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Planning evaluation of the facilities for the treatment of solid wastes at the Premier Street landfill… Saunders, Frederick Michael 1971

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A PLANNING EVALUATION OF THE FACILITIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF SOLID WASTES AT THE PREMIER STREET LANDFILL IN THE DISTRICT OF NORTH VANCOUVER by FREDERICK MICHAEL SAUNDERS B.Com., L o y o l a o f M o n t r e a l , 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of  COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming required  t o the  standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1971  In  presenting  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  shall  this  written  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  make  it  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  It  for financial  i s understood that gain shall  not  copying o r  for  that  study. thesis  purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be a l l o w e d without my  permission.  F r e d e r i c k M i c h a e l Saunders  Department o f  Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  April  1971  Columbia  ABSTRACT E a c h y e a r t h e p r o b l e m o f w h e r e t o d i s p o s e a n d how t o d i s p o s e o f c o m m e r c i a l , d o m e s t i c and i n d u s t r i a l becomes w o r s e . expand  The g r o w t h r a t e o f s o l i d w a s t e s  both because  produced  solid  wastes  continues to  of the per capita increase i n s o l i d  and because  o f p o p u l a t i o n growth.  Traditional  p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s s u c h a s dumps a n d l a n d f i l l s more e x p e n s i v e t o o p e r a t e m a i n l y b e c a u s e  dis-  a r e becoming  of the lack of s u i t -  a b l e l a n d and t h e i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n t o o b t a i n i t . growing i n a b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h e d d i s p o s a l systems the  waste  The  t o handle  expanding s o l i d wastes, generates f u r t h e r impetus t o  f i n d new d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s . particularly  Ignored environmental e f f e c t s ,  t h e g r o w i n g p o l l u t i o n o f a i r , l a n d and w a t e r a r e  no l o n g e r a s a c c e p t a b l e t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y p o l l u t i o n c o n s c i o u s public.  W i t h t h e changes  i n community a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e  preservation of natural assets, disposal techniques previously too  e x p e n s i v e t o compete w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l  now a r e b e c o m i n g is  more a c c e p t a b l e .  t o examine whether  of  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  t h e b e n e f i t s o f u s i n g a new  d i s p o s a l technique outweigh The  disposal techniques thesis  grinding  costs.  c o m m u n i t y s e l e c t e d f o r t h e a n a l y s i s was t h e D i s t r i c t  North Vancouver,  B r i t i s h Columbia, w h i c h forms p a r t o f t h e  Greater Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n  Area.  Presently,  the  of North Vancouver operates a c o n t r o l l e d l a n d f i l l t e c h n i q u e known as of The  a i r , land  and  the  water p o l l u t i o n occur at or  present l a n d f i l l  cient with waste  Premier Street L a n d f i l l .  disposal  disposal costs  of  District  disposal Various  from the  forms  site.  technique i s economically a b o u t $1.00  per  ton of  effi-  solid  disposed. A benefit-cost  a n a l y s i s was  conducted using  the  present  landfill  disposal  t e c h n i q u e as  the  c o n t r o l s i t u a t i o n and  grinding  d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e as  the  possible alternative.  The  point  of the  of view of the  District  a n a l y s i s was  o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r w h i c h w o u l d be  making a u t h o r i t y .  For  7%  below the  was  u s e d as  selected  Corporation the  decision-  comparison p u r p o s e s , d i f f e r e n t volume  c a p a c i t i e s were used i n the r a t e of  t h a t of the  the  analysis. discount  discount  The  rate.  district's  borrowing  R a t e s above  and  r a t e were a l s o used i n the  comparison purposes.  was  a l s o c a l c u l a t e d t o show w h a t v a l u e w o u l d h a v e t o be  the  t h e s e b e n e f i t s by use  of  the  w h i c h were not The  the  The  District  as  economically  r e s u l t s of  the  District  than the  intangible  benefits placed  of North Vancouver to  disposal techniques involved  present controlled l a n d f i l l efficient  value of net  analysis  for  on  the  i n the  justify  analysis  efficient.  benefit-cost  a n a l y s i s showed t h a t  the  t e c h n i q u e i s e c o n o m i c a l l y more  proposed g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l  technique.  o f N o r t h Vancouver would c o n s e q u e n t l y not  be  The  justified  iv i n converting conditions, was  t o a g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l technique under p r e s e n t  unless  the v a l u e o f the net i n t a n g i b l e  accepted as a l e g i t i m a t e monetary  expense.  benefits  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page CHAPTER I Growing Problem o f S o l i d Wastes  1  S e l e c t e d Community  3  H i s t o r i c Background o f S o l i d Waste D i s p o s a l  . . . .  4  Premier S t r e e t S i t e  6  L a n d f i l l Operation  8  G r i n d i n g Technique  15  CHAPTER I I Hypothesis  20  Methodology  20  Source o f Data  24  CHAPTER I I I Benefit-Cost Analysis  26  T a n g i b l e B e n e f i t s and Costs f o r the L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique  33  T a n g i b l e B e n e f i t s and Costs f o r the G r i n d i n g L a n d f i l l Technique  41  Operational  50  Problems  I n t a n g i b l e B e n e f i t s and Costs - I n s e c t and Animal V e c t o r s  56  Visible Pollution  58  S a f e t y Hazards  59  vi Page Community B e n e f i t s and Costs Conclusion BIBLIOGRAPHY  .  61 66 70  ' vi Page Community B e n e f i t s and Costs  61  Conclusion  66  BIBLIOGRAPHY  70  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1  Page P o t e n t i a l Premier S t r e e t S i t e  Acreage  Volume C a p a c i t y  7  2  Solid  3  P r o j e c t e d L a n d f i l l Volume Occupied a t 600 Pounds Per Cubic Yard P r o j e c t e d L a n d f i l l Volume Occupied a t 1000 Pounds Per Cubic Yard  4 5 6  Waste P r o j e c t i o n  29 30 31  P r o j e c t e d L a n d f i l l Volume Occupied a t 1500 Pounds Per Cubic Yard L i s t o f B e n e f i t s f o r the P r e s e n t D i s p o s a l Technique  32  Landfill  a t a 6% D i s c o u n t Rate  . .  35  L i s t o f B e n e f i t s f o r the P r e s e n t L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique a t a 7% D i s c o u n t Rate  ...  36  8  L i s t o f B e n e f i t s f o r the P r e s e n t L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique a t an 8% D i s c o u n t Rate . ..  37  9  L i s t o f Costs f o r the P r e s e n t L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique a t a 6% D i s c o u n t Rate  . .  38  L i s t o f Costs f o r the P r e s e n t L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique a t a 7% D i s c o u n t Rate  . .  39  L i s t o f Costs f o r the P r e s e n t L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique a t an 8% Discount Rate . .  40  7  10 11 12  L i s t o f B e n e f i t s f o r the G r i n d e r - L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique a t a 6% Discount Rate 42  13  L i s t o f B e n e f i t s f o r the G r i n d e r - L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique a t a 7% Discount Rate 43  14  L i s t o f B e n e f i t s f o r the G r i n d e r - L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique a t an 8% D i s c o u n t Rate 44  viii Table  Page  15  C a p i t a l C o s t s : G r i n d e r Technique  46  16  L i s t of Costs f o r the G r i n d e r - L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique a t a 6% D i s c o u n t Rate  47  L i s t o f Costs f o r the G r i n d e r - L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique a t a 7% D i s c o u n t Rate  48  L i s t of Costs f o r the G r i n d e r - L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique a t an 8% D i s c o u n t Rate  49  S o l i d Waste Tons Disposed Per Day Premier S t r e e t S i t e  52  17 18 19 20  a t the  A d d i t i o n a l O p e r a t i n g Hours Required f o r G r i n d i n g D i s p o s a l Technique  21  B e n e f i t - C o s t Comparisons  22  Required Value of Net I n t a n g i b l e B e n e f i t s o f North Vancouver L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique. . Required Value o f Net I n t a n g i b l e B e n e f i t s o f G r i n d i n g - L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique Assuming 600 Pound D e n s i t y a t P r e s e n t S i t e . . . . . .  23  24  Required Value o f Net I n t a n g i b l e B e n e f i t s o f G r i n d i n g - L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique Assuming 1000 Pound D e n s i t y a t P r e s e n t S i t e . . . . .  53 55 67 67  68  CHAPTER I Growing Problem o f S o l i d C o m m u n i t i e s no their  s e r v i c e s ; but  o f g o o d s and  longer  Wastes  consume m o s t o f t h e i r  goods  i n s t e a d have s u b s t i t u t e d the user  concept  s e r v i c e s f o r a temporary p e r i o d of time.  North  American s o c i e t y i n c r e a s i n g l y uses d i s p o s a b l e  products  a r e e i t h e r used once o r have a p l a n n e d l i m i t e d  usable  These p r o d u c t s  are then d i s c a r d e d  Along with t h i s and  and  of non-degradable s o l i d wastes, mainly  only heighten  an a l r e a d y enormous and  o f w h a t t o do w i t h o r w h e r e t o d i s p o s e created. ged;  The  which life.  r e p l a c e d w i t h new  trend, increased production  of  and  products.  non-putrescible  synthetic  substances,  out of c o n t r o l problem of a l l the  t h r o w - a w a y n o t i o n o f s o c i e t y i s now  s i n c e t h e t h r o w - a w a y c o n c e p t d e c r e a s e s as  solid  wastes  being c h a l l e n -  l a n d used  for  disposal declines i n availability.""' Whether p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , d e c r e a s e s o r constant,  w i t h no  r e c y c l i n g or p a r t i a l  remains  reutilization  of  m a j o r i t y of s o l i d wastes, the problem of d i s p o s i n g of wastes i s to f i n d to  accommodate t h e  enough s u i t a b l y l o c a t e d l a n d f o r c o n t i n u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g growth.  the  solid  landfills The  American  A m b a s s a d o r C o l l e g e R e s e a r c h D e p a r t m e n t , Our P o l l u t e d P l a n e t (Ambassador C o l l e g e P r e s s , P a s a d e n a , C a l i f o r n i a , 1970) pp. 4 5 - 5 0 .  2 P u b l i c Works A s s o c i a t i o n e s t i m a t e s  a 2% i n c r e a s e per year i n 2  the per c a p i t a weight o f d i s p o s e d  s o l i d wastes.  The  problem  of f i n d i n g more l a n d i n s i d e a community f o r d i s p o s a l s i t e s i s made worse by land.  As  the c o m p e t i t i o n  from o t h e r uses b i d d i n g f o r the  the demand f o r d i s p o s a l s i t e l a n d i n c r e a s e s and  a v a i l a b i l i t y and  the s u i t a b i l i t y of l a n d w i t h i n an  d i s p o s a l t r a v e l range decreases i n supply, handle the s o l i d waste problem must be C o n t r o l of the p r e s e n t  and  new  the  economical  techniques  to  found.  the f u t u r e s o l i d waste problem  w i l l r e q u i r e f o r e s i g h t of a community to change from outdated techniques to new  ones which are more e f f e c t i v e and more e f f i -  cient i n natural asset preservation. r e a l i s t i c constraints. to p r o v i d e  The  expenditures  of over 1.5  and  d i s p o s a l are now 3  and  on  by  economic c a p a c i t y o f a community  a s p e c i f i c type of d i s p o s a l s e r v i c e w i l l be one  these c r u c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s .  In the U n i t e d  of  S t a t e s of America,  b i l l i o n d o l l a r s on waste c o l l e c t i o n  o n l y exceeded by expenditures  on  roads  schools. Short-run  d i s p o s a l s o l u t i o n s o n l y accommodate  and near f u t u r e s o l i d waste demands. now  S o l u t i o n s are l i m i t e d  t o meet the coming c h a l l e n g e s ,  more c o m p l i c a t e d  and more d i f f i c u l t  present  If less preparation  future solutions w i l l to a t t a i n .  The  occurs be  awareness  U.S. Department of Commerce, N a t i o n a l Bureau of Standards, Regional Refuse D i s p o s a l , (Greater Egypt Regional P l a n n i n g and Development Commission, June 1969),pp. 19-20. 3  Ibid.  3 and the w i l l i n g n e s s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o f i n d and t o implement d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s which b e s t u t i l i z e  the community a s s e t s  a v a i l a b l e and a t the same time s a t i s f y the growing p u b l i c awareness o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s e r v a t i o n , w i l l be the important f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether long-run s o l u t i o n s t o s a t i s f y the c o n t i n u i n g s o l i d waste problem are sought a t a l l . A b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d o f a community's p r e s e n t d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e and o f one a l t e r n a t i v e d i s p o s a l nique which p o s s i b l y c o u l d be  tech-  installed.  S e l e c t e d Community The community under a n a l y s i s i s the C o r p o r a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver.  The community forms p a r t o f the  G r e a t e r Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a and i s s i t u a t e d i n a n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n on the n o r t h s i d e of B u r r a r d I n l e t .  The  D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver shares the North Shore area w i t h two o t h e r e n t i t i e s  the C o r p o r a t i o n o f the D i s t r i c t o f  West Vancouver and the C i t y o f North Vancouver.  