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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Rate of acquisition of three study methods Sweet, Robert Arthur 1971

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RATE OF A C Q U I S I T I O N OF THREE STUDY METHODS  by ROBERT ARTHUR B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  A  THESIS THE  SWEET  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1965  SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  the Department of  Reading We  accept  required  THE  this  thesis  Education as conforming  to the  standard  U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA N o v e m b e r , 19,7„1  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e  and study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n written  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  READING EDUCATION  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h ColumbiaVancouver 8 , Canada  e  NOVEMBER 12, 1971  ABSTRACT  The  relative  college-level sition"  was  students Survey, (NLO) raised  students  defined  i n the  use  Question,  and  the  of  study  ease w i t h methods.  methods would  be  the  and  period  relative  same a t of  asked  i f the  relative  r a t e s of  would  depend  upon  readability  which  was  drawn  The  (1951)  (1)  the  levels  the  two  levels,  a  Time o f  The  formula  1 and  criterion  of-gain  score  product  of  termed  the  f o r any  Time  student's  given  and  times  among  of  the  and  SQ3R, NLO,  period  among  questions the  the  study  study,  question  study  was  methods material  manual ( M i l l e r ,  three 3L0;  f o r each  determined  the by  the  Flesch  DIFFICULT;  instruction  reading  Reading  comprehension  Rate  which  score  e x e r c i s e was (ERR)  and  his  1964)  independent (2)  E A S Y , MEDIUM, of  Outlining  instructional  and  by  were:  research  the  study  m a t e r i a l as  acqui-  achieved  during  taught  had  2.  Effective  article.  primary  In a d d i t i o n , the  reading  the  was  acquisition  designated  over  measure an  The  levels  instructional  assessment  Time  of  " r a t e of  methods  involved manipulating  Treatments  methods  (SQ3R), N o n - l i n e a r  acquisition  commercial  design  of  readability  (3)  time  from  research  variables: Difficulty  the  term  study  different  instruction.  study  facility  The  r a t e s of  two  three  The  which  O u t l i n i n g (3L0).  the  of  investigated.  as  Three-Level  the  were  acquisition  Read, R e c i t e , Review  were w h e t h e r  after  r a t e s of  a  rate-  which  was  the  study  reading  The appeared the  r e s u l t s of the study  t o be a d v a n t a g e o u s  period  week  NLO  of this  on m a t e r i a l  study  method  of a c q u i s i t i o n over  due  higher  o f the data  to performance  o f an EASY c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  The  its  o f a c q u i s i t i o n when  level.  An a n a l y s i s  f i n d i n g was  level). rate  no one  of i t srate  d i d show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  of instruction.  the v a r i a b i l i t y taught  i n terms  that  o f the study.  T h e NLO m e t h o d seventh  indicated  implication  i s that  NLO  paired  may with  ERR  revealed by  that  students  (low r e a d a b i l i t y  be a d v a n t a g e o u s material  by t h e  i n terms o f  o f a low r e a d a b i l i t y  TABLE  OF CONTENTS Page  LIST  OF T A B L E S  iv  LIST  OF FIGURES  v i  Chapter I  ' NATURE AND PURPOSE Background  OF THE STUDY  o f the Study  . .  and R e l a t e d  Research The  1  Problem  Theoretical  . . . . . . . Rationale  10  . . .  13  Summary II  14  METHOD  16  Experimental The  Design  Sample  Reading  Analysis  IV  SUMMARY, The  16  . . .  24 24  Instruments  .  Procedure  RESULTS  . . . . .  Material  Measuring  III  1  25 26  o f the Data  27  OF THE STUDY  31  D I S C U S S I O N AND CONCLUSIONS  Problem  56 56  Procedure  ,•  56  Findings  58  Discussion  61  Conclusions  65 ii  i i i Page REFERENCES  . „  . . . . . . . . .  .  69  APPENDICES A  Study Methods P r o c e d u r e s  B  Informal Assessment  C  Instructional  Materials  Procedures  72 . .  79 121  L I S T OF T A B L E S Table 1  Page Readability Categories on  2  First  and Second  Summary T a b l e and  Standard  Denny  3  of Treatment  Summary T a b l e  Group  . . . .  Colleges,  25  ERR M e a n s  f o rHigh  S c h o o l s and 32  of Analysis of Variance f o r  Group  ERR M e a n s f o r t h e N e l s o n -  Denny R e a d i n g T e s t  For High  Schools and  F o r m A, P r e t e s t  32  Summary T a b l e o f T r e a t m e n t G r o u p ERR M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r t h e F i r s t (T-^) and  5  Assessments  F o r m A, P r e t e s t  Treatment  4  Informal  D e v i a t i o n s f o r the N e l s o n -  Reading Test  Colleges,  o f M a t e r i a l Used  Second  (T2) I n f o r m a l  Assessments  33  Summary T a b l e o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r F i r s t ( T ^ ) and Second ( T ) I n f o r m a l 2  Assessments 6  M a i n E f f e c t Means f o r F a c t o r s o f T r e a t m e n t ( P ) , Time ( T ) , D i f f i c u l t y (D) f o r I n f o r m a l Assessment  7  Measures  35  P o s t H o c ERR Mean C o m p a r i s o n s o f T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s (SQ3R, NLO, a n d 3 L 0 ) f o r t h e P o o l e d Informal  8  34  Treatment Scores  Assessment X Time  Times  Interaction:  f o r Three Treatment  NLO, 3 L 0 , f o r t h e F i r s t (T ) 2  9  Informal  Assessment  Mean  Groups,  36  SQ3R SQ3R,  (Tj^) a n d S e c o n d Times  38  Summary T a b l e s o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r S i m p l e E f f e c t s o f T r e a t m e n t a t Two Levels  10  (T-^ a n d 1^)  Post  o f Time  (Time  1 and Time  H o c ERR Mean C o m p a r i s o n s  Groups  f o r Both  (Time  1 and Time  Informal  2)  of Treatment  Assessment  2)  40  Times 42  iv  V Table 11  Page Treatment ERR  12  X Difficulty  Scores f o r Three  NLO,  3L0  f o r Three  EASY  ( D ) , MEDIUM  Effects  D,  2  (D ). 3  at Three  45  46  3  48  Summary o f T r e a t m e n t G r o u p ERR Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r the Nelson-Denny R e a d i n g T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Posttest.  51  Summary T a b l e o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r T r e a t m e n t G r o u p ERR Means f o r t h e N e l s o n Denny R e a d i n g T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and F o r m B,  Posttest  51  P o s t Hoc ERR Mean C o m p a r i s o n s f o r T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s (SQ3R, NLO, and 3 L 0 ) f o r t h e N e l s o n Denny R e a d i n g T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s a n d Colleges,  F o r m B,  Posttest.  52  Summary T a b l e o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r T r e a t m e n t G r o u p ERR M e a n s f o r t h e N e l s o n Denny R e a d i n g T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Form A, P r e t e s t , a n d F o r m B, Posttest  18  . .  Levels  D )  3  Colleges,  17  D ,  DIFFICULT  of Variance f o r  of Treatment  1 3  SQ3R,  Difficulty,  D)  2  F o r m B,  16  2  Mean  Groups,  P o s t Hoc ERR Mean C o m p a r i s o n s o f T r e a t m e n t Groups f o r Three L e v e l s o f R e a d a b i l i t y (D^  15  (D  of  ( D ) , and  Summary T a b l e o f A n a l y s i s Difficulty  14  Levels  1  Simple  13  Interaction:  Treatment  54  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f T r e a t m e n t G r o u p ERR Means f o r the N e l s o n - D e n n y R e a d i n g T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s , Form A (NDA), Form B (NDB), and the F i r s t ( T ^ and Second ( T ) I n f o r m a l A s s e s s m e n t Times f o r T h r e e R e a d a b i l i t y L e v e l s , EASY ( D ) , 2  L  MEDIUM  ( D ~ ) , and  DIFFICULT  (Do)  55  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure 1  Page Comparison Outlining  2  of Linear  and  Non  Linear  Formats  Framework Used  17  f o r Comparison  of  Study Methods 3  4  20  Experimental Design Involving Independent V a r i a b l e s Three  Factor  Three 23  Design f o r Analysis  of  Informal Measures 5  Treatment Scores NLO,  and  Second 6  X Time  f o r Three 3L0,  (T ) 2  29 Interaction: Treatment  f o r the F i r s t  Mean  Groups, (T^)  Informal Assessment  ERR SQ3R,  and Times  39  Mean ERR S c o r e s f o r T h r e e T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s , SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0 f o r T h r e e L e v e l s o f R e a d a b i l i t y , EASY ( D ^ , MEDIUM  ( D ) , and 2  DIFFICULT  vi  (D ) 3  44  Chapter  NATURE AND  Background  of  In a part over  o f most  twenty y e a r s  college reading  90 p e r c e n t  improvement  PURPOSE OF  the S t u d y and R e l a t e d  the l a s t  courses  which  indicated  that  skills  techniques  as  t h e most  conducted  on  concluded  their  component  States  become  reported offered  i n study  reading  has  that  reading  skills.  More  finding  f o r study  of nearly a l l college  the q u e s t i o n  were  unable  effective  a l l research  to i d e n t i f y  on  and  purposes study  such  e v a l u a t i o n of  was  done  by E n t w i s l e  technique  had  methods. for a  to serve  results  reviewed  s t u d i e s which d e f i n e d  1  is  been They  publication as a  reference  study  skills  field.  ( 1 9 6 0 ) who  who  research  study  skills  the r e s e a r c h  d i d Crewe a n d H u l t g r e n  technique  and  remains u n s e t t l e d .  the need  in this  study  b y Crewe  any p a r t i c u l a r  so l i t t l e  study  research  of which  reading  r e p o r t by p o i n t i n g o u t  included research  skills  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  One  than  study  because  f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s engaged  sense  (1953)  substantiated this  revi<w o f study  that  the r e l a t i v e  summarized  courses She  Blake  instruction  (1968)  for college level  and H u l t g r e n  being  tool  a recent  (1968) n o t e s  suitable  which  programs.  instruction  programs.  Hultgren  Crewe  skills  which f a c i l i t a t e  an e s s e n t i a l  However,  most  STUDY  Literature  study  included  G e e r l o f s and K l i n g  considered  THE  o f the c o l l e g e s i n the U n i t e d  recently,  are  I  twenty-two  study  focused  on  only  skills on  reports.  in a  study  broader  reading  2 techniques. of  programs which  writing,  ever,  an e x a m i n a t i o n criteria  students  based  in efficient  important  i n these  Furthermore,  student he  was l e a r n i n g  had g a i n e d  most  skill to  efficacy.  preview  Question,  Wright  about  of gains point  that  made  averages. to have  study  f o r either  skills  criterion  the o v e r r i d i n g  pretest-posttest gain  techniques  scores.  No  d u r i n g which the  and the p e r i o d a f t e r  techniques  but neglected  Wooster  noted  illustrated  o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  aspect  (1962) p o i n t e d  Read, R e c i t e , Review  unenthusiastic student  o r program  methods o f s t u d y - r e a d i n g  encountered.  t h a t a l l used  may be a s s u m e d  t h e p e r i o d o f time  study-reading  seems a n i m p o r t a n t  o r i n grade  How-  which  i n their use.  importance  suitable  included  but d i d not i n d i c a t e the  criteria  new s t u d y  facility  tests  made  essay  courses  and permanence  Entwisle  research with  was made b e t w e e n  The the  those  as  Some  studies revealed  achievement  mentioned.  distinction  such  m o t i v a t i o n a l problems.  techniques  programs.  o f a n y one t e c h n i q u e  of previous  with  reading  superiority  concern  e v a l u a t i o n s were  i n topics  o n t h e amount  reading  c o n t r i b u t e to academic  review,  a n d exam w r i t i n g .  o f the r e p o r t e d  on s t a n d a r d i z e d  Instruction  do  budgeting,  c o u n s e l l i n g f o r students  evaluative  been  i n Entwisle's  included instruction  study-time  individual  by  F o r example,  f o r college  students  out that  student  as Robinson's  study  resistance Survey,  (SQ3R) a n d i t s many v a r i a n t s was o f t e n  methods.  m o t i v a t i o n was v i e w e d  i n determining  o f the r e s e a r c h on  such  (1953) c o n c l u d e d such  situation  t h a t many s t u d e n t s  were  In the s t u d i e s reviewed  as s c h o l a r l y  drive  or level  by E n t w i s l e ,  of morale.  3 As  such,  the  m o t i v a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d a p e r s o n a l i t y  student  mental alent  and p r e s e n t e d  design  t o the c o n t r o l l e d  comparison An  ( 1 9 6 1 ) who  alternate examined  students  to  increase reading  view o f student  enrolled  i n a general rate  not related  but  r a t h e r to o b j e c t i v e  score  the  student  Daily  research  research  another  between  suggested  method  grade  p o i n t averages  should  Instead  reading  of student of their  improvement Using  efficacy  they  student  personality progress  o f the r e a d i n g  by a rate  the c r i t e r i a  designed  drop-out  that  attrition  characteristics  i n the course.  In  reading-efficiency and t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n score  constituted  concerned  with  s t u d y m e t h o d s , Wood's  dimension  that  should  o f any study  during  alone  occur  comprehension  should  used  and student  period.  This  i n any e v a l u a t i o n o f with  sometime  and/or  T h i s was t h e  method  the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  n o t be c o n c e r n e d  as they  be c o n s i d e r e d i n  method.  of a study  the c r i t e r i a  should  be o n l y  course  concluded  was e v a l u a t e d  the p r o d u c t i v i t y  or perseverance  further  b y Wood  student.  not d i r e c t l y  study  nor  progress  e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f i c a c y  motivation  equiv-  between m o t i v a t i o n and p r o g r e s s  s u c c e s s , Wood  evidence  f o r each  suggested  interaction  i n experi-  motivationally  i n c r e a s e s i n the r e a d i n g - e f f i c i e n c y  rate-of-gain Although  any  to any measure  d e f i n e d as the p r o d u c t  scores.  variable  motivation i s offered  and comprehension.  o f program  was  study,  by e s t a b l i s h i n g  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  as a c r i t e r i o n  Wood's  confounding  groups.  of  rate  a possible  characteristic of  increases i n after  the c o u r s e ;  reading rate  include a rate-of-gain  score  gain  scores.  obtained  4 during to  the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  t e a c h may The  then  in  college  be more f u l l y  study  (SQ3R) d e v e l o p e d  period.  technique  (1941)  (Harris,  methods a r e r e p o r t e d e l s e w h e r e pointed  o u t , these  theoretical of  this,  basis  involve depends  the r e s e a r c h which  Question,  Read, R e c i t e ,  i s t h e one m o s t 1968).  method  Review  frequently  Several other  i n the l i t e r a t u r e ;  slight upon  study  answered.  Survey,  by R o b i n s o n  reading courses  The q u e s t i o n o f w h i c h  study  but as Cranny  m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f SQ3R a n d  t h e same o r s i m i l a r  related  taught  their  research.  t o SQ3R a p p l i e s  (1955)  In view  t o i t s many  variants. An empirical here has  extensive review basis  as complete  Wark  o f the r a t i o n a l e reviews  provided a detailed The  o f the r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g f o r t h e SQ3R m e t h o d  are already a v a i l a b l e . review  of forty-six  (1964:168)  problems with  indicated  i s not planned  McCormick  relevant  r e s e a r c h o n t h e SQ3R s t e p s h a s a l s o  to the  (1943)  articles.  been  fully  reviewed.  what he c o n s i d e r e d some o f t h e  fundamental  t h e method:  The S u r v e y s t e p i s b a s e d on a n o v e r l y g e n e r o u s extra-polation from a s h o r t passage to a whole t e x t . The Q u e s t i o n s t e p i s a d v o c a t e d i n t h e f a c e o f d a t a w h i c h show t h a t p r e - q u e s t i o n i n g may be a d e t r i m e n t t o c o m p r e h e n s i o n . The w o r k i n g n o t e f o r m o f R e c i t a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y e f f e c t i v e , b u t no e v i d e n c e i s g i v e n t h a t i t i s any b e t t e r than simple r e - r e a d i n g . Willmore  (1963) The  which  Survey  step  are relevant  Survey. in  concluded:  Questions  has not r e a l l y c a n be h e l p f u l ,  many o f t h e s t u d i e s ;  to  generalize  of  material  Recitation evidence manner.  to o t h e r  and where and Review  that  they  been  are unimpressive  tested,  and  b u t w e a k n e s s e s were  and i n g e n e r a l , i t would settings  since  s o much  established,  a r e more e f f e c t i v e  be  found  difficult  depends on  the q u e s t i o n s a r e p l a c e d . are well  studies  i n s u p p o r t i n g the v a l u e o f  but there  i f applied  type  The v a l u e o f i s no  i n t h e SQ3R  5 A recent review and  Hultgren  (1968) demonstrated  SQ3R a s a t o t a l such  as  system  on study  the p a u c i t y  o r a s compared  analysis  ( 1 9 6 4 : 1 6 8 ) who  o f the complete  reported that  project"  statement  SQ3R m e t h o d was done  b y Wark  that  showed  the r e s u l t s  of h i s "large  SQ3R t o be i n e f f e c t i v e .  SQ3R i s s u p p o r t e d more  i s , on the end p r o d u c t .  organizational  content-master To  gain  mention  of reading rate  w h i c h were  scores.  superiority  While  shown  of  from  this  i t  and  as an retention  f o c u s o n compre-  i n h i s findings  s t u d y o f SQ3R, U n d e r l i n i n g ,  higher  the f o l l o w i n g  a  o f SQ3R;  both  implementation  time  than  studies  to  determine  techniques,  SQ3R o r o u t l i n i n g , a n d students.  indicated  o f a study  i n t e r m s o f economy  criteria  than a l l o t h e r  g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e by most i t , both  O u t l i n i n g , and  technique:  scores  o f the p r o d u c t i v i t y  the method  for  texts.  depart  o f the U n d e r l i n i n g  not emphasizing  pretation  any r i g o r o u s  the system  and s t u d e n t a c c e p t a n c e  (1966:110) used  1) s i g n i f i c a n t l y  3)  than  negative.  Willmore  2) l e s s  increase  concluding  comprehension  Wooster (1953) i n c l u d e d  In a comparative Reading,  i s with  increased  two s t u d i e s  hension  study  a l l t h e r e s e a r c h done o n t h e m e t h o d ,  questions of student  some d e g r e e  scale  i s interesting,  The c o n c e r n  a i d i n promoting  Wark's  by t r a d i t i o n  the f o c u s o f n e a r l y  the  examining methods  characterizes  of  b y Crewe  dissimilar  o f the d a t a on p r o d u c t i v i t y  for  of research  to other  consideration  that  skills  underlining. One  skills  o f the l i t e r a t u r e  skill;  o f study  time.  a different that  inter-  i s , the e f f i c i e n c y  6 In  t h e SQ3R m e t h o d  construction (1961:29)  o f an o u t l i n e  suggested  Having try  type  the f i r s t  to r e c i t e  procedure  section,  the answer  w o r d s a n d name a n e x a m p l e . i n t h e book;  t o do t h i s  reciting  down c u e p h r a s e s  i n outline  form  these  brief.  specific  emphasis  form  sequential Arnold's  i f you c a n ' t , g l a n c e  of this  step  outline  (1942)  form  study  from  to j u s t i f y  over  the s e c t i o n  from  memory  Robinson  this  format  your  again.  i s to j o t  on a s h e e t o f p a p e r .  'cue' p h r a s e s  memory.  Use  y o u know w h a t  i n t h e SQ3R p r o c e d u r e  of the n o t e - t a k i n g -  Robinson  t h e book a n d  question.  I f y o u c a n do t h i s  e x c e l l e n t , way notes very  pattern.  l o o k away f r o m  is  the sequential  for recitation:  to your  An  The  step r e q u i r e s  of organizational  the f o l l o w i n g  read  briefly  the r e c i t a t i o n  Make  i s on t h e  written  down i n  ( 1 9 6 1 : 2 6 ) drew  stating  upon  that:  R e c i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s o f complete o u t l i n i n g , u n d e r l i n i n g , w r i t i n g s u m m a r i e s , j o t t i n g down summary p h r a s e s , a n d d i s c u s s i o n s have t r i e d , a n d the system o f r e a d i n g a headed s e c t i o n and t h e n j o t t i n g f r o m memory a k e y p h r a s e o r s o i n t h e r e a d e r ' s own words have been f o u n d the most e f f e c t i v e . However A r n o l d ' s for  comprehension  precis  writing  difficult  (1966) compared  SQ3R p r o c e d u r e  with  superior  book m a t e r i a l .  These  t e c h n i q u e s were  college i n terms  results  presented  employs an o u t l i n e  carryover  could  compared relate  differences  with marginal  with  each  notes,  other.  his recitation  I ti s  proposals  results.  significantly  SQ3R  no s i g n i f i c a n t  underlining  a n d r e - r e a d i n g were  Willmore  the  when o u t l i n i n g ,  t o s e e how R o b i n s o n  to A r n o l d ' s  the  r e s e a r c h showed  effect  may h a v e  merely  outlining  with  s t u d e n t s and found of increased  must  outlining i n  the l a t t e r  comprehension  be q u a l i f i e d ,  however,  to a l l experimental groups,  format  for i t s organizational  resulted.  t o be  of text because and a s  pattern,  a  7 Willmore's (1953)  results  study  on  presumably  SQ3R m e t h o d . evidenced. acquiring the  No  gains  training  i s given  of  study  outlining  time  i n the  ten-week  of  Wooster's  training  t o become w e l l  students  was  spen  or  were  period  trained reading  most o f  and  was  by  obtained;  for  appropriateness  did  not  in  able  which  the  rate  their  not  gains  Both  were  time to  outline  at  content  in reading  by  with  (1962).  measured  learn  one  Johnson  of  in  the His  a  outlining  merely  No  i n the  Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y  and  basis.  amount  he  measure them  Stone  did report  book m a t e r i a l . Level  i n a Reading the  of  evaluated While  for text  during  Increased  comprehension  comprehension,  used  aspects  for evaluating  i t s m o d i f i c a t i o n s , Three  (1964) were  reading  in outlining.  outlines  times  out-  outlining.  criteria  consensus of  that  instructional  article.  a  than  decrease  exchanged on  gains  which  i f extensive  (1930) found  facility by  an  format,  become e f f e c t i v e  training  o b j e c t i v e measure  SQ3R and  developed course  of  outlining  Barton  improved  instead students  o b t a i n any  significant  given  Stone  was  and  can  concerned  their  in outlining  the  comprehension  first  done  to r e a d  that  technique.  w h i c h was  was  Skills  i n view  comprehension  SQ3R s y s t e m ,  were  progress  needed  (3L0)  a  in outlining  in greater  i f students  facility  that  skill  i n the  resulted  student  them  i s some e v i d e n c e  uses  A  for  given  in either  concluded  Robinson  only  qualified  i n t e g r a t e d method.'  There  lining  enough  additional  total,  further  s u b j e c t s were  long  He  be  SQ3R.  Wooster's was  must  Outlining  and  summer  Study  semester  8 1970.  The s t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d  practice used  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with  time needed t o a c q u i r e  them i n t h e i r  these methods and few  studying.  Examination of research s t u d i e s o f the r e l a t i v e The  f a c i l i t y with  the amount o f  revealed  a lack o f comparative  i n s t r u c t i o n a l e f f i c a c y o f study  r e q u i r e m e n t s which a method must meet i n o r d e r  acquired  ,  techniques;..  to be r e a d i l y  were examined. A n e c e s s a r y r e q u i r e m e n t o f any t e c h n i q u e i f i t i s to be  r e a d i l y acquired yet accurate  i s that i t provide  perception  a framework which a l l o w s  o f b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( c h r o n o l o g y , cause and  e f f e c t , main and s u b o r d i n a t e instructional materials.  ideas)  As w e l l ,  w r i t t e n o u t l i n e , must be f l e x i b l e  w i t h i n and a c r o s s  enough to a l l o w  supportive  izational pattern  must f u n c t i o n as a r e c a l l  the  material  detail  as needed.  d e v o l v e s upon the Survey s t e p  in the  the o r g a n -  initial  orientation i n  i n any s t u d y method. o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  o f the a u t h o r ' s  the framework w i t h i n which a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l  Both SQ3R and 3L0 attempt manner.  