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Soviet science fiction Wormeli, Charles Theodore Jr. 1970

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SOVIET SCIENCE.FICTION by CHARLES THEODORE WORMELI, J r . B.A., University of Denver, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of SLAVONIC STUDIES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1970 In presenting th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l f u l f i lment o f the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l lmake i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. ; I. fu r ther agree that 'permiss ion for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It i s understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to explore Soviet science f i c t i o n ; that i s , a l l science f i c t ion published in Russia after 1917 to about 1967. The selection of l i terature from the 1960's was random; the selection from previous years was determined principal ly by its ava i l ab i l i ty : about three-fourths of a l l the works examined belong to the last decade insofar as I can determine from publishing dates and c r i t i -cal sources; somewhat less than three-fourths of a l l the authors whose works were read wrote mainly in the post World War II era, and half of the novel-length works used in the preparation of the paper were published before World War II. It is impossible to ascertain i f these proportions accurately ref lect the varying production of science f i c t ion during this period, but i t is probably true that much more sf was published in the last decade in Russia than in previous years. What are the themes with which the authors of science f i c t ion are occupied? Have they changed since the 'twenties? How closely does science f i c t ion resemble the rest of Soviet l iterature? Has i t become, as American science f i c t ion after World War II became, a vehicle for social crit icism? It is a rapidly growing body of l i terature that has just recently begun to attract serious consideration of i ts l i terary merits. It has a small but devoted audience. I intend to explain what this audience reads and evaluate the genre objectively and c r i t i c a l l y . CONTENTS Chapter Page I. DEFINITION II. EROTICA III. ROCKETS, ROBOTS AND RAY-GUNS . . . . . . 26 IV. SCIENCE OR FICTION? . . . . . . . 53 V. SMEKH - SERYOZNOE DELO . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 VI. UTOPIA? . . . . . 85 CONCLUSION 112 ANNOTATED SOVIET SCIENCE FICTION 114 BIBLIOGRAPHY 146 APPENDIX 155 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Without the resources and encouragement of my ad-visor, Dr. Bryner, I could not have constructed this paper. I owe him many thanks. I would also l ike to express my appreciation to Mr. Revutsky and Mrs. Reid for their help and encouragement. SOVIET SCIENCE FICTION CHAPTER I DEFINITION Space-ships, robots, ray-guns, monsters, a l iens, spacemen, "mad" sc ient i s t s , Mars, Venus, the Moon, interplanetary, in ters te l l a r , the weird, the strange, the fantastic—these are a part of the bizarre co l -lage that may be suggested by the term "science f i c t i on " (sf) . It is a l i terature of realism, adventure, humor and romance. It is laced with real and imaginative science. It often borders on fantasy and mingles with the latter in a genre-jungle of "science fantasy" in which the role of science is very distorted and i l lusory. In Russia the term sf [nauohnaya fiktsiya] is generally not ap-plied to the subject of this paper. Instead, under the heading nauohnaya fantastika [science fantasy], a very heterogeneous col lect ion of works is f i l ed which includes Gorky's "Rasskaz o romane," A. Tolstoy's Aelita, and Reports from the 21st Century by M. Vassil 'yev and S. Gushchev. In America such a grouping would include the "r ing" tr i logy of Tolkien Asimov's J , Robot and Scientific American. The last examples in both cases should not be c lass i f ied as sf at a l l , while the f i r s t are examples of science fantasyJ ^While l i t t l e argument should arise over excluding Scientific American from the genre, a number of American c r i t i c s and editors would disagree with the separation of sf from science fantasy. Judith Merr i l , who has edited a number of sf anthologies, frequently includes fantasy works which I would exclude from the category of sf. Anthologies of the 2 In Russia the problem of defining sf is complicated by those c r i -t ics and writers who accept the genre as worthwhile and valuable insofar as i t provides a popular medium for stimulating interest among readers (especially youth) toward science and technology; sf, or nauchnaya fan-tastika, should educate rather than merely t i t i l l a t e . This attitude compounds the confusion between sf and fantasy and increases the d i f f i -culty of distinguishing genuine sf. I have arb i t rar i l y defined sf for this paper by demanding that for a work of f i c t ion to be included in the bibliography i t must contain an easily observable element of science or technology of the present or future and deal with a different time-period than that in which the author wrote. Let me immediately qualify these conditions by stating that the operation of science in the story may be achieved by the "presence" of a " s c ien t i f i c method" and that the time-period may d i f fer only in technological terms. For example, Obruchev's Plutoniya describes a t r ip by twentieth century explorers into a forgotten land in which dinosaurs roam; in the text and in a number of footnotes, accurate infor-mation about the world of the past is conveyed to the reader. Pryzhok v bessmertie by Zagdansky is sf only by virtue of the plot 's use of a def-in i te method for obtaining immortality. works of one author often include such stor ies; for example, 6xH by Robert Heinlein, a well-known sf author, includes two pieces, "Kitten" and "The Man Who Traveled in Elephants," which are not other than fan-tasy by my def in i t ion. The dist inct ion between sf and science fantasy (or fantasy) is d i f f i c u l t to establish, and I doubt that any two sf c r i -t ics or readers would agree on the categorization of a l l stories set before them into sf and non-sf. The arrows in the paradigm below represent the possible relation-ships between the time-setting of any plot and the technology of any plot: past present future I X 1 X 1 past present future time period technology Modified by my def in i t ion, this becomes past future X I present future time period technology The most common type of sf story is a future-future relationship, but time-travel frequently uses a past plot-future technology re lat ion, and a future plot-present technology may be found in stories l ike The Space Merchant by Pohl and Kornbluth. A past time-present technology link is. not provided, for while i t may be possible, i t seems implausible, and I have not encountered such a s ituation. The requirements of time and technology are the two most important aspects of sf. By l imiting my selection to those works in which the author clearly removes the plot action from the indefinite present, I have included not a l l those stories which may be regarded as sf by different c r i t i c s , but I have included a l l those stories which are def initely sf. In this sense I have established a set of sf for this paper; i t does not include every story in every book that is labelled sf, but those i t does include are indisputably sf. It composes a set which takes from 4 other sets stories which may be represented by the modified paradigm; in p ictor ia l form i t i s : In a "universe" of t i t l e s there are groupings or "sets" of s a t i r i -cal works, rea l i s t i c works, etc. One could introduce other sets than those represented above, but the principle demonstrated would remain the same. Although the diagram is extremely s impl i f ied, i t projects the principle of overlapping sets which dictated in part the topical approach used in this paper. Al l the l i terature included within the set of my def in i t ion, indicated by the broken l i ne , may be expressed in mathemati-cal notation as: SF = {a | (aemd)A[(aerom)v(aeadv)v(aehum)...v(aefan)]}1 The term sf includes a t i t l e a such that a is a point in my def-in i t ion and a is a. point in the set of romance or adventure or humor . . . l M e " means "included in , " "A" means "and," "v" means "and/or." 5 or fantasy. The point a can be in more than one of the sets of romance, adventure, etc . , but i t must be also in the set of my def in i t ion; that i s , the modified paradigm of sf represented above. For example, Tolstoy's Aelita belongs in the set of the modified paradigm of my defin-i t ion and in the set of romance. Al l elements a which are included in the annotated bibliography satisfy the requirements of the equation and the paradigm used in the equation. American sf used in the main body of the paper does as well. I have rejected from review in this paper a number of works, which are labelled as nauohnaya fantastika by Soviet editors and c r i t i c s , such as the works of A. Grin and B. Kaverin. These are rich in fantasy, but not in science. My def init ion of sf would encompass a fantasy or a fa iry tale only i f these were to use some element of real or imaginative science. If the f a i r prince in "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" were to be replaced by a twentieth-century psychologist riding a sy l log i s -2 mobile into Disney's f i lm world, the tale might qualify as sf. Fantasy must be provided with a s c ient i f i c or technological explanation to be-come sf. My def init ion accepts a l l stories that are not set in the author's present and do contain recognizable sf technology—including several works that may not seem to be sf, such as the novels of Granin and 2 A "syllogismobile" is a pseudo-mathematical sf device used by characters in The Incomplete Enchanter by Pratt and DeCamp to travel from " rea l i ty " into the f ic t iona l worlds from which authors compose their stories. It is similar to " travel " into other dimensions {infra, pp. 27-28). 6 Dudintsev and two plays by Mayakovsky. The plots of each novel, however {Those Who Seek and I Will Go to the Storm by Granin and Not by Bread Alone by Dudintsev), use technology or science to place their time-settings in the future. Those Who Seek revolves about the development of a tracer, operating by some kind of radar-waves, to discover breaks in underground e lectr ic cables; I Will Go to the Storm describes the struggle of young Russian scientists to control weather; Not by Bread Alone is based on the discovery and development of a futur i s t ic metal-working process. Each plot is set in a technological future. Similarly, Mayakovsky's "The Bathhouse" and "The Bedbug" use time travel to connect the present and future. Comments about the above works and about the works of other authors (Zamiatin, Bulgakov, etc.) whose writings are for the most part not sf are made only within the context of my def in i t ion. The l imitation of the application of the descriptive term sf to those works in which the author clearly removes the plot action at least part ia l ly from the indefinite present (technologically or chrono-logical ly) explains the exclusion of the Soviet industrial novel spawned by the f ive year plans. These productions are not sf because their plots are set in the indefinite present. Kataev's Forward, Time revolves about increasing the production of concrete in a given time period through the more e f f i c ient use of labor-time. There is no advance in technology or science in the crude improvements to the process of mixing concrete. Moreover, Kataev is describing the present. His novel is a f ic t ional g lor i f icat ion of Soviet know-how, a f ict ional counterpart to 3 Agapov's book Technical Stories which is essentially popular science. 3 Infra, p. 53. Rigorously applied, my definit ion would accept a story l ike Leonov's Skutarevsky which uses a technological future, but I have not included this novel in the bibliography because the sf element within i t is very undeveloped compared to the important position occupied by sf within the novels of Granin and Dudintsev. Skutarevsky is not a good example of sf. Leonov's Road to the Ocean, although i t contains passages set in a chronological future, is not acceptable to my equation because the vehicle the author uses to insert the short passages into the text is a fantastic device, a series of recurring dreams or visions appearing to a dying Communist. The sf element within i t thus becomes fantasy. Only i f Leonov had posited a "time-machine" to convey the Communist to the future, could the novel be regarded as sf. I have selected f ive aspects of sf which t consider most impor-tant, both from a s tat i s t i ca l position (their frequency of appearance in sf) and a thematic viewpoint (their importance to the meaning of s f ) , as the t i t l e s to the next f ive chapters. The last chapter, the annotated bibliography, contains additional material about Soviet authors and specif ic stories. American sf is used here primarily to illuminate certain features of Soviet sf. It is a device extending perspective; i t is not intended as part of a comparative study of Soviet and American sf. CHAPTER II EROTICA The most obvious feature of heterosexual relations (there is no abnormal sexual behavior) in Soviet sf is the absence of such. In less than twenty per cent of the stories employed in this paper do the characters enjoy a s ignif icant amount of sex or love, a somewhat lower proportion than in American sf. In most of these stories, sex and/or love participates in the plot in a negative procedure that obstructs the protagonist. Profound heterosexual relations become inimical to science or progress and, de-pending upon the author's point of view, are either to be valued or to be disdained. In "Razgovor chuzhoy ten'yu" ["Conversation with an Alien Shadow"] (1963) by Dneprov, two scientists argue about the poss ib i l i ty of reproducing a mechanical model of the human soul. The main character, who opposes the idea, later fa l l s in love with a pretty laboratory assis-tant and plays a tortuous game of love ("She loves me; she loves me not"). While he is s i t t ing on a park bench, waiting for her one evening, he fa l l s asleep and dreams that she comes to him, that he te l l s her he loves her and that she begins to back away from him. Suddenly the sc ient ist who had proposed constructing a mechanical soul springs out of the bushes and reveals that the g i r l is actually a robot and that she is being tes-ted to explore the capacity of her programmed emotional reactions. At this point our here is awakened by the g i r l and is greatly rel ieved, for the 9 dream had been so real . Dneprov is not quite f inished, however, the con-cluding l ine of the story does not completely satisfy the reader that the g i r l is not a robot. The reader is l e f t "hanging" with the hero. This is a well-written example of the use of sex in most of those stories in which i t is important. It is amusing, no doubt, but i t is also potentially very sad. The sc ient i s t ' s love is a source of discom-fort and is possibly painfully ludicrous. Although i t occupies a nega-tive position in the action, Dneprov obviously wants us to consider the implications of the effect of progress on human values. The sc ient i s t ' s love is a source of conf l i c t , but i t is also very real and profound. Some stories present love in a positive sense which does not spawn conf l ic t or traumas for the protagonist. In A. Tolstoy's Aelita (1922) the relationship between Ae l i ta , a descendant of the dying ruling caste of Mars and Los ' , a Soviet inventor, a symbol of proletarian power and social mobility, is a truly charming and delightful and exciting romance with no internal disharmonies or doubts. It is a creative love story which links two cultures. It is also the binding element of the novel that makes i t more than a blase adventure story of an aborted Communist revolution on Mars. In a very few stories love is a complex factor which becomes the raison d'etre for the action, the clockspring upon which the plot un-winds. If in Aelita i t provides a l ink between scenes, in 0. Larionova's Leopard s vershiny Kilimandzharo [Leopard from the Heights of Kilimanjaro'] (1965) i t is the dramatic source: the main character, Ramon, is rescued after dr i f t ing for years in a space-ship; he can think of nothing but 10 recovering his health and seeing the woman he once loved, Sana. When she appears, he discovers he s t i l l loves her and that she loves him. They l ive happily, for a time, but Ramon is rest less, and, eventually, he meets another woman, younger, to whom he is intensely attracted—so much so that he neglects his work and Sana (who s t i l l loves him) to spend time with her. Unfortunately, she perishes in an accident, trying to rescue mountain climbers. Her death supposedly teaches Ramon about fighting and struggling for l i f e , but the story's motor, which is the love tr iangle, does not fa l ter even on this steep uphil l road of didactic moral ism the author has constructed for the reader's edi f icat ion. The three stories cited above represent only that portion of stories in which love is an integral part; i t is d i f f i c u l t to escape the impression that most stories which use love use i t superf ic ia l ly to de-corate a narrative. In A. Belyaev's Zvezda KETs [Star KETs~\ (1936), a young Russian technician, Artem'yev, is enamoured of a pretty female technician, Tonya; she entices him to sign up for a period of service on a space station (contrary to his unadventurous, Earth-bound habits). As soon as they arrive at the station, Tonya is dropped from the narrative which henceforth relates the amazing feats of technology Artem'yev witnesses and the adventures in which he becomes involved. At the very end of the novel, Tonya appears again, and Artem'yev realizes he has won her love. An epilogue shows them happily married and busy with their careers in separate sc ient i f i c f ie lds . Love is more important in Belyaev's Gol'ova Professora Douelya [The Head of Professor Doyle} (1925) where i t perishes in a grotesque melodrama which reduces a g i r l to a l iving severed head, the subject of a power-hungry sc ient i s t ' s experiment, but i t is s t i l l a side-issue. It is no more important in Belyaev's Amphibian (1928), a tragedy of love that cannot be completed between a character who breathes through g i l l s and a normal woman. The tragedy is not very pointed, and the course of their love merely i l lustrates the Amphibian's problems. Similar ly, in Obruchev's popular Sannikov Land (1925) is found a "primitive" love a f fa i r : one of the members of a s c ient i f i c expedition to this unknown land,where primitive peoples and primeval f lora and fauna s t i l l f lour ish,fa l I s in love with a maiden of one of the local tribes and takes her with him when the expedition leaves. This romance is even less important to the plot than that in Zvezda KETs. Despite the non-essential part romance plays in these stor ies, i t offers some passion to the reader. Teo E l i ' s Dolina novoy zhizni [Valley of New Life] (1928) presents a heroine whose involvement with three men furnishes a thread of continuity and symbolizes the conf l ic t between the three; yet, there is no love between her and any of. the men, except in an unrequited, impotent sense. There is no passion l ike that between Ael ita and Los ' , nor even as between Artem'yev and Tonya. Gennady Gor, a much published sf author, treads a middle path, i f that is possible, in his use of love: in "Strannik i vremya" ["A Stranger and Time"] (1962) a young sc ient i s t ' s wife leaves on a s tar - t r ip from which she wi l l return in three centuries. The husband passes the time in "frozen sleep" and wakes just before she returns; he meets an attrac-tive woman but refuses to become involved with her, remaining loyal to his wife. 12 In the horribly complex plot of Gor's "Uera," (1964) the love that three men bear for Eroya unifies part of the story: her husband and another man, marooned on a satellite, worship a small box into which has been distilled her personality--a box that talks and listens and does not know it is a box and a copy of another personality. Meanwhile, back on the planet Dil'neya, the real Eroya is pursued unsuccessfully by another man. Two other main characters have no contact with her. The love relationship involves only two-thirds of the characters. In the other stories by Gor in the bibliography a like use of love may be found—a somewhat passionate, but by no means dominating, entanglement of characters, a Soviet Golden Mean. The bibliography con-tains stories by only five authors who have the temerity to abandon that limitation: Dneprov, Larionova, Kazakova, Yemtsev and Parnov (only two stories by the last three). The most intense involvements of love may be found among the works of Dneprov, one of which has been mentioned above. Another, "Lyudvig," (1968) is perhaps the most romantic creation of all; it is a classic, tender, poignant description of the unrequited love of a young technician for a girl who is betrothed to a colonist on the Moon. The young technician is heart-broken when she leaves for the Moon and entrusts his grief to a very old computer, affectionately named "Lyudvig" by the staff of the base where our hero works. The computer suggests a farewell message for the young man to send to the girl. It is a five-minute musical selection which the young man later discovers is from the "Moonlight Sonata." A third story by Dneprov which is not as intense as "Lyudvig," 13 but which is better sf is "Tam, gde konchaetsya reka" ["There, Where the River Ends"] (1966). In i t an experiment is conducted by a s c ient i f i c inst itute which permits a young man to study "reruns" of events. As "Lyudvig," i t is written in the f i r s t person. I am convinced that of a l l the most incomprehensible and secret things in the world the most incomprehensible and secret is a watch. . . . The secret of this instrument l ies in its s impl ic i ty. Just think; a l l the events in the universe depend on the angle be-tween the large and small handsH Recognizing the exaggeration, the character adds that the watch is only an indicator, but Surely, i t is not for nothing that when the hands come together, when the wheels and springs set them so that the time is called 5:30, the person for whom I wait wi l l appear on the opposite end of the bridge. It is l ike a law. Like inevitable fate. Like the flash of a star in a distant galaxy.2 Dneprov transfers the reader's attention from the experiment to the person expected to appear on the bridge, simultaneously blending the personal and temporary into the universal and eternal. The main character is waiting for a woman who walks past him on a bridge every day at 5:30 P.M. Today, the day before the experiment, she stops and asks him the time, and he asks i f he may accompany her home. The next day, at the moment the experiment begins, he meets her again and begins to walk home with her. Suddenly, time is reversed, and he meets her again . . . and again . . . and again. ^Dneprov, "Tam gde konchaetsya veka," Fantastika 1966, part 2 (Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1966), p. 133. 2 Ibid., p. 134. Actual ly, the time would be 5:27. 14 During each rerun events do not follow exactly the same track. The young man notes the differences and begins to alter the course of events to his advantage; that i s , toward improving his relationship with the g i r l during each sequence. Towards the end of the experiment, they have made their way to a lake, where the g i r l l ies on the ground, her head on his lap, and . . . they are both hurrying to the bridge again to meet at 5:30. On the last page our hero has decided what he must do for the last sequence: "I'm not late?" she asked [again] a b i t breathlessly. "No." In that moment I heard a c l ick in my knapsack. Now everything was as i t should be. I pulled her to me and kissed her.3 This story is good sf. In a very original manner the old problem of love and wooing is related to and improved by the progress of technol-ogy. While other stor ies, l ike "Lyudvig" and "Razgovor s chuzhoy ten'yu," have duplicated this involvement of the individual with science, they have not delved into the larger abstractions of "what makes things t ick. " It is the added consideration in "Tarn" of the operation of cause and effect, of the personal intertwining with the universal, which permits the story to be described as one of the most perfect pieces of sf I have read in either Soviet or American sf. Sex, or the physical manifestation of love and its passion, appears even less frequently on the pages of sf than the thought "ya lyublyu tebya" ["I love you"]. Certainly, in Soviet sf one wi l l not be 3 Dneprov, op. oit.3 p. 149. 15 confronted by anything as vulgar as the lust which arises in American sf: . . . she drew him down on the bed nailed fingers clawing away his shirt digging into bare back flesh . . . they were naked together. . . . Barron . . . saw nipples-breasts-belly-navel-crotch simple . . . woman's body, warm, soft, well-turned . . .4 Sexual intercourse is not a l l that common in American sf, but i t can be found by a determined seeker. The act of sex, as divorced from love, is depicted with more candor in American sf than in Soviet sf where i t does not extend past a touching of l i p s , occasionally with an ocean scene substituting for orgasm. Two young students in Na prozrachnoy planete [On a Transparent Planet] by Gurevich (1963) participate in a geology expedition. The boy is greatly attracted to the g i r l who is not unreceptive to him. The climax to their rather subdued love-making comes at the end of the expedition: "Let 's both go to the ocean [to work]. We'll ask to be sent to-gether. O.K.?" "O.K." . . . [the g i r l repl ies] . "Really?" "Really." 5 Like a man, Yelena firmly shook her comrade's hand. Sex! Soviet-style! In Gor's "Strannik i vremya" the night before the main character is about to begin three centuries of frozen sleep, he wanders around Moscow, picks up a g i r l and takes her to dinner. Before, he bids her farewell: ^N. Spinrad, Bug Jack Barron (New York: Avon Books, 1969), p. 41. G. I. Gurevich, Na prozrachnoy, planete (Moscow: Gosizdatelstvo geograficheskoy l i teratury, 1963), p. 130. 16 I looked at my watch. I had to leave. "Goodbye, Valya," - I said to the g i r l . - "Goodbye." I kissed her f irmly. I heard how her heart beat. Then I turned sharply and strode away.° Everyone knows that a good red-blooded American male would not be sat is f ied by a handshake or a kiss, even i f the lady i s . "God has a very big heart, but there is one sin he wi l l not forgive: i f a woman cal ls a man to her bed, and he wi l l not go. I know because a very wise old Turk told me so."^ Valya's desire is obvious; the main character of "Strannik" must be a boor. Worse than th i s , the Soviets ins i s t on trans-ferring their social l i terary inhibitions to Americans via sf plakat-l i terature such as Pryzhok v bessmertie I Jump Into Immortality'] by Zagdansky (1963) in which a young sc ient i s t , Maikl, loves a beautiful g i r l , Medzh, who not only does not love him but uses him for her own ends and "leads him on." Sex rears its ugly head (which has been de-fanged) in the following: Seldom had Medzh regarded Maikl with such a peaceful, happy glance. She reached the stone f i r s t , stretched her hand to the youth and helped him up beside her. It seemed to Maikl that these were the best minutes of his l i f e . 8 Compared to this puritanism, the cult of body-worship to be found in the Utopia of Yefremov's Andromeda (1957) seems l icentious. The author several times describes the body beautifuls of the future who G. Gor, "Strannik i vremya," Fantastika 1962 (Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1962), p. 117. ^From the f i lm "Zorba the Greek." 8 Ye. P. Zagdansky, Pryzhok v bessmertie (Kiev: Molod 1, 1,963), p. 102. 17 disrobe in public (on the beach, etc. ) . The public admires bodies not with lust, however, but with aesthetic appreciation. People of the th irt ieth century are so naturally pure and chaste that even sex has be-come beautiful, and in this most unprurient context is set the most tempestuous, provocative love-making in the Soviet bibliography: Mven Mas turned over to swim further and shouted in amazement. The start l ing transparency of the sea, . . . here, away from the shore, became even greater. He and Chara seemed to be floating at a head-whirling height over the bottom, . . . Mven Mas thrust himself to-wards Chara, whispering her name and reading a fervent answer in her c lear, courageous eyes. Their hands and l ips met over the crystal gulf.9 One reason for the dearth of romance and/or eroticism in Soviet sf could be, and probably i s , that i t is d i f f i c u l t to write well about love, regardless of the writer 's genre, but would an incompetent author exclude a poorly-done love episode from the rest of his poorly-written creation? If adventure and juvenile l i terature (which form part of sf) in general lacks meaningful love or sex, have those sf authors whose f i c t ion is intended for a juvenile market used a placebo such as adven-ture for love? If so, why? Many Soviet sf c r i t i c s have regarded the genre principal ly as an educational device; that i s , as f ic t ional ized popular science l i terature aimed at informing the reader of sc ient i f i c achievements and encouraging him towards technical education or creation or at least an appreciation of same. Furthermore, they intend that as "engineers of the human I. A. Yefremov, Twnannost' Andromedy (Moscow: Molodaya Gvardiya, 1960), p. 268. 18 sp i r i t " a l l Soviet sf authors should i n s t i l l a moral lesson into their works. Perhaps these Soviet c r i t i c s feel romantic themes would hinder the communication of science, and morals to the reader. Because an sf milieu lends i t s e l f part icularly to interpreting the future and "engin-eering" characters without the limitations imposed by ordinary rea l i s t l i terature, sf, to a Western c r i t i c , may be the highest form of soc ia l i s t -realism: an author's conception of what human beings should be is limited only by his imagination and Communism's theoretic Judeo-Christian-Marxian ethic. To Soviet c r i t i c s , however, authors' hypotheses of future real i ty are an "extra-legal" quality which must not deviate from Party planning and mores. The non-Soviet reader may assert that these guidelines, emphasiz-ing content rather than sty le, allow a great mountain of material to be published which is a r t i s t i c a l l y mediocre. No Soviet reviewer wi l l deny that there is a large amount of badly-written sf printed in the USSR. Yet, there is a s ignif icant quantity of well-done Soviet sf appearing which does not avoid moral didacticism, though i t may not heed the informational demand. I wi l l define an a r t i s t i c a l l y "good" story as one whose characters are generally neither completely white nor black and are suf f ic ient ly plast ic to be more real than the man on the sidewalk outside my window and whose plot and theme is consonant with the ab i l i t i e s of the charac-ters. Most good sf, l ike good rea l i s t i c l i terature, remains "true to l i f e " in the details of human nature. Too much human engineering as in Yefremov's Andromeda threatens the beiievabi1ity and effectiveness of sf, 19 for, while i t is easy to appreciate and accept e v i l , i t is even easier to doubt virtue. Father Zossima, thus, becomes "unplastic" when com-pared to Fyodor Karamazov, and the flawed character of Drozdov in Dudintsev's Ne khlebom yedinom [Not by Bread Alone} (1956) seems much more real and human than that of the hero. A complex v i l l a i n is more enjoyable than a morally good character who, while involved in numerous, varied episodes, retains throughout the same mental and facial expression. The latter may be (and i s , in the Soviet context) helpful to the working out of a morality play but not to a narrative which pretends to use the elements of good f i c t ion sketched above. Social ist-real ism begins to abandon sf when i t begins to include through human engineering the genre of fantasy, for , while fantasy can be transformed into sf by the adaption of space-ships or time-machines or syllogismobiles, the product wi l l have more in common with poorly-done sf which uses black-and-white, good-and-evil caricatures appropriate for fantasy but hackneyed for sf. While the Soviet press has frequently defined the value of sf in educational and moral terms rather than by the cr i ter ion of a r t i s t i c achievement, complaints have arisen in the press about the a r t i s t i c fa i lure of sf. Ut i l i t a r i an Zhdanovism and its opponents wage a ceaseless struggle over the Soviet l i terary scene, with the Zhdanovites usually winning, but never for long. Sf, because i t is ignored by most c r i t i c s and has a re lat ively small readership, is often able to go i ts own way and produces not only the ultimate in human engineering, Yefremov's Andromeda, but also a f a i r amount of social cr i t ic i sm such as Iskateli 20 [Those Who Seek] (1953) Ne khlebom yedinom and Idu na grozu [I Will Go to the Storm-] (1963) by Granin and Dudintsev, not to mention "Banya" ["The Bathhouse"] (1930) and "Klop" ["The Bedbug"] (1928) by Mayakovsky. The latter acquire upon publication a much larger readership than the normal sf audience, but i t is s ignif icant that their authors chose to write within the genre of s f , which has acquired a sort of extra-legal character because of i ts removal from immediate rea l i ty . These protest works could not a l l be included among the a r t i s t i c -a l ly superior stories of the bibliography (about one-tenth).