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Planning evaluation of the facilities for the treatment of solid wastes at the Premier Street landfill… Saunders, Frederick Michael 1971

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A PLANNING EVALUATION OF THE FACILITIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF SOLID WASTES AT THE PREMIER STREET LANDFILL IN THE DISTRICT OF NORTH VANCOUVER by FREDERICK MICHAEL SAUNDERS B.Com., Loyola of Montreal, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1971 In present ing th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s f o r s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on of th i s thes i s f o r f i n anc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Frederick Michael Saunders Department of Community and Regional Planning The Un ivers i ty o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 1971 ABSTRACT Each y e a r t h e pr o b l e m o f where t o d i s p o s e and how t o d i s p o s e o f c o m m e r c i a l , d o m e s t i c and i n d u s t r i a l s o l i d wastes becomes worse. The growth r a t e o f s o l i d wastes c o n t i n u e s t o expand b o t h because o f t h e p e r c a p i t a i n c r e a s e i n s o l i d waste p r o d u c e d and because o f p o p u l a t i o n growth. T r a d i t i o n a l d i s -p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s such as dumps and l a n d f i l l s a r e becoming more e x p e n s i v e t o o p e r a t e m a i n l y because o f t h e l a c k o f s u i t -a b l e l a n d and t h e i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n t o o b t a i n i t . The gr o w i n g i n a b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h e d d i s p o s a l systems t o h a n d l e t h e e x p a n d i n g s o l i d w a s t e s , g e n e r a t e s f u r t h e r impetus t o f i n d new d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s . I g n o r e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e g r o w i n g p o l l u t i o n o f a i r , l a n d and w a t e r a r e no l o n g e r as a c c e p t a b l e t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y p o l l u t i o n c o n s c i o u s p u b l i c . W i t h t h e changes i n community a t t i t u d e s towards t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l a s s e t s , d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s p r e v i o u s l y t o o e x p e n s i v e t o compete w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s now a r e becoming more a c c e p t a b l e . The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine whether t h e b e n e f i t s o f u s i n g a new g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e o u t w e i g h c o s t s . The community s e l e c t e d f o r t h e a n a l y s i s was t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h forms p a r t o f t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . P r e s e n t l y , t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver o p e r a t e s a c o n t r o l l e d l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e known as t h e P r e m i e r S t r e e t L a n d f i l l . V a r i o u s forms o f a i r , l a n d and w a t e r p o l l u t i o n o c c u r a t o r from t h e s i t e . The p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e i s e c o n o m i c a l l y e f f i -c i e n t w i t h d i s p o s a l c o s t s o f about $1.00 p e r t o n o f s o l i d w aste d i s p o s e d . A b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d u s i n g t h e p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e as t h e c o n t r o l s i t u a t i o n and t h e g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e as the p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . The p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e a n a l y s i s was t h a t o f t h e C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver w h i c h would be t h e d e c i s i o n -making a u t h o r i t y . F o r c o m p a r i s o n p u r p o s e s , d i f f e r e n t volume c a p a c i t i e s were used i n t h e a n a l y s i s . The d i s t r i c t ' s b o r r o w i n g r a t e o f 7% was used as t h e d i s c o u n t r a t e . R a tes above and below t h e s e l e c t e d d i s c o u n t r a t e were a l s o used i n t h e a n a l y s i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n p u r p o s e s . The v a l u e o f n e t i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d t o show what v a l u e would have t o be p l a c e d on t h e s e b e n e f i t s by t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver t o j u s t i f y t h e use o f t h e d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s w h i c h were n o t as e c o n o m i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t . The r e s u l t s o f t h e b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e p r e s e n t c o n t r o l l e d l a n d f i l l t e c h n i q u e i s e c o n o m i c a l l y more e f f i c i e n t t h a n t h e p r o p o s e d g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e . The D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver would c o n s e q u e n t l y not be j u s t i f i e d i v i n converting to a grinding disposal technique under present conditions, unless the value of the net intangible benefits was accepted as a legitimate monetary expense. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I Growing Problem of S o l i d Wastes 1 Selected Community 3 H i s t o r i c Background of S o l i d Waste Disposal . . . . 4 Premier Street S i t e 6 L a n d f i l l Operation 8 Grinding Technique 15 CHAPTER II Hypothesis 20 Methodology 20 Source of Data 24 CHAPTER III Benefit-Cost Analysis 26 Tangible Benefits and Costs for the L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique 33 Tangible Benefits and Costs for the Grinding L a n d f i l l Technique 41 Operational Problems 50 Intangible Benefits and Costs - Insect and Animal Vectors 56 V i s i b l e P o l l u t i o n 58 Safety Hazards 59 v i Page Community Benefits and Costs . 61 Conclusion 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY 70 ' v i Page Community Benefits and Costs 61 Conclusion 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY 70 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 P o t e n t i a l Premier Street S i t e Acreage Volume Capacity 7 2 S o l i d Waste Projection 29 3 Projected L a n d f i l l Volume Occupied at 600 Pounds Per Cubic Yard 30 4 Projected L a n d f i l l Volume Occupied at 1000 Pounds Per Cubic Yard 31 5 Projected L a n d f i l l Volume Occupied at 1500 Pounds Per Cubic Yard 32 6 L i s t of Benefits for the Present L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique at a 6% Discount Rate . . 35 7 L i s t of Benefits for the Present L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique at a 7% Discount Rate ... 36 8 L i s t of Benefits for the Present L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique at an 8% Discount Rate . .. 37 9 L i s t of Costs for the Present L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique at a 6% Discount Rate . . 38 10 L i s t of Costs for the Present L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique at a 7% Discount Rate . . 39 11 L i s t of Costs for the Present L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique at an 8% Discount Rate . . 40 12 L i s t of Benefits for the G r i n d e r - L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique at a 6% Discount Rate 42 13 L i s t of Benefits for the G r i n d e r - L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique at a 7% Discount Rate 43 14 L i s t of Benefits for the G r i n d e r - L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique at an 8% Discount Rate 44 v i i i Table Page 15 C a p i t a l Costs: Grinder Technique 46 16 L i s t of Costs for the G r i n d e r - L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique at a 6% Discount Rate 47 17 L i s t of Costs for the G r i n d e r - L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique at a 7% Discount Rate 48 18 L i s t of Costs for the G r i n d e r - L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique at an 8% Discount Rate 49 19 S o l i d Waste Tons Disposed Per Day at the Premier Street S i t e 52 20 Addit i o n a l Operating Hours Required for Grinding Disposal Technique 53 21 Benefit-Cost Comparisons 55 22 Required Value of Net Intangible Benefits of North Vancouver L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique. . 67 23 Required Value of Net Intangible Benefits of G r i n d i n g - L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique Assuming 600 Pound Density at Present S i t e . . . . . . 67 24 Required Value of Net Intangible Benefits of G r i n d i n g - L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique Assuming 1000 Pound Density at Present S i t e . . . . . 68 CHAPTER I Growing Problem o f S o l i d Wastes Communities no l o n g e r consume most o f t h e i r goods and t h e i r s e r v i c e s ; b u t i n s t e a d have s u b s t i t u t e d t h e u s e r c o n c e p t o f goods and s e r v i c e s f o r a temporary p e r i o d o f t i m e . N o r t h A m e r ican s o c i e t y i n c r e a s i n g l y uses d i s p o s a b l e p r o d u c t s w h i c h a r e e i t h e r used once o r have a p l a n n e d l i m i t e d u s a b l e l i f e . These p r o d u c t s a r e t h e n d i s c a r d e d and r e p l a c e d w i t h new p r o d u c t s . A l o n g w i t h t h i s t r e n d , i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n o f n o n - p u t r e s c i b l e and o f non-degradable s o l i d w a s t e s , m a i n l y s y n t h e t i c s u b s t a n c e s , o n l y h e i g h t e n an a l r e a d y enormous and o u t o f c o n t r o l p r o b l e m o f what t o do w i t h o r where t o d i s p o s e o f a l l t h e s o l i d w astes c r e a t e d . The throw-away n o t i o n o f s o c i e t y i s now b e i n g c h a l l e n -ged; s i n c e t h e throw-away c o n c e p t d e c r e a s e s as l a n d used f o r d i s p o s a l d e c l i n e s i n a v a i l a b i l i t y . " " ' Whether p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , d e c r e a s e s o r remains c o n s t a n t , w i t h no r e c y c l i n g o r p a r t i a l r e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f s o l i d w a s t e s , th e p r o b l e m o f d i s p o s i n g o f s o l i d w a stes i s t o f i n d enough s u i t a b l y l o c a t e d l a n d f o r l a n d f i l l s t o accommodate t h e c o n t i n u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g growth. The American Ambassador C o l l e g e R e s e a r c h Department, Our P o l l u t e d  P l a n e t (Ambassador C o l l e g e P r e s s , Pasadena, C a l i f o r n i a , 1970) pp. 45-50. 2 Public Works Association estimates a 2% increase per year i n 2 the per capita weight of disposed s o l i d wastes. The problem of finding more land inside a community for disposal s i t e s i s made worse by the competition from other uses bidding for the land. As the demand for disposal s i t e land increases and the a v a i l a b i l i t y and the s u i t a b i l i t y of land within an economical disposal t r a v e l range decreases i n supply, new techniques to handle the s o l i d waste problem must be found. Control of the present and the future s o l i d waste problem w i l l require foresight of a community to change from outdated techniques to new ones which are more e f f e c t i v e and more e f f i -c i e n t i n natural asset preservation. Solutions are l i m i t e d by r e a l i s t i c constraints. The economic capacity of a community to provide a s p e c i f i c type of disposal service w i l l be one of these c r u c i a l constraints. In the United States of America, expenditures of over 1.5 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s on waste c o l l e c t i o n and disposal are now only exceeded by expenditures on roads 3 and on schools. Short-run disposal solutions only accommodate present and near future s o l i d waste demands. If less preparation occurs now to meet the coming challenges, future solutions w i l l be more complicated and more d i f f i c u l t to a t t a i n . The awareness U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Regional Refuse Disposal, (Greater Egypt Regional Planning and Development Commission, June 1969),pp. 19-20. 3 I b i d . 3 and the willingness of administrators to f i n d and to implement disposal techniques which best u t i l i z e the community assets available and at the same time s a t i s f y the growing public awareness of environmental preservation, w i l l be the important factor i n determining whether long-run solutions to s a t i s f y the continuing s o l i d waste problem are sought at a l l . A benefit-cost analysis w i l l be presented of a community's present disposal technique and of one a l t e r n a t i v e disposal tech-nique which possibly could be i n s t a l l e d . Selected Community The community under analysis i s the Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. The community forms part of the Greater Vancouver Metropolitan Area and i s situated i n a northern section on the north side of Burrard I n l e t . The D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver shares the North Shore area with two other e n t i t i e s the Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of West Vancouver and the City of North Vancouver. These two neighbouring communities also u t i l i z e the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver's s o l i d waste disposal s i t e . The combined population of the three North Shore 4 communities i n 1970 was approximately 126,300. In 1970, the three communities produced 60,788 tons of s o l i d waste which 4 J . J . K a l l e r , Report on S o l i d Waste Management, Population Prognosis, Table 1 (Greater Vancouver Regional Dis-t r i c t , July 1970) . 