Finally,  representation  p a t t e r n which b o t h f a c i l i t a t e s p e r c e p t i o n provides  the a d d i t i o n o f as  pattern.  p r o v i s i o n o f a r a p i d and a c c u r a t e  However, i t i s the r e s u l t i n g g r a p h i c  and  a v a r i e t y of  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n , the  much o r as l i t t l e  The  rapid  to do t h i s  organization, i s placed.  i n a l o g i c a l and s e q u e n t i a l  However, an e x a m i n a t i o n o f a statement by Johnson (1964:269)  s u p p o r t o f h i s method over  that of Robinson's served  s h o r t c o m i n g s o f both i n t h i s r e s p e c t .  lack of organization  commonly  found  to i l l u s t r a t e  Johnson s t a t e d  t h a t the  i n an i n t r o d u c t i o n to t e x t s ,  9 which  he l a b e l s  employing survey not  a  'misplaced  SQ3R a s a l e g i t i m a t e  step  occur,  i s performed he c l a i m e d ,  the m a t e r i a l does Illustrated with the  here  inability  procedures  within  i f 3L0 i s used place  f o r their  failure  into  and  organizational  the  student  i s made.  these  Both the  techniques  an a d e q u a t e  as  rigid suggested  comprehension  level  limit.  the development pattern.  outline  the m a t e r i a l as w e l l  of the f o r e g o i n g c r i t i c i s m  toward  will  the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f  any r a p i d i t y .  to provide  study-time  Such a m i s - r e a d i n g  a complete  required to perform  an a c c e p t a b l e Because  because  unless the  o f SQ3R i n p r o v i d i n g t h e s t u d e n t  orientation  o f 3 L 0 t o do s o w i t h  of a topic  well.  until  the inadequacy  initial  and time  was d i r e c t e d  discussion  exceptionally  not take was  an a c c u r a t e  reasons  g l o s s a r y ' , i s p e r c e i v e d by the s t u d e n t  o f an a l t e r n a t i v e  A technique  to p e r c e i v e and e v a l u a t e  o f SQ3R a n d 3 L 0 a t t e n t i o n  was n e e d e d  an a u t h o r ' s  study  procedure  which would  presentation  allow  rapidly,  yet accurately. As operations zational adapted  an a l t e r n a t i v e  pattern article;  p a t t e r n s , the m a t r i x to form  he  t h e NLO  study  structure  of Jenkinson  f o r use i n a s t u d y  procedure  the a r t i c l e ;  entitled  OP- h e  then  reviewed  -  then  he a d d e d  by answering  procedure  POPRADR  stood  ( 1 9 6 6 ) was termed  for:  POPRADR.  P-the  student  c o n s t r u c t e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  ( O P ) w h i c h was a w r i t t e n o u t l i n e ; AD  consuming  r e q u i r e d f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e SQ3R a n d 3 L 0 o r g a n i -  The pre-read  to the s e q u e n t i a l and time  R- n e x t  supportive detail  comprehension  he r e a d t h e  t o h i s OP; R-  questions.  finally  U n l i k e the  10 sequential pattern  treatments  i s unordered  symbolized ception or  A  during  criterion  may  study  the t h r e e  of rate  still  study  students  methods.  The r e s u l t s  However,  one r e a d a b i l i t y  easily  present  The  study  level  was  be  o f subtopics as w i t h i n the  under-  showed  acquired  materials  which  f u r t h e r study  as the  i n the use o f the study t h a t , a s compared as measured  was l i m i t e d  faculties  drawn  was d e f i n e d  of a four  o f m a t e r i a l was u s e d .  be made c o n c e r n i n g  acquired,  facility  the study  and  most  of a c q u i s i t i o n  o f the study  i n the a r t s and s c i e n c e  could  should  1 9 7 0 ) was  for instructional  achieved  enrolled  decision  a t the  step.  Rate  3 L 0 , t h e NLO was more e a s i l y score.  than  m e t h o d s o f SQ3R, 3 L 0 , a n d NLO u s i n g t h e  manual.  which  be a c c o m m o d a t e d  per-  By r e s t r u c t u r i n g  to read  importance  readily  initial  rather  ( F r a n k l i n and Sweet,  of acquisition  ease w i t h  rate-of-gain  t o be more  irformation.  required  to the r e l a t i v e  reading  preliminary  a reading  ideas  to the student's  the time  p a t t e r n a t t h e AD  t o compare  only  main  the i n f o r m a t i o n a t the beginning  Any a d j u s t m e n t s  organizational  taken  allows  according  o f t h e methods p r o c e d u r e ,  determined  and  form  SQ3R o r 3 L 0 , t h e NLO o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  and c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f the w r i t t e n  reduced.  from  and thus  i n written  manipulating  end  of either  o f the three  was n e e d e d .  t o SQ3R  by a  to  reading  students  year  university  Before  any  techniques  Toward  this  was  end the  undertaken.  Problem The  acquisition  present  study  of students  sought  taught  to e s t a b l i s h  the r e l a t i v e  rates of  SQ3R, NLO, a n d 3 L 0 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  11 The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was d e s i g n e d  i'.o answer t h r e e q u e s t i o n s :  1. W i l l the r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n among the s t u d y methods be d i f f e r e n t a t v a r i o u s times d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f instruction? 2. W i l l the r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n among the s t u d y methods depend upon the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l material? 3. W i l l the r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f a c q u i s i t i o n among the s t u d y methods be d i f f e r e n t a f t e r the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n ? F o r the purpose answer the f i r s t t w o  of f o r m u l a t i n g experimental hypotheses  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , three manipulated  v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d :  (1) Treatment  were SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0; (2) D i f f i c u l t y material,  groups,  to  independent  the l e v e l s o f which  levels of instructional  d e f i n e d by the F l e s c h r e a d a b i l i t y  f o r m u l a as the t h r e e  l e v e l s o f EASY, MEDIUM, and DIFFICULT; (3) Time o f a s s e s s m e n t , which had  two l e v e l s ,  determined  by two p o i n t s o f time d u r i n g the i n s t r u c t -  i o n a l p e r i o d , i e . a t the f o u r t h and s e v e n t h week o f the s t u d y . For  the purpose  answer the t h i r d  of f o r m u l a t i n g experimental hypotheses  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , two m a n i p u l a t e d ,  v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d :  (1) Treatment  groups,  The score of  dependent v a r i a b l e  termed E f f e c t i v e  Reading  i n the s t u d y was a r a t e - o f - g a i n  Rate (ERR).  T h i s i n d e x was the p r o d u c t  the s t u d e n t s comprehension s c o r e , e x p r e s s e d  article. study:  as a p r o p o r t i o n , and  i n words-per-minute, f o r a g i v e n  The ERR was a s s e s s e d a t f o u r d i f f e r e n t (1) the f i r s t  week ( p r e t e s t ) ;  seventh.week; (4) the e i g h t h week  (2) Time o f  the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t .  used  the s t u d y - r e a d i n g time, e x p r e s s e d  independent  the l e v e l s of which  were the s t u d y methods SQ3R, NLO, and 3L0 ( a s a b o v e ) ; assessment which had two l e v e l s ,  to  times d u r i n g the  (2) the f o u r t h week; (3) the  (posttest).  12 The the  first  in of  following experimental  research  exist  Support  were  formulated f o r  question.  H y p o t h e s i s 1. T h e r e w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e ERR among t h e T r e a t m e n t g r o u p s f a v o u r i n g t h e NLO when T i m e assessment and D i f f i c u l t y o f r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l a r e p o o l e d . Hypothesis  will  hypotheses  among  1 i s the e x p e c t a t i o n  the study  for this  methods f o r the p e r i o d o f  hypothesis  Sweet  ( 1 9 7 0 ) who  found  score  as compared  that a s i g n i f i c a n t  comes f r o m  t h a t NLO  the study  resulted  difference  instruction.  o f F r a n k l i n and  i n a higher rate-of-gain  t o SQ3R a n d 3 L 0 f o r a s i x week p e r i o d o f  instruction.  H y p o t h e s i s 2. T h e r e w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n ERR b e t w e e n t h e a s s e s s m e n t T i m e s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d a s s e s s m e n t t i m e when b o t h T r e a t m e n t a n d D i f f i c u l t y a r e p o o l e d . Hypothesis will  result  students. for  i n increased f a c i l i t y This will  the Treatment The  second  2 i s the e x p e c t a t i o n  be r e f l e c t e d  groups  over  instruction  i n the use o f study  and  practice  methods by  i n an i n c r e a s e d r a t e - o f - g a i n s c o r e  the p e r i o d o f  following experimental  research  that  instruction.  hypothesis  was f o r m u l a t e d  f o r the  question:  H y p o t h e s i s 3. T h e r e w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n ERR among t h e D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s ( r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s ) o f t h e r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l when t h e l e v e l s o f T r e a t m e n t a n d T i m e a r e pooled. Hypothesis  3 i s the e x p e c t a t i o n  the  r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l by t h e r e a d a b i l i t y  for  the s u b - p o p u l a t i o n . The  the  third  following experimental  research  question:  that  the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f  formula  hypothesis  i s a meaningful  were  formulated  one  f o r•  13 Hypothesis ERR among period  Sweet  score  (1970),  that  i n favour  difference i n  o f t h e NLO  a f t e r the  4 comes f r o m  the f i n d i n g s  NLO h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  higher  of Franklin  rate-of-gain  t o SQ3R a n d 3 L 0 a f t e r a s i x week p e r i o d  Hypothesis ERR b e t w e e n  5.  There  the p r e t e s t  will  be a s i g n i f i c a n t  and p o s t t e s t  of instruction.  difference i n  f o r a l l Treatment  groups  the d i r e c t i o n o f the p o s t t e s t . Hypothesis  instruction of  be a s i g n i f i c a n t  groups  f o r Hypothesis  as compared  in  There w i l l  of instruction.  Support and  4.  the Treatment  study  5 parallels  and p r a c t i c e  will  hypothesis  r e s u l t i n increased  methods by s t u d e n t s .  rate-of-gain  scores  2 as i t i s expected  This  will  f o r the Treatment  facility  that  i n the use  be r e f l e c t e d i n i n c r e a s e d  groups over  the p e r i o d  o f the  study. While  insufficient  experimental  hypotheses  investigated  as they  (1)  a Treatment  interaction  e x i s t s with  f o r the f o l l o w i n g  are relevant  x Time  effect;  evidence  to s p e c i f y  i n t e r a c t i o n s , they w i l l  to the f i r s t  interaction effect;  (3) a Treatment  which  two r e s e a r c h  (2) a Treatment  x Time  x Difficulty  be  questions: x  Difficulty  interaction  effect.  Theoretical Most college scores  level  Rationale evaluative has used  i n the  7  Previous  This  use o f a s t u d y research  the p r e t e s t  on s t u d y method  the c r i t e r i o n  f o r comprehension.  facility  between  research  of pretest  e f f i c a c y a t the and p o s t t e s t  i s a measure o f a s t u d e n t s  gain acquired  method.  has not focused  and p o s t t e s t .  on the p e r i o d  Measures  of student  of learning performance  14 such  as comprehension  increasing  degrees  The and  Sweet  in  s t u d i e s by W r i g h t  was n e e d e d  These  The  assumed  awareness using the  of increasing  dependent v a r i a b l e  quantified.  the  by an improved  evaluative criterion  acquisition,  that  between  that  used  or i n s t r u c t i o n a l  (1953),  and F r a n k l i n p e r i o d , per-  perseverance  formulated  was  of rate  rate  f o r determining efficacy,  Rate  of acquisition  the p e r i o d o f study.  their By  (ERR) a s  was  would  be i n -  T h e ERR was  the r e l a t i v e  o f the study  and  method.  Reading  of acquisition  lacking  f o r the p r e s e n t  students' perseverance  an E f f e c t i v e  tech-  courses.  i n the use o f a s t u d y  termed  reflect  methods.  r e a d i n g and study  of acquisition  ERR o v e r  period  i n the use o f a s t u d y  suggested  the concept  I t was a s s u m e d  this  the l e a r n i n g  facility  facility  index  Wooster  during  i n college  an i n t e r a c t i o n  a rate-of-gain  dicated  that,  notion of rate  during  i n the use o f study  to acquire  enrolled  made  (1962),  studies further  many s t u d e n t s  study  of f a c i l i t y  (1970) s u g g e s t e d  severance nique.  or reading rate  rates of  methods.  Summary Research on  on t h e e f f i c a c y  SQ3R, t y p i c a l l y  reading  rate  tests.  Increases  evaluative learning  emphasized  o r comprehension  considered  the data gain  criteria.  Although  characteristic t o be i n t i m a t e l y  and i n p a r t i c u l a r such  as  s c o r e s on s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g  student  of study  skills,  on p r o d u c t i v i t y ,  i n academic performance  and a c q u i s i t i o n  personality  of study  were a l s o  used  m o t i v a t i o n i s a problem  techniques,  o f the student related  widely  i t was v i e w e d  as i n the  as a  a n d was n o t g e n e r a l l y  to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  situation.  15 Wood's  study  showed  objective  measures  suggested  that  tated of  that  of progress  the a c q u i s i t i o n  by p r o v i d i n g the s t u d e n t  h i s progress.  I t was  also  function  a s one  most  suitable  study  6  student  of  attrition  rate  i n a r e a d i n g and of a study with  proposed  a rate-of-gain  that  rate-of-gain  for college  level  correlated  study  technique  the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a  technique  was  course.  would score  be as  scores  This facili-  evidence should  f o r determining students.  with  the  Chapter  II  METHOD  Experimental  Design  In o r d e r study  (1) the Treatment  the l e v e l s  assessments and  study  formula  of D i f f i c u l t y  made  manual  (Miller,  and d e s i g n a t e d  during  rate  of acquisition  Test  f o r High  assessments. Appendix  the study  o f the i n f o r m a l  1964), d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  a t which  and C o l l e g e s ,  independent  SQ3R, NLO, a n d 3 L 0 ;  drawn f r o m  a  reading  by the F l e s c h  and DIFFICULT;  the i n f o r m a l  three  i n the  (non-standardized)  materials  readability  (3) the p o i n t s o f  and f o r m a l  (standardized)  The N e l s o n - D e n n y  ( 1 9 6 0 ) was u s e d  The i n f o r m a l a s s e s s m e n t  The f i r s t  the r e l a t i v e  that  Reading  f o r the f o r m a l  materials are contained i n  the main  idea  variable,  provided  a rapid  relationships  the  organizational pattern  The  NLO p r o v i d e s i s linear  research  question  rates of acquisition  the dependent  methods which  outline  to manipulate  designated  E A S Y , MEDIUM,  formulated  B.  ascertain  of  questions  a s s e s s m e n t s w e r e made.  Schools  Treatment.  assumed  groups  up o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l  Time  study  the r e s e a r c h  ( s e e e . g . P. 10) i t was n e c e s s a r y  variables: (2)  to answer  of study  t h e ERR, w o u l d yet accurate  i n the m a t e r i a l .  the f o c a l  was f o r m u l a t e d  point  methods. be h i g h e r  initial This  Figure 16  f o ra  a s s u m p t i o n makes  o f any study  1 illustrates  I t was  perception  methods.  a non-linear o r g a n i z a t i o n a l pattern while i n format.  to  this  t h e SQ3R  difference.  17  NLO-outline  SQ3R-outline  TITLE I  First A.  Main  Idea  Secondary a.  Idea  Detail TITLE  II  Second Main Idea A. Secondary Idea a. Detail  Figure  1.  Comparison  The order the  material,  article. his  then  list  fashion  the student  sub-divisions  read.  ships  Outlining  i n the o u t l i n e  This  as q u i c k l y  as p o s s i b l e  to pre-read i n the  importance  during pre-reading.  with  organizational  each  main  idea  pattern,  in a  sequential  restriction.  pattern  format  i n the study  i s similar  F o r example,  because,  t o SQ3R, 3 L 0  an a r b i t r a r y  number o f  ( a minimum o f two a n d a maximum o f f i v e  the student  the main  i n terms o f  ideas a c c o r d i n g to  to regroup  and c o n s o l i d a t e  o p e r a t i o n was c l a i m e d by i t s a u t h o r  to i d e n t i f y  Formats  main  ( 3 L 0 ) was i n c l u d e d  i n procedure.  ideas)'requires  student  to deal  appeared  idea  t o combine  of the i n i t i a l  i t s organizational somewhat  Outlining  the s t u d e n t  i d e a s as they  relative  w h i l e NLO makes no s u c h  although  main  the main  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  Three-Level  differs  SQ3R r e q u i r e s  the s t u d e n t  perception of their  SQ3R r e q u i r e s  and Non-Linear  o f SQ3R a n d NLO may be c o n t r a s t e d  F o r example,  NLO a l l o w s  Following  has  of Linear  procedures  as w e l l .  ^^co^idary  to require the  i d e a s and p e r c e i v e the major (Johnson,  1964:273).  what he  relation-  18 Detailed are  contained For  could  P  i n Appendix  comparison  be a c c o m m o d a t e d  differs the  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e SQ3R, NLO a n d 3 L 0 s t u d y  step,  t h e OP  means o f m e a s u r i n g time.  effect  variation AD A  steps  steps  imposing Fraser not.  f o r each  reading  hension  spent  questions (R) s t e p  procedure  pattern.  the time  could  be o b t a i n e d .  he h a d c o m p l e t e d  This  raised  study their  The  i n the R and these  steps.  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f experience  l a b o r a t o r y suggested  i n t h e POPRADR  framework  were  then,  questions.  also  obtained  functioned  was  where Compre-  substituted f o r  the amount o f r e c a l l  as f o l l o w s :  i n Simon  i t would  to the p o i n t  the comprehension  by the OP.which  I t may be c h a r t e d  of  a  m i n u t e s was p l a c e d o n t h e R a n d  on the a r t i c l e s . , read  and r e f l e c t e d  each  provided  analysis of  was o b t a i n e d  o f the P r e - r e a d i n g  t o answer  though  by u n i t  t h e ERR b u t p r e v i o u s  i n study  as aided  This  a closer  techniques  and Study  the beginning  was r e a d y  steps  even  techniques  be c o n t r o l l e d f o r  technique  steps  exercise.  upon  could  procedure.  o f each  a n d one h a l f  effect  time  from  student  whole  noted  U n i v e r s i t y Reading Total  Review  between  a l l three  framework,  time  and the t o t a l  t h e R a n d AD  o f three  a floor  measured the  time  Thus,  t h e P a n d OP  time  purposes  t h e POPRADR  the e f f i c a c y  as the student  maximum  AD  step,  upon  i n study  and i n s t r u c t i o n  purpose.  By c o n t r o l l i n g  relative  A.  within  i n procedural  procedure  the from the  as a  recall  20  Framework.  NLO  P  SQ3R  P  3L0  S  OP  OP  R  R  Time p e r exercise  1st  level  2nd  level  1.5'  1 Q R  3rd  level ~  2-  Figure  AD  AD  R  R  R  R  2.  Framework  Thus and  p r o c e d u r e s was Level  Final  Draft R  o f two l i n e a r  — •  3-5  5 rule  2  Used f o r Comparison o f Study  a comparison  '  •  Methods  and o n e - l i n e a r  outline  obtained.  of Readability  effect  o f the r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l  ERRs o f t h e s t u d y  using  this  (Miller,  material  material,  choice  w h i c h was drawn  of a reading  are described  from  the r e l a t i v e  a s s e s s m e n t s were  a reading  and s t u d y  upon made  manual  and study  manual  texts.  However,  student  f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e that  below.  and K l i n g  programs employ  employed  The i n f o r m a l  and the use o f a r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a  Geerlofs study  methods.  to a s c e r t a i n  1964). The  material  was f o r m u l a t e d  The  research  than  question  o f the I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l .  second  the  formats  (1968) p o i n t e d  out that  instructional material previous  text-book  studies  material  drawn  relating  either  most  reading  from manuals  t o SQ3R h a v e  to assess  and rather  usually  the a c q u i s i t i o n  21 of  content  of  the  a  while  using  instructional  criterion  to  a  technique  materials.  evaluate  the  instructional  m a t e r i a l s on  material.  found  He  relevance was  desired  would of  of  content  may  and  study  Articles  from  were  were m e a s u r e d  of  a s c e r t a i n the  at  different  points  research  acquisition  Repeated  relative of  question among  measures  of  and  manuals  this  The  first  during  formulated  the  study  methods  the  relative  ERR  read  and  Three  do  and  therefore Most  vary  senior year  range.  they  style  criterion.  the  widely  depth.  subjectively  of  in college.  levels  f o u r t h year  reading  were  college.  formula  and  respectively. research  acquisition the  to  Author's  c o l l e g e and  DIFFICULT,  material  c o l l e g e students to  While  situation  revealed  (1951) r e a d a b i l i t y  rates of  was  study  with  year  study  required  level.  reading  differences.  conceptual  as  text-book  text-book  are  effect  general  to  student's of  only  spanned  transfer  comprehension  and  level  Flesch  time  skill  differentiating  second the  use  style,  school  Assessment.  to  of  by  of  the  students  f o r use  E A S Y , MEDIUM, and  Time  third  the  high  school,  to  controlled  as  (1969) used  significant  readability  s e l e c t e d which  high  designated  and  designed the  as  the  t e x t book v e r s u s  i f the  reading  and  chosen  manuals  selected: These  judged  was  readability  of  content,  be  readability  this  increase  transfer  material  i n content,  examination  in style,  of  statistically  have a c c o m p l i s h e d  An  effect  i t i s questionable  to  Dubois  later  instructional  material varying  vary  no  or  period  q u e s t i o n was among  of  the  formulated  study  methods  instruction.  to a s c e r t a i n the  relative  after  of  for  the  the  period  study  methods  The rate  instruction. provided  22 an  i n d i c a t i o n o f the r e l a t i v e  over  the p e r i o d The  the  eight  week. for  High  the  first  of  g r o u p s were; a s s e s s e d  week p e r i o d  o f the study,  and p o s t t e s t s  Schools  and e i g h t h  and  subjects  seventh It  allowed  study.  assessed  on an i n f o r m a l  would  the f u l l  have  been  desirable  Reading  instrument  Test  given i n  During  to the seventh  intervals.  However  the p e r i o d  week o f t h e a t the t h i r d  s i m i l a r stimulus The  groups p r i o r  pretest  and p o s t t e s t  i n repeated  a t each  which  o f the four to s e l e c t a  measures  to minimize  measures on the s a m e . s u b j e c t s  materials.  was u s e d  to determine  to i n s t r u c t i o n .  measure o f the r a t e  instruments  t h e d e c i s i o n was made  e f f e c t inherent  practice  to use t e s t  u s e o f t h e POPRADR p r o c e d u r e  the  the e q u i v a l e n c e  The p o s t t e s t  o f a c q u i s i t i o n among  was  used  o f the  to provide  the s t u d y methods  a  a f t e r the  of instruction. Dependent  the i n f o r m a l  test  week  the second  t e s t f o r the p r e t e s t  for  met o n c e p e r  the Nelson-Denny  ran from  standardized  period  subjects  week i n t e r v a l s .  assessment  with  technique  i n t e r v a l s over  Forms A and B (1960) were  week o f t h e e i g h t  were  at four  i n which  utilizing  and C o l l e g e s ,  i n s t r u c t i o n which  study,  o f a c q u i s i t i o n f o r each  o f the study.  treatment  Pretests  rate  and p o s t t e s t  Variable. measures, by t a k i n g  i t by t h e S t u d y  test.  study  reading  o f a c q u i s i t i o n measure  t h e ERR, was o b t a i n e d  multiplying This  The s p e e d  f o r the formal  the per cent  of correct  Reading  i n the comprehension  rate  Rate  was c a l c u l a t e d  used pre-  answers and  by d i v i d i n g the  subtotal  23 number which  of words was  twenty  This rate  that  time  but  of  involved  each  3  three  assessment for  2  (P )  °1  NLO  (P )  °1  3L0  (P ) 3  denoted  denoted  OF THE  informal  tests  were  for a  3.  