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Rate of acquisition of three study methods Sweet, Robert Arthur 1971

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RATE OF ACQUISITION OF THREE STUDY METHODS by ROBERT ARTHUR SWEET B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Reading E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 19,7„1 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or publ i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of READING EDUCATION The University of B r i t i s h Columbia-Vancouver 8 , Canada e NOVEMBER 12, 1971 ABSTRACT The r e l a t i v e r a t e s of a c q u i s i t i o n of t h r e e study methods taught c o l l e g e - l e v e l s t u d e n t s were i n v e s t i g a t e d . The term " r a t e of a c q u i -s i t i o n " was d e f i n e d as the ease w i t h which f a c i l i t y was a c h i e v e d by s t u d e n t s i n the use of study methods. The study methods were: Survey, Q u e s t i o n , Read, R e c i t e , Review (SQ3R), N o n - l i n e a r O u t l i n i n g (NLO) and T h r e e - L e v e l O u t l i n i n g ( 3 L 0 ) . The p r i m a r y r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d were whether the r e l a t i v e r a t e s of a c q u i s i t i o n among the s t u d y methods would be the same a t two d i f f e r e n t times d u r i n g the s t u d y , and a f t e r the p e r i o d of i n s t r u c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the q u e s t i o n was asked i f the r e l a t i v e r a t e s of a c q u i s i t i o n among the s t u d y methods would depend upon the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l which was drawn from a commercial r e a d i n g and study manual ( M i l l e r , 1964) The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i n v o l v e d m a n i p u l a t i n g t h r e e independent v a r i a b l e s : (1) the Treatments of SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0; (2) the D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l as d e t e r m i n e d by the F l e s c h (1951) r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a and d e s i g n a t e d EASY, MEDIUM, DIFFICULT; (3) the Time o f assessment o v e r the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n which had two l e v e l s , Time 1 and Time 2. The c r i t e r i o n measure f o r each r e a d i n g e x e r c i s e was a r a t e -o f - g a i n s c o r e termed an E f f e c t i v e Reading Rate (ERR) which was the p r o d u c t of the s t u d e n t ' s comprehension s c o r e and h i s s t u d y r e a d i n g time f o r any g i v e n a r t i c l e . The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e d t h a t no one study method appeared to be advantageous i n terms o f i t s r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n over the p e r i o d o f the s t u d y . The NLO method d i d show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR by the seventh week o f i n s t r u c t i o n . An a n a l y s i s o f the data r e v e a l e d t h a t the v a r i a b i l i t y o f t h i s f i n d i n g was due to performance by s t u d e n t s taught NLO on m a t e r i a l o f an EASY c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (low r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l ) . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t NLO may be advantageous i n terms o f i t s r a t e of a c q u i s i t i o n when p a i r e d w i t h m a t e r i a l of a low r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES i v LI S T OF FIGURES v i Chapt e r I ' NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY . . 1 Background o f the Study and R e l a t e d R e search 1 The Problem . . . . . . . 10 T h e o r e t i c a l R a t i o n a l e . . . 13 Summary 14 I I METHOD 16 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n . . . . . 16 The Sample . . . 24 Reading M a t e r i a l 24 M e a s u r i n g I n s t r u m e n t s . 25 Pr o c e d u r e 26 A n a l y s i s of the Data 27 I I I RESULTS OF THE STUDY 31 IV SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 56 The Problem 56 Pr o c e d u r e ,• 56 F i n d i n g s 58 D i s c u s s i o n 61 C o n c l u s i o n s 65 i i i i i Page REFERENCES . „ . . . . . . . . . . 69 APPENDICES A Study Methods P r o c e d u r e s 72 B I n f o r m a l Assessment M a t e r i a l s . . 79 C I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s 121 LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1 R e a d a b i l i t y C a t e g o r i e s o f M a t e r i a l Used on F i r s t and Second I n f o r m a l Assessments . . . . 25 2 Summary T a b l e o f Treatment Group ERR Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r the N e l s o n -Denny Reading T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Form A, P r e t e s t 32 3 Summary T a b l e o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r Treatment Group ERR Means f o r the N e l s o n -Denny Reading T e s t F o r High S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Form A, P r e t e s t 32 4 Summary T a b l e o f Treatment Group ERR Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r the F i r s t (T-^) and Second (T2) I n f o r m a l Assessments 33 5 Summary T a b l e o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r F i r s t (T^) and Second ( T 2 ) I n f o r m a l Assessments 34 6 Main E f f e c t Means f o r F a c t o r s o f Treatment ( P ) , Time ( T ) , D i f f i c u l t y (D) f o r I n f o r m a l Assessment Measures 35 7 P o s t Hoc ERR Mean Comparisons o f Treatment Groups (SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0) f o r the P o o l e d I n f o r m a l Assessment Times (T-^ and 1^) 36 8 Treatment X Time I n t e r a c t i o n : Mean SQ3R S c o r e s f o r Three Treatment Groups, SQ3R, NLO, 3L0, f o r the F i r s t (Tj^) and Second ( T 2 ) I n f o r m a l Assessment Times 38 9 Summary T a b l e s o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r Simple E f f e c t s o f Treatment a t Two L e v e l s o f Time (Time 1 and Time 2) 40 10 P o s t Hoc ERR Mean Comparisons of Treatment Groups f o r Both I n f o r m a l Assessment Times (Time 1 and Time 2) 42 i v V T a b l e Page 11 Treatment X D i f f i c u l t y I n t e r a c t i o n : Mean ERR S c o r e s f o r Three Treatment Groups, SQ3R, NLO, 3L0 f o r Three L e v e l s o f D i f f i c u l t y , EASY ( D 1 ) , MEDIUM ( D 2 ) , and DIFFICULT ( D 3 ) . . . 45 12 Summary T a b l e o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r Simple E f f e c t s o f Treatment a t Three L e v e l s D i f f i c u l t y ( D 1 3 D 2, D 3) 46 13 P o s t Hoc ERR Mean Comparisons of Treatment Groups f o r Three L e v e l s o f R e a d a b i l i t y ( D ^ D 2, D 3) 48 14 Summary o f Treatment Group ERR Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Form B, P o s t t e s t . 51 15 Summary T a b l e of A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r Treatment Group ERR Means f o r the N e l s o n -Denny Reading T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Form B, P o s t t e s t 51 16 P o s t Hoc ERR Mean Comparisons f o r Treatment Groups (SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0) f o r the N e l s o n -Denny Reading T e s t f o r High S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Form B, P o s t t e s t . 52 17 Summary T a b l e of A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r Treatment Group ERR Means f o r the N e l s o n -Denny Rea d i n g T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Form A, P r e t e s t , and Form B, P o s t t e s t 54 18 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of Treatment Group ERR Means f o r the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Form A (NDA), Form B (NDB), and the F i r s t ( T ^ and Second ( T 2 ) I n f o r m a l Assessment Times f o r Three R e a d a b i l i t y L e v e l s , EASY ( D L ) , MEDIUM ( D ~ ) , and DIFFICULT (Do) 55 L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 Comparison of L i n e a r and Non L i n e a r O u t l i n i n g Formats 17 2 Framework Used f o r Comparison o f Study Methods 20 3 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n I n v o l v i n g Three Independent V a r i a b l e s 23 4 Three F a c t o r D e s i g n f o r A n a l y s i s o f I n f o r m a l Measures 29 5 Treatment X Time I n t e r a c t i o n : Mean ERR S c o r e s f o r Three Treatment Groups, SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0, f o r the F i r s t (T^) and Second ( T 2 ) I n f o r m a l Assessment Times 39 6 Mean ERR S c o r e s f o r Three Treatment Groups, SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0 f o r Three L e v e l s o f R e a d a b i l i t y , EASY ( D ^ , MEDIUM ( D 2 ) , and DIFFICULT ( D 3 ) 44 v i C h a p t e r I NATURE AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Background of the Study and R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e In the l a s t twenty y e a r s study s k i l l s i n s t r u c t i o n has become a p a r t o f most c o l l e g e r e a d i n g programs. Blake (1953) r e p o r t e d t h a t o v e r 90 p e r c e n t o f the c o l l e g e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f f e r e d r e a d i n g improvement c o u r s e s which i n c l u d e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n st u d y s k i l l s . More r e c e n t l y , G e e r l o f s and K l i n g (1968) s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h i s f i n d i n g and i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e c h n i q u e s which f a c i l i t a t e r e a d i n g f o r study p u rposes a r e c o n s i d e r e d an e s s e n t i a l component o f n e a r l y a l l c o l l e g e s t u d y s k i l l s programs. However, a r e c e n t revi<w of st u d y s k i l l s r e s e a r c h by Crewe and H u l t g r e n (1968) n o t e s t h a t the q u e s t i o n o f which st u d y t e c h n i q u e i s most s u i t a b l e f o r c o l l e g e l e v e l study r e a d i n g remains u n s e t t l e d . Crewe and H u l t g r e n were unable to i d e n t i f y any p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n i q u e as b e i n g the most e f f e c t i v e because so l i t t l e r e s e a r c h had been conducted on the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f study methods. They c o n c l u d e d t h e i r r e p o r t by p o i n t i n g out the need f o r a p u b l i c a t i o n which summarized a l l r e s e a r c h on study s k i l l s to serve as a r e f e r e n c e t o o l f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s engaged i n t h i s f i e l d . One such e v a l u a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s on study s k i l l s c o u r s e s was done by E n t w i s l e (1960) who reviewed twenty-two r e p o r t s . She i n c l u d e d r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s which d e f i n e d s t u d y s k i l l s i n a b r o a d e r sense than d i d Crewe and H u l t g r e n who f o c u s e d o n l y on study r e a d i n g 1 2 t e c h n i q u e s . For example, i n E n t w i s l e ' s review, e v a l u a t i o n s were made of programs which i n c l u d e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n t o p i c s such as e s s a y w r i t i n g , s t u d y - t i m e b u d g e t i n g , and exam w r i t i n g . Some c o u r s e s i n c l u d e d i n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h m o t i v a t i o n a l problems. How-e v e r , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the r e p o r t e d s t u d i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t a l l used e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a based on the amount and permanence o f g a i n s made by s t u d e n t s on s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s or i n grade p o i n t a v e r a g e s . I n s t r u c t i o n i n e f f i c i e n t r e a d i n g t e c h n i q u e s may be assumed to have been i m p o r t a n t i n these programs. E n t w i s l e noted t h a t s t u d y s k i l l s do c o n t r i b u t e to academic achievement but d i d not i n d i c a t e the s u p e r i o r i t y o f any one t e c h n i q u e o r program f o r e i t h e r c r i t e r i o n mentioned. F u r t h e r m o r e , those c r i t e r i a i l l u s t r a t e d the o v e r r i d i n g c o n c e r n o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h w i t h p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t g a i n s c o r e s . No d i s t i n c t i o n was made between the p e r i o d o f time d u r i n g which the s t u d e n t was l e a r n i n g new study t e c h n i q u e s and the p e r i o d a f t e r which he had g a i n e d f a c i l i t y i n t h e i r use. The importance o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g the most s u i t a b l e s t u d y - r e a d i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s seems an i m p o r t a n t but n e g l e c t e d a s p e c t of the r e s e a r c h on study s k i l l e f f i c a c y . W right (1962) p o i n t e d out t h a t s t u d e n t r e s i s t a n c e to p r e v i e w methods o f s t u d y - r e a d i n g such as Robinson's Survey, Q u e s t i o n , Read, R e c i t e , Review (SQ3R) and i t s many v a r i a n t s was o f t e n e n c o u n t e r e d . Wooster (1953) c o n c l u d e d t h a t many s t u d e n t s were u n e n t h u s i a s t i c about such methods. In the s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d by E n t w i s l e , s t u d e n t m o t i v a t i o n was viewed as s c h o l a r l y d r i v e o r l e v e l of mo r a l e . 3 As such, m o t i v a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d a p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the s t u d e n t and p r e s e n t e d a p o s s i b l e c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e i n e x p e r i -mental d e s i g n to the c o n t r o l l e d by e s t a b l i s h i n g m o t i v a t i o n a l l y e q u i v -a l e n t comparison g r o u p s . An a l t e r n a t e view o f s t u d e n t m o t i v a t i o n i s o f f e r e d by Wood (1961) who examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n and p r o g r e s s o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n a g e n e r a l r e a d i n g improvement c o u r s e d e s i g n e d to i n c r e a s e r e a d i n g r a t e and comprehension. U s i n g s t u d e n t d r o p - o u t r a t e as a c r i t e r i o n o f program s u c c e s s , Wood c o n c l u d e d t h a t a t t r i t i o n was not r e l a t e d to any measure of s t u d e n t p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s but r a t h e r to o b j e c t i v e e v i d e n c e of t h e i r p r o g r e s s i n the c o u r s e . In Wood's study , s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s was e v a l u a t e d by a r e a d i n g - e f f i c i e n c y s c o r e d e f i n e d as the p r o d u c t o f the r e a d i n g r a t e and the comprehension s c o r e s . D a i l y i n c r e a s e s i n the r e a d i n g - e f f i c i e n c y s c o r e c o n s t i t u t e d the r a t e - o f - g a i n f o r each s t u d e n t . A l t h o u g h not d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h s t u d y methods, Wood's r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t e d a n o t h e r dimension t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n any e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f i c a c y o f any study method. T h i s was the i n t e r a c t i o n between the p r o d u c t i v i t y of a study method and s t u d e n t m o t i v a t i o n o r p e r s e v e r a n c e d u r i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d . T h i s r e s e a r c h f u r t h e r suggested the c r i t e r i a used i n any e v a l u a t i o n o f study method e f f i c a c y s h o u l d not be concerned w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n grade p o i n t a v e r a g e s a l o n e as they o c c u r sometime a f t e r the c o u r s e ; nor s h o u l d they be o n l y comprehension and/or r e a d i n g r a t e g a i n s c o r e s . I n s t e a d the c r i t e r i a s h o u l d i n c l u d e a r a t e - o f - g a i n s c o r e o b t a i n e d 4 d u r i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d . The q u e s t i o n o f which study method to t e a c h may then be more f u l l y answered. The study t e c h n i q u e Survey, Q u e s t i o n , Read, R e c i t e , Review (SQ3R) d e v e l o p e d by Robinson (1941) i s the one most f r e q u e n t l y taught i n c o l l e g e r e a d i n g c o u r s e s ( H a r r i s , 1968). S e v e r a l o t h e r s t u d y methods a r e r e p o r t e d elsewhere i n the l i t e r a t u r e ; but as Cranny (1955) p o i n t e d o u t , these i n v o l v e s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f SQ3R and t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s depends upon the same o r s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h . In view of t h i s , the r e s e a r c h which r e l a t e d to SQ3R a p p l i e s to i t s many v a r i a n t s . An e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f the r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g to the e m p i r i c a l b a s i s o f the r a t i o n a l e f o r the SQ3R method i s not p l a n n e d here as complete r e v i e w s are a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e . McCormick (1943) has p r o v i d e d a d e t a i l e d r e v i e w o f f o r t y - s i x r e l e v a n t a r t i c l e s . The r e s e a r c h on the SQ3R s t e p s has a l s o been f u l l y r e v i e w e d . Wark (1964:168) i n d i c a t e d what he c o n s i d e r e d some of the fundamental problems w i t h the method: The Survey s t e p i s based on an o v e r l y generous e x t r a - p o l a t i o n from a s h o r t passage to a whole t e x t . The Q u e s t i o n s t e p i s ad v o c a t e d i n the f a c e o f d a t a which show t h a t p r e - q u e s t i o n i n g may be a d e t r i m e n t to comprehension. The wor k i n g note form of R e c i t a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y e f f e c t i v e , but no e v i d e n c e i s g i v e n t h a t i t i s any b e t t e r than simple r e - r e a d i n g . W i l l m o r e (1963) c o n c l u d e d : The Survey step has not r e a l l y been t e s t e d , and s t u d i e s which are r e l e v a n t a r e u n i m p r e s s i v e i n s u p p o r t i n g the v a l u e o f Surv e y . Q u e s t i o n s can be h e l p f u l , but weaknesses were found i n many of the s t u d i e s ; and i n g e n e r a l , i t would be d i f f i c u l t to g e n e r a l i z e to o t h e r s e t t i n g s s i n c e so much depends on type of m a t e r i a l and where the q u e s t i o n s are p l a c e d . The v a l u e o f R e c i t a t i o n and Review are w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , but t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t they are more e f f e c t i v e i f a p p l i e d i n the SQ3R manner. 5 A r e c e n t r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e on study s k i l l s by Crewe and H u l t g r e n (1968) demonstrated the p a u c i t y o f r e s e a r c h examining SQ3R as a t o t a l system or as compared to o t h e r d i s s i m i l a r methods such as u n d e r l i n i n g . One a n a l y s i s o f the complete SQ3R method was done by Wark (1964:168) who r e p o r t e d t h a t the r e s u l t s o f h i s " l a r g e s c a l e s t u d y s k i l l s p r o j e c t " showed SQ3R to be i n e f f e c t i v e . Wark's c o n c l u d i n g statement t h a t SQ3R i s s u p p o r t e d more by t r a d i t i o n than any r i g o r o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the dat a on p r o d u c t i v i t y i s i n t e r e s t i n g , f o r i t c h a r a c t e r i z e s the f o c u s o f n e a r l y a l l the r e s e a r c h done on the method, t h a t i s , on the end p r o d u c t . The c o n c e r n i s w i t h the system as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a i d i n pr o m o t i n g i n c r e a s e d comprehension and r e t e n t i o n f o r c o n t e n t - m a s t e r q u e s t i o n s o f s t u d e n t t e x t s . To some degree two s t u d i e s d e p a r t from t h i s f o c u s on compre-h e n s i o n g a i n s c o r e s . Wooster (1953) i n c l u d e d i n h i s f i n d i n g s a mention o f r e a d i n g r a t e i n c r e a s e and s t u d e n t a c c e p t a n c e o f SQ3R; both of which were n e g a t i v e . In a com p a r a t i v e study o f SQ3R, U n d e r l i n i n g , O u t l i n i n g , and Reading, W i l l m o r e (1966:110) used the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a to determine the s u p e r i o r i t y o f the U n d e r l i n i n g t e c h n i q u e : 1) s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s than a l l o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s , 2) l e s s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n time than SQ3R o r o u t l i n i n g , and 3) shown g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e by most s t u d e n t s . While not em p h a s i z i n g i t , both s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f a study s k i l l ; t h a t i s , the e f f i c i e n c y o f the method i n terms o f economy o f study t i m e . 6 In the SQ3R method the r e c i t a t i o n step r e q u i r e s the s e q u e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of an o u t l i n e type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n . Robinson (1961:29) su g g e s t e d the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e f o r r e c i t a t i o n : H a v i n g r e a d the f i r s t s e c t i o n , look away from the book and t r y b r i e f l y to r e c i t e the answer to your q u e s t i o n . Use your words and name an example. I f you can do t h i s you know what i s i n the book; i f you c a n ' t , g l a n c e over the s e c t i o n a g a i n . An e x c e l l e n t , way to do t h i s r e c i t i n g from memory i s to j o t down cue p h r a s e s i n o u t l i n e form on a sheet o f p a p e r . Make these n o t e s v e r y b r i e f . The emphasis o f t h i s step i n the SQ3R p r o c e d u r e i s on the s p e c i f i c form of the n o t e - t a k i n g - 'cue' p h r a s e s w r i t t e n down i n s e q u e n t i a l o u t l i n e form from memory. Robinson (1961:26) drew upon A r n o l d ' s (1942) study to j u s t i f y t h i s f o r m a t s t a t i n g t h a t : R e c i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s o f complete o u t l i n i n g , u n d e r l i n i n g , w r i t i n g summaries, j o t t i n g down summary p h r a s e s , and d i s c u s s i o n s have t r i e d , and the system o f r e a d i n g a headed s e c t i o n and then j o t t i n g from memory a key phrase or so i n the r e a d e r ' s own words have been found the most e f f e c t i v e . However A r n o l d ' s r e s e a r c h showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r comprehension when o u t l i n i n g , u n d e r l i n i n g w i t h m a r g i n a l n o t e s , p r e c i s w r i t i n g and r e - r e a d i n g were compared w i t h each o t h e r . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how Robinson c o u l d r e l a t e h i s r e c i t a t i o n p r o p o s a l s to A r n o l d ' s r e s u l t s . W i l l m o r e (1966) compared me r e l y o u t l i n i n g w i t h o u t l i n i n g i n the SQ3R p r o c e d u r e w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and found the l a t t e r to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r i n terms o f i n c r e a s e d comprehension o f t e x t book m a t e r i a l . These r e s u l t s must be q u a l i f i e d , however, because the t e c h n i q u e s were p r e s e n t e d to a l l e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , and as SQ3R employs an o u t l i n e format f o r i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n , a c a r r y o v e r e f f e c t may have r e s u l t e d . 7 W i l l m o r e ' s r e s u l t s must be f u r t h e r q u a l i f i e d i n view of Wooster's (1953) study on SQ3R. Wooster's s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a ten-week t r a i n i n g p e r i o d which was presumably l o n g enough f o r them to become w e l l t r a i n e d i n the SQ3R method. No g a i n s i n e i t h e r comprehension o r r e a d i n g r a t e were e v i d e n c e d . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t u d e n t s spen most of t h e i r time a c q u i r i n g a d d i t i o n a l s k i l l i n o u t l i n i n g and were not a b l e to l e a r n the t o t a l , i n t e g r a t e d method.' There i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t the o u t l i n i n g f o r m a t , which Robinson uses i n the SQ3R system, can become e f f e c t i v e i f e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g i s g i v e n i n the t e c h n i q u e . B a r t o n (1930) found t h a t o u t -l i n i n g r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r comprehension g a i n s than m e r e l y r e a d i n g o n l y i f s t u d e n t s were f i r s t g i v e n t r a i n i n g i n o u t l i n i n g . A s t u d y which was c o n c e r n e d w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n a l a s p e c t s of o u t l i n i n g was done by Stone (19 6 2 ) . H i s c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s was t h e i r improved f a c i l i t y i n o u t l i n i n g . I n c r e a s e d f a c i l i t y i n o u t l i n i n g was measured by a d e c r e a s e i n the amount of time needed to r e a d and o u t l i n e an a r t i c l e . No comprehension measure was o b t a i n e d ; i n s t e a d s t u d e n t s exchanged o u t l i n e s and e v a l u a t e d them f o r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of c o n t e n t on a consensus b a s i s . While Stone d i d not o b t a i n any o b j e c t i v e measure of comprehension, he d i d r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n r e a d i n g o u t l i n i n g times f o r t e x t book m a t e r i a l . Both SQ3R and one of i t s m o d i f i c a t i o n s , Three L e v e l O u t l i n i n g (3L0) d e v e l o p e d by Johnson (1964) were used i n a Reading and Study S k i l l s c o u r s e a t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y d u r i n g the summer semester 8 1 9 7 0 . The students reported d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the amount of p r a c t i c e time needed to acquire f a c i l i t y with these methods and few used them i n t h e i r studying. Examination of research revealed a lack of comparative , studies of the r e l a t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f i c a c y of study techniques;.. The requirements which a method must meet i n order to be r e a d i l y acquired were examined. A necessary requirement of any technique i f i t i s to be r e a d i l y acquired i s that i t provide a framework which allows r a p i d yet accurate perception of basic r e l a t i o n s h i p s (chronology, cause and e f f e c t , main and subordinate ideas) within and across a v a r i e t y of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . As w e l l , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n , the wr i t t e n o u t l i n e , must be f l e x i b l e enough to allow the a d d i t i o n of as much or as l i t t l e supportive d e t a i l as needed. F i n a l l y , the organ-i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n must f u n c t i o n as a r e c a l l p a t t e r n . The p r o v i s i o n of a rapid and accurate i n i t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n the m a t e r i a l devolves upon the Survey step i n any study method. However, i t i s the r e s u l t i n g graphic representation of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n which both f a c i l i t a t e s perception of the author's o r g a n i z a t i o n , and provides the framework w i t h i n which a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l i s placed. Both SQ3R and 3L0 attempt to do t h i s i n a l o g i c a l and sequential manner. However, an examination of a statement by Johnson (1964:269) in support of h i s method over that of Robinson's served to i l l u s t r a t e the shortcomings of both i n th i s respect. Johnson stated that the lack of org a n i z a t i o n commonly found i n an i n t r o d u c t i o n to te x t s , 9 which he l a b e l s a 'misp l a c e d g l o s s a r y ' , i s p e r c e i v e d by the s t u d e n t employing SQ3R as a l e g i t i m a t e d i s c u s s i o n o f a t o p i c u n l e s s the s u r v e y step i s pe r f o r m e d e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l . Such a m i s - r e a d i n g w i l l n ot o c c u r , he c l a i m e d , i f 3L0 i s used because the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the m a t e r i a l does not take p l a c e u n t i l a complete o u t l i n e i s made. I l l u s t r a t e d here was the inadequacy o f SQ3R i n p r o v i d i n g the s t u d e n t w i t h an a c c u r a t e i n i t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n t o the m a t e r i a l as w e l l as the i n a b i l i t y o f 3L0 to do so w i t h any r a p i d i t y . Both the r i g i d p r o c e d u r e s and time r e q u i r e d to p e r f o r m these t e c h n i q u e s s u g g e s t e d r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e to p r o v i d e an adequate comprehension l e v e l w i t h i n an a c c e p t a b l e s t u d y - t i m e l i m i t . Because of the f o r e g o i n g c r i t i c i s m of SQ3R and 3L0 a t t e n t i o n was d i r e c t e d toward the development o f an a l t e r n a t i v e study p r o c e d u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n . A t e c h n i q u e was needed which would a l l o w the s t u d e n t to p e r c e i v e and e v a l u a t e an a u t h o r ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n r a p i d l y , y e t a c c u r a t e l y . As an a l t e r n a t i v e to the s e q u e n t i a l and time consuming o p e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e d f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the SQ3R and 3L0 o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , the m a t r i x s t r u c t u r e o f J e n k i n s o n (1966) was adapted to form the NLO f o r use i n a stu d y p r o c e d u r e termed POPRADR. The s t u d y p r o c e d u r e e n t i t l e d POPRADR s t o o d f o r : P-the s t u d e n t p r e - r e a d the a r t i c l e ; OP- he then c o n s t r u c t e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n (OP) which was a w r i t t e n o u t l i n e ; R- next he r e a d the a r t i c l e ; AD - then he added s u p p o r t i v e d e t a i l to h i s OP; R- f i n a l l y he r e v i e w e d by ans w e r i n g comprehension q u e s t i o n s . U n l i k e the 10 s e q u e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t s o f e i t h e r SQ3R or 3L0, the NLO o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n i s unord e r e d and thus a l l o w s main i d e a s to be more r e a d i l y s y m b o l i z e d i n w r i t t e n form a c c o r d i n g to the s t u d e n t ' s i n i t i a l p e r -c e p t i o n and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f the w r i t t e n i r f o r m a t i o n . By r e s t r u c t u r i n g o r m a n i p u l a t i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n a t the b e g i n n i n g r a t h e r than a t the end o f the methods p r o c e d u r e , the time r e q u i r e d to r e a d s h o u l d be r e d u c e d . Any a d j u s t m e n t s to the r e l a t i v e importance o f s u b t o p i c s as det e r m i n e d d u r i n g r e a d i n g may s t i l l be accommodated w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n a t the AD s t e p . A p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y ( F r a n k l i n and Sweet, 1970) was under-t a k e n to compare the t h r e e methods o f SQ3R, 3L0, and NLO u s i n g the c r i t e r i o n o f r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s drawn from a r e a d i n g study manual. Rate of a c q u i s i t i o n was d e f i n e d as the ease w i t h which s t u d e n t s a c h i e v e d f a c i l i t y i n the use of the study methods. The r e s u l t s o f the stu d y showed t h a t , as compared to SQ3R and 3L0, the NLO was more e a s i l y a c q u i r e d as measured by a r e a d i n g r a t e - o f - g a i n s c o r e . However, the s t u d y was l i m i t e d to s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the a r t s and s c i e n c e f a c u l t i e s o f a f o u r y e a r u n i v e r s i t y and o n l y one r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f m a t e r i a l was used. B e f o r e any d e c i s i o n c o u l d be made c o n c e r n i n g which o f the t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s was most e a s i l y a c q u i r e d , f u r t h e r s t u d y was needed. Toward t h i s end the p r e s e n t s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n . The Problem The p r e s e n t s t u d y sought to e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f s t u d e n t s t a u g h t SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 11 The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was designed i'.o answer three questions: 1. W i l l the r e l a t i v e rates of a c q u i s i t i o n among the study methods be d i f f e r e n t at various times during the period of i n s t r u c t i o n ? 2. W i l l the r e l a t i v e rates of a c q u i s i t i o n among the study methods depend upon the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l material? 3. W i l l the r e l a t i v e rates of a c q u i s i t i o n among the study methods be d i f f e r e n t a f t e r the period of i n s t r u c t i o n ? For the purpose of formulating experimental hypotheses to answer the f i r s t t w o research questions, three manipulated independent v a r i a b l e s were selected: (1) Treatment groups, the l e v e l s of which were SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0; (2) D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , defined by the Flesch r e a d a b i l i t y formula as the three l e v e l s of EASY, MEDIUM, and DIFFICULT; (3) Time of assessment, which had two l e v e l s , determined by two points of time during the i n s t r u c t -i o n a l p eriod, i e . at the fourth and seventh week of the study. For the purpose of formulating experimental hypotheses to answer the t h i r d research question, two manipulated, independent v a r i a b l e s were se l e c t e d : (1) Treatment groups, the l e v e l s of which were the study methods SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0 (as above); (2) Time of assessment which had two l e v e l s , the pre t e s t and p o s t t e s t . The dependent v a r i a b l e used i n the study was a r a t e - o f - g a i n score termed E f f e c t i v e Reading Rate (ERR). This index was the product of the students comprehension score, expressed as a pr o p o r t i o n , and the study-reading time, expressed i n words-per-minute, f o r a given a r t i c l e . The ERR was assessed at four d i f f e r e n t times during the study: (1) the f i r s t week ( p r e t e s t ) ; (2) the fourth week; (3) the seventh.week; (4) the eighth week ( p o s t t e s t ) . 12 The f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l hypotheses were f o r m u l a t e d f o r the f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s 1. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e i n ERR among the Treatment groups f a v o u r i n g the NLO when Time of assessment and D i f f i c u l t y o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l a r e p o o l e d . H y p o t h e s i s 1 i s the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e w i l l e x i s t among the study methods f o r the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Support f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s comes from the stu d y o f F r a n k l i n and Sweet (1970) who found t h a t NLO r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h e r r a t e - o f - g a i n s c o r e as compared to SQ3R and 3L0 f o r a s i x week p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s 2. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n ERR between the assessment Times i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the second assessment time when both Treatment and D i f f i c u l t y a r e p o o l e d . H y p o t h e s i s 2 i s the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e w i l l r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d f a c i l i t y i n the use of study methods by s t u d e n t s . T h i s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n an i n c r e a s e d r a t e - o f - g a i n s c o r e f o r the Treatment groups o v e r the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l h y p o t h e s i s was f o r m u l a t e d f o r the second r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n : H y p o t h e s i s 3. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n ERR among the D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s ( r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s ) o f the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l when the l e v e l s o f Treatment and Time a r e p o o l e d . H y p o t h e s i s 3 i s the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l by the r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a i s a m e a n i n g f u l one f o r the s u b - p o p u l a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l h y p o t h e s i s were f o r m u l a t e d f o r • the t h i r d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n : 13 H y p o t h e s i s 4. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n ERR among the Treatment groups i n f a v o u r o f the NLO a f t e r the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Support f o r H y p o t h e s i s 4 comes from the f i n d i n g s o f F r a n k l i n and Sweet (1970), t h a t NLO had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a t e - o f - g a i n s c o r e as compared to SQ3R and 3L0 a f t e r a s i x week p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s 5. There w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n ERR between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t f o r a l l Treatment groups i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the p o s t t e s t . H y p o t h e s i s 5 p a r a l l e l s h y p o t h e s i s 2 as i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e w i l l r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d f a c i l i t y i n the use o f s t u d y methods by s t u d e n t s . T h i s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n i n c r e a s e d r a t e - o f - g a i n s c o r e s f o r the Treatment groups o v e r the p e r i o d o f the s t u d y . While i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e e x i s t s w i t h which to s p e c i f y e x p e r i m e n t a l hypotheses f o r the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s , they w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d as they a r e r e l e v a n t to the f i r s t two r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : (1) a Treatment x Time i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t ; (2) a Treatment x D i f f i c u l t y i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t ; (3) a Treatment x Time x D i f f i c u l t y i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . T h e o r e t i c a l R a t i o n a l e Most e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h on st u d y method e f f i c a c y a t the c o l l e g e l e v e l has used the c r i t e r i o n o f p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t g a i n s c o r e s f o r comprehension. T h i s i s a measure o f a s t u d e n t s a c q u i r e d f a c i l i t y i n the 7 use of a study method. P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has not f o c u s e d on the p e r i o d o f l e a r n i n g between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t . Measures o f s t u d e n t performance 14 such as comprehension o r r e a d i n g r a t e made d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d r e f l e c t i n c r e a s i n g degrees o f f a c i l i t y i n the use of stu d y methods. The s t u d i e s by W r i g h t (1962), Wooster (1953), and F r a n k l i n and Sweet (1970) suggested t h a t , d u r i n g the l e a r n i n g p e r i o d , p e r -s e v e r a n c e was needed to a c q u i r e f a c i l i t y i n the use o f a study t e c h -n i q u e . These s t u d i e s f u r t h e r suggested t h a t p e r s e v e r a n c e was l a c k i n g i n many s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n c o l l e g e r e a d i n g and study c o u r s e s . The n o t i o n o f r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n f o r m u l a t e d f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y assumed an i n t e r a c t i o n between s t u d e n t s ' p e r s e v e r a n c e and t h e i r awareness o f i n c r e a s i n g f a c i l i t y i n the use of a study method. By u s i n g a r a t e - o f - g a i n i n d e x termed an E f f e c t i v e Reading Rate (ERR) as the dependent v a r i a b l e the co n c e p t o f r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n was q u a n t i f i e d . I t was assumed t h a t r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n would be i n -d i c a t e d by an improved ERR ov e r the p e r i o d o f s t u d y . The ERR was the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i o n used f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n , or i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f i c a c y , o f the study methods. Summary Res e a r c h on the e f f i c a c y o f stu d y s k i l l s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r on SQ3R, t y p i c a l l y emphasized the d a t a on p r o d u c t i v i t y , such as r e a d i n g r a t e o r comprehension g a i n s c o r e s on s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s . I n c r e a s e s i n academic performance were a l s o w i d e l y used as e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a . A l t h o u g h s t u d e n t m o t i v a t i o n i s a problem i n the l e a r n i n g and a c q u i s i t i o n o f study t e c h n i q u e s , i t was viewed as a p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the s t u d e n t and was not g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n . 15 Wood's study showed t h a t s t u d e n t a t t r i t i o n r a t e was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o b j e c t i v e measures of p r o g r e s s i n a r e a d i n g and study c o u r s e . T h i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a study t e c h n i q u e would be f a c i l i -t a t e d by p r o v i d i n g the s t u d e n t w i t h a r a t e - o f - g a i n s c o r e as e v i d e n c e o f h i s p r o g r e s s . I t was proposed t h a t r a t e - o f - g a i n s c o r e s s h o u l d a l s o f u n c t i o n as one o f the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the most s u i t a b l e study t e c h n i q u e f o r c o l l e g e l e v e l s t u d e n t s . 6 C h a p t e r I I METHOD E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n In o r d e r to answer the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s f o r m u l a t e d i n the study (see e.g. P. 10) i t was n e c e s s a r y to m a n i p u l a t e t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : (1) the Treatment groups d e s i g n a t e d SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0; (2) the l e v e l s o f D i f f i c u l t y o f the i n f o r m a l ( n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d ) a s s e ssments made up o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s drawn from a r e a d i n g and s t u d y manual ( M i l l e r , 1964), d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by the F l e s c h r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a and d e s i g n a t e d EASY, MEDIUM, and DIFFICULT; (3) the p o i n t s o f Time d u r i n g the study a t which the i n f o r m a l and f o r m a l ( s t a n d a r d i z e d ) r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n a ssessments were made. The Nelson-Denny Reading  T e s t f o r High S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , (1960) was used f o r the f o r m a l a s s e s s m e n t s . The i n f o r m a l assessment m a t e r i a l s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix B. Tre a t m e n t . The f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was f o r m u l a t e d to a s c e r t a i n the r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f stu d y methods. I t was assumed t h a t the dependent v a r i a b l e , the ERR, would be h i g h e r f o r a stud y methods which p r o v i d e d a r a p i d y e t a c c u r a t e i n i t i a l p e r c e p t i o n o f the main i d e a r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the m a t e r i a l . T h i s assumption makes the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n the f o c a l p o i n t o f any stu d y methods. The NLO p r o v i d e s a n o n - l i n e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n w h i l e the SQ3R o u t l i n e i s l i n e a r i n f o r m a t . F i g u r e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . 16 17 S Q 3 R - o u t l i n e N L O - o u t l i n e TITLE I F i r s t Main Idea A. Secondary Idea a. D e t a i l I I Second Main Idea A. Secondary Idea a . D e t a i l TITLE ^ ^ c o ^ i d a r y i d e a F i g u r e 1. Comparison o f L i n e a r and N o n - L i n e a r O u t l i n i n g Formats The p r o c e d u r e s o f SQ3R and NLO may be c o n t r a s t e d i n terms o f o r d e r as w e l l . F o r example, SQ3R r e q u i r e s the s t u d e n t to p r e - r e a d the m a t e r i a l , then l i s t the main i d e a s as they appeared i n the a r t i c l e . NLO a l l o w s the s t u d e n t to combine main i d e a s a c c o r d i n g to h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance d u r i n g p r e - r e a d i n g . F o l l o w i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the i n i t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n , SQ3R r e q u i r e s the s t u d e n t to d e a l w i t h each main i d e a i n a s e q u e n t i a l f a s h i o n w h i l e NLO makes no such r e s t r i c t i o n . T h r e e - L e v e l O u t l i n i n g (3L0) was i n c l u d e d i n the stu d y because, a l t h o u g h i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n format i s s i m i l a r to SQ3R, 3L0 d i f f e r s somewhat i n p r o c e d u r e . F o r example, an a r b i t r a r y number o f s u b - d i v i s i o n s i n the o u t l i n e ( a minimum of two and a maximum of f i v e main i d e a s ) ' r e q u i r e s the s t u d e n t to regroup and c o n s o l i d a t e what he has r e a d . T h i s o p e r a t i o n was c l a i m e d by i t s a u t h o r to r e q u i r e the s t u d e n t to i d e n t i f y the main i d e a s and p e r c e i v e the major r e l a t i o n -s h i p s as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e (Johnson, 1964:273). 18 D e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the SQ3R, NLO and 3L0 s t u d y p r o c e d u r e are c o n t a i n e d i n Ap p e n d i x A. Fo r c o m p a r i s o n and i n s t r u c t i o n p u r p o s e s a l l t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s c o u l d be accommodated w i t h i n the POPRADR framework, even though each d i f f e r s i n p r o c e d u r a l p u r p o s e . Thus, time c o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d f o r the P s t e p , the OP s t e p , and the t o t a l p r o c e d u r e . T h i s p r o v i d e d a means o f m e a s u r i n g the e f f i c a c y o f each t e c h n i q u e by u n i t o f s t u d y t i m e . By c o n t r o l l i n g the P and OP s t e p s a c l o s e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e e f f e c t upon the R and AD s t e p s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d . The v a r i a t i o n i n s t u d y time between t e c h n i q u e s was o b t a i n e d i n the R and AD s t e p s as the s t u d e n t n o t e d the time he had c o m p l e t e d t h e s e s t e p s . A maximum time o f t h r e e and one h a l f m i n u t e s was p l a c e d on the R and AD s t e p s f o r each r e a d i n g e x e r c i s e . T h i s r a i s e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f im p o s i n g a f l o o r e f f e c t upon the ERR b u t p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y R e a d i n g and Study l a b o r a t o r y s u g g e s t e d i t would n o t . T o t a l time s p e n t i n s t u d y i n the POPRADR framework then , was measured from the b e g i n n i n g o f the P r e - r e a d i n g to the p o i n t where the s t u d e n t was re a d y t o answer the comprehension q u e s t i o n s . Compre-h e n s i o n q u e s t i o n s on the a r t i c l e s . , r e a d were s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the Review (R) s t e p and r e f l e c t e d the amount o f r e c a l l o b t a i n e d from the whole p r o c e d u r e as a i d e d by the OP.which a l s o f u n c t i o n e d a s a r e c a l l p a t t e r n . I t may be c h a r t e d as f o l l o w s : 20 Framework. NLO SQ3R 3L0 Time per e x e r c i s e P P S 1 s t l e v e l 2nd l e v e l 1.5' OP OP 1 ' R R Q R 3rd l e v e l ~ — • AD AD R 2- 5 r u l e F i n a l D r a f t 3-5 R R R R 2 • F i g u r e 2. Framework Used f o r Comparison o f Study Methods Thus a comparison o f two l i n e a r and o n e - l i n e a r o u t l i n e f o r m a t s and p r o c e d u r e s was o b t a i n e d . L e v e l o f R e a d a b i l i t y o f the I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l . The second r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was f o r m u l a t e d to a s c e r t a i n the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t o f the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l upon the ERRs o f the study methods. The i n f o r m a l assessments were made u s i n g t h i s m a t e r i a l which was drawn from a r e a d i n g and study manual ( M i l l e r , 1964). The c h o i c e o f a r e a d i n g and study manual f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , and the use of a r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a to d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h a t m a t e r i a l a r e d e s c r i b e d below. G e e r l o f s and K l i n g (1968) p o i n t e d o ut t h a t most r e a d i n g and study programs employ i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l drawn from manuals r a t h e r than t e x t s . However, p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g to SQ3R have u s u a l l y employed s t u d e n t text-book m a t e r i a l e i t h e r to a s s e s s the a c q u i s i t i o n 21 of c o n t e n t w h i l e u s i n g a t e c h n i q u e o r to i n c r e a s e the t r a n s f e r e f f e c t o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Dubois (1969) used comprehension as a c r i t e r i o n to e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t o f t e x t book v e r s u s g e n e r a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s on l a t e r t r a n s f e r o f s k i l l to t e x t - b o o k m a t e r i a l . He found no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . W h i l e r e l e v a n c e o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l to the s t u d e n t ' s s t u d y s i t u a t i o n was d e s i r e d i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e i f the use of text-book m a t e r i a l would have a c c o m p l i s h e d t h i s as s t u d e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d to read w i d e l y o f m a t e r i a l v a r y i n g i n c o n t e n t , s t y l e , and c o n c e p t u a l d e p t h . