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Soils and forest growth in the Sayward Forest, British Columbia Keser, Nurettin 1969

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SOIL AND FOREST GROWTH IN THE SAYWARD FOREST, BRITISH COLUMBIA by NURETTIN KESER B. Sc. F., U n i v e r s i t y of I s t anbu l , 195^ M. F., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the Department of SOIL SCIENCE We accept t h i s thes i s as conforming to the requi red standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DECEMBER, 1969 In present ing th is thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and Study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of this thes is for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thesis for f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of The Un ivers i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date •> f'9 70 i ABSTRACT The sustained-yield policy presently practiced in British Columbia necessitates intensive management of forest land especially in the coastal region of the province. Soils, their nature and distribution, provide an ideal framework for a successful implementation of such management. A mapping system encompassing geology and soil and providing units interpretable for forestry practices was developed for the coastal forested lands of British Columbia. The system contains several steps of mappings corresponding to different intensities or levels of abstrac-tion. These levels are: 1. Bedrock geology, 2. Surficial geology, 3. Geologic units, k. Geologic unit - drainage classes, 5. Soil associations, and 6.Soil catenas. Mapping employs air-photo inter-pretation extensively and can be directly undertaken at any desired level for inventory of interpretation purposes. Grouping of units can also be made from any level of mapping. Maps showing the distribution of be'drock types, surficial materials and soils were prepared. Vancouver volcanics, Coastal intrusives and Cretaceous sandstones are the main bedrock formations. The surficial materials encompass the inter-glacial, glacial, post glacial and recent deposits, and consist of glacial t i l l s , glaciofluvial, alluvial and marine sediments. The soils encountered represent the Podzolic, Brunisolic, Regosolic, Gleysolic and Organic Orders. The area is comprised of primarily Douglas-fir plantation, 20 to 30 years of age. i i Studies involv ing the so i l-s tand growth re la t ionsh ip were undertaken on the well drained s o i l s developed on the major s u r f i c i a l mater ia ls . Morphological , phys i c a l , chemical and minera1ogica1 cha rac t e r i s t i c s of s o i l s and the growth s t a t i s t i c s of stands were determined. The growth performance of Douglas-f i r var ied with the kind of s o i l . Growth was best on s o i l s developed from marine c l ay . So i l s developed from stony outwash exhibi ted the slowest growth and lowest p roduc t i v i t y . T i l l s o i l s had product i v i t y between these two extremes. The textural components of so i l (coarse sand, medium sand, total sand, tota l s i l t , coarse c l ay , f ine c lay and total c l a y ) , were corre la ted to growth. With respect to chemical nu t r i en t s , organic matter, calciums-magnesium, phosphorus and z inc appeared to be important f a c to r s . The so i l moisture retent ion cha r a c t e r i s t i c s such as f i e l d capacity and ava i l ab le water showed co r re l a t i on with growth. The re l a t ionsh ip between the growth and so i l cha r a c t e r i s t i c s became more apparent as stand age advanced. Interpretat ion of so i l ser ies and mapping uni ts at d i f f e r en t leve ls was ca r r i ed .out f o r : p roduct i v i t y for Doug las- f i r , species s u i t a b i l i t y , logging hazard, s lash burning hazard, natural regeneration p robab i1 i t y , brush hazard, browsing hazard, thinning p r e s c r i p t i o n , f e r t i l i z e r recom-mendation, road construct ion s u i t a b i l i t y , and e ros ion . Two groupings, potent ia l p roduct i v i t y and thinning recommendation for Douglas-f i r , were undertaken. The study indicated that knowledge of s o i l s and the i r d i s t r i b u t i o n are pre requ is i te to the operat ional and economical management of forest and so i l resources. Consequently, a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme such as the one presented is the f i r s t and essent ia l step towards the intensive management of the coastal forested lands in B r i t i s h Columbia; I I I ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This study was undertaken as a j o in t project between the Department of Soi l Sc ience, Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Research D i v i s i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Serv ice . I would l i ke to express my s incere thanks to Professor C.A, Rowles, Chairman, Department of Soi l Science and my p r inc ipa l superv isor , for his guidance, helpful suggestions and encouragement during the course of the study. I would a lso l ike to thank Mr. R.H. Sp i l sbury , Director of the Research D i v i s i o n , for his suggestions and helpful guidance. My specia l thanks to D r . , L . Lavku l i ch , Department of Soi l Science, for his help and advice with the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c lay mineralogy; and to Dr. J . DeVries for his help with the so i l physical analyses. My s incere thanks to Dr. P.G. Haddock, Faculty of Forest ry , for his help and suggestions. The help of Dr. W.H. Mathews, Head, Department of Geology and of Dr. J .K . Stager, Department of Geography and Graduate Studies , was most cons t ruc t i ve . I thank them both. Mr. L. Farstad, Head, Soi l Survey, Canada Department of Ag r i cu l t u r e , Vancouver, B.C., helped me both in the f i e l d and laboratory. His kind help is very much apprec iated. Mr. A.R. Fraser , Research D i v i s i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Serv ice , was most h e l p f u l . Mr. M. Kovats, a lso of Research D i v i s i o n , wrote the necessary computer programmes. I thank them both. Thanks are a lso due Messrs. G.C. Warrack, J .W.C. A r l i d g e , and R.L, Schmidt, Research D i v i s i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Serv i ce , for the i r help and suggestions. Thanks a lso to my f i e l d a s s i s t an t s , Messrs. G. Farstad and D. St P ie r re . Mr. D. St. P ier re a lso did the draughting for the manuscript Photographic work provided by the Publ ic Information D i v i s i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Serv ice . My thanks to Miss B. Davies and Mr. P. Robin. My s incere thanks a lso to B.C. Forest Service L ibrar ians Miss E. Lemon and Mrs. S. Smith for the i r kind ass is tance . My s incere thanks to Mrs. P. Chester and Mrs. R. McKeever, who pa t i en t l y typed the manuscript. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES . . ix LIST OF FIGURES x i i INTRODUCTION 1 I. LITERATURE REVIEW RELATIVE TO THE STUDY AREA 3 1 . Location 3 2. Factors of Soi l Formation 3 a. CI imate 3 b. Parent material 7 c. Landform and physiography 13 d. Vegetation and time 13 I I . METHODS 20 1 . F ie ld Methods 20 a. Geology and so i l 20 b. Vegetation and stand 22 2. Laboratory Methods 27 3. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods 30 I II. GEOLOGY AND SOILS 31 1 . Mappi ng . . 31 a. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems for forested lands 31 b. Proposed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system i .. . 3*» V i Page 2. Geology h3 a. Bedrock geology . . . **3 b. S u r f i c i a l geology ; kS c. S t a t i s t i c a l ana lys is 85 3. So i l s 90 a. So i l s developed on marine sediments 91 b. So i l s developed on gIac i o f 1uvia 1 mater ia ls . . . . . . . . 123 c. So i l s developed on g l a c i a l t i l l s . . 150 d. So i l s developed on Quadra sediments 172 e. S t a t i s t i c a l ana lys is 183 IV. SOILS AND FOREST RELATIONSHIPS . . . . . . . 187 1. So i l s and Growth • ••• • 187 a. Memekay so i l 193 b. Hart soi 1 . . . . * ... . . ." 199 c. Senton so i l 203 d. Gosl ing soi1 . . 206 e. Quinsam so i l 207 2. So i l Cha rac t e r i s t i c s and Growth . . . . . . . . . 213 a. Morphological so i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 213 b. Physical so i l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s ; 217 c. Chemical so i l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s 223 V. INTERPRETATION AND GROUPING 229 1. Interpretat ion of Mapping Units for Forestry * 229 a. Potent ia l p roduc t i v i t y of Douglas-Fir 231 b. Species-.su i tabi 1 i ty 232 v i i Page c. Logging operat ions 233 d. Slash burning in tens i ty 233 e. Natural regeneration p robab i l i t y 233 f. Brush hazard 234 g. Browsing hazard 234 h. Thinning presc r ip t ions 23** i. F e r t i l i z e r requirements 235 j . Road construct ion s u i t a b i l i t y 236 k. Erosion 236 2. Grouping of Mapping Units for Forestry 236 VI . CONCLUSIONS . 238 LITERATURE CITED 242 SELECTED REFERENCES RELATED TO SOIL AND FOREST GROWTH 248 APPENDICES ; 251 Appendix Figure 1. Sampling locat ions 252 Appendix Table 1. S c i e n t i f i c names of plants 253 Appendix Table 2 . Var iables employed in c lus te r ana lys is 255 Appendix Table 3 . Moisture retent ion values of the s u r f i c i a l mater ia ls (mean of three measurements) 258 Appendix Table 4 . Moisture retent ion values of the s o i l horizons (mean of three measurements) 259 Appendix Table 5 a . So i l va r iab les employed in co r r e l a t i on studies 261 Appendix Table 5 b . S i gn i f i c an t co r r e l a t i on (at 5% and ]% leve ls ) among so i l va r iab les 264 Appendix Table 6. Interpretat ion for so i l assoc ia t ions 289 v i i i Page Appendix Table 7- C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s into Canadian, American and World Systems 290 Appendix Map 1. Bedrock geology 291 Appendix Map II. S u r f i c i a l geology 292 Appendix Map III. Geologic units 293 Appendix Map IV. Geologic unit-drainage c lasses 294 Appendix Map V. Soi l assoc ia t ions 295 Appendix Map VI. So i l catenas 296 Appendix Map VII. Grouping: Potent ia l p roduct i v i t y for D. f i r 297 Appendix Map VIII. Grouping: Thinning for D. f i r 298 GLOSSARY 299 i X LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Mean temperatures, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , sunshine and degree-days for Quinsam Nursery Stat ion 5 2 . Water balance table for Quinsam Nursery 8 3. Relat ionships between bedrock geology, s u r f i c i a l geology, s o i l s and vegetat ion units ^ h. P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f i ne . t ex tu red marine sediments . 53 5 . P a r t i c l e s i ze d i s t r i b u t i o n of less than 2 mm pa r t i c l e s of f ine textured marine sediments 5^ 6 . Selected chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of f ine textured sediments . 