^ The consumer's, or sf fan ' s , evaluation has been excluded because l i t t l e indication of his likes and dis l ikes is available. V. Savchenko's a r t i c le in Fantastika 1967 devoted several pages to col lating responses to a survey the annual sent out the year before to readers of s f , but the response was s t a t i s t i ca l l y small (112 rep l ies ) , revealing only that the average respondent was a male, f i f teen to twenty-five years old with an education higher than average. The replies to two of the questions may be relevant, however: "Schitaete l i Vy khudozhestvennye dostoinstvo glavnym v fantastike? Yesli net, to chto, po vashemu mneniyu, yavlyaetsya v ney glavnym ( ide i , zani-matel 'nost 1 , syuzheta i t. d.)?" The replies mostly stressed the impor-tance of the idea, though the one Savchenko apparently liked was: " . . . glavnoe v fantastike - yeyo pravdivost', osnovannaya na izuchenii zhizni , yeyo zakonov. . . . Eto ne oznachaet otkhod s pozitsiy fantast ik i , no budet men'she rabot s absolyutno bezzhiznnymi, nadumannymi situatsiyami . . . " (pp. 402-403)." To the second question: "Kakie proizvedeniya sovremennikh pisateley-fantastov Vam nravyatsya?" the replies named the works of the Strugatskys and Yefremov as f i r s t choices and followed with Dneprov, Parnov, Yemtsev, Varshavsky and also Gansovsky, Larionova, Gurevich and A l 1 tov. Also in Fantastika 1967 was presented a survey taken by an sf fan club during January-March, 1967 which uses a large enough base sampling to be regarded as s t a t i s t i ca l l y s ignif icant. The divisions of the sam-pling: 304 university students, 215 sc ient i f i c workers, 185 high school students, 36 sf writers and 33 c r i t i c s . The last four groups selected as favorite authors: Lem (a Polish writer) , the Strugatsky's, Bradbury, Azimov and Sheckly (al l Americans). Bradbury was the f i r s t choice of the c r i t i c s . The replies to the survey were summarized: "ch i tate l i 21 Most of the latter are concerned with defining the relation of people to science or society or themselves, and most of this group is found among those stories which contain some variation on a love theme. The three stories by Dneprov, discussed above, are good stories which may satisfy the guideline for human engineering i f the guideline emphasizes recogni-tion of the value of individual emotions. Of course, sentimentalism could be attacked as "bourgeois backsliding," and the perspective of socia l ist -real ism might reveal the intel lectual bankruptcy of those i n t e l -lectuals who fear progress in "Razgovor chuzhoy ten'yu." One love story which may satisfy the demands of c r i t i c s to educa-tion or morality is Larionova's Leopard o vershiny Kilimandzharoj reta in-ing a love triangle as the action vehicle, i t nevertheless conveys an undoubtedly more o f f i c i a l l y satisfactory moral lesson than Dneprov's works: A young cosmonaut, Ramon, is rescued after dr i f t ing in a space ship for eleven years. The rest of the crew perished. He is returned priznayut i privetsvuyut umnuyu, sovremennuyu, ostro-sotsial 'nuyu fantastiku i reshitel 'no otvergayut remeslenicheskie poddelki pod yeyo, kotorye, k sozhaleniyu, yeshcho vstrechayutsya v nashey l i terature. " (p. 410) Though i t would be d i f f i c u l t to prove, i t does seem that Soviet sf offers less opiate-escapist l i terature than American sf which is a l l but buried in a morass of drug-store epics which are designed, l ike con-temporary television productions, to desensitize the consumer with bland and repetit ive creations, short-circuit ing c r i t i c a l facult ies. This is harsh cr i t i c i sm, but there is a lot of sf being printed and not very many good sf authors. Even Soviet c r i t i c s who l ike sf may regard i t as l ight reading. D. Frank-Kamenetsky in 17 September, 1969 of Litematurnaya Gazeta: " ch i t -atelyu v poiskakh ostrogo syuzheta prikhodyatsya obrashchat'sya l ibo k detektivu, l ibo k fantastike." Sf is a more upl i f t ing entertainment than a detective novel. When a piece of sf appears that is real ly good--everyone forgets i t is sf. 22 to Earth by a group which includes his old g i r l f r iend, Sana, who he s t i l l loves and who s t i l l loves him, as he soon discovers. During his absence, a robot star-ship was launched from Earth with a speed greater than l i ght , but, rather than travel l ing through space, i t travelled in time to v i s i t Earth a few years in the future. It scanned the planet with its cameras and returned to the Earth from which i t departed with records of the year of death for a l l the inhabitants of the planet. This information transformed the lives of a l l : people slept less and worked harder and longer each day, accelerating the pace of l i f e . Anthro-poid robots were used so extensively they came to be regarded as sentient creatures as they replaced people in a l l menial forms of labor. To this quickened l i f e Ramon had to adjust, and he did not do i t easi ly. He and Sana were bound by love; that i t was her year to die inten-s i f ied his af fect ion, and he tried to make her l i f e pleasant, but he was restless and met a young g i r l , 111'. Sana remained in love with him though she soon learned of 111'. Ramon loved both, though 1111 more passionately. I l l ' concealed from him that i t was also her year to die. Ramon was told after her death that she perished trying to save a mountain climber. She did not die resignedly; she struggled to l ive for as long as she could—proving the moral of the story which had been introduced ear l ier when 1111 had shown him a sculpture entit led "Leopard s ver-shiny Kilimandzharo" which depicted a leopard in death agony trying to crawl up a c l i f f . Ramon had asked her i f she could accept a man coming to the mountain (where she worked as a member of a l i fe-saving team) to 23 die knowing i t was his time to die. She repl ied: I don't understand you. Can a man who has l i t t l e time remaining to him waste i t to die in an exotic situation? He should better l ive out these last days as befits a man and try to die so that death wi l l not be his last pleasure, but his last bus inessJ l Up to the moment of I l l ' ' s death, Ramon had refused to learn the date of his own death; at the end of the story, he decides to v i s i t the archive where the information is kept. Thus, Larionova conveys the message which she has integrated into the description of Ramon's imma-tur i ty , Sana's passive but possessive love and 111''s adolescent love and maturity. Ramon's social disorientation and ignorance of himself is effect ively presented. The shock of I l T ' s death orients him, shows him "what is to be done." The story is a r t i s t i c a l l y successful. Once, when Ramon leaves Sana to see 111', Sana "sacr i f ices" herself: . . . go to the mountains; I wi l l wait for you. . . . I knew I should go to her, f a l l dramatically to my knees . . . and swear not to leave her. . . . I flew out of the house. . . . Who would have believed me after a l l this that I s t i l l loved her. I don't believe i t . But I do love her. To te l l her would be useless because she would take i t only as comforting, but I simply can't think of anything else right now. . . . Because I love her nowJ2 The author has not avoided the obligation of correct human engin-eering while writing a f a i r l y good piece of sf which contains particles 0. Larionova, Leopard s vershiny Kilimandzharoj Al'manakh Nauohnoy Fantastiki, vyp. 3 (Moscow: Znanie, 1965), p. 107. 'Ibid., p. 97. 24 of insight, however t r i te the language may be in which they are expressed. It is one of the very best compromises in the Soviet sf I have read be-tween art, sf and didactic moral ism. Must there always be a compromise? Cannot an a r t i s t i c a l l y superior sf story be published which would satisfy the most ideologically oriented c r i t i c ? "Eksperiment" ["The Experiment"] by Kazakova is a very sentimental short story opposed to the progress that is taken for granted in Leopard. Its theme resembles Dneprov's "Razgovor." A female laboratory director, Mar'yana, is approached by a young sc ient i s t , Arkady, with a plan for a dangerous experiment. She refuses to allow i t , and he leaves. She sees him on subsequent occasions and feels attracted to him. He does not avoid her, but neither does he seek her company. She begins to feel love for him and cal ls him to her off ice to suggest his project could be reconsidered. Arkady becomes very excited, and she learns she has been the unconscious subject of an experiment in dream-influence. Arkady thanks her for "participating" and leaves. "When the door closed after 13 Arkady, Mar'yana began to swear quite coarsely." A r t i f i c i a l l y stimulated love! Could the author better disclose her antipathy toward the destruction of human values by technology? The story might be successful in terms of art and sf, but the moral i t offers could hardly be acceptable in a society trying very hard to industr ia l ize. Erotica in the plots of Dneprov or Kazakova becomes most of the 13 R. Kazakova, "Eksperiment," Fantastika 1965, part 3 (Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1965), p. 143. 25 time a meaningful but negative factor. Rarely does i t operate positively as does I l V ' s unself ish, mature love in Leopard, and most authors avoid i t entirely or handle i t as Kol'tsov did in "Chyornyy svet" ["Black Light"] (1964) a story set in the distant future when such anomalies as inherited memory, dedication to science and learning and a humane society exist. The only conf l ic t in this otherwise placid Utopia arises from the hero temporarily foregoing the passions of love to participate in an important experiment. A description of the passion: he and a young g i r l wander about in a park; they stop; Yevito f e l t awkward, and she blushed. . . . They looked around, l ike conspirators, not deciding to meet each other's eyes. Dant took off his white sh i r t , spread i t on the grass and lay down. And she gathered flowers while humming a songJ4 It this were not Soviet f i c t i o n , the flowers could at least be understood symbolically, but i t is doubtful communist puritanism wi l l allow even that. Eroticism is handled here, as in most Soviet sf, so timidly and innocuously that i t adds only s t e r i l i t y to the story. A. Kol 'tsov, "Chyornyy svet," Luehshiy iz Mirov (Moscow: Molodaya Gvardiya, 1964), pp. 105-106. CHAPTER III ROCKETS, ROBOTS AND RAY-GUNS By def in i t ion, a l l the works examined in this paper contain some application of science woven into the plot and affecting the story i f only in a minor fashion; for example, the space-ship in Tolstoy's Aelita which transports cosmonauts between Earth and Mars. Only about a third of the stories in the bibliography use technology as a very important part of the action as in the Strugatskys' "Spontaneous Reflex" in which the main character is URM, a universal-robot-machine designed for extra-terrestr ia l exploration. It is a powerful, s tee l , man-like creature with its own electronic brain capable of dealing with unusual situations; i t is not programmed but instead is provided with a curiosity drive to f i l l i ts empty record-cel ls. One day while its master—the sc ient ist who is working on i t — i s absent, this curiosity drive compels URM to leave the laboratory (which bores him) to investigate what is outside the door. He wanders around the building, investigating everything, wreaking havoc and frightening a lovely maiden who escapes to warn everyone that URM is loose. F ina l ly, URM leaves the building and the whole sc ient i f i c compound, to travel toward a town not far away. Just in time the "master" arrives with men and bulldozers and disconnects the metal monster. Technology is anthropomorphosized in few stories. A more common example of those stories in which i t is very important is "Plata za 27 vozvrashchenie" ["Payment for Return"] (1967) by Shcherbakov: the equa-tion m a s s = velocity, weight is used to describe the effect of velocity close to the speed of light on an inter-stellar ship which condenses to such a size that the vessel enters an atom-universeJ It escapes by again accelerating and growing larger because the electric charge of the atom universe is the opposite of our's (which originally caused the vessel to shrink). Of course, the science used above is a particular kind of science; that i s , fictional science which may be based on science that we know, but which always anticipates i t . The equation used in "Plata" to des-cribe the space-ship's f l i g h t is more like m a s s = velocity , weight ' the last part corresponding to the appropriate value of a particular universe. The use of futuristic technology and investigation of the unknown were the most t i t i l l a t i n g facets of modern sf t i l l the 'forties and ' f i f t i e s . Exploration of the unknown is not so important to contemporary sf, but i t was the subject of the direct ancestors of modern sf, such as Verne's Off on a Comet and Journey to the Center of the Earth. Such This is a common bit of sf science which postulates that a l l the atoms of our universe are miniature universes which contain their own atoms which are also universes, and that our universe is an atom in a larger universe, and so on, ad infinitum. 28 tales of the unknown are produced today, but they are very different from Verne's. Mutated technology was the basis of 20,000 Leagues under the Sea, From the Earth to the Moon and a Trip Around It, and i t S t i l l is the foundation of sf despite the current popularity of devising future social systems rather than space-vehicles. One of the most popular examples of sf science is t ime-travel, usually achieved by a machine carrying a p i lot or passenger forward or back in the "temporal stream." The device in Well's The Time Machine be-came the prototype of subsequent time-vehicles in US sf and was used either to travel into the "future" from "now" or to travel from the future to now. In either instance, the trips are easily and frequently used to c r i t i c i z e social trends or problems of contemporary society. First Through Time by Rex Gordon is an adventure novel describing a tr ip by an American mil itary of f icer into the future which the author uses to c r i t i c i z e the "security" neuroses that surround sc ient i f i c development in America. The extreme special ization of scientists in the plot produces a potential catastrophe which is averted at the last moment by the o f f i cer ' s return from a future Earth devasted by a gigantic nuclear chain-reaction. It is a moot point whether time-travel is even possible by means other than u t i l i z ing enormous velocit ies obtainable in space-craft which would presumably slow down relative time for the crew so that i t would l ive much more slowly relative to Earth's time. Travelling at the speed of l i ght , one would not age, while the Earth would grow older; th is , i f i t were true, would be a one-way ticket only. Time travel from now to 29 then and back again must remain plausible only for sf writers using a weird conglomeration of machinery. In Gordon's novel, the main character is placed in a sphere with its own life-support-system and bombarded by a tremendously powerful nuclear-particle accelerator. Soviet sf generally uses more primitive equipment based on Wells' design, an electronic saw-horse with knobs and switches and a hoop around i t as in "Tayna Gomera" ["The Secret of Homer"] (1963) by Poleshchuk and "The Founding of C iv i l i za t ion " (1968) by Yarov. Actually, since authors have absolutely no idea of how a time machine should operate, they waste as few words as possible on i t and frequently treat the whole device as a joke, especially in Soviet s f , as in Yarov's amusing tale about a participant in a time-machine race into the past. The participant, Vasya, should have won, but his machine broke down in 33,000 B.C. Some savages helped him to repair i t (!) and in re-turn he gave them a cigarette l ighter to boil their water. Upon his re-turn, he discovered he had founded c i v i l i z a t i on and provoked headlines: "Generous Deed" and "Athlete remembers the less fortunate." His coach f e l t Vasya did not have the stuff to be a time-machine jockey: "an athlete should have only one thought in his head when he's competing: 2 to win at any price. C iv i l i za t ion he can found in his free time!" When the coach saw the public 's praise for Vasya, he changed his mind and wrote some art ic les about an athlete's responsibil ity to society. Another method of time-travel occurs when a contemporary Rip van 2 R. Yarov, "The Founding of C i v i l i za t i on , " Russian Science Fiction 1968, ed. Robert Magidoff, t r . Helen Jacobson (New York: New York University Press, 1968), p. 201. 30 Winkle crawls into a box and sleeps, frozen or drugged, for several cen-turies and wakes in the distant future. A classic example in US sf is a crew of aliens who crash their ship on primeval Earth in the Winds of Time by Chad Oliver and sleep 20,000 years t i l l Earth's c i v i l i za t i on has reached a stage in which i t can build them another space-craft. Soviet sf stor ies, such as "Professor Bern's Awakening" by Savchenko and "Strannik i vremya" by Gor, use similar techniques. One method I have found only in Soviet sf is not physical time-travel but something l ike a regurgitation of a racial memory which allows a character to return mentally to the past and experience the environment through the eyes of a primitive man. This is employed by scientists in "Obsidianovyy nozh" ["The Obsidian Knife"] (1966) by Mirer and Lezvie britvy [The Razor's Edge] (1962) by Yefremov to explore the past and the psychology of their subjects. In Yarov's "Pust' oni skazhut" ["Let Them Speak"] (1964) a man who has had a "flashback" to an histor ical event several centuries ago advises a f i lm-director who is making a movie of 3 the incident how the action real ly happened. So far as I know, with the exception of Mayakovsky's "Banya" (1928) Closely associated with time-travel in American sf is the devel-opment of time-paradoxes, such as "Al l You Zombies" by Heinlein. It is a c i r c le with no beginning or end: the main character, removed from the story i s : an unwanted child who is brought to an orphanage, grows into a boy with female reproductive organs, is seduced at a "r ipe" age by a man and has a child who is le f t at an orphanage. The "rub" is that the seducer is the main character, sent back in time (as an "agent" of a time-company) who cannot resist seducing himself. The story opens with the main character, pretending he is a bartender, trying to per-suade his younger sel f who has just entered the bar, to join the company and become an agent. The agent has to te l l "himself" the story to per-suade him. Confusing? I hope so. 31 and "Klop" (1930) and Bulgakov's "Ivan VasiTyevich" (1935) and "Blazhenstvo" ["Bl iss"] (1934), time-travel is absent from Soviet sf be-fore the ' s ix t ies . The four plays use i t as a mechanical device for social cr i t ic i sm by comparing the future and past to the present. Maya-kovsky attacked certain features of Soviet society he did not l i ke , the pereroshdenits [one who has turned from a revolutionary into a petty bourgeoisie] and the composite bureaucrat, while Bulgakov attacked the whole Bolshevik Revolution and its social progeny. Bulgakov uses an imaginary time-machine, manufactured in a dream, in both his plays; Mayakovsky uses a definite contraption with fireworks in "Banya" and frozen sleep in "Klop." While i t should be noted that the bibliography is not a good random selection of the ' th i r t ie s and ' f o r t i e s , the fact that there is no time-travel story in i t published between 1935 and 1960 and the fact that much of this same period was rather repressive toward a l i terary deviation l ike social cr i t ic ism (Bulgakov's plays were never produced) create the impression that the association of time-travel with severe social cr i t ic i sm limited its appeal to authors. The time-travel stories of the past decade are short, mostly amusing and contain no social cr i t ic i sm. Sf social critiques which have appeared since Iskateli (1953) do not use time machines. Perhaps Soviet sf authors are loathe to make the d i s t inct , definite connection with the future that a time-machine operation does. Even though the future may only be a technologi-cal future as in Iskateli where the hero is developing an instrument for detecting underground e lectr ic cable breaks, there is a separation from "now" which makes the cr i t ic i sm not quite so dramatic as "Banya" or "Ivan ( 32 Vasi l 'yevich." No comparison of the future with the present wi l l leave the present unscathed--even i f i t is only s l ight ly less glorious than the future. An author cannot make the present just as glorious, for then the reader would feel jus t i f ied to ask why he should work and deprive himself for the future. Is i t surprising that almost a l l recent Soviet time-travel f i c t ion links the present and the past? Time-travel f i c t ion which travels to the future does so very br ief ly and sketchily. You cannot have your cake and eat i t as well in a society which mixes l i t e r -ature and po l i t i c s . So far as I know, no Soviet author has described a future society at length via time machine. If time-travel f i c t ion is denied the broad vista of social c r i -tique, i t can be used creatively to define an individual 's relation to himself. In "Snezhok" ["Snowball"] a sad, gentle work by Yemtsev and Parnov, a young Russian sc ient ist invents a time-machine and travels back in time several months; he meets "himself" a few hours before he was to have met a g i r l whom he loved but who did not return the love. On this date he had told her of his love, and they had parted. The time-travel ler warns himself about what is to happen, but his younger sel f has a premonition of what wi l l happen and wants to be done with i t . The time-traveller returns to the present, chastened and sad and a l i t t l e more mature. The t i t l e is derived from a clump of snow the travel ler brought back with him to prove the success of the experiment to the ob-servers (for them an instant had passed). An sf device exploited much less frequently than time-travel is the concept of dimensions and travel between our four-dimensional world 33 and worlds constructed of f ive or six dimensions or more; also between our world and one which dif fers by the dimension of event; that i s , i t has pursued a different path of evolution. "The Blinding Shadows" by Donald Wandrei employs the concept of a world of different dimensions overlapping onto ours; i ts atoms f i t into the spaces between the atoms of our world in a certain geographic location (New York City) . A scien-t i s t creates a "mirror" which allows beings in this other world to look into ours; they cast their shadows into our world, shining, glowing, three-dimensional shadows. When a man is touched by them, he disappears, and the shadows take over the c i ty . Simak's City describes other friendly and not-so-friendly worlds to which the inhabitants of Earth (dogs) may travel by using a set of mental concepts to teleport (transfer themselves instantaneously from one point in space to another)--like a sy l log i s -mobile. The only two examples of this among the Soviet sf I have read are Dneprov's "Litsom k stene" ["Face to the Wall"] and Varshavsky's "Lavka snovideniy" ["The Dream Shop"]. The f i r s t relates an experiment with a cyclotron in a Russian laboratory. At two t r i l l i o n volts a "window" into the anti-matter world is created at the target area. After a moment an explosion and f i r e disrupt the experiment and the Academy of Science de-crees such an investigation too dangerous--which is a sneaky way for the author to end the story, and in a f i lm taken of the "window" there appears a message from the anti-matter world also warning against such experimentation. "Lavka" is a delightful story about a Venusian merchant, U-E, who sel ls a local variety of hash to tourists from Earth. Once a 34 friend gave him a weed which produced such a real vision of Harun-al-Rashid's harem that U-E did not appear in his shop for a year. He f i n a l -ly returned with a ch i ld. Why did he return? "The fact was that Gayane . . . She would have been a fine wife. But there was an old woman . . . her mother. She constantly poked her nose where i t wasn't wanted . . . No," he added, having fa l len s i lent , " i t is better to let a Venusian 4 g i r l educate the ch i ld . " The primary difference between inter-dimensional and inter-planetary or in ter - s te l l a r travel is that the f i r s t does not require the traversing of physical distance by the space-vehicles which are the most popular symbol of sf to the public, whose closest contact with sf is the "Flash Gordon" strips in the Sunday Comics. Nevertheless, inter-dimensional travel is genuine sf because i t offers a technological explan-ation of i t s e l f . If I were to ask the fellow standing next to me at the bus stop what sf means to him, he would, no doubt after examining me curiously, probably trot out the "three r 's" of sf: rockets, robots and ray-guns, reinforcing them with a detachment of BEMS (bug-eyed monsters). The f i r s t " r " has been a part of modern sf since Verne's descrip-tion of a passenger-carrying a r t i l l e r y shell f i red at the Moon was pub-lished in the last century. From that somewhat impracticable form of space cra f t , sf technology developed steadily toward more rea l i s t i c vehicles. In the 19201s various rocket-powered vehicles were used in 4 I. Varshavsky, "Lavka snovideniy," Al' manakh nauohnoy fantastiki, #6\, ed. Brandis Dmitrevsky (Moscow: Znanie, 1967), p. 161. 35 American sf, some with quite prophetic fuels. For example, to reach Venus in A Columbus of Space in the October, 1926 volume of Amazing Stories, Earthmen used a "car" (an enclosed, l i fe-sustaining vehicle) 5 powered by "atomic energy." "The Green Splotches" were l e f t by the crew of a Jovian space-ship (in March, '27 issue of Amazing) which was shaped l ike a zeppelin, presumably for streamlining, but made of metal and used radium as a fue l . Sf writers gradually provided their vehicles with complete l i f e -support systems and used chemical rather than "atomic" energy to propel them. This was undoubtedly due to the popularization of the works of the space-fl ight pioneers, Oberth, Goddard and Tsiolkovsky, and the attempt by authors to inject more real science into their stories. Thus "Adam and No Eve" by Alfred Bester, published in 1941, describes the complete des-truction of Earth by the launching of a nuclear-powered rocket which causes a chain reaction. Such a calamity may seem s i l l y today until one remembers the anxieties of a considerable number of scientists who watched the f i r s t nuclear bomb explosion in New Mexico in 1945. The imagination of sf writers was not limited to reaction vehicles: Edmund Hamilton's "The Comet of Doom" presented craft from a comet c i v i l -ization which were propelled by light-pressure (theoretical ly possible i f the craft is l ight enough and the area i t exposes to sunlight is su f f i c -iently large), and a spherical vessel, powered by anti-gravity, appeared in "A Voyage to Sfanomoe" by C. A. Smith. The only examples of Soviet sf 5 Amazing Stories was the f i r s t successful sf magazine. Founded and edited by Hugo Gernsback in 1926, i t publishes today with a circulat ion of 200,000. 36 space-flight technology in the twenties are to be found in Tsiolkovsky's "Outside the Earth" which is as much serious prognostication as f i c t ion and in Tolstoy's Aelita. Tsiolkovsky offers two vessels, one powered by sol id fuels and one by l iqu id. Tolstoy offers a l iquid-fuel propelled g ship based somewhat on one of Tsiolkovsky's designs. Gradually, as science caught up with sf, authors had to discard obviously unreal ist ic means of space-travel and develop further ref ine-ments: a one-stage chemically powered vehicle which travelled to a des-tination and returned had to be transformed into something more believ-able, for readers became suf f ic ient ly well-informed to detect obvious flaws in fuel to mass rat ios. Multi-stage rockets were a necessity, and space-stations capable of launching "deep-space" vessels which would never actually land on a planet became convenient. Tsiolkovsky, perhaps the most p ro l i f i c of the early space-flight theoreticians, projected a vast, detailed plan for the colonization of space from which he an t i c i -pated great benefits for man. Many of his ideas were inserted by Aleksandr Belyaev, the father of modern Soviet sf, into Zvezda KETs. The "star" is a large space station, named after Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, revolving around the Earth. It is a laboratory for studying the environment of space, a rendezvous for shuttle-rockets from Earth and a platform for launching exploration of the Moon. Using Tsiolkovsky's ideas, Belyaev has made the story credible and " r e a l i s t i c . " Three decades after the story was written, i ts technical details have either been realized or are being c Infra, Appendix, P- 156. 37 seriously considered by scientists and engineers. Eventually, sf writers abandoned chemically-powered reaction vehicles and developed ion or photon propulsions or safe nuclear engines. The most advanced type of space-ship uses the "space-warp," "hyper-warp" or " in ters te l lar -dr ive" to travel from one solar system to another in a relat ively short (for the crew, at least) period of time. The " fabr ic" of space is folded into i t s e l f so that a vessel has only a very short distance to travel. This obviates the need for faster-than-l ight travel and a possible co l l i s ion with Einsteinian physics at a speed of 186,000 miles per second.^ Soviet sf appears to offer proportionately fewer stories which supply some explanation of the mechanics of contemporary space-travel to the reader than American sf, two exceptions being Andromeda and the "Heart of the Serpent," both by Yefremov. In the f i r s t the author de-scribes a space-ship Tantra powered by "anameson" fuel travel l ing at a speed of f ive-sixths "c" with most of the crew sleeping for extended periods of interste l lar f l i gh t ; in the second story, written later, the space ship Tellur uses a space-warp to travel several parsecs in a few Q months of ship-board time. ^There are different sf hypotheses about the effects of acceler-ating to the speed of l ight (c) and beyond. "Colossus" by D. Wandrei presents a ship and its p i lo t increasing to such an enormous size at a velocity many times "c" that they burst out of our universe into another super-universe {supra n. 1, p. 27). Most authors avoid the problem with a space-warp, assuming that i t real ly is impossible to exceed " c , " or that i f one could, strange effects as in "Colussus" or "Plata za vozvrash-chenie" would disrupt the plot. g One parsec = 3.56 l ight years; one l ight year = six t r i l l i o n miles. 