  down t h e r o a d  t r e e i f necessary, with  F i g u r e 12 shows a t a i l  After the l a s t  line  roads  (See F i g u r e 1 3 ) :  t h e s e men, s e e page  was  procedure f o r changing  help o f the chokersetter  ting  t h e guys  bending i t at t h e base.  be l o g g e d , and r i g g e d  the  a hangup" t e n d e d t o p u l l t h e  most e f f i c i e n t  as f o l l o w s :  Tension i n the  When t h e m a i n l i n e was s l a c k e d ,  t h e tower  system  and a few f e e t  pulled  past  The two l i n e s were s e p a r a t e d , andi b a c k -  became i n d e p e n d e n t  chokersetter  and u n i t  o f t h o s e on t h e l a n d i n g . hooker  old  c o r n e r b l o c k t o i t s new p o s i t i o n  The  s t r a w l i n e was a l s o p u l l e d  next took t h e  as t h e new  tailbloek.  o v e r t o t h e new t a i l b l o e k  F i g u r e 11.  Crop t r e e b e i n g  uprooted  during  yarding  17.  F i g u r e 13.  Changing  r o a d s f o r t h e West  Coast  Tower.  18.  and on  connected to the  new  from t h e  road.  case of  up  t o 160  to  new  feet.  new  new  the  Usually  to  the  road b e f o r e the  strawline  went i n a  road, through the  skyline  out loop  skyline  old  road,  anchor s t r a p  was  y a r d e r might be  have t o  loosened  y a r d e r was unit  and  not  be  moved  possibly  moved  in position  hooker s i g n a l l e d  to  "go  straw".  were hooked up, new.  y a r d e r was and  the  positioned,  haulback p u l l e d  and  the  the  strawline.  Before reaching  was  stopped  the  the  s k y l i n e through the  I t then p u l l e d  and  In t h e  meantime t h e  to  skyline  back.  been p u l l e d  r i g , across to the  The  Guys had  When t h e  the  had  anchor.  landing,  stumps.  the  ahead  the  the  landing.  that  stage,  a tree  a suitable On  log  this  along  back t o t h e  moved t o  strawline  At  landing  block i n the and  the  The  carriage.  (The  the  tower).  out  ( i n v a r i a b l y the  the  skyline  pulled  carriage  A f t e r the  be  to the had  tree,  the  The  haulback  and  i t was  the  old  along  with rigging pulled  strawline  hooked t o t h e landing  and  "wraps" i n t h e  lines the  road  anchored. back  haul-  hooked  remained hanging  haulback crossed  sections  around the  tail  block  i t could  straw  skyline,  chokersettex pulled  was  the  the  straw taken o f f .  anchor so  latter  out  the  to  from  were t a k e n  skyline  and  burned  19. it)  logging  could  Ideally  proceed.  road changing  t a k e an hour  and  t a t e t h e use  of a t a i l  about  seven  a half.  minutes  rig  man  tree,  tree*.  Yarding  cycle:  and  14 m i n u t e s  seven  could  d i d not  dic-  were  when a n c h o r i n g t h e s k y l i n e  man  crew was  who  s u p e r v i s e d and  set  c h o k e r s ; a c h a s e r ; who  and  kept t h e r i g g i n g  vised  about  but  saved:  and  pulling  more i n l o n g e r c h o k i n g  while the c h o k e r s e t t e r helped the  the t a i l  A five  40 m i n u t e s  Where d e f l e c t i o n  s t r a w out t o t h e h a u l b a c k , t i m e s f o r one  took  employed  s e t up r i g g i n g ,  chokersetting  for yarding: a  and  and  hooker,  sometimes h e l p e d  unhooked l o g s  i n order; a unit  hooker  at the  hooker,  landing  who  super-  set chokers; a c h o k e r s e t t e r ; a  yarder operator. After m a i n l i n e was sion the  a turn  had  t a k e n up,  on t h e h a u l b a c k  been unhooked on t h e l a n d i n g ,  tensioning  released  c a r r i a g e r e a c h e d t h e next  applied until  the c a r r i a g e  the chokers  be u n t a n g l e d from hook w e r e " f l o w n o r nearly l e v e l  brake.  hung j u s t each  the c a r r i a g e turn, The  brake.  " s l a c k i n g " the  m a i n l i n e was  above t h e ground,  other.  Either  t h r e e on one  settings,  the s l a c k - p u l l e r .  and  two one  the s l a c k - p u l l e r  TenWhen haulback  "slacked" so t h e y  chokers  could  per  on t h e o t h e r . was  the  not s t r o n g  On  20. enough t o p u l l of the Larsen  slack  about  Adding  an e x t r a  was done on t h e c a r r i a g e  rigging  900 f e e t .  down t o o v i o l e n t l y ,  man p u l l e d o u t t h e b u t t  spring  i n Figure  with  Tooter radio  a resulting tangle.  " T i g h t l i n e " ; t h e haulback remained s l a c k ,  the  s k y l i n e road.  and  logs  at t h i s  stage.  frequently  t h e b r a k e , and t h e c a r r i a g e  b e n e a t h i t t r a v e l l e d up t o t h e l a n d i n g .  Yarder  The  machine;  The  Model 98 i s a m o b i l e , t h r e e - d r u m , 180 h o r s e -  power y a r d e r  line  trees  onto  Once t h e t u r n was on t h e r o a d ,  i n the haulback r e l e a s e d suspended  brak-  out o f t h e t r e e s  Hangups on s t a n d i n g  W a s h i n g t o n Model 98 5 k y l o k  tension  which had been  was choked and t h e men were c l e a r , they .  t h e c a r r i a g e ; t h e t u r n was y a r d e d  tension  man t h e s l i d i n g  Both men c a r r i e d T a l k i e  ing  occurred  One  whistles.  When t h e t u r n signalled  7, b u t i t l e t t h e  hook, t h e o t h e r  by t h e u n i t h o o k e r .  i s abig  was n o t t h e answer;  hook, and t h e c h o k e r s were s e t on l o g s selected  The i n a b i l i t y  c a r r i a g e t o l o g down s t e e p h i l l s  disadvantage. this  past  which p r o v i d e s  and s p e e d .  or grapple  c o n t r o l o f haulback  I t has two m a i n l i n e s  yarding,  s w i n g , and a c r a w l e r  stepless  a 40 f o o t  undercarriage  f o r running  boom.with  sky-  independent  (Figure 14).  21  Haulback t e n s i o n drums by  infinitely  hydraulically The timber.  It i s operated  Road 12 For  interlocking The  the  main and riage  and  verted hill  to  and The  main and  One  was  studied  mainline  as  grapple  acquired  yarder  for  and  VI.  act  to the  grapple  the  The  (Figure 15).  The  district the  i n o p p o s i n g d i r e c t i o n s t o pay  out  butt  in-haul  car-  drums on  from t h e  rigging i s  s i d e to the  work t o g e t h e r  landing.  yarding,  skyline  Shamley  Weyerhaeuser  two  t o which t h e  of l o g s  a running  through the  a skyline  d e s i g n e d by  slack-pulling lines turn  operated  haulback ran  at C o s m o p o l i s .  turn  small  system:  synchronized,  to yard  outriggers.  clearcuts in  A p p e n d i c e s V and  W a s h i n g t o n 98  superintendent  the  no  has  i n J u l y , 1969*  s y s t e m , see  Shamley c a r r i a g e was  on  are  main  yarder  e i t h e r with chokers or a  sheaves t o f u n c t i o n  slack  and  The  a m e c h a n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  s y s t e m , i n which t h e  yarder,  there  a running s k y l i n e .  operations  rigging The  riage  guylines;  i s used f o r t h i n n i n g  ( i n c l e a r c u t s ) , on the  variable interlocking.  operated  98  r e g e n e r a t e s power i n t o t h e  and  The can  attached,  carriage.  to p u l l  The ,  the  car-  carriage i s easily  con-  operate equally  well  up-  downhill. rigging consisted  o f 1000  slack-pulling line,  2100  f e e t each o f  5/8-inch  f e e t of 3/4-inch  haulback,  22  F i g u r e 14.  Washington Model 98 e x t r a c t i n g  thinnings.  haulback slackpullinq  tailblock  line mainline  F i g u r e 15.  5hamley  carriage  and r u n n i n g  skyline.  23.  and  about  2500 f e e t  sections.  7/8-inch  the  same as on The  5etting  yarder  t h e Model 98  t h e West C o a s t  road,  on  buckled tally  new on  a tank  o u t r i g g e r s must be t o , but  have t o be  and  this  need t o be  this  may  easier  than,  Setting  setting  take  up  tower t o t e l e s c o p e , t h e  need t o b l o c k synchronized  up  the  the t r a c k s .  ( e . g . when  some t i m e .  The  machine, when t h e t o p p i n g l i f t  boom  was  put-  also  acciden-  set i n motion. Changing It took  the f o l l o w i n g The  roads: about 15  t o 30 m i n u t e s t o change r o a d s  hooker p u l l e d  s t r a w l i n e down t h e new  rigged a t a i l  t r e e with  chokersetter, while logging continued When t h e o l d r o a d was unhooked from  by  procedure:  back a g a i n , and  and  set.  aligned perpendicular to  there i s less  lines)  u n d e r c a r r i a g e which  . > the f o u r - a x l e v e r s i o n should  Tower: t h e r e i s no  I f the i n - h a u l l i n e s ting  was  Tower.  s t u d i e d had  i s similar  machine does not skyline  butt rigging  up;  be more m a n e u v e r a b l e , but up  The  100-foot  method;  m a n e u v e r a b i l i t y Ci  lacked  strawline in  guys were u s e d .  t h e West C o a s t  working  The  of 5/16-inch  the c a r r i a g e ,  back t o t h e l a n d i n g .  on  finished,  and  taken  road  the help of the o l d the  the  road.  haulback  through  and  the  Then t h e y a r d e r moved t o  was  blocks the  24  l i n e s brought In t o l a n d i n g from road  1  i i  F i g u r e 16.  Changing r o a d s ,  f o r t h e Washington  yarder.  25. next road  (guys b e i n g  unhooked and s l a c k e d  necessary);  the  h a u l b a c k was  the  landing  by t h e s t r a w l i n e , c o n n e c t e d t o t h e c a r r i a g e ,  and  logging  could  landing—waiting  p u l l e d t h r o u g h t h e new  as  start  and t o  D e l a y s m a i n l y occurred at the  f o r l o g s t o be removed so t h e y a r d e r  maneuver, f o r i n s t a n c e . Figure  again.  tailbloek  could  The p r o c e d u r e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n  16.  Yarding  cycle;  The same w o r k i n g method was above f o r t h e West of the Larsen  followed  C o a s t Tower, w i t h o u t  c a r r i a g e of  as  described  the p e c u l i a r i t i e s  course.  LOADING The l o a d i n g s y s t e m c o n s i s t e d o f a F r a n k l i n 170 P5 skidder  with  Nelson Batson skidder  a 42-inch  highway model p r e - l o a d  grabbed l o g s  deck, and s k i d d e d further,  Esco g r a p p l e ,  about t h r e e  piles  t o be s k i d d e d 17 and I B  This  forward  show t h e  bunk was  logs to a  The  grapple  a t a t i m e from t h e s k y l i n e  d i s t a n c e was  and sometimes much to allow  room f o r  o f hardwoods and s o f t w o o d s , which t h e n had t o be l o a d e d  jacked  onto t h e bunk.  Figures  process.  When a l o a d was the  bunk.  them 100 t o 300 f e e t ,  t o t h e bunk.  segregated  swinging  i n t h e bunks and a t r u c k  up h y d r a u l i c a l l y ,  the t r u c k  ready, backed  Figure  18  Grapple skidder loading  t h e bunk  27.  under, and the  loading  truck, is  the  the  process—the truck  work w i t h  skidder  b a c k s under t h e  had  pre-load  19,  20  and  21  takes the  trailer  load,  lastly  and  show off  the  which c o u l d  a gasoline motor.  In t h e  could  to wait  on  the bunk  yarder, to the  road.  hydraulically.  of the  operation of the  was  f o r safety while  from t h e ridges,  skidder  yarding  skidder,  landing.  was  produc-  skidder  used t o  was  putting  Washington y a r d e r except that  On  frequently logs  held  and  Sometimes t h e  skidder  independent delayed  pump  the  skidder  a load was  sometimes  often  on  them from s l i d i n g  not  yarding  finished  be  unhooked  downhill.  the  almost  grabbing  West C o a s t Tower l a n d i n g s could  had  skid  West C o a s t Tower l a n d i n g s  bunk.  The  frame-  highway model weighed  i n which c a s e i t was  the  steep  raised  of a  60,000 pounds.  equal.  became p l u g g e d w h i l e  a turn  be  systems s t u d i e d , l o a d i n g  the  adjacent  The  lift  r a t e s were r o u g h l y  logs  essentially  r e t r a c t a b l e r u b b e r wheels f o r m o b i l i t y ; t h e  18,000 pounds and  tion  bunk c o n s i s t e d  four stakes,  powered by  the  Figures  empty. The  It  bunk l o w e r e d .  atop  unless  28.  F i g u r e 19.  Taking t r a i l e r  off truck.  F i g u r e 20.  T r a n s f e r r i n g a load to  truck.  29.  F i g u r e 21.  Bunk r e a d y  f o r the next  load  30. CHAPTER I I I  COLLECTION OF DATA  The advantage  d a t a was  collected  of having set chokers  o f months p r i o r valuable,  and  i t s peculiarities,  was  gathered at t h i s systems  over a p e r i o d  and  chased  to e s t a b l i s h Data  good  timing  totalling  10  by  days.  75  continuous  233  t u r n s were t i m e d f o r  f o r t h e Washington Model studied  1603.  a c r o s s an e i g h t y  Washington 98  foot  canyon  village,  and  r o a d s on Road  on two  S k y l o k y a r d e r was  near t h e H e a d q u a r t e r s  98.  on Roads 1602  Road  roads  on  studied  on  where i t o p e r a t e d  2 on  slopes. elements  the nearest second,  as d e f i n e d  u s i n g one  employed, as t h e , c r e w s the study.  times  were s t u d i e d  and  13  relations  on r o a d change  1602,  The  system  sample.  West C o a s t Tower was  gentle u p h i l l  the  for a couple  with the  y a r d i n g on easy c o u n t r y on t h e f i v e  roads  had  T h i s work e x p e r i e n c e  1603,  The  who  stage, to provide a larger  t h e West C o a s t Tower and The  man,  both t o gain f a m i l i a r i t y  t h e crews b e i n g s t u d i e d .  Both  and  to the time s t u d y .  was  with  by one  below, were t i m e d  stopwatch.  R a t i n g was  worked a t a normal  Rating i s subjective  i n any  rate  to not  throughout  c a s e and  was  not  31.  j u s t i f i e d i n t h i s study.  The  yarding  c y c l e was  broken i n t o  the f o l l o w i n g elements: Element  Instant b e q i n - f i n i s h Carriage  1.  enters  Element Description  stand Carriage returns f o r next t u r n .  Return Stop w h i s t l e  2.  M a i n l i n e dropped t i l l chokers j u s t above ground.  Drop r i g g i n g  Stop s l a c k 3.  Untangle chokers from each o t h e r . Each man takes two.  Untangle chokers  Slack 4.  Pull  whistle Mainline pulled l a t e r a l l y out to t u r n .  slack  Stop s l a c k 5.  whistle  Set  whistle  chokers Last l o g choked  6.  Get  Delay as men get c l e a r of t u r n .  clear Tight l i n e w h i s t l e (two t o o t s )  7.  Yarding from w i t h i n stand onto skyl i n e road.  Breakout  Go ahead w h i s t l e (three t o o t s )  32. Element 8.  Instant b e g i n / f i n i s h  Yard  .Element  description  Yarding skyline  along road.  C a r r i a g e reaches edge o f s t a n d 9a.  Chase A  T u r n decked and c h o k e r s unhooked. Chaser l e a v e s  10.  Wait  U s u a l l y does not occur—delay while waiting f o r skidder to c l e a r landing, etc.  for Skidder  Skidder 9b.  departs Chokers  Chase B Chaser l e a v e s  11.  deck  Raise  unhooked.  deck Minor a d j u s t m e n t s to b u t t r i g g i n g , p u t t i n g on e x t r a choker e t c . ; r a i s e butt r i g g i n g to c a r r i a g e .  Rigging  Carriage enters edge o f s t a n d 12.  Road Change D u r i n g  13.  Rig  Yarding  Time s p e n t a t any p a r t o f y a r d i n g c y c l e on r o a d c h a n g e s , e.g. sending backrigging to the l a n d i n g . Major r i g g i n g repairs.  33.  For each t u r n , the h o r i z o n t a l y a r d i n g  distance  (gauged from r i b b o n s set 100 f e e t a p a r t ) , number of chokers set,  number of l o g s , and i n c i d e n t a l remarks, were The  l o a d i n g component was  l e n d i t s e l f t o continuous  recorded.  n o n - c y c l i c a l and d i d not  time study, unless f o r a week or  so. L a t e r a l d i s t a n c e ( i . e . the h a l f width of a s k y l i n e road) was  o b t a i n e d from o p e r a t i o n a l maps.  'Road' Change Elements;  Instant b e g i n / f i n i s h  West Coast Tower; Element 1.  Last t u r n unhooked  Move b l o c k s at b a c k l i n e Signal  2.  straw  F i n i s h moving yarder L i n e s s t a r t moving  3.  Backline r i g g i n g — ( s h a c k l i n g s k y l i n e to anchor) A l l l i n e s hooked up  4.  Rigging D e l a y — ( t a k i n g wraps i n l i n e e t c . )  out Start logging  5.  Wait f o r s k i d d e r — u s u a l l y does not occur: w a i t i n g to get l o g s o f f l a n d i n g so yarder can manoeuvre.  34. Last  Washington 98; 1.  Bring  turn  unhooked  lines i n H a u l b a c k eye r e a c h e s l a n d i n g and a l l guys unhooked  Move  yarder Yarder ready landing  a t next  Hook l i n e s u p — ( c o n n e c t haulback t o straw, p u l l guy o u t ) ! Haulback move  starts to  Take l i n e s o u t — ( H a u l b a c k t a k e n down r o a d and back, hooked t o c a r r i a g e ) H a u l b a c k hooked t o carriage. 5.  Rigging  Delay Ready  6.  Wait  f o r skidder T u r n volumes were not s c a l e d ,  as  a major l i m i t a t i o n  the  landing  graph t u r n s ,  of the a n a l y s i s .  was i m p o s s i b l e ; using  to s c a l e the l o g s .  inaccurate.  and t h i s  must be seen  Direct scaling  on  an attempt was made t o p h o t o -  known d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e s k y l i n e I t was found t h a t ,  o f each t u r n was o b s t r u c t e d , very  to log  i n this  method,  so volume d e t e r m i n a t i o n  The sample o f t u r n s  carriage part  was  p h o t o g r a p h e d , which  35.  