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The White Goddess as muse in the poetry of W.B. Yeats Slinn, Eunice 1969

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THE  WHITE GODDESS  AS MUSE IN THE  POETRY OF W.  B. YEATS  by  EUNICE B.A.(Hons.)»  A  THESIS THE  SLINN  University  o f Y o r k , 1966  SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER  in  OF ARTS  the Department of English  We  accept  required  THE  this  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  standard  U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H May, 1969  COLUMBIA  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  the U n i v e r s i t y of  make  British  it f r e e l y available  that permission  for  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  representatives. thesis  It  this  that  study. thesis  for financial  is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n gain s h a l l  written permission.  Department o f  English  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  D a t e  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r  by h i s of  in p a r t i a l  Columbia  11th August. 1971.  not  be allowed without my  ABSTRACT  Inspiration insistent  cognate  Graves' sources  in Celtic  o f t h e Muse i s  in i t s principal  aspects  i s synonymous  lore.  Danaan;  t h e Danaans were the  "dwindled  tion.  the The  first  m a j o r poem "The  Oisin."  The  return  after  the  t h r e e hundred  and  seductive vision  f a i r y denizens of O i s i n "  the  and  companions years  be as  considered the  Leanhaun  a goddess of the Tuatha  and  who  of C e l t i c  of deathly  predominate  in his first  s e d u c t i o n o f a m o r t a l by structure  of  "The  i n the  from  inspirai n Yeats'  t h r e e volumes a  fairy  Wanderings  the  of away  a l l human e x p e r i e n c e ;  immortal  of m o r t a l i t y .  Sidhe.  stories  s i n i s t e r Niamh e n t i c e s O i s i n and  De  finally  f a i r y folk, o r  his collections  e q u i v o c a l d i a l e c t i c of and  may  poets  t h e Muse's g i f t  controlling  insufficiencies  the  and  her  ornately beautiful  to the  establishes  and  Wanderings  h i s cherished Fenian  ever,  prose  C e l t i c theme o f  provides  The  slayer,  similar  i s described i n  d i v i n i t i e s of ancient E i r e  a c t i v i t i e s and  Leanhaun Sidhe  enchantress  and  i m a g i n a t i o n " t o become t h e  of Y e a t s '  Sidhe's  poetry.  White Goddess  t h e L e a n h a u n S i d h e was  i n the popular  Fractions portray  The  f o r t h e G a e l i c Muse, c e l e b r a t e d by  Originally,  an  concept  s i n i s t e r White Goddess, which d e r i v e s from  Sidhe.  from  and  o f t h e Muse i s  His particular  of a t r i a d o f mother, b e l o v e d  the prototype  of  i n the m y t h i c a l f i g u r e  poetry.  C e l t i c mythology,  with Robert  terms  embodied  theme i n Y e a t s '  drawn from  or  as  realm,  "The  Oisin  Wanderings  f a i r y and  longs of  to  Oisin"  human o r d e r s ,  i n e s c a p a b l e f a c t , w h i c h u n d e r l i e s much o f  how-  of  Yeats'  i i i l a t e r work.  The  attributes  White Goddess, she tion  and  r e p r e s e n t s the beloved  destruction  qualities,  coincide;  notably, her  o f CrOssways and  In  second  the  facility  ceive  cendent  cannot  upon t h e Rood  Her  t h e Rose  o f Time  finite  ("To  and  the  immortal  conversely her beauty  i t s destruction.  meditates  upon t h e  counterweight In  and  of the  apocalyptic  archetype,  flight  The  into  and  Yeats  Rose.  Muse) f o r to  again the  pertrans-  transfixed Her  role but  W i n d among t h e  fairyland.  Sidhe with unceasing  desire;  The  Reeds poet  there i s  no  vision.  s u b j e c t to change, the poet Although  o f The  be-  to c r e a t e the world,  becomes a c r e a t u r e o f m o r t a l i t y .  transiency.  of  treatment  p r o m p t s God  crea-  fairy  Rose remains  t h e p o e t r y o f 1 9 0 4 - 1 0 , t h e Muse r e t a i n s h e r  Goddess, but ful  effects  to a l l u r i n g  to the  a l l o w s him but  of  As  individual  t h e R o s e u p o n t h e Rood o f T i m e " ) . she  a climactic  seminal.  (the C e l t i c  inspiration  as W h i t e G o d d e s s i s e m p h a t i c :  embodies  possesses  u n d e r l y i n g t h e phenomenal w o r l d ,  deny t h e  also  t o t h e Muse f i g u r e s  supplicates  t o s i n g Danaan songs.  the essence  she  Niamh i s c o m p a r a b l e  particularly  volume, Yeats  are  i n whom t h e d u a l i t i e s  i n addition  sadness.  guilers this  of the Leanhaun Sidhe  m o r t a l , she  laments  S i n c e she  her  cruel  The  the e p i c  savagery  of  White  i s both  fickleness  i s t h e human o r i g i n a l  endows h e r w i t h  the C e l t i c w a r r i o r queens.  role  f o r the  changeand  her  heroic  and r e c k l e s s n e s s  M o r r i g u becomes t h e s o u r c e o f  inspir-  ation. After as  The  Green Helmet  a major s t r u c t u r a l  theme.  and  Other  Yeats  work of a r t , t h e h i g h l y - w r o u g h t  Poems t h e Muse no  longer  becomes p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h  artefact,  rather  than with  the  the  serves finished  inspiration  iv for  t h a t work.  Hynes o r H e l e n , Muse a s an  artefact  impassioned  prominent dual  Yeats  the  aged  universe.  but  the poet  proves  poem t o t r e a t  established  and  Muse i s t h e  the l a t e  c r e a t e s h e r , she  this  change, y e t even  life,  Wanderings  "The  c r e a t e him.  p o e t who  Tower" i s the  here Yeats  the r e s o l u t i o n  cannot  echoing  celebrates  The render  most  reaffirms the  his  pattern  Oisin."  p o e t r y , t h e W h i t e G o d d e s s a s Muse i s t o t a l l y  turns to the persona poet  of  does n o t  o f t h e aged  to female beauty.  t o a r t and  i n "The  l e g e n d a r y d e s t r u c t i v e b e l o v e d , Mary  the i n v e n t i o n  dedication  allegiance  In  The  of the  fleshly  Crazy Jane;  t h e p l e a s u r e s o f t h e body and  disavowed  interestingly,  of the  physical  CONTENTS  Chapter  I.  II.  III.  IV.  Page  THE WHITE GODDESS  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  1  THE CALL OF THE SIDHE  18  THE MORTAL AND HEROIC MUSE  48  SELF-CREATION  70  I N OLD A G E : THE MUSE AS ARTEFACT  S E L E C T E D BIBLIOGRAPHY  100  THE WHITE GODDESS AS MUSE I N THE POETRY OF W. B. YEATS  CHAPTER  THE  The  of  the poet's  a work o f a r t , s t a t e s  the psyche  which  collective  unconscious."^  a r e most v i a b l e mythology  WHITE GODDESS  Muse i s t h e m y t h i c a l embodiment  the prompter of  I  that  this  Jung,  stimulus arises  when t h e y a r e of symbols  from  primordial  Images e m e r g e f r o m  reservoir  source  of  i n his discussion  c o n t a i n s man's f a t h o m l e s s  f o r Jung  i s the  verse.  of the  this  inspiration, of  the  genesis  the depths  experience,  mysterious  of the  realm  and  of m y t h o l o g i c a l d e r i v a t i o n , from  primitive  times.  He  since  desig-  2 nates  the unconscious  "the  that  a feminine figure  from  this  realm.  metaphor has Byzantium  images beget over  the mothers,"  s h o u l d embody t h e  into  a l l divergent types  i t i s appropriate  impulses  generated  for inspiration,  and  v a r i o u s , more c o m p l e x m e t a p h o r s ,  fresh  the  and  creative  Muse i s t h e m e t a p h o r  developed  Muses p r e s i d i n g ever,  The  realm of  ones.  There  a r e , f o r example,  arts, with Calliope a r e subsumed by  as p o e t i c  as the  this Yeats' nine  inspiration.  a highly-wrought  How-  metaphor f o r  3 the M u s e — i n This to  Robert  Graves'  comprehensive  terminology, the  metaphor  t h e Y e a t s i a n Muse, t h e L e a n h a u n  Gravesean that  creed w i l l  indicate.  the White Goddess  i s the  triple  for inspiration Sidhe,  as  White  Goddess.  is directly  a brief  survey of  In a p r o d i g i o u s study, Graves inspiration  f o r and  universal  referable the claims  s u b j e c t of  4 all  "true poetry."  of mythologies  from  C l o t h e d i n many g u i s e s , s h e the B r i t i s h  Isles  i s also  to the Caucasus  and  the p r o t a g o n i s t numerous  2 examples  of the figure  Albina  (England's  cribes  t h e Goddess  elaborates, death and  close  of l i f e ,  final  solely  pattern  of birth  She i s t h e c r e a t o r  and t h e e a r t h l y  trinity  dependent  Demeter, Danu.  cause  conflict  represents the duality  upon t h e f i g u r e  of the beloved.  and s p e c i f i c a l l y cycle  over  o f man's d e s t i n y  s o woman s i t s  In the  indicates, tional  destiny  arbitress  the poet's  i s always  addition  and d e s t r u c t i o n  calling.  physical She encom-  a n d was t h u s w o r s h i p p e d  fate.  of destiny,  face  symbol  types  appro-  o f new, f u l l  and  i n l i t e r a t u r e and but p r i n -  A s t h e moon c o n t r o l s t h e o f t h e e b b a n d f l o w o f human  endowed w i t h t h e f e m a l e  completely disparate  strumpet  pictorial  leading to  As t h e c r e a t i v e  of the "feminine mystique,"  t h e image i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  Elizabethan  and b a t t l e ,  generation, both  t h e enchantment  i n such  love  of creation  myth, e v o k i n g  ample,  o r , as he  and b a t t l e ,  as t h e moon-goddess w i t h h e r t h r e e - f o l d  circumstance;  des-  j o y o f t h e b e l o v e d b e t w e e n t h e s e two  T h e moon i s , o f c o u r s e , a f e m a l e  tides,  Graves  and d e s t r o y e r , t h e o r i g i n  w a n i n g moon.  cipally  and s l a y e r ,  and growth,  o f E a r t h Mother, she p r e s i d e s over  t h e whole  priately  Ishtar,  as A l p h i t o ,  death.  intellectual,  passes  catalogued, such  o f mother, beloved  the vagaries of love phase,  principle and  i n terms  i n the t r i a d i c  Graves' as  eponymous g o d d e s s ) ,  and d i v i n a t i o n . ^  ultimates; the  are religiously  as t h e T h r e e  gender,  f o r ex-  F a t e s and t h a t  of fortune.  to discussing  f e a t u r e s , which  she has a white  the concept  o f t h e Muse, G r a v e s  accompany h e r p o r t r a y a l .  beauty,  and e t y m o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n s  and Graves  registers  of the colour,  such  lists  As h e r e p i p h e t varied  associa-  as t h e w h i t e n e s s  of  the  moon, a woman's b o d y , p e a r l b a r l e y ,  d e a t h and  leprosy.^  ness, which in  "The  Red ally  is illustrated  Ancient  lips,  Leprosy  ity,  voracious, lives  placed  Graves' d e i t y  hair  and  her  as  the  with  i s the  eyes water,  the  spine  excess  white-  the  or  Goddess  function. of  not can  usual  dramatic  idealized figure. only  the  mythical  A l l L i v i n g , " the death.  "The  This  dedication  or  of to  fine aristocratic  reads  the  love  her  queen bee  the skin  a true  own  is  hair  female  should  invest  stands  crawls  and  on a  poem i s t h a t  urbane i r o n y , would not  the  end, shiver a  true  Muse."^  a p r i m i t i v e d e i t y may  Graves h i m s e l f  is  fertil-  or  White Goddess, or  p o s e and  She  world-picture;  savagery  r e a s o n why  writes  invocation  barbarity.  the  M e l o d r a m a t i c emphasis  i s c o n s t r i c t e d , the  when one  are  is essentially unchivalric, for  M o t h e r , who  barbarism  throat  complexion  a l l - p o w e r f u l but  horror:  were f r e e , as g o l d ,  Goddess.  i s hideous  obsessive  c i l a b l e with Yeats' prevents  the  "Mother of  poem i s n e c e s s a r i l y an Graves  to an  original  a palpable  r u n s down t h e  s t a r k l y white  reproductive  s p i d e r , whose embrace poetry  spectre,  d e s c r i p t i o n of d e a t h - i n - l i f e  s k i n was w h i t e as l e p r o s y . N i g h t m a r e L i f e - i n - D e a t h was she, Who t h i c k s man's b l o o d w i t h c o l d .  primitive Earth  the  of her  Her The  f o r her  upon  renowned  aspect  l i p s were r e d , her l o o k s Her l o c k s were y e l l o w  a t t r i b u t e s of  characterizes  the  horrific  a wave, a  Her  Graves' obeisance he  i n that  the  foam o f  Mariner":  yellow  pictorial  suggests  the  seem  irrecon-  which  relish  the  com-  8 parison,  yet  Y e a t s ' w o r k shows a p r o f o u n d  concern with  the  White  Goddess  4 Hoffman has  pointed  out  the  similarity  between  the  two  poets  in  this  context:  I f we a r e t e m p t e d t o t h i n k o f t h e W h i t e G o d d e s s a s a n i d i o s y n c r a t i c f i g m e n t o f one p o e t ' s c o m p u l s i o n s , o r a s a f i g u r e s h a p e d b y c e r t a i n modern w r i t e r s , t h e i n a c c u r a c y o f s u c h a s s u m p t i o n s s h o u l d be e v i d e n t i f o n l y b e c a u s e we h a v e met t h i s woman b e f o r e , b r i n g i n g h e r g i f t s o f e c s t a s y and doom. Yeats c a l l e d her A o i f e . Cuchulain, her m o r t a l l o v e r , t o o k h e r b o d y i n a h o l y p l a c e on t h e m o u n t a i n a c r o s s the sea, i n the land of s p i r i t s . . . . A t t h e e n d o f The D e a t h o f C u c h u l a i n t h e h e r o i s b e s e t and b e s i e g e d b y f e m a l e f i g u r e s o f f a t a l i t y : h i s enemy i n b a t t l e i s Queen M a e v e , h i s d y i n g v i s i o n i s o f A o i f e , h i s d i v i n e nemesis i s the M o r r i g u , crow-headed goddess of war who ' a r r a n g e d t h e d a n c e ' . . . The r i t u a l s a c r i f i c e o f a m o r t a l l o v e r t o a n i m m o r t a l f e m a l e i s t h e theme a l s o o f o t h e r l a t e p l a y s o f Y e a t s , A F u l l Moon i n M a r c h and T h e K i n g o f t h e G r e a t C l o c k T o w e r . 9  H e r e , H o f f m a n makes p a r t i c u l a r intend  to  concentrate  the White Goddess evident origin  as  Graves'  w o r k show c l e a r  Celtic  in  The  in Celtic  White Goddess  u p o n t h e Muse i n h e r  i s the  Graves two  and' t h e H a n e s T a l i e s i n ,  lore,  of  possessed  mythology:  source  this  and  examined Welsh  discussed conjointly.  mythology  lore  was  and  can be  folk  the  equation  o f Gwion, h e r o  of  the  celebrated Irish warrior.  i n and  legend,  the  The  with  same o r  two  and  principally  important  Cad  cognate  types, a prominent with  knowledge  Goddeu  Irish  divisions  the Hanes T a l i e s i n , Another  It i s  same  extensive  studying  preoccupied  comprise  p r o v i d e numerous c o r r e l a t i v e  Calliope;  the  c e n t u r y W e l s h poems, t h e  whereas Yeats  I  type.  a strong interest  thirteenth  as  of p o e t i c c r e a t i v i t y .  sinister  Irish  two  role  Y e a t s ' m y t h o l o g i c a l knowledge  H o w e v e r , W e l s h and the  t h e a t r i c a l Muse, b u t  comment t h a t t h e Y e a t s i a n Muse s h a r e s  evidences  Both poets of  exclusively  f o r Graves  i n Hoffman's  r e f e r e n c e to the  of  myth. myths  Celtic  example  Fionn  or  c o m p a r i s o n may  being Finn,  be  drawn  5 between  "the b l a c k screaming  the I r i s h aspect ian  death  of the t r i p l e  cycle  as Morgan  Yeats quered their  and  l e Faye,  Graves  r e s i d e n c e as  society.  of  Fighting  ists  The  Men  Morrigan  also  of c o l d ,  darkness  indicating  alludes  (Danu),  De  De  and The  D a n a a n , who  death,  con-  to take  up  g o d d e s s Danu was  De  the  pantheon  D a n a a n as  the m o t h e r - g o d d e s s L a d y  Danaan,.culminating  third  i n the A r t h u r -  a matriarchal  account  and  "the Fate."  to the Tuatha  begins with a b r i e f  of the Tuatha  figures  c o n s i d e r the Tuatha  t h e gods o f a n c i e n t E i r e .  frequently  i n t h e Hanes T a l i e s i n  t h e M o r r i g a n ; ^ b o t h embody t h e  these d i v i n i t i e s ,  Yeats  Cerridwen,  " l e Faye" meaning  amply  deities  t h e gods o f Dana  and  goddess,  Goddess.  the Formorah,  sole parent  of  and war  hag,"  and  the  race  Gregory's  Gods  of the o r i g i n  and  protagon-  i n a r e f e r e n c e t o Dana, mother  12 of  the gods,  Gaels, and  who  "was  the Tuatha  De  beyond  Danaan r e t i r e d  t h e a r t i f i c e r , Manannah,  abodes,  so  as Y e a t s  that  points  them a l l . " into  t h e Danaans  see  their  the h i l l s  established  o n l y t h e gods m i g h t out,  After  and  d e f e a t by raths  imperceptible walls and  "dwindled  pass  through  of  the Eire,  around  them.  their  Finally,  i n the popular i m a g i n a t i o n " to  13 become t h e S i d h e , with  relation As  o f war  and  such under  i t i s t h e S i d h e who  t o t h e Muse i n Y e a t s ' e a r l y  I mentioned  Cerridwen. facet  and  death She  previously,  among t h e T u a t h a embodies  the type  o f t h e G o d d e s s , and as  their  feet,  and  they  De  fell,  D a n a a n , and  the I r i s h  of the d e s t r u c t i v e fiercely  "many s l i p p e d striking  role  verse.  the Morrigu or Morrigan  i s always  a t Magh T u i r e a d h , w h e r e  assume a p r e - e m i n e n t  engaged  i s the  equivalent  female,  the  one  of  third  in terrible  i n the b l o o d that  t h e i r heads  goddess  battle, was  against  6 another." of  14  Here,  Indech's  ford  the v i r u l e n t  blood,  of Unius;  and  and  i n Cuchulain's  fare:  she  fights  t h e Brown B u l l  gave i t t o t h e  i t was  Later  Morrigu  called  time,  "took  armies  the Ford  the  the  two  of D e s t r u c t i o n from  C u c h u l a i n i n v a r i o u s shapes incites  of her  hands  t h a t were w a i t i n g a t  the Morrigu.causes  of Cualgne,  full  the  that  much d i s s e n s i o n and and,  opposing  at the great  ranks  "like  a  day." war-  Battle  of  lean,  16 grey-haired the  form  hag."  of a hideous  Chapter of  that  Morrigu  danger  of  to  be  chapter V was  the daughter  i f any  would  Sidhe,  the  Sweetheart  mentions  of death  the  and  correlation  of  the  was  t h e Danaans  and  the p r o t a g o n i s t of  the 18  known a s  sons two  o r Anan, a t i t l e  t h e M u n s t e r moon-goddess A i n e ; of  Sidhe."^ and  the  the Morrigan.  Thus,  they  Here,  chapter  relation  He  o f Danu, has  the  Ana,  been  Sweetheart  Babd  her  emphasizes o f how  she  of the  identified  Sidhe  taken  was  the  also  that  Macha,  the  caused  the with  the  i n her malign and  and  Aine's  Graves  Ana  the  in  of poetry  p o i n t s out  of p l e n t y , but  trinity,  w o u l d be  called  a t Magh M u c r u i m h e . figures.  to  called  t h e Muse i s  i n her beneficent f o l e ,  goddess fate  t h a t was  s t o n e he  and  as  some s a i d was  to give g i f t s  l o v e t o men,  herself,  h i s seven  that  stratagems  t h e Muse: "And  to her  used  vengeful character i n a brief  Danaan goddess Ana  creator  she  of the  to the  o f Manannan, b u t  s i t on  . . . and  o f t e n gave h e r  of O i l i o l l  i s devoted  a stone belonging one  his wits  goddess  o f t h e Goddess o f t e n assumes  f o c u s e s upon A i n e ,  she  malevolent, deaths  F i g h t i n g Men  and  the  aspect  crone.  t h e r e was  And  losing  music,  Leanan  and  herself,  destructive  i n Gods and  some s a i d  Cathair Aine.  of  IV  the Morrigu,  Aine,  The  aspect,  together  and  the  gruesome M o r r i g u  comprise  the  Y e a t s makes a number collections Peasantry,  of he  Irish  of  tales.  speaks  of  Janus-like face of references  In F a i r y  the  the  Muse.  t o the Leanhaun Sidhe  and  Folk Tales  G a e l i c Muse who  "gives  of  the  in his  Irish  inspiration  to  those  19 she  persecutes,  and  will  not  l e t them r e m a i n  Irish  Fairy  Tales  he  observes:  their  life.  Most  of  the  L e a n h a u n Shee f o r she Gaelic Muse—this  "Her  malignant  on  earth,"  and  l o v e r s w a s t e away f o r s h e  G a e l i c poets  gives  long  down t o r e c e n t  inspiration  to her  fairy.  l o v e r s , the  Her  times,  slaves  and  in  lives  on  have had  i s indeed  Gaelic poets,  a the  died  20 young." the  Clearly,  the White Goddess would  I r i s h Muse, whose g i f t  d e a t h w h i c h she  exacts.  of  inspiration  Gods and  themne f u r n i s h s e v e r a l e x a m p l e s ample, B r i g i t ,  ugly of  side to her  those  queens  descriptive butes, the  who  face  and  reputed  her  the  the  detail  poets,  and  had  "fiery  Cuchulain  of  qualities; beautiful 21  arrow."  a  letter  E t a i n , f o r example, has  the  prescribed  stock  analogy  f o r the  the  for  and  Also  for  Muir-  the  that  meet  prototype  i s consumed b y  dual one  the  to  of  fatality  as  love  feminine  name means  for their  and  F i g h t i n g Men  w o r s h i p p e d by  stipulations.  even to  rowan  was  of  serve  ex-  one  number  Graves'  Goddess'  attril i p s —  berry:  H e r s o f t h a n d s w e r e a s w h i t e as t h e snow o f a s i n g l e n i g h t , and h e r e y e s as b l u e as any b l u e f l o w e r , and h e r l i p s as r e d as t h e b e r r i e s o f t h e r o w a n - t r e e , . a n d h e r body as w h i t e as t h e foam o f a wave. The b r i g h t l i g h t o f t h e moon was i n h e r f a c e . 2 2 However, f u r t h e r d o c u m e n t a t i o n with  the  mythical  archetype  i s superfluous  is sufficiently  since Yeats'  clear.  acquaintance  8 Yeats' prose reveals of  significances  essay,  some c o n c e r n w i t h  i t accrues i n the writings  "On t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f S h e l l e y ' s  f i g u r e may b e i n c o r p o r a t e d distinct  from Graves'  into  tight  the type  and w i t h  the range  of other poets.  Yeats'  Poetry," i l l u s t r a t e s  how t h e  a flexible  structure  formula, although Yeats  o f meaning still  totally  associates the 23  figure with i t s mythical origins plains  that  separation of  that  Shelleyan inspiration from  Inspiration  i s "a k i n d  the p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s  inspiration  earthly  and m y t h i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t s .  requires  passes beyond the poet's  e x p e r i e n c e , and Y e a t s  o f time  death  death  remarks  of death"  Yeats ex-  for i t entails  and p l a c e ;  thus  a symbol  t o become " a l i v i n g  born  soul."  to the concrete p a r t i c u l a r s of that  this  death  comes a s a m i s t r e s s :  H e a r d s t t h o u n o t , . t h a t t h o s e who d i e Awake i n a w o r l d o f e c s t a s y ? T h a t l o v e , when l i m b s a r e i n t e r w o v e n , And s l e e p , when t h e n i g h t o f l i f e i s c l o v e n , And t h o u g h t , t o t h e w o r l d ' s d i m b o u n d a r i e s And m u s i c , when o n e b e l o v e d i s s i n g i n g , Is death?  Death  imaged  as t h e music-tongued b e l o v e d i s n o t t h e d r e a d f u l  the White Goddess e x a c t e d ecstasy.  The p o e t ' s  ultaneously an  implied  clinging,  through  inspiration  grim b a t t l e ,  t h e gateway t o  prompts him t o c r e a t e p o e t r y , b u t s i m -  impels him towards Romantic parallel  but rather  penalty of  transcendence,  between s e x u a l and a e s t h e t i c  death.  creation,  There i s  and i n A  24 Vision  t h e two a r e u n i t e d  establishes  i n Phase F i f t e e n .  a new o r d e r o f r e a l i t y ,  The death  when t h e p o e t w i l l  i n inspiration  "rise  above t h e  25 ordinary gards  n a t u r e o f man,  Shelley  i n terms  fade before our imperfect o r i g i n s . " of the poet  a n d p r o p h e t who  Yeats r e -  f o r e s e e s h i s own  9 death  into  Reeds. and  Here, Yeats  this  often  rapture; Yeats  satisfaction  the  fairy  the world,  asserting life  and  world  enriched l i f e ,  transmutation  that  that,  must be  Unbound; b o t h  poets  only death  can y i e l d  also  as  i n "Adonais,"  reversed.  which Yeats  the  r o l e h i m s e l f i n The  He  of base metals  the demise of  this  i s described i n erotic  mistress.  death  by  avers  adopts  into  evisions  Death  imagine  that  doom a n d  gold.  catastrophe for  analogy with  a phoenix  must  the  the a l c h e m i c a l  theme o f  arise  of  bringing  regeneration  central  the  beloved,  usual understanding  Worldly the  among  fulfilment,  the  i s transfiguration,  d e s c r i b e s by  old order i s also  the poet  p h r a s i n g as  our  Wind  facilitated  Prometheus  from.the  ashes  of  destruction. Yeats Beauty  and  tures—the and to  the  minister  the  Shelleyan death-in-life  assigns her Devas o f  Sidhe.  glittering of  sees  a host  of e t h e r e a l  beloved  attendants  the E a s t , the Elemental S p i r i t s  In Yeats' p o e t r y , the mysterious  to the Leanhaun Sidhe throng.  the p e r f e c t i o n  They a r e  the  of essence,  moter w o r l d which v i s i t  us  as  they  fleeting  or i n Yeats'  i n sleep,"  as  Intellectual  from  various  of Mediaeval  Sidhe  seem  culEurope,  similarly  ride with her  i n their  promise  i d e a l world  terms  "spiritual  o f an the  swift, and  "gleams o f a r e -  essences  whose  shadows  26 are  the d e l i g h t s  of a l l the  among t h o s e p l a c e s h a u n t e d nOg, the  where t h e w o r l d ' s Shelleyan poetic  Unbound  "utters  country people,  senses." by  last  the S i d h e — t h e  battle will  ethos with C e l t i c  a faith  as  i n a form  Yeats  simple suited  and  be  ponders Echtge  fought.  