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Outdoor education : a procedure for site analysis and selection Klassen, Harold H. 1971

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OUTDOOR EDUCATION A PROCEDURE FOR SITE ANALYSIS AND SELECTION by HAROLD H. KLASSEN B.Sc. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the College of Education We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Recent popularity of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y outdoor lear n -ing has resulted i n a need for a method of selecting adequate learning s i t e s . Observations by the author of outdoor s i t e s presently i n use indicated a need for analysis and sel e c t i o n of s i t e s where students could derive the greatest b e n e f i t . A survey was sent to each school d i s t r i c t i n the province to determine inter e s t i n t h i s approach. Results of the survey showed f i f t y - f i v e percent of the responding school d i s t r i c t s have undertaken planning for outdoor educa-tion with emphasis i n the elementary grades. F i f t e e n percent of the responding d i s t r i c t s are presently developing s i t e s for extended outdoor education and curriculum enrichment. Another seventeen percent would consider this type of s i t e in t h e i r future plans. A term, "corridors of learning", was coined to des-cribe unique and d i s t i n c t areas within a s i t e . This concept was enlarged to include the p o t e n t i a l use by students and teacher of each part of an outdoor s i t e . Curriculum was defined as the t o t a l educational p o t e n t i a l of a s i t e . Objectives for outdoor education i n th i s province were phrased by determining the frequency of occurence in the l i t e r a t u r e of s i m i l a r objectives. These were then rephrased so that they would be p r a c t i c a l within the B r i t i s h Columbia school system and serve as a basis for viewing the s i t e as the curriculum. Outdoor education was divided into the f i e l d t r i p approach, day t r i p approach and r e s i d e n t i a l approach. A l i t e r a t u r e search and f i e l d observations were ca r r i e d out to i s o l a t e problems related to the ecology of the s i t e and the behavioural responses of students using a s i t e . Problems of s i t e a v a i l a b i l i t y , u s e a b i l i t y , physical uniqueness, and student use were considered important selection factors. Numerical values were assigned to physical s i t e factors for the purpose of comparative analysis of d i f f e r e n t s i t e s . These numerical values were used to develop a graph for comparing the educational p o t e n t i a l of several s i t e s . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S Special thanks are due to Professor D.C. G i l l e s p i e for his patience, excellent c r i t i c i s m and valuable e d i t i n g of the manuscript. I also wish to thank the other members of the committee, Dr. Bandy, Professor P.J. Dooling and Professor Lome Brown. Their suggestions greatly improved the t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , my gratitude to my patient wife who did most of the typing and without whose understanding and special kind of s a c r i f i c e t h i s study would not have been possible. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 Considerations of a School D i s t r i c t For Extended Residential or Day Program Outdoor Studies 2 Knowledge of Values and Procedures . . . . 2 Nature of the Outdoor Site 2 II THE ABILITY OF SITES TO SUPPORT OUTDOOR EDUCATION 5 Curriculum and Site 5 The Need for Considering E c o l o g i c a l Characteristics When Selecting An Outdoor Site 6 Corridors of Learning 8 Topography of an Outdoor Site 13 A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Study Areas Within A Site 15 High Use Corridors 15 The Cathedral Concept of Corridors Where Use Should Be Restricted To Quantitative Studies and Observation 16 I I I . SITE USE AND LOCATION 18 Sites and Their Use 18 Site Location 21 CHAPTER PAGE IV. SUPPORT NEEDS FOR RESIDENTIAL AND DAY PROGRAM SITES 24 Water For Support Purposes 24 Sanitation Requirements 27 Camp Refuse 29 V. ANALYSIS OF SITES 31 Mapping Boundaries Within the Site . . . . 31 Completion of the Analysis 32 VI. SITE SURVEY AND ANALYSIS FOR DAY TRIP OR RESIDENTIAL CAMP USE . . 36 Administrative Characteristics 36 Preliminary Survey 3 7 Analysis Characteristics and Their Point Value Divided Into Four Sections 41 A v a i l a b i l i t y 41 U s a b i l i t y 42 Physical Uniqueness 44 Student Use 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY 50 APPENDIX A . 60 APPENDIX B 63 APPENDIX C 67 APPENDIX D 76 1 VOLUME OF WATER USE FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF PLUMBING FIXTURES USED ON OUTDOOR SITES 28 2 PERCOLATION RATE FOR A SEPTIC TANK DRAINAGE FIELD RELATED TO MAXIMUM SEWAGE APPLICATION RATE 29 3 SUMMARY OF A SURVEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL DISTRICTS TO DETERMINE PLANNING FOR OUTDOOR EDUCATION 64 4 SUB-CATEGORIES OF THE BROAD OBJECTIVE CATEGORIES IN THE LITERATURE 69 5 RANKED SUB-CATEGORIES OF OBJECTIVES FOUND IN THE LITERATURE IN THEIR ORDER OF FREQUENCY OF OCCURENCE 71 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. A SEGMENT OF AN OUTDOOR SITE WITH FIVE CORRIDORS DESIGNATED ACCORDING TO USE (1. SOCIAL, 2. RECREATIONAL, 3. EARTH SCIENCE STUDIES, 4. and 5. LIFE SCIENCE STUDIES) 9 2. A FIVE ACRE SITE OF TALL DOUGLAS FIR AND WESTERN HEMLOCK ON FLAT TERRAIN 10 3 . AN OUTDOOR SITE WITH SEVERAL CORRIDORS, SHOWING PLACEMENT OF FACILITIES 11 4. AN OUTDOOR SITE SHOWING A LARGE RELATIVELY HOMOGENEOUS AREA ARBITRARILY CLASSIFIED INTO SMALLER CORRIDORS 19 5. GRAPH AXES SHOWING THE MAJOR DESCRIPTIVE CATEGORIES 35 6. GRAPH OF ANALYSIS DATA 49 7. FREQUENCY OF OCCURENCE OF THE RANKED CATEGORIES OF INTENT 73 INTRODUCTION An a l y t i c a l methods useful in the sel e c t i o n of s i t e s for outdoor studies have been developed in thi s t h e s i s . E c o l o g i c a l factors a f f e c t i n g s i t e s u i t a b i l i t y as well as student and teacher requirements and s p e c i f i c educational objectives have been considered i n establishing the a n a l y t i c a l methods. Making decisions between alternate s i t e s when acquiring land by lease, easement, purchase or r e n t a l , requires a p r i o r knowledge of the physical features of a s i t e . Appendix A contains a d i v i s i o n of outdoor education into three modes of approach. Each mode of approach has unique s i t e requirements. A survey of outdoor education being undertaken and planned by B.C. school d i s t r i c t s was carr i e d out to determine the need for t h i s study. The res u l t s of the survey are given i n Appendix B. A set of r e a l i s t i c objectives i s presented in Appendix C which i s based on the l i t e r a t u r e and outdoor opportunities i n B.C. This thesis i s intended to serve as a basis for out-door educational s i t e analysis and s e l e c t i o n by proposing a procedure which includes the learning requirements of students and the e f f e c t of t h e i r learning a c t i v i t i e s on the l i v i n g and non-living parts of a s i t e . Considerations of a School D i s t r i c t for Extended  Residential or Day Program Outdoor Studies. I. Knowledge of Values and Procedures. Administration, trustees and s t a f f members in a school d i s t r i c t must have a p r i o r knowledge of the values and the procedures used for outdoor studies. In most cases t h i s develops from a gradual process of i n d i v i d u a l and group inte r e s t , learning and pra c t i c e , to the formation of a steering committee to analyse s i t e s . I I . Nature of the Outdoor S i t e . A. Program of A c t i v i t i e s . 1. The f i r s t of two approaches consists of s t a r t i n g with a ready made program, then acquiring a s i t e of unknown pot e n t i a l and attempting to have the s i t e conform to the needs of the program. This approach attempts to take education out of doors. 2. The second procedure involves the analysis of several available areas and the s e l e c t i o n of one on the basis of c r i t e r i a which w i l l permit the greatest possible variety of a c t i v i t i e s . In t h i s case a program can be s p e c i f i c a l l y developed from the s i t e . Dangers of Missuse. Overuse or adverse use of an outdoor s i t e , such as the removal of l i v i n g organisms or heavier foot t r a f f i c than the s o i l w i l l bear, w i l l r e s u l t in a l t e r i n g the natural resources for which the s i t e was secured. Once the ecol o g i c a l balance i s altered, i t s educational value i s depreciated. Therefore, a knowledge of the s t a b i l i t y of the ecology of a s i t e should precede any proposal for heavy student use. Land Management. Continued good land management requires a f u l l knowledge of the outdoor s i t e . A complete analysis at the early planning stages w i l l help show changes brought about through time. Variations Within the Site Within a natural area there are many ecolo g i c a l varients. For example, when t r a v e l l i n g from a pond to a wooded area one may pass through aquatic plants at the pond's edge, then through reeds, and then through shrubs to reach the trees. Each d i s t i n c t study area such as the edge of the pond or the band of shrubs around the pond, or an open grassy area has been loosely c a l l e d an outdoor classroom, an outdoor laboratory, a f i e l d t r i p s i t e or area, or some other term. Sometimes the term refers to an ecological e n t i t y , some-times to subcomponents of an ec o l o g i c a l e n t i t y . However, the terms have been applied i n many contexts to large and small areas without d e f i n i t i o n . The idea of landscape corridors for forest recreation and camping has been developed in the State of Wisconsin. However, the idea has not been previously applied to areas uniquely suited for outdoor education. THE ABILITY OF SITES TO SUPPORT OUTDOOR EDUCATION I. Curriculum and Site Each s i t e has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are unique. This means that a repertoire of investigation or lesson topics needs to be developed for use i n the s i t e chosen. The extent of the r e s u l t i n g curriculum of studies i s limited or extensive, depending on the s i t e . Student learning requirements for recr e a t i o n a l , arts, s o c i a l , or science learning purposes should be s a t i s f i e d by the