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Gastown : past, present and future Moodie, Robert James 1971

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GASTOWN: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE by ROBERT JAMES MOODIE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Community and R e g i o n a l Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1971 In presenting th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes is f o r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of C p H t t U M K ^ CM@EC*OrtM.^W^Cr>. The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date H M 5 ^ W \ 1 ABSTRACT: The o l d Vancouver townslte o f f e r s the community planner an e x c e l l e n t study a r e a In which t o observe the c y c l i c a l nature of urban development. As w e l l as b e i n g a b l e t o d e f i n e the r i s e and f a l l of p a r t i c u l a r uses, the planner i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y c r i t e r i a which d i c t a t e these t r e n d s . The hypothesis o r p o i n t of departure f o r t h i s study was t h a t , t r a d i t i o n a l l y , economic v a l u e s have been the prime determin-a n t s i n s e t t i n g the p h y s i c a l form of the urban e n v i r o n s . As t h i s Gastown study i n d i c a t e s , t h i s indeed has been the case, and, i n f a c t , i s c o n t i n u i n g i n the present r e s t o r a t i o n pro-j e c t . The c o n c l u s i o n of the t h e s i s i s t h a t a much wider and more d i v e r s e p e r s p e c t i v e i s needed i n order t o preserve the g r e a t v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s i n the o l d to w n s l t e . Towards t h i s end, a development programme has been suggested which would i n c l u d e i n p u t s from a l l the groups or i n d i v i d u a l s i n the community. The f i r s t chapter o u t l i n e s the h i s t o r y of the Gastown a r e a . Growth p a t t e r n s and development modes are t r a c e d from 1880 u n t i l the present day. A number of f a c t o r s have been i d e n t i -f i e d which a f f e c t e d the townslte's e a r l y growth, these i n c l u d e the g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n of the settlement and the nature of i t s e a r l y i n d u s t r y , as w e l l as the d e c i s i o n t o l o c a t e the i i w estern terminus of the CPR i n Vancouver, and the Great F i r e of 1886. The c i t y of Vancouver, from I t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n I89O, through t o the present day, has continued t o expand and d i v e r s i f y . As the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , the busi n e s s d i s t r i c t s h i f t e d t o areas which were i n c l o s e r p r o x i m i t y t o the major markets. Once the towns!te l o s t i t s importance as the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t , i t entered a p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n . V a r i o u s s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i e s began t o dominate Vancouver's once f a s h i o n a b l e 'downtown a r e a ' . G r a d u a l l y , the o l d townsi t e d e c l i n e d , b u i l d i n g s d e t e r i o r a t e d and were vacated. D u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n years, the unemployed workers f l o c k e d t o the c o a s t and sought out t h i s a r e a because of i t s low r e n t s and p l e n t i f u l accomodation. From t h i s time on, Vancouver's b i r t h p l a c e e x i s t e d as a ' s k i d - r o a d ' - a community of pen-s i o n e r s , t r a n s i e n t s , and va g r a n t s . I n the past t h r e e y e a r s , much a t t e n t i o n has focused on the o l d townsite. The experiences of other c i t i e s w i t h the r e s t o r a t i o n of h i s t o r i c areas has found form f o r i t s mani-f e s t a t i o n i n the Gastown d i s t r i c t . The problems and opport-u n i t i e s which the r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t has encountered a re o u t l i n e d i n the second chapter. The impact of the r a p i d redevelopment was f e l t f i r s t by the r e s i d e n t s of the a r e a -as some rooming-houses were c l o s e d , and r e n t s i n others i n c r e a s e d , they were f o r c e d t o leav e the neighbourhood. i l l The l a c k of any c l e a r l y s t a t e d development programme has l e f t the f u t u r e of Gastown undefined and u n s t a b l e . The s o c i a l , economic, and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n r e s t o r a t i o n have not been c o - o r d i n a t e d i n any p o s i t i v e manner. The l a c k of communication between the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups has f o r c e d each of them to j o i n t o g e t h e r . T h i s ' h o r i z o n t a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ' has done l i t t l e to f o s t e r communication between the groups. I t has done even l e s s towards d e f i n i n g community goals f o r Gastown's f u t u r e . P r e s e n t l y , these groups are concerned w i t h t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l and immediate problems, and not w i t h f o r m u l a t i n g a long-range development programme. The v e h i c l e whereby these groups c o u l d combine t o formulate community go a l s and o b j e c t i v e s i s o u t l i n e d i n the t h i r d c hapter. Gastown, as i t p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s , i s an i n t e r e s t i n g and popular area of the c i t y j whether i t maintains t h i s r o l e depends on the events of the next few y e a r s . The e x i s t i n g t r e n d s would i n d i c a t e t h a t Gastown i s sl o w l y moving towards a s i n g l e - p u r p o s e , commercial o r i e n t a t i o n , r a t h e r than towards o p t i m i z i n g i t s multi-purpose community p o t e n t i a l . I f Gastown i s t o assume a p o s i t i v e r o l e i n the urban e n v i r o n s , i t must not o v e r - s p e c i a l i z e and e l i m i n a t e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r v a r i e t y and d i v e r s i t y . Without a development programme, Gastown l a c k s a community o b j e c t i v e - i t l a c k s a v e h i c l e whereby each i n t e r e s t group can seek t o o p e r a t i o n a l ! z e t h e i r own g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . To remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n , a programme methodology has been o u t l i n e d . The emphasis i n t h i s programme i s p l a c e d on communication between a l l groups i n the community. The needs of the v a r i o u s groups must be acknowledged and handled i n a p o s i t i v e f a s h i o n i f Gastown i s to m a i n t a i n i t s c h a r a c t e r and d i v e r s i t y . E s t a b l i s h i n g a community development programme i s viewed as the p r i n c i p l e c o n c l u s i o n i n t h i s study. Through t h i s approach, the s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , economic, and e n v i r o n -mental components of the community co u l d be optimized, and b e n e f i t not on l y Gastown, but, a l s o , the l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . A number of i s s u e s were seen where immediate changes might serve t o s t r e n g t h e n the community while the development p l a n i s prepared. These recommendations are not meant to over-shadow the main c o n c l u s i o n , but, r a t h e r , are i n c l u d e d as an i n t e r i m step towards Gastown's r e s t o r a t i o n . TABLE OP CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Page t .. 1 CHAPTER ONE: S e c t i o n One GASTOWN PAST t 1792-1880 E a r l y settlement of B u r r a r d I n l e t ... 2 S e c t i o n Two : 1881-1886 Impact of the CPR and the e f f e c t s of the Great F i r e of 1886 ... 8 S e c t i o n Three: 1887-1890 E a r l y years of the C i t y o f Vancouver ... 11 S e c t i o n Pour : I89O-I96O Growth of Vancouver and the subsequent d e c l i n e of the o l d townslte ...16 CHAPTER TWO: S e c t i o n One S e c t i o n Two S e c t i o n Three: S e c t i o n Four S e c t i o n F i v e GASTOWN PRESENT : Review of v a r i o u s approaches to urban r e s t o r a t i o n : Problems and o p p o r t u n i t i e s of r e s t o r a -t i o n i n the Gastown area People and p r o j e c t s I n f l u e n c i n g the Gastown r e s t o r a t i o n Development problems and c o n f l i c t s i n the Gastown r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t F u n c t i o n of the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups i n v o l v e d i n Gastown . . 2 6 ..31 ..38 . . 5 2 CHAPTER THREE: GASTOWN FUTURE S e c t i o n One S e c t i o n Two S e c t i o n Three Summary of Gastown past and present, f u t u r e development trends analysed i l l u s t r a t i n g the n e c e s s i t y o f a con-c l u s i v e development programme . . . 6 l Methodology and i n t r o d u c t i o n of a commu-n i t y development programme f o r Gastown ...72 I n t e r i m recommendations ...80 BIBLIOGRAPHY .. .89 APPENDICES . . . 9 2 LIST OF GRAPHS and ILLUSTRATIONS MAPS; Page 1 Burrard I n l e t c i r c a 1865 2a 2 Gastown 1870 Survey 5a 3 Gastown Study Area 92a 4 CD-I Re zoning Area • 86a 5 Transportation Reroute .8 6b DIAGRAMS: 1 Migration of CBD 11a 2 1889 Street-Car Route 12a GRAPH 1 - LAND-USE: a Vacant 93 b Wholesale 9^ c R e t a i l 95 d O f f i c e 96 e Resident 97 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i Without the c o - o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e from a number of i n d i v i d u a l s , t h i s t h e s i s would not be what i t i s . The author expresses h i s g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. C r a i g Davis, and P r o f e s s o r Paul Roer, f o r t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i v e comments d u r i n g the course of t h i s study. Thanks, a l s o , t o R l c Shepard, of the Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department, and t o Mary Hart f o r her e x c e l l e n t t y p i n g and p r o o f - r e a d i n g . F i n a l l y , my s i n c e r e thanks t o D o r l a f o r her p a t i e n t e d i t i n g , and t o my f a m i l y f o r t h e i r understanding d u r i n g my da r k e s t hours! J . M. 1. INTRODUCTION s The h i s t o r y of Vancouver, and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , i t s e a r l y growth around B u r r a r d I n l e t , has been w e l l documented i n primary sources. A gre a t d e a l of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n the form of government documents, such as b u i l d i n g permits, assessment r o l e s , b u s i n e s s l i c e n s e s , and l a n d r e g i s t r a t i o n r e c o r d s . Secondary i n f o r m a t i o n i s a l s o p l e n t i f u l from v a r i o u s s t u d i e s , most of which have adopted a 'macro approach' i n documenting the growth and development of Vancouver In g e n e r a l . These r e p o r t s have o u t l i n e d , only c a s u a l l y , the f o r c e s behind the e v o l u t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r a reas w i t h i n the c i t y i t s e l f . I n t h i s study, I i n t e n d t o omit many of the h i s t o r i c a l anecdotes and examine the primary f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e d the growth of one s e c t o r of t h i s community, t h a t being, the ' o l d townslte', or, as i t i s commonly known, Gastown. F o l l o w i n g i t s progress through the years t o the present, p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n w i l l be g i v e n t o the v a r i o u s c a t a l y s t s , or g e n e r a t o r s , of the now f a m i l i a r growth p a t t e r n s , which have shaped Vancouver i n t o I t s present form. From an examination of past trends and the present s i t u a t i o n , a p r o j e c t i o n w i l l be made con c e r n i n g the f u t u r e o f the a r e a . Suggestions w i l l be made r e l a t i n g t o i t s probable s t a b i l -i t y , i t s growth, and i t s development, c o n s i d e r i n g the i n f l u e n c e o f both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e involvement. 2. CHAPTER ONE t THE PAST Section One The origins of Vancouver date back to the end of the 18th Century. I t was July 13. 1792, when George Vancouver f i r s t s a i l e d into Burrard Inl e t , having been sent from England to explore the north-west coast of North America. Noting the area as having an excellent harbour, Captain Vancouver departed, and, for over 50 years, the land, and the Indians, remained v i r t u a l l y undisturbed. During the mid-1850's, the Indians witnessed the f i r s t of what was soon to become a steady stream of s e t t l e r s . This f i r s t i n f i l t r a t i o n was stimulated by the quest for gold i n the i n t e r i o r of what i s now B r i t i s h Columbia. Stopping only f o r provisions and information, most of the white men stayed for a short time i n the lower mainland before s t r i k i n g off f o r the g o l d f i e l d s . Although a small group did e s t a b l i s h supply stores i n the Fraser River communi-t i e s , the trend was hardly towards s e t t l i n g the land; i n fact, the Indians on Coal Peninsula were not to be out-numbered by white s e t t l e r s f o r another t h i r t y years. During t h i s period, most of the a c t i v i t y focused on Fort Langley and New Westminster. I t was not u n t i l the early 1860's that Burrard Inlet began to develop. Two d i s s i m i l a r events occurred which had a strong c a t a l y t i c BURRARD INLET circa 1865 3. e f f e c t i n s t i m u l a t i n g development of t h i s a r e a . I n I860, C o l . Moody, a surveyor w i t h the Royal Engineers, ordered a road t o be c o n s t r u c t e d between New Westminster and B u r r a r d I n l e t (the North Road). That same year, Governor Douglas i n t r o d u c e d the •pre-emption' law, whereby a l l unoccupied, unreserved, or unsurveyed la n d up t o 160 a c r e s c o u l d be claimed and purchased by f i l i n g w i t h a government m a g i s t r a t e . As opposed t o ' s q u a t t i n g ' , t h i s programme i n t r o d u c e d an element of s e c u r i t y i n t o a l l l a n d h o l d i n g s . The p o t e n t i a l of t h i s a r e a as a p o r t gave i t a d e f i n i t e advantage over New Westminster; now, w i t h a l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k , and w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y to o b t a i n l a n d cheaply, the area's f u t u r e was determined. From the p l a n n i n g p o i n t of view, both these f a c t o r s a r e v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the subsequent development of B u r r a r d I n l e t . The l a n d p o l i c y granted a c e r t a i n amount of s t a b i l -i t y t o the settlement i n the a r e a , and the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k p r ovided a r e l a t i v e l y easy communication system w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d communities a l o n g the F r a s e r R i v e r . In I863, the l a n d b o r d e r i n g the I n l e t was surveyed and d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e l o t s and two townslte r e s e r v e s . * At t h a t time, the e n t i r e a r e a was h e a v i l y f o r e s t e d . L o g i c a l l y , when the l a n d became a v a i l a b l e , the l o g g i n g i n t e r e s t s were among the f i r s t t o e n t e r the a r e a . I n 1862, the f i r s t m i l l appeared on the n o r t h shore. I t was f o l l o w e d s h o r t l y by Stamp's m i l l near the second townslte r e s e r v e . For 1 See Map 1. Page 2a. 4. over twenty years, the generator f o r settlement and econo-mic growth around B u r r a r d I n l e t was t o be the lumber i n d u s t r y . Both m i l l s gave impetus t o the development of s m a l l s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e i r v i c i n i t y - M o o d y v i l l e and Gastown. Because of the success of Stamp's m i l l , and the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of Gastown's e a r l y r e s i d e n t s , the l a t t e r was soon t o become the more prominent of the two. The market f o r the lumber i n d u s t r y was o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y towards A u s t r a l i a , South America, and South A f r i c a . Because of the presence of the F i r s t Narrows, and the i n a b i l i t y of the l a r g e windjammers t o nav i g a t e them, C a p t a i n Stamp b u i l t the f i r s t steam tugboat i n order t o tow the l a r g e r v e s s e l s i n t o the i n l e t . The o t h e r m i l l q u i c k l y f o l l o w e d s u i t , and, soon, ocean-going v e s s e l s from around the world were l o a d i n g i n B u r r a r d I n l e t , g i v i n g f u r t h e r i n c e n t i v e t o the development of the a r e a . I n 1870, Stamp's m i l l was p r i v a t e l y a u c t i o n e d . The new owners changed i t s name to the B a s t i n g ' s M i l l , and, w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of manager James Raymur, began the ta s k of c l e a n i n g up what was now the Hastings Townslte. Gastown, as an e a r l y ' s a t e l l i t e community* of B a s t i n g ' s M i l l , c o n t i n -ued t o grow, and r e f u s e d t o t o l e r a t e any p u r i t a n i c a l i n t e r -f e r e n c e s from Raymurj because Gastown and the m i l l were mutually dependent, they t o l e r a t e d each o t h e r ' s p e c u l i a r i t i e s . 2 B.C. H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , F.W. Howay: E a r l y S h i p p i n g  In B u r r a r d I n l e t . V o l . I . Jan. 1937. p.20. 5. In 18?0, Gastown was surveyed under the direction of the Colonial Land Commissioner, Joseph Trutch. In the process, the village was o f i c i a l l y renamed 'Granville ' 3 - much to the consternation of the residents. The motive behind the survey was to provide additional revenue for the colonial coffers. A r i g i d 'grid* pattern was l a i d out, and the lots were put up for sale.'* The f i r s t land sale could hardly be considered a success with only three lots selling immediately. More Important to this study, however, was the fact that this survey provided a shanty-town with a considerable degree of order and s t a b i l i t y . The seventies saw Increased construction i n Granville, as the town gradually settled into i t s new role as an indep-endent pioneer community. Maple Tree Square, at the junction of Water, Powell, and Alexander Streets, became the focal point of the town. Beside the square, Gassy Jack's new Deighton Hotel became the centre of many a fascinating tale. At this stage, i t i s worthwhile to note the nature of the business activity in the area. "They were a l l service oriented. Unlike many towns and c i t i e s , Granville had no primary economic activity such as shipping, milling, or manufacturing to dominate and channel i t s growth."5 3 "Named after George Leveson-Gower, second Earl of Granville, Br i t i s h Colonial Secretary at the time. He never came to Canada, but the name had more of an aristocratic ring to i t than Gastown." 4 See Map 2. Page 5a. 5 Shepard, R. City Planning Department, Vancouver; Gastown/  Chinatown Report. Unpublished. To be completed November 1971. GASTOWN 1S7D SURVEY Although a l a r g e lumber i n d u s t r y was nearby, which, f o r many years, p r o v i d e d the means whereby the town c o u l d c a r r y on, i t was t o t a l l y separate from i t . T h i s f a c t f r e e d G r a n v i l l e t o develop a d i v e r s e economic complexion. T h i s t r e n d was to continue u n t i l the community completely over-whelmed the m i l l . A b r i e f attempt was made, p r i o r t o the 1870's, to I n s t i -gate a f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . The e x t r a c t i o n of h e r r i n g o i l a c h i e v e d o n l y moderate success, and, by the end of the decade, the f i r m had c l o s e d i t s doors. Consequently, up to t h i s p o i n t , lumbering was the mainstay of the a r e a . Although the lumber r e s o u r c e s were p l e n t i f u l , and, indeed, B u r r a r d I n l e t had a c h i e v e d world s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the trade, the m i l l s were s t i l l s u b j e c t t o the f l u c t u a t i o n s of the world market. Beg i n n i n g i n 1870, and, l a s t i n g u n t i l 18?2, the i n d u s t r y experienced a sudden r e c e s s i o n f o r c i n g p e r i o -d i c c l o s u r e of the m i l l s . As was p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the v i l l a g e s and the m i l l s were v e r y dependent on each o t h e r . D u r i n g these times of poor markets, the a c t i v i t y i n G r a n v i l l e and M o o d y v i l l e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced. G r a n v i l l e began t o move away from dependency on the m i l l as e a r l y as 1871, a l t h o u g h the f u l l e f f e c t s of t h i s pro-gramme were not to be enjoyed f o r another f i f t e e n y e a r s . The V i c t o r i a D i r e c t o r y of 1871, l i s t e d a number of 7. independent e n t e r p r i s e s l o c a t i n g i n the G r a n v i l l e a r e a . By the mid-seventies, the p o p u l a t i o n f o r the i n l e t had reached about 470, and, the d i r e c t o r y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the dominant a c t i v i t i e s were b e g i n n i n g t o focus on G r a n v i l l e . At t h i s stage i n the c i t y ' s h i s t o r y , a t r a n s i t i o n began. For a decade, the town had been s l o w l y carved from the f o r e s t s . Now, however, the rough pioneer atmosphere was g r a d u a l l y b e i n g c i v i l i z e d . A s c h o o l was b u i l t i n 1873. and, i n the same year, a church was c o n s t r u c t e d . An e r a was a t an end and a new one about to b e g i n - h e r a l d i n g t h i s new agewere the gentlemen of commerces the bankers, merchants, and businessmen. These men "depended upon a community s t r u c t u r e d around order, s t a b i l i t y , and pre-d i c t a b i l i t y , i n order t o c a r r y out t h e i r t r a n s a c t i o n s . Such a community was p r e d i c a t e d upon a complex web of socio-economic i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t would have shackled the more spontaneous l i f e - s t y l e of the p i o n e e r . " ^ 6 Shepard, R. o p . c i t . p.14. 8. CHAPTER ONE: S e c t i o n Two The most s i g n i f i c a n t s i n g l e event t h a t launched G r a n v i l l e on the road t o becoming a major commercial c e n t r e on the west coa s t was the d e c i s i o n t o have the terminus of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway w i t h i n i t s boundaries. I n a f e a s i b i l i t y study d e l i v e r e d t o the C.P.R. i n 1881, G r a n v i l l e was recommended over both Port Moody and V i c t o r i a because of i t s 'good harbour and p o t e n t i a l f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t ' A l t h o u g h a t r e n d c o u l d be n o t i c e d as e a r l y as 18?1 away from dependency on the m i l l , i t was not u n t i l the f i n a l agreement was reached i n 1884 t h a t G r a n v i l l e 'would be f r e e t o shed i t s dependency and d i v e r s i f y i t s economic a c t i v i t i e s t o i n c l u d e d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n d u s t r i a l , Q a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s . The agreement hammered out between W i l l i a m Smith, the premier o f B.C., and W i l l i a m Van Home, the g e n e r a l manager of C.P.R., i s astounding, even by today's standards. One can o n l y marvel a t the presumed f o r e s i g h t on the p a r t of C.P.R. Over s i x t e e n thousand a c r e s of l a n d between S t a n l e y Park and the Second Narrows, as w e l l as the n o r t h bank of F a l s e Creek, a p o r t i o n of K i t s i l a n o , and most of Shaughnessy Heights, was granted t o the C.P.R., i n r e t u r n f o r the e x t e n s i o n of the r a i l l i n e from P o r t MoodyJ 7 Mathews, J.S. L i n k i n g the A t l a n t i c t o the P a c i f i c , Ocean  to Ocean; Vancouver, Wrlgley P r i n t i n g , 1945. 