38 Most recent s f , both Soviet and American, has begun to accept the mechanics of space-travel as not much more interesting than a short ride in an automobile. It has become a convention which assumes that the reader is an sf fan. Often, the fact that a character is aboard a space-craft is mentioned br ief ly at the beginning of a story and does not sub-sequently intrude on the plot. Shcherbakov's "Plata za vozvrashchenie" opens with a character fishing a stream, and the narrative later reveals that the ship on which the character is located has been constructed to avoid so far as possible any resemblance to a space-craft from the 9 inter ior. Contemporary Soviet sf authors, when describing the craft used in their s tor ies, rarely use the imaginative technology of space-warp drives, etc. Most Soviet space ships use chemical or simple nuclear propulsion. The Soviet craft exploring Mars in Osobaya neobkhodimost' \_A Special Necessity] by Mikhailov is chemically powered, and in Mechte navstrechu {To Meet a Dream] by Lyapunov the solar system is conquered by nuclear-powered vessels. Exotic propulsions by l ight pressure or anti-gravity are not to be found in the engine rooms of Soviet space-craft . On the other hand, Puteshestvie dlinoy v vek [A Century's Journey] by Tendryakov does not use a spaceship at a l l for inters te l lar g The Tantra in "Heart" has also changed considerably from the rocket in Aelita; i t is large enough to hold a swimming pool with a high-dive in a large gym and a l ibrary with a piano, plus l iv ing quarters, control room, engine room and whatever else the crew needs. It must be enormous and extremely powerful, for i t takes off from planets with gravity greater than Earth's. The author describes only the swimming pool and the l ibrary, he is obviously not interested in communicating, other details except by implication. 39 travel: the personality and memory of a genius is translated by a com-puter into symbols which are sent by radio signal to the planet of a distant star, where the local inhabitants reconstruct them in a body of their own race to permit the "v i s i tor " from Earth to explore their c i v i l -izat ion. When he is through, the personality and memory, enriched by their recent experiences, are sent back to Earth where they are instal led in a new body. The original genius had died, but his very old son welcomes his father's reincarnation to Earth: "On ne bog, no on vozroditsya" ["He is not God, but he wi l l be born again"]. Most Soviet sf published up to the time of Andromeda (1957) was perhaps more " rea l i s t i c " than US sf; the technical details of the works of A. Tolstoy, Orlovsky, Belyaev and Tsiolkovsky in the 'twenties were more plausible by the candlelight of contemporary science, as were the subsequent labors of Adamov, Kazantsev, Gurevich, Dolgushin, Granin and Lyapunov. Yefremov's space-craft, the Tantra and the Tellur appear as transitions from this r e a l i s t i c , Tsiolkovskian sf to a use of convention more similar to that of American sf since the ' for t ies . Yefremov does include flashing lights in control rooms and "polished, s i l very , cigar-shaped forms" to denote the exterior of space ships, but further des-cription can only be deduced by the reader. This fashion is carried to its extremes in Gor's "Uera" which, despite a l l the cosmic tripping i t contains, does not furnish one hint of how its characters travel from one planet to another; two of i ts characters are marooned on a space-station, and there is not a word of description of the stat ion, though, to be f a i r , the author's narrative 40 sk i l l is suf f ic ient ly powerful to banish any questions from the reader's mind. Most other authors who have written in the last decade similarly ignore the mechanics of space-fl ight. Sf space-travel is no longer an adventure. This change was inevitable in American sf as the genre (or at least the best part of i t ) matured from sc ient i f i c popularization, BEMs and sheer adventure and oriented i t se l f toward social and individual problems and confl icts resulting from the col l i s ions between man and technology. Adventure has not been extinguished in US sf and probably never wi l l be, but even those stories which could easily be labelled as "adventure" or "escape" f i c t i on , such as King of the Fourth Planet by Robert Williams and The Changeling Worlds by Kenneth Bulmer, are concerned with "broader," more relevant themes. The main character in King is a former vil lainous businessman from Earth who has abandoned his evil ways and come to l ive and work in the very unmaterialistic culture of Mars. He is working on a device to read minds when a space-ship of his former company lands and tries to steal the invention. It is prevented by the king of Mars who is a "super-mind" and wields vast energy through a giant abacus-like instrument; yet, to a l l who do not know him, the king appears as a half-bl ind beggar. The lesson learned by the main character (and presumably by the reader) is humility. In Changeling Worlds a de-generate cap i ta l i s t of the distant future learns that his class is irrelevant to most of the universe and that l i f e is not a long party; he begins at the end to take certain responsibi l i t ies of l i f e seriously. Soviet sf, especially in the sub-genre of the zarubezhniy plakat 41 [poster l i terature directed against non-communist societies] has always been concerned with "broader" issues of capitalism, western imperialism and variations of these. (It is easy to discover the faults of one's neighbors.) Soviet BEM f i c t i o n , produced largely within this sub-genre, usually deals with something other than fear and monsters as a sop to soc ia l i s t realism; i t does not include the second of the three " r ' s , " robots which, as the anthropomorphization of technology, might be expected to create as much evi l as man.^ Soviet robot-monster stories are primar-i l y based on the model of Frankenstein's monster: ignorance, indifference or miscalculation replacing the Baron's assistant. The only example of a Soviet robot becoming incurably evi l is the mechanical man Mekhantrop in Levada's "Faust i smert'" ["Faust and Death"]. An engineer, Vadim, created him to build a space-craft for the hero Yaroslav. Vadim insults and mistreats Mekhantrop who, being as impressionable as a ch i ld , learns to relate to people with the "program" given him by Vadim. He absorbs Vadim's worst qualit ies so that when Vadim becomes jealous of Yaroslav's wife, Mekhantrop senses Vadim's Sf robots are machines, man-like in form, made of metal, powered by e lectr ic or atomic energy, capable of carrying out assigned tasks independently and of thinking on a more or less human leve l , de-pending on their stage of development. Mechanical brains l ike Lyudvig are computers with a high level of intell igence but immobile because of size. Androids, which I did not encounter in Soviet sf, are similar to robots but are made from chemical-biological materials. The origin of modern robots is Chapek's play "R.U.R." which chronicled androids taking over the world and destroying man, a development of the "golem" of Jewish mythology. I have found no mention of robots or androids in Soviet sf before the last decade. They appear in US sf as far back as the ' t h i r t i e s , although they did not become popular until Asimov's I3 Robot (1958). 42 unexpressed host i l i ty to Yaroslav and designs the space-ship to f a i l . It is too late to save Yaroslav when Vadim (who is not real ly a scoundrel) discovers Mekhantrop's plan and tries to destroy the mechanical monster; he succeeds but loses his own l i f e . This is the only tragic use of a robot in the Soviet bibliography. Other stories in which a robot causes damage or terrorizes people do not contain a tragic element. In "Siema" by Dneprov, an inventor builds a robot capable of thought and stimulated by a desire to learn; that i s , to f i l l up its memory banks. It conducts i t s e l f sat i s factor i ly until i t becomes interested in l i f e , the difference between i t se l f and its creator. One night the inventor wakes to find i t inspecting him; i t announces that its memory bank is almost fu l l but that i t has reserved a place for the information i t wi l l receive by dissecting the inventor! The inventor saves himself, but, instead of destroying Siema as an e v i l , opprobrious object, he ponders what went wrong. An acquaintance suggests he insta l l an " inhibitor" in the robot. Ecstat ic, the inventor rushes away to create a new and better Siema. Several stor ies, "Bunt" ["Revolt"] by Firsov, "Homunculus" by Varshavsky, "Spontaneous Reflex" by the Strugatskys and "The Mystery of Green Crossing" by Yemtsev and Parnov, repeat this plot. Other stories which use robots, "Dnevnik" ["The Notebook"] by Varshavsky, "Robniki" ["Robotniks"] by Bakhnov and "Dvazhdy dva starika robota" ["Two Times Two"] by Grigor'yev, do so quite humorously. Two other stor ies, however, are quite dif ferent. One, "Bashnya mozga" ["The Tower of the Brain"] by Yur'yev, is a grotesque satire on authoritarian social systems; the other, 43 "EREM" by Anfi lov, is Chekhovian comedy which could be either absolutely hilarious or very sad, depending on the reader, for the robot EREM re-f lects either the heroic in man or the absurd: i t , or he, is sent to re-pair a crack in a great vat of l iquid s i l i con too hot for human laborers to handle. As the heat increases in the building in which EREM intently works, his c ircuits begin to f a i l . In his nervous schema confusion began again. . . . The memory of the f i r s t day of EREM's l i f e worked c lear ly. . . . EREM. . . . tr ied to ignore the picture of the assembly shop, involuntarily r is ing into his consciousness, where he was born, smiling human faces. . . . Lights! . . . the f i r s t l ight! . . . the factory hum, voices, some-one's gay voice, "I greet you with existence, new reason! . . . Then a delirium began. Machine-repair school. His teacher, Kalistov . . J l At this point, the robot's motor stops; his c ircuits fuse; he dies. Do even robots have feelings? Or are you convulsed with laughter? In American sf Asimov's T , Robot popularized the thinking robot. The book relates the career of a female "robotics" engineer who deals with problems arising from the use and development of "Positronic" 12 robots. The various types of positronic men are never quite as human-ized as those in Soviet sf, however, and even the monster robots which are found in stories by other American authors never form as definite characters as Soviet robots do. Androids are s l ight ly more successful Anfi lov, G., "EREM," Fantastika 1963, ed. Andreev (Moscow: Molodaya guardiya, 1963), p. 282. 12 "Positronic" is a "trademark" used by Asimov's United States Robots and Mechanical Men Inc. to designate the patented brain construc-tion of the robots who are imbued with the Three Laws of Robotics: (1) a robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm; (2) a robot must obey the orders given i t by 44 but s t i l l not complete. The one in Sheckley's "Alone at Last" is a superficial image of homicidal revenge, and the android in Lawson's "The Competitors" remains only a highly complex tool. The closest example in the American sf I have read to a human robot is Jenkins in Simak's City; this kind and wise mentor to the race of Dogs who inherited Earth from Man assumes the personality of a white-haired patriarch in the second half of the novel, yet he does not seem as plastic as Soviet s f ' s EREM or URM or Homunculus. Possibly the main reason for Soviet robots being not se l f -motivated monsters but human personalit ies, sometimes complicated by a touch of the Frankenstein syndrome, is that the authors of the stories in which they appear are mostly scientists or engineers or others with a technical background and orientation. Like Asimov, who is well-known for his academic work, these authors do not regard machinery in any form as inherently dangerous or e v i l ; anti-social behavior on the part of a robot is the result of ignorance in the creation or use of the robot. Siema is not a "bad" machine; i t merely lacks inhib i t ion. Furthermore, i f one describes the behaviour of robots in terms of the behaviour of human beings (the action of Inhibition, Curiosity, e tc . ) , i t is easier to accept a robot as similar to a human being, in thought and emotion, at least. Thus, Varshavsky produced a very human robot, Robby, with a s l ight mechanical twist, in a story of the same name. He, human beings, except where such orders would conf l ic t with the F irs t Law; (3) a robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conf l ic t with the F irs t or Second Laws (p. 19) Six Great Short Science Fiction Novels, edited by Groff Conklin (New York: De l l , 1960). 45 or i t , is given to a sc ient ist for the Tatter's birthday. It is a se l f -teaching, automatic machine which can add to its vocabulary, read, write, understand speech and perform any task. The sc ient ist asked the robot to shine a pair of shoes and gave instructions for finding the necessary materials. The robot missed the correct jar and used one of apricot jam. When the sc ient ist protests, the robot replies that "The spatial position of any object. . . . may be given by three coordinates in Descartes' system of coordinates. The allowance may not exceed the object's dimen-sion," e tc . , ad infinitum; when the sc ient ist te l l s the robot to be 13 s i lent , i t uses gestures. It becomes insufferable. When asked by the sc ient i s t ' s wife to cut a cake into three pieces, i t refuses "Because a unit cannot be divided into three parts. The result of such a divis ion is a circulating decimal which cannot be calculated with unerring accuracy. "^ When the sc ient ist insists i t can be done, Robby repl ies, "I cannot have somebody with thought processes restricted in velocity 15 teaching me what to do." Later the robot begins te l l ing very poor jokes, demanding that everyone laugh; i t cheats at chess because log ical ly that is the easiest way to win, refuses to do household chores and spends hours reading classical poetry to find a bad rhyme. The sc ient ist de-cides to get r id of Robby by giving him to his Mother-in-law . . . The term "nauchno fantastika" includes more fantasy than the limits 13 I. Varshavsky, "Robby," Path into the Unknown (New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1968), p. 17. UIbid., p. 18. ^Ibid., p. 19. 46 of my definit ion of sf. "Khokkeisty"["The Hockey-Players"] by Bulichev is an example of a fantasy work which meets my definit ion by virtue of the sf appurtenances within i t ; that i s , the cosmonauts landing on a strange planet. The rejuvenation of bits of wood carved into hockey players by them approaches fantasy, but i f bits of wood can l ive and act independently, why cannot robots? Sc ient i f ic understanding can create robots which are not wicked, but a measure of fantasy is needed to make these robots l i ve . The absence of violent mechanical bogey-men from Soviet sf is paralleled by the use of ray-guns; that i s , by the neglect of weapons technology in Soviet works. To American writers, i t is obvious that weapons wi l l be developed in the future along with every other technologi-cal facet of c i v i l i z a t i on . A fingering beam lanced up from the dome below, scanning for prey. . . . a ship. . . . . disintegrated in a blossom of flame, an expanding concentric sphere of. . . . color. . . . Luridly aglow, fuming with gigantic smoke-clouds, and shot through-and-through by the miles-long beams of force projected by the darting, weaving ships above and the crouching, fermenting dome below, a l l the heavens were a shrieking bedlam.15 Battle scenes such as this are not infrequently to be found in American sf. Sometimes space navies clash over a battleground that is l ight years in dimension. A l l sorts of death-dealing rays and missi les, so powerful as to boggle the imagination of mortal readers, are employed in t i tan ic , devastating confl icts which wi l l decide the fate of a galaxy 1 c K. Bulmer, The Changeling Worlds (New York: Ace Books, Inc., 1959), pp. 132-133. 47 or even the whole universe. One of the ear l ies t , "The Metal Horde" by J . W. Campbell in the October, 1930 issue of Amazing, described a battle between the human c i v i l i z a t i on of Earth, Mars and Venus and an invasion f leet of robots from Sir ius. In a war that ranged from one end of the solar system to the other, the author destroyed f i f teen mil l ion humans and millions of tons of robots and other automatic machines. The violence of these confl icts may be too impersonal to register forceful ly with the reader. Individual deaths here are less important than the demise of the f i r s t pawn to the kibitzer of a game of chess, but for those who l ike i t , sf weapons technology can produce much more per-sonal deaths. Barrent. . . . pressed the trigger of the unfamiliar weapon. . . . and saw the Hadji's head and shoulders turn black and begin to crumble. Before he could take aim at the other man, Barrent's gun was wrenched violently from his hand. The Hadji's dying shot had creased the end of the muzzle. Desparately, Barrent dived. . . . He rol led to his gun, s t i l l miraculously a l ive, and took aim at the nearest Hadji. >° These selections are good examples of a large part of American sf. The death of the Hadji is much more dramatic than the deaths of the crew of a space-ship in the space battle in The Changeling Worlds quoted above. It is a moot point whether the death of the Hadji appeals more to the latent sadism within one's breast. In the Soviet sf I have read violence and weapons are very unusual; there were not more than half-a-dozen stories which assign important roles to weapons or violence. ^R. Sheckley, The Status C i v i l i z a t i o n (New York: The New American Library of World Literature, Inc., 1960), p. 20. 48 The history of Soviet sf weapons is similar to that of space-f l i gh t ; the giperboloid of engineer Garin (A. Tolstoy) is described in some deta i l , while the weapons in Yur'yev's "Bashnya mozga" have become a convention. The Garin ray is a vaguely plausible hyperbolic ref lector which concentrates a beam of energy and directs i t at a t a r ge t .^ A later weapon, imagined in the ' th i r t ies by Dolgushin in GCh {.Generator of Miracles], is a projector, constructed by the principles of short-wave theory, which transmits e lectr ic energy over a considerable distance to destroy its target with ultra-high-frequency vibrations. Lagin in his plakat version of Wells' War of the Worlds, "Mayor Veil End'yu" ["Major Well And You"], does not provide the invading Martians with new weapons; they retain the same old heat-rays which incinerate objects and black gas which k i l l s animals. A recently developed weapon is a neutrino-ray which appears in Savchenko's play, "Novoe oruzhie" ["The New Weapon"] (1963), which wi l l either accelerate the process of nuclear disintegration in a l l the warheads and atomic reactors in an enemy nation and explode them or stop disintegration a l l over the world and render uranium harmless and useless. Such an exposition of a weapon in sf of the last decade is unusual. Bilenkin's "Kosmicheskiy bog" ["Cosmic God"] contains many armed men whose common weapon, a layting (barker?) is described only as having a pyramidal muzzle. The robots in "Bashnya mozga" use "d is inte-grator tubes." American sf weapons' technology is def initely superior to Soviet. The stories in the f i r s t few years of Amazing stories contain a large variety of destructive tools: handguns which emit red rays, handguns which Vl'infra, Appendix pp. 159-161. 49 emit green rays, guns which emit e lectr ic rays that shock, guns which emit disintegrator rays; there are decay rays that age an object or per-son a century in an instant, heat-ray projectors which can melt huge areas of land into volcanic glass and rocket guns similar to bazookas-al l of which makes the Martians armed with machine-guns in A e l i t a seem very "tame." Later American sf contains hand "heat-guns" to fry another per-son, "needle-guns" which d r i l l holes in people, paralyzing rays that freeze an opponent, "stun-guns" to knock him out—a l l so common that they evoke no more curiosity than a six-gun in a story of the old Ameri-can West. The usual defence against any of these is a " f o r ce - f i e l d "—a wall of energy that may surround a person or a c ity and render i t imper-vious to projecti les and radiation. It would be convenient to state that a l l these devices exist only in very bad or very juvenile American sf, but i t would not be true. The Status C i v i l i z a t i o n bySheckleyis one of the better sf novels in terms of dramatic conf l ic t and social comment;^ Asimov's well known (to sf fans) Foundation tr i logy contains several violent episodes. The proportion of American sf which does not contain weapons-violence is ins ignif icant in quantity and quality. There are other weapons that are more exotic; for example, mind-control by alien creatures with designs on human anatomies. These belong to the last category of sf devices: BEMs, which are plentiful in American sf, especially in the more juvenile and "unplastic" works, but rare in Soviet f i c t i on . ^Supra, p. 41. 50 Yefremov writes in "The Heart of the Serpent": "A thinking being does not need horns and hence wi l l not have them. The nose may . . . form a trunk, although a trunk too is unnecessary for a being with hands . . . [the most universal organ], . . . the higher the form [of 19 l i f e ] the closer i t is bound to be to us Earthmen." This attitude apparently inspired "Bol'shoy den' na planete Chungr" ["A Great Day on the Planet Chungr"] by Glebov which describes an alien race, inhuman in form and s c ien t i f i ca l l y advanced. The planet i t inhabits is Mars, and the members of the race resemble ants. Tkhntshu stood . . . firmly braced on his feet and feet-hands. And the three bloody-gold eyes, decorating his forehead in an equilateral tr iangle, sparkled. . . . Tkhntshu sat in the . . . chair. . . . he crossed his legs, placed his hand on the top board of the table and his hand-feet on the lower board . . . he flattened the long chitinous fingers of his hands, ending with tact i le suckers, and made certain they lay immovably on the table.20 Tkhntshu and his fellow Martians are not at a l l host i le, however; they are prepared to greet Earthmen with open arms as friends of reason. They do not know the physical dimension of humans, but are convinced that physical disparity wi l l not hinder communication. Obruchev inserted some vicious, in te l l i gent , three-foot long ants into Plutoniya to provide more adventure for his expedition, but these are savages and not too bright; they are not effective as a threat to 19 I. Yefremov, "The Heart of the Serpent," More Soviet Science Fiction, t r . R. Prokovieva (New York: Crowell-Coll ier Publishing Co., 1962), p. 49. 20 A. Glebov, "Bol'shoy den' na planete Chungr," Fantastika 1962, ed. K. K. Andreev (Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1962), pp. 383-384. 51 the explorers. The only inte l l igent alien BEMs in the Soviet sf I have read are the blood-thirsty Martians in Lagin's "Mayor Veil End'yu," and the only other inoplanetnyy [off-planet] horrors are some unintell igent carnivorous beasts which attack the crew of Yefremov's Tantra when i t lands on a strange planet; two crew members are injured, but two of the creatures are captured and brought back to Earth. A few real ly horr ible, unintell igent BEMs may be found in Soviet sf; they wi l l be discussed below. Excluding Lagin's Martians, the gen-eral attitude of Soviet authors toward inte l l i gent al ien BEMs is that i f alien creatures are suf f ic ient ly developed to use space-flight and other accoutrements of advanced science, they must have evolved a peaceful, communist society which would not endanger Earthmen. If they are evi l and dangerous, then they cannot have developed weapons which would endanger Earthmen because the laws of histor ical development would not have allowed them to develop a c i v i l i z a t i on necessary for the invention and construction of deadly weapons. Thus there are no interplanetary invasions or wars (again excluding Lagin's story which is real ly Wel ls ' ) ; there are no scheming alien monsters kidnapping luscious young Earth g i r l s . This approach to inoplanetnyy dangers is compatible with the re la -tive absence of violence throughout Soviet sf when compared to American. Soviet armories of sf weapons are ins igni f icant; nor are there any mad, murderous perambulating machines. Soviet sf has simply not exploited the area of violence; to label i t puerile for this would be to label American 2i BEM stories mature f i c t i on . This position of Soviet authors appears to 21 In their introduction to the World's Best Science Fiction First 52 have originated in the "Yefremovian" extrapolation of historical neces-sity and in the bel ief that the development of technology, properly guided (by, say, a communist society), cannot be harmful. Series (1965) Donald Wollheim and Terry Carr state: "In the Soviet Union, science f i c t ion was encouraged from the 1920's, but only as a form of juvenile f i c t ion intended to be inspirational and educational in nature. As an influence in adult reading i t is only recently that fantasy pro-jections have been slowly and sparsely appearing . . . " Undoubtedly a game could be played around defining adult sf. but I wi l l state categor-i ca l l y that the Soviet bibliography contains adult l i terature before "recently," beginning with Tsiolkovsky's "Vne Zemli" in 1918. As I have stated in Chapter I, a number of Soviet c r i t i c s have encouraged educational sf , but Soviet sf is hardly unique in th is , for American sf in its youth advertised i t se l f as an educational medium. Since the 'twenties, both have changed, albeit in somewhat different directions. CHAPTER IV SCIENCE OR FICTION? Al l of the gimmicks described previously make a story sf; they are " s c ien t i f i c " to the extent that their real ization is a possible and, occasionally, probable development of contemporary science. Equally important to sf is imaginative science which transcends the narrow bounds of p laus ib i l i ty ; a good example is the description of a very useful material, " inertron," in "Armageddon - 2419": Inertron. . . . is a synthetic element, bu i l t up through a compli-cated heterodyning of ultronic pulsations, from "infra-balanced" subionic forms. It is completely inert to both e lectr ica l and mag-netic forces in a l l the orders above the -ultronic, the subelectronic, the electronic, the atomic and the molecular. . . . i t has a number of. . . . properties. One of these is the total lack of weight. Another is a total lack of heat. It has no molecular vibration. . . . It is a so l id , very dense in molecular structure. . . . i t is a perfect defense against the disintegrator r a y J This nonsense, or imaginative technology, claims to be sc ient i f i c because i t jus t i f ies i t s e l f with " s c ien t i f i c " terminology; that i s , by a hodge-podge of pseudo-scientific jargon. What does "ultronic" mean? What are "infra-balanced subionic forms?" Hugo Gernsback, as the editor of Amazing, wrote that " in selecting our stories we always consider their poss ib i l i ty . We reject stories often on the ground that, in our opinion, the plot or action is not in keeping with science as we know i t today. . . . And i t should never be "'p. F. Nowlan, "Armageddon - 2419," Amazing Stories, August 28, 1928, pp. 429-430. 54 forgotten that the educational value of a sc ient i f i c t ion . . . story is 2 3 tremendous." ' It is not absolutely impossible that there might one day be created an element l ike inertron, but at this time, its properties confound everything known about matter. American sf did not distinguish between plausible and imaginative science, and occasionally there did appear stories which offered genuine science to the reader: An atom, as you know, is composed of two essential parts. F i r s t , a nucleus which is pr incipal ly a charge of e l ec t r i c i t y , called a proton. Second, a certain number of negative charges, or electrons, which revolve around the proton at a high rate of speed. Now the important fact. . . . is that one atom differs from another only in the number of electrons i t contains. When an atom has many elec-trons, i t has a high atomic weight, when there are few electrons, the atomic weight is low.4 This is based on the physics of the 'twenties and is an enlight-ening passage. It is used as a basis for postulating a high-frequency ray which transmutes elements. Contemporary American sf has abandoned explanatory f i c t i on almost ent i re ly, although frequently sf magazines carry popular science art ic les in their back pages. It certainly does not advertise i t s e l f today as an educational medium. Soviet sf, as mentioned previously, is s t i l l plagued by c r i t i c s and authors who con-sider i t an appropriate method for conveying sc ient i f i c and social 2 Hugo Gernsback, "Ed i to r i a l , " Amazing Stories, July 28, 1926, p. 291. 3 "Sc ient i f i c t ion" was coined by Gernsback for his magazine; he later abandoned i t for the term "science f i c t i o n . " 4 D. M. Speaker, "The Disintegrating Ray," Amazing Stories, February, 1928, p. 1089. 55 information to juvenile audiences. Sf in both nations largely appeals to "younger" audiences (shall we say, below the "dangerous age" of th irty?) , but Tsiolkovsky obviously intended "Vne Zemli" (1918) to be read by adults; Tolstoy's Aelita hardly caters to youth; Kataev's Ostrov Erendorfa [.island of Erendorfl is not oriented toward teenagers; Zamiatin's We (1920) requires a mature reader as does Bulgakov's "Rokovye yaytsa" ["The Fatal Eggs"] (1925) and Mayakovsky's "Klop" and "Banya." Obruchev's novels, Plutoniya (1924) and Sannikov Land (1925), based on Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth, are models for pro-viding a large amount of factual information (to aspiring paleontologists) to juvenile audiences. Both are adventure books which wi l l catch a young reader's attention and hold i t during a series of escapades, simultaneous-ly feeding his mind facts either in footnotes or in the text i t s e l f . The f i r s t written, Plutoniya, describes a Russian sc ient i f i c expedition, sent to the arct ic wastelands, which discovers a " lost land" heated by a nearly extinct volcano to such a temperature that, as the expedition draws near, the terrain changes from ice to tundra to f e r t i l e plain to forest to primeval jungle, with corresponding changes in the animal pop-ulation, from Mastodon to Dinosaur. In the heart of the land are lakes and jungles teeming with ancient repti les of every description and, to add an element of danger and excitement, tribes of f ierce three-foot long ants who wield primitive weapons. When the expedition returns to the perimeter of the lost land, i t has to rescue the men who were l e f t to guard the supplies and dogsleds from a tribe of stone-age savages. It 56 also "rescues" a local maiden who unfortunately flees back to her tribe at the last moment. Sannikov Land d i f fers only in that there is not as much sc ient i f i c information given about the " lost land" and this time one of the members of the expedition actually leaves with one of the local maidens--with whom he has fa l len in love. The wealth of information these novels present is enormous. A typical footnote from Plutoniya: Plesiosaurs - sea lizards of the Jurassic and Melovian periods with a massive body, covered by bare skin, with a long swan's neck, a small head and two pairs of fan-shaped appendages; they reached a length of 3 to 5 meters.5 Flora and fauna are accurately defined, and the geologic periods are described. The characters, however, are two-dimensional and uninteresting. Were i t not for the fast-moving quality of the narrative, which provides one adventure after the other, even a young reader would find the book d i f f i c u l t to absorb. The stories of Belyaev are also directed primarily toward a youth-ful audience but are not so educational as Obruchev's, though they often contain partial facts, such as a brief description of the anatomy of that part of the body involved in attaching a human head to a torso in Golova Professora Douel'ya. To a young person, the picture of vocal chords, the expulsion of a i r which operates them, and the nutrient solution for keep-ing the head alive while i t is unattached is entertaining and semi-educational. 5 V. A. Obruchev, Plutoniya (Moscow: ONTI, 1937), p. 146. Belyaev's characters are almost as flat and boring to an adult reader as Obruchev's. His stories operate on fast-moving adventure, spiked with semi-scientific data. They are not dissimilar from much American sf of the same period (1926-1940) in relation to the stereo-typed characters and plots which depend solely on adventure. Though the subject-matter differed, the American genre containing much more space-flight fiction and BEMs, the characters from American sf could very easily be used in Soviet fiction. The typical Belyaev short story seizes a topic like x-rays, bacteria, head transplants, or centrifugal force, attaches a character to it and weaves a tale. Belyaev's novels are basically collections of short stories in structure. Belyaev and Obruchev are the only sf authors of the 'twenties listed in the Annotated Bibliography whose works are undeniably dir-ected toward youth. The works of other authors were not intended pri-marily to capture the youth market, although certainly young readers could enjoy The Death Ray of Engineer Garin by Tolstoy or even Tsiol-kovsky's "Outside the Earth," as well as Kataev's Ostrov Erendorfa. Only an adult reader, however, can properly appreciate these. I read Moby Dick when I was ten—except for the dreary passages about the whale, and I confess I did not understand what happened on and off the Pequod except on a very superficial level. Other works of the 'twenties in the bibliography are obviously intended for adult appetites: the stories of Mayakovsky, Bulgakov, Zamiatin and II'in merit mature consideration.