4 was acceptable for disposal at the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver 5 disposal s i t e . Both population and s o l i d waste production are expected to increase and consequently place a heavier burden on an already l i m i t e d capacity at a l a n d f i l l s i t e which i s expected to be used up within ten years. H i s t o r i c Background of S o l i d Waste Disposal Before any organized p u b l i c disposal s i t e s were desig-nated, most of the s o l i d waste i n the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver was dumped randomly by private c i t i z e n s e i t h e r i n peripheral f i e l d s or i n Burrard I n l e t . Some burning also took place which again was not under d i s t r i c t supervision. Similar occur-rences took place i n the Ci t y of North Vancouver. In West Vancouver, there was some random dumping i n i -t i a l l y . Later, one s p e c i f i e d s i t e , the Capilano dump, became the municipality's l e g a l disposal area. The Capilano dump was used u n t i l September 30, 1969. When the dump had reached i t s capacity, West Vancouver was then given permission to use the present D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver disposal s i t e . Thus a short-run sol u t i o n was adopted to counter a long-run s o l i d waste problem. In the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver, unorganized dumping D. White, as s i s t a n t municipal engineer, District of North Vancouver Engineering O f f i c e (verbal communication, Feb. 1971). 5 was halted and a dump was opened on the waterfront between Bay Street, Orwell Street and Mountain Highway. This dump remained open u n t i l the end of World War Two. In 1945, the present disposal s i t e on Premier Street was opened as a dump and was gradually converted to a l a n d f i l l . A l a n d f i l l i s a disposal technique where domestic and i n d u s t r i a l s o l i d wastes are covered at le a s t once a week but not necessarily d a i l y . Presently, most of the domestic and i n d u s t r i a l wastes received are covered almost immediately. Control i s also exerted over the kind of wastes deposited i n the s i t e . Some con t r o l l e d burning takes place. Although there has been an improvement i n the disposal technique at the Premier Street s i t e i n the l a s t few years, i t would not be correct to c a l l the l a n d f i l l a sanitary l a n d f i l l . The requirements for a sanitary l a n d f i l l are that a l l s o l i d wastes be covered d a i l y with control over the kind of wastes deposited i n the s i t e , that a l l leachate and gases are controlled, that blowing paper i s contained, that burning i s eliminated and that the s o l i d waste to cover material volume ranges between 6 4:1 and 3:1. At present, not a l l of these conditions are met at the Premier Street s i t e . Since the Premier Street s i t e i s an adequate solution Dirk R. Brunner, Daniel J . K e l l e r , Charles W. Reid, J r . , and John Wheeler. Sanitary L a n d f i l l Guidelines - 1970. (Review d r a f t , U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Environmental Health Service, Environ-mental Control Administration, Bureau of S o l i d Waste Manage-ment, 1970), pp. 1-53. 6 t o t h e p r e s e n t p r o b l e m o f d i s p o s i n g o f t h i s y e a r ' s wastes p l u s t h e p r o j e c t e d wastes o f t h e n e x t few y e a r s , no new d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e t o s o l v e t h e i n c r e a s i n g s o l i d waste p r o b l e m o f t h e communities has been i n i t i a t e d . Not w i t h s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e l a n d f i l l i s an improvement o v e r t h e c a s u a l c a r e l e s s dumping p r a c t i c e s o f t h e p a s t , h i s t o r y has shown t h a t t h e p l a n n i n g o f d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s and t h e s i t e l o c a t i o n s seems t o be ad hoc i n n a t u r e . The s p e c i f i c immediate p r o b l e m i s t a c k l e d o n l y when i t has t o be. The D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver has n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d t h e g r o w i n g p r e s s u r e s on t h e s i t e ; b u t i n f a c t has i n c r e a s e d them by now s e r v i c i n g a l l t h r e e N o r t h Shore com m u n i t i e s . P r e m i e r S t r e e t S i t e The P r e m i e r S t r e e t L a n d f i l l i s s i t u a t e d e a s t o f Lynn Creek i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver a t t h e end o f P r e m i e r S t r e e t . I t i s a l m o s t a d j a c e n t t o t h e Upper L e v e l s Highway, n o r t h o f t h e Second Narrows B r i d g e C r o s s i n g . The d i s p o s a l s i t e i s a l o n g s i d e Lynn Creek on t h e e a s t s l o p e . The l a n d f i l l c e l l s a r e b e i n g b u i l t up t h e s l o p e and i n t h e e a s t e r l y and i n t h e n o r t h e r l y s e c t i o n s o f t h e l a n d f i l l w i l l r e a c h t h e h e i g h t o f f i f t y f e e t o f f i l l and c o v e r m a t e r i a l . Each c e l l i s seven f e e t i n d e p t h w i t h a s i x i n c h c o v e r . A f i n a l c o v e r o f two f e e t w i l l be added when t h e l a n d f i l l i s c l o s e d . The s i t e has a t r e e b u f f e r zone around i t s p e r i m e t e r w h i c h p r e v e n t s most n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s from s u f f e r i n g from 7 o b j e c t i o n a b l e s i t e a e s t h e t i c s . There i s one h o u s i n g a r e a on a d i s t a n t h i g h n o r t h s l o p e from w h i c h some r e s i d e n t s can see t h e l a n d f i l l . The d i s p o s a l s i t e o c c u p i e s t h i r t y a c r e s o f l a n d w h i c h had an i n i t i a l c a p a c i t y f o r 1,778,700 c u b i c y a r d s o f s o l i d waste (see TABLE 1 ) . Between 1945 and 1970, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 755,040 c u b i c y a r d s o f s o l i d waste have been p l a c e d . A d j o i n i n g t h e p r e s e n t s i t e , twenty a c r e s have been r e s e r v e d f o r e x p a n s i o n . T h i s p o t e n t i a l a c r e a g e has a c a p a c i t y o f 1,355,200 c u b i c y a r d s . The combined volume a v a i l a b l e f o r f u t u r e s o l i d waste demands i s 2,378,860 c u b i c y a r d s . TABLE 1 POTENTIAL PREMIER STREET SITE ACREAGE VOLUME CAPACITY S i t e s i z e a c r e s O r i g i n a l c u b i c y a r d c a p a c i t y U t i l i z e d c u b i c y ardage A v a i l a b l e c u b i c y ardage (a) 7.5 22.5 30.0 254,100 1,524,600 1,778,700 755,040 1,023,660 (b) 20.0 1,355,200 - 1,355,200 T o t a l 50.0 3,133,900 7,55,040 2,378,860 E s t i m a t i n g t h e f i l l p r o p o r t i o n o n l y , i n a g g r e g a t e f i g u r e s 1/4 o f t h e p r e s e n t 30 a c r e s w i l l be 21 f e e t h i g h and t h e r e m a i n i n g 3/4 w i l l be 42 f e e t h i g h . G i v e n t h a t one a c r e i s 8 equal to 4840 square yards, 1,778,700 cubic yards of f i l l can be contained i n the l a n d f i l l . The ad d i t i o n a l 20 acres adjoining the present s i t e w i l l be able to contain 42 feet of v e r t i c a l f i l l i n 7 feet layers separated by a 6 inch cover which i s the equivalent of 1,355,200 cubic yards of f i l l . On s i t e estimations reveal that 1/4 of the l a n d f i l l has been f i l l e d to the 21 foot l e v e l and the remaining 3/4 to the 14 foot l e v e l . Present f i l l e d land equals 755,040 cubic yards which leaves 1,023,660 cubic yards i n the present s i t e and 2,378,860 cubic yards for the combined 50 acre s i t e . L a n d f i l l Operation Each of the North Shore e n t i t i e s c o l l e c t s i t s own s o l i d wastes. The l a n d f i l l i s s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d . Putres-c i b l e and non-putrescible s o l i d wastes from both domestic and i n d u s t r i a l uses are accepted at the l a n d f i l l , except for animal and human corpses, highly inflammable substances and to x i c materials. These unacceptable substances have to be incinerated or s p e c i a l l y c o l l e c t e d by a private agency for disposal outside of the area. Another problem i s the disposal of logs. With the present disposal technique, logs are not buried; but are being stored u n t i l a use or disposal method i s found. No scavenging i s permitted at the s i t e except for one man under contract.^ The public i s allowed to enter the s i t e seven days The contract permits Mr. H. Hastings to scavenge. He must pay $1.00 per 100 pounds of aluminium, brass and 9 a week d u r i n g o p e r a t i n g h o u r s ; however o n l y c o n t r o l l e d dumping o f a c c e p t a b l e s o l i d w astes i s p e r m i t t e d . A l l c i t y , d i s t r i c t and m u n i c i p a l c o l l e c t e d wastes a r e weighed and r e c o r d e d . The p u b l i c d e p o s i t e d wastes a r e s p e c i a l l y p l a c e d i n one a r e a and t h e volume e s t i m a t e d f o r t h e r e c o r d s . The l a n d f i l l i s o p e r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. A numbered c o l l e c t i o n t r u c k a r r i v e s and d r i v e s on t o t h e s c a l e s . The t r u c k ' s number i s r e c o r d e d and t h e w e i g h t o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d t r u c k i s s u b t r a c t e d from t h e w e i g h t o f t h e t r u c k w i t h i t s l o a d . The average l o a d weighs 8500 pounds. The t r u c k t h e n d r i v e s i n t o t h e l a n d f i l l where i t d i s p o s e s i t s l o a d a t a s p e c i f i e d l o c a t i o n . The l o a d i s i m m e d i a t e l y compacted and t h e n c o v e r e d by a t r a c t o r w i t h a f r o n t garbage b a s k e t l o a d e r d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s t y p e o f t a s k . The l a n d f i l l i s i n o p e r a t i o n d a i l y from 8:00 A.M. t o 7:00 P.M. e x c e p t d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r p e r i o d , November t o J a n u a r y , when i t o p e r a t e s from 8:00 A.M. t o 5:00 P.M. Commercial and i n d u s t r i a l r e f u s e i s o n l y a c c e p t e d 8:00 A.M. t o 5:00 P.M. Monday t o F r i d a y i n c l u s i v e and S a t u r d a y morning from 8:00 A.M. t o noon. The l a b o u r f o r c e on t h e s i t e c o m p r i s e s one t r a c t o r o p e r a t o r , one a t t e n d a n t , one w e i g h e r and one l a n d f i l l manager. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a c a r e t a k e r w i t h a house a t t h e g a t e s t o t h e l a n d f i l l . B e s i d e s t h e c a r e t a k e r ' s house, t h e r e i s a c opper c o l l e c t e d , and 50 c e n t s p e r 100 pounds o f o t h e r u s a b l e w astes such as m e t a l s , wood, b a t h t u b s and p a r t s o f f u r n i t u r e . He pays an average o f $1,000 p e r y e a r f o r a l l t h e s o l i d w astes c o l l e c t e d . 10 small permanently fi x e d t r a i l e r which serves as the manager's o f f i c e and scale booth. Equipment consists of the t r a c t o r rented from the d i s t r i c t truck pool and a pickup truck used by the l a n d f i l l manager. Heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n and the high permeable q u a l i t y of the l a n d f i l l cover material creates the major problem i n the l a n d f i l l . This problem i s that of leaching of inorganic and organic materials when water percolates through the f i l l and c a r r i e s i t s load to nearby Lynn Creek. The l a n d f i l l c e l l s are sloped so that adequate runoff w i l l occur; but, the runoff d i r e c t i o n i s toward Lynn Creek. A perimeter drainage system has been b u i l t around the three downhill sides of the s i t e for c o l l e c t i n g subsurface water and leachate which i s discharged into the creek. A wall has also been b u i l t to stop the s l i d i n g of the f i l l . The leaching problem i s not severe enough to close the l a n d f i l l . Regular checks of the creek, however, are main-tained by the d i s t r i c t . Twice a year the creek i s tested to ascertain the degree of p o l l u t i o n i n the water r e s u l t i n g from the leaching. The t e s t conducted by the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver Health Unit i s one of water q u a l i t y analysis. The o f f i c i a l reason for the tests are to have a "running survey to see that no o health hazard e x i s t s . " The r e s u l t s of the tests have shown no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n water q u a l i t y since the tests began; 8 Thompson, D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver Health Unit (verbal communication, March, 1971). 11 however the tests have only been c a r r i e d on for the l a s t two 9 years. The health unit does state that the water i s not suita b l e for recreation below the l a n d f i l l or i n Burrard I n l e t near the mouth of Lynn Creek. No B.O.D. examination i s made.1^ Lower Lynn Creek i s assumed to be written o f f for rec r e a t i o n a l purposes during the next one hundred years, even though the l a n d f i l l w i l l have been closed for a s i g n i f i c a n t portion of t h i s time. As the s i t e matures, a s i g n i f i c a n t de-crease i n leachate q u a l i t y can be expected. The co n t r o l l e d dumping at Premier Street does help to reduce leachate quan-t i t y but increased volumes of waste buried under the present technique may i n i t i a t e more severe leachate q u a l i t y problems with unknown e f f e c t s on the creek. In order to l i m i t the r a i n -f a l l saturating the l a n d f i l l , less permeable s o i l cover i s required such as a deep sandy loam or clay with gravel content. The d i s t r i c t presently r e l i e s on free excavated s o i l from con-s t r u c t i o n s i t e s for i t s cover. The present cover s o i l i s not the desired q u a l i t y and i t also contains a f a i r quantity of rocks. Good cover material varies depending on the function i t i s supposed to be used for i n the l a n d f i l l . For moisture c o n t r o l , the cover material *I b i d . ^B.O.D.j- tests beside l a n d f i l l s with leaching range from 170 ppm to 5000 ppm. In the Greater Vancouver Region, the Iona Island Sewage Treatment Plant i s only licenced to discharge sewage containing up to 90 ppm B.O.D.q 12 should have low permeability/ low shrinkage and be well com-p a c t e d . 