8 I b i d . p.38. 9. S u r p r i s i n g l y enough, because of the I n t r i g u e and s e c r e c y over many of these t r a n s a c t i o n s , the g e n e r a l p u b l i c d i d not r e c o g n i z e immediately the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s d e c i s -i o n . The g e n e r a l f e e l i n g was one of c o n f i d e n c e i n the f a c t t h a t the l i n e would terminate i n P o r t Moody. I t was not u n t i l 1886, when the t r a c k s a c t u a l l y passed Port Moody, t h a t s p e c u l a t i o n began i n G r a n v i l l e . Once i t s t a r t e d , however, th e r e was l i t t l e t o h o l d i t back. In February, 1886, t h e r e were one hundred h a b i t a b l e b u i l d i n g s i n the town; by the middle of May, t h e r e were over s i x hundred; and, by the end of t h a t same month - over e i g h t hundred! By 1886, the B.C. D i r e c t o r y estimated the p o p u l a t i o n of G r a n v i l l e t o be approximately s i x hundred people. Thus, between the years of 18?1 and 1884, the p o p u l a t i o n , e f f e c t i v e l y , only t r i p l e d . T h i s growth was s o l e l y due to the impetus of the lumbering and s h i p p i n g i n d u s t r i e s . Except f o r the h e c t i c pace set i n 1886, s p e c u l a t i v e a c t i v i -t i e s due to the coming of the C.P.R. were minimal, and completely i n the background. T h i s p e r i o d , of r o u g h l y f i f t e e n y e a r s , was one of economic and s o c i a l entrench-ment. J u s t as June 1, 1886, marks the a r r i v a l of the C.P.R. t r a c k s and a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n Vancouver's h i s t o r y , so June 13, 1886, marks another t u r n i n g p o i n t . T h i s was the Great F i r e t h a t a b s o l u t e l y l e v e l l e d the town. Over one 1 0 . thousand wood frame b u i l d i n g s were burnt t o the ground. However, the amazing impetus generated by the C.P.R. la n d s p e c u l a t i o n was not t o be e a s i l y q u e l l e d . Before the ground was c o l d , c o n s t r u c t i o n had begun on a number of b u i l d i n g s - t h i s time, of b r i c k and i r o n . G r a n v i l l e was e n t e r i n g a new era, and, now, because of the f i r e , t here was an o p p o r t u n i t y t o make a f r e s h s t a r t w i t h more mature and s o p h i s t i c a t e d i d e a s as t o how the c i t y should develop. 11. CHAPTER ONE: S e c t i o n Three G r a n v i l l e came of age A p r i l 6, 1887, when i t was i n c o r p o r a t e d as the C i t y of Vancouver. One of the f i r s t bylaws passed by the new mayor, M.A. McLean, was r e g a r d i n g f i r e r e g u l a -t i o n s . Wood frame b u i l d i n g s were now r e p l a c e d by more permanent s t r u c t u r e s of b r i c k and stone. Many of these b u i l d i n g s i n the Gastown ar e a s t i l l remain today. At t h i s same time, the C.P.R. was b u s i l y c l e a r i n g the l a n d immediately to the west of G r a n v i l l e , i n what was known as the *CPR Townslte'. The e n t i r e a r e a was undergoing a f a n t a s t i c boom. R e t a i l , b u s i n e s s , and r e a l e s t a t e i n t e r e s t s were a l l c a r r i e d a l o n g i n the f l o o d . The c e n t r e of a l l t h i s a c t i v i t y s t i l l f ocused on Maple Tree Square, a l t h o u g h a l l the surrounding a r e a was w e l l s e t t l e d and developed. However, t h i s s i t u a t i o n was o n l y temporary. The C.P.R., i n a l o g i c a l d e s i r e t o develop t h e i r own land, e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r s t a t i o n a t the f o o t of G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t , At the same time, they began work on the f i r s t 'Hotel Vancouver' a t Georgia and G r a n v i l l e . Subsequently, the west-end was opened f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development. T h i s growth, whether planned o r not, began the westward 'mi g r a t i o n ' of the c i t y ' s downtown core 5 a process which has s l o w l y continued through t o the p r e s e n t day.9 9 See Diagram 1. Page 11a. MIGRATION OF C.B.C3. WEST-END 0 0 12. The boom made heavy demands on the r e s o u r c e s of the new c i t y . With l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e from the s e n i o r l e v e l s of government, Vancouver f o r g e d ahead on i t s own. One temp-ora r y s o l u t i o n t o o f f s e t the l a c k of government f i n a n c i a l support, was through p r i v a t e ownership of u t i l i t i e s , such as e l e c t r i c i t y , water, and t r a n s p o r t . In I887, the p r i v a t e l y -owned Vancouver E l e c t r i c I l l u m i n a t i n g Co. a c t i v a t e d the lamp standards i t had i n s t a l l e d In the •Gastown' a r e a . A year l a t e r , the Vancouver Waterworks Company b u i l t the f i r s t water main a c r o s s the i n l e t . T h i s i n s t a l l a t i o n r e l i e v e d the t h r e a t of t y p h o i d f e v e r , always p r e v a l e n t i n communities r e l y i n g on shallow w e l l s . The Vancouver S t r e e t Railway Co. was founded i n I889, The i n c o r p o r a t i o n of t h i s s e r v i c e was to have a profound e f f e c t on the f u t u r e p a t t e r n of development i n Vancouver." Tracks were l a i d , i n i t i a l l y , from the depot on Main S t r e e t , a l o n g Main to Powell, from Powell t o C a r r a l l , C a r r a l l t o Cordova, Cordova t o Cambie t o H a s t i n g s , Hastings t o G r a n v i l l e , and G r a n v i l l e down t o F a l s e Creek.*® The s t r e e t r a i l w a y system had a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the r e s u l t a n t development of the downtown a r e a . A c c e s s i b i l i t y was now ensured f o r almost the e n t i r e p e n i n s u l a . R e s idents were no l o n g e r r e s t r i c t e d t o l i v i n g w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e of t h e i r p l a c e of work. F o l l o w i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s -p e r s i o n , merchants and businessmen a l s o began a slow m i g r a t i o n away from the o l d townslte a r e a . 10 See Diagram 2. Page 12a. 13. Before the a r r i v a l of the C.P.R., there were no wholesale houses, and r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s d e a l t , p r i m a r i l y , i n every day goods. A f t e r the r a i l r o a d ' s a r r i v a l , the r e t a i l t r a d e began t o d i v e r s i f y t o i n c l u d e d r y goods o u t l e t s , hardware s t o r e s , and t a i l o r shops, as w e l l as pharmacies 11 and book s t o r e s . Slowly, the o l d townslte began to undergo yet another change. Warehouses and wholesale o u t l e t s began t o r e p l a c e the once f a s h i o n a b l e shops a l o n g Water S t r e e t . By I896, some of the wholesale houses from V i c t o r i a d e t e c t e d the p o t e n t i a l i n the area, and, e i t h e r opened branch o f f i c e s , or, t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s e n t i r e l y t o Vancouver. The wholesale b u s i n e s s t h a t f i r s t began t o appear i n 1870 was s t i m u l a t e d by three f a c t o r s : 1. The growing dynamism of the c i t y i t s e l f . 2. The l o c a t i o n of Vancouver a t the c r o s s r o a d s of the North American markets and trade w i t h the O r i e n t . T h i s was f a c i l i t a t e d by both the C P . R a i l r o a d and t h e i r steamship l i n e s . 3. The c i t y ' s growing f u n c t i o n as a supply c e n t r e f o r the h i n t e r l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia. Yet another I n d i c a t o r of the deepening s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the c i t y ' s economy was the e v o l u t i o n of the 'general s t o r e * i n t o the department store.*3 As e a r l y as 1886, 11 From B.C. D i r e c t o r y . I886-I89O. 12 Makovski, L.W. The R i s e of the Merchant P r i n c e s . B r i t i s h Columbia Magazine^ V o l . 7. June, 1911. p.543. 13 Barker, D. The C i t y and The S t o r e . Vancouver. P r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d . 19W* 14. the Hudson's Bay Co. had "built a s t o r e on Cordova S t r e e t -i n 1889, they e s t a b l i s h e d a branch a t Georgia and G r a n v i l l e a c r o s s from the new C.P.R. h o t e l . F i n a l l y , i n 1892, the company s h i f t e d i t s e n t i r e o p e r a t i o n t o the branch l o c a t i o n . T h i s move f o l l o w e d C.P.R.'s l e a d i n t o the r e l a t i v e l y unpopu-l a t e d a r e a . As i t turned out, the Bay was o n l y the f i r s t of an i n c r e a s i n g number of merchants t o b e g i n the m i g r a t i o n out of Gastown. The C.P.R. f u r t h e r c a p i t a l i z e d on i t s presence i n Vancouver by b e g i n n i n g a t r a n s - P a c i f i c s h i p p i n g l i n e w i t h i t s purchase of a number of steam-driven s h i p s from the Cunard L i n e . From 1887 t o I892, the t r a n s - P a c i f i c passenger and f r e i g h t a c t i v i t i e s were i n t e n s i f i e d , w i t h the C.P.R. broadening i t s s e r v i c e t o i n c l u d e the famous 'White Empress L i n e ' . U n t i l I89O, a number of p r i n c i p a l f o r c e s can be i s o l a t e d and c r e d i t e d w i t h g u i d i n g the growth and development of Vancouver: 1. 'Vancouver had become the d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t r e f o r c o a s t a l and i n t e r i o r l o c a t i o n s . ( F r e i g h t r a t e s made i t more economical to s h i p d i r e c t l y 1 h to Vancouver and then t o the i n t e r i o r ) ' . 2. Vancouver had become the c o n t r o l and adminis-t r a t i v e c e n t r e f o r most of B.C.'s economy. 14 Morely, A. From M l l l t o w n t o M e t r o p o l i s . M i t c h e l l P r e s s . Vancouver. 1969* p. 105-107. 15. 3. 'The r a i l w a y i n t e n s i f i e d trade and commerce yet d i d not d e t r a c t from the area's primary I n d u s t r i e s (mainly the lumber m i l i s Although Vancouver may have been g a r n e r i n g the economic c o n t r o l , the p o l i t i c a l power c e n t r e s t i l l remained i n V i c t o r i a . T h i s s t r u g g l e was compounded by an economic c o n f l i c t between the l a r g e e a s t e r n and o t h e r o u t s i d e commer-c i a l I n t e r e s t s . Both the economic and p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s had a s i g n i f i c a n t hand i n the u l t i m a t e development of the c i t y , Vancouver's economy was enhanced by one f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e . With the e x c e p t i o n of the lumber m i l l , there were no l a r g e i n d u s t r i e s , and, t h e r e f o r e , no l a b o u r problems. The economic s u b s t r a t a of the c i t y c o n s i s t e d mainly of c l e r k s , merchants, and businessmen, which were d i f f i c u l t groups to o r g a n i z e . 15 I b i d . p.105-107. 16. CHAPTER ONEj S e c t i o n Four From the 1890*s onwards, the developments i n Gastown became i n e x t r i c a b l y mingled w i t h the growth of the e n t i r e c i t y . •Secondary sources" of i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e g a t e t h i s a r e a t o the background, w i t h o n l y p e r i o d i c mention. F o r t h i s reason, data has been gethered from the Vancouver D i r e c t o r y r e l a t i n g o n l y t o the ' o l d townslte* a r e a . T h i s has been graphed f o r the p e r i o d 1880-1970, and analysed, r e l a t i v e to the developments i n the c i t y i t s e l f . 1 ^ I n t h i s way, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o observe the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the d e c l i n e , and subsequent r e b i r t h , of t h i s a r e a , i n the l a t e s i x t i e s . At the b e g i n n i n g of the 1890's, Vancouver, a l o n g w i t h the r e s t of North America, experienced a s i g n i f i c a n t r e c e s s i o n . T h i s was the f i r s t time, s i n c e the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the c i t y , t h a t i t s momentum had been slowed. The percentage i n c r e a s e of growth i n the are a d e c l i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , r e a c h i n g I t s lowest p o i n t j u s t a t the t u r n of the ce n t u r y . The vacancy r a t e r e f l e c t s , t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree, the l a c k o f s t a b i l i t y i n the a r e a . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , there was no thought of the a r e a m a i n t a i n i n g i t s r o l e as the bu s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . Gastown, t h e r e f o r e , entered a stage of t r a n s i t i o n w i t h the emphasis s h i f t i n g towards the wholesale i n d u s t r y . With the a r r i v a l of the C.P.R. t o 16 See Graph 1. i n Appendix One. 17. to Vancouver, and the Increasing wholesale trade that i t generated, there was a strong pressure f o r warehouse space i n the townsite d i s t r i c t , as well as i n the areas to the east and west. When Vancouver experienced t h i s recession, property values declined to the point where the wholesale industry was able to expand into the Gastown d i s t r i c t , thereby replacing many of the o f f i c e buildings. Consequently, the number of o f f i c e s i s seen to decline sharply during the nineties, and, although they recovered during the boom i n the following decade, Gastown never regained the prominence i t had held p r i o r to t h i s period. 1890 marked the height of Gastown's r o l e as the fashion-able and prestigious business l o c a t i o n . During the recession, the wholesale industry experienced a s l i g h t decline, however, with the presence of the r a i l -road, i t s existence i n the area was f i r m l y established. In contrast, Gastown's r e t a i l trade began to s l i p . Although i t did not appear to be immediately affected, near the end of the decade, a drop i n i t s growth rate could be seen. With the labour force unemployed, the stores i n the area that catered to t h e i r needs were forced to close. Because of t h i s , a process of consolidation and amalgamation occurred, with the larger firms absorbing the smaller ones. The recession, combined with the expanding pressure of the warehouse industry, gradually forced the r e t a i l trade out 18 of Gastown. From 1900 u n t i l 1930, i t ste a d i l y and r a p i d l y declined. In contrast, r e s i d e n t i a l population i n the area was constantly on the increase. The recession did very l i t t l e to dampen t h i s trend, i n f a c t , with the wealthy c i t i z e n s moving into the west-end at the beginning of the nineties, and vacating Main Street ("Blue Blood A l l e y " ) , a new group of residents entered the area. The newcomers were not completely destitute, but they did lack the means of the former inhabitants. Because of t h i s change, the specialty shops on Cordova Street l o s t t h e i r market, the r e s i d e n t i a l density i n the area increased, and the q u a l i t y of services declined. In I898, Vancouver received a b r i e f , but c r i t i c a l , economic boost, which successfully l i f t e d i t out of the slump. The Klondike gold rush began. Although the actual gold rush lasted less than a year, the i n f l u x of c a p i t a l into Vancouver provided the c i t y with enough of a catalyst to begin a boom, which was to l a s t over a decade. During the early 1900's, the vacancy rate i n Gastown l e v e l l e d o f f , and maintained a more stable balance than had been experienced previously. At the end of t h i s decade, an increase i n the number of vacancies could be seen as Gastown continued to change i t s commercial structure. 19. U n l i k e the p r e c e d i n g p e r i o d , o f f i c e s , d u r i n g t h i s decade, Increased s h a r p l y i n numbers. I t i s e v i d e n t from the d i r e c t o r y , however, t h a t these were of a d i f f e r e n t 'type' than those t h a t had p r e v i o u s l y occupied the a r e a . Rather than the 'men of commerce*, the new occupants were con-cerned w i t h the wholesale, warehouse, and storage i n d u s -t r i e s . B eginning i n the 1900*s, and c o n t i n u i n g u n t i l the 1930's, bo t h the o f f i c e and wholesale index r e f l e c t e d t h i s i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d of o v e r a l l growth and development i n Vancouver, both these i n t e r e s t s expanded c o n s i d e r a b l y . The r e t a i l t r a d e In Gastown continued i t s steady d e c l i n e , which had s t a r t e d almost twenty years b e f o r e . Small shops were c l o s e d from the r e c e s s i o n , or bought out by l a r g e r I n t e r e s t s . Of these f i r m s , some, no doubt, r e p r e s e n t e d the warehouse i n t e r e s t s i n the a r e a . With t h i s i n d u s t r y on the i n c r e a s e , many r e t a i l o u t l e t s were bought out, t o p r o v i d e the much needed space f o r t h i s expanding t r a d e . The comparative f l o o r space r a t i o can be e s t i -mated a t , approximately, 100:1 f o r wholesale over r e t a i l . I n a d d i t i o n , the westward m i g r a t i o n was f u r t h e r a c c e l e r a t e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the p r e s e n t post o f f i c e a t G r a n v i l l e and H a s t i n g s , which f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d the a r e a as the commercial c e n t r e f o r a number of y e a r s . 17 See Graph 1. i n Appendix One. 20. The r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n i n the Gastown area l e v e l l e d o f f d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , i n d i c a t i n g a time of r e l a t i v e community s t a b i l i t y . In 1907, Powell S t r e e t , which was the c e n t r e of the Japanese community, was the scene of Vancouver's f i r s t r a c e r i o t s between o r i e n t a l s and w h i t e s . The s i t u -a t i o n c r e a t e d an atmosphere of t e n s i o n , and d i d l i t t l e t o f o s t e r i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the neighbouring communities. I t was not u n t i l 1941, t h a t the s i t u a t i o n was to be f i n a l l y , and, r a t h e r d r a s t i c a l l y , a l l e v i a t e d . The 1900's, ag a i n , saw the r i c h on the move, t h i s time, from the west-end Into Shaughnessy. The main c a t a l y s t f o r t h i s l a t e s t m i g r a t i o n was t h e i r popular acceptance of the motorcar. F o l l o w i n g t h e i r departure from the west-end, apartment developers en t e r e d and e s t a b l i s h e d a t r e n d , which has not d e c l i n e d , t o t h i s v e r y day. From 1910 u n t i l 1913» the c i t y continued t o progress, and the o l d townslte c o n t i n u e d to be r e l e g a t e d t o a more and more s u b s e r v i e n t r o l e . Gastown h e l d n e i t h e r the p o l i t i c a l I n f l u e n c e nor the p u b l i c concern, and was, t h e r e f o r e , f o r c e d to accept whatever came i t s way. D u r i n g the p e r i o d of 1913-1914, another r e c e s s i o n h i t Vancouver, but, because the c i t y was b e t t e r e s t a b l i s h e d than i t had been d u r i n g the 1890's, i t s e f f e c t s were not so d e t r i m e n t a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the i n d i v i d u a l and the s m a l l shop owner. 21. I n the decade from 1910-1920, there was an i n c r e a s e i n the number of v a c a n c i e s i n the townslte a r e a . T h i s t r e n d was c r e a t e d not o n l y by the 1914 d e p r e s s i o n , but, a l s o , by the outbreak of World War I t h a t same year. The number of o f f i c e s a l s o dropped, as d i d the number of wholesale e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . I n 1914, the p o r t experienced i t s f i r s t d e c l i n e i n b u s i n e s s volume s i n c e i t s c r e a t i o n . Under-standably, t h i s would a f f e c t the townslte area because of i t s s t r o n g s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n r e l a t e d t o both the p o r t and the r a i l r o a d . The decade from 1920 u n t i l 1930 was dominated by two v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t o ccurrences. The f i r s t world war ended i n 1918, and the Great D e p r e s s i o n s t r u c k Vancouver i n 1929. The p e r i o d was not completely n e g a t i v e , however, p a r t i -c u l a r l y f o r the p o r t . The Panama Canal, which was o f f i c i a l l y opened i n 1914, was, only now, having a d e f i n i t e 18 impact on the p o r t ' s volume of t r a d e . The c a n a l ' s t r a f f i c i n c r e a s e d t h r e e f o l d d u r i n g t h i s decade. The vacancy r a t e i n the townslte dropped d r a s t i c a l l y d u r i n g the tw e n t i e s . I t c o i n c i d e d w i t h an e q u a l l y d r a s t i c Increase i n the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n of the a r e a . With the war ending, and the d e p r e s s i o n beginning, Gastown began to house the 'down and outs*. Accomodation here was both p l e n t i f u l and i n e x p e n s i v e . I t was not l o n g b e f o r e the a r e a was c o n s i d e r e d a slum, and, t h e r e f o r e , a 'problem' 18 Roy, P. The R i s e of Vancouver. Unpublished Masters T h e s i s . Toronto. 1968. p.80-82. I n the eyes of c i v i c o f f i c i a l s . 2 2 . O f f i c e spaces i n c r e a s e d a l o n g w i t h the wholesale i n t e r e s t s , f o l l o w i n g t h e i r d e c l i n e I n the p r e v i o u s decade. The Panama Canal, and the i n c r e a s e d p o r t a c t i v i t y d u r i n g the war, b o t h a c t e d as 'generators* f o r the economy. The r e t a i l t r a d e i n Gastown ended i t s d e c l i n e i n t h i s p e r i o d . 1930 marks the lowest p o i n t i n f o u r decades ( 1 8 9 0 - 1 9 3 0 ) . The C i t y of Vancouver has been c r i t i c i z e d , by some, as 19 b e i n g u n d e r i n d u s t r i a l i z e d . 7 I t s consequent dependence on the p o r t a c t i v i t i e s was a v i t a l i n f l u e n c e i n d i r e c t i n g the growth of the a r e a , and r e l e g a t i n g a once v i a b l e community to the r o l e of a secondary s e r v i c e agent. The d e p r e s s i o n continued t o g r i p the c i t y u n t i l 1935• The d e c l i n e i n the vacancy r a t e experienced d u r i n g the 1920's l e v e l l e d o f f i n t h i s next decade. By 19^0, the number of v a c a n c i e s reached an a l l time low, i n d i c a t i n g an i n c r e a s e of a c t i v i t y i n the a r e a . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , i t was r e -f l e c t e d by an i n c r e a s e i n b o t h the wholesale and r e t a i l t r a d e . The r i s e i n the wholesale i n d u s t r y reached a r e c o r d l e v e l i n 19^0. As a r e s u l t of t h i s tremendous a c t i v i t y , a subsequent boom occur r e d i n the r e t a i l market. T h i s was the f i r s t time, i n f o u r decades, t h a t the r e t a i l index showed an i n c r e a s e . The number of o f f i c e s began to d e c l i n e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , 19 Morely, A. M l l i t o w n t o M e t r o p o l i s , p.1 2 2 . , and Roy, P. The R i s e of Vancouver. p.56. 