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Failure to re-enroll in non-credit, university continuing education programs Clarke, John Murray Cordell 1971

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«  FAILURE TO RE-ENRODL IN NON-CREDIT, UNIVERSITY, CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS  by JOHN MURRAY CORDELL CLARKE B.Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1967  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Faculty of Education (Adult Education)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A JULY,  .1971  In presenting  t h i s thesis in partial  fulfilment o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference  and study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It i s understood that copying or publication  of this thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of ADULT EDUCATION The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  July  1$, 1971  The discipline of adult education has been concerned with factors affecting participation, particularly those factors influencing either enrollment or dropping out. Little attention has been devoted to the examination of factors which affect an adult's decision not to return to a subsequent course at the institution which he had attended previously. The purpose of this study was to identify the major factors or combinations of factors which may be related to the failure of adults to re-enroll in Extension programs at the University of British Columbia. The analytical survey method with a structured interview schedule was used to conduct the study. A random sample of 100 subjects was drawn from a population of 650 participants in non-credit Extension classes in the fall of 1966 who had ..not returned for another non-credit program over a subsequent three year period. The sample group did not appear to differ markedly with respect to those characteristics studied, from participants at similar institutions or from those who participate and return for subsequent courses at the Extension Department studied. Those characteristics of the sample which were cross-tabulated and found to be significantly related appear to be typical of university non-credit extension course participants. The majority of the reasons given for not returning were personal in nature as opposed to institutional and the five most frequently mentioned reasons were all personal. Lack of time because of business commitments was evidently the most important single factor preventing re-enrollment, followed by lack of time because of family commitments, involvement in courses elsewhere, lack of time because of other clubs or groups, and the inability to schedule time on a regular basis. The other factors mentioned by  the subjects did not indicate a consistent theme, rather they formed a haphazard mosaic of isolated reasons about which no single explanation was evident. With one exception, the categories of reasons given for failing to re enroll were not associated significantly with the characteristics of the sampl In that one case, there did. not appear to be a suitable explanation of the relationship found between occupational change and the reason given for not returning. There is evidently no single identifiable institutional adjustment which could have aided re-enrollment by a large number of the nonparticipants .  PAGE ABSTRACT  ii  LIST OF TABLES  vl  LIST OF FIGURES  viii  DEDICATION  ,  j x  A CKNOW LEDGMENT CHAPTER I  x  INTRODUCTION  1  I. PURPOSE  2  II. SETTING  2  III. PROCEDURE  4  Population  4  Sample  5  The Instrument  5  Data Collection  6  Data Analysis  6  IV. DEFINITION OF TERMS CHAPTER II  6  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  I. GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PARTICIPATION  10 10  Personal Factors  10  Institutional Factors.  14  H. DROPOUT LITERATURE.. Personal Factors Institutional Factors  16 =  1° 2  0  CHAPTER III  CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE GROUP  I. II.  28  AGE, SEX AND MARITAL STATUS PREVIOUS EDUCATION  28 .'  30  Educational Attainment  o  30  Other Factors  o  30  III.  FUTURE EDUCATIONAL PLANS  37  IV.  SOCIAL PARTICIPATION  42  V. ATTITUDE TOWARD ADULT EDUCATION VI. SUMMARY CHAPTER IV REASONS FOR NOT RETURNING. ... I. II. III.  CATEGORIZING REASONS  48  REASONS AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS  50  SUMMARY  53  CHAPTER V I.  II.  42 47 48  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  SUMMARY  54  .'  54  Procedure  54  Characteristics  54  Reasons for not Returning  55  CONCLUSIONS  55  BIBLIOGRAPHY  57  APPENDIX A  .. .  APPENDIX B . APPENDIX C APPENDIX D  61 73  ,  76 79  LIST OF TABLES  I.  Factors Studied to Test Relationship to Adult Education Participation  II  II.  Factors Studied to Test Relationship to Dropout  17  III.  Distribution of Sample by Sex and Marital Status  29  IV.  Distribution of Sample by Sex and Age  29  Distribution of Sample by Age and Years of Schooling Distribution of Sample by Sex and Number of Different Previous Adult Education Course Sponsors Prior to Fall, 1966  31  V. - VI.  VII. VIII. IX. X. XL XII.  XIII. XIV.  31  Distribution of Sample by Previous Course Type and Age_ _ 33 Distribution of Sample by Previous Course Type Sex  33  Distribution of Sample by Age and Location of Last Extension Non-Credit Course Attended  35  Distribution of Sample by Age and Distance Travelled to Last Extension Non-Credit Course Attended  _ _ 35  Distribution of Sample by Sex and Distance Travelled to Last Extension Non-Credit Course Attended Distribution of Sample by Previous Course Type and Distance Travelled to Last Extension Non-Credit Course Attended _ , _ ; __ _  36  36  Distribution of Sample by Sex and Type of Transportation Used to Attend Previous Course  38  Distribution of Sample by Age and Type of Transportation Used to Attend Previous Course  38  XV. KVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. XX. XXI. XXIIo  XXIII. XXIV.  XXV.  XXVI. '  Distribution of Sample by Age and Possibility of Returning in the Future for Another Non-Credit Course . .  40  Distribution of Sample by Previous Course Type and Possibility of a Future Return  40  Distribution of Sample by Subject Area of Interest and Previous Course Type.  41  Distribution of Sample by Sex and Preferred Time of Year  41  Distribution of Sample by Sex and Preferred Day of the Week to Attend a Course  43  Distribution of Sample by Sex and Preferred Time of Day to Attend A Course  43  Distribution of .Sample by..Age and .Chapin Social Participation Score.  45  Distribution of Sample by Previous Course Type and Attitude Toward Adult Education  45  Distribution of Sample by Sex and Attitude Toward Adult Education  46  Number of Responses Given for not Attending Subsequent Non-Credit University Extension Programs by Specific Reasons and Categories of Reasons,  49  Results of Chi Square Test Performed on Bivariate Contingency Tables of Types of Reasons for not Returning and Fourty-three Selected Factors  51  Distribution of Responses by Change in Occupation September 1, 1966 to September 1, 1969 of Those Subjects Giving the Responses and Type of Reason Given for Not Returning for a Subsequent Non-Credit Extension Course  52  LIST OF FIGURES PAGE Map of Greater Vancouver  3  DEDICATION Tcrmy wife Carol  The writer wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. Coolie Vernaer and Dr. Gary Dickinson for their generous advice regarding the design of the study and their expert editing of the report. Appreciation is also expressed to Mr. Jim Thornton and Dr. John Niemi, for their time and assistance in locating materials for the study and their helpful suggestions. Grateful acknowledgment is made to the Extension Department of the University of British Columbia for assisting in financing the study and to Mr. Gordon Selman, Director, Dr. John P. Blainey, Associate Director, and Mrs. Jo Lynne Hoegg, Communication and Information Services Administrator for their advice and encouragement. Very much appreciated was the expert statistical and procedural advice given by Mr. Dale Rusnell. Lastly the writer acknowledges the subjects of the study who gave so willingly of their time and information in a sincere attempt to make the study a success.  INTRODUCTION While participation is a subject of concern for all educators, it is of particular importance to those engaged in adult education. Adult education is voluntary, which all ows the learner a measure of freedom not usual in more traditional educational activities, and this gives rise to baffling problems for those who seek to serve the educational needs of adults. Interest in participation and the factors which affect it is undoubtedly as old as adult education itself. As early as 1814, Thomas Pole mentioned i  the problem of participation and it was also a major subject of concern to those involved with the early days of the Folk High Schools in Denmark 2  in the nineteenth century. Although the problem of participation is central to adult education, the lack of definitive research on the subject is rather disappointing. There are numerous reasons for the lack of research, but perhaps the main reason is that the discipline of adult education has not yet enlisted substantial numbers of research-oriented supporters. After an extensive review of the literature on participation as well as on completions and drop outs, 3  Verner and Davis noted: Virtually every aspect of adult education revolves around participation and persistence of attendance, yet the quantity of substantial research related to this particular aspect of the field is astonishingly small and inadequate. No other aspect of adult education so badly needs systematic and creative basic research.  I PURPOSE Each year several thousand people enroll in non-credit educational activities sponsored by the Extension Department of The University of British Columbia. Records kept by the Extension Department indicate that a large percentage of those who enroll each year do not enroll in similar activities in succeeding years. The purpose of this study is to identify the major factors or combinations of factors which may be related to the failure of adults to enroll in successive extension programs at The University of British Columbia. II SETTING The Extension Department of the University of British Columbia is located on the university campus. The campus occupies the western tip of a peninsula bounded on the north-west by the Strait of Georgia, on the south-west by the Fraser River, and on the east by the city of Vancouver. Access to the campus from surrounding municipalities and districts such as Richmond, Delta, Burnaby, New Westminster, Conquitlam, and Surrey, can only be accomplished by traveling through a residential area of Vancouver. Those people living in the cities of West Vancouver or North Vancouver must travel over one of two bridges and through the main commercial sector of Vancouver in addition to the residential area near the university campus. (Figure 1) While most of the programs conducted by the Extension Department use various facilities on the campus, additional facilities are rented or otherwise arranged for at convenient off campus locations where sufficient demand for programs permits.  The clientele of the Extension Department is drawn from the communities in immediate proximity to Vancouver as well as from others stretching up the lower Fraser valley., The area of Greater Vancouver which includes the various districts and municipalities as well as Vancouver City has a population of approximately 1,000,000. Many ethnic groups are represented in the population with the largest number of United Kingdom descent. There are also comparatively large numbers of people of Mid-European, Italian and Oriental background.  4  Ill PROCEDURE The analytical survey method utilizing a structured interview schedule was used to conduct this study. Population The study population consisted of 900 people who were registered in a non-credit educational program in. the fall of 1966, but who had not returned to register in non-credit programs during the subsequent three years. In order to determine the number of people who had moved in the interval, letters were sent to all 900 former registrants and those letters that were returned by the postal service were matched against names in the total population and their cards were withdrawn. This reduced the population to 650. The population was stratified by type of course into those who were registered in'(l) Arts and Science courses, (2) Professional and Technical courses, or (3) Professional and Technical short courses, conferences or seminars. This stratification followed the course classifications used by the 5  Extension Department.  