chosen s i t e . Preferably, a successful s i t e should have physical features which permit the development of a l l these requirements. Sites with diverse physical features generally permit an extensive curriculum or course of studies r e s u l t i n g i n a high r a t i n g on the analysis procedure when compared with s i t e s which are comparatively uniform throughout. A c i t y dumping ground may be ex-tremely unique and may supply important topics but the repertoire of topics would l i k e l y l i m i t i t to use as a f i e l d t r i p s i t e . I I . The Need for Considering E c o l o g i c a l Characteristics When Selecting an Outdoor S i t e . Both duration and in t e n s i t y of the disruption caused by students due to t h e i r c o l l e c t i n g , walking, measuring and l i v i n g a c t i v i t i e s are a necessary consideration when estab l i s h i n g use categories for the s i t e . Gener-a l i z a t i o n s about the s t a b i l i t y and d i v e r s i t y of the species found on a s i t e are d i f f i c u l t to make because generalizations do not apply to a l l s i t e s . However, long range man-made changes, such as a change in water , drainage, would r e s u l t i n a new pyramid of mass, energy and numbers as well as new plant and animal associations. The learning a c t i v i t i e s of students i n an outdoor s i t e should be considered as an outside influence which could overwhelm the s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g mechanisms of an ecosystem. The important point here i s that a disturbed s i t e w i l l change from the type of community which the area was chosen for, to a d i f f e r e n t and perhaps less desirable community. To ensure the continued q u a l i t y of the chosen s i t e , use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s for the s i t e can be applied to regulate the int e n s i t y and duration of human dis r u p t i o n . For study purposes, the most desirable s i t e s occur where one type of natural area ends and another begins. This could occur where a rock outcropping forces a change i n vegetation from forest to mosses and lichens. Examples of types of natural areas which could be found on a s i t e are; a mud f l a t , a sandy beach, a sand desert, a mountain brook or a lake. Readily measurable differences occuring from one d i s t i n c t type of area to another should be the goal for an outdoor s i t e . Such areas within a s i t e are high i n t e r e s t areas for student i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Although the gradients (pH, l i g h t , water, nutrients, etc.) are gradual, there are d i s t i n c t and i d e n t i f i a b l e l i n e s mark-ing zones where the physical factor(s) have reached t h e i r maximum or minimum l i m i t for the support of the dominant species. Such l i n e s are very d i s t i n c t on exposed s a l t water beaches and rocks, where bands of attached plants and animals can be seen. This phenomenon is also seen i n the vegetation when going from high shrubs, to sedges and grasses and then reeds when t r a v e l l i n g from a deciduous forest to marsh or pond, even when there i s a uniform gradient i n s o i l moisture. Transition zones between plant and animal communities found within and between areas, are zones of tension where species from both communities compete under increas-ingly unfavourable conditions, either with each other and/or with the physical conditions. Some examples of t r a n s i t i o n zones are the banks of a stream running through a meadow, or the border between forest and grassland, or between marsh and shrub communities. Such zones also occur between aquatic communities. Outdoor s i t e s where t r a n s i t i o n i s abrupt are to be valued over s i t e s where communities mix over a great distance and change i s gradual. In s i t e s where the c o n t r o l l i n g physical gradients change rap i d l y , the t r a n s i t i o n i s abrupt. Transitions occur at water-land boundaries and on s i t e s with sharp changes i n elevation. Thus, the greater the number of d i f f e r e n t types of area; and the more d i s t i n c t they are; and the closer together they are; the ri c h e r the s i t e for a l l aspects of out-door study. Figure 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s kind of a hypo-t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . When such s i t e s are used for study purposes i t must be stressed that management and retention i s more d i f f i -c u l t than i t would be for r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous outdoor s i t e s . I I I . Corridors of learning When a proposed outdoor s i t e i s mapped or toured on foot, sub-units or smaller areas within the s i t e become apparent. For the purpose of analysis these areas can be designated according to use and w i l l be c a l l e d "corridors of learning". These smaller areas vary in shape but tend to be longer than they are wide. Their areas range from the size of a plant association of FIGURE I. A SEGMENT OF AN OUTDOOR SITE WITH FIVE CORRIDORS DESIGNATED ACCORDING TO USE (1. SOCIAL, 2. RECREATIONAL, 3. EARTH SCIENCE, 4. and 5. LIFE SCIENCE STUDIES.) SCALE 1"=50' SOIL PROFILE GLACIAL TILL SYNCLINE OR SEDIMENTARY AND IGNEOUS ROCKS TALUS SLOPE STREAM CROSS SECTION THROUGH BROKEN LINE ARCHERY STREAM •FAULT •TALUS SLOPE ft 4 ® ® ft © M 0 CORRIDOR £3 BOUNDARY PLAN VIEW OF AREA A FIVE ACRE SITE OF TALL DOUGLAS FIR AND WESTERN HEMLOCK ON FLAT TERRAIN. Q <3<J> ° o o p o 3* A 6 ~ . «=». G> O ° 0 . CJc? «? £> G> < 3 0 5 <5> 6 © O r a <3 'a 0° <3 k3 Q * 0 o 5> a MULTIPLE USE CORRIDOR (HIKING, GAMES, SOME BIOLOGY, ART, ETC.) O 100' AN OUTDOOR SITE WITH SEVERAL CORRIDORS, SHOWING PLACEMENT OF FACILITIES. of approximately o n e - f i f t h of an acre or larger, to the size of an exposed geological formation, shore area, or body of water, which could be many acres i n extent. A corridor of learning may include a complete ecosystem within the s i t e which would be a source of lesson topics or a topographic area characterized by physical features which make i t p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable to a s p e c i f i c group of a c t i v i t i e s (Figure 1 ) . Corridors w i l l always have overlapping uses such as s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n or recrea-t i o n which are part of most a c t i v i t i e s done i n an out-door se t t i n g whether the topic of study i s in earth science, or a r t . Moreover, a c t i v i t i e s on a s i t e which can withstand heavy foot t r a f f i c may range over the whole s i t e without any attempt at using any one sub-area within the s i t e for a s p e c i f i c purpose. This type of s i t e would have one or more multiple use corridors and have a comparatively homogeneous topography and vegeta-t i v e cover (Figure 2 ) . However, areas which lend them-selves to more than one a c t i v i t y and r e s u l t i n a multiple use for any one spot are rare (Figure 3 ) . No attempt has been made by the author or anyone i n the l i t e r a t u r e to f i n d out how much use an area can withstand before i t becomes permanently a l t e r e d . IV. Topography of an Outdoor Site Topography of the s i t e should include features which meet re c r e a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , s c i e n t i f i c and h i s t o r i c a l learning needs. The presence of a body of water forms the core feature to look for when considering an out-door s i t e and i s heavily weighted i n the analysis procedure. Many of the topographic features required are found around water areas. People are attracted to water by a strong natural urge. The need for water areas i s c l e a r l y recognized in the reports to the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC). More time i s spent around shore areas and "edge" near shore areas than i n open areas away from water. Walking, hiking, and outdoor camping s k i l l s are more int e r e s t i n g in d i v e r s i f i e d t e r r a i n e s p e c i a l l y i f a body of water i s included. S p e c i f i c topographical features are required for the following needs: 1. Recreational (a) Water i s required for water sports, f i s h i n g , canoeing, s a i l i n g , and swimming a c t i v i t i e s . (b) C l i f f s and steep slopes are required for climbing a c t i v i t i e s . (c) Varied landscape i s required for orienteering, hiking, camping and horseback t r i p s . (d) Open areas are needed for archery and throwing games. (e) Scenic beauty i s required for a r t a c t i v i t i e s and sightseeing. S o c i a l (a) Water and beach areas are required for campfire a c t i v i t i e s although clearings can also be used. (b) For a r e s i d e n t i a l school, a l i v i n g area for tents or cabins i s required. (c) I t i s desirable to have an area for manual s k i l l s and a c t i v i t i e s where students might fi n d simple to o l s , materials and equipment to make things out of natural objects (e.g. driftwood, e t c . ) . (d) An area i s required where vehicles may be inconspicuously parked. Science (a) Transition areas are needed for physical and l i f e science studies. (b) Exposed igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, and geological formations are required for earth science a c t i v i t i e s . A d i v e r s i f i e d topography lends i t s e l f to map making a c t i v i t i e s . (c) Diverse f l o r a and fauna are needed for l i f e science studies, p a r t i c u l a r l y trees and the vegetational changes near bodies of water, with changes of elevation, exposure, and s o i l s . 4. H i s t o r i c a l (a) Areas having an observable anthropological h i s t o r y are needed. Examples would be the f i r s t man, f i r s t white s e t t l e r s , or land f i r s t surveyed. (b) Areas having a geological h i s t o r y which show the e f f e c t s of climate or formations of pale-ontological s i g n i f i c a n c e are required. V. A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Study Areas Within a S i t e . 