NOTE:  Instruction  2  T^,  and informal related  specified the  full  X  2  3  3  study.  l  4  T  l  and  Wk  plan  second  5  Wk  l  X  P-^;  informal  Three  E A S Y , MEDIUM,  assessment  X  The  to  SQ3R, d e n o t e d  first  denoted  Wk  required  respectively.  informal  Wk  (X) o c c u r r e d  i n the form o f a  The  levels  l  x X  P^.  T-^ a n d  Experimental Design  point.  plan  articles  and  times.  STUDY S I X WEEK PERIOD OF  Wk  X  °1  Figure  that  Schools  r e s e m b l i n g the  data c o l l e c t i o n  assessed at both  SQ3R  6  closely  treatment conditions:  3L0,  Pretest  2  time,  reading  procedures d i d not allow  the  readability  E I G H T WEEK PERIOD  L  reading  f o r High  q u e s t i o n s f o r m u l a t e d i n the  and  three  Treatment  more  Test  students comprehension  summarizes  times are  of  the  the one-minute  f o r m a l and  the f o r m a l t e s t  different  P ;  D I F F I C U L T were  $  The  of  Reading  conditions  desired.  research  denoted  by  t h e POPRADR p r o c e d u r e .  Figure the  in lieu  the Nelson-Denny  were  employment  NLO,  chosen  they both measured  reading  answer  was  (1960) because  assessments in  of  subtest  minutes.  method  subtest  Colleges  i n the c o m p r e h e n s i o n  INSTRUCTION 6  l  Wk  7  Posttest  T  2  °2  x  2  T  l  x  2  x  2  T  2  °2  x  3  T  l  x  3  x  3  T  2  °2  Involving during  ten minute  Three  Independent  b o t h week  review of  the  four  and  Variables. week  instruction  up  seven to  24 The  Sample The  group  of  subjects  500  for  students  the  who  e x p e r i m e n t were  scored  an  i n f o r m a l measure o f  reading  to  the  students  1500  first  Technology. in  the  The  lowest  year  to  colours three by  (grade  each  The the  tables.  Nine  blocked basis Test the of  a n s w e r one  into  of  of  the  f o r each  of  three  the  possibility  determine  from  given  the  a A  ten  were  were  range  of  reading  Comprehension  f o r the  who  of  Science  Students  fourteen).  card.'  Institute  students  over  on  administered  Columbia  constructed  and  these  scores  and  three  time  was  of  determined  questions  from  which  initial  the  was  selected LOW  the  assigned  B l o c k i n g was  d i f f e r e n c e s between  on  done  the  and the Reading  administered  during  the  time-  Nelson-Denny  F o r m A,  group  available  students'  randomly  from  (1960),  level  groups.  by  made  HIGH, MEDIUM, a n d  classroom  each  groups  determined  obtained  Colleges, each  classroom  g r o u p s were  designated  treatment of  twenty  classroom  levels  group  the  P r o g r a m was  l a b o r a t o r y to  one  twelve,  of  Study  Schools  A  to  a  card.  mean ERR  study.  was  comprehension British  used  from  one-third category  r a t e - b u i l d e r card  c o r r e c t answers  three  f o r High  the  allowed  and  group  reading  ten,  composition  Reading  the  volunteers  (1959) m a t e r i a l from K i t IVa.  levels  number o f  accompanied  by  and  m i n u t e s was  the  at  one-third category  read  lowest  r a t e and  i n f o r m a l measure  Research Associates asked  i n the  113  to  first  at  in week  random  to  minimize  Treatments.  Reading M a t e r i a l The from  a  reading  reading  and  material for study  manual  the  informal  (Miller,  a s s e s s m e n t s was  1964).  Six a r t i c l e s  drawn of  25 equal and  length  the  (1350  w o r d s ) were  appropriate  available material logical  at  each  was  study  students.  The  articles,  given  levels  determined  as  articles  used  method  assessment  v a r i e d and  time.  content  by  1.  The  First  Second  hour  the  to  Difficult Difficult  L i g h t n i n g In A N u t s h e l l E l e c t r o n i c s - Your Chance  Medium  Easy Easy  Insurance For L i f e Western N a t i o n a l Parks  sets  of  Each  s e t of  formula.  The  reproduced  The  six  i n Appendix  B.  Assessment Interval  Union  35  T  l  35  T  2  41  T  l  45  T  52 52  2  T  l  T  2  Instruments measuring  questions  completion  the  Assessments  Future  The S t o r y Of W e s t e r n Mass I n v e s t m e n t  The  of  readability  Score  Medium  Measuring  reading  techno-  titles  Flesch Title  Shape The  the  o f M a t e r i a l Used  Informal  Level  To  read  period  of  the  be  1  Categories  and  could  interest by  Flesch readability  i n f o r m a l assessments are  Readability  the  1 also contains  Table  On  which  subject matter  is illustrated  Table  the  of  applied within  selected for potential  i n Table  i n the  s e l e c t e d , three  ten and  questions  instrument  for  the  drawn f r o m M i l l e r ' s  questions  contained  six true-false required  the  items  recall  of  six reading  (1964) r e a d i n g  two  passages and  multiple choice  summed  for a  factual  score  detail  were  study items,  out  of  (Miller,  manual. two ten.  1964:2).  26 The  student  could  questions.  High  pretest eight  Comprehension  and p o s t t e s t  an  average  to  read  the  paragraph  when a n s w e r i n g  per  paragraph  with  eight  questions. those  Thus  the  Nelson-Denny  was  c o n s i d e r e d the b e s t  Reading  of this  test  Test  B.  The r e a d e r  There  assessment  report  refer  questions  which  of this  a reliability  has  test did  Nevertheless  S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s ,  time  which  back t o  are four  material.  t o use i n view  administration  consists of  i s instructed  paragraph  and p r o c e d u r e s  instrument  f o r the  choice questions  T h e r e a d e r may  f o r High  Test  o f 242 w o r d s f o r F o r m A a n d  the q u e s t i o n s .  of the i n f o r m a l  and s h o r t  comprehension  detail.  used  o f the t e s t  answer m u l t i p l e  the format  match  authors  form  the e x c e p t i o n o f the f i r s t  not  reliability  length  f o r Form  and then  of factual  Each  pattern.  Reading  F o r m s A a n d B ( 1 9 6 0 ) was  o f 261 w o r d s  the r e c a l l  he a n s w e r e d t h e  to h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  respectively.  paragraph  when  s u b t e s t o f the Nelson-Denny  w i t h an average  length  each  to the a r t i c l e  refer  S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s ,  paragraphs  require  back  However, he c o u l d  The for  not r e f e r  (1960)  of i t s proven  o f twenty  minutes.  coefficient  of  The  .81 f o r t h e  subtest.  Procedure The all  the data  Instructors in A  experimenter  experienced instructor  i n t h e s t u d y and c o n d u c t e d were  the study. meeting  and another  randomly  Similar  was h e l d  presentation.  assigned  lesson  before  to the treatment  p l a n s were  the experiment  The i n s t r u c t i o n a l  a l l training  used  procedures  sessions. groups  by b o t h  to f u r t h e r  collected  involved  instructors.  coordinate  lesson  are e l a b o r a t e d i n Appendix  C.  27 Treatment setting the  g r o u p s met o n e h o u r p e r week  ( 1 9 6 0 ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d  study  instruction method  sition  informal  i n the f i r s t  the f i r s t  effects  with  assessments  with  A pretest  utilizing  any  Hawthorne  for  High  and  final  Analysis  The Form  and  third  the a p p r o p r i a t e of rate of acqui-  assessment  For both  the f i r s t  order  o f timed  and C o l l e g e s  with  informal  difficulty  i n a non-systematic  Schools  F o r the second  A,  f u r t h e r weeks o f i n s t r u c t i o n and  week.  the t h r e e  effect.  week.  and C o l l e g e s , Form  i n f o r m a l assessment  the second  the D i f f i c u l t y  Schools  was p r o v i d e d  Two  i n the seventh  were p r e s e n t e d  f o r High  and p r a c t i c e  before  followed  acquisition  levels  and  materials  confounding  practice  order  drills  B o f the Nelson-Denny  (1960),  second  of reading  to avoid  reading  of rate of  to a v o i d  Reading  was a d m i n i s t e r e d  Test  i n the e i g h t h  week.  o f the Data For  response  the purpose  measures  f o r High  determine  o f e v a l u a t i n g the treatment  o f the dependent v a r i a b l e ,  p e r i o d o f the Prior  Test  Test  i n t h e f o u r t h week.  practice  the  classroom  f o r t h e e i g h t week p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y .  Nelson-Denny Reading  weeks,  i n a normal  ERR, w e r e  to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  period,  Schools  F o r m A, was  and C o l l e g e s  a one-factor  dependent v a r i a b l e ,  four  obtained i n  study.  the equivalence  equivalency  effects,  ERR,  o f the treatment  the Nelson-Denny  groups.  analysis of variance f o r Treatment  given  group  Reading  as a p r e t e s t to To a s c e r t a i n  was p e r f o r m e d ERR mean  this  on t h e  scores.  28  The sponds with  analysis  to a three-factor  a l l factors  methods The  data  design fixed  crossed  f o r the i n f o r m a l  effects  (Glass  and S t a n l e y ,  SQ3R, NLO a n d 3 L 0 c o m p r i s e d  two i n f o r m a l  comprised  assessment  the l e v e l s  analysis  o f t h e Time  factor.  comprised  classroom  groups which  of  i n the Nelson-Denny  F o r m A, ( 1 9 6 0 ) w e r e The ment f a c t o r tively.  T^  composed  HIGH, MEDIUM, a n d LOW  means  G3,  the l e v e l s  The l e v e l s  respectively. and  readability  The t h r e e  on t h e b a s i s Test  f o rHigh  as a l e v e l  model  readability  assessment  treatment  factor.  group  o f P, LOW, The f i r s t  The  ie.  The r e a d i n g  composed  time  o f the c l a s s r o o m Schools  i n Figure  the d i f f i c u l t y  MEDIUM, a n d D I F F I C U L T a r e d e n o t e d  intervals  material,  DT, D , 9  D  group  and C o l l e g e s , factor.  4.  The  treat-  respecG , 1  G , 2  a r e denoted  differentiated  factor  v  three  the l e v e l s  MEDIUM, a n d H I G H , a r e d e n o t e d  and second  levels  reading  o f the treatment  i s diagrammed  factor.  period  SQ3R, NLO, a n d 3 L 0 a r e d e n o t e d P-^, P^, P^  respectively. formula  Reading  included  experimental groups  obtained  model  o f the Treatment  o f the d i f f i c u l t y each  corre-  The s t u d y  o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  ( E A S Y , MEDIUM, a n d D I F F I C U L T ) o f t h e i n f o r m a l materials  of variance  1970).  the l e v e l s  intervals  assessment  levels,  respectively.  by a  EASY,  29  TIME  DIFFICULTY  FACTOR  FACTOR  TREATMENT  P  G  l  D  -  T  2  D  3  Figure  4.  Three  The designed on  reading  1,  2,  data  using The  Design  m a t e r i a l of three  the f a c t o r s o f Treatment, Nelson-Denny Reading  acquisition  among  the study  the data  using  G  G3  levels.  f o r High  to measure  4 a one-factor the f a c t o r  Difficulty,  Test  methods  Measures  o f the three  a three-factor analysis of variance  hypothesis  G^  2 3  o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  readability  as a p o s t t e s t  on  G  f o r Analysis of Informal  the r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n  given  test  l  ptd  assessments  F o r m B, was  To  G  3  3  two i n f o r m a l  a n d 3,  G  P  2  Factor  to measure  2 3  2  l  D  D  G  X  D  D  2  l  P  l  FACTOR  after  To  study  test  were  methods  hypotheses  was p e r f o r m e d  on the  and Time.  Schools  and C o l l e g e s ,  the r e l a t i v e the p e r i o d  rate of  of  analysis of variance  of Treatment.  period  instruction.  was  performed  30 To  test  hypothesis  5, a t w o - f a c t o r  performed  on t h e p r e t e s t  Treatment  (Programs) and Time  Because  both  i n s t r u m e n t s were variables (2)  <3  (Pretest  standardized  used  and v a r i a b l e  posttest  and p o s t t e s t  were  determined:  2  2  was  the f a c t o r s o f  and P o s t t e s t ) .  correlations  ( 0 ) ; (3) T j D ^ (4) T D ; 2  using  of variance  and n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d  i n the study, pairs  data  analysis  between  the f o l l o w i n g  (1) P r e t e s t  (5) T D ; L  measuring  3  (6) T ^ ;  (0^) ; (7)  T ^ .  Chapter I I I  RESULTS OF THE STUDY  The in  treatment  group ERR means and s t a n d a r d  the Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t f o r H i g h S c h o o l s  (1960) which was summarized on  these  3.  administered  i n Table  data.  2.  on  to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d , a r e  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e summarized  treatment  i n Table  ERR d i f f e r e n c e s between the g r o u p s .  group ERR means and s t a n d a r d  deviations obtained  the two i n f o r m a l assessments o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d a r e  summarized i n Table  i n T a b l e 4.  A three-factor analysis of variance,  5 was performed on these  data.  A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t o f Treatment two-factor and  i n t e r v a l s around  . 0 5 ) . The Tukey method f o r  to. c o n s t r u c t s i m u l t a n e o u s  the treatment  2  31  "  group ERR mean " d i f f e r e n c e s  _ T h i s t e s t i s d e f i n e d i n G l a s s and S t a n l e y (1970) a s : - X ) + 1 - << q J , N - I J / MSW ^ N/J where, X = Treatment group mean I = L e v e l s o f D i f f i c u l t y f a c t o r w i t h i n Time f a c t o r J = L e v e l s o f Treatment f a c t o r N = Number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s MSW = Mean square from a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e L  6.  f o r the f a c t o r  a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p o s t hoc comparisons ( s e e e g . G l a s s  S t a n l e y , 1970:444)^" was employed  confidence  are g i v e n i n T a b l e  d i f f e r e n c e was found  ( F - 17.55, df = 2/6, p <  summarized  The main e f f e c t means f o r  t h r e e f a c t o r s o f Treatment, Time, and D i f f i c u l t y  _ (X  and C o l l e g e s , Form A  A o n e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d  They i n d i c a t e d no i n i t i a l The  prior  deviations obtained  32  TABLE 2  SUMMARY OF TREATMENT GROUP ERR MEANS STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE NELSON DENNY  AND READING  TEST FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES, FORM A , PRE-TEST  TREATMENT GROUP  MEAN  SD  (SQ3R)  52.57  14.37  2  (NLO)  53.85  16.28  3  (3LO)  49.05  14.32  ?  l  P  P  TABLE 3 SUMMARY TABLE OF A N A L Y S I S OF VARIANCE  FOR  TREATMENT GROUP ERR MEANS FOR THE NELSON DENNY READING TEST FOR H I G H SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES, FORM A , PRE-TEST  SOURCE  TREATMENT ERROR ( G r o u p s W. TOTAL  MS  2  108.40  6  45.63  Treatment) 8  F  2.40  2.  >.05  33  TABLE  4  SUMMARY OF TREATMENT GROUP AND  STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR THE F I R S T  ( T , ) AND  SECOND ( T „ ) INFORMAL  ASSESSMENT  T  TREATMENT  READABILITY  GROUP  LEVEL  P  D  P  P  (SQ3R)  2  3  (NLO)  (3LO)  MEANS  36.32  86.27  25.64  98.83  30.50  106.92  33.40  109.04  30.90  104.04  38.89  130.44  46.05  83.83  28.48  111.35  35.54  100.25  30.93  115.48  28.74  69.94  32.80  67.22  40.10  73.36  26.74  82.41  33.72  40.42  30.88  74.96  33.37  3  (DIFFICULT)  3  D  l  D  2  D  3  SD  98.83  D  D  MEANS  29.12  (MEDIUM)  2  SD  86.62  2  D  2  (EASY)  D  °1  MEANS  T  l  34  TABLE 5  SUMMARY T A B L E OF A N A L Y S I S OF VARIANCE FIRST  ( T ) AND  SOURCE  SECOND  ( T ) INFORMAL  ERROR TERM  i f  FOR  ASSESSMENTS  MS  F  TREATMENT  (P)  G(P)  2  7215.62  17.55  <• .05  TIME  (T)  GT(P)  1  2083.58  32.47  < .05  DIFFICULTY  (D)  GD(P)  2  82.77  0.17  ^.05  6  411.21  GROUPS W.  TREATMENT G ( P ) PT  GT(P)  2  595.00  9.27  ^ .05  PD  GD(P)  4  637.48  5.50  < .05  TD  GTD(P)  2  30.25  0.16  P-.05  GT(P)  6  64.17  GD(P)  12  115.83  4  124.31  0.68  7.05  12  183.37  PTD GTD(P)  GTD(P)  35  TABLE  MAIN  E F F E C T MEANS FOR FACTORS OF  TREATMENT FOR  6  ( P ) , TIME  INFORMAL  ( T ) , D I F F I C U L T Y (D)  ASSESSMENT  MEASURES  FACTOR TREATMENT ( P )  TIME  (T)  DIFFICULTY  LEVEL  1  P  2  (NLO)  109.12  P  3  (3LO)  69.91  T  (SQ3R)  96.59  P  (Time)  85.66  2  (Time)  98.08  I>  (EASY)  91.78  D  2  (MEDIUM)  89.77  D  3  T  1  (DIFFICULT)  94.05  (D)  d 36 TABLE 7  POST HOC ERR MEAN COMPARISONS OF TREATMENT GROUPS (SQ3R, NLO, 3LO) FOR THE POOLED INFORMAL ASSESSMENT TIMES (T, AND T )  OBSERVED MEANS SQ3R (P ) L  96.59  NLO (P )  3L0 C P )  109.12  69 .91  2  3  OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R ( P ) L  p  P  l  NLO (P )  3LO (P )  -12.53  26 .67  2  39.20  3  3  - --  CONFIDENCE INTERVALS AROUND OBSERVED MEAN DIFFERENCES SQ3R ( P p  P  P  l  3  NLO (P ) 2  (-29.38,  3LO (P ) 3  +4.32)  (+9 .82,  (+22.35, +56.05)  --  +43.52)  37 pooled this  over  the f a c t o r s  analysis  significant  o f Time  are given  difference  and D i f f i c u l t y .  i n Table existed  7.  The r e s u l t s o f  The r e s u l t s  between  showed  SQ3R a n d NLO.  SQ3R a n d NLO h a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR means t h a n not  support  thesis and  1, t h a t  Time  ment  both  3L0.  This did  as s t a t e d  i n Hypo-  a s i g n f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR  difference  Thus,  than  SQ3R  was f o u n d  f o r the f a c t o r  and second  i n favour  simple further  would  assessment  o f the second difference  times  assessment was f o u n d  exist  between  the l e v e l s  effects  i n Table  analysis  the Treatment of this  a t both  df  = 2/12, p  df  = 2/12, p < . 0 5 ) .  X Time  interaction  ( F = 9.27, d f = 2/6, p <  are given  the r e s u l t s  significantly  a significant  difference  o f the time.  f o r the f a c t o r  no s u p p o r t was p r o v i d e d f o r H y p o t h e s i s  s i g n i f i c a n t Treatment  interaction  study  2, t h a t  assess-  of  3,  that  readability  material.  F i g u r e 5, was f o u n d  A  Hypothesis  s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t  the r e a d i n g  marized  effect  the f i r s t  significant difference  this  to  supported  between  Difficulty.  A in  This  of instruction No  of  of difference  However  ( F = 3 2 . 4 7 , d f = 1/6, p <- .05) i n f a v o u r o f t h e s e c o n d  exist  period  a  have  s i g n i f i c a n t main  time.  would  of  NLO w o u l d  direction  no  3L0. A  of  the expected  that  (see eg. Winer,  X Time  1 9 6 2 ) was  interaction. which  showed  (T^) assessment  .05) a n d t h e s e c o n d  . 0 5 ) . T h e means f o r  8.  analysis  the f i r s t  effect, illustrated  9 sum-  treatments  Time  ( T ) assessment 2  Table  (F =  Time  employed  differed  17.77,  ( F = 48.25,  38  TABLE 8  TREATMENT X TIME INTERACTION:  MEAN ERR SCORES  FOR THREE TREATMENT GROUPS, SQ3R, NLO, 3LO, FOR THE FIRST (T ) AND SECOND (T ) INFORMAL ASSESSMENT TIMES  TI ME  TREATMENT  T  l  T  2  (SQ3R) ?  l  92.24  100.94  (NLO)  P  2  96.46  121.78  (3LO)  P  3  68.30  71.54  39  130  ~  120  -  NLO ( P ) 2  110  100 -  SQ3R ( P ) L  P4 90  -  80  -  70  -  -3L0  (P ) 3  60  TIME Figure  5,  Treatment (T-^)  T r e a t m e n t X Time Groups,  and Second  SQ3R  Interaction:  ( P j ^ ) , NLO  ( T ) Informal 2  Mean ERR S c o r e s f o r T h r e e  ( P ) > and 3L0 ( P ) f o r the F i r s t 2  Assessment  3  Times.  40 TABLE 9  SUMMARY T A B L E S OF ANALYSES FOR  df  Error  2)  F  B.  2  4224.78  17.77  < .05  ERROR  12  237.69  TOTAL  14  2  SOURCE  •  TIME  MS  TREATMENT  6  ( T I M E 1 AND  TWO  1  SOURCE  TIME  VARIANCE  SIMPLE E F F E C T S OF TREATMENT AT  L E V E L S OF TIME  TIME  OF  i i  MS  2  11468.56  ERROR  12  237.69  TOTAL  14  TREATMENT  Term:  SS d f  +  G(P)  G(P)  +  SSG T ( P ) d f  GT(P)  F  48.250  ^.05  41 Using post  hoc comparisons,  simultaneous ment T^  group  T > 2  of  f o r one-factor analysis  (see eg. Glass  confidence  intervals  The r e s u l t s  2  no s i g n i f i c a n t  both  method  ERR mean d i f f e r e n c e s  and T „  T-p  the Tukey  were  levels  analysis  was f o u n d  between  NLO.  Both  difference  was f o u n d  the  o f t h e Time  are given  SQ3R a n d NLO h a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r a significant  1970:385)^,  c o n s t r u c t e d around  a t both  of this  difference  and S t a n l e y ,  of variance  factor,  i n Table  10.  SQ3R a n d NLO.  ERR means t h a n  between  treat-  SQ3R a n d NLO h a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r  However  3L0.  SQ3R a n d NLO  For  For  i n favour  ERR means  than  d i d 3L0. A  significant  illustrated The  means f o r t h i s A  to  i n Figure  simple  study  further  summarizes  Treatment 6, was  analysis  of this  different  a t t h e EASY l e v e l  p «c . 0 5 ) ;  they  ficantly  differed  i n Table  (see eg. Winer,  .05).  11. 1 9 6 2 ) was  employed  X Difficulty interaction.  Table  analysis:  significantly  treatments  o f D i f f i c u l t y (Dj^),  ( F = 4.20, d f = 2/18, p < level  were  . 0 5 ) ; and they  ( D ) , ( F = 13.61, 3  (D ) level of 2  differed  (X  _ x  This  - X ) + 2  where,  _  i s defined  and S t a n l e y  /MSw~  group  mean  = L e v e l s o f Treatment  (n-1) = Degrees  o f freedom  n = Observations MSw  i n Glass  J(n-l)  n  X = Treatment J  J  test  1 "«<qJ,  = Mean  square  factor from  MSw  per (Treatment) from  analysis  group  of variance  signi-  d f = 2/18, p  2 _  12  ( F = 2 1 . 8 2 , d f = 2/18,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t t h e MEDIUM  a t the DIFFICULT  effect,  ( F = 5.50, d f = 2/12, p  are given  the Treatment  the r e s u l t s  Difficulty  found  interaction  effects  X Difficulty interaction  (1970) a s :  .05).  42 TABLE  10  POST HOC ERR MEAN COMPARISONS FOR BOTH  OF TREATMENT GROUPS  INFORMAL ASSESSMENT TIMES (TIME  1 AND  TIME 2)  TIME 1  OBSERVED MEANS SQ3R ( P )  NLO ( P )  L  2  96.46  92.24  OBSERVED MEAN SQ3R ( P )  p  l  P  3  4.22  28.16  CONFIDENCE  L  P  l  P  3  (P ) 3  23 .94  - - - -  NLO  DIFFERENCES (P ) 2  (-15.41, + 3 3 . 8 5 )  — — •  3LO  INTERVALS AROUND  OBSERVED MEAN SQ3R ( P )  3  DIFFERENCES  2  -  (P )  68 .29  NLO ( P )  x  3LO  ( +8.55, +47.79)  3LO  (P  3  )  ( + 4 . 3 1 , +43.5 7)  43 TABLE  10  (continued)  TIME 2  OBSERVED MEANS SQ3R ( P ^  NLO ( P )  100.94  SQ3R (Pj_)  l  P  3  3  121.78  OBSERVED MEAN  p  3LO ( P )  2  71.54  DIFFERENCES  NLO ( P )  3LO ( P )  2  3  29 .40  -20.84  50.24  CONFIDENCE  INTERVALS  AROUND  OBSERVED MEAN D I F F E R E N C E S SQ3R (Pj.)  -  l  P  P  3  NLO ( P ) 2  (-40.47,  -1.21)  (+30.61, +69.87)  3LO ( P ) 3  (+9 .77,  +49.03)  44  130  120  110  SQ3R ( P ) NLO (P ) L  2  100  ai W  90  80  70 -  •3L0 ( P ) 3  60  DIFFICULTY  Figure  6.  Treatment X D i f f i c u l t y I n t e r a c t i o n s : M e a n ERR S c o r e s F o r T h r e e T r e a t m e n t G r o u p s , SQ3R ( P ) , NLO (P ) , a n d 3LO (P ) F o r T h r e e L e v e l s o f R e a d a b i l i t y , EASY ( D , J , MEDIUM (D ) , and DIFFICULT ( D ) . 1  2  3  TABLE  11  TREATMENT X D I F F I C U L T Y INTERACTION: TREATMENT GROUPS,  SQ3R  ( P ^ , NLO  MEAN ERR SCORES FOR THREE  ( P ^ , 3LO ( P ^ FOR THREE L E V E L S  OF D I F F I C U L T Y , E A S Y ( D ^ , MEDIUM  ( D > , AND 2  D I F F I C U L T (D^)  DIFFICULTY TREATMENT EASY  SQ3R ( P )  (D ) L  MEDIUM  (D ) 2  DIFFICULTY(D^)  89.93  92.82  107.00  NLO ( P )  120.58  100.20  106.57  3LO ( P )  64.85  76.29  68.60  x  2  3  46 TABLE  SUMMARY T A B L E  12  OF A N A L Y S I S  OF VARIANCE  FOR SIMPLE E F F E C T S OF TREATMENT OF THREE L E V E L S OF D I F F I C U L T Y ( D ^ D^,  EASY  D^)  (D ) L  SOURCE  TREATMENT  MEDIUM  MS  i f 2  4675.83  ERROR  18  214.29  TOTAL  20  I  £  21.82  <  .05  (D ) 2  i f  MS  2  899.11  ERROR  18  214.29  TOTAL  20  SOURCE  TREATMENT  £  F  4.20  <  .05 •  r  DIFFICULT  (D ) 3  SOURCE  TREATMENT  Error  MS  i f  2  2916.25  ERROR  18  214.29  TOTAL  20  Term:  SS df  G  (  p  )  +  S S  G  p  (  p  )  G ( P ) + d fG D ( P )  £  F  13.61  <  .05  47 Using  the Tukey method f o r o n e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  p o s t hoc comparisons ( s e e e g . G l a s s and S t a n l e y , 1970:385) confidence  i n t e r v a l s were c o n s t r u c t e d around  ERR mean d i f f e r e n c e s f o r each l e v e l  the treatment  o f the D i f f i c u l t y  group  factor.  The  r e s u l t s of t h i s a n a l y s i s are given  i n Table  a significant  between SQ3R and NLO, f a v o u r i n g  NLO.  d i f f e r e n c e was found  Both SQ3R and NLO had s i g n i f i c a n t l y  F o r MEDIUM m a t e r i a l s , no s i g n i f i c a n t  h i g h e r ERR means than 3L0. between  A significant difference  between NLO and 3L0 i n f a v o u r o f NLO.  m a t e r i a l , no s i g n i f i c a n t  F o r EASY m a t e r i a l ,  d i f f e r e n c e was found  SQ3R and NLO, nor between SQ3R and 3L0. was found  13.  