These  two  n e i g h b o u r i n g communities a l s o u t i l i z e the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver's s o l i d waste d i s p o s a l  site.  The combined p o p u l a t i o n o f the t h r e e North Shore communities i n 1970 was  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 126,300.  4  In 1970,  the t h r e e communities produced 60,788 tons o f s o l i d waste which  4 J . J . K a l l e r , Report on S o l i d Waste Management, P o p u l a t i o n P r o g n o s i s , Table 1 (Greater Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , J u l y 1970) .  4  was  a c c e p t a b l e f o r d i s p o s a l a t t h e D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver 5  disposal s i t e . expected  Both p o p u l a t i o n and s o l i d waste p r o d u c t i o n are  t o i n c r e a s e and consequently  p l a c e a h e a v i e r burden  on an a l r e a d y l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y a t a l a n d f i l l s i t e which i s expected  t o be used up w i t h i n t e n y e a r s .  H i s t o r i c Background o f S o l i d Waste D i s p o s a l B e f o r e any o r g a n i z e d p u b l i c d i s p o s a l s i t e s were d e s i g nated, most o f t h e s o l i d waste i n the D i s t r i c t o f North was  Vancouver  dumped randomly by p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s e i t h e r i n p e r i p h e r a l  f i e l d s o r i n Burrard I n l e t .  Some b u r n i n g a l s o took  which a g a i n was n o t under d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s i o n .  place  S i m i l a r occur-  rences took p l a c e i n the C i t y o f North Vancouver. In West Vancouver, t h e r e was some random dumping tially.  L a t e r , one s p e c i f i e d s i t e , the C a p i l a n o dump, became  the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s l e g a l d i s p o s a l a r e a . was  ini-  The C a p i l a n o dump  used u n t i l September 30, 1969. When t h e dump had reached  i t s c a p a c i t y , West Vancouver was then g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n t o use the p r e s e n t D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver d i s p o s a l s i t e . s h o r t - r u n s o l u t i o n was adopted t o counter a long-run  Thus a  solid  waste problem. In t h e D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver, unorganized  dumping  D. White, a s s i s t a n t m u n i c i p a l e n g i n e e r , D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver E n g i n e e r i n g O f f i c e ( v e r b a l communication, Feb. 1971).  5 was  h a l t e d and a dump was opened on the w a t e r f r o n t  Bay  Street, Orwell  S t r e e t and Mountain Highway.  remained open u n t i l the end o f World War Two. present  between  T h i s dump In 1945, the  d i s p o s a l s i t e on Premier S t r e e t was opened as a dump  and was g r a d u a l l y converted  to a l a n d f i l l .  A l a n d f i l l i s a d i s p o s a l technique where domestic and industrial  s o l i d wastes are covered a t l e a s t once a week b u t  not n e c e s s a r i l y d a i l y . industrial  P r e s e n t l y , most o f the domestic and  wastes r e c e i v e d a r e covered almost immediately.  Control i s a l s o exerted i n the s i t e .  over the k i n d o f wastes  Some c o n t r o l l e d burning  deposited  takes p l a c e .  Although  t h e r e has been an improvement i n the d i s p o s a l technique a t the Premier S t r e e t s i t e i n the l a s t few y e a r s , i t would n o t be  correct to c a l l  the l a n d f i l l  a sanitary l a n d f i l l .  The  requirements f o r a s a n i t a r y l a n d f i l l a r e t h a t a l l s o l i d wastes be covered d a i l y w i t h  c o n t r o l over the k i n d o f wastes  i n the s i t e , that a l l leachate blowing paper i s c o n t a i n e d ,  deposited  and gases are c o n t r o l l e d , t h a t  t h a t burning  i s e l i m i n a t e d and  t h a t t h e s o l i d waste t o cover m a t e r i a l volume ranges between 6 4:1 at  and 3:1.  At present,  the Premier S t r e e t  n o t a l l o f these c o n d i t i o n s a r e met  site.  S i n c e the Premier S t r e e t s i t e i s an adequate s o l u t i o n D i r k R. Brunner, D a n i e l J . K e l l e r , C h a r l e s W. Reid, J r . , and John Wheeler. S a n i t a r y L a n d f i l l G u i d e l i n e s - 1970. (Review d r a f t , U.S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , Environmental H e a l t h S e r v i c e , E n v i r o n mental C o n t r o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Bureau o f S o l i d Waste Management, 1970), pp. 1-53.  6 to  the present problem  of d i s p o s i n g of t h i s  year's  wastes  p l u s t h e p r o j e c t e d w a s t e s o f t h e n e x t few y e a r s , no new technique t o s o l v e the i n c r e a s i n g s o l i d waste problem c o m m u n i t i e s has  been i n i t i a t e d .  an i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r t h e c a s u a l c a r e l e s s d u m p i n g  of  t h e p a s t , h i s t o r y has  The to  and  specific be.  The  reduced  the s i t e  District  the growing  l o c a t i o n s seems t o be  The  Premier  disposal  ad h o c  i n nature.  not  significantly  p r e s s u r e s on t h e s i t e ; b u t i n f a c t  has  s e r v i c i n g a l l t h r e e N o r t h Shore  Premier  landfill  i s t a c k l e d o n l y when i t h a s  o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r has  i n c r e a s e d t h e m by now  the  practices  shown t h a t t h e p l a n n i n g o f  immediate problem  of  Not w i t h s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e  is  techniques  disposal  communities.  Street Site  Street Landfill  i s situated east of  Creek i n the D i s t r i c t  o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r a t t h e end  Street.  a d j a c e n t t o the Upper L e v e l s Highway,  I t i s almost  n o r t h o f the Second Narrows B r i d g e C r o s s i n g . site  i s a l o n g s i d e L y n n C r e e k on t h e e a s t s l o p e .  cells in  The  are being b u i l t  up  t h e s l o p e and  feet of f i l l  and  will  feet w i l l  a d d e d when t h e l a n d f i l l  has  a t r e e b u f f e r zone around i t s p e r i m e t e r w h i c h areas  The  landfill  from  i s closed.  suffering  and  the  Each c e l l  A final  two  most n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l  disposal  reach  cover m a t e r i a l .  seven f e e t i n depth w i t h a s i x i n c h cover. be  Premier  i n the e a s t e r l y  the n o r t h e r l y s e c t i o n s of the l a n d f i l l  height of f i f t y  of  Lynn  is  cover  of  The  site  prevents from  7 objectionable site on see  aesthetics.  a distant high north  slope  area  f r o m w h i c h some r e s i d e n t s c a n  the l a n d f i l l . The d i s p o s a l s i t e  had  T h e r e i s one h o u s i n g  an i n i t i a l  occupies  thirty  acres  of land which  c a p a c i t y f o r 1,778,700 c u b i c y a r d s o f s o l i d  ( s e e TABLE 1 ) .  B e t w e e n 1945 a n d 1 9 7 0 , a p p r o x i m a t e l y  waste  755,040  c u b i c y a r d s o f s o l i d waste have been p l a c e d .  Adjoining the  present  f o r expansion.  site,  twenty acres  have been r e s e r v e d  T h i s p o t e n t i a l a c r e a g e h a s a c a p a c i t y o f 1,355,200 c u b i c The c o m b i n e d v o l u m e a v a i l a b l e f o r f u t u r e s o l i d w a s t e is  2,378,860 c u b i c  yards.  demands  yards.  TABLE 1 POTENTIAL PREMIER STREET S I T E ACREAGE VOLUME CAPACITY Site size acres (a)  (b)  Original cubic yard capacity  Utilized yardage  cubic  Available yardage  cubic  7.5 22.5 30.0  254,100 1,524,600 1,778,700  755,040  1,023,660  20.0  1,355,200  -  1,355,200  50.0  3,133,900  7,55,040  2,378,860  Total  Estimating the f i l l f i g u r e s 1/4 o f t h e p r e s e n t the remaining  3/4 w i l l  p r o p o r t i o n only, i n aggregate 30 a c r e s w i l l  be 42 f e e t h i g h .  be 21 f e e t h i g h a n d G i v e n t h a t one a c r e i s  8 equal t o 4840 square y a r d s , 1,778,700 c u b i c yards o f f i l l can be c o n t a i n e d i n the l a n d f i l l .  The a d d i t i o n a l 20 acres a d j o i n i n g  the p r e s e n t s i t e w i l l be able t o c o n t a i n 42 f e e t o f v e r t i c a l fill  i n 7 f e e t l a y e r s s e p a r a t e d by a 6 i n c h cover which i s the  e q u i v a l e n t o f 1,355,200 c u b i c yards o f f i l l .  On s i t e e s t i m a t i o n s  r e v e a l t h a t 1/4 o f the l a n d f i l l has been f i l l e d level filled  and the remaining  t o the 21 f o o t  3/4 t o the 14 f o o t l e v e l .  Present  l a n d e q u a l s 755,040 c u b i c yards which l e a v e s 1,023,660  c u b i c yards i n the p r e s e n t s i t e and 2,378,860 c u b i c yards f o r the combined 50 acre  site.  Landfill  Operation  Each o f the North Shore e n t i t i e s c o l l e c t s i t s own s o l i d wastes. cible  The l a n d f i l l i s s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d .  Putres-  and n o n - p u t r e s c i b l e s o l i d wastes from both domestic and  industrial  uses are accepted a t the l a n d f i l l , except f o r animal  and human c o r p s e s , h i g h l y inflammable materials.  These unacceptable  substances  substances  and t o x i c  have t o be i n c i n e r a t e d  or  s p e c i a l l y c o l l e c t e d by a p r i v a t e agency f o r d i s p o s a l o u t s i d e  of  the a r e a .  Another problem i s the d i s p o s a l o f l o g s .  With  the p r e s e n t d i s p o s a l technique, l o g s are not b u r i e d ; but are b e i n g s t o r e d u n t i l a use o r d i s p o s a l method i s found. scavenging contract.^  No  i s p e r m i t t e d a t the s i t e except f o r one man under The p u b l i c i s allowed t o e n t e r the s i t e seven  The c o n t r a c t p e r m i t s Mr. H. H a s t i n g s t o scavenge. He must pay $1.00 p e r 100 pounds o f aluminium, b r a s s and  days  9  a week d u r i n g o p e r a t i n g h o u r s ; of acceptable  however o n l y c o n t r o l l e d  s o l i d wastes i s permitted.  A l l city,  dumping  district  and  m u n i c i p a l c o l l e c t e d w a s t e s a r e w e i g h e d and  The  p u b l i c d e p o s i t e d w a s t e s a r e s p e c i a l l y p l a c e d i n one  and  the volume e s t i m a t e d The  landfill  f o r the  i s operated  recorded.  records. i n the  f o l l o w i n g manner.  A n u m b e r e d c o l l e c t i o n t r u c k a r r i v e s and  d r i v e s on  scales.  and  The  identified  t r u c k ' s number i s r e c o r d e d  to  the  the weight of  t r u c k i s s u b t r a c t e d from the weight of the  with i t s load. truck then  The  area  a v e r a g e l o a d w e i g h s 8500 p o u n d s .  d r i v e s i n t o the l a n d f i l l  truck The  where i t d i s p o s e s i t s  load at a specified  location.  and  a t r a c t o r w i t h a f r o n t garbage basket  then  designed daily  covered  by  for this  f r o m 8:00  type  A.M.  The  of task.  t o 7:00  P.M.  load i s immediately  The  landfill  except  d u r i n g the  to  i n d u s t r i a l refuse i s only  8:00  A.M.  C o m m e r c i a l and  f r o m 8:00  t o 5:00  P.M.  Monday t o F r i d a y i n c l u s i v e and  m o r n i n g f r o m 8:00  A.M.  t o noon.  The  l a b o u r f o r c e on t h e  o p e r a t o r , one  attendant,  one  s i t e c o m p r i s e s one  w e i g h e r and  one  landfill  a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a c a r e t a k e r w i t h a house a t the  to  the  Besides  A.M. accepted Saturday  tractor  In  landfill.  loader  winter  when i t o p e r a t e s  P.M.  compacted  i s i n operation  p e r i o d , November t o J a n u a r y , 5:00  the  manager. gates  the c a r e t a k e r ' s house, there i s a  c o p p e r c o l l e c t e d , and 50 c e n t s p e r 100 p o u n d s o f o t h e r u s a b l e w a s t e s s u c h as m e t a l s , wood, b a t h t u b s and p a r t s o f f u r n i t u r e . He p a y s an a v e r a g e o f $1,000 p e r y e a r f o r a l l t h e s o l i d w a s t e s collected.  10 s m a l l permanently f i x e d t r a i l e r which serves as the manager's o f f i c e and s c a l e booth.  Equipment  c o n s i s t s o f the t r a c t o r  r e n t e d from the d i s t r i c t t r u c k p o o l and a p i c k u p t r u c k used by the l a n d f i l l manager. Heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n and the h i g h permeable q u a l i t y o f the l a n d f i l l landfill.  cover m a t e r i a l c r e a t e s the major problem i n the  T h i s problem i s t h a t o f l e a c h i n g o f i n o r g a n i c and  o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s when water p e r c o l a t e s through the f i l l c a r r i e s i t s l o a d t o nearby Lynn Creek.  The l a n d f i l l  and  cells  are s l o p e d so t h a t adequate r u n o f f w i l l o c c u r ; but, the r u n o f f d i r e c t i o n i s toward Lynn Creek.  A p e r i m e t e r d r a i n a g e system  has been b u i l t around the t h r e e d o w n h i l l s i d e s o f the s i t e f o r c o l l e c t i n g s u b s u r f a c e water and l e a c h a t e which i s d i s c h a r g e d i n t o the c r e e k . o f the f i l l . the l a n d f i l l .  A w a l l has a l s o been b u i l t t o stop the s l i d i n g  The l e a c h i n g problem i s not severe enough t o c l o s e Regular checks o f the creek, however, are main-  t a i n e d by the d i s t r i c t . Twice a y e a r the creek i s t e s t e d t o a s c e r t a i n the degree o f p o l l u t i o n i n the water r e s u l t i n g from the l e a c h i n g . The t e s t conducted by the D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver H e a l t h U n i t i s one o f water q u a l i t y a n a l y s i s .  The o f f i c i a l reason  f o r the t e s t s are t o have a "running survey t o see t h a t no o  h e a l t h hazard e x i s t s . "  The r e s u l t s of the t e s t s have shown  no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n water q u a l i t y s i n c e the t e s t s  began;  8  Thompson, D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver H e a l t h U n i t ( v e r b a l communication, March, 1971).  11 however t h e t e s t s have o n l y been c a r r i e d on f o r the l a s t two 9 years.  