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e a d i n g and s t u d y manuals r e v e a l e d they do v a r y i n s t y l e , c o n t e n t , and r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l . A u t h o r ' s s t y l e and c o n t e n t may be judged and c o n t r o l l e d o n l y s u b j e c t i v e l y and t h e r e f o r e r e a d a b i l i t y was chosen as the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c r i t e r i o n . Most r e a d i n g and s t u d y manuals d e s i g n e d f o r use w i t h c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s v a r y i n r e a d a b i l i t y from the h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l to the s e n i o r y e a r o f c o l l e g e . A r t i c l e s were s e l e c t e d which spanned t h i s r a n g e . Three l e v e l s were s e l e c t e d : h i g h s c h o o l , second y e a r c o l l e g e and f o u r t h y e a r c o l l e g e . These were measured by the F l e s c h (1951) r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a and d e s i g n a t e d EASY, MEDIUM, and DIFFICULT, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Time of Assessment. The f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was f o r m u l a t e d to a s c e r t a i n the r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n among the study methods a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of time d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The t h i r d r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n was f o r m u l a t e d to a s c e r t a i n the r e l a t i v e r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n among the s t u d y methods a f t e r the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Repeated measures o f the r e l a t i v e ERR f o r the s t u d y methods p r o v i d e d 22 an i n d i c a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n f o r each t e c h n i q u e over the p e r i o d o f the s t u d y . The treatment groups were; a s s e s s e d a t f o u r i n t e r v a l s o v e r the e i g h t week p e r i o d o f the study , i n which s u b j e c t s met once per week. P r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s u t i l i z i n g the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t  f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Forms A and B (1960) were g i v e n i n the f i r s t and e i g h t h week o f the e i g h t week s t u d y . D u r i n g the p e r i o d of i n s t r u c t i o n which r a n from the second to the sevent h week o f the s t u d y , s u b j e c t s were a s s e s s e d on an i n f o r m a l i n s t r u m e n t a t the t h i r d and seventh week i n t e r v a l s . I t would have been d e s i r a b l e to use t e s t i n s t r u m e n t s which a l l o w e d the f u l l use of the POPRADR p r o c e d u r e a t each o f the f o u r assessment i n t e r v a l s . However the d e c i s i o n was made to s e l e c t a s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t f o r the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t measures to m i n i m i z e the p r a c t i c e e f f e c t i n h e r e n t i n r e p e a t e d measures on the same.subjects w i t h s i m i l a r s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l s . The p r e t e s t was used to determine the e q u i v a l e n c e o f the groups p r i o r to i n s t r u c t i o n . The p o s t t e s t was used to p r o v i d e a measure o f the r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n among the stu d y methods a f t e r the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Dependent V a r i a b l e . The speed o f a c q u i s i t i o n measure used f o r the i n f o r m a l measures, the ERR, was o b t a i n e d f o r the f o r m a l p r e -t e s t and p o s t t e s t by t a k i n g the per ce n t o f c o r r e c t answers and m u l t i p l y i n g i t by the Study Reading Rate i n the comprehension sub-t e s t . T h i s s t u d y r e a d i n g r a t e was c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g the t o t a l 23 number of words i n the comprehension s u b t e s t by the r e a d i n g time, which was twenty m i n u t e s . T h i s method was chosen i n l i e u o f the one-minute r e a d i n g r a t e s u b t e s t o f the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r High S c h o o l s and  C o l l e g e s (1960) because c o n d i t i o n s more c l o s e l y r e s e m b l i n g the i n f o r m a l a s s e ssments were d e s i r e d . The f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l t e s t s were r e l a t e d i n t h a t they both measured s t u d e n t s comprehension f o r a s p e c i f i e d r e a d i n g time but the f o r m a l t e s t p r o c e d u r e s d i d not a l l o w the f u l l employment o f the POPRADR p r o c e d u r e . F i g u r e 3 summarizes the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p l a n r e q u i r e d to answer the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s f o r m u l a t e d i n the s t u d y . The p l a n i n v o l v e d t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s : SQ3R, denoted P-^ ; NLO, denoted P 2 ; and 3L0, denoted P^. The f i r s t and second i n f o r m a l assessment times are denoted T-^  and T^, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Three a r t i c l e s f o r each o f t h r e e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s denoted EASY, MEDIUM, and DIFFICULT were a s s e s s e d a t both i n f o r m a l assessment t i m e s . EIGHT WEEK PERIOD OF THE STUDY SIX WEEK PERIOD OF INSTRUCTION Treatment P r e t e s t Wk 2 Wk 3 Wk 4 Wk 5 Wk 6 Wk 7 P o s t t e s t SQ3R ( P L ) °1 X l X l T l X l X l T 2 °2 NLO ( P 2 ) °1 x 2 x 2 T l x 2 x 2 T 2 °2 3L0 ( P 3 ) 6 °1 X 3 x 3 T l x 3 x 3 T 2 °2 F i g u r e 3. E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n I n v o l v i n g Three Independent V a r i a b l e s . NOTE: I n s t r u c t i o n (X) o c c u r r e d d u r i n g both week f o u r and week seven $ i n the form o f a ten minute r e v i e w of the i n s t r u c t i o n up to t h a t p o i n t . 24 The Sample The s u b j e c t s f o r the experiment were 113 v o l u n t e e r s from a group o f 500 s t u d e n t s who s c o r e d i n the l o w e s t o n e - t h i r d c a t e g o r y on an i n f o r m a l measure o f r e a d i n g r a t e and comprehension a d m i n i s t e r e d to the 1500 f i r s t y e a r s t u d e n t s a t the B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y . The i n f o r m a l measure used to determine s t u d e n t s who were i n the l o w e s t o n e - t h i r d c a t e g o r y was c o n s t r u c t e d from the S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s (1959) m a t e r i a l from K i t IVa. S t u d e n t s were asked to r e a d and answer one r a t e - b u i l d e r c a r d o v e r a range of t h r e e c o l o u r s (grade l e v e l s t e n , t w e l v e , and f o u r t e e n ) . A r e a d i n g time o f t h r e e minutes was a l l o w e d f o r each c a r d . ' Comprehension was d e t e r m i n e d by the number o f c o r r e c t answers g i v e n f o r the ten q u e s t i o n s which accompanied each c a r d . The c o m p o s i t i o n of the twenty c l a s s r o o m groups made a v a i l a b l e by the Reading and Study Program was d e t e r m i n e d by s t u d e n t s ' time-t a b l e s . Nine o f these c l a s s r o o m groups were randomly s e l e c t e d and b l o c k e d i n t o t h r e e l e v e l s d e s i g n a t e d HIGH, MEDIUM, and LOW on the b a s i s o f group mean ERR s c o r e s o b t a i n e d from the Nelson-Denny Reading  T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , (1960), Form A, a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the r e a d i n g l a b o r a t o r y to each c l a s s r o o m group d u r i n g the f i r s t week of the s t u d y . A group from each l e v e l was the a s s i g n e d a t random to one o f the t h r e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . B l o c k i n g was done to m i n i m i z e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the T r e a t m e n t s . Reading M a t e r i a l The r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l f o r the i n f o r m a l assessments was drawn from a r e a d i n g and s t u d y manual ( M i l l e r , 1964). S i x a r t i c l e s o f 25 e q u a l l e n g t h (1350 words) were s e l e c t e d , t h r e e of which c o u l d be r e a d and the a p p r o p r i a t e study method a p p l i e d w i t h i n the hour p e r i o d a v a i l a b l e a t each assessment time. The s u b j e c t m a t t e r of the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l was v a r i e d and s e l e c t e d f o r p o t e n t i a l i n t e r e s t to techno-l o g i c a l s t u d e n t s . The c o n t e n t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the t i t l e s o f the a r t i c l e s , g i v e n i n T a b l e 1. T a b l e 1 a l s o c o n t a i n s the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s as d e t e r m i n e d by the F l e s c h r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a . The s i x a r t i c l e s used i n the i n f o r m a l assessments are r e p r o d u c e d i n Appendix B. T a b l e 1 R e a d a b i l i t y C a t e g o r i e s o f M a t e r i a l Used On F i r s t and Second I n f o r m a l Assessments F l e s c h Assessment L e v e l T i t l e Score I n t e r v a l D i f f i c u l t L i g h t n i n g In A N u t s h e l l 35 T l D i f f i c u l t E l e c t r o n i c s - Your Chance To Shape The F u t u r e 35 T 2 Medium The S t o r y Of Western U n i o n 41 T l Medium Mass Investment 45 T 2 E a s y I n s u r a n c e F o r L i f e 52 T l E a s y Western N a t i o n a l P a r k s 52 T 2 M e a s u r i n g I n s t r u m e n t s The measuring i n s t r u m e n t f o r the s i x r e a d i n g p a s s a g e s were s e t s o f q u e s t i o n s drawn from M i l l e r ' s (1964) r e a d i n g and study manual. Each s e t of ten q u e s t i o n s c o n t a i n e d two m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i t e m s , two c o m p l e t i o n and s i x t r u e - f a l s e items summed f o r a s c o r e out of t e n . The q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r e d the r e c a l l o f f a c t u a l d e t a i l ( M i l l e r , 1964:2). 26 The s t u d e n t c o u l d not r e f e r back to the a r t i c l e when he answered the q u e s t i o n s . However, he c o u l d r e f e r to h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n . The Comprehension s u b t e s t o f the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t  f o r High S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Forms A and B (1960) was used f o r the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t r e s p e c t i v e l y . Each form o f the t e s t c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t p a r a g r a p h s w i t h an average l e n g t h o f 242 words f o r Form A and an average l e n g t h o f 261 words f o r Form B. The r e a d e r i s i n s t r u c t e d to r e a d each p a r a g r a p h and then answer m u l t i p l e c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s which r e q u i r e the r e c a l l o f f a c t u a l d e t a i l . The r e a d e r may r e f e r back to the p a r a g r a p h when answering the q u e s t i o n s . There a r e f o u r q u e s t i o n s p e r p a r a g r a p h w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the f i r s t p a r a g r a p h which has e i g h t q u e s t i o n s . Thus the format and p r o c e d u r e s o f t h i s t e s t d i d not match those of the i n f o r m a l assessment m a t e r i a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , (1960) was c o n s i d e r e d the b e s t i n s t r u m e n t to use i n view o f i t s proven r e l i a b i l i t y and s h o r t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n time o f twenty m i n u t e s . The a u t h o r s o f t h i s t e s t r e p o r t a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .81 f o r the comprehension s u b t e s t . P r o c e d u r e The e x p e r i m e n t e r and a n o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e d i n s t r u c t o r c o l l e c t e d a l l the d a t a i n the stu d y and conducted a l l t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . I n s t r u c t o r s were randomly a s s i g n e d to the t r e a t m e n t groups i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y . S i m i l a r l e s s o n p l a n s were used by both i n s t r u c t o r s . A meeting was h e l d b e f o r e the experiment to f u r t h e r c o o r d i n a t e l e s s o n p r e s e n t a t i o n . The i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s a r e e l a b o r a t e d i n Appendix C. 27 Treatment groups met one hour p e r week i n a normal c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g f o r the e i g h t week p e r i o d o f the s t u d y . A p r e t e s t u t i l i z i n g the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r Hi g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Form A, (1960) was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the f i r s t week. F o r the second and t h i r d weeks, i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e was p r o v i d e d w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e s t u d y method b e f o r e the f i r s t i n f o r m a l assessment o f r a t e o f a c q u i -s i t i o n i n the f o u r t h week. Two f u r t h e r weeks o f i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e f o l l o w e d w i t h the second i n f o r m a l assessment o f r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n i n the sevent h week. F o r both the f i r s t and second i n f o r m a l assessments the t h r e e d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s were p r e s e n t e d i n a n o n - s y s t e m a t i c o r d e r to a v o i d c o n f o u n d i n g o r d e r e f f e c t s w i t h the D i f f i c u l t y o f timed r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e d r i l l s to a v o i d any Hawthorne e f f e c t . The Form B o f the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t  f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s (1960), was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the e i g h t h and f i n a l week. A n a l y s i s o f the Data F o r the purpose o f e v a l u a t i n g the trea t m e n t e f f e c t s , f o u r r e s p o n s e measures o f the dependent v a r i a b l e , ERR, were o b t a i n e d i n the p e r i o d o f the s t u d y . P r i o r to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d , the Nelson-Denny Reading  T e s t f o r Hi g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s Form A, was g i v e n as a p r e t e s t to determi n e the e q u i v a l e n c e o f the tr e a t m e n t g r oups. To a s c e r t a i n t h i s e q u i v a l e n c y a o n e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was performed on the dependent v a r i a b l e , ERR, f o r Treatment group ERR mean s c o r e s . 28 The d a t a a n a l y s i s d e s i g n f o r the i n f o r m a l assessment c o r r e -sponds to a t h r e e - f a c t o r f i x e d e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e model w i t h a l l f a c t o r s c r o s s e d ( G l a s s and S t a n l e y , 1970). The stu d y methods SQ3R, NLO and 3L0 comprised the l e v e l s o f the Treatment f a c t o r . The two i n f o r m a l assessment i n t e r v a l s o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d c o m p r i s e d the l e v e l s o f the Time f a c t o r . The t h r e e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s (EASY, MEDIUM, and DIFFICULT) o f the i n f o r m a l assessment r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s comprised the l e v e l s o f the d i f f i c u l t y f a c t o r . The t h r e e c l a s s r o o m groups which composed each t r e a t m e n t group i e . the l e v e l s o f HIGH, MEDIUM, and LOW o b t a i n e d on the b a s i s o f the c l a s s r o o m group means i n the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r High S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Form A, (1960) were i n c l u d e d as a l e v e l o f the tr e a t m e n t f a c t o r . The e x p e r i m e n t a l model i s diagrammed i n F i g u r e 4. The t r e a t -ment f a c t o r groups SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0 a r e denoted P-^ , P^, P^ r e s p e c -t i v e l y . The l e v e l s o f P, LOW, MEDIUM, and HIGH, a r e denoted G 1, G 2, G3, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f i r s t and second time i n t e r v a l s a r e denoted T^ and r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by a r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a composed the d i f f i c u l t y f a c t o r l e v e l s , EASY, MEDIUM, and DIFFICULT are denoted DT, D 9, D v r e s p e c t i v e l y . 29 TIME DIFFICULTY TREATMENT FACTOR FACTOR FACTOR P l P2 P3 G l G2 G3 G l G2 G3 G^ G3 D l X p t d D 2 D 3 - D l T2 D 2 D3 F i g u r e 4. Three F a c t o r D e s i g n f o r A n a l y s i s o f I n f o r m a l Measures The two i n f o r m a l assessments o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d were d e s i g n e d to measure the r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f the t h r e e study methods on r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l o f t h r e e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s . To t e s t h y p o t h e s e s 1, 2, and 3, a t h r e e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d on the da t a u s i n g the f a c t o r s o f Treatment, D i f f i c u l t y , and Time. The Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r Hi g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Form B, was g i v e n as a p o s t t e s t to measure the r e l a t i v e r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n among the stu d y methods a f t e r the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . To t e s t h y p o t h e s i s 4 a o n e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was performed on the d a t a u s i n g the f a c t o r o f Treatment. 30 To t e s t h y p o t h e s i s 5, a t w o - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was per f o r m e d on the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t d a t a u s i n g the f a c t o r s o f Treatment (Programs) and Time ( P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t ) . Because both s t a n d a r d i z e d and n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d measuring i n s t r u m e n t s were used i n the s t u d y , c o r r e l a t i o n s between the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s and v a r i a b l e p a i r s were de t e r m i n e d : (1) P r e t e s t (0^) ; (2) p o s t t e s t ( 0 2 ) ; (3) T j D ^ (4) T 2 D 2 ; (5) T L D 3 ; (6) T ^ ; (7) T ^ . <3 Chapter I I I RESULTS OF THE STUDY The treatment group ERR means and standard deviations obtained i n the Nelson-Denny Reading Test f o r High Schools and Colleges, Form A (1960) which was administered p r i o r to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d , are summarized i n Table 2. A one-factor a n a l y s i s of variance was performed on these data. The r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s are summarized i n Table 3. They i n d i c a t e d no i n i t i a l ERR d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups. The treatment group ERR means and standard deviations obtained on the two informal assessments of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l period are summarized i n Table 4. A three-factor a n a l y s i s of variance, summarized i n Table 5 was performed on these data. The main e f f e c t means f o r three f a c t o r s of Treatment, Time, and D i f f i c u l t y are given i n Table 6. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r the f a c t o r of Treatment (F - 17.55, df = 2/6, p < .05). The Tukey method f o r two-factor a n a l y s i s of variance post hoc comparisons (see eg. Glass and Stanley, 1970:444)^" was employed to. construct simultaneous " confidence i n t e r v a l s around the treatment group ERR mean "differences _ _ Thi s t e s t i s defined i n Glass and Stanley (1970) as: (X L - X 2) + 1 - << qJ, N - I J / MSW ^ N/J where, X = Treatment group mean I = Levels of D i f f i c u l t y f a c t o r within Time f a c t o r J = Lev e l s of Treatment f a c t o r N = Number of observations MSW = Mean square from a n a l y s i s of variance 31 32 TABLE 2 SUMMARY OF TREATMENT GROUP ERR MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE NELSON DENNY READING TEST FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES, FORM A, PRE-TEST TREATMENT GROUP MEAN SD ? l (SQ3R) 52.57 14.37 P 2 (NLO) 53.85 16.28 P 3 (3LO) 49.05 14.32 TABLE 3 SUMMARY TABLE OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR TREATMENT GROUP ERR MEANS FOR THE NELSON DENNY READING TEST FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES, FORM A, PRE-TEST SOURCE MS F 2. TREATMENT 2 108.40 2.40 >.05 ERROR (Groups W. T r e a t m e n t ) 6 45.63 TOTAL 8 33 TABLE 4 SUMMARY OF TREATMENT GROUP MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE FIRST (T,) AND SECOND (T„) INFORMAL ASSESSMENT TREATMENT READABILITY T l T 2 GROUP LEVEL MEANS SD MEANS SD P (SQ3R) D (EASY) 86.62 29.12 98.83 36.32 D 2 (MEDIUM) 86.27 25.64 98.83 30.50 D 3 (DIFFICULT) 106.92 33.40 109.04 30.90 P 2 (NLO) °1 104.04 38.89 130.44 46.05 D 2 83.83 28.48 111.35 35.54 D 3 100.25 30.93 115.48 28.74 P 3 (3LO) D l 69.94 32.80 67.22 40.10 D 2 73.36 26.74 82.41 33.72 D 3 40.42 30.88 74.96 33.37 34 TABLE 5 SUMMARY TABLE OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR FIRST (T ) AND SECOND (T ) INFORMAL ASSESSMENTS SOURCE ERROR TERM i f MS F TREATMENT (P) G(P) 2 7215.62 17.55 <• .05 TIME (T) GT(P) 1 2083.58 32.47 < .05 DIFFICULTY (D) GD(P) 2 82.77 0.17 ^ . 0 5 GROUPS W. TREATMENT G(P) 6 411.21 PT GT(P) 2 595.00 9.27 ^ .05 PD GD(P) 4 637.48 5.50 < .05 TD GTD(P) 2 30.25 0.16 P-.05 GT(P) 6 64.17 GD(P) 12 115.83 PTD GTD(P) 4 124.31 0.68 7.05 GTD(P) 12 183.37 35 TABLE 6 MAIN EFFECT MEANS FOR FACTORS OF TREATMENT ( P ) , TIME ( T ) , DIFFICULTY (D) FOR INFORMAL ASSESSMENT MEASURES FACTOR LEVEL TREATMENT (P) TIME (T) DIFFICULTY (D) P 1 (SQ3R) 96.59 P 2 (NLO) 109.12 P 3 (3LO) 69.91 T (Time) 85.66 T 2 (Time) 98.08 I>1 (EASY) 91.78 D 2 (MEDIUM) 89.77 D 3 (DIFFICULT) 94.05 d 36 TABLE 7 POST HOC ERR MEAN COMPARISONS OF TREATMENT GROUPS (SQ3R, NLO, 3LO) FOR THE POOLED INFORMAL ASSESSMENT TIMES (T, AND T ) OBSERVED MEANS SQ3R (PL) NLO (P 2) 3L0 CP 3) 96.59 109.12 69 .91 OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R ( P L ) NLO (P 2) 3LO (P 3) p l -12.53 26 .67 P 3 39.20 - --CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AROUND OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R (Pp NLO (P 2) 3LO (P 3) P l (-29.38, +4.32) (+9 .82, +43.52) P 3 (+22.35, +56.05) --37 p o o l e d over the f a c t o r s of Time and D i f f i c u l t y . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 7. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between SQ3R and NLO. However both SQ3R and NLO had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR means than 3L0. T h i s d i d not s u p p o r t the e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e as s t a t e d i n Hypo-t h e s i s 1, t h a t NLO would have a s i g n f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR than SQ3R and 3L0. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r the f a c t o r o f Time (F = 32.47, df = 1/6, p <- .05) i n f a v o u r o f the second a s s e s s -ment time. T h i s s u p p o r t e d H y p o t h e s i s 2, t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e would e x i s t between the f i r s t and second assessment times o f the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n f a v o u r o f the second assessment t i m e . No s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r the f a c t o r o f D i f f i c u l t y . Thus, no s u p p o r t was p r o v i d e d f o r H y p o t h e s i s 3, t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e would e x i s t between the l e v e l s of r e a d a b i l i t y o f the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . A s i g n i f i c a n t Treatment X Time i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 5, was found (F = 9.27, df = 2/6, p < .05). The means f o r t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 8. A s i m p l e e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s (see eg. Winer, 1962) was employed to study f u r t h e r the Treatment X Time i n t e r a c t i o n . T a b l e 9 sum-mar i z e d the r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s which showed t r e a t m e n t s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t both the f i r s t (T^) assessment Time (F = 17.77, df = 2/12, p .05) and the second ( T 2 ) assessment Time (F = 48.25, df = 2/12, p < .05). 38 TABLE 8 TREATMENT X TIME INTERACTION: MEAN ERR SCORES FOR THREE TREATMENT GROUPS, SQ3R, NLO, 3LO, FOR THE FIRST (T ) AND SECOND (T ) INFORMAL ASSESSMENT TIMES TREATMENT TI ME T l T 2 (SQ3R) ? l (NLO) P 2 (3LO) P 3 92.24 96.46 68.30 100.94 121.78 71.54 39 P4 130 ~ 120 -110 100 -90 -80 -70 -60 NLO ( P 2 ) SQ3R ( P L ) -3L0 ( P 3 ) TIME F i g u r e 5, Treatment X Time I n t e r a c t i o n : Mean ERR S c o r e s f o r Three Treatment Groups, SQ3R (Pj^), NLO ( P 2 ) > and 3L0 ( P 3 ) f o r the F i r s t (T-^) and Second ( T 2 ) I n f o r m a l Assessment Times. 40 TABLE 9 SUMMARY TABLES OF ANALYSES OF VARIANCE FOR SIMPLE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT AT TWO LEVELS OF TIME (TIME 1 AND TIME 2) TIME 1 SOURCE df MS F B. TREATMENT 2 4224.78 17.77 < .05 ERROR 12 237.69 TOTAL 14 TIME 2 SOURCE i i MS F 6 TREATMENT 2 11468.56 48.250 ^.05 • ERROR 12 237.69 TOTAL 14 E r r o r Term: SS G(P) + SS GT(P) d f G ( P ) + d f G T ( P ) 41 U s i n g the Tukey method f o r o n e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p o s t hoc comparisons, (see eg. G l a s s and S t a n l e y , 1970:385)^, s i m u l t a n e o u s c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s were c o n s t r u c t e d around the t r e a t -ment group ERR mean d i f f e r e n c e s a t both l e v e l s of the Time f a c t o r , T^ and T 2 „ The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 10. F o r T-p no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between SQ3R and NLO. However both SQ3R and NLO had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR means than 3L0. For T 2> a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between SQ3R and NLO i n f a v o u r of NLO. Both SQ3R and NLO had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR means than d i d 3L0. A s i g n i f i c a n t Treatment X D i f f i c u l t y i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 6, was found ( F = 5.50, df = 2/12, p .05). The means f o r t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 11. A simple e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s (see eg. Winer, 1962) was employed to study f u r t h e r the Treatment X D i f f i c u l t y i n t e r a c t i o n . T a b l e 12 summarizes the r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s : t r e a t m e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the EASY l e v e l o f D i f f i c u l t y (Dj^), ( F = 21.82, df = 2/18, p «c .05); they d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t the MEDIUM ( D 2 ) l e v e l o f D i f f i c u l t y (F = 4.20, df = 2/18, p < .05); and they d i f f e r e d s i g n i -f i c a n t l y a t the DIFFICULT l e v e l ( D 3 ) , (F = 13.61, df = 2/18, p .05). 