UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Denis Fonvizin "The bold master of satire" Cameron, Alan Harwood 1970

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DENIS FONVIZIN "THE BOLD MASTER OP SATIRE" by ALAN HARWOOD CAMERON B. A., U n i v e r s i t y of Calgary, 1968 A' THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF . THE. REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of SLAVONIC STUDIES We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb i a , I a g ree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree tha p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my jwr i t ten. pe rm i ss i o n . Department o f Slavonic Studies The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date April \0r 1 9 7 0 ABSTRACT Heretofore i n the western world there has been no i n t e n s i v e l i t e r a r y study of the noted Russian author of the eighteenth cen- t u r y , Denis Ivanovich F o n v i z i n . Many western scholars assert that P o n v i z i n ' s works are valuable only as h i s t o r i c a l documents and t h a t they possess l i t t l e l i t e r a r y merit. Nevertheless, a close acquaintance with P o n v i z i n ' s works and a c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y of the information about them, help to put h i s works i n a proper p e r s p e c t i v e . To perform t h i s task I have consulted many So v i e t and p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y sources and s h a l l report t h e i r f i n d i n g s along w i t h mine. The method of approach has been to analyze the works and the a v a i l a b l e c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . Chapter One i s devoted to a general study of the author and h i s career. Chapters Two and Three deal w i t h P o n v i z i n ' s most important l i t e r a r y l e g a c i e s B r l g a d i r and Nedorosl' r e s p e c t i v e l y , and provide analyses of sources, s t r u c t - ure, c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , s t y l e , language, humour and i n f l u e n c e s . I have commented i n p a r t i c u l a r on the characters as manifestations of t h e i r c l a s s i n Russian s o c i e t y of the time and attempted to pro- vide an i n s i g h t i n t o the plays' s o c i a l meaning and use of humor- ous devices. The Epilogue c o n s i s t s of a b r i e f summary i n an attempt at formulating a conclusion about P o n v i z i n ' s place i n the l i t e r - ary h i s t o r y of Russia. i i i TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter Page I. D. I. PONVIZIN--LIFE AND WORKS 1 I I . BRIGADIR 2k I I I . NEDOROSL' 53 EPILOGUE.... 8 7 FOOTNOTES Introduction.... 8 9 Chapter 1 90 Chapter II 9k Chapter III • 9 7 Epilogue 1 0 1 APPENDIX A—CHRONOLOGY 1 0 2 APPENDIX. B--BIBLIOGRAPHY. . 1 0 l | i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I s h o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o my a d v i s e r D r . Z . P o l e j e w s k i , t o D r . M . P u t r e l l and P r o f e s s o r P . B e a r d o w f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . V INTRODUCTION E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e was s t u d d e d w i t h d r a m a t i s t s : S u m a r o k o v , K o l i c h e v , P l a v i l ' s h c h i k o v , C a t h e r i n e the G r e a t , K r y l o v , L o r n o n o s o v , M a t i n s k y , L u k i n , A b l e s i m o v , K a p n i s t , K n y a z h n i n and P o n v i z i n a re p r o m i n e n t . Many o f t h e w o r k s o f t h e s e w r i t e r s were n o t o r i g i n a l ; p r i n c i p a l l y t h e y i m i t a t e d t h e c l a s s i c s o f S e v e n t e e n t h - C e n t u r y P r a n c e : C o r n e i l l e , R a c i n e and M o l i e r e . R u s s i a n t h e a t r e a t t e m p t e d t o f o l l o w t h e p r i n c i p l e s f o r m u l a t e d b y t h e s e g r e a t s . The c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f t h e u n i t i e s o f t i m e , p l a c e and a c t i o n were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e R u s s i a n d r a m a . M o r e o v e r , t h e c l a s s i c s b e l i e v e d i n t h e i d e a t h a t t h e p l a y r e f l e c t s o c i e t y , t h a t i t p r e s e n t t h i n g s t h e way t h e y a r e . ^ * A c c o r d i n g t o t h e m , d r a m a s h o u l d p r e s e n t a t a b l e a u o f good and e v i l c h a r a c t e r s r e - • p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s o c i e t y i n a c o n f l i c t o f i d e a s . * F i n a l l y , the p l a y s h o u l d be a c o m p l e t e w o r k o f a r t p r o v i d i n g a u n i f i e d t h e m e . . H o w e v e r , u n l i k e J e a n R a c i n e who. t u r n e d t o a n t i q u i t y ( e . g . Phedr . e . B r i t a n n i c u s , Andromaque) , o r P i e r r e C o r n e i l l e , a l s o c o n c e r n e d w i t h a n c i e n t themes ( e . g . P o l y e u c t e , H o r a c e ) , many R u s s i a n d r a m a t i s t s s e t t h e i r p l a y s i n an e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t - u r y m i l i e u w i t h " R u s s i a n s " as t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r s . B u t o f t e n t h e y r e t a i n e d t h e themes o f t h e c l a s s i c s w h i c h r e s u l t e d a t t i m e s i n d r a m a t h a t seetned a r t i f i c i a l t o t h e R u s s i a n a u d i e n c e . M o s t l y t h e p l a y s were mere a d a p t a t i o n s o f t h e F r e n c h and c o n s e - q u e n t l y d i d n o t a t a l l f i t t h e R u s s i a n m i l i e u . In the ' ma in t h e f l e d g l i n g R u s s i a n d r a m a t i s t s f o l l o w e d c l a s s i c a l rhyme and r h y t h m , a n d s i n c e t h e s e fo rms were i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e l i n g u i s t i c p a t t e r n s v i o f t h e R u s s i a n l a n g u a g e , t h e p l a y s were f r e q u e n t l y s t i l t e d and a r t i f i c i a l . B e c a u s e R u s s i a n s a t i r e f l o u r i s h e d i n t h e 1700's, i t was n a t u r a l t h a t i t e x t e n d t o d r a m a . Once a g a i n , s a t i r i c a l d r a m a was a t f i r s t h i g h l y i m i t a t i v e o f t h e F r e n c h m o d e l s , M o l i e r e . i n p a r t i c u l a r . H o w e v e r , u n l i k e R a c i n e o r C o r n e i l l e , he s e t h i s p l a y s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y t i m e s . He r i d i c u l e d human f o i b l e s s u c h as m i s e r - l i n e s s ( L 1 A v a r e ) , h y p o c r i s y (Le M e d e c i n m a l g r e l u i , Dom J u a n ) , o r f a l s i t y ( L e s Femmes S a v a n t e s , Le M i s a n t h r o p e ) . M o l i e r e a d v o c - a t e d c o r r e c t i n g e v i l s t h r o u g h t h e i r v i v i d p o r t r a y a l i n a v i b r a n t a r r a y o f c h a r a c t e r s . A l t h o u g h M o l i e r e ' s themes were, more _. p r o p o s ; t o t h e R u s s i a n s c e n e , h i s s e t t i n g s and p e r s o n a g e s were n o t . Once a g a i n , t h e d i r e c t i m i t a t i o n ' b y t h e R u s s i a n s r e s u l t e d i n a r t i f i c - i a l i t y s i c e t h e y d i d l i t t l e t o m o d i f y c h a r a c t e r s , s t y l e o r s e t t i n t o make them more i n l i n e w i t h R u s s i a n s o c i e t y . T h e R u s s i a n d r a m a t i s t s a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o e m p l o y t h e i d e a s o f D e n i s D i d e r o t who .had s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t r o n g c h a r a c t e r s and a b e l i e v a b l e p l o t were e s s e n t i a l . 3 . B u t c r e a t i v i t y i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y R u s s i a n d r a m a t i c s a t i r e a r r i v e d i n a man who moulded h i s p l a y a r o u n d -the c l a s s i c a l p r i n c i p l e s b u t u s e d a d i s t i n c t i v e R u s s i a n m i l i e u , c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and above a l l v i b r a n t R u s s i a n d i a l o g u e . H i s c r e a t i o n s h a d g r e a t i m p a c t on R u s s i a n s o c i e t y . H i s name was D e n i s I v a n o v i c h F o n v i z i n . CHAPTER I ...D. . I..FONVIZIN - - LIFE AND WORKS - "He 3a6yflb -?OH—BH3HH& nHcaTb, _?OHBH3HH. . ^ T O OH ea HexpHCTB .? OH -pyccKHS, H3 nepepyccKHx pyccKHH." Denis Fonvizin was born on the third of Apr i l 171+5 (ac- cording to the old style calendar) in Moscow.2» His father Ivan was of an old noble family descended from a Livonian knight taken prisoner in the sixteenth century. During the early part of the l600's his descendants had made an honourable name for themselves on the batt le-f ie ld fighting loyal ly for Russia. Ivan Andreyevich Fonvizin, though only a minor o f f i c i a l in the service of the tsar, was quite an extraordinary man: unlike most of the contemporary government of f ic ia l s he was exceedingly honest in the execution of his duties. " He (Denis' father) had an innate horror of l i e s ; i f someone were to l i e in front of him, he would blush in shame for the' l iar ."-^ ' There is no doubt that this astute honesty of Denis' father played a large role in the formation of the young man's own ' sincere charac- x. li-ter . When Denis began school he proved to be a remarkable stu- dent. It was reported that at the age of only eight years, he knew more than most boys at twelve.-3* However, his teachers at the Moscow Gymnasium were no paragons of pedantry: his mathemat- ics teacher was an alcoholic and his Latin teacher often derelict in his duties. Fonvizin gives us a humorous anecdote in his memoirs concerning the conduct of this much esteemed Latin pedagogue: "On t h e eve o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n our L a t i n t e a c h e r came i n a f t e r an absence o f s e v e r a l months , w e a r i n g a k a f t a n w i t h f i v e l a r g e b r a s s b u t t o n s and a w a i s t c o a t w i t h f o u r . A l i t t l e s u r p r i s e d a t h i s s t r a n g e cos tume , I a sked h i m why he was d r e s s e d so s t r a n g e l y . 'My b u t t o n s may seem r i d i c u l o u s t o you he s a i d , ' b u t t h e y w i l l p r o v e y o u r s a l v a t i o n and save my r e - p u t a t i o n ; f o r t h e - b u t t o n s o f t h e k a f t a n r e p r e s e n t t h e f i v e d e c l e n s i o n s and t h o s e on t h e w a i s t c o a t the f o u r c o n j u g a t i o n s . ' S o ' , he c o n t i n u e d , s t r i k i n g t h e t a b l e w i t h h i s h a n d , ' l i s t e n t o what I have t o s a y . When t h e y ask you what d e c l e n s i o n any noun i s , n o t i c e w h i c h o f my c o a t b u t t o n s I t o u c h . I f , f o r e x a m p l e , i t i s the second f rom t h e t o p , ansx^er b o l d l y the second d e c l e n s i o n . And i f t h e y b o t h e r you about v e r b s , l o o k s h a r p a t my w a i s t c o a t and you w i l l make no m i s t a k e s 1' T h i s was t h e t y p e o f e x a m i n a t i o n we h a d l " ° * Perhaps even more i l l u m i n a t i n g was the g e o g r a p h y exam- i n a t i o n t h a t t h e young P o n v i z i n pas sed i n r a t h e r u n o r t h o d o x f a s h i o n . The e x a m i n e r asked t h e c l a s s i n t o w h i c h s e a f l o w e d the V o l g a . A f t e r many wrong answers had been p r o f f e r e d : : f rom v a r i o u s p u p i l s i t became D e n i s ' t u r n t o r e p l y . He answered v e r y c a n d i d l y ' ' H e 3Haio." v{±3 o u t s p o k e n c o n f e s s i o n o f i g n o r - , ance p l e a s e d the e x a m i n e r s so much t h a t young D e n i s was award ed the g o l d m e d a l . ? * At the t e n d e r age o f t h i r t e e n P o n v i z i n was e l e c t e d t o s t u d y a t the u n i v e r s i t y i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g . He was i m p r e s s e d w i t h the q u a l i t y o f s c h o l a r s h i p t h e r e ^ * and s t u d i e d h a r d f o r t h e n e x t two y e a r s . The young man had g r e a t s u c c e s s p a r t i c - u l a r l y i n t h e R u s s i a n and German l a n g u a g e s , f o r i n 1760 the d i r e c t o r o f the u n i v e r s i t y named h i m one o f t h e b e s t p u p i l s i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g . I t was t h e r e t h a t D e n i s made t h e a c q u a i n - t a n c e o f the g r e a t M i k h a i l Lomonosov and saw h i s f i r s t t h e a - t r i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e . H i s f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e at s e e i n g a l i v e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a p l a y on s t age had a tremendous e f f e c t on the boy? 1 3 " I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e e f f e c t t h a t the p e r - formance had on me. The p l a y was r a t h e r s t u p i d I t h o u g h t b u t I r e g a r d e d i t as a work o f the h i g h e s t form o f a r t , and the a c t o r s - g r e a t p e o p l e t o know I t h o u g h t , and i t wou ld be o f my g r e a t w e l l - b e i n g t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e m . I n e a r l y went mad w i t h j o y when I l e a r n e d t h a t some o f the a c t o r s v i s - i t e d my u n c l e ' s house where I was t o l i v e . " 9 . H e r e P o n v i z i n a l s o became f r i e n d l y w i t h V o l k o v , D m i t r y e v s k y , Shumsky and o t h e r n o t e d a c t o r s o f the t i m e ; he h i m s e l f became an a c t o r o f no s m a l l n o t o r i e t y . So the d i e was c a s t : h i s i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t i n t h e t h e a t r e would n e v e r wane. P o n v i z i n r e t u r n e d t o Moscow and resumed i n t e n s i v e s t u d y ; t h i s t i m e he a v i d l y p u r s u e d F r e n c h . He knew t h a t F r e n c h was the l a n g u a g e o f t h e g r e a t e s t c o n t e m p o r a r y d r a m a t i s t s o f E u r - ope and a l s o t h e tongue o f l i t e r a t u r e and advanced p h i l o s o p h y . The young s c h o l a r a l s o c o n t i n u e d t o s t u d y German and i n 1761 he won the g o l d medal f o r e x c e l l e n c e i n t h e advanced c l a s s . ^ » Because o f t h e s e t a l e n t s he e a s i l y a c q u i r e d a p o s i t i o n as t r a n s l a t o r f o r t h e " C o l l e g e o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s " i n Moscow.. S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r came F o n v i z i n ' s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d w o r k : a t r a n s l a t i o n o f a number o f f a b l e s by the Dane L u d v i g H o l b e r g . The n e x t y e a r t h e r e f o l l o w e d t r a n s l a t i o n s f rom b o t h F r e n c h and L a t i n o f O v i d ' s M e t a m o r p h o s e s , V o l t a i r e ' s A l z i r e ou l e s A m e ' r i c a i n s , and L a V e r t u He ' ro ique ou l a v i e de S e t h , r o i d ' E g y p t e i by T e r r a s s o n . . The l a t t e r was v e r y r e m i n i s c e n t o f F e n e l o n ' s Tele'maque and was t h e o n l y one o f t h e s e t h r e e t o be p u b l i s h e d i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 1 1 • These works b r o u g h t F o n v i z i n an e x c e l l e n t r e p u t a t i o n and he had the good f o r t u n e t o be a b l e t o o b t a i n a p o s i t i o n i n the F o r e i g n S e r v i c e as s e c r e t a r y t o a c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r I . P . Y e l a g i n T h i s new p o s i t i o n was a c t u a l l y an e x t e n s i o n o f h i s p r e v i o u s j o b . Because Y e l a g i n was a l s o a t h e a t r e manager he was o f c o u r s e v e r y much i n v o l v e d w i t h R u s s i a n drama o f t h a t t i m e . I n f a c t i t was h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f - H o l b e r g ' s p l a y upon w h i c h F o n v i z i n was t o l a t e r base h i s own p l a y B r i g a d i r . A t t h i s t i m e t h e r e a l so- appeared ' T o r g Semi Muz (The H a g g l e o f t h e Seven Muses) , a n o t h e r R u s s i a n t r a n s - l a t i o n f rom L a t i n . Some s c h o l a r s have s t a t e d t h a t i t was a t t h i s t ime t h a t F o n v i z i n wro te the f i r s t d r a f t o f ' H e d o r o s l ' . We s h a l l examine t h i s p r o b l e m i n d e p t h i n C h a p t e r Three when we d i s c u s s the a c t u a l s o u r c e s o f t h e p l a y . In 176)4. F o n v i z i n f i n i s h e d h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l comedy i n v e r s e K o r i o n . I t was a c t u a l l y a R u s s i a n a d a p t a t i o n o f Sydney b y G r e s - 12 s e t . * F o n v i z i n ' s method was not t o t r a n s l a t e d i r e c t l y b u t r a t h e r t o o m i t . p a r t s o r add s e c t i o n s and above a l l t o p l a c e the p l a y i n a R u s s i a n m i l i e u w i t h w h i c h h i s R u s s i a n a u d i e n c e c o u l d i d e n t i f y . The p l a y i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y a d m i r a b l e y e t shows one v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g t r a i t . . The h e r o , a young s o c i a l i t e K o r i o n , i s i n appearance a l m o s t a f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e " l i s h - n i i c h e l o v e k " ' so famous i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . K o r i o n has b e t r a y e d h i s t r u e l o v e Z i n o v i y a and f e e l i n g pangs o f c o n s c i e n c e , he d e c i d e s t o l e a v e the b u s t l i n g h a u t e s o c i e t e and t r a v - e l t o h i e dacha i n t h e c o u n t r y . There he becomes more d i s a p p o i n t e d i n l i f e and i n c r e a s i n g l y b i t t e r o v e r l o s i n g h i s l o v e d one and f i n - a l l y d e c i d e s t o k i l l h i m s e l f . He t a k e s p o i s o n b u t s u d - d e n l y meets Z i n o v i y a a g a i n . He d i s c o v e r s t h a t she l o v e s h im as b e f o r e b u t now i t i s t o o l a t e : K o r i o n must d i e . E v e r y t h i n g 5 ends h a p p i l y h o w e v e r , because K o r i o n ' s s e r v a n t A n d r e i , w i s h i n g t o save h i s m a s t e r , has s u b s t i t u t e d w a t e r f o r the p o i s o n . E x - c e p t f o r t h i s m e l o d r a m a t i c e n d i n g t h e r e are t r a c e s o f F o n v i z - i n ' s d r a m a t i c g e n i u s , b u t t h e p l a y i s g e n e r a l l y t o o i m i t a t i v e and the c h a r a c t e r s a re n o t r e a l l y R u s s i a n . 1 3 » N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t does n o t d e s e r v e the s c a t h i n g judgment t h a t D r . A . Coleman g i v e s : " K o r i o n and e a r l y p l a y o f F o n v i z i n d a t i n g f rom 176^ shows t h i s same i m i t a t i v e t e n d e n c y . A l t h o u g h the t i t l e does n o t acknowledge the p l a g i a r i s m , the whole p i e c e i s n o t h i n g more t h a n f r e e t r a n s l a t i o n from t h e S i d n e i o f G r e s s e t , a Frenchman o f a s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n . "l^-» The r e a s o n f o r the u n f a i r n e s s o f D r . C o l e m a n ' s s t a t e m e n t i s t h a t i s was g e n e r - a l l y a c c e p t e d a t t h e t ime t h a t the p l a y was a f r e e a d a p t a t i o n and n o t an o r i g i n a l p l ay .^-5 . M o r e o v e r i t was g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e i n t h i s p e r i o d t o i m i t a t e f o r e i g n c l a s s i c s , a s t a t e m e n t r e i n - f o r c e d i f we examine t h e works o f Sumarokov , K n y a z h n i n and o t h e r d r a m a t i s t s who r e l i e d h e a v i l y on f o r e i g n a u t h o r s . The main i m - p o r t a n c e o f K o r i o n was t h i s R u s s i a n m i l i e u and t h e changes i n p r i n c i p l e t h a t F o n v i z i n made: " F o n v i z i n t r a n s f o r m e d t h i s (comedie l a r m o y a n t e ) i n t o a comedy o f manners by t h e i n g e n i o u s a d d i t i o n o f ' b y t o v o j 1 t r a i t s o f R u s s i a n l i f e ; t h e s e i n c l u d e d t h e use o f S l a v o n i c names, a R u s s i a n s e r f - v a l e t c a l l e d A n d r e j , r e f e r e n c e s t o ' m e r r y - m a k i n g ' i n M o s c o w ' , t h e sound o f Moscow c h u r c h - b e l l s and s a t i r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s t o ' p r e f e r m e n t ' i n the government s e r v i c e . " l b . A t a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same t i m e appeared some o t h e r r e - m a r k a b l e though immature works o f s a t i r e s u c h as P o s l a n i y e n 6 k s lugam moim (Message t o my S e r v a n t s ) , P o s l a n i y e k Y a m s h c h i - k o v u .(Message t o Y a m s h c h i k o v ) and K umu moemu (To my M i n d ) . They a re a l l w r i t t e n i n v e r s e but F o n v i z i n f i n i s h e d o n l y t h e f i r s t . The f i r s t poem i s a d d r e s s e d t o h i s s e r v a n t s S h u m i l o v , V a n ' k a and P e t r u s h k a . F o n v i z i n a t t a c k s c h u r c h e d u c a t i o n and b l i n d f a i t h i n r e l i g i o n . The a u t h o r ' s keen sense o f w i t and pungent s a t i r e were e v i d e n t even i n t h i s work w r i t t e n b e f o r e he w a s . t w e n t y : "Tpacemb, DlyMHjiOB, TM cefloM CBoen rjiaBOK, -He 3 H a » , - ro-BopHiHB - He 3Haio H T o r o , 1 7 MBI co3flaHH Ha CBeT H KeM H RJIK q e r o . " M o r e o v e r , i n t h e u n f i n i s h e d K umu moyemu w h i c h g r e a t l y echoes K a n t e m i r ' s work o f s i m i l a r t i t l e , F o n v i z i n f u r t h e r d e m o n s t r a t - ed h i s i n n a t e sense o f s a t i r e : "Bo <3?paHHHH TapH$ H3BecTeH HaM KaKOB: 1 R ^TOS 6bITB C|)paHI];y3CKHMH H3 pyCCKHX fly'paKOB. . . " P e r h a p s the b e s t o f h i s e a r l y o r i g i n a l works was t h e f a b l e L i s i t s a - K o z n o d e i (The F o x - P r e a c h e r ) . I t marks the f i r s t s t e p i n F o n v i z i n ' s p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e s : t h i s w i t t y y e t m a l i c i o u s s h o r t poem exposed t h e g r o v e l l i n g p r a i s e t h a t was g i v e n t o mon- a r c h y by t h o s e around t h e m . L i s i t s a - K o z n o d e i i s a r e m a r k a b l y b o l d poem and a p t l y shows F o n v i z i n ' s g r e a t c o u r a g e , f o r he w r o t e i t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the d e a t h o f t h e Empress E l i z a b e t h t h o u g h i t was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1787. W i t h humour and t o n g u e - i n - c h e e k F o n v i z i n pokes fun a t t h e e n d l e s s p a n e g y r i c s . . t o R u s s i a n d e s p o t s . T h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , i t i s the f o x who i s . e u l o g i z i n g a f t e r the d e a t h o f the " t s a r - l i o n " : 7 "0 jiecTB nofljieftinafl, - meiiHyji Co6aKe K p o T . - H 3Haji JIbBa KOPOTKO: OH 6HJI npecymnft C K O T , H 30JI, H 6eCT0JIK0B, H CHJIOH BHHIHeH BJiaCTH. Q OH TOJIbKO HaCHlHaJI CBOH THpaHCKH CTpaCTH. " D u r i n g t h e n e x t two y e a r s F o n v i z i n worked on two more t r a n - s l a t i o n s : B i t a u b e ' s I o s i f ( Joseph) and de L a s s e ' s Torguyushcheye d v o r y a n s t v o (The T r a d i n g N o b i l i t y ) . B o t h t h e s e t r a n s l a t i o n s are more, mature and b e t t e r d e v e l o p e d t h a n h i s e a r l i e r o n e s . 2 * - 1 . I n a d d i t i o n i t was a l s o at t h i s t ime t h a t he w r o t e S o k r a s h c h - e n i y e o v o l ' n o s t i f r a n t s u z s k o g o d v o r y a n s t v a i o p o i ' ze t r e t ' ego c h i n a -'• ( B r i e f - about t h e Freedom o f the F r e n c h A r i s t o c r a c y and about the Use o f the T h i r d E s t a t e . ) T h i s document can be e x - p l a i n e d b y the t i t l e and b a s i c a l l y i s . meant t o i n f o r m the R u s s i a n p u b l i c about the p o l i t i c a l sy s tem i n F r a n c e . I t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t F o n v i z i n met S u m a r o k o v . K h e r a s k o v and o t h e r l e a d i n g men o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y R u s s i a n b e l l e s - l e t t r e s . Then i n the e a r l y months o f 1769 appeared h i s f i r s t t r u e m a s t e r p i e c e B r i g a d i r . T h i s p l a y was v e r y s u c c e s s f u l and marked a c r e s t i n F o n v i z i n ' s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r . Because i t i s o f s u c h g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e B r i g a d i r w i l l be . -dis'e'ussed -<;in \?d;e-- • ••• t a i l i n C h a p t e r Two. Towards the end o f 1769 F o n v i z i n g r a d u a l l y l o s t i n t e r e s t i n h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h Y e l a g i n and was drawn to the l i b e r a l n o b i - l i t y w h i c h was grouped around N . I . P a n i n . F o n v i z i n c o n t i n u e d t o s e r v e t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e b u t was now under P a n i n ' s g u i d a n c e . F o n v i z i n soon d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f h e r e and s e c u r e d the p o s t Qf s e c r e t a r y o f the " C o l l e g i a " . 2 1 * He a l s o p u b l i s h e d a t r a n s l a - t i o n o f A r n a u t ' s S i d n e " e t S i l l i , a t y p i c a l d o m e s t i c t a l e i n t h e . 8 E n g l i s h s t y l e . S e r v i n g i n t h e " C o l l e g i a " Den i s " d e s i r e d t o s e r v e n o t the whims o f a de spo t b u t the R u s s i a n s t a t e , as he u n d e r s t o o d i t s i n t e r e s t s t o b e . " 2 2 . P a n i n ' s l i b e r a l group i n - f l u e n c e d P o n v i z i n and a l l o f R u s s i a v e r y much as i t g a i n e d more power i n t h e 1770' s : i t o r g a n i z e d i t s e l f a l m o s t as a fu'sed p o l i t i c a l movement. A c t u a l l y t h i s a r i s t o c r a t i c l i b e r a l i s m a s - s e r t e d i t s e l f s t r i v i n g t o w a r d s " r e a c t i o n " p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the wake o f t h e Pugachev R e b e l l i o n . In 1771 P o n v i z i n f i n i s h e d h i s document S l o v o n a v y z d o r o v l e n i y e ego i m p e r a t o r s k o g o v y s o c h e s t v a g o s u d a r y a t s e s a r e v i c h a _i v e l i k o g o k n y a z y a P a v l a P e t r o y i c h a v 1771 gode (Notes, on the R e c o v e r y o f H i s I m p e r i a l M a j e s t y H e i r t o t h e S t a t e and G r e a t P r i n c e P a u l P e t r o v i c h i n the Y e a r 1771). T h i s work e x p r e s s e d i n e l e g a i c terras t h e w i s h f o r t h e h e i r t o r e g a i n h i s h e a l t h and c o n c l u d e d w i t h an i m p a s s i o n e d p l e a f o r a l l l o y a l R u s s i a n s t o come t o t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f M o t h e r R u s s i a . F o n v i z i n h i m s e l f p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e e n s l a v e m e n t o f t h e s e r f s as w e l l as the l a w l e s s n e s s g e n e r a l l y i m p l a n t e d i n the a u t o c r a c y o f the p o l i c e s y s t e m . M e a n w h i l e he s h a r p l y sensed t h e u t t e r d i s p l a c e m e n t o f c l a s s o r d e r and c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t had a l r e a d y b r o k e n o u t o v e r E u r o p e . 2 3 . B u t i n R u s s i a the p e a s - a n t s , t h o u g h i n r e b e l l i o n , were s t i l l e n t i r e l y h e l d back b y t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e n o b i l i t y . Thus i t was t h a t F o n v i z i n wro te an i m p o r t a n t r e b e l l i o u s document toward 177^ t h a t was no't p u b - 1 ' ished however • u n t i l 1863. T h i s was t h e e x p l o s i v e R a s s u z h d e n i y e o g o s u d a r s t v e v o o b s h c h e , o t n o s i t e l ' n o c h i s l a v o i s k , p o t r e b n o g o d l y a z a s h c h i t y onogo , i k a s a t e l ' n o o b o r o n y v s e k h p r e d e l o v 9 (Tes tament about the S t a t e in general , r e l a t i n g to the Number of Troops N e c e s s a r y for the Defense of the above . and concern- ing the L i m i t s of a l l B o u n d a r i e s ) . 2 1 ; * L u c k i l y for the author C a t h e r i n e did not pay too much attention to i t and. i t s l i p p e d by unnoticed. P o t e m k i n did manage to dismiss Count P a n i n with disfavour from his post for h i s compl ic i ty with Y e r a e l i a n P u g - achev. A n o t h e r p o l i t i c a l document which appeared at th i s time but was not published u n t i l much l a t e r was the R a s s u z h d e n i y e o Nepremennykh gosudarstvennykh z-akonakh (Tes tament about I n - dispensible S t a t e S t a t u t e s ) « 2 ^ * T h i s document asserted cer ta in fundamental r i g h t s for the contro l of a rb i t r a ry power by the monarch. T h i s project for fundamental laws was'conceived by P o n v i z i n and the P a n i n brothers . B u t - P o n v i z i n . w r o t e i t , and performed the t a s k at h i s eloquent be s t . 2 ^* A c c o r d i n g to P o n - v i z i n and P a n i n one of the greatest calamit ies of the R u s s i a n state was favourit i sm by the monarchs. They hated the t s a r ' s cronies who robbed and cheated the people by embezzlement and open chicanery under f u l l view o f the t sar . I n d e e d , P o n v i z i n saw P o t e m k i n - C a t h e r i n e ' s " r i gh t hand man" ( in more ways than one) - as t h e v i l e usurper and e v i l plunderer of " M o t h e r R u s s i a " : "Tyr, KTO MoaceT, noBeaeBaeT, HO HHKTO HEraeM He ynpaBjineT, H6O npaBHTB flooiaceHCTBOBajiH 6u 3aK0Hbi, KOH BHine ce6a HH^ero He Tep- ILHT. TyT no#flaHHbie nopaSoiijeHH rocyflapio, a rocy^apb O6BIKHOB6H- HO CBoeMy' HejiocToHHOMy jnoSHMny .fl Ha3Baji ero HeflOCTofiHbiM noTOMy, "-Lttro Ha3BaHHe JiK>6HMHa He npHnHCbiBaeTCH "HHicorfla ^ocTOHHOMy Myacy, OKa3aBineMy OTe^ecTBy HCTHHHbie 3acjiyrH, a npHHafljieacHT O6HKHOB- eHHO MejiOBeny, ^ocTHrmeMy BHCQKHX CTeneHeM no y#aqHOH CBoeit . XHTpOCTH HpaBHTBCH TOCyflapK). " 10 T h i s a t t a c k was so s c a t h i n g t h a t i t was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1861 i n London i n t h e I s t o r i c h e s k y S b o r n i k . In Augus t o f 1777 "began a .new..stage : ; i n D e n i s F o n v i z i n ' s l i f e . He made t h e f i r s t o f h i s t h r e e l o n g t r i p s a b r o a d 2 ^ * t r a v - e l l i n g t h r o u g h o u t Europe f o r a y e a r b u t s p e n d i n g much t i m e i n F r a n c e i n p a r t i c u l a r . P o n v i z i n had m a r r i e d a r i c h widow t h r e e y e a r s b e f o r e and s i n c e n e i t h e r o f them e n j o y e d good h e a l t h , the j o u r n e y s were made t o a s s i s t t h e i r b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s . D u r i n g h i s s o j o u r n i n P r a n c e f rom 1777-1778 P o n v i z i n w r o t e l e t t e r s p r o f u s e - l y , m a i n l y t o h i s s i s t e r and Count P a n i n . A l t h o u g h " P o n v i z i n was r e c e i v e d e v e r y w h e r e , by f o r e i g n e r s and R u s s i a n s a l i k e , w i t h h o n o u r s and a t t e n t i o n n o t u s u a l l y g i v e n t o a p r i v a t e traveller','29. he came t o have a v e r y n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards P r a n c e and Frenchmen i n g e n e r a l even' towards t h e g r e a t s l i k e V o l t a i r e , Rous - seau and d ' A l e m b e r t . " I have a l r e a d y seen V o l t a i r e t h r e e t i m e s . D ' A l e m b e r t , o f a l l F r e n c h l e a r n e d men, has s u r p r i s e d me the m o s t . I i m a g i n - ed a s e r i o u s , v e n e r a b l e , a p p e a r a n c e , b u t f o u n d the w o r s t shape and the meanest p h y s i o g n o m y . . . Y e s t e r d a y t h e r e was a m e e t i n g a t the Academy o f S c i e n c e s . V o l t a i r e was p r e s e n t ; I s a t q u i t e n e a r h im and d i d n o t t a k e my eyes o f f t h e r e l i c . I have been p r o m i s e d t o be shown Rousseau and as soon as I see h im t h e n I can say t h a t I have seen a l l t h e sages o f t h i s c e n t u r y . . . . . . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the good -here you can f i n d i f you go o u t and l o o k f o r i t , w h i l e the bad h i t s you i n t h e e y e s . L i v i n g i n P a r i s f o r a l m o s t h a l f a y e a r now, I have become f a m i - l i a r enough w i t h i t t o know t h a t I c e r t a i n l y would n o t r e t u r n a g a i n o f my own f r e e w i l l . . . . Today we are g o i n g t o S t . C l o u d . Many p e o p l e are g o i n g t o be t h e r e . Tomorrow m o r n i n g w i l l be a l e a r n e d one a t my p l a c e ; . I am s p e n d i n g i t w i t h D ' A l e m b e r t . W e l l , t h e s e are the p l e a s u r e s I have h e r e : l e a r n e d y a p p e r s , p l a y s , and promenades . B u t even t h e s e have c o m e ' t o b o r e me. B o t h o f us a re a n x i o u s t o pu t an end t o our w a n d e r i n g s . We w i l l i n d e e d be happy when we r e a c h home a g a i n . F a r e w e l l I '.'30. 