Sample A proportional random sample was drawn from the population in order to obtain equal representation from the three groups. This sample consisted of 100 cases which is 15. 38 per cent of the population, A proportional sample of alternates was also drawn. The sample was drawn by numbering the registration cards from 000 to 649 and using a table of three digit random numbers to ensure randomness in the selection of the sample. The Instrument The interview schedule (Appendix A) used for this study is the result of an attempt to develop an instrument which would gather sufficient information to explore the problem, while providing the greatest amount of compatability with previous studies and a maximum of objectivity.  Several  professional adult educators and graduate students in adult education were consulted in developing the schedule. Included in the instrument were three standardized scales which provide indices important to the study; an 6  occupational status scale by Blishen using Canadian data, the Chapin social 7  participation scale,  and a scale to measure attitude toward adult education 8  developed by Adolph and Whaley. (Appendix B) In order to determine the reason or reasons for the lack of a subsequent enrollment, a list of possible reasons was developed with reference to related literature and with advice from several adult educators. (Appendix C) Open responses were encouraged and these were recorded and classified later. The draft of the interview schedule was tested on ten members of the population not drawn in the sample in order to determine whether there were any problems concerning its administration. A few changes in procedure were made as a result of this testing before the final schedule was printed.  Data Collection The respondents were contacted either in person or by telephone and were interviewed at a time and place convenient to them during the months of April and May 1970. In instances where no contact could be made by phone at the number or address on the previous registration card, every effort was made to locate the person. If an individual selected in the sample could not be contacted an alternate was substituted. Without exception, a high level of rapport was established with the respondents thus adding to the validity of the data. Data Analysis The interview schedules were coded, edited, and keypunched using the facilities of the Computing Center at the University of British Columbia. Standard MVTAB programs were used in analyzing the data. In addition to univariate and bivariate frequency tables, chi square was used to test for statistically significant differences in the distributions of respondents by selected characteristics. Yates correction was applied where appropriate. In order to add the number of responses to the various reasons given for not returning for subsequent courses, the + specification outlined 9  in the MVTAB manual was employed.  The totals obtained in this manner  were used to produce bivariate contingency tabulations of types of reasons and 43 selected factors for which data were collected. IV DEFINITION OF TERMS Although the terms which appear below are commonly found in adult education literature, the meanings intended are not always identical. For this reason, and in the interest of clarity of the material which follows,  a list of definitions of some confusing terms is presented below. Participant A participant is a per son. who filled out a registration card for a course during the period September 1, to December 31, 1966. (registration card Appendix D) Professional and Technical Program A professional and technical program is one which had been designated as such by The University of British Columbia Extension Department in its annual report, 1966-67. Arts and Sciences Program An Arts and Sciences program is one which has been given this classification by The University of British Columbia Extension Department ii  in its annual report, 1966-67. Credit Course A credit course is one for which recognition is given by the sponsoring body and which is generally a recognized step toward completion of a specified group of courses as in the case of a course offered in a university degree program. Non-Credit Course A non-credit course is one for which no recognition is given by the sponsoring body towards the completion of a recognized set of courses.  Occupational Status An index of income, education, and prestige associated with occupation as indicated for an occupation on the 1967 Blishen Index of 12  Occupational Status.  FOOTNOTES, CHAPTER I Coolie Verner and John S. Newberry, "The Nature of Adult Participation, " Adult Education, 13:218-221, 1958. 2.  John Christmas Moller and Katherihe Watson, Education in Democracy, (London: Faber and Faber, 1944.) 3  Coolie Verner and George S. Davis Jr., "Completions and Drop Outs: A Review of Research," Adult Education, 14:173, Spring, 1964. 4  Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statist its, Census of Canada, 1961, Cat. NI. 92-545, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1962, p. 39-6. 6  University of British Columbia, Department of University Extension, Continuing Education, Annual Report, 1966 — 1967. 6  B. Blishen, "A Socio-Economic Index for Occupations in Canada,' The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 4:41-53. 1967. 7  F. S. Chapin, Experimental Designs in Sociological Research, New York: Harper Brothers, 1955. 8  T. Adolph and R. F. Whaley, "Attitudes toward Adult Education, Adult Education, 17:152, (1967.) 9  James Bjerring et al„, Multivariate Contingency Tabulations, University of British Columbia Computing Center, 1970. 10  University of British Columbia, Department of University Extension, op.cit. ii  Ibid., pp. 16-26. 12  B. Blishen, op. cit., 4:41-53.  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Studies concerned with participation in adult education can generally be classified in two categories. These studies either attempt to define factors affecting the initial enrollment in an adult education program or they attempt to assess the extent to which selected factors affect persistence of attendance. In spite of the obvious importance of reliable information about the nature of adult participation, persistence, and related factors, an analysis of the literature yields inconclusive results. I. GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PARTICIPATION Personal Factors Previous research has devoted considerably more attention to personal factors which may be related to participation than to institutional factors. While the importance of the personal factors should not be underestimated, it is unfortunate that the area in which a!n institution has the greatest opportunity to exercise control and affect participation patterns, is the area least explored by researchers. (Table I). Age. Seven of the studies investiaged age as a factor related to 1  participation, and all of these concluded that there was a relationship between age and participation although only one of these subjected the data to a 2  statistical test.  Nevertheless, there appears to be evidence that the mean  age of participants in adult education is below the mean age of the population 3  in general. Chapman indicates that this may be due more to educational  FACTORS STUDIED TO TEST RELATIONSHIP TO ADULT EDUCATION PARTICIPATION  FACTORS  TOTALS  PERSONAL AGE SEX EDUCATION LEVEL COMPLETED PRIOR ACHIEVEMENT PRIOR AD. ED. EXPERIENCE MOTHER'S EDUCATION FATHER'S EDUCATION MARITAL STATUS OCCUPATION INCOME INTELLIGENCE EGO STAGE DEVELOPMENT SOCIAL PARTICIPATION MOTIVATION PERSONALITY NEEDS ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION JOB ADVANCEMENT  7 5  6 3  5' 1 1 1 1 3 8 2 1 1 1  4 *"  1 T 4  1 1 3  1 1  1 1 1  1 1 7 1  1 1 1  1 1  1 1  1 1  1  INSTITUTIONAL DISTANCE FROM SCHOOL KIND OF COURSE TYPE OF AD. ED. PROGRAM COURSE CONTENT  2 1 1 1  2 1 1 1  -  factors and a lessening of occupational interest than to physiological aging. Sex. Of the studies reviewed, four concluded there was some 4  relationship between sex and participation.  Only one study which was based  on a sample of university evening class students reported a statistically 5  significant relationship while a study based on a random sample drawn from a county in Wisconsin, reported no statistically significant difference between males and females with regard to either educational or organizational 6  participation,,  The role of sex as a factor affecting participation is not  clarified and therefore requires more extensive and conclusive research. Education. Four of the studies reviewed found some relationship between the level of schooling completed and participation in adult education 7  with those with more education being over represented in the samples studied. A fifth study based on a selected group of 740 male subjects, and the only 8  study using statistical tests, reported no relationship.  9  Knox reported  some relationship between prior experience in adult education and participation. One of the studies found no significant relationship between participation 10  and the educational level of the parent. Marital Status. Three studies have examined the role of marital ii  status as it relates to educational participation  0  13  One reported some  13  relationship while two others reported no relationship, with one of the latter having used statistical tests.  14  The role of marital status is therefore  unclear. Occupation. The factor most often studied and reported in the material reviewed was that of occupation. There appears to be unanimity  in the conclusion .that there is a relationship between occupational status and participation. The rate of participation increases with increased occupational status. Eight studies reported finding some relationship but only one 15  reported this relationship to be statistically significant.  16  Income. Income is closely related to occupation, but the relationship of income to participation is not established. The two studies reporting examination of this factor did not agree in their conclusions.  17  An extensive  American study based on a sample of 23,950 subjects, reported some relationship while another American study based on a sample of 532 randomly 18  selected adults found no statistically significant relationship.  19  The relation-  ship between income and participation seems to require further study. Intelligence. A study by Carson based on a selected sample of males found there was no statistically significant relationship between educational participation and intelligence, but since this is the only study to examine this 20  factor no conclusions can be drawn. Motivation. Several studies have differentiated between various motives for participation in adult educ£t ion. Chapman found certain personality needs related to participation while Lynk found achievement motivation 31  positively related but neither study used statistical tests. Job advancement 22  was identified as a motivational factor by Lynk,  2 3  Knox ,  3 4  Teichert, and 25  Dugger with only the study by Dugger, which was based on university evening 26  classes, reporting statistical testing of results. Boyd found that participants in adult evening college courses were retarded with respect to the development of a healthy personality.  37  Social Participation. Social participation and its relationship to educational participation was examined in one of the studies reviewed. In a report of a survey of adult education in a town in New York State, Mizruchi and Vanaria reported that participants obtained a higher index of social participation that did non-participants although the report did not indicate statistical testing for significance.  