1 1 These s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s provide a gas b a r r i e r which may be completely undesirable at the s i t e unless an adequate venting system for the gas i s constructed. On s i t e burning i s done to decrease the volume of garden and other wood wastes. As previously mentioned, logs are stacked. T i r e s are not burnt, but are buried. The voids created by the t i r e s are a major problem i n compacting the refuse. The t i r e problem contributes to reduced density. Although the smoke created from the c o n t r o l l e d on s i t e burning i s not a major source of a i r p o l l u t i o n to the North Shore, the smoke s t i l l e x ists and should be eliminated. There i s also a p o t e n t i a l f i r e hazard from such on s i t e burning. Due to the heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n during the f a l l and the winter months, dust i s not a major problem at the s i t e . In addition, the perimeter trees act as a wind buffer which tends to keep the dust down. During the d r i e r periods of the year, some dust occurs from both the s o l i d wastes and the cover materials. The dust problem i s mainly l i m i t e d to the area where compacting and covering are taking place. Other areas i n the l a n d f i l l are more stable and no major wind erosion has been observed. Since a l l garbage i s immediately compacted and covered, Dirk R. Brunner et a l , Sanitary L a n d f i l l Guidelines -1970 (U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Environmental Control Administration, Bureau of S o l i d Waste Management, 1970), Table 4, p. 25. 13 t h e r e i s no major b l o w i n g paper p r o b l e m . Fences a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o c a t c h such d e b r i s . The t r e e s o f f e r f u r t h e r p r o -t e c t i o n t o keep paper w i t h i n t h e s i t e . B i r d s are a p r o b l e m on t h e s i t e . S e a g u l l s and crows are t h e main n u i s a n c e . There a r e l a r g e numbers o f s e a g u l l s p r e s e n t y e a r round. The s e a g u l l s c o n c e n t r a t e r i g h t where th e s o l i d w astes are b e i n g dumped and compacted. Crows o c c u r i n l a r g e numbers d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g and t h e f a l l m i g r a t i o n s e a s o n s ; however some crows do r e m a i n f o r t h e e n t i r e spring-summer sea s o n . A l t h o u g h crows do peck a t t h e r e f u s e b e i n g dumped, l a r g e numbers t e n d t o l i v e i n t h e b u f f e r i n g t r e e s w i t h o n l y random v i s i t s t o t h e s o l i d waste b e i n g dumped and b e i n g compacted. B o t h t h e crows and t h e s e a g u l l s g e n e r a t e a l o t o f n o i s e on t h e s i t e , b u t t h e n o i s e f o o t p r i n t i s s m a l l and n o t a major n u i s a n c e t o n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . On o c c a s i o n , s e a g u l l s a r e s h o t i n o r d e r t o reduce t h e p o p u l a t i o n . B e a r s , c o y o t e s and dogs p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n a l p r o b l e m s . Fences have been s u g g e s t e d t o keep t h e a n i m a l s o u t o f t h e l a n d f i l l . The a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e s i t e , however, would p r o b a b l y c o n t i n u e due t o t h e odour g e n e r a t e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e a n i m a l s such as t h e b e a r s and t h e c o y o t e s c o u l d pose a more dangerous pr o b l e m t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s i f t h e y were p r e v e n t e d from e n t e r i n g t h e s i t e . I n t h e s i t e , t h e a n i m a l s can be more e a s i l y s p o t t e d , c o n t r o l l e d and c a p t u r e d i f r e q u i r e d . Some b e a r s w h i c h c o n t i n u a l l y r e t u r n t o t h e s i t e have t o be s h o t . No r a b i d a n i m a l s have been found on t h e P r e m i e r S t r e e t s i t e . 14 A n i m a l and i n s e c t v e c t o r s a r e n o t v i s i b l y p r e s e n t as a n u i s a n c e . Most l a n d f i l l s do have some i n s e c t and r o d e n t p r o b l e m s . The l e a c h a t e from t h e s i t e i s a l s o a good b r e e d i n g 12 a r e a f o r m o s q u i t o e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u t u r e i n s e c t and a n i m a l v e c t o r s s t i l l e x i s t s i n c e t h e c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e P r e m i e r S t r e e t s i t e a r e n o t u n u s u a l l y d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r l a n d f i l l s . A major f l y and l a r v a e e a t e r among t h e b i r d s p r e s e n t i s t h e B o n a p a r t e S e a g u l l w h i c h does f r e q u e n t t h e a r e a d u r i n g t h e f a l l . W i t h t h e y e a r l y i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n p l u s t h e accom-p a n y i n g i n c r e a s e i n d i s c a r d e d s o l i d w a s t e , t h e r a t e o f f i l l i n g t h e l a n d f i l l w i l l c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y i n c r e a s e . The r a t e o f s o l i d waste volume i n c r e a s e was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 27% w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n 13 i n c r e a s e o f o n l y 2.7% o v e r t h e l a s t two y e a r s . I n o r d e r t o r e t a r d t h e p r e s e n t and t h e f u t u r e r a t e s o f f i l l i n g t h e a v a i l a b l e l a n d a c r e a g e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s o f u s i n g a g r i n d i n g t e c h -n i q u e w h i c h s h r e d s t h e s o l i d w a s t e s i n t o s m a l l p a r t i c l e s . T h i s t e c h n i q u e p e r m i t s g r e a t e r c o m p a c t i o n p e r c u b i c y a r d and t h e r e f o r e w i l l e x t e n d t h e l a n d f i l l l i f e . M i c h a e l E. J e n s e n , O b s e r v a t i o n s o f C o n t i n e n t a l  European S o l i d Waste Management P r a c t i c e s . (U.S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , Consumer P r o t e c t i o n and E n v i r o n m e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e , E n v i r o n -m e n t a l C o n t r o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Bureau o f S o l i d Waste Manage-ment, 1969) , p. 12. 13 A n n u a l s o l i d waste i n t o n s was 47,750 t o n s i n 1969 and 60,000 t o n s i n 1970 and were o b t a i n e d from t h e N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t E n g i n e e r i n g O f f i c e . P o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s were t a k e n from t h e P o p u l a t i o n P r o g n o s i s , t a b l e 1 i n t h e R e p o r t on S o l i d Waste  Management, J . J . K a l l e r , J u l y 1970. 15 Grinding Technique The grinder selected for the benefit-cost analysis i s the Model 1000 of the Brute Series made by the E i d a l Inter-national Corporation. The E i d a l s o l i d waste reduction equip-ment was selected over competitors' equipment because of the 14 greater d i v e r s i t y of wastes which i t can handle. The grinding process w i l l be defined as a process which grinds and pulverizes s o l i d wastes, producing a shredded homogeneous mass of reduced volume. The size of the homogeneous p a r t i c l e can be regulated by the equipment. According to the manufacturer, the capacity of s o l i d wastes which the Model 1000 can handle i s f o r t y tons per hour. The grinder when i n s t a l l e d i s 18 feet 10 inches high, 14 feet 3 inches long and 8 feet wide. The opening where the waste enters the grinder i s 60 inches by 88 inches and the discharge opening i s 18 inches by 36 inches. The maximum width of the feeding conveyor i s 86 inches. The grinder has two 500 horse power motors which provide rotor speed of 369 RPM and a t i p speed of 6800 FPM. The rotor diameter i s 59 inches when stopped and 62 inches when i n motion. The grinder has 60 r i n g grinders each weighing 64 pounds. The machine According to the manufacturer's o f f i c i a l l i s t , the Brute series can grind sofas, chairs, dressers, innersprings, mattresses, beds, c l o s e t s , t o i l e t s , sinks, bathtubs, f l o o r s , appliances, trees, slabbed car bodies, seats, frames, desks, rugs, ore, slag, s t e e l , aluminium, breakage, p l a s t i c s , skids, p a l l e t s , bark logs, banding, fencing, blocks, b r i c k s , bagasse and debris. 16 weighs 105,700 pounds. I t i s important to note that there are no hammers or no grates i n t h i s equipment. The equipment i s gear driven. The v e r t i c a l rotor with i t s multiple r i n g grinders reduce wastes to the p a r t i c l e s i z e desired within seconds. There i s a noise l e v e l of 85 decibels at a distance of ten feet from the grinder when . 15 processing waste. The grinder would be i n s t a l l e d i n a metal b u i l d i n g insulated with f i b r e g l a s s . The b u i l d i n g would also contain a storage bin for holding the refuse from the c o l l e c t i o n trucks i n order to maintain a more consistent and regular flow. A conveyor b e l t would connect the storage bin to the grinder and another conveyor b e l t would take the ground waste to waiting trucks v i a a covered 20 ton hopper. A control and instrument room would be located i n the b u i l d i n g where an operator would run the grinder and the conveyor systems. The building holding the grinder would be constructed at the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver truck storage yard which i s f a i r l y close to the Premier Street L a n d f i l l . Consequently, no a d d i t i o n a l land purchases would be required. There i s another p o s s i b i l i t y of l o c a t i n g the grinding f a c i l i t y at the actual l a n d f i l l s i t e ; however, i t would require the removal of trees which presently provide a good buffer between A decibel i s approximately the smallest change i n sound which a human ear can detect. 17 the l a n d f i l l and the neighbouring commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l areas. Access problems would also be generated at the l a n d f i l l s i t e should another b u i l d i n g be placed near the entrance. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of maintenance f a c i l i t i e s and s k i l l e d repairmen would o f f e r an ad d i t i o n a l advantage to have the grinder situated at the truck s t a t i o n yard. Since the Premier Street L a n d f i l l w i l l eventually be closed, the establishment of a c e n t r a l community disposal s t a t i o n on the North Shore now, at l e a s t establishes a f a c i l i t y which can be used i n the long-run. I f the grinding f a c i l i t y was b u i l t at the Premier Street s i t e , the rec r e a t i o n a l plans for a park or golf course would have to be changed or modified. As l a n d f i l l s i t e s have to be located further from the community because of the problem of finding enough s u i t -able land, transportation cost w i l l increase. By having fewer trucks carrying larger quantities i n weight of ground s o l i d waste"^ over the expected longer distances, the d i s t r i c t should be able to a t t a i n some savings i n costs i n the long-run. I t i s important to plan now for the in e v i t a b l e l a n d f i l l expansion outside the present area by c e n t r a l i z i n g one aspect of the s o l i d waste problem the grinding disposal s t a t i o n . The grinding technique would occur as follows. The municipal s o l i d wastes would be brought to the grinding f a c i l i t y . Refuse volume can be reduced as much as 15 to 1. H. D. Jordon, (Tulsa Daily World, Sunday, June 14, 1970). 18 The t r u c k s would dump a l l wastes i n t o t h e h o l d i n g b i n . The s o l i d w astes would t h e n be l i f t e d v i a c o n v e y o r - b e l t i n t o t h e f e e d i n g i n t a k e . The wastes would be ground and d e p o s i t e d on a n o t h e r c o n v e y o r - b e l t w h i c h would t a k e t h e ground w a s t e s t o a c o v e r e d hopper o u t s i d e o f t h e b u i l d i n g . T r u c k s would d r i v e under t h e hopper and l o a d t h e ground s o l i d w astes from a t r a p -d o o r . The c o n v e y o r - b e l t s would c o n t r o l t h e f l o w o f s o l i d w a s t e s . When t h e t r u c k s were u n a v a i l a b l e o r t h e hopper was f i l l e d , t h e convey o r systems would be t u r n e d o f f . The g r i n d i n g s y stem can h a n d l e up t o f o r t y t o n s p e r hour; b u t a t p r e s e n t , s o l i d waste demands f o r 1971 would r e q u i r e o p e r a t i o n t i m e s a v e r a g i n g t h i r t y - t w o t o n s p e r hour f o r an e i g h t hour day, f i v e days a week. The dump t r u c k s w i t h t h e ground s o l i d w a s t e s would t h e n go t o t h e P r e m i e r S t r e e t L a n d f i l l . The j o u r n e y one way would t a k e under t e n m i n u t e s . The t r u c k s and t h e ground con-t e n t s would t h e n be weighed on t h e e x i s t i n g s c a l e s . Two t r u c k s would t h e n p r o c e e d t o t h e l a n d f i l l where dumping would o c c u r . The ground wastes would s e l f - c o m p a c t t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t b u t use o f t h e p r e s e n t t r a c t o r would p r o v i d e f o r g r e a t e r c o m p a c t i o n . The P r e m i e r S t r e e t L a n d f i l l i s b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d on a s l o p e . A l t h o u g h a two f o o t s i d e c o v e r a l o n g t h e edge o f t h e l a n d f i l l w o uld s t i l l be n e c e s s a r y , t h e l a n d f i l l c o u l d be b u i l t up by s p r e a d i n g and c o m p a c t i n g t h i n l a y e r s o f unc o v e r e d ground r e f u s e o v e r t h e e n t i r e s i t e . A p r o c e s s o f s p r e a d i n g and c o m p a c t i n g t h i n l a y e r s o f u n c o v e r e d ground r e f u s e i s 17 presently being done i n Edmonton, Alberta. A f i n a l two foot cover of r e l a t i v e l y impermeable s o i l would s t i l l be required when clos i n g the l a n d f i l l . The Premier Street L a n d f i l l density averages between 18 600 and 1000 pounds per cubic yard. The grinding technique achieves densities between 1000 and 1500 pounds per cubic yard and can reach 1800 pounds per cubic yard when using moist refuse. In Edmonton, Alberta, where a grinder has been i n -s t a l l e d , there are hopes to reach 2700 pounds per cubic yard. I f i n d t h i s figure rather high and can f i n d no evidence by the manufacturer or by other owners of such equipment of ever a t t a i n i n g such a figure per cubic yard. Whether the costs of i n s t a l l i n g such grinding equipment i n the North Shore outweigh the benefits w i l l be determined by a benefit-cost analysis. 