11 P r a n c e made a v e r y p a i n f u l i m p r e s s i o n on P o n v i z i n . The o l d f e u d a l reg ime was d i s i n t e g r a t i n g b e f o r e o n e ' s eyes and i t g r e a t l y d i s t r e s s e d h i m : " O H BHfleji HBCTBeHHO' npHSjiHsceHne KpyineHHH eTaporo peacHMa, OH B H ^ e j i TopKeCTBO BojiBTepa - r p a H f l H 0 3 H y i o fleMOHCTpauHio, ycTpoeHHyio Beji- H K V M Bpary #ecnoTH3Ma H $aHaTH3Ma.$paHHV3CKHM Hapo,n;OM, HO O H He 6HJI oxBa^eH na$ocoM rpa^ymux noBefl 6ypacya3HK, OH 6pK33Kaji, e r o . pa3flpascajio T O , HTO 6HJIO B CTpane Ha^ajiOM oSHOBJieHHa, TeM Soj iee, ^T0 O H He Mor ropeBaTB H O npomjiOM, BO <5paHHHH OH^yBHfleji ocTaT- K H TOH Xe THpaHHH KOTOpVK) O H H e H a B H f l e j I B P O C C H H . " * P o n v i z i n has been a c c u s e d o f b e i n g p r e j u d i c e d and " j a u n d i c e d " i n h i s c r i t i c i s m s o f P r a n c e , 3 2 . b u t f o r a l i b e r a l minded R u s - s i a n t h e s e a c c u s a t i o n s a re r a t h e r u n f o u n d e d . P o n v i z i n d i d n o t w i s h t o appear l i k e so many o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s who were q u i c k t o p r a i s e a l l t h i n g s G a l l i c and o v e r l o o k the f a u l t s o f e v e r y t h i n g F r e n c h ; i n s t e a d he d e s i r e d t o p l a c e t h i n g s i n a p r o - p e r p e r s p e c t i v e by p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t i n any c o u n t r y t h e r e are as many bad q u a l i t i e s as good o n e s . "The main t a s k w h i c h F o n v i z i n seems t o have s e t h i m s e l f i n h i s . . a p p r a i s a l o f F r e n c h s o c i e t y was t o d i s t i n g u i s h the myth f rom r e a l i t y : t o d i s c o v e r n o t o n l y w h e t h e r the F r e n c h r e p u t a - t i o n i n t h e w o r l d had any b a s i s i n f a c t , b u t a l s o whether t h e image F r e n c h s o c i e t y had o f i t s e l f , as e x p r e s s e d i n i t s l a w s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , and l i t e r a t u r e , c o r r e s p o n d e d t o r e a l i t y . The c o n - c l u s i o n was f o r e g o n e , b u t i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e s t u d y o f R u s - s i a n a t t i t u d e s towards Europe t o d i s c o v e r where a R u s s i a n o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o u n d t h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e l a c k i n g and i n what terms h i s c r i t i c i s m was f o r m u l a t e d . The c h o i c e o f a t a r - ge t as w e l l as t h e l a n g u a g e employed s h o u l d f u r n i s h a c l u e t o the c l a i m s t h a t wou ld be made d i r e c t l y o r b y i m p l i c a t i o n f o r R u s s i a n r e a l i t y by way o f c o n t r a s t w i t h European p r e t e n s i o n s . " 3 3 . Our a u t h o r r e a l i z e d and a c c e p t e d t h e f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f the F r e n c h l e g a l sy s tem b u t he was q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t . that b e - cause o f c o r r u p t i o n i n the e x e c u t i o n o f t h e l a w s , t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e s a f e g u a r d f o r the l i b e r t e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l as he 12 v e r y a p t l y d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h i s l e t t e r da ted J a n u a r y IJp, 1778 " . . . f o r example - I began by s a y i n g t h a t as f a r as I c o u l d see- t h i s f i r s t r i g h t o f man i s p i o u s l y p r e s e r v e d i n P r a n c e . To t h i s t h e y would r e p l y e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t h a t l e F r a n - g a i s e s t ne l i b r e , t h a t t h i s r i g h t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e i r t r u e h a p - p i n e s s , t h a t t h e y would s o o n e r d i e than t o l e r a t e the s l i g h t e s t i n f r i n g e m e n t o f i t . A f t e r l i s t e n i n g t o t h i s , I w o u l d b r i n g t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a round t o the i n j u s t i c e s I had n o t i c e d and w o u l d i n s e n s i t i v e l y d i s c l o s e t o them my o p i n i o n t h a t i t would be d e - s i r a b l e i f l i b e r t y were more than an empty word among t h e m . I t r u s t you w i l l b e l i e v e , my dear s i r , t h a t t h e s e v e r y same p e o p l e who b e f o r e had e n t h u s e d o v e r t h e i r l i b e r t y i m m e d i a t e l y answered m e : '0 m o n s i e u r , vous ayez r a i s o n I Le F r a n c a i s e s t e c r a s e , l e F r a n c a i s e s t e s c l a v e ' . H a v i n g d e c l a r e d t h i s , t h e y would then f a l l i n t o the most ' f r i g h t f u l r age o f i n d i g n a t i o n and i f t h e y were n o t q u i e t e d t h e y w o u l d be happy t o r e p r o v e the government and abase t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s f o r days on end."3l|« F o n v i z i n r e i t e r a t e s t h i s theme t h a t i n F r a n c e e v e r y t h i n g was m e r e l y e x t e r n a l a p p e a r a n c e ; t h e r e was no v e s t i g e o f good f a i , t h l e f t i n F r a n c e . - ^ * Our a u t h o r w i s h e d t o show t h a t R u s s i a had a good c i v i l i z a t i o n a l s o and t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n t h e r e was as good as anywhere i n the w o r l d . 3 6 . I t was s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r t h a t F o n v i z i n p r e s e n t e d h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f A n t o i n e Tome's work o f e l e v a t e d o r a t o r i c a l s t y l e . T h i s was c a l l e d S l o v o p o k h v a l ' n o y e Marku A v r e l i y u (Message P r a i s i n g Marcus A u r e l i u s ) . A f t e r r e t u r n i n g f rom F r a n c e i n 1778 F o n v i z i n ' s l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y grew i n s t r e n g t h . He t o o k up h i s pen and c o m p l e t e d h i s f i n e s t work N e d o r o a l ' i n 1782. Once a g a i n because o f t h i s w o r k ' s i m p o r t a n c e and i n f l u e n c e , an e n - t i r e c h a p t e r - C h a p t e r T h r e e - i s d e v o t e d t o an a n a l y t i c a l s t u d y o f t h e p l a y . I n t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y p e r i o d between 1778 and 1782 appeared F o n v i z i n 1 s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o R u s s i a n o f an i m p o r t a n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l e s q u i s s e : Ta - G i o ' i i i V e l i k a y a N a u k a Z a k l y u c h a - • ( O . S . ) : 13 yu ' shchaya v sebe V y s p k u y u K i t a i s k u y u F i l o s o f i y u (Ta G-ip. o r the G r e a t S c i e n c e C o n t a i n i n g H i g h C h i n e s e P h i l o s o p h y ) . 3 7 . I t was p u b l i s h e d anonymous ly i n t h e S t . P e t e r s b u r g V e s t n i k o f May 1779. The f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s work had been a L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n from t h e C h i n e s e done by Z . B a i y e r i n h i s book Museum S i n i c u m o f 1730. P i e r r e M . C i b o t i n t u r n t r a n s l a t e d t h e work i n t o F r e n c h f rom the C h i n e s e . F o n v i z i n used t h i s v e r s i o n f o r h i s t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o R u s s i a n , so i t must be n o t e d t h a t F o n v i z i n ' s work i s n o t a d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n . The e s q u i s s e t e l l s about the i d e a l monarch and h i s d u t y towards h i s s u b j e c t s . M o r e o v e r , F o n - v i z i n a t t e m p t s to a c q u a i n t the R u s s i a n r e a d e r w i t h some p o l i t i - c a l f a c t s o f e a r l y C h i n a w h i c h p a r a l l e l v e r y c l o s e l y the, s i t u - a t i o n i n R u s s i a o f t h a t t i m e . He d e s t r o y s the i d e a o f the d i v - i n e o r i g i n o f k i n g s and emperors by d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t monarchs are s i m i l a r t o a l l p e o p l e x ^ i t h t h e i r , own s h o r t c o m i n g s and f e a r s : "IIpHMep uapcKoii ceM&H eine fleftcTBHTejibcHee OTicpuBaeT JIIOSOBB . K ,ii;o6pofleTejiH H Ty CKJIOHHOCTB KO S j i a r y , c KOTOpoio Bee jnoflH Ha CBei- poflHTCH. ECJIH ,n,pyxejiio6He H CHHCxoscfleHHe Bcex cepflna B MOHap- ineM flOMe' coeflHHaeT, TO noflpascaHHe OHbie B03pacTHT, VMHOXHT H BO Bcex ceMBHx HaBcer,n;a pacnpocTpaHHT'. Ho. ecjiH HenpaBOcy^He H 3JIO- flefitcTBO T y f l a BCTynaT, Tor .ua norH6HeT Bee, TOraa HCKpa C M . n p o - H3Be,ii;eT noacap' H cOBepmHT BceoSmyio norti6ejiUh' N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n c a u s e d q u i t e a s t i r i n R u s s i a . B u t F o n v i z i n had j u s t ; : b e . g u n . The b e l o v e d Count P a n i n d i e d i n 1783 b u t F o n v i z i n c o n t i n u e d t h e s t r u g g l e f o r h i s own i d e a l s a g a i n s t t y r a n n y . A l t h o u g h t h e d e a t h o f P a n i n c o u p l e d w i t h t h e v i c i o u s c e n s o r s h i p o f N e d o r o s l ' was v e r y burdensome t o F o n v i z i n , i n s t e a d o f s u b m i t t i n g t o g r i e f he p r e s s e d on e v e n h a r d e r . The y e a r 1783 was one o f t h e most p r o l i f i c i n h i s l i f e . D u r i n g I l l , t h i s y e a r i n the j o u r n a l S o b e s e d n i k L y u b i t e l e i R o s s i i s k o g o S l o v a ( I n t e r l o c u t o r o f L o v e r s o f the R u s s i a n W o r d ) t appeared no l e s s t h a n f i v e o f h i s j o u r n a l i s t i c a r t i c l e s i n v a r i o u s num- b e r s o f t h e m a g a z i n e . The i s s u e o f May 20, 1783 c a r r i e d a . p o r t i o n o f a l i t e r a r y - l i n g u i s t i c a r t i c l e Opyt R o s s i i s k o g o S o s - l o v n i k g , - ^ * (An E x p e r i m e n t i n R u s s i a n Word C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . I t appear s t o be a d i c t i o n a r y g i v i n g a s e m a n t i c a n a l y s i s o f s y n - onyms and nuances o f meaning b u t i t i s a c t u a l l y a s a t i r i c a l a r - t i c l e o r a ' " p a r o d y i n m i n i a t u r e " . F o n v i z i n g i v e s s e v e r a l exam- p l e s o f h i s b i t i n g p e r s o n a l commentary on the n o b i l i t y : "KTO He JIK>6HT HCTHHH, TOT ^acTO oSMaHy T. 6biBaeT. ITpoMaHHBaTb ecTb SojibuiHx 6onp H C K V C C T B O . . .OyMacSpoj BecbMa onaceH, Korfla B CHJie. . .TjiyilLliM CMeiDHbl B 3HaTH. . . B H H3K0M COCTOHHHH MOXHO HMeTb GjiaropoflHeSmyio flymy, paBHO K a K . g BecbMa Sojibinoft 6apHH MoaceT 6biTb BecbMa nofljibiii. ^tejiOBeK...." In t h e t h i r d i s s u e o f S o b e s e d n i k appeared F o n v i z i n ' s f a - mous l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s N e s k o l ' k o v o p r o s o v m o g u s h c h i k h v o z b u d i t ' v umnykh i c h e s t n y k h l y u d a k h o s o b l i v o y e v n i m a n i y e (Some Quest- i o n s w h i c h can Arouse S p e c i a l . A t t e n t i o n i n I n t e l l i g e n t and H o n - e s t P e o p l e ) . F o n v i z i n s u b m i t t e d anonymous ly t h e s e h o l d q u e s t - i o n s o f a d i s t i n c t p o l i t i c a l t i n g e and t h e y i m m e d i a t e l y o f f e n d - ed the E m p r e s s . C a t h e r i n e p r o c e e d e d t o answer the se q u e r i e s i n h e r own g a z e t t e B y l i . i H e b y l i t s y . T h i s l i t e r a r y p o l e m i c was v e r y much a k i n t o the l a t e r and much more l e n g t h y j o u r n a l i s t i c d i s c u s s i o n s between t h e Empress and N . I . N o v i k o v . A t any r a t e F o n v i z i n r e a c h e d h i s p o i n t i m m e d i a t e l y ; s t r a i g h t a w a y he a sked "OT^ero MHornx ^o6pux Jiiofleft BH^HM B OTCTaBKe?" - an o b v i o u s r e f e r e n c e t o the d i s m i s s a l o f Count P a n i n - t o w h i c h C a t h e r i n e r e p l i e d "MHOrne flo6pbie JIIOJI,H BHiH&t H3 cnyscfibi,. Bepo- 15 HTHO , fljiH Toro , ^TO HanuiH• Bbiro^y 6HTB B OTCTaBKe." P o n v i z i n a g a i n made r e f e r e n c e t o the p a r a s i t i c a l sys tem o f c o u r t and o f f i c i a l f a v o u r i t e s t h a t he d e t e s t e d so much when he asked "OTnero B npeacHHe BpeMeHa myTH , nmuHH is Sajiarypbi MHHOB He HMejiH , a HbiHe HMeiOT is -BecbMa SojibinHe ?" T h u n d e r s t r u c k C a t h e r i n e c o u l d o n l y manage a weak "IIpeflKH Hamn He Bee 4-3 rpaMOTe yMejiH " I t seems a l m o s t r i d i c u l o u s t h a t C a t h e r - i n e w o u l d dare t o answer i n p r i n t ' these s e a r i n g q u e s t i o n s so c r i t i c a l o f h e r r e g i m e , y e t she h e r s e l f f e l t t h a t she c o u l d t a k e some o f t h e s t i n g o u t o f t h e s a t i r e by p l a c i n g , h e r answers r i g h t b e s i d e t h e q u e s t i o n s . ^ - * P o n v i z i n l a t e r r e p l i e d i n a s t a t e - ment a d d r e s s e d t o t h e e d i t o r o f B y l i : i N e b y l i t s y s t a t i n g t h a t he asked t h e q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o v a r i o u s i n - j u s t i c e s i n the r e g i m e , t h a t he d e s i r e d u n i v e r s a l j u s t i c e i n the R u s s i a n s t a t e and t h a t the answers, were c o n t r i v e d and o b - v i o u s l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . 4 5 . C a t h e r i n e d i d no t r e p l y t o t h i s a r t i c l e , however , and the l i t e r a r y p o l e m i c s between P o n v i z i n and the Empress had e n d e d . However , P o n v i z i n c o n t i n u e d h i s j o u r n a l i s t i c e x p l o i t s by p u b l i s h i n g more a r t i c l e s i n the S o b e s e d n i k . In the f o u r t h i s - sue appeared more o f t h e R o s s i i s k o g o S o s l o v n i k a a l o n g w i t h the C h e l o b i t n a y a R o s s i i s k o i M i n e r v e o t R o s s i i s k i k h P i s a t e l e i ( P e t i - t i o n t o t h e R u s s i a n M i n e r v a f rom R u s s i a n W r i t e r s ) , a document t o C a t h e r i n e c o m p l a i n i n g about the e x p l o i t a t i o n by the s e l f - i n d u l g e n t n o b i l i t y . The p e t i t i o n marks a p r o t e s t . a g a i n s t the c o u r s e o f a c t i o n o f the p r i v i l e g e d c l a s s e s and a d e s i r e f o r l i t e r a r y men t o e scape t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s nobility.W>» 16 I t was a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h i s t ime t h a t F o n v i z i n w r o t e h i s V s e o b s h c h a y a P r i d v o r n a y a G r a m m a t i k a (The U n i v e r s a l C o u r - t i e r s ' Grammar) . The a u t h o r i n c o r p o r a t e d t h i s work i n t o h i s u n f i n i s h e d j o u r n a l Drug c h e s t n y k h l y u d e i i i i S tarodum ( S t a r o - dum, o r the F r i e n d o f H o n e s t P e o p l e ) w h i c h was o n l y p u b l i s h e d p o s t h u m o u s l y i n the e d i t i o n o f I83O by P . B e k e t o v . ^ * The j o u r n a l i t s e l f was w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e l a s t n i n e y e a r s o f F o n - v i z i n ' s l i f e and c o n t a i n s many i n t e r e s t i n g and i m p o r t a n t a r - t i c l e s . They are i n the f o r m ' o f l e t t e r s w h i c h the a u t h o r o f N e d o r o s l ' a d d r e s s e s t o v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s o f the p l a y . He w r i t e s t o them as l i v i n g pe r sons and makes h i s own comments about the c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . k & » The most r e m a r k a b l e o f the . c o n t e n t s o f t h e j o u r n a l i s t h e a f o r e m e n t - i o n e d C o u r t i e r s ' Grammar. A l t h o u g h n e v e r p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g F o n - v i z i n ' s l i f e t i m e , h a n d w r i t t e n c o p i e s were v e r y much c i r c u l a t e d because o f the g r e a t demand f o r t h i s v e r y amusing w o r k . ^ 9 . L e t us examine c e r t a i n e x c e r p t s f rom t h i s C o u r t i e r s 1 Gram- mar. In form i t c o n s i s t s o f a number o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t F o n v i z i n answers i n a s a r d o n i c v e i n . F o r example " Q u e s t i o n : 'What i s C o u r t i e r s ' Grammar'? A n s w e r : ' C o u r t i e r s ' Grammar i s the A r t o r S c i e n c e , o f f l a t t e r i n g c u n n i n g l y , w i t h tongue and p e n . ' Q . : 'What i s meant by " f l a t t e r i n g c u n n i n g l y " ' ? A . : ' I t means u t - t e r i n g and w r i t i n g s u c h u n t r u t h as may prove p l e a s i n g t o those o f h i g h s t a t i o n a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , o f b e n e f i t t o the f l a t - t e r e r . ' Q . : 'What i s C o u r t l y U n t r u t h ' ? A . : ' I t i s the e x - p r e s s i o n o f a s o u l i n g l o r i o u s b e f o r e the s o u l v a i n g l o r i o u s . I t 17 c o n s i s t s o f shameles s p r a i s e s heaped upon a G r e a t Man f o r those s e r v i c e s w h i c h he n e v e r p e r f o r m e d and those v i r t u e s w h i c h he n e v e r h a d . ' " ^ * F o n v i z i n m a i n t a i n s t h i s c u t t i n g a t t i t u d e - -• t h r o u g h o u t t h e C o u r t i e r s ' Grammar. He c r i t i c i z e s the a r i s t o - c r a c y f o r t h e i r t o a d y i s m , f l a t t e r y , u n t r u t h s , d e c e p t i o n and g r e e d . The a u t h o r f i n i s h e s by h u m o u r o u s l y p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t t h e v e r b most f r e q u e n t l y c o n j u g a t e d a t c o u r t i s " t o be i n d e b t " . • I t i s o n l y c o n j u g a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t and the f u t u r e b u t n e v e r i n t h e p a s t s i n c e c o u r t i e r s are n e v e r o u t o f debt.^1* Two o t h e r j o u r n a l i s t i c works by F o n v i z i n appeared i n the S o b e s e d n i k i n 1783. They were P o v e s t o v a n i y e ranimogo g l u k h o g o i nemogo ( N a r r a t i v e o f an I m a g i n a r y Deaf and Dumb Man) and P o u c h e n i y e , govorennoye y dukhov den 1 Iyereyem V a s i l i y e m v s e l e F-s:--::-?:- (Sermon .Given on W h i t Monday by l y e r e i V a s i l i i i n the V i l - l a g e o f P*-.-»--») . The f o r m e r i s a s a t i r i c a l a r t i c l e t h a t was f i r s t d e v i s e d by F o n v i z i n i n Augus t 1778 as we can. see f rom a l e t t e r t o P a n i n f rom t h a t t i m e . ^ 2 * The i n f l u e n c e o f J e a n - J a c - ques R o u s s e a u ' s C o n f e s s i o n s on t h i s k w o r k was-., enormous . F o n - v i z i n a l s o d e s i r e d t o " l a y b a r e h i s s o u l " w i t h o u t .any p r e t e n s i o n . I n f a c t he f o l l o w s the s t r u c t u r e and b a s i c i d e a s o f the F r e n c h p h i l o s o p h e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r work a lmos t t o the l a s t d e t a i l . The a u t h o r b e l i e v e s t h a t he has found a t r u e i n s i g h t i n t o the i n t e r n a l n a t u r e o f man. He p r e s e n t s the n o t e s o f the i m a g i n - a r y dea f and dumb man g i v i n g the i m p r e s s i o n s t h a t t h a t man w o u l d have o f Moscow i n 1762. I n g e n e r a l t h i s work i s a w i t t y p a r o d y o f R u s s i a n moeurs as w e l l as o f g e n e r a l human f o i b l e s . £ 3 » 18 A p e r f e c t example o f t h i s i s F o n v i z i n ' s comment: • ".. .H6O OnjieymHH 6HJI TaKOH MacTep TOiraT.b ne^H, ^TO Te, #JIH KO- TOP-HX OH Tonnj i , flOBegg e ro CBoeio npoTeiujHeio HapcoHen. H #0 mna.6- ' o$HH,epcKoro mma..." . where he a t t a c k s the n o b i l i t y ' s manner o f o b t a i n i n g a c a r e e r . The a u t h o r a g a i n c r i t i c i z e s f a v o u r i t i s m by the monarch w i t h BbiB B cjiyacSe B SOJIBIIIOM nwy, HMeji OH caMyio M e j u c y i o flynry, KpOMe ce6a, HHKOMy floSpa He cueaa j i , CKOIIHB SoraTCTBO, peinmiCH 3a6 j i a ro- BpeMeHHO y6paTbCH B OTCTaBKy ', jiacKaacn floacHBaTb CBOK> CTap- OCTb B MOCKBe.. ." By c o n t r a s t t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e i n the P o u c h e n i y e b u t the s a t i r e i s r a t h e r s o c i a l : "caTHpa Ha pyxo- B e H C T B O TaKoe ace rpy6oe , SecicyjibTypHoe, K a n H cejibCKoe flBOpHHCTBO , K O T O p O M y O H O CJiyXHT . " * On November 11, 1783 F o n v i z i n wro te h i s l a s t j o u r n a l i s t i c a r t i c l e o f the y e a r w h i c h was n o t p u b l i s h e d , h o w e v e r , u n t i l a f - t e r h i s d e a t h . T h i s a r t i c l e was e n t i t l e d N a c h e r t a n i y e d l y a s o s t a v l e n i v a T o l k o v o g o s l o v a r y a s l a v y a n o r o s s i i s k o g o y a z y k a , s o c h i n e n o y e o t ryadom f P u - t H n e ^ f o r the C o m p o s i t i o n o f the T o l - k o v o i D i c t i o n a r y of the S l a v i c - R u s s i a n L a n g u a g e ) . T h i s i s an . i m p o r t a n t g u i d e f o r e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y R u s s i a n l anguage and d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e deve lopment o f the method of e x p r e s s i o n and p r i n c i p l e s of s t y l e i n the R u s s i a n l a n g u a g e . F o n v i z i n p r e s e n t e d i n 1781j. the c o m p l e t e b i o g r a p h y of Count P a n i n , e n t i t l e d Z h i z n ' G-raf a Pan i n a (The L i f e of Count P a n i n ) . T h i s work was i n f a c t w r i t t e n i n F r e n c h and p u b l i s h e d i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g , London and P a r i s b u t t h e R u s s i a n t e x t was n o t 19 r e l e a s e d u n t i l F e b r u a r y o f 1786 i n the j o u r n a l o f F . Tumansky e n t i t l e d Z e r k a l o S v e t a . ^ ® * The work i s q u i t e r e m a r k a b l e i n i t s a c c u r a c y c o n c e r n i n g P a n i n ' s l i f e and w o r k s , y e t p a r a d o x i c a l l y enough t h e r e are c e r t a i n e p i s o d e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h are o v e r l y e x a g g e r a t e d and h i g h l y i d e a l i z e d . The theme i s the s t r u g g l e o f Count P a n i n a g a i n s t the v i c e s and c o r r u p t i o n o f a s e l f - c e n t r e d n o b i l i t y and an e g o c e n t r i c m o n a r c h . A y e a r l a t e r D e n i s F o n v i z i n ' s h e a l t h began t o f a i l b a d l y . I n 1785 he was s t r i c k e n w i t h p a r a l y s i s w h i c h g r e a t l y hampered h i s s p e e c h and w r i t i n g c a p a c i t i e s . I n d e e d , i t became so v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r F o n v i z i n t o c o n d u c t h i s a c t i v i t i e s , t h a t most o f h i s works w r i t t e n i n the l a s t seven y e a r s o f h i s . l i f e r e m a i n e d u n f i n i s h e d , and most o f the se had t o be d i c t a t e d f rom h i s b e d - s i d e . Because o f h i s f a i l i n g h e a l t h F o n v i z i n and h i s w i f e t o o k two more l o n g t r i p s a b r o a d s p e n d i n g most o f t h e i r t i m e o f the 178I|.-1785 t r i p i n I t a l y and the l a s t t r i p o f 1787 i n S o u t h e r n E u r o p e , p a r t i c u l a r l y A u s t r i a and I t a l y . The c o u p l e r e t u r n e d f rom I t a l y i n Augus t 1785 w i t h F o n v i z i n g r a v e l y i l l . He was f o r c e d t o s t a y i n bed most o f the t ime y e t he c o n t i n u e d t o w o r k . In 1785 t h e r e appeared an anonymous t r a n s l a t i o n o f Zimmerman's l a s t c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d i n R u s s i a n R a s s u z h d e n i y e £ N a t s i o n a l 1 n o m L y u b o c h . e s t i i ( D i s c o u r s e on N a t i o n a l i s t A m b i t i o n s ) . C o n s i d e r i n g h i s i l l h e a l t h F o n v i z i n a d m i r a b l y t r a n s l a t e d t h i s work i n t o R u s s i a n . 6 0 . The a u t h o r ' s a t t i t u d e towards t r a n s l a t i n g p o l i t i c a l documents was d i s t i n c t i v e ; he w i s h e d the r e a d e r t o g a i n an i n - s i g h t i n t o t h e o r i g i n a l n o t o n l y through' t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f the 20 o r i g i n a l words b u t a l s o by c l o s e l y f o l l o w i n g the s t y l e . T h i s R a s s u z h d e n i y e i s a c t u a l l y a v e r y p o w e r f u l e m o t i o n a l document : t h e a u t h o r conveys an a c c o u n t o f a m o r a l code f o r b o t h a p a - t r i o t and an o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n ; o f man as an a c t i v e s t r u g g l e r a g a i n s t d e s p o t i c c o n t r o l w i t h t h e i n n e r n o t i o n o f d y i n g f o r t h e f reedom o f h i s c r e a t i v e e n e r g y . A y e a r b e f o r e h i s l a s t t r i p abroad P o n v i z i n p u b l i s h e d i n a j o u r n a l a q u i t e r e m a r k a b l e s t o r y e n t i t l e d K a l l i s f e n ( C a l l i s - ' t h e n e s ) i n w h i c h he e n v i s i o n e d h i s own f a t e . The s t o r y , v e r y c o n d e n s e d , has few l y r i c a l q u a l i t i e s ' b u t i t c o n t a i n s a g r e a t d e a l o f c a u s t i c i r o n y and f i t t i n g examples o f e p i g r a m m a t i c f o r - m u l a e . P o n v i z i n i n c l u d e s scenes o f a r i s t o c r a t i c t o a d y i s m , c r u e l t y and b r i b e r y . However t h e a u t h o r shows t h e s e e v e n t s w i t h o u t u n d e r s c o r i n g them; he p o i n t s them o u t u n a b l e t o h i d e h i s anger and i n d i g n a t i o n . The s t o r y i t s e l f c o n c e r n s t h e sage K a l - l i s f e n who a t t e m p t s t o t e a c h A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t how t o r u l e w i t h e q u a n i m i t y . B u t the emperor f a l l s t o t a l l y under the i n - f l u e n c e o f e v i l noblemen and does n o t heed K a l l i s f e n ' s w i s e a d - v i c e , becoming a v e r i t a b l e t y r a n t . When K a l l i s f e n c a l l s the emperor a m o n s t e r , A l e x a n d e r has h i m t o r t u r e d and i m p r i s o n e d ^ whereupon he d i e s . ^ 2 . The s u b t l e p a r a l l e l s o f P o n v i z i n ' s own r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e monarch a re s k i l f u l l y weaved t h r o u g h o u t t h e t a l e w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t K a l l i s f e n i s one o f P o n v i z i n ' s most p o w e r f u l w o r k s , i n h i s own w a y - P o n v i z i n d e v e l o p e d the s a t i r i c a l d e v i c e s o r i g i n a t e d by V o l t a i r e i n C a n d i d e y e t m o d i - f i e d them f o r use i n t h e R u s s i a n sphere i n h i s e x o t i c t a l e . ^ 3 . 21 I t i s e a sy t o g a i n an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r F o n v i z i n ' s p o w e r f u l mat- t e r - o f - f a c t s t y l e b y " e x a m i n i n g t h e c o n c l u d i n g p a r a g r a p h s o f K a l l i a f e n : "ITo KOH^HHe caMoro ApncTOTejia HaltfleHO B SyMarax e ro cjiefl- y&mee IIHCBMO KajuiHC$eHOBO, niicaHHoe 3a HecKOJiBKO ^tacoB npe.ii, e ro CMepTHio. 3flecb npefljiaraeTCH OHO c OTMCTKOK) e ro flpyra. IIHCBMO KajuiHC$eHa: - yMnpaio B TeMHHn;e, Snaroflapio 6oroB, ^ T O cnocoSHJu* MeHH noc- TpaflaTB 3a HCTHHy. AjieKcaHflp cjiymaji MOHX coBeTOB flBa , B KOTopne cnac a J K H S H B . flapneBa po.ua H H36aBHji acHTejieH nejion 0 6 - , JiaCTH OT KOHeUHOrO HCTpeSjieHHH. ITpOCTH.- OTMeTKa pyKOK) ApncTOTejia - ITpH r o c y f l a p e , KOToporo C K J I O H H O C T H He BOBce-pagBpameHu, B O T ' H T O qecTHbiS ^ejiOBeK B flBa A H H c^ejiaTB MoaceT. The l a s t f i v e y e a r s o f F o n v i z i n ' s l i f e were v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r h i m . He was d e s p e r a t e l y i l l ; i t was p a i n f u l f o r him. j u s t t o go on l i v i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , F o n v i z i n c o n t i n u e d t o w r i t e , b u t was u n a b l e t o f i n i s h most o f h i s l a s t w o r k s . He c o n t i n u e d t o w r i t e h i s o a u t o b i o g r a p h y C h i s t o s e r d e c h n o y e p r i z n a n i y e v d e l a k h m o y i k h 1 p o m y s h l e n i y a k h (A S i n c e r e C o n f e s s i o n about my A f f a i r s and T h o u g h t s ) , ( e x c e r p t s f rom w h i c h we have a l r e a d y examined) b u t succeeded i n commenting o n l y on y o u t h f u l r e c o l l e c t i o n s . As f o r d r a m a t u r g y F o n v i z i n worked on t h r e e more p l a y s : Dobry N a s t - a v n i k (A Good P r e c e p t o r ) p a r t o f w h i c h had been p u b l i s h e d i n 1781+; a n o t h e r unnamed comedy o f w h i c h o n l y the f i r s t scene i s e x t a n t , and V y b o r G u b e r n e r a (The C h o i c e o f a T u t o r ) t the most c o m p l e t e o f t h e t h r e e . A n o t h e r p l a y e n t i t l e d G o f m e i s t e r (The H o f m e i s t e r ) has been s u b s e q u e n t l y l o s t . A p o r t i o n o f the f i r s t p l a y Dobry N a s t a y n i k e n t i t l e d R a z g o v o r u K n y a g i n i K h a l d i n o i 22 ( P r i n c e s s K h a l d i n a ' s C o n v e r s a t i o n ) , a c t u a l l y t h e s e c o n d s cene of t h e p l a y , was i n c l u d e d i n P o n v i z i n ' s j o u r n a l Drug G h e s t n y k h L y u d e i under t h e t i t l e P i s 'mo ot S t a r o d u m a d a t e d at Moscow F e b - r u a r y oi 1788.65. The p a t h e t i c t u t o r - c o a c h m a n V r a l ' m a n makes a r e a p p e a r a n c e h e r e f r o m N e d o r o s l ' . I t was t h i s scene t h a t F o n v i - • r z i n ' s e n t to D e r z h a v i n as a t r u l y "new c o m e d y " on t h e eve of F o n - v i z i n ' s d e a t h . 6 6 . . gb.e a u t h o r ' s h e r o i s a F r e n c h t e a c h e r who appear s i n R u s s i a f rom s o m e w h e r e i n A m e r i c a a n d w i n s the c o n f i - dence of S o r v a n t s o v ' s A u n t . She t a k e s h im i n as a F r e n c h t e a c h - er and a l o v e r . Here t h e . e x c e r p t f i n i s h e s a b r u p t l y . I t i s un- f o r t u n a t e t h a t the p l a y was u n f i n i s h e d f o r as P u s h k i n s t a t e d " . . . 3aMe^aTejiBHa' He TOJIBKO icaic jiHTepaTypHaa p e ^ K O C T b , HO H K a i c j i K S o m i T H O e H3o6paxceHHe H p a B O B H M H e H H H , r o c n o f l C T B O B a B n i H x y H a c r r-7 j i e T c o p o K T O M y H a s a j i ; . . . " F o n v i z i n ' s V y b o r G u b e r n e r a i s v e r y n e a r l y c o m p l e t e b u t c a n - n o t be c o m p a r e d w i t h . B r i g a d i r or I T e d o r o s l 1 s i n c e i t i s n o t a f i n - i s h e d p r o d u c t . Because of t h i s t h e p l a y i s r a t h e r f l a c c i d a n d shows l i t t l e of the p o l i s h e d d i a l o g u e of P o n v i z i n ' s two g r e a t - , e s t w o r k s . The h e r o e s of t h e e x t r a c t t h e R u s s i a n t u t o r N e l ' s t - e t s o v , a n d Seum the F r e n c h p e d a g o g u e , c o n v e r s e at l e n g t h about t h e F r e n c h r e v o l u t i o n . - The a u t h o r speaks t h r o u g h t h e m o u t h p i e c e of N e l ' s t e t s o v to t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e of t h e F r e n c h m a n . He t a l k s ' i n d e t a i l about l i q u i d a t i o n of g o v e r n m e n t h e a d s , r e a c t i o n a r i e s a n d the e l i m i n a t i o n of o l a s s f a v o u r i t i s m . "$OHBH3HH B KOMeflHH - Bbi6o,p ry6epHepa - H3JiaraeT CBoe noHHMaHHe. HepaBeHCTBa. IloflflaHHbie AOJUKHH s c e p T B O B a T B CBOHMH H H - TepecaMH HO He AILS nojib3tu T a K H x s e e , KSK H OHH, juoflefi, a £JIH 6 j i a ra n;ejioro OTe^tecTBa.' HejiBCTeijOB . TaK $opMyjiHpyeT $OHBH3HHCKVK> 23 MHCJIB: - Heo6xo,a;HMO Ha^oSHO, mo6 OflHa -qacTb noflflggHbix #JIH 6jiara n,ejioro rocyflapcTBa *teM-HH6y,n;b xepTBOBajia.-" F o n v i z i n c o n t i n u e d t o t r a n s l a t e u n t i l h i s d e a t h b u t o n l y remnants o f a few t r a n s l a t i o n s o f T a c i t u s ( w h i c h C a t h e r i n e f o r - bade h i m t o do) Ges sner and o t h e r s r e m a i n . In the c o u r s e o f h i s l a s t two years , he f e l l i n t o a deep r e l i g i o u s m y s t i c i s m w h i c h can be a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s g rave i l l n e s s s i n c e i t i s so o u t - o f - c h a r a c - t e r f o r h i m . B u t even i n h i s l a s t works t h e r e remain . : s i g n s o f F o n v i z i n ' s s k i l l f o r p a r o d y and s a t i r e . ^ 9 . D e n i s F o n v i z i n d i e d on December 1, 1792. He was o n l y f o r t y seven y e a r s o l d . ' F o n v i z i n was n o t an o v e r l y p r o l i f i c w r i t e r y e t many o f h i s works were v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l . But F o n v i z i n ' s main i m - p o r t a n c e l i e s i n h i s two m a s t e r p i e c e s B r i g a d i r and N e d o r o s l ' . 