1. High use corridors High use corridors w i l l support i n t e l l i g e n t but not indiscriminate temporary c o l l e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s ( i . e . the undamaged return of organisms to the place from which they are taken). Jeopardizing the natural state of an area i s hardly worth the l i t t l e educational value derived from permanently removing l i v i n g or non-l i v i n g material. Photography i s an excellent alterna-t i v e for keeping a permanent record of investigations. The following high use areas w i l l support reasonably heavy student t r a f f i c for the lim i t e d c o l l e c t i n g of abundant, fecund species as well as measuring and observing a c t i v i t i e s , (a) S a l t water Some tide pools w i l l withstand t h i s type of a c t i v i t y although some are e a s i l y upset and ruined. This would depend l a r g e l y on where the students must walk to do the i r observing. Boulder beaches, rocks exposed at low-low t i d e s , sand and mud f l a t s and reefs could also be c l a s s i f i e d as high use co r r i d o r s . (b) Fresh water High use corridors for fresh water would include; highly productive lakes, ponds, a marsh or swamp, or a slow moving stream or r i v e r . c) Land The center of large areas of homogeneous vegetation where species d i v e r s i t y i s low but population numbers are high could be considered high use cor r i d o r s . Special attention should be given to the protection of flowering monocotyle-dons, mosses, lichens, shrubs, trees and grasses. The "cathedral concept" for corridors where use should be r e s t r i c t e d to quantitative studies and observation. Some corridors could be thought of as valuable irreplaceable museum pieces which w i l l withstand only quantitative studies and observations by students. C o l l e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s would be as out of place as they would be i n a rare h i s t o r i c cathedral. Examples of areas within outdoor s i t e s having r e s t r i c t e d use corridors would be; alpine meadow areas, areas of sharp t r a n s i t i o n previously d i s -cussed, bog and peat areas, some areas of young forest, and areas of homogeneous vegetation less than one acre i n extent. Important considerations when designating r e s t r i c t e d use corridors would be: (a) S o i l type and rainy season. (b) The number of other similar corridors on the s i t e . (c) The presence of rare species. (d) The amount of foot t r a f f i c received by mosses, flowering monocotyledons, grasses and low shrubs. Environmental factors such as r a i n f a l l , temperature, length of the growing season, the e f f e c t s of snow and fr o s t , describe the a b i l i t y of an area (such as muskeg) to support l i f e . A. Sites and t h e i r use. Some areas may support sensible c o l l e c t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and considerable foot t r a f f i c . I f there are several corridors which are s i m i l a r , t h e i r use can be alternated yearly, reducing the e f f e c t s of human t r a f f i c to a mini-mum. Recurring areas which are e a s i l y damaged could be l e f t "fallow" for longer periods of time. A large r e l a -t i v e l y homogeneous area could be a r b i t r a r i l y c l a s s i f i e d into smaller corridors and the same management practice used (Figure 4 ) , again leaving an area to l i e "fallow". I f a corridor begins to show signs of adverse use, a r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the area may be necessary, and a record of use i n t e n s i t y would provide invaluable informa-t i o n . Moreover, a cumulative record of past a c t i v i t i e s and what e f f e c t these have had on the s i t e could serve as guidelines for planning. Consideration of corridors of learning should deter-mine the planning of the s i t e . For an example, the sleeping quarters and cookhouse should not displace the only available stand of a rare species of tree. Nor should a stem-trail be pruned through an area having AN OUTDOOR SITE SHOWING LARGE RELATIVELY HOMOGENEOUS AREAS ARBITRARILY CLASSIFIED INTO SMALLER CORRIDORS heavy fine textured s o i l s which w i l l turn into a sea of mud when i t rains and heavily rutted "cement" when dry. Areas of clay, sand, peat and muskeg may have a shear strength which i s so low that feet sink through and shear the surface. The drainage of bog type humous s o i l s can be permanently altered by compaction through foot t r a f f i c . Organic s o i l s which are usually found near lakes, r i v e r s and marshes include peat and peaty s o i l s and muskeg. These s o i l s are usually highly compressible (spongy) and w i l l develop deep ruts and raised clumps of vegetation i n areas which receive heavy t r a f f i c . Laboratory tests on compaction, consolidation, rebound behaviour and shearing strength give informa-t i o n of value i n the assessment of a p a r t i c u l a r s o i l . Pine-grained, s i l t and clay s o i l s have a medium to highly p l a s t i c property depending on th e i r l i q u i d l i m i t . I f the surface becomes muddy, rutted and impacted the area i s not suited to heavy t r a f f i c and board walks may have to be constructed. Consideration should be given to the number of available corridors and the amount of use which they w i l l tolerate before deciding where an access road should go. In Figure 3 the area of grasses would be the easiest place to put the road but very wasteful in educational terms because i t would cut through the only available meadow on the s i t e . Placing the b u i l d -ings at location number two on the same diagram re s u l t s i n the smallest amount of l o s t area and keeps vehicles o f f the s i t e . Natural shelter from p r e v a i l i n g winds i n exposed areas i s required, e s p e c i a l l y where a f i e l d s t a t i o n i s set up and students are writing in t h e i r books and using measuring and observing equipment. The inclusion of areas open enough to permit sun during daylight hours i s necessary for an area to warm up. R e l i e f from the d i r e c t sun i s also necessary when students are measuring, digging, sketching, etc. in an open area. The a v a i l -a b i l i t y of p a r t i a l shade i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important in a r i d areas of the province i n hot weather. Exposure to the South with a 10% slope r e s u l t s in as much increase in solar heat energy and climate change as f l a t land 6° closer to the equator ?• B. Site Location Whenever possible, the r e s i d e n t i a l camp should be located with one of i t s boundaries adjacent to an e x i s t -ing Federal or P r o v i n c i a l Park. This arrangement v a s t l y Elizabeth Beazley, Designed For Recreation, Faber and Faber, London, 1969. increases the p o t e n t i a l recreational value of the s i t e i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t also expands the va r i e t y of habitats available in the area. However, proposed use of Park areas should be thoroughly discussed with Park author-i t i e s . I f the area i s close to habitation or range used for grazing, i t may have to be fenced to prevent disruption of the vegetation, although fencing also impedes the movement of larger wild animals. The s i t e should not be v i s i b l e from r e g u l a r l y t r a v e l l e d roads to give i t a sense of i s o l a t i o n from c i v i l i z a t i o n . Automobile and a i r c r a f t noise and odours are d i s t r a c t i n g and come under the category of non-compatible human a c t i v i t y i n the surrounding area along with i n d u s t r i a l operations. Ideally the area should have only one access road to discourage the public from using the area as a park. Vegetative screening and topographic location are two devices commonly used by park o f f i c i a l s to hide unsightly surroundings. The problem of students finding t h e i r way within a natural area i s greatly s i m p l i f i e d i f natural features mark the boundaries of the area. Natural boundaries should be extended to include natural drainage or water-shed areas which means carrying them to the crest of h i l l s . I f t h i s i s not done, commercial cutting of nearby timber c o u l d v i s u a l l y s c a r the area and upset the e c o l o g i c a l balance by a l t e r i n g the drainage p a t t e r n . The nearer the s i t e i s t o the student p o p u l a t i o n , the more i t w i l l be used, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r s h o r t term use. SUPPORT NEEDS FOR RESIDENTIAL AND DAY PROGRAM SITES. Water supply and waste disposal are the two main support problems. Solution of these problems may determine where f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be placed on the s i t e . A. Water For Support Purposes Application must be made to the Comptroller of Water Rights, Parliament Buildings, V i c t o r i a , B. C. to l e g a l i z e a water supply. Application forms w i l l be sent on request. Arrangements may be made through the l o c a l Public Health O f f i c e r to have the water supply tested for purity; the rules governing water sample taking w i l l be given when the arrangements are made. D i s t r i c t Engineers located i n Kamloops, Kelowna, Mission City, Nelson, Prince George and V i c t o r i a w i l l a s s i s t applicants i n f i l i n g an application for a Water Licence and in providing general information on water law and water use in B.C. "The Crown owns a l l water and permits the use of i t only by licence under the WATER ACT. A WATER LICENCE i s a legal document issued by the COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS which s p e c i f i e s the conditions governing the r i g h t to the use of water. These conditions, or TERMS of the licence, include a statement of: (a) the source of water supply; (b) the point of diversion from the stream; (c) the p r i o r i t y date of the licence; (d) the purpose for which the water i s to be used; (e) the maximum quantity of water which may be diverted; (f) the period of the year during which the water may be used; (g) the land to which the licence i s appurtenant; . and (h) the works authorized to be constructed to c o l l e c t and convey the water from the stream to the place of use. No licence i s required for digging a well, although a commercial concern should be consulted. Planning for water use depends upon the type of f a c i l i t y on the s i t e . A v a i l a b i l i t y of water encourages i t s use. Water demand ranges from ten to f i f t y gallons per 2 camper per day. Water demand for various types of establish-ments for planning purposes is given by the Comptroller of 3 Water Rights as follows. Bath houses (per bather) 10 U.S. gallons per day Day camp with no meals served (per camper) 15 " " Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources, Water Resources Service, Water Rights Branch, General  Information on Water Law In B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970. 