The h e a l t h u n i t does s t a t e t h a t the water i s n o t  s u i t a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n below the l a n d f i l l o r i n B u r r a r d near the mouth o f Lynn Creek.  No B.O.D. examination  Inlet  i s made. ^ 1  Lower Lynn Creek i s assumed t o be w r i t t e n o f f f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes d u r i n g t h e next one hundred y e a r s , even though t h e l a n d f i l l w i l l have been c l o s e d f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f t h i s time.  As the s i t e matures, a s i g n i f i c a n t de-  crease i n l e a c h a t e q u a l i t y can be expected.  The c o n t r o l l e d  dumping a t Premier S t r e e t does h e l p t o reduce l e a c h a t e quant i t y b u t i n c r e a s e d volumes o f waste b u r i e d under the p r e s e n t technique  may i n i t i a t e more severe  w i t h unknown e f f e c t s on t h e creek. fall  s a t u r a t i n g the l a n d f i l l ,  l e a c h a t e q u a l i t y problems In o r d e r t o l i m i t t h e r a i n -  l e s s permeable s o i l cover i s  r e q u i r e d such as a deep sandy loam o r c l a y w i t h g r a v e l The  d i s t r i c t p r e s e n t l y r e l i e s on f r e e excavated  soil  content.  from con-  s t r u c t i o n s i t e s f o r i t s cover. The  p r e s e n t cover s o i l i s n o t the d e s i r e d q u a l i t y and i t  also contains a f a i r quantity of rocks.  Good cover m a t e r i a l  v a r i e s depending on the f u n c t i o n i t i s supposed t o be used f o r i n the l a n d f i l l .  F o r moisture  c o n t r o l , t h e cover m a t e r i a l  *Ibid. ^B.O.D.j- t e s t s b e s i d e l a n d f i l l s w i t h l e a c h i n g range from 170 ppm t o 5000 ppm. In the G r e a t e r Vancouver Region, the Iona I s l a n d Sewage Treatment P l a n t i s o n l y l i c e n c e d t o d i s c h a r g e sewage c o n t a i n i n g up t o 90 ppm B.O.D. q  12 s h o u l d have low p e r m e a b i l i t y / low shrinkage and be w e l l compacted.  These s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r o v i d e a gas  1 1  which may  barrier  be completely u n d e s i r a b l e a t the s i t e u n l e s s an  adequate v e n t i n g system f o r the gas i s c o n s t r u c t e d . On s i t e b u r n i n g i s done t o decrease garden and o t h e r wood wastes. are s t a c k e d .  the volume o f  As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, l o g s  T i r e s are not b u r n t , but are b u r i e d .  The  c r e a t e d by the t i r e s are a major problem i n compacting refuse.  The  Although  the smoke c r e a t e d from the c o n t r o l l e d on s i t e  voids the  t i r e problem c o n t r i b u t e s t o reduced d e n s i t y . burning  i s not a major source of a i r p o l l u t i o n t o the North Shore, the smoke s t i l l  e x i s t s and should be e l i m i n a t e d .  a p o t e n t i a l f i r e hazard from such on s i t e Due  There i s a l s o  burning.  to the heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n d u r i n g the f a l l  and  the  w i n t e r months, dust i s not a major problem a t the s i t e .  In  a d d i t i o n , the p e r i m e t e r t r e e s a c t as a wind b u f f e r which  tends  to keep the dust down.  During the d r i e r p e r i o d s o f the y e a r ,  some d u s t o c c u r s from both the s o l i d wastes and the materials.  The dust problem i s mainly  where compacting  cover  l i m i t e d t o the a r e a  and c o v e r i n g are t a k i n g p l a c e .  Other  areas  i n the l a n d f i l l are more s t a b l e and no major wind e r o s i o n has been  observed. S i n c e a l l garbage i s immediately  compacted and  covered,  D i r k R. Brunner e t a l , S a n i t a r y L a n d f i l l G u i d e l i n e s 1970 (U.S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Welfare, P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , Environmental C o n t r o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Bureau of S o l i d Waste Management, 1970), T a b l e 4, p. 25.  13  t h e r e i s no m a j o r  blowing paper problem.  r e q u i r e d t o c a t c h such d e b r i s .  The  t e c t i o n t o keep paper w i t h i n the B i r d s are a problem are  the main nuisance.  present year round. s o l i d wastes  trees offer  a r e b e i n g dumped and  random v i s i t s  compacted.  f o r the e n t i r e  Crows o c c u r i n  spring-summer  i n the b u f f e r i n g t r e e s w i t h o n l y  the s e a g u l l s generate  a l o t o f n o i s e on  b u t t h e n o i s e f o o t p r i n t i s s m a l l and n o t a m a j o r  shot i n order t o reduce  On  Fences  The  c o n t i n u e due  a t t r a c t i o n t o the s i t e ,  t o the odour generated.  s u c h as t h e b e a r s a n d problem  problems.  prevented from e n t e r i n g the s i t e .  Some b e a r s w h i c h No  however, would Consequently,  the probably  the  animals  t h e c o y o t e s c o u l d p o s e a more d a n g e r o u s  to the surrounding r e s i d e n t i a l  c a n be more e a s i l y  nuisance  the p o p u l a t i o n .  have been s u g g e s t e d t o keep t h e a n i m a l s o u t o f  landfill.  the  occasion, seagulls  B e a r s , c o y o t e s and d o g s p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n a l  site.  seagulls  the f a l l m i g r a t i o n seasons;  neighbouring r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  shot.  crows  t o t h e s o l i d w a s t e b e i n g dumped and b e i n g c o m p a c t e d .  B o t h t h e c r o w s and  are  S e a g u l l s and  A l t h o u g h c r o w s do p e c k a t t h e r e f u s e b e i n g dumped,  l a r g e numbers t e n d t o l i v e  to  pro-  s e a g u l l s c o n c e n t r a t e r i g h t where the  h o w e v e r some c r o w s do r e m a i n  site,  not  further  a r e l a r g e numbers o f  l a r g e numbers d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g and  season.  are  site.  on t h e s i t e .  There  The  Fences  a r e a s i f t h e y were  In the s i t e ,  s p o t t e d , c o n t r o l l e d and  the  animals  captured i f required.  c o n t i n u a l l y r e t u r n t o t h e s i t e have t o  r a b i d a n i m a l s have been f o u n d on t h e P r e m i e r  be Street  14  A n i m a l and a nuisance. problems.  i n s e c t v e c t o r s are not v i s i b l y present  Most l a n d f i l l s The  leachate  do  h a v e some i n s e c t and  from the  site  as  rodent  i s a l s o a good  breeding  12  area  f o r mosquitoes.  animal  vectors  Street site  The  still  are not  A m a j o r f l y and  possibility  e x i s t s i n c e the unusually  of future i n s e c t  c o n d i t i o n s at the  different  from o t h e r  Premier  landfills.  l a r v a e e a t e r among t h e b i r d s p r e s e n t  Bonaparte S e a g u l l w h i c h does f r e q u e n t  i s the  the area during  the  With the y e a r l y i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n p l u s the panying increase i n discarded the  landfill  will  s o l i d waste, the r a t e of  correspondingly  w a s t e v o l u m e i n c r e a s e was  increase.  approximately  27%  The  and  fall.  accomfilling  rate of  with a  solid  population  13  increase of only  2.7%  r e t a r d the present  and  over the the  last  two  years.  In order  future r a t e s of f i l l i n g  land acreage, the p o s s i b i l i t y  s o l i d wastes i n to small  This  greater compaction per  technique  therefore w i l l  permits  extend the  the a v a i l a b l e  e x i s t s of using a grinding  nique which shreds the  landfill  to  tech-  particles.  cubic yard  and  life.  M i c h a e l E. J e n s e n , O b s e r v a t i o n s o f C o n t i n e n t a l E u r o p e a n S o l i d W a s t e Management P r a c t i c e s . (U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , C o n s u m e r P r o t e c t i o n and E n v i r o n m e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e , E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , B u r e a u o f S o l i d W a s t e Managem e n t , 1969) , p. 12. 13  A n n u a l s o l i d w a s t e i n t o n s was 47,750 t o n s i n 1969 and 60,000 t o n s i n 1970 and w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e N o r t h V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t Engineering Office. P o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s were taken from the Population Prognosis, t a b l e 1 i n t h e R e p o r t on S o l i d W a s t e Management, J . J . K a l l e r , J u l y 1970.  15 G r i n d i n g Technique The  g r i n d e r s e l e c t e d f o r the b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s i s  the Model 1000 o f the Brute national Corporation.  S e r i e s made by the E i d a l I n t e r -  The E i d a l s o l i d waste r e d u c t i o n  ment was s e l e c t e d over c o m p e t i t o r s '  equip-  equipment because o f the 14  g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y o f wastes which i t can handle. The  g r i n d i n g process w i l l be d e f i n e d as a p r o c e s s  which g r i n d s and p u l v e r i z e s s o l i d wastes, p r o d u c i n g homogeneous mass o f reduced volume.  a shredded  The s i z e o f the homogeneous  p a r t i c l e can be r e g u l a t e d by the equipment.  According  t o the  manufacturer, the c a p a c i t y of s o l i d wastes which the Model 1000 can handle i s f o r t y tons p e r hour. The  g r i n d e r when i n s t a l l e d i s 18 f e e t 10 inches  14 f e e t 3 inches  long and 8 f e e t wide.  high,  The opening where the  waste e n t e r s the g r i n d e r i s 60 i n c h e s by 88 i n c h e s and the discharge  opening i s 18 inches by 36 i n c h e s .  width o f the f e e d i n g conveyor i s 86 i n c h e s .  The maximum The g r i n d e r has  two 500 horse power motors which p r o v i d e r o t o r speed o f 369 RPM and a t i p speed o f 6800 FPM.  The r o t o r diameter i s 59  inches when stopped and 62 inches when i n motion. has  60 r i n g g r i n d e r s each weighing 64 pounds.  The g r i n d e r  The machine  A c c o r d i n g t o the manufacturer's o f f i c i a l l i s t , the Brute s e r i e s can g r i n d s o f a s , c h a i r s , d r e s s e r s , i n n e r s p r i n g s , m a t t r e s s e s , beds, c l o s e t s , t o i l e t s , s i n k s , bathtubs, f l o o r s , a p p l i a n c e s , t r e e s , slabbed c a r b o d i e s , s e a t s , frames, desks, rugs, o r e , s l a g , s t e e l , aluminium, breakage, p l a s t i c s , s k i d s , p a l l e t s , bark l o g s , banding, f e n c i n g , b l o c k s , b r i c k s , bagasse and d e b r i s .  16 weighs 105,700 pounds.  I t i s important to note t h a t t h e r e  no hammers or no g r a t e s  i n t h i s equipment.  The  equipment i s gear d r i v e n .  The  v e r t i c a l r o t o r with  i t s m u l t i p l e r i n g g r i n d e r s reduce wastes to the s i z e d e s i r e d w i t h i n seconds.  are  particle  There i s a n o i s e l e v e l of  85  d e c i b e l s a t a d i s t a n c e of ten f e e t from the g r i n d e r when . 15 waste.  processing The  g r i n d e r would be  i n s u l a t e d with a storage  fibreglass.  The  b u i l d i n g would a l s o  b i n f o r h o l d i n g the r e f u s e from the  trucks i n order to maintain flow.  i n s t a l l e d i n a metal b u i l d i n g  collection  a more c o n s i s t e n t and  A conveyor b e l t would connect the storage  g r i n d e r and  instrument room would be  at  b i n to  A control  and  the conveyor systems.  b u i l d i n g h o l d i n g the g r i n d e r would be  constructed  the D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver t r u c k storage y a r d which  is fairly  c l o s e to the Premier S t r e e t L a n d f i l l .  Consequently, no a d d i t i o n a l l a n d purchases would be  required.  There i s another p o s s i b i l i t y of l o c a t i n g the g r i n d i n g at  the  l o c a t e d i n the b u i l d i n g where an  would run the g r i n d e r and The  regular  another conveyor b e l t would take the ground waste  to w a i t i n g t r u c k s v i a a covered 20 ton hopper.  operator  contain  the a c t u a l l a n d f i l l  s i t e ; however, i t would r e q u i r e  removal of t r e e s which p r e s e n t l y p r o v i d e  facility the  a good b u f f e r between  A d e c i b e l i s approximately the s m a l l e s t change i n sound which a human ear can d e t e c t .  17  the  l a n d f i l l and the n e i g h b o u r i n g commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l  areas.  Access problems would a l s o be generated a t the l a n d f i l l  s i t e should another b u i l d i n g be p l a c e d The  near the e n t r a n c e .  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f maintenance f a c i l i t i e s and s k i l l e d  repairmen would o f f e r an a d d i t i o n a l advantage t o have the grinder  s i t u a t e d a t the t r u c k  s t a t i o n yard.  Street L a n d f i l l w i l l eventually  S i n c e the Premier  be c l o s e d , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f a c e n t r a l community d i s p o s a l s t a t i o n on the North Shore now, a t l e a s t e s t a b l i s h e s a f a c i l i t y which can be used i n the long-run.  I f the g r i n d i n g  f a c i l i t y was b u i l t a t the Premier  S t r e e t s i t e , the r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n s f o r a park o r g o l f course would have t o be changed o r m o d i f i e d . As  landfill  s i t e s have t o be l o c a t e d f u r t h e r from  the community because o f the problem o f f i n d i n g enough s u i t able  land, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  trucks  cost w i l l  By h a v i n g fewer  c a r r y i n g l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s i n weight o f ground  waste"^ over the expected longer be  increase.  distances,  a b l e t o a t t a i n some savings i n c o s t s  solid  the d i s t r i c t  i n the l o n g - r u n .  I t i s important t o p l a n now f o r the i n e v i t a b l e l a n d f i l l outside  should  expansion  the p r e s e n t a r e a by c e n t r a l i z i n g one aspect o f the  s o l i d waste problem The municipal  the g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l s t a t i o n .  g r i n d i n g t e c h n i q u e would o c c u r as f o l l o w s .  s o l i d wastes would be brought t o the g r i n d i n g  The facility.  Refuse volume can be reduced as much as 15 t o 1. H. D. J o r d o n , (Tulsa D a i l y World, Sunday, June 14, 1970).  