2 _ _ T h i s t e s t i s d e f i n e d i n G l a s s and S t a n l e y (1970) as: ( X x - X 2 ) + 1 " « < q J , J ( n - l ) /MSw~ _ n where, X = Treatment group mean J = L e v e l s o f Treatment f a c t o r J (n-1) = Degrees o f freedom from MSw n = O b s e r v a t i o n s per (Treatment) group MSw = Mean square from a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e 42 TABLE 10 POST HOC ERR MEAN COMPARISONS OF TREATMENT GROUPS FOR BOTH INFORMAL ASSESSMENT TIMES (TIME 1 AND TIME 2) TIME 1 SQ3R ( P L ) OBSERVED MEANS NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) 92.24 96.46 68 .29 OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R ( P x ) NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) p l - 4.22 23 .94 P 3 28.16 - - - -CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AROUND OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R ( P L ) NLO (P ) 2 3LO (P ) 3 P l (-15.41, +33.85) (+4.31, +43.5 7) P 3 — — • ( +8.55, +47.79) 43 TABLE 10 ( c o n t i n u e d ) TIME 2 SQ3R ( P ^ OBSERVED MEANS NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) 100.94 121.78 71.54 SQ3R (Pj_) OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) p l -20.84 29 .40 P 3 50.24 SQ3R (Pj.) CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AROUND OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) - P l (-40.47, -1.21) (+9 .77, +49.03) P 3 (+30.61, +69.87) 44 ai W 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 -60 SQ3R (P L) NLO (P 2) •3L0 (P 3) DIFFICULTY F i g u r e 6. Tr e a t m e n t X D i f f i c u l t y I n t e r a c t i o n s : Mean ERR S c o r e s F o r Three T r e a t m e n t Groups, SQ3R ( P 1 ) , NLO (P ) , and 3LO (P ) F o r Three L e v e l s o f R e a d a b i l i t y , EASY (D,J, MEDIUM (D ) , and DIFFICULT ( D 3 ) . 2 TABLE 11 TREATMENT X DIFFICULTY INTERACTION: MEAN ERR SCORES FOR THREE TREATMENT GROUPS, SQ3R ( P ^ , NLO ( P ^ , 3LO ( P ^ FOR THREE LEVELS OF DIFFICULTY, EASY ( D ^ , MEDIUM (D 2>, AND DIFFICULT (D^) TREATMENT DIFFICULTY EASY ( D L) MEDIUM ( D 2 ) DIFFICULTY(D^) SQ3R ( P x ) 89.93 92.82 107.00 NLO ( P 2 ) 120.58 100.20 106.57 3LO ( P 3 ) 64.85 76.29 68.60 46 TABLE 12 SUMMARY TABLE OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR SIMPLE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT OF THREE LEVELS OF DIFFICULTY ( D ^ D^, D^) EASY ( D L ) SOURCE i f MS I £ TREATMENT 2 4675.83 21.82 < .05 ERROR 18 214.29 TOTAL 20 MEDIUM ( D 2 ) SOURCE i f MS F £ TREATMENT 2 899.11 4.20 < .05 ERROR 18 214.29 • TOTAL 20 r DIFFICULT ( D 3 ) SOURCE i f MS F £ TREATMENT 2 2916.25 13.61 < .05 ERROR 18 214.29 TOTAL 20 E r r o r Term: S S G ( p ) + S S G p ( p ) df G(P) + df GD(P) 47 Using the Tukey method f or one-factor a n a l y s i s of variance post hoc comparisons (see eg. Glass and Stanley, 1970:385) simultaneous confidence i n t e r v a l s were constructed around the treatment group ERR mean d i f f e r e n c e s f o r each l e v e l of the D i f f i c u l t y f a c t o r . The r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s are given i n Table 13. For EASY m a t e r i a l , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between SQ3R and NLO, favouring NLO. Both SQ3R and NLO had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher ERR means than 3L0. For MEDIUM ma t e r i a l s , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between SQ3R and NLO, nor between SQ3R and 3L0. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between NLO and 3L0 i n favour of NLO. For DIFFICULT m a t e r i a l , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between SQ3R and NLO. Both SQ3R and NLO had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher ERR means than 3L0. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t Treatment X D i f f i c u l t y X Time i n t e r -a c t i o n e f f e c t . v The treatment group ERR means and standard deviations f o r the Nelson-Denny Reading Test for High Schools and Colleges (1960), Form B, which was administered a f t e r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l period as a post-t e s t are summarized i n Table 14. A one-factor a n a l y s i s of variance was performed i n these data. The"results of t h i s a n a l y s i s , given i n Table 15, showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r Treatment (F = 6.71, df = 2/6, p .05). Using the Tukey method for . o n e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of variance post hoc comparisons (see eg. Glass and Stanley, 1970:385), simulta-neous confidence i n t e r v a l s were constructed around the treatment group ERR mean d i f f e r e n c e s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s are given i n 48 TABLE 13 POST HOC MEAN COMPARISONS OF TREATMENT GROUPS FOR THREE LEVELS OF READABILITY , T>2, D^) EASY (D,) OBSERVED MEANS SQ3R (P 1) NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO (P 3) 89.93 120.58 64.85 OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R (P L) NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) P i -30.65 25.08 P 3 55.74 CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AROUND OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R ( P L ) NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) P l (-52.34, - 11.04) (+3 .39, +46.77) P 3 (+34.05, +77.43) 49 TABLE 13 ( c o n t i n u e d ) MEDIUM ( D 9 ) OBSERVED MEANS SQ3R ( P L ) NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 92.82 100.20 76 .29 OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R (P 1) NLO (P 2) 3'LO ( P 3 ) p l - 7.38 16 .53 p 3 23.91 - --CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AROUND OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R ( P L ) NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) P l (-29.07, +14.31) (-5 .10, +38.28) P 2 (+ 2.22, +45.60) 50 TABLE 13 ( c o n t i n u e d ) DIFFICULT (Do) OBSERVED MEANS SQ3R ( P L ) NLO ( P 2 ) 3L0 <*3> 107.01 106.57 68. 60 a OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R (P 1) NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) P i 0.44 38. 40 P 3 37.96 -CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AROUND OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R ( P L ) NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) P l (-21.25, +22.13) (+16.71, +60.08) P 2 (+16.27, +58.65) 51 TABLE 14 SUMMARY OF TREATMENT GROUP ERR MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE NELSON DENNY READING TEST FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES, FORM B, POSTTEST TREATMENT GROUP MEAN SD SQ3R ( P L ) 62.28 15.54 NLO ( P 2 ) 63.50 17.08 3LO ( P 3 ) 46.31 16.67 TABLE 15 SUMMARY TABLE OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR TREATMENT GROUP ERR MEANS ON THE NELSON DENNY READING TEST FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES, FORM B, POSTTEST SOURCE i i MS F TREATMENT 2 340.11 .6.71 < .05 ERROR (Groups W. Treatment) 6 50.69 TOTAL 8 TABLE 16 POST HOC ERR MEAN COMPARISONS FOR TREATMENT GROUPS (SQ3R, NLO, AND 3LO) FOR THE NELSON-DENNY READING TEST FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES, FORM B, POSTTEST OBSERVED MEANS SQ3R ( P L ) NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) 60.17 66.12 45.44 OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R ( P 1 ) NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) P l -5.95 14.73 P 3 20.68 CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AROUND OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R (P ]_) NLO ( P 2 ) 3LO ( P 3 ) P l (-23.78, +11.88) (- 3.1, +32.56) P 3 ( +2.85, +38.51) 53 Table 16. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between SQ3R and NLO, nor between SQ3R and 3L0. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between NLO and 3L0 i n favour of NLO. T h i s d i d not support the expected d i r e c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s as s tated i n Hypothesis 7, that NLO would have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher ERR mean than SQ3R and 3L0. A two-factor a n a l y s i s of var iance was performed on the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t treatment group ERR means. The r e s u l t s of these'data , summarized i n Table 17, showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r the f a c t o r of Time (between p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t ) . T h i s d i d not support Hypothes is 8, that a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e would e x i s t between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t ( i n the d i r e c t i o n of the p o s t t e s t ) f o r the treatment groups . A summary table of the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s and v a r i a b l e p a i r s i s g iven i n Table 18: (1) p r e s t e s t (0^); (2) p o s t t e s t ( 0 2 ) ; (3) T ^ ; (4) T ^ ; (5) T ^ ; (6) . T ^ ; ' (7) T 2 D 2 ; (8) T 2 D 3 . , 54 TABLE 17 SUMMARY TABLE OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR TREATMENT GROUP ERR MEANS FOR THE NELSON-DENNY READING TEST FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES, FORM A, PRETEST, AND FORM B, POSTTEST SOURCE ERROR i i MS F TREATMENT (P) G (P) 2 243.18 3.53 TIME (T) GT(P) 1 137.56 4.69 > .05 GROUPS W. TREATMENT G(P) 6 68.85 PT GT(P) 2 110.02 3.75 •y .05 GT(P) 6 29.34 6 TABLE 18 INTERCORRELATIONS OF TREATMENT GROUP ERR MEANS FOR THE NELSON- DENNY READING TEST FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES, FORMS A (NDA), FORM B (NDB) AND THE FIRST ( T x ) AND SECOND ( T 2 ) INFORMAL ASSESSMENT TIMES FOR THREE READABILITY LEVELS, EASY ( D ^ ) , MEDIUM ( D 2 ) , DIFFICULT ( D 3 ) MEASURES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 NDA 1.00 2 NDB .73 1.00 3 T 1 ° 1 .19 .29 1.00 4 T L D 2 .33 .32 .51 1.00 5 T l D 3 .20 .38 .49 .42 1.00 6 T 2 D L .36 .43 .64 .24 .46 1.00 7 T 2 D 2 .30 .25 .56 .34 .46 .75 1.00 8 T 2 D 3 .14 .20 .37 .14 .44 .63 .60 1.00 C h a p t e r IV SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The Problem Most r e s e a r c h on stu d y method e f f i c a c y a t the c o l l e g e l e v e l has used an e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i o n o f comprehension g a i n s c o r e s f o r s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s o r c o n t e n t - m a s t e r y o f a c t u a l s t u d y m a t e r i a l . In s p i t e o f e v i d e n c e which s u g g e s t s a c q u i s i t i o n o f p r e v i e w - t y p e study t e c h n i q u e s as a problem due to poor s t u d e n t m o t i v a t i o n , the e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h has i g n o r e d the i n s t r u c t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f s t u d y method e f f i c a c y i n a t t e m p t i n g to determine which study method i s most s u i t a b l e f o r c o l l e g e s t u d y - r e a d i n g . The p r e s e n t study sought to determine the r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n f o r t h r e e study methods, SQ3R (S u r v e y , Q u e s t i o n , Read, R e c i t e , Review), NLO (N o n - L i n e a r O u t l i n i n g ) , and 3L0 ( T h r e e - L e v e l O u t l i n i n g ) as dete r m i n e d by a r a t e - o f - g a i n s c o r e , ERR (comprehension x s t u d y r e a d i n g t i m e ) , a s s e s s e d a t d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g and im m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . S i n c e t h e r e was c o n c e r n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the e f f e c t o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s upon the r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n f o r the t e c h n i q u e s , m a t e r i a l of t h r e e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s was p r e s e n t e d to the s u b j e c t s a t two d i f f e r e n t times d u r i n g the p e r i o d of i n s t r u c t i o n . P r o c e d u r e Three hundred, v o l u n t e e r , f i r s t y e a r s t u d e n t s i n a Reading and Study program a t the B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y 56 57 who had s c o r e d i n the lowest o n e - t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f an i n f o r m a l measure o f r e a d i n g r a t e and comprehension a d m i n i s t e r e d to the f r e s h -man c l a s s , c o n s t i t u t e d the group from which the s u b j e c t s f o r the stud y were drawn. The Reading and Study program had twenty c l a s s -room groups, n i n e o f which were randomly s e l e c t e d , and a s s i g n e d to th r e e t r e a t m e n t groups, SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0. An e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n was f o r m u l a t e d which i n v o l v e d the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h r e e independent v a r i a b l e s : the Treatment groups of s tudy methods taught s t u d e n t s comprised o f SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0; the D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l as det e r m i n e d by a r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a and d e s i g n a t e d EASY, MEDIUM, and DIFFICULT; the Time o f assessment o f the r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n among the s t u d y methods over the p e r i o d o f the s t u d y . These assessment times were: (1) p r e t e s t (0^) ; (2) the f i r s t i n f o r m a l assessment (T^) ; (3) the second i n f o r m a l assessment time ( T 2 ) ; (4) and the p o s t t e s t (o2). The dependent v a r i a b l e f o r each assessment time was a r a t e -o f - g a i n s c o r e termed an E f f e c t i v e Reading Rate (ERR) which was the p r o d u c t o f the s t u d e n t ' s comprehension s c o r e and s t u d y - r e a d i n g time f o r a g i v e n a r t i c l e . The ERR was a s s e s s e d a t f o u r times over the p e r i o d o f the s t u d y : 1. A p r e t e s t u s i n g the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r High S c h o o l s  and C o l l e g e s , Form A (1960), was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the f i r s t week to determine the e q u i v a l e n c e o f the t r e a t m e n t group. 58 2. An i n f o r m a l assessment o f r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n u s i n g m a t e r i a l o f th r e e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s from a r e a d i n g and study manual ( M i l l e r , 1964) was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the f o u r t h week o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d . 3. A second i n f o r m a l assessment o f r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n u s i n g com-p a r a b l e m a t e r i a l from the same sou r c e ( M i l l e r ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the seventh week o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d . 4. A p o s t t e s t u s i n g the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r Hi g h S c h o o l s  and C o l l e g e s , Form B (1960) was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the e i g h t h and f i n a l week to p r o v i d e a measure o f the r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n a f t e r the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . F i n d i n g s The e x p e r i m e n t a l hypotheses t e s t e d i n the stu d y d e a l t w i t h the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t s t u d y methods would v a r y w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i r r e l a t i v e r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n as measured by an ERR s c o r e a s s e s s e d on m a t e r i a l o f t h r e e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s , and a t two d i f f e r e n t times d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . An a d d i t i o n a l a ssumption was t h a t r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n among the stu d y methods a t the two i n f o r m a l assessment i n t e r v a l s would be s i m i l a r on the f o r m a l p o s t t e s t . T e s t s o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l hypotheses based upon the p r e t e s t , p o s t t e s t , and the two i n f o r m a l assessments produced the f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s : 1. The f i r s t r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n r a i s e d i n the study p e r t a i n e d to the r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n ERR s c o r e s among tr e a t m e n t g r o u p s . In o r d e r to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n two e x p e r i m e n t a l h y p o t h e s e s were t e s t e d u s i n g the tr e a t m e n t group ERR mean s c o r e s o b t a i n e d from the two i n f o r m a l a s s e s s m e n t s . • 59 The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t t r e a t m e n t group ERR means would d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n (Time 1 and Time 2 p o o l e d ) , was s u p p o r t e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r t r e a t m e n t ( F = 17.55, df = 2/6, p <=r.05) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t p a i r - w i s e c o m p a r i s o n s were n o t e d between SQ3R and 3L0, f a v o u r i n g SQ3R and between NLO and 3L0 f a v o u r i n g NLO, b u t n o t between SQ3R and NLO. A s i g n i f i c a n t T r e a t m e n t X Time i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t ( F = 9.27, d f = 2/6, p <r.05) was f o u n d . An a n a l y s i s o f the s i m p l e t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s a t the two l e v e l s o f Time was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r Time 1, ( F = 17.77, df = 2/12, p <^.05) and f o r Time 2 (F = 48.25, d f = 2/12, p <.05). P a i r - w i s e c o m p a r i s o n s o f t r e a t m e n t group ERIl means a t Time 1 showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between SQ3R and NLO but a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was n o t e d between SQ3R and 3L0 i n f a v o u r o f SQ3R, and between NLO and 3L0 i n f a v o u r o f NLO. Comparisons a t Time 2 showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between SQ3R and NLO i n f avpur .. of NLO, between SQ3R and 3L0, and between NLO and 3L0 i n f a v o u r o f ; SQ3R and NLO r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t was f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two i n f o r m a l a s s e s s m e n t times when the f a c t o r s o f T r e a t m e n t and D i f f i c u l t y were p o o l e d . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was s u p p o r t e by a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r Time (F = 32.47, d f = 1/6, p «=• .05) i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the second a s s e s s m e n t time (Time 2 ) • 2. The second r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n p e r t a i n e d to the dependence o f the r e l a t i v e ERR among the s t u d y methods on the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f the as s e s s m e n t m a t e r i a l used d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . I n o r d e r 60 to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n one e x p e r i m e n t a l hypotheses was t e s t e d u s i n g the t r e a t m e n t group ERR mean s c o r e s o b t a i n e d i n the two i n f o r m a l a s s e s s m e n t s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the r e l a t i v e ERR mean s c o r e s f o r the tre a t m e n t groups would depend upon the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f the m a t e r i a l denoted EASY, MEDIUM, and DIFFICULT, p r e s e n t e d a t the two i n f o r m a l assessment t i m e s . No s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e was found f o r the f a s t e r o f D i f f i c u l t y . A s i g n i f i c a n t T reatment X D i f -f i c u l t y i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t (F = 5.50, df = 4/12, p <c .05) was f o u n d . An a n a l y s i s o f the simple t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s a t the t h r e e l e v e l s o f D i f f i c u l t y was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r EASY (F = 21.82, df = 2/18, p <~ .05), f o r MEDIUM (F = 4.20, df = 2/18, p ^ .05), and f o r DIFFICULT ( F = 13.61, df = 2/18, p <L .05). P a i r - w i s e comparisons o f the t r e a t m e n t group ERR means a t each l e v e l o f D i f f i c u l t y p roduced the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : f o r EASY m a t e r i a l , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between SQ3R and NLO; f o r MEDIUM m a t e r i a l , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found between SQ3R and NLO nor between SQ3R and 3L0, b u t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between NLO and 3LO was found i n f a v o u r o f NLO; f o r DIF-FICULT m a t e r i a l , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between SQ3R and NLO, but a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between SQ3R and 3L0 and between NLO and 3L0 i n f a v o u r o f SQ3R and NLO r e s p e c t i v e l y . No s i g n i f i c a n t Treatment X D i f f i c u l t y X Time i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was f o u n d . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e would be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -f e r e n c e among the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s of the i n f o r m a l assessment 61 material pooled over the f a c t o r s of Time and Treatment. T h i s hypothesis was not supported.. 3. The t h i r d research question pertained to the r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n ERR scores among treatment groups a f t e r the perio d of i n s t r u c t i o n . In order to answer t h i s question two experimental hypotheses were tested using the treatment group ERR mean scores obtained on.the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t . I t was hypothesized that there would be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the treatment group ERR means on the p o s t t e s t favouring the NLO. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e f o r the Treatment f a c t o r was found (F = 6.71, df = 2/6, p < .05). However the expected d i r e c t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e was not supported. Pair-wise comparisons of the treatment group ERR means showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between SQ3R and NLO, nor between SQ3R and 3L0. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between NLO and 3L0. i n favour of NLO was found. I t was hypothesized that a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e would e x i s t between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t f o r the treatment groups. T h i s hypothesis was not supported. Discussion I Based upon the a n a l y s i s of the data c o l l e c t e d i n the study no one study method appeared to be advantageous i n terms of i t s rate of a c q u i s i t i o n on material of three r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s over the period of the study. Hypothesis 1, that a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among Treatments would e x i s t when the f a c t o r s of Time and D i f f i c u l t y were pooled was 62 s u p p o r t e d . However n e i t h e r SQ3R nor NLO were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m each o t h e r . Both SQ3R and NLO showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR than 3L0. The ERR means f o r 3L0 a t the f i r s t and second I n f o r m a l A s s e s s -ment i n t e r v a l , 68.29 and 71.54 r e s p e c t i v e l y , s u g g e s t e d a l a c k o f a c q u i s i t i o n f o r t h i s t e c h n i q u e . T h i s may r e f l e c t an i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d which was too s h o r t o r not i n t e n s i v e enough f o r the adequate l e a r n i n g o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r method. However i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t the 3L0 ERR means r e f l e c t e d a f l o o r e f f e c t imposed by the c o n t r o l l e d time p e r i o d o f the POPRADR p r o c e d u r e . H y p o t h e s i s 2, t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s would e x i s t between the two i n f o r m a l assessment times when the t r e a t m e n t group ERR means were p o o l e d was s u p p o r t e d . T h i s showed the r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n were i n c r e a s i n g f o r one o r more o f the s t u d y methods ove r the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t Treatment X Time i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was f o u n d . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n f o r the st u d y methods was r e l a t e d to the d u r a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e f o r the p e r i o d o f the s t u d y . H y p o t h e s i s 3, t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r D i f f i c u l t y would e x i s t was not s u p p o r t e d . T h i s c o u l d mean t h a t the r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e the m a t e r i a l i n a m e a n i n g f u l way f o r the p o p u l a t i o n sampled. A s i g n i f i c a n t Treatment X D i f f i c u l t y i n t e r -a c t i o n was f o u n d . T h i s i n d i c a t e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the st u d y method p r o c e d u r e and the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f the m a t e r i a l . 