S h e l l e y ' s work  hills  Thus, he  myth, commenting as  and  that  Slieve  na  juxtaposes Prometheus  ancient^as the f a i t h of those 27 t o a new a g e . " The s u b s t a n c e o f t h e  10 Celtic  and S h e l l e y a n v i s i o n One  places so  of Yeats'  is-the  motives  the trappings  f o r turning to Celtic  lore  h i s p o e t r y w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e p o p u l a r  t h a t he does n o t e x p r e s s  Preface  thoughts  ascribes  i s t h a t myth  folk  imagination,  voices  In h i s  the necessity f o r a  o f t h e s u n a n d moon" i n a r t ; t o t h e moon h e a s c r i b e s t h e and e m o t i o n s  "spinners  differ.  a closed, p r i v a t e transcendence.  t o Gods a n d F i g h t i n g Men, Y e a t s  "marriage  Yeats'  same, o n l y  and r e a p e r s  f a s h i o n e d b y t h e community,  folk  o u t o f t h e common  and t o t h e s u n he  the individual  insistence  imposition of a r t i s t i c  upon t h e u n i o n  aesthetic  process  Dionysian  principles  impulse,"  parallels  songs i n v e n t e d by  28 and j o y .  discipline  o f t h e two f o r t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e  Nietzsche's  i n creativity,  combination  and t h e s e  o f A p o l l o n i a n and  principles  are also aligned  29 with  sexual  creation.  source  of the a r t i s t i c  vidual  poet  process  and i n f u s e d w i t h  myth i s c l o s e l y poetry with  Thus, myth, imaged  and i t s m a t i e r e  i s shaped by t h e i n d i -  joy, anticipating  associated with  the C e l t i c  a s t h e moon, p r o v i d e s t h e  "Lapis L a z u l i . "  t h e Muse a n d h e n c e Y e a t s '  Initially,  Intellectual mind  Beauty  he p o i n t s o u t t h a t  lating  and t r o u b l e .  the generation  i nthe  t h e moon  t h e K e a t s i a n moon i m a g e  S h e l l e y pondered  He t h e n  t o t h e White Goddess  c h a n g e , a n d "As m i s t r e s s and  interprets  and t h a t i t evoked p l e a s u r a b l e s e n s a t i o n s  o f i t s c r e a t o r , whereas  of weariness  concern  o r G a e l i c Muse.  In d i s c u s s i n g S h e l l e y a n symbolism, Yeats image.  Irish  figure.  unfolds  an a g g r e g a t i o n  she governs  o f t h i n g s , f o r , as Porphyry  i nthe  u p o n t h e moon w i t h  T h e moon i s t h e v e r y  of the waters  represents  o f meanings r e image o f  the l i f e  says,  a sense  of instinct  even t h e  11 'apparition.of  images' i n t h e 'imagination'  i s through  'an e x c e s s  of  30 moisture.'" ation that  Clearly,  and t h e f l u x she p r e s i d e s  t h e moon g o v e r n s p h y s i c a l a n d i m a g i n a t i v e  of destiny. over  the "joyless i d l e  Presumably,  t h e moon e n v i s a g e d  vacillating  fortunes  brates  ordered  whereas K e a t s '  E x p a n d i n g upon h e r l a t t e r  provokes  drifting"  as t h e c o n t r o l l e r  l o v e o f "embodied  the  flesh"  (to use Yeats'  the  image.  Yeats himself  terms),  he  of generated  o f man's  Shelley's alleged malaise:  permanence, r e l e g a t i n g e x i s t e n c e  role,  genernotes  beings.  shapeless, Shelley  to a curse  cele-  i n "Adonais,"  t h i n g s , " o f " e m o t i o n s made s l e e p y b y explains h i s pleasurable  seems t o p r e s e r v e  both  responses  acceptance of i n much o f h i s  poetry. He a s s i g n s mistress their her  of fate,  experience  arrows."  f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e s t o t h e image s a y i n g  may a l s o b e t h e m o t h e r o f G o d , o r may v i s i t  As t h e s o v e r e i g n  of a l l earthly vicissitude,  and j o y , m e l a n c h o l y  tion  o f a l l phenomena, as s h e i s t h e p o e t ' s  Other meanings a r e noted,  and d e a t h .  but Yeats  since  t h e moon i s t h e "most  value  seems i n v o l v e d w i t h  duced  to a prose  listing.  She i s t h e s o u r c e stimulus  changeable  i t s Protean  o f symbols"  Yeats  multiplicity  of possible s i g n i f i c a n c e s enclosed  He c o n s i d e r s  imagery  t o b e "enwoven w i t h  meanings," and e x p l a i n s  nature:  destina-  destiny.  exhaustive,  and s i n c e any symbol's  repeats  cannot be r e -  h i s view o f the  within a single  many r i c h  the important  " I t i s o n l y by a n c i e n t  them  shoot  she gives  and f i n a l  changeability that  In the essay,  and  and f i n a l  does n o t c o n s i d e r  t h e moon,  men i n  o f j o y a s i n E n d y m i o n , o r " s h e may d e n y l i f e  life  "dim  that  threads"  image.  a n d many  purpose of i t s m u l t i - f a c e t e d  symbols, by symbols  t h a t have  numberless  12 meanings b e s i d e s half-score  he  the  one  or  two  the w r i t e r l a y s  knows o f , t h a t a n y  the barrenness  and  shallowness  an  emphasis upon, o r  h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e a r t can  of a  too  conscious  escape  the  from  arrangement, i n t o  the  31 a b u n d a n c e and  depth  of n a t u r e . "  This  major d i s t i n c t i o n  between Graves'  one  a rigid  treats  variety  her  of  as  complex  and  t o w a r d s w h i c h he  complex a t t i t u d e s .  Hoffman p o i n t s out  with  formula  energies, tion  i t finally  poet's  of  being  of  my  Yeats'  "into  craft.  analysis  A  ological Sidhe  voracity  the  a b u n d a n c e and secondary of  are of  aim  the  names and  precipitated of  of  m e a n i n g s and  associations  and  the  figure.  of  of  this  figure,  p r o t a g o n i s t s , and  the  G o d d e s s , as  into  D e i r d r e and  transcendence,  ruin  Helen. and  with  The  and  dim  in a  such  the  excellence  intentions  variousness possesses  nuances, which  reduc-  obsession  characteristic  and  creative  thematic  particular  of  of  obsession  shaped h i s  one  the  equal v a r i e t y Graves'  Muse a r c h e t y p e  of  bold,  shade g r a d u a l l y  i s to c o n c e n t r a t e upon the often preserves  the e a r l y Yeats  i n "The bloodshed  This voracity the  the  a  nature."  study  In  an  o f h i s own  Goddess:  clothes her  No  subtle v i t a l i t y  f o r Yeats  features.  bed.  i m a g e , and  indeterminate, depth  evinces  Muse h a s  changing  i s to i n d i c a t e  conception  the  Thus, Y e a t s '  other  l i b e r a t e d and 32  became a P r o c r u s t e a n  a many-coloured  sculptured  the  initially  of the  that although  i s p o s s i b l e i n Y e a t s ' work because  —the  theory underscores  Yeats' view  formula, whereas the  forms,  his inviolable  symbolic  the  original  p o e t r y , Niamh and  often retains  the  mythical myth-  the band  mythical  Rose o f the W o r l d " where n a t i o n s by  the  are  languid, inexorable beauties  is allied  attribution  of  with notions of  of i n d i v i d u a l ,  Romantic  e v e n humane  aspects.  13 The Goddess  m u l t i p l e expressions of the mythical archetype  i n Yeats'  particular of  the  of approach  femme f a t a l e  critical of  angle  p o e t r y d e f i n e s the  opinion.  Salome as  the  specific  i s especially  a r e a o f my  important  i n Y e a t s ' work i s s e l f - e v i d e n t Frank  of the  interest.  s i n c e the  and  Image," t h e  symbolic  A  presence  i s established  Kermode, f o r example, d i s c u s s e s Y e a t s '  "Romantic  White  in  figure  dance f o r which  the  cost  33 is  human s a c r i f i c e .  the  Symbolist  plexity  of  essarily  and  the  aesthetic  critical  ".  about  last  appearing  dismisses  i t s close  from  time  dwelt  the  of  the Herodiade,  he  of  figure  in  full  com-  seems u n n e c -  association with mythical  Salome by  such  out  Celticdom,  e v i d e n t and  fairies  to time, burst  much u p o n h i s own  "Celtic  f o r the  W h i l s t developing the  association with  contamination  y e a r s , when he  ilarly  the precedents  implications  sustains this  . . the  mind, and,  illustrates  A e s t h e t i c Movements.  even though Yeats design:  He  persisted  flourishing 34  mythologies."  careful  in  in  Yeats's  the  Bloom  m y t h o l o g i c a l b a g g a g e " o f The  sim-  W i n d among  the  35 Reeds.  T h e r e f o r e , I hope t o emphasize  symbolism  and  vision, The  not  allusion  the  poetry,  and  i s the  apocalyptic  vision.  inspiration  as  poet  the Leanhaun Sidhe,  i s d e l i n e a t e d as  she  fairy Her  and  of  realm  the  integrated  which  agrees  presence  o r b e c a u s e she  with  mythological  part of  are merely  orthodox  and  she  remains  assumes  the  form  tolerable.  In the  deceitful, the  Yeats'  image i n Y e a t s '  various figure.  s e d u c t i v e , at times  portrayal  Celtic  i s a prominent  a shifting,  a k i n d of v i s i t a t i o n ,  e i t h e r because her  transcendent  a legitimate  d e c o r a t i v e appurtenances,  White Goddess,  poetry  are  that  and  early at  concept  e x t e r n a l to  o f an  i s a separate i d e n t i t y  times  advent i n the  of  the  from  a  finite  14 world,  n a m e l y Maud G o n n e .  artefact effort  of the poet's  and n o t t h r o u g h  Finally,  intensive  t h e Muse i s e n v i s a g e d  labour, attained  instantaneous  vision.  as t h e wrought  only through  laborious  15  NQTES  and pp.  "*"C. G. J u n g , Modern. Man i n S e a r c h o f a S o u l , t r a n s . W. S. D e l l C a r y F . B a y n e s ( 1 9 3 3 ; r p t . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , n . d . ) , 152-72. 2 Jung,  p . 170.  3 Robert Faber,  Graves, The White  Goddess  (1948;  r p t . London: Faber and  1962). 4 Graves,  p p . 9-10.  ^Graves,  p . 70.  Graves,  p . 67.  ^Graves,  p . 24.  g See G r a v e s ' comment i n T h e C r o w n i n g P r i v i l e g e ( L o n d o n : C a s s e l & Co., 1 9 5 5 : " Y e a t s h a d a new t e c h n i q u e , b u t n o t h i n g t o s a y , u n l e s s one c o u n t s t h e l i t e r a r y b a l l a d s w r i t t e n f o r t h e I r i s h War o f L i b e r a t i o n . I n s t e a d o f t h e M u s e , h e e m p l o y s a V e n t r i l o q u i s t ' s dummy c a l l e d C r a z y J a n e . B u t s t i l l h e h a d n o t h i n g t o s a y . What w i l l a p o o r c o u n t r y m a n do i f h e h a s n o s h e e p o f h i s own a n d b a d l y n e e d s a warm w a i s t c o a t ? He w i l l go o u t w i t h a b a g i n t o h i s n e i g h b o u r ' s f i e l d s and c o l l e c t s t r a n d s o f wool from hedges and brambles. This Yeats d i d . " Hereafter a l l references t o Graves w i l l be t o The White Goddess.  9 D a n i e l Hoffman, B a r b a r o u s Knowledge: Myth i n t h e P o e t r y o f Y e a t s , G r a v e s , a n d M i i i r ( 1 9 6 7 ; r p t . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 200. ^Graves,  p . 143.  '''''"Peter A l l t a n d R u s s e l K. A l s p a c h . T h e " V a r i o r u m E d i t i o n o f t h e Poems o f W. B. Y e a t s (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 5 7 ) , p p . 7 9 6 , 8 0 0 . Graves c o n s i d e r s t h e Danaans t o p o s s e s s an h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n , i d e n t i f y i n g them as t h e B r o n z e A g e P e l a s g i a n s who i n v a d e d I r e l a n d . The P e l a s g i a n s had w o r s h i p p e d t h e p r e - A c h a e a n g o d d e s s , D a n a e , whom G r a v e s e q u a t e s w i t h t h e mother-goddess o f t h e Aegean, Danuna. (p. 64). 12 Lady 1919),  Gregory,  Gods a n d F i g h t i n g Men (1904;  r p t . London:  Murray,  p . 2. 13  W. B. Y e a t s , I r i s h rary,  n . d . ) , p . 1.  Fairy  and F o l k T a l e s  (New Y o r k : M o d e r n  Lib-  16 14  Gods and  F i g h t i n g Men,  p.  58.  "*"^Gods and  F i g h t i n g Men,  p.  59.  16 Lady Gregory, C u c h u l a i n 1903), p.  of Muirthemne  (1902; r p t . London:  Murray,  262.  "^Gods and  F i g h t i n g Men,  p.  86.  " ^ G r a v e s , p . 370 . 19 W.  B.  (London: W a l t e r 20 W. 230.  See 21  B.  also  Yeats,  Irish  Scott, Yeats, Irish  F a i r y and  1888), p. Irish  Folk  of  the  Irish  Peasantry,  81.  Fairy Tales  F a i r y and  Tales  Folk  ( L o n d o n : T.  Tales,  Gods and  F i g h t i n g Men,  p.  2.  Gods and  F i g h t i n g Men,  p.  91.  p.  F i s h e r Unwin),  p.  86.  22 23 W. B. Y e a t s , E s s a y s and I n t r o d u c t i o n s ( 1 9 6 1 ; r p t . L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 65-95. 24 W. B. Y e a t s , A V i s i o n ( L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 3 7 ) , p p . 1 3 5 - 3 7 . H. H. V e n d l e r e x a m i n e s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e s e x u a l and a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s i n Y e a t s ' s V i s i o n and t h e L a t e r P l a y s ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 22-23. 25„ 26 ' E s s a y s  and  Introductions.  and  Introductions,  r 27 E s s a y s 28 W.  B.  Yeats,  Preface  i n Gods and  F i g h t i n g Men,  pp.  xix-xxi.  29 J o h n Quinn had i n t r o d u c e d Y e a t s t o N i e t z s c h e ' s works i n 1901. Y e a t s r e a d them i n t e n s i v e l y d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1 9 0 2 - 3 , and i t i s t h u s p r o b a b l e t h a t T h e B i r t h o f T r a g e d y d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e 1904 Preface. 30 E s s a y s and I n t r o d u c t i o n s , p . 9 1 . 31 F s s a y s and I n t r o d u c t i o n s , p . 87. 32 Hoffman, p.  219.  33 F r a n k Kermode, The and  Kegan P a u l ,  1957), pp.  Romantic 74-76.  Of  Image  (1957; r p t . London:  course,  there  are  Routledge  multiple  approaches  17 possible examined. fatal  t o t h e femme f a t a l e Critics  a diversity  women o f E l i z a b e t h a n t r a g e d y  Romantic  and P r e - R a p h a e l i t e  t r a n s . Angus D a v i d s o n entirely  different  the n i n e t e e n t h the  theme a n d m u l t i p l e s o u r c e s  have c i t e d  vation  approach  century,  l o v e l y Medusa.  poets.  to the deathly Mario  (London: Oxford  c o u l d be  Praz's  enchantresses The Romantic  University Press,  from t h e of the  Agony,  1954) a d o p t s an  t o t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e femme f a t a l e i n  studying  My e m p h a s i s  and i t s m y t h o l o g i c a l  which  of influences ranging  the p a t h o l o g i c a l aspects i s primarily  expression  of the type,  upon i t s m y t h o l o g i c a l  or associations i n Yeats'  deri-  verse.  34 Kermode, p . 75. Harold p. 122.  Bloom, Y e a t s  (New Y o r k :  Oxford  University Press,  1970),  CHAPTER I I  THE  CALL OF THE SIDHE  i  In  a celebrated  that h i s early r e a l world, insight heart  and abused  poetry i s "almost  a n d a summons  letter  t o K a t h e r i n e Tynan, Yeats  a l l a flight  to that  flight.  into  fairyland  Critical  o p i n i o n has u s u a l l y  comment a s c a n o n i c a l a n d i n v e s t e d  i twith  that  "flight"  seems t o a t t a c h t o t h e t e r m s  Lentricchia observes  do p o i n t  that  deterministic  c r y of the accepted  the t r a d i t i o n a l  Rajan and  Lentricchia  characterization  Yeats'  opprobrium  and " f a i r y l a n d . "  to ambiguities i n fairyland:  "Yeats'  from t h e  . . . I t i s not a poetry of  and knowledge, b u t o f l o n g i n g and c o m p l a i n t — - t h e  a g a i n s t necessity.""'"  says  acutely  of the e m p i r i c a l 2  world  as ' n e c e s s i t y '  whilst  Rajan  suggests  comments  t h a t h e was s h a p e d  "The dream h a u n t s  b y what h e s o d e t e s t e d , "  the world,  and t h e w o r l d t h e  3 d r e a m ; man, b e i n g man, c a n make no l a s t i n g both  finally  early  in  towards  works u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  worlds less  orientate  a r e "both  subdued  youthful  be censured;  because  escapism,  the contraries  and a e s t h e t i c a l l y  further,  o f t h e dream and r e a l  ineffective."^  However, u n -  content, the fairyland  theme  i t does n o t s e r v e as an ornament  but bears multiple  human p h e n o m e n a l w o r l d  Yet  t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l judgement, f i n d i n g t h e  p o e t r y i s t o have a p r e s c r i b e d  itself  c h o i c e between them."  significances.  cannot of Yeats'  Itsrelation  i s f r e q u e n t l y more e q u i v o c a l t h a n  critics  to the  suggest,  19 and  the haunting  Muse, i n t o  summons o f  supernature  The  Sidhe's  i s fraught with  call  C r o s s w a y s , The  R o s e and  Beloved  of  Sidhe  chapter  that  Tuatha their lure  De  the  the poet  appear  The  Beauty,  are  passage  her  that  the  Yeats'  among the  folk,  first  Reeds;  denizens.  fairy  Sidhe,  roles  I mentioned  the  The  structure  the m o r t a l world, beyond  the ravages  Muse i s p r o m i n e n t I n "The  are the  adopted  the  story  legend,  the  among t h i s  Philosophy  "ministering  of  the of  Sidhe sorrow,  legendary  call  of  i n the  the  first  purpose  the During to  conflict throng,  of  and who  Shelley's Poetry,"  spirits"  Yeats  Intellectual  death.  i s assigned  s e d u c t i o n o f a m o r t a l by  literature  f o r "The  volumes,  The  Muse i s  chequered,  attributes.  theme o f  common i n C e l t i c  Celtic  d i m i n u t i v e forms o f  a m y t h o l o g i c a l s t e r e o t y p e , but  and  three  i t i s the  a m i s t r e s s w h o s e e n j o y m e n t means t h e p o e t ' s  shifting  the  e a g e r l y e x p l a i n s i n v a r i o u s contexts."*  island  Sidhe  of  ambiguity.  through  fairy  the  retinue.  the  Wind  through  to their  d e s c r i b e d as  Oisin  The  or other  Sidhe  Celtic  t o be  mentions  resonates  Danaan,. as Y e a t s  fleeting  change.  not  the  the Enchantress  and  Wanderings from  myth.^  I t provides  of O i s i n , " Yeats'  a number o f p r o s e  principally  a  M i c h a e l Comyn's  and  the  first  poetic  "The  fairy  Lay  enchantress  is  controlling  m a j o r poem.  v e r s i o n s of of O i s i n  on  Yeats  the the  Land  g of  Youth."  he  r e c o n s t r u c t s the n a r r a t i v e  and  Though Y e a t s  narrative  details  utilizes  established  features of t h i s  p a t t e r n w i t h many i n n o v a t o r y  i n order  t o c o n v e y h i s own  particular  story,  descriptive aesthetic i n -  tention. At  the beginning  of  "The  Wanderings of O i s i n , "  Oisin  relates  how  20 " p e a r l - p a l e " Niamh c o n f r o n t e d t h e F e n i a n h u n t i n g - p a r t y a t t h e verge.  Niamh's p i c t o r i a l  attributes  t h e w h o l e o f t h e Y e a t s i a n c a n o n and  best exemplify  the White Goddess i n  are d r a m a t i c a l l y  vivid:  And f o u n d on t h e d o v e - g r e y e d g e o f t h e A p e a r l - p a l e , h i g h - b o r n l a d y , who rode On  a horse with b r i d l e  a sunset were her l i p s , s u n s e t on doomed s h i p s ;  A  c o l o u r gloomed  citron  Of  ornate  against the  and  the  loved  and  many a f i g u r e d  sinister  of her  vouchsafes  names a b o v e . ' "  effects  Oisin's  that  of  Her  actual  aesthetic minating as  we  rode  Symbolist  role  out  She from  causes  set your i n that  she  be-  name she  entices  Fenians  h i s s e p a r a t i o n from  departure  as  t o human e x p e r i e n c e ,  society;  t h e human l a n d s . "  beauty,  of h i s poetry,  /And  richly-cherished  process which O i s i n ' s  closer  songs  set  acclaims her  creation  rather h i s death  the  horse  destructive  i s e v i d e n t , not  p r e s e n t , contemporary  his relationship  i t approaches  the  make a t h o u s a n d  death, but  her  immediately  inspire  destructive  o f the pagan w o r l d . "But  on h e r w h i t e  conveys  Oisin  away f r o m h i s c o m p a n i o n s - a t - a r m s ,  condition:  o f Niamh  the sea  she w i l l  I will  to h i s e x i s t e n c e i n that  glories  hair,  embroidery.  description  attraction.  b e c o m e h i s M u s e : "'And all  i n her  down t o h e r f e e t w h i t e v e s t u r e f l o w e d , w i t h t h e glimmering c r i m s o n glowed  shadowy m a r g i n  fatality  sea  findrinny;  And l i k e A stormy But And  The  of  sea's  and  closer  to creative  the  t h e human  Grossman e x p l a i n s t h e represents: i n  t o t h e Muse, t h e p o e t w r i t e s a poem w h i c h  and  him  realization,  cul"must,  destroy i t -  9 self  in relation  creative  impulse,  to time." he  As  the poet  becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y  consummates e x p r e s s i o n o f remote from  the  temporal  the flux;  21 the  Leanhaun Sidhe  fulfilment. kind  of  As  death  Yeats  place.^  aged  close  the  and  The aware o f artifice, his  have passed  only  wait  of  the  r e g i s t e r s the  cesses  of  the  Patrick  to O i s i n ' s  up  nature  as  whereas  The  Oisin's  the  image o f  through  the  thou  eminent  symbols The  facet  of  thousand for  moon a s  the  the  has  In  Sidhe's  and  von  alien,  of  that  terms of  both  the  love.  The  are  poem's showing  bard,  transcending  who  the  dialogue  pro-  in and  applies  original  i m a g e may  became one  of  "Vacillation."  pagandom: "You the  pagan  between  i t  are limp  rejoinder:  evoke the  of Yeats'  directly  still  face  pre-  Goddess.  a c o n t r o l l i n g image i n Niamh's r e a l m s u g g e s t s  White Goddess  changed,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c view  Hugel  replaces  of  weak,  irrevocably  i n the  doomed s h i p s  s t i l l ! T h e  ships-Helen, White  the  indicates  evil—a  lures  "Oisin,  a  by  prefigures  the  among h e a t h e n d r e a m s , " w h i c h a r t h a l f heathen  is preternaturally  s a i n t , P a t r i c k , sees O i s i n ' s  opposition heart  of  death.  inherent  a destructive  unchristened  destruction  launched  the  a  e n t i r e r e g a l pageant  reality  Patrick  of  wrecked  that  of  poetic  particularity  c o l o u r f u l d e s c r i p t i o n o f Niamh,  ambivalence  Christianity.  picks  the  o f Niamh's l o v e .  the  imagination,  poet with h i s  and  he  his  inspiration is  the  replaced  antinomic values  straightforwardly  monistic  The  b e t w e e n O i s i n and  Oisin,  love  returns,  away t o be  inspiring  Shelley,  transcends  companions  destructiveness  recognition  poet  on  through  f o r impending p h y s i c a l  O i s i n expresses  the  the  death; h i s  dialogue  the  life  i n h i s essay  Christianity.  O i s i n can  poet's  When O i s i n f i n a l l y  to  pagan world  "prayerful"  says  through which  t i m e and and  consumes t h e  configuration  of  r o l e s and  symbols.  another Niamh  22 alludes they  to the  journey  l a n d where she w i l l  towards  the  setting  be  "when t h e w h i t e  sun,  as  in a l l Celtic  moon c l i m b s " quests  into  and the  12 Otherworld. M  like  a white  Ireland the  I t i s a land of moonlit rose."  (Mangan's  Yeats  perhaps  "Dark R o s a l e e n " ) ,  r o s e as  Celtic  Muse i n The  exclusively  Celtic  transcendence,  on w h i c h he  performed  Oisin's  rejoicing until  (probably, at  the  island  f o r the he  r o s e as  Oisin  Immortals adopts  of p r e t e r n a t u r a l  age  island  and  of  experiences  an harp  Danaan m e a s u r e s .  terminates with itself The  of  i n v o c a t i o n of  t h r o w away t h e  their  a p a l e r o s e w i t h e r [ s ] away."  between the  symbolic  his later  forms o f n a t u r e  t h e demon's v o i c e ) s i n g s o f  transition  to the  Certainly,  the L i v i n g the  w h e r e t h e moon i n a l w a y s  foreshadowing  Rose.  of  i n permanency u n t i l  " t h e moon l i k e  refers  human s o n g s and  s o j o u r n i n the Land  pageantry,  a Danaan dissolve,  elusive  Song, and  monotone  t h e moon's d e s t r u c t i v e c a p a c i t y conflict  (of V i c t o r i e s )  and  the  sleep:  'I h e a r my s o u l d r o p down i n t o d e c a y , And M a n a n n a n ' s d a r k t o w e r , s t o n e a f t e r s t o n e , G a t h e r s e a - s l i m e and f a l l t h e s e a w a r d way, And t h e moon g o a d t h e w a t e r s n i g h t a n d d a y , T h a t a l l be overthrown. 'But t i l l t h e moon h a s t a k e n a l l , I wage War on t h e m i g h t i e s t men u n d e r t h e s k i e s , And t h e y h a v e f a l l e n o r f l e d , age a f t e r a g e . '  These complex,  factors  t r a n s f o r m what  richly-patterned  figure,  appears  clearly  a wan,  abstract  more s u b s t a n t i a l  Niamh i n t o than  a  "the  13 shadows  that  people  t h e Howth t h i c k e t , "  though p o s s e s s i n g a  enchantment which e m b e l l i s h e s , r a t h e r than these  roles  and  qualities  are  geared  to her  d e t r a c t s from, relationship  her  dream-like appeal.  to the  poet,  A l l  23 O i s i n , which  requires  analysis  f o r Niamh's  full  importance  t o be  elic-  ited. Niamh s o u g h t poet.  Oisin  perate  gulf  out O i s i n  immediately of  love";  of h i s i n f a t u a t i o n . the  subject  is  of earthly  typical  it  since  Oisin  battle,  but  she  she  T h u s , he  Vivien's  "Love  the White Goddess;  Graves  satisfied  and,  the b r i l l i a n t l y  white  Danaan r e a l m , which  motif  of  note  that  island, an  versions  island  that  "a s t o r y  record  island  and  Yeats  fatality  and  Niamh  the  Her  demand  h i s permanent tyrannical Sidhe  insists  death.  