18 The  t r u c k s w o u l d dump a l l w a s t e s i n t o t h e h o l d i n g b i n .  solid  w a s t e s would t h e n be l i f t e d  feeding intake.  The  v i a conveyor-belt into the  The w a s t e s w o u l d b e g r o u n d a n d d e p o s i t e d o n  another c o n v e y o r - b e l t which would take t h e ground wastes t o a covered hopper o u t s i d e o f t h e b u i l d i n g .  Trucks would  drive  under t h e hopper and l o a d t h e ground s o l i d wastes from a t r a p door.  The c o n v e y o r - b e l t s w o u l d c o n t r o l t h e f l o w o f s o l i d  wastes. filled,  When t h e t r u c k s w e r e u n a v a i l a b l e o r t h e h o p p e r was t h e c o n v e y o r s y s t e m s w o u l d be t u r n e d o f f .  s y s t e m c a n h a n d l e up t o f o r t y  The g r i n d i n g  tons p e r hour; b u t a t present,  s o l i d w a s t e demands f o r 1971 w o u l d r e q u i r e o p e r a t i o n t i m e s a v e r a g i n g t h i r t y - t w o t o n s p e r hour f o r an e i g h t hour day, f i v e d a y s a week. The dump t r u c k s w i t h t h e g r o u n d s o l i d w a s t e s t h e n go t o t h e P r e m i e r S t r e e t L a n d f i l l . would t a k e under t e n minutes.  The j o u r n e y o n e way  The t r u c k s and t h e g r o u n d  t e n t s w o u l d t h e n be w e i g h e d on t h e e x i s t i n g would then proceed t o t h e l a n d f i l l  scales.  con-  Two t r u c k s  where dumping would  The g r o u n d w a s t e s w o u l d s e l f - c o m p a c t t o a c e r t a i n but  would  occur.  extent  use o f t h e p r e s e n t t r a c t o r would p r o v i d e f o r g r e a t e r  compaction.  The P r e m i e r S t r e e t L a n d f i l l  on a s l o p e .  A l t h o u g h a t w o f o o t s i d e c o v e r a l o n g t h e edge  of  t h e l a n d f i l l would s t i l l  be b u i l t  i s being  constructed  be n e c e s s a r y , t h e l a n d f i l l  up b y s p r e a d i n g a n d c o m p a c t i n g t h i n  ground r e f u s e over t h e e n t i r e  site.  could  l a y e r s o f uncovered  A process o f spreading  and c o m p a c t i n g t h i n l a y e r s o f u n c o v e r e d g r o u n d r e f u s e i s  p r e s e n t l y b e i n g done i n Edmonton, A l b e r t a . f o o t cover o f r e l a t i v e l y  17  A f i n a l two  impermeable s o i l would s t i l l be  r e q u i r e d when c l o s i n g the l a n d f i l l . The  Premier  S t r e e t L a n d f i l l d e n s i t y averages between 18  600  and 1000 pounds p e r c u b i c y a r d .  The g r i n d i n g technique  a c h i e v e s d e n s i t i e s between 1000 and 1500 pounds p e r c u b i c y a r d and can r e a c h 1800 pounds p e r c u b i c y a r d when u s i n g moist refuse.  In Edmonton, A l b e r t a , where a g r i n d e r has been i n -  stalled,  t h e r e are hopes t o reach 2700 pounds p e r c u b i c y a r d .  I find this  f i g u r e r a t h e r h i g h and can f i n d no evidence by  the manufacturer o r by o t h e r owners o f such equipment o f ever a t t a i n i n g such a f i g u r e p e r c u b i c y a r d . Whether the c o s t s o f i n s t a l l i n g such g r i n d i n g equipment i n the North Shore outweigh  the b e n e f i t s w i l l be  determined  by a b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s .  17 The Edmonton o p e r a t i o n spreads and compacts the ground wastes by h a v i n g t r u c k s d r i v e over and d e p o s i t t h i n l a y e r s o f r e f u s e . The weight o f the moving t r u c k s h e l p comp a c t the ground r e f u s e . Mr. George Naoum, Manager o f Cambrian Group, Edmonton, ( w r i t t e n communication, March 15, 1971). 18 An on s i t e survey by the Premier S t r e e t L a n d f i l l manager, G. B u t l e r , e s t i m a t e d 600 pounds p e r c u b i c y a r d . The a s s i s t a n t m u n i c i p a l e n g i n e e r , D. White, D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver E n g i n e e r i n g Department s t a t e d t h a t 1000 pounds p e r c u b i c y a r d was o b t a i n e d . The l a t t e r f i g u r e i s u n u s u a l l y h i g h f o r an o r d i n a r y l a n d f i l l . Both f i g u r e s w i l l be used i n the benefit-cost analysis.  CHAPTER I I Hypothesis Net t a n g i b l e economic b e n e f i t s the D i s t r i c t  to the Corporation of  o f N o r t h Vancouver j u s t i f y use o f t h e s o l i d  grinding disposal  waste  technique.  Methodology The e c o n o m i c e f f i c i e n c y o f i n s t a l l i n g machine a t the Premier by a b e n e f i t - c o s t  Street L a n d f i l l  technique.  analysis of the grinding benefits  and c o s t s .  A benefit-cost  situation.  and t r e a t m e n t  Although  be  analysed  benefit-cost  be t h e i n t a n g i b l e  analysis w i l l  done f o r m a i n t a i n i n g t h e p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l The p r e s e n t s i t e  grinding  site will  Included i n the  technique w i l l  a  also  disposal  technique w i l l  be  method.  be t h e c o n t r o l  the main o b j e c t i v e o f the t h e s i s i s  either to v e r i f y or to r e j e c t the hypothesis, concluding evidence which w i l l  e l u c i d a t e whether t o convert o r not t o  convert from the l a n d f i l l technique w i l l  a l s o be  disposal  presented.  The b e n e f i t - c o s t benefits  technique t o the g r i n d i n g  technique  i s a method  and c o s t s w i t h i n a p r e v i o u s l y  decided  of assessing framework.  21 C o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s i s a p r a c t i c a l way o f a s s e s s i n g the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f p r o j e c t s , where i t i s important t o take a long view ( i n t h e sense o f l o o k i n g a t r e p e r c u s s i o n s i n the f u r t h e r , as w e l l as the n e a r e r , f u t u r e ) and a wide view ( i n the sense o f a l l o w i n g f o r - s i d e - e f f e c t s of many k i n d s on many persons, i n d u s t r i e s , . r e g i o n s , etc.), i . e . , i t i m p l i e s the enumeration and e v a l u a t i o n o f a l l the r e l e v a n t c o s t s and benefits.^ The  calculation of present  b e n e f i t s and c o s t s , the e s t i m a t i o n  o f f u t u r e b e n e f i t s and c o s t s , the d i s c o u n t i n g by a r e l e v a n t i n t e r e s t r a t e o f these b e n e f i t s and c o s t s over t h e economic l i f e o f the p r o j e c t and then the f i n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n  o f the  b e n e f i t - c o s t r a t i o a r e the e s s e n t i a l elements i n t h e a n a l y s i s . P o s i t i v e n e t b e n e f i t s p r e f e r a b l y over 1.0 would suggest economically efficient projects. are being  Since  two d i s p o s a l techniques  compared i n t h i s t h e s i s , t h e h i g h e r  positive ratio  would i n d i c a t e the more e f f i c i e n t technique i n economic terms. Depending on the p o i n t o f view o f the decision-maker, l e g a l , p h y s i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and/or s o c i a l a s p e c t s may a l t e r economic c o n c l u s i o n s "...  of a benefit-cost analysis.  t h e aim i s t o maximize the p r e s e n t  value  Basically, of a l l benefits 20  less that o f a l l costs, subject to s p e c i f i e d constraints." P u b l i c investments l i k e p r i v a t e investments w i l l take account o f the v a l u e  o f the r e s o u r c e s  o r goods and s e r v i c e s which are  19 A. R. P r e s t , R. Turvey, The Economic J o u r n a l , Volume LXXV, " C o s t - B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s : A Survey" (London: M a c M i l l a n (Journals) L i m i t e d , 1965), p. 683. 20 I b i d . , p. 686.  utilized  and  the value of the s e r v i c e s which  In a d d i t i o n , p u b l i c investments costs  which  a f f e c t o t h e r s and  the b e n e f i t s which to the p r o j e c t .  culated The  by  a r e g a i n e d by o t h e r s n o t d i r e c t l y  The  i n t a n g i b l e aspects w i l l  net i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t  subtracting  which  technique w i l l  figure w i l l  economic the  be  cal-  the present value of t a n g i b l e of a  costs.  particular  r e p r e s e n t t h e amount o f s o c i a l have t o  return  obtain  the use o f t h e d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e .  purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s only to e l u c i d a t e m e a s u r a b l e and  a l t e r the  decision-making  t h e community o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r w i l l  order to j u s t i f y  related  a n a l y s i s d e p e n d i n g on  v a l u e of the net i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s  disposal  in  The  diffused  s i m i l a r l y must c o n s i d e r  a t t a c h e d t o t h e s e a s p e c t s by t h e  authority.  produced.  must c o n s i d e r t h e  c o n c l u s i o n s of the b e n e f i t - c o s t weight  are  unmeasurable c o s t s ,  The  these v a r i o u s  l e a v i n g the d e c i s i o n  f u n c t i o n t o the delegated a u t h o r i t y  i n the D i s t r i c t of  making North  Vancouver. To m u s t be  use  the b e n e f i t - c o s t  established  technique, a point  i n order to c l a r i f y  t h e s o l i d w a s t e d i s p o s a l method w i l l of view of t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l  be  be  business.  The  V a n c o u v e r and Next,  and  n o t o f any  study w i l l  be  a consideration  operates  specific  limited  t h e a r e a s e r v e d by  analysed.  view  perspective The  point  that of the C o r p o r a t i o n of  the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver which Street L a n d f i l l  f r o m whose  of  the  Premier  i n d i v i d u a l or  any  to the D i s t r i c t of  the present  of which  North  landfill.  benefits  outputs  of s e r v i c e s inputs The  from t h e d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s and w h i c h c o s t s  o f goods and s e r v i c e s w i l l  benefits  into tangible will  and t h e c o s t s  be i n c l u d e d  selected w i l l  i n the analysis.  be f u r t h e r  and i n t a n g i b l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  The  use market determined values f o r i t s costs  land expenditure benefits. will  separated analysis  and t h e r e d u c e d  The v a l u e o f t h e s e r v i c e s  produced  be m e a s u r e d b y t h e n e t r e v e n u e a t t a i n e d b y t h e a r b i t r a r y  p r i c e c h a r g e d t o t h e two n e i g h b o u r i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s by t h e D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver. costs  A l t h o u g h t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s and  a r e t h e key economic determinants i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ,  intangible considerations  are important i n l o c a l decisions  opposed t o n a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . refers  to benefits  The i n t a n g i b l e  as  classification  a n d c o s t s w h i c h c a n n o t be p r i c e d i n t h e 21  market. but  Valuation  of various  i n t a n g i b l e s has been  each type o f i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t o r c o s t has  attempted;  a unique  m e t h o d o f m e a s u r e m e n t a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y no c o m p r e h e n s i v e o r method has been c r e a t e d benefits unless  and c o s t s w i l l  t o cover a l l s i t u a t i o n s .  formula  Intangible  be m e a s u r e d i n p o s i t i v e - n e g a t i v e  terms  otherwise s p e c i f i e d . Historical  costs  cost technique since  do n o t h a v e r e l e v a n c e t o t h e b e n e f i t -  the outlay  of costs  has a l r e a d y  occurred  W.R.D. S e w e l l e t a l , Guide t o B e n e f i t - C o s t A n a l y s i s , Resources f o r Tomorrow Conference h e l d i n M o n t r e a l , October 23-28, 1961 (Queens P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1962), pp. 29-30. U n i t e d S t a t e s Water Resources C o u n c i l , Standards f o r P l a n n i n g Water and Land Resources, Report t o the Water Resources C o u n c i l by the S p e c i a l Task F o r c e (Washington, D. C , J u l y 1970).  with  accompanying b e n e f i t s .  considered  as  The  a  f u t u r e o u t p u t s and  using  the  the  r a t e i s the  inputs  i n present terms.  benefit-cost analysis w i l l  f o r the  Since  the  discount  duty w i l l  be  a d j u s t i n g mechanism t o  be  The  by  present  dis-  D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver i s seven  d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e may  r a t e s e l e c t e d , the  i n t e r e s t a b o v e and  The  value  discount  determined  present d i s t r i c t borrowing rate.  count r a t e cent.  t a x e s and  cost.  discount  r a t e f o r the  Sales  use  below seven per  of  be  influenced  several rates  cent w i l l  be  per  by of  applied  in  the b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s . The  e l i m i n a t i o n of a cost or a b e n e f i t w i l l  w e i g h t t o one  s i d e of the  analysis.  be  maintained i n order  to avoid  Source of Capital costs from the  f o r the  historic  cost technique.  No  for  and  output  c o n t r o l s i t u a t i o n were  not  analysis  Data  relevant  These  to the  obtained costs  benefit-  major c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s were p l a n n e d  the present Premier S t r e e t s i t e operating  Capital costs  each  i n f l u e n c i n g the  D i s t r i c t O f f i c e of North Vancouver.  w e r e f o u n d t o be  extra  In a l l b e n e f i t - c o s t  c o m p a r i s o n s , a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n e a c h i n p u t and should  give  f o r the  grinding  as  a  landfill.  t e c h n i q u e were o b t a i n e d  from  22 the manufacturer.  S i t e c o s t s were c o n s i d e r e d  o n l y when  — s t u d y was  The m a n u f a c t u r e r o f t h e g r i n d e r s e l e c t e d the E i d a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n .  for  the  one  25 method r e q u i r e d a d d i t i o n a l l a n d area i n comparison t o the o t h e r f o r the same time p e r i o d .  O p e r a t i o n a l and maintenance  c o s t s f o r the c o n t r o l s i t u a t i o n were o b t a i n e d office.  