63 The a n a l y s i s of the simple Treatment e f f e c t s a t the t h r e e l e v e l s o f D i f f i c u l t y showed t h a t NLO had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR f o r the EASY l e v e l of r e a d a b i l i t y as compared to e i t h e r SQ3R or 3L0. The s i m p l e Treatment e f f e c t s a t the two l e v e l s of Time showed t h a t NLO had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR f o r the Second i n f o r m a l assessment time. Thus NLO showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n f o r EASY m a t e r i a l by the s e v e n t h week of the s t u d y . T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n agreement w i t h t h a t of F r a n k l i n and Sweet (1970) who found t h a t NLO had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a t e of a c q u i s i t i o n by the s i x t h week of i n s t r u c t i o n on m a t e r i a l w i t h a r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l which c o r r e s p o n d e d to the EASY l e v e l o f D i f f i c u l t y i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . While t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between Treatments a t the f i r s t i n f o r m a l assessment time as d e t e r m i n e d by the s i m p l e Treatment e f f e c t s a n a l y s i s a t the two l e v e l s of Time, an i n s p e c t i o n o f the ERR means f o r NLO (104.04), SQ3R (86.62) and 3L0 (69.94) a t the EASY l e v e l o f r e a d a b i l i t y f o r the f i r s t i n f o r m a l assessment time, showed t h a t s t u d e n t s t a u g h t NLO had a h i g h e r r a t e of a c q u i s i t i o n by the f o u r t h week o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r m a t e r i a l of an EASY r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l . The f i n d i n g t h a t SQ3R d i d not have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR than d i d 3LO a t the MEDIUM l e v e l of r e a d a b i l i t y but d i d so a t b oth the EASY and DIFFICULT l e v e l s i s an u n e x p l a i n e d phenomenon. The n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t Treatment X D i f f i c u l t y X Time i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t found showed t h a t the form of the Treatment X Time i n t e r a c t i o n was the same a t a l l l e v e l s o f D i f f i c u l t y , and t h a t the form of the 64 Treatment X D i f f i c u l t y i n t e r a c t i o n was the same a t bo t h l e v e l s o f Time. H y p o t h e s i s 7, t h a t Treatment groups would d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the p o s t t e s t was s u p p o r t e d . SQ3R showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR than NLO or 3L0, and NLO showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR than 3L0. T h i s d i d not r e f l e c t the rank o r d e r o f trea t m e n t group ERR means i n the second i n f o r m a l assessment. However any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s were q u e s t i o n a b l e i n view o f the low c o r r e l a t i o n s between the f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l measures. F u r t h e r r e s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s were n e c e s s a r y as a r e s u l t o f the t e s t o f H y p o t h e s i s 8 which e x p e c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t ERR means f o r the tr e a t m e n t g r o u p s . T h i s e x p e c t a t i o n was not s u p p o r t e d . P o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r both the low f o r m a l - i n f o r m a l t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s , and the seeming l a c k o f an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n ( f o r the study methods) between p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t a r e : (1) t h a t the p r o c e d u r e s o f the f o r m a l t e s t s d i d not a l l o w the f u l l implement-a t i o n o f the POPRADR p r o c e d u r e , i e . no o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n would be o u t l i n e d ; (2) the for m a t s o f the f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l t e s t s d i f f e r e d , i e . the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t each had e i g h t p a r a g r a p h s on d i f f e r e n t t o p i c s , the i n f o r m a l t e s t s each had t h r e e complete a r t i c l e s on one t o p i c . I t may be t h a t the s k i l l s of SQ3R, NLO and 3L0 c o u l d o n l y be a p p l i e d e f f e c t i v e l y to the l o n g e r a r t i c l e s and/or t h a t the o p e r a t i v e component o f each method i s the w r i t t e n o u t l i n e . 65 C o n c l u s i o n s Given the d a t a a n a l y z e d i n the p r e s e n t study i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t among the thr e e study methods compared, SQ3R, NLO, or 3L0, none showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n over the p e r i o d o f the s t u d y . However, the f a c t t h a t NLO d i d show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n s c o r e by the sevent h week of i n s t r u c t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t , o f the thr e e t e c h n i q u e s under stu d y , NLO was the most advan-tageous i n terms of i t s r a t e of a c q u i s i t i o n on m a t e r i a l on an EASY r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l . The p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the NLO and the EASY l e v e l o f r e a d a b i l i t y may have been due to the NLO pro c e d u r e which r e q u i r e d the s t u d e n t to m a n i p u l a t e the main i d e a r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g the PREREAD and ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN s t e p s . T h i s a ppears to have been the most s u c c e s s f u l p r o c e d u r e f o r EASY m a t e r i a l d u r i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d whereas the more s t r u c t u r e d and s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e d u r e s o f SQ3R were as r e a d i l y implemented as the NLO f o r the MEDIUM and DIFFICULT m a t e r i a l . The 3L0 d i d not appear to be an adequate t e c h n i q u e when e v a l u a t e d by a r a t e - o f - a c q u i s i t i o n s c o r e . The r e s u l t s suggest t h a t s t u d e n t s taught 3L0 may have been p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the p r o c e d u r e and l o s t s i g h t o f the e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t g o a l o f a t t a i n i n g comprehension. I t may be t h a t a c q u i s i t i o n of 3L0, and f o r t h a t m a t t e r , SQ3R and NLO would be f a c i l i t a t e d by an a l t e r n a t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l emphasis, i e . e i t h e r r a t e o r comprehension. A f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t the 66 t e c h n i q u e s were h i g h e r l e v e l s k i l l s f o r which more a b i l i t y was needed than was p r e s e n t i n the sample. The f a c t t h a t no one s t u d y method showed a c l e a r - c u t s u p e r i o r i t y i n terni o f ERR f o r a l l l e v e l s o f m a t e r i a l and t h a t the NLO d i d so o n l y f o r . EASY m a t e r i a l by the s e v e n t h week s u g g e s t s t h a t e i t h e r the a b i l i t y o f the s t u d e n t s o r the i n t e n s i t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n was the o v e r r i d i n g f a c t o r i n the f i n d i n g s . Under the c o n d i t i o n s o f the s t u d y the r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n , as d e t e r m i n e d by the p o s t t e s t , d i d not r e f l e c t the • f i n d i n g s o f the second i n f o r m a l a s s e s s m e n t t i m e . F u r t h e r m o r e , as d e t e r m i n e d by the p r e t e s t , p o s t t e s t c o m p a r i s o n o f p o o l e d T r e a t m e n t s , the r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n measure, ERR, d i d not d e m o n s t r a t e the assumed i n t e r a c t i o n between s t u d e n t p e r s e v e r a n c e and i n c r e a s e d f a c i l i t y f o r s t u d y method u s e . I t would a p p e a r t h a t d i f -f e r e n c e s i n f o r m a t and t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s between the f o r m a l and i n -f o r m a l t e s t s p r e c l u d e any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n f o r the p e r i o d o f the s t u d y . Thus any i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f the s t u d y methods must be s p e c i f i c to the p o p u l a t i o n sampled, to the manual from which the i n f o r m a l t e s t s were drawn and to the t e a c h i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h . The s t u d y s h o u l d be r e p l i c a t e d w i t h an a l t e r n a t e method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . F o r example, two dependent v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be used: (1) a measure o f f a c i l i t y as d e t e r m i n e d by p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t c omprehension g a i n s c o r e s ; (2) a r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n s c o r e (ERR) measured d u r i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d . The i n c l u s i o n o f a c o n t r o l group would be n e c e s s a r y to d e t e r m i n e r e l a t i v e f a c i l i t y . 67 A l t e r n a t e a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a c o u l d a l s o i l l u m i n a t e the ERR i n d e x . F o r example, comprehension and s t u d y - r e a d i n g time c o u l d be s e p a r a t e l y t a b u l a t e d . T h i s would a l l o w an a n a l y s i s which would show the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f each to the t o t a l ERR i n d e x . I f a r e p l i c a t i o n i s done w i t h a r e p e a t e d measures on the same sample, a d i f f e r e n t p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t i n s t r u m e n t s h o u l d be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and  C o l l e g e s , ( 1 9 6 0 ) . An i n s t r u m e n t which a l l o w s the f u l l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the POPRADR p r o c e d u r e and which has a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the i n f o r m a l assessment i n s t r u m e n t s s h o u l d be used. The study s h o u l d be r e p l i c a t e d w i t h a more i n t e n s i v e i n s t r u c t -i o n a l p e r i o d , eg. a c o u r s e i n which s t u d e n t s met twice per week f o r two hours each s e s s i o n . I f the study methods are h i g h e r - l e v e l s k i l l s , more c l o s e l y spaced i n s t r u c t i o n may be n e c e s s a r y f o r adequate a c q u i s i t i o n . The study s h o u l d be r e p l i c a t e d w i t h s t u d e n t a b i l i t y c o n t r o l l e d to determine i f t h i s had a b e a r i n g on a c q u i s i t i o n o f the t e c h n i q u e s . A l s o a s e e m i n g l y l e s s complex study method such as u n d e r l i n i n g might be compared w i t h the p r e v i e w - t y p e methods of the p r e s e n t s t u d y . I n s t r u c t i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s . The most c l e a r - c u t c o n c l u s i o n to be drawn w i t h r e g a r d to study method i n s t r u c t i o n i s a matching of r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l and t e c h n i q u e . Student s u c c e s s appeared more l i k e l y when EASY m a t e r i a l was p a i r e d w i t h the NLO method. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e q u e n c i n g of the t e c h n i q u e s may f a c i l i t a t e s t u d e n t p e r s e v e r a n c e and a c q u i s i t i o n . F o r example, the NLO may be 68 i n t r o d u c e d w i t h low r e a d a b i l i t y m a t e r i a l f o l l o w e d by SQ3R and h i g h e r r e a d a b i l i t y m a t e r i a l . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study a r e s p e c i f i c to the sample a s s e s s e d and to the manual from which the i n f o r m a l assessment m a t e r i a l was drawn. C e r t a i n l y f u r t h e r s t u d i e s w i t h samples d i f f e r i n g i n a b i l i t y and r e a d i n g achievement are n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e any f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f i c a c y o f SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0. 69 REFERENCES 70 A r n o l d , H. 1942. The Comparative E f f i c i e n c y o f C e r t a i n Study T e c h n i q u e s i n F i e l d s o f H i s t o r y . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l  P s y c h o l o g y . 33:449-457. B a r t o n , W. 1930. O u t l i n i n g as a Study P r o c e d u r e . T e a c h i n g C o l -l e g i a t e Comparative E d u c a t i o n . No. 441. Ber g , P., T a y l o r , S. and F r a n k e n p o h l , H. 1962. Skimming and Scanning Workbook. E d u c a t i o n a l Developmental L a b o r a t o r i e s . H u n t i n g t o n , New York. B l a k e , W.S. 1955. Study S k i l l s Program. J o u r n a l o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . 26:97-99, 114. Cranny, A.S. A Note on 'Another Study Method.' J o u r n a l o f Rea d i n g . 7:359. Crewe, D. and H u l t g r e n , J . 1968. What Does R e s e a r c h R e a l l y Say About Study S k i l l s ? E i g h t e e n t h Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l Reading  C o n f e r e n c e . Milwaukee, W i s c o n s i n . D u b o i s , R. 1969. Improvement o f Textbook Comprehension i n C o l l e g e R eading C l a s s e s . J o u r n a l - o f R e a d i n g . 13. E n t w i s l e , D. 1960. E v a l u a t i o n s o f Study S k i l l s C o u r s e s : A Review. J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . 53:243-251. F l e s c h , R. 1951. How To T e s t R e a d a b i l i t y . Harper and B r o s . , New York. F r a n k l i n , P. and Sweet, R. 1970. POPRAD I I I : An A l t e r n a t i v e Study T e c h n i q u e . ( u n p u b l i s h e d s t u d y , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y ) G e e r l o f s , M. and K l i n g , M. 1968. C u r r e n t P r a c t i c e s i n C o l l e g e and A d u l t D e v e lopmental Reading Programs. J o u r n a l o f Reading 11: 517-520, 569-575. G l a s s , G. and S t a n l e y , J . 1970. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n . P r e n t i c e - H a l l H a r r i s , A. 1968. Research on Some A s p e c t s of Comprehension: Rate, F l e x i b i l i t y and Study S k i l l s . J o u r n a l o f Rea d i n g . 12. J e n k i n s o n , M. 1966. I n c r e a s i n g Reading Power i n the S o c i a l S t u d i e s . P e r s p e c t i v e s i n Reading No. 6 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n , Newark, Delaware Johnson, H. 1964. Another Study Method. J o u r n a l o f Developmental  R e a d i n g . 7:269-282. 71 McCormick, K.F. 1943. The Nature and T r a i n i n g o f Work-Study S k i l l s ( u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) M i l l e r , L. 1964. I n c r e a s i n g Reading E f f i c i e n c y . H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n . New York. N e l s o n , M. and Denny, E . 1960. The Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r  High S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s . Houghton M i f f l i n Company. Bo s t o n . Norman, M. 1968. S u c c e s s f u l Reading. H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n . New York. P a r k e r , D. 1959. SRA Reading L a b o r a t o r y . Na. S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s , I n c . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s . R o b inson, F.P. 1941. E f f e c t i v e Study. Harper and B r o t h e r s . New York Robinson, F.P. 1961. E f f e c t i v e Study ( R e v i s e d E d i t i o n ) . Harper and B r o t h e r s . New York. Stone, D. 1962. Speed o f Idea C o l l e c t i n g i n U n i v e r s i t y Study R e a d i n g . J o u r n a l o f Developmental Reading 5. T a y l o r , S. 1964. C o n t r o l l e d Reading Study Guide LK. E d u c a t i o n a l D evelopmental L a b o r a t o r i e s . H u n t i n g t o n . New Y o r k . Wark, D. 1964. Survey Q3R: System o r S u p e r s i t i o n ? T h i r d and F o u r t h Annual Yearbook o f the North C e n t r a l Reading A s s o c i a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a . W i l l m o r e , D. 1953. A Comparison of Four Methods of S t u d y i n g A C o l l e g e Textbook ( u n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) . Winer, B. 1962. S t a t i s t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s i n E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n . M c G r a w - H i l l . New York. Wood, R.L. 1961. A t t r i t i o n as a C r i t e r i o n f o r E v a l u a t i o n of Non-C r e d i t C o l l e g e Reading Programs. J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g . 5:27-35. Wooster, G. 1953. T e a c h i n g the SQ3R Method o f Study: An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the I n s t r u c t i o n a l Approach ( u n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) . W r i g h t , J.C. 1962. A C l a s s r o o m D e m o n s t r a t i o n f o r M o t i v a t i o n a l P u r p o s e s . J o u r n a l o f Reading. 5:282-283. APPENDIX A STUDY METHODS PROCEDURES 73 POPRADR "POPRADR" i s a h i g h e r ' L e v e l study d e s i g n e d to g i v e the s t u d e n t an o r g a n i z e d approach to h i s ^ r e a d i n g by h a v i n g him produce a non-l i n e a r o u t l i n e o f the m a t e r i a l . As w e l l as t h i s , the OP f u n c t i o n s as' a s e t of no t e s i n t h a t i t p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t v i s u a l r e c a l l p a t t e r n showing the i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the r e l e v a n t d a t a i n 'the m a t e r i a l r e a d . P -- PRE-READING. T h i s i n v o l v e s two p r o c e d u r e s : (a) o v e r -view o f the m a t e r i a l , l o o k i n g a t the t i t l e , a u t h o r , t a b l e o f c o n t e n t s , ' b l u r b s ' , p r e f a c e , e t c . T h i s amounts to be a g e n e r a l ' p s y c h i n g o u t ' o f the book, a r t i c l e o r c h a p t e r ; (b) p r e - v i e w skim the m a t e r i a l r e a d the f i r s t and l a s t p a r a g r a p h and the f i r s t ( t o p i c ) sentence o f each i n t e r v e n i n g p a r a g r a p h . Note b o l d f a c e h e a d i n g s , i t a l i c i z e d t y p e , e t c . The r e a d e r i s l o o k i n g f o r the main i d e a s and any major s t a t e m e n t s about them. Now produce the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n . OP -- ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN. The OP takes the f o l l o w i n g form a t t h i s s t a g e . THEME ( T i t l e ) T h i s v i s u a l p a t t e r n , based on the i n f o r m a t i o n e x t r a c t e d d u r i n g p r e - r e a d i n g , r e f l e c t s the a u t h o r ' s purpose and o r g a n i z a t i o n . (The 'why' and 'how' of the a r t i c l e ) . With t h i s m e a n i n g f u l framework o u t -l i n e d the r e a d e r can now p r o c e e d to the next s t e p . 74 R -- READ. Because he has a c l e a r image of the a u t h o r ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n (and p u r p o s e , o r t h e s i s ) the r e a d e r can now r e a d more p u r p o s e f u l l y ; he can read to e l a b o r a t e upon the b a s i c main i d e a s and secondary i d e a s . AD ADD. Having read the m a t e r i a l the r e a d e r now can add the d e t a i l to the OP. • J N/ 2nd i d e a ty • / THEME Depending upon the purpose of the r e a d e r , i e . whether o r not he w i s h e s to master the m a t e r i a l or j u s t o b t a i n a s u p e r f i c i a l view of i t , t h r e e m o d i f i c a t i o n s may be made to have p r o c e d u r e s . F o r Complete M a s t e r y : (1) A f t e r the ' p r e - r e a d ' , c o n s t r u c t the i n i t i a l OP w i t h o u t l o o k i n g a t the m a t e r i a l ; (2) F o r 'read', the m a t e r i a l maybe overview-skimmed to f u r t h e r a s c e r t a i n what s e c t i o n s a r e most r e l e v a n t . These may then be r e a d t h o r o u g h l y ; (3) F o r 'add', the r e a d e r may r e a d the m a t e r i a l and then add o r add as he r e a d s . However, f o r a h i g h l y d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t one s e c t i o n ( o r main i d e a ) a t a time may be r e a d and then added to the OP w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e to the m a t e r i a l . 75 STEPS IN THE SQ3R METHOD The t i t l e f o r t h i s new h i g h e r - l e v e l study s k i l l i s a b b r e v i a t e d i n the c u r r e n t f a s h i o n to make i t e a s i e r to remember and to make r e f e r e n c e to i t more s i m p l e . The symbols SQ3R st a n d f o r the s t e p s which the s t u d e n t f o l l o w s i n u s i n g the method; a d e s c r i p t i o n of each of these s t e p s i s g i v e n below: SURVEY 1 . Glance o v e r the h e a dings i n the c h a p t e r to see the main p o i n t s which w i l l be d e v e l o p e d . A l s o r e a d the f i n a l summary par a g r a p h i f the c h a p t e r has one. T h i s s u r v e y s h o u l d not take more than a minute and w i l l show the t h r e e to s i x c o r e i d e a s around which the d i s c u s s i o n w i l l c l u s t e r . T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n w i l l h e l p you o r g a n i z e the i d e a s as you r e a d them l a t e r . QUESTION 2. Now b e g i n to work. T u r n the f i r s t h e a d i n g i n t o a q u e s t i o n . T h i s w i l l arouse your c u r i o s i t y and so i n c r e a s e comprehension. I t w i l l b r i n g to mind i n f o r -m a tion a l r e a d y known, thus h e l p i n g you to u n d e r s t a n d t h a t s e c t i o n more q u i c k l y . And the q u e s t i o n w i l l make i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s s t a n d out w h i l e e x p l a n a t o r y d e t a i l i s r e c o g n i z e d as such. T u r n i n g a h e a d i n g i n t o a q u e s t i o n can be done i n s t a n t l y upon r e a d i n g the h e a d i n g , but i t demands a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t on the p a r t o f the r e a d e r to make t h i s a query f o r which he must read to f i n d the answer. READ 3. Read to answer t h a t q u e s t i o n , i e . , to the end of the f i r s t headed s e c t i o n . T h i s i s not a p a s s i v e p l o d d i n g a l o n g each l i n e , but an a c t i v e s e a r c h f o r the answer. RECITE 4. H a v i n g r e a d the f i r s t s e c t i o n , l o o k away from the book and t r y b r i e f l y to r e c i t e the answer to your q u e s t i o n . Use your own words, and i n c l u d e an example. I f you can do t h i s you know what i s i n the book; i f you c a n ' t , g l a n c e over the s e c t i o n a g a i n . An e x c e l l e n t way to do t h i s r e c i t i n g from memory i s to j o t down cue p h r a s e s i n o u t l i n e form on a sheet of p a p e r . Make these notes v e r y b r i e f ! Now r e p e a t s t e p s 2, 3, and 4 on each subsequent headed s e c t i o n . T hat i s , t u r n the next h e a d i n g i n t o a q u e s t i o n , r e a d to answer t h a t q u e s t i o n , and r e c i t e the answer by j o t t i n g down cue p h r a s e s i n your o u t l i n e . Read i n t h i s way u n t i l the e n t i r e l e s s o n i s completed. 76 REVIEW 5 . When the l e s s o n has thus been c o m p l e t e l y r e a d , l o o k over your n o t e s to g e t a b i r d ' s - e y e v iew o f the p o i n t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p and check your memory as to the c o n t e n t by r e c i t i n g on the major s u b - p o i n t s under each h e a d i n g . T h i s c h e c k i n g o f memory can be done by c o v e r -i n g up the notes and t r y i n g to r e c a l l the main p o i n t s . Then expose each major p o i n t and t r y to r e c a l l the s u b p o i n t s l i s t e d under i t . These f i v e s t e p s o f the Survey Q3R Method -- Survey, Q u e s t i o n , Read, R e c i t e , and Review -- when p o l i s h e d i n t o a smooth and e f f i c i e n t method s h o u l d r e s u l t i n the s t u d e n t r e a d i n g f a s t e r , p i c k i n g out the im p o r t a n t p o i n t s , and f i x i n g them i n memory. The s t u d e n t w i l l f i n d one o t h e r w o r t h w h i l e outcome: Qu i z q u e s t i o n s w i l l seem h a p p i l y f a m i l i a r because the h e a d i n g s t u r n e d i n t o q u e s t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y the p o i n t s emphasized i n q u i z z e s . In p r e d i c t i n g a c t u a l q u i z q u e s t i o n s and l o o k i n g up the answers b e f o r e h a n d , the s t u d e n t f e e l s t h a t he i s e f f e c t i v e l y s t u d y i n g the m a t e r i a l c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n a c o u r s e . 