could  be  scaled,  sion  that  could  turn  volumes measured i n t h i s  volumes d i d not fore, size  the as  p r o v e d t o be be  r e a c h e d was  that, way  yarded  was  built  i n the  and  within  conclu-  (30-150 c u b i c  feet)  on  f o r turn  study".  The  used t o e s t i m a t e b r e a k a g e , the  age  assumed e q u a l t o t h e  chunks.  only  range  s t u d y was being  the  the  have a marked e f f e c t  simulation  being  small,  of  c y c l e time.  There-  volumes "the  same  photographic percentage  percentage of tops  break-  and  36. CHAPTER IV  MODELING THE 0PERATI0N5  Figure  22 i l l u s t r a t e s  through t ^ ^ cover The is  dropped  the  the following  carriage returns  slack mainline  get  c l e a r o f danger  the  center  Figure the  of the road  (tg).  The t u r n  t o t h e woods ( t ^ ) , t h e r i g g i n g  out t o t h e t u r n  The t u r n  grab some l o g s  Backrigging  i s "broken o u t " onto  ( t y ) ( F i g u r e 25) and y a r d e d t o t h e 1 i s "chased", that  i s , unhooked ( t ^ )  again.  These a c t i v i t i e s  chaser  are subject t o  may have t o w a i t  from t h e l a n d i n g  ("t^g),  f o r the skidder o  road  changing  there a line  may be (tj^)*  Given  activities  carried  out d u r i n g  the yard-  (^^3^*  Figure  and  r  may have t o be b r o u g h t up t o t h e l a n d i n g and  of a road  road.  (Figure  ( t ^ ) ( F i g u r e 2 4 ) , and  some major r i g g i n g r e p a i r s such as s p l i c i n g  ing  (t^)  Then  a|  cycle starts  other  (t^).  2 6 ) , t h e r i g g i n g i s r a i s e d i n t o t h e a i r ("tj^)» ">d  interruptions—the to  (tg).  Times t ^  activities:  s e t some o r a l l o f t h e c h o k e r s  landing  cycle.  ^ 2 ) , and t h e c h o k e r s a r e u n t a n g l e d  men p u l l  23),  a yarding  27 shows t h e geometry o f a p a r t i c u l a r  the width  the length  at the landing  o f the road  skyline  and a t t h e b a c k l i n e ,  or t h e e x t e r n a l y a r d i n g  distance,  Figure  22  A yarding cycle in a skyline thinning operation.  38  Figure  24.  Setting  chokers.  39  F i g u r e 26.  Chaser unhooking a t u r n .  40.  f «» w i d t h at  landing  b = width  backline  at  = yarding w^  distance  = width of the  road  th  =» y a r d i n g  w^  = w i d t h at d i s t a n c e  + ^.w^  27.  The  turn  at d i s t a n c e  y^ + ^ y ^  distance  1 « external yarding road Figure  for k  for  y^  (k + l )  (y^ +  th  turn  ^y^)  distance, i . e . , length  geometry o f a s k y l i n e  road.  of  it  i s possible to find  t h e w i d t h a t any p o i n t .  REASONS FOR MAKING A SIMULATION Typical persed  data  as shown i n F i g u r e  a convenient  means o f c h a n g i n g  a few a t a t i m e , t o s e e how t h e y Some e l e m e n t s o c c u r  only  various  an e x p r e s s i o n  stand,  variation  model.  and i d e a s  to i n c o r p o r a t e The  the  input.  which  THE FUNCTIONAL Yarding  parameters, the  elements w i t h i n  can be b u i l t  a road  Various  can-  con-  i n , t h a t would be d i f f i c u l t  main d i s a d v a n t a g e o f s i m u l a t i o n  formula;  output  system.  i n t o a d e t e r m i n i s t i c model.  cause-and-effect  ing  the t o t a l  deterministically.  expense o f w r i t i n g and r u n n i n g  simple  v a r i a b l e s one o r  f o r each element as a f u n c t i o n o f  o f geometry-dependent solved  Simulation  W h i l e i t may be p o s s i b l e  machine, and g e o m e t r i c  be a d e q u a t e l y  straints  affect  dis-  a t random i n t e r v a l s , i n d i c a t i n g  use o f a p r o b a b i l i s t i c  to obtain  not  28 i s t o o w i d e l y  t o be s u i t e d t o a d e t e r m i n i s t i c model.  provides  the  MODEL  computer p r o g r a m s .  r e l a t i o n s h i p s cannot rather;  i s t h e t i m e and Also,  be a b s t r a c t e d  into a  e f f e c t s a r e t o be seen as a d i f f e r -  hopefully  can be r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n  FORM OF THE COMPONENTS  OF THE MODEL  Cycle The  r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e s c r i b i n g t h e e l e m e n t s a r e shown  •1*2.  -  v ~\  \  i V  r  <j  -1 J  s  \  J  V  (  I t  t  \  f,  *i t \ J  1  / \  f-; \  c}  A  /•V  V/  •1 t r  V  / \  V/  L  I  \9  i —( <  •  r i  i\  r-i p\  , ^j  ™r  ~ri r  I  KJ  i •  P  d  1  vo  t \  r-<  i—  I  1 AJ  (J  f\ \ J  t\  VJ  t)  t \  r  •<-  J  t  (i  t SI  V) <  f-i  L>  fl  <  -t  <  /\ /  1 J  c  J  J  V  i_\  t—  1  1  >-  >  / •\  44 vU  -—i  u  e  t-,  H  \  V  VJ  W  (i  p»  i  (•J i \ T  fl-  V  V,?  1  (D  —•  c) •\  /  Q)  p  V  f  4 \ J  *  i 1 J  t \s  V  _i  iJ  c  J  i V  Q  t\ \ J  D \  1,  /•  UJ <  1.J  /\  O  ,  cU  *  f  r V  A  i0 r -* h  t  >  V  ami  ^  \  \J  )  *"1  r  \  -\  VJ  V  ; I  1-^  W o\ 0  p  fhr—t  Ti  I  iTl  J  (  11  \/I V  V  r/i  I.  cy K cJ i  c  cp  •  I in •—i  n i Tr II  i  r,Ti ;  1  1  43. below; t h e t i m e i n m i n u t e s  f o r each  element, t . , , i s e i t h e r  i• a constant or a f u n c t i o n 1.  y^* t h e y a r d i n g  2.  n. ., t h e random number used t o s i m u l a t e 1, K the i ^  element  n  Where a primed tionships fers  o f one o r b o t h o f : distance i n feet  f o r t h e k*~ t u r n .  t i m e , t ^ , i s used, s e p a r a t e r e l a -  were f o u n d f o r t h e two y a r d e r s .  t o t h e Washington y a r d e r .  t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y  The prime r e -  A l l elements  independent,  were assumed  except f o r P u l l  Slack  ( t ^ ) and B r e a k o u t ( t y ) . F o r each r e l a t i o n s h i p , of the curve.  the root  o r mean f i t t e d  number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s , l\l, on which based  are given.  5 o r fewer  The r o o t  the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s  The d a t a i n d i c a t e d  be h a n d l e d as a l i n e a r  tance  (Figure 29).  regression  D e v i a t i o n s from  at t h e l a s t  a t o r r e d u c e d speed  The  t o t h e d a t a , and t h e  mean s q u a r e i s n o t g i v e n where  could  tail  fifty  feet  that  Return  function  the l i n e a r  f i t were  o f a r o a d , where t h e o p e r -  t o s t o p t h e c a r r i a g e from  h i t t i n g the  equations a r e :  West C o a s t Tower: = 0.06 + 0.00065.y.  time  of d i s -  tree.  t,  RMS,  o b s e r v a t i o n s were made.  Return, t ^ .  greatest  mean s q u a r e ,  ; (RMS - 0.09, N = 1 9 2 ) .  Washington tj  98:  - 0.08  + 0.0015.y  k  Drop R i g g i n g . t~.« comparatively N - 225)  was  ; (RMS  = 0.10,  T h i s was  Untangle  68).  a s m a l l element  and  - 0.09,  =  c o n s t a n t , so the mean, used  N=  (RMS  f o r both y a r d e r s . Chokers,  t j . These t i m e s were w i d e l y  d i s p e r s e d . A p o l y n o m i a l approximation to the i n v e r s e each  cumulative d i s t r i b u t i o n  of t i m e s t e n d e d level  o f about  cumulative by l e a s t  f i t below t h e  f u n c t i o n s were  interpolations  chokers  flown:  t =  +13.62.(n Four chokers  +3.70.(n  3  k  ) -4.91. (n  3  k  3  k  k  s  ranges,  were found  f o r 3 or 4  2  )  ; (RMS  5  3  k  )  3  i\l =  = 0.03,  22).  flown:  '-117.56.(n for  approximated  ) -12.16.(n  4  3  |~-0.07+5.06.n 3  of the  flown:  0.03+0.75.n  3  range  o v e r the l o n g e r t i m e s  30). Separate r e l a t i o n s h i p s  chokers  of  probability  p o l y n o m i a l s o v e r most o f t h e i r  (Figure  Three  over the e n t i r e  80 p e r c e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e i n v e r s e s  distribution  with l i n e a r  function  t o g i v e a poor  squares  0.03,  n  3  k  3  3  k  ) +76 .61. ( n 2  3  ) +87.19.(n  k  4  3 j k  $0.96;  29.00.n  (RMS  3  that  3  k  3  k  )  k  3  ) -23.94.(n ^ ) , 5  3  - 0.02;  -26.40, f o r n  Values obtained f o r t equal to zero.  -25.62.(n  k  6  3  N -  >0.96;  were l e s s  k  181). (RMS=0.10,  N=7).  t h a n z e r o , were s e t  1.  -  z -  d  -r  ci  •  1)  {'\  -1•i  n  r-\ Hi  i. r  S  p p u  I•  ro  •  L  z  * *J  -  u\ *  4  I  H  A-1 •  V- i  c1 •  M  0  l<I  H  P rH  U  . 1  P 'Ji H b  a  V J  \ u•>  IS  r  -»  H >  P OS H  c5  >  c  J  y  OC  •<  i  r) I  <L  r  a1 i +s a  U >  t  Li  y V  <D >H  P h. ] E<  •  C  4-s  !  •  * 1  C»  \i  •k  L1 '  JL.  J»  i. tb  J ZJ  •A  T  T  -t  a  C)  -»  t  47., P u l l Slack, pulled  t ^ . The  to the s i d e  f o r k**  1  the r o a d w i d t h w^ p e r s e d , f o r any  could  actual length turn  could  be. P u l l  slack  feet,  following  feet,  dis-  r a n g e d from z e r o f o r  to long  times f o r p u l l i n g  i n v e r s e s of the cumulative d i s -  f u n c t i o n s were f o u n d ,  80 t o 120  but  t i m e s were w i d e l y  g i v e n r o a d w i d t h . They  f a r o u t . The  tribution  not be measured,  Slack  turns taken beneath the c a r r i a g e ,  of mainline  and 120  f o r 0 t o 40 f e e t ,  t o 160 f e e t  width  40 t o 80  categories:  West C o a s t Tower: Width  0 t o 4Q  feet: . - 0 . 4 8 . ( n . . ) +0.31. ( n . , ) f (RMS-0.01,  t„ = 0.01+0.47.n„ 4,K  4  Width 40 t o 80 t  2  4,K  4,K  = 0.03-0.76.n +12.43. ( n ) -49.96. ( n ) +93.79.(n. . ) - 8 3 . 2 6 . ( n . , ) + 2 8 . 3 2 . ( n „ .) ;(RMS=0.01 4,k 4,k 4,k N-72), 2  4  4>(<  Width 4  80 t o 120  4 > | <  4  4  Width  k  ) +17.21. ( n  t o 160  6  ) +33.11.(n 2  4 > k  ) ; 5  4 > | <  (RMS  4 > k  )  = 0.02,  3 9  N == 2 8 ) .  feet: 4  k  +0.81. ( n  ) ; 2  4 > ( <  (RMS  - 0.02;  N = 17).  98: 40 t o 80  feet:  0.01+0.27.n =  k  4  4  = 0.03-0.01. n  Washington  *4  5  = -0.08+2.60.n ^ -12.6l.(n  W i d t h 120  3  4 > | <  feet:  -38.90.(n  t  N - 3 8 ) .  feet:  4  t  3  for  n  k  4  8.27.n  4  4  k  +1.20.i(in  *r0.85;  k  (RMS  -6.63, f o r n  =  4  ) - 3 . 31. ( n ^ ) +2.40. ( n 2  4  k  0.06,  k  3  4  N =  >0.85;  k  22).  (N = 3 ) .  4  k  48. Width t  80  to  120  feet:  = 0.14+1.83.n  4  4  (RMS _ 0 . 1 1 , Values equal  obtained to  2,  t  N  2  (n  4 > | <  ) ; 3  11).  t.  that  4  ) +4.23.  4 > ( <  were l e s s  than  zero,  were  set  zero. Set  the  for  -4.52. (n  k  polynomial inverses  of  c u m u l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n f u n c t i o n s were d e r i v e d f o r  1,  3,  Chokers, t - .  or 4 chokers  One c h o k e r t  _(  4  Separate  set:  set: ,  4  7  ,  n  5  k" * 1  .0.20.ng Two c h o k e r s  k  5 1 ,  f  +0.20,  o  r  n  for  5  n  k ^ g  k  5  k  (RMS = 0 . 2 0 ; chokers  *  4  0  (  ;  *> 0 . 4 0 ;  N : = 3  )*  (N-2).  set:  t. = 0.07+0.23.n ^ +3.94. (n  Three  0  N =  5 > | <  ) -3.03.  (n ^ ) ;  2  5  3  k  8).  set:  "0.40+0.93.n_  k  ,  for  n  &  k  40.94;  (RMS=0.04,  N-33).  *5 " 173.33.n Four  chokers  5  k  -67.71  ^  for n-  Jq.94j  (N-2).  set:  0.24+6.34.n_ *5  f  -266.15.(n+ 225.24. ( n  k  5 > | <  (RMS = 0 . 0 6 , 19.55.n-  k  k  ,-40.44.(n )  5  k  ) +148.33.(n 2  5  R  )  3  4  ) -71.04. (n 5  N =  85).  -15.67,  for  n_  5 j | <  k  ) , 6  >0.91;  for  n-  k  ^0.91;  (RMS = 0 . 0 9 ;  N  49. Get  Clear,  t ^ . The mean o f t h e s e t i m e s ,  (RMS = 0.09, N = 8) was used  for this  e l e m e n t . In a r e a s o f d i f f e r e n t not  be a good  a long  ground v e g e t a t i o n ,  a long  Pull  Slack  number used i n t h e P u l l Breakout, using  West C o a s t  stable this  might  time  frequently  B r e a k o u t t i m e , f o r example, i f a t u r n was  way o u t t o t h e s i d e . F o r t h i s  functions  comparatively  estimate.  Breakout, t - . A long indicated  t g = 0.32  Slack  reason  simulation  t h e same random  was used t o s i m u l a t e  the f o l l o w i n g i n v e r s e cumulative  f o r the various  width  distribution  categories:  Tower:  Width 0 t o 40 f e e t : -1.13+18.62.n  4>k  -96.13.(n  ) +236.13.  (n ^ )  2  4>|<  4  3  k  - 2 7 2 . 7 2 . ( n . . ) + 1 1 9 . 8 9 . ( n . . ) , f o r n. . <0.74;(RMS=0.07 4,k 4,k . N=20). 4  5  4  2.15.n  4 > k  -0.87, f o r n ^ >0.74; 4  k  ,  K  (RMS - 0.05, N « 7 ) .  Width 40 t o 80 f e e t : " -0.03+3.10.n +44.03.(n  4  k  )  4 > k  -18.24.(n  , for n  4  k  ) +57.43.(n 2  4 > k  ^0.80;  ) -82.82.(n 3  4 > k  4 > k  )  (RMS = 0.02, N = 5 2 ) .  V 21.20.(n  4  k  )-l6.24,  forn  4  k  >0.80;  (RMS = 0.08, N = 13)  W i d t h 80 t o 120 f e e t : t  ?  =  -0.06+3.26.n +22.50.(n  k  4  k  ) 5 (RMS = 0.01, N _ 5 4 ) . 5  4  -13.17.(n ^ ) +32.31.(n 2  4 > k  ) -42.05.(n ^ ) 3  4 > k  4  k  50. Width 120 t o 160 f e e t : 0.04+2.77.n t  7  4 > k  -l6.25.(n  +51.48. ( n  H  17.00.n  4  k  ) ;  3  4  f o rn  5  4 f k  ) +54.59.(n ^ ) -86.37in ^ ) 2  4 f k  -12.00, f o r n  4  4  k  ^0.80;  4  4  k  (RM5=0.05,N=48).  (RMS-0. 09 , l\l=12).  >0.80;  k  k  W a s h i n g t o n 98: W i d t h 40 t o 80 f e e t : 22.00.n  4  ~l6.40,  k  t =,0.07+0.18.m ?  -655.75. ( n  4  k  for n  +24.58.(n  4  k  >0.80. ) -175.85.(n 2  4  k  ) +310.72.( n 5  4 > | <  4  k  )  6  , forn  ) +509.28.(n 3  4  4  k  k  4  k  4  k  $Q.B0;  ^5=0.05,^40). Width 80 t o 120 f e e t : ^18.74.n  4  k  -12.08, f o r n  t • -0.02+0.55.n 1  -472.35.(n N=16). Values  4  k  +21.61.(n  4  k  >0.76;  ) -149.59.(n 2  4  k  ) +204.94.(n 5  4  k  (N=5).  4  k  )  6  , forn  4 > k  ) +402.06.(n 3  4  k  $.0.76;  (RMS=0.05  •  obtained  f o r t y t h a t were l e s s  than  z e r o , were s e t  equal t o zero. Yard, gression, that  tg.  unless  T h i s element was modeled by l i n e a r r e -  a hangup was s i m u l a t e d .  The p r o b a b i l i t y  a hangup would n o t o c c u r was 0.98 f o r t h e West  Tower, and 0.95 f o r t h e Washington occurred,  t h e Yard  value averaging  98.  When a hangup  t i m e was i n c r e a s e d by a u n i f o r m  30 p e r c e n t  hangup was not s i m u l a t e d ,  f o r both Yard  Coast  yarders.  random  When a  t i m e was g i v e n by:  51. West t  Coast  Tower:  = 0.10719 + 0 . 0 0 1 2 6 . y ;  Q  k  Washington tg  k  When a hangup Coast  tg  (RMS  = 0.24,N = 7 2 ) .  occurred,  t g was  modified:  Tower:  = (0.10719+0.00126.y ).(1.00+0.60.n ^ ); k  Washington tg  Q  k  - (0.17199+0.002D9.y $.(1.00+0.60.n ); k  Chapter  inverse  (N=4).  98:  Chase, t of  = 0.18,N = 1 6 4 ) .  98:  = 0.17199 + 0.00209.y ;  West  (RMS  g  .  The e l e m e n t s Chase A and Chase B  I I I were merged,  cumulative  (N=3).  8k  and t h e f o l l o w i n g  distribution  functions  family of  derived  f o r 1,  2, 3 o r 4 c h o k e r s s e t : One t  9  Two  choker s e t : - 0.16  g  k  ;  (RMS  = 0.02,  g  k  ,  for n  g  R  - 0.59,  for n  g  k  N = 7).  chokers s e t : 0.24  *9  + 0.56.n  + 0.21.n  - ,1.67.n  Q  k  0.57;-(-N >0.57;  = 4).  (N = 3 ) .  Three chokers s e t : r  0.14+5.45.n  *9 = + 2 7 . 7 0 . ( n 10.00.n  g  k  g  q  )  k  k  -26.14.(n , for n  5  -7.76,  g  for n  k  g  ) + 6 1 . 28 . (n2  g  k  <0.90; k  >0.90;  ) - 6 6 . 68. ( n 3  k  g  (RMS-0.14,N=26). (N = 3 ) .  Four chokers s e t : t  Q  9  = 0.15 + 3.49.n  Q  ,-7.06.(n  y.k  . ) +5.43.(n 2  Q  y,k  , ) „RMS-0.04. 3  q  y,k  N  _  1  1  2  )  <  k  i  52  Wait f o r S k i d d e r . t^~« of zero with  a probability  Tower, and 0.87 did  occur,  T h i s element had a v a l u e  o f 0.85  f o r t h e West  f o r t h e Washington 98.  i t s v a l u e was  Coast  When t h e element  g i v e n by t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s -  sions : West Coast  Tower:  325.00.n t  1  Q  =- 1 2 . 5 0 . n 1.83.n  Washington  no -  1 Q  1 Q  1 Q  k  k  k  -315.00, f o r n  ,  for n  1 Q  k  ^0.82;  for n  0.45,  f o r 0.40 < n  0.75,  for 0.70<n  1.05,  for n  the c u m u l a t i v e  1 Q  k  1 Q  k  k  <C0.98;  (N=5).  (RMS-0. 08 ;N=2B ).  1 Q  ^0.70;  distribution  (N=4).  ^0.90;  >0.90;  (N=3).  (N=l). The f o l l o w i n g i n v e r s e s o f f u n c t i o n s were  found:  Tower: k  5.00.n x  1 0  (l\l=3).  ^0.40;  1 Q | <  1.00+6.00. n.^ ,  l  (l\l=l).  >0.98;  98:  Raise Rigging, t j ^ .  t  k  -8.70, f o r 0 . 8 2 < n  0.15,  West Coast  1 Q  i:L  = -|0.58.n 0.18.n  i:L  i:L  for n  1 J L  k  >0.87;  k  - 4 . 0 0 , f o r 0.84 < n  k  - 0 . 1 0 , f o r 0.63 < n  k  +0.18, f o r 0.10 <r>  0.10+0. 83. n  A 1  k  ,  for  k  1 1  x l  ±1  k  (RMS=0.22,N=15).  4"0.87;  k  k  ^  (IM-5).  0.84  (RMS=0.06,N=25)  £0.63  (RMS=0.05,N=57)  -*j0.10;  (RMS-0.04, N-12) .  53. Washington 98: 0.70+3.00. n t| =,0.18+0.14.n 1  2.86.n  1JL  x  JL1  l  k  k  , forn , forn  a value  Coast  k  >0.90;  (N=4).  ^0.77,  (RMS=0.03,N=32).  of zero with  i : L  k  Yarding,  probability  $0.90; t ^  t h e means o f t h e o b s e r v e d  yarders: t  1  (N=5).  This  element  0.97 f o r t h e West  Tower and 0.95 f o r t h e Washington  occur, two  ± 1  k  - 2 . l 6 , f o r0.77<n  k  Road Change D u r i n g had  u  times  98.  When i t d i d  were used  f o r the  = 3.72 (RMS=0.27, N-6) f o r t h e West  2  Coast  Tower, and t ^ _ =4.19 (N=4) f o r t h e W a s h i n g t o n 98. Rig,  tj^-j.  a probability  o f 0.95 f o r t h e West C o a s t  f o r t h e Washington was  T h i s element had a v a l u e  98.  of zero  with  Tower and 0.97  When i t d i d o c c u r ,  i t s duration  g i v e n by t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n s :  West C o a s t  Tower:  10.00.n *13-  6.00.n  13  1 3  k  k  , f o rn  , f o rn  1  1  3  3  k  k  >0.83;  ^0.83;  (N=2). (RMS=0.28 , N=10) .  