38  Institutional Factors. The lack of information about the relationship of institutional factors t o participation has been noted. This is due undoubtedly to the difficulty of designing studies that can determine the extent to which a specific institutional factor is operating to keep non-participants away from programs. As an example, the personal characteristic of sex can be objectively assessed while an institutional factor such as the time of day a class is held is more difficult t o evaluate as it is extremely difficult to assess the extent to which that specific factor may be influencing non-participation. With many such factors the researcher must rely on a subjective data rather than on a more objective assessment as is possible with personal factors. Distance from School. Two of the studies reviewed attempted to investigate the way in which the distance travelled to a course affects participation. Melton sought to discover the extent to which the availability of a course at more than one location affects distance travelled, and concluded that participants were willing to travel large distances within a metropolitan area to attend university extension courses even when the same program was offered at public night school within a shorter distance.  39  This conclusion  tends to support the evidence that various institutions draw a distinctive clientele. A second study attempting to reveal further information regarding  the extent to which distance affects participation was conducted by McKinnon. This study concluded that within the central city, participation was limited to only a few by distance.  33  Course Related Factors. Three of the studies reviewed considered factors related to the course or the type of program.  31  In a study conducted  in a city in New York State, Mizruchi and Vanaria concluded that those who participated preferred courses involved with arts and crafts, general academic, commercial and distributive or homemaking content.  32  An extensive study reported by Chapman and conducted in Concord, California with a sample taken from several types of adult education sponsoring institutions, found that different types of institutions attract distinctively different participants. For example, university extension divisions attract professional groups, junior colleges attract younger, less well educated adults, and high school programs attract those who are interested in homemaking and social-leisure time type skills.  33  After a study of non-credit day-time course participants, Dow concluded that course content was the most important factor influencing attendance.  34  None of the three studies which investigated the role of course  related factors reported statistical testing of results. The literature which examines institutional factors related to participation is significant by its absence. Those studies which have done so have failed to reach conclusive results and have not attempted to identify the extent to which the factors are operating to influence the abstinence of those who do not participate. In short, this literature reveals something about those who participate and very little about those who do not.  II DROPOUT LITERATURE While the literature dealing with general adult education participation concerns itself with factors influencing the singular act of enrollment in programs, dropout literature is involved with the persistence of attendance. As in the case of general participation literature, the findings of persistence literature dealing with factors influencing continued attendance, may be broadly classified into either personal factors on institutionally related factors. The great variety of factors and combinations of factors investigated, coupled with the lack of consistency in reporting of the same factor by different researchers, makes it extremely difficult to accurately report consistencies in the findings. (Table II) Personal Factors Age. While the literature indicates that age is a significant factor affecting enrollment, the function of this factor as it relates to persistence is unclear. The review by Verner and Davis produced no definite conclusion. Six of the studies they reviewed indicated that there was some relationship buy only three of them tested the results statistically while five studies showed no relationship with only one statistically testing the conclusion.  35  A mare  recent study by Busby, conducted with a sample of male and female adults who were university evening school students enrolled in academic courses, found no significant relationship ^ did a study by Novak and Weiant conducted with 3  a sample of female evening school students.  37  Another study by Brown, Knox  and Grotelueschen involved a sample of adult education students from six universities and found no significant relationship.  3 8  More research is required  TABLE II FACTORS STUDIED TO TEST RELATIONSHIP TO DROP OUT TOTALS  FACTORS  PERSONAL AGE SEX EDUCATION LEVEL COMPLETED DISLIKE OF SCHOOL PRIOR FAILURE TIME SINCE ATTENDANCE KIND OF DIPLOMA PRIOR AD. ED. EXPERIENCE PRIOR ACHIEVEMENT STUDY SKILLS MARITAL STATUS INCOME MOTIVATION JOB ADVANCEMENT  14 7  3 2  13 1  8 1 1 1  2 2 7 2 2 5 3  4 2  4 1  1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1  5 1 1 3 2  INSTITUTIONAL DISTANCE FROM SCHOOL MODE OF TRANSPORTATION ADMINISTRATIVE TIME OF DAY SEASON OF YEAR DAY OF WEEK FREQUENCY OF MEETING KIND OF COURSES TEACHER TRAINING TEACHER EXPERIENCE  2 2 3 <-> 2 2  5 2 3  1 5  3 2  1 2 2 1  to determine whether or not age is a significant factor influencing the persistence of attendance. Sex. Sex as a factor, while evidently related to enrollment to some extent, does not have a clear relationship to dropping out. The Verner and Davis study reviewed six studies which had measured this factor, with three concluding there is some relationship and three finding no relationship. Only one study from each group test the relationship statistically.  39  Busby more recently studied the factor of sex as it relates to dropping out and concluded there was no sugnificant relationship in a group of academic adult evening school students.  40  There does not appear to be any  conclusive evidence that sex is a significant factor when related to persistence. Education. Of the studies reviewed, eleven concluded the level of education previously obtained by adult students was related to dropping out. Eight of these studies were reviewed by Verner and Davis.  41  The other three  more recent studies based on samples of evening adult education students found that those with higher educational attainment were more likely to persist.  43  One of the more recent studies reported statistical testing while 43  only two of the eight studies reviewed by Verner and Davis reported such tests. Two of the studies reviewed by Verner and Davis found no relationship with only one testing the conclusion statistically.  44  Other educational factors have been tested. One study by Houle  45  and another by Hughes found that the degree to which participants had 45  mastered study skills was related to completion of educational programs with those with greater mastery remaining longer. Two recent studies have considered the relationship of previous educational achievement to dropping out and discovered that those who had been higher achievers in earlier  educational experiences tended to be more persistent in subsequent adult education experiences,  47  The study by Hughes tested the relationship and  found it statistically significant.  43  Verner and Davis reported several other studies which examined the relationship of such factors as previous dislike of school, prior failure, time since last attending educational programs, type of diploma sought, and prior adult education experience.  49  A more recent study found both the  time since last attending school and prior adult education experience related to persistence.  60  Marital Status.  Five of the studies reviewed have reported finding  some relationship between marital status and persistence. Four of the studies were reported in the Verner and Davis review, while another was 51  based on a sample of adult evening school students studied by Novak and Weiant.  52  Income. Three studies have found some relationship between income and persistence, with those with higher income tending to be more persistent than their lower paid counterparts. Two of the studies referred to were reviewed by Verner and Davis, while a more recent study was 63  conducted by Busby.  54  Job Advancement. Those recent studies which have examined the role of job advancement as a motivating factor in persistence, have concluded that it is a strong factor affecting participation,  5 s  however, three studies  reviewed by Verner and Davis did not find this to be so.  53  Miscellaneous. There are many other factors which have been studied and about which no conclusive decisions can be made, either due to conflicting evidence or because only one or two studies have attempted to examine the roles these factors play in affecting attendance and persistence. In spite of the apparent lack of recent investigation in this area, some information is available from those earlier studies reviewed by Verner and Davis.  57  Institutional Factors Distance from School. Two of the studies reviewed in the Verner and Davis study investigated the relationship between distance travelled and persistence.  58  Mode of Transportation. Two very early studies reviewed by Verner and Davis found that the mode of transportation was a significant factor when related to dropping out although the relationship was found to change with time.  59  As the most recent of the two studies was conducted in 1942 and in  view of recent and rapid changes in mobility, no valid conclusions can be drawn. Recent studies reviewed have not attempted to study this relationship in any depth. Administrative Factors. Several of the studies reviewed by Verner and Davis attempted to determine the nature and extent of the relationship between various administratively determined factors and dropping out. Three studies investigated the importance of time of day. One study of home economics classes found a higher dropout rate in evening classes than in morning or after noon classes. Two other studies found no relationship.  60  Five studies have reported that the season of the year when a course is given is related to dropping out, however, statistical testing was not reported and the nature of the reported relationships was not consistent.  61  Two studies have considered the day of the week as it relates  to persistence, however, the nature of this relationship is very likely to change within communities and within various institutions.  63  Similarly, the  findings of the studies that examined the factor of frequency of meetings found varying results.  63  Many more studies will be necessary before information of  this nature regarding various types of programs and institutions will be forthcoming. Kind of Courses. The diversity of courses has been examined as a factor in dropping out, but there are no firm conclusions. Here too, as in the case of personal factors, the results vary so much as to render them useless for a prediction in specific programs. Five studies found some relationship with only one of these testing the results statistically.  64  While most of the literature related to the type of instruction given and preparation of the instructional agent is inconclusive, two areas are of particular interest. The first being the area of teacher training and the second that of teacher experience. Two studies found that teacher training had no relationship to dropping out and three found the same result for teacher experience.  65  The dropout literature is confusing. Only in the case of a few factors such as income, marital status and motivation of job advancement is there sufficient evidence to conclude definitely whether or not there is some relationship between persistence of attendance and the various factors studied. Most factors have not been studied enough to allow any definite conclusions.  There does appear to be sufficient evidence to indicate that those factors which are related to initial enrollment in a program are not necessarily the same factors that influence persistence of attendance. This confirms the need to examine separately the literature which deals with initial participation from that which deals with factors affecting dropping out. The inconclusive nature of the literature in the area of completions and dropouts may well be an indication that research is required to obtain valid information about these sub-classifications.  