three  sep-  injunction upon  Oisin  Sidhe, rides  into  islands—-the The  d e p a r t u r e from a l l  explains  Oisin's  as  military  of F o r g e t f u l n e s s .  a significant  legend.  in Silva  t o t h e n o r t h , an  comprises  of V i c t o r i e s  poems do n o t  this  of the  "des-  at a l l or a l l i n  the poet's  the horse  constitutes  of the O i s i n  the G a e l i c  but  mounting  (of Youth),  the three i s l a n d s  previous  not  the Leahaun  only with  the  the  commitment.  views  clearly,  terms  of the L i v i n g  promises  me  and  t h e human r e a l m  s u r r e n d e r to her e x a c t i o n causes  is finally  into  suggest  o n l y renounces  a c c e p t s Niamh's  Land  fallen  i t s epithet  enjoins total  the A r t h u r i a n world.  of  having  intends to preserve the s o c i a l  to the Tennysonian  from  as  image and  Initially,  Merlin's final  aration  Oisin's  offer,  to h i s cherished Fenians.  analogous  all";  o f h i s r e n o w n as b o t h w a r r i o r  accepts her  f o r h i s p o e t r y ; he  allegiances spoils  because  i n an  accompanying  j o u r n e y t o more t h a n  one  G a d e l i c a describes 'four p a r a d i s e s , ' t o t h e w e s t , an  island  to the  south,  14 and  Adam's p a r a d i s e i n t h e e a s t . "  lished and  until  cannot  be  three years regarded  as  after  The  a source.  However, S i l v a Wanderings Yeats  G a d e l i c a was  of O i s i n  is tailoring  and  Other  the myth  not  pub-  Poems to  24 accommodate h i s own the a l l e g e d The Immortals arena  "secret first  every  carcass into day  Lastly,  dreaming  age,  giantsi  f o r he Yeats  principal  stages  process  through  the  embodied  poetry  has  the  into  by w h i t e ,  and  p o i n t e d out  that  and  of  preternaturally  the  youth The  by  colour of  transmuted  of joyous  the  and  three  love,  Muse h a s  led  t a b l e a u x o f i m a g e s o f human  beneath  a distinctive  i s i t s " t r a n s p a r e n c y , " f o r "poet  of  decrepitude."'""'  reality  immortal  Niamh i s s u p e r c e d e d  significance  the permanent  the unchanging  i n an  f a d e d when t h e s e v e n f o l d  seems t o h a v e i s o l a t e d  of somnambulistic  restored  of F o r g e t f u l n e s s , a realm  of pearl-pale changing  i s the  achievement  is  only a deathless death  i n m y t h i c a l archetypes, or i n P l a t o n i c  realm of essence, Lentricchia  suffer  immortality, inhabited  glass  island  c a s t s h i s demonic  t h e demon's l i f e  o f human p r o c e s s : t h e p e r i o d and  j o y , where  the m a t u r i t y of v i c t o r i o u s  whiteness  Yeats  mature c o n f l i c t  the poet  can  l o v e and second  Here, at sunset O i s i n  reflecting  the poet's v i s i o n .  The  "Weary w i t h p a s s i o n s t h a t  The  "aged w h i t e n e s s , "  dance.  p o r t r a y s the I s l a n d  were  seas were young."  of  and  the waves, but  of Tithonic who  i s discernible despite  of p e r p e t u a l youth,  i n e n d l e s s song  youthful revelry.  fourth  world.  of  i s one  of perpetual c o n f l i c t ,  opponent's  i n t e n t i o n , which  symbols."  island  carouse  following  aged  aesthetic  the  terms,  into  the  inexorable flux.  feature of  the  poem l o o k i n t o  early  a world  of  16 essence." tion  Yeats'  of p o e t i c  exists,  really  symbolism,  vision, or  his archetypal pattern,  which enables  him  i s the m a n i f e s t a -  t o r e p r e s e n t "what  actually  unchangeably.""^  S t r a n g e l y , however,  the poet  finds  the  three dimensions  of  the  25 transcendent m i n a t e d by staff  vision Oisin's  insufficient. encountering  from a dead w a r r i o r ' s  beech,  and  a  fallen  Sceolan  and  Oisin  f o r the  l o s s of  e v e n human f l a w s "sweet." Oisin, in the in  strength  honour  of  poetic  was  their  the  those at h i s the  human w o r l d  the  three so  that  she  bell-branch  fluttering  sadness  c a r r i e d by  the  In Yeats'  Irish  the  ected  from  Irish  gleeman's c a l l i n g .  Fenian  islands  that  Bloom  i n t e r p r e t s the  must  can he  of  Brigit,  bell-branch  as  an  a  Almhuin foray  with  compensate would  welcome  tongue would  be  wandering  there  moves  alive  Graves mentions  poets  Ireland,  the  ollaves,  i s therefore  the  insignia  and  of  to  a Book o f  bell-branch  its fruit  ter-  earth.'"  Dedication  N o v e l i s t s , " the  the  l o s e O i s i n : "'0 /For  is  world:  morning  finally  i s naught,  sacred  "The  Since  sojourn  mortal  weaknesses; even Conan's s l a n d e r o u s  triple-goddess,  office.  of  year  a beech-bough r e c a l l i n g  None o f  the  of  f i n g e r s the  bell-branch  for  and  like  T h u s , Niamh r e a l i z e s  the  your  Lomair.  hundred  some r e m i n d e r  lance,  starling  Bran,  E a c h one  clearly  induces  Stories  Sel-  symbolizes  "inhuman  emblem o f what  that  the  sleep,"  i t effects—super-  18 natural  sleep,  transports with  the  the  poet  i t i s rather i n t o the  poetic process  Forgetfulness the  but  are  bell-branch,  b o t h L e t h e a n and And And  music  of  of  inhuman dream o f  for Yeats,  " d u l l with the  a symbol  the  and  the  smoke o f  the art.  eyes of their  i t s tinkling  poetic  bells  calling  Dreaming the  lulls  Oisin into  Grania,  raiment,  the  Fenians  moved  i n loud streams, w a l k i n g and s m i l i n g , sewed w i t h n e e d l e of bone.  of  When t h e y  Celtic: by,me, i n s o f t  i s correlated  creatures  dreams."  which  her  sway  dreams,  26 So  lived  I and  lived  not,  so wrought  not, with  The  Muse h a s  borne him  the  finished,  into  complete  the world  forms of  of C e l t i c  l o v e , war  and  o r d i n a r y human s o r r o w , - w h i c h Niamh i m a g e s as tangible,  i n Oisin's  beyond, but of  to l o s e  t h e human a n d  Oisin's  hands.  irrevocably,  fairy  r e t u r n to the  and  fancy,,it  no  man  dismal  cheat  one  finally  knows w h i c h  At  this  is  transformed  has  stage  an  i s the  of  the  into  beauty  cheat  ing  loving  w i t h man.  chantment  and  but  These elegant  him  as  The she  to The  dream has  contraries  the powerful,  from  a r t i s an exotic  i n "To and  sinister  and  human b l o o d ; n o r  can  she  grace.  and the  the  a figure  immortal  to subscribe to that  was  atavistic  Sidhe she  ideal . Time." and yet  the White lusting  sufferen-  Goddess for  t o o much o f a image.  no  deceives.  of dream-like  bitch-goddess  f o r Y e a t s , who  sense,  that  i s destructive  Though assuming  the Gravesean  ever-be  i n one  illusion  goddess of  deceptive, l o f t i l y  a m b i g u i t i e s merge i n t o feminine  proves,  anticipating  she  the  do.  t h e Rose upon t h e Rood o f  qualities:  to  the  "weeping h e a d " ; . s t r a n g e l y ,  h e r human v i c t i m ,  w i t h man  idyll  following  i t s cost:  to  of  penetrate  t o g a z e on  i s famed  flawless  him  r e s o l v e i s never  " I t were sad  of content:  Niamh" w i t h  i s not  a gentleman  so w e l l  island  she  and  enabled  of  immediate,  d e c e p t i o n , f o r Niamh c o n f e s s e s  characteristics,  cian  alive,  admitted  Niamh e v i n c e s m u l t i p l e r o l e s creative,  bereft  of a  "lost  which s u f f e r s  has  to O i s i n  quest,  c o n t r a c t e d sorrow  a bird,  earth, his valedictory  again, declaring  seems, c a n n o t  and  but  common l o t o f man.  I loved of o l d there."  Niamh's p r o m i s e a  the  mythical archetypes,  age,  l o v e has  wrought  dreams.  d o m a i n s a r e p o i g n a n t l y s u s t a i n e d ; and  f o r s a k e h i s companions blessed  Niamh's  I and  c r e a t u r e s of  patri-  27 i i  They s t o l e  little  Bridget  For seven years long; When s h e came down a g a i n Her f r i e n d s were a l l gone. They took her l i g h t l y back, B e t w e e n t h e n i g h t and m o r r o w , T h e y t h o u g h t t h a t s h e was f a s t a s l e e p , But  s h e was  dead w i t h  sorrow.  William Allingham,  Seductive v i s i o n prominent R o s e and "The and  themes i n Y e a t s ' The  Wind  Madness  it  stories  belongs  ing  the  Sidhe and  Sidhe  "leafy  In Crossways,  Stolen Child" and  poems i n Y e a t s '  contrive  the  fairyland  "The  of the  upon t h e C e l t i c  Fairy  culture.  and  I n "The  t h e human c h i l d  t h e human w o r l d realization  Folk Tales,  to t h e i r  of sorrow;  of  the  frolics. sorrow,  simplicity, The but  denied  fairies  ominous  to the  Sidhe  are d i s t i n c t l y  and  trickily  Celtic-gay,  deceptive.  the  loss.  fairy of  of  because the  revels  concludThe  the peace  of  their boisterous  concerned  Rajan  and  motif  joyous  yet  child's  indulging  The  Stolen Child,"  i s d e p r i v e d o f t h e h o m e s p u n p l e a s u r e s w h i c h b r i n g man  domestic  are  Stolen Child"  a n t h o l o g i z e d among a g r o u p  Irish  folk  to lure  fairies'  into  equivocal dialectic  i s based  is fittingly  to I r i s h  of f l i g h t  Fairies"  t h r e e volumes of p o e t r y — C r o s s w a y s ,  p r e s e r v e the  i s l a n d " beyond  v e r s e unmasks  child  "The  essentially  mischievous on  the  ambiguity  first  of King G o l l "  a b d u c t i o n by  the  among t h e R e e d s .  human o r d e r s .  cognate  and  "The  f o r human  ventures  so  f a r as  to  19 see of  an  element  of sheer  terror  the  Sidhe's  activities  i n the  i s boldly  final  stanza;  presented  certainly  i n Allingham's  the  terror  seemingly  28 light-hearted Folk Tales.  poem, "The F a i r i e s , " w h i c h p r e f a c e s Y e a t s ' I r i s h Yet, Yeats' Terrible  Sidhe  seem  Fairy  and  t o be r e s e r v e d f o r The Wind  among t h e R e e d s . The d i s c r e d i t e d , more t h a n Child"  intellectually  the embroidery  p o s s e s s e s what  does n o t meet  of the e a r l y  Jeffares  exactly  disreputable  fairies  are  poems, a n d a l t h o u g h "The  terms "an a i r y  his other,ascriptions  delicacy  clearly Stolen  and g r a c e , " i t  o f "an i n n o c e n c e  and t h e  20 charm o f u n r e a l i t y . " the  terrors  "The M a d n e s s  intrinsic  to the c r e a t i v e  "Among Y e a t s ' e a r l i e s t pact  on Y e a t s  overthrown  p o w e r , h e becomes  b y t h e madness  realizes  p r o c e s s , as Grossman  'King G o l l '  o f t h e muse o f I r e l a n d .  ing h i s temporal is  poems,  of King G o l l "  d e c l a r e s most  T h e a c t i v e man  a p o e t who  finds  more  amply  explains:  clearly  the im-  r u n s mad.  Abdicat-  j o y i n singing, but  which i s h i s i n s p i r a t i o n  and d e s t r o y s h i s  21 instrument." King  Goll,  Formorian cold  Orchil  after  celebrating  sorceress,  and d e a t h  figures  her beauty,  destroys h i s harp.  a n d t h e F o r m o r o h o r Fomor  in Celtic  The-prefatory  a s t h e d e s t r u c t i v e Muse i n t h e poem, a n d  Celtic  Muse,  so t h a t  dreams.  two  legends  a Druid.  the poet  The p o e t  i s not t o t a l l y  invokes  of Cuchulain's fight  and t h e r e s t r a i n t  of  e n c l o s e d o r consumed  by  the Rose, which symbolizes 22 image o f I r e l a n d .  prompt h i m t o w r i t e Danaan  The Muse's  darkness,  poem o f T h e R o s e , "To t h e R o s e u p o n t h e R o o d o f  the rose being a t r a d i t i o n a l  presence w i l l  a r e t h e powers o f  is a  myth.  Time," expresses a d u a l r e q u e s t f o r i n s p i r a t i o n inspiration,  Orchil  with  songs,  the  that  Celtic  L i k e Niamh, h e r  and Y e a t s  specifies  t h e s e a and F e r g u s ' e n c o u n t e r  the with  p r o x i m i t y enables him t o p e n e t r a t e to the essence  29 of  "Eternal  Romantic finite,  Beauty,"  and  u n d e r l y i n g the f i n i t e ,  Symbolist  a feature  of Yeats' e a r l y  Wanderings of O i s i n . " opening ially  traditions,  The  that h i s essential  was  s t a n z a r e p e a t s and  the poet  made t o N i a m h , d e s i r i n g  Following  p o e t r y b e c o m e s a window i n t o a e s t h e t i c which  second  i n v o c a t i o n , because  phenomenal w o r l d .  rejects  the  evident i n  total  foolish"  "The  then q u a l i f i e s commitment  a small area of d i s t i l l e d  community w i t h " p o o r ,  the i n -  the  init-  inspiration  human l i f e  so  i s not  vitiated:  Come n e a r , come n e a r , come n e a r — A h , . l e a v e me A l i t t l e space f o r the r o s e - b r e a t h to f i l l ! L e s t I no more h e a r common t h i n g s t h a t c r a v e .  The  transcendent cannot  deny  the  transfixed  t o t h e Rood o f Time;  terized  a sadness  by  spectively  this  poems f o r t h e as The that  as p o i g n a n t  finite,  immortal  the l o f t i l y proud as Niamh's.  time  for several  Rose d i f f e r s  from  Intellectual  imagined  i t as  suffering  years  that  beauty w i t h man  Rose must  explains  retro-  upon r e a d i n g  the q u a l i t y  of Shelley and  remain  C e l t i c Muse i s c h a r a c -  Yeats  c o n c e p t i o n of the r o s e : "I n o t i c e  first  I have  the  still  not  and  these  symbolized Spenser  in  as  something  pur-  R o s e poems n a r r a t e t h e l e g e n d s  of Fergus  and  23 sued  and  seen  The  two  from  subsequent  Cuchulain mentioned the  afar."  i n "To  t h e Rose upon t h e Rood o f T i m e . "  D r u i d " h i n g e s upon a s i m i l a r  kingship  f o r the "Druid's dreaming  magicians), "with  antinomy  only to discover  g r e a t webs o f s o r r o w . "  wisdom"  to "King G o l l " :  "Fergus  Fergus  ( D r u i d s were b o t h  renounces  poets  t h a t D r u i d i c knowledge i s i n e x t r i c a b l y In "Cuchulain's Fight  with  and  the Sea,"  and woven Emer  30 represents Cuchulain  the  through  The sential world,  each of The  than  the  three verses  the  stanza  and  the v i c t i m  r o s e who  plots  of Cuchulain's  inspired  f o c u s s i n g on  c e n t r e s upon the  traditional  and  to  only  and  sees  aspect  d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s of upon c a r p e  beauty  as  quintes-  creation  a principal  p o e t i c complaint  f a d i n g beauty,  the  the  kill  son.  Rose o f . t h e W o r l d , " a f f o r d s the  inspiration—the  the  time  destructive beloved,  the u n w i t t i n g instrument  first  inverts  devouring  of  f o l l o w i n g poem, "The  image o f  figure. Yeats  archetype  of of  the the  beauty.  diem agent  themes, rather  of d e s t r u c t i o n :  Who For  d r e a m e d t h a t b e a u t y p a s s e s l i k e a dream? these red l i p s , with a l l t h e i r mournful p r i d e ,  M o u r n f u l t h a t no new w o n d e r may b e t i d e , T r o y p a s s e d away on one h i g h f u n e r a l g l e a m , And U s n a ' s c h i l d r e n d i e d .  In  the  first  creation, applies  the  to the  of  the  is  the most  of  death;  that  line, poet  the use as  carpe  archetype  of  of  d r e a m e r o f d r e a m s , and diem p o e t .  the  renowned o f  account  Yeats  Irish  selects  two  b e a u t i e s , whom o n l y  Cuchulain  "more b l o o d w i l l  the process  hence  destructive beloved—Helen  i n Lady Gregory's  on h e r  "dreamed" s u g g e s t s  in this  superlative and  shed  artistic  context i t examples  Deirdre.  t o see  seemed  of Muirthemne, Cathbad be  of  Deirdre a  surety  prophesies  i n I r e l a n d s i n c e time  and  24 race began." ing  second  stanza concentrates  essence,,contrasted with  souls  " t h a t w a v e r and  race." life  The  The  simile  the  give place  carries  feverishly / L i k e the  transient pale waters  t h e maximum i m p a c t  i s s w i f t l y - r u n n i n g water under  u p o n t h e Muse a s  o f man's  world,  unchang-  with  i n their  men's  wintry  ephemerality:  c o n d i t i o n s of p e r p e t u a l w i n t e r ,  so  31 brief  as t o appear  compared w i t h apparently  an unceasing  t h e Muse i s h e i g h t e n e d  changeless  frothy,  ephemeral,  eminent  inspirational  earth:  end.  stars,  "He made t h e w o r l d  by r e l a t i n g  which a r e reduced  insubstantial. role  T h e e v a n e s c e n c e o f a l l phenomena  The f i n a l  f o r s h e prompted  t h ewater  t o "foam o f t h e s k y , "  verse  stresses her pre-  the Creator  to be a grassy.road  image t o t h e  /Before  to fashion the  h e r wandering  feet." "The  Rose o f t h e W o r l d "  White Goddess divergencies. kind," is  concept,  i s a telescoped  but again  there  a Pre-Raphaelite  red-lipped beauty,  sensuousness  obviously a paradoxical quality  expression  are characteristically  T h e Muse i s a " m o u r n f u l , "  suggesting  lyrical  i n this  Yeatsian  "Weary a n d  and l a n g u o r .  context,  of the  Kindness  and A.E.  criticized 25  the  last  Its  inclusion  which  verse  because  illustrates  compassion  Yeats'  concern  and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  t h e W o r l d " and "The Rose o f P e a c e " "The  since and  i t i s f o l l o w e d b y two c l o s e l y  head  t h e c y c l e o f human of dualities,  like  attributes.  a m u l t i f a c e t e d image w i t h i n  of antinomies,  operate, as both  f o r the  "The Rose  indicate.  Rose o f t h e W o r l d " c a n be seen as t h e f i r s t  "The Rose o f B a t t l e . "  gates  with  and d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s c a n l e g i t i m a t e l y  Muse i s t h e s o u r c e of  o f t h e i n c o n g r u i t y o f t h e Rose's  r e l a t e d works,  poem o f a  trilogy,  "The Rose o f P e a c e "  I n " T h e R o s e o f t h e W o r l d , " t h e Muse  insti-  c r e a t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n ; she i s t h e f o u n t a i n t h e Great  Mother  f r o m whom a l l l i f e  i s s u e s and t o  whom i t r e t u r n s , C e r e s  and t h e I n f e r n a l P r o s e r p i n e .  t h e Muse c a n t e r m i n a t e  a l l c o n f l i c t , . m a k i n g a " r o s y p e a c e " o f Heaven and  Hell,  f o r h e r beauty would  convert  thewarrior  I n t h e second  angel, Michael, to  poem,  32 gentleness.  This apocalyptic  o f The Wind  among t h e R e e d s . -  "The  Rose o f B a t t l e "  to present b a t t l e Rose's are  realm.  their  a t the sea's  t h o s e who  s h i p s have  participates  as t h e i n e v i t a b l e  edge, o f t e n  t h e A l c h e m i c a l Rose  poem t o e x p l i c a t e .  The Rose and t h e q u e s t o r s  The v o y a g e r s  mystics,  foreshadows  i s a difficult  and s u f f e r i n g  inspiration.  gathered  efficacy  I t seems  corollaries  o f a "sweet  the mysterious  of the  f a r thing"  verge  of the f a i r y  wage God's w a r a t s e a a n d a r e p r o b a b l y p o e t s a n d  lead  contemplative l i v e s ,  "thought-woven s a i l s . "  i n their  sorrow,.as  since  Although  i n Christianity  they they  a r e i s o l a t e d and a r e s a d , t h e Rose  God s u f f e r s  with  man:  Rose o f a l l Roses, Rose o f a l l t h e World! Y o u , t o o , h a v e come w h e r e t h e d i m t i d e s a r e h u r l e d Upon t h e wharves o f s o r r o w , and h e a r d r i n g The b e l l t h a t c a l l s us on; t h e sweet f a r t h i n g . B e a u t y grown s a d w i t h i t s e t e r n i t y Made y o u o f u s , a n d o f t h e d i m g r e y s e a .  "The  Rose o f B a t t l e "  titled  looks forward  t o t h e poem a n d s e r i e s  T h e S e c r e t R o s e , w h i c h h a v e t h e avowed p u r p o s e  of stories en-  of expressing "the  26 war  of the s p i r i t u a l  describe  types  poet-saint of  of both  the natural  active  i n Y e a t s i a n terms,  t h e Rose, s u f f e r  death.  with  who, b e c a u s e  and a l s o  the f i n a l  poem, c a n b e a s s o c i a t e d  of  Dawn, w h i c h Y e a t s  Hermetic  swordsman a n d  they a r e i n s p i r e d cost  stories  of their  by a  vision  vision being  t h e c o n j u n c t i o n o f Rose and c r o s s i n  the p r e f a t o r y the Golden  The S e c r e t Rose  and c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i v e r s ,  i n the world,  The Rose symbol,  order."  with  had j o i n e d  Rose r e p r e s e n t e d s a c r i f i c i a l  love,  the occult i n 1890. and thus  Rose o f t h e Order P r i n c i p a l l y , the the adepts  of the  33 Order  graduated  Rajan's  from  the  opinion that  imposition  contemplation  the s u f f e r i n g  seems i n v a l i d  and  of R o s i c r u c i a n to C h r i s t i a n  Rose i s Y e a t s '  would  certainly  retrospective  strip  the poetry  myth.  super-  of a  wealth  27 of  ambiguity.  symbolism detailed  "The  Secret Rose" provides :  i n a volume which  culminates  e x p l i c a t i o n must be  the  the  culmination of  first  two  reserved f o r a study  Rose  books, but  o f The  more  W i n d among  the  Reeds. For  t h e most p a r t ,  themes and the  Fergus,  Father  Fire"),  and  stories  Gilligan,  ensconces  as  "The  last  of  poem, t h e d r e a m e r  Yeats'  has  A  isle"  from  the  finds  There  a r e o n l y a few  not  they  are  "The  Pity  the poet  "The  poetry  stitute  Man death  by  of Love,"  literary  who  itself  seems t o mock man's  explication  the  of  ghosts,  i s not  free  from  from  the In  such of "woven this  "unhaunted  image, w h i c h , even i n  enterprise. to the broad  as b a l d c o n t r a s t s ,  laments  and  of Faeryland."  thematic  t h e R o s e poems; t h e s e  antithetical  the poet  Elysian  the  claiming  island,  arid "many a D a n a a n s h o r e "  Dreamed  exceptions  by  Selected  i s the v i s i o n a r y  like  He  Cathleen,  tradition  Stories  A r c a d i a n dream, an  s o much e x c e p t i o n s  informed  the Countess  Some I h a v e T a l k e d w i t h b y  Irish  islands"  transcendent  through  ("To  Celtic  introductory invocation.  Grania,  recurrent motif  early  emerged  t h e R o s e poems u t i l i z e  D e d i c a t i o n t o a Book o f  White B i r d s " haunting  sleep,"  Sidhe  "the numberless  world-forgotten  and  h i m s e l f i n the  Novelists."  Innisfree,  the  of  with Yeats'  of Diarmuid  t h e b e l l - b r a n c h i n "The Irish  remainder  s u b j e c t s , consonant  relates  the  the  theme o f  radical  few  design studies  con-  inversions,  the m o r t a l b e l o v e d .  a love which blends  that  i n with  the  In  for  34 human s c e n e , part the  with  a l l phenomenal r e a l i t y ,  of the relentless  flux.  same t e r m s a s t h e R o s e :  sorrowing, creation and  she has r e d mournful figure,  1  o f "man's i m a g e a n d h i s c r y . "  t h e Muse's p o r t r a y a l  f o r the g i r l  You  a r e O l d " a n d "A D r e a m o f D e a t h " e n v i s a g e  The  a l l telling"),  which  time's  o f t h e immortal  depradations.  The poet  The  Rose c o n c l u d e s  w i t h by t h e F i r e "  with  has f u l f i l l e d  idyllic  inner v i s i o n  counsels in  the beloved  the heart.  poet's  It i s this  Edenic  "To Some I h a v e  concerns  shaking  Has  given  And  made my  Murmuring  Talked  Although  the matter  "To  of Ireland,  i t  " T h e Two T r e e s " j u x t a p o s e s t h e  only  inward  of i t s leafy  head melody,  a n d m u s i c wed,-.  a wizard  t r e e which  view, which has i n s p i r e d the  t h e waves t h e i r lips  and t h e poet  the f o r m e r — t h e  verse:  The  and t h e cause  h i s invocatory desire to  and e x t e r n a l , phenomenal r e a l i t y , t o acknowledge  of the beloved.  experience.  " T h e Two T r e e s , "  discussion.  "When  i n conjunction with  a n d "To I r e l a n d i n t h e C o m i n g T i m e s . "  to this  Odysseus and  that unspeakable p i t y of  woman: s h e i s t h e v i c t i m  Some I h a v e T a l k e d w i t h b y t h e F i r e " not central  beloved,  murdered w i t h h i s p e e r s . "  i s t h e o l d age and d e a t h  t r a n s c e n d , b u t n o t t o n e g l e c t human  is  i s "Doomed l i k e  d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e m o r t a l woman i s c o n t e m p l a t e d  the d e s t r u c t i v i t y of  as P r i a m  and  h e r have t h e o p p o s i t e e f f e c t t o  labouring ships  ("beyond  /And p r o u d  i s proud  Y e t she i s t h e m o r t a l  associated with  as H e l e n ,  lips,  s i n c e h e r emergence p r o v o k e s t h e  the  love  integral  "The S o r r o w o f L o v e " d e s c r i b e s a g i r l i n  and an i n s p i r a t i o n a l  the Trojan allusions  i n t h a t i t t o o i s an  song  f o r thee.  grows  35 An  exactly opposite  which mirrors Unterecker and  Evil,  conflict,  points and  tree i s reflected  out,  Yeats  decay, r u i n , the  two  "glass  c r u e l t y and  trees  i s drawing  i n the  are  the  of outer  weariness,"  bitterness.  Tree  f r o m M a t h e r s ' The  of L i f e  As  and  of  Good  Kabbalah Unveiled  for  28 their and  expression.  finally  Whereas O i s i n f i n d s i n s u f f i c i e n c i e s  yearns  f o r human i n s u f f i c i e n c y ,  completely  to  the  vision;  poem, o n l y  to  the  inner  heightened  lyricism  it  seems t o  poetry,  but "To  literary brated God  inspirer  i n the  more t h a n  angelic  hem  clan."  He  l i n g e r e d by  a l l Celtic  /Of  has  that,  liking  in his  later  the  in "their her,  served  a  in  God's s e a t b e f o r e  this  Despite  for this  the  poem,  i n the  early  work.  fitting,  ceremonious  f i g u r e s of r h y m i n g " he  Irish has  whose h i s t o r y began the  realms  subscribes  eyes k i n d .  