23. a t r e n d which was t o l a s t u n t i l the present time. T h i s was the f i r s t o c c a s i o n , s i n c e 1890, t h a t the o f f i c e and whole-s a l e t r e n d d i d not c o i n c i d e . T h i s would i n d i c a t e some s o r t of dichotomy i n the community a t t h i s time. The r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n d e c l i n e d , a l s o , d u r i n g the t h i r t i e s , i n c o n t r a s t t o i t s i n c r e a s e d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s decade. T h i s was probably due to the outward m i g r a t i o n to more p r e f e r a b l e surroundings of those f o r c e d i n t o the a r e a f o l l o w i n g the war and d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n . T h i s l e f t a f a i r l y s t a b l e community, w i t h one e x c e p t i o n . At the b e g i n n i n g of the second world war, the Japanese were e v i c t e d from t h e i r homes c e n t e r i n g around Powell S t r e e t , and t h e i r l o n g - s t a n d i n g community i n the Gastown area, was, thereby, e f f e c t i v e l y d e s t r o y e d . During the 1940*s, the p o r t a c t i v i t y was s t i m u l a t e d from the e f f e c t s of the Second World War, and, thus, the vacancy r a t e continued t o d e c l i n e . At the same time, the number of r e s i d e n t s i n Gastown decreased, as d i d the number of r e t a i l o u t l e t s and wholesale d i s t r i b u t o r s . I n a r e p o r t submitted to c i t y c o u n c i l i n 1948, Harland Bartholomew, the c i t y ' s p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t , recommended a number of r e s t r i c t i o n s on ' s t r e e t f r o n t ' l o a d i n g , which, e f f e c t i v e l y e l i m i n a t e d the warehouse i n d u s t r y from Water and Alexander S t r e e t s , Many of the b u i l d i n g s were r e t a i n e d by the owners, because the p r o p e r t y v a l u e s were then so low t h a t i t was not p r o f i t a b l e t o s e l l . Because of t h i s 20 T h i s i s e x p l a i n e d more f u l l y i n Chapter T h r e e , S e c t i o n One. 24. s p e c u l a t i v e a c t i v i t y , the wholesale index does not d e c l i n e as s h a r p l y as i t should, had a l l the empty warehouses been i n c l u d e d as vacant. The number of o f f i c e s i n the o l d townslte i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g the f o r t i e s as a r e s u l t of the heightened a c t i v i t y around the p o r t ; however, the m a j o r i t y of these c l o s e d d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g decade, when i n t e r e s t i n Gastown reached a r e c o r d low. The f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s were a p e r i o d of steady d e c l i n e i n almost a l l Gastown a c t i v i t i e s . Although the number of r e s i d e n t s remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , there I s a marked r e d u c t i o n i n the wholesale, r e t a i l , and o f f i c e indexes, and, as would be expected, the vacancy r a t e i n c r e a s e d . Added t o the v i r t u a l e x p u l s i o n of the wholesale i n d u s t r y were s e v e r a l other f a c t o r s , which helped t o provoke t h i s atrophy. Among them, were the departure of the Japanese community - In 1941; the demise of the North Shore f e r r i e s - i n September 1958; and, the removal of the t r a n s i t l i n e from Powell S t r e e t - i n 1952. Each of these events cut o f f some of the e x t e r n a l flow of a c t i v i -t i e s and energy i n t o the d i s t r i c t . The s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t , t h a t the graph i n d i c a t e s d u r i n g these two decades, i s t h a t the a r e a as a u n i t was d e c l i n i n g i n a l l f i e l d s . T h i s had not happened b e f o r e . There had always been a s i t u -a t i o n of 'give and take*, w i t h one a c t i v i t y dominating 25. as another d e c l i n e d . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t and c o n f i d e n c e i n the townslte had d i s -appeared, and, v i r t u a l l y a l l the commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s were moving - r e l i n q u i s h i n g the a r e a to the o l d t i m e r s and t r a n s i e n t s . C l e a r l y , Gastown was i n need of a s t i m u l u s s i m i l a r to the I898 g o l d rush, t o b r i n g i t up from t h i s slump and r e i n -s t a t e i t as a v i a b l e component of the c i t y . 26 CHAPTER T W O J THE PRESENT S e c t i o n One The numerous urban renewal schemes of the f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s , met w i t h l i t t l e success i n a c h i e v i n g e i t h e r t h e i r l o n g or s h o r t range g o a l s . Although the concepts may have been sound, the developments f a i l e d t o meet t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . The ' b u l l d o z e r * methods behind these p r o j e c t s l e f t l i t t l e , i f any, of the p r e v i o u s community s t r u c t u r e , e i t h e r p h y s i c a l or s o c i a l . The p r i n c i p l e of r e d e v e l o p i n g urban areas i s c e r t a i n l y a v a l i d one, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n our modern c i t i e s where l a n d i s always v e r y expensive. The problem, t h e r e f o r e , becomes one of d e v i s i n g a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t e approach to t h a t of r a z i n g e n t i r e neighbourhoods, i n an attempt to r e l i e v e the problems t y p i c a l i n d e c l i n i n g urban e n v i r o n s . Urban areas are e s p e c i a l l y s u b j e c t t o c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n s of development, p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g p e r i o d s of r a p i d growth. T h i s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f a s t expansion w i t h l i t t l e i n t e r n a l growth, s h i f t s t o new s i t e s r a t h e r than r e b u i l d i n g , and a g e n e r a l n e g l e c t f o r the redevelopment of any p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s . Vancouver, l i k e most North American c e n t r e s , has, o n l y r e c e n t l y , passed t h i s stage i n her growth. As vacant l a n d becomes sca r c e or non-e x i s t e n t , d evelopers are f o r c e d to purchase l a n d a l r e a d y developed. The c h o i c e now becomes whether to r e b u i l d or to renovate. 1 Such p r o j e c t s as Raymur Pla c e and McLean Park t y p i f y t h i s type of redevelopment programme. 27. In North America, there has been no dominant l a n d manage-ment t r a d i t i o n . U n t i l v e r y r e c e n t l y , there was always room f o r expansion. Land was, t h e r e f o r e , t r e a t e d as a 'dispensable commodity'. I t was the means towards an p immediate c a p i t a l g a i n . The concept of 'land husbandry has had l i t t l e e f f e c t as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o e x p l o i t a t i o n . Because the m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t r e s may w e l l be running out of vacant l a n d , t h i s a t t i t u d e of l a n d management may become a s u i t a b l e v e h i c l e towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the core a r e a s . The r e c e n t past would i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n s t r u c t i n g new b u i l d i n g s has been more f a v o u r a b l e , and, no doubt, s a t i s -f i e s a m a j o r i t y of the market. There i s , however, a ve r y good case t o be made f o r r e n o v a t i o n as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o major urban redevelopment. By encouraging the imag-i n a t i v e re-use o f e x i s t i n g , but d e c l i n i n g , neighbourhoods, ga i n s can be made not o n l y i n economic f i e l d s , but, a l s o , i n s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( l e s s community d i s r u p t i o n , no c o n f l i c t s of s c a l e , e t c . ) . D u r i n g the l a s t decade, numerous North American urban c e n t r e s have experienced a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of c e r t a i n a reas of the c i t y , and, i n t h i s r e s p e c t , Vancouver i s no ex c e p t i o n . G e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as r e s t o r a t i o n pro-j e c t s , these schemes have s e v e r a l common f e a t u r e s . 2 Leaving the l a n d i n an improved o r upgraded c o n d i t i o n . 28. U s u a l l y , they are i n i t i a t e d by the s t i m u l u s of p r i v a t e c a p i t a l s eeking to i n c r e a s e the v i a b i l i t y of some de-c l i n i n g or decaying a r e a . These p r o j e c t s ^ have met w i t h a l a r g e amount of success, not o n l y i n a t t r a c t i n g v i s i t -o r s , but, a l s o , as o f f i c e and r e t a i l a r e a s . The renovated spaces are v e r y popular amongst the avant garde ; a r c h i -t e c t s ' o f f i c e s , a r t i s t s ' s t u d i o s , c r a f t shops, and bou-t i q u e s are found i n c o n s i d e r a b l e numbers. The p o p u l a r i t y of these p r o j e c t s has c r e a t e d s e v e r a l problems f o r the d e v e l o p e r s . Since a f a s h i o n a b l e t r e n d i s , i n f a c t , b e i n g marketed, the concern, or i n t e r e s t , i s u s u a l l y v e r y i n t e n s e . Because of t h i s , p l a n n i n g i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l sense i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t . C o n t r o l i s seldom maintained by a s i n g l e i n t e r e s t , as more and more developers and s p e c u l a t o r s buy up the a d j a c e n t proper-t i e s . Often c o n f l i c t s a r i s e , and c o n s i d e r a b l e time and energy i s spent on i n c r e a s i n g the m a r k e t a b i l i t y of one's own a r e a . L o g i c a l l y , t h i s d e t r a c t s from the o v e r a l l a r e a as a community or neighbourhood. In the r u s h t o get i n v o l v e d , and the subsequent attempts to a t t r a c t the con-sumer, a ' b l a t a n t * commercialism i s d i f f i c u l t t o a v o i d . Without some form of community o r g a n i z a t i o n , or ' s t e e r i n g committee', t o e s t a b l i s h p o l i c y , o r d e r l y development i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n . 3 B a s t i o n Square, V i c t o r i a ; Vieux Carre", New Orleans; Beacon H i l l , Boston; G h i r a d e l l l Square, San F r a n c i s c o . 4 Because of the time i n v o l v e d i n p r e p a r i n g market s t u d i e s and land-use schemes, as w e l l as s o c i a l surveys, p l a n n i n g o f t e n l a g s behind the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l development pro-gramme • 29. C i t y p l a n n i n g , i n r e l a t i o n t o r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t s , has been f o r c e d , g e n e r a l l y , i n t o a somewhat secondary p o s i t i o n , a t the same time, of course, b e i n g v e r y much i n f a v o u r of the o v e r a l l concept, s i n c e i t i n c r e a s e s the c i t y revenue. The p l a n n e r ' s r o l e , however, should be one of a c t i v e i n -volvement, r a t h e r than t h a t of a bystander, f o r the f o l l o w -i n g reasons. The c i t y p lanners h o l d c o n t r o l over a number of key i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t i n g the a r e a ' s u l t i m a t e develop-ment ( s e t t i n g assessments, e s t a b l i s h i n g zoning r e g u l a t i o n s , c o n t r o l l i n g road development, and governing p e r i p h e r a l development), they should, t h e r e f o r e , be v e r y much i n -v o l v e d working i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the owner/developers. How t h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n c o u l d take p l a c e , and, how the c h a r a c t e r c o u l d be maintained, w i l l be the s u b j e c t of a l a t e r s e c t i o n . Vancouver, as has a l r e a d y been mentioned, i s t y p i c a l of many c i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s documented the land-use i n the o l d townslte a r e a . The c y c l i c a l nature of develop-ment i s i l l u s t r a t e d , when, almost one hundred years l a t e r , the focus of much a t t e n t i o n i s c e n t r e d a g a i n on Gastown and Maple Tree Square. T h i s a r e a has come t o l i f e a g a i n i n the l a s t too years. I t s new r o l e appears promising, a l t h o u g h there a r e a number of 'stumbling b l o c k s ' to 30. overcome be f o r e i t s p o s i t i o n i s secured as a s t a b l e com-ponent In the urban e n v i r o n s . Because of Gastown*s r e c e n t and r a p i d growth, i t s f o u n d a t i o n s may be r a t h e r Insecure. I n a d d i t i o n , because of the time l a g a t c i t y h a l l i n responding t o the developer's i n i t i a t i v e , a work-a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p has not y e t been e s t a b l i s h e d between the owner, the r e s i d e n t , and the c i t y p l a n n e r . The developer tends t o p r e f e r a p o l i c y of ' l a i s s e z - f a i r e * , whereas the c i t y wants t o c o - o r d i n a t e the p r o j e c t w i t h other communi-t i e s i n the neighbourhood. The i s s u e s , c e n t e r i n g on the s o c i a l and community problems i n the a r e a , are extremely complex, and, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . At t h i s time, s u f f i c e i t to say, t h a t some s o r t of compromise must be developed i n order to g a i n maximum b e n e f i t from the r e s o u r c e s of a l l i n t e r e s t groups. 31. CHAPTER TWO: S e c t i o n Two The i d e a of r e n o v a t i n g p a r t s of the o l d townsite has been i n the minds of some f o r a g r e a t many years. Gerald Thomson,^ who, l i k e h i s f a t h e r and g r a n d f a t h e r , works i n the area, t e l l s of e a r l y r e s t o r a t i o n attempts d u r i n g the t h i r t i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the war, and the subsequent r e n t f r e e z e , brought these p r o j e c t s t o a h a l t . I n the e a r l y s i x t i e s , a 'paint-up clean-up' campaign was organized, i n an attempt t o improve the image of the a r e a and s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n the 'townslte*. Thomson, alo n g w i t h some o t h e r s , began r e - i n v e s t i n g a l l h i s p r o f i t s i n t o up-grading h i s p r o p e r t y . U n t i l t h i s time, Gastown had q u i e t l y e x i s t e d as Vancouver's ' s k i d road'. The once f a s h i o n a b l e h e a r t of the c i t y was p r o v i d i n g s h e l t e r f o r a l c o h o l i c s , the d i s a b l e d and handicapped, the t r a n s i e n t s , and the v a g r a n t s . T h i s group, together, con-s t i t u t e d the 'bums* and 'rubbles', and a s q u a l i d atmos-phere pervaded which made i t a v e r y u n f a s h i o n a b l e d i s t r i c t of town. Because of the dominant male p o p u l a t i o n and i t s somewhat i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t on v i s i t o r s , a conscious d e c i s i o n was made on the p a r t of the owners t o a l t e r the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the a r e a . T h i s was a c h i e v e d by c l o s i n g some of the boarding houses and e v i c t i n g the t e n a n t s . Emphasis was put on ground f l o o r shops, so 5 G e r a l d Thomson owns a number of b u i l d i n g s i n the 'west tow n s l t e ' ( c e n t r e d around Water S t r e e t and Cambie S t r e e t ) , He i s r e c o g n i z e d , by many, as an a u t h o r i t y on the h i s t o r y of Gastown, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s t o the r e s t o r a t i o n programme• 32. t h a t they c o u l d s u b s i d i z e the vacant rooms u n t i l a s u i t a b l e tenant was found. These spaces were then renovated to become o f f i c e s or warehouse showrooms. The p o t e n t i a l f o r redevelopment i n Gastown was f i r s t brought i n t o g e n e r a l f o c u s i n 1965. f o l l o w i n g a r e p o r t by C i t y Planner, W. Graham.^ The r e p o r t f o l l o w e d a number of c i t y - s p o n s o r e d redevelopment schemes, which had l a r g e l y i g n o r e d the problems of t h i s a r e a . The r e p o r t was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a number of reasons, but, most important f o r the purposes of t h i s study, was t h a t i t d e f i n e d the complex s o c i a l problem i n the d i s t r i c t . I n s u g g e s t i n g a p o s s i b l e remedy, the r e p o r t noted t h a t there was "the o p p o r t u n i t y of p r e s e r v i n g some of the h i s t o r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the area",'' T h i s , i t s t a t e d , c o u l d be combined i n some form of p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l redevelopment programme. U n t i l t h i s time, the a r e a had e x i s t e d as a n o n d e s c r i p t s e c t o r of the c i t y , s u r v i v i n g i n the backwash from the westward d r i f t of the downtown core, i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e known o n l y to the h i s t o r i a n s and a r c h i -v i s t s . F o l l o w i n g the P l a n n i n g Department's r e p o r t , a number of events took p l a c e i n quick s u c c e s s i o n . I n 1966, the c i t y began to put i n t o a c t i o n s e v e r a l of g the recommendations l a i d out i n Graham's r e p o r t . They were s h o r t l y j o i n e d by the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t of the p r i v a t e developer, which complicated an a l r e a d y d e l i c a t e 6 C i t y of Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department. I 9 6 5 . Downtown-E a s t Side Report. 7 I b i d . p.15. 8 N e g o t i a t i o n s were underway t o e s t a b l i s h a s o c i a l s e r v i c e branch i n the d i s t r i c t . 33. s i t u a t i o n . The P l a n n i n g Department was a t t e m p t i n g t o d e f i n e a programme which would r e l i e v e the s o c i a l t e n s i o n i n the a r e a , but, was prepared t o l e a v e the p h y s i c a l problem of decaying b u i l d i n g s f o r the time b e i n g . The developers q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d the p o t e n t i a l of the a r e a , and began buy i n g the o l d b u i l d i n g s . T h e i r i n t e r e s t was d i r -e c t e d towards r e s t o r a t i o n , and, u l t i m a t e l y , the c r e a t i o n of a c e n t r e s i m i l a r t o those i n San F r a n c i s c o (Jackson Square and G h i r a d e l l i Square) and New Orleans, (Vieux C a r r e ) , not t o mention the i n t e r e s t s t i m u l a t e d by V i c t o r i a ' s B a s t i o n Square. The c o n f l i c t which developed, i s , of course, f a i r l y obvious. Even b e f o r e the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department c o u l d e s t a b l i s h a p o l i c y on the s o c i a l problems, l e t alone implement i t , the l a n d was purchased, and much more r a p i d and r a d i c a l changes were t a k i n g p l a c e . The f o r c e s behind the p h y s i c a l redevelopment were v e r y d i r e c t , and, indeed, v e r y f a s t , i n a c h i e v i n g t h e i r own s e l f - d e f i n e d g o a l s . I t i s import-ant t h a t t h i s should not be viewed from a n e g a t i v e p e r s -p e c t i v e , s i n c e i t was t h i s dynamism t h a t brought Gastown back to l i f e . With the i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y and renewed i n t e r e s t i n the a r e a , the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e g r a t i n g the p r e v i o u s r e s i d e n t s i n t o the community c o u l d be e x p l o r e d . Rather than r e l o c a t i o n , a programme of s u b s i d i z e d , or low r e n t apartments, would d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t a l l o l d age 34. pensioners, e t c . , as w e l l as provide a b e n e f i c i a l mix i n the Gastown community. Before d i s c u s s i n g the p h y s i c a l r e s t o r a t i o n of the a r e a , i t would be worthwhile t o a n a l y s e f u r t h e r the s o c i a l i s s u e s . The 'Downtown-East S i d e ' r e p o r t begins w i t h a v e r y w e l l s t a t e d word of c a u t i o n . "Any attempt t o Improve the p h y s i c a l environment must be preceded by a c a r e f u l study of human problems. Otherwise we merely s h i f t s k i d road t o another p a r t of the c i t y or s c a t t e r r e s i -dents to other l o c a t i o n s where they would probably be both unhappy and unwelcome".9 At the time of t h i s r e p o r t , (1965). a number of ' s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s ' had been working i n the a r e a f o r some ye a r s . Such o r g a n i z a t i o n s as the S a l v a t i o n Army Harbour L i g h t , the C e n t r a l C i t y M i s s i o n , a number of s m a l l e r m i s s i o n s , and about f i v e churches, a l l p r o v i d e d a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s h e l p ranged from 'soup and sandwich l i n e s ' t o s h e l t e r , and, i n some cases, job placement programmes. One of the r e p o r t ' s suggestions r e f e r r e d t o these o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; i t s t a t e d t h a t , " c i t y c o u n c i l express i t s support of a c o - o r d i n a t e d approach by p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies i n a p o s i t i v e programme aimed a t r e d u c i n g human problems 10 and s o c i a l c o s t s i n t h i s p a r t of the c i t y . " Although t h i s was a v e r y g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e , i t was s t i l l a v a l i d r e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r some type of o r g a n i z a t i o n and 9 . Downtown-East Side Report, p.14. 10 I b i d . p . 1 5 . 35. Involvement on the p a r t of the c i t y i n working, w i t h these people. With the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department i n October 28, 1969, &n a d v i s o r was sent to the Gastown ' s k i d road' area, t o work w i t h a branch of the s o c i a l s e r v i c e department which had been there f o r a number of y e a r s . Data gathered by these two departments I s u s e f u l i n understanding the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the a r e a . D u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n years, there was a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n the number of r e s i d e n t s , and, a l t h o u g h most of these people were unemployed, r a t h e r than t r a n s i e n t s or vagrants, they began the entrenchment i n the Gastown a r e a . I t was not l o n g b e f o r e i t became e s t a b l i s h e d as a community f o r the l e s s f o r t u n a t e s e c t i o n of the urban populous. 'Skid road' d e t e r i o r a t e d , both p h y s i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y , as the p o p u l a t i o n of unemployed, s i c k , and poor, s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d . The present r e s i d e n t s i n t h i s a r e a can be p l a c e d g e n e r a l l y i n t o three groups; the homeless t r a n s -i e n t , the o l d age pensioner, and the unemployed ( i n c l u d -i n g the d i s a b l e d and handicapped). The 1961 census showed a p o p u l a t i o n of 2,508 i n the d i s t r i c t ; of t h i s , 2 ,200 were male, 1,373 were s i n g l e , 756 were over 6 5 , and, o n l y 109 were 20 years o l d or younger. Although t h i s l a t t e r c a t e -gory has i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the past ten years, any programme or p r o p o s a l must acknowledge the unique demographic s t r u c t u r e of the area, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s t o the s i n g l e male over 6 5 . 