57 7 . Clay mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n in f ine textured marine sediments . . 58 8 . P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n of g 1ac iof 1uvia1 mater ia ls 6 2 9 . P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n o f less than 2 mm pa r t i c l e s of g l a c i o f l u v i a l mater ia ls 6*t 1 0 . Selected chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s o f g1aciof 1uvia 1 mater ia ls . 6 5 1 1 . Clay mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n in g 1ac iof 1uvia 1 mater ia ls 6 6 1 2 . P a r t i c l e s i ze d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Vashon t i l l s 6 8 13- P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n of less than 2 mm p a r t i c l e s of Vashon t i l l samples 70 l*t. Selected chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of Vashon t i l l samples 71 1 5 . Clay mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n in Vashon t i l l samples 7 3 1 6 . P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n o f less than 2 mm pa r t i c l e s in Quadra sediments 77 17- Selected chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Quadra sediments 79 1 8 . Clay mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n in Quadra sediments 8 0 1 9 . P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n o f less than 2 mm p a r t i c l e s in Dashwood t i l l and sedimentary samples 8 2 2 0 . Selected chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of Dashwood t i l l and sedimentary samples 83 2 1 . Clay mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n in Dashwood t i l l samples 8** T a b l e Page 22. C o a r s e s k e l e t o n and b u l k d e n s i t y s t a t i s t i c s f o r the Memekay pedon 95 23. P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Memekay pedon 96 24. S e l e c t e d c h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Memekay pedon 98 25. C l a y m i n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Memekay pedon 100 26. A v a i l a b l e w a t e r i n the Memekay pedon 103 27. P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Memekay pedon a) b e f o r e f r e e i r o n removed 110 b) a f t e r f r e e i r o n removed 110 28. I n c r e a s e (+) and d e c r e a s e (-) i n the p a r t i c l e s i z e c l a s s e s o f t h e Memekay pedon as t h e r e s u l t o f f r e e i r o n removal I l l 29. T o t a l v a r i a t i o n ( i n c r e a s e , d e c r e a s e ) i n the p a r t i c l e s i z e c l a s s e s o f the Memekay pedon as a sum o f the v a r i a t i o n due t o w e a t h e r i n g t r a n s l o c a t i o n , i r o n c e m e n t a t i o n and i n h e r e n t v a r i a b i 1 i t y 115 30. I n c r e a s e (+) and d e c r e a s e (-) i n the p a r t i c l e s i z e c l a s s e s o f the Memekay pedon as the r e s u l t o f w e a t h e r i n g , t r a n s -l o c a t i o n and i n h e r e n t v a r i a b i l i t y 116 31. C o a r s e s k e l e t o n , b u l k d e n s i t y and t o t a l p o r o s i t y a t t h r e e d e p t h s i n t h e Hart pedon 128 32. P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Hart pedon 129 33. S e l e c t e d c h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Hart pedon 131 34. C l a y m i n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Hart pedon 132 35. A v a i l a b l e water i n the Hart pedon 134 36. C o a r s e s k e l e t o n , b u l k d e n s i t y and t o t a l p o r o s i t y a t t h r e e d e p t h s i n t h e Senton pedon 141 37. P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Senton pedon 143 38. S e l e c t e d c h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Senton pedon 144 39. C l a y m i n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e Senton pedon 145 40. A v a i l a b l e w a t e r f o r the Senton pedon 147 41. Coarse s k e l e t o n and b u l k d e n s i t y s t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e Gos 1 i ng pedon , ... . . . 1 52 x i Table Page 4 2 . P a r t i c l e s i ze d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Gosl ing pedon 15** 4 3 . Selected chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Gosl ing pedon 155 4 4 . Ava i l ab le water in the Gosl ing pedon 157 45. Coarse ske le ton , bulk density and tota l poros i ty at two depths in the Quinsam pedon 162 4 6 . P a r t i c l e s i ze d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Quinsam pedon I63 4 7 . Selected chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Quinsam pedon 164 4 8 . Clay mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Quinsam pedon 166 4 9 . Ava i l ab le water in the Quinsam pedon 168 50. P a r t i c l e s i ze d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Quinsam pedon 170 5 1 . Coarse skeleton and bulk density s t a t i s t i c s for the Quadra pedon 176 5 2 . P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Quadra pedon 177 5 3 . Selected chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for the Quadra pedon 178 5 4 . Clay mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Quadra pedon 179 55- Ava i l ab l e water for the Quadra pedon 182 56. Regression equations for p red ic t ing the so i l mo is tu re , values from 0 M , tota l s i l t and s i l t+c l a y contents of the solum 185 5 7 . General information on the study p lots 188 58. Stand s t a t i s t i c s on f i v e so i l ser ies 190 5 9 - Rate of height growth, i t s acce le ra t ion and dece lera t ion for selected periods 195 60. Selected morphological so i l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of f i ve so i l ser ies 2 1 4 x i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1. G r a p h i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t e m p e r a t u r e and p r e c i p i t a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s a t Quinsam N u r s e r y 6 2. Monthly d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n (PET), p r e c i p i t a t i o n (PPT) and a c t u a l e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t ion (AET) a t Quinsam N u r s e r y 6 3. a) L a t e - P l e i s t o c e n e v e g e t a t i o n environment and c h r o n o l o g y f o r t he s o u t h c o a s t a l a r e a o f B r i t i s h Columbia 16 b) Peat and p o l l e n s t r a t i g r a p h y and z o n a t i o n from Menzies Bay 16 4. A s t e r e o s c o p i c p a i r from the Vancouver V o l c a n i c r o c k s n o r t h - w e s t o f L o s t Lake 46 5. Quinsam G r a n o d i o r i t e south-west o f R e g i n a l d Lake 46 6. The c r e t a c e o u s s a n d s t o n e s (B,) b o r d e r i n g the Vancouver V o l c a n i c s ( B 2 ) 48 7. P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s o f s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s ... 55 8. M o i s t u r e r e l e a s e c u r v e s o f s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s 59 9. C l u s t e r i n g o f 12 s u r f i c i a 1 m a t e r i a 1s 87 10. M o i s t u r e r e l e a s e c u r v e s f o r d i f f e r e n t h o r i z o n s i n the Memekay pedon 102 11. The p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the f r e e i r o n removed B f c c and Bf h o r i z o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r n o n - t r e a t e d v a l u e s 112 12. The p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f B f c c ] and Bf h o r i z o n s o f the Memekay pedon p r i o r t o and a f t e r t he f r e e i r o n removal 113 13- H y p o t h e t i c a l s o i l p r o f i l e sequences r e s u l t i n g i n t h e p r e s e n t Memekay pedon as a r e s u l t o f geomorphic e v e n t s , f o r e s t s u c c e s s i o n and pedogenic p r o c e s s e s s i n c e the l a s t g l a c i a t i o n . 124 14. M o i s t u r e r e l e a s e c u r v e s f o r d i f f e r e n t h o r i z o n s i n the Ha r t pedon 133 15. M o i s t u r e r e l e a s e c u r v e s f o r d i f f e r e n t h o r i z o n s i n t h e Senton pedon 146 16. H y p o t h e t i c a l s o i l p r o f i l e sequences r e s u l t i n g i n t h e p r e s e n t Senton pedon as a r e s u l t o f geomorphic e v e n t s , f o r e s t s u c c e s s i o n and pedogenic p r o c e s s e s s i n c e t h e . l a s t ' g l a c i a t i o n . 149 17. M o i s t u r e r e l e a s e c u r v e s f o r d i f f e r e n t h o r i z o n s i n t h e G o s l i n g pedon 156 X i i i Figure Page 18. Moisture release curves for d i f f e r en t horizons in the Qu i nsam pedon 167 19. Moisture release curves for d i f f e r en t horizons in the Quadra pedon 181 20. Height-age curves of Douglas-f i r on f i v e s o i l s \Sh 21. Growth patterns of Douglas-f i r on f i ve s o i l s 196 22. Stand development on the Memekay (MEM) and Hart (HAR) s o i l s . . 202 23. Relat ionships of height at the age of 20 years to a) depth of solum in t i l l s o i l s , b) depth of solum in outwash s o i l s and c) thickness of Bf horizons in outwash s o i l s 216 2k. Relat ionships of height , volume (per mean tree) and basal area (per mean tree) at the age of 20 years to s i l t+c l ay content of solum 218 25. Relat ionships of heights at the ages of 10, 15 and 20 years to s i l t content of a) solum and b) parent material 219 26. Relat ionships of heights at the ages of 10, 15 and 20 years to c lay content of a) solum and b) parent material 220 27. Relat ionships of height at the age of 20 years to four d i f f e r en t expressions of ava i l ab le water 222 28. Relat ionships of heights at the ages of 10, 15 and 20 years to f i e l d capacity expressed as moisture retent ion determined at .3 bars tension 22k 29. Relat ionships of height , volume and basal area at the age of 20 years to 0M, P, K and N contents of solum 226 30. Relat ionships of height at the ages of 10, 15 and 20 years to Ca+Mg content of a) solum and b) parent material 228 I ntroduct ion There is a growing recognit ion in B r i t i s h Columbia o f the importance of s o i l s in fo res t ry and of the fact that s o i l s can be employed as a basis for intensive forest management. D i f fe rent tree species have d i f f e r en t eco log ica l requirements and a species growing under d i f f e r en t environmental condi t ions present d i f f e r en t growth patterns and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In a given area where c l imate is reasonably uniform, the so i l is the primary va r i ab le of the ecosystem and the nature of the so i l is re f lec ted in growth. Therefore , a good under-standing of the forest as well as i t s so i l is an essent ia l step; and the implementation of the present susta ined-yie ld management can only be success fu l l y ca r r i ed out by having comprehensive knowledge of the s o i l s and the re la t ionsh ips between s o i l s , forest-growth and management p rac t i ses . However, obta in ing th is necessary information presents a considerable chal lenge in B r i t i s h Columbia. The area involved is vast , in fact 58 per cent of the province, or 135 m i l l i o n acres is c lassed as a forest land. Furthermore, much of the area cons is ts of rough, mountainous te r ra in where access is l im i t ed . Consequently, in sp i te of s i gn i f i c an t progress having been made in mapping and charac te r iz ing forested s o i l s in the province in the last few years , addi t iona l information is urgently needed. Studies of so i l and stand-growth re l a t ionsh ips are p a r t i c u l a r l y required and recent ly several p i l o t projects were conducted in the i n t e r i o r of the province to develop s i t e c a p a b i l i t y c lasses for f o res t r y . These were designed pr imar i l y to f a c i l i t a t e the Canada Land Inventory Program^ A g r i c u l t u r e and Rural Development Act, (A .R .D.A. ) , an agreement between the Government of Canada and Prov inc ia l Governments to undertake v a r i o u s programmes, one of which i s the Canada Land Inventory. 