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The role of the national film board in the development of adult education programs in the province of… McGechaen, Alexander 1971

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THE ROLE OF THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA: 1942 TO 1970 by ALEXANDER McGECHAEN B.A. , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS I n t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n ( A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ) .. We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d : THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JULY, 1971 In presenting th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It i s understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on of th i s thes i s fo r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. ' Department of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date August 13, 1971. ABSTRACT T h i s study p r e s e n t s an h i s t o r i c a l survey o f the a c t i v i t i e s of the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The programs of the Board are o r g a n i z e d i n t o a number o f d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the purpose of each program, i t s s t r u c t u r e , the e d u c a t i o n a l techniques used, and the type of audience to which each was d i r e c t e d . The programs f a l l i n t o s i x major c a t e g o r i e s : General I n t e r e s t , Enrichment, I n s t r u c t i o n a l , Package Program K i t s , L e adership T r a i n i n g and Community Development. The study d e s c r i b e s f o u r d i f f e r e n t methods of f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n used a t v a r i o u s times i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the p e r i o d 194 2 to 1970. These were: F i l m C i r c u i t s , P u b l i c and Deposit L i b r a r i e s , . a n d D i r e c t D i s t r i b u t i o n t o the p u b l i c from N a t i o n a l F i l m Board o f f i c e s . Each method r e f l e c t e d the Board's i n t e r e s t i n making the maximum number of f i l m s a v a i l a b l e t o people. In the e a r l y years> when the Board l a c k e d the r e s o u r c e s to handle d i s t r i b u t i o n on i t s own, i t r e l i e d on v a r i o u s agencies w i t h i n the com-munity such as F i l m C o u n c i l s ; however, as the Board grew i t assumed more c o n t r o l over d i s t r i b u t i o n u n t i l i t reached the p o i n t where i t handled most of i t s own f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n . The work of the l o c a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s examined i n o r d e r t o t r a c e the e v o l u t i o n of h i s r o l e as an a d u l t educator. The study shows t h a t d u r i n g the p a s t 28 years the r o l e o f t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e has undergone t h r e e s t a g e s o f development: (1) From 1943 t o 1947 he was an e x h i b i t o r who t r a v e l l e d t o v a r i o u s communities s c r e e n i n g NFB f i l m s . (2) I n 1948 h i s r o l e changed and he became more concerned w i t h o r g a n i z i n g v a r i o u s k i n d s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. (3) R e c e n t l y , h i s r o l e has begun t o change a g a i n and he i s now more o f a Community Development w o r k e r , a s s i s t i n g v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups t o d e v e l o p programs f o r change w i t h i n a community. Throughout t h i s s t u d y an attempt has been made t o d e t e r m i n e t h e importance o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES . ....... ; v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i C h a p ter I . INTRODUCTION 1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY . . ...... 2 SOURCES OF INFORMATION ........ 4 PLAN OF THE STUDY .- . 5 FOOTNOTES ............. - 7 I I . HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD 8 CANADIAN FILM FROM 1896 TO 1938 8 THE GRIERSON REPORT 11 STRUCTURE OF THE NFB 14 FILM PRODUCTION FROM 1939 TO 1946 , 15 DISTRIBUTION 18 The C i r c u i t Programs 20 THE FILM COUNCIL MOVEMENT .................... 27 THE EVOLUTION AND FUNCTION OF THE DISTRIBUTION REPRESENTATIVE 29 THE EFFECT OF DIRECT DISTRIBUTION ON THE NFB REPRESENTATIVE . 34 PROGRAMS AND PROGRAM EVALUATION 36 FOOTNOTES 41 i i C h a pter Page I I I . HISTORY OF NFB DISTRIBUTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 45 THE CIRCUIT PROGRAMS FROM 1943 TO 1947 ; 45 THE FILM COUNCIL MOVEMENT FROM 1947 TO 1963 . . . . i ; 47 DEPOSIT LIBRARIES FROM 1947 TO 1970 .......... 49 NFB REGIONAL AND DISTRICT OFFICES 50 PUBLIC LIBRARIES FROM 1951 TO 1963 ........... 53 DISTRIBUTION TRENDS FROM 1957 TO 197 0 55 D i s t r i b u t i o n O u t l e t s 55 F i l m C o u n c i l s 5 6 D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s 56 R e g i o n a l and D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s 57 P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s 58 TRENDS IN ADULT SHOWINGS FROM 1957 TO 1970 . . . ; 59 FOOTNOTES i 71 IV. THE FILM IN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM 73 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM ....... < . . . 73 THE STRUCTURE OF THE FAE 74 THE AUDIO-VISUAL GUIDE 75 FAE PROGRAMS 76 1. F i l m S e r i e s - G e n e r a l I n t e r e s t 77 2. Enri c h m e n t Programs . . . ; 79 3. I n s t r u c t i o n a l -Programs 81 4. Package Program K i t s ................... 83 i i i Chapter Page 5. Leadership T r a i n i n g Programs 87 6. S p e c i a l Programs . .... 8 9 PROGRAM EVALUATION 92 THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE FAE TO ADULT EDUCATION 94 FOOTNOTES 96 V. NFB PROGRAMS THROUGHOUT B.C. .... 98 FACTORS AFFECTING THE INITIATION OF PROGRAMS ; 99 THE RURAL PROGRAMS ..... .................. 102 1. F i l m S e r i e s - General I n t e r e s t 102 2. Enrichment Programs 105 3. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programs 106 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 106 The F i l m As A r t 109 4. Package Program K i t s 110 5. Le a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g Programs I l l CHALLENGE FOR CHANGE INB.C 113 Programming From 1966 to 1968 ... 114 Programming From 1968 to 1971 116 PROGRAM EVALUATION 121 The Role of the NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n Program E v a l u a t i o n 121 Program E v a l u a t i o n by A d u l t Education Departments . . 125 FOOTNOTES 130 i v Chapter Page VI. SUMMARY ; . 133 General I n t e r e s t F i l m S e r i e s 133 Enrichment Programs 133 I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programs 133 Package Program K i t s 134 Lea d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g Programs 134 Community Development Programs 134 CONCLUSION * 138 THE FUTURE OF THE NFB . 142 FOOTNOTES . 144 BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................ 145 ANNOTATED FILMOGRAPHY 153 APPENDICES 159 A. Membership Form For the Greater Vancouver A u d i o - V i s u a l C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee 16 0 B. FAE O r g a n i z a t i o n S t r u c t u r e 162 C. AVCC Committee Membership 163 D. L i s t i n g of FAE Package Programs ................ 164 E. F i l m E v a l u a t i o n Form - Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y 167 F. F i l m E v a l u a t i o n Form - NFB - Odeon Theatres . 168 G. NFB Program L i s t i n g - A l l About. Canada ......... 169 H. NFB Program L i s t i n g - McLaren F e s t i v a l ......... 171 I. NFB Program L i s t i n g - The Family - Where Are We Going 173 J . NFB Program L i s t i n g - Mass Media and You ....... 175 V Page K. NFB Program L i s t i n g - The Medium, The Message and You 177 L. NFB Program L i s t i n g - E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Sound 179 M. NFB Program L i s t i n g - Challenge For Change: School D i s t r i c t 61 181 N. E v a l u a t i o n Form f o r Challenge For Change Program - Summer 1970 ; 183 v i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of F i l m s By O u t l e t 61 I I . Promotional Screenings 1957 to 1962 62 I I I . Trends i n the Number of F i l m s D i s t r i b u t e d By Each O u t l e t , Expressed as a Moving Average 63 IV. Trends i n the Number of A c t i v e D i s t r i b u t i o n O u t l e t s , Expressed as a Moving Average ....... 64 V. Comparison of Trends i n A d u l t Showings With Trends i n the P r o v i n c i a l T o t a l 65 v i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. Graphic Comparison of Number o f A c t i v e F i l m C o u n c i l O u t l e t s With Number of F i l m s D i s t r i b u t e d - 1957 to 1970 . ; 66 2. Graphic Comparison o f Number of A c t i v e Deposit L i b r a r y O u t l e t s With Number of F i l m D i s t r i b u t e d - 1957 t o 1970 67 3. Graphic Comparison of NFB Regional and D i s t r i c t O f f i c e O u t l e t s With Number of Fi l m s D i s t r i b u t e d - 1957 to 1970 68 4. Graphic Comparison o f Number of A c t i v e P u b l i c L i b r a r y O u t l e t s With Number of Film s D i s t r i b u t e d - 1957 to 1970 69 5. Graphic Comparison of Number o f A d u l t Showings With T o t a l Showings For B.C. -1957 t o 1970 70 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S Many people have c o n t r i b u t e d a gre a t d e a l t o t h i s study and the author would l i k e t o take t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to thank them. In a l p h a b e t i c a l order they are: Miss Rhoda Baxter o f the F i n e A r t s and Music D i v i s i o n of the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y who made a l l o f the FAE f i l e s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s study; Mr. Jan Clemson, D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r the NFB i n Vancouver who s u p p l i e d much of the program m a t e r i a l l i s t e d i n Chapter V; Miss C a t h e r i n e F i r t h , F i l m L i b r a r i a n i n the Board's Vancouver o f f i c e who, as always, h a p p i l y t o l e r a t e d f r a n t i c telephone c a l l s from the author e n q u i r i n g about important d e t a i l s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n system; Mr. B i l l G a l l a n t , C h i e f o f the Research and Reports D i v i s i o n i n the Board's headquarters i n Mont r e a l , who sup-p l i e d the s t a t i s t i c a l data on the Board's d i s t r i b u t i o n system i n B.C.; Mr. Pe t e r Grant, NFB D i s t r i b u t i o n Repre-s e n t a t i v e f o r the Vancouver I s l a n d r e g i o n , who s u p p l i e d program o u t l i n e s used i n Chapter V; Mr. Dooley Gray, S p e c i a l P r o j e c t s O f f i c e r f o r the NFB, who,/ihimself, i s w r i t i n g ai". h i s t o r y of the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board and gave t h i s author much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on where t o f i n d m a t e r i a l on the Board; Mr. Wally Lee, Regional S u p e r v i s o r f o r the Board i n B.C., who s u p p l i e d r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l f o r the study; Mr. B i l l M ullen and Mrs. R. Cormier, both with the Person-n e l D i v i s i o n o f the NFB, who s u p p l i e d job o u t l i n e s f o r the D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s which spanned a ten year p e r i o d ; a l s o , many thanks go to Mr. C. W. M a r s h a l l , now r e t i r e d from the F i l m Board, who s u p p l i e d the author w i t h f i r s t - h a n d i n f o r m a t i o n about the e a r l y h i s t o r y o f the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board i n B.C. F i n a l l y , s p e c i a l thanks go to my w i f e , Pat, who c r i t i c i s e d p o i n t s i n the study, c o r -r e c t e d my c a v a l i e r s p e l l i n g , and spent long hours t y p i n g up the f i n a l d r a f t . She i s the o n l y person I know who can d e c i p h e r my handw r i t i n g . CHAPTER I I. INTRODUCTION Ever s i n c e 1878, when Eadweard Muybridge f i r s t p i e c e d t o g e t h e r some time-lapse photographs to c r e a t e a moving p i c t u r e , people have been f a s c i n a t e d by the magic of f i l m . U n l i k e any medium b e f o r e i t , f i l m has the c a p a c i t y to m a k e . l i f e seem more r e a l than r e a l i t y . I t can r e c o r d a moment out of l i f e which can be s t o r e d and then p l a y e d back l a t e r f o r o t h e r s to see, appearing e x a c t l y as i t o r i g i n a l l y happened. As an i n f o r m a t i o n a l d e v i c e f i l m appears to have no equal except t e l e v i s i o n . There are no language b a r r i e r s w i t h f i l m ; i t seems to be a b l e to communicate w i t h a l l people. I t can inform them about themselves, t h e i r country and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the r e s t of the world. Or, i t can b r i n g t o l i f e worlds which they have never been aware of b e f o r e ; from the microcosmic organisms i n a drop of water to the macrocosmic world of the u n i v e r s e . As a d e v i c e f o r mass-education and enlightenment, f i l m has few e q u a l s . From i t s i n c e p t i o n people and govern-ments r e a l i z e d t h i s f a c t . F o l l o w i n g the Russian r e v o l u t i o n the S o v i e t government committed i t s e l f t o the use of f i l m as i t s major d e v i c e f o r educating and e n l i g h t e n i n g the Russian people. During the l a t e 1920's the B r i t i s h govern-ment c r e a t e d the General Post O f f i c e F i l m U n i t to produce 2 f i l m s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . But few government f i l m agencies have been as s u c c e s s f u l as the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board of Canada. I I . PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of t h i s study i s to p r e s e n t an h i s -t o r i c a l survey of the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board of Canada and t o examine i t s r o l e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. A v a r i e t y of f i l m programs are d i s c u s s e d and an attempt i s made t o o r g a n i z e them i n t o a number of d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the purpose of each program, i t s s t r u c t u r e , the e d u c a t i o n a l techniques used, and the type of audience each was d i r e c t e d towards. A secondary purpose of the study i s to d e s c r i b e the d i f f e r e n t methods of f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n employed i n the p r o v i n c e of B.C. d u r i n g the years 1942 to 1970. Each method i s i d e n t i f i e d and d e s c r i b e d i n order to c o n s i d e r the NFB's b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y concerning f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n and how i t was r e f l e c t e d i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n methods chosen. The work of the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i s a l s o examined f o r the purpose of de-s c r i b i n g t h e i r r o l e s as a d u l t educators; what k i n d s of f i l m programs d i d they produce f o r a d u l t s i n B.C. and what f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d the types of programs which they attempted? The o v e r a l l i n t e n t i o n of the study i s to de-3 s c r i b e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s which the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board has made to the development o f a d u l t education programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t might be w e l l a t t h i s p o i n t to c o n s i d e r b r i e f l y the terms a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and a d u l t educator. The term " a d u l t education" has been p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d by Verner i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Theory and Method: A Conceptual Scheme f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Processes 1 as: . . . the a c t i o n of an e x t e r n a l e d u c a t i o n a l agent i n p u r p o s e f u l l y o r d e r i n g behavior i n t o planned system-a t i c e xperiences t h a t can r e s u l t i n l e a r n i n g f o r those f o r whom such a c t i v i t y i s supplemental to t h e i r primary r o l e i n s o c i e t y , and which i n v o l v e s some c o n t i n u i t y i n an exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p between the agent and the l e a r n e r so t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l process i s under con-s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n and d i r e c t i o n . The term " a d u l t educator" i s l e s s easy to d e f i n e . At v a r i o u s times throughout t h i s study " a d u l t educator" or "agent f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n " are used to d e s c r i b e the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Both terms are used t o d e s c r i b e t h a t p a r t of h i s work where the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o r g a n i z e d a d u l t programs, the o c c a s i o n s when he acted as a r e s o u r c e person supplying, m a t e r i a l s f o r o t h e r programs, and the occasions when he taught c e r t a i n courses h i m s e l f . An attempt i s made i n Chapter I I to d e s c r i b e the e v o l u t i o n of h i s r o l e as an a d u l t educator by r e l a t i n g the d i f f e r e n t stages to Houle's Pyramid of 2 Leadership. Although the model i s u s e f u l f o r d e s c r i b i n g 4 the changes i n h i s r o l e from an amateur t o a p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r , i t i s s t i l l d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e p r e c i s e l y what an 3 a d u l t e d u c a t o r i s . A c c o r d i n g t o V e r n e r t h e dilemma e x i s t s because: [The] c o m p l e x i t y and d i v e r s i t y and t h e l a c k o f any common p e r c e p t i o n s among p r o f e s s i o n a l a d u l t e d u c a t o r s m i r r o r the d i v e r s e n a t u r e o f t h e f i e l d and make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y and s t u d y a " t y p i c a l " a d u l t e d u c a t o r . 4 He p o i n t s o u t : A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a m a r g i n a l a c t i v i t y t h a t p e r -meates t h e e n t i r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r o l e i s a m a r g i n a l a c t i v i t y f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who assume i t . W i t h i n e v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e l i n e o f c a r e e r development i s l i n k e d t o t h e dominant f u n c t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e , m a r g i n a l f u n c t i o n s such as a d u l t e d u c a t i o n do not f o l l o w a s e p a r a t e l i n e . I I I . SOURCES OF INFORMATION I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y came from a number o f d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . H i s t o r i c a l d a t a d e s c r i b i n g t h e evo-l u t i o n o f t h e NFB d i s t r i b u t i o n system i n B.C. from 1942 t o 1957 was drawn from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h NFB p e r s o n n e l who worked i n B.C. a t t h a t t i m e . B a s i c s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n from 1957 t o 1970 was drawn from a n n u a l f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n r e p o r t s made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s s t u d y by t h e Res e a r c h and R e p o r t s D i v i s i o n o f t h e NFB i n M o n t r e a l . Data, f o r t h e c h a p t e r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e F i l m i n A d u l t  E d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n came from t h e FAE r e c o r d s i n t h e Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y . The m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d p r o m o t i o n a l 5 brochures, program o u t l i n e s , c e r t a i n p i e c e s o f correspond-ence, and a s e r i e s of j o u r n a l s produced by the a s s o c i a t i o n . The data was supplemented by p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s with some i n d i v i d u a l s who were p a r t of the FAE and some who were i n d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The same methods of c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n were employed i n the chapter d e a l i n g w i t h the programs i n s t i -t u t e d by the NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . M a t e r i a l such as bro-chures , program o u t l i n e s , and e v a l u a t i o n instruments came from the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s p e r s o n a l f i l e s and was supplemented by i n t e r v i e w s with these men. Two b o o k l e t s , A d u l t Edu- c a t i o n with F i l m s and C r e a t i v e Programming compiled by the NFB i n Vancouver t o promote f i l m programs f o r a d u l t s throughout the p r o v i n c e have a l s o been e x t e n s i v e l y used. IV. PLAN OF THE STUDY The study i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e s e c t i o n s : Chapter I I i s an h i s t o r i c a l survey o f the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board of Canada, based on a review of the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e . I t t r a c e s the e v o l u t i o n o f n a t i o n a l trends i n f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n and programming f o r a d u l t s . I t a l s o i n t r o d u c e s the NFB D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e and de-s c r i b e s h i s p o s i t i o n as an a d u l t educator i n Canada. Chapter I I I examines the e v o l u t i o n of a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t kinds o f f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n methods employed i n the p r o v i n c e o f B.C. from 1942 to 1970. 6 Chapter IV i s an a n a l y s i s of the f i l m programs produced by the F i l m In A d u l t E d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n , a p r o f e s s i o n a l body c r e a t e d i n 1959 t o c o - o r d i n a t e f i l m programs f o r a d u l t s i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver a r e a . The programs are o r g a n i z e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s depending on the purpose and s t r u c t u r e o f each. Chapter IV a l s o c o n t a i n s a s m a l l s e c t i o n devoted t o the types of e v a l u a t i o n instruments developed by FAE. Chapter V examines the work done by the NFB Repre-s e n t a t i v e s throughout, the p r o v i n c e and an. attempt i s made to f i t t h e i r programs i n t o the same k i n d of c o n c e p t u a l framework developed f o r the FAE. The chapter a l s o d e s c r i b e s the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the type of program which the Repre-s e n t a t i v e s produced and the assumptions under which they worked when o r g a n i z i n g courses; F i n a l l y , Chapter V ex-amines two types of program e v a l u a t i o n attempted by the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e h i m s e l f and by v a r i o u s A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Departments which co-sponsored f i l m programs w i t h the NFB. Chapter VI p r e s e n t s a f i n a l summary of the f i n d i n g s and concludes with an; examination of the F i l m Board's r o l e i n the development o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n B.C. The v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s of programs are l i s t e d and each i s examined to see whether o r not i t q u a l i f i e s as an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t y . S i m i l a r i l y , the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s r o l e i s examined to see t o what extent he q u a l i f i e s as an a d u l t educator. 7 CHAPTER I FOOTNOTES C o o l i e Verner, A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Theory and Method:  A Conceptual Scheme f o r the T d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i - f i c a t i o n of Pr o c e s s e s , Chicago: A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n of the Un i t e d S t a t e s o f America, 1962. 2 C o o l i e Verner and Al a n Booth, A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , New York: Center f o r A p p l i e d Research and Education, 1965, p. 37. 3 I b i d . , p. 43. 4 I b i d . , p. 34. CHAPTER I I HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL FILM BOARD On May 2, 1939 the N a t i o n a l F i l m Act was passed by the Parl i a m e n t o f Canada. I t e s t a b l i s h e d the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board as a F e d e r a l government department t o co-o r d i n a t e a l l government f i l m p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Amongst a l l the s t u f f y l e g a l i s t i c j argon and a l l the b o r i n g d e t a i l about the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of t h i s new department one sentence shone out. I t d e c l a r e d t h a t the purpose of the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board was "to i n ^ t e r p r e t Canada t o Canadians and to the r e s t o f the world". The importance of t h i s statement should not be overlooked f o r i t s l a c k of any c l e a r - c u t , s t i f l i n g s e t of guide-l i n e s , gave the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board l i c e n s e t o do any-t h i n g w i t h i n reason. The r e s u l t o f t h i s government mandate was t o prove t o be the c r e a t i o n o f one of the l a r g e s t and most i n n o v a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s working i n the area of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n and enlightenment. I. CANADIAN FILM FROM 1896 TO 1938 May 2nd was not an e a r t h - s h a t t e r i n g day.- I t would be many d i f f i c u l t years b e f o r e the F i l m Board was t o become the g i a n t i t i s today. But the N a t i o n a l F i l m A c t was the s u c c e s s f u l beginning of what had 9 been, up u n t i l 1939, a r e l a t i v e l y unglamorous and unco-o r d i n a t e d attempt a t b u i l d i n g an e f f e c t i v e f i l m p r o -d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada. Canada had i t s f i r s t t a s t e of f i l m i n the summer of 1896 when an i m p r e s a r i o by the name of John, C. Green shot a f i l m of a stuntman named Jimmy Hardy c r o s s i n g Niagara F a l l s on a tightrope."*" That year a l s o saw the f i r s t two p u b l i c s c r e e n i n g s of f i l m s i n Canada. The f i r s t was h e l d i n Montreal by E r n e s t Ouimet, the admis-s i o n p r i c e was f i v e c e n t s , and the audience saw seven minutes of f i l m on d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . In the second s c r e e n i n g Auguste Guay, u s i n g equipment ^ u i l t by the Lumiere B r o t h e r s , p r o j e c t e d f i l m s to an audience of three thousand people. Each f i l m was ten minutes long and d u r i n g the i n t e r m i s s i o n s between f i l m s , the audience was e n t e r t a i n e d by v a r i o u s v a u d e v i l l e a c t s . F i l m , as an entertainment medium at l e a s t , was here to s t a y . There was, however, no g r e a t rush to make f i l m s i n Canada and^the next twenty years saw o n l y s p o r a d i c attempts to produce and d i s t r i b u t e them. In 18 98, E d i s o n made a p u b l i c i t y f i l m f o r the Massey H a r r i s A g r i c u l t u r -a l Machinery Company. T h i s was the f i r s t commercially sponsored f i l m and i s noteworthy o n l y f o r the f a c t t h a t i t i n t r o d u c e d the f i r s t American i n f l u e n c e i n t o f i l m -making in. Canada. A f u r t h e r American i n f l u e n c e on Canadian 10 filmmaking was f e l t i n 19 0 0 when the c e l e b r a t e d American filmmaker C h a r l e s Urban came to Canada to make a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f i l m f o r the Canadian R a i l r o a d s to help stimu-l a t e immigration. That same year B r i t i s h filmmaker Guy Br a d f o r d a l s o came to Canada. He c r e a t e d a s e r i e s c a l l e d " L i v i n g Canada". L i k e Urban's f i l m f o r the r a i l r o a d s , Bradford's s e r i e s was a l s o o f the "PR-genre"; t h i s time to h e lp promote B r i t i s h e m i g r a t i o n to Canada. On the f i r s t of January, 1906, the f i r s t perma-nent "deluxe" cinema i n North America was b u i l t . I t was l o c a t e d a t the corner of S a i n t C a t h e r i n e S t r e e t and Montcalm i n Montreal, and i t was c a l l e d "The Ouimetoscope" a f t e r i t s owner, E r n e s t Ouimet. The t h e a t r e was a con-v e r t e d Chinese p o t t e r y shop. I t c o s t one hundred thou-sand d o l l a r s t o b u i l d (a fabulous p r i c e even i n those days) and i t had a s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y of 1,000. Admission was 25 c e n t s . R e s e r v a t i o n s were accepted. The cinema's patrons came mostly from the f a s h i o n a b l e h i g h s o c i e t y area around St. Denis S t r e e t . By 1909 the f i r s t f i l m c e n s o r s h i p board was c r e a t e d i n Quebec although i t d i d not a c t u a l l y begin t o p r o t e c t the moral f a b r i c of s o c i e t y u n t i l 1911 when i t passed i t s f i r s t p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n . By 1914 the F e d e r a l government made i t s f i r s t t e n t a t i v e step i n t o the f i e l d of f i l m p r o d u c t i o n by c r e a t i n g a department of Cinema w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y of Trade and Commerce. A b o l d e r step 11 was taken i n 1921 when the Canadian Government Motion P i c t u r e Bureau was c r e a t e d to c o - o r d i n a t e a l l government f i l m p r o d u c t i o n , but i t was never very e f f e c t i v e i n i t s r o l e . The d i f f e r e n t government departments were j u s t as l i k e l y t o make t h e i r own f i l m s or to c o n t r a c t f i l m s out to p r i v a t e filmmakers as they were to go through the Bureau. In her H i s t o r y of the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, M a r j o r i e McKay t e l l s o f a very humorous i n c i d e n t which i l l u s t r a t e s the l a c k of c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n government f i l m p r o d u c t i o n a t t h a t time: "In one case crews from the Motion P i c t u r e Bureau and the Parks Branch each prepared s c r i p t s on the same s u b j e c t , sent crews to the l o c a t i o n , and s t a r t e d shooting b e f o r e i n a d v e r t e n t l y f a l l i n g over each o t h e r " . 2 I I . THE GRIERSON REPORT Government f i l m p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n con-t i n u e d i n t h i s r a t h e r e r r a t i c manner u n t i l 1936 when Ross McLean began d i s c u s s i o n s . w i t h the government i n Ottawa 3 concerning the c r e a t i o n of a more e f f e c t i v e f i l m agency. McLean's f i r s t s u g g e s t i o n to Parliament was t h a t i t immediately i n s t i t u t e a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t t o study e x i s t i n g government f i l m s e r v i c e s and to recommend ways by which they c o u l d be b e t t e r c o - o r d i n a t e d f o r maximum e f f i c i e n c y . On McLean's recommendation, Jbhn G r i e r s o n , d i r e c t o r of B r i t a i n ' s GPO F i l m U n i t , was asked by the Canadian Government t o come to Canada and d i r e c t the p r o j e c t . G r i e r s o n accepted the i n v i t a t i o n and a r r i v e d i n Canada 4 i n the e a r l y summer o f 1938. Perhaps no s i n g l e , i n d i v i d u a l was to have more e f f e c t on the development of the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board than John G r i e r s o n . The recommendations which he made i n h i s report, were adopted almost verbatim by the govern-ment i n the N a t i o n a l F i l m Act of 193 9. The Act not onl y r e f l e c t e d G r i e r s o n ' s i d e a s about the proposed a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e s t r u c t u r e of the Board, i t a l s o , i n a way, echoed G r i e r s o n ' s p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y about f i l m which i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d the kin d s of f i l m s the Board produced and the kinds of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n which i t became i n v o l v e d i n l a t e r y e ars. As M a r j o r i e McKay p o i n t s out, G r i e r s o n became i n t e r e s t e d i n the study of the mass media e a r l y i n h i s 5 c a r e e r . He was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n "the p r e s s , cinema, r a d i o and oth e r mass media of communications i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r e f f e c t on p u b l i c o p i n i o n . As F o r s y t h Hardy p o i n t s out.: " I t i s important t o remember t h a t G r i e r s o n ' s i n t e r e s t was aroused f i r s t i n the cinema, not as an a r t form, but as a medium of r e a c h i n g p u b l i c o p i n i o n " . Or, as G r i e r s o n h i m s e l f wrote i n 1933: "I look on cinema as a p u l p i t , and use i t as a propa-g a n d i s t " " . 6 Although these statements tend t o conjure up images of George Orwell's 1984 i t i s necessary: t o view t h i s p h i l o s o p h y i n p e r s p e c t i v e . G r i e r s o n regarded "propa ganda" as a t o t a l l y a c c e p t a b l e means to an end. He r e -garded f i l m as one of the most e f f e c t i v e t o o l s f o r modi-f y i n g o r a f f e c t i n g s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . He was very con-cerned about the use of f i l m i n what he c a l l e d " c i t i z e n -7 sh i p t r a i n i n g " . The r o l e o f the propaganda f i l m w i t h i n t h i s c ontext was as f o l l o w s : By b r i n g i n g a l i v e d i f f e r e n t aspects of a country' l i f e and work i n an im a g i n a t i v e way, they [ f i l m s ] b u i l d up i n the younger g e n e r a t i o n , an e f f e c t i v e system of l o y a l t i e s . Such f i l m s are i n g r e a t de-mand by teach e r s as an e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n the te a c h -i n g of modern c i t i z e n s h i p . (At a time when there i s so much t a l k o f s e c t i o n a l i s m i n Canada, they might be of p a r t i c u l a r v alue i n emphasizing n a t i o n -a l p e r s p e c t i v e s to the Canadian people.) In view of the p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y o f the time, G r i e r s o n ' s statement appears t o be very r e s p o n s i b l e and very noble indeed. The r e s u l t o f G r i e r s o n ' s study of government f i l m p r o d u c t i o n was "a c a r e f u l l y prepared blueprint:, of the g f u t u r e " f o r the NFB. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g a t t h i s p o i n t t o examine those p a r t s of G r i e r s o n ' s r e p o r t which d e a l s w i t h the r o l e of the intended agency i n educa t i o n i n Canada. G r i e r s o n found t h a t at the time he d i d h i s study:^ Government f i l m propaganda [ f e l l ] roughly i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . (a) E d u c a t i o n a l o r i n f o r m a t i v e f i l m s designed t o f i t i n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l system and c r e a t e a body of g e n e r a l knowledge about a country, department, o r g a n i z a t i o n or product. (b) Trade p u b l i c i t y f i l m s designed to recommend or s e l l a p a r t i c u l a r product to the p u b l i c . (c) Departmental f i l m s designed to f i t i n t o the s p e c i a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l schemes of a department; e.g., a f i l m t o teach farmers b e t t e r methods of marketing. (d) P r e s t i g e f i l m s designed to convey ideas and c r e a t e l o y a l t i e s with regard to a country, department or o r g a n i z a t i o n . They are gener-a l l y of a documentary type; i . e . , they b r i n g a l i v e i n n a r r a t i v e or dramatic terms some p a r t i c u l a r aspect of community l i f e and a c h i e v e -ment. G r i e r s o n was committed t o a p o l i c y of expanding these areas so t h a t the Board c o u l d become a f o r c e i n the e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l development of Canada. I I I . STRUCTURE OF THE NFB A c c o r d i n g to the N a t i o n a l F i l m Act of 1939, the new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r the NFB was as f o l l o w s : the Board was to be a d m i n i s t e r e d by two F e d e r a l c a b i n e t min-i s t e r s , t hree s e n i o r c i v i l s ervants and t h r e e p u b l i c repre s e n t a t i v e s chosen from a new o r g a n i z a t i o n , the N a t i o n a l F i l m S o c i e t y . 1 0 These three men from the F i l m S o c i e t y were chosen t o " r e p r e s e n t the p u b l i c interest"."'" 1 I t was a l s o decided to appoint a F i l m Commissioner who would c o - o r d i n a t e the Board's a c t i v i t i e s , a s s i s t i n i n s t i t u t i n g p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , and p r o v i d e a l i a i s o n between the govern ment and the department. For t h i s task i t was decided t h a t the commissioner "should be a Canadian, should know 15 the country w e l l , should know how to produce and d i s -12 t r i b u t e f i l m s " . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t on t h i s b a s i s the p o s i t i o n was o f f e r e d t o a l e a d i n g a d u l t educator of the time, Dr. Ned C o r b e t t . C o r b e t t was q u a l i f i e d i n a l l areas but the l a t t e r ; he lac k e d knowledge and e x p e r i -ence about f i l m s . For t h i s reason he r e g r e t f u l l y d e c l i n e d the p o s i t i o n and G r i e r s o n was appointed i n s t e a d . C o r b e t t " s r e f u s a l was p o s s i b l y an unf o r t u n a t e move f o r the a d u l t ed-u c a t i o n movement i n Canada, but t h a t he was approached at a l l was an important i n d i c a t i o n of the importance the Board p l a c e d on i t s r o l e as an agent f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n Canada. The Board's i n t e r e s t i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of two f a c t o r s , one p h i l o s o p h i c a l , the other c o n s t i t u t i o n a l . In h i s r e p o r t G r i e r s o n had i n d i c a t e d h i s awareness of the need f o r a d u l t education both formal and i n f o r m a l ( c i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g , s o c i a l awareness and so on). T h i s commitment i s i m p l i c i t i n the N a t i o n a l F i l m A c t . Furthermore, a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was the o n l y branch o f educat i o n i n which the F e d e r a l government c o u l d l e g a l l y become, i n v o l v e d . The ed u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n was a c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l r i g h t of the p r o v i n c e s , a r i g h t which they j e a l -o u s l y guarded a g a i n s t any i n t r u s i o n by the F e d e r a l govern-ment. IV. FILM PRODUCTION FROM 1939 TO 1946 With G r i e r s o n as Commissioner and, as McKay p o i n t s out, a group of young i d e a l i s t i c . a n d v ery unorthodox filmmakers around him, the F i l m Board began the d i f f i c u l t 13 task of f u l f i l l i n g i t s mandate. War had been d e c l a r e d and a l l the F e d e r a l departments were modifying t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s t o f i t i n wit h the war e f f o r t . The NFB was no e x c e p t i o n . I t began t o produce newsreels to keep the p u b l i c informed, and propaganda f i l m s l i k e V FOR VICTORY to a s s i s t i n Bond d r i v e s . There was even an attempt i n f i l m s l i k e WAR FOR MEN'S MINDS to del v e i n t o the area o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l warfare; The f i l m attempted t o p a i n t a f r i g h t e n i n g p i c t u r e of H i t l e r ' s attempts at mass b r a i n -washing o f the German people. I t supposedly was an expose of the techniques i n v o l v e d but the filmmakers employed the same techniques themselves. The r e s u l t was a very embarrassing product. There were a l s o two notable f i l m s e r i e s being produced a t t h i s time. The f i r s t was the WORLD IN ACTION s e r i e s . Donald Buchanan d e s c r i b e s 1 i t as "An e d i t o r i a l 14 r e c a p i t u l a t i o n and commentary on world events". The s e r i e s "was an attempt t o improve upon the MARCH OF TIME (an American newsreel s e r i e s ) by p u t t i n g more content and more e d i t o r i a l impetus i n t o the v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the news". The second s e r i e s was c a l l e d CANADA CARRIES ON, "a secondary,.but more, s p e c i f i c a l l y C a n a d i a n , . t h e a t r i c a s e r i e s " , than the WORLD IN ACTION f i l m s . I t must be noted at t h i s p o i n t t h a t as e d u c a t i o n a l d e v i c e s a l l of these f i l m s would r a t e q u i t e low. They were mostly geared towards t h e a t r i c a l audiences. They ran as " s h o r t s " along w i t h f e a t u r e f i l m s and served mainly "to c a t c h the a t t e n t i o n of c a s u a l movie goers, who attended c i t y t h e a t r e s d u r i n g these years of c o n f l i c t " . Although some b e h a v i o r a l change may have taken p l a c e as a r e s u l t o f viewing these f i l m s , t h e i r e f f e c t was prob-a b l y more than anything e l s e one o f r e i n f o r c i n g a t t i t u d e s a l r e a d y h e l d by the viewer. The f i l m s p r o v i d e d an ade-quate amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n , though probably no more than the newspapers and r a d i o accounts. And l i k e newspapers and r a d i o accounts the f i l m s o f f e r e d l i t t l e i n the way of audience involvement. They f u n c t i o n e d mainly as a one way channel of communication w i t h l i t t l e o r no chance f o r feedback from the audience. T h i s d e f e c t made them almost i m p o s s i b l e to e v a l u a t e as e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . However, th e r e was a type of f i l m being produced a t t h i s time which was to have a s i z e a b l e impact on a d u l t ed-u c a t i o n programs i n Canada. These were the Documentary f i l m s . The term Documentary was c o i n e d by G r i e r s o n 16 d u r i n g h i s e a r l i e r years as - a student of f i l m . I t serves to d e s c r i b e a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of f i l m which t r i e s i n as r e a l i s t i c a way as p o s s i b l e to examine an aspect of l i f e which i s of concern to people, f o r i n s t a n c e poverty, un-employment, i n e q u a l i t y and so on. Documentary f i l m s were designed t o be used by groups of people i n a n o n - t h e a t r i c a l 18 s i t u a t i o n such as c l u b meetings or community meetings. Documentary f i l m s c o u l d be used a t these i n f o r m a l s e s s i o n s as a d e v i c e t o h e l p promote group d i s c u s s i o n which, i t was hoped, c o u l d l e a d e i t h e r to a b e t t e r understanding of a s i t u a t i o n or, i n some cases, i t might a c t as an i n c e n t i v e f o r these groups to take an a c t i v e p a r t i n e f f e c t i n g some k i n d of s o c i a l change. One o f the best examples of these e a r l y docu-mentaries i s the 1939 p r o d u c t i o n THE CASE OF CHARLIE GORDON, which d e a l t w i t h the problems of unemployment amongst un-educated young a d u l t s . I t was the f i r s t of t h i s type of f i l m which l e n t t i t s e l f e a s i l y to d i s c u s s i o n and debate. L a t e r , whole s e r i e s of d i s c u s s i o n f i l m s were c r e a t e d such as the EYE WITNESS s e r i e s and the WHAT DO YOU THINK s e r i e s . The r o l e of these d i s c u s s i o n f i l m s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs w i l l be d e a l t w i t h a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h l a t e r i n t h i s chapter but f o r the moment i t would be a p p r o p r i a t e to examine the f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n s i d e of the NFB which had been d e v e l o p i n g along w i t h the P r o d u c t i o n D i v i s i o n . I t was the d i s t r i b u t i o n group who had the most d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h the p u b l i c and were the r e a l i n n o v a t o r s i n the area of the use of f i l m i n a d u l t education a c t i v i t i e s . V. DISTRIBUTION When G r i e r s o n f i r s t came to Canada to study govern-ment f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n he found i t t o be sketchy and spo-19 r a d i c t o say the l e a s t . The p o t e n t i a l f i l m user i n 1939 encountered a m u l t i t u d e o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i f he t r i e d t o o b t a i n a f i l m f o r a program. There was no c e n t r a l d i s -t r i b u t i o n agency. F i l m s were s c a t t e r e d everywhere and a t times i t was a c t u a l l y e a s i e r t o o b t a i n f i l m s from the U.S. 17 and B r i t a i n than i t was to o b t a i n Canadian f i l m s . The r e s u l t was t h a t very few Canadian f i l m s were being used i n community programs. G r i e r s o n ' s main i n t e r e s t i n f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n l a y i n the area o f n o n - t h e a t r i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n to community groups and other more i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . People were more apt t o d i s c u s s the f i l m s i n such a s e t t i n g than they were i n the formal atmosphere of a t h e a t r e . There-f o r e , as Kidd p o i n t s out the Board saw two b a s i c g o als which needed t o be achieved. The f i r s t was "to get f i l m s to people a l l over Canada" and the second g o a l was "to ensure t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r and c o n t r o l over the f i l m 18 programs would be i n the hands of l o c a l c i t i z e n groups". To achieve these ends the Board entered i n t o agreements with u n i v e r s i t i e s and other v o l u n t a r y organ-i z a t i o n s such as J u n i o r Chambers of Commerce, s e r v i c e c l u b s , YMCA's and so on to handle l o c a l f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n . The f i r s t problem f o r the Board to contend w i t h i n f i l m use by these groups was t h e i r lack, of proper p r o j e c t i o n equipment. T h i s was s o l v e d i n p a r t when the Board i n -s t i t u t e d a program o f l e n d i n g equipment t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The second problem was to t r a i n people i n the proper use and maintenance of t h i s equipment and the proper care of the f i l m s . To s o l v e t h i s problem the NFB o r g a n i z e d pro-j e c t i o n i s t t r a i n i n g c o urses. The t h i r d , and most impor-t a n t task f o r the Board was t o make these groups aware of the p o t e n t i a l f o r the use of f i l m s i n t h e i r programs. To accomplish t h i s a number of p u b l i c f i l m forums were h e l d "to s t i m u l a t e other o r g a n i z a t i o n s to use f i l m s as a b a s i s of d i s c u s s i o n and a c t i o n on the i s s u e s of the day" . The C i r c u i t Programs Programs such as the P u b l i c F i l m Forums served to i n c r e a s e the p o p u l a r i t y and use of f i l m s i n the major c i t i e s i n Canada but what about the r u r a l areas of the country? Here were l a r g e areas, s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d , with l i t t l e or no c o n t a c t w i t h the e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l advantages of the l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n areas. They had even more need f o r f i l m programs than the c i t i e s d i d . 