2lx CHAPTER I I BRIGADIR - " E r o nposa <racTa, npHaTHa a TeKyma TaK, i-caic H e r o CTHXH. OH CO^HHHJI KOMeflHio BpnrajiHp H EpHraflupma, B KOTOPOH OCT- pbie cjiOBa.H 3aMBicjiOBaMbie myTKH paccHTam>i Ha KaxflOH CTpaHHiiie" As we have seen i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , F o n v i z i n f i r s t t r a n s l a t e d H o l b e r g ' s f a b l e s i n the e a r l y 1 7 6 0 ' s . An a d a p t a t i o n o f a f a b l e e n t i t l e d Jean de F r a n c e o r Hans F r a n d s e n had a p p e a r - ed i n 1 7 6 5 « 2 * T h i s a d a p t a t i o n was the s a t i r i c a l comedy by Ivan Y e l a g i n e n t i t l e d Jean de M o l e , i i i R u s s k i P a r i z h a n i n w h i c h u n - f o r t u n a t e l y has now-been l o s t . I t was d e s c r i b e d i n the Drama- t i c h e s k i S l o v a r ' o f 1787 as a "comedy c a s t i g a t i n g the f o o l i s h - ness o f p a r e n t s who send t h e i r c h i l d r e n abroad t o a c q u i r e a f o r - e i g n e d u c a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e c h i l d r e n o f t e n r e t u r n t o R u s s i a d e s p i s i n g t h e i r own l a n g u a g e . " 3 . T h i s was the i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l q u e s t i o n o f t h e d a y : . what were the r e s u l t s o f f o r e i g n e d u c a t i o n D u r i n g t h i s e r a F r a n c e was r e g a r d e d as the w o r l d ' s c e n t r e o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t so i t p roved t o be the c e n t r e o f e d u c a t i o n f o r young R u s s i a n n o b l e s . U n t i l t h e o u t b r e a k o f the F r e n c h R e v o l u - t i o n o f 1789, e d u c a t i o n o f R u s s i a n a r i s t o c r a c y i n F r a n c e was t h e r u l e . B u t the r e s u l t s were q u i t e o f t e n r i d i c u l o u s : young g e n t r y r e t u r n e d home u n a b l e to r e a d o r w r i t e R u s s i a n p r o p e r l y and i n f a c t came t o d e s p i s e the whole R u s s i a n l a n g u a g e and c u l - t u r e . These young n o b l e s r e t u r n e d from " L a B e l l e F r a n c e " as d a n d i f i e d , powdered f o p s f r e q u e n t i n g the s a l o n s o f R u s s i a n h a u t e s o c i £ t e \ spewing f o r t h l a v i s h p r a i s e f o r a l l t h i n g s G a l l i c . N a t u r a l l y i n s i d e t h e y were s t i l l R u s s i a n but t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e , 25 c o n d u c t , and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e i r l u d i c r o u s F r a n c o - R u s s i a n j a r - g o n , t h a t i s , t h e i r " G a l l o m a n i a " seemed a b s o l u t e l y r i d i c u l o u s ' t o R u s s i a n R u s s - o p h i l . e s A l e k s a n d r Sumarokov r i d i c u l e d t h i s G a l - l o m a n i a i n two p l a y s o f 1750 G h u d o v i s h c h i (The M o n s t e r s ) and S s o r a u Muzha (A H u s b a n d ' s Q u a r r e l ) . T h e r e a f t e r , " G a l l o m a n i a was f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d as a f a v o u r i t e t a r g e t i n comedy, and a t - t a c k s upon i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s formed p a r t o f L u k i n ' s campaign f o r g r e a t e r n a t i o n a l awareness i n the t h e a t r e . " 5 . D e n i s F o n v i z i n e n t e r e d t h i s campaign under t h e banner o f h i s ; f i r s t o r i g i n a l p l a y B r i g a d i r . As much as F o n v i z i n had r e - l i e d on Y e l a g i n ' s p l a y , he d i d n o t i m i t a t e d i r e c t l y t " . . . F o n v i z i n , l i k e S h a k e s p e a r e r e t a i n e d the r i g h t t o t a k e c e r t a i n b o r r o w i n g s and proved the f a c t t h a t the comedy Jean de F r a n c e w h i c h had a l r e a d y a p p e a r e d i n the R u s s i a n t h e a t r e i n an a d a p t a - t i o n by I . P . Y e l a g i n under the t i t l e The F r e n c h - R u s s i a n , ( s i c ) n e v e r made anyone t h i n k o f a c c u s i n g F o n v i z i n o f p l a g i a r i s m a f - t e r h a v i n g t a s t e d o f t h e p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o t h e s p i r i t o f R u s s i a n l i f e . N e v e r up t o then had been made the t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f a f o r e i g n work ( i n e t h n o g r a p h i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e rms) i n t o a R u s s i a n one w i t h s u c h a r t t h a t i t d i d n o t f o r c e one t o t h i n k o f t h e l i t e r a r y m o d e l s ; such was t h e case w i t h F o n v i z i n ' s B r i g a d i r . " ' . When e x a c t l y d i d F o n v i z i n w r i t e B r i g a d i r ? A prob lem a r i - ses i n a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n : " the o r i g i n a l m a n u s c r i p t was c i r - c u l a t e d f rom hand t o hand and t h o u g h the p l a y was s t a g e d i n t h e e a r l y 1 7 8 0 ' s i t was n o t p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1 7 9 0 i n t h e t h i r t y - t h i r d number o f R o s s i i s k i F e ' a t r . Some s c h o l a r s have p l a c e d the w r i t - i n g o f B r i g a d i r a t , 1 7 6 6 . 7 . O t h e r s m a i n t a i n t h a t i t was not w r i t - t e n u n t i l 1 7 6 9 . 8 . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n was d e a l t w i th , i n an a r t i c l e by V s e v o l o d s k i - G e r n g r o s s "Kogda b y l n a p l s a n B r i g a d i r ? " The, a u t h o r a s s e r t s t h a t the t i m e o f w r i t i n g can be l i n k e d t o t h e t i m e t h a t i t was r e a d t o C a t h e r i n e by t h e s t a t e m e n t w h i c h V 26 appeared i n t h e K a m e r f u r 1 e r s k i Z h u r n a l and by F o n v i z i n ' s s t a t e - ments i n h i s own a u t o b i o g r a p h y.9. F o n v i z i n g i v e s us t h e day June 29 b u t n e g l e c t s t o m e n t i o n t h e y e a r .10* M o r e o v e r F o n v i z i n men- t i o n s h e r e t h a t he b r o u g h t b o t h I o s i f and B r i g a d i r w i t h h i m , a n - o t h e r f a c t ( s i n c e we know p r e c i s e l y the date o f I o s i f because i t was p u b l i s h e d i n a j o u r n a l ) w h i c h has l e d V s e v o l o d s k i - G e r n g r o s s t o B e l i e v e t h a t t h e date o f 1766 i s c o r r e c t . However , as s u c h s c h o l a r s as P . N . B e r k o v and G . Makogonenko (as r e c e n t l y as 1969) have c a r e f u l l y p o i n t e d o u t , t h e e v e n t s w h i c h f o l l o w e d and p r e c e d - ed the r e a d i n g t o the Empress m u s t . b e c a r e f u l l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h .the somewhat jumbled r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f F o n v i z i n h i m s e l f . H » A f t e r a l o n g and complex w e i g h i n g o f t h e l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e ba sed p r i n c i - p a l l y on known f a c t s f rom c o n t e m p o r a r y j o u r n a l s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t o d a y t h a t B r i g a d i r was w r i t t e n d u r i n g the w i n t e r o f 1768-1769. As I m e n t i o n e d above F o n v i z i n r e l i e d h e a v i l y on the D a n i s h p l a y by H o l b e r g - o r r a t h e r he r e l i e d on Y e l a g i n ' s R u s s i a n adap- t a t i o n . A r t h u r P . Coleman seems t o f e e l t h a t F o n v i z i n ' s B r i g a d i r was v i r t u a l l y c o p i e d from t h e D a n i s h p l a y . He quote s V e s e l o v s k y t o m a i n t a i n h i s h y p o t h e s i s b u t i t shows t h a t h i s t h e o r y h o l d s w a t e r o n l y t o s u p e r f i c i a l d e t a i l s : • " In t h e p i e c e o f H o l b e r g appear i n e x a c t l y the same man- n e r two o l d men who have d e c i d e d among t h e m s e l v e s t o m a r r y o f f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; the d a u g h t e r o f one o f them i s h o r r i f i e d a t t h e p r o s p e c t o f m a r r y i n g a g i d d y f e l l o w who has been t o P a r i s . . . We- admi t t h a t w i t h F o n v i z i n t h e r e are-many l e a n i n g s away f r o m , the p r o t o t y p e , many o r i g i n a l and c l e v e r remarks and e s p e c i a l l y a r e m a r k a b l e c l o s e n e s s t o a c t u a l R u s s i a n l i f e ( i n the s t o r i e s o f .. t h e b r i g a d i e r and. h i s w i f e about m i l i t a r y l i f e and o f t h e c o u n - c e l l o r ' s w i f e about j u d i c i a l s e r v i c e ) . The R u s s i a n p l a y i s much more b o l d , b u t f o r t h i s r e a s o n f a l l s a l l t h e more s h a r p l y i n t o c a r i c a t u r i z a t i o n ."12.< 27 There i s no question that there are a f f i n i t i e s with H o i - b e r g ' s works , . bu t we must c a r e f u l l y s c ru t in i ze the aspects of charac te r i za t ion , s t ructure , language and humour in B r i g a d i r . They are very important t o - P o n v i z i n ' s work: he took a general idea , p lo t and character types but put them in a l i v e R u s s i a n m i l i e u , speaking the l i v i n g R u s s i a n of the day, but above a l l imbued the centra l theme with a t y p i c a l R u s s i a n attitude.^-3. N e v e r t h e l e s s , we must be care fu l not to go 1 to the other extreme and b l e s s P o n v i z i n ' s play as being t o t a l l y o r i g i n a l as many con- temporary S o v i e t c r i t i c s have done.^4* I f P o n v i z i n owes a great deal to H o l b e r g for subject mat- te r , then hi s form i s d i s t i n c t l y patterned after M o l i e r e . Chern ishevsky emphatically points out: "Bem-b 0 6 m e H 3 B e C T H a H ^ T O $OPMa KOMeflHH <&OHBH3HHa - MOJIb- epoBCKaH, H.ejiHKOM'nepeHeceHHaa H M B ero Hejopocj iH H EpHrajHP, H. CTapaJICH 06TbHCHHTb npOHCXOXUieHHe 3 T 0 H (pOPMBI, TaKOH npoTHByx- yfloacecTBeHHofi H npoTHByecTecTBeHHofi . Ho opnrHHajibHO JIH coflepscaHHe KOMeflHii y <S>0HBH3HHa ? OSbiKHOBeHHO OTBe^aioT , MTO coBepmeHHO opnrHHaj iBHO• fl CHJIBHO coMHeBaiocb B DT.OM HO noKa AOJisceH orpaHHUHTbca OAHHMH COMH6HHHMK , noTOMy XITO He Mory flOKa3aTb 3aHMCTBOBaHHft B coflepscaHHH , He HMen nofl pyKaMH co6paHHH $paHH.y3CKHx KOMeflnM MOJibepOB- C K O H mKOJiH . A He coMHesaTbCH B opHrHHajibHOCTH Bcero B KOMe^HHX $OHBH3HHa H6JIb3H . , nOTOMy ^TO K H H 3 B Bfl3eM- C'KHH flOKa3aji , ^ITO y $OHBH3HHa MHorHe jraua H MHome MBICJIH , KaaceTCH poAHBinnecfl H 3 caMoii rjiySnHH flymn' <£>OH- BH3HHa ", 3aHHTH H 3 $paHIi;y3CKHX KHHr. . . H T O , KaateTCH , n p H H a f l J i e a c H T J IHUHOCTH <3?OHBH3HHa Sojibine e r o i r a c e M K n a H H H y m <£>paHH,HH? A KHH3b BH3eMCKHH OILHTb —TaKH TOBOpHT , MTO BCe nopaflOUHue O C T P O T H H aHeK^OTbi TaM BHCKCEHBI H3 JIIOKJIO . . . noHeBOJie CTaHemb coMHeBaTbca a B opnrHHaj ibHOCfH ocTajib- Horo. CKaxcyT : " GoBeTHHK - CIIHCOK C TapTio^a HJIH 0,2;- HOTO H 3 ero noTOMKOB , . aTO npaB^a , HO ocTajiBHbie . K O M - H^iecKHe jiimap-y $0HBH3HHa TOCTO pyccKHe H HpaBbi micro pyccKHe". " A l t h o u g h th i s statement seems v a l i d , i t i s also true that many of M o l i e r e ' s plays were in turn t rans la t ions o r adaptations 28 o f I t a l i a n o r S p a n i s h works - Pom Juan ou l e F e s t i n # e P i e r r e , f o r e x a m p l e , owes a g r e a t d e a l t o T i r s o de M o l i n a . In f a c t who c o u l d argue t h a t any p l a y owes l i t t l e t o the e x p l o i t s o f S h a k e s p e a r e , M o l i e r e o r R a c i n e ? F o n v i z i n d i d b o r r o w from A r i s - t o p h a n e s , M o l i e r e , t h e I t a l i a n commedia d e l l ' a r t e and e a r l y f a r - c i c a l comedies b u t once a g a i n he a d a p t e d , m o d i f i e d and revamped the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f v a r i o u s genres w e a v i n g them i n t o a d i s t i n c t l y R u s s i a n f a b r i c b y u s i n g R u s s i a n d i a l o g u e as h i s thread and R u s s i a n c h a r a c t e r s and m i l i e u as h i s loom . ^-6 . w e s h a l l e x a - mine s h o r t l y those d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f B r i g a d i r . What can we s ay about t h e s t age p r o d u c t i o n s o f the p l a y ? F i r s t l y we must s t a t e t h a t F o n v i z i n ' s p l a y had had a wide c i r c u l - a t i o n among the s a l o n s . The p o p u l a r i t y o f B r i g a d i r r e a c h e d C a t h - e r i n e ' s e a r and she summoned F o n v i z i n t o r e a d i t t o h e r . He d i d so i n 1769 and C a t h e r i n e e n j o y e d i t i m m e n s e l y , l i t t l e r e a l i z i n g t h e b i t t e r s t r u g g l e t h a t she and the a u t h o r would have l a t e r . In 1772 t h e r e f o l l o w e d a r e a d i n g o f the p l a y a t c o u r t . 1 7 * B r i g a d i r caused much u n e a s i n e s s among t h e n o b i l i t y bu t was n e v e r t h e l e s s v e r y p o p u l a r . In f a c t i t s p o p u l a r i t y was so g r e a t t h a t t h e pub- l i c c l a m o u r e d f o r a s t a g e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n o f B r i g a d i r on s t age d i d no t come u n t i l e i g h t y e a r s l a t e r i n 178O a t the S t . P e t e r s b u r g t h e a t r e . I t was i m m e d i a t e l y v e r y p o p u l a r . Many o f the n o b i l i t y were w a t c h i n g t h e m s e l v e s b e i n g r i d i c u l e d . ( T h i s s i t u a t i o n was ana logous t o M o l i e r e ' s Le B o u r g e o i s G e n t i l - homrae where the f o p p i s h h e r o a t t e n d s a p l a y and l a u g h s a t a c h a r - a c t e r n o t r e a l i z i n g t h a t he i s l a u g h i n g a t h i m s e l f . ) Bu t i t must 29 be remembered t h a t the d a n d i f i e d n o b i l i t y who are r i d i c u l e d i n F o n v i z i n ' s B r i g a d i r ' w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be l u d i c r o u s by t h e R u s s o - p h i l i c R u s s i a n a r i s t o c r a c y . The s u c c e s s o f B r i g a d i r can be a t - t r i b u t e d t o t h i s and t o t h e f a c t t h a t R u s s i a n t h e a t r e a u d i e n c e s had grown u p : "On peut done p e n s e r q u ' au moment ou a ete' joue'e l a p r e m - i e r e corae'die de F . , l e s e s p r i t s e t a i e n t a c q u i s a l a n o u v e l l e t e n - dance , l e p u b l i c e t a i t p r e p a r e , e t , ce q u i e t a i t p e u t - e t r e l e p l u s i m p o r t a n t dans l e s c o n d i t i o n s h i s t o r i q u e s e t s o c i a l e s de l ' e p o q u e , . . . L ' e ' c l a t a n t s u c c e s du B r i g a d i e r prouve que l a p i e c e ne v e n a i t pas t r o p t 6 t . . . " l 9 . The s t r u c t u r e o f the p l a y i s the n e x t i t e m t o be c o n s i d e r e d . D . D . B l a g o i a s s e r t s t h a t B r i g a d i r i s p o o r l y . c o n s t r u c t e d and a n t i - c l i m a c t i c . He i n s i s t s t h a t the p l a y c o u l d be f i n i s h e d a t the end o f A c t i l l when D o b r o l y u b o v d i s c l o s e s t h a t he has won h i s sui t .^-9. T h i s i s n o t p o s s i b l e because t h e C o u n c i l l o r has a l r e a d y p l e d g e d S o f j a t o I v a n ; moreover he does n o t w i s h h i s d a u g h t e r t o marry J whom she w a n t s . F o n v i z i n s t r i c t l y f o l l o w e d t h e c l a s s i c a l u n i t i e s o f t i m e , p l a c e and a c t i o n . The e n t i r e p l a y t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n the space o f a s i n g l e d a y . At the b e g i n n i n g i t i s e a r l y a f t e r n o o n and t h e c h a r a c t e r s are d r i n k i n g t e a . Between the Second and T h i r d A c t s t h e y b r e a k f o r s u p p e r . A c t Three ends w i t h a n o t h e r " t e a - b r e a k " and the F o u r t h A c t i s a l m o s t e n t i r e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e v e n i n g c a r d game. The f i n a l a c t c o n c l u d e s the e v e n i n g w i t h t h e d e p a r t u r e - o f t h e B r i g a d i e r and h i s f a m i l y . F o n v i z i n f o l l o w e d - the i d e a o f u n i t y o f p l a c e v e r y e l o s e l y . In f a c t t h e e n t i r e p l a y i s p e r f o r m e d i n j u s t one p l a c e , t h e s a l o n 30 o f t h e C o u n c i l l o r ' s h o u s e . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h i s i s one o f t h e p l a y ' s f a u l t s , f o r many o f t h e l o v e scenes seem a r t i f i c i a l i n t h e i r l a c k o f d i s c r e e t n e s s . S u r e l y i t would have been b e t t e r f o r t h e a u t h o r t o p l a c e some o f t h e s e i m p a s s i o n e d c o n f e s s i o n s o f l o V e i n some o t h e r l o c a t i o n o f the house i n s t e a d o f the l a r g e s a l o n . M o r e o v e r , t h i s r e p e t i t i o n o f the same scene becomes monotonous and put s the a u t h o r a t an ext reme d i s a d v a n t a g e . I n s t e a d o f s h i f t - i n g f rom room t o room he must f o r c e the per sonages t o come and l e a v e f o r a r e a s o n w h i c h he has t o d e v i s e . V e r y o f t e n t h i s i s i n - g e n i o u s l y done b u t sometimes t h e y appear f o r no r e a s o n at a l l . F o r example i n A c t One t h e s e r v a n t announces t h e a r r i v a l o f D o b r o - l y u b o v . D o b r o l y u b o v ' s a r r i v a l g i v e s a p r e m i s e f o r a l l t h e dram- a t i s per sonae e x c e p t . I v a n and the S o v i e t n i t s a t o t a k e a s t r o l l t h r o u g h the g a r d e n . The promenade g i v e s them ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n f e s s t h e i r l o v e i n a v e r y f u n n y s c e n e . T h i s e x i t seems r e a s o n a b l e . B u t . the e n t r a n c e o f S o f y a and D o b r o l y u b o v a t f i r s t g l a n c e does n o t seem l o g i c a l s i n c e they have a r r i v e d t o keep I v a n and t h e C o u n c i l l o r ' s w i f e company. However t h e a c t u a l r e a s o n f o r t h e i r a r r i v i n g t o g e t h e r i s t h a t i t g i v e s them an o p p o r t u n i t y a f t e r I v a n and the S o v i e t n i t s a have l e f t t o be a l o n e and c o n f e s s t h e i r l o v e f o r one a n o t h e r . T h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y t h e c h a r a c t e r s e n t e r t o see what i s g o i n g o n , vih.a.t t h e commotion i s , t o f i n d someone, t o d i s c u s s a l e g a l p r o c e d u r e , t o c r y on someone's s h o u l d e r , t o p l a y c a r d s o r some s u c h p u r p o s e . They l e a v e t h e s t a g e because t h e y are i n s u l t e d , o r chased or f r u s t r a t e d ; o r because someone l o o k s i l l . T h e i r e x i t s o c c u r t o j o i n someone, t o have t e a or t o e a t d i n n e r . Thus t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y F o n v i z i n a t t e m p t s t o l e t the 31 a u d i e n c e know why t h e c h a r a c t e r s have l e f t o r have e n t e r e d . They n e v e r e x i t o r e n t e r w i t h o u t a p u r p o s e , a l t h o u g h at t i m e s the se p u r p o s e s seem too a r t i f i c i a l l y c r e a t e d by t h e a u t h o r . F o n - v i z i n has f o l l o w e d the u n i t y , o f p l a c e perhaps a b i t too c l o s e l y t o the p o i n t o f f o r c i n g s t i l t e d a c t i o n . The c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f u n i t y o f a c t i o n i s t h e t h i r d t r a i t c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by F o n v i z i n . In f a c t t h e r e i s l i t t l e a n i - mated a c t i o n i n t h e p l a y b u t a g r e a t d e a l o f l i v e l y c o n v e r s a t i o n , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the p l a y . However,, t h i s a c t i o n i s u n i t e d i n t o t h e form o f the v a r i o u s l o v e - i n t r i g u e s . There i s no e x t r a n e o u s a c t i o n ; e v e r y t h i n g i s t i e d up w i t h t h e f o u r l o v e - i n t r i g u e s : t h e a f f a i r s are between Ivan and the S o v i e t n i t s a , the B r i g a d i e r and the S o v i e t n i t s a , t h e S o v i e t n i k and the B r i g a d i r s h a , and D o b r o l y u b o v and S o ^ t y a . We c o u l d p e r h a p s add a f i f t h i n t r i - gue between- Sofihya. and I v a n ; t h e b e t r o t h a l t h a t has b r o u g h t a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s t o g e t h e r , bu t t h i s m o t i f a l t h o u g h e s s e n t i a l t o the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p l o t , i s o f l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e deve lopment o f t h e main a c t i o n . The a f f a i r s are b u i l t up w i t h t h e use o f c u m u l a t i v e comic s cenes i n o r d e r t o c o n c l u d e w i t h , t h e f i n a l h i l a r i o u s denouement s c e n e . There i s no e x t e r n a l a c t i o n w h i c h i s n o t i n v o l v e d w i t h the se comic c o n t r a s t s ; thus t h e u n i t y o f a c t i o n i s c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d . I t i s now p e r t i n e n t t o examine and a n a l y z e the c h a r a c t e r s o f B r i g a d i r , . We f i n d i n B r i g a d i r a g a l l e r y o f c h a r a c t e r s t y p i c a l o f t h e e r a o f C a t h e r i n e ' s R u s s i a so t h e p l a y i s i m p o r t a n t as a document f o r t h e h i s " t o r y o f s o c i e t y . 2 0 ' We see two G a l l o m a n i a c s , t y p i c a l r e s u l t s o f t h e F r a n c o f i e d l a t e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y R u s s i a n 32 s o c i e t y . There i s a b l u s t e r i n g B r i g a d i e r - G e n e r a l p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e m i l i t a r y r a n k s y s t e m . A t y p i c a l C o u n c i l l o r o f S t a t e , a f o r m e r judge who knew a l l about b r i b e s , i s a l s o i n c l u d e d . F o n v i - z i n p a i n t s the p o r t r a i t o f a t y p i c a l a v a r i c i o u s o l d l a d y and two v e r y r e s e r v e d young l o v e r s . A l l these p e o p l e were v e r y t y p i c a l o f the e r a i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r l i v e d . One b a s i c f a u l t o f F o n v i z i n ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n -is t h a t t h e person-agess do n o t d e v e l o p t o show v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f t h e i r p e r - s o n a l i t i e s . In t h e f i r s t a c t o f B r i g a d i r t h e y appear as s i n g l e minded s c h e m a t i c personages:; : dominated by one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t i s c o n t a i n e d i n the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the i n d i v i d u a l r o l e . 2 1 • T h i s i s F o n v i z i n ' s i d e a : t o show t h e s p e c t a t o r how many p e o p l e were o b s e s s e d b y a c e n t r a l m o t i f i n R u s s i a n s o c i e t y . The seven c h a r a c t e r s ( e x c l u d i n g the s e r v a n t who makes a b r i e f appearance) are a b l e t o be g rouped i n t o d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed c a t e g o r i e s . B e - cause t h r e e l o v e a f f a i r s a re i n c l u d e d o n l y f o r comic e f f e c t w h e r e - as t h e f o u r t h i s g e n u i n e , i t means t h a t the c o u p l e s can a c t u a l l y be c o n t r a s t e d on a s c h e m a t i c p l a n e w h i c h i s s e r i o u s o r comic as t h e case may b e . 2 2 . The two groups o f p a r e n t s f o r m one s i d e : t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e s t a i d o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n w h i c h has- l o s t i t s s e n s e ' a n d has d i z z i l y f a l l e n i n l o v e . 2 3 . Opposed t o them are the s t u f f y young l o v e r s S o f y a and D o b r o l y u b o v - who do n o t a c t much l ike ; young l o v e r s . The c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r o f the p l a y i s o f c o u r s e I v a n u s h k a , arpund whom the c e n t r a l p l o t , a c t i o n and theme o f B r i g a d i r r e v o l v e s . ; Ivan i s t h e embodiment o f the t y p i c a l f o p p i s h young n o b l e o f t h e e r a , who h a v i n g been e d u c a t e d i n F r a n c e , has r e t u r n e d t o R u s - s i a f r a n c o f i e d and an t L - R u s s i a n . Ivan has no t o l e r a n c e at a l l : 33 "He i s c o m p l e t e l y o f the o p i n i o n , then p r e v a l e n t among c e r t a i n s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y , t h a t o n l y ' i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h the F r e n c h and a j o u r n e y t o P a r i s can c i v i l i z e a t l e a s t some R u s s i a n s , ' and t h a t ' R u s s i a c o u l d be c a l l e d c i v i l i z e d o n l y when P e t e r s b u r g b e - comes P a r i s ; when the R u s s i a n tongue i s spoken i n f o r e i g n l a n d s as much as F r e n c h , o r when our p e a s a n t s u n d e r s t a n d F r e n c h . ' n2q-». The young man i s the ep i tome o f t h e G a l l o p h i l e who i s b o r e d and d i s d a i n f u l : h i s v e r y f i r s t word on s tage w h i c h t y p i f i e s t h i s a t t i t u d e i s " H e l a s l " , spoken w i t h a d i s g u s t e d yawn. Ivan r e i t e r - a t e s h i s d i s l i k e f o r R u s s i a by h i s words "My body was b o r n i n R u s s i a , t h a t ' s t r u e , b u t ray s o u l b e l o n g e d t o the crown o f F r a n c e . " I v a n has f r a n k l y s t a t e d t h a t he c o n s i d e r s S o f ' y a a r a t h e r c rude and b o o r i s h i n d i v i d u a l because she i s u n a b l e t o speak F r e n c h . " I c o n f e s s t h a t I m y s e l f would l i k e t o have a w i f e w i t h whom I c o u l d speak no o t h e r l anguage e x c e p t F r e n c h . Our l i f e would be a g r e a t d e a l h a p p i e r . "-26. The young n o b l e appears n o t as a V i l - l a i n o u s i n d i v i d u a l b u t r a t h e r r i d i c u l o u s l y e x c e n t r i c : he i s o v e r come by an o b s e s s i o n f o r a n y t h i n g F r e n c h . Ivan has been f r a n k w i t h S o f ' j y a and has n o t a t t e m p t e d t o d e c e i v e h e r : he i s man enough n o t t o p l a y w i t h the f e e l i n g s o f a woman by d e c e i v i n g h e r . There i s no a t t e m p t t o t a k e advantage o f t h e s i m p l e n a t u r e o f a n a i v e g i r l . Humour s u r r o u n d s Ivan at a l m o s t e v e r y t u r n . H i s c o n v e r s a - t i o n s w i t h h i s p a r e n t s i n v o l v e many examples o f d o u b l e - e n t e n d r e s and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , between the R u s s i a n and F r e n c h . Above a l l t h e r e i s humour s u r r o u n d i n g I v a n u s h k a i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e C o u n c i l l o r ' s w i f e . The i n t r i g u e o f t h e i r l o v e a f f a i r i s so t y p - i c a l l y J__t2 i_ i_ t a n d e x a g g e r a t e d t h a t i t vjould be as funny f o r a R u s s i a n a u d i e n c e o b s e r v i n g B r i g a d i r as a F r e n c h g r o u p o f s p e c t a - 35 The a f f a i r w i t h t h e S o v i e t n i t s a i s a g e n u i n e p r e c i e u x l o v e a f f a i r , o r r a t h e r l o v e game. I t i s a t y p i c a l s a l o n game o f l o v e t h a t i s v e r y much l i k e many o f the s i m i l a r , - a f f a i r s o f t h e e r a . "EcTecTBeHHO, ^TO HBaH, CHH Bpura^Kpa, H CoBeTHHua Bjno6jieHBi flpyr B flpyra J Meacfly HHMH Tan MHOTO o6nfero, HTO , BCTpeTHBmHCb OflHH cpeflH/juoflefi BOBce Ha HHX Henoxoxcnx , He Morymnx HM HHCKOJI- BKO COHyBCTBOBaTB > JIKfle'S', Ha KOTOpblX-OHH CMOTpHT KaK Ha nojiy- acHBOTHbix , OHH HeoSxoflHMo flOJiscHH 6BIJIH ottapOBam>i .npyr flpyrOM. KpOMe Toro , BCH HX *CH3HB , no <k>HBH3HHy , c o - CTOHT B CTpeMJieHHH 6HTB $paHH.y3CKaMH , - a ' <&paHiry3bi Tor^a TOJIBKO H flejia flejiajiH ,. MTO • B-OJIO^HJIHCB , H poMaHbi $ p a _ - u;y3CKHe c Ha^ajia #0 KOHija: SHJIH HaSHTbi O^HHM BOJIOKHT- CTBOM, - HeJIB3H SCe 6blJ10 HM OTCTaTB OT CBQHX 06pa3l(OB , 06a OHH TOJIBKO H AVMaJIH O BOJIOKHTCTBe" " * I v a n i s g r o s s l y d i s r e s p e c t f u l towards h i s p a r e n t s . T h i s a g a i n . i s a r e s u l t o f h i s e x a g g e r a t e d l o v e f o r f o r e i g n n o n s e n s e . He says " I ' m i n d i f f e r e n t t o e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o n c e r n s my f a t h e r and m o t h e r . " 3 0 . Ivan i s n o t a v i l l a i n o u s c h a r a c t e r b u t r a t h e r a per sonage dominated b y o n l y - o n e q u a l i t y : h i s G a l l o m a n i a . " F o n - v i z i n shows us no o t h e r f a c e t o f h i s c h a r a c t e r e x c e p t those donir i n a t e d ' b y t h i s . _ ¥ h a t was the a u t h o r ' s r e a s o n f o r t h i s ? He Wished, t o show t h e r e s u l t s o f m i s t a k e n e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i s of. p r ime i m p o r t a n c e . He s l y l y i n c l u d e s h i s idea , what c o u l d have hap' pened i f I v a n had been p r o p e r l y e d u c a t e d i n R u s s i a : . " I f m a l h e u r - eusement , I - h a d f a l l e n i n t o t h e hands o f a R u s s i a n who l o v e d h i s c o u n t r y > perhaps I w o u l d n ' t be t h e way I am."31. The d e r i s i o n d i r e c t e d toward t h e B r i g a d i e r i s much d i f f e r - ent.1 f rom t h a t o f h i s s o n . "The B r i g a d i e r h i m s e l f , a man who i s p roud o f ' h a v i n g r e a c h e d h i s r a n k t h r o u g h sweat and b l o o d , i s a c o a r s e , b l u s t e r i n g , i l l i t e r a t e t r o o p e r . H i s knowledge o f l i t e r - a t u r e i s l i m i t e d t o the a r t i c l e s o f w a r , and he cannot i m a g i n e 34 t o r s w a t c h i n g Le s P r e c i e u s e s R i d i c u l e s . Compare t h e s e two e x a - g g e r a t e d f u n n y scenes f rom the two p l a y s t h a t are v e r y s i m i l a r . C o u n c . W i f e . " V e r y w e l l . The k i n g o f c l u b s and the queen o f h e a r t s . I v a n . ( s p r e a d i n g the c a r d s ) . The k i n g i s madly i n l o v e w i t h t h e q u e e n . C o u n c . W i f e . Ah what do I h e a r . I am i n e c s t a s y , I am b e s i d e m y s e l f w i t h j o y . I v a n . ( l o o k i n g a t h e r t e n d e r l y ) And the queen i s n o t i n d i f f e r - e n t t o h i m . * C o u n c . W i f e . Ah m y d e a r i Not i n d i f f e r e n t . Say i n s t e a d , i n l o v e t o d i s t r a c t i o n s . I v a n . I wou ld g i v e my own l i f e , I wou ld g i v e t h o u s a n d s o f l i v e s t o l e a r n who t h i s queen o f h e a r t s i s . You i r e b l u s h i n g , y o u ' r e t u r n i n g p a l e . Of c o u r s e , i t ' s . . . C o u n c . W i f e . Oh! How u n b e a r a b l e i t i s t o c o n f e s s o n e ' s p a s s i o n ] I v a n , ( h a s t i l y ) . So i t ' s you . . . C o u n c . W i f e . " T p r e t e n d i n g t h a t the l a s t word c o s t s h e r d e a r l y ) . I , I m y s e l f . I v a n , ( s i g h i n g ) . And who i s t h i s h a p p i e s t k i n g o f c l u b s who was a b l e t o p i e r c e the h e a r t o f the queen o f h e a r t s ? C o u n c . W i f e . You want me t o t e l l you e v e r y t h i n g a t o n c e . Ivan ( g e t t i n g up) . Yes madame, y e s . I want you t o , and i f I am . n o t t h a t h a p p i e s t k i n g o f c l u b s then my f l ame f o r you has been p o o r l y r e w a r d e d . C o u n c . W i f e . What"! You are b u r n i n g f o r me? I v a n . • ( g o i n g down on h i s knees ) . You are t h e queen o f h e a r t s ! C o u n c . W i f e , ( r a i s i n g him)"".' You are the k i n g o f c l u b s ! • I v a n , ( i n e c s t a s y ) . 0 h a p p i n e s s ! 