simultaneous  d i f f e r e n c e was found  F o r DIFFICULT  between SQ3R and NLO.  B o t h SQ3R and NLO had s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r ERR means than 3L0. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t Treatment X D i f f i c u l t y X Time action effect. The  v  treatment  group ERR means and s t a n d a r d  Nelson-Denny Reading T e s t  f o r High S c h o o l s  B, which was a d m i n i s t e r e d  after  t e s t a r e summarized was p e r f o r m e d Table  i n Table  i n these  data.  Using  d e v i a t i o n s f o r the  and C o l l e g e s (1960),  Form  the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d a s a p o s t -  14.  15, showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  df = 2/6, p  inter-  A one-factor analysis of variance  The"results of this a n a l y s i s , given i n d i f f e r e n c e f o r Treatment  ( F = 6.71,  .05). the Tukey method f o r . o n e - f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  p o s t hoc comparisons neous c o n f i d e n c e  ( s e e e g . G l a s s and S t a n l e y , 1970:385), s i m u l t a -  i n t e r v a l s were c o n s t r u c t e d around  ERR mean d i f f e r e n c e s .  the treatment  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e g i v e n i n  group  48 T A B L E 13  POST HOC MEAN COMPARISONS OF TREATMENT GROUPS FOR THREE  L E V E L S OF R E A D A B I L I T Y  , T> , D^) 2  EASY (D,)  OBSERVED MEANS SQ3R  (P )  2  120.58  89.93  OBSERVED MEAN SQ3R  (P )  SQ3R ( P ) L  3  3  25.08  55.74  INTERVALS  OBSERVED MEAN  P  3LO ( P )  -30.65  CONFIDENCE  l  3  DIFFERENCES  2  3  P  (P )  64.85  NLO ( P )  L  Pi  P  3LO  NLO ( P )  1  AROUND  DIFFERENCES  NLO ( P ) 2  (-52.34,  - 11.04)  ( + 3 4 . 0 5 , +77.43)  3LO ( P ) 3  (+3 .39, +46.77)  49 TABLE  13  (continued)  MEDIUM ( D ) 9  OBSERVED MEANS NLO ( P )  SQ3R ( P )  92.82  l  p  3  -  SQ3R ( P )  l  P  2  2  (-29.07, + 1 4 . 3 1 )  (+  AROUND  DIFFERENCES  NLO ( P )  L  3  - --  INTERVALS  OBSERVED MEAN  (P )  16 .53  7.38  23.91  CONFIDENCE  P  3'LO  2  1  3  DIFFERENCES  NLO ( P )  SQ3R ( P )  (P  76 .29  100.20  OBSERVED MEAN  p  3LO  2  L  2.22, + 4 5 . 6 0 )  3LO  (-5 .10,  (P ) 3  +38.28)  50 TABLE  13  (continued)  DIFFICULT (Do)  OBSERVED MEANS SQ3R ( P )  NLO  L  107.01  (P )  3 L 0 <* >  2  3  6 8 . 60  106.57  a OBSERVED MEAN SQ3R ( P )  NLO  1  P  i  P  3  (P )  SQ3R ( P ) L  P  2  3  3 8 .40  -  37.96  INTERVALS  OBSERVED MEAN  l  3LO ( P )  2  0.44  CONFIDENCE  P  DIFFERENCES  NLO  AROUND  DIFFERENCES (P ) 2  (-21.25, + 2 2 . 1 3 )  ( + 1 6 . 2 7 , +58.65)  3LO ( P ) 3  ( + 1 6 . 7 1 , +60.08)  51 TABLE  14  SUMMARY OF TREATMENT GROUP ERR MEANS STANDARD  DEVIATIONS FOR THE NELSON DENNY READING  T E S T FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND  TREATMENT  AND  GROUP  C O L L E G E S , FORM B, P O S T T E S T  MEAN  SD  SQ3R ( P )  62.28  15.54  NLO ( P )  63.50  17.08  3LO  46.31  16.67  L  2  (P ) 3  TABLE  15  SUMMARY T A B L E OF A N A L Y S I S OF VARIANCE  FOR  TREATMENT GROUP ERR MEANS ON THE NELSON DENNY READING T E S T FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND  SOURCE  i i  C O L L E G E S , FORM B, P O S T T E S T  MS  F  .6.71  TREATMENT  2  340.11  ERROR  6  50.69  (Groups  W.  Treatment) TOTAL  8  <  .05  TABLE  16  POST HOC ERR MEAN COMPARISONS (SQ3R, NLO, AND  FOR TREATMENT GROUPS  3LO) FOR THE NELSON-DENNY  FOR HIGH SCHOOLS AND  C O L L E G E S , FORM  READING T E S T  B, P O S T T E S T  OBSERVED MEANS NLO ( P )  SQ3R ( P )  3LO ( P )  2  L  3  66.12  60.17  45.44  OBSERVED MEAN D I F F E R E N C E S SQ3R ( P )  20.68  CONFIDENCE  INTERVALS  OBSERVED MEAN SQ3R ( P _ ) ]  l  P  3  14.73  -5.95  3  P  3  2  Pl  P  3LO ( P )  NLO ( P )  1  AROUND  DIFFERENCES  NLO ( P ) 2  (-23.78, +11.88)  ( + 2 . 8 5 , +38.51)  3LO ( P ) 3  (- 3.1, +32.56)  53 Table nor  16.  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  between SQ3R and 3 L 0 .  A significant  NLO and 3L0 i n f a v o u r o f NLO. d i r e c t i o n of  the  differences  would have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y A two-factor and  posttest  stated  The r e s u l t s  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  treatment  (in  posttest  (8)  T D . 3  the  difference  d i r e c t i o n of  of  the  of  difference  NLO  would e x i s t  pretest  these'data, for  T h i s d i d not  the p o s t t e s t )  correlations  and v a r i a b l e p a i r s i s  (2)  2  that  the support  between for  the  the  groups.  A summary t a b l e variables  expected  o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d on the  that a s i g n i f i c a n t  p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t  7,  found between  h i g h e r ERR mean than SQ3R and 3 L 0 .  f a c t o r o f Time (between p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t ) . H y p o t h e s i s 8,  was  s u p p o r t the  i n Hypothesis  group ERR means.  summarized i n T a b l e 17,  difference  T h i s d i d not  as  analysis  treatment  was found between SQ3R and NLO,  (0 ); 2  (3)  T ^ ; (4)  given T ^ ;  between the  i n T a b l e 18: (5)  T ^ ; ,  (1)  following prestest  (6) . T ^ ; ' (7)  (0^);  T D ; 2  2  54  TABLE  SUMMARY T A B L E OF A N A L Y S I S  17  OF VARIANCE FOR  GROUP ERR MEANS FOR THE NELSON-DENNY SCHOOLS AND  ERROR  TREATMENT ( P )  G  TIME ( T )  GT(P)  (P)  GROUPS W. TREATMENT G ( P )  PT  GT(P)  6  READING T E S T FOR HIGH  C O L L E G E S , FORM A , P R E T E S T , AND  SOURCE  GT(P)  i i  TREATMENT  FORM B,  MS  POSTTEST  F  2  243.18  3.53  1  137.56  4.69  > .05  6  68.85  2  110.02  3.75  •y .05  6  29.34  TABLE  18  INTERCORRELATIONS OF TREATMENT GROUP ERR MEANS THE NELSON- DENNY READING T E S T FOR HIGH SCHOOLS FORM B (NDB) AND THE F I R S T  (T )  AND C O L L E G E S , FORMS A  1  2  (NDA),  AND SECOND ( T ) INFORMAL ASSESSMENT  x  2  TIMES FOR THREE R E A D A B I L I T Y L E V E L S , E A S Y ( D ^ ) , MEDIUM  MEASURES  FOR  3  4  ( D ) , DIFFICULT 2  5  6  (D ) 3  7  1 NDA  1.00  2 NDB  .73  1.00  .19  .29  1.00  .33  .32  .51  1.00  .20  .38  .49  .42  1.00  .36  .43  .64  .24  .46  1.00  .30  .25  .56  .34  .46  .75  1.00  .14  .20  .37  .14  .44  .63  .60  3  T  1 ° 1  4 5 6  T D L  T  l  D  2  2  8  3  T D  7T D  L  2  T D 2  2  3  8  1.00  Chapter  IV  SUMMARY, D I S C U S S I O N AND  The  Problem Most  has  used  research  spite  research  of evidence  which  suggests  acquisition  study  present  study  f o r three  which  study  NLO  aspects method  material.  of preview-type  motivation,  Since instructional  i s most  study  the e v a l u a t i v e  of study  method  efficacy  suitable for  the s u b j e c t s  SQ3R  the r e l a t i v e  (Survey,  Outlining),  assessed  was c o n c e r n  at different  rates of  Question,  and 3L0  Read,  (Three-Level  b y a r a t e - o f - g a i n s c o r e , ERR  m a t e r i a l s upon  techniques,  methods,  the p e r i o d o f  there  to determine  (Non-Linear  time),  after  sought  study  as determined  reading  immediately  to  student  scores f o r  o f a c t u a l study  acquisition  the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  to determine  Review),  Outlining)  the  due t o p o o r  gain  level  study-reading. The  x  as a problem  a t the c o l l e g e  of comprehension  or content-mastery  has ignored  college  efficacy  tests  attempting  Recite,  method  reading  techniques  in  on s t u d y  an e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i o n  standardized In  CONCLUSIONS  (comprehension  intervals  d u r i n g and  instruction. f o r determining  the r e l a t i v e  m a t e r i a l of three a t two d i f f e r e n t  o f the  rates of acquisition f o r  readability times  the e f f e c t  during  levels  was  the p e r i o d  presented of  instruction.  Procedure Three and  hundred, v o l u n t e e r ,  Study program a t the B r i t i s h  first  year  Columbia  56  students  Institute  in a  Reading  of Technology  57 who h a d s c o r e d  i n the l o w e s t o n e - t h i r d  measure o f r e a d i n g man  class,  constituted  s t u d y were room  drawn.  groups,  three  a  The R e a d i n g were  o f three  Difficulty readability  from which  and Study program randomly  was  f o r the  had twenty  selected,  formulated  level  of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  Time  of assessment  the  s t u d y methods o v e r  which  to  i n v o l v e d the  the Treatment  the p e r i o d  (1) p r e t e s t  material  rates  (0^) ; (2) the f i r s t assessment  time  and 3L0;  DIFFICULT;  of acquisition  o f the s t u d y .  groups  as d e t e r m i n e d by  E A S Y , MEDIUM, a n d  o f the r e l a t i v e  informal  class-  and a s s i g n e d  t a u g h t s t u d e n t s c o m p r i s e d o f SQ3R, NLO,  f o r m u l a and d e s i g n a t e d  the second  to the f r e s h -  the s u b j e c t s  independent v a r i a b l e s :  the  t i m e s were:  administered  informal  SQ3R, NLO, a n d 3 L 0 .  experimental design  s t u d y methods  (3)  the group  nine o f which  manipulation  the  and comprehension  treatment groups, An  of  rate  c a t e g o r y o f an  These  informal  among  assessment assessment  (T^) ;  ( T ) ; (4) and the p o s t t e s t 2  (o ). 2  The  dependent  f o r each  of-gain  score  product  o f the s t u d e n t ' s comprehension  for  a given  period  termed  variable  article.  an E f f e c t i v e  assessment  Reading  Rate  score  t i m e was a  (ERR) w h i c h  was t h e  and s t u d y - r e a d i n g  T h e ERR was a s s e s s e d a t f o u r  rate-  time  times over the  o f the study:  1.  A pretest  using  and  Colleges,  Form A  determine  the Nelson-Denny  Reading  ( 1 9 6 0 ) , was a d m i n i s t e r e d  the equivalence  o f the t r e a t m e n t  Test  f o r High  Schools  i n the f i r s t  week t o  group.  58 2.  An  three  informal assessment readability  was a d m i n i s t e r e d 3.  A  second  parable  levels  of rate of acquisition  from  a reading  and study  informal assessment  m a t e r i a l from  t h e same  source  week o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l  (Miller)  4.  A posttest using  and  C o l l e g e s , F o r m B ( 1 9 6 0 ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d  of  manual  of rate of acquisition  seventh  to provide  material of  i n t h e f o u r t h week o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l  the  week  using  the Nelson-Denny  a measure  was  (Miller,  1964)  period. using  com-  administered  in  period. Reading  Test  f o r High  i n the e i g h t h  o f the r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n  after  Schools and  final  the p e r i o d  instruction.  Findings The the  experimental  p r o p o s i t i o n that  hypotheses  study  methods would  relative  rate of acquisition  material  of three  during  tested  as measured  readability  levels,  the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  i n the study  vary  with  b y a n ERR  An a d d i t i o n a l  rates of acquisition  among  the study  informal  assessment  would  be s i m i l a r  Tests posttest,  o f the experimental  a n d t h e two i n f o r m a l  respect score  hypotheses  assessments  produced  on  times was  that  a t t h e two  on the f o r m a l  based  their  assessed  assumption  methods  with  to  a n d a t two d i f f e r e n t  relative  intervals  dealt  upon  posttest.  the p r e t e s t ,  the f o l l o w i n g  findings: 1.  The f i r s t  the  relative  research  question  raised  i n the study  d i f f e r e n c e s i n ERR  scores  among  order  to answer  using  the treatment  informal  this  question group  assessments.  treatment  two e x p e r i m e n t a l  ERR mean  scores  pertained to groups.  h y p o t h e s e s were  obtained  from  t h e two  In tested  • The differ  first  hypothesis,  significantly  2 pooled),  was  17.55,  supported  2/6,  c o m p a r i s o n s were  noted  =  NLO  between  A df  effects  17.77, p  1  Pair-wise  showed  of  NLO,  SQ3R  NLO  SQ3R  and  NLO It  difference  was  and  further  and between  between  hypothesized  t h e two i n f o r m a l  by  a  in  the d i r e c t i o n  significant  The second  assessment  favour  SQ3R  and  NLO.  and  effect  (F =  SQ3R  SQ3R  NLO.  (F =  2/12,  means a t  NLO  and  3L0 i n  and  1,  df =  ERIl  group  9.27,  treatment  f o r Time  48.25,  between  NLO  SQ3R  o f the simple  (F =  of  pair-wise  but a  favour of  Comparisons a t  SQ3R and  and  3L0  NLO  i n f a v p u r ..  i n favour  of  ;  respectively.  was  ERR  between  f o r treatment  favouring  d i f f e r e n c e between  3L0,  Treatment and D i f f i c u l t y  relative  2  1 and Time  different  significant  difference  3L0 i n  and  effect  interaction  and f o r Time  noted  of  2.  was  means w o u l d  (Time  b u t n o t between  An a n a l y s i s  o f Time  a significant  between  3L0,  and  comparisons o f treatment  difference  showed  SQ3R  found.  no s i g n i f i c a n t  and between  2  Time  was  main  Significantly  T r e a t m e n t X Time  2/12, p <^.05)  df =  significant  SQ3R,  between  a t t h e two l e v e l s  <.05).  Time  <r.05)  p  <=r.05) .  p  g r o u p ERR  of instruction  by a s i g n i f i c a n t  3L0 f a v o u r i n g NLO,  and  significant  2/6,  =  treatment  f o r the p e r i o d  df =  (F  that  59  main  effect  were  among  material  used  be a  significant  assessment times  when  the f a c t o r s  pooled. (F =  pertained  methods  during  there  This  hypothesis  32.47,  a s s e s s m e n t time  question  the study  would  f o r Time  o f the second  research  that  df =  (Time  2  1/6,  supporte  p «=•  .05)  )•  to the dependence o f the  on t h e r e a d a b i l i t y  the p e r i o d  was  level  of instruction.  o f the  In order  60 to the  answer  this  treatment  question  one e x p e r i m e n t a l  g r o u p ERR mean  scores  h y p o t h e s e s was  obtained  tested  i n t h e two  using  informal  assessments. It treatment  was h y p o t h e s i z e d groups would  material  denoted  informal  assessment  found  An  interaction  analysis  depend  the r e l a t i v e  upon  the r e a d a b i l i t y  times.  No  significant  of D i f f i c u l t y . effect  o f the simple  treatment  was s i g n i f i c a n t  for  ( F = 4.20, d f = 2/18, p ^  df  = 2 / 1 8 , p <L . 0 5 ) .  ERR means a t e a c h for  EASY m a t e r i a l ,  and  NLO; f o r MEDIUM  found  between  difference  material,  there  b e t w e e n NLO a n d 3 L 0 i n f a v o u r  It ference  Treatment  difference  Treatment  found  .05),  (F = group  SQ3R  significant  between  SQ3R  SQ3R a n d 3 L 0  respectively.  X Time  interaction  found. was h y p o t h e s i z e d  that  among t h e r e a d a b i l i t y  there  levels  would  13.61,  difference  between  o f SQ3R a n d NLO X Difficulty  of  o f NLO; f o r D I F -  difference  was f o u n d  found.  results:  between  SQ3R a n d 3 L 0 , b u t a i n favour  was  Dif-  levels  the f o l l o w i n g  were  X  d f = 2 / 1 8 , p <~  was no s i g n i f i c a n t  was no s i g n i f i c a n t  and  was  difference  o f the treatment  produced  the  o f the  and f o r DIFFICULT  differences  NLO, b u t a s i g n i f i c a n t  effect  .05),  b e t w e e n NLO a n d 3LO was f o u n d  significant  effect  for  a t t h e two  a t the three  comparisons  and  No  effects  of D i f f i c u l t y  significant  there  main  A significant  SQ3R a n d NLO n o r b e t w e e n  FICULT m a t e r i a l ,  level  presented  f o r EASY ( F = 21.82,  Pair-wise  level  scores  ( F = 5.50, d f = 4/12, p <c .05) was  Difficulty MEDIUM  ERR mean  E A S Y , MEDIUM, a n d D I F F I C U L T ,  f o r the f a s t e r  ficulty  that  be a s i g n i f i c a n t  of the i n f o r m a l  dif-  assessment  61 material pooled  over  the f a c t o r s o f Time and T r e a t m e n t .  This  h y p o t h e s i s was n o t supported.. 3.  The t h i r d  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n p e r t a i n e d to the r e l a t i v e  i n ERR s c o r e s among treatment In o r d e r tested  to answer t h i s  groups a f t e r  the p e r i o d o f i n s t r u c t i o n .  q u e s t i o n two e x p e r i m e n t a l  u s i n g the treatment  differences  hypotheses  group ERR mean s c o r e s o b t a i n e d  were  on.the  p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d difference the NLO.  t h a t t h e r e would be a s i g n i f i c a n t  among the treatment  group ERR means on the p o s t t e s t f a v o u r i n g  A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t  f a c t o r was found  difference  f o r the Treatment  ( F = 6.71, df = 2/6, p < .05).  However the e x p e c t e d  d i r e c t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s u p p o r t e d . of  the treatment  Pair-wise  group ERR means showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  between SQ3R and NLO, n o r between SQ3R and 3L0.  A  d i f f e r e n c e between NLO and 3L0. i n f a v o u r o f NLO was I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d  that a s i g n i f i c a n t  comparisons  difference  significant found.  d i f f e r e n c e would  between the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t f o r the treatment  groups.  exist  This  h y p o t h e s i s was n o t s u p p o r t e d .  Discussion  I Based upon the a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a c o l l e c t e d no one study method appeared  i n the s t u d y  to be advantageous i n terms o f i t s r a t e  of a c q u i s i t i o n on m a t e r i a l o f three r e a d a b i l i t y  l e v e l s o v e r the  p e r i o d o f the s t u d y . Hypothesis  1, t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e among T r e a t m e n t s  would e x i s t when the f a c t o r s o f Time and D i f f i c u l t y were p o o l e d was  62 supported. from  each  than  3L0.  However other.  The ment  ERR  interval,  acquisition period  the  period  68.29  was  ERR  SQ3R a n d NLO  and  71.54  method.  means r e f l e c t e d  a floor  o f t h e POPRADR 2,  were  the p e r i o d  acquisition  f o r the study  instruction  and p r a c t i c e  Hypothesis would  exist  formula the  was  3,  was  found.  method  procedure  This and  Assessof  adequate  likely  the  A  would  that  controlled  showed  o f the study  indicated related  This  that  the m a t e r i a l  level  Time of  study. for Difficulty the  readability  i n a meaningful  way f o r  X Difficulty  a relationship  the r e a d a b i l i t y  X  the rate  mean t h a t  s i g n i f i c a n t Treatment  indicated  methods  to the d u r a t i o n o f  o f the  could  group  the r a t e s o f  s i g n i f i c a n t Treatment  This  exist  the t r e a t m e n t  a s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t  d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e  action  by  ERR  instructional  i t i s more  when  This  f o r the p e r i o d  A  a lack  enough f o r the  differences  times  m e t h o d s was  not supported.  p o p u l a t i o n sampled.  Informal  suggested  imposed  f o r one o r more  found.  that  second  r e f l e c t an  effect  supported.  of i n s t r u c t i o n . was  may  significant  increasing  effect  and  However  assessment  interaction  different  procedure.  that  informal  significantly  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  or not i n t e n s i v e  means w e r e p o o l e d was  over  showed  This  particular  t h e two  acquisition  were  respectively,  technique.  too short  Hypothesis between  SQ3R n o r NLO  means f o r 3 L 0 a t t h e f i r s t  of this  3 L 0 ERR  time  Both  for this  which  learning  neither  o f the  between the material.  interstudy  63 The levels  of  the  The  simple  NLO  had  EASY  level  a  agreement  by  with  the  that  on  to  level  EASY  While the  first  Treatment of  the  the  showed the  a  at  of  of  there  that  fourth  week o f  two for  and  rate a  no  the  of  the  to  at  time two  (104.04),  taught  for  NLO  instruction  had for  of  ( 1 9 7 0 ) who by  a  finding  the  of  sixth  is  in NLO  week  of  corresponded  by  Time,  rate of  for  that  between  an  the an  3L0  informal  material  that  study.  determined  higher  3L0.  assessment  found  differences  first  SQ3R o r showed  l e v e l which  levels  ERR  acquisition  This  SQ3R ( 8 6 . 6 2 ) and the  three  informal  rate  present  as  Time  Second  readability  the  of  acquisition  the  the  either  study.  Sweet  at  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  levels  significant  readability  students  a  effects  compared  week o f  with  analysis  of  ERR  assessment  NLO  had  as  Difficulty in  informal  level  NLO  the  Franklin  were  means f o r  Treatment  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  seventh  material  effects  ERR  EASY  that  effects  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  the  simple  readability  showed  instruction  at  the  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  T h u s NLO  a  of  Treatment  EASY m a t e r i a l  had  of  D i f f i c u l t y showed  for  time.  analysis  of  Treatments simple  inspection (69.94)  at  assessment  time,  acquisition  EASY  by  readability  level. The ERR both  than the  did  was  the  3LO  at  EASY and The  effect  finding  found  that the  SQ3R d i d MEDIUM  DIFFICULT  showed  same a t  that  a l l levels  i s an  Treatment  the of  have  l e v e l of  levels  non-significant  not  form  of  X the  a  significantly  readability  but  unexplained Difficulty X Treatment  D i f f i c u l t y , and  that  X  higher  did  so  at  phenomenon. Time  interaction  Time  interaction  the  form  of  the  64 Treatment  X Difficulty  i n t e r a c t i o n was  t h e same a t b o t h  levels of  Time. Hypothesis on  the p o s t t e s t  ERR  7, t h a t  was  Treatment  supported.  t h a n NLO o r 3 L 0 , a n d NLO  3L0.  This  d i d not r e f l e c t  means i n t h e s e c o n d  SQ3R showed  showed  the rank  informal  groups would  differ  a significantly  a significantly order  higher  of treatment  informal  i n view  necessary  reservations  difference  the treatment Possible  correlations,  the  be ie.  concerning  between  ERR  the formal  groups.  This  explanations  and the seeming  procedures  o f the formal  o f t h e POPRADR  outlined;  (2)  the p r e t e s t  and  lack  the formats and p o s t t e s t  the i n f o r m a l  topic.  I t may be t h a t  applied  effectively o f each  tests  tests  o f an i n c r e a s i n g  d i d not allow  had three  are:  the f u l l  paragraphs  complete  (1) that implement-  pattern  and i n f o r m a l  i s the w r i t t e n  and/or  outline.  would  tests differed, on d i f f e r e n t  articles  that  test  of acquisition  o f SQ3R, NLO a n d 3 L 0 c o u l d articles  a  ERR means  rate  and p o s t t e s t  each had e i g h t  to the longer  expected  was n o t s u p p o r t e d .  i e . no o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  the s k i l l s  method  8 which  t h e low f o r m a l - i n f o r m a l  o f the formal  each  r e s u l t s were  and p o s t t e s t  expectation  f o r both  procedure,  topics,  component  the p o s t t e s t  the p r e t e s t  t h e study methods) between p r e t e s t  ation  group  than  r e s u l t s were  o f the low c o r r e l a t i o n s between  as a r e s u l t o f the t e s t o f H y p o t h e s i s  significant  (for  ERR  measures. Further  for  higher  assessment.  However a n y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the p o s t t e s t questionable  significantly  on one only  be  the o p e r a t i v e  65 Conclusions G i v e n the that  among  showed the  the three  analyzed study  a significantly  i n the p r e s e n t  methods  higher  compared,  rate  study  i t may  SQ3R, NLO,  of a c q u i s i t i o n over  be  concluded  o r 3 L 0 , none the p e r i o d o f  study. However,  rate  the f a c t  of a c q u i s i t i o n score  that,  o f the three  tageous  The  student  PREREAD the  d i d show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  under  study,  NLO was  higher  the most  o f a c q u i s i t i o n on m a t e r i a l  advan-  on an EASY  level. positive  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  to manipulate  successful  whereas  the main  procedure  t h e more  t h e NLO  b e e n due t o t h e NLO idea  were a s r e a d i l y i m p l e m e n t e d  procedure  This  f o r EASY m a t e r i a l  structured  and the EASY  appears during  and s e q u e n t i a l  a s t h e NLO  which  level  required  r e l a t i o n s h i p s during  a n d ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN s t e p s .  