W a s h i n g t o n 98: tj = 3  5.00.n  1 3  k  ;  (l\l=4).  Theoretically, by  convolving  independent  t h e model c o u l d have been  the frequency  distribution  elements, d e r i v i n g  for  the other  two  by c o n v o l u t i o n .  built  f o r t h e geometry-  a frequency  distribution  e l e m e n t s by s i m u l a t i o n , and c o m b i n i n g  these  The method o f s i m u l a t i n g a l l t h e  54. e l e m e n t s was c h o s e n f o r  convenience.  P h y s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s , w h i c h v a r i o u s o f t h e above e l e m e n t s depended upon, were computed f o r each t u r n . The w i d t h  o f a road  at yarding distance y  was  k  g i v e n by w. .  ^k^. ( b - f ) + f 1  k  The a v e r a g e a r e a , a, o c c u p i e d by a = 4 3 , 5 6 D . p / p t  g  by a t u r n was g i v e n  square feet  where p^ = a v e r a g e number o f p i e c e s p e r t u r n p  = a v e r a g e number o f p i e c e s p e r a c r e .  a  The l o g s were assumed t o be u n i f o r m l y d i s t r i b u t e d road.  I n p r a c t i c e , they  along the  w o u l d be more c o n c e n t r a t e d  i n can-  yons . Given  the area occupied  by a t u r n and t h e w i d t h  of t h e road  a t t h a t p o i n t , i t was. p o s s i b l e f o r t h e y a r d i n g  distance y  t o be i n c r e a s e d by A y  k  2.a=(w +w + A w ) . A y k  k  Substituting for w tic  k  k  +/\w  k  f o r the ( k + l ) ^ turn :  k  l e d to the formation  k  o f a quadra-  equation 2.a= A y . k  (w +y , | b - f | / l + f) + k  k  f o r b g r e a t e r or l e s s than  Ay  k  = -w  k  +/w  k  f.  2  k  T h e r e was one r e a l  + 4.a. \ b - f | /2.1  for the increase i n yarding  (4y ) .(b-fl  distance.  / l  solution,  56. Washington Model based  on  element  times  5 t o 10  lines in. t|.  minutes  were  Uniformly d i s t r i b u t e d  o f 0 t o 10 minutes Hook l i n e s up.  7 t o 17 m i n u t e s  were  were  t^.  5 to 8 minutes Rigging  used.  were  Uniformly d i s t r i b u t e d  delay. tA.  T h i s t i m e was  random t i m e  minutes  o f 5 t o 11  for skidder. t l  percent p r o b a b i l i t y  The times:  z e r o below  a uniformly  the  distributed  above t h e 87 p e r c e n t  T h i s t i m e was  level,  pro-  and  road changing  t i m e was  u=5  u=l t h e West C o a s t Tower,  and  u=6 T  z e r o below  a uniformly  distri-  above t h e 95  percent  level.  u  r u=l  for  and  random t i m e o f 0 t o 10 m i n u t e s  probability  for  times  level. Wait  buted  of  used.  level,  t h e 95  times  used.  87 p e r c e n t p r o b a b i l i t y  bability  random  Uniformly d i s t r i b u t e d  Take l i n e s o u t , t ^ . of  times  used.  Move y a r d e r . t i , . U n i f o r m l y d i s t r i b u t e d times  were  o n l y two o b s e r v a t i o n s . Bring  of  The  98.  t h e Washington Model  98.  found  by summing  these  57. Idle  Time The  only  information  a v a i l a b l e on i d l e  time, T , cl  was  t h e y e a r l y a v e r a g e f o r each machine r e c o r d e d  company. with for  I t was assumed t o be u n i f o r m l y  a r a n g e o f • t o 32.6 p e r c e n t  distributed,  of the t o t a l  turn  t h e West C o a s t Tower, and 0 t o 22.2 p e r c e n t  total  turn  by t h e  time  of the  t i m e f o r t h e Washington 98.  .  THE STRUCTURE-.OF .THE MODEL  A flowchart  of the simulation  i s presented i n  F i g u r e 31. Turn t i m e , T^, was f o u n d by summing t h e i n d i v i dual  elements: 13 T  k  X  =  V  i=l The integer the  piece  t o t h e number o f c h o k e r s s e t .  sum o f t u r n  date,  c o u n t was found, by a d d i n g a  t i m e s on t h e r o a d ,  the yarding  distance  next t u r n s i m u l a t e d . information  every  A f t e r each  T , was b r o u g h t up t o s  incremented  byAy^,  100 f e e t  along  and t h e  distance  a road. equalled  the e x t e r n a l  d i s t a n c e , i d l e , t i m e , T , was s i m u l a t e d  whole r o a d ,  turn,  P r o v i s i o n was made f o r p r i n t i n g o u t  When t h e y a r d i n g yarding  simulated  as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l  turn  time:  f o r the  Initialize I Increment  ext'l y a r d i n g d i s t a n c e 1QD f t .  Increment  number  Increment y a r d i n g  of roads distance  number o f choker3 s e t  Generate  each  element i n c y c l B piece  count  [Turn t i m e =» sum o f e l e m e n t  Summarize  Figure  quadratic  31*  -  Generate  Generate  Fit  H  times  times  c u r v e s t o mean t i m e s f o r 10 r o a d s  Simulation  flowchart.  59. T  = T .ra s o  a  n  where mg  = a u n i f o r m l y d i s t r i b u t e d random number, range 0 t o 0.326 f o r t h e West C o a s t Tower or 0 t o 0.222 f o r t h e Model 98.  Road change t i m e was for  t h e r o a d was  idle  found  by  summing t u r n ,  the t o t a l  r o a d change,  time and  times: T  = T  T T  s  + T  + T  r  a  where T_ = t o t a l Basic  t i m e t o l o g the r o a d .  o u t p u t from  time t o l o g a t h o u s a n d was  s i m u l a t e d , and  f o u n d by d i v i d i n g  the s i m u l a t i o n  square  feet  the t o t a l  consisted  o f ground,  T^,  of the which  t i m e by t h e a r e a A o f t h e  road: T  = T_/A  M  where A =  .  1000  (f+b).1/2  that i s ,  T  M  "  T  k  +  T  r  +  T  i ] /  A  k=l where d = number o f t u r n s on a r o a d . This output sand  consisted  square  figure  feet  r e p e a t e d f o r ten r o a d s .  was  Final  o f a summary o f t h e time t o l o g a t h o u o f ground,  the standard d e v i a t i o n  o v e r t h e t e n r o a d s , and  Then t h i s up  p r o c e d u r e was  a partial  feet.  The  this  breakdown o f t i m e s .  r e p e a t e d f o r a r o a d a hundred  t o a maximum of a t h o u s a n d  of  feet longer,  mean t i m e s  per  61. t h o u s a n d s q u a r e f e e t were a p p r o x i m a t e d by least  squares quadratic  g i v e the the  s i n g l e minimum v a l u e  t r a d e - o f f between r o a d Logging  without curves had  curve,  a tail could  various t r e e was  be  FORTRAN  IV  G compiler  and  intuitively and  shapes and  thus s i m u l a t e d ,  drawn f o r each y a r d e r .  been c o n s t r u c t e d run  at t h e  program l i s t i n g  as  on  described,  the  IBM  expected,  yarding  s i z e s with and  i t was  output  or  a s e r i e s of model  programmed i n  360/67 computer  a typical  using  Columbia.  are  from  times.  Once t h e  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  and  orthogonal  chosen because i t would  changing  road  an  the A  shown i n Appendix  VIII. Methods  Improvement Two  improvements were i n d i c a t e d i n t h e  systems  studied. Firstly, ted  production  was  occupied  be  l o a d i n g was  from the  I t was f o r the Skidder"  West C o a s t Tower.  putting a load  q u i c k l y plugged,  not  e x p e n s i v e and  on  any  West C o a s t Tower, c o u l d  o f which was  o f the  nearly independent  the West C o a s t  Tower, i t was  When t h e  bunk, the  infrequently  assumed t h a t  t i m e below t h a t  the  sometimes  r e d u c e the  Washington of l o a d i n g .  estimated,  98,  could  hour.  alternative loading not  skidder  landing  f o r h a l f an  limi-  method,  "Wait f o r the  operation  I d l e time f o r  would be  reduced  62. from in  16.3%  t o 13.5%  the f i e l d  s i n c e "Wait f o r S k i d d e r " was  as i d l e , , t i m e  when i t exceeded t e n  F o r t h e Washington y a r d e r , w a i t was  e l i m i n a t e d , but  mulation  was  idle  intended  time  time  was  t o show t h e  recorded minutes.  i n the s i m u l a t i o n  not  altered.  effect  This s i -  of the l o a d i n g  method s t u d i e d on t h e y a r d i n g c y c l e ,  compared w i t h  interference  an"optimal"loading  method.  the choker  were i d l e  from  Secondly, the time. by  Could  prechoking?  flown; set ging  while  this  In t h i s  one  have been used  method, two  s e t i s on  of f o u r i s being  s e t on  t h e next  choked t u r n , and o t h e r man begins  takes  the  hooks t h e c h o k e r s the chokers  work s a f e l y  yarded,  turn.  takes  m a i n l i n e out  of  profitably are  the  other  When t h e  rig-  the chokers  off  to the p r e v i o u s l y  on.  In the meantime  t o t h e o t h e r s i d e of t h e  t o s e t them f o r t h e  method c a n n o t  man  more  most  s e t s of c h o k e r s  a turn being  r e t u r n s t o t h e woods, one  o f t h e hooks, p u l l s  and  time  setters  minimal  next  turn.  f o r l o g s on  road  Obviously  the s k y l i n e  the  the  road.  F i g u r e 32 shows t h e method s c h e m a t i c a l l y . Determining which t h e r i g g i n g was  not  easy  the time  the  r e t u r n e d b e f o r e a t u r n had  i n the absence of a time  However, t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a similar  s a v i n g , and  o p e r a t i o n , and  had  study  set chokers  estimated  extent been of  prechoked  prechoking.  in this  the c y c l e  to  way  on  as f o l l o w s :  63.  Untangle  (unit Pull  Hook  hooker)  (chokersetter)  Slack  Carry  Set  Chokers  (Get  Chokers  one  choker  Clear)  (Breakout)  Set  remainder  of  chokers  (Rigging  Figure  32.  Returns)  Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n method.  of pre-choking  64.  R e t u r n , Drop R i g g i n g , P u l l Yard,  and a l l l a n d i n g  Taking  the chokers  S l a c k , Get C l e a r ,  element  t i m e s were u n a l t e r e d .  o f f t h e hooks,  e s t i m a t e d t o be twenty  seconds.  the same t i m e as w i t h c h o k e r s  t h e c h o k e r s ; and t h i s  the Untangle Pulling  on, s i n c e  p r e c h o k i n g ) method, one man took all  Breakout,  each  slack  t i m e , was took  about  i n the usual (not  hook, o r one man  i n t u r n was about  t h e same t i m e  as i t took t h e c h o k e r s e t t e r t o r e a c h h i s next t u r n . one  man had p u l l e d  on,  o f t e n t h e o t h e r man had j u s t  choker.  t h e m a i n l i n e out and hooked t h e c h o k e r s finished  Thus t h e t i m e f o r S e t Chokers  as f o r one c h o k e r ,  o r two men s e t t i n g  s e t t i n g one  was about  t h e same  two c h o k e r s .  t h e c y c l e t i m e was computed as u s u a l e x c e p t t h a t for  two men t o s e t two c h o k e r s was s u b s t i t u t e d  regular turn  S e t Chokers  time c o u l d Another  t h e time  f o r the  In t h i s way t h e r e d u c t i o n i n  q u e s t i o n was whether t h e men had enough before the r i g g i n g  I f interference  on as many l o g s four  element.  Hence  be s t u d i e d .  time t o s e t a t u r h landing.  After  r e t u r n e d from t h e  o c c u r r e d , they could  as had been choked,  either  hook  or c o n t i n u e t o s e t a l l  chokers. T h i s was t a c k l e d  by s i m u l a t i n g  the time  to s e t the remaining chokers, given that men c o u l d  n o t work d u r i n g Get C l e a r  needed  f o r s a f e t y the  and B r e a k o u t .  This  65. t i m e was  compared w i t h  elements u n t i l interference  the  noted  A third to test stand  the  total  o f a l l the  r i g g i n g returned i n the  t o the  to the  piece  size,  species  characteristics however t h e acre  of the  composition,  and  New  latter  smaller,  so  two  the  t o keep t h e  same t u r n  more p i e c e s  was  Appendix  residual  much s t e e p e r ,  piece  and  count  per  volume as b e f o r e .  Climate,  situation;  many more stems greater conseadjusted  S e t t i n g chokers  t o t a k e more t i m e , because on  the  for  stand  t u r n was  extreme d e n s i t y  of logs  the  Yard  e l e m e n t s were i n c r e a s e d  g r o u n d . The by  times a 10  on of  for percent  factor.  LIMITATIONS OF The should the  IX).  s i z e was  the  slope  made  to a  assumed t o be  f a c t o r s ; piece  assumed not  Return  any  Zealand,  were s i m i l a r t o the W a s h i n g t o n  were removed. Breakage was  and  was  systems s t u d i e d  a v a i l a b l e (see  t o p o g r a p h y was  b e c a u s e of the quently  was  woods, and  simulation  of D o u g l a s - f i r at Kaingaroa F o r e s t , data  intervening  output.  modification  applicability  which r e l i a b l e  per  the  be  THE  MODEL  f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s can  be  listed,  borne i n mind when i n t e r p r e t i n g the  and  they  r e s u l t s of  simulation: 1.  cycle  Some o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e s c r i b i n g the  e l e m e n t s were based  on  a small  number o f  yarding  observations.  66  2.  3.  Topographical  f e a t u r e s , which can  affect  o f t h e e l e m e n t s by  decreasing clearance  making work h a r d e r  f o r t h e men,  incorporated  i n t o the  Landing  was  size  sample would be size  effects  not  were  most or  not  model. c o n s i d e r e d , as a  needed t o model i t .  t h e Wait f o r S k i d d e r  larger Landing  and  Chase  elements. 4.  The  r o a d change t i m e s  came from  a sample of two  range o f t i m e s 5.  T h e r e was lation wider son  6.  f o r the 5kylok  was  observations.  data  t o s e t up  f o r t h e Washington y a r d e r  for  than  120  f e e t , which l i m i t e d  of the  two  yarders.  was  not  7.  The  as i d l e  effect  a simuroads  the  compari-  made f o r downtime or  p r o d u c t i v e man-time, t h a t would not recorded  The  estimated.  insufficient  Allowance  yarder  non-  have been  time.  o f t u r n s i z e was  not  considered  explicitly. 8.  The feet  l o n g e s t road long.  theoretical; ing  The any  s t u d i e d i n the  field  e x t r a p o l a t i o n t o 1000 of t h e  e l e m e n t s which  was  600  feet i s  relationships describ-  i n v o l v e moving l i n e s  may  67.  have become n o n - l i n e a r 9.  The  l o g s were assumed t o be  tributed  on  the  from t h e  model was  simulation  s e v e r a l r o a d s , on  THE  t e s t e d by  a p l o t of raw  wide at t h e  back, 600  feet long,  ing  (Figure  33).  high  400  f e e t i n the  real  Cumulative  for  and  the  real  ences were s m a l l the  realism  cerned, the  and  dis-  data,  based on  turn  times  data  from  f o r a road  converging  at the  of long  due^ t o an  160  times  exceptional  feet  landpast number  d i s t r i b u t i o n ' p l o t s were compared  simulated  of the  superimposing  proportion  c a s e was  o f hangups.  uniformly  MODEL  o u t p u t which was  The  distance.  ground.  VERIFICATION OF The  at t h i s  times  were not  model.  As  (Figure  considered  34).  The  differ-  to detract  from  f a r as t u r n t i m e s a r e  con-  model a p p e a r s t o be  quite  realistic.  »  t* ni  \fc>  1 *-> C3  P «0  ,i1  V O rri O T  /  \  v.)  T  rrt  VO  C >  i  1"  r\ J  I  '  / \  f» L)  r v >—  I "t  i  »=  I  -*  J  ,i  i •  f  •rt  •V  1 -f =y *•  v: c hi  "1  -f rf  ~r 5 •\  s»*r  *J 1  t~  W  2^ «• ^  1 r  T  |\ V  mO l V  m (—* t\  t  M7  H  4  •rt  (D <  i  i  "1  I  i  TO Ji  i-  i r  <Lr  l\ I  V.  .  l V.  T •+• -<  ~1 Ly  1  a* \-  1 1  C C  i  r-1  ->  111  — 1  C " i •+  >  r  i  TT  4 L LLA  t/ = H 1  1  "i ITT T V  L  r T TA . n LA  . i  -1  H  r* u> ni  K  4  >  I "f  •\  —\  + I'i  ti ) J •r  J  1  0  <_ 1  v.ill. v.1  J  J  D  {  u  &~  1 i  (" \  5  0  m  4 -*  VO—  _v ©  —•+-  iD  r»  0  r r  LI  c >>  IU  ni  }  <)  C3  -1  ri rH •>  J  T  n s  i  r1  1 1\  L  > T—  f  W -T  t  f~J y  ~T  ri  v.  •t  ?-  *»  _  1  /•  t~  —'  c>  ri •\  ;,  t  \  r H  Q  *•  —  r n  cl cJ  I  1  it— i—j  1  1  f-  *f  T  i  "i  T3  to  c  1  T  il  |(_  >  •  rY\  7  4_  Q r  •  i  0,1 f=  r  r<  ,s f1 c  rl >-  n  rr  ti i  n  n, i  m  r i  ->  H  >  "1  4-  \>  fti  .[  33 (  i  P  -;  n  nj  |  1 H 1 X.  |  i i  iH  i  ;  rr)  1  1  _^  i ti •3  j  i  y  K  \  ri l  >w  r  •  N  *  > n -i  ( '1  ii  41  fl n  —  r  •)  •p fti r T  ij 1 -J  (Q  —.  ?  H  i  *-  |\  I  fH 1  $-<  r) 1  -i  c  "1  H  •4  I  ">  tt  -t  o fll 11  f  H  j- 4 r)  I)  r  .  L  •  •  •  b0  nS H rrt  ri HH b-4  i H  5  fl  •>  •  L.  0j 1 I  ,r «  n  r  xt f.  H  c)  <  » 0  rt -)  T  T"  i• > D •-f  f  ti  {  r0 i  nI  i  r> c> t  c0  $\  (  =?  ft T  — 1 L  T  r  1ll 1\' I 4  70. CHAPTER V  USING THE MODEL  Figure tive  35 compares t h e r o a d c h a n g i n g  t i m e s f o r t h e two y a r d e r s .  and p r o d u c -  The h i g h r o a d  t i m e o f t h e West C o a s t Tower must be seen  changing  as a d i s a d v a n -  t a g e , w h i l e t h e p r o d u c t i v e t i m e s o f t h e Washington Model 98 i n d i c a t e  that  low l i n e  speeds  make t u r n  times too l o n g .  square f e e t  were c o n v e r t e d  COST CURVES  Constructing  t h e Cost  Curves  Times t o l o g a t h o u s a n d to cost The X.  per c u n i t ,  and t h e r e s u l t i n g  h o u r l y machine and l a b o r For the purpose  r o a d s were chosen Simulated  o f comparing  costs  2.  plotted.  120-foot-wide  of a t y p i c a l  layout.  