77 THREE-LEVEL OUTLINING METHOD The term " t h r e e l e v e l s " i n t h i s method r e f e r s t o : (a) The f i r s t l e v e l , and the h i g h e s t l e v e l - the c h a p t e r t i t l e . (b) The second l e v e l - the s e c t i o n h e a d i n g s . ( c ) The t h i r d l e v e l - the sub h e a d i n g s . T h r e e - l e v e l o u t l i n i n g c o n s i s t s o f c o n s t r u c t i n g an o u t l i n e o f a c h a p t e r a c c o r d i n g to f i v e simple r u l e s . Rule I Always go to the Three L e v e l s Rule I I Have from two to f i v e S e c t i o n Headings Rule I I I Have from two to f i v e Sub-Headings p e r S e c t i o n Rule IV Copy e v e r y word o f the Headings Rule V Stay on the l e f t s i d e o f your paper f o r the rough d r a f t . Complete the f i n a l d r a f t on the r i g h t s i d e o f your paper S t e p s i n T h r e e - L e v e l O u t l i n i n g Step 1. Count the Headings and Copy them down -- note i f t h e r e a r e more than f i v e t o p - l e v e l s e c t i o n h e a d i n g s . (a) F i r s t l o o k a t the t i t l e o f the c h a p t e r and ask y o u r s e l f --" I f I were w r i t i n g a c h a p t e r on t h i s s u b j e c t what would I i n c l u d e ? " A f t e r t h i n k i n g about i t a s t u d e n t i s much more s e n s i t i v e to the c o n t e n t of the c h a p t e r . As you read the h e a d i n g s you t h i n k - "Yes, I would i n c l u d e t h a t " o r " I never thought o f t h a t " . (b) You r e a c t more to the h e a d i n g s and a r e more i n t e r e s t e d , t h e r e f o r e , you pay more a t t e n t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d and remember the m a t e r i a l more e a s i l y . Step 2. Group the Headings as N e c e s s a r y --(a) T h i s r u l e i s r e q u i r e d i n c h a p t e r s w i t h more than f i v e t o p - l e v e l s e c t i o n h e a d i n g s or more than f i v e sub-headings i n any s e c t i o n . The s t u d e n t s groups h i s headings and sub-headings so as to have not more than f i v e major s e c t i o n h e a d i n g s and not more than f i v e sub-headings under each. Step 3 . S u b - d i v i d e the headings as n e c e s s a r y -s e p a r a t e p r o c e d u r e s : - t h i s r e f e r s to two 78 (a) When a c h a p t e r has no sub-headings, the s t u d e n t s must make them up. A minimum of two i s r e q u i r e d . (b) I f , upon c a r e f u l r e a d i n g o f the c h a p t e r , the s t u d e n t f i n d s the a u t h o r has r e a l l y d e a l t w i t h two t o p i c s under one s u b - h e a d i n g s , he s h o u l d d i v i d e the s u b j e c t s i n t o two a p p r o p r i a t e s u b - h e a d i n g s . (a) T h i s means l o o k i n g a t each group o f sub-headings and d e c i d i n g whether i t i s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by i t s s e c t i o n h e a d i n g . (a) T u r n the paper o v e r and w r i t e i t o u t . You can t r y i t m e n t a l l y f i r s t . (b) The s t u d e n t s h o u l d take the time to l e a r n as much, as p o s s i b l e from t h i s s t u d y s i n c e i t can be h i s most p r o f i t a b l e p o i n t i n h i s study as the b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the c h a p t e r i s c l e a r l y l e a r n e d . From then on he i s working from a f a m i l i a r o u t l i n e and r e l a t i n g p e r t i n e n t f a c t s to i t from n o t e s and r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s . ( c ) Whatever study method i s used the s t u d e n t s h o u l d r e v i e w h i s n o t e s from time to ti m e . (d) F o r some, a s i n g l e r e v i e w b e f o r e an e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l be enough, f o r o t h e r s , p e r i o d i c r e v i e w s make f o r b e t t e r and more permanent remembering. Step 4 . Add up the New Headings and Copy Them Down Step 5. Reproduce the O u t l i n e from Memory C o n c l u s i o n With the T h r e e - L e v e l O u t l i n i n g t h i s means r e p r o d u c i n g the o u t l i n e from memory. I f you c a n ' t do i t , the c h a p t e r i s f a d i n g and you must r e - s t u d y the rough and f i n a l d r a f t s . APPENDIX B INFORMAL ASSESSMENT MATERIALS L e n g t h : L350 words R e a d a b i l i t y S c o r e : 35 Number VII-19 80 LIGHTNING IN A NUTSHELL The Magic Of E l e c t r o n i c s E l e c t r o n s are everywhere! They form the p i c t u r e s on your t e l e v i s i o n s c r e e n ; they c a r r y the music through your h i - f i s e t ; e v e r y time you g e t your f e e t wet i n a t h u n d e r s t o r m , t h e y ' r e s p l a s h i n g a l l around you; t h e y ' r e b e h i n d the cause of the r i c h brown suntan t h a t you g e t on the beach each summer; they even f l o w a b u n d a n t l y i n and out of s t a r s g o o g o l l i a n s of m i l e s away from you i n space. I t took a l o n g time f o r men to u n d e r s t a n d these t h i n g s , but when they d i d , a new branch of e n g i n e e r i n g was b o r n — e l e c t r o n i c s . The f u t u r e o f e l e c t r o n i c s abounds w i t h magic — l i k e the lamp the g e n i e gave to A l a d d i n ; i f you h a n d l e i t the r i g h t way, t h e r e i s no w i s h too f a n t a s t i c to be g r a n t e d . So what i s t h i s m a g i c a l e l e c t r o n i c s ? E l e c t r o n i c s i s a b r a n c h o f s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g which e x p l a i n s and e x p l o i t s the magic of e l e c t r o n s f o r the use of mankind, but what are e l e c t r o n s ? As Joseph J . Thom-son d i s c o v e r e d , they a r e l i g h t w e i g h t c h a r g e s of nega-t i v e e l e c t r i c i t y t h a t n e u t r a l i z e the h e a v i e r p o s i t i v e e l e c t r i c a l c h a r g e s i n e v e r y atom. James Chadwick, an E n g l i s h p h y s i c i s t , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h i s a tomic c o r e o r n u c l e u s a l s o c o n t a i n s even h e a v i e r p a r t i c l e s c a l l e d n e u t r o n s because they a r e n e u t r a l and have no e l e c t r i c a l c h a r g e . F o r h i s w o r l d s h a t t e r i n g d i s c o v e r y o f the n e u t r o n . Chadwick r e -c e i v e d the Nobel P r i z e i n 1935. The p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e o f the n e u t r o n had been p o s t u l a t e d by L o r d E r n e s t R u t h e r f o r d i n 1920, but Chadwick's b r i l l i a n t e x p e r i -m ental work was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s d i s c o v e r y . The e l e c t r o n ' s charge was f i r s t measured by Robert M i l l i k a n , and i t was proposed as a k i n d o f s h e l l to the atom by N i e l s Bohr. A l b e r t E i n s t e i n i n f e r r e d (and i t was l a t e r proved) t h a t e l e c t r o n s , as w e l l as p r o t o n s and n e u t r o n s , become h e a v i e r the f a s t e r they a r e made to t r a v e l , but o f the t h r e e b a s i c subatomic p a r t i c l e s , the e l e c t r o n c o u l d be i m p e l l e d to the h i g h e s t speeds by f a r . S i n c e the e l e c t r o n i s o n l y one-2000th as heavy as the p r o t o n and the n e u t r o n , i t can be a c c e l e r a t e d v e r y n e a r l y to the speed of l i g h t by energy s o u r c e s t h a t e n g i n e e r s have been a b l e to b u i l d . The A p p l i c a t i o n o f E l e c t r o n s How do you a c c e l e r a t e an i n v i s i b l e , i n f i n i t e s i m a l speck o f m a t t e r ? Because i t has an e l e c t r i c a l c h a r g e , i t can be a c c e l e r a t e d by a magentic f i e l d o r a n o t h e r -2-81 e l e c t r i c a l c h a r g e . E l e c t r o m a g n e t s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h c h a r g e d p l a t e s a r e used i n t e l e v i s i o n p i c t u r e tubes t o gui d e beams of e l e c t r o n s to the s c r e e n . As the e l e c -t r o n s s t r i k e the s c r e e n i n a p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n , the s c r e e n glows i n t e r m i t t e n t l y to produce a p i c t u r e . A c c e l e r a t e d e l e c t r o n s produce the l i g h t i n f l u o r -e s c e n t lamps and neon s i g n s , and the o p p o s i t e ap-p r o a c h works t oo, f o r the energy i n a beam of l i g h t f a l l i n g on c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s can cause e l e c t r o n s to f l o w i n the m a t e r i a l s , t h i s l a t t e r e f f e c t b e i n g the one t h a t makes s o l a r c e l l s g e n e r a t e e l e c t r i c i t y . There a r e many k i n d s o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c r a d i a t i o n , some v i s i b l e ( l i g h t ) and some i n v i s i b l e ( r a d i o , i n f r a -r e d , u l t r a v i o l e t , and x - r a y ) to the human eye. Each k i n d can be used to g e n e r a t e or t r a n s f e r some type o f energy — e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c , e l e c t r i c a l , t h e r m a l o r m e c h a n i c a l — by f o c u s i n g o r d i r e c t i n g i t i n t o a gas, a l i q u i d or a s o l i d . By e x p l o i t a t i o n o f such phenomena e n g i n e e r s have made c e r t a i n c r y s t a l s i n t o t r a n s i s t o r s t h a t d e t e c t and a m p l i f y r a d i o i m p u l s e s , o p e n i n g a whole new f i e l d — s o l i d - s t a t e e l e c t r o n i c s . The same phenomena have made m i c r o m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n p o s s i b l e , when d i f f e r e n t s o l i d m a t e r i a l s are " f u s e d " t o g e t h e r , each r e s p o n d i n g d i f f e r e n t l y . By j o i n i n g t o g e t h e r the r i g h t c o m b i n a t i o n , you can b u i l d a r a d i o r e c e i v e r ( o r t r a n s m i t t e r , or computer u n i t , e t c . ) the s i z e of a m a t c h s t i c k o r s m a l l e r , l i k e l i g h t n i n g c o n t a i n e d i n a n u t s h e l l ! The t o t a l range o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves c o v e r s the h i g h e r energy gamma, X- and u l t r a - v i o l e t r a d i a -t i o n s a l l the c o l o r s o f the rainbow from deep v i o l e t to deep r e d i n v i s i b l e l i g h t , through the lower energy i n f r a r e d , microwave and l o n g e r r a d i o r a d i a t i o n s . A l l of these have a p p l i c a t i o n s i n e l e c t r o n i c s , and most o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e s t i l l undreamed. The b r a i n and nervous system are themselves e l e c -t r o n i c - l i k e , a f a c t t h a t forms the b a s i s o f a new f i e l d o f i n t e r e s t to r e s e a r c h e n g i n e e r s c a l l e d c y b e r n e t i c s , which c o n c e n t r a t e s on a stu d y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s human " e l e c t r o n i c " network and man-made machines. A new s c h o o l o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s has been i n s p i r e d by e l e c t r o n i c s to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i -b i l i t i e s o f what they c a l l "SBS," which s t a n d s f o r " S y n t h e t i c B e h a v i o r Systems" and has as i t s g o a l the development o f e l e c t r o n i c machines based on human b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s — machines t h a t t h i n k f o r them-s e l v e s and l e a r n from t h e i r own m i s t a k e s . E n g i n e e r s w o r k i n g i n t h i s same a r e a c a l l t h e i r o b j e c t i v e " A r t i f i c i a l I n t e l l i g e n c e . " Machines u s i n g these c o n c e p t s c o u l d be s e n t o f f to the moon o r p l a n e t s to determine whether or how a human b e i n g c o u l d s u r v i v e t h e r e . -3-82 The Realm o f E l e c t r o n i c s What i s the domain o f e l e c t r o n i c s ? I t extends through a l l the s c i e n c e s , form b i o l o g y to astronomy; i t has c r e a t e d e n t i r e l y new and e x c i t i n g e n g i n e e r i n g f i e l d s ; i t i s v i t a l to the e x p l o r a t i o n o f o u t e r space; to i n d u s t r y , to m e d i c i n e , to communications; and most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t can be the b a s i s o f your own f u t u r e . How f a r can you go i n an e l e c t r o n i c s c a r e e r ? O n l y the laws o f n a t u r e can stop you — and new laws a r e always b e i n g d i s c o v e r e d . Someday you may d i s c o v e r one y o u r s e l f , o r you may a p p l y new laws to the i n v e n -t i o n o f new d e v i c e s . Or perhaps y o u ' l l uncover a new s l a n t on the o l d laws and e s t a b l i s h a b r e a k t h r o u g h l i k e t e l e v i s i o n , or r a d a r , o r the e l e c t r o n and i o n m i c r o s c o p e s . Whatever c a r e e r you choose i n the wide r e a l m o f e l e c t r o n i c s , whether as s c i e n t i s t , e n g i n e e r , t e a c h e r , t e c h n i c i a n , o r even salesman — y o u ' l l have e n d l e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to c o n t r i b u t e to mankind's p r o g r e s s and your own s a t i s f a c t i o n . S i n c e W o r l d War I I , e l e c t r o n i c s has expanded w i t h the l i g h t n i n g speed o f the p a r t i c l e s a f t e r which i t i s named. A c c o r d i n g to S e c r e t a r y o f Commerce L u t h e r Hodges, " D u r i n g the p a s t t e n y e a r s , the manufacture of e l e c t r o n i c s p r o d u c t s expanded tw i c e as f a s t as the ( t o t a l ) n a t i o n a l o u t p u t . . . r e s e a r c h and development i n e l e c t r o n i c s a c c o u n t e d f o r e x p e n d i t u r e s o f an e s t i -mated $2 b i l l i o n . . . . New s c i e n t i f i c knowledge l e d to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e n t i r e l y new e n t e r p r i s e s which d i d not e x i s t b e f o r e the war, o r e x i s t e d o n l y as l a b o r a t o r y c u r i o s i t i e s . .'. ." One b r e a k t h r o u g h l e a d s to a n o t h e r ; each f a n s outward l i k e a s e a r c h l i g h t beam to i l l u m i n a t e new i d e a s , new a p p l i c a t i o n s , new p r o d u c t s . I n e l e c t r o n i c s you w i l l be wo r k i n g a t new f r o n t i e r s , w i t h the most p o w e r f u l and s t i m u l a t i n g f o r c e s o f na t u r e — e l e c -t r i c i t y , magnetism, and the m y s t e r i o u s " g l u e " t h a t h o l d s t o g e t h e r the p a r t s o f an atomic n u c l e u s . Is t h e r e a f u t u r e i n e l e c t r o n i c s ? The U n i v e r s e i t s e l f i s y our o n l y l i m i t ! From: I n c r e a s i n g Reading E f f i c i e n c y R e v i s e d E d i t i o n L y l e L. M i l l e r pp 281-82 LIGHTNING IN A NUTSHELL ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS 83 1. T o t a l time used r e a d i n g and d e v e l o p i n g your study t e c h n i q u e . 2. Number o f C o r r e c t Answers __, . 3. Q u e s t i o n s -True F a l s e 1. E l e c t r o n i c s i s an a r e a o f s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g which e x p l a i n s and e x p l o i t s the magic o f e l e c t r o n s to b e n e f i t mankind. 2. Joseph J . Thomson d i s c o v e r e d t h a t e l e c t r o n s are l i g h t -w eight c h a r g e s o f p o s i t i v e e l e c t r i c i t y t h a t n e u t r a l i z e the h e a v i e r n e g a t i v e c h a r g e s i n the atom. 3. The e l e c t r o n can be a c c e l e r a t e d to g r e a t e r speeds than e i t h e r the n e u t r o n o r p r o t o n because: (1) i t has a n e u t r a l charge and i s h i g h l y f l e x i b l e . (2) more i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e i n r e l a t i o n to the e l e c t r o n . (3) the e l e c t r o n i s much l i g h t e r than the p r o t o n o r the n e u t r o n . (4) the e l e c t r o n becomes l i g h t e r as i t s speed i s a c c e l e r a t e d . 4. An example o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c r a d i a t i o n v i s i b l e to the human eye i s . 5. The phenomena which a l l o w e n g i n e e r s to d e v e l o p t r a n -s i s t o r s have opened a new f i e l d — s o l i d s t a t e e l e c t r o n i c s . 6 . The f i e l d o f c y b e r n e t i c s i n v o l v e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the m i c r o m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n phenomenon. 7. The g o a l o f the r e s e a r c h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the "SBS" i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s : (1) to d i s c o v e r a h i g h e r energy gamma r a d i a t i o n (2) to de v e l o p a method o f f u s i n g t o g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t s o l i d m a t e r i a l s . (3) to i n c r e a s e knowledge o f s o l i d - s t a t e e l e c t r o n i c s . (4) to de v e l o p e l e c t r o n i c machines based on human b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s . 8. The domain o f e l e c t r o n i c s extends t h r o u g h o u t a l l the , from b i o l o g y to astronomy. 9. In the p a s t t e n y e a r s the manufacture o f e l e c t r o n i c p r o d u c t s expanded h a l f as r a p i d l y as the t o t a l n a t i o n a l o u t p u t . 10. E l e c t r o n i c s i s a d e s i r a b l e a r e a o f o c c u p a t i o n because i t i s as u n l i m i t e d as the u n i v e r s e . 84 U_m THESE PACKS..TO..DEVELOP \OUa STUDY TECHNIQUE 85 ) Length: 1350 Read a b i l i t y Score:35 Number VI - 18 86 E l e c t r o n i c s — Y o u r Chance to Shape the Future Career horizons unlimited! In science and engineering nowadays there i s an often used word. That word Is " e x o t i c . " Exotic implies something strange and wonderful. Career op-p o r t u n i t i e s i n e l e c t r o n i c s promise to be e x o t i c . In f a c t , new opportunities c o n t i n u a l l y a r i s e — not only f o r the c r e a t i v e s c i e n t i s t and engineer, but for every eager searcher whatever h i s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s may be. The s i t u a t i o n i s almost p a r a l l e l to that time-worn dream of romantic inventors — perpetual motion. It works t h i s way. Laboratory experiments require new kinds of e l e c t r o n i c instruments that develop into new f i e l d s of gadgetry which branch out i n t o new d i s c o v e r i e s about the laws of nature that lead to new kinds of industry which again branch out i n t o new household conveniences, more e f f e c t i v e methods of communication, better ways to c o n t r o l i l l n e s s e s , safer and f a s t e r t r a v e l , more e f f i c e i n t techniques i n education, more lu x u r i e s to enjoy cheaper products through automatic mass-production,'., speedier ways to solve complex problems, highly accurate a i r de-fense and alarm systems to assure your s e c u r i t y , as well as an o v e r - a l l Increase of p r e c i s i o n throughout almost every endeavor stimulated by modern s o c i e t y . A few examples are automatic p i l o t s f o r a i r c r a f t and sea-going c r a f t , e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l s i n f a c t o r i e s , hear-ing a i d s , tape recorders, and manned s p a c e f l i g h t . The r a p i d and continuous a p p l i c a t i o n of e l e c t r o n i c s provides jobs for everyone: s c i e n t i s t s and engineers evolve new p r i n c i p l e s , engineers design devices based on those p r i n c i p l e s , technicians and craftsmen use t h e i r s k i l l s to construct the devices, salesmen see that the devices are d i s t r i b u t e d , f i e l d technicians i n s t a l l and maintain the devices, and teachers t r a i n students i n a l l of these techniques. As an e l e c t r o n i c s s p e c i a l i s t , you can be involved i n che excitement of b u i l d i n g and operating analog or d i g i t a l computers, giant radar i n s t a l l a t i o n s , micro-wave r e l a y systems that span the continent, m i s s i l e tracking and detection systems as w e l l as automatic countdown systems f o r checking out and launching the big " b i r d s , " radio telescopes at the great observa-t o r i e s , t e l e v i s i o n transmitters and cameras (both black and white and f u l l c olor) and perhaps one day stereophonic I n s t a l l a t i o n s at FM radio s t a t i o n s , and remote-control handling systems i n the nuclear or i n d u s t r i a l manufacturing f i e l d s . These are only random choices of challenging a c t i v i t i e s that are a v a i l a b l e f o r -2-87 you today. Tomorrow's w i l l be even more e x t e n s i v e . A s t r i o n i c s Someday men a r e g o i n g to l a n d on the moon and p l a n e t s to c o l o n i z e those a l i e n b o d i e s . They w i l l be a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s m a i n l y b ecause of a new b r a n c h i n e l e c t r o n i c s . A s t r i o n i c s i s t h e f i e l d o f a p p l i c a -t i o n o f the e l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n o l o g y I n v o l v e d w i t h s p a c e f l i g h t , j u s t as a v i o n i c s i s the f i e l d of a p p l i c a t i o n of e l e c t r o n i c s t o f l i g h t w i t h i n t h e E a r t h ' s atmosphere. In each c a s e e l e c t r o n i c s p r o v i d e s n a v i g a t i o n a l and c o n t r o l equipment t h a t p e r f o r m s t a s k s w i t h p r e c i s i o n and speed beyond t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f human b e i n g s . E l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s a l s o a s s u r e communications t h a t g i v e the p i l o t and crew v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e i s o l a t i o n and w arning of a m a l f u n c t i o n to t h e c r a f t . A s t r i o n i c s f u r t h e r i n c l u d e s an e n t i r e l y new a r e a t h a t I s j u s t now g e t t i n g under way: s a t e l l i t e communications system. T h e r e w i l l be e l e c t r o n i c r e p e a t e r - s t a t i o n s i n s pace t h a t can r e l a y v o i c e , t e l e v i s i o n , f a c s i m i l e and t e l e t y p e s i g n a l s from any one p o i n t i n t h e w o r l d t o d i s t a n t p o i n t s . They w i l l be u n a f f e c t e d by weather c o n d i t i o n s on E a r t h or m a g n e t i c storms on the Sun, because they w i l l use microwave r a d i o . A n o t h e r young and r a p i d l y growing t e c h n o l o g y , t h i s uses e l e c t r o -m a g n e t i c waves of s u c h s h o r t w a v e l e n g t h t h a t they can pass t h r o u g h the spaces between r a i n d r o p s o r e l e c t r i f i e d p a r t i c l e s In the gases of the upper atmos-phere. A l r e a d y e x p e r i m e n t a l models of t h e s e r e -p e a t e r - s t a t i o n s have been s u c c e s s f u l l y o r b i t e d i n s p a c e . I n t e l l e c t r o n i c s As t h i s c o i n e d word i m p l i e s , i t d e s c r i b e s a n o t h e r new f i e l d of e l e c t r o n i c s — the p r o c e s s i n g and s t o r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n . U l t i m a t e l y , a l l i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t l y s t o r e d i n books may be much more e f f i c i e n t l y s t o r e d by e l e c t r o n i c means. T h i s would have a p o w e r f u l e f f e c t on the p r o c e s s e s of e d u c a t i o n — s i n c e a t t h e push of a b u t t o n , so to speak, any k i n d o f s p e c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n on whatever s u b j e c t c o u l d be r e t r i e v e d and d i s p l a y e d i n a m a t t e r of seconds. C e r t a i n l y t h i s would be a g r e a t h e l p to you i n r e s e a r c h i n g a theme pape r . I t would a l s o h e l p your t e a c h e r d e v i s e ways to b u i l d up your background of knowledge f a s t e r . The s c i e n t i s t , e n g i n e e r , and t e c h n i c i a n t o o , would be saved a v a s t amount of v a l u a b l e time t h a t they now use up i n s e a r c h i n g t h r o u g h t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r s o l u t i o n s to problems. I n t e l l e c t r o n i c s i s a wide-open f i e l d to t h o s e of you w i t h a m a t h e m a t i c a l bent. I t depends upon the development of new approaches to I n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y , c o m p u t e r - l o g i c , and on non-88 -3-l i n e a r d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n s . Y e t those o f you who l i k e to t i n k e r e x p e r i m e n t a l l y , b u i l d g a d g e t s , or a r e c u r i o u s about n a t u r a l phenomena a l s o have a p l a c e i n I n t e l l e c t r o n i c s . Low t e m p e r a t u r e e l e c t r o n i c s — C r y o g e n i c s T h i s I s the r e a l m of e x t r e m e l y low-temperature phenomena (sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as c r y o g e n i c s ) . I t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i n e l e c t r o n i c s , s i n c e e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e s as t e m p e r a t u r e d r o p s lower and lower. At the temperature of l i q u i d h e l i u m some m e t a l s become s u p e r c o n d u c t o r s . The g e n e r a l r e a s o n i s t h a t almost a l l t h e atoms which form t h e -material c e a s e t h e i r t h e r m a l v i b r a t i o n s i n c r y s t a l l i n e l a t t i c e s t r u c t u r e s and o f f e r v i r t u a l l y no r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e passage of e l e c t r o n s from one to a n o t h e r . C r y o g e n i c e l e c t r o n i c s c o u l d be your d i s h , i f you have an e x p l o r i n g k i n d of mind t h a t l i k e s t o d e l v e i n t o the p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f n a t u r e and a d a p t them to u s e f u l work on new l e v e l s . Take your c h o i c e ; you can be e i t h e r an e l e c t r o n i c s p h y s i c i s t o r e l e c t r o n i c s e n g i n e e r and s t i l l f i n d a p l a c e i n c r y o g e n i c s . MHD and plasma e l e c t r o n i c s "MHD" s t a n d s f o r magnetohydrodynamics. I t d e a l s w i t h t h e m o t i o n of an e l e c t r i c a l l y c o n d u c t i n g f l u i d i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a magnetic f i e l d . A plasma i s a gaseous m i x t u r e o f c h a r g e d p a r t i c l e s — n e g a t i v e e l e c t r o n s and p o s i t i v e l y c harged m o l e c u l e s of gas. A f t e r a c c e l e r a t i o n by a m a g n e t i c f i e l d t h e s e p a r t i c l e s p o s s e s s enormous e n e r g i e s , e v i d e n c e d by k i n e t i c t e m p e r a t u r e s of thousands to m i l l i o n s of d e g r e e s . The t h e r m o n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n p o s s i b l e w i t h t h i s phe-nomenon c o u l d l e a d t o the d i r e c t c o n v e r s i o n of m a t t e r i n t o e l e c t r i c i t y . D e s i g n e r s a r e a l r e a d y a t work on MHD e n g i n e s f o r space s h i p s . Such e n g i n e s c o u l d a c c e l e r a t e a space c r a f t to h a l f the speed of l i g h t . Other t y p e s of space e n g i n e s b e i n g a c t i v e l y worked upon by e l e c t r o n i c s e n g i n e e r s i n c l u d e e l e c t r o s t a t i c as w e l l as i o n - d r i v e n ones. The problems i n v o l v e d w i t h MHD a r e f o r m i d a b l e . U l t r a h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s can be m a i n t a i n e d f o r but b r i e f f r a c t i o n s o f a second. The problem of c o n f i n i n g t h e h i g h temperature plasma by a m a g n e t i c f i e l d I s w a i t i n g t o be s o l v e d . E l e c t r o n i c s a t home A f t e r a l l t h i s t a l k about e x t r e m e l y low and ex-t r e m e l y h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s , i t may appear r a t h e r p r o s a i c to d i s c u s s e l e c t r o n i c s i n the home. Yet i t ' s not p r o s a i c a t a l l , f o r e l e c t r o n i c s i s e x c i t i n g i n a l l of -4-89 i t s many forms. I n c r e a s i n g l y , e l e c t r o n i c s e n g i n e e r s have been c r e a t i n g more and more a u t o m a t i c d e v i c e s f o r t h e home. With the tremendous advances made i n m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n t h r o u g h s o l i d - s t a t e e l e c t r o n i c s much equipment can be packed i n t o a s m a l l space. N o r m a l l y , h i - f i a m p l i f i e r s r e q u i r e a r e a s c o v e r i n g o n e - h a l f to one f u l l s q uare f o o t o f space. M i c r o -m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n has made i t p o s s i b l e to produce an a m p l i f i e r i n a space no l a r g e r than a dime. An e n t i r e computing system can be b u i l t i n t o a c u b i c f o o t o r l e s s . C a r e e r summary Because e l e c t r o n i c s forms a v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t s u s -t a i n i n g p a r t of so many o t h e r a r e a s o f endeavor, i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e h e r e to make a j o b - b y - j o b l i s t i n g of a l l a v a i l a b l e p o s i t i o n s . Most e l e c t r o n i c s work i s u s u a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d by teams. A g i v e n p r o j e c t may o f f e r work to p e r s o n s r a n g i n g i n edu-c a t i o n from h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e to D o c t o r o f S c i e n c e o r P h i l o s o p h y . In terms of v a r i e d s k i l l s , e l e c t r o n i c s runs the gamut from f a c t o r y a s s e m b l y - l i n e to r e s e a r c h e n g i n e e r s . In terms o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t h e r e a r e v a s t a r e a s of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n i n d u s t r y and the m i l i t a r y . In terms o f s a l a r i e s , t h o s e i n the e l e c -t r o n i c s i n d u s t r y a r e w e l l above t h o s e of t e c h n i c a l i n d u s t r y i n g e n e r a l . E l e c t r o n i c s i s moving f o r w a r d a t such a pace t h a t a l e r t , w e l l - t r a i n e d and i n t e r e s t e d p e o p l e must be found to h e l p b o t h the m i l i t a r y and I n d u s t r y keep up w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s . T r a i n i n g may be e i t h e r academic or t e c h n i c a l o r b o t h . Such t r a i n i n g most a s s u r e d l y r e q u i r e s a s o l i d and w e l l - p l a n n e d h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n as a b a s i s w i t h a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g and t i n k e r i n g on your own. Record Reading Time From: I n c r e a s i n g Reading E f f i c i e n c y R e v i s e d E d i t i o n L y l e M i l l e r . pp231-233 90 ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS The t o t a l time u<-.ed r e a d i n g and d e v e l o p i n g your s t u d y t e c h n i q u e Number of C o r r e c t Answers Q u e s t i o n s -1. The way In which new o p p o r t u n i t i e s c o n t i n u a l l y a r i s e i n the f i e l d o f e l e c t r o n i c s may be compared to the i n v e n t o r ' s dream o f : (1) l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s . (2) a u t o m a t i c mass p r o d u c t i o n . (3) p e r p e t u a l m o t i o n . (4) manned space f l i g h t . 