0 b o n h e u r ! " 2 7 * M a s c a r i l l e " O h ! ' o h ! je n ' y p r e n a i s pas g a r d e : T a n d i s que , sans songer a. m a l . je vous r e g a r d e , V o t r e . o e i l en t a p i n o i s me derobe mon c o e u r . Au v o l e u r l Au v o l e u r ! Au v o l e u r i Au v o l e u r ! C a t h o s . - A h l mon D i e u l v o i l a q u i e s t pousse dans l e d e r n i e r g a l a n t . M a s c a r i l l e . - Tout ce que je f a i s a l ' a i r c a v a l i e r ; c e l a ne s e n t p o i n t l e p e d a n t . M a g d e l o n . - I I en e s t e l o i g n e 7 de p l u s de deux m i l l e l i e u e s . M a s c a r i l l e . - A v e z - v o u s r e m a r q u l ce commencement? O h ! o h ! V o i l a . q u i e s t e x t r a o r d i n a i r e : ohI o h ! Comme un homme q u i s ' a v i s e t o u t d ' u n c o u p : o h ! o h ! L a s u r p r i s e : o h ! o h ! M a g d e l o n . - O u i je t r o u v e ce o h ! o h ! a d m i r a b l e . M a s c a r i l l e . - I I sem'ble que c e l a ne s o i t r i e n . C a t h o s . - A h ! mon D i e u ! que d i t e s - v o u s ? . Ce s o n t de ces s o r t e s de choses q u i ne se peuve nt p a y e r . M a g d e l o n . - Sans d o u t e ; e t j ' a i m e r a i s mieux a v o i r f a i t ce oh I o h ! q u ' u n poeme e p i q u e . . . 36 t h a t God s h o u l d be i g n o r a n t o f t h e t a b l e o f r a n k s . " 3 2 . ^he B r i g - a d i e r b e l i e v e s w h o l e h e a r t e d l y i n c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y and i t s h i e r - a r c h y . F o r him d i s t i n c t i o n i n r a n k and p o s i t i o n i s o f p r ime i m - p o r t a n c e . He h e a r t i l y r e t o r t s t o h i s w i f e ' s d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t f o r God a l l o f f i c e r s are i n t h e same r a n k : " A h w i f e ! I am t e l l i n g y o u , d o n ' t m i x i n . Or I ' l l make s u r e t h e r e r e a l l y w o n ' t be a n y - t h i n g on y o u r head t o c o u n t . I f you knew God b e t t e r , you w o u l d n ' t t a l k such n o n s e n s e . How can you i m a g i n e t h a t G o d , who knows a l l , d o e s n ' t know our T a b l e o f Ranks?' Shamefu l t h i n g . " 3 3 . The o l d B r i g a d i e r appear s as a v e r y n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r : he i s a c r a s s , i g n o r a n t b u l l y . He b e a t s h i s w i f e , i s a b u s i v e t o h i s son and shows v e r y l i t t l e s o c i a l decorum. Note h i s b o o r i s h n e s s i n r e s p o n s e t o I v a n ' s F r e n c h t a l k h e r e : I v a n . "Mon pere1 D o n ' t ge t e x c i t e d . B r i g a d i e r . . What? D o n ' t ge t e x c i t e d ? I v a n Mon p & r e , I s a y , d o n ' t get e x c i t e d ? B r i g a d i e r . Damn i t , i t ' s t h e f i r s t p a r t o f i t I d o n ' t understand' . - B r i g a d i e r . " . . . Bu t even i f you were a s t r a n g e r t o me, at l e a s t you s h o u l d n ' t f o r g e t t h a t I am an army b r i g a d i e r . I v a n . Je m' en mogue. B r i g a d T e r . W h a t ' s t h i s 'monmok ' ?"35 . The most r i d i c u l o u s a s p e c t o f the b u l l y - b r i g a d i e r i s h i s a f f a i r w i t h t h e S o v i e t n i t s a . We may w e l l ask what t h i s woman has s i n c e as a G a l l o p h i l e she embodies t h e same q u a l i t i e s t h a t he d e s p i s e s so much i n h i s s o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , she i s young and b e a u t i f u l . •At any r a t e t h e B r i g a d i e r i s v e r y a t t r a c t e d t o h e r b u t h i s e f f o r t s i n w o o i n g are l u d i c r o u s . He t r i e s t o r e g a l e t h e l a d y n o t w i t h g e n t l e r o m a n t i c innuendos b u t r a t h e r t a l k s l i k e a t r o o p e r : " . . . Even i n h i s shameles s l o v e m a k i n g w i t h the c o u n c i l l o r ' s w i f e , t h e b r i g a d i e r cannot f o r g e t h i s h i g h r a n k and g r e a t e x p l o i t s . H a v - 37 ing interrupted the r e c i t a l of t h e splendors of P a r i s by d r i v i n g o f f h i s son, he proceeds to enterta in the, lady with tales of how he 'knocked the s tu f f ing out of the T u r k s ' ."36. The B r i g a d i e r i s . r i d i c u l e d by F o n v i z i n because he has l e f t h i s pat way of l i f e and has ventured for th into an area where he does not belong. Once again education i s the keynote; i f he t oo had been properly edu- cated p e r h a p s he would be d i f f e r e n t . A t any rate after the pro- d u c t i o n of B r i g a d i r the rank i t s e l f became rather l a u g h a b l e . I t i s true however that this character i s also very close to.becom- ing a mere car icature by the end of the p lay : "XapaKTep BpuraflHpa , KaaceTca MHe , BbiflepacaH BepHO . B npoflOJDKeHHe Bceft nbecbi . TOJIBKO He , coBceM HaTypaibHO , SyflTO OH Mor OT^aTb CbiHa BO . $ p a H i r y 3 C K H „ naHCHOH no n p o - cb6e sceHbi , HHKorfla He Mor OH nocjiymaTbca ee B S T O M a OTflaji e r o , yBJie^eHHbiH npHMepOM flpyrnx H coBepmeHHO npoTHB CBoeit BOJiH , no ero coScTBeHHOMy- noHHTHio , cjieflOBajio 6u nopaHbme 3anncaTb ero B nojiK ,^7He aceiia , a npHMep flpyrnx 3acTaBHJi ero cflejia.Tb miane. " ̂  * Count P a n i n in s i s t ed . that a l l R u s s i a n s of- the era could v i v i d l y see the B r i g a d i e r ' s wife ; she was very t y p i c a l , so t y p i - ca l in fact that almost everyone had an aunt or grandmother l i k e h e r . 3 8 . Her two important charac te r i s t i c s are s t u p i d i t y and mis- e r l i n e s s : " BpHraflHpma, HanpHMep , I I O C T O H H O , O ^eM 6u . H H 3a-. meji pa3T0B0p, BbiKa3bmaeT C B O K rjiynocTb H cKonaflOMCTBO..." H e r avarice i s ' developed to the point of being an obsession; she i s constantly concerned with c o s t or l o s ing s o m e t h i n g . The B r i g a d i r s h a keeps accounts of every l a s t penny: "And i t ' s a l s o not bad to run through my household books. That way cheats won't get the best of you. Where you have to give four kopecks and 38 c h a n g e , then you w o n ' t g i v e f i v e k o p e c k s . " 4 0 • She does n o t b e l i e v e grammar i s as i m p o r t a n t as money: " O f c o u r s e , grammar i s n ' t n e c - e s s a r y . B e f o r e you s t a r t s t u d y i n g i t , y o u ' v e s t i l l t o buy i t . So you pay around e i g h t g r i v n y ( a g r i v n a was a 10 - k o p e c k p i e c e ) b u t whether you l e a r n i t o r n o t - God knows. ."41 • When she s u s p e c t s t h a t Ivan has l o s t s o m e t h i n g o f v a l u e , the B r i g a d i r s h a i s a l m o s t b e s i d e h e r s e l f , b u t when she d i s c o v e r s i t may o n l y be h i s m i n d , she r e l a x e s . B r i g . W i f e . " W h a t ' s t h e n o i s e h e r e ? What are you so angry a b o u t , dear? Have you c a u s e d us some l o s s , I v a n u s h k a ? Have you l o s t a n y t h i n g ? B r i g a d i e r . A g r e a t d e a l . No s m a l l l o s s . B r i g . W i f e . ( o u t o f b r e a t h ) . What a c a l a m i t y ! What d i d he lose? B r i g a d i e r . He l o s t h i s m i n d , i f he had o n e . . B r i g . -Wi fe . ( r e l a x i n g ) . Phoo , what a m i s f o r t u n e ! Thank G o d , I a lmos t f a i n t e d I was so s c a r e d . I t h o u g h t : What i f he r e a l l y l o s t s o m e t h i n g ? " 4 2 . I n o t h e r p l a c e s i n t h e p l a y she d e m o n s t r a t e s h e r g reed f o r b u r - i e d t r e a s u r e and c o u n t i n g money. H e r g r e e d , h o w e v e r , i s o n l y e x - c e l l e d by h e r c r a s s s t u p i d i t y . I t b e g i n s i n A c t Two, Scene Three where t h e C o u n c i l l o r i s making o v e r t u r e s t o h e r and she m i s u n d e r - s t a n d s t h e • f i g u r a t i v e usage o f " c o p u l a t i o n . " C o u n c i l l o r . " Y o u r s i n s have as much t o do w i t h me as s a l v a t i o n . I want y o u r s i n s and mine t o be the v e r y same and I want n o - t h i n g t o d e s t r o y t h e c o p u l a t i o n o f o u r s o u l s and b o d i e s . B r i g . W i f e . B u t what i s t h i s c o p u l a t i o n , s i r ? I u n d e r s t a n d t h e C h u r c h l anguage as much as I do F r e n c h . God sheds H i s g r a c e on whom He w a n t s . To one. He makes known F r e n c h and German, and a l l t h e r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . B u t I a s i n n e r , ge t a l o n g b a d l y even i n R u s s i a n . " 4 3 . T h i s scene r e v e a l s more q u a l i t i e s o f the B r i g a d i e r ' s w i f e . Her l a c k o f p e r c e p t i o n and b a s i c u n r o m a n t i c n a t u r e i s v e r y e v i d e n t f o r she has no i d e a t h a t the o l d s e d u c e r i s p r o p o s i t i o n i n g h e r . She p r o f e s s e s t o b e l i e v e i n t h e s a n c t i t y o f G o d ' s g r a c e b u t t h e s e 39 h y p o c r i t i c a l words do n o t r i n g t r u e because o f h e r i n t e n s e a v a r - i c e . Of c o u r s e , r i d i c u l o u s l y enough, a t t h e end o f the scene a f t e r she has i n t e r r u p t e d t h e o l d sed.ucer t ime and t ime a g a i n , the B r i g a d i r s h a i n s i s t s she w i l l do a n y t h i n g f o r h im e x c e p t l e n d h i m money. Her s t u p i d i t y i s e m p h a s i z e d a t o t h e r t i m e s when she m i s u n d e r s t a n d s , b u t most o f a l l d u r i n g the c a r d game when she h e a r s matadores and t h i n k s t h e r e i s a;.new game c a l l e d madadury . T h i s i s an u n t r a n s l a t a b l e pun on dury and d u r a k i . A t any r a t e a R u s s i a n a u d i e n c e c o u l d r e a d i l y see h e r e x c e s s i v e s t u p i d i t y a t t h i s p o i n t . Thus we can summarize the B r i g a d i r s h a ' s c h a r a c t e r by s a y i n g she i s a v a r i c i o u s , s t u p i d , h y p o c r i t i c a l , u n r o m a n t i c and i m p e r c e p t i v e . The p l a y t a k e s p l a c e a t t h e home o f m i n o r g e n t r y o f S t . P e t e r s b u r g , the C o u n c i l l o r and h i s w i f e . L i k e t h e B r i g a d i e r , he i s n o t an a d m i r a b l e f i g u r e at a l l . He i s c o v e t o u s o f the s e e m i n g l y ( t o him) s e d a t e , g o o d w i l l e d " M o t h e r R u s s i a " f i g u r e o f the B r i g a - d i e r ' s w i f e . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t he i s r a t h e r s i c k o f the b e h a v - i o r o f h i s f l i g h t y w i f e and wants a woman who i s more "down t o e a r t h " . ^ * He a d m i r e s h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e ( s i c ! ) : " I n h e r I f i n d s o m e t h i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y i n t e l l i g e n t t h a t o t h e r s are u n a b l e t o p e r c e i v e " ^ - 5 • ; and h e r f a i t h f u l n e s s : C o u n c i l l o r . "She i s h u m b l e , l i k e an a n g e l ; i n d u s t r i o u s , l i k e a bee ; l o v e l y , l i k e a b i r d o f p a r a d i s e ( s i g h s ) ; and f a i t h f u l , l i k e a t u r t l e d o v e . B r i g a d i e r . Or i n t e l l i g e n t , l i k e a cow; l o v e l y , l i k e I d o n ' t know w h o . . . l i k e an o w l . C o u n c i l l o r . How dare you compare y o u r w i f e t o a n i g h t b i r d ? B r i g a d i e r . I t seems t o me t h a t i t ' s p o s s i b l e , t o l i k e n a day t ime f o o l t o a n i g h t b i r d . C o u n c i l l o r . ( s i g h i n g ) . S t i l l she s t a y s f a i t h f u l t o you i n a l l ways. "46. I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r us t h e s p e c t a t o r s t o u n d e r s t a n d why he f a l l s f o r the B r i g a d i r s h a . The o n l y r e a s o n c o u l d be t h a t she does p e r - s o n i f y a change f rom h i s own w i f e : she i s t r u l y more " d o w n - t o - e a r t h " and d e p e n d a b l e . He i s a l s o v e r y g r e e d y . ("Perhaps t h i s i s one r e a s o n he can i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e B r i g a d i r s h a . ) When S o f ' y a s t a t e s t h a t h e r f u t u r e husband w i l l not r e s p e c t h i m he r e t o r t s b y s a y i n g t h a t I v a n ' s good q u a l i t y i s h i s " p r e t t y good p r o p e r t y . " M o r e o v e r , he changes h i s o p i n i o n when he d i s c o v e r s how much D o b - r o l y u b o v i s w o r t h : D o b r o l . "Yes ma'am. My s i t u a t i o n has i m p r o v e d g r e a t l y . I ' v e got two thousand s o u l s now. C o u n c i l l o r . Two t h o u s a n d s o u l s i Oh, my G o d , g r e a t h e a v e n s l And w i t h a l l y o u r o t h e r v i r t u e s I A h , how w o r t h y you now are o f e s t e e m . C o u n c . W i f e . By t h e way, w e r e n ' t you r e a l l y e v e r i n P a r i s ? D o b r o l . N o , ma'am. C o u n c . W i f e . A p i t y . T h i s one t h i n g can darken a l l y o u r o t h e r m e r i t s . C o u n c i l l o r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f a p e r s o n has two t h o u s a n d s o u l s i t seems t o me t h a t t h e y can more than make up f o r a l l h i s v i c e s . Two t h o u s a n d s o u l s . e v e n w i t h o u t a l a n d o w n e r ' s v i r t u e s i s a l - ways two t h o u s a n d s o u l s , b u t v i r t u e s w i t h o u t them - d e v i l w i t h s u c h v i r t u e s . . . "1+7. F o n v i z i n ' s e v o c a t i o n o f the C o u n c i l l o r i s a l s o v e r y t y p i c a l o f the t i m e . He shows us a f o r m e r judge who had no qualms about b r i b e - t a k i n g . T h i s i f c o u r s e was v e r y p r e v a l e n t i n the l a w - c o u r t s o f the t i m e . A t Scene S i x o f A c t Three t h e C o u n c i l l o r m e n t i o n s t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o p r o h i b i t b r i b e s and he would r e c e i v e a f a v - o u r a b l e r e s o l u t i o n i f he were f r i e n d l y t o the p r o p e r p e o p l e . He d e m o n s t r a t e s a r a t h e r s t r a n g e a t t i t u d e t h a t a l l who are accused are g u i l t y i n t h e eyes o f the c o u r t . The c o u n c i l l o r does n o t b e - l i e v e i n a b s o l v i n g t h e i n n o c e n t ; a c c o r d i n g t o h i m e v e r y o n e i s g u i l t y : 4 1 C o u n c i l l o r . " . . . T h a t ' s how i t used to be i n t h e o l d d a y s . S o f ' y a . Thank God i t ' s n o t t h a t x̂ ray now. C o u n c i l l o r . A l l the w o r s e . Now the g u i l t y has t o answer f o r h i m s e l f , so how can you s k i n anyone e l s e ? Why are r u l e s e s - t a b l i s h e d i f o n l y t h e g u i l t y p a r t y i s g u i l t y ? I t used t o be t h a t - • S o f ' y a . B u t , F a t h e r , why s h o u l d an i n n o c e n t p e r s o n be g u i l t y ? C o u n c i l l o r . Because a l l p e o p l e are s i n n e r s . I m y s e l f was a j u d g e . I t used t o be t h a t t h e g u i l t y p a i d f o r h i s g u i l t and t h e i n n o c e n t f o r h i s i n n o c e n c e . In my t i m e e v e r y o n e was s a t - i s f i e d t h a t way: the j u d g e , the p l a i n t i f f , and t h e ' defendant'.'48 The c o u n c i l l o r wants t o s t a n d b y t h e o l d w a y s ; i n t h e f i r s t scene o f A c t I I he i s adamant t h a t S o f ' y a s h o u l d m a r r y I v a n , n o t b e - cause he i s s u c h a good p r o s p e c t , b u t r a t h e r because Ivan I s the f i a n c e ' t h a t he has c h o s e n , and young p e o p l e s h o u l d obey the w i s h e s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s . I n the f i n a l r e s o l u t i o n scene we f i n d t h e C o u n c i l l o r a c t i n g l i k e a t y p i c a l h u s b a n d : when h i s advances a t t h e B r i g a d i e r ' s w i f e are d i s c o v e r e d he q u i v e r s i n h i s b o o t s ; when, h o w e v e r , he f i n d s o u t t h a t the B r i g a d i e r was p u r s u i n g h i s w i f e , he i s I n s u l t e d and e j e c t s them a l l f rom h i s h o u s e . The l a s t d i d a c t i c speeches o f the C o u n c i l l o r r e v e a l h i s d e s i r e t o r e p e n t f o r h i s f o o l i s h n e s s and t h u s a metamorphos i s i n h i s c h a r a c t e r . The r e f e r e n c e t o " G e h e n n a " c o n c e r n s O r t h o d o x C h u r c h dogma: Gehenna was s u p p o s e d l y t h a t a r e a o f h e l l where S a t a n and h i s d e v i l i s h crew expose the s o u l s o f s i n n e r s t o a l l k i n d s o f t o r t u r e s . The S o v i e t n i t s a ' s r e - f e r e n c e t o T a r t a r u s i s f rom e a r l y Greek m y t h o l o g y : i t i s the deep chasm where Zeus k e p t the o v e r t h r o w n T i t a n s . The two a n a l o g i e s m e r e l y mean t h a t the two per sons w i s h t o a l l o w " D i v i n e P u n i s h m e n t " t o come. In c o n c l u s i o n x̂ e can s ay t h a t t h e C o u n c i l l o r i s d i s h o n - e s t , b i a s e d , g r e e d y and c o v e t o u s . y e t i s an i m p o r t a n t embodiment o f a d i s h o n e s t l e g a l f i g u r e o f the e r a t h a t the a u t h o r w i s h e d t o k2 s a t i r i z e - A c t u a l l y we have a l r e a d y examined i n p a r t the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e S o v i e t n i t s a when we d i s c u s s e d I v a n . She i s n o t a n e g a t i v e c h a r a c t e r . She i s n e i t h e r scheming n o r a v a r i c i o u s b u t r a t h e r c o m i - c a l because she i s so overcome b y h e r G a l l o m a n i a : the C o u n c i l - l o r ' s w i f e s u b m i t s t o a l l t h e demands t h a t b e i n g a member o f the h a u t e s o c i e t e p r . ec i euse e n t a i l s .^-9. She i n s i s t s t h a t r o m a n t i c l o v e s t o r i e s s h o u l d r e p l a c e the l e a r n i n g o f grammar. T h r o u g h o u t the l o v e i n t r i g u e w i t h I v a n she p l a y s the game: she i s the wo- man t o be p u r s u e d i n G a l l i c f r i v o l i t y ; he i s t h e " h u n t e r o f h e r h e a r t " . I n the scene where the B r i g a d i e r i s m a k i n g h i s c l u m s y p r o p o s i t i o n i n m i l i t a r y j a r g o n she does no t u n d e r s t a n d the t e r m - i n o l o g y ( y e t u n l i k e the B r i g a d i r s h a , she does comprehend the mot- i v e s ) b u t she i s p o l i t e and g r a c i o u s enough t o e x c u s e h e r s e l f w i t h - o u t c a u s i n g a rude s c e n e . As we have a l r e a d y seen f rom h e r com- ments about grammar she i s n o t a s h i n i n g l i g h t i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . She does n o t speak much F r e n c h t h r o u g h o u t the p l a y w h i c h s u g g e s t s t o us t h a t even as a G a l l o p h i l e h e r command o f F r e n c h i s n o t too s t r o n g . M o r e o v e r , h e r knowledge o f geography l e a v e s a l i t t l e t o be d e s i r e d and the a u t h o r w a s t e s . n o o p p o r t u n i t y i n r i d i c u l i n g i t : "See my d e a r , I was n e v e r t h e r e b u t s t i l l I have a v e r y good i d e a o f what F r a n c e i s l i k e . I s n ' t i t t r u e t h a t m o s t l y Frenchmen l i v e i n F r a n c e ? " ^ 0 * The S o v i e t n i t s a i s r a t h e r d i s d a i n f u l o f h e r i g n o r - a n t , g r e e d y husband and when she has the o c c a s i o n t o c h a s t i s e h im she makes the b e s t o f i t c a l l i n g him a " T r a i t o r I B a r b a r i a n I T y r a n t l " B u t i n summary she i s the u l t i m a t e G a l l o p h i l e : f l i g h t y , p r e c i e u s e and not at a l l u n c h a r m i n g . lj-3 What can we say about D o b r o l y u b o v and S o f ' y a ? They r e p r e s - e n t the o p p o s i t i o n movement i n t h e p l a y : common sense a,nd good judgment . They are m e r e l y t y p e c h a r a c t e r s and., are i n e f f e c t p r e - d e c e s s o r s o f the s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s i n N e d o r o s l ' . T h e i r o n e - f a c - e t e d c h a r a c t e r dominated by l o g i c and r e a s o n i s the p o o r e s t a s p e c t o f the p l a y . S o f ' y a and D o b r o l y u b o v are v e r y u n c o n v i n c i n g because we see them o n l y as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the "new R u s s i a n " t h a t P o n - v i z i n w i s h e d t o show' us - w e l l e d u c a t e d ( i n a R u s s i a n v e i n ) and r e f i n e d . Y e t the se two would have t o be r o b o t - l i k e d u l l a r d s i n - deed t o spew f o r t h • t h e p e d a n t r y t h a t t h e y do when t h e y are a l o n e . ( T h i s i s the way two young l o v e r s would a c t when t h e y are a l o n e ? ) The two p a r t s o f the p l a y t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e t h i s are A c t One Scene F i v e and the f i r s t scene o f A c t F o u r . Here are some e x c e r p t s f rom t h e s e scenes t o show t h e i r a r t i f i c i a l i t y and s t i l t e d t o n e : D o b r o l . " T h e y ' v e l e f t us a l o n e . What does i t mean? S o f ' y a . I t means t h a t my f i a n c e ' i s n ' t v e r y j e a l o u s o f m e . " 5 l . D o b r o l . " I have g r e a t hopes f o r t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f our w i s h e s . S o f ' y a . I s t i l l d o n ' t d a r e c o u n t on i t . I can speak f r a n k l y w i t h y o u . I f i t ' s t r u e t h a t my f a t h e r i s b e t r a y i n g ray s t e p - m o t h e r , t h e n t h e change i n y o u r s i t u a t i o n c a n ' t a l t e r h i s i n - t e n t i o n s . D o b r o l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , I saw w i t h what f e e l i n g he r e c e i v e d the news o f the s e t t l e m e n t o f my case i n my f a v o u r . I , t o o , c a n ' t h i d e my t h o u g h t s f rom y o u . . . " 5 2 . We can a d m i r e ' F o n v i z i n ' s i n t e n t i o n i n making two c h a r a c t e r s c o n - c e r n e d w i t h a good S l a v o n i c e d u c a t i o n , y e t h i s p o r t r a y a l i n B r i g - a d i r o f D o b r o l y u b o v and S o f ' y a i s too e x t r e m e : t h e y are too r e - f i n e d and n o t human e n o u g h . To c o n c l u d e we must r e i t e r a t e t h a t t h e s e two r e p r e s e n t r e a s o n as opposed t o the f r i v o l i t y t h a t o v e r - comes most o f the c h a r a c t e r s . " flejieHHe fleftcTByioinHx JIHU. Ha flBa narepn B KOMeflHH kk o6o3HaueHO HCHO . JIo6pojno6oB a Co$bH - JIKAH TOH x e c o n - HajibHOii cpeflbi , ^TO H oSjiH^aeMbie nepcoHaxcH , HO HHHX ySescfleHHM , HHOH MopajiH. 3TO He TpaflHHHOHHbie HOJIOSCHT- ejibHbie repoH Kjiaccn^ecKoii KOMeflHH . ,HO6POJIIO6OB H CodpbH p o S K a n H enje xyfloacecTBeHHO HecoBepmeHHaa nomiTKa H 3 o 6 - pa3HTb HOBHX JIKfleS nOHBHBIHHXCH ' B POCCHH.. . " We can c o n c l u d e the character a n a l y s i s of our study by sum- marizing the representation of each character as facets of e ight - e e n t h - c e n t u r y R u s s i a n soc ie ty . The B r i g a d i e r and his w i f e repres- ent the worst elements of R u s s i a n urban gentry; the C o u n c i l l o r and hi s spouse are embodiments of the worst of r u r a l n o b i l i t y . The two old men themselves are symbolic: "Ces deux seducteurs seni les r e p r e s e n t e n t l a v i e i l l e R u s s i e ; t ous deux haissant l e ton et les gouts de l a jeune- generation, gemissent sur les errements nouv- eaux."5^. Ivan, and the S o v i e t n i t s a are of course G a l l o m a n i a c s , the r i d i c u l o u s resul t o f poor foreign education. The two moralizers S o f ' y a and D o b r o l y u b o v represent the new enlightened R u s s i a . No analys is of B r i g a d i r wou ld be complete without an examin- ation of the author ' s s ty le and technique. Because B r i g a d i r i s a comedy, we should f i r s t s c ru t in ize the humourous devices that the author used. Of course each character (even S o f ' y a and D o b r o l y u - bov to a cer ta in degree) i s a joke in h imsel f : each possesses his own exaggeration and thus appears r i d i c u l o u s and humourous in hi s ovm spec ia l way. . The whole cent ra l idea of the old seducers and mismatched couples i s humour of s i tua t ion in i t s e l f . However laughs are concentrated on more spec i f i c means. F o n v i z i n uses aside speeches coupled with double-gntendre for comic e f f e c t in 45 these three e x t r a c t s : Ivan. "Madame, you speak the t r u t h . Ohi Vous avez r a i s o n . Besides romances, I've read nothing, and that's why I am as you see me. Sof'ya. ( a s i d e ) . And that's why you're a f o o l . Ivan. Mademoiselle, you wish to say something? Sof'ya. Only what I t h i n k about you. Ivan. And what would that be? Je vous p r i e , don't f l a t t e r C o u n c i l l o r . ( a s i d e ) . "A t r e a s u r e , not a woman I What honeyed l i p s she has I Just l i s t e n to her t a l k and you're a.slave of s i n ; i t ' s impossible not to become tempted. B r i g a d i e r . What i s i t you're saying neighbour? ( A s i d e ) . . The mis- t r e s s here and my o l d woman c e r t a i n l y don't make a pair."5°• B r i g a d i e r . " . . . I c a l l e d you a f o o l and you t h i n k I'm f l a t t e r i n g you. What an a s s l ^ Ivan. What an ass I ( a s i d e ) . I I ne me f l a t t e p a s . . . ' • The author achieved humour through misunderstanding. We have already seen examples 58. where the stodgy o l d B r i g a d i e r mis- understands the French expressions of h i s son time and time again. Notice the comic e f f e c t of t h i s scene where Ivan and h i s mother t a l k past one another: B r i g . w i f e . "God grant that you should l i v e the way we have. Ivan. Dieu m'en preserve. B r i g . Wife. God's grace and my b l e s s i n g s be w i t h you. Ivan. Tres o b l i g e . B r i g . wTT'e. E i t h e r I've become.deaf or you have. Ivan. Ni 1'un n i 1'autre. " 5 9 . The techn que of ncompreh nsion f o r humour's sake i s also used during the card game as we have already seen when the B r i g a d i e r ' s Wife does not understand the name of the game. The epitome of t h i s type of humour occurs w i t h the two proposal scenes between the B r i g a d i e r and the S o v i e t n i t s a , and the C o u n c i l l o r and the B r i g a d i e r ' s Wife. The h i l a r i o u s p i c t u r e of two f r u s t r a t e d , stum- b l i n g old codgers c l u m s i l y attempting to make passionate love to the flabbergasted women, n e i t h e r understanding what the other says, creates an e f f e c t that i s t o t a l l y f a r c i c a l . I t i s very true 1+6 t h a t humour t h r o u g h e x a g g e r a t i o n i s a l s o a b a s i c p a r t o f t h e p l a y . N o t o n l y i s t h i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e above s c e n e s , p a r t i c u - l a r l y the l a t t e r , b u t e x a g g e r a t i o n i s t h e v e r y c o r e o f the G a l - l o p h i l i c l o v e scenes between I v a n ,and t h e C o u n c i l l o r ' s ' W i f e . A R u s s i a n a u d i e n c e o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y would r o a r - w i t h l a u g h - t e r a t the a f f e c t e d , f o p p i s h g e s t u r e s i n t h e i r r i d i c u l o u s e x a g - g e r a t i o n . • M o r e o v e r , F o n v i z i n d e m o n s t r a t e s a s k i l f u l u s e : , o f the " o n e - b a s i c " j o k e , the pun and the n o t - s o s u b t l e s t a b . I v a n u s h k a g i v e s us one example o f t h e l a t t e r as he d i s c u s s e s h i s p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s : "My f a t h e r , on the c o n t r a r y , n e v e r d i d any p r a y i n g , e x c e p t f o r r e t r e a t . They say t h a t u n t i l h i s m a r r i a g e he d i d n ' t b e l i e v e t h e r e was a d e v i l . However , a f t e r m a r r y i n g my mother he soon b e l i e v e d i n the e x i s t e n c e o f an e v i l s p i r i t . " 6 0 . & much more s u b t l e j o k e i s made i n A c t I I Scene 6 when I v a n u s h k a d i s c u s s e s a l e a r n e d b o o k • r i d i c u l o u s l y e n t i t l e d Les S o t t i s e s du Temps. The a u t h o r ' s s k i l l i n " o n e - l i n e r s " i s e v i d e n t i n these e x a m p l e s : " Y o u ' r e q u i t e r i g h t , d e a r ; I share y o u r s e n t i m e n t s . I see t h a t you have powder on y o u r h e a d , b u t f o r the l i f e o f me I c a n ' t see i f t h e r e ' s a n y t h i n g i n t h e h e a d."6l. C o u n c i l l o r . "Why, s h e ' s so smart you c o u l d p u b l i s h e v e r y t h i n g she s a y s . B r i g a d i e r . Why n o t p u b l i s h i t ? I I ' v e h e a r d t h a t i n the books t h e y p r i n t t o d a y ' t h e y l i e no more i n t e l l i g e n t l y than my w i f e ."62. ."Dp you know t h a t I , I whom you see b e f o r e you now - t h a t I l i v e d h e r e a t the p e n s i o n o f a F r e n c h coachman b e f o r e my d e p a r - t u r e f o r P a r i s . "631 ~ We s h o u l d a l s o m e n t i o n some j o k e s a l r e a d y q u o t e d : the S o v i e t - n i t s a ' s q u e s t i o n about Frenchmen (note 5*0.) and the B r i g a d i r s h a ' s puns on d u r a k i and d u r y i n Scene F o u r o f A c t F o u r . U n t r a n s l a t a b l e \ kl puns a l s o o c c u r e a r l i e r d u r i n g t h e c a r d game: CHH . . J P a s s e . H Bee nacyioT. CoBeTHHua. OHH H OHH. EpHraflHpma . ^ , % o 3a OKOJiecHna - OHH H OHH ? KTO 3T0 OHH ? " ° 4 * Here the B r i g a d i e r ' s W i f e m i s t a k e s o n i - t h e term " t o p a s s " i n q u a d r i l l e ( t h e game t h e y are p l a y i n g ) w i t h o n i the R u s s i a n p r o - noun meaning " t h e y " . A p r i v a t e joke f o r the a u d i e n c e i s a c h i e v - ed d u r i n g the b a n t e r i n g between the B r i g a d i e r and the C o u n c i l l o r whom we know i s i n l o v e i t f i th the B r i g a d i e r ' s W i f e : B r i g a d i e r . "Whom? N o , my f r i e n d , I s ay the a n i m a l . h a s n ' t been b o r n y e t who 'd t h i n k o f l o o k i n g f o r a n y t h i n g i n my w i f e . C o u n c i l l o r . Bu t what are you c a l l i n g h i m names f o r ? . B r i g a d i e r . Am 1 r e a l l y c a l l i n g anyone names when I s ay t h a t a p e r s o n would have t o be a f i r s t - c l a s s s k i n f l i n t t o be tempted by my w i f e . C o u n c i l l o r . Y o u ' r e n o t c a l l i n g names, a re you? ( E m o t i o n a l l y ) Why s h o u l d t h e p e r s o n be a f o o l who ' s a t t r a c t e d t o A k u l i n a T i m o f eevna? "°5« A n o t h e r humourous i n t e r c h a n g e o c c u r s (see n o t e , 6 3 . ) when we d i s - c o v e r d u r i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n between Ivan and the S o v i e t n i t s a , t h a t Ivan became i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g French , f rom a coachman. P o n v i z i n ' s e x c e l l e n t use o f d i a l o g u e i n t e n s i f i e d t h e dram- a t i c i m p a c t o f the p l a y . O t h e r p l a y w r i g h t s o f the e r a s u c h as K n y a z h n i n ( i n K h v a s t u n ) and L u k i n ( i n The Toy Shop Vendor) used an i n t e r c h a n g e between a c h a r a c t e r and a n a r r a t o r t o expose t h e f o r m e r ' s v i c e s . P o n v i z i n h o w e v e r , employs r e v e a l i n g d i a l o g u e s between two " n e g a t i v e " c h a r a c t e r s t o show t h e i g n o r a n c e , s t u p i d - i t y , f o l l y o r d i s h o n e s t y o f t h e o t h e r . The c o n v e r s a t i o n s between I v a n and the S o v i e t n i t s a p o i n t o u t t h e i r G a l l o m a n i a . The c o u r t - i n g scene between the S o v i e t n i k and the 3 r i g a d i e r ' s Wi fe show h i s 1+8 p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h l a w - t e r r a s and h e r i g n o r a n c e and l a c k o f p e r - c e p t i o n . The B r i g a d i e r ' s c o u r t i n g scene d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s o b s e s - s i o n w i t h t h e m i l i t a r y . F i n a l l y , t h e arguments between the B r i g - a d i e r and h i s w i f e show h i s a r r o g a n t b u l l y r a g g i n g and h e r r a t t l e - p a t e d h e b e t u d e . Language i s the o t h e r a s p e c t o f d i a l o g u e t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t . Here F o n v i z i n i s a t r u e m a s t e r . I t has been s a i d t h a t B r i g a d i r was the f i r s t p l a y on t h e R u s s i a n sta.ge t h a t c o n t a i n e d n a t u r a l l a n g u a g e . 