^ Il'in's Dolina novoy It is worth mentioning that these authors were victims of 58 zhizni (1928), along with Zamiatin's We, is one of the best novels of the Soviet sf I have read. I l ' i n presumably read Chapek's play "R.U.R." ("Rossum's Universal Robots"-1918), for Dolina revolves around an attempt to create a new type of human, greatly resembling Chapek's androids in their method of reproduction, and their social goals. It is a d i s t inct predecessor to Huxley's Brave New World both because of the production l ine of bottled synthetic people produced from fe r t i l i zed human wombs which appears in both books and because of the stable social structure desired by the leaders of the repressive cultures in both novels. Dolina is set, most appropriately, in a valley—high in the Himalayan mountain range where a family of American sc ient i s t s , the Kinsleys, has established a rat ional , s c ient i f i c c i v i l i z a t i o n , governed by sc ient i s t s , which wi l l create a new people who wi l l be free of vices and who wi l l remake the world on humane, rational principles by demon-strating the superiority of cooperation over competition. The "new men" (and women) are produced without a sexual inst inct; they mature more quickly physically than mentally; by the age of f i f teen they are in the prime of l i f e . Completely unsoiled by vices, carefully educated, they wi l l one day show the world how to l i ve . This is the conception of the oldest Kinsley; i t is perverted by his son, a b r i l l i a n t megalomaniac who wants to conquer the world by force with the android army. He constructs an organized, technically superior l i terary and semi-off ic ial persecution during and after NEP. I l ' i n ' s novel, so far as I know, was not published in its entirety ' t i l l 1957. 59 society, staffed by scientists and inventors who he has bribed or cajoled into entering the valley and restrained from leaving. The " s c ient i f i c " society is essential ly a dictatorship. His plans of conquest are frus-trated by his own son who returns to the original plan of peacefully rational izing the world and establishes himself with a considerable part of the val ley 's population in a position independent of his father. The strength of the novel is derived from its projection of a great plan of social reform; the " fa ta l " weakness in this plan l ies in changing the nature of man into something l ike a robot, sat is f ied with a robot's work, inte l l igent but too specialized by his work to comprehend love and beauty. We see the peculiar susceptibi l i ty of scientists to-ward involvement in such a scheme and how the scientists and androids are easily dominated by the authoritarian personality of the evi l Kinsley. Even in the benevolent hands of the third Kinsley, the plan is s t i l l so unattractive to the author that the Kinsleys and a l l their followers must perish in the same t i tanic explosion. Not only is the dramatic narrative of the confl icts between the Kinsleys, the beautiful Madame Haro, loved by both, and the French inventor M. Gere who also loves her, superior to that of any other Soviet sf novel in the bibliography, but the sculptural p last ic i ty of the main characters cannot be matched in any other novel with the exception of the character of Drozdov in Dudintsev's Ne khlebom yedinom. It is d i f f i c u l t to discuss the orientation of Soviet sf during the next two decades, for the Soviet bibliography contains less than a dozen selections for the years between 1930 and 1950. According to 60 A. F. Brit ikov, the most complete chronicler of the genre, sf almost seemed defunct in the beginning of the ' t h i r t i e s ; when its production in -creased, i t became a much more valuable educational tool than before. The image of the anachronistic scientist-genius was slowly replaced by the laboratory leader and the co-worker, and by the end of the decade the theme of besskonfliktnost' [story conf l ict between "better" and "best"] had begun to appear, alongside the idea of a communist utopia. The novels GCh by Dolgushin, Izgnanie vladyki [Exile of the Ruler'] by Adamov and Doroga na Okean [Road to the Ocean] by Leonov are good i l l u s -trations, the f i r s t two, of the idea of "better" and "best" having i t out, and the third presenting a personal conception of the distant future.^ Space-flight seems to have faded from the scene except for Zvezda KETs by Belyaev which appeared in 1936. The next Soviet space-flight did not occur until after the war, and that was only a discussion of the Tungus meteorite of 1908; Aleksandr Kazantsev advanced the hypothesis that i t was a space-ship that had crashed. Most sf during this time used the devices of discovering new tools or sources of power such as the ut i l i za t ion of short-wave energy in GCh. This education-inspirational trend might be typif ied by Agapov's Tekhnicheskie rasskazy [Technical Stories] (1936) which should not be classed as sf because i t is real ly just a col lection of journal ist ic essays glorifying the monumental achievements of Soviet science and ^A. F. Brit ikov, "Nauchnaya fantastika, sotsial 'nyy roman o bud-ushchem," Istoriya Russkogo Sovetskogo Romana, ed. V. A. Kovalev (Moscos: Nauka, 1965), I, pp. 638-695. 61 technology and the potential of the future for consumer and industrial products, but as an exception i t may demonstrate the limits applied by my def init ion of sf and the confusion caused by those c r i t i c s who ins ist the genre is basically an informational medium. In one of the a r t i c le s , the author v i s i t s a large plant: "What are these lathes for?" I blurted. "What?" "These," - I pointed. "These are not lathes, but one lathe." Yes, i t was real ly a lathe . . . But its dimensions! The great feast of the gods would not produce such an effect. . . . On i t one can turn "parts" twenty meters long, weighing 100 tons.8 Agapov forecasts a wonderful future for plastics and other mater-ials and ends the book with several sketches of workers. Presumably, the reader wi l l be as thr i l led and amazed by the description of Soviet industrial might as the author. In heaven, miracles are "made"; in the Soviet Union, they wi l l be manufactured. Agapov's book is a precurser to Reports from the 2lst Century (1960) by Vasil 'yev and Gushchev which is more f ict ional and more purposefully prophetic but based quite as firmly on contemporary sc ient i f i c fact as Tekhnicheskie. Prophecy is second only to education in the hierarchy of non-l i terary values assigned to sf. In Soviet and American sf of the 'twenties the technical details of stories were highly advertised. Gernsback wrote in 1928: "The author who works out a brand new idea in a sc ient i f i c t ion plot may be hailed as an original inventor years later. g B. Agapov. Tekhnicheskie rasskazy (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya l i teratura, 1936), p. 144. 62 when his brain-chi ld wi l l have taken wings and when cold-blooded scien-9 t ists wi l l have realized the author's ambition." An American author, Heinlein, even drew up a chart using his stories to forecast the future development of technology.^ Tsiolkovsky used f i c t ion as a vehicle for his hypotheses of space-f l i ght which were quite complete, extending to a consideration of fuels, l i fe-support systems, orbits, launch trajector ies, guidance systems, the celest ia l environment, exploration plans and schedules of space coloniza-tion. He made rough drawings of space-ships and calculated fuel-to-mass ratios with different fuels; in short, he investigated everything he could without actually building a space-ship.^ Since his death, his fuels have been used in rockets; one of his steering control designs is s t i l l used; his l i f e systems are used in a modified form, and his plan for the conquest of the cosmos seems to be roughly that to which the Soviets are adhering by constructing a manned space-station before exten-sive exploration of space by men is attempted. He was very def in ite ly a prophet of space-travel; his "predictions" were carefully thought-out sc ient i f i c analyses based on extensive use of mathematics. He described what could be done with the knowledge men possessed while he was a l ive. When space-fl ight was only sf, he synthe-sized theoretical ly the answers of different branches of science to the question of extra-terrestr ia l f l i ght . 9 H. Genrnsback, "Ed i to r i a l , " Amazing Stories, Ap r i l , 1928, p. 5. ^®Infra, Appendix, pp. 138, 141. ^^Infra, Appendix, pp. 136-138. 63 There is enough information on about half of the seventy authors whose works are l i s ted in the Annotated Soviet Bibliography to c lass i fy them by background. Twenty-seven have sc ient i f i c or technical educations or careers. They produced about half of the stories read for this paper and most of the more prophetic f i c t i on . Their "prophecies," l ike Tsiolkovsky's, are of the "plausible" type of technology. The apparently somewhat higher proportion of plausible prophetic f i c t ion in Soviet sf (about one-f ifth of the bibliography) than in American does not mean better l i terature, however; i t can result in deadly dull reading. Reports from the 21st Century by Vasil 'yev and Gushchev is pro-phetic f i c t i on at i ts worst, measured in a r t i s t i c values. It is a series of imaginative art ic les on development in various sc ient i f i c f ields during the next f i f t y years, complete with introductory interviews with the appropriate sc ient i f i c authorities. For transport, for example, super-high-velocity passenger cars, speedy ocean vessels and interplane-tary space-ships are forecast. In the f i e ld of medicine, operations wi l l be conducted by short-wave "scalpels." In metallurgy, super-strong alloys wi l l be synthesized and in the area of energy extraction, miners wi l l be replaced by automatic d r i l l i ng rigs which wi l l bore shafts down to coal beds, for example, ignite the veins of coal between shafts and pipe the product to c i t i e s . The authors i l lus t ra te some of these advances by hopping into a car of the future for a super-swift ride or witnessing an operation conducted without cutting the patient's skin. Meohte navstrechu (1958) by Lyapurov, was written just before Reports and duplicated i t in cataloging the conquest of the solar system. 64 It pretends to be a history of space exploration published in the next century. It chronicles the f i r s t moon f l i ght in 1974', accomplished by a nuclear-powered rocketship (wrong twice, for the American nuclear rocket wi l l not be ready t i l l the next decade); i t relates the construction of a large space-station revolving around Earth, followed by the f i r s t tr ip to Mars and the f l ights to Venus and Mercury. The Martian canals are unveiled as islands of plant l i f e lying close together in the deserts: "No rivers flowed; no floods of water passed here. Nor are there traces 12 of the work of someone's hands here." Venus is a primordial planet with lakes deeper than Baikal, barren mountains, enormous waterfalls and traces of primitive l i f e in its oceans. On Mercury the temperature is 400° C ; rivers of metal flow, and volcanoes thunder - a negostepviimnaya planeta [inhospitable planet]. On the Moon is a "center of lunar industry which extracts rare 13 elements from the treasure-chest in the heavens made by Nature." On Mars "as on his own planet, man tried - and not without success - to ad-14 just Nature on a planetary scale." There are sc ient i f i c stations scattered throughout the solar system and an enormous a r t i f i c i a l planet which revolves around the sun. The author's purpose is not simply to predict but to encourage: "Consciousness is l imi t less , and mankind, having advanced to the borders of the known world, wi l l advance s t i l l more rapidly. Having reached the limits of their house, people wi l l not stop. To go beyond is a question 15 only of time." A journey to the stars is inevitable. In the last 12 B. V. Lyapunov, Meohte navstreahu (Moscow: Trudrezervjzdat, 65 chapter the narrative returns to the present (1958) to discuss the im-portance of contemporary sc ient i f i c achievements and ends with a firm promise: "The borders of man's knowledge wi l l move unimaginably far. Within his reach wi l l be not only Earth but the whole Solar system. This time wi l l come - so say science and technology which labor over 1 g what wi l l enter our l i f e tomorrow or after tomorrow." It is not a po l i t ic ized work; there is no mention in i t of social systems; i t only surveys the conquest of space from the perspec-tive of the f i r s t quarter of the twenty-first century. It is su f f i c -iently well-written and vast in subject to inspire a l l but the most mundane minds with dreams and hopes. It is an example of speculative science which succeeds where Vasil 'yev and Gushchev's Reports and Agapov's Tekhnicheskie f a i l , for i t is both educational and entertaining. Yefremov's Andromeda more than equals i ts scope but does not approach the strength of its simple narrative style which becomes almost l y r i ca l by the end of i ts paean to space-exploration. Technically, i t predicts l i t t l e more than nuclear-powered vessels to explore the solar system; i t presumes that space-suits for walk-ing on the Moon must be armored against meteorites. A large part of i ts 1958), p. 105. }3Ibid.i p. 151. UIbid., p. 154. ]5Ibid., p. 148. ~l6Ibid.J p. 167. 66 colonization-of-space theme seems to be drawn from Tsiolkovsky. It is closer than Tekhnicheskie rasskazy or Reports to f i c t ion and dif fers from Belyaev's Zvezda KETs mainly by not uniting the exploration i t describes in the person of one character. Zvezda is genuine f i c t i on . The hero, Artem'yev, participates in numerous experiments aboard the sa te l l i te KETs and even travels to the Moon where he and the other members of the expedition discover a huge crack in its Dark Side which wi l l one day cause i t to sp l i t asunder. Al l the technical details except for the crack in the Moon are l i f ted from Tsiolkovsky 1s works. The enormous station KETs with its greenhouses for growing food, the rocket shuttles operating between Earth and the station, the a r t i f i c i a l suns orbiting above arct ic wastes and transform-ing them into arable land and the power-satellite, transmitting energy to Earth are Tsiolkovsky's ideas and are either being planned or consid-ered by contemporary sc ient ists. Both Russians and Americans have sate l l i tes scheduled for the seventies and are developing re-usable rocket shuttles to make communication cheaper between them and Earth; a year ago a group of scientists stated the feas ib i l i t y of building huge parabolic mirrors in stationary orbits above the arct ic to free that area from the ice by reflecting sunlight onto i t . Another Belyaev story, "Over the Abyss," might be the most effective device any teacher ever used for demonstrating the lesson of centrifugal force. It begins with the narrator spying on a secretive professor in a country house. One day the professor emerges from the house, l i f t s a boulder and hurls i t several yards; he then soars into 67 the a i r but f a l l s and hurts his leg. Seizing the opportunity, the nar-rator carries the professor back to the lat ter ' s house where he learns the professor has made an anti-gravity machine and is about to embark on an experiment to increase the world's axial revolutions. As the narrator watches, the Earth's atmosphere is hurled into space, followed by people, buildings and rocks, while the professor and the narrator protect them-selves in a ce l l a r . F ina l ly , as the horri f ied narrator tries to k i l l the professor, he wakes up to find he has been hypnotized. This and Zvezda are educational and partly quite r e a l i s t i c , based on plausible science. Recent sf is less plausible, though i t frequently includes a part icle of fact. "995 -y svyatoy" ["The 995th Saint"] by Tsvetkov (1962) recounts a tale of a Catholic priest who touches a meteor which has just fa l len through the roof of his chapel in Bavaria, in 1528, and turns into a sol id piece of metal (yevropium). Dug up in 1960, he is canonized. A bishop touches the statue and begins to turn into saint no. 996, until the Holy See declares the infected limb can be amputated. A sc ient ist subsequently discloses that bacteria on the meteor carried the element yevropium to the priest in 1528 and then to the bishop in,1960. The story is primarily an amusing sat i re, but the existence of bacteria on meteors and asteroids is a fact. Granin's and Dudintsev's social protest novels, Idu na Grozu, Iskateli and Ne khlebom yedinom use plausible science but in a very vague way and s t r i c t l y as a f o i l to their cr i t i c i sm. Dneprov, who is a scien-t i f i c authority, uses f a i r l y imaginative technology in his short stor ies, though he hardly escapes into the realm of ethereal technology as does 68 the author of "Armageddon - 2419." Soviet sf technology is just not as fantastic as its American counterpart. Whether this is a positive or a negative quality depends on the author's s k i l l , but i t may establish a connection with contemporary real i ty which has the potential of making the story more believable and, hence, more effect ive. Few Soviet stories contain "predictions" which have either been realized or accepted by the sc ient i f i c community as va l id. However, besides the works of Tsiolkovsky and Belyaev cum Tsiolkovsky, the des-cription of underwater l i f e in Adamov's Tayna dvukh okeanov [The Secret of Two Oceans'] is fantastic only i f one is unaware of the experiments of Jacques Cousteau and the U.S. Navy and the existence of nuclear powered submarines. Tolstoy's The Garin Death Ray contains a ray gun which expel!s a beam of cohesive l i ght , today called a laser-beam; recently the American army released a news bul let in which indicated the laser was being developed as an a r t i l l e r y weapon J ' ' "Soyuz pya-ti" ["The Council of Five"] by Tolstoy relates the story of f ive capital ists who explode the Moon with what may be the f i r s t account in history of a guided missile attack. A more recent story, "Odnim men'she" ["One Less"] by I. Rosokhovatsky te l l s of a middle aged laboratory assistant who while wan-dering along a street conceives of a way to combat death; at that moment, he is k i l led by a car. The ambulance comes; a woman cr ies ; a man says, "What can you do? One less. . . . On Earth there are three b i l l i on people. 1 o If even a mil l ion die, no one wi l l notice." The man hurries to a c l i n i c ^Infra, Appendix, pp. 138-140. I o I. Rosokhovatsky, "Odnim men'she," Fantastika 1966, part 1, ed. Ye. Parnov (Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1966), p. 126. 69 for treatment of a disease which the doctors have not told him is ter-minal. In England a Rumanian pharmaceutical firm has begun to market a drug which wi l l lengthen the average l ife-span by twelve per cent in the same fashion as Rosokhovatsky's imagination. F ina l ly, Al 'tov treats the whole problem of sc ient i f i c prophecy in sf very or ig inal ly in "Sozdan dlya buri" ["Made For The Storm"]. A young sc ient ist becomes convinced that technical progress is impeded by external factors, such as the lack of an environment conducive to creative work. The telescope could have been invented three centuries ear l ier , for the technology was available, but the Middle Ages was not an encouraging environment. The young man obtains funds for an experi-ment: he pretends to be a movie director looking for a rea l i s t i c back-ground to an sf f i lm set in the twenty-second century and hires in this guise several scientists to complete three projects for the background. One is a high-velocity water vehicle, another is a portable f l i ght appar-atus for an individual, and the other remains a secret. The experiment is fantast ical ly successful. We do not need to wait for the twenty-second century; we can bring i t to us. This is A l ' tov ' s understanding of sf: to bring the future to today, only he does i t technologically; most Soviet sf that consciously strives toward such a goal does so in social or po l i t i ca l terms. In summary, the reader would not expect to find in Soviet sf such a recently written American novel as King of the Fourth Planet (1962) which postulates the existence of a Martian c i v i l i za t ion and a Martian atmos-phere capable of supporting the normal respiration of Earthmen, parading as sf. Soviet authors are more rea l i s t i c in respect to commonly known facts than American writers; at the same time they can exhibit the fantasy of fa iry tales in their humanized robots. One could say that Soviet sf is more " s c ien t i f i c " and " rea l i s t i c " than American because the forms that its fantasy (imaginative science) uses are fewer in num-ber even i f they may be as rich in quality. CHAPTER V Smekh - seryoznoe deloJ Professor Grant, world famous American geologist proudly announces one day to his daughter Yelena that . . . I have been able to calculate. . . . the time and place of the beginning of great geologic changes, which must pass through the whole core of the Earth. . . . the catastrophe w i l l be grandiose . . . the continents w i l l sink into the ocean. . . . In place of the ocean w i l l rise new continents. . . . A l l this I can predict with accuracy . . . I, professor of geology Archibald Grant . . . . Well, how do you like i t , daughter? The name of professor Archibald Grant w i l l enter into the history of manki. . . . 2 Yelena persuades her father that this is a dreadful catastrophe and convinces him to go to the ruler of America, the capitalist Matapal 1, who she believes w i l l save as many people as possible. Matapal', how-ever, confronted by communist led strikes and insurrections, hypnotizes • the professor and Yelena to keep the information quiet. With the rich novelist Erendorf, he purchases the only land in the world the professor's calculations have shown to be safe from the impending destruction, a small island in the Atlantic. He constructs a refuge there for capitalists from every land. The professor and Yelena escape from the island before Doomsday to warn the world, and a communist revolution succeeds in America, but Matapal', in his fortress, does not worry until the island begins to sink beneath him. ^Laughter is a serious business. V. Kataev, Ostrov Erendorfa, Sobranie sochineniy (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya literatura, 1969), I I , pp. 493-494. 72 The professor, watching the island from a revolutionary batt le-ship, is heartbroken until a computor technician who has been following him for days, informs him that his computer was incorrect in that for a certain number i t would give out a minus instead of a plus. The pro-fessor rejoices; his reputation is saved along with the world, and capitalism has been extinguished without a bloody struggle on the Island of Erendorf. This is the funniest novel in the bibliography; i t is at once a 3 zavubezhnyy plakat and a spoof on Ilya Erenburg - mainly a spoof. A string of situation jokes winds through the novel; not a single charac-ter whether he be communist, cap i ta l i s t or just plain good guy, is untouched by Kataev's humor. The propaganda element is plainly secondary. Amusement is very important to perhaps a fourth of Soviet sf and to an equal or greater portion of American sf. Its presence in Soviet • sf is d i f f i c u l t to chronicle because of the limited bibliographical selection of the ' t h i r t i e s , ' fort ies and ' f i f t i e s : a l l but one or two examples of humor are found in works of the 'twenties or ' s ix t ies . Humor, l ike beauty, may be defined as a reflection " in the eye of the beholder." The reaction of an audience to an a r t i s t ' s attempt to 3 Ibid.3 p. 618. The idle hermit novelist Erendorf, whose words are translated instantaneously into dozens of languages and trans-mitted around the world and who has become f i l thy rich from writing novels about the destruction of various parts of the world, is Erenburg and the novels are the tale "Gibel ' Yevropy" and the novel Trest D. Ye. which depict the destruction of Europe. Erendorf remains al ive at the end of Ostrov to write another novel of the destruction of one more part of the Earth. 73 portray humor is not infrequently contrary to that desired. An excellent example is the comedies of Chekhov which invariably produced the opposite reaction ( i f tears are the opposite of laughter) in his contem-porary audiences to that for which he strove. Sometimes humor may seem 4 to be vicarious sadism as in the jokes of certain modern comics; less v ic iously, i t could be something unfortunate happening to someone else. The difference may be seen in the classic situation of a person slipping on a banana peel: the person is either your Mother-in-law,who you are supposed to dis l ike, or a stranger. This sadism is closer to the meaning of humor than defining i t as the "opposite" of tragedy, for the most important element of humor is tragedy. Very few people would burst into guffaws at the sight of the man walking ahead of them on the sidewalk slipping on a banana peel and fa l l ing hard. This is turned into an amusing incident by the device of absurdity: Charlie Chaplin, while walking down a sidewalk, reading a newspaper, bumps into a l ight pole and then steps on a banana peel so forceful ly that he is catapulted into the a i r , turns a somersault and lands in an open trash can. The absurd context makes this s l i p neither tragic nor p i t i f u l ; the worst that can be said is that i t is hackneyed. The majority of humorous sf, American and Soviet, is based upon the use of absurdity which transforms the tragic or the commonplace into the entertaining and amusing. "In Our Block" by R. A. Lafferty is set along a street, one-block long, lined with empty lots and wooden shanties 4 I refer part icularly to Don Rickles and Lenny Bruce, the "sick" comedians. around which two curious friends wander. Out of one seven foot square shanty onto a conveyer to a truck come packages eight inches by eight inches by three feet weighing th i r ty - f ive pounds apiece every three point f ive seconds for two hours. In another shack is a g i r l who can type a three-page letter with a carbon and an envelope and a stamp in ten seconds for seventy-five cents,and in a third shack is a bar which serves cold beers from no v is ib le stock or refr igeration. The people in the shacks sel l cheaply and speak English poorly and do not explain the operation of their enterprises. As the friends depart, they see twenty-foot lengths of r ig id pipe emerging one-after-the-other from the f i r s t shack. These are common things presented in an absurd (to twentieth-century man) context. The story is not uproariously funny but is defin-i te ly worth a chuckle. This story also i l lustrates a feature common to humorous sf, to wit, the use of props, geegaws, gimcracks and thingamajigs to provoke amusement. Seven foot square wooden shacks producing twenty-foot lengths of pipe are an example of devices which have been used in American sf since the 'twenties. Henry Hugh Simmons wrote a series of short s tor ies, published in Amazing under the heading "Hick's Inventions with a Kick," which were nothing more than a catalogue of zany inventions designed to "make l i f e easier" but which always ended with the inventions running wild and embittering the inventor's friends who tested them. The inven-tions, by the way, have since appeared in modified form in our consumer society. An inventor named Gallagher who was most creative when ineb-riated was the subject of another series by Lewis Padgett in the late 7 5 ' th i r t ies and early ' for t ies : in one story the inventor constructed a robot to open beer cans and discovered later that the robot could hypno-tize people, forge his signature and broadcast frequencies that would drive people in herds out of theatres. These banana-peel-absurdity-techniques are used somewhat more frequently in American sf than in Soviet, parallel ing the lesser use of imaginative sf technology in general in Soviet l i terature. American sf which does not rely on such devices uses absurd situations. "0 to be a Blobel" by P. K. Dick relates the tribulations of an Earthman, George Munster, who served his planet as a secret agent in the form of the enemy; that i s , for several hours each day he became an amorphous j e l l y -mass. When the war ended between Earth and the Blobels who inhabited Mars and Titan (a moon of Jupiter), he could not return to a permanent human form; his l i f e was miserable; he could not hold a job because any stress would transform him. A doctor part ia l ly solves his problem by acquainting him with one of the conquered enemy who as a secret agent on Earth had to spend several hours each day in human form. They marry, but their relationship does not work—particularly when they have children who obey Mendel's laws. They separate, and eventually George emigrates to Titan, giving up his Earth form permanently, to become a Blobel c i t izen so he can set up a manufacturing plant under Titan's easy tax laws. His wife meanwhile has stabi l ized herself in Earth form to please George and save their marriage. The character of George, egoist ic, petty, and mean insures that the ending is amusing but very s a t i r i c . Po l i t ica l satire is just as sharp as the non-political "Blobel," 76 but i t is even more painless, for i t generally attacks not people but inst i tut ions, and i t is d i f f i c u l t to appreciate a tragedy in the suffer-ing of an inst itut ion even i f the inst itut ion is humanized into a stereo-type. In "Men of Good Wi l l " by Bova and Lewis (1968) the Secretary-General of the United Nations v i s i t s the American Moon base to discover why i t is not fighting with the Russian base, for wherever else Russians and Americans meet, they squabble and f ight. He finds that they did f ight just after they arrived and established bases; however, the bullets which had missed the enemy did not have suff ic ient velocity to escape the Moon's gravity but did have suff ic ient speed to orbit the Moon, smashing into the Moon bases every few hours. The Americans were afraid to f i r e more because their computors could not keep track of any more orbits and warn them when a f l i ght was to str ike. To his dismay, the Secretary-General learns the Americans are building a wall to stop the sa te l l i te s ; then they wi l l get the Russians! "Jokes. . . . promote the thought by augmenting i t and guarding 5 i t against cr i t i c i sm. Employed agressively, a joke can "turn the hearer, who was indifferent. . . . into a co-hater or co-despisor. . . . i t overcomes the inhibit ion of respectabil ity by means of the bonus of pleasure. . . . i t upsets the c r i t i c a l judgement . . . " Freud wrote about jokes, but his comments could be extended to a l l humor, especially to much of the humor found in the sub-genre of Soviet zarubezhnie plakaty. 5 Sigmund Freud, Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious, t r . James Strachey (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1960), pp. 132-133. ^Ibid.j p. 133. 77 He theorized that the raison d'etre of jokes is the pleasure one derives from making them, the technique involved in their construction and oper-ation. The composer of a tendentious, aggressive joke is t i t i l l a t e d by this pleasure (which lowers his inhibitions about insulting someone, for example) and by the pleasure of the thought or meaning of the joke. The l istener also derives pleasure from the mechanical operation of the joke which in the case of a tendentious joke lowers his inhibitions to the point where he can experience the pleasure of the meaning as well. It is important to real ize by this that "Laughing at the same joke is evidence of far-reaching psychical conformity."^ The l istener must be able "to erect in himself the same inhibit ion which the f i r s t person's joke has overcome. . . . This readiness for inhibit ion . . . wi l l . . . be recog-o nized . . . too late, and so be discharged as laughter." Since humor and the reaction to i t d i f fer even within the same culture, any writer who uses humor must operate in empathy with his readers and vice-versa. The appeal of "Men of Good Wi l l " would be limited to the minority of Americans who are able to "see oursel's as o'ers see us." "0 to Be a Blobel" could appeal to a larger audience because i t is apo l i t i ca l . Soviet sf humor is probably not more tendentious than American, but i t is more pol i t ic ized in its tendentiousness and more blatantly aggressive. One of the ear l iest and most tendentious in the Soviet bibliography is Mayakovsky's "Klop" in which the object of r id icule and insult and amuse-ment is the pererozhdenits Prisypkin who embodies what Mayakovsky '^Ibid., p. 151. 