against  as f o l l o w s : costs  simulation  were p l o t t e d  and  o f roads  (pages  systems,  p e r c u n i t were p l o t t e d  Y a r d i n g and l o a d i n g  shapes  curves  a r e g i v e n i n Appendix  as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  external yarding distance 1.  rates  cost  i n t h e Longview  f o r v a r i o u s widths  (Figures  36 t h r o u g h 42)  72 t h r o u g h 78 ) .  C o s t s f o r t h e W a s h i n g t o n y a r d e r were comp a r e d w i t h t h o s e f o r t h e West C o a s t  Tower,  -  I  \  \  \  o  \ \  \  I  \  \  \  \  i  —  \  %  Q  c  \\  — —  \ \  1  —  \ \  R  aJ £h r. I 11  G  1  •P  •5 «  I  I  1  c  I  £  ft  H) <L 0) It  i' t/  c| r' ) N) h1  o n  i• ct  E3  o  fll f.  ct  p  c  /  //  ;i  i  ,1  ) s  £•H  j  h,)  i  c  4-rr~ \ i  f  1>  /  \  /  t-r1^ji I  \  ic  ^o  / r  L  u  SH  rU r  /  n  r  y  Q  c  "1 • |  QJ P i  1o 1  n  V ^± i 1 1 r  ffl rH  r  i  -< -<  ri  -i  o n  ri r 4-  H  \ \1n -  — ^> ^=  17™ {  c c;  H  /  03 tffl r* 3  /  y  /  ti  -4 ,r 1  i  *—  <  (  J -*  —•  y  [  rr  (U  /  V  /  C  tD 1 L> 1C »•  —<  <  i  '0  •i  —i p  y  '£)  I"0  S  f  -i&•  |i  f  /  •  jl r  ( (u  —  /  [  i  f.i  ,r l  /  I,  f,  ^  fQ -1 n -]  /  /  fi)Q  •0  j  1  f  m  (  1  r.i  r1 j (i (•\ n  ~i  /  / f  -  r\  | j  1 1  IP  d  IH 0  /  rin  4.  ip CG  I  (  j.  o  \  1  1  1  —,—  /h  W  •  n" P  ~V  ?, I  n i  >  rt  T  r  i l  J  t  r :  d  i  -I  )1  3 L -V •  1  i  L" L  1 3  31  V  LI  ill  X.  V  il  -  • <  H ?<  ;<  i  A si  I 3 3<)  -i  1 )  Ll  \ >(  : iH  >\  I  3  L<  V  /  L'  T  >U  r? K  i  a  r -l  .o  P  L?  J  P H  iii  li.  L<1  1  r I  1  r  )  ><  L  O  70  V  )  1  L(J  •  0 _>  t -T >  U ' J*H  Si  <  1r  r  1  i K If 1  If )  •4  1 . 1 •.  Ic  '1  r  r  M  i K *>  'C  .1 i  T•H r  r  •>( )  )() ^ + >i  r  ll'  t  -  i  r )( \ 1V  '(  )( 1 \{  r  r ir I1  r  V \  . ^H1 ) V1 1.  i  j  !C !T f  1  1 1  1  1  r  y 1 T  |  J 1  ;/ •> P p L L  ki"  -  -\  1  bA  1 L  )\1  ,r\  ad  J  r  v  D  1  i  XL  LJ  i  T >  1  Li  _» ->  3•  f  L  C  i i  2. 3 1 LJ i  1  \  1 L  >  |  1  1  1 I  It n  pi  >  12  J  L  IL  V  C  p  1  1  £  i. i J. u f 1 T  o  s b/  Q  0 f  -i o nu f t" 1  i  r.  h  I  ru I  *  K I'  C> L.  o n f t* n n 1 X u  1 1Q1  -AJ -  1  bl J i  1 «, J 1  a  faJ  £.  1  x:1 r  5  >i  h > r  3  )  4 )) D T' A.C L 1 i.  y X X. i  s \ •  n I.  -  ))  zr  ))  n r»  l  f  >  /  ))  rl )  )  )  1 CD- ;  •  79. with  and w i t h o u t  page  a tail  80) .  with  plotted (The ing is  idea that and r o a d  costs  slopes  distance. yard-  are equal  was d i s c a r d e d .  This  of yarding  haul  were compared.  point  have e q u a l but  of i n t e r s e c t i o n ) .  t o one o r b o t h s i d e s o f a A parallel  haul  ( F i g u r e 48, page 8 5 ) .  road The p r a c -  i n many companies i s t o c h a r g e t h e e n t i r e  of road  construction  was assumed a road  against  construction  by d e p r e c i a t i n g pending  cost  a road  logging;  o f $200 p e r s t a t i o n  was  r o t a t i o n , de-  and u p g r a d i n g  c u t t i n g s , and t h e i n t e r e s t  on t h e r o a d .  this  C o s t s might be l o w e r e d  o v e r an e n t i r e  of maintaining  cost  In W a s h i n g t o n ,  on whether t h e r o a d .was i n use t h a t  costs  between  current  i n d e r i v i n g the curves.  t a k e n t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  the  yarding  were  i s f o u n d where  at t h e i r  s y s t e m was assumed  costs  distance  The c o s t s road  ( F i g u r e s 44  and l o g g i n g  the "optimal" this  were  84 ) .  t r u e when t h e two c u r v e s  opposite  tice  and p r e c h o k i n g  81 t h r o u g h  construction  to find  only  loading  t h e systems s t u d i e d  t h r o u g h 47, pages Haul road  ( F i g u r e 43,  .  Costs f o r "optimal" compared  tree rigged  rate  long,  t h e road charged  86.  5.  Cost  c u r v e s were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h e New  situation 6.  Cost  ( F i g u r e 49,  pieces  p e r a c r e and  Longview  200  ( F i g u r e 50,  87j•  page  c u r v e s were compared  Zealand  for extracting  113  p i e c e s per a c r e a t  page 8 8 ) ,  assuming  the  same volume p e r p i e c e .  USING THE Two  q u e s t i o n s a r i s e on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  cost  curves.  ging  a thousand  about  Firstly,  t h e c u r v e s be  how  feet,  1.  proportional  roads  ing  the  for log-  means, d i s p e r s e d Secondly,  cause  roads.  to these times.  how  should  about  300  little  high times a slightly  formed i n t h e p a r a b o l a  feet, effect  Logging The  costs  following  external yardon l o g g i n g  f o r roads unrealistic fitted.  two  t h e Washington  curve:  l o n g e r than  The  Tower and  parallel  f o r each  d i s t a n c e has  times. long  their  f o r t h e West C o a s t  be n o t e d  On  and  t o t h e means?  l o g g i n g 120-foot-wide  p o i n t s may  are the s i m u l a t e d times  51 shows t h e d i s p e r s i o n s of t i m e s  plotted  are d i r e c t l y  of  compared?  Figure  98,  square  the curve f i t t e d  curves  COST CURVES  200  feet  "dip" to  be  T  <\  fta 3  /,  a'  =?,  3  —  1  L  1  •1  •y  r  =H  D.1  1 1'.  -T  )  I-."ll i •rv  Liq  =*-  1 0 S  ^i1  f r  y  t  w  1  ...  1  ,1  ia\ •  a. 1  r  V  3.  »  -** .J"  TTi 7  7 ^1  .T -I •  7  1-1'  Bl.L.y-  Tr  ~>  J. •  •f  i •1V, 1 J- I 1 L.JL L  q•  :•  P"Ji  r  T  r  1  n•  X.  L  J  +3" H  y1  ''r [  -cp-  5• 1 3  1  M  If  1  1  1|'  1 =1  fl  ty  •Vi  t  rlR  r  1  L  t  1  '•V  U'  rt •L  |  L -clr  4-  t  0  |-  1  t"  p  "\  T  7- I  i.  '<-  •i; •ts)•  V-  i,  4-  • 73  -£= •CC  Vv3 5  >-  1? ir  ~\  1  L.  p J 1 f 1- '.TT '1  t-  1  rr"±H  n  j .i  I,  • 5u >  "•(L) J  4-  r;V t  33  1  Y  J 33  33 i  \  rr  I")1 h  >—  f  r\  3J  r\  3J  j  3  1J  J J  H! L  -  -  '.at),-  t  > r>  J  11  c1  1  1  r  T  V  c •> c T  i  \  cb i ci  P <P CD  c5  4 a. i  — r  *~  f ~l  t 1  (11  w  r  Q)  r  r-1 C5 *->  a1  w  Ctf  w p"  o  ri p  •  fee ci H  O  ->  Fhi  + tT  to  4 (  T( 1  o  is c; F-i  ->  fc( CO ->  fi  i  1  c  CD  •  (J  nl  D  1-«p  1  r1 r1  TT  n ")  CV;  ri  o  (w  -i  ( C.  o  .1  X  <  H  4> (  i  ry v 31j\  <?  »  iiiT  71  r  r; zi  r  ,i 1  >  r_  c  1  rj%  M rt) Ft  a  r''!»F  n n rtr ViL> VJ v.  rl  if  f  r1  1  1  .•>  r)  T  •i  L3  4-  n  i)  <iH  •k 11 •1  rri 3) J  V  CC ci c_  -<  [fl  rH  4-  J  P  (  •*<  *i  r1 r fl V/pi  1 l •1  (>  !0  a  rt s 50 u  r w  i  F>  V  <  1  T1  p  E  1H  c  _>  T  f-i  •  crt  cc  u  <  i c1 4-  1  rt  z\  i) 1  a  aN  i  s  \ >  1  ^  C5  \  \J  f  o) Is c  c\  Zl  P  f  b  be[)  1  •  c1 cIf  j r  „  -<  <H  0  a  ?  -i  zi H  X)  a  10  H 1- )  •  —1 r> 1)  0 H  rt rt a u \J  c  a  44-  • C)  c-  T, 1 t •i  a 44r-  4  c  1  cc  0 •H  %j  ft Q .ifTil iii J  '\  o  J  \  cn rt  ei  0  p  <<-•*  Ui  U  "iii  f  'J  r> r  r  > c 0  r  ri r  •\  X  3  o T l II[ u  i  r t f,  P \} 1]  J  JL \  "E  He  T  t  n  /  i 1 I T  T  •r  lj -< 11  i  c> r  H  -  f  i  4i C) C)  r) r)  — piHO  r  i  tr  1 I  iT c 1 1.  t T  • I  ,T  U1  >  i  ">  x<  rri  •90.  %i\  Tb© tiraee t o jLog a thouaafid square feet as?© widely diaparaad*  A r o a d 100 f o o t l o n g c o u l d  c o n c e i v a b l y ba logged a t the same r a t e as on©. 1000 f a s t lohcjo  The r&nga o f tiroes f o r a given  l e n g t h o f road i s t y p i c a l l y one t o two minutes a. thousand squar© fa©t»»®-differenca o f ZQ t o 40 percent.botween a«trasaa values.. 3.  The curves are q u i t s w a l l ' f i t t e d t o the mash, tifaasp and are u s e f u l t o i l l u s t r a t e p r i n c i p l e s * They ar© l e s s u s e f u l f o r p r e d i c t i n g eoata or tirasa on an o p e r a t i o n a l b a s i s .  4  0  The tiwo© appear t o ba normally about t h a i r means/*  distributed  About two-thirds o f thera  i i o w i t h i n a h a l f minute a f the eurva? that i s w i t h i n a 10 percent rang© of ti©©. Comparing the two curves o f F i g u r e 51 ©haws, the fallowings io.  About f.0- percent of t h e i n d i v i d u a l time© over- ' • l a p f o r th© two" yar-dsra-^  Zo  Nona of th© moans o v e r l a p s .  3.*  About 10 percent o f th© i n d i v i d u a l tifaaa o w *  •  l a p t h a curve f o r th© other yardor, . 4».  Tha d i s t a n c e ©©parstina. tha two curved c l o s e l y approximate® the s e p a r a t i o n o f th© r a ~  •  spactive. means*  • •  , S'.». V i s u a l l y * thasa curves appeared well  enoufb  att>azrfit.*«l t o conclude that, ana yatd©* 'lagged. " . f a s t e r than the other for a l l road lengths*. . A e t e t i a t i c a l a n a l y s i s to' confirm t h i s  was.  hat c a r r i e d out*' •Sema .factMe which depend, on. th© p a r t i c u l a r i o c a * 'tistft war© wet  included  i n the. ©amputation, of the curva®*  such ae noh^pxoductive man-timet moving to a new  aettiftf.*  •the .eest. oiP 'downtime* overheads* and ee an. Sam© oaesa*' ^ i tosa w i l l went, -to 'la-'dii .insurances,. tsxe& and interest t« (  the machine' rates"-*  ' \•  Minima and intersection© on curves should not ba thought a f - a s l y i n g on a car t a i n .point, but w i t h i n a e a r * rahfe* pases i©  The purpose' ©f the curves f a r planning i l l u s t r a t e trend®;,'  pur*  In p r a c t i c e , i t i a u s u a l l y  not p e a a i b l a t o plan roads a f e x a c t l y the l e n g t h oorr©*» • spending t o , the minima an the Curves,  because ©f topogra*  phi©; and'mechanical l i m i t a t i o n s . Curves f a r the two caution.  ,  yerdars should ba compared with  Costs are a f f e c t e d by v a r i a b l e s t h a t war© not  . found'to b e ' q u a n t i f i a b l e * also,, 120-foot-wide road® nat- always he the beat b a s i s f o r comparison.  may'  Far-' a given  e x t e r n a l y a r d i n g d i s t a n c e , 120 f e e t sway be the optimum tisad width f a r ana yarder, -hut not f o r the o t h e r .  The pe*tieul&£ values assumed' i n da»iv£n.g thie'  zmt®  should  be bd»n@  #if%  %*»*» e i * » t , l^b©* and so on*  i n ffllnd*-ve>iut«e  mtm±  pm &&m _ p&$m  haul read  9  construction  93. CHAPTER VI  DISCUSSION OF NON-SIMULATED  DEFLECTION  Time s t u d i e s generally  CONSIDERATIONS  of a producing logging  unable to q u a n t i f y  effect is  can p r e d i c t  a v a i l a b l e , but t h e only  on y a r d i n g  cycle  The  i n the l i n e .  5 p e r c e n t , what a r e t h e r e s p e c t i v e of  and  or  the exact  f o r a given  Given load  Tension  carrying capabilities  and D e f l e c t i o n  by t h e p r o c e d u r e Handbook  skyline:  Deflection  5 percent  Span  5 sta.  Slope  0 percent  Dia.  1 i n c h . Weight 1.85 # / f t .  Breaking Safety  strength  factor  103.4  load  a d e f l e c t i o n of  Mann, 1 9 6 8 ) .  1-inch standing  of  amounts o f d e f l e c t i o n  t h e two s y s t e m s ? T h e s B may be c a l c u l a t e d  shown i n t h e S k y l i n e  are  experimentation.  d e f l e c t i o n of the s k y l i n e  depends on t h e t e n s i o n  the l i f t  way t o p r e d i c t  times of varying  by c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d  operation  the d e f l e c t i o n properties  s k y l i n e s . Mechanical analysis clearance  FACTORS  kips  2. S a f e w o r k i n g l o a d  51.7 k i p s .  (Lysons  94.  Carriage  Weight  Cable Tension Tension  3  kips  Capability: due  to  cable  0.85/k/sta/#/ft  x 5sta  Remaining c a b l e  tension  x 1.85  #/ft  = 2.3 45.4  capability  kips kips  G r o s s Load C a p a b i l i t y : Remaining  tension  capability  49.4  = 9.9  kips  Carriage  -3.0  kips  Payload C a p a b i l i t y  -6.9  kips  Tension/kip  3/4-inch  running  load  5  skyline:  Deflection  5  Span  5 sta  Slope  0  Maximum  Tension  Weight 1.04  #/ft  Tension  to  0.25  due  percent  percent  28.0  kips  1.3  kips  26.7  kips  = 5.3  kips  -3.0  kips  2.3  kips  cable  k/sta/#/ft  Remaining c a b l e  x 5 s t a x 1.04 tension  #/ft  capability  G r o s s Load C a p a b i l i t y Remaining t e n s i o n Tension/kip  load  Carriage Payload C a p a b i l i t y  capability  27.3 5  95. The  safety  f a c t o r of  which w i r e rope i s s u b j e c t haulback  tension  strength  of the  factor  of  extreme, beyond  t o permanent  i n t h e W a s h i n g t o n 98 h a u l b a c k , so  2 was  2 i s an  damage. The  i s h a l f the  f o r comparison  In t h e  load;  the  which was balanced  the  line not the  The  payload  to t h a t  computation upper p a r t  of a c t i o n lifted  ability  capacity  of the If  of the  of the  lower part  tail  tree  exerted  not  tension  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the  and  the  payload  and  the  cost  downward on  capacity  o f an  s k y l i n e can  extra  Does i t pay takes the  hooker an  running  factor  skyline, i t  o f the  t r e e , was  system  of  was  haulback c a r r i e d a l l of  without  haulback,  c o n t r i b u t i n g to  (Figure  the  such t h a t i t  52,  the  page  manner o f r i g g i n g i s  of the  (Figure  98).  inferior  the  haulback i s passed  52),  i t s tension  carriage,  but  gross load  becomes 7.6 block  upward.  capability  k i p s . For  o r one  have c l e a r a n c e  standing  safety  skyline.  on  those of the  purposes a  loading.  lower part  tail  for this  a block  running  the  o f the  tension  standing  the  f o r the  i n t o the  mainline  load-carrying  breaking  assumed f o r b o t h s k y l i n e s . A s a f e t y  3 t o 5 i s more commonly used f o r dynamic  assumed t h a t  maximum  with  two  properties  through  is The i s doubled,  little  effort  sheaves, superior  the to  skyline. to r i g a t a i l  hour o r two  tree?  t o r i g the  of o t h e r w i s e  tree  non-productive  96. time, 45  but  he  needs h e l p  minutes, reducing  Also i t takes tail  from t h e c h o k e r s e t t e r  efficiency  f o r 30  i n several yarding cycles.  s e v e r a l more m i n u t e s t o change r o a d s t o a  t r e e than  t o a stump.  fourteen minutes.  The  total  e x t r a t i m e i s about  On  the  plus side, extra clearance  ables f a s t e r yarding,  and  f r e q u e n t l y makes a l o n g e r  possible.  Where good t o p o g r a p h i c  deflection  line  decide less  is  c o s t than  the l a s t  from t h e  the  plot  hundred f e e t  tail  hold.  should  profile  be  engineering If  feasible,  the they  a  extra  crew, when l a y i n g o f the  fourteen clearance  out  critical  a  sky-  part  (us-  from Abney l e v e l s ,  After f a l l i n g ,  the  to  done at f a r  start-  e l e v a t i o n of  e s t a b l i s h e d from t h e  landing  site,  Local conditions  in rigging  stumps where  have been r i g g e d , o u t w e i g h s t h e  ex-  cost. engineering should  Clearance  should  i s harder  crew d e c i d e s  a l s o consider the  tree to lengthen  the r i g g i n g  be  a v a i l a b l e and  saving  road  available,  T h i s can  or so)  en-  i n d o u b t f u l cases  checked f o r c l e a r a n c e .  t r e e s would o t h e r w i s e  a tail  tree.  a profile  would d e t e r m i n e whether t h e  tra  run  a whole s i d e f o r an  engineering  should  the t a i l - h o l d and  maps a r e  Where good maps a r e not  road,  ually  always be  running  d o u b t f u l , the  line  ing  should  whether t o r i g a t a i l  minutes.  to  a  a stump r i g i s effects  of  rigging  road. not  be  too  t o "spot'; and  great, not  either.  enough l i n e  Then, can  be  97. pulled the be  through  t h e c a r r i a g e . A r u l e o f thumb would be f o r  s k y l i n e height less  h a l f the road  t h a n t h e maximum l e n g t h  carriage. this  plus  width  of l i n e  at that  point to  p u l l e d through the  I t i s always p o s s i b l e t o s l a c k t h e s k y l i n e , but  increases  cycle  time. MARKING  The  marking system adopted i n the areas  t o mark u n i f o r m l y An the  over the area,  r e d u c e d , as t r e e s l i a b l e the road could  could  t o cause these  be a g r a d a t i o n  along  i n thinning intensity,  o f a road  to lightest  gradation  i n thinning intensity  discussed  by Adamovich  point  hangups and u p r o o t s  across  after  would be  the side of  from  there heaviest  a t t h e s i d e s . The a road  i s more  fully  ( 1 9 6 8 ) . A d v a n t a g e s from t h e o p e r a t i o n a l  o f view would be r e d u c e d t i m e s f o r p u l l i n g  breaking  was  this.  f o r thinning  be marked f o r r e m o v a l . S e c o n d l y ,  near t h e c e n t e r  and  and c u t r o a d s t h r o u g h  improvement would be t o mark t h e s t a n d r o a d s had been c u t . F i r s t l y ,  sudied  slack  o u t , and fewer hangups. L e s s damage s h o u l d  be  c a u s e d t o r e s i d u a l stems. The according timber  intensity  t o t h e width  of thinning could of the s e t t i n g ,  c l e a r c u t on t h e c e n t e r  New Z e a l a n d thinning,  Forest  a l s o be v a r i e d  i . e . the proportion of  o f the s k y l i n e road.  For the  S e r v i c e marking p r e s c r i p t i o n i n s k y l i n e  s e e Appendix V I I .  98  haulback— upper  gure  52.  Static  forces  carriage.  on a s i m p l i f i e d  running  A  skyline  99. Strip  t h i n n i n g , where a l t e r n a t e s t r i p s  c u t , i s beyond t h e in for  the  Northwest  uniform  scope of t h i s  and  logging  thesis.  