66. F o n v i z i n ' s l a n g u a g e i s i n d e e d n a t u r a l . T h e - a u t h o r used many c o n v e r s a t i o n a l d e v i c e s t o g i v e t h e d i a l o g u e a more c o l - l o q u i a l s o u n d . N o t so much t h e w o r d s , bu t t h e way t h e y are u t - t e r e d l e n d a much more " b r e e z y " tone t o t h e p l a y . F o r example , many C h a r a c t e r s addre s s one a n o t h e r i n terms o f endearment . S p e c - i f i c a l l y , t h i s means the use o f d i m i n u t i v e s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y Q i n ushka) such as " m a t u s h k a " , " b a t y u s h k a " , " s v a t y u s h k a " , " I v a n u s h k a " , " S o f ' y u a h k a " , " z y a t y u s h k a " and " s o s e d u s h k a " , w h i c h adds t o the c o l l o q u i a l a tmosphere o f the p l a y . T h i s p o i n t i s f u r t h e r e x e m p l i - f i e d b y the f r e q u e n t use o f t h e C h r i s t i a n name and p a t r o n y m i c t h a t i s so common i n R u s s i a n s p e e c h . M o r e o v e r , t h e a u t h o r employs c o l l o q u i a l e m p h a t i c p a r t i c l e s s u c h as " t o " , " z h e " . ( z h ) , and " k a " t o form a more l i v e l y and u n r e f i n e d t y p e o f s p e e c h . The r e s u l t i s t h a t F o n v i z i n ' s a tmosphere i s much more c o n v e r s a t i o n a l ; t h i s i s because the c h a r a c t e r s do n o t speak a s t i l t e d type o f R u s s i a n . F i n a l l y , t h e c a r d game i n Scene F o u r o f A c t F o u r adds t o t h e r e - sonance o f c o n v e r s a t i o n t h r o u g h the usage o f R u s s i a n terras d u r i n g the c a r d game i n s t e a d o f u t i l i z i n g the French , t e r m s . F o r example t h e y use words l i k e " o n i i o n i " , " k h r y u s h k i " and " z h l u d e i " . 49 Of g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e i n t e r n a l n a t u r e o f the l a n g - uage o f e a c h s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l has h i s own v o c a b u l a r y and s t y l e o f s p e e c h w h i c h r e f l e c t s h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . I v a n u s h k a and the C o u n c i l l o r ' s W i f e are o f c o u r s e p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h G a l l o p h i l i a ; t h e r e f o r e t h e y l a v i s h l y use F r e n c h e x p r e s s i o n s . I n f a c t t h e i r s p e e c h i s n o t o n l y r e p l e t e w i t h o u t r i g h t F r e n c h words b u t t h e s e two a l s o use F r e n c h words adapted to the R u s s i a n sys tem o f i n f l e c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e S o v i e t n i t s a t a k e s t h e F r e n c h word c a p a b l e , makes i t i n t o a R u s s i a n s h o r t a d j e c t i v e k a p a b e l ' n a and uses i t i n s t e a d o f sposobna.67. Here are some f u r t h e r exam- p l e s t a k e n from t h e t e x t : v e r b s - " d i s k y u r i r o v a t ' " ( f rom se d i s - c u t e r ) , " m e n a n z h i r o v a t ' " ( f rom menager ) , " e k z i s t i r u y e t " ( f rom e x i s t e r ) ; nouns - " b i l ' y e d u " ( f r o m b i l l e t - d o u x ) , " r e z o n e m a n " ( f rom r a i s o n ) , " d e s s i m y u l a t s i i " ( f r o m d i s s i m u l a t i o n ) , " s e n t i m e n t y " ( f rom s e n t i m e n t s ) ; and a d j e c t i v e s - " i n d i f e r a n " ( f rom i n d i f f e r e n t ) , " k o m p l e z a n " ( f rom c o m p l a i s a n t ) and "komodneye" ( f rom commode). P h r a s e s l i k e " t o t a l e m e n t ' n e l ' z y a ' " a re t o t a l e m e n t r i d i c u l o u s . F o r a R u s s i a n ' a u d i e n c e t h e r e s u l t o f a l l t h i s a f f e c t e d j a r g o n i s v e r y f u n n y . These words sound r i d i c u l o u s and s t i l t e d t o the R u s - s i a n e a r ; a l m o s t l i k e p i d g i n R u s s i a n x^ith. a f o p p i s h t i n g e . The a u t h o r ' s purpose i s c l e a r . The r i d i c u l o u s I ^ r a n c o f i e d speech o f t h e s e G a l l o p h i l e s r e f l e c t s t h e i r mad p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h F r e n c h . Thus can t h e y be s a t i r i z e d f o r t h e i r l u d i c r o u s e c c e n t r i c i t y . The l anguage o f the B r i g a d i e r a l s o r e v e a l s h i s c h a r a c t e r . He uses m i l i t a r y terms and a l l u s i o n s t o b a t t l e s . H i s speech i s g e n e r a l l y c o a r s e and n o t too c o r r e c t . H i s f a v o u r i t e t e r m i n 5o addressing h i s wife i s no t "mi l aya "or even"dorogaya""but rather j u s f z h e n a " Because he i s so preoccupied with m i l i t a r y r a n k and pos i t ion h i s speech contains a l i b e r a l s p r i n k l i n g of such terms as"chjny 1 , 1 "rangay "voyennyy "br igad i r ' . ' In fact he himself s a y s : " fl is caM, MaTymKa , He roBopio Toro , ,UTO6 3a6aBHO 6biJio cnopHTb o TaKoi MaTepHH, KOTopaa He npHHa^jiexHT HH £0 eK3- epn.Hn.HH, HH flo SaTajiHH, H HH^ero TaKoro tiT-o 6 H . . . " He often uses words l ike"baba"or"edakoi osel"demonstrating h i s coarse- n e s s . B u t the most r id i cu lous j a r g o n i s 'during the courtship s c e n e . F o n v i z i n ' s m a s t e r y o f the l anguage s h i n e s as he shows us the b lu s te r ing trooper, l u d i c r o u s l y attempting t o be romantic, using words l i k e " a r k i b u z i r o v a l i " . "pokhodakh", " a k t s i i " , " b a s u r - manskoi k r o v i . " , " a rmi i p u l ' " , "yader", " k a r t e c h e i " , " v o y e n n o p l e n - nym", " f o r t e t s i y u " and " genera l " . The c o u n c i l l o r ' s language reveals h i s e c c e n t r i c i t i e s as w e l l . He' speaks i n l ega l terms. Because o f h i s t r a in ing and exper ience i n the l a w - c o u r t s , the S o v i e t n i k ' s everyday conversation i s spr inkled with complicated court expressions. He counsels Ivan 69. t o "Fla^e Bcero H3BOJIB ^HTaTb-yjioaceHHe H yica3bi" ' H e a l s o makes a subtle v e i l e d reference to "extracts " - " CKOJIBKO y Hac HcnpaBHbix c e K p e T a p e i i , KOTopne 3KCTpaKTH - COMHHHMT 6e3 rpaMMaTHKH > 70 jiK)6oflOporo CMOTpeTB . , " * In the eighteenth century these "extract s " were c i t a t i o n s from t h e records of a l e g a l case which the judge used as a basis for h i s dec i s ion . T h r o u g h o u t the play, even i n the courtship scene with the d o l t i s h B r i g a d i r s h a , the C o u n c i l l o r uses terms l i k e " u k a z y " , " c h e l o b i t n i k i " , " t o l k o v a t ' s 51 and " s o y o k u p l e n i y e " . A l l t h e s e examples show h i s p u n c t i l i o u s and c o d i f i e d p e r s o n a l i t y . As we have a l r e a d y s a i d the B r i g a d i e r ' s W i f e i s o b s e s s e d w i t h money. T h r o u g h o u t the p l a y she uses many e x p r e s s i o n s c o n - c e r n i n g money, a c c o u n t i n g and b o o k k e e p i n g . She employs t u r n s o f p h r a s e s u c h as " r a s kh'odnyye t e t r a d i " , " p y a t i k o p e y e k . . . che tyre* kopeyek s_ d e n e z h k o i " , " i _ d e l o den ' g i z a den ' g i s c h i t a y u " , " a l t y n z a t r i d t s a t ' " , " Y e s l i t o l ' k o . . . n e d e n e g " , " v d e s y a t i k o p e i k a k h . . . c h t o g r i v n o y u v d e n ' " . These i n s t a n c e s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e main a s - p e c t o f h e r c h a r a c t e r : a v a r i c e f o r money. The l anguage t h a t P o n v i z i n employs f o r S o f ' y a and D o b r o l - yubov i s r e v e a l i n g n o t t h r o u g h i t s v o c a b u l a r y so much as b y i t s l o n g - w i n d e d and h e a v y c o n s t r u c t i o n . The p e d a n t r y o f t h e i r com- p l e x and b o o k i s h l a n g u a g e a c t s as a m i r r o r t o show t h e i r i n t e r n - a l p r e c i s i a n i s t na tur e . : . . . Thus l a n g u a g e i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e i n B r i g a d i r . The c o n s t r u c t i o n and v o c a b u l a r y o f each c h a r a c t e r ' s l a n g u a g e r e v e a l s h i s b a s i c p e r s o n a l i t y : i t a c t s as a m a g n i f y i n g g l a s s f o r us the s p e c t a t o r s t o examine the i n t e r n a l n a t u r e o f each c h a r a c t e r . What i s the i m p o r t a n c e o f B r i g a d i r i n R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e ? I t has been overshadowed b y P o n v i z i n ' s o t h e r g r e a t p l a y M e d o r o s l ' , b u t B r i g a d i r s t i l l has many m e r i t s w o r t h w h i l e f o r s t u d y . B r i g a - d i r i s v e r y w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d , l i v e l y and humourous i n a r a t h e r s o p h i s t i c a t e d way. The d i a l o g u e i s v i b r a n t and e x p r e s s i v e . A c - c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n - s o u r c e s B r i g a d i r was an e a r l y m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f " d r a m a t i c r e a l i s m " . 7 1 . I t s c h i e f l i m i t a t i o n i s t h e m a t i c because B r i g a d i r i s no l o n g e r t i m e l y . P a r a d o x i c a l l y e n o u g h , t h i s l e a d s 52 us t o s tudy: ' . . ' ; the p l a y as an h i s t o r i c a l document . B r i g a d i r r e - f l e c t s b e a u t i f u l l y t h e a t t i t u d e s and customs o f t h e e r a , and t e l l s us much about what l i f e was l i k e t h e n . P o n v i z i n showed e v - i l s p e c u l i a r t o a R u s s i a n s o c i e t y y e t managed t o mock common hum- an f a u l t s l i k e i g n o r a n c e , g reed and c o r r u p t i o n . G e n e r a l l y t h o u g h h i s c h a r a c t e r s are R u s s i a n , w i t h R u s s i a n f a u l t s as r e s u l t s o f R u s s i a n m i s t a k e s . The a u t h o r c r i t i c i z e d m a i n l y G a l l o m a n i a . B u t he a l s o s a t i r i z e d b r i b e r y , m a l p r a c t i c e s , m a r r i a g e , g r e e d , and most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i s the k e y n o t e o f P o n v i z i n ' s p e n s l e : i f the se p e o p l e had been p r o p e r l y e d u c a t e d i n a R u s s i a n m i l i e u , l e a r n i n g a b o u t l i f e t h r o u g h a R u s s i a n s p e c - t r u m , then he n e v e r w o u l d have had t o w r i t e B r i g a d i r . 53 CHAPTER I I I NEDOROSL' - "Ha3BiBajiH 6eccMepTHyro KOMeflHK Hejopocj ib <J>OHBH3HHa H OCHOB- aTejibHO - ee M B a n , roptf^aa nopa npoflojraajiacb OKOJIO nojiyBena : 3TO rpoMa^ H O AJIH npoH3BefleHHH cjiOBa. Ho Tenepb HeT HH OflHoro HaMeKa B Hejopoc j ie Ha scHByio ffl3HB , H KOMeflHH, OTCJiySCHB CBOK) .cjiy»c6y, pSpaTHjiacb B HCTOpH^eCKHH IiaMHTHHK" I n h i s g r e a t e s t x\iork N e d o r o s l 1 , F o n v i z i n s h a r p e n s many of the b a r b s o f h i s p r e v i o u s works t o c r i t i c i z e some o f the e v i l s o f R u s s i a n s o c i e t y . The p l a y ' s scope i s much w i d e r than a n y t h i n g he had a t t e m p t e d b e f o r e s i n c e i t was c o n c e r n e d w i t h many o f t h e b a s - i c p r i n c i p l e s o f R u s s i a n l i f e and t h e t r e a t m e n t o f the s e r f s by the a r i s t o c r a c y i n p a r t i c u l a r . W i t n e s s t o the power and f o r c e of N e d o r o s l ' i s the f a c t t h a t i t i s the o n l y R u s s i a n p l a y w r i t t e n b e - f o r e 1800 t h a t i s s t i l l b e i n g p e r f o r m e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t n o t o n l y as a s o c i a l s a t i r e b u t a l s o as an e x c e l l e n t p l a y . B e f o r e we a t t empt t o a n a l y z e the p l a y we must m e n t i o n the s o - c a l l e d " e a r l y v e r s i o n " o f N e d o r o s l ' and r e c o u n t t h e p l a y ' s e a r l y h i s t o r y . In 1933 i n L i t e r a t u r n o y e N a s l e d s t v o G . K o r o v i n p u b l i s h e d a v a r i a n t o f a p l a y e n t i t l e d N e d o r o s l ' c l a i m i n g i n h i s commentary t h a t t h i s d r a m a t i c work was a f i r s t v e r s i o n w r i t t e n by F o n v i z i n i n the e a r l y 1760' s . 2 * C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n seems t o be q u i t e s i m i l a r t o o u r N e d o r o s l ' : t h e r e a re two c o n t r a s t i n g young men I v a n u s h k a , M i l - o v i d , t h e f o r m e r an example o f an ignoramus much l i k e M i t r o f a n , the l a t t e r w e l l e d u c a t e d ; t h e r e are i g n o r a n t p a r e n t s M r . and M r s . M i k h e i c h - Aksen and U l i t a - n o t d i s s i m i l a r f rom t h e P r o s t a k o v s i n N e d o r o s l 1 . The a u t h o r has i n c l u d e d o n l y one r a i a o n n e u r - Dob- r o m y s l o v (not D o b r o l y u b o v , as D. W e l s h has i t i n h i s a r t i c l e . 54 " S a t i r i c a l Themes i n l 8 t h C e n t u r y R u s s i a n Comedies")3« T h i s " e a r l y v e r s i o n " , c o n s i s t i n g o f o n l y t h r e e a c t s and t a k i n g up e i g h t - een pages , i s a much s h o r t e r p l a y than N e d o r o s l ' . Bu t i s t h i s an e a r l y v e r s i o n o f F o n v i z i n ' s p l a y ? I n 1954 K . V . P i g a r e v a s s e r t e d i n h i s s t u d y o f D e n i s F o n v i z i n t h a t the p l a y was w r i t t e n n o t b y D . I . F o n v i z i n bu t b y the. p e r s o n whose h a n d w r i t i n g appears i n the f i r s t p a g e s , and t h a t i t was w r i t t e n a f t e r 1782 In i m i t a t i o n of F o n v i z i n ' s ' N e d o r o s l ' . 4 • However two y e a r s l a t e r V . V s e v o l o d s k y - Grerngro.ss d i s a g r e e d , i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e p l a y was w r i t t e n b y D e n i s F o n v i z i n b e f o r e 1 7 8 2 . 5 . The main p rob lem i s t h a t seven d i f f e r e n t h a n d w r i t i n g s were u s e d , y e t none i s t h a t of D . I . F o n v i z i n . I n 1966 A . P. M o g i l y a n s k y r e e x a m i n e d the w h o l e q u e s t i o n . In a n a t - tempt t o s e t t l e t h e d i s p u t e , e x p e r t s i n c a l l i g r a p h y examined the m a n u s c r i p t s . 6 . The q u e s t i o n has y e t to be i n d i s p u t a b l y r e s o l v e d , b u t M o g i l y a n s k y m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h i s s o - c a l l e d " e a r l y v e r s i o n " was w r i t t e n n o t b y F o n v i z i n b u t p o s s i b l y b y h i s b r o t h e r : Mn.pH3HaB CBoe nopaaceHHe, OH ocTaBHJi nbecy He3aicoimeH- HOH . CoxpaHeHa pyi-conHCB 6HJia, no—BHAHMOMV , naBJiOM 4>OHBH3HHHM n o CBH3H ee c noHBHBmHMCH no3,n.Hee HejopocjieM e ro flpaMa JleHHca (3HaBmero, HyacHO flyMaTb, 06 3TOM j i H T e p a T y p H O M 3aMBicjie) B KauecTBe npHMe ^ a T e j i B H O r o Kypbe3a. TaKHM o6pa30M, fljia onpe,n,ejieHHH aBTOpa aHOHHMHOro HejopQCJia Heo6xoflHMO H3y^eHHe O K p y a c e H H H naBjia $OHBH3- HHa. " The f i r s t s tage p r o d u c t i o n of N e d o r o s l ' d i d not t a k e p l a c e u n t i l September 24, 1782 a l t h o u g h the p l a y had been comple ted i n the p r e v i o u s y e a r . The a u t h o r had d i f f i c u l t y i n s e c u r i n g p e r m i s s i o n for t h i s f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n : " B e f o r e t h i s p l a y c o u l d b e p roduced in Moscow, the l o c a l c e n s o r ss r e q u i r e d the o m i s s i o n o f a number o f ' d a n g e r o u s l i n e s ' . No soon- e r had N e d o r o s l ' been performed a t the ' P u b l i c R u s s i a n T h e a t r e ' i n Moscow, than C a t h e r i n e took t h e precaution o f p lac ing the t h e - a t r e under S t a t e c o n t r o l . N e d o r o s l ' was not produced a t C o u r t u n - t i l f ive years l a t e r , and although t h i s was a shortened vers ion , i t nevertheless brought upon i t s e l f the indignat ion o f c o u r t i e r s . They were no doubt vexed b y S t a r o d u m ' s moral iz ing on the duties o f enlightened monarchs and gentry, implying t h e y themselves were f a i l i n g t o carry them out as R u s s i a n gentry should. F o n v i z i n ' s own complete ed i t ion o f h i s works was p r o h i b i t e d i n 1788, as was a posthumous e d i t i o n planned i n 1792. I t was a f t e r the f i r s t stage production t h a t Poterakin supposedly s a i d t o F o n v i z i n " D i e D e n i s , o r write p l a y s no more."9. i n fact F o n v i z i n d i d not complete any plays a f t e r t h i s . The circumstances behind the f i r s t stage presentation were s imi l a r t o those o f B r i g - adir . S h o r t l y after i t s composition, F o n v i z i n ' s f r i e n d s e n t h u s - i a s t i c a l l y implored him t o r e a d h i s play i n p u b l i c . He d i d i n fact read a few excerpts one evening b u t the court audience obliged him t o read the p l a y i n i t s e n t i r e t y . I n the i r e n t h u s i a s m t h e y persuaded t h e great a c t o r D m i t r e v s k y t o read i t for them once aga in ! 0 . A l t h o u g h the E m p r e s s ' s displeasure forced N e d o r o s l ' 1 s withdrawal after I t s f i r s t stage presentat ion, i t had been received with many accolades, according t o the Dr am a t i che s k i i S l o v a r ' : "CHH KOMeflHH, HanOJIHeHHafl 3aMHCJIOBaTBIMH H3pa*CeHHHMH H MH03C— ecTBOM fleiicTByiomHx JIHH,, r j e KaacfltiM B CBoeM xapaKTepe H3peu- eHHHMK pa3jiH^aeTCH , 3acjiy»CHjia BHHMaHHe OT nySjiHKH. JLna cero H npHHTHa c OTMeHHHM yflOBOJibCTBHeM OT B c e x . . . " E v i d e n c e o f the p l a y ' s popular a p p e a l i s the fact t h a t after near- l y two .centuries i t i s s t i l l being performed. D e s p i t e a remarkable technique o f a l ternat ion F o n v i z i n ' s p l a y i s fundamentally c l a s s i c a l i n s t ructure . The p l a y consists o f I+O scenes divided into the t r a d i t i o n a l f ive act s . The f i r s t act em- 56 b o d i e s an e x p o s i t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r and s e t t i n g . We see the p r o v i n - c i a l g e n t r y e x e m p l i f i e d by the c r u e l and i g n o r a n t P r o s t a k o v s . M o r e o v e r , t h e a u t h o r a t once i n t r o d u c e s - us t o the c a l a m i t o u s s i t - u a t i o n o f the R u s s i a n s e r f . 1 2 . A t the end o f the f i r s t a c t he com- l i c a t e s the i n t r i g u e w i t h the r e v e l a t i o n o f S o f ' y a ' s new w e a l t h . The second a c t i s a l s o e x p o s i t o r y i n t r o d u c i n g t h e " g o o d " h e r o M i l o n and the r i d i c u l o u s t u t o r s . D i d a c t i c e l ement s appear i n A c t Three w i t h S tarodum and h i s l e n g t h y m o n o l o g u e s . Humour i s m a i n t a i n e d w i t h t h e t h i r d t u t o r V r a i ' m a n whose a n t i c s a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h i s a c t a re h i l a r i o u s . A c t P o u r c o n t a i n s more o f . S tarodum's mor- a l i z i n g , the b e t r o t h a l o f S o f ' y a t o M i l o n and t h e amusing e x a m i n a - t i o n o f M i t r b f a n . I t c o n c l u d e s w i t h M r s . Pros takova ' s d e c i s i o n t o k i d n a p S o f ' y a f o r M i t r o f a n . The f i n a l a c t p r o v i d e s the m o r a l f o r t h e a u d i e n c e : " B e h o l d the l u s t r e w a r d f o r wickednessf"¥.3!-» As i n B r i g a d i r F o n v i z i n has c o n s t r u c t e d h i s p l a y a c c o r d i n g t o the c l a s s i c a l u n i t i e s o f t i m e , p l a c e and. a c t i o n . The a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n t h e space o f two d a y s . There are two t e m p o r a l l i n k s between a c t s : P r a v d i n ' s remark a t the b e g i n n i n g o f A c t III t h a t he saw S ta rodum. coming as he l e f t the t a b l e and S t a r o d u m ' s a s s e r t i o n a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f A c t IV t h a t t h e y w i l l l e a v e a t s e v - ' en t h e f o l l o w i n g m o r n i n g . A l l t h e a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e at o r near the P r o s t a k o v house-. However F o n v i z i n ' s adherence t o t h e s e u n i t i e s has l e d t o some g l a r i n g i m p r o b a b i l i t i e s . The j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f M i l o n ( S o f ' y a ' s l o v e r o f some months b e f o r e ) , S ta rodum ( S o f ' y a ' s b e n e f a c t o r ) and P r a v d i n ( the state r age\t) seems c o n t r i v e d . P r a v - d i n ' s announcement t h a t the government w i l l e x p r o p r i a t e a l l t h e P r o s t a k o v s ' p o s s e s s i o n s seems as f a c t i t i o u s as any Olympian deus 57 e x m a c h i n a o f the C l a s . s i c a l d r a m a . I s t h e r e s u s p e n s e ? In avlmost a n y p l a y i t i s i m p o r t a n t to m a i n t a i n s u s p e n s e and h o l d t h e a u d i e n c e u n t i l t h e e n d . T h e c e n - t r a l i n t r i g u e o f N e d o r o s l ' i s , who w i l l m a r r y S o f ' y a : M i l o n , M i t r o f a n o r S k o t i n i n . H o w e v e r , P r a v d i n t e l l s M i l o n a t t h e b e g i n - n i n g o f t h e s e c o n d a c t t h a t he w i l l n o t a l l o w a n y more m i s c h i e f b y t h e P r o s t a . k o v fami ly .^k-- S i n c e m a r r i a g e t o S k o t i n i n o r M i t r o f a n w o u l d be a t r a v e s t y o f j u s t i c e , P r a v d i n w o u l d n o t p e r m i t i t . So t h e a u d i e n c e r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e o u t c o m e w i l l be f e l i c i t o u s . F o n v i z . i n n e v e r t h e l e s s a t t e m p t e d t o m a i n t a i n s u s p e n s e by t h e i m p l i c a t i o n a t t h e e n d o f A c t I V t h a t P r o s t a k o v a w i l l k i d n a p t h e g i r l , t h u s r e t a i n i n g a c e r t a i n amount o f s u s p e n s e i n t h e f i n a l a c t . To be f a i r s u s p e n s e was n o t e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e 18th c e n t u r y a u d i e n c e ( w i t n e s s t h e c l a s s i c a l d r a m a whose c l i m a x ' o f t e n came midway t h r o u g h t h e p l a y r e n d e r i n g t h e l a s t p o r t i o n v i r t u a l l y d e n o u e m e n t ) . F o n v i z i n e v i d e n t l y d i d n o t r e g a r d s u s p e n s e as e s s e n t i a l , o t h e r w i s e he w o u l d n o t h a v e i n c l u d e d t h e l o n g t i r a d e s b y t h e r a i s o n n e u r . As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , F o n v i z i n e m p l o y e d a s t a l k i n g t e c h n i - que o f " a l t e r n a t i o n i n N e d o r o s l ' • I n s t e a d o f c o n c e n t r a t i n g on c o m - p l e x a . c t i o n , t h e a u t h o r c o n s t r u c t e d t h e p l a y on a s e r i e s o f s e p - a r a t e s c e n e s , w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l l y mean a g r e a t d e a l b u t i n a c c u m u - l a t i o n mean much m o r e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e e n t i r e f i r s t a c t c o n s i s t s o f many c o n c r e t e d e t a i l s o f a c t i o n t o p r o v i d e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o a r s e n a t u r e o f t h e P r o s t a k o v f a m i l y . H o w e v e r , t h e f i r s t s c e n e o f A c t Two makes a c o n t r a s t t o t h e p r e v i o u s a c c u m u l a t i o n o f v i c e and c o r r u p t i o n . H e r e P r a v d i n and M i l o n c o n v e r s e a t l e n g t h a b o u t v i r t u e and l o v e . T h i s i s t h e f i r s t e x a m p l e o f v i c e and v i r t u e 58 a l t e r n a t i n g throughout the play, so that the audience can see and compare and form conclusions about them. This technique of a l t e r - n a t i on reappears at the conclusion of the second act ( c o n t r a s t i n g w i t h the f i r s t scenes of that act) i n the s l o t h f u l , grasping i g n o r - ance of the Prostakov f a m i l y , and opens the t h i r d with the v i r t u o u s Starodum and Pravdin. A l t e r n a t e d w i t h these e a r l y scenes of "good" are the remaining scenes of Act I I I where P o n v i z i n demonstrates the ignorance and s t u p i d i t y of the t u t o r s . The author returns to the v i r t u o u s characters of the pla y f o r the f i r s t s i x scenes of Act IV, then s h i f t s back to the d u l l a r d s f o r the l a s t three to r e - i t e r a t e t h e i r v i c e s . The f i r s t two scenes of Act V embody " V i r t u e " (the d i d a c t i c speeches of Starodum) whereupon the author s h i f t s once again. This time he a l t e r n a t e s vice and v i r t u e w i t h i n a scene to promulgate the concluding moral: c "Des qu' un personnage 'ne'gatif entre sur l a scene, l e comi- que e st relance' et I'on r i t , jusqu'au moment ou Starodum reprend l a p a r o l e. Cette rupture dans l e rhythme a - t - e l l e ete voulue ? C'est t r e s probable, puisque Ponvizine a confie ce r o l e au m e i l - l e u r acteur de l'e'poque, D m i t r e v s k i j , qui p a r t a g e a i t ses convi c - t i o n s ' c i v i l i s a t r i , c e s ' , c'est done que ce personnage € t a i t a ses yeux e s s e n t i e l . "1-3 • To a modern audience, the long monologues by Starodum seem unnatural and b o r i n g . Moreover, they weaken the suspense and hum- orous impact of the pl a y . Nevertheless, i n P o n v i z i n ' s day they were considered important because the author's purpose was not ju s t to s a t i r i z e but also to t e a c h . ^ * I t was therefore i n earn- est that he included these d i d a c t i c t i r a d e s hoping he could cor- r e c t the i l l s which he lampooned. One u n i f y i n g element i n Nedorosl' 1s s t r u c t u r e i s i t s con- s t r u c t i o n around a f a m i l y . The author leads us at once i n t o the 59 heart of the P r o s t a k o v - S k o t i n i n household. In fact the P r o s t a - kov house forms the p l a y ' s framework: "Ilbeca cpa3y, c caMoro Ha^cajia BBOAHT 3pHTejiH . B . 6HT ceMBH cii;eH0li npHMepHBaHHa HOBoro Ka$TaHa. 3aT:eMH,w3 cueHe ypoK MHTpo<J>aHa , 3a cn.eHOH - ceMeHHbift o6efl c ceMefiHOM cKaH^aj iOM, H OHHTB - x a p a K T e p H o e pa3JiH^He B no^a^e p a 3 H 0 K a K e c T B e H - Horo MaTepna j i a : MHJIOH, ripaB#HH, GTapo^yM OTBjie^eHHO opa- TopcTByioT Ha OTBJie^eHHOH cueHe , IIpocTaKOBH , y^HTejia , cjiyrn scHByT noBceflHeBHOH JKH3HBK> B peajibHoft SBITOBOH cpefle. 3TO - JiioflH, a He aScTpaKTHbie cymecTBa, XOTH B nocTpo- eHHH H X pojieft eme MHOro OT KJiaccHHecKoro MeTOfla, /noflH, CBH3aHHbie c nopoflHBmeH HX cpeflOH." T h i s technique of s t ructur ing the play around the e v i l family and br inging i n outsiders who perform "good", serves to make the play more compact since t h e intr igues unfold in this se t t ing without any extraneous ac t ion . To conclude our study of the structure of N e d o r o s l ' we must mention that F o n v i z i n proved to be more s k i l f u l in dramatic con- s t ruct ion than most of his. contemporaries. I t s architecture cer- t a i n l y has fau l t s yet F o n v i z i n managed to delay del ineat ion of the p lot u n t i l scene 5 of A c t I I . He also employed ingenious devices such as the "search" entrance of P r o s t a k o v a in A c t I I scene 5 and and the " f l i g h t " ex i t of V r a l ' m a n at the end of A c t I I I to make his p lo t more c r e d i b l e . P e r h a p s the most s t r i k i n g aspect of N e d o r o s l ' i s the charact- e r i z a t i o n . The characters may be schematical ly arranged into three separate groups: the protagonists ( S t a r o d u m , P r a v d i n , M i l o n and S o f ' y a ) ; the antagonists ( P r o s t a k o v , P r o s t a k o v a , S k o t i n i n and M i t - rofan) and the minor f igures ( Y e r e m e y e v n a , V r a l ' m a n , K u t e i k i n , T s y f i r k i n , T r i s h k a and the servants)!. I t is. true tha t 'on ly the 60 second and t h i r d groups seem something l i k e r e a l people. The p r o t a g o n i s t s appear only as s t a t i c m o r a l i z e r s . Yet P o n v i z i n more than made up f o r t h i s d e f e c t by m a s t e r f u l l y p r e s e n t i n g h i s nega- t i v e c h a r a c t e r s who r e p r e s e n t v a r i o u s f a u l t s i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Russian manners. Each, has h i s own dominant t r a i t which renders him u n f o r g e t t a b l e . 1 8 . _ n f a c t , the author's negative c h a r a c t e r s were so remarkable t h a t they became p r o v e r b i a l i n the Russian l a n - guage. The author achieved t h i s h i g h q u a l i t y by imbuing h i s char- a c t e r s w i t h the spark of l i f e a f t e r c a r e f u l l y examining l i f e i t - s e l f . "•It has been s a i d t h a t when P o n v i z i n was w r i t i n g the scene between S k o t i n i n , M i t r o f a n and Yeremeyevna he took a s t r o l l i n order to t h i n k i t over c a r e f u l l y , and happened to come across a s c u f f l e be- tween two peasant women. He stopped 'to watch nature', and when he wrote the scene upon h i s r e t u r n home he used the word 'grapple', which he had j u s t overheard." We s h a l l now s c r u t i n i z e each c h a r a c t e r s e p a r a t e l y . The p l a y i s dominated by the powerful f i g u r e of the house- h o l d head Mrs. Prostakova She i s probably the most famous person- age of t h e , p l a y . Prostakova i s a development of A k u l i n a Timofey- evna of B r i g a d i r but much more of a c a r i c a t u r e than her predecessor. Whereas the B r i g a d i r s h a was r e s t r i c t e d to greed, s t i n g i n e s s and ignorance, Prostakova i s a l l those and more. Her p e r s o n a l i t y i s of the same m a t e r i a l as her predecessor but woven much more i n t r i - c a t e l y . She f a s c i n a t e s because she i s so u t t e r l y r e p u l s i v e . Above a l l she i s greedy and s t i n g y at the same time. Prostakova i s the t a l k of the e n t i r e d i s t r i c t f o r being able to e x t r a c t every ounce of work out of her peasants (and out of T r i s h k a the t a i l o r , too) yet she r e g r e t s she cannot squeeze more out of them. Here i s her 61 a t t i t u d e towar d money: " I f you f i n d money, d o n ' t share , i t w i t h a n y b o d y . Take i t a l l y o u r s e l f , M i t r b f a n u s h k a i " 2 0 • L i k e t h e B r i g - a d i r s h a she c o n s i d e r s l e a r n i n g on a p u r e l y f i n a n c i a l b a s i s , s t r i v - i n g t o e x t r a c t f u l l v a l u e f.rom t h e t h r e e t e a c h e r s : " D o n ' t work so h a r d o v e r a t r i f l e , my d e a r . I s h a l l n o t g i v e h i m a kopek more ; no r e a s o n why I s h o u l d . I t ' s n o t much o f a s c i e n c e . I t ' s o n l y t o r m e n t i n g y o u ; and the whole b u s i n e s s , I s e e , i s j u s t r u b b i s h . I f you have no money, why c o u n t i t ? I f you have money, we can add i t up w e l l enough w i t h o u t ' p a f n u t y i c h ' s h e l p ."21• Her g reed comes t o the f o r e when i t i s announced t h a t S o f ' y a has . i n h e r i t e d 10,000 / r o u b l e s ; i m m e d i a t e l y she d e c i d e s t h a t S o f ' y a w o u l d be the I d e a l match f o r M i t r o f a n . P r o s t a k o v a a l s o echoes the B r i g a d i e r ' s W i f e i n h e r h y p o c r i t - i c a l r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e . E v e r y so o f t e n she f e i g n s some k i n d o f r e l i g i o u s p i e t y by a "God may be m e r c i f u l " o r " t h e L o r d has w i l l e d " , o r by p r e t e n d i n g t o - c r o s s h e r s e l f . These e x p r e s s i o n s o f r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n are s o l e l y f o r o t h e r p e o p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y Starodum and P r a v d i n . There i s no doubt t h a t 3he i s m e r e l y t r y i n g t o c r e a t e an i l l u s i o n f o r o t h e r s , b u t h e r t r u e c h a r a c t e r i s a l w a y s r e v e a l e d . P r o s t a k o v a i s i g n o r a n t s i m p l y because she has no d e s i r e f o r e d u c a t i o n . P o n v i z i n t e l l s us o f h e r i g n o r a n c e w i t h , t h e l i s t o f D r a m a t i s Per sonae when we see she i s named P r o s t a k o v ( formed from p r o s t a k - a s i m p l e t o n ) . M o r e o v e r , P r o s t a k o v a i s v a i n i n h e r i g - n o r a n c e : she r e v e l s i n t h e f a c t t h a t she c a n n o t read - a u s e l e s s waste o f t ime and money, she f e e l s . Twice she mangles t e c h n i c a l words w h i c h w o u l d n o t be d i f f i c u l t w i t h even r u d i m e n t a r y e d u c a t - i o n . P r o s t a k o v a shows h e r s w a g g e r i n g i g n o r a n c e i n h a v i n g h i r e d t h r e e t u t o r s o f v e r y q u e s t i o n a b l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 62 M r s . P r o s t a k o v a i s t h e ep i tome o f the d o m i n e e r i n g w i f e . She c o n s t a n t l y b rowbea t s h e r poor husband b y a c t i o n and word so t h a t he i s r e d u c e d t o a c r i n g i n g j a c k a l . 