2 which is concerned with planning resource use on a broad sca l e , rather than with intensive management. The present study was planned and undertaken to develop a more ref ined mapping and in te rpre ta t ion procedure as a framework for management of the forest lands of the coastal area of the province. 3 1. LITERATURE REVIEW RELATIVE TO THE STUDY AREA 1. Location The study area const i tu tes a port ion of Sayward Forest s i tuated in the v i c i n i t y of Campbell River on the east coast of Vancouver Is land. The map area covers approximately 300 square miles and is bounded on the south by an east-west l ine passing through Shelter Point and on the north by the main logging road connecting Camp #5 on Brewster Lake to Menzies Bay. The sea and Upper Campbell Lake de l imi t the respect ive east and west boundaries of the area. The geographical coordinates of the area are : 49°55' and 50°011 N l a t i t u d e s ; 125°11' and 125°35' longi tudes. 2. Factors of Soi l Formation (a) CIimate The study area l i e s on the leeward s ide of Vancouver Is land. The Insular Mountains modify the d i rec t inf luence of the P a c i f i c Ocean; never the less , because the area is open to the sea from the east and nor th , a maritime cl imate p r e v a i l s . The pressure system that a f f ec t s the area is the Coastal System which cons is ts of the Aleut ian Low in the winter and the Hawaiian High in the summer. Due to these low and high pressures , the p reva i l i ng winds are from the south-east in winter and north-west in summer (Kendrew and Kerr , 1955). There are present ly two c l ima t i c s ta t ions in the area. Both s ta t ions are with in a few miles of the sea and consequently are under strong marine in f luence. The o ldest of the two s ta t ions is located at the B.C. Forest Service Quinsam Nursery and has been in f u l l operat ion s ince 1958. Its e levat ion is 265 f t above M.S.L. (mean sea l e v e l ) , 4 and i t s geographical coordinates a re : 5 0 ° 0 1 ' N l a t i tude and 125°17 1 W longi tude. The other s ta t ion is located at the Campbell River A i r p o r t , 6 miles south of the Quinsam Nursery and has been in operat ion since 1965. Its e levat ion is 320 f t above M.S.L. and i t is s i tuated at 4 9 ° 5 1 1 N l a t i tude and 125 ° l6 ' W longitude. Although the data from the two stat ions d i f f e r s somewhat, i t was decided to use that from the Quinsam Stat ion as i t is s i tuated c lose to the study area and has been in operat ion for a longer per iod . The mean annual temperature is 48° F and the mean annual range is 36° F (Table 1). The mean da i l y maximum and minimum temperatures show s imi l a r monthly d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns although the l a t t e r is somewhat • more va r i ab le (Figure 1). The highest value in mean monthly maximum occurs in Ju ly . Mean monthly sunshine data fol lows very c l o se l y the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the mean monthly temperature. The durat ion of sunshine reg is te rs a peak in Ju ly (298 hours) , decreases towards both f a l l and spring and reaches i t s lowest value in winter . The mean year ly p r e c i p i t a t i on is 56.67 ins (Table 1). Most of th is p r e c i p i t a t i o n is received as r a i n f a l l . Mean year ly actual snowfall is 31.7 ins . The tota l p r e c i p i t a t i on is very much af fected by the mountains to the west with e levat ions up to 7000 f t . In Gold R iver , located on the west s ide of the mountains, the mean year ly p r e c i p i t a t i on is 137.85 ins. The monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n pattern is somewhat inverse to that of the temperature (Table 1, f igure 1), the lowest p r e c i p i t a t i o n occurr ing in the warmest month, Ju ly . The June p r e c i p i t a t i o n is higher than that of May or Ju ly . The average growing season (based on 42° F threshold value) is 231 days but i t var ies from year to year by as much as 27 days. The i n i t i a l and terminal dates of the growing season are a lso va r i ab l e . The season 5 Table 1. Mean temperatures, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , sunshine and degree-days for Quinsam Nursery Stat ion (B.C. Department of Ag r i cu l t u r e , 1965; temperature average of 8 years, p r e c ip i t a t i on average of 32 years) MONTH MEAN TEMPERATURES C°F) TOTAL PRECIPITATION (i nches) SUNSHINE (hours) DEGREE-DAYS (42 °F ) MAY MIN MFAN JANUARY 48 17 35 8.04 47 -FEBRUARY 53 23 39 6.15 86 -MARCH 60 23 40 4.84 122 6 APRIL 66 30 46 2.93 162 120 MAY 75 32 52 1.84 253 310 JUNE 82 40 58 1.93 217 480 JULY 89 46 64 1.65 298 682 AUGUST 85 44 62 1.97 234 620 SEPTEMBER 77 39 56 2.60 163 420 OCTOBER 66 32 48 5.95 95 186 NOVEMBER 53 22 40 8.80 52 7 DECEMBER 51 21 37 9.97 26 • -ANNUAL 67 31 48 56.67 1755 2831 * Sum'of the r a i n f a l l plus water equivalent of the snowfall 6 CO-. Figure 1, Graphical presentat ion of temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i on s t a t i s t i c s at Quinsam Nursery >-i 1 1 1 1 r——i 1 1 1 r JA*I ftB KAft APH - Jum JOLT " Huti S(>! • (,£• SOI Figure 2. Monthly d i s t r i b u t i o n of potent ia l evapotranspirat ion (PET), p r e c i p i t a t i on (PPT) and actual evapotranspirat ion (AET) at Quinsam Nursery 7 may commence anytime between March 10 and Ap r i l 5, and terminate between October 27 and November 27. Means for the i n i t i a l and terminal dates are March 23 and November 8. The mean f ros t- f ree period for the area is 1lk days extending from the average last f r o s t , May 1, to October 2k, which is the average f i r s t f r o s t . Maximum va r i a t i on in the f ros t- f ree period is 68 days, from 209 days in 1959 to l4 l days in 1966. Water balance data was ca lcu la ted using the Thornthwaite 1 s procedure (Thornthwaite, 1948; Thornthwaite and Mather, 1955 and 1957) assuming 10 cms (3.937 ins) f i e l d capac i t y ' (FC) for s o i l . The monthly d i s t r i b u t i o n of potent ia l evapotranspirat ion (PET) and actual evapotranspirat ion (AET) are shown g raph i ca l l y in Figure 2, and the complete water balance sheet is given in Table 2. The tota l annual PET is 62.57 cms (24.63 ins) and AET is 50.35 cms (19-82 ins ) . A so i l d e f i c i t occurs during the months of June to September t o t a l l i n g 12.12 cms (4.81 i n s ) , and there is water surplus during the months of October to A p r i l , t o t a l l i n g 93.59 cms (36.85 ins ) , (b) Parent material The p r i nc ipa l bedrock groups or formations occurr ing in the area , from the o ldest to the most recent , a re : Vancouver vo l c an i c s , Coast in t rus ives and Upper Cretaceous sediments. A group of rocks, estimated to be Permian and o l de r , occurr ing in the v i c i n i t y of the study area , are a lso included in the presentat ion to i l l u s t r a t e a complete s t rat igraphy in the general area. However, the separat ion of these rocks from the Vancouver vo lcgn ics is not d e f i n i t e at present. Th is value corresponds approximately to the f i e l d capaci ty of a 2 feet deep g rave l l y sandy loam so i l ( typ ica l t i l l so i l for the coastal forested area) . Table 2. Water balance data for Quinsam Nursery (FC = 10 cms = 3-937 ins) JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC TOTAL IN CENTIMETERS PET , 0. 59 1.47 2 21 4.43 7-39 9-89 12.33 10.53 7 10 4 06 1 65 0.94 62 • 57 (24.63") PPT 20. 42 15.62 12 29 7.44 4.67 4.90 4.19 5.00 6 60 15 11 22 35 25.32 143.94(56.67") PPT-PET 19. 84 14.15 10 08 3.01 -2.71 -4.99 -3.14 -5.52 -0 49 1 1 05 20 70 24.39 81 37 (32.03") Delta Soi1 Stor. 0. 00 0.00 0 00 0.00 -2.71 -3.49 -2.97 -0.44 -0 02 9 63 0 00 0.00 Soi1 Storage 10. 00 10.00 10 00 10.00 7.29 3.80 0.83 0.39 0 37 10 00 10 00 10.00 AET 0. 59 1.47 2 21 4.43 7-39 8.39 7.16 5-44 6 62 4 06 1 65 0.94 50 35 (19.82") Def i c i ency(D) 0. 00 0.00 . 0 00 0.00 0.00 1 .50 5.17 5.08 0 48 0 00 0 00 0.00 12 22 (4.81") Surplus (S) 19. 8k 14.15 10 08 3.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 00 1 42 20 70 24.39 93 59 (36.85") Detent ion 9. 92 7-07 5 04 1.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 00 0 71 10 35 12.19 Run-off 22. 11 16.99 12 11 6.55 1.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 00 0 71 1 1 06 22.55 93 59 (36.85") Moisture Index = 130.03 A r i d i t y Index = 19-54 Humidity Index = 149-57 Summer Concentration = 52.32 (20.60") 9 i. Permian and o lde r : These are the oldest rocks reported by Gunning (1930) who described them as cons i s t ing of a ser ies of th ick layers of vo lcan ic rocks of andes i t i c and basa l t i c nature including coarse vo lcan ic breccias and t u f f s . C r y s t a l l i n e limestone and some a rg i l l i t e and quar tz i te are interbedded with the vo l can i cs . It has been paleontolog ical. ly well es tab l i shed that the limestone is Permian (Gunning, 1930). The vo lcan ics and sediments ly ing below the limestone could probably be Pennsylvanian or o lde r . Although these rocks conformably under l ie the Vancouver vo l can i c s , i t has been suggested by Gunning (1930) that they should be independently i den t i f i ed from the Vancouver vo lcan ics and should be named the Butt le Lake group or formation. This suggestion fol lows the proposal made by Dawson (1887) at an e a r l i e r date. i i . Vancouver vo l can i c s : The rocks of th i s group are pr imar i l y vo lcan ic in o r i g i n and they conformably o v e r l i e the Permian l imestones. They include p i l l ow lavas, b recc i as , andesite and amygdaloidal basa l t . Minor amounts of dac i te and f e l sn te are a lso present. Andesite -and d iabas ic dykes cut both basa l t i c and the l a t t e r mate r i a l s . At the base, impure f o s s i l s conta in ing T r i a s s i c limestones and a r g i l l i t e s occur , (Dawson, 1887; Gunning, 1930). i i i . Coast range i n t rus i ves : These p luton ic rocks occur as dykes, stocks and batho l i ths and they are not known to cut the Upper Cretaceous sediments, but only the Vancouver vo l can i cs . They cons is t p r imar i l y of ho loc rys ta l1 i ne rocks inc luding d i o r i t e , quartz d i o r i t e , g ranod ior i te and some g ran i t e . Because a f a i r l y large exposure of these rocks occurs in the v i c i n i t y of Quinsam Lakes, the name of "Quinsam Granod ior i te " has been suggested for these rocks by Gunning (1930). 