17 The Edmonton operation spreads and compacts the ground wastes by having trucks drive over and deposit t h i n layers of refuse. The weight of the moving trucks help com-pact the ground refuse. Mr. George Naoum, Manager of Cambrian Group, Edmonton, (written communication, March 15, 1971). 18 An on s i t e survey by the Premier Street L a n d f i l l manager, G. Butler, estimated 600 pounds per cubic yard. The assistant municipal engineer, D. White, D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver Engineering Department stated that 1000 pounds per cubic yard was obtained. The l a t t e r figure i s unusually high for an ordinary l a n d f i l l . Both figures w i l l be used i n the benefit-cost analysis. CHAPTER I I H y p o t h e s i s Net t a n g i b l e economic b e n e f i t s t o t h e C o r p o r a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver j u s t i f y use o f t h e s o l i d waste g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e . Methodology The economic e f f i c i e n c y o f i n s t a l l i n g a g r i n d i n g machine a t t h e P r e m i e r S t r e e t L a n d f i l l s i t e w i l l be a n a l y s e d by a b e n e f i t - c o s t t e c h n i q u e . I n c l u d e d i n t h e b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s o f t h e g r i n d i n g t e c h n i q u e w i l l be t h e i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s and c o s t s . A b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s w i l l a l s o be done f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l method. The p r e s e n t s i t e and t r e a t m e n t t e c h n i q u e w i l l be t h e c o n t r o l s i t u a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e main o b j e c t i v e o f t h e t h e s i s i s e i t h e r t o v e r i f y o r t o r e j e c t t h e h y p o t h e s i s , c o n c l u d i n g e v i d e n c e w h i c h w i l l e l u c i d a t e whether t o c o n v e r t o r n o t t o c o n v e r t from the l a n d f i l l t e c h n i q u e t o t h e g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e w i l l a l s o be p r e s e n t e d . The b e n e f i t - c o s t t e c h n i q u e i s a method o f a s s e s s i n g b e n e f i t s and c o s t s w i t h i n a p r e v i o u s l y d e c i d e d framework. 21 Cost-benefit analysis i s a p r a c t i c a l way of assessing the d e s i r a b i l i t y of projects, where i t i s important to take a long view (in the sense of looking at repercussions i n the further, as well as the nearer, future) and a wide view (in the sense of allowing for -side-effects of many kinds on many persons, i n d u s t r i e s , . regions, etc.), i . e . , i t implies the enumeration and evaluation of a l l the relevant costs and b e n e f i t s . ^ The calculation of present benefits and costs, the estimation of future benefits and costs, the discounting by a relevant i n t e r e s t rate of these benefits and costs over the economic l i f e of the project and then the f i n a l determination of the benefit-cost r a t i o are the e s s e n t i a l elements i n the anal y s i s . P o s i t i v e net benefits preferably over 1.0 would suggest econo-mically e f f i c i e n t p rojects. Since two disposal techniques are being compared i n t h i s t h e s i s , the higher p o s i t i v e r a t i o would indicate the more e f f i c i e n t technique i n economic terms. Depending on the point of view of the decision-maker, l e g a l , p h y s i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and/or s o c i a l aspects may a l t e r economic conclusions of a benefit-cost analysis. B a s i c a l l y , " . . . the aim i s to maximize the present value of a l l benefits 20 less that of a l l costs, subject to s p e c i f i e d constraints." Public investments l i k e private investments w i l l take account of the value of the resources or goods and services which are 19 A. R. Prest, R. Turvey, The Economic Journal, Volume LXXV, "Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Survey" (London: MacMillan (Journals) Limited, 1965), p. 683. 20 Ibid., p. 686. u t i l i z e d and t h e v a l u e o f t h e s e r v i c e s w h i c h a r e p r o d u c e d . I n a d d i t i o n , p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t s must c o n s i d e r t h e d i f f u s e d c o s t s w h i c h a f f e c t o t h e r s and s i m i l a r l y must c o n s i d e r t h e b e n e f i t s w h i c h a r e g a i n e d by o t h e r s n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o j e c t . The i n t a n g i b l e a s p e c t s w i l l a l t e r t h e economic c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s d e p e n d i n g on t h e w e i g h t a t t a c h e d t o t h e s e a s p e c t s by t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a u t h o r i t y . The n e t i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t f i g u r e w i l l be c a l -c u l a t e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e p r e s e n t v a l u e o f t a n g i b l e c o s t s . The v a l u e o f t h e n e t i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s o f a p a r t i c u l a r d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e w i l l r e p r e s e n t t h e amount o f s o c i a l r e t u r n w h i c h t h e community o f N o r t h Vancouver w i l l have t o o b t a i n i n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y t h e use o f t h e d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s o n l y t o e l u c i d a t e t h e s e v a r i o u s m e a s u r a b l e and unmeasurable c o s t s , l e a v i n g t h e d e c i s i o n making f u n c t i o n t o t h e d e l e g a t e d a u t h o r i t y i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h V a n c ouver. To use t h e b e n e f i t - c o s t t e c h n i q u e , a p o i n t o f v i e w must be e s t a b l i s h e d i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y from whose p e r s p e c t i v e t h e s o l i d waste d i s p o s a l method w i l l be a n a l y s e d . The p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l be t h a t o f t h e C o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver w h i c h o p e r a t e s t h e P r e m i e r S t r e e t L a n d f i l l and n o t o f any s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l o r any b u s i n e s s . The s t u d y w i l l be l i m i t e d t o t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver and t h e a r e a s e r v e d by t h e p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l . N e x t , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f w h i c h b e n e f i t s o u t p u t s o f s e r v i c e s from t h e d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s and w h i c h c o s t s i n p u t s o f goods and s e r v i c e s w i l l be i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . The b e n e f i t s and t h e c o s t s s e l e c t e d w i l l be f u r t h e r s e p a r a t e d i n t o t a n g i b l e and i n t a n g i b l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The a n a l y s i s w i l l use market d e t e r m i n e d v a l u e s f o r i t s c o s t s and t h e r e d u c e d l a n d e x p e n d i t u r e b e n e f i t s . The v a l u e o f t h e s e r v i c e s p r o d u c e d w i l l be measured by t h e n e t revenue a t t a i n e d by t h e a r b i t r a r y p r i c e c h a r g e d t o t h e two n e i g h b o u r i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s by t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver. A l t h o u g h t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s and c o s t s a r e t h e key economic d e t e r m i n a n t s i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , i n t a n g i b l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n l o c a l d e c i s i o n s as opposed t o n a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . The i n t a n g i b l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e f e r s t o b e n e f i t s and c o s t s w h i c h cannot be p r i c e d i n t h e 21 market. V a l u a t i o n o f v a r i o u s i n t a n g i b l e s has been a t t e m p t e d ; b u t each t y p e o f i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t o r c o s t has a u n i q u e method o f measurement and c o n s e q u e n t l y no comprehensive f o r m u l a o r method has been c r e a t e d t o c o v e r a l l s i t u a t i o n s . I n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s and c o s t s w i l l be measured i n p o s i t i v e - n e g a t i v e terms u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d . H i s t o r i c a l c o s t s do n o t have r e l e v a n c e t o t h e b e n e f i t -c o s t t e c h n i q u e s i n c e t h e o u t l a y o f c o s t s has a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d W.R.D. Sewell et a l , Guide to Benefit-Cost Analysis, Resources for Tomorrow Conference held i n Montreal, October 23-28, 1961 (Queens P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1962), pp. 29-30. United States Water Resources Council, Standards for  Planning Water and Land Resources, Report to the Water Resources Council by the Special Task Force (Washington, D. C , July 1970). w i t h accompanying b e n e f i t s . S a l e s t a x e s and d u t y w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as a c o s t . The d i s c o u n t r a t e i s t h e a d j u s t i n g mechanism t o v a l u e f u t u r e o u t p u t s and i n p u t s i n p r e s e n t terms. The d i s c o u n t r a t e f o r t h e b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by u s i n g t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i c t b o r r o w i n g r a t e . The p r e s e n t d i s -c o u n t r a t e f o r t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver i s seven p e r c e n t . S i n c e t h e d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e may be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e d i s c o u n t r a t e s e l e c t e d , t h e use o f s e v e r a l r a t e s o f i n t e r e s t above and below seven p e r c e n t w i l l be a p p l i e d i n t h e b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s . The e l i m i n a t i o n o f a c o s t o r a b e n e f i t w i l l g i v e e x t r a w e i g h t t o one s i d e o f t h e a n a l y s i s . I n a l l b e n e f i t - c o s t c o m p a r i s o n s , a b a l a n c e between each i n p u t and each o u t p u t s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d i n o r d e r t o a v o i d i n f l u e n c i n g t h e a n a l y s i s Source o f Data C a p i t a l c o s t s f o r t h e c o n t r o l s i t u a t i o n were o b t a i n e d from t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e o f N o r t h Vancouver. These c o s t s were found t o be h i s t o r i c and n o t r e l e v a n t t o t h e b e n e f i t -c o s t t e c h n i q u e . No major c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s were p l a n n e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t P r e m i e r S t r e e t s i t e o p e r a t i n g as a l a n d f i l l . C a p i t a l c o s t s f o r t h e g r i n d i n g t e c h n i q u e were o b t a i n e d from 22 t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r . S i t e c o s t s were c o n s i d e r e d o n l y when one — The m a n u f a c t u r e r o f t h e g r i n d e r s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y was t h e E i d a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n . 25 method required a d d i t i o n a l land area i n comparison to the other f o r the same time period. Operational and maintenance costs for the control s i t u a t i o n were obtained from the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . Costs for the control s i t u a t i o n were projected i n the analysis of a new l a n d f i l l area and for the costs common to the grinding method. Maintenance and operating costs for the grinding method were obtained from other communities using the same grinding equipment and were obtained from estimates of the manufacturer. Intangible benefits and costs were obtained from d i r e c t observation, from recorded studies, from the manufacturer, from the d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i t i e s and from observations of communities and of firms using the equipment. CHAPTER III Benefit-cost Analysis The benefit-cost analysis i s calculated from the point of view of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver and not of i t s two neighbouring communities the Municipality of West Vancouver and the Ci t y of North Vancouver. A l l costs r e-searched were the stated costs of the months January 1971, February 1971 and March 1971 i n c l u s i v e . The d i s t r i c t ' s borrowing rate during t h i s period of time was seven per cent. For comparison purposes, rates of s i x per cent and eight per cent w i l l also be used along with the o f f i c i a l d i s t r i c t rate when discounting benefits and costs. Since the grinding disposal technique benefit of increased waste density i s being compared to the present l a n d f i l l waste density, a s p e c i f i c figure should be stated as the average density. As previously explained (see footnote 18), a difference i n opinion e x i s t s i n the average density obtained by the present l a n d f i l l . Consequently, the be n e f i t -cost analysis has been calculated using both sets of figures 600 pounds per cubic yard and 1000 pounds per cubic yard. In addition, a l l three discount rates were used on both sets of weighted volumes. 