2 2 * T h i s t y r a n t has no r e - s p e c t a t a l l f o r h e r h u s b a n d . To h e r he i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t e x c e p t as a c o n v e n i e n t s c a p e g o a t . B e s i d e s b e i n g s t i n g y , g r e e d y , h y p o c r i t - i c a l , i g n o r a n t and d o m i n e e r i n g , M r s . P r o s t a k o v a i s e x t r e m e l y c r u e l . P o n v i z i n p o r t r a y e d h e r as the w o r s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a t y r a n n i c a l n o b i l i t y t h a t b a r b a r o u s l y e x p l o i t e d the p e a s a n t r y . M r s . P r o s t a - kovaf s c r u e l t y e x t e n d s t o e v e r y o n e around h e r . A t t h e v e r y b e g i n - n i n g o f t h e p l a y we see h e r v i c i o u s l y i n s u l t i n g t h e poor t a i l o r T r i s h k a w i t h a t o r r e n t o f i n v e c t i v e . She t h e n g i v e s a b r u p t o r d e r s t o e v e r y o n e and a s s a i l s h e r husband when he meekly g i v e s h i s o p i n - i o n . L a t e r on she argues w i t h S o f ' y a t h a t I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t h a t . ; . S tarodum d i d n o t d i e . L a t e r she a c t u a l l y i s i n v o l v e d i n - a b r a w l w i t h h e r b r o t h e r . She admi t s t h a t she v i o l e n t l y runs the h o u s e - h o l d : " . . . b e t w e e n s w e a r i n g and f l o g g i n g I have no r e s t a t a l l . . . " 2 3 » When the f e m a l e despot d i s c o v e r s t h a t she c a n n o t f o r c e S o f ' y a ' s m a r r i a g e t o M i t r o f a n she even a t t e m p t s k i d n a p p i n g t o a c h i e v e h e r g o a l . A f t e r h e r a t t empt f a i l s P r o s t a k o v a abuses ' h e r s e r v a n t s , t h r e a t e n i n g them a l l w i t h d e a t h . Y e t e v e n ; a f t e r ' S t a r o d u m has f o r - g i v e n h e r she does n o t have s u f f i c i e n t p r e s e n c e o f mind t o r e a l i z e she s h o u l d f o r g i v e . A l l she can t h i n k o f i s p u n i s h i n g those who f a i l e d h e r . I t i s i n t h i s scene t h a t P o n v i z i n d e v e l o p s h i s main i d e a o f s c o r n i n g t h e . v i c i o u s n o b i l i t y : M r s . P r o s t a k o v ? " Y o u have f o r g i v e n I Ah b e l o v e d s i r ! W e l l ! Now I ' l l t e a c h t h o s e r a s i c a l l y s e r v a n t s o f m i n e l Now I ' l l t a k e them one by o n e . I ' l l f i n d o u t who l e t h e r ge t away. N o , you r o g u e s ; no you t h i e v e s ! I ' l l n o t f o r g i v e t h i s d i s - g r a c e upon my l i f e ! 63 Pravdin: But what do you want to punish your servants for? Mrs. Prostakov: Oh, dear s i r , what a question! Am I not the mistress of my own people? . Pravdin: And you think you have a right to flog them when- ever you take the notion? Skotinin: Isn't a nobleman at l iberty to beat his servant when he feels l ike it? Pravdin: When he feels l ike it? What a desire I You are frank, Skotinin. (to Mrs. Prostakov.) No, Madam, nobody is at l i b - erty to tyrannize. Mrs. Prostakov: Not at l ibertyI A nobleman can't even flog his servants whenever he likes? What about the privileges given . by the Nobil i ty Law? Starodum: You are clever at interpreting the ukases. Mrs. Prostakov: You are joking, s i r ; but I ' l l give i t to them right now, every single one of them. (tries to go.) " 2 M - « However, even with a l l these e v i l traits Mrs. Prostakovais not a l l black. Like a believable v i l l a i n who has to have some good in him to be credible and not lapse into a "type", Prostakova pos- sesses one admirable t r a i t : devotion to her son. Although she is extremely stingy and greedy she gladly makes sacrifices for Mitro- fan: "We don't stint ourselves on Mitrofan's education. We hire three teachers for him. There is a further example when Pros- takova chastises Yereraeyevna for not allowing him to have a sixth r o l l ; when he becomes a l i t t l e i l l she thinks of sending for a doctor.26. Her motherly devotion has become an obsession. Prostak- ova' s complete attachment to her son has made her lose a l l sense of proportion.27. Twice during the play she is almost beside her- self with despair as she thinks Mitrofan has been injured. After her brother has assaulted the young boy, Mrs. Prostakovaphysic- a l ly assails Skotinin. Certainly she attempts the abortive kid- napping plot at the end of the play in a desperate effort to sec- ure for her son what she feels is h i s . Everything she has done, she has done out of devotion to him. This is what renders her 6 4 p o r t r a y a l so p o w e r f u l : e v e n w i t h h e r c r u e l t y , c r u d e n e s s , g r e e d and i g n o r a n c e she i s s t i l l d e v o t e d : "Toace O T H O C H T C H H K Hejopocj i io B ^acTHOCTH K pojie npo- CTaKOBOfi . OHa co6HpaeT B ce6e pnfl rHycHenrnHx MepT, OHa H36epr, H Bee ace <£OHBH3HH HaflejineT ee MaTepHHCKHM ^yB- C T B O M , flejiaiomHM ee ^ejiOBeKOM. B 3aKjno^HTejiBHOH ciieHe ripo- CTaKOBa, OTBeprHyTan npeBpamaeTca B TpareflHK nopo ica . H He cny^a i iHO $ O H B H3H H 3acTaBJiaeT B 3TOIE MOMBHT C B O H X H^eajiB- H H X ' regoeB noMO^b IIpocTaKOBOH , ynaBmen B O6M O P - O K . This l e a d s u s to the t rag ic e l e m e n t in h e r . Prostakova has b e e n too d e v o t e d , a n d w h e n s h e i s s p u r n e d b y Mitrofan at the e n d , t h e re su l t i s t r a g i c , s o s h e contains elements of both comedy a n d t r a g e d y . Thus s h e e m b o d i e s a Tartuffian c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e t w o. 29« Prostakova i s one of the most remarkable f i g u r e s o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h century Russian stage: "BO T nepej H S M H IIpocTaKOBa - HecoMHeHHO O T p H n a T - ejibHaa (Jmrypa , n p n S T O M flaHHaa TunojiorHHecKH , BUHBJIHKHH- a a M H o a c e c T B O O T p H n a T e j i b H b i x ^tepT CBoero KJiacca. OHa HeBeac- ecTBeHHa, KopbiCTOJiK>6HBa , a c e c T O K a , BjHHH îHa , . . . Eee. MaT- epHHCKaa JHOSOBB Toace npnoSpeTaeT 6e3o6pa3Hbie $opMbi , HO Bce-TaKH OTO He ce6a juoSHBoe ^yBCTBO , DTO ocTaTOK nofl- J I H H H O r O ^ e J I O B e t t e C K Q K O flOCTOHHCTBa , X O T H H HCKaaceHHoro #0 noejieflHefi CTeneHH." * If as i s often said opposites attract, then Prostakova's hus- band i s an i d e a l match for her. He i s the epitome of the down- trodden sycophantic male. However the author allows him a few c l e - ver l i n e s . Although he i s generally i n s i g n i f i c a n t , rendered by a 31. good actor, his laconic phrases could be highly e f f e c t i v e . For example such words as "When you are around I have eyes for nothing e l s e . " 3 2 . could be uttered with sugared irony amidst the torrent of abuse by Prostakova. Moreover, during the discussion by the 65 P r o s t a k o v s and S k o t i n i n o f the f a m i l y p a s s i o n f o r p i g s , M r . P r o s - t a k o v says p i t h i l y : "There must be some f a m i l y t r a i t t h e r e t o o , t h a t ' s what I t h i n k . . " 3 3 . He seems t o be q u i t e a k i n d l y man and t r e a t s S o f ' y a w e l l . P r o s t a k o v l i k e h i s w i f e appear s t o be v e r y i g n o r a n t b u t perhaps n o t so i g n o r a n t as t h e o t h e r s , f o r i t i s i m - p l i e d t h a t he can r e a d a l i t t l e . N a t u r a l l y by h i s r o l e he i s a t i m i d c r e a t u r e and d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s ' f e a r no t o n l y b e f o r e h i s w i f e bu t a l s o a t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n f r o n t i n g some s o l d i e r s who have a r r i v e d i n the v i l l a g e . We f i n d a f u r t h e r example o f M r . p r o s t a k o v ' s i r o n i c comments as he m o r d a n t l y o b s e r v e s : " I l o v e h im as a f a t h e r s h o u l d , j u s t the same. H e ' s such a b r i g h t y o u n g s t e r - s u c h a j o l l y f e l l o w J I ' m o f t e n q u i t e b e s i d e m y s e l f w i t h j o y , and I can h a r d l y b e l i e v e t h a t h e ' s r e a l l y my own s o n . " 3 5 • i t i s t r u e t h a t P r o s t a k o v a ' s husband abhors h e r c r u e l t y b u t r e a l i z e s he can do v e r y l i t t l e about i t - as shown i n A c t I I I scene 5* L a t e r on d u r i n g t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f M i t r o f a n b y Starodum and P r a v d i n , P r o s - t a k o v shows h i s own l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n by g u l l i b l y b e l i e v i n g a l l the nonsense t h a t h i s son spews f o r t h . He d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s f i r s t s i g n o f anger i n the c o n c l u d i n g scene o f t h e p l a y o n l y a f t e r h i s w i f e has been p u n i s h e d by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s . V i o l e n t l y w a v i n g h i s hands he s h o u t s at h i s w i f e "Who's t o blame f o r t h i s , mother I " 3 6 . The henpecked husband o f the female t y r a n t i s p o r t r a y e d as a meek c r e a t u r e o f no s i g n i f i c a n c e , y e t n o n e t h e l e s s p e r m i t t e d a few i n - c i s i v e comments on t h e c h a r a c t e r o f h i s w i f e . P r o s t a k o v i s n o t p o r t r a y e d u n s y r a p a t h e t i c a l l y f o r we can w e l l u n d e r s t a n d how a l m o s t any man c o u l d become s p i n e l e s s m a r r i e d t o a shrew l i k e M r s . P r o s - t a k o v . 66 M i t r o f a n , M r . and M r s . P r o s t a k o v ' s s o n , i s the n e d o r o s l ' 3 7 . o f the p l a y . H i s name's s i g n i f i c a n c e i s a l i t t l e more s u b t l e t h a n some o f t h e o t h e r s s i n c e I t comes from G r e e k . R o u g h l y t r a n s - l a t e d i t c o u l d mean "mama's b o y " . 3 8 . T h i s s i x t e e n - y e a r o l d i s t h e p e r f e c t example o f an i g n o r a n t p a r a s i t e . The p l a y r e v o l v e s around h i m s i n c e i t s p r i n c i p a l i n t r i g u e i s t o have h i m m a r r y S o f ' y a . M i t - r o f a n o n l y wants t o m a r r y S o f ' y a so t h a t he w i l l n o t have t o s t u d y . T h i s s l o t h f u l n e s s i s h i s main f e a t u r e . The young man's i g n o r a n c e i s a r e s u l t o f h i s l a z i n e s s , h i s r e f u s a l t o s t u d y . D u r i n g h i s a r i t h m e t i c e x a m i n a t i o n he c a n n o t even add one and one w i t h o u t d i f - f i c u l t y . When T s y f i r k i n t r i e s t o t e a c h M i t r o f a n some a r i t h m e t i c , the b o y i n s i s t s t h a t he have a r e v i e w l e s s o n , so t h a t he w i l l no t have t o a t t e m p t a n y t h i n g new. He i s o n l y t o o happy t o s t o p the l e s s o n once h i s mother s u g g e s t s he m i g h t ge t b r a i n damage f rom l e a r n i n g t o o much. The n a d i r o f h i s i g n o r a n c e , i s d e m o n s t r a t e d d u r - i n g the h i l a r i o u s scene o f h i s e x a m i n a t i o n by Starodum and P r a v d i n : P r a v d i n : ( t a k i n g t h e b o o k ) . . " I s e e . T h i s i s the Grammar. W e l l , what do you know about i t ? M i t r o f a n : A l o t . A n o u n , and an a d j e c t i v e . P r a v d i n : A d o o r , f o r i n s t a n c e : i s i t a noun o r an a d j e c t i v e ? M i t r o f a n : A d o o r : W h i c h door? P r a v d i n : W h i c h door? T h i s o n e . M i t r o f a n : That? I t ' s an a d j e c t i v e . P r a v d i n : Why so? M i t r o f a n : Because i t i s added t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e , t o i t s p l a c e . W h i l e , o v e r t h e r e , the p a n t r y door i s s t i l l a n o u n , f o r i t ' s n o t been hung f o r s i x w e e k s . S t a r o d u m : Then f o r the same r e a s o n you w i l l s ay t h a t the word f o o l i s an a d j e c t i v e , because i t i s a p p l i e d t o a s t u p i d man. M i t r o f a n : Of c o u r s e . M r s . P r o s t a k o v : H e y , how i s i t , my dear s i r ? •Mr. P r o s t a k o v : W e l l , what do you t h i n k o f h i m , s i r ? P r a v d i n : I t c o u l d n ' t be b e t t e r . H e ' s s t r o n g on g r a m m a r . " 3 9 . When P r a v d i n asks h i m about geography he i s so p o o r l y s c h o o l e d t h a t he does n o t even know what the t e rm geography means. H i s 67 i g n o r a n c e h o w e v e r , s h o u l d n o t be t a k e n f o r s t u p i d i t y . M i t r o f a n d o e s show a s m a l l s p a r k o f c u n n i n g when he t h r e a t e n s Y e r e m e y e v n a w i t h t a t t l i n g t o h i s m o t h e r i f she f o r c e s h i m t o ' s t u d y . H e m i s t r e a t s h i s s e r v a n t s and i s c h e e k y t o h i s e l d e r s , y e t i s c l e v e r e n o u g h t o f e i g n some r e s p e c t f o r t h e l a t t e r b y a d d r e s s i n g . S t a r o - dum and P r a v d i n w i t h s e r v i l i t y . The y o u n g man i s t o t a l l y u n g r a t e - f u l a t t h e e n d o f t h e p l a y when, he t u r n s h i s b a c k on h i s m o t h e r who h a d done e v e r y t h i n g o u t o f d e v o t i o n t o h i m . M i t r o f a n t o some e x t e n t i s a d e v e l o p m e n t o f I v a n u s h k a i n B r i g a d i r , a l t h o u g h he h a s none o f t h e l a t t e r ' s c h a r m o r k n o w l e d g e . W h e r e a s I v a n i s t h e r i d i c u l o u s r e s u l t o f f o r e i g n t e a c h i n g , M i t r o f a n e m b o d i e s t h e a b - s u r d c o n s e q u e n c e o f n e g l e c t f u l t e a c h i n g and p a r e n t a l i n d u l g e n c e : " TaKoit npeBpameHHHH Heflopocjib H e c r b $OHBH3HHCKHH MHTpOdpaH , O^eHb yCTOH^HBHH H XKBJHKU Tun B pyccKOM 06- mecTBe , nepeacHBinHH caMoe 3aKOHOflaTejiBCTBO o Heflopocjiax yMeBfflHH 'B 3 B e c T & ' He TOJIBKO .neTO^eK , no npeflCKa3aHHK> e r o MaTepH rocnoacH npocTaKOBoft , HO H . B H y ^ e K , 'BpeMeH HOBefimux MHTpoqpaHOB' KaK B B i p a 3 H j i C H nymKHH." * Taras S k o t i n i n , P r o s t a k o v a ' s u n f o r g e t t a b l e b r o t h e r , i s t h e l a s t o f t h e f i r s t g r o u p . H i s c h a r a c t e r i s e x e m p l i f i e d b y h i s name - d e r i v e d f r o m s k o t ( b e a s t ) . S k o t i n i n e p i t o m i z e s t h e b a c k - w a r d c o u n t r y s q u i r e : c r u d e , b r a s h , r o u g h , i g n o r a n t and e x t r e m e l y s t u p i d . T h e f i r s t t i m e he b r u t i s h l y e n t e r s t h e s c e n e , S k o t i n i n b o a s t s a b o u t how w e l l he c a n g i v e a t h r a s h i n g . He b u l l i s h l y t r i e s t o c o e r c e M i t r o f a n i n t o g i v i n g up S o f ' y a , f i r s t b y v e r b a l a s s a u l t t h e n b y f i s t i c u f f s . S k o t i n i n i s « v e n i n v o l v e d i n a b r a w l w i t h h i s s i s t e r . A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e p l a y S k o t i n i n d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s p o r c i n e b r u t i s h n e s s b y i n s i s t i n g t h a t a n o b l e h a s t h e r i g h t t o b e a t 68 h i s s e r f s whenever he w a n t s . S k o t i n i n ' s o n l y i n t e r e s t i n l i f e i s p i g s . H i s r e a s o n f o r w a n t i n g t o marry S o f ' y a i s t o use her money t o buy a l l the p i g s i n the a r e a . H i s p a s s i o n f o r swine i s so i n - t e n s e t h a t he would p r o v i d e b e t t e r accommodation f o r h i s p i g s than f o r h i s w i f e I S k o t i n i n b o a s t s t h a t he has b e t t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h hogs t h a n lie does w i t h p e o p l e : S t a r o d u m : " Y o u are l u c k i e r t h a n I . P e o p l e t o u c h my e m o t i o n s . S k o t i n i n : And p i g s - m i n e . " 4 - 2 . S k o t i n i n ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e i s l i m i t e d to t h a t o f h i s p i g g i s h p e e r s ; he l a c k s t h e acumen t o t h i n k on a n y t h i n g b u t a l o w l e v e l : S k o t i n i n : " I j u s t happened t o be p a s s i n g by when I heard somebody c a l l me and then I a n s w e r e d . Such i s my h a b i t : i f anybody c a l l s ' S k o t i n i n ! ' , I a lways s a y , ' H e r e I am s i r ! ' Why, ray dear f e l l o w s , t h i s i s . t r u l y s o ! I m y s e l f have s e r v e d i n the Guards - and r e t i r e d as a c o r p o r a l . A t r o l l c a l l , when t h e y used t o s h o u t ' T a r a s S k o t i n i n ' t h e n I a lways answered a t the t o p o f ray v o i c e , 'Here s i r ! ' P r a v d i n : We have n o t c a l l e d you now, and you may go w h e r e v e r i t was you were headed f o r . S k o t i n i n : I w a s n ' t goirag anywhere i n p a r t i c u l a r . , I -was j u s t s t r o l l i n g a l o n g and t h i n k i n g . I t ' s . a h a b i t I h a v e . Once I g e t s o m e t h i n g i n t o my h e a d , no one can d r i v e i t ou t w i t h a hammer ."43• L i k e the o t h e r members o f the P r o s t a k o v g r o u p , S k o t i n i n i s e x t r e m e l y i g n o r a n t . B u t he shows t h a t he has an awareness o f h i s v u l n e r a b - i l i t y on a c c o u n t o f t h i s i g n o r a n c e . "Even i f h e r movable p r o p e r t y has been c a r r i e d away, I w o n ' t go t o l a w f o r t h a t . I 'm n o t fond o f l a w s u i t s ; I ' m a f r a i d o f ' em. No mat- t e r how much my n e i g h b o u r s have i n s u l t e d me, no m a t t e r how much, damage t h e y have done me , I have n e v e r had any l i t i g a t i o n s w i t h the l a w . I s i m p l y squeeze my p e a s a n t s t o c o v e r the l o s s and t h a t ' s the end. o f i t . " 4 4 . N o t e w o r t h y t o o i s S k o t i n i n ' s i n s i s t e n c e ( d u r i n g an argument w i t h Starodum i n A c t IV scene 7) t h a t h i s a n c e s t o r s were c r e a t e d b e f o r e Adam on the S i x t h D a y . A c c o r d i n g t o G e n e s i s , c a t t l e were c r e a t e d 69 on t h i s d a y . M r . " B e a s t l y ' s " a b s u r d , g u l l i b i l i t y i s shown i n t h e s c e n e o f c o m p a r i s o n w i t h M i l o n , t h e r e f i n e d i n t e l l i g e n t y o u n g man, when S k o t i n i n a c t u a l l y b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e o t h e r i s t h e one who a p - p e a r s r i d i c u l o u s . H i s r a t t l e b r a i n e d - i n s i p i e n c e i s shown i n h i s h i l a r i o u s t a l e a b o u t h i s u n c l e : S k o t i n i n : " T h a t a l l l e a r n i n g i s n o n s e n s e was p r o v e d b e y o n d d i s - p u t e b y o u r l a t e u n c l e V a v i l a P a l e l e y e v i c h . N o b o d y e v e r h e a r d f r o m h i m a b o u t l e a r n i n g and he d i d n ' t c a r e t o know a b o u t i t e i t h e r , y e t what a h e a d he h a d I P r a v d i n : What was he l i k e ? S k o t i n i n : T h i s i s what h a p p e n e d t o h i m . Once when he was r i d i n g h o r s e b a c k and was v e r y d r u n k , he r a n i n t o a s t o n e g a t e . He was a s t u r d y f e l l o w , t h e g a t e was t o o l o w , and he f o r g o t t o s t o o p . My how he k n o c k e d h i s b row a g a i n s t t h e l i n t e l ! My u n c l e ' s b o d y was t h r o w n o v e r b a c k w a r d s , and y e t h i s b r a v e s t e e d b r o u g h t h i m a l l t h e way l y i n g f l a t on h i s b a c k f r o m t h e g a t e t o t h e d o o r - s t e p . I ' d l i k e t o know i f t h e r e ' s a l e a r n e d h e a d on t h i s e a r t h t h a t w o u l d n ' t h a v e b e e n s p l i t b y s u c h a. w h a c k . B u t u n c l e , p e a c e be w i t h h i m , when he s o b e r e d u p , j u s t a s k e d i f t h e g a t e w a s n ' t b r o k e n . "1+5. T u r n i n g t o t h e g r o u p o f p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r s , we s h o u l d f i r s t d i s c u s s the p l a y ' s p r i n c i p a l m o r a l i z e r S t a r o d u m . H i s name i s d e - r i v e d f r o m " s t a r - " ( o l d ) and " d u m " ( t h o u g h t ) . S t a r o d u m i s t h e r a , i s o n n e u r o f . t h e p l a y f r o m whose m o u t h come t h e l o n g m o r a l i z i n g s p e e c h e s i n w h i c h F o n v i z i n p r e s e n t s a s e t o f i d e a s a b o u t l i f e . In t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h i s p l a y was p r i m a r i l y d i d a c t i c and so S t a r o d u m was t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r . In l a t e r y e a r s i t was common t o c o n d e n s e t h e s e l o n g m o n o l o g u e s b e c a u s e t h e y s l o w t h e tempo o f t h e p l a y . S t a r o d u m i s a d e v o t e e o f t h e o l d w a y s , t h e o l d b e l i e f s . He s p e a k s a t l e n g t h a b o u t t h e s t a t e and t h e i n d i v i d u a l , c o n s t a n t l y i m - p l y i n g t h a t t h e " o l d w a y s " were much b e t t e r t h a n t h e new. The l e n g t h o f h i s s p e e c h e s i s s u c h t h a t , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e v e r s i o n c o n - s u l t e d , (an e d i t i o n o f 1830 i n c l u d e d much more o f t h i s m o r a l i z i n g t h a n F o n v i z i n h a d o r i g i n a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d ) , 1$ - 20% o f t h e p l a y ' s 70 d i a l o g u e i s d e v o t e d t o S t a r o d u m » s m o r a l i z i n g a f t e r he appears on stage«4-&« The o l d u n c l e i s r e f i n e d , p o l i t e and e d u c a t e d i n a • s imp le way. I m m e d i a t e l y he s u g g e s t s t h a t he speaks w i t h o u t c e r e - mony and p r o c e e d s t o p r a i s e the o l d , e s s e n t i a l l y R u s s i a n u p b r i n g - i n g : "Many r i d i c u l e them. I know i t . So be i t . My f a t h e r b r o u g h t me up a c c o r d i n g t o the manners o f h i s t i m e , and I have n o t t h o u g h t i t n e c e s s a r y t o t r a i n m y s e l f anew. He s e r v e d under P e t e r the G r e a t . Then a man was addre s sed as ' t h o u ' and n o t as ' y o u ' . The c o n t a g - i o n was unknown t h e n by w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k s o f h i m s e l f i n t h e p l u r a l number . And y e t , nowadays , s e v e r a l men are o f t e n n o t w o r t h even o n e . My f a t h e r a t t h e c o u r t o f P e t e r the G r e a t - "4-7. Starodum i n s i s t s t h a t even though he has n o t had much f o r m a l e d u - c a t i o n he c o n d u c t s h i m s e l f by r e l y i n g on h i s h e a r t and s o u l t o a c t as. a human b e i n g . T h r o u g h o u t the r e s t o f t h e p l a y he says much about a m b i t i o n , e g o t i s m , r i c h e s , r e s p e c t , f l a t t e r y , r e a s o n , h a p p i n e s s , d u t y , m a r r i a g e , l o v e , and the t s a r and n o b i l i t y . A l l o f t h e s e can however be r e d u c e d t o one s p e c i f i c i d e a . Starodum f e e l s t h a t R u s s i a s h o u l d r e t u r n t o t h e "good o l d d a y s " where p e o p l e r u l - ed t h e m s e l v e s and were g u i d e d by the t s a r t h r o u g h " h e a r t , s o u l and common s e n s e d . He o b v i o u s l y i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e has been a d e c l i n e d u r i n g C a t h e r i n e ' s r e i g n . D e s p i t e a l l h i s . 1Rius30ph . i l n o t i o n s , S t a r odum appears o n l y as a m a s k l i k e mouth u t t e r i n g s i m p l e i d e a s on com p l e x matters.4-8. S t a rodum has v e r y l i t t l e humour and o n l y o c c a s - i o n a l l y do we g l i m p s e h i s p e r s o n a l i t y as i n the scene where he a t - tempts t o shun the advances o f the P r o s t a k o v f a m i l y . O t h e r w i s e S tarodum weakens the p l a y t h r o u g h h i s s t a t i c p r e s e n c e and t e d i o u s mora l iz ing.4-9. However under p r o p e r d i r e c t i o n much o f t h i s s u p e r - f l u i t y c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d and the p r e s e n t a t i o n s t r eng thened.^0. N e v e r t h e l e s s , we must remember t h a t i n P o n v i z i n ' s day the se l o n g 71 s p e e c h e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e c e n t r a l i d e a o f t h e p l a y . P r a v d i n i s t h e d e u s e x m a c h i n a o f N e d o r o s l ' . A t t h e b e g i n - n i n g h e a p p e a r s a s t h e h o u s e g u e s t o f t h e P r o s t a k o v s . Unknox<rn t o t h e m ( t h o u g h t h e a u d i e n c e d o e s k n o w ) h e h a s a r r i v e d t o i n s p e c t r e p o r t e d c r u e l t y i n t h e P r o s t a k o v h o u s e h o l d . P r a v d i n ' s name c o m e s f r o m p r a v d a ( t r u t h ) y e t h e d o e s n o t u t t e r a n y l o n g s p e e c h e s l i k e S t a r o d u m . He i s a r e f i n e d g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l c a r e f u l l y a n n o t a t - i n g t h e a t r o c i t i e s c o m m i t t e d b y t h e P r o s t a k o v f a m i l y . When h i s p a c k a g e a r r i v e s a n d h e a n n o u n c e s a t t h e e n d o f t h e p l a y t h a t a l l t h e p o s s e s s i o n s o f t h e P r o s t a k o v s h a v e b e e n e x p r o p r i a t e d b y t h e s t a t e , t h e a r t i f i c i a l i t y i s o b v i o u s . P r a v d i n ' s ( i . e . t h e s t a t e ' s ) i n t e r f e r e n c e o n b e h a l f o f t h e s e r f r e p r e s e n t s w h a t F o n v i z i n w a n t - e d t h e s t a t e t o d o : i n t e r c e d e a g a i n s t t h e c r u e l n o b i l i t y . I t m u s t b e n o t e d t h a t P r a v d i n i s n o t r e a l l y a c h a r a c t e r b u t r a t h e r a d e v i c e , a d e u s e x m a c h i n a ^ ' , t h a t i s , a n i n t e r f e r e n c e b y e x t e r n a l f o r c e s i n t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e p l a y . M o r e o v e r , P r a v d i n s e r v e s a s an. i n t e r l o c u t o r f o r S t a r o d u m d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r ' s m o r a l i z i n g . T h i s i s p r o v e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e s c e n e s w i t h S t a r o d u m , P r a v d i n s a y s o n l y a f e w w o r d s o r p o s e s a q u e s t i o n t o g i v e S t a r o d u m t h e o c c a s i o n t o t a l k a t g r e a t l e n g t h . T h e s e t w o a r e e s s e n t i a l l y i d e a l i s t s : " P e 3 0 H e p c T B O C T a p o f l y M a H n p a B J j H H a BHBO^HTCH H3 HX Hfleaj ib- . HOCTH. P e a j i H 3 M <i>0HBH3HHa , no MHCJIH HCCJieflOBaTejiH - opraHH^eH : OH O K a 3 H B a j i C H c n o c o S H b i M 3ane^aTj ieBaTB npaBfly x a p a K T e p O B jiHmb OTpHH.a.TejiBHbix nepcoHa^xeS,' HMeHHO OTpHnaTejiBHbie a s j j e H H H .neficTBHT- ejiBHOCTH OH y M e j i noHHTB B p e a j i H C T H^cKOM n j i a H e " * - 5 * L i k e D o b r o l y u b o v a n d S o f ' y a i n 3 r i g a d i r we c a n p l a c e t o g e t h e r 72 M i I o n and S o f ' y a o f N e d o r o s l ' . They are s t a t i c u n i n t e r e s t i n g l o v e r s who do n o t a c t much l i k e l o v e r s . M i l o n i s the b r a v e young p a t r i o t c o n t r a s t e d w i t h S k o t i n i n and M i t r o f a n , h i s two r i v a l s . A l t h o u g h he i s c o u r a g e o u s , as e x e m p l i f i e d i n h i s d i s c o u r s e on v a l o u r , m a n l i n - es s and p a t r i o t i s m , 5 3 « h e s t i l l r e q u i r e s t h e i n t e r c e s s i o n o f P r a v - d i n and Starodum t o w i n h i s l a d y l o v e . I f he i s so b r a v e , t h e n s u r e l y he c o u l d e a s i l y v a n q u i s h h i s two a d d l e b r a i n e d r i v a l s . ^ * S o f ' y a embodies the h o n e s t i n t e l l i g e n t young g i r l . She has v e r y l i t t l e d e p t h t o h e r c h a r a c t e r and does l i t t l e e x c e p t l o o k p r e t t y and t a k e the a d v i c e o f h e r u n c l e . B o t h she and M i l o n a c t a l s o as d e v i c e s f o r Starodum t o d i v u l g e h i s i d e a s . They are s t a t i c exam- p l e s o f the s o - c a l l e d " e n l i g h t e n e d n o b i l i t y " . "CocbbH H MHJIOH, B oume K O T O P H X H3o6paxteHa floSpofleTejib BO Bcefi ee KpacoTe, KaxcyTCH fijie^HHMH T C H H M H Kaicoro—TO H H O T O MHpa. BjiaropoflHbie fleftcTBHH npaBHTejibCTBeHHoro ^HHOBHHica npaBflHHa HMeioT OTHionb He peajibHbift a HfleajibHbift xapaicgep, ^ T O 6HJIO coBep- mei-IHO HCHO $0HBH3HHy H eTO COBpeMeHHHKaM. " F o n v i z i n ' s g r e a t t a l e n t f o r d e l i n e a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s dem- o n s t r a t e d by t h e t h i r d g r o u p o f c h a r a c t e r s . T h i s i n c l u d e s Y e r e m e y - § v n a the nanny , and the t h r e e t u t o r s . The f o r m e r i s one p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r who does no t m o r a l i z e . She i s m a i n l y r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h h e r a c t i o n s . The poor woman has s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y a t the hands o f t h e P r o s t a k o v f a m i l y , y e t she i s l o y a l . Yereraeyevna r e c e i v e s b lows and abuse from P r o s t a k o v a as w e l l as t h r e a t s f rom M i t r o f a n b u t de fends the young pup v e r y b r a v e l y f rom S k o t i n i n : " I ' l l d i e on the s p o t b e f o r e I ' l l g i v e up ray c h i l d I Come on m i s t e r 1 J u s t you t r y ! 1*11 s c r a t c h y o u r eyes o u t i"56. A l l t h e u n f o r t u n a t e s e r v a n t r e - c e i v e s f o r h e r e f f o r t s i s " f i v e r o u b l e s a y e a r and f i v e s l a p s a 73 d a y " . Because she i s p o r t r a y e d as a p e r s o n w i t h , c o m p l e x i t i e s , Y e r - e m e y e v n a i s more human than most o f the o t h e r s . "EpeMeeBtia He TOJIBKO THII , npeflCTaBHTejib T O H KaTeropHH KpenoeTHBix, K O T O P H e H p e B p a T H J I H C B B XOJIOnOB, 3TO H SCHBaH H H f l H B H ^ y a J I b H O C T B . B ee cyflbSe - cyflbSe T H H H ^ H O H RJIH. pyccKOH ^epeBHH ABOpoBoS JKeHm.HH- BI - BMecTe c TeM OTpaxceHa H H H ^ H B H jty a JIB Han ropbKaa XCH3HB H e c ^ a c - T H O S , 3a6HTOH MaMKH, y KOTopoft eme TenjiHTpa r^e-TO, B r j iySoKHx TafiHHKax flymn, ^ejiOBe^ecKoe A O C T O H H C T B O . " M o r e o v e r , i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t a t t h e f i r s t p r o d u c t i o n o f H e d o r - o s l ' w i t h the g r e a t a c t o r Shumsky i n the r o l e o f Yeremeyevna , the c h a r a c t e r c r e a t e d was u n f o r g e t t a b l e . 5 8 • A l t h o u g h she has' few l i n e s , she has d e p t h t o h e r c h a r a c t e r . The f i n a l c h a r a c t e r s i m p o r t a n t f o r our s t u d y are the t h r e e t u t o r s o f M i t r o f a n , . s u p e r b p a r o d i e s . F o l l o w i n g t r a d i t i o n F o n v i z - i n has g i v e n c l u e s t o p r o f e s s i o n o r c h a r a c t e r i n t h e i r names. M r . K u t e i k i n , the s e m i n a r i s t and M i t r o f a n ' s t e a c h e r o f r e l i g i o u s s t u d i e s who c o n s t a n t l y m o u t h s O l d C h u r c h S l a v o n i c e x p r e s s i o n s a b o u t p i e t y and r i g h t e o u s n e s s , p o s s e s s e s a name w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t p e r h a p s he i s n o t so p i o u s as he w o u l d l i k e us t o b e l i e v e . H i s s u r n a m e i s d e r i v e d f rom the v e r b " k u t i t ' " w h i c h means t o c a r o u s e o r go on a s p r e e . M r . T s y f i r k i n , a f o r m e r s e r g e a n t who a t t e m p t s t o t e a c h M i t r o f a n a r i t h m e t i c , has a c o g n o m e n from " t s i f - r a " - f i g u r e o r n u m b e r . The most r e m a r k a b l e e x a m p l e i s the h a l f - R u s s i a n h a l f - G e r m a n a p p e l l a t i v e o f the German " t u t o r " V r a l ' m a n . The f i r s t s y l l a b l e i s f rom " v r a l 1 " , a c o l l o q u i a l word r o u g h l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the E n g l i s h " l i a r " o r " f i b b e r " . The l a s t s y l l a - b l e i s o f c o u r s e the German s u f f i x "man" w h i c h when added t o t h e f i r s t g i v e s the same h i l a r i o u s r e s u l t s as the E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t " F i b b e r m a n " . 