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Urban renewal in Canada : a postmortem Lowden, James David 1970

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URBAN RENEWAL IN CANADA - A POSTMORTEM by . JAMES DAVID LOWDEN B.A. M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e S c h o o l o f COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH A p r i l , 1970 COLUMBIA I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Cnmrnmi+.y o n H ftA^nnal P l a r m W T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e A p r i l , 1970 11 ABSTRACT M a j o r amendments were made t o t h e N a t i o n a l Housing A c t (1954) S e c t i o n 23 i n 1964. These a l t e r e d t h e scope o f u r ban r e n e w a l w h i c h had been u t i l i z e d f o r the t e n p r e -v i o u s y e a r s . The major f e a t u r e s o f the r e v i s e d l e g i s l a t i o n i n c l u d e d c o s t - s h a r i n g by C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , as one member o f a t r i p a r t i e p a r t n e r s h i p , i n the f o l l o w i n g u n d e r t a k i n g s : a) t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f urban r e n e w a l s t u d i e s , b) t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f u r b a n r e n e w a l schemes, c) t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t i n g p r o j e c t s i n c l u d i n g -i . t h e c o s t o f a c q u i r i n g and c l e a r i n g p r o p e r t y , i i . t h e u p g r a d i n g o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e s such as r o a d s , sewers and wa t e r m a i n s . The r e u s e o f t h e c l e a r e d l a n d was a t t h e d i s -c r e t i o n o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and c o u l d be r e t a i n e d by t h e l a t t e r o r s o l d t o p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s . T h i s program o p e r a t e d u n t i l O c t o b e r 196 8, when i t was h a l t e d upon t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . To t h a t d a t e $168 m i l l i o n had been sp e n t by t h e F e d e r a l Government on t h e above mentioned a s p e c t s o f t h e program and t h e r e e x i s t e d a p o t e n t i a l commitment of n e a r l y $300 m i l l i o n . The h y p o t h e s i s . u n d e r l y i n g the e x a m i n a t i o n o f the.mater' i a l was t h a t t h e amendments were o v e r a m b i t i o u s , i n t h a t the o b j e c t i v e s were not c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d and the s c a l e o f t h e p u b l i c , commitment was open ended. The r e s u l t was a range of p o t e n t i a l p r o j e c t s w h i c h c o u l d n o t be a d e q u a t e l y a d m i n i s t e r e d t h r o u g h th e o p e r a t i n g p o l i c i e s o f C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . By way o f a s u b - h y p o t h e s i s , i t has been contended t h a t a major f a c t o r i n t h e u r b an r e n e w a l p r o c e s s was t h e d i s -c o r d between the e x p a n s i v e b u t i l l - d e f i n e d o b j e c t i v e s and t h e d e t a i l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s t o c a r r y o u t t h e program. I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e f o l l o w i n g elements were n o t e d : a) Urban r e n e w a l , f o r a l l communities and a l l l a n d u s e s , was c a r r i e d o u t w i t h i n a s i n g l e , u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i e d s e t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s , b) The economic terms of r e f e r e n c e l a c k e d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . T h i s p r e j u d i c e d t h e v i a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o posed p r o -j e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms o f f o s t e r i n g p r i v a t e development i n r e n e w a l a r e a s . c) The b u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n o f t h e program produced an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h was more i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s t h a n t h e p r o d u c t o f urban r e n e w a l . C o n c o m i t a n t f a c t o r s were e x c e s s i v e t i m e l a g s and an i n e f f i c i e n t use o f s t a f f . i v These i n a d e q u a c i e s , c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o the low achievement l e v e l o f the program, l e d t o i t s e v a l u a t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n 1968'by CMHC. The r e s u l t was the a f o r e -mentioned d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the program. To the e x t e n t t h a t CMHC has been c o n s i d e r i n g a r e v e r s i o n t o t h e p r e 19 6 4 p o s i t i o n i n urban r e n e w a l , t h a t i s , a r e s i d e n t i a l l y o r i e n t e d program, i t was f e l t t h a t t h e changes were o v e r a m b i t i o u s . .This p r e s e n t a t i o n has at t e m p t e d t o examine t h e Can a d i a n urban r e n e w a l program between 1964 and 1968 and, w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e m a t e r i a l documented, t h e h y p o t h -e s i s i s s u b m i t t e d as v a l i d . , LIMITATIONS TO THE THESIS P o r t i o n s o f t h e m a t e r i a l u t i l i z e d i n t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n were g a t h e r e d i n c o n f i d e n c e . Hence c e r t a i n r e f e r e n c e s a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y i m p r e c i s e . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o acknowledge t h e a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d by Dr. R. C o l l i e r , Dr. N.. C h e r u k u a l l e , and P r o f e s s o r B. Wiesman i n s u g g e s t i n g m a t e r i a l t o be i n c l u d e d and i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n . j v i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER ONE A. The Development o f Urban Renewal under t h e N a t i o n a l Housing A c t 1-1-B. The 1964 Amendments t o P a r t I I I , S e c t i o n 23 o f t h e N.H.A. 1-2 C. The Meaning o f Urban Renewal i n t h e F e d e r a l C o n t e x t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 D. The O b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Program . 1-11 E. A p p r a i s a l o f t h e O b j e c t i v e s . . 1-15 CHAPTER TWO A. The N a t i o n a l Scope o f t h e Program . . . . . . 2-1 B. The E x t r a p o l a t i o n o f t h e P r e s e n t F e d e r a l Commitment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2-5 C. E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Urban Renewal Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21 CHAPTER THREE - THE SHORTCOMINGS OF THE PROGRAM A. The S i n g l e , U n i v e r s a l l y A p p l i e d S e t o f P o l i c i e s . . . . . . . . . 3-1 1. The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f B l i g h t .. 3-2 2. The G e o g r a p h i c a l l y D e f i n e d A r e a . . . . . . 3-3 3. The-Three Step P r o c e d u r e . . 3-4 4. Urban Renewal i n S m a l l Communities . . . . 3-6 5. The P o l i t i c a l B a s i s f o r A s s i s t a n c e . . . . 3-8 v i i i Page 6. The D i f f e r e n t A r e a s o f Renewal . . . . . . 3-12 7. Summary 3-15 B. Economic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n Urban Renewal and T h e i r R e l a t i o n s h i p t o P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e . . 3-16 1.. The Lack o f Economic S o p h i s t i c a t i o n . . . 3-16 2. D i v e r g e n t P r i o r i t i e s . 3-22 3. The P r i v a t e I n vestment S e c t o r . . . . . . . 3-23 4. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e 3-40 C. The B u r e a u c r a t i z a t i o n o f t h e Program . . . . 3-42 1. I n i t i a t i o n o f Urban Renewal . . . . . . . 3-43 2. The T r i p a r t i t e P a r t n e r s h i p . . . . . . . . 3-44 3. The CMHC H i e r a r c h y . . .' . . . . . . . . . 3-50 4. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-52 5. S o c i a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . '3-53 6. C o n c l u s i o n . . . . . . . . 3-56 CHAPTER FOUR - ANALYSIS OF THE INTERVIEWS 1. The O b j e c t i v e s . 4-2 2. The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c y . 4-3 3. Downtown Renewal . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 4. Renewal i n S m a l l Communities . . . . . . . 4~7 5. The Economic Terms o f R e f e r e n c e . . . . . 4-8 6. S o c i a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . .' . . . . • • . 4-11 7. The Renewal Program I n a d e q u a c i e s . . . . . 4-13 8. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15 I n t e r v i e w Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17 i x Page CHAPTER FIVE A. O v e r a l l Views o f t h e Program 5-1 B. Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . 5-7 C. ' S u g g e s t i o n s f o r a F u t u r e P o l i c y -5-12 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0-1 APPENDICES ONE Urban Renewal Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . 0-5 TWO P r o v i n c i a l NHA Renewal P o l i c i e s 0-14 X LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page I . . Money D i s b u r s e d under NHA S e c t i o n s 2 3A, 23B and 33(1) (h) between 1954 and 1968 . . . . 2-2 I I . P e r C a p i t a P u b l i c Spending i n Urban , Renewal by P r o v i n c e . . . . . . . . 2-3 I I I . F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Commitment by S e c t i o n s o f t h e NHA ' . . . 2-4 IV. Number and T o t a l C o s t o f S t u d i e s by C i t y S i z e 2-6 V. Number and T o t a l C o s t o f Schemes by C i t y S i z e 2-6 V I . Number and T o t a l C o s t o f P r o j e c t s by C i t y S i z e 2-7 V I I . Number and T o t a l C o s t o f P r o j e c t s by C i t y S i z e 2-11 V I I I . Number and T o t a l C o s t of P r o j e c t s by Land Use C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 2-12 IX . Number and T o t a l C o s t o f P r o j e c t s by C i t y S i z e and Land Use 2-14 X. Number and T o t a l C o s t o f P r o j e c t s by P r o v i n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15 LIST OF TABLES T a b l e . Page I . E x t r a p o l a t e d F e d e r a l Commitment t o S e c t i o n 23B P r o j e c t s 2-10 I I . The N a t i o n a l Breakdown o f t h e F e d e r a l Commitment . . . . . . . . . 2-17 I I I . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o j e c t Breakdown 2-22 IV. B r i t i s h C olumbia P r o j e c t P r e p a r a t i o n Breakdown 2-27 1-1 C H A P T E R O N E A. THE DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN RENEWAL UNDER THE NATIONAL HOUSING ACT F e d e r a l s p o n s o r s h i p o f urban r e n e w a l i n Canada commenced w i t h t h e 19 49 amendments t o t h e N a t i o n a l H ousing * A c t . Under t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s , t h e program was d i r e c t e d a t slum c l e a r a n c e and t h e redevelopment o f t h e l a n d as j o i n t l y f i n a n c e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . Two p r o m i n e n t examples o f t h i s e a r l y phase o f t h e program were Les H a b i -t a t i o n s Jeanne Mance i n M o n t r e a l and Regent P a r k South i n T o r o n t o . v . The A c t underwent major amendment i n 19 54. I n c l u d e d among t h e s e was t h e p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e use o f l a n d s , c l e a r e d under urban r e n e w a l , f o r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . F u r t h e r amend-ments i n 19 56 produced two major s h i f t s i n t h e program. Urban r e n e w a l a r e a s had t o e x h i b i t a preponderance of r e s i -d e n t i a l l a n d e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e p r o j e c t had been ** u n d e r t a k e n . A l s o , C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n was a u t h o r i z e d t o f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r t Urban Renewal S t u d i e s by making * H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as t h e NHA. H e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as CMHC. . . . arrangements w i t h a p r o v i n c e o r m u n i c i p a l i t y . . . t o conduct s p e c i a l s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o n d i t i o n o f urban a r e a s , t o means o f i m p r o v i n g h o u s i n g , t o t h e need f o r a d d i t i o n a l h o u s i n g o r f o r urban r e -development. 1 U n t i l t h e amendments o f 1964, the program o p e r a t e d on t h i s b a s i s . C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing c o n t r i b u t e d 75% (community wide) o r 50% ( l i m i t e d area) o f t h e c o s t o f p r e -p a r i n g s t u d i e s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d a t a s s e s s i n g t h e h o u s i n g s t o c k o f a community and i d e n t i f y i n g a r e a s r e q u i r i n g r e d e v e l o p ment. F u r t h e r t o t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o r any o t h e r s u p p o r t i n g e x a m i n a t i o n by a m u n i c i p a l i t y , CMHC c o n t r i b u t e d 50% o f t h e c o s t s o f a c q u i r i n g and c l e a r i n g l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s o r o f a r e s i d e n t i a l n a t u r e . Under a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n o f t h e A c t , CMHC c o n t r i b u t e d 75% o f t h e c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i n g and o p e r a t i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . A l l t h e s e u n d e r t a k i n g s were c o n t i n g e n t upon p r o v i n c i a l a p p r o v a l , i n as much as t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s f e l l w i t h i n t h e " P r o p e r t y and C i v i l R i g h t s C l a u s e " o f S e c t i o n 92 o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t . B. THE 1964 AMENDMENTS TO PART I I I , SECTION 23 OF THE N.H.A. The symptom o f " b l i g h t " was c o n s i d e r e d t o be bad h o u s i n g , b u t i t s causes l a y beyond t h e s i t e i n v o l v e d . W i t h -out d e t a i l i n g t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e s e c a u s e s , t h e F e d e r a l NHA, 1954, P a r t V, S e c t i o n 33 (1) h. 1-3 Government d e c i d e d i n 19 64 t o expand t h e terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r j o i n t u r b a n u n d e r t a k i n g s t o d e a l w i t h " b l i g h t " on a w i d e r spectrum. The r e s u l t i n g amendments t o t h e NHA were as f o l l o w s : * The C o r p o r a t i o n may, w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e Governor i n C o u n c i l , e n t e r i n t o an agreement w i t h any p r o v i n c e o r m u n i c i p a l i t y whereby th e C o r p o r a t i o n w i l l c o n t r i b u t e o n e - h a l f o f t h e c o s t o f t h e p r e p -a r a t i o n o f an u r ban r e n e w a l scheme, i n c l u d i n g the c o s t o f a l l economic, s o c i a l and e n g i n e e r i n g r e s e a r c h and p l a n n i n g n e c e s s a r y t h e r e f o r . Where an urban r e n e w a l scheme has been approved by t h e p r o v i n c e i n w h i c h t h e scheme i s t o be c a r r i e d o u t and i s a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n , t h e C o r p o r -a t i o n may, w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e Governor i n C o u n c i l , e n t e r i n t o an agreement w i t h t h a t p r o v i n c e o r w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n w h i c h t h e scheme i s t o be c a r r i e d o u t p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e payment of c o n t r i b u t i o n s e q u a l t o o n e - h a l f o f t h e a c t u a l c o s t , as d e t e r m i n e d by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n , o f a) a c q u i r i n g and c l e a r i n g l a n d s and b u i l d i n g s i n t h e u r ban r e n e w a l a r e a , i n c l u d i n g c o s t s o f condemnation p r o c e e d i n g s and t h e c o s t s o f d i s -p o s i n g o f l a n d s so a c q u i r e d and c l e a r e d ; b) i n s t a l l i n g m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and w o r k s , o t h e r t h a n p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s , i n t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a , and; c) e m p l o y i n g p e r s o n s i . i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and c l e a r -ance o f l a n d i n t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l a r e a , i i . t o a s s i s t owners o f p r o p e r t y a f f e c t e d by t h e u r b an r e n e w a l scheme t o a d j u s t t o t h e implemen-t a t i o n of t h e scheme, and i i i . t o a s s i s t t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f p e r s o n s d i s p o s s e s s e d o f h o u s i n g accommodation by t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e u r ban r e n e w a l scheme . . . . 2 NHA, 1954, P a r t I I I , S e c t i o n s 23 A and B. * C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . 1-4 As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e amendments and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t CMHC a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s , t h e urban r e n e w a l program i n Canada adhered t o t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l i z e d f o r m a t . A m u n i c i p a l i t y passed a r e s o l u t i o n i n C o u n c i l a p p l y i n g f o r a s s i s t a n c e t o u n d e r t a k e an urban r e n e w a l s t u d y . Upon r a t i f i -c a t i o n by t h e p r o v i n c e i n v o l v e d , t h e r e s o l u t i o n was s u b m i t t e d t o CMHC accompanied by a j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n s u p p o r t i f a need f o r t h e s t u d y and a c o s t e s t i m a t e breakdown. W i t h t h e 1964 amendments, t h e emphasis o f t h e s e urban r e n e w a l s t u d i e s s h i f t e d from t h e h o u s i n g i n v e n t o r y a s p e c t t o th e d e l i n e a t i o n o f any form o f urban b l i g h t , r e f l e c t i n g t h e new s p e c t r u m o f s h a r e d - c o s t programs a v a i l a b l e under t h e NHA. T h i s d e l i n e a t i o n t o o k t h e form o f i d e n t i f y i n g a r e a s w i t h i n s p e c i f i e d b o u n d a r i e s and a p r o c e s s o f d e t e r m i n i n g p r i o r i t y l e v e l s f o r p o t e n t i a l p r o j e c t s . Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s document and i t s s u b m i s s i o n t o b o t h t h e p r o v i n c e and CMHC, a second a p p l i c a t i o n had t o be s u b m i t t e d t o c a r r y t h e program f o r w a r d . A g a i n , p r o v i n c i a l a p p r o v a l had t o be g a i n e d and a c o s t e s t i m a t e and j u s t i f i c a t i o n accompanied t h e m u n i c i p a l r e s o l u t i o n . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n amounted t o c i t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e com p l e t e d s t u d y . A p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e method e x i s t e d , where t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n v o l v e d had an on g o i n g p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e o r where t h e o b v i o u s c h o i c e o f a d e l i n e a t e d a r e a c o u l d be s u p p o r t e d . I n t h e s e l a t t e r c a s e s , a much more t h o r o u g h d o c u m e n t a t i o n and s u b s t a n t i a t i o n o f t h e c h o i c e of a r e a s were r e q u i r e d . On o c c a s i o n t h i s s u b m i s s i o n was r e j e c t e d by CMHC and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y was asked t o r e - a p p l y f o r a g r a n t t o c a r r y o u t t h e i n i t i a l u rban r e n e w a l s t u d y . Assuming t h e a p p l i c a t i o n was found a c c e p t a b l e by b o t h CMHC and t h e p r o v i n c e , an agreement was drawn up t o under-3 t a k e t h e " p r e p a r a t i o n o f an urban r e n e w a l scheme." A copy o f t h e g e n e r a l i z e d form o f t h i s agreement i s i n c l u d e d as Appen d i x One o f t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n co m p a r i s o n t o t h e a g r e e -ment t o u n d e r t a k e a s t u d y , t h i s document was p r o c e d u r a l l y s p e c i f i c as t o c o n t e n t and ap p r o a c h . G u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e p r o c e d u r e o f drawing-up a scheme were g e n e r a l l y p u b l i c i z e d i n the form o f a b o o k l e t produced by CMHC i n 1967, e n t i t l e d "Urban Renewal Handbook." A c c o r d i n g t o t h e accompanying c o v e r i n g l e t t e r by. t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e Urban Renewal and P u b l i c H ousing D i v i s i o n , i t was " . . . i n t e n d e d f o r t h e use o f P r o v i n c e s , M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , c o n s u l t a n t s , u n i v e r s i t i e s and a g e n c i e s who have an i n t e r e s t i n urban a f f a i r s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r f o r t h o s e who a r e c o n t e m p l a t i n g o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f 4 urban r e n e w a l schemes." The m e c h a n i c a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e scheme were NHA, 1954, P a r t I I I , S e c t i o n 23 A. Urban Renewal Handbook, CMHC, NHA 2 032. 1-6 . . . t o e s t a b l i s h : 1) A program of t h e r e n e w a l a c t i o n r e l a t i n g t o redevelopment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , p h a s i n g and t i m i n g proposed f o r t h e a r e a r e l a t e d t o o t h e r p u b l i c programs and l i k e l y p r i v a t e d e v e l o p -ment. 2) An e s t i m a t e o f a l l t h e c o s t s and r e c o v e r i e s t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e scheme. 3) A program o f m u n i c i p a l a c t i o n t o c o n s e r v e elements i n t h e scheme a r e a w h i c h a r e n o t b l i g h t e d o r s u b s t a n d a r d . These 3 o b j e c t i v e s s h o u l d be based on an assessment o f t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f b l i g h t and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s a b i l i t y t o u n d e r t a k e r e m e d i a l a c t i o n . Such' an assessment s h o u l d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t : The c h a n g i n g p h y s i c a l , economic and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f t h e a r e a w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o b l i g h t and b l i g h t i n g i n f l u e n c e s . An a n a l y s i s o f a l t e r n a t i v e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e n e w a l a c t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e t h o s e w h i c h w i l l b e n e f i t most o f the a r e a and i t s p e o p l e . T h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n s h o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h e o v e r a l l development and f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . 5 Bo t h t h e Handbook and t h e Agreement s p e c i f i c a l l y o u t l i n e d t h e forms o f d a t a r e q u i r e d t o r e a c h t h e d e c i s i o n s c o v e r e d i n t h e m e c h a n i c a l o b j e c t i v e s . The c o m p l e t e d document th e n had t o be f o r m a l l y a c c e p t e d and approved by CMHC, t h e p r o v i n c i a l government and t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l . A l t h o u g h n e v e r o f f i c i a l l y d e c l a r e d as a n e c e s s a r y element, i n t e r i m r e p o r t s were s u b m i t t e d t o a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f government f o r o n g o i n g a p p r o v a l o f t h e scheme as i t was b e i n g p r e p a r e d . Assuming t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y of t h e f i n a l scheme r e p o r t , n e g o t i a t i o n s were re-opened w i t h t h e s e n i o r governments i n t h e form o f a 3 r d m u n i c i p a l r e s o l u -t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n . T h i s c u l m i n a t e d i n a 3 r d t r i p a r t i t e agreement t o implement s p e c i f i e d e lements o f t h e r e n e w a l scheme. 5 I b i d . , p. 4. 1-7 A c o - o r d i n a t i n g committee r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p u b l i c p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d was e s t a b l i s h e d t o o v e r s e e t h e ongoing redevelopment and submit p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s t o each government. The above i s a condensed and s u p e r f i c i a l r e c o u n t i n g o f t h e urban r e n e w a l p r o c e d u r e r e s u l t i n g from t h e 1964 amend-ments t o S e c t i o n 23 o f t h e NHA. D e t a i l e d a p p r a i s a l o f s p e c i f i c f a c i t s o f t h e o p e r a t i o n a r e t o be found i n C h a p t e r Three i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n o f some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d . C. THE MEANING OF URBAN RENEWAL IN THE FEDERAL CONTEXT The meaning o f urban r e n e w a l was as v a r i e d as t h e number o f p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e d . P e r h a p s , f o r t h i s r e a s o n , CMHC a v o i d e d e s t a b l i s h i n g a h a r d and f a s t d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s a s p e c t o f i t s u n d e r t a k i n g s . The c i r c u l a r d e f i n i t i o n a c c o r d e d i t i n t h e NHA was a good example. I n t h i s p a r t , 'urban r e n e w a l a r e a ' means a b l i g h t e d o r s u b s t a n d a r d a r e a o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r w h i c h t h e government o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n w h i c h t h e a r e a i s l o c a t e d has approved t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an urban r e n e w a l scheme; and 'urban r e n e w a l scheme' means a scheme f o r t h e r e n e w a l o f a b l i g h t e d o r s u b s t a n d a r d a r e a o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y 6 One o f t h e more open d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e program i n Canada was p r o v i d e d by Mr. H. B o r l a n d , t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e NHA, 1954, P a r t I I I , S e c t i o n 23. Urban Renewal and P u b l i c Housing D i v i s i o n o f CMHC. "Urban r e n e w a l i s t h e p r o c e s s , by w h i c h , t h r o u g h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a c t i o n s , t h e q u a l i t y 7 o f t h e t o t a l C a n a d i a n urban environment may be improved." The r e s o l u t i o n i n t r o d u c i n g t h e 19 64 amendments t o t h e NHA, d e l i v e r e d b y . t h e Hon. J.R. N i c h o l s o n b e f o r e t h e House o f Commons, d i d n o t c a s t any f u r t h e r l i g h t upon an o f f i c i a l d e f i n i t i o n . Our c i t i e s need t h e means t o f a c e up t o b l i g h t w i t h a p r o p e r and more comprehensive s e t o f t e c h n i q u e s t h a n m e r e l y c l e a r a n c e . . . . What i s needed i s a m u n i c i p a l program w h i c h i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s would s t o p t h e sp r e a d o f s t r u c t u r a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l decay and c o u l d g e n e r a t e t h e p h y s i c a l , economic and, more i m p o r t a n t , t h e s o c i a l r e n e w a l o f d e c l i n i n g a r e a s o r a r e a s about t o d e c l i n e . . . . T h i s t h e n i s t h e comprehensive program o f r e n e w a l w h i c h I see as t h e means o f h e l p i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o overcome t h e sp r e a d o f urban b l i g h t . . . . The program i n v o l v e s t h e redevelopment o f a r e a s w h i c h have d e p r e c i a t e d beyond r e p a i r , t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f a r e a s w h i c h can be g i v e n extended u s e f u l l i f e by p o s i t i v e a c t i o n , i f t a k e n soon enough, and t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f a l l t h a t w h i c h i s good i n t h e urban f a b r i c . O n l y a t t h e o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l w i t h i n CMHC was urban r e n e w a l a r t i c u l a t e d i n more d e f i n i t e t e r m s . Urban Renewal was an i n c l u s i v e t e r m w h i c h d e s c r i b e d t h e o r d e r l y p r o c e s s o f r e b u i l d -i n g t h e c i t y t o improve w o r k i n g and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . I t i n v o l v e d r e d e v e l o p m e n t , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n used s e p a r a t e l y o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n i n d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s . The p r o c e s s C o v e r i n g l e t t e r accompanying t h e Urban Renewal Handbook, op. c i t . 1-9 r e q u i r e d b o t h p r i v a t e and p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t . Redevelopment was a program o f a c q u i s i t i o n and c l e a r -ance of slums and b l i g h t e d a r e a s and t h e r e b u i l d i n g o f t h o s e a r e a s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e u s e s , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h an o f f i c i a l p l a n . T h i s p r o c e s s f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e d m u n i c i p a l powers o f e x p r o p r i a t i o n . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n was a programme a p p l i c a b l e t o d e t e r i o r a t i n g a r e a s n o t y e t i n need of complete r e d e v e l o p m e n t . I t combined a c t i o n t h r o u g h p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t and by i n d i v i d u a l owners t o improve and r e p a i r p r o p e r t i e s t o g e t h e r w i t h m u n i c i p a l a c t i o n t o improve community f a c i l i t i e s . C o n s e r v a t i o n was a program o f a c t i o n by a m u n i c i p a l i t y t o p r e v e n t d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f sound neighbourhoods by t h e enforcement o f occupancy, , , 8 maintenance and z o n i n g b y l a w s . I n a l m o s t a l l d e f i n i t i o n s o f urban r e n e w a l by t h e ~ F e d e r a l government t h e term " b l i g h t " was t h e k e y s t o n e . What d i d t h i s element c o m p r i s e i n t h e v i e w o f CMHC? A s t a f f p a p e r , "Notes on an Urban Renewal P o l i c y , " r e l a t e d b l i g h t t o t h e c h a n g i n g c o n c e p t o f r e n e w a l . I n i t i a l l y ' b l i g h t ' was r e a s o n a b l y d e f i n a b l e , h a v i n g t h e c o n n o t a t i o n s o f a r e s i d e n t i a l slum. The 19 64 amendments p u t an end t o t h i s t i d y d e f i n i t i o n and by a p l a n n i n g c o n c e p t , made 'urban r e n e w a l ' v i r t u a l l y synonymous w i t h m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g and development. The Urban Renewal Handbook s t a t e d , Many complex f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e t o b l i g h t ; some-t i m e s t h e y a r e s e p a r a t e , o f t e n t h e y a r e i n t e r -r e l a t e d . B l i g h t n o t o n l y i n f e c t s a s i n g l e a r e a b u t a l s o s p r e a d s t o a d j o i n i n g ones. Comprehen-CMHC s t a f f d i r e c t i v e . s i v e a c t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s . A t t h e same t i m e , t o be r e a l i s t i c , t h e scope and d e p t h o f any r e n e w a l a c t i o n must be w i t h i n t h e -resources o f th e m u n i c i p a l i t y . 9 The most d e f i n i t i v e s t a t e m e n t on b l i g h t , l i k e t h e term urban r e n e w a l , e x i s t e d i n a CMHC s t a f f d i r e c t i v e as opposed t o a p u b l i c a l l y d i s s e m i n a t e d document. A b l i g h t e d a r e a i n c l u d e d a r e a s w h i c h r e a c h e d such a degree o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n o r i n c o m p a t i b l e uses t h a t t o t a l c l e a r a n c e was t h e o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e remedy. I t a l s o i n c l u d e d d e c l i n i n g a r e a s w h i c h would c o n t i n u e t o d e t e r i o r a t e u n l e s s a c t i o n was t a k e n by the m u n i c i p a l i t y t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f a r e a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t o remove t h e b l i g h t i n g i n f l u e n c e s and t o r e -t u r n t h e a r e a t o a sound c o n d i t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h o f t h e d i r e c t i v e o u t l i n e d one o f t h e c r i t i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r u r b an r e n e w a l . Reduced t o . i t s most p r a g m a t i c t e r m s , b l i g h t became whatever t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y d e s i g n a t e d as b l i g h t . The N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t d i d n o t d e f i n e t h e meaning o f t h e word " b l i g h t e d " and i t has been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y o p e r a t i n g under p r o v i n c i a l g u i d a n c e t o e s t a b l i s h i t s c r i t e r i a o f b l i g h t and t o a p p l y t h e s e t o i t s t o t a l e n v i ronment so t h a t b l i g h t e d 11 a r e a s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d . 9 UR Handbook, op. ext., p. 5 1 0CMHC s t a f f d i r e c t i v e s . 1 ; L I b i d . 1-11 The p r o d u c t of t h i s open ended p o l i c y was t h e d e c l a r a t i o n f o r t h e need f o r r e n e w a l on grounds o f s o c i a l b l i g h t , economic b l i g h t , and f u n c t i o n a l b l i g h t . On t h i s b a s i s , t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g A m e r i c a n d e f i n i t i o n would n o t have seemed i m p r o b a b l e . B l i g h t i s s a i d t o e x i s t whenever 1) s t r i c t l y i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n does n o t r e s u l t i n redevelopment 2) t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n making v i a some means would r e s u l t i n redevelopment and 3) t h e sum o f t h e b e n e f i t s from r e n e w a l c o u l d exceed t h e sum o f t h e c o s t s . 12 D. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM Havi n g examined t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s , t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f i t s u t i l i z a t i o n were r e v i e w e d from t h e CMHC v i e w p o i n t . The o p e r a t i o n a l d i r e c t i v e s accompanying t h e 1964 amendments emphasized t h e comprehensiveness o f t h e new program, b o t h i n terms o f a l l a s p e c t s o f l a n d use and i n t h e a r e a - w i d e approach t o r e n e w a l . Overcoming t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e pre-19 64 l e g i s l a t i o n became t h e i n i t i a l p r a c t i c a l o b j e c t i v e . 12 0. D a v i s and A. Whmston, The Economics o f Urban  Renewal, Law and Contemporary P r o b l e m s , Volume 26, p. I l l . E x p e r i e n c e p o i n t e d t o 3 d e f i c i e n c i e s . F i r s t , t h e l e g i s l a t i o n r e s t r i c t e d a s s i s t a n c e t o re n e w a l a r e a s t h a t were p r e d o m i n e n t l y r e s i d e n t i a l b e f o r e o r a f t e r r e d e v e l o p m e n t . Second, t h e emphasis on c l e a r a n c e and r e s i d e n t i a l use produced h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s r a t h e r t h a n r e n e w a l programs i n a comprehensive s e n s e . T h i r d , t h e l e g i s l a t i o n d i d n o t p r o v i d e f o r a s s i s -t a n c e towards t h e improvement o f m u n i c i p a l works and s e r v i c e s . 13 C o r r e s p o n d i n g v i e w s were e x p r e s s e d by Mr. J . F o w l i e a member o f t h e a d v i s o r y Group o f CMHC i n a s t a f f p a p e r , 'Urban Renewal'. Why d i d t h e o r i g i n a l l i m i t e d c o n c e p t of slum c l e a r a n c e change and expand t o become urban r e n e w a l i n v o l v i n g many a s p e c t s of t h e urban c o n d i t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o h o u s i n g ? I n Canada as i n o t h e r w e s t e r n c o u n t r i e s , i t became a p p a r e n t i n t h e 1950's t h a t t h e key t o a l l e v i a t i n g urban b l i g h t was t o be found i n a wide a s s a u l t on t h e causes o f b l i g h t and n o t me r e l y t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f slum h o u s i n g w h i c h i s a consequence o f b l i g h t . W i t h i n t h e spectrum o f t h e s o c i a l , economic and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f b l i g h t , t h e f i r s t two, w h i l e more s i g n i f i c a n t , a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o measure and combat. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e extended F e d e r a l a i d s i n u r b a n r e n e w a l i n t r o d u c e d i n 1964 were aimed a t a s s i s t i n g i n t h e a l l e v i a t i o n o f such urban p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s as i n a d e q u a t e m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s i n a d d i t i o n t o p h y s i c a l and f u n c t i o n a l b u i l d i n g o b s o l e s c e n c e . The e l i m i n a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l slums a l o n e c o u l d be t a c k l e d on a p i e c e m e a l o r s p o t c l e a r a n c e b a s i s . The b r o a d e r approaches t o urban r e n e w a l i n t r o d u c e d . . . i n 1964 n e c e s s i t a t e d t h a t r e n e w a l a c t i o n be c o n s i d e r e d on an ar e a - w i d e b a s i s . By r e q u i r i n g t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f such a r e a s i t was a l s o p o s s i b l e , as a r e s u l t o f t h e 1964 changes, t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e n e c e s s a r y s o c i a l , economic and p h y s i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and t h e p l a n n i n g and programming p r e c e d i n g r e n e w a l a c t i o n . The F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Program-An E v a l u a t i o n CMHC, November 1968, p. 1. 