27 TABLE 2 e x h i b i t s t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s -t r i c t P o p u l a t i o n f o r e c a s t c a l c u l a t e d as o f June 1, 1969. The p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e i n TABLE 2 i s t h e c u m u l a t i v e f i g u r e f o r t h e t h r e e N o r t h Shore c o m m u n i t i e s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o p u l a t i o n f o r e c a s t can be c o n s i d e r e d r a t h e r c o n s e r v a t i v e . F o r example, t h e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60,000 i n 1970. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n f o r e -c a s t used, t h e 1970 f i g u r e s h o u l d have o n l y been 57,000. R e a l i s t i c a l l y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o be a c c u r a t e i n any popu-l a t i o n f o r e c a s t due t o changes i n t h e b i r t h r a t e , changes i n t h e d e a t h r a t e , changes i n z o n i n g and changes i n t h e e m i g r a t i o n and i m m i g r a t i o n r a t e s . The r e a s o n f o r r e l y i n g on c o n s e r v a t i v e f i g u r e s i s i n o r d e r t o make s u r e t h a t t h e waste tonnage f i g u r e used u n d e r s t a t e s r a t h e r t h a n o v e r s t a t e s t h e c a p a c i t y r e q u i r e d . I f t h e p r o j e c t e d c o n s e r v a t i v e s o l i d waste tonnage f i g u r e s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e need f o r c o n s e r v i n g l a n d f i l l s p a c e , t h e n any c o n c l u s i o n s can be m a g n i f i e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e p r o -j e c t i o n s a r e o f f . I n 1970, 2.63 pounds o f garbage p e r c a p i t a were produced on t h e N o r t h S hore. T h i s f i g u r e c o n s i s t s o f o n l y t h e s o l i d w a stes a c c e p t e d a t t h e P r e m i e r S t r e e t L a n d f i l l . The p r o j e c t e d s o l i d waste tonnage (column f o u r o f TABLE 2) has been c a l c u l a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e p r o j e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s by t h e e s t i m a t e d pounds p e r c a p i t a f i g u r e o f each y e a r . The pounds p e r c a p i t a f i g u r e was i n c r e a s e d by two p e r c e n t p e r y e a r w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d 28 22 the annual increase by the American Public Works Association. In TABLES 3, 4 and 5, the projected volume occupied by the estimated s o l i d waste tonnage i s indicated. By r e f e r r i n g to TABLE 1, the estimated a v a i l a b l e volume i s only 2,378,860 cubic yards. Therefore, i f only 600 pounds per cubic yard are attained i n the l a n d f i l l , sometime during 1980, the Premier Street s i t e w i l l be f i l l e d . I f 1000 pounds per cubic yard are attained, the l a n d f i l l w i l l reach capacity i n 1984. The benefits measured w i l l be i n comparison to the grinding tech-nique where an a r b i t r a r y figure of 1500 pounds per cubic yard w i l l be the assumed weighted volume. The 1500 pounds per cubic yard figure i s on the high side i f not compacted. I t i s f e l t , however, that t h i s density can be reached with the present equipment at the s i t e . An examination of TABLE 5 indicates that over the next f i f t e e n year period, a l l the projected tonnage can be accommodated. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Regional Refuse Disposal,(Greater Egypt Regional Planning and Development Commission, June 1969,)pp. 19-20. 29 TABLE 2 SOLID WASTE PROJECTION Year Population Pounds^per capita S o l i d waste tonnage Cumulative s o l i d waste tonnage 1970 126,300 2.63 60,788 60,788 1971 129,800 2.68 63,486 124,274 1972 133,400 2.73 66,464 190,738 1973 137,200 2.78 69,609 260,347 1974 141,000 2.83 72,823 333,170 1975 144,900 2.88 76,160 409,330 1976 148,800 2.93 79,568 488,898 1977 153,000 2.98 83,210 572,108 1978 157,300 3.03 86.983 659,091 1979 161,800 3.09 91,244 750,355 1980 166,300 3.15 95,602 845,937 1981 170,800 3.21 100,059 945,996 1982 175,700 3.27 104,854 1,050,850 1983 180,800 3.33 109,877 1,160,727 1984 186,100 3.39 115,136 1,275,863 1985 191,500 3.45 120,574 1,396,437 Population figures based on June 1, 1969 forecast of the Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t population forecast fo r 1986. Increases i n pounds per capita based on the American Public Works Association estimated 2% increase per year for per capita s o l i d waste production. 30 TABLE 3 PROJECTED LANDFILL VOLUME OCCUPIED AT 600 POUNDS PER CUBIC YARD Year Annual cubic yards Cumulative cubic yards 1971 211,620 211,620 1972 221,546 433,166 1973 232,030 665,196 1974 242,743 907,939 1975 253,866 1,161,806 1976 265,266 1,427,073 1977 277,366 1,704,439 1978 289,943 1,994,383 1979 304,146 2,298,529 19 80 318,673 2,617,202 1981 333,530 2,950,732 1982 349,513 3,300,246 1983 366,256 3,666,502 1984 383,786 4,050,289 1985 401,913 4,452,202 31 TABLE 4 PROJECTED LANDFILL VOLUME OCCUPIED AT 1000 POUNDS PER CUBIC YARD Year Annual cubic yards Cumulative cubic yards 1971 126,972 126,972 1972 132,928 259,900 1973 139,218 399,118 1974 145,646 544,764 1975 153,220 697,984 1976 159,136 857,120 1977 166,420 1,023,540 1978 173,966 1,197,506 1979 182,488 1,379,994 1980 191,204 1,571,198 1981 200,118 1,771,316 1982 209,708 1,981,024 1983 219,754 2,200,778 1984 230,272 2,431,050 1985 241,148 2,672,198 32 TABLE 5 PROJECTED LANDFILL VOLUME OCCUPIED AT 1500 POUNDS PER CUBIC YARD Year Annual cubic yards Cumulative cubic yards 1971 84,648 84,648 1972 88,618 173,266 1973 92,812 266,078 1974 97,097 363,175 1975 101,546 464,722 1976 106,090 570,813 1977 110,946 681,759 1978 115,977 797,737 1979 121,658 919,395 1980 127,469 1,046,864 1981 133,412 1,180,276 1982 139,805 1,320,082 1983 146,502 1,466,584 1984 153,514 1,620,099 1985 160,765 1,780,864 Tangible Benefits and Costs for the L a n d f i l l Disposal Technique The main measurable benefit of the l a n d f i l l technique i s measured by the revenue obtained from the Municipality of West Vancouver and from the Cit y of North Vancouver. The D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver presently receives $5.00 per ton for the s o l i d wastes received from these two communities. 23 I t costs the d i s t r i c t $1.00 per ton to dispose of the s o l i d wastes which leaves $4.00 revenue. TABLES 6, 7 and 8 show the annual revenue received discounted at rates 6%, 7% and 8% r e s p e c t i v e l y . There are no projected c a p i t a l costs for the present l a n d f i l l s i t e over the next f i f t e e n years or l e s s , depending on when the s i t e reaches i t s capacity. A l l present c a p i t a l investments including the w a l l , the drainage system, the l a n d f i l l o f f i c e , the caretaker's house and the scales on the s i t e are considered h i s t o r i c costs. According to the b e n e f i t -cost methodology enunciated, h i s t o r i c costs w i l l be ignored. TABLES 9, 10 and 11 show the operating and the main-tenance costs with the respective discount rates indicated. I t presently costs a $1.00 per ton to operate the l a n d f i l l s i t e . With increased tonnage volumes and more c o l l e c t i o n trucks a r r i v i n g at the Premier Street s i t e , another t r a c t o r plus operator and a d i r e c t i n g attendant w i l l be required to D. White (verbal communication, January 1971). handle the increased quantities of wastes. Consequently, the cost per ton has been increased to $1.25 i n order to cover 24 the $13.00 per hour for the t r a c t o r and operator r e n t a l plus attendant costs. In order to at le a s t r e t a i n and possibly to improve present compaction of s o l i d wastes, a new tra c t o r 25 should be added by at l e a s t the year 1973. The measurable benefits with the present l a n d f i l l disposal method outweigh the measurable costs. Net benefits range from $1,418,735 at 6% to $1,333,856 at 7% to $1,257,617 at 8%. Other s o c i a l benefits and costs w i l l be compared l a t e r with the grinding disposal technique. 24 Tractor i s rented from the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver Truck Pool. 25 (verbal communication, Premier Street L a n d f i l l ) 35 TABLE 6 LIST OF BENEFITS FOR THE PRESENT LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 6% DISCOUNT RATE Year Current b e n e f i t s 3 Present value 1971 $180,301 $180,301 . 1972 188,758 178,075 1973 197,690 175,945 1974 206,818 173,645 1975 216,295 171,328 1976 225,974 168,871 1977 236,317 166,604 1978 247,032 164,301 1979 259,133 162,580 1980 271,510 160,707 1981 284,168 158,680 1982 297,786 156,874 1983 312,051 155,090 1984 326,987 153,292 1985 342,431 151,458 $2,477,751 aCurrent benefits were derived from the net revenue retained ($4.00) by the d i s t r i c t of North Vancouver mul t i -p l i e d by the s o l i d waste tonnage of West Vancouver and the s o l i d waste tonnage of the City of North Vancouver (71% of t o t a l annual tonnage). 36 TABLE 7 LIST OF BENEFITS FOR THE PRESENT LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 7% DISCOUNT RATE Year cl Current benefits Present value 1971 $180,301 $180,301 1972 188,758 176,414 1973 197,690 172,841 1974 206,818 168,268 1975 216,295 165,012 1976 225,974 161,120 1977 236,317 157,458 1978 247,032 153,827 1979 259,133 150,816 1980 271,510 147,675 1981 284,168 144,443 1982 297,786 141,479 1983 312,051 138,551 1984 326,987 135,700 1985 342,431 132,795 $2,326,700 aCurrent benefits were derived from the net revenue retained ($4.00) by the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver m u l t i -p l i e d by the s o l i d waste tonnage of West Vancouver and the s o l i d waste tonnage of the City of North Vancouver (71% of t o t a l annual tonnage). 37 TABLE 8 LIST OF BENEFITS FOR THE PRESENT LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT AN 8% DISCOUNT RATE Year Current benefits Present value 1971 $180,301 $180,301 1972 188,758 174,771 1973 197,690 169,480 1974 206,818 164,173 1975 216,295 158,977 1976 225,974 153,798 1977 236,317 148,927 1978 247,032 144,144 1979 259,133 140,010 1980 271,510 135,810 1981 284,168 131,627 1982 297,786 127,721 1983 312,051 123,916 1984 326,987 120,234 1985 342,431 116,598 $2,190,487 aCurrent benefits were derived from the net revenue retained ($4.00) by the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver mul t i -p l i e d by the s o l i d waste tonnage of West Vancouver and the s o l i d waste tonnage of the City of North Vancouver (71% of t o t a l annual tonnage). 38 TABLE 9 LIST OF COSTS FOR THE PRESENT LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 6% DISCOUNT RATE Year C a p i t a l c o s t s a Operating & Maintenance Current Present value Annual Present value 1971 $ 63,486 $ 63,486 1972 62,464 62,703 1973 87,012 77,441 1974 91,029 76,428 1975 95,200 75,408 1976 99,460 74,327 1977 104,013 73,330 1978 108,729 72,316 1979 114,055 71,559 1980 119,503 70,734 1981 125,074 69,842 1982 131,068 69,047 1983 137,347 68,262 1984 143,920 67,470 1985 150,718 66,663 $1,059,016 aThere are no projected c a p i t a l costs for the l a n d f i l l s i t e . A l l present c a p i t a l investments including the wall and the drainage systems are h i s t o r i c costs. ^0 & M costs are derived by multiplying each years projected tonnage by $1.00 for years 1971 and 1972, then by $1.25 for the years 1973 to 1985 (r i s e i n costs due to addi-t i o n a l t r a c t o r and operator and an attendant). 39 TABLE 10 LIST OF COSTS FOR THE PRESENT LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 7% DISCOUNT RATE Year C a p i t a l c o s t s a Operating & maintenance'3 Current Present value Annual Present value 1971 $ 63,486 $ 63,486 1972 66,464 62,118 1973 87,012 75,997 1974 91,029 74,307 1975 95,200 72,628 1976 99,460 70,915 1977 104,013 69,304 1978 108,729 67,706 1979 114,055 66,380 1980 119,503 64,998 1981 125,074 63,576 1982 131,068 62,271 1983 137,347 60,982 1984 143,920 59,727 1985 150,718 58,449 $992 ,844 There are no projected c a p i t a l costs for the l a n d f i l l s i t e . A l l present c a p i t a l investments including the wall and the drainage systems are h i s t o r i c costs. 0 & M costs are derived by multiplying each years projected tonnage by $1.00 for years 1971 and 1972, then by $1.25 for the years 1973 to 1985 (rise i n costs due to addi-t i o n a l t r a c t o r and operator and an attendant). TABLE 11 40 LIST OF COSTS FOR THE PRESENT LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT AN 8% DISCOUNT RATE Year Capital costs Operating & maintenance*3 Current Present Value Annual Present value 1971 $ 63,486 $ 63,486 1972 66,464 61,540 1973 87,012 74,596 1974 91,029 72,259 1975 95,200 69,972 1976 99,460 67,693 1977 104,013 65,549 1978 108,729 63,444 1979 114,055 61,624 1980 119,503 59,776 1981 125,074 57,935 1982 131,068 56,215 1983 137,347 54,541 1984 143,920 52,920 1985 157,718 51,320 $932,870 There are no projected c a p i t a l costs for the l a n d f i l l s i t e . A l l present c a p i t a l investments including the wall and the drainage systems are h i s t o r i c costs. 