FOOTNOTES CHAPTER II •"•Charles E. Chapman, "Some Characteristics of Adult Part-time Students, "Adult Education, 10:27-41, (Autumn, 1959); Mohammad A. Douglah, "Factors Affecting Adult Parti cipation in Educational Activities and Voluntary Forman Organizations" (unpublished Ph.D., The University of Wisconsin, 1965), cited in abstract by, Dissertation Abstracts ,26:37333734, ( 1966); James Gordon Dugger, "Motivation and Factors Characterizing Adult Learners Enrolled in Evening Courses at Drake University" (unpublished Ph. D., Iowa State University of Science and Technology, 1965), cited in abstract by, Dissertation Abstracts , 26: 5195 ( 1966); James Harlan Ford, "A Critical Study of the Continuing Adult Student Body at the Oklahoma Center for Continuing Education in Programs of Liberal Education" (unpublished Ph. D., The University of Oklahoma, 1966), cited in abstract by Dissertation Abstracts, 27:923-A; JohnW.C. Johnstone and Ramou J . Rivera Volunteers for Learning; a Study of the Educational Pursuits of American Adults ( Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 1965) p. 73; Ephraim H. Mizruchi and Louis M. Vanaria, "Who Participates in Adult Education, "Adult Education 10:141-143, (Apring, 1960); Rovert Henri Teichert, "Identification of " Characteristics that Differentiate Participants in a University Adult Evening School Program From Non-Participants" abstract by, Dissertation Abstracts, International, 30:2792-A--2793-A, (1970). bugger, op. cit., p. 5195. Chapman, op. cit., p. 31.  3  lbid.; Dugger, op. cit., p. 5195; Johnstone, op. cit., p. 73; Teichert, op. cit., p. 2792-A. 4  Dugger, o£. cit., p. 5195.  5  douglah, op. cit., pp. 1733-1734. Tjohn B. Holden, "A Survey of Participation in Adult Education Classes Adult Leadership, 6:258, April, 1958; Johnstone, op. cit., p. 76; Alan Boyd Knox, "Adult College Students: An Analysis of Certain Factors Related to the Characteristics of Students Attending a University Adult College" (unpublished Ed. D., Syracuse University, 1958), cited in abstract by Dissertation Abstracts, 19:2038; Teichert, op. cit., p. 2792-A. (1966)7"  Raymond Pressley Carson, "Factors Related to the Participation of Selected Young Adult Males in Continuing Education" (unpublished Ed.D.7 Florida State University, 1965), cited in abstract by Dissertation Abstracts , 27:96-A. (1966) 8  Knox, op. cit., p. 2038.  9  1 0  Carson, op. cit.-, p. 96-A  "Chapman, op. cit., pp. 27-41; Douglah, op. cit., pp. 1733-1734; Johnstone, op. cit., p. 74. Johnstone, op. cit., p. 74.  12  Chapman, op. cit., p. 31; Douglah, op. cit., p. 1734.  13  Douglah, op. cit., p. 1734.  14  Chapman, op. cit., p. 33; Dugger, op, cit., p. 5195; Ford, op. cit., p. 923-A; Holden, op. cit., p. 259; Johnstone, op. cit., p. 75; Knox, op, cit., p. 2038; Muzrichi, op. cit., p. 142; Richard Wiegand, "Factors Related to Participation in Continuing Education Among A Selected Group of Graduate Engineers" (unpublished Ph. D., The Florida State University, 1966), cited in abstract by Dissertation Abstracts, 27:2357-A. (1966) 15  ls  Dugger, op. cit., p. 5195.  17  Douglah, op. cit., p. 1734, Johnstone, op. cit., p. 74.  Johnstone, op. cit., p. 76.  l8  19  Douglah, op. cit., p. 1734.  20  a  Carson, op. cit., p. 96-A  Chapman, op. cit., pp. 34-35.  William Alexander Lynk, "A Study of the Relationships Between Socio-Economic Status and Reasons for Participating in Adult Education Programs in the City of Baltimore, Maryland" (unpublished Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1965), cited in Dissertation Abstracts,26;846. (1966) 23  Knox, op. cit., p. 2038. 2E  Teichert, op. _cit_., p. 2792-A.  26  Dugger, op. cit., p. 5195.  Robert D. Boyd, "Basic Motivations of Adults in Non-Credit Programs," Adult Education, 11:92-98, (Winter, 1961.) 27  2a  Mizruchi, op. cit., p. 143.  James Edward Melton, "The Influence of Alternate Course Locations on Distances Travelled by Participants in Urban Adult Evening Classes" (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of British Columbia, 1966), pp. 62-64. 29  Donald Peter McKinnon, "A Comparison of Distances Travelled to Urban Night School Centers" (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of British Columbia. 1966). pp, 75-77. 30  Chapman, op. cit., pp. 27-41; June Barth Dow, "Characteristics of Non-Credit University Extension Students" (unpublished Ed. C , University of California, Los Angeles, 1965), cited in abstract by Dissertation Abstracts, 26:3734, (1966) Mizruchi, op. cit., pp. 141-143. Mizruchi. op. cit., pp. 141-143. Chapman, op. cit., p. 32.  33  Dow, op. cit., p. 3734. ^Coolie Verner and George S. Davis Jr., "Completions and Drop Outs: A Review of Research," Adult Education, 14:157-176, (Spring, 1964). Walter Alvin Busby, "A Multivariate Analysis of the Relationship of Academic Motivation, Aptitude, Socio-Economic Status, and Age to Persistence in Adult Evening School" (unpublished Ed.D., Michigan State University, 1965), cited in abstract by Dissertation Abstracts. 26:4414.(1966) S  BenjaminJ. Novak and Gwendolyn E. Weiant, "Why Do Evening School Students Drop Out?", Adult Education, 11:35-41, (Autumn, 1960). 37  ^ M . Alan Brown, Alan B. Knox, and Arden Grotelueschen, "Persistence in University Adult Education Classes," Adult Education, 17:101-114, (Winter, 1966). Verner and Davis, op. cit., p. 174.  39  Busby, op. cit., p. 4414. 41  Verner and Davis, op. cit., pp. 157-176.  Brown, op. cit., pp. 106-107; Dorothy Lee Hawkins, "A Study of Dropouts in an Adult Basic Education Program and a General Education Development Program and Suggestions for Improving the Holding Power of These Programs" (unpublished Ed. D., Indiana University, 1968), cited in abstract by Dissertation Abstracts, 29:3405-A - 3406-A; (1966); Rulon Glen Miller, "A Study of the Influence of Prior School Experiences, Achievement Motives, and Academic School Achievement of Adult High School Students With Implications for Persistence in School" (unpublished Ed.D., University of Utah, 1964), cited in abstract by Dissertation Abstracts, 25:5084-5085. (1965). 4 2  43  Brown, op. cit., p. 107. Verner and Davis, op. cit., p. 174.  C y r i l O . Houle, "Who Stays and Why," Adult Education, 14:232233. (Sumer, 1964). 45  Charles Roy Hughes, "The Influence of Some Selected Factors Upon The Completion of Correspondence Study Courses" (unpublished Ed.D., The University of Florida, 1955), cited in abstract by Dissertation Abstracts, 15:2459.(1956). 46  47  Ibid.; Miller, op. _ciu, pp. 5084-5085.  48  Hughes, op. cit., p. 3459.  49  Verner and Davis, op. cit,, p. 174.  50  Brown, op. cit., pp. 106-107. Verner and Davis, op. cit., p. 174.  5 1  53  Novak, op. cit., p. 38.  B3  Verner and Davis, op. cit., p. 174.  Busby, op. cit., p. 4414.  54  ^Brown, op. _cit., pp. 108-109; Hughes, op.jcit., p. 2459. 56  Verner and Davis, op. cit., p. 166.  57  Ibid, pp. 157-176.  5  8  Ibid, p. 174.  5 9  Ibid, p. 167.  60  Ibid, pp. 167-168.  6 1  Ibid, p. 168.  6 2  Ibid., P. 168.  8 3  Ibid., p. 168.  64  Ibid., p. 169.  65  Ibid., p. 170.  CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE GROUP The literature which concerns itself with participation and persistence of participation as reviewed earlier gave some direction as to the characteristics which might profitably be studied. Information of personal nature was obtained along with information about previous educational experiences and expected future experiences. The variance in purpose of this study when compared with previous research necessitated the collection of additional information such as measurement of attitude toward adult education. I AGE, SEX AND MARITAL STATUS The sample was composed of 56 per cent male and 44 per cent female and 87.5 per cent of the males were married compared to 72.7 per cent of the females. A greater percentage of the females were single with 15.9 per cent being so classified compared to 8.9 per cent of the males. A chi square value of 3,794 was calculated but this was not significant at the .05 level. (Table III) The mean age of the sample was 42,73 years. There was no significant difference between the sexes by age. The majority of the subjects were between the ages of 35 and 54. (Table IV) Although the distribution by age and sex was not found to be significant at the . 05 level it is interesting to note that 25. 0 per cent of the females as compared with only 12.5 per cent of the males were over the age of 55. There was very little difference in the proportion of males and females between the ages of 15 and 34.  DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY SEX AND MARITAL STATUS  MARITAL STATUS SEX  Male Female Total  Total  Single  Married  %  Widowed Divorced Separated xNo. %  No.  %  No.  %  No.  56 44  100.0 100.0  5 7  8.9 15.9  49 32  87.5 72.7  2 5  3.6 11.4  100  100.0  12  12.0  81  81.0  7  7.0  X s = 3.794, d.f. 2, p > .05 TABLE IV DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY SEX AND AGE  AGE SEX  Male Female Total  Total No.  %  15 - 34 Years No. %  56 44  100.0 100.0  16 14  28.6 31.8  33 19  58.9 43.2  7 11  12.5 25.0  100  100.0  30  30.0  52  52.0  18  18.0  X = 3.396.. d. f. 2, p >.05 2  35 - 54 Years No.  %  55 Years Or Over No. %  II PREVIOUS EDUCATION Educational Attainment The distribution of the population by age and educational attainment showed no statistically significant differences.  However, as expected from  previous studies of university extension students, a high proportion have university degrees with only 29.6 per cent of the subjects under 45 years of age and 32. 6 per cent of those over 45 having grade twelve education or less. The median for the sample was between 13 and 16 years. (Table V) Other Factors In order to obtain information as to the extent of involvement in adult education prior to the last U. B. C. non-credit course in 1966, subjects were asfced-to recall the number of diffe^ent-spensering bodies under who's auspices they had attended educational programs. No attempt was made to obtain information about the numbers of courses the individuals had previously attended. There is some slight indication that males attended adult education programs under the sponsorship of more organizations than did females as 30.4 per cent of the males had been involved with three or more sponsors, while a greater per cent of the females had been involved with only one sponsor. (Table VI) This apparent difference was probably caused by the fact that most of the females v/ere housewives prior to 1966 and were not involved in the variety of business related educational programs to which the males had been exposed during previous years. The median number of previous course sponsors for the group was two.  DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY AGE AND YEARS OF SCHOOLING  YEARS OF SCHOOLING AGE IN YEARS  Total  No. Less than 45 45 or Over Total  X= 2  ~ 13-16 Years No Degree  :  Grade 12 or less No.  %  %  ' 1 or More University Degree(s)  No.  /o  No.  %  54 46  100.0 100.0  16 15  29.6  32.6  13 11  24.1 23.9  25 20  46.3 43.5  100  100.0  31  31.0  24  24.0  45  45.0  .108, d.f. 2, p >.05 TABLE VI  DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLY BY SEX AND NUMBER OF DIFFERENT PREVIOUS ADULT EDUCATION COURSE SPONSORS PRIOR TO FALL 1966 NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SPONSORING INSTITUTIONS SEX  Total  Male Female Total  1 Sponsor  No.  %  No.  56 44  100.0 100.0  16 17  28.6 38.6  16 12  100  100.0  33  33.0  %  No Previous Sponsors No. %  %  No.  28 .6 27 .  17 8  30.4 18.2  7 7  12.4 15.9  28 28 .0  25  25.0  14  14.0  /O No.  07  X = 2.430, d.f. 3, p > .05 2  2 Sponsors 3 or More Sponsors  There was a tendency amongst the subjects to attend Arts and Science courses between the ages of 15 - 34, Professional and Technical courses between the ages of 35 - 54 with a return to Arts and Science courses in the upper age category. The distribution by course type and age was significant at the .05 level. (Table VII) While the relationship between previous course type and age was found to be significant at the .05 level, that between course type and sex was significant at the .001 level.