2. An e l e c t r o n i c s s p e c i a l i s t can be i n v o l v e d i n t h e e x c i t e m e n t of b u i l d i n g and o p e r a t i n g a n a l o g and d i g i t a l computers. T r u e F a l s e 3. i s t h e f i e l d o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e - e l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n o l o g y i n v o l v e d w i t h space f l i g h t . 4. I n t e l l e c t r o n i c s i n v o l v e s the new a r e a of s a t e l l i t e communications. True F a l s e 5. I n t e l l e c t r o n i c s i s a wise-open f i e l d to t h o s e w i t h a m a t h e m a t i c a l b e n t . True F a l s e 6. C r y o g e n i c s i s a f i e l d d e a l i n g w i t h e x t r e m e l y h i g h - t e m p e r a t u r e phenomena. True F a l s e 7. The t h e r m o n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n p o s s i b l e w i t h the "MHD" phenomenon c o u l d l e a d t o : (1) the d i r e c t , c o n v e r s i o n o f m a t t e r i n t o e l e c t r i c i t y . ( 2 ) the f o r m a t i o n of a gaseous m i x t u r e of c h a r g e d p a r t i c l e s . (3) t h e development o f a m a g n e t i c f i e l d . (4) the p r o d u c t i o n o f n e g a t i v e e l e c t r o n s . 8. E l e c t r o n i c s e n g i n e e r s a r e c r e a t i n g fewer and fewer d e v i c e s f o r the home. T r u e F a l s e 9. M i n i a t u r i z a t i o n I s t h e p r o c e s s which has made i t p o s s i b l e to produce many h o u s e h o l d d e v i c e s w h i c h f i t i n v e r y s m a l l p l a c e s . T r u e F a l s e 10. I n terms o f e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , most j o b s i n e l e c t r o n i c s r e q u i r e a t l e a s t a e d u c a t i o n . 91 .USE THESE PAGES TO DEVELOP YOUR STUDY TECHNIQUE 92 Length: 1350 words Re a d a b i l i t y Score: 41 Number VI-15 . 93 The Story of Western Union From smoke signals to t a l k i n g wires The streamlined telegraph era of today i s a f a r cry indeed from the p r i m i t i v e f i r e , smoke and f l a g s i g n a l s of early times. A thousand years before t h i s era of highspeed s e l e c t i v e switching systems, radio beam telegraphy and multi-channel, p r i n t i n g t e l e g -raphy, man wished f o r rapid communications. In medieval times, knights flashed t h e i r burnished s h i e l d s to communicate with each other. Argonauts used colored s a i l s on t h e i r ships to convey a meaning. The Greeks, Romans and Aztecs used r e l a y runners. In the days of J u l i u s Caesar, s e n t i n e l s were stationed i n towers at regular i n t e r v a l s to shout messages from one to the other, covering as much as 150 miles i n a few hours. The jungles of A f r i c a and i s l a n d s of the South P a c i f i c s t i l l echo with the throbbing of native tom-toms, or drums, to communicate with d i s t a n t v i l -lages. Our American Indians signaled by day with puffs of smoke, and at night by waving torches and shooting flaming arrows i n t o the sky. The huge fortune of the Rothschilds was made i n part through Information they obtained by use of c a r r i e r pigeons. Semaphore towers were used by George Washington during the Revolutionary War, and more than a century ago systems of Semaphore Towers, with arms that were moved to various p o s i t i o n s to convey messages, were b u i l t for hundreds of miles i n France, England and the United States. E a r l y forms of rapid communication, however, were a l l slow. Men con-s t a n t l y r e b e l l e d against the l i m i t a t i o n s of time and space. The f i r s t man to d i r e c t thought to the use of e l e c -t r i c i t y for communications was Roger Bacon, i n 1267, and he was put i n j a i l f o r twenty years f o r d e a l -ing i n black magic. The burgomaster of Magdeburg, Germany, Otto Von Guericke, made the f i r s t e l e c -t r i c i t y - p r o d u c i n g machine In 1650. It was a sulphur b a l l that he charged by rubbing his hands on i t , j u s t as we can charge our bodies by rubbing our fe e t on a t h i c k rug. Wood, of England, found i n 1726 that e l e c t r i c i t y could be conveyed by a metal conductor, and a few years l a t e r Gray and Wheeler sent e l e c t r i c i t y through 800 feet of wire. Thus the basic p r i n c i p l e of telegraphy was known more than 200 years ago. A f t e r that time, l i t e r a l l y hundreds of men c a r r i e d the knowledge of e l e c t r i c i t y forward, each adding something that helped In the invention of the t e l e --2- 94 graph. Oersted showed that current exerts a force which w i l l d e f l e c t a magnet; LaPlace advanced the idea that a magnetic needle might be d e f l e c t e d to receive messages at a great distance; and Ampere put magnetic needles at the ends of 26 wires, so that d e f l e c t i o n s would s i g n a l the l e t t e r s of the alphabet. In 1820 Baron S c h i l l i n g , a gay captain of Hussars i n the Russian Army, produced a telegraph which he operated by the use of f i v e magnetic needles. Harrison Grey Dyar operated a telegraph l i n e on Long Island, N.Y., In 1826. Joseph Henry, a school teacher at Albany (NY) Academy, operated an electromagnetic telegraph i n h i s room i n 1830 and '31. He also b u i l t a l i n e which he operated between two b u i l d i n g s at Princeton U n i v e r s i t y i n 1836. Gauss and Weber devised a simple magnetic telegraph i n 1833 at the U n i v e r s i t y of Goetingen, and S t e i n h e i l improved on t h e i r system i n 1836. In the following year, S i r Charles Wheatstone and S i r William Cooke obtained a patent i n England for t h e i r telegraph, the f i r s t i n England. Samuel F i n l e y Breese Morse The f i r s t r e a l l y p r a c t i c a l telegraph system was invented by Samuel F. B. Morse, a dis t i n g u i s h e d American painter who founded the National Academy of Design. Returning from a t r i p to Europe on board the Packet Ship " S u l l y " i n 1832, Morse received his great i n s p i r a t i o n . He r e a l i z e d that, i f he could trans-mit i n t e l l i g e n c e and record i t at a distance, he could r e v o l u t i o n i z e communications. He thought of signs which could be transmitted over a wire, and r e a l i z e d that the dot, dash and space were three s i g n a l s which could be e a s i l y communicated. Morse was appointed professor of the L i t e r a t u r e of the Arts of Design at New York U n i v e r s i t y i n 1835. This gave him a small s a l a r y , and provided the rooms i n Washington Square where he b u i l t h i s f i r s t telegraph instrument, a crude a f f a i r constructed on a p i c t u r e frame, with an ordinary lead p e n c i l suspended by a pendulum to make the dots and dashes. Morse demonstrated h i s f i r s t apparatus before a group of f r i e n d s i n h i s rooms at New York Uni-v e r s i t y on September 2, 1837. One of those present was A l f r e d V a i l , son of Judge Stephen V a i l , of the Speedwell Iron Works at Morristown, N.J. Young V a i l became Morse's partner, providing money and b u i l d i n g new and better Instruments. These i n s t r u -ments were shown before an audience i n the Geo-l o g i c a l Cabinet of the New York U n i v e r s i t y , January 24, 1838. General Thomas S. Cummings was present, 6 -3- 95 and when Morse asked f o r a message to be sent, a f r i e n d of Cummings wrote a facetious m i l i t a r y com-mand: "Attentions, the Universe! By Kingdoms, Right Wheel!" Morse exhibited the telegraph before President Van Buren and h i s Cabinet at Washington, D.C. Members of Congress c a l l e d i t a crazy scheme. Morse t r i e d f o r years to get Congress to appropriate money for an experimental l i n e , and f i n a l l y h i s b i l l was passed on March 3, 1843, News of the B i l l ' s pass-age was brought to him by Annie Ellsworth, daughter of the Commissioner of patents, and he gave Annie the honor of preparing the f i r s t telegram. The f i r s t telegraph l i n e , b u i l t between Washington, D. C. and Baltimore, was opened before a dis t i n g u i s h e d group i n the Supreme Court Chambers, on May 24 1844. The f i r s t telegram, handed to Morse by Annie Ellsworth, was "WHAT HATH GOD WROUGHT!" The experimental l i n e was exhibited f o r a year, but government o f f i c i a l s decided the telegraph was an i n t e r e s t i n g toy that never would earn enough money to support i t s e l f . Morse then persuaded a s k e p t i c a l p u b l i c to buy stock and finance the telegraph as a pri v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . The telegraph industry has been a p r i v a t e enterprise ever since, f a r outgrowing the subsidized, government-operated telegraph systems of for e i g n countries. More than a t h i r d of the world's telegraph mileage i s i n the United States. Morse and his associates extended the Washington-Baltimore telegraph l i n e to New York C i t y i n 1846. Others obtained l i c e n s e s from Morse and b u i l t l i n e s between New York and Buffalo, New York and Boston, and other eastern c i t i e s . Western Union now has over 2,500,000 miles of c a r r i e r system c i r -c u i t s , many of which carry as many as 288 messages simultaneously. Western Union — How i t started Over f i f t y telegraph companies were i n operation i n 1851 when a group of Rochester (NY) men led by Hiram Sibley, Ezra C o r n e l l , Samuel L. and Henry R. Selden organized to found the New York and Mis-s i s s i p p i V a l l e y P r i n t i n g Telegraph Company. Lines to operate the House P r i n t i n g Telegraph System, which printed the received message i n p l a i n Roman l e t t e r s instead of dots 3.nd d ashes, had been b u i l t p r i o r to 1850 between New York and Boston, and between New York and Ph i l a d e l p h i a . The group of Rochester men acquired r i g h t s to extend the House System throughout the United States. Thirteen other companies' were operating short l i n e s In the f i v e states north of the Ohio River. I t -4- 96 was not easy to send a telegram a great distance; i t had to be transferred from one l i n e to another and the charges of each l i n e had to be paid. Service was slow and u n r e l i a b l e . Two of these K n e s were sold for debt, and the others were i n such an impoverished condi t i o n that the New York and M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y Company bought them out. The Company was named Western Union Telegraph Company, i n d i -c ating the union of the western l i n e s i n one system, on A p r i l 4, 1856. This name was i n s i s t e d upon by Ezra C o r n e l l , pioneer l i n e b u i l d e r , who used a part of the telegraph fortune he made to found C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y . Western Union continued i t s p o l i c y of merging with other companies and b u i l d i n g new l i n e s , r a p i d l y extending telegraph service over the nation. This continued growth and expansion was ac-companied by study and research into the improve-ment of machines and serv i c e s . Consequently Western Union was able to provide better service to i t s cus-tomers with each passing year. Record Reading Time From: Increasing Reading E f f i c i e n c y Revised E d i t i o n Lyle M i l l e r , pp 219-221. 97 THE STORY OF WESTERN UNION ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS 1. The t o t a l time used reading and developing your study technique _ 2. Number of Correct Answers , 3. Questions -True 1. Which of the following methods of communications was not used in the e a r l y days? (1) Flashing of sunlight from s h i e l d s . (2) Coded colored s a i l s . (3) Sending messages by wire. (4) Shouting messages through s i g n a l s . 2. The one thing which a l l e a r l y forms of communication had i n common was that they were a l l . 3. E a r l y ideas of using e l e c t r i c i t y f o r communication brought accusations of black magic. 4. The basic p r i n c i p l e s of telegraphy were unknown before the 20th Century. 5. Samuel Morse invented the f i r s t r e a l l y p r a c t i c a l telegraph system. 6. The major c o n t r i b u t i o n which A l f r e d V a i l made to Morse's invention by h i s partnership was h i s f i n a n c i a l assistance. 7. Members of Congress were e n t h u s i a s t i c a f t e r Morse's demonstration i n Washington, D.C. 8. The money for the b u i l d i n g of the f i r s t experimental telegraph l i n e was provided by . 9. In 1851 there was only one major telegraphic company operating i n th'.' United States. 10. The, company which was the forerunner of Western Union was the: (1) New York and M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y Company. (2) House P r i n t i n g Telegraph Company. (3) Ohio River Telegraph Company. (4) Sibley — C o r n e l l — Selden Telegraph Company. 98 r 99 Length: 1350 words Re a d a b i l i t y Score: 45 Number VII-15 100 MASS INVESTMENT Industry and business are working with the New York Stock Exchange and with other segments of the s e c u r i t i e s business to create a nation of share owners and a stronger America. Our ultimate goal i s a d i r e c t ownership i n t e r e s t i n the tools of production for every family i n th i s country — or, to put i t another way, we would l i k e to see to i t that every American who i s able to, owns a share of American business. It i s our deep co n v i c t i o n that c a p i t a l i s m i n the United States cannot even survive without d i r e c t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and support. We cherish our p o l i t i c a l democracy — now, to safeguard that p o l i t i c a l freedom, we must seek true economic democracy. The most prosperous year i n our h i s t o r y has j u s t ended. At the s t a r t of 1954 the immediate future i s clouded by such f a c t o r s as d e c l i n i n g new and u n f i l l e d orders i n the hands of manufacturers, a r i s e i n business i n v e n t o r i e s , a s l i g h t increase i n unemployment, r e t a i l sales a l i t t l e smaller than they might have been. It i s quite p o s s i b l e that the current year may see a outlook — and with i t go a l l the qualms which accompany any attempt to gauge ex a c t l y the im-mediate future. Long View But i f we step back a b i t and t r y f o r a longer perspective, we get a d i f f e r e n t view and the ruts that look so ominous when they are under our noses seem to l e v e l o f f . In my opinion the future of America's i n d u s t r i a l development i s s t i l l i n the toddling stage. A growing population i s demanding a bewildering v a r i e t y of goods and services which didn't e x i s t even a couple of decades ago. Lest t h i s may sound l i k e o verly o p t i m i s t i c t h e o r i z i n g , I should l i k e to mention a comment made a few days ago by Crawford H. Greenewalt, President of Du Pont. " I t i s also i n t e r e s t i n g to note," he said,"that when anyone i n the past has attempted to p r e d i c t the long-term future, h i s forecast has turned out to be hope-l e s s l y shortsighted and p e s s i m i s t i c . " We are j u s t s t a r t i n g to learn the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of such i n d u s t r i e s as e l e c t r o n i c s , petro-chemicals, a n t i -b i o t i c s — while s t r e t c h i n g ahead, s t i l l to be explored, i s the i n c a l c u l a b l e range of atomic energy. The pressure f o r more and better products must grow i n d e f i n i t e l y ; and the pressure must come from a f u l l y employed and increasing labor force which has income to s a t i s f y i t s want9 and needs. -2-101 Industry i t s e l f knows that i t s own v i t a l i t y hinges upon f i g u r i n g out new and better ways to s a t i s f y the American public — and i s spending more than one b i l l i o n d o l l a r s a year on research with that ultimate aim in mind. This often spectacular technological progress, of course, i s translated every year into the construction of new plants and equipment. Funds Needed Industry cannot a f f o r d to r e l y on a l i m i t e d number of people for c a p i t a l to finance future expansion. The money that i s needed must come from m i l l i o n s of people who are not now investors — the investors of the future who w i l l share i n the ownership of American industry. Now, how does a l l t h i s a f f e c t the New York Stock Exchange? How can the Stock Exchange make the maximum e f f e c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the n a t i o n a l welfare? The answer, i t seems to me, l i e s i n the honest and e f f i c i e n t discharge of the Exchange's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the p u b l i c and to industry. Mass production and mass d i s t r i b u t i o n are two modern phenomena on which American p r o s p e r i t y i s founded. But to e x p l o i t those two concepts f o r the maximum benefit of the maximum number of people, a t h i r d concept must be added — mass investment. It's no secret that a great many people, inc l u d i n g myself, were disturbed by the dis c l o s u r e i n the Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n census of share owners that only 6,500,000 people had an ownership stake i n our corporate wealth at the close of 1951. That f i g u r e must be m u l t i p l i e d again and again — i f we want c a p i t a l i s m to work at maximum e f f i c i e n c y . Primary Job I regard i t as a primary job of the Stock Exchange to make true economic democracy part of our way of l i f e and not merely a catchy phrase. In recent years the Exchange has conducted an intensive educational campaign to t e l l people about the importance of the investment process to our economy. We intend to i n t e n s i f y and broaden that e f f o r t . In January of t h i s year, as part of our campaign to encourage share ownership, one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t developments i n f i n a n c i a l h i s t o r y was made a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c by the Exchange's member firms: The opportunity to purchase the s e c u r i t i e s of our great corporations on a pay-as-you-go b a s i s . The Monthly Investment Plan, as i t i s popularly known, cl e a r s the road — for the f i r s t time — to mass investment. -3- 102 New D e p a r t u r e The M o n t h l y I n v e s t m e n t P l a n r e p r e s e n t s a r a d i c a l s t e p f o r the S t o c k Exchange community — j u s t as r a d i c a l i n i t s way as G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c ' s use o f B i n g C r o s b y and Ken C a r p e n t e r t o d i s c u s s the i m p o r t a n c e o f i n v e s t m e n t b e f o r e a n a t i o n w i d e r a d i o a u d i e n c e — j u s t as r a d i c a l as P e n n s y l v a n i a R a i l r o a d , C h r y s l e r , Socony-Vacuum, Monsanto C h e m i c a l and A l l i e d C h e m i c a l u t i l i z i n g the s t r e e t f l o o r windows o f Ex-change member f i r m s t o g r a p h i c a l l y t e l l t o the p u b l i c t h e i r own s t o r y and the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f i n v e s t m e n t t o t h e i r g r o w t h . S i m p l y as a m a t t e r o f s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n , i n d u s t r y must go t o the p u b l i c f o r a l a r g e r s h a r e o f the f u n d s needed f o r new p l a n t s and equipment. F o r the i n v e s t o r must be p r o t e c t e d , t o o , w h e t h er he i s a l r e a d y a s h a r e owner o r i s becoming one f o r the f i r s t t i m e . The S t o c k E x c h a n g e , o f c o u r s e , h a s i t s own r e g u l a -t i o n s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f the i n v e s t o r — such s a f e g u a r d s as i n s i s t e n c e on sound c o r p o r a t e a c c o u n t -i n g p r a c t i c e s by i t s l i s t e d c o mpanies, f r e q u e n t and f u l l r e p o r t s t o t h e i r s h a r e owners, and t h a t s u p e r -v i s i o n w h i c h has g i v e n member f i r m s a r e c o r d o f i n t e g r i t y and f a i r d e a l i n g . T a x a t i o n The Exchange has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n o t h e r a r e a s i n w h i c h the i n t e r e s t s o f the i n v e s t o r a r e a t s t a k e — the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o f i g h t a g a i n s t c o n f i s c a t o r y , u n f a i r and c r i p p l i n g F e d e r a l Tax l e g i s l a t i o n . Freedom o f c a p i t a l has been the c o r n e r s t o n e o f o u r b u s i n e s s system s i n c e t h i s n a t i o n was f o u n d e d . Y e t the C a p i t a l G a i n s Tax and d o u b l e t a x a t i o n o f d i v i d e n d s have seemed t o be a l m o s t d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n t r i v e d t o impede the f reedom o f c a p i t a l and t o d i s c o u r a g e i n v e s t m e n t . These a r e u n j u s t l a w s . I t i s our o b l i g a t i o n t o oppose them — and I am p l e a s e d t o r e p o r t t h a t the new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be as aware as we a r e o f t h e i r i n h e r e n t d e f e c t s . I n h i s S t a t e o f the U n i o n Message, P r e s i d e n t E i s e n h o w e r s a i d : "We s h o u l d now r e v i s e the more g l a r i n g t a x i n e q u i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on s m a l l t a x p a y e r s ; r e d u c e r e s t r a i n t on the growth o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s , and make o t h e r changes t h a t w i l l e ncourage i n i t i a t i v e , e n t e r p r i s e and p r o d u c t i o n . " A F r e e M a r k e t We have s t i l l a n o t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : To m a i n t a i n a m a r k e t p l a c e where the s e c u r i t i e s o f the n a t i o n ' s 103 -4-l e a d i n g c o r p o r a t i o n s can be bought and s o l d q u i c k l y . The need f o r such a m a r k e t p l a c e l e d to the founda-t i o n o f the New York Stock Exchange 162 y e a r s ago. The need today i s g r e a t e r than i t was then and the need tomorrow w i l l be g r e a t e r s t i l l . We p r o v i d e d such a m a r k e t p l a c e i n George Washington's day — we s h a l l p r o v i d e i t f o r the A m e r i c a of tomorrow, the p r o s p e r o u s n a t i o n b u i l t by mass i n v e s t m e n t . From: I n c r e a s i n g Reading E f f i c i e n c y R e v i s e d E d i t i o n L y l e L. M i l l e r pp 273-74 MASS INVESTMENT • - '9 ^ f 104 ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS 1. T o t a l time used r e a d i n g and d e v e l o p i n g your s t u d y t e c h n i q u e . 2. Number of C o r r e c t Answers . 3. Q u e s t i o n s -True F a l s e 1. I n d u s t r y and b u s i n e s s a r e working w i t h the exchange to i n c r e a s e the number of share owners. 2. The Exchange would l i k e to see everyone everywhere own s h a r e s of American i n d u s t r y . 3. A c c o r d i n g to t h i s a u t h o r , economic democracy i s n e c e s s a r y to s a f e g u a r d p o l i t i c a l freedom. 4. America's i n d u s t r i a l development i s i n i t s i n f a n c y . 5. The a u t h o r b e l i e v e s he i s j u s t i f i e d i n b e i n g 6. C a p i t a l to f i n a n c e f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n must come from (1) I n c r e a s e d p r o f i t s . (2) F u t u r e i n v e s t o r s . (3) Borrowed money. (4) R e t a i n e d e a r n i n g s . 7. A t the c l o s e o f 1951 how many p e o p l e s h a r e s as owners of our c o r p o r a t e w e a l t h ? (1) 5,000,000 (2) 3,500,000 (3) 3,000,000 (4) 6,500,000 8. The p r i m a r y j o b of the Exchange i s to p r o t e c t i n v e s t o r s . 