2 0 The answer: the R u r a l C i r c u i t Programs. Under t h i s scheme the country was d i v i d e d up i n t o workable s i z e d 21 geographic u n i t s . Groups of f i l m s were then arranged i n t o b l o c k s c o n t a i n i n g a number of f i l m s on d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . The t o t a l running time of each b l o c k of f i l m s was approximately 80 minutes. T h i s was found to be'a workable l e n g t h and allowed ample time a f t e r the s c r e e n -i n g f o r d i s c u s s i o n amongst t h e members o f t h e a u d i e n c e . These b l o c k s o f f i l m s were c i r c u l a t e d around t h e v a r i o u s a r e a s a l o n g w i t h p r o j e c t i o n equipment. P r i o r t o each s c r e e n i n g p e r t i n e n t p o s t e r s and stu d y g u i d e s were se n t o u t so t h a t t h e community would be p r e p a r e d f o r t h e f i l m s when th e y a r r i v e d . The stu d y m a t e r i a l e n a b l e d t h e audien c e t o c r i t i c i z e t h e f i l m s more t h o r o u g h l y i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n s h e l d a f t e r each s c r e e n i n g . A t y p i c a l example o f the k i n d s o f f i l m s used i n the R u r a l C i r c u i t programs can be seen i n t h e f o l l o w i n g 22 l i s t i n g s : FOOD AS IT MIGHT BE - on t h e p o s t war f u t u r e o f f a r m i n g and food m a r k e t i n g . GETTING OUT THE COAL - an i n s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m on c o a l m i n i n g . INSIDE FIGHTING CANADA - . d e p i c t i n g war scenes. MITES AND MONSTERS - a n a t u r a l h i s t o r y t o p i c . NEWS ROUNDUP - a s p e c i a l r e e l o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e v e n t s . I t can be seen c l e a r l y from t h i s l i s t i n g t h a t a major f e a t u r e o f t h e R u r a l C i r c u i t programs was t h e i r attempt t o a p p e a l t o an a u d i e n c e w i t h d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s even though t h e g e n e r a l theme o f the program was geared t o -wards a more r u r a l a g r a r i a n t y p e o f au d i e n c e . When t h e r u r a l communities r e a c h e d t h e s t a g e where th e y were u s i n g f i l m s on a more r e g u l a r b a s i s t h e Board began t o phase o ut t h e R u r a l C i r c u i t s and r e p l a c e them 22 w i t h a m o d i f i e d scheme known as t h e B a s i c C i r c u i t . As K i d d p o i n t s out t h e r e appeared t o be a g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y between t h e s e two programs, but i n f a c t t h e r e was a con-23 s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between them. Under the R u r a l C i r c u i t p l a n t h e NFB s u p p l i e d t h e f i l m s , p r o j e c t o r , and a p r o j e c t i o n i s t who made the rounds o f t h e v a r i o u s com-m u n i t i e s showing th e f i l m s . However, under the B a s i c C i r c u i t p l a n t h e communities t h e m s e l v e s took on t h e r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s h i p p i n g the program around amongst each o t h e r . They a l s o p r o v i d e d t h e i r own p r o j e c t i o n i s t s and c r e a t e d t h e i r own f o l l o w - u p d i s c u s s i o n programs based on t h e m a t e r i a l t h e y r e c e i v e d from t h e Board. The t y p e s of f i l m s used i n t h e B a s i c C i r c u i t program were l a r g e l y t h e same i f we compare a sample o f t h r e e t a k e n from 1951 w i t h t h e e a r l i e r example g i v e n f o r a R u r a l program: I-BEHIND THE MENU ( i n f o r m a t i o n about n u t r i t i o n ) FEELING OF DEPRESSION (mental h e a l t h ) EYE WITNESS NO. 19 ( d i s c u s s i o n f i l m ) BIRDS OF CANADA I I EYE WITNESS NO. 17 ( d i s c u s s i o n f i l m ) THE ROAD TO WORLD PEACE FAMILY CIRCLES ( p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n ) NORTH TO HUDSON BAY ( t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e and t r a v e l ) I I I STORY OF STANDARDS (government s t a n d a r d s i n food) COME SATURDAY GENTLEMAN JEKYLL AND DRIVER HYDE ( d r i v i n g s a f e t y ) EYE WITNESS NO. 16 ( d i s c u s s i o n f i l m ) 23 The B a s i c C i r c u i t programs proved t o be. v e r y s u c c e s s f u l and were s t i l l i n o p e r a t i o n i n some areas o f Canada as l a t e as 1965. A good example o f t h e k i n d s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s which made use o f t h e C i r c u i t programs can 24 be found i n a 1960 a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n Food F o r Thought. I t d e s c r i b e d f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n i n N o r h t e r n Canada. The a d u l t groups i n t h a t a r e a which made " r e g u l a r use. o f f i l m s " i n c l u d e d : Home and S c h o o l A s s o c i a t i o n s - Y e l l o w k n i f e , A k l a v i k , F o r t Simpson and Hay R i v e r . Boards o f Trade - Y e l l o w k n i f e and Hay R i v e r . L e g i o n s - Y e l l o w k n i f e , F o r t Smith and Hay R i v e r . Guides and S c o u t s - F o r t Smith and Y e l l o w k n i f e . Kinsmen - Hay R i v e r and Y e l l o w k n i f e . Church Groups - F o r t S m ith, Hay R i v e r and Y e l l o w k n i f e . A t t h a t t ime the B a s i c C i r c u i t programs s e r v e d " t h i r t y - t h r e e a u d i e n c e s i n t w e n t y - t h r e e communities". The r o u t e w h i c h t h e c i r c u i t took was as f o l l o w s : C i r c u i t 1 1. F o r t Smith F e d e r a l Day S c h o o l R.C. Day S c h o o l S t . Ann's H o s p i t a l S c h o o l 2. R e s o l u t i o n S t . Joseph's H o s p i t a l S t . Joseph's R e s i d e n t i a l 3. Y e l l o w k n i f e P u b l i c S c h o o l No. 1 Se p a r a t e S c h o o l No. 2 4. Hay R i v e r 5. F o r t P r o v i d e n c e 6. F o r t Simpson F e d e r a l Day S c h o o l 24 ( F o r t Simpson cont'd.) S t . M a r g a r e t ' s H o s p i t a l 7. F o r t Norman 8. F o r t Good Hope' 9. A r c t i c Red R i v e r 10. F o r t McPherson 11. A k l a v i k F e d e r a l Day S c h o o l A l l S a i n t ' s R e s i d e n t i a l A l l S a i n t ' s H o s p i t a l Immaculate C o n c e p t i o n R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l CIRCUIT 2 1. F o r t Rae 2. Coppermine 3. Rocher R i v e r 4. F o r t . F r a n k l i n 5. F o r t L a i r d 6. Jean M a r i e R i v e r 7. P o r t Radium Mine Day S c h o o l , PO Box 160, Edmonton 8. R e i n d e e r S t a t i o n 9. Y e l l o w k n i f e D i s c o v e r y Mine S c h o o l 10. Y e l l o w k n i f e Rayrock Mine S c h o o l 11. T u k t o y a k i u k F e d e r a l Day S c h o o l 12. Cambridge Bay F e d e r a l Day S c h o o l , c/o 10177 104 S t r e e t , Edmonton, A l t a . 25 B e s i d e s i n i t i a t i n g t h e B a s i c o r " s e l f - o p e r a t i n g " c i r c u i t t h e Board a l s o a c t e d as an agent f o r o t h e r g o v e r n -ment departments o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n a d u l t ed-u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , . ' F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e was the',. Supplementary  C i r c u i t program where the Board worked i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The NFB s u p p l i e d t h e agent w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g f i l m s t o be used i n h i s own program. I n 1953 t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e two t y p e s o f programs was as f o l l o w s : 25 S e l f S u p p o r t i n g Supplementary Showing P o i n t s C i r c u i t s C i r c u i t s Western P r o v i n c e s 115 15 997 O n t a r i o 77 0 2149 Quebec 69 18 1284 A t l a n t i c P r o v i n c e s 94 5 4 65 The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e R u r a l and B a s i c f i l m c i r c u i t s l e d t o t h e development o f o t h e r , more s p e c i a l i z e d programs. The I n d u s t r i a l ' C i r c u i t was d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s . I t s purpose was t o show f i l m s about t h e war e f f o r t t o l a r g e groups o f i n d u s t r i a l w orkers d u r i n g t h e i r l u n c h -hours o r d u r i n g s h i f t changes. I t was an attempt t o c r e a t e more s u p p o r t f o r t h e war e f f o r t . A c c o r d i n g to. K i d d ' s 2 6 a n a l y s i s t h e f i l m programs worked q u i t e w e l l . They h e l p e d t o b o o s t morale by making t h e workers f e e l a p a r t o f t h e war e f f o r t and i n some i n s t a n c e s t h e f i l m programs were c r e d i t e d w i t h h e l p i n g t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n . . A f t e r t h e war, some i n d u s t r i e s c a r r i e d on t h e i d e a and found i t a u s e f u l method f o r p r o m o t i n g such t h i n g s as s a f e t y p r o -grams and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs. Trade Union C i r c u i t s were a n o t h e r o u t g r o w t h o f t h e R u r a l and B a s i c C i r c u i t programs. F i l m s were shown which "had some r e l a t i o n t o u n i o n a c t i v i t y o r a t l e a s t t o t h e p a r t t h a t u n i o n s were p l a y i n g i n i n d u s t r i a l development, war a c t i v i t i e s and community a f f a i r s " . The Board i n t r o d u c e d a s i g n i f i c a n t new d e v i c e : i n t o t h e s e programs: " d i s c u s s i o n t r a i l e r s " . The t r a i l e r s were o n l y a few minutes i n l e n g t h and u s u a l l y d e p i c t e d a group o f t r a d e u n i o n i s t s d i s c u s s i n g t h e i s s u e s i n t h e f i l m . The purpose o f t h e t r a i l e r was t o h e l p p r o -mote d i s c u s s i o n amongst t h e audience and t o h e l p t o "make a b r i d g e between t h e i d e a s o f t h e f i l m and t h e somewhat 27 l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e t r a d e u n i o n members". I n l a t e r y e a r s Urban C i r c u i t s were d e v e l o p e d . I n essence t h e y performed t h e same f u n c t i o n s as d i d t h e R u r a l C i r c u i t s o n l y t h e i r a p p e a l was d i r e c t e d towards i n d i v i d u a l s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e l a r g e c i t i e s i n Canada whose o n l y c o n t a c t w i t h NFB f i l m s would have been from v i e w i n g them as s h o r t s a l o n g w i t h f e a t u r e f i l m s i n the l o c a l t h e a t r e s . The Board r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e was a l a r g e , r e l a t i v e l y untapped au d i e n c e y e t t o be rea c h e d i n t h e c i t i e s and an attempt was made t o i n v o l v e them w i t h f i l m s and d i s c u s s i o n groups t h r o u g h t h e Urban C i r c u i t p l a n . O ther e f f o r t s such as t h e Home Cinema C l u b s were a l s o i n t r o d u c e d t o a t t r a c t more'of an a u d i e n c e . However, once t h e war ended t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e C i r c u i t programs began t o d e c l i n e . W h i l e many of t h e R u r a l C i r c u i t s remained a s t r o n g f o r c e and some even grew i n p o p u l a r i t y most o f t h e C i r c u i t programs i n the l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , t h e I n d u s t r i a l C i r c u i t s , Home Cinema C l u b s and so on,, tended t o fade away i n t o o b l i v i o n . One o f t h e major f a c t o r s f o r t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e R u r a l C i r c u i t s had been t h e f a c t t h a t not o n l y were NFB f i l m s " e d u c a t i o n a l " , t h e y were a l s o e n t e r t a i n i n g . I t was o f t e n the promise o f an e v e n i n g ' s e n t e r t a i n m e n t and a " s o c i a l g e t - t o g e t h e r " w h i c h b r o u g h t p e o p l e t o g e t h e r t o v i e w f i l m s . Any d i s c u s s i o n l e a d i n g t o any e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e was o f t e n a secondary c o n c e r n . I n the c i t i e s , however, e n t e r t a i n m e n t and d i v e r s i o n s were everywhere. T h e r e f o r e , the need f o r many p e o p l e t o c o n g r e g a t e f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose was l e s s t h a n i n r u r a l a r e a s . C o m p e t i t i o n t h e r e f o r e ' , i n c r e a s e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n problems w h i c h t h e Board f a c e d i n t h e c i t i e s . A new d i s t r i b u t i o n system was needed and t h e Board found t h e answer t o t h e i r problems w i t h t h e development o f t h e F i l m C o u n c i l movement. V I . THE FILM COUNCIL MOVEMENT F i l m C o u n c i l s were t h e ou t g r o w t h o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m S o c i e t y which had been founded on August 25, 1935. The purpose o f the s o c i e t y was " t o h e l p l o c a l groups i m p o r t f o r e i g n f i l m s f o r c u l t u r e d s c r e e n i n g s and . . . t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r and s t r e n g t h e n e x i s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e edu-2 8 c a t i o n a l f i l m f i e l d " . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S o c i e t y were t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n s e r v i c e s t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e "the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and i t s member a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l s o s e r v i c e c l u b s and o t h e r community groups". From i t s b e g i n n i n g , t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m S o c i e t y was p l a g u e d w i t h f i n a n c i a l d i f -29 f i c u l t i e s . S t i l l i t c o n t i n u e d t o grow and a t t h e end o f t h e war w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e F i l m C o u n c i l move-ment i t became a s t r o n g f o r c e i n Canadian f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n F i l m C o u n c i l s began t o appear i n s c o r e s o f towns and c i t i e s a f t e r the war. I n h i s a r t i c l e , Documentary and E d u c a t i o n a l F i l m s i n Canada (1935 - 1950) , D. W. Buchanan n o t e d t h a t t h e major impetus f o r t h e movement began i n 30 B r i t i s h Columbia. Working i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e NFB t h e C o u n c i l s attempted t o " e s t a b l i s h o r a s s i s t i n t h e s e t t i n g up o f l o c a l f i l m l i b r a r i e s , s e c u r e p r o j e c t i o n equipment f o r community use, t r a i n v o l u n t e e r p r o j e c t i o n -i s t s and p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e on t h e p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n and 31 use o f f i l m and o t h e r v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s " . A number o f "Documentary F i l m N i g h t s " were o r g a n i z e d by t h e F i l m C o u n c i l s i n o r d e r t o promote the use o f NFB f i l m s i n t h e l a r g e urban a r e a s . These were " i n f o r m a t i o n a l f i l m show-i n g s t o t h e p u b l i c w h i c h u s u a l l y f o r m l e d ] p a r t o f an 3 a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program sponsored by l o c a l groups . . .". The F i l m C o u n c i l movement grew r a p i d l y so t h a t by 33 1950 t h e r e were some 250 o f them i n Canada. That t h e y were s u c c e s s f u l i n b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o work toward a common g o a l can be seen by t h e f a c t t h a t a t one p o i n t o v e r 12,000 o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canada belonged t o F i l m C o u n c i l s and i n one case o v e r 5 0 community groups made up one C o u n c i l : t h e G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a F i l m C o u n c i l . B e s i d e s t h e p u b l i c s c r e e n i n g s o f documentary f i l m s t h e C o u n c i l s a l s o o r g a n i z e d f i l m workshops i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the NFB and CAAE. I n t h e s e workshops members o f t h e community " l e a r n e d the v a l u e and use o f f i l m s , how t o 2 9 a p p r a i s e f i l m s and how t o l e a d a d i s c u s s i o n " . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e s p e c i a l c o u r s e s , t h e r e g u l a r monthly meeting o f t h e F i l m C o u n c i l s were " b e i n g d e v o t e d . . . t o d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , d i s c u s s i o n o f t e c h n i q u e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , 35 and t h e r e l a t i o n o f f i l m t o o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l media". V I I . THE EVOLUTION AND FUNCTION OF THE DISTRIBUTION REPRESENTATIVE There i s s t i l l one more element i n t h e Board's growth w h i c h has not been d e a l t w i t h and t h a t i s t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e F i e l d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The F i e l d Repre-s e n t a t i v e o r D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e as he i s now c a l l e d i s t h e Board's most i m p o r t a n t symbol o f i t s d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n Canada. The p o s i t i o n o f t h e F i e l d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r F i e l d Man was c r e a t e d e a r l y i n t h e Board's h i s t o r y , about t h e same t i m e t h a t t h e i d e a o f t h e R u r a l C i r c u i t program was de v e l o p e d . D. W. Buchanan o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m S o c i e t y borrowed t h e i d e a from an experiment w h i c h had been c a r r i e d 3 6 out i n t h e s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d a r e a s o f S c o t l a n d . The s i t u a t i o n i n S c o t l a n d was v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h Buchanan d i s c o v e r e d i n Canada. I t was e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t r i b u t e f i l m s t o t h e r u r a l a r e a s . Most of t h e communities l a c k e d p r o j e c t i o n equipment and some, even l a c k e d e l e c t r i c i t y . S h i p p i n g s c h e d u l e s were s p o r a d i c and u n r e l i a b l e d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r months. The s o l u t i o n w h i c h Buchanan adopted from t h e S c o t s was t o h i r e t r a v e l l i n g 30 p r o j e c t i o n i s t s who, w i t h c a r s l o a d e d down w i t h f i l m s , p r o j e c t o r s , g e n e r a t o r s and s c r e e n s , would t r a v e l t h r o u g h -out a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s c r e e n i n g f i l m s i n v a r i o u s communities a l o n g the way. Each p r o j e c t i o n i s t was p a i d $125.00 a month p l u s expenses f o r h i s c a r . Each month he t r a v e l l e d a s p e c i f i c r o u t e " w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty p o i n t s on i t where he would s t o p and show t h e f i l m s " . Each month t h e program o f f i l m s was changed. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t one o f t h e f i r s t men t o become i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p l a n was Dr. Gordon Shrum, D i r e c t o r o f t h e E x t e n s i o n 37 Department a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The l i f e t h e s e t r a v e l l i n g p r o j e c t i o n i s t s l e d was in d e e d a c o l o u r f u l one. A l t h o u g h the programs were o s t e n s i b l y d e s i g n e d f o r a d u l t s t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y i n e v i t a b l y t u r n e d them i n t o a s o c i a l a f f a i r f o r t h e e n t i r e community. Men, women and c h i l d r e n jammed them s e l v e s i n t o l o c a l h a l l s t o see t h e f i l m s . T h i s was o f t e n t h e o n l y o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e community t o meet t o g e t h e r a t one t i m e . M a r j o r i e McKay i n h e r book The H i s t o r y o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board p r o v i d e s some v e r y c o l o u r f u l a c c o u n t s about some o f t h e s e 3 8 e a r l y programs and t h e v e r s a t i l i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s t s : O f t e n t h e f i l m s were n ot t h e o n l y a t t r a c t i o n . I n N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a , Damase B o u v r e r o r g a n i z e d a t a l e n t c o n t e s t a l o n g w i t h h i s showings. A t one o f t h e s e , i n M o r i n v i l l e , he c u t t h e f i r s t d i s c o f Robe r t G o u l e t s i n g i n g . Sometimes, i f t h e r e was an a g r i c u l t u r a l f i l m on t h e programme, t h e P r o v i n c i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t -a t i v e came a l o n g . I f t h e r e was a h e a l t h f i l m t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e o r d o c t o r t r a v e l l e d w i t h t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s t . When a d i s t r i c t was h a v i n g a s p e c i a l campaign, t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s t b r o u g h t a f i l m t o h e l p i t a l o n g . Some-ti m e s a square dance was h e l d a f t e r t h e showing, and many o f t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y Henry D i c k i e , were i n demand as c a l l e r s . But what o f t h e r o l e o f t h e s e p r o j e c t i o n i s t s as a d u l t e d u c a t i o n agents? I n terms o f Houle's Pyramid o f L e a d e r s h i p t h e s e men would p r o b a b l y be c l a s s i f i e d under 3 9 t h e c a t e g o r y o f V o l u n t e e r L e a d e r s h i p . T h i s c a t e g o r y forms the broad base o f Houle's pyramid. I t r e p r e s e n t s t h e " v a s t number o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a c t as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s " . I t appears t h a t t h e major r a i s o n d ' e t r e f o r t h e s e NFB t r a v e l l i n g p r o j e c t i o n i s t s was t h e i r r o l e as an e x h i b i t o r and any e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y which t o o k p l a c e e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e s c r e e n i n g s was more a m a t t e r o f chance t h a n i n t e n t i o n . However, as time passed the p r o j e c t i o n i s t s became more, d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The Board began t o h o l d workshops and t r a i n i n g programs f o r t h e s e men i n the p r o p e r use o f f i l m s . L a t e r , when the B a s i c C i r c u i t programs were i n t r o d u c e d t h e Board s h i f t e d i t s f o c u s o f i n t e r e s t away from t h a t o f an e x h i b i t o r and more towards t h e a r e a o f a c t i n g as a community o r g a n i z e r t o promote t h e p u b l i c ' s use o f f i l m i n programs o f t h e i r own. I t was a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e r o l e o f t h e NFB p r o -j e c t i o n i s t changed a l s o . Now he began t o o r g a n i z e work-shops h i m s e l f i n h i s own communities t o t r a i n l o c a l p r o -j e c t i o n i s t s and t o i n s t r u c t l o c a l groups i n t h e p r o p e r 32 use o f f i l m s . As Chatwin p o i n t s o u t t h e t r a v e l l i n g p r o -j e c t i o n i s t became, i n e f f e c t , "a f i e l d worker i n a d u l t 40 e d u c a t i o n " . A t t h i s s t a g e t h e p r o j e c t i o n i s t changed h i s t i t l e as w e l l as h i s r o l e . He now became known as a F i e l d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o r D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . H i s new found o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s moved him from h i s p o s i t i o n a t t h e base o f Houle's pyramid up t o t h e 41 m i d d l e l e v e l , t h a t o f a P a r t - t i m e Leader. The D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e f u l f i l l e d one o f Houle's major c r i t e r i a f o r a P a r t - t i m e L e a d e r , t h a t o f h a v i n g r e c e i v e d " s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t a s k which...he... p e r f o r m ( e d ) " . To f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e t h i s change i n r o l e f o r t h e f i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e K i d d quotes t h e o f f i c i a l 42 j o b d e s c r i p t i o n f o r t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e : The f i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e : Promotes t h e c i r -c u l a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f NFB 16mm f i l m s and f i l m s t r i p s , d i s p l a y s any f i l m l i t e r a t u r e t o f i l m c i r c u i t s , f i l m c o u n c i l s , committees, e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s e t c . ; p l a n s , o r g a n i z e s and devel o p s ' new o u t l e t s f o r f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n i n l a r g e t e r r i t o r i e s , a s s i s t i n g l o c a l groups t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own f i l m s e r v i c e , d e m o n s t r a t i n g the f u n c t i o n a l use o f f i l m s , t r a i n i n g o p e r a t o r s i n t h e c a r e and use o f equipment, a d v i s i n g ' c o m -m u n i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on f i l m s e l e c t i o n , p r e s -e n t a t i o n and methods o f c o n d u c t i n g f i l m d i s c u s s i o n . The f i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e remained i n t h i s g e n e r a l t y p e o f r o l e f o r a number o f y e a r s . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t he became more " p r o f e s s i o n a l " i n t h i s r o l e , he never a c t u a l l y a t t a i n e d t h a t l e v e l o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w h i c h would have p l a c e d him i n the top c a t e g o r y o f Houle's pyramid as a P r o f e s s i o n a l Leader. 33 A t t i m e s he b o r d e r e d on t h i s c a t e g o r y p a r t i c u l a r l y when he found h i m s e l f r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g programs, s e l e c t i n g t h e " a p p r o p r i a t e methods" o f i n s t r u c t i o n , managing th e o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e F i l m B o a r d , and e v a l u a t i n g 43 t h e program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s . However, i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s h i s a c t i v i t i e s were o f a m a r g i n a l n a t u r e i n s o f a r as a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was concerned because t h e p r i m a r y purpose o f the NFB was not a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as a s t u d y but t h e p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s which c o u l d be u t i l i z e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e was an i m p o r t a n t agent f o r a d u l t edu-c a t i o n i n Canada and i n 1967 when t h e C h a l l e n g e F o r Change program was i n s t i t u t e d t h e r o l e o f t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e changed c o n s i d e r a b l y . He became i n t e n s e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h a t i m p o r t a n t , but t o d a t e , r e l a t i v e l y u n e x p l o r e d a r e a o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n known as Community Development. He found h i m s e l f i n a new r o l e - t h a t o f a q u a s i - s o c i o l o g i s t ; a "Change Agent". He began t o i n i t i a t e programs i n commu-n i t y development. He began t o t a k e a more a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f f i l m s , o r i g i n a t i n g i d e a s and m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n h i s own a r e a . W h i l e t h e r e were many t r a u m a t i c mo-ments i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f the program, e x p e r i e n c e and exposure t o s o c i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and a d u l t edu-c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l has r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h degree o f s o p h i s -t i c a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The added r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and knowledge which have r e s u l t e d from t h i s new r o l e as a Community Development o f f i c e r might e v e n t u a l l y b o o s t t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t o Houle's c a t e g o r y o f t h e P r o f e s s i o n a l Leader i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . V I I I . THE EFFECT OF DIRECT DISTRIBUTION ON THE NFB REPRESENTATIVE An o t h e r i m p o r t a n t event t o o k p l a c e i n 1966/67 which was t o make s t i l l a n o t h e r change i n t h e r o l e o f t h e D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The F i l m Board i n t r o d u c e d a new f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n system c a l l e d D i r e c t D i s t r i b u t i o n . Under t h i s system t h e Board c l o s e d down alm o s t a l l o f the d i s t r i c t f i l m l i b r a r i e s w i t h i n each p r o v i n c e and c o n s o l i d a t e d t h e f i l m s i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l h e a d q u a r t e r s o f t h e NFB. From t h e s e r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s t h e Board was t o c o n t r o l f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e . There were a number o f r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a c t i o n . The C i r c u i t programs were almost dead. Communi-c a t i o n s systems had become so s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n Canada t h a t t h e C i r c u i t programs c o u l d n o t be j u s t i f i e d any l o n g e r . The e n t e r t a i n m e n t a s p e c t o f the programs had been overshadowed by t h e easy a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o o t h e r forms o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y t e l e v i s i o n . The importance of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t o f t h e C i r c u i t programs had been d i m i n i s h e d by t h e growth o f o t h e r more v a r i e d programs such as l o c a l n i g h t s c h o o l s . F u r t h e r m o r e , e x c e p t f o r a few communities t h e 35 F i l m C o u n c i l i d e a was a l s o , i n e f f e c t , dead. Audience r a t i n g s had dropped c o n s i d e r a b l y and fewer and fewer p e o p l e were becoming i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s t u d y o f f i l m s . The C o u n c i l s were p l a g u e d w i t h f i n a n c i a l problems and i t was q u e s t i o n a b l e as t o how l o n g t h e y c o u l d s u r v i v e . However, the most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r the i m p l e -m e n t a t i o n o f D i r e c t D i s t r i b u t i o n was a d e s i r e by t h e NFB t o make i t s f i l m s a v a i l a b l e t o a l l Canadians f r e e o f c h a r g e . P r e v i o u s l y , s m a l l numbers o f f i l m s had been sp r e a d around t o a number of l o c a l d e p o t s , i n p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s and f i l m c o u n c i l o f f i c e s . Many o f t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s had been g i v e n t h e r i g h t t o charge a r e n t a l f e e f o r use o f t h e f i l m s . The f e e was t o h e l p c o v e r h a n d l i n g charges p l u s an h o n o r a r i u m f o r t h e p e r s o n i n charge o f f i l m b o o k i n g s . The Board f e l t t h a t t h i s charge k e p t v a r i o u s groups and i n d i v i d u a l s from u s i n g f i l m s i n t h e i r programs who might o t h e r w i s e have done so had t h e y been a v a i l a b l e f r e e o f charge. F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was f e l t t h a t h a v i n g s m a l l groups of f i l m s s c a t t e r e d about t h e p r o v i n c e c r e a t e d a problem o v e r t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n f i l m s . A group i n one a r e a might want a f i l m w h i c h was b e i n g k e p t i n a n o t h e r a r e a a number of m i l e s away and t h e wastage o f time i n -v o l v e d i n s h i p p i n g t h e f i l m s back and f o r t h made the p r e s e n t system i n e f f i c i e n t . L a s t l y , under t h e o l d system i t was the D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o check the f i l m depots i n h i s a r e a on a f a i r l y r e g u l a r b a s i s i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t t h e y were o p e r a t i n g w e l l . T h i s c o n s t i t u t e d no more t h a n c l e r i c a l work and i n some a r e a s such a t a s k k e p t t h e NFB man busy t r a v e l l i n g around f o r a week a t a time when he c o u l d be w o r k i n g on h i s programs. F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , the D i r e c t D i s t r i b u t i o n system was implemented. The r e s u l t was t o f r e e t h e D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e from t h e c l e r i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s i n v o l v e d i n f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n l e a v i n g him more ti m e t o i n i t i a t e programs o f a l l k i n d s i n c l u d i n g A d u l t E d u c a t i o n programs. IX. PROGRAMS AND PROGRAM EVALUATION V a r i o u s programs have been mentioned t h r o u g h o u t t h i s c h a p t e r i n o t h e r c o n t e x t s but i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e i n c o n c l u s i o n t o draw them t o g e t h e r and supplement them w i t h a number o f o t h e r s t o p r o v i d e a s h o r t o v e r v i e w o f the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n programs attem p t e d by t h e Board t h r o u g h o u t i t s h i s t o r y . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e s e programs f a l l i n t o f i v e major c a t e g o r i e s ; The f i r s t major a r e a t h e Board became i n v o l v e d i n was i n o r g a n i z i n g programs w h i c h would r e s u l t i n some form o f s o c i a l a c t i o n . These programs were f o c u s e d s p e c i f i c a l l y on community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e i r purpose was t o g i v e "Canadians a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r 44 problems and a b e t t e r knowledge o f how t o s o l v e them". The major t e c h n i q u e employed was t h e d i s c u s s i o n group. 37 F i l m s were used as d e v i c e s t o promote and encourage d i s -c u s s i o n . O f t e n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n l e d t o d i r e c t a c t i o n as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chatwin's example where, as a r e s u l t o f a f i l m and d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n a group o f B.C. r e s i d e n t s 45 j o i n e d t o g e t h e r t o b u i l d a community c e n t r e . K i d d a l s o d e s c r i b e s a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n Saskatchewan where a community became aware o f i t s l a c k of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s 46 t h r o u g h a s i m i l a r k i n d o f f i l m , d i s c u s s i o n program. They o r g a n i z e d committees t o s t u d y t h e m a t t e r f u r t h e r and t h e committees i n i t i a t e d Boy Scout and G i r l Guide programs f o l l o w e d l a t e r by o t h e r s i m i l a r t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l programs. K i d d mentions o t h e r programs w h i c h r e s u l t e d 47 i n community a c t i o n . Among them were t h e f o l l o w i n g : A change i n employment p o l i c i e s . . . "As a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f showing t h e f i l m DATE OF BIRTH, one d a i r y company has a l t e r e d i t s employment p o l i c y and a r e now h i r i n g o l d e r men w i t h good r e s u l t s . " A c o u n s e l l o r i n t h e N a t i o n a l Employ-ment S e r v i c e . S a v i n g l i v e s . . . "The s c r e e n i n g o f ARE YOU SAFE AT HOME d u r i n g t h e p a s t season r e s u l t e d i n s a v i n g t h e l i v e s o f two p e o p l e i n t h i s c o u n t y . A seven y e a r o l d g i r l remembered s e e i n g c h i l d r e n c o v e r up w i t h b l a n k e t s i n bed t o save t h e i r l i v e s . When she d i s c o v e r e d h e r own home on f i r e she took h e r 2-1/2 y e a r o l d b r o t h e r and t h e y c o v e r e d up i n bed. They were found u n c o n s c i o u s , b u t were r e v i v e d . " T e a c h er, Lambton County, O n t a r i o . Changing farm p r a c t i c e s . . . " I would l i k e t o draw a t t e n t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e f i l m MASTITIS i n D u f f e r i n County and t h e e f f e c t i t i s h a v i n g on g e t t i n g f a r m e r s t o change t h e i r p r a c t i c e s . Here we had a l l t h e elements t h a t a r e so d e s i r a b l e - p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r , t h e County A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e a l o n g w i t h t h e NFB - as w e l l as p r o p e r a d v e r t i s i n g , a l o n g w i t h e x c e l l e n t s p e a k e r s and d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r s . Report o f a farm l e a d e r . An e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s o c i a l a c t i o n t y p e o f p r o -gramming o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e C h a l l e n g e F o r  Change program. I t concerned i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y w i t h p r o m o t i n g s o c i a l a c t i o n i n one p a r t i c u l a r segment o f Canadian s o c i e t y : t h e " p o v e r t y " groups. The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e program were: (1.) t o improve communication between i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n a l l segments o f s o c i e t y who a r e concerned w i t h o r a f f e c t e d by p o v e r t y and s o c i a l change; ( 2 . ) t o c r e a t e a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and aware-ness among p e o p l e o f t h e causes o f p o v e r t y and what i t means t o be poor; (3.) t o e x p l o r e and promote new i d e a s and new ap-proaches w h i c h a re b e i n g used o r c o u l d be used t o combat p o v e r t y , and t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c -t i v e n e s s o f t r a d i t i o n a l approaches; ( 4 . ) t o provoke s o c i a l change by cha n g i n g a t t i t u d e s w h i c h h i n d e r t h e development o f e q u a l o p p o r t u -n i t i e s f o r everyone and i n h i b i t t h e i r m e a n i n g f u l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y . The t h r e e main a r e a s o f c o n c e r n i n t h e program 49 were: 1. To produce f i l m s " f o r g e n e r a l a u d i e n c e s (e.g. T h i n g  I Cannot Change . . .) d e s i g n e d t o educate about p o v e r t y and s o c i a l development, and t o s t i m u l a t e -a t t i t u d e c h a n g e . " [ i t a l i c s mine] 2. The second a r e a o f c o n c e r n was t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t one because i t c o n s t i t u t e d a new p o l i c y f o r t h e Board. F i l m s were produced "about, w i t h and f o r a v e r y p a r t i c u l a r group i n s o c i e t y , w i t h t h e aim of h e l p i n g them t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r p r oblems, under-s t a n d t h e i r environment and work w i t h f r e s h i n s i g h t 39 toward change". The most i m p o r t a n t e a r l y p r o -gram o f t h i s k i n d and t h e most s u c c e s s f u l was t h e now-famous Fogo I s l a n d p r o j e c t . 