(Table VIII)  Males in the sample had been  far more involved in Professional and Technical courses than had the females, with 94.1 per cent of the males enrolled in such courses in the Fall of 1966 compared to only 16.3 per cent of the females. Conversely, the females were more involved in Arts and Science courses during the same period. This is not surprising, of course, because the majority of the females were occupationally classified as housewives so that .Arts and Science courses were better attuned to their educational needs and interests than programs of a Professional or Technical nature. As shown in Table IX, (p. 35) 72.2 per cent of the sample under 45 attended their last non-credit Extension course on the university campus as compared to 58.7 per cent of those 45 years of age or over. The Vancouver Public Library accounted for the second largest number with 17.0 per cent of the sample having attended the last class there and the remaining 17.0 per cent of the sample group attended courses at various locations in the Greater Vancouver area. The distribution of respondents by age and last course location was not statistically significant. Age was not found to be a significant factor when related to distance travelled to the last Extension course attended. Both the under 45 years old group and the older group were evenly matched in terms of the distance  DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE AND AGE  AGE IN YEARS PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE  Total No, %  15 - 34 No. %.  35 - 54 No. %  Professional or Technical Arts or Science  51 49  100,0 100.0  14 16  27.5 32.7  32 20  62.7 40.8  5 13  9.8 26.5  100  100.0  30  30.0  52  52.0  18  18.0  Total  55 or Over  •No.  %  X = 6.413, d.f. 2, p < .05 2  TABLE VIII DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE AND SEX  SEX PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE Professional or Technical Arts or Science Total  Total No. %  Male No. %  41 49  100.0 100.0  48 8  94.1 16.3  3 41  5,9 83.7  100  100.0  56  56.0  44  44.0  X = 61.259, d.f. 1, p <.001 2  Female No. %  travelled and the median distance travelled was in the category 6 to 10 miles. Age was not a significant factor when related to the distance travelled to the last course attended; however, when the increasing numbers of potential participants with every interval from the course location is taken into consideration, it is clear that a rapidly decreasing proportion of the potential clientele was reached in succeeding distance intervals thus making distance itself a very powerful factor in attendance at the last course. (Table X) While age was not found to be a significant factor related to distance travelled to the last course, it would appear that sex may be slightly related to distance travelled since 16„0 per cent of the males compared to only 4. 5 per cent of the females travelled over 15 miles to the last course and 30.4 per cent and 18.2 per cent respectively travelled 11 to 15 miles. Conversely 40.9 per cent of the females travelled five or less miles compared to only 28.6 per cent of the males. There does than appear to be some indication that the males in the sample group were willing to travel greater distances to attend a course they wanted, although the distribution by sex was not statistically significant. (Table XI) (p. 36) This apparent relationship may be largely contingent upon the fact that the males accounted for 94.1 per cent of the Professional and Technical type course participants while only accounting for .16.3 per cent of the Arts and Science type courses. A significant relationship at the . 01 level was found between course type and distance travelled. (Table XII) (p. 36) Professional and Technical course participants travelled greater distances to participate, with 19.6 per cent of that group travelling over 15 miles as compared with 2.1 per cent of the Arts and Science course participants. There was also a marked difference in the 6 to 10.mile range with only 19.6 per cent of the Professional and Technical students in that category compared with 40.8 per cent of the Arts and Science participants. More information would have to be gathered to determine whether sex or course type is the most important  DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY AGE AND LOCATION OF LAST EXTENSION NON-CREDIT COURSE ATTENDED LOCATION OF LAST EXTENSION NON-CREDIT COURSE AGE IN YEARS  „ T  ,  U. Bo C. Campus  t a l  Vancouver Public Library No. %  Other  No.  %  No.  54 46  100.0 100.0  39 27  72.2 58.7  8 9  14.8 19.6  7 10  13.0 21.7  100  100.0  66 66.0  17  17.0  17  17.0  Less than 45 45 or more Total  fr  °  %  No.  %  X = 2.137, d.f. 2, p > .05 2  TABLE X DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY AGE AND DISTANCE TRAVELED TO LAST EXTENSION NON-CREDIT COURSE ATTENDED  DISTANCE TO LAST COURSE IN MILES ONE WAY AGE IN YEARS  Total No.  Less than 45 45 or over  54 46  100.0 100.0  18 16  33.3 34.8  17 13  31.5 28.3  13 12  24.0 26.1  6 5  11.1 10.8  100  100.0  34  34.0  30 30.0  25  25.0  11  11.0  Total  %  X = .136, d.f. 3, p > .05 2  0- 5 No.  %  6 - 10 No.  %  11 - 15 No. %  Over 15 No. %  DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY SEX AND DISTANCE TRAVELED TO LAST EXTENSION NON-CREDIT COURSE ATTENDED  DISTANCE TO LAST COURSE IN MILES ONE WAY SEX Male Female Total  Total No. %.  0- 5 No. %  6 - 10 No. %  11 -• 15 No. .%  56 44  100.0 100.0  16 28.6 18 40.9  14 25.0 16 36.4  17 30.4 8 18.2  9 2  16.0 4.5  100  100.0  34 34.0  30 30.0  35 35.0  11  11.0  .  Over 15 No. %.  X = 6.594, d.f. 3, p>.05 2  TABLE XII DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE AND DISTANCE TRAVELED TO LAST EXTENSION NON-CREDIT COURSE ATTENDED  DISTANCE TO LAST COURSE IN MILES ONE WAY PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE  Total No. %  0- 5 No. %  6-10 No. %  11 - 15 No. %  Over 15 No. %  Professional or Technical 51 Arts or Science 49  100.0 100.0  16 31.4 18 36.7  10 19.6 20 40.8  15 29.4 10 20.4  10 1  19.6 2.1  Total  100.0  34 34.0  30 30.0  25 25.0  11  11.0  100  X = 11.770, d. f. 3, p <.01 2  factor operating here. Males may be more strongly motivated by such intrinsic factors as job advancement. The fact that 98.2 per cent of the males compared with only 54.5 per cent of the females drove their own car to the last course, may indicate that males are generally more mobile and therefore more able to commute the greater distances. (Table XIII) While sex was found to be a significant factor related to mode of transportation, age was not. As indicated in Table XIV, 76,8 per cent of the under 45 age group drove their own car to the last course as compared to 81.8 per cent of the 45 years or over group. Other means of transportation were used by 23.2 per cent of the under 45 age groups as compared to 18.2 per cent of the 45 or over age group. Ill FUTURE EDUCATIONAL PLANS Age was not a statistically significant factor related to intention to return to non-credit Extension courses some time in the future. As 75.9 per cent of the under 45 age group indicated that they intended to attend some time in the future while 71.7 per cent of the 45 and over age group indicated similar intentions. Of the younger age groups, 24.1 per cent indicated that they were either uncertain about future attendance or that they definitely would not attend future non-credit courses at the Extension Department. (Table XV)(p.40) Previous course type was also not related to the possibility of future enrollment. Since 68.6 per cent of the Professional and Technical course participants indicated an intention to return against 79.6 per cent of the Arts and Science course participants. Furthermore, 7.9 per cent of the . Professional and Technical group indicated that they would never enroll again as compared with 8.2 per cent of the Arts and Science group. The remaining  DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY SEX AND TYPE OF TRANSPORTATION USED TO ATTEND PREVIOUS COURSE  TYPE OF TRANSPORTATION SEX  Total No.  Male Female Total  Drove Own Car No. . .%  No.  %  Other  56 44  100.0 100.0  55 24  98.2 54.5  1 20  1.8 45.5  100  100.0  79  79.0  21  21.0  X = 28.316, d.f. I, p<.001 8  TABLE XIV DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY AGE AND TYPE OF TRANSPORTATION USED TO ATTFrND PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE OF TRANSPORTATION AGE IN YEARS  Lesstiian45 45 or over Total  Total No.  /o  56 44  100.0 100.0  43 36  100  100,0  79  X = .024, d. f. 1, p>.05 2  Drove Own Car No. . %  Other No.  %  76.8 81.8  11 10  23.2 . 18.2  79.0  21  21.0  percentages of each group indicated that they were uncertain about future involvement of similar nature . (Table XVI) A bivariate tabulation of previous course type by subject area of interest for future non-credit Extension courses is presented in Table XVII. (p. 41) As may be expected, those who had last taken a Professional and Technical course most often indicated that they would do so again in the future. Professional and Technical course participants indicated that 58.8 per cent would once again do so, 25.5 per cent indicated that they intended to take an Arts and Science course in the future, while 20.8 per cent gave no response or indicated they would never again attend. For the total group 50.0 per cent indicated that they would attend Arts and Science courses in the future and 32.0 per cent indicated Professional and Technical courses. This distribution was found to be statistically significant at the .001 level. There "appears"to *be-a'strong agreement-bet.w.een the sexes as to preferred time of year to attend courses. Spring was the preferred time of the year for 5.4 per cent of the male and 6. 8 per cent of the female population in the sample. The majority, or 87.5 per cent of the males and 84.5 per cent of the females preferred Autumn and the remainder of both groups had earlier indicated that they would not return. This distribution was significant at the .05 level. (Table XVIII) (p. 41) There was no statistically significant difference between the sexes with respect to preferred day of the week for attending a future class. Monday was the day most preferred by both sexes with 23.2 per cent of the males giving it as their first choice compared with 25.0 per cent of the females. Tuesday was the next most popular day with 12.5 per cent of the males and 15.9 per cent of the females. Other days of the week accounted for 17.9 per cent of the male responses and 22.7 per cent of the female responses. No preference was indicated by 39. 3 per cent of the males and  DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY AGE AND POSSIBILITY OF RETURNING IN THE FUTURE FOR ANOTHER NON-CREDIT COURSE POSSIBILITY. OF RETURNING AGE IN YEARS  Total  Less than 45 45 or over Total  Intend to Return  No.  %  54 46 100  Uncertain or will not Return No. . %  No.  %  100.0 100.0  41 . 33  75.9 71.7  13 13  24.1 28.3  100.0  74  74.0  . 26  26.0  X = .225, d.f. 1, p >.05 2  TABLE XVI DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE AND POSSIBILITY OF A FUTURE RETURN POSSIBILITY OF A RETURN PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE Professional or Technical Arts or Science Total  Total No.  %  51 100.0 49 . 100.0 100 .  Uncertain No.  %  Will Not Return No. %  35 39  68.6 79.6  12 6  23.5 12.2  4 4  7.9 8.2  100.0. .74.  74.0  .18  18.0.  8.  8.0  X =2.176, d.f. 2, p >.05 2  Will Return No. %  DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY SUBJECT AREA OF INTEREST AND PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE Subject Area Of Interest Professional or Technical Arts or Science Total  Total  Professional or Technical . No. .  Arts or Science No.  No Response or not Returning No. %  No.  .%  51 49  100.0 100.0  30 2  58.8 4.1  13 .37  25.5 75.1  8 10  15.7 20.8  100  100.0  32  32.0  50  50.0  18  18.0  X = 36.209, d.f. 2, p < .001 2  TABLE XVIII DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY SEX AND PREFERRED TIME OF YEAR PREFERRED TIME OF YEAR SEX  Total  Male Female Total  Spring  No.  %  56 44  100.0 100.0  3 3  100  100.0  6  X = .235, d. f. 2, p >.05 2  No.  Autumn %  Not Re turningNo. %  No.  %  5.4 6.8  49 37  87.5 84.1  4 4  7.1 7.1  6.0  86  86.0  8  8.0  27.3 per cent of the females and 7.1 per cent of the males and 9.1 per cent of the females indicated that they would not return at all. (Table XIX) Most programs conducted by the Extension Department are held in the evening after 7:00 P.M. While being the time preferred by most of those interviewed this accounted only for 65.0 per cent of the group. (Table XX) A slightly higher proportion of the males (69.6 per cent) as compared with the females (59.1 per cent) gave after 7:00 in the evening as first choice. The second best time for the males was in the afternoon and early evening between the hours of 1:00 P.M. and 7:00 P.M., and 14.4 per cent of the males and 15.9 per cent of the females preferred this time. Only 8.9 per cent of the males, but 15.9 per cent of the females indicated a preferrence for morning and noon hour with the remaining 8.0 per cent of the total indicating no intention of ever returning. IV SOCIAL PARTICIPATION There was no significant difference in the social participation score between those 45 years of age or over and those younger. More individuals in the 45 years and older category had social participation scores in the low 0 to 5 point range, whereas in the middle two categories the younger group was over-represented with the trend reversing itself for the highest category of 26 or more. The mean score for the sample was 15.66 with the median falling in the 0 to 15 category. This distribution was not significant at the .05 level. (Table XXI) (p. 45) V ATTITUDE TOWARD ADULT EDUCATION There was no significant difference at the . 05 level in attitude toward  DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY SEX AND PREFERRED DAY OF THE WEEK TO ATTEND A COURSE DAY Sex  Total No.  Male Female Total  %  Monday  Tuesday  No.  %  No.  23.2 25.0  7 7  56 100.0 13 44 100.0 11  % No.  No Pref.  % No.  Not Returning % No. %  39.3 27.3  4 4  7.1 9.1  14.0 20 20.0 34 34.0  8  8.0  12.5 10 17.9 22 15.9 10 22.7 12  100.0 24 24.0 14  100  Other  X = 1.688, d.f. 4, p > .05 2  TABLE XX DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY SEX AND PREFERRED TIME OF DAY TO ATTEND A COURSE TIME OF DAY SEX  Total No.  Male Female Total  %  After 7:00 pm No. %  Not Returning No. %  8.9 15.9  8 7  14.4 15.9  39 26  69.6 59.1  4 4  7.1 9.1  100.0 12  12.0  15  15.0  65  65.0  8  8.0  X = 1.578, d.f. 3, p >.05 2  1:00 pm 7:00 pm No. %  5 7  56 100.0 44 100.0 100  Before 1:00 p.m. No. %  adult education between those who previously attended Professional or Technical type courses and those who had attended Arts and Science type courses. (Table XXII) The mean score for the sample was 7. 163 with a standard deviation of .680. A slightly greater percentage of Professional and Technical respondents, or 33.4 per cent, had attitude scale scores less than 7.50 as compared to 26,5 per cent of those who had previously attended an Arts and Science course. A large proportion (40. 8 per cent) of those who had last attended an Arts and Science course received a scale score between 7.50 and 7.99 compared with only 33.3 per cent of the Professional and Technical group. The two groups were very evenly matched as to the proportion who received a score greater than 7.99. A greater proportion of the males received attitude scale scores -in-the. lower categories .when-compared to-the females, however, 47.7 per cent of the females received index scores in the middle category as compared with 28.6 per cent of the males. The trend reversed itself in the highest category with 33.9 per cent of the males being so classified as compared with 31.8 per cent of the females. The difference in the distribution of scale scores between the sexes was not significant. (Table XXIII) (p. 46)  DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY AGE AND CHAPIN SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORE CHAPIN SCORE 0-5 Total No. % No.  AGE IN YEARS  %  16 - 25 No.  %  26 or Over No. %  54 46  100.0 11 100.0 14  20.4 30.4  22 15  40.7 32.6  11 7  20.4 15.2  10 10  18.5 21.7  100  100.0 25  25.0  37  37.0  18  18.0  20  20.0  Less than 45 45 or over Total  %  6 - 15 No.  X = 1.994, d.f. 3, p>.05 2  TABLE XXII DISTRiBUTiON-OF -SAMPLE -BY"PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADULT EDUCATION ATTITUDE SCORE PREVIOUS COURSE TYPE Professional or Technical Arts or Science Total  Total  7. 50 7. 99 No. 7o  Greater than 7.99 No. %  No.  %  51 49  100.0 100.0  17 13  33.4 26.5  17 20  33.3 40.8  17 16  33.3 32.7  100  100.0  30  30.0  37  37.0  33  33.0  X = .760, d.f. 2, p >.05 2  Less than 7.50 No. %  TABLE XXIII DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE BY SEX AND ATTITUDE TOWARD ADULT EDUCATION ATTITUDE SCORE Total  SEX  No. Male Female Total  %  7. 50 7. 99 No.  %  Greater than 7.99 No. %  56 44  100.0 100.0  21 9  37.5 20.5  16 21  28. 6 47. 7  19 14  33.9 31.8  100  100.0  30  30.0  37  37. 0  33  33.0  X = 4.857, d.f. 2, p > .05 2  Less than 7. 50 No. %  VI SUMMARY Several personal and other factors were cross tabulated and statistically tested for significance at the .05 level of confidence using the chi square statistic.  Five relationships were found to be significant.  Previous course type was found to be significantly related to age with Professional and Technical courses being attended by significantly more people in the 35 - 54 age group and Arts and Science courses being attended by significantly more subjects in both the 15 - 34 age group and the 55 or over age groups. Previous course type was also found to be related to sex with a large majority of the males having attended Professional or Technical type programs and only a slightly smaller majority of the females having taken Arts and Science type programs. Another factor which was found to'be significantly related to previous course "type was the distance travelled to the previous Extension Department course. Those subjects who had previously attended Professional or Technical type courses travelled significantly greater distances to attend those programs than did those who had previously attended Arts and Science type programs. Course type was also found to be significantly related to current subject area interest with those who had previously attended Professional or Technical type programs indicating that the large proportion were still primarily interested in this subject area and those who had previously attended Arts and Science type programs indicating a similarly large proportion were still interested in these programs.  Sex was found to be significantly related to the type of  transportation used to attend the previous non-credit extension course. A significantly greater proportion of the males than females drove their own car as opposed to other means of transportation such as driving with someone else in their car, public transportation, or walking.  REASONS FOR NOT RETURNING The purpose of this chapter is to present the reasons given by the respondents for not returning and to relate the types of reasons given to specific characteristics of the participants, in order to determine whether or not the characteristics of the respondents were related to their reasons for not returning to Extension courses. I CATEGORIZING REASONS Reasons given for not returning were classified as either personal or institutional. Each of these major classifications was further divided into three sub-categories. Table XXIV provides a listing of reasons and their classification within the framework outlined. Respondents were allowed to cite as many reasons for not returning as they wished. The mean number of reasons per respondent was 2.44 as a total of 244 reasons v/ere given by the 100 respondents. Of those 244 reasons, 140 were of a personal nature and 104 were institutional. The tabulation of subclassifications indicates that of the personal reasons, 66 were related to business or family commitments, 41 were related to other commitments and 33 were related to socio-psycholcgical factors. The institutional reasons consisted of 23 which were transportation related, 57 which were course related and 24 factors which were classified as environmental. The most commonly cited reason for not returning was business commitments with 37 responses and the second most frequently cited reason  T A B L E XXIV  NUMBER OF RESPONSES.GIVEN FOR NOT ATTENDING SUBSEQUENT NON-CREDIT UNIVERSITY EXTENSION PROGRAMS BY SPECIFIC REASONS AND CATEGORIES OF REASONS  REASONS FOR NOT RETURNING  A.  TOTALS FOR INDIVIDUAL REASONS  TOTALS FOR SUB-CATEGORIES  TOTALS FOR MAJOR CATEGORIES  PERSONAL REASONS Business or Family Commitments 1. 2.  I have no time because of Eamily commitments. I have not time because of business commitments.  29 37  66  Other Commitments 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  1 have been taking courses elsewhere. 1 have returned to school full time. I have no time because of other clubs or groups. I have been out of town most of the time. 1 don't have time because of other leisure time activities  19 2 15 3 2 41  Socio-psychological Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  I have no one to go with. I have no means of transportation. I have not attended tor health reasons. I would rather take the course using educational television at home. I have business associates and we don't all have to go to a course. My spouse works shift so we can't go together. I am unable to commit my time on a regular basis. I lack energy.  3 1 6 1 2 1 17 2 33  B.  140  INSTITUTIONAL REASONS Transportation Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  The The The The The  parking facilities a r e too far from class. distance 1 have to travel is too great. parking facilities cost too much. bus doesn't run close enough. parking facilities are poorly designated.  8 7 1 4 3 23  Course Factors I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8. 9. 10. 11.  There have beer, no interesting courses. The course content was too difficult in the last course I took. The last course 1 took was unchallenging. I didn't get what I wanted from the last course I took. The last course was a little more advanced than I wanted it to be. There have been no courses that I need. I can't get any credit o r recognition for taking non-credit courses. When I took the last course the other SLudents held rne back. I work shift, so class times are inconvenient. There were no follow-up courses.  8 4 7 8 7 6 8 1 2 1 57  Environmental Factors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  The seating facilities at the last class were uncomfortable. The book store is not open when you are at evening classes. Non-credit students can't use the library, unless they pay an extra fee. There is no counselling a v a i l a b l e . U . B . C . non-credit extension c o u r s e s cost too much. Recommended books were not a v a i l a b l e and those that came were too late. The atmosphere of the last classroom was very poor.  6 2 3 3 7 2 1 24  104  was family commitments with 29 responses. Three other common responses were also classified as personal factors. Nineteen (19 per cent) of the respondents stated that they had been taking courses elsewhere and that this was a reason they had not returned. Lack of time because of involvement in clubs or groups was given as a reason by 15 per cent of the respondents while 17 per cent indicated that the distance they had to travel was an inhibiting-factor. No specific institutional factor was cited by a large percentage of the sample, although four reasons were each noted by eight respondents. II REASONS AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS In order to determine whether there was any relationship between the types of reasons given and the many characteristics for which data were collected a number of factors were tested using the chi square statistic. (Table XXV) The chi square value obrained from the cross tabulation of the six categories of reasons and each factor is presented in Table XXV along with the degrees of freedom for each tabulation and indication as to whether or not the chi square value is significant at the . 05 level. A total of 42 tests were made with only one significant relationship being found. A change in occupation between September 1, 1966 and September 1, 1969 was related to the type of reason given for not returning. (Table XXVI) (p. 52) Those who had changed occupation tended generally to give less reasons of personal nature such as business, family and other commitments, and socio-psychological reasons but more insitutional reasons related to the course and educational environment. Only in the case of transportation-related reasons did those who had changed occupation give less institutional reasons than those who-had not changed occupation.  