10 iv . Upper Cretaceous sediments and younger in t rus i ves : The Upper Cretaceous sediments l i e unconformably on the rough and i r regu la r eroded surface of the Coast i n t rus i ves , providing the evidence that they are younger than the l a t t e r . These sediments are a lso cut by younger in t rus ives of granodior i te and d i o r i t e which are l ight to p ink ish green in colour and are observable as dykes and s i l l s (Gunning 1930). The Cretaceous sediments of Vancouver Island have been studied in considerable de ta i l because of the i r coal-bearing nature. Dawson (1887) also studied these sediments along the Vancouver coast . The fol lowing tabular form is taken from his work: NORTHERN PART QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS OF VANCOUVER ISLAND Port McNei11 Upper Cretaceous A. Upper shales and sand- beds(?) stones, 1500 f t . A. Upper shales. B. Coarse conglomerates, B. Coarse cong1omer-200 f t . a tes . C. Lower shales and sand- C. Lower sandstones Middle Cretaceous stones, with c o a l , 5000 f t . & sha les , with c o a l . D. Agglomerates, 3500 f t . D. Wanting. E'. Lower sandstones, 1000 f t . E. Wanting. At least two major g l ac i a t i ons have taken place in the area (Fyles 19D3). During the second g l a c i a t i o n , the Cord i l l e r an ice sheet covered most of B r i t i s h Columbia inc luding Vancouver Is land. During the g l a c i a t i on maximum, the thickness of the ice sheet reached a l i t t l e over 6000 f t in the v i c i n i t y of Butt le Lake s i tuated 20 miles S.W. of Campbell River. The high peaks such as Golden Hinde (7219 f t ) and Elkhorn (7200 f t ) stood above the ice sheet and consequently escaped the ice erosion (B.C. At las of Resources, 1956). 11 The surface of the ice sloped very gently toward N, N.W., N.E. , E and S.E. but very sharply to the W, S, and S.W. s loping down up to b0% in places and reaching a 200-foot thickness at the entrance of the Nootka Sound. The ice moved S, S.E. in and along the S t r a i t of Georgia (B.C. At las of Resources, 1956). The major i ty of the drumlins, g l a c i a l grooves and s t r i a e on outcrops encountered in the area , confirm these d i r ec t ions of movement. The land, under the heavy load of the i ce , subsided and the l im i t of the sea stood approximately 600 f t above i t s present p o s i t i o n . Probably, the maximum submergence took place in th i s v i c i n i t y on the island because of the greater thickness of the ice in the general area. On the West Coast the submergence was ha l f as much (300 f t ) and in the v i c i n i t y of V i c t o r i a i t was even l e s s , approximately 200 f t . The rebounding of the land was gradual although not at a constant rate. As the resu l t of the g l a c i a t i on and the events that immediately followed i t , cons iderable amounts of assorted mater ia ls were transported and de -posited on the area. The p r inc ipa l s u r f i c i a l mater ia ls cons is t of g l a c i a l t i l l s , g l a c io-f l u v i a l deposi ts and marine sediments. The occurrence of a l l u v i a l and peat deposits are minor in extent. There are no s p e c i f i c studies on the s u r f i c i a l geology of the study area. The fo l lowing s t r a t i g raph i c uni ts which are taken from the study, " S u r f i c i a l Geology of Home Lake and Parksvi11e Map-areas, Vancouver Is land, B r i t i s h Columbia" (Fy les , 1963), encompass a l l the mater ia ls encountered in the area and expla in the i r o r i g i n , nature and mode of depos i t i on . " S a l i s h sediments: shore l ine and f l u v i a l deposi ts and associated mater ia ls re lated to the present sea, r i v e r , and lake l e ve l s . Capilano sediments: marine, f l u v i a l , and lacus t r ine deposits re lated to former (higher) sea, r i v e r , and lake l eve l s . Vashon d r i f t : g l a c i a l deposits ly ing unconformably on the Quadra sediments or on deposits beneath the Quadra, and con-s t i t u t i n g the uppermost d r i f t sheet of the region. Quadra sediments: sands; plant-bearing s i l t s and g rave l s ; marine stony c lays and laminated c l ays . Dashwood d r i f t : t i l l l o c a l l y in terca la ted with g rave l , sand, and s i l t , and ly ing conformably beneath the c lays of the Quadra sediments." These s t r a t i g r aph i c u n i t s , with the exception of Dashwood t i l l , can be observed at several places in the area. To have a complete account of the geologic events which,took place during and fo l lowing the P le istocene e r a , i t is necessary that the land and sea-level re la t ions should a lso be considered. A va r i a t i on between the land and sea-level re la t ionsh ips may be the resul t of three p r inc ipa l events: 1) Eusta t i c changes, caused, by the g l a c i a l - non g l a c i a l c y c l e . During the Ice Age, a considerable quant i ty of water was removed from the oceans causing a decrease in the sea l e v e l . Consequently, at the peak of the hypsitherma1 (thermal maximum) interval when the most ice was melted, the level of the P a c i f i c Ocean may have stood 5 to 6 f t above i t s present level (Heusser, 19°0); 2) I sosta t i c changes resulted from adjustment to the loads on cont inents . During the Ice Age, under the weight of the i ce , the land was submerged, consequently the sea occupied the higher e levat ions above i t s present l e v e l . In the study area, the upper l im i t of the sea t ransgress ion is estimated to be 600 f t . Fol low-ing the Ice Age the land rebounded and consequently the sea regressed; 13 3) Tectonic changes resu l t ing from d i f f e r e n t i a l earth movement. In g lac ia ted areas, i t is often d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the i so s t a t i c and tec ton ic changes. In the study area , a l l the va r i a t ions in the land-sea-level va r i a t ions were reviewed under i sos t a t i c ad jus t -ments. (c) Landform and physiography Sayward Forest is s i tuated on the Nanaimo Lowland according to Ho l land 's Landform and Physiographic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia (Hol land, 1964). The lowland cons t i tu tes the western part of the Georgia Depression and extends from Sayward at Johnstone S t ra i t to River Jordan on the West Coast. It occupies the land between the coast and the mountains proper that fol lows approximately the 2000-foot contour. The Nanaimo Lowland is a non-submerged port ion of the Georgia Depression most of which l i e s below the ocean and extends from Puget Sound to Seymour Arch where i t gradual ly surface"s°and meets the Hecate Depression (Bos'tock 1948, Fyles 1963, Holland 1964)'': The r e l i e f is va r i ab le over the area. In the eastern part of the area, along the sea and below the 600-foot contour, the r e l i e f is f l a t to gent ly s l op ing . This r e l i e f is re lated to the landforms or ig inated from g l a c i o f l u v i a l and marine depos i t ions . In the western port ion of the study area , above the 600-foot contour, the r e l i e f is cont ro l l ed p r imar i l y by bedrock although in places t i l l topography dominates the landscape. The extreme west of the area is within the f o o t - h i l l port ions of the Vancouver Island Mountains. (d) Vegetation and time , • -Following the Ice Age as the evo lut ion of the land has taken p lace , the c l imate has var ied from period to period and the establishment and 14 the succession of plant species has c lose l y re f lec ted the c l ima t i c changes. In recent ly g lac ia ted areas, such as B r i t i s h Columbia, an under-standing of the Late-Pieistocene h is tory may contr ibute great ly to the understanding of present geomorphic e n t i t i e s , s o i l s and plant communities. Information on the recent past of the environment is essent ia l e spec i a l l y where the genesis and development of s o i l s is under study. For correct in te rpre ta t ion of present so i l f ea tures , i t is sometimes necessary to invest igate the past where appropriate explanations may be found. Soi l development may proceed very slowly and the sudden environmental changes may not be f u l l y re f lec ted in the so i l for some time a f te r the e s t a b l i s h -ment of new parameters. In the evaluat ion of the Late-Pieistocene vegetat ion , environments and chronology of the study area , Heusser 's work (19&0) "Late-Ple istocene Environments of North P a c i f i c North America" was p r i n c i p a l l y fo l lowed. Heusser (i960) def ines the Late-Pieistocene as an interval which has ensued s ince the ice of the last g l a c i a l substage receded between 10,500 B.P. (before present) and 9,000 B.P. on the North P a c i f i c Coast. He cor re la tes the Late-Ple istocene in A laska , northern B.C. and parts of southern B.C. to the post Valders or the post Late-Wisconsin, The Late-Ple istocene has been subdivided c l i m a t i c a l l y into the Late-Glac ia l (LG) and Pos tg lac ia l periods on the basis of c l imate . The Late-Glac ia l re fers to the time interval during which the warming up in c l imate was interrupted by the temporary return of cool-wet cond i t ions . However, during the Pos tg lac ia l i n t e r v a l , the c l imate s t ead i l y warmed and passed through a period when the mean annual temperatures were higher than those of present. This warm pe r iod , is ca l l ed the Hypsithermal (HTL) i n t e r v a l . A cooler-moist c l imate followed the hypsithermal i n t e r v a l . 15 Heusser studied the palynology of numerous swamp p ro f i l e s in coastal B r i t i s h Columbia as well as in A laska, Washington, Oregon and C a l i f o r n i a . One of these peat l oca t ions , "Menzies Bay"^ is s i tuated very c lose to the study area. The f ind ings from this l o c a l i t y could be f r ee l y interpreted for the study area because of i t s proximity and the te r ra in which is very s im i l a r to that of th is area. The Menzies Bay peat p r o f i l e was 4 . 