0 & M costs are derived by multiplying each years projected tonnage by $1.00 for years 1971 and 1972, then by $1.25 for the years 1973 to 1985 ( r i s e i n costs due to addi-t i o n a l t r a c t o r and operator and an attendant). I Tangible Benefits and Costs for the Grinding L a n d f i l l Technique Benefits for the grinding technique are l i s t e d i n TABLES 12, 13 and 14 with the discount rates indicated. The benefits received from savings of not having to purchase new 2 6 land for l a n d f i l l disposal are measured at $50,000 per acre. The land costs saved which are the benefits to the grinding technique w i l l vary depending on whether 600 pounds per cubic yard or 1000 pounds per cubic yard under the present disposal technique i s assumed. If 600 pounds per cubic yard i s assumed, then a grinding technique achieving 1500 pounds per cubic yard w i l l a t t a i n benefits from the years 1980 through to 1985. If 1000 pounds per cubic yard i s attained, then only the years 1984 and 1985 w i l l o f f e r b e n e f i t s . In addition to l a n d f i l l savings, a revenue of f i f t y cents accrues to the d i s t r i c t . The revenue r e s u l t s from the $5.00 charged per ton of s o l i d wastes from the Municipality of West Vancouver and the Cit y of North Vancouver, le s s the operating and maintenance costs which are $3.50 per ton and the operating and maintenance costs of the l a n d f i l l which are $1.00 per ton. No second t r a c t o r and operator plus d i r e c t i n g attendant w i l l be needed with the grinding technique. This occurs because of smaller p a r t i c l e s i z e and resultant ease of spreading. The present t r a c t o r w i l l be used however to achieve the 1500 pounds per cubic yard and for covering the c e l l s . D. White, (verbal communication, February 1971). TABLE 12 42 LIST OF BENEFITS FOR THE GRINDER-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 6% DISCOUNT RATE Year C u r r e n l z B e n e f i t s P r e s e n t v a l u e 6 0 0 a 1000 b 6 0 0 a i o o o b 1971 $ 22,538 $ 22,538 $ 22,538 $ 22,538 1972 23,595 23,595 22,260 22,260 1973 24,712 24,712 21,994 21,994 1974 25,853 25,853 21,706 21,706 1975 27,037 27,037 21,416 21,416 1976 28,247 28,247 21,109 21,109 1977 29,540 29,540 20,826 20,826 1978 30,879 30,879 20,538 20,538 1979 32,392 32,392 20,323 20,323 1980 92,439 33,939 54,716 20,089 1981 176,021 35,521 98,291 19,835 1982 263,724 37,224 138,930 19,609 1983 355,507 39,007 176,688 19,387 1984 451,874 53,374 211,839 25,022 1985 552,304 114,804 244,285 $1,117,459 50,779 $347,431 Column 600 b e n e f i t s a r e d e r i v e d from n e t revenues o f $0.50 m u l t i p l i e d by 71% o f t o t a l tonnage (from West Van-c o u v e r and t h e C i t y o f N o r t h Vancouver) p l u s t h e acr e a g e saved by t h e g r i n d i n g - l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e from 1980 t o 1985, assuming t h e p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l o n l y a t t a i n s 600 pounds p e r c u b i c y a r d . Column 1000 b e n e f i t s a r e the same as t h o s e o f f o o t -n o t e (a) e x c e p t t h e acr e a g e saved o c c u r s i n 1984 and 1985, assuming t h e p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l o n l y a t t a i n s 1000 pounds p e r c u b i c y a r d . TABLE 13 43 LIST OF BENEFITS FOR THE GRINDER-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 7% DISCOUNT RATE Year Current benefits Present value 600 a 1000 b 600 a 1000 b 1971 $ 22,538 $ 22,538 $ 22,538 $ 22,538 1972 23,595 23,595 22,052 22,052 1973 24,712 24,712 21,606 21,606 1974 25,853 25,853 21,034 21,034 1975 27,037 27,037 20,627 20,627 1976 28,247 28,247 20,140 20,140 1977 29,540 29,540 19,683 19,683 1978 30,879 30,879 19,229 19,229 1979 32,392 32,392 18,852 18,852 1980 92,439 33,939 50,279 18,460 1981 176,021 35,521 89,473 18,056 1982 263,724 37,224 125,296 17,685 1983 355,507 39,007 157,845 17,319 1984 451,874 53,374 187,528 22,151 1985 552,304 114,804 214,184 44,522 $1,007,366 $323,954 aColumn 600 benefits are derived from net revenues of $0.50 m u l t i p l i e d by 71% of t o t a l tonnage (from West Van-couver and the City of North Vancouver)plus the acreage saved by the g r i n d i n g - l a n d f i l l disposal technique from 1980 to 1985, assuming the present l a n d f i l l only attains 600 pounds per cubic yard. Column 1000 benefits are the same as those of foot-note (a) except the acreage saved occurs i n 1984 and 1985, assuming the present l a n d f i l l only attains 1000 pounds per cubic yard. TABLE 14 44 LIST OF BENEFITS FOR THE GRINDER-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT AN 8% DISCOUNT RATE Year Current benefits Present value 600 a 1000 b 600 a 1000 b 1971 $ 22,538 $ 22,538 $22,538 $ 22,538 1972 23,595 23,595 21,847 21,847 1973 24,712 24,712 21,185 21,815 1974 25,853 25,853 20,522 20,522 1975 27,037 27,037 19,873 19,873 1976 28,247 28,247 19,224 19,224 1977 29,540 29,540 18,616 18,616 1978 30,879 30,879 18,018 18,018 1979 32,392 32,392 17,502 17,502 1980 92,439 33,939 46,239 16,977 1981 176,021 35,521 81,534 16,454 1982 263,724 37,224 113,112 15,966 1983 355,507 39,007 141,173 15,490 1984, 451,874 53,374 166,155 19,627 1985 552,304 114,804 188,060 $915,598 49,091 $312,930 Column 600 benefits are derived from net revenues of $0.50 m u l t i p l i e d by 71% of t o t a l tonnage (from West Van-couver and the C i t y of North Vancouver) plus the acreage saved by the g r i n d i n g - l a n d f i l l disposal technique from 1980 to 1985, assuming the present l a n d f i l l only attains 600 pounds per cubic yard. Column 1000 benefits are the same as those of foot-note (a) except the acreage saved occurs i n 1984 and 1985, assuming the present l a n d f i l l only attains 1000 pounds per cubic yard. The c a p i t a l c o s t s o f i n s t a l l i n g t h e Model 1000 E i d a l g r i n d e r would be $250,000 i n c l u d i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n , f r e i g h t 27 and c o n v e y i n g systems. C a p i t a l c o s t s a l s o i n c l u d e a 15% d u t y and a 12% s a l e s t a x on t h e o r i g i n a l p r i c e p l u s d u t y 2 8 w h i c h makes the combined t a x e f f e c t i v e l y 28.8%. Complementary f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c a p i t a l c o s t s . The b u i l d i n g r e q u i r e d t o h o l d t h e g r i n d e r would be p l a c e d on d i s t r i c t owned l a n d w h i c h would e l i m i n a t e a l a n d p u r c h a s e expense. The b u i l d i n g c o u l d be a m e t a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h f i b r e -g l a s s i n s u l a t i o n and concrete f o u n d a t i o n . The c o s t f o r t h i s t y p e o f s t r u c t u r e would be $9.00 a s quare f o o t f o r t h e b u i l d i n g 29 and $2.50 a s quare f o o t f o r t h e f o u n d a t i o n . The s q u a r e f o o t a g e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e b u i l d i n g would be (40 f e e t t i m e s 25 f e e t ) 1000 s q uare f e e t . A d d i t i o n a l expenses would be a c o n t r o l room w i t h i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n c o s t i n g $15,000, a h o l d i n g b i n c o s t i n g 30 $6,000 and an o u t s i d e c o v e r e d twenty t o n hopper c o s t i n g $7,500. O p e r a t i n g , l a b o u r , u t i l i t y and m aintenance c o s t s range 31 between $2.00 and $3.50 p e r t o n o f s o l i d w a ste. I n a d d i t i o n , 27 M. J . F r i e d e , S a l e s Manager, E i d a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n ( w r i t t e n c o m m u n i c a t i o n , F e b r u a r y 1971). 2 8 The 15% d u t y can be e l i m i n a t e d i f t h e good i s n o t made i n Canada and has no c o m p e t i t i v e s u b s t i t u t e w h i c h p r o -duces t h e same t y p e o f good o r s e r v i c e . I t i s up t o t h e p u r c h a s e r t o p u t i n an a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r o f N a t i o n a l Revenue f o r Customs i n o r d e r t o have t h e d u t y dropped. 29 B u t l e r M e t a l B u i l d i n g s . 30 Canron L t d . 31 E i d a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n . three dump trucks would be required to shuttle the ground waste from the grinder to the Premier Street L a n d f i l l . The trucks plus the d r i v e r rent for $9.00 per hour from the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver truck pool. The t o t a l labour, maintenance, operating and u t i l i t y costs w i l l be $4.50 per ton for the grinding and the l a n d f i l l disposal technique. The t o t a l c a p i t a l cost of the grinder and required f a c i l i t i e s would be $362,000 (see TABLE 15). TABLE 15 CAPITAL COSTS: GRINDER TECHNIQUE E i d a l package deal (grinder plus i n s t a l l a t i o n f r e i g h t and conveyors) Duty Sales tax Metal b u i l d i n g . . . . Foundation Control room Holding bin Hopper Total Expense $ 9,000 2,500 15,000 6,000 7,500 $37,500 34,500 $250,000 40,000 $362,000 72,000 47 TABLE 16 LIST OF COSTS FOR THE GRINDER—LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 6% DISCOUNT RATE Year Ca p i t a l costs Operating & maintenance3 Current Present value Annual Present value 1971 $362,000 $362,000 $285,688 $285,688 1972 299,088 282,160 1973 313,241 278,785 1974 327,704 275,141 1975 342,720 271,469 1976 358,056 267,576 1977 374,445 263,984 1978 391,424 260,337 1979 410,598 257,610 1980 430,209 254,641 1981 450,266 251,429 1982 471,843 248,567 1983 494,447 245,741 1984 518,112 242,891 1985 542,583 239,985 $362,000 $3,926,004 aO & M costs are $4.50 per ton ($1.00 l a n d f i l l costs with one t r a c t o r plus $3.50 grinding cost per ton). 48 TABLE 17 LIST OF COSTS FOR THE GRINDER-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 7% DISCOUNT RATE Year Capital costs Operating & maintenance3 . Current Present value Annual Present value 1971 $362,000 $362,000 $285,668 $285,668 1972 299,088 279,528 1973 313,241 273,585 1974 327,704 266,620 1975 342,720 261,461 1976 358,056 255,294 1977 374,445 249,493 1978 391,424 243,740 1979 410,598 238,968 1980 430,209 233,991 1981 450,266 228,871 1982 471,843 224,173 1983 494,447 219,535 1984 518,112 215,017 1985 542,583 210,414 $362,000 3,686,378 aO & M costs are $4.50 per ton ($1.00 l a n d f i l l costs with one t r a c t o r plus $3.50 grinding cost per ton). TABLE 18 49 LIST OF COSTS FOR THE GRINDER-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT AN 8% DISCOUNT RATE Year Cap i t a l costs Operating & maintenance" Current Present value . Annual Present value 1971 $362,000 $362,000 $285,688 $285,688 1972 299,088 276,926 1973 313,241 268,542 1974 327,704 260,132 1975 342,720 251,900 1976 358,056 243,693 1977 374,445 235,976 1978 391,424 228,396 1979 410,598 221,846 1980 430,209 215,191 1981 450,266 208,564 1982 471,843 202,374 1983 494,447 196,345 1984 518,112 190,510 1985 542,583 184,750 $362,000 $3,470,833 O & M costs are $4.50 per ton ($1.00 l a n d f i l l costs with one t r a c t o r plus $3.50 grinding cost per ton). 50 Operational Problems Should the present s o l i d waste disposal method be continued, by 1973, a second t r a c t o r w i l l be needed for com-25 pacting and for spreading of f i l l . For example by 1977, the present tractor would have to handle forty-one tons per hour of s o l i d waste. At present, the t r a c t o r only has to handle t h i r t y tons per hour. Obviously, the more tonnage handled by j u s t one t r a c t o r , the less e f f i c i e n t the l a n d f i l l operation w i l l become. Should less than 600 pounds per cubic yard be the average amount of refuse deposited, the l a n d f i l l l i f e w i l l be further reduced. The problem also e x i s t s for the grinding disposal technique. The grinder Model 1000 Brute Series i s l i m i t e d to f o r t y tons per hour. By the end of 1976, the l i m i t i n tons per hour w i l l have been reached for a f o r t y hour week eight hours a day. A f t e r t h i s point i n time, the choice i s eith e r to purchase another grinder or to increase the operating time of the grinding disposal unit and the l a n d f i l l or increase the operating time of the grinder and enlarge the hopper storage f a c i l i t i e s and other needed equipment. For t h i s benefit-cost analysis, the second a l t e r n a t i v e has been selected. In 1977, the eight hour day w i l l be extended. A t h i r d truck w i l l be added a f t e r thirty-two tons per hour i s reached. This assumes that one truck w i l l make two t r i p s per hour including t r a v e l time, weighing, loading and unloading. Not more than three trucks for the f o r t y ton per hour l i m i t w i l l be required. TABLE 19 shows the tons per day for each year. Afte r 320 tons (40 tons per hour, 8 hours per day) plus the 20 ton storage capacity of the hopper are reached,, a d d i t i o n a l operating hours w i l l be needed to run the disposal and the l a n d f i l l s i t e s . The 340 ton mark i s reached i n 1978. TABLE 20 shows the a d d i t i o n a l hours required to grind and to dispose of the s o l i d wastes. I t w i l l be a r b i t r a r i l y assumed that the same costs per ton for operating the grinding s t a t i o n and the l a n d f i l l s i t e w i l l be the same for the second shorter operating s h i f t s . 52 TABLE 19 SOLID WASTE TONS DISPOSED PER DAY AT THE PREMIER STREET SITE Year Tons per day 1971 253 1972 265 1973 278 1974 291 1975 304 1976 318 1977 332 1978 347 1979 364 1980 382 1981 400 1982 419 1983 439 1984 460 1985 482 In t h i s t a b l e , a year c o n t a i n s 250 working days 53 TABLE 20 ADDITIONAL OPERATING HOURS REQUIRED FOR GRINDING DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE Year Excess tons over 340 tons maximum,per 8 hour day A d d i t i o n a l hours 1971 - -1972 - -1973 - -1974 - -1975 - -1976 - -1977 - -1978 7 1 1979 24 1 1980 42 2 1981 60 2 1982 79 2 1983 99 2 1984 120 3 1985 142 4 54 TABLE 21 shows t h e b e n e f i t - c o s t r a t i o s f o r each t e c h -n i q u e . A t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s , t h e p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l method e x h i b i t s a s u b s t a n t i a l edge o v e r s w i t c h i n g t o t h e g r i n d i n g - l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e . 55 TABLE 21 BENEFIT-COST COMPARISONS Disposal technique Discount rate Benefit-cost r a t i o l a n d f i l l 6% 2.33 l a n d f i l l 7% 2.34 l a n d f i l l 8% 2.34 g r i n d e r - l a n d f i l l 6% 0.26 g r i n d e r - l a n d f i l l 7% 0.24 g r i n d e r - l a n d f i l l 3 8% 0.23 grinder-landf i l l * 3 6% 0.08 g r i n d e r - l a n d f i l l * 3 7% 0.08 grinder-landf i l l * 3 8% 0.08 Benefits measured under the constraint that the present l a n d f i l l disposal technique only holds 600 pounds per cubic yard. Benefits measured under the constraint that the present l a n d f i l l disposal technique only holds 1000 pounds per cubic yard. 56 I n t a n g i b l e B e n e f i t s and C o s t s I n s e c t and A n i m a l V e c t o r s I n s e c t and a n i m a l v e c t o r s a r e r e d u c e d when d i s p o s a l s i t e s u t i l i z e ground s o l i d w a ste. S t u d i e s have shown t h a t r a t s c a nnot s u r v i v e by e a t i n g e i t h e r f r e s h o r aged m i l l e d 32 r e f u s e . S p e c i f i c e x p e r i m e n t s showed t h a t r o d e n t s would c a n n i b a l i z e each o t h e r when o n l y shredded r e f u s e was a v a i l a b l e f o r f o o d . That r a t s were u n a b l e t o f i n d enough s u i t a b l e p a r t i c l e s o f n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e t o s u p p o r t t h e i r s u r v i v a l . There i s a l s o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f b u r r o w i n g i n ground r e f u s e due t o t h e s m a l l e r p a r t i c l e s p r e s e n t . T h i s p r e v e n t s r o d e n t c o l o n i e s from d e v e l o p i n g i n t h e l a n d f i l l s i t e s . F i e l d s t u d i e s have a l s o shown t h a t f l i e s have no more 33 and u s u a l l y l e s s a t t r a c t i o n t o ground r e f u s e . F l i e s , l a r v a e and f l y eggs a r r i v i n g i n garbage a t t h e d i s p o s a l s t a t i o n a r e d e s t r o y e d a f t e r e n t e r i n g t h e g r i n d e r . T h i s m a c e r a t i o n sub-s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c e s h o u s e f l y p o p u l a t i o n s a t s i t e s w i t h shredded 32 s o l i d w a s t e s . Ham found t h a t t h e f l y r e p r o d u c t i v e c y c l e c a n -n o t be s u p p o r t e d once t h e r e f u s e has aged i n t h e s i t e f o r s e v e r a l months and t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s u p p o r t even w i t h 34 f r e s h l y shredded r e f u s e . 