TABLE XXV RESULTS OF CHI SQUARE TEST PERFORMED ON BIVARIATE CONTINGENCY TABLES OF TYPES OF REASONS FOR NOT RETURNING AND FOURTY-THREE. SELECTED FACTORS  NO.  9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.  FACTOR  DEGREES OF FREEDOM  SEX MARITAL STATUS AGE OCCUPATION INDEX SEPTEMBER 1st, 1966. YEARS IN SAME OCCUPATION TO SEPT. 1st, 1956. CHANGE IN OCCUPATION SEPT. 1st, 1966 SEPT. 1st, 1969. OCCUPATION INDEX. BY BLISHEN CENTILE CHAPIN SCALE SCORE CHANGE IN ORGANIZATIONAL INVOLVEMENT 1966-1969 YEARS OF SCHOOLING COMPLETED PART-TIME ENROLLMENT PRIOR TO 1966 PREVIOUS COURSE SPONSORS NUMBER OF DIFFERENT COURSE SPONSORS PRIOR T01966 NUMBER OF FULL-TIME PROGRAMS SINCE 1966 PERCENTAGE OF LAST COURSE CLASSES ATTENDED PART-TIME ENROLLMENT SINCE 1966 NUMBER OF PART-TIME "COURSES'SIN'CE 1966 COURSE SPONSORS IN LAST THREE YEARS (1966-1969) NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SPONSORS IN LAST THREE YEARS LOCATION OF LAST U. B. C. NON-CREDIT COURSE DISTANCE TO LAST COURSE TIME TO LAST COURSE MODE OF TRANSPORTATION TO LAST COURSE IF T R A V E L L E D WITH FRIEND TO LAST COURSE IF DEPARTMENT COURSE INFORMATION RECEIVED IF POSSIBILITY OF RETURNING IN FUTURE DISTANCE TO FUTURE ON-CAMPUS COURSE MODE OF TRNASPORTATION TO NEXT ON- CAMPUS COURSE. TIME TO T R A V E L TO NEXT ON-CAMPUS COURSE FIRST CHOICE OF DAY FOR FUTURE PROGRAM SECOND CHOICE DAY FOR FUTURE PROGRAM PREFERRED TIME OF DAY FOR FUTURE PROGRAM IF INTERESTED IN PARTICULAR SUBJECT AREA AREA OF INTEREST FOR FUTURE PROGRAM PREFERRED TIME OF YEAR FOR FUTURE PROGRAM PREFERRED NUMBER OF CLASS MEETINGS PREFERRED LENGTH OF FUTURE CLASS OPINION OF FEES CHARGED FOR NON-CREDIT PROGRAMS RECOMMENDED CHANGES IN PROGRAM PLANNING NUMBER OF REASONS GIVEN FOR NOT RETURNING ATTITUDE SCORE CLASSIFICATION OF PREVIOUS COURSE LOCATION OF HOME  X VALUE  SIGNIFICANCE, LEVEL  0.159 0.453 8.595 12.990 11.207  NOT SIGNIFICANT  . 05  18.230 19.328 10.308 0.241 9.073 0.380 4.217 2.751 0.87? 7.376 3.021 15.194 9.352 6.881 13.129 6.321 9.899 3.733 1.590 1.063 0.723 7.328  SIGNIFICANT NOT SIGNIFICANT  .01 . 05  1.023 6.868 8.555 6.945 1.565 0.493 3.347 0.110 2.836 5.836 8.938 6.162 4.420 5.968 4.109 4.702  TABLE XXV RESULTS OF CHI SQUARE TEST PERFORMED ON BIVARIATE CONTINGENCY TABLES OF TYPES OF REASONS FOR NOT RETURNING AND FOURTY-THREE . . S E L E C T E D FACTORS  NO.  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  FACTOR  DEGREES OF FREEDOM  • SEX MARITAL STATUS AGE OCCUPATION INDEX SEPTEMBER 1st, 1966. YEARS IN SAME OCCUPATION TO SEPT. 1st, 1956. CHANGE IN OCCUPATION SEPT. 1st, 1966 SEPT. 1st, 1969. 7. OCCUPATION INDEX BY BLISHEN CENTILE 8. CHAPIN SCALE SCORE 9. CHANGE IN ORGANIZATIONAL INVOLVEMENT 1966-1969 10. YEARS OF SCHOOLING COMPLETED 11. PART-TIME ENROLLMENT PRIOR TO 1966 12. PREVIOUS COURSE SPONSORS 13. NUMBER OF DIFFERENT COURSE SPONSORS PRIOR T01966 14. NUMBER OF FULL-TIME PROGRAMS SINCE 1966 15. PERCENTAGE OF LAST COURSE CLASSES.ATTENDED 16. PART-TIME ENROLLMENT SINCE 1966 17. NUMBER OF PA"RT-TIME COURSES SINCE 1966 18. COURSE SPONSORS IN LAST THREE YEARS (1966-1969) 19. NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SPONSORS IN LAST THREE YEARS 20. LOCATION OF LAST U . B . C . NON-CREDIT COURSE • 21. DISTANCE TO LAST COURSE 22. TIME TO LAST COURSE 23. MODE OF TRANSPORTATION TO LAST COURSE 24. IF T R A V E L L E D WITH FRIEND TO LAST COURSE 25. IF DEPARTMENT COURSE INFORMATION RECEIVED 26. IF POSSIBILITY OF RETURNING IN FUTURE 27. DISTANCE TO FUTURE ON-CAMPUS COURSE 28. MODE OF TRNASPORTATION TO NEXT ON-CAMPUS COURSE. 29. TIME TO T R A V E L TO NEXT ON-CAMPUS COURSE 30. FIRST CHOICE OF DAY FOR FUTURE PROGRAM 31.. SECOND CHOICE DAY FOR FUTURE PROGRAM 32. PREFERRED TIME OF DAY FOR FUTURE PROGRAM 33. IF INTERESTED IN PARTICULAR SUBJECT AREA 34. AREA OF INTEREST FOR FUTURE PROGRAM 35. PREFERRED TIME OF YEAR FOR FUTURE PROGRAM 36. PREFERRED NUMBER OF CLASS MEETINGS 37. PREFERRED LENGTH OF FUTURE CLASS 38. OPINION OF FEES CHARGED FOR NON-CREDIT PROGRAMS 39. RECOMMENDED CHANGES IN PROGRAM PLANNING 40. NUMBER OF REASONS GIVEN FOR NOT RETURNING 41. ATTITUDE SCORE 42. CLASSIFICATION OF PREVIOUS COURSE 43. LOCATION OF HOME  2  X VALUE  SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL  1 2 5 9 6  0.159 0.453 8.595 12.990 11.207  NOT SIGNIFICANT .05  5 8 8 4 6 1 8 5 2 4 1 7 8 3 10 5 5 3 1 2 2 5  18.230 19.328 10.308 0.241. 9.073 0.380 4.217 2.751 0.S79 7.376 3.021 15. 194 9.352 6.881 13.129 6.321 9.899 3.733 1.590 1.063 0.723 7.328  3 5 6 6 5 2 7 1 7 3 5 9 6 5 2 7  1.023 6.868 8.555 6.945 1.565 0.493 3.347 0.110 2.836 5.836 8.938 6.162 4.420 5.968 4.109 4.702  .  " SIGNIFICANT NOT SIGNIFICANT  .01 .05  "  "  :  '  "  "  "  "  "'  "  "  •'  DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES BY CHANGE IN OCCUPATION SEPTEMBER 1, 1966 TO SEPTEMBER 1, 1969 OF THOSE SUBJECTS GIVING THE RESPONSES AND TYPE OF REASON GIVEN FOR NOT RETURNING FOR A SUBSEQUENT NON-CREDIT EXTENSION COURSE CHANGE IN OCCUPATION, SEPT. 1, 1966 - SEPT. 1, 1969 TYPE OF REASON GIVEN FOR NOT RETURNING  Total No.  Yes  %  No.  No  %  No.  %  PERSONAL Business and Family Commitments 66  27.1  21  25.9  45  27.6  Other Commitments  41  16.8  10  12.-4  31  19.0  Socio-Psychological Factors  33  13.5  o  7.4  27  16.5  Transportation Factors  23  9.4  4  4.9  19  11.7  Course Factors  57  23.4  26  32.1  31  19.0  Environmental Factors  24  9.8  14  17.3  10  6.1  244  100.0  81  100.0  163  100.0  INSTITUTIONAL  TOTAL  X = 18.230, d. f. 5, p <.01 2  EI SUMMARY The reasons given by the respondents for not returning were classified as either personal or institutional reasons. These two classifications were further divided into three sub-classifications each. The classifications of reasons were tested with 43 characteristics of the sample using the chi square statistic. Only a change of occupation during a three year period subsequent to September 1, 1966 was found to be realted'to the types of reasons given for not returning.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I SUMMARY The purpose of the study was to identify major factors or combinations of factors which contributed to the failure of previous participants to reenroll in subsequent non-credit, university extension programs. Procedure Data for the study were obtained during interviews with one hundred randomly selected subjects who had not returned for subsequent non-credit extension courses over a three year period. Using the data obtained, respondents were described in terms of personal characteristics, previous educational experiences, intended future educational experiences, and other selected factors. The chi square statistic was employed to test for significant relationships in selected cross-tabulations of characteristics. Information regarding reasons for not returning was also obtained and from this information a list of 38 reasons was compiled. Those reasons were classified as either personal or institutional in nature. Each of these two classifications was further divided into three sub-classifications to facilitate analysis. The six sub-classifications of reasons were crosstabulated with 43 selected characteristics of the sample using the chi square statistic to test for significant relationships. Characteristics Only four significant relationships were found among those characteristics which were cross-tabulated. Males tended to enroll in professional or  technical programs while females demonstrated a strong preference for arts or science courses. Respondents in the professional and technical group travelled significantly greater distances than did those who were enrolled in arts or science courses. A much greater proportion of the males than females drove their own car as opposed to other forms of transportation, such as riding with someone else in their car or public transportation. Finally, those respondents who had previously attended professional or technical courses indicated that this was still their main area of interest and most of those who had previously attended arts or science courses indicated the interest in this area was still most common. Reasons for Not Returning The types of reasons given for not returning were found to be significantly related to only one of the 43 selected factors against which they were tested. Evidently the type of reasons given for not returning was related to a change in occupation during the three year period subsequent to September 1, 1966. Those respondents who had changed occupation tended to give more institutionally related reasons and less personal reasons than did those who had not changed occupation during the same period. II CONCLUSIONS The sample group did not appear to differ markedly in those characteristics studied, from participants at similar institutions or those who participate and return for subsequent courses at the Extension Department studied. Those characteristics of the sample which were cross-  tabulated and found to be significantly related appear to be typical of university non-credit extension course participants, The majority of the reasons given for not returning were personal in nature as opposed to institutional. The five most frequently mentioned reasons were all personal. Lack of time because of business commitments is evidently the most important single factor operating to keep those in the sample from once again attending, followed by lack of time because of family commitments, involvement in courses elsewhere, lack of time because of other clubs or groups, and the inability to schedule time on a regular basis. The other factors mentioned by the subjects do not appear to indicate a consistent theme, rather they form a haphazard mosaic of isolated reasons about which no single explanation is evident. Nor does there appear to be a suitable explanation of the relationship between occupational change and types of reasons given for not returning. There is evidently no single identifiable institutional adjustment which could have caused a large number of the non-participants to return.  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  Adolph, T . , and R. F. Whaley, "Attitudes toward Adult Education," Adult Education, 17:152, (1967).  2.  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Dugger, James Gordon, "Motivation and Factors Characterizing Adult Learners Enrolled in Evening Courses at Drake University," (unpublished Ph.D., Iowa State University of Science and Technology, 1965), cited in abstract by Dissertation Abstracts , 26:5195, (1966). '  14.  Ford, James Harlan, "A Critical Study of the Continuing Adult Student Body at the Oklahoma Center for Continuing Education in Programs of Liberal Education, " (unpublished Ph.D., The University of Oklahoma, -19-66), -cited in-abstract by Dissertation Abstracts, 27:923-A, (1966).  15.  Hawkins, Dorothy Lee. "A Study of Dropouts in an Adult Basic Education Program and a General Education Development Program and Suggestions for Improving the Holding Power of These Programs," (unpublished Ed.D., Indiana University, 1968), cited in abstract by Dissertation Abstracts, 29:3405-A - 3406-A, (1969).  16.  Holden, John B. "A Survey of Participation in Adult Education Classes, " Adult Leadership, 6:258, (April, 1958).  17.  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Wiegand, Richard, "Factors Related to Participation in Continuing Education Among a Selected Group of Graduate Engineers," (unpublished Ph.D., The Florida State University, 1966), cited in abstract by Dissertation Abstracts, 27:2357-A, (.1.967).  APPENDIX A  R e s p o n d e n t ' s Number I n t e r v i e w e r ' s Number R e s p o n d e n t ' s Phone N o .  EXTENSION DEPARTMENT RESEARCH PROJECT (U.B.C.)  Intorvicw Record DATS FIRST SECOND THIRD  Comments  R e s p o n d e n t ' s Name R e s p o n d e n t ' s Address  ,  TIME  Reapjndent•s Number  1, 3.  Card Number  1. Sex  4.  1. Male 2. Female  2. What was your m a r i t a l status on September 1, 1966? 1. Single 2. Married 3. Widowed, divorced or separated  3. What i s your age?  7, 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  15 - 24 25 - 34 35 - 44 45-54 55 - 64 65 or ever  9.  