Coming T i m e s " p r o v i d e s  although  poet  i m p l i c a t i o n unique  r e a f f i r m s h i s community w i t h  kind,"  of  is fully  the t o be  beloved's  expanded  which  appears  Maud G o n n e ' s p a r t i c u l a r  red-rose-bordered  made t h e  the  one  tradition,  " w e a r y and  s i g h t are  cryptic  Yeats  "the  motive  carry a remarkably  Ireland  epilogue.  and  Yeats'  here  i n both  Rose o f  the  Creation  cele/Before  World,  and  who  who, is  the  song:  The m e a s u r e o f h e r f l y i n g f e e t Made I r e l a n d ' s h e a r t b e g i n t o b e a t ; And T i m e b a d e a l l h i s c a n d l e s flare To l i g h t a m e a s u r e h e r e and t h e r e .  The  poet  journeys  where even ecstasy,"  love  after  and  the  trailing  dream w i l l  a n t i c i p a t i n g the  be  hem  of her  extinguished  controlling  robe towards i n "truth's  theme o f T h e  Wind  apocalypse,  consuming  amOrig t h e  Reeds.  36 i i i  The focus  W i n d among t h e R e e d s i s t h e  upon t h e c a l l  analysis; comments Oisin,"  and  into  fairyland  i t embodies  that  he  had  Crossways,  and  within  a climactic  pondered The  over  last  volume of Y e a t s ' p o e t r y  the prescribed  treatment  of the  images  "The  the  Rose i n o r d e r  of  to fashion  terms  of  theme.  this  Yeats  Wanderings  the  to  "true  of  symbols"  29 of h i s t h i r d represents though  the  which  certainly  apex o f h i s e a r l y  concept  often  reduced  t o an  aftefact  l o n g e r t e m p o r a r i l y d e c e p t i v e , but  singled  o u t The  describes  rescue  Wind  fairyland  previously.  towards  offers  no  beauty  of Yeats'  he  o f t h e Muse.  has  offer  passion.  evidences  poems f r o m a qualified  lyric  The  Wind  a t t r a c t i o n which  onerous  less  criticism, The  into  among t h e R e e d s  ambiguity  and,  Wind  have i t  than to  at times,  to  among t h e praise  Reeds  the  with Parkinson's opinion 30  eternity issues  and an  rapture."  emphatic  fairy  amorous a p p e a l e f f i c a c i o u s , b u t  f o r the poet.  also  earthly  the p o v e r t y of the  gratification  is  felt  which i s contrasted with unrequited  h o l d any  she  Critics  have been  Though c r i t i c s  they have agreed  pers-  censure, because  antinomic view  among t h e R e e d s r e g i s t e r s  cannot  masked.  with  e x c e l l e n c e , but  Sidhe's  of f u l f i l m e n t ,  The  too  "disappeared  Wind  only i s the  o f an  and  Afterwards, a l -  making, and  for particular  to the v i s i o n .  forms,  regrettably  summons; n o t  permanently  and  themes,  are placed i n i r o n i c  of the poet's  w i t h more i n s i s t e n c e  counter-weight  Certainly,  their  among t h e R e e d s  Delicate  the e a r l i e r  contribute  that  culminates h i s early  a s p e c t s o f t h e N i a m h Muse o c c u r , t h e y  pective, no  book,  He  world's meditates  upon t h e S i d h e w i t h u n c e a s i n g d e s i r e , who w i l l poet's  terminate earthly  temporary  the world. replace Stolen is  f o r they  frustration  sojourn i n their  are the immortal  and l i m i t a t i o n s ,  realm, but through  They a r e t h e h e r a l d s o f an apocalypse  life.  The S i d h e  not through the  the destruction of  i n which v i s i o n  a r e no l o n g e r t h e m i s c h i e v o u s  C h i l d , " but the world-destroying Sidhe.  lovers  fairies  The Wind  will  o f "The  among t h e R e e d s  Y e a t s ' Book o f R e v e l a t i o n . The  as Y e a t s  title  o f t h e volume  explains:  "Sidhe  itself  i s also  refers  Gaelic  to the c a l l  f o r wind, and c e r t a i n l y t h e  S i d h e h a v e much t o d o w i t h  the wind.  the winds  t h e dance o f t h e daughters  t h a t were  called  the Middle Ages, Herodias goddess. they.bless  themselves,  They j o u r n e y i n t h e w h i r l i n g  doubtless taking  When o l d c o u n t r y p e o p l e because  of the Sidhe,  wind,  of Herodias i n  t h e p l a c e o f some o l d  see the leaves w h i r l i n g  they b e l i e v e  the Sidhe  on t h e r o a d  t o be p a s s i n g  31 by."  Also,  the poet  as  represents that  f o c u s e s upon t h e Sidhe  the volume: merely  t h e wind  " I use t h e wind  because  i tlisteth,  associated  the Sidhe  and w h i c h  as a symbol  wind  A highland scholar  i n their  d e s i r e which, y e a r n s  f o r the destruction  and  o f vague d e s i r e s  and s p i r i t  people use the wind  that  i s the p r e v a i l i n g  a r e i n the wind,.or  b u t because  everywhere.  u n c o n f i n e d , vague d e s i r e ,  talk  because  of a l l that  h a t e , " t h e S e c r e t Rose's a p o c a l y p t i c wind. the Sidhe's dual r o l e s :  me  the wind  that  of  and h o p e s , n o t bloweth been  h i s country 32  a s I u s e i t i n my poem."  does n o t l o n g f o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n through  underlies  emotion  and vague d e s i r e have tells  which  It i s a  i s not i t s e l f , a l l  t h e " g r e a t wind Thus,  t h e y embody d e s i r e ,  t h e wind but a  of love image  desire  38 which b r i n g s death  to the lover,  and h e r e ,  climactically,  death  to the  world. In fiercely mortal  the f i r s t  poem, "The H o s t i n g o f t h e S i d h e , " t h e S i d h e  i n the winds,  dream."  crying  "Away^ come away: /Empty y o u r  From t h e S i d h e ' s v i e w p o i n t  v o l u m e , t h e human a n d f a i r y w o r l d s changed  their  stantial  roles  i n that  as r e a l i t y  t h e r e hope o r deed f o r they  gleaming  eyes.  name—Niamh loved  Among  following  the dazzling  hill,  who  heaving  cessation  appeal;  rather  powers  because  than  to annihilate  tide:  And  mentions  i n birds,  they  i n wind  The poet  cannot  bear  should  V o i c e s , be  of the heavenly  b i d them w a n d e r o b e y i n g flame,  o n l y two b y who was  till  again  and r e s o n a t e i n t h e sounds o f  on t h e s h o r e ? "  everlasting  Flame under  hair,  Voices," concentrates  "you c a l l  the poet,  Go t o t h e g u a r d s  i s sensuously  bosom, b u r n i n g  command  your  still; fold will,  Time be no more.  on t h e  pleads  their  time:  0 sweet  real  are the p r e r o g a t i v e of the Sidhe.  man's w e a r y h e a r t  summoning  t h e poet  l o v e d a m o r t a l , and C a o i l t e ,  poem, "The E v e r l a s t i n g  / I n shaken boughs, i n t i d e  voices'  insub-  i t i s imaginary—a  attraction  company, Y e a t s  and d e s i r e  wind, boughs,  i s not only  i n that  erotic  upon t h e v o i c e s o f t h e S i d h e , w h i c h m i n g l e nature, birds,  of the entire  and c a n p r o f f e r  The Sidhe's  and C a o i l t e — N i a m h ,  of i t s  ' t w i x t n i g h t a n d d a y , /And w h e r e i s  ride with parted l i p s ,  by an Immortal:.love The  are real  i s rushing  as f a i r ? "  but also  that  heart  s i g n i f i c a n c e s , ex-  and t h e dream: l i f e  A r t and v i s i o n  fulfilment:•"The host  vivid,  have exchanged  i ti s short-lived,  " m o r t a l dream."  and from  ride  f o r the  unwearying  the heavenly  39 The  poet  yearns  i s t o o weak t o s u s t a i n  t o r e l i n q u i s h human i n a d e q u a c y .  dissolution time  the tension  of the temporal  flux,  o f t h e two w o r l d s , a n d  "The Moods" a g a i n s p e a k s  and " I n t o t h e T w i l i g h t "  of the  regards  both  a n d man's h e a r t a s " o u t - w o r n , " t w i l i g h t , when t h e S i d h e r i d e ,  viding  the setting  f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e poems i n T h e Wind  pro-  among t h e  Reeds. In into  " T h e Song o f t h e W a n d e r i n g A e n g u s " t h e p o e t  t h e h a z e l wood, w h e r e h e i s , e n r a p t u r e d  Sidhe.  He h a s v e n t u r e d i n t o  the forest  goes  by a glimmering  at twilight girls  of the  for inspiration,.since.the 33  h a z e l was  the C e l t i c  a severed hazel changes  into  shape-changes leaving until  of poetic  the poet  according to Yeats, the f i s h 34  In  a l l the valleys Full  "The H o s t  night-tide," herself  and a l l t i m e  purpose  dissolve.  suddenly  was one o f t h e f r e q u e n t  h i s name a n d v a n i s h e s , her love  The i n f e r e n c e  i s that  he " w i l l  no o t h e r  find  only face ("He  of Lovers").  o f t h e A i r " the landscape darkens  and t h e Host  m a l e v o l e n t l y abduct from  tims.  The i n c l u s i o n  about  folk  B r i d g e t , who  sacrifices  enchantments.  S i d h e , m a n - h a t e r s , and t h u s  i n t h e poem a u t o m a t i c a l l y means " e v i l of this  "At t h e coming o f  the Sidhe's deceptive  o f t h e A i r were t h e demonic  reservations  that  of questing to find  advent  Yeatsian  trout  With  o f t h e w o r l d h a v e b e e n w i t h e r e d away"  to rescue O'Driscoll  Host  She c a l l s  r e t u r n h e r t o Aengus, t h a t  of a Valley  and knowledge.  catches a s i l v e r  the poet w i t h the s o l i t a r y  /Till  inspiration  assumed b y t h e S i d h e .  h i s own l i f e  Tells  The  branch  a girl;  apocalypse w i l l fair  tree  chance"  t o t h e human  their vic-  l e g e n d o p e n s up t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f  the t e r r i b l e  S i d h e , b u t t h e s e seem d e n i e d i n  40 relation  t o o t h e r poems, s u c h  harpy-like ture,  the host  analogy  sanctified Sidhe  ride  bearing death  hearts, This  Sidhe  have  w i l l , appear  abundant^r-for  comeliness  i n the  image i s c o r r e l a t e d  of  as  of  finally  i n Yeats'  them b o t h  the  of  and  lighted  Black  bring  the  cold  to  the the  her  baby w i l l  the  cataclysmic  reverence.  old order,  are  b l a c k p i g and  the  P i g " d e s c r i b e s the Celts  power.  The  the b r i s t l e l e s s  or winter,  feet,"  become  when t h e  the  vul-  wind-shaken  at Mother Mary's  of  of D i s a s t e r ,  with  . Yet  in their  destruction  notes  types  child..  of v i s i o n ,  the  Here,  North winds w i t h  "candles  Age  s m a l l flames  Valley  which w i l l  of  Golden  the Horses  "The  and  the m o r t a l mother  cataclysm,  example,  battle,  interprets  the  o n l y as  boar.  Unappeasable Host."  t h e human m o t h e r  immortal  Images o f  great  to  "The  d e s o l a t e , thunderous  implies that  and  bristleless  the  as  as  prophesied  black pig  boar,  death  and  he  struggling  with  35 life. the  Yeats  Sidhe's  reinforce like  at  the  last  continues  fight  the  f o r the  destroy "He  advent,  the  narrator  of  Beloved,  and  Longs  e a r , who  has  been calls  later  Oisin  his  journey  to  the  to the  beasts  express 36 The  of by  "the  the  two  Reeds.  to  images  Finally,  darkness  that  unconventional  will  mythical  Come u p o n h i m  and  his  t h e W o r l d " i s a hound w i t h  one  red  t h e man  carrying deer.  the h o r n l e s s deer  of  i s analogous  that  among t h e  Change t h a t has  hornless white  i s p u z z l e d by the Land  Wind  the world."  End  transformed  o f The  two  f o r the  f o r the  companions were h u n t i n g and  motif  g o d s and  Mourns  conflict  s e d u c t i o n o f a human, s o  controlling  Sidhe's  continually  to e x p l a i n that t h i s  these  two  the L i v i n g .  a h a z e l wand, a n d  Oisin  when t h e y  and  his  Fenian  encountered  Niamh,  somewhat p i c t u r e s q u e a n i m a l s Yeats  interprets  this  who  Celtic  on  41 image of  t h e hound  poet  been transformed  has  a disembodied for  desire,  apocalypse.  faction  as man's d e s i r e by  f o r woman, s o  t h e h a z e l wand o f p o e t i c  y e a r n i n g f o r an  P a s s i o n detached  s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be  that,  i n t h e poem, inspiration  the  into  apparently unattainable beloved,  from  a l l earthly  associated with  s t i m u l u s and  the o r i g i n a l  satis-  narrator  of 37  many o f  t h e poems, A e d h , who  "Flames  that The  Reeds the  no  faggot  feeds, nor  c u l m i n a t i o n of the  i s reached  symbolic  i n t h e poem "The  import, but  " s e c r e t " Rose of t h e Order ing  c o n j u n c t i o n embodied  work The  S e c r e t R o s e , and  upon the Order initiates and  into  an O r d e r  of  life  is  an  into  though  [him]  world  second,  with  he  The  poet  effect  first, since  Robartes  the o c c u l t , i s again  the  Wind  "where t h e w e a r y h e a r t w i l l  acknowledges 39 terror." He  that  i t i s an  sees  t h e e a r t h on  amor-  Yeats'  prose  revolve  Order's  the Rose  participates  i n t r o d u c e s the  Rosa  f o r a world  poet  metals"  Alchemica  among t h e R e e d s :  desire  the  await-  hate," the  doom.  imperishable substance." themes o f T h e  of  rose retains i t s  a l c h e m i c a l c h a n g e o f t h e "common 38  h i s work "a c r y o f m e a s u r e l e s s  of essences,"  spirit," fills  and  aggregation of a l l the  poet, s t y l e s wholly  i n the  i n the  the  i n t h e p r o s e work  o f l o v e and  Sidhe, w i l l  ingrateful  —  among  i t s companion p i e c e Rosa A l c h e m i c a ,  d e d i c a t e d to the  "some d i v i n e  Dawn.  " g r e a t wind  i n the  f o r a base,  b e a r s man's s o r r o w ;  Wind  become more e x p l i c i t l y  of the Golden  itself"  lit."  S e c r e t R o s e , " and  of the A l c h e m i c a l Rose;  suffer  has  I n t h e poem, t h e  has  a p o c a l y p s e , when t h e R o s e ' s  death  steel  b u r n i n g by  t h e m a t i c p a t t e r n s i n The  same name w h i c h i t p r e f a c e s .  earlier  in  represented " f i r e  the  made  become a w e a r i l e s s  " i n d e f i n i t e world the b r i n k of  which  c a t a c l y s m i c w a r s and "Death w h i c h poet  period has  i s Beauty  d e s i r e s an  rible  oblivion,  end  illustrate  succeeded  itself."  of mortal  metamorphosis  and  into  prophecies  U n l i k e "The  life,  beauty.  poetry  t h a t Niamh, t h e w h i t e  passing into  Wanderings  w h i c h may  The  i n securing Oisin's  h i s own  be  l a d y of  of O i s i n , "  achieved  and  that  through  short stories inspiration  of  and  the a  ter-  this  death,  affections:  The h o s t i s r u s h i n g ' t w i x t n i g h t and day, And w h e r e i s t h e r e h o p e o r d e e d a s f a i r ? Caoilte tossing h i s burning hair, And N i a m h c a l l i n g Away, come away. ,•  The phrasing  of  series  of  ation,  the  the  ideal.  into and  "the h i g h "thoughts  Yeats  Reeds i s not  s i e c l e weariness;  Yeats' wishes  very  h i s poetry,  disciplined and  use  so  need  of C e l t i c  emotions  Wind  individual  of the  the  emotions the  and  kingly  the  w h i c h he  themes,  aspirations  product  m i n d " and  regener-  folk  of a  among t h e R e e d s , t h e r e  two,  banal  highly-wrought  mythology, of  t h a t were c r e a t e d by  i n art a union  i n the  f o r transcendence,  that i t i s not  I n The or  dismissed  i t i s a robust,  to imcorporate  solipsism.  envisages  t o be  a b o u t man's e l e m e n t a l  t h a t he  the people  of  f i n de  lyrics  indicates  isolation  W i n d among t h e  the  morbid  is a folk  community," designates  of  fusion song,  and "a  mar-  40 riage  of  the  I n The world the  sun  Wind  whose chaos  deeps  In Y e a t s '  of  and  moon" i n " t h e b r i d e - b e d  among t h e R e e d s , . t h e p o e t  of  poetry."  aspires to re-create a  "wrongs" t h e Muse's image, w h i c h  [his] heart"  ("The  Lover  Tells  of  "blossoms  a rose  in  the Rose i n h i s H e a r t " ) .  e a r l y work, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o e l i c i t  doctrinal  conclusions,  43 as L e n t r i c c h i a Yeats poet and  affirming through  previous  volves and  t h e Muse's  seems a l s o  seen  the poet  However v i s i o n expressed  poetic  figures  realm  as  Fairyland  the s p i r i t  since  world;  living  and  the dead.  "the  certainty  o f human  to  the  the  dead  death.  prophet  a poetic  of  disciple,  apocalypse.  process, i s  In Rosa A l c h e m i c a , and  essences,  c o n s t r u c t , though  Dreaming, the p o e t i c  of v i s i o n  two  further i n -  f o r a Blakean  as v a t e s , t h e s e l f - s t y l e d  the e c s t a s y of v i s i o n .  guishes between  Niamh b r i n g s  Fairyland  vision,.particularly  i s d e s c r i b e d , i t i s more t h a n  into  accessible  i s t h e abode o f  i t i s the r e s e r v o i r  i n t h e medium o f p o e t r y .  heightened  of essences  Is  t o r e p r e s e n t t h e Ariima M t i r i d i , . w h i c h u n i t e s t h e  of a l l the  traditional  What i s t h e Y e a t s i a n v i s i o n ?  inspiration?  interpretations,  archetypes  41.  a really-existent  c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be  Fairyland  the  ably i l l u s t r a t e s .  Yeats  distin-  the u n c e r t a i n t y of  42 dream," him  and  only the  t o become a n  vision  initiate  i s clothed  Reeds and  certain  vision,  not  of the Order  e x p e r i e n c e d by  dream,  enables  of the A l c h e m i c a l Rose.  i n powerful, eloquent  is vividly  inadequate  symbols  the poet,  i n The  Although  Wind, among  i t s n a t u r e has  an  the  indef-  43 initeness,  what L e a v i s t e r m s a  which expresses portray, but poet  and  not  prophet,  artist's which  p o s s e s s i o n by  "shifting cloudy,unsizeableness," a mystical  circumscribe.  I n The  revelation,  Wind  t h e D e l p h i c v i s i o n a r y who  dream i s i n t e n s i f i e d  i n i t s furnace w i l l  to convey,the  transfigure  which poetry  among t h e R e e d s , Y e a t s sees  apocalypse.  vision,  "immaterial  ,,44 ecstasy. In  "The  Lover  Tells  is  The  a l c h e m i c a l Rose of  a l l common t h i n g s i n t o  can  o f t h e R o s e i n h i s H e a r t , " t h e Muse  has  inspired  him  to r e - c r e a t e the world,  dreams, f o r h i s dreams o f vision. exalted verse  The  "with  and  singer,  the beloved source  and  reverent hands"  Reeds, the  poet  ("A  i s not  Poet  the M u s e — h i s  song.  he  through  a rose,  the  poet's  flower  image o f h i s v i s i o n ;  w o r n , " t o whom he to h i s Beloved").  a visionary,  t h e Muse i s h i s a r t e f a c t : and  simply  blossom  the  " W h i t e -woman t h a t , p a s s i o n h a s  among t h e cer,  Muse i s t h e  not  but  into she  the  dedicates his After  The  a dreamer; an  becomes a maker o f  is  songs,  Wind artifi-  a  45  NOTES  "'"Allan Wade," e d . j T h e 1954), p . 63.  Davis,  Letters  o f W.  B_. Y e a t s  (London:  Rupert  Hart-  2 F r a n k L e n t r i c c h i a , The G a i e t y o f L a n g u a g e : An E s s a y on t h e R a d i c a l P o e t i c s o f W. B.. Y e a t s and W a l l a c e S t e v e n s ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , , 1968), p . 43.  3 rpt.  B a l a c h a n d r a Rajan,,W. JB. Y e a t s : A L o n d o n : H u t c h i n s o n , 1969), p . 22.  Critical  Introduction  (1965;  4  Rajan,  p.  27.  "*See W. B. Y e a t s , I r i s h F a i r y and F o l k T a l e s (New Y o r k : M o d e r n L i b r a r y , n . d . ) , p . 1; P e t e r A l l t and R u s s e l l K. A l s p a c h , T h e V a r i o r u m E d i t i o n o f t h e Poems o f W. B. Y e a t s (New York:, M a c m i l l a n , 1957), p . 796. Y e a t s i s f o l l o w i n g t h e g e n e r a l l y - h e l d v i e w , f o r e x a m p l e , W. Y. E v a n s W e n t z , T h e F a i r y - F a i t h i n C e l t i c C o u n t r i e s " ( L o n d o n : O.U.P., 1911), p p .  283-84) ^W. Macmillan, 7  B.  Yeats, Essays p . 72.  and  Introductions  (1961;  r p t . London:  1969),  W e n t z , p p . 333-40.  g T h e v e r s i o n s o f t h e O i s i n l e g e n d known t o Y e a t s a r e e x a m i n e d b y R u s s e l l K. A l s p a c h i n "Some S o u r c e s o f Y e a t s ' s T h e W a n d e r i n g s o f O i s i n , "  PMLA L V I (1943), p p . 849-66. 9 A l l e n R. G r o s s m a n , P o e t i c K n o w l e d g e i n t h e E a r l y Y e a t s : A S t u d y . o f "The W i n d among t h e R e e d s " ( C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e : T h e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f V i r g i n i a , 1969), p . 33. "^Essays  and  I n t r o d u c t i o n s , p.  " ' " ' ' " W . B. Y e a t s , T h e K e g a n P a u l , 1889), p . 3. 1 2  Wentz,  p.  80.  Wanderings of O i s i n  and  Other  Poems  (London:,  339.  13 that  L e t t e r s , p . 106. t h e Howth t h i c k e t a n d  Y e a t s comments i n a l e t t e r t o K a t h e r i n e T y n a n i t s shadows g a v e h i m h i s f i r s t t h o u g h t o f  what a l o n g poem s h o u l d b e . C r i t i c s u s u a l l y c i t e the t r a t e t h a t h i s e a r l y work i s p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h r e t r e a t  remark t o i l l u s and e s c a p e .  46 14 Variorum,  p.  793.  ^ J o h n U n t e r e c k e r i n A R e a d e r ' s G u i d e t o W. B_. Y e a t s ( 1 9 5 9 ; r p t . New Y o r k : N o o n d a y P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , b r i e f l y s u g g e s t s a s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , b u t does n o t d e v e l o p i t , v i z . "the t h r e e i s l a n d s a r e a s p e c t s o f one l i f e : y o u t h , m i d d l e a g e , a n d o l d a g e " ( p . 6 5 ) . 16 Lentricchia, ^Essays 18 Harold p.  p.  50.  and I n t r o d u c t i o n s , p . 146. • - - B l o o m , Y e a t s (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y  Press,  1970),  99. 19 Raj an, p.  23.  20 A. Norman J e f f a r e s , W. B_. Y e a t s : Man and L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e a n d K e g a n P a u l , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 38.  Poet  (1949; r p t .  21 Grossman, p.  39.  22 See Y e a t s ' n o t e s i n t h e V a r i o r u m : "The R o s e i s a f a v o u r i t e symbol w i t h t h e I r i s h p o e t s . I t h a s g i v e n a name t o more t h a n one poem, b o t h G a e l i c and E n g l i s h , a n d i s u s e d , n o t m e r e l y i n l o v e poems,, b u t i n a d d r e s s e s t o I r e l a n d , a s i n De V e r e ' s l i n e , 'The l i t t l e b l a c k r o s e s h a l l b e r e d a t l a s t , ' and i n M a n g a n ' s ' D a r k R o s a l e e n . ' " 23 Variorum,  p.  842.  24 Lady G r e g o r y , C u c h u l a i n o f M u i r t h e m n e (1902; r p t . London: M u r r a y , . 1 9 0 3 ) , p . 104. 25 A . Norman J e f f a r e s , A Commentary on t h e C o l l e c t e d Poems o f Ji. Y e a t s ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), pp. 30-31.  W.  26 Alchemica  W. B. Y e a t s , S t o r i e s o f Red H a n r a h a n : T h e ( L o n d o n : A. H. B u l l e n , 1 9 1 3 ) , p . 7 5 .  Secret  Rose:  Rosa  27 Rajan,  p.  29.  28 Unterecker,  p.  86.  29 Variorum,  p.  800.  30 Verse  Thomas P a r k i n s o n , < W . B . / Y e a t s : S e l f - C r i t i c : A S t u d y o f h i s E a r l y ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 ) , p . 48. 31 V a r i o r u m , p . 800. 32  Variorum,  p.  806.  47 33  L a d y G r e g o r y , Gods a n d F i g h t i n g Men  (1904;  r p t . London: Murray,  1919), p . 2. 34 Variorum,  p.  806.  35 V a r i o r u m , p . .809 .  36 Variorum, p.  809.  37 - V a r i o r u m , p . 803. Red H a n r a h a n e t c . ,  p.  Red H a n r a h a n e t c . ,  pp  38 39  40  *Red H a n r a h a n e t c . ,  ^"Hj. B. Y e a t s , pp. xix., x x i .  190. . 190, 193, 202 204.  p.  Preface  i n L a d y G r e g o r y ' s Gods a n d F i g h t i n g  Men,  42 Lentricchia,  pp.  39-43  et passim.  43 .  Red H a n r a h a n e t c . , p .  209.  44 F . R. L e a y i s , i n New B e a r i n g s i n E n g l i s h P o e t r y (1932), r p t . i n T h e P e r m a n e n c e o f Y e a t s , e d s . James H a l l a n d M a r t i n S t e i n m a n n (New Y o r k : C o l l i e r , 1961), p . 152.  45  Red  Hanrahan e t c . , p.  194.  CHAPTER  THE  At with  "an  found like and  the  the  love  darkness that  creative love  tional  breath  of  that  breathed suggest  the  HEROIC MUSE  of Rosa A l c h e m i c a,  i m m o r t a l a u g u s t woman" who  than the  conclusion  MORTAL AND  that  world's  she  i s the  origin.  [his] soul  isfying,  phenomenal w o r l d .  her,  immediately  to  and  leave  into  the  a  the  the  to h i s white  to  recoils  lady  principle,  not  of  up  poet  the  strength  Niamh c a n n o t final and  pro-  love wisdom  inspirathat  and  i n the  i t s mystical  inspiration  dance  a wayside p o o l , "  from u l t i m a t e  make t h e  a  realizes  his existence  temple w i t h  could  with  a t t r i b u t e s of  the. s h e e r  poet  f u r i o u s mob.  of v i s i o n ; . Y e a t s  human e x p e r i e n c e  drinks  life,  splendid a  ox  poet's  The  t a w d r y h o u s e and  land  an  into  a w i s d o m more  s t a r , and  Suddenly, the  s t r i k i n g , . d i s c o r d a n t analogy points Muse d r a i n s  as  first  i s lured  with  upon the w a t e r s . T h e  the  the  poet  i s b e t w e e n s t a r and  i s " d r i n k i n g up  which  the  seems " l a d e n  she  with  III  and power  dissat-  commitment Order  seduce  dissolves Oisin  surrender  death,  to  or,  of in  2 Hoffman's p h r a s i n g ,  of  doom and  uncompromising, e x u l t a n t which  thou dost  among t h e  And  there  i s no  consuming a p p e a l , of v i s i o n ,  but  post-lapsarian, is  lost.  i n j u n c t i o n : "Die  seek!"  