9. The Monthly Investment P l a n c l e a r s the road to . 10. Tax l e g i s l a t i o n c a n ' t harm the i n t e r e s t s o f i n v e s t o r s . 1 0 5 B S E X88SE V&ZcSjiti m-i-f.t«' 106 \ L e n g t h : 1350 words R e a d a b i l i t y S c o r e : 52 Number VII-8 107 INSURANCE FOR L I F E Four Types of L i f e I n s u r a n c e Most f a m i l y l i f e i n s u r a n c e f a l l s i n t o 4 main c a t e -g o r i e s — term i n s u r a n c e , o r d i n a r y l i f e , l i m i t e d -payment l i f e , and endowment. Your agent w i l l get o ut h i s l i t t l e b l a c k book and g i v e you d e t a i l s about each v a r i e t y , but here a r e some g e n e r a l f a c t s you s h o u l d know. Term I n s u r a n c e Term i n s u r a n c e p r o v i d e s temporary coverage o n l y . I t runs f o r a l i m i t e d number of y e a r s , u s u a l l y 5 o r 10, and then e x p i r e s u n l e s s renewed, always a t a h i g h e r premium r a t e n e c e s s i t a t e d by the i n c r e a s e d age of the p o l i c y h o l d e r . F o r a young p e r s o n i t i s much the ch e a p e s t k i n d o f i n s u r a n c e , and can p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e p r o t e c t i o n f o r temporary p e r i o d s . But term i n s u r a n c e has s e r i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e s . I t s c o s t becomes p r o h i b i t i v e as one grows o l d e r and i t u s u a l l y has no cash o r l o a n v a l u e . I f your h e a l t h f a i l s , you may not be a b l e to renew y o u r c o v e r a g e w i t h o u t a m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . The i n s u r a n c e pays o f f o n l y i f the p o l i c y h o l d e r d i e s . I n s u r a n c e e x p e r t s say no f a m i l y s h o u l d depend upon term i n s u r a n c e a l o n e f o r any l e n g t h o f time. O r d i n a r y L i f e O r d i n a r y l i f e , which i s o f t e n c a l l e d s t r a i g h t l i f e o r whole l i f e , i s the most p o p u l a r form o f l i f e i n s u r a n c e . As i t s name i m p l i e s , i t s purpose i s to p r o v i d e l i f e -time p r o t e c t i o n , and i t does t h i s a t a premium r a t e which can never i n c r e a s e . Premiums are d e t e r m i n e d by your age a t the time you take out the p o l i c y ( t h e younger you a r e , the lower they a r e ) , and are p a y a b l e as l o n g as you l i v e . The f a c e v a l u e o f an o r d i n a r y l i f e p o l i c y i s p a y a b l e o n l y a t death but such p o l i c i e s have, i n a d d i t i o n , a t t r a c t i v e i n v e s t m e n t f e a t u r e s . As time p a s s e s , they a c q u i r e an i n c r e a s i n g cash v a l u e and can be c o n v e r t e d i n t o d o l l a r s and c e n t s i f you need money f o r an emergency o r no l o n g e r have dependents to p r o t e c t . Moreover, you have the p r i v i l e g e o f b o r r o w i n g money on an o r d i n a r y l i f e p o l i c y or can p u t i t up as c o l l a t e r a l f o r a l o a n . F o r a l l these r e a s o n s most e x p e r t s t h i n k the average f a m i l y s h o u l d b u i l d i t s i n s u r a n c e program around a t l^ast one o r d i n a r y l i f e p o l i c y . -2-108 L i m i t e d Payment L i f e L imited-payment l i f e i n s u r a n c e i s e x a c t l y l i k e o r d i -n a r y l i f e , e x c e p t t h a t premiums a r e p a i d f o r a l i m i t e d number of y e a r s i n s t e a d o f f o r l i f e . U s u a l l y , a f t e r a p e r i o d o f e i t h e r 20 o r 30 y e a r s , the p o l i c y becomes p a i d up, and the p o l i c y h o l d e r remains i n s u r e d from then on w i t h o u t h a v i n g to spend a n o t h e r c e n t on premiums. Many young p e o p l e p r e f e r these l i m i t e d - p a y m e n t p o l i c i e s because they don't l i k e to l o o k f o r w a r d to p a y i n g premiums as l o n g as they l i v e , b u t they have one drawback: the premiums are a good d e a l h i g h e r than those of o r d i n a r y l i f e , and the young bread -w i n n e r , whose income and b a b i e s a r e both apt to be s m a l l , c a n ' t g e t as much p r o t e c t i o n f o r h i s money as he c o u l d i f he bought o r d i n a r y l i f e . A b e t t e r type than 20-or 30-year payment l i f e f o r most young p e o p l e , the top a u t h o r i t i e s say, i s l i f e p a i d up a t age 65. T h i s g i v e s r e l a t i v e l y l o w - c o s t p r o t e c t i o n f o r one's f a m i l y , y e t doesn't r e q u i r e con-t i n u i n g premiums a f t e r the normal r e t i r e m e n t age. Endowment Endowment p o l i c i e s c a r r y a f a r g r e a t e r i n v e s t m e n t element than e i t h e r o r d i n a r y l i f e o r l i m i t e d - p a y m e n t l i f e p o l i c i e s . T h i s k i n d o f i n s u r a n c e i s v e r y e x p e n s i v e f o r the amount o f p r o t e c t i o n a f f o r d e d , but i f you buy i t you a r e a s s u r e d of c o l l e c t i n g the f u l l f a c e v a l u e o f y o u r p o l i c y a t the end of a s p e c i f i e d number of y e a r s . Or your b e n e f i c i a r i e s c o l l e c t i f you d i e b e f o r e the p o l i c y matures. When I was 21, I took out a modest 20-year endowment p o l i c y . Not l o n g ago, when I r e a c h e d 41, I c o l l e c t e d the f u l l v a l u e of the p o l i c y and a p p l i e d i t a g a i n s t a mortgage on my home. That worked out v e r y w e l l , but, l o o k i n g back, I f e e l I was r a t h e r f o o l -i s h . Had I t u r n e d up my t o e s a t any time d u r i n g the 20 y e a r s , my dependents would not have r e c e i v e d n e a r l y as much cash as they would have i f I had p u t the same amount of premiums i n t o a n o t h e r type o f p o l i c y . When the endowment matured I was i n good h e a l t h , f o r t u n a t e l y , and a b l e to r e p l a c e i t w i t h o r d i n a r y l i f e c o v e r a g e , but had t h a t not been the case my f a m i l y would now be u n p r o t e c t e d e x c e p t f o r a group p o l i c y which I have. Which Types For You? In c o n s i d e r i n g the 4 p r i n c i p a l types of p o l i c i e s I have d e s c r i b e d , remember you don't have to s e l e c t -3-109 j u s t one k i n d . Your needs may c a l l f o r s e v e r a l types of p o l i c i e s . I f you a r e a breadwinner o f 30, f o r example, have two c h i l d r e n , a r e j u s t making ends meet, but e x p e c t to have a l a r g e r income i n a few y e a r s , you may f i n d i t wise to buy a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l o r d i n a r y l i f e p o l i c y and even s m a l l e r endowment coverage f o r your k i d s ' c o l l e g e c o s t s , but a b i g s l i c e o f term i n s u r -ance to p r o t e c t your f a m i l y u n t i l you can a f f o r d more permanent i n s u r a n c e . In t h i s c a s e , i t i s impor-t a n t to be sure your term i n s u r a n c e can be c o n v e r t e d i n t o permanent i n s u r a n c e . F a m i l y Income P o l i c i e s B e f o r e d o i n g t h i s , though, you s h o u l d ask y o u r agent about f a m i l y - i n c o m e and f a m i l y - m a i n t e n a n c e p o l i c i e s . These are c o m b i n a t i o n s of o r d i n a r y l i f e and term i n s u r a n c e which have been s p e c i a l l y de-s i g n e d to h e l p young f a m i l i e s o v e r t h e i r l e a n y e a r s . On the o t h e r hand, i f you a r e now e a r n i n g a l o t of money but e x p e c t a reduced income l a t e r , you may wish to i n v e s t i n a l i f e - a n n u i t y c o n t r a c t . There a r e many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of a n n u i t i e s , but they a l l have one t h i n g i n common: they p r o v i d e the i n s u r e d p e r s o n w i t h a r e g u l a r income from a s p e c i f i e d date u n t i l d e a t h . Four S u g g e s t i o n s There a r e 4 f i n a l t i p s , however, which the r i s k ex-p e r t s have f o r e v e r y i n s u r a n c e p u r c h a s e r . 1. Read the f i n e p r i n t one any p o l i c y you buy and be sure you u n d e r s t a n d i t . 2. Pay your premiums a n n u a l l y o r s e m i a n n u a l l y i n s t e a d o f on a monthly o r q u a r t e r l y b a s i s . Y o u ' l l save a good d e a l of money t h a t way over the y e a r s . 3. Keep your p o l i c i e s i n a s a f e p l a c e , p r e f e r a b l y i n your home, and l e t the p e r s o n who w i l l s e t t l e your a f f a i r s i n the e v e n t o f your death know where they a r e . A s a f e - d e p o s i t box i s s a f e , b u t i t g e n e r a l l y has the d i s a d v a n t a g e t h a t a f t e r the death of the i n -s u r e d i t may not be opened e x c e p t by c o u r t o r d e r . 4. Review both your p r o p e r t y and l i f e i n s u r a n c e programs at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . Changing f a m i l y needs f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e changes i n i n s u r a n c e . S t u d e n t s of the s u b j e c t t o l d me e v e r y f a m i l y s h o u l d re-examine i t s program a t l e a s t once e v e r y 3 y e a r s . -4-110 While a l l i n s u r a n c e i s a form o f gambling, i t i s gambling which p e r m i t s you to p l a y s a f e . "The es s e n c e o f the b u s i n e s s , " Winston C h u r c h i l l once s a i d , " i s b r i n g i n g the magic of aver a g e s to the r e s c u e o f the m i l l i o n s . " T h i s magic, i f i n t e l l i g e n t l y a p p l i e s , can p r o v i d e an i n e s t i m a b l e amount of s e c u r i t y f o r you and your f a m i l y . From: I n c r e a s i n g Reading E f f i c i e n c y R e v i s e d E d i t i o n L y l e L. M i l l e r Pp 259-60 INSURANCE FOR L I F E 111 ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS 1. T o t a l time used r e a d i n g and d e v e l o p i n g your study t e c h n i q u e s 2. Number of C o r r e c t Answers . 3. Q u e s t i o n s -True.. F a l s e 1. A l t h o u g h low i n c o s t , terra i n s u r a n c e has the d i s a d v a n t a g e of p r o v i d i n g o n l y c o v e r a g e . 2. Premiums on o r d i n a r y ' l i f e i n s u r a n c e a r e d e t e r m i n e d by your when you take out the p o l i c y . 3. . On l i m i t e d - p a y m e n t l i f e i n s u r a n c e one pays a f i x e d premium f o r as l o n g as he l i v e s . 4. Endowment p o l i c i e s a r e much more e x p e n s i v e than the o t h e r t h r e e types f o r the same amount of c o v e r a g e . 5. Mr. Woodbury says you need to s e l e c t the one type o f i n s u r a n c e which w i l l g i v e you the most p r o t e c t i o n f o r your money, 6. A c o m b i n a t i o n of o r d i n a r y l i f e and term i n s u r a n c e commonly used by young f a m i l i e s i s c a l l e d a: (1) Family-income p o l i c y . (2) C h i l d s u p p o r t p o l i c y . (3) L i f e a n n u i t y c o n t r a c t . (4) O r d i n a r y term l i f e i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y . 7. Premiums are the same each y e a r whether p a i d q u a r t e r l y o r a n n u a l l y . 8. Reading the f i n e p r i n t i n a p o l i c y may p r o t e c t you from b u y i n g w o r t h l e s s i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , 9. You w i l l save money by a r r a n g i n g to pay your i n s u r a n c e premiums: (1) Monthly, (2) Weekly. (3) A n n u a l l y . (4) Whenever you can 10. Mr, Woodbury recommends t h a t f a m i l i e s re-examine t h e i r i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s a t l e a s t once e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s . 112 113 Length: 1350 words Readab i l i t y Score: 53 Number VI-6 114 WESTERN NATIONAL PARKS From those who are searching for a space that i s wide and open a f t e r spending a winter being con-f i n e d , the Western parks o f f e r nature i n broad t r a c t s v i r t u a l l y untamed and unspoiled. The southern c i r c u i t , i n the f i r s t place, has Grand Canyon, a tre -mendous s p l i t i n the earth's physiognomy that i s 217 miles long, anywhere from 4 to 18 miles wide, and a mile deep. A l l t h i s can be found i n the northeast corner of Arizona. Grand Canyon Only 105 miles of the chasm are wi t h i n the l i m i t s of the National Park, but s t i l l , that should give you plenty to look a t . At Yavapai Point on the south rim, i t i s ten miles across the d i t c h , and geologists from the National Park Service give d a i l y l e c t u r e s here about the wonders of nature. Among the wonders i s the Colorado River which buzzes along through the canyon f l o o r at anywhere from 2 1/2 to 20 miles an hour chewing away a m i l l i o n tons of sand every day. This has been going on longer than I can quite comprehend, and i t j u s t shows you what persistence can accomplish. For those who stand on the rim and look down, the C a n y o n i s always changing. As the sun s h i f t s the 'vermilion shades become russet, the c e r i s e becomes bronze, maroon blends into copper, the orange be-comes tarnished, the white turns ashen gray. Those who view these proceedings from the south rim can make t h e i r headquarters at E l Tbvar Hotel. Paved footpaths run out from here and the morning drives of the motor coaches stop at Powell, Hopi, Mohave, Pima, and come to a h a l t at Hermit's Rest. An a f t e r -noon drive t r a v e l s east through the Kaibab National Forest, skimming the Canyon's rim with stops at Yavapai, Yaki, Moran, and Lipan, terminating at the Indian Watchtower, which o f f e r s one of the f i n e s t views of the Canyon, the Kaibab Forest, and the Navajo Indian country as w e l l . E l Tovar Hotel, the Bright Angel Lodge and Grand Canyon Cabin Camp o f f e r f i n e food and reasonable accommodations. The buses are operated by Fred Harvey, who also maintains a s t r i n g of mules. The mules are f o r those who are le s s engaged by a long distance view than a close-up in s p e c t i o n . The penalty for t h i s c u r i o s i t y comes in the form of mule-back journeys into the Canyon i t s e l f . Guides lead -2-LL5 the c u r i o u s from the south r i m down B r i g h t A n g e l T r a i l s t o p p i n g a t I n d i a n Gardens and e n d i n g on the r o c k y banks of the C o l o r a d o e x a c t l y one m i l e below the r i m . A f t e r l u n c h by the r i v e r , and a f t e r n o o n ' s c l i m b l a n d s you back on the r i m b e f o r e d i n n e r . Twenty thousand p e o p l e make the t r i p e v e r y y e a r . For those who would commune even c l o s e r to rock bottom, t h e r e i s a two-day Phantom Ranch t r i p . The r a n c h , on the f l o o r o f the Canyon, has r u s t i c c a b i n s and even a swimming p o o l . The numerous package t o u r s o f the Santa Fe R a i l r o a d r a n g i n g from two weeks to a month and p r i c e d from $200 up, c o v e r not o n l y the u s u a l t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n s o f the w e s t e r n U.S., but a l s o e x t e n d i n t o Canada and M e x i c o . A l l 31 of the t o u r s i n c l u d e s t o p s a t Grand Canyon. Z i o n and B r y c e T r a v e l e r s d o i n g Grand Canyon can e a s i l y t i e i n v i s i t s to the Utah p a r k s — B r y c e Canyon and Z i o n . A t Z i o n , the V i r g i n R i v e r i s busy washing away a canyon from the Navajo sandstone beds. The Mount Carmel T u n n e l a t Z i o n has s i x windows c u t out o f the r o c k , g i v i n g m a g n i f i c i e n t views of the Canyon 1,000 f e e t below. Once out o f the t u n n e l , the highway t a k e s a s i g h t s e e r s on a t w i s t i n g t r a i l to the Canyon f l o o r , a f e a t which took the r i v e r a m i l l i o n y e a r s to a c c o m p l i s h . There are t r i p s to the f l o o r by h o r s e b a c k t o o . Bryce Canyon i s something e l s e a g a i n , p o s s i b l y because i t i s not r e a l l y a canyon a t a l l but a s o r t o f n a t u r a l a m p h i t h e a t e r formed out o f the p i n k and w h i t e l i m e s t o n e . I t i s two m i l e s wide, t h r e e m i l e s l o n g and 1,000 f e e t deep. A v a r i e t y o f a l l - e x p e n s e e s c o r t e d t o u r s a r e con-d u c t e d through the s o u t h e r n U t a h - A r i z o n a p a r k s by the Union P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d . F i g u r i n g from Cedar C i t y , Utah, and i n c l u d i n g a l l meals and l o d g i n g , t h e r e i s a f i v e - d a y Z i o n , Bryce and Grand Canyon t r i p f o r $78 and a n o t h e r o v e r the same r o u t e w i t h a s h o r t e r s c h e d u l e f o r $71.75. Three days a t Z i o n comes to $46 and two days of Z i o n and Grand Canyon i s $40.75. There a r e c o n v e n i e n t t r a i n s to Cedar C i t y from C h i c a g o and S t . L o u i s and a l s o from L o s A n g e l e s . The C h i c a g o N o r t h w e s t e r n and Union P a c i f i c t i e up w i t h a package t o u r o f the U t a h - A r i z o n a N a t i o n a l P a r k s c o v e r i n g a l l t h r e e from C h i c a g o i n twelve days f o r :j238.50 i n c o a c h e s , o r about $50 more i n s l e e p i n g c a r s . A n o t h e r t o u r takes i n the above a r e a s and a l s o Y e l l o w s t o n e , l e a v i n g C h i c a g o e v e r y Sunday. 116 -3-Yellowstone Yellowstone was the great unbelievable phenome-non when i t was f i r s t explored. New Englanders, who seem to have been more s k e p t i c a l than most, simply refused to believe the existence of geysers bursting into the sky every few hours. Today, a m i l l i o n v i s i t o r s come to see the wonders of Yellow-stone. It i s the larges t and ol d e s t of the national parks, comprising 3,500 square miles on which the black bear, the g r i z z l y , the deer, the moose, the beaver, the antelope and the buffalo roam. The Giant geyser sends a j e t of steam 240 feet i n the a i r , which i s 100 feet higher than Old F a i t h f u l . The hotels at Yellowstone include Mammoth Springs, a f u l l - f l e d g e d r e s o r t enterprise i n c l u d i n g cottages; Old F a i t h f u l Inn, a luxurious log cabin lodge with the geysers performing a l l but i n the f r o n t yard; the Canyon Hotel near the rim of the canyon, and celebrated f or i t s tremendous "lounge," one of the l a r g e s t h o t e l rooms i n c a p t i v i t y . There i s a standard two-and-a-half-day hotel tour to Yellow-stone pegged at $46.75, which includes a l l meals and persons i n a double room without bath. The Northern P a c i f i c Railway runs several "Yellow-stone Vacation" tours, among them a four-day t r i p based on a cost of $69.50, which begins at Gardiner, northern entrance to the Park area. G l a c i e r Yellowstone occupies the northwest corner of the state of Wyoming but for those who are looking f or lands even more northern, there are the Northern Rockies which form the G l a c i e r National Park i n the top of Montana. These mountains r i s e i n an abrupt wall s t r a i g h t out of the Montana p l a i n and appear higher than t h e i r average of about 10,000 f e e t . The range i s covered by dense f o r e s t s , g l a c i a l v a l l e y s and mountains meadows tossing with wildflowers a l l summer long. There are some s i x t y s i l v e r g l a c i e r caps, 200 lakes, and cascades and w a t e r f a l l s on which there i s no census. If i t ' s warm around your block, come to Iceberg Lake where small but cold bergs f l o a t on the surface in the middle of the summer. There i s no. problem about where to r e s t one's head between sightseeing excursions. The G l a c i e r Park Hotel commands the east entrance, Many Gl a c i e r s i t s on the edge of Swiftcurrent Lake, and the Lake McDonald Hotel rests by the shores of the la r g e s t lake on the west side of the park. Hotels are -4-117 on the American p l a n , s t a r t i n g a t $9.25 per day. There a l s o i s l o d g i n g to be had a t A l p i n e c h a l e t s a t G r a n i t e Park and S p e r r y G l a c i e r and a t a number of camps w i t h g r o c e r y s t o r e s nearby. G l a c i e r i s the o n l y n a t i o n a l park on the main l i n e of a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y and i s i n easy r e a c h from C h i c a g o , S t . P a u l , o r C a l i f o r n i a and the west v i a P o r t l a n d o r S e a t t l e . The Western S t a r , a G r e a t N o r t h e r n s t r e a m l i n e r , s t o p s a t both the e a s t and west e n t r a n c e s of the p a r k e v e r y d a y d u r i n g the summer season which on the r a i l r o a d c a l e n d a r runs from June 15 to September 10. A good p a r t o f the G l a c i e r P a rk a r e a was bought from the B l a c k f e e t I n d i a n s whose r e s e r v a t i o n a d j o i n s the p r e m i s e s . The t r i b e sends a d e l e g a t i o n to p i t c h a summer encampment near the G l a c i e r Park H o t e l and p r e s e n t s pow-wows each n i g h t . They wear beaded w h i t e b u c k s k i n , war bonnets of t o s s i n g e a g l e f e a t h e r s and o t h e r r a i m e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the w e l l - d r e s s e d I n d i a n . Record Reading Time -From I n c r e a s i n g Reading E f f i c i e n c y R e v i s e d E d i t i o n L y l e M i l l e r - Page 183 WESTERN NATIONAL PARKS 118 ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS 1. The t o t a l time used r e a d i n g and d e v e l o p i n g your s t u d y t e c h n i q u e 2. Number o f C o r r e c t Answers . 4. The l a r g e s t and o l d e s t o f the n a t i o n a l p a r k s i s : (1) Y e l l o w s t o n e . (2) Grand Canyon. (3) Bryce Canyon. (4) Z i o n . 5. O l d F a i t h f u l i s the h i g h e s t g e y s e r i n Y e l l o w s t o n e P a r k . 6. One of the l a r g e s t ho'.:el rooms may be found i n the Canyon H o t e l i n Z i o n . 7. H o t e l s i n G l a c i e r Park o p e r a t e on the American P l a n r a t h e r than on a f i x e d f e e f o r the whole t r i p . 8. G l a c i e r i s the o n l y n a t i o n a l p a r k on the main l i n e o f a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y . 9. A good p a r t of the Park a r e a was bought from.the B l a c k f e e t I n d i a n s . 10. Which o f the f o l l o w i n g was not mentioned as an a t t r a c t i o n i n Y e l l o w s t o n e P a r k : (1) S p a c i o u s h o t e l s and l o d g e s . (2) Beaver and o t h e r w i l d l i f e . (3) I n d i a n pow-wows each n i g h t . (4) G e y s e r s o f g r e a t b e a u t y . 3. Q u e s t i o n s - True F a l s e 1. I t i s p o s s i b l e to motor down to the banks o f the C o l o r a d o R i v e r i n Grand Canyon P a r k . 2. I t i s p o s s i b l e to motor down to the banks o f the V i r g i n R i v e r i n Z i o n P a r k . 3. B r y c e Canyon i s s o r t o f a n a t u r a l 119 4 120 6 APPENDIX C INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES 122 APPENDIX C INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES The i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r each t e c h n i q u e were d e t e r m i n e d by the POPRADR framework and took the f o l l o w i n g form: b e g i n n i n g w i t h the f i r s t week of the e i g h t week s t u d y . Week One. The Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r Hig h S c h o o l s and  C o l l e g e s , Form A, (1960) was a d m i n i s t e r e d to the s t u d e n t s f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the purpose and d u r a t i o n of the c o u r s e . S t u d e n t s were t o l d t h a t the course would f o c u s on the l e a r n i n g o f a study method r a t h e r than the a t t a i n m e n t of a h i g h r e a d i n g r a t e . Week Two. The PREREAD (P) and ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN (OP) were i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s s e s s i o n . The PREREAD st e p was p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the P r e v i e w skimming t e c h n i q u e f o r m u l a t e d by Berg, T a y l o r and F r a n -henpohl (1962) . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the OP o u t l i n e s f o r each method was demonstrated and p r a c t i c e p r o v i d e d w i t h m a t e r i a l drawn from the C o n t r o l l e d Reading Study Guide, Set LK ( T a y l o r , e t . a l . , 1964). Week T h r e e . The f u l l POPRADR p r o c e d u r e was demonstrated and p r a c t i c e p r o v i d e d i n t h i s s e s s i o n u s i n g m a t e r i a l drawn from T a y l o r , e t . a l . (1964). Week F o u r . Ten minutes o f r e v i e w o f the POPRADR p r o c e d u r e was p r o v i d e d f o l l o w e d by the f i r s t i n f o r m a l assessment. The assessment was a d m i n i s t e r e d to s t u d e n t s as a s e r i e s o f timed r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e d r i l l s . Week F i v e . The t e c h n i q u e s o f o v e r v i e w skimming ( B e r g , T a y l o r and F r a n h e n p o h l , 1962) were demonstrated and p r a c t i c e time p r o v i d e d 123 i n t h i s s e s s i o n . I t was p o i n t e d o ut to s t u d e n t s t h a t o v e r v i e w skim-ming was to be used as an a d j u n c t t o , and/or i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h thorough r e a d i n g i n the READ s t e p . Week S i x . P r a c t i c e was p r o v i d e d i n the use of the complete POPRADR p r o c e d u r e u s i n g m a t e r i a l drawn from S u c c e s s f u l Reading, (Norman, 1968). The f i r s t f i v e s e l e c t i o n s were used; the s t u d e n t s were g i v e n e i g h t minutes to f i n i s h each s e l e c t i o n . Week Seven. Ten minutes o f r e v i e w of the f u l l POPRADR p r o c e d u r e was p r o v i d e d f o l l o w e d by the second i n f o r m a l a ssessment. The assessment was a d m i n i s t e r e d to s t u d e n t as a s e r i e s o f timed r e a d i n g p r a c t i c e d r i l l s . Week E i g h t . The Form B o f the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r  High S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , (1960) was a d m i n i s t e r e d to s t u d e n t s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n adhered to the p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d i n the manual f o r the comprehension s u b t e s t . 

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