2U.S. Public Health Service Manual of Individual Water Supply Systems. 3 Comptroller of Water Rights, personal l e t t e r . Luxury camp (per camper) . . . . 100-150 U.S. gallons per day Resort camps, day and night, with l i m i t e d plumbing (per c a m p e r ) . . . 50 " " Cottages with seasonal occupancy (per resident) 50 " " Horses (drinking per animal) . . . . 12 " " Overnight parks with f l u s h t o i l e t s (per camper) 25 " " Pic n i c area with bath houses, showers and flush t o i l e t s (per picknicker) 20 " " Pic n i c area with t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s only (per picknicker) 10 " " Boarding school (per pupil) . . . .75-100" " Day school with c a f e t e r i a but no gymnasium or showers (per pupil) 20 " " Swimming pools (per swimmer) . . . . 10 " " New water systems should have a capacity beyond the requirements of most outdoor education f a c i l i t i e s to allow for peak load demands involving laundering, dishwashing, i r r i g a t i o n of growing areas, cooking, showers and t o i l e t s . This would also give a margin of safety for emergencies l i k e f i r e or for future expansion of f a c i l i t i e s . The 4 estimate given by the U.S. Public Health Service for a Robert W. Douglass, Forest Recreation, Pergamon Press, r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t y housing one hundred and f i f t y people is f i v e hundred gallons per hour. This flow should be consistent i f the area i s to be used through the dry season. B. Sanitation Requirements. The best method of eliminating s o i l and water p o l l u -t i o n i s to l i n k with a municipal sewage system. I f t h i s i s not possible the alternatives are non-water carriage or a water-carriage sewage system. Non-water carriage systems are cheaper to b u i l d but more d i f f i c u l t to maintain. These systems include chemical tanks, simple p i t privy, and incinerator vaults. Water carriage sewage systems with underground d i s t r i -bution require the construction of a septic tank and leaching f i e l d . The following s o i l percolation t e s t must be performed to see i f a water carriage system can be b u i l t on the s i t e . The l o c a l municipal inspector i s required to do the following t e s t before authorizing a permit for the construction of a septic tank and leaching f i e l d . Dig approximately s i x holes having a diameter of one to twelve inches as deep as the trenches w i l l be. The sides of these holes should be roughened and the bottoms covered with two inches of loose gravel to prevent the s o i l from puddling. These holes should be kept f u l l of water for four hours, at which time the s o i l should be saturated. Next adjust the water l e v e l to six inches above the gravel and measure the drop in water l e v e l a f t e r t h i r t y minutes have elapsed. The s i t e i s unsuitable i f more than s i x t y minutes are required for the water l e v e l to drop one inch. Rate of sewage flow can be determined by multiplying the gallons per hour for each type of proposed unit by the number of un i t s . The average gallons per hour flow for various types of units i s given i n Table 1. TABLE 1 VOLUME OF WATER USE FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF PLUMBING FIXTURES USED ON OUTDOOR SITES. Gallons Type of Unit per hour flow Flush t o i l e t s 36 Urinals 10 Showers 150 Fawcets 15 Size of the leaching f i e l d can be calculated from Table 2 which compares the percolation rate i n minutes per one inch with the maximum sewage application rate in gallons per square feet per day. PERCOLATION RATE FOR A SEPTIC TANK DRAINAGE FIELD RELATED TO MAXIMUM SEWAGE APPLICATION RATE Percolation Rate Maximum sewage application rate Min./l" g a llons/ sq. f t . / day  2 3.5 3 2.9 4 2.5 5 2.2 10 1.6 15 1.3 30 0.9 45 0.6 C. Camp Refuse Analysis of a proposed s i t e for outdoor education should include a plan for the disposal of camp wastes. The best way to deal with waste i s to load i t onto a camp vehicle at regular intervals and haul i t to the nearest municipal dump. I f the camp i s not too iso l a t e d , arrange-ments could be made to have the municipality's garbage truck make a pick-up when necessary. Establishment of an incinerator, a b u r i a l p i t or a f i l l type dump on the s i t e may a t t r a c t f l i e s , r a t s , mosquitoes, racoons, bears, and 5 Robert W. Douglass, Forest Recreation, Pergamon Press, 1969. dogs . I n summary, nearness t o an e s t a b l i s h e d d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t y i s an advantage. One t h i n g s tudents can l e a r n from t h e i r outdoor exper ience i s the q u a n t i t y o f waste produced per person per d a y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , they should c o n s i d e r e x i s t i n g d i s p o s a l methods and perhaps i n v e n t new ones. ANALYSIS OF SITES Each one of the proposed s i t e s should be viewed by the same person or group of people to keep the information comparative. I f maps or a e r i a l photographs (see Appendix D) are used for any of the descriptive categories they should be used for a l l of the s i t e s analysed. One or more descriptive categories may be deleted, or added, to s u i t the educational objectives and mode previously decided upon, without disturbing the a b i l i t y of the procedure to s e l e c t the s i t e with the greatest educational p o t e n t i a l . The length of the graph scales may have to be adjusted i f t h i s i s done. Descriptive categories included herein were chosen for t h e i r ease of application by school personnel, information content and time required. Mapping Boundaries Within the Site Drawing map boundaries for the corridors of learn-ing and assigning their use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a subjective a c t i v i t y which should be undertaken by the same person or group of people for the s i t e s analysed. Layers of trans-parent map overlays have been used by the author for t h i s purpose. Multiple use corridors receive extremely heavy use and should be kept to a bare minimum. Boundaries for corridors of learning should be drawn along definable nat u r a l l y occuring units such as plant associations, "edge" regions, an open grass area, etc. as previously discussed. Mapping vegetation boundar-ies on the s i t e can be done by taking sightings and distances from a number of selected fixed p o i n t s . 1 Naturally occuring boundaries w i l l slowly change as long as the process of evolution continues to have an e f f e c t . Although these boundaries may change with time they have the advantage of rapid boundary reference for recording frequency and intensity of use as well as orientation on the s i t e . Consideration for rare, threatened and endemic species should be given when drawing boundaries. Completion of the Analysis (see Chapter VI) Step #1. The section of the analysis dealing with administrative c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s should be completed f i r s t because a great deal of energy can be wasted on an unobtainable s i t e . Each s i t e i s given an i d e n t i f y i n g number 1, 2, 3, etc. depending on how many s i t e s are analysed. Edwain A. P h i l l i p s , F i e l d Ecology, B.S.C.S. Laboratory Block, D.C. Heath and Company, Boston, 1965. Step #2. The analysis should be completed as far as possible by repeatedly crossing the s i t e on foot. A e r i a l photographs (Appendix D) may be h e l p f u l . Each descriptive category should be awarded a point value from 1 to 5 and entered i n the column " t o t a l for s i t e " . The help of a n a t u r a l i s t may be required to complete the e c o l o g i c a l inventory of l i v i n g organisms on the s i t e . S o i l analysis may require the aid of a resource person from the Department of Agriculture or a Forester. The resource person should be contacted on how he would l i k e the s o i l samples to be taken to determine the t r a f f i c a b i l i t y of the s o i l s . Climatic informa-t i o n can be obtained from the nearest Dominion Weather Bureau Office or from references.^ Step #3. Totals for each part of the analysis ( A v a i l -a b i l i t y , U s a b i l i t y , Physical Uniqueness, and Student Use) are plotted on the axes as i n Figure 5. Each s i t e number i s projected onto the next plane at a 45° angle. Dispersal of the points on the X axis of the second and V.J. Krajina, Ecology of Western North America, V o l . 1, Department of Botany, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. t h i r d graph re s u l t s i n ranking the s i t e s according to t h e i r application to learning and s u i t a b i l i t y . U s a b i l i t y , Physical Uniqueness, and Student Use are a l l separ-ately plotted on the Y-axis versus A v a i l -a b i l i t y on the X-axis. Selection of descriptive categories and t h e i r i n c l u -sion under each of the four major sub-divisions i s a matter of judgement. However, t h i s a n a l y t i c a l procedure r e s u l t s i n the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of the educational p o t e n t i a l of one area over another. Each descriptive category i s given an evaluation number which i s descriptive only. Descriptive categories which receive high value numbers for a s p e c i f i c s i t e indicate greater p o t e n t i a l for outdoor education over s i t e s with lower value numbers for the same descriptive categories. The r e s u l t provides a numerical way of looking at complex material and constitutes an aid to decision making. CATEGORIES. USABILITY SITE SURVEY AND ANALYSIS FOR DAY TRIP OR RESIDENTIAL CAMP USE ADMINISTRATIVE CHARACTERISTICS Committee Comments A. Surveyor Name Date Survey started Address completed B. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Site 1. Site number assigned for the purpose of th i s analysis 2. Name of the area 3. Map showing boundaries attached? Yes No_ 4. Sketch map of area showing s i g n i f i c a n t features and landmarks, magnetic north, scale and g r i d numbers attached? Yes No 5. A r i a l photographs available? Yes No 6. A r i a l photographs attached? . Yes No 7. L i s t of main maps for the area attached Yes No 8. L i s t of major b i o l o g i c a l / g e o l o g i c a l references used for the analysis attached? Yes No C. Location of Site 1. Latitude 0 ' "N/S Longitude 0 ' "E/W 2. Name of land recording d i s t r i c t No 3. Land b u l l e t i n area number 4. Land status map number 5. Name of mining d i v i s i o n D. Administration Committee Comments 1. Address of administration 2 . Land status a. Crown land b. P r o v i n c i a l Forest c. Tree farm licence d. Park e. Watershed f. Indian reserve g. Mining claims h. Mineral claims and placer leases i . Township, surveyed j . Township, unsurveyed k. Land alienated or covered by ap p l i c a -t i o n under the Land Act 1. Surveyed Timber Lease, Licence, or Berth m. Government reserve n. Pr o v i n c i a l forest o. Municipality P- Water rights q. Area with formal conservation status r . Area without formal conservation status I I . PRELIMINARY SURVEY A. Characteristics of s i t e (to be used i n section on u s a b i l i t y ) 1. Surface area (state units of measure) 2. Altitude (State units of measure) Maximum Min imum 3. Main exposure Committee B. Vegetative formation and r e l i e f type Comments (to be used i n section on physical uniqueness). R e l i e f Type F l a t Undul-ating 0-600ft. H i l l y 600 -3000ft. Mountain-ous-over 3000ft. % Total Area Open-Ground type-any dominant plants not more than 15cm. high VEGETATIVE FORMATION F i e l d type-dominant l i f e form c o i n -cides with f i e l d layer, not more than 2m i n height VEGETATIVE FORMATION Scrub type-dominant l i f e form does not exceed a shrub layer, height generally not over 7.6m Woodland type-trees dominant l i f e form. % Total Area 100 C. Special landscape features (to be used i n section on physical uniqueness) Percent of Site Area Boulders C l i f f s Ravines Canyon Sand Dunes Mud F l a t s Other D. J3iota 1. Animal l i f e (to be used i n section on physical uniqueness) a. Animals sighted b. Animal signs c. Animal a r t i f a c t s — n e s t s , holes, e t c . Committee 2 . F l o r a l analysis (to be used i n section Comments on physical uniqueness) (Optional) D i v e r s i t y Area Sampled Algae Lichens Bryophyta Pteridophyta Grass Herbs Shrubs Deciduous trees Gymnospermae Epyphytes Macro-fungi Submerged vegetation Emergent vegetation the bases of which are in the water Age of Domin-ant tree species (using an incre-ment borer) 3 . Rare, threatened, endemic or r e l i c t species I I I . ANALYSIS CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR POINT VALUE DIVIDED INTO FOUR SECTIONS. AVAILABILITY (Total for each s i t e to be plotted on f i r s t X ax i s . See Figure 6). Description Point Value 1 2 3 4 5 Total for Site #1 #2 #3 Duration of time for which s i t e i s a v a i l -able Short Available for winter the f u l l time r e n t a l required T r a v e l l i n g time to area from point of departure Return t r i p i s longer than daylight hours 1-3 hours One hour Access roads None T r a i l -dry weather only Gravel most wea-ther A l l wea-ther Cost (rental for time re q u i r -ed) Prohibitive Reasonable Total for each s i t e Description Point Value Total for Site 1 2 3 4 5 #1 #2 #3 Surface Area 1 acre 1-5 5 acres per acres per student per student student P r e c i p i t a -t i o n from Sept. to June Heavy Moderate Light Number of months when the mean temperature i s below 40°F 4 3-4 2-3 1-2 1 Preva i l i n g winds Heavy Light (movement res t r i c t e d ) Sewer No Costly A v a i l -p o s s i b i l i t y able Telephone No Costly A v a i l -p o s s i b i l i t y able Hydro No Costly A v a i l -p o s s i b i l i t y able Water for support needs A. Quantity None Very Adequate Limited Abundant B. Quality Rejected Passed Good Excel-lent Description Point Value Total for s i t e 1 2 3 4 5 #1 #2 #3 S o i l for a drainage f i e l d ( i f required) None Very Adequ- Good Li m i t - ate ed Non-compatible human a c t i v -i t y i n the surrounding area Considerable Minimal None < T r a v e l l i n g time to nearest medical and supply area >2 hr. ^1/2 hr. Depth i n shore region Very V e r t i c a l Sloping shallow Speed of wate flow (or tidal.flow) r Turbulent Slow Moderate Motion-less Pests which may be a problem (devils club, mosquitoes, black f l i e s ) Numerous Few Protected bays or indentations suitable for anchorage None Few Many Total for each s i t e PHYSICAL UNIQUENESS . Description Point Value Total for Site 1 2 3 4 5 #1 #2 #3 Water for re creactional purposes A. Swimming None Very Adequate Abund-Limited ant B.Canoeing None Very Adequate Abund-Limited ant C.Sailing None Very Adequate Abund-Limited ant Water for study purposes A. F i s h None Very Adequate Abund-Limited ant B. Amphi- None Very Adequate Abund-bians Limited ant C. Inver-tebrates None Very Adequate Abund-Limited ant D. Plankton None Very Adequate Abund-Limited ant Water Intermittent Permanent permanence % Beach area Mud 100% 20-30% S h e l l beach 100% 20-30% Sand 100% 20-30% beach Shingle 100% 20-30% beach Boulder 100% 20-30% beach Rock 100% 20-30% Description Point Value Total for Site 1 2 3 4 5 #1 #2 #3 % Shoreline F l a t Sloping C l i f f e d 100% 20% 100% 20% 100% 20% Exposure Windward Leeward Hours of sunlight i n open areas Afternoon Morning A l l sun Sun day Adjacent fresh or s a l t water None A vehicle Available must be within used walking distance Vegetation formations (see pg.38) A l l one Two Three Four type types types Types R e l i e f type (see pg. 38) A l l Two Three Four one types types types type % of t o t a l area which i s n a t u r a l l y occuring "edge". 10% 40% Special landscape features (see pg.39) 100% 20% Animal l i f e (see animal l i f e pg.39) None Abundant (Optional) S t a b i l i t y of the ecology o the s i t e as summerized from F l o r a l Analysis pg. 39. E a s i l y Stable ^ upset Description Point Value Total for Site 1 2 3 4 5 #1 #2 #3 Fire Recent Past None impact Impact Public recreation & tourism Presently None in use Human a r t i -facts trash and l i t t e r Large quantity None of material Sewer, water or hydro l i n e s Create an Un- None obstruction s i g h t l y Degree of change Greatly Natural altered Wilderness Recovery pot e n t i a l Natural recovery Natural not l i k e l y recovery History of land use. A. C u l t i v a -t i o n Present Past No impact Impact impact B. Drainage Altered Natural by man C. S o i l Dis turb-ance Erosion caused Natural by land abuse erosion D. Grazing Permitted Past" None Impact E. Tree Farming Presently Past None allowed Impact F. Logging Presently Past None allowed Impact G. Mining Presently Past None allowed Impact Description Point Value 1 2 3 4 Total for Site 5 #1 #2 #3 H. Farming Presently allowed Past impact None I. Trapping Presently allowed Past impact None J. Hunting Presently allowed Past impact None K. Removal of predators Presently allowed Past impact None L. P e s t i -cides used Presently allowed Past impact None M. Intro-duced plants and animals Many Few None Total for each s i t e Description Point Value Total for Site 1 2 3 4 5 #1 #2 #3 Prominent K points with a view one One More than one Variety of exposed areas of s o i l and rock for earth science studies None Few Abundance of areas T r a f f i c a b -i l i t y of s o i l s T r a i l s F a i r Good a l l muddy and weather weather s o i l e a s i l y only use compacted Number of corridors of l e a r n -ing 0 1-3 3-6 6-9 Number of observation and measure-ment areas 0 1-3 3-6 6-9 Number of c o l l e c t i o n s i t e s 0 1-3 3-6 6-9 Number of open areas suitable for f i e l d station (warmed by sun) 0 1-2 3-4 4 s Total for each s i t e BIBLIOGRAPHY Ashbaugh, Byron L. Planning a Nature Center (Information- Education B u l l e t i n No. 2) . New York: Nature Centers D i v i s i o n , National Audubon Society, 1963. Beazley, El i z a b e t h . Designed For Recreation. London: Harber and Harber, 1969. Cairns, John J r . ; Albaugh, Douglas W.; Busey, Fred; and Chanay, Duane M. "The Sequential Comparison Index— A Si m p l i f i e d Method for Non-biologists to Estimate Relative Differences i n B i o l o g i c a l D i v e r s i t y in Stream Po l l u t i o n Studies" Journal of Water P o l l u t i o n Control Foundation. Vol. 40, No. 9 (Sept, 1968), 1607-1613. Clarke, George. L., Elements of Ecology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1966. Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources, Water Resources Service, Water Rights Branch. "General Information On Water Law in B r i t i s h Columbia," V i c t o r i a , B.C., 1970 (mimeographed). Douglass, Robert W. Forest Recreation. New York: Pergamon Press, Inc., 1969. Gabrielsen, Alexander M. and Holtzer, Charles. The Role of  Outdoor Education. New York: The Center for Applied Research In Education, Inc., 1965. Garrison, C e c i l and Thomas, C C . Outdoor Education: P r i n c i p l e s  and Practice. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1966. Hammerman, Donald R. and Hammerman, William M. Outdoor Education  A Book of Readings. Minneapolis, Burgess Publishing Co., 1968. Hug, John W. and Wilson, P h y l l i s J . Curriculum Enrichment  Outdoors. New York: Harper and Row, 1965. Ke l l e r s , K.J. "Organizing Outdoor Classrooms In the Park System." The Science Teacher, Volume 37, No. 1 (Jan. 1970), 56-60. Koromondy, Edward J . Concepts of Ecology, B i o l o g i c a l Science Series. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969. Krajina, V.J. Ecology of Western North America. Vol. 1, Vancouver, B.C.: Department of Botany, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. " ~ • Ecology of Western North America. Vol. 2, Vancouver, B.C.: Department of Botany, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. Leopold, Luna B. "Landscape E s t h e t i c s . " Natural History, Vol. LXXVIII, No. 8, (Oct. 1969). MacArthur, R.H. "Environmental Factors Aff e c t i n g Bird Species D i v e r s i t y . " American N a t u r a l i s t . No. 98: (1964), 387-398. . and MacArthur, J.W. "On Bird Species D i v e r s i t y . " Ecology. No. 42 (1961), 594-598. MacFarlane, Ivan C. Muskeg Engineering Handbook, University of Toronto Press, 1969. Northway, Mary L. and Lowes, Barry G. The Camp Counselor's  Book. Longmans Canada Ltd., 1963. Odum, Eugene P. Fundamentals of Ecology. Philadelphia. W.B. Saunders Company, 1964. Outdoor Recreation and Resources Review Commission. Wilderness  and Recreation-A report on Resources, Values, and Problems. Study Report 3. Washington, D.C, 1962. Outdoor Recreation and Resources Review Commission, Water For  Recreation-Values and Opportunities. Study Report 10. Washington, D.C. 1962. Outdoor Recreation and Resources Review Commission. Multiple Use of Land and Water Area. Study Report 17. Washington, D.C. 1962. Outdoor Recreation and Resources Review Commission. The Quality  of Outdoor Recreation: As Evidenced by User S a t i s f a c t i o n . Study Report 5. Washington, D.C. 1962. P h i l l i p s , Edwin A. F i e l d Ecology. B i o l o g i c a l Sciences Curriculum Study. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1965. Pianka, E r i c R. "La t i t u d i n a l Gradients in Species D i v e r s i t y : A Review of Concepts." American N a t u r a l i s t , Vol. 100, No. 910 (Jan.-Feb. 1966). Pielou, E.C. "Species-Diversity and Pattern-Diversity i n the Study of Ecolog i c a l Succession." Journal of Theoretical  Biology. Vol. 10 (1966), 370-383.. . "The Measurement of Diver s i t y i n Di f f e r e n t Types of B i o l o g i c a l C o l l e c t i o n s . " Journal of Theoretical Biology. Vol. 13 (1966), 131-144. Scott, Ronald F. Pr i n c i p l e s of S o i l Mechanics. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc. Reading, Massachusets, 1963. Sharp, L.B. "Basic Considerations i n Outdoor and Camping Education," The B u l l e t i n of the National Association of Secondary School P r i n c i p a l s . 31 (May 1947), 43-47. Edited by Donald R. Hammerman and William M. Hammerman. Outdoor Education A Book of Readings. Minneapolis, Burgess Publishing Co., 1968. Sherburne, Frances and Roth, Charles E. Establishing Natural  History Day Camps. Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln, Massachusetts 01773, 1965. Shomon, Joseph J . A Nature Center for Your Community (Informa- tion-Education B u l l e t i n No. 1). New York: Nature.Centers D i v i s i o n , National Audubon Society, 1962. Smith, J u l i a n W.; Carlson, ; Donaldson, ; and Masters, Outdoor Education. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1963. The Report of the Pr o v i n c i a l Committee on Aims and Objectives of Education in the Schools of Ontario. Learning and L i v i n g . Toronto, Ontario: Ontario Department of Education, 1968. Van der Smissen, Betty and Goering, Oswald H. A Leader's Guide  to Nature-oriented A c t i v i t i e s . 2nd ed. Ames, Iowa: The Iowa State University Press, 1968. PERSONAL LETTERS Chief, Legal Surveys D i v i s i o n , Surveys and Mapping Branch, Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Chief, Soils D i v i s i o n , Department of Agriculture, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Comptroller of Water Rights, Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, Water Resources Service, Water Rights Branch, V i c t o r i a . B.C. MICRO PISCH DOCUMENTS CONSULTED. A l l Documents Printed by Educational Resources Information Center (E.R.I.C.) U.S. Office of Education. Alpine School D i s t r i c t . Outdoor Educational Camp. American Fork, Utah. E.R.I.C, 1967. Alpine School D i s t r i c t . Outdoor Education Curriculum For A l l  Seasons In Utah County, Utah. American Fork, Utah. E.R.I.C, 1968. Appalachian Reg. I n s t r . Matls. Ctr. Proposal For Developing Curriculum That Would Integrate Naturealm With Educational  Programs For The Commonwealth. Duncansville, Pa., E.R.I.C, 1967. Board of Education. Application For a Planning Grant. Oak Ridge, Tenn. E.R.I.C, 1967. Board of Education. Camping School. Kearny, N.J., E.R.I.C, 1967. Board of Education, C i t y of New York. High Rock Nature Conservation Center. Brooklyn, N.Y. E.R.I.C, 1967. Board of Education, C i t y School D i s t r i c t . Center of Science  and Industry. Cinc i n n a t i , Ohio. E.R.I.C, 1967. Board of Education. 'Junior Explorers-Learning Centers (Summer Creative Learning Centers For Elementary School  Pupils) . Akron, Ohio. E.R.I.C, 1967. Board of Education. Newton Outdoor Education Project. Newton, N.J. E.R.I.C, 1967. Board of Education. Outdoor Conservation Education Center. Newark, N.J. E.R.I.C, 1968. Carteret County Board of Education. Development of a Unique  Educational and Cultural Marine Science Center. Beaufort, N.C E.R.I.C, 1967. Carteret County Board of Education. Development of a Unique  Educational and Cultural Marine Science Center. Beaufort, N.C. E.R.I.C, 1968. C e c i l County Public Schools. Out-of-Doors. A Summer Science  Program for Elementary and Secondary School Students. Elkton, Ind. E.R.I.C, 1968. Centre County Board of Education. Central Pennsylvania Outdoor  Education Project. Beliefonte, Pa. E.R.I.C, 1968. Citrus County Board of Public Instruction. Marine Science  Station. Inverness, F l a . . E.R.I.C, 1968. C i t y Board of Education. Supplementary Educational Center- Operational Grant. Salisbury, N.C., E.R.I.C., 1968. City School D i s t r i c t . Exploring Nature's Classroom. Coldwater, Mich. E.R.I.C, 1967. College Community Board of Education. Operating a P i l o t Summer  Outdoor Education Experience For Approximately 200 Students  In The College Community School and Immediate Area. Cedar Rapids, Iowa. E.R.I.C, 1968. Comal County Schools. Educational Project For Natural Resources  Conservation. New Braunfels, Tex. E.R.I.C, 1967. Community Consolidated School D i s t r i c t 15. Planning For the  Development and Operation of a Farm Outdoor Education  Resource Center. etc. Polatine, 111. E.R.I.C, 1967. Community School Corporation, Deep River Outdoor Education  Center, Gary, Ind. E.R.I.C, 1967. Community School D i s t r i c t 47. School-Community Outdoor Education Project (A Year-Round Program for Teaching i n . For, and About the Outdoors)~ C r y s t a l Lake, 111. E.R.I.C, 1968. Community Unit School D i s t r i c t 2. Regional Cooperative Out- door Education Program. Marion, 111. E.R.I.C, 1968. Coop Educational Agency 12, Cooperative Work-Learn Conserva- t i o n and Resource-Use Program, Portage, Wis. E.R.I.C, 1967. Coop Educ. Service Agency 7, Outdoor Education For Handicapped  Children. Stevens Point, Wis. E.R.I.C, 1968. County H.S. Board of Trustees. Proposal To E s t a b l i s h and Maintain a Conservation and W i l d l i f e Study Area. Missoula, Mont. E.R.I.C, 1967. County Schools. Central C a l i f o r n i a — L a b o r a t o r y For L e a r n i n g —  Extension. Fresno, C a l i f . E.R.I.C, 1968. County Supt. of Schools. Conservation, Recreation and Outdoor  Science School Project. San Andrean, C a l i f . E.R.I.C, 1967. Dekalb County Board of Education. Fernbank Science Center. Decatur, Ga. E.R.I.C, 1967. Dekalb County Supt. of Schools. Regional Natural Resource  Education and Demonstration Center. Sycamore, 111. E.R.I.C, 1967. Enton County Int. Bd. of Educ. Outdoor Education-Conservation and Rural L i f e Regional Center. Charlotte, Mich. E.R.I.C, 1967. Elementary School. Survey of Educational and C u l t u r a l Resources of Bedford, B l a i r , Cambria, Somerset Counties etc. Duncansville, Pa. E.R.I.C, 1967. Exempted V i l l a g e School D i s t r i c t . Determination of Needs and  Requirements For a Conservation Education and Outdoor  Education Laboratory...etc. Worthington, Ohio. E.R.I.C, 1967. Exempted V i l l a g e School D i s t r i c t . Indoor-Outdoor Educational- Recreational Planning Program. Mentor, Ohio. E.R.I.C, 1967. Flour B l u f f Indep. School D i s t r i c t . Coastal Bend Educational Project—Outdoor Education and Human Development. Corpus, C h r i s t i , Tex. E.R.I.C, 1967. Garrett County Board of Education. Indoor-Outdoor Science  Center. Oakland, Ind. E.R.I.C, 1967. Independent School D i s t r i c t . L i f e Science Education Center. Corpus C h r i s t i , Tex. E.R.I.C, 1968. Independent School D i s t r i c t 101. Northeastern South Dakota Supplementary Education Service Center. Webster, S. Dak. E.R.I.C, 1968. Independent School D i s t r i c t 241. Proposal For the Use of a  Mobile Laboratory ... .etc . Albert Lea, Minn. E.R.I.C, 1967. Independent School D i s t r i c t 281. Earth-Space Science Laboratory. Robbinsdale, Minn. E.R.I.C, 1967. Independent School D i s t r i c t 894. Area Planning For Outdoor  Education. Granite F a l l s , Minn. E.R.I.C, 1967. Jo i n t Comm. R.W. Traip Academy. Regional Academic Marine  Program. K i t t e r y , Maine. E.R.I.C, 1967. J o i n t Committee R.W. Traip Academy. Regional Academic Marine  Program. Ki t t e r y , Main. E.R.I.C, 1968. Jo i n t School D i s t r i c t 2. Outdoor School In Conservation. Alberton, Mont. E.R.I.C, 1967. Knox County R-1 School D i s t r i c t . B i o l o g i c a l and S o i l Conserva- t i o n Laboratory. Edina, Mo. E.R.I.C, 1967. Lake Washington School D i s t r i c t . Beyond Four Walls. Kirkland, Wash. E.R.I.C, 1967. Lycoming County Board of Educ. Lycoming County Outdoor Education For Underachieving Children. Williamsport, Pa. E.R.I.C., 1968. Madison Township Public Schools. Classroom of Today's World. Old Bridge, N.J. E.R.I.C, 1967. Model Marine Science Laboratory (For-Sea). Poulsbo, Wash. E.R.I.C, 1968. Monadnock Regional School D i s t r i c t . Nature Study Center. Keene, N.H. E.R.I.C, 1967. Multnomah County Int. Ed. D i s t . Regional Outdoor Education  Program. Portland, Oregon. E.R.I.C, 1967. Napa Valley U n i f i e d School D i s t r i c t . Napa Experimental Forest. Napa, C a l i f . E.R.I.C, 1967. North Kitsap School D i s t r i c t 400. Planning a Orange County Supt. of Schools. Floating, Marine Science Laboratory. Santa Ana, C a l i f . E.R.I.C, 1968. Orange County Supt. of Schools. Marine P i l o t Program. Santa Ana, C a l i f . E.R.I.C, 1967. Ormsby County School D i s t r i c t . Educational Resources Service  Center For Secondary Schools of Ormsby County. Carson City, Nev. E.R.I.C, 1968. Parish School Board. North Louisiana Supplementary Education  Center. Natchitoches, La. E.R.I.C, 1968. Powell County High School. Summer Ins t i t u t e In F i e l d Ecology  and F i e l d Geology For High School Students. Deer Lodge, Mont. E.R.I.C, 1967. Public Schools. Lowell Environmental Arts and Science Center. Lowell, Mass. E.R.I.C, 1968. Public Schools. Outdoor Educational Center. Albuquerque, N. Mex. E.R.I.C, 1967. Public Schools. Outdoor Education Center. Albuquerque, N. Mex. E.R.I.C, 1968. Public Schools. Outdoor Education Laboratory. Constantine, Mich. E.R.I.C, 1967. Public Schools. Owensboro Area Natural Science Mobile  Projects. Owensboro, Ky. E.R.I.C, 1967. Public Schools. Project Lighthouse-South Shore School System Center. Marshfield, Mass. E.R.I.C, 1968. Public Schools. Supplementary Center For Outdoor Education  and Conservation Education. Great Neck. N.Y. E.R.I.C, 1967. Rockingham County Schools. D i v e r s i f i e d Outdoor Education. Wentworth, N.C E.R.I.C, 1968. Rose Tree Union School D i s t r i c t . Study to Determine the  Educational Potential of the Tyler