36. The townsite r e s i d e n t s a r e there, g e n e r a l l y , because of one f a c t o r - they have l i t t l e or no a l t e r n a t i v e . Because of p h y s i c a l or s o c i a l m i s f o r t u n e , they are f o r c e d i n t o a dependent s i t u a t i o n , e x i s t i n g on w e l f a r e or pensions, w i t h l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p h y s i c a l or v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n . T h i s i s not meant t o imply t h a t a l l the r e s i d e n t s would p r e f e r t o l i v e elsewhere; I n f a c t , i t has been 11 documented,' 4 , t h a t many have a ve r y s t r o n g sense of community. The s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t t o be emphasized i s t h a t a l t h o u g h these people have v e r y d e f i n i t e f e e l i n g s about t h e i r neighbourhood, they are i n no p o s i t i o n t o r e s t r i c t or d i r e c t changes i n t h e i r environment. Yet, as estab-l i s h e d members of the community, they should be granted some c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n i t s f u t u r e development. As w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d and well-meaning as these statements may be, they h o l d l i t t l e ground or g a i n l i t t l e sympathy from the p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r . L o g i c a l l y , he Is concerned w i t h h i s own p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s , and, i n working t o -wards them, the s h i f t i n g of ' s k i d road' may not appear v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . During the p e r i o d of r a p i d development, (1968-1970), there were two p r i n c i p l e ' f o r c e s * i n con-f l i c t , one b e i n g the developer's i n t e r e s t s , and the other, the r e s i d e n t s who were b e i n g d i s p l a c e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the c i t y agencies do not q u a l i f y as an e f f e c t i v e f o r c e i n 11 Downtown-East Side Report. C i t y P l a n n i n g Department.1965. 37. the community, because, a t the time of the i n i t i a l r e -development, they l a c k e d e i t h e r a p o l i c y or a programme f o r the a r e a . With the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e s r a p i d l y changing, they were thrown completely o f f b a l a n c e . Old v a l u e s and previous r e l a t i o n s h i p s were no l o n g e r v a l i d . With these changes, the r e s i d e n t ' s l o t was o f t e n worsened. They were b e i n g uprooted from t h e i r h o t e l s and rooming houses and f o r c e d t o go elsewhere. At the same time, t h e i r s e m i - p r i v a t e and u n d i s t u r b e d community was b e i n g invaded by people c r i t i c a l and unsympathetic towards t h e i r l i f e - s t y l e s . An i n e v i t a b l e c o n f l i c t was growing i n an atmosphere of d i s t r u s t and h o s t i l i t y , as more and more of t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s were destroyed or d i s p l a c e d . 38. CHAPTER TWO: S e c t i o n Three There i s s t i l l no p o s i t i v e programme or p o l i c y f o r the Gastown a r e a - each i n t e r e s t group works i n v i r t u a l I s o -l a t i o n from the o t h e r s . Consequently, much time and energy i s wasted. There i s s t i l l the o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e r i v e d e f i n i t e b e n e f i t s f o r a l l i n t e r e s t s i n the a r e a , through the acceptance of some fundamental, o v e r a l l , p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s . B r i n g i n g the i n t e r e s t groups of the a r e a t o g e t h e r t o organize a comprehensive programme w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n . R e s t o r a t i o n of the o l d townslte had been i n the minds of some owners f o r a g r e a t many years b e f o r e i t became a r e a l i t y i n 1968. The e a r l y attempts a t r e v i t a l i z i n g the a r e a were guided by the energy of G e r a l d Thomson and the c o - o p e r a t i o n of the Community A r t s C o u n c i l . I n 1962, the 'Townslte Committee* was f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d as a s t e e r i n g p a r t y f o r f u t u r e Gastown development. The Townslte Committee asked C i t y C o u n c i l f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n , s i n c e they b e l i e v e d the p r o j e c t was i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of Vancouver. The programmes f o r development were to be worked out through the committee and presented i n c o u n c i l i n b r i e f s . An ' i d e a l ' p o l i c y of mutual c o - o p e r a t i o n and good n e i g h b o u r l i n e s s were the g u i d e l i n e s f o r these 39. development schemes. The i d e a s were sound i n p r i n c i p l e , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , the Townsite Committee was a ' s i n g l e i n t e r e s t board', and, i n c l u d e d n e i t h e r r e s i d e n t s of the a r e a nor s i g n i f i c a n t numbers of merchants. The r a t i o n a l e behind t h i s composition was t h a t the owner/developers had the most t o l o s e , should the p r o j e c t f a i l . C l e a r l y , t h i s i s a q u e s t i o n of s c a l e , as a merchant c o u l d v e r y w e l l l o s e h i s l i f e - s a v i n g s much more r a p i d l y i f the a r e a d e c l i n e s . H i s stake i n the a r e a , not i n d o l l a r f i g u r e s , but i n committment, i s i n most cases, j u s t as g r e a t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of the s m a l l shop or r e s t a u r a n t owner, backed w i t h o n l y l i m i t e d c a p i t a l and v u l n e r a b l e t o p e r s o n a l l i a b i l i t y . Thus, the d e c i s i o n t o exclude the merchants from the s t e e r i n g committee would appear, a t f i r s t glance, to be u n j u s t i f i e d . However, t h i s was the r e a l i t y of the s i t u a t i o n i n the m i d - s i x t i e s ; the owner/developers s e t the g o a l s and e s t a b l i s h e d the d i r -e c t i o n of the p r o j e c t . The o r i g i n a l o b j e c t i v e s e t by the Townsite Committee was to e s t a b l i s h a ' f u r n i t u r e d i s t r i c t ' i n the a r e a . T h i s g o a l has o f t e n been overshadowed by more grandiose schemes, a l t h o u g h t h e r e s t i l l remain a number of l a r g e warehouses which have been converted t o f u r n i t u r e showrooms. 40. F o l l o w i n g the r e s t o r a t i o n of Jackson Square i n San F r a n c i s c o d u r i n g the s i x t i e s , the concept of c r e a t i n g a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l c e n t r e i n the townslte was e x p l o r e d . At t h i s time, c a p i t a l f o r t h i s s t y l e or s c a l e of d e v e l -opment was not a v a i l a b l e ; i t was not u n t i l September, 1968, t h a t money began t o fl o w i n t o Gastown r e s t o r a t i o n . Many events happened In q u i c k s u c c e s s i o n r e s t o r i n g the v i t a l i t y and a c t i v i t y i n the o l d town c e n t r e . I n the summer of 1968, a group of i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s , under the sponsorship of the A r t s Club, were d i s c u s s i n g ways and means of c r e a t i n g i n t e r e s t i n the a r e a . I n September, a "walk" was orga n i z e d by the Community A r t s C o u n c i l . Approximately f i v e hundred people turned out, on a wet and c o l d Sunday, f o r a to u r through Vancouver's b i r t h p l a c e and a d i s c u s s i o n of the area's p o t e n t i a l . Such people as Arthur E r i c k s o n and David Spearing - a r c h i -t e c t s ; Walter Hardwick - urban geographer; and Mayor Tom Campbell, were on hand, t o d i s c u s s the f u t u r e of Gastown. A l l were v i g o r o u s l y i n f a v o u r of e x t e n s i v e p r e s e r v a t i o n and r e n o v a t i o n of the a r e a . F o r some time, the c i t y had been c o n s i d e r i n g freeway plans f o r Vancouver, co n n e c t i n g Highway 401 t o the downtown core and the North Shore. In the f a l l of 1968, the c o n s u l t a n t s ' r e p o r t was r e l e a s e d , 1 2 and f o u r of the f i v e p l a n s i n c l u d e d some development a l o n g C a r r a l l 12 Warnett Kennedy was the c o n s u l t a n t f o r t h i s p a r t i -c u l a r a r e a . 41. S t r e e t t o the w a t e r f r o n t , e i t h e r as t u n n e l s or 'open c u t s * . The c o n s u l t a n t s t r e s s e d the c o - e x i s t e n c e of the freeway and the community, w h i l e the Townsite Committee argued t h a t i t would completely d e s t r o y Gastown. 13 At t h i s same time, P r o j e c t 200 was announced. ^ The freeway l i n k was programmed to i n c l u d e s e r v i c e t o t h i s l a r g e w a t e r f r o n t development. U l t i m a t e l y , because of the p u b l i c o u t c r y a g a i n s t the freeway, a b o i s t e r o u s h e a r i n g was conducted, and, C i t y C o u n c i l , subsequently decided a g a i n s t any expansion of the roadways through Chinatown or a l o n g C a r r a l l S t r e e t . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, oppo-s i t i o n t o P r o j e c t 200 was almost n o n - e x i s t e n t , and many people, i n c l u d i n g Hardwick (who was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n having the freeway plans a l t e r e d ) , went on r e c o r d , specu-l a t i n g t h a t Gastown and P r o j e c t 200 would compliment 14 each o t h e r . As time progressed, t h i s l a t t e r p r o j e c t encountered a number of d i f f i c u l t i e s , and was f o r c e d to be reduced i n s c a l e . Because of t h i s , i t would now appear unnecessary to c o n s t r u c t an e x t e n s i v e t r a n s p o r t -a t i o n l i n k t o s e r v i c e the development. 1^ Late i n 1968, work began i n earnest oh Gastown*s r e -j u v e n a t i o n . L a r r y K i l l a m , a l o n g w i t h h i s b r o t h e r Eugene, and Hank Gourlay, purchased the o l d Alhambra H o t e l . Together, they formed the 'Town of G r a n v i l l e 13 P r o j e c t 200, which i n c l u d e d o f f i c e towers, h i g h - r i s e apartments, shops and department s t o r e s , was designed t o s t r e t c h from Cambie S t r e e t below Hastings a l o n g the w a t e r f r o n t to G r a n v i l l e . 14 The P r o v i n c e . Sept. 18, 1968. 15 David Mooney-The Sun, Nov. 1970. P r o j e c t 200 no l o n g e r needs freeway s e r v i c e because of reduced s c a l e . 42. Investment Company*. The 'Disabled Veterans' B u i l d i n g , on the north-west c o r n e r of Cordova and C a r r a l l , was a l s o purchased by t h i s group, g i v i n g them c o n t r o l of 75% of the l a n d f r o n t i n g onto the two-hundred b l o c k C a r r a l l . I n November, the group announced plans*?to r e s t o r e the Alhambra H o t e l , designs were prepared, and, i n December, r e n o v a t i o n began. K i l l a m ' s p a r t i c u l a r I n t e r e s t was i n the f o r m a t i o n of a new community i n the are a , and towards t h i s end he foresaw the top f l o o r of the o l d h o t e l housing a r t i s t s * s t u d i o s , w i t h the s t r e e t l e v e l shops s p e c i a l i z i n g i n a r t s and c r a f t s . The i n f l u e n c e of Greenwich V i l l a g e i n New York, and Toronto's Y o r k v i l l e , were v e r y e v i d e n t . The r a p i d r e n o v a t i o n of the b u i l d i n g around Maple Tree Square ( C a r r a l l , Water, Alexander and Powell S t r e e t s ) produced some i n t e r e s t i n g e f f e c t s . P r e v i o u s l y , the e f f o r t s of the Townsite Committee had progressed v e r y s l o w l y and v e r y c a u t i o u s l y , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the western s e c t i o n s of the ar e a (Water, Cambie, R i c h a r d s , and Cordova S t r e e t s ) . The Committee was v e r y determined t o examine the p o t e n t i a l s t a b i l i t y of any development, s i n c e a l o s s of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , a t t h i s stage, would f i n i s h the a r e a as f a r as p r o s p e c t i v e tenants were con-cerned. Now, w i t h r a p i d growth i n the e a s t e r n end of Gastown, the c o n t r o l of the Townsite Committee was l o s t . 43. I n f a c t , they had not been concerned i n r e s t o r i n g t h i s a r e a u n t i l P r o j e c t 200 and Woodward's St o r e s f i r m l y decided on t h e i r f u t u r e developments. T h i s should not imply t h a t the group d i d not approve of K i l l a m ' s approach, as the i n f l u x of new c a p i t a l and f r e s h energy was always welcomed, a l t h o u g h no doubt w i t h a c e r t a i n a i r of s k e p t i -cism. D u r i n g the s p r i n g of 19691 many events took p l a c e , which helped d i r e c t the f u t u r e of Gastown i n a p o s i t i v e f a s h i o n . Army & Navy S t o r e s obtained the S t a n l e y and New F o u n t a i n h o t e l s , which stood a c r o s s from t h e i r d i s c o u n t c e n t r e on Cordova S t r e e t . T h e i r i n t e n t i o n 1 was to demolish the b u i l d i n g s i n order t o c r e a t e p a r k i n g spaces. I n A p r i l , P r o f e s s o r H a r o l d Kalman, from U.B.C., who was a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n Gastown, presented a b r i e f t o C i t y C o u n c i l , r e q u e s t i n g t h a t the d e m o l i t i o n permit be r e f u s e d and t h a t the b u i l d i n g s be maintained as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the Gastown Community. I t was f e l t , b o th by Kalman and the A r t s C o u n c i l , t h a t the i s s u e was more than the p r e s e r v a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s . " I t was the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the t o t a l f a b r i c of the s t r e e t and d i s t r i c t i n which too many hol e s a l r e a d y e x i s t e d " . 1 ^ These two h o t e l s were of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e , s i n c e they backed onto the infamous 'blood a l l e y ' , and, i f they were to be demolished, the a l l e y would be l o s t . 16 The Sun. A p r i l 10, 1969. 44. As a r e s u l t of the b r i e f , a subsequent C o u n c i l r u l i n g r e f u s e d the permit. The b u i l d i n g s were then put up f o r s a l e by Army & Navy on the c o n d i t i o n t h a t the c i t y would g r a n t them a p a r k i n g permit elsewhere. With t h i s i s s u e t e m p o r a r i l y s e t t l e d , the problem became one of f i n d i n g a buyer and a p r o d u c t i v e use f o r the two h o t e l s . T h i s was not to be r e s o l v e d f o r over a year. I n A p r i l I969, the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department responded t o the a c t i v i t y i n the Gastown a r e a . B i l l Graham, D i r e c t o r of Plan n i n g , announced t h a t the f i r m of Birmingham and Wood has been r e t a i n e d t o prepare a f e a s i b i l i t y study f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n of the a r e a . T h i s was t o be In the form of a p u b l i c r e p o r t presented both t o C i t y C o u n c i l and t o the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups. When completed i n mid-June, the " R e s t o r a t i o n Report", as i t was t i t l e d , recommended t h a t a c a r e f u l and thorough study be made of both the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l problems i n the a r e a . While t h i s was being conducted, a morator-ium on d e m o l i t i o n permits was recommended, as w e l l as the enactment of p r o t e c t i v e and h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n and new zoning bylaws. A formula f o r tax r e l i e f t o encourage r e s t o r a t i o n and r e n o v a t i o n was suggested, and the r e p o r t a l s o advocated the e s t a b l i s h -ment of a civic-community commission t o g i v e a d v i c e and guidance i n p r e s e r v a t i o n , r e s t o r a t i o n , and r e m o d e l l i n g . 17 Birmingham and Wood. 1969. ' R e s t o r a t i o n Report - A Case For Renewed L i f e i n the Old C i t y ' , 45. CHAPTER TWOt Section Four In the summer of 1969, Gastown came into i t s own. Numerous boutiques and craft shops were opening, and daily crowds of shoppers and sightseers were vi s i t i n g the area. In the Alhambra, there were two boutiques, an antique shop, an art gallery, newspaper office, and a small coffee shop. Around the corner, on Water Street, the Antique Flea Market had been open for five months; every Sunday, i t attracted a crowd of about 1 ,000 people. By August, there were an estimated twenty to thirty new businesses in the area. Some shops adopted a policy of opening Thursday to Sunday, in order to concentrate on the weekend visi t o r s . Also i n August, the Gastown Gazette appeared as a once-monthly edition. By September 1969. Gastown had passed through i t s f i r s t successful summer. The Impact from the tourist trade was very significant, as well as the interest shown by the lower mainland residents who found Gastown an interesting and exciting place to shop or browse. By this time. Town Group Investments Ltd. 1^ were involved in the renovation of seven major properties in Gastown. Rents were rapidly approaching those of shops in West Vancouver or south Granville.*9 Rooms in the area which 18 The 'Town of Granville Investment Company', headed by Larry Killam, changed i t s name in 1969. 19 The Province. Sept. 6, I 9 6 9 . Rents approx. $ 3 . 0 0/sq.ft. 46. had been r e n t i n g f o r around twenty d o l l a r s a month, were now renovated, and commanded r e n t s i n the neighbour-hood of s i x t y d o l l a r s . With such i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t i e s , the o l d e r r e s i d e n t s were b e i n g e v i c t e d and f o r c e d t o move to areas f u r t h e r e a s t . Many of these people had been l i v i n g i n the d i s t r i c t f o r over twenty years, and, were, f o r the most p a r t , n e i t h e r d e r e l i c t s nor v a g r a n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , these i n d i v i d u a l s were a t a p a r t i c u l a r disadvantage, s i n c e they had not been aware of what was happening, and, even i f they had been, they d i d not possess the power t o c o n t r o l any of the developments. Many were f u r t h e r f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r s e arch f o r a new community or neighbourhood sympathetic to t h e i r needs. By the end of September, a c t i v i t y i n Gastown had some-what subsided, and the C i t y , a c t i n g on a recommendation from the R e s t o r a t i o n Report, began to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t -i v e l y i n the development programmes f o r the a r e a . A meeting was c a l l e d , e a r l y i n October, by the P l a n n i n g Department, and was t o i n c l u d e a l l i n t e r e s t groups i n the community - tenants, r e s i d e n t s , merchants, owners and d e v e l o p e r s . Henk Vander Horst, one of the o r i g i n a l Gastown merchants, r a i s e d s e v e r a l c r i t i c a l i s s u e s a t t h i s meeting. He e x p l a i n e d t h a t the "Gastown r e v i v a l must not be thought 47. of as an overnight a f f a i r . Residents i n the area must be looked a f t e r , they can't be swept under the carpet... The area i s important to municipal in t e r e s t s as well as those of the p r o v i n c i a l and federal governments." As a remedy, on the l o c a l l e v e l , Vander Horst advocated p o s i t i v e constructive co-operation between owners, merchants, and residents. In order to achieve t h i s co-operation, the concept of employing a non-partisan consultant was forwarded, which would aim at maintaining a balance between development and growth. Emphasis was placed on the fac t that t h i s was no longer a 'be a u t i f i c a t i o n project*, but, rather, a 'community planning development'. At the conclusion of the meeting, i t was decided that funds would be made available from the next f i v e year plan to ensure'the next stage of r e v i t a l i z a t l o n * (which was l e f t undefined). The development of Gastown has been strongly influenced by one p a r t i c u l a r firm of a r c h i t e c t s . Birmingham and Wood, located at Pender Street and C a r r a l l Street, have contributed very p o s i t i v e l y to the growth of the area. This firm was commissioned by the Ci t y to prepare the •Restoration Report'. The report was s i g n i f i c a n t i n a number of respects; i t incorporated the combined talents of a wide var i e t y of experts i n i t s preparation and pre-sentation. The f i n a l document was a well-written challenge 20 The Sun. Oct. 18, I969. Vander Horst. 48. t o the C i t y t o b e g i n some c o n s t r u c t i v e r e s t o r a t i o n i n the area, b e f o r e the o p p o r t u n i t y was l o s t . Bud Wood, one of the s e n i o r p a r t n e r s w i t h t h i s f i r m , has o f t e n v o i c e d s k e p t i c i s m about the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of boutiques i n the a r e a . Without some s o r t of s t a b l e economic base, he f e l t t h a t the townsite would not be a b l e to compete w i t h other d i s t r i c t s of the c i t y . Oper-a t i n g on t h i s premise of e s t a b l i s h i n g a 'mix' of a c t i v i -t i e s and f u n c t i o n s i n the a r e a , Wood began work on a h o t e l r e n o v a t i o n f o r U.B.C. p r o f e s s o r R i c h a r d Wilcox. Wilcox was the new owner of the 'Cozy Rooms' on C a r r a l l S t r e e t -the f o c a l p o i n t of t h i s b u i l d i n g b e i n g the government l i q u o r s t o r e on the main f l o o r . Much t o the c o n s t e r n a -t i o n of many r e s i d e n t s , t h i s f a c i l i t y was c l o s e d , and work began on the r e s t o r a t i o n . I n March, e l e v e n s l e e p i n g rooms were converted i n t o f o u r l u x u r y apartments, w i t h r e n t s i n excess of $150,002 Many were s k e p t i c a l as t o whether t h e r e would be a market f o r t h i s type of accomo-d a t i o n - but, w e l l b e f o r e the apartments were completed, there was a l e n g t h y w a i t i n g l i s t . Wilcox, h i s w i f e , and two young sons, gained c o n s i d e r a b l e n o t o r i e t y when they moved i n t o one of the s u i t e s , as Gastown's I n h a b i t a n t s were s t i l l , p r i m a r i l y , s i n g l e middleaged men. The i n t e n t was t o encourage more f a m i l i e s , i n hopes of e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l mix, i n what was b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o more and more f r e q u e n t l y as the 'Gastown Community'. In June 1970, a c t i v i t y i n Gastown began on a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l . T h i s time, i t was i n the a r e a of p o l i c y and programme f o r m u l a t i o n , and was i n s t i g a t e d by C i t y H a l l . A p r e l i m i n a r y study had been presented f o r a b e a u t i -f i c a t i o n programme i n Gas*own, w i t h s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n b e i n g g i v e n t o m a i n t a i n i n g a c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r and atmosphere i n the a r e a . The g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h i s study had been s e t by A l l a n Parker i n the c i t y ' s 'Current P l a n n i n g ' Department. The programme was estimated to c o s t $ 2 7 0 , 0 0 0 . , w i t h the p r o p e r t y owners c o n t r i b u t i n g $ 1 7 0 , 0 0 0 . , which would i n d i c a t e a heightened sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and concern about an o r d e r l y , balanced development. The p r o p o s a l s were t a b l e d by C i t y C o u n c i l , i n order t o hear f i r s t from the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups of the a r e a . As w e l l as a programme t o improve the v i s u a l q u a l i t y and a p p e a l of Gastown, the r e p o r t s e t down g u i d e l i n e s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g an o v e r a l l p o l i c y and development p l a n . A community a s s o c i a t i o n was suggested, I n v o l v i n g a l l I n t e r e s t groups i n the a r e a , and c h a i r e d by the D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g a t C i t y H a l l . T h i s group was t o meet p e r i o d i c a l l y t o d i s c u s s the d i r e c t i o n and d e v e l -opment of the t o w n s i t e . 