3. The t h i r d a r e a o f c o n c e r n was " t o g e t down t o t h e r o o t communications problems between p r o -f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i n g f o r s o c i a l change, and t h e p e o p l e f o r whom t h e y work". The Board a l s o has g a i n e d a good r e p u t a t i o n i n r e c e n t y e a r s f o r i t s programs i n F i l m Study. These c o u r s e s t r a n s c e n d t h e bounds o f t h e s t u d y o f f i l m p u r e l y from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f i t s s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . F i l m i s a l s o s t u d i e d i n terms o f i t s a e s t h e t i c o r a r t i s t i c m e r i t s . Three major methods of s t u d y a r e employed; t h e I n s t i t u t e , t h e C l a s s and t h e Workshop. The programs are' conducted b o t h f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and as i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs f o r NFB F i e l d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . B i l l O r r , once D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r t h e NFB i n Vancouver became a l e a d e r i n t h e f i e l d w i t h h i s f i l m s t u d y c o u r s e s g i v e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board N i g h t S c h o o l program,.the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y and the l o c a l F i l m C o u n c i l . ^ 0 By f a r t h e b e s t known F i l m Study program i s t h e NFB 1s own F i l m Study I n s t i t u t e p r e s e n t e d a n n u a l l y t h r o u g h a c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t between t h e Board and M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y . Here, e d u c a t o r s from t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y meet f o r s i x weeks d u r i n g t h e summer t o s t u d y t h e s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l 51 i m p l i c a t i o n s o f f i l m . D u r i n g t h e '40's and *50's th e Board was a l s o a c t i v e i n o r g a n i z i n g P r o j e c t i o n i s t t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s . These were s m a l l workshops h e l d f o r e d u c a t o r s and o t h e r s who were i n t e r e s t e d i n o r g a n i z i n g f i l m c o u n c i l s o r i n u t i l i z i n g a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l i n t h e i r c o u r s e s . D u r i n g t h e s e workshops p e o p l e were t r a i n e d i n t h e o p e r a t i o n , c a r e and maintenance o f a l l k i n d s o f a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment. CHAPTER I I FOOTNOTES U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e n o t e d , a l l p i e c e s o f h i s t o r i c a l d a t a w i t h i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e t a k e n from Le Cinema Canadien by G i l l e s M a r s a l a i s , E d i t i o n s du J o u r , M o n t r e a l (1968). 2 M a r j o r i e McKay, H i s t o r y o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , ( u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t ) , Crown, C o p y r i g h t Reserved (1964?), p. 4. 3 I b i d . , p. 3. 4 I b i d . , P. 4. 5 I b i d . , P- 3. 6 I b i d . , P- 3. 7 I b i d . , P- 5. 8 I b i d . , Pr 5. 9 I b i d . , P-- 5. ^ D o n a l d Buchanan, Documentary and E d u c a t i o n a l  F i l m s i n Canada, 1935 - 1950, Canadian F i l m I n s t i t u t e (19?), p. 3. 11 12 13 14 15 I b i d . , ; p ; 11. McKay, op. c i t . , p. 19. McKay, o p . • c i t . , pp. 1 - 2. Buchanan, op. c i t . , p. 4. Buchanan, op. c i t . , p. 5. 16 See G r i e r s o n on Documentary, e d i t e d and w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by F o r s y t h Hardy, C o l l i n s , London (1946) f o r a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s s u b j e c t . 17 McKay, op. c i t . , p. 4, 42 18 J . R. K i d d , " P i c t u r e s w i t h a Pu r p o s e , The D i s t r i -b u t i o n o f N o n - T h e a t r i c a l F i l m s i n Canada", L e a r n i n g F o r  L i v i n g No. 7, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e Fund f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (1953), pp. 10 - 11. 19 I b i d . , p. 12. 20 See Leonard C h a t w i n , "The Documentary F i l m i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n " , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n Canada, ed. by J . R. K i d d , Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , T o r o n t o (195 0 ) , pp. 190 - 191. 21 K i d d , op. c i t . , p. 12. 22 K i d d , op. c i t . , p. 12 23 K i d d , op. c i t . , p. 18 24 " N o r t h e r n F i l m D i s t r i b u t i o n " , Food F o r Thought, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 20, No. 6 (March 1960). ^ K i d d , [ op. c i t . , P- 21. 2 6 K i d d , op. c i t . t P- 14. 27 K i d d , op. c i t . / P- 16. 2 8 Buchanan, op, c i t . , p. 2. 29 F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s m a t t e r see Buchanan, op. c i t . , pp. 6 - 7 . 30 Buchanan, op, c i t . , p. 8. 31 Buchanan,,op. c i t . , p. 8. 32 Buchanan, op. c i t . , p. 9. 33 C h a t w i n , op. c j t . , p. 191, 34 C h a t w i n , op. c i t , , p. 192, 35 C h a t w i n , op. c i t . , p. 192 3 6 McKay, op i c i t . , p. 34. 37 McKay, opi c i t . , p. 34. 3 8 McKay, op, c i t . , p. 35. 3 9 C. V e r n e r and A. Booth, A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , New Y ork: C e n t r e f o r A p p l i e d R esearch and E d u c a t i o n , , 1965, p. 35. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e i s one s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between H o u l e 1 s " V o l u n t e e r " l e a d e r and t h e NFB P r o j e c t i o n i s t . The NFB man was p a i d f o r h i s work, whereas the " V o l u n t e e r " l e a d e r u s u a l l y was n o t . However, t h e r e i s enough s i m i l a r i t y between t h e two i n t h e f a c t t h a t n e i t h e r t h e " V o l u n t e e r " l e a d e r nor t h e P r o j e c t i o n i s t had any f o r m a l t r a i n i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n methods. I t was f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t t h e t e rm " V o l u n t e e r " l e a d e r was chosen t o d e s c r i b e t h e NFB P r o j e c t i o n i s t . Perhaps i t might have been more a p p r o p r i a t e t o r e f e r t o him as an "Amateur", r a t h e r t h a n a " V o l u n t e e r " . 40 C h a t w i n , op. c i t . , p. 193. 41 V e r n e r and B o o t h , op. c i t . , p. 37. 42 K i d d , op. c i t . , p.- 25. 43 V e r n e r and Booth, op. c i t . , p. 38. 44 C h a t w i n , op. c i t . ; p. 193. 45 C h a t w i n , op. c i t . , p. 18 8. 46 K i d d , op. c i t . , p. 32. 47 K i d d , op. c i t . , pp. 32 - 33. 48 Nancy M a c N e i l l , " C h a l l e n g e f o r Change, The F i l m Board d e a l s w i t h s o c i a l i s s u e s " , C o n t i n u o u s L e a r n i n g , V o l . 7, No. 4, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ( J u l y - August 1968), p. 171. 49 I b i d . , p. 172. 50 W. P. O r r , " A u d i o - V i s u a l i n Vancouver", Food F o r  Thought, V o l . 20, No. 5, t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (February 1960), pp. 202-205. 51 For a c o m p l e t e , d e t a i l e d a ccount o f the s t r u c t u r e and p urposes o f t h e NFB F i l m Study I n s t i t u t e see Mark S l a d e " S t u d y i n g F i l m and T e l e v i s i o n " , C o n t i n u o u s L e a r n i n g , V o l . 5 No. 5, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (September October 1966), pp. 203 - 209. F o r an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e I n s t i t u t e program see Mark S l a d e , "NFB Summer I n s t i t u t e , A Report on S c r e e n S t u d y " , C o n t i n u o u s L e a r n i n g , V o l . 5, No. 6,.Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (November -December 1966), pp. 269 - 275. 52 K i d d , op. c i t . , p. 51. CHAPTER I I I HISTORY NFB FILM DISTRIBUTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA I . THE CIRCUIT PROGRAMS FROM 1943 TO 1947 The f i r s t N a t i o n a l F i l m Board R e g i o n a l o f f i c e was opened i n B.C. i n 1942. 1 U n t i l t h a t t i m e t h e Board had been o p e r a t i n g t h r o u g h P r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s such as t h e E x t e n s i o n Department a t U.B..C. w h i c h d i s t r i b u t e d F i l m Board f i l m s . The Board a l s o had a number o f p a r t - t i m e " R e g i o n a l 2 Agents" (or P r o j e c t i o n i s t s ) who were g i v e n a n o m i n a l r e t a i n e r t o t r a v e l around t h e p r o v i n c e s c r e e n i n g the R u r a l and I n d u s t r i a l C i r c u i t programs. The Board had n i n e R e g i o n a l Agents w o r k i n g i n B.C. d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s . Two agents c o v e r e d t h e s o u t h - e a s t s e c t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e t r a v e l l i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e Kootenays. There was one agent f o r t h e Okanagan a r e a , one i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y , two on Vancouver I s l a n d , one i n P r i n c e George who c o v e r e d t h e N o r t h C e n t r a l 3 B.C. a r e a and two i n t h e c i t y o f Vancouver. I t was t h e agent's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t a k e t h e C i r c u i t programs, w h i c h a r r i v e d each month from Ottawa, and t r a v e l around a p r e -a r r a n g e d r o u t e showing them i n v a r i o u s communities. The agents worked on a f i x e d i t i n e r a r y . They f o l l o w e d t h e same r o u t e e v e r y month and each was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p u t t i n g on a minimum o f 40 showings i n t h a t month. They o p e r a t e d a s c h o o l showing d u r i n g t h e day where t h e y might show o n l y one o r two o f t h e f i l m s i n t h e package, and i n t h e e v e n i n g t h e y would show t h e e n t i r e package a t a community s c r e e n i n g . The R e g i o n a l Agents c o n t r i b u t e d a g r e a t d e a l t o e a r l y f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B.C.^ A con-s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e based on t h e f i g u r e s o f 4 0 s c r e e n i n g s each p e r month, shows t h a t a l l n i n e agents were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o d u c i n g a t o t a l o f 4,320 s c r e e n i n g s p e r y e a r o r , 17,280 s c r e e n i n g s o v e r t h e f o u r y e a r p e r i o d from 1943 t o 1947 when the NFB began t o phase out t h e C i r c u i t programs. T h i s number r e p r e s e n t s no mean achievement on t h e p a r t o f t h e agents who were o f t e n f o r c e d t o b a t t l e t h e rugged geography o f B.C. t o b r i n g f i l m s t o a community. As one ex-agent r e c a l l s : ^ I had one p l a c e on t h e West Coast o f Vancouver I s l a n d - P o r t Renfrew, a c t u a l l y . There was no r o a d i n a t t h a t t i m e . I used t o d r i v e up t h r o u g h t h e mountains b e h i n d Cowichan Lake as f a r as I c o u l d d r i v e , t h e n someone from t h e camp would p i c k me up i n a L o g g i n g S c o o t e r and we'd d r i v e t h e r e m a i n i n g 15 m i l e s on t h i s t h i n g . They'd put me up o v e r n i g h t and r e t u r n me t o my c a r t h e n e x t day. A l t h o u g h t h e r e are'no s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o show e x a c t l y how many s c r e e n i n g s t h e s e agents h e l d each y e a r beyond th e minimum number o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4,32 0, t h e r e i s good r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t each put on many more. F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e were s p e c i a l programs i n s t i t u t e d by t h e F e d e r a l government a t v a r i o u s t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e war y e a r s . One such program was t h e V i c t o r y Loan campaigns which were h e l d from t i m e t o t i m e t o "drum up s u p p o r t f o r 47 the war e f f o r t " by e n c o u r a g i n g p e o p l e t o s u b s c r i b e t o V i c t o r y Loans. D u r i n g t h e s e campaigns t h e agents would put on as many showings as p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r t o r e a c h 7 the l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e a u d i e n c e . One agent s e t an a l l time r e c o r d f o r t h e p r o v i n c e by p u t t i n g on upwards o f e i g h t o f t h e s e programs i n one day. W h i l e i n c i d e n t s such as t h i s one a r e not c o n c l u s i v e p r o o f t h a t the agents were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g more than t h e minimum number o f programs, such f a c t s do p r o v i d e us a t t h i s l a t e d a t e w i t h an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e d e d i c a t i o n o f t h e s e men and t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e w h ich t h e y p l a y e d i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f NFB f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n , , i n t h e p r o v i n c e . They l a i d a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n on which t h e Board's d i s t r i b u t i o n system c o u l d l a t e r grow. I I . THE FILM COUNCIL MOVEMENT FROM 1947 TO 1963 F o l l o w i n g World War I I t h e F i l m Board's budget was d r a s t i c a l l y c u t , t h e f i r s t o f a number o f F e d e r a l government a u s t e r i t y d r i v e s which were t o a f f e c t the development o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r s . The Board was f a c e d w i t h t h e problem o f e i t h e r s pending i t s r e d u c ed budget t o produce more f i l m s w hich were needed t o a s s i s t Canadians i n a d j u s t i n g from a wartime s o c i e t y t o a peacetime s o c i e t y , o r , spending t h e money g on s a l a r i e s f o r i t s l a r g e d i s t r i b u t i o n s t a f f . The Board chose t h e former c o u r s e of a c t i o n and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s t a f f was reduced a c c o r d i n g l y . There was a n o t h e r r e a s o n 48 b e s i d e s t h e l a c k o f funds w h i c h l e d t o t h e d e c i s i o n t o d i s m i s s some o f t h e a g e n t s . The Board had become concerned w i t h d e v e l o p i n g a more f u n c t i o n a l use o f f i l m . They were i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p o t e n t i a l o f d i s c u s s i o n groups as a t e c h n i q u e f o r e n r i c h i n g t h e i r f i l m showings and as a way o f more a c t i v e l y i n v o l v i n g p e o p l e w i t h t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e f i l m programs. Q u i t e a number o f p e o p l e r e c r u i t e d f o r C i r c u i t o p e r a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s were n o t a d e q u a t e l y equipped t o handle t h i s newer, more demanding 9 t y p e o f work. F u r t h e r m o r e , as a l r e a d y mentioned i n Cha p t e r I I , t h e Board was i n t e r e s t e d i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g more e f f e c t i v e systems o f f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n w hich would g e t more f i l m s t o more p e o p l e more o f t e n , t h a n under t h e C i r c u i t program scheme. The F i l m C o u n c i l Movement was e n a c t e d t o r e p l a c e the C i r c u i t programs. F i l m C o u n c i l s were e s s e n t i a l l y an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e e a r l i e r d i s t r i b u t i o n system where NFB P r o j e c t i o n i s t s o r Agents c a r r i e d f i l m s around t o v a r i o u s communities. The major d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t now t h e com-munity was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and e x h i b i t i o n o f t h e f i l m s . Each o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e l o c a l community w h i c h was i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g f i l m a s s i g n e d one p e r s o n t o r e p r e s e n t i t on t h e C o u n c i l . The membership i n each C o u n c i l might range from 20 t o 50 p e o p l e depending on t h e number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e community.''"0 The F i l m Board a l l o c a t e d a b l o c k o f f i l m s t o each C o u n c i l w h i c h 49 made up a permanent l i b r a r y o f f i l m s w i t h i n t h e community f o r i t s use a t any t i m e . F i l m C o u n c i l s i n v a r i o u s com-m u n i t i e s were encouraged t o e s t a b l i s h l i a i s o n w i t h each o t h e r . One C o u n c i l would book f i l m s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r program and when f i n i s h e d w i t h them, would s h i p t h e f i l m s on t o t h e n e x t F i l m C o u n c i l and so on. I n t h i s way each community had a c c e s s t o more f i l m s t h a n under t h e o l d scheme where t h e F i l m Board Agent bro u g h t them around o n l y once a month. The F i l m C o u n c i l Movement remained a s t r o n g f o r c e i n f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n i n B.C. f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 years."'""'" A l t h o u g h no s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a a re a v a i l a b l e b e f o r e 1957, i t s h o u l d be noted t h a t i n t h a t y e a r F i l m C o u n c i l s a ccounted f o r 4 0.7% o f t h e t o t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r B.C. (see T a b l e I ) . I I I . DEPOSIT LIBRARIES FROM 1947 TO 1970 The second major s o u r c e o f N a t i o n a l F i l m Board f i l m s i n B.C., b e s i d e s t h e F i l m C o u n c i l s , were t h e D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s ; D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s had been i n e x i s t e n c e i n B.C. b e f o r e t h e F i l m C o u n c i l s were o r g a n i z e d and even b e f o r e t h e Board had opened a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i c e o f i t s own i n Vancouver. O r i g i n a l l y , D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s had been s e t up i n v a r i o u s P r o v i n c i a l government a g e n c i e s i n B.C. W h i l e some D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s d i s t r i b u t e d f i l m s t o a d u l t g r o u p s , f o r t h e most p a r t t h e y were concerned l a r g e l y w i t h d i s -t r i b u t i o n t o s c h o o l s . The D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s w h i c h accounted 50 f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f f i l m s d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n t h a t category.; , . . 12 were such o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s : 1. The P r o v i n c i a l Department o f E d u c a t i o n F i l m L i b r a r y 2. The U.B.C. E x t e n s i o n Department F i l m L i b r a r y 3. The Vancouver S c h o o l Board F i l m L i b r a r y 4. New W e s t m i n s t e r A u d i o - V i s u a l C e n t r e A f t e r t h e war t h e Board began t o expand t h e D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s . No d a t a are a v a i l a b l e t o show how much d i s t r i b u t i o n the D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b e f o r e 1957 b u t T a b l e I shows t h a t f o r t h e f i s c a l y e a r 1957/58 t h e y a c c o u n t e d f o r 28.6% o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l and by 1958/59, 76.5% o f t h e t o t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r B.C. was h a n d l e d by t h e D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s . IV. NFB REGIONAL AND DISTRICT OFFICES When the f i r s t N a t i o n a l F i l m Board o f f i c e was opened i n B.C. i n 1942 a R e g i o n a l S u p e r v i s o r was a p p o i n t e d t o t a k e charge o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e C i r c u i t programs w h i c h had been p r e v i o u s l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e NFB's head o f f i c e i n 13 Ottawa. B e s i d e s o p e r a t i n g t h e C i r c u i t programs, t h e R e g i o n a l S u p e r v i s o r was a l s o concerned w i t h p r o m o t i n g t h e use o f F i l m Board f i l m s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The b e s t way t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s purpose was t o i n i t i a t e p r o m o t i o n a l f i l m s c r e e n i n g s . I n t h e e a r l i e r y e a r s , p r o m o t i o n a l s c r e e n -i n g s accounted f o r much.of the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s t i m e . They were so i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e F i l m Board c r e a t e d a sepa-r a t e c a t e g o r y i n i t s y e a r l y r e p o r t on f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n 51 c a l l e d t h e P r o m o t i o n a l C a t e g o r y . W h i l e t h e r e a r e no d a t a a v a i l a b l e on t h e number o f P r o m o t i o n a l s c r e e n i n g s h e l d i n B.C. b e f o r e 1957, T a b l e I I l i s t s them from 1957 t o 1962. I n 1957/58 P r o m o t i o n a l S c r e e n i n g s accounted f o r 12% o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l which i s a s m a l l amount compared t o t h e number o f s c r e e n i n g s h e l d by t h e F i l m C o u n c i l s i n t h a t same p e r i o d : 40.7% o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l (see T a b l e I ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , as the moving average i n d i c a t e s i n T a b l e I I . , P r o m o t i o n a l S c r e e n i n g s i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y from 1957 t o 1962 a t which p o i n t t h e c a t e g o r y was d e l e t e d and a l l P r o m o t i o n a l S c r e e n i n g s were i n c l u d e d under t h e R e g i o n a l and D i s t r i c t O f f i c e c a t e g o r y . Almost.no f i l m s were d i s t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y from t h e R e g i o n a l o f f i c e i n Vancouver t o groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s . Even as l a t e as 1957 t h e number o f f i l m s d i s t r i b u t e d from t h e R e g i o n a l o f f i c e i n Vancouver amounted t o o n l y 1.4% o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l (see T a b l e I ) . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n f i g u r e s f o r t h e R e g i o n a l o f f i c e from 1957 t o 1963 r e p r e s e n t o n l y t h o s e f i l m s w h i c h were s e n t from t h e R e g i o n a l o f f i c e t o supplement o t h e r f i l m d e p o s i t s such as t h e D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s , F i l m C o u n c i l s and P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s . R e g i o n a l o f f i c e d i s t r i b u t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i s c a l y e a r 1958/59 accounted f o r 2.0% o f t h e y e a r l y t o t a l , f o r 1959/60 0.7%, f o r 1960/61 0.8%, f o r 1961/62 a g a i n o n l y 0.8%,.and f o r 1962/62 1.0% o f t h e t o t a l . No d a t a were a v a i l a b l e f o r R e g i o n a l o f f i c e d i s t r i b u t i o n from 1963 t o 52 1966. However, i n 1966 t h e R e g i o n a l o f f i c e a c c o u n t e d f o r 24.1% o f t h e t o t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e p r o v i n c e . T h i s marked i n c r e a s e was due i n p a r t a t l e a s t t o a new system c a l l e d D i r e c t D i s t r i b u t i o n implemented i n 1966/67. Under t h i s p l a n t h e F i l m Board began t o close'down a number o f i t s D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s and t o wi t h d r a w i t s f i l m s from some P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s . The i n t e n t i o n was t h a t t h e R e g i o n a l o f f i c e i n Vancouver, and c e r t a i n D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s such as t h e one i n V i c t o r i a , would t a k e o v e r f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n and b e g i n t o book f i l m s d i r e c t l y t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c r a t h e r t h a n have them go t h r o u g h secondary a g e n c i e s . T h i s change was made p a r t l y f o r t h e sake o f e f f i c i e n c y and p a r t l y because t h e Board wanted t o make i t s f i l m s a v a i l a b l e t o more p e o p l e t h a n j u s t t h o s e who were s e r v i c e d by t h e o t h e r o u t l e t s . By 1966/67, a l l o f t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s were d i s t r i b u t i n g more f i l m s , whether o r n o t t h e y were d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n D i r e c t D i s t r i b u t i o n . Whereas from 1957 t o 1963 t h e R e g i o n a l o f f i c e i n Vancouver was t h e o n l y NFB o u t l e t l i s t e d as d i s t r i b u t i n g any f i l m s a t a l l , by 1966/67 t h e r e were seven o u t l e t s (see T a b l e I V ) . From 1966 t o 196 9 t h e NFB o u t l e t s t o o k o v e r more and more c o n t r o l o f t h e t o t a l f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e p r o v i n c e . By 1967/68 NFB o f f i c e s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 24.6% o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l t o t a l . By 1968/69 i t was 32.4% and by 1969/70 t h e NFB o f f i c e s c o n t r o l l e d 51.6% o f the t o t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n B.C. (see T a b l e I ) . 53 V. PUBLIC LIBRARIES FROM 1951 TO 1963 I n 1951 t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n a l L i b r a r y became th e f i r s t P u b l i c L i b r a r y i n B.C. t o become i n v o l v e d i n 14 d i s t r i b u t i n g N a t i o n a l F i l m Board f i l m s . By 1953 o t h e r l i b r a r i e s began t o d i s t r i b u t e them and s l o w l y a t r e n d began t o emerge; a t r e n d away from h a v i n g t h e l o c a l F i l m C o u n c i l s c o n t r o l f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n towards a new system where t h e P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s s e r v i c e d t h e community. The major impetus f o r t h i s t r e n d came from t h e NFB. The Board began t o be concerned t h a t t h e F i l m C o u n c i l f i l m s were not r e a c h i n g t h e maximum number o f p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e community. 1^ The F i l m C o u n c i l s had been f u n c t i o n i n g q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l l y , i t ' s t r u e , but t h e i r c l i e n t e l e was l i m i t e d . I n o r d e r t o be e l i g i b l e t o book f i l m s from a F i l m C o u n c i l one had t o be a member. There was a f e e char g e d f o r t h i s p r i v i l e g e ; a f e e w h i c h was n o t e x c e s s i v e l y l a r g e but w h i c h a t t i m e s d i d p r e v e n t many i n d i v i d u a l s from j o i n i n g . As a r e s u l t i t was r e a l l y o n l y community groups who j o i n e d the C o u n c i l , each group p a y i n g a membership f e e e n t i t l i n g i t t o a c c e s s t o NFB f i l m s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d a f f o r d t o pay t h e f e e w i t h o u t much t r o u b l e b u t i n many c a s e s , the average i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d n o t . The F i l m C o u n c i l c o n c e p t , t h e r e f o r e , appeared t o have one v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t f l a w . The tendency was t o c r e a t e a minor e l i t e o f s o r t s who were c o n s t a n t l y u s i n g t h e f i l m s w h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e community were d e n i e d a c c e s s t o f i l m s u n l e s s 5 4 t h e y a t t e n d e d p u b l i c s c r e e n i n g s w h i c h t h e F i l m C o u n c i l s o r i t s member groups h e l d i n t h e community. T h i s whole q u e s t i o n o f t h e l i m i t e d a c c e s s t o f i l m s by t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c l e d t o t h e Board's a d o p t i o n o f a newer and more s t r e a m l i n e d d i s t r i b u t i o n system. Under t h e new system t h e p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s t o o k o v e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; o f t h e F i l m C o u n c i l ' s f i l m s . The l i b r a r i e s had a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s as e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c s e r v i c e o r g a n i -z a t i o n s and th e y were c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g a more compre^ h e n s i v e f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n s e t u p . The Board began t o remove i t s f i l m s from c e r t a i n F i l m C o u n c i l s and d e p o s i t them i n t h e l o c a l l i b r a r y . I f t h e r e was a F i l m C o u n c i l i n t h e a r e a , i t s t i l l r e t a i n e d p a r t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r keep-i n g t h e f i l m s r e p a i r e d and i t a l s o d i d some p u b l i c i t y work' f o r t h e programs. But t h e l i b r a r y was t h e c u s t o d i a n , p r o v i d i n g t h e p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s and s t a f f t o handle d i s t r i -b u t i o n f o r t h e a r e a . ^ There was a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r moving t h e f i l m s from t h e C o u n c i l s t o the l o c a l o r d i s t r i c t l i b r a r i e s . Not o n l y d i d t h e Board f e e l t h a t , a t t i m e s , t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c was p r e v e n t e d from u s i n g F i l m Board f i l m s because o f the f i n a n c i a l burden o f h a v i n g t o pay r e n t a l f o r them, i t a l s o f e l t t h a t i n some c a s e s , under t h e F i l m C o u n c i l scheme, the p u b l i c was unaware t h a t t h e r e were F i l m Board f i l m s i n t h e community. T h i s u n f o r t u n a t e s i t u a t i o n arose, because t h e C o u n c i l s o f t e n d i d n o t have an o f f i c e o f t h e i r 55 own b u t r e l i e d on l o c a l businessmen and o t h e r s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s t o p r o v i d e a s t o r a g e space. One NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e who worked i n t h e Okanagan,, Similkameen, N o r t h Thompson a r e a o f t h e p r o v i n c e around 1961 and 1962 remembers v i s i t i n g a F i l m C o u n c i l i n one i n t e r i o r town w h i c h was 17 l o c a t e d i n t h e l o c a l f i r e h a l l : I remember i n P e n t i c t o n w a l k i n g i n t o a dusty-c o r r i d o r i n a f i r e h a l l and some f i r e m a n p r o u d l y p o i n t -i n g i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e f i l m cans l y i n g t h e r e . I c o u l d n ' t h e l p t h i n k i n g t o m y s e l f 'How many p e o p l e e v e r go t o a f i r e h a l l ? ' V I . DISTRIBUTION TRENDS FROM 1957 TO 1970 There a r e r o u g h l y f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t methods o f d i s t r i b u t i o n w h i c h t h e NFB has at t e m p t e d i n B.C.: t h e C i r c u i t programs-, t h e F i l m C o u n c i l s , t h e L i b r a r i e s (both. P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s and D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s ) and D i r e c t D i s t r i b u t i o n . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e a c c u r a t e l y where one method stopped and t h e o t h e r began. I n g e n e r a l , t h e y o v e r l a p p e d each o t h e r , f u n c t i o n i n g as an e n t i r e p a t t e r n w i t h each method f u l f i l l i n g a d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n from e v e r y o t h e r method and each s e r v i n g a d i f f e r e n t segment o f s o c i e t y . I t - t o o k many y e a r s f o r one method t o d i s a p p e a r and f o r a n o t h e r t o r e p l a c e i t . However, by ex a m i n i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s t a t i s t i c s from 1957 t o 1970 a number 18 o f d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s emerge. D i s t r i b u t i o n O u t l e t s T a b l e I I I d e s c r i b e s t h e v a r i o u s t r e n d s i n t h e 56 numbers o f f i l m s d i s t r i b u t e d by F i l m C o u n c i l s , D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s , the NFB's R e g i o n a l and D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s and the P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s . I n each case t h e v a r i o u s t r e n d s a r e e x p r e s s e d as a s e r i e s o f moving a v e r a g e s . T a b l e IV d e s c r i b e s t h e t r e n d s i n t h e number o f a c t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n o u t l e t s and uses t h e same method o f e x p r e s s i o n . By com-p a r i n g b o t h t a b l e s we may note t h e f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s : F i l m C o u n c i l s . The C o u n c i l s appear t o have re a c h e d t h e i r peak d i s t r i b u t i o n p e r i o d d u r i n g the f i s c a l y e a r 1959/60 f o l l o w e d by a v e r y sharp t r e n d downwards which c o n t i n u e d r i g h t up t o 1970. A t t h e same ti m e t h e r e was a s t e a d y d e c r e a s e i n t h e number o f F i l m C o u n c i l s a c t i v e l y d i s t r i b u t i n g NFB f i l m s . Both'of; t h e s e d e c l i n e s are, i l -l u s t r a t e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 1 and t e n d t o support, s t a t e m e n t s made by NFB p e r s o n n e l e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r t h a t t h e F i l m C o u n c i l s were d i s b a n d e d i n f a v o u r o f more' e f f i c i e n t methods o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , . s u c h as t h e P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s and t h e D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s . D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s . W h i l e the D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f NFB f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1958 t o 1963 i t must be remembered t h a t most of t h e s e f i l m s were b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d t o s c h o o l s . As T a b l e I I I shows, t h e D e p o s i t L i b r a r i e s i n g e n e r a l appear t o have e n j o y e d an upward t r e n d i n d i s t r i b u t i o n even though a t t i m e s i t was a b i t e r r a t i c . T a b l e IV shows t h a t t h e 57 number o f o u t l e t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y appears t o i n c r e a s e and de c r e a s e i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e numbers o f f i l m s b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d . B o t h t r e n d s a r e e x p r e s s e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 2. One p o i n t s h o u l d be made about t h e gra p h i n F i g u r e 2, which a p p l i e s a l s o t o t h e o t h e r f i g u r e s . There appears t o be a s i g n i f c a n t d e c r e a s e i n the numbers o f f i l m s d i s t r i b u t e d between t h e y e a r s 1968/69 and 1969/70. The d e c r e a s e i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t , t h a t i n 1968 t h e NFB changed i t s u n i t measure from t h e number o f s c r e e n i n g s ( i . e . t h e number of t i m e s a f i l m was a c t u a l l y shown) t o b o o k i n g s ( i . e . t h e number o f t i m e s a f i l m was l o a n e d o r r e n t e d t o customers 19 r e g a r d l e s s o f how many t i m e s t h e y used i t ) . Under t h e o l d system a f i l m c o u l d be l o a n e d t o a customer who would show i t f i v e o r t e n t i m e s and t h e f i g u r e o f f i v e o r t e n would be counted f o r t h e y e a r l y d i s t r i b u t i o n s t a t i s t i c s . However, under t h e new system t h e customer was l o a n e d a f i l m and th a n one t r a n s a c t i o n was the o n l y one r e c o r d e d by t h e NFB. O b v i o u s l y , t h e f i g u r e s would be a f f e c t e d . R e g i o n a l and D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s . As T a b l e I I I c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n can be.found under t h i s c a t e g o r y . Up u n t i l 1963 t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e numbers o f f i l m s d i s t r i b u t e d : i t remains v e r y s m a l l i n comparison t o t h e o t h e r o u t l e t s . However, from 1964 onward t h e r e i s 58 a sharp i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f o u t l e t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y : t h e r e s u l t o f t h e D i r e c t D i s t r i b u t i o n scheme i n t r o d u c e d i n 1966. From t h a t p e r i o d on, a l l o f t h e NFB D i s t r i c t o f f i c e s began t o r e p o r t t h e numbers o f f i l m s d i s t r i b u t e d from t h e i r o f f i c e s . A comparison o f t h e t r e n d i n d i s t r i -b u t i o n and t h e t r e n d i n t h e number o f o u t l e t s i s i l l u s t r a t e d g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 3. P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s . T a b l e I I I a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t the number o f f i l m s d i s t r i b u t e d by the P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s has s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e d from 1957 t o 1968. However, an u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n appears t o e x i s t . W h i l e T a b l e I I I shows a marked i n c r e a s e i n d i s t r i b u t i o n from 1957 t o 1968, T a b l e IV shows a d e f i n i t e d e c r e a s e i n t h e number o f P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s h a n d l i n g NFB f i l m s . T h e ' d i s c r e p a n c y i s b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 4, and can o n l y be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t t h e P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s appear t o have been a b l e t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r r a t e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n i n s p i t e o f a de-c l i n e i n t h e number o f o u t l e t s . T h i s t e n ds t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l i b r a r i e s c o u l d do a more e f f i c i e n t j o b o f p r o -moting and d i s t r i b u t i n g NFB f i l m s . I t i s an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t t o remember because, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, t h e Board's o r i g i n a l r e a s o n f o r t u r n i n g o v e r some o f i t s f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s was t h a t t h e y f e l t t h e l i b r a r i e s c o u l d h a n d l e t h e f i l m s more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n t h e F i l m C o u n c i l s c o u l d . V I I . TRENDS IN ADULT SHOWINGS FROM 1957 TO 1970 T a b l e V compares t h e t o t a l number o f showings f o r the p r o v i n c e w i t h t h e number o f a d u l t showings i n o r d e r t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between them. F i g u r e 4 ex-p r e s s e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n gra p h form. From i t we can see t h a t i n g e n e r a l t h e number o f showings by a d u l t groups tended t o i n c r e a s e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n e x c e p t f o r t h e p e r i o d 1967/68 t o 1968/69 when the number o f showings by a d u l t groups r o s e con-s i d e r a b l y a l t h o u g h t h e t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l showings d i d n o t i n c r e a s e . A l s o , t h e r e was a v e r y marked d e c r e a s e i n t h e t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n from 1968/69 t o 1969/70 w h i l e t h e d e c r e a s e i n t h e number o f a d u l t showings f o r t h e same p e r i o d was not so marked. A l l t h i s might t e n d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t more, a d u l t groups a r e b e g i n n i n g t o use f i l m s i n t h e i r programs. However, t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d a t a can v e r y e a s i l y be c r i t i c i s e d and t h e r e f o r e any such assumptions would be dangerous. W h i l e some o f t h e d a t a g i v e n i n T a b l e s I t o V might be o f a q u e s t i o n a b l e n a t u r e , i t i s u s e f u l t o p r e s e n t i t here because i t d o e s ' t e n d ' t o i l l u s t r a t e f u r t h e r t h e d i f f e r e n t t r e n d s i n f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n w h i c h have e v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o v i n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a s t 12 y e a r s . I t i s not t h e purpose, o f t h i s s t u d y t o a n a l y z e t h e s e d a t a , m e r e l y t o use them t o s u p p o r t s t a t e m e n t s made by NFB 60 p e r s o n n e l about t h e d i f f e r e n t t r e n d s . I t must be remembered t h a t t h e main purpose o f t h e s e d a t a , so f a r as t h e F i l m Board was c o n c e r n e d , was t o i n d i c a t e t o t h e Board how w e l l i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n system was f u n c t i o n i n g - were more NFB f i l m s b e i n g used? - were more' p e o p l e v i e w i n g t h e f i l m s ? I f t h e d a t a showed an i n c r e a s e i n d i s t r i b u t i o n from one y e a r t o t h e n e x t , t h e n t h e Board c o u l d use t h e e v i d e n c e t o support, i t s r e q u e s t s f o r an i n c r e a s e d budget from t h e F e d e r a l government. I f t h e r e were s t a r t l i n g d e c r e a s e s i n any p a r t i c u l a r a r e a or' i n t h e o v e r a l l system t h e n t h e Board c o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on d e v e l o p i n g more e f f i c i e n t ways o f p r o m o t i n g t h e i r f i l m s t o i n c r e a s e , d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h a t a r e a . Lack o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e d a t a appears t o have l e d t o the d e c i s i o n i n 1968 t o change t h e u n i t o f measure. By c o u n t i n g t h e number o f f i l m s booked from each o u t l e t the Board s h o u l d , o v e r t h e n e x t few y e a r s , be a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e a c c u r a c y o f i t s d a t a w h i c h can be used t o make v a l i d assessments o f t h e Board's d i s t r i b u t i o n methods. However,, a t t h i s s t a g e i t i s t o o e a r l y t o say what th e f i n d i n g s w i l l i n d i c a t e . T a b l e I PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FILMS BY OUTLET R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t Y e a r l y F i l m C o u n c i l D e p o s i t L i b r a r y O f f i c e P u b l i c L i b r a r y Year T o t a l T o t a l P e r c e n t T o t a l P e r c e n t T o t a l P e r c e n t T o t a l P e r c e n t 1957-58 12,328 5,018 40.7 3, 531 28. 