Arboretum and  Jeffords State Park. Lima, Pa. E.R.I.C, 1967. St. Martin Parish School Board. Outdoor Educational Center. St. M a r t i n v i l l e , La. E.R.I.C, 1967. San Luis Valley Board of Coop. Svcs. Cooperative Summer  School Camp. Alamosa, Colo. E.R.I.C, 1968. School Committee. EPIC—Educational Project to Implement  Conservation. Westfield, Mass. E.R.I.C, 1968. School Department. Project Lighthouse. Scituate, Mass. E.R.I.C, 1967. School D i s t r i c t . Outdoor Laboratory In F i e l d Ecology  and Establishment of An Eco l o g i c a l Museum. Higgensville, Mo. E.R.I.C, 1968. School D i s t r i c t . Outdoor Natural Science Laboratory i n  University City, Missouri. University C i t y , Mo. E.R.I.C, 1967. School D i s t r i c t . Outdoor Natural Science Laboratory and  Program i n University Ci t y Missouri 63130. University City, Mo. E.R.I.C, 1968. School D i s t r i c t 1. Conservation Education. Great F a l l s , Mont. E.R.I.C, 1968. School D i s t r i c t 1. Planning Project for a P i l o t Study In  Conservation Education. Great F a l l s , Mont. E.R.I.C 1967. School D i s t r i c t 109. U t i l i z a t i o n of Outdoor Education  A c t i v i t i e s to Enrich and Enhance Learning K-12  Program. Deerfield, 111. E.R.I.C, 1968. School D i s t r i c t 2. Western Wyoming Heritage. Green River Wyo. E.R.I.C, 1967. School D i s t r i c t 2. Western Wyoming Heritage-Culturally, Educationally, Recreationally. Green River, Wyo. E.R.I.C, 1968. School D i s t r i c t 271. Program of Outdoor Education. Coeur d Alene, Idaho. E.R.I.C, 1967. School D i s t r i c t 381. Program of Outdoor Education. American F a l l s , Idaho. E.R.I.C, 1967. School D i s t r i c t 381. Program of Outdoor Education ( T i t l e  Supplied). American F a l l s , Idaho. E.R.I.C.1968. Shoreline School D i s t r i c t 412. I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y Outdoor  Education Program. Seattle, Wash. E.R.I.C, 1967. Special School D i s t r i c t . Outdoor Laboratory. Newark, Del. E.R.I.C, 1967. Sp r i n g f i e l d Local Board of Education. Mohican School In  The Out-of-doors. Ontario, Ohio. E.R.I.C, 1967. Taylor County Bd. of Public Instruction. Resource-Use  Outdoor Education Center. Perry, F l a . E.R.I.C, 1967. Taylor County Bd. of Public Instruction. Resource-Use  Outdoor Education Center. Perry, F l a . E.R.I.C, 1968. Township Board of Education. 3-D School. Bordentown, N.J. E.R.I.C, 1967. Town School Committee. Oceanographic Education Center. Talmouth, Mass. E.R.I.C, 1967. Town School Committee. Oceanographic Education Center. Talmouth, Mass. E.R.I.C, 1968. Town School Committee. Outdoor Laboratory of Natural Environmental Science. Windham, Main. E.R.I.C, 1968. Turner U n i f i e d School D i s t r i c t 202. Outdoor Laboratory and Community Nature Center. Kansas City, Kans. E.R.I.C, 1968. Ulster County Bd. Coop. Ed. Svcs. Mid-Hudson Regional Supplementary Educational Center's—(PINE) Projects  In Imaginative Nature Education. New Paltz, N.Y. E.R.I.C, 1967. Uni f i e d School D i s t r i c t . Natural History Museum and Research Center. San Lorenzo, C a l i f . E.R.I.C, 1967. Un i f i e d School D i s t r i c t 345. Planning For Outdoor Education. Topeka, Kans. E.R.I.C, 1967. Willoughby-Estlake School D i s t r i c t . P o l l u t i o n , L i f e , and Applied Science Enrichment. Willoughby, Ohio. E.R.I.C, 1968. 1. The F i e l d Trip Approach I f an outdoor s i t e i s to be used for a day f i e l d t r i p or even a shorter period of time, the teacher has a single lesson purpose and a s p e c i f i c s i t e i n mind and takes his class d i r e c t l y to the area. A c t i v i t i e s are planned beforehand, or the teacher may use the s i t e to develop a unit of studies as questions arise from the students. I f the teacher is dealing with earth science studies, an area of exposed rocks may be chosen. I f a s o c i a l studies class i s studying a g r i c u l t u r a l practices, the s i t e may be a farm; a recreation class studying s k i i n g , may use a s k i slope; a creative writing or a r t c l a s s , may v i s i t a nearby park or seashore area. Primary concerns of the teacher using the f i e l d t r i p technique are an i n i t i a l v i s i t to the s i t e and an analysis of the area to see i f there are s u f f i c i e n t f a c i l i t i e s available for eating, washrooms, telephone, etc. for his group. 2. Day Trip Programs For day t r i p programs to a nearby s i t e which i s repeatedly used, and acquired by a School D i s t r i c t , the s i t e becomes a temporary d a i l y residence. Even though the students do not stay overnight at a s i t e the analysis procedure should be used for land management reasons. A s i t e acquired for day t r i p use requires less stringent support needs for water supply or s o i l drainage. Fencing of the area, parking, t o i l e t s , and roofed shelter may be a l l the development required. 3. The Residential Approach Types of s i t e s : (a) Organization Camps (Y.M.C.A., Church group camp, etc.) (b) Park lands including campsites (c) A c q u i s i t i o n and development of a s i t e for extended Outdoor Education and Curriculum Enrichment within a School D i s t r i c t Planning and preparation based on regular classroom a c t i v i t i e s i s undertaken p r i o r to v i s i t i n g the s i t e . The p r i n c i p l e of gradualism i s used by f i r s t introducing students to the f i e l d t r i p approach and possibly the day t r i p approach. Preparation includes motivation, planning learning-packages so the greatest gains can be made when returning to the classroom, student selection of leaders, working and sleeping groups, camp f i r e programs and study projects, and teacher-student agreement of standards of conduct and study. Pre-planning should be undertaken with the view of the outdoor s i t e as the curriculum and a f u l l knowledge of the corridors of learning available for use. On the s i t e , each a c t i v i t y undertaken should have the r e a l i z a t i o n of an educational objective as i t s goal. Students deal with t h e i r planned and spontaneous outdoor a c t i v i t i e s with the help and guidance of t h e i r learning leaders. Observations, discovery, hypotheses and measure-ments are done for the learning-packages. Recreational s k i l l s and a c t i v i t i e s proceed as well as peer group s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s by using d i f f e r e n t corridors of learning to obtain maximum use of the s i t e i n the time a v a i l a b l e . During the time of the residence the leaders should hold the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the wise management of the land and keep a record of the use i t receives. Follow-up a c t i v i t i e s i n the classroom are an exten-sion of the observing and measuring a c t i v i t i e s undertaken at the f i e l d s t a t i o n s . Group and individuals continue with research write up reports, make permanent records, displays, murals, exhibits and productions . Programs are planned for parents or classes. Evaluations are done and con-clusions drawn. The f i r s t noteable school r e s i d e n t i a l outdoor programs in B.C. were undertaken i n 1968. A rapid growth of i n t e r e s t and scope over the past few years indicates the need for r e a l i s t i c objectives for outdoor education which bridge the gap between what a program should do and the actual analysis, s e l e c t i o n and use of a s i t e . Physical features of the s i t e determine the extent and qu a l i t y of the curriculum, i n other words, whether or not objectives can be met. Questionnaires were sent to 67 school superinten-dents representing the 89 School D i s t r i c t s i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. A l l returns were anonymous. Information from the returns was compiled i n the form given i n Table I. The res u l t s of the questions r e l a t i n g to s i t e s were further broken down into those which are presently being used and those which the superintendent would l i k e to see used i n the future. Comments made in the l a s t section of the questionnaire indicated the need to separate education taken out of doors and outdoor education. Some of the questionnaire comments were as follows: SUMMARY OF A SURVEY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL DISTRICTS TO DETERMINE PLANNING FOR OUTDOOR EDUCATION TOTAL NUMBER SENT 67 TOTAL NUMBER REPLIES 40 PERCENTAGE RETURN 59 # Yes # NO. No Reply % of Total No. of.Replies Which Were Affirmative 1. Has your D i s t r i c t undertaken any planning for outdoor education? 22 18 0 55% 2a Have your teachers devel-oped an outdoor education program for grades 1-7? 17 19 4 42% 2b Have your teachers devel-oped an outdoor education program for grades 8-10? 8 20 12 20% 2c Have your teachers devel-oped an outdoor education program for grades 11-13? 5 20 15 12% 3. Kind of s i t e s which plans c a l l f o r : a. Present school yard 15 1 24 37% b. Adjacent land within A walking distance of C the school, acquired T by the school 11 2 27 27% Uc. Cit y or municipal parks A within walking distance 11 2 27 27% Ld. Federal or Pro v i n c i a l Park 12 0 28 30% e. Organization Camps (Y.M.C.A., Church group camp, etc.) 2 5 33 5% f. Acq u i s i t i o n of a s i t e within d r i v i n g distance for one day programs 3 4 33 7% % of Total No. of Replies # # No Which Were Yes No Reply Affirmative 3. g. Development of a s i t e for extended (longer than 24 hours). Outdoor Education and,Curricu-lum Enrichment 6 4 30 15% Kind of s i t e s which plans would c a l l f o r : a. Present school yard 8 1 31 20% b. Adjacent land within T walking distance of the E school, acquired by the N school 4 2 33 10% T c. Cit y or municipal parks A within walking distance 7 0 33 17% T d. Federal or Pro v i n c i a l I Park 4 1 35 10% V e. Organization Camps E (Y.M.C.A., Church group camp, etc.) 3 1 36 7% f. Acquisition of a s i t e within d r i v i n g distance for one day programs 3 3 34 7% g. Development of a s i t e for extended (longer than 24 hours), Outdoor Educat ion and Curr iculum Enrichment 7 1 32 17% "Most of these a c t i v i t i e s are appropriate for development i n our area. However, the concept of Outdoor Education must be established f i r s t , then a program to meet our needs w i l l develop." "This i s a d i f f i c u l t questionnaire to reply to in as much as t h i s kind of programme i s l e f t to each supervising p r i n c i p a l for development. The NO reply r