Reeds,  nor  the and  ecstasy.  a hint  poetry Yeats  of  Yeats withdraws  / I f t h o u w o u l d s t be  thus Yeats' v i s i o n hint of  of  the  the  reveals  disappears.  reservations wasteland  next  two  from  that  about  the  follows  Shelley's  with  that  I n The  Wind  Sidhe's a l l the  demise  volumes i s p o e t - v i s i o n a r y  a distraught  awareness  that  and  paradise  49 "Adam's C u r s e " all  the beauty  i s redolent with  in life  i s s e e n as  lenting  industry.  His  vision,  but  poet's  of  the  more e m p h a t i c a l l y difficult poetry  than  i s not  any  other  to present  or b r e a k i n g  source but in  stones,  the  ears:  unstitching."  /That  o l d h i g h way  the  fruit  not  talk  of  of  of i t at  school—  t h i n g " possesses  comparable w i t h rather  an  Yet  like  born  /That  figure  we  and  o n l y be  t r a d e , " so  occupation,•to  solely  dedicated  courtly  ethos,  the  level  The  who  considered  Despite,  or because  come "As  weary-hearted  than  labour  the  a thought  I strove  poet  an  like  those  l o v e t o be  that hollow  moon."  their The  f o r no love  one you  beauty  is  they  in a  do "No  post-  inordinate effort original  s i n , or  which  reduced The  impassioned  devotion,  only  beautiful.'"  f o r a l l men,  "compounded  the  /Although  recognizes  are  revision,  /To  inherent nature;  through  a  domestic  provides  t o be  and  scrubbing  continual  again  commercial b a r t e r .  of h i s a b s o l u t e as  Curse,"  that  t h a t human i d e a l s of  concentrate  "Adam's  woman i s t o k n o w —  achieved  to h i s beloved,  unchartered  a poem's b e a u t y , h e r  must  unre-  patient  In  for  and  upon the  e x e r t i o n s : " I had  common l a b o u r i n g .  "idle  of  demanding  e x c e l l e n c e i n i t s own  i t can  effort  Both volumes  the n a t u r a l i m p e r f e c t i o n predestined  into  place  process female  or  be  awareness,  i s . a l s o compared w i t h  The  love."  gross  expression  requires.  were b e a u t i f u l ,  i n d u s t r y : "'To  lapsarfian world,  love  you  the  of  tragic  a more s t r e n u o u s , t a s k  and  f o r h i s p o e t i c thoughts  your  fine  and  result  Yeatsian verse  tedium of needlework, a meticulous "stitching  new  laborious craft.  a p p l i c a t i o n which poetry  i s considered  pavement  poetry  the  this  transforms  to a  poet  had  devotees  of h i g h  been  of  the  courtesy."  relationship  poet's  common-  has  be-  u n q u a l i f i e d love  50 is  at variance with  mistress  a f a l l e n world  of change, - i s a dominant  subject i m a g e and  waning moon,,described  as  time's waters."  relationship  beautiful, and  of  and  diurnal  temporal  revolution  carefully  situation,.the of  time  of day,  particular now  Although  evidently  time  Yeats'  Yeats  moon,  i s the o l d /Washed  life  References  by  still i t contained  to the  Yeats' representation  seas-  of the  certain  and  not  and  the time  a group love.  realm  The  mention  sunset bear  to describe  "My  and  Gonne, t h e a l l e g e d i s relating  an  I t i s the  symbolic an a c t u a l  "love" Without  moon i n t h e b l u e -  significance, event  immortal  end  i n earnest  thoughts.  t h e wan  Hence,  specific  o f t h e word  private  Yeats  occurring  realm.  m i s t r e s s when s h e w a l k s  b e l o v e d i s t h e m o r t a l Muse, t h e  should perhaps  of a  o f the day.  waned i s  Sidhe.  o f t h r e e a r e immersed  them t o t h e i r  details  unflawed  concrete details  a richly-tapestried,  Shakespeare:  t o the poet has  of the immortal,  the smouldering  post-visionary, I  Miss  The  leaving  been concerned  affirm with  ground."  and  p o e t r y and  comment, t h e y w a t c h  has  one  of the year  discussion,  sky.  not  p o r t r a y s the p h y s i c a l  c o n v e r s a t i o n about  green  The  although  of the v i t a l  of change.  reinforce  she  "a s h e l l  a shell:  t h e b e l o v e d whose r e l a t i o n s h i p  t h e summer a n d  silences  is like  flux.  vicissitude.  c r e a t u r e of m o r t a l i t y ,  Yeats  fittingly  " w o r n " as  remainder  the i n e x o r a b l e t i d e s  Clearly, a  " h o l l o w " and  i t i s t h e empty, dead  i s worn by  onal  Their  to continual  Yeats  t r e a d s on  inspirational  at  figure  a  can the in  human e x p e r i e n c e . at  last  inspirer  actual  make some r e f e r e n c e t o t h e of a l l Yeats' v e r s e .  In  redoubtable "Adam's  c o n v e r s a t i o n between h i m s e l f , M i s s  Curse,"  Gonne  and  her to  sister,  Kathleen Pilcher.  c o n c e r n most  figure. sion  closely  Yeats' poetry i n these  h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and  None o f Y e a t s ' p o e t r y c a n b e  for "all  that  i s p e r s o n a l soon  read  rots;  as  an  two  volumes  seems  i t s inspirational  autobiographical confes-  i t must be  packed  i n i c e or  4 salt";  — n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e books stem  private  anguish  Gonne.  This period  jection  of Yeats  trates  to Miss  The  and  her marriage upon the  latter  activities Gonne and  quality  as  i n "No  her  Muse i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d is  It  world.  begun t o get Curse,"  closer  Y e a t s ' work  o f t h e Muse, h e r  i s at times  by  affections  that  have u s u a l l y  S e v e n Woods  Macbride;  fickleness  associated with  two  and  incendiary  and  This mortal  a g i n g , and  allegiances,  the poetry i n these  two  books i s  observed  some a l t e r a t i o n  (1904) s u c h to fact,""*  t h i n k s t h e poem i l l u s t r a t e s  Ellmann,  also  Yeats'  growing  i n Yeats'  finite style  Bowra p o i n t s o u t :  poems as Adam's C u r s e and  the  often  context, suggestive of the  period.  first  her"fickleness.  physical  themes d u r i n g t h i s  pol-  confirm reference  machinations.  time, her  re-  concen-  a s p e c t s of change: the  change e x a c t e d by  i n a more s u b s t a n t i a l  in his characteristic  " I n The  Yeats'  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Maud  Second T r o y , " which would  change i n h e r  Critics  loss  particularly  i s therefore natural  placed  or  i s the  to John  interminable p o l i t i c a l  o b v i o u s l y the p h y s i c a l  second  dissatisfying  from  o f Y e a t s ' w r i t i n g w i t n e s s e d Maud G o n n e ' s f i n a l  significantly  cruelty. itical  over h i s i n t e n s e l y  t o some d e g r e e  show t h a t  commenting  on  he  had  "Adam's  concern with  "veris-  imilitude." The In  "The  theme o f t h e m o r t a l Muse i s p r o m i n e n t  Arrow, .' t h e p o e t ' s 1  thoughts  have been  i n a number  concerned  with  o f poems. the  beauty  52 of h i s beloved, which This may  sounds a g a i n connote  these  love"  the courtly  moon."  poised  over  Curse," which  f o r example,  vers" of Troilus' is  inspiration  wrought this  "double  f o r a reason  would  still  tragedy  i n a world  expressed  i n "the woful destructive  beleaguered  beauty  by change.  Muse  which Although  c a n no l o n g e r l e v y i t s "This beauty's  kinder,  the o l d i s out o f season."  to that  devo-  from h u m a n i t y , b u t embodies  r e g r e t s t h e change:  source  quiver"  i d i o m and i t s s u b l i m e  t h e poet  / I c o u l d weep t h a t  h i s wound—the  as " t h e  t h e bow a n d a r r o w i m a g e s a l l t h e  I n "The A r r o w , " t h i s  Niamh l u r i n g  reaffirm h i s allegiance  inflicted  and i n e f f e c t u a l  o f t h e m o r t a l woman, f o r h e r i n c o m p a r a b l e  the poet  exaggerated,  he r e p r e s e n t s a k i n d o f G a e l i c i z e d  the c o u r t l y  sorwe."  d e s t r u c t i o n has faded  toll,  the  Archer with h i s "cloudy  a g i n g Muse i s k i n d e r b e c a u s e h e r b e a u t y  fatal yet  Possibly  typifies  i n o t h e r poems o f  t o "The A r r o w , " " I n t h e S e v e n Woods,"  the high ineffable  not the changeless  the  i s as outmoded  i n t e n d s t o evoke w i t h  d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s which  suggest  and t h e arrow  to, h i s m i s t r e s s , t h e " o l d h i g h way o f  image o f t h e G r e a t  Pairc-na-lee.  beloved,  mentions  i d i o m would  T h e poem p r e v i o u s  C u p i d , and Y e a t s  tions,  ethos, which Yeats  The c o u r t l y  the comparable  a s a n a r r o w t h a t h a s wounded h i m .  of the destructive  d e d i c a t i o n o f t h e poet  i n "Adam's  hollow uses  the motif  two s e c t i o n s .  limitless  i s symbolized  The poet  u n a t t a i n a b l e , p e e r l e s s beauty  and t h e s u b j e c t o f h i s song,  who  h i s lamen-  tations . "The beloved's" actual  Folly  of Being  Comforted"  a g i n g , and a g a i n Yeats  situation.  A friend  treats  suggests  reflects  that  t h e theme o f t h e " w e l l -  t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n v o l v e d i n an the poet's  love w i l l  become  53 tempered  by wisdom b e c a u s e o f h i s b e l o v e d ' s  considerate easier ring, tion  t o be which  denies  I  do  counsels  wise"—a  Yeats'  the  time's  ravages  response  into  a  over  again."  with  has  Yeats  i t s essential  she  stirs,"  her  capacity for fiery  manifest  her  Outburst  that  nobility "but  "No  makes  "The  comfort.  grandiose  action  and The  her  t u r n her head,  not boast  time  make h e r of her  about  that  beauty  beauty,  her,  when  metaphor presumably r e f e r s  passionate regal  sonnet  reinforces  gestur-  transforms  heroic nature  The  poet a b s o l u t e l y  shalt  stirs  selec-  for h i s heart  e d a x r e f u m , and  that  proverbial  The  and  Time, thou  fire  more c l e a r l y . "  stressfully but  verve,  The  make i t  of t h i s  t h e G r e e k K a i r o s : "Time can b u t  innate n o b i l i t y .  i f she'd  sonnet:  a  typical  assertion  i n t i m a t e s the unchanging  for  burn  intolerable  c h a l l e n g e s tempus  creative process, He  a dramatic  a rhetorical  to Shakespeare's  change."  p a t i e n c e f o r "Time c a n b u t  conversational tenor  i n horror against this  similar  heart!  a little  p i e c e o f homespun p h i l o s o p h y w i t h  illustrates  o f poems.  exclaims  ing  friend  diminishing attraction.  concludes  lineaments,  with  an  h i s d e f i a n c e of time:  / Y o u ' d know t h e  folly  to  which  impassioned "0  heart!  of being  0  com-  forted." i Yeats assumed  towards  conveying vention vidual  dramatizes  himself i n a series  t h e m o r t a l Muse; t h e s e  a s u s t a i n e d emotional, v i t a l i t y  and  dramatic  gesture.  a f t e r whom a l l t h e  patterned.  are  The  poet  t h a t were imagined  says  In  of  finely-controlled  comparable b u t , s u b t l y v a r i e d ,  and,a s u s t a i n e d r i c h n e s s o f i n -  " O l d Memory," s h e  g r e a t queens o f myth, the that her  l o n g ago."  She  postures  i s the m o r t a l immortal  strength calls  to mind  i s a part both  o f h i s own  indi-  Muses, were  "The  queens  memories  54 and  t h e a n c i e n t memory o f man,  Mundi.  In "Under  approached and  from  t h e Moon," t h e s e l o f t y  a contrary viewpoint  i t i s a viewpoint provoked  change and  flux.  legends w i t h who of  seduced that  The  their into  age;  poet  most  a living  greatest  t h e one  hero  happiness  He  t h e most  includes  eminent  effected  o f famous Nimue  magician  (or .Vivien)  and  g r e a t t r a g e d y and  caused  artificer many  the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n  i n the world;  and  of the poet, O i s i n ,  Niamh and and  effected  than  section  by  these queens.  o f t h e poem, b e c a u s e and  and  old story,  of beauty,  i s a burden w i t h any  the  but  not  but  borne."  destrucout-  that  folded Yeats  presumably  them, i n dream-  i s with Merlin's  entombment.  Yeats  the r u i n which  t o be  detail,  because  was  "no  recipients  happiness  association  his resulting  surprise,  the  impression i s strengthened  b e g i n s : " I h a v e no  D r e a m o f women w h o s e b e a u t y  statement  i s censuring the  the  of  can d i s c o v e r  Yeats mentions  the reader's primary  stanza i s a contrived  "To  He  t h e m a l i c i o u s Nimue and  the d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s  poet  the important p l a c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  t h e q u e e n s ' names.  d e c e p t i o n by  This  of  the other of  these unparalleled  Yeats  deaths;  Fand  v e r s e about  t h e r e a d e r assumes t h a t  of  Celtic  i n writing  of Brycelinde,"  terse  cluster  i n dreaming,"  the d e s t r u c t i v i t y  an  Yeats,  The  of  suffers:  adopted, by  Cuchulain.  ruin  cluding  usually  antiquity,  the f i r s t  ing  a whole  figures.  of Knighthood  in  rather  queens of C e l t i c d o m a r e  to that  passion f i n a l l y  the seducer  o r Anima  of C e l t i c  t i v e b e a u t i e s , and rageous  relates  death  unconscious  h i s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e human w o r l d  D e i r d r e whose b e a u t y  renowned O r d e r Sidhe,  by  femme f a t a l e  G u i n e v e r e whose i l l i c i t  the  the c o l l e c t i v e  The  con-  i s not b e w a i l i n g beauty  i n dismay, does not  he w i s h e s  itself /Even  amplify  t o evoke  in this  the  55 sorrow,  tragic  individual that  Fand  change, even t h e death, which b e s e t  stories.  He c a n t h i n k o n l y o f t h e s a d n e s s  suffers.  Change and m o r t a l i t y  volume, and thus  the poet's  fatale  with  consonant  clearly song  works  dreaming  h a d i t s own, t h o u g h  lesser  cumstance,  rather  from  Again  through  adoration  P o e t r y on t h i s  o f , and t h e  subject i s not j o y i n t h e Land  insufficiency.  Whether  tolof  the poet  he cannot  know  She compares w i t h  that  lead  enough."  or destructive  cir-  deliberate  some o f t h o s e  her shallow,  inconsider-  fickle, unattainable,  e t h o s , who w e r e w o r s h i p p e d  with  boundless  I n "Never G i v e A l l t h e H e a r t , " t h e poet  and t h a t  to disaster.  and i r o n i c a l l y than  time  own v o l i t i o n , . h e r  a p a s s i o n a t e woman's v e r y  and t h e a t r i c a l i t y  h e r must  destructive  s h e i s t h e m o r t a l woman,.and h e r i m p e r f e c t i o n i s n o t  and s a c r i f i c e .  cryptically  from  the beloved's  cruel beauties of the courtly  rather  borne"  t h e wearisome weight  the process of aging, but through  character.  play"  o f t h e femme  poem's i n T h e S e v e n Woods c o n c e n t r a t e u p o n c h a n g e i n t h e b e -  fickleness.  iency  theme o f t h e  n o t t o be  t h e moon's v i c i s s i t u d e ,  l o v e d , b u t n o t change r e s u l t i n g  ate  a major  satisfaction. Other  caused  both  i n dismay.  "Under t h e Moon" o r b e y o n d  final  The "burden  i n their  o f Niamh, t h e l o s s  now d w e l l s u p o n a v i e w  subject.  as a pun, i n d i c a t i n g  comprise  t o t h e poet, but even u n m i t i g a t e d , changeless  the L i v i n g is  this  o r poem a b o u t , , b e a u t y  erable  t h e s e queens  criteria  a permanent, r e a l ,  T h e women h a v e  f o r love are transserious  "given their  devotion to  h e a r t s up t o t h e  t h e p o e t , whose o c c u p a t i o n i s a r t i f i c e ,  a c t u a l , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , has been unable  B i o g r a p h e r s may  certainly  be c o r r e c t  says  playing  to "play i t well  i n relating  t h e poem t o  56 Yeats' sonally  d e j e c t i o n over splenetic  Maud G o n n e , f o r t h e poem seems t o h a v e a m o r e  tone  than  much o f Y e a t s '  w o r k : "He t h a t made  knows a l l t h e c o s t , / F o r h e g a v e a l l h i s h e a r t cer  could  ficial  poet  game o f l o v e . b u t was  through  He s u c c e e d e d  tragically  experience.  indicating  type  Green Helmet and Other  beauty  life  i s the mortal,  t h e same theme: t h e .  Helen  succumbed  p r o t o t y p e , Homer.  Helen,  t o peace.  of bearing  the figure  the particular  possesses  combination  t h a t t h e Muse i s n e v e r  the sublime  of these  In  archesoftened  Yet her personal  of time:  had not been d e d i c a t e d  that heroic n o b i l i t y  Here,  as t h e d e s t r u c t i v e and  individual  a "storm,"  Again,  t o him.  H o w e v e r , t h e W h i t e G o d d e s s has. h e r e  a g e , and f i n a l l y  had not been  subject.  features;  into h i s  t o t h e p r e v i o u s volume.  h a v e a g e d h e r a s much a s t h e d e p r a d a t i o n s  would have  fitting  that s k i l l  of the  Poems d e s c r i b e s t h e two a s p e c t s o f  w h i c h were c e n t r a l  loveliness.  mellowed w i t h  entire  so  to translate  o f Greek myth, c e l e b r a t e d by Y e a t s '  of ruinous  qualities  artifi-  h i s s u s t a i n e d l o v e h a s g r o w n " o u t o f f a s h i o n , " the. p h r a s e  "Peace," h i s beloved  she  unable  i s more f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  heroic  The  7  the s k i l l  "0 Do N o t L o v e T o o L o n g " t r e a t s  change i n t h e b e l o v e d ,  and  i n h i s a r twith  t h e t r i v i a l i t y o f t h e woman's a t t a c h m e n t  The  she  this  f a s h i o n t h e poem, b u t c o u l d n o t f a s h i o n t h e p l a y , t h e a r t i -  artificer, actual  and l o s t . "  per-  i f her  to strife,  and e x p r e s s i o n , a p a i n t e r ' s individual  and a r c h e t y p a l  i n a n y g i v e n poem  varies,  a f o r m u l a i c e x p r e s s i o n and " c a n e s c a p e — i n t o 8  the  abundance and d e p t h  the  selection,  Yeats  of nature."  again  intends  I n " P e a c e " and t h e o t h e r  poems o f  some r e f e r e n c e t o Maud Gonne a s t h e  m o r t a l Muse, and s h e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  associated with  an h e r o i c  society,  its  dignified,  Yeats  fierce  eulogizes  heroic  Queen M a e v e : " T h i s face  beauty  T h e Muse seems a l s o i n a story  beauty,  'changes l e a s t f r o m y o u t h  of the a r t s , since  that  that  t o be t h e M o r r i g u .  o f a p e a s a n t woman's v i s i o n o f  o l d woman who c a n n e i t h e r  to face with heroic  says, out  action.  read  'highest  h a s come  beauty,' which  t o age,' a beauty  d e c a d e n c e , we c a l l  nor write,  that  Blake  has been  progress,  fading  s e t voluptuous  9 beauty her  i n i t s place."  After  relating  company o f b e a u t i f u l w a r r i o r s ,  Maeve's  fleeting  lamentations  love  values  he c o n c l u d e s w i t h  forh i slost  paramour. . T h i s  with  Celtic  with  a n d t h e same v i r t u e s .  ence t o t h e Greek h e r o i c heritage.  Trojan  a l l u s i o n evidences, but she a l s o  that  Celtic  these  ated,  hero.  qualities  reckless  handed  T h e poem's h e r o i n e  against  such  fies  to "a b a s i c  which  savagery  much o f h i s p a s s i o n rashly  as C u c h u l a i n ' s  a n e n t i r e army."*"^  t h e mass s l a u g h t e r ,  often  careless  exemplifies  as t h e  of the  Zwerdling  states  o f such  single-  by p o i n t i n g o u t exploits,  o f the hero's v a l o r , which  and f i e r c e n e s s . "  of l i f e .  refer-  to the glorious  of U l s t e r  continues  i s the hallmark  at the root  this  and courage o f an exagger-  defence  Zwerdling  t h e same  the t r a i t s  heroism,  are primarily leadership  nature,  e r a but also  t o t h e Greek s p i r i t  In h i s study o f C e l t i c  that  him  i s akin  Muse,  her with the  illustrates comparison  recite  fleshly  s o c i e t i e s cherished  i t s implied  Celtic  typical  associates  "No S e c o n d T r o y "  age w i t h  about  can only  the Greek -heroic  pagandom, f o r b o t h  o f Maeve and  a tale  i s no s e n s u a l ,  a n d O t h e r Poems Y e a t s  of antiquity, particularly  implicitly  appearances  o f a m o r t a l p o e t , who, d e s e r t e d ,  arid i n T h e G r e e n H e l m e t heroines  various  He i s s t u b b o r n ,  testigives  f e a r l e s s and  S i m i l a r l y , Y e a t s ' Muse i s a l e a d e r o f  58 men, Had  their  incendiary  they but  courage  gift  of u n f a l t e r i n g  epic  code;  bow.  and  a r r o w and and  courage  thus, her  i t s ready,  taut  o f bow  and  —aptly  convey  the beloved  ings.  He  asserting  tries  like  has  to excuse  in itself:  there  another  "Why,  Troy  by  beauty  accepts  been  c o u l d she to burn?" that  her  lonely  superiority. heroic  of a former  and  beauty  tangible has  of  e r a and  solitary  and  continual misery  intrepid  i s , what e l s e  The  is most  because feel-  upon him  by  exoneris?  /Was  exoner-  c h a r a c t e r can  can  r e c k l e s s n e s s , and  i s also  she  they  do  but  des-  inform her .  t h e m o r t a l Muse, f o r Y e a t s  circumstances filled  of  citadels  her unkindness,  dazzling,  savagery  e x p e r i e n c e : she  images  T h i s i s a somewhat c r y p t i c  has  t o h i s own  decorous  attrac-  have done, b e i n g what she  She  t h e poem w i t h  of her  war-like character i s a sufficient  troy?  invests  a tightened  c o n s i d e r a t e of the poet's  infliction  the  or the p a s s i o n a t e , war-hungry  indicating  b e i n g what she  this  passion of  e v o c a t i o n of b u r n i n g  speaks  destruction:  Clearly,  courtly,  / B e i n g h i g h and  a pun,  her  what  epic  dimensions  the  a p o w e r f u l weapon, t i g h t e n e d  the  only bring  the  The  and  ways—  possesses  compared w i t h  the h e r o i c  the Morrigu  scarcely  f o r her  f o r the poet  fittingly  and  this,  that,her imperial,  ation  ation,  as  " N a t u r a l " c o u l d be  t h i s Amazonian beauty  Muse h e r s e l f  "violent  one, o f t h o s e v i g o r o u s H o m e r i c w a r r i o r s .  Thus, her age  t e a c h them  innate ferocity  superceded  fire—weapons  Maeve o f C r u a c h a n .  stern."  i s most  The  destructivity.  similes  i n an  that  image conveys  q u i v e r have been  natural  and  beauty  p o i s e d f o r s h o o t i n g by  "not  f o r she would  equal to desire."  This b r i l l i a n t  tion  advocate,  and  relates  h i s days w i t h  i t explicitly  sorrow  and  taught  59 violent  measures  to the  "ignorant."  i n c e n d i a r y Maud Gonne who ness, self  espousing  to  v i o l e n c e and  mortal,.she  universal  squandered  level,  she  i s the  has  of b a t t l e  and  this  destructive, In  "A  art.  Yeats  conflicting  romantic  time's  writing,  "being  grey,"  he  ity  will  The  beloved  her  reflection  will  in life  pre-possession of  claims  confirm that  immortality  can  have  to the  context  the poet's  offered  remain. to the  heroic ished  for his individual  He  t o an h e r o i c c u l t u r e .  beauty ideals  of  this  heron  the  life  her needs.  and  Yeats  adopted  f o r the  youth  towards  poem b y  stimulated a  a  creature of  i s the with  her  i n t h e n i n e t i e s was  the  "fiery  yet  One  transformation of  life-  poster-  flux,  but  unchanging  inspirational  transient,  seems t o d e n y a l l human i m p e r f e c t i o n .  in  that poetic  However, t h e m o r t a l b e l o v e d  archetype:  re-  body,was."  ephemeral m i s t r e s s of beloved  and  Now,  d e s i r e and  vouchsafes  of Homeric v e r s e , presumably H e l e n — b e a u t y  embodiment  own  i n a g l a s s /What t h i n g h e r  figure  living  is  the h y p e r b o l i c  his aesthetic  The  the  lofti-  to h i s mature achievements  song.  belonging  archetype  own  c e l e b r a t e s the m o r t a l  or p e r i s h e d , being  i n h i s poetry w i l l  traditionally  the  e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s Muse's b e a u t y ,  shadowd  changed  is  she  to her  of v i s i o n  again  to have r e a l i z e d  "he  her  Although  satisfy  angles  e s t a b l i s h e s a temporal  devoted  she  Muse.  h i s youthful experiences The  mob.  everything into  which alone  superb  l o v e and  indifferent  Woman Homer S u n g , " t h e p o e t  h e r o i c Muse. lating  pitching  level,  f o r the h e r o i c archetype;  epic heroine  i n the  yet  poet's  the p h i l i s t i n e  conflict  dextrously built  a personal  the  i s t h e human o r i g i n a l  personal relationships,  glory  On  blood", seems t o  inhumanly  of Yeats'  life  be  into  cher-  a r t , of  60 brute  fact  lesser  into  thing  through  vision,  than  life of  and  Helen's  and  seem  Yeats  o f eminent  self-styled  and  of h e r o i c ,  poems i n w h i c h  role  t h e m o r t a l Muse seems i n h e r s e l f  the poet  aligns  destructive  and  of the m a n i f o l d s i g n i f i c a n c e s  points  the s e r i o u s  Leda, into  and  from  their  design.  a very l i t e r a l blind  finding those  felt  Celtic  similar  "wild  of Greece,  and  example,  hoping  their  Certainly,  feature of the  "The  song,  like  similar  Tower"  During  Jove  "Nor  covered brought  Homer's, i s shall  heroic  see  that  to those  tales  of  in  of  Ireland  the c h a r a c t e r of  did desire  to ride  the comparison  of  i n that Greek f o r he  mythical world-pictures,  potentiality  a  Hoffman  of Yeats' prose w r i t i n g , two  the  this  stance f o r Yeats:  to express  Yeats  the  and  celebrant."  