50. A p a r t i c u l a r concern a t t h i s time, and one which e s p e c i a l l y -p e r t u r b e d F i n a A r t s p r o f e s s o r Harold Kalman, was the l a c k of any r e a l c o n t r o l over r e s t o r a t i o n and development. I n A p r i l 1970, Kalman spoke out a g a i n s t the random and un-c o n t r o l l e d d e m o l i t i o n of c e r t a i n b u i l d i n g s i n the a r e a . At t h a t time, he urged the C i t y t o take an ' a r c h i t e c t u r a l survey' of Gastown, i n order t o preserve b u i l d i n g s which had a p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o Vancouver's p a s t . He a l s o recommended zo n i n g changes, i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e a more harmonious development. The ' R e s t o r a t i o n Report', submitted by Birmingham and Wood, on June18th, 1969, recommended two s o l u t i o n s t o the problem of c o n t r o l . The f i r s t was to e s t a b l i s h an • o f f i c i a l p lan* f o r the are a , and the second p r o p o s a l was t o e s t a b l i s h Gastown as an ' h i s t o r i c p r e c i n c t * , S e c t i o n 56I of the C i t y C h a r t e r would permit a develop-ment p l a n r e l a t i n g t o o n l y one a r e a of the c i t y . T h i s would have the dua l purpose of c o n t r o l l i n g d e m o l i t i o n and r e s t o r a t i o n , as w e l l as b r i n g i n g about the necessary zoning changes. The r e p o r t continued t o recommend a f u l l study of the a r e a . The proposed c o s t was t o be $30,000., and was t o i n c l u d e both the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l problems i n v o l v e d w i t h r e s t o r a t i o n . I n t h i s f i r s t r e p o r t by Birmingham and Wood, the s o c i a l problems had been d e a l t w i t h i n a 21 P o r t i o n s of the townslte were s t i l l zoned I n d u s t r i a l . I t was suggested t h a t these be changed to commercial. r a t h e r sketchy f a s h i o n . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y i r r i -t a t i n g to T e r r y W i l l o x , e d i t o r of the Gastown Gazette. I n order t o remedy t h i s problem i n the f u l l s c a l e r e p o r t , an *on s i t e o f f i c e * was t o be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the d u r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t . Funds were made a v a i l a b l e by C i t y C o u n c i l , and the P l a n n i n g Department began i t s task, which i s t o be completed i n June 1971. 52. CHAPTER T W O J S e c t i o n F i v e The o r i g i n a l d evelopers and major p r o p e r t y owners i n the e a s t e r n end of the townsite ( c e n t r e d on Maple Tree Square), j o i n e d together, i n 19^9» to form 'Town Group Investments L t d ' . The motives behind t h i s merger were aimed, p r i n c i p a l l y , a t s c a l i n g the growth and develop-ment of the a r e a as a u n i t . The Town G r o u p ^ f r e q u e n t l y charged t h a t the C i t y was, and had been, i g n o r i n g t h i s d i s t r i c t , and, t h e r e f o r e , they were f o r c e d t o take d e v e l -opment matters i n t o t h e i r own hands. By J u l y 1970, the Group had i n v e s t e d more than $ 7 5 0 , 0 0 0 . i n the a r e a and owned e i g h t major Gastown p r o p e r t i e s . ^ S i n c e t h i s group was formed i n January 1969, r e n t s i n the a r e a have r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e d , t o the p o i n t where they now r i v a l such e s t a b l i s h e d shopping d i s t r i c t s as South G r a n v i l l e and West Vancouver. L a r r y K i l l a m , p r e s i d e n t of Town Group Investments L t d . , c l a i m s t h a t r e n t s were minimal b e f o r e , and t h a t an i n c r e a s e i s under-standable when one c o n s i d e r s the amount of c a p i t a l t h a t has been i n v e s t e d . The concern expressed by the merchants was t h a t the s m a l l c r a f t houses and boutiques would be 24 f o r c e d out of b u s i n e s s by the i n c r e a s i n g r e n t s . 22 Members i n c l u d e d L a r r y K i l l a m , Saun F l y n n , T e r r y W i l l o x , Ian Rogers and R i c h a r d Wilcox. 23 Holdings i n c l u d e d 1 Alexander; 75 Alexander, 97 Alexander; 18 Water; 1-9 West Cordova; 407 West Cordova and the Alhambra H o t e l . 24 I n J u l y 1970, the average ground f l o o r r e n t was | 3 . 5 0 per s q . f t . per annum. 53. A number of s i m i l a r ' i n t e r e s t groups' were formed, i n 1970, to r e p r e s e n t the merchants and the r e s i d e n t s of the townslte. The Gastown Merchants A s s o c i a t i o n and the Gastown Improvement A s s o c i a t i o n were both e s t -a b l i s h e d i n an attempt t o s e t a development p o l i c y f o r Gastown, and t o c r e a t e a programme o u t l i n i n g f u t u r e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . Both these groups were e s p e c i a l l y c o nscious of the c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n t o which many of the o l d e r r e s i d e n t s were b e i n g f o r c e d . The r e s i d e n t s organized themselves i n an attempt t o present t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s t o C i t y H a l l . The Gastown chapter of the • P a c i f i c Community Self-Development S o c i e t y ' , as w e l l as the Gastown Residents* A s s o c i a t i o n , and the Cordova Redevelopment C o r p o r a t i o n , were a l l working towards a l l e v i a t i n g some of the c o n f l i c t encountered by the r e s i d e n t s . Before p r o g r e s s i n g w i t h t h i s i s s u e , an o u t l i n e of the c o m m e r c i a l - r e t a i l s t r u c t u r e In Gastown w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . I n terms of s a l e s volume, the boutiques and c r a f t shops c l a i m o n l y a v e r y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the area's t o t a l s a l e s . With the estimated gross s a l e s per day i n the v i c i n i t y o f $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 . , the s m a l l merchants l a y c l a i m t o o n l y $3#000., or approximately 20%, I n 1970, there were an estimated 80 merchants i n the a r e a competing f o r t h i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l share of the s a l e s . The remaining $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 . was d i v i d e d amongst the three p r i n c i p a l r e t a i l 54 o u t l e t s - P i e r 1, Cost P l u s , and T r i d e n t Imports - and, a l s o , The Old S p a g h e t t i F a c t o r y . The s m a l l shops, and these f o u r major b u s i n e s s e s , seem to f e e l a mutual dependency upon one another. The shop owners f e e l t h a t the l a r g e import houses and The Old S p a g h e t t i F a c t o r y a c t as magnets or generators f o r the shopping d i s t r i c t . Because of t h e i r s i z e , they can a f f o r d t o a d v e r t i z e , and, thereby a t t r a c t more shoppers i n t o the a r e a . On the o t h e r hand, the managers of these l a r g e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f e e l t h a t the s m a l l shops g i v e Gastown the needed atmosphere, and h e l p to m a i n t a i n a c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i n keeping w i t h the o v e r a l l townsite concept - they keep the a r e a from appearing over-commercialized. The amount of c a p i t a l i n v e s t e d i n the townsite by the f o u r p r i n c i p a l companies exceeds $ 7 5 0 , 0 0 0 . These a r e v e r y p r o f e s s i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s ; two of them, T r i d e n t and P i e r 1, a r e s u b s i d i a r i e s of l a r g e American c h a i n s . Both Cost P l u s and The Old S p a g h e t t i F a c t o r y are Canadian owned and operated. Of the $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 . i n s a l e s d i v i d e d amongst these f o u r companies, they each stand t o gross $ 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 . from s a l e s each year. Although t h i s i s only an approximate e s t i m a t e , ^ i t i n d i c a t e s the r a p i d i t y w i t h which t h e i r o r i g i n a l investment i s r e g a i n e d . ° 25 F i g u r e s of s a l e s volume and investment c a p i t a l obtained from The Sun f i n a n c i a l w r i t e r Jacques K h o u r i . J u l y 18 ,1970. 26 P i e r 1 i n v e s t e d $ 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 . i n r e n t a l l e a s e andstock ( $ 2 . 0 0 per s q . f t . per annum). Cost P l u s i n v e s t e d $80 , 0 0 0 . i n r e n o v a t i o n s and s t o c k ( s h o r t term occupancy). T r i d e n t i n v e s t e d $ 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 . i n r e n o v a t i o n s and s t o c k . The Old S p a g h e t t i F a c t o r y - $ 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 . i n r e n o v a t i o n s & s p a g h e t t i ! 55. The problem, which some f e e l may develop i n Gastown, i s a d i s r u p t i o n of the d e l i c a t e balance between the l a r g e commercial e n t e r p r i s e s and the s m a l l shops. There i s , a l s o , the concern t h a t Gastown c o u l d w e l l be 'boutiqued to death' i f i t i s not overrun by the l a r g e - s c a l e r e t a i l i n t e r e s t s . John Cromack, owner of R u m p l e s t i l t -s k i n s , s t a t e d t h i s problem v e r y w e l l , " t h e r e ' s room f o r e v e r y t h i n g i n Gastown so l o n g as t h e r e ' s not too much of one t h i n g " . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , programming t h i s mutual dependency i n t o f u t u r e p o l i c y g o als i s a v e r y d i f f i c u l t t a s k . I n e a r l y May 1970, the Gastown chapter of the ' P a c i f i c Community S e l f Development S o c i e t y ' began a programme to a s s i s t the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . The concept centred on the purchase of the S t a n l e y H o t e l and New F o u n t a i n H o t e l , s t i l l owned by Army & Navy Department S t o r e s . Because the owners r e c e n t l y had been denied a d e m o l i t i o n permit from C i t y C o u n c i l , they were w i l l i n g t o s e l l , i n exchange f o r the C i t y g r a n t i n g them a p a r k i n g permit elsewhere i n the d i s t r i c t . The 'Self-Development S o c i e t y ' a p p l i e d t o the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n f o r the money to cover purchase and r e n o v a t i o n of these h o t e l s . A f i g u r e was s e t a t $ 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 . , and, a p p l i c a t i o n was f i l e d , i n May, 5 6 . under the r e l a t i v e l y new ' i n n o v a t i v e housing c l a u s e * of the N a t i o n a l Housing Act, which supports t h i s type of housing programme. While the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r funds was b e i n g processed, concern f o r the old-time r e s i d e n t s was kept a l i v e . I n August, the Downtown Tenant's A s s o c i a t i o n , ( P r e s i d e n t : Lewis W i l l i a m s ) , o r g a n i z e d an open a i r meeting i n Gastown, On t h i s o c c a s i o n , the guest speaker was alderman Harry Rankin, He began by making the candid o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t "Gastown was a n i c e t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n w i t h a mess of misery a l l around i t " . 2 ? He continued h i s a t t a c k on what was b e i n g n e g l e c t e d by both the m u n i c i p a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s of government. At the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s meeting, a p e t i t i o n was c i r c u l a t e d r e q u e s t i n g C i t y C o u n c i l t o f r e e z e r e n t s and p r o h i b i t e v i c t i o n s , except f o r ' j u s t causes' - ( i . e . r e n t a r r e a r s or e x c e s s i v e n u i s a n c e ) , 2 ^ George Whitman, the Vancouver D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P lanning, and Jonathan Baker, h i s a s s i s t a n t , made s e v e r a l p e r t i n e n t o b s e r v a t i o n s a t t h i s time. I t was r e a l i z e d from s t u d i e s i n o t h e r c i t i e s , t h a t as r e s i d e n t s were f o r c e d out of one area, they would move the l e a s t d i s t a n c e p o s s i b l e from t h e i r o l d neighbourhood i n order to remain i n a somewhat f a m i l i a r environment. " S k i d road' then o n l y s h i f t s i t s c e n t r e a few b l o c k s away. P r e d i c t a b l y , 27 The P r o v i n c e . Aug. 3, 1970. Harry Rankin. 28 Examples were g i v e n of owners making 3Q%-^0% p r o f i t on h o t e l s . B u i l d i n g s were g r o s s i n g $ 30 ,000 . per year on p r o p e r t y and improvements valued a t $ 60 ,000 . 5 7 . t h i s would l e a d t o a worse l i v i n g environment, and would not b e n e f i t the r e s i d e n t s i n any way. I n Gastown, a r e n t c o n t r o l p o l i c y has o f t e n been suggested. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s the expressed d e s i r e of some of the developers t o 'clean-up' the d i s t r i c t by c l e a r i n g out the 'bums and drunks'. The developers have o f t e n been c r i t i -c i z e d f o r a d o p t i n g t h i s r a t h e r i n d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e j how-ever, c o n s i d e r i n g the market f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g i n the a r e a , the f a c t t h a t the o l d r e s i d e n t o f t e n comes out 'second b e s t ' should not be blamed e n t i r e l y on the developers and b u i l d i n g owners. Because the r e s i d e n t s were not, i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , necessary or b e n e f i c i a l t o Gastown, no con c e s s i o n s were made nor any compromises given,' which would have per m i t t e d them to s t a y . The i n t e n t i o n s of the developer were tw o - f o l d - i n the f i r s t p l a c e , he was attempting t o maximize the r a t e of r e t u r n on h i s c a p i t a l investment by r e n t i n g t o more a f f l u e n t tenants, and, secondly, he was s t r i v i n g t o change the atmosphere of the a r e a and make i t more a c c e p t a b l e to the new r e s i d e n t s , v i s i t o r s and shoppers, a l i k e . The Gastown merchants, f o r the most p a r t , have adopted a much more l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e towards the o l d r e s i d e n t s , than have the d e v e l o p e r s . Many have argued t h a t i t i s these v e r y people t h a t g i v e the townsite the nec-e s s a r y atmosphere, which keeps i t i n t e r e s t i n g . M i l l o r 58. Pollack, a shop owner, believes very strongly i n not for c i n g these people out of the area. Cost Plus owner, Laurie F r i b b l e , and Peter Pulos of The Old Spaghetti Factory, agree, but f e e l that even given the opportunity to stay they would prefer to move because of the changes which have taken place. They no longer would f e e l comfortable i n the area. In September 1970, some of the residents were i n fac t given the opportunity to remain i n Gastown. Plans were unveiled f o r the renovation of the Stanley Hotel and New Fountain Hotel into a hostel f o r some of the displaced residents. The complex was to include boutiques and restaurants on the main f l o o r , and a l i b r a r y , common rooms and sleeping areas on the upper f l o o r s . In t o t a l , about 100 rooms were to be provided, at an average of $40. per month. Revenue, obtained from the r e n t a l space on the main f l o o r , would go towards subsidizing the rents, and, possibly, beginning a fund, whereby s i m i l a r projects could be launched. On September 18th, 1970, Robert Andras, the Federal Minister of Housing and Urban A f f a i r s , announced that a grant of $ 7 7 7 , 7 0 0 . had been made to the 'Cordova Redevelopment Corporation', and the 'Gastown Residents' Association', i n order that they may begin work on the project. This development established a precedent, 59. whereby many other s i m i l a r schemes may be g i n . The s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n o f these people back i n t o the new community, a l t h o u g h o n l y a s t a r t , c o u l d have c e r t a i n advantages, and o f f e r many l e s s o n s r e l a t i n g t o problems w i t h 'urban renewal'. I n November 1970, the Gastown merchants encountered a r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t problem. As the a r e a had evolved, an o f f i c i a l p o l i c y of Sunday o p e r a t i o n s had developed,, When onl y the s m a l l c r a f t shops remained open, no one seemed o v e r l y concerned t however, w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of the l a r g e r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , rumoured complaints by merchants i n other areas reached the c i t y p r o s e c u t o r , a c c u s i n g the es t a b l i s h m e n t s of v i o l a t i n g The Lord's Day Act. The p r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l handed down a d e c i s i o n t h a t a l l shops would have t o c l o s e on Sunday, i n accordance w i t h the law. What f o l l o w e d , was nothin g l e s s than a s m a l l e x p l o s i o n , l e d by the merchants, and supported by the hundreds of 'Sunday-Shoppers' who enjoyed Gastown as a p l a c e t o s t r o l l and browse on the weekends. The merchants c o n f e r r e d , and voted t o s t a y open and f a c e any charges as a u n i f i e d group; a t the same time, a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s were being e x p l o r e d . The one most favoured, seemed t o be the r e c o g n i t i o n of Gastown as an ' h i s t o r i c p r e c i n c t ' . ^ T h i s approach was f o l l o w e d , and, i n February 1971. the 29 T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n would g i v e the c i t y much wider c o n t r o l over d e m o l i t i o n and development. p r o v i n c i a l government passed a d e c i s i o n g r a n t i n g Gastown t h i s s p e c i a l s t a t u s . Although s p e c i f i c pro-v i s i o n was not made f o r v i o l a t i o n of the Lord's Day Act, the i s s u e was to be put under f u r t h e r study -presumably, l e g i s l a t i o n would be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the ' h i s t o r i c p r e c i n c t r u l i n g ' , whereby c e r t a i n shops c o u l d remain open. In the meantime, the merchants continue t o a t t r a c t l a r g e crowds of 'Sunday-Shoppers'. 61. CHAPTER THREE: S e c t i o n One In the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s , i t became q u i t e e v i -dent t h a t the development trends i n Gastown s i n c e the 1900's had not had any p o s i t i v e impact on the c i t y i t s e l f . Once the a r e a s l i p p e d from prominence as the c i t y c e n t r e i n 1900, i t remained i n the background as a s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d warehouse d i s t r i c t . The p r o p e r t y v a l u e s d e c l i n e d , and the q u a l i t y of the b u i l d i n g s r a p i d l y d e t e r i o r a t e d . Coupled w i t h t h i s , the o l d h o t e l s and rooming houses f i l l e d w i t h low-income groups, which have i n h a b i t a t e d the d i s t r i c t ever s i n c e . Although the s e r v i c e performed by the warehouse i n d u s t r y i s e s s e n t i a l t o any m e t r o p o l i s , the neg a t i v e impacts should not dominate the are a i n which they are l o c a t e d . I n an attempt t o a l l e v i a t e the t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n generated by t h i s 'land-use*, C i t y C o u n c i l , i n 1948, was presented w i t h a p r o p o s a l t o p r o h i b i t t r u c k s from l o a d i n g i n the s t r e e t s . T h i s recommendation was made by the c i t y ' s p l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t , Harland Bartholomew, but was not a c t e d upon u n t i l 195^, when i t r e c e i v e d the a p p r o v a l of c o u n c i l . Because a m a j o r i t y of the b u i l d i n g s c o u l d i n no way accomodate the l o a d i n g bay requirement, the wholesale i n d u s t r y was v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d from the ar e a o v e r n i g h t . 62. Bartholomew's 1948 r e p o r t recommended f u r t h e r changes In the Gastown d i s t r i c t . Water S t r e e t , Powell S t r e e t , and C a r r a l l S t r e e t were scheduled t o be widened i n an e f f o r t t o ease the c o n g e s t i o n of peak hour t r a f f i c e n t e r i n g the downtown p e n i n s u l a . As a r e s u l t of the e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n which doomed the wholesale i n d u s t r y , p r o p e r t y v a l u e s were ver y low. I t was, t h e r e f o r e , recommended t h a t some of these s t r u c t u r e s be demolished, i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e 'on grade' p a r k i n g , t o serve the downtown c o r e . I n 1954, when the f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s programme reached c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l l y c o nscious c i t i z e n s , as w e l l as a number of p r o p e r t y owners i n t e r e s t e d i n r e s t o r a t i o n , a p u b l i c o u t c r y erupted. T h i s was the f i r s t i n s t a n c e where thoughts of p r e s e r v i n g the h i s t o r i c s i t e became a p u b l i c i s s u e . U l t i m a t e l y , c o u n c i l was f o r c e d to r e s c i n d t h e i r e a r l i e r d e c i s i o n to widen the s t r e e t s , and, i n s t e a d , put forward a motion, making some s t r e e t s 'one-way', and a l t e r i n g the ' c u r b - s i d e ' p a r k i n g d u r i n g c e r t a i n hours. The r e s u l t of t h i s a c t i v i t y was c l e a r l y of no b e n e f i t t o the Gastown d i s t r i c t . I t s r o l e had been d e f i n e d by c o u n c i l as s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d , aimed to s a t i s f y the more immediate demands of the c i t y c e n t r e . The thought of c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s a r e a as a community s u p p o r t i n g a h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i -d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n , was seldom e n t e r t a i n e d , e i t h e r by the c i t y o f f i c i a l s , o r by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The f a c t t h a t 6 3 . t h i s was the case d i d l i t t l e t o a l l e v i a t e the problems encountered i n what was g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d to as Vancouver's ' s k i d road'. With the r a p i d exodus of the wholesale i n d u s t r y , o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t d e c l i n e d , as d i d the b u i l d i n g s and the atmosphere i n Gastown. U n t i l the present day, the s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n the townsite has been l a r g e l y i g n o r e d . The c i t y was r e c e i v i n g no s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e t u r n s from the a r e a , and, i n f a c t , turned i t s back on the townsite's dilemma. In the second s e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s , i t was seen t h a t the impact of the Gastown r e s t o r a t i o n began to f o c u s p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n on the a r e a . What was seen, was a d i s t r i c t of the c i t y t h a t had o b v i o u s l y been n e g l e c t e d f o r many decades. The f i r s t group to e s t a b l i s h themselves i n the townsite were the new owners and d e v e l o p e r s . Almost immediately, a c o n f l i c t became apparent. The long-time r e s i d e n t s were e v i c t e d from t h e i r b o a r d i n g houses and h o t e l s as reno-v a t i o n s began. The f i r s t t o be c r i t i c i z e d f o r c r e a t i n g the ' s o c i a l problems' i n Gastown, were, t h e r e f o r e , the d e v e l o p e r s . C l e a r l y , the problems were th e r e l o n g b e f o r e any r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t s began. I t was the i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n which brought these i s s u e s i n t o p u b l i c p e r s -p