78 considers to be a serious fa i l ing of Soviet society. Prisypkin, once a revolutionary, is now practical ly a NEPman and a disgrace to the Revol-ution. Via the device of "frozen sleep," he time-travels to the future where he is studied as an example of homo vulgaris. Mayakovsky clothed his invective with humor to not alienate the audience and to persuade i t to join him in despising Prisypkin. In places the clothes were a b i t thin: advertisements proclaimed the play was "ne pro tebya, a pro tvoego znakomogo" ["not about you, but about your f r iend" ] . Prisypkin's embrace of the audience in the last scene hopefully did not alienate too many spectators: "Brother! . . . How many are there of you!? . . . Why am I alone in the cel l ? " Mayakovsky used similar tactics in "Banya" which was a much more scathing indictment of the shortcomings of Soviet society as he saw them. Bulgakov,who was much less sympathetic to the Revolution than Mayakovsky, used humor in "Ivan Vasi1'yevich" and other sf plays to make his cr i t ic i sm of Soviet society palatable (tried to, that i s ; they were never produced). He used the device of time-travel to compare the society of Ivan the Terrible with contemporary society. After the plays of Bulgakov and Mayakovsky, there is very l i t t l e humorous sf produced d i r -ected at Soviet society, and what is written is very unaggressive. Freud goes so far as, to say that "aggressive tendentious jokes succeed best in people in whose sexuality a powerful sadist ic component q is demonstrable, which is more or less inhibited in real l i f e . " 9Ibid., p. 143. 79 Whether or not this can be applied broadly to humor, and, i f so, whether or not i t can be interpreted to mean that a large number of people either need to hear and read or te l l and write aggressive humor is a moot point. If there exists a real need for the production of tendentious humor, and i f i t is d i f f i c u l t (in Soviet society) to produce anti-domestic humor, then producers must use foreign targets to satisfy themselves and their audiences. A quick glance through Krokodil, the weekly Soviet humor magazine, wi l l i l lus t rate the difference between humor directed at domes-t i c targets and that directed at foreign targets. The f i r s t is often penetrating, but the latter frequently tends toward the vulgar, the rude and the insult ing. American humor, sf and non-sf, applies this car ica-ture humor to both domestic and foreign opponents. Soviet sf humor, i f i t "needs" to use vicious, aggressive banana-peel amusement, must use i t in a foreign context. Nevinnye dela [innocent Affair"] by Rozval is an example of the effect of this l i terary constraint. The novel r idicules unmercifully the economic-military-political superstructure of the United States with-out even ending with a communist revolution. The American defense minister gradually becomes more and more paranoid over the threat of the Communist lands developing a powerful ray weapon. His government even constructs a fake ray-weapon to fool the Communists and show the elector-ate how i t works to defend the American people. One night the defense minister is picked up wandering around in his pajamas without i d e n t i f i -cation; he had mistaken the lights of a f ire-truck in the fog for a Communist ray-attack. He wakes in an emergency psychiatric c l i n i c , 80 imagining he is a POW and demands to see the commandant. The head doctor, who has just spoken with a patient who considers himself Napoleon I, is not impressed by the new patient. When four generals arrive and inform him that the patient real ly is the defense minister, he is stunned; he te l l s his assistant to telegraph the French government immediately. Why? "Tel l them that we have the Emperor of the French, Napoleon. Let them send for h i m . " 1 0 The judge in the novel who conducts a t r i a l of workers who strike the factory producing the fake American ray-weapon is lampooned as a zaikayushohayasya Femida [stammering Themis'] who has no other interest than defending capitalism. The real ruler of the United States, Dokpuller (another Matapal'), manipulates the presidency and the mil itary l ike children, but he is so grossly caricatured that he becomes unreal. On the other hand, the heroes of the checker-game, communists and fellow-travel lers , are not touched by humor at a l l ; they are on the ideologi-cal ly "safe" square. The difference between Kataev's Ostrov and Rozval's Nevinnye is not only forty years, nor is i t only in the degree of aggressiveness displayed by the humor in each; i t l ies also in the fact that a l l the characters in the f i r s t are touched by humor, whereas the heroes in the second are absolutely unfunny ( i t is also true that Kataev is a much better writer). Kataev ridicules the Bad Guys with genuine sarcasm; Rozval r idicules them quite viciously, but succeeds only in making them more enjoyable than the dead pan Good Guys. 1 0 S . Rozval, Nevinnye dela (Moscow: Sovetskiy p i a t e l ' , 1962), p. 295. 81 In Savchenko's play "Novoe oruzhie" an American defense minister becomes insane just l ike the one in Nevinnye; the other v i l l a ins are also amusing while the virtuous could not be more serious. In "Indeks E-81" ["Index E-81"] Varshavsky describes a lecherous old cap i ta l i s t who expires from having a palate too insatiable for the succulent juices of l i f e , but the unwitting hero is not so entertaining. The main char-acter of Lagin's "Mayor Veil End'yu" is i n i t i a l l y a funny old-fashioned, ar istocrat ic Englishman who betrays humanity to the Martians and ends by drinking human blood. A l l Soviet sf humor to be found in the zarubezhnye plakaty would f i t Freud's category of tendentious, aggressive humor. Whether i t does so because such humor is a part of human nature and must be directed toward foreign subjects because domestic subjects are untouchable, or whether i t is only another l i terary device in the arsenal of plakaty is a question I cannot answer with certainty. Perhaps the alternatives are' not mutually exclusive. Most Soviet sf humor is not rude and vulgar; i t is what Freud would term "innocent," "non-aggressive," or "non-tendentious," and i t occurs in contemporary domestic humor. In Varshavsky's "Conf l ict , " a husband enters his apartment to find his wife in tears because the robot-maid corrected her mistakes on a technical paper and dominated her in other ways. The husband asks the robot-maid to treat his wife more tact fu l ly , and the story ends with the maid thinking that humans are insufferable and that i f i t were not for her own l i t t l e robot-chi ld, she would wi l l ing ly throw herself out of the apartment window. 82 Zubkov and Muslin have concocted a series of futur i s t ic jokes about robots entit led "Roboty ulybayutsya" ["Robots Smile"]. One robot addresses another: "You know, recently I've been mistaken for a human!" "What do you expect i f you behave so i l l o g i c a l l y ? " ^ Perhaps the next is better: Scholar-lecturer: Imagine some kind of a r t i f i c i a l reservoir, made from straight- l ine elements and set on four mono-cycular aggregates, placed at equidistant trajectories . . . 1 2 Robot-translator: Imagine . . . a . . . cart. Such humor is essentially a retreat to pre-adult behavior: "absurdity-techniques of jokes are a source of pleasure [which] . . . 13 arises from . . . a r e l i e f from the compulsion of c r i t i c i sm. " The en-joyment of nonsense allows us to escape from the necessity of adult stan-dards. The meaning we attach to this type of humor is merely intended to 14 protect that pleasure from mature cr i t ic i sm. By this path, humor is connected to fantasy which is connected to sf. It is not surprising that such a large portion of sf uses humor. Perhaps the funniest story in the bibliography is "Korifey, i i i umenie diskutirovat 1 " ["The Know-It-All, Or the Ab i l i ty to Discuss"] (1967) by Zubkov and Muslin. A Martian astronomer relates his experiences ^B . Zubkov & Ye. Muslin, "roboty ulybayutsya," Fantastika 19663 part 3, ed. V. Revich (Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1966), p. 327. UIbid., p. 326. 1 3 Freud, p. 127. 1 4 I M d . , p. 131. 83 as a discussion leader of a l l subjects: "I swear by a l l eleven tentacles (and a l l Martians have exactly eleven tentacles) that no one can conduct 15 sc ient i f i c discussions better than I." He started his career when, s l ight ly inebriated in the company of an architect fr iend, he rose and gave an impassioned speech to a hall fu l l of architects, accusing them of mediocrity. Since good l iberals of any profession delight in f l age l -lat ion, his career was launched. He l i s t s the techniques he employed for participating in discussions on subjects about which one is completely ignorant: deviation, for example, which he admits was born during an exam in zoology conducted by Professor Dasha-Gid who had asked twenty students about worms. When the twenty-first was asked about elephants, he repl ied: "The elephant--this is a mammal of Earth with a long worm-shaped trunk. Worms are divided into the following groups . . . Another method of deviation he used at a conference of biochemists: "Before speaking about the synthesis of polyssacharids, I wi l l talk about sand-storms."^ Our astronomer became bored with doing nothing but attending conferences, then he became desperate to avoid them; he had to undermine his reputation to make his attendance undesirable, for he could not simply refuse to attend. To make one's presence obnoxious: "Let the speaker say that he worked at a pressure of ten atmospheres. Ask with 18 much emphasis: "And you didn't have to work at twenty atmospheres?" 15 B. Zubkov & Ye. Muslin, "Korifey, i i i umenie diskut irovat ' , " Fantastika 1967, ed. R. Podol'nyy (Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1967), 343. ^Ibid., p. 345. ]7Ibid.3 p. 347. ]8Ibid., pp. 349-350. Or "Why didn't you continue at a temperature of minus 300°?" Having succeeded in alienating everyone, the Korifey warns the reader not to invite him to another conference: "It wi l l be worse for you. I am very 20 dangerous!" He knows two hundred eighty-three methods of conducting discussion, and he has described only a few of them. Not the most dangerous. Ibid., p. 350. lIbid., p. 351. CHAPTER VI UTOPIA One aspect of sf that I have mentioned only indirect ly is the technological-social-economic context in which an author "sets" a story. In the tales of Jules Verne i t is assumed that one man or a private group of men (the "Gun Club" in Journey to the Moon) can perfect devices that are far superior to the general technology of their time-period; for example, the submarine Nautilus and the air-ship the Argonaut in 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea and Robur, Master of the World. Early twentieth century authors operated by a similar precept (the space ship of Los 1 and Gusev in Aelita, the cosmic-energy ship in "Colussus"), but sf authors, trying to be rea l i s t i c and s c i en t i f i c , were eventually con-fronted with the fact that space-flight is a complex undertaking that only nations, not individuals, can accomplish. Appropriate s c i en t i f i c -economic-social superstructures must be constructed, however sketchily, to house such fantasies as space-fl ight, time travel , etc. Today sf tales no longer predicate a man building a space-ship in his ce l lar and launching i t from his backyard. Sf readers and the magazines which pre-sumably represent their taste are too sophisticated to accept such a faux pas. Even the most common American sf adventure tale does not d is -regard realism ent ire ly, though i t may be consumed by "lower-class" sf fans whose l i terary and sc ient i f i c discrimination is infer ior to those fans who subscribe to Galaxy, an upper class sf magazine. 86 In the ' fort ies the appearance of high-caste sf, which neglects adventure for personalities and their reactions to science and the un-known, added impetus to the use of rea l i s t i c backgrounds, for how can a personality be explored better than in a total environment? Occasionally, old-fashioned po l i t i ca l and social systems may be found alongside highly developed technology and economy, but of course i t is not precisely clear what systems wi l l or wi l l not foster sc ient i f i c development. Authors usually provide the minimum amount of information neces-sary to make the reader feel comfortable. In short stories especial ly, the reader who is not an habitue of the mental salons of sf authors may be confused. On the f i r s t page of "Cr i t i ca l Mass" by Pohl and Kornbluth we learn the time is 1998, the place is America and the hero is grad-uating as a c i v i l engineer from a very large university. Even a novice reader may not be confused, but what about the f i r s t paragraph in "Schedule" In the Medusa's shadowy forecabin lumintubes f l ickered as the ship staggered under the thrust of the hyperaccelerators. Then she was over the hump and the tubes burned brighter than they yet had, while energy surged from every atom of the ship, i ts cargo animate and inanimate, into the Carlson accumulators. Four men looked at one another, tensely expectant as of something certain to come, something familiar yet always to be awaited with trepidation.! High-caste American sf, reinforced by reflections of 1984 and Brave New World, has produced not only variations on these two novels but also historical sf; that i s , novels or tr i logies (Asimov's ^H. Walton, "Schedule," Men Against the Stars, ed. Martin Green-burg (New York: Pyramid Books, 1958), p. 79. 87 "Foundation" series) or even quadrologies (Blish's Cities in Flight) which, l ike Lyapunov's Meohte navstrechu, are written as though they are histories of the future. They use a prologue that frequently takes the form of an entry from some kind of Galactic Encyclopedia to enlighten the reader. Asimov in his Foundation series prefaces chapters with excerpts from the Encyclopedia Galactica which are "taken from the 116th edition published in 1020 F.E. by Encyclopedia Galactica Publishing Co., Terminus [a planet] with permission of the Publishers." Asimov's "history" is too remote in time and space to apply to the future of contemporary society, but The Stars Are Ours by Andre Norton is relevant: The f i r s t Galactic exploratory f l i ght and colonization f l i gh t came as a . . . result of a series of wars between national ist ic divisions . . . a secret underground movement resulted in the forma-tion of "Free Scientist" teams . . . who sold their services to . . . industry and governments. . . . Under the stimulus of Free Scientist encouragement man achieved interplanetary f l i ght . Terra was the f i f t h in a series of nine planets revolving about the sun, Sol I. It possessed one s a te l l i t e , Luna.3 The Encyclopedia Galactica describes the destruction of most of the Earth's population by enemies of the Free Scient ists, the emergence of a world dictator, and the enforcement of ignorance on the population. James Blish uses excerpts from The Milky Way: Five Cultural Portraits written by Acreef-Monales after the destruction of the Milky Way galaxy in Cities. Soviet sf novelists do not use this convenient, authoritative and I. Asimov, Foundation (New York: Avon Books, 1968), p. 7. 3 A. Norton, The Stars Are Ours (New York: Ace Books, Inc., 1954), p. 5. 88 " r ea l i s t i c " introduction. Instead, well into a story, the author wi l l take time out from the narrative to spend several paragraphs or pages explaining as much as he feels is important,as Yefremov does in Andromeda, Belyaev in Zvezda KETs and Zabelin in Poyas zhizni [Band of Life]. These inserts perform not only an explanatory function as in American sf, but a narrative function as well when they occur in a work which is not set in the future, but which is about the future, about the po l i t i ca l - soc ia l -economic milieu of the future. American sf may provide similarly ten-dentious information, but with different goals. More than a third of the works in both the American and Soviet bibliographies contain some description of the future. These may be divided into: positive and negative domestic c r i t i c i sm, anti-western pamphleteering, anti-soviet pamphleteering, ant i -cap i ta l i s t pamphleteer-ing, Utopian and ant i -utopian l i t e r a t u r e . These categories can overlap but in general are distinguishable. Positive domestic cr i t ic i sm is simply approval of the current social positions of the writer 's society extended into the not too distant future. For example, Heinlein's The Man Who Sold the Moon describes a "wheeling-dealing" businessman who uses somewhat unscrupulous methods to raise the funds necessary for launching a Moon rocket. The means are jus t i f ied by the fact that i f this American cap i ta l i s t does not reach the Moon, no one else w i l l , for neither the United States nor the United Nations is inter-ested. The conquest of the Moon is made a venture of private enterprise. The author, consciously or unwittingly, is demonstrating approval of capitalism (of monopolistic capitalism, even), of the American virtues 89 of dollar-chasing, fraudulent advertising, the whole cuture of caveat -emptor--all because these are used to further the conquest of space which the author believes is good. Another American establishes the f i r s t successful contact with Venus in "A. Can of Paint" by A.E. van Vogt by passing an intell igence test the Venusians designed; a son of a wealthy American businessmen does the same in "The Iron Standard" by Lewis Padgett. American private enterprise wi l l sponsor the conquest of space; American inventiveness and i n i t i a t i v e , spawned in the competitive market economy, wi l l overcome any obstacle. "Cold Front" by Clement, Mars Is My Destination by F.B. Long and a l l the space-adventure works of Heinlein demonstrate that American industry, whatever its fau l ts , delivers the goods. There is at least as much positive domestic cr i t ic ism in Soviet sf as in American, and what i t praises is just as remote from the real i ty of Soviet society as the praise of American sf is from American rea l i ty . "Chyornyy svet" by Kol'tsov and "Heroic Feat" by Dneprov emphasize the sacr i f ice of mundane pleasures for the benefit of society; in both, the hero is rewarded for his courage by the pleasure he had temporarily forsworn (the love of a woman) and by the knowledge of f u l -f i l l i n g his duty. These are traits which presumably wi l l be possessed by the New Soviet Man stereotype in the future. Ear l ier works, Izgnanie vladyki by Adamov and Aelita by Tolstoy, resemble American sf in that they embody the triumph of Soviet "know how," as well as redeeming moral values, over the opposition of foreign capital ists and Nature and over a decadent Martian social system similar to Western oligarchies. 90 In an adventure novel for youth, Zvezdniy bumerang [starry Boom-erang] by Volgin, a Soviet teenager vanquishes an American engineer in a debate before an inoplaneimiy audience on the relat ive advantages of a communist vs. cap i ta l i s t society (Volgin operates on the Yefremovian principle of a technically advanced society being communist). Poyas zhiznij set in the 1980's, relates, among other adventures, the conquest of Venus by a Soviet expedition. It is a novel for youth, dedicated to the conquest of Chaos by Reason (Soc ia l i s t , that i s ) . And the band of l i f e passes not only through the solar system, separating " l i ve " planets [Earth, Mars, Venus] from dead [the others]. It passes across the Earth, separating the society of the future from the society l iv ing out i ts last decades. It even passes through communist society, separating real communists, rest-less people who believe in the future, from the petty bourgeoisie disguised as communists. We . . . w i l l not mistake the bourgeois for our own, although they swear adherence to communism. They . . . belong to the past . . A Other stories such as Kazantsev's Lunaya doroga [Lunar Road] and Dolgushin's GCh emphasize Soviet technology in various ways, but in a l l the stories which are otherwise analogous to American sf there may be found moralities without which the technology of a story is irrelevant or at least not so effect ive. American sf contains heroism, for example, but nothing more than that; the only morality in an American sf character is success. How many BEMs did he blast? How many of the enemy did he k i l l ? It is not how he did i t , but what he did--even in contemporary sf. Soviet sf bases the success of Soviet science and heroes on Soviet I. Zabelin, Poyas zhizni (Moscow: Geografgiz, 1960), p. 282. 91 morality, a conscious recognition by the heroes that an action is good because it will benefit mankind and because communists just naturally do "good" things. In Lunaya doroga Soviet cosmonauts do not merely conquer the Moon; they imperil their own safety by rescuing an American astro-naut in space and another on the Moon; one cosmonaut even gives his life for the knowledge that has been gained. In Poyas an American espionage agent, sent by an evil capitalist to sabotage the Soviet space effort, is converted by the inherent goodness of Soviet society that rubs off on him into an ally of the Russians, even at the cost of his own life. Is more evidence required by the cynical sceptics who reject Rousseau's Noble Savage? The main character in The Man Who Sold the Moon is moti-vated by ego; the Soviet hero in Poyas is a social outcropping. Negative criticism is denial of the virtues of the writer's con-temporary society extended into the near future. It is not simply the reverse of positive domestic criticism, for it usually attacks different aspects of the culture which the former lauded. Heinlein, after approv-ing private enterprise for space travel, thoroughly ridicules religion and exotic religious institutions in one of his very best works Stranger in a Strange Land; he also assails those operations of government, such as police, which, allowed to function unrestrainedly, interfere with in-dividual liberty. Government appears at best as a necessary evil, en-meshed in a web of mediocrity; it must be constantly prodded by individ-uals lest it degenerate into authoritative oligarchical habits. The American military mind is savagely mocked in "Push-button Passion" by A.C. Friborg and "Disappearing Act" by Alfred Bester which 92 are set in the context of a long, destructive war with the Soviet Union and describe the dictator ia l powers assumed by the mil itary leadership and the inab i l i ty of this leadership to remedy or even understand the social neuroses produced by a protracted conf l i c t . Bl ish 's Cities in Flight details a cold war situation which produces in America a p o l i t i -cal system similar to that of the authoritarian Communist states: a bureaucratic regime which is actually ruled by the Chief of the F.B.I, who inherits his post and uses his secret police to control pol i t ic ians by force and blackmail. From one of the quadrology's h istor ical excerpts, we learn: "There had never been any direct mil itary conquest of the West by the Soviets. . . . Instead, . . . In i ts anxiety to prevent i n f i l t r a -tion by the enemy, the West developed thought controls of i ts own, which grew ever tighter. In the end, the two opposing cultures could no longer be told apart . " 5 Negative domestic cr i t ic i sm appeared ear l ier in Soviet sf than in American which did not produce i t unti l after World War II. With "Klop" and "Banya" Mayakovsky severely derided those aspects of Soviet l i f e he considered unrevolutionary. Bulgakov's "Rokovye yaytsa" and "Ivan Vasi l 'yevich" are not so selective; they are simply anti-Soviet. Zamiatin's We (My) which has never been published in Russia is the James B l i sh, Cities in Flight (New York: Avon Books, 1970) p. 238. ^It is d i f f i c u l t to escape the conclusion that Mayakovsky, des-pite the persecution he endured toward the end of his l i f e by the o f f i c i a l and semi-off icial l i terary establishment, was never against the Revolution. One feels that he died because he could not immerse him-sel f in i t . 93 most famous (or infamous) example. It is set ostensibly in the distant future when buildings wi l l be made of a glass as strong as steel and when technology can build and launch a space ship, but i t is real ly a symbolic satire on the "well doer," Lenin. Almost everything in the story may be interpreted sarcast ical ly or s a t i r i c a l l y . The city of the "well-doer" has isolated i t se l f from the world; l ike the Soviet state, i t ignores what is outside its walls until the outside breaks i n , aided by that part of man's personality the well-doer cannot regulate: fancy. Eventually, the well-doer must remove fancy from the city inhabitants to preserve order. The space ship is bu i l t to carry the g i f t of order to other worlds; i t is just as successful as the world proletarian revolu-tion. A l l the machinations of the city are a grotesque parody on Lenin's desires for a rational society. After "Ivan Vasi1'yevich" which was written in 1935 but not pub-l ished, I found no examples of domestic negative cr i t ic i sm unti l Granin's Those Who Seek in 1953. The po l i t i ca l conditions of Stal in 's rule, the purge t r i a l s of 1936-1938, the war-time l i terary patriotism and Stal in 's increasing post-war paranoia undoubtedly restricted the appearance of such. Granin, l ike Mayakovsky, is an adherent of the Revolution, and his work c r i t i c i zes only certain aspects of Soviet society. In fact , his targets were similar to Mayakovsky's: careerism in science and po l i t i c s , with the accompanying evi ls of toadyism, obstructionism, e l i t i sm, etc. The main conf l ic t is between the inventor Lobanov, who is trying to perfect a device for locating breaks in underground e lectr ic power transmission cables, and his former friend Potapenko, once a capable engineer but now a careerist, king of his department, aspiring only to a l o f t i e r position in administration. Lobanov's ambitions conf l ic t with this petty bureaucrat's efforts to let no talent outshine his own, and Lobanov must oppose him administratively and through the local Party apparatus. The novel also contains a conf l ic t between Lobanov and a representative of the sc ient i f i c bureaucracy, Tonkov, who defends estab-lished Soviet science and tries to discredit Lobanov's unorthodox inven-tiveness. One Soviet c r i t i c interprets the novel as a conf l ic t between corrupt individualism and the progressive co l lect ive.^ "Wait!" Victor [Potapenko] smiled i ron ica l ly . "Let me help you descend to Earth, comrade Utopian [Lobanov]. Do you know what you ' l l have to do [in the lab]? Somewhere a cable has broken--you must find out why and how. Some drunken repairman didn't connect a wire, and you must d isc ip l ine and explain. Repair. . . . Test. . . . Argue with the supplymen--this is our science for you."8 Victor is the antagonist, but we are given insight into what has made him so. He is s t i l l fr iendly with Lobanov in this conversation: "And after a l l th is—there are people, characters, with whom you must deal. Someone needs to make some more money,--you can't feed him with ideals. Someone is envious. . . . Another takes bribes, yes, just l ike in Chekhov. Each is sat isf ied with his ab i l i t y ; no one is sat isf ied by 9 his position." ^A. F. Brit ikov, "Evol'yutsiya nauchno-fantasticheskogo romana," Istoviya Russkogo Sovetskogo Romana (Moscow: Nauka, 1965), II, p. 165. o D. Granin, Iskateli (Leningrad: Sovetskiy p i s a t e l 1 , 1960), pp. 23-24. 9Ibid., p. 27. 95 Another character, one of the "good guys," speaks to a laboratory assis-tant: " i f , despite my predictions, your Lobanov achieves anything rea l , i f somewhere he cracks our hide-bound system, then I'm his a n y . " 1 0 Towards the end of the novel, Lobanov asks the chief engineer "forgive me for my frankness, but doesn't i t seem to you that such people as Potapenko and Dolgin [another v i l l a i n ] hinder the technical progress of the system?" 1 1 The chief agrees, but adds "Their positions are secure. It would take a great struggle to conquer them. I don't have the s t rength . " 1 2 The conf l ic t is not between individualism and the co l lect ive, but between good and bad co l lect ives, for the bad guys are just as well organ-ized as the good guys. Essential ly, the problem is that Potapenko and his i l k are mortal humans with human faults and Lobanov is a super-idea l i s t . At least, that is how a bourgeois c r i t i c might evaluate the novel, but to the author and to Soviet c r i t i c s , this is the problem re-peated from Poyas; Potapenko is an ordinary, degenerate human. Lobanov is a Communist. The author shows that in the large Soviet system there is a tremendous amount of iner t ia , composed of Potapenkos and Tonkovs and their henchmen, which is d i f f i c u l t to overcome. At the end of the novel there is no suggestion that i t wi l l be overcome. Three years later a very similar sf work was published, Dudintsev's Not by Bread Alone. It d i f fers in that the " iner t ia " is even more ™Ibid.3 p. 64. 11Ibid.j p. 333. 'l2Ibid.J p. 334. 96 powerful, and the hero is "framed" into a prison sentence. He is released by one of the judges who sentenced him and is rehabilitated along with his invention, but the Potapenkos, or Drozdovs in this story, are s t i l l in power at the end of the novel. Good did not destroy e v i l ; i t merely thwarted i t . Granin published Idu na gvozu ten years after Those Who Seek. It is similar to the f i r s t but much milder on the "hidebound" system although very pointed about Stalinism and the foss i l ized science inherited from the "personality cu l t . " One of the characters, an older sc ient i s t , feels constrained even after the Twentieth Party Congress. He reflects that younger sc ient i s t s , his pupils, can not understand him; . . . they didn't know his fears. None of them worked in those times when one had to be s i lent , when i t was often impossible to say what one thought, when the outcome of sc ient i f i c discussions was de-cided by some direct ive, when he, Golitsyn, feared to answer the letters of his foreign colleagues, when idealism was expressed by a formula.13 The hero, Krylov, during a discussion with some friends "• • • . with shame remembered how he himself, even then an inte l l igent lad, found some higher wisdom in an ar t i c le by S t a l i n . " ^ The novel is a generation-gap conf l ic t which Granin ends by drawing a balance between the old S ta l in i s t inte l l igents ia and the new post Stal in sc ient ists : the old must change, while the young must slow its pace a b i t . The hero, Krylov, is the Golden Mean which ultimately triumphs. 13 • D. Granin, Idu na Gvozu (Leningrad: Sovetskiy p i s a te l ' , 1963), p. 64. 1 4JMd., p. 133. 97 Most recent sf cr it ic ism is much more limited and seems to be a kind of warning rather than a genuine comment on contemporary society. "Eksperiment" by Kazakova is the reaction of a female sentimentalist to science; "Razgovor chuzhoy ten'yu" by Dneprov is a more serious manifes-tation of the author's l i terary goals: And here, one may suppose, is a boundless f i e l d of action for the a r t i s t i c intuit ion of the ar t i s t who describes the future of people. . . . Surely, in order to not contradict rea l i t y , a writer must understand not only l i terary s k i l l s , but also, even i f only in gen-eral outl ine, the essence of those sc ient i f i c discoveries which wi l l influence the lives of future generations. . . J 5 Dneprov adds that the role of sf is that of propagandist and herald of s c ient i f i c progress, 1^ and another writer, Victor Saparin, states: "The sf writer is not a popularizor but an agitator and warrior for the develop-ment of science and the welfare of people." 1^ Both writers apparently accept seriously their responsibi l ity as engineers of human souls. They do not describe what they believe a future communist society ought to be; they attempt to discover the problems of the future and forewarn their readers of the dangers inherent in the development of technology i f that technology is misunderstood and mis-applied. The anti-Western or zarubezhnyy plakat usually v i l i f i e s non-communist national governments and no doubt conveys indirect satisfaction 15 A. Dneprov, "Tropy v neznaemoe," Voprosy Literatury, August, 1964, p. 71. ^Ibid.j p. 72. ^ V . Savchenko, "'Pochemu' i 'dlya chego'," Voprosy Literatury, August, 1964, p. 78. 