4. What was your p r i n c i p a l occupation on September 1, 1966? _ 5. How many years had you been working i n t h i s occupation up to that time? (years) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  2 or less 3 - 5 6 - 10 11 - 15 16 - 20 6. 21 - 25 7. 26 or more  6. Did you change occupation between September 1, 1966 and September 1, 1969? 1. Yes 2. No  10, 11.  12, 13. 14.  15.  IF YJ£S —  What occupation did you change to?  16, 17. 7. ( CKAPIN SCALE ) Would you please t r y to r e c a l l the names of a l l the organizations that you have belonged to i n the past year? (Do not include attendance at church). Name of Organization  Attendance  Financ i a l con tribution  Member of Committee  Offices Held  (X3)  (X4)  &5j_  1.  2. 3 ^  ks.  6.  2* 8. Total  (XI)  1X2J  TOTAL SCORE 18, 19. SCORE 1.  0  2.  1  3.  6 - 1 0  4.  11  5.  -•  5  -  15  16 - 20  6. 7. 8. 9.  over 3 5  21  -  25  26  -  3 0  31  -  35  8. Has your involvement i n organizations changed since the F a l l of 1 9 6 6 ? 1. Much l e s s 2 . A l i t t l e less 3 . Unchanged 4. A l i t t l e more 5 . Much more  2 1 .  9. How many years of schooling have you completed?  22, 23« 1. 5 or l e s s 24. 2. 6 - 8 3. 9 - 11 4. 12 5. 13 - 15 (no Univ.) 6. 16 or more (no Uniu) 7. University degree (Bach.) S. University degree (Post Grad.)  1  2 3 4 5 6 7 8  10. Had you ever enrolled i n any part time courses up t o September 1, 19^6? (This includes courses taken anywherej academic and recreational a c t i v i t i e s i n course, seminar, or conference form). 1. Yes 2. NO  25.  1  2  IF YES -- Who sponsored these courses?  .  26. 27. 28.  29. ' .  ,  30. 31. 32.  , Number of d i f f e r e n t sponsors  33. 1. 0 2. 1 3 <  2  4. 3 5. 4 6. 5  7. 6 8. 7 9. 8  34.  1 2 3  4 5  6  7 8 9  11. Did you e n r o l l i n any f u l l time educational programs between September 1, 1966 and September 1, 1969? How many?  1.0 2. 1 3. 2 4. 3  IF 1 or more —  35  Did you complete t h i s (these) program(s)? 1. Yes 2. No  36  If YES —» What type of education was t h i s ?  37, y How many years?  39  12. What percentage of your l a s t U, B. C. non-credit extension course classes d i d you attend? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Can't remember 0 - 20 21 - 40 41 - 60 61 - 80 81-100  13. Did you e n r o l l i n any part time courses i n the past 3 years? 1. Yes 2. No  40  41  IF Yl^S — How many courses? 1. Can't remember 2. 1 3. 2 4. 3 5. 4 6. 5 7. 6 or more  42  Who sponsored these courses?  • 44. 45.  ;  46. 47. 48. 49.  14. Where was your l a s t U. B. C. ( f a l l 66) non-credit course held?  1. U.B.C. campus 2. Vancouver public Library 3. Other  50.  1 2 3  51.  15. How f a r did you have t o t r a v e l t o attend i t ? ( miles one way ) 1. 2. 3. 4.  0- 5 6 - 10  5. 2 1 - 2 5  1 2 3 4 5  6. 2 6 - 3 0  6  7. 31 - 35  7  8. 3 6 - 4 0  8  11-15 16-20  9. 41 or more 16. How long d i d i t take you t o t r a v e l that distance?  9  ( time i n minutes one way )  1. 2. 3. 4.  0 - 10 11-20 21-30  31-40  51 4 1 - 5 0 6. more than 50 minutes  52.  1 2  3 4 5 6  17. What form of transportation d i d you use t o get t o that class? (form of transportation used most often) 1. walking 2. b i c y c l e 3. bus 4. t a x i 5. own car 6. borrowed car 7. drove with someone else i n t h e i r car 8. motor cycle 9. other  53.  1 2  3  4  5  6 7  3 9  18. Did you have a f r i e n d who traveled with you t o your l a s t U. B. C. non-credit extension course?  1. Yes  54.  2  2. NO  IF YES —  Did t h i s f r i e n d also take a course?  1. Yes  55.  2. No  I f YES —  1  1 2  Has t h i s f r i e n d returned f o r any non-credit extension courses since that time?  1. Yes 2. No  56.  1 2  3. Uncertain  3  Did t h i s friend take the same course as you took i n the f a l l of 1966? 1. Yes 57. 2. No 3. Uncertain  1 2  3  Did t h i s f r i e n d complete the course?  1. Yes 2. No  58.  2  3. Uncertain 19. Have you received information about U. B. C. extension courses i n the l a s t 3 years? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Uncertain  1 3  59.  i  2 3  20. Do you think that there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that you may e n r o l l i n another U. B. G. non-credit course sometime i n the futute? 1. Yes 2. Uncertain 3. No  60.  1 2  3  IF ANSWER TO NO. 20 IS YES OR UNCERTAIN PROCEED IF ANSWER TO NO. 20 IS NO SKIP TO ITEM 30 21. I f you were t o e n r o l l i n another U. B. C. extension course that was held on the campus, how f a r would you have t o t r a v e l t o get t o i t ? ( miles one way )  1. 0 - 5 -2. 6 - 10 3. 11 - 15 4. 16 - 20 51 2 1 - 2 5 6. 2 6 - 3 0 7. 3 1 - 3 5 8. 36 - 40  61.  4  5 6 7 8  9. 41 or more 22. How long do you think i t would take you t o get t o the course? ( time one way ) 1. 0 - 10 minutes  2. 3. 4. 5.  11-20  9  62.  21-30 31 - 40  1  2 3 4  5  41-50  6. more than 50 minutes 23. What form of transportation would you most l i k e l y use t o get t o the course? 1. walking 2. b i c y c l e 3. bus 4. t a x i 5. own car 6. borrowed car 7. drive with someone else i n t h e i r car 8. motor cycle 9. other  1 2 3  6  63.  1 2  3  4  5  6 7 8 9  70.  8  24. Which day of the Week do you most prefer to attend university extension classes? 1 . Monday 2 . Tuesday 3 . Wednesday 4 . Thursday 5 . Friday 6. Saturday 7 . Sunday 8. No preference  64.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  65.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  66.  1  Which day of the week would be your second choice f o r attending university extension classes? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday No preference  2 5 . What time of day i s most convenient f o r you attending u n i v e r s i t y extension classes? 1 . Morning 2. Noon hour 3 . E a r l y afternoon 4 . Late afternoon 5. Early evening 6 . Evening 26.  10:00 - 12:00 1 2 : 0 0 - 1 : 0 0  1:00 3:00 -  2  3 : 0 0 5:00  3 4  5 : 0 0 - 7 : 0 0  5  7:00 - 10:00  6  Is there some p a r t i c u l a r subject area i n which you would l i k e to gain knowledge through extension courses, short courses, conferences or seminars? v  Yes No 3 . Undecided 1.  67.  1  2.  IF YES —  What area are you most interested in?  2  3 68, 69.  •  ,71 -  9 27. What time of year do you prefer to attend extension courses? 1. Spring term 2. Summer term 3. Autumn term  Jan. - A p r i l June - August Sept, - Dec.  72.  1 2 3  28* How many meetings do you think a class should have? 73, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Less than 6 6 - 10 meetings 1 1 - 1 5 meetings 16 - 20 meetings 21 - 25 meetings 2 6 - 3 0 meetings 31 or more meetings  74. 75.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  76.  1  29. How long do you think each class meeting should be? 1. 0 - 30 minutes 2. 31 - 60 3. 6 1 - 9 0 4. 91 - 120 5. more than 120  2 3  4  5  30. What do you think of the fees being charged by the U. B. C. .^tension Department f o r non-credit courses? 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Undecided Far too high A l i t t l e too high About.right A l i t t l e too low Far too low  77.  0 1 2 3 4 5  31. Are there any changes i n course planning that would cause you to return f o r more courses?  32. On the card which I am now going to give you, you w i l l f i n d a l i s t of statements. These statements are examples of statements often made by students who have not continued to attend extension courses. Some of these statements may be representative of some of your reasons f o r not continuing to take extension courses. Please read the statements and when you have f i n i s h e d , t e l l me the number of those that you f e e l have influenced you i n not returning f o r further courses. 1  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  Are  11 12 13 14 15  16  17 18 19 20  21 22 23  24 25 26 27 28 29 30  there any other reasons not  entr.nneci on the card, that have  influenced you?  33. On t h i s next card I would l i k e you to read the l i s t of statements. After you have read these statements, please gc back over them and t e l l me the number of those statemnts that you agree with. 1 2 3 M5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24  APPENDIX B  1.  Adult education is the answer to unemployment.  2.  Adult education requires too much time and effort,  3.  Adults learn as easily as children.  4.  The benefits of adult education are too obscure to justify it.  5.  The need for adult education must exist since there are people who have benefitted by it.  6.  Adult education broadens the mind.  7.  Further education increases one's self-confidence.  8.  Learning ability remains constant throughout a lifetime.  9.  Adult education is just as important as the education of children.  10.  Adults cannot memorize as easily as children.  11.  Adult education never has and never will do anything for me.  12.  Adult education fulfills personality needs.  13.  Adult education is unnecessary since one can get all the information needed from books.  14.  I think the controversy over adult education is a little exaggerated as to the seriousness of the need.  15.  Canada should invest far more money in adult education.  16.  The need for adult education is greatly exaggerated by those who stand to gain most from it. Like teachers and politicians.  17.  Adult education is fine if you have the time.  18.  Most adult evening courses are too expensive.  19.  We are investing just about the right amount of money in our adult education programs.  20.  Adult evening courses lack content and waste time on non-essentials.  21.  Continuing one's education has become too much of a status symbol.  22.  Learning ability reaches a peak before middle-age and declines only slightly after.  23.. Adult education must be terminated immediately.  24.  Adult education is just another liability to the taxpayer.  APPENDIX C  1.  There have been no interesting courses.  2.  I have no one to go with.  3.  The parking facilities are too far from class,  4.  I have no means of transportation.  5.  I have been taking courses elsewhere.  6.  I have returned to school full time.  7.  I have no time because of business commitments.  8.  I have no time because of family commitments.  9.  I have no time because of other clubs or groups.  10.  I have not attended for health reasons.  11.  The course content was too difficult in the last course I took.  12.  The last course I took was unchallenging.  13.  The distance I have to travel is too great.  14.  I didn't obtain the social experience I expected from the last course.  15.  The parking facilities cost too much.  16.  The bus doesn't run close enough.  17.  I didn't get what I wanted from the last course I took.  18.  The last course was a little more advanced that I wanted it to be.  19.  There have been no courses that I need.  20.  I didn't like the way that the last instructor taught.  21.  The seating facilities at the last class were uncomfortable,  22.  The book store is not open when you are at evening classes,  23.  Non-credit students can't use the library, unless they pay an extra fee.  24.  There is no counselling available.  25.  I would rather take the course using educational television at home.  26.  I can't get any credit or recognition for taking non-credit courses.  27.  When I took the last course the other students held me back..  28.  I am unable to commit my time on a regular basis.  29.  U. B. C. non-credit extension courses cost too much.  30.  I work shift, so class times are inconvenient.  APPENDIX D  I  C E N T E R FOR CONTINUING E D U C A T I O N The University of British Columbia  RECEIPT AND ADMISSION C A R D  PLEASE  PRINT  ALL  NO.  COURSE  DATE DR. D M R S . • MR. • MISS • PLEASE  PRINT  36672  INFORMATION  SURNAME  Given Names/ Husband's Initials  ADDRESS. ZONE  OCCUPATION  EMPLOYER.  DAYTIME  EVENING PHONE . •  CHEQUE  • CASH  H o w d i d y o u h e a r of this P r o g r a m ? OFFICE  1. Fee must be paid before a d mission is granted. 2. This receipt must accompany application tor refund.  CITY  PHONE  NOTE:  INITIALS -  3. Refund must be requested b e fore second lecture or opening of seminar; an administrative charge of $3.00 is deducted. FEE  4. ' Please keep this receipt. T u i tion tees exceeding S25.00 may bo deducted on your income tax. No duplicates will be issued.  •j  

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