8 m ( 1 5 - 7 5 f t ) deep and accumulated on a sand base. It contains bryophyt ic (moss), sedge ( f i b rons ) , ligneous (wood) and l imnic (lake) sedimentary types. On the basis of this po l len p r o f i l e and Heusser 's presentat ion ( I 9 6 0 ) on the Late-Pleistocene vegetat ion, environment and chronology for the south coast of B r i t i s h Columbia (Figure 3 a and b ) , the Late-Pleistocene vegetat ion of the study area is 3 summarized below: Lodgepole pine (Pinus oontorta) being an aggressive pioneer under condit ions of d is turbance, occupied the pos i t ion of ear ly invader immediate-ly fo l lowing the retreat of the ice.. Lodgepole p ine , a lder (Alnus) , and wil low (Salix) appear to be the dominant species during the Late-Glacia l pe r iod . A few S i tka spruce (Pioea sitohensis) and western white pine (Pinus montioola) werealso present. Sedge (Cyperaceae), grasses (Gramineae) and ferns (Polypodioceae) made up the ground vegetat ion with a few skunk cabbage (Lysidhitum) 3 Rubus s p p . , Sanguisorba and Myriophyllum. During the ear ly Pos tg lac i a l (EP) the amount of lodgepole pine increased at the expense of a lde r . These two species were dominant in south coastal B.C. It is located 10 miles west of Menzies Bay; 5 0 ° 1 0 ' N, 1 2 5 ° 3 7 ' W. Fu l l s c i e n t i f i c names of plant species are given in Appendix Table 1. Shore form :(Pinus oontorta oontorta). 0-M i l l e n n i a B.P I-2-3 4 -5 -7 -9 -I I-W. Hemlock-Spruce Mtn. Hemlock- Fir Lodgepole Pine W. White Pine . Heaths Sphagnum Douglas F i r W.Hemlock Alder Lysichitum Douglas Fir A lder Lysichitum l5 - (VOLCANIC A S H CA £ 7 0 0 ) Spruce-W. Hemlock Mtn. Hemlock- F i r . Douglas Fi r . W. White Pine Alder Lodgepole Pine Alder Pos tg l ac i a l 10 Wi l low-Alder Lodgepole Pine 10,0% _j i I z •'-D in (D -Q —- (/) X I I I I 8 o D X X P D X " X X X D D s x x x 3 r yop hy tic (Moss) ° o < r~ a - T3 •< 3 ? " in > >< rt> => ° c h i -< o -o ^ re I D CD I X o Q a c o -> a ^ co ro 3 Q I I I S e d g e ( F i b r o u s ) L i g n e o u s (Wood) (b) CO c e 3 (5. 3 c <^ D C o Jlft ^ ( ro IT n> rr -O o - * c c r Q c T > ^ n > c i o ^ Q </l O rtl (/l 3 Q n> <H I I I I I I I I I I I Limnic (Lake) 3 3 I I x x Nonorganic Undi f f er enti a ted ZONE L P H T L E P Postg lac ia l iLG~3| Lo te-g lac i a l Figure 3. a) Late-Pleistocene vegetat ion environment and chronology for the south coastal area of B r i t i s h Columbia b) Peat and-pollen strat igraphy and zonation from Menzies Bay (Heusser, 1960) '7 Large quan t i t i e s , up to 75%, of a lder ex is t in the Menzies p r o f i l e throughout the Late-Ple istocene. However, the percentage of alder decreases upward. Lodgepole pine present a maximum towards to the end of the hypsi-thermal interva l which took place between 8500 and 3000 years B.P.'' In the ear ly hypsi thermal , in add i t ion to lodgepole pine and a lde r , western white pine,Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii)3 mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) were the pr inc ipa l spec ies . The ground cover was l ight and a decrease in the amount of sedge is evident in the Menzies Bay p r o f i l e . However, very l i t t l e change had taken place in the amount of ferns and the other ground vegetation during th i s per iod . Some of the south coastal peat p r o f i l e s such as M Por t Hardy" and "Malahat"^ contain ash layers bel ieved to have or ig inated from Mount Mazama in the southern part of Oregon. This ash was carbon-dated as 6700 B.P, In the middle of the hypsithermal pe r iod , Douglas f i r , a lder and skunk cabbage appear as the main plant species in south coastal B.C. However, towards the end of th i s interva l western hemlock increases in percentage and becomes one of the prominent spec ies . A decrease in skunk cabbage and fern percentages is observable in the Menzies Bay p r o f i l e ; the amount of sedge and sweet gale (Myriaa) increases. The late Pos tg lac ia l (LP) period covers the interval from the end of the hypsithermal period (3000 B.P.) up to the present. Because the cl imate became more humid and cooler fo l lowing the hypsithermal pe r iod , tree spec ies , such as western white p ine , lodgepole p ine , mountain Hypsithermal interval in the South Coastal B.C. and Washington. 6 Por t Hardy 50°kk> N, 127°25' W; Malahat 48°3V N, 123°35' W. 18 hemlock, f i r (Abies), western hemlock and spruce, reappeared as dominant. Heath (E r ica les ) and Sphagnum spp become abundant (Figure 3 ,b) . In the upper part of the Menzies p r o f i l e , western hemlock represents the highest percentage. Second in abundance are a lder and lodgepole p ine. The percent-age of white pine is s l i g h t l y higher than that of mountain hemlock, Douglas f i r and true f i r which are equal ly represented. The amount of sedge and sweet ga le , both of which show peaks during the late Pos tg lac ia l i n t e r v a l , decrease in amount towards the present. A decrease a lso is evident in the occurrence of f e rns . F i re has been one of the important environmental factors in th is area s ince the ice r e t r ea t , e spec i a l l y during the hypsithermal and Late-Pleistocene i n t e r va l s . F i re not only destroys the ex i s t i ng stand and resul ts in d e f i n i t e changes in the ecosystem but fo l lowing the f i r e , the plant succession may considerably d i f f e r from the one which was prev iously in existence (Schmidt, 1957)- Schmidt concluded that Douglas f i r regenerates d i r e c t l y from the seeds of local trees that have survived the f i r e . Western hemlock, western red cedar and true f i r s being thin-barked, are eas i l y k i l l e d and the i r seeds have to be suppl ied from unburned areas. Consequently, Douglas f i r i f i t occurs in the stand, es tab l i shes i t s e l f qu ick ly fo l lowing a f i r e and dominates the stand composit ion. For the study area , the f i r e records are ava i l ab le s t a r t i ng from 1922.^ Because of the l imi ted data only the recent f i r e h i s to ry of the area is presented. Between 1922 and ]3kk, there were 107 reported f i r e s (k.S f ires/year).-This number includes both big and spot f i r e s (burned an area less than £ ac re ) . Data provided by' the Protect ion D i v i s i o n , B.C. Forest Se rv i ce , V i c t o r i a , The year 1922 appears to have been a dry one and four large f i r e s were reported between Campbell River and Menzies Bay. The largest known f i r e on Vancouver Island took place in the study area in 1938. The so-cal led "Bloedel f i r e " lasted 42 days and burned 7 4 , 5 0 0 acres between Boot Lake and Brown River. Except for the immediate coast , most of the southern port ion of the map area was burned during th i s f i re. From 1950 to 1959, 73 f i r e s were recorded ( 7 . 3 f i r e s /yea r ) . The 1951 f i r e burned an area of 2 2 , 0 0 0 acres del ineated by Lower Campbell Lake - Beaverta i l Lake - Middle Quinsam - Wokas Lake - Upper Campbell Lake. Since i 9 6 0 , the number of f i r e s recorded is 56 (7 f i r e s / yea r ) . The f i r e s c i t ed above do not include s lash burning operat ions which often took place since extensive logging occurred during the last few decades. Although most of the recent f i r e s were man-made, i t is conceivable that because of the per iod ic very dry summers'in the area, a f i r e could s tar t from natural causes and in the absence of human in te r fe rence , spread ea s i l y and burn extensive areas. Probably, many such f i r e s took place during the hypsithermal and Late-Pleistocene i n te r va l s . P lantat ions have been estab l i shed s ta r t ing in 1939 fo l lowing the 1938 f i r e . Since then, almost a l l of the map area was planted pr imar i l y with Douglas f i r . However, as a resu l t of natural regenerat ion, other tree spec ies , such as western hemlock, western red cedar (Thuja plioata), S i tka spruce (Pioea sitchensis), grand f i r (Abies grandis),'red a lder (Alnus rubra) and broadleaf maple (Acer maorophyllum) can be seen in the area. The occurrence of these species is very minor, between 1 to 5%. 20 I I. METHODS 1. F i e ld Methods F ie ld studies were undertaken during the summer and f a l l of 1965 and 1966. The geology, geomorphology and so i l studies were conducted during the summer of 1 9 ° 5 . The fol lowing summer the so i l studies were completed. Forest sampling was undertaken during the f a l l of 1966. The ! !Foot-Pound-Second" system was used in recording the f i e l d data , and in c a l cu l a t i on of the f i e l d parameters. ' a. Geology and Soi1 The geology and the geomorphology of the area were studied by t r a v e l l i n g on the ava i l ab le roads examining the exposures and cuts encountered along the roads, r i ver banks and beaches. Bedrock specimens were co l l e c t ed from d i f f e r en t parts of the area (Appendix Figure 1) from the major bedrock types. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the specimens was made and submitted for conf i rmat ion to a geo log i s t . Establ ished s u r f i c i a l deposits were sampled'at least at three d i f f e r en t locat ions (Appendix Figure 1 ) . The samples were for four d i f f e r en t purposes: 1) determination of bulk dens i t y , 2) p a r t i c l e s ize ana l y s i s , 3) chemical invest igat ion for both macroelements and microelements, and k) mineralogica l s tud ies . Fresh cuts were made whenever poss ib le to obtain least weathered mate r i a l . Bulk density samples were taken from non-compacted mater ia ls with a 3 _ i n c h core sampler or so i l peds were obtained for the purpose. The f i e l d parameters are given in the "Foot-Pound-Second" system since th is system is present ly employed in p rac t i ce . 21 Six so i l ser ies developed on major s u r f i c i a l deposits were selected for study. These so i l ser ies and mater ia ls were: 1) Memekay so i l ser ies on marine sediments, 2) Hart so i l se r ies on stony outwash, 3) Senton so i l ser ies on sandy outwash, k) Gosl ing so i l ser ies on vo l can i c- r i ch t i l l , 5) Quinsam so i l se r ies on sandstone-rich t i l l , and 6) Quadra so i l ser ies on Quadra sediments. So i l p i t s , 3 x 6 f t in dimensions (extending in depth to parent mate r i a l ) , were excavated in se lected locat ions to study the so i l pedons. Each pedon was descr ibed in de ta i l according to the Soi l Survey Manual (Soil Survey S t a f f , 1951). The fo l lowing were noted for each pedon: a) topography, b) vegeta t ion , c) the nature of the parent ma te r i a l , d) s ton iness , e) drainage and f) d i f f e r en t horizons in the p r o f i l e . For each hor izon, c o l o r , tex ture , cons is tence , and the specia l f ea tures , such as hardpan, o r t s t e i n , shot concret ions and root mats were recorded. The pedons were sampled for the prev ious ly mentioned four purposes. In add i t i on , some bulk density^ and stoniness determinations were undertaken. Stoniness and bulk densi ty determinations were ca r r i ed out on three pedons, Hart , Senton and Quinsam, having h igh, moderate and l ight stone contents. In each pedon, at three leve ls ( 0 - 9 " , 15-24" and 30"+), three Pedon is the smallest volume that can be ca l l ed M a s o i l " . A pedon has three dimensions. Its lower l im i t is between so i l and n n o t - s o i l ! ! . The l a te ra l dimensions are large enough to permit study of the nature of any horizon present (Soil C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , A Comprehensive System, 7th Approximation, I960). ^These bulk densi ty determinations d i f f e r from the previous ones which were based on core sampling. 