are  I t has  costs should  be  clear-  been  lower  done  than  thinning.  LOADING The pre-load  loading  bunk d e s c r i b e d  Appendix ing  system s t u d i e d , t h e  f o r the  costs).  from t h e plugged,  $4.92 p e r  and  hour w i t h  In W a s h i n g t o n , i f t h e price,  the  obvious choice ing  i n mind:  1.  Two  2.  Cold  the  3.  as two  loading  Zealand,  and  other  operation  Bison  $7.40 per  skyline sides.  the  would not  (see load-  landing  itself. be  clamshell  loaded loader. same  hour, assuming the  loader  T h i s method would be  under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , b e a r i n g  decking  and  activities—re-  c o l d d e c k s can  a Priestman  s i d e s would need t o be  West C o a s t  seen  of t h i s  hour  machine were a v a i l a b l e at the  c o s t would be  worked between two  be  skidder  $17.16 per  s k y l i n e deck t o p r e v e n t  At K a i n g a r o a , New for  cost  determination  Loading could  moving l o g s from b e i n g  earlier,  grapple  the  an  follow-  close.  g e n e r a l l y be  f e a s i b l e with  the  Tower.  The  h o o k e r on  one  road  ber  of roads converging  could  the Washington y a r d e r be  cold-decked t o one  studied said  satisfactorily. l a n d i n g would  that  A numgive  10.01.,  problems u n l e s s  l o g s were l o a d e d  4.  A c c e s s f o r r e p a i r s would be  5.  Species  6.  Close was  7.  not  be  right  to prevent own  logs  at t h e  end  of a  were l o a d e d bucked and  chaser  would have a h a r d  deck.  I t would p o s s i b l y pay  all  the  heading  bucking,  the  to c l o s e l y ing  off.  chaser  where p o s s i b l e ;  headed o f f . on  a  The cold  fallers  some l o g s  to  do  needed Cutting  c o u l d make c o l d  deck-  c a s e o f a West C o a s t Tower, a machine i s  needed t o move l o g s  from t h e  cheaper to operate  than  draulic  be  loader  can  for a pre-load  t r u c k s would p r o b a b l y that  $14s80- per creased  operations  handle t h a t .  lengths  by  impracticable. In t h e  ceeding  In t h e  f o r the  I f only  specified  trapped  time bucking  could  loader  spur.  studied, tree lengths operator  the  t i m e , f o r exam-  from b e i n g  problems.  skidder  effectively.  right  B u c k i n g would p r e s e n t  the  $1.98  yarder  as  needed t o see  p l a c e at the the  daily.  restricted.  segregated  s u p e r v i s i o n would be  i n the  ple, its  could  out  f o r the  hour.  The  s k y l i n e deck.  a skidder.  operated bunk  A P r e n t i c e D-100  f o r $13.50 an  (using the l o a d e r  i n c r e a s e i t s c o s t by bunk). saving  i n t e r f e r e n c e with  A loader i s  the  hour,  yarding  plus  for loading an  amount  A Priestman Bison would be  hy-  loader  increased cycle.  ex-  by  de-  However,  costs  101. standing loader but  t r e e s near t h e l a n d i n g  cannot  heel logs.  f o r slewing  T h i s might  the logs  The B i s o n should  skidder  can save c o s t s  however. , I t can s k i d l o g s on t h e l a n d i n g ;  does n o t h e e l  logs,  be c l e a r o f t h e g r o u n d .  o r might n o t be a c h i e v e d  The  ed  mean t h a t t h e P r e n t i c e  on i n d i v i d u a l l a n d i n g s . i n other d i r e c t i o n s ,  from easy t e r r a i n  and i t c a n s a v e r o a d  when n o t need-  construction  P r o b a b l y , 700 f o o t swings a r e p r a c t i c a b l e , on r o a d s to only for be  a low s t a n d a r d .  loading,  the l a s t  Where t h e g r a p p l e  sufficient  i n t o p o s i t i o n and t o a l l o w  only  the skidder  built i s used  few hundred f e e t o f each s p u r  d e s i g n e d t o low s t a n d a r d s ,  yarder  skidder  costs.  should  t o get the to  operate.  Because o f t h e many a l t e r n a t i v e methods and t h e large  p o t e n t i a l savings,  carefully line is  looked  thinning  t h e economics o f l o a d i n g  a t f o r each s i t u a t i o n .  sides are operated,  n o t enough t o cope w i t h  varying  should  Where s e v e r a l  a single loading conditions.  be  sky-  system  102. CHAPTER V I I  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER  RESEARCH  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed a t t h r e e l e v e l s :  firstly,  i n t o t h e c o s t s o f men, m a c h i n e s , and f i n a n c e ; s e c o n d l y , on improving ging  t h e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n ; and t h i r d l y ,  costs are r e l a t e d  future.  i.  A survey  it  are l i s t e d  below.  o f company r e c o r d s would r e v e a l t h e t o d i s p o s e o f a machine, how much  costs t o operate  and  and m a i n t a i n , l a b o r c o s t s ,  how much t h e s e t h i n g s  Haul  road  forest iii.  log-  Costs  best time  ii.  how  t o t h e t o t a l wood c o s t , p r e s e n t and  Some s u g g e s t i o n s  (a) B a s i c  into  vary,  depreciation i n the sustained-yield  needs more s t u d y ,  A standard  economic p r o c e d u r e  for calculating  the cost of f i n a n c e i n the l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y is (b)  Improving i.  needed. the Logging  Loading  methods s h o u l d be s t u d i e d , compared,  analyzed, ii.  Operation  and o p t i m i z e d ,  The m e c h a n i c s o f c h a n g i n g configurations this  drum speeds  and/or  on y a r d e r s , and t h e e f f e c t o f  on c o s t s , s h o u l d  be l o o k e d  into.  103. iii.  The  economics and  using be iv.  a tractor-mounted t a i l s p a r  of  should  studied.  I t might be  p o s s i b l e t o put  controllable, riage ing  springs  for downhill  on  spring  logging.  Larsen For  the  be  disengaged  but  car-  short  butt  yard-  rigging  thrown down i n a t a n g l e ,  could  pulling  stronger,  the  d i s t a n c e s , to prevent  from b e i n g  v.  physical feasibility  from t h e  one slack-  drum,  Pre-choking  should  be  subjected  t o a time  study. vi.  vii.  A way  should  tions  i n topography i n t o  The be  viii.  effect  The  costs  The be  x.  on y a r d i n g  savings  of v a r y i n g  incorporated  into  both y a r d e r s ,  o f optimum r o a d tance  model, costs  should  due  to, larger land-  be c a l c u l a t e d ,  Wider r o a d s s h o u l d for  the  varia-  studied,  o f , and  should effect  found to i n c o r p o r a t e  of s t o c k i n g  more c l o s e l y  ings ix.  be  found.  be and  the the  t u r n volume model,  s t u d i e d i n the the  w i d t h on  should  degree of  field, dependence  external yarding  dis-  104 . xi.  The economics o f s w i n g i n g ple be  xii.  skidder  road  should  haul road  p a t t e r n i s n o t known. roads  b o t h s i d e s o f a wide r i d g e , o r one down t h e c e n t e r  skidder  53.  roads  i t better, f o r instance, to build  along  Figure  on low s t a n d a r d  a grap-  computed,  The i d e a l Ii  logs with  Two h a u l  spurs  road  served  by t r u c k o r  ( F i g u r e 53)1  patterns  for uphill  logging.  105. (c)  T o t a l Wood i.  A silvicultural  study  effects  of d i f f e r e n t  skyline  road  the ii.  Cost  area  patterns  taken  c o u l d be done on t h e rigging  s y s t e m s and  on t r e e damage and  out o f wood f i b e r  What a r e t h e e c o n o m i c s , o v e r of c l e a r c u t t i n g  production.  a rotation,  narrow a l t e r n a t e s t r i p s as  a method o f " t h i n n i n g " ? iii.  I t i s not known how d e c r e a s e d affect  the t o t a l  yarding  i s saturated, i n -  p r o d u c t i v i t y might n o t p r o -  duce c h e a p e r l o g s a t t h e m i l l . loading  method might r e s u l t  bucked t o u n d e s i r a b l e iv.  The u s e f u l n e s s for  A cheaper  i n logs  being  lengths.  of the haul road  thinning, f o r later  speculation,  costs  wood c o s t — f o r i n s t a n c e , i f  a company's t r u c k f l e e t creased  yarding  system  used  cuts i s a matter of  but i t s h o u l d  be  considered.  106 . CHAPTER  VIII  CONCLUSIONS Operation i.  of  feet  This  and  cost  fore,  v.  vi.  cheapest  850  feet  i f any,  yarding  to  120  logging  i s on  roads  distance;  with  there-  wider.  r o a d s 700  feet  to  long, costs  are  comparatively  feet  row  ones.  The  cost  of  rigging  ticeable  on  a r o a d 160  yarding  f o r wide r o a d s and  a tail  insensitive distance  500  tree  feet  feet  past  for  is less  nar-  no-  wide, t h a n on  a  one.  Where a t a i l  C o s t s on  between  decreases  r o a d s s h o u l d be  300  w i d t h may viii.  up  wide,  changes i n e x t e r n a l  narrower vii.  difference  feet  external  The  to  160  shorter  Logging  cost  difference,  increasing  iv.  Lonqview :  wide.  There i s l i t t l e 120  iii.  West C o a s t Tower at  Wider r o a d s were c h e a p e r t o l o g , feet  ii.  the  tree  i s rigged,  e x c e e d 160  optimum  road  feet,  narrow r o a d s a r e  changes i n t h e  the  external  most s e n s i t i v e  yarding  distance.  to  107. ix.  x.  For  roads converging  mum  w i d t h at t h e  160  feet.  no  yarder  landing,  probably  dictates a radial  the  exceeds  yarding  40  f e e t i n s t e a d of a l l o w i n g the  feet  This i s desirable to avoid  long.  Up  landing,  the  c o n v e r g e on  Operation  opti-  pat-  more expense i s i n c u r r e d i n moving  gaps i n t h e  i.  backline  Where t o p o g r a p h y tern  at t h e  residual  roads  f o r r o a d s under  to  400  creating  stand.  o f t h e W a s h i n g t o n Model 98 t o about 700  the  at  Lonqview :  f e e t , 120-foot-wide roads  are  cheapest. ii.  Beyond 700  f e e t , narrow r o a d s would  approximately iii.  Roads 600  the  produce  same c o s t ,  f e e t t o 700  feet long  are  cheapest  to  log. iv.  The  cost  d i f f e r e n c e between d i f f e r e n t  widths decreases with yarding should v.  The  distance. be  Therefore  optimum r o a d  Logging  external  shorter  roads  wider, w i d t h may  r o a d s l e s s t h a n 500 vi.  increasing  road  costs  feet  exceed 120  feet for  long.  are c o m p a r a t i v e l y  i n s e n s i t i v e to  changes i n e x t e r n a l y a r d i n g  distance  several  t h e o r e t i c a l optimum.  hundred f e e t o f t h e  within  108, (c)  Prechoking: 1.  Prechoking tances,  ii.  i s cheaper, f o r a l l yarding  by about  dis-  300 o r 40(2 p e r c u n i t .  I n t e r f e r e n c e was r a r e — t h e always s e t b e f o r e  c h o k e r s were a l m o s t  the carriage  returned.  (d) ^ Q p t i m a l " L o a d i n g ; i.  There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e yarding  potential  saving i n  c o s t s i f l o a d i n g and y a r d i n g  can be  made n e a r l y i n d e p e n d e n t , f o r t h e West  Coast  Tower. ii.  T h e r e i s some p o t e n t i a l if  loading  and y a r d i n g  saving  * Optimal'"loading  I.  distance.  Compared:  As p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t e d , cheaper t o operate 850 f e e t  yarder.  made c o s t s more s e n s i t i v e t o  external yarding (e) The Two Y a r d e r s  costs  c a n be made n e a r l y i n -  dependent, f o r t h e W a s h i n g t o n iii.  i n yarding  long;  the Washington y a r d e r i s  on 1 2 0 - f o o t - w i d e r o a d s  past  this  p o i n t , t h e West  under Coast  Tower i s c h e a p e r , ii.  The c o s t yarding  iii.  difference i s greatest  f o r short  distances,  The West C o a s t Tower o p e r a t e s w i d e r and l o n g e r  than those  Washington Model 98.  best  best  on r o a d s  f o r the  109. iv.  Because o f i t s a b i l i t y Washington y a r d e r  has  t o swing, the  greater p o t e n t i a l  f o r r e d u c e d l o a d i n g c o s t s , and landings Coast v.  The  necessary  Washington  Kainqaroa  than f o r the  f o r long yarding  iv.  Logging c o s t s  are  Road w i d t h i s not  distances.  quite insensitive  volume t o s u s t a i n each was  for  Skylok yarder,  the  cheapest  on  because of  600  f o r t h e West C o a s t  Tower,  Because of the  labor cost  proportionate  low  machine c o s t )  t o s u s t a i n each s e t - u p ,  on  feet  feet  (and  and  feet  long  long  higher  high  volume  t h e West C o a s t Tower  l o g s cheaper than the Washington r o a d s o v e r 500  the  set-up.  r o a d s 300 and  to  distance,  important,  Yarding  got  yarder,  Simulation;  high iii.  West  98 i s a more v e r s a t i l e  changes i n e x t e r n a l y a r d i n g ii.  smaller  Tower.  except  i.  are  the  long.  yarder  110. (g)  Loading; i.  The  Washington  ditions ii.  A clamshell loader  pend on can  local  a grapple  where c o n -  the  skidder  c h o i c e would The  grapple  the  are de-  skidder  c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , and  in favorable terrain  when  do  not  skyline landing.  Systems: Turn t i m e s  were s h o r t e r f o r t h e West  Tower, r e f l e c t i n g  i t s greater l i n e  Road change t i m e was skyline; be  this,  and  substantially  drums on skyline iii.  cold-deck  conditions.  save h a u l r o a d  needed on  ii.  and  cost-wise;  some l o g g i n g  i.  should  permit,  competitive  (h) R i g g i n g  98  Coast  speeds,  f a r greater f o r the  associated idle  reduced  t h e West Coast  by  time,  rearranging  Tower f o r a  tight could the  running  system,  The  Shamley c a r r i a g e i s more v e r s a t i l e  the  Larsen  c a r r i a g e , and  i t s rigging  than  needs  less  repair. iv.  The  West Coast  running tained  Tower s h o u l d  s k y l i n e , with as  an  option  derance of long  the  be  standing  f o r areas  yarding  modified  with  distances.  to a  skyline rea prepon-  111. vi.  L i n e speeds and fitably Skylok  be  i n c r e a s e d on t h e  doubtful The  The  v.  of the yarder should  marked, e s p e c i a l l y  on  converging aware o f  C a r e s h o u l d be t a k e n  to allocate  t o t h e most s u i t a b l e  terrain,  Tree marking s h o u l d wait  be The  be roads,  the  are  until  each  after  yarder  the  cut.  A l a y o u t s h o u l d be made f o r a p a r t i c u l a r tem;  vii.  cases,  t r e n d s shown by t h e s i m u l a t i o n ,  roads vi.  deflection lines in  e n g i n e e r i n g crew s h o u l d be  cost iv.  t o run  desired location  clearly iii.  Washington  Procedure:  I t i s worthwhile  ii.  pro-  yarder.  S k y l i n e Road L a y o u t i.  drum c a p a c i t i e s c o u l d  that i s , d i f f e r e n t  fitted  to different  l o g g i n g systems  sysshould  topographic c o n d i t i o n s ,  e n g i n e e r i n g crew s h o u l d have  detailed  c r u i s e maps, t o a d j u s t r o a d w i d t h :  to  suit  stocking. Volume p e r i.  1  acre e x t r a c t e d :  Denser volumes l o w e r  costs, especially  roads  long.  under 600  feet  for  112 REFERENCES CITED  Adamovich, L. 1962. "Problems o f T h i n n i n g and S m a l l Log H a n d l i n g i n Second Growth Western Hemlock S t a n d s . " Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 157 pp. ________________ 1968. P r o b l e m s i n M e c h a n i z i n g Commercial Thinnings. American S o c i e t y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r s Paper No. 68-127. Mimeo. 24 pp. ______________ 1969. In T h i n n i n g and M e c h a n i z a t i o n . IUFRO Meeting, Royal C o l l e g e of F o r e s t r y , Stockholm, Sweden. 173 pp. Binkley,  Lysons,  V.W., and R.L. W i l l i a m s o n . 1968. Skyline Effective f o r T h i n n i n g D o u g l a s F i r on Steep S l o p e s . F o r . I n d . 95 ( 2 ) . 2 pp. H.H. and C.N. Mann. 1967. S k y l i n e T e n s i o n and D e f l e c t i o n Handbook. U.S. F o r e s t S e r v . Res. Pap. PNW-39, 41 pp. P a c i f i c Northwest F o r e s t and Range E x p e r i ment S t a t i o n , P o r t l a n d , Oregon.  Malmberg, D.B. 1968. " P r o f i t a b l e High Lead T h i n n i n g Methods." Paper p r e s e n t e d t o Redwood R e g i o n L o g g i n g C o n f e r ence, E u r e k a , C a l i f o r n i a , March 14-15, 1968. Mimeo. 6 pp. O'Leary, J . E . ( e d . ) . 1969. S k y l i n e L o g g i n g Symposium P r o c e e d ings.. S c h o o l o f F o r e s t r y , Oregon S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , C o r v a l l i s , O r e g o n . 100 pp. Spiers,  J.J.K. 1956. "5ome C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n P l a n n i n g a Mobile Logging O p e r a t i o n . " Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 99 pp.  U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r , Bureau o f Land Management. 1967. Logging Costs Manual. Schedule 15. P o r t l a n d , Oregon. 189 pp. W o r t h i n g t o n , N.P. and G.R. S t a e b l e r . 1961. Commercial T h i n n i n g o f Douglas f i r i n t h e P a c i f i c Northwest. U.S. Dept. o f A g r i c . F o r e s t S e r v i c e . Tech. B u l l . No. 1230, 124 pp.  113. APPENDIX I  Glossary  of Logging  T h e r e a r e two  major l o g g i n g  Northwest today: f i r s t l y , a crawler skidder,  methods i n t h e  t r a c t o r or s k i d d e r  " s k i d s " logs behind  of cables  i t ; secondly, yarder,  t o a c e n t r a l " l a n d i n g " , where t h e  trucks.  