most  period  NLO  b y t h e s e v e n t h week o f i n s t r u c t i o n s u g g e s t s  techniques  r e a d a b i l i t y may h a v e  the  that  i n terms o f i t s r a t e  readability  of  data  the  t o have  been  the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  procedures  o f SQ3R  f o r t h e MEDIUM a n d D I F F I C U L T  material. The evaluated students lost It  3L0 d i d n o t appear  by a r a t e - o f - a c q u i s i t i o n s c o r e . taught  3 L 0 may h a v e  s i g h t o f the e q u a l l y  may  would either  t o be a n a d e q u a t e  be t h a t  preoccupied  important  goal  by an a l t e r n a t e  or comprehension.  when  The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t with  that  the p r o c e d u r e and  of attaining  a c q u i s i t i o n o f 3L0, and f o r t h a t  be f a c i l i t a t e d rate  been  technique  comprehension.  matter,  SQ3R a n d NLO  i n s t r u c t i o n a l emphasis, i e .  A further  possibility  i s t h a t the  66 techniques than  was  showed  were  higher  present  a  in  the  clear-cut  material  and  seventh  week  intensity  that  acquisition, of  the  the  pooled  as the  increased  formal the  second  rates  the  as  of  the  drawn and  the  two  testing procedures any  to  rate  of  period. determine  by  the the  for  manual  Future  i n c l u s i o n of  relative  did  a  facility.  (ERR)  in  not  from of  used:  pretest,  between rate  the  the  findings.  rates  of the •  be  period The  data  of  study  measure  would  gain  be  and  dif-  and  in-  acquisition for the  relative  informal  during  not  that  formal  the  to  the  tests  were  instruction. should  collection. a  did  specific  the  comparison  ERR,  appear the  the  group  or  perseverance  of  comprehension  control  the  reflect  student  which  measured  by  of  posttest  I t would  (1)  method  time.  Research. of  needed  students  relative  methods must  method be  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  posttest  a c q u i s i t i o n score The  use.  conditions  could and  any  study  alternate  pretest  method  Thus  teaching  an  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  study.  study  a c q u i s i t i o n measure,  and  dependent v a r i a b l e s  determined a  with  the  study  Implications replicated  by  of  was  a l l levels  factor  posttest,  for  sampled, to  study  assessment  of  one  for  ability  overriding  the  rate  ERR  no  f o r . EASY m a t e r i a l  the  the  more a b i l i t y  that  i n t e r a c t i o n between  a c q u i s i t i o n of  population  terni o f  determined  the  tests preclude of  of  which  fact  only  the  informal  assumed  i n format  so  by  for  The  either  determined  facility  period  did  that  Treatments,  demonstrate  ferences  NLO  conditions  Furthermore, of  sample.  i n s t r u c t i o n was  Under  findings  skills  superiority in  suggests  of  level  of  For  be example,  facility  scores;  as  (2)  instructional  necessary  to  67 Alternate index.  For  separately the  example,  If  a  sample,  substituted Colleges, of  contribution  ional two more  each  to  f o r the  each  and  a  instrument and  instruments  should a  be  course  session.  spaced  has  should  i n which  I f the  instruction  Test  may  ERR  could  be show  index.  m e a s u r e s on  instrument f o r High  the  should  Schools  a high  correlation  full  be and  implementation with  the  used.  with  a  more met  intensive  twice  methods are  be  the  which would  the  students  study  time  allows  be  replicated  ERR  repeated  posttest  which  which  analysis  total  Nelson-Denny Reading An  study  an  the  pretest  different  illuminate  study-reading  allow  a  p e r i o d , eg.  closely  of  could also  and  i s done w i t h  assessment  hours  data  replication  (1960).  The  the  T h i s would  t h e POPRADR p r o c e d u r e  informal  of  comprehension  tabulated.  relative  same  analysis  necessary  per  instruct-  week f o r  higher-level for  skills,  adequate  acquisition. The to  determine  Also be  a  study  should  i f this  seemingly  compared w i t h  had  less the  be  drawn w i t h  readability  instructional  student  and  to  study  paired  method  and  The  most  as  the  the  techniques.  present  success  controlled  underlining  clear-cut  might  study. conclusion  i s a matching  of  appeared  more  This  suggests  method.  techniques For  ability  of  instruction  t h e NLO  acquisition.  such of  Student  the  student  acquisition  method  with of  with  methods  technique.  sequencing  perseverance  study  Implications.  when E A S Y m a t e r i a l was that  a b e a r i n g on  preview-type  regard  level  replicated  complex  Instructional to  be  may  example,  likely  facilitate the  NLO  may  be  68 introduced  with  readability The and  low r e a d a b i l i t y  material. results  t o the manual  drawn.  m a t e r i a l f o l l o w e d b y SQ3R a n d h i g h e r  Certainly  of this  from which further  study  are specific  the i n f o r m a l assessment  studies with  and  reading achievement  are necessary  may  be d r a w n  the r e l a t i v e  NLO, a n d 3 L 0 .  concerning  t o t h e sample  samples before  m a t e r i a l was  differing  any f i r m  instructional  assessed  in ability  conclusions  efficacy  o f SQ3R,  69  REFERENCES  70 Arnold,  H.  1942.  Techniques Psychology. B a r t o n , W.  Huntington,  Education.  Study  of Educational  Procedure.  Educational  New  York.  1955.  Study  Skills  Teaching  Col-  No. 4 4 1 .  S. a n d F r a n k e n p o h l , H.  Workbook.  W.S.  of Certain  Journal  O u t l i n i n g as a Study  Comparative  B e r g , P., T a y l o r , Scanning  Efficiency  of History.  33:449-457.  1930.  legiate  Blake,  The Comparative  in Fields  1962.  Skimming and  Developmental  Program.  Laboratories.  Journal  o f Higher  Education.  26:97-99, 114. Cranny,  A.S.  A Note  on 'Another  Study Method.'  Journal  of Reading.  7:359. C r e w e , D. a n d H u l t g r e n , About  Study  Conference. D u b o i s , R. Reading  J.  Skills?  1968.  What D o e s R e s e a r c h  Eighteenth  Milwaukee,  Yearbook  R e a l l y Say  of the N a t i o n a l  1969. Improvement o f T e x t b o o k Classes. Journal-of Reading.  Comprehension 13.  E n t w i s l e , D. 1960. E v a l u a t i o n s o f Study S k i l l s C o u r s e s : Journal of Educational Research. 53:243-251. Flesch,  R.  New  1951.  How T o T e s t  Readability.  Harper  i n College  A  Review.  and B r o s . ,  York.  F r a n k l i n , P. a n d S w e e t , R. 1970. Study T e c h n i q u e . (unpublished  POPRAD I I I : A n A l t e r n a t i v e s t u d y , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y )  G e e r l o f s , M. a n d K l i n g , M. 1968. C u r r e n t A d u l t Developmental Reading Programs. 517-520, 569-575.  P r a c t i c e s i n C o l l e g e and J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g 11:  G l a s s , G. a n d S t a n l e y , J . 1970. S t a t i s t i c a l and E d u c a t i o n . Prentice-Hall  Methods  i n Psychology  H a r r i s , A. 1 9 6 8 . R e s e a r c h o n Some A s p e c t s o f C o m p r e h e n s i o n : F l e x i b i l i t y and Study S k i l l s . Journal o f Reading. 12. Jenkinson,  M.  1966.  Perspectives Newark, Johnson,  Reading  Wisconsin.  H.  Reading.  Increasing  i n Reading  No. 6  Reading  Power  i n the S o c i a l  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Reading  Rate,  Studies.  Association,  Delaware 1964.  Another  7:269-282.  Study  Method.  Journal  of Developmental  71 M c C o r m i c k , K.F.  1943.  ( u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. Miller,  L.  and  1964.  Winston.  The  Nature  Thesis,  Increasing New  New Parker,  1968.  Training  State  Reading  o f Work-Study  Efficiency.  Holt, Rinehart  Successful  The N e l s o n - D e n n y R e a d i n g T e s t f o r H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company. Boston.  Reading.  Holt,  R i n e h a r t and  Winston.  York. D.  1959.  Associates, Robinson, Robinson, and  SRA  Inc.  Reading  Laboratory.  Chicago,  F.P.  1941.  Effective  Study.  F.P.  1961.  Effective  Study  Brothers.  New  Na.  Science  Research  Illinois. Harper (Revised  and  Brothers.  Edition).  T a y l o r , S. 1964. Developmental Wark, D.  1964.  C o n t r o l l e d Reading Study Guide Laboratories. Huntington. New  Survey  Q3R:  System  F o u r t h Annual Yearbook of U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota. Willmore,  D.  1953.  A  C o l l e g e Textbook University). B.  1962.  McGraw-Hill. Wood, R.L. Credit  1961.  or  Harper  LK. Educational York.  Supersition?  the N o r t h  Comparison  Statistical  College  York  Central  Study  Third  Reading  of Four Methods of  Principles  and  Association.  Studying A  (unpublished Doctor's d i s s e r t a t i o n ,  New  New  York.  S t o n e , D. 1962. Speed o f Idea C o l l e c t i n g i n U n i v e r s i t y Reading. J o u r n a l o f D e v e l o p m e n t a l R e a d i n g 5.  Winer,  Skills  University)  York.  N e l s o n , M. a n d Denny, E . 1960. H i g h S c h o o l s and C o l l e g e s . Norman, M.  and  Ohio  Ohio  State  i n Experimental Design.  York.  Attrition Reading  as  a Criterion  Programs.  for Evaluation  Journal  of Reading.  of  Non-  5:27-35.  W o o s t e r , G. 1953. T e a c h i n g t h e SQ3R M e t h o d o f S t u d y : An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the I n s t r u c t i o n a l Approach ( u n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y ) . Wright,  J.C.  Purposes.  1962.  A  Journal  Classroom Demonstration of Reading.  5:282-283.  for Motivational  APPENDIX A  STUDY METHODS  PROCEDURES  73 POPRADR  "POPRADR" i s a h i g h e r ' L e v e l an  organized  linear  approach  outline  pattern  showing  relevant  data P  view  i n that  preface,  the  first  and l a s t  intervening The  reader  about  looking  paragraph. i s looking  them.  Note  at this  amounts  pre-reading,  bold  table  t o be a g e n e r a l  and the f i r s t face  skim  (topic)  headings,  ideas  PATTERN.  a non-  functions recall o f the  (a) overof  contents,  'psyching o u t '  the m a t e r i a l sentence  read  o f each  i t a l i c i z e d type, e t c .  and any major  statements  pattern.  T h e OP  takes  the f o l l o w i n g  stage.  visual  pattern,  reflects  based  the author's  'why' a n d 'how' o f t h e a r t i c l e ) . lined  visual  author,  (b) pre-view  THEME This  t h e OP  two p r o c e d u r e s :  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  OP -- ORGANIZATIONAL form  as t h i s ,  a t the t i t l e ,  f o r the main  Now p r o d u c e  him produce  an e x c e l l e n t  involves  or chapter;  paragraph  the student  read.  This  e t c . This  t h e book, a r t i c l e  As w e l l  to give  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a s s o c i a t i o n s  i n 'the m a t e r i a l  -- PRE-READING.  designed  by h a v i n g  i tprovides  the important  o f the m a t e r i a l ,  'blurbs', of  to his^ r e a d i n g  o f the m a t e r i a l .  as' a s e t o f n o t e s  study  the reader  c a n now p r o c e e d  (Title)  on the i n f o r m a t i o n purpose With  extracted  and o r g a n i z a t i o n .  this  to the next  meaningful step.  during  (The  framework  out-  74 R  --  READ.  organization  (and  purposefully; secondary  purpose, can  he or  read  has  a clear  t h e s i s ) the  to e l a b o r a t e  image  of  reader  upon  the  can  the  author's  now  read  b a s i c main  more  ideas  and  ideas.  AD the  he  Because  ADD.  detail  to  the  Having  read  the  m a t e r i a l the •  OP.  reader  now  can  add  J  N/  2nd  idea  ty •  /  THEME  Depending he  wishes  it,  to m a s t e r  three  the  the  purpose  initial  Complete OP  be  material  maybe o v e r v i e w - s k i m m e d  are  most  relevant.  the  reader  may  read  the  may  to  then  the  the m a t e r i a l .  read  then  view  the  read then  to  'pre-read',  add one  the  not of  procedures.  For  thoroughly;  m a t e r i a l and  and  superficial  be  added  be  obtain a  ascertain  at  may  or  further  treatment  time  i e . whether  m a t e r i a l ; (2)  However, f o r a h i g h l y d e t a i l e d a  reader,  to have  (1) A f t e r  looking at  These  the  just  made  Mastery:  without  of  m a t e r i a l or  m o d i f i c a t i o n s may  For the  upon  or  add  section OP  construct 'read',  what  as  (3) he  sections For  'add',  reads.  ( o r main  without  the  idea)  reference  to  75 STEPS IN  The in  the  title  this  new  c u r r e n t f a s h i o n t o make  reference  to  which  student  of  for  the  these  SURVEY  i t more  steps 1 .  simple.  follows  i s given  THE  h i g h e r - l e v e l study i t e a s i e r to The  over  which w i l l  the  will the  is  abbreviated  remember a n d  to  make  SQ3R s t a n d  method;  headings be  summary p a r a g r a p h not to  the  skill  a  for  the  steps  description  of  each  below:  points  three  symbols  i n using  Glance  should  SQ3R METHOD  take  i f the  more  s i x core  cluster. ideas  as  chapter Also  chapter  than  ideas  This you  i n the  developed.  around  them  will  see  the  the  final  one.  and  which  orientation  read  has  a minute  to  read  This  will  the help  show  main  survey the  discussion you  organize  later.  QUESTION  2.  Now b e g i n t o w o r k . T u r n the f i r s t h e a d i n g i n t o a question. T h i s w i l l a r o u s e y o u r c u r i o s i t y and so increase comprehension. I t w i l l b r i n g to mind i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y known, t h u s h e l p i n g y o u t o understand t h a t s e c t i o n more q u i c k l y . And t h e q u e s t i o n w i l l make i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s s t a n d o u t w h i l e explanatory d e t a i l i s r e c o g n i z e d as s u c h . Turning a heading into a q u e s t i o n c a n be done i n s t a n t l y u p o n r e a d i n g t h e h e a d i n g , b u t i t demands a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e a d e r t o make t h i s a q u e r y f o r w h i c h he m u s t r e a d to f i n d the a n s w e r .  READ  3.  Read t o a n s w e r t h a t q u e s t i o n , i e . , t o t h e e n d o f t h e f i r s t headed s e c t i o n . T h i s i s not a p a s s i v e p l o d d i n g a l o n g e a c h l i n e , b u t an a c t i v e s e a r c h f o r t h e a n s w e r .  RECITE  4.  H a v i n g r e a d t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n , l o o k away f r o m t h e b o o k and t r y b r i e f l y t o r e c i t e the answer to y o u r q u e s t i o n . Use y o u r own w o r d s , and i n c l u d e an e x a m p l e . I f you c a n do t h i s y o u know what i s i n t h e b o o k ; i f y o u c a n ' t , g l a n c e o v e r the s e c t i o n a g a i n . An e x c e l l e n t way t o do t h i s r e c i t i n g f r o m memory i s t o j o t down c u e phrases i n o u t l i n e f o r m on a s h e e t o f p a p e r . Make t h e s e notes very b r i e f ! Now  repeat  section. read by  to answer  jotting  this  steps That  way  2,  that  down c u e  until  3,  i s , turn  the  and  4  the  on  question, phrases entire  each  next and  recite  i n your  lesson  subsequent  heading  is  into the  a  headed question,  answer  outline. completed.  Read  in  76 5.  REVIEW  When  the l e s s o n has thus  over  your  and  their  content  expose  subpoints  Read, method  five  steps  R e c i t e , and Review should  result  each  listed  worthwhile  points and  because  emphasized  outcome:  the headings i n quizzes.  l o o k i n g up t h e a n s w e r s  effectively  studying  and t r y i n g major  your  memory a s t o t h e  sub-points  to r e c a l l  look  under by  each cover-  the main p o i n t s .  p o i n t and t r y t o r e c a l l t h e  under i t .  i n the student  one  read,  o f the p o i n t s  o f memory c a n be done  Q3R M e t h o d  -- when p o l i s h e d i n t o  p o i n t s , and f i x i n g  familiar  and check  o f the Survey  important other  completely  on the major  checking  up t h e n o t e s  Then  These  relationship This  been  to get a bird's-eye view  by r e c i t i n g  heading. ing  notes  them  reading  turned  questions into  will  actual  the student  the m a t e r i a l c o n s i d e r e d  and  picking  The s t u d e n t  questions  In p r e d i c t i n g  beforehand,  a smooth  faster,  i n memory.  Quiz  -- S u r v e y ,  Question, efficient o u t the  will  find  seem h a p p i l y a r e u s u a l l y the quiz feels  important  questions t h a t he i s  in a  course.  77 T H R E E - L E V E L OUTLINING METHOD  The  term  "three l e v e l s "  (a)  The f i r s t  (b)  The  second  (c)  The  third  Three-level according  Steps Step  level, level  Rule  I  Rule  II  Rule  III  Rule  IV  Rule  V  -  the s e c t i o n the  consists  simple  rules.  Always  go  of constructing  to the Three  Count  of a chapter  Levels  to f i v e  Section  Have  two  to f i v e  Sub-Headings p e r  Headings Section  Headings  Outlining  the Headings than  five  First  a n d C o p y them down -- n o t e  top-level  (b)  Group  section  l o o k a t the t i t l e  " I f I were w r i t i n g I include?" After more s e n s i t i v e t o read the headings t h a t " or " I never  (a)  an o u t l i n e  two  from  title.  S t a y on t h e l e f t s i d e o f y o u r p a p e r f o r t h e r o u g h draft. Complete the f i n a l d r a f t on the r i g h t side of your paper  (a)  2.  the c h a p t e r  subheadings.  Copy e v e r y word o f t h e  more  Step  -  headings.  Have f r o m  i n Three-Level 1.  method r e f e r s t o :  and t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l  level  outlining  to f i v e  i n this  i f there are  headings.  o f the c h a p t e r and ask y o u r s e l f  --  a c h a p t e r on t h i s s u b j e c t what w o u l d t h i n k i n g a b o u t i t a s t u d e n t i s much the c o n t e n t of the c h a p t e r . As y o u you think - "Yes, I would i n c l u d e thought of t h a t " .  Y o u r e a c t more t o t h e h e a d i n g s a n d a r e more i n t e r e s t e d , t h e r e f o r e , y o u p a y more a t t e n t i o n a n d u n d e r s t a n d a n d remember t h e m a t e r i a l more e a s i l y . the Headings This  rule  as N e c e s s a r y  i s required  --  i n chapters with  more  than  five  t o p - l e v e l s e c t i o n h e a d i n g s o r more t h a n f i v e sub-headings i n any s e c t i o n . The s t u d e n t s groups h i s h e a d i n g s and s u b - h e a d i n g s s o a s t o h a v e n o t more t h a n f i v e m a j o r s e c t i o n h e a d i n g s a n d n o t more t h a n f i v e sub-headings under each. Step  3.  Sub-divide separate  the h e a d i n g s  procedures:  as n e c e s s a r y --  this  refers  t o two  78 (a)  When a c h a p t e r h a s no s u b - h e a d i n g s , t h e s t u d e n t s make them u p . A minimum o f two i s r e q u i r e d .  (b)  I f , upon c a r e f u l r e a d i n g o f t h e c h a p t e r , t h e s t u d e n t f i n d s t h e a u t h o r h a s r e a l l y d e a l t w i t h two t o p i c s u n d e r one s u b - h e a d i n g s , he s h o u l d d i v i d e t h e s u b j e c t s i n t o two  Step 4  .  Add (a)  appropriate  up t h e New  deciding  sub-headings.  Headings  T h i s means  must  looking  whether  a n d C o p y Them Down a t each  group  i t i s well  o f sub-headings  and  r e p r e s e n t e d by i t s s e c t i o n  heading. Step  5.  Reproduce  the O u t l i n e from  (a)  the paper  (b)  Turn  over  Memory  and w r i t e  i t out.  You can t r y i t  mentally f i r s t . The s t u d e n t s h o u l d t a k e t h e t i m e t o l e a r n a s much, a s p o s s i b l e f r o m t h i s s t u d y s i n c e i t c a n be h i s m o s t p r o f i t a b l e p o i n t i n h i s study as the b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n of the c h a p t e r i s c l e a r l y l e a r n e d . F r o m t h e n o n he i s w o r k i n g from a f a m i l i a r o u t l i n e and r e l a t i n g p e r t i n e n t f a c t s t o i t f r o m n o t e s and r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s .  (c)  Whatever study h i s notes from  method i s used time to t i m e .  the student  should  review  (d)  F o r some, a s i n g l e r e v i e w b e f o r e a n e x a m i n a t i o n w i l l e n o u g h , f o r o t h e r s , p e r i o d i c r e v i e w s make f o r b e t t e r more p e r m a n e n t r e m e m b e r i n g .  be and  Conclusion W i t h t h e T h r e e - L e v e l O u t l i n i n g t h i s means r e p r o d u c i n g t h e o u t l i n e f r o m memory. I f y o u c a n ' t do i t , t h e c h a p t e r i s f a d i n g a n d y o u m u s t r e - s t u d y the rough and f i n a l drafts.  APPENDIX B  INFORMAL ASSESSMENT  MATERIALS  Length:  L350 w o r d s  Readability Number  Score:  35  VII-19 80 LIGHTNING  IN A  The  Of  Magic  NUTSHELL  Electronics  E l e c t r o n s are everywhere! They form the p i c t u r e s on y o u r t e l e v i s i o n s c r e e n ; t h e y c a r r y the music t h r o u g h y o u r h i - f i s e t ; e v e r y t i m e y o u g e t y o u r f e e t wet i n a thunderstorm, t h e y ' r e s p l a s h i n g a l l around you; t h e y ' r e b e h i n d the c a u s e o f the r i c h brown s u n t a n t h a t y o u g e t o n t h e b e a c h e a c h summer; t h e y e v e n f l o w a b u n d a n t l y i n and o u t o f s t a r s g o o g o l l i a n s o f m i l e s away f r o m y o u i n s p a c e . I t took a l o n g time f o r men t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s e t h i n g s , b u t when t h e y d i d , a new b r a n c h o f e n g i n e e r i n g was b o r n — electronics. The f u t u r e o f e l e c t r o n i c s a b o u n d s w i t h m a g i c — t h e lamp t h e g e n i e g a v e t o A l a d d i n ; i f y o u h a n d l e i t t h e r i g h t way, t h e r e i s no w i s h t o o f a n t a s t i c t o granted.  like be  So w h a t i s t h i s m a g i c a l e l e c t r o n i c s ? Electronics i s a b r a n c h o f s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g w h i c h e x p l a i n s and e x p l o i t s the m a g i c o f e l e c t r o n s f o r the use o f m a n k i n d , b u t what a r e e l e c t r o n s ? A s J o s e p h J . Thomson d i s c o v e r e d , t h e y a r e l i g h t w e i g h t c h a r g e s o f negat i v e e l e c t r i c i t y t h a t n e u t r a l i z e the h e a v i e r p o s i t i v e e l e c t r i c a l c h a r g e s i n e v e r y atom. James C h a d w i c k , an E n g l i s h p h y s i c i s t , d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h i s atomic core or n u c l e u s a l s o c o n t a i n s even h e a v i e r p a r t i c l e s c a l l e d neutrons because they are n e u t r a l a n d h a v e no e l e c t r i c a l c h a r g e . For h i s world s h a t t e r i n g d i s c o v e r y o f the n e u t r o n . Chadwick r e c e i v e d t h e N o b e l P r i z e i n 1935. The p o s s i b l e e x i s t e n c e o f the n e u t r o n had been p o s t u l a t e d by L o r d E r n e s t R u t h e r f o r d i n 1920, b u t C h a d w i c k ' s b r i l l i a n t e x p e r i m e n t a l w o r k was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s d i s c o v e r y . The e l e c t r o n ' s c h a r g e was f i r s t m e a s u r e d b y R o b e r t M i l l i k a n , a n d i t was p r o p o s e d a s a k i n d o f s h e l l t o the atom by N i e l s B o h r . A l b e r t E i n s t e i n i n f e r r e d (and i t was l a t e r p r o v e d ) t h a t e l e c t r o n s , as w e l l a s p r o t o n s a n d n e u t r o n s , become h e a v i e r t h e f a s t e r t h e y a r e made to t r a v e l , but of the t h r e e b a s i c subatomic p a r t i c l e s , t h e e l e c t r o n c o u l d be i m p e l l e d t o t h e h i g h e s t speeds by f a r . S i n c e the e l e c t r o n i s o n l y o n e - 2 0 0 0 t h as h e a v y a s t h e p r o t o n a n d t h e n e u t r o n , i t c a n be a c c e l e r a t e d v e r y n e a r l y t o the speed o f l i g h t by e n e r g y s o u r c e s t h a t e n g i n e e r s have been a b l e to b u i l d .  