seem i n e x a c t , b u t we  and  exemplar  h i m s e l f as  a swan t h a t  and  "That  o f many  o f T r o y whose b e a u t y  Yeats's  done f o r h i s .  similarity  beauty"  saw  c o n s i d e r e d h i s themes a n a l o g o u s  myth i s a r e c u r r e n t  p r o f o u n d l y the  as  the ancient r e l i g i o n  c o u n t r y as Homer h a d  first  o f t h e swan i m a g e ,  i t was  And  empty s a d d l e w h e r e Homer rode."''""'" and  rambling  born Helen  p a r a l l e l may  sense, Y e a t s  poet,  identical with his  u n i o n was  The  Yeats  of the Homeric  t o remember t h a t  b e i n g a l l o f Homer's s o n g .  e p i c by  the  importance  blind  so  i s the l i v i n g  i n much o f h i s w o r k — f o r "beauty's  labouring  artifice,  I t i s the  no  permanent  of m a j e s t i c epic beauty  discussion  i t inappropriate  o n l y be  h i m s e l f w i t h Homer a s  beauty.  the poet w i t h  is  She  the Homeric r o l e .  traditions  persists  dream."  associates  out  can  seems a m a s t e r w o r k o f  an h e r o i c  assumes  epic  She  a work w h i c h  a r t e x p r e s s i v e of the h e r o i c  /But  excellence,  commemorator  singer  reflection.  life  letters  here  a work o f a r t , b u t  i t s poetic  thought, making  and  f o r shaping  their  and  61 a prestigious  felt  the importance  o f a m y t h i c a l r e v i v a l w o u l d n o t be  one,  provide a necessary efflorescence  that  parochial inative  culture  but would  power i n E u r o p e a n  and  a prestigious  tradition,  " a new  nation.  12  inspiring  intoxication  He a of  also  simply imag-  f o r the  imag-  13 ination  of the  world."  Initially, tableaux  t h e poet had  of C e l t i c  j o u r n e y e d w i t h e t h e r e a l Niamh i n t o  m y t h o l o g i c a l d e s i g n s ; he  A l c h e m i c a l Rose  f o r h i s death  then usurped  the Homeric i d e a l  Helen, rior  and  by  Yeats  belong  living  essentially  lofty  figures,  this  I have d i s c u s s e d the poet's  standing various  of her  yet  His  and  bitterness,  d e s p a i r i n g wisdom.  related votion  to the i s also  i s related  to  faces  the  v a r i o u s n e s s and striking  t o comedy.  acceptance  at Miss  Gonne's  response  and  celebration  political  infuses  into  into  a  involvement  intensely  of d e s t r u c t i v e  under-  the  leads to censure  and  poems  Troy,"  through  t o accommodate  the  relation  i n the  Second  activity  beauty  tries  role,  "No  The  I have a l s o mentioned  the poet's mixed  w h i c h he  depth.  effects In  of t h i s  of her h e r o i c  epic  war-  i n Yeats' p r e v i o u s e x p r e s s i o n of  Depth of p e r s o n a l emotion  a detached  beauty  of the  and  personal anguish  impersonal Homeric  qualities  staunch  was  particularly  A l l these diverse the  as  G a e l i c Muse  poignancy  attitudes  appreciation  l o v e and  of h e r o i c  particularly  his bitter  t h e Muse  Rose's s o v e r e i g n t y  fierce  Gonne.  indomitable character.  emotions  t h e poem. eulogy,  and  the  archetype  characteristic  v a r y i n g from  invoked  o f s t u r d y womanhood,  upon t h i s  a r e , as  t o myth e l i c i t s  rabble-rousing  The  t o t h e G a e l i c M u s e , and  treated with  period  vision.  goddess—Maud  Homeric devotee  of biography of  superimposes  queens o f C e l t i c d o m . , The  the i n d i v i d u a l  her  into  next  the  and stoical, are  individual love.  de-  62 In to ful  "A Woman Homer  theepic  role  response  has a comic i n c o n g r u i t y .  t o Miss  "Whereon I w r o t e thusiasm  her  Gonne who d i r e c t l y  and wrought"  o f t h e boy s c a r c e l y  approached assigned  Sung," t h e r e l a t i o n  h i s beloved,  romantic  by with  Homeric  intentions  quivered with hate  t h e poet  saw t h i s  Yeats  never  ingly,  limits  "A Woman Homer  aware o f t h a t were s i l l y Yeats'  of  that  gift  i n terms  He r e c a l l s h i s sense  lightning.  Yeats  indicates  detail  as a  of a  "bitter  highly-wrought,  o f poet and  t o t h e poems, s o t h a t  t o mere f o r m u l a s . that Yeats  survived i t a l l . "  his gift  Interest-  was t h o r o u g h l y  would  I t also  indicates  survive i t a l l .  or tragi-comic vein  again expresses  T h e poem r e f e r s  a l l joy.  seemed of  t o t h e Muse  indignantly  passed  i d i o s y n c r a s y w h i c h A u d e n a s c r i b e s t o h i m : "You  heroi-comic  t h e poet  Y e t , i f t h e man  i n the description  r e c u r r e n t personae  awareness t h a t  similar  ciliation";  absurd.  u s ; your  I f a n y man,  and f e a r b e c a u s e he  The p i c t u r e  and s i g n i f i c a n t  Sung" a l s o  individual  like  equal A  lation  these  puppy-dog e n -  i s absurdly at variance with h i s magnificent  The c o n t i n u i n g changes  Muse a d d g r e a t v e r s a t i l i t y  his creativity:  The e l a t e d ,  to the intruder.  "beardless" youth  stance.  inspired  situation  describes h i s youth-  accords w i t h Homeric s t a t u r e .  wrong" p e r p e t r a t e d a g a i n s t h i s b e l o v e d . sensitive,  The poet  (my i t a l i c s ) .  t h e poet  indifference,  of the individual  i s e v i d e n t i n "Recon-  his individual  perplexity with r e -  o f t h e c o n t r a s t between t h e l o f t y  t o t h e m o r t a l Muse who h a s d e p r i v e d t h e m e m o r a b l e d a y when  most p o i g n a n t l y communicative  as i f from  h e r d e p a r t u r e meant t h e l o s s  poetry, because  the poet  she d e s e r t e d h i m and i t  p e r c e p t i o n s were v i t i a t e d , claims that  and t h e  she "took  away  t h e impact of h i s /The v e r s e s  63 that  c o u l d move t h e m "  could and  find  /Nothing  half-forgotten  comments  that  ( h i s r e a d e r s ) , and  t o make a s o n g t h i n g s /That  Yeats  turned  subsequently  about  but  were l i k e  t o d r a m a s on  kings,  he  laments:  /Helmets,  memories o f y o u . "  Irish  "I  and  swords,  Ellmann  h e r o i c themes a f t e r  the  14 loss  o f Maud Gonne,.  revelation  than  p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e drama i n v o l v e s a l e s s  p o e t r y , and  tracting  practicalities  splendid  h e r o i c trappings of  his  h e r o i c M u s e ; and  poetic  "thoughts"  " b a r r e n " and laconically appears effect  of  Yeats  this,  further the poet  e x p e r i e n c i n g the  which p o s s i b l y  comic.  Whilst undergoing  reconciliation,  he  this  the  gesture with  swords  flamboyant  a sense  frigid,  somewhat  here  he  actor i n a  into  To  "laughing,  interaction  of joy  of emotions the poet  and  i n the  avers  the p i t " ; h a v i n g  tragi-  that  gesture.  of both v  t h e r e seems t o b e  no  reconciliation The  use  a b s u r d i t y and  seems a  he  theatrical  o f t h e word  "fit"  impermanence,  a passing outburst of question of  he  accomplished  the h e r o i c s t a g e - p r o p e r t i e s which  a u t o m a t i c a l l y suggests  Thus,  an  elation,  However, t h e  invests  hysteria.  tearful  and  for his  and  tries  The  of;her,  memories  poet  dis-  " R e c o n c i l i a t i o n " with her.  the mixed b l e n d  dispenses with  f o r h i s Muse.  term  this  The  h i s beloved,  simultaneous  c r o w n s , and  actor's rehearsed,  the  to the bone." to excuse  suggests  one—an  since  p l a y s w e r e a l l mere m e m o r i e s  p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as  sorrow,  substituted  [him]  i n proposing  fit,"  "Hurl helmets,  stage production.  d e p a r t u r e have been u n p r o d u c t i v e  Second T r o y "  weeping  will  these  and  h i m s e l f i n the  they were I n t e n s e l y d i s s a t i s f y i n g  "have c h i l l e d  t o go  a b l e to absorb  theatre business  s i n c e her  i n "No  was  personal  complete  t i o n w i t h h i s e a r l y Muse f i g u r e s , w h e t h e r Niamh o r H e l e n ,  enthusiastic reconcilia-  and  after  The  64 Green Helmet to  them.  I n no  structuring Yeats' for  Other  theme.  process  poetic  that  form,  that  though  ment, f e e l i n g the boundaries pattern that  of  an  the  form  assumed  i s reluctant  of  a s i n g l e work.  tended  to l i f t  and  Yeats'  transcendence  that world's  nesses. greater emphasis  The  earliest  intractable  i n content  about  over  the  the  achieved importance.  of  does  developeven  illustrate  of a r t .  a  Lentricchia  states  the m a g i c a l  strain  i n the  out  of  beyond  the  time  and  tended  t o make h i m  poetry i s clearly  of  as L e n t r i c c h i a  concerned  transcendence  as and  pressures shy  with  the for-  weak-  assume much  s u g g e s t s , and  the s h i f t  of  changes.  t h e v e r b a l medium fact.  from  cannot  o f i t s f l a w s and  appropriate s t y l i s t i c  emerged  sym-  empirical  although O i s i n  attraction  within  general  and  i s a c c o m p a n i e d by  could predominate  of  T h i s i s not  poem t o poem and  which- i g n o r e d t h e m i r e  concern  than  line  v a g a r i e s of the e m p i r i c a l world  Gradually, Yeats' p r i n c i p a l which  from  concept  even the  1902,  major,  of the Y e a t s i a n  a definite  of the phenomenal w o r l d ,  attraction,  importance  fluctuations  given  inspiration  added, d i s t i n c t i v e  " h i s s k e p t i c a l mind reality  rather  preoccupied with  However, he  him  the  accomplishment.  an  change  than  artefact  to chart  theory, s p i r i t u a l i s m  the poet  than  d i s c u s s e d the  Yeats' views  experience.""'""' poet's  to f i n a l  less  the  to the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n  polished  ever  alien world," yet of  point  was  that  aesthetic  a view  get  gestation  has he  complete,  the emphasis  t h e Muse s e r v e a s  work o f a r t r a t h e r  i n the progress of Yeats'  "Romantic  bolist  the  from  Lentricchia aesthetic,  volume, does  the f i n i s h e d  Yeats  but  c o n s i d e r a b l y reduces  T h i s c h a n g e may  t h a t work, w i t h  suggest  Poems h e  subsequent  concern with  aesthetic to  and  Visionary  itself,  65 transcendence l e a v i n g him  had  initially  in a hostile,  "much l a b o u r i n g . " shaping w i l l , "  Yeats  deceived  the poet,  i n c a l c u l a b l e world emphasizes  and  freedom  finally  where a l l f i n e  the poet's  w h i c h p r o v i d e s a new  had  making, h i s  from  chaotic,  dissolved,  t h i n g s needed "finite  fallen  exper-  16 ience, without Lentricchia  necessitating  explains this  the r e j e c t i o n  last  significant  "Towards a Y e a t s i a n P o e t i c  of W i l l , "  became t h e  transformed  language. verse.""''  . . . the Thus,  7  Muse i s a n In pendent  instrument  that  free  the poet  the  two  the poet  from her  and  an  i s seen  content  to l i v e . "  the poet's  his art rather  shaping  Yeats  "[He]  carving  abstracting  will i t in  a deterministic  does not  uni-  c r e a t e him;  c r a f t , which  S i n c e spontaneous  domestic  with  still that  the  i f he  had  this,  Yeats  and  beauty  as  transformed  ever away  concern to  l a b o u r , as  convey in  i s pre-lapsarian,  "stitching  the  increasingly  metaphors express  such  his  words  a growing  physical  inde-  postures  s e r v e s as  thrown poor  indicates  natural  labour involved, or Pegasus  have  heroism,  M a n i f o l d images a r e used  shape of beauty,  i n "Adam's C u r s e , "  She  her  of dramatic  reckless  comments  might  Concomitant  t h a n h i s Muse.  m u s t hammer t h e  tediously  ing"  "The  t h e . Muse r e t a i n e d  ambiguous r e u n i o n .  t o communicate w i t h h e r  "Adam's C u r s e . "  or  within  her  the poet's v e r b a l m a n i p u l a t i o n or h i s sheer  poet  that  in a series  infidelity,  s o l e m o t i v a t i o n f o r h i s v e r s e , and  with  i n his. section,  e x p e r i e n c e by  volumes of p o e t r y s t u d i e d ,  separation  stresses  experience.  artefact.  e x i s t e n c e , and  been  commenting  c r e a t e s h i s Muse, she  t o accommodate h e r  /And  change  imagination working  attempting  managed  of that  the  and  the  manual  unstitch-  to a cart-horse dragging  66 load-metal  i n "The  poem, P e g a s u s no to, c l o u d , b u t which  F a s c i n a t i o n o f What's D i f f i c u l t . "  longer  must  "Shiver  a l l . s u g g e s t the In  one  of  the  eyes, ever and  an  as  an  in sprightly  under  the  later  i n terms o f  exuberantly  e x q u i s i t e stage  the  fashioned  poet.can never  loved's  In  and  and  or  Poems,  Mask," she  gold with  a l l the  i s compounded  love  cloud  jolt,"  Other  "The  represents  Life  latter  poem.  mask o f b u r n i n g  property, which  d i s c e r n whether  a  sweat  Green Helmet  artefact.  know a b o u t h i s p e r p l e x i n g Muse. the  strain,  of making  works o f The  this  f a s h i o n from Olympian  lash,  p h y s i c a l anguish  t h e Muse i s d e s c r i b e d symbolized  leaps  In  emerald  poet  of  is  can  illusions  deceit underlies his  be-  performance:  'I would b u t f i n d what's t h e r e t o f i n d , Love or d e c e i t . ' ' I t was t h e mask e n g a g e d y o u r m i n d , And a f t e r s e t y o u r h e a r t t o b e a t , Not what's b e h i n d . ' 'But l e s t y o u a r e my enemy, I must e n q u i r e . ' '0 n o , my d e a r , l e t a l l t h a t What m a t t e r , s o t h e r e i s b u t I n y o u , i n me?'  Man's p e r c e p t i o n ions it  and  was  i s inadequate  confused  essentially  by  the  this  because  d e c e i t of jewelled  affections  and  thoughts;  nor  now  d i s c o v e r what h e r  can  discard  he  t h e mask, s o  that  he  had  the  human d r a m a , o f women e n g a g e d  be; fire  i t i s fraught  others.  The  with  beloved  t h e a t r i c a l mask w h i c h not  perceived  performance  poet  can  i n the  never  artful  that  was  concealed.  "play" of  assures inspired  she  apprehend  h i s own  a  She the  illus-  him  that  his  performer, refuses  truth  love; l i f e  of  to the  becomes  a series  of g l i t t e r i n g  Conversely, fact, artist  i n h i s own  b e c a u s e he  cannot  he  transcendence his  hammered  the  that  of  and  can be  illusion  the poet  artifices  i s a Prospero  the development  The  obscurely perceived  i n t h a t i t does not  artifice  manipulate  Muse, b u t  work the poet  creates i t .  i s truthful  acknowledged  s u r f a c e s and  m o r t a l i t y , and  g o l d and  gold  the  by  real,  designs.  h i s mortal  artifices Yeats'  and  the  i t is The  arte-  an  poet  histrionic  of h i s c r a f t .  shifting  f i n a l l y upon the  enamelling.  t h e mask, t h e  of a r t f a s h i o n e d by  c o n t r o l s and  t h e Muse i l l u s t r a t e s  of  p r o f e s s t o be  adopted  mage w i t h  sure  realtionships.  toil  focus of  the  Thus,  upon artificer,  68  NOTES  •*"W. B. Y e a t s , S t o r i e s o f Red H a n r a h a n : T h e A l c h e m i c a ( L o n d o n : A. H. B u l l e n , 1 9 3 1 ) , p . 224.  S e c r e t Rose:  Rosa  2 D a n i e l Hoffman, Barbarous Knowledge: Myth i n the P o e t r y o f Y e a t s , and M u i r ( 1 9 6 7 ; r p t . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p .  Graves 200.  3 Yeats  A. Norman J e f f a r e s , A Commentary on t h e C o l l e c t e d ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 92.  Poems o f W. ~~  13. ~  4 W. B. Y e a t s , E s s a y s m i l l a n , - 1969) , p . 522. ^C. millan,  M.  Bowra, The  1967) , p .  and  I n t r o d u c t i o n s (1961;  H e r i t a g e of Symbolism  r p t . L o n d o n : Mac-  (1943; r p t . London: Mac-  193.  R i c h a r d E l l m a n n , ' Y e a t s : T h e Man and t h e M a s k s ( 1 9 4 8 ; r p t . New Y o r k : D u t t o n , n . d . ) , p . 152. One o f t h e m a j o r i n f l u e n c e s u p o n t h i s s t y l i s t i c r e v i s i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be Y e a t s ' i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n drama. See f o r e x a m p l e , P e t e r U r e , Y e a t s ( L o n d o n : O l i v e r a n d B o y d , 1 9 6 3 ) : " Y e t i t seems c e r t a i n t h a t i t was t h e p l a y w r i g h t ' s r e a d i n e s s t o s u b m i t t o t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o d r a m a t i s e p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h a t changed the c h a r a c t e r o f Y e a t s ' l y r i c v e r s e , a n d made t h a t d r a m a t i c , t o o . . . . I t i s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o n t a c t w i t h t h e p e r s o n a e and t h e i r s p e e c h t h a t makes , "Adam's C u r s e , " t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t , i f n o t t h e m o s t f l a w l e s s , poem i n t h e 1904 c o l l e c t i o n I n t h e S e v e n Woods" ( p p . 5 1 - 5 2 ) . ^Jeffares,  p.  127.  g Essays  and  I n t r o d u c t i o n s , p.  87.  q W. B. Y e a t s , "'And F a i r , F i e r c e Women!" M y t h o l o g i e s London: M a c m i l l a n , , 1 9 7 0 ) , pp. 57-59. - ^ A l e x Z w e r d l i n g , Y e a t s and U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 54. ^ H o f f m a n , p.  the H e r o i c I d e a l  18.  12 -Essays  and  I n t r o d u c t i o n s , p.  205.  14 E s s a y s and I n t r o d u c t i o n s , p . E l l m a n n , p . 169.  187.  13  (New  (1959;  York:New  rpt.  York  69 15  F r a n k L e n t r i c c h i a , T h e G a i e t y o f L a n g u a g e : An E s s a y oh t h e R a d i c a l P o e t i c s o f W. B_. Y e a t s and W a l l a c e S t e v e n s ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1968), p. 56.  16 Lentricchia,  p.  60.  "^Lentricchia,  p.  70.  CHAPTER I V  S E L F CREATION I N OLD A G E : THE MUSE AS ARTEFACT  The  volume f o l l o w i n g The Green Helmet, w i t h  Responsibilities,  illustrates  themes u s e d b y Y e a t s his  the considerable  i n his later  early preoccupations:  the longing  sorrow e f f e c t e d by h i s m o r t a l , crucial  emotional  poet's personal to  the reduction  Iseult's settle and  impulses  l i f e with  poetry.  i n t o the comfortable  a harsh  image i n a w h o l e n e t w o r k o f c a r e f u l l y earlier  Muse  broader  s c o p e of. t h e l a t e r w o r k s .  the  prevalent  critical  minor,^ f o r they  view  that  serious  that the  life.  reality, wrought  largely  a n d Y e a t s was s h o r t l y t o The u n a t t a i n a b l e  b u t became a c o n t r o l l a b l e  images.  Fragments  ofthe  i n the richer  texture  However, I would n o t a g r e e  t h e p r e - 1 9 1 7 poems  have t h e p o w e r f u l ,  t o serve as  Gonne was u n r e l e n t i n g ,  f i g u r e s do r e m a i n , b u t a r e t r a n s f o r m e d  and  orthe  relationships contributed  harmony o f m a r r i e d  Muse was n o l o n g e r  again  I t i s probable  u p o n t h e M u s e ; Maude  urgent  title  t h e ghost o f  into'fulfilment  h e r o i c Muse w e r e n e v e r  i t s shifting  sober  i n t h e number o f  Yeats has l a i d  f o r death  c o u r t s h i p was n o t d e s p e r a t e l y  warrior  increase  f o r w r i t i n g poetry.  i n emphasis  i t s rather  with  a r e remarkable but  simplicity  of the f i n e s t  lyrics. The cation) with  first  poem  i s dedicated  i n R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (excluding t o t h e d e c e a s e d membership  whom Y e a t s h a d " l e a r n e d  [his] trade."  This  the prefatory  of the "Cheshire  invo-  Cheese,"  i n t r o d u c t o r y address t o  t h e Rhymers' C l u b he  disavows  Reeds.  that  indicates  of ghostly  "You  may  think  fulfilment  I w a s t e my  has  treat  a great v a r i e t y  for  more l i f e  and  hermit,  romantic  gerald,  significant sed Y e a t s  the  f i n de ' s i i c l e  and  a l t h o u g h he  breath  the  inequity  as  public  such  as  on  a m o n g. t h e  the  Irish  heroes,  and  a  Hugh L a n e ' s  Fitz-  the  had  of  lament  O'Leary,  scene which  fiasco,  volume  awry w i s d o m  appointment  a  passion  o t h e r poems i n t h e  the Magi,  or  associates:  t h e r e can be  o f poems r e v o l v e u p o n  the  years—the Parnell  Wind  to h i s former  i n i t s dead  a group  controversies  in thirty  The  o f government  exemplified  Tone.. A l s o ,  says  /Pretending that  of themesj  i n The  ethos, f o r  the p r e r o g a t i v e s of death  i n i t than death."  Ireland  Emmet  are not  transcendence,  /That  beggar  from  death-oriented passion manifested  P a s s i o n and  kind  h i s change  three  most  impres  donation  of  2 paintings  and  the  this  political  joy:  "Be  ficult."  and  secret This  and  testifies  ability  external  own  private  bitter  social exult  strikes  exultation.  Playboy.  Yeats  Gregory  solitary  of u n i v e r s a l  upon h i s g h o s t l y  note  i n the  social  solitude."  engulfing because  Aligning  i s most  "all  work,  public  and  who  unique  acclaim forges h i s  Nineteen,"  Ireland  a g a i n he  and  the  rejects  triumph would  himself with  dif-  Has  individual's  to the a r t i f i c e r  victory:  private  Whose Work  Both  i n " N i n e t e e n Hundred  destruction  of a l l  i n Yeats' later  satisfaction.  are unimportant Later,  a Friend  assurance  i s able to confront the d e s t r u c t i o n knowledge  In the midst  c o u n s e l s an u t t e r l y  i n "To  a characteristic  t o a c o n f i d e n c e and  inspiration  The  / B e c a u s e o f a l l t h i n g s known / T h a t  commonplace n o t i o n o f p u b l i c break  by  agitation,  t o f a s h i o n h i s own  and  Yeats  aroused  a d v i c e t o Lady  Come t o N o t h i n g " which  furor  "Some  the  /But Platonist,  72 he  goes so  f a r as  w h i c h m o s t men  to  hold  reverse and  the  traditional  w h i c h most p o e t r y  aspiration for  immortality  boasts:  . . . i f our works c o u l d But v a n i s h w i t h our breath T h a t were a l u c k y d e a t h , For  He  unites  of  triumph  lonely  h i s views over  triumph  of  time,  the  am  Before An  The  artificer  ing w i l l "  as  of  that  our  public  he  with  that  brief  image o f  free  triumph  is satisfied  mirror  gleam of  and  the  banality  with  the  transient,  show i t ,  its life  be  gone,  i t s state.  the  fashioning  In L e n t r i c c h i a ' s phrasing,  a  solitude.  that,  i f a troubled  i s content with  however b r i e f .  mar  art:  satisfied  Satisfied  but  banality  asserting  e x u l t a t i o n of h i s  I  can  autonomous c r a f t s m a n  of h i s  Yeats  to  exclusive  insists  fashion  his  world,  upon h i s own  "carv-  world  and  upon  the  3 his  own  ethos.  individual's he Art  c a u s e he Yeats  can  "Sailing the  the  the  can  most d i f f i c u l t  poet  c o n t r o l over  make them, and  triumph i f not goal the  to  Byzantium."  mosaicist,  or  of  any  further  into  achieve:  finite  "Be  and  poem may  "artifice become t h e  the  forger  of  Like  secret  an and  ascetic, exult."  and.transcendent worlds  of  polished  precious  l a t e r works, s i n c e  be  be-  fleeting,  e t e r n i t y , " as  t h o s e unmatched B y z a n t i n e  b o o k i l l u m i n a t o r , and  any  a mere i n t r u d e r  i t s spoilator.  to  the  E t e r n i t y can of  as  although poet  feign eternity, creating  goldsmith,  trespass  sees  "secret meditation,"  seeks only allows  Thus, Yeats  in  artefact  craftsmen,  metals.  of  the  I shall  i t i s c l e a r that  the  not  73 artificer grated  r e p l a c e s t h e Muse as  into  motifs. ulated  an  With the  extremely  diverse  the p r i n c e l y  i m a g e s and  the dominant  theme, a l t h o u g h  p a t t e r n w i t h many o t h e r  dignity  o f t h e aged P r o s p e r o ,  themes o f h i s l a t e r  p o e t r y , the  i t is  inte-  significant the poet  feignedly  manip-  immortal  4 puppets poet's  of h i s " f i n i t e  shaping w i l l . "  a r t e f a c t , w o u l d be  an  In R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , Majesty,"  " F r i e n d s , " and  The  Muse, i f she were n o t  impertinent intruder  upon a r t i s t i c  o n l y t h r e e poems r e f e r  "That  the Night  placing  them i n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f Y e a t s ' m a t u r e a t t i t u d e s  poet'towards other  old  period;  Lady Gregory  importance  man,  and  this  and  as  indicates  Tower."  In  that  destructive,  poet's  has  finally  Vernon,  beloved  emotional  response  accomplished  of h i s  he  emotions.  change i n the  a reduction  The  i s now  poet  linked  with  the  Muse's  crystallized  can p o s s i b l y  in  celebrate  youth:  reconciliation  question i l l u s t r a t e s with her  because  an  an  later  her t h a t took y o u t h was g o n e a p i t y i n g look? p r a i s e t h a t one?  t o h i s own  two  implies  stance i n the  is fully  " F r i e n d s , " Y e a t s w o n d e r s how  and  but  i n a eulogy with  service.  