Haul roads connect the l a n d i n g s  where  vehicle, a  cable  "yards"  Pacific  logging,  t r a c t o r , or a r u b b e r - t i r e d a r t i c u l a t e d  where a s t a t i o n a r y u n i t , t h e  on  Terminology  yarding,  l o g s by  means  logs are  loaded  to a sawmill  or  pulpmill. A s k y l i n e system i s a form of c a b l e y a r d i n g w h i c h an lifted  aerial  cableway allows  c l e a r of o b s t a c l e s .  At  the the  "turn" of logs to landing  s u s p e n d e d from a s t e e l tower; a t t h e ened t o a stump, o r t o a " t a i l required.  A s k y l i n e "road"  from which t h e up".  logs  are  a road  i s "changed", t h a t i s , t h e  tail  t r e e o r stump, and  new  one  area  of  fastis  ground  skyline "set-  have been y a r d e d ,  the  s k y l i n e i s moved t o a  yarder  may  a l s o be  new  moved t o  a  landing. In t h i n n i n g w i t h  ten  the  skyline i s  t r e e " where more l i f t  r e f e r s t o the  road  the  be  "backline" i t i s  y a r d e d t o any  When a l l t h e l o g s on  in  a s k y l i n e , a l l t r e e s i n the  or twelve f e e t of a road  make a p a t h  for extraction.  are  cut  Over t h e  by  the  rest  center  "fallers", of the  area,  to  114.  Appendix  I  only c e r t a i n The "guys". ing  (cont'd)  "marked" t r e e s a r e tower on t h e y a r d e r  At a new  A light  around t h e r o a d m a n u a l l y ; and  used  to p u l l  i s h e l d up  landing, "setting  t h e y a r d e r , t a k i n g out  guys t o stumps.  fallen.  out  up"  the l i n e s ,  line,  the  illustrations  clarify  the s i t u a t i o n  involves position-  and  "anchoring"  i t i s hooked back o n t o  the h e a v i e r l i n e s  of Chapter to the  by  the  "strawline", i s pulled  T h e s e terms a r e i l l u s t r a t e d and  straight  used  yarder  i n yarding.  i n Figure  II w i l l serve to layman.  the  (L  ; the  further  text  F i g u r e 1.  Logging  Terminology,  Road 1602  Study  Area  Map  Headquarters  Study  Area  Map  APPENDIX IV West C o a s t Tower  Specifications  APPENDIX IV  119.  CARRIER: Engine—Series 6-71 Diesel 239 gross vehicle horsepower ra 2100 r.p.m. 6 cylinder, 4 /,"x5" (108 mm x 127 mm). Torque Converter—Allison—GM hydraulic (no clutch) Transmission—(Power Shi(l) Allison GM 3 speed Track—7 track rollers each side, 43 shoes, 78" track gauge. GENERAL DIMENSIONS Width-13' 9" track extended Height—11' 3" top of cab Length— 45': Weight Approx. 75,000 pounds. HOIST: Air controlled; self-aligning lifetime bearings, all clutches and brakes mounted outside of yarder frame for easy maintenance with quick release valves, air set dogs; = 100—1 Vi" .pitch chain. TOWER: 16" x 16" formed steel box section 32' with hydraulically controlled extension to 49'. Rubber-mounted slifflegs, 4" hydraulic cylinder for boom extension. TOWER BASE: 1- beam construction and pin mounting for easy removal. POWER GUYLINES 2— Gearmatic No. HE hydraulic winches, cab-controlled, power in and power out, 11,000= pull each, 74' per min. line speed, bare drum (3rd guyline drum optional). AIR SYSTEM Bendix—Westinghouse 12 cu. ft. compressor, SAEJ1402 fittings and hoses. l  HYDRAULIC SYSTEM: Gear pump—35 g.p.m. @ 2000 lbs. p.s.i. Standard SAE100R2 fittings and hoses. Tank capacity 35 gallons. FAIRLEADS 2 Young Model 814—main and haulback. 1 Young Model 385—bullseye type—strawline. 4 Young Model 826 10" Blocks—guylines. 3 Young 821 8" TSA Sheaves—main, haulback and slackline. FUEL TANK 180 gallon capacity. STANDARD EQUIPMENT Fully-enclosed, rubber-mounted, full-visibility cab of all-bolted steel construction, 4 sliding windows, hinged roof panel, heater, defroster, windshield wiper, adjustable bucket seat, electric air horn, 35 amp. alternator, 24 volt starting system. Slackline  Line Capacity Clutches  Main Drum  2700'—y" 1800'—%" 2000'—1" 1600'—1 Ve" s  Wichita ATD 214 Disc  Wichita ATD 218 Disc  Haulback  Strawline  1800'—%" 3600'—/," 5000'—1,4" 5  c  Wichita ATD 214 Disc  Wichita ATD 114 Disc  Wichita 7" Air Wichita 3"x21>/" ATD 118 Band ATD 118 Band3" 136%" Water Cooled Water Cooled Manual Disc Disc 2  Brakes  3'/ " 4140 heal treated 5  16  Shafts  3/,o" 4140 heal ticated 7  3' /l6" 5  4140 heal treated  4140 heat treated  Model WC6S-3 SPECIFICATIONS  LINE SPEED  Manulaclured,  Sold and Serviced by:  I1TE1STIIE T U T U 111 PORTLAND  2855 N.W. Front Ave., 97208 228-2333  PORTLAND  • 2320 H.E. Columbia Blvd. 97211 2820017  EUGENE  MEDFORD  1041 Highway 99N • Box 192 • 97401 688-7321  5100 Crater Lake Ave. 97501 779-5255  120. APPENDIX V Washington  Model  98 S k y l o k Y a r d e r  Specifications  APPENDIX V  Specifications M O D E L 98 S K Y L O K Yarder O o w l e r mounted  DIMENSIONS Mox. height over " A " Frame Mox. height to machinery house Minimum swing clearance Minimum ground clearance Toil swing topping drum Tail swing machinery deck Top main sheave to haulback sheave Boom length Boom height to ground at 20° Carrier height without Mono-race Length of tracks on ground Overall carrier length Height over operator's cab Width of operator's cab Mox- width of machinery house Width from center Width from center Boom pin to ground Center to center track Ireod Width of track tread Width over outside tracks Ovoroll width of carrier Centers af front & rear tandems Center to center of outriggers Wheel Base Y Width over outside tires z Width of rear track AA Width of steering track BE Mox width of retracted jacks CC Center to center of retractable jack A B C D E F G H 1 J K L M N 0 Pi Pz Q R S T U V w  4 AXLE 35' 8" 8" 12' 4' 10" 12" 14' 0" 0" 12' 0" 3' 40' 0" 44' 9" 4' Ah" 24' 2Yi" 14' 11" 3' 6" 8' 0" 6' 5" 0" 4" 9" 6' — —  TANK 8" 8" 10" 23" 14' 0" 12' 0" 3' 0" 40' 0" 44' 9" 4' 7-3/4" 15' 4" 19' 10-1/2" 14' 11" 3' 6" 8' 0" 6' 5" 4' 0" 6' 9" 92" 2' 0" 35' 12' 4'  10' 54" 12' 2" 13' 6" 8' 8" 80" 90" 11' 0" 14" 0"  0"  LINE PULLS, SPEEDS and CAPACITIES Main Drums Reor Front Max. line pull (lbs.) F u l l drum Bare drum Max. L i n e speed (fpm] F u l l drum Bare drum L i n e size  60,000 70,000  18,000 22,800  904 712  904 712  5/8"  Capacity  1,000'  1966, WASHINGTON IRON WORKS  11,100 16,750 713-1,363 471-903  5/8"  3/4"  1,000'  2,100'  OTHER DATA Swing speed, 4.8 rpm Travel speed, 0 to 10.4 mph Tank  13.4 M.P.H.  4 Axle  Gradeability, 25% Tank 25% 4 A x l e Washington " V a r i - l o k " drive assembly i s covered by U.S. patent nos.: 3,300,188; .3,282,569; 3,002,385. Other U.S. and Canadian patents pending.  W ®  mmm.  w 1500 Sixth Avenue South Seattle. Wail, SSI34 . Tel. (206) 623-1292  P R I N T E D IN U.S.A.  Haulback  APPENDIX Infinitely  Variable  VI Interlocking  INFINITELY VARIABLE  INTERLOCKING  J i m E. R a v e n Sales M a n a g e r , L o g g i n g D i v i s i o n Washington Iron Works Seattle, Washington WASHINGTON IRON WORKS HAS T h e design m a y  P R O D U C E D Y A R D I N G M A C H I N E S O F I N T E R L O C K I N G D E S I G N f o r the past 5 y e a r s .  best be d e s c r i b e d as " s t e p " o r " s h i f t " ' i n t e r l o c k i n g , w h e r e a d e f i n i t e step i n gears is m a d e b y s h i f t i n g , t o e i t h e r  increase o r d e c r e a s e the s p e e d o f t h e r e c e d i n g l i n e a n d , as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e , t o s y n c h r o n i z e it w i t h the i n h a u l i n g l i n e . A l t h o u g h t h i s is the s i m p l e s t o f i n t e r l o c k i n g designs, it is d i f f i c u l t f o r the o p e r a t o r s t o u n d e r s t a n d . I n t e r l o c k i n g y a r d e r s have p r o v e n t o have advantages  over conventional yarders, once  INFINITELY has  been  VARIABLE  developed  i Washington  Iron  Thompson,  Chief  by  Works  INTERLOCKING  the  Engineering  under  Engineer  the o p e r a t o r has  of  IS N E W .  Department  the  direction  the  Logging  of  learned h o w  It  i n t e r l o c k i n g is n o t a d r e a m , n o t a n e x p e r i m e n t , b u t a d e s i g n p u t  of  into practical a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h successful results. Because  Russell  Division.  many  to t a k e advantage o f t h e m .  Its  we  are  i n t e r e s t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y in the i n f i n i t e l y  variable interlocking system,  I w i l l not discuss details o f the  d e v e l o p m e n t w a s a i d e d b y p a t i e n c e a n d c o o p e r a t i o n f r o m the  c o m p l e t e machine, but just how the system powers a n d c o n t r o l s  owners o f the first few m a c h i n e s p r o d u c e d . T h e first a p p l i c a t i o n  the set o f d r u m s .  o f this s y s t e m w a s in t h e design o f the b a l l o o n y a r d e r that w a s • made f o r B o h e m i a larger  balloon  manufactured  Lumber Company  yarder for  the  4 years ago. A new a n d  with  this  system  same  company.  is  now  Infinitely  being variable  T h e m a i n s o u r c e o f p o w e r is a D e t r o i t D i e s e l M o d e l 8 V - 7 1 , 318-horsepower  this c h a i n case is a T w i n D i s c , single-stage t o r q u e c o n v e r t e r t h a t  ! i n t e r l o c k i n g has been a p p l i e d also i n o u r S k y l o k Y a r d e r M o d e l s  drives  - 108  transmission.  and  98.  The  first S k y l o k  Weyerhaeuser C o m p a n y  Model  108  was  delivered to  at V a i l , W a s h i n g t o n , in J a n u a r y ,  1968.  engine. A t t a c h e d t o the f l y w h e e l h o u s i n g is a  c h a i n case w i t h a h y d r a u l i c - p u m p d r i v e . A t t a c h e d c o a x i a l l y t o a  Twin  Disc,  Power  full-reversing, four-speed, is  transmitted  from  power-shift,  the  transmission  t h r o u g h a d r i v e l i n e i n t o a b e v e l p i n i o n a n d ring-gear  S i n c e t h a t . d a t e we have d e l i v e r e d t w e l v e u n i t s t h a t are w o r k i n g  The  ring  in A l a s k a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , W a s h i n g t o n , O r e g o n , a n d C a l i f o r n i a  drums (Figure 2).  housing.  gear d r i v e s the s h a f t a n d b u l l p i n i o n t h a t p o w e r t h e  our  I have so f a r d e s c r i b e d the f l o w o f p o w e r f r o m the d i e s e l  a s s e m b l y l i n e . W e are a l s o m a n u f a c t u r i n g f o r an O r e g o n l u m b e r  e n g i n e t o the d r i v e p i n i o n f o r t h e m a i n d r u m . N o w , r e t u r n t o  company, .a-large  infinitely, variable  the d i e s e l engine f l y w h e e l a n d f o l l o w the p o w e r t r a i n f r o m t h e  I p o i n t o u t these a p p l i c a t i o n s merely to  h y d r a u l i c drive o r p u m p s t o the h y d r a u l i c m o t o r t h a t d r i v e s the  (Figure  1). T h e  smaller  upon  Model  s k y l i n e , yarder. w i t h  ' interlocking system. impress  Skylok,  you  that  the  system  98, an  of  is n o w  on  i n f i n i t e l y variable  p l a n e t a r y c o n t r o l p i n i o n . T h e h y d r a u l i c m o t o r is a t t a c h e d t o a reducing-gear b o x that gives the p r o p e r r a t i o a n d p o w e r . The  power  of  the  diesel  engine  is  divided  c o n t r o l l a b l e p o w e r trains, o n e m e c h a n i c a l and o n e Each  o f these p o w e r  into  two  hydraulic.  t r a i n s has c o n t r o l l i n g levers w i t h i n t h e  o p e r a t o r ' s cab. T h e p o w e r - s h i f t t r a n s m i s s i o n is c o n t r o l l e d b y a speed  a n d d i r e c t i o n s e l e c t o r ; the h y d r a u l i c p o w e r t r a i n has a  single  c o n t r o l lever. E i t h e r set o f c o n t r o l s can d e t e r m i n e t h e '  t o r q u e a n d speed o f e a c h o f t h e t w o t r a i n s . T h e  mechanical  t r a i n is c o n t r o l l e d t h r o u g h the t r a n s m i s s i o n and c o n v e r t e r shifting.  The  hydraulic  train  is c o n t r o l l e d t h r o u g h  by  infinite  c h a n g i n g o f h y d r a u l i c pressure b y v a l v i n g w i t h a range f r o m n o pressure to m a x i m u m pressure a n d v o l u m e . T h e key a s s e m b l y b e t w e e n t h e t w o d r i v e p i n i o n s is s i m p l y a p l a n e t a r y a r r a n g e m e n t s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the H y s t e r t w o - s p e e d w i n c h o r a Western Gear Torq-Master. T h e main d i f f e r e n c e in this p l a n e t a r y is that w'c d o n o t use a b r a k e t o m a k e t h e c h a n g e in s p e e d r a t i o . In place o f the b r a k e ring w e use a gear, a n d in place o f the brake  bund we use a pinion.  T h i s p i n i o n , b e c a u s e it  is i n f i n i t e l y c o n t r o l l e d a n d p o w e r e d b y the h y d r a u l i c s y s t e m , n o t o n l y can e x c e e d the e f f i c i e n c y o f b r a k e s b u t also c a n be i n s t a n t l y reversed to give i n f i n i t e c o n t r o l in e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n o f r o t a t i o n . T h e m a i n d r i v e p i n i o n is d r i v i n g t h e large s k y l i n e gear, which  drives  the  skyline  drum  through  a set  of  planetary  p i n i o n s . T h e h y d r a u l i c d r i v e p i n i o n can a c c e l e r a t e o r d e c e l e r a t e and c o n t r o l the speed r a t i o t h r o u g h the p l a n e t a r y p i n i o n i n t o F i g u r e I. M o r e t h a n a d o z e n u n i t s o f t h e S k y l o k Y a r d e r M o d e l 108  w i t h i n f i n i t e l y v a r i a b l e i n t e r l o c k i n g are w o r k i n g o n  West C o a s t f r o m A l a s k a t o C a l i f o r n i a .  82  the  the s k y l i n e d r u m . W h a t e v e r the speed o f the m a i n l i n e m a y be, the r a t i o w i t h i n the p l a n e t a r y c a n be a d j u s t e d t o s y n c h r o n i z e the s k y l i n e w i t h the m a i n l i n e .  124  engaged, the-rotation of the drum will be opposite to that of the main drum. With engagement of the sprocket clutch, the gear clutch will automatically disengage and the drum will rotate in the same direction as the main drum. This shifting of the third drum from clockwise to counterclockwise rotation is accomplished by simply depressing the push button on the control lever for Ihe skyline drum. 1 would like to emphasize the configuration of the three drums: the skyline, the main and the third drum. The drum barrels are long and the depth of the flanges is shallow. One outstanding result from this design is the slight difference in line speeds and pulls between full drum and bare drums. In our Model 108 Skylok, about 10 percent is the difference in the speed or line pull of the two extremes. We, therefore, establish a better, overall average figure of two of the most important factors that a yarder of any type depends upon, the line pulls and speeds. Another advantage of the large-diameter barrel is additional life. Figure 2. Schematic drawing of the power (rain of the Skylok Yarder Model 108 with infinitely variable interlocking. The ability of Ihe hydraulic drive to reverse makes possible the raising or lowering of the skyline while the logging carriage is traveling in cither direction. In other words, the skyline drum can be put instantly into rotation in either direction. The hydraulic drive also permits the operation of the skyline drum independently, with the main drum disengaged. In high-leading, this ability to reverse also permits the operation of the haulback und the main drum as a conventional yarder; that is, having both lines inhauling at the same time to permit picking the rigging directly off the landing or picking a turn directly out of a hole. Another advantage of the hydraulic system is that the maximum pull available on the line is predetermined. Washington Iron Works has found, by experimenting and experience, the maximum tension required in a skyline. We have also found that with brakes, the tension on these lines can be much greater than necessary. This over-tensioning shortens the life of the table and rigging without a gain in production. The gear for Ihe main drum is interlocked with the gear for the skyline drum. The main shaft is splined for the driven gear, and driving gear, driving sprocket, and the Twin Disc air-actuated plate clutch that powers the drum. The drum is bushed for free wheeling on the shaft. The assembly includes a split, cast-iron brake ring that holds up the rigging when it is not in motion. The third drum, located directly in front of the main drum, is powered by either a gear identical in size to the one on the main drum, or a sprocket also identical in size to the sprocket on the main drum. The front drum is thus interlocked to the main drum. Because the front drum is identical in dimensions to the main drum, both lines will travel at the same speed. The gear and sprocket run on anti-friction bearings and each is connected to the shaft by clutches. The drum is also splined to the shaft; whichever clutch is engaged at the time will drive the shaft and, in turn, drive the drum. When the gear is  We have made an improvement on the assembly of the straw drum with the introduction of a smoother, more controllable strawline brake on our Skylok machines. Because all of the interlocking yardcrs made by Washington iron Works power the straw drum in either direction of rotation, we needed a brake system that we could control equally well in either direction. We have thus adapted a caliper brake, known in the automotive industry as a disc brake, for this purpose. In summary, infinitely variable interlocking design results in infinite interlocking of the skyline drum assembly, which provides: Infinitely variable speed ratio; Infinitely variable line tensioning control; Control of maximum line pull on skyline; Instant reversing of skyline drum to pick up, or pay out, line to suit terrain or line deflection; Elimination of running brakes; Elimination of a haulback clutch (The closed hydraulic circuit that operates the infinitely variable interlocking system does not create enough heat to require a cooling system for the oil. We can assume, therefore, that much less horsepower is required for tensioning the skyline than would the braking system of A N Y brake design that needs a cooling system. Thus, more of the available engine horsepower is released to line pulls and speeds.); and Simplified operating controls (The controls include one lever for infinite skyline control; one push button on the same lever for reversing the third drum; a four-speed gearshift lever and reversing lever for the power-shift transmission; a foot and hand throttle for the diescl engine; and four foot-treadles for the air-actuated drum brakes.).  