22 small p i t s , approximately 9 x 9 x 9 ins in dimensions were excavated. The material from these p i t s was c a r e f u l l y removed and sieved through 1 in and 2 mm screens. Pa r t i c l e s larger than 3 ins and roots were separated by hand. The f i e l d weight of pa r t i c l e s >3'!, 3-1", l!'-2 mm and <2 mm and roots were obtained in the f i e l d and appropriate amounts of samples were taken from these p a r t i c l e s ize c lasses to determine the i r p a r t i c l e density and oven-dry weight. The volumes of the small p i t s were determined with water (Blake, 1965). A p l a s t i c sheet was f i t t e d into the p i t and the volume of water required to f i l l the p i t to the level of the so i l surface was recorded. An account of the water was kept during the f i l l i n g . The p a r t i c l e density of the s ize c lasses larger than 2 mm was obtained by immersion technique and volumes occupied by each p a r t i c l e s ize c lass were ca l cu l a t ed . The tota l poros i ty was ca lcu la ted with the formula: Total pore space, percent = 100 -jBulk density — \ \Pa r t i c l e densi ty/ In the ca l cu l a t i on of tota l pore space for p a r t i c l e s <2 mm, the value of 2.65 gms/cc was employed as the p a r t i c l e dens i ty , b. Vegetation and stand Trees , shrubs and flowers within a 100-foot radius of the so i l p i t were i den t i f i ed and recorded. In the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the vegetat ion as forest s i t e types, the gu ide l ines set by Sp i lsbury and Smith (19^ *7) were fo l lowed. The species were rated for abundance on the fo l lowing s ca l e : 1 - ra re , 2 - few, 3 - moderate, and k - abundant and dominant. Stand sampling was undertaken a l so in the v i c i n i t y of the so i l p i t s . The ob jec t i ve was to e s t ab l i sh a measure of p roduc t i v i t y corresponding to pedons and so i l se r ies and develop a reference system for the i r corrv-par isons . Height and volume were the main var iab les selected for the purpose. Since the ages of the sampled stands var ied from 20 to 29 years , height and volume measurements corresponding to 20 years growth were selected to obtain a common basis for comparing a l l p l o t s . The volume was ca lcu la ted with Hoss fe ld ' s formula as reported by Pe t r in i (1928): V = 3/4 g H 1/3 where: g = basal area at 1/3 of height 1/3 H = tota l height In add i t ion to the height (H2Q) and volume ( ^ Q ) measurements co r -responding to the age of 20, the fo l lowing were a lso employed as comple-mentary s t a t i s t i c s in the produc t i v i t y s tud ies : a. Present height (H,,.,) 1 66 b. Present volume (V , g,^ ) c. Present basal area ( B .A . ,^ ) d. Total height at 15 years (H^) e. Total height at 10 years (H^Q) f. Radial growth from 15th to 20th year g. Internodal d istances (on selected trees) Five well drained so i l ser ies found on f i ve d i f f e r en t parent mater ia ls were selected for plot establishment and tree measurements. These were: 1) Memekay so i l s e r i e s , 2) Hart so i l s e r i e s , 3) Senton so i l s e r i e s , 4) Gosl ing so i l s e r i e s , and 5) Quinsam so i l s e r i e s . The fores t mensuration p lots were es tab l i shed around the prev ious ly excavated so i l p i t s . They were rectangular with a constant width (13.2 f t ) and the i r lengths were determined by stand dens i t y , i . e . , twenty l i v i ng trees with dbh > 2 ins . A d iscuss ion on the seed source of the planted trees is given la ter on in the text under Soi l and Forest Re la t ionsh ips . 24 Two p lots were es tab l i shed in each sampling loca t ion . For plot .layout, the most norther ly and southerly corners of the so i l p i t were located and a) when the land was f l a t , the d i r e c t i on of the p lots were set as north and west, r e spec t i ve l y , from the above-mentioned corners , and b) i f the land was s loping (>2°) the p lots were estab l i shed across and along the contours perpendicular to each other . When it was not poss ib le to es t ab l i sh the p lots according to these condi t ions due to a r t i f i c i a l openings, bedrock exposure, ra i l road grades, e t c . , a clock-wise rotat ion was undertaken un t i l the establishment of two pendicular p lots was feas ib l e into the stand. Af te r the se l ec t ion of the d i r e c t i o n s , a tape was la id down along the compass l i ne and s ta r t ing point (P^) of the plot was estab l i shed as the mid-point between the tree number zero (t ) and tree number one (t^). S tar t ing from P^  twenty l i v i ng trees (dbh >2 ins) were counted. The end point (P ) of the plot was determined as the mid-point of t^Q and t^| . The fo l lowing were recorded on each p l o t : a. D i rec t ion of plot (±.5 deg) b. Length of p lot (±.5 in) c. Dbh of twenty l i v i ng trees (±.1 in) d. Slope of the plot along the compass d i r e c t i on measured from P^  to P^  and recorded pos i t i v e for up-slopes and negative for down-slopes (±.5 deg) ! e. Number of dead trees Sample trees were estab l i shed for height measurements. The procedure employed in the ca l cu l a t i on of the sampling s ize is out l ined below: The d i f f e rence of i n t e res t , d . , was set as 10% at 5% l e v e l . That i s , i f d = t < 0 5 ; ....(1) 25 for (2n-2) d . f . , then the d i f fe rence between two sample means is s i g n i f i -cant. As t QJ. for (2n-2) d . f . was unknown, i t was assumed that t ^ = 2 (to be adjusted i f necessary a f te r so lut ion for n) . S i nee SE , = 2CV 2 (2) "d N n where d = d i f f e rence of interest (10%) SEj = standard er ror of estimates of d i f f e rences n = number of sample trees CV = c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n ; for dominant and co-dominant Douglas f i r t r ees , i t is approximately 15% SEj was subst i tuted in Eq. (1) from Eq. (2) 2CV 2 Kl n Then Eq. (3) was solved for n = 2. (2)2 M 5 2 \ = 18 10 The sample s i z e , n = 18 trees per plot was employed for measuring of ^66 ^ 6 5 ^ ' ^20' ^15' ^10 a n c ' P r e s e n t dbh. The f i v e t a l l e s t t r ees , among the 18 sampled, were used for the measurements of internodal d i s tances . In the f i e l d , 18 dominant and co-dominant trees were selected and f e l l e d within or near the p lots around the so i l p i t . From each tree stump, a d i s c , as c lose as poss ib le to the ground (<3 ins) was cut for determining the age of the t ree . After the trees were debranched, the fo l lowing measurements were taken: a. Present height (H D O ) . If the las t year ' s leader was broken and missing during the tree f a l l i n g , was obtained. When there was a necess i ty to measure W, in a p l o t , to keep the measurements uniform, a l l the trees in that p l o t , as well as in the other p lots on that so i l ser ies,were measured to the same year ending. As a r e s u l t , H f^. was recorded in a l l p lots of the Memekay so i l ser ies (MEM #1, #k and #5) and the Hart so i l ser ies (HAR #1, #2 and #3). b. Present dbh (dbh^) . It was not f eas ib l e to measure dbh^,.. c. Heights corresponding to the 20th, 15th and 10th years of growth were recorded. Branch nodes were counted to e s t ab l i sh the above per iods . d. The diameter ins ide bark (dib) at 1/3 of the height at the 20th year was obta ined. The 1/3 of H^Q (1/3 from the base or 2/3 from the t ip ) was located and a d i s c , one inch th i ck , was cut . On the d i s c , s ta r t ing from the outmost r i ng , the necessary number of r ings were counted o f f to e s t ab l i sh the end of the 20th year. Two per-pendicular diameters were measured and recorded. e. On the d iscs taken from 1/3 ^2o' t n e t o t a ' width of 5 r ings , corresponding to the radia l growth between the ages of 15 and 20, were measured on four perpendicular r ad i i and recorded. f. The internodal distances were measured on the f i ve t a l l e s t trees from each p l o t . The measurements were taken by s ta r t i ng from the t i p of the tree and proceeding towards the base. At the end of the f i e l d season, a IT the data were 'placed e on TBM 27 2 . Laboratory Methods Most of the laboratory analyses were undertaken during the winters of 1965 and i 9 6 0 in the Department of Soi l Sc ience, Univers i ty of B.C. In add i t i on , the laboratory f a c i l i t i e s of the Pedology Uni t , Research S ta t ion , Canada Department of Ag r i cu l t u r e , U.B.C. Campus were used. The analyses of Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb were provided by the Department of Geology a lso s i tuated on the campus. B, Co, Mo, Mn, Fe and Mg analyses were provided by Cominco L t d . , T r a i l , B.C. The "Centimeter-Gram-Second" (cgs) system was employed in the laboratory measurements. Bulk densi ty determinations using so i l cores were made by drying the so i l at 105° C for 2k hours and weighing i t , and ca l cu l a t i ng the bulk densi ty in gms/cc. In the case of the peds bulk densi ty was determined by the pa ra f f in coating method out l ined by Blake ( 1 9 6 5 ) . T r i p l i c a t e determinations were made for both core and ped samples. P a r t i c l e s ize determinations were made by the p ipet te method as out l ined by Kilmer and Alexander (19^9) , and Jackson ( 1 9 6 5 ) . Samples were extracted three times by the d io th ion i te-c i t ra te-b ica rbonate procedure of Mehra and Jackson ( i 9 6 0 ) p r io r to the ana l y s i s . Deter-mined p a r t i c l e s izes (U.S.D.A.) were: Sand S i l t very coarse sand (2-1 mm) coarse s i l t ( . 0 5 - . 0 2 mm) coarse sand (1 - . 5 mm) medium s i l t ( . 0 2 - . 0 0 5 mm) medium sand ( . 5 - . 2 5 mm) f ine s i l t ( . 0 0 5 - .002.mm) f ine sand ( . 2 5 - .1 mm) Clay very f i ne sand (.1 - . 0 5 mm) coarse c lay ( . 0 0 2 - . 0 0 0 2 mm) f ine c lay (< .0002 mm) In the separat ion of the d i f f e r en t sand f r a c t i o n s , the dry s iev ing technique was employed (Day, 1965). The percentage of s i l t and c lay p a r t i c l e s was ca lcu la ted from the samples obtained by a p ipet te from a temperature con t ro l l ed so i l suspension. The sampling depth was set as 10 cms and the sampling for each p a r t i c l e s ize was ca lcu la ted according to Stoke's Law. The amount of f i ne c lay was determined by cent r i fuga t ion (Jackson, 1956). The water retent ion values corresponding to tensions of . 