from the d i s t r i c t  C o s t s f o r the c o n t r o l s i t u a t i o n were p r o j e c t e d i n  the a n a l y s i s o f a new l a n d f i l l area and f o r the c o s t s common to for  the g r i n d i n g method.  Maintenance  and o p e r a t i n g  the g r i n d i n g method were o b t a i n e d  u s i n g the same g r i n d i n g equipment estimates  o f the manufacturer.  were o b t a i n e d  from o t h e r  from  I n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s and c o s t s  from d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n ,  o f communities  communities  and were o b t a i n e d  from recorded  from t h e manufacturer, from the d i s t r i c t observations  costs  studies,  a u t h o r i t i e s and from  and o f f i r m s u s i n g the equipment.  CHAPTER I I I Benefit-cost The  Analysis  b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s i s c a l c u l a t e d from the  p o i n t o f view o f the D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver and n o t o f i t s two  n e i g h b o u r i n g communities  the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f West  Vancouver and the C i t y o f North Vancouver.  A l l costs r e -  searched were the s t a t e d c o s t s o f the months January 1971, February 1971 and March 1971 i n c l u s i v e . borrowing r a t e d u r i n g  this period  The d i s t r i c t ' s  o f time was seven p e r c e n t .  For comparison purposes, r a t e s o f s i x p e r cent and e i g h t p e r cent w i l l a l s o be used along w i t h the o f f i c i a l d i s t r i c t when d i s c o u n t i n g  rate  b e n e f i t s and c o s t s .  S i n c e the g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l technique b e n e f i t o f increased  waste d e n s i t y  l a n d f i l l waste d e n s i t y ,  i s being compared t o the p r e s e n t a s p e c i f i c f i g u r e should be s t a t e d  as the average d e n s i t y . 18),  As p r e v i o u s l y  a difference i n opinion  explained  (see f o o t n o t e  e x i s t s i n the average  o b t a i n e d by the p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l .  density  Consequently, the b e n e f i t -  c o s t a n a l y s i s has been c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g both s e t s o f f i g u r e s 600  pounds p e r c u b i c yard  In a d d i t i o n ,  a l l three  of weighted volumes.  and 1000 pounds per c u b i c  discount  yard.  r a t e s were used on both  sets  27 TABLE 2 e x h i b i t s t h e G r e a t e r trict The  Vancouver Regional  P o p u l a t i o n f o r e c a s t c a l c u l a t e d as o f J u n e 1,  Shore communities.  f o r e c a s t can  considered  be  approximately  rather conservative.  60,000 i n 1970.  c a s t used, the  1970  Realistically,  i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o be  lation  f o r e c a s t due  the death  used understates If  The  and  reason  For  example,  Vancouver  was  t o the p o p u l a t i o n f o r e -  accurate  i n any  popu-  changes i n the  f o r r e l y i n g on  emigration  conservative  t o make s u r e t h a t t h e w a s t e t o n n a g e  figure  r a t h e r than o v e r s t a t e s the c a p a c i t y r e q u i r e d .  the p r o j e c t e d c o n s e r v a t i v e s o l i d waste tonnage f i g u r e s  demonstrate the need f o r c o n s e r v i n g any  population  t o changes i n the b i r t h r a t e , changes i n  rates.  figures i s i n order  for  have o n l y been 57,000.  r a t e , changes i n zoning  immigration  of North  According  f i g u r e should  figure  This p a r t i c u l a r  the p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e i n the D i s t r i c t  and  1969.  p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e i n TABLE 2 i s t h e c u m u l a t i v e  the three North  Dis-  c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be m a g n i f i e d  landfill  space,  then  to the extent t h a t the  pro-  j e c t i o n s are o f f . In on  1970,  the North  2.63  Shore.  wastes accepted  pounds o f garbage p e r  This f i g u r e c o n s i s t s of o n l y the  at the Premier  s o l i d waste tonnage  c a p i t a were p r o d u c e d  Street Landfill.  ( c o l u m n f o u r o f TABLE 2) has  The  c a p i t a f i g u r e of each year.  f i g u r e was  i n c r e a s e d by  two  per  The  projected  been c a l c u l a t e d  by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e p r o j e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s by pounds per  solid  the  pounds p e r  cent per year which i s  estimated capita considered  28 22 the annual i n c r e a s e by the American P u b l i c Works A s s o c i a t i o n . In TABLES 3, 4 and 5, the p r o j e c t e d volume occupied by the e s t i m a t e d  solid  waste tonnage i s i n d i c a t e d .  t o TABLE 1, the e s t i m a t e d cubic yards.  Therefore,  are a t t a i n e d , the  referring  a v a i l a b l e volume i s o n l y 2,378,860 i f o n l y 600  pounds per c u b i c  are a t t a i n e d i n the l a n d f i l l , sometime d u r i n g S t r e e t s i t e w i l l be  By  filled.  I f 1000  landfill will  reach  1980,  yard  the Premier  pounds per c u b i c  yard  c a p a c i t y i n 1984.  b e n e f i t s measured w i l l be i n comparison t o the g r i n d i n g nique where an a r b i t r a r y f i g u r e of 1500 w i l l be yard  the assumed weighted volume.  The  1500  however, t h a t t h i s d e n s i t y can be reached w i t h  yard  pounds per  the  cubic  It is felt, present  An examination of TABLE 5 i n d i c a t e s  t h a t over the next f i f t e e n tonnage can be  tech-  pounds per c u b i c  f i g u r e i s on the h i g h s i d e i f not compacted.  equipment a t the s i t e .  The  year p e r i o d , a l l the  projected  accommodated.  U.S. Department of Commerce, N a t i o n a l Bureau of Standards, R e g i o n a l Refuse D i s p o s a l , ( G r e a t e r Egypt Regional P l a n n i n g and Development Commission, June 1969,)pp. 19-20.  29  TABLE 2 SOLID WASTE PROJECTION  Pounds^per capita  S o l i d waste tonnage  Cumulative s o l i d waste tonnage  Year  Population  1970  126,300  2.63  60,788  60,788  1971  129,800  2.68  63,486  124,274  1972  133,400  2.73  66,464  190,738  1973  137,200  2.78  69,609  260,347  1974  141,000  2.83  72,823  333,170  1975  144,900  2.88  76,160  409,330  1976  148,800  2.93  79,568  488,898  1977  153,000  2.98  83,210  572,108  1978  157,300  3.03  86.983  659,091  1979  161,800  3.09  91,244  750,355  1980  166,300  3.15  95,602  845,937  1981  170,800  3.21  100,059  945,996  1982  175,700  3.27  104,854  1,050,850  1983  180,800  3.33  109,877  1,160,727  1984  186,100  3.39  115,136  1,275,863  1985  191,500  3.45  120,574  1,396,437  P o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s based on June 1, 1969 f o r e c a s t o f the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t p o p u l a t i o n forecast f o r 1986. I n c r e a s e s i n pounds p e r c a p i t a based on the American P u b l i c Works A s s o c i a t i o n e s t i m a t e d 2% i n c r e a s e p e r year f o r per c a p i t a s o l i d waste p r o d u c t i o n .  30 TABLE 3 PROJECTED LANDFILL VOLUME OCCUPIED AT 600 POUNDS PER CUBIC YARD  Cumulative c u b i c yards  Year  Annual c u b i c yards  1971  211,620  211,620  1972  221,546  433,166  1973  232,030  665,196  1974  242,743  907,939  1975  253,866  1,161,806  1976  265,266  1,427,073  1977  277,366  1,704,439  1978  289,943  1,994,383  1979  304,146  2,298,529  19 80  318,673  2,617,202  1981  333,530  2,950,732  1982  349,513  3,300,246  1983  366,256  3,666,502  1984  383,786  4,050,289  1985  401,913  4,452,202  31 TABLE 4 PROJECTED LANDFILL VOLUME OCCUPIED AT 1000 POUNDS PER CUBIC YARD  Year  Annual c u b i c yards  Cumulative c u b i c yards  1971  126,972  126,972  1972  132,928  259,900  1973  139,218  399,118  1974  145,646  544,764  1975  153,220  697,984  1976  159,136  857,120  1977  166,420  1,023,540  1978  173,966  1,197,506  1979  182,488  1,379,994  1980  191,204  1,571,198  1981  200,118  1,771,316  1982  209,708  1,981,024  1983  219,754  2,200,778  1984  230,272  2,431,050  1985  241,148  2,672,198  32 TABLE 5 PROJECTED LANDFILL VOLUME OCCUPIED AT 1500 POUNDS PER CUBIC YARD  Year  Annual c u b i c yards  Cumulative c u b i c yards  1971  84,648  84,648  1972  88,618  173,266  1973  92,812  266,078  1974  97,097  363,175  1975  101,546  464,722  1976  106,090  570,813  1977  110,946  681,759  1978  115,977  797,737  1979  121,658  919,395  1980  127,469  1,046,864  1981  133,412  1,180,276  1982  139,805  1,320,082  1983  146,502  1,466,584  1984  153,514  1,620,099  1985  160,765  1,780,864  T a n g i b l e B e n e f i t s and Costs f o r the L a n d f i l l D i s p o s a l Technique The  main measurable b e n e f i t of the l a n d f i l l  i s measured by  the revenue obtained  West Vancouver and  technique  from the M u n i c i p a l i t y of  from the C i t y of North Vancouver.  The  D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver p r e s e n t l y r e c e i v e s $5.00 per f o r the s o l i d wastes r e c e i v e d from these two  ton  communities.  23  I t c o s t s the d i s t r i c t wastes which l e a v e s  $1.00  per ton  $4.00 revenue.  to d i s p o s e TABLES 6,  the annual revenue r e c e i v e d d i s c o u n t e d  of the  7 and  solid  8 show  at r a t e s 6%,  7%  and  8% r e s p e c t i v e l y . There are no p r o j e c t e d c a p i t a l c o s t s f o r the landfill  s i t e over the next f i f t e e n years  on when the s i t e reaches i t s c a p a c i t y .  or l e s s , depending  A l l present  capital  investments i n c l u d i n g the w a l l , the drainage system, l a n d f i l l o f f i c e , the c a r e t a k e r ' s s i t e are c o n s i d e r e d  h i s t o r i c costs.  c o s t methodology e n u n c i a t e d , TABLES 9, tenance c o s t s with  10 and  the  the s c a l e s on  According  11 show the o p e r a t i n g  the  t o the b e n e f i t -  h i s t o r i c c o s t s w i l l be  the r e s p e c t i v e d i s c o u n t  I t p r e s e n t l y c o s t s a $1.00 site.  house and  present  and  ignored. the main-  rates indicated.  per ton t o operate the  landfill  With i n c r e a s e d tonnage volumes and more c o l l e c t i o n  t r u c k s a r r i v i n g a t the Premier S t r e e t s i t e , another t r a c t o r plus operator  and  D. White  a d i r e c t i n g attendant  w i l l be r e q u i r e d  ( v e r b a l communication, January 1971).  to  handle the i n c r e a s e d q u a n t i t i e s o f wastes. c o s t p e r t o n has been i n c r e a s e d  Consequently, the  t o $1.25 i n order  t o cover 24  the  $13.00 p e r hour f o r the t r a c t o r and o p e r a t o r  plus attendant costs. t o improve p r e s e n t should  In order  rental  t o a t l e a s t r e t a i n and p o s s i b l y  compaction o f s o l i d wastes, a new t r a c t o r 25  be added by a t l e a s t the year 1973. The  measurable b e n e f i t s w i t h the p r e s e n t  d i s p o s a l method outweigh the measurable c o s t s .  landfill Net b e n e f i t s  range from $1,418,735 a t 6% t o $1,333,856 a t 7% t o $1,257,617 a t 8%.  Other s o c i a l b e n e f i t s and c o s t s w i l l be compared  later  w i t h the g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e .  24 Truck  Tractor i s rented Pool. 25  from the D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver  ( v e r b a l communication, Premier S t r e e t  Landfill)  35 TABLE 6 LIST OF BENEFITS FOR THE PRESENT LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 6% DISCOUNT RATE  Year  Current  benefits  3  Present value $180,301 .  1971  $180,301  1972  188,758  178,075  1973  197,690  175,945  1974  206,818  173,645  1975  216,295  171,328  1976  225,974  168,871  1977  236,317  166,604  1978  247,032  164,301  1979  259,133  162,580  1980  271,510  160,707  1981  284,168  158,680  1982  297,786  156,874  1983  312,051  155,090  1984  326,987  153,292  1985  342,431  151,458 $2,477,751  C u r r e n t b e n e f i t s were d e r i v e d from the n e t revenue r e t a i n e d ($4.00) by the d i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver m u l t i p l i e d by the s o l i d waste tonnage o f West Vancouver and the s o l i d waste tonnage o f the C i t y o f North Vancouver (71% of t o t a l annual tonnage). a  36 TABLE 7 LIST OF BENEFITS FOR THE PRESENT LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 7% DISCOUNT RATE  Year  Current  benefits  cl  Present value  1971  $180,301  $180,301  1972  188,758  176,414  1973  197,690  172,841  1974  206,818  168,268  1975  216,295  165,012  1976  225,974  161,120  1977  236,317  157,458  1978  247,032  153,827  1979  259,133  150,816  1980  271,510  147,675  1981  284,168  144,443  1982  297,786  141,479  1983  312,051  138,551  1984  326,987  135,700  1985  342,431  132,795 $2,326,700  C u r r e n t b e n e f i t s were d e r i v e d from the n e t revenue r e t a i n e d ($4.00) by the D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver m u l t i p l i e d by the s o l i d waste tonnage o f West Vancouver and the s o l i d waste tonnage o f the C i t y o f North Vancouver (71% o f t o t a l annual tonnage). a  37 TABLE 8 LIST OF BENEFITS FOR THE PRESENT LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT AN 8% DISCOUNT RATE  Current  Year  benefits  Present value  1971  $180,301  $180,301  1972  188,758  174,771  1973  197,690  169,480  1974  206,818  164,173  1975  216,295  158,977  1976  225,974  153,798  1977  236,317  148,927  1978  247,032  144,144  1979  259,133  140,010  1980  271,510  135,810  1981  284,168  131,627  1982  297,786  127,721  1983  312,051  123,916  1984  326,987  120,234  1985  342,431  116,598 $2,190,487  C u r r e n t b e n e f i t s were d e r i v e d from the n e t revenue r e t a i n e d ($4.00) by the D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver m u l t i p l i e d by the s o l i d waste tonnage o f West Vancouver and the s o l i d waste tonnage o f the C i t y o f North Vancouver (71% o f t o t a l annual tonnage). a  38 TABLE 9 LIST OF COSTS FOR THE PRESENT LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 6% DISCOUNT RATE  Capital costs Present value Current  Year  a  O p e r a t i n g & Maintenance Annual P r e s e n t value  1971  $ 63,486  $ 63,486  1972  62,464  62,703  1973  87,012  77,441  1974  91,029  76,428  1975  95,200  75,408  1976  99,460  74,327  1977  104,013  73,330  1978  108,729  72,316  1979  114,055  71,559  1980  119,503  70,734  1981  125,074  69,842  1982  131,068  69,047  1983  137,347  68,262  1984  143,920  67,470  1985  150,718  66,663 $1,059,016  T h e r e are no p r o j e c t e d c a p i t a l c o s t s f o r the l a n d f i l l site. A l l p r e s e n t c a p i t a l investments i n c l u d i n g the w a l l and the drainage systems are h i s t o r i c c o s t s . a  ^0 & M c o s t s are d e r i v e d by m u l t i p l y i n g each years p r o j e c t e d tonnage by $1.00 f o r y e a r s 1971 and 1972, then by $1.25 f o r the y e a r s 1973 t o 1985 ( r i s e i n c o s t s due t o a d d i t i o n a l t r a c t o r and o p e r a t o r and an a t t e n d a n t ) .  