98 to the Soviet reader for living in a socialist state. The works which belong partially or wholly to this category are very numerous and almost always contain (1) a description of someone who had the misfortune to be born on the "wrong side" of the iron curtain or (2) a tale of sneaky capitalists trying to subvert or frustrate the USSR. It is possible the second type of plakat was born out of the hos-tility displayed toward Russia during the 'twenties by most of the West and out of the not yet defunct dreams of world revolution; the German conflict reinforced this megalomaniac paranoia. Tolstoy's Death-Ray is the oldest example of this type in the sf I have read. The main charac-ter, Garin, is actually a Russian, but he emigrates and allies himself with an American capitalist, planning to conquer the world with his ray-weapon and American capital; he creates a monetary collapse in the United States and becomes dictator of America, but the masses revolt behind a Communist from Russia and depose him. "Vechniy khleb" ["The Eternal Bread"] by Belyaev, "Glinyaniy bog" ["The Clay God"] by Dneprov and Ostrov Erendorfa by Kataev all contain mass uprisings which frustrate capitalist designs, but the danger of anti-communism is reflected more seriously in GCh by Dolgushin and Adomov's Tayna and Izgnanie. The first defends Russia against the inroads of Nazi Germany, the second against Imperial Japan and the last against world capitalism. Soviet intelligence agents shine in each plot. More recent examples of this literature are Nevinnye dela by Rozval and "Novoe oruzhie" by Savchenko in both of which the American government tries to develop weapons to destroy the Soviet Union but fails through 99 its own stupidity or the "one-upmanship" of the Russians. There are no horror stories about a foreign invasion of the USSR or war between i t and America or battles between Soviet and American 1 g spacemen. Most of the anti-western stories are of the f i r s t type; that i s , narratives centering on characters persecuted either by inhuman capitalism or by inhuman capitalism combined with repressive militarism. In "Ispol'nenie zhelaniy" ["Your Heart's Desire"] (1967) by Firsov a starving American sc ient ist is given a wonderful house for his family and a machine which wi l l give him anything he desires so long as he works well for a company designing parts of a bomb. Everything is fine for a time, but his work suffers from personal misfortune (the death of his child) and he k i l l s himself to avoid being used by the company in a cruel experiment for fa i l ing his part of the contract. Not only is American capitalism attacked: young doctor Popf in Argentina invents an e l i x i r which wi l l greatly speed the physical matur-ation process of animals and humans in Lagin's Pat Ent "AB" (1947). The doctor envisions cheap food for the masses, but his plans are frus-trated by one of the six families who control the economy and want to keep food prices high in their monopoly. The e l i x i r is stolen and used on children to produce automaton soldiers who can be trained (since they are immature mentally) to do any dangerous or vi l lainous task. The doctor and a local Communist, Aneyro, who befriended him, are falsely accused of murder, tried in a rigged court and sentenced to death. They 18 Peter Yershov points out one exception: Belyaev's Battle of the Ether. I have not been able to obtain this account of war between the USSR and the USA. 100 are saved by a famous lawyer and by a l l the unions and popular po l i t i ca l organizations which proclaim a general str ike to force the government to order a new and fa i r t r i a l which frees Popf and Aneyro. Unfortunately, the strike ends, and the capital ists return to power. Probably the type plots and characters of the plakaty are not so amusing to the Soviet reader as to the Western; there are few that are purposefully amusing, though Varshavsky's "Indeks E-81" ["Index E-81"] (1964) t r ies : a mi l l iona ire, Faust, wrinkled as a pear, with a laugh l ike a squeaky water-faucet and too old and feeble to enjoy good food and sex d i rect ly , hires a tramp to enjoy them and transmit the sensations via mental transmitter, but when the tramp treats a Negro friend in a white restaurant and is subsequently h i t over the head and thrown into j a i l by angry whites, Faust dies from a cerebral hemorrhage. This kind of plakat is enjoyable, and at the same time successful, for i t makes the point about racial conf l ic t and the moral depravity of capitalism under the cover of a joke—which denies argument or serious examination. A l l the plakaty select certain facts about the Western scene and distort them; when they do i t seriously, the product is not too effective but when they joke, the result can be potent. Humor is a dangerous weapon. Al l of the zarubezhnye plakaty are not Soviet; a few are written by American authors about conf l ic t between the United States and Russia. First on the Moon (1958) by J . Sutton is a tale of the race between Amer-ican and Soviet space vehicles to reach the Moon f i r s t ; i t reads l ike a James Bond adventure story. Four American astronauts take off in a secret rocket; one of them, i t is later learned, is a Soviet agent, and 1.01 the American commander must discover which. A Russian ship tries to attack the American vessel in f l i gh t , but f a i l s and crashes on the Moon, having used up too much fue l . One of its crew, an East German, survives and is brought to the American ship which landed successfully. A second Russian rocket arrives; i ts crew destroys the American ship, but is wiped out single-handedly by the American commander who had evacuated his ship ear l ier with his crew, the Americans occupy the Russian ship. When they discover a Soviet warhead is heading for them, the Communist agent strikes and k i l l s two of the Americans; the East German, being a good guy at heart, sacr i f ices himself to k i l l the agent, leaving the com-mander to survive the warhead and welcome the next space-ship, which arrives with the Secretary-General of the United Nations who confirms the American claim to the Moon. This story, compared to Kazantsev's Lunaya doroga, emphasizes the relative non-violent attitude of Soviet sf. A similar story of armed conf l ict and espionage may be found in Twenty-first Century Sub (1955) by Frank Herbert, but a real "G.I. Joe" story is "The Red Per i l " (1928) by U.S. army captain S.P. Meek in which the council of seven commissars which rules Russia declares war against the whole world and almost wins i t thanks to some ingenious weapons-indestructible bombers and biological warfare. American ingenuity triumphs, however, in the guise of a young army of f icer and a Russian emigre; the world is saved, and Russia i t se l f revolts and overthrows the council of commissars. There are no descriptions of people persecuted in communist nations; a l l the American anti-Soviet sf is set in the context of a "hot" war or in hos t i l i t ie s of a temperature considerably warmer than the "cold" war 102 relations of the past half-century. This is opposite to the ant i -western plakaty which avoid the context of mil itary conf l ic t almost com-pletely. At most, they adapt the s t i l l o f f i c i a l l y sanctioned myth of international worker sol idar i ty and postulate strikes and internal con-f l i c t s in non-communist nations. Most Soviet sf does not refer to the existence and operation of capitalism or a capi ta l i s t America in the future. Those stories which contain a reference to either usually accept their existence as a neces-sary evi l or use them as backgrounds to remove a story from the Soviet context. There may not be a way to te l l Dneprov's* with Soviet charac-ters, "Formula bessmertiya," which describes the turmoil of a young man who discovers that his mother was an android, made by his father. Sf horror stor ies, so common to "cheaper" American sf, but f a i r l y unusual to Soviet, may be sublimated into foreign settings so that they escape being labelled "decadent, bourgeois l i terature. " I have found few BEMs in Soviet sf, and with three exceptions, a l l the more reprehen-sible apparitions and grotesque tales that I read are zarubezhnye plakaty. Of the domestic BEM stor ies, one is by Bulgakov, who never appreciated 19 the Revolution; the second is Levada's play "Faust i smert'" which 19 The most horriferocious Soviet domestic BEM story is Bulgakov's "Rokovye yaytsa": a professor of zoology in Moscow in 1928 discovers a l ight ray which accelerates the growth of cel ls and increases the size of animal tissue. An ambitious (and ignorant) Sovkhoz director persuades the government to let him use the ray on chicken eggs before i t is real ly tested. By mistake he uses repti le eggs. Russia would have been over-run by gigantic anacondas, crocodiles and ostriches but for an early frost which k i l led them off--not before an enraged mob has k i l led the professor. Bulgakov's description is worthy of any American or Japanese BEM story: Zmeya . . . ukhvatila zubami Manyu [the Sovkhoz director 's wife] 103 uses an abstract monster, and the third is "Soda-sol'ntse" ["Soda-Sun"] by Ancharov which describes a monster of the i d , a psychological phenom-ena which is not flesh or steel . There are no Russian professors growing gigantic, man-eating beetles or spiders in their backyards; such stories are easi ly assessed as ant i - soc ia l , as Bulgakov's "Rokovye yaytsa," and I doubt that many Soviet authors would care to have their work regarded thus. Yet, i f there is a market for such f i c t ion (as in the United States) and a willingness or need to produce i t , then how can an author better avoid cr i t ic i sm than by placing his monster-story in a cap i ta l i s t 20 context and even meshing i t with a revolutionary ending? osedayushchuyu v pyl ' zaplecho, tak chto vzdernula na arshin nad zemley. . . . Zmeya izvernulas '. . . . khvost' yeyo vzmel smerch', i stala Manyu davit. Vysoko nad zemley vzmetnulas' golova Mani, nezhno pr izh iva l i s ' k zmeynoy shkyoke. Izo rta Mani plesnula krov'yu. . . . is pod nogtey bryznuli fontanchiki krovi. Zatem zmeya vyvykhnuv chelyusti, raskryla past' i razom nadela svoyu golovu na golovu Mani i stala nalezat' na neyo kak perchatka na palets. (pp. 78-79, Sbornik rasskazov by Bulgakov) The story is a satire on the Soviet system; but a l l i ts details are susceptible to a psychological as well as a po l i t i ca l interpretation ( i f one is distinguishable from the other here). 20 The emotional reaction aroused by a story such as "Glinyanyy bog" by Dneprov or "Mayor Veil End'yu" by Lagin is derived from either "repressed infant i le complexes [which] have been revived by some impres-sion, or when the primitive beliefs we have surmounted seem once more to be confirmed." The latter category refers to animistic beliefs of our less c i v i l i zed ancestors which, however, are closely related to infant i le complexes so that the dist inction is frequently d i f f i c u l t to establish --according to Freud in "The Uncanny," On Creativity and the Unconscious, ed. Benjamin Nelson (Harper & Bros., New York), p. 157. The reaction to the stonemen in "Glinyanyy" is based on fear of the dead (ghosts, ghouls and zombies), while the Martian monsters may arouse a fear for one's body; that i s , what would the horrible creatures do i f they were to grasp you with their slimy tentacles and pull you L 104 i "Glinyanyy bog" by Dneprov is set in a backward African country to which a French sc ient is t travels to work in an isolated community in the desert with other scientists on a task about which he learns l a ter - -turning l iv ing people into stone monsters that are al ive and obedient--granite zombies! The evi l sc ient is t who hired him plans to sel l them to fasc ist governments as soldiers. The Frenchmen leaves the community and returns with a national- l iberation group to f ight with the peripatetic statues; he cuts off the supply of nutrient they must drink every few minutes to keep from "freezing" and dying and defeats the evi l sc ient is t . Just as horrible as Bulgakov's serpents in "Rokovye yaytsa" are the mutated bears in Gansovsky's "A Day of Wrath" who threaten to destroy humanity. The main character is f i na l l y eaten a l ive. That the bears think and talk inte l l i gent ly and even resemble humans somewhat make their carnivorous habits more frightening. The author has produced an excellent Freudian monster. to their drooling mouths? This fear for one's limbs or body is primar-i l y the fear of castration. There is a very definite market in America both among youth and adults for horror stories ranging from the juvenile BEMs to the more mature terror of Ambrose B ierce- -a l l of which u t i l i z e with different suc-cess the techniques that Freud mentioned. If we can assume that Russians, even Soviet Russians, operate with psychosexual complexes similar to those of Americans, the existence of a market for BEM l i terature cannot be doubted. The difference between Soviet and American BEMs appears to be that the former are not born as deeply in the id . A writer, Freud claims, can manipulate the reader by pretending to move in the realm of real i ty and then springing something uncanny (p.159). Sf is part icularly suited to this , for its monsters are cloaked with a sem-blance of s c ient i f i c explanation. Soviet BEMs are usually not too f r ight -ening, but that seems to be a result of composition rather than purpose. 105 These and other horror stories are not vehicles for exhibiting the evils of capitalism. Their development is a function of their authors' and readers' psychology; an anti-communist milieu removes them from Russian soil where their sowing would undoubtedly reap a-storm of criticism. Imagine the review in Liternaturnaya Gazeta of Draoula if Dracula were a kolkhoz commissar or a deputy of the Supreme Soviet! Critics would claim that Dracula is terribly bourgeois and reactionary. How could a decent Soviet author compose such a creation? In addition to using capitalism in a displacement process, the philosophy of capitalism, identified malignantly, provides a convenient foil for the wilder adventure stories in the bibliography: "Kosmicheskiy bog," by Bilenkin.rfre Garin Death-Ray, "Soprikosnoven'ye" by Gansovsky, The Amphibian and Golova Professora Douelya by Belyaev. Golova is set in post World War I Germany where an evil Professor Kerner, after murder-ing his department chief, secretly cuts off the victim's head and res-tores it to consciousness, feeding it intravenously and piping air to its vocal cords for speech. Kerner forces the head to help him write articles and perform other experiments. Soon Kerner revives two other heads, male and female, from bodies he acquired at the morgue and ulti-mately attaches the female head to another female body. This composite person flees the evil Kerner who in a rage puts his pretty laboratory assistant into a private psychiatric prison where he expects she will die or become insane. Through a long chain of coincidences, she is res-cued by the son of Professor Douel', who, with the help of a friend and the composite female, exposes Kerner and has him arrested for the murder 106 of Douel 1. In despair, Kerner shoots himself. The unhealthy environment of capitalism in this story, or the opposition of capitalism to communist humanity in "Kosmicheskiy" and "Soprikosnoven'ye" provide a convenient peg on which to hang a plot, while respecting o f f i c i a l demands for soc-i a l i s t cr i t ic i sm. Does the id have a place in Soviet sf futures? Utopian sf, which is small in quantity but which provides the most complete hypotheses of the future, eliminates capitalism and monsters and almost any individual behaviour deemed socia l ly harmful. In the plots there is l i t t l e intra-personal conf l i c t and less inter-personal conf l i c t . For example, the hero of "The Tr ia l of Tantalus" by Saparin l ives at a time when there are no national boundaries; he is a member of a world organization fighting diseases on an Earth from which a l l the old dangerous bacteria and v i r i have been eliminated. New varieties develop, only to be conquered and controlled. There is no mention of social conf l i c t . Most of the Utopian s tor ies at least mention the demise of c a p i t a l -ism and international hos t i l i t y . Some lecture on i t , l ike Yefremov's Andromeda, "Professor Bern's Awakening" by Savchenko and "Tol'ko odin chas" ["Only One Hour"] by Firsov. Generally, in the Utopias there is no violence between rational beings, l i t t l e disease, no plagues. There is a much longer l i fe-span, technology to satisfy every need, easy mobil-i ty of work and social posit ion, complete and continuing education for a l l , numerous recreations, real art (no decadent Dadaism or Picasso or Moore), excitement for those who desire i t in exploration, etc. - -a para-dise with no police and governed by scientists and engineers. In 107 Andromeda there is even an island for anarchists, megalomaniacs and nature-worshippers who cannot l ive in paradise. Andromeda is the best example of a Utopian novel of the sf read for th i s paper. The other Utopian s tor ies such as Kumbi by Gor and Zvezda KETs by Belyaev contain only fragments of the "good l i f e . " Why so l i t t l e of Utopia? One might expect this category of sf to be over-flowing with works by authors eager to depict glorious communism in the distant future; i t should be the last word in human engineering. Andromeda, whatever faults may be assigned to i t , must be recog-nized as the product of a powerful imagination, able to create a large number of details and mold them into a narrative form. It is the exposi-tory, prophetic nature of the novel which is just as important ( i f not more important) than the adventures of the characters which are infant i le compared with the profound monologues the characters occasionally deliver on the history of the next mi l lenia. The works most similar to Andromeda in the bibliography are Re-ports from the 21st Century by Vasil 'yev and Gushchev and Mechte nav-streahu by Lyapunov which are part f i c t ion and part exposition. The most similar novel is Zvezda KETs by Belyaev, but in i t the main charac-ter is more integrated into the Utopia, about which there is consider-ably less exposition. Kumbi, far superior to either Andromeda or Zvezda in l i terary qual ity, contains much less Utopian exposition than either and is entirely constructed around the main character. Another novel similar to Andromeda in the catalogue of Utopian details is Zamiatin's We, but the resemblance is accidental, for i t is 108 real ly a sat i re, as was pointed out above; its "future" is a direct attack on Lenin and the Revolution. It is the closest example I have found in Soviet sf to an "anti-utopia," but genuine anti-utopian works which separate their "futures" from contemporary personalities are apparently produced only in the West, the most famous being the English Brave New World and 1984. These emphasize a marked deterioration of l ibertarian values either through a brutal megalomaniac, one-party state or through a permissive system which encourages pre-natal conditioning and sublimation of aggressive desires into orgiastic drug and sex act iv i ty . American sf has produced several adaptations of these English themes in the post World War II era: "How-2" by Simak, The Status Civil-ization by Sheckly, Of Men and Monsters by Tenn, and The Space Merchants by Pohl and Kornbluth. The f i r s t presents a world in which everyone has so much spare time, they must have hobbies to complete themselves psychologically; the main character constructs a robot with a reproduc-tive urge, and a revolution begins: "We'll build robots. Lots of robots . . . we' l l go on manufacturing How-2 kits [hobby kits that everyone uses to f i l l their spare time] only they ' l l be pre-assembled to save you the trouble of putting them together. . . . You won't have to worry 21 about a thing the rest of your l i f e . " Perhaps this society has too much of a "good thing." The Status C i v i l i z a t i o n describes two planets: Earth, a middle-class culture with r ig id social mores where every man is his own 21 C l i f ford Simak, "How-2," Five Tales From Tomorrow, ed. T. E. Dikty (New York: Crest Books, 1957), p. 99. 109 policeman, and Omega, to which a l l Earth's criminals are exiled and where evil is worshipped, l i t e r a l l y , rather than good. The only s imi lar i ty is enforced ignorance of the law on both planets; on Earth, robots wield power, while on Omega the oldest residents control society. Of Men and Monsters describes an Earth conquered by gigantic monsters (which are never real ly described). Man has become as rats or mice to them, infesting the walls of their enormous dwellings as tribes (or nests) which f ight each other and make forays into "monster terr i tory" (the interiors of the gigantic dwellings) for food and assorted junk. One t r ibe, s t i l l possessing some sc ient i f i c traditions decides to f ight the monsters. How? By concealing themselves on one of the monsters' space-ships and travel l ing to different planets, leaving some of their number on each planet on which the space-ship lands. The Universe is theirs! Do you remember how rats spread around the world on human sa i l ing -ships? One of the most widely read anti-utopias is The Space Merchants which extends the American big business ethic to a logical future: a world controlled by advertising companies and their account industries. The American congress is composed of representatives with voting power based on the wealth of the respective firms they represent. The average c i t izen is a consumer manipulated by the advertising agencies with l i t t l e per-sonal i n i t i a t i ve . There are commercial wars fought between enterprises for contracts, and the consumer is caught in the middle; the world is so polluted and populated that even the heads of advertising agencies have less physical comforts than the average American today; their luxury is no not goods, but power. It is an ugly world, devoted to the God of Sales, and the authors' witticisms do not make i t amusing; rather, they make i t grotesque. . . . there was the canteen where I got Crunchies on easy credit. The Crunchies kicked off withdrawal symptoms that could only be quelled by another two squirts of Popsie from the fountain. And Popsie kicked off withdrawal symptoms that could only be quelled by smoking Star cigarettes, which made you hungry for Crunchies. . . . I ' d been paid again and my debt [to the company] had increased eight dollars.22 The one novel in twentieth-century American sf which remotely re-sembles Andromeda or Zvezda KETs or Kumbi is B.F. Skinner's Walden II. Perhaps i t is easier to write and read about problems than about accom-plishments. In the twentieth century there are and have been so many po l i t i ca l obstacles to human happiness that any writer who describes a glorious, beautiful future for man would either be considered a religious fanatic, an advertising agent, or daft. It is f a i r l y certain that his stories would find l i t t l e acceptance in the high-class sophisticated, cynical American sf market unless they contained much more developed characters and more integrated plots and at the same time a b i t more adventure or mystery or terror than in Kumbi. The lower class sf market would probably be bored and unreceptive to any form of expository f ict ional Utopia. Soviet writers must find i t d i f f i c u l t to publish anti-utopian stories, for they would be denying the eventual triumph of communism--22 F. Pohl and C. M. Kornbluth, The Space Merchants (New York: Ballantine Books, 1960), p. 74. I l l s t i l l an important theme in Soviet l i terature. Yet the style of Andromeda can hardly be considered worth emulating by professional writers and by those who are suf f ic ient ly rea l i s t i c to respect the prob-lems of the future; for them the words of Dneprov are important: From one side I see the basic goal of this genre as a cal l for the rational and humane use of sc ient i f i c achievement and from the other as a warning of depraved, mistaken and inhuman applications of science and technology.23 A. Dneprov, "Tropy," p. 71. CONCLUSION Soviet sf differs from American in a variety of ways, some of the more important being that i t uses less violence, less horror, less sex, more profound love in those stories which use a love theme extensively and different ethics than may be found in American sf. There are simi-l a r i t i e s in character types and concern for human welfare (the latter being more indirectly apparent in American s f ) . Some of these dif f e r -ences are ideologically motivated; some are not. It is easy to apprec-iate the patriotism of GCh or Tayna dvukh okeanov, but what is the motivation for the psychology of "Soda-sol'ntse" or "Tarn, gde konchaetsya reka?" Does sf affect i t s readers; is i t potent as social criticism? A number of stories from both Russia and America are very tendentious; their authors are obviously trying to influence their readers, but the consensus of American authors in The Science Fiction Novel edited by Basil Davenport is that they have fai l e d , primarily because of their lim-ited audiences. However, "doomsday" sf, On the Beach, Dr. Strangelove and Fail-Safe which have a l l been made into films, have certainly been seen or read by a large part of the public; i t is possible to argue that they have played some part in stimulating anti-war sentiment in America. Granin's and Dudintsev's novels sparked no l i t t l e controversy when they appeared; they had an obvious impact on the Soviet public scene. The sf element in these widely-read works is "played down"; they are a l l f a i r l y real in that they are not set as traditional sf Utopias 113 or anti-utopias in the remote future. They are a l l very relevant to today. Anti-utopias do not appear in the Soviet Union; Utopias are l im-ited by conditions discussed above and by the usurpation of their poten-t ia l market by po l i t i ca l sf: government economic planning which usually forecasts by the end of a five-year plan greater production, more bene-f i t s for the workers, etc. One of them, Khrushchev's seven-year program was even accompanied by a preview of the next twenty years. Khrushchev in 1961 proclaimed that by 1980 would be achieved the "transit ion to communist social relat ions—the most complete form of relations between free, well-developed, highly conscious people . . . relations which are based on friendship and comradeship."1 Communism would surpass the per-formance of cap i ta l i s t economies and would be employed for the benefit of the people, rather than for the welfare of a few! Can sf compete with this? N. S. Khrushchev, "Otchet Tsentral'nogo komiteta kommunistiches-koy part i i Sovetskogo Soyuza XXII s'ezdu p a r t i i , " (Moscow: Gospolitizdat, 1961), p. 97. ANNOTATED SOVIET SCIENCE FICTION 115 ANNOTATED SOVIET SCIENCE FICTION The following is a l i s t of the works used in the preparation of this paper. It should be noted that i t does not contain a f a i r sampling of Soviet sf. It represents only the majority of that production which was available when I was searching for a bibliography. The largest part belongs to the 1960's; the next largest to the 1920's; the decades be-tween these years are represented sketchily, for l i t t l e material was available. Abramov, Aleksandr Ivanovich. (1900- ) Finished the Literary Institute of Bryusov and the Institute of Foreign Languages; has worked on the magazines Internatsional'naya Literatura and Teatr and was head of the department of l i terature and art on Vechernyaya Moskva. His f i r s t story was published in 1922, and his f i r s t novel was an sf story Gibel shakhmat (1926). His son, Sergey Aleksandrovich (1942- ) is in the aviation industry and began to publish in 1962 ( f i r s t sf story "Novyy Al ledin" - 1966). With his father he wrote "Happy End," found in NF (Al'manakh nauohnoy fantastiki), no. 7. In i t two scientists devise a machine to predict the future; they see death in a few minutes for one of the people on whom they are testing the machine and persuade him to avoid the danger. The man is k i l led anyway because the machine anticipates only possible futures. Adamov, (real name: Gibs) Grigory Borisovich. (1886-1945) Edited Social-Democratic newspaper lug; had a col lection of essays published 116 in 1931; wrote three sf novels glorifying the achievements of Soviet science and technology. Examined were Tayna dvukh okeanov [The Secret of Two Oceans] (1939) and Izgnanie Vladyki [.Exile of the Ruler] (1946). The f i r s t describes underwater exploration and adven-ture with underwater settlements and advanced submarines; the plot revolves around a potential struggle with Japan over control of the oceans. The heroes are a b i t f l a t , for the paper and ink that might be used to inf late them is directed instead towards descriptions of underwater f lora and fauna. The second work is set in the more d is -tant future when the foreign danger is cap i ta l i s t encirclement, and the real danger is betrayal from within which threatens the construc-tion of a number of wells d r i l l ed into the ocean floor to tap the Earth's warmth, which wi l l heat an ocean current and defrost the Arctic coast of Russia. The second is perhaps not so well written as the f i r s t . Agapov, Boris Nilolayevich. (1899- ) Poet, essayist, f i lm scr ipt -writer, a founder of the "constructivist" l i terary group of the 1920's and an in i t i a tor of Soviet industrial sketches. The one work read, Tekhnicheskie Rasskazy [Technical Stories] (1936), is much more similar to popular science l i terature than sf; i t is a co l lec -tion of sketches glorifying technical achievements of current Soviet science and suggesting direct ly and by implication what the future may hold. A l ' tov , Genrikh. Read: "KIi ni ka Sapsan" ["Sapsan C l in i c " ] in NF, no. 6 117 and "Sozdan dlya buri" ["Made for the Storm"] in Fantastika 1967. The factor common to both is a hero struggling against the Unknown to advance human knowledge. Both are good soap operas. Ancharov, Mikhail. Read was "Soda-solntse" ["Soda-Sun"]; the narrator is a paleontologist while the most important character is a "jack-of-a l l - trades" who acts as a gadfly, driving people to study and learn--mostly about themselves. The plot revolves around a search for the Devi l , and there is more philosophy than action in the work Found in Fantastika 1965, part 3. Anfi lov, Gleb. Read: "EREM" in Fantastika 1963, an anthropomorphization of a robot perishing in, the performance of his duty. Bakhnov, Vladlen. (1924- ) Writer by profession; has had three volumes of sa t i r i c verse and essays published, two fi lm scenarios and an sf novel How the Sun Was Extinguished. Read were "Robniki" ["The Robotniks"], "Rasskaz so schastlivym kontsom" ["Tale With a Happy End"], "Koe-chto o chyortovishchine" ["Something About Devi l ry" ] , and "Rasskaz cheloveka, kotoryy by! geniem" ["Story of a Man who Was a Genius"]--al l in Fantastika 1966, part 1. A l l are very short, amusing satires directed at a variety of targets: the f i r s t at the f o l l y of fads, the second at extreme subservience, the third at the mechanics of bureaucratism, and the fourth at academic i n f a l l i b i l i t y and g u l l i b i l i t y . The last is a joke several hundred words long about a sc ient ist who took a p i l l which made him a genius for f ive minutes: during the f i r s t minute, he realized his research project 118 was worthless; during the second, he realized he was not at a l l g i f ted; in the last three he wrote a b r i l l i a n t resignation. Like the other stor ies, i t is clever, well-written and sarcastic. Belyaev, Aleksandr. (1884-1942) Plagued by TB during much of his l i f e , he studied law and wrote newspaper art ic les unti l 1925 when he aban-doned the legal profession and devoted himself to writ ing; by the time of his death, he had written more than f i f t y novels, and over one mil l ion copies of his works had been published. He is the ack-nowledged father of Soviet science f i c t i on . Read were "Vechnyy khleb" ["The Eternal Bread"] (1928), Golova professors Doue'lya [The Head of Professor Doyle] (1925), Zvezda KETs [Star KETs] (1936)— a l l in v. II of his selected works, The Amphibian (1928)—separate publication, "Over The Abyss" in Destination: Amaltheia, " Invisible Light"--found in Russian Science Fiction 196Z3 and "Hoity To i ty " - -found in A Visitor from Outer Space. In a l l his stories may be found a start l ing sc ient i f i c device or fact, re lat ively weak plots and character development and occasionally b r i l l i a n t descriptive passages. Bilenkin, Dmitry. (1933- ) Finished the Faculty of Geology at Moscow University as a geo-chemist; began to publish in 1958 a r t i c le s , stories and popular-science books. Marsianskiy priboy [The Martian