How speck it  can  do  The  Application  you  accelerate  of matter? be  Because  accelerated  by  of an  Electrons invisible,  i t has  an  a magentic  infinitesimal  electrical field  or  charge,  another  -2-  81  e l e c t r i c a l charge. Electromagnets i n combination with charged p l a t e s a r e used i n t e l e v i s i o n p i c t u r e tubes t o g u i d e beams o f e l e c t r o n s to the s c r e e n . As the e l e c trons s t r i k e the screen i n a p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n , the s c r e e n glows i n t e r m i t t e n t l y t o produce a p i c t u r e . A c c e l e r a t e d electrons produce the l i g h t i n f l u o r e s c e n t lamps and neon s i g n s , and the o p p o s i t e app r o a c h w o r k s t o o , f o r t h e e n e r g y i n a beam o f l i g h t f a l l i n g on c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s can cause e l e c t r o n s to flow i n the m a t e r i a l s , t h i s l a t t e r e f f e c t b e i n g t h e one t h a t makes s o l a r c e l l s g e n e r a t e e l e c t r i c i t y . T h e r e a r e many k i n d s o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c radiation, some v i s i b l e ( l i g h t ) a n d some i n v i s i b l e ( r a d i o , i n f r a r e d , u l t r a v i o l e t , a n d x - r a y ) t o t h e human e y e . E a c h k i n d c a n be u s e d t o g e n e r a t e o r t r a n s f e r some t y p e of energy — electromagnetic, e l e c t r i c a l , thermal or mechanical — by f o c u s i n g o r d i r e c t i n g i t i n t o a g a s , a l i q u i d or a s o l i d . By e x p l o i t a t i o n o f s u c h p h e n o m e n a e n g i n e e r s h a v e made c e r t a i n c r y s t a l s i n t o transistors t h a t d e t e c t and a m p l i f y r a d i o i m p u l s e s , o p e n i n g a w h o l e new f i e l d — solid-state electronics. T h e same p h e n o m e n a h a v e made m i c r o m i n i a t u r i z a t i o n possible, when d i f f e r e n t s o l i d m a t e r i a l s a r e " f u s e d " t o g e t h e r , each r e s p o n d i n g d i f f e r e n t l y . By j o i n i n g t o g e t h e r t h e r i g h t combination, you can b u i l d a r a d i o r e c e i v e r ( o r transmitter, o r computer u n i t , e t c . ) the s i z e o f a matchstick or smaller, like lightning contained i n a nutshell! The t o t a l r a n g e o f e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves c o v e r s t h e h i g h e r e n e r g y gamma, X- a n d u l t r a - v i o l e t r a d i a t i o n s a l l t h e c o l o r s o f t h e r a i n b o w f r o m deep v i o l e t to deep r e d i n v i s i b l e l i g h t , t h r o u g h the l o w e r e n e r g y i n f r a r e d , microwave and l o n g e r r a d i o r a d i a t i o n s . A l l of these have a p p l i c a t i o n s i n e l e c t r o n i c s , a n d most of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e s t i l l undreamed. The  brain  and n e r v o u s  system  are themselves  elec-  t r o n i c - l i k e , a f a c t t h a t f o r m s t h e b a s i s o f a new f i e l d of i n t e r e s t to research engineers c a l l e d cybernetics, w h i c h c o n c e n t r a t e s on a s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h i s human " e l e c t r o n i c " n e t w o r k a n d manmade m a c h i n e s . A new s c h o o l o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s h a s been i n s p i r e d by e l e c t r o n i c s to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f what t h e y c a l l "SBS," w h i c h s t a n d s f o r " S y n t h e t i c B e h a v i o r Systems" and has as i t s g o a l the d e v e l o p m e n t o f e l e c t r o n i c m a c h i n e s b a s e d o n human behavior patterns — m a c h i n e s t h a t t h i n k f o r thems e l v e s a n d l e a r n f r o m t h e i r own m i s t a k e s . Engineers w o r k i n g i n t h i s same a r e a c a l l t h e i r o b j e c t i v e "Artificial Intelligence." Machines using these concepts could be s e n t o f f t o t h e moon o r p l a n e t s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r how a human b e i n g c o u l d s u r v i v e there.  -3The  82  Realm o f E l e c t r o n i c s  What i s t h e d o m a i n o f e l e c t r o n i c s ? I t extends through a l l the s c i e n c e s , form b i o l o g y to astronomy; i t h a s c r e a t e d e n t i r e l y new a n d e x c i t i n g e n g i n e e r i n g f i e l d s ; i t i s v i t a l to the e x p l o r a t i o n o f o u t e r space; to i n d u s t r y , t o m e d i c i n e , t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ; and m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t c a n be t h e b a s i s o f y o u r own future. How f a r c a n y o u go i n a n e l e c t r o n i c s c a r e e r ? Only the laws o f nature can stop you — a n d new l a w s a r e always being d i s c o v e r e d . Someday y o u may d i s c o v e r one y o u r s e l f , o r y o u may a p p l y new l a w s t o t h e i n v e n t i o n o f new d e v i c e s . Or p e r h a p s y o u ' l l uncover a new s l a n t o n t h e o l d l a w s a n d e s t a b l i s h a b r e a k t h r o u g h l i k e t e l e v i s i o n , o r r a d a r , o r the e l e c t r o n and i o n microscopes. Whatever c a r e e r you choose i n the wide r e a l m o f e l e c t r o n i c s , whether as s c i e n t i s t , e n g i n e e r , t e a c h e r , t e c h n i c i a n , o r even salesman — y o u ' l l have e n d l e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to c o n t r i b u t e to mankind's p r o g r e s s a n d y o u r own s a t i s f a c t i o n . S i n c e W o r l d War I I , e l e c t r o n i c s h a s e x p a n d e d w i t h the l i g h t n i n g speed o f the p a r t i c l e s a f t e r which i t i s named. A c c o r d i n g t o S e c r e t a r y o f Commerce L u t h e r Hodges, " D u r i n g the p a s t t e n y e a r s , the manufacture of e l e c t r o n i c s p r o d u c t s expanded twice as f a s t as the ( t o t a l ) n a t i o n a l o u t p u t . . . r e s e a r c h and development i n e l e c t r o n i c s a c c o u n t e d f o r e x p e n d i t u r e s o f an e s t i m a t e d $2 b i l l i o n . . . . New s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e l e d t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e n t i r e l y new e n t e r p r i s e s w h i c h d i d n o t e x i s t b e f o r e the war, o r e x i s t e d o n l y as l a b o r a t o r y c u r i o s i t i e s . .'. ." One b r e a k t h r o u g h l e a d s to another; each f a n s o u t w a r d l i k e a s e a r c h l i g h t beam t o i l l u m i n a t e new i d e a s , new a p p l i c a t i o n s , new p r o d u c t s . In electronics y o u w i l l be w o r k i n g a t new f r o n t i e r s , w i t h t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l and s t i m u l a t i n g f o r c e s o f nature — elect r i c i t y , magnetism, and the m y s t e r i o u s " g l u e " t h a t h o l d s t o g e t h e r the p a r t s o f an atomic nucleus. is  Is there a f u t u r e i n e l e c t r o n i c s ? your o n l y l i m i t !  From:  The U n i v e r s e  I n c r e a s i n g Reading Revised Lyle  itself  Efficiency  Edition  L. M i l l e r  pp 281-82  LIGHTNING  I N A NUTSHELL 83  ANSWER THESE  1.  Total  2.  Number o f C o r r e c t  3.  Questions -  time  used  reading  QUESTIONS  and d e v e l o p i n g  A n s w e r s __,  your  study  technique  .  .  True 1.  2.  Joseph  J . Thomson d i s c o v e r e d  weight  charges  the 3.  heavier  of positive  negative  The e l e c t r o n either  4.  that  charges  or proton  to greater  speeds  than  (1)  i t has a neutral  charge  (2)  more  i s available  (3)  the e l e c t r o n  i s much  l i g h t e r than  (4)  the e l e c t r o n  becomes  l i g h t e r as i t s speed  An example  information  of electromagnetic  and i s h i g h l y  The f i e l d o f c y b e r n e t i c s involves microminiaturization phenomenon.  7.  The g o a l o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r investigation is:  visible  o r the neutron.  i s accelerated.  to the  allow engineers to develop trana new f i e l d — s o l i d s t a t e e l e c t r o n i c s .  (1)  to discover  (2)  to develop solid  investigation  o f the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  a higher a method  energy  gamma  of fusing  "SBS"  radiation  together  different  materials.  (3)  to increase  (4)  to develop e l e c t r o n i c machines behavior patterns.  knowledge  The domain o f e l e c t r o n i c s , In the past  the proton  .  6.  ten years  expanded h a l f  flexible.  i n r e l a t i o n to the e l e c t r o n .  radiation  The phenomena w h i c h s i s t o r s have opened  10.  neutralize  because:  5.  9.  are light-  that  i n t h e atom.  c a n be a c c e l e r a t e d  the neutron  electrons  electricity  human e y e i s  8.  False  E l e c t r o n i c s i s an area o f s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g which e x p l a i n s and e x p l o i t s the magic o f e l e c t r o n s to b e n e f i t mankind.  of solid-state  extends from  throughout  biology  the manufacture  as r a p i d l y  based  as the t o t a l  electronics. o n human  a l l the  t o astronomy. of electronic national  E l e c t r o n i c s i s a desirable area of occupation i s as u n l i m i t e d as the u n i v e r s e .  products  output. because i t  84  U_m THESE PACKS..TO..DEVELOP \OUa STUDY TECHNIQUE  85  )  Length: 1350 R e a d a b i l i t y Score:35 Number VI - 18  86 Electronics—Your  Chance t o Shape the F u t u r e  Career h o r i z o n s u n l i m i t e d ! In s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g nowadays t h e r e i s an o f t e n used word. That word I s " e x o t i c . " Exotic i m p l i e s something s t r a n g e and w o n d e r f u l . Career opp o r t u n i t i e s i n e l e c t r o n i c s promise to be e x o t i c . In f a c t , new o p p o r t u n i t i e s c o n t i n u a l l y a r i s e — not o n l y f o r the c r e a t i v e s c i e n t i s t and e n g i n e e r , but f o r e v e r y eager s e a r c h e r whatever h i s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s may be. The s i t u a t i o n i s almost p a r a l l e l to t h a t time-worn dream o f romantic i n v e n t o r s — p e r p e t u a l motion. I t works t h i s way. L a b o r a t o r y experiments r e q u i r e new k i n d s o f e l e c t r o n i c i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t d e v e l o p i n t o new f i e l d s of g a d g e t r y which b r a n c h out i n t o new d i s c o v e r i e s about the laws o f n a t u r e t h a t l e a d to new k i n d s of i n d u s t r y which a g a i n branch out i n t o new household c o n v e n i e n c e s , more e f f e c t i v e methods of communication, b e t t e r ways to c o n t r o l i l l n e s s e s , s a f e r and f a s t e r t r a v e l , more e f f i c e i n t t e c h n i q u e s i n e d u c a t i o n , more l u x u r i e s t o enjoy cheaper p r o d u c t s through a u t o m a t i c mass-production,'., s p e e d i e r ways to s o l v e complex problems, h i g h l y a c c u r a t e a i r def e n s e and a l a r m systems to a s s u r e your s e c u r i t y , as w e l l as an o v e r - a l l I n c r e a s e o f p r e c i s i o n throughout almost every endeavor s t i m u l a t e d by modern s o c i e t y . A few examples a r e automatic p i l o t s f o r a i r c r a f t and sea-going c r a f t , e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l s i n f a c t o r i e s , heari n g a i d s , tape r e c o r d e r s , and manned s p a c e f l i g h t . The r a p i d and c o n t i n u o u s a p p l i c a t i o n of e l e c t r o n i c s p r o v i d e s j o b s f o r everyone: s c i e n t i s t s and e n g i n e e r s e v o l v e new p r i n c i p l e s , e n g i n e e r s d e s i g n d e v i c e s based on those p r i n c i p l e s , t e c h n i c i a n s and c r a f t s m e n use t h e i r s k i l l s t o c o n s t r u c t the d e v i c e s , salesmen see t h a t the d e v i c e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d , f i e l d t e c h n i c i a n s i n s t a l l and m a i n t a i n the d e v i c e s , and t e a c h e r s t r a i n s t u d e n t s i n a l l of these techniques. As an e l e c t r o n i c s s p e c i a l i s t , you can be i n v o l v e d i n che excitement of b u i l d i n g and o p e r a t i n g a n a l o g or d i g i t a l computers, g i a n t r a d a r i n s t a l l a t i o n s , m i c r o wave r e l a y systems t h a t span the c o n t i n e n t , m i s s i l e t r a c k i n g and d e t e c t i o n systems as w e l l as a u t o m a t i c countdown systems f o r c h e c k i n g out and l a u n c h i n g the b i g " b i r d s , " r a d i o t e l e s c o p e s at the g r e a t o b s e r v a t o r i e s , t e l e v i s i o n t r a n s m i t t e r s and cameras (both b l a c k and w h i t e and f u l l c o l o r ) and perhaps one day s t e r e o p h o n i c I n s t a l l a t i o n s a t FM r a d i o s t a t i o n s , and r e m o t e - c o n t r o l h a n d l i n g systems i n the n u c l e a r or i n d u s t r i a l manufacturing f i e l d s . These are o n l y random c h o i c e s of c h a l l e n g i n g a c t i v i t i e s that a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r  87 -2-  you  today.  Tomorrow's w i l l  be  even more  extensive.  Astrionics Someday men a r e g o i n g t o l a n d on t h e moon a n d p l a n e t s to c o l o n i z e those a l i e n b o d i e s . T h e y w i l l be a b l e to accomplish t h i s m a i n l y because of a new branch i n e l e c t r o n i c s . A s t r i o n i c s i s the f i e l d of a p p l i c a t i o n of the e l e c t r o n i c s technology Involved with s p a c e f l i g h t , j u s t as a v i o n i c s i s the f i e l d of a p p l i c a t i o n of e l e c t r o n i c s to f l i g h t w i t h i n the Earth's atmosphere. I n e a c h c a s e e l e c t r o n i c s p r o v i d e s n a v i g a t i o n a l and c o n t r o l equipment t h a t p e r f o r m s t a s k s w i t h p r e c i s i o n a n d s p e e d b e y o n d t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f human b e i n g s . E l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s a l s o assure communications that g i v e t h e p i l o t and c r e w v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e i s o l a t i o n and w a r n i n g o f a m a l f u n c t i o n t o t h e c r a f t . A s t r i o n i c s f u r t h e r i n c l u d e s a n e n t i r e l y new a r e a t h a t I s j u s t now g e t t i n g u n d e r way: s a t e l l i t e communications system. T h e r e w i l l be e l e c t r o n i c r e p e a t e r - s t a t i o n s i n s p a c e t h a t can r e l a y v o i c e , t e l e v i s i o n , f a c s i m i l e and t e l e t y p e s i g n a l s f r o m any one p o i n t i n t h e w o r l d to distant points. T h e y w i l l be u n a f f e c t e d b y w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s o n E a r t h o r m a g n e t i c s t o r m s on t h e Sun, because they w i l l use microwave r a d i o . A n o t h e r young and r a p i d l y g r o w i n g t e c h n o l o g y , t h i s uses e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves o f s u c h s h o r t w a v e l e n g t h t h a t t h e y can pass through the spaces between r a i n d r o p s o r e l e c t r i f i e d p a r t i c l e s In the gases of the upper atmosphere. A l r e a d y experimental models of these r e p e a t e r - s t a t i o n s have been s u c c e s s f u l l y o r b i t e d i n space.  Intellectronics As t h i s c o i n e d word i m p l i e s , i t d e s c r i b e s a n o t h e r new f i e l d o f e l e c t r o n i c s — t h e p r o c e s s i n g and s t o r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n . Ultimately, a l l information presently s t o r e d i n b o o k s may be m u c h m o r e e f f i c i e n t l y stored by e l e c t r o n i c means. T h i s would have a powerful e f f e c t on t h e p r o c e s s e s o f e d u c a t i o n — since at the p u s h of a b u t t o n , so t o speak, any k i n d o f s p e c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n o n w h a t e v e r s u b j e c t c o u l d be r e t r i e v e d and d i s p l a y e d i n a m a t t e r o f s e c o n d s . Certainly this w o u l d be a g r e a t h e l p t o y o u i n r e s e a r c h i n g a theme paper. I t w o u l d a l s o h e l p y o u r t e a c h e r d e v i s e ways t o b u i l d up y o u r b a c k g r o u n d o f k n o w l e d g e f a s t e r . The s c i e n t i s t , e n g i n e e r , and t e c h n i c i a n t o o , would be s a v e d a v a s t amount o f v a l u a b l e t i m e t h a t t h e y now u s e up i n s e a r c h i n g t h r o u g h t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r s o l u t i o n s to problems. I n t e l l e c t r o n i c s i s a wide-open f i e l d to those of you w i t h a m a t h e m a t i c a l bent. It d e p e n d s u p o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new approaches to I n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r y , c o m p u t e r - l o g i c , a n d on non-  88 -3-  linear like  differential  to t i n k e r  curious in  about  natural  temperature  This  those of you gadgets,  phenomena a l s o  have a  who  or  are  place  low-temperature  drops  lower and  lower.  resistance another.  important  to the passage  the p h y s i c a l  adapt  them  to u s e f u l  you  electronics  c a n be  e n g i n e e r and MHD  and  kind  and  offer  could  of mind  properties  work on an  new  be  one  your  that  find  dish, to  and  Take  your  physicist  a place  no  to  likes  of nature  levels.  in  virtually  from  electronics  still  plasma  which  thermal v i b r a t i o n s  of e l e c t r o n s  either  liquid  The  a l l t h e atoms  Cryogenic electronics  into  temperature of  superconductors.  structures  delve  electronics, as  the temperature  their  exploring  in  increases  almost  cease  lattice  have an  choice;  At  become  reason i s that  the -material  crystalline  to as  conductivity  some m e t a l s  you  referred  increasingly  electrical  form  Cryogenics  cryogenics).  i s becoming  general  —  (sometimes  since helium  electronics  Is the realm of extremely  phenomena  if  Yet  Intellectronics. Low  It  equations.  experimentally, build  in  or  cryogenics.  electronics  "MHD" stands f o r magnetohydrodynamics. It d e a l s w i t h t h e motion of an e l e c t r i c a l l y c o n d u c t i n g f l u i d i n the presence of a magnetic f i e l d . A plasma i s a gaseous m i x t u r e of charged p a r t i c l e s — negative e l e c t r o n s and p o s i t i v e l y c h a r g e d m o l e c u l e s o f g a s . A f t e r a c c e l e r a t i o n by a m a g n e t i c f i e l d t h e s e p a r t i c l e s p o s s e s s enormous e n e r g i e s , e v i d e n c e d by k i n e t i c t e m p e r a t u r e s of thousands to m i l l i o n s of d e g r e e s . The t h e r m o n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n p o s s i b l e w i t h t h i s phenomenon c o u l d l e a d t o t h e d i r e c t c o n v e r s i o n o f m a t t e r into electricity. D e s i g n e r s a r e a l r e a d y a t w o r k on MHD engines f o r space s h i p s . Such e n g i n e s c o u l d a c c e l e r a t e a space c r a f t to h a l f the speed of l i g h t . Other t y p e s of space e n g i n e s b e i n g a c t i v e l y worked u p o n by e l e c t r o n i c s e n g i n e e r s i n c l u d e e l e c t r o s t a t i c as w e l l as i o n - d r i v e n ones. The p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d w i t h MHD a r e f o r m i d a b l e . U l t r a h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s c a n be m a i n t a i n e d f o r b u t b r i e f f r a c t i o n s o f a s e c o n d . The p r o b l e m of c o n f i n i n g t h e h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e p l a s m a by a m a g n e t i c f i e l d I s w a i t i n g t o be s o l v e d . Electronics After  a l l this  talk  about  tremely  high temperatures,  prosaic  to d i s c u s s  not  prosaic  at a l l ,  a t home extremely  i t may  electronics  appear  low  i n t h e home.  for electronics  and  ex-  rather Yet i t ' s  i s exciting  i n a l l of  89  -4its  many f o r m s .  Increasingly,  have been c r e a t i n g for in  the  home.  more and  With  miniaturization  much e q u i p m e n t Normally, one-half  to  be  solid-state  packed  amplifiers  one  full  miniaturization  has  amplifier  in a  computing  system  can  into  a  require  square  foot  be  larger built  areas  of  space. covering  space.  than a into  electronics  small  made i t p o s s i b l e  s p a c e no  engineers devices  t r e m e n d o u s a d v a n c e s made  through  can  hi-fi  the  electronics  more a u t o m a t i c  a  to  Micro-  produce  dime. cubic  An foot  an entire or  less. Career  summary  Because e l e c t r o n i c s forms a v i t a l l y important sust a i n i n g p a r t o f so many o t h e r a r e a s o f e n d e a v o r , i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e h e r e t o make a j o b - b y - j o b l i s t i n g of a l l a v a i l a b l e p o s i t i o n s . Most e l e c t r o n i c s w o r k i s u s u a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d by t e a m s . A given p r o j e c t may o f f e r work to p e r s o n s r a n g i n g i n educ a t i o n from h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e to D o c t o r of Science or Philosophy. In terms of v a r i e d skills, e l e c t r o n i c s r u n s t h e gamut f r o m f a c t o r y a s s e m b l y - l i n e to r e s e a r c h e n g i n e e r s . In terms of o p p o r t u n i t i e s , there are v a s t areas of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n i n d u s t r y and the m i l i t a r y . In terms of s a l a r i e s , those i n the e l e c t r o n i c s i n d u s t r y are w e l l above those of t e c h n i c a l industry i n general. E l e c t r o n i c s i s moving forward at such a pace t h a t a l e r t , w e l l - t r a i n e d and i n t e r e s t e d p e o p l e m u s t be f o u n d t o h e l p b o t h t h e m i l i t a r y a n d I n d u s t r y k e e p up with technological progress. T r a i n i n g may be either academic or t e c h n i c a l or both. Such t r a i n i n g most a s s u r e d l y r e q u i r e s a s o l i d and w e l l - p l a n n e d h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n as a b a s i s w i t h a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g and t i n k e r i n g on y o u r own.  Record  Reading  Time  From: I n c r e a s i n g Reading E f f i c i e n c y Revised E d i t i o n Lyle Miller. pp231-233  90 ANSWER T H E S E QUESTIONS The  total  t i m e u<-.ed r e a d i n g a n d  Number o f C o r r e c t Questions 1.  The  An and  technique  Answers  way  In which may  new be  opportunities  compared  to  continually  the i n v e n t o r ' s  (1)  laboratory  (2)  a u t o m a t i c mass p r o d u c t i o n .  (3)  perpetual  (4)  manned  electronics operating  technology  c a n be digital  involved  i n the excitement  computers.  True  i s the f i e l d of a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h space flight.  involves  t h e new  a r e a of  Intellectronics  i s a wise-open  field  of  Cryogenics i s a  7.  The t h e r m o n u c l e a r lead to:  8.  field  dealing  reaction  satellite  communications. False  to those w i t h a mathematical  with extremely  possible  w i t h the  (1)  the d i r e c t , c o n v e r s i o n of matter  (2)  the f o r m a t i o n of a gaseous  (3)  the development  (4)  the p r o d u c t i o n of n e g a t i v e  Electronics  "MHD"  into  phenomenon  Miniaturization household  charged  f i t i n very  field.  and  fewer  d e v i c e s f o r t h e home.  In  terms  least  a  of educational  training,  False  h a s made i t p o s s i b l e small  to produce  places. True  10.  particles.  electrons.  fewer  Is the process which  devices which  could  electricity.  True 9.  bent.  False  h i g h - t e m p e r a t u r e phenomena. True False  mixture of  of a magnetic  engineers are creating  building  the-electronics  True 6.  of  False  True 5.  of  flight.  specialist  Intellectronics  i n the f i e l d of:  motion.  a n a l o g and  involved  arise dream  experiments.  space  3.  4.  study  -  electronics  2.  d e v e l o p i n g your  False  most j o b s i n e l e c t r o n i c s  education.  require  at  many  91 .USE T H E S E PAGES TO DEVELOP YOUR STUDY  TECHNIQUE  92  Length: 1350 words R e a d a b i l i t y Score: 41 Number VI-15 .  