1-13 The above q u o t a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e most d e f i n i t i v e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e program p r e p a r e d by CMHC. However, t h e y were n o t p u b l i c a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d . The N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t i t s e l f d i d n o t s p e c i f y t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e amendments. As more v i e w s were p r e s e n t e d , t h e i r d e c r e a s i n g s p e c i f i c i t y and i n c r e a s i n g open-endedness became a p p a r e n t . The major s t a f f d i r e c t i v e from CMHC r e g a r d i n g urban r e n e w a l e n v i s a g e d t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e p o s t 1964 program. Many c i t i e s i n Canada were i n need o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n and s u b s t a n t i a l numbers o f Canadians c o n t i n u e d t o l i v e i n d e s p e r a t e l y i n a d e q u a t e and overcrowded h o u s i n g . E x t e n s i v e n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s were o u t d a t e d and u n s i g h t l y and were no l o n g e r c a p a b l e o f e f f i c i e n t u s e . F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , u r ban r e n e w a l was a w i d e l y a c c e p t e d means o f t a c k l i n g t h e problems posed by f u n c t i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e and b l i g h t . The o b j e c t i v e s o f an urban r e n e w a l program, w i t h i n t h e framework o f an o v e r a l l development plan,where t h e e l i m i n a t i o n and p r e v e n t i o n o f b l i g h t , t h e improvement and maintenance o f environment f o r a l l a s p e c t s o f urban l i f e and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e c r e a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e s o c i a l and economic l i f e o f t h e c i t y m ight t h r i v e .. . . . The urban r e n e w a l o b j e c t i v e s j u s t mentioned were o n l y a t t a i n a b l e i f F e d e r a l l y a i d e d r e -development was extended i n scope and s u p p o r t e d by a s s i s t e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs and m u n i c i p a l a c t i o n t o c o n s e r v e sound a r e a s and s t r u c t u r e s . C u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n encouraged 1-14 comprehensive urban r e n e w a l and p r o v i d e d u n p r e c e d e n t e d oppor-t u n i t y t o r e b u i l d t h e major p a r t s o f our c i t i e s , b o t h f u n c t i o n a l l y and a e s t h e t i c a l l y . I f , however, urban r e n e w a l r e s u l t s i n u n i m a g i n a t i v e and u n i n t e r e s t i n g c i t i e s a b a s i c j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f p u b l i c . f u n d s and p u b l i c e f f o r t w i l l be l o s t . The C o r p o r a t i o n s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e use i t s i n f l u e n c e t o s e c u r e a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f p l a n n i n g and 14 a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n t h r o u g h o u t an urban r e n e w a l scheme. Fo u r y e a r s l a t e r , i n r e v i e w i n g t h e program, t h e f o l l o w -i n g o b j e c t i v e s were employed by CMHC The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n a r e th e r e m o v a l o f b l i g h t i n a l l i t s forms and t h e improvement o f h o u s i n g and l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . In the f u r t h e r a n c e o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , moribund a r e a s a r e r e v i t a l i z e d and t h e c i t y ' s c h a r a c t e r and q u a l i t y improved. Renewal has p r i m a r i l y been c o n -c e r n e d w i t h p h y s i c a l r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s . However, s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s a r e i m p l i c i t i n t h e p r o c e s s , and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s a c c r u e as a r e s u l t o f re n e w a l a c t i o n t a k e n . . . . E q u a l l y s o , r e n e w a l has no e x p l i c i t economic o b j e c t i v e s b u t i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e a s s e s s ment, and s t i m u l a t e p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e scheme a r e a . 15 The f i n a l s t a t e m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s , w h i c h has p r o b a b l y had t h e w i d e s t p u b l i c d i s s e m i n a t i o n v i a t h e Urban Renewal Handbook, was t h a t urban r e n e w a l aimed f o r " . . . t h e s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c i v i c programs t o e r a d i c a t e b l i g h t and 16 improve t h e environment o f our m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . " T h i s l a c k CMHC s t a f f d i r e c t i v e . The F e d e r a l U.R. Program, An E v a l u a t i o n , op. c i t . , p. 7. UR Handbook, op. c i t . , p. 4. o f p r e c i s i o n i n d e f i n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e program has made e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e program e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t i n a l l b u t a s u p e r f i c i a l manner. I t has a l s o i n c u r r e d c r i t i c i s m from v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e n e w a l program. E. APPRAISAL OF THE OBJECTIVES The p r o g r e s s i o n o f urban r e n e w a l c o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d i n a v e r y r u d i m e n t a r y f l o w p a t t e r n . o b j e c t i v e s -> p o l i c i e s program -*• i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The p r o v i n c i a l governments d i d no t p l a y a v e r y a c t i v e r o l e i n t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n , r e l y i n g on the terms o f r e f e r e n c e o f CMHC f o r t h i s j o i n t c o s t - s h a r i n g program and h a v i n g f a i r l y l i t t l e i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e m u n i c i p a l f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e urban r e n e w a l program. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s r o l e o f t h e p r o v i n c e s was conducted and p u b l i s h e d by Dr. R. C o l l i e r o f U.B.C. w h i c h s u p p o r t e d t h i s v i e w . A breakdown o f each p r o v i n c e ' s monetary c o n t r i b u t i o n p o l i c y i s i n c l u d e d as Appendex Two. Thus, t h e r e were p r i m a r i l y two d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f government o p e r a t i n g i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t o r s o f t h e f l o w p a t t e r n . The F e d e r a l government was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o r m u l a t i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s w h i l e t h e m u n i c i p a l government h a n d l e d t h e program c r e a t i o n and i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n . These two c o n t r o l l i n g a g e n c i e s tended i n g e n e r a l t o have d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f p r i o r i t i e s w i t h i n t h e urban r e n e w a l 17 R.W.. C o l l i e r and K. C r o s s , "The Urban Renewal P r o c e s s i n Canada,"Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g S t u d i e s , S t a f f R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t 3, UBC, 1967. 1-16 p r o c e s s . T h i s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n more d e t a i l when t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f urban r e n e w a l a r e examined. The d i v i s i o n o f i n t e r e s t s and a g e n e r a l l y low l e v e l o f communication [as 18 d i s c u s s e d by John Bunge] made t h e ong o i n g e v a l u a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s and.a n a t i o n a l assessment o f t h e program e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . I n d i c a t i v e o f t h i s f a c t was t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e program f o r f o u r y e a r s b e f o r e a p u b l i s h e d e v a l -u a t i o n was made by CMHC. On h i s (the Hon. P a u l H e l l y e r , former M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r CMHC) r e q u e s t t h e C o r p o r a t i o n p r e p a r e d , i n November 1968, t h e p a p e r , 'The F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Program-An E v a l u a t i o n " . A l t h o u g h t h e C o r p o r a t i o n had been w o r k i n g p r e -v i o u s l y on s e t t i n g up an e v a l u a t i v e system, t h e above paper was t h e f i r s t s t a t e m e n t o f e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e n e w a l program, i t s o b j e c t i v e s and a c h i e v e m e n t s . 1 9 M o r e o v e r , t h e l a c k o f p r e c i s i o n i n s e t t i n g o u t t h e o b j e c t i v e s t h e m s e l v e s , as i l l u s t r a t e d above, d i d n o t p r o v i d e a r t i c u l a t e d i r e c t i o n t o t h o s e u t i l i z i n g t h e program. As a r e s u l t , t h e y tended t o g e t l o s t i n t h e i r c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon t h e n i t t y - g r i t t y o f t h e o p e r a t i n g p o l i c y . The s h o r t -comings o f t h e urban r e n e w a l o b j e c t i v e s were r e f e r r e d t o on t h r e e o c c a s i o n s by t h e Hon. R. A n d r a s , t h e M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r CMHC, i n announcing t h e c e s s a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t program. J . Bunge, Urban Renewal i n Canada, UBC, 1967, M a s t e r s T h e s i s i n t h e S c h o o l o f Commerce and Reg. P l a n n i n g . 19 M i n u t e s o f t h e A r c h i t e c t / P l a n n e r s C o n f e r e n c e , CMHC, Ottawa, November 1969. The e v i d e n c e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e t h a t some of our c i t y o r i e n t e d programs, l i k e urban r e n e w a l , may be a c c o m p l i s h i n g j u s t t h e o p p o s i t e o f t h e i r n o m i n a l o b j e c t i v e s . Or perhaps i t i s j u s t t h a t we a r e f u z z y about t h e o b j e c t i v e s and have asked th e u r b a n r e n e w a l program t o s o l v e by p h y s i c a l means problems t h a t a r e m a i n l y s o c i a l . 20 U n t i l a more w e l l d e f i n e d and l o g i c a l l o n g -t e r m C a n a d i a n urban r e n e w a l p o l i c y can be formu-l a t e d and e n u n c i a t e d , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h u r b a n r e n e w a l schemes p r e s e n t l y i n p r e p a r a t i o n w i l l have t o e l e c t e i t h e r t o suspend f u r t h e r s t u d y o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r work i n t h e knowledge t h a t a d d i t i o n a l F e d e r a l funds f o r • i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e schemes may n o t be f o r t h -coming . . . (There are) . . . arguments f o r a c o h e r e n t p o l i c y framework i n w h i c h t h e p r o c e s s of urban r e n e w a l can be u n d e r t a k e n . There appears t o be, f o r example, l i t t l e e v i d e n c e e i t h e r t o s u p p o r t o r r e f u t e t h e v a l u e o f our v e r y sub-s t a n t i a l e x p e n d i t u r e s o v e r the y e a r s i n terms o f m e e t i n g b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s . . . . 21 A more d i r e c t c r i t i c i s m o f t h e ' f u z z y o b j e c t i v e s ' came from t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f M e t r o T o r o n t o . "There seems, i n f a c t , t o be no one comprehensive s t a t e m e n t o f p u b l i c p o l i c y as t o what urban r e n e w a l i s f o r , e x c e p t t h a t i t i s t o e l i m i n a t e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e f o r one r e a s o n or a n o t h e r r e g a r d e d as u n d e s i r a b l e . There seems t o be an u n d e r l y i n g i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t e v e r y one c o n c e r n e d w i l l Remarks by t h e Hon. R. Andras a t " P r o p e r t y Forum T o r o n t o , September 1969, p. 2. 21 Statement by t h e Hon. R. A n d r a s , N a t i o n a l P r e s s C o n f e r e n c e T h e a t r e , Ottawa, (August 14, 1969). 22 b e n e f i t t h e r e b y . " Perhaps t h e most u n k i n d assessment o f the o b j e c t i v e s and p r o c e s s o f urban r e n e w a l , came from w i t h i n CMHC i t s e l f . The q u e s t i o n s posed were, "What were t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Program? D i d t h e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e program conform t o r e a l i t y — t o w i t t h a t something c a l l e d ' b l i g h t ' does e x i s t i n a d e f i n a b l e f orm, p e r m i t t i n g t h e d r a w i n g o f a l i n e around i t t o e n c l o s e an 'urban r e n e w a l a r e a ' , and t h a t t h i s b l i g h t can be removed?" A f t e r o u t l i n i n g some o f t h e o p e r a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , t h e e v a l u a t i o n segment c l o s e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g remarks. Y e t , l a c k i n g a c l e a r o b j e c t i v e , i t (urban renewal) c o u l d h a r d l y be 1) a program o r 2) be e v a l u a t e d i n i t s e l f . I n r e a l i t y , t h e f e d e r a l government was i n v o l v e d as a f u n d i n g p a r t n e r i n a complex urban p r o c e s s , an i n v o l v e m e n t t h a t was more o f an a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e emeshment t h a n a t r u e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s i n c e i t was r e a l l y t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t h a t d e c i d e d t h e a c t i o n s t a k e n . A l s o , t h e l a c k o f d e f i n i t i o n o f ' b l i g h t ' and t h e l a c k o f c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between 'urban r e n e w a l ' and normal m u n i c i p a l h o u s e k e e p i n g and p l a n n i n g , l e d t o a l o s s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r e -c i s i o n i n a d m i n i s t r a t i n g t h e program. 23 S e v e r a l r e c e n t e x a m i n a t i o n s o f t h e C a n a d i a n urban 24 r e n e w a l scene have r e f e r r e d t o t h e l a c k o f comprehensive o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e r e n e w a l programs w h i c h have been examined. T h i s i s n o t a c o n t r a r y p o s i t i o n t o t h i s c h a p t e r b u t a r e -22 "Urban Renewal P o l i c i e s and P r o c e d u r e s , " S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f Metro T o r o n t o ( A p r i l , 1969) p. 2. 23 Notes on an Urban Renewal Policy,CMHC, 1968, p. 5 24 .- C o l l i e r / C r o s s / B u n g e , op. c i t . , R. Mann, The R o l e o f t h e Time Element i n Urban Renewal P r o c e s s , T h e s i s i n S c h o o l o f Comm. and R e g . . P l a n n i n g , UBC, 1968. i n f o r c e m e n t . The c r i t i c i s m s a p p l i e d t o t h e scope o f t h e proposed p r o j e c t s t h e m s e l v e s . As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e program were so w i d e , y e t l a c k e d p r e c i s i o n i n a r t i c u l a t i o n , t h a t t h e y were overshadowed by a c o n c e n t r a -t i o n upon CMHC a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y . T h i s l a t t e r s e c t o r o f the f l o w p a t t e r n , t o compensate f o r t h e g e n e r a l n e s s o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s , t e n d e d t o be o v e r l y d e f i n i t i v e and narrow i n i t s o u t l o o k . I n t h o s e c a s e s where m u n i c i p a l e f f o r t s were made t o go beyond a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y , i n t h e sense o f a c t i n g i n ac c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e program, t h e p r o -c e d u r a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n s produced e x t e n s i v e d e l a y s . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e l a c k o f c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e urban r e n e w a l program s e r i o u s l y hampered i t s e v a l u a t i o n and p l a c e d an o v e r l y heavy emphasis on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y . T h i s d e t r a c t e d from t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o f o r m u l a t e a s t r o n g community o f i n t e r e s t o r i n t e n t among th e g o v e r n m e n t a l p a r t n e r s i n v o l v e d . The i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i -r c u l t i e s o f o p e r a t i n g a program a t once t o o b r o a d and t o o narrow i n scope c u l m i n a t e d i n a F e d e r a l a t t e m p t t o e v a l u a t e t h e program w h i c h i t had i n i t i a t e d . As a r e s u l t , t h e program was h a l t e d p e n d i n g t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s p r o b l e m . The r e -mainder o f t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l examine t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i n g t h e CMHC p o l i c i e s and t h e i r d i v e r g e n c e s from t h e o b j e c t i v e s as t h e y have been r e l a t e d . 2-1 C H A P T E R T W O A. THE NATIONAL SCOPE OF THE PROGRAM A t t h e ti m e o f t h e H e l l y e r Task F o r c e on Housing and Urban Development, t h e urban r e n e w a l program, on a Canada-wide i b a s i s , r e p r e s e n t e d a p e r c a p i t a p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t o f $16.80. The F e d e r a l Government, t h r o u g h CMHC, had c o n t r i b u t e d 25 168.343 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s w h i c h . c o m p r i s e d r o u g h l y 50% o f t h e t o t a l p u b l i c e f f o r t . The remainder came from t h e p r o v i n c i a l government and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s i n v a r y i n g p r o -p o r t i o n s , r e l a t i v e t o Appe n d i x Two and t h e f o l l o w i n g b r e a k -down o f t h e CMHC i n v o l v e m e n t . , There were no CMHC urban r e n e w a l commitments i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , t h e Yukon and t h e N o r t h West T e r r i t o r i e s . On a p e r c a p i t a b a s i s o f p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t , t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e s d i f f e r e d as p e r F i g u r e I I . C a n a d i a n Housing S t a t i s t i c s , Economics and S t a t i s -t i c s D i v i s i o n , CMHC (1964-19.68); Urban Renewal and P u b l i c H o u s i n g i n Canada, CMHC, 1965-1968. 2-2 I . Money D i s b u r s e d Under NHA S e c t i o n s 23A, 23B and 33 ( l ) h Between 1954 and 1968 I n M i l l i o n s o f D o l l a r s 7 3 . 2 . 5o • 2> 1 3 - 7 8 Z % ©•5- 9 - 3 s - s - % 4 - 8 3-7 Z - 4 o- 8 I - 5 - % OHT. | Q U E . | N i B - | N -S - | B-C- | M A N . | A L A . | N F L D . | S A S K . G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , 73.8% o f t h e program, i n terms o f f e d e r a l f u n d i n g , was d e v o t e d t o two p r o v i n c e s . Quebec and O n t a r i o , c o n s t i t u t e d 63.6% o f t h e Ca n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . The r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e program f u n d i n g among t h e r e m a i n i n g p r o v i n c e s was s m a l l , b u t t h e u n e q u a l envolvement, r e l a t i v e t o p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , was e v i d e n t i n t h e case o f Nova S c o t i a and New B r u n s w i c k . However, Quebec and O n t a r i o were a,lso above t h e average p e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e f o r Canada as a whole. 2-3 I I . P e r C a p i t a P u b l i c Spending i n Urban Renewal by P r o v i n c e 4 4 - 5 O 7.5 o o 2.1 • O O I O O O a . e o 9 8 0 2.-00 • I 1 I I 1 I I I N-B- j N-S- | ONT | QUE. | MAN. | BC- | NR.& | ALA. I SASK. Thus, i n b o t h r e s p e c t s t h e program was w e i g h t e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e s e two p r o v i n c e s , as w e l l as i n terms o f t h e a b s o l u t e number o f p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n . Urban r e n e w a l p u b l i c s p e n d i n g c o u l d be br o k e n down on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s t a g e s o f t h e program as o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r One. The v a s t preponderance o f t h e $168 m i l l i o n o f f e d e r a l money was t i e d t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t s . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e d $162.2 m i l l i o n , w h i c h was 96.3% o f t h e t o t a l . The o v e r a l l m u n i c i p a l s t u d i e s r e p r e s e n t e d 2% o f t h e CMHC e x p e n d i t u r e , o r $3.4 m i l l i o n , w h i l e t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f th e scheme r e p o r t s u t i l i z e d $2.8 m i l l i o n , o r 1.7% o f t h e t o t a l a l l o t m e n t . I n terms o f a b s o l u t e numbers, 210 s t u d i e s were u n d e r t a k e n , 166 o f t h e s e s i n c e t h e 1964 amendments. Of t h i s number 133 were completed a t t h e t i m e o f t h e Task F o r c e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I I I . F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Commitment By-S e c t i o n s o f t h e NHA 2-4 Z S M SECTION 23 B .96-3 % SECTION 23A 1-7% SECTION 33Cl)h. 2 0 % One hundred and twenty scheme r e p o r t s were a u t h o r i z e d and 35 were completed by t h e same d a t e . F o r t y n i n e p r o j e c t s had r e c e i v e d Order i n C o u n c i l a p p r o v a l o f w h i c h 15 had been completed f o r a t o t a l o f $4 8 m i l l i o n o f f e d e r a l f u n d s . The average c o s t o f an urban r e n e w a l s t u d y was $20,161. The average c o s t o f a scheme r e p o r t was $46,136. These two f i g u r e s , i n t h e m s e l v e s , a r e n o t v e r y m e a n i n g f u l due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o f each r e n e w a l s i t u a t i o n . However, t h e y can r e p r e s e n t a crud e m e a s u r i n g s t i c k i n p r o j e c t i n g t h e c o s t o f f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s and ex a m i n i n g s p e c i f i c c a s e s . A t h i r d form o f breakdown w h i c h c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o th e d a t a i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e s i z e o f t h e c i t y i n w h i c h t h e urban r e n e w a l program was o p e r a t e d . CMHC adopted a d i v i d i n g p o i n t o f 30,000 i n h a b i t a n t s . T h i s f i g u r e was f e l t t o r e p r e s e n t t h e minimum s i z e o f community w h i c h would s u p p o r t i t s own f u l l t i m e p l a n n i n g department. The r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s f a c t o r i s open t o q u e s t i o n . I n d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s i t u a t i o n , i t was i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e between r e s i d e n t p l a n n i n g s t a f f s and p r i v a t e con-s u l t a n t s had n o t produced major d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n p r e p a r a t i o n t i m e o r c o s t p e r a c r e . I n any c a s e , t h e f i g u r e has been d e c i d e d upon and might be, a t w o r s t , c o n s i d e r e d a r b i t r a r y . When t h e d a t a i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e above graphs was e x p r e s s e d o y e r a common d e n o m i n a t o r , i t showed t h a t 9 7.6% o f t h e f e d e r a l f u n d i n g f o r u r b an r e n e w a l had gone t o c i t i e s o f g r e a t e r t h a n 30,000. The f i g u r e s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d a b a c k l o g o f p o t e n t i a l p r o j e c t s i n s m a l l communities w h i c h had not r e a c h e d t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e i n August 1968. Were t h e s e t o move f o r -ward, t h e v a s t d i s c r e p a n c y i n F i g u r e V I would be c o n s i d e r a b l y r e d u c e d . T h i s form o f e x t r a p o l a t i o n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r . The h i g h e r p e r u n i t c o s t o f s t u d i e s and schemes i n l a r g e r c i t i e s , w h i c h showed up i n F i g u r e s IV and V w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e B r i t i s h C olumbia d a t a . B. THE EXTRAPOLATION OF THE PRESENT FEDERAL COMMITMENT The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h e opening s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r c o v e r e d t h e e x t e n t o f t h e commitment as p e r Order i n 2-6 14-3 IV. NUMBER AND TOTAL COST OF . . STUDIES BY CITY SIZE • number o f s t u d i e s number o f d o l l a r s of f e d e r a l commitment i n m i l l i o n s vertical s c a l e 6:1 dollars/no. projects zo 6 3 5 7 V. NUMBER AND TOTAL COST OF SCHEMES BY CITY SIZE o - 8 l • number o f schemes number o f d o l l a r s o f f e d e r a l commitment i n m i l l i o n s 30- 3CM-vertical scale 4:1 dollars/no. projects 2-7 V I . NUMBER AND TOTAL COST OF PROJECTS BY CITY SIZE number o f p r o j e c t s number o f d o l l a r s o f f e d e r a l commitment i n m i l l i o n s • • r vertical s c a l e 4:1 dollars/no. projects 2-8-C o u n c i i a p p r o v a l s , up t o t h e mo r a t o r i u m on urban r e n e w a l d e c l a r e d by.Mr. P a u l H e l l y e r , t h e M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r CMHC i n 1968. However, a more comprehensive g r a s p o f what the program was d o i n g c o u l d be o b t a i n e d by ex a m i n i n g t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e i c e b e r g t h a t was n o t a p p a r e n t . That i s , t h e program c o n t a i n e d many u n d e r t a k i n g s w h i c h had n o t advanced t o t h e p o i n t o f a c t i o n on t h e ground. These were i n t h e form o f (a) scheme r e p o r t s w h i c h were s t i l l b e i n g c r e a t e d , (b) c o m p l e t e d scheme r e p o r t s w h i c h had n o t been used t o a p p l y f o r an i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o j e c t , (c) p r o j e c t a p p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h had n o t r e c e i v e d F e d e r a l government a p p r o v a l by August 1968. The c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e elements o f t h e program w h i c h were s t i l l ' i n t h e m i l l ' would d o u b l e t h e s c a l e o f NHA urban r e -newal. T h e r e f o r e , an e f f o r t has been made t o a s s e s s t h e impact o f t h i s i n c r e a s e d commitment by h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h a t a l l t h e s e u n d e r t a k i n g s r e a c h e d t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e . The r e s u l t i n g f i g u r e s i n c l u d e d p a r t o f t h e $168 m i l l i o n d i s c u s s e d above, p l u s t h e e s t i m a t e d p r o j e c t c o s t s o f a l l t h e schemes w h i c h had n o t been approved o r c o m p l e t e d . The c o s t e s t i m a t e s were d e r i v e d from t h o s e made by t h e Urban Renewal P u b l i c Housing D i v i s i o n o f CMHC i n F e b r u a r y 1967 and August 1968, as p a r t o f an o n g o i n g t a b u l a t i o n o f t h e program. The 18 month gap between t a b u l a t i o n t i m e s r e s u l t e d i n t h e o m i s s i o n o f a s m a l l number o f p r o j e c t s when t h e two s e t s of d a t a were combined. However, t h i s s h o r t c o m i n g was n o t o f g r e a t magnitude when the r e s u l t i n g f i g u r e s were compared a g a i n s t o t h e r s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The d a t a was based s o l e l y on t h o s e p r o j e c t s w h i c h o c c u r r e d subsequent t o the 19 64 amendments t o t h e NHA. In t h e e x t r a p o l a t e d s e t o f d a t a , 142 p r o j e c t s have been i t e m i z e d . The t o t a l o f schemes and p r o j e c t s t o August 1968 was 16 9. However, 20 o f t h e s e were u n d e r t a k e n under the NHA p r i o r t o t h e 19 64 amendments and t h e r e f o r e have been e x c l u d e d f o r t he purposes o f t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n . There were thus 7 p r o j e c t s u naccounted f o r , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d 4.7% o f t h e t o t a l . A n o t h e r assessment o f t h e comple t e n e s s o f t h e d a t a was t h e compa r i s o n o f t h e e x t r a p o l a t e d t o t a l f e d e r a l commitment o f $285.39 m i l l i o n w i t h . t h e m i n u tes o f the CMHC A r c h i t e c t / P l a n n e r s C o n f e r e n c e o f November 19 69 w h i c h o u t l i n e d CMHC urban r e n e w a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t erms. The CMHC e x p e n d i t u r e s i n 1967 were $7 m i l l i o n , $15 m i l l i o n i n 1968, $21 m i l l i o n i n 1969 and an e s t i m a t e d commitment o f $25 m i l l i o n i n 197 0 w i t h r o u g h l y 27 $200 m i l l i o n " i n t h e p i p e l i n e . " T h i s f i g u r e o f $268 m i l l i o n compared r e a s o n a b l y w i l l w i t h t h e f i g u r e used i n t h i s examin-a t i o n . T h i s was a l s o weighed a g a i n s t t h e 19 65 T r e a s u r y Board a l l o t m e n t o f $300 m i l l i o n t o t h e urban r e n e w a l program. There-f o r e t he d a t a has been s u b m i t t e d w i t h r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e above mentioned l i m i t a t i o n s t o i t s a c c u r a c y . 26 M i n u t e s o f the A r c h i t e c t P l a n n e r s ' C o n f e r e n c e , Ottawa, November 1969. 27 ^ 7 I b i d . . 2-10 TABLE I EXTRAPOLATED FEDERAL COMMITMENT TO SECTION 2 3B PROJECTS IN MILLIONS OF DOLLARS P r o v i n c e C i t y S i z e Predom. Land Use and Number CBD No. Res. No. Mixed NO . Newfoundland 30,000+ 8 .18 4 30,000- 2 .20 1 Nova S c o t i a 30,000+ 5 .-0 8- 3 30,000- 0.75 1 0.75 2 0.40 1 New 30,000+ 5.00 1 B r u n s w i c k 30,000- 0.50 1 2.70 3 Quebec 30,000+ 3.00 2 18 .80 8 24 .90 7 30,000- 21.90 14 10 .15 7 26 .50 20 O n t a r i o 30,000+ 43.30 10 28.75 8 7.15 4 30,000- 5.00 4 3.10 5 0 .32 1 M a n i t o b i a 30,000+ 5.00 1 0 .50 1 5.00 1 30,000- 0 .50 1 Saskatchewan 30,000+ 0.17 1 30,000- 0.50 1 1.00 2 1.25 2 A l b e r t a 30,000+ 19 .70 2 3 .30 1 30,000- 0.40 1 1.25 2 1.50 2 B r i t i s h 30,000+ 3.11 2 9.45 3 10.02 2 Co l u m b i a 30,000- 2.81 7 1.50 3 T o t a l s 116.55 51 87.00 47 81.84 44 30,000+ - c i t i e s w i t h g r e a t e r t h a n 30,000 i n h a b i t a n t s . 30,000- - towns w i t h l e s s t h a n 30,000 i n h a b i t a n t s . CBD - c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s a r e a o f m u n i c i p a l i t y . Res. - p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . M i x e d - a r e a o f mixed ( c o m m e r c i a l / i n d u s t r i a l / r e s i d e n t i a l ) l a n d uses o u t s i d e t h e CBD. 2-11 ZOO-A- V I I . NUMBER AND TOTAL COST OF PROJECTS BY CITY SIZE 81 61 3 0 - 3 0 -• number o f p r o j e c t s f e d e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n i n m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s 8 4 - 9 vertical s c a l e 2:1 dollars/no. projects 2-12 51 47 87-0 4 4 Si-8 V I I I . NUMBER AND TOTAL COST OF PROJECTS BY LAND USE CLASSIFICATION • number o f p r o j e c t s f e d e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n i n m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s CBD RES MIX vertical s c a l e 2:1 dollars/no. projects 2-13 The breakdowns employed i n a n a l y s i n g t h e m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d i t e m i z a t i o n s by a) p r o v i n c e b) number o f p r o j e c t s c) c o s t o f p r o j e c t s d) s i z e o f c i t y and e) predominant l a n d use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . I n as much as t h e f e d e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n under S e c t i o n s 23A and 3 3 ( l ) h c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y 3.7% o f t h e t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e on urban r e n e w a l , and due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f amassing d a t a beyond t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h i s f a c t o r was o m i t t e d i n t h e above t a b l e s and gr a p h s . By comparing F i g u r e s V I and V I I , i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t a more e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d program ( w i t h r e g a r d t o c i t y s i z e ) w ould have o c c u r r e d i f urban r e n e w a l commitments had been c o m p l e t e d . However, t h e average c o s t o f major c i t y p r o j e c t s was r o u g h l y 3 t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e i n s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s . F e d e r a l urban r e n e w a l s p e n d i n g i n c i t i e s was $200.41 m i l l i o n on 61 p r o j e c t s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d 70.23% o f t h e t o t a l budget and 42.9% o f t h e t o t a l number o f p r o j e c t s . C o n v e r s e l y , the t o t a l F e d e r a l urban r e n e w a l f u n d i n g f o r s m a l l towns was $84.98 m i l l i o n o v e r 81 p r o j e c t s r e p r e s e n t i n g 29.77% o f t h e t o t a l budget and 57.1% o f t h e t o t a l number o f p r o j e c t s . The major c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s m o d i f y i n g t r e n d away from l a r g e r c i t y predominance was t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e Quebec Housing C o r p o r a t i o n i n 19 67, I n ac c o r d a n c e w i t h Quebec n a t i o n a l i s t i c s e n t i m e n t , t h e c o n t r o l by CMHC ov e r t h e urban r e n e w a l programs u n d e r t a k e n by t h i s new department was g r e a t l y l i m i t e d . I n e s s e n c e , CMHC made a n n u a l g r a n t s t o t h e Quebec Housing C o r -p o r a t i o n , w h i c h s e t i t s own p r i o r i t i e s and p r o j e c t s and 2-14 84-2 IX. NUMBER AND TOTAL COST OF -PROJECTS BY CITY SIZE AND LAND USE £5-9. 30 21 32-4 CBD 30 + CBD 3 0 -Z°> ZS RES 30+ 3.2 Z\Z RES 3 0 -15 MIX 30 + 2>\-S MIX 3 0 -• number o f p r o j e c t s f e d e r a l c o n t r i b u -t i o n i n m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s vertical scale 2:1 dollars/no. projects 58 105-3 37 6 X. NUMBER AND TOTAL COST OF PROJECTS BY PROVINCE • number o f p r o j e c t s f e d e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n i n m i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s 32 vertical s c a l e 2:1 dollars/no. projects 17 l l - O J O - 4 5_ 5 QUE. I ONT. B - C - ALA. MAN. NFLD. N-B-6 - 9 N-5-Z-9 ML SASK-2-16 p r o v i d e d a y e a r end a c c o u n t i n g . The r e s u l t was an upsurge o f u rban r e n e w a l a c t i v i t y i n Quebec, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e s m a l l e r communities o f t h e p r o v i n c e . T h i s s h i f t was e v i d e n t i n comparing F i g u r e s I and X. A n o t h e r f e a t u r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f i g u r e s was t h a t s i n c e 1964, t h e l a n d use w h i c h was most f r e q u e n t l y s u b j e c t t o urban r e n e w a l , b o t h i n terms o f d o l l a r s s p e n t and t h e number o f p r o j e c t s , was the C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t . 40.84% o f the f e d e r a l budget, r e p r e s e n t i n g $116.55 m i l l i o n was e a r -marked f o r 51 c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t p r o j e c t s . T h i s was 35.9% o f the t o t a l number. Of t h e r e m a i n d e r , $87 m i l l i o n , o r 30.48% was t o be spen t on 47 r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s (33.1%) and $81.84 m i l l i o n , o r 28.67%, was t o a s s i s t 44 p r o j e c t s i n a r e a s of mixed l a n d u s e s . (30.1%) The average f e d e r a l s h are o f a c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t scheme was $2.29 m i l l i o n , w h i c h was a l m o s t 25% g r e a t e r t h a n t h e average f o r e i t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l o r mixed l a n d use p r o j e c t s . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e n a t i o n a l b r e a k -down o f t h e f e d e r a l commitment i n numbers, d o l l a r s and p e r c e n t a g e s . The two s i z e s o f urban a r e a s (used f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s i n t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n ) a l l o c a t e d t h e f e d e r a l funds i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. C i t i e s d e v o t e d 42.2% o f t h e money a v a i l a b l e t o t h e i r c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s , 32.8% t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and 25.1% o f t h e money t o a r e a s o f mixed l a n d use. These c o n s t i t u t e d 34.4%, 41.0% and 24.6% r e s p e c -2-17 TABLE I I THE NATIONAL BREAKDOWN OF THE FEDERAL COMMITMENT Number P e r c e n t * C o s t P e r c e n t C i t y CBD 21 14.8 84.19 29.5 Town CBD 30 21.1 32.36 11.3 C i t y r e s . 25 17 .6 65.85 23.1 Town r e s . 22 15.5 21.15 7.4 C i t y mixed 15 10.6 50 .37 17.7 Town mixed 29 20.4 31.47 . 11.0 * M i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s o f f e d e r a l i n v e s t m e n t . t i v e l y o f t h e number o f p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n . Towns d e v o t e d 38.1% o f t h e CMHC a l l o c a t i o n t o t h e i r c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s -t r i c t s , 24.9% t o r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and 37... 0% o f t h e money towards u r b a n r e n e w a l i n mixed use a r e a s . These c o n s t i t u t e d 37.0%, 27.2% and 35.8% r e s p e c t i v e l y o f t h e t o t a l number o f p r o j e c t s . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s d a t a , a few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , c o n c e r n i n g t h e urban r e n e w a l program i n Canada s i n c e 1964, have been a t t e m p t e d . G e o g r a p h i c a l l y , t h e program remained l a r g e l y c e n t r e d i n O n t a r i o and Quebec, w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y even s p r e a d among t h e rem a i n d e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e s . T h i s might i n p a r t be a p r o d u c t o f t h e j o i n t n a t u r e o f t h e u n d e r t a k i n g . That i s , 50% o f t h e f u n d i n g had t o be s u p p l i e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l and 2-18 m u n i c i p a l t r e a s u r i e s . Thus, t o some e x t e n t , i t was a program w h i c h c o u l d be b e s t a f f o r d e d by a w e a l t h y p r o v i n c e . I n terms o f o r d i n a l r a n k , f i g u r e e l e v e n i s r o u g h l y comparable w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e economic r a n k i n g o f t h e p r o v i n c e s . A n o t h e r f e a t u r e o f t h e program was t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e x p e n d i t u r e i n c i t i e s o f g r e a t e r t h a n 30,000. A l t h o u g h n u m e r i c a l l y i n t h e m i n o r i t y , t h e average c o s t o f the u n d e r t a k -i n g s , as menti o n e d , was c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r . A p a r t from t h e g r e a t e r p h y s i c a l s i z e o f t h e c i t y p r o j e c t s , t h e c o s t o f the l a n d i t s e l f has no doubt been a major f a c t o r i n t h e h i g h e r o v e r a l l c o s t s . A t h i r d p a t t e r n e v i d e n t i n t h e d a t a was t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t , i n t h e eyes o f t h e m u n i c i -p a l i t y , as t h e a r e a most d e s e r v i n g o f r e n e w a l . A c o n c o m i t a n t f e a t u r e was t h e r e l a t i v e de-emphasis on a r e a s w h i c h were p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e s i d e n t i a l . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n th e c a s e o f s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s . O n l y 7.3% o f CMHC r e n e w a l f u n d s were d e v o t e d t o t h i s end. I n as much as t h e m u n i c i p a l -i t i e s t h e m s e l v e s s e t t h e p r i o r i t i e s f o r r e n e w a l , i t c o u l d be t e n u o u s l y argued t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n i n s m a l l communities was n o t a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m i n terms o f urban r e n e w a l . The h i g h e r m u n i c i p a l t a x r e t u r n s on c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l l a n d u s e s , as opposed t o r e s i d e n t i a l , were an i n c e n t i v e f o r town c o u n c i l s t o c o n c e n t r a t e redevelopment a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e s e a r e a s . The t a x r e c o v e r y , i n terms o f b o t h assessment r a t e and a b s o l u t e v a l u e , was g r e a t e r f o r assembled and c l e a r e d l a n d w h i c h was c o n s o l i d a t e d f o r c o m m e r c i a l development, as opposed t o low t o medium d e n s i t y h o u s i n g . A l s o , t h e l i k e l i -hood o f a t t r a c t i n g p r i v a t e - d e v e l o p m e n t i n t e r e s t s was g r e a t e r f o r c o m m e r c i a l / i n d u s t r i a l uses t h a n f o r r e s i d e n t i a l . T h i s was due i n p a r t t o two f a c t o r s . The f a c t t h a t a p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a i n a c i t y d e t e r i o r a t e d was o f t e n i n d i c a t i v e t h a t t h e a r e a was n o t a r e l a t i v e l y d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n t o l i v e . T h i s , r e i n f o r c e d by t h e s t i g m a o f an urban r e n e w a l d e s i g n a t i o n , t ended t o f r i g h t e n away p o t e n t i a l m i d d l e c l a s s r e s i d e n t s . However, i t was t h i s group t o w h i c h t h e p r i v a t e development i n t e r e s t s e x c l u s i v e l y c a t e r e d . B u i l d e r s would n o t go i n t o an a r e a t o c r e a t e t h e t y p e o f development f o r w h i c h market demand was n o t e v i d e n t . The f a c t t h a t t h e a r e a was b l i g h t e d enough t o r e q u i r e r e n e w a l i n d i c a t e d t h e absence o f t h i s market demand. A l s o CMHC p o l i c y s h i f t e d from r e m a r k e t i n g assembled and c l e a r e d l a n d a t a w r i t e down t o s e l l i n g ' i t a t c o s t . T h i s meant t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e c o s t o f t h i s l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p u r poses was u s u a l l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f suburban a r e a s where an e s t a b l i s h e d market e x i s t e d . From t h e c i t y ' s v i e w p o i n t , t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f b o t h t h e s u c c e s s f u l s a l e o f c l e a r e d a r e a s and t h e h i g h e r t a x r e t u r n s were g r e a t e r i n d e a l i n g w i t h a r e a s w h i c h e i t h e r b e f o r e and/or a f t e r r e n e w a l were p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e programs f o r Urban Renewal A r e a s D-4 and A-6 i n Vancouver i l l u s t r a t e d t h e s e p o i n t s . The C a l l f o r P r o p o s a l s f o r t h e r e s i d e n t i a l r e d e v e l o p -ment o f A r e a A-6 s o l i c i t e d one b i d , w h i c h was withdrawn.. I n 2-20 t h i s c a s e , t h e s a l e - p r i c e o f t h e s i t e ($100,000) c o n s t i t u t e d a w r i t e - d o w n b u t t h i s p r o v e d t o be an i n s u f f i c i e n t a t t r a c t i o n . The market v i a b i l i t y f o r t h e form o f development r e q u e s t e d had n o t been s u b s t a n t i a t e d and t h e b i d d e r c o n s i d e r e d t h e r i s k e lement t o o g r e a t . Urban Renewal A r e a D-4 i n v o l v e d t h e r e -moval o f d e l a p i d a t e d h o u s i n g i n a mixed a r e a w i t h t h e r e s u l t -i n g c o n s o l i d a t e d s i t e s b e i n g marketed f o r l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l u s e s . A l l p a r c e l s o f l a n d were s o l d and u t i l i z e d . The p r o j e c t has been c o n s i d e r e d a s u c c e s s . ^ The de-emphasis o f r e s i d e n t i a l c o n c e r n s i n urban r e n e w a l has been a p p a r e n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as w e l l . The c a s e f o r d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l h o u s i n g f i e l d i s n o t now easy t o make, e x c e p t f o r t h e problem o f slums. The s t o r y was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n t h e e a r l y p o s t World War Two y e a r s , when t h e r e was a s u b s t a n t i a l h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e . But t h i s has now been e s s e n t i a l l y made up . . . . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t w i l l be assumed t h a t g e n e r a l i n v e s t m e n t s i n h o u s i n g t h a t a r e e i t h e r d i r e c t l y p u b l i c o r i n d u c e d by p u b l i c s u b s i d i e s do n o t b r i n g about n e t b e n e f i t s . The o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s a r e a t l e a s t as g r e a t as t h e g r o s s b e n e f i t s . T h i s c o n -s t i t u t e s t h e v a l u e judgement t h a t g e n e r a l s u b s i d i z -a t i o n o f h o u s i n g i s a p u b l i c purpose o f low p r i o r i t y under p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . A d m i t t e d l y t h i s p o s i t i o n i s open t o d e b a t e . There a r e s i g n s t h a t t h i s v i e w may be h e l d by P u b l i c d e c i s i o n makers as w e l l . I n r e c e n t y e a r s , l o c a l p l a n n e r s have been s h i f t i n g t h e emphasis i n ur b a n r e n e w a l away from h o u s i n g needs towards c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , o r an o v e r a l l mix o f needs. T h i s s u g g e s t s , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t no t o p - p r i o r i t y u rgency i s f e l t f o r p u r e l y h o u s i n g g o a l s . 29 I n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , J.E. Brown,. F e b r u a r y , 1969. 2-21 C. EXAMINATION OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA URBAN RENEWAL PROGRAM The i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f b o t h t h e urban r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s and t h e communities i n v o l v e d was an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e program. . A s s u m p t i o n s d e r i v e d from n a t i o n a l a g g r e g a t e s o f c o s t s , numbers and t y p e s were f e l t t o be i n s u f f i c i e n t t o f u l l y s u p p o r t a c r i t i q u e o f t h e program. T h e r e f o r e , an a t t e m p t has been made t o p u t t o g e t h e r an a s s o r t m e n t o f d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h e 21 urban r e n e w a l programs w h i c h have been a t t e m p t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e d r o u g h l y a 15% sample o f t h e n a t i o n a l t o t a l . The c h o i c e was a r b i t r a r y , h a v i n g been based p r i m a r i l y upon t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f d a t a . As was a p p a r e n t i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l program, t h e number o f com-p l e t e d p r o j e c t s was s m a l l i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e number o f schemes u n d e r t a k e n . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e completed p r o j e c t s e x c l u s i v e l y had two drawbacks. F i r s t , t h e number was t o o s m a l l f o r v a l i d c o m p a r i s o n , and as i l l u s t r a t e d i n S e c t i o n B, i t gave a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e o f t h e program. T h e r e f o r e , where d a t a was a v a i l a b l e , an a t t e m p t was made t o h y p o t h e s i z e p r o -j e c t s on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t schemes were approved f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The assumed p r o j e c t c o s t s were a g a i n t a k e n from e s t i m a t e s from C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . The p r o j e c t a r e a s were t a k e n from t h e recommendations o f t h e scheme r e p o r t s . 29 J . R o t h e n b e r g , Economic E v a l u a t i o n o f Urban Renewal, S t u d i e s i n Government F i n a n c e , The B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n (Washington, 1967) p. 69. TABLE I I I BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT BREAKDOWN C i t y P o p u l a t i o n 23B C o s t A r e a C o s t / A c r e Cost/Pop. Land Use 'Objective Vancouver S.3 410,375 * 11,880,000 - — 28.95 Res/Mix 1A,5A.C,1.D Vancouver S.3A 410,375 266,881 2 .5A 106 ,752 .55 - Res l.D Vancouver 4/4A 410,375 * 9,000,000 - - 21.93 CBD 1.B,1.D Vancouver S.5 410,375 * 5,000,000 25A 200,000 12 .18 Res 4 Vancouver S.6 410,375 476,000 12A 39,667 1.16 Mi x e d 3.C Burnaby 112,036 • 883,000 5A 176 ,600 7.88 Res/Mix 4 V i c t o r i a B/S 57,453 224,000 1A 224 ,000 3.90 CBD 2 .D V i c t o r i a S.3 57,453 * 6,000,000 - 104 .43 CBD l.B,2.B V i c t o r i a R/B . 57,453 * 2,003,680 30A 66,789 34.88 Res 4,l.D,P.H New 38,013 * 9,140,000 64A 142,813 240 .44 Res/Ind' 4,5.A.C W e s t m i n i s t e r P o r t C o q u i t l a m 11,121 278,746 7A 39 ,821 25.06 CBD l . B , l . D Ladner 5,000 219,130 6Al 36 ,522 ' 43.83 CBD 1.A,1.B C l o v e r d a l e 2,800 668,450 42A 15,915 238.72 CBD 4 ,2 .B Kelowna 17,006 * 1,200,000 - 70.56 Res/Ind 5.A.C,l.D Dawson Creek 12,392 - - - - Res l . A T r a i l 11,600 257,150 3A 85,717 22 .17 CBD l.D Vernon 11,423 * 2,000,000 . 25A 80,000 175 .09 CBD 4,1.B,2.B . R e v e l s t o k e 4,791 * 600,000 - - 125 .23 Res/Ind 5 .A.C Duncan 4,300 * 800,000 18A • 44,444 ' 186.05 . CBD l . B , l . D Nakusp 1,282 * 384,000 ( 7A 54,857 299.53 CBd l . B , l . D , 4 A l e r t Bay 8 50 202,750 2 OA 10,138 238.53 Res/Mix l . A , l . B , l . D N a t a l / M i c h e l 1,260 2,092,209 75A 27,896 660.48 Whole Town l . A , l . B CODE: 1. r e d e v e l o p 2. r e h a b i l i t a t e 3. expand 4. new ro a d 5. s e p a r a t e A. r e s i d e n t i a l B. commercial C. i n d u s t r i a l D. c i v i c p a r k i n g P.H. p u b l i c h o u s i n g CMHC e s t i m a t e s f to ! I . 2-23 Urban r e n e w a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s i n c e 1964 was r o u g h l y a $53.5 m i l l i o n u n d e r t a k i n g . A l m o s t $45 m i l l i o n o f t h i s amount was t o be de v o t e d t o c i t i e s o f g r e a t e r t h a n 30,000 p e o p l e , w i t h more t h a n h a l f o f t h e l a t t e r amount earmarked f o r the c i t y o f Vancouver. There were 21 programs w h i c h r e a c h e d t h e scheme r e p o r t s t a g e . O n l y 7 o r 33% were a c t i v e l y u nder-t a k e n as p r o j e c t s . T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d a t o t a l s p e n d i n g o f $6,138,789 o r r o u g h l y 11.5% o f t h e p o t e n t i a l budget. A n o t h e r $1,000,000 has been a u t h o r i z e d f o r t h e p r o j e c t s i n t h e 3 s m a l l communities on t h e s o u t h e r n p e r i p h e r y o f Vancouver. , The urban r e n e w a l program i n Canada d i d n o t l e n d i t s e l f t o c o s t b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s . T h i s p o i n t was made by Mr. A. 30 31 Barua and C e n t r a l Mortgage and H o u s i n g . F i r s t , t h e o b j e c -t i v e s t h e m s e l v e s , as p o i n t e d o u t i n C h a p t e r One, were n o t d e f i n e d c o n c i s e l y enough t o be measured. A l s o , t o d e l i n e a t e and q u a n t i f y t h e scope o f t h e impact and s p i n o f f s o f an i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t i s a mammoth u n d e r t a k i n g , l e t a l o n e a s s e s s -i n g a n a t i o n a l program. I t i s becoming commonplace . . . t o c a l l f o r d e t a i l e d c o s t b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s o f p u b l i c programs o f a l l k i n d s . . . . Whatever l i m i t e d s u c c e s s may have been a c h i e v e d w i t h t h i s k i n d o f a n a l y s i s i n a r e a s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y where g o a l s a r e more o r l e s s s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d we a r e f a r s h o r t o f b e i n g a b l e t o d e l i v e r s i m p l e judgements i n t h e f i e l d o f urban r e n e w a l . . . . The purpose o f r e n e w a l i s t o make A.K. B a r u a , An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f C o s t - B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s as a T o o l i n t h e E v a l u a t i o n o f Urban P l a n s , M a s t e r s T h e s i s i n t h e S c h o o l o f Comm. and Reg. P l a n n i n g (UBC, 1968). 31 Notes on an Urban Renewal P o l i c y , op. c i t . , p. 2. • 2-2 our c i t i e s b e t t e r by e l i m i n a t i n g b l i g h t . . . . The o b j e c t i v e i s s i m p l e enough t o s t a t e b u t a t t h i s s t a g e i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o a s s i g n o b j e c t i v e v a l u e s t o a c h i e v i n g i t . T h i s i s a f u n d a m e n t a l dilemma and i s n o t s u b j e c t t o r e s o l u t i o n by ' computer programs and c o m p l i c a t e d a r i t h m e t i c . 32 However, one tenuous assessment was p o s s i b l e ; t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e per c a p i t a c o s t f o r i n d i v i d u a l c i t y ' s r e n e w a l under-t a k i n g s . I n a p p l y i n g t h i s p r o c e d u r e t o t h e B.C. d a t a , i t was found t h a t t h e per c a p i t a c o s t f o r s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s ' p r o j e c t s was r o u g h l y s i x t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e c o s t f o r major c i t i e s . \ A s i m i l a r c o m p a r i s o n o f tenuous a p p l i c a b i l i t y was made f o r c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t r e n e w a l . F o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , on a p e r c a p i t a b a s i s o f t h e communities i n v o l v e d , c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s c o s t a l m o s t 50% more p e r p e r s o n t h a n r e s i d e n t i a l and mixed l a n d use p r o j e c t s . These a r e a t b e s t a v e r y c r u d e y a r d s t i c k f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e r e l a t i v e i m p a c t o f t h e program on t h e p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n , b u t no o t h e r method of e v a l u a t i o n o f u s e r c o s t appeared t o c o v e r more t h a n i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s . The c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t was t h e predominant p r i o r i t y f o r r e n e w a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s , i n v o l v i n g 7 o f t h e 12 p r o j e c t s . T h i s p a t t e r n d i d n o t r e c u r i n t h e major c i t i e s were o n l y 3 of the 9 p r o j e c t s where s l a t e d f o r t h e downtown a r e a s . T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d about 33% o f The F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Program, An E v a l u a t i o n , op. c i t . , p. 16. t h e funds f o r major c i t y r e n e w a l . . A c r u d e summation o f t h e p r o m i n e n t o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p r o j e c t s r e v e a l e d 3 i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n s . T h i r t y t h r e e p e r -c e n t o f t h e s e u n d e r t a k i n g s i n v o l v e d s u b s t a n t i a l s t r e e t a l t e r -a t i o n s as major components o f t h e programs, 43% o f t h e p r o j e c t s i n c o r p o r a t e d s u b s t a n t i a l c i v i c u n d e r t a k i n g s , i n t h e form o f b u i l d i n g s , s e r v i c i n g and p a r k i n g , i n t h e urban r e n e w a l program. On l y 9.5% o f t h e p r o j e c t s c o n t a i n e d r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as a c o n s e q u e n t i a l a s p e c t o f t h e p r o j e c t . The p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e urban r e n e w a l program i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e p r e s e n t e d r o u g h l y one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n r e p o r t p r e p a r a t i o n . T h i s e x c l u d e d t h e s t a f f t i m e o f t h e two s e n i o r l e v e l s o f government. T h i s f i g u r e was r o u g h l y two p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l c o s t o f i m p l e m e n t i n g th e r e s u l t i n g p r o j e c t s . E i g h t e e n scheme " r e p o r t s were u n d e r t a k e n f o r a t o t a l o f $826,165. Of t h i s number, f i v e remained uncompleted. M a j o r m u n i c i p a l i t y schemes c o s t an average o f r o u g h l y $424 pe r a c r e more t h a n t h o s e o f s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s . The d i v i d i n g f i g u r e o f a 30,000 p o p u l a t i o n , p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , appeared t o s u p p o r t t h e r a t i o n a l e o f t h e c i t y s i z e / p e r m a n e n t p l a n n i n g department r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e c a s e o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d a t a . A l l towns w i t h l e s s t h a n t h i s p o p u l a t i o n h i r e d p r i v a t e p l a n n i n g c o n s u l t a n t s t o c a r r y o u t t h e r e p o r t p r e p -a r a t i o n , w h i l e a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s above t h i s f i g u r e had p l a n n i n g s t a f f s t o f u l f i l l t h i s f u n c t i o n . I t was n o t f e l t t h a t t h i s f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e h i g h e r p e r a c r e c o s t , b u t 2-26 t h a t i t was a r e f l e c t i o n of the g r e a t e r complexity of urban . renewal planning i n major urban areas. However, i t had been assumed t h a t because of the nature of a permanent c i t y p lanning department, t h a t i s , ongoing programming and data c o l l e c t i o n , t h a t the p r e p a r a t i o n time f o r scheme r e p o r t s would have been l e s s . The p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t c a l l e d i n t o a community f o r urban renewal work u s u a l l y had to devote con-s i d e r a b l e time to i n i t i a l data c o l l e c t i o n . B r i t i s h Columbia s t a t i s t i c s d i d not provide strong support f o r t h i s assumption. The average time to i n i t i a t e and prepare an urban renewal scheme i n B r i t i s h Columbia was 28.4 months, 12.7 from i n i t i a t i o n u n t i l the s i g n i n g of the t r i p a r t i t e agreement and 15.7 months to prepare the r e p o r t . The average elapsed time i n major communities was 24.8 months compared to 28.9 months i n minor m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . No c o - r e l a t i o n appeared between the type of area under renewal c o n s i d e r a t i o n and the time i n v o l v e d . As was the case w i t h the p r o j e c t c o s t s , the per acre expenditure of c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t r e p o r t s was c o n s i d e r a b l y higher than e i t h e r r e s i d e n t i a l or mixed use areas. Some of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these f i n d i n g s w i l l be discussed i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter i n the examination of the shortcomings, of the program. A l s o , a more d e t a i l e d examin-a t i o n of s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s w i l l be i n c l u d e d as i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the views expressed. TABLE IV BRITISH COLUMBIA PROJECT PREPARATION BREAKDOWN C i t y 23A C o s t A r e a C o s t / A c r e Cost/Pop. I.T. P.T P e r s o n Study C o s t Vancouver S3/3A 222,000 800A 278 .54 - - C i t y 21,333 Vancouver 4/4A 280,000 340A 824 .68 36 10* C i t y Vancouver S5 - 54,000 100A 540 .13 4 15* C i t y 96,000 Vancouver S6 No Scheme P r e p a r e d - - - - . Burnaby 7,150 5A 1,430 .06 3' 2.4 C i t y None V i c t o r i a B/S No Scheme P r e p a r e d ' - • - C i t y 25,00 V i c t o r i a S3 79,800 55A 1,451 1.39 3 21* . C i t y / P C 25,000 V i c t o r i a R/B 25,400 170A 149 .44 C o n c u r r e n t C i t y 25,000 New 30,000 350A 86 .79 3 19 C i t y 40,000 W e s t m i n i s t e r P o r t C o q u i t l a m 4,500 59A 76 .40 19 11 LMRPB. None, Ladner 14,500 6 OA 242 2.90 14 17 P.C. None C l o v e r d a l e 15,150 5 OA 303 5.41 5 16 P .C . None . Kelowna 19,325 200A 9 7 1.14 27 13* P.C. None Dawson Creek 6,050 110A 55 .49 23 24 P.C. 11,852 T r a i l 8,000 c 13A 615 .69 11 6 P.C. 9 ,850 Vernon . 22,550 6 6A 342 1.97 7 21 P.C. None R e v e l s t o k e 6,500 40A 163 1.35 - 4 8* P.C. None Duncan 11,050 43A 257 2.57 12 25 P.C. None Nakusp 10,640 36A 296 8.30 24 13 P.C. None A l e r t Bay 9,550 2 OA . 478 11.24 9 9 P.C. None N a t a l / M i c h e l No Scheme Pre p a r e d 37,500 CODE: P.C. - p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t I.T. - i n i t i a t i o n t i m e P.T. - p r e p a r a t i o n time * I n c o m p l e t e a t time o f urban r e n e w a l moratorium. C H A P T E R T H R E E THE SHORTCOMINGS OF THE.PROGRAM A. THE SINGLE, UNIVERSALLY APPLIED SET OF POLICIES As p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d , t he o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e program were v e r y b r o a d l y d e f i n e d i n terms o f i m p r o v i n g t h e urban e n v i r o n m e n t . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s , however, were t i g h t l y d e f i n e d and s p e c i f i e d t h e form a t w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l programs were t o f o l l o w . These were c o n t a i n e d i n t h r e e main s o u r c e s . The t r i p a r t i t e agreements f o r each o f t h e t h r e e a s p e c t s o f t h e program l i s t e d t h e elements t o be i n c l u d e d i n th e r e p o r t s . P u b l i c d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c i e s . c a m e i n 1967 i n t h e Urban Renewal Handbook. S i m i l a r i n most r e s p e c t s t o t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e agreements f o r scheme p r e p a r a t i o n , i t gave a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e q u i r e d e l e m e n t s . A t h i r d s o u r c e o f p o l i c y , w h i c h was superimposed upon t h e above, were t h e CMHC s t a f f d i r e c t i v e s . A s o u r c e o f annoyance, due t o l o s t t i m e and e f f o r t by c o n s u l t a n t s and c i t y s t a f f s , was th e f a c t t h a t CMHC d i d n o t r e l e a s e t h e a s p e c t s o f a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e p o l i c y c o v e r e d i n t h e s t a f f d i r e c t i v e s w h i c h were n o t s p e c i f i e d i n t h e agreements o r t h e Handbook. A p a r t from t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y , w h i c h w i l l be s u b s e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d , t h e main f e a t u r e o f t h i s a pproach was t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t e d a s i n g l e , u n i v e r s a l s e t o f p o l i c i e s t o be a p p l i e d t o a l l forms o f r e n e w a l i n a l l s i z e s o f c i t i e s . I n terms o f t h e s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s , a l a r g e spectrum o f p o s s i b l e programs c o u l d have been u n d e r t a k e n , b u t t h e y a l l had t o be a d a p t e d , i n one manner o r a n o t h e r , t o f i t t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e s i n g l e s e t o f p o l i c i e s . 1. The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f B l i g h t The main r e q u i r e m e n t was t h a t t h e program be d e f i n e d i n terms o f b l i g h t , as i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . Many forms o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n were u t i l i z e d t o remain w i t h i n t h i s f i r s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t . These were p r e v a l e n t i n t h o s e p r o j e c t s w h i c h were h e a v i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h a l t e r i n g t h e e x i s t i n g s t r e e t p a t t e r n s . Thus, i n t h e R o s e / B l a n c h a r d scheme i n V i c t o r i a , a case was made f o r t h e d e m o l i t i o n o f h o u s i n g w h i c h , by n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , was b e t t e r q u a l i t y t h a n u n i t s w h i c h were b e i n g p r o v i d e d f o r r e s i d e n t s i n o t h e r r e n e w a l a r e a s . The main o b j e c t i v e was t o r e a l i g n B l a n c h a r d S t r e e t t o f a c i l i t a t e t r a f f i c f l o w s i n t o t h e c e n t r a l a r e a from th e n o r t h and i n t h e p r o c e s s , o b t a i n u n e x p e n s i v e l a n d f o r a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t and a s c h o o l s i t e . I t was r e l a t e d t h a t when a s e n i o r CMHC o f f i c i a l was f i r s t shown the a r e a he e n q u i r e d , a f t e r d r i v i n g around t h e s i t e , when he would r e a c h t h e u r b an r e n e w a l a r e a . 3-3 Vancouver Scheme 5 was a s i m i l a r c a s e . The K i t s i l a n o a r e a had been u n d e r g o i n g r a p i d p r i v a t e r edevelopment. • I t was w e l l known by t h e C i t y P l a n n i n g Department t h a t no p u b l i c encouragement was r e q u i r e d t o i n s u r e t h e p h y s i c a l u p g r a d i n g 33 . of t h e p r o p e r t i e s . However, t h e c x t y d e c l a r e d t he s e c t o r t o be a r e n e w a l a r e a t o c a s h i n on s e n i o r government sub-s i d i e s t o b u i l d a c o n n e c t i n g r o a d between t h e Arbutus/Broadway i n t e r s e c t i o n and t h e B u r r a r d S t r e e t B r i d g e . C l o v e r d a l e u n d e r t o o k t h e same approach t o a s s i s t i n th e f i n a n c i n g o f a bypass r o a d around t h e r e t a i l c o r e . •, T h i s was n o t t o say t h a t t h e s e p r o j e c t s were unnec-e s s a r y w i t h i n t h e i r own r i g h t . The s h o r t c o m i n g was t h a t $94,500 was expended t o c r e a t e r e p o r t s t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y j u s t i f y t h e u n d e r t a k i n g s . 2. The G e o g r a p h i c a l l y D e f i n e d A r e a The second major r e q u i r e m e n t o f t h e program was t h e g e o g r a p h i c d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e a r e a w i t h i n w h i c h s e n i o r g o v e r n -ment a s s i s t a n c e would be a v a i l a b l e . T h i s l i n e u s u a l l y b o r e a g r e a t e r c o - r e l a t i o n t o t h e p a t t e r n o f d e f e c t i v e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s t h a n w i t h t h e a r e a s o f p h y s i c a l l y d e t e r i o r a t e d p r o p e r -t i e s . C l o v e r d a l e was a good example o f a r o a d / s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d boundary. The Nakusp scheme a l s o r e f l e c t e d t h e p u b l i c Memo from M. C r o s s t o CMHC, June 1969. s e r v i c e boundary a p p r o a c h . The a r e a d e l i n e a t i o n a s p e c t was a l s o q u i t e i r r e l e v a n t i n t h e Burnaby r o a d w i d e n i n g p r o j e c t and t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e sea w a l l i n A l e r t Bay. A g a i n , i n t h e m s e l v e s t h e s e p r o j e c t s may. have been r e q u i r e d , b u t $42,490 was s p e n t t o j u s t i f y them. 3. The Three Step P r o c e d u r e Urban r e n e w a l s t u d i e s were a r e q u i r e d f i r s t s t e p i n the program f o r communities w h i c h had n o t u n d e r t a k e n an o f f i c i a l p l a n . T h i s a f f e c t e d p r i m a r i l y t h e s m a l l e r m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s and was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e v a s t . p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f s t u d i e s b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n i n towns under 30,000 p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s i n i t s e l f was b e n e f i c i a l , i n t h a t i t a t l e a s t i n t r o d u c e d 'planning i n t o t h e s e a r e a s . However, due t o t h e f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t s upon s m a l l town c o u n c i l s , i t was u n l i k e l y t h a t many of t h e s e would r e a c h f r u i t i t i o n as p r o j e c t s . "Renewal tended t o r a i s e community hopes and a s p i r a t i o n s beyond f e a s i b l e 34 a t t a i n m e n t l e v e l s . " The 210 s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n produced o n l y s i x p r o j e c t s f o r $1.7 m i l l i o n o f t h e $162 m i l l i o n s p e n t by CMHC. W i t h t h i s low achievement l e v e l i t might have been more u s e f u l t o have abandoned t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f an urban r e n e w a l f o r m a t and a c c e p t e d t h e s t u d i e s f o r what t h e y were V. V i r a k , Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A r c h i t e c t / P l a n n e r s ' C o n f e r e n c e , Ottawa, 1969. 3-5 w o r t h . That i s , t h e y s h o u l d have been u n d e r t a k e n as p u r e l y p l a n n i n g e x e r c i s e s w i t h o u t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s w h i c h tended t o d i s t o r t s m a l l community c i v i c p r i o r i t i e s . Beyond t h e r e n e w a l s t u d i e s , a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a p r o j e c t was t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e urban renewal, scheme r e p o r t . The f o l l o w i n g d e t a i l s o f t h i s document were drawn from t h e Urban Renewal Handbook. .. . . . The b l i g h t i n g and i m p r o v i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e the f o l l o w i n g s o c i a l , economic and p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e scheme a r e a : - economic v i a b i l i t y - employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s - f a m i l y income - w e l f a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s - e t h n i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s - l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n . - age groups - p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s - adequacy o f s e r v i c e s and u t i l i t i e s - adequacy o f t r a f f i c p a t t e r n s - o v e r c r o w d i n g i n terms o f a v a i l a b l e accommodation - c o n f l i c t i n g uses - adequacy o f community f a c i l i t i e s - f u n c t i o n a l o b s o l e s c e n c e - e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e f i c i e n c i e s - adequacy o f m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g and o t h e r c o n t r o l s . The Handbook c o n t i n u e d w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l t e n pages of r e f i n e m e n t on t h e above s u r v e y r e q u i r e m e n t s , methods o f a n a l y s i s and c o s t breakdowns. T h i s was a commendable p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f t h e range o f c o n c e r n s w h i c h a p l a n n e r s h o u l d c o n s i d e r , b u t i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e c r e a t i o n of two p a r k i n g l o t s i n T r a i l , o r a s t r e e t w i d e n i n g i n Burnaby was d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y . 1 U.R. Handbook, o p . c i t . , pp. 7^8. _ 3 = 6 _ M u n i c i p a l i t i e s had a p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a o f what form o f p r o j e c t s t h e y w i s h e d t o u n d e r t a k e when a p p l i c a t i o n s were made f o r urban r e n e w a l a s s i s t a n c e . The scheme r e p o r t p r e p a r a t i o n i n some c a s e s .was an e x t r e m e l y t i m e consuming and c o s t l y p r o c e d u r e o f g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o r m a t t o g a i n t h e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e o f CMHC. P r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n s o f p l a n n e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o s u p p o r t t h i s v i e w p o i n t a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . T h i s was n o t t o say t h a t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n g e n e r a l were e x c e s s i v e . Indeed, i n numerous c a s e s t h e y d i d not c a l l f o r s u f f i c i e n t r e s e a r c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o economic a n a l y s i s o f development p r o p o s a l s . However, i t d i d i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t h e s i n g l e , n a t i o n wide p o l i c y produced e x c e s s i v e spend-i n g o f time and money, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s . 4. Urban Renewal i n S m a l l Communities The i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e urban r e n e w a l f o r m a t t o s m a l l towns went beyond t h e p o i n t s mentioned. The p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y h o u s i n g , tended t o o c c u r as a random s c a t t e r i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e town, as opposed t o d e f i n a b l e c l u s t e r s , as was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e c a s e i n l a r g e c i t i e s . The combating o f t h i s p r o b l e m d e f i e d a r e a d e l i n e a t i o n . I n a number o f c a s e s , c o n s u l t a n t s a t t e m p t e d t o have t h e whole community d e c l a r e d an urban r e n e w a l a r e a f o r t h i s r e a s o n . 3-7 The CMHC r e a c t i o n t o t h i s was c o v e r e d i n t h e f o l l o w -i n g assessment. The s m a l l community . . . i s t o o s m a l l t o p e r m i t d e f i n i t i o n o f an urban r e n e w a l a r e a . On t h e o t h e r hand, i f t h e whole m u n i c i p a l i t y i s d e f i n e d as a r e n e w a l a r e a , t h e n r e n e w a l becomes t h e p l a n n i n g and hous e k e e p i n g o f t h e t o t a l community. (CMHC would c o n t r i b u t e towards r e n e w a l c o s t s b u t n o t p l a n n i n g c o s t s ) . I n t h e case o f t h e d e c l i n i n g community, r e -newal i s q u e s t i o n a b l e as a t o o l f o r c o p i n g w i t h s e v e r e problems.' F o r example, can Wabana be renewed? Re-new a l , a f t e r a l l , assumes e x i s t i n g v i t a l i t y . 36 T h i s l a s t p r o b lem was r e i t e r a t e d by t h e Hon. R. Andras "Then, t o o , i t seems t h a t on o c c a s i o n programs o f r e n e w a l w h i c h may be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c i t i e s e x p e r i e n c i n g r a p i d decay a r e a p p l i e d t o urban c e n t r e s u n d e r g o i n g r a p i d g rowth; and 37 t h e r e v e r s e i s t r u e . " The i m p o r t a n c e of t h e d e f i n e d r e n e w a l a r e a was r e i n -f o r c e d by t h e CMHC p o l i c y o f o n l y making r e h a b i l i t a t i o n l o a n s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n d e s i g n a t e d r e n e w a l a r e a s . These s h o r t -comings i n d e a l i n g w i t h s m a l l communities were f i n a l l y r e c o g -n i z e d by CMHC and were p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A r c h i t e c t / P l a n n e r s ' C o n f e r e n c e i n 1969. " I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e A r e a Renewal appr o a c h i s n ot r e l e v a n t and s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d by a Community 38 Improvement Program." 3 6 N o t e s on an Urban Renewal P o l i c y , CMHC, (1969), p. 3, 37 Statement by Hon. R. A n d r a s , F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r respon-s i b l e f o r H o u s i n g , N a t i o n a l P r e s s Conf. T h e a t r e , Ottawa, A u g u s t , 1969. 38 V. V i r a k , op. c i t . A n o t h e r p roblem w i t h t h e boundary a p p r o a c h , w h i c h a p p l i e d t o b o t h major and minor m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , was t h e l a c k o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e d e s i g n a t e d a r e a . F o r example, i n t h e case o f S a u l t S t e M a r i e , an e f f o r t was made t o r e l o c a t e a s c h o o l , w h i c h was w i t h i n t h e r e n e w a l a r e a , t o a s i t e o u t s i d e the boundary. The a c q u i s -i t i o n o f t h e new s i t e c o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f the s h a r a b l e r e n e w a l program. I n summary, t h e CMHC v i e w s were e x p r e s s e d as f o l l o w s : The A c t (NHA) we b e l i e v e , was n o t d e s i g n e d t o cope w i t h t h e development o r s u r v i v a l problems o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s . . .. ( s m a l l communities) and i t i s n o t good p r a c t i c e t o make an A c t do something i t was n o t meant t o do. To f o r c e t h e A c t t o c o v e r a l l commun-i t y problems w i l l l e a d t o o v e r - e x t e n s i o n and, i n p r a c t i c e , more and more i n c o n s i s t a n c i e s , and f i n a l l y , c o l l a p s e . 3 9 . •' • c 5. The P o l i t i c a l B a s i s f o r A s s i s t a n c e The s i n g l e p o l i c y o f o p e r a t i n g s o l e l y f r om t h e munic-i p a l l e v e l o f government was a l s o a drawback w i t h r e g a r d t o CMHC s p e n d i n g i n s m a l l towns. Economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , growth p r o j e c t i o n s and market demand, f o r example, l a c k e d meaning when v i e w e d o n l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a s i n g l e s m a l l community. Urban r e n e w a l s h o u l d have been c o n s i d e r e d o n l y on t h e b a s i s E.W. H a l f h i d e , Notes on U.R. i n S m a l l Communities, CMHC, J u l y 1968. o f a r e g i o n a l economic e x a m i n a t i o n of a r e a s beyond t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n shadow. On t h i s b a s i s , o v e r a l l r e g i o n a l p r o -j e c t i o n s o f economic a c t i v i t y c o u l d have been made w i t h t h e c o n c o m i t a n t d e l i n a t i o n o f a growth c e n t r e h i e r a r c h y and t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e market p o t e n t i a l among t h e s e c e n t r e s . As p r e v i o u s l y shown, t h e m a j o r i t y o f s m a l l town r e n e w a l c o n c e r n s were t h e b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e p r a i r i e p r o v i n c e s , u r b an r e n e w a l was seen as a means o f i m p r o v i n g t h e c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n o f s m a l l communities i n t h e r e g i o n a l market. However, t h e y were u n d e r t a k e n w i t h o u t the b e n e f i t o f any s u b s t a n t i a l r e g i o n a l economic i n f o r m a t i o n . I n terms o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t i m e and c o s t , t h e r e was a l s o an arguement f o r t h i s a p proach. O f t e n , p r o x i m a t e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n d i v i d -u a l l y embarked upon r e n e w a l under s e p a r a t e agreements and w i t h d i f f e r e n t c o n s u l t a n t s . Each, i n e f f e c t , was s t a r t i n g f rom ground z e r o and d u p l i c a t i n g t h e background work i n v o l v e d . R o s s l a n d and T r a i l were u n d e r t a k e n as s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t programs. The same c i r c u m s t a n c e s o c c u r r e d w i t h Mount J o y , . Timmins and T i s d a l e i n n o r t h e r n O n t a r i o . S i m i l a r l y , t h e C l o v e r d a l e , Ladner and P o r t C o q u i t l a m r e p o r t s were a l l produced by d i f f e r e n t c o n s u l t a n t s . T h i s appeared t o be a m i s - a l l o c a t i o n o f CMHG r e s o u r c e s . An i n t e r e s t i n g i n c o n s i s t a n c y i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d a t a i n C h a p t e r Two was t h e c o s t o f t h e P o r t C o q u i t l a m scheme r e p o r t . I t was one t h i r d t h e c o s t o f t h o s e f o r Ladner o r C l o v e r d a l e and t h e l o w e s t r e c o r d e d i n t h e p r o v -i n c e . A major r e a s o n was i t s c r e a t i o n by t h e Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d , a body w h i c h had a l a r g e amount of r e g i o n a l d a t a a t i t s d i s p o s a l . T h i s s i t u a t i o n a l s o o c c u r r e d i n A l b e r t a , were the R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g D i s t r i c t s o f f e r e d a p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e t o member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The s i n g l e f o r m a t o f d e a l i n g o n l y w i t h i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l governments was a l s o q u e s t i o n e d w i t h r e g a r d t o major c i t i e s , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t . But i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n ote t h a t i t i s t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h i s i n v o l v e d , n o t s i m p l y t h e c i t y o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . Housing u n i t s , c o m m e r c i a l and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , and i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s i n t h e c e n t r a l c i t y have c l o s e s u b s t i t u t e s i n t h e s u b u r b s . Indeed, t h e c e n t r a l c i t y government t a k e s e x p l i c i t a c c o u n t o f t h i s s u b s t i t u t a b i l i t y i n f a s h i o n i n g i t s r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s . I t t r i e s t o a t t r a c t m i d d l e income and upper income f a m i l i e s back from th e suburbs i n t o c e n t r a l c i t y h o u s i n g . I t t r i e s t o improve t h e compe-t i t i v e p o s i t i o n of downtown commerce r e l a t i v e t o o u t l y i n g s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s . I t t r i e s t o a t t r a c t d e s i r a b l e i n d u s t r i e s e i t h e r from o u t l y i n g a r e a s , o r t o t h e c e n t r a l c i t y i n s t e a d of t o o u t l y i n g a r e a s from o t h e r m e t r o p o l i t a n c l u s t e r s . c T h i s a pproach r a i s e s some fun d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m s . W i t h m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s most,, b u t n o t a l l , r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s g e n e r a l l y , and redevelopment p r o j e c t s e s p e c i a l l y , have been t h e c r e a t u r e s o f t h e c e n t r a l c i t y governments. W i t h t h e g e n e r a l absence of metro-p o l i t a n government, t h e r e have been no p r o j e c t s p l a n n e d o r e x e c u t e d by d e c i s i o n makers r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a as a whole. These p r o j e c t s have been shaped by t h e c e n t r a l c i t y p l a n n e r s , w i t h o n l y m i n i m a l d i r e c t i o n f r om t h e f e d e r a l government . . . . The c e n t r a l c i t y d e c i s i o n makers a r e r e -s p o n s i b l e t o t h e c i t y p o p u l a t i o n a l o n e . The o u t -l y i n g metro p o p u l a t i o n , w h i l e a f f e c t e d i n v a r y i n g degrees depending on t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t , has no p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e s e p r o j e c t s . Method-o l o g i c a l l y , t h i s i n t r o d u c e s an i m p o r t a n t s l i p p a g e i n t h e whole p r o c e d u r e . I t i s t a c i t i n t h e use o f b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s t h a t p o l i c y makers w i l l be a t t r a c t e d t o b e n e f i t s and r e p e l l e d by c o s t s . But 3-11 i f t h e p o l i c y makers t a k e no l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f t h e a f f e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n - - t h a t i s , t h e y a r e n o t r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e i r w e l l b e i n g — t h e n t h e c o s t s t o t h e o u t l y i n g metro popu-l a t i o n w i l l n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be r e p e l l i n g n o r b e n e f i t s a t t r a c t i v e . A metro b e n e f i t - c o s t c o m parison f o r d i f f e r e n t a l t e r n a t i v e s w i l l be i r r e l e v a n t t o th e d e c i s i o n makers i n s o f a r as c o s t s and b e n e f i t s t o t h a t p o p u l a t i o n have been i n c l u d e d . Y e t t h e a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h i s by computing b e n e f i t s and c o s t s o n l y f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d p o p u l a t i o n l e a d s t o t h e dilemma t h a t t h e a n a l y s i s must, n o n e t h e l e s s , be i n c l u s i v e enough t o answer t o the- n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . . . . There a r e grounds f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t c e n t r a l c i t y and metro e v a l u a t i o n s may d i v e r g e m a r k e d l y . A l l t y p e s o f r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s a f f e c t t h e a t t r a c t i v e -ness of c e n t r a l c i t y s i t e s r e l a t i v e t o suburban s i t e s as l o c a t i o n s f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s — r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , and c u l t u r a l . They t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s u b s i d i z i n g t h e enhancement o f t h e f o r m e r r e l a t i v e t o — a n d o f t e n a t t h e expense o f - - t h e l a t t e r . -Thus, a t t h e c o r e o f t h e s e p r o j e c t s i s an i m p o r t a n t element of c o m p e t i t i o n between t h e c i t y and. t h e 'suburbs. 