7k The t h r e e t u t o r s a re v e r y r e m a r k a b l e c h a r a c t e r s . K u t e i - k i n ' s f i r s t a p p e a r a n c e on s t a g e i s x>?ith a p r a y e r b o o k , s p o u t - i n g e c c l e s i a s t i c a l j a r g o n . Re t e l l s a b o u t h i s b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e l o c a l s e m i n a r y b u t F o n v i z i n makes h im commit a s u b t l e f a u x pas as he r e l a t e s h i s own p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y t o P r a v d i n . The e c c l e s - i a s t i c i n s i s t s he i s a t r u e s c h o l a r f o r he went as f a r as r h e t - o r i c i n s c h o o l i . e . no f a r t h e r t h a n t h e b o t t o m c l a s s I K u t e i k i n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e l o r d w i l l e d t h a t he go no f a r t h e r f o r he " h a t h become a f r a i d o f t h e a b y s s o f wi sdom and r e q u e s t e t h h i s d i s m i s - s a l . "59. p r a v d i n q u e s t i o n s h i m on a p a r t i c u l a r p r o v e r b w h e r e - upon we d i s c o v e r t h a t K u t e i k i n i s n o t much, o f a s c h o l a r . K u t e i k i n : " N o n s e n s e , Y e r e m e y e v n a . T h e r e i s no s i n i n s m o k i n g t o b a c c o , P r a v d i n ( a s i d e . ) : K u t e i k i n , t o o , i s s h o w i n g o f f . K u t e i k i n : Many h o l y b o o k s p e r m i t i t . I n t h e P s a l t e r i t i s p r i n t e d ' A n d h e r b f o r t h e s e r v i c e o f m a n ' . P r a v d i n : And where e l s e ? K u t e i k i n : And i n t h e o t h e r P s a l t e r t h e same t h i n g i s p r i n t e d . Our f a t h e r , t h e p r i e s t , h a s a t i n y b o o k o f a b o u t o n e - e i g h t t h o f an i n c h - and i n t h a t one i t ' s t h e same t h i n g . P r a v d i n : ( t e M r s . P r o s t a k o v . ) I d o n ' t want t o d i s t u r b y o u r s o n ' s s t u d i e s ; p l e a s e e x c u s e m e . " " 0 * L a t e r K u t e i k i n shows he i s d e f i n i t e l y n o t an a b s t a i n e r f r o m a l c o - h o l as he s u g g e s t s t h a t he and Y e r e m e y e v n a drown t h e i r s o r r o w s i n a g l a s s . The s e m i n a r i s t c o m p l a i n s much and does n o t have t h e p r o - v e r b i a l ' g r a c e ' , f o r he t e l l s T s y f i r k i n t h a t he w o u l d l o v e t o " s m i t e " M i t r o f a n ' s n e c k . A l t h o u g h h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a re s l i g h t , K u t e i k i n i s g e n u i n e l y s o r r y t h a t he c a n n o t t e a c h M i t r o f a n a n y - t h i n g . We can s p e c u l a t e on t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c ' s t r u e o p i n i o n o f M i t r o f a n as he h a s t h e b o y r e a d P s a l m 22 v e r s e 6 b e g i n n i n g " I am a w o r m . " K u t e i k i n i s g r e e d y , f o r a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f the p l a y he 75 t r i e s t o s q u e e z e e x t r a f u n d s o u t o f t h e P r o s t a k o v s : " N o , ray d e a r s i r , ray b i l l i s n o t e x c e e d i n g l y s h o r t . T h e y owe me f o r h a l f a y e a r ' s t u i t i o n , f o r t h e s h o e s w h i c h I h a v e worn o u t i n t h e s e t h r e e y e a r s , f o r my r e n t , and t h e n a g a i n I o f t e n made t r i p s h e r e f o r n o t h i n g , and -"61. s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r K u t e i k i n i s ashamed o f h i s g r e e d i n e s s , b u t r u n s o f f o n l y when f o r c e d i n t o p e r s o n a l c o n f r o n t - a t i o n w i t h M r s . P r o s t a k o v a . The a r i t h m e t i c t e a c h e r T s y f i r k i n i s a l s o p o o r l y e d u c a t e d ; he does a c c o u n t i n g and t e a c h i n g o n l y b e c a u s e he u n d e r s t a n d s a l i t t l e a r i t h m e t i c . He does a d m i t a t t h e o u t s e t t h a t he h a s h a d l i t t l e s u c c e s s i n t e a c h i n g M i t r o f a n . He t o o c o m - p l a i n s a b o u t c o n d i t i o n s b u t i s more d i s t r e s s e d a t M i t r o f a n ' s i n - a b i l i t y t o l e a r n : " I c a n ' t h e l p t h i n k i n g : The L o r d h a s g i v e n me a p u p i l , a n o b l e m a n ' s s o n . I h a v e b e e n s t r u g g l i n g w i t h h i m t h r e e y e a r s ; he c a n ' t e v e n c o u n t up t o t h r e e . " • L i k e t h e r e l i g i o u s t e a c h e r T s y f i r k i n i s a n g r y a t V r a i ' m a n ' s i n t e r r u p t i o n s and w o u l d d e a r l y l o v e t o g i v e t h e German h i s j u s t d e s e r t s . Y e t d u r i n g t h e • a r i t h m e t i c l e s s o n when t h e y o u n g u p s t a r t i s r u d e and d i s r e s p e c t f u l , T s y f i r k i n shows a m a z i n g p a t i e n c e . O f t h e t h r e e t u t o r s t h e a r i t h - m e t i c t e a c h e r i s t h e mos t s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y p o r t r a y e d . He i s c o n - t r a s t e d w i t h t h e g r e e d y K u t e i k i n a t t h e end o f t h e p l a y : P r a v d i n : " A n d f o r t h e t u i t i o n ? C i p h e r k i n : N o t h i n g . S t a r o d u m : Why n o t h i n g ? C i p h e r k i n : I w o n ' t c h a r g e a n y t h i n g . He d i d n ' t l e a r n a n y t h i n g f r o m me. S t a r o d u m : J u s t t h e same - y o u must be p a i d . C i p h e r k i n : No r e a s o n f o r i t . I s e r v e d my t s a r f o r o v e r t w e n t y y e a r s . I t o o k money f o r t h a t s e r v i c e ; b u t f o r d o i n g n o t h i n g I h a v e n e v e r r e c e i v e d p a y , and I w o n ' t t a k e any now."63. H i s h o n e s t y i s r e w a r d e d b y money f r o m M i l o n , P r a v d i n and S t a r o d u m . 76 Here F o n v i z i n b r i n g s o u t an o b v i o u s l e s s o n o f good w i l l f o r a l l t o s e e . Mos t h e a v i l y c a r i c a t u r i z e d i s the f o r m e r coachman V r a l ' m a n . A l t h o u g h he does n o t make an appearance on s t a g e u n t i l the l a s t scene o f A c t I I I , he i s m e n t i o n e d t h r e e t i m e s b e f o r e t h i s . I n t h i s way F o n v i z i n b u i l d s g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n him and p r e p a r e s the a u d i e n c e f o r h i s l u d i c r o u s e n t r a n c e . Me. l e a r n much about V r a l ' m a n from M r s . P r o s t a k o v a " F r e n c h and a l l the s c i e n c e s , he t a k e s w i t h Adam Adamych V r a l ' m a n , a German. That f e l l o w g e t s t h r e e hundred r u b l e s a y e a r , . We a l l o w h i m t o e a t a t the same t a b l e w i t h u s , and the pea sant women wash h i s l i n e n . I f he has t o t r a v e l anywhere , he ge t s h i s h o r s e s ; a t the t a b l e he a lways has a g l a s s o f w i n e , and a t n i g h t a t a l l o w c a n d l e , and b e s i d e s t h a t , Fomka t i e s h i s w i g s - f o r n o t h i n g . To t e l l the t r u t h , we are s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i m ? b r o t h e r , f o r he d o e s n ' t d r i v e o u r ch i ld ."64-. V r a l ' m a n i s the p e r f e c t t u t o r i n P r o s t a k o v a ' s o p i n i o n : he does not t e a c h . I n f a c t i f he had r e c e i v e d a t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e i t was t h r o u g h b r i b e r y o r e r r o r . F o n v i z i n b e a u t i f u l l y s a t i r i z e s t h e f o r - e i g n t u t o r : he r e c e i v e s 300 r o u b l e s p l u s " f r i n g e b e n e f i t s " f o r i n - t e r r u p t i n g the l e s s o n s o f the o t h e r t u t o r s . V r a l ' m a n knows n o t h - i n g and t e a c h e s n o t h i n g , y e t he i s p a i d much more t h a n the o t h e r two R u s s i a n t e a c h e r s who at l e a s t a t t e m p t t o t e a c h . The German i s a v e r y f a r c i c a l c h a r a c t e r , H i s h i l a r i o u s e n t r a n c e , as he r u s h e s i n t o s t o p t h e l e s s o n s t h a t have f e a r t h a t t h e y w i l l b r e a k M i t r o f a n ' s h e a d , i s one o f the examples o f f a r c e i n N e d o r o s l ' . V r a i ' m a n ' s c l u m s y R u s s i a n and e x a g g e r a t e d a c t i o n s p r o b a b l y g r e a t l y amused the a u d i e n c e o f the 1 7 8 0 ' s . N o t i c e t h i s r i d i c u l o u s s l i p he makes : M r s . P r o s t a k o v : " N o wonder you know the g r e a t w o r l d , Adam Adamych. I guess i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g a l o n e you must have seen a l o t . V r a l ' m a n : Enough , my dear modder , e n o u g h . I vas a lways f o n t o f s e e i n g ze p e o p l e . On h o l i d a y s , ze c a r r i a g e s f u l l o f noplemen 77 used t o come t o E k a t e r i n h o f f . Always I l o o k a t zera. Sometimes I v o o t n e f e r g e t o f f ze c o a c h b o x . . . M r s . P r o s t a k o v : What c o a c h box? V r a l ' m a n : ( a s i d e . ) A y , ay , a y , ayI V a t am I s a y i n g ? ( a l o u d . ) You know, modBerV i t i s e a s i e r t o see ven one i s s t a n d i n g h i g h e r , and I used to s i t i n my f r i e p t ' s c a r r i a g e and v a t c h ze g r e a t s o c i e t y f rom ze c o a c h b o x . " t ' - : ) • V r a l ' m a n r e p r e s e n t s s u p p o r t b y a f o r e i g n e r o f P r o s t a k o v a ' s i d e a s - what does a R u s s i a n nobleman need w i t h a r i t h m e t i c , h i s t o r y and grammar? I n the c h a r a c t e r o f V r a l ' m a n , F o n v i z i n a g a i n d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s d i s d a i n f o r the f o r e i g n t u t o r . V r a l ' m a n t e l l s S t a r o d u m , h i s f o r m e r m a s t e r , t h a t he s e a r c h e d f o r a job i n Moscow f o r t h r e e months b e f o r e he t o o k h i s p o s t as t u t o r t o M i t r o f a n . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t b e i n g a t u t o r i n the P r o s t a k o v f a m i l y i s a low r u n g on the s o c i a l -; l a d d e r . F o n v i z i n ' s t h r e e g roups o f c h a r a c t e r s are e f f e c t i v e l y d i s t i n - g u i s h e d from each o t h e r . A l t h o u g h h i s " p o s i t i v e " c h a r a c t e r s are c o n v e n t i o n a l and s t a t i c , and c o n s t i t u t e the m a j o r weakness o f the p l a y , the a u t h o r c r e a t e d memorable f i g u r e s as embodiments o f the e v i l s o f R u s s i a n s o c i e t y t h a t he w i s h e d t o s a t i r i z e . I n F o n v i z i n ' s day t h e d i d a c t i c monologues had the f u n c t i o n o f a d v o c a t i n g changes t o c o r r e c t t h o s e e v i l s . A r e v e a l i n g anecdote o f F o n v i z i n ' s c h a r a c - t e r i z a t i o n i s t h a t many o f h i s " e v i l " c h a r a c t e r s were so w e l l p o r - t r a y e d t h a t c e r t a i n p e o p l e were rumoured t o be t h e i r m o d e l s . ° ' To c o m p l e t e o u r a n a l y s i s o f F o n v i z i n ' s N e d o r o s l ' we must d i s c u s s t h e a u t h o r ' s s t y l e and t e c h n i q u e . C e r t a i n c r i t i c s have s t a t e d t h a t F o n v i z i n was n o t an a r t i s t . ^ 7 . T h i s a s s e r t i o n does no t s t a n d , upon e x a m i n a t i o n o f the a u t h o r ' s s k i l f u l l a n g u a g e and t e c h - n i q u e s o f humour . E a c h c h a r a c t e r ' s i anguage r e f l e c t s h i s own p e r - s o n a l i t y . T h e r e f o r e e a c h has h i s own v o c a b u l a r y and l i n g u i s t i c 78 p a t t e r n s . P r o s t a k o v a i s p e r s o n i f i e d b y h e r c o l l o q u i a l , o f t e n u n - g r a m m a t i c a l R u s s i a n , t y p i c a l o f the p r o v i n c i a l g e n t r y : "Pe^tb U p o c T a K O B O H BbiflejineTCH npeacne Bcero CBoen rpySocTbio . $OHBH 3HH nofl^epKHBaeT rpySbifi , ' C K O T C K H H ' xapaKTep IIpocTaKOBoft M H o r o q n c j i e H H b i M H ee p y r a T e j i b C T B a M H . Ho BOTVKTO xapaKTepHo: Bee 3'TH p y r a T e j i B C T B a oSpameHbi Ha KpenocTHbix." V e r y o f t e n N e d o r o s l ' ' s r u r a l g e n t r y speak i n p r o v e r b s , f o l k s a y - i n g s o r f a c e t i o u s j i b e s .^9. ^s a member o f t h i s g r o u p P r o s t a k o v a a l s o employs b a s e , c o l l o q u i a l j a r g o n : she o f t e n uses v o c a b u l a r y p e r t a i n i n g t o a n i m a l s o r b e a s t s such, as " s u k a " , " s o b a c h ' y a " , " s k o t " , " s k o t s k i i " , " t e l y o n o k " , " b e s t i y a " , " k h a r y u " ' and " r y l a " . These emphas ize h e r p a r a d o x i c a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h , b e a s t s : P r o - s t a k o v a uses t h i s v o c a b u l a r y t o i n f e r a p p r o v i n g o r d i s a p p r o v i n g meanings i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . M r s . P r o s t a k o v a a l s o uses o r d i n a r y c o l - l o q u i a l i s m s : a d j e c t i v e s - " p e r v o y e t " f o r " p e r v y i " ; adverbs " d o b r o m " , " p o t a p l o s h e " ; v e r b s - " t a k p o d i " , " b r a n i v a l i s ' " ( a r e - i t e r a t i v e v e r b g e n e r a l l y c o l l o q u i a l ) ; and c o l l o q u i a l p a r t i c l e s such as " t k a " - " s r a o t r i - t k a " - ( t o add e m o t i o n a l warmth) and " d e " - " k a k - d e " ( a p a r t i c l e X i i h i c h can i n d i c a t e r e p o r t e d s p e e c h ) . P r o s t a k o v a uses many e m o t i o n a l words i n h e r s p e e c h . T h i s s e r v e s d e m o n s t r a t e h e r c h a r a c t e r as w e l l as r e n d e r i n g h e r more v i v i d t o the s p e c t a t o r.70. P r o s t a k o v a shows h e r i g n o r a n c e t h r o u g h h e r mis p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f two s i m p l e t e c h n i c a l w o r d s : e . g . " a r i k h m e t i k a . " and " y e o r g a f i a " . B u t v o c a b u l a r y i s n o t the o n l y r e m a r k a b l e l i n g - u i s t i c d e v i c e t h a t P o n v i z i n has u s e d . C o l l o q u i a l i n t o n a t i o n i s a l s o v e r y i m p o r t a n t : "Hejopoc j ib HacbimeH pa3roBopHBiMH HHTOHaiptaMH. KaK npHivrep HCKjiio^HTejibHoro HHTOHaijHOHHOro pa3HOo6pa3HH n p H B e ^ e M TaicyK) p e n - 79 jiHKy J I p o c T a K O B O H : ' H e TpyflHCb n o n y c T O M y , Jtpyr M O M , rpoma He n p n - 6aBJiK>: fla H 3a M T O . H a y x a He Tanan, jiHinb Te6e smay My^emie, a Bee. BKacy n y c T O T a . JleHer HeT - ^ T O c r a T a T b ? J tenbrn e c T b - co^TeM H 6e3 HatfcHyTH^a xopomoxOHbKa.' 3,necb <3?OHBH3HH ^ o c T H r a e T nojiHoro sneMaTJieHHH HenpHH.yscfleHHOH MefljieHHoM 6eoeRu c j ier ica BO BpeMH pa3roBopa KaKHM-TO flpyrHM ji;ejiOM ( iTpocTaKOBa BHSceT KomejieK.) He MeHee apKO © O H B H3H H nepef laeT r H e B , BOcxHmemie , p a c - TepHHHOCTb H flpyrne ^yBCTBa , oxBaTbiBaromHe e r o repoeB. noMTH 7 B Kascnofi penjiHKe - oSpameHHe K onpeflejieHHOMy J I H H V . ' ' M * B y t h e t e c h n i q u e o f l o w v o c a b u l a r y and c o a r s e i n t o n a t i o n t o e x - p o s e t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f t h e f e m a l e t y r a n t , t h e s p e c t a t o r i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y w i t h h e r y e t a t t h e same t i m e be w e l l aware o f P o n - v i z i n ' s s a t i r e . 7 2 . p r o s t a k o v a d e m o n s t r a t e s m o r e o v e r , h e r h y p o - c r i t i c a l n a t u r e b y u s i n g a more r e f i n e d t y p e o f s p e e c h t o P r a v - d i n and S t a r o d u m . The r e m a i n i n g members o f t h e P r o s t a k o v f a m i l y u s e s i m i l a r t y p e s o f l i n g o . Both . M i t r o f a n and h i s f a t h e r s p e a k i n r a t h e r b r e e z y c o l l o q u i a l t e r m s b u t n o t so b a s e as t h o s e o f M r s . P r o s t a k - ova S k o t i n i n , h o w e v e r , h a s a c o a r s e r s p e e c h t h a n t h e o t h e r s . H i s r e c i p e f o r s p e e c h c o n s i s t s o f w o r d s l i k e " z a c h a l i " and " i n d o " m i x e d w i t h " p o t y l i t s a " ( c o l l o q u i a l f o r " z a t y l o k " ) l i b e r a l l y s p r i n k - l e d w i t h h i s f a v o u r i t e e m o t i v e w o r d " s v i n ' i " b o i l e d i n a b r o t h , o f b r u t i s h i n t o n a t i o n . T h u s t h e a u t h o r e x p o s e s t h e b a s e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e P r o s t a k o v f a m i l y b y t h e i r c r u d e l a n g u a g e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e s e c o n d g r o u p f o r m s a s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t i n l a n g u a g e t o t h e f i r s t . P r a v d i n , t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l , u s e s a r e f i n e d R u s s i a n w i t h b u r e a u c r a t i c t e r m i n o l o g y . H i s s e n t e n c e s a r e s h o r t and s i m p l e , and h i s s p e e c h e s a r e u n e m b e l l i s h e d . H i s v o c a b - u l a r y i n c l u d e s w o r d s l i k e " n a m e s t n i c h e s t v o " , " o p r e d e l y o n c h l e n o m " , " U c h r e z h d e n n l " , a l l e v o k i n g t h e b u r e a u c r a t . P r a v d i n ' s l a n g u a g e 80 s h o w s t h a t h e i s n o t a r a i s o n n e u r l i k e S t a r o d u m b u t r a t h e r a g o v - e r n m e n t , m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f j u s t i c e . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s i m p l e y e t r e f i n e d d i a l o g u e o f P r a v d i n , S t a r o d u m ' s s p e e c h i s p e d a n t i c a n d c o m - p l e x . H i s u n r e s t r a i n e d b o o k i s h p h i l o s o p h i z i n g r e v o l v e s a r o u n d mod- i f i c a t i o n s o r s y n o n y m s o f t h r e e m a i n w o r d s : " d u s h a " , " s e r d t s e " a n d I ' r a z u m " . "06mee y n o T p e S j i e H H e o^HHaKOBHx CJIOB nojioscHTejiBHHMH ;:- repOHMH nojCTBepac^aeT KaK pa3 T y o c o S e i r a o c T B a3HKa KOM- ' e&im , KOTopaa co3flaeT flBe a3HKOBbix CHCT&MH. B TOM KOH- TeKCTe , B KOTOPOM y n o T p e S j i e H H 3flecB c j i O B a ' cepjme', ' jyma' , ' p a 3 y M ' , H OHH a B j i a i o T c a npH3HaKOM BHCOKOBOH , KHHaCHOH 7 , p e^H , KOTOpOH rOBOpHJIH B KOMe^HH IIO JIOXCHTeJIBHHe repoH." S t a r o d u m c o n s t a n t l y e m p l o y s b o o k i s h w o r d s l i k e " b l a g o n r a v i y e 1 , 1 . " p r o - s v e s h c h e n i y e " , " p r e z r e n i y e " , " p o n o s h e n i y e " a n d s u c h a r c h a i c ( e v e n i n F o n v i z i n ' s t i m e ) e x p r e s s i o n s a s " c h e s t n e y e b y t ' " b e z v i n y o b o i d e - n u . . . " , " s k a r e d u " a n d " o b o i t i t ' s y a " . M o r e o v e r , S t a r o d u m d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s b e l i e f i n t h e " g o o d o l d d a y s " b y s p r i n k l i n g h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h "p_o t o g d a s h n e m u " t o i m p l y a r e c e n t s o c i a l d e c l i n e . The y o u n g ' c a v a l i e r M i l o n h a s n o n e o f t h i s p e d a n t i c m o r a l i z i n g y e t a l s o u s e s . r a t h e r s t i l t e d b o o k i s h e x p r e s s i o n s l i k e " p r e d s t a v l y u s ' " o r s u c h a b e l l e t r i s t i c o u t b u r s t a s : " A i Jiio6e3Haa Cocf)Ba. Ha <JTO TH myT- KOK) MeHa Tep3aeinB ? T H 3HaeniB, KaK j ierKO CTpacTHbiii MejiOBeK o r o - 7 4 . p ^ a e T c a H-MajiefiniHM n © f l 0 3 p e H H e M . " S o f ' y a 1 s s p e e c h a l s o t e n d s t o b e b o o k i s h y e t s i m p l e . H e r v o c a b u l a r y i s r e f i n e d ; h e r s e n t e n c e s a r e n o t c o m p l e x . The t e r m s o f a d d r e s s o f e a c h g r o u p a r e r e v e a l i n g . The c u l t - u r e d p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r s u s e t h e f o r m a l i z e d t e r m s . " s u d a r y n y a " , " s u d a r ' " o r " g o s p o d i n " , o r b o o k i s h e x p r e s s i o n s " l y u b e z n a y a " o r " d r u g R i o i s e r d e s h n y i " , w h i l e e m p l o y i n g m o s t o f t e n t h e f o r m a l p r o - 81 noun " y y " . The c o a r s e p r o v i n c i a l g e n t r y , h o w e v e r , u t i l i z e " t y " most o f t e n ( M i t r o f a n uses i t f o r a lmos t e v e r y o n e , showing h i s l a c k o f r e s p e c t ) and employ p r o v i n c i a l i z e d modes o f a d d r e s s , much l e s s ' r e f i n e d e x p r e s s i o n s s u c h as " b a t y u s h k a " , " m o i o t e t s " o r " o t e t s r o d n o i " . A f i n a l example i s M r s . Prostakova? s change o f t e r m i n o l o g y i n a d d r e s s i n g S o f ' y a . At the b e g i n n i n g o f A c t I s cene 6 as she t a l k s t o S o f ' y a on an o r d i n a r y l e v e l , she a d d r e s s e s h e r s i m p l y as " m a t u s h k a " . When P r o s t a k o v a becomes i n d i g n a n t about the p o s s i b l e s u r v i v a l o f Starodum she changes t o a s a r c a s t i c " s u d a r y n y a " t h e n t o a d e r i s i v e " m a t u s h k a " . However when she d i s c o v e r s t h a t S o f ' y a i s an h e i r e s s i t changes t o " S o f ' y u s h k a " , then t o " d u s h a moya" and f i n a l l y t o "mat ' t y moya r o d n a y a " . A l l t h e s e forms o f addre s s show v a r i o u s changes i n a t t i t u d e by the s p e a k e r and show h e r h y p o - c r i t i c a l n a t u r e . To c o m p l e t e the l i s t o f s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s i n H e d o r o s i ' we must examine the l anguage o f the t h i r d g roup o f c h a r a c t e r s . Y e r e - meyevna i s a v e r y s i m p l e human b e i n g , and t h e r e f o r e uses c o l l o q u i a l l anguage w i t h many d i m i n u t i v e s . She has none o f the c o a r s e a n i m a l - l i k e v o c a b u l a r y o f the P r o s t a k o v f a m i l y ' s s p e e c h . H e r c o l l o q u i a l - isms are l i m i t e d t o o r d i n a r y words s u c h as " n e m n o z h e n k o " , " t e " ( f o r " t e b y a " ) and " t a b a c h i s h c h e m " . K u t e i k i n , t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c , u s e s a c o n s t a n t f l o w o f C h u r c h S l a v o n i c and a r c h a i c w o r d s , e . g . "mnogaya l e t a " , "_s chady i domochadt sy " and " d a Bogu i z v o l i v s h u " • The f o r m - e r s o l d i e r T s y f i r k i n employs m i l i t a r y t e r m i n o l o g y and s o l d i e r s ' l i n g o l i k e "vashe b l a g o r o d i y e " , "po s o l d a t s k i " and c o l l o q u i a l i s m s t y p i c a l o f the common s o l d i e r . V r a i ' m a n ' s p o r t r a y a l i s s t r e n g t h - ened b y h i s t h i c k German a c c e n t . He pronounces v o i c e d c o n s o n a n t s 82 as u n v o i c e d and h i s u n s t r e s s e d 'o' as 'a', w h i c h r e s u l t s i n a - v e r y funny German a c c e n t . . The former coachman pronounces the s i b - i l a n t s 'zh' a s 'z' and 'sh' as ' s ' ; h i s p l o s i v e s 'd' and ,'b' be- come ' t ' and 'p' and h i s *v' becomes ' f . Moreover, he uses t r a t h e r c o l l o q u i a l language and the o v e r a l l r e s u l t i s v e r y h i l a r i o u s t o the R u s s i a n e a r . In c o n c l u s i o n j l a n g u a g e a c t s as a m a g n i f y i n g g l a s s t o g a i n i n - s i g h t i n t o c h a r a c t e r . "IIo 3aM&icjiy <3?OHBH3HHa, pe^b npef lCTaBHTej ieH pa3Hbix rpynn p y c c K o r o oSmecTBa HacTOjibKO pa3JiH^tHa, S T H nepcoHaacH He B cocToaHHH noHaTb xpyr flpyra. CjieflOBaTejibHO , flHHaM- HKa pe^eBoro JiBHaceHHa B .HHajiorH^ecKOM noTOKe C K O B a H a . BHyTpeHHue C B H3H , cooTHomeHHH H KOHTpacTbi o6pa30B r repco- Haaceit , o6pa3yK>m.He yAnoflBOflHoe T e u e H H e ' peajiHCTH^ecKoft .upaMbi, 3 f l e C b OTCyTCTByiOT. " Language i s another a s p e c t o f N e d o r o s l ' t h a t makes i t a remarkable p l a y . P a i n s t a k i n g d e t a i l s o f speech s t r e n g t h e n the e f f e c t t o dem- o n s t r a t e each m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y . P o n v i z i n employed many d e v i c e s t o secure and m a i n t a i n humour- i n N e d o r o s l ' . The most o b v i o u s i s embodied i n the c h a r a c t e r s . The P r o s t a k o v f a m i l y w i t h i t s i g n o r a n t d e s p o t ^ p o r c i n e d u l l a r d , t i m o r - ous mouse and d o l t i s h hobbledehoy are a l l i n t r i n s i c a l l y funny. Hu- mour abounds i n the personages o f the b e d r a g g l e d nanny Yereraeyevna and the t h r e e p u r b l i n d pedagogues. I t i s a c h i e v e d through f a r c i t a l e x a g g e r a t i o n of. p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . S k o t i n i n ' s i n t e n s e p r e o c c u p a - t i o n with p i g s i s a p e r f e c t example o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e : "I'm fond o f hogs, s i s t e r . Why, down our way, t h e r e are such thumping b i g p i g s t h a t e v e r y s i n g l e one o f them, i f i t stood up on i t s h i n d l e g s , would be a head t a l l e r than any o f u s . " 7 6 . 83 E x a g g e r a t e d g e s t u r e s m a i n t a i n humour a l s o . The g r o s s s c e n e o f P r o s t a k o v a ' s r a n t i n g a b o u t S t . a r e d u m ' s p o s s i b l e s u r v i v a l and t h e b r a w l b e t w e e n S k o t i n i n and h i s s i s t e r h e l p t o c r e a t e f a r c e . F u r t h e r e x a m p l e s ' o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e a r e t h e h i l a r i o u s t a l e of. S k o t - i n i n a b o u t h i s u n c l e , t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f M i t r o f a n and t h e r i d i c u - l o u s e x a g g e r a t i o n when t h e b r u t i s h . . P r o s t a k o v s s g r e e t t h e r e f i n e d S t a r o d u m : C T a p o , a ; y M . . . "3TO K K O M V a nonajicf l ? O K O T H H H H . 3TO H , c e c T p H H 6paT. CTapcuyM. (yBHja eme jByx, c HeTepneHHeM.) A 3TO K T O eme? r i p o c T a K O B . (oSHHwaa . ) fl aceHHH MV#C. \ B M E C T E MHTpo^aH.rjLjiOBH. pyKy . ) A H MaTyniKHH •. CblHOK. " F o n v i z i n a c h i e v e d humour i n N e d o r o s l ' a l s o b y i r o n i c a l e r - r o r s and d o u b l e - e n t e n d r e s . . When S o f ' y a r e l a t e s how S k o t i n i n w i t h h e l d h e r f r o m r e a d i n g S t a r o d u m ' s l e t t e r , M i l o n , i n c e n s e d , s h o u t s " S k o t i n i n l " The " p i g - h e a d e d " i d i o t who was s t r o l l i n g b y t h i n k s h e h e a r s someone c a l l i n g h i m and y e l l s " H e r e I a m i " The d o u b l e - e n - t e n d r e i s r e a l i z e d much b e t t e r i n R u s s i a n t h a n i n t r a n s l a t i o n s i n c e M i l o n ' s s h o u t o c c u r s a t t h e end o f h i s s e n t e n c e . H e r e i s a n o t h e r s c e n e o f i r o n i c e r r o r t o a c h i e v e h u m o u r : M r s . P r o s t a k o v : " I n b e d I O h , t h e t r o l l o p ! In b e d ! J u s t l i k e a l a d y ! Y e r e m e y e v n a : She h a s a h i g h f e v e r , m i s t r e s s ; s h e ' s r a v i n g , she. t a l k s n o n s e n s e . M r s . P r o s t a k o v : R a v i n g ! O h ! t h e h u s s y ! J u s t l i k e a l a d y t o o l " ? " * M o r e i r o n y f o r l a u g h t e r f o l l o w s t h e comments b y t h e c o a r s e c h a r a c - t e r s i n t h e s e two s c e n e s : M r s . P r o s t a k o v : " . . . L e t h i m be as he i s ; t h e L o r d w i l l p u n i s h a n y man who does me w r o n g , p o o r me I S t a r o d u m : I n o t i c e d t h a t , madam, j u s t as soon as you a p p e a r e d a t t h e d o o r . P r a v d i n : And I h a v e b e e n w i t n e s s i n g h e r swee t t e m p e r f o r t h r e e d a y s ."79. S k o t i n i n : " " . . . I t e l l you w i t h o u t b o a s t i n g : such, men as. I a re v e r y r a r e . (•Walks away) ft S t a r o d u m : T h a t ' s v e r y l i k e l y . " d U * Humour i s a g a i n c r e a t e d i n an i r o n i c a l statement by S k o t i n i n does, n o t r e a l i z e t h e ' i m p a c t o f h i s words . - S k o t i n i n : " B a h l W h a t ' s t h i s f e l l o w m e d d l i n g h e r e f o r ? - ( W h i s p e r - i n g t o S t a r o d u m ) . Hey, i s he t r y i n g t o b e a t me o f f ? S t a r o d u m : ( W h i s p e r i n g t o S k o t i n i n ) I t seems so t o me. S k o t i n i n : ( i n the same tone')'. ' B u t how? The deuce t a k e hlrril S t a r o d u m : ( i n t h e same tone ) . I t ' s t o o b a d . S k o t i n i n : ( a l o u d , p o i n t i n g to M i l o n ) . W h i c h o f us two l o o k s r i d i - c u l o u s ? - H a , h a , h a , h a i S t a r o d u m : (1 aughs) . I see who i s r i d i c u l o u s . P o n v i z i n was a mas ter o f t h e pun and s u b t l e j i b e as w e l l as the o n e - l i n e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d j o k e . We have a l r e a d y ment ioned the common t r a i t o f puns i n names. A f u r t h e r example o f t h i s o c c u r s as P r o s t a k o v a r e l a t e s h e r l i n e a g e . She m e n t i o n s h e r m o t h e r ' s m a i d - en name: " P r i p l o d i n y k h " - a pun on " p r i p l o d " (progeny) a p p r o p r i a t e s i n c e she bore e i g h t e e n c h i l d r e n . A n o t h e r humorous' :pun i s made on the words " k r e p k i i " ( s t r o n g ) , " u c h y o n y i " ( l e a r n e d ) and " k r e p k o l o b y i " ( t h i c k - s k u l l e d ) a f t e r S k o t i n i n has r e l a t e d h i s r i d i c u l o u s t a l e .about h i s u n c l e ' s t h i c k s k u l l : MHJIOH."BBI rocnoflHH CKOTKHHH , CSMH npH3HaeTe ce6n Hey^ieHHM u e j i O B e K O M , OflHaKO a jxyMaro , B STOM cjiyuae H Bam JIO6 6BIJI 6BI He Kpen^e y^eHoro. GTapoflyM. (MHJIOH.V) 06 3aKga,n He 6eftca.. fl pyuax) , *ITO CKOTHHHHBI Bee poflOM KpenKOJio6Bi. " Puns o c c u r d u r i n g M i t r o f a n ' s e x a m i n a t i o n when he c o n f u s e s " p r i l a - g a t e l ' n o y e " ( a d j e c t i v e ) w i t h " p r i l a g a t ' " ( t o a p p l y ) . The l a s t d e v i c e t o examine i s P o n v i z i n ' s s i m u l t a n e o u s s p e e c h e s : when two c h a r a c t e r s t a l k a t t h e same t i m e . The s i m u l t a n - eous speeches are a l l s h o r t , s ay the same o r s i m i l a r t h i n g s and are u t t e r e d at t i m e s o f h i g h e m o t i o n o r s u r p r i s e . The f i r s t , example am who ' 85 o c c u r s w h e n t h e P r o s t a k o v s d i s c o v e r S o f ' y a i s an h e i r e s s . These j u m b l e d s p e e c h e s c r e a t e c o m i c c o n f u s i o n . There a r e f o u r t e e n i n - s t a n c e s o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e , t w e l v e o f w h i c h are i n c l u d e d i n the l a s t t h r e e a c t s . T h i s p r o v e s t h a t F o n v i z i n was a t t e m p t i n g t o m a i n t a i n h i s comic e f f e c t t h r o u g h the s l o w t h i r d a n d f o u r t h a c t s i n o r d e r t o o f f s e t t h e s t a t i c m o r a l i z i n g . T h u s , t o o b t a i n h u m o u r F o n v i z i n u s e d not o n l y c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n b u t a l s o t e c h n i q u e s o f e x a g g e r a t i o n , j o k e s , p u n s and s i m u l t a n e o u s s p e e c h e s . A l t h o u g h the p l o t i s f a r t o o c o n t r i v e d t o be an a c t u a l s e r - i e s o f e v e n t s , the c h a r a c t e r s and m i l i e u a r e f i t t i n g l y t a k e n f r o m e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r e a l l i f e b e c a u s e e x a m p l e s o f t h e i g n o r a n t d u l l a r d s a n d s t a t i c m o r a l i z e r s d i d e x i s t i n F o n v i z i n ' s s o c i e t y . . The a c t i o n s a n d s p e e c h e s o f t h e p e r s o n a g e s , m o r e o v e r , w e r e t y p i c - a l o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s e r a . N e d o r o s l ' i s an o u t s t a n d i n g p o r t r a i t o f R u s s i a n s o c i e t y o f t h e 1700's. "G BOnpOCOM O pOSCfleHHH B T B O p ^ e C T B e <l?OHBH3HHa peaJIHCTETC- e C K O r O M H P 0 B 0 3 3peHHH H MeTOfla CBflSaH B O n p O C O C&0HBH3HHCK0M H3HKe . H 3 f l e c b $OHBH 3HH npeo j i;ojieBaeT K j i a c c H ^ e c K H e K a H O H g , StaHpOBOH K J i a C C H & H K a H H H H J I H T e p a T y p H O H y C J I O B H O C T H peuH." To c o n c l u d e o u r s t u d y o f F o n v i z i n ' s N e d o r o s l ' we s h o u l d s u m - m a r i z e i t s t h e m e a n d i m p o r t a n c e . Two m a i n i d e a s a r e p r o f f e r e d : the n e e d f o r a g o o d S l a v o n i c e d u c a t i o n and t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e n o b i l i t y ' s b a r b a r o u s a t r o c i t i e s a g a i n s t t h e p e a s a n t r y . F o n v i z i n b e l i e v e d t h a t p r o p e r e d u c a t i o n was t h e e l i x i r t o c u r e t h e e v i l s o f R u s s i a n s o c i e t y . The k e y n o t e w a s i m p r o v e m e n t t h r o u g h S l a v o n i c e n - l i g h t e n m e n t . He d i d n o t s u g g e s t t h e a b o l i t i o n o f s e r f d o m i n t h e p l a y ' b u t r a t h e r a more h u m a n e m a n n e r o f t r e a t i n g the s e r f s . 8I4.. 