32 R o b e r t K. Ham, V e c t o r s , A paper p r e s e n t e d a t : E n g i n e e r i n g F o u n d a t i o n R e s e a r c h C o n f e r e n c e , ( D e e r f i e l d Academy, D e e r f i e l d , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , August 24-28, 1970). 33 . J J I b i d . 3 4 I b i d . A t t h e P r e m i e r S t r e e t s i t e r o d e n t and i n s e c t v e c t o r problems a r e n o t a n u i s a n c e a t p r e s e n t . No major expenses a r e i n c u r r e d t o c o n t r o l o r t o p r e v e n t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f such n u i s a n c e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p r o b l e m o c c u r r i n g w i l l s t i l l be l e s s when u s i n g t h e shredded r e f u s e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a p o s i t i v e b e n e f i t w i l l be a l l o c a t e d t o t h e g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e . S e a g u l l s a r e p r e s e n t l y a p r o b l e m a t t h e l a n d f i l l s i t e . The b i r d s a r e on t h e r e f u s e u n t i l i t i s c o v e r e d . A l l r e f u s e i s u s u a l l y c o v e r e d i m m e d i a t e l y and n e v e r l e f t more t h a n an hour u n c o v e r e d e x c e p t on t h e weekends. No known major h e a l t h h a z a r d has o c c u r r e d from t h e b i r d s a t t h e P r e m i e r S t r e e t 35 s i t e . W i t h s h r e d d e d r e f u s e , s e a g u l l s w i l l n o t be a t t r a c t e d t o 36 t h e s i t e . S e a g u l l s p r e f e r a c e r t a i n s i z e p a r t i c l e o f waste. A t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l shredded r e f u s e s i t e i n W i s c o n s i n , no s e a g u l l s were v i s i b l e . The e f f e c t on o t h e r b i r d s o f shredded r e f u s e i s n o t known; b u t , t h e same d i f f i c u l t i e s o f f i n d i n g enough n u t r i t i o n a l waste on t o p o f t h e l a n d f i l l c e l l s w i l l p r o b a b l y d i s c o u r a g e most b i r d n u i s a n c e s . The p r e s e n t b i r d n u i s a n c e s a t t h e l a n d f i l l s i t e would be r e d u c e d by t h e ground s o l i d w a s t e s . The o t h e r a n i m a l n u i s a n c e s , b e a r s and c o y o t e s s h o u l d H e a l t h U n i t , D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver. Dr. R. H. D r e n t , Department o f Z o o l o g y , U.B.C. 58 also be reduced with ground refuse. These animals are mainly attracted by the odours from the s i t e . These odours would 37 be reduced with ground s o l i d wastes. Any v i s i b l e a t t r a c t i o n to the s i t e would also be reduced, since the refuse i s ground to a homogeneous mass. V i s i b l e P o l l u t i o n At present, p o l l u t i o n from blowing l i t t e r i s minimal because the refuse i s brought in t o the s i t e i n closed trucks, dumped and then covered f a i r l y q u i ckly. With trees buffering the l a n d f i l l s i t e , wind i s also reduced. As the l a n d f i l l increases i n height, the chances for more paper and other l i g h t refuse to blow out of the s i t e w i l l increase. Shredded refuse eliminates t h i s problem. The shredded refuse w i l l be more compact and more e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d . Wet moist shredded refuse tends to s t i c k together which would also reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of a blowing l i t t e r problem. Dust i s another form of p o l l u t i o n from l a n d f i l l s . Although dust i s not eliminated with the grinding technique, greater compaction within the c e l l reduces the dust problem i n the s i t e . The present l a n d f i l l s i t e i s situated i n a moist area with a f a i r l y high annual average r a i n f a l l . Dust i s a problem p r i m a r i l y i n the summer when the cover G.L. Sutin, "The Case for Pu l v e r i z a t i o n of S o l i d Wastes," (Public Works, October, 1970). 59 m a t e r i a l has d r i e d . S i n c e t h i s p r o b l e m w i l l c o n t i n u e , r e g a r d -l e s s o f w h i c h method i s us e d , any b e n e f i t s from g r i n d i n g r e f u s e w i l l be m i n i m a l . One major p o l l u t i o n a s p e c t w h i c h w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d i s t h e smoke from on s i t e b u r n i n g . A l l o f t h e wood and t h e paper b u r n t w i l l be g r i n d a b l e and t h e r e f o r e no such b u r n i n g w i l l be n e c e s s a r y . Logs p r e s e n t l y s t a c k e d o f f t h e l a n d f i l l can a l s o be p u t t h r o u g h t h e Model 1000 g r i n d e r . Rubber t i r e s w h i c h p r e s e n t l y cause v o i d spaces w i l l a l s o be g r i n d a b l e and w i l l e l i m i n a t e t h e v o i d p r o b l e m . G r e a t e r c o m p a c t i o n w i l l be t h e b e n e f i t o b t a i n e d . O t h e r r e f u s e s u ch as t e l e v i s i o n s , a p p l i a n c e s , b a t h t u b s , s i n k s and a i r c o n d i t i o n e r s w i l l s i m i l a r l y be compacted t o a g r e a t e r degree and t h u s p r o v i d e more room f o r f u t u r e s o l i d w a s t e s . S a f e t y Hazards Shredded m a t e r i a l r e d u c e s immediate p h y s i c a l h a z a r d s w h i c h e x i s t w i t h b r o k e n , ragged and b u l k y s o l i d w a s t e s . The s a f e t y t o the l a b o u r f o r c e on t h e s i t e w i l l t h u s be i n c r e a s e d . C i t i z e n s a f e t y w i l l be enhanced s i n c e t h e g r i n d i n g method w i l l r e q u i r e t h e c i t i z e n s e r v i c e t o be s w i t c h e d from the P r e m i e r S t r e e t s i t e t o t h e g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l s t a t i o n a t th e t r u c k p o o l . There w i l l be no more c o n t a c t w i t h m a t e r i a l s on t h e s i t e . An a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t w i l l r e s u l t i n t h a t a l l r e f u s e b r o u g h t by c i t i z e n s t o t h e d i s p o s a l s t a t i o n w i l l be ground and t h e n t r a n s p o r t e d and weighed by d i s t r i c t t r u c k s a t t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e l a n d f i l l s i t e s . A t p r e s e n t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a t e r e f u s e b r o u g h t i n i s n o t weighed, b u t o n l y e s t i m a t e d . Community s e r v i c e can a l s o be s t o p p e d a t t h e l a n d f i l l s i t e because t h e r e f u s e can be s t o r e d i n t h e h o l d i n g b i n a t t h e g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l s t a t i o n . B u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s can be d i f f i c u l t t o b u r y and some-38 t i m e s c r e a t e dangerous f i r e h a z a r d s . No e x t e r n a l f i r e s w i l l be n e c e s s a r y w i t h ground w a s t e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o m b u s t i o n s t a r t i n g i n t h e ground f i l l m a t e r i a l i s r e d u c e d compared t o t h e p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l . The danger o f spontaneous combustion i s r e d u c e d because t h e ground m a t e r i a l c o n s o l i d a t e s f a s t e r 39 and t h i s i n c r e a s e s t h e e x c l u s i o n o f oxygen. Methane i s pro d u c e d i n a l l l a n d f i l l s t h r o u g h decom-p o s i t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s . P o c k e t s o f methane gas o c c u r r e a d i l y i n c a v i t i e s w h i c h d e v e l o p w i t h unground r e f u s e , t h u s i n c r e a s i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f i r e o r underground e x p l o s i o n s . W i t h s h r e d d e d r e f u s e , t h e gas w i l l t e n d t o v e n t u n i f o r m l y t h r o u g h t h e f i l l and t h e n t h r o u g h t h e c o v e r m a t e r i a l , u n l e s s t h e c o v e r m a t e r i a l i s d e s i g n e d as a gas b a r r i e r . Impermeable s o i l c o v e r m a t e r i a l s a r e o f t e n used t o f o r c e gases t o m i g r a t e 3 8 Bureau o f M u n i c i p a l R e s e a r c h and S e r v i c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, P r e p a r e d i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e l e a g u e o f Oregon C i t i e s , I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n No. 145, Refuse C o l l e c t i o n and  D i s p o s a l , A Survey o f P r a c t i c e s i n 1964 Oregon C i t i e s , March 1965, p. 6. 39 " P u l v e r i z a t i o n a t B r i t i s h S i t e Reduces M a t t e r by 50 P e r Cent," S o l i d Wastes Management, Refuse Removal J o u r n a l , 11:16, F e b r u a r y 196 8. 61 l a t e r a l l y t o g r a v e l v e n t s . Thus t h e d i s c h a r g e o f gas can be c o n f i n e d t o one c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d a r e a . S a f e t y t o equipment i s i n c r e a s e d w i t h ground m a t e r i a l s i n c e i t can be d r i v e n on i n a l l k i n d s o f weather. Cover m a t e r i a l i s n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r a r o a d bed. The a b i l i t y t o dump i n a l l a r e a s o f t h e s i t e w i l l f u r t h e r reduce t h e r e f u s e s p r e a d i n g d i s t a n c e s o f t h e t r a c t o r . Community B e n e f i t s and C o s t s Community b e n e f i t s a r e a l s o enhanced by t h e use o f t h e g r i n d i n g t e c h n i q u e . Greenspace w i l l be improved and f l a t l a n d w i l l be i n c r e a s e d when t h e s i t e i s c o n v e r t e d t o i t s p l a n n e d use. B o t h d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s w i l l have t h i s c o n v e r s i o n p o s s i b i l i t y . P r o blems however do o c c u r w i t h l a y e r s o f l a n d f i l l w h i c h s e t t l e o r s l i d e as decompositon o c c u r s . W i t h t h e ground r e f u s e , s e t t l i n g s h o u l d be f i n i s h e d e a r l i e r d e s p i t e a s l o w e r s t a r t due t o t h e l o n g e r l a n d f i l l o p e r a t i o n a l l i f e . The s e t t l i n g p r o b l e m i s r e d u c e d w i t h ground r e f u s e d e p o s i t s because o f a more u n i f o r m r a t e o f d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s . T h i s o c c u r s because o f i n c r e a s e d s u r f a c e a r e a o v e r a more homo-geneous mass o f p a r t i c l e s w i t h i n t h e c e l l . Due t o t h e c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s on t h e N o r t h Shore, l a r g e amounts o f m o i s t u r e i n t h e c e l l s a l l o w s c h e m i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l waste d e c o m p o s i t i o n t o o c c u r f a s t e r and t h u s i n c r e a s e t h e s e t t l i n g r a t e . W i t h t h e f a s t e r s e t t l i n g r a t e o f ground s o l i d w a s t e s , t h e l a n d f i l l w i l l be able to be converted to another use sooner. Wood and paper refuse form a major segment of the s o l i d wastes i n l a n d f i l l s i t e s . This type of s o l i d waste requires long periods for complete decomposition. An o l d l a n d f i l l which was cut through when a highway was being constructed near Bismarck, South Dakota, showed that there was very l i t t l e decomposition of paper wastes and that most of the p r i n t on the paper was s t i l l l e g i b l e a f t e r twenty-five 40 years of being buried. By grinding these paper and wood s o l i d wastes, the smaller ground p a r t i c l e s would speed up decomposition. Vancouver l a n d f i l l s have not created health problems 41 and are considered quite safe. Grinding the refuse w i l l not s i g n i f i c a n t l y contribute to improved community health conditions. Leaching which i s already a problem at the Premier Street s i t e may be increased when decomposition occurs at a higher rate with shredded refuse. Lynn Creek has already been written o f f for r e c r e a t i o n a l use by the Health Unit 42 of the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver. On the other hand, the leaching e f f e c t being fa s t e r may eventually end sooner allowing an e a r l i e r return to r e c r e a t i o n a l uses not permitted 40 E. J . Booth, The American C i t y : "Buried 25 Years and S t i l l Legible," (80:26, July 1965). 41 Dr. Mackenzie, U.B.C. Epidemiology (verbal communi-cation, March 1971). 42 Mr. Thompson, D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver Health Unit. at present. The leaching w i l l l a s t f or about the next one hundred years at the present l a n d f i l l s i t e . I t i s f e l t by the Health Unit A u t h o r i t i e s , that by allowing lower Lynn Creek to be ruined for re c r e a t i o n a l use by the leachate, other creeks and water r e c r e a t i o n a l areas w i l l be spared at l e a s t i n the short-run from s i m i l a r p o l l u t i o n i f the l a n d f i l l i s kept at the present s i t e . Ground s o l i d waste w i l l create a community cost i n that i t w i l l cause more serious damage to the l i f e presently i n the creek because of the more concen-trated leachate i n the receiving water. This w i l l be o f f s e t by the shorter period of leaching. Environmental q u a l i t y at the s i t e w i l l be improved with the grinding technique. Ground refuse i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y more pleasing to look at than ordinary offensive s o l i d waste refuse. Smoke, odour and blowing l i t t e r are also reduced or eliminated with the grinding technique. This w i l l also c o n t r i -bute to more pleasing conditions i n and around the l a n d f i l l 43 s i t e . Land values may also increase beside l a n d f i l l s i t e s . Ground material w i l l also support vegetation without 44 cover material. At present, there w i l l be a major cost to the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver to f i n d a suitable f i n a l two foot cover material which w i l l be f e r t i l e enough to support vegetation. The Premier Street l a n d f i l l i s receiving free Dirk R. Brunner, et al, Sanitary L a n d f i l l Guidelines  1970, p. 3. 