40 T h i s v i e w was r e i t e r a t e d by CMHC, "Many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s do n o t have o f f i c i a l p l a n s and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i s a l m o s t non-e x i s t a n t . Renewal i s n o t always b e i n g p r a c t i c e d i n t h e 41 n e c e s s a r y p l a n n i n g c o n t e x t . " The s u b j e c t o f t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h urban r e n e w a l was p r a c t i c e d was a l s o examined by Mr. J . F o w l i e , whose v i e w s s u p p o r t e d Mr. Rothenberg. Economic E v a l u a t i o n o f Urban Renewal, Jerome R o t h e n b e r g , S t u d i e s o f Government F i n a n c e , The B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n , Washington, D.C., 1967, pp. 26-27. 41 Notes on an Urban Renewal P o l i c y (CMHC, 1969), p. 2. The f e d e r a l government s h o u l d r e a c t i v a t e t h e urban r e g i o n p l a n n i n g and development d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e s . F e d e r a l s t r a t e g y s h o u l d be t o i n t r o d u c e major i n c e n t i v e s t o p r o v i n c e s and l o c a l governments t o encourage t h e i r i n v o l v e -ment i n urban development on a more comprehensive b a s i s b o t h i n e x t e n t and c o n t e n t . T h i s would p r o v i d e a framework o f urban development o b j e c t i v e s a g a i n s t w h i c h b e n e f i t s o f s e v e r a l forms o f F e d e r a l u r b an a i d c o u l d be c o m p a r a t i v e l y a s s e s s e d and adapted on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . 42 6. The D i f f e r e n t A r e a s o f Renewal A n o t h e r form o f d i f f i c u l t y w h i c h a r o s e was t h e use o f t h e same p o l i c y f o r a l l forms o f l a n d u s e . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s f o r t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . As an i n t e g r a l f e a t u r e o f t h e boundary a p p r o a c h , c i v i c f a c i l t i e s l o c a t e d t h e r e i n were o n l y con-s i d e r e d as c o s t - s h a r a b l e " u n d e r t a k i n g s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y s e r v e d o n l y t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e d e f i n e d a r e a . The p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i v e / a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o r m a t o f CMHC i n v o l v e m e n t i n c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t r e n e w a l i s n o t c o n d u c i v e t o t h e m a x i m i z a t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e s i n v o l v e d . The d e f i n i t i o n s o f C o r p o r a t i o n i n v o l v e m e n t a r e n o t w e l l s u i t e d t o t h e s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a major c i t y c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . The c o r e o f t h e c i t y a f f e c t s and i s a f f e c t e d by a m y r i a d o f f a c t o r s w h i c h seldom have c o n g r u e n t p a r a -m e t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms o f a c l o s e d p h y s i c a l boundary. Many o f t h e s e f a c t o r s — e . g . a c c e s s , s e r v i c -i n g , economic r e l a t i o n s h i p s — w h i c h w i l l have i m p l i c a -t i o n s f o r the CBD, l i e beyond t h e shadow o f t h e o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s . A l s o , t h e u s e r b e n e f i t s o f a CBD cannot J . F o w l i e , Urban Renewal, (CMHC, J u l y , 1969), p. 4 be measured i n terms o f the downtown r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , two a s p e c t s o f our p r e s e n t u r ban r e n e w a l p o l i c y s t a n d o u t as stumb-l i n g b l o c k s i n t h e comprehensive r e p l a n n i n g and p a r t i a l r edevelopment o f the CBD. The f i r s t i s t h a t whereas CMHC o f f e r s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r r e n e w a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t does n o t c o n t r i b u t e towards m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g . . . . Second, t h e c o s t s o f t r u n k s e r v i c e s and e x p r e s s ways a r e s h a r e d - c o s t i t e m s o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y a r e ' . . . s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e urban r e n e w a l a r e a , b u t n o t th o s e s e r v i c e s and works w h i c h p r e d o m i n a n t l y s e r v e t h e community as a whole.' S i m i l a r l y , w i t h r e g a r d t o p a r k s , m a l l s and p l a z a s , " . . . such p a r k s ( m a l l s and p l a z a s ) must be s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e the amenity r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e urban r e n e w a l a r e a and not t h o s e o f t h e community as a whole.' The m e n t a l a c r o b a t i c s w h i c h accompanied t h e CBD scheme f o r C a l g a r y w i t h r e g a r d , t o t h e above, i s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e i n -adequacy o f t h e p r e s e n t terms o f r e f e r e n c e . 43 These forms o f r e s t r i c t i o n s were perhaps m e a n i n g f u l and r e l a t i v e l y d e t e r m i n a b l e i n d e a l i n g w i t h , p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , as was t h e case p r i o r t o 1964. However, where t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e u s e r - p o p u l a t i o n o f an a r e a was 44 n o n - r e s i d e n t , t h e r e g u l a t i o n s were d i f f i c u l t t o a p p l y . The r e s u l t was a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e l a g i n t h e r e p o r t p r e p a r a t i o n , w i t h t h e p l a n n e r caught between a t t e m p t i n g t o p r o v i d e t h e f e a t u r e s w h i c h t h e m u n i c i p a l government r e q u e s t e d w h i l e a p p r o a c h i n g them i n a manner w h i c h would d e r i v e f i n a n c i a l Urban Renewal - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Assessment and Recommendations, CMHC S t a f f P a p e r , J u n e , 1969. 44 s u p p o r t from CMHC. A g a i n , a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r was t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s r e g u l a t i o n was n o t p u b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n . The problem a r o s e upon t h e s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e f i r s t d r a f t o f t h e r e p o r t t o t h e s e n i o r governments. Vancouver Scheme 4/4A en c o u n t e r e d t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e l a y i n a t t e m p t i n g t o i n c l u d e t h e new G e o r g i a V i a d u c t i n t h e urban r e n e w a l program. S i m i l a r l y , t h e Harbor D r i v e i n t e r c h a n g e i n H a l i f a x produced • b u r e a u c r a t i c p a i n s i n t h e development o f t h e S c o t i a Square r e n e w a l p r o j e c t . Perhaps t h e most complex case t o a r i s e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s was t h e proposed development o f t h e 'p l u s 15' network o f p l a z a s and m a l l s i n t h e C a l g a r y 45 Scheme I B . The d i f f i c u l t y was t o r e s o l v e t h e degree o f commitment by CMHC t o t h e p e d e s t r i a n s e r v i c e s as w e l l as t h e d e c i s i o n on who would pay f o r the- s u p p o r t i n g s t r u c t u r e s . P a r k i n g l o t s and p a r k i n g s t r u c t u r e s were a l s o a c o n t e n t i o u s f a c t o r i n r e n e w a l p r o p o s a l s i n terms o f d e c i d i n g whether t h e y c o n s t i t u t e d m u n i c i p a l b u i l d i n g s and whether t h e y would be revenue p r o d u c i n g p r o p e r t i e s . A p a r t from t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c u r r e d a t t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , due t o t h i s s i n g l e p o l i c y , a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e , hence c o s t , was d e v o t e d t o t h e s e d e c i s i o n s by t h e CMHC s t a f f a t b o t h t h e b r a n c h and head o f f i c e l e v e l . Urban Renewal - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - Assessment and Recommendations, CMHC S t a f f P a p e r , June 1969. 3-15 7. Summary I n summation, t h e s i n g l e s e t o f p o l i c i e s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e g e n e r a l i z e d d e f i n i t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s , was u n s u i t a b l e . I t l e d t o t h e e x c e s s i v e e x p e n d i t u r e o f ti m e and money i n p r e p a r i n g j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r p r e c o n c e i v e d m u n i c i p a l programs. T h i s was p r e v a l e n t i n t h e s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s . The terms o f r e f e r e n c e were d e s i g n e d f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l e n t i t i e s . T h i s i n h i b i t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r e g i o n a l economic p e r s p e c t i v e of s m a l l town development. S i m i l a r l y , i t worked a g a i n s t t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f an o v e r a l l m e t r o p o l i t a n program f o r r e n e w a l and development. I n t h e former c a s e , i t produced e x c e s s i v e s p e n d i n g on r e p o r t p r e p a r a t i o n due t o t h e d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t s by i n d i v i d u a l c o n s u l t a n t s . F i n a l l y , t he s i n g l e p o l i c y was n o t a d a p t a b l e t o t h e d i f f e r e n t forms o f l a n d use i n v o l v e d i n renewal, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t . The CMHC r e g u l a t i o n s , b o t h because t h e y were u n p u b l i s h e d and because t h e y were c o n c e i v e d i n a r e s i d e n t i a l c o n t e x t , c r e a t e d b u r e a u c r a t i c b o t t l e n e c k s , f r u s t r a t i n g m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r s and c r e a t i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e d e l a y s . The s i n g l e p o l i c y was r e c o g n i z e d as a major p r o b l e m by t h e C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department. " N a t i o n a l . . . p o l i c i e s o f t h e CMHC s h o u l d be a b o l i s h e d s i n c e t h e r e n e w a l r e q u i r e -ments i n t h e p r i n c i p a l c i t i e s i n Canada a r e so v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t . 46 S u b m i s s i o n by th e V a n . P I , Dept. t o t h e 5 Year P l a n Committee, August 1969, p. 4. 3-1 B. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN URBAN RENEWAL AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO PRIVATE ENTERPRISE 1. The Lac k o f Economic' S o p h i s t i c a t i o n 'A s h o r t c o m i n g i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e program, w h i c h a f f e c t e d t h e achievement l e v e l i n terms o f p r o j e c t s • f u l f i l l e d , was t h e economic terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r urban r e n e w a l . A l t h o u g h , as d i s c u s s e d , t h e program changed con-s i d e r a b l y i n scope a f t e r 1964, t h o s e a d m i n i s t r a t i n g i t r e -t a i n e d t h e economic o u t l o o k w h i c h had accompanied slum c l e a r -ance. That i s , t h e y f a i l e d t o c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between s o c i a l v a l u e and economic v a l u e i n terms o f community b e n e f i t s and market b e n e f i t s . T h i s was c o u p l e d w i t h a g e n e r a l l y low l e v e l o f economic s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t s c o f urban r e n e w a l s t u d i e s by Dr. K. C r o s s r e v e a l e d t h a t i n t h e " . . . approach t o p r o b l e m i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , t h e a n a l y t i c a l methods used ( d i d ) 47 n o t appear t o be s o p h i s t i c a t e d . " Perhaps because o f the. n e g a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e , t h a t i s , t h e d e l e n i a t i o n o f b l i g h t , t h e m a j o r i t y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were a t t h e p h y s i c a l l e v e l , as opposed t o t h e economic l e v e l . K. C r o s s and R. C o l l i e r , The UR P r o c e s s , op. c i t . , p. 21. 3-17 The t y p e s of s u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d d i r e c t e d t h e g r e a t e s t e f f o r t towards t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f urban b l i g h t . T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e a t t i t u d e of t h e p o l i c y - m a k e r s and t h e i r advisoars t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n t o t h e problems o f our c i t i e s l i e s i n p h y s i c a l r e m e d i e s . L i t t l e a t t e n -t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e s o c i a l and economic a s p e c t s of b l i g h t . . . . A l t h o u g h . u r b a n r e n e w a l r e p o r t s i n Canada do examine s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s o f s u b - s t a n d a r d a r e a s , i n p r a c t i c e i t i s t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s t h a t dominate t h e urban r e n e w a l c o n c e p t . . . . A l s o , s i n c e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c problems a r e o n l y a c a d e m i c a l l y s t u d i e d r a t h e r t h a n p r a g m a t i c a l l y d e a l t w i t h , redevelopment f a i l s t o s o l v e the t o t a l p roblems o f slums, a f a i l u r e r e s u l t i n g a l s o from t h e g r e a t e r emphasis g i v e n t o t h e g o a l form ( r e -s h a p i n g o f p h y s i c a l p l a n t ) t h a n t o t h e g e n e r a l g o a l , v i z . s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and p h y s i c a l g o a l s o f urban r e n e w a l . 4 8 Beyond t h e r e n e w a l s t u d y phase o f t h e program, th e r e l a t i v e l y low p r i o r i t y f o r economic c o n c e r n s was c o n t i n u e d i n t h e scheme r e p o r t . As seen i n . A p p e n d i x One, o f t h e 13 r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c l a u s e one o f t h e t y p i c a l agreement, o n l y - ^ t h e f o l l o w i n g b o r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e o v e r a l l economic ' c p i c t u r e : (5) a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o b a b l e e f f e c t s o f t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e scheme on home owners, t e n a n t s and b u s i n e s s e s i n t h e a r e a . . . . and (13) e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e scheme w i l l be i n a c c o r d a n c e o r i n harmony w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l community p l a n . . .49 I n t h e c a s e o f s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s , v e r y few o f f i c i a l p l a n s had been c r e a t e d and r e l i a n c e was p l a c e d i n s t e a d upon t h e I b i d . , pp. 35 and 37. CMHC, 23A NHA, G e n e r a l Agreement Format, r e n e w a l s t u d y . However, as p o i n t e d o u t above, t h e s e were e q u a l l y l a c k i n g i n economic s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and a l s o , i n terms o f community o b j e c t i v e s , t h e f r e q u e n c y r a t i n g o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i n terms o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n c e n -t i v e s f o r development was o n l y 3%, a c c o r d i n g t o Dr. C r o s s ' . . , . 50 i n v e s t i g a t i o n . CMHC s t a t e d t h a t " . . . r e n e w a l has no e x p l i c i t economic o b j e c t i v e s b u t i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e assessment, 51 and s t i m u l a t e p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e scheme a r e a . " None t h e l e s s , i n c r e a s e d assessment and i n v e s t m e n t were a p r o d u c t o f development and development c o u l d o n l y be f o s t e r e d on t h e b a s i s o f an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s p e c i f i c r e a l e s t a t e market i n t h e c i t y i n v o l v e d . ^In o n l y one o f t h e 21 programs i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t met. A market p o t e n t i a l s u r v e y was co n d u c t e d by a p r i v a t e c o n s u l t i n g f i r m , A c r e s W e s t e r n , t o e s t a b l i s h t h e v i a b i l i t y o f urban r e n e w a l p r o p o s a l s f o r downtown V i c t o r i a . Urban r e n e w a l had a s t r o n g a c r h i t e c t u r a l b e n t ; perhaps a p r o d u c t o f t h e e a r l i e r p r o -grams o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g on slum c l e a r a n c e s i t e s . O f t e n , d e s i g n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s came f i r s t , w i t h economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s b e i n g t a c k e d on a f t e r w a r d s . T h i s was t h e c a s e i n t h e C a l g a r y IB scheme, Nakusp and Vernon. The approach was f o s t e r e d by CMHC. "The environment c r e a t e d by rede v e l o p m e n t w i l l l a s t f o r many y e a r s . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h e r e f o r e , t h a t f o r t h e 50 . K. C r o s s , op. c i t . , p. 13. 51 The F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Program, op. c i t . , p. 7. 3-19 b e n e f i t o f t h e community, t h e h i g h e s t s t a n d a r d s o f urban . d e s i g n be a c h i e v e d . E f f o r t s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be made t o 52 o b t a i n t h i s l e g i t i m a t e g o a l o f urban r e n e w a l . " F u r t h e r emphasis was i n c l u d e d i n t h e o p e r a t i n g p o l i c y . I f , however, urban r e n e w a l r e s u l t s i n u n i m a g i n a t i v e and u n i n t e r e s t i n g c i t i e s a b a s i c j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f p u b l i c funds and p u b l i c e f f o r t w i l l be l o s t . The C o r p o r a t i o n s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e use i t s i n f l u e n c e t o s e c u r e a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f p l a n n i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n t h r o u g h o u t an urban r e n e w a l scheme. 53 W i t h t h e changes i n 1964, CMHC moved from t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e f u n d i n g p a r t n e r i n what w a s . p r i m a r i l y a p u b l i c h o u s i n g f i e l d , i n t o a f u n d i n g p a r t n e r s h i p i n t h e c o m m e r c i a l r e a l e s t a t e market. T h i s was due t.o t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e , w h i c h l i m i t e d i t s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e development o f n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g s . P r i o r t o 1964, t h e c o n c e r n w i t h t h e l a n d market was s m a l l , i n as much as t h e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s were u t i l i z -i n g t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f a c q u i r e d and c l e a r e d s i t e s f o r an a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e t h e p r i v a t e spectrum o f urban economics. However, when t h e i n d i v i d u a l programs began c a l l i n g f o r t h e assembly, c l e a r a n c e and r e s a l e o f r e n e w a l s i t e s f o r p r i v a t e c o m m e r c i a l u n d e r t a k i n g s , i t became e s s e n t i a l t o unde r -s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e a l e s t a t e market. A c c o r d i n g t o Mr. L. H a m i l t o n , " . . . i t i s fun d a m e n t a l t h a t a m u n i c i -p a l i t y . r e a l i z e t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an urban r e n e w a l program 52 I b i d . , p. 11. 5 3CMHC S t a f f D i r e c t i v e . i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n m t h e r e a l e s t a t e 54' b u s i n e s s . . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , two elements s h o u l d have been h i g h l y e m p h a s i z e d ' i n t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r urban r e n e w a l . F i r s t , a market s t u d y s h o u l d have been i n c l u d e d t o a s s e s s t h e demand f o r t h e t y p e o f r e a l e s t a t e w h i c h t h e r e n e w a l p a r t n e r -s h i p i n t e n d e d t o market t o p r i v a t e c o n c e r n s . . Second, a d e t a i l e d assessment s h o u l d have been i n c l u d e d on the" m u n i c i p a l budget, r e l a t i v e t o f u n d i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p u b l i c a s p e c t s o f r e n e w a l . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , i t appeared t h a t t h e Economics D i v i s i o n o f CMHC p l a y e d t o o moderate a r o l e i n e n c o u r a g i n g t h e s e f e a t u r e s i n t h e scheme r e p o r t s . The approach t a k e n by t h e p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t s , perhaps as a r e s u l t o f t h e o r d e r -i n g o f t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e , appeared t o have been r e v e r s e d . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l b l i g h t was u n d e r t a k e n , a r e d e v e l o p -ment p r o p o s a l c o n c e i v e d and t h e n t h e economic v i a b i l i t y o f t h e market and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y were g i v e n c u r s o r y a t t e n t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s , had t h e s t a t e o f t h e m u n i c i p a l budget been examined f i r s t , t h e redevelopment p r o p o s a l s would have been more moderate, i n s t e a d o f t h e s c a l e o f a c t i o n c o n t e m p l a t e d f o r Duncan and Nakusp (which would have d i s r u p t e d r o u g h l y 50% o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l a r e a ) . I t might have meant a s a v i n g i n t h e c o s t o f t h e r e p o r t p r e p a r a t i o n s L. H a m i l t o n , The R o l e o f t h e E n t r e p r e n e u r i n Urban  Renewal, RAIC J o u r n a l , Volume 43, No. 6, p. 53. 3-21 and t h e c r e a t i o n o f p l a n s w h i c h would n o t have ended up on t h e s h e l f . " . . . The r e n e w a l program must be b u i l t i n t o a t o t a l p l a n n i n g , programming and b u d g e t i n g p r o c e s s , and s p e c i f i c a l l y i t s h o u l d be r e l a t e d t o a t o t a l c a p i t a l works 55 program f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . " The Hon. Mr. R. Andras spoke o f r e n e w a l i n terms o f 56 " . . . i n c r e a s i n g t h e economic v i a b i l i t y o f urban areas'.' The Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department s a i d t h a t . . . urban r e n e w a l measures i n t h e f u t u r e s h o u l d seek t o a c c e l e r a t e and s t r e n g t h e n n a t u r a l f o r c e s f o r a r e a improvement r a t h e r t h a n t a k i n g o v e r t h e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s . 5 7 ' ' 5 8 T h i s v i e w was a l s o h e l d by Mr^ J . Rothenberg when he d i s -c u s s e d t h e t h r e s h o l d changes c o n t r i b u t e d by urban r e n e w a l t o t h e development p r o c e s s . Concepts such as t h e s e , i n v o l v -i n g i n v e s t m e n t c a t a l y s t s and i n v e s t m e n t t h r e s h o l d s e n t a i l e d a l e v e l o f economic s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w h i c h was n o t a p p a r e n t i n a l l b u t one o f t h e 18 scheme r e p o r t s examined. p. 22 . 55 Urban Renewal P o l i c i e s and P r o c e d u r e s , op. c i t . , 56 Hon. R. A n d r a s , N at. P.C.T., op. c i t . , p. 2. 57 S u b m i s s i o n by t h e Van. P l a n . Dept., op. c i t . , p. 3. 58 J . R o thenberg, op. c i t . , p. 72. 2. D i v e r g e n t P r i o r i t i e s A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e economic i n a d e q u a c i e s o f the program was t h e d i v e r g e n c e i n o b j e c t i v e p r i o r i t i e s between t h e f e d e r a l government and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The CMHC approa c h was b i a s e d towards p h y s i c a l u p g r a d i n g , w i t h l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o economic u p g r a d i n g o t h e r ' t h a n a g e n e r a l a s s u m p t i o n about i n c r e a s e d assessment. The m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, tended t o see t h e program as p r i m a r i l y an economic i n s t r u m e n t i n terms o f i n t e n s i f y i n g l a n d uses t o produce i n c r e a s e d t a x r e t u r n s as w e l l as a sub-s i d y program f o r c i v i c p r o j e c t s and m u n i c i p a l h o u s e k e e p i n g . 59 Mr. J . Rothenberg saw t h e A m e r i c a n program as r e v i t a l i z i n g t h e c e n t r a l c i t y by i m p r o v i n g i t s f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n terms o f t h e i n c r e a s e d t a x revenue a f t e r r e n e w a l r e p l a c i n g c t h e s o c i a l c a p i t a l c o s t s o f s u p p o r t i n g l a n d uses w h i c h were economic l i a b i l i t i e s . CMHC r e c o g n i z e d t h e d i v e r g e n c e o f p r i o r i t i e s w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t s . However, t h e r e was no s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r -a t i o n g i v e n t o a l t e r i n g t h e program a t t h e l e g i s l a t i v e l e v e l . M u n i c i p a l r e s o u r c e s a r e i n a d e q u a t e t o meet commit-ments. Hence t h e r e i s a m u n i c i p a l tendency t o d i s -t o r t t h e programme i n t h e s e w a y s — - r e n e w a l used as a s o u r c e o f funds f o r something - a c i t y h a l l s i t e , sewers, a widened a r t e r y - CBD schemes g i v e n t o p p r i o r i t y i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d t a x e s , b u s i n e s s s t i m u l a t i o n , and a b e t t e r c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n . . . . 60 59 I b i d . , p. 29. 60 Notes on a UR P o l i c y , op. c i t . , p. 3 3-2 3._ M u n i c i p a l p r i o r i t i e s have tended t o g i v e emphasis t o t h o s e r e n e w a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h would b r i n g t h e l a r g e s t economic r e t u r n t o t h e c i t y and t h e b u s i n e s s community.. I n a d d i t i o n t h e c i t i e s have been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e d i f f i c u l t y t h e y have e x p e r i e n c e d i n p r o m o t i n g p r i v a t e r e s i d e n t i a l r e n e w a l ( s p e c i f i c a l l y r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ) . These two f a c t o r s have r e s u l t e d i n t h e p a s t y e a r o r two i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p l a c i n g t h e major emphasis on c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t r e n e w a l . A r e s u l t o f t h i s new d i r e c t i o n i n urban r e n e w a l has been toward h i g h f e d e r a l c o s t s w i t h l i t t l e f e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l r e -c o v e r y . I n a d d i t i o n t h e h o u s i n g l o s t t o c o m m e r c i a l r e n e w a l p l u s t h e f a i l u r e t o promote p r i v a t e r e s i -d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , from t h e f e d e r a l s t a n d p o i n t , has tended t o r e s u l t i n a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between th e consequences o f f e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e r e n e w a l p r o c e s s and i t s d e c l a r e d o b j e c t i v e o f im-p r o v i n g t h e h o u s i n g s t o c k . 61 3. The P r i v a t e I n vestment S e c t o r T h i s d i v e r g e n c e o f i n t e r e s t s i n u n d e r t a k i n g r e n e w a l was a p p a r e n t i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e p u b l i c r e n e w a l a g e n c i e s w i t h t h e p r i v a t e development i n t e r e s t s . T h i s l a t t e r group b r o u g h t t o r e n e w a l a n o t h e r s e t o f i n t e r e s t s and p r i o r i t i e s . • - ' . . . . T a k i n g urban r e n e w a l and redevelopment as a whole, we- have p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e d o i n g what i s p r o f i t a b l e , supplemented by l i m i t e d though g r o w i n g p u b l i c a l l y i n i t i a t e d r e n e w a l under t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . H i t h e r t o most o f t h i s l e g i s l a t i v e r e n e w a l has a l s o been p u b l i c a l l y r a t h e r t h a n p r i v a t e l y implemented. A f u r t h e r key d i f f e r e n c e between the two l i e s i n t h e r e a s o n s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e u n d e r t a k e n . I n t h e case o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , i t i s because r e -J . F o w l i e , op. c i t . , p. 2. .3-2.4 development w i l l y i e l d a h i g h e r p r o f i t t h a n a • c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g u se; i n t e r e s t i s f o c u s s e d on t h e r e - u s e , w h i l e t h e e x i s t i n g use becomes e c o n o m i c a l l y o b s o l e t e by t h e mere f a c t o f a. new one w h i c h i s more p r o f i t a b l e . Many e x i s t i n g uses o f c o u r s e become n o t o n l y economic-a l l y b u t p h y s i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y o b s o l e t e and even perhaps s u b - m a r g i n a l ; t h e y a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s (or perhaps c o n s e q u e n t l y ) n o t renewed; i n s t e a d t h e y may d e t e r i o r a t e f u r t h e r . L e g i s l a t i v e r e n e w a l i s t h u s u n d e r t a k e n because t h e e x i s t i n g use i s found t o be b l i g h t e d o r s u b s t a n d a r d o r o t h e r w i s e u n s u i t a b l e ; i n t e r e s t i s f o c u s s e d on t h e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g use w h i c h i t i s c o n s i d e r e d ought t o be e l i m i n a t e d , even though t h e r e may be no a p p a r e n t economic demand f o r t h e new use by w h i c h i t may be r e p l a c e d . The p r i m a r y c o n c e r n o f government sp o n s o r e d r e n e w a l i s t h u s w i t h below average a s p e c t s o f t h e p r e s e n t ; t h e p r i m a r y c o n c e r n o f r e -newal by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i s w i t h t h e above ' average p r o s p e c t s o f t h e f u t u r e . 62 Each m u n i c i p a l i t y had i t s p a r t i c u l a r p r i o r i t i e s , b u t a common pr e m i s e u n d e r l a y t h e i r approach t o r e n e w a l . Due t o t h e s l e n d e r p o r t i o n o r t h e t a x p i e a v a i l a b l e t o c i t y governments, and t h i s b e i n g l a r g e l y t i e d t o l a n d , c o u n c i l s embarked upon r e n e w a l as a b r e a k - e v e n - o r - b e t t e r v e n t u r e , seen i n terms o f a) a p r o j e c t e d i n c r e a s e i n t h e t a x b a s e , b) a c a p i t a l g a i n from t h e r e s a l e o f a c q u i r e d p r o p e r t y , c) s u b s i d i z a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l h o u s e k e e p i n g c h o r e s . M e tro T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d , Urban Renewal S t u d y , The R o l e o f P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e i n Urban Renewal. T o r o n t o (March 1966) pp. 5-6. 3-25 F e d e r a l concern,, a l t h o u g h i n i t i a l l y grounded i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h e R o o s e v e l t i a n 'decent, s a f e and s a n i t a r y h o u s i n g ' f o r C a n a d i a n s , c o n c e n t r a t e d upon the e x a m i n a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l p r o p o s a l s t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e y f e l l w i t h i n t h e s t r i c t u r e s o f t h e . l e g i s l a t i v e terms o f r e f e r e n c e and t h e p a r -t i c u l a r s o f t h e CMHC r e g u l a t i o n s . . T h i s i n v o l v e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o n l y w i t h i n t h e d e l i n e a t e d g e o g r a p h i c b o u n d a r i e s o f an urban r e n e w a l p r o j e c t and o n l y f o r i t e m s w h i c h a s s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y t h e r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n t h i s a r e a . The P r o v i n c i a l o b j e c t i v e s , i n t h e c a s e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n v o l v e d t h e Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s c o n t r i b u t i n g a r e t r o a c t i v e 25% o f t h e n e t c o s t s upon the com-p l e t i o n o f a p r o j e c t . W i t h t h e 19 6 4 amendments t o t h e NHA, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were a b l e t o u t i l i z e t h e l e g i s l a t i o n t o r e f u r b i s h t h e i r c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s . Through t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f , a) t h e p u b l i c powers o f e x p r o p r i a t i o n , b) t h e l i m i t e d munic-i p a l r e s o u r c e s w h i c h c o u l d be d e v o t e d t o b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c -t i o n and c) t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f t h e s e n i o r governments t o r e -t a i n i n t e r e s t s i n t h i s form o f c o m m e r c i a l c o n c e r n , new. o p p o r t u n i t i e s were opened up f o r p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s i n r e a l e s t a t e development. . The p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r b r o u g h t t o t h e r e n e w a l u n d e r t a k i n g a n o t h e r s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s and c r i t e r i a f o r i n v o l v e m e n t . To a d e q u a t e l y meet t h e s e c r i t e r i a would have e n t a i l e d a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e f o r m a t w h i c h t h e p u b l i c 3-26 a g e n c i e s used i n r e n e w a l and a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l e g a l and monetary t o o l s w h i c h p r e j u d i c e d p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s . Urban r e n e w a l ground t o a h a l t i n Canada and t h e t e n o r o f CMHC r e n e w a l e v a l u a t i o n p apers i n d i c a t e d t h a t a r e v i v a l o f i n v o l v e m e n t would be r e l i m i t e d t o r e s i d e n t i a l u n d e r t a k i n g s . T h i s may have been i n t e r p r e t e d as a f a i l u r e t o accommodate t h e needs o f t h e p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r o r a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t l a r g e , c o m m e r c i a l r e d e v e l o p m e n t s s h o u l d have been more o r l e s s t h e e x c l u s i v e domain o f p r i v a t e i n v e s -tment. I n any c a s e , t h e t r a d e - o f f between t h e s i t e c e n t e r e d b e n e f i t s ( h i g h e s t s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y ) and t h e community b e n e f i t s ( h i g h e s t s o c i a l and economic r e t u r n t o t h e community as a whole) was n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d o r u n d e r s t o o d by t h e p u b l i c r e n e w a l a g e n c i e s . A few o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r i n t h i s r e g a r d , t h a t i s , ' - t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r , were examined. The c u r r e n t market v a l u e o f a p r o p e r t y p o t e n t i a l l y s u b j e c t t o r e n e w a l c o n s i s t e d o f one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e l e m e n t s : a) I t s v a l u e based on i t s p r e s e n t use, w h i c h was t h e c a p i t a l i z e d v a l u e o f t h e n e t revenue d e r i v e d from t h e p r e s e n t u s e , i n c l u d i n g t h e n e t revenue from t h e b u i l d i n g s f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e i r u s e f u l l i f e . 