6 173 1.4 2,118 17.1 1958-59 22,701 3,985 17.5 15,561 68. 5 460 2.0 1,659 7.3 1959-60 45,082 5,977 13. 2 34,529 76.5 329 0.7 1,718 3.8 1960-61 48,234 5,191 10.7 34,862 72.2 406 .8 2,869 5.9 1961-62 41,874 4,218 10. 0 27,539 65.7 376 .8 5,233 12.4 1962-63 43,845 4,447 10.1 28,174 64.2 453 1.0 6,611 15. 0 1963-64 * * * * * * * * * 1964-65 57,929 * * * * * * * * 1965-66 83,575 * * * * * * * * 1966-67 60,585 2,320 3.8 33,917 55. 9 14,659 24.1 9,635 15. 9 1967-68 83,572 2,449 2.9 47,233 56.5 20,641 24.6 13,249 15.8 1968-69 78,616 775 .9 39,852 50.6 25,474 32.4 12,515 15.9 1969-70 38,282 568 1.4 11,122 29.0 19,779 51.6 6,813 17.7 * F i g u r e s a r e not a v a i l a b l e . + The u n i t o f measure was changed i n 1968-69 from s c r e e n i n g s ( i . e . t h e number o f t i m e s a f i l m was a c t u a l l y shown) t o bookings (the number o f f i l m s "booked" by a customer r e g a r d -l e s s o f how many t i m e s they were a c t u a l l y s c r e e n e d ) . T a b l e I I PROMOTIONAL SCREENINGS Y e a r l y P r o m o t i o n a l Year T o t a l Showings P e r c e n t Moving Average 1,259 1,782 3,717 4,707 1957-58 12,328 1,482 12.0 1958-59 22,701 1, 036 4.5 1959-60 45,082 2,529 5.6 1960-61 48,234 4, 906 10.1 1961-62 41,874 4,508 10.7 T a b l e I I I TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF FILMS DISTRIBUTED BY EACH OUTLET EXPRESSED AS A MOVING AVERAGE R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t F i l m C o u n c i l D e p o s i t L i b r a r y O f f i c e P u b l i c L i b r a r y Y e a r T o t a l Average T o t a l Average T o t a l Average T o t a l Average 1957-58 5,018 3,531 179 2,118 4,501. 9,546. 319. 1,888. 1958-59 3,985 15,561 460 1,659 4,981. 25,045. 394. 1,688. 1959-60 5,977 34,529 329 1,718 5,584. 34,695. 367. 2,293. 1960-61 5,191 34,862 406 2,869 4,704. 31,200. 391. 4,051. 1961-62 4,218 27,539 376 5,233 4,332. 27,856. 414. 5,922. 1962-63 4,447 28,174 453 6,611 1963-64 * * * * 1964-65 * 3,383. * 31,045. * 7,556. * 8,123. 1965-66 * * * * 1966-67 2,320 33,917 14,659 9,635 2,384. 40,575. 17,650. 11,442. 1967-68 2,449 47,233 20,641 13,249 1,612. 43,542. 23,057. 12,882. 1968-69 775 39,852 25,474 12,515 671. 25,487. 22,626. 9,664. 1969-70 568 11,122 19,779 6,813 * F i g u r e s a r e not a v a i l a b l e . # The u n i t o f measure was changed i n 1968-69 from s c r e e n i n g s ( i . e . the number o f ti m e s a f i l m was a c t u a l l y shown) t o bookings (the number o f f i l m s "booked" by a customer r e g a r d -l e s s o f how many tim e s they were a c t u a l l y s c r e e n e d ) . T a b l e IV TRENDS IN THE NUMBER OF ACTIVE DISTRIBUTION OUTLETS EXPRESSED AS A MOVING AVERAGE R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t F i l m C o u n c i l D e p o s i t L i b r a r y O f f i c e P u b l i c L i b r a r y Y ear T o t a l Average T o t a l Average T o t a l Average T o t a l Average TOTAL Average 1957-58 37 13 1 9 60 36.0 14.0 1.0 9.5 61. 0 1958-59 35 16 1 10 62 33.0 15.5 1.0 10.5 60. 0 1959-60 31 15 • 1 11 58 31.0 19.5 1.0 16. 0 67.5 1960-61 31 24 1 21 77 26.5 22.5 1.0 23. 5 73.5 1961-62 22 21 1 26 70 22.0 21.5 1.0 24.0 68.5 1962-63 22 22 1 22 67 1963-64 * * * * * 13.0 28.0 4.0 14.0 59. 0 1964-65 * * * * 1965-66 * * * * * 1966-67 4 34 7 6 51 4.0 34.0 7.7 6.5 51.5 1967-68 4 34 7 7 52 3.5 35.5 6.5 7.0 52.5 1968-69 3 37 6 7 53 3.0 34.5 5.5 6.5 49.5 1969-70 3 32 5 6 46 * F i g u r e s are not a v a i l a b l e . T a b l e V COMPARISON OF TRENDS IN ADULT SHOWINGS WITH TRENDS IN THE PROVINCIAL TOTAL T o t a l Moving A d u l t Ed. Moving Year Showings Average Showings Average 1957-58 12,328 17,514 1958-59 22,701 7,477 33,891 8,781 1959-60 45,082 10,085 46,658 11,945 1960-61 48,234 13,801 45,054 13,063 1961-62 41,874 12,325 42,859 12,584 1962-63 43,845 12,843 1963-64 * 50,887 * 12,963 1964-65 57,929 13,084 70,752 14,362 1965-66 83,575 15,641 72,080 15,159 1966-67 60,585 14,678 72,078 17,979 1967-68 83,572 21,281 81,094 26,705 1968-69 78,616 32,129 58,449 24,444 1969-70 38,282 16,759 * F i g u r e s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e . # The u n i t o f measure was changed i n 1968-6 9 from s c r e e n i n g s ( i . e . t h e number o f t i m e s a f i l m was a c t u a l l y shown) t o bo o k i n g s (the number o f f i l m s "booked" by a customer r e -g a r d l e s s o f how many t i m e s t h e y were a c t u a l l y s c r e e n e d ) . 66 FIGURE 1 COMPARISON OF FILM COUNCIL OUTLETS WITH NUMBER OF FILMS DISTRIBUTED LEGEND Showings -t -T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r -£1/ 58_ 59 60 61 62 66 67 68 5 9 60 61 6 2 63 67 68 6~9 TO FIGURE 2 COMPARISON OF DEPOSIT LIBRARY OUTLETS WITH NUMBER OF FILMS DISTRIBUTED LEGEND Showings O u t l e t s - - - -68 FIGURE 3 COMPARISON OF NFB OFFICE OUTLETS WITH NUMBER OF FILMS DISTRIBUTED LEGEND Showings O u t l e t s - - - -65 -60 -T ' ~r 1 1 j 1 i r 57 58 59 60 61 62 66 67 68 59 60 61 62 63 67 68 69 70 69 FIGURE 4 COMPARISON OF PUBLIC LIBRARY OUTLETS WITH NUMBER OF FILMS DISTRIBUTED LEGEND Showings O u t l e t s - - - -T 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 r — r 1 Z 5 8 5 9 60 61 62_ 66 £ 7 6 8 59 60 61 62 63 67 68 69 70 CHAPTER I I I FOOTNOTES I n t e r v i e w w i t h C. W. ( C h a r l i e ) M a r s h a l l , June 16, 1971. Mr. M a r s h a l l i s now r e t i r e d from t h e NFB,. but he i s . more f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board i n B.C. t h a n anyone e l s e . He j o i n e d t h e Board i n 1943 and worked as a R e g i o n a l Agent c o v e r i n g t h e Vancouver I s l a n d a r e a . I n 1947 he l e f t B.C. t o become A s s i s t a n t C o - o r d i n a t o r o f Canadian D i s t r i b u t i o n a t t h e Board's h e a d q u a r t e r s w h i c h was t h e n s i t u a t e d i n Ottawa. I n 1948 he t o o k o v e r t h e p o s i t i o n o f C o - o r d i n a t o r and remained i n Ottawa u n t i l 1956 when he was p o s t e d t o t h e NFB o f f i c e i n New D e l h i , I n d i a . I n 1962 he r e t u r n e d from I n d i a t o t a k e o v e r t h e p o s i t i o n o f R e g i o n a l S u p e r v i s o r f o r t h e NFB i n B.C. where he remained u n t i l h i s r e t i r e m e n t i n 1966. 2 S e e C h a p t e r I I , under THE EVOLUTION AND FUNCTION OF THE DISTRIBUTION REPRESENTATIVE. 3 M a r s h a l l , op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . 6 I b i d . 7 I b i d . 8 I b i d . 9 I b i d . 1 0 _ u . , I b i d . 1 1 T , . , I b i d . 12 E x t r a c t e d from t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board's Canadian N o n - t h e a t r i c a l D i s t r i b u t i o n S t a t i s t i c s . 13 M a r s h a l l , op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 14 I n t e r v i e w w i t h J an Clemson, D i s t r i b u t i o n Repre-s e n t a t i v e f o r t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board o f Canada, June 4, 197 15 M a r s h a l l , op. c i t i n t e r v i e w . 16 Clemson, op. c i t i n t e r v i e w . 17 I b i d . 18 The D i s t r i b u t i o n S t a t i s t i c s were made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s s t u d y by Mr. B i l l G a l l a n t , C h i e f , R e s e a r c h and R e p o r t s D i v i s i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board i n M o n t r e a l . 19 P e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between Mr. B i l l G a l l a n t and t h e a u t h o r , June 17, 1971. CHAPTER IV THE FILM IN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM The F i l m i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Program, commonly r e f e r r e d t o as FAE, was c r e a t e d i n Vancouver i n 1959. B i l l O r r , an NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n Vancouver a t t h a t t i m e , worked w i t h members o f t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department o f the Vancouver S c h o o l Board and t h e Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , t o form t h e a s s o c i a t i o n whose purpose was t o p r o v i d e " i n -f o r m a t i o n on t h e development o f f i l m i n the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f i e l d , and t o p r e s e n t programs w i t h d e p t h " . 1 FAE proposed " t o keep t h e p u b l i c a b r e a s t o f 'Canadiana'" and t o a s s i s t o t h e r groups " i n u s i n g and v i e w i n g f i l m s " . I n essence FAE saw i t s e l f as a " c o - o r d i n a t i n g body made up o f r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s from I n d u s t r y , C h urch, C i t i z e n s h i p , M e n t a l H e a l t h - i n f a c t , a l l f i l m - u s i n g groups i n G r e a t e r Vancouver". I . AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM The o r g a n i z e r s o f FAE d e s c r i b e d s p e c i f i c aims and 2 o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n as f o l l o w s : The aim o f t h i s program i s t o provide> t h r o u g h t h e documentary f i l m a new e x p e r i e n c e i n l e a r n i n g . To g i v e t r a i n i n g i n t h e s k i l l e d use o f documentary f i l m i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . To e s t a b l i s h a c o r e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d e d u c a t o r s i n t e r e s t e d i n ex p e r i m e n t and r e s e a r c h i n t h e use o f f i l m w i t h a d u l t s . To d e v e l o p an ' a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ' t y p e f i l m l i b r a r y a t t h e Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y where o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d u s t r i a l groups may o b t a i n f i l m t o g e t h e r w i t h books and d i s c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n s . To p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s and t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f such m a t e r i a l s . To a s s i s t and a d v i s e i n t h e s e l e c t i o n , use and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . Where r e q u i r e d , t o a s s i s t i n t h e p r o m o t i o n o f member p r e s e n t a t i o n s . ' To n o t i f y members o f a p p r o p r i a t e p r e v i e w s c r e e n i n g s on a wide range o f s u b j e c t s . To p r o v i d e g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h q u a r t e r l y a u d i o - v i s u a l g u i d e s and t h r o u g h s p e c i a l b u l l e t i n s where r e q u i r e d . I I . THE STRUCTURE OF THE FAE The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f FAE was as f o l l o w s : t h e r e were f i v e d i r e c t o r s , t h r e e a p p o i n t e d and two e l e c t e d f o r a p e r i o d o f one y e a r . I n d i v i d u a l s , i n d u s t r i e s , and o r g a n i z a t i o n s were e l i g i b l e f o r membership i n t h e a s s o -c i a t i o n . F o r a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t y p e s o f membership and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e see Appendix A and B. G e n e r a l l y , membership i n FAE gu a r a n t e e d t h e f o l l o w -i n g p r i v i l e g e s : 3 1. S u b s c r i p t i o n t o t h e A u d i o - V i s u a l Guide ( f o u r i s s u e s , October t o J u n e ) . 2. V o t i n g p r i v i l e g e s i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . 3. A s s i s t a n c e i n f i l m e v a l u a t i o n s . 4. A s s i s t a n c e i n h a v i n g t h e r e s p e c t i v e o r g a n i -z a t i o n s own f i l m s r e a c h maximum d i s t r i b u t i o n . 5. The o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e ' i n L i b r a r y f i l m . s e r v i c e s . 6. I n s t r u c t i o n a l k i t s made a v a i l a b l e i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s f o r f u r t h e r i n t e l l i g e n t f i l m use. 7. The o p p o r t u n i t y t o work w i t h and meet p e o p l e i n t h i s a r e a . 8. The knowledge o f s u p p o r t i n g such w o r t h w h i l e f i l m programming as t h e Museum S e r i e s , C h i l d r e n 1 F i l m Programs, e t c . 9. P r e v i e w s and f i l m program p l a n n i n g f o r member's c o n f e r e n c e s , l e c t u r e s , e t c . I I I . THE AUDIO-VISUAL GUIDE The FAE was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g many a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs t h r o u g h o u t t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a , but one o f i t s g r e a t e s t i n i t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s was t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e A u d i o - V i s u a l G u i d e , t h e f i r s t e v e r produced 4 i n Canada. I t s e r v e d t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r under one l i s t i n g a l l t h e d i f f e r e n t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f i l m programs o f f e r e d t h r o u g h o u t s o u t h e r n B.C. and was produced by B i l l O r r , the l o c a l NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The f i r s t e d i t i o n appeared i n O c t o b e r 1959. I t l i s t e d a l l f i l m equipment c e n t r e s , , f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n c e n t r e s , t h e d i f f e r e n t c e n t r e s where p r i v a t e l y produced sponsored f i l m s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d and i t a l s o p r o v i d e d a map o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d showing where each o f t h e s e c e n t r e s was l o c a t e d . B e s i d e s t h i s compre-h e n s i v e l i s t o f f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e s , t h e g u i d e a l s o l i s t e d a l l t h e FAE f i l m programs w h i c h were h e l d r e g u l a r l y t h r o u g h o u t Vancouver. These l i s t i n g s gave t i m e , d a t e s , l o c a t i o n s and c o s t s o f t h e v a r i o u s programs. The g u i d e r e p r e s e n t e d a g r e a t s t e p f o r w a r d f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. A t l a s t t h e r e was a c o n s c i o u s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f f i l m s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . An e s p r i t de c o r p s had been c r e a t e d amongst v a r i o u s groups t h r o u g h o u t t h e l o c a l Vancouver a r e a who had been d i r e c t i n g f i l m programs f o r a d u l t s f o r a number o f y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y b u t who had n o t d e l i b e r a t e l y banded t o g e t h e r t o promote the use o f f i l m on a l a r g e s c a l e . One l o o k a t t h e l i s t o f the committee members who made up t h e e x e c u t i v e o f the A u d i o - V i s u a l C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee c l e a r l y shows t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d q u i t e a complete c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v -i t i e s o f one s o r t o r a n o t h e r (see Appendix C ) . There were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from I n d u s t r y , from t h e A d u l t Edu-c a t i o n Department o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board, from the C i t i z e n s h i p Department o f t h e F e d e r a l government, from t h e P r o v i n c i a l M e n t a l H e a l t h Department, t h e Museum, the P u b l i c L i b r a r i e s , t h e Community A r t s C o u n c i l , t h e P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n , and R e l i g i o u s V i s u a l Edu-c a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s . IV. FAE PROGRAMS I f s h e e r volume o f programming i s any c r i t e r i o n o f e x c e l l e n c e t h e FAE programs would have t o be r a t e d e x t r e m e l y h i g h . F o r a seven y e a r p e r i o d from t h e f a l l o f 195 9 t o t h e summer o f 1966 t h e FAE was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g no l e s s t h a n 93 s e p a r a t e s e r i e s ; T h i s number r e p r e s e n t s a t o t a l o f 667 weekly programs f o r t h e seven y e a r p e r i o d , o r an average o f 1.8 programs p e r week. F o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n made up o f groups who were not p r i m a r i l y c o n cerned w i t h s uch a s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a o f 77 a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as f i l m programs, t h i s amount o f programming r e p r e s e n t e d a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t commitment t o t h e use o f f i l m . The programs d e a l t w i t h a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r e s t groups w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n t programs i n d i c a t e s t h a t g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g t h e y can be d i v i d e d i n t o s i x major c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ( c a t e g o r i e s ) . 1. F i l m S e r i e s - G e n e r a l I n t e r e s t T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t h e b r o a d e s t one. The purpose o f t h e s e i n f o r m a t i o n - t y p e programs was t o p r o v i d e e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t g roups. S e r i e s such as t h e P.N.E. Sunday T r a v e l o g u e and t h e Documentary Show- case a r e two good examples o f t h i s c a t e g o r y . The P.N.E. Sunday T r a v e l o g u e s e r i e s began i n 1959. I t s purpose was t o encourage th e g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o become more i n t e r e s t e d i n t r a v e l and n a t u r e f i l m s . The secondary purpose was t o a t t r a c t p e o p l e t o t h e P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n i n o r d e r t o t o u r t h e d i s p l a y s i n t h e B.C. B u i l d -i n g . The f i l m programs were v a r i e d b u t u s u a l l y c e n t e r e d on t o p i c s l i k e t r a v e l i n Canada and abroad, n a t u r e s t u d y such as WILDLIFE IN THE ROCKIES, 5 e t h n i c groups l i v i n g i n Canada, and a r t s and c r a f t s p r a c t i c e d i n Canada. The Documentary Showcase was a " f i l m s e r i e s de-v o t e d t o t h e b e s t i n t h e Documentary t r a d i t i o n " . E s -s e n t i a l l y , t h i s s e r i e s was t h e same as t h e P.N.E. Sunday T r a v e l o g u e programs. I t was a p o t p o u r r i o f g e n e r a l i n t e r -e s t - t y p e f i l m s ; e v e r y t h i n g from i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a v e l f i l m s 7 t o p o p u l a r e x p e r i m e n t a l f i l m s l i k e CHAIRY TALE. The o n l y major d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two s e r i e s was t h a t whereas th e P.N.E. Sunday T r a v e l o g u e s e r i e s was produced f r e e o f c h a r g e , t h e p a t r o n s f o r t h e Documentary Showcase programs had t o purchase a season membership t i c k e t : $2.50 f o r a. s i n g l e , $5.00 f o r a . c o u p l e f o r 14 programs. F u r t h e r -more, t h e Documentary Showcase programs were h e l d a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c i t y . I n e f f e c t , t h i s g s e r i e s was an Urban C i r c u i t program where each program was shown a t a d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a on a d i f f e r e n t n i g h t o f t h e week. I n t h i s way t h e FAE 9 hoped t o r e a c h t h e wxdest audi e n c e p o s s i b l e . T h i s g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t - t y p e program proved t o be v e r y p o p u l a r . The above mentioned s e r i e s , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s such as t h e M i r r o r o f Our Times which was h e l d r e g u l a r l y a t t h e O a k r i d g e Shopping C e n t r e a u d i t o r i u m r a n from 1959 up t o , i n some c a s e s , as l a t e as 19 66. However, as a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t h e s e f i l m s e r i e s would r a t e q u i t e low, because t h e i r purpose was o n l y t o e n t e r -t a i n and i n f o r m ; not e d u c a t e . I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t any s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g a c t u a l l y r e s u l t e d from t h e s e programs, and i f i t d i d i t was more by a c c i d e n t t h a n by d e s i g n . But t h e s e s e r i e s d i d p e r f o r m one v e r y u s e f u l f u n c t i o n . They made p e o p l e aware of f i l m s ; I n i t s e l f t h i s f u n c t i o n might not appear t o be much of a r a i s o n d ' e t r e , b u t i t must be remembered t h a t one o f t h e main concerns o f the NFB was t o make f i l m s p o p u l a r w i t h Canadians and t o encourage p e o p l e t o watch NFB f i l m s . T h i s c o n c e r n about p r o m o t i n g t h e use o f f i l m s had permeated t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e FAE t h r o u g h t h e work o f one o f i t s most a c t i v e members, the l o c a l NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e , B i l l O r r . He, l i k e t h e r e s t o f t h e Board's D i s t r i b u t i o n s t a f f , was p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n o b t a i n i n g t h e w i d e s t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f NFB f i l m s . The more p e o p l e who saw F i l m Board f i l m s t h e b e t t e r , and p r o -grams such.as t h e G e n e r a l I n t e r e s t F i l m S e r i e s succeeded i n b r i n g i n g a maximum number o f p e o p l e i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h NFB f i l m s . 2. Enrichment Programs Moving up t h e s c a l e from t h e G e n e r a l I n t e r e s t  F i l m S e r i e s c a t e g o r y , t h e second c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r FAE programs i s t h e E n r i c h m e n t Program c a t e g o r y . The En- r i c h m e n t programs attempted c o n s c i o u s l y t o i n c l u d e some element o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . They were u s u a l l y a f i l m -l e c t u r e s e r i e s where a f i l m would be a d v e r t i s e d as b e i n g t h e main a t t r a c t i o n b u t i t would be supplemented by an a u t h o r i t a t i v e speaker who would d e l i v e r a l e c t u r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e f i l m . As w i t h t h e o r d i n a r y F i l m S e r i e s , t h e most i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f the E n r i c h m e n t program was t h e f i l m b e i n g shown and not t h e s p e a k e r . However, the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a g u e s t l e c t u r e r d i d add an element o f a p p e a l t o t h e programs making them appear t o be more " e d u c a t i o n a l " 1 0 t h a n t h e o r d i n a r y f i l m s e r i e s . S e c o n d l y , t h e programs d i d become more s e l e c t i v e . R a t h e r t h a n p r e s e n t i n g a number o f f i l m s on a v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t s , o n l y one o r two f i l m s were used and t h e y r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e s t a t e d theme of each i n d i v i d u a l program. F o r i n -s t a n c e , i n Volume 4 o f A u d i o - V i s u a l i n G r e a t e r Vancouver one such f i l m - l e c t u r e s e r i e s i s l i s t e d e n t i t l e d "Suburban L i v i n g - S i x S o l u t i o n s " . One o f t h e programs was c a l l e d "The Suburbs and The C i t y " . The f i l m p r e s e n t e d was c a l l e d A IS FOR ARCHITECTURE. I t was a 20 minute c o l o u r f i l m w h i c h examined t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r u c t u r e o f a number o f a n c i e n t c i t i e s comparing the v a r i o u s a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e s and how each r e f l e c t e d t h e s e n t i m e n t s and v a l u e s o f the t i m e . The program was supplemented and e n r i c h e d by a l e c t u r e g i v e n by P r o f e s s o r P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r , t h e n A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f P l a n n i n g i n t h e F a c u l t y o f Graduate S t u d i e s a t U.B.C. T h i s program, and o t h e r s l i k e i t , r e p r e s e n t e d a d e f i n i t e t r e n d away fromvthe s i m p l e showing o f f i l m s towards a more f u n c t i o n a l use o f f i l m as an e d u c a t i o n a l d e v i c e . V a r i o u s o t h e r i n n o v a t i o n s such as b o o k l e t s and d i s p l a y s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the E nrichment programs. However, one i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r k e p t programs l i k e t h i s from, becoming a complete e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . The programs were o n l y f i l m - l e c t u r e s ; t h e r e was l i t t l e o r no a t t empt t o i n v o l v e t h e a u d i e n c e . I n f o r m a t i o n was p r e -s e n t e d t o t h e a u d i e n c e v i a t h e f i l m and the speaker b u t t h e r e was no "feedback" and w i t h o u t t h i s n e c e s s a r y element o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f the audience i t was im-p o s s i b l e t o t e l l i f any l e a r n i n g a c t u a l l y took p l a c e . 3. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programs Whereas the f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s o f programs mentioned were not e d u c a t i o n a l i n t h e sense t h a t a p e r -c e i v a b l e b e h a v i o r a l change might have o c c u r r e d as t h e r e s u l t o f i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e l e a r n e r s , t h e t h i r d c a t e g o r y , t h e I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programs d i d have about them a l l the p o t e n t i a l elements f o r l e a r n i n g w h i c h c o u l d make them complete e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . The key p o i n t about the I n s t r u c t i o n a l programs was t h a t t h e y were p r i m a r i l y a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . I n o t h e r words f i l m s were not c e n t r a l t o them. R a t h e r , f i l m s were d e l i b e r a t e l y r e l e g a t e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l d e v i c e s - t o o l s used t o supplement t h e program but not used n e c e s s a r i l y as t h e p r i m a r y f o c u s . The I n s t r u c t i o n a 1 programs c o u l d be d e s i g n e d f o r s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups o r f o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . They were a d v e r t i s e d as Workshops, I n s t i t u t e s o r F i l m - d i s c u s s i o n programs and were u s u a l l y c o - s p o n s o r e d by t h e FAE and an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n department. Each program was o r g a n i z e d around a c e n t r a l theme o r t o p i c and t h e major t e c h n i q u e used was group d i s c u s s i o n , e i t h e r g r o u p - c e n t e r e d o r l e a d e r - d i r e c t e d . 1 1 One such program c a l l e d " P r e j u d i c e , 12 Propaganda, and P e o p l e " was h e l d i n t h e f a l l o f 1959. I t was a d v e r t i s e d as " f o u r e v e n i n g s o f d i s c u s s i o n on con-t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t s . . . u s i n g f i l m as a background t o d i s c u s s i o n " , [ i t a l i c s mine] The program was a c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t between t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d , t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board and t h e Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y . a n d was l i s t e d as a n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e a t K i t s i l a n o H i g h S c h o o l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t t h e f i l m s used i n t h e program were n ot mentioned i n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t . R a t h e r , each program had i t s own t i t l e w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d t h e c e n t r a l theme f o r t h e e v e n i n g : 1. "Are P e o p l e Sheep" - Dr. Brock C h i s h o l m , U.B.C. 2. "Semantics" - Mr. A l a n R o s s i t e r 3. " P r e j u d i c e " - Dr. E. S i g n o r i , U.B.C. 4. "Propaganda" - Mr. P a t Burn s , Mr. Doug C o l l i n s ( r e p r e s e n t i n g the media) The f i l m s were s i m p l y used t o e x p l a i n o r c l a r i f y t h e p o i n t s d e a l t w i t h by the r e s o u r c e p e o p l e . They were n o t t h e c e n t r a l a t t r a c t i o n . F o r t h e most p a r t t h e example g i v e n above i s q u i t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e t y p e s o f programs i n i t i a t e d by t h e FAE w h i c h c o u l d come under t h e c a t e g o r y o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l c o u r s e s . They u s u a l l y d e a l t w i t h s o c i a l i s s u e s o f one k i n d o r a n o t h e r . F o r example, a n o t h e r program i n i t i a t e d 83 a t the same time as t h e program on p r e j u d i c e was an e i g h t week c o u r s e c a l l e d " A d o l e s c e n t Development". I t used the same g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e and i n v o l v e d key r e s o u r c e p e o p l e who worked w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s : a s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r , a D i r e c t o r o f a M e d i c a l H e a l t h U n i t , a S u p e r v i s o r o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e a r e a , a l o c a l p h y s i c i a n , . a p s y c h i a t r i s t , a s o c i a l worker and a Community C e n t r e D i r e c t o r . The group d i s -c u s s i o n t e c h n i q u e was used a l o n g w i t h one o t h e r f a c t o r -the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f compulsory r e a d i n g a ssignments f o r the p e o p l e who a t t e n d e d t h e c l a s s e s . The i n t e n t i o n o f t h e assignments was t o p r o v i d e t h e l e a r n e r s w i t h a b r o a d e r background o f the s u b j e c t w h i c h would a s s i s t them i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n groups. 4. • Package Program K i t s B e s i d e s i n i t i a t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs t h e FAE was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g a number o f Package  Program K i t s t o be used by groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s • w h o were i n t e r e s t e d i n c r e a t i n g t h e i r own a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. I n t o t a l , t h e FAE c r e a t e d 36 o f t h e s e k i t s r a n g i n g i n s u b j e c t from s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s i n t h e w o r l d t o I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g K i t s and C i t i z e n s h i p K i t s (see Appendix D), f o r a complete l i s t i n g o f t h e k i t s ) . Each Package Program c o n t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w -i n g i t e m s : a p r o m o t i o n a l l e a f l e t l i s t i n g f i l m s on t h e s u b j e c t , a s e r i e s o f d i s c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n s , and a b i b l i -84 ography of r e l a t e d books on t h e s u b j e c t . The k i t a l s o c o n t a i n e d a more d e t a i l e d b o o k l e t o u t l i n i n g t h e s e r i e s . A good example o f t h i s b o o k l e t i s t h e one w h i c h was made 13 a v a i l a b l e f o r " S e r i e s 15" o f t h e k i t : "Human R e l a t i o n s and D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g " . The program was o r g a n i z e d around the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board F i l m S e r i e s c a l l e d t h e NATURE 14 OF WORK, a s e r i e s made up o f s i x , h a l f - h o u r documentary f i l m s d e a l i n g w i t h v a r i o u s t y p e s o f w o r k e r s , t h e i r p r o b -lems and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Each f i l m was d e s c r i b e d i n t he b o o k l e t and a number o f q u e s t i o n s were g i v e n f o r group d i s c u s s i o n . Two o t h e r f i l m s were a l s o i n c l u d e d , one c a l l e d AUTOMATION which d e a l t w i t h t h e s o c i a l and economic e f f e c t s o f a u t o m a t i o n and a n o t h e r t w o - p a r t f i l m c a l l e d THE BARRIER wh i c h d e a l t w i t h t h e communications problems e n c o u n t e r e d between an employer and employee. Three supplementary s e r i e s were a l s o o f f e r e d i n t h i s p r o -gram: one package o f t h r e e f i l m s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o b -lems e n c o u n t e r e d by an O f f i c e S u p e r v i s o r , one s e r i e s o f f o u r f i l m s on P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s and one s e r i e s o f f o u r f i l m s on I n d u s t r i a l Management and P e r s o n n e l Management. The supplementary s e r i e s was made up o f f i l m s e s p e c i a l l y im-p o r t e d f o r a l i m i t e d t i m e . T h i s s e r i e s a l s o had d i s -c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n s and a b i b l i o g r a p h y s u p p l i e d w i t h i t . F i n a l l y , t h e b o o k l e t c o n t a i n e d a s e c t i o n d e v o t e d t o t h e use o f t h e s e . f i l m s . T h i s s e c t i o n was i n c l u d e d t o p r o v i d e some l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g f o r t h e p e o p l e who 85 were g o i n g t o use t h e Package Program w i t h t h e i r b u s i n e s s groups. The s e c t i o n was c a l l e d "10 P o i n t s F o r C o n f e r e n c e L e a d e r s " , a g u i d e t o t h e development o f group d i s c u s s i o n s : 1. Be ready - a w e l l a p p o i n t e d c o n f e r e n c e room -no d i s t r a c t i o n s . 2. Get y o u r group i n t e r e s t e d from t h e s t a r t -use case s t u d i e s - s t o r i e s - f a m i l i a r terms. 3. Have a change o f pace - keep them awake. 4. Be smooth - keep the m e e t i n g moving; don't fumble. 5. Know your m a t e r i a l - use y o u r c a s e s , f i l m s , and c h a r t s s k i l l f u l l y - p r a c t i c e b e f o r e h a n d . 6. Get t h e group i n on the d i s c u s s i o n - d e a l them i n e a r l y . 7. S t a y on t h e beam - summarize f r e q u e n t l y -know y o u r o b j e c t i v e . 8. Be s u r e i t ' s not a one-man show - be t a c t f u l -keep c o n t r o l but s t a y i n t h e background. 9. Have a sense of humour and use i t . 10. Leave them w a n t i n g more - end i n h i g h . ' I t s h o u l d be n o t e d a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t i n t h e case of the. I n d u s t r i a l K i t s o n l y t h e r e was an u l t e r i o r m o t i v e f o r d e s i g n i n g t h e k i t b e s i d e s i t s e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e . The k i t s p r o v i d e d a good o p p o r t u n i t y f o r companies t o a d v e r t i s e t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r p r o d u c t s . As t h e A u d i o - V i s u a l Co-o r d i n a t i n g Committee s t a t e d i n t h e September 196 0 i s s u e o f t h e i r magazine " A u d i o - V i s u a l i n G r e a t e r Vancouver": Companies and o r g a n i z a t i o n s who produce f i l m s f o r p u b l i c use and i n d u s t r i a l i n s t r u c t i o n a r e i n v i t e d t o p l a c e t h e i r c a t a l o g u e s o r b r o c h u r e s i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l K i t . There w i l l be a charge o f $30.00 per y e a r f o r t h i s s e r v i c e . However, we f e e l t h a t t h i s i s a s m a l l i n v e s t -ment i n what can be termed a t o p p o t e n t i a l f o r y o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t must be s t r e s s e d a g a i n , however, t h a t t h i s a d v e r t i s i n g f a c t o r a p p l i e d o n l y t o t h e I n d u s t r i a l K i t and not n e c e s -s a r i l y t o o t h e r k i t s such as t h e M e n t a l H e a l t h K i t and t h e C i t i z e n s h i p K i t . The FAE Package Program K i t proved t o be a v e r y u s e f u l d e v i c e f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s who w i shed t o i n s t i t u t e t h e i r own i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs. The k i t s were a l s o a v a i l a b l e t o members o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c who were i n t e r e s t e d i n v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s o f f e r e d . The c oncept of a package program was not unique t o t h e FAE. I n f a c t t h e FAE k i t s r e p r e s e n t e d a more e l a b o r a t e and s o p h i s t i c a t e d v e r s i o n o f an i d e a which had been d e v e l o p e d on a b r o a d e r n a t i o n a l s c a l e by t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board. D u r i n g t h e l a t e '50's and e a r l y '60's t h e F i l m Board had d e v e l o p e d c a t a l o g u e s and b r o c h u r e s l i s t i n g a number o f f i l m s w h i c h were r e l a t e d t o one a r e a o r s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t group i n Canadian s o c i e t y . These s p e c i a l c a t a l o g u e s were i n t e n d e d t o augment t h e complete NFB f i l m c a t a l o g u e ' a n d s e r v e d t o promote t h e use o f f i l m s t o c e r t a i n s e c t o r s o f t h e p o p u l a c e . A good example of such a c a t a l o g u e was F i l m s  F o r I n d u s t r y produced by t h e Board f o r t h e Canadian De-partment of Labour. T h i s c a t a l o g u e was made a v a i l a b l e t o i n d u s t r y and c o n t a i n e d l i s t i n g s not o n l y o f NFB f i l m s on i n d u s t r y b u t a l s o o f f i l m s produced and sponsored by o t h e r a g e n c i e s . Such c a t a l o g u e s s e r v e d t h e d u a l purpose o f not o n l y s u p p l y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about f i l m s but a l s o en-c o u r a g i n g b u s i n e s s groups t o use them f o r t r a i n i n g and p r o m o t i o n a l work o f t h e i r own. 5. L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g Programs One o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s which t h e FAE made t o t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e metro-p o l i t a n Vancouver a r e a was t h e c r e a t i o n o f a number o f L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g Programs. These programs were de-s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r p e o p l e who were i n v o l v e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n one way o r a n o t h e r and who were i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g f i l m s i n t h e i r own programs. A number o f work-shops and one or two day i n s t i t u t e s were d e s i g n e d t o g i v e t h e s e p e o p l e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y t h e use o f f i l m . The programs began i n a f a i r l y humble way. The f i r r e c o r d e d program was g i v e n i n October 1961 under th e j o i n t a u s p i c e s of t h e FAE and t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board. I t 15 was a P r o j e c t i o n i s t T r a i n i n g Course/ a " g r a s s - r o o t s " k i n d o f c o u r s e i n t h e fundamentals o f t h e c a r e and o p e r -a t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f p r o j e c t i o n equipment. I t was a " g r a s s - r o o t s " c o u r s e i n s o f a r as t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n g i v e n t h a t i t d e a l t w i t h a n y t h i n g more th a n t h e m e c h a n i c a l a s p e c t s o f f i l m use. There was a p p a r e n t l y no i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e f u n c t i o n a l use o f f i l m : how t o l e a d f i l m d i s -c u s s i o n s and how t o use f i l m s more e f f e c t i v e l y i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. I n September o f 1962 a more comprehensive t y p e of L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g program was h e l d a t t h e Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y . It.was c a l l e d t h e " F i l m User's C o n f e r -ence", and was d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t groups who were u s i n g t h e Package Program K i t s i n d e v e l o p i n g a more f u n c t i o n a l use o f f i l m . Three main r e s o u r c e p e o p l e were r e t a i n e d f o r t h e c o n f e r e n c e : Dr. B e r t Wales, D i r e c t o r o f t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d , P r o f e s s o r Ben W h i t t i n g e r from t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n a t U.B.C., and Dr. W i l l i a m B l a c k from t h e C i t i z e n s h i p Branch o f t h e F e d e r a l government. A n o t h e r s i m i l a r c o u r s e was o r g a n i z e d about t h e same t i m e . I t was a s i x week n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e c a l l e d "The Use and P r o j e c t i o n o f 16 F i l m s " and i t was h e l d a t t h e Vancouver V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l . The purpose o f b o t h c o u r s e s was t o i n s t r u c t group l e a d e r s and a d u l t e d u c a t o r s i n t h e p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n and use o f " f i l m , f i l m s t r i p s , s h o r t s and o t h e r v i s u a l equipment". There was a l s o i n s t r u c t i o n i n the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance o f p r o j e c t o r s and o t h e r a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment, b u t t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t o f t h e c o u r s e s was t h a t e q u a l emphasis was p l a c e d on t h e f u n c t i o n a l use o f a u d i o -v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . Each member o f t h e program was r e -q u i r e d t o r e a d a book c a l l e d A u d i o - V i s u a l M a t e r i a l s by W. A. W i t t i c h and C h a r l e s S c h u l l e r , a p o p u l a r t e x t a t t h a t t i m e on t h e use o f v a r i o u s a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s i n i n s t r u c t i o n . The above mentioned c o u r s e s were d e s i g n e d f o r a v a r i e t y o f groups i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g f i l m s i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs. However, th e FAE was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g a number o f s p e c i a l l e a d e r s h i p c o u r s e s f o r s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g roups. One such program was a two-day seminar i n October o f 1962 c a l l e d t h e " F i l m and C i t i z e n -s h i p Seminar". I t was promoted as a " f i r s t a i d " c o u r s e f o r program p l a n n e r s : "A d i s c u s s i o n o f program t o p i c s , o f a v a i l a b l e f i l m s , s p e a k e r s and program a i d s " i n t h e 17 f i e l d o f C i t i z e n s h i p t r a i n i n g . The program d i r e c t o r was Dr. W i l l i a m G. B l a c k o f t h e C i t i z e n s h i p Branch. 