Surf] is his f i r s t sf col lect ion. In i t were read "Marsianskiy priboy," "Poyavlenie zhirafy" ["Appearance of a G i ra f fe " ] , "Oshibka nevozmozhno" ["A Mistake Is Impossible"], "Opasnost1 spokoystviya" ["The Danger of Quiet"], and "Kosmicheskiy bog" ["Cosmic God"]. The 119 f i r s t four are so didactic in nature that they may remind the reader of medieval "morality plays." The last is an adventure story in the future into which is woven philosophical discussions that are neither pro-social ist nor pro-soviet, but simply opposed to any po l i t i ca l act iv i ty which suppresses free thought. Blinov, N. and Lubyanski, Yu. Read: "Solntsa s i l ' nee , " a technically well-done but less than meaningful story. A young lab worker sacr i -fices herself to stop a nuclear p i le explosion; she dies without succeeding, but her boss follows her and extinguishes the danger. At the very beginning of the story, the boss helped a beetle on i ts way--a very "symbolic" action, but how does i t relate to the rest of the story? Bulgakov, Mikhail Afanasevich. (1891-1940) By education—a doctor, by profession—a dramatist and be l l e t r i s t ; began to publish in 1919. He frequently used sf devices in plays and stories as vehicles for sat i re; e.g., "Adam i Eva" ["Adam and Eve"] (1931) and "Blazhenstvo" ["Bl iss"] (1934). Read were the play "Ivan Vasi l 'yevich" (1935) and the story "Rokovye Yaytsa" ["Fatal Eggs"] (1925). The play uses a time-machine to compare Bulgakov's Soviet Russia with the Russia of Ivan the Terr ib le. The story is one of very few Russian sf horror stories. It could easily be converted into a Japanese monster f i lm of the type that was f a i r l y popular a few years ago in North America. Bulichev, Ki r i11. Historian. Read: "L i fe Is so Dull for L i t t l e G ir l s " --found in Russian Science Fiction 1968, "Kak nachinaetsya navodneniya" 120 ["How a Flood Begins"] and "Khokkeisty" ["The Hockey Players"]- -found in Fantastika 1967. The common features of these works are exhibitions of great imagination and plots designed solely for enter-tainment rather than for any didactic function. In "Khokkeisty" a group of cosmonauts land on a planet covered by strange trees cloaked in winter snows; to pass the time the men construct a children's game of table-hockey, carving the players from pieces of wood fa l len from the trees. When Spring arrives, the trees outside the cosmo-nauts' camp suddenly turn toward the sun, and the wooden figures on the hockey board inside the shelter begin to move by themselves. Dneprov (real name: Mitskivich), Anatoly Petrovich. (1919- ) Physicist. Read: Formula bessmertiya [Formula For Immortality'] which contained "Formula bessmertiya," "Lyudvig," "Glinyanyy bog"["The Clay God"], and "Litsom k stene" ["Face to the Wall"]; "The Maxwell Equations"--found in Destination: Amaltheia, "Sluchaynyy vystrel" ["The Acciden-tal Shot"]—found in Fantastika 1964, "Tarn, gde konchaetsya reka" ["There, Where the River Ends"]--found in Fantastika 1966, part 2, "Siema"--found in More Soviet Science Fiction, "The Heroic Feat"--found in Russian Science Fiction 1968, "The Purple Mummy"--found in Path into the Unknown, "Kogda zadayut voprosy" ["When They Give Questions"]--found in Fantastika 1963, and "Razgovor s chuzhoy ten'yu" ["Conversation with an Alien Shadow"]--found in Chyornyy stolb. Most of these stories use scientists as main characters who are involved in intense emotional or intel lectual s ituations, 121 allowing the author to thoroughly display their personalities. They are usually very human and effective in conveying the author's point which is individual and personal rather than social or p o l i t i c a l . Dolgushin, Yury. Read: GCh [Generator Of Miracles], a novel which tends to dwell more on technology than on its main characters. Its plot is constructed around the imminent poss ib i l i ty of war between Soviet Russia and Germany. Dubrovin, Yu. Read: "Eti troe" ["These Three"]--found in Luchshiy iz Mirov. A small boy stops before two scholars arguing on a park bench. He interrupts their discussion with pertinent, b r i l l i a n t remarks. Final ly his parents come for him, and the scholars d is -cover the boy and his parents are time-travelors from the future. The "future" is a small boy who knows the thoughts of the geniuses of a l l time as a boy of today knows 2x2=4. Dudintsev, Vladimir Dmitrievich. (1918- ) Graduated the Law Faculty of Moscow U. in 1940; was associated with Komsomolskaya Pravda 1946-1951; was severely c r i t i c i zed in 1948 in Liternaturnaya Gazeta; was c r i t i c i zed again in 1957 by the Writers' Union for Not by Bread Alone; since 1948 has written a number of short stories. The novel and "A New Year's Fairy Tale" (1960)--found in Russian Science Fiction 1963 were read. The latter is a short story heavily impreg-nated with symbolism and the same kind of idealism as to be found in Not by Bread Alone. E l i , Teo. (real name: I T in , Fyodor N.) Scientist. Read: Dolina Novoy Zhizni [Valley of New Life], written in 1922, f i r s t published in 1928 ( f i r s t part only). This is the best sf product of the material included in this l i s t from the 1920's in terms of a r t i s t ry , unity of composition, etc . ; i t is one of the very best works in the entire bibliography. Eydel'man, Natan. "Pra - pra . . ." ["Great - Great . . ."] - found in Fantastika 1965, part 3. A space station above the Earth begins to receive a television transmission from a distant star (discovered later to be a small a r t i f i c i a l planet), showing a segment of the history of mankind four thousand years ago; gradually the documentary moves backward to the beginning; the viewer's screen becomes blank, and the transmission ends. The best explanation is that the small planet is an archive which, having acquired a document, sends a copy back to the old owner. Firsov, Vladimir Nikolayevich. (1925- ) Finished the Moscow Poly-graphical Institute; is now editor of foreign sf and popular science texts for Mir; appeared in print in 1954; f i r s t sf story "Uzhe t r id t sa t ' minut na Lune" published in 1966. Read were: "Ispolnenie zhelaniy" ["Your Heart's Desire] in NF, no. 7, "Bunt" ["Revolt"] -in Fantastika 1966, part 2, and "Tol'ko odin chas" ["Only One Hour"] - in Fantastika 1967. The last describes a dedicated German com-munist waiting to be executed by the Nazis; suddenly he is trans-ported to the 25th century by scientists of the world communist 123 state. His wounds are healed, and he is taken on a tour of Moscow. At this point i t becomes the d i f f i c u l t duty of the sc ient ist who accompanies him to te l l him they must return him to be executed, for the past cannot be disturbed. This is a well-written scene. Even-tual ly, the 20th century communist understands and acquiesces. Gansovsky, Sever. Read: "Shest 1 geniev" ["Six Gem's"] - from shest' Geniev, "Ne yedinstvennye sushchie" ["We Are Not Alone"] - from Luchiy iz mirov, "A Day of Wrath" - from Path into the Unknown, "Soprikosnoven'ye" ["The Touch"] - from NF, no. 1, "Demon I s tor i i " ["Demon of History"] - from Fantastika 1967 and "Novaya Signal 1 -naya" ["The New Signal"] from a book of the same t i t l e . These stories vary greatly in theme, plot and ar t i s t ry . "Wrath" is an sf horror story, while "Shest 1" is a powerful ant i -cap i ta l i s t plakat and "Soprikosnoven'ye" is the story of a young boy in the turmoils of adolescence. "Sushchie" is a crudely drawn plakat of idealism, and "Demon" is a weak creation bound up with the "inevitables" of history. Glebov, (real name: Glebov-kotel'nikov), Anatoly Glebovich. (1899-1964) Playwright; uses contemporary, rea l i s t i c themes; f i r s t play pub-lished in 1919. Read: "Bol'shoy den' na planete Chungr" ["Great Day on the Planet Chungr"] from Fantastika 1962. It is a clever polemic against Yefremov's "Heart of the Serpent." Gor, Gennady. (1907- ) Ethnologist; specia l i s t in the art and folklore of the northern peoples of the USSR; has written several nqvels and 124 short stories about them; recently began to write sf. Read: Kumbi, "Strannik i vremya" ["A Stranger and Time"] in Fantastika 1962, "The Boy" in Path into the Unknown, "Uera" in NF, no. 1, and "A Dweller in Two Worlds" in Russian Science Fiction 1968. Gor's creations are endowed with rather complex plots which bear heavily on their length. In "Uera" he attempts to weave f ive stories to-gether in a short story form and does not real ly f a i l , but neither does he succeed. The story carries with d i f f i cu l t y six characters: one Earthman who provides a l ink between Earth and the planet D i l ' -neya and a space station, and f ive Dil 'neyans, two of whom are located on Dil 'neya, two who are on a space station and one who travels between Dil 'neya, the space station and Earth, on the last of which he leaves a book to be found by the Earthman-narrator. In a l l of Gor's stories there is at least one character who leads a double- l i fe, whether i t be time-traveling or mental transformation into another person or having his "essence" copied and carried o f f - -as occurred to a character in "Uera." Granin, Danil Aleksandrovich. (1919- ) E lectr ical engineer, commanded a tank squadron in WWII; was c r i t i c i zed by the Party for "Sobstvennoe mnenie" (1957); has written mostly short stories and sketches. Read were: Those Who Seek [iskateli] (1953) and Idu na grozu [i Will Go to the Storm] (1963). Both are po l i t i ca l - i dea l i s t novels in the sp i r i t of Not by Bread Alone, qual i f ied for the bibliography because they are set in a technological future. As in Mayakovsky's plays, the sf element is a vehicle for social c r i t i c i sm. Grigor'yev, Vladimir Vasi1'yevich. (1935- ) Finished the sc ient i f i c inst itute of Bauman and participated in a number of expeditions, in -cluding one to the Tungus "catastrophe"; f i r s t sf tale was published in 1962. Read were: "A moglo by i byt" ["It Could Have Been"] in Fantastika 1963 and "Dvazhdy dva starika robota" ["Two Times Two"] in Fantastika 1964. The f i r s t is a clever, half-sad, half-amusing story of a boy-genius who invents a time-machine; during one of the dai ly, nerve-wracking arguments between his parents, he travels back not to just before the argument as usual, but by mistake back to before his parents had met. When they do meet, they each have a sudden pre-monition of discord, and depart from each other, never to marry. Gromova, Ariadna. Read: "Glegi" ["The Glegs"] in Fantastika 1962. It is interesting because i t is one of the very rare stories in which Soviet cosmonauts tangle with something they cannot handle. Gurevich, Georgy Iosifovich. (1917- ) Trained as a building engineer but writes sf professionally; concentrates on problems of climactic changes, biology, star-journeys, etc. Read: Na prozrachnoy planete [On a Transparent Planet] (1963) and "Infra Draconis" in A Visitor from Outer Space. The novel is an sf-popular science text dealing with the application of future techniques in geology. The story de-scribes an interste l lar journey by seven cosmonauts who discover a world, covered by water, at the end of a sixteen year tr ip in space. The commander, an old man, decides to investigate the ocean in a bathysphere. He perishes on the bottom of the sea but informs the 126 crew of the spaceship of the existence of an underwater c i ty before he dies. The Earthmen vow to return. I l l ichevsky, S. Read: "Vremya Ischezlo v Arizone" in Fantastika 1962. This is a very short, amusing, ant i -cap i ta l i s t plakat. Kataev, Valentin Petrovich. (1897- ) Fought in WWI and the C iv i l War; appeared in print before the Revolution; is primarily a s a t i r i s t and humorist; worked on Pravda and with IIf and Petrov; most of his work, l ike that of Aleksey Tolstoy, Mayakovsky and Bulgakov, is not sf; he has always been popular in the Soviet Union. Read was Ostrov Erendorfa [The Island of Erendorf], an sf spoof on II'ya Erenburg. Kazakova, Rimma Fyodorovna. (1932- ) By education an historian; began to write poetry in 1955 of romantic idealizations about nature and labor and love; by 1962 had three volumes of verse published. The one short story here is thus unusual in form: "Eksperiment" - found in Fantastika 1965. Its theme is consistent with her other works, however, for i t is not d i f f i c u l t to see in this amusing story a not so amusing cry of resentment against social values which pervert love. Kazantsev, Aleksandr. (1906- ) Professional Engineer with numerous published sf works. Read: Lunaya doroga [Lunar Road] (1960), "A V is i tor from Outer Space" and "The Martian"--both in A Visitor from Outer Space. The novel describes a race to the moon between the 127 USSR and the USA. The two stories are the author's attempt to dis -cover something more in the Tungus meteorite explosion of 1906, than a natural phenomenon. The f i r s t story is accompanied by voluminous footnotes to add importance to the story presented in the main text; i t has provoked much controversy since 1946. Kolpakov, A. Read: More mechty [Sea of Dreams'] (1964) which contained two stor ies, the f i r s t apparently intended to assert that a Soviet rocket wi l l land on the moon f i r s t while the second, "A l ' f a Eridana," describes a cosmonaut of the future too old to find a job riding rockets. He f ina l l y manages to be accepted by another interste l lar expedition and in the end proves his value by saving the l ives of the entire expedition on a distant planet. Kol'tsov. A. Read: "Chyornyy svet" ["Black Light"] in Luchshiy iz Mirov. It is a love story between people in the future communist society. Krapivin, Vladislav. Read: "Meeting my Brother" in Path into the Unknown. This is a well-written story which scales a great interste l lar adven-ture down to the emotional need of a young boy, an orphan, who wants to believe his "brother," a cosmonaut, is al ive rather than dead. Al l the adults cooperate to delude the boy and satisfy his need for family. Lagin, Lazar' Iosifovich. (1903- ) Party member since 1920; studied at the Institute of National Art of Marx; joined the Komsomol press as a poet in 1922; published a children's fa i ry - ta le Starik Khottabyah 128 in 1938; since then has published a number of novels and stories in the genre of the free-form pamphlet using sat i re, fantasy and adven-ture directed mainly at anti-human capitalism. The works read for this bibliography, the novel Pat Ent "AB" [Patent "AB"'] (1947) and the story "Mayor Veil End'yu" ["Major Well Andyou"] in Fantastika 1962 seem to be excellent examples of Lagin's work as explained by the Kratkaya Liternaturnaya Entsyklopediya. The novel described the attempt of Argentine capital ists to pervert an invention which would supply mankind with plentiful food into a tool of domination. The short story uses Wells' War of the Worlds as a reference point and inserts an English aristocrat into the conf l ic t who betrays his nation and a l l men by joining forces with the Martians. Larionova, 01'ga Nikolaevna. (1935- ) Engineer by profession; f i r s t tale "Kiska," published in 1964. Read: Leopard s vershiny Kilimand-zharo [Leopard from the Heights of Kilimanjaro] in NF, no. 3, and "Planeta kotoraya nichego ne mozhet dat" ' [The Planet which Could Not Give Anything"] in NF, no. 7. Both are didact ic, and the short story is not too successful. The novel, in structure and theme, is unified and potent, while the story's moral is grafted on: Explorer #27 (female) of an expedition from the planet Velikaya Logitaniya, which col lects tribute from a l l planets capable of giving tr ibute, becomes attracted to the planet she is investigating, Geya, and stays behind secretly when the expedition leaves. The story is well done to this point, and the author reaches a respectable climax when she 129 reveals the beautiful explorer to a Geyenite. Unfortunately, the scene switches in the next sentence to the world of Velikaya Logit-aniya, many years after,.where the reader is informed of #27's saint-hood during an artless dialogue between an Earthman and his Logitan-ian g i r l friend who te l l s him (as they are admiring a statue of #27) how #27 started a galaxy-wide rebell ion which destroyed the rulers of Velikaya Logitaniya. Bad! Levada (real name: Kosyak), Aleksandr Stepanovich. (1909- ) Ukrainian poet and playwright; f i r s t work published 1925; has written mostly plays but did co-author one novel and has written f i lm-scr ipts and l ibrettos. His play "Faust i smert'" (1960) found in Teatr is a pro-duct of his multi-faceted talent. The element of sf within i t is secondary to the didactic intent of the play, for the depiction of a machine corrupted by its master is meant to be instructive. Lyapunov, Boris Valer'yanovich. Read: Mediate navstreahu [To Meet a Dream'] (1958). This is more similar to popular science than sf, but i t contains enough adventure and f i c t ion to be accepted as sf. It is written as though i t were a history of cosmic exploration up to its "publication" in the twenty-first century. It is the most com-plete attempt in this bibliography to provide a blueprint of the future exploration of our solar system. In its use of "histor ical perspective," i t resembles Isaac Asimov's Foundation tr i logy or Robert Heinlien's works which relate history from 1951 AD to 2600 AD. Maksimov, German. Read: "Posledniy porog" ["The Last Threshold"] in Fantastika 1965, part 3. Here a mechanic in the repressive society of the planet Sim kri constructs a house of death in which the old, the incurably sick, and the unemployed who feel themselves a burden on their friends and society may seek a painless death. It becomes instead a place of execution for po l i t i ca l dissedents; the mechanic cannot ignore this perversion and decides to destroy his creation, but he can do so only by sacr i f ic ing himself—which he does. Mayakovsky, Vladimir Vladimirovich. (1893-1930) Poet and playwright; published f i r s t verse in 1912, f i r s t play in 1913. His plays a l l tend toward cubism and fantasy, combined with a large dose of didacticism, flavored with satire and sarcasm. The two plays in -cluded in this l i s t , "Klop" ["The Bedbug"] (1928) and "Banya" ["The Bathhouse"] (1930), use the element of sf as a tool for sa t i r i ca l mass-agitation. Mikhaylov, Vladimir. Journalist. Read: Osobaya neobkhodimost' [A Spec-ial Necessity] (1963), an adventure of f ive cosmonauts on a tr ip to Mars. Their ship is damaged, and they decide to land on Demos (one of Mars' sate l l i tes ) to repair i t . They are trapped by the automatic mechanisms of the moon which is real ly a star-ship, abandoned by its crew, but s t i l l operating by computers. The cosmonauts are f ina l l y able to leave in a small craft the star-ship was carrying. The story is not badly done, and i t is "Soviet": the antagonist is Nature or the unknown; there is l i t t l e inter-personal and less intra-personal 131 conf l ic t among the protagonists and there is some moralizing about the place of themselves in history. Mirer, Aleksandr Isaakovich. (1927- ) Building engineer by trade; f i r s t story (1965) was sf. Read: "Znak ravenstva" ["The Equal's Sign"] in NF, no. 7, and "Obsidianovyy nozh" ["The Obsidian Knife"] in Fan-tastika 1966, part 1. In both the author reveals considerable powers of description. In the second story a modern man's psyche is sent back to prehistoric times; the author's description of the operation of primitive senses such as smell and crude predilections toward violence and tribalism are extremely potent, quite as effective and more tangible then Go!ding's Lord of the Flies. The description in the f i r s t story of a man who loses his personality orientation when subjected to an experimental cinematographic technique is also very convincing. Obruchev, Vladimir Afanas'yevich. (1863-1956) Geologist and geographer; explored large parts of Central Asia and Siberia; was academician from 1929 and president of the USSR Geographical Society from 1947; has published mostly sc ient i f i c works, but also sf and adventure novels and popular science texts on geology. The two novels included here, Plutoniya (1924) and Sannikov Land (1926), combine adventure with a considerable amount of sc ient i f i c information about geology and paleontology, migration habits of birds, etc. They are quite similar in that both describe expeditions of scientists to "forgot-ten" lands inhabited by ancient animals and primitive people. The 132 second is an improvement on the f i r s t in terms of style but is per-haps not so excit ing. Okhotnikov, Vadim Dmitrievich. (1905-1964) Finished the Leningrad sound-film inst itute in 1930; is the author of several inventions in the technology of sound recordings; began to publish in 1946 and has written a number of sf stories in which his technical ideas relate closely to rea l i ty . The only one of his works read was "The Fiction Machines" in Russian Science Fiction 7962. It is an amusing, wel l -written sketch of a mathematician who constructs elaborate electronic devices to help him write f i c t i on . The last machine f i l l s three rooms and transfers thought direct ly to paper, but a l l that emerges is meaningless stream-of-consciousness, and the mathematician has a nervous breakdown. While he is recovering, he describes the story of his adventure with the fiction-machines with an ordinary fountain-pen. Orlovsky, Vladimir. Read: "Revolt of the Atoms" (1927), found in Amazing Stories, A p r i l , 1929. A German chemist creates a nuclear reaction which grows into an "atomic vortex" he cannot control; i t grows into an enormous ball of burning energy, wandering across Europe, engulfing everything into i t se l f . The world is saved by a freak of Nature and a Russian engineer who takes the only effective action against the vortex. Podol'ny, Roman. Read: "Potomki delayut vyvody" ["Descendants Make the Choice"] and "Nashestviye" ["Invasion"] in Fantastika 1966, part 1, 133 and "Puteshestvie v Angliyu" ["Journey to England"] in Fantastika 1964. These are very short stories, and the f i r s t two are somewhat amusing, i f a b i t clumsy; the third is not amusing at a l l . It re-lates a conversation between the sa t i r i s t Swift and an arch-bishop to whom Swift confesses that he is a "Gul l iver" from the stars who, imbued with idealism when he f i r s t saw Earth, l e f t his star-ship to stay and guide the world on a peaceful path. Soon, he discovered his efforts were of no value, and he became deeply unhappy, helpless before both giants and L i l l iput ians . Poleshchuk, A. Read: "Tayna Gomera" ["The Secret of Homer"] in Fantastika 1963. A l i terature teacher gives a survey course to a class of science students; one of them becomes so interested in Homer that he constructs a time-machine to discover what happened to Ulysses after he took back his possessions from the suitors. He and the teacher travel back to Homer's time, find the blind poet and discover that Homer is Ulysses, punished by the relatives of the suitors he des-troyed. The young science student is so affected that after setting the controls to take the time-machine with the teacher back to their own time-period, he remains with the persecuted, blind poet. Rosokhovatsky, Igor'. Read: "Desert Encounter" in Russian Science Fiction 1968, and "Odnim men'she" ["One Less"] in Fantastika 1966, part 1. Here again sf is a tool used to highlight the author's point which is in both stories a recognition of the value of the individual. In both i t is so l id ly made, rendering the works very tendentious, but not crude or ambivalent. It is a f a i r l y unusual theme for sf. 134 Rozval, Sergey. Professional writer. Read: Nevinnye dela {.Innocent Affair] (1962). The t i t l e page candidly reveals this to be a roman-pamphlet; i t is a plakat against the economic-military-po l i t i ca l superstructure of the United States and for the common worker and pac i f i s t sc ient i s t ; i t uses a mixture of sat i re, sarcasm and exaggeration in its attack. Safronov, Y. Read: "Thread of L i fe " in Russian Science Fiction 1968. The technical part of this story is rather dubious in relation to contemporary technology. A married couple leaves in a star-ship for a sixty-year f l i ght to another planet, following a t ra i l of bacteria which has escaped the gravity of the other planet and found its way to Earth. Soviet sf technology either has no relation to contemporary science or has a very logical and consistent relat ion. This story is a b i t too natural i s t ic. It would be more believable had i t been written in the nineteenth century. Saparin, Victor. Journal ist, editor of a geographic magazine. Read: "The Magic Shoes" in Russian Science Fiction 1963 and "The Tr ia l of Tantalus" in More Soviet Science Fiction. Both works are loaded with imaginative and plausible technology, and the f i r s t in form is similar to a fa iry tale. The second describes a war between Man and wayward bacteria, the main character being a sort of bacteriological trouble-shooter who travels to different parts of the world whenever a microorganism upsets the local ecological balance. Savchenko, Vladimir. (1933- ) Physicist; recently began to produce sf. 135 Read: "Professor Bern's Awakening" (1956) in A Visitor from Outer Space, "Algoritm uspekha" ["Algorithm of Success"] in Fantastika 1964 and "Novoe oruzhie" ["The New Weapon"] in Fantastika 1966, part 1. In each there is a considerable amount of satire and sarcasm, but in the f i r s t two works i t is apo l i t i c a l , while in the last , the play, there are a number of very sharp sat i r i ca l barbs which are quite po l i t i ca l (and also quite successful). In the f i r s t story a famous professor, convinced there wi l l be nuclear war which wi l l des-troy c i v i l i z a t i o n , has himself buried in a time-capsule which wi l l open after the war and give him the satisfaction of seeing his hypo-thesis confirmed. When he wakes, i t seems to be, for he is chased and almost k i l led by a primitive, man-like creature armed with a club. In the epilogue, however, we learn that an unidentified person has been found in an experimental natural preserve of primitive f lora and fauna, operated by the world academy of science. Shcherbakov, Vladimir Ivanovich. (1938- ) Finished a radio-technological inst itute in 1961 and works at a research f a c i l i t y currently; has sc ient i f i c publications to his credit ; began to produce sf in 1964. Read: "Krater" ["Crater"] in Fantastika 1964, "Plata za vozvrashchen-iye" ["Payment for Return"] in NF, no. 7, and "My igra l i pod tvoim oknom" ["We Played Under Your Window"] in Fantastika 1966, part 3. Al l of these stories could have been written by Rod Serling for the "Twilight Zone" series. They combine just the proper amounts of the unnatural, the mysterious and the odd to make intriguing reading. 136 Strugatsky, Arkady. (1925- ) Linguist, special izing in Japanese. He has written some sf by himself such as "Wanderers and Travel lers" in Path into the Unknown--^ story in which with rather unsubtle symbolism the point is made that something such as Reason or Intel-ligence studies Man as Man studies lower orders of animal l i fe - -an amusing twist. Most of his sf, however, is written with his brother, Boris Strugatsky (1933- ), an astronomer. Together they have written: "An Emergency Case" in Path into the Unknown, "Six Matches" in More Soviet Science Fiction, "Spontaneous Reflex" in A Visitor from Outer Space and "Destination: Amaltheia" in a col lect ion of the same t i t l e . The second and fourth could be considered a plakat of heroism in the service of science and Man; the f i r s t and third are technologi-ca l ly oriented adventures in which characters are wholly secondary. In "Destination: Amaltheia," we find a simple tale of a space-ship captain braving and conquering incredible dangers to bring a cargo of supplies to a sa te l l i te in orbit around Jupiter. Superb soc ia l i s t -real ism and humor. Tendryakov, Vladimir Fyodorovich. (1923- ) Finished the Literary Institute of Gorky in 1951; published f i r s t work in 1947; has written several novelettes, two novels and a f a i r amount of l i terary cr i t i c i sm; is a member of the CPSU. Read: Puteshestvie dlinoy v vek [A Century's Journey'] (1965). This is an unusually good story in a r t i s t i c terms. It describes in ter - s te l la r travel by radio-wave, but the t r ip is not important compared to the events which surround the main character on Earth. Tolstoy, Aleksey Nikolayevich. (1882-1945) Entered the St. Peters-burg Technological Institute but did not f i n i sh ; instead began to write; published some verse in 1905 and a story in 1908. He emi-grated in 1918 and wrote Aelita just before his return in 1923; most of his work l ies outside the genre of sf. Included here: Aelita (1922), The Gavin Death Ray (1925) and Soyuz pyati" ["The Union of Five"] (1925) in his collected works. The last is an ant i -cap i ta l i s t plakat but is very amusing. The second novel is a similar plakat but contains more adventure than amusement; is is also a more polished work than Aelita, but not as interesting, for the f i r s t contains a genuine love-story and more engaging characters. Despite its comparatively crude level of a r t i s t ry , Aelita is more enjoyable to read and has proved its value by being reprinted many times and by being made into a fi lm (1924). Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin Edouardovich. (1857-1935) School teacher by profession, but he laid the foundations for later work in the f ie ld of rocketry and space-fl ight. He is venerated today in the Soviet Union as the father of space-travel. Examined were "Outside the Earth" in The Call of the Cosmos and Issledovanie mirovikh prostran-stvykh reaktivnymi priborami [.Investigation of Space Around the Earth by Rocket-powered Devices'], a col lection of his ar t ic les . Tsvetkov, Yury. Read: "995 - y Svyatoy" ["The 995th Saint"] in Fantas-tika 1962. This is a humorous plakat which assaults capitalism, rel ig ion and petty bourgeois habits of German bar-owners. 138 Varshavsky, Ilya. From a sa i lor in the Soviet merchant marine, he be-came a design engineer in a diesel plant; he has written more than seventy short sf stories. Included here: "Diktator" from Novaya Signal'naya, "Indeks E-81" ["Index E-81"] from Luchshiy iz mivov, "V kosmose" ["In the Cosmos"] from Fantastika 1963, "Dnevnik" ["The Notebook"] from the same, "The Confl ict" and "Robby" from Path into the Unknown, "Novoe o Kholmse" ["Something New About Holmes"] from Fantastika 1964, "In Man's Own Image" from Russian Science Fiction 1968 and "Lavka snovideniy" ["The Dream Shop"] from NF, no. 6. Al l of these are amusing in some fashion except "V kosmose." The f i r s t two are humorous plakaty against capitalism; the last f ive are very funny, delightful entertainments. In "Novoe o Kholmse," for example, Varshavsky adds a new twist to Sherlock Holmes who solves a very bizarre (and hilarious) mystery. When Holmes is unable to explain to Watson how the mystery was resolved, Watson regretful ly places a hand on Holmes' shoulder to shut him off so that his back-panel may be removed and the wiring changed. Watson could not se l l Holmes to Scotland Yard in such a condition. Vasi l 'yev, Mikhail. Professional writer. Read: "Flying Flowers" in Destination: Amaltheia. This is a short morality-story emphasizing the need for an ecclectic appreciation of nature and one's job; narrow special ization is not always successful in geological surveys, for example. A nice touch of color was added to the otherwise drab story by the use of brightly-colored butterf l ies as an important 139 element of the plot. Vasil 'yev has also written with Sergey Gushchev Reports from the 21st Century—a popular science-sf creation. Volgin, Sergey (real name: Dolgopolov, Stepan Dmitrevich). Read: Zvez-dnyy bumerang [starry Boomerang"] (1963), an sf novel designed primar-i l y for the youth market, at least for those interested in science. Voyskuynsky, Yevgeny. (1922- ) Journalist; was a war correspondent in WWII; several years ago formed a partnership with Isai Lukodyanov (1913- ), an engineer by trade and author of popular science art ic les and technical books, to write sf. Their stories which were read are: "Chyornyy stolb" ["The Black P i l l a r " ] from Chyornyy stolb, "Alatyr'-kamen 1" ["The A la t i r Stone"] from Luohshiy iz mirov, "For-mula for the Impossible" from Russian Soienoe Fiction 1968, "Sumerki na planete Byur" ["Twilight on the Planet Byur"] from Fantastika 1966, part 2, and "Plesk zvezdnykh morey" ["The Gleam of Starry Seas"] from Fantastika 1967. The third and fourth stories are hum-orous space-travel adventures. A l l except "Alatyr 1-kamen'" contain plakat material. The f i r s t work is a melodrama of international cooperation in which a Russian engineer sacrif ices his l i f e to save the world from doom. The last story is too stuffed with moralizing to allow print for a story plot. Yarov, Roman. Engineer by education, journal ist and writer by profes-sion. Read: "Do svidaniya, Marsianin!" ["Good-bye, Martian"] in Fantastika 1963, "Pusf oni skazhut" ["Let Them Speak"] in Fantas-tika 1964, "Neizvestnaya planeta" ["The Unknown Planet"] and 140 "Eksperimantal'nyy kvartal" ["The Experimental Apartment"] in Fan-tastika 1966, part 3, and "The Founding of C i v i l i za t ion " in Russian Science Fiction 1968. These are quite brief stories with a humorous element in a l l but the second; a l l of them seem a bit rough, either too complex for their length or too shallow and superf ic ia l . "Neizvestnaya" is a long joke about a husband and wife who cannot de-cide where to vacation. The Arct ic , melted by an a r t i f i c i a l sun, is crowded and du l l ; Mars and Venus have bad recommendations from their friends. They decide to look for an unknown planet l ight years from Earth. The punch l ine is that at least they wi l l be able to share their own impressions. Yefremov, Ivan. (1907- ) Professor of Geology; has written a historical fantasy Land of Foam and several sf stor ies; his Tummanost' Andromedy [Nebula Andromeda or Andromeda] (1957) is considered to have i n i t i a t e d a revival of Utopian f i c t i o n in the USSR. Read: Andromeda, Lezvie britvy [The Razor's Edge] (1962), "The Heart of the Serpent" (1959) in More Soviet Science Fiction, and "Shadows of the Past" in Russian Science Fiction 1963. The second is sf in a technological sense. The third is placed in the distant future. The last is set in the technological future: foss i l hunting in Siberia, where a young paleontologist discovers a mirage of a dinosaur--a natural photograph taken in primordial times by sunlight on a si l iceous surface. After years of struggle, the sc ient ist suc-ceeds in photographing one "mirage." A r t i s t i ca l l y th is , l ike his other works, does not equal the imagination employed. He is a very popular writer in the Soviet Union. 