39 TABLE 10 LIST OF COSTS FOR THE PRESENT LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 7% DISCOUNT RATE  Year  Capital costs Current Present value a  O p e r a t i n g & maintenance' Annual Present value  1971  $ 63,486  $ 63,486  1972  66,464  62,118  1973  87,012  75,997  1974  91,029  74,307  1975  95,200  72,628  1976  99,460  70,915  1977  104,013  69,304  1978  108,729  67,706  1979  114,055  66,380  1980  119,503  64,998  1981  125,074  63,576  1982  131,068  62,271  1983  137,347  60,982  1984  143,920  59,727  1985  150,718  58,449  3  $992 ,844 There are no p r o j e c t e d c a p i t a l c o s t s f o r the l a n d f i l l site. A l l p r e s e n t c a p i t a l investments i n c l u d i n g the w a l l and the drainage systems are h i s t o r i c c o s t s . 0 & M c o s t s a r e d e r i v e d by m u l t i p l y i n g each years p r o j e c t e d tonnage by $1.00 f o r years 1971 and 1972, then by $1.25 f o r the years 1973 t o 1985 ( r i s e i n c o s t s due t o a d d i t i o n a l t r a c t o r and o p e r a t o r and an a t t e n d a n t ) .  TABLE 11  40  LIST OF COSTS FOR THE PRESENT LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT AN 8% DISCOUNT RATE  Year  Capital costs P r e s e n t Value Current  O p e r a t i n g & maintenance* Annual Present value  1971  $ 63,486  $ 63,486  1972  66,464  61,540  1973  87,012  74,596  1974  91,029  72,259  1975  95,200  69,972  1976  99,460  67,693  1977  104,013  65,549  1978  108,729  63,444  1979  114,055  61,624  1980  119,503  59,776  1981  125,074  57,935  1982  131,068  56,215  1983  137,347  54,541  1984  143,920  52,920  1985  157,718  51,320  3  $932,870 There are no p r o j e c t e d c a p i t a l c o s t s f o r the l a n d f i l l site. A l l p r e s e n t c a p i t a l investments i n c l u d i n g the w a l l and the drainage systems are h i s t o r i c c o s t s . 0 & M c o s t s are d e r i v e d by m u l t i p l y i n g each years p r o j e c t e d tonnage by $1.00 f o r y e a r s 1971 and 1972, then by $1.25 f o r the y e a r s 1973 t o 1985 ( r i s e i n c o s t s due t o a d d i t i o n a l t r a c t o r and o p e r a t o r and an a t t e n d a n t ) .  I  T a n g i b l e B e n e f i t s and Costs f o r the G r i n d i n g L a n d f i l l Technique B e n e f i t s f o r the g r i n d i n g technique TABLES 12,  13 and  are l i s t e d  in  14 w i t h the d i s c o u n t r a t e s i n d i c a t e d .  b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d from savings o f not having  The  to purchase  new 26  l a n d f o r l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l are measured a t $50,000 per The  l a n d c o s t s saved which are the b e n e f i t s to the g r i n d i n g  technique w i l l vary depending on whether 600 y a r d o r 1000 technique  yard w i l l I f 1000 and  i s assumed.  I f 600  cubic  pounds per c u b i c y a r d i s assumed,  a c h i e v i n g 1500  pounds per  a t t a i n b e n e f i t s from the years 1980  cubic  through to  1985.  pounds per c u b i c y a r d i s a t t a i n e d , then o n l y the  years  1985  w i l l offer benefits.  In a d d i t i o n t o l a n d f i l l  s a v i n g s , a revenue o f f i f t y cents accrues The  pounds per  pounds per c u b i c y a r d under the p r e s e n t d i s p o s a l  then a g r i n d i n g technique  1984  acre.  t o the  district.  revenue r e s u l t s from the $5.00 charged per ton o f  solid  wastes from the M u n i c i p a l i t y of West Vancouver and the C i t y of North Vancouver, l e s s the o p e r a t i n g and maintenance c o s t s which are $3.50 per ton and  the o p e r a t i n g and maintenance c o s t s o f  the l a n d f i l l which are $1.00  per t o n .  No  second t r a c t o r  o p e r a t o r p l u s d i r e c t i n g attendant w i l l be needed w i t h g r i n d i n g technique. s i z e and  r e s u l t a n t ease of s p r e a d i n g .  f o r c o v e r i n g the D. White,  the  T h i s o c c u r s because o f s m a l l e r p a r t i c l e  w i l l be used however to achieve and  and  The  the 1500  present  tractor  pounds per c u b i c y a r d  cells. ( v e r b a l communication, February  1971).  TABLE 12  42  L I S T OF B E N E F I T S FOR THE GRINDER-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 6% DISCOUNT RATE  Year  C u r r e n lz B e n e f i t s 600  a  1000  b  Present value 600  a  iooo  22,538  $ 22,538  23,595  23,595  22,260  22,260  1973  24,712  24,712  21,994  21,994  1974  25,853  25,853  21,706  21,706  1975  27,037  27,037  21,416  21,416  1976  28,247  28,247  21,109  21,109  1977  29,540  29,540  20,826  20,826  1978  30,879  30,879  20,538  20,538  1979  32,392  32,392  20,323  20,323  1980  92,439  33,939  54,716  20,089  1981  176,021  35,521  98,291  19,835  1982  263,724  37,224  138,930  19,609  1983  355,507  39,007  176,688  19,387  1984  451,874  53,374  211,839  25,022  1985  552,304  114,804  244,285  50,779  $1,117,459  $347,431  1971  $ 22,538  1972  $  $  b  22,538  C o l u m n 600 b e n e f i t s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m n e t r e v e n u e s o f $0.50 m u l t i p l i e d b y 71% o f t o t a l t o n n a g e ( f r o m W e s t V a n couver and t h e C i t y o f N o r t h Vancouver) p l u s t h e acreage s a v e d b y t h e g r i n d i n g - l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e f r o m 1980 t o 1 9 8 5 , a s s u m i n g t h e p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l o n l y a t t a i n s 600 pounds p e r c u b i c y a r d . C o l u m n 1000 b e n e f i t s a r e t h e same a s t h o s e o f f o o t n o t e (a) e x c e p t t h e a c r e a g e s a v e d o c c u r s i n 1984 a n d 1 9 8 5 , a s s u m i n g t h e p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l o n l y a t t a i n s 1000 p o u n d s p e r cubic yard.  TABLE 13  43  LIST OF BENEFITS FOR THE GRINDER-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 7% DISCOUNT RATE  Current b e n e f i t s  Year  600  a  1000  b  Present value 600  a  1000  b  1971  $ 22,538  $ 22,538  $ 22,538  $ 22,538  1972  23,595  23,595  22,052  22,052  1973  24,712  24,712  21,606  21,606  1974  25,853  25,853  21,034  21,034  1975  27,037  27,037  20,627  20,627  1976  28,247  28,247  20,140  20,140  1977  29,540  29,540  19,683  19,683  1978  30,879  30,879  19,229  19,229  1979  32,392  32,392  18,852  18,852  1980  92,439  33,939  50,279  18,460  1981  176,021  35,521  89,473  18,056  1982  263,724  37,224  125,296  17,685  1983  355,507  39,007  157,845  17,319  1984  451,874  53,374  187,528  22,151  1985  552,304  114,804  214,184  44,522  $1,007,366  $323,954  Column 600 b e n e f i t s are d e r i v e d from n e t revenues of $0.50 m u l t i p l i e d by 71% o f t o t a l tonnage (from West Vancouver and the C i t y o f North Vancouver)plus the acreage saved by the g r i n d i n g - l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l technique from 1980 t o 1985, assuming the p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l o n l y a t t a i n s 600 pounds per c u b i c y a r d . a  Column 1000 b e n e f i t s are the same as those o f f o o t note (a) except the acreage saved o c c u r s i n 1984 and 1985, assuming the p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l o n l y a t t a i n s 1000 pounds p e r cubic yard.  44  TABLE 14 LIST OF BENEFITS FOR THE GRINDER-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT AN 8% DISCOUNT RATE  Year  Current b e n e f i t s 600  a  1000  b  Present value 600  a  1000  b  1971  $ 22,538  $ 22,538  $22,538  $ 22,538  1972  23,595  23,595  21,847  21,847  1973  24,712  24,712  21,185  21,815  1974  25,853  25,853  20,522  20,522  1975  27,037  27,037  19,873  19,873  1976  28,247  28,247  19,224  19,224  1977  29,540  29,540  18,616  18,616  1978  30,879  30,879  18,018  18,018  1979  32,392  32,392  17,502  17,502  1980  92,439  33,939  46,239  16,977  1981  176,021  35,521  81,534  16,454  1982  263,724  37,224  113,112  15,966  1983  355,507  39,007  141,173  15,490  1984,  451,874  53,374  166,155  19,627  1985  552,304  114,804  188,060  49,091  $915,598  $312,930  Column 600 b e n e f i t s are d e r i v e d from n e t revenues of $0.50 m u l t i p l i e d by 71% o f t o t a l tonnage (from West Vancouver and the C i t y o f North Vancouver) p l u s the acreage saved by the g r i n d i n g - l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l technique from 1980 to 1985, assuming the p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l o n l y a t t a i n s 600 pounds p e r c u b i c y a r d . Column 1000 b e n e f i t s are the same as those o f f o o t note (a) except the acreage saved o c c u r s i n 1984 and 1985, assuming the p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l o n l y a t t a i n s 1000 pounds p e r cubic yard.  The  c a p i t a l costs of i n s t a l l i n g  g r i n d e r w o u l d be and  a 12%  M o d e l 1000  $250,000 i n c l u d i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n ,  27 conveying systems.  d u t y and  the  Capital costs  s a l e s t a x on  the  Eidal  freight  also include  a  o r i g i n a l price plus  15%  duty  2 8 w h i c h makes t h e  combined t a x e f f e c t i v e l y  facilities  be  will  building required  considered to hold  the  i n the  28.8%.  capital  expense. glass  The  b u i l d i n g could  i n s u l a t i o n and  concrete  t y p e o f s t r u c t u r e w o u l d be and  be  feet)  1000  room w i t h  The  placed  a land  on  purchase  a metal structure with  foundation.  The  cost  fibre-  for  this  $9.00 a s q u a r e f o o t f o r t h e 29  $2.50 a s q u a r e f o o t f o r t h e  footage required  costs.  g r i n d e r w o u l d be  d i s t r i c t owned l a n d w h i c h w o u l d e l i m i n a t e  Complementary  foundation.  f o r t h e b u i l d i n g w o u l d be  The (40  building  square  feet times  square f e e t .  A d d i t i o n a l e x p e n s e s w o u l d be  a  instrumentation  c o s t i n g $15,000, a h o l d i n g  bin  25  control  costing 30 $6,000 and an o u t s i d e c o v e r e d t w e n t y t o n h o p p e r c o s t i n g $ 7 , 5 0 0 . O p e r a t i n g , l a b o u r , u t i l i t y and m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s r a n g e 31 b e t w e e n $2.00 and $3.50 p e r t o n o f s o l i d w a s t e . In a d d i t i o n , 27 M. J . F r i e d e , S a l e s M a n a g e r , E i d a l I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n ( w r i t t e n communication, February 1971). 28 The 15% d u t y c a n be e l i m i n a t e d i f t h e g o o d i s n o t made i n C a n a d a and h a s no c o m p e t i t i v e s u b s t i t u t e w h i c h p r o d u c e s t h e same t y p e o f g o o d o r s e r v i c e . I t i s up t o t h e p u r c h a s e r t o p u t i n an a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r o f N a t i o n a l Revenue f o r Customs i n o r d e r t o have t h e d u t y dropped. 29 Butler Metal Buildings. 30 Canron L t d . 31 Eidal International Corporation.  t h r e e dump t r u c k s would be r e q u i r e d t o s h u t t l e the ground waste from the g r i n d e r t o t h e Premier S t r e e t L a n d f i l l .  The  t r u c k s p l u s the d r i v e r r e n t f o r $9.00 p e r hour from the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver t r u c k p o o l . operating  The t o t a l l a b o u r , maintenance,  and u t i l i t y c o s t s w i l l be $4.50 p e r t o n f o r the  g r i n d i n g and the l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e . capital  The t o t a l  c o s t o f the g r i n d e r and r e q u i r e d f a c i l i t i e s  would  be $362,000 (see TABLE 15).  TABLE 15 CAPITAL COSTS: GRINDER TECHNIQUE  E i d a l package d e a l (grinder plus i n s t a l l a t i o n f r e i g h t and conveyors) Duty Sales tax Metal b u i l d i n g . . . . Foundation C o n t r o l room Holding b i n Hopper T o t a l Expense  $37,500 34,500 $ 9,000 2,500 15,000 6,000 7,500  $250,000 72,000  40,000 $362,000  47 TABLE 16 LIST OF COSTS FOR THE GRINDER—LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 6% DISCOUNT RATE  Year  Capital costs Current Present v a l u e  Operating & maintenance Annual Present value  1971  $362,000  $285,688  $285,688  1972  299,088  282,160  1973  313,241  278,785  1974  327,704  275,141  1975  342,720  271,469  1976  358,056  267,576  1977  374,445  263,984  1978  391,424  260,337  1979  410,598  257,610  1980  430,209  254,641  1981  450,266  251,429  1982  471,843  248,567  1983  494,447  245,741  1984  518,112  242,891  1985  542,583  239,985  $362,000  $362,000  3  $3,926,004  O & M c o s t s a r e $4.50 p e r t o n ($1.00 l a n d f i l l c o s t s w i t h one t r a c t o r p l u s $3.50 g r i n d i n g c o s t p e r t o n ) . a  48 TABLE 17 LIST OF COSTS FOR THE GRINDER-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT A 7% DISCOUNT RATE  Year  Capital costs Present value Current  1971  $362,000  $362,000  O p e r a t i n g & maintenance Annual Present value $285,668  $285,668  1972  299,088  279,528  1973  313,241  273,585  1974  327,704  266,620  1975  342,720  261,461  1976  358,056  255,294  1977  374,445  249,493  1978  391,424  243,740  1979  410,598  238,968  1980  430,209  233,991  1981  450,266  228,871  1982  471,843  224,173  1983  494,447  219,535  1984  518,112  215,017  1985  542,583  210,414  $362,000  3,686,378  O & M c o s t s are $4.50 per t o n ($1.00 l a n d f i l l c o s t s w i t h one t r a c t o r p l u s $3.50 g r i n d i n g c o s t p e r t o n ) . a  3.  