83  125. APPENDIX  VII  Marking D o u g l a s - f i r f o r Thinning  at Kaingaroa  Forest  Kningnroa F o r e s t , via K c t a r u a . 22 Zn temper  1965.  •  I t ha* been d e c i d e d that where the stooging i s s u f f i c i e n t I n Dougteg f i r h a u l e r settings. 12C t r e e s por acre vd.ll "be marked f o r r e t e n t i o n . The. prop o r t i o n of the s e t t i n g taken xip by trackr- w i l l vary fro.n hauler to b«cA:3ii» and t o o b t a i n r.:i ever, s t o c k i n g of ore", t r e e s , i t w i l l •therefore fee neoc••r.rt.ry to "art: aore t r e t s to*-, r e s the f r o r . T ?..-.d l e e s tove.ror. the bark o f -!-..» s e t t i n g . Ursder ftvori.'gi: c o n d i t i o n s of t r a c k width and rraek spacing (/..i the "be z^.i~^}. it''.rould bo l i e c e i s a r y to snsrl: 300 s.p.n. a t o f the di.itancf! free, /viuler T O b a c k l i n e , 275 s.p.a. a t way, '15° s.p.a.. a t the 3 - mark, e t c . i n o r d e r to er<5 up w i t h 120 s.p.a. o v e r a l l a f t e r t h i n n i n g . £  The- f o l l o w i n g procedure f c r B a r k i n g i s p r e s c r i b e d : (1) Dan-arc*te 15' wide t r a c k s e i t h e r by s p o t t i n g t r e e s to be f e l l e d f o r t r a c k i n g or by d r o p p i n g out th«« t r a c k s . (2) l r . the areas *«fr)wen t r a c k s w>rk as f o l l o w s (where s t o c k i i i g a l l o w s ) : (a) 'Proas halfway t o the b a c k l i n e ( i . e . g e n e r a l l y the. face o p p o s i t e the h a u l e r ) nark 150 s.p.a. f o r r e t e n t i o n . This i s e q u i v a l e n t t o a s p a c i n g of 1?" x 17' (square) or 18-' x 16i' (-txi&ivpulsa-). (b) S r o a quarter t o balf«ray, mark 200 16' x 16' ( t r . t a n e u l a r ) .  s.p.a. 1$' z 15' ( s q u a r e ,  or  .(c) .fe-om the h a u l e r to quarter v*y r e t a i n a l l .trees between -the t r a c k s except gross c a l f o r a s . The  r e s u l t w i l l be a n average crop a f t e r t h i n n i n g o f about 120  s.p.a.  Marking t o t h e p r e s c r i b e d intensities can be made before t r a c k s a r e demarcated but l a r g e gaps may then r e s u l t a f t e r t h i n n i n g and t h i s s h o u l d bs avoided. aiarked t r e e s should be of good f e r n arid as evenly spaced as pc;.iaibl<  127.' APPENDIX Simulation  VIII  Program L i s t i n g  and Output  Variable  List  A  a uniform  AA  c o e f f i c i e n t "a" i n a quadratic ax^ + bx + c = 0.  AAA  an a r r a y  AREA  area  B  a uniform  BB  c o e f f i c i e n t "b" i n a q u a d r a t i c ax^ + bx + c = 0.  BBB  an a r r a y  BACK  width o f a s k y l i n e road  BO  Breakout  C  Chase t i m e  CC  c o e f f i c i e n t "c" i n a quadratic ax^ + bx + c = 0.  DR  random number  used i n r o u t i n e 0LQF  logged  on t h e r o a d  random number equation  used i n r o u t i n e QLQF at the b a c k l i n e  time  Drop R i g g i n g  equation  time  FR  width of a s k y l i n e road  G  Get C l e a r  H  hangup f a c t o r  I  hundreds o f f e e t  ICH  number o f c h o k e r s  IC5ET  number o f c h o k e r s s e t  IIC  number o f p i e c e s of chokers s e t  '  equation  at the landing  time i n the Yard  element  external yarding  distance  flown  i n a t u r n minus number  Appendix \J1II A c o n t ' d)  128 i"  IYDR  y a r d e r number; 1 f o r West C o a s t Tower, 2 f o r W a s h i n g t o n 98  JRAD  e x t e r n a l y a r d i n g d i s t a n c e minus 100 f e e t  KROA  equals 1 t o simulate logging • a t Longview  K  number o f r o a d b e i n g l o g g e d  KPCS  c u m u l a t i v e p i e c e count  KRAD  external yarding distance  L  external yarding distance  LAT  half-width  LK  a l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e ; i f s e t = .TRUE., s t r a i g h t l i n e c a n n o t be f i t t e d by r o u t i n e QLQF  LL  e x t e r n a l y a r d i n g d i s t a n c e i n hundreds o f f e e t , minus 1.  MPC  c u m u l a t i v e p i e c e count  IMFR  width  NBACK  161 minus w i d t h  NTREE  0 i ft a i l  NPC  p i e c e count  P  a u n i f o r m random number  PB  percentage o f Breakout  PP  percentage of P u l l  PR  percentage o f Return  PS  Pull  PT  total  PY  percentage of Yard  at Kaingaroa,  f o r a road  of a road  f o r a road  of s k y l i n e road at l a n d i n g ,  plus 1  of s k y l i n e road at b a c k l i n e  t r e e not r i g g e d ; 1 i f t a i l f o r the turn  time  S l a c k time time  Slack time time, d i v i d e d  by 100 time  tree  rigged  Appendix  VI11  (Cont'd)  1  2  9  •"  PPA  p i e c e s per acre  (average)  PPT  p i e c e s per turn  (average)  PPP  an a r r a y c o n t a i n i n g f i t t e d polynomial  PRCH  percentage  PTI  percentage of Idle  time  PTT  percentage of Turn  time  Q  a u n i f o r m random  R  Return  RA  Raise R i g g i n g time  RC  Road Change D u r i n g Y a r d i n g  RIG  Rig time  RCH  Road Change  time  S  Set Chokers  time  SA  an a r r a y c o n t a i n i n g c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e o r t h o g o n a l p o l y n o m i a l s g e n e r a t e d by r o u t i n e QLQF  SB  cumulative Breakout  5C  c u m u l a t i v e Chase t i m e  SD  standard deviation square f e e t  SDR  c u m u l a t i v e Drop  SG  c u m u l a t i v e Get C l e a r  SIGMA  a statistic  SLQPE  slope factor  SRA  cumulative Raise Rigging time  SR  cumulative Return  the c o e f f i c i e n t s  o f Road Change  of the  time  number  time  time  time  of the times per thousand  time time  a v a i l a b l e from  time  r o u t i n e QLQF  Appendix V I I I (Cont'd)  130.  :  SRC  c u m u l a t i v e Road Change D u r i n g Y a r d i n g t i m e  SRIG  c u m u l a t i v e R i g Time  SS  c u m u l a t i v e S e t Chokers  SSQ  sum o f s q u a r e s , from r o u t i n e  STT  cumulative turn  SU  c u m u l a t i v e U n t a n g l e Chokers  SWA  c u m u l a t i v e Wait  f o r S k i d d e r time  SP  cumulative P u l l  Slack time  SY  c u m u l a t i v e Yard  time  TI  Idle  TIME  c u m u l a t i v e time t o l o g a road  TIMEPA  average time t o l o g a thousand f o r ten roads  TP  time t o l o g a thousand of t e n roads  square f e e t  TPERA  time t o l o g a thousand road  square f e e t ,  TT  turn  U  U n t a n g l e Chokers  Y  yarding  YA  Yard  YY  increase i n yarding t h e next  WA  Wait  WID  width o f a s k y l i n e  WT  1 i f a l l (x,y) p a i r s r o u t i n e QLQF  time QLQF  time time  time  square  feet,  on each  on one  time time  distance  time d i s t a n c e from one t u r n t o  f o r Skidder time road given equal weight i n  tfm  Appendix  (cont'd)  131.  XD  arra,y c o n t a i n i n g v a l u e s o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , y a r d i n g d i s t a n c e f o r r o u t i n e QLQF  XL  v a r i a b l e used t o keep t r a c k ing distance i n t e r v a l s  XRAD  external yarding distance  XX  2 term b -4.a.c i n s o l v i n g ax^ + bx + c = 0  o f 100 f o o t  quadratic equation  YT  a r r a y c o n t a i n i n g v a l u e s o f t h e dependent t i m e , f o r r o u t i n e QLQF  YF  an a r r a y c o n t a i n i n g f i t t e d v a r i a b l e i n r o u t i n e QLQF  YD  an a r r a y o f r e s i d u a l s i n r o u t i n e  YDIST  external yarding distance  Z  a u n i f o r m random number  ZB  cumulative Breakout  ZP  cumulative P u l l  ZR  cumulative Return  ZRCH  c u m u l a t i v e Road Change  ZY  c u m u l a t i v e Yard  time  ZTI  cumulative  Idle  time  ZTT  cumulative turn  time  The presented  variable,  v a l u e s o f t h e dependent  OLQF  time  Slack  time  time  program l i s t i n g  i n the pocket  yard-  time  and t y p i c a l  output are  a t t h e back o f t h e t h e s i s .  1 3 2 .  APPENDIX IX Thinning  Prescription S t a n d i n New  f o r Douglas-fir Zealand  Prescription  Oayc-r^-a-xi  28/0/5 BW:ELS KAIKOAROA FOSEST VIA BOTOEUA August 2 *, 1966. 1  O f f i c e r i n Charge, "mumiKOS: KAINGAROA FOREST.  THINNING PRESCRIPTION FOR CPT> 112?  1 -1 0 , I A , ^ JrU,C_ *tv.^-£  STAND DATA:  Douglas F i r P l a n t e d 1923, 8x8. High pruned 1950 Preaent s t o c k i n g about 380 e.p.a.  PRESCRIPTION  The same as f o r the h a u l e r - s e t t i n g i n 1127, 1128 repeated hereunder.  I .,o ' Cfe,wv.o A.<.. 2.7~f  Thin w i t h e x t r a c t i o n t o leave 120 s . p a , o v e r a l l , Crop t r e e s to be evenly spaced dominant, o r c o dominant high pruned where-over p o s s i b l e . Largo unstoclced gaps t o be a v d d e d . Q  v$-02. < — y j j g t e f o r marking Douglas F i r h a u l e r s e t t i n g s ' ^ ^ ( r ^ - c i v / a ^ - . . i t should be adhered t o o . n o  ^ad^  O.A.tfoyd A c t i n g O f f i c e r i n Charce  133.  Map was  o f area at Kaingaroa, simulated.  New Z e a l a n d ,  f o r which  thinning  134. APPENDIX XCalculation  Reference  cost  vice,  of  s u p p l i e r s and  America at Port  tires.  The  typical  f o r the  Page .81.  were s u p p l i e d Machine R a t e The  by  the  not  valid,  I n s u r a n c e was  and  not  New  Forest  region.  States  Z e a l a n d wage r a t e s  Zealand  used.  Department Costs  and  Manual,  adjustments  Service.  the  United  self-explanatory.  I n t e r e s t was  not  but  that  i n t e r e s t should  rather  "lost  as  some owners do  included  and  New  Z e a l a n d , and  this  charged  machine.  not  insure vary  work s i t e was  p r i c e f o r each machine was  States  be  philo-  the  because they  F r e i g h t to the  be-  opportunity"  a c t u a l l y borrowed t o buy  included,  Straight-  charged,  the  countries.  same r e t a i l  be  that  Taxes were not  The  mation.  United  considered  where money was  equipment.  New  procedure should  c a u s e i t was sophy was  of  Determination  d e p r e c i a t i o n was  5tates  Douglas-fir  I n t e r i o r Bureau o f Land Management L o g g i n g  S c h e d u l e .15,  on  repairs, ser-  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers  Wage a d j u s t m e n t s were t a k e n from t h e  only  fuel,  information  A n g e l e s , W a s h i n g t o n s u p p l i e d wage r a t e s  which were t a k e n t o be  line  Rates  owners s u p p l i e d  equipment, i t s w o r k i n g l i f e ,  r i g g i n g , and  of the  Labor  Sources  Various the  o f H o u r l y Machine and  not  assumed f o r i s only  between  an  added. both approxi-  Appendix X  (cont'd)  O p e r a t i o n Rate  135.  Determination  Again, the procedure were not i n c l u d e d  i s self-explanatory.  as t h e s e w i l l  Overheads  depend on t h e company.  MACHINE COSTS 1.  West C o a s t  Tower  Investment:  $92,750  Yarder Carriage  6.500 $99.250  D e p r e c i a b l e v a l u e : 90% o f i n v e s t m e n t  $89,375  d e p r e c i a t e o v e r 6 y e a r s a t 1750 hours = 10,500 Fixed  $8.50/hour  cost  R i g g i n g : annual r e p l l i n e s : b e l l s 5 times a year:  chokers, $2300/year $1.31/hour  blocks  (dealer  estimate)  Rigging Fuel  1.44/hour  (dealer  Service  .13/hour  estimate)  (•£• f u e l )  .76/hour .38/hour  R e p a i r s and l a b o r @ 63% o f d e p r e ciation  5.35/hour  Operating  7.93/hour  cost  T o t a l machine  cost  Sl6.43/hour  hours  Appendix X 2.  (Cont'd)  136:.  Washington Model 98  Skylok  Investment: Depreciable depreciate Fixed  Yarder  Yarder value:  $110,000  9Q% o f i n v e s t m e n t  over 6 years  @! 1750  99,000  h o u r s = 10,500 h o u r s  cost  Rigging:  9.43/hour  Carriage  and  chokers r e p l  after  2 years: =  blocks,  lines  $2Q26/year  1.54/hour  (dealer  ,90/hour  estimate)  Service  (dealer  Repairs  and  Operating  .39/hour  estimate)  l a b o r @ 63%  of  8.77/hour $  cost  N e l s o n B a t s o n Highway Model P r e l o a d Investment:  Bunk w i t h  depreciate  to nothing  Fixed Fuel  30  %  20,200  o v e r 13,000 h o u r s 1.55/hour  gal./day  .10/hour  Service Repairs  18.20/hour  Bunk  f t . reach  cost 2  5.94/hour  depreciation  cost  T o t a l machine  3.  ,38/hour 1.16/hour  rigging Fuel  $67Q/year  .10/hour and  Operating  labor  cost  T o t a l machine  $400/1750 h o u r s  .23/hour .43/hour  cost  $1.98/hour  137. 4.  F r a n k l i n 170 PS s k i d d e r Investment:  value:  depreciate Fixed  Esco  grapple  Skidder  126,150  Grapple Depreciable  w i t h 42 i n c h  (installed)  6,850  80$ o f i n v e s t m e n t  o v e r 7000 h o u r s ( d e a l e r  26,400 estimate)  cost  3.77/hour'  R e p a i r s and l a b o r Tires  — 4 sets  (owner e s t i m a t e )  23.1  3.00/hour  x 26 L o g g e r S p e c i a l 12 p l y $482.75 x 4  1.13/hour  Fuel  .33/hour  Lube  .04/hour  Hydraulic  oil  .02/hour  Operating  cost  $4.52/hour  T o t a l machine c o s t  5.  McCulloch  $8.29/hour  610a c h a i n s a w w i t h  Investment: depreciate  20 i n c h  bar  saw  $250.  o v e r 3000 h o u r s ; but i n use say  t i m e on t h e l a n d i n g ;  depreciate  o v e r 6000  of the yarder  hours Fixed  .04/hour cost  $  R e p a i r s and l a b o r @ 9Q% Fuel  of  depreciation  .04/hour .04/hour  and o i l  .03/hour  Chain o i l  .02/hour  C h a i n s $20 f o r 160 h o u r s  .13/hour  Operating  .22/hour  cost  T o t a l machine  cost  $  .26/hour  138, 6.  Talkie  Tooters  Investment:  1 receiver, 2 whistles  Depreciable  9 0 % investment  value  d e p r e c i a t e over  12400 2100  8000 h o u r s ,27/hour  Depreciation Total  7*  Total  .27/hour  estimate cost  Axes, c l i m b i n g g e a r , User  9.  cost  Communications User  8.  machine  $  .60/hour  $  ,25/hour  tapes, e t c .  estimate  Total  cost  Total  Cost  of Miscellaneous  Saw, c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , T a l k i e axes, e t c .  (5,6,7,8) Tooters, 1.38/hour  139* 10.  Priestman  Bison  Investment  Loader $35,000  Loader Carrier  (used  10.000  truck)  $45,000 Deprecieble depreciate Fixed  value:  40,500  of investment  o v e r 10,500 h o u r s  cost  $  Rigging  (user  Repairs  and l a b o r  Fuel  90%  (user  ,46/hour  estimate) @63%  2.42/hour  of d e p r e c i a t i o n  ,50/hour  estimate)  .10/hour  Lube Tires  (user  Operating Total  11.  3.86/hour  .10/hour  estimate)  3.5B/hour  cost  machine  P r e n t i c e D-100 Investment:  $  cost  Hydraulic  7.44/hour  Loader  Upper works  $23,835  C a r r i e r (used truck)  10.000 $33,835  Depreciable depreciate Fixed  v a l u e 90$ o f investment  30,500  o v e r 10,500 h o u r s  cost  Repairs  $2.90/hour  and l a b o r @ 80$ o f d e p r e c i a t i o n  F u e l @ 20 g a l / 6 h i I  110/gal  .28/hour ,04/hour  Lube Hydraulic  2.32/hour  o i l 100  gal/1750 h r s . @  850/gal  .05/hour  140. 11.  (cont'd) Tires  .10/hour  Operating cost  2.79/hour  T o t a l machine c o s t  5.69/hour  LABOR COSTS WASHINGTON Wages:  yarder  $4.55  engineer  hooker  4.28  Chokersetter  3.78  Chaser  3.80  Hooker  5.35  Unit  Wages f o r y a r d i n g  crew  21.76  Workman's b e n e f i t s @.5Q/hr  2.50  Supervision  1.52  1%  Employer's c o n t r i b u t i o n s 15%  3.26  Transportation  1.25  T r a v e l pay  1.75  Labor c o s t  f o r varding  Wages:  Skidder  crew  operator  Workman's  benefits  Labor c o s t  4.75 .50  contribution  .71  Transportation  .25  T r a v e l pay  .35  f o r Skidder  hour  .33  Supervision Employer's  32.04 p e r  $6.89 per  hour  Labor Costs Washington ( C o n t ' d ) Wages:  Labor  Loader  operator  5.13  Workman's b e n e f i t s  .50  Employer's  .77  contribution  Supervision  .36  Transportation  .25  Travel  .35  cost  pay  f o r Loader  $7.36 p e r hour  142, NEW  ZEALAND  Wages:  Hooker Yarder  $1.12 engineer  1.04  Chaser Unit  1.02  hooker  .97  Chokersetter  .97  Wages f o r y a r d i n g crew  $5.12  Wet t i m e 1 0 %  .51  Bonus  1.50  Transport  1.90  Supervision Employer's  10%  .51  contributions  .80  B e n e f i t s - 5% Labor c o s t  .26  f o r yarding  Wages: S k i d d e r  crew  or Loader  $10.60 p e r hour  operator  1.10  Wet t i m e  .11  Bonus  .30  Transport  .38  Supervision  .11  Employer's  contributions  Benefits Labor c o s t  .16 .05  f o r Skidder  or Loader  $2.21 p e r hour  OPERATION COSTS 1.  