6. S p e c i a l Programs B e s i d e s i t s r e g u l a r programming t h e FAE was r e -s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o d u c i n g a number o f s p e c i a l programs o f v a r i o u s k i n d s , such as "The P r o v i n c e " , a s e r i e s o f f i l m 18 l e c t u r e s o f f e r e d i n 1962. T h i s was a s p e c i a l t r a v e l program o r g a n i z e d by D i c k C o l b y , C h i e f P h o t o g r a p h e r f o r the B.C. government. Mr. C o l b y showed f i l m s on B.C. and gave l e c t u r e s on a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . The s e r i e s was open t o FAE members and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and was r e s t r i c t e d t o a maximum au d i e n c e o f 4 00 p e o p l e . Some s p e c i a l programs were not f i l m programs. F o r i n s t a n c e , from J a n u a r y t o March o f 1961 t h e FAE o r g a n i z e d a p h o t o -19 g r a p h i c d i s p l a y w h i c h t o u r e d t h e Lower M a i n l a n d . I t was a d i s p l a y o f 36 award-winning photographs w h i c h had been produced by t h e S t i l l s D i v i s i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board between t h e y e a r s 1942 - 61. The d i s p l a y was c a l l e d 20 "A S a l o n o f Award Winning Photographs" and was shown a t t h e Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , t h e West Vancouver Com-munity C e n t r e , t h e New Westminster P u b l i c L i b r a r y and t h e V a r s i t y T h e a t r e . F o r t h e most p a r t t h e p i c t u r e s were t a k e n from NFB f i l m s so t h e d i s p l a y s e r v e d t h e purpose o f p r o -moting them. P r o b a b l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t s p e c i a l program i n -i t i a t e d by t h e FAE was " I n q u i r y 61" t h e f i r s t n i g h t s c h o o l 21 c o u r s e by t e l e v i s i o n m Western Canada. T h i s was p r o -duced t h r o u g h t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e "S e a r c h f o r Know-l e d g e " d i v i s i o n o f FAE, t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department o f the Vancouver S c h o o l Board, t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m B oard, t h e Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , and CHAN-TV, Channel 8 i n Van-c o u v e r . I t was a s e r i e s o f seven h a l f - h o u r programs on Sunday a f t e r n o o n from 3:30 PM t o 4:00 PM. The program ra n from October 1 0 t h t o November 2 6 t h , 1961. The h o s t f o r t h e s e r i e s was Dr. W i l l i a m G. G i b s o n , Kinsmen P r o -f e s s o r o f N e u r o l o g i c a l R esearch a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. The g u e s t s who a c t e d as r e s o u r c e p e o p l e were from a l l w a l k s o f l i f e : Dr. Dean Anderson - P r e s i d e n t o f World A f f a i r s C o u n c i l , P o r t l a n d Oregon. Dr. James E. Royce - P s y c h o l o g y Department, U n i -v e r s i t y o f S e a t t l e . 91 Joe Miyazawa - I.W.A. Research D i r e c t o r . Bob M c D o n e l l - Canadian M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n . Dr. Joe Lagey - D i r e c t o r o f R e s e a r c h . Mrs. M. H. Ginsberg. - Community C h e s t . Dean H. Goard - A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , Vancouver S c h o o l Board. R. L. W i c k s , - S u p e r v i s o r o f Employment, N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e . John Monk - A s s i s t a n t P e r s o n n e l Manager, C i t y H a l l . J i m W i l s o n - R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board. M i c h a e l T y t h e r l e i g h - Vancouver P r o v i n c e newspaper. Dr. C y r i l Belshaw - UN T r a i n i n g C e n t r e , U.B.C. Norma C h r i s t i e - B a r r i s t e r . The s e r i e s d e a l t w i t h a v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s and had as i t s g e n e r a l theme a s t u d y o f r e l e v a n t s o c i a l i s s u e s and t h e s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Western World. The f o l l o w i n g t i t l e s i l l u s t r a t e i t s n a t u r e : 1. A Way To Freedom 2. M i n d s , Men and Machines 3. C h a l l e n g e o f A g i n g 4. Unemployment o r E d u c a t i o n , Which? 5. S t r e s s e s o f Our Times 6. M i s c o n c e p t i o n s H e l d by Western Man 7. R e b e l i n Our M i d s t A r e g i s t r a t i o n f e e was s e t f o r t h o s e i n t h e a u d i e n c e who w i s h e d t o t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n t h e programs. On payment o f t h e f e e each p a r t i c i p a n t r e c e i v e d an " I n q u i r y 61 K i t " which c o n t a i n e d seven s e p a r a t e t o p i c f o l d e r s f o r each program, i n f o r m a t i o n on a l l t h e g u e s t s p e a k e r s , back-ground i n f o r m a t i o n on each t o p i c l i s t i n g t h e b a s i c i s s u e s 92 t o be d i s c u s s e d , s u g g ested r e a d i n g s f o r each program and a s e r i e s o f d i s c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were en-couraged t o o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s i n t o v i e w i n g groups t o d i s c u s s t h e i s s u e s brought out i n each program and t o d i s c u s s t h e q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n t h e k i t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a t t h i s l a t e d a t e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n t h e e f f e c t s w h i c h t h i s program had on t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . Any e v a l u a t i o n would have t o be based on p e r s o n a l r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e s e r i e s . One t h i n g which i s . q u i t e a p p a r e n t however i s t h a t t h e s e r i e s was w e l l o r g a n i z e d , t h e r e s o u r c e p e o p l e were e x p e r t s i n t h e i r r e -s p e c t i v e f i e l d s and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e K i t t o ac-company programs r e p r e s e n t e d an i m p r e s s i v e attempt t o make them as s t r u c t u r e d an e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e as p o s s i b l e . I t i s a p i t y t h a t t h i s was one o f t h e o n l y s e r i e s o f i t s k i n d a t t e m p t e d on l o c a l t e l e v i s i o n . I t might have l e d t o more a t t e m p t s t o produce a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs w h i c h would have h e l p e d t o f i l l a v o i d w h i c h e x i s t e d i n t e l e v i s i o n programming i n t h e Vancouver a r e a up u n t i l t h e r e c e n t advent of c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n . V. PROGRAM EVALUATION The whole q u e s t i o n o f the e v a l u a t i o n o f FAE programs i s a r a t h e r t h o r n y one. There a r e no d a t a a v a i l a b l e t oday as t o how much and what k i n d o f e v a l u a t i o n was done o f FAE programs. I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e A d u l t Edu-c a t i o n Department o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board d i d some e v a l u a t i o n o f FAE programs which t h e y were i n v o l v e d i n , but t h i s i s o n l y an assumption f o r t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t i t . However, from one p i e c e o f d a t a r e m a i n i n g i t i s p o s s i b l e t o v e n t u r e an educated guess as t o what c r i t e r i o n t h e FAE used t o evaluate, t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e i r programs. I t i s a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by t h e NFB D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e , B i l l O r r on May 29, 1962, t o v a r i o u s p e o p l e and a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e FAE programs i n w h i c h O r r a n a l y z e s t h e FAE programs f o r 1962/63 and com-p a r e s them w i t h programs produced i n 1961/62. He uses as h i s c r i t e r i a , t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e programs as r e f l e c t e d by: ( i ) i n c r e a s e i n a u d i e n c e numbers ( i i ) i n c r e a s e i n numbers of c e n t r e s i n t e r -e s t e d i n h o l d i n g FAE programs I n o t h e r words, i f we r e f e r t o t h e s e c t i o n on e v a l u a t i o n 22 i n C h a p t e r I I we f i n d t h e same g e n e r a l s o r t o f c r i t e r i o n f o r s u c c e s s b e i n g used i n t h e FAE programs as was used i n t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board programs. An i n c r e a s e i n the numbers of p e o p l e u s i n g f i l m s and b o o k i n g f i l m s was an i n d i c a t i o n o f s u c c e s s f o r t h e Board. And o f c o u r s e viewed i n t h o s e ' t e r m s , t h e numbers of FAE programs produced i n t h e 12 y e a r p e r i o d from 195 9/66 d i d i n d i c a t e t h e s u c c e s s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f FAE programs - was s k e t c h y and i n c o m p l e t e , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n -v o l v e d i n e v a l u a t i o n . Two noteworthy i n s t r u m e n t s were d e v e l o p e d by t h e FAE (see Appendix E and F ) . One was a g e n e r a l t y p e o f i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h was d i s t r i b u t e d t o p e o p l e who booked f i l m s t h r o u g h FAE. I t s purpose was t o o b t a i n r e a c t i o n s ' t o the f i l m s w h i c h would form a b a s i s f o r j u d g -i n g t h e p o p u l a r i t y and u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e f i l m s . The second e v a l u a t i o n form was one which was d e v e l o p e d spe-c i f i c a l l y f o r a program o f award-winning NFB f i l m s c a l l e d " F e s t i v a l o f Canadiana" h e l d i n a l o c a l Vancouver t h e a t r e . The purpose o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t was t o a s s e s s t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e program and t h e f i l m s and was t o form a b a s i s f o r j u d g i n g whether o r not t o attempt o t h e r s i m i l a r t y p e s o f programming. V I . THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE FAE TO ADULT EDUCATION The main c o n t r i b u t i o n w h i c h t h e FAE program made t o t h e development o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver a r e a was t h a t o f a c t i v e l y p r o -m o t i n g t h e use o f f i l m . F i l m programs f o r a d u l t s i n Van-couver had never been t o o p o p u l a r . The f a c t t h a t Vancouver was a c i t y w i t h v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r a d u l t s made i t h a r d e r f o r t h e F i l m Board t o d e v e l o p a d u l t f i l m programs t h a n i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s where l e s s v a r i e t y was 23 a v a i l a b l e . The FAE was a s u c c e s s l a r g e l y because i t was an a s s o c i a t i o n made up o f a number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s who were concerned about p r o m o t i n g t h e use o f f i l m s i n the community. I n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s might n o t have been s u c c e s s f u l but by p o o l i n g t h e i r r e s o u r c e s , b o t h p h y s i c a l and f i n a n c i a l , t h e y were a b l e t o produce more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t y p e s o f programming and t h e y were a b l e t o o f f e r a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f programs from w h i c h t o choose A l s o t h e v e r y f a c t the groups making up t h e FAE were p r o -f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n o f one s o r t o r a n o t h e r l e n t an a i r o f l e g i t i m a c y t o t h e programs. P e o p l e went t o them f e e l i n g t h a t t h e y were r e a l l y g o i n g t o a t t e n d an " e d u c a t i o n a l " a c t i v i t y and not m e r e l y t o be e n t e r t a i n e d . Such a statement i s n o t meant t o i n s i n u a t e t h a t e i t h e r t h e o r g a n i z e r s o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s s u f f e r e d from any form o f c snobbery. On t h e c o n t r a r y t h e programs were worthy o f such an a t t i t u d e . They were w e l l o r g a n i z e d by p e o p l e who were p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e i r f i e l d s and t h e programs were a t t e n d e d by p e o p l e who had more th a n j u s t a p a s s i n g i n t e r e s t i n f i l m s . They were p e o p l e who were g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n f i l m as an i n f o r m a t i o n medium, p e o p l e who 25 wanted t o "expand t h e i r h o r i z o n s " t h r o u g h f i l m . 96 CHAPTER IV FOOTNOTES ^ A u d i o - V i s u a l i n G r e a t e r Vancouver, I , 1, (1959/60), p. 3. 2 F i l m i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n s t a t e m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s was c o n t a i n e d i n a form l e t t e r p r o m o t i n g t h e FAE (date unkown). 3 E x t r a c t e d from an FAE g e n e r a l membership l e t t e r d a t e d 1959. 4 E x t r a c t e d from an A u d i o - V i s u a l C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee p r o m o t i o n a l l e t t e r d a t e d 1955. 5 S e e F i l m o g r a p h y under WILDLIFE IN THE ROCKIES f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i l m . A u d i o - V i s u a l i n G r e a t e r Vancouver, op. c i t . , p. 3. 7 See F i l m o g r a p h y under CHAIRY TALE f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i l m , g See Chapter I I f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f Urban C i r c u i t programs. 9 Programs were h e l d a t t h e Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , a t t h e K i t s i l a n o H i g h S c h o o l , a t t h e West Vancouver Com--munity C e n t r e , a t t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r P u b l i c L i b r a r y , and i n N o r t h Vancouver a t Queen Mary S c h o o l . 1 0 T h e term " e d u c a t i o n a l " as i t i s used here s h o u l d be q u a l i f i e d . F o r a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f what i t meant t o the D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e and how t h e p h i l o s o p h y b e h i n d t h e term a f f e c t e d t h e programs which he produced, see C h a p t e r V under t h e h e a d i n g The R o l e o f  t h e NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n Program E v a l u a t i o n . "'"''"Interview w i t h C. W. M a r s h a l l . A c c o r d i n g t o h i s d e f i n i t i o n s , " ' l e a d e r - d i r e c t e d 1 d i s c u s s i o n meant j u s t t h a t ; t h e NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n i t i a t e d t h e d i s c u s s i o n . I n ' g r o u p - c e n t e r e d ' d i s c u s s i o n t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e m e r e l y showed t h e f i l m t h e n s t o o d back 'to see what happened'. 97 I n e v i t a b l y t h e t e n s i o n amongst t h e group became so much t h a t someone had t o s t a r t t a l k i n g " . 12 A u d i o - V i s u a l i n G r e a t e r Vancouver, I , 1, (1959), p. 4. 13 See Appendix D under "The World o f B u s i n e s s and I n d u s t r y " . 14 See F i l m o g r a p h y under NATURE OF WORK f o r a com-p l e t e l i s t i n g o f t h e s e f i l m s w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s . 15 A u d i o - V i s u a l i n G r e a t e r Vancouver, I I I (Sept. 1960) , p. 6. 1 6 I b i d . , , p . 4. 17 S p e c i a l FAE p r o m o t i o n l e a f l e t . 18 Documentary Showcase p r o m o t i o n a l b r o c h u r e , 1961/62. 1 9 F A E b r o c h u r e , 1961/62. 20 FAE s p e c i a l p r o m o t i o n a l b r o c h u r e . 21 FAE s p e c i a l p r o m o t i o n a l b r o c h u r e , 1961. 22 See C h a p t e r I I under Programs and Program E v a l u - a t i o n . 23 I n t e r v i e w w i t h C. W. M a r s h a l l . 24 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Jan Clemson, D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i t h t h e NFB. 25 M a r s h a l l , op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . CHAPTER V NFB PROGRAMS THROUGHOUT B.C. A l t h o u g h t h e FAE p o p u l a r i z e d t h e use of f i l m s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver a r e a , s i m i l a r programs had been i n o p e r a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e f o r many y e a r s b e f o r e FAE. The Board had been p r o d u c i n g f i l m programs f o r a d u l t s i n B.C. as e a r l y as 1 9 5 3 , 1 and had f i r s t become i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e f u n c t i o n a l use o f f i l m as e a r l y as 1947. No s p e c i f i c d a t a a r e a v a i l -a b l e t oday about what k i n d s o f programs were i n i t i a t e d from 1953 t o 1962 o r how many o f them t h e r e were, but on t h e b a s i s of h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by p e o p l e who 2 worked f o r t h e NFB m B.C. d u r i n g i t s e a r l i e r y e a r s i t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t f i l m programs f o r a d u l t s f e l l r o u g h l y i n t o t h e f i v e major c a t e g o r i e s d e a l t w i t h i n Chapter IV. For i n s t a n c e , t h e Board was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o -d u c i n g G e n e r a l I n t e r e s t F i l m S e r i e s programs o f a l l k i n d s t o promote'the use o f f i l m s i n community a c t i v i t i e s and e s p e c i a l l y t o h e l p promote t h e F i l m C o u n c i l movement. The Board a l s o i n i t i a t e d a g r e a t number o f P r o j e c t i o n i s t T r a i n i n g c o u r s e s d u r i n g t h e l a t e '40's and e a r l y '50's. They a r e b e s t d e s c r i b e d as L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g Programs and t h e y were m o s t l y d i r e c t e d towards t h e F i l m C o u n c i l s i n an at t e m p t t o t r a i n F i l m C o u n c i l p e r s o n n e l i n t h e c a r e and maintenance o f equipment and f i l m s so t h e y c o u l d t a k e o v e r from the F i l m Board r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own 3 programs. I . FACTORS AFFECTING THE INITIATION OF PROGRAMS A number o f f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e i n i t i a t i o n o f f i l m programs f o r a d u l t s i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s were d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e a f f e c t i n g t h e development o f programs i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver a r e a . G e n e r a l l y speaking,\:.the r u r a l communities l a c k e d exposure t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o -4 grams w h i c h i n v o l v e d t h e F i l m i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n t y p e . W h i l e P u b l i c . S c h o o l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments had be-come q u i t e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e Vancouver a r e a by 1962, t h e y were o n l y b e g i n n i n g t o d e v e l o p i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s o f B.C. and some r u r a l communities had no a d u l t edu-5 c a t i o n departments a t a l l . Because o f i t s l a r g e and d i v e r s i f i e d p o p u l a t i o n Vancouver c o u l d s u p p o r t an o r g a n i -z a t i o n l i k e FAE t o promote t h e : u s e o f f i l m i n a d u l t edu-c a t i o n programs w h i l e t h e s m a l l e r communities i n t h e p r o v i n c e c o u l d n o t . T h e r e f o r e , i n many c a s e s i t was up t o t h e NFB D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o i n i t i a t e p r o -grams o f h i s own. I f t h e r e was a D i r e c t o r o f A d u l t Edu-c a t i o n i n t h e community, t h e NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e would make i t a p o i n t t o meet w i t h him and o f f e r h i s s e r v i c e s t o the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department f o r any programs t h e y might want t o i n i t i a t e . O f t e n t h e r e s u l t o f such a c o a l i t i o n 100 between t h e NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e and t h e D i s t r i c t A d u l t E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r was t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f programs w h i c h f u l f i l l e d t h e needs o f bo t h p a r t i e s . I n some ca s e s t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e might d e l i b e r a t e l y approach t h e l o c a l A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department w i t h an i d e a o f h i s own which c o u l d be co-s p o n s o r e d by b o t h t h e Board and t h e S c h o o l 7 D i s t r i c t . The numbers o f programs i n i t i a t e d l a r g e l y depended on t h e s i z e o f the community; the s m a l l e r t h e community, g the fewer t h e programs. The r u r a l a r e a s c o u l d n ot a f f o r d a b l a n k e t - t y p e p r o m o t i o n as t h e FAE c o u l d i n Vancouver. In a d d i t i o n , t h e D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r e was more demand f o r s p e c i a l t y p e s o f f i l m programs i n t h e s m a l l e r communities t h a n f o r programs o f f e r e d i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver a r e a . A l s o , p e o p l e i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s r e q u i r e d l i t t l e o r no 9 e n t i c e m e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n f i l m programs. Two o t h e r f a c t o r s tended t o a f f e c t . t h e t y p e o f programs o f f e r e d i n t h e r u r a l communities. The f i r s t f a c t o r was t h e p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e o f t h e community. I n some areas the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e found t h a t o r d i n a r y G e n e r a l  I n t e r e s t F i l m S e r i e s were more p o p u l a r t h a n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s . 1 0 I n one case an NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e w o r k i n g i n t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y a r e a d i s c o v e r e d t h a t he c o u l d en-courage more p a r t i c i p a t i o n i f he o f f e r e d an a d u l t edu-c a t i o n t y p e f i l m c o u r s e u s i n g s p e a k e r s , d i s c u s s i o n groups 101 and so on. I f he o f f e r e d a G e n e r a l I n t e r e s t F i l m S e r i e s i t was r e g a r d e d as an " e n t e r t a i n m e n t " program and n o t an " e d u c a t i o n a l " program. T h e r e f o r e , i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , F i l m S e r i e s were k e p t t o a minimum. T h i s " f a c t " about the a t t i t u d e o f a u d i e n c e s towards d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f p r o -grams was not based on v a l i d r e s e a r c h by t h e NFB Repre-s e n t a t i v e . R a t h e r , i t was based on h i s e x p e r i e n c e w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f programming i n t h e a r e a . The v a l i d i t y o f such an assumption i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , but i t i s an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t t o mention because such assump-t i o n s d i d a f f e c t t h e k i n d s o f programming a t t e m p t e d by t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The second f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the t y p e s o f programs i n i t i a t e d by t h e NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e was h i s own p e r s o n a l b i a s e s and i n t e r e s t s . I f h i s i n t e r e s t s tended towards s o c i o l o g y and community development t h e s e i n t e r e s t s were r e f l e c t e d t o some e x t e n t i n the k i n d s o f programs he a t -12 tempted. He had t h e freedom t o dp t h i s under t h e man-da t e g i v e n him by- t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m A c t . As l o n g as he was " i n t e r p r e t i n g Canada t o Canadians" he c o u l d be as i n n o v a t i v e as he wished. The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e NFB was c o n s t a n t l y l o o k i n g f o r new i d e a s and each i n n o v a t i o n w hich h e l p e d t o promote th e F i l m Board and i t s f i l m s was 13 r e g a r d e d as a u s e f u l p r o j e c t by t h e D i r e c t o r s . E x c e p t i n c e r t a i n c a s e s where t h e e x e c u t i v e s o f the NFB r e c o g n i z e d t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f a c e r t a i n p o l i c y 102 t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e a ttempt t o c o n t r o l t h e t y p e s o f 14 programs w h i c h t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e attempted. One such p o l i c y was t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e f i l m - d i s c u s s i o n t e c h n i q u e w h i c h was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o B.C. around 1953 by the Head O f f i c e o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board. The D i r e c t o r s o f D i s t r i b u t i o n f e l t t h a t t h i s would be a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e t o i n v o l v e f i l m a u d i e n c e s a c t i v e l y . Each R e p r e s e n t a t i v e was i n s t r u c t e d i n t h e use o f t h e f i l m - d i s c u s s i o n t e c h n i q u e and was encouraged t o use i t . 1 ^ However, such examples o f d e l i b e r a t e d i r e c t i o n from t h e NFB 1s Head O f f i c e a r e r a r e . The R e p r e s e n t a t i v e was m a i n l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 16 i n i t i a t i n g h i s own k i n d s o f programs. He had t o r e l y on h i s own i m a g i n a t i o n and i n many ca s e s h i s own i n t e r e s t s were r e f l e c t e d i n what he produced. I I . THE RURAL PROGRAMS F a i r l y comprehensive d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n -i n g t h e R u r a l programs produced i n B.C. a f t e r 1962. U s i n g t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s d e v e l o p e d t o d e f i n e t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f FAE programs t h e f o l l o w i n g p a t t e r n emerges from a s t u d y o f t h e s e R u r a l programs: 1. F i l m S e r i e s - G e n e r a l I n t e r e s t The R u r a l programs under t h i s c a t e g o r y were l i k e t he G e n e r a l I n t e r e s t F i l m S e r i e s o f f e r e d by t h e FAE i n s o f a r as t h e g e n e r a l purpose was t o p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o v i d e e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t groups. The 103 programs f o l l o w e d t h e same g e n e r a l f o r m a t . They were u s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d a t n i g h t and were co- s p o n s o r e d by t h e NFB and v a r i o u s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments. The l o c a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n department would e i t h e r i n c l u d e them i n t h e i r r e g u l a r N i g h t S c h o o l Program o r t h e y would o f f e r the s e r i e s as a s p e c i a l bonus a t some time d u r i n g t h e r e g u l a r n i g h t s c h o o l y e a r . Each program c o n s i s t e d o n l y o f a s e r i e s o f f i l m showings. There were no s p e a k e r s , no t i m e was a f f o r d e d f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e f i l m s and u s u a l l y no supplementary m a t e r i a l such as r e a d i n g l i s t s was o f f e r e d . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e F i l m S e r i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e were a l s o c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d themes such as "The Canadian Scene on F i l m " , "A Canadian M o s a i c o f Photo and F i l m " , "Canadian J o u r n e y 1963" whi c h were p o p u l a r . One no t e w o r t h y s e r i e s o f t h i s k i n d was produced i n 1968. I t was c a l l e d " A l l About Canada" and f e a t u r e d t e n e v e n i n g programs o f f i l m s on n a t u r e s t u d y , p o r t r a i t s o f v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups who l i v e i n Canada, f i l m s on d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s such as m i n i n g , f i s h i n g and t r a v e l f i l m s . A complete d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e r i e s i s g i v e n i n Appendix G. B r i e f l y , t h e p u r -pose was " t o h e l p p e o p l e broaden t h e i r knowledge about Canada and i t s p e o p l e " and was s t r i c t l y i n f o r m a t i o n a l . A n o t h e r p o p u l a r t y p e o f F i l m S e r i e s program was the P r o m o t i o n a l S e r i e s . I t was made up o f a m i x t u r e o f new f i l m s and t h e purpose was t o promote t h e use o f t h e s e new f i l m s w i t h i n t h e community. A good example o f a P r o -m o t i o n a l S e r i e s was one c a l l e d "An E x h i b i t i o n o f New F i l m s a t w o - p a r t s e r i e s h e l d a t S t . A l b a n ' s Church, A s h c r o f t B.C on September 26th and 2 9 t h , 1963. The program was c o -s ponsored by the A s h c r o f t Community F i l m S e r v i c e and t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board. I t was a d v e r t i s e d as a " f r e e e x h i -b i t i o n o f o u t s t a n d i n g new f i l m s f o r a l l t o e n j o y " . The purpose o f t h e s e r i e s was t o "promote new f i l m s made a v a i l a b l e by t h e NFB f o r community use". A secondary purpose was t o promote "a g r e a t e r awareness o f f i l m " w i t h i n t h e community. Each program c o n t a i n e d a number of f i l m s on 18 d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s : Program I CORRAL - r o p i n g and r i d i n g o f a h i g h - s p i r i t e d , h a l f - b r o k e n h o r s e p r o v i d e s v i s u a l p o e t r y . POLITICAL DYNAMITE - a group o f a r d e n t c u r l e r s c l a s h w i t h r i g h t e o u s l a d i e s o v e r t h e h o t i s s u e o f Sunday C u r l i n g i n C r o c u s , Saskatchewan. MY FINANCIAL CAREER - an animated c a r t o o n d i s -p l a y i n g Stephen Leacock's w i t t y a c c o u n t of a young man's f i r s t b r u s h w i t h b a n k i n g . ON STAGE - a s t o r y of what happens when an ama-t e u r group i n an average town d e c i d e t o p u t on a p l a y - from c h o i c e o f c a s t t o f i n i s h e d p e r -formance . CATTLE RANCH - the l i f e o f t h e Cowboy - f i l m e d i n s p e c t a c u l a r c o l o u r on and around the Douglas Lake Ranch i n t h e N i c o l a V a l l e y . Program I I A CHAIRY TALE - a humorous f a i r y t a l e i n a modern manner. The s t o r y o f a y o u t h and a c h a i r - how-e v e r , t h i s i s no o r d i n a r y c h a i r . KLEE WYCK - t h e s t o r y o f E m i l y C a r r , shown t h r o u g h her canvasses and the s u r r o u n d i n g s where t h e y were p a i n t e d . LONELY BOY - a r e v e a l i n g f i l m account o f the Canadian p o p s - s i n g e r P a u l Anka. T h i s f i l m shows how an e n t e r t a i n e r becomes an i d o l t o m i l l i o n s o f w o r s h i p p i n g a d o l e s c e n t s . MAN OF MUSIC - an i n t i m a t e p o r t r a i t o f composer, c o n d u c t o r , c h o i r m a s t e r , o r g a n i s t and t e a c h e r , H e a l y W i l l a n , who has d e v o t e d a l i f e t i m e t o m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n Canada. NAHANNI - the v i v i d a ccount o f an a g i n g p r o s p e c t o r s e a r c h i n g f o r a l o s t g o l d mine beyond the He a d l e s s V a l l e y f a r up t h e t r e a c h e r o u s Nahanni R i v e r i n t h e N orthwest T e r r i t o r i e s . - B r e a t h t a k i n g s c e n e r y . 2. E n r i c h m e n t Programs The e v i d e n c e would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e En-r i c h m e n t Program, which was a p o p u l a r t y p e w i t h t h e FAE, was not p o p u l a r w i t h t h e NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who i n i t i a t e d programs i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s o r w i t h t h e a u d i e n c e s i n t h e s e a r e a s . Out o f 52 which were a n a l y z e d f o r t h i s s t u d y , o n l y one appears t o q u a l i f y as an Enrichment Program. The o t h e r s are e i t h e r G e n e r a l I n t e r e s t F i l m S e r i e s programs o r may be c l a s s i f i e d as I n s t r u c t i o n a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o -grams. The t i t l e o f t h e one Enrichment Program was t h e "McLaren F e s t i v a l " . I t was a s e r i e s o f two showings de-v o t e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l f i l m s produced by Norman McLaren A complete o u t l i n e appears i n Appendix H. B r i e f l y , t h e purpose, was " [ t o ] p r e s e n t t o t h e p e o p l e o f a s m a l l com-munity t h e i m p r e s s i v e a r t o f a w o r l d renowned Canadian f i l m m a k e r " . The programs were o f f e r e d i n t h e s m a l l com-106 munity o f G i b s o n ' s L a n d i n g on t h e S e c h e l t P e n n i n s u l a . Each n i g h t a s e l e c t e d number o f McLaren's f i l m s were i n -t r o d u c e d and shown by M a r g u e r i t e Roozeboom, an e x p e r i e n c e d f i l m a n i m a t o r who l i v e d i n Vancouver. Mrs. Roozeboom d e s c r i b e d how each f i l m was made and d i s c u s s e d t h e d i f -f e r e n t t e c h n i q u e s McLaren used. There i s no e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s s e r i e s was a n y t h i n g more than an Enrichment Program. The f i l m s were the main a t t r a c t i o n w h i l e t h e l e c t u r e s were added mer e l y t o enhance t h e program. I t was p r i m a r i l y an i n -f o r m a t i o n t y p e o f showing w i t h l i t t l e o r no a p p a r e n t op-p o r t u n i t y f o r f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n about th e f i l m s d u r i n g the c o u r s e . I n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n m i g h t have occurred) b u t t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t any d i s c u s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s were d e l i b e r a t e l y i n c l u d e d i n an attempt t o e l i c i t . : r e s p o n s e s from t h e a u d i e n c e . 3. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programs F o r t h i s s t u d y d a t a were a v a i l a b l e f o r t w e n t y - f o u r I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programs i n i t i a t e d by t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n Repre-s e n t a t i v e s . These c o u l d be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o two major t h e m a t i c s u b d i v i s i o n s : programs d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s t u d y o f a number of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i s s u e s and programs d e a l -i n g w i t h t h e s t u d y o f f i l m as an a r t form o r f i l m as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e o t h e r f i n e a r t s . S o c i a 1 s t u d i e s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l programs d e a l i n g 107 w i t h s o c i a l i s s u e s tended t o be o f two t y p e s : t h o s e w h i c h were d i r e c t e d towards g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t groups and d e a l t w i t h t h e s t u d y o f s o c i e t y i n g e n e r a l , and t h o s e w h i c h were concerned w i t h some s p e c i f i c a s p e c t o f s o c i e t y w h i c h would a p p e a l t o some s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t group. A good example o f a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t program was one c a l l e d "Change and 19 S o c i a l D i s o r d e r " . The theme was "[a] p r o b i n g v i e w i n t o t h e e f f e c t s o f change and s o c i a l d i s o r d e r " . I t was a " f i l m d i s c u s s i o n program f e a t u r i n g p a n e l i s t s w o r k i n g i n v a r i o u s a r e a s o f s o c i a l change", and i t was c o - s p o n s o r e d by t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board and t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department o f t h e L a n g l e y S c h o o l Board. The programs were o r g a n i z e d around a s e r i e s o f p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s were g i v e n f o r t h e a u d i e n c e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d i s -c u s s i o n s . Program I I s Our S o c i e t y R e a l l y S i c k ? P a n e l : ( i ) N i c k P r o z n i c k , S u p e r v i s o r o f L a n g l e y W e l f a r e O f f i c e , ( i i ) A l Simpson, C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t , L a n g l e y S c h o o l Board, ( i i i ) C o l i n S t e w a r t , I n s t r u c t o r , H i s t o r y o f A r t , Vancouver S c h o o l o f A r t . ( i v ) Moderator - Mervyn D a v i e s , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , John Howard S o c i e t y . Program I I P o v e r t y I s Here and Now Speaker: B r i d g e t Moran - e x - s o c i a l w o rker, f i r e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n -ment f o r her outspoken c r i t i c i s m o f our p r o v i n c e ' s s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o -gram. 1 0 8 Program I I I No Racism Here? P a n e l e d by Bob Joseph o f t h e Vancouver I n d i a n C e n t r e . Program IV Upside-Down V a l u e s S u r p r i s e speaker. Program V Can We M a s t e r Change? Speaker: Dave P e l l i n o f t h e Vancouver A c t i v a t o r s U n i t . There were enough s o c i a l i s s u e s d e a l t w i t h t o a p p e a l t o v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t groups. The r e s o u r c e p e o p l e were a l l r e c o g n i z e d as e x p e r t s i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d s , b ut t h e most i m p o r t a n t p o i n t was t h e f a c t t h a t i t was p r i m a r i l y an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e w i t h t h e F i l m Board a c t i n g as one o f t h e many r e s o u r c e groups i n v o l v e d . L i k e t h e FAE programs, when f i l m s were used i n t h i s s e r i e s t h e y were used as d e v i c e s t o i l l u s t r a t e p o i n t s brought out by 20 the r e s o u r c e p e o p l e . F i l m s were not t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r t h e program, i n f a c t t h e y were not even mentioned i n t h e p r o m o t i o n a l b r o c h u r e . A good example o f a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t program f o r a d u l t s was one c a l l e d "The F a m i l y - Where Are We Going" which was o f f e r e d under th e j o i n t a u s p i c e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department o f t h e C h i l l i w a c k S c h o o l D i s t r i c t and t h e C h i l l i w a c k M i n i s t e r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . The c e n t r a l theme o f t h i s seven-week n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e was t o examine " t r e n d s , problems, developments, and com-p l e x i t i e s o f t h e modern f a m i l y " . The purpose o f t h e s e r i e s was t o "encourage c u r i o u s and i n t e r e s t e d a d u l t s t o e x p l o r e 109 by way o f f i l m and d i s c u s s i o n what makes f a m i l y l i f e work, why i t br e a k s down and how f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be p r e s e r v e d i n our complex s o c i e t y " . F o r a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t of t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e s e r i e s see Appendix I . The f i l m as a r t . The I n s t r u c t i o n a l programs o f f e r e d under t h i s h e a d i n g f e l l r o u g h l y i n t o two s u b d i v i s i o n s : (1) c o u r s e s on t h e mass media w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n b e i n g p a i d t o f i l m and, (2) c o u r s e s on the a r t s i n g e n e r a l u s i n g r e l a t e d f i l m s . A good example o f a program on t h e mass media was a f o u r week c o u r s e o f f e r e d by the New West-m i n s t e r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department and t h e NFB c a l l e d "Mass Media and You". I t was d e s i g n e d " [ t o ] a c q u a i n t t h o s e i n -t e r e s t e d i n t h e communications a r t s w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l consequences o f f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n " . F o r a more d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e o f t h e c o u r s e see Appendix J . Ano t h e r more complex program c a l l e d "The Medium, The Massage and You" was o f f e r e d i n J a n u a r y , F e b r u a r y and March o f 1969 under the j o i n t d i r e c t i o n o f t h e F i l m Board and t h e YMCA (see Appendix K ) . I t used a workshop fo r m a t i n which t h e l e a r n e r s were r e q u i r e d t o produce t h e i r own f i l m . The workshop method became p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r amongst, t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y conducted L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g programs. One a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program i n t h e a r t s which used f i l m m a i n l y as an i n f o r m a t i o n d e v i c e , and not as an o b j e c t o f s t u d y , was c a l l e d " E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Sound". I t was 110 d e s i g n e d t o "demonstrate and d i s c u s s c hanging a t t i t u d e s t o t h e A r t s " by e x a m i n i n g t h e e v o l u t i o n o f music from Bach t o modern e l e c t r o n i c m u sic. See Appendix L f o r a d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e . " E x p l o r a t i o n s i n Sound" was noteworthy because o f a new i n n o v a t i o n which was i n t r o d u c e d : t h e use o f a " h o t - l i n e " r a d i o show t o e v a l u a t e t h e program. " O p e n - l i n e r a d i o programmes gave p e o p l e a chance t o a i r t h e i r r e a c t i o n s [to t h e s e r i e s ] w h i c h ranged from e n t h u s i a s m t o o u t r i g h t h o s t i l i t y " . 