e c t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e Gastown was r e c e i v i n g wide 64. coverage from the news media. Since n o t h i n g p o s i t i v e had been done f o r the r e s i d e n t s of Gastown f o r a g r e a t many years, the sudden boom of i n -creased a c t i v i t y g r e a t l y i n t e n s i f i e d the s o c i a l problems. The r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t s d i d no t h i n g t o a l l e v i a t e the r e s i d e n t ' s problems, but, i n s t e a d , f u r t h e r complicated them. T h i s Issue i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t In c o n s i d e r -i n g f u t u r e Gastown development. I t would seem reasonable to expect t h a t w i t h the i n c r e a s e d amount of c a p i t a l c i r c u l a t i n g i n Gastown, there might be a r e p a r t i t i o n which would b e n e f i t the r e s i d e n t s . For some time, t h i s was not the case. I t was not u n t i l the r e s i d e n t s formed t h e i r own a s s o c i a t i o n and began making t h e i r views known t h a t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n improved. The Stanley/New F o u n t a i n h o s t e l i s an e x c e l l e n t example of t h i s ' s e l f - h e l p * pro-gramme i n a c t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t t o r e a l i z e i s t h a t the r e s i d e n t s c o u l d not have developed t h i s concept without the impetus of the r e s t o r a t i o n , and, i n t h i s r e s p e c t , they are dependent on the new a c t i v i t y . I t remains t o be seen whether t h i s dependency i s mutual. The r e s i d e n t s a r e onl y one i n t e r e s t concerned w i t h Gas-town's development. With them are other groups, such as the merchants' a s s o c i a t i o n , the investment a s s o c i a t i o n , and the de v e l o p e r s . Each has c e r t a i n g o als and o b j e c t i v e s 65. towards which they have "been working; s i m i l a r l y , each has an i d e a of what the f i n a l programme should and should n o t i n c l u d e . Herein l i e s one of the b a s i c problems of •plan f o r m u l a t i o n ' f o r Gastown. Each group has banded tog e t h e r i n a r a t h e r formal f a s h i o n . T h i s type of organ-i z a t i o n on the ' h o r i z o n t a l plane', c l e a r l y does not l e n d i t s e l f to i m p a r t i a l and r a t i o n a l r e a s o n i n g as to the b e s t p l a n s f o r Gastown as a whole. Each group works towards i t s own o b j e c t i v e s , w i t h l i t t l e concern f o r the o t h e r s . Because of t h e i r f i n a n c i a l committment, and the t r a d i t i o n a l power or c o n t r o l possessed by the owners and developers, they have, u n t i l now, succeeded i n d i r e c t i n g the Gastown redevelopment a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . Shop-owners and merchants are permitted space i n the r e s t o r e d b u i l d i n g s a t the l a n d l o r d ' s d i s c r e t i o n - few members of t h i s group have had a v o i c e i n the r e n o v a t i o n of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s t o r e s . T h e i r p o s i t i o n as tenants i s v e r y c l e a r , a n d , they have not been pe r m i t t e d a v o i c e i n the development or d i r e c t i o n of the townsite r e s t o r -a t i o n , even though they a r e v e r y much a p a r t of i t . T h i s l a t t e r p o i n t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e t o merchants who have been Involved i n the a r e a f o r a number of years, and, i n most cases, have a d e f i n i t e o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g Gastown's f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n . P u r s u i n g t h i s argument t o i n c l u d e the long-time r e s i d e n t s 66. p r e s e n t s a p a r t i c u l a r problem. The townslte a r e a has v e r y d e f i n i t e l y gone through a metamorphosis i n the l a s t few years. C e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s which no l o n g e r perform a v i a b l e r o l e , have been f o r c e d out of Gastown, i n f a v o u r of a t t r a c t i v e shops and r e s t a u r a n t s , which c h a r a c t e r i z e the e n v i s i o n e d atmosphere i n the townslte. S i m i l a r l y , the o l d e r r e s i d e n t s a r e b e i n g f o r c e d out of the a r e a , because they a r e not seen as a component i n the f i n a l 'product' as seen by the owners and d e v e l o p e r s . The wholesale i n d u s t r y , and i t s s u b s i d i a r i e s , can r e l o c a t e i n a reas where the r e n t s or markets are more s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r needs; u n f o r t u n a t e l y , the r e s i d e n t s are not as f l e x i b l e . As i n d i v i d u a l s i n the community, they should have c e r t a i n r i g h t s and a v o i c e i n the d i r e c t i o n which Gastown takes. I n order to e f f e c t i v e l y a l t e r t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system, an a l t e r n a t i v e must be suggested which i s agreeable t o a l l concerned. Two o t h e r groups, which, a l s o , have a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n Gastown, are the c i t y p l a n n e r s and the shoppers and v i s i t o r s . The l a t t e r , a l t h o u g h not a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the d i r e c t i o n of the r e s t o r a t i o n , must s t i l l be acknowledged as one of the ' l i f e f o r c e s ' i n Gastown. Without the commerce generated by the shoppers and v i s i t -o r s , the townslte would not be i n the p o s i t i o n i t i s i n today. A l s o concerned, i s the c i t y P l a n n i n g Department. 6 7 . Although i t does not have a 'day to day' r o l e i n Gastown, i t s i n t e r e s t i n the d i r e c t i o n of the p r o j e c t i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y r e l e v a n t from?a community p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . The committment from the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups has been n o t i c e a b l y l a c k i n g w i t h r e s p e c t to the c i t y P l a n n i n g Department, Only r e c e n t l y , have they adopted a more p o s i t i v e approach towards a l l e v i a t i n g some of the a r e a ' s problems. I n June of 1970, C i t y C o u n c i l a u t h o r i z e d a twelve month $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 . f u l l - s c a l e study of Gastown and Chinatown, i n c l u d i n g a n a l y s i s of the economic, p h y s i c a l , and s o c i a l problems. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s r e p o r t has been delayed, and w i l l now not be completed u n t i l November 1971, by which time, some of the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r optimal development may be l o s t . I f the townslte con t i n u e s t o develop i n the manner p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d , there w i l l , undoubtedly, be a d e f i n -i t e n e g a t i v e impact on the 'Gastown community'. The f o l l o w i n g comparison w e l l i l l u s t r a t e s the problems encountered by a s i n g l e - p u r p o s e programme o r i e n t e d t o s a t i s f y o n l y one p a r t i c u l a r and s p e c i f i c g o a l . Comparing Gastown, as i t i s p r e s e n t l y o r i e n t e d , to the t y p i c a l suburban shopping c e n t r e , o f f e r s a number of s i m i l a r i t -i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s - i t i s these p e c u l i a r i t i e s t h a t make Gastown an i n t e r e s t i n g and v i b r a n t environment. The l a r g e Park Royal shopping c e n t r e i n West Vancouver, 68. p r o v i d e s a number of u s e f u l comparisons. Included on t h i s s i t e are a l a r g e number of apartments, numerous shops, two t h e a t r e s , and s e v e r a l r e s t a u r a n t s . The s t o r e s i n the shopping areas have been connected by l a r g e e n c l o s e d m a l l s . These m a l l s a r e p u r p o s e f u l l y designed to i m i t a t e the ' s t r e e t s ' of more t r a d i t i o n a l shopping a r e a s . I n Park Royal, as i n most c e n t r e s , the m a l l s a r e success-f u l o n l y to the extent t h a t they f a c i l i t a t e a dry, p r o t e c t e d r o u t e f o r the shoppers as they move from one s t o r e t o another. Attempts to e n l i v e n these m a l l s a t s p e c i f i c times d u r i n g the year, have not o f t e n met w i t h much succ e s s . Shoppers a r e concerned w i t h t h e i r f u n c t i o n as access c o r r i d o r s , r a t h e r than an i n t e r e s t i n g and p l e a s u r a b l e route to take - s t r o l l i n g and browsing from one s t o r e t o the next. For the most p a r t , these m a l l s have a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y tohhallways, r a t h e r than ' s t r e e t s ' . The p a r k i n g s i t u a t i o n i n most shopping c e n t r e s p r e s e n t s a f u r t h e r problem - because the complex i s t o t a l l y surrounded by p a r k i n g , the shopper i s a b l e t o d r i v e almost t o the f r o n t door of any p a r t i c u l a r s t o r e , thereby r e d u c i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y of u t i l i z i n g the m a l l to any g r e a t e x t e n t . Park Royal i s t o t a l l y o r i e n t e d to the consumer, and the a r e a b u s t l e s w i t h a c t i v i t y d u r i n g shopping hours. However, 69. a f t e r the s t o r e s c l o s e , t h e r e i s no i n t e r e s t t o a t t r a c t a crowd. I t has been noted, t h a t a h i g h - d e n s i t y a p a r t -ment complex i s l o c a t e d on the western end of 'Park Royal North'. T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n of r e s i d e n t s c o u l d have been b e n e f i c i a l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the shopping d i s t r i c t i n such a way as to i n c r e a s e the use and v i a b i l i t y of the a r e a as a whole. Now, because of t h e i r r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n on one corner of the s i t e , t h e r e i s no opport-u n i t y f o r unconscious mixing or m i n g l i n g of shopper and r e s i d e n t . Under the e x i s t i n g l a y o u t , s p e c i a l t y s t o r e s cannot a f f o r d t o s t a y open l a t e r , because of the l a c k of a market. The apartment d w e l l e r would not walk from h i s s u i t e t o the s t o r e s ; i n s t e a d , he d r i v e s t o the s m a l l shops f u r t h e r west a l o n g Marine D r i v e f o r l a t e n i g h t shopping. The Park Royal twin t h e a t r e s have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on a c t i v i t y i n the complex/ U n f o r t u n a t e l y , l i k e the a p a r t -ments, the t h e a t r e s have been s i t u a t e d i n r e l a t i v e i s o -l a t i o n on the extreme western end of 'Park Royal South'. Again, t h i s has e l i m i n a t e d any o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s m a l l • s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s ' ( a f t e r hours c a f e s , r e s t a u r a n t s , o r c o f f e e houses) t o m a i n t a i n a b u s i n e s s generated from the t h e a t r e t r a f f i c . I t i s noteworthy t h a t some t h e a t r e - g o e r s w i l l get i n t h e i r c a r s and d r i v e to the White Spot, a t the s o u t h - e a s t e r n end of the s i t e , and s t a y i n t h e i r c a r s as they enjoy an ' a f t e r the movie'snack. 70. What has t h i s t o do w i t h Gastown? Three s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s have been o u t l i n e d which a p p l y t o Gastown i n a v e r y d e f i n i t e sense. F i r s t , the separa-t i o n of v a r i o u s land-uses has negated any o p p o r t u n i t y of a 'mix*. On the Park Royal s i t e , t h e r e are three d i s t i n c t a c t i v i t y nodes (shops, apartments, and t h e a t r e s ) s e t as f a r a p a r t as p o s s i b l e . Between these areas e x i s t s a c r e s of p a r k i n g l o t s - t h i s l e a d s d i r e c t l y t o the second i s s u e ; by p e r m i t t i n g the development t o be completely surrounded and dominated by p a r k i n g l o t s , any p o s i t i v e b e n e f i t s which may have accrued from.the m a l l s has been l o s t . Both these f e a t u r e s c o n t r i b u t e to the t h i r d problem - t h a t i s , having a l a r g e a r e a , such as t h i s , o p e r a t i n g e f f e c t i v e l y o n l y e i g h t hours of the day, and dominated by a ' s i n g l e purpose' o r i e n t a t i o n . I n the f i r s t chapter of t h i s t h e s i s , the townslte • d i s t r i c t was graphed as i t rose t o prominence i n the 1880's as the c i t y c e n t r e , and then through a s e r i e s of a l t e r i n g land-uses, began a steady d e c l i n e . From 19^0 u n t i l 1968, t h i s d e c l i n e c o n t i n u e d . The a c t i v i t y i n the townslte has always been d i r e c t e d through the • f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e ' system of p e r m i t t i n g development t o respond t o the market demands. In the l i g h t of r e c e n t knowledge and experiences i n a number of f i e l d s , t h i s i s no l o n g e r deemed a s a t i s f a c t o r y method of urban 71. l a n d management. The second chapter of the t h e s i s , documented the r e c e n t r e b i r t h of the Gastown ar e a -f o r two years, the redevelopment and r e n o v a t i o n has proceeded a g a i n a c c o r d i n g t o market t r e n d s . C o n s i d e r i n g the p r e v i o u s example of Park Royal, t h i s i s c l e a r l y not a s a t i s f a c t o r y method of procedure. Gastown i s a community i n v o l v i n g a number of unique i n t e r e s t groups - as such, i t must be granted s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s t o ensure i t s o p t i m a l development. In an urban s e t t i n g , the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups cannot be separated and p l a c e d a t o p p o s i t e ends of the s i t e . A programme must be developed, which w i l l , i n some way, b e n e f i t a l l groups i n v o l v e d , and not i n h i b i t the r i g h t s of any p a r t i c u l a r m i n o r i t y i n t e r e s t s . 72. CHAPTER THREEt S e c t i o n Two A number of problems have been r e f e r r e d t o which have i n h i b i t e d o v e r a l l community o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Gastown. In p r e p a r i n g a p l a n o r p r o p o s a l f o r development, these i s s u e s must be r e c o g n i z e d , and s o l u t i o n s o f f e r e d . As a f i r s t s tep i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , three problems w i l l be o u t l i n e d , and then developed i n the 'goals a n a l y s i s ' , which f o l l o w s . T h i s does not pretend t o be an exhaustive l i s t , but, r a t h e r , f o r purposes of i l l u s t r a t i o n , serves t o demonstrate the approach o r methodology t h a t must be taken i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of a development p l a n . 1. The p o l i t i c a l o r 'power s t r u c t u r e ' i s d i v i d e d i n t o a number of c o n f l i c t i n g groups. T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n does not f a c i l i t a t e maximum use of the resou r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o the community, 2. There i s no common o b j e c t i v e towards which a l l i n t e r e s t groups are working - each has a s e l f -d e f i n e d and somewhat l i m i t e d o r i e n t a t i o n . 3. There i s l i t t l e or no c o - o p e r a t i o n between groups to formulate a p o l i c y which i s a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l -communication i s e i t h e r extremely l i m i t e d o r non-e x i s t e n t . The o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Gastown i s a fundamental i s s u e , i n 73. t h a t i t c o u l d channel or d i r e c t the e n e r g i e s of the d i f f e r e n t groups towards a common g o a l . P r e s e n t l y , because of the h o r i z o n t a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , the owners and developers are d i r e c t i n g the growth. In a f r e e e n t e r p r i s e s i t u a t i o n , t h i s should not be a t a l l s u r p r i s i n g . There ar e , however, a number of advantages to I n t r o d u c i n g a community development programme, i n t h a t i t would con-s t r u c t i v e l y o rganize or d i r e c t the energy of the v a r i o u s groups towards more p o s i t i v e community-oriented g o a l s . Through t h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n , a more s t a b l e base would be developed f o r f u t u r e growth and expansion. In some s i t u a t i o n s , the l a c k of d i a l o g u e between p a r t i -c u l a r groups would not i n h i b i t progress or j e o p a r d i z e long-range development g o a l s . L a r g e - s c a l e p r o j e c t s , such as the P a c i f i c Centre Complex, which r a d i c a l l y a l t e r the e x i s t i n g use t o some new or a l t e r n a t e use, are not concerned w i t h the p r e v i o u s i n t e r e s t s . Such developments a r e g e n e r a l l y o r i e n t e d p h y s i c a l l y and ec o n o m i c a l l y , r a t h e r than s o c i a l l y . In c o n t r a s t , the Gastown r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t cannot impose i t s e l f on the prese n t e n v i r o n s . I n order t o preserve a p a r t i c u l a r atmosphere and s c a l e i n i t s development, i t must acknow-ledge c e r t a i n past r e l a t i o n s h i p s , such as, the s c a l e of the b u i l d i n g s , the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the community, and the h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of the a r e a i t s e l f . A d i a l o g u e between past, present, and f u t u r e 'users', i s v i t a l , i n order t o pre s e r v e an i n t i m a t e atmosphere i n Gastown. There i s another fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between the Gastown r e s t o r a t i o n and t r a d i t i o n a l urban redevelopment p r o j e c t s . Every group, i n c l u d i n g the shoppers and v i s i t o r s , c o n s i d e r s the a r e a as an e x i s t i n g and l o n g s t a n d i n g 'community'. Yet the owners and developers, the merchants, and the pla n n e r s , a l l have a d i f f e r e n t concept of what the 'Gastown community* c o n s i s t s of, and towards what ends I t should develop; c l e a r l y , t h i s i s one of the f i r s t o b j e c t i v e s t h a t must be made e x p l i c i t . When combining the three problems p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d , and c o n s i d e r i n g them i n o p e r a t i o n a l terms, one r e a l i z e s t h a t a working d e f i n i t i o n of the 'Gastown^pmmunity* must be reached, i n order t o b e g i n any s o r t of c o n s t r u c t -i v e d i a l o g u e between the v a r i o u s groups. As a f i r s t s t e p, a g e n e r a l g o a l statement must be made. The g o a l should be i n broad enough terms to i n c l u d e a l l those concerned w i t h the a r e a . From t h i s , o b j e c t i v e s can be e s t a b l i s h e d , r e l a t i n g t o the go a l i n general,and the i n t e r e s t groups i n p a r t i c u l a r . The c r i t e r i a f o r the o b j e c t i v e s , i s t h a t they must be complementary t o each ot h e r . Any assumptions should be c l e a r l y s t a t e d a t t h i s 75. stage, as w e l l as a l l d e f i n i t i o n s of terms i n v o l v e d . I n t h i s manner, the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l g o a l has been e s t -a b l i s h e d as an o v e r a l l g u i d e l i n e f o r development i n Gastown, GOAL; t h a t the 'Gastown community' 1 be developed i n such a manner as t o i n s u r e i t s c o n t i n -ued v i a b i l i t y as a multi-purpose node In the urban m a t r i x . C o n s i d e r i n g the p r e v i o u s comparison w i t h Park Royal, and remembering Gastown's p o s i -t i o n r e l a t i v e to the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s -t r i c t , as w e l l as the number of i n t e r e s t groups'" a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the p r o j e c t , i t becomes apparent t h a t Gastown should not develop as a ' s i n g l e - p u r p o s e ' p r o j e c t . Through a programme of group i n t e g r a t i o n and mutual dependency, the s t a b i l i t y of the community i s enhanced s o c i a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y , and p h y s i c a l l y - and, a t the same time, t h i s s t r a t -egy ensures t h a t i n t e r e s t and a c t i v i t y i n the community i s kept a l i v e , OBJECTIVE: t h a t through the d e s i g n and Implementation of a development programme, the g o a l s of the 1 Community i s d e f i n e d as a body of persons having common r i g h t s , i n t e r e s t s , and p r i v i l e g e s , 2 T h i s would i n c l u d e the r e s i d e n t s , shop-owners, merchants, devel o p e r s , l a n d l o r d s , and c i t y p l a n n e r s , as w e l l as the v i s i t o r s and shoppers. 76. i n t e r e s t groups are o p t i m i z e d . The need f o r a sound programme of development i n Gastown i s e s s e n t i a l . Because of the wide v a r i e t y of concerns i n the townslte, v a r i o u s groups have s p e c i f i c i d e a s as to how the development should proceed. The Gastown community has the o p p o r t u n i t y a t t h i s p o i n t i n time, to develop a l l these i n t e r e s t s t o i t s c o l l e c t i v e advantage. Through the f o r m u l a t i o n of a v e h i c l e accepted by the v a r i o u s groups, t h i s would become a r e a l i t y . The v e h i c l e t o a c h i e v e t h i s end i s summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g assumption. ASSUMPTION: th a t a ' s t e e r i n g committee' w i l l be e s t -a b l i s h e d , c o n s i s t i n g of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups, and c h a i r e d by 3 an i m p a r t i a l ' t h i r d p a r t y ' . The s t e e r i n g committee chairman would perform the r o l e of mediator or l i a i s o n between the i n t e r e s t groups. I t would be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h i s committee to e s t a b l i s h a comprehen-s i v e development p l a n f o r the townslte, i n t e -g r a t i n g the g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s of the i n d i v i d u a l groups i n such a manner that they would compliment the o v e r a l l g o a l and o b j e c t i v e . 3 T h i s should be an informed i n d i v i d u a l o r group which has not had d i r e c t involvement w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t group i n the a r e a . 77. With these g e n e r a l statements, the scope of the p r o j e c t i s somewhat d e f i n e d . A p o i n t of departure i s e s t a b l i s h e d . The next step i s to encourage each group to f o r m a l l y o u t l i n e t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs and d e s i r e s , and, thus, formulate t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s r e g a r d i n g Gastown's development. T h i s i s the t a s k t h a t o n l y these groups can perform - no survey can adequately document t h e i r needs or o u t l i n e t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s . By employing the i n t e r e s t groups or t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , on a c o n t i n u -i n g b a s i s , a v a l u a b l e communication l i n k i s e s t a b l i s h e d through the s t e e r i n g committee. The d i a l o g u e generated from the committee w i l l work towards a c q u a i n t i n g the groups w i t h the unique needs and concerns of * ? t r a d e - o f f s w and compromises between the groups would become p o s s i b l e . F o l l o w i n g the f o r m u l a t i o n of group o b j e c t i v e s , comes the i n t e g r a t i o n of these i n t o a working p o l i c y , which i s i n harmony w i t h the g e n e r a l g o a l and o b j e c t i v e of the o v e r a l l p r o j e c t . During t h i s stage, the r o l e of the s t e e r i n g committee chairman w i l l become c r i t i c a l . I t would be h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o ensure t h a t the unique needs of each group a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the p l a n , without any one group dominating. I n t h i s way, i t would be p o s s i b l e f o r each group to maximize t h e i r own o b j e c t -i v e s w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s or parameters s e t by the committee as a whole. 