4 4G. L. Sutin, "The Case for Pu l v e r i z a t i o n of S o l i d Wastes, Public Works (October 1970) . cover material from construction s i t e s . This source of f i l l 45 i s not considered adequate for the f i n a l two foot cover. Also, the interim f i l l between l a n d f i l l c e l l s may cost the d i s t r i c t money i f the present supply of free d i r t runs out. An a d d i t i o n a l benefit w i l l be the savings i n trans-portation r e n t a l costs from the delayed necessity of moving to a new s i t e . Grinding can lead to more ready separation of materials which can then be reused and recycled. A i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can separate ground s o l i d waste materials i n to portions which 46 are reusable and others which must be discarded. Salvaging and r e c y c l i n g of paper, glass and other secondary raw materials from s o l i d wastes as well as non-ferrous material from disposed vehicles are commercial p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Ground s o l i d waste i s 47 also being used to generate e l e c t r i c i t y . Another p o s i t i v e benefit associated with the grinding technique i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that community attitudes w i l l be more favourable to a disposal method which eradicates and lessens the p o l l u t i o n problems and increases the aesthetic q u a l i t i e s of the d i s t r i c t . The grinding technique would improve the q u a l i t y of the Premier Street s i t e . I t would G. Butler, Premier Street L a n d f i l l (verbal communi-cation, February 1971). 46 R. A. Boettcher, "Air C l a s s i f i c a t i o n for Reclamation Processing of S o l i d Wastes," American Society of Mechanical  Engineers Publication (July 28, 1969), p. 2. 4 7 I b i d . , p. 11. however have negative e f f e c t s on Lynn Creek the degree depending on the type of impervious cover used on the sides and top of the f i l l . The question remains whether the possible benefits gained at the disposal l a n d f i l l s i t e would outweigh the costs to an already polluted creek. C o n c l u s i o n 66 The l a n d f i l l a t t h e P r e m i e r S t r e e t s i t e i s more e c o n o m i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t t h a n t h e p r o p o s e d g r i n d i n g t e c h n i q u e (see TABLE 2 1 ) . The l a n d f i l l has a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t compared t o t h e g r i n d i n g - l a n d f i l l t e c h n i q u e and s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d o p e r a t i n g and maintenance c o s t s . I t a l s o needs l e s s s k i l l e d l a b o u r and can o p e r a t e w i t h i n a s h o r t e r workweek. To c o n v e r t t o t h e g r i n d i n g - l a n d f i l l t e c h n i q u e , t h e f i r s t h u r d l e would be t o p r o v e t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e d monetary expenses were j u s t i f i e d . F o r t h e p e r i o d o f t h e a n a l y s i s , 1971 t o 1985, economic j u s t i f i c a t i o n c o u l d n o t be g i v e n . The knowledge t h a t f u t u r e l a n d f i l l s i t e s w i l l have t o be l o c a t e d f u r t h e r o u t and p o s s i b l y o u t s i d e o f t h e community's b o u n d a r i e s , would v a l i d a t e a c e n t r a l g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l s t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e community. P l a n n i n g now t o r e t a r d t h e r a t e o f f i l l i n g i n t h e P r e m i e r S t r e e t s i t e w i l l g i v e more t i m e t o s o l v e t h e l o n g e r - r u n p r o b l e m o f where t o d i s p o s e o f t h e s o l i d w a stes g e n e r a t e d a f t e r t h e c l o s u r e o f t h e s i t e . To f u r t h e r w e i g h t t h e d e c i s i o n o f whether t o c o n v e r t t o a new system, one must examine t h e i n t a n g i b l e s . The v a l u e o f t h e n e t i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s o f t h e g r i n d i n g s ystem (see TABLES 23 and 24)would have t o be an a c c e p t a b l e expense t o t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver b e f o r e c o n v e r s i o n t o s uch a g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e c o u l d o c c u r . 67 TABLE 22 REQUIRED VALUE OF NET INTANGIBLE BENEFITS OF NORTH VANCOUVER LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE 6% 7% 8% Present value of tangible benefits $2,477,751 $2,326,700 $2,190,487 Present value of tangible costs $1,059,016 $ 992,844 $ 932,870 Required value of net intan-g i b l e benefits ($1,418,735) ($1,333,856) ($1,257,617! TABLE 23 REQUIRED VALUE OF NET INTANGIBLE BENEFITS OF GRINDING-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE ASSUMING 600 POUND DENSITY AT PRESENT SITE 6% 7% 8% Present value of tangible benefits $1,117,459 $1,007,366 $ 915,598 Present value of tangible costs $4,288,004 $4,048,378 $3,832,833 Required value of net intan-g i b l e benefits $3,170,545 $3,041,012 $2,917,235 68 TABLE 24 REQUIRED VALUE OF NET INTANGIBLE BENEFITS OF GRINDING-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE ASSUMING 1000 POUND DENSITY AT PRESENT SITE 6% 7% 8% Present value of tangible benefits $ 347,431 $ 323,954 $ 312,930 Present value of tangible costs $4,288,004 $4,048,378 $3,832,833 Required value of net intan-g i b l e benefits $3,940,573 $3,724,424 $3,519,903 69 A t p r e s e n t , t h e r e i s no major market f o r r e c y c l i n g ground waste. L o n g e r - r u n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may a l s o change t h i s a s p e c t as t h e community's and t h e c o u n t r y ' s r e s o u r c e s a r e d e p l e t e d . The r e u s i n g o f ground s o l i d w astes may command a market s u f f i c i e n t t o be revenue p r o d u c i n g . The r e d u c t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t c o s t s o f d i s p o s a l t o t h e p o i n t where t h e g r i n d i n g t e c h n i q u e becomes s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g would f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h t h e r e l e v a n c e o f c o n v e r t i n g t o t h e t e c h n i q u e . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t u s i n g t h e g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l t e c h -n i q u e , t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s t o N o r t h Vancouver do n o t o u t w e i g h t a n g i b l e c o s t s . I n t h e s h o r t - r u n , t h e c o n v e r s i o n t o t h e g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e would have t o be opposed. The v a l u e o f t h e n e t i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s would be a h i g h monetary expense t o be c a r r i e d by t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver. L o n g e r - r u n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s would be more s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e g r i n d i n g t e c h n i q u e and a g r i n d e r d i s p o s a l s t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e community. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e g r i n d i n g t e c h n i q u e i s t o o new t o be r e l e v a n t t o communities w h i c h have n o t y e t r e a c h e d t h e c r u c i a l p o i n t o f d e c i d i n g what t o do w i t h o r where t o p u t t h e i r s o l i d w a s t e s . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e i m p a c t o f t h e l o s s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y i n o t h e r a r e a s p l u s t h e f o r e s i g h t o f p l a n n i n g t o meet p r e s e n t and f u t u r e problems i n a s t y l e w h ich b e s t u t i l i z e s and p r e s e r v e s t h e community a s s e t s w i l l become the r e a l i z a b l e t r e n d . BIBLIOGRAPHY A Systems Study of S o l i d Waste Management i n the Fresno Area. F i n a l Report on a S o l i d Waste Management Demonstration. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service, Environmental Control Administration, Bureau of S o l i d Waste Management, 1969. Ambassador College Research Department. Our Polluted Planet. Ambassador College Press, Pasadena, C a l i f o r n i a , 1970. Booth, E. J . "Buried 25 Years and S t i l l Legible," The American  C i t y , (80:26), July 1965. Boettcher, Richard A. A i r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n For Reclamation Processing of S o l i d Wastes. ASME Publica t i o n , July 28, 1969. Brunner, Dirk R.; K e l l e r , Daniel J . ; Reid, Charles W., J r . ; Wheeler, John. Sanitary L a n d f i l l Guidelines - 1970. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Environmental Health Service, Environ-mental Control Administration, Bureau of S o l i d Waste Management. Review Draft, 1970. Bureau of Municipal Research and Service. University of Oregon. Refuse C o l l e c t i o n and Disposal - A Survey of Practices  i n 164 Oregon C i t i e l i T Prepared i n cooperation with the league of Oregon C i t i e s . Information B u l l e t i n No. 145. March, 1965. Coleman, Gerard H.; Trost, Charles M.; Eaves, Marvin. S o l i d  Waste Management Study, Part 1. Houston-Galveston Area Council. December 1, 1969. Dorfman, Robert, ed. Measuring Benefits of Government Invest-ments . Papers presented at a conference of experts held November 7-9, 1963. Studies of Government Finance. The Brookings I n s t i t u t i o n . Washington, D.C. Golueke, C. G. & s t a f f . Comprehensive Studies of S o l i d Wastes  Management. Sanitary Engineering Research Laboratory College of Engineering and School of Public Health. University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, June 1968. 71 Goodkind & O'Dea. Refuse Study for the C a p i t o l Region Planning  Agency. Leonard S. Wegman Co., New York, February 1963. Greater Egypt Regional Planning and Development Commission. Regional Refuse Disposal. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Distributed by Clearinghouse for Federal S c i e n t i f i c and Technical Information. June 1969. Ham, Robert K. Vectors. A paper presented at: Engineering Foundation Research Conference. Application of Environ-mental R & D on the Land Disposal of S o l i d Wastes. De e r f i e l d Academy, Deerfield, Massachusetts. August 24-28, 1970. Jensen, Michael E. Observations of Continental European S o l i d  Waste Management Pr a c t i c e s . U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Consumer Protection and Environmental Health Service, Environmental Control Administration, Bureau of S o l i d Waste Management. 1969. K a l l e r , J . J . Report on S o l i d Waste Management. Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t . July 1970. L i c h f i e l d , Nathaniel. Cost-benefit Analysis i n Cit y Planning. Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners. Mao, James C. T. E f f i c i e n c y i n Public Urban Renewal Expenditures  Through Benefit-cost Analysis. A.I.P. Journal. March 1966. Municipal Refuse Disposal. Prepared by the Committee on Refuse Disposal. American Public Works Association. Assistance provided by the United States Public Health Service. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Administration Service. 1313 East S i x t i e t h Street, Chicago 37. 1961. Oakes, Donald. Regional Refuse Disposal Study of S o l i d Waste  Refuse Disposal i n the Southeast Michigan Six-County  Region. A research project by Metropolitan Fund Inc. One Woodward Avenue, Michigan. August 1966. Olson, E. E. Interim Report on Refuse Disposal i n Burnaby, B.C. June 1968. Prest, A. R.; Turvey, R. The Economic Journal. Volume LXXV. "Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Survey." The Journal of the Royal Economic Society. E d i t o r s , C. F. Carter and E.A.G. Robinson. London: MacMillan (Journals) Limited, 1965. 72 "Pulverization at B r i t i s h S i te Reduces Matter by 50 Per Cent," S o l i d Waste Management Refuse Removal Journal 11:16, February 196 8. Ralph Stone and Company, Inc. A Study of S o l i d Waste C o l l e c t i o n  Systems Comparing One-man with Multi-man Crews. F i n a l Report. U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Consumer Protection and Environ-mental Health Service, Environmental Control Administration, Bureau of S o l i d Waste Management. 1969. Refuse C o l l e c t i o n P r a c t i c e . Third E d i t i o n . Prepared by the Committee on S o l i d Wastes. American Public Works Associ-ation. Technical Assistance provided by Public Health Service, U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Administration Service. 1313 East S i x t i e t h Street, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . 1966. Report to the Water Resources Council. Special Task Force. Standards for Planning Water and Land Resources, United States Water Resources Council. Washington, D.C. July 1970. Sewell, W.R.D.; Davis, J . ; Scott, A.D.; Ross, D.W. Guide to Benefit-cost Analysis. Resources for Tomorrow conference held i n Montreal, October 23-28, 1961. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa. 1962. Tulsa Daily World. C i t y Dump Can Smell Sweet to Some People. Sunday, June 14, 1970. University of Pittsburgh. Proceedings Local Government Conference  on Refuse Disposal Methods. Co-operating sponsors Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, A p r i l 22, 23, 1954. 

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