4. Package Program K i t s There i s no e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e NFB Repre-s e n t a t i v e s e i t h e r c r e a t e d Package Program K i t s o f t h e i r own t o be used i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s o r t h a t t h e y even used t h o s e c r e a t e d by anyone e l s e . There i s o n l y one program of t h e 52 a n a l y z e d f o r t h i s s t u d y w h i c h might c l a s s i f y as a Package K i t . T h i s was t h e " C e n t e n n i a l Package Program" c r e a t e d i n 1967 by t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board i n M o n t r e a l and p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h o u t a l l o f Canada. A l t h o u g h i t was c a l l e d a "Package Program" i t was r e a l l y n o t h i n g more t h a n a number o f t r a v e l f i l m s and f i l m s c e l e b r a t i n g Canada's C e n t e n n i a l which were o r g a n i z e d i n t o h o u r - l o n g p r e s e n t a t i o n s and promoted t o communities t h r o u g h o u t Canada w h i c h were i n t e r e s t e d i n o r g a n i z i n g f i l m showings o f t h e i r own. I t was s t r i c t l y an e n t e r t a i n m e n t and i n f o r m a t i o n package which th e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were c a l l e d upon t o promote i n t h e i r I l l v a r i o u s a r e a s . The Package Program K i t t h e r e f o r e appears t o have been a d i s t r i b u t i o n method unique t o the FAE f o r t h e FAE Package Programs were n o t a v a i l a b l e t o i n d i v i d u a l s and groups o u t s i d e o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . The r e a s o n was t h a t d i s t r i b u t i o n was h a n d l e d by t h e Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y and t h e L i b r a r y , as a m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n , had no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o d i s t r i b u t e m a t e r i a l o u t s i d e o f t h e 21 G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . 5. L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g Programs L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g programs f o l l o w e d an i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n o f e v o l u t i o n . D u r i n g t h e l a t e 194 0's and e a r l y 1950's t h e y had been d e s i g n e d m a i n l y t o t r a i n l e a d e r s i n the c a r e and o p e r a t i o n o f a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment. These c o u r s e s were m a i n l y concerned w i t h t e a c h i n g s k i l l s . There seems t o have been l i t t l e o r no i n s t r u c t i o n i n how t o use m a t e r i a l s . By t h e m i d d l e 1950's t h e programs had e v o l v e d beyond t h e l e v e l o f s k i l l l e a r n i n g and more emphasis was b e i n g p l a c e d on t h e f u n c t i o n a l use o f f i l m such as t h e e f f e c t i v e use o f f i l m d i s c u s s i o n s . The s t r u c t u r e o f the programs had become more' s o p h i s t i c a t e d , t h e r e s o u r c e p e o p l e c o n d u c t i n g them were b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d , and t h e r e were b e t t e r t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o use l a t e r i n t h e i r own programs. One f a c t o r remained t h e same t h r o u g h o u t a l l o f t h e s e 112 programs. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were b e i n g t r a i n e d t o use m a t e r i a l s w h i c h were a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e . W h i l e t h e NFB was p r o d u c i n g many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f f i l m s on many d i f -f e r e n t t o p i c s , s t i l l , t h e y c o u l d n ot have been e x p e c t e d t o c o v e r e v e r y a r e a a n d , s a t i s f y e v e r y i n t e r e s t . The Board was committed t o p r o d u c i n g f i l m s i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , i n most c a s e s , the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e f i l m s had t o be o f a g e n e r a l n a t u r e i n o r d e r t o be a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y . The problem was t h a t sometimes s p e c i a l i z e d m a t e r i a l was needed f o r c e r t a i n programs wh i c h might n ot be c o v e r e d i n any o f t h e a v a i l a b l e F i l m Board f i l m s . To s o l v e t h i s problem t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s began t o d e v e l o p L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g programs i n w h i c h t h e main c o n c e r n was t o t r a i n e d u c a t o r s t o produce t h e i r own f i l m s and r e l a t e d a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s . Such programs began t o appear i n B.C. i n t h e l a t e 1960's. A good example o f t h i s new t y p e o f L e a d e r s h i p p r o -gram was a " F i l m Making [ s i c ] Course f o r Teache r s " produced i n November o f 197 0 f o r a group -of :high s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 61 ( G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a ) . The c o u r s e c o n t a i n e d the t r a d i t i o n a l elements o f o t h e r L e a d e r s h i p programs: i t used some f i l m s as i l l u s t r a t i v e m a t e r i a l , t h e r e were some l e c t u r e s , and some f i l m d i s c u s s i o n s . However, t h e main f o c u s o f i n t e r e s t was t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s . The o v e r a l l purpose was t o a s s i s t t h e l e a r n e r s t o a c q u i r e c e r t a i n s k i l l s ; t h e y l e a r n e d how t o o p e r a t e cameras and 113 e d i t f i l m s . These were s k i l l s w h ich t h e y c o u l d l a t e r use t o produce s p e c i a l i z e d m a t e r i a l t o s u i t t h e i r own needs. I I I . CHALLENGE FOR CHANGE IN B.C. The C h a l l e n g e f o r Change program i s one o f t h e v e r y few examples o f a t r e n d i n programming which was d e l i b e r a t e l y i n t r o d u c e d , and promoted, by t h e e x e c u t i v e s i n c h a r g e o f 22 the D i s t r i b u t i o n D i v i s i o n a t NFB h e a d q u a r t e r s . I n most cases p o l i c y d e c i s i o n i n such m a t t e r s were the r e s u l t o f a consensus of o p i n i o n between t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n H e a d q u a r t e r 1 s s t a f f and t h e R e g i o n a l S u p e r v i s o r ' s and t h e i r s t a f f . F o r example, one p r o v i n c e would d e v e l o p a new i d e a i n program-ming w h i c h t h e y found t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r own a r e a . Once a y e a r , when a l l the R e g i o n a l S u p e r v i s o r s from each p r o v i n c e met w i t h t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n e x e c u t i v e s a t h e a d q u a r t e r s t h e y d i s c u s s e d t h e s e new i d e a s w i t h each o t h e r . U s u a l l y , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s t h e y would a l l agree t o t r y o ut t h e new program i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . I f t h e y p r o v e d s u c c e s s f u l t h e n a t r e n d towards t h i s k i n d o f programming would d e v e l o p n a t u r a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s t o f Canada. The F i l m i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n programs d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s i n f o r m a l way, b e g i n n i n g i n one p r o v i n c e and then s p r e a d i n g a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y t o become a n a t i o n a l t r e n d . However, i n t h e case o f FAE, t h e t r e n d towards t h i s k i n d o f program-ming e v o l v e d : s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o u t o f work b e i n g done b o t h 23 i n B.C. and O n t a r i o . The C h a l l e n g e For Change program was a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r . I t o r i g i n a t e d as an experiment s u p p o r t e d by departments and a g e n c i e s o f t h e F e d e r a l g o v e r n ment " t o e x p l o r e i n more depth t h e r o l e o f f i l m and com-24 m u n i c a t i o n s i n s o c i a l change". I t was i n i t i a t e d and promoted by t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h o f t h e F i l m Board. C h a l l e n g e F o r Change has been i n e f f e c t f o r o v e r s i x y e a r s and a l r e a d y i t has had a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on t h e F i l m B oard. I t has r e s u l t e d i n a number o f s i g n i f i c a n t i n n o v a t i o n s i n programming, t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t b e i n g an attempt by t h e Board t o become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n Community Development work. Programming From 1966 t o 1968 D u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e C h a l l e n g e F o r Change program i n B.C. t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s tended t o c r e a t e programs which were s t r u c t u r e d l i k e t h e i r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n programs. They tended t o r e l y m o s t l y on t h e f i l m - d i s c u s s i o n t y p e o f format w h i c h had been s u c c e s s f u l 25 f o r them i n o t h e r programs. A good example o f t h i s k i n d was one c a l l e d " D i s c o v e r , Your Community and You" w h i c h was h e l d on an I n d i a n R e s e r v a t i o n i n C h i l l i w a c k B.C. i n 1967. I t was t h e f i r s t C h a l l e n g e F o r Change program i n B.C and was c o - s p o n s o r e d by t h e C h i l l i w a c k N i g h t S c h o o l and t h e NFB. The theme was "an e x p l a n a t i o n i n t o t h e n a t u r e and 2 6 meaning o f our Canadian community". The purpose was as f o l l o w s : I t a t t e m p t e d t o r e v e a l t h o s e q u a l i t i e s w h i c h t r a n s form a ' c o l l e c t i o n ' o f p e o p l e i n t o a 'community' o f p e o p l e s . I n d o i n g so we [the program c o - o r d i n a t o r s ] f o c u s on two i m p o r t a n t groups w i t h i n our community, t h e I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n p e o p l e s and i n v i t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n from b o t h . I n a word, D i s c o v e r i s an attempt t o r e v i v e an a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n here i n t h e [ F r a s e r ] V a l l e y , t h a t o f C h i l l i w a c k as a ' T s i l l - w a k h ' o r 'meeting p l a c e ' as t h e n a t i v e s c a l l e d i t . The program used th e s t a n d a r d type o f f o r m a t f o r t h i s t y p e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t y , m a i n l y l e c t u r e s and f i l m - d i s c u s s i o n s . The program l a s t e d t e n weeks and c o v e r e d a b r o a d range o f t o p i c s : t h e C i v i l R i g h t s Movement Immigrants, t h e V i e t Nam war, r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t I n d i a n s i n Canada, and Canada's r o l e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . The o n l y major d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s and o t h e r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs was t h a t " D i s c o v e r " was one o f t h e f i r s t o f i t s t y p e w h i c h was conducted o u t s i d e o f t h e n i g h t s c h o o l environment on an I n d i a n R e s e r v a t i o n and i t was one o f t h e f i r s t on I n d i a n s i n w h i c h h a l f o f t h e p a r -27 t i c i p a n t s were I n d i a n and h a l f were n o n - I n d i a n . Was t h i s k i n d o f program a s u c c e s s ? Jan Clemson, the D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e who o r g a n i z e d t h e " D i s c o v e r , Your Community and You" f e l t t h a t t h i s program and o t h e r s l i k e i t d i d n o t r e a l l y a c c o m p l i s h what was i n t e n d e d by C h a l l e n g e F o r Change. The purpose o f C h a l l e n g e F o r Change was t o m o t i v a t e p e o p l e t o t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n h e l p i n g 2 8 t o e f f e c t some form of s o c i a l a c t i o n and change: 116 The r e s u l t o f u s i n g f i l m - d i s c u s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s was t h a t p e o p l e tended t o i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e t h e i s s u e s b e i n g d e a l t w i t h and t h e r e s u l t was a l a c k o f a c t i o n . These f i l m s [such as RELOCATION: ELLIOT LAKE and t h e SAUL ALINSKY SERIES] were n o t d e s i g n e d f o r c o m f o r t a b l e m i d d l e - c l a s s a u d i e n c e s t o i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e o v e r . Some o f t h e s e f i l m s had d i r e c t c h a l l e n g e s o r d i r e c t a p p e a l f o r such p e o p l e as p o v e r t y groups w i t h whom we had p r e v i o u s l y had l i t t l e c o n t a c t . 2 9 On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s k i n d o f e x p e r i e n c e , Clemson and t h e o t h e r NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s decided, t o change t h e i r approach. New t y p e s o f programs were needed w h i c h c a l l e d f o r more a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o u r s e . The R e p r e s e n t a t i v e tended t o move away from i n s t r u c t i o n a l t y p e programs: We d i d do some v e r y s u c c e s s f u l programs w i t h v a r i o u s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n d e partments, but I t h i n k i t ' s s a f e t o say t h a t a l o t o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p e o p l e w i t h whom we had been w o r k i n g [found t h a t t h e C h a l l e n g e F o r Change programs] d i d n ' t f i t i n t o t h e i r p r e s e n t f o r m a t . There-f o r e , t h e y tended t o pass them by. 3 0 Programming From 1968 t o 1971 The t r a n s i t i o n from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s t o com-munity development work was not sudden o r a r b i t r a r y . Nor was t h e r e one p o i n t where the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s stopped w o r k i n g w i t h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments. I n f a c t , many o f t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o n t i n u e d t o do so, but t h e y m o d i f i e d t h e t y p e o f programs they: o f f e r e d . I n s t e a d o f p r o d u c i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs d i r e c t e d towards g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t groups w i t h i n t h e community, the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s began t o c r e a t e s p e c i a l i z e d t y p e s o f L e a d e r s h i p p r o g r a m s - f o r groups and i n d i v i d u a l s who were d i r e c t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n becoming 117 Community Development w o r k e r s . A good example was one produced f o r a group o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a a r e a (see Appendix M). I t was c a l l e d " C h a l l e n g e F o r Change -Summer 1970" and was d e s i g n e d t o t e a c h t h e s e p e o p l e how t o o p e r a t e cameras, e d i t o r s and o t h e r a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment wh i c h c o u l d a s s i s t them i n s t u d y i n g t h e i r community. One s e s s i o n was devo t e d t o t h e stu d y o f the l e g a l a s p e c t s o f s h o o t i n g f i l m ; where a f i l m u n i t c o u l d o p e r a t e l e g a l l y and where i t c o u l d n o t . I n a n o t h e r s e s s i o n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from a l o c a l r a d i o s t a t i o n b r i e f e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s on how t o conduct an i n t e r v i e w and t h e f i n a l s e s s i o n was de v o t e d t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f " e t h i c s and [the] f i l m maker's [ s i c ] r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " . The r e s t o f t h e time was de v o t e d t o sh o o t -i n g f i l m i n t h e community and i n t e r v i e w i n g t h e r e s i d e n t s . The p r o d u c t s were th e n a n a l y z e d i n terms o f t h e i r s t y l e and c o n t e n t . The D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s r o l e remained l a r g e l y t h e same as i t had been i n p r e v i o u s L e a d e r s h i p p r o -grams. He a c t e d as c o - o r d i n a t o r and r e s o u r c e p e r s o n by c o n d u c t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s e s s i o n s and l e c t u r i n g on c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f f i l m s t u d i e s . R e c e n t l y , NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have t a k e n t h e i r L e a d e r s h i p c o u r s e s o u t i n t o t h e community where t h e y have been o f f e r e d t o s e l e c t e d i n t e r e s t groups such as p o v e r t y groups. T h i s move r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e r o l e o f t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Whereas p r e v i o u s l y i n L e a d e r s h i p c o u r s e s t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e had been concerned 118 w i t h t r a i n i n g p e o p l e who were a l r e a d y l e a d e r s who would t a k e t h e knowledge t h e y l e a r n e d back t o t h e i r communities and i n c l u d e i t i n t h e i r own programs, now t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e was d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h community groups h i m s e l f . He was no l o n g e r a d i s t r i b u t i o n agent who would "go o u t w i t h 32 a p r o d u c t - a f i l m - and t r y t o g e t p e o p l e t o l o o k a t i t " , o r an i n s t r u c t o r who t a u g h t o t h e r i n s t r u c t o r s how t o use f i l m as a communication d e v i c e . Now he d i d the Community Development work by g o i n g i n t o t h e community and w o r k i n g w i t h d i s a d v a n t a g e d groups t o h e l p them o r g a n i z e some p o s i t i v e change i n t h e i r community. To h e l p him i n t h i s t a s k t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e a c q u i r e d a new t o o l : p o r t a b l e h a l f - i n c h v i d e o t a p e equipment. The c a p a c i t y o f VTR equipment t o r e c o r d e v e n t s and t h e n i m m e d i a t e l y p l a y them back has made i t a f a r more u s e f u l t o o l t h a n f i l m w h i c h r e q u i r e s much time and v e r y complex p r o c e s s i n g equipment b e f o r e i t i s a u s a b l e p r o d u c t . P o r t a b l e equipment i s s i m p l e t o o p e r a t e . I t does not r e q u i r e c o m p l i c a t e d sound equipment, l i g h t i n g and so on, as f i l m does. Community groups can use v i d e o t a p e t o r e c o r d e v e n t s i n t h e i r community o r t h e y can use i t as an o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l d e v i c e t o r e c o r d p e o p l e ' s t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s about a p a r t i c u l a r community problem. The r e c o r d i n g s can be p l a y e d back i m m e d i a t e l y and a n a l y z e d . The t a p e s can a l s o be used as a d e v i c e t o communicate w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y who have s i m i l a r problems. 119 A good example o f such a program was t h e "In n e r C i t y P r o j e c t " h e l d i n Vancouver d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1970. VTR equipment was used " w i t h lower income groups [so] th e y c o u l d e x p r e s s 33 t h e m s e l v e s " and t h e i r problems. The ta p e s were used by the group f o r s e l f - a n a l y s i s and l a t e r were shown t o a s i m i l a r group i n Ottawa. The s e l f - a n a l y s i s s e r v e d t o make th e p e o p l e i n t h e Vancouver p r o j e c t aware t h a t t h e y shared common problems w i t h each o t h e r . By s e n d i n g t h e tape t o a s i m i l a r group i n Ottawa t h e Vancouver group r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e i r problems were not un i q u e . I n t u r n both, groups c o u l d share t h e i r i d e a s and a communication l i n k was c r e a t e d . However, a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f e n c o u r a g i n g t h e groups t h e m s e l v e s t o produce t h e i r own programs was t h a t i n d o i n g so t h e y would have complete c o n t r o l o v e r a s u b j e c t w i t h which t h e y were ' . i n t i m a t e l y 1 f a m i l i a r . They c o u l d s e l e c t t o p i c s which t h e y were concerned w i t h , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g s u p p l i e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h had a l r e a d y been produced by a g e n c i e s such as t h e NFB, who, because t h e y were un-f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e community, might t e n d t o p r e s e n t a b i a s e d o r i n c o m p l e t e v i e w . The Board had a n t i c i p a t e d t h i s p r o b -lem o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e C h a l l e n g e F o r Change program d u r i n g t h e "Fogo I s l a n d P r o j e c t " i n 34 Newfoundland. T h e i r approach t o t h e problem a t t h a t time was t o form a l i a i s o n w i t h a Community Development worker from t h e E x t e n s i o n Department o f Memorial U n i v e r s i t y who was f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e I s l a n d and i t s p e o p l e . Because o f 120 t h e h i g h c o s t s o f f i l m p r o d u c t i o n t h e NFB m a i n t a i n e d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s w h i l e t h e community con-t r o l l e d t h e c o n t e n t . T h i s reduced t h e chance t h a t t h e NFB d i r e c t o r s , cameramen and e d i t o r s might i n t r o d u c e some p e r s o n a l b i a s e s i n t o t h e f i l m s . L a t e r , the Board began t o purchase h a l f - i n c h v i d e o t a p e equipment which was so s i m p l e and i n e x p e n s i v e t o use t h a t i t c o u l d be t u r n e d o v e r t o a community f o r i t s own use. I n t h i s way t h e p e o p l e had complete c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s . B e s i d e s c h a n g i n g t h e r o l e o f t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n Repre-s e n t a t i v e , C h a l l e n g e F o r Change has a l s o a f f e c t e d t h e NFB 1s f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n p o l i c y t o some e x t e n t . G e n e r a l l y speak-i n g , i n t h e p a s t t h e Board has been concerned w i t h p r o d u c i n g f i l m s w h i c h would a p p e a l t o a l l Canadians. F i l m s such as NOBODY WAVED GOODBYE 3 5 and PHOEBE 3 6 d e a l w i t h s o c i a l i s s u e s which a r e r e l e v a n t t o a l l s e c t i o n s o f Canadian s o c i e t y . However, under C h a l l e n g e F o r Change many o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n s ( e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e done on v i d e o tape) a r e b e i n g produced f o r s p e c i a l p u rposes f o r s p e c i a l groups and o f t e n t h e y would be m e a n i n g l e s s t o any o t h e r group i n any o t h e r a r e a . The Fogo I s l a n d S e r i e s i s a good example o f t h i s t y p e o f s p e c i a l p r o d u c t i o n . F i l m s such as BILLY CRANE 37 MOVES AWAY were e s p e c i a l l y s h o t f o r t h e "Fogo I s l a n d P r o j e c t " . They were n o t t h e ty p e o f f i l m w h i c h c o u l d be used v e r y s u c c e s s f u l l y i n any o t h e r p a r t o f Canada. I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o say a t t h i s p o i n t whether o r not t h i s t r e n d towards t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s p e c i a l m a t e r i a l w i l l c o n -t i n u e t o grow i n t h e F i l m Board. The expense of f i l m p r o d u c t i o n makes t h e p l a n u n r e a s o n a b l e , but w i t h t h e use o f l e s s e x p e n s i v e VTR equipment i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a n o t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d t y p e o f d i s t r i b u t i o n system might e v o l v e t o supplement t h e r e g u l a r system. IV. PROGRAM EVALUATION The R o l e o f t h e NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  i n - Program E v a l u a t i o n \ E v a l u a t i o n d a t a f o r a l l o f the programs d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s c h a p t e r a re s c a r c e . The D i s t r i b u t i o n Repre-s e n t a t i v e s do not appear t o have attempted any f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r own. programs, b u t i n a few c a s e s , some e v a l u a t i o n was attempted by a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments when t h e y were i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e NFB i n c o - s p o n s o r i n g a d u l t programs. Sometimes program e v a l u a t i o n was done a u t o -m a t i c a l l y by t h e l o c a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments p a r -t i c u l a r l y when t h e c o u r s e was a new one and the department wanted t o know i f i t was s u c c e s s f u l enough t o w a r r a n t 3 8 b e i n g o f f e r e d a g a i n t h e nex t y e a r . I f t h e NFB Repre-s e n t a t i v e was i n t e r e s t e d i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e c o u r s e h i m s e l f he would do so by d i s c u s s i n g the program w i t h t h e l o c a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n d i r e c t o r o r w i t h t h e program c o - o r d i n a t o r who was d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h o o s i n g t h e r e s o u r c e 3 p e o p l e and a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e c o u r s e from b e g i n n i n g t o end. O f t e n t h e NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e would appear i n the program 122 as one o f t h e r e s o u r c e p e o p l e h i m s e l f i n which case he would c a r r y o u t h i s own i n f o r m a l t y p e o f e v a l u a t i o n by i n t e r v i e w i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n c a s e s where t h e Repre-s e n t a t i v e h i m s e l f was not a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e program he might make a s p e c i a l p o i n t o f v i s i t i n g t h e program a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s t o d i s c u s s t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e c o u r s e w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t appears t h a t i n most c a s e s e v a l u a t i o n by t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e h i m s e l f went no f u r t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t -i n g t o f i n d out whether o r n o t p e o p l e e n j o y e d t h e m s e l v e s and whether t h e y f e l t t h e y had l e a r n e d something. I t does not appear t o have gone as f a r as t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t whether o r n o t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s had been changed o r m o d i f i e d , as a r e s u l t o f the c o u r s e . Most o f t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s don't know p r e c i s e l y what e f f e c t t h e i r programs a r e h a v i n g on 4 0 the p a r t i c i p a n t s . As one R e p r e s e n t a t i v e put i t : T h i s i s one o f t h e b i g unknowns w i t h us. Are our f i l m s c h a n g i n g p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s ? I t h i n k one t h i n g we can s a f e l y say i s t h a t we're p r o v i d i n g them w i t h more i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e c o u n t r y . You'd have t o be p r e t t y b l i n d n o t t o make t h a t assumption. But t h e r e a l changes i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s and how e f f e c -t i v e a r e f i l m s i n t h a t a r e a , t h a t ' s one t h i n g I'm. not competent t o say. We go on t h e b l i n d a ssumption t h a t t h e y a r e . Assumptions such as t h e one g i v e n here a r e based on t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . The e q u a t i o n f o r program p l a n n i n g might b e s t be e x p r e s s e d as " s u c c e s s 41 breeds s u c c e s s " . I f a program i s p o p u l a r i n one a r e a w i t h one group o f p e o p l e t h e n o f t e n i t i s t r i e d i n a n o t h e r a r e a . I f i t succeeds i n t h e new a r e a , t h e n so much t h e 123 b e t t e r ; i f i t f a i l s t h e n something e l s e i s a t t e m p t e d . One program which d i d f a i l was c a l l e d "A F e s t i v a l o f Humour on F i l m " , a n i g h t s c h o o l program o f f e r e d by t h e C h i l l i w a c k A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department i n honour o f Canada's C e n t e n n i a l . The s e r i e s was made up o f a number o f p o p u l a r , humorous NFB f i l m s such as MY FINANCIAL CAREER and THE 42 43 RAILRODDER. The a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r t h e program r e a d : Here i s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o see how Canadian f i l m -makers can make us l a u g h . A s e r i e s o f N a t i o n a l F i l m Board f i l m s on t h e l i g h t e r s i d e . Some are j u s t non-sense; o t h e r s poke f u n a t our way o f l i f e and t r a d i t i o n s , w h i l e o t h e r s p r e s e n t h i s t o r y , t r a v e l and everyday l i f e i n a l i g h t - h e a r t e d , amusing manner and o f t e n a t o u c h o f s a t i r e . The s e r i e s was o f f e r e d as a bonus t o a group o f C h i l l i w a c k r e s i d e n t s who had been a t t e n d i n g a n o t h e r s e r i e s o f docu-mentary f i l m s . Only two p e o p l e came; The l o c a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program c o - o r d i n a t o r was so p u z z l e d a t t h e r e s u l t s t h a t he conducted a s u r v e y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s who a t t e n d e d the e a r l i e r s e r i e s t o f i n d o u t why t h e y d i d not a t t e n d "A F e s t i v a l o f Humour on F i l m " . The r e s u l t s o f h i s s u r v e y were q u i t e r e v e a l i n g . Out o f 16 c o u p l e s i n t e r v i e w e d , a l l s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n a s e r i e s w h i c h 44 had a theme l i k e "People a r e Funny". T h e i r p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r not a t t e n d i n g was t h a t t h e y p r e f e r r e d t o a t t e n d programs which f e a t u r e d " e d u c a t i o n a l f i l m s " . I n t h i s c ase th e term " e d u c a t i o n a l " meant t r a v e l f i l m s , f i l m s w i t h l o t s o f " s c e n e r y " and documentary f i l m s about l i f e i n Canada and l i f e t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . There were o t h e r 124 r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r not a t t e n d i n g : t h r e e p e o p l e f e l t t h a t t h e poor q u a l i t y o f t h e sound i n t h e hall:;where t h e f i r s t s e r i e s was h e l d c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n not t o a t t e n d t h e second s e r i e s . Three p e o p l e c i t e d t h e d i s t a n c e w h i c h t h e y had t o t r a v e l t o t h e s e r i e s as t h e f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Two c o m p l a i n e d t h a t a d v e r t i s i n g f o r t h e program had been so i n a d e q u a t e t h a t they d i d not know t h e r e was such a program b e i n g o f f e r e d . Two p e o p l e s t a t e d t h a t p e r s o n a l commitments k e p t them from a t t e n d i n g w h i l e one s t a t e d t h a t t h e n i g h t o f t h e week chosen was i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r him. F i n a l l y , one p e r s o n r e p o r t e d t h a t a f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n was t h e t i m e o f t h e y e a r Cthe s e r i e s was o f f e r e d i n November and December). The f a i l u r e o f "A F e s t i v a l o f Humour on F i l m " t o draw an a u d i e n c e i l l u s t r a t e s an i m p o r t a n t a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h many D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s worked under when p l a n -n i n g f i l m programs f o r a d u l t s . I t was one. o f t h e few programs o f i t s t y p e w h i c h was attempted o u t s i d e o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e Repre-s e n t a t i v e s f e l t t h a t p e o p l e i n t h e s m a l l e r communities a t t e n d e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs because t h e y wanted t o f e e l t h e y were " b e i n g educated".' I f a program was p r e s e n t e d as b e i n g s t r i c t l y e n t e r t a i n m e n t p e o p l e would n o t a t t e n d i t . The g e n e r a l f e e l i n g was t h a t i f one wanted t o go t o a f i l m program t o be. e n t e r t a i n e d , one went t o a c ommercial t h e a t r e but when a t t e n d i n g an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n 125 program, one went t o be educated. The v a l i d i t y o f such an a s s u m p t i o n may be q u e s t i o n a b l e . A p a r t from t h i s one example t h e r e i s no r e a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t such a hypo-t h e s i s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , some R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d i d a c c e p t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s based on t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w o r k i n g i n t h e f i e l d and such assumptions d i d a f f e c t t h e k i n d s 45 o f programs t h e y a t t e m p t e d : There's something about u s i n g f i l m s i n a d u l t edu-c a t i o n programs - a k i n d o f m y s t i q u e w h i c h i s b u i l t up. I f you use c a p i t a l 'E' e d u c a t i o n t h i s c r e a t e s an atmosphere where the p a r t i c i p a n t f e e l s he i s g o i n g t o l e a r n something. I even t h i n k you g e t a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f a u d i e n c e out t o t h e s e programs. There's a c e r t a i n amount o f s t a t u s t h a t i t p r o v i d e s f o r p e o p l e t o say t h a t 'I'm g o i n g t o n i g h t s c h o o l ' . I t ' s a m a t t e r o f p r e s t i g e . Program E v a l u a t i o n by A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Departments O c c a s i o n a l l y , t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments who were i n v o l v e d i n c o - s p o n s o r i n g f i l m programs w i t h t h e NFB would a t t e m p t t o e v a l u a t e them. Appendix N c o n t a i n s an example o f an e v a l u a t i o n form c r e a t e d f o r a program c a l l e d " C h a l l e n g e F o r Change - Summer 197 0" w h i c h has been de-s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . E i g h t e e n t e a c h e r s p a r -t i c i p a t e d i n t h e program.- The d a t a c o l l e c t e d on t h e s e e v a l u a t i o n forms i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s f e l t t h e program was a s u c c e s s . I n answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n about t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e c o u r s e , t e n s a i d t h e y were t h e r e t o d e v e l o p new s k i l l s i n o r d e r t o produce t h e i r own m a t e r i a l s and e i g h t s a i d t h e y were i n t e r e s t e d 126 i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u r s e s i n media st u d y f o r t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . Among t h e secondary r e a s o n s f o r a t t e n d i n g seven s a i d t h e y were a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f mass media on s o c i e t y t o be used as a b a s i s f o r l a t e r s t u d y w i t h t h e i r c l a s s e s , two s a i d t h e y had come t o t h e co u r s e t o s t u d y f i l m as an a r t form, one s t a t e d t h a t he a t t e n d e d t h e c o u r s e because "my p r i n c i p a l s e n t me" and one. o t h e r gave h i s r e a s o n f o r a t t e n d i n g as "no f e e - no c r e d i t s - I c o u l d n ' t l o s e " . On a f o u r p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e from, "bad" t o "ex-c e l l e n t " , 15 r a t e d the program as " e x c e l l e n t " , t h r e e r a t e d i t as f a v o u r a b l e , w h i l e no one. r a t e d i t as "un-f a v o u r a b l e " o r "bad". When an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i r r a t i n g was r e q u e s t e d i n t h e second h a l f o f t h e q u e s t i o n , 14 out of t h e 18 p a r t i c i p a n t s gave as t h e i r r e a s o n . f o r r a t i n g t h e program so h i g h l y t h a t t h e y f e l t i t a c h i e v e d what i t s e t out t o a c h i e v e . They agreed t h a t t h e r e was a s a t i s f a c t o r y b l e n d o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e and t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s w h i c h t h e y a c q u i r e d as a r e s u l t of t h e program were r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r needs. Twenty-two p e r c e n t e x p r e s s e d t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r r a t i n g t h e program so h i g h l y i n t h e form o f a p h i l o s o p h i c a l s tatement. I n essence t h e y f e l t t h e program had c r e a t e d an awareness o f t h e im-p o r t a n c e o f communications study w h i c h t h e y c o u l d use as a b a s i s f o r "the p e r s o n a l a c q u i s i t i o n o f new i n s i g h t s i n t o t e a c h i n g " . 127 I n answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n , " i n y o ur v i e w , what were t h e s t r e n g t h s o f t h e program?" t h e r e s p o n s e s were as f o l l o w s : 77% agreed t h a t t h e r e were f i v e major s t r e n g t h s o f t h e program, t h e c a l i b r e o f t h e p e r s o n n e l c o n d u c t i n g i t , t h e v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s which were c o v e r e d , t h e amount o f " i n -volvement" and i n t e r a c t i o n amongst t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s d u r i n g the p r a c t i c a l p a r t s o f t h e program d e v o t e d t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s and f i n a l l y , t h e abundance o f m a t e r i a l s and equipment w h i c h were made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o use. When asked "what were t h e weaknesses o f t h e program?" t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s (66%) r e p l i e d t h a t t h e program had been t o o s h o r t and t h a t t h e y had n o t had enough t i m e t o e x p l o r e i n depth a l l t h e t o p i c s which were d e a l t w i t h i n t h e c o u r s e . In answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "how would you r a t e y o u r own and your group's p a r t i c i p a t i o n / a c c o m p l i s h m e n t i n t h e program?", 61% o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s s a i d t h e y p a r -t i c i p a t e d f u l l y i n t h e program and b o t h ' t h e y and t h e i r groups a c c o m p l i s h e d e v e r y t h i n g t h e y s e t out t o do. Twenty-two p e r c e n t r a t e d t h e i r l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and accomplishment as " f a i r t o good" o r " s a t i s f a c t o r y " . The main r e a s o n g i v e n f o r t h e " f a i r t o good" r a t i n g was t h a t t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d some, d i f f i c u l t i e s as w e l l as some advantages w h i l e w o r k i n g on t h e i r group p r o j e c t s . A paradox a p p e a r s ' t o e x i s t i n t h e s e d a t a . W h i l e 61% o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s seem t o f e e l t h a t t h e y were a b l e 128 t o a c c o m p l i s h a l l t h e y s e t out, t o do, th e y a l s o seem t o have f e l t t h a t t h e c o u r s e was n o t l o n g enough t o a l l o w them t o e x p l o r e a l l t h e t o p i c s i n dep t h . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o say a t t h i s p o i n t what t h e paradox i n d i c a t e s . E i t h e r t h e q u e s t i o n a i r e i s i n v a l i d o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s were an-t i c i p a t i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e e v a l u a t o r s and so answered each q u e s t i o n by f i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g what t h e y f e l t t he e v a l u a t o r s wanted t o hear . P o s s i b l y t h e paradox might be e x p l a i n e d as t h e r e s u l t o f a sense of e u p h o r i a o v e r t h e program on t h e p a r t o f t h e l e a r n e r s . They might have tem-p e r e d t h e i r c r i t i c i s m about t h e l a c k o f time w i t h t h e i r sense o f enjoyment o v e r the c o u r s e . However, on t h e b a s i s o f t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o make a n y d e c i s i o n about t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e paradox. F o r t h a t m a t t e r i t i s d i f f i c u l t even t o contend t h a t a paradox does', i n f a c t , e x i s t ; t h e d a t a a r e t o o q u e s t i o n a b l e . In r e p l y i n g t o t h e q u e s t i o n , "would you be i n -t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n f u t u r e programs o f t h i s t y p e ? " , 15 answered " y e s " , one answere "no" and two were un s u r e . When asked what p h i l o s o p h i c a l changes needed t o be made t o improve t h e program, s i x r e p l i e d t h a t no changes were needed and n i n e gave no r e s p o n s e . When asked what changes s h o u l d be made i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e work g r o u p s , e i g h t p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y were s a t i s f i e d w i t h the work groups and e i g h t gave no r e s p o n s e . When asked t o recommend i f any change s h o u l d be made e i t h e r i n t h e 129 l o c a t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e o r t h e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s w h ich were o f f e r e d (workroom, e d i t i n g rooms and s c r e e n i n g room), n i n e p a r t i c i p a n t s recommended no change i n t h e p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e and s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s gave no r e s p o n s e . There appeared t o be no g e n e r a l consensus o f o p i n i o n among the r e m a i nder o f t h e p e o p l e who f e l t some changes were ne-c e s s a r y . Some recommendations f o r f u t u r e programming i n c l u d e d : ( i ) add a s e s s i o n on v i d e o t a p i n g ( i i ) s u p p l y more equipment ( i i i ) r e s t r i c t c o u r s e t o E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s ( i v ) assume r e g i s t r a n t ' s know nothing:,.