7 8 . The methodology, thus f a r , has o u t l i n e d the steps towards f o r m u l a t i n g a p o l i c y - as of yet, n o t h i n g has been s t a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a p l a n or working programme. The g e n e r a l g o a l statement p r o v i d e s an o r i e n t a t i o n or d i r e c t i o n , however, the a c t u a l approach has not been r e s o l v e d . T h i s would have to be developed through meetings w i t h the s t e e r i n g committee. As w e l l as out-l i n i n g the approach, the committee would have to implement the o b j e c t i v e s of the i n t e r e s t groups. What f o l l o w s , i s a h y p o t h e t i c a l example of how t h i s o p e r a t i o n might pro-ceed: C o n s i d e r i n g the r e s i d e n t s of Gastown as one i n t e r e s t group, i t w i l l be assumed f o r the purposes of t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n t h a t they f e e l s t r o n g l y about c e r t a i n as-pects of the d i s t r i c t , and do not wish to be d i s p l a c e d . Having formed an a c t i v e group, they have developed the f o l l o w i n g g o a l i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the s t e e r i n g committee: •that the r e s i d e n t s i n the townslte a r e a be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y t o remain as members of the new community* T h e i r o b j e c t i v e might appear as f o l l o w s : 'that the r e s i d e n t s e s t a b l i s h p r i o r i t i e s and work towards implementing these i n the l i g h t of t h e i r g o a l * T h i s g o a l and o b j e c t i v e might c o n f l i c t w i t h the g o a l of 79. one or more other groups, who f e e l the o l d r e s i d e n t s would not have a p o s i t i v e impact on the a r e a as they e n v i s i o n i t . At the meetings, such an i s s u e as t h i s would have t o be r e s o l v e d w i t h the r e s i d e n t s s t a t i n g t h e i r case f o r s t a y i n g , and the opposing i n t e r e s t s e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r o b j e c t i o n s . A l t e r n a t i v e s and compro-mises c o u l d be suggested by the others on the committee. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i t would be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the committee chairman to make a p o l i c y d e c i s i o n i n what he f e l t was the b e s t i n t e r e s t s of the f u t u r e Gastown community. From t h i s , the development p l a n would evolve as the f i n a l s t e p of the methodology. F o l l o w i n g i t s a p p r o v a l and implementation, the s t e e r i n g committee should not c o n s i d e r i t s task i s complete. R e v i s i o n s and a l t e r a t i o n s w i l l be needed c o n s t a n t l y , as the emphasis or d i r e c t i o n i n the community s h i f t s - i l l u s t r a t i n g the f a c t t h a t p l a n n i n g must be a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s . 80 CHAPTER THREE : S e c t i o n Three There a r e a number of areas where changes c o u l d be implemented immediately, i n order t o ensure t h a t the c h a r a c t e r and atmosphere of Gastown i s not l o s t . These recommendations are based on changes presented i n b r i e f s from v a r i o u s d e l e g a t i o n s , made to C i t y C o u n c i l , as w e l l as from the experiences of other c i t i e s . F or the most p a r t , they i n v o l v e l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n s , and, t h e r e f o r e , a re the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of C i t y C o u n c i l t o implement. The recommendations are as follows» RECOMMENDATION 1 That a study be made of the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c Monuments Act, and amendments suggested, i n order t o make i t more r e l e v a n t t o the Gastown r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t . R a t i o n a l e s An approach which was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , was t h a t of e s t a b l i s h i n g an ' o f f i c i a l development p l a n ' f o r the Gastown d i s t r i c t . The Vancouver c h a r t e r , S e c t i o n 56l, permits c o u n c i l t o adopt a p l a n which r e l a t e s t o : (a) 'any p a r t i c u l a r area of the c i t y or t o a s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t or p r o j e c t s w i t h i n the c i t y ' (b) '...and d e s i g n a t e areas f o r s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s , 81. including those which require develop-ment or redevelopment as a whole.' Because of the amount of control that was possible, t h i s approach was favoured by some. Unfortunately, the opport-unity to implement such a proposal has been temporarily l o s t , due to the p r o v i n c i a l government's l e g i s l a t i o n following the 'Sunday-openings' r u l i n g i n December 1970. At that time, the p r o v i n c i a l government enacted portions of the H i s t o r i c Monuments Act to protect the Gastown shop-owners from prosecution, ensuing from v i o l a t i o n of the Lord's Day Act. Although the H i s t o r i c Monuments Act was not o r i g i n a l l y intended f o r protection and adminis-t r a t i o n of urban areas, such as Gastown, with extensive amendments, i t could have general advantages. The common problem which both the 'development plan' and the ' h i s t o r i c monument* proposal encounter, i s that of setting exact boundaries f o r the precincts. Thus f a r , t h i s has not been established, and, no doubt, w i l l arouse considerable consternation amongst the surrounding owners when i t i s f i n a l l y decided. The approaches adopted by other c i t i e s Involved with j u r i s -d i c t i o n a l problems related to s i m i l a r r e s t o r a t i o n problems, has been included i n Appendix Two. 4 Should these amendments be unachievable within the confines of the act, i t should be repealed, and an o f f i c i a l development plan adopted. Presumably, one of the f i r s t tasks of the steering committee under either proposal would be the organization of a develop-ment plan. 82. RECOMMENDATION 2 That the s t e e r i n g committee be e l e v a t e d i n s t a t u s t o t h a t of a s p e c i a l commission, and be g i v e n the a u t h o r i t y t o s c r u t i n i z e a l l r e s t o r a t i o n p l a n s . In so doing, i t should have the power t o approve or r e j e c t development p r o p o s a l s . R a t i o n a l e t T h i s would be one advantage of having the Gastown d i s t r i c t s e t a s i d e as an h i s t o r i c p r e c i n c t , s i n c e under the l e g i s l a t i o n , the establishment of s p e c i a l boards and commissions i s p e r m i t t e d . T h i s commission should i n c l u d e members of the suggested s t e e r i n g committee, as these i n d i v i d u a l s would have a f i r m understanding of the area's problems. Because the board would have members from a l l the i n t e r e s t groups, a v a l u a b l e communication l i n k would be kept open. As has a l r e a d y meen mentioned, the chairman of t h i s group should be an unbiased ' t h i r d p a r t y ' . The body i t s e l f should be granted the s t a t u s and a u t h o r i t y of a s p e c i a l commission, thereby r e l i e v i n g C i t y C o u n c i l of a burden i t would n e i t h e r have the time nor the i n f o r m a t i o n t o handle s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The commission would have the a u t h o r i t y t o approve or r e j e c t development p r o p o s a l s w i t h i n the p r e c i n c t . 83. In t h i s way, the development programme would progress i n a c o n t r o l l e d and organized f a s h i o n . The s p e c i a l commission would serve the a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n of a communication source f o r o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s . RECOMMENDATION 3 That some s a t i s f a c t o r y formula f o r ' c o s t - s h a r i n g ' be developed, not o n l y on the c i t y and e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l l e v e l , but, a l s o , a t the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l government l e v e l s . R a t i o n a l e t The d e s i g n a t i o n of the Gastown d i s t r i c t as an h i s t o r i c p r e c i n c t b r i n g s c e r t a i n f i n a n c i a l p r e s s u r e s onto the owners and d e v e l o p e r s . The r e s t o r a t i o n and r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i n the a r e a would r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d assessments. Coupled w i t h t h i s , any b e a u t i f i c a t i o n programmes would i n c r e a s e the p r o p e r t y v a l u e s and f u r t h e r r a i s e the a s s e s s -ments. The shop-owners, merchants, and r e s i d e n t s would a l l experience these changes through i n -creased r e n t s . Without some concessions made on the p a r t of the c i t y , i t may be f e l t by the owners to be uneconomical t o upgrade t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s because of the i n c r e a s e d taxes they would f a c e . The f i n d i n g s of a number of U.S. surveys, which support t h i s argument, as w e l l as e x c e r p t s from 84. t h e i r tax c o n c e s s i o n by-laws, are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix Three. The p r o v i n c i a l government has gone on r e c o r d a number of times, su g g e s t i n g t h a t i t would be w i l l i n g t o put up c e r t a i n c a p i t a l f o r f u r t h e r redevelopment In the Gastown/Chinatown d i s t r i c t . The o f f e r i s o u t l i n e d i n a l e t t e r t o MLA Herb Capozzi from M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Dan Campbell, dated March 17, 1970.5 B a s i c a l l y , the p r o v i n c e has o f f e r e d $35tOOO. per year, f o r f i v e y ears, i f the c i t y and f e d e r a l government w i l l a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s i m i l a r amounts over the same p e r i o d of time. The c i t y ' s 'committment' c o u l d be pr o v i d e d i n p a r t from p r i v a t e sources w i t h i n the concerned a r e a . The exact terms of t h i s agreement from the pro-v i n c i a l government w i l l have t o be developed f u r t h e r , i n view of the f a c t t h a t both the c i t y and the f e d e r a l government are a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n a number of p r o j e c t s i n the Gastown a r e a . ^ In view of these f a c t s , i t would seem l o g i c a l f o r the c i t y t o pursue the p r o v i n c i a l government's o f f e r . 5 A copy of t h i s l e t t e r i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix Four. 6 The f e d e r a l government w i t h the Stanley/New F o u n t a i n h o s t e l and the c i t y on the development study. 85. RECOMMENDATION 4 That the Gastown d i s t r i c t be rezoned to 'Comprehensive Development - 1* ( C D - I ) . 7 R a t i o n a l e i T h i s procedure would be an i n t e r i m s tep, as out-l i n e d i n the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department's p r o p o s a l presented to the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , June 2, g 1970. I t s purpose would be to "'achieve a g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n p e r m i t t e d uses while a t the same time e n a b l i n g c o u n c i l t o have c o n t r o l over development t h a t would normally f a l l w i t h i n the o ' o u t r i g h t - u s e ' c a t e g o r y . " 7 T h i s programme would permit e x i s t i n g uses to continue, w h i l e a t the same time, a l l o w i n g c o u n c i l to approve new development, which i t f e l t was i n keeping w i t h the e n v i s i o n e d c h a r a c t e r of the a r e a . Rezoning to CD-I would a l s o i n c l u d e c e r t a i n s i g n 10 c o n t r o l by-laws. I n keeping w i t h 'recommendation 2', i t would seem l o g i c a l t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s a u t h o r i t y under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the ' s p e c i a l commission'. The a r e a d e s i g n a t e d f o r CD-I r e z o n i n g has been kept to a minimum. Attempts to l i n k the Gastown and Chinatown developments through t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n 7 Rezoning to CD-I g i v e s C i t y C o u n c i l c o n t r o l over what new developments should or should not be p e r m i t t e d . Map 4 i l l u s t r a t e s the a r e a a f f e c t e d by t h i s p r o p o s a l . 8 F i l e r e f e r e n c e C 36.4.2. General Report - Gastown China-town. 9 I b i d . p.2. 10 S e l e c t i v e z o n i n g guide o u t l i n e i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix F i v e . 86. have not been made. I t i s f e l t t h a t both pro-j e c t s a re unique, and should develop Independently. P e r i p h e r a l development i n the Gastown ar e a should be c o n t r o l l e d by the Department of L i c e n s e s and Permits, on the recommendations of the ' s p e c i a l 1 1 commission*. The C i t y P l a n n i n g Department would be kept informed of a d j a c e n t developments, r e n o v a t i o n s , or r e s t o r a t i o n s . In t h i s manner, they would be aware of changes b e i n g proposed, and would be a b l e t o d i s c u s s , w i t h the neighbour-i n g d e velopers, any d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s t h e i r p r o j e c t may have on the h i s t o r i c a r e a . RECOMMENDATION 5 That a p e d e s t r i a n o r i e n t a t i o n be encouraged In the Gastown a r e a . R a t i o n a l e s Because of the nature of the r e s t o r a t i o n t o date, a great many people enjoy s t r o l l i n g i n Gastown -e i t h e r shopping or j u s t browsing. Many of the area's unique shops are l o c a t e d around Maple Tree Square. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s square i s now the j u n c t i o n of f o u r main roads. By c l o s i n g c e r t a i n 12 s t r e e t s to g e n e r a l t r a f f i c , i t would be p o s s i b l e to r e g a i n a more p e d e s t r i a n - o r i e n t e d atmosphere. 11 The a u t h o r i t y of the s p e c i a l commission would c o r r e s -pond w i t h the boundaries s e t by the CD-I r e z o n i n g , and the h i s t o r i c p r e c i n c t . Map 4. Page 86a. 12 Map 5« o u t l i n e s t h i s p r o p o s a l . Page 86b. p ( f e w 898 87. The Parks Board, i n December 1970, expressed the need f o r a 'mini park' i n the townsite, and men-t i o n e d the d e s i r e to develop one on Maple Tree Square. The park concept would on l y be p o s s i b l e i f the road recommendation was f i r s t implemented. P a r k i n g i n Gastown has been i n d i c a t e d as a poten-t i a l problem; however, w i t h the new Woodward's m u l t i - l e v e l garage under c o n s t r u c t i o n on Water S t r e e t , and o t h e r 'on grade' p a r k i n g l o t s i n the v i c i n i t y , t h i s i s s u e i s not viewed as an immediate concern. I f the demand became e v i d e n t , a d d i t i o n a l m u l t i - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e s c o u l d be b u i l t p r i v a t e l y to serve t h i s need. I n g e n e r a l , i t would be d e s i r a b l e t o l o c a t e t h i s p a r k i n g on the p e r i p h e r y of the d i s t r i c t . The p r e c e d i n g l i s t of recommendations i s not intended to suggest a ' p h y s i c a l p l a n ' f o r Gastown - rather?? these are seen to be areas where immediate a c t i o n on the p a r t of the c i t y w i l l ensure t h a t the atmosphere and c h a r a c t e r of the o l d townsite i s not l o s t , while a f u l l programme i s b e i n g developed. These recommendations should not j e o p a r d i z e any p a r t i c u l a r I n t e r e s t group, and are Intended o n l y f o r the betterment of the a r e a as a community. Furthermore, these p r o p o s a l s should not overshadow the g o a l s statements, nor the n e c e s s i t y f o r the implementation 88. of the programme suggested e a r l i e r - t h a t i s , the f o r m a t i o n of a s t e e r i n g committee, composed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups. The need f o r sound p l a n n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l , but takes time t o develop. I t s u l t i m a t e impact n e c e s s i t a t e s thorough c o n s i d e r a t i o n s by a l l c o n t r i b u t i n g groups. The advan-tage of these f i v e recommendations i s t h a t they permit c e r t a i n immediate c o n t r o l s t o be s e t , w h i l e the o v e r a l l community p l a n i s developed. BIBLIOGRAPHY 89 I BOOKS: B u l l o c k , O r i n M. The R e s t o r a t i o n Manual. C o n n e c t i c u t S i l v e r Mine P u b l i s h e r s Inc., 1966. 192 pp. F i n a l Report of the H i s t o r i c a l D i s t r i c t s Study Committee. Cambridge, Mass., H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t P r e s e r v a t i o n Press 1965, 92 pp. Gras, N.S.B. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Economic H i s t o r y . New York, Harper, 1922. H a l l , E. The Hidden Dimension. Doubleday and Company. New York 1966. Harker, D. The C i t y and The S t o r e . Vancouver, M i t c h e l l Press, 1958. H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n Today. C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e , U n i v e r s i t y of V i r g i n i a Press, I965, 180 pp. Lynch, K. The Image of the C i t y . Cambridge, Mass., Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology Press, i 9 6 0 . Mathews, J.S. L i n k i n g the A t l a n t i c t o the P a c i f i c , Ocean to Ocean. Vancouver, Wrigley P r i n t i n g , Morely, A. From M i l l t o w n t o M e t r o p o l i s . Vancouver, M i t c h e l l Press, 1969. Tunnard, C. and Pushkarev, B. Man-Made Americas Chaos or C o n t r o l . New Haven, Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963. Vleux Carre Demonstration Study. New Orleans, Bureau of Gov't Research, I968. I I PERIODICALSs Gastown Gazette, ed. W i l l o x , T. August I 9 6 9 . V o l . 1 . f o l l o w i n g e d i t i o n s . 90. Jacobs, S. "A Current View of Area P r e s e r v a t i o n * . J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of  A r c h i t e c t s . Dec. 1964. L i c h f i e l d , N. "Cost B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s i n Urban Redevelop-ment" • I n s t i t u t e of Business and  Economic Research J o u r n a l . B e r k e l e y , I96T: Moway, F.W. "'Early S h i p p i n g i n B u r r a r d I n l e t * . B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y . Vancouver 1937. Reed, Thomas. "'Land Use C o n t r o l s i n H i s t o r i c Areas". Notre Dame Lawyer. Feb. I969, Vancouver D a l l y World. Souvenir E d i t i o n , I 8 6 7 . Vancouver Sun, and, Vancouver P r o v i n c e . C l i p p i n g s from 1968 and f o l l o w i n g e d i t i o n s . White, H.E. "A D i s c u s s i o n of H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t L e g i s l a t i o n " ' . Columbia Law Review, New York, A p r i l Wrenn, T.P. "Real E s t a t e R e a l i t i e s " . H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a - t i o n . XV, Washington, 1963. I l l STUDIES AND REPORTS; Bartholomew, H. P l a n f o r the C i t y of Vancouver, Vancouver 1929. Community A r t s C o u n c i l . Gastown R e v i s i t e d , Vancouver 1970. Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept. Downtown-East Side, I 9 6 5 . . Downtown Vancouver - F i v e Development ConceptsT 1965. . R e s t o r a t i o n Report - A Case f o r Renewed L i f e i n the Old C i t y . 196*97 . Vancouver Redevelopment Study. 1967. Vancouver Town Pl a n n i n g Commission. Relevant r e p o r t s from 1948 and f o l l o w i n g . 91. IV UNPUBLISHED WORKS: Brooks, F.G. Vancouver's O r i g i n s . Unpublished t h e s i s from the U.B.C. Department of H i s t o r y . 1952. Roy, P.E. The R i s e of Vancouver '!'. Unpublished t h e s i s from U.B.C. Department of H i s t o r y , i960. . The R i s e of Vancouver ' I I ' . Unpublished t h e s i s from U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, Department of H i s t o r y , I963. Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept. Gastown-Chinatown. Report t o the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1970. Gastown-Chlnatown Study. U n f i n i s h e d . To be completed Nov. 1971. Van Weston, P. Goal F o r m u l a t i o n and Achievement i n H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t P r e s e r v a t i o n . Unpublished t h e s i s from U.B.C. Department of Community and R e g i o n a l Planning, 1970. 92. APPENDIX ONE Appendix One outlines the study area which was employed for the purpose of analysing development trends i n t h i s thesis (Map 3). An explanation of t h i s information i s to be found i n Chapter I. Data which produced the land-use graphs was gathered from the c i t y d i r e c t o r i e s and h i s t o r i c a l records dating back to 1870. G R O S S N U M B E R O F E S T A B L I S H M E N T S G R O S S N U M B E R O F E S T A B L I S H M E N T S < •£6 31 qdnis \ G R O S S N U M B E R O F E S T A B L I S H M E N T S 96 APPENDIX TWO 98. EVALUATION OF HISTORIC PRECINCTS IN OTHER NORTH AMERICAN CITIES Any reader, s e r i o u s l y concerned w i t h p r e s e r v a t i o n and r e s t o r a t i o n developments i n other c i t i e s , i s r e f e r r e d to a thorough study by P i e t e r van Westen, Goal Formu- l a t i o n and Achievement i n H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t P r e s e r v a t i o n , U.B.C. 1970. Van Weston's study p r e s e n t s a 'macro' approach to r e s t o r a t i o n , and i n c l u d e s e x t e n s i v e r e f e r -ences on h i s t o r i c l e g i s l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s . In f o r m u l a t i n g a development programme f o r Gastown, t h i s study would p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t background i n f o r m a t i o n on the advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s of v a r i o u s approaches. The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s from a Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g r e p o r t p r o v i d e some p a r t i c u l a r examples r e l e v a n t to the Gastown s i t u a t i o n . I H i s t o r i c Area Zoning H i s t o r i c a r e a z o n i n g i s a form of c o n t r o l t h a t has been a p p l i e d to areas c o n t a i n i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of h i s t o r i -c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r e s . The g o a l of such c o n t r o l , has been t o prevent w i l f u l d e s t r u c t i o n of the c u l t u r a l v a l u e i n h e r e n t i n the e x i s t e n c e of h i s t o r i c s t r u c t u r e s . 1 Appendix I I , Appendix I I I , and Appendix W were presented i n the eity P l a n n i n g Department's r e p o r t to the Board of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , June 2, 1970. 