141 Yemtsev, Mikhail Tikhonovich. (1930- ) Finished an inst itute of chemi-cal technology in 1953; since 1955 has been involved in sc ient i f i c labors and the popularization of science; in 1961 wrote his f i r s t sf story "Zaponki s kokhleoidoy" ["Signals from the Cochleous"] in partnership with Yeremey Iodovich Parnov (1935- ), a candidate for chemical science and author of thirty sc ient i f i c books. "Zaponki" was found in Luchshiy iz mivov, "Snezhok" ["Snowball"] in Fantastika 1962 along with "Uravnenie s blednogo Neptuna" ["Equation from Pale Neptune"]; "The Mystery of Green Crossing" appeared in Russian Science Fiction 1968, and "Poslednyaya dver'" ["The Last Door"] in Fantastika 1964. In a l l the stories scientists grapple with tech-nical or Nature problems; a l l are serious, except for the best, "Snezhok," which has a trace of humor. "The Mystery of Green Cros-sing" describes a "mad" computer on a far outpost of Earth which imprisons its human master and tr ies to force him to te l l i t how to reproduce i t s e l f . It burns i t se l f out, but its master contemplates building another computer at the story's end. Yur'yev, Z. Read: "Bashnya mozga" ["Tower of the Brain"] in Fantastika 1966, part 3. This is a plakat, but an unusually profound plakat— against dictatorship, against its trappings of inhumanity and perver-sion. It is most interesting, however, for its unique view of the construction of an ideal character for a soc ia l i s t - rea l i s t narrative. Three Soviet cosmonauts find themselves imprisoned on a planet with a robot c i v i l i z a t i on as objects of study for the planet's "master 142 brain," which is trying to discover an escape from the evolutionary cul-de-sac in which its society of robots who have no independent inte l lect or sp i r i t is trapped. Observing the f i r s t reaction of the cosmonauts, strakh [fear], the brain i n s t i l l s i t into a group of robots. Convinced that production is soaring (by an altered robot who now fears death; that i s , being turned o f f ) , the brain i n s t i l l s the second reaction observed in the men, nenavist' [hate], into another group of robots and directs i t toward the f i r s t group which is marked with blue c i rc les . F ina l ly , the brain i n s t i l l s the third reaction observed, lyubov' [love] in a l l the robots and directs i t toward i t se l f . But the compulsion of a l l the robots to let the brain think for them has not changed to combat their passivity; the brain i n s t i l l s the complete personality of one of the cosmonauts into three more robots. These become independent and rebel and force the brain to surrender its authority—causing i t to have a nervous breakdown. Another robot, No. 274, who or ig inal ly observed the cosmonauts for the brain, serves as an example for the transformation from souless, unemotional slave to fear-ridden victim of terror (as a member of the f i r s t group) to opposition to the terror (when he's attacked by a robot of the second group altered) to love and understanding of his fellows and a willingness to sacr i f ice himself for them (when he finds himself in a community of robots who have broken away from the brain's authority and is given the task of protecting some robots who are mentally disturbed). 143 Thus does a poshlivyy [vulgar, common] Russian become a New Soviet Man. Zabelin, Igor Mikhailovich. (1927- ) Finished the Geographic Faculty of Moscow University in 1948; has been in many expeditions and since 1952 has been occupied with l i terature; has written many stories about geographers, geography and miners. "The Valley of Four Crosses" found in Destination: Amaltheia is somewhat related to his profession, but Poyas zhizni (1960) is more closely connected. Both are highly po l i t i c ized and directed at juvenile audiences. Zagdansky, Yevgeny Petrovich. Read: Pryzhok v bessmertie {Jump Into Immortality'] (1963), a propaganda novelette using the common theme of the good sc ient ist fighting the s in ister forces of finance which are trying to pervert his invention. Zamiatin, Yevgeny Ivanovich. (1884-1937) Finished the St. Petersburg Polytechnical Institute as a marine architect in 1908; that same year published his f i r s t short story. His f i r s t novel (1914) was suppressed by the Tsarist government; he was i n i t i a l l y sympathetic to the October Revolution but soon became antagonistic and embodied the latter attitude in We which was written in 1920 but not published until 1924--in English in New York City. He l e f t the Soviet Union in 1932 and lived in Paris t i l l his death. His novel We is not so much an anti-utopia as an anti-revolutionary satire and therefore should be placed in the category of negative domestic c r i t i c i sm. Zelikovich, E. Read: "A Dangerous Invention" in Russian Science Fiction 1963. A professor invents a device that can cleanse the air of pollution by destroying the adhesiveness of a ir molecules so they wi l l not support any part ic les. Some TB victims seize the machine and try to operate i t without knowing how. The characters' names are: Rheostatov, Switchkin, Ampersky, etc. - -referr ing to their occu-pations. It is a very amusing story and could have been written by Belyaev i f he had had a sense of humor. Presumably i t was written in the 'twenties or ' t h i r t i e s . Zhitomirsky, S. Read: "Proekt - 40" ["Project 40"] in Luchshiy iz mirov. A young student, fascinated by geology and d r i l l i n g explora-t ion, becomes involved in a practical joke on the sc ient is t who directs the d r i l l i n g project he wants to jo in . Mortif ied, the student abandons his dreams and becomes a machine-designer. A few years later he v i s i t s the d r i l l i n g s i te which is now operating suc-cessful ly because of an idea he gave the sc ient ist when he repaired her shoe sole. What is the point? That the student's dreams were realized despite himself? Zhuralyova, Valentina. (1933- ) Doctor by profession. Read: "The Astronaut" in Destination: Amaltheia, "Stone From The Stars" in More Soviet Science Fiction and "Storm" in Russian Science Fiction 1968. The second and third stories have a clear relation to her profession, one being a tale of a bio-chemist trying to save the " l i f e " of a l i v ing , art i f ic ia l ly-made brain carried in a hollow 145 meteorite just impacted on Earth. In the other, "Storm," the best of the three, a young medical sc ient ist tr ies to perfect a "pain analyzer" to diagnose i l lness . Zubkov, B. and Muslin, Ye. are engineers by education and journalists by trade. Together they have written "Siniy meshok" ["The Blue Sack"] in Fantastika 1964, "Neprochniy, neprochniy, neprochniy mir" ["The Temporary World"] in Fantastika 1966, part 2, "Roboty ulybay-utsya" ["Robots Smile"] in Fantastika 1966, part 3 and "Korifey, i i i umenie diskutirovat 1 " ["The Know-it-all, Or the Ab i l i ty to Discuss"] in Fantastika 1967. The f i r s t two are ant i -cap i ta l i s t plakaty, the second, however, being humorous. The last two are creations of unadulterated amusement. BIBLIOGRAPHY 147 BIBLIOGRAPHY SOVIET SF The sf anthologies Fantastika and Al'manakh nauohnoy fantastiki (NF) ap-pear under the sostavitel' (denoted by "ed.") of each edit ion. Adamov, Grigory. Izgnanie vladyki. Novosibirsk: Novosibirskoe knizhnoe izdatel ' s tvo, 1958. . Tayna dvukh okeanov. Moscow: Detskaya l i teratura , 1954. Agapov, Boris. Tekhnicheskie rasskazy. Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya l i t -eratura, 1936. Andreev, Ki ri1 (ed.). Al'manakh nauohnoy fantastiki. No. 1. Moscow: Znanie, 1964. (ed.). Chyornyy stolb. Moscow: Znanie, 1963. (ed.). Fantastika 1962. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1962. (ed.). Fantastika 1963. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1963. Belyaev, Aleksandr. The Amphibian. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publish-ing House, n.d. . Izbrannoe nauohno-fantastioheskie proizvedeniya. Vol. 2. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1957. Berkova, N. (ed.). Fantastika 1966, part 2. Moscow: Molodava gvardiya, 1966. Bi lenkin, Dmitry. Marsianskoy priboy. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1967. Brandis, Ye. (ed.). Al'manakh nauohnoy fantastiki. No. 3. Moscow: Znanie, 1966. (ed.). Al'manakh nauohnoy fantastiki. No. 6. Moscow: Znanie, 1966. 148 Bulgakov, Mikhail. Ivan Vasil'yevich - Mertvye dushi. Munchen: Tovarishchestvo zarubezhnikh pisateley, 1964. _. Sbornik rasskazov. New York: Chekhov, 1952. Dixon, Richard (ed.). Destination: Amaltheia. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1961. Dolgushin, Yury. GCh. Moscow: Geograficheskaya l i teratura, 1960. Dneprov, Anatoly. Formula bessmertiya. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1963. E l i , Teo. Dolina novoy zhizni. Baku: Gyandzhlik, 1957. Gansovsky, Sever. Shest' geniev. Moscow: Snanie, 1965. . Gor, Gennady. Kumbi. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1963. Granin, Danil. Idu na grozu. Leningrad: Sovetskiy p i s a te l ' , 1962. . Those Who Seek, t r . V. Noskov. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, n.d. Grishin, N. (ed.). A Visitor From Outer Space, t r . V. Dutt. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, n.d, Guerney, Bernard (ed.). Russian Literature in the Soviet Period. New York: Vintage Books, 1960. Gurevich, Georgy. Na prozrachnoy planete. Moscow: Geograficheskaya l i teratura , 1963. Kataev, Valentin. Sobrannie sochineniy. Vol. 2. Moscow: Khudozhest-vennaya l i teratura , 1969. Kazantsev, Aleksandr. Lunaya doroga. Moscow: Geograficheskaya l i t e r -atura, 1960. Kolpakov, A. More Mechty. Moscow: Sovetskaya Rossiya, 1964. Lagin, Laz i r ' . Starik Khottabych. pat Ent "AB", Ostrov razocharovaniya. Moscow: Sovetskiy p i s a t e l 1 , 1956. Lyapunov, Boris. Mechte navstrechu. Moscow: Trudrezervizdat, 1958. Magidoff, Robert (ed.). Russian Science Fiction 1963. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. , 1963. (ed.). Russian Science Fiction 1968. New York: New York Uni-versity Press, 1968. 149 Malinina, G. (ed.). Novaya signal 'naya. Moscow: Znanie, 1963. Mayakovsky, Vladimir. Izbrannye -proizvedeniya. Vol. 2. Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya l i teratura, 1953. Merr i l , Judith (ed.). Path Into the Unknown. New York: Dell Publishing Co., Inc., 1968. Mikhailov, Vladimir. Osobaya neobkhodimost'. Riga: Latviyskoe gosiz-datel 'stvo, 1963. Mitrokhina, S. (ed.). Luchshiy iz mirov. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1964. More Soviet Science Fiction. Introduced by I. Asimov and translated by R. Prokovieva. New York: Co l l ier Books, 1962. Obruchev, Vladimir. Plutoniya. Moscow: ONTI, 1937. . Sannikov Land, t r . Skvirsky. Moscow: Foreign Languages Pub-lishing House, 1955. Parnov, Yeremey (ed.). Al'manakh nauohnoy fantastiki. No. 7. Moscow: Znanie, 1967. (ed.). Fantastika 1966, part 1. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, . 1966. Rech', V. (ed.). Fantastika 1965, part 3. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1965. Revich, V. (ed.). Fantastika 1966, part 3. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1966. Rozval, Sergey. Nevinnye dela. Moscow: Sovetskiy p i s a te l ' , 1962. Smirnov. G. (ed.). Fantastika 1964. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1964. Teatr. Moscow: Iskusstvo, December, 1960. Tendryakov, Vladimir. Puteshestvie v dlinnoy vek. N.p. Sever-za-padnoe knizhnoe izdatel ' s tvo, 1965. Tolstoy, Aleksey. The Garin Death Ray. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, n.d. . Sobrannie sooheneniy. Vols. 3, 4. Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya l i teratura , 1956. 150 Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin. The Call of the Cosmos. Edited by V. Dutt. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, n.d. . Issledovanie mirovykh prostranstvykh reaktivnymi proborami. Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1967. Vasi l 'yev, Mikhail and Gushchev, Sergey. Reports From The Twenty-First Century. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1960. Volgin, Sergey. Zvezdnyy bumerang. Tashkent, USSR: Gosl i t izdat, 1963. Yefromov, Ivan. Andromeda. Translated by G. Hanna. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1959. . Lezvie britvy. Moscow: Molodaya gvardiya, 1964. Zabelin, Ivan. Poyas zhizni. N.p.: Geograficheskaya l i teratura, 1960. Zagdansky, Yevgeny. Pryzhok v bessmertie. Kiev: Molod', 1963. AMERICAN SF Amazing Stories. Founded and edited by Hugo Gernsback. Vol. 1, no. 4 and vols. 1, no. 6 - 5, no. 1. New York: Experimenter Publishing Co., July, 1926 to A p r i l , 1930, Asimov, Isaac. Foundation. New York: Avon Books, 1968. . Foundation and Empire. New York: Avon Books, 1968. . Nine Tomorrows. New York: Bantam Books, 1960. . Second Foundation. New York: Avon Books, 1968. Bl i sh, James. Cities In Flight. New York: Avon Books, 1970. Bradbury, Ray. The Martian Chronicles. New York: Bantam Books, 1967. Bradley, Marion. Seven From the Stars. New York: Ace Books, 1962. Bulmer, Kenneth. The Changeling Worlds. New York: Ace Books, 1955. 151 Conklin, Groff (ed.). Four For The Future. New York: Pyramid Books, 1959. (ed.). Six Great Short Science Fiction Novels. New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1960. De Camp, L. Sprague and Pratt, Fletcher. The Incomplete Enchanter. New York: Pyramid Books, 1960. Derleth, August (ed.). Beyond Time And Space. New York: Berkley Books, 1950. (ed.). Beachheads In Space. New York: Berkley Books, 1952. (ed.). The Other Side of the Moon. New York: Berkley Books, 1949. (ed.). Time To Come. New York: Berkley Books, 1954. DeVet, Charles and MacLean, Katherine. Cosmic Checkmate. New York: Ace Books, 1962. Dikty, T. (ed.). Five Tales From Tomorrow. New York: Fawcett World Library, 1957. Fast, Howard. The Edge of Tomorrow. New York: Bantam Books, 1961. Gordon, Rex. First Through Time. New York: Ace Books, 1962. Greenburg, Martin (ed.). Men Against The Stars. New York: Pyramid Books, 1958. Healy, Raymond and McComes, J . (eds.). More Adventures in Time and Space. New York: Bantam Books, 1955. Heinlein, Robert. The Green Hills of Earth. New York: Signet Books, 1963. . The Man Who Sold the Moon. New York: Signet Books, 1959. . Six By Heinlein. New York: Pyramid Books, 1961. . Stranger In A Strange Land. New York: Berkley Books, 1968. Herbert, Frank. Twenty-First Century Sub. New York: Avon Books, 1956. Knight, Damon (ed.). Beyond Tomorrow. Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett World Library, 1965. . Far Out. New York: Berkley Books, 1962. 1 Kuebler, Harold (ed.). The Treasury of Science Fiction Classics. New York: Hanover House, 1954. Laumer, Keith. Worlds of the Imperium. New York: Ace Books, 1962. Long, Frank. Mars Is My Destination. New York: Pyramid Books, 1962. Merr i l , Judith (ed.). SF The Year's Greatest Science Fiction and Fantasy. New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1959. Norton, Andre. The Stars Are Curs. New York: Ace Books, 1954. Oliver, Chad. The Winds of Time. New York: Pocket Books, 1958. Pohl, Frederick (ed.). Star Science Fiction Series No. 2. New York: Ballantine Books, 1962. and Kornbluth, Cy r i l . The Space Merchants. New York: Ballan-tine Books, 1953. . The Wonder Effect. New York: Ballantine Books, 1962. Serl ing, Rod. More Stories From the Twilight Zone. New York: Bantam Books, 1961. Sheckley, Robert. Shards of Space. New York: Bantam Books, 1962. . The Status Civilization. New York: Signet Books, 1960. Simak, C l i f fo rd . City. New York: Ace Books, 1952. . The Trouble With Tycho. New York: Ace Books, 1961. Smith, George. Space Plague. New York: Avon Books, 1956. Spinrad, Norman. Bug Jack Barron. New York: Avon Books, 1969. Sutton, Jef f . First On The Moon. New York: Ace Books, 1958. Tenn, William. Of Men And Monsters. New York: Ballantine Books, 1968 Vance, Jack. Big Planet. New York: Ace Books, 1957. . Slavers Of The Klau. New York: Ace Books, 1958. van Vogt, A. E. Destination: Universe. New York: Signet Books, 1953. Williams, Robert. King Of The Fourth Planet. New York: Ace Books, 1962. 153 Wollheim, Donald (ed.). Adventures On Other Planets. New York: Ace Books, 1955. (ed.). The Hidden Planet. New York: Ace Books, 1959. and Carr, Terry (eds.). World's Best Science Fiction First Series. New York: Ace Books, 1965. (eds.). World's Best Science Fiction Second Series. New York: Ace Books, 1966. CRITICAL AND BIOGRAPHICAL WORKS The two most complete reviews of Soviet sf are the art ic les by A. F. Britikov in Istoriya Eusskogo Sovetskogo Romana and Peter Yershov's "Science Fiction and Utopian Fantasy in Soviet Literature." Amis, Kingsley. New Maps Of Hell. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1960. Bol'shaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya. Main editor 0. Yu. Schmidt. Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, 1947. Crowley, Edward (ed.). Prominent Personalities in the USSR. Metuchen, New Jersey: The Scarecrow Press, 1968. Davenport, Basil (ed.). The Science Fiction Novel. Ann Arbor: Advent Publishers, 1959. Freud, Sigmund. Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious. Trans-lated by J . Strachey. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1960. . On Creativity and the Unconscious. Edited by B. Nelson. New York: Harper & Bros., 1958. Istoriya Russkogo Sovetskogo Romana. Edited by L. F. Yershov et al. Moscow: Nauk, 1965. Kratkaya Litematurnaya Entsiklopediya. Edited by A.A. Syrkov et al. Moscow: Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya, 1962. Litematurnaya Gazeta. 3 Sept., 1969; 17 Sept., 1969; 15 Oct., 1969. Moore, Patrick. Science and Fiction. Liverpool: George G. Harrap & Co. Ltd. , 1957. 154 Voprosy literatury. August, 1964. Yershov, Peter. "Science Fiction and Utopian Fantasy in Soviet L i te r -ature." Research Program on the USSR. New York, 1954. (Mimeographed.) In the annuals Fantastika and NF frequently appear lengthy art ic les by c r i t i c s and authors on sf, such as R. Nudel'man's "Razgovor v kupe" in Fantastika 1964, which provide extensive evaluations of the genre. APPENDIX 156 APPENDIX The space-ship constructed by Los' in Tolstoy's Aelita appears to have originated in the design suggested by one of the characters in Tsiolkovsky's "Outside the Earth"; the characters in that story u l t i -mately used another design, but the or ig ina l , as embellished by Los ' , offers an illuminating description of the combination of imaginative and plausible sf technology used by authors in the 'twenties. The apparatus is described during a v i s i t of a newspaperman to Los' before the latter launched himself and Gusev toward Mars: The egg-shaped apparatus was not less than eight and a half meters high and six meters across. Halfway up the apparatus, a metal band c irc led around i t , bent out and down, l ike an umbrella—a parachute brake. . . . The lower part of the egg ended in a narrow throat. A double spiral of massive s tee l , turning in opposite directions, sur-rounded i t — t h i s was a buffer to soften the landing impact. The ship was constructed from res i l ient and refractory s tee l , well-strengthened from the inside by ribs and supports. This was the outer she l l . Inside i t was a second shell of six layers of res in, f e l t and hide. Inside the second quilted hide . . . were the observational and motive apparatus, oxygen tanks, boxes for the absorption of carbon dioxide, hollow cushions for instruments and provisions. . . . The engine was located in the throat. . . . [which] was cast of a metal harder than astronomic bronze. Vertical canals were bored into the throat. Each of them widened upwards into a so-called explosive chamber. Into each chamber was introduced a spark from a common magneto and a fuel pipe. . . . the explosive ce l l s were fed with u l ' t r a l i d d i t . . . . there was a reserve of u l ' t r a l i d d i t for a hundred hours. The rate of ascent and descent of the ship could be regulated by decreasing or increasing the number of explos-ions per second. The lower part of the ship was s ignif icant ly heavier than the upper; therefore, when entering the gravi ty- f ie ld of a planet the ship would always turn with its throat towards the planet.1 A. Tolstoy, Sobranie sooheneniy (Moscow: Khudozhestvennaya l i teratura , 1956), III, pp. 541-542. 157 On the next page is an i l lu s t ra t ion of a rocket sketched by Tsiolkovsky (1933); i t is very simple, but i t reveals some of the con-sideration he focused on space travel. It is only one of many descrip-tions he constructed of space-ships. The numbers identifying different parts of the vessel are given below: 1. Flat wings. Because of the narrow wing-span they wi l l not be heavy and because of their length along the project i le , they wi l l not be thick. They wi l l be effective at high velocit ies rather than low. They must be f l a t . 2. Part of the mobile scales [made of a shiny material]. Set per-pendicularly to the rocket, they wi l l expose the surface of the rocket and lower its temperature. The more paral lel they are to the rocket, the smaller wi l l be the loss of heat. . . . win-dows, turned toward the sun's l i ght , should not be covered by scales i f the temperature in the rocket is to be raised. During the f l i gh t through the atmosphere, the scales must be flattened against the side; regulation of temperature is impossible . . . 3. Seating for people. 4. The impenetrable strong shell of the rocket which must contain a pressure of at least one atmosphere. 5. Scales pushed together ( l ike a fan). 6. Small motor. 7. Pumps for pumping oxygen and fue l . 8. The place where the elements for explosion are mixed (car-burator). 9. Conical pipe. From the wide, opening rar i f ied and cold gases are exploded with a relative velocity of 3 - 6 km/sec. This speed is constant for each apparatus. 10. Two vertical and two horizontal rudders. These are rudders of direction and s tab i l i t y . They wi l l work in a vacuum thanks to the products of combustion expelled against them. 158 320 Tpydbi no KOCMOHOOTUKS 5. Memya caniiwHayi (IOK Beep). 6. Mecro He6ojibiuoro MOTopa. 7. Hacocw fljin naKamioanHH Kiic/iopo.n,a H He(})TH. PHC. I 8. MecTo C M e u i e H i i a 3-jieMenTOB B 3 p b i B a ( K a p 6 i o p a T o p ) . 9. KoHimecKaH Tpy6a. H 3 miipoKoro OTBepcTH« BbipbrnaioTca pa3pe->KeHHbie H xo^oAHbie ra3H c oTiiociiTe^bHofi cnopocTbio 3 — 6 KM/CSK. 3T& CKopocTb Ka»vAoro npn6opa nocTOHHHa. 10. JJ,Ba pyjin OTBecnbix H .nca ropH30HTajibHbix. 3TH pyjin nanpaB^e-HHH H pyjiH ycToiVitiBOCTH. Py;in pa6crraioT B nycroTe S-rcaroAapa crpeMH-Te^bHO BbiJieTaromuM npoayKTaM ropeHHH. 1 11. Liquid oxygen. 12. Benzine. 2 Subsequently, Tsiolkovsky suggests that l iquid oxygen, because of i ts storage d i f f i c u l t i e s , be replaced by n i t r i c anhydride (NO^). The next two pages detail the hyperboloid of A. Tolstoy's The Garin Death Ray. Modern lasers use an a r t i f i c i a l crystal to produce a beam of cohesive l i ght , but Tolstoy's idea of the uses of the ray is essential ly correct. Ray weapons, of course, did not originate with him, but his attempt to create a laser with the technology he knew is another instructive example of imaginative and plausible sf technology Authors in the 'twenties frequently used such explanations to increase the rea l i s t i c appearance of their tales. The last page is reproduced from a paperback book by Robert Heinlein. He composed i t in 1940 to avoid confusion in the chronology of his stories which contain various technical developments and are set in different time periods. Heinlein is one of the most popular American sf authors and the only one who has tried to create the next six hundred years of history through a series of stories. His is not a serious sociological consideration of the future, for he is mostly concerned with sc ient i f i c development (and writing good stor ies). It is d i f f i c u l t to accept without a chuckle those facets of our contem-porary culture which he does intensify a r t i s t i c a l l y . 2 K. Tsiolkovsky, Issledovanie mirovykh prostranstvykh reaktiv-nymi priborami (Moscow: Mashinostroenie, 1967), pp. 319, 320, 322. opened out a drawing about half the size of a sheet of newspaper. "You want me to risk everything in this game as you do, Zoe. Look here. This is the general scheme. Twelve sided housing^ One of the twelve porcelain cups Micrometer screw /o adjust the hgperboloid Bronze ring Bronze ring Second tubular ' housing • /Hyperbolic mirror (A) y (Astronomic bronze) Direction of the rags or 'rag caret' ^tti/perboloid of shamo trite(B) (Pure carbon, almost as hard as a diamond: high fuse point) "•One of the twelve porcelain cups ' "It's as simple as ABC. It's the purest accident that nobody discovered it before me. The whole secret is in this hyperbolic mirror (A), shaped like the reflector in an ordinary searchlight, and this piece of shamonite (B), also made in the form of a hyperbolic sphere. The hyper-bolic mirror functions in this way: Cross-section of "Rays of light falling on the inner surface of the hyper-bolic mirror meet at one point, at the focus of the hyper-bola. This is common knowledge. Here is something new: in the focus of the hyperbolic mirror I place a second hyperbola (B) in reverse, as it were, in relation to the 130 other—this is the revolving hyperboloid, turned from shamonite, a mineral that polishes well and has a very high fuse point—there are inexhaustible deposits of it in the north of Russia. What happens to the rays? "The rays concentrated at the focus of the mirror (A) are directed on to the surface of the hyperboloid (B) and are reflected from it geometrically parallel—in other words the hyperboloid (B) concentrates all the rays into one ray, or into a ray cord of any thickness. By turning the micro-meter screw I adjust the hyperboloid (B) and can produce a ray of any thickness. A-Myperbotic mirror /lags concentrated In one cord, the 'ray cord' B - Hyperboloid of shamonite "The energy lost by transmission through the atmosphere is negligible. In actual practice I can reduce the 'ray cord' to the thickness of an ordinary needle." Hearing this Zoe got up, pulled and cracked her fingers, and sat down again, clasping her knee. "For my first experiments I used ordinary tallow-candles as the source of light. By adjusting the hyperbo-loid (B) I reduced the ray to the thickness of a knitting needle and easily cut through an inch board with it. Then I realized that the whole secret lay in the discovery of sufficiently powerful but compact sources of radiant energy. Three years of work which have cost the lives of two of my assistants have produced these carbon pyramids. There is so much energy in these pyramids that if I place them in the apparatus and light them (they burn for about five minutes), they give me a 'ray cord' powerful enough to cut through a railway bridge in a few seconds.... Do 121 F U T U R E H I S T O R Y 1 9 5 1 - 2 6 0 0 A . D . DATES STORIES CHARACTERS TECHNICAL ^ DATA ^ JSOCIOLOGICAL REMARKS fl.TV ( ) Stor icsKc-fce - to ld i t l l a - L i n . • L a t Tkcra Ba L i j U " 1 • a £ | u o .E 5 T r a n s a t l a n t i c roclut A n t i p o d e s r o c k t l s e r v i c e T H E " C R A Z Y Y E A R S " C o n s i d e r a b l e t a e i n l f i a i a d v a o c a ' dur ing t h i a o-ariod, a c c o c z p a n i c d , by a era d u a l d a U r i o r a t i o a of m o - 1 r e s , c i i t n U t i o a s o d s o c i a l U i t i -l u t i o a a , t e n a i s s t l n g la a a s a pay* c h o t e e in ttve a l x i A d e c i d e , a a d tae I c t c r r e g a u a k (JTotd Edga>.iaa) 197% T V . « n o a d a Moat Hofl Blowups ilappoa c e o 5 C E X *> c ex E £ U / , T h e " F A L S E D A W N , " 1P60-70 F i r a c r o c k e t ta th« Uooo, 1978 L e n a C i t y iounici Space P r e c a u t i o n a r y A c t I larr lmaa 'a L u a a r C o r p o r a t i o n * P E R I O D O F I M P E R I A L E X P L O I -T A T I O N ; 197O-202Q R c v o l u t i o e ia L i t t l e A m e r i c a Interplanetary a x p l o r a t l o a a o d ar-p l o i t t t i o o A m r f i c p f t - f t JT tTdUy ! * , , o ^ r M u t * T h * Interregnais VT%M f a l l o w e d t y ' a p e r i o d o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ia w M e n the V o o r h i s f i n o a c i a l propoBsla gave a te=?crxry c c c m o a t c s u b i l * i ty a n d c h a n c e tot r e o r i e n t a t i o n . T h i s w a s c o d e d b y tba o p e n i n g o i new f ron t ie rs a n d a return to n i n e t e e n * ^ - c e n t u r y economy* i i T h r e e r e v o l o t l o f l e e n d e d t i e snort p e r i o d o f in te rp lane ta ry Imper ia l * i a m l A n t a r c t i c a , U . S>» and V t a a s * S p a c e t r a v e l c e a s e d o s i l 2072-L i t t l e re s e i re a and o n l y minor t e c h n i c a l a d r i n c c s dur ing th is p«* r i o d . E x t r e m e p u r i l a n i a m . C c r - ; to in a s p e c t s o f p a y c h o d y n a m i c e ! and p e y c h o a e t r i c s , m a s e p s y c h o l -ogy a n d s o c i a l caat t f t l d a v c l o p e d i by the p r i e s t claao-J T D « U U h a tba Spa«a R i g g e r S p a e a Jociay T"na L o c g 7 o t c A G e a l l e a a n . Bo Saotoo! T h . E l U c t F i t a of L o u It'a C r o a t to Q « B a c k 5 0 0 6 f y ^ - t !n 5 - , r « * is c o c 1 a •e E aC o 9 c 3 C I o C < c t o E E o W * > t 3 "a c • E c I c > > B a c t e r i o p h a g e T b a T r a v e l Uni t s a d U M F i g h t i n g U n i t C o m m e r c i a l altera opt ic • T t . C r a u H i l l * ot .Eani ( F i r a D o w » Eclow!) L o g i c of E i o p i r * ( T t « Seua4 of Ilia V i a g a ) "5 ntsft of r e l i g i o n * f aD«U< i *Da T h e "Now C r u e a d e " r t c b e l l i o a s a d i s d e p e n d e o c * c«* V e n u a i o a c o l o n l a t a R e H f H o u a dictatorat t ln In V . S . 103S, (Tit S U M Pillow) m c c c -• * T3 5 1 © 3 o "I © B o E • 0 i 6 • 5. »* o Z c : « c c 3 § :i 1 I • - 7 • ne^etabl lsSment o f c i v i l l i b e r t y . R e n a s c e n c e of s c i e n t i f i c r c a e w c h . R e s u m p t i o n of s p a c e t r a v e l * L u n a C i t y r e t o u n d e d . S c i e n c e of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , b a s e d o a the n e g a t i v e b a s i c s ta tements o f a e m u t i c s ; R i g o r of e p i s t c a o l o e y * T b * C o v -enant -B e g i n n i n g o f t > « coo t o l l £ a t ! o a of the S o l a r S y s t e m . F i r s t o t t e m j t «x ' la tere te l l ar « « • p l ora t ion* C i v i l ' d i s o r d e r * f o l l o w e d i f t i e e n d o f human a d o l e s c e n c e * a a j b e -g i n n i n g o f f i r s t u a l i i r e c a U t t i e * U T U a C w a Oo— r c * c c ' o C 3 Jr H E 3 > >• C a c c > a Synthe t ic f o o d * V t a t l r c r c o n t r o l T H E F I R S T H U M A N C I V I L I -Z A T I O N , 2075 et a e q . Caveaar' 21 OS WITO m « c b a n i c > T b a " B a r r i e r * M i a S t Oalvara. (prolog?, oetjr) 2ltt K e i W k V a C U l d n s . 2600 Cnlvcrao Comnooaaaa* © • C a p o ) •c G u. o .c EC o O •* A l o i s Ic " t a i l o r i n g , " E l e m e n t * 98-426 P a r a a t a t i e a e g i s * • e r i n g . s 1 c o e o • o 3 t • Rtgor o f c o l l o i d s Symbiot ic r e a e a r c * L o a g t v i t y r o 

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