West C o a s t  143. Tower  Machine  Washington  New  $16.43  $16.43  1.38  1.38  32.04  10.60  Miscellaneous Labor Total  2.  vardinq  Washington  cost  Model  $49.58  $28.41 p e r hour  $18.20  $18.20  1.38  1.38  32.04  10.60  Miscellaneous Labor  3.  vardinq  Grapple  cost  Machines—skidder  $  bunk Labor  4.  Priestman  cost  Bison  a loader  cost  1.98  6.89  2.21 $12.48 p e r hour  $  $  7.44  Machines—loader bunk Labor Total loadinq  7.40  H y d r a u l i c Loader  cost  $  7.44 2.21  $14.80  per 2 sk v l i n e s  D-100  8.29  1.98  7.36  Total loadinq  Prentice  $  8.29  $17.16  Labor  5.  Bunk  Loader  Machine  For  $30.18 per hour  $51.62  S k i d d e r and P r e - l o a d  Total loadina  -  98  Machine  Total  Zealand  $  9.85  $  4.92 p e r hour  and p r e - l o a d  bunk  5.69  $ 5.69  1.9'B  1.98  7.36  2.21  $15.01  $  9.90 per hour  . '-\/\/\ /\  R F S NO.  P  160032  s\ f \ *\ /\ f\. /\ /\ s\ r\  U N I V E R S I T Y OF  AAAAAAAAAAA  B C COMPUTING  AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA  CENTRE  MTS(AN120)  $ S I G EHOA P=20 T=10 ••i.AST ^ I G N O N WAS: 1 0 ; 1 3 : 5 1 08-31-70 USER "EHOA" S I G N E D ON AT 1 0 : 1 4 : 0 4 ON 0 8 - 3 1 - 7 0 $ L I S GENERAL LD.GCJJVLG.. AT. K A T NG.ARDA : K R 0 A = 1 . ADD 1,01, S L O P F FAC TOR.**** 1 .2 r 1.5 KROA=G 1.7 SLGPE=1. ? TFIKROA.EO.1) SL0PE=1.1 3 I F ( K R O A . G T . l ) GO TO 4 8 0 4 • DO 4 5 0 IYDR=1,2 5 D I M E N S I O N X D ( 1 0 ) , Y T ( 1 0 > , Y F ( 1 0 ) . Y D ( 10) .«T( 10) .SA( 5) . 6 1 SIGMA<5),AAA<5),BBB{5>,PPP(5) 7 L O G I C A L LK 8 LK=.TRU E. 8.5 LOOP I N C R E M E N T I N G WIDTH AT LAND ING;BY PASS ROADS TOO WIDE OR c 8.6 c TOO NARROW FOR WASHINGTON YARDER. 9 ._ DO _45 1 NFR= 12 1 . 1 6 1 . 40 9.5 I F { I Y D R . E Q . 2 . A N D . N F R . L T . 4 4 ) GO TO 4 5 1 9.7 I F « I Y D R . E Q . 2 . A N D . N F R . G T . 1 2 2 ) GO TO 45 1 10 FR=NFR-1 10.5 c LOOP I N C R E M E N T I N G WIDTH AT BAC K L I N E . DO 4 5 2 N B A C K = 1 , 4 1 , 4 0 11 _ ._ BAC.K=FLOAT ( 1 6 1 - N B A C K ) 1? 12.4 I F ( B A C K . G T . 1 2 2 . . A N D . I Y D R . E Q . 2 ) GO TO 4 5 2 12.6 I F ( B A C K . L T . 4 5 . . A N D . I Y D R . E Q . 2 ) GO TO 4 5 2 12. 8 c. LOOP I N C R E M E N T I N G E X T E R N A L Y A R D I N G D I S T A N C E . 13 DO 4 4 2 K R A D = 2 0 1 » l O O l t 1 0 0 W R I T E I 6 , 7 ) KRAD,FR,BACK 14 F FIRM A T ( » * R O A D LFNGTH* . 1 5 / * * «' FRONT * , F6 .0 « * BACK • , F6 . 0 / / ) 7 15 16 XRAD=FLOAT(KRAD) 17 K=0 18 N TR E E = 0 DIMENSION Y D I S T ( 1 1 0 0 ) , T I M E P A ( 1 1 0 0 ) , T I M E I 1 1 0 0 ) , S D ( 1 1 0 0 ) , 19 1 S S Q ( 1 1 0 0 ) , T P ( 1 1 G Q ) , K P C S 1 1 1 0 0 ) , Z R < 1 1 0 0 ) , Z Y { 1 1 0 0 ), 20 2 ? P M 1 0 0 ) 7 R { I 1 0 0 ) , Z R C H < 1 1 0 0 ) ,7TT < 1 1 0 0 ) , 7 T T ( 1 1 0 0 ) 2-1 21.5 SET SUMS TO ZERO. C 22 DO 1 L = l t l 0 0 1 t l O O ?3 KPCS(L)=0. 24 ZR(L)=0. 25 ZY(L)=0. 7 P I I ) = n. ' 26 27 ZB(L)=0. 28 ZRCH(L)=0. • ' 29 ZTKLhO. 30 Z TT(L)=0. 31 SSQ(L)=0. 1 TP(! ) =0 . 32 3 33 XL=-100 33.5 C INCREMENT # OF ROADS LOGGED. 3 4 K=K+1 35 y=i. 36 SRA=0. 3 7 9 4 SPA + ?0% R R F A K A G F = 1 1 3 PC. <; PA r, 38 PPA=113. 39 I F ( K R O A . E Q . l ) PPA=360. 40 * * * * ? 7 7 SPA + 303? B R E A K A G E AT K A I N G A R O A * * * *  AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA  AAAA AA A A A A A AAA A A AA A A A A A A AA.AA AAA  10:14:02  08-31-70  -  1  f  f  /  . I  N  41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 4.9.. 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 57. 5 58 59 60  61 62 62.2 62 .5 62.7 63  63.5 65 66 67 72 73 74 75 76 77 77.5 7ft 79 80 81 82 83 83.5 84 85 86 87 88 88 ,5 89 90 91 91.5 92 Q3  94 95 Q6  R=0. ICH=4 SR-0. SRC=0. SDR=0. SRIG=0.  J  su=o.  SG=0. ss=n. SP = 0. SB=0. SY=0.  sc=o.  SWA=0. MPC=O.  TT=0. STT=0. C INCREMENT # OF A 100 FT. SECTION. 4 XL=XL+10Q. C WIDTH DF ROAD. 10 WTn=ARS(Y/XRAD*<BACK-FRV+FR) IF<WID.LT..01) GO TO 333 PPT=4.6 C ****SMALLER PIECE SIZE AT KAINGAROA: MORE PIECES PER IF{KROA.EQ.1) PPT=5.7 C AVERAGE AREA PER TURN. APT=43560.*PPT/PPA C C FIND HOW MUCH FURTHER TO NEXT TURN. I F i A B S ( B A C K - F R ) . L T . 1 . ) GO TO 13 AA=ASS(BACK-FR ) / t XR AD*2. ) BB=WID CC=-{APT) 12 XX=BB**?-4.*AA*CC YY=(SQRT(XX)-BB)/(2.*AA) GO TO 14 13 YY= AB S(APT/WID) 14 y=Y+YY C FIND LATERAL DISTANCE CLASS. 1 AT = WJ D/2. + 10. I F ( L A T .LT.90) LAT=90 I F ( L A T . L T . 7 0 ) LAT=70 I F ( L A T . L T . 5 0 ) LAT=50 I F ( L A T . L T . 3 0 ) LAT=30 C RETURN  V  TURN****  f. T 1  15  R=.06+.00065*Y I F U Y D R . E Q . 2 ) R=.08+..0015*Y R=R*SLOPE SR=SR+R C DROP f T 2 DR=.09 SOR=SDR+0R C UNTANGLE TIME C T 3 A=RAND(0.) U=-.07+5.06*A-25.62*A*A+76.61*A**3-117.56*A**4>87,19*A**5 1 -23.94*A**6 IF( A.GT.170.7177. ) U=29.*A-26.4 T F ( TCH.FQ.3 ) U= .0 3+. 7 5* A+-3. 7*A*A-1 2. 1 6*A**3+13. 6?*A**4-4. 91#A**5  •  3 LU  <  >  CD  •  CM  o  ro  +  ro  oo <  *<  * <  LU  in  CM CM  +  *<  r-  #  LU LU LU oo 00 00 O O  II  o  LU LU  o tn c ro ro  00  o  oo <s o <_  CM  LU 00  h- t-  CM  cc  it  o  C7  IX) 00  « _J + Of  • z>  a II x =) o oo CJ  X  C  i—i  <J  a  LU  <  — cc 00 — LL II O LL LL,  r> oo  I-I  CM fM  rH r\l .—i  o  LU  <—  CM CM  i ~  <  03 C IT, CM C\ • — I I— CD  fl C  H i— LU <r  oo  O O LL CD I - I > -  <  CO cD CD'  r— CM•  <r ro CM  o o  1  LU  ,H  r-  X  o  a o a LU LU LLi  <  00  o  o  CM  <  <  PH  in in •  ro ro  q  ro  l! <•  LU O  <i  <  II  oo  + <  rH  —,  U- IX.  a o x LU oo <  a  1-4 in •«•  o o <J I—I  I—*  r-j  LL LL LLJ  oo (—  LL -—  II  il oo  oo  •  o <r <  in oo CD  o  in co  <t t—  o  CD oo  o ro  •if-  o  <?• a  o a  r- oo cr d o C  O  O  -4 rH  o  —I  CM rO H  4  IA  \0  00 O  •— CM <M CM 1  c\re  II  CM  <r cc  o  LU  or <  CD  •o  < r~  cD 00  LU —J O LU  00  +  LL!  < «- a >  CD + CM O  d J C 00 00 ro oo ^ ^ z • II II LL II CD O0 CD oO - J OC < </> C QC oo | LL II -J  O  r- O , in  J  a.  •  < *  • +  sO CM •M-  *  I ro c  •  <  II  •' II  o * in #  • <S  as  LU <2 • CM  i- i  CM •  <  00  a  in —  * #  <: rH  o  +  CM •  r~ < rr _J QC LL + — I  CM O0 LU  in  *  ro sC • I ro <  H  <  <  O CM  <  H m'  LU i-l O  z o c  <  h-  r-  r-  00 O C w CD <S  II  oo a.  Q  ^  —1 CM  O ro in cd  <  • rr LU a  or at  O  h  -<  o  o  CD —  oo oo <  CM  CM  o  a f> O LU  <  •pf  CO <  CO  00 CO oO a CM + —. LT  ro  + <  • CO  O  ^* rH O  Q  1 ro  1—4  ro o • in  c  rH pH CM  •  K00  +i  oO  in r~CM ro -* in -o O O Q O O  •z.  LL O  o — f-tOCMJ'O'-  #1  rH <J> I— r-l  •o  o II• o 00  c<i  CJ  • rd  ro  <  a  CM •+ CO  •if <  CO «  1  rH +  ro  rH  rH  CM  <  ^1 aj  in ro  ro  i  CM a t- I• 00 < r- od LU LU LU LU X. CD LU -J M O + 00 1/5 00 id a: •& • < Y— CM rO0 < 00 <  c  r-  II  sr-  *| ro  •  o  <  •5S-  •  uu.  < •if  <  CM  •  00 LU 00 00  <i  I  I  * • I o N•T o in ro • |4 < • rH • bq LU  LU  X  — r1 t o +  o a c  oo oo CM CM  ft rv  — I h- — I  O  a  < r-l fM  o o c  LU I  o  oo  rH  •  CM ,-1 II !1  ro  in  OX  r-l  ro  ro ro  oo  +  < * <  < <  i  00  •  ro m  l  O  1 ro  •!.-  rH rH  •  •  •<  * <  *  s0  CM  oo ro 1 ro •<).•  •  •  in  LU  <  #  -5S-  m LU +| in  rH • <h rH+  o < <  •H  CM  CO  C  LU  t— oo —i a * +  o 00 •<a  • LL <X.  Q >-  CL  oo z> q a:• h _ I- _J I i<2 LL LL LL LL oo O II ~ LL ~ Q < CD CL O 00 LL LL ai • 0_ 04 r<  in  in  in  03  CJ rH  <r in sQ r- r- oc CT> O m vo r- co a •—i rM ro CM CM nj CM CM <\ CM m ro ro ro re ro ro ro ro ro r<-  rH >t  CM ro  >t  •£> r~- 00 -4- <lr  CO  CT> C  st LC  151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 1 59 160 1.61 162 163 164 165 . 166 167 168 169 170 1 71 172 173 174 175 176 1 77 177.5 178 179 180 181 1 8? 183 184 185 185 .5 186 1 87 188 189 190 190 .5 191 1 92 193 194 195 1 96 197  ]98  199 200 201 202 203 ?04 205 205 .5 ?05 6 B  IF.LAT .E0.50 ) GO TO 16 5 IF(LAT.EQ.70) GO TO 170 B0=.04+2.77*A-16.25*A*A+54.59*A**3-86.37*A**4+51.48*A**5 IF(A.GT..8I B0=17.*A-12. GO TO 175 160 B0=-1. 13+18.6 2*A-96.13*A*A+23 6. 13*A**3-27 2. 72*A**4+119.89*A**5 IF(A.GT..74) B0=2. 15*A-.87 IF(BO .LT.0. ) B0=0. GO TH 175 165 B0=-.03+3.1*A-18.24*A*A+5 7.43*A**3-82.82*A**4+44.03*A**5 IFIA.GT..8) B0=21.2*A-16.24 IFCBO.Lf.O.> B0=0. GO TO 175 170 80=-.06+3.2 6*A-13.17*A*A+32.31*A**3-42.05*A**4 1 + 22. 5*A**5 GO TO 174 171 IF(LAT.EQ.70) GO TO 173 80=22.*A-16.4 IF(A.LT..8) B0=.07+.18*A+24.5 8*A*A-17 5.85*A**3+509.28*A**4 1 -655.73*A**5+310.72*A**6 GO TO 174 173 B0=18.74*A-12.08 IF(A.LT..76) BO=-.02+.55*A+21.61*A*A-149.59*A**3 1 +402.06*A**4-472.35*A**5+204.94*A**6 174 IF(BO.LT.O.) B0=0. 175 SB=SB+BO C YARD C T 8, FOR 2 YARDERS. H=0. A=RAND(0. ) IF(IYDR.EQ.2) GO TO 182 IF<A.GT.5./233.) GO TO 180 H=.3*233.*A 180 YA=( . 10719+.00126*Y)<*{ l . + H) GO TO 185 IF(A.GT.4./75.} GO TO 183 182 C (1+H) IS A HANGUP FACTOR. H=.4*A*75. YA = (.17199+.0O?09*Y)*(1 .+H) L83 185 YA= YA* SL OP E SY=SY+YA C CHASE C T 9, FOR EACH X. A=RAND(0.) TF(TCSFT.FQ.4) GO TO 190 I F { ICS ET . EQ. 3 > GO TO 19 5 IF(ICSET.EQ.2) GO TO 200 C=.16+.56*A GO TO 205 190 C=.15+3.49*A-7.06*A*A+5.43*A**3  \  m ?0 5  an  C = .14+5.45*A-26.1 4*A*A+61.28*A**3-66.68 *A**4 + 27.7*A**5 IF(A.GT..9) C=10.*A-7.76 GO TO 20 5 200 C=.24+.21*A IF(A.GT..57) C=1.67*A-.59 205 sr =s r.+r. C RAISE RIGGING C T 11, FOR 2 YARDERS. . , . c CDF APPRnX TMATFD BY SERIES OF STRAIGHT LINES. 195  /  r  J  .  206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 ??3 ' 224 225 2 26 227 228 228.5 229 230 2^1 232 233 234 23 5 236 2-37 238 239 ?4f! 241 242 243 244 2 45 ?4«,.<S 246 247 24-8 249 2 50 2 51 252 253 254 2 55 255.5 256 257 258 25Q 260 26 1  A=RAND(0.) I F { I Y D R . E Q . 2 ) G O T O 206 1 IF{A.GT.100./115.1 GO TO 2051 A=A*115./100. RA=.1+.83#A I F ( A . G T . . 1 2 ) RA=.18*A+.18 I F I A . G T . . 6 9 ) RA=..58*A-.l I F ( A . G T . . 9 5 ) RA=5.*A-4. an Tn ?OQ 205 1 A = R A N D (0 .) RA=1.+6.*A ' OO Tn ? 0 9 2061 I F I A . G T . 3 7 . / 4 1 . ) GO T O 20 7 A=41.*A/37. RA= 1fl+ 1 4#A I F I A . G T . . 8 6 ) RA=2.86*A-2.16 GO TO 208 207 A=RAND(0.) RA=.7+3.#A 208 RA=RA-.025 ?nq RA=RA-.O?<S S R A = SR A + R A C WAIT f. T 1 0 . F O R 2 Y A R D E R S : C D F A P P R O X . BY S T R A I G H T W A= 0 . A=RAND(0.J T F ( T Y P R . F Q . ? ) GO TO 206 I F ( A . G T . 3 4 . 7 2 2 9 . ) GO TO 210 A=229.*A/34. WA=3?5.*A-315. I F ( A . L T . . 9 8 ) WA=12.5*A-8.7 I F ( A . L T . . 8 2 ) WA=1.83*A Gfl T H ? ] ( ! 206 I F ( A . G T . 1 0 . / 7 5 . 1 GO T O 210 A=RAND{0.) WA=.15 I F I A . G T . . 4 ) WA=.45 I F( A . G T . . 7) WA=.75 IF(A.GT..9)WA=l.ns 210 SWA=SWA+WA C ROAD CHANGE DURING YARDING r. T 1 2 . F D R 2 Y A R D F R S . RC=0. I F < B A C K . L T . 1 . ) GO TO 220 . A=RANn(fi } I F ( I Y D R . E Q . 2 ) G O TO 215 I F < A . G T . 6 . / 2 3 3 . ) GO TO 220 RC=3.72 I F { I Y D R . E Q . 1 ) G O TO 220 215 I F ( A . L T .4.77 5. ) RC=4.19 ??0 <;Rr = sRr + R r C RIG C T 13, FOR 2 YARDERS. RTR=0. A= R A N D ( O . J I F { I Y D R . E Q . 2 ) GO T O 225 1 F ( A , r, T, 12-/2 33.) G O TO ? 30 A= R A N D ( 0 . ) RIG=6.*A T F ( A . i T. s . / f t . ) a n TO ?3ci T  )  T  LINES.  T  J  263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 221 272  273 274  275 276 277  277.5 277.7 278 279 280 ?an. 5 281 282 283 284 2 85 286  286.5 287 , 288 289 289.2 2 8 9 .4  289.6 289.8 290 291 292 2 93  294 295 296 297 298 299 300  301 30 2 303  303.5 304 3 05  306 307 308 309 310  310. 2 310 .5 31 1  A=RAND(0.) A=10.*A GO TO 230 225 IF1A.GT..027) GO TO 230 A=75.*A/2. RIG=5.*A 230 SRIG=SRIG+RIG C PIECE COUNT A=R AND(0.) IIC=0 I F ( A . L T . 1 2 2 . / 2 3 2 . ) IIC=1 I F ( A . L T . 5 5 . / 2 3 2 . ) IIC=2 I F( A.LT. 1 5 . / 2 3 2 . ) I I C = 3 IF! A.LT .5.7232. ) 1IC=4 TF(A-lT-l./232.) TI0=5 IF(KROA.EO.1) I IC = I IC + 1 C PIECE COUNT=# CHOKERS SET + SIMULATED INTEGER. NPC = ICSET+I IC MPC=MPC+NPC C TURN SUMMARY c L IS A 1 0 0 FOOT SECTION. L=IFIX(XL)+1 KPCS( L ) =KPCS< D + NPC ZR(L)=ZR(L)+R ZY(L )=ZY(L)+YA ZP(L)=ZPIL)+PS 7 R f 1 > = 7Rf 1 l+Rfl C TURN TIME FOUND BY ADDING THE TIMES FOR THE ELEMENTS. TT=R+DR+U+S+G+PS+BO+YA+C+WA+RC+RIG+RA IF(BACK .LT.FR) W ID=( XRAD-Y)/XRAD*(FR-BACK)+BACK 301 STT=STT+TT I F f K . G T . 1 ) GO TO 311 WR'TTFfft. 3J.3 . TT.Y.WTn 303 FORMAT( •,* TURN T I M E • , F 8 . 2 , 6 X , « Y • , F 8 . 2 , 6 X , » W I D T H , F 8 . 0 ) C IS A NEW 100 FOOT SECTION TO BE LOGGED? 311 I F t Y . L E . X L + 8 5 . ) GO TO 10 C ROAD CHANGE 333 A=RAND(0.) R=RANn(0.) P=RAND(0.) Q= RAND ( 0. ) Z=RAND(0.) I F i Z . L T . . 875) Z = 0 . RCH=27 .*A+3.*B + 19.*P + 17.*Q+10.*Z+28. T F ( F R . G T . l . ) RCH = Rf.H+l 2 - * R + 2 . IF(IYDR.EQ.1) GO TO 350 IF(IYDR.EQ.2) RCH=5.*A+10.*B+10.*P+3.*Q+6.*Z+22. A=RAND(0 . ) I F ( A . L T . . 0 5 ) RCH=RCH+200.*A EXTRA 14 MIN. FOR TAIL TREE; 11 MIN. LESS IF SAME TAILHOLD FOR C 3 SO T F f MTRFF . F O _ 1 . A M O . r Y O R . FO . 1 > R C H = R f H + 1 4 . I F ( B A C K . L T . l . ) RCH=RCH-11. C IDLE A=RAND(0.) IF<IYDR.EQ.1) TI = STT*A*.326 IF(IYDR.EQ.2) TI= STT*A*.222 c SFCTION SUMMARY WID = Y/XRAD*(BAC K—FR)+F R c PROGRESS OF THE 'LOGGING' MAY BE SUMMARIZED EVERY 100 F T . 7Rf.HM ) = 7Rf.Hll ) + RCH 1  1  2 ROADS.  312 313 314 315 316 316-4 316.6 3 17 , 3.1.8 319 3 20 3?1 321 .5 322 3.23 324 325 327 328 32-9 329. 5 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 341.5 342 343 344 34^ 346 347 348 ' 349 3 50 351, 352 353 354 355 355 .5 356 357 358 359 359.5 360 36] 36 2 .3 63 363.5  ZTI( L ) = Z TI { L ) + TI Z T T ( L ) = ZTT(L )+STT TIME(L)=STT+RCH+TI AREA=(WID+FR)#Y/2. TPERA=TIME(L)*1000./AREA 377 FORMAT{« '.'TIME FOR ROAD',F10.2) C SUM, AND SUM OF SQUARES, OF TIME PER THOUSAND SQUARE FEET. SSQ(L)=SSQ(L.+TPERA**2 TP (1 )=TPFRA + TP(1 ) YDIST(L) = Y 400 IF(Y.LT.XRAD) GO TO 4 IFIK.I f . l f l ] GO TO 3 C NEW ROAD, IF 10 NOT LOGGED. IF 10, SUM TIMES FOR 10 ROADS. JRAD=KRAD-100 nn 441 1 =1» JR AD,100 I F ( L . E O . l ) GO TO 424 ZR(L)=ZR(L)+ZR<L-100) 7YU ) = ZY<L »+ZY(L-100 ) ZP(L)=ZP(L)+ZP(L-100) ZB(L)=ZB(L)+ZB(L-100) K P G S d )=KPf.S( !1+KPCSM -100) C AVERAGE TIME TO LOG A THOUSAND SQUARE FEET, AND STANDARD DEVIATION. 424 TIMEPAtL)=TP(L)/IO. SD(Ll=S0RT(iSSQ(L)-TP(L)**2/10.)/8.) I F ( L . L T . JRAD) GO TO 441 WRITE(6, 425) TIM EPA(L),YD I S I V L ) , S D ( L ) 4?<S FORMATJ31H 10 ROADS * AV-TTMF PFR M SQ.FT=,F10.2, 1 11H FOR R0AD,F7.0,8H FT.LONG/ 9H STD. DEV= , F8 .2.//) WRITE<6,430) KPCS ( L ), ZR ( L ) , ZY( L ) , ZP ( L ) , ZB I L ) , ZRCHi L ) , 1 Z T I I L ) .ZTT(L) 430 FORMAT ( * «,'#PCS ON 10 ROADS', I 6/' • , ' RETURN' ,F9 . 2 • 1 • YARD',F8.2/' ','PULL S L K ' , F 8 . 2 , ' BREAKOUT', 2 F f t . 2 / ' ' ,'RD.CH» . FR.2 , ' iniF»,F8.?,» TURN T I MF' , 3 F12.2) C PERCENTAGE TIMES. P R = Z R ( L ) / Z T T ( L ) * 100. PY^ZY(L)/ZTT(L)*100. PP=ZP{L)/ZTT(L)*100. PB=7RU)/7TT())*1O0. P T M Z R C H ( L ) + Z T I (L) + ZTT(L ) )/100. PRCH=ZRCH(L)/PT PTI=ZT I (L )/PT PTT=ZTT{L)/PT WRITEl6,440) PR,PY,PP,PB,PRCH,PTI , PTT 44D FORMAT (• » ' P FR C FNT A GF S OF TURN T T MF • / * ... * , * R E TURN ' . F 5 .1 , 1 ' YARD' , F 5 . l t * PULL S L K « , F 5 . 1 , ' BRK 0 U T ' , F 5 . 1 / « 2 'PERCENTAGES OF TOTAL TIME'/' * ,' RD. C H* ,F5 . 1 , * IDLE', 3 F5.1 ,• PROD',F5.1//// ) ' 441 CONTINUE C CREATE PAIRS TO FIT CURVE TO. U = I F I X { F| 0 AT (.IR AD-1 ) / 1 00 . ) Y T ( L L ) = TIME PA{JRAD) XD( LL ) = Y D I S T ( J R A D ) / 1 0 0 . 442 CONTINUE C F I T PARABOLA. CALL OLQFl2,9,XD,YT,YF,YD,WT,0,SA,SIGMA,AAA,BBB,SQ,LK , PPP) WR I TE ( ,445 ) •( PPP ( .| ) , .1=1 , 3 ) ,S Q. RACK, FR 445 FORM AT ( ' •, 'COEFFTS ' , 3F 6. 2, • SS',F6.2/' »,'BACK', 1 F6.0,' FRONT *,F6.0) f. WORK OUT FTTTFD VAIUF.S FVFRY 100 F F F T . T  J  _  3 64 365 366 367 368 368.5 368.6 368.8 _3J6JSL_  447 448 452 451 45.0  370 480 371 FND OF F I L E  $SIG  S  00 448 1=2*10,1 AB=PPP(1)+PPP{2)*FL0AT< I ) + P P P ( 3 )* FLOAT ( I.)*FLOAT(I ) J= 100*1 WRITE(6,447) AB, J FORMATS 'FITTED TIME/M SQFT=* ,F8.2 ,« AT',I 5, » FT') CONTINUE CONTINUE CONTINUE CONTINUE ^ . , . STOP END  ROAD L E N G T H FRONT 80.  10 ROADS: STO.DEV=  901 BACK.  AV.TIME 0.17  120.  PER  M  SQ.FT=  5.06  FOR  s  „#.PXS„ .QN.JLO. J ? OA.DS- _ 2 2 1 7 : , RETURN 402.60 YARD 620.62 PULL SLK 159.99 BREAKOUT 485.02 RD.CH 358.32 IDLE 526.42 TURN T I M E P E R C E N T A G E S OF TURN TIME RETURN 1 1 . 2 YARD 1 7 . 3 P U L L SLK 4.5 P E R C E N T A G E S . OF. T O T A L ..T IJ1E_ RD.CH . 8 . 0 I D L E 11.8 PROD 80.2  .ROAQ_L.EN.GJH FRONT 80.  10 ROADS: STD.DEV=  10D.1 BACK  AV.TIME 0.34  PER  M SQ.FT=  0.02 SS -0.32 FRONT 80. SOFT= 5 .37 5.17 SQFJ= • 5.01 F I T T E D TIME/M SQF_I=_ 4 .90 F I T T E D TIME/M SOFT = 4. 84 F I T T E D TIME/M S 0 F T = 4.83 F I T T E D TIME/M SQFT = 4 . 86 F I T T E D TIME/M S Q F T = 4.94 F I T T E D T I M E / M SQ FT= 5 .06 F I T J E p X I M.E/M_S.Q.FI=_ ROAD L E N G T H 201 FRONT 120. BACK 120. COEFFTS 5.90 BACK 120. F I T T E D TIME/M F I T T E D TIME/M  10 ROADS: A V . T I M E PER M SQ. F T= S J D . D E V = .. ... 0..4.9_.. _ „•.__  ON  10  ROADS  890.  FT.LONG  3587.96 BR K OUT :  13.5 •  _. 120.  5.03  #PCS ON 10 ROADS 2462 RETURN 498.21 YARD 7 5 4 . 45 P U L L SLK 196.70 BREAKOUT 621.32 RD.CH 377.44 IDLE 398.95 TURN P E R C E N T A G E S .OF. TURN . T IMF RETURN 11.8 YARD 1 7 . 9 P U L L SLK P E R C E N T A G E S OF T O T A L TIME PROD 8 4 . 4 RD.CH 7.6 IDLE 8 .0  #PCS  ROAD ,  5 87  FOR  ; TIME „ 4.7  ROAD  995. FT.LONG  .  :  4208.50 • . BRK OUT 14.8  0.14 AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT  '  200 300 400 500 60 0 70 0 800 90 0  J.fiop_  FT FT FT FT FT FT FT FT FT '• -  5.19  FOR  ROAD '  1 9 3 . FT . LONG  J  

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