e a l l y gives an inaccurate picture in as much as several schools are doing a l l of these things." "Due to the fact that t h i s d i s t r i c t i s well supplied with areas for a l l kinds of out-of-doors recreation the schools have not pressed for any immediate action for camp s i t e s or out-door classroom space. I can see that action is needed soon so that the Board can set aside a reserve of Crown land for such a purpose." "We have an advisory committee from the community a s s i s t i n g us i n developing (1) day t r i p s (2) inventory of science areas in the d i s t r i c t . P r i o r i t y i s given for in-service for teachers to learn about the outdoors and be able to communicate t h e i r knowledge and f a c i l i t a t e the spread of enthusiasm for the natural environment." "At the present time a committee has been formed to investigate the establishment of an Outdoor Education programme. A l l plans at present are tentative and under study." "We are just getting involved in t h i s f i e l d t h i s year. Hence the questionnaire i s s k e t c h i l l y completed. Anticipate much more development between 1970-73 e s p e c i a l l y in the new Elementary Science programme K-l". Summary of the Survey Percentage return for the questionnaire was f i f t y -nine percent. Of t h i s t o t a l , f i f t y - f i v e percent have undertaken planning for outdoor education. More emphasis has been placed on the development of outdoor education programs for grades K-7 than for grades 8-13. Fi f t e e n percent of the d i s t r i c t s which r e p l i e d are presently developing s i t e s for extended outdoor education and curriculum enrichment and another seventeen percent would consider t h i s type of s i t e i n t h e i r future plans. APPENDIX C OBJECTIVES A l i t e r a t u r e search revealed that objectives for out-door education were as diverse as the many educators involved i n phrasing them. Although objectives tend to be p o l i t i c a l i n nature and vary i n the wording used, there was found to be a very d e f i n i t e overlap in their guiding intent. After reviewing the objectives stated in planning grants, out-door programs and i n the l i t e r a t u r e on outdoor education, each objective was written on a separate card. Four broad categories were the f i r s t to emerge. The c r i t e r i a used for placing the objectives into these categories were: (a) Objectives which had goal behaviour which students should experience or demonstrate. (b) Objectives which dealt with teacher t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e . (c) Objectives which proposed curriculum enrich-ment through using the out-of-doors. (d) Objectives which expressed the need to develop values which benefit the community and nation. Following this major division, each of the four categories were found to have objectives which contained phrases and words which were often repeated and which defined the intent of the objectives. Synonymous words and phrases were grouped together into twenty-two sub-categories of intent given in Table II. The cards were re-categorized u n t i l the same number of cards ended up in the sub-categories of intent. The sub-categories were then ranked in Table III on the basis of the number of cards in each. The histogram of the frequencies (Figure 7) indicates that there is twice as much agreement in the f i r s t seven sub-categories of intent as there are in the remaining fifteen categories. Rephrasing of the objectives in the literature was next undertaken, using the sub-categories of intent as a guide. Accepted models of learning and current educa-tional needs were also considered. Moreover, a l l of the objectives had to be practical within the British Columbia school system. SUB-CATEGORIES OF THE BROAD OBJECTIVE CATEGORIES IN THE LITERATURE Sub-Categories of: (a) Objectives which had goal behaviours which students should experience or demonstrate. C r i t e r i a words and phrases: s e l f or character development l e i s u r e time f i r s t hand experience physical f i t n e s s attitude development developing learning s k i l l s motivation (b) Objectives which dealt with teacher t r a i n i n g and problems of p r a c t i c e . C r i t e r i a words and phrases: in-service opportunities co-operative teacher e f f o r t pooling resources and ideas improving student-teacher relationships developing new techniques of teaching and learning Sub-Categories of: (c) Objectives which proposed curriculum enrichment through using the out-of-doors. C r i t e r i a words and phrases: increasing content to include concepts new to the curriculum (conservation, multiple land use, etc.) the tentative nature of s c i e n t i f i c data and con-clusions including a wider scope i . e . open-endedness curriculum f l e x i b i l i t y and t r a n s i t i o n between grade le v e l s using the f u l l calendar year discovering and including what can not be done i n the classroom i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y learning providing work experience providing experience for disadvantaged and handicapped (d) Objectives which expresses the need to develop values which benefit the community and nation. RANKED-SUB-CATEGORIES OF OBJECTIVES FOUND IN THE LITERATURE IN THEIR ORDER OF FREQUENCY OF OCCURENCE Total # Publications Analysed Total # of Objectives United States Canada Total Ranked Sub-categories of Objectives i n Order of Their Frequency of Occurence. Rank Frequency Objectives containing: 1. f i r s t hand experience 56 2. attitude development 47 3. increasing content to include new concepts (conservation, multiple land use, etc.) 46 4. s e l f or character development 43 5. community and national benefit 39 6. developing learning s k i l l s 36 7. developing new techniques of teaching and learnning 33 8. discovering and including what can not be done in the classroom 22 9. physical f i t n e s s 19 10. including a wider scope i . e . open-endedness 16 Frequency O b j e c t i v e s c o n t a i n i n g : 11. m o t i v a t i o n 15 12. l e i s u r e time 14 13. c u r r i c u l u m f l e x i b i l i t y and t r a n s i t i o n between grade l e v e l s 14 14. p r o v i d i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r disadvantaged and handicapped 13 15. i n - s e r v i c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s 12 16. improving s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p 11 17. i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y l e a r n i n g 11 18. p o o l i n g r e s o u r c e s and ideas 8 19. c o - o p e r a t i v e teacher e f f o r t 7 20. t e n t a t i v e nature o f s c i e n t i f i c data and c o n c l u s i o n s 7 21. p r o v i d i n g work experience 5 22. u s i n g the f u l l c a l e n d a r year 4 FIGURE 7 FREQUENCY OF OCCURENCE OF THE RANKED CATEGORIES OF INTENT T 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 B. 1213 JA J5 Jb 17 B B 20 A 22 Ranked C a t e g o r i e s of I n t e n t Statement of Objectives as a Basis for Site Analysis The following i s a set of objectives which have been phrased by the author. They are the objectives redefined from the analysis of the objectives given i n the available l i t e r a t u r e and are used for t h i s model of s i t e a n a l y s i s . Each objective i s a goal behaviour which a student should experience or demonstrate as a r e s u l t of his outdoor educa-t i o n on a chosen s i t e . Given i n t h e i r order of importance 1. To provide f i r s t hand experience with nature. ( i . e . to learn by doing). 2 . To develop constructive attitudes towards (a) l i v i n g things and t h e i r non-living surroundings (b) man's problems of s u r v i v a l (c) an increase and g a i n f u l use of l e i s u r e time (d) active p a r t i c i p a t i o n within a peer group away from a school s e t t i n g (e) e s t a b l i s h i n g a good rapport with leaders and adults. 3 . To provide an e f f e c t i v e way of increasing curriculum content to include concepts l i k e conservation, multiple land use, wise resource use, p o l l u t i o n control, and population dynamics. To p r o v i d e an e f f e c t i v e way t o develop l e a r n i n g s k i l l s (using n a t u r a l m a t e r i a l s and s e t t i n g s ) such as the a b i l i t y t o observe, to gather i n f o r m a t i o n and or g a n i z e i t i n t o a meaningful scheme, t o h y p o t h e s i s , t o conduct c o n t r o l l e d experiments, to make p r e d i c t i o n s , i n f e r e n c e s and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and u l t i m a t e l y to become s e l f -raotivating, to see qu e s t i o n s where a t f i r s t none are apparent. To p r o v i d e a s e t t i n g where teac h e r s can develop and t e s t : (a) new techniques o f l e a r n i n g , t e a c h i n g and m o t i v a t i o n (b) new programs i n the a r t s and s c i e n c e s f o r a l l grades (c) those concepts, s k i l l s and techniques which can o n l y be done outdoors. To p r o v i d e experiences i n l i v i n g which w i l l p r epare students f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e c i t i z e n s h i p and wise d e c i s i o n making i n a s o c i e t y based on an understanding o f man's dependence on h i s t o t a l environment. To obtain indexes for ordering the topographical maps required write to Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources, Lands Service. Request the free Index to Departmental Reference Maps and Manuscripts, Indexes 1 to 14 inclusive and Keys 15, 16, 17 and 18 which show B.C. Government a i r photographs at various scales. Topographical maps and a e r i a l photographs should be at the largest scale obtainable as the analysis deals with areas as small as o n e - f i f t h of an acre. A e r i a l photo-graphs of an area may also be obtained by c l e a r l y marking the boundaries of the area on a topographic map having a scale of 1:50,000. This should be sent to The National A i r Photo Library, Surveys and Mapping Branch, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, 615 Booth Street, Ottawa. The nearest Land Commissioner's Office w i l l provide a copy of the pamphlet B r i t i s h Columbia Index to Pr o v i n c i a l  Land Status Maps and Land B u l l e t i n Areas. The land status maps show vacant Crown Land to date of issue, boundaries of Crown reserves, alienated (privately owned or leased) lands, and surveyed d i s t r i c t l o t s . 

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