i s closely  a s s o c i a t i o n which  pitiless  which  characteristic  t h e aged poet an  i s included  con-  o f t h e Muse,  the d i s t i n c t i v e  impassioned  And what o f A l l t i l l my With s c a r c e How c o u l d I  The  She  Diana  becomes h i s most  artefact,  "The  and  of Yeats'  the persona.of  portrayal  itself  h i s M u s e , Maud G o n n e .  friends,  of her  title  facets  c o u l d be  transitional  " F r i e n d s , " the  earlier  These  solitude.  Muse—"Fallen  sidered  In  poems, r e c a l l i n g  Come."  to the  the  that  he  abundant  74 "sweetness" registers mum  flows  from h i s " h e a r t ' s r o o t " ;  infinitely  effect  the core of h i s emotional  pleasurable sensations of her.  what E l l m a n n  terms  "the reconciling  Yeats uses  q u e s t i o n i s n o t answered b u t t r a n s c e n d e d by metaphor:  that  flows  transcends  argument.""'  majestic  i t indicates  beauty  must  endure  defy  time  the " F a l l , "  what's gone." urgent  that  "That  the Night  heroism.  cord, because of  In this  c o m p a r e s w i t h a k i n g who w o u l d  /That  the night  heroine has suit  o f trumpet,  come."  glory.  f i l l  The k i n g of death.  been a mere i r r i t a t i o n , "That  incisive  canon,  though  many o f Y e a t s '  dazzling  towards h e r  i n continual  dis-  intolerant  s i n g l e - m i n d e d o b s e s s i o n , she  h i s marriage  i s eager  day w i t h t h e t e r r i b l e  i n o r d e r "To b u n d l e f o r the night  The e v e r y d a y  life  t h e N i g h t Come" w i t h  i s one o f t h e s i m p l e s t  last  and,directly  d e a t h may b r i n g , "  f o r s h e was r e c k l e s s l y  erence  Muse  not at  t h e h e r o i c Muse b y a  and s t r i f e , "  k e t t l e d r u m and cannon,  f o r the night  of epic  i n storm  " F o r what p r o u d  t h e "common g o o d o f l i f e . "  discord  connotes  f o r her  s h e o n c e was: " I r e c o r d  makes c l e a r h i s m a t u r e a t t i t u d e  She h a s " l i v e d  she yearned  o f what  Come" i s t h e m o s t  Yeats  analogy w i t h k i n g s h i p , which ardent  i s again  the heroic  o f a g i n g ; she c o u l d  that  has p l e a s a n t  the t i t l e  I n a f a l l e n w o r l d , even  can only s i n g  emotion  i s a resolution  s h e i s no l o n g e r t h e h e r o i c Muse  the imperfection  o f t h e t h r e e poems.  "The  and Y e a t s  In "Fallen Majesty,"  has p e r i s h e d .  and t h e poet  sap i n a t r e e  T h e Muse i s now a f r i e n d ,  memories o f h e r p a s t b e a u t y . important:  like  t o maxi-  image," f o r t h e problem-  atic  from h i s h e a r t ' s root  life  time  of love  of the heroic absorbed  i t s cryptic  and most p o w e r f u l l i n e s  away  and t h e Muse  i n the purdouble  ref-  i n the Yeatsian  l i n e s would, s e r v e a s A r n o l d i a n t o u c h s t o n e s  for  poetry.  Yeats  continual revision,  his  "stitching  seems t o h a v e e l i m i n a t e d weak p h r a s i n g ; h i s a r t e f a c t  and u n s t i t c h i n g , " remains  stubbornly  unflawed. The aging  Wild  poet.  mentions  The  the  title  poem i t s e l f  g r e a t number  ful  creatures.  the  solitary  contrast  Swans a t C O O l e e m p h a s i z e s  The  poet  with  the  of years  s t r e s s e s the s i n c e he  poem i s f i t t i n g l y  meditates  u p o n how  changeless  Unwearied  and  still,  s t r o n g l y the  set  poet's  first  i n an  l o v e r by  the  age,  Yeats  counted  and  those  beauti-  autumnal t w i l i g h t ,  e v e r y t h i n g has  passionate  theme o f  changed  and  f o r him  in  swans:  lover,  They paddle i n the c o l d Companionable streams or climb the a i r ; T h e i r h e a r t s h a v e n o t grown o l d ; P a s s i o n o r c o n q u e s t , wander where t h e y w i l l , Attend  The  pattern represented  vidual  changes.  poem i n w h i c h the  u p o n them  by  Bloom r e g a r d s  "Yeats  swerves  daimonic beloved."^  laments  the  continues  the  He  demise of Y e a t s '  to d e s c r i b e the  still.  swans s u r v i v e s u n c h a n g e d , b u t "The  Wild  crucially concurs passion  Swans a t  Coole"  away f r o m t h e  with  Jeffares'  r a t h e r than  a c t u a l circumstances  as  the the  Shelleyan  view  that  frustrated  surrounding  indifirst  quest  the  poem  desire, the  for  and  poem's  inception:  A man o f f i f t y - o n e l o o k s u p o n t h e same s c e n e he saw a t t h i r t y - t w o . He comes t o t h e s c e n e a g a i n a f t e r h a v i n g p r o p o s e d m a r r i a g e a g a i n t o t h e same woman a s n i n e t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e h a n d after being refused, yet again. But h i s p r i m a r y awareness i s n o t o f a d i s m a l , a l m o s t r i d i c u l o u s c o n t i n u i t y , b e t w e e n an e a r l i e r and a l a t e r s e l f . Discont i n u i t y d o m i n a t e s , f o r t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f n i n e t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e was a t t h e r e f u s a l , b u t t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f 1916 i s f o r n o t f e e l i n g  76 depression its  at  soreness  the  continued  Thus,  t h e poem's m e l a n c h o l y  sense  o f o l d age,  ularly not  i s t o be  impossibility,  We  the  tirely  of passionate  living cannot  h i s age,  the marmoreal  grown o l d ,  pay  to Yeats'  sources he  and  devotion  i t s tribute  with  the  i n "The  are  i s f o r younger  partic-  impropriety, i f Living  Beauty":  old;  men:  of w i l d  tears;  s c u l p t u r e d , wrought  which n e c e s s i t a t e s the  debilitating  of melancholy,  feels  . . 0 h e a r t , we  beauty  onus f o r h i s c o n c e r n  with  attributed  Similarly,  . The  Here,  H i s h e a r t has  w h i c h subsumes, a l l o t h e r  h i s u n a t t a i n a b l e Muse.  the  refusal.  i s t h a t i t s h o u l d h a v e aged.7 •  surrender  forms  of  the  rests living  ento  beauty:  I b a d e , b e c a u s e t h e w i c k and o i l a r e s p e n t And f r o z e n a r e t h e c h a n n e l s o f t h e b l o o d , My  discontented heart  t o draw  content  From beauty t h a t i s c a s t but of a mould In bronze, or t h a t i n d a z z l i n g marble appears.  Although the is  a whole spectrum  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the poet's  with "A  o f poems i n t h e  Swans a t C o o l e ,  aspect  of  the  t h e Muse i n t o  and  personal motivations  artefact,  effected  the major p e r s o n a l  aged p o e t  i t s "Banished  the poet's  three volumes, R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  Michael and  Robartes  t h e Muse, s u c h  and as  h e r o i c m o t h e r moon," "Men  Song," " H i s P h o e n i x , " and  cuss  an  and  one  age.  A number Wild  of a e s t h e t i c  art, whilst  "Broken Dreams." other  poems f o c u s  the Dancer, touch "Lines Written Improve w i t h Often almost  the  The upon  some  in Dejection" Years,"  these works a l s o  dis-  exclusively  the  upon  77 theme o f  the  artificer,  similar  "Ego  shrieks  i n indignation  f o r example,  Dominus T u u s . "  I n "The  "The  Dolls"  Dolls,"  that  "noisy, f i l t h y  the  culpable doll-maker's  wife  excuses  was  an  design, baby  the  i s an  poem o f  dolls  surety of  the  accidental  shapelessness minutiae  The  of  are  aesthetic  of the  shaping  o c c u r r e n c e , dependent  o f human p r o c e s s e s .  t h e s e poems, I s h a l l  thing,"  h e r s e l f by  the r e s u l t  the  the  saying that  "The  of  a  can  sense  tied  o f h i s age, to a dog's  of a b s u r d i t y .  t h e Muse go experience Platonic as  readjustment  cation  to the  delighted those  The  and  assembling  the  title  the Dancer,  "The  factors  relating  The  The  bafflement  sheer  ear  and  eye").  poet's  figure,  imagination.  His  age and  age  the  s h o u l d be  weight  means t h a t h e  s h o u l d now these  the accompanying i s heightened  an  of  Yeats'  should "bid sensory  pursue  experiential impassioned  delighted because  i n fact  first  f a s h i o n as  o f i m a g i n a t i v e and  Yeats  diminished are  the  i n comic  full  seems t o d e n y h i m  quandary  about  expressed  image c a r r i e s ludicrous  the  a verbal construct.  r e q u i r e s the abnegation  The  which  t h e human  poem w h i c h e x p l o r e s  philosophy, which represented  female  faculties  the p r i n c i p a l  the poet's  poet's  ("imagination,  a m e r e shadow.  purposed  c o n c e n t r a t e upon t h e p r o m i n e n t  which i s f i t t i n g l y  tail.  p a c k " and  abstract  baby  u p o n t h e u n c e r t a i n t y and  However, r a t h e r t h a n  t o t h e Muse a s  t h e poem r e g i s t e r s  "absurdity"  and  h i s " s e l f - b e g o t t e n " Muse.  Tower" i s c e r t a i n l y  aging poet's section  and  doll  the  doll-maker's  p r o c e s s , whereas  the volume f o l l o w i n g M i c h a e l Robartes  aged poet  dis-  a human b a b y ,  T o w e r , " w h i c h d e x t r o u s l y b r i n g s t o g e t h e r many p e r t i n e n t to  radically  t h e most v e n e r a b l e  at  accident.  or  senses  realms dediand  precisely  intensified:  78 N e v e r had Excited,  passionate,  Imagination, That  Yeats  proceeds  texture of  of  second  Thoor B a l l y l e e  feature  battlements  The  stories with tales The Yeats'  fine  dish." action the  about Mrs.  "Beyond  had  The  He  light  serve  though the otherwise  her  the  delicate,  simply  the  of  He  up  He  and  locale  thus  Yeatsian  the  darkening  "Images and  memories"  gives the  initially  and  details  the exact  enacted from  her  loyal  of  various  relation  butler  p o i n t s to the p a r t i c u l a r  clipped  the  Mrs.  French."  ears  o f an  he  placed  elegance  However, t h e  d e n y any  seems r e m o t e  twilight,  p a c e s upon  motleyed  specific  is a characteristic  French  the verse  to h i g h l i g h t  s t o r y was  day,  conjures  delicacy,  elicited.  movement  diverse,  of  and  suggestion the  gay,  of  sprightly  i n the  environs  the poet's  of  Mrs.  insolent  h o r r o r of  French's farmer  the  farmer's  vigour of  the  butler's rhyme,  in  the  tragedy  and  tale.  Al-  of Thoor B a l l y l e e , i t  problem.  and, covered  rather truculent  comedy i n h e r e n t  the  Mrs.  Yeatsian  them i n " a l i t t l e  and  the  illustrates  location  that recurrent, s t r e s s f u l ,  i n c o n g r u i t y between  is skilfully  quick,  of  that ridge lived  brought  i n the  seems v a g u e .  c o n s i d e r a t i o n and  barbarously all  and  house, g e s t u r i n g w i t h  s e r v i n g man  time  immediate v i c i n i t y .  tale  eye  p l a c e s h i m s e l f i n the  s e t t i n g , which  to h i s problem  and  impossible.  problem  W i n d Among t h e R e e d s .  the  first  ear the  a b o i s t e r o u s humour, and  demonstrative:  with  at a s p e c i f i c  manner o f n a r r a t i o n .  French's  He  of Thoor B a l l y l e e ,  associated with  these  section.  a concrete  after  an  t o e l a b o r a t e upon t h i s  the  establishes  nor  more e x p e c t e d  I more .  fantastical  79 This H y n e s , who  old story was  Thus because stories  i s immediately  actually  remembered b y  o f h i s age,  of the I r i s h  juxtaposed with a tale  Yeats  feels  tradition;  "some f e w " closely  later  material  and  geration  o f h i s age  heritage,  the Otherworld, makes h i m  he  has  clearly  resides  was  /A  young  her beauty heated at  did  the f a i r . "  of  the boast  presence  confer."  The  a rowdy d r i n k i n g  Ballylee  the b l i n d  to see  them s t u m b l e s  the o l d weaver's s t o r y  fabulous  that  he  has  legendary  t r a g i - c o m i c exagIreland's  ballad  line  to the  p o e t , R a f t e r y , and praise;  com-  still  when  a song."  I t seems i n i t i a l l y her  she  undercuts  presence  t h e r e /Farmers  the  of  farmer's  fame o f h e r b e a u t y :  "So  of Cloone  and  a l r e a d y r e c o r d e d i n "'Dust  excitement  by  closed  glory des-  s e t out  stupor,  i s drowned. hath  jostled  great a  finally  In a drunken  that  her  s t a n z a continues the s t o r y  s e s s i o n , where t h e r e v e l l e r s  I  caused  the e f f i c a c y  attributing  following  her  remembered  . . i fwalked  t h e g r e a t bog  the  "Some few  the b e a u t i f u l Mary Hynes.  into  to  of  i n verse f o r her  at the f a i r , not  The  a part  o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e and  However, t h e l a s t  living  the song  by  i n song:  ".  youth.  comments  applied  Mary  legends.  commended b y  bustle:  t h e fame o f t h e s o n g ,  cribing for  girl  c o n f u s i o n and  actual, to  peasant  was  celebrated  essentially  i s often  o l d enough t o be  c r e a t e d Mary's beauty  mendation  associated with  the Realm of F a e r i e .  o f i t s momentous s t o c k o f  M a r y H y n e s was  i n the poet's  i n t h e poem, h e  h i m s e l f become " f a b u l o u s , " a t e r m w h i c h  about  In  one  telling  Helen's  g Eye,"  1  Y e a t s makes a s i g n i f i c a n t  the d e s i r e  of testing  pared w i t h i t s l i v i n g  "their  a d d i t i o n by  f a n c y by  inspiration;  their  attributing  sight."  t h e Muse a s  to the  A r t i s t o be  artefact  i s t o be  drinkers comcompared  80 with  t h e m o r t a l Muse.  tion  a n d one man  art  Such a f o o l h a r d y quest  suffers  an u n d i g n i f i e d  because i t i s not l i f e ,  distinction  between  and Y e a t s  In  Strange,  b u t t h e man  now  I have c o n s i d e r e d  That  nothing  strange;  reversed,  of the previous f o r the b l i n d  t h e Muse's  began  man,  hearts  betrayed.  through  h i s imaginative  p o s t u l a t e d an a e s t h e t i c  stanzas  The p o e t  Yeats  that the r o l e s  i s h i s own i s no  now,  longer  source  both  of nature, Life  of imitation:  has strengthened  the  of poet  a n d Muse a r e  of c r e a t i v i t y  Homer's p o e t r y , l o v e r s , who  i n the attempted  " a l ll i v i n g  permanent  comparison  with  i n the b l i n d  hearts,"  the imperfections of t h e i r  pro-  by the d e t e r m i n i s t i c  a s u p e r i o r and  i s an image, an a r t e f a c t  boy  artificer  of the a r t i s t i c  Helen  by  fashions  t h e w o r t h and t h e t r a g e d y  and s h e h a s b e t r a y e d  are flawed  and  Paradoxically, i n  betrayed  "He imi-  a quivering, anguish-ridden  i t can c r e a t e or f e i g n  realm.  image.  fame u p o n h i s s u b j e c t .  i s necessarily  the i d e a l  faculty,  h i s work i s n o t  Since a r t , u n l i k e i t s creator, i s not l i m i t e d  beauty..  blind;  find  t o t h e d e s t r u c t i v e whims o f h i s M u s e , b u t t h e l o r d l y  processes  art,  image.  excellence lies  cess.  the tragedy  a blind  "self-begotten."  poet  c o n f e r s e x c e l l e n c e and  this  i t ,I  i n a g l a s s /What t h i n g h e r b o d y was";  impression  Art i s  t h a t t h e Muse c o u l d o n l y b e a n i n v e n t e d  t a t i v e but purely creative,  who  made t h e s o n g was  has a l l l i v i n g  "A Woman Homer S u n g , " Y e a t s  subject  who  have f a s h i o n e d Mary's beauty  h i s b l i n d n e s s meant  shadowed  bog.  c o n t i n u e s by e l a b o r a t i n g upon t h e  Yet,  And H e l e n  for  demise i n Cloone  to d e s t r u c -  t h e two:  W i t h Homer t h a t was  R a f t e r y must  can o n l y l e a d  a l l earthly  human n a t u r e  and by  81 the  aging processes of universal nature.  those the  " s e l f - b o r n m o c k e r s o f man's e n t e r p r i s e "  images p r o j e c t e d  they  T h e i m a g i n e d Muse i s one o f  are superior  prise  t o a l l man  of h i s actual  intention.  by nuns, mothers  life.  f o r t h e sun's  and a r t i s t s  School  mock t h e i r  Children":  creator f o r  can experience i n the a c t i v i t i e s ,  This  t r a g e d y , h o w e v e r , must r e m a i n  The t r a g i - c o m i c drowning  moon's l i g h t  i n "Among  the enterthe poet's  o f t h e r e v e l l e r who m i s t o o k t h e  i s the poet's  avowed  purpose:  0 may t h e moon a n d s u n l i g h t seem One i n e x t r i c a b l e beam, For i f I t r i u m p h I m u s t make men mad.  Tragic  death  living  Muse. The  the  i s now c a u s e d  allusions  problem  by. t h e p o e t ' s  artefact,  t o R a f t e r y a n d Homer a r e t h u s  o f t h e aged  poet.  D e s p i t e o r even  rather  than by t h e  directly  because  related to  of sensory  limita-  9 tions,  R a f t e r y a n d Homer h a v e c r e a t e d  physical  or sensory l i m i t a t i o n s  faculty,  and t h u s There  sense  organs  i n "The Tower," w h i c h  absurd  tail  relates  leit-motif  section, sets  effective  a r e numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s e n s e  the f u l l  coalesce into  to the d e b i l i t y  absurdity  the tragi-comic feeling  again the clipped  In the  as a c a n t i e d  i s an first  t o a dog's  f o r t h e poem a n d i n t r o d u c e s one o f i t s  t e c h n i q u e s — t h e p o i g n a n t l y absurd  Yeats mentions  The b l i n d -  e a r s , which  limitations.  o f h i s age imaged  to the  perceptions or  a pattern.  of the slipped  u p o n t h e theme o f s e n s o r y  The  the imaginative  t h e s e l f - c r e a t e d Muse i s a c o n g e n i a l c o n c e p t  poet.  presumably  b e a u t i f u l Muses.  o f a g e do n o t a f f e c t  aging  ness  ideally  image.  e a r and a l s o  that  Later  i n t h e poem,  Mrs. French  was  82 "gifted  with  entendre. explored which  so  The thus  fine  f a r i n "The  a l l o w s man  i n "The  Yeats  most p a r t ,  shared  he  material tales  they  had  tales  narrative  i n "'Dust  into  hath  a d d i t i o n s which  Irish  the  and  cate  them a l l .  bears  a  central  Gaelic  bard,  series  of t a l e s  The  a r t and  story  local  o f Red  an It i s  t h e more r e m o t e For  Irish  Irish the  peasan-  collecting  C u c h u l a i n o f M u i r t h e m n e , and by  Helen's  the  Irish  Eye.'"^  Yeats  of Helen's  but  as  destructive  Irish  are  Owen H a n r a h a n p r e d o m i n a t e s  t h e Red,"^ and  He  O'Sullivan's activities  poet  i s styled  Yeats  had  i n The  alignof  bard  of  associated  tedious to  i s yet another  those  beauty.  s t o r i e s which  i t w o u l d be  The  and  association an  as  reworks  details  insistent  assumption  the  countryfolk,  those n a r r a t i v e  to Yeats' problem.  Owen 0 ' S u l l i v a n about  than  cottage to cottage,  to him  Hanrahan  senses.  h i s Muse.  i n t h e memory o f t h e  giving  Ballylee,  tales.  relation  about  other i s incalculable.  of other cognate  the e n v i r o n s of Thoor  the  I r e l a n d " s e r v e s as  rather  w i t h h i s own  celebrator  gives a l i s t  of the  closed  the i m a g i n a t i o n ,  r e l a t e m e a n i n g f u l l y t o h i s theme.  with  remainder  and  of  double  limitations  perceived through  Homer a c c o r d s w i t h Y e a t s '  culture  the Homeric r o l e , Yeats  from  Men  fine vignettes,  ment o f R a f t e r y a n d G r e e k and  tale  same o r i g i n  Fighting  not  about  Mary Hynes were r e l a t e d  h e makes c l e a r these  the  t r a n s c e n d e d by  "matter  into.the  e s c o r t e d Lady Gregory  f o r Gods a n d  about  Tower," the  fades  be  has  f o c u s e s upon I r i s h t h e one  try;  T o w e r " may  f o r Y e a t s ' views  myth, b u t where  comic  of p h y s i c a l . a n d sensory  t o c r e a t e what h e  expressive vehicle that  e a r , " which provides a b r i l l i a n t l y  serio-comic variety  Clearly,  true  an  over  explithe  figure  after  who  the  i n v e n t e d a whole Stories  of  Red  83 Hanrahan:  "And I m y s e l f  these e a r l i e r  c r e a t e d Hanrahan."  narratives.  L i k e the r e v e l l e r s  Hanrahan had s e t out t o f i n d sweetheart,  Mary L a v e l l e ,  was e n t i c e d  into  changed until  S l i e v e Echtge,  a year has elapsed.  persona  youthful  self  i s irretrievably  his  physical  The poet  and i s r e t u r n e d t o t h e m o r t a l  I t i s then  He  the pack o f cards  t h e Queen o f t h e S i d h e .  gifts  too late lost.  world  f o r Hanrahan t o c l a i m h i s  The s t o r y  rephrases the  by t h e d u a l worlds  of  and Hanrahan c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e which  occurs  i n Yeats'  or the a r t i s t  early verse.  a s a y o u n g man.  Hanrahan c o n t i n u e by d e s c r i b i n g Tower," Y e a t s  case, h i s  Hanrahan f o l l o w s t h e chase  e x p e r i e n c e d b y O i s i n who was a t t r a c t e d  and l i f e ,  poet  woman, i n t h i s  game o f c a r d s , when s u d d e n l y  refuses her bountiful  dichotomy  to recollect  of the previous verses,  living  a pack o f hounds and a h a r e .  m o r t a l b e l o v e d , who  art  the actual  begins  and he h a d b e e n u n s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s q u e s t .  a magical  he e n c o u n t e r s  finally after  into  Yeats  Hanrahan's  emphasizes Hanrahan's  Yeats  i s invoking h i s  However, The S t o r i e s lustful  sexual energy  o f Red  o l d a g e , a n d , i n "The i n the absurdity of  decay:  C a u g h t b y a n o l d man's j u g g l e r i e s He s t u m b l e d , t u m b l e d , f u m b l e d t o a n d f r o And And  Here, his  youth,  wer. at  the a r t i s t  a s a n o l d man i s r e c a l l i n g  and Y e a t s  He a s k s  o l d age:  had b u t broken knees f o r h i r e h o r r i b l e slendour of desire.  looks to h i s past  the o l d poet  he imagined i n  imaginative creation  Hanrahan and t h e assembled  phantoms about  f o r an  a l l men's  ansrancour  84 Did  a l l o l d men a n d women, r i c h  Who t r o d Whether As  Then  the host  upon t h e s e  rocks  i n public or i n secret  retrospect  imagination w i l l  admit  a man's  I f h i simagination  a second most  dwells  question  emphasize,  Cowardice, Or  verse  stanza  labyrinth  some s i l l y  anything  called  i n t h e second  to clarify.  u p o n t h e woman l o s t ,  Hanrahan  aside  out of p r i d e , over-subtle  conscience  thought  once.  s e c t i o n i s perhaps  T h e woman l o s t  Gonne, and p r e s u m a b l y addition  a b o u t what i n  t h e "woman won o r  turned  last  needs a l l " h i s  t h a t he  From a g r e a t  This  door,  i s d i s p e r s e d e x c e p t i n g Hanrahan, f o r Yeats Hanrahan i s asked  must  this  rage  I do now a g a i n s t o l d a g e .  mighty memories."  woman l o s t . "  and p o o r ,  o r passed  i suniversally  t h e most  difficult  acknowledged  t o b e Maud  s h e w o u l d be Mary L a v e l l e f o r Red H a n r a h a n .  to the biographical relevance,  In  t h e two t e r m s o f t h e e q u a t i o n 12  have been i n t e r p r e t e d as accomplishment this  i t seems p r o b a b l y  ience for  that  and f u l f i l m e n t , w h i c h  imaginative  ination, actual  experience.  should  poet,  serve  p r o v i d i n g your  In the imagination  Tower," f o r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and memories."  as t h e p o e t ' s  I t i s not tragic  come a m e n t a l i m a g e , a n d Y e a t s  "images  Further  t h e a t t a i n e d woman s y m b o l i z e s  re-creation.  t o be a b l i n d  and f r u s t r a t i o n .  meditative  subject  t o l i v e w i t h i n t h e imag-  imagination  contemplates  embodying m e n t a l  o f t h e second poet  exper-  o r t h e memory, t h e a c t u a l must b e -  i s clearly  The b l i n d  actual  than  must  images  s e c t i o n he proposes create  i n "The  t o invoke  t h e woman won, t h e  85 experiential  realm,  mirror  her beauty:  fact.  Yeats  life,  i n h i s verse, but paradoxically t h e poet  f a s h i o n s a n o t h e r woman, t h e c h a n g e l e s s  does n o t i n t e n d  some i m a g i n a r y  and i f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n d w e l l s upon  severed  from  particularly  living  h i s verse w i l l not  experience.  expression divorced  t h e woman l o s t ,  w o u l d become " o v e r - s u b t l e , " m e d i t a t i n g u p o n a m e n t a l mental  image.  I t i s true that  woman won, b u t Y e a t s '  criterion  what t h e p o e t  s h o u l d most  Beatrice,,and  thus Yeats  t h e woman l o s t  existed  from  he would be  A n y e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e woman  a s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , must b e i m a g i n e d ,  arte-  lost,  so that  the poet  image t o c r e a t e a as s u r e l y  as t h e  i s experience, not existence i n judging  c o n s i d e r i n o l d age. s t r e s s e s Hanrahan's  H i s Muse i s n o unwooed  tangible  physical  involve-  ment :  For i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t you have R e c k o n e d up e v e r y u n f o r e k n o w n , u n s e e i n g Plunge, l u r e d by a s o f t e n i n g e y e , Or b y a t o u c h o r a s i g h , Into the l a b y r i n t h of another's being.  The  Muse i s s e l f - b e g o t t e n ;  poet's ories  own s e l f , from  ficer's the  the experiential  unchanging  and change.  a r t and l i f e ,  realms  echoes The  realm.  