86 Most important o f a l l , Nedorosl' i s a device which we i n the twen- t i e t h c e ntury can use to understand a c e r t a i n segment o f e i g h t e e n t h century Russian s o c i e t y portrayed through the eyes of the p l a y - w r i g h t . "3Ta KOMeflHH - 6ecnoflo6Hoe 3epKajio. <l>OHBH3HHy B Heft KaK TO yflajiocb CTaTb npaMO nepefl pyccicoft fleftcTBHTejiBHOCTBio , B3rw- HyTB Ha nee n p o c T O , Henocpef lCTBeHHO, B ynop, rna3aMH, He Boopyac- eHHHMH HHKSKHM CTeJIKOM, B 3 T J i a f l 0 M , He npeJIOMJieHHbIM HHKaKHMH TOM— KaMH 3peHHa , H BOcnpoH3BecTH ee c 6e30TueTHOCTbio xyfloacecTBeH- Horo noHHMaHHH.., 3TO npoH3omjio OTToro, ^TO Ha STOT pa3 noaTH-qecKHH B3TJiap, aBTopa CKBO3B TO , ^TO Ka3ajiocb , npo- HHK flo Toro , HTO jteftcgBHTeJIBHO npoHcxoflHJio , npocTaa , ne^ajibHaa irpaBja acH3HH." There are p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the pla y , mainly r e v o l v i n g around Starodum's formulae f o r humanity and how the t s a r should r u l e . These again o r i g i n a t e i n F o n v i z i n ' s tenet o f enlightenment. There were of course u n i v e r s a l themes that a p p l i e d t o any s o c i e t y - c s t u p i d egoism, a v a r i c e , c r u e l t y , b e s t i a l i t y and supreme i g n o r - ance. So s u c c e s s f u l was the p o r t r a i t o f s o c i e t y i n Nedorosl' that i t i n s p i r e d a spate of i m i t a t i o n s such as Sgovor K u t e i k i n a (1789) by P l a v i l • s h c h i k o v , Obrashchyonnyi mizantrop i i i Leb e dy an s k aya Yarmonka (1794) °y Kop'yev, Mitrofanushka v otstayke (1800)' by Gorodchaninov, and others ( p o s s i b l y also the s o - c a l l e d " e a r l y v e r s i o n " as we have seen b e f o r e ) . In t h i s play Denis F o n v i z i n gave a simple p r e s e n t a t i o n o f ig n o r a n t p r o v i n c i a l gentry and t h e i r abuses r e s u l t i n g from l a c k o f proper e d u c a t i o n . He presented ex- c e l l e n t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , set a concrete m i l i e u fand'-employed a v i b r a n t s t y l e . Nedorosl' i s a f i n e document to gain a " s l i c e of l i f e " from Russian p r o v i n c i a l s o c i e t y almost two hundred years ago. 87 EPILOGUE - " BojimeSHbiH Kpaii I T&M B CTapbi roflbi GaTHpbi CMejibift BjiacTejiHH, ^ EjIHCTaJI $OHBH3HH, flPyr CBOSOflbl, . . . " The chronology of D . I . F o n v i z i n ' s l i f e and t h e a n a l y s e s o f B r i g a d i r and N e d o r o s l 1 have attempted t o prove that F o n v i z i n was a wr i ter of no small meri t . I t i s obvious that F o n v i z i n does not have the u n i v e r s a l appeal of the most famous men of R u s s i a n l e t - t e r s . B u t any scholar who desires to gain ins ight into R u s s i a n society and thought of the l a t t e r 1700's cannot neglect F o n v i z i n . B r i g a d i r and N e d o r o s l ' bear witness to the remarkable t a l - ent of the i r author. I n construction his two plays are fundament- a l l y c l a s s i c a l . T h e i r p lots seem contr ived yet F o n v i z i n employed many ingenious devices to render h i s in t r igues more c r e d i b l e . P o s s e s s i n g a keen sense of pungent s a t i r e , F o n v i z i n was a master o f c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . I n B r i g a d i r h i s negative characters are wel l portrayed and r id i cu lous in- the i r exaggeration. However , the per- sonages of N e d o r o s l ' are developed beyond exaggeration: they are the epitomes of the i r respective' dominant t r a i t s . Y e t in N e d o r o s l ' the reasoning characters are on stage much more and t h e i r mono- logues slow the tempo. F o n v i z i n possessed great s k i l l of expression|. h i s usage of the R u s s i a n language i s among the most l i v e l y of his day. The best examples of his ta lent in B r i g a d i r are the F r a n c o f i e d f o p p i s h words of the G a l l o p h i l e s , the C o u n c i l l o r ' s r e p e t i t i o n of l e g a l terminology and the m i l i t a r y jargon of the B r i g a d i e r . I n N e d - oroslS the crass c o l l o q u i a l speech of the P r o s t a k o v s , contrasted with the ref ined language of the educated p e o p l e , i s remarkable. 88 M o r e o v e r , the s e p a r a t e l i n g o s o f the t h r e e t u t o r s ( i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e h i l a r i o u s German a c c e n t o f V r a l ' m a n ) are more f i n e f e a t u r e s . Mos t s t r i k i n g i s t h a t the e x p e r t i s e o f the a u t h o r i n l anguage has r e n d e r e d each p e r s o n a g e ' s s p e e c h a s t a r t l i n g r e v e l a t i o n o f h i s n a t u r e . F o n v i z i n ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f humorous d e v i c e s r e s u l t e d i n h i l a r i t y . The r i d i c u l o u s c o u r t s h i p s c e n e s , d o u b l e - e n t e n d r e s and m i s c o m p r e h e n s i o n s are the h i g h l i g h t s o f B r i g a d i r . N e d o r o s l ' ' s s c e n e s . o f b r u t i s h i g n o r a n c e and c r a s s s t u p i d i t y are among t h e most amusing on the R u s s i a n s t a g e . F o n v i z i n ' s works are v a l u a b l e on b o t h t h e m a t i c and a r t i s t - i c l e v e l s . He had the courage to speak o u t a g a i n s t p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l , t y r a n n y . F o n v i z i n c o n s t a n t l y a d v o c a t e d l i b e r a l i d e a s f o r e n l i g h t e n m e n t t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n . H i s works were i m p o r t a n t t e s t a - ments o f a g r o w i n g n a t i o n a l awareness and p r i d e i n R u s s i a , y e t h i s themes were a p p l i c a b l e n o t o n l y t o R u s s i a n s b u t f r e q u e n t l y t o mankind i n g e n e r a l . 89 FOOTNOTES TO INTRODUCTION 1. E.Jourdain, Ajn I n t r o d u c t i o n to the French C l a s s i c a l Drama, p. lI(-6. 2. F. d e L a b r i o l l e , "La Drawaturgie de F o n v i z i n . p.77. 3. G-.Makogonenko, Ot F o n v i z i n a do Fushkina, p. 36I4.. 90 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I 1. F r o m a l e t t e r t o L . S . P u s h k i n i n A . S . P u s h k i n , P o l n o y e S o b r a n i y e S o c h i n e n i i , (1937)/ X , p . 1 0 8 . . 2. M o s t o f ray b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s t a k e n f r o m L y u b o v K u l a - k o v a , D . I . F o n v i z i n , (1966) . A d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f F o n v i z i n ' s l e s s known w o r k s i s c o n t a i n e d i n G . P . M a k o g o n e n k o D . I . F o n v i z i n , (1961) . 3 . R . P l e t n e v , E n t r e t i e n s s u r l a L i t t e r a t u r e R u s s e , (196/4.), p . 117. I4.. F o r a c o m p l e t e p o r t r a i t o f I v a n F o n v i z i n t h r o u g h D e n i s ' e y e s see D . I . F o n v i z i n , I z b r a n n y y e S o c h i n e n i y a i_ P i s ' m a , (19l|7), 1 9 0 - 192. I s h a l l h e n c e f o r t h r e f e r t o t h i s c o l l e c t i o n as D . I . F o n v i z i n I z b r . S o c h . 5. L . K u l a k o v a , D . I . F o n v i z i n , 8 - 9 . 6. D . I . F o n v i z i n , I z b r . S o c h . , 195. I h a v e r e v i s e d a t r a n s l a t i o n f r o m C . E . T u r n e r , S t u d i e s i n R u s s i a n L i t e r a t u r e , p . 6 3 . I h a v e u s e d i t b e c a u s e I f e e l i t p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t i n s i g h t i n t o F o n v i z i n ' s p e n s e e . To d e m o n s t r a t e s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s I h a v e q u o t e d t h e o r i g i n a l where a p r o p o s ; o t h e r w i s e I h a v e g i v e n q u o t e s f r o m t h e t r a n s l a t i o n f o r t h e r e a d e r ' s c o n v e n i e n c e . 7. I b i d . , 195-196. 8. I b i d . , p . 1 9 6 . 9. I b i d . , p . 200. 10. L . K u l a k o v a , 0p_. c i t . , p . 16. 11 . A k a d e r a i y a N a u k , I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y , I V , p . 153. 12. D . I . F o n v i z i n , S o b r a n i y e S o c h i n e n i i v d v u k h t o m a k h , (1959) , I , p . 3 . H e n c e f o r t h I s h a l l r e f e r ~ t o t h i s , c o l l e c t i o n as D . I . F o n v i z i n , S o b . S o c h . 13. B . N . A s e y e v , R u s s k i i D r a m a t i c h e s k i i T e a t r X V I I - X V I I I V e k o v , ( 1 9 5 8 ) 233-234-. ' llx. A . C o l e m a n , Humour i n t h e R u s s i a n Comedy , (1966), p . 20. 15. D . J . W e l s h , R u s s i a n Comedy 1765-1823, (1966), p . 15. 16. I b i d . , p . 103. 1 7 . D . I . F o n v i z i n , S o b . S o c h . , I , p . 209. 18. I b i d . , I , p . 2 1 7 . 1 9 » I b i d . , I , 207-208. 91 2 0 . A k a d e m i y a Nauk , Op. c i t . , p . 155. 2 1 . I b i d . , p . 1 5 9 . 2 2 . G . A . G u k o v s k y , I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y X V I I I - o g o V e k a , (1939), -p. 3 2 7 . ' ~~ 2 3 . A k a d e m i y a Nauk, Op. c i t . , p . 1 6 0 . 2Ji . T h i s document, u n a v a i l a b l e i n any modern c o l l e c t i o n s o f D . I . F o n v i z i n ' s w o r k s , i s f u l l y d i s c u s s e d i n G .P .Makogonenko , D . I . F o n v i z i n (1961), 1 6 6 - 1 7 0 . Makogonenko g i v e s a l s o an e x c e l l e n t account o f the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t made on F o n v i z i n ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . See a l s o F . d e L a b r i o l l e , "Le Prosves 'c 'enie e t l e s . Luraie v res en F r a n c e " , ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 8 8 . 2 5 . I t i s r e m a r k a b l e t o no te t h a t i n the c o l l e c t i o n o f I9J4.7 e d i t - ed by N . L . B r a d s k y the document i s c a l l e d R a s s u z h d e n i y e o i_s- t r e b i v s h e i s y a v Ross i i sovsem v s y a k o i formy g o s u d a r t s v e n n o g o p r a v l e n i y a , f o r m a l l y t h o u g h t to be* the t i t l e b u t d i s p r o v e d by P . N . B e r k o v i n F o n v i z i n , S o b . S o c h . , I I , 679-632. 2 6 . See G . G u k o v s k y , Op. c i t . , 331 and A k a d e m i y a Nauk , Op. c i t . , p . 1 8 2 . G u k o v s k y c a l l s i t one o f the most s h i n i n g examples o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y R u s s i a n p u b l i c i s m . 27. D . I . F o n v i z i n , S o b . S o c h . , I I , 255-2.56. F o r F o n v i z i n a t h i s e l o q u e n t b e s t see a l s o pages 2 5 8 - 2 5 9 . 2 8 . A c t u a l l y F o n v i z i n had made a s h o r t t r i p t o t h e German s t a t e s • i n 1762-1763 b u t i t was no t u n t i l 1777 t h a t he made an extend—;' ed t r i p . 29. Hans Rogger , "The R u s s i a n N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r " ( 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 2 1 . 30. H . S e g e l , The L i t e r a t u r e o f E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y R u s s i a , ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 3 1 . G . G u k o v s k y , Op. c i t . , 3 2 8 - 3 2 9 . 3 2 . See T u r n e r , Op. c i t . , p . 6I4. and Rogger , Op. c i t . , p . 2 1 . 3 3 . H . R o g g e r , Op . e x t . , p . 2 2 . 314... H . S e g e l , Op . c i t . , p.. .336. 3 5 . D . I . F o n v i z i n , S o c h i n e n i y a , ( 1 8 9 3 ) , 298-299. 3 6 . B . V . V a r n e k e , The R u s s i a n T h e a t r e , ( 1 9 5 1 ) , P . 26. 37. F o r a comple te h i s t o r y o f t h i s work see P . N . B e r k o v ' s commentary i n F o n v i z i n , S o b . S o c h . , I I , 671+-679. 3 8 . • I b i d . - , I I , p . 2 3 7 . 92 39. T h e r e s t o f t h i s w o r k was p u b l i s h e d l a t e r t h e same y e a r . See G . M a k o g o n e n k o , " O p . c i t . , p . 29k-. 40. D . I . P o n v i z i n , I z b r . S o c h . , 119-122. 41 . See G . M a k o g o n e n k o , I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i Z h u r n a l i s t i k i (1962). 42. D . I . P o n v i z i n , I z b r . S o c h . , p . 132. 43. I b i d . . , p . 134-. 44* G . M a k o g o n e n k o , D . I . F o n v i z i n , (1961), p . 299. 45. D . I . F o n v i z i n , S o b . S o c h . , I I , 276-278. 46. A k a d e m i y a N a u k , O p . c i t . , p . 186. 47. A k a d e m i y a N a u k , Ru a ' s k i v e D r a m a t u r g i y e , (1959), p . 282. 48. G . G u k o v s k y , O c h e r k i po i s t o r i i r u s s k o i l i t e r a t u r y X V I I I - o g o v e k a , p . I87. 49. G . G u k o v s k y , I s t o r i y a r u s s k o i l i t e r a t u r y X V I 1 1 - o go v e k a (1939) , 50. B . G u e r n e y , The P o r t a b l e R u s s i a n R e a d e r , {19kD, 22 -27 . 51. I b i d . , p . 2 7 . 52. D . I . F o n v i z i n , S o b . S o c h . , I I , 478-479. 53. See J . J . R o u s s e a u , C o n f e s s i o n s , (I960). 54« D . I . F o n v i z i n , S o b . S o c h . , I I , p . 13. 55. I b i d . , p . 20. 56. G . M a k o g o n e n k o , D . I . F o n v i z i n , (1961), p . 296. 57. I b i d . , p . 316. 58* I b i d . , p . '309. 59. L . K u l a k o v a , O p . c i t . 1 5 6 - 1 6 0 . 60'. G . M a k o g o n e n k o , D . I . F o n v i z i n (1961), p . 317. .61. D . I . F o n v i z i n , S o b . S o c h . , I I , 308-311. 62. I b i d . , p . 38. ' 63. A k a d e m i y a N a u k , I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y , I V , 188-189. 64* D . I . F o n v i z i n , S o b . S o c h . , I I , p . 39. 93 6 5 . I b i d . , I I , p . 6 1 7 . 6 6 . V . V s e v o l o d s k y - G e r n g r o s s , R u s s k i i T e a t r V t o r o i P o l o v i n y X V I I I v e k a , ( I 9 6 0 ) , p . 2 6 6 . 6 7 . A . S . P u s h k i n , Op. C i t . , 9 6 . 6 8 . A k a d e m i y a Nauk , R u s s k i y e D r a m a t u r g i y e , ( 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 2 8 7 . 6 9 . A k a d e m i y a Nauk , I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y , I V , p . 1 9 0 . 9h FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I I 1 . N i k o l a i N o v i k o v "Opyt i s t o r i c h e s k o g o s l o v a r y a o r o s s i i s k i k h p i s a t e l y a k h " , 1772. f rom P.S.Shames, F o n v i z i n v R u s s k o i K r i t - ike t (1958), p . 7 1 . 2. See A . S t e n d e r - P e t e r s e n , G e s c h i c h t e der R u s s i s c h e n L i t e r a t u r , (1957), P . 4 0 9 , f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the a f f i n i t i e s o f F o n - v i z i n ' s w i t h H o l b e r g ' s w o r k . 3. D . J . W e l s h , R u s s i a n Comedy 1765-1823, (1966), p . 1+5. Ix. See B e r t h a M a l n i c k ' s r e v i e w a r t i c l e o f P . N . B e r k o v ' s R u s s k a y a K o m e d i y a i K o m i c h e s k a y a Opera i n the S l a v o n i c and E a s t E u r - opean R e v i e w , N o . 31~Tl9"53)7~P» 571+. 5. D . J . W e l s h , Op. c i t . , p . 1+9. 6 . E t t o r e l o G a t t o , S t o r i a d e l C T e a t r o R u s s o , (191+5), p . 1 1 7 . 7. G . G u k o v s k y , I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y X V I I I v e k a , (1939), p . 326. See a l s o N . B r o d s k y i n F o n v i z i n , I z b r . S o c h . , p . 289. 8 . G .Makogonenko , 0_t F o n v i z i n a do P u s h k i n a , (1969), p . 227. 9. V . V s e v o l o d s k y - G e r n g r o s s , "Kogda b y l n a p i s a n B r i g a d i r ? " , p . 1+60. 10. See F o n v i z i n , I z b r . S o c h . , p . 203. 11. See G .Makogonenko , D . I . F o n v i z i n , (1961), 131+-11+0. 12 . Quoted i n A . C o l e m a n , . Humour i n the R u s s i a n Comedy, (>1966) , p . 21. 1 3 . B . V . V a r n e k e , H i s t o r y o f the R u s s i a n T h e a t r e , (195D, P . li+2. l l+ . Many S o v i e t c r i t i c s t e n d t o o v e r l o o k f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r see B . N . A s e y e v , O p . c i t . , p . 231+. 15. N . G . C h e r n i s h e v s k y , P o l n o y e S o b r a n i y e S o c h i n e n i i , (191+9), I I , 791+. 1 6 . I b i d . , I I , 803. 1 7 . B . A s e y e v , O p . c i t . , p . 2l+l. 1 8 . F . d e L a b r i o l l e , " L ' o p ^ r a - c o m i q u e r u s s e e t l e drame en F r a n c e " , (1965), 1+08-1+09. 1 9 . D . D . B l a g o i , R u s s k a y a L i t e r a t u r a X V I I I v e k a , (1955), p .2 8 5 ,p .288. 20. N . E v r e i n o f f , H i s t o i r e du T h 6 a . t r e R u s s e , (191+7), p . 193. 95 21. G . G u k o v s k y , O c h e r k i po I s t o r i i R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r e , (1958), 22. I b i d . - , p . 185. 23. The S o v i e t n i t s a c a n n o t be i n c l u d e d s i n c e she i s p l a y i n g t h e G a i l i c l o v e - g a m e . 2i|. B . V a r n e k e , H i s t o r y o f the R u s s i a n T h e a t r e , (195D, p.llj.2. 25. D . I . P o n v i z i n , The B r i g a d i e r as t r a n s l a t e d i n S e g e l , The L i t - e r a t u r e o f E i g h t e e n t h - C e n t u r y R u s s i a , I I , p . 3kh»- 26. I b i d . , p . 323. 27. I b i d . , 331-332. 28. M o l i e r e , L e s P r e c i e u s e s R i d i c u l e s , (1962), p . 58. 29. N . C h e r n i s h e v s k y , O p . c i t . , p . 801. 30. H. S e g e l , O p . c i t . , p . 329. 32. H . R o g g e r , "The R u s s i a n N a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r " , (1957), p . 19. 31. I b i d . , p . 368. 33. H . S e g e l , O p . c i t . , p . 325. 34. I b i d . , p . 327. 35. I b i d . , p . 345. 36. A. Co leman, O p . c i t . , p . 78. 37. N . C h e r n i s h e v s k y , O p . c i t . , p . 799. 38. N . E v r e i n o f f , O p . c i t . , p . 192. See a l s o R . P l e t n e v , O p . c i t . , p . 85 and B.VarneTke, O p . c i t . , plli.1. 39. V . I . G l u k h o v , " P r o s v e t i t e l ' s k i i R e a l i z r a . . . " , (1967), p . 93. I4.O. H. S e g e l , O p » c i t . , p . 32I4.. F o r a f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n see N . C h e r n i s h e v s k y , O p . c i t . , p . 801. 41. I b i d . , p . 328. 1̂ 2. I b i d . , p . 3I4.6. 43. I b i d . , p . 339. Ixli, L . B a r a g , "0 R e a l i s t i c h e s k i k h T e n d e n t s i a k h . . . " , (1966) , p.l55» 45. H . S e g e l , O p . c i t . , p . 337. 96 1x6. I b i d . , p . 3 6 1 . 1x7. I b i d . , p . 3 5 2 . 1x8. I b i d . , p . 3 3 5 . i+9. P . d e L a b r i o l l e , " L ' o p e r a - c o m i q u e r u s s e e t l e drarae en P r a n c e " , ( 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 7 3 . 5 0 . S e g e l , O g . c l t . , 34-9. 5 1 . I b i d . , p . 3 3 3 . 5 2 . I b i d . , pi 3 5 3 . 5 3 . G . M a k o g o n e n k o , Ot F o n v i z i n a do P u s h k i n a , ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 2 3 1 . 54-.. J . P a t o u i l l e , L e t h e a t r e r u s s e e t l e s C o m e d i e s de M o e u r s , ( 1 9 1 2 ) p . 5 6 . 5 5 . . H . S e g e l , O p . c i t . , p . 3 2 l x . 5 6 . I b i d . , p . 3 2 6 . 5 7 . I b i d . , p . 344. 5 8 . See n o t e s #3/'x. and # 3 5 . 5 9 . I b i d . , .p . 3 6 6 . 6 0 . I b i d . , p . 3 3 0 . 6 1 . I b i d . , p . 3 3 0 . 6 2 . I b i d . , p . 3 6 3 . 63. I b i d . , p . 3 6 8 . 64-. P o n v i z i n , Sob . S o c h . , I , 8 6 - 8 7 . 6 5 . H . S e g e l , O p . c i t . , p . 3 6 3 . 6 6 . D . W e l s h , O p . c i t . , p l O l x . 6 7 . D . I . . P o n v i z i n , Sob . S o c h . , I , p 5 0 . 6 8 . I b i d . , p . - 5 l - 6 9 . I b i d . , p . . 4 . 9 . • 7 0 . I b i d . , p . 5 2 . 7 1 . See B a r a g , " 0 R e a l i s t i c h e s k i k h T e n d e n t s i a k f t ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 152. 9 7 FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER I I I . 1 . I . A . G o n c h a r o v , S o b r a n i y e S o c h i n e n i i , ( 1 9 5 2 ) , V I I I , p . 8 . 2 . G . K o r o v i n , " R a n n y a y a K o m e d i y a D . I . F o n v i z i n a - p e r v a y a r e d a k - t s i y a . N e d o r o s l y a " , ( 1 9 3 3 ) , 2 1 x 3 - 2 6 3 . 3 . D . W e l s h , " S a t i r i c a l Themes i n 1 8 - t h C e n t u r y R u s s i a n C o m e d i e s " , ( 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 4-11. Ix. K . P i g a r e v , T v o r c h e s t v o F o n v i z i n a , ( 1 9 5 4 - ) , 3 1 3 - 3 3 4 - . 5. A . P . M o g i l y a n s k y , ' " K v o p r o s u - o t a k nazyvayemom 'Rannera' 1 ' N e d o r o - s l e ' V ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p*J+17 . 6 . F o r a c o m p l e t e l i s t o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f h a n d w r i t i n g and t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f V s e v o l o d s k y - G e r n g r o s s s e e h i s b o o k R u s s k i i t e a t r v t o r o i p o l o v i n y X V I I I v e k a , ( I 9 6 0 ) , 3 6 6 - 3 7 5 . 7 . A . M o g i l y a n s k y , O p . c i t . , p . 1x21. 8 . D . J . W e l s h , R u s s i a n Comedy 1 7 6 5 - 1 8 2 3 , ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 2 9 . R e c e n t l y , -G .Makogonenko i n h i s b o o k o f - 1969 h a s a g r e e d w i t h W e l s h ' s d a t e s . 9 . E t t o r e L o G a t t o , S t o r i a d e l T e a t r o R u s s o , ' I , p . 1 2 9 . 1 0 . N . E v r e i n o f f , H i s t o i r e du T h e a t r e R u s s e , p . . 1 9 7 . 1 1 . A k a d e m i y a N a u k , I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i - L i t e r a t u r y , ( 1 9 4 - 7 ) , I V , p . 1 7 7 . 1 2 . G . M a k o g o n e n k o , Ot F o n v i z i n a do P u s h k i n a , ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 3 3 9 . 1 3 . D . I . F o n v i z i n The M i n o r t r a n s l a t e d i n G . R . N o y e s , M a s t e r p i e c e s o f t h e R u s s i a n D r a m a , ( 1 9 6 l ) r . Ill-, I b i d . , p . 3 7 . 1 5 . F . d e L a b r i o l l e , " L a D r a m a t u r g i e de F o n v i z i n c " , ( 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 7 7 . 1 6 . I b i d . , p . 7 7 . 1 7 . . G . G u k o v s k y , I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y i O b s h c h e s t v e n n o i M y s l i , p . 1 8 9 . 1 8 . R . P l e t n e v , O p . c i t . , p . 1 2 9 . 1 9 . B . V a r n e k e , O p . c i t . , p . 11x4-. 2 0 . G . N o y e s , O p . c i t . , p . 5 9 . 98 22. I b i d . , p. 30 . 23. I b i d . , p. 4 2 . 21+. I b i d . p . '79. 25. I b i d . , p. 34. 26. I b i d . , p. 31 . 27. G.Makogonenko, Ot F o n v i z i n a do Pushkin a, (1969), ' p. 361. 28. G.Gukovsky, Op . c i t . , p. 190. 29. D.Welsh, The Russian Comedy 1765-1823, (1966), p. 74. 3 0 . K l a s s i k i Russkoi Dramy, (19^2), p. 44* 31 . See i n p a r t i c u l a r the p o r t r a y a l of the henpecked husband i n the Richard L e s t e r f i l m "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum". 32. G.Noyes, Op.cit., p. 30 . . 3 3 . I b i d . . p. 33 . 34* I b i d . , p. 34. 35. I b i d . , p. 31 . 36. I b i d . , p. 8 0 . 37. O r i g i n a l l y a nedorosl' was a young man up to f i f t e e n years of age preparing f o r s t a t e s e r v i c e . He then became a novik and had to serve i n the m i l i t a r y . By a law of 1736 the period of nedorosl' was extended to twenty years of age. 38. E t t o r e LoGatto, Og.cit., p. 128. 39 . G.Noyes, O g . c i t . p . 72. 4 0 . Ibid.,. p. 4 0 . 4 1 . V.Klyuchevsky, Ocherki i Rechi, (1896), p. 293. 4 2 . G.Noyes, O p . c i t . p . 71. 4 3 . I b i d . , p. 39 . 4 4 . I b i d . , p. 32. 45 . . I b i d . , 73-74. 99 4 6 . V . V s e v o l o d s k y - G e r n g r o s s , O p . c i t . , p . 210. 4 7 . G . N o y e s , O p . c i t . ,- p . 4 7 . I t i s t o be n o t e d t h a t S tarodum i s n o t q u i t e c o r r e c t h e r e s i n c e the pronoun "vy_" was o f t e n used i n common f o r m a l a d d r e s s . I4.8. B . R o g g e r , O j D . c i t . , 20-21 . 4 9 . J u d g i n g f rom P o n v i z i n ' s memoirs t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Starodum i s an i n c a r n a t i o n o f I v a n P o n v i z i n seems r e a s o n a b l e . $0. G .Makogonenko , O p . c i t . , p . 346. $1. A . S t e n d e r - P e t e r sen,-. Op. c i t . ,• p . ItlS • 52. G .Makogonenko , O p . c i t . , • p . 348. See a l s o G . G u k o v s k y , I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y X V I I I . v e k a , (1939) ,• 345-346. 53 . I b i d . , 357. 54« V . V s e v o l o d s k y - G e r h g r o s s , O p . c i t . , p . 216. 55. L . B a r a g , " K o m e d i y a P o n v i z i n a N e d o r o s l ' " , p . 104. 56. N o y e s , O p - . c i t . ,• p . Ill, 57. G .Makogonenko , O p . c i t . , p . 360. 58. B . V a r n e k e , O p . c i t . , p . 145. 59. G . N o y e s , O p . c i t . , p . 44* 6 0 . I b i d . , p . 4 4 . 61 . I b i d . , , p . 8 2 . 62. I b i d . , p . 57. 6 3 . I b i d . , p . 8 2 . N o t e t h a t Noyes has C i p h e r k i n i n s t e a d o f T s y f i r k i n . 64« I b i d . , p . 34. 65. I b i d . , p . 66. 66. B . V a r n e k e , O p . c i t . , p . 143. 67. A . S t e n d e r - P e t e r s e n , Op. c i t . , p . 4^9. 68. Y e . P e r e l ' m u t t e r , " Y a z y k i S t i l ' K o m e d i i P o n v i z i n a N e d o r o s l ' " , (1949), p.. 21. 69. A . I l y u s h i n , "0 Y a z y k e K o m e d i i D . I . P o n v i z i n a N e d o r o s l ' " , (1967), p . 12. 100 70. L . B a r a g , O p . c i t . , . p . 109. 71. - I b i d . ,p!07. 72. K l a s s i k i R u s s k o i Dramy, (1952), p . i+5. 73* Y e . P e r e l ' m u t t e r , O p . c i t . , p . 21. 7J4.. P o n v i z i n , S o b . S o c h . , - I , 119. See a l s o L o G a t t o , O p . c i t . , p.128. 75. V i n o g r a d o v , 0 Y a z y k e K h u d o z h e s t v e n n o i L i t e r a t u r y , (1959),P.4-71. 76. N o y e s , O p . c i t . , p . 33. 77. F o n v i z i n , S o b . S o c h . , I , p.137. 78. N o y e s , O p . c i t . , p . 53- 79. I b i d . , p . Sh- 80. I b i d . , p . 55 . 81. I b i d . , p . 70. 82. F o n v i z i n . , Sob . S o c h . , I , l 6 i i . 83. G . G u k o v s k y , I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y i O b s h c h e s t v e n n o i M y s l i , p . 191. Qh. D . W e l s h , " S a t i r i c a l Themes i n 18 - t h C e n t u r y R u s s i a n C o m e d i e s " , p.. J j . l l . 85. V . K l y u c h e v s k y , O p . c i t . , p . 282. 101 FOOTNOTE TO EPILOGUE 1. A . S . P u s h k i n , E v g e n i i One-gin, (1968), p . $7- 1 0 2 APPENDIX A — CHRONOLOGY 171+5 Denis Ivanovich P o n v i z i n born i n Moscow A p r i l 3 / l i j - . 17^3-1758 e a r l y school l i f e ; wins gold medals. 1 7 5 9 - 1 7 6 1 s t u d i e s at S t . Petersburg U n i v e r s i t y ; wins gold medals. 1 7 6 1 - 1 7 6 9 t r a n s l a t o r f o r " C o l l e g i a f o r Foreign A f f a i r s * . 1 7 6 1 - 1 7 6 2 t r a n s l a t e s Holberg's f a b l e s , Ovid, V o l t a i r e , Terras son; Torg Semi Muz. 1 7 6 2 - 1 7 6 3 t r a v e l s i n German s t a t e s . 1 7 6 3 - 176i i . presents Korion, L i s i t s a - K o z n o d e i , Poslaniye k slugam moyim, K umu moyemu, Poslaniye K YamshchikovuT 1 7 6 5 - 1 7 6 6 t r a n s l a t e s I o s i f , gtorguyushcheye dvoryanstvo and Sokra- sheniye o v o l ' n o s t i . 1 7 6 9 - 1 7 8 2 serves under Count Panin. 1 7 6 9 B r i g a d i r ; t r a n s l a t e s S i d n e i _ i S i l l i 1 7 7 1 Slovo na vyzdorovleniye... 177J+ marries; works on Rassuzhdeniye o gosudarstye voobshche... 1 7 7 6 - 1 7 7 8 works on Rassuzhdeniye o nepremennykh zakonakh 1 7 7 7 - 1 7 7 8 t r i p to Prance 1777 Slovo pokhval 1noye Marku A b r e l i y u 1779 Ta - Gio... 1 7 8 2 Nedorosl' 1 7 8 2 - 1 7 9 2 r e t i r e s ; spends l i f e t r a v e l l i n g and w r i t i n g 1 7 8 3 Povestovaniye mnimogo..., Poucheniye govorennoye v dukhov . den' . • ., Chelohitnaya r o s s i i s k o i Minerve.•., Neskol'ko vop- rosov..., Opyt r o s s i i s k o g o S o s l o v n i k a , Nachertaniye d l y a S o s t a v l e n i y a 1 7 8 3 - 1 7 8 8 Drug chestnykh. l y u d e i (... Pridvornaya Grammatika 1 7 8 3 ) . 1 7 8 k Zhizn' Grafa Panina; excerpt of Dobry Nastavnik. 1 7 8 L - 1 7 8 5 t r i p abroad to I t a l y 103 1785 f a l l s i l l with paralysis 1785 Rassuzhdeniye 0 natsional'nom lyubochesti 1786 K a l l i s f a n 1787 t r i p to Southern Europe 1789- 1792 Chistoserdechnoye priznaniye... (not finished) 1790- 1792 Vybor Gubernera (not finished) "1792 dies December 1/12 10k APPENDIX B — BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS A k a d e m i y a Nauk SSSR. I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y . v o l . k. I z d a t - e l ' s t v o A k a d e m i i Nauk~ ( H e n c e f o r t h , a b b r e v i a t e d as I z . A k . N a u k ) Moscow ; L e n i n g r a d : 19lj-7. . I z I s t o r i i r u s s k i k h l i t e r a t u r n y k h o t n o s h e n i i X V I I I v . I z .AkTNauk" . M o s c o w - L e n i n g r a d : 195"9. . R u s s k i y e D r a m a t u r g i y e . I z . A k . N a u k . M o s c o w - L e n i n g r a d : T9T^rr - . Vo pro sy I z u c h e n i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y X I - X X v e k o v . I z . A k . N a u k ' . M o s c o w - L e m n g r a c l T~T95"8. A . A l f e r o v . S b o r n i k v o p r o s o v po i s t o r i i r u s s k o i l i t e r a t u r y . n . d . , n . B . N . A s e y e v . R u s s k i i D r a m a t i c h e s k i i T e a t r 17-18 v e k o v . G o s u d a r s t - vennoye I z d a t e l ' s t v o " I ' s k u s s T v o ^ ( T h e n c e f o r t h a b b r e v i a t e d as G o s . I z . " I s k . " ) M o s c o w . : 1958. I . M . B a d a l i c h and V . D . K u z ' m i n a . P a m y a t n i k i R u s s k o i S h k o l ' n o i Dramy X V I I I v e k a . I z . A k . N a u k . Moscow : 19o"o\ P . N . B e r k o v . I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i Z h u r n a l i s t i k i X V I I I v e k a . I z . A k . N a u k . M o s c o w - L e n i n g r a d : 1952. . L i t e r a r i s c h e W e c h s e l b e z i e h u n g e n z w i s c h e n R u s s l a n d und_ W e s t e u r o p a im 18 J a h r h u n d e r t " " R u t t e n und L o e n i n g . B e r l i n : 1968 , E d i t o r . R u s s k a y a Komediya i K o m i c h e s k a y a O p e r a l8 - o g o v e k a . G o s . I z. uIsin ^ ~ M o s c o w : 1950. . V v e d e n i y e v i z u c h e n i y e i s t o r i i r u s s k o i l i t e r a t u r y X V I I I v e k a . I z d a t e l ' s t v o L e n i n g r a d s k o g o U n i v e r s i t e t a . L e n i n g r a d :196k D . D . B l a g o i . F o n v i z i n . G o s u d a r s t v e n n o y e I z d a t e l ' s t v o " K h u d o z h e s t v e n - n a y a L i t e r a t u r a " ( h e n c e f o r t h a b b r e v i a t e d as G o s . I z . " K h u z h . L i t . " ) Moscow : 19k5. - , E d i t o r . I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y . v o l . 1. I z . A k . N a u k M o s c o w - L e n i n g r a d : 1958". . I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y X V I I I - o g o v e k a . G o s u d a r s t - vennoye U c h e b n o - P e d a g o g i c h e s k o y e I z d a t e l ' s t v o . T h e n c e f o r t h ab - b r e v i a t e d as G o s . U c h . P e d . I z . ) Moscow : 19k5. . I s t o r i y a R u s s k o i L i t e r a t u r y X V I I I - o g o v e k a . G o s . U c h . P e d . I z . Moscow : 19£ l . io5 : . I s t o r i y a Russkoi L i t e r a t u r y XVIII-ogo veka. Gos.Uch. ~ Ped.Iz. "T^scow": "T955T" • ~~ "' E.B.O.E.Borgerhoff. The E v o l u t i o n of L i b e r a l Theory and P r a c t i c e i n the French Theatre 1 6 7 0 - 1 7 5 * 7 . Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press. Princeton : 1 9 3 6 . Peter Brang. Studien zu Theorie und Pra x i s der russischen erzah- lung 1 7 7 0-1811. Otto Harrassowitz. Wiesbaden :~ I960. N.L.Brodsky,Editor. Denis Ivanovich F o n v i z i n . B i b l i o t e k a SSSR Iraeni V.I.Lenina. Moscow : I9I4.5. I.A.Bunin. Russkive P i s a t e l i . I z d a t e l ' s t v o Zeraski Gorodski Dey- a t e l e i Z a g r a n i t s e i . P a r i s : 1921. N.G.Ghernishevsky. Polnoye Sobraniye S o c h i n e n i i . v o l . I I . Gos.Iz. "Khuzh.Lit." Moscow : 191+9. D.Chizhevsky. A H i s t o r y of Russian L i t e r a t u r e . Mouton and Co. The Hague : 19"6TT" Arthur P.Coleman. Humour i n the Russian Comedy_ from Catherine to Gogol' . A.M.S. Press Inc. "New York : 19o*6T S.S.Danilov. Ocherki po I s t o r i i Russkogo Dramaticheskogo Teatra. Gos . I z . "Isk. " Moscow-Leningrad : 19~l4-8. Denis Diderot. Oeuvres Completes, tome 7 . E d i t i o n s G amier F r e r e s . P a r i s : 1875 Wolf Diiwel, E d i t o r . Geschichte der k l a s s i s c h e n russischen l i t e r a - t u r . Aufbau - Verlag B e r l i n und Weimar : 1 9 6 5 . ' ' M a r c e l l e Ehrard. La L i t t e r a t u r e Russe. Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France. P a r i s : 1963*7" * N i c o l a s E v r e i n o f f (see also'Y e v r e i n o v ) . H i s t o i r e du. Theatre Russe. t r a n s l a t e d by. G.Welter. E d i t i o n s du Chene. P a r i s : 1 9 i i 7 . D.I.Fonvizin. B r i g a d i r . Nedorosl'. I z d a t e l ' s t v o S.P.B. S t . P e t e r s - burg : 191^7^ . B r i g a d i r , Nedorosl'. Gos.Iz."Khuzh.Lit." Moscow : 1 9 5 0 . . Izbrannyye Sochineniya i Pis'ma. L.B.Svetlova, N.L, Brodsky, e d i t o r s . Gos . Iz . "Khuzh.LitT^Moscow .: 1 9 I 4 . 7 . . Nedorosl'. Bradda Books L t d . Letchworth, H e r t f o r d s h i r e , England 'T'l^DTr" . Sobraniye S o c h i n e n i i v dvukh tomakh. Gos.Iz."Khuzh.Lit" Moscow - Leningrad : 1959. 1 0 6 . Sochlneniya. Vvedensky, E d i t o r . A.P.Marx. S t . P e t e r s - — b u r g . rmr.—— F e l i x G a i f f e . Le drame en France au 18 s i e c l e . L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n . , P a r i s : 19,10. N i k o l a i Gogol'. Polnoye Sobraniye S o c h i n e n i i . v o l . V I I I . Gos.Iz. "Khuzh.Lit .'^Le'ningrad V I93T2. Ivan A.Goncharov. Sobraniye S o c h i n e n i i v vo3'mi tomakh. Gos.Iz. 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