3-27 b) I t s v a l u e f o r r e d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h was t h e c a p i t a l -i z e d v a l u e of t h e n e t revenue a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the l a n d a l o n e from t h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e , r e u s e , p l u s t h e v a l u e o f t h e l a n d , d i s c o u n t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t , f o r i t s e v e n t u a l r e - r e u s e . c) A s p e c u l a t i v e element based on t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t p r i c e s would c o n t i n u e t o r i s e . The r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n was t h a t , w i t h c o n t i n u e d urban g r o w t h , f u t u r e redevelopment would y i e l d a h i g h e r 6 3 n e t revenue t h a n p r e s e n t r e d e v e l o p m e n t . i , Renewal by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i z e would o c c u r o n l y i f r v a l u e (b) as e s t i m a t e d by t h e d e v e l o p e r , exceeded t h e sum o f t h e v a l u e s o f (a) and (c) as e s t i m a t e d by t h e e x i s t i n g owners. Thus t h e c a p i t a l i z e d v a l u e o f t h e n e t revenue a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e l a n d a l o n e i n i t s r e u s e must have exceeded t h e c a p i t a l i z e d v a l u e o f t h e l a n d and b u i l d i n g s i n t h e i r p r e s e n t u s e , p l u s t h e s p e c u l a t i v e element. Where i t d i d , t h e d e v e l o p e r w ould r e a p a b e n e f i t . Where i t d i d n o t , redevelopment would n o t o c c u r , u n l e s s a s s i s t e d by p u b l i c money i n some manner. A l t e r n a t e l y , non-monetary p u b l i c measures c o u l d sometimes be t a k e n t o i n c r e a s e t h e development v a l u e . Demand f o r t h e r e u s e s was however a p r e r e q u i s i t e . P u b l i c measures o r i n c e n t i v e s , w h i c h c o u l d have been i n t r o d u c e d t o augment t h e redevelopment p o t e n t i a l o f an a r e a , i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g ^ I b i d . , p. 227. ^ T b i d . , p. 67. Non monetary measures such as: a) a r e v i s i o n o f z o n i n g , b) an enforcement o f minimum s t a n d a r d s t o f o r c e t h e p o s i t i o n o f an owner o f d e l a p i d a t e d p r o p e r t y , . c) an a l t e r a t i o n o f development s t a n d a r d s f o r r e u s e , d) an e x t e n s i o n or a l t e r a t i o n o f mortgage r a t e s o r mortgage s t a n d a r d s u t i l i z e d under s p e c i f i c p r o -v i s i o n s o f t h e NHA, e) e x p r o p r i a t i o n i n f a v o u r o f a p r i v a t e p a r t y when i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , as a l m o s t o c c u r r e d i n Edmonton f o r t h e AGT Tower O x f o r d L e a s e h o l d s d e v e l o p -ment, and j f ) s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and s p e e d i n g t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f c- • • p r i v a t e p r o p o s a l s t o reduce t h e amount o f r i s k c o v e rage f o r w h i c h a d e v e l o p e r must a c c o u n t . P u b l i c monetary measures c o u l d produce t h e f o l l o w i n g i n c e n t i v e s a) t h e p r o v i s i o n o f assembled and c l e a r e d redevelopment s i t e s w i t h a c o s t w r i t e down s u f f i c i e n t t o a t t r a c t p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t . b) t h e p r o v i s i o n o f mortgage o r improvement money a t r a t e s a t t r a c t i v e t o development i n t e r e s t s . c) t h e p r o v i s i o n , a t p u b l i c expense, o f some o f t h e r e q u i r e d open space a m e n i t i e s — p a r k i n g and p a r k s — w h i c h t h e d e v e l o p e r would o t h e r w i s e have t o meet t o b u i l d a t a d e n s i t y w h i c h o f f e r e d an a t t r a c t i v e r e t u r n . d) t h e improvement o f . m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s i n a r e a s r e q u i r i n g r e n e w a l a t c i t y expense r a t h e r t h a n as l o c a l improvements. e) The g r a n t i n g o f t a x exemptions t o r e n e w a l u n d e r t a k i n g s s u c h as t h e m u n i c i p a l p r o p e r t y t a x , t h e l o c a l i mprove-ment t a x o r even c o n s i d e r removing t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s a l e s t a x on b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r approved p r o j e c t s . Tax r e b a t e s m ight be g i v e n f o r v a c a n t d w e l l -i n g u n i t s i n a p r o j e c t . f ) a minimum r e t u r n from r e n t a l s c o u l d be g u a r a n t e e d f o r , r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s . ' As i n d i c a t e d above, t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e l a t t e r i n -c e n t i v e measures r a n c o n t r a r y ^ t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e m u n i c i -p a l i t y i n urban r e n e w a l , w i t h r e g a r d t o d e p l e t i n g t h e c i t y ' s c a p i t a l budget. However, h i s t o r i c a l l y t h e noh-monetary i n c e n -t i v e programs were n o t h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l i n a t t r a c t i n g p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t . The measure w h i c h s o l i c i t e d t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t was t h e w r i t e down i n c l e a r e d l a n d c o s t s . I n making a t r a d e - o f f between p r e s e n t m u n i c i p a l revenue and f u t u r e r e t u r n s — b o t h economic and s o c i a l — f r o m r e d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e c i t i e s , t o t h e g r e a t e s t e x t e n t , o p t e d f o r the NHA S e c t i o n 23 arrangements, t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y c o u l d l i m i t t h e i r e q u i t y t o 50% w i t h an a u t o m a t i c r e c o v e r y o f h a l f o f t h i s from t h e p r o v i n c i a l government a t t h e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the agreement (when t h e l a n d was s o l d ) . M o reover, t h e w r i t e down i n t h e l a n d c o s t when r e s o l d was s h a r e d on t h e same b a s i s . 3-30 However, even t h i s program had i t s drawbacks i n terms o f p r i v a t e development o b j e c t i v e s , w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e o t h e r p o t e n t i a l i n c e n t i v e s . One o f t h e major h u r d l e s t o be overcome i n d e v e l o p i n g r e n e w a l l a n d was t h e h i g h l y fragmented l a n d o w n e r ship w h i c h g e n e r a l l y p r e v a i l e d i n r e n e w a l a r e a s . A z o n i n g change i n i t s e l f w o u l d n o t a l t e r t h i s s i t u a t i o n . T i m i n g was a l s o a c r i t i c a l e lement. I n as much as a d e v e l o p e r c o u l d not s o l i c i t a t a c i t p r e-arrangement from th e p u b l i c p a r t n e r s h i p t o r e z o n e t h e a r e a i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r he assembled t h e n e c e s s a r y l a n d p a r c e l , he was f a c e d w i t h a r i s k element t h a t t h e d e s i r e d z o n i n g amendment might be t u r n e d down by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . On t h e o t h e r hand, i f t h e z o n i n g change,preceded t h e p u r c h a s e and assembly o f t h e l a n d , t h e d e v e l o p e r would p r o b a b l y be f a c e d w i t h h i g h e r a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t s , i n t h a t t h e p r e s e n t owners would i n c o r p o r a t e t h e h i g h e r p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f t h e l a n d i n t o t h e s e l l i n g p r i c e . Perhaps a more v i t a l , though l e s s o b v i o u s , p r o b lem i n h e r e n t i n u r b an r e n e w a l r e z o n i n g was t h a t i t o f t e n o c c u r r e d i n t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g vacuum w h i c h s o l e l y examined h y p o t h e t i c a l b e n e f i t s t o t h e community, were d e v e l o p -ment t o a c t u a l l y , happen i n t h e presupposed manner. T h i s l a c k o f s t u d y o f t h e r e t u r n s t o t h e p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p e r — t h e i n v e s t -ment p o t e n t i a l r e s u l t a n t from t h e c h a n g e — w a s p o i n t e d o u t i n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g Board Urban Renewal Study . 3-31 Zoning r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e imposed on p r i v a t e a c t i v i t y w i t h t h e i m p l i c i t o r e x p l i c i t aim o f a c h i e v i n g a b e t t e r environment t h a n would o t h e r -w i s e r e s u l t . What i s a l m o s t always l a c k i n g however, i s any r e a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f , o r i n d e e d c o n c e r n f o r , t h e c o s t s i n v o l v e d and how t h e y weigh a l o n g s i d e t h e b e n e f i t s a c t u a l l y a c h i e v e d . T h i s i s n o t meant t o i m p l y t h a t t h e b e n e f i t s o f z o n i n g c o n t r o l can be measured i n d o l l a r s and a c o s t - b e n e f i t r a t i o e s t a b l i s h e d , f o r t h i s i s e v i d e n t l y n o t so . . . . N e v e r t h e l e s s , any r a t i o n a l a p p r a i s a l o f z o n i n g must be based on a c t u a l r a t h e r t h a n i n t e n d e d b e n e f i t s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e knowledge o f t h e i r c o s t s , b o t h i n d o l l a r s and i n any a l t e r n a t i v e improvements t h a t a r e n o t m a d e . 6 5 An example was e x t e n s i v e r e z o n i n g where t h e i n t e n s i t y was t o o h i g h i n r e l a t i o n t o development p r o s p e c t s . I t was s a i d t o r a i s e t h e p r i c e o f l a n d and p r e v e n t development e x c e p t a t t h e maximum d e n s i t y p e r m i t t e d . Only a few s i t e s would be r e d e v e l o p e d w h i l e t h e r e s t o f t h e o v e r z o n e d a r e a remained i n i t s i n i t i a l s t a t e . Because o f t h e u s u a l l y h e t e r o g e n i o u s q u a l i t y o f improvements on l a n d i n an urban r e n e w a l a r e a , minimum " s t a n d a r d s bylaw enforcement would have o n l y f o r c e d t h e p o s i -t i o n o f some p r o p e r t y owners, w h i l e o t h e r s on t h e b o r d e r l i n e would have met the u p g r a d i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s and p r o b a b l y i n s t i l l i n g a g r e a t e r r e l u c t a n c e t o s e l l . A l s o , t h e s o c i a l i n e q u i t i e s ^ I b i d . , p. 52 . 3-32 o f l i m i t e d a r e a enforcement o f t h e s e bylaws was d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o s u p p o r t . R e ducing development s t a n d a r d s , e.g. s e t - b a c k r e g u -l a t i o n s s i t e c o v erage and p a r k i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s would have had t h e e f f e c t o f r e d u c i n g t h e amount o f l a n d a d e v e l o p e r needed t o a c q u i r e t o implement a p r e d e t e r m i n e d p r o p o s a l . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f p a r k i n g , w h i c h o f t e n i n v o l v e d b o t h a h i g h i n i t i a l c a p i t a l o u t l a y as w e l l as an o p e r a t i n g l o s s w h i c h would be r e f l e c t e d i n r e n t s ; hence a l e s s c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n . However, t h i s opened t h e door t o s t r o n g p r e s s u r e s upon c o u n c i l by o t h e r p r i v a t e u n d e r t a k i n g s f o r s i m i l a r c o n c e s s i o n s and might have, i n t h e l o n g r u n , been c r e a t i n g a b i g g e r ghetto^ c o n d i t i o n . L i m i t e d d i v i d e n d h o u s i n g under S e c t i o n 16 o f t h e NHA was a s o u r c e o f d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e by a p u b l i c r e n e w a l agency t o p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s . F i f t y y e a r maximum, n i n e t y p e r c e n t l o a n s a t v e r y modest i n t e r e s t r a t e s were a v a i l -a b l e from CMHC f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f low income h o u s i n g . The program s u f f e r e d from a l i m i t e d a n n u a l a l l o t m e n t a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f CMHC and t h e s t r i c u t r e s p l a c e d upon t h e r e t u r n w h i c h c o u l d a c c r u e t o t h e i n v e s t m e n t e.g. r e n t a l c e i l i n g s . As a r e s u l t , the. p r i m a r y use o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t was by s e r v i c e and c h u r c h groups i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n a p a r t -ments. A more i n t e r e s t i n g c a s e was t h e F a l s e C reek p r o p o s a l by Marathon R e a l t y . By u s i n g S e c t i o n 16 money t o b u i l d two l a r g e apartment towers on l e s s t h a n twenty p e r c e n t o f t h e i r 3-33 development s i t e (the re m a i n d e r t o be l e a s e d f o r p r i v a t e apartment development t o t h e h i g h e s t b i d d e r ) , t h e y c r e a t e d an i n v e s t m e n t c a t a l y s t w i t h l i t t l e e q u i t y and s t i l l a f f o r d i n g a p a s s a b l e r a t e o f r e t u r n . The p r o v i s i o n o f open space by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n the form o f p u b l i c p a r k i n g o r p a r k s was n o t a p o p u l a r method i n c i t y c o u n c i l s i n t h a t i t r e d u c e d t h e l a n d t a x base and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e case o f downtown r e n e w a l a r e a s , t h e s e f e a t u r e s were not e l i g i b l e f o r t h e maximum c o s t s h a r i n g by the s e n i o r governments. The i n s t a l l a t i o n o f improved s e r v i c e s as p a r t o f a r e n e w a l program ( e s p e c i a l l y where major r e p a i r needs were imminent) under the s h a r e d c o s t agreement was more a t t r a c t i v e t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , b u t h i s t o r i c a l l y i t was n o t p r o v e n t o be an e f f e c t i v e d r a w i n g c a r d f o r p r i v a t e d e v e l o p -ment. T h i s measure a l o n e would appear t o have been an i n -s u f f i c i e n t i n c e n t i v e . I t must be borne i n mind w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n o f money and/or mortgages t h a t t h i s i n s t r u m e n t , i n t h e case o f CMHC, was l i m i t e d , t o r e s i d e n t i a l development as p a r t o f t h e l e g i s l a t e d f e d e r a l o b j e c t i v e s i n u r b a n development. Downtown urban r e n e w a l (as an a t t r a c t i v e a r e a f o r p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t ) u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d t h e p r o g r e s s i o n o f l a n d use towards h i g h e r forms o f development; o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d by a z o n i n g change from r e s i d e n t i a l t o c o m m e r c i a l . A p a r t from l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n , t h i s change p l a c e d p o t e n t i a l development beyond t h e scope o f s e n i o r government l e g i s l a t e d i n v o l v e m e n t . 3-34 Thus, p r e f e r e n t i a l mortgage t r e a t m e n t c o u l d o n l y have a f f e c -t e d a p o r t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t spectrum. The c o m p l e x i t y o f d i v i d i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y among t h e t h r e e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s f o r the a s s e s s e d p r e s e n t v a l u e o f the mortgage w r i t e - d o w n (assuming t h e n e c e s s i t y o f u t i l i z i n g t h e conven-: t i o n a l mortgage market due t o t h e l i m i t e d s u p p l y o f CMHC d i r e c t l o a n s ) a l o n g w i t h the s e n i o r governments' d e s i r e f o r o n l y s h o r t term r e n e w a l p a r t n e r s h i p s m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t t h i s i n s t r u m e n t . Tax r e d u c t i o n s , r e b a t e s o r moratoriums were n o t f a v o u r e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , i n t h a t t h i s was one form o f r e n e w a l i n c e n t i v e w h i c h th e s e n i o r governments r e f u s e d t o a s s i s t , t h e r e b y p l a c i n g one hundred p e r c e n t o f the c o s t upon t h e c i t y . I t c o u l d j u s t i f i a b l y have been argued t h a t t h i s t y p e o f measure was n o t a l o s s i n t a x r e v e n u e , b u t a p o s t -ponement o f i n c r e a s e d g a i n s . However, t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f a l t e r n a t i v e s w h i c h o n l y i n v o l v e d t h e commitment o f t w e n t y - f i v e - c e n t - d o l l a r s h i s t o r i c a l l y o u t -weighed t h i s arguement. A l s o , m u n i c i p a l b u d g e t i n g c o u l d have been t i g h t enough t h a t even temporary t a x l o s s e s would have t o be made up e l s e w h e r e t o meet a n n u a l commitments. T h i s m i g h t have been d i s c r i m i n a t o r y i n f a v o u r o f t h o s e who were i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o s u p p o r t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . S i m i l a r t o o t h e r m u n i c i p a l development c o n c e s s i o n s , i t would have produced p r e s s u r e f o r e q u a l t r e a t m e n t f o r o t h e r p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s n o t f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e p r e s e n t terms o f r e f e r e n c e . 3-35 Exemptions from c o r p o r a t i o n income t a x on the p r o f i t s d e r i v e d from new b u i l d i n g s i n r e n e w a l a r e a s was n o t a v e r y u s e f u l i n c e n t i v e t o development f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . D e p r e c i a t i o n a l l o w a n c e s f o r t a x purposes on new b u i l d i n g s f o r t h e f i r s t f i v e t o t e n y e a r s were such t h a t t h e t a x a b l e income d e c l a r e d was r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . Thus, t h i s form o f i n c e n t i v e was o f l i t t l e advantage i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f development and i t was u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s form o f b e n e f i t p o stponed f i v e t o t e n y e a r s (assuming a l o n g term exemption) would have i m p a r t e d much s t i m u l u s f o r p r e s e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n . The r e m o v a l by s e n i o r governments o f t h e s a l e s t a x on b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r p r o j e c t s i n a d e s i g n a t e d r e n e w a l a r e a c o u l d have been s u b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r a b l e abuse. F i n a l l y , w i t h t a x c o n c e s s i o n s on l a n d , p r e s e n t o r p o t e n t i a l revenue a c c r u i n g from t h e p r o p e r t y would have been s u b j e c t t o t h e t i m i n g p r o b l e m w h i c h c o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n t h e g a i n b e i n g c a p i t a l -i z e d by t h e p r e s e n t owner and b e i n g r e f l e c t e d i n a h i g h e r p r i c e f o r redevelopment p r o p e r t y . A w r i t e - d o w n i n t h e c o s t o f a c q u i r i n g and c l e a r i n g t h e redevelopment s i t e was t h e most e f f e c t i v e i n c e n t i v e c o n c e i v e d by t h e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , f o r a t t r a c t i n g p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n t o urban r e n e w a l . The l o s s i n c u r r e d was s h a r e d i n the normal %/%/^ manner among CMHC, t h e p r o v i n c e and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . By t h e same t o k e n i t r e q u i r e d agreement on t h e t h r e e l e v e l s as t o t h e amount o f t h e w r i t e - d o w n and t h i s was n o t always a smooth p r o c e s s . A n o t h e r c o n t i n g e n c y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was t h a t t h e Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s had r e f u s e d t o become i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e m a t t e r s i n ca s e s w h i c h d i d n o t a c c o r d w i t h i t s u n d e f i n e d y a r d s t i c k f o r c o s t o f l a n d p e r d w e l l i n g u n i t . The p r o c e d u r a l f o r m a t under w h i c h t h i s i n c e n t i v e o p e r a t e d had some drawbacks, i n c l u d i n g - t h e g e o g r a p h i c d e l i n e a t i o n o f a ' b l i g h t e d ' urban r e n e w a l a r e a . There were few e a s i l y d e l i n e a t e d , c o n c e n t r a t e d p o c k e t s o f b l i g h t i n a c i t y . The more common case was t o f i n d l a r g e g r e y o r d e t e r i o r a t i n g a r e a s w i t h a s c a t t e r i n g o f . v e r y poor c o n d i t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t . To d e c l a r e t h e whole a r e a as b l i g h t e d and hence a p o t e n t i a l r e n e w a l p r o j e c t m ight have proven t o be an u n s u c c e s s f u l measure i n t h a t n e i t h e r t h e c i t y nor t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r was c a p a b l e o f o r w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t a t t h e s c a l e n e c e s s a r y t o cover, any l a r g e p e r -c e n t a g e o f t h e a r e a . I n d r a w i n g t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e c i t y seldom to o k i n t o a c c o u n t t h e s i z e o f t h e l o c a l i n v e s t -ment market o r t h e c o m p a r a t i v e i n v e s t m e n t p o t e n t i a l o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . The a r e a remained w i t h t h e s t i g m a o f t h e urban r e n e w a l d e s i g n a t i o n and l i t t l e happened, l e a v i n g an -o v e r a l l n eighbourhood c o n d i t i o n w h i c h had d e p r e s s i n g e f f e c t s on r e n t s , hence r e t u r n s on i n v e s t m e n t and t h e r e b y d e t e r r e d r e d e v e l o p m e n t . Vancouver's U.R. Scheme 3 was an example o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n . The o t h e r o p t i o n , t o d e f i n e an a r e a w i t h i n t h e s e c t o r w h i c h was s m a l l enough t o be i m m e d i a t e l y a c t e d upon by t h e p r i v a t e market o r t h e c i t y i t s e l f , s u f f e r e d t h e same drawback w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t o f o v e r a l l 3-37 neigh b o u r h o o d c o n d i t i o n s . . F i n a l l y , t h e method o f l a n d d i s p o s a l t o p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s c o n t a i n e d f e a t u r e s w h i c h were d i s i n c e n t i v e s t o p r i v a t e development. Redevelopment s i t e s were s o l d by pub-l i c a u c t i o n w i t h no c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o p a r t i c u l a r development i n t e r e s t s i n terms o f p a r c e l s i z e o f shape. There c o u l d be no c o n t r a c t u a l arrangements between p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s and t h e P a r t n e r s h i p a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and c l e a r -ance s t a g e o f r e n e w a l t o accommodate p a r t i c u l a r s p a c i a l o r l o c a t i o n a l needs. T h i s even a p p l i e d t o t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r whose s t o r e o r apartment was d e m o l i s h e d by t h e r e n e w a l a g e n c i e s . L a r g e r , more i m p o r t a n t p a r c e l s o f redevelopment l a n d were s u b j e c t t o a " c a l l f o r p r o p o s a l s ' i n s t r u m e n t o f d i s p o s a l . A g e n e r a l o u t l i n e o f t h e form ^and c o n t e n t o f t h i s document can o n l y be vague i n t h a t i t was a r e c e n t method adopted by CMHC, who had n o t r e s o l v e d e x a c t l y how i t s h o u l d o p e r a t e . Thus, each ' c a l l ' w h i c h was i s s u e d v a r i e d from t h e l a s t , b o t h due t o t h e v a r i a n c e o f t h e s u b j e c t p r o p e r t i e s and th e c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e o f CMHC on how t o make t h i s t o o l more e f f e c t i v e . I t g e n e r a l l y o u t l i n e d , i n v a r y i n g degrees o f s p e c i f i c i t y , t h e form o f u s e , t h e i n t e n s i t y o f use and t h e l a n d p a r c e l arrangement w h i c h t h e P a r t n e r s h i p d e s i r e d t o see d e v e l o p e d . The p r i v a t e market was asked t o make d e t a i l e d s u b m i s s i o n s on i n d i v i d u a l p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e s i t e o r s i t e s and e n t e r an accompanying b i d f o r t h e l a n d i n v o l v e d . These development b i d s were c o s t l y i t e m s t o p r e p a r e and there.was . 3-38 no c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t s t o c o v e r t h i s expense. A l s o , because t h e agreement o f a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e c h o i c e o f t h e b e s t b i d , t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f a c a l l f o r p r o p o s a l s tended t o be an e x t r e m e l y t i m e consuming e x e r c i s e . The u n c e r t a i n t y and t h e t i m e l a g p l a c e d a burden upon the p r o s p e c t i v e d e v e l o p e r i n terms o f t r y i n g t o h o l d down any precommitments f o r money o r major t e n a n t s . The r e s u l t was e v e r y h o p e f u l a p p e a r i n g a t t h e door o f p o t e n t i a l major t e n a n t s and f i n a n c i e r s a t t e m p t i n g t o s o l i c i t some form o f commitment t o p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s was n o t t h e form o f development p r o c e d u r e w h i c h p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s wanted t o f o l l o w i n c o n s t r u c t i n g an i n v e s t m e n t . .. The i n v e s t m e n t h o r i z o n s o f t h e p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r and c i t y c o u n c i l may have d i f f e r e d . W i t l r i t s p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e r i d i n g on two y e a r e l e c t i o n s , as i n t h e case o f V a n c o u v e r , c o u n c i l may have shown g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n immediate (even i f o n l y s h o r t term) t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s o f redevelopment d e c i s i o n s . The l a c k o f c o n t i n u i t y i n c i v i c government o v e r t i m e made l o n g term redevelopment programs a l i t t l e more tenuous and hence a g r e a t e r r i s k f o r p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t . • I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e p u b l i c - p r i v a t e i n t e r a c t i o n i n u r b a n redevelopment s u f f e r e d f rom t h e f o l l o w i n g s h ortcom-i n g s i n t h e p u b l i c o u t l o o k . P u b l i c a g e n c i e s s t i l l d i d n o t f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e t h e c o s t o f t i m e . C a p i t a l commitments by a d e v e l o p e r w h i c h had t o be h e l d o v e r t i m e were o p e r a t i n g c o s t s which, would be weighed a g a i n s t r e t u r n s t o determine. p r o f i t a b i l i t y . T h i s i n c r e a s e d premium w h i c h p r i v a t e d e v e l o p -e r s had come t o c o n s i d e r i n h e r e n t i n j o i n t p u b l i c v e n t u r e s , meant t h a t t h e i r i n v e s t m e n t t h r e s h o l d was h i g h e r f o r t h e s e p u b l i c u n d e r t a k i n g s t h a n f o r p r i v a t e market i n v e s t m e n t s . . . . . W i t h i n t h e scope of t h e new F e d e r a l r e -newal p o l i c y , and w i t h i n t h e scope o f p r e s e n t p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s ' i n v e s t m e n t p o l i c y , t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e l a c k o f program c o - o r d i n a t i o n and agreement on p r i o r i t i e s . 66 The d e c i s i o n c r i t e r i a f o r redevelopment use and i n t e n s i t y employed by t h e c i t y seldom i n c l u d e d an i n v e s t i g a -t i o n o f t h e i n v e s t m e n t p o t e n t i a l o f t h e r e u s e and t h i s was n e i t h e r e x p e c t e d nor demanded by t h e s e n i o r governments, as seen i n t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o u t l i n e d i n t h e CMHC Urban.Renewal Handbook. I n d e f i n i n g development p r o p o s a l s a t t h e p u b l i c l e v e l t h e r e e x i s t e d an u n f o r t u n a t e c o n f u s i o n between s o c i a l need and market demand. W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e V i c t o r i a CBD Scheme and t h e H i g h R i v e r Urban.Renewal Scheme, p l a n s were drawn up t o c r e a t e a b e t t e r c i t y w i t h o u t h a v i n g s e r i o u s l y t e s t e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e market. C a l g a r y has on d i s p l a y a m a g n i f i c e n t model o f i t s new CBD. However, the P a l i s e r Square development has c o v e r e d enough o f t h e p r e s e n t market demand t o l e a v e C a l g a r y w i t h l i t t l e more t h a n new s c h o o l b o a r d b u i l d i n g s i n t h e r e n e w a l a r e a . R. Mann, The R o l e o f t h e Time Element i n t h e Urban  Renewal P r o c e s s , UBC, 1968, pp. 4-16. 3-40 4 . Rehab 1 1 i t a t ion' A s s i s t a n c e Another economic shortcoming of the program was the assumed adequacy of the p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 67 CMHC, i n d e f i n i n g urban renewal, i n c l u d e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as one of the three i n t e g r a l aspects of the program, along w i t h redevelopment and co n s e r v a t i o n . . However, d i r e c t p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e was a v a i l a b l e o n l y f o r redevelopment. There were no p r o v i s i o n s f o r a s s i s t i n g i n co n s e r v a t i o n and r e h a b i l -i t a t i o n was aided only on the f o l l o w i n g terms. According to S e c t i o n 23D of the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t , and the concomi-t a n t r e g u l a t i o n s , CMHC would support approved lender loans f o r housing t o the extent t h a t , a) the loan was secured, as a f i r s t mortgage, b) the r e s u l t i n g improvements would bring- the house, up t o CMHC Minimum' Property Standards, c) the maximum loan was 85% of the lend i n g value of the property at a r a t e set by CMHC, d) loans would be made i n accordance w i t h the program s t a g i n g s et f o r t h i n the scheme r e p o r t , e) only housing which conformed to the plan would be e l i g i b l e , f) loans were not a v a i l a b l e f o r p u r e l y commercial or i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s . CMHC s t a f f d i r e c t i v e . 3-41 I t was assumed t h a t a program o f u p g r a d i n g l o c a l p u b l i c works c o u p l e d w i t h t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h i s r e h a b i l -i t a t i o n l o a n would c o n s t i t u t e adequate i n c e n t i v e t o t h e p r o p e r t y owners t o embark upon t h e u p g r a d i n g o f t h e b u i l d i n g s . However, t h e a s s u m p t i o n pr o v e d i n c o r r e c t . R e s i d e n t s g e n e r -a l l y were u n w i l l i n g o r f i n a n c i a l l y u n a b l e t o r e f i n a n c e t h e i r homes f o r t h e purpose o f u p g r a d i n g them, knowing t h a t t h e y would f a c e t h e repayment o f t h e l o a n , i n t e r e s t and i n c r e a s e d p r o p e r t y t a x e s . A n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h i s program was t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o a p p l y maintenance and occupancy s t a n d a r d s t o t h e a r e a . However most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f a i l t o e n f o r c e t h e s e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e v e r y l e a s t t h a t needs t o be done, t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n under t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s b r i n g s h a r d s h i p t o t h o s e l e a s t - a b l e t o a f f o r d i t . The degree t o w h i c h owners a r e a b l e and w i l l i n g t o u n d e r t a k e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f i n a n c e t h e n e c e s s a r y improvements. A l t h o u g h S e c t i o n 23D NHA l o a n s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a l l o w f o r c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f mortgage d e b t , t h i s has n o t p r o v e d t o be a s a t i s f a c t o r y i n -ducement. Many r e s i d e n t s have low incomes o r a r e on p e n s i o n s o r o t h e r forms o f f i x e d income. There i s a r e l u c t a n c e t o i n c r e a s e mortgage deb t and embark on a repayment scheme t h a t may e x t e n d beyond t h e l i f e e x p e c t a n c y o f t h e p e r s o n i n v o l v e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r e v a i l i n g h i g h i n t e r e s t r a t e s and t h e p r o s p e c t o f i n c r e a s e d assessment, d i s c o u r a g e owners s t i l l f u r t h e r . I n t h e case o f t h e t e n a n t , a f u r t h e r p r o blem a r i s e s i n t h a t i t i s most l i k e l y t h a t h i s l a n d l o r d w i l l pass on t h e c o s t o f improvements and o f i n c r e a s e d t a x e s i n t h e form o f a r e n t i n c r e a s e . I f t h e t e n a n t cannot a f f o r d t h e i n c r e a s e and i n t h e absence o f r e n t s u b s i d i e s , he must move o u t . S h o u l d t h i s happen, t h e i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e o f m i n i m i z i n g t h e d i s l o c a t i o n o f f a m i l i e s has been l o s t , and t h e s u p p l y o f a d e q u a t e . h o u s i n g f o r low income f a m i l i e s d e c r e a s e d r a t h e r t h a n i n c r e a s e d . 68 The p r o v i s i o n o f a l o a n i n s t e a d o f a g r a n t r e p r e s e n t e d an economic misjudgment o f t h e c a p a c i t y o f r e n e w a l a r e a r e s i d e n t s t o u n d e r t a k e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i t h s o l e l y t h e i r own means. I t (was) e x p e c t e d t h a t p r i v a t e r e h a b i l -69 i t a t i o n ( c o u l d ) be g e n e r a t e d s p o n t a n e o u s l y . " C. THE BUREAUCRATIZATION OF THE PROGRAM ' . Ai weakness o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y o f t h e urban r e n e w a l program was t h a t i t f o s t e r e d a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e p r o c e d u r e as opposed t o t h e p r o d u c t o f the--process. T h i s was c o u p l e d w i t h an i n a b i l i t y o f CMHC t o c o n c e i v e o f urban a i d o u t s i d e t h e e s t a b l i s h e d terms o f r e f e r e n c e , t h a t i s , t o r e c o g n i z e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t o f c a p i t a l t i e d t o urban r e n e w a l . The phenomenon was d i s c u s s e d by Mr. J . Rothenberg i n a s s e s s i n g t h e A m e r i c a n program. . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s may b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e a r e a l t e r -n a t i v e ways o f b r i n g i n g about some o f t h e achievements o f t h e p r e s e n t program . . . b u t t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o d e p r e c i a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o b t a i n -i n g such a l t e r n a t i v e s as d e l i b e r a t e s u b s t i t u t e s f o r th e p r e s e n t program. The F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Program, op. c i t . , p. 10. 9 I b i d . , p. 17. Thus, t h e y f e e l bound by t h e p r e s e n t program, n o t o n l y i n terms of i t s l i m i t a t i o n o f scope i n l a b e l i n g r e l e v a n t b e n e f i c i a r i e s and t y p e s o f b e n e f i t s (and c o s t s ) , b u t a l s o i n terms o f t h e e x i s t a n c e o f f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e ways o f a c h i e v i n g t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f b e n e f i t s f o r t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r b e n e f i c i a r i e s . These bene-f i t s w i l l be o b t a i n e d from the p r e s e n t p o l i c y , o r t h e y w i l l n o t be o b t a i n e d a t a l l . 70 A d m i t t e d l y , i n Canada, t h e problems o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y and p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s came t o b e a r on t h e m a t t e r , but l i t t l e e f f o r t appears t o have been expended by t h e s e n i o r g o v e r n -ments i n e x p l o r i n g a d i f f e r e n t l e g i s l a t i v e a p proach. A l s o , t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f the n e c e s s i t y o f b e i n g a b l e t o a c c u r a t e l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f p u b l i c funds b r e d a r e l u c -t a n c e t o t r a n s f o r m t h e program i n t o a more s i m p l i f i e d g r a n t -i n - a i d arrangement w i t h e i t h e r t h e m u n i c i p a l o r p r o v i n c i a l governments. 1. I n i t i a t i o n o f Urban Renewal Because t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s and t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c r e n e w a l programs r e s t e d w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l governments, t h e r o l e o f t h e s e n i o r government f u n d i n g p a r t n e r s was t h a t o f a r e v i e w i n g agency. The b r o a d o b j e c t i v e s were o u t l i n e d , a l b e i t n o t s u s c i n c t l y by CMHC, bu t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e program, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e d b l i g h t , was l e f t t o t h e J . R o t h e n b e r g , op. c i t . , p. 30. m u n i c i p a l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , CMHC was i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f i n -s u r i n g t h a t p r o c e d u r e was c o r r e c t l y f o l l o w e d , as opposed t o d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l programs. I t appeared t h a t t h e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r t h i s form o f o p e r a t i o n p a r a l l e l e d t h e t h i n k i n g w h i c h u n d e r l i e s our system o f j u s t i c e . That i s , i f t h e p r o c e d u r e s were c o r r e c t l y c a r r i e d o u t , t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e u n d e r t a k i n g would be i n ac c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s . However, t h i s a p proach assumed a common s e t o f p r i o r i t i e s among t h e a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d . As d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s was n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e g e n e r a l c a s e . T h e r e f o r e , because a) t h e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s were n o t e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d and, , * b) t h e i n i t i a t i o n and aims o f t h e s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s r-l a y w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l government, CMHC s t a f f d e v o t e d i t s e l f t o r e v i e w i n g t h e program i n terms o f whether a l l t h e a s p e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o p o s a l s f i t t e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y . To a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h e p r o v i n c i a l government r o l e ( e x c e p t i n Quebec) was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f CMHC. 2. The T r i p a r i t e P a r t n e r s h i p The l a r g e amount o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l e x i s t e d on two main l e v e l s . The f i r s t was t h e t r i p a r t i t e p a r t n e r -s h i p i t s e l f . The i n i t i a l a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o u n d e r t a k e a r e n e w a l program ( f o r example t h e commencing o f a r e n e w a l 3-45 study) r e q u i r e d a f o r m a l r e s o l t u i o n o f t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l , t h e w r i t t e n a p p r o v a l by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t -ment, f o l l o w e d by t h e a p p r o v a l by b o t h t h e head o f f i c e and b r a n c h l e v e l s o f CMHC. An agreement among a l l t h r e e p a r t i e s was t h e n s i g n e d . The recommended p r o c e d u r e c a l l e d f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a t r i p a r t i t e c o - o r d i n a t i n g committee t o o v e r s e e the c r e a t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t . A c c o r d i n g t o Dr. K. C r o s s ' e x a m i n a t i o n " . . . i n t h r e e f i f t h s o f t h e t o t a l number o f s t u d i e s t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e c o - o r d i n a t i n g committee r e p r e s e n t i n g f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l g o v e r n -71 ment (was) c a t e g o r i c a l l y s t a t e d . " A l t h o u g h n o t a s t i p u -l a t e d r e g u l a t i o n , t h e d r a f t f i n a l r e p o r t was u s u a l l y sub-m i t t e d t o a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f .government f o r comment p r i o r t o t h e f i n a l i z a t i o n o f recommendations. The completed document was t h e n s e n t t o t h e t h r e e a g e n c i e s f o r r e v i e w . Assuming t h a t t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y w i s h e d t o a c t upon t h e recommendations o f t h e r e n e w a l s t u d y , a second round o f a p p l i c a t i o n s was r e q u i r e d . These i n c l u d e d , as i n t h e former c a s e , a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e proposed r e p o r t , a c o s t e s -t i m a t e and a m u n i c i p a l r e s o l u t i o n . The. a p p l i c a t i o n was t h e n r e v i e w e d and approved by t h e p r o v i n c i a l agency and t h e two l e v e l s o f CMHC. A second s e t o f agreements was t h e n drawn up. A t y p i c a l agreement i s i n c l u d e d as Appendix One. K. C r o s s , op. c i t . , p. 17. 