49  TABLE 18 LIST OF COSTS FOR THE GRINDER-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE AT AN 8% DISCOUNT RATE  Year  Capital costs Present value . Current  O p e r a t i n g & maintenance" Annual Present value  1971  $362,000  $285,688  $285,688  1972  299,088  276,926  1973  313,241  268,542  1974  327,704  260,132  1975  342,720  251,900  1976  358,056  243,693  1977  374,445  235,976  1978  391,424  228,396  1979  410,598  221,846  1980  430,209  215,191  1981  450,266  208,564  1982  471,843  202,374  1983  494,447  196,345  1984  518,112  190,510  1985  542,583  184,750  $362,000  $362,000  $3,470,833  O & M c o s t s a r e $4.50 p e r t o n ($1.00 l a n d f i l l w i t h one t r a c t o r p l u s $3.50 g r i n d i n g c o s t p e r t o n ) .  costs  50 Operational Should the p r e s e n t continued,  by  1973,  Problems  s o l i d waste d i s p o s a l method be  a second t r a c t o r w i l l be needed f o r  com-  25 p a c t i n g and  f o r spreading  the p r e s e n t  t r a c t o r would have to handle f o r t y - o n e tons  hour o f s o l i d waste.  of f i l l .  At present,  handle t h i r t y tons per hour. handled by j u s t one  For example by  the t r a c t o r o n l y has  Obviously,  Should l e s s than 600  The technique.  to  landfill  pounds per  y a r d be the average amount o f r e f u s e d e p o s i t e d , l i f e w i l l be  per  the more tonnage  t r a c t o r , the l e s s e f f i c i e n t the  o p e r a t i o n w i l l become.  1977,  the  cubic  landfill  f u r t h e r reduced. problem a l s o e x i s t s f o r the g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l The  g r i n d e r Model 1000  to f o r t y tons per hour.  By the end  Brute  Series i s limited  of 1976,  the l i m i t i n  tons per hour w i l l have been reached f o r a f o r t y hour week e i g h t hours a day.  A f t e r t h i s p o i n t i n time, the c h o i c e i s  e i t h e r t o purchase another g r i n d e r or t o i n c r e a s e the time of the g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l u n i t and the o p e r a t i n g time of the g r i n d e r and storage  operating  the l a n d f i l l or enlarge  increase  the hopper  f a c i l i t i e s and o t h e r needed equipment.  For  this  b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s , the second a l t e r n a t i v e has been s e l e c t e d . In 1977,  the e i g h t hour day w i l l be extended.  A third  truck  w i l l be added a f t e r t h i r t y - t w o tons per hour i s reached. T h i s assumes t h a t one  t r u c k w i l l make two  t r i p s per hour  i n c l u d i n g t r a v e l time, weighing, l o a d i n g and  unloading.  Not more than three t r u c k s f o r the f o r t y ton per hour  limit  w i l l be r e q u i r e d . TABLE 19 shows the tons p e r day f o r each y e a r . 320 tons storage  After  (40 tons p e r hour, 8 hours p e r day) p l u s the 20 t o n c a p a c i t y o f the hopper a r e reached,, a d d i t i o n a l  operating  hours w i l l be needed t o run the d i s p o s a l and the l a n d f i l l sites.  The 340 ton mark i s reached i n 1978.  TABLE 20 shows  the a d d i t i o n a l hours r e q u i r e d t o g r i n d and t o d i s p o s e s o l i d wastes.  I t w i l l be a r b i t r a r i l y  costs per ton f o r operating landfill shifts.  o f the  assumed t h a t the same  the g r i n d i n g s t a t i o n and the  s i t e w i l l be the same f o r the second s h o r t e r  operating  52 TABLE 19 SOLID WASTE TONS DISPOSED PER DAY AT THE PREMIER STREET S I T E  Tons p e r day  Year 1971  253  1972  265  1973  278  1974  291  1975  304  1976  318  1977  332  1978  347  1979  364  1980  382  1981  400  1982  419  1983  439  1984  460  1985  482  In t h i s  table,  a year contains  250 w o r k i n g  days  53 TABLE 20 ADDITIONAL OPERATING HOURS REQUIRED GRINDING DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE  Year  E x c e s s t o n s o v e r 340 t o n s maximum,per 8 h o u r d a y  FOR  Additional  1971  -  -  1972  -  -  1973  -  -  1974  -  -  1975  -  -  1976  -  -  1977  -  -  1978  7  1  1979  24  1  1980  42  2  1981  60  2  1982  79  2  1983  99  2  1984  120  3  1985  142  4  hours  54  TABLE 21 shows t h e b e n e f i t - c o s t nique.  ratios  At t h i s point i n the benefit-cost  f o r each  a n a l y s i s , the present  l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l m e t h o d e x h i b i t s a s u b s t a n t i a l edge switching  tech-  to the g r i n d i n g - l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l  over  technique.  55  TABLE 21 BENEFIT-COST COMPARISONS  Discount rate  Disposal technique  Benefit-cost ratio  landfill  6%  2.33  landfill  7%  2.34  landfill  8%  2.34  grinder-landfill  6%  0.26  grinder-landfill  7%  0.24  8%  0.23  6%  0.08  7%  0.08  8%  0.08  grinder-landfill  3  grinder-landf i l l * grinder-landfill*  3  3  grinder-landf i l l *  3  B e n e f i t s measured under the c o n s t r a i n t t h a t t h e p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l technique o n l y holds 600 pounds per c u b i c y a r d . B e n e f i t s measured under the c o n s t r a i n t t h a t the p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l d i s p o s a l technique o n l y holds 1000 pounds per c u b i c y a r d .  56 I n t a n g i b l e B e n e f i t s and C o s t s I n s e c t and A n i m a l V e c t o r s I n s e c t and a n i m a l v e c t o r s a r e r e d u c e d when d i s p o s a l sites utilize r a t s cannot  ground  s o l i d waste.  S t u d i e s h a v e shown t h a t  s u r v i v e by e a t i n g e i t h e r f r e s h o r a g e d  milled  32 refuse.  S p e c i f i c e x p e r i m e n t s showed t h a t r o d e n t s  would  c a n n i b a l i z e e a c h o t h e r when o n l y s h r e d d e d r e f u s e was for food.  T h a t r a t s were u n a b l e t o f i n d enough  p a r t i c l e s of n u t r i t i o n a l value to support t h e i r There due  i s also the d i f f i c u l t y  and u s u a l l y and  l e s s a t t r a c t i o n t o ground i n garbage  refuse.  Flies,  This maceration  reduces h o u s e f l y p o p u l a t i o n s at s i t e s w i t h 32  s o l i d wastes.  Ham  are  subshredded  found t h a t the f l y r e p r o d u c t i v e c y c l e  n o t be s u p p o r t e d o n c e t h e r e f u s e h a s  can-  aged i n t h e s i t e f o r  s e v e r a l m o n t h s and t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t 34 shredded  larvae  at the d i s p o s a l s t a t i o n  destroyed a f t e r e n t e r i n g the g r i n d e r .  freshly  sites.  s t u d i e s h a v e a l s o shown t h a t f l i e s h a v e no more 33  f l y eggs a r r i v i n g  stantially  survival.  This prevents rodent  from d e v e l o p i n g i n the l a n d f i l l Field  suitable  of burrowing i n ground r e f u s e  to the smaller p a r t i c l e s present.  colonies  available  t o s u p p o r t even  with  refuse.  32 R o b e r t K. Ham, V e c t o r s , A p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t : E n g i n e e r i n g F o u n d a t i o n R e s e a r c h C o n f e r e n c e , ( D e e r f i e l d Academy, D e e r f i e l d , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , August 24-28, 1970). 33 . Ibid. Ibid. J J 3 4  At the Premier Street s i t e problems are  are not a nuisance at present.  incurred  be  insect vector  No m a j o r  expenses  to c o n t r o l or t o prevent the p o s s i b i l i t y  such n u i s a n c e s . still  r o d e n t and  The  possibility  of a problem  l e s s when u s i n g t h e s h r e d d e d  a positive benefit w i l l  of  occurring  refuse.  will  Consequently,  be a l l o c a t e d t o t h e g r i n d i n g  disposal  technique. S e a g u l l s are p r e s e n t l y a problem The  b i r d s a r e on t h e r e f u s e u n t i l  i t i s covered.  i s u s u a l l y c o v e r e d i m m e d i a t e l y and n e v e r hour uncovered  a t the l a n d f i l l  e x c e p t on t h e w e e k e n d s .  site.  A l l refuse  l e f t more t h a n No  known m a j o r  h a z a r d has o c c u r r e d f r o m t h e b i r d s a t t h e P r e m i e r  an health  Street  35 site. With shredded  r e f u s e , s e a g u l l s w i l l n o t be  attracted  to  36 the s i t e .  Seagulls prefer a certain size p a r t i c l e of  A t the e x p e r i m e n t a l shredded s e a g u l l s were v i s i b l e .  The  refuse site  i n Wisconsin,  e f f e c t on o t h e r b i r d s o f  r e f u s e i s n o t known; b u t , t h e same d i f f i c u l t i e s o f enough n u t r i t i o n a l  w a s t e on t o p o f t h e l a n d f i l l  p r o b a b l y d i s c o u r a g e most b i r d n u i s a n c e s . nuisances at the l a n d f i l l solid  s i t e would  The  waste. no  shredded  finding  cells  will  present  bird  be r e d u c e d by t h e  ground  wastes. The  o t h e r a n i m a l n u i s a n c e s , b e a r s and c o y o t e s s h o u l d  Health Unit, D i s t r i c t D r . R.  H.  of North  Vancouver.  D r e n t , D e p a r t m e n t o f Z o o l o g y , U.B.C.  58  a l s o be reduced w i t h ground r e f u s e .  These animals are mainly  a t t r a c t e d by the odours from the s i t e .  These odours  would  37 be reduced w i t h ground s o l i d wastes. to the s i t e would  Any v i s i b l e  attraction  a l s o be reduced, s i n c e the r e f u s e i s ground  to a homogeneous mass.  Visible  Pollution  At p r e s e n t , p o l l u t i o n from blowing l i t t e r i s minimal because the r e f u s e i s brought i n t o the s i t e i n c l o s e d dumped and then covered f a i r l y q u i c k l y . the l a n d f i l l  trucks,  With t r e e s b u f f e r i n g  s i t e , wind i s a l s o reduced.  As the l a n d f i l l  i n c r e a s e s i n h e i g h t , the chances f o r more paper and o t h e r l i g h t r e f u s e t o blow out o f the s i t e w i l l i n c r e a s e . r e f u s e e l i m i n a t e s t h i s problem.  The shredded r e f u s e w i l l be  more compact and more e a s i l y c o n t r o l l e d . r e f u s e tends t o s t i c k t o g e t h e r which would p o s s i b i l i t y o f a blowing l i t t e r  Shredded  Wet m o i s t shredded a l s o reduce the  problem.  Dust i s another form o f p o l l u t i o n from  landfills.  Although d u s t i s not e l i m i n a t e d w i t h the g r i n d i n g t e c h n i q u e , g r e a t e r compaction w i t h i n the c e l l reduces the dust problem i n the s i t e .  The p r e s e n t l a n d f i l l s i t e i s s i t u a t e d i n a  moist a r e a w i t h a f a i r l y h i g h annual average  rainfall.  Dust i s a problem p r i m a r i l y i n the summer when the cover  Wastes,"  G.L. S u t i n , "The Case f o r P u l v e r i z a t i o n o f S o l i d ( P u b l i c Works, October, 1970).  59  m a t e r i a l has d r i e d .  Since  t h i s problem w i l l  l e s s o f w h i c h m e t h o d i s u s e d , any b e n e f i t s refuse w i l l  continue,  from  t h e smoke f r o m o n s i t e b u r n i n g .  paper burnt w i l l will can  be g r i n d a b l e  be n e c e s s a r y .  and t h e r e f o r e  Logs p r e s e n t l y  stacked  Rubber t i r e s w h i c h p r e s e n t l y a l s o be g r i n d a b l e  and w i l l  compaction w i l l  such as t e l e v i s i o n s , conditioners w i l l and  thus provide  be  eliminate  no s u c h o f f the  burning landfill  grinder.  cause v o i d spaces the void  bath tubs,  Other  Safety  degree  wastes.  Hazards  Shredded m a t e r i a l reduces immediate p h y s i c a l w h i c h e x i s t w i t h b r o k e n , ragged and b u l k y The  safety t o the labour  method w i l l the Premier the on  require  wastes.  f o r c e on t h e s i t e w i l l  t h u s be  truck pool. the s i t e .  refuse  increased.  be e n h a n c e d s i n c e t h e g r i n d i n g  the c i t i z e n  Street site  hazards  solid  Citizen safety w i l l  refuse  s i n k s and a i r  s i m i l a r l y be c o m p a c t e d t o a g r e a t e r more r o o m f o r f u t u r e s o l i d  will  problem.  be t h e b e n e f i t o b t a i n e d .  appliances,  eliminated  A l l o f t h e wood a n d t h e  a l s o be p u t t h r o u g h t h e M o d e l 1000  Greater  grinding  be m i n i m a l .  One m a j o r p o l l u t i o n a s p e c t w h i c h w i l l is  regard-  s e r v i c e t o be s w i t c h e d  from  to the grinding disposal station at  There w i l l  be no more c o n t a c t  An a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t w i l l  b r o u g h t by c i t i z e n s  with  materials  result i n that a l l  to the disposal station w i l l  be  ground at  and  t h e n t r a n s p o r t e d and w e i g h e d by d i s t r i c t  t h e p r e s e n t and  future l a n d f i l l  i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a t e r e f u s e brought only estimated. landfill bin  sites.  trucks  At present, the  i n i s not weighed,  Community s e r v i c e c a n a l s o be  but  stopped a t the  s i t e b e c a u s e t h e r e f u s e c a n be s t o r e d i n t h e h o l d i n g  at the g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l  station.  B u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s c a n be d i f f i c u l t  t o b u r y and  some-  38 times c r e a t e dangerous f i r e be n e c e s s a r y w i t h g r o u n d s t a r t i n g i n the ground the present l a n d f i l l . is  hazards.  wastes.  fill The  this  combustion  compared t o combustion  oxygen. t h r o u g h decom-  P o c k e t s o f m e t h a n e gas  occur  i n c a v i t i e s which develop w i t h unground r e f u s e ,  i n c r e a s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y With shredded  of f i r e  r e f u s e , t h e gas w i l l  through the f i l l  thus  o r underground e x p l o s i o n s . tend to vent uniformly  and t h e n t h r o u g h t h e c o v e r m a t e r i a l ,  t h e c o v e r m a t e r i a l i s d e s i g n e d as a gas b a r r i e r . soil  of  will  material consolidates faster 39  in a l llandfills  p o s i t i o n of organic materials. readily  possibility  danger o f spontaneous  increases the e x c l u s i o n of Methane i s produced  external fires  m a t e r i a l i s reduced  reduced because the ground  and  The  No  unless  Impermeable  cover m a t e r i a l s are o f t e n used t o f o r c e gases t o m i g r a t e 38 B u r e a u o f M u n i c i p a l R e s e a r c h and S e r v i c e , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, P r e p a r e d i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the league o f Oregon C i t i e s , I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n No. 1 4 5 , R e f u s e C o l l e c t i o n and D i s p o s a l , A S u r v e y o f P r a c t i c e s i n 1964 O r e g o n C i t i e s , M a r c h 1 9 6 5 , p . 6. 