-; (v.) s u p p l y more work t a b l e s ( v i ) send n o t i c e t o p a r t i c i p a n t s b e f o r e t h e c o u r s e t h a t i t i s t o be an i n t e n s i v e c o u r s e r e -q u i r i n g f u l l commitment of t h e l e a r n e r As an e v a l u a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t t h i s q u e s t i o n a i r e l e a v e s much t o be d e s i r e d . I t s v a l i d i t y i s h i g h l y q u e s t i o n -a b l e and i t would be e x t r e m e l y dangerous t o make any assump-t i o n s as t o what the p a r t i c i p a n t s l e a r n e d and how much th e y l e a r n e d . About a l l t h e i n s t r u m e n t can t e l l us w i t h any s o r t o f r e l i a b i l i t y i s t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s e n j o y e d th e c o u r s e . T h i s m ight v e r y w e l l have been the i n t e n t i o n o f t h o s e who d e s i g n e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t . Many NFB programs p r o -duced i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h l o c a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments were e v a l u a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y . Success was one o f t h e major c r i t e r i a on w h i c h th e NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s based t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o produce s i m i l a r programs and t h e same c r i t e r i o n appears t o have been used by t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments. CHAPTER V FOOTNOTES "''Marshall, op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 2 I b i d . 3 I b i d . 4 . . . Clemson, op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 5 I b i d . 6 I b i d . 7 P e r s o n a l correspondence between Mr. Peter Grant, D i s t r i c t R e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board i n V i c t o r i a , B.C> and the author, May 31, 1971. Clemson, op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 9 I b i d . 10 T , . , I b i d . 11 T,. , I b i d . 1 2 T V . , I b i d . 13 . . . M a r s h a l l , op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 14 T V . , I b i d . 15 T, . , I b i d . 16 Clemson, op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 17 Promotional brochure p r i n t e d by the A s h c r o f t F i l m S e r v i c e and the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, 1963. I b i d . 19 Langley A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department promotional brochure. 131 2 ^ C l e m s o n , op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 21 P e r s o n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h M i s s Rhoda B a x t e r o f the F i n e A r t s and Music D i v i s i o n o f the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y . M i s s B a x t e r was one o f t h e f o u n d e r s o f the FAE. 22 M a r s h a l l , op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 23 " i b i d . 24 Fogo I s l a n d F i l m and Community Development P r o j e c t , N a t i o n a l F i l m Board (May, 1968). P r e f a c e . ' 25 Clemson, op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 2 6 C h i l l i w a c k A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department p r o m o t i o n a l b r o c h u r e . 27 Clemson, op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . I b i d . 29 See F i l m o g r a p h y f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f i l m s , RELOCATION: ELLIOT LAKE and SAUL ALINSKY SERIES. 30 Clemson, op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 31 T h i s i s an a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n made f o r c o n v e n i e n c e . Such a ti m e d i v i s i o n i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e . There was some o v e r l a p p i n g i n t h e programs. 32 Clemson, op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 3 3 T V . , I b i d . 34 Fogo I s l a n d F i l m and Community Development P r o j e c t , op. c i t . , p. 10. 35 See F i l m o g r a p h y f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i l m , NOBODY WAVED GOODBYE. 3 6 See F i l m o g r a p h y f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i l m , PHOEBE. 37 See F i l m o g r a p h y f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i l m , BILLY CRANE MOVES AWAY. 3 8 Clemson, op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . 39 I b i d . 132 41_, . , I b i d . 42 See F i l m o g r a p h y f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f i l m s , MY FINANCIAL CAREER and THE RAILRODDER. 43 C h i l l i w a c k A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department p r o m o t i o n a l b r o c h u r e . 44 T h i s phrase was used by t h e p e o p l e who were i n -t e r v i e w e d . " 45 Clemson, op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . CHAPTER VI I . SUMMARY In i t s way t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board has made a con-s i d e r a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e development o f a d u l t edu-c a t i o n programs i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . Not o n l y has i t a c t i v e -l y promoted t h e use o f f i l m s , i t has a l s o promoted t h e i d e a o f f i l m programs f o r a d u l t s t h r o u g h c o u r s e s w h i c h i t has i n i t i a t e d i t s e l f and t h r o u g h c o u r s e s w h i c h were c o -produced w i t h v a r i o u s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n -c l u d i n g t h e FAE, c e r t a i n p u b l i c s b h o o l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments, t h e E x t e n s i o n Department a t U.B.C. and o t h e r s . The Board has been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c r e a t i n g s i x major d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f programming f o r a d u l t s : G e n e r a l I n t e r e s t F i l m S e r i e s , d e s i g n e d t o e n t e r t a i n p e o p l e and t o promote t h e use o f f i l m . E n r ichment Programs, which were l a r g e l y . i n f o r m a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e and used t h e f i l m - l e c t u r e as a t e c h n i q u e t o sup-plement t h e program making i t appear t o be a more f o r m a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n t h a n the G e n e r a l I n t e r e s t F i l m S e r i e s . I n b o t h o f t h e above c a t e g o r i e s f i l m s were the p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r p e o p l e a t t e n d i n g t h e programs. I n s t r u c t i o n a l Programs,-'were a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t y p e o f program t h a n t h e f i r s t two and were e i t h e r i n i t i a t e d by t h e F i l m B o a r d , o r , as was u s u a l l y t h e c a s e , co-produced by t h e Board and a l o c a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n department. Each 134 c o u r s e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i n a l l cases r e s o u r c e p e o p l e were used who were e x p e r t s i n the t o p i c b e i n g d e a l t w i t h , and i n a l l cases f i l m s were used i n t h e programs m e r e l y as supplementary d e v i c e s and not as t h e major f o c u s o f t h e program. Package Program K i t s were an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n b u t the y were a d e v i c e w h i c h was unique t o the FAE. Each k i t c o n t a i n e d a l i s t i n g o f f i l m s on a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t , d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f i l m s , d i s c u s s i o n q u e s t i o n s , and de-t a i l e d g u i d e s on how t o use t h e program. They were de-s i g n e d f o r a d u l t groups i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver a r e a who were i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs: L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g Programs. I t i s i n t h i s a r e a where t h e NFB made some o f i t s g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e d e v e l -opment o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. I n t h e e a r l y y e a r s ' t h e s e programs were d e s i g n e d t o i n s t r u c t l e a d e r s i n t h e p r o p e r c a r e and maintenance o f a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment. L a t e r , t h e programs began t o d e a l w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n a l use o f f i l m , f o r example, how l e a d e r s might d e v e l o p f i l m d i s -c u s s i o n s and how th e y might use f i l m more e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e i r own c o u r s e s . W i t h i n the l a s t few y e a r s t h e r e has been a t r e n d beyond t h e f u n c t i o n a l use o f f i l m s towards a c o n c e r n w i t h t r a i n i n g l e a d e r s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e i r own m a t e r i a l s f o r use i n t h e i r c o u r s e s . Community Development Programs a r e l a r g e l y an e x t e n s i o n 135 o f t h e L e a d e r s h i p t y p e o f program e x c e p t t h a t now the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t h e m s e l v e s go out t o work i n a community r a t h e r t h a n t r a i n i n g o t h e r p e o p l e t o do so. The most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s e programs i s t h a t t h e NFB has changed i t s c l i e n t e l e . I n s t e a d o f w o r k i n g w i t h t h e k i n d s o f groups who a t t e n d n i g h t s c h o o l programs, t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e now s e e k i n g out s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups i n the community such as p o v e r t y groups. The NFB men a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o t e a c h t h e s e groups how t o use v a r i o u s communications d e v i c e s , f o r example p o r t a b l e v i d e o - t a p e equipment, as a means towards o r g a n i z i n g t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r community t o e f f e c t some form o f s o c i a l change. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e has been t h e i n d i v i d u a l most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g a d u l t f i l m programs. I t i s he who made t h e c o n t a c t s w i t h the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments and t h e p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e community t o f i n d o u t t h e i r needs. He p l a y e d a major p a r t i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e c o u r s e s and i n many i n s t a n c e s t o o k p a r t i n t e a c h i n g them as w e l l . . He worked under v a r i o u s a s -sumptions when i n i t i a t i n g programs, assumptions based on h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h programs i n t h e community. I f he t r i e d a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f program and i t f a i l e d t o draw p a r t i c i p a n t s , he would then t r y a n o t h e r u n t i l he found one wh i c h worked. I n g e n e r a l , t h e o n l y k i n d o f program e v a l u a t i o n a t t e m p t e d by t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e was i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s t a k i n g t h e c o u r s e s . I n t h i s 136 way he c o u l d d i s c o v e r what k i n d s o f programs were b e s t f o r t h e community. I n some c a s e s when he produced programs i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h P u b l i c S c h o o l a d t i l t e d u c a t i o n departments, some t y p e o f f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n was a t t e m p t e d by t h e de-partment. F o r t h e most p a r t the R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s assumed t h a t t h e i r programs were h a v i n g a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on the community. They f e l t t h a t f i l m programs were an e f -f e c t i v e means o f d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and a f f e c t i n g a t t i t u d e s . The r o l e o f t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e has undergone t h r e e major changes i n t h e l a s t 28 y e a r s . From 1943 t o 1947, he was m e r e l y an e x h i b i t o r who t r a v e l l e d around t h e p r o v i n c e s c r e e n i n g F i l m Board f i l m s i n v a r i o u s communities. From 1948 onwards h i s r o l e changed and he. became more o f an e d u c a t o r . He o r g a n i z e d v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f i l m programs f o r a d u l t s i n w h i c h he used many t e c h -n i q u e s common t o o t h e r , more f o r m a l t y p e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . He a l s o p l a y e d an a c t i v e p a r t i n c r e a t i n g L e a d e r s h i p programs d e s i g n e d t o t r a i n o t h e r a d u l t edu-c a t o r s i n t h e f u n c t i o n a l use o f f i l m . R e c e n t l y t h e r o l e o f t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e has begun t o change a g a i n . Now he i s more a c t i v e l y i n -v o l v e d i n Community Development work, a s s i s t i n g v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups t o o r g a n i z e some form o f change w i t h i n t h e i r community. I t must be n o t e d t h a t none, o f the changes i n t h e r o l e of t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o c c u r e d 137 a b r u p t l y . A t no ti m e d i d he d e l i b e r a t e l y s t o p one k i n d o f work and b e g i n a n o t h e r . The change was s u b t l e ; h i s r o l e e v o l v e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . B e s i d e s c r e a t i n g f i l m programs f o r a d u l t s , t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board has a l s o been concerned w i t h d i s -t r i b u t i n g f i l m s which would " i n t e r p r e t Canada t o Ca n a d i a n s " and i t s methods o f d i s t r i b u t i o n have r e f l e c t e d t h i s p h i l -osophy. Four major methods o f d i s t r i b u t i o n have been employed i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B.C. d u r i n g t h e l a s t 28 y e a r s : the F i l m C i r c u i t s , t h e F i l m C o u n c i l s , t h e L i b r a r i e s (both. P u b l i c and D e p o s i t ) and D i r e c t D i s t r i b u t i o n . The purpose b e h i n d i n i t i a t i n g each method was t o make f i l m s a v a i l a b l e t o as many p e o p l e as p o s s i b l e . L i k e t h e changes i n p r o -gramming, t h e r e was no c l e a r - c u t d i v i s i o n between t h e changes i n d i s t r i b u t i o n methods. One d i d n o t s t o p a b r u p t l y and t h e o t h e r b e g i n . Each o v e r l a p p e d t h e o t h e r so t h a t as one system d e c r e a s e d i n im p o r t a n c e t h e o t h e r i n c r e a s e d . I n g e n e r a l , t h e t r e n d i n f i l m d i s t r i b u t i o n has moved from a c o n c e r n i n the e a r l y y e a r s f o r g i v i n g t h e community c o n t r o l o f t h e f i l m s towards a p o i n t where t h e NFB i t s e l f now c o n t r o l s d i s t r i b u t i o n . I n t h e e a r l y y e a r s , when t h e Board was a s m a l l o p e r a t i o n , i t had t o r e l y h e a v i l y on groups w i t h i n t h e community t o ha n d l e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i t s f i l m s . The p h i l o s o p h y a t t h a t time^was t o 'get f i l m s t o t h e p e o p l e by l e t t i n g t h e p e o p l e c o n t r o l t h e f i l m s ' . However, as 138 the Board grew i t began t o t a k e o v e r c o n t r o l o f t h e f i l m s from some groups w h i c h i t f e l t were not me e t i n g t h e needs o f a l l o f t h e p e o p l e . The D i r e c t D i s t r i b u t i o n system, i n t r o d u c e d i n 1967, r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . Now the Board i t s e l f c o n t r o l s most o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i l m s . Thus i t hopes t o be a b l e t o s e r v e more Canadians t h a n e v e r b e f o r e . I I . CONCLUSION There a r e a number o f c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t may be drawn about t h e r o l e of t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board i n a d u l t edu-c a t i o n i n B.C. A c c o r d i n g t o V e r n e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n , g i v e n i n C h apter I , n e i t h e r t h e G e n e r a l I n t e r e s t programs nor t h e Enrichment programs can be c a l l e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . N e i t h e r i n v o l v e d a " p u r p o s e f u l o r d e r i n g o f b e h a v i o r i n t o p l a n n e d s y s t e m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e t h a t [ c o u l d ] r e s u l t i n learning".''' B o t h were p r i m a r i l y c o n c erned w i t h e n t e r t a i n i n g p e o p l e and any l e a r n i n g w h i c h t o o k p l a c e was more a m a t t e r o f chance t h a n i n t e n t i o n . The same h o l d s t r u e f o r t h e Package programs sponsored by t h e FAE. These k i t s may have been v e r y e f f e c t i v e as d e v i c e s t o a s s i s t i n l e a r n i n g , but t h e r e i s no way o f knowing how e f f e c t i v e t h e y were. Each was d e s i g n e d t o be d i s t r i b u t e d t o a d u l t groups which were i n t e r e s t e d i n c r e a t i n g t h e i r own f i l m programs and n e i t h e r t h e F i l m Board n o r e t h e FAE had any c o n t r o l o v e r how t h e y were used. 139 U n l i k e t h e f i r s t t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , t h e I n s t r u c t i o n a l programs and t h e L e a d e r s h i p programs d i d f u l f i l l t h e b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Each was o r g a n i z e d i n t o a number of "planned s y s t e m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e s " , t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s was "under c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n and d i r e c t i o n " , and, i n most c a s e s t h e r e was ample o p p o r t u n i t y 2 f o r i n t e r a c t i o n between the l e a r n e r s and t h e i n s t r u c t o r s . The major f l a w i n b o t h t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , however, l a y i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n . I n most c a s e s , l i t t l e o r no a t t empt was made t o d i s c o v e r how e f f e c t i v e t h e y were as l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s ; some e v a l u a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s were c r e a t e d and used, but t h e i r v a l i d i t y i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . E x c e p t f o r t h i s f l a w , however, b o t h th e I n s t r u c t i o n a l and L e a d e r s h i p programs were v a l i d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The Community Development programs, i n i t i a t e d by t h e F i l m B o a r d , may a l s o be c l a s s i f i e d as a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The Board's r o l e i n t h e s e was t o a c t as an o u t s i d e agency which e n t e r e d a community t o i n s t r u c t i t s members i n t h e p r o p e r methods o f o r g a n i z i n g themselves towards e f f e c t i n g change. I t was not t h e Board's i n t e n t i o n t o t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t t h e m s e l v e s i n t h a t change. The NFB was o n l y concerned w i t h g i v i n g p e o p l e t h e n e c e s s a r y t o o l s and s k i l l s t o h a n d l e t h e i r own s o c i a l a c t i o n p r o -3 grams. Any d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e NFB i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n must a l s o i n c l u d e a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f 140 the D i s t r i b u t i o n R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , because t h e y were l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h e programs and, i n many c a s e s , t h e y a c t e d as i n s t r u c t o r s i n them as w e l l . A c c o r d i n g t o V e r n e r ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f an a d u l t e d u c a t o r , w h i c h appears i n C h a p t e r I o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e NFB R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when th e y became i n v o l v e d i n p r o d u c i n g I n s t r u c t i o n a l , Leader?? s h i p , and Community Development programs. I n t h e s e c a s e s they c o n t r o l l e d the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n and o r g a n i z e d t h e i r work around c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . One p o i n t , however, must be s t r e s s e d . A t no t i m e can t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e be l e g i t i m a t e l y r e f e r r e d t o as p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t o r s . T h e i r l e v e l o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s p l a c e s them more on t h e l e v e l o f Houle's p a r t -4 time l e a d e r . Most had a background i n p s y c h o l o g y o r s o c i o l o g y because i t was one o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b , b u t t h e y r e c e i v e d l i t t l e o r no t r a i n i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n methods o r p r a c t i c e s e i t h e r b e f o r e j o i n i n g t h e Board o r a f t e r . T h e i r r o l e as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s was m a r g i n a l . T h e i r main c o n c e r n was t o d e v i s e ways and means o f p r o -m o t i n g F i l m Board f i l m s and a l l t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s were d i r e c t e d towards t h i s end. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t even t h e R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s themselves r e c o g n i z e d t h e m a r g i n a l i t y o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . When one was asked f o r h i s own d e f i n i t i o n o f an a d u l t 141 educator,, he r e p l i e d : Somebody who i s concerned w i t h t h e f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n o f a d u l t s , whether f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l . Somebody who i s concerned w i t h making l i f e r i c h e r f o r h i s f e l l o w man. Somebody who i s concerned, and has t h e a b i l i t y t o e x t e n d p e o p l e ' s t h i n k i n g and keep p e o p l e exposed t o new i d e a s and i s s u e s i n our s o c i e t y . When asked whether o r not he thought o f h i m s e l f as an a d u l t e d u c a t o r , he r e p l i e d : Yes, i n a v e r y i n f o r m a l way we::are a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p e o p l e , b u t we a r e n o t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s i n t h e f o r m a l sense. Very few o f us have any f o r m a l e x p e r i e n c e o r t r a i n i n g a t a u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l w i t h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s t u d i e s . I t h i n k t h e r e a r e o n l y one o r two i n t h e e n t i r e Board. I t has, however, o c c u r e d t h e o t h e r way round - a number o f F i l m Board p e o p l e have gone i n t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . -In f a c t , most R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t e n d t o t h i n k o f t h e m s e l v e s f i r s t as " f i l m c o n s u l t a n t s " ; p e o p l e who know about f i l m s , what t h e y can do, and how t h e y can c o n t r i b u t e t o a l e a r n -i n g s i t u a t i o n . The R e p r e s e n t a t i v e 1 s e s t i m a t e o f h i s r o l e appears t o s u p p o r t V e r n e r ' s statement i n C h a p t e r I t h a t most a d u l t e d u c a t o r s do not see t h e m s e l v e s p r i m a r i l y as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , b u t a c c e p t t h e r o l e as b e i n g p a r t o f a n o t h e r , l a r g e r j o b . The e n t i r e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board tends t o r e f l e c t i t s m a r g i n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s an example o f an " i n s t i t u t i o n f o r which a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a means o f a c h i e v i n g a p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n " , and t h a t f u n c t i o n i s t o produce f i l m s w h i c h w i l l " i n t e r p r e t Canada t o Canadians". The NFB has a s t r o n g commitment t o produce i n f o r m a t i o n f i l m s w h i c h w i l l a p p e a l t o a l l 142 Canadians and h e l p them t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . The Board has made an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n by p r o d u c i n g ma-t e r i a l s w hich can be used by a l l p e o p l e and e s p e c i a l l y e d u c a t o r s . C. W. M a r s h a l l summed i t up w e l l i n an i n t e r -v i e w w i t h the a u t h o r . Mr. M a r s h a l l , who i s now r e t i r e d from t h e NFB, began w i t h t h e Board i n 194 3 as a R e g i o n a l Agent, and remained t o become t h e D i r e c t o r o f F i l m D i s -t r i b u t i o n f o r Canada. When asked what he f e l t was t h e s i n g l e , most i m p o r t a n t accomplishment o f t h e F i l m B o a r d , he r e p l i e d : " I t h i n k t h e g r e a t e s t s t r e n g t h o f t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board i s t h e f a c t t h a t i t has proven i t s e l f t o be t h e most s u c c e s s f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f i l m o p e r a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d " . I I I . THE FUTURE OF THE NFB I t i s i m p o s s i b l e a t t h i s p o i n t t o say what d i r e c t i o n t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board w i l l t a k e i n t h e f u t u r e . Even i t s employees a r e r e l u c t a n t t o commit t h e m s e l v e s on t h i s p o i n t . F o r many y e a r s now t h e Board has m a i n t a i n e d i t s p o s i t i o n as t h e l a r g e s t p r o d u c e r o f n o n - t h e a t r i c a l f i l m s i n t h e w o r l d . I t has been t h e envy o f many o t h e r c o u n t r i e s ; some have t r i e d t o copy i t , b ut few have been s u c c e s s f u l . I t has s u f f e r e d a number o f c r i s e s t h r o u g h o u t i t s h i s t o r y , i n c l u d i n g t h e a u s t e r i t y program which i t i s p r e s e n t l y under, but i t s t i l l c o n t i n u e s t o produce f i l m s and i t s t i l l c o n-t i n u e s t o d e v e l o p new programs f o r Canadians. R e c e n t l y , the Board has begun t o move more and more i n t o t h e a r e a o f Community Development work t h r o u g h i t s C h a l l e n g e F o r Change program and p o s s i b l y i t i s i n t h i s a r e a where the Board's f u t u r e l i e s . I f s o , t h e Board might be w i s e t o c o n s i d e r t r a i n i n g i t s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n t h e p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ; how t o manage the l e a r n -i n g e x p e r i e n c e , how t o p l a n programs and how b e t t e r t o f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g i n a d u l t s . 144 CHAPTER V I FOOTNOTES C o o l i e V e r n e r , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Theory and Method:  A C o n c e p t u a l Scheme f o r t h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  o f P r o c e s s e s ; C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , 1962. 2 I b i d . 3 c f . C o o l i e V e r n e r , "Community A c t i o n and L e a r n i n g : A Concept A n a l y s i s " , i n C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Canada, e d i t e d by James A. D i a p e r , T o r o n t o : New P r e s s , 1971 Tin p r e s s ) 4 C o o l i e V e r n e r and A l a n Booth, A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k : C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d Research and E d u c a t i o n , T965, p. 37. ^Clemson, op. c i t . , i n t e r v i e w . c V e r n e r , op. c i t . , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , p. 14. 145 BIBLIOGRAPHY A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n Canada, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , T o r o n t o : U n v i e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1960. A h l g r e n , Henry L., B u r t o n W. K r e i t l o w , W a l t e r A. W i t t i c h , M a r s h a l l G. Batho, Thomas D. Clemens, The I n f l u e n c e  o f Four F i l m Use Methods on Community P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n , 1955. 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S l a d e , Mark, Language o f Change, Moving Images o f Man, Tor o n t o and M o n t r e a l : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston o f Canada L t d . , 1 9 7 0 . S l a d e , Mark, "The M u l t i g u o u s N F B - M c G i l l Happenings", The G a z e t t e , September 16, 1967. Slade,.Mark, "NFB Summer I n s t i t u t e , A Repo r t on Sc r e e n S t u d y " , C o n t i n u o u s L e a r n i n g , V, 6, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n F o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , Nov. - Dec. 1966. S l a d e , Mark, "The Ru l e s F o r Don Owen's E r n i e Game", The  G a z e t t e , November 4, 1967. S l a d e , Mark, " S t u d y i n g F i l m And T e l e v i s i o n " , C o n t i n u o u s  L e a r n i n g , V, 5, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n F o r A d u l t Edu-c a t i o n , Sept. - Oct. 1966. S m i t h , C C o l i n Henderson, " F e d e r a l C o n t r i b u t i o n t o E d u c a t i o n . f o r A d u l t s and t o C e r t a i n A g e n c i e s o f C u l t u r a l D i f -f u s i o n : An a n a l y t i c a l Survey o f developments i n Canada from 1920 - I96 0 . " , M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., Oc t o b e r , 1960. Sm i t h , Robert M., George F. A k e r , and J . R. K i d d ( e d s . ) , . Handbook o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , T o r o n t o ! M a c M i l l a n Company, 1970. 152 S t e w a r t , Freeman K. ( E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y ) and James N u t t a l l ( i n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e r ) , S c r e e n E d u c a t i o n i n Canadian  S c h o o l s , T o r o n t o : I n f o r m a t i o n D i v i s i o n , Canadian E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , March, 1969. S t u t t , H. I . and L. W. M a u d c o t e - C a r t i e r , " V i d e o t a p e V e r s u s Super 8mm F i l m s i n Canadian Armed F o r c e s T r a i n i n g S c h o o l s " , R e s e a r c h i n P r o g r e s s , December, 1969. T a l b o t , D a n i e l , Film': An A n t h o l o g y , B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1966. Topshee, C h a r l e s , MThe Canadian F i l m I n s t i t u t e " , Food For  Thought, X V I , 4, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n F o r A d u l t Edu-c a t i o n , J a n u a r y , 1956. Topshee, C h a r l e s , "The Canadian Trade Union F i l m Committee", Food F o r Thought, X V I I , 6, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n F o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , March, 1957. T r a i n o r , B e a t r i c e and Dorothy Macpherson, "The Canadian F i l m I n s t i t u t e " , Food F o r Thought, XIX, 7, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n F o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , March, 1959. "Twenty Y e a r s w i t h NFB", Food F o r Thought, XIX, 6, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n F o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , March, 195 9. V e r n e r , C o o l i e and A l a n Booth 1, A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k : C e n t r e f o r A p p l i e d R esearch and E d u c a t i o n , 1965. V e r n e r , C , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Theory and Method: A Concep- t u a l Scheme f o r t h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  o f P r o c e s s e s , C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , 1962. V e r n e r , C., "Community A c t i o n and L e a r n i n g : A Concept A n a l y s i s " , i n C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Canada, e d i t e d by James A. D i a p e r , T o r o n t o : New P r e s s , 1971 ( i n p r e s s ) . V e s s e l o , J . R., How To Read S t a t i s t i c s , London: George G. Harrap & Co. L t d . , 1965. Waldron, G l o r i a , The I n f o r m a t i o n F i l m , A r e p o r t o f t h e P u b l i c L i b r a r y I n q u i r y o f t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e Re-s e a r c h C o u n c i l i n C o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y Fund, New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949. 1 ANNOTATED FILMOGRAPHY BILLY CRANE MOVES AWAY, 17 mi n u t e s 40 seconds, b&w, NFB 16mm 106B 0167 162, (1967). One o f a s e r i e s o f t e n f i l m s made on Fogo I s l a n d , Newfoundland. The C h a l l e n g e f o r Change program c a r r i e d o u t a piib d t e x p e r i m e n t i n t h e use o f f i l m as a d i r e c t means o f communication and as a c a t a l y s t f o r s o c i a l change. Some twenty hours o f f i l m were sh o t o v e r a two-month p e r i o d , i n which the p e o p l e o f Eogo I s l a n d d i s c u s s e d problems o f d a i l y c o n c e r n and t h e i r t h o u g h t s about t h e f u t u r e . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o m m i t t i n g t h e i r problems t o f i l m , t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s i s l a n d were h e l p e d t o e x p r e s s them i n more c o n c r e t e terms and, i n some' measure, t o f a c e them. In t h i s f i l m , f i s h e r m a n B i l l y Crane t e l l s why he i s b e i n g f o r c e d t o l e a v e and seek employment i n T o r o n t o . CASE OF CHARLIE GORDON (THE), 20 m i n u t e s , b&w, NFB 16mm: a r c h i v e p r i n t , S t u a r t Legg,• p r o d u c e r , (1939). One o f t h e f i r s t s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d d o c u m e n t a r i e s made a t t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m Board. I t i s a d r a m a t i z e d documentary about t h e employment o f y o u t h , a c t e d o u t by t h e p e o p l e a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t o r y . I t l o o k s v e r y r e a l , w i t h j u s t t h e r i g h t s e t t i n g s . CHAIRY TALE, 9 mi n u t e s 50 seconds, b&w,, NFB 16mm: 106B 0157 016, Norman McLaren, p r o d u c e r and d i r e c t o r , (1957) A f a i r y t a l e i n t h e modern manner, t o l d w i t h o u t words by f i l m a r t i s t Norman McLaren. The f i l m i s a pas de deux, o f a y o u t h and a c h a i r t h a t d e c l i n e s t o be s a t upon. (Seven awards i n c l u d i n g : B r i t i s h F i l m Academy; Oscar n o m i n a t i o n , Hollywood) INDIAN RELOCATION: ELLIOT LAKE - A REPORT, 29 minutes 55 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0167 075, John. Kemeny, p r o d u c e r ; D'Arcy Marsh, d i r e c t o r , (1967). An e x p e r i m e n t t o p r e p a r e I n d i a n s f o r c i t y l i f e , t h r o u g h a program o f v o c a t i o n a l and academic e d u c a t i o n c a r r i e d o u t w i t h f a m i l i e s who were moved t o t h e town, o f E l l i o t Lake i n n o r t h e r n O n t a r i o from n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s e r v e s . The f i l m l i s t e n s i n on c l a s s e s and d i s c u s s i o n s , and i n t e r v i e w s some f a m i l i e s who s t a y e d , some who went back 154 I t o f f e r s i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e k i n d o f a d j u s t m e n t s t h a t t h e I n d i a n s f a c e i n t h i s k i n d o f "programmed" i n t e -g r a t i o n . MY FINANCIAL CAREER, 6 minutes 38 seconds, c o l o u r NFB 16mm: 105C 0162 010, Tom D a l y and C o l i n Low, p r o -d u c e r s ; Grant Munro and G e r a l d P o t t e r t o n , d i r e c t o r s (1962). An animated c a r t o o n f i l m from Stephen L e a c o c k ' s w i t t y a c c o u n t o f a young man's f i r s t b r u s h w i t h bank-i n g . When he goes t o make h i s d e p o s i t he i s so o v e r -awed w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t n o t h i n g he i n t e n d s t o say comes o u t r i g h t . (Awards: Oscar n o m i n a t i o n , H o l l y w o o d ; San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a ; New York.) N a t u r e o f Work S e r i e s : CLERK (THE), 29 minutes 25 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0158 048, N i c h o l a s B a l l a , p r o -d u c e r ; Morten P a r k e r , d i r e c t o r (1958). T h i s f i l m e x p l o r e s t h e c o n f l i c t between what a man ( i n t h i s case an o f f i c e c l e r k ) wants from h i s j o b and what h i s j o b o r , i n f a c t , t h e i n d u s t r y , " w a n t s from him. I t r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f how f a r an i n d u s t r y ought t o be e x p e c t e d t o go i n r e l i e v i n g d u l l , r e p e t i t i v e work f o r t h e sake o f employee s a t i s f a c t i o n . -Nature o f Work S e r i e s : DEPARTMENT MANAGER (THE), 29 min-u t e s 25 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0158 049, N i c h o l a s B a l l a , p r o d u c e r ; Morten P a r k e r , d i r e c t o r (1958). An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e emphasis p l a c e d , i n our' i n -d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , oh t h e rewards o f " s u c c e s s " and how t h e s e become a q u e s t i o n a b l e good when t h e y f o r c e a man up t h e l a d d e r d e s p i t e h i s genuine d e s i r e t o remain i n what, f o r him, i s t h e b e t t e r , more' s a t i s f y i n g j o b . Nature o f Work S e r i e s : GENERAL FOREMAN (THE), 2 9 minutes 25 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0158 050, Morten P a r k e r , p r o d u c e r and d i r e c t o r (1958). Here i s a c l a s s i c example of "the man i n t h e m i d d l e " , s u b j e c t t o p r e s s u r e s from above and p r e s s u r e s from below, and d i v i d e d i n l o y a l t y t o t h e e n t e r p r i s e and t o t h e men under i t . N a t u r e o f Work S e r i e s : MAN ON THE ASSEMBLY LINE (THE), 2 9 minutes 3 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0158 051, 155 N i c h o l a s B a l l a , p r o d u c e r ; Morten P a r k e r , d i r e c t o r (1958). A d r a m a t i z e d l o o k a t t h e man who u l t i m a t e l y pays t h e p r i c e f o r t h e b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o u r mass p r o -d u c t i o n - i n t h i s case a worker i n an a u t o m o b i l e f a c t o r y who per f o r m s one o p e r a t i o n w i t h r e l e n t l e s s monotony so t h a t t h e assembly l i n e may keep moving a t t o p e f f i c i e n c y . (Awards: Stockholm) N a t u r e o f Work S e r i e s : SKILLED WORKER (THE), 29 minutes 32 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0158 052, N i c h o l a s B a l l a , p r o d u c e r ; Morten P a r k e r , d i r e c t o r (1958). T h i s f i l m examines t h e i n r o a d s o f au t o m a t i o n on whole, a r e a s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n and reward i n work, as e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e s t o r y o f a c r a f t s m a n who found h i s c a r e f u l l y a c q u i r e d manual s k i l l s d i s p l a c e d by a machine. (Award: Stockholm) N a t u r e o f Work S e r i e s : VICE-PRESIDENT (THE), 29 mi n u t e s 27 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0158 084, N i c h o l a s B a l l a , p r o d u c e r ; Morten P a r k e r , d i r e c t o r (1958). A d r a m a t i z e d a c c o u n t o f t h e i s o l a t i o n t h a t u s u a l l y accompanies t o p e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s , o f t e n engendered by a c o n f l i c t between l o y a l t y t o p a s t a s s o c i a t i o n s and t h e c o m p u l s i o n s o f t h e new r o l e . NOBODY WAVED GOODBYE, 80 m i n u t e s , b&w NFB 16mm: 105B 0164 l l O , Tom D a l y and Roman K r o i t e r , p r o d u c e r s ; Don Owen, d i r e c t o r (1964). A s t o r y o f teenage c o n f l i c t - t h e pred i c a m e n t o f a y o u t h who r e b e l s a g a i n s t h i s p a r e n t ' s m i d d l e - c l a s s g o a l s and c o n v e n t i o n s but f i n d s t h e w o r l d , away from home and h i g h s c h o o l , a c o l d p l a c e t o go i t a l o n e , and i d e a l s no de f e n s e when t h e need f o r money l e a d s t o shady p r a c t i c e s . T h i s f e a t u r e f i l m i s a s t u d y o f t h e s o u r c e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y i n an a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y , m i r r o r i n g many o f t h e problems and f r u s t r a t i o n s o f young p e o p l e . (Awards: R o b e r t J . F l a h e r t y ; London; Mannheim, Germany; A d d i s Ababa, E t h i o p i a . ) O r g a n i z i n g f o r Power: t h e A l i n s k y Approach. S e r i e s : BUILD-ING AN ORGANIZATION, 37 minutes 28 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0168 070, B a r r i e H o w e l l s , p r o d u c e r ; Bonny K l e i n , d i r e c t o r (1968). The o b s t a c l e s e n c o u n t e r e d by a new community a c t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B u f f a l o , N.Y., as i t b e g i n s t o work f o r r e c o g n i t i o n . 