3-46 A s t i p u l a t e d r e q u i r e m e n t i n c r e a t i n g a scheme r e p o r t was th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f two t r i p a r t i t e b o d i e s t o o v e r s e e t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f r e n e w a l p r o p o s a l s . I t i s r e q u i r e d t h a t a C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee, c o n s i s t i n g o f a m u n i c i p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ( a p p o i n t e d by C o u n c i l ) , a p r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ( a p p o i n t e d by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e P r o v i n c i a l Department) and t h e manager o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e CHMC o f f i c e be e s t a b -l i s h e d . The m u n i c i p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l be ch a i r m a n . The r o l e o f t h e C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee i s t o : - seek from t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s answers t o p o l i c y ques-t i o n s t h a t may a r i s e , - e n s u r e t h a t t h e terms o f t h e agreement a r e b e i n g f o l l o w e d , - r e v i e w t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e scheme p r e p a r a t i o n as r e p o r t e d by t h e T e c h n i c a l Sub-committee, - a s s i s t i n f o r m u l a t i n g p o l i c y and p u b l i c i t y and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , - a d v i s e on p r o g r e s s payments and c l a i m s under t h e Agreement, - h o l d r e q u l a r m e e t ings n o t l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n monthly and r e p o r t t o t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s t h r o u g h m i n u t e s o f the m e e t i n g s , - u n d e r t a k e such o t h e r f u n c t i o n s as a r e deemed n e c e s s a r y t o h e l p t h e scheme a c h i e v e i t s o b j e c t i v e s , - r e c e i v e and r e v i e w t h e p r e p a r e d scheme. 72 As was t h e ca s e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l CHMC appro a c h t o r e n e w a l , t h e emphasis i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s body was t h e adherence t o p r o c e d u r e , n o t t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f o b j e c t s o r t h e p r o d u c t o f the p r o p o s a l . F u r t h e r , a T e c h n i c a l Sub-committee was r e q u i r e d . Urban Renewal Handbook, op. c i t . , p.19. 3-47 The T e c h n i c a l Sub-committee s h o u l d c o n s i s t o f one s t a n d i n g member from each o f t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t — M u n i c i p a l , P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l . I t s purpose s h o u l d be t o a d v i s e t h e C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee on a l l t e c h n i c a l problems a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e scheme p r e p a r a t i o n . The a d v i s o r y t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o any c o n s u l t a n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e scheme p r e p a r a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e c o n s u l t a n t s s h o u l d r e -spond t o any q u e s t i o n s t h i s sub-committee may have. The s t a n d i n g members o f t h i s ' sub-committee s h o u l d be th e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r ( c h a i r m a n ) , p r o v i n c i a l p l a n n e r and CMHC Bra n c h P l a n n e r o r t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . These members s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r i n g t h a t o t h e r p e r s o n n e l r e p r e s n e t i n g such d i s c i p l i n e s as a r c h i t e c t u r e , e n g i n e e r i n g , economics, p r o p e r t y a p p r a i s a l s , s o c i o l o g y , e t c . a r e a v a i l a b l e as a d v i s o r s whenever n e c e s s a r y . The chairman s h o u l d be r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r c a l l i n g m e e t i n g s , r e c o r d i n g sub-committee d e l i b e r a t i o n s and r e p o r t i n g recommendations t o t h e c o - o r d i n a t i n g committee. M e e t i n g s s h o u l d be convened as n e c e s s a r y i n t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y d u r i n g the- p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e scheme. A minimum o f t h r e e m e e t i n g s s h o u l d . b e h e l d : 1. a t t h e o u t s e t o f scheme p r e p a r a t i o n - t o r e v i e w t h e i n t e n d e d p r o c e d u r e , t e c h n i q u e s , work program and i n i t i a l t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s , 2. a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e O v e r a l l Scheme (but b e f o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l ) . . . . 3. a t the c o m p l e t i o n (but b e f o r e f i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n ) o f t h e F i r s t Phase D e t a i l e d P r o p o s a l s . . . . On c o m p l e t i o n i t i s recommended t h a t t h e C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee, p r i o r t o p r e s e n t a t i o n t o C o u n c i l and t h e s e n i o r governments, r e v i e w t h e scheme. 73 Havi n g undergone ongoing and f i n a l r e v i e w s by t h e s e t r i p a r t i t e b o d i e s , t h e scheme r e p o r t was t h e n r e v i e w e d and approved by t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l , t h e p r o v i n c i a l department and b o t h l e v e l s o f CMHC. Assuming a p p r o v a l s were g a i n e d i n a l l c a s e s , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d assemble a t h i r d s e t o f a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t . 3 I b i d . , pp. 19-21. 3-48 The m u n i c i p a l a p p l i c a t i o n f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e under S e c t i o n 23B NHA w i l l i n c l u d e i n a p p r o p r i a t e w r i t t e n and p l a n form t h e g e n e r a l r e -newal p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e o v e r a l l scheme and t h e d e t a i l e d and s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e a r e a s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e F i r s t Phase o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 74 The a p p l i c a t i o n s a g a i n had t o be approved by t h e p r o v i n c e and CMHC and t h i s would be f o l l o w e d by t h e s i g n i n g o f a n o t h e r s e t o f agreements. S i m i l a r t o t h e r e p o r t p r e p a r a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s , a c o - o r d i n a t i n g committee and a t e c h n i c a l sub-committee were c r e a t e d t o a s s i s t t h e implemen-t a t i o n of t h e p r o j e c t s The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t i t r e q u i r e d an average o f 28.4 months t o complete t h e scheme r e p o r t s t a g e . The r e n e w a l s t u d y p r e p a r a t i o n , a c c o r d -i n g t o Dr. K. C r o s s ' d a t a , r e q u i r e d an average o f 38 months. The c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t on t h e a v e r a g e , f o r t h e c a s e s examined, i t would have t a k e n about 5 1/2 y e a r s f o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y t o work i t s way t h r o u g h t h e r e n e w a l program b e f o r e p h y s i c a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e c t c o u l d have o c c u r r e d . The Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department i n c u r r e d t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . 74 I b i d . , p. 22. 75 K. C r o s s , op. c i t . , p. 30. 3-49 A l e a d t i m e o f a t l e a s t t h r e e y e a r s i s r e q u i r e d t o g e t t h e s e k i n d s o f programs moving when t h e y i n v o l v e m u l t i - d e p a r t m e n t s and m u l t i - l e v e l s o f gov-ernment. Where s e n i o r governments a r e p r e p a r e d t o pay most o f t h e c o s t s f o r t h e s e programs, i t i s d i f f i c u l t , however, f o r t h e C i t y t o d i f f e r o v e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s e s t a b l i s h e d . C r i t i c a l p a t h diagrams i n d i c a t e t h a t a f o r t y month p e r i o d i s r e -q u i r e d f o r t h e a p p r o v a l o f a medium s i z e scheme from i n i t i a t i o n t o f i n a l a p p r o v a l p r i o r t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . . . . 76 On t h i s b a s i s i t was p o s s i b l e t o assume t h a t a number o f i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s examined i n t h e s t u d y c o u l d have changed o v e r t h i s p e r i o d o f t i m e . "The t i m e l a g caused by t h e e x t e n s i v e number o f s t e p s r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y out a program o f t e n ( r e s u l t e d ) i n a change o f t h e a c t u a l needs o f t h e 77 program from t h o s e o r i g i n a l l y p r o p o s e d . " Among t h e s e changes c o u l d have been t h e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l i t s e l f . A new c o u n c i l c o u l d d e c i d e on d i f f e r e n t p r i o r i t i e s t o t h o s e o f i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s , r e s u l t i n g i n o n l y p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e n e w a l program, as was t h e c a s e i n T r a i l . A n o t h e r problem was t h e s t i g m a c r e a t e d by a r e n e w a l d e s i g n a t i o n on an a r e a where no p u b l i c a c t i o n was t a k e n , 78 due t o t h i s e x t e n s i v e t i m e l a g . "Such d e s i g n a t i o n s c r e a t e a s e m i - f r e e z e o f r e a l e s t a t e t r a n s a c t i o n s and t e n d t o d i s -79 courage maintenance and r e p a i r s . " C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, op. c i t . , p. 3. 77 R. Mann, op. c i t . , pp. 4-16. 78 M. A n d e r s o n , The F e d e r a l B u l l d o z e r , The MIT P r e s s (Cambridge, 1964) p. 2. 79 C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Dept., bp. c i t . , p. 4. 3-50 3. The CMHC H i e r a r c h y , The second major l e v e l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l e x i s t e d w i t h i n CMHC i t s e l f . The C o r p o r a t i o n o p e r a t e d on a c e n t r a l i z e d f o r m a t , w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f b r a n c h d e c i s i o n s on u rban r e n e w a l r e q u i r i n g r a t i f i c a t i o n from t h e head o f f i c e i n Ottawa. W i t h i n t h i s b a s i c h i e r a r c h y were f i v e d i v i s i o n s on each o f t h e two main l e v e l s , w h i c h were i n -v o l v e d i n t h e urban r e n e w a l program. The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e was i l l u s t r a t e d i n a h y p o t h e t i c a l c a s e o f a com p l e t e d scheme r e p o r t . A t t h e b r a n c h l e v e l , t h e f o u r t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r y d i v i s i o n s each examined t h e document i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e minutes q f t h e c o - o r d i n a t i n g committee and t e c h n i c a l sub-committee; b o d i e s on w h i c h t h e y had been r e p r e s e n t e d d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t . C o p i e s o f t h e i r r e v i e w s and recommendations went t o t h e o t h e r t e c h n i c a l d i v i s i o n s a t t h e b r a n c h l e v e l , t h e i r own d i v i s i o n i n Ottawa and t h e b r a n c h manager. The manager r e v i e w e d t h e s e s u b m i s s i o n s and s e n t h i s own v i e w s t o t h e Urban Renewal and P u b l i c Housing D i v i s i o n o f Head O f f i c e a l o n g w i t h c o p i e s o f t h e r e p o r t . The l a t t e r would t h e n have r e q u e s t e d r e v i e w s from t h e f o u r t e c h n i c a l d i v i s i o n s a t head o f f i c e . These d i v i s i o n s r e c e i v e d t h e c o p i e s o f t h e v i e w s o f t h e i r b r a n c h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and any c l a r i f i c a t i o n s o r d i s a g r e e m e n t s would have been c a r r i e d o u t by c o r r e s p o n d a n c e between them a t t h i s p o i n t . Upon t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f any 3-51 d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i n t h e d i v i s i o n s , each head o f f i c e t e c h n i c a l d i v i s i o n w r o t e a r e v i e w and recommendations and s u b m i t t e d i t t o Urban Renewal and P u b l i c Housing D i v i s i o n . The l a t t e r s y n t h e s i z e d t h e s e r e v i e w s and s u b m i t t e d i t s own r e v i e w t o t h e e x e c u t i v e l e v e l . C o p i e s o f head o f f i c e r e v i e w s went t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e b r a n c h d i v i s i o n s w i t h t h e Urban Renewal and P u b l i c Housing D i v i s i o n r e v i e w copy h a v i n g gone t o t h e b r a n c h manager. The l a t t e r i n f o r m e d t h e m u n i c i -p a l i t y o f t h e f a t e o f i t s scheme r e p o r t ; t h a t i s , whether i t was a c c e p t e d o r whether r e v i s i o n s were r e q u i r e d . The m u n i c i p a l i t y , assuming an approved r e p o r t , would t h e n have put t o g e t h e r an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w h i c h would have gone t h r o u g h t h e same a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s . I n t h i s c a s e t h e e x e c u t i v e l e v e l would r e v i e w t h e a p p l i c a t i o n and i f a c c e p t e d would convey i t t o t h e M i n i s t e r ' s department f o r Orde r i n C o u n c i l A p p r o v a l o f f u n d i n g . The o b v i o u s f e a t u r e o f t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f o r m a t was t h e d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t w i t h i n d i v i s i o n s c r e a t e d by t h e c e n t r a l i z e d h i e r a r c h y . As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e r e v i e w e f f o r t s were d e v o t e d t o i n s u r i n g t h a t t h e r e p o r t p r o p o s a l s f e l l w i t h i n t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h e agreement and t h a t a l l elements c o v e r e d by t h e agreement were i n c l u d e d . The p r o c e d u r e s o f S e c t i o n s 23A and 23B NHA i n v o l v e p l a n n e r s c h e c k i n g on p l a n n e r s c h e c k i n g on p l a n n e r s . I n t h e Vancouver c a s e , we have had p l a n n e r s a t t e m p t -i n g t o make judgements 3,000 m i l e s d i s t a n t , i n some 3-52 cas e s w i t h o u t h a v i n g e v e r seen t h e c i t y , l e t a l o n e t h e s i t e i n q u e s t i o n . A l s o , t h e r e i s n o t h -i n g w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h s h o u l d make them a b e t t e r judge t h a n . t h e p l a n n e r s on t h e s i t e . I f t h i s p o s i t i o n i s p r i m -a r i l y t o ensure t h e coherence o f a s i n g l e n a t i o n a l s e t o f c r i t e r i a , t h i s c l e r i c a l work would appear, t o be an i n e f f e c t i v e use o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t a l e n t . M a j o r c i t i e s have permanent p l a n n i n g s t a f f s and an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machine w h i c h can p r o v i d e t h e back up d a t a upon w h i c h p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s a r e made. The major c i t y p l a n n i n g s t a f f , b e i n g c l o s e r t o t h e f i n a n c i a l / p o l i t i c a l / a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m u n i c i p a l o r g a n -i z a t i o n , i s i n t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n and perhaps t h u s more competent t o make d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g . .. . r e n e w a l . 80 The l a c k o f autonomy o f t h e b r a n c h l e v e l s t a f f produced a d u p l i c a t i o n o f r e v i e w and a p p r o v a l s w i t h t h e second s c r e e n i n g o f r e p o r t s h a n d l e d by a group whose knowledge o f t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n was u s u a l l y l e s s adequate t h a n t h e f i r s t . A l s o , t h e f a i r l y low l e v e l o f communication between t h e d i v i s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e head o f f i c e l e v e l , produced a n o t h e r form o f d u p l i c a t e d e f f o r t . 4. Summary The q u e s t i o n n a i r e u t i l i z e d by Dr. K C r o s s , t o a s s e s s t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n t h e ur b a n r e n e w a l program, i l l u s t r a t e d t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e e x t e n t o f a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e . "The p o i n t w h i c h was b r o u g h t up most o f t e n i n t h i s r e g a r d was t h a t p r o c e d u r a l b o t t l e n e c k s and Urban Renewal - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , op. c i t . , p. 2. 'red t a p e ' were r e d u c i n g t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f urban renewal". T h i s v i e w was e l a b o r a t e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l of M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . W h i l e u rban r e n e w a l i s n o m i n a l l y a m u n i c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n f a c t the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments have a major i n t e r e s t due t o t h e i r f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s . I n p r a c t i c e t h i s e x t e n d s t o minute s c r u t i n y o f m u n i c i p a l p l a n s , and may i n -v o l v e an enormous amount of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e complex-i t y . T h i s c o n t r i b u t e s t o d e l a y and t o d e f u s i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e added d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e j u s t i f i e d by t h e r e s u l t s . The s e n i o r governments s h o u l d s e t c e r t a i n minimum s t a n d a r d s and o b t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y a c c o u n t -i n g f o r f u n d s . They s h o u l d not be i n v o l v e d i n e v e r y s t e p o f t h e p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a r e n e w a l scheme . . . . The p r e s e n t approach embodied i n b o t h t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l A c t s , i n v o l v i n g a s e r i e s o f schemes each of w h i c h has t o be a pproved, p l a n n e d and c a r r i e d out as a s e p a r a t e p r o j e c t , i s clumsy, u n n e c e s s a r y and s h o u l d be abandoned. A d d i t -i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a re caused by the r e q u i r e m e n t o f s p e c i f i c i t e m - b y - i t e m b u d g e t i n g , w h i c h i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t o adapt t o t h e r e a l i t i e s o f c o n t i n u i n g and n o t e n t i r e -l y p r e d i c t a b l e r e n e w a l programs.82 5. S o c i a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s A n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e CMHC p r o c e d u r a l a p p r o a c h t a k e n t o u r ban r e n e w a l i n v o l v e d t h e i n a d e q u a t e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e program. K, C r o s s , op. c i t . , p. 9. 8 2 S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f M e t r o T o r o n t o , op. c i t . p. 22. 3-54 A f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n a r i s e s a s - t o who i s t h e prime b e n e f i c i a r y o f urban r e n e w a l programs, t h e r e n e w a l a r e a r e s i d e n t o r t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e . A r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s e t s t h i s i n c l e a r e r c o n t e x t . 'This does n o t mean t h a t t h e two a r e . n e c e s s a r i l y i n c o n f l i c t . I t does mean t h a t we must be q u i t e c l e a r about o ur b a s i c o b j e c t i v e s and f a c e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a t t a i n i n g them. I n o t h e r words, i f t h e purpose o f urban r e n e w a l i s b a s i c a l l y t o improve t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e urban f a b r i c as a w h o l e — w h i c h i s a p e r f e c t l y l e g i t i m a t e a i m — t h e n we must a c c e p t t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e p e o p l e whose neighbourhoods a r e g o i n g t o be renewed a r e n o t made t o s u f f e r on b e h a l f o f t h e r e s t o f t h e community. I f , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e b a s i c o b j e c t i v e i s t o improve t h e l o t o f t h o s e who l i v e , work and do b u s i n e s s i n a bad p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e n t h e r e n e w a l program has t o be based on a p r o p e r e v a l u a t i o n o f what t h e y need and want. To r e p e a t , t h e two aims a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i r r e c o n -c i l a b l e , b u t i t i s s u p e r f i c i a l and dangerous t o assume t h a t t h e y w i l l c o i n c i d e . ' . . . 83 * F u r t h e r t o t h i s , t h e e x p e c t a t i o n h o r i z o n s o f t h e l o c a l r e s i -d e n t s a f f e c t e d by r e n e w a l and t h e p l a n n i n g agency a d m i n i s -t r a t i n g r e n e w a l were d i f f e r e n t . A t t h e o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l , CMHC appeared t o i n a d e q u a t e l y come t o g r i p s w i t h t h i s p o s s i b l e d i c o t o m y o f o b j e c t i v e s . I n i t s c o n c e i v e d f o r m a t , t h e program was s p e c i f i c about t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e r e n e w a l agency t o t h e a r e a r e s i d e n t s . T h i s i n c l u d e d de-t a i l e d w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l on t h e f o l l o w i n g : . . . a r e h o u s i n g program f o r t h e f a m i l i e s and p e r s o n s d i s p l a c e d . . . ( i n c l u d i n g ) d a t a on t h e number and s i z e s o f such f a m i l i e s , incomes and c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h a r e l i k e l y t o be a problem. Means o f r e h o u s i n g s h o u l d a l s o be g i v e n i n terms o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g , h o u s i n g by n o n - p r o f i t c o r p o r a t i o n , p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p r e n t a l , h o s t e l e t c . . . . The F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Program, op. c i t . , p. 12 3-55 - a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the t y p e s and method o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n of t h e s o c i a l and w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e t o be g i v e n i n t h e a r e a by b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s . - a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the methods p l a n n e d f o r a p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e t o a s s i s t a r e a o c c u p a n t s t o a d j u s t t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e F i r s t Phase. A l s o i n -c l u d e d w i l l be p l a n s t o a s s i s t i n t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f p e r s o n s d i s p o s s e s s e d o f accommodation. 84 I n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e urban r e n e w a l p r o c e d u r e s , the s e n i o r governments d i d n o t d e v o t e a l a r g e degree o f s c r u t i n y t o t h e s e s o c i a l c o n c e r n s . I n f a c t , a s t a t e m e n t t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y was l o o k i n g a f t e r t h e s e m a t t e r s was c o n s i d e r e d t o meet t h e terms of r e f e r e n c e . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , CMHC i n 196 8 made t h e 4 f o l l o w i n g e v a l u a t i o n . An e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s a s p e c t of r e n e w a l s u g g e s t s t h a t some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have made s i n c e r e e f f o r t s t o c o - o r d i n a t e s e r v i c e s and u n d e r t a k e a measure of s o c i a l r e n e w a l ; o t h e r s have n o t . P h y s i c a l r e n e w a l and i t s c o s t s h a r i n g p r o v i s i o n s a r e t h e major o b j e c -t i v e s o f m u n i c i p a l r e n e w a l programs; s o c i a l r e n e w a l does n o t r e c e i v e t h e same p r i o r i t y i n e i t h e r t i m e o r money. . . . The v a r i a t i o n s o f m u n i c i p a l p r i o r i t y t o such c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f programs have made t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n d i f f i c u l t . We have a c c e p t e d t h e m u n i c i -p a l i t y ' s s t a t e m e n t s o f good i n t e n t i o n , w i t h o u t h o l d -i n g them a c c o u n t a b l e f o r t h e r e s u l t . 85 Urban Renewal Handbook, op. c i t . , p. 15. The F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Program, op. c i t . , pp. 15-16. . 3-56 The same statement could have been made of the rehousing program. CMHC f e l t t h a t , " . . . c r i t i c i s m t h a t (rehousing) needs have not been met should not be a t t r i b u t e d to urban renewal but- the l a c k of an adequate housing p o l i c y f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y . " ^ However, the s e n i o r governments d i d not demand t h i s i n reviewing the renewal r e p o r t s . 6. Conclusion In summary, three major aspects of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y c o n f l i c t e d w i t h the r a t h e r expansive o b j e c t i v e s of the program. The s i n g l e , u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i e d set of regu-l a t i o n s was not w e l l s u i t e d to the v a r i e t y of p r o j e c t s which were attempted. The economic terms of reference l a c k e d s o p h i s -t i c a t i o n , d i d not f u l l y account f o r the divergence of agency p r i o r i t i e s and were not w e l l s u i t e d f o r undertakings w i t h the p r i v a t e development market. T h i r d l y , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the program became preoccupied w i t h the procedure r a t h e r than the o b j e c t i v e s of renewal, thereby f a i l i n g to c l a r i f y the o b j e c t i v e s and encouraging d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t . ^ I b i d . , p. 13. 4-1 C H A P T E R . F O U R ANALYSIS OF THE INTERVIEWS I n an e f f o r t t o 'Compare t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d on urban r e n e w a l i n t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e p l a n n e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who were c l o s e l y t i e d t o t h e program i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , e i g h t i n t e r v i e w s were u n d e r t a k e n . The f o u r major p l a n n i n g groups were c a n v a s s e d f o r o p i n i o n s . These i n c l u d e d : a) C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n 1. t h e R e g i o n a l S u p e r v i s o r f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 2. t h e Bra n c h A r c h i t e c t / P i anner. ~> b) t h e P r o v i n c i a l Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s 1. t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . 2. a member o f t h e Housing and Renewal d i v i s i o n . c) t h e C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department 1. t h e Deputy D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g 2. a s t a f f member r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e 1969 Vancouver r e n e w a l s t u d y . . d) P r i v a t e P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t s 1. t h e p r i n c i p a l of R. W i l l i a m s and A s s o c i a t e s . 2. t h e p r i n c i p a l o f Rawson and W i l e s . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t o n l y e i g h t s e t s o f o p i n i o n s were s m a l l i n com p a r i s o n t o t h e t o t a l number o f p e r s o n s w o r k i n g • 4-2 w i t h i n t h e r e n e w a l program. However, 3 o f t h o s e i n t e r -v i e wed were s e n i o r p e r s o n n e l a t t h e p o l i c y making l e v e l o f t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f government i n v o l v e d . I t was t h e r e f o r e assumed t h a t t h e i r v i e w s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e a g e n c i e s f o r w h i c h t h e y worked. The p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t s had worked on 6 o f t h e r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s c i t e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d a t a . A l o n g w i t h t h e f o u r Vancouver p r o j e c t s , t h i s c o v e r e d a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e t o t a l number of r e n e w a l schemes i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The f o r m a t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s was seven p r e p a r e d q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were asked t o each i n d i v i d u a l . A copy o f t h e q u e s t i o n s i s i n c l u d e d as an appendex t o t h i s c h a p t e r . 1. The O b j e c t i v e s There was a d i v i s i o n o f o p i n i o n as t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e r e n e w a l program. Three o f t h e r e s p o n d a n t s ; i n c l u d i n g t h e s e n i o r members i n CMHC and t h e Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , v i e w e d t h e o b j e c t i v e s i n economic terms. Renewal was seen as a c a t a l y s t t o a s s i s t change i n t h o s e a r e a s o f t h e c i t y where p r i v a t e market f o r c e s were n o t a c t i n g t o c r e a t e p r o d u c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I t was a l s o i n t e r p r e t e d as a program f o r t h e economic r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f major c i t i e s . The Deputy D i r e c t o r o f t h e Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department e n v i s a g e d r e n e w a l as a f u n d i n g program f o r a r e a improvements w h i c h were beyond t h e f i n a n c i a l c a p a c i t y o f t h e c i t y . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e r e s p o n s e s were e x p r e s s e d i n 0 4-3 terms o f t h e p h y s i c a l r e m o v a l o f d e t e r i o r a t e d p r o p e r t i e s i n t h e . c i t y . Seven r e s p o n d a n t s c o n s i d e r e d t h e program t o be c i t y w i d e , t h a t i s , n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y a h o u s i n g mechanism. One couched h i s o p i n i o n s i n terms o f the s o c i a l elements o f r e n e w a l . . T h i s d i v i s i o n o f v i e w s appeared t o s u p p o r t t h e con-t e n t i o n o f Chapter- One, t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e program were n o t e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d , t h e r e b y p r o d u c i n g v a r i e d approaches t o t h e use o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n . An i n t e r e s t i n g v i e w p o i n t e x p r e s s e d i n 3 o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s was t h a t CMHC had, i n e f f e c t , i m p o r t e d an A m e r i c a n program w i t h o u t a t t e m p t -i n g t o c l e a r l y d e f i n e t h e scope o f i t s g o a l s and w i t h o u t a s s e s s i n g a l l o f t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 2. The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c y Seven o f t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d f e l t t h a t t h e boundary c o n c e p t o f r e n e w a l a s s i s t a n c e had been u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . Two s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t a r e a r e n e w a l s h o u l d have been r e p l a c e d by f u n c t i o n a l r e n e w a l — t h a t i s , the c i t y wide r e n e w a l o f s p e c i f i c urban e l e m e n t s . The s i n g l e s u p p o r t e r o f t h e boundary c r i t e r i o n f e l t t h a t t h e c o n c e p t was an i n a t e p a t t e r n o f t h o u g h t w h i c h c o u l d not have been a v o i d e d . The i d e a o f p o c k e t s o f b l i g h t , upon w h i c h t h e boundary r a t i o n a l e was b a s e d , was i n i t s e l f a m i s c o n c e p t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o two o f t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d . A n o t h e r v i e w was t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e p h y s i c a l manu-f e s t a t i o n s o f b l i g h t m i g h t have been amenable t o t h e c r e a t i o n • 4 - 4 o f a boundary, t h e u n d e r l y i n g causes o f t h e c o n d i t i o n might n o t have been r e f l e c t e d i n t h e d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e r e n e w a l a r e a . Two o f t h e r e s p o n d a n t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r s a i d t h a t t h e co n c e p t was an a r b i t r a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s c r e a t e d r e n e w a l b o u n d a r i e s i n t h i s s p i r i t o f a c c o r d i n g w i t h b u r e a u c r a t i c f o r m a t t o g a i n t h e s e n i o r g o v e r n -ment f u n d i n g . The v i e w s e x p r e s s e d on t h e c r i t e r i o n of b l i g h t v a r i e d . I t was i d e n t i f i e d i n one case as a m i d d l e c l a s s c o n c e p t w h i c h 'was n o t r e l e v a n t t o t h e r e s i d e n t s o f a r e n e w a l a r e a . Accompy-i n g t h i s was a penchant f o r o r d e r l i n e s s i n terms o f l a n d use p a t t e r n s and d e f i n e d a r e a s f o r r e n e w a l . a c t i o n . The p r o v i n c i a l v i e w o f b l i g h t p a r a l l e l e d t h e d e f i n i t i o n by D a v i s i n C h a p t e r , One. B l i g h t e x i s t e d i n d e t e r i o r a t i n g a r e a s where t h e market p r o c e s s e s were n ot i n g e n d e r i n g r e d e v e l o p m e n t . .Four r e p l i e s d e s c r i b e d b l i g h t as a p h y s i c a l d e l a p i d a t i o n and worn o u t s t r u c t u r e s . The CMHC p l a n n e r r e g r e t t e d t h e use o f t h e term, i n t h a t i t had a s t r o n g p h y s i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n . I n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r s was f e l t t o be a b e t t e r c h o i c e o f ter m s , because i t conveyed a w i d e r spectrum o f i n d i c a t o r s and was more c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h t h e causes as opposed t o t h e e f f e c t s o f the problem. G e n e r a l o p i n i o n s on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g . The Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department p o i n t e d t o t h e l a c k o f d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f r e n e w a l w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d c o s t . s h a r a b l e by CMHC. A l s o , t h e . 4-5 absence o f a s t a t e m e n t o f r e n e w a l p r i o r i t i e s by t h e s e n i o r governments was c o n s i d e r e d a drawback t o t h e program. Two r e s p o n d a n t s r e g r e t t e d t h a t r e n e w a l had been n e g a t i v e l y o r i e n t e d , t h a t i s , t h e remov a l o f p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s , i n -s t e a d o f a p o s i t i v e approach t o f u t u r e changes w h i c h might have produced i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e program. I n summary, 87% of t h e o p i n i o n s i n d i c a t e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e boundary c o n c e p t o f r e n e w a l . Views on b l i g h t were mixed, w i t h r o u g h l y h a l f t h e r e s p o n d a n t s i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e term as a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l phenomenon. Three v i e w s o f b l i g h t r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e causes o f b l i g h t and i t s p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . 3. Downtown Renewal The c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t r e n e w a l q u e s t i o n e l i c i t e d f a i r l y c l e a r v i e w s f o r and a g a i n s t . Both members o f CMHC f e l t t h a t n o t enough t h o u g h t had been g i v e n t o t h e consequen-ces o f such u n d e r t a k i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e v e r y h i g h c o s t s t h a t t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e program would have i n c u r r e d . CMHC l a c k e d t h e economic s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t o judge and hence d i r e c t t h e s e p r o j e c t s . The CBD u n d e r t a k i n g s e x e m p l i f i e d t h e problems o f an a r e a v e r s u s a f u n c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h . The Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s u p p o r t e d t h e CMHC v i e w t h a t t h e program had n o t been t h o u g h t t h r o u g h i n terms o f what r e n e w a l was t o do i n t h e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s a r e a s . However, t h e y f e l t t h a t t h i s form o f r e n e w a l was l e g i t i m a t e w i t h r e -g a r d t o t h e g o a l o f a s s i s t i n g t h e economic h e a l t h o f t h e whole c i t y . Two o t h e r r e s p o n d a n t s h e l d s i m i l a r , v i e w s on t h e v a l i d i t y o f downtown r e n e w a l . One o p i n i o n was t h a t whereas t h e need was j u s t i f i a b l e , i t was n o t t h e u n d e r l y i n g i n t e n t i o n o f the l e g i s l a t i o n , b u t t h e n a t u r a l human p r o p e n s i t y t o g e t t h e most f o r one's money l e d t o i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t as th e m u n i c i p a l r e n e w a l p r i o r i t y . A s t r o n g d e t r a c t o r from t h i s v i e w p o i n t c o n s i d e r e d t h e s h i f t i n emphasis t o have been a m i s t a k e . S o c i a l c o n c e r n s , hence h o u s i n g , s h o u l d have remained t h e f i r s t p r i o r i t y o f t h e program w i t h c o m m e r c i a l development a s e c o n d a r y c o n c e r n . These l a t t e r two r e s p o n d a n t s a l s o a g r e e d t h a t CBD r e n e w a l encouraged monument b u i l d i n g o r t h e grand p l a n , w h i c h tended t o p u t p h y s i c a l d e s i g n b e f o r e economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . ' , None o f t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d f e l t t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y as a p p l i e d t o t h e CBD was adequate. CMHC r e s p o n d a n t s mentioned t h e c e n t r a l i z e d b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n as an impediment t o r e a c h i n g c o n c i s e and r a p i d p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . B o t h members o f t h e Vancouver P l a n n -i n g Department c i t e d t h e l a c k o f a s p e c i f i c s e t o f ground r u l e s f o r r e n e w a l p r o j e c t s . F i v e r e s p o n d a n t s f e l t t h a t the i n a d e q u a t e f o r e s i g h t i n t o t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f CBD r e n e w a l l e d t o an ad hoc a d m i n i s t r a t i v e approach t o t h e p r o j e c t s by t h e s e n i o r governments. I n g e n e r a l , a s i d e from whether c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t r e n e w a l was a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e v i e w s were t h a t t h e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s were n o t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y o r f i n a n c i a l l y e q u i p p e d t o h a n d l e t h e r e s u l t i n g p r o j e c t s . 4-7 4. Renewal i n S m a l l Communities Renewal i n v e s t m e n t i n s m a l l communities produced a d i v i s i o n o f o p i n i o n s w i t h f i v e r e s p o n d a n t s a g r e e i n g t h a t i t was a m i s a l l o c a t i o n o f funds and t h r e e s u p p o r t i n g t h e program. The f i v e , i n c l u d i n g t h e CMHC and p r o v i n c i a l r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s , a l l saw t h e s m a l l town p r o b l e m as n o t t h a t o f r e n e w a l b u t a g e n e r a l inadequacy o f m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c e s . I n s e e k i n g a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s jumped' t h r o u g h t h e r e n e w a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e hoops and emerged w i t h a warped s e t o f c i v i c p r i o r i t i e s . Three o f t h e r e p l y s (not a d h e r i n g t o t h e above mentioned 5/3 s p l i t ) s t r e s s e d the need t o v i e w t h e problem i n an o v e r a l l r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , , c o u p l e d w i t h some form o f g e n e r a l urban p o l i c y from t h e s e n i o r governments. I n as much as towns c o u l d have been con-s i d e r e d as p o t e n t i a l growth p o l e s i n a r e g i o n , p u b l i c i n v e s t -ment i n r e n e w a l would n o t have been a m i s a l l o c a t i o n o f f u n d s . One o f t h e s u p p o r t i n g v i e w s s i m p l y f e l t t h a t t h e p l a n n i n g w h i c h accompanied r e n e w a l i n s m a l l towns was, i n i t s e l f , enough t o j u s t i f y t h e p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e . Only one r e s p o n d a n t a c c e p t e d t h e program as i t p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t e d . The m a j o r i t y f e l t i t was t h e wrong economic t o o l f o r t h e problem and t h a t a r e g i o n a l economic o v e r v i e w was a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o making any judgements on t h e i n d i v i d u a l community l e v e l . 4-5. The Economic Terms o f R e f e r e n c e Views on t h e economic terms of r e f e r e n c e were equally-d i v i d e d , b u t t h e i n d i v i d u a l o p i n i o n s v a r i e d from t h e a n t i c -i p a t e d p a t t e r n . The p r o v i n c i a l members s t a t e d t h a t t h e economic p r e m i s e f o r development, h e l d by t h e s e n i o r g o v e r n -ments, had pr o v e n t o be f a l l a c i o u s . The a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a wr i t e - d o w n i n t h e p r i c e o f assembled and c l e a r e d s i t e s would i n i t s e l f have been an adequate development i n c e n t i v e was not borne o u t i n p r a c t i c e . The p h y s i c a l e x t e r n a l i t i e s o f t h e o v e r a l l a r e a and t h e r e a l e s t a t e market e x t e r n a l i t i e s , w h i c h had caused the a r e a t o become n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e , were t h e f e a t u r e s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i t e . The Vancouver a r e a s A-6 and D-4, as p r e v i o u s l y r e l a t e d , were g i v e n as examples t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s v i e w . The R e g i o n a l S u p e r v i s o r of CMHC s u p p o r t e d t h e s e o p i n i o n s i n say-i n g t h a t major b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s r e a c t e d t o economic i n -c e n t i v e s on t h e macro - s c a l e o f t h e r e a l e s t a t e market and t h a t t h e minor economic o f f e r i n g s o f r e n e w a l s i t e s had l i t t l e b e a r i n g on t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . However, h i s c o n c l u s i o n s as t o the need f o r t h e economic terms o f r e f e r e n c e d i f f e r e d . CMHC e x p e c t e d t o o much economic d e t a i l i n l i g h t o f t h e above b e l i e f . The l i m i t i n g f e a t u r e was t h e m u n i c i p a l budget and economic d e t a i l s s h o u l d have been l i m i t e d t o t h i s c r i t e r i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s i z e , hence v i a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t . Three r e p l i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e from t h e CMHC p l a n n e r , the Vancouver p l a n n i n g s t a f f member and one o f t h e c o n s u l t a n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e economic p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e program was h i g h l y i n a d e q u a t e . CMHC was f e l t t o have no u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e urban l a n d market, w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e economic terms o f r e f e r e n c e were of l i t t l e use t o t h e c o n s u l t a n t s . A l a c k o f economic s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n a l l t h e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s was c i t e d as a major problem. A n o t h e r s t a t e m e n t o f t h e same b e l i e f a t t r i b u t e d t h e problem t o t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e slum c l e a r a n c e m e n t a l i t y , t h a t i s , o p e r a t i n g a s o c i a l program w i t h o u t an adequate c o n c e p t i o n o f c o s t s . The Vancouver Deputy P l a n n i n g D i r e c t o r ' s v i e w o f r e n e w a l r e f l e c t e d t h i s l a s t c r i t i c i s m . The u n d e r l y i n g o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e program were seen as s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d . P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n was i n t h o s e a r e a s where t h e p r i v a t e market was n o t p r o d u c i n g t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s ; hence, as l o n g as t h e p r o p o s a l s were w i t h i n t h e re a l m s o f r e a s o n a b i l i t y , t h e economic, c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were n o t o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e . A f i n a l v i e w p o i n t , h e l d by one o f t h e c o n s u l t a n t s , p e r t a i n e d t o r e n e w a l i n t h e downtown a r e a s o f s m a l l commun-i t i e s . D e t a i l e d economic i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d u n n e c e s s a r y , i n t h a t , i n t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s , t h e judgement would be r e n d e r e d by t h e l o c a l m erchants. They were c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o judge t h e economic v i a b i l i t y o f t h e c o n s u l t a n t ' s p r o p o s a l t h a n t h e p l a n n i n g s t a f f s o f t h e s e n i o r governments. The o p i n i o n s o f t h e CMHC and t h e Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f r e n e w a l and p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t , were i n t r i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r assessments o f t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e g e n e r a l economic terms o f r e f e r e n c e , as o u t l i n e d above. The e x c e s s i v e c o n -sumption of t i m e i n o r g a n i z i n g a p u b l i c v e n t u r e l i k e r e n e w a l was c i t e d i n two i n t e r v i e w s as a d e t r i m e n t a l f e a t u r e a f f e c t -i n g p r i v a t e development, b o t h i n terms of t h e o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t o f c a p i t a l and l o s t r e a l e s t a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o v e r th e p e r i o d o f scheme p r e p a r a t i o n . One c o n s u l t a n t f e l t t h a t 50% o f t h e v a l u e o f r e n e w a l schemes was d e s t r o y e d by the t ime l a g s i n terms of l o s t r e a l e s t a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and w a i n i n g l o c a l p u b l i c s u p p o r t . A n o t h e r v i e w o f t h e t i m e l a g , e x p r e s s e d i n t h e Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, was t h a t r e m o v a l o f e x i s t -i n g s i t e u s e r s and d e m o l i t i o n s h o u l d n o t be u n d e r t a k e n u n t i l a p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t had agreed t o , r e d e v e l o p t h e s i t e . The v a c a n t l o t s s t a n d i n g i d l e i n t h e S t r a t h c o n a r e n e w a l a r e a were f e l t t o be a g r e a t e r s o c i a l l i a b i l i t y t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s b l i g h t e d h o u s i n g . Renewal s u f f e r e d from th e p l a c i n g o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o n c e r n s ahead o f economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s o u r c e and one o f t h e c o n s u l t a n t s . The CMHC p l a n n e r f e l t t h a t t h e p u b l i c r e n e w a l program, because o f i t s l a c k o f economic s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and p r o c e d u r a l d e l a y s , c r e a t e d a s t e r i l i z i n g e f f e c t upon t h e a r e a s i t t o u c h e d , i n t h a t p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s tended t o shy away from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p u b l i c a l l y s p o n s o r e d p r o j e c t s . He c i t e d t h e l a c k o f market c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n d e l i n i a t i n g t h e s i z e o f p a r c e l s o f f e r e d f o r s a l e by t h e r e n e w a l agency as one o f t h e e l e m e n t s i n v o l v e d . 6. S o c i a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s The r e h o u s i n g q u e s t i o n produced a sh a r p d i v i s i o n o f o p i n i o n . A t one extreme, two r e s p o n d a n t s i n c l u d i n g t h e R e g i o n a l S u p e r v i s o r i n CMHC, f e l t t h a t t h e p u b l i c r e n e w a l agency s h o u l d n o t be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h o s e p e o p l e d i s p l a c e d by r e n e w a l , o t h e r t h a n t o o f f e r them s l i g h t l y more t h a n market v a l u e f o r t h e i r p r o p e r t y . The p r i v a t e m arket, i n r e d e v e l o p i n g a r e a s , o p e r a t e d on t h i s b a s i s w i t h o u t c r e a t i n g mass h a r d s h i p o r c o n c o m i t a n t s o c i a l c o n c e r n . To e x p e c t a p u b l i c agency t o do a g r e a t d e a l more t h a n o f f e r a f a i r c a s h s e t t l e m e n t and an o p p o r t u n i t y t o move t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g would o n l y be d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e program. A t t h e o t h e r end of t h e o p i n i o n spectrum t h e Deputy D i r e c t o r o f P l a n n i n g f o r Vancouver f e l t s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e program s h o u l d o p e r a t e on a house f o r a house b a s i s f o r r e l o c a t i o n . T h i s v i e w was s u p p o r t e d by one c o n s u l t a n t who added t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f the. program, i n terms o f i t s a r e a r e s i d e n t o r i e n t a t i o n o r c i t y wide b e n e f i t o r i e n t a t i o n , had t o be c l e a r l y r e s o l v e d . Between t h e s e extremes were v i e w s t h a t r e n e w a l a r e a r e s i d e n t s had t o be o f f e r e d more r e h o u s i n g o p t i o n s t h a n p u b l i c h o u s i n g . The p r o b l e m was a l s o seen as n o t so much one o f r e l o c a t i o n as a g e n e r a l h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . F u r t h e r t o t h i s , t h e p r o v i n c i a l Deputy M i n i s t e r p o i n t e d t o t h e n a t u r e of t h e r e n e w a l program i t s e l f as a major f a c t o r i n t h e r e -l o c a t i o n i s s u e . The m a s s i v e d i s r u p t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l • • 4-12 n eighbourhoods c r e a t e d by t h e g e n e r a l a c q u i s i t i o n and c l e a r -ance p o l i c i e s o f r e n e w a l produced s o c i o l o g i c a l mayhem. Ar e a s s h o u l d have been renewed i n s m a l l p o r t i o n s o v e r a l o n g e r t ime p e r i o d t o p e r m i t r e s i d e n t s t o be more e a s i l y absorbed i n t o t h e h o u s i n g market. Renewal s h o u l d have a t t e m p t e d t o m i n i m i z e s o c i a l d i s l o c a t i o n b u t t h e c i t i e s , who d i r e c t e d t h e p r o j e c t s , were p r i m a r i l y m o t i v a t e d by t h e economic r e t u r n s o f l a n d r e d e v e l o p m e n t . I n terms o f f i n a n c i a l compensation f o r e x p r o p r i a t e d p r o p e r t y , one r e s p o n d a n t c i t e d t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n d e t e r m i n i n g a p r o p e r e x p r o p r i a t i o n s e t t l e m e n t , i n t h a t t h e r e n e w a l d e s i g n a t i o n on an a r e a a r t i f i c i a l l y d e p r e s s e d t h e r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s . A p a r t from t h e d i v e r g e n t v i e w s on t h e scope o f r e -l o c a t i o n , s i x r e s p o n d a n t s f e l t t h a t t h e program had e x h i b i t e d a v e r y low achievement l e v e l i n c o p i n g w i t h r e l o c a t i o n p r o b l e m s . C o n c e r n i n g t h e g e n e r a l s o c i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f r e n e w a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e r o l e o f t h e c i t i z e n i n t h e p r o c e s s , t h r e e r e s p o n d a n t s e x p r e s s e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t h o s t i l i t y and f e a r on t h e p a r t o f r e s i d e n t s c o u l d have been overcome i f an adequate i n f o r m a t i o n program accompanied r e n e w a l . I t was n e c e s s a r y t o a l t e r t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n o f r e n e w a l w i t h t h e b u l l d o z e r . One c o n s u l t a n t , s p e a k i n g s o l e l y i n terms o f s m a l l c o m m u n i t i e s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t town c o u n c i l s i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d t h e v i e w s o f t h e c i t i z e n e r y and t h e r e was no need f o r t h e p l a n n e r t o go beyond them w i t h 4-13 h i s p r o p o s a l s . The r e m a i n d e r of t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d d i d n o t e x p r e s s c o n c i s e o p i n i o n s on c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . They appeared t o have not f o r m a l i z e d ' v i e w s on where c i t i z e n o p i n i o n f i t t e d i n t o t h e r e n e w a l program. 7. The Renewal' Program I n a d e q u a c i e s An e f f o r t was made t o t a b u l a t e and r ank th e t h r e e most i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s , i n t h e v i e w s o f t h e r e s p o n d a n t s , w h i c h were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t h e r e n e w a l program. The v a l u e o f t h i s e x e r c i s e was r e s t r i c t e d by t h e i n a b i l i t y t o a s s e s s t h e r e l a t i v e w e i g h t s p l a c e d on each of the t h r e e i n d i c a t e d s h o r t -comings as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e was t h e r e f o r e l i m i t e d t o t h e number o f t i m e s a p r o blem was m entioned by t h e t o t a l number o f r e s p o n d e n t s : (3) The l a c k o f economic s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f t h e program -Respondants mentioned t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i z e and t h a t t h e p r o j e c t s were c o n c e i v e d by a r c h i t e c t s and e c o n o m i c a l l y r a t i f i e d by a c c o u n t a n t s . (3) The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u r e a u c r a c y , w i t h i t s p e d a n t i c methods and e x c e s s i v e t i m e l a g s was o v e r b e a r i n g . The c e n t r a l i z e d h i e r a r c h y w i t h i n CMHC was s p e c i f i c a l l y c i t e d i n two o f t h e answers. (3) The l a c k o f an o n g o i n g e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s -The low achievement l e v e l o f t h e program was blamed. on t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n i t i a l p r e m i s e s were n o t a s s e s s e d . a g a i n s t t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t s . (2) The l a c k o f assessment o f t h e consequences o f t h e program i n terms o f i t s t o t a l c o s t t o t h e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s — T h e f i n a n c i a l open-endedness o f t h e program m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t p u b l i c agency c o n t r o l . (2) The inadequacy o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e terms o f r e f e r e n c e , w h i c h were n e g a t i v e l y couched and a d m i n i s t e r e d by an agency whose pri m e c o n c e r n was mortgage l e n d i n g . (2) The l a c k o f communication among th e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n r e n e w a l . There was an i n a d e q u a t e exchange o f i d e a s and i n f o r m a t i o n on p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and hence a g e n e r a l l a c k o f m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . (2) The m a s s i v e s o c i a l d i s l o c a t i o n c r e a t e d by t h e b u l l d o z e r a p proach t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n , and c l e a r a n c e of l a r g e t r a c t s i n t h e r e n e w a l a r e a . (1) The program was p o o r l y a d m i n i s t e r e d due t o a l a c k o f c l a r i t y as t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f urban r e n e w a l . (1) The program l a c k e d g u i d a n c e i n t h e absence o f a com-p r e h e n s i v e n a t i o n a l u r b an p o l i c y i n Canada. (1) The s e n i o r government r e n e w a l a g e n c i e s showed a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and t h e i r s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s . (1) The l a c k o f a p o s i t i v e u r b an program on t h e p a r t of t h e . p r o v i n c i a l government. (1) The i n a d e q u a c y o f a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e r e h a b i l -a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n a s p e c t s o f r e n e w a l . (1) The use o f t h e program by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s as a cheap s o u r c e o f c i v i c f i n a n c i n g . 4-15 (1) The p r o j e c t s e n v i s a g e d were t o o l a r g e and hence t o o l o n g term t o be a d e q u a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s . I n a more g e n e r a l i z e d c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f o p i n i o n s , the f o l l o w -i n g p a t t e r n emerged. 25% economic i n a d e q u a c i e s 25% a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n a d e q u a c i e s 21% i n a d e q u a c y o f o b j e c t i v e s / l e g i s l a t i o n 13% i n a d e q u a c y o f e v a l u a t i o n 16% o t h e r . 8. Summary < I n summarizing t h e i n t e r v i e w s , i t appeared t h a t t h e y c o n s t i t u t e d s u p p o r t f o r t h e o v e r a l l p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. No q u e s t i o n e l i c i t e d a p l u r a l i t y o f o p i n -i o n s w h i c h were c o n t r a r y t o t h e ass u m p t i o n s made i n C h a p t e r s One and Three. The t h r e e most r e c u r r a n t . o p i n i o n s on t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e program were g i v e n s u b s t a n t i a l c o n s i d e r -a t i o n i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and produced s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s . The i n t e r v i e w s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d t h e d i v e r g e n t v i e w s on some o f t h e f a c i t s o f t h e r e n e w a l program. T h i s range o f o p i n i o n d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n and between t h e f o u r p r i n c i p l e groups i n v o l v e d i n r e n e w a l , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e l a c k o f commun-i c a t i o n among r e n e w a l a g e n c i e s ( c i t e d t w i c e i n q u e s t i o n seven) added t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a t r i p a r t i t e 4-16 p a r t n e r s h i p as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r Three. To some measure, t h i s was a p r o d u c t o f t h e l a c k o f p r e c i s i o n i n s e t t i n g f o r t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e program as d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r One. I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e e x e r c i s e was c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l as a r e f e r e n c e a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e major c o n t e n t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o u l d be compared. . 4-17 URBAN RENEWAL OPINION SURVEY 1. What d i d you c o n s i d e r t o be t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e 1964 urban r e n e w a l program? 2. R e g a r d i n g t h e p o l i c i e s used t o r e a l i z e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , what a r e your v i e w s on t h e c o n c e p t o f b l i g h t ? F u r t h e r , what a r e your v i e w s on t h e s t r i c t g e o g r a p h i c a l d e l i n e a -t i o n o f a r e a s e l i g i b l e f o r a s s i s t a n c e ? 3.. W i t h t h e 1964 amendments, t h e r e was a marked s h i f t i n r e n e w a l a c t i v i t y t o t h e c e n t r a l c o m m e r c i a l " a r e a s o f c i t i e s . Do you c o n s i d e r t h i s form o f r e n e w a l c o n s i s t a n t w i t h a) y our v i e w o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f U.R. b) t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s of CMHC? Do you f e e l t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s were i n a d e q u a t e f o r t h e t a s k ? 4. Jane J a c o b s , i n t h e Economy o f C i t i e s , i m p l i e s t h a t A m e r i c a n f e d e r a l i n v e s t m e n t i n urban programs i n s m a l l towns i s a m i s a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . Does t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w a p p l y i n Canada? Has t h e program warped c i v i c p r i o r i t i e s i n s m a l l communities? 5. Urban r e n e w a l i s b a s i c a l l y a r e a l e s t a t e and development economics game. Was adequate r e c o g n i t i o n g i v e n t o t h i s i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f urban r e n e w a l programs? How d i d you v i e w t h e economic terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r U.R. programs? What a r e your v i e w s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p u b l i c r e n e w a l programs and t h e p r i v a t e development i n t e r e s t s w h i c h become i n v o l v e d ? 6. How s u c c e s s f u l do you c o n s i d e r t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f U.R. a r e a r e s i d e n t s and c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o have been under t h e C a n a d i a n program s i n c e 1964? 7. Can you l i s t , i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e , t h o s e elements w h i c h were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t h e NHA urban r e n e w a l program? 5-1 C H A P T E R F I V E A. OVERALL VIEWS OF THE PROGRAM W i t h t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e program u n d e r t a k e n by CMHC i n 1968, c e r t a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s grew w i t h r e g a r d t o the c o n t r o l w h i c h t h e F e d e r a l government c o u l d e x e r c i s e t o d i r e c t i t . These f e e l i n g s were e x p r e s s e d by t h e Hon. R. An d r a s , t h e M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e program as mentioned i n C h a p t e r One. A major f e a t u r e o f t h i s was t h e open-ended-ness o f t h e F e d e r a l commitment to' the program. "The need f o r a more d e f i n i t i v e p o l i c y , a new and r e f i n e d a p p r o a c h , a r i s e s o u t o f many c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , n o t t h e l e a s t o f w h i c h a r e t h e r i g i d f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t s p r e s e n t l y imposed upon t h e F e d e r a l t r e a s u r y . I t i s j u s t n o t p o s s i b l e t o meet a l l t h e demands 87 made upon us . . . ." . The M i n i s t e r went on t o s a y , t h a t a new program " . . . must be d e v e l o p e d and c e r t a i n l y , as f a r as t h e F e d e r a l Government i s c o n c e r n e d c l e a r f i n a n c i a l c e i l i n g s 88 d e t e r m i n e d . " T h i s v i e w was r e i t e r a t e d a t t h e CMHC A r c h i t e c t / P l a n n e r s C o n f e r e n c e . The r e a s o n i n g f o r t h i s need was r e i n -R. A n d r a s , N a t i o n a l P r e s s C o n f e r e n c e T h e a t r e , bp. c i t . , p. 1. ^ I b i d . , p. 2 . 5-2 f o r c e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e CMHC R e g i o n a l S u p e r v i s o r , who commented t h a t , t h r o u g h h i s own c o m p u t a t i o n , he e n v i s a g e d r e n e w a l becoming a b i l l i o n d o l l a r F e d e r a l u n d e r t a k i n g i f the t r e n d s e v i d e n t i n 1967 and 1968 c o n t i n u e d f o r o n l y a few y e a r s l o n g e r . I n p a r t i c u l a r , he r e f e r r e d t o t h e l a r g e c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t schemes i n t h e major c i t i e s . S i n c e t h e i n i t i a t i o n and aims o f t h e s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t were m u n i c i p a l l y d e t e r m i n e d , t h e CMHC r o l e " . . . was more o f a a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 89 enmeshment t h a n a t r u e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . ." A f i n a l m i s g i v i n g about the. f i n a n c i a l open endedness o f t h e CMHC i n -v o l v e m e n t was e x p r e s s e d by John F o w l i e , a member o f t h e A d v i s o r y Group a t CMHC. . .' . . F e d e r a l Government has no c h o i c e b u t t o amend t h e urban r e n e w a l program, o r m o d i f y i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n some way. I n t h e absence o f any such change t h e p r o j e c t e d e x p e n d i t u r e s under t h e program, i n c l u d i n g t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n i m p l i e d though n o t f o r m a l i z e d commitments, w i l l i n c r e a s e r a p i d l y o v e r t h e n e x t few y e a r s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t much o f t h e p o t e n t i a l f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e Govern-ment's p o l i c y c o n c e r n i n g h o u s i n g and urban a f f a i r s , w i l l have been pre-empted. 90 The impact o f t h e F e d e r a l Governments' g e n e r a l budget-a r y c o n s t r a i n t s upon t h e r e n e w a l program f o s t e r e d what appeared t o have been a n o t h e r dominant p a t t e r n o f t h o u g h t . Views were e x p r e s s e d t h a t t h e program must be seen i n terms o f 89 Notes on an Urban Renewal P o l i c y , op. c i t . , p. 4. 90 J . F o w l i e , Urban Renewal, op. c i t . , p. 3. 5-3 some o v e r a l l g o v e r n m e n t a l p o l i c y an urban development. The " c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f f e d e r a l i n t e r e s t s i n l a n d ' had been t h e o n l y a s p e c t o f t h i s program i n w h i c h CMHC was i n v o l v e d . I t was d e s i g n e d s i m p l y t o e l i c i t f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s ' v i e w s on the f a t e o f l a n d s w h i c h f e d e r a l departments i n t e n d e d t o d i s p o s e o f . However, no e v i d e n c e was found o f any ongoing o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h a s s e s s e d t h e impact on urban development o f a l l t h e f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s w h i c h a c t e d i n t h i s s p h e r e , as f o r example, CMHC, Department o f P u b l i c Works, Department o f T r a n s p o r t , N a t i o n a l Harbours Board. Thus, i n 'Notes on an Urban Renewal P o l i c y ' , one o f t h e f o u r q u e s t i o n s posed was, "How does (renewal) . . . r e l a t e t o t h e o t h e r c o n c e r n s o f t h e f e d e r a l 91 government i n p l a n n i n g and urban a f f a i r s ? " I n d i s c u s s i n g th e f o r m a t o f r e n e w a l a t t h e A r c h i t e c t / P l a n n e r s C o n f e r e n c e , i t was s t a t e d t h a t . . . t h e program was n o t i n s t i t u t e d w i t h t h e b e n e f i t .o f a comprehensive o v e r v i e w o f t h e t o t a l r o l e o f t h e F e d e r a l Government i n t h e urban e n v i r o n m e n t . A new p o l i c y w i l l r e q u i r e t h i s as a p r e c o n d i t i o n . 92 The r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l approach t o urban a f f a i r s was p a r a l l e l e d by t h e growing awareness o f the i n a d e q u a c y o f t r a d i t i o n a l m u n i c i p a l b o u n d a r i e s f o r an urban terms o f r e f e r e n c e . T h i s o p i n i o n had been e x p r e s s e d by J . 91 Op. c i t . , p. 2. 92 M i n u t e s o f t h e A r c h i t e c t / P l a n n e r s C o n f e r e n c e , op. c i t . 5-4 R o t h e n b e r g , as quoted i n C h a p t e r T h r e e , and Hans Blumen-93 f e l d a d v o c a t e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l , government c o - o r d i n a t e i t s u r b a n a c t i v i t i e s on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . A s t r o n g a d v o c a t e of t h i s v i e w w i t h i n CMHC was John F o w l i e . The c o n c e p t and t h e b a s i c framework o f m u n i c i p a l government has remained unchanged from t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s c e n t u r y . A t t h a t t i m e t h e p r o c e s s o f urban growth c o u l d be r e a d i l y comprehended and s o c i a l a s p i r a t i o n s made o n l y modest demands upon l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . Today's r a t e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l change l i n k e d w i t h a c c e l e r -a t i n g a s p i r a t i o n s have made the p h y s i c a l , f i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m u n i c i p a l s t r u c t u r e s o b s o l e t e . Urban growth and problems have o u t - s t r i p p e d m u n i c i p a l boundar-i e s . The s o l u t i o n would appear t o be t o c r e a t e a new u r b a n j u r i s d i c t i o n i n v o l v i n g i n some c a s e s many m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s . T h i s new expanded a u t h o r i t y must have the w i l l , t h e a u t h o r i t y and t h e r e s o u r c e s , not o n l y t o d e t e r m i n e o v e r a l l urban development p o l i c i e s b u t t o e n s u r e t h e i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Such an a u t h o r i t y b o r n out o f t h e r e -sponse t o urban change must i n i t s e l f be c a p a b l e o f r e s p o n d i n g t o f u t u r e c h a n g e - - i t s a u t h o r i t y must i n c l u d e an a d a p t i v e mechanism. R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s new urban d i m e n s i o n — t h e urban r e g i o n and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e development a u t h o r i t y i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t i n f u t u r e u r b an development. I n 1967 t h e F e d e r a l Government had d e v e l o p e d , i n d r a f t form, major changes t o t h e N a t i o n a l Housing A c t w i t h t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f o f f e r i n g i n c e n t i v e a i d s t o p r o v i n c e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o u n d e r t a k e urban r e g i o n p l a n n i n g and e s t a b l i s h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e development a u t h o r i t i e s . These i n c e n t i v e s i n c l u d e d m a t c h i n g g r a n t s f o r t h e p r e p -a r a t i o n o f i n i t i a l urban r e g i o n p l a n s and 90% l o a n s f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d s f o r new c o m m u n i t i e s , t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s and major open space. The p r o p o s a l s were d i s c u s s e d and b r o a d l y agreed a t a s e r i e s o f m i n i s t e r -i a l and s t a f f c o n f e r e n c e s i n 1967-68. The p r o c e s s o f d i s c u s s i o n l e a d i n g t o a c c e p t a b l e F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n was t e r m i n a t e d w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e Task F o r c e on H ousing and Urban Development. The Task F o r c e R e p o r t , H. B l u m e n f e l d , The R o l e o f t h e F e d e r a l Government  i n Urban A f f a i r s , J o u r n a l o f L i b e r a l Thought, S p r i n g 1966, p. 44.. 5-5 while admitting the need for urban region planning,. was s i l e n t on the question of Federal p a r t i c i p a t i o n and on the areas of agreement reached at the Federal-Provincial conferences of a year' e a r l i e r . 94 The report of the Task Force on Housing and Urban Development Strongly c r i t i c i z e d the m u l t i p l i c i t y of municipal e n t i t i e s within the metropolitan areas but offered no det a i l e d 95 suggestions, c a l l i n g instead for p r o v i n c i a l i n i t i a t i v e . In i t s consideration of the urban renewal program i t s e l f , the Task Force offered the following opinions. The scale of demolition of housing units within renewal areas was decried. The suggested solution was a greater emphasis on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n urban renewal. However, a conspicous omission was a recommendation f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n grants to property owners. The Task Force c a l l e d for the creation and s t r i c t enforcement of minimum standards bylaws by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to force property owners to upgrade t h e i r buildings p r i m a r i l y at. t h e i r own expense. This was i n complete contradiction to the views 96 of CMHC on thxs matter. For i t s part, however, CMHC f a i l e d to c l e a r l y resolve the dicotomy between housing objectives and renewal objectives. To the extent that clearance and demolition i s involved, urban renewal accentuates the housing problem because i t destroys dwellings. When con-sidered then, i n r e l a t i o n to housing objectives, 94 J. Fowlie, bp. c i t . , pp. 5-6. 95 The Report of the Task Force on Housing and Urban Development, Queen's P r i n t e r , No. NH61-1/19 69, p. 63. 5-6 urban r e n e w a l has a k i n d o f a m b i v a l e n c e . . . . T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t d e m o l i t i o n s h o u l d be a v o i d e d a t a l l c o s t s , because d e m o l i t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o some degree even i n a r e a s where prime emphasis i s p l a c e d on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and p r o p e r t y improvement. I t i s o n l y t o say t h a t t h e r e i s some c o n f l i c t between h o u s i n g g o a l s and some a s p e c t s o f t h e urban r e n e w a l p r o c e s s . 97 I n terms o f g e n e r a l f i g u r e s , t h e r e l a t i v e amount o f d e m o l i t i o n i n r e n e w a l schemes had l e s s e n e d s i n c e t h e 1964 Amendments. The 49 schemes implemented had encompassed 2830 a c r e s , o f w h i c h 1780 a c r e s o r 63% had been c l e a r e d . P r i o r t o 1964, o f t h e 780 a c r e s . i n v o l v e d i n r e n e w a l , 660 a c r e s o r 86% underwent c l e a r -ance.. A f t e r 1964, 2050 a c r e s came under urban r e n e w a l and 1120 a c r e s o r 54% were c l e a r e d . These f i g u r e s f a i l t o p o i n t o u t an i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e . P r i j o r t o 1964, t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e acreage c l e a r e d was r e u s e d as p u b l i c h o u s i n g s i t e s , t h e r e b y m i n i m i z i n g t h e d e p l e t i o n o f t h e h o u s i n g s t o c k . T h i s was n o t t h e case a f t e r t h e 1964 amendments. The Task F o r c e went on t o d i s a p p r o v e o f t h e c o n c e p t o f d e s i g n a t i n g urban r e n e w a l a r e a s . They f e l t t h a t t h i s a c t i o n d e t e r r e d p r o p e r t y owners from m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r b u i l d i n g s and c o n t r i b u t e d t o the f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e a r e a . The f i n a l i s s u e r a i s e d r e g a r d i n g urban r e n e w a l was t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f CMHC and t h e r e s u l t i n g t i m e spans i n v o l v e d i n u n d e r t a k i n g a r e n e w a l p r o j e c t . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e d t h e e x t e n t o f t h e Task F o r c e e x a m i n a t i o n and recommendations on urban r e n e w a l . 96 The F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Program, An E v a l u a t i o n , op. c i t . , pp. 10-12. 97 I b i d . , p. 17. . 5-1. B. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS N e i t h e r Mr. H e l l y e r , nor h i s s u c c e s s o r , t h e Hon. R. s Andras p r e s e n t e d a c l e a r c a u s e - e f f e c t s t a t e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g the p r e c i s e r e a s o n s f o r h a l t i n g t h e urban r e n e w a l program. I n g e n e r a l , i t appeared t h a t r e n e w a l had been a c c o r d e d a l o w e r p r i o r i t y r e l a t i v e t o g e n e r a l h o u s i n g i s s u e s . T h i s was n o t t o say t h a t s o l e l y because r e n e w a l was c r e a t i n g r e d u c t i o n s i n t h e h o u s i n g s t o c k , i t was scrapped, i n t h e name o f h i g h e r p r i o r i t y . Had t h e program been o p e r a t i n g smoothly i n a l l o t h e r r e s p e c t s , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t i t would have been a b r u p t l y c u r t a i l e d . How-e v e r , i t has been t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n t h a t t h e program was n o t o p e r a t i n g i n <the manner i n w h i c h t h e f e d e r -a l government f e l t i t had been conceived.. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e urban renewal- program, as e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e 1964 amendments t o t h e N a t i o n a l Housing A c t , were found t o have been u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . The s c a l e o f t h e n a t i o n a l program was d i f f i c u l t f o r CMHC t o c o n t r o l . The d e c i s i o n t o embark upon r e n e w a l l a y w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and n o t t h e f e d e r a l government. A l s o , CMHC was n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o r e n d e r judgements on t h e i n -d i v i d u a l o b j e c t i v e s o f each p r o j e c t . S i n c e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e c r i t e r i a f o r b l i g h t l a y w i t h t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; t h i s b e i n g t h e prime j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e n e w a l ; as l o n g as th e proposed p r o j e c t met t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e o f a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e p o l i c y , CMHC was n o t a b l e t o argue s t r o n g l y over' t h e aims o f t h e u n d e r t a k i n g . T h i s s h o r t c o m i n g was f o r t i f i e d by the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i p l o m a c y r e q u i r e d by t h e f e d e r a l agency i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g a n a t i o n - w i d e program i n a f i e l d p r i m a r i l y r e s e r v e d f o r p o r v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . Thus i n f o u r y e a r s , t h e program grew i n t o a $300 m i l l i o n f e d e r a l commitment w h i c h CMHC was f i n d i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o d i r e c t towards f e d e r a l o b j e c t i v e s . The f a c t that., t h e o b j e c t i v e s t h e m s e l v e s l a c k e d c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n a g g r e v a t e d t h e s i t u a t i o n by f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on th e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s as an end i n t h e m s e l v e s and made th e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e program d i f f i c u l t . Urban Renewal, as i n t r o d u c e d i n 1964, appeared t o have been v i e w e d as t h e urban panacea i n t h e sense t h a t i t c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o a br o a d spectrum o f problems i n many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s a t t i t u d e was conveyed by t h e f e d e r a l government i n terms o f t h e br o a d o b j e c t i v e s , t h e program was o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d under a s i n g l e s e t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s t o be a p p l i e d i n a l l c a s e s . However, t h e range o f urban problems i n c u r r e d was n o t amenable t o a s i n g l e s o l u t i o n f o r m a t . The r e s u l t was i n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e program i n terms o f e x p e n d i t u r e s on u n n e c e s s a r y r e p o r t s , e x c e s s i v e t i m e l a g s and t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f b o t h t h e p r o j e c t i t s e l f and m u n i c i p a l p r i o r i t i e s t o adhere t o t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e o f th e c o s t s h a r i n g agreement. The economic terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r the program c o n t a i n e d i m p o r t a n t d e f i c i e n c i e s . There appeared t o have been . .5-9 an i n a b i l i t y t o c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h between s o c i a l v a l u e and economic v a l u e i n urban renewal.. The p r o j e c t s were o f t e n a r c h i t e c t u a l l y c o n c e i v e d and a f t e r w a r d s an a t t e m p t was made t o g r a f t c o s t f a c t o r s o n t o the p l a n . The t y p e of economic d a t a r e q u e s t e d i n t h e agreements was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o a s s e s s t h e economic v i a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t s and i n t h e c a s e o f s m a l l communities the d a t a was p r e s e n t e d i n t h e wrong p e r s p e c t i v e . I n a s e n s e , t h e f e d e r a l government m i s j u d g e d t h e economic needs o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I n some c a s e s , t h e program was embarked upon n o t because of a need f o r r e n e w a l b u t because o f t h e g e n e r a l f i n a n c i a l need o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o c a r r y , o u t i t s c i v i c h o u s e k e e p i n g f u n c t i o n s o r t o c r e a t e cheap l a n d f o r c i v i c p r o j e c t s . The g e n e r a l l a c k o f economic s o p h i s t i c a t i o n was a l s o . r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i n a d e q u a t e under-s t a n d i n g of t h e r e a l e s t a t e m a rket, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i n c e n t i v e o r d i s i n c e n t i v e f a c t o r s i n p r i v a t e development. A f i n a l economic m i s c a l c u l a t i o n i n v o l v e d t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e program t o c a t a l y s e any s u b s t a n t i a l degree o f p r i v a t e r e -h a b i l i t a t i o n i n t h e absence o f p u b l i c g r a n t s f o r t h i s under-t a k i n g . F i n a l l y , t h e r e were problems i n h e r e n t i n t h e a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n i t s e l f . An o v e r a l l s h o r t c o m i n g was t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon t h e p r o c e s s o f r e n e w a l to. t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t o f r e n e w a l . . The t r i p a r i t i t e p a r t n e r s h i p arrangement t r i p l e d t h e number of r e v i e w s and a p p r o v a l s r e q u i r e d t o make a d e c i s i o n . The t h r e e s e p a r a t e phases o f program p r e p a r a t i o n , i n v o l v i n g ... .5-10. the t h r e e s e p a r a t e c r e a t i o n s o f a p p l i c a t i o n s and a p p r o v a l s , added t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y i n e a ch p r o j e c t . The b u r e a u c r a t i c h i e r a r c h y i n C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n c r e a t e d a d u p l i c a t i o n o f r e v i e w s and a p p r o v a l s w i t h i n each d i v i s i o n . A l s o , t h i s p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n f i v e d i f f e r e n t d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e C o r p o r a t i o n . The r e s u l t o f t h e s e t h r e e major b u r e a u c r a t i c f e a t u r e s was an a v erage t i m e span of f o u r t o f i v e y e a r s t o move a p r o j e c t t o t h e p o i n t where p h y s i c a l a c t i o n c o u l d be commenced. A l s o , a g r e a t amount of t i m e and hence c o s t was d e v o t e d by p u b l i c agency employees t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s . I n terms o f i t s i m p a c t upon t h e m u n i c i p a l l y p r e c o n c e i v e d p r o j e c t s , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e accomplishment's were d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y . As a r e s u l t o f a l l t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s w i t h i n t h e u r b a n r e n e w a l program, a d e c i s i o n was r e a c h e d by t h e f e d e r a l government t o h a l t t h e program and a s s e s s i t s achievement. I n t h i s p r o c e s s , w h i c h s t a r t e d i n mid 1968 and has c o n t i n u e d t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , t h e o p i n i o n emerged t h a t a r e t u r n t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a s p e c t of r e n e w a l might be t h e d i r e c t i o n t o f o l l o w . T h i s f e e l i n g o f t h e o v e r r i d i n g p r i o r i t y o f h o u s i n g was e v i d e n t , as m e n t i o n e d , i n t h e Task F o r c e R e p o r t . A t t i -t u d e s w i t h i n CMHC p a r a l l e l e d t h i s p o s i t i o n . The r e a l j o b , o f c o u r s e , i s t o i n c r e a s e and r e -f u r b i s h t h e h o u s i n g a v a i l a b l e t o t h o s e now q u a r t e r e d i n b l i g h t e d a r e a s ; t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e maintenance o f t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s e accommodations e i t h e r by r e -s t o r i n g t h e p r i v a t e i n c e n t i v e t o m a i n t a i n q u a l i t y , o r by t a k i n g on t h e j o b p u b l i c a l l y . . . . 98 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r a f u t u r e p o l i c y , f o r m u l a t e d w i t h i n CMHC i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s . The extreme d i f f u s i o n o f c u r r e n t 'renewal' must be removed, and t h e programme g i v e n a more d e f i n a b l e p u r p o s e . T h i s w i l l p e r m i t measurable e v a l u a t i o n and r e s t o r e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r e c i s i o n . . . . Hence, urban r e n e w a l ( s h o u l d be) f o r a r e a s t h a t a r e predom-i n e n t l y r e s i d e n t a l , t h e aims b e i n g t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and improvement o f , and a d d i t i o n t o the. h o u s i n g shock. (There s h o u l d be) no more a c c e p t a n c e o f c e n -t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t schemes . . . . (What i s r e q u i r e d i s the) d i r e c t i o n o f t h e programme t o t h e c o n c e r n t h a t i s most u r g e n t and t o w h i c h i t most l e n d s i t s e l f — h o u s i n g . 99 . I n s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e c r i t e r i a o f a c c e p t a n c e o f ' r e n e w a l p r o p o s a l s by CMHC, i t was s t a t e d t h a t "the g r e a t e r t h e emphasis on t h e improvement o f h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s , t he more a c c e p t a b l e would be t h e s c h e m e . A f u r t h e r p r o -p o s a l was " t h a t t h e r e be no F e d e r a l urban r e n e w a l a i d i n th e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s a t a l l , o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y t h a t such c o s t - s h a r i n g r e l a t e o n l y t o r e s i d e n t i a l r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n undertakings."'^"'" There was a r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h i n CMHC t h a t t h e program had been over a m b i t i o u s i n t h e scope and s c a l e o f t h e u n d e r t a k i n g . 98 The F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Program; An E v a l u a t i o n , op. c i t . , p. 18. 9 9 Notes on an Urban Renewal P o l i c y , 'op', c i t . , p. 5. • ^ ^ J . F o w l i e , Urban Renewal, op. c i t . , p. 3. 101 T, . , , . I b i d . , p. 4. ,5-12. The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l and o p i n i o n s a v a i l -a b l e on urban r e n e w a l i n Canada, as c i t e d i n t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n , appears t o have s u p p o r t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s . The h y p o t h e s i s i s t h e r e f o r e p r e s e n t e d as v a l i d , w i t h i n t h e spectrum o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . C. SUGGESTIONS FOR A FUTURE POLICY The f e d e r a l government would appear t o have two major o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e ; r e d u c e t h e scope o f t h e program o r expand i t . I n e i t h e r c a s e , a p r e r e q u i s i t e s h o u l d be t h e c r e a t i o n o f some form of o v e r a l l . n a t i o n a l urban p o l i c y . . T h i s would en-t a i l t h e c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f n a t i o n a l u r b an development o b j e c -t i v e s i n terms o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o r d i s p e r s i o n o f urban economic a c t i v i t y i n t h e c o u n t r y . An assessment o f the f i n a n c i a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e f e d e r a l government would f o l l o w . H aving e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r i t i e s and f u n d i n g a v a i l a b l e , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l implemen-t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s and a g e n c i e s would be r e q u i r e d . That i s , t h e r o l e o f a l l f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s w h i c h a f f e c t urban d e v e l o p -ment s h o u l d be r e v i e w e d i n t h e l i g h t o f an o v e r a l l s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l programs w o u l d be e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . On t h i s b a s i s , t h e a g e n c i e s ' terms o f r e f e r e n c e s h o u l d be expanded, r e d u c e d , d e l e a t e d o r new a g e n c i e s c r e a t e d . F o r example, i n h e r e n t i n 5-13 t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e r e c e n t l y c r e a t e d Department o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n i s t h e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e o f economic d i s p e r s i o n . One o f t h e programs w i l l i n v o l v e 50% f e d e r a l f u n d i n g f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l development p l a n s i n t h e s m a l l e r urban c e n t e r s . Thus, t h e CMHC f u n d i n g o f r e n e w a l s t u d i e s (whose v a l u e was p r i m a r i l y l i m i t e d t o th e g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e d ) would be a d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t s i n t h i s f i e l d and t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e program s h o u l d be d i s c o n t i n u e d . . •. ~ Upon t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n and n a t i o n a l p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n , r e g i o n a l programs s h o u l d be c r e a t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e s t o c o - o r d i n a t e a l l t h e a s p e c t s o f p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h a t r e g i o n . Urban r e n e w a l as an i n s t r u m e n t and CMHC as an agency s h o u l d be vi e w e d as a c o n s t i t u a n t p a r t of t h i s n a t i o n a l f o r m a t . Only when t h i s i s done, can u s e f u l p o l i c y s u g g e s t i o n s be made. I t might be d e t e r m i n e d , f o r example, t h a t CMHC i s t h e i n a p p r o p r i a t e agency t o a d m i n i s t e r u r b a n r e n e w a l o r t h a t f e d e r a l l y s p o n s o r e d urban r e n e w a l i t s e l f i s an i n a p p r o p r i a t e program w i t h i n t h e n a t i o n a l development o b j e c t i v e s and s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d w i t h some form o f g e n e r a l m u n i c i p a l f u n d i n g . On t h i s b a s i s , i t i s f e l t t h a t s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s t o a l t e r t h e e x i s t i n g r e n e w a l program would be out o f c o n t e x t . 0-1 B I B L I O G R A P H Y BOOKS Anderson M. The F e d e r a l B u l l d o z e r . The MIT P r e s s , Cambridge, Mass, 1964. C o l l i e r , R., C r o s s K. The Urban Renewal P r o c e s s i n Canada: An A n a l y s i s of. C u r r e n t P r a c t i c e , Community and  R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g S t u d i e s . S t a f f R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t 3, U.B.C. , 1967 . Gans, H. The F a i l u r e of Urban Renewal: A C r i t i q u e and Some P r o p o s a l s . Urban Renewal? P e o p l e , P o l i t i c s and  P l a n n i n g , J 7 B e l l u s h and M. Hausknecht ( e d s . ) , Doubleday and Company, Garden C i t y , N.Y., 1967. G r e e r , S. Urban Renewal and Am e r i c a n C i t i e s . C e n t r e f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n S t u d i e s , N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y , The B o b b s - M e r r i l l Co. I n c . (New Y o r k , 1965). P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s , P l a n n i n g f o r S m a l l e r Towns. Manton (Westminster) L t d . , (London, 1968) . ~~ Ro t h e n b e r g , J . Economic E v a l u a t i o n o f . U r b a n Renewal S t u d i e s : i n Government F i n a n c e . The B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n (Washington, 1967) . T o r o n t o , M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o P l a n n i n g B o a r d . Urban Renewal  Study . The R o l e o f P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e i n Urban Renewal, T o r o n t o , 1966. ARTICLES B l u m e n f e l d , H. The R o l e o f t h e F e d e r a l Government i n Urban A f f a i r s , J o u r n a l o f L i b e r a l Thought. S p r i n g 1966, pp. 35-44. Brown, T. A B e t t e r P l a c e t o L i v e , O n t a r i o H o u s i n g , December, 1963, p. 8. C a r v e r , H. Community Renewal Programming, H a b i t a t . CMHC, Ottawa, V o l . 8, No. 3. 0-2 D a v i s , O., W h i n s t o n , A. The Economics o f Urban Renewal, Law and Contemporary P r o b l e m s . Volume 26, W i n t e r , 1961. G i l b e r t s o n , F. Urban Renewal; The B i g D r i v e t o R e j u v e n a t e C a n a d i a n C i t i e s , ' C a n a d i a n , B u s i n e s s . V o l . 37, No. 10, p. 89. H a m i l t o n , L. The R o l e o f t h e E n t r e p r e n e u r i n Urban Renewal, RAIC J o u r n a l . V o l . 43, No. 6, June, 1966, p. 53. K e l l o u g h , W., Be a t o n , W. Problems o f Urban Renewal and Ho u s i n g , C ommun 1 t y P l a n n i n g : Re v i e w . V o l . 17, • W i n t e r , 1967, p. 24. P i c k e t t , S . Beyond Redevelopment - What?, O n t a r i o H o u s i n g . June, 1962. . C a n a d i a n E x p e r i e n c e i n Urban Renewal, A.S.P.0. P l a n n i n g , 1965. A.S.P.0., C h i c a g o , 1965, p. 139. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS CMHC. Urban Renewal and P u b l i c H o u s i n g , CMHC (Ottawa) 1964-1968. CMHC. Ca n a d i a n Housing S t a t i s t i c s , Economics and S t a t i s t i c s D i v i s i o n , CMHC (Ottawa) 1964-1968. CMHC. Urban Renewal Handbook (CMHC, O t t a w a ) , NHA 5 032. Government o f Canada. N a t i o n a l Housing A c t , 1954. The Queens P r i n t e r (Ottawa, 1967) No. YX79-1953/4-23-1966/67. Government o f Canada. R e p o r t o f t h e F e d e r a l Task F o r c e on Housing and Urban Development. The Queen's P r i n t e r (Ottawa, 1969) No. NH61-1.1969. O n t a r i o , Dept. o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . Urban Renewal i n O n t a r i o , T o r o n t o , 1964. T o r o n t o , Bureau o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . A P o s i t i v e A p p roach t o Urban Renewal C i v i c A f f a i r s . T o r o n t o (March, 1962) . 0-3 ADDRESSES AND PROCEEDINGS A n d r a s , R. Remarks by t h e Hon. R. Andras ( F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Housing) a t P r o p e r t y Forum 69, K i n g Edward H o t e l , T o r o n t o , September 25, 1969. . Remarks by t h e Hon. R. Andras ( F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r . r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Housing) a t The N a t i o n a l P r e s s C o n f e r e n c e T h e a t r e , Ottawa, August 14, 1969. C u l l e r s , S. New O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Urban Renewal, A d d r e s s t o th e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f Housing and Re d e v e l o p -ment, T o r o n t o , May,1965. G o f f r e y , M. P r o p e r t y Taxes and the Frequency o f Urban Re-new a l , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e 57 t h N a t i o n a l Tax C o n f e r e n c e P i t t s b u r g , September, 1964. H i g n e t t , H. Urban Renewal - P r o g r e s s and P r o s p e c t s , A d d r e s s t o t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o f O n t a r i o Land E c o n o m i s t s , T o r o n t o , 1966. N i c h o l s o n , J . R e s o l u t i o n I n t r o d u c i n g B i l l C- 102 t o Amend the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t . House o f Commons, Ottawa, May, 19 64. UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL CMHC. Urban Renewal - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , CMHC Assessment and Recommendations (June, 1969). CMHC. S t a f f D i r e c t i v e s . CMHC. Notes on an Urban Renewal P o l i c y (May, 1969). CMHC. Urban Renewal. J . F o w l i e ( J u l y , 1969). CMHC. The F e d e r a l Urban Renewal Program - An E v a l u a t i o n (November, 19 68) . CMHC. Notes on Urban Renewal i n S m a l l Communities, E. H a l f h i d e ( J u l y , 1968). CMHC. M i n u t e s o f t h e A r c h i t e c t / P l a n n e r s ' C o n f e r e n c e Ottawa (November, 19 6 9 ) . 0-4 C o l l i e r , R. Urban Renewal R e l o c a t i o n • P o l i c y . S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C., 1969. S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o . Urban Renewal P o l i c i e s and P r o c e d u r e s , ( A p r i l , 1969). V a n c o u v e r , P l a n n i n g Department. A - s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e F i v e Year P l a n Committee, J u l y , 1969. Ba r u a , A. An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f C o s t - B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s as a T o o l i n t h e E v a l u a t i o n o f Urban P l a n s . U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r s T h e s i s , S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C., 1968. Bunge, J . Urban Renewal i n Canada, U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r s T h e s i s , S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C., 1967. Mann, R, The R o l e o f t h e Time Element i n t h e Urban Renewal P r o c e s s , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r s T h e s i s , S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U.B.C., 1968. APPENDIX ONE THIS AGREEMENT, made t h i s day o f , 19 67 B E T W E E N : CENTRAL MORTGAGE AND HOUSING CORPORATION ( h e r e i n a f t e r c a l l e d "the c o r p o r a t i o n " ) OF THE FIRST PART: - and -( h e r e i n a f t e r c a l l e d "the M u n i c i p a l i t y " . . OF THE SECOND PART: WHEREAS t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y has c a r r i e d o u t s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e need f o r urban r e n e w a l i n t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y , has i d e n -t i f i e d an a r e a r e q u i r i n g urban r e n e w a l and i n t e n d s t o u n d e r t a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y p l a n n i n g , economic, s o c i a l and e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d i e s t o p r e p a r e an urban r e n e w a l scheme w i t h i n t h e a r e a , c o n t a i n i n g some a c r e s i n t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y bounded g e n e r a l l y by ( h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as "the a r e a " ) ; AND WHEREAS th e P r o v i n c e o f has approved the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e u r b an r e n e w a l scheme by t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y : AND WHEREAS th e Governor i n C o u n c i l has approved by O r d e r -i n - C o u n c i l P.C. d a t e d t h e day o f , 1 9 6 7 0-6 e n t r y i n t o an agreement between t h e C o r p o r a t i o n and t h e M u n i c i -p a l i t y p u r s u a n t t o S e c t i o n 23A o f t h e N a t i o n a l Housing A c t , 1954, ( h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as "the A c t " ) p r o v i d i n g f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n o f o n e - h a l f t h e c o s t o f the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e urban r e n e w a l scheme; NOW THEREFORE THIS AGREEMENT WITNESSETH t h a t t h e p a r t i e s h e r e t o m u t u a l l y agree as f o l l o w s : 1. The M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l cause t o be p r e p a r e d f o r t h e a r e a i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n d a t e d t h e f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s under t h e A c t , an urban r e n e w a l scheme i n t h e form o f p l a n s s u p p o r t e d by a w r i t t e n r e p o r t ( h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as t h e "scheme" and s h a l l i n c l u d e , as a p p l i c a b l e : (1) t h e p r e c i s e boundary o f t h e a r e a and t h e r e a s o n f o r i t s s e l e c t i o n ; (2) t h e pr o p o s e d l a n d uses and s t r e e t p a t t e r n s f o r t h e a r e a ; (3) t h e d e t a i l s o f l a n d s and b u i l d i n g s , t o be a c q u i r e d , c l e a r e d and/or d i s p o s e d o f , f o r p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e r e - u s e ; (4) t h e d e t a i l s o f works, s e r v i c e s and u t i l i t i e s t o be abandoned, improved o r c o n s t r u c t e d ; (5) a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o b a b l e e f f e c t s o f the implemen-t a t i o n o f t h e scheme on home-owners, t e n a n t s and b u s i n e s s e s i n t h e a r e a , i n c l u d i n g s p e c i f i c p r o p o s a l s f o r r e - h o u s i n g and r e l o c a t i o n ; (6) p r o p o s a l s f o r c o - o r d i n a t i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s o c i a l and w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e scheme; 0-7 (7) p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o r improvement o f commun-i t y f a c i l i t i e s such as s c h o o l s , p a r k s , p l a y g r o u n d s , commun i t y b u i l d i n g s and o t h e r p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s ; (8) a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e methods proposed t o be used f o r t h e improvement, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o r redevelopment o f p r i v a t e l y -owned r e s i d e n t i a l c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l and i n s t i t u -t i o n a l development i n t h e a r e a ; (9) p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t a f f , i n c l u d i n g p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e scheme; (10) m u n i c i p a l p r o p o s a l f o r z o n i n g , b u i l d i n g c o n t r o l s and s t a n d a r d s o f occupancy and maintenance; (11) . t h e proposed p h a s i n g and t i m i n g o f r e n e w a l a c t i o n ; (12) t h e e s t i m a t e d c o s t s and r e c o v e r i e s i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e scheme; • • •' (13) e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e scheme w i l l be i n ac c o r d a n c e o r i n harmony w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l community p l a n , i n c l u d i n g t h e comprehensive development and r e n e w a l o b j e c t i v e s and p r i o r i t i e s f o r t h e community . 2. The p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e scheme s h a l l be c a r r i e d o u t i n two s t e p s as f o l l o w s : (1) t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f g e n e r a l p r o p o s a l s a r i s i n g from a ge n e r a s u r v e y and a n a l y s i s o f t h e o v e r a l l . , f o l l o w e d by (2) t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l s a r i s i n g from a d e t a i l e d s u r v e y and a r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e a n a l y s i s f o r 0-8 t h o s e p a r t s o f t h e o v e r a l l a r e a c a p a b l e o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e y e a r s from t h e d a t e o f a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e scheme by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n . 3. The M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l i n a manner s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n conform g e n e r a l l y , where a p p l i c a b l e , w i t h t h e r e q u i r e -ments o f t h e scheme s e t f o r t h i n c l a u s e 1, p r o v i d e d , however t h a t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h o s e p a r t s o f the o v e r a l l a r e a c a p a b l e o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e y e a r s from t h e d a t e o f a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e scheme by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n , t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l conform w i t h t h e s a i d r e q u i r e m e n t i n such d e t a i l as 'may be s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n . 4. The b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e a r e a s h a l l n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t o be r i g i d and may, w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e C o r p o r a t i o n , be r e v i s e d i f a f t e r a more c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s a . r e v i s i o n o f t h e b o u n d a r i e s i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be n e c e s s a r y o r d e s i r a b l e . 5. The p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e scheme s h a l l be under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e m u n i c i p a l p l a n n e r o r t h e m u n i c i p a l t e c h n i c a l . o f f i c e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the work i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e scheme, augmented where n e c e s s a r y by t h e a d v i c e o f c o n s u l t a n t s engaged by t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y . 6 . The C o r p o r a t i o n s h a l l pay t o t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o n e - h a l f o f t h e a c t u a l t o t a l c o s t o f c a r r y i n g o u t t h e work d e s c r i b e d i n c l a u s e 2 , p r o v i d e d t h a t any e x p e n d i t u r e w h i c h would have t h e e f f e c t o f making t h e t o t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n exceed s h a l l be s u b m i t t e d t o and approved by the C o r p o r a t i o n p r i o r t o b e i n g i n c u r r e d . The C o r p o r a t i o n s h a l l pay i t s s h a r e o f t h e a c t u a l t o t a l c o s t as a f o r e s a i d by making p e r i o d i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y upon r e c e i p t o f s t a t e m e n t s o f a c c o u n t s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c l a u s e 8. 7. The M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l s ubmit t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n , i m m e d i a t e l y upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l p r o p o s a l s r e f e r r e d t o i n p a r a -g r a p h (1) o f c l a u s e 2, an e s t i m a t e o f t h e c o s t o f p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l s r e f e r r e d t o i n p a r a g r a p h (2) o f c l a u s e 2. , 8. The M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e pay a l l i t e m s f o r m i n g p a r t o f t h e t o t a l c o s t o f c a r r y i n g o u t t h e work d e s -c r i b e d h e r e i n and s h a l l , a t i n t e r v a l s o f n o t more t h a n t h r e e months from t h e d a t e h e r e o f , p r e p a r e and submit t o t h e C o r p o r -a t i o n a s t a t e m e n t o f a c c o u n t i n a form s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n and s u p p o r t e d by such books, r e c o r d s o r o t h e r d a t a as t h e C o r p o r a t i o n may r e q u i r e , showing a l l amounts so expended by t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y . 9. The M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l keep p r o p e r and d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s o f a l l c o s t s i n c u r r e d and s h a l l r e t a i n and p r e s e r v e a l l r e c e i p t s , v o u c h e r s , a c c o u n t s , r e c o r d s and o t h e r documents f o r a p e r i o d o f 7 y e a r s f o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l r e p o r t s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s agreement and s h a l l a t a l l r e a s o n a b l e t i m e s p e r m i t i n s p e c t i o n 0-10 and a u d i t o f a l l such r e c o r d s and documents by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n . 10. The M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l submit p e r i o d i c a l l y t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n a t t h e C o r p o r a t i o n ' s r e q u e s t , t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y ' s w r i t t e n r e p o r t o f t h e p r o g r e s s made i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e scheme. 11. There s h a l l be c o n s t i t u t e d a C o - o r d i n a t i o n Committee made up of t h r e e p e r s o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y t h e C o r p o r a t i o n , t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y and t h e P r o v i n c e , w h i c h s h a l l meet a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s and a t l e a s t monthly t o r e v i e w t h e p r o g r e s s made i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e scheme. 12. The C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee may a p p o i n t one o r more t e c h n i c a l sub-committees t o a s s i s t i t i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y . 13. E x c e p t f o r such s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n as t h e p a r t i e s h e r e t o a gree i s o f a c o n f i d e n t i a l n a t u r e , t h e • C o r p o r a t i o n may, i n i t s a b s o l u t e d i s c r e t i o n , p r i n t , p u b l i s h , o r o t h e r w i s e r e p r o d u c e i n whole o r i n p a r t , any r e p o r t p r e p a r e d p u r s u a n t t p t h i s agreement, o r d i s t r i b u t e any s a i d r e p o r t t o any p e r s o n , p e r s o n s , c o r p o r a t i o n , f i r m o r a s s o c i a t i o n , o r o t h e r w i s e use any s a i d r e p o r t i n any manner i n w h i c h t h e C o r p o r a t i o n may i n i t s a b s o l u t e d i s c r e t i o n d e t e r m i n e . The M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l r e t a i n o w n e r s hip and p o s s e s s -i o n o f a l l s u p p o r t i n g d a t a i n c l u d i n g , w i t h o u t l i m i t a t i o n , s u r v e y s and a n a l y s i s used i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f any s a i d r e p o r t p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y s h a l l a t a l l r e a s o n a b l e t i m e s p e r m i t p e r u s a l o f s a i d d a t a by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n and p e r m i t any r e p r o d u c t i o n o r o t h e r use t h e r e o f by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n as t h e C o r p o r a t i o n may i n i t s a b s o l u t e d i s c r e t i o n d e t e r m i n e . 0-11 14. The M u n i c i p a l i t y u n d e r t a k e s t o complete t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e work r e f e r r e d t o i n c l a u s e 2'hereof by 15. I t i s e x p r e s s l y u n d e r s t o o d and agreed between t h e C o r p o r a t i o n - and t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y t h a t any c o n t r i b u t i o n by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e scheme s h a l l be c o n d i t i o n a l upon (1) a p p r o v a l o f t h e scheme by t h e P r o v i n c e and a c c e p t a n c e t h e r e o f by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n ; (2) e n t r y i n t o an agreement w i t h t h e C o r p o r a t i o n p u r s u a n t t o s e c t i o n 23B o f t h e A c t c o n t a i n i n g such terms and c o n d i t i o n s as may be s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n and t h e M u n i c i -p a l i t y and (3) w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h o s e p a r t s o f t h e o v e r a l l a r e a n o t c a p a b l e o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e y e a r s as a f o r e -s a i d , t h e s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n from time t o t i m e o f d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l s a r i s i n g from a d e t a i l e d s u r v e y and a n a l y s i s f o r t h o s e p a r t s o f t h e o v e r a l l a r e a f o r w h i c h f u r t h e r r e n e w a l a c t i o n i s proposed and, f o l l o w i n g a p p r o v a l o f t h e d e t a i l e d p r o p o s a l s by t h e P r o v i n c e and a c c e p t a n c e t h e r e o f by t h e C o r p o r a t i o n , e n t r y i n t o an agreement w i t h t h e C o r p o r a t i o n as r e f e r r e d t o i n p a r a g r a p h (2) o f t h i s c l a u s e . IN WITNESS WHEREOF t h e p a r t i e s h e r e t o have h e r e u n t o a f f i x e d t h e i r c o r p o r a t e s e a l s as w i t n e s s t h e hands o f t h e i r p r o p e r o f f i c e r s i n t h a t b e h a l f . 0-12 CENTRAL MORTGAGE AND HOUSING CORPORATION F o r P r e s i d e n t F o r E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r 0-13,. A P P E N D I X T W O / PROVINCIAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO SECTION 33(1) (h) URBAN RENEWAL' STUDIES, SECTION 2 3A URBAN RENEWAL SCHEME PREPARATION AND SECTION 2 3B URBAN RENEWAL IMPLEMENTATION URBAN RENEWAL STUDIES S e c t i o n 33 (1) (h) PREPARATION OF URBAN RENEWAL SCHEMES - S e c t i o n 2 3A IMPLEMENTATION OF URBAN RENEWAL SCHEMES S e c t i o n 23B NEWFOUNDLAND . P r o v i n c e may p r o v i d e a l l o r p a r t o f m u n i c i p a l , s h a r e P r o v i n c e has p r o v i d e d m u n i c i p a l 50% share i n u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a s o r where P r o v i n c e has assumed f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l s o f m u n i c i p a l i t y Not e s t a b l i s h e d PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND Not e s t a b l i s h e d Not e s t a b l i s h e d Not e s t a b l i s h e d NOVA SCOTIA P r o v i n c e has p r o v i d e d 12 1/2% P r o v i n c e has p r o v i d e d 25% 15% f o r Dartmouth ( l i k e l y w i l l be p o l i c y f o r f u t u r e p r o j e c t s ) NEW BRUNSWICK P r o v i n c e has p r o v i d e d 12 1/2% P r o v i n c e p r o v i d e s 12 1/2% P r o v i n c e p r o v i d e s 12 1/2% QUEBEC No p r o v i n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e Not e s t a b l i s h e d Not e s t a b l i s h e d . ONTARIO ( f i r m p o l i c y ) No p r o v i n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e P r o v i n c e p r o v i d e s 25% P r o v i n c e p r o v i d e s 25% ' o URBAN RENEWAL STUDIES S e c t i o n 33 (1) (h)' PREPARATION OF URBAN RENEWAL SCHEMES - S e c t i o n 2 3A IMPLEMENTATION OF URBAN RENEWAL SCHEMES S e c t i o n 23B MANITOBA P r o v i n c e may p r o v i d e a l l o r p a r t of m u n i c i p a l share (Up t o 25% o r s e t amount, e.g. Brandon) P r o v i n c e may p r o v i d e n o t more tha n 25% P r o v i n c e may p r o v i d e n o t more th a n 25% SASKATCHEWAN P r o v i n c e may p r o v i d e a l l o r p a r t o f m u n i c i p a l s h a r e . G e n e r a l l y P r o v -i n c e has p r o v i d e d f u l l 25% C o n t r i b u t e d 25% f o r N o r t h B a t t l e f o r d I n a p p r o v i n g t h e f i r s t p r o j e c t r e c e n t l y t h e P r o v i n c e has i n d i c a t e d i t would p r o v i d e 25% o f c o s t s s u b j e c t t o a c e i l i n g . b a s e d on e s t i m a t e d c o s t ALBERTA E s t a b l i s h e d by L e g i s l a t i o n No P r o v i n c i a l a s s i s -t a n c e P r o v i n c e may p r o v i d e up t o 30% o f c o s t s P r o v i n c e may p r o v i d e • up t o 30% o f c o s t s BRITISH COLUMBIA No P r o v i n c i a l a s s i s -t a n c e P r o v i n c e may p r o v i d e up t o 25% r e t r o a c t i v e l y i f scheme i s implemented P r o v i n c e p r o v i d e s 25% o I 

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