99. These r e g u l a t o r y d e v i c e s have been enacted and employed, predominantly, by m u n i c i p a l governments, and r e g u l a t e the development of l a n d and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of b u i l d -i n g s thereon, i n the i n t e r e s t of g e n e r a l w e l f a r e . I n the U.S., these r e g u l a t i o n s , while d i f f e r i n g i n d e t a i l , a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r i n t h e i r g e n e r a l approach. A more o r l e s s standard procedure has been t o make h i s t o r i c r egu-l a t i o n s a p a r t of the e x i s t i n g z o n i n g ordinance. When t h i s i s done, a new d i s t r i c t i s c r e a t e d , w i t h i n which s p e c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s a r e a p p l i e d . The h e a r t of many such r e g u l a t i o n s i s the c r e a t i o n of a s p e c i a l commission, which i s g i v e n v a r i o u s names, such as the Beacon H i l l A r c h i t e c t u r a l Commission (Boston), or, the Commission of A r c h i t e c t u r a l Review (Richmond). T h i s s p e c i a l comm-i s s i o n , i s g i v e n the powers of a p p r o v a l or r e j e c t i o n of plans f o r b u i l d i n g , a l t e r a t i o n , r e p a i r and demo-l i t i o n of s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t . The a c t i o n of the commission may or may not be b i n d i n g on the a c t i o n s of the b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t o r . The powers of the commission, however, a r e u s u a l l y l i m i t e d t o a review of e x t e r i o r d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n , to assure harmonius develop-ment w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t . San F r a n c i s c o , i n 1966, added a new a r t i c l e ( A r t i c l e 10) to t h e i r m u n i c i p a l code. The jpurposes as s e t down i n S e c t i o n 1001 are p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy: 100. "SEC.1001. Purposes. I t i s hereby found t h a t s t r u c t u r e s , s i t e s and areas of s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r , of s p e c i a l h i s t -o r i c a l , a r c h i t e c t u r a l or a e s t h e t i c i n t e r e s t or value have been and continue to be u n n e c e s s a r i l y destroyed or impaired, d e s p i t e the f e a s i b i l i t y of p r e s e r v i n g them. I t i s f u r t h e r found t h a t the p r e v e n t i o n of such needless d e s t r u c t i o n and impairment i s e s s e n t i a l t o the h e a l t h , s a f e t y , and g e n e r a l w e l f a r e of the p u b l i c . The purpose of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o promote the h e a l t h , s a f e t y , and g e n e r a l w e l f a r e of the p u b l i c through: (a) The p r o t e c t i o n , enhancement, p e r p e t u a t i o n , and use of s t r u c t u r e s , s i t e s , and areas t h a t a r e reminders of past eras, events and persons important i n l o c a l , s t a t e , or n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y , or which p r o v i d e s i g n i f i -cant examples of a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s of the past or are landmarks i n the h i s t o r y of a r c h i t e c t u r e , or which are unique and i r r e p l a c e a b l e a s s e t s to the c i t y and i t s neighbourhoods, or which p r o v i d e f o r t h i s and f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s examples of the p h y s i c a l surround-i n g s i n which past g e n e r a t i o n s l i v e d : (b) The development and maintenance of a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g s and environment f o r such s t r u c t u r e s , and i n such s i t e s and a r e a s ; (c) The enhancement of p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , the s t a b i l i -z a t i o n of neighbourhoods and areas of the c i t y , the 101. Increase of economic and f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s t o the c i t y and i t s I n h a b i t a n t s , and the p r o t e c t i o n of t o u r i s t trade and i n t e r e s t ; (d) The p r e s e r v a t i o n and encouragement of a c i t y of v a r i e d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s , r e f l e c t i n g the d i s t i n c t phases of i t s h i s t o r y : c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , and a r c h i t e c t u r a l ; (e) The enrichment of human l i f e i n i t s e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l dimensions i n order t o serve s p i r i t u a l as w e l l as m a t e r i a l needs, by f o s t e r i n g knowledge of the l i v i n g h e r i t a g e of the past." The major t h r u s t of c i v i c a c t i o n to date, has concerned i t s e l f , p r i m a r i l y , w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n t r o l - t h a t i s , c o n t r o l of d e m o l i t i o n and of v i s u a l e x t e r i o r changes of the s t r u c t u r e s , and has s k i r t e d the i s s u e of the uses t o which the b u i l d i n g s w i l l be put. However, the Vieux Carre study s e t s down s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . I t s t a t e s , t h a t the sum t o t a l e f f e c t - b u i l d i n g s p l u s  environment, I n c l u d i n g the manner i n which the b u i l d i n g s a r e u t i l i z e d - i s important. The study developed a Composite Treatment Index, which scored each b u i l d i n g i n the Vieux Carre on the b a s i s of three f a c t o r s - the b u i l d i n g ' s a r c h i t e c t u r a l / h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , i t s land-use c o m p a t i b i l i t y , and i t s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . 102. Thus, a b a s i s i s e s t a b l i s h e d , by which standards can be s e t , not o n l y t o judge b u i l d i n g s , but, a l s o , the use to which they should be put, and, thus, complement the t o t a l environment. H i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n i n Canada has been l e s s n o table t o date. Montreal i s the o n l y major urban community t o employ p r o t e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n t o c o n t r o l i t s h i s t o r i c p r e c i n c t - Old Montreal (130 a c r e s i n s i z e ) . I n 1962, the C i t y of Montreal c r e a t e d the Jacques-Viger Commission, a c i t i z e n s ' committee concerned w i t h the c o n s e r v a t i o n of the Old C i t y . In 1964, the P r o v i n c i a l Government d e c l a r e d Old Montreal a h i s t o r i c s i t e by means of Quebec's H i s t o r i c Monuments Act - thereby p r e v e n t i n g d e m o l i t i o n s , a l t e r a -t i o n s or changes, e i t h e r i n t e r i o r o r e x t e r i o r , to s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n the p r e c i n c t , without the a u t h o r i z a t i o n of the above-mentioned commission. Elsewhere i n Canada, a number of h i s t o r i c v i l l a g e s have been c r e a t e d , such as O n t a r i o ' s Upper Canada V i l l a g e . In B.C., two such communities are under the p r o t e c t i o n of t h i s P r o v i n c e ' s H i s t o r i c Monuments Act: A. The r e s t o r a t i o n of B a r k e r v i l l e was brought about by the 1958 C e n t e n n i a l Committee r e p o r t , which focused a t t e n t i o n on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t B a r k e r v i l l e o f f e r e d . The B.C. L e g i s l a t u r e , i n 1959, d e c l a r e d B a r k e r v i l l e a 103. H i s t o r i c S i t e , and e s t a b l i s h e d the B a r k e r v i l l e R e s t o r a -t i o n A d v i s o r y Committee. T h i s committee, undertook h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h , and e s t a b l i s h e d g u i d e l i n e s f o r the r e s e a r c h of the o l d mining town. The a c t u a l e x e c u t i o n of r e s t o r a t i o n work, and the r e d e v e l -opment of the s i t e of B a r k e r v i l l e , was turned over to the Department of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , T h i s department i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r maintenance of the grounds and b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n the h i s t o r i c s i t e , p a i d f o r on an annual budget b a s i s . The r e s t o r a t i o n of F o r t S t e e l e i s an outcome of l o c a l i n t e r e s t . In 1964, the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Government d e c l a r e d F o r t S t e e l e a H i s t o r i c S i t e , and e s t a b l i s h e d the F o r t S t e e l e Foundation, which was g i v e n $100,000. to undertake s t u d i e s and s t a r t a c t u a l r e s t o r a t i o n . I t i s expected t h a t a t some time i n the f u t u r e , the Depart-ment of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n w i l l take t h i s pro-j e c t under i t s wing, as i t d i d i n B a r k e r v i l l e . H i s t o r i c Area R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Through Urban Renewal A c o n s i d e r a b l e number of American c i t i e s have produced master plans f o r h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s , i n r e c e n t years, and have been a b l e to take advantage of the U.S. F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Law f o r t h e i r p r e s e r v a t i o n and r e d e v e l o p -ment. 104. One of the most s u c c e s s f u l attempts a t p r e s e r v a t i o n , through urban renewal law and f i n a n c i n g , has taken p l a c e i n P h i l a d e l p h i a . Hundreds of o l d and h i s t o r i c houses have been preserved i n the c e n t r a l area, n o t a b l y i n the S o c i e t y H i l l d i s t r i c t , through the impetus of the Washington Square East and Washington Square West urban renewal p r o j e c t s . I n 1957, the P h i l a d e l p h i a Redevelopment A u t h o r i t y began the p l a n n i n g of s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s f o r the a r e a . A p p r o x i -mately 1,200 b u i l d i n g s have been r e s t o r e d " a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r o r i g i n a l d e s i gns and a v i b r a n t r e s i d e n t i a l commun-i t y i s r i s i n g t o r e p l a c e decay caused by 100 years of n e g l e c t . Converted s t o r e f r o n t r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s a r e b e i n g r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l use and appearance. As i n the e a r l y days of the c i t y , prominent f a m i l i e s and young p r o f e s s i o n a l people a r e s e t t l i n g t h e r e " . The success of P h i l a d e l p h i a , i n combining h i s t o r i c and aes-t h e t i c p r e s e r v a t i o n w i t h urban renewal, i s b e i n g r e -peated i n San Antonio (Texas), Mobile (Alabama), Bethlehem ( P e n n s y l v a n i a ) , Savannah ( G e o r g i a ) , Chicago, Washington D.C., San F r a n c i s c o , and numerous o t h e r American c i t i e s . L o c a l l y , V i c t o r i a ' s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of B a s t i o n Square was a c h i e v e d through urban renewal techniques. I n t h a t p r o j e c t , the c i t y purchased s e v e r a l of the d e r e l i c t 105. b u i l d i n g s surrounding the square. These were then r e - s o l d , s u b j e c t t o compliance w i t h the p r o j e c t ' s d e s i g n c r i t e r i a . C i t y work on the p r o j e c t was comp-l e t e d i n 1967. 106. APPENDIX THREE2 PUBLIC FINANCE ASSISTANCE FOR PRESERVATION In the U.S., tax exemption has been a useful tool in assisting in the preservation of hist o r i c a l l y or archi-tecturally significant structures. Generally, i t appears that i f a public purpose i s served by the preservation of historic property through the exercise of the power of eminent domain, then the same end may be accomplished through the taxing power. The following i s an excerpt from the draft legislation, relating to preservation of historic sites in the State of Kentucky. "Section 5. Classification for tax purposes. In order to encourage restoration and preservation of historic sites and areas by private owners and pursuant to the authority conferred by S/s 171 of the Constitution of Kentucky, a l l property desig-nated pursuant to 4(a) above shall be exempt from that portion of local city, county and school prop-erty taxes which is offset by a properly documented showing by the owner thereof of restoration, preser-vation and maintenance expenses thereon. Local city, county, and school property taxes shall be reduced by the amount expended for restoration, preservation 2 See Footnote 1, page 98. 107. and maintenance expenses each year and amounts ex-pended i n a g i v e n year may be c a r r i e d forward t o as many as t e n subsequent years f o r a p p l i c a t i o n to pr o p e r t y taxes thereon d u r i n g the ensuing p e r i o d . P rovided, however, t h a t i f the d e s i g n a t i o n of any h i s t o r i c s i t e or a r e a i s f o r any l a w f u l reason r e -voked, any unabsorbed tax c r e d i t accumulated by the owner t h e r e o f pursuant t o t h i s s e c t i o n s h a l l immed-i a t e l y l a p s e . " The 1937 amendment t o the L o u i s i a n a C o n s t i t u t i o n s t a t e s the f o l l o w i n g 1 "t h a t the C i t y i s a u t h o r i z e d t o exempt from l o c a l taxes such b u i l d i n g s as the Vieux Carre Commission may des-i g n a t e as having h i s t o r i c a l and a r c h i t e c t u r a l v a l u e , p r o v i d e d the owners agree f o r themselves, t h e i r h e i r s and a s s i g n s never t o a l t e r or demolish them without the a p p r o v a l of the Vieux Carre Commission." ECONOMIC RAMIFICATIONS OF PRESERVATIONS The p r e s e r v a t i o n of h i s t o r i c p r e c i n c t s i n the U.S. has proven t o be f i n a n c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l i n two b a s i c areas -i n c r e a s e d tourism, and, i n c r e a s e d r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s . A. Tourism; Many communities i n the U.S. have ass e s s e d the va l u e of 108. t h e i r h i s t o r i c architecture, and found that i t s economic Impact, from the t o u r i s t standpoint, i s substantial -New Orleans, f o r example, estimates that the Vieux Carre i s responsible f o r generating $150 m i l l i o n , yearly, through tourism, while Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and St. Augustine, F l o r i d a , put the figure f o r t h e i r areas at $10 m i l l i o n , annually. In 1959, the Real Estate Research Corporation of Chicago studied the Vieux Carre d i s t r i c t . Their findings were as f o l l o w s i "The Vieux Carre represents the single largest day-in and day-out concentration of the out-of-town v i s i t o r s that e x i s t s anywhere i n the U.S. Almost 80% of the persons interviewed by us on c e r t a i n streets i n the area l i v e d outside New Orleans primarily by the a t t r a c t i o n which the French Quarter presents...its presence makes New Orleans one of the four most 'popular' convention c i t i e s i n the U.S. ...the Vieux Carre i s c l e a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n the l o c a t i o n of regional and national o f f i c e s i n New Orleans ... It i s , therefore, one of the single most important elements i n the econo-mic base of the c i t y ... the extraordinary strength of New Orleans i s again influenced favourably by the adja-cency of the core area to the Vieux Carre."' The United States Department of Commerce reports, that i f a community can a t t r a c t an average of Zk t o u r i s t s 109. per day throughout the year, i t would be comparable to e s t a b l i s h i n g a new i n d u s t r y w i t h an annual p a y r o l l of $ 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 . As the New Orleans study has p o i n t e d out, one of the major f a c t o r s i n drawing t o u r i s t s i s t h e i r h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . B. R e a l E s t a t e Values The Beacon H i l l D i s t r i c t of Boston p r o v i d e s a good example of the p o s i t i v e economic e f f e c t s of p r e s e r v a t i o n where r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s were e i t h e r s t a b i l i z e d or i n c -reased. In 1955. the Beacon H i l l C i v i c A s s o c i a t i o n was a b l e t o o b t a i n l e g i s l a t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h the Beacon H i l l H i s t o r i c D i s t r i c t , making i t i l l e g a l t o demolish, or a l t e r , any e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s , or to b u i l d new s t r u c t u r e s , without the a p p r o v a l of an a r c h i t e c t u r a l commission. Seven years l a t e r , i n 19&2, r e a l e s t a t e s a l e s i n d i c a t e d an i n c r e a s e i n r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s of n e a r l y 180$, even though a s s e s s e d v a l u e s i n the Beacon H i l l D i s t r i c t were h i g h e r than i n any other a r e a of the c i t y . I n the Church H i l l D i s t r i c t of Richmond, V i r g i n i a , a programme of r e s -t o r a t i o n commenced i n 1958. Between 1958 and 1963. the a s s e s s e d v a l u e of p r o p e r t i e s where r e s t o r a t i o n was en-couraged r o s e 136%, During the same p e r i o d , a d j a c e n t u n r e s t o r e d p r o p e r t i e s rose o n l y 30%. The same s c a l e of i n c r e a s e i n r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s has 110. a l s o been recorded i n New Orleans, C h a r l e s t o n , and Santa Barbara. I t appears,then,that r e s t o r a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n can have a h e a l t h y e f f e c t on economic growth; and t h i s growth means not o n l y g r e a t e r wealth f o r the i n d i v i d u a l , but, a l s o , f o r the C i t y , i n the form of r i s i n g l a n d , s a l e s , and income t a x e s . C. Other C o n s i d e r a t i o n s : Increases i n r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s , and the expansion of market p r i c e s and the g e n e r a l economic a c t i v i t y which they r e f l e c t , c o u l d have harmful i m p l i c a t i o n s as w e l l . More i n t e n s e economic a c t i v i t y r e f l e c t e d by h i g h e r assessments normally produces a g r e a t e r tax burden on the i n d i v i d u a l . S p e c u l a t i o n c o u l d e n t e r i n t o the p i c t u r e thereby d r i v i n g the market v a l u e of the prop-e r t y f u r t h e r up, thus i n c r e a s i n g assessments and c a u s i n g even h i g h e r taxes. T h i s c o u l d p l a c e h a r d s h i p s on the s m a l l merchant i n the a r e a concerned, and may e v e n t u a l l y f o r c e him t o bow out i n f a v o u r of the l a r g e , more Im-p e r s o n a l , r e t a i l o u t l e t . However, i t Is the s m a l l opera-t i o n which c o n t r i b u t e s so much to the t o t a l environment of a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . I f the i n f l u x of l a r g e o p e r a t i o n s continued, the uniqueness of the area, which caused the growth i n economic a c t i v i t y and assessments i n the f i r s t p l a c e , would completely d i s a p p e a r . I t should a l s o be 111. noted, t h a t s p e c u l a t i o n , e v e n t u a l l y , c o u l d i n h i b i t e xpenditures on improvements,as w e l l . R e s i d e n t s , e x i s t e n t or p o t e n t i a l , as w e l l as merchants, seem t o be a n e c e s s i t y i n the t o t a l environment of a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t . However, i f p r o p e r t y v a l u e s became o v e r - i n f l a t e d , lower, and even middle income groups c o u l d not a f f o r d to buy. Rents, b a r r i n g r e n t c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n , would a l s o be i n f l a t e d , d r i v i n g out those who cannot a f f o r d to pay. I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , that s t r o n g d e t e r r e n t s , as w e l l as i n c e n t i v e s , a r e r e q u i r e d t o ensure h e a l t h y economic development i n any h i s t o r i c p r e c i n c t . APPENDIX FOUR 112. C O P Y MINISTER OF MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS V i c t o r i a March 17, 1970. Mr. H.P. C a p o z z i , M.L.A., Vancouver Centre, Government Members Room, B u i l d i n g s . Dear S i r s As I understand i t the P r o v i n c i a l Government i s w i l l i n g t o use Vote #197, Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , f o r a p r o p o s a l presented on the redevelopment of Gastown and Chinatown a r e a i n Vancouver. T h i s would be a commitment i n a d d i t i o n to the normal use to which these funds are put under the j o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Program. My p r e v i o u s l e t t e r t o you i n d i c a t e s what t h a t commitment i s . T h e r e f o r e , as I understand i t , t h i s w i l l serve to i n d i c a t e t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government i s w i l l i n g t o e n t e r upon a f i v e - y e a r p a r t n e r s h i p which would p r o v i d e on a o n e - t h i r d matching grant b a s i s a t o t a l sum i n the amount of $500,000.00. The P r o v i n c i a l Grant would be l i m i t e d t o approximately $35,000.00 per year p r o v i d e d t h a t a matching amount was forthcoming from both the F e d e r a l Government and the C i t y of Vancouver. I t may very w e l l be t h a t the C i t y of Vancouver's commit-ment might be p r o v i d e d i n p a r t from p r i v a t e sources w i t h i n the concerned a r e a . I would be p l e a s e d to take t h i s a l o n g f u r t h e r when you have had an o p p o r t u n i t y to work a p r o p o s a l out i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . Yours s i n c e r e l y , (sgnd.) Dan Campbell M i n i s t e r . APPENDIX FIVE 113. SELECTIVE ZONING The g u i d e l i n e suggested f o r r e v i s i n g the e x i s t i n g C i t y Zoning Ordinances as they a p p l y t o the area, should be co n s i d e r e d as a temporary measure, u n t i l a m o r e " s e l e c t i v e " type of zoning can be. recommended as p a r t of a develop-ment p l a n f o r the h i s t o r i c a r e a . Zoning s e c t i o n s of a c i t y f o r p a r t i c u l a r uses - i . e . r e s i -d e n t i a l , commercial, i n d u s t r i a l , e t c . - which a r e designed to c o n t r o l development of the "modern" environment when a p p l i e d t o a h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n a r e a , can d e s t r o y e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s of what should be pre s e r v e d i n h i s t o r i c a r e a s . A major purpose of p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t o ensure the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the area's " ' i d e n t i t y , d i v e r -s i t y , and a u t h e n t i c i t y . " ' I n g e n e r a l , d e v e l o p i n g s e l e c t i v e z o n i n g would i n v o l v e : A. examining the e x i s t i n g l a n d usage of each h a l f -b l o c k u n i t i n the study a r e a , and determining which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n s t i t u t e the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y of each h a l f - b l o c k u n i t ; B. r e l a t i n g e x i s t i n g uses t o the d e s i r e d l a n d uses; C. d e v e l o p i n g a s e l e c t i v e z o n i n g schedule f o r each h a l f - b l o c k u n i t t o continue (or p r o v i d e f o r ) the e x i s t i n g o r d e s i r e d l a n d uses. 3 See Footnote 1, page 98. 114. The same examination would p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the h e i g h t s of b u i l d i n g s a l o n g b l o c k f a c i n g s , which would form the b a s i s f o r h e i g h t r e g u l a t i o n s f o r each h a l f -b l o c k u n i t . D e n s i t y of use and mass of s t r u c t u r e should be r i g o r o u s l y h e l d t o the ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' l e v e l . T h i s method of zoning would be a v i a b l e p a r t of the d e s i r e d process of h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n " to accomodate the h i s t o r i c p r e c i n c t t o change w h i l e e n s u r i n g the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t ' s i d e n t i t y , d i v e r s i t y , and a u t h e n c i t y . " 

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