39 " P u l v e r i z a t i o n a t B r i t i s h S i t e R e d u c e s M a t t e r by 50 P e r C e n t , " S o l i d W a s t e s Management, R e f u s e R e m o v a l J o u r n a l , 1 1 : 1 6 , F e b r u a r y 196 8.  61 laterally confined  t o gravel vents. t o one c a r e f u l l y  Safety  Thus t h e d i s c h a r g e controlled  o f g a s c a n be  area.  t o equipment i s i n c r e a s e d w i t h ground m a t e r i a l  s i n c e i t c a n be d r i v e n o n i n a l l k i n d s o f w e a t h e r . m a t e r i a l i s not necessary  f o r a road  dump i n a l l a r e a s o f t h e s i t e w i l l spreading  bed.  Cover  The a b i l i t y t o  f u r t h e r reduce the refuse  distances of the tractor.  Community B e n e f i t s and  Costs  Community b e n e f i t s a r e a l s o enhanced by t h e u s e o f t h e grinding technique.  Greenspace w i l l  w i l l b e i n c r e a s e d when t h e s i t e use.  Both d i s p o s a l techniques  possibility.  be i m p r o v e d and f l a t  i s converted will  which s e t t l e o r s l i d e refuse, settling  t o i t s planned  have t h i s  P r o b l e m s h o w e v e r do o c c u r  with  s t a r t due t o t h e l o n g e r  conversion layers of  as decompositon o c c u r s .  should  landfill  With t h e ground  be f i n i s h e d e a r l i e r d e s p i t e a landfill  land  operational l i f e .  slower  The  settling  problem i s reduced w i t h ground r e f u s e d e p o s i t s because o f a more u n i f o r m This occurs  r a t e of decomposition because o f i n c r e a s e d  of organic materials. s u r f a c e a r e a o v e r a more homo-  g e n e o u s mass o f p a r t i c l e s w i t h i n t h e c e l l . f a c t o r s on t h e N o r t h  S h o r e , l a r g e amounts o f m o i s t u r e  cells  allows  occur  f a s t e r and t h u s i n c r e a s e t h e s e t t l i n g r a t e .  faster  chemical  Due t o t h e c l i m a t i c i n the  and b i o l o g i c a l w a s t e d e c o m p o s i t i o n  to  With the  s e t t l i n g r a t e o f ground s o l i d wastes, t h e l a n d f i l l  will  be a b l e t o be c o n v e r t e d t o another use sooner. Wood and paper r e f u s e form a major segment o f the s o l i d wastes  in landfill sites.  T h i s type o f s o l i d  r e q u i r e s l o n g p e r i o d s f o r complete d e c o m p o s i t i o n . l a n d f i l l which was  waste An o l d  c u t through when a highway was b e i n g  c o n s t r u c t e d near Bismarck, South Dakota, showed t h a t t h e r e was of  very l i t t l e  decomposition o f paper wastes and t h a t most  the p r i n t on the paper was  still  legible after  twenty-five  40 years of being buried.  By g r i n d i n g these paper and wood s o l i d  wastes, the s m a l l e r ground p a r t i c l e s would speed up d e c o m p o s i t i o n . Vancouver l a n d f i l l s have not c r e a t e d h e a l t h 41 and are c o n s i d e r e d q u i t e s a f e . not  problems  G r i n d i n g the r e f u s e  will  s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o improved community h e a l t h  conditions. L e a c h i n g which i s a l r e a d y a problem a t the Premier S t r e e t s i t e may  be i n c r e a s e d when decomposition o c c u r s a t a  h i g h e r r a t e w i t h shredded r e f u s e .  Lynn Creek has  already  been w r i t t e n o f f f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use by the H e a l t h U n i t 42 of the  the D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver. l e a c h i n g e f f e c t b e i n g f a s t e r may  On the o t h e r hand, e v e n t u a l l y end sooner  a l l o w i n g an e a r l i e r r e t u r n t o r e c r e a t i o n a l uses not p e r m i t t e d 40 E. J . Booth, The American C i t y : "Buried 25 Years and S t i l l L e g i b l e , " (80:26, J u l y 1965). 41 Dr. Mackenzie, U.B.C. Epidemiology ( v e r b a l communic a t i o n , March 1971). 42 Mr. Thompson, D i s t r i c t o f North Vancouver H e a l t h U n i t .  at p r e s e n t .  The l e a c h i n g w i l l  hundred y e a r s a t the p r e s e n t the H e a l t h  last  f o r about the next one  landfill site.  I t i s f e l t by  U n i t A u t h o r i t i e s , t h a t by a l l o w i n g  to be r u i n e d  lower Lynn Creek  f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use by the l e a c h a t e ,  other  creeks and water r e c r e a t i o n a l areas w i l l be spared a t l e a s t i n the s h o r t - r u n  from s i m i l a r p o l l u t i o n i f the l a n d f i l l i s  kept a t the p r e s e n t  site.  Ground s o l i d waste w i l l c r e a t e a  community c o s t i n t h a t i t w i l l cause more s e r i o u s damage t o the l i f e p r e s e n t l y i n the creek because o f the more concentrated leachate  i n the r e c e i v i n g water.  T h i s w i l l be o f f s e t  by the s h o r t e r p e r i o d o f l e a c h i n g . Environmental q u a l i t y a t the s i t e w i l l be improved with the grinding technique.  Ground r e f u s e i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y  more p l e a s i n g t o look a t than o r d i n a r y refuse.  offensive solid  waste  Smoke, odour and blowing l i t t e r are a l s o reduced o r  e l i m i n a t e d w i t h the g r i n d i n g t e c h n i q u e . bute t o more p l e a s i n g c o n d i t i o n s  This w i l l also  contri-  i n and around the l a n d f i l l 43  site.  Land v a l u e s  may a l s o i n c r e a s e b e s i d e  landfill  Ground m a t e r i a l w i l l a l s o support v e g e t a t i o n  sites. without  44 cover m a t e r i a l . to the D i s t r i c t two  At present,  t h e r e w i l l be a major c o s t  o f North Vancouver t o f i n d  a suitable final  f o o t cover m a t e r i a l which w i l l be f e r t i l e enough t o support  vegetation.  1970,  The Premier S t r e e t l a n d f i l l i s r e c e i v i n g f r e e  D i r k R. Brunner, e t a l , S a n i t a r y L a n d f i l l p. 3.  Guidelines  G . L. S u t i n , "The Case f o r P u l v e r i z a t i o n o f S o l i d Wastes, P u b l i c Works (October 1970) . 4 4  cover m a t e r i a l from c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e s .  T h i s source o f  fill 45  is  not  considered  adequate f o r the  A l s o , the i n t e r i m f i l l  foot cover.  between l a n d f i l l c e l l s may  d i s t r i c t money i f the p r e s e n t An  f i n a l two  supply  cost  o f f r e e d i r t runs  a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t w i l l be  the savings  the out.  i n trans-  p o r t a t i o n r e n t a l c o s t s from the d e l a y e d n e c e s s i t y o f moving to a new  site. Grinding  which can can  l e a d to more ready s e p a r a t i o n  then be reused and  recycled.  Air  s e p a r a t e ground s o l i d waste m a t e r i a l s  are r e u s a b l e and  can  and  others  which must be  r e c y c l i n g of paper, g l a s s and  of  classification  i n t o p o r t i o n s which 46  discarded.  other  materials  Salvaging  secondary raw  materials  from s o l i d wastes as w e l l as n o n - f e r r o u s m a t e r i a l from v e h i c l e s are commercial p o s s i b i l i t i e s . also being  used t o generate  Ground s o l i d waste i s 47  electricity.  Another p o s i t i v e b e n e f i t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t e c h n i q u e i s the p o s s i b i l i t y be more f a v o u r a b l e lessens  grinding  t h a t community a t t i t u d e s w i l l  t o a d i s p o s a l method which e r a d i c a t e s  the p o l l u t i o n problems and  qualities  disposed  of the d i s t r i c t .  The  increases  the  and  aesthetic  g r i n d i n g technique would  improve the q u a l i t y of the Premier S t r e e t s i t e . I t would G. B u t l e r , Premier S t r e e t L a n d f i l l ( v e r b a l communic a t i o n , February 1971). 46 R. A. B o e t t c h e r , " A i r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Reclamation P r o c e s s i n g o f S o l i d Wastes," American S o c i e t y of M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r s P u b l i c a t i o n ( J u l y 28, 1969), p. 2. 4 7  I b i d . , p.  11.  however have n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on Lynn Creek  the degree  depending on the type o f impervious cover used on the s i d e s and top o f the f i l l .  The q u e s t i o n remains whether  b e n e f i t s gained a t the d i s p o s a l l a n d f i l l the c o s t s t o an a l r e a d y p o l l u t e d c r e e k .  s i t e would  the p o s s i b l e outweigh  66 Conclusion The  landfill  at the  economically e f f i c i e n t ( s e e TABLE 2 1 ) .  The  site  i s more  than the proposed g r i n d i n g  landfill  i n v e s t m e n t compared t o the significantly  Premier Street  has  small  capital  technique  and  maintenance c o s t s .  It  grinding-landfill  reduced operating  a l s o needs l e s s s k i l l e d  a relatively  labour  and and  technique  can  operate w i t h i n a  shorter  workweek. To  c o n v e r t to the  f i r s t hurdle  w o u l d be  to prove that  expenses were j u s t i f i e d . 1971 The  t o 1985,  For  the  the  future  f u r t h e r out  and  landfill  technique,  increased  period  economic j u s t i f i c a t i o n  knowledge t h a t  located  grinding-landfill  of  could  sites  the not  will  possibly outside  of  w i t h i n the filling solve  community.  i n the  the  Planning  Premier Street  longer-run  t o a new of  the  net  TABLES 23 the  District  grinding  be  community's  disposal  of  must examine the  2 4 ) w o u l d h a v e t o be  the an  of  g i v e more t i m e  to  the  intangibles. grinding  convert The  system  a c c e p t a b l e expense  occur.  solid  site.  of North Vancouver before conversion  disposal technique could  station  rate  d e c i s i o n of whether to  i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s of and  given.  have t o  to r e t a r d the  site will  closure  f u r t h e r weight the  s y s t e m , one  be  p r o b l e m o f where t o d i s p o s e of the  wastes generated a f t e r the To  now  monetary  analysis,  the  boundaries, would v a l i d a t e a c e n t r a l g r i n d i n g  the  value (see to  to such  a  67 TABLE 22 REQUIRED VALUE OF NET INTANGIBLE BENEFITS OF NORTH VANCOUVER LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE  6%  7%  8%  Present value of t a n g i b l e benefits  $2,477,751  $2,326,700  $2,190,487  Present value of t a n g i b l e costs  $1,059,016  $  $  Required v a l u e of net i n t a n gible benefits  ($1,418,735)  992,844  ($1,333,856)  932,870  ($1,257,617!  TABLE 23 REQUIRED VALUE OF NET INTANGIBLE BENEFITS OF GRINDING-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE ASSUMING 600 POUND DENSITY AT PRESENT SITE  6%  7%  8%  Present value of t a n g i b l e benefits  $1,117,459  $1,007,366  $  Present value of t a n g i b l e costs  $4,288,004  $4,048,378  $3,832,833  Required v a l u e of n e t i n t a n gible benefits  $3,170,545  $3,041,012  $2,917,235  915,598  68 TABLE 24 REQUIRED VALUE OF NET INTANGIBLE BENEFITS OF GRINDING-LANDFILL DISPOSAL TECHNIQUE ASSUMING 1000 POUND DENSITY AT PRESENT SITE  6%  8%  7%  Present value of t a n g i b l e benefits  $  Present value of t a n g i b l e costs  $4,288,004  $4,048,378  $3,832,833  Required v a l u e of n e t i n t a n gible benefits  $3,940,573  $3,724,424  $3,519,903  347,431  $  323,954  $  312,930  69 At present,  there  i s no m a j o r m a r k e t f o r r e c y c l i n g  ground waste.  L o n g e r - r u n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s may  t h i s a s p e c t as  the  c o m m u n i t y ' s and  are depleted.  The  r e u s i n g o f g r o u n d s o l i d w a s t e s may  a m a r k e t s u f f i c i e n t t o be of the p r es e n t  the  a l s o change  country's  revenue producing.  resources  The  command  reduction  c o s t s o f d i s p o s a l t o the p o i n t where the  grinding  technique  becomes s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g w o u l d f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h t h e  relevance  of c o n v e r t i n g  to the  technique.  I t i s concluded t h a t using the nique,  t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s t o N o r t h V a n c o u v e r do  tangible costs.  In the  short-run,  g r i n d i n g d i s p o s a l technique value  grinding disposal  of the net  e x p e n s e t o be  the  conversion  w o u l d h a v e t o be  the  outweigh to  the  opposed.  The  a high  monetary  i n t a n g i b l e b e n e f i t s w o u l d be  c a r r i e d by  not  D i s t r i c t of North  Vancouver.  L o n g e r - r u n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w o u l d be more s y m p a t h e t i c t o g r i n d i n g technique community. t o be  and  tech-  the  a grinder disposal station within  Unfortunately,  the  g r i n d i n g technique  the  i s too  new  r e l e v a n t t o communities w h i c h have not y e t r e a c h e d  the  c r u c i a l p o i n t o f d e c i d i n g w h a t t o do w i t h o r w h e r e t o t h e i r s o l i d wastes.  I t i s hoped t h a t the  of environmental q u a l i t y i n other of planning which best  t o meet p r e s e n t utilizes  and  and  become t h e r e a l i z a b l e t r e n d .  impact of the  areas p l u s the  the  loss  foresight  f u t u r e problems i n a  preserves  put  style  community a s s e t s  will  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A Systems Study of S o l i d Waste Management i n the Fresno Area. F i n a l Report on a S o l i d Waste Management Demonstration. U.S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Welfare, P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , Consumer P r o t e c t i o n and Environmental H e a l t h S e r v i c e , Environmental C o n t r o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Bureau of S o l i d Waste Management, 1969. Ambassador C o l l e g e Research Department. Our P o l l u t e d P l a n e t . Ambassador C o l l e g e P r e s s , Pasadena, C a l i f o r n i a , 1970. Booth, E. J . " B u r i e d 25 Years and S t i l l L e g i b l e , " The C i t y , (80:26), J u l y 1965.  American  B o e t t c h e r , R i c h a r d A. A i r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n For Reclamation P r o c e s s i n g of S o l i d Wastes. ASME P u b l i c a t i o n , J u l y 28, 1969. Brunner, D i r k R.; K e l l e r , D a n i e l J . ; Reid, C h a r l e s W., J r . ; Wheeler, John. S a n i t a r y L a n d f i l l G u i d e l i n e s - 1970. 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