156 O r g a n i z i n g f o r Power: The A l i n s k y Approach S e r i e s : A CON-TINUING RESPONSIBILITY, 4 2 m i n u t e s 35 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0168 072, B a r r i e H o w e l l s , p r o d u c e r , Bonny K l e i n , d i r e c t o r (1968). As demonstrated i n t h e Woodlawn O r g a n i z a t i o n i n C h i c a g o , A l i n s k y ' s t e c h n i q u e c r e a t e d on-going o r g a n i z a t i o n s f i r m l y r o o t e d i n t h e community. O r g a n i z i n g f o r Power: T h e . A l i n s k y Approach S e r i e s : DECIDING TO ORGANIZE, 34 minutes 5 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0168 069, B a r r i e H o w e l l s , p r o d u c e r ; Bonny K l e i n , d i r e c t o r (1968). A group o f concerned c i t i z e n s from Dayton, O h i o , con-s u l t A l i n s k y on t h e means o f c r e a t i n g an e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . O r g a n i z i n g f o r Power: The A l i n s k y Approach S e r i e s : PEOPLE AND POWER, 17 mi n u t e s 21 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0168 068, B a r r i e H o w e l l s , p r o d u c e r ; Bonny K l e i n , d i r e c t o r (1968). C o n f l i c t and c o n t r o v e r s y a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f A l i n s k y ' s approach t o o r g a n i z i n g communities. Here he t a l k s about h i s p h i l o s o p h y and the dynamics o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . O r g a n i z i n g f o r Power:.: The A l i n s k y Approach S e r i e s : THROUGH CONFLICT TO NEGOTIATION, 45 minutes 3 6 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0168 071, B a r r i e H o w e l l s , p r o d u c e r ; Bonny K l e i n , d i r e c t o r (1968). A community a c t i o n group i n R o c h e s t e r , New Yo r k , c o n f r o n t s t h e community's l a r g e s t employer on t h e i s s u e o f c o r p o r a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e employment o f m i n o r i t y groups. PHOEBE, 27 mi n u t e s 38 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0166 054, J u l i a n B i g g s , p r o d u c e r ; George Kaczender, d i -r e c t o r (1966) . A f i l m s t o r y e x p l o r i n g t h e s t a t e o f mind o f a t e e n -age g i r l when she r e a l i z e s she i s p r e g n a n t . The f i l m s l i p s i n and o u t o f t h e p r e s e n t , p a s t and f u t u r e i n a way t h a t communicates h er f e e l i n g s i n an alm o s t s u b j e c t i v e way. Her need t o t e l l h e r p a r e n t s , h er boy f r i e n d , h e r s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , and t o f i n d some h e l p i n h e r pr e d i c a m e n t i s t h e h e a r t o f t h e f i l m . ( F i v e awards, i n c l u d i n g : M o n t r e a l ; New York.) 157 RAILRODDER (THE), 24 minutes 47 seconds, c o l o u r NFB 16mm: 106C 0165 062, J u l i a n B i g g s , p r o d u c e r ; G e r a l d P o t t e r t o n , d i r e c t o r (1965) . A s c r e e n s h o r t w i t h B u s t e r K e a t o n , one o f t h e l a s t f i l m s o f t h e comedian's l o n g c a r e e r . As ".the r a i l -r o d d e r " he c r o s s e s Canada from e a s t t o west on a r a i l w a y t r a c k speeder. As might be e x p e c t e d , t h e f i l m i s f u l l o f s i g h t gags as Keaton p u t t - p u t t s h i s way t o B r i t i s h Columbia. Not a word i s spoken t h r o u g h -out and Keaton i s as s p r y and i n g e n i o u s a t f e t c h i n g l a u g h s as he was i n the days o f t h e s i l e n t s l a p s t i c k . (Awards: Canadian; B e r l i n ; B r u s s e l s . ) THINGS I CANNOT CHANGE, 55 mi n u t e s 5 seconds, b&w NFB 16mm: 106B 0166 071, John Kemeny, p r o d u c e r ; Tanya B a l l a n t y n e , d i r e c t o r (1966). T h i s f i l m i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e f o r e r u n n e r t o the C h a l l e n g e f o r Change Program. I t i s a l o o k a t a f a m i l y i n t r o u b l e , seen from t h e i n s i d e . There i s t r o u b l e w i t h t h e p o l i c e , t h e be g g i n g f o r s t a l e b r ead a t t h e c o n v e n t , t h e b i r t h o f a n o t h e r c h i l d , and t h e f a t h e r who e x p l a i n s h i s f a m i l y ' s p r e d i c a m e n t . A l -though f i l m e d i n M o n t r e a l , t h i s i s t h e anatomy o f p o v e r t y as i t o c c u r s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , seen by a camera t h a t became p a r t o f f a m i l y l i f e f o r s e v e r a l weeks. (Awards: Robert J . F l a h e r t y ; M o n t r e a l ; San F r a n c i s c o ; London; Oberhausen, Germany.) V FOR VICTORY, 2 m i n u t e s , c o l o u r NFB 16mm: a r c h i v e p r i n t , Norman McLaren, p r o d u c e r and d i r e c t o r (1941). An a n i m a t i o n f i l m made w i t h o u t t h e use o f a camera by e t c h i n g d i r e c t l y on t h e f i l m . I t i s a p r o m o t i o n f i l m t o encourage v i e w e r s t o buy V i c t o r y Bonds. WAR FOR MEN'S MINDS, 4 5 m i n u t e s , b&w NFB 16mm: a r c h i v e p r i n t , S t u a r t Legg, p r o d u c e r (193 9 ) . I n t h i s f i l m Legg g i v e s a d e f i n i t e example o f t h e p o l i c y t o be adopted by t h e F i l m Board w i t h r e g a r d s t o t h e War E f f o r t . U s i n g a c t u a l news f o o t a g e , and g i v i n g a complete background o f a l l i n f o r m a t i o n media, Legg has made w i t h t h i s f i l m a v e r y p o w e r f u l docu-mentary. He has p a r t i c u l a r l y made a v e r y e f f i c i e n t use o f some f o o t a g e from L e n i R i e f e n s t a h l ' s TRIUMPH OF THE WILL. N a r r a t i o n i s by L o m e Greene. WILDLIFE IN THE ROCKIES, 13 minutes 20 seconds, c o l o u r NFB 16mm: 106C 0157 015, N i c h o l a s B a l l a , p r o d u c e r ; 158 W i l l i a m C a r r i c k , d i r e c t o r (1957). A f t e r many y e a r s o f c a r e f u l c o n s e r v a t i o n , B a n f f and J a s p e r N a t i o n a l P a r k s have become v a s t z o o l o g i c a l g a r d e n s . Deer, moose, b e a r , b i g h o r n s h e e p , . b i r d s , and t h e s m a l l a n i m a l s t h a t l i v e above t h e t r e e l i n e a r e n a t u r a l s u b j e c t s o f t h e c l o s e u p camera, w i t h a backdrop o f snowy peaks. Produced f o r t h e Department o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l Resources. A t o N 160 A P P E N D I X A D e s c r i p t i o n o f Types o f Membership i n G r e a t e r Vancouver A u d i o - V i s u a l C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee  I n d i v i d u a l A. I n c l u d e s s u b s c r i p t i o n t o A u d i o - V i s u a l Guide (4 i s s u e s O c t o b e r - J u n e ) . B. V o t i n g p r i v i l e g e i n A s s o c i a t i o n . a l s o e n t i t l e s i n d i v i d -u a l t o 1. P e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n from s u p p o r t i n g t h i s p r o -f e s s i o n a l A u d i o - V i s u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h has been p l a y i n g a l e a d i n g r o l e i n development i n the f i l m f i e l d ; 2. O p p o r t u n i t y t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l i n t e r c h a n g e and u n i -f i e d e f f o r t t o work f o r t h e advancement o f educa-t i o n t h r o u g h improved use o f AV r e s o u r c e s ; 3. S e r v i c e K i t s — s e l e c t e d m a t e r i a l on c u r r e n t t o p i c s ; m e n t a l h e a l t h , c i t i z e n s h i p , and i n d u s t r i a l f i e l d s f o r s m a l l s e r v i c e charge r a t e ; 4. Knowledge of c u r r e n t t r e n d s and e v e n t s i n AV f i e l d ; 5. C o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e s -pondence; 6. E v a l u a t i o n s o f new m a t e r i a l . I n d u s t r i a l 1. Same s e r v i c e s as above under I n d i v i d u a l membership A and B. 2. F i r m s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i s h i n g t o p r o v i d e mater-i a l f o r k i t s and d i s t r i b u t i o n t o key f i l m p e o p l e may do so a t t h e r a t e o f $30.00 p e r annum. (300 I n d u s t r i a l K i t s w i l l be m a i l e d under s e p a r a t e c o v e r t o management, t r a i n i n g and o t h e r r e l a t e d g r o u p s ) . T h i s s e r v i c e t h u s p r o v i d e s t o p a d v e r -t i s i n g p o t e n t i a l . Companies may a l s o s u p p o r t t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver A u d i o - V i s u a l C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee t h r o u g h d o n a t i o n s . 161 O r g a n i z a t i o n s 1. Same s e r v i c e s as above under I n d i v i d u a l member-s h i p A and B. 2. F i l m K i t s produced f o r y o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n may be o b t a i n e d a t t w e n t y - f i v e (25C) p e r k i t . T h i s i s a h a n d l i n g charge o n l y . 3. D o n a t i o n s t o t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver A u d i o - V i s u a l C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee from t h o s e groups i n t e r -e s t e d i n i t s aims and o b j e c t s w i l l be g r a t e f u l l y a c c e p t e d . 162 A P P E N D I X B ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE MEMBERSHIP; Agency o r O r g a n i z a t i o n a l membership r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s h a l l be l i m i t e d t o one p e r s o n who has t h e f o l l o w i n g common bond o f o c c u p a t i o n , namely: o r who has t h e common bond o f a s s o c i a t i o n , namely: o r who i n t h e f i e l d o f a u d i o v i s u a l i n t e r e s t forms a group o f the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n : E v e r y a p p l i c a t i o n f o r membership s h a l l be i n w r i t i n g i n t h e form p r e s c r i b e d by t h e D i r e c t o r s and s h a l l be s i g n e d by t h e a p p l i c a n t and endorsed by t h e D i r e c t o r a t e . E v e r y a p p l i c a n t f o r membership s h a l l a t t h e ti m e o f making a p p l i c a t i o n make payment o f an e n t r a n c e f e e o f $ (e n t r a n c e and a n n u a l f e e s s h a l l be de t e r m i n e d by t h e D i r e c t o r a t e ) . The D i r e c t o r s s h a l l c o n s i d e r e v e r y a p p l i c a t i o n f o r membership a t a r e g u l a r o r s p e c i a l m e e t i n g o f the D i r e c t o r s , and s h a l l a t t h a t o r subsequent m e e t i n g s , a c c e p t o r r e j e c t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s . MEETINGS: Me e t i n g s o f t h e committee s h a l l be h e l d on t h e second Tuesday of J a n u a r y , F e b r u a r y , March, May,.June, August, September, and October. The an n u a l meeting o f t h e committee s h a l l be h e l d on the second Tuesday o f March. DIRECTORS: The number o f D i r e c t o r s s h a l l be not l e s s t h a n f i v e . A t t h e f i r s t a n n u a l m e e t i n g a f u l l Board o f D i r e c t o r s s h a l l be e l e c t e d ; of t h e s e D i r e c t o r s two s h a l l be e l e c t e d t o h o l d o f f i c e u n t i l t h e f o l l o w i n g a n n u a l m e e t i n g . A t each annual meeting D i r e c t o r s s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d t o r e p l a c e t h o s e r e t i r i n g . A r e t i r i n g D i r e c t o r s h a l l be e l i g i b l e f o r r e - e l e c t i o n . There s h a l l be a t l e a s t s i x meetings o f t h e D i r e c t o r s d u r i n g the committee y e a r ; S p e c i a l meetings may be c a l l e d by t h e Chairman a t any t i m e . A m a j o r i t y o f t h e D i r e c t o r s s h a l l c o n s t i t u t e a quorum. The D i r e c t o r s s h a l l meet i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the f i r s t a n n u a l meeting and i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r each subsequent a n n u a l m e e t i n g and s h a l l e l e c t as o f f i c e r s from t h e i r own number a chairman, v i c e - c h a i r m a n and s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r . 163 I t s h a l l be t h e d u t y o f t h e Chairman t o p r e s i d e a t a l l meetings o f t h e A u d i o V i s u a l Committee and o f i t s D i r e c t o r s . He s h a l l s i g n a l l cheques,.on b e h a l f o f t h e Audio V i s u a l Committee. I n t h e case o f absence o f t h e Chairman o r h i s i n a b i l i t y f o r any cause t o a c t , t h e V i c e Chairman s h a l l d i s c h a r g e t h e d u t i e s o f t h e Chairman; and i n case t h e o f f i c e o f Chairman becomes v a c a n t t h e V i c e Chairman s h a l l a c t as Chairman u n t i l t h e vacancy i s f i l l e d a t t h e n e x t a n n u a l m e e t i n g . The S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r s h a l l be t h e g e n e r a l manager o f t h e Committee. He s h a l l c o u n t e r s i g n a l l cheques on b e h a l f o f t h e Committee. He s h a l l have t h e c u s t o d y o f t h e c a s h and s h a l l r e c o r d and be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l m i n u t e s , r e p o r t s e t c . o f the committee. The D i r e c t o r s s h a l l e s t a b l i s h such sub-committees as n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t c a r r y i n g o ut o f t h e committee's b u s i n e s s . 164 A P P E N D I X C A u d i o - V i s u a l C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee A u d i o - V i s u a l C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n w o r k i n g w i t h the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board o f Canada ( G r e a t e r Vancouver Area) t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e development o f f i l m i n t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n f i e l d and t o p r e s e n t programs w i t h d e p t h . We w i l l a ttempt t o keep t h e p u b l i c a b r e a s t o f 'Canadiana' and t o g i v e each an o p p o r t u n i t y t o use and vi e w f i l m s f o r t h e i r s p e c i f i c p urpose. Committee R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s : Mrs. C. F l e m i n g , P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n . Mr. W. Begg, Documentary Showcase. Dr. B e r t Wales, Vancouver S c h o o l Board. Mr. A. P a r r y , I n d u s t r y . Mr. P. S k i n n e r , I n d u s t r y . Mr. J . Ward, M e n t a l H e a l t h . Dr. W. B l a c k , C i t i z e n s h i p . Mr. T. A i n s w o r t h , Museum. Mr. J . A l e x a n d e r , Documentary Showcase. Mr. N. Henderson, R e l i g i o u s V i s u a l E d u c a t i o n . M i s s B e l i n d a MacDonald, Community A r t s C o u n c i l . Mr. J . Leo n a r d , B u s i n e s s . Mr. A. James, P.N.E., Honourary Member. Mr. W. O r r , A d v i s o r . 165 A P P E N D I X D FAE Package Programs ( L i s t e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r ) T i t l e : Theme: T i t l e : Theme: T i t l e : Theme: T i t l e : Theme: A f r i c a S e r i e s o f 3 f i l m s d e a l i n g w i t h t h r e e A f r i c a n n a t i o n s . A study o f t h e s e 3 emerging T h i r d World N a t i o n s . A g i n g i n Today's World S e r i e s o f 5 f i l m s d e a l i n g w i t h e l d e r l y p e o p l e , and t h e i r r o l e i n t o d a y ' s s o c i e t y . A l c o h o l and t h e Drugs S e r i e s o f 4 f i l m s on drug a d d i c t i o n and a l c o h o l i s m . The Atomic Age 3 f i l m s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s c i e n t i f i c advances i n t h e f i e l d o f atomic energy r e s e a r c h and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e Canadian scene. T i t l e : Theme: T i t l e : Theme: T i t l e : Theme: B r i t i s h Columbia S e r i e s o f 6 t r a v e l f i l m s on B.C. Canadian A r c t i c 4 f i l m s on t h e Canadian A r c t i c and i t s p e o p l e . The Canadian H i s t o r y C o l l e c t i o n S e r i e s o f 7 f i l m s about Canadian h i s t o r y . The f i l m s d e a l w i t h t h e F a t h e r s o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n . T i t l e : Theme: Canada's New F r o n t i e rS e r i e s o f 5 f i l m s on the Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , T i t l e : Theme: C h i l d r e n S e r i e s o f 4 f i l m s on the n a t u r e o f c h i l d r e n . T i t l e : Theme: T i t l e : Theme: T i t l e : Theme; The C i t i z e n i n A c t i o n S e r i e s o f 7 f i l m s on c i t i z e n s h i p i n Canada. The C i t i z e n and the Community 6 f i l m s which examine t h e r o l e o f t h e c i t i z e n i n s o c i e t y . Commonwealth A f f a i r s 4 f i l m s on f o u r d i f f e r e n t Commonwealth c o u n t r i e s . T i t l e : Theme: Comparisons: C o n t r a s t s i n Human B e h a v i o r 5 f i l m s . C r o s s r o a d s o f t h e World 7 f i l m s w h i c h g i v e a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l scene i n t h e M i d d l e E a s t and N o r t h A f r i c a . D i s t i n g u i s h e d Canadians 3 f i l m s w hich p r o f i l e t h r e e g r e a t C a n a d i a n s — V i n c e n t Massey, Glenn Gould and D o c t o r s B a n t i n g and B e s t . The E a r t h and Mankind 6 f i l m s from NFB s e r i e s o f same name, which s t u d y t h e s o c i a l , , c u l t u r a l and economic p o s i t i o n o f man-k i n d . The Face o f A s i a 3 f i l m s on t h e economic and s o c i a l development o f S o u t h e a s t A s i a . The F a m i l y o f Man 3 f i l m s on t h e n a t u r e o f mankind. F e s t i v a l o f Canadiana E i g h t , award-winning Documentary F i l m s . G r e a t R e l i g i o n s o f t h e World 2 f i l m s a n a l y s i n g the f i v e g r e a t r e l i g i o n s i n t h e w o r l d t o d a y . Group o f Seven 4 f i l m s p a y i n g t r i b u t e t o t h e famous Group o f Seven a r t i s t s . The I n d i a n 4 f i l m s on t h e Canadian I n d i a n , h i s l i f e and h i s c u l t u r e . I n d u s t r i a l D e s i g n 5 i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i l m s on i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n . The I n q u i r i n g Mind A s e r i e s o f 8 s c i e n c e - o r i e n t e d f i l m s on s u b j e c t s w o r t h e x p l o r i n g . I n t e r g r o u p T e n s i o n s F i l m - d i s c u s s i o n s e r i e s on t h e n a t u r e o f r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e . M a s t e r s o f C i n e m a t i c A r t S e r i e s o f 7 f i l m s a v a i l a b l e f o r per s o n s o r groups i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s t u d y o f f i l m as an a r t form. 167 T i t l e : Moments i n t h e L i f e o f a Man Theme: 4 f i l m s d e a l i n g w i t h 4 g r e a t men, t h e i r work and t h e i r way o f l i f e . T i t l e : New N a t i o n i n t h e West I n d i e s Theme: 4 f i l m s on t h e emerging Commonwealth n a t i o n , The F e d e r a t i o n o f t h e West I n d i e s . T i t l e : Our New C i t i z e n s Theme: 5 f i l m s under t h e g e n e r a l h e a d i n g o f c i t i z e n s h i p and i m m i g r a t i o n . T i t l e : P a r e n t s , C h i l d r e n and E d u c a t i o n , P a r t I , P a r t I I Theme: A l o o k a t the l i f e and b e h a v i o r o f c h i l d r e n , t e e n -a g e r s and p a r e n t s . T i t l e : R a c i a l I n t o l e r a n c e Theme: A stu d y o f t h e elements o f i n t o l e r a n c e and p r e j u d i c e . Three r e l a t e d f i l m s . T i t l e : S c i e n c e and L i f e Theme: A s e r i e s o f t h r e e f i l m s on t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s . T i t l e : S e a r c h l i g h t on D e l i n q u e n c y Theme: Three f i l m s on j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . T i t l e : U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e Young C h i l d Theme: S e r i e s o f 8 f i l m s d e s i g n e d f o r p a r e n t s o r o t h e r s who are i n v o l v e d w i t h young c h i l d r e n . T i t l e : The V i c t i m i s Man Theme: A v a r i e t y o f 5 f i l m s d e a l i n g b r o a d l y w i t h t h e sub-j e c t o f man as t h e v i c t i m o f h i s own f a t e . T i t l e : The World o f B u s i n e s s and I n d u s t r y Theme: S e r i e s o f 6 f i l m s p r o f i l i n g d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r s and j o b s i n t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d . 168 A P P E N D I X E P l e a s e complete on each f i l m used Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y -N a t i o n a l F i l m Board F i l m E v a l u a t i o n Notes. O r g a n i z a t i o n Date: No. a d u l t s p r e s e n t S t u d e n t s T i t l e o f F i l m : How d i d you use t h i s f i l m ? F o r i n f o r m a t i o n ? Teaching? Was i t i n t r o d u c e d ? Was i n t r o d u c t i o n adequate? What happened a f t e r t h e f i l m was shown? D i d you p l a n f o r d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w i n g the f i l m ? What a s p e c t s c a p t u r e d a t t e n t i o n ? How can we h e l p you f u r t h e r t h e f i l m programming? S u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g o ur f i l m s e r v i c e : P l e a s e c o m p l e t e , and h e l p us d e v e l o p an E v a l u a t e d F i l m S e r v i c e t o a s s i s t i n b e t t e r f i l m u se. Form No. 16A 169 A P P E N D I X F F i l m E v a l u a t i o n Form FESTIVAL OF CANADIANA NFB - ODEON PRODUCTION Your comments on t h e program would be a p p r e c i a t e d . P l e a s e r a t e t h e f i l m s you viewed and m a i l t o the ad d r e s s on t h e r e v e r s e s i d e . Exc. Good F a i r Poor THE JOLIFOU INN _ _ _ THE LAST ANGRY MAN ROYAL RIVER FERRY TO HONG KONG ROMANCE OF TRANSPORTATION ON THE BEACH HIGH ARCTIC OPERATION PETTICOAT TREASURE OF THE FOREST CARRY ON TEACHER GOLD WHO WAS THAT LADY? CORRAL SOLOMON AND SHEBA QUEBEC WINTER CARNIVAL SUDDENLY LAST SUMMER What do you t h i n k o f t h i s i d e a o f p r e s e n t i n g Award-winning Canadian documentary f i l m s with, e a ch f e a t u r e ? Name; Ad d r e s s : 170 A P P E N D I X G TITLE; ALL ABOUT CANADA THEME: To h e l p p e o p l e broaden t h e i r knowledge about Canada and i t s p e o p l e . PURPOSE: To h e l p p e o p l e broaden t h e i r knowledge about Canada and i t s p e o p l e . PROMOTION: E x t e n s i v e newspaper coverage f o r each programme and th r o u g h A d u l t E d u c a t i o n F l y e r s . SPONSORS: Department o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 34 ( A b b o t s f o r d ) N a t i o n a l F i l m Board o f Canada. PROGRAMME PLANNERS: Mr. R.W. Dob i e , D i r e c t o r o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 34 ( A b b o t s f o r d ) Mr. Henry K l a s s e n , Canadian S o c i a l S t u d i e s t e a c h e r Mr. J a n Clemson, R e p r e s e n t a t i v e , N a t i o n a l F i l m Board o f Canada, A b b o t s f o r d . LOCATION: A b b o t s f o r d S e n i o r Secondary S c h o o l A u d i t o r i u m COST: $4.00 s i n g l e $6.00 c o u p l e DATES: J a n u a r y 11 t o March 14 on Thursday e v e n i n g s . REACTIONS: W e l l r e c e i v e d w i t h an a t t e n d a n c e o f 9 0 t o 12 0 f o r v a r i o u s programmes. CONTENT: Programme No. 1 - THE LANDSCAPE - P h y s i c a l F e a t u r e s F i l m s : CANADA: LANDFORM REGIONS LAND OF THE LONG DAY CANADIAN SHIELD: SAGUENAY REGION CATTLE RANCH Programme No. 2 - THE CLIMATE F i l m s : CLIMATES OF NORTH AMERICA ABOVE THE HORIZON CHANGE IN THE WESTERN MOUNTAINS HENRY LARSEN Programme No. 3 - THE PEOPLE, P a r t I F i l m s : CANADIANS CIRCLE OF THE SUN SEA GOT IN YOUR BLOOD Programme No. 4 - THE PEOPLE, P a r t I I F i l m s : THE HUTTERITES ARCTIC OUTPOST WHEAT COUNTRY CELEBRATION Programme No. 5 - CANADIANS AT WORK, P a r t I F i l m s : THREE FARMERS MINER HERRING HUNT PERPETUAL HARVEST Programme No. 6 - CANADIANS AT WORK, P a r t I I F i l m s : ROUGHNECKS THE EVER-CHANGING LOWLANDS MANOUANE RIVER LUMBERJACKS HIGH STEEL Programme No. 7 - JACK IS NOT A DULL BOY F i l m s : 6 0 CYCLES SPRINGBOARD TO THE SUN RUNNER GONE CURLING SKI THE RINK Programme No. 8 - CREATIVE CANADIANS F i l m s : WHY CANADA KLEE WYCK KENOJUAK SELECTIONS FROM THE CHRISTMAS ORATORIO Programme No. 9 - THE HARDY ONES F i l m s : THE CHANGING WHEAT BELT THE DRYLANDERS Programme No. 10 - THEN AND NOW F i l m s : ROMANCE OF TRANSPORTATION IN CANADA LORD OF THE NORTH: ALEXANDER MACKENZIE HELICOPTER CANADA 172 A P P E N D I X H TITLE: MCLAREN FESTIVAL THEME; Canadian e x p e r i m e n t a l f i l m s . PURPOSE: To p r e s e n t t o t h e p e o p l e o f a s m a l l community t h e i m p r e s s i v e a r t o f a w o r l d renowned Canadian f i l m maker and t o d e s c r i b e how t h e f i l m s were made by a f i l m a n i m a t i o n a r t i s t . PROMOTION; P u b l i c i t y i n l o c a l p a p e r s , a d v e r t i s i n g i n l o c a l p a p e r s . P o s t e r c o n t e s t f o r a r t s t u d e n t s i n t h e E l p h i n s t o n e Secondary S c h o o l , G i bsons ( a l l p o s t e r s were used t o p u b l i c i z e t h e e v e n t ) . D i s p l a y o f some o f t h e w i n n i n g f i l m award t r o p h i e s i n R o y a l Bank o f Canada, G i b s o n s . B r o c h u r e s p l a c e d i n many l o c a t i o n s o f t h e S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a . SPONSORS: S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 46 ( S e c h e l t ) N a t i o n a l F i l m Board o f Canada Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i l m F e s t i v a l R o y a l Bank o f Canada. PROGRAMME PLANNERS; P e t e r C. W i l s o n , S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r , S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 46 ( S e c h e l t ) ; M a r g u e r i t e Roozeboom, f r e e - l a n c e f i l m a r t i s t , Vancouver; C o l i n N e a l e , N a t i o n a l F i l m Board o f Canada; Ja n Clemson, N a t i o n a l F i l m Board o f Canada. LOCATION: Gi b s o n s L a n d i n g E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , G i bsons COST; $1.50 f o r two n i g h t s o f f e s t i v a l . DATES: September 21 and 22, 1965 - 8:00 p.m. RESPONSE: E x c e l l e n t . An a t t e n d a n c e o f 90 was r e c o r d e d f o r each n i g h t w h i c h was ov e r t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f most i n v o l v e d i n t h e programme. Audience e n t h u s i a s m was good, many e x p r e s s e d a keen i n t e r e s t i n how t h e f i l m s were made. The w i n n e r o f t h e b e s t p o s t e r r e c e i v e d 25 s i l v e r d o l -l a r s on t h e f i r s t n i g h t from t h e Vancouver I n t e r n a t -i o n a l F i l m F e s t i v a l p r e s i d e n t . The t h r e e h o n o u r a b l e mentions r e c e i v e d two t i c k e t s each t o any Vancouver F i l m F e s t i v a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s h e l d s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s . The d i s p l a y o f f i l m awards ( i n c l u d i n g Oscar) i n t h e R o y a l Bank, G i b s o n s , r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n . 173 CONTENT: Tuesday, September 21 I n t r o d u c t o r y Remarks: S c h o o l Board & N.F.B. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I n t r o d u c e d and p r e s e n t e d by M a r g u e r i t e Roozeboom. FIDDLE DE DEE BOOGIE DOODLE BEGONE DULL CARE CHANTS POPULAIRES A PHANTASY RYTHMETIC A CHAIRY TALE CHRISTMAS CRACKER Wednesday, September 22 I n t r o d u c t o r y Remarks: N.F.B. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I n t r o d u c e d and p r e s e n t e d by M a r g u e r i t e Roozeboom. SERENAL TWO BAGATELLES NEIGHBOURS LINES HORIZONTAL LINES VERTICAL CANON CHRISTMAS CRACKER F i l m s : OPENING SPEECH F i l m s : SHORT AND SUITE 174 A P P E N D I X TITLE; THE FAMILY — WHERE ARE WE GOING THEME: Trends, problems, developments, and c o m p l e x i t i e s o f the modern f a m i l y . PURPOSE: To encourage c u r i o u s and i n t e r e s t e d p a r e n t s t o e x p l o r e by way o f f i l m and d i s c u s s i o n what makes f a m i l y l i f e work, why i t b r e a k s down and how f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be p r e s e r v e d i n our complex s o c i e t y . PROMOTION: P u b l i c i t y i n l o c a l p r e s s , b r o c h u r e m a i l e d t o numerous p e o p l e , p o s t e r i n r e g u l a r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n d i s p l a y , r a d i o announcements, o u t l i n e o f c o u r s e i n a d u l t edu-c a t i o n f l y e r . SPONSORS: Department o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , S c h o o l ' D i s t r i c t No. 3 3 ( C h i l l i w a c k ) , N a t i o n a l F i l m Board o f Canada, C h i l l i w a c k M i n i s t e r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . PROGRAMME PLANNERS: E.H. Woodroff, D i r e c t o r o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 33 ( C h i l l i w a c k ) J a n Clemson, R e p r e s e n t a t i v e , N a t i o n a l F i l m B o a r d , A b b o t s f o r d Rev. Edward L. W i l k i n , C h i l l i w a c k M i n i s t e r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n Rev. L o w e l l W elker, C h i l l i w a c k M i n i s t e r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n Rev. R.W. B r a y , C h i l l i w a c k M i n i s t e r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n Rev. I a n D i n g w a l l , Vancouver. LOCATION: A.D. Rundle J r , 8 - 1 0 p.m. Secondary S c h o o l , C h i l l i w a c k COST: $1.00 r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r whole' s e r i e s . DATES: Commenced October 4 and c o n t i n u e d w e e k l y u n t i l November 15, 1966. RESPONSE: Good t u r n o u t w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 membership. The moderator formed d i s c u s s i o n groups a f t e r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f . e a c h f i l m and had t h e p a r t i c u l a r s peaker f o r t h e e v e n i n g s u p p l y d i r e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s t o t h e group. Involvement i n d i s c u s s i o n was good and some mature i d e a s and r e a s o n i n g was e x p e r i e n c e d . The s u c c e s s o f t h i s s e r i e s has prompted a f u t u r e programme on c o m p a r a t i v e r e l i g i o n s by the same s p o n s o r s . 175 CONTENT: Programme No. 1. F i l m : WEDDING DAY Moderator : A r t h u r C. R u t l e d g e , C h i l l i w a c k Speaker: Reverend I a n D i n g w a l l , Vancouver Programme No. 2. F i l m : COURTSHIP Mo d e r a t o r : A r t h u r C. R u t l e d g e , C h i l l i w a c k Speaker: Reverend H. W a r k e n t i n Programme No. 3. F i l m : FOUR FAMILIES Moderat o r : A r t h u r C. R u t l e d g e Speaker: Roy Whitehead Programme No. 4. F i l m : DAVID AND HAZEL Mod e r a t o r : A r t h u r C. R u t l e d g e S p e a k e r s : Rev. R.W. B r a y , C h i l l i w a c k R.C. St a n b r o o k e , Dept. o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e Rev. R. J a n z e n , P r o v i n c i a l P r o b a t i o n Dept. Programme No. 5. F i l m : PHOEBE Mode r a t o r : A r t h u r C. R u t l e d g e Speaker: Dr. A l l a n S. A r n i e l , D i r e c t o r , Upper F r a s e r V a l l e y H e a l t h U n i t Programme No. 6. F i l m : JOEY Mo d e r a t o r : A r t h u r C. R u t l e d g e S p e a k e r s : Bunty B r a n s o n , Dept. o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e D a v i d D. H i n d s , B a r r i s t e r & S o l i c i t o r , C h i l l i w a c k Programme No. 7. F i l m : NOBODY WAVED GOODBYE Mode r a t o r : A r t h u r C. R u t l e d g e 176 A P P E N D I X J TITLE: MASS MEDIA AND YOU THEME: Communication A r t s . PURPOSE: To a c q u a i n t t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e communication a r t s w i t h the p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l consequences o f f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n . PROMOTION: A d u l t E d u c a t i o n F a l l f l y e r and s e p a r a t e p r o m o t i o n s h e e t s p u b l i c i z i n g t h e s e r i e s . SPONSORS: New We s t m i n s t e r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , N a t i o n a l F i l m Board - Mr. Doug E l i u k . PROGRAMME PLANNERS: Mr. Gordon Hambrooke D i r e c t o r o f New Wes t m i n s t e r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Dept. LOCATION: L e s t e r P e a r s o n H i g h S c h o o l . COST: $2.00 f o r 4 s e s s i o n s . DATES: September 26, October 3, 10, 17, 1967. REACTIONS: Subsequent workshops and s e s s i o n s i n c o r p o r a t i n g many i d e a s used i n t h i s programme have proven v e r y p o p u l a r and i n d i c a t e s a r i s i n g i n t e r e s t from t h e g e n e r a l pub-l i c i n f i l m s t u d y and e l e m e n t a r y p r o d u c t i o n methods. About 15 p e o p l e a t t e n d e d each o f t h e s e s s i o n s . A l a r g e r e s ponse was not a n t i c i p a t e d o r wanted s i n c e t h e s u b j e c t i s b e s t e x p l o r e d i n a seminar f o r m a t . Those a t t e n d i n g i n c l u d e d t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s . Re-sponse was e n t h u s i a s t i c w i t h many p a r t i c i p a n t s r e -q u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e workshops o r c o u r s e s on Communications. We goofed i n a n t i c i p a t -i n g our au d i e n c e - we l a t e r d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a con-s i d e r a b l e number o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were d i s a p -p o i n t e d t h a t t h e y had not been i n f o r m e d about t h e co u r s e when i t s t a r t e d . CONTENT: Programme No. 1. THE MEDIUM IS THE MASSAGE A thumb n a i l s k e t c h o f c u r r e n t media e x p e r i m e n t s and a d i s c u s s i o n o f M a r s h a l McLuhan's i d e a s . Programme No. 2. THE INVISIBLE AUDIENCE. Speaker and d i s c u s s i o n l e a d e r . A r t H i v e s conducted a s e s s i o n on t h e p e r s o n a l consequences o f communica-t i o n s . 177 Programme No. 3. THE UNDERGROUND INTELLECTUAL. F i l m P r o d u c e r P e t e r Jones gave a c o m p a r a t i v e d i s -c u s s i o n on some o f h i s p r o d u c t i o n s and on some r e c e n t underground f i l m s . Programme No. 4 . AN INVENTORY OF SUCCESS. A summation o f t h e many r e c e n t changes i n media and communication a r t s and some o f t h e i r e f f e c t s on s o c i e t y . 178 A P P E N D I X K TITLE: THE MEDIUM, THE MESSAGE AND YOU THEME: PURPOSE: PROMOTION: Communications and I t s E f f e c t Upon S o c i a l Change To f o s t e r c r e a t i v i t y . To b e t t e r p e r c e i v e and a n a l y z e t h e 20th c e n t u r y environment t h r o u g h t h e medium o f f i l m . To be aware o f t h e " B i g Con" o f f i l m and how i t s methods a r e used t o m a n i p u l a t e . P a i d a d v e r t i s i n g - Vancouver Sun and Vancouver P r o v i n c e . R adio s p o t announcements - a l l Van-couver r a d i o s t a t i o n s . SPONSORS: C e n t r a l Y.M.C.A., Vancouver N a t i o n a l F i l m Board. PROGRAMME PLANNERS: Mr. L a r r y G o b l e , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r , C e n t r a l Y.M.C.A.; Mr. P e t e r W. G r a n t , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e , N a t i o n a l F i l m Board. LOCATION: C e n t r a l Y.M.C.A., Vancouver. COST: $20.00 p e r p e r s o n . DATES: J a n u a r y 11, 18, 25, F e b r u a r y 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, March 7, 14. D u r a t i o n - a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e hours p e r s e s s i o n . REACTIONS: A c l a s s o f s i x t o e i g h t p e o p l e i s p r e f e r a b l e . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n e v a l u a t i o n s appeared t o be w e l l p l e a s e d w i t h c o u r s e . CONTENT: Programme No. 1 - NEED FOR SCREEN STUDY A. Propaganda Awareness B. P e r c e i v i n g o f Environments C. Development o f C r e a t i v e A c t i o n and Thought Programme No. 2 - HOW THE MEDIUM WORKS AND CREATES ENVIRONMENT F i l m s : HEART BEAT TELEMPATHY FLATLAND 179 Programme No. 3 - COMPONENTS OF FILM A. V i s u a l Communications B. Mu s i c as Communications Programme No. 4 - MORE COMPONENTS OF FILM A. Camera A n g l e s B. Time and Space i n F i l m ( u s i n g s e l e c t e d c l i p s from NFB m a t e r i a l ) Programme No. 5 - EDITING S c r e e n i n g and d i s c u s s i o n o f " t h r e e v e r s i o n s o f GUNSMOKE" Programme No. 6 - EDITING PRACTICE ) U s i n g v i e w e r e d i t o r s and c l i p s o f MINER f i l m Programme No. 7 - EDITING PRACTICE ) 5 min. t o be e d i t e d down t o 2 min. t o Programme No. 8 - EDITING PRACTICE ) c r e a t e a v i s u a l s t a t e -ment . Programme No. 9 - 8MM SHOOTING U s i n g r e n t e d cameras " t o p r e s e n t a s i l e n t v i s u a l s tatement" Programme No. 10 - PREVIEW OF 8MM MATERIAL AND ANALYSE IT AS A MEANS OF COMMUNICATIONS. 180 A P P E N D I X TITLE: EXPLORATIONS IN SOUND THEME: Changing v a l u e s i n music. PURPOSE: PROMOTION: SPONSORS: PROGRAMME PLANNERS: LOCATION: COST: DATES: RESPONSE: CONTENT: To demonstrate and d i s c u s s c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s t o the A r t s . A good many r a b b l e - r o u s i n g t e c h n i q u e s were used t o encourage p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a n t s . F l y e r s , r a d i o an-nouncements and i n t e r v i e w s , T.V. announcements, -a r t i c l e s i n t h e l o c a l p a p e r s , p l u s a f u l l page p a i d ad p a i d f o r by l o c a l l y i n t e r e s t e d merchants. Dept. o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 23 (Kelowna) and N a t i o n a l F i l m Board o f Canada. S. Gowland, D i r e c t o r o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , S c h o o l D i s t r i c t No. 23 (Kelowna) Doug E l i u k , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e , N a t i o n a l F i l m Board Kelowna S e n i o r Secondary S c h o o l . S i l v e r c o l l e c t i o n . J a n u a r y 12, 19, 26, F e b r u a r y 2, 9, 1966. Open l i n e r a d i o programmes gave p e o p l e a chance t o a i r t h e i r r e a c t i o n s w h i c h ranged from e n t h u s i a s m t o o u t r i g h t h o s t i l i t y . Reviews and l e t t e r s t o the e d i t o r p l u s many phone c a l l s . 1 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e purpose o f t h e programmes - t o i n v o l v e and make p e o p l e r e a c t e i t h e r p r o o r con t o contemp-o r a r y a r t forms - was a c h i e v e d . Programme No. 1: IS THIS MUSIC? V a r i e t y o f new sounds i n t e r p r e t e d t h r o u g h l i v e p e r f o r m a n c e , f i l m s and s p e a k e r . P a n e l : e i g h t m u s i c i a n s i n t e r p r e t i n g a p a i n t i n g w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u m e n t s . F i l m s : Norman McLaren's DOTS, LOOPS & PEN POINT PERCUSSION (shown on 5 s c r e e n s s i m u l t a n -e o u s l y ) s y n t h e t i c sound. Speaker: C. H u l t b e r g , P r o f e s s o r , Dept. o f M u s i c , U.B.C. 181 Programme No. 2; BACK TO BACH - J.S. Bach i n c o n t r o v e r s y o r Baroque i n t h e T w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . R e c o r d i n g s : Bach - (Gould, S w i n g l e S i n g e r s , Brubeck, Simone). D i s c u s s i o n . F i l m : GLENN GOULD: OFF THE RECORD P a n e l : A l J e n s e n , Moderator Mrs. S i l v e s t e r , P e n t i c t o n Mrs. J . P r i t c h a r d , Vernon P e t e r Bulman, Vernon Judy Johnson, Kelowna Programme No. 3: JAZZ AND POP - Pop music as an i n f l u e n c e on contemporary v a l u e s . F i l m s : TORONTO JAZZ ( s p i r i t o f i m p r o v i s a t i o n ) LONELY BOY- ( P a u l Anka, t h e S t a r I d o l ) P a n e l : A l J e n s e n , Moderator L o u i s Monroe, Vernon Bob R e b a g l i a t i , Kelowna J i l l P i t t e n d r i g h , Kelowna Rod B u r n s , Kelowna " Maur l e e n McCarthy, R u t l a n d Programme No. 4: THE ENDURING TRADITION - Comparison i n g r e a t v o c a l m u sic. F i l m s : TOSCANANI (Jan P e a r c e , s o l o i s t ) FESTIVAL IN PUERTO RICO (Maureen F o r r e s t e r , s o l o i s t , f i r s t performance o f l o s t S c a r l a t t i m a n u s c r i p t i n over two hundred y e a r s a t P a b l o C a s a l s F e s t i v a l ) . P a n e l : A l J e n s e n , Moderator M i s s H.M. Duke,. Kelowna Mrs. L. M c A l l i s t e r , Vernon Wilma H a r t l e y , Kelowna L l o y d B u r r i t t , R u t l a n d Programme No. 5: THE MODERN TRADITION - R e v e a l i n g  T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y Idoms' ( e s t a b l i s h e d ) u s i n g S t r a v i n s k y ' s s t y l e s f o r c h r o n o l o g i c a l development. L i v e performance by m u s i c i a n s on t h e p a n e l . Speaker: L l o y d B u r r i t t ( R e c o r d i n g s on t a p e ) . P a n e l : A l J e n s e n , M o d e r a t o r Wilma D o h i e r , Kelowna Duane D a t e s , P e n t i c t o n J ean Bulman, Vernon P e t e r L o f t s , Kelowna 182 A P P E N D I X M CHALLENGE FOR CHANGE: SCHOOL DISTRICT 61 Schedule o f E v e n t s , Names o f Resource P e r s o n n e l & Equipment Requirements f o r P a r t i c i p a n t s . June 15: O r g a n i z a t i o n a l M e e t i n g - A d u l t I n s t i t u t e : Room 310 - 8:00 p.m. T h i s m e e t i n g w i l l o u t l i n e p h i l o s o p h y o f program and p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o meet i n f o r m a l l y w i t h f i l m makers who w i l l l a t e r a c t as l i a i s o n & t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s t o each f i l m making u n i t . I t i s hoped t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s can form t h e i r group o r u n i t and a r r a n g e f o r a f i l m maker t o work w i t h them. D i s c u s s i o n s can be c a r r i e d o u t once a group i s formed about t h e f i l m s u b j e c t & what k i n d o f equipment t h e group might w i s h t o use f o r t h e p r o j e c t . June 17: N a t i o n a l F i l m Board O f f i c e s : 811 Wharf S t . - 8:00 p.m. S e s s i o n on l e g a l ' a s p e c t s as t h e y p e r t a i n t o t h e p r o j e c t . How f a r can a f i l m u n i t go b e f o r e l e g a l a c t i o n might be r a i s e d ? Can f i l m be shot i n h o s p i t a l s , w e l f a r e o f f i c e s ? What c o n s t i -t u t e s a p u b l i c p l a c e ? L i b e l ? S l a n d e r ? Dr. J . J . Gow, B a r r i s t e r . June 20: N a t i o n a l F i l m Board O f f i c e s - 9:30 a.m. S e s s i o n w i t h W a l t e r Donald and C-FAX s t a f f on a u d i o equipment, o p e r a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s p l e a s e b r i n g p o r t a b l e tape r e c o r d e r s and t a p e s . Noon: Lunch - on y o u r own. 1:15 p.m.: F i l m and Camera S e s s i o n : K a r l S p r e i t z - Channel 6 & 8 CTV P e t e r Jones - NFB Vancouver Bob M e t c a l f - E.A. M o r r i s Equipment f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n , l i g h t m e t e r s , c r e a t i v e camera work & f i e l d t r i p . P l e a s e n o t e : each u n i t o f 4 w i l l use t h e camera th e y have chosen under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e f i l m maker on t h e f i e l d t r i p . F i l m w i l l be p r o v i d e d f o r t h i s purpose. Rushes can be s c r e e n e d a f t e r p r o c e s s i n g & commented upon by t h e group & t h e i r f i l m maker. P l e a s e b r i n g : 1 camera p e r group 1 l i g h t meter l o t s o f q u e s t i o n s t r i p o d - o p t i o n a l June 24: N.F.B., 811 Wharf S t . - 8:00 p.m. S e s s i o n on e t h i c s & f i l m makers' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : P a t R a t c h f o r d - Thomas More' C e n t r e Len Lythgoe - F i r s t U n i t e d Church FILM MAKERS: K a r l S p r e i t z , Tony Hubner, Murrough O ' B r i e n , W i l f H a t c h , Ron N o r d l i , D a v i d Brougham, Ron B e n n e t t , R.A. M a r q u i s . 184 A P P E N D I X N N a t i o n a l F i l m Board 811 Wharf S t r e e t EVALUATION: CHALLENGE FOR CHANGE PROGRAM - SUMMER 1970 1. Reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s program? 2. How would you r a t e t h i s program? G e n e r a l l y : bad u n f a v o u r a b l e f a v o u r a b l e e x c e l l e n t P l e a s e e x p l a i n ,  3. I n your v i e w , what were t h e s t r e n g t h s o f t h e program? the weaknesses? 4. How would you r a t e y o u r own and your group's p a r t i c i p a t i o n / accomplishment i n t h e program? 5. Would you be i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n g i n f u t u r e programs of t h i s t y p e ? 185 What changes would you recommend i n f u t u r e programs? b) P h i l o s o p h y c) O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Groups d) L o c a t i o n o f P h y s i c a l F a c i l i t i e s ( e d i t i n g and s c r e e n i n g room e) t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g f ) Other changes g) A d d i t i o n a l comments? 

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