93  The  S t o r y of Western  Union  From smoke s i g n a l s t o t a l k i n g  wires  The s t r e a m l i n e d t e l e g r a p h e r a o f today i s a f a r c r y indeed from the p r i m i t i v e f i r e , smoke and f l a g s i g n a l s o f e a r l y times. A thousand y e a r s b e f o r e t h i s era of highspeed s e l e c t i v e s w i t c h i n g systems, r a d i o beam t e l e g r a p h y and m u l t i - c h a n n e l , p r i n t i n g t e l e g raphy, man wished f o r r a p i d communications. In medieval times, knights f l a s h e d t h e i r burnished s h i e l d s to communicate w i t h each o t h e r . Argonauts used c o l o r e d s a i l s on t h e i r s h i p s t o convey a meaning. The Greeks, Romans and A z t e c s used r e l a y r u n n e r s . In the days o f J u l i u s Caesar, s e n t i n e l s were s t a t i o n e d i n towers a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s to shout messages from one to the o t h e r , c o v e r i n g as much as 150 m i l e s i n a few h o u r s . The j u n g l e s of A f r i c a and i s l a n d s o f the South P a c i f i c s t i l l echo w i t h the t h r o b b i n g o f n a t i v e tomtoms, or drums, t o communicate w i t h d i s t a n t v i l lages. Our American I n d i a n s s i g n a l e d by day w i t h p u f f s of smoke, and a t n i g h t by waving t o r c h e s and s h o o t i n g f l a m i n g arrows i n t o the sky. The huge f o r t u n e o f the R o t h s c h i l d s was made i n p a r t t h r o u g h I n f o r m a t i o n they o b t a i n e d by use of c a r r i e r p i g e o n s . Semaphore towers were used by George Washington d u r i n g the R e v o l u t i o n a r y War, and more than a c e n t u r y ago systems of Semaphore Towers, w i t h arms t h a t were moved to v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s to convey messages, were b u i l t f o r hundreds of m i l e s i n F r a n c e , England and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . E a r l y forms o f r a p i d communication, however, were a l l slow. Men cons t a n t l y r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t the l i m i t a t i o n s of time and space. The f i r s t man to d i r e c t thought to the use o f e l e c t r i c i t y f o r communications was Roger Bacon, i n 1267, and he was put i n j a i l f o r twenty y e a r s f o r d e a l i n g i n b l a c k magic. The burgomaster o f Magdeburg, Germany, O t t o Von G u e r i c k e , made the f i r s t e l e c t r i c i t y - p r o d u c i n g machine In 1650. I t was a s u l p h u r b a l l t h a t he charged by r u b b i n g h i s hands on i t , j u s t as we can charge our b o d i e s by r u b b i n g our f e e t on a t h i c k r u g . Wood, of England, found i n 1726 t h a t e l e c t r i c i t y c o u l d be conveyed by a m e t a l c o n d u c t o r , and a few y e a r s l a t e r Gray and Wheeler sent e l e c t r i c i t y through 800 f e e t of w i r e . Thus the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f t e l e g r a p h y was known more than 200 y e a r s ago. A f t e r t h a t time, l i t e r a l l y hundreds of men c a r r i e d the knowledge of e l e c t r i c i t y f o r w a r d , each a d d i n g something t h a t h e l p e d In the i n v e n t i o n o f the t e l e -  -2-  graph. O e r s t e d showed t h a t c u r r e n t e x e r t s a f o r c e which w i l l d e f l e c t a magnet; L a P l a c e advanced the i d e a t h a t a magnetic n e e d l e might be d e f l e c t e d to r e c e i v e messages a t a g r e a t d i s t a n c e ; and Ampere put magnetic n e e d l e s a t the ends of 26 w i r e s , so t h a t d e f l e c t i o n s would s i g n a l the l e t t e r s of the a l p h a b e t . In 1820 Baron S c h i l l i n g , a gay c a p t a i n of Hussars i n the R u s s i a n Army, produced a t e l e g r a p h which he o p e r a t e d by the use of f i v e magnetic n e e d l e s . H a r r i s o n Grey Dyar operated a t e l e g r a p h l i n e on Long I s l a n d , N.Y., In 1826. Joseph Henry, a s c h o o l t e a c h e r a t A l b a n y (NY) Academy, operated an e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c t e l e g r a p h i n h i s room i n 1830 and '31. He a l s o b u i l t a l i n e which he o p e r a t e d between two b u i l d i n g s at P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y i n 1836. Gauss and Weber d e v i s e d a s i m p l e magnetic t e l e g r a p h i n 1833 a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Goetingen, and S t e i n h e i l improved on t h e i r system i n 1836. In the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , S i r C h a r l e s Wheatstone and S i r W i l l i a m Cooke o b t a i n e d a p a t e n t i n England f o r t h e i r t e l e g r a p h , the f i r s t i n England. Samuel F i n l e y Breese Morse The f i r s t r e a l l y p r a c t i c a l t e l e g r a p h system was i n v e n t e d by Samuel F. B. Morse, a d i s t i n g u i s h e d American p a i n t e r who founded the N a t i o n a l Academy of D e s i g n . R e t u r n i n g from a t r i p to Europe on board the Packet Ship " S u l l y " i n 1832, Morse r e c e i v e d h i s great i n s p i r a t i o n . He r e a l i z e d t h a t , i f he c o u l d t r a n s m i t i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e c o r d i t a t a d i s t a n c e , he c o u l d r e v o l u t i o n i z e communications. He thought of s i g n s which c o u l d be t r a n s m i t t e d over a w i r e , and r e a l i z e d t h a t the d o t , dash and space were t h r e e s i g n a l s w h i c h c o u l d be e a s i l y communicated. Morse was appointed p r o f e s s o r of the L i t e r a t u r e of the A r t s of D e s i g n a t New York U n i v e r s i t y i n 1835. T h i s gave him a s m a l l s a l a r y , and p r o v i d e d the rooms i n Washington Square where he b u i l t h i s f i r s t t e l e g r a p h i n s t r u m e n t , a crude a f f a i r c o n s t r u c t e d on a p i c t u r e frame, w i t h an o r d i n a r y l e a d p e n c i l suspended by a pendulum to make the dots and dashes. Morse demonstrated h i s f i r s t a p p a r a t u s b e f o r e a group of f r i e n d s i n h i s rooms at New York U n i v e r s i t y on September 2, 1837. One of those p r e s e n t was A l f r e d V a i l , son of Judge Stephen V a i l , of the Speedwell I r o n Works at M o r r i s t o w n , N.J. Young V a i l became Morse's p a r t n e r , p r o v i d i n g money and b u i l d i n g new and b e t t e r I n s t r u m e n t s . These i n s t r u ments were shown b e f o r e an a u d i e n c e i n the Geol o g i c a l C a b i n e t of the New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , J a n u a r y 24, 1838. G e n e r a l Thomas S. Cummings was p r e s e n t ,  6  94  -3and when Morse asked f o r a message t o be s e n t , a f r i e n d o f Cummings wrote a f a c e t i o u s m i l i t a r y command: " A t t e n t i o n s , the Universe! By Kingdoms, R i g h t Wheel!" Morse e x h i b i t e d t h e t e l e g r a p h b e f o r e P r e s i d e n t Van Buren and h i s C a b i n e t a t Washington, D.C. Members o f Congress c a l l e d i t a c r a z y scheme. Morse t r i e d f o r y e a r s t o g e t Congress t o a p p r o p r i a t e money f o r an e x p e r i m e n t a l l i n e , and f i n a l l y h i s b i l l was passed on March 3, 1843, News o f t h e B i l l ' s p a s s age was brought t o him by Annie E l l s w o r t h , daughter of t h e Commissioner o f p a t e n t s , and he gave A n n i e the honor o f p r e p a r i n g t h e f i r s t t e l e g r a m . The f i r s t t e l e g r a p h l i n e , b u i l t between Washington, D. C. and B a l t i m o r e , was opened b e f o r e a d i s t i n g u i s h e d group i n t h e Supreme Court Chambers, on May 24 1844. The f i r s t t e l e g r a m , handed t o Morse by Annie E l l s w o r t h , was "WHAT HATH GOD WROUGHT!" The e x p e r i m e n t a l l i n e was e x h i b i t e d f o r a y e a r , b u t government o f f i c i a l s d e c i d e d t h e t e l e g r a p h was an i n t e r e s t i n g t o y t h a t never would e a r n enough money to support i t s e l f . Morse then persuaded a s k e p t i c a l p u b l i c t o buy s t o c k and f i n a n c e the t e l e g r a p h a s a private enterprise. The t e l e g r a p h i n d u s t r y has been a p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e e v e r s i n c e , f a r outgrowing t h e s u b s i d i z e d , government-operated t e l e g r a p h systems o f foreign countries. More than a t h i r d o f the w o r l d ' s telegraph mileage i s i n the United States. Morse and h i s a s s o c i a t e s extended the WashingtonB a l t i m o r e t e l e g r a p h l i n e t o New York C i t y i n 1846. O t h e r s o b t a i n e d l i c e n s e s from Morse and b u i l t l i n e s between New York and B u f f a l o , New York and Boston, and o t h e r e a s t e r n c i t i e s . Western Union now has over 2,500,000 m i l e s o f c a r r i e r system c i r c u i t s , many o f which c a r r y as many as 288 messages simultaneously. Western Union —  How i t s t a r t e d  Over f i f t y t e l e g r a p h companies were i n o p e r a t i o n i n 1851 when a group o f R o c h e s t e r (NY) men l e d by Hiram S i b l e y , E z r a C o r n e l l , Samuel L . and Henry R. S e l d e n o r g a n i z e d t o found the New York and M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y P r i n t i n g T e l e g r a p h Company. Lines to o p e r a t e the House P r i n t i n g T e l e g r a p h System, which p r i n t e d t h e r e c e i v e d message i n p l a i n Roman l e t t e r s i n s t e a d o f d o t s 3.nd d ashes, had been b u i l t p r i o r t o 1850 between New York and Boston, and between New York and P h i l a d e l p h i a . The group o f R o c h e s t e r men a c q u i r e d r i g h t s t o extend the House System throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i r t e e n o t h e r companies' were o p e r a t i n g s h o r t l i n e s I n t h e f i v e s t a t e s n o r t h o f the Ohio R i v e r . I t  95  96  -4-  was not easy to send a t e l e g r a m a g r e a t d i s t a n c e ; i t had t o be t r a n s f e r r e d from one l i n e to another and the charges o f each l i n e had t o be p a i d . S e r v i c e was slow and u n r e l i a b l e . Two o f these K n e s were s o l d f o r debt, and the o t h e r s were i n such an impoverished c o n d i t i o n t h a t the New York and M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y Company bought them o u t . The Company was named Western Union T e l e g r a p h Company, i n d i c a t i n g t h e u n i o n o f the western l i n e s i n one system, on A p r i l 4, 1856. T h i s name was i n s i s t e d upon by E z r a C o r n e l l , p i o n e e r l i n e b u i l d e r , who used a p a r t of t h e t e l e g r a p h f o r t u n e he made t o found C o r n e l l University. Western Union c o n t i n u e d i t s p o l i c y o f merging w i t h o t h e r companies and b u i l d i n g new l i n e s , r a p i d l y e x t e n d i n g t e l e g r a p h s e r v i c e over the nation. T h i s c o n t i n u e d growth and e x p a n s i o n was a c companied by s t u d y and r e s e a r c h i n t o the improvement o f machines and s e r v i c e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y Western Union was a b l e t o p r o v i d e b e t t e r s e r v i c e t o i t s c u s tomers w i t h each p a s s i n g y e a r .  Record Reading  Time  From: I n c r e a s i n g Reading E f f i c i e n c y Revised E d i t i o n Lyle M i l l e r , pp 219-221.  97 THE  STORY OF  WESTERN UNION ANSWER THESE  1.  The  total  time  used r e a d i n g and  2.  Number of C o r r e c t Answers  3.  Questions  QUESTIONS  d e v e l o p i n g your study  technique  _  ,  True  1.  Which of the f o l l o w i n g methods of was not used i n the e a r l y days?  communications  (1) F l a s h i n g of s u n l i g h t from  2.  The had  (2)  Coded c o l o r e d  (3)  Sending  (4)  Shouting  shields.  sails.  messages by  wire.  messages through  signals.  one t h i n g which a l l e a r l y forms o f i n common was t h a t they were a l l  communication .  3.  E a r l y i d e a s of u s i n g e l e c t r i c i t y f o r communication brought a c c u s a t i o n s of b l a c k magic.  4.  The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f t e l e g r a p h y were unknown b e f o r e the 20th C e n t u r y .  5.  Samuel Morse i n v e n t e d the f i r s t t e l e g r a p h system.  6.  The major c o n t r i b u t i o n which A l f r e d V a i l made to Morse's i n v e n t i o n by h i s p a r t n e r s h i p was h i s financial assistance.  7.  Members o f Congress were e n t h u s i a s t i c a f t e r Morse's d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n Washington, D.C.  8.  The money f o r the b u i l d i n g of the f i r s t t e l e g r a p h l i n e was p r o v i d e d by  9.  10.  really  practical  experimental .  In 1851 there was o n l y one major t e l e g r a p h i c company o p e r a t i n g i n th'.' U n i t e d S t a t e s . The, company which was was the:  the f o r e r u n n e r of Western Union  (1)  New  York and M i s s i s s i p p i V a l l e y Company.  (2)  House P r i n t i n g T e l e g r a p h  (3)  Ohio R i v e r T e l e g r a p h  (4)  Sibley —  Cornell  Company.  Company.  — Selden T e l e g r a p h  Company.  98  r  99  Length: 1350 words R e a d a b i l i t y Score: 45 Number VII-15  100  MASS INVESTMENT  I n d u s t r y and b u s i n e s s a r e working w i t h the New York Stock Exchange and with o t h e r segments o f the s e c u r i t i e s b u s i n e s s to c r e a t e a n a t i o n o f share owners and a s t r o n g e r America. Our u l t i m a t e g o a l i s a d i r e c t ownership i n t e r e s t i n the t o o l s o f p r o d u c t i o n f o r e v e r y f a m i l y i n t h i s c o u n t r y — o r , to p u t i t another way, we would l i k e to see to i t t h a t e v e r y American who i s a b l e t o , owns a share of American b u s i n e s s . I t i s our deep c o n v i c t i o n t h a t c a p i t a l i s m i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s cannot even s u r v i v e w i t h o u t d i r e c t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s u p p o r t . We c h e r i s h our p o l i t i c a l democracy — now, to s a f e g u a r d t h a t p o l i t i c a l freedom, we must seek t r u e economic democracy. The most p r o s p e r o u s y e a r i n our h i s t o r y has j u s t ended. A t the s t a r t o f 1954 the immediate f u t u r e i s c l o u d e d by such f a c t o r s as d e c l i n i n g new and u n f i l l e d o r d e r s i n the hands o f m a n u f a c t u r e r s , a r i s e i n b u s i n e s s i n v e n t o r i e s , a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n unemployment, r e t a i l s a l e s a l i t t l e s m a l l e r than they might have been. I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t the c u r r e n t y e a r may see a o u t l o o k — and w i t h i t go a l l the qualms which accompany any attempt to gauge e x a c t l y the immediate f u t u r e . Long View But i f we step back a b i t and t r y f o r a l o n g e r p e r s p e c t i v e , we g e t a d i f f e r e n t view and the r u t s t h a t look so ominous when they are under our noses seem to l e v e l o f f . In my o p i n i o n the f u t u r e o f America's i n d u s t r i a l development i s s t i l l i n the t o d d l i n g s t a g e . A growing p o p u l a t i o n i s demanding a b e w i l d e r i n g v a r i e t y o f goods and s e r v i c e s which d i d n ' t e x i s t even a c o u p l e o f decades ago. L e s t t h i s may sound l i k e o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c t h e o r i z i n g , I should l i k e to mention a comment made a few days ago by Crawford H. Greenewalt, P r e s i d e n t o f Du P o n t . " I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e , " he s a i d , " t h a t when anyone i n the p a s t has attempted to p r e d i c t the l o n g term f u t u r e , h i s f o r e c a s t has turned o u t to be hopel e s s l y s h o r t s i g h t e d and p e s s i m i s t i c . " We a r e j u s t s t a r t i n g to l e a r n the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f such i n d u s t r i e s as e l e c t r o n i c s , p e t r o - c h e m i c a l s , antib i o t i c s — w h i l e s t r e t c h i n g ahead, s t i l l t o be e x p l o r e d , i s the i n c a l c u l a b l e range o f atomic energy. The p r e s s u r e f o r more and b e t t e r p r o d u c t s must grow i n d e f i n i t e l y ; and the p r e s s u r e must come from a f u l l y employed and i n c r e a s i n g l a b o r f o r c e which has income to s a t i s f y i t s want9 and needs.  101  -2-  I n d u s t r y i t s e l f knows that i t s own v i t a l i t y h i n g e s upon f i g u r i n g out new and b e t t e r ways to s a t i s f y the American p u b l i c — and i s spending more than one b i l l i o n d o l l a r s a year on r e s e a r c h w i t h t h a t u l t i m a t e aim i n mind. This o f t e n s p e c t a c u l a r t e c h n o l o g i c a l progress, of course, i s t r a n s l a t e d every year i n t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new p l a n t s and equipment. Funds Needed I n d u s t r y cannot a f f o r d to r e l y on a l i m i t e d number of p e o p l e f o r c a p i t a l to f i n a n c e f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n . The money t h a t i s needed must come from m i l l i o n s o f people who are not now i n v e s t o r s — the i n v e s t o r s of the f u t u r e who w i l l share i n the ownership o f American i n d u s t r y . Now, how does a l l t h i s a f f e c t the New York Stock Exchange? How can the Stock Exchange make the maximum e f f e c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the n a t i o n a l welfare? The answer, i t seems to me, l i e s i n the honest and e f f i c i e n t d i s c h a r g e of the Exchange's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the p u b l i c and to i n d u s t r y . Mass p r o d u c t i o n and mass d i s t r i b u t i o n are two modern phenomena on which American p r o s p e r i t y i s founded. But to e x p l o i t those two concepts f o r the maximum b e n e f i t o f the maximum number o f p e o p l e , a t h i r d concept must be added — mass investment. I t ' s no s e c r e t t h a t a g r e a t many p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g m y s e l f , were d i s t u r b e d by the d i s c l o s u r e i n the B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n census o f share owners t h a t o n l y 6,500,000 people had an ownership stake i n our c o r p o r a t e wealth a t the c l o s e of 1951. That f i g u r e must be m u l t i p l i e d a g a i n and a g a i n — i f we want c a p i t a l i s m to work a t maximum e f f i c i e n c y . Primary  Job  I r e g a r d i t as a p r i m a r y job of the Stock Exchange to make t r u e economic democracy p a r t o f our way of l i f e and not merely a c a t c h y p h r a s e . In r e c e n t y e a r s the Exchange has conducted an i n t e n s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l campaign to t e l l p e o p l e about the importance of the investment p r o c e s s to our economy. We i n t e n d to i n t e n s i f y and broaden t h a t e f f o r t . In January of t h i s y e a r , as p a r t of our campaign to encourage share ownership, one o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t developments i n f i n a n c i a l h i s t o r y was made a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c by the Exchange's member f i r m s : The o p p o r t u n i t y to purchase the s e c u r i t i e s of our g r e a t c o r p o r a t i o n s on a pay-as-yougo b a s i s . The Monthly Investment P l a n , as i t i s p o p u l a r l y known, c l e a r s the road — f o r the f i r s t time — to mass investment.  -3New  Departure  The M o n t h l y I n v e s t m e n t P l a n r e p r e s e n t s a r a d i c a l s t e p f o r the Stock Exchange community — j u s t as r a d i c a l i n i t s way a s G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c ' s u s e o f B i n g Crosby and Ken C a r p e n t e r t o d i s c u s s the importance of i n v e s t m e n t b e f o r e a n a t i o n w i d e r a d i o a u d i e n c e — j u s t as r a d i c a l as P e n n s y l v a n i a R a i l r o a d , C h r y s l e r , Socony-Vacuum, Monsanto C h e m i c a l and A l l i e d C h e m i c a l u t i l i z i n g t h e s t r e e t f l o o r windows o f Exc h a n g e member f i r m s t o g r a p h i c a l l y t e l l t o t h e p u b l i c t h e i r own s t o r y a n d t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f i n v e s t m e n t to t h e i r growth. Simply as a matter o f s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n , i n d u s t r y m u s t go t o t h e p u b l i c f o r a l a r g e r s h a r e o f t h e f u n d s n e e d e d f o r new p l a n t s a n d e q u i p m e n t . For the i n v e s t o r m u s t be p r o t e c t e d , t o o , w h e t h e r he i s a l r e a d y a s h a r e owner o r i s becoming one f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e . The S t o c k E x c h a n g e , o f c o u r s e , h a s i t s own r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the i n v e s t o r — such s a f e g u a r d s as i n s i s t e n c e on sound c o r p o r a t e a c c o u n t i n g p r a c t i c e s by i t s l i s t e d companies, f r e q u e n t and f u l l r e p o r t s t o t h e i r share owners, and t h a t superv i s i o n w h i c h h a s g i v e n member f i r m s a r e c o r d o f i n t e g r i t y and f a i r d e a l i n g . Taxation The E x c h a n g e h a s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n o t h e r a r e a s i n which the i n t e r e s t s o f the i n v e s t o r a r e a t stake — the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o f i g h t a g a i n s t c o n f i s c a t o r y , u n f a i r and c r i p p l i n g F e d e r a l Tax l e g i s l a t i o n . Freedom o f c a p i t a l has been t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f o u r b u s i n e s s s y s t e m s i n c e t h i s n a t i o n was f o u n d e d . Yet the C a p i t a l G a i n s Tax and double t a x a t i o n o f d i v i d e n d s have seemed t o be a l m o s t d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n t r i v e d t o i m p e d e the f r e e d o m o f c a p i t a l a n d t o d i s c o u r a g e i n v e s t m e n t . These a r e u n j u s t l a w s . I t i s o u r o b l i g a t i o n t o oppose them — a n d I am p l e a s e d t o r e p o r t t h a t t h e new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be a s a w a r e a s we a r e o f their inherent defects. In h i s S t a t e o f t h e Union Message, P r e s i d e n t Eisenhower s a i d : "We s h o u l d now r e v i s e t h e more g l a r i n g t a x i n e q u i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on s m a l l t a x p a y e r s ; reduce r e s t r a i n t on t h e growth o f s m a l l b u s i n e s s , a n d make o t h e r c h a n g e s t h a t w i l l encourage i n i t i a t i v e , e n t e r p r i s e and p r o d u c t i o n . " A Free  Market  We h a v e s t i l l a n o t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : To m a i n t a i n a m a r k e t p l a c e where t h e s e c u r i t i e s o f t h e n a t i o n ' s  102  103  -4-  leading The tion ago. the  of  f o r such t h e New  The need  such we  c o r p o r a t i o n s can  need  need  York  bought  today  and  l e d to  Stock Exchange i s g r e a t e r than  tomorrow w i l l  a marketplace  shall  be  a marketplace  be  nation  162  by  mass  From:  founda-  years  i t was  of  then  We  i n George Washington's built  quickly.  the  greater s t i l l .  p r o v i d e i t f o r the America  prosperous  sold  and  provided  day  —  tomorrow,  the  investment.  Increasing  Reading  Revised  Edition  Lyle  Miller  L.  pp  Efficiency  273-74  MASS • - '9  ^  INVESTMENT f  104  ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS 1.  Total  time  2.  Number  3.  Questions  of  used  r e a d i n g and  developing your  C o r r e c t Answers  study  technique  .  True  1.  I n d u s t r y and exchange  2.  The  4.  own to  necessary  America's  are working  i n c r e a s e the  Exchange would  According is  business  to  everywhere 3.  like  shares  this to  number to see  of  author,  the  share  owners.  everyone  of American  safeguard  industrial  with  industry.  economic  democracy  political  freedom.  development  is in i t s  infancy. 5.  The  6.  Capital  7.  author  believes  he  is justified  to f i n a n c e f u t u r e  i n being  expansion  (1)  Increased  (2)  Future  (3)  Borrowed  money.  (4)  Retained  earnings.  must  investors.  A t t h e c l o s e o f 1951 how many p e o p l e owners o f our c o r p o r a t e w e a l t h ? (1)  5,000,000  (2)  3,500,000  (3)  3,000,000  (4)  6,500,000  The p r i m a r y investors.  job of  9.  The  Investment  Monthly  the Exchange  Plan  to Tax l e g i s l a t i o n investors.  come  profits.  8.  10.  .  shares  i s to  clears  the  protect  road  . c a n ' t harm  the  as  interests  of  from  False  1 0 5  BSE  X 8 8 S E V&ZcSjiti  m-i-f.t«'  106  \  Length:  1350  Readability Number  words  Score:  52  107  VII-8  INSURANCE  FOR  LIFE  Four Types of L i f e Most gories  —  payment get  term life,  life  each  should  insurance  insurance,  variety,  black  falls  ordinary  a n d endowment.  