from t h e  T h e Muse i n v e r s e b e c o m e s t h e a r t i -  handiwork, y e t t h e poet  Yeats  d w e l l s upon images  denying  has reaffirmed  section  cast  up b y  the physical world of  his essential  allegiance to  a n d i n some r e s p e c t s t h e d u a l a t t r a c t i o n  the pattern established  last  imaginatively  w h i c h h a s i n t u r n b e e n m e d i t a t i n g u p o n i m a g e s a n d mem-  i m a g i n a t i o n o r t h e memory w i t h o u t  process both  she i s generated  i n "The W a n d e r i n g s  o f t h e two  of Oisin."  o f " T h e T o w e r " t a k e s up t h e themes o f e x p e r i e n c e  and  imagination,  ience, man  life  a c t i o n , and  climbing  the  and  a r t , and  f u l f i l m e n t are  vigorously embodied  mountain streams  celebrates  i n the  "under b u r s t i n g  both.  f i g u r e of dawn."  Exper-  the  fisher-  Bloom  regards  13 this  "pre-dawn f i s h i n g  fisherman  i s a sturdy  nature.  He  setting  and  light"  of  f i g u r e of  i s associated i n metaphor,  the  effectively brilliant  expedition  morning.  for  with  i n the  characterizes  h i s work.  represent  indomitable  death  the  asserts  his  the  active  radiant  the  life  light  fisherman's  this  use The  f i g u r e , and  of metaphor fishermen  silly,"'  absorbed i n the  i n the  is like  and  turbulent  Yeats  and  again  apposite  engaged  the  the  realm  of  dawn-  "headlong  light  reveals  are that  s e t t i n g which  i n vigorous aged  but  concrete  pride  I r i s h r y w i t h whom t h e  essential  i f not  both  High mountain streams  associated  sureness  with  inappropriate  activity  also  poet'approaching  community:  I l e a v e b o t h f a i t h and p r i d e To y o u n g u p s t a n d i n g men Climbing the m o u n t a i n - s i d e , T h a t u n d e r b u r s t i n g dawn T h e y may d r o p a . f l y ; B e i n g o f t h a t m e t a l made T i l l i t was b r o k e n b y This sedentary trade.  In h i s w i l l , neither  to  refuse), claims  leaves  Cause nor  and  his  he  abundant  to  them t h a t  Celtic  State),  generous  (".  . . that  f a i t h which w i l l  of  pride which  the  become t h e i r  (".  i s free  ("Bound  . . gave, though  fabulous heritage:  And I d e c l a r e my faith: I mock P l o t i n u s ' t h o u g h t And c r y i n P l a t o ' s t e e t h ,  horn") ;  He  free also  to de-  87 Death and l i f e Till  Made l o c k , Out  He w i l l seemed is  n o t "Choose P l a t o the sensible  a feeble  were n o t  man made up t h e w h o l e , stock-and  of h i sb i t t e r  and P l o t i n u s  f o r a f r i e n d , " though  s o l u t i o n i n the opening  consolation,  barrel  soul.  section.  that had  Abstract  and he c e r t a i n l y does n o t a c c e p t  philosophy  Platonic doc-  14 trine  a s some c r i t i c s  restraints, brating  life  the creativity  mystical  ation.  declares, that  dissatisfying poets she  a divine  belongs  "memories o f l o v e " ;  i s free  begotten": poet  musings  t o them.  creator,  no l o n g e r  shall  of the beginning.  transcended  b e c a u s e man c a n make them  action  long  poems i n t h e l a t e r  line  themselves.  which w i l l  Finally,  Their  i s based  and h i s be  "self-  focuses  upon  the t w i l i g h t Yeats  soul."  are a subject  commented  those  l i m i t a t i o n s may b e  f o r study  upon a complex  i s not reducible  I n 1963, Sarah Youngblood  inspir-  of Gaelic  close,  "Out o f h i s b i t t e r  structure which  attention  meditative  period  a  t o t h e G a e l i c Muse, f o r  and d e a t h ; however, t h e s e  o f image and d i s c o u r s e  categories.  h i s peace w i t h  belong  In the s t i l l e d ,  age, decay  entirely.in  of divine  darkness, which r e c a l l s  broods upon  long  no b r e a t h  existence,  soul."  i s o l a t e d i n the gathering  Yeats'  does a s s e r t  T h e a g e d Y e a t s , h a v i n g made h i s w i l l  I make my  by c e l e -  s o l e l y f r o m man; t h e r e i s  c e r t a i n l y that  t o make h i s s p i r i t u a l  "Now  emanates  continues  Yeats  h e h a s now p r e p a r e d  from O i s i n to the present  peace,  the  from  o l d age has i t s absurd  Yeats  o f man a s a n a r t i f i c e r .  v i e w , b u t one w h i c h  emanation  Yeats  although  i s n o t a shadowy d e l u s i o n .  transcendentalist no  have suggested;  that  to neat  inter-  critical  despite the  acknowledged by  greatness  criticism,  Y e a t s ' use  of  attributing  of  the  these this  imagistic  poems, t h e y  remained  largely  n e g l e c t to the p e c u l i a r  and  discursive  unexamined  difficulty  of  modes:  The d i s c u r s i v e mode i n p o e t r y d e p e n d s u p o n t h e s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e of syntax, a d e p l o y i n g of thought i n l o g i c a l , r a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s o f s t a t e m e n t ; t h e i m a g i s t i c mode d e p e n d s u p o n t h e s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e o f t h e i m a g e , w h i c h r e p l a c e s l o g i c a l s y n t a x w i t h what H a r t C r a n e c a l l e d t h e " l o g i c o f m e t a p h o r . " . . . When we t u r n t o Y e a t s ' l o n g poems, t h e s p e c i a l p r o b l e m p o s e d b y them i s t h a t e a c h one b y v i r t u e o f b e i n g made up o f poems, i n t e r r e l a t e d u n i t s i n a s e r i e s , c a n a l t e r n a t e t h e s e two d i s s i m i l a r m o d e s , l e t t i n g a d i r e c t s u c c e e d a n o b l i q u e one i n t h e s e r i e s . 1 4  She  p o i n t s out  that  clarification, It  i s this  i n fact  any  rational  and  legendary  and  comedy a n d  process  defining  the  final  t o encompass b r e a d t h s approximation  phenomenon, a s o l u t i o n , the  absurd  shares of  Children" a similar  d i d not but,  image, Y e a t s '  to such  dichotomies  r a t h e r than  logical out of  as  t h e m e s t o "The  to  meaning. the use  analyze  of  of  imagery This  "The  Tower,"  apparently resolved.  seem t o  poems do  a r t and  two  Although  significance.  to the meaning  lead  to that  articulate  life  c e n t r e s upon  o f image and  Tower."  by  syntax.  i n the  d e s p i t e the dissonance  later  i s a poem w h i c h structure  discursive  c o m p a r a b l e poems d i f f i c u l t  i s e v i d e n t , i t i s opened  allusion  resolution  patterning  imagery  Y e a t s i a n i s s u e s a r e d i s c u s s e d and  "Among S c h o o l which  through  those Y e a t s i a n antinomies  unpopular  ious  T o w e r " and  i s only a tentative  y e t key  Earlier,  "The  c o n f i d e n c e about  the  synopsis  communicate  i n t e n s i v e l y - w r o u g h t sequence of v e r s e s working  m e d i a w h i c h makes with  f r e q u e n t l y v e r s e s w h i c h m a s q u e r a d e as  o r body this  of  currently tragi-  a harmon-  and  soul."'""'  resolution  d i s c o u r s e and  a  similar  and  89 "Among S c h o o l C h i l d r e n " the  aged  relates old  poet meditates these  age.  at  this  tragic  upon Ledaean b e a u t y  i s inspecting  aged  "The and  t o the works of p h i l o s o p h y which  Characteristically,  u a t i o n : he  compares w i t h  public  Yeats  figure.  i n e v i t a b i l i t y which  Again, later  self-born  children  i n t h e poem b r e a k s son's  is  comedy i n Y e a t s '  an  of  by  several  related  a realm  Yeats and  images.  the  envisages  attack,  Swan." Helen  l o v e and  destruction iated with  that  these  destruction.  Yeats'  in  to Helen,  poems i n T h e  c e n t r a t e more u p o n  treatment  prompts  of the  of the  converse  swan, who  of antinomies  in  war,  children. "Leda  an  gyre,  creation  Tower and  are  frequently  i n "Nineteen Hundred  poem and  amorous  bringing  life,  which  and assoc-  and  particularly W h e r e a s many  i s engulfing  "Among S c h o o l C h i l d r e n "  of l o v e ,  as  is  paddlers  swan's  themes o f l o v e and w a r ,  antinomy  sequence  a r t and  c a t a c l y s m i c war  the t i t l e  a  Nature's  i n the h i s t o r i c a l  war,  scrutin-  common " p a d d l e r s " i n  c o n j u n c t i o n o f l o v e and  and  yet  prodigy  a g a i n accords w i t h h i s Homeric r o l e .  gyre; the  the o r i g i n  f o r example  Tower d e s c r i b e t h e  historical  as  o p p o s i t e s i n The  t h e swan i m a g e , as  there  the d i v i n e l y - p r o c r e a t e d  contraries Love  destiny;  a Ledaean daughter  of  i n the  heart  situation the  is a  the mother's  alien  i n the realm of a r t .  procreation  effects  Nineteen."  present  t o mind  Conceived  actual  schoolchildren,  the beauty  are p i v o t a l  relation  The  The  flawless Helen  compare w i t h  the  both  mental  of eyes.  of process, b r i n g  presumably cannot  pairs  o f h i m s e l f as  sit-  i n amazement  t h e mood i s t r a g i - c o m i c : age  d e s t r o y i n g h e r more g r a n d i o s e i m a g e o f h e r  ized  stare  he  solace i n  a concrete physical  by  description  again  i m a g e s , and  should afford  begins with  a s c h o o l where the  Tower" i n t h a t  embodied  the con-  i n Helen,  90 M a r y H y n e s o r Maud G o n n e .  Most  critics  agree  that Helen  Maud Gonne i n "Among S c h o o l , C h i l d r e n . " Y e a t s childish  event  established the of  she  once r e l a t e d , a n d the r e s u l t i n g  between  them.  schoolchildren:  thinks  "For even  life  i n the  final  image i s f u s e d w i t h is  He  driven wild:  physical the  decay  mental  and  transcendent crete  /She  actual  union  pretty  briefly  the poet  i n the schoolroom. u p o n h i s own:  plumage o n c e — e n o u g h  of  he must  and  show / T h e r e shares  Tower," the l o u s . and assortment  can  tied  pathetic,  I though He  accept the  and  i s also  rather  than  important because  mental  my  heart  Despite  the  so v i v i d l y However,  return  to the  actuality decline  off  con-  and w i t h  smile  a l l that  body.  "pretty  in  The "The  The  i s comprised scarecrow's  the young a r e s y m b o l i z e d  w h e t h e r p a d d l e r s o r swans o r Y e a t s ' own  fixed  aspect i s both  h i s appearance  a living  /Had  this  of o l d scarecrow."  o f t h e i m a g e f o r o l d age  that  he  of the t r a g i - c o m i c  t o s m i l e on  Its visual  that  the  of Ledaean k i n d  abruptly breaks  "Better  tail.  suggests  child."  a reality.  never  i s a comfortable kind  t o a dog's  of c l o t h e s  into  of a r t  A f t e r .remembering Maud's y o u t h ,  that."  pathos  /Something  thereupon  a Ledaean beauty  i n perceptible  the absurd  share  with  merge, f o r t h e  "And  the poet'must  among t h e a s t o n i s h e d c h i l d r e n :  scarecrow  tion  "And  reality  a living  imagines  become i n t e g r a t e d  scene, where t h e . c e l e b r i t y  smile,  as  sympathy  the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  b e f o r e him:  i s m o m e n t a r y , and  reminiscence because  parades  child  s t a n d s b e f o r e me  o f age,  situation  touches  the l i v i n g  and  with  trivial  i n association  o f t h e swan c a n  Anticipating  stanza, i l l u s i o n  some  youthful  of her youth  daughters  every paddler's h e r i t a g e . "  and  recalls  i s aligned  as  plumage."  ridicuof  an  func-  birds, In grim o l d  91 age,  he  can  only  f r i g h t e n away b i r d s :  awesome f i g u r e , w h i l s t to him.  Stanza  q u a n d a r y , and in  the  After  five  Yeats  discusses  the  tendency.  The  cesses  of  since  take  account  of  the  to  the  the  entire and  terms  the  mother,  poet's  life-cycle,  the  the  "grey  the  lost  represented eminence."  mother's  image-  deterministic  child's future  pro-  do  not  age:  a shape upon h e r  had  this  personal  w h i c h was  considers  dreams o f h e r  c e r t a i n t y of  amazed b y  e a r l y L e d a e a n Muse, i s  image i s b e l i e d by  generation  are  their visitor,  splendid  What y o u t h f u l Honey of  his  i m a g e , Y e a t s now  mother's  dire  paddlers  i n general  children  poetic  making  nature,  swan's c h i l d ,  refers  c l a s s r o o m by t r e a t i n g the  the  the  lap  betrayed,  And t h a t must s l e e p , s h r i e k , s t r u g g l e t o e s c a p e As r e c o l l e c t i o n o r t h e d r u g d e c i d e , Would t h i n k h e r s o n , d i d she b u t see t h a t shape W i t h s i x t y o r m o r e w i n t e r s on i t s h e a d , A compensation f o r the pang of h i s b i r t h , Or t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f h i s s e t t i n g f o r t h ?  Birth the  conceived  following  as  a betrayal  stanza,  Yeats  philosophers.  Since b i r t h  n a t u r e must be  considered  changeless learning  absolute.  through  Pythagoras  queries  course  a Platonic  Plato's  v i e w and  b e t r a y s man an  illusion,  into a  the  "spume," and  p h y s i c a l means u p o n t h e  physical  existence,  doctrine that  of  to  the  in Greek  cycle,  reality,  impose  a  philosophical  schoolchild,  believing himself  and,  other  deterministic  S o l i d e r A r i s t o t l e attempted  grossly  rejected  i s of  Alexander.  t o be  a  god  16 and  thence  of  physical  with  the  "golden-thighed." reality,  a g e d p o e t who  regarding has  In  that  the  the  body  as  been f o r c e d  by  philosophers an  the  illusion, natural  deny the they  claims  compare  processes  they  92 ignore  to  exacts  become i n s i g n i f i c a n t  sion;  discount  makes c l e a r venerable  induced  by  that Yeats  position  Aristotle's  Yeats returns they  flesh.  P h y s i c a l process  i f existence  P l a t o n i c d o c t r i n e appears  perplexities  as  the  and  and  the  f l o g g i n g : "Old to the  subscribe  the  However, t h e  philosophers  knowledge s e r v e  are  last  i t  a shadowy answer  line  of  to  the  stanza  a l l scarecrows,  to scare  and  mothers worship candles  light  their  surely  a  bird."  s i t u a t i o n — t h e nuns;  s u r e l y as m o t h e r s o r  But  deluthe  t o i n t i m i d a t e c h i l d r e n as  B o t h n u n s and the  logical  i n that p a r t i c u l a r  t o m e n t a l images as  o l d age  as  c l o t h e s upon o l d s t i c k s  educators  those  the  i s regarded  to provide  o l d age.  and  philosophers:  images,  are  not  as  those  That animate a mother's r e v e r i e s , But keep a m a r b l e or a b r o n z e r e p o s e .  Yeats  c o r r e l a t e s the  mother: they the  "0  Presences  paradoxical quality hearts.  the  different of  of  living  hearts  ful  f o r they  i n "The  by  flux.  kinds  that  c r e a t o r can  transcend  man's e n t e r p r i s e . " dichotomies  only  However, as  i t asserts.  In  artifice,  of  each k i n d  manifests  glory," whilst  i n "The last  "0  can  because Helen  p e r s o n i f i e d as  t h e human s i t u a t i o n , them:  never they  betrays scorn-  which  s e l f - b o r n mockers  Tower," the  the  Although  p e r f e c t i o n , which  images a r e  and  knows."  creator; similarly,  through  the  affection  t h e nun  images b r e a k h e a r t s  The  seem t o mock t h e p o v e r t y  lover-poet,  " a l lheavenly  their  Toweri"  of  coveted  Thus, of  the  p i e t y or  symbolizing  p h y s i c a l experience  all  their  passion,  Images embody  located i n a world  excel  the  /That  imagine e s s e n t i a l l y  breaking be  images i n v e n t e d  poem,finally  stanza, Yeats  rejoices  of  resolves in  the  93 consonance o f the h e a r t b r e a k i n g mother  c a n be j o y o u s  nized:  "Labour i s blossoming  to  pleasure  ficial all  soul."  the  process fice,  poet  although  perhaps,  emotion.^  i n The Tower.  Assuredly,  and  arti-  i n t h e poem, t h e  i s o n l y t h e d a n c e when h e  seeing  gyre.  a r e o f t e n drawn f r o m  once a g a i n  to Yeats,  i t s dis-  as a s a v a g e s p e c t a c l e ; t h e  the disenchantment  of the actual  discusses here the  and t h e B l a c k  or presages  and Tans i n  of the impending d e s t r u c t i o n  G r o t e s q u e r i e s , images o f d e s t r u c t i o n abound w i t c h c r a f t o r demonism.  and N i n e t e e n , "  to ride  provides  usually  life  I t i s well-known t h a t Yeats  them a s t o k e n s  Hundred  poem a r e t h e m o s t c e l e b r a -  present  committed by t h e A u x i l i a r i e s  that h i s t o r i c a l  turn  and a r t , a r t i s t  a n d a r t a r e "commended" i n  scene.  "Nineteen  from  life  surrounding  and  i s inextricable  though  of a r t i s contrasted with  of  and b o l e a r e  The volume i s more  according  enchantment  Ireland,  blossom  arti-  o f h i s poem d u r i n g t h e  as e a r l i e r  C h i l d r e n " and t h e t i t l e  two poems, t h e r e m a i n d e r  atrocities  life  f o r the dancer  known f o r i t s b i t t e r n e s s , w h i c h ,  these  the  dancing.  and a f f i r m a t i v e works  tinctive  recog-  t h e movement o f t h e d a n c e , a s  the design  Body and s o u l ,  and  i s not bruised  to discount  and t h e d a n c e r  into  o n l y be momentary  "Among S c h o o l tory  /The b o d y  images  i s integrated into  i s absorbed  may b e . u n i f i e d ;  actually  and s o u l a r e e q u a l l y  where  two f i n e  chestnut  of i t s creation.-  s y n t h e s i s may  The labour; o f a r t i s t  cherished by p h i l o s o p h e r s : l e a f ,  The dancer  individual  o f body  or dancing  uses  part of the luxuriant  the dance.  is  i f the claims  Yeats  dichotomies  antinomies.  the Sidhe  the confused  tumult  linked  In section VI of with  the Herodiade r e -  of the " l a b y r i n t h  of the  wind." or  However, t h e y  illumination;  fying  vision.  expressed  by  The  they  demise of  i s an  loathsome  which brings  unsatisfying life  all-obliterating  thing for Yeats—the War"  by  gives  an  rage-driven,  insane  into  horror,  mob.  fulfilment  The  satis-  best conclusion  a s t a r k d e s c r i p t i o n of wrath which  rage-tormented,  belabouring  towards n o t h i n g ,  For  embrace of  the  desperate and  "Nineteen  a mob  t o r t u r e s them  of of  and  arms and  image-breakers. and  rage-hungry at  arm  or  at  troop, face,  fingers spreading  wide  nothing.  s t r u g g l e f o r "the  Hundred  and  trooper, b i t i n g  Plunges  destroyers of  cataclysm  are motivated  Trooper  their  the  a cataclysm  c o n t i n u a l l y seek:  The  In  herald  i n Time o f C i v i l  t r o o p e r s , who which  not  i t i s not  that  "Meditations  do  As  Nineteen,"  embrace o f n o t h i n g , "  I mentioned  they  p r e v i o u s l y i n my  even seemingly  immortal  are  life-  analysis  art i s  short-lived:  He  who  can  read  the  signs nor  s i n k unmanned  I n t o t h e h a l f - d e c e i t o f some i n t o x i c a n t F r o m s h a l l o w w i t s ; who knows no w o r k c a n s t a n d , Whether h e a l t h , w e a l t h o r peace o f mind were spent On m a s t e r - w o r k o f i n t e l l e c t o r h a n d , No h o n o u r l e a v e i t s m i g h t y monument, Has b u t one c o m f o r t l e f t : a l l t r i u m p h w o u l d But b r e a k upon h i s g h o s t l y s o l i t u d e .  Much o f T h e the  Tower r e v o l v e s upon t h e  image-breakers.  ceremonious destruction. artistic  order  In  which  solitary  but  only  the  of  "self-delight,"  i s threatened  Strangely, Yeats  solitude,  antithesis  by  the the  image-makers artificer  the m u l t i t u d i n o u s  i s a f f i r m a t i v e : t h e mob inferior  goal  of  triumph.  fashions  agents  cannot  and  of  destroy  95 It  i s perhaps  arbitrary  Muse a t T h e  Tower, b u t  development  of the  I feel  figure,  that  u n c o n v e n t i o n a l Muse.  cannot  readily  associated  W h i t e G o d d e s s as M u s e . youthful and, at  quest  again;  with his f i t t i n g  dynasty  Of  shadow t h o s e poet  o f due  of  the  i s inspired  figures,  later  poet  to  r e - e v a l u a t e "the p r o f i t  the meaningful the a r t i f i c e r has  that  quest  quested.no  questors  as  tamed  of  further,  and  Yeatsian "wildness."  l e a d s him  i g n o m i n i p u s l y by  perhaps  and  into  animals,  the nose.  The  burnished  woman a n d  and  placed i t  to  a  foreWhether  realm or  the  whether  Yeats  continues  upon the j o u r n e y .  "Among S c h o o l  years  development  D e s e r t i o n , " Yeats animals,  At  Children,"  h i s design; but  performance  is  later perhaps  sees  lacking  these  that  remains,  but  the  a l l art i s a deception  been h i s a r t .  t h e mask a n d  /Lion  poem  seems a tame a n i m a l w h o s e m i s t r e s s  h a v e b e e n a n y t h i n g more t h a n chariot,  appear  Byzantium,  circus  away; y e t  s e l f - d e c e p t i o n has  and'the  finally  Sidhe's  involved  Tower" and  Oisin  Oisin  the  i s the p r o g e n i t o r of  the only important  l o n g i n g have passed  the poet's  the  Circus Animals'  practised  thesis,  i n v a r y i n g degrees.  into  Jane  seems a s e m i n a l  his conflicts  loss"  antinomies  I n "The  and  the "The  essential  bitterness  and  Crazy  o f my  Yeats  Oisin  significant considered a  does mention  works.  of the Y e a t s i a n  then  terms  of O i s i n "  personae  and  reconcile  t h e r e i s none.  so b u t  to the s e l f - b e g o t t e n  destination can  c o u l d be  priorities,  by, h i s Muse t o q u e s t  f a s h i o n s h i s own  further  the o r i g i n a l  Wanderings  sense  he  he  with  be  course, Yeats  "The  of poet  t h e r e i s no  T h i s may  the beginning of h i s c o l l e c t e d  princely  the development  u n l e s s Crazy Jane  radically be  to sever  There  "Those s t i l t e d  may  boys,  t h e L o r d knows w h a t . "  and  never that Perhaps,  96 in not  old of  age, the  he  should  set  out  anew t o  satisfy  the  needs  of  the  man  poet:  What  can  First  I but  that  Through three Vain  gaiety,  Themes o f But I,  what  embittered  starved.for  I that the  the  nose  islands, allegorical  battle, vain  adorn o l d  cared  themes?  O i s i n l e d by  enchanted vain  the  That might  enumerate o l d  sea-rider  heart,  songs or s e t him  dreams,  repose, or  so  courtly on  bosom o f h i s  to  i t seems, shows;  ride,  faery  bride?  and  97  NOTES  New  ''"See R i c h a r d E l l m a n n , Y e a t s : T h e York: Dutton, n.d.), p. 220.  Man  and  (1948;  t h e Masks  rpt.  2 A.  Norman J e f f a r e s ,  A Commentary on  the C o l l e c t e d  Poems o f W.  15.  ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), p . 124. 3 F r a n k L e n t r i c c h i a , T h e G a i e t y o f L a n g u a g e : An E s s a y on t h e R a d i c a l P o e t i c s o f W. B. Y e a t s and W a l l a c e S t e v e n s ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1968), p p . 69-70.  Yeats  4 Lentricchia, ^Ellmann, 6 p.  p.  p.  60.  203.  191. Harold  Bloom, Y e a t s  (New  g ^W. B l o B. om,Y e p. a t s191. , Mythologies pp.  York:  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y  (1959;  Press,  1970),  r p t . London: M a c m i l l a n ,  1970),  25-26. 9  S e e Y e a t s ' comment i n " D u s t h a t h c l o s e d H e l e n ' s E y e , " M y t h o l o g i e s : " I a s k e d a man I met one d a y , when I was l o o k i n g f o r a p o o l n a mna S i d h e w h e r e woman o f F a e r i e h a v e b e e n _ s e e n , how R a f t e r y c o u l d h a v e a d m i r e d M a r y H y n e s s o much i f h e h a d b e e n a l t o g e t h e r b l i n d . He s a i d , 'I t h i n k R a f t e r y was a l t o g e t h e r b l i n d , b u t t h o s e t h a t a r e b l i n d h a v e a way o f s e e i n g t h i n g s , and h a v e t h e power t o know m o r e , and f e e l m o r e , and t o do m o r e , and t o g u e s s more t h a n t h o s e t h a t h a v e t h e i r s i g h t , and a c e r t a i n wisdom i s g i v e n . t o them.'" (pp. 28-29). "^Mythologies, 1 : L  Folklore  pp.  22-30.  M i c h a e l Y e a t s , "W. B. Y e a t s a n d Q u a r t e r l y 31 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 155.  Irish  F o l k Song,"  Southern  12 Bloom, p.  350.  Bloom, p.  351.  13 14 A r r a M. Career  Garab,  Beyond Byzantium:  The  Last  Phase i n Y e a t s ' s  ( I l l i n o i s : I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 18. 14a S a r a h Y o u n g b l o b d , . " T h e S t r u c t u r e o f Y e a t s ' s L o n g Poems," C r i t i c i s m 5 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 323.  98 ^~*For a similar view, see M. I. Seidell, Trie Poet as a Mythmaker 1865-1939 (Michigan State University Press, 1962), p. 269 et passim. ''  J e f f a r e s , p. 304.  A l l a n Wade, ed., The Letters of W. B. Yeats (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1954), pp. 738, 742. 1 7  SELECTED'BIBLIOGRAPHY  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  Allen,  James L . ,  Golden  Jr.  "Miraculous  Image and  B i r d s , Another  the Phoenix,"  English  A l s p a c h , R u s s e l K. "Some S o u r c e s PMLA, L V I I I ( 1 9 4 3 ) , 8 4 9 - 6 6 .  of Yeats's  Bloom, H a r o l d .  Oxford  Yeats.  New  York:  and  the  Same:  Yeats's  (1968),  215-26.  Wanderings of  Oisin,"  S t u d i e s , 48 The  University  Press,  1970.  B o d k i n , Maud. Archetypal Patterns i n Poetry. P r e s s ( 1 9 4 3 ) 1968.  London: O x f o r d  Ellmann,  York:  Richard.  . Auden.  The  Man  and  the Masks.  New  Dutton,  Robert.  The  White Goddess.  Greek Myths. The Cassel,  Gregory,  Crowning P r i v i l e g e :  Penguin, The  R.  Fighting  Men.  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