out h i s l i t t l e  about you  family  Insurance  Your  4 main  limited-  agent  will  book and g i v e  but here  into  life,  you  cate-  details  a r e some g e n e r a l  facts  know. Term  Insurance  Term i n s u r a n c e p r o v i d e s t e m p o r a r y c o v e r a g e o n l y . I t r u n s f o r a l i m i t e d number o f y e a r s , u s u a l l y 5 o r 10, a n d t h e n e x p i r e s u n l e s s r e n e w e d , a l w a y s a t a h i g h e r premium r a t e n e c e s s i t a t e d by the i n c r e a s e d age of t h e p o l i c y h o l d e r . F o r a y o u n g p e r s o n i t i s much t h e c h e a p e s t k i n d o f i n s u r a n c e , and c a n p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e p r o t e c t i o n f o r temporary p e r i o d s . But term i n s u r a n c e has s e r i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e s . Its c o s t becomes p r o h i b i t i v e a s one grows o l d e r and i t u s u a l l y h a s no c a s h o r l o a n v a l u e . I f your h e a l t h f a i l s , y o u may n o t be a b l e t o r e n e w y o u r c o v e r a g e w i t h o u t a medical examination. The i n s u r a n c e p a y s o f f o n l y i f the p o l i c y h o l d e r d i e s . I n s u r a n c e e x p e r t s s a y no f a m i l y s h o u l d depend upon term i n s u r a n c e a l o n e for any l e n g t h o f time. Ordinary  Life  Ordinary l i f e , which i s o f t e n c a l l e d s t r a i g h t l i f e or whole l i f e , i s the most p o p u l a r f o r m o f l i f e insurance. A s i t s name i m p l i e s , i t s p u r p o s e i s t o p r o v i d e lifetime p r o t e c t i o n , and i t does t h i s a t a premium r a t e which can never i n c r e a s e . Premiums a r e d e t e r m i n e d by y o u r a g e a t t h e t i m e y o u t a k e o u t t h e p o l i c y ( t h e y o u n g e r you a r e , the lower they a r e ) , and a r e p a y a b l e as l o n g as y o u l i v e . The f a c e v a l u e o f an o r d i n a r y l i f e p o l i c y i s p a y a b l e o n l y a t death b u t such p o l i c i e s have, i n a d d i t i o n , attractive investment features. As time p a s s e s , they a c q u i r e a n i n c r e a s i n g c a s h v a l u e a n d c a n be c o n v e r t e d i n t o d o l l a r s a n d c e n t s i f y o u n e e d money f o r a n e m e r g e n c y o r no l o n g e r h a v e d e p e n d e n t s t o p r o t e c t . Moreover, y o u have the p r i v i l e g e o f b o r r o w i n g money o n a n o r d i n a r y l i f e p o l i c y o r c a n p u t i t up a s c o l l a t e r a l f o r a loan. F o r a l l t h e s e r e a s o n s most e x p e r t s t h i n k the average f a m i l y should b u i l d i t s i n s u r a n c e p r o g r a m a r o u n d a t l^ast one o r d i n a r y l i f e policy.  108 -2-  Limited Limited-payment nary  life,  number  of  except years  a period  of  paid  up,  and  then  on  Payment  life  that  the  without  20  insurance  premiums  instead  either  Life  of  or to  like  for a  ordi-  limited  for l i f e .  Usually,  after  years,  policy  becomes  30  policyholder having  is exactly  are paid the  remains  spend  insured  another  cent  from on  premiums. Many y o u n g p e o p l e policies paying one  premiums  drawback:  than  those  winner, small, he  because  A  income get  i f he  better  as  paid  up  a t age  tinuing  and  they  live,  type  than the  65.  f o r one's  premiums  a  and  babies  ordinary 20-or top  limited-payment  to look  are  the  to  have  deal higher  both  bread-  apt  to  be  f o r h i s money  as  life. 30-year  payment say,  This gives r e l a t i v e l y  after  they  young  authorities  family,  forward  but  good the  much p r o t e c t i o n  bought  most young p e o p l e , protection  l o n g as  these  like  ordinary l i f e ,  whose  could  as  prefer don't  the premiums a r e  of  can't  they  yet  normal  doesn't  life  is  for  life  low-cost require  retirement  con-  age.  Endowment Endowment p o l i c i e s c a r r y a f a r g r e a t e r i n v e s t m e n t element than e i t h e r o r d i n a r y l i f e or limited-payment life policies. This kind of insurance i s very expensive for t h e amount o f p r o t e c t i o n a f f o r d e d , b u t i f y o u buy i t you a r e a s s u r e d o f c o l l e c t i n g the f u l l f a c e v a l u e o f y o u r p o l i c y a t t h e e n d o f a s p e c i f i e d number o f y e a r s . Or y o u r b e n e f i c i a r i e s c o l l e c t i f y o u d i e b e f o r e the policy matures. When I was 21, I t o o k o u t a m o d e s t 2 0 - y e a r endowment p o l i c y . N o t l o n g a g o , when I r e a c h e d 4 1 , I c o l l e c t e d the f u l l v a l u e o f the p o l i c y and a p p l i e d i t a g a i n s t a m o r t g a g e on my home. That worked out v e r y w e l l , b u t , l o o k i n g b a c k , I f e e l I was r a t h e r f o o l ish. Had I t u r n e d up my t o e s a t a n y t i m e d u r i n g t h e 20 y e a r s , my d e p e n d e n t s w o u l d n o t h a v e r e c e i v e d n e a r l y a s much c a s h as t h e y w o u l d h a v e i f I h a d p u t t h e same amount o f p r e m i u m s i n t o a n o t h e r t y p e o f policy. When t h e endowment m a t u r e d I was i n g o o d h e a l t h , f o r t u n a t e l y , and a b l e t o r e p l a c e i t w i t h o r d i n a r y l i f e c o v e r a g e , b u t had t h a t n o t been the c a s e my f a m i l y w o u l d now be u n p r o t e c t e d e x c e p t f o r a group p o l i c y which I have. Which  I  Types  For  You?  In c o n s i d e r i n g the 4 p r i n c i p a l t y p e s o f h a v e d e s c r i b e d , remember y o u d o n ' t h a v e t o  policies select  109  -3just of  one  kind.  Your  n e e d s may  call  for several  types  policies. If  two  you  are  children,  to  have  a  it  wise  t o buy  policy  and  a breadwinner  are  larger even  your  kids'  ance  to p r o t e c t  a  just income  tant  t o be  into  permanent  30,  i n a few  y e a r s , you  your  family  insurance.  sure your  but  term  until In  coverage  a big this  slice  you  may  case,  i n s u r a n c e can  find life  for of  can  have  expect  small ordinary  s m a l l e r endowment costs,  f o r example,  ends meet, b u t  comparatively  college  more p e r m a n e n t  of  making  term  insur-  afford i t is  be  impor-  converted  insurance. Family  Income  Policies  B e f o r e d o i n g t h i s , though, you s h o u l d ask y o u r a g e n t a b o u t f a m i l y - i n c o m e and family-maintenance policies. These are combinations of o r d i n a r y l i f e a n d t e r m i n s u r a n c e w h i c h h a v e b e e n s p e c i a l l y des i g n e d to h e l p young f a m i l i e s over t h e i r l e a n y e a r s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f y o u a r e now e a r n i n g a l o t o f money b u t e x p e c t a r e d u c e d i n c o m e l a t e r , y o u may wish to i n v e s t i n a l i f e - a n n u i t y c o n t r a c t . T h e r e a r e many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f a n n u i t i e s , b u t t h e y a l l h a v e one t h i n g i n common: they p r o v i d e the i n s u r e d person w i t h a r e g u l a r income from a s p e c i f i e d d a t e u n t i l death. Four  Suggestions  T h e r e a r e 4 f i n a l t i p s , however, w h i c h the r i s k exp e r t s have f o r e v e r y i n s u r a n c e p u r c h a s e r . 1. R e a d t h e f i n e p r i n t one a n y p o l i c y y o u buy a n d be sure you understand i t . 2.  3.  4.  Pay y o u r premiums a n n u a l l y o r s e m i a n n u a l l y i n s t e a d o f on a m o n t h l y o r q u a r t e r l y b a s i s . s a v e a g o o d d e a l o f money t h a t way o v e r t h e  You'll  years. Keep your p o l i c i e s i n a s a f e p l a c e , p r e f e r a b l y i n y o u r home, a n d l e t t h e p e r s o n who w i l l s e t t l e y o u r a f f a i r s i n t h e e v e n t o f y o u r d e a t h know w h e r e t h e y are. A s a f e - d e p o s i t box i s s a f e , b u t i t g e n e r a l l y the d i s a d v a n t a g e t h a t a f t e r the death o f the i n s u r e d i t may n o t be o p e n e d e x c e p t by c o u r t o r d e r . R e v i e w b o t h y o u r p r o p e r t y and l i f e i n s u r a n c e programs at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . Changing family needs f r e q u e n t l y r e q u i r e changes i n i n s u r a n c e . S t u d e n t s o f t h e s u b j e c t t o l d me e v e r y f a m i l y s h o u l d re-examine i t s program a t l e a s t once e v e r y 3 years.  has  110  -4While a l l i n s u r a n c e i s a form o f gambling, i t i s gambling which p e r m i t s you to p l a y s a f e . "The e s s e n c e o f the b u s i n e s s , " W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l once s a i d , " i s b r i n g i n g the magic o f averages to the r e s c u e of the m i l l i o n s . " T h i s magic, i f i n t e l l i g e n t l y a n i n e s t i m a b l e amount o f s e c u r i t y family.  a p p l i e s , can p r o v i d e f o r y o u and your  From:  Increasing Revised Lyle  Reading  Efficiency  Edition  L. M i l l e r  Pp  259-60  INSURANCE  FOR  LIFE  111  ANSWER THESE  1.  Total  time  2.  Number  3.  Questions  used  r e a d i n g and  QUESTIONS  d e v e l o p i n g your  of C o r r e c t Answers  study  techniques  .  True..  1.  Although  low  in cost,  disadvantage  terra  of p r o v i d i n g  i n s u r a n c e has  the  only  coverage. 2.  P r e m i u m s on by  3. . On  insurance are when y o u  limited-payment  fixed 4.  ordinary'life  your  premium  Endowment  policies  the  three  other  life  f o r as  i n s u r a n c e one  l o n g a s he  are  types  take  much more f o r the  determined out  pays  the  policy.  a  lives. expensive  same amount  than of  coverage. 5.  Mr. W o o d b u r y s a y s y o u n e e d t o s e l e c t of i n s u r a n c e which w i l l g i v e you the protection  6.  7.  f o r your  A combination commonly u s e d  o f o r d i n a r y l i f e and term i n s u r a n c e by y o u n g f a m i l i e s i s c a l l e d a :  Family-income  policy.  (2)  Child  policy.  (3)  Life  (4)  Ordinary  quarterly  are or  type  money,  (1)  Premiums  t h e one most  support annuity  the  contract.  term  life  same e a c h  insurance  year  policy.  whether  paid  annually.  8.  R e a d i n g t h e f i n e p r i n t i n a p o l i c y may protect you from b u y i n g w o r t h l e s s i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s ,  9.  You  will  insurance  10.  Mr,  save  money by  (1)  Monthly,  (2)  Weekly.  (3)  Annually.  (4)  Whenever  Woodbury  insurance  arranging  to pay  your  premiums:  you  can  recommends  policies  at  that  least  families once  every  re-examine  their  three years.  False  112  113  Length: 1350 words R e a d a b i l i t y S c o r e : 53 Number V I - 6  114  WESTERN NATIONAL PARKS  From those who are s e a r c h i n g f o r a space that i s wide and open a f t e r spending a w i n t e r b e i n g conf i n e d , the Western p a r k s o f f e r n a t u r e i n broad t r a c t s v i r t u a l l y untamed and u n s p o i l e d . The s o u t h e r n c i r c u i t , i n the f i r s t p l a c e , has Grand Canyon, a t r e mendous s p l i t i n the e a r t h ' s physiognomy t h a t i s 217 m i l e s l o n g , anywhere from 4 to 18 m i l e s wide, and a m i l e deep. A l l t h i s can be found i n the n o r t h e a s t corner of A r i z o n a . Grand Canyon Only 105 m i l e s o f the chasm are w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the N a t i o n a l Park, but s t i l l , t h a t s h o u l d g i v e you p l e n t y to l o o k a t . At Y a v a p a i P o i n t on the south rim, i t i s ten m i l e s a c r o s s the d i t c h , and g e o l o g i s t s from the N a t i o n a l Park S e r v i c e g i v e d a i l y l e c t u r e s here about the wonders o f n a t u r e . Among the wonders i s the C o l o r a d o R i v e r which buzzes a l o n g through the canyon f l o o r a t anywhere from 2 1/2 to 20 m i l e s an hour chewing away a m i l l i o n tons o f sand e v e r y day. T h i s has been g o i n g on l o n g e r than I can q u i t e comprehend, and i t j u s t shows you what p e r s i s t e n c e can a c c o m p l i s h . For those who stand on the r i m and look down, the C a n y o n i s always c h a n g i n g . As the sun s h i f t s the ' v e r m i l i o n shades become r u s s e t , the c e r i s e becomes bronze, maroon b l e n d s i n t o copper, the orange becomes t a r n i s h e d , the white t u r n s ashen g r a y . Those who view these p r o c e e d i n g s from the south r i m can make t h e i r h e a d q u a r t e r s a t E l Tbvar H o t e l . Paved f o o t p a t h s run out from here and the morning d r i v e s of the motor coaches stop a t P o w e l l , H o p i , Mohave, Pima, and come to a h a l t a t Hermit's R e s t . An a f t e r noon d r i v e t r a v e l s e a s t through the Kaibab N a t i o n a l F o r e s t , skimming the Canyon's r i m w i t h s t o p s a t Y a v a p a i , Y a k i , Moran, and L i p a n , t e r m i n a t i n g a t the I n d i a n Watchtower, which o f f e r s one o f the f i n e s t views o f the Canyon, the Kaibab F o r e s t , and the Navajo I n d i a n c o u n t r y as w e l l . E l Tovar H o t e l , the B r i g h t A n g e l Lodge and Grand Canyon Cabin Camp o f f e r f i n e food and r e a s o n a b l e accommodations. The buses are o p e r a t e d by F r e d Harvey, who a l s o m a i n t a i n s a s t r i n g o f mules. The mules are f o r those who are l e s s engaged by a l o n g d i s t a n c e view than a c l o s e - u p i n s p e c t i o n . The p e n a l t y f o r t h i s c u r i o s i t y comes i n the form o f muleback j o u r n e y s i n t o the Canyon i t s e l f . Guides l e a d  LL5  -2the  curious  from  the  Trail  stopping at  rocky  banks of  the  rim.  lands  thousand who  a  commune  is a  the  swimming The  priced  stops  the  of  river,  the  even  trip  closer  mile  and  afternoon's climb  to rock  Ranch  For  those  bottom,  trip. rustic  The  ranch,  c a b i n s and  even  pool. tours  of  weeks  t o a month  and  below  Twenty  every year.  the Canyon, has  the  one  r a n g i n g from  from  Angel  e n d i n g on  numerous package  attractions Canada  and  the r i m b e f o r e d i n n e r .  two-day Phantom  floor  Railroad  l u n c h by on  p e o p l e make  would  there on  back  r i m down B r i g h t  the C o l o r a d o e x a c t l y  After  you  south  I n d i a n Gardens  $200 up, of  cover  the w e s t e r n  Mexico.  a t Grand  two  A l l 31  the Santa  not o n l y U.S., of  the  but  the  usual  also  tours  Fe  and tourist  extend  into  include  Canyon. Zion  and  Bryce  T r a v e l e r s d o i n g Grand Canyon can e a s i l y t i e i n v i s i t s to the Utah p a r k s — B r y c e Canyon and Z i o n . A t Z i o n , t h e V i r g i n R i v e r i s b u s y w a s h i n g away a canyon from the Navajo sandstone beds. The Mount C a r m e l T u n n e l a t Z i o n h a s s i x windows c u t out o f the r o c k , g i v i n g m a g n i f i c i e n t views o f the C a n y o n 1,000 f e e t b e l o w . Once o u t o f t h e t u n n e l , the h i g h w a y t a k e s a s i g h t s e e r s on a t w i s t i n g t r a i l t o t h e Canyon f l o o r , a f e a t which took the r i v e r a m i l l i o n y e a r s to a c c o m p l i s h . T h e r e a r e t r i p s t o t h e f l o o r by horseback too. Bryce Canyon i s something e l s e a g a i n , p o s s i b l y because i t i s not r e a l l y a canyon a t a l l but a s o r t of n a t u r a l a m p h i t h e a t e r f o r m e d o u t o f the p i n k and white limestone. I t i s two m i l e s w i d e , t h r e e m i l e s l o n g a n d 1,000 f e e t d e e p . A variety  of all-expense escorted  tours  are  con-  d u c t e d t h r o u g h the s o u t h e r n U t a h - A r i z o n a p a r k s by t h e U n i o n P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d . F i g u r i n g from Cedar C i t y , U t a h , and i n c l u d i n g a l l m e a l s and l o d g i n g , t h e r e i s a f i v e - d a y Z i o n , B r y c e and G r a n d C a n y o n t r i p f o r $78 a n d a n o t h e r o v e r t h e same r o u t e w i t h a s h o r t e r s c h e d u l e f o r $71.75. T h r e e d a y s a t Z i o n comes t o $46 a n d two d a y s o f Z i o n a n d G r a n d C a n y o n i s $40.75. There are c o n v e n i e n t t r a i n s to Cedar C i t y f r o m C h i c a g o and S t . L o u i s and a l s o f r o m L o s Angeles. The C h i c a g o N o r t h w e s t e r n a n d U n i o n P a c i f i c t i e up w i t h a p a c k a g e t o u r o f t h e U t a h - A r i z o n a N a t i o n a l Parks c o v e r i n g a l l three from Chicago i n t w e l v e d a y s f o r :j238.50 i n c o a c h e s , o r a b o u t $50 more i n s l e e p i n g c a r s . A n o t h e r t o u r t a k e s i n the above a r e a s and a l s o Y e l l o w s t o n e , l e a v i n g C h i c a g o e v e r y Sunday.  116 -3-  Yellowstone Y e l l o w s t o n e was the g r e a t u n b e l i e v a b l e phenomenon when i t was f i r s t e x p l o r e d . New E n g l a n d e r s , who seem to have been more s k e p t i c a l than most, s i m p l y r e f u s e d to b e l i e v e the e x i s t e n c e o f g e y s e r s b u r s t i n g i n t o the sky e v e r y few h o u r s . Today, a m i l l i o n v i s i t o r s come to see the wonders o f Yellowstone. I t i s the l a r g e s t and o l d e s t o f the n a t i o n a l p a r k s , c o m p r i s i n g 3,500 square m i l e s on which the b l a c k bear, the g r i z z l y , the deer, the moose, the beaver, the a n t e l o p e and the b u f f a l o roam. The G i a n t g e y s e r sends a j e t of steam 240 f e e t i n the a i r , which i s 100 f e e t h i g h e r than O l d F a i t h f u l . The h o t e l s a t Y e l l o w s t o n e i n c l u d e Mammoth Springs, a f u l l - f l e d g e d resort enterprise including c o t t a g e s ; O l d F a i t h f u l Inn, a l u x u r i o u s l o g c a b i n lodge w i t h the g e y s e r s p e r f o r m i n g a l l but i n the f r o n t y a r d ; the Canyon H o t e l near the r i m of the canyon, and c e l e b r a t e d f o r i t s tremendous " l o u n g e , " one of the l a r g e s t h o t e l rooms i n c a p t i v i t y . There i s a s t a n d a r d two-and-a-half-day h o t e l t o u r to Yellowstone pegged a t $46.75, which i n c l u d e s a l l meals and persons i n a double room w i t h o u t b a t h . The N o r t h e r n P a c i f i c Railway runs s e v e r a l "Yellowstone V a c a t i o n " t o u r s , among them a f o u r - d a y t r i p based on a c o s t o f $69.50, which b e g i n s a t G a r d i n e r , n o r t h e r n e n t r a n c e to the Park a r e a . Glacier Y e l l o w s t o n e o c c u p i e s the northwest c o r n e r of the s t a t e of Wyoming but f o r those who are l o o k i n g f o r l a n d s even more n o r t h e r n , there are the N o r t h e r n Rockies which form the G l a c i e r N a t i o n a l Park i n the top of Montana. These mountains r i s e i n an abrupt w a l l s t r a i g h t out o f the Montana p l a i n and appear h i g h e r than t h e i r average o f about 10,000 f e e t . The range i s c o v e r e d by dense f o r e s t s , g l a c i a l v a l l e y s and mountains meadows t o s s i n g w i t h w i l d f l o w e r s a l l summer l o n g . There are some s i x t y s i l v e r g l a c i e r caps, 200 l a k e s , and cascades and w a t e r f a l l s on which t h e r e i s no census. I f i t ' s warm around your b l o c k , come to I c e b e r g Lake where s m a l l but c o l d bergs f l o a t on the s u r f a c e i n the middle o f the summer. There i s no. problem about where to r e s t one's head between s i g h t s e e i n g e x c u r s i o n s . The G l a c i e r Park H o t e l commands the e a s t e n t r a n c e , Many G l a c i e r s i t s on the edge of S w i f t c u r r e n t Lake, and the Lake McDonald H o t e l r e s t s by the shores of the l a r g e s t l a k e on the west s i d e of the p a r k . H o t e l s are  117 -4-  on  the  plan,  starting  i s lodging  to  had  Park  and  G l a c i e r and  with  grocery  stores  Glacier  i s the  also  a  American Sperry  be  transcontinental  only  Chicago,  St.  Portland  or  Northern  streamliner,  entrances  season which 15  to  the a  the on  the 10.  good p a r t  the  of  Blackfeet  premises.  and  presents  white and  The  raiment  day.  chalets  number o f  stops  at  railroad the  near  park and  both  the  during  G l a c i e r Park whose  the  bonnets  the  Star,  at  There Granite  camps  east  representative  of  the  and  was  west June  bought adjoins to  pitch  Hotel  They wear  tossing  via  from  delegation  night.  of  summer  runs area  line  from  Great  reservation  a  main  west a  G l a c i e r Park of  the  reach  the  calendar  sends  on  i s i n easy  Western  everyday  tribe  war  a  California  pow-wows e a c h  buckskin,  other  and  Indians  summer encampment  at  national  The  park  September A  from  or  Seattle.  of  $9.25 p e r  nearby. railway  Paul,  at  at Alpine  eagle  beaded feathers  well-dressed  Indian.  Record  From  Reading  Time  -  Increasing Reading E f f i c i e n c y Revised E d i t i o n Lyle Miller - Page 183  WESTERN NATIONAL  PARKS 118 ANSWER T H E S E QUESTIONS  1.  The t o t a l  2.  Number  3.  Questions 1.  time  study  technique  .  -  True  I t i s possible  t o motor  down  R i v e r i n Grand  I t i spossible Virgin  River  3.  Bryce  4.  The l a r g e s t  5.  r e a d i n g and d e v e l o p i n g your  o f C o r r e c t Answers  Colorado 2.  used  Canyon  Canyon  t o motor  down  Park.  t o the banks o f t h e  i n Zion Park. i s sort  of a natural  and o l d e s t  o f the n a t i o n a l  (1)  Yellowstone.  (2)  Grand  Canyon.  (3)  Bryce  Canyon.  (4)  Zion.  Old Faithful  to t h e banks o f the  i s the h i g h e s t geyser  parks i s :  i n Yellowstone  Park. 6.  One o f t h e l a r g e s t Canyon H o t e l  ho'.:el rooms may be f o u n d  7.  Hotels rather  8.  G l a c i e r i s the o n l y n a t i o n a l park of a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y .  9.  A good p a r t o f t h e was b o u g h t f r o m . t h e  10.  in  the  i n Zion.  i n G l a c i e r Park than on a f i x e d  o p e r a t e on the American P l a n f e e f o r the whole t r i p . on the main  Park Blackfeet  Spacious  hotels  (2)  Beaver  (3)  I n d i a n pow-wows e a c h  (4)  Geysers  and l o d g e s .  and o t h e r w i l d  of great  area  Indians.  W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g was n o t m e n t i o n e d a t t r a c t i o n i n Yellowstone Park: (1)  line  life. night.  beauty.  as an  False  119  4  120  6  APPENDIX C  INSTRUCTIONAL  PROCEDURES  122 APPENDIX C INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES  The by  instructional  t h e POPRADR  the  first  framework  a  told  method  the  o f the purpose  that  rather  the course than  Preview  skimming  (1962) .  Week T h r e e .  et.al.  provided  would  Test  f o rHigh  S c h o o l s and  of the c o u r s e .  f o c u s on t h e l e a r n i n g  session.  technique  of a high reading  Reading  f o r m u l a t e d by B e r g ,  Study  The f u l l  Students  of a  study  rate. PATTERN (OP)  T h e PREREAD s t e p was p a t t e r n e d  Guide,  f o r each  S e t LK ( T a y l o r ,  drawn  et.al.,  was d e m o n s t r a t e d  using material  after  and F r a n -  provided with material  POPRADR p r o c e d u r e  session  Taylor  o f t h e OP o u t l i n e s  and p r a c t i c e  i n this  drawn  from  1964). and  Taylor,  (1964). Week F o u r .  provided was  Reading  and d u r a t i o n  The c o n s t r u c t i o n  the C o n t r o l l e d  practice  beginning with  T h e PREREAD ( P ) a n d ORGANIZATIONAL  m e t h o d was d e m o n s t r a t e d from  form:  determined  study.  the attainment  introduced i n this  henpohl  t e c h n i q u e were  the f o l l o w i n g  The N e l s o n - D e n n y  Week Two. were  week  f o r each  F o r m A, ( 1 9 6 0 ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s t u d e n t s f o l l o w e d b y  description  were  and took  week o f t h e e i g h t  Week O n e . Colleges,  procedures  Ten minutes  f o l l o w e d by t h e f i r s t  of review informal  a d m i n i s t e r e d to s t u d e n t s as a s e r i e s  o f t h e POPRADR p r o c e d u r e  assessment. o f timed  The  was  assessment  reading  practice  drills. Week F i v e . and  Franhenpohl,  The t e c h n i q u e s o f o v e r v i e w  1 9 6 2 ) were  demonstrated  skimming  and p r a c t i c e  (Berg,  time  Taylor  provided  123 in  this  session.  I t was p o i n t e d  m i n g was t o be u s e d thorough  reading  POPRADR p r o c e d u r e (Norman, were  1968).  given  The  using  e i g h t minutes  practice  Schools  i n conjunction  skim-  with  followed  Successful  s e l e c t i o n s were each  used;  Reading, the students  selection.  of review  of the f u l l  by the second to student  informal  as a s e r i e s  POPRADR assessment. of  timed  drills. The Form  adhered  comprehension  overview  i n the use o f the complete  drawn f r o m  to f i n i s h  and C o l l e g e s ,  administration the  five  Ten minutes  was p r o v i d e d  Week E i g h t . High  material  The f i r s t  that  step.  a s s e s s m e n t was a d m i n i s t e r e d  reading  t o , and/or  P r a c t i c e was p r o v i d e d  Week S e v e n . procedure  as an a d j u n c t  i n t h e READ  Week S i x .  out to students  B o f the Nelson-Denny  ( 1 9 6 0 ) was a d m i n i s t e r e d  to the procedure  subtest.  described  Reading  Test f o r  to students.  The  i n the manual f o r  

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