1 , . 3 , -3, 5, 15 bars^ were determined on <2 mm material at 20° C (Richards, 19^8). A m i l l i po r e membrane with a hanging column was employed for .1 tens ion. For the tensions corresponding to .3 and .9 bar, a low-pressure and for 5 and 15 bars a high-pressure plate ext rac tor was used. The r e l a t i ve vapour pressure of the compressed a i r was increased to the value corre-sponding to the desired tension by use of humid i f i e r s . Desorption curves constructed from the data obtained from th is undertaking are presented in the appropriate places in the text . The laboratory resu l ts are given in Appendix Tables 3 and h. The ava i l ab le moisture^ was ca lcu la ted for both .1 - 15 and .3 - 15 bars d i f f e r ences . The former is more app l i cab le to sandy mater ia ls whereas the l a t t e r may be used for evaluat ing the ava i l ab le moisture of medium and heavy textured s o i l s . The percentage of moisture by volume, P y (P v= percent moisture by weight, Pw x bulk density) was corrected for material >2 mm in the c a l cu l a t i on of the ava i l ab l e water. 5l bar = 1 x 10° dynes/cm2 6 j n i s technique was introduced during the course of the study by Dr. DeVr ies , Department of Soi l Sc ience, Un ivers i t y of B.C. ^Aval iable moisture is synonymous with ava i l ab le water. These two terms are used interchangeably throughout the text . The pH measurements were made using a Beckman model pH meter with a glass e lec t rode . As suggested by Schof ie ld (19^9) .01M Ca C1 £ was used in the preparat ion of samples. The organic matter determinations were made with the Walkey-Black method (Jackson, 1958). The Kjeldahl tech -nique was employed to obtain the tota l nitrogen content of the samples (Jackson, 1958). The exchangeable K and Na were determined with a Perkin-Elmer flame photometer (Jackson, 1958). The pH of the ammonium acetate was adjusted to 6.5, approximately the average pH of the samples. Ava i l ab le phosphorus analyses were undertaken with the Bray - method (Jackson, 1958). In the determination of the cat ion exchange capac i ty , the concept and procedures which have been proposed and out l ined by Clark (1965, 1966) for the coastal s o i l of B r i t i s h Columbia were fo l lowed. Sodium ch lor ide so lu t ion was used for ex t rac t i on . The determination of Ca+Mg was made by t i t r a t i o n with EDTA (Jackson, 1958) and Al c o l o r i m e t r i c a l l y using 8-hydroxyquinoline (Sandel1 , 1950). The Al determinations were made only for the s o i l s with a pH 5 or l ess . Cu was determined col orimetrica11y (Warren and Delavaul t , 1959) and Zn with the d i th izone method (Warren and Delavaul t , 1949). A co lo r imet r i c technique was a lso used for the Pb ana 1ysis (Sandel1 , 1959). Fe and Mn were determined by X-ray f luorescence (Mortensen et al. , 1965) and B and Co by spec t rog raphs ana lys is (the powder spark method). (Specht et al. , 1965)- The thiocyanate method for Mo (Reisenauer, 1965) and the atomic absorpt ion techinque (Pr ince, 1965) for Mg were employed. Minera logica l analyses were undertaken using a Ph i l i ps X-ray d i f f r a c -tometer equipped with a proport ional pulse-height analyser . Cu K°= (X = 1 .54050) rad ia t ion was employed. The rece iv ing s l i t was equipped with a N i f i 1 te r . P a r t i c l e s i ze separat ion was made according to the procedure presented by K i t r i c k and Hope ( 1 9 6 3 ) . X-ray analyses were run on the Ca- and K-saturated samples of f ine c lay ( < . 2 y ) , coarse c lay (2 - .2u) and s i l t (2 - 50y) f r a c t i o n s . For g lycer ine and heat treatments, the techniques out l ined by Mackintosh and Gardner (1954) were fo l lowed. No addi t iona l treatments were undertaken for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of kao-l i n i t e in the presence of c h l o r i t e . . S t a t i s t i c a l Methods Co r r e l a t i on , regression and variance ana lys is were undertaken according to methods out l ined by Snedecor ( 1 9 4 9 ) - Edwards and Cova l l i n S fo rza ' s (1965) method was employed in c lus te r ana l y s i s . 31 III. GEOLOGY AND SOILS 1. Mapp i ng The primary object ive of mapping is to c l a s s i f y the land and forest into smaller and consequently less heterogeneneous uni ts for intensive forest management. a. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems for forested lands There are several systems fo r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of forested lands which may be grouped into four ca tegor ies : 1) vegetation c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , 2) s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , 3) land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (land system, landtype, and bio-physical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ) , and k) so i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The vegetat ion c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is p r imar i l y concerned with the stand and i ts p roduc t i v i t y which is often determined from the ex i s t ing stand at the time of observat ion. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is based on the concept that the vegetat ion is a resul t of the environmental factors and con sequently d i f f e r en t plant assoc ia t ions de l ineate d i f f e r en t environments or s i t e s ' (ecosystem, b iochore, biogeocenoses). The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n employs the phytosoc ia log ica l methods and is ca r r i ed out pr imar i l y by ground examination. Cajander (1926) in F in l and , Spi lsbury and Smith (19^7) and la ter Kraj ina (1959) in Canada have pioneered in adopting the system into fo res t ry under the name of "Fores t-S i te Type C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ' . Boundaries es tab l i shed with the vegetat ion system are not permanent be-cause of disturbances such as f i r e or logging. Since the c l ima t i c S i te has been defined by the American Society of Foresters as "An area considered as to i ts eco log ica l factors with reference to capaci ty to produce fores ts or other vegetat ion ; the combination of b i o t i c , c l ima t i c and so i l con-d i t i ons of an area" (Soc. Am. Fo r . , 1958). The term of ecosystem introduced by Tansley in 1935, biochore by Pallman and biogeocenoses by Sukachev in 19^ 7 (Kuchler, 1967). 32 climax vegetat ion is not f requent ly encountered, there is often necess i ty to evaluate the plant succession in an area pr io r to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and mapp i ng. S i te mapping has been developed a lso for de l ineat ing d i f f e ren t e n v i -ronments and in th is respect i t is s im i l a r to the vegetation mapping. In th is system, the environmental fac tors such as physiography, c l imate , so i l as well as vegetat ion are cons idered, a l though, selected d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c r i t e r i a may be employed by d i f f e r en t workers in i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s i t e s . H i l l ( i 9 6 0 ) in Canada and Duchaufour (1961) in France have conceived ce r ta in re la t ionsh ips among the environmental fac tors and selected the factors that expressed the s i t e best and use it in the de l inea t ion of mapping un i t s . H i l l ( i 9 6 0 ) employed "the natural succession of vegetation on s im i l a r landforms" in the establishment of his S i te Regions. Duchaufour (1961) used the "humus type" (d i f f e ren t i a ted on the basis of C/H r a t i o , pH, base content) as the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c r i t e r i a for recogni t ion of d i f f e r en t s i tes . The s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is bas i c a l l y in te rpre t i ve in nature and i ts resu l t and app l i ca t i on are l imited to the given in terpre t i ve purpose (often product i v i t y ) on that pa r t i cu l a r area. Land system, landtype, landform and bio-physical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are very s im i l a r in nature and they have been developed in countr ies such as Aus t r a l i a and Canada where there are large t rac ts of unc l a s s i f i ed lands. Recently, an inventory of these lands became pre requ is i t e to the resource developments of both count r ies . Mapping (with any of them) is ca r r i ed out p r imar i l y from air-photos using photo-features re lated to bedrock geology, geomorphology, s u r f i c i a l deposi ts as well as vegetat ion. Re-occurring patterns of the above features were del ineated as mapping un i t s . Mapping is fas t but i t resu l ts in rather 33 general information which i s , however, s a t i s f a c to r y for inventory purposes. Land system c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was pioneered by Chr i s t i an (1958) in Aus t r a l i a where i t s t i l l is in use; however, some refinement has been introduced into the system at a l a ter date (Gibson and Dawnes, 1964). Lacate (1961, 19&7) was promotor of a s im i l a r system under the name " landtype" or " landform" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n in Canada. The l a t te r c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n system present ly is employed to map the forest lands and wi ldlands in Canada under the Canada Land Inventory scheme. Recently, Kowall and Runka (1968) revised th i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme under the t i t l e of "Gu ide l ines for B iophysical Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " . So i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s has long been appl ied to ag r i cu l tu r a l lands and i t s use as a basis of management has been undertaken in many count r i e s . P resent ly , ag r i cu l tu r a l prac t i ces such as f e r t i l i z a t i o n , i r r i g a t i o n , drainage and crop rota t ion are so le l y governed by the type of s o i l . This is because so i l r e f l e c t s the environment since i t is a resu l t of the major environmental fac tors (so i l forming f a c t o r s ) , namely, a) c l imate , b) parent ma te r i a l , c) topography, d) l i v i ng organism (plant and an imals ) , and e) time. Mapping un i ts carry a considerable amount of information in respect to genesis and morpho-l o g i c a l , p h y s i c a l , chemical and mineralogica1 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s o i l . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are often re lated to plant growth and land use. Furthermore, uni t boundaries are f a i r l y stable regardless of use or d is turbance. App l i ca t ion of so i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to forested lands is extens ive ly pract i ced in the U. S. A. both by pr i va te and government agencies. Most operat ional app l i c a t i on of th i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been demonstrated e 8 » 34 by Steinbrenner of Weyerhaeuser Company in Washington State. The company's holdings were mapped at the so i l ser ies level to provide a framework for intensive management.2 The United States Forest Service has a lso been employing the so i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on the National f o r e s t s , as a basis for mul t ip le use. Many areas have been mapped at the so i l assoc ia t ion level and interpreted for d i f f e r en t land uses. Some selected examples of th is type of undertaking are : Soi l management report for the Hoi l i s area, Alaska (U.S.D.A. fo res t se r v i ce , 1 9 6 6 ) ; Soi l management report-Taylor River area, Colorado (U.S.D.A. , forest s e r v i c e , 1 9 6 5 ) ; and so i l management report-Ent iat area, Washington (U.S .D.A. , forest s e r v i c e , 1967)• b. Proposed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system This mapping system combines some of the features from landtype and so i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and uses vegetat ion as complementary information. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and mapping is car r ied out as an independent step from in te rpre ta t ion and the latter- is undertaken a f te r the mapping is f u l l y completed. A short summary of the developed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system is presented below: i. Object ive : The ob jec t i ve of the system was to provide 1) a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and inventory of the land in terms of bedrock and s u r f i c i a l geology, s o i l s and vegeta t ion ; 2) an evaluat ion and in te rpre ta t ion of these features for land use and fores t management purposes, such as p roduc t i v i t y , species preference, regenerat ion, logging, th inn ing , and f e r t i l i z e r requirements. However, recent undertakings on the company land a lso contain s o i l -vegetat ion and soi1-1andform mappings (Gerhrke and Steinbrenner, 1965)• 35 i i . C r i t e r i a : C r i t e r i a for the system were set as fo l lows : 1. The system must be simple and p r a c t i c a l ; therefore the mapping un i ts should correspond to land, so i l or vegetat ion patterns (or any combination of them) that are eas i l y recognized in f i e l d and on a i r-photos . 2. Unit boundaries should correspond to permanent features that would not be a l tered by t ime, logging and f i r e . 3. The mapping technique should involve extensive use of air-photos to al low the app l i ca t ion of the system to large areas economical ly. k. Mapping uni ts should correspond to the separate ecosystems that can be defined ( qua l i t a t i v e l y or quant i ta t i ve l y ) in terms of the i r major components: land, s o i l , vegetat ion , c l imate , e tc . 5. Only c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s essent ia l for the accurate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of mapping uni ts in d i f f e r en t l o c a l i t i e s should be used so that va r i a t ions among members of one mapping unit would be minimum. 6. Mapping uni ts must contain the necessary information to permit both the i r ind iv idua l in te rpre ta t ion as well as the i r h ie ra rch ica l grouping so that the in te rpre ta t ion can be made at any desired level of abs t rac t ion (genera l i za t ion ) . Furthermore, any level should be d i r e c t l y mappable and the in te rpre ta t i ve groupings (grouping for p rac t i ca l purposes) should be poss ib le at any l e ve l . 7. The mapping-interpretat ion system must be an open system to permit the addi t ion and re-organizat ion of information to accom-modate the changes in economic cond i t i ons , technology and land use. 8. The system should be f l e x i b l e enough to al low i t s app l i ca t ion to d i f f e r en t regions with a minimum amount of adjustment. i i i . Mapping: Mapping cons i s t s of several steps. It was mapping ca r r i ed out on 40-chain photos (1:31, 680) which were ava i l ab le at the date. 36 However, as indicated later in the d i s cuss ion , d i f f e r en t scale of photos may be more su i tab le for d i f f e r en t types of mappings. The maps are en-closed in Appendix, and de ta i l ed information about bedrock geology, sur -f i c i a l deposits and s o i l s that were del ineated by the d i f f e r en t mappings are given under the i r respect ive sect ions la ter on in the text . Bedrock Geology Map I : Mapping de l ineates bedrock types or groups. Formations within groups were not i d e n t i f i e d . Three bedrock groups were mapped. Vancouver vo lcan ics (B^), Coastal in t rus ives (B^), and Cretaceous sed iments (B^) . The bedrock is a source of mater ia ls for t i l l s , outwash, and sedimentary depos i t s , and the chemical and physical composition of the bedrock is often re f l ec ted in these s u r f i c i a l depos i ts . Bedrock, when i t l i e s under a thin mantle and exh ib i t s frequent exposures, l im i t s tree growth and land use. Information provided by the bedrock mapping uni ts is very genera l . Very broad inferences about the p roduc t i v i t y and engineering uses may be procured from the l im i t a t ions set by the d i f f e r en t bedrock types. The mapping : was ca r r i ed out on the 40-chain photos; however, 80-chain photos (1:63, 360) are preferable for th i s purpose since a) the bedrock patterns appear more d i s t i n c t l y on smaller scale photos, and b) the mapping is less time-consuming i f i t is undertaken from 80-chain pho tos . 3 II. S u r f i c i a l geology Map II: This is the f i r s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s u r f i c i a l mate r i a l s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is broad and based on modes of o r i g i n s of the mate r i a l s . The mapping is general and the uni ts de l ineate the major parent mate r i a l s . Ten mapping uni ts were de l inea ted : ^The areas with in the match l ines are .10.0 and 55 sq miles on 40 and 80-chain photos, r espec t i ve l y . 37 G l a c i a l t i l l s Vol can i c - r i ch t i l l s G r a n o d i o r i t e - r i c h t i l l s S a n d s t o n e - r i c h t i l l s M a r i n e Sediments M a r i n e sand, g r a v e l and c l a y T h i n marine sand and g r a v e l o v e r t i l l G1ac iof1uv i a 1 Sand, g r a v e l l y and c o b b l y outwash T h i n , outwash o v e r t i l l Quadra sediments Quadra sand D e l t a s and a 11uvium Al1uv i urn Organ i cs Swamps and o rgan i c 'depos i'ts •o'' The mapping u n i t s a r e l a r g e and may c o n t a i n more than one s o i l a s s o -c i a t i o n and s i t e type a s s o c i a t i o n s . In s p i t e o f a c e r t a i n amount o f h e t e r o -g e n e i t y , t h e mapping u n i t s can be employed as a b a s i s o f broad management p l a n n i n g a t t h e p o l i c y l e v e l as w e l l as o b t a i n i n g broad p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s on l a r g e t r a c t s o f l a n d . The mapping u n i t s a l s o c o n t a i n r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e n g i n e e r i n g or p l a n n i n g i n the g e n e r a l t r a n s p o r t system o f an a r e a and s e l e c t i n g the town and i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s o f a r e g i o n p r i o r t o i t s development. Photos a t a s c a l e o f 1:63, 360 a r e most s u i t a b l e f o r mapping of s u r -f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s e s p e c i a l l y when a l a r g e a r e a i s i n q u e s t i o n (200 sq m i l e s o r more). For s m a l l a r e a s ' 1 : 3 1 , 860 s c a l e photos may be b e t t e r s u i t e d . 38 Geologic Units Map I I I : This is the p r i n c i p a l f i e l d mapping unit. Variation within the s u r f i c i a l geology units was decreased by separating them into more homogeneous classes on the basis of the following charac-t e r i s t i c s : 1) the thickness of the material (shallow or deep) over bed-rock, 2) nature of the underlying material when i t is less than 10 f t . below the surface, 3) texture and composition of the material (sandy, clayey, non-stony, stony, etc.), k) s i g n i f i c a n t land patterns such as erosion or channelling, elnd 5) location on the landscape. A unit may contain one or more s o i l series ( s o i l association) and f o r e s t - s i t e type ( s i t e association).'* It should be noted that the geo-log i c a l units correspond to the s o i l parent materials that w i l l be the basis for the s o i l s e r i e s . A tot a l of 42 mapping units were delineated as a result of 17 major classes and two depth phases. Depth phases were delineated whenever i t was possible; otherwise complex mapping units were established. The major geologic unit-classes were: T i l l s Vol c a n i c - r i c h ti11 (T^) Granodiorite-rich t i l l (T ) Sandstone-rich t i l l (T ) 3 Whymper t i l l (T,) h Quadra t i l l (T ) Strathcona t i l l (T ) 6 Marine sediments Sand (S.) The term of " s i t e a s s o c i a t i o n " was coined to refer to the associated f o r e s t - s i t e types on one kind o f ' s u r f i c i a l material such as t i l l , outwash or marine sediments. 3 9 G r a v e l l y and s t o n y sand (S2) Stony and c o b b l y sand (S3) C l a y (C) G l a c i o f l u v i a l m a t e r i a l s Sandy outwash (0]) G r a v e l l y outwash (C^) Stony and c o b b l y outwash (O3) Quadra sediments Quadra sand (Q) D e l t a s and a l l u v i a l s D e l t a (RD) A l l u v i u m (AV) O r g a n i c s Swamps and o r g a n i c d e p o s i t s (OR) The d e p t h phases were i n d i c a t e d w i t h a number used a f t e r t he m a t e r i a l code: ,1 f o r s h a l l o w , and .2 f o r deep. For example T ^ j / B ^ r e p r e s e n t s a s h a l l o w phase o f t h e s a n d s t o n e - r i c h t i l l u n d e r l a i n by C r e t a c e o u s sediments whereas T32/B3 c o r r e s p o n d s t o the deep phase o f the same m a t e r i a l . A code o f O22 " O32 i n d i c a t e s a complex u n i t made up from g r a v e l l y (O2), and s t o n y and c o b b l y outwash (O3), the former b e i n g the major component. No r e f e r -ence t o bedrock i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e bedrock i s a t g r e a t d e p t h and i t was not o b s e r v e d i n t h e f i e l d and was not i n f e r r e d from the p h o t o s . The g e o l o g i c u n i t s c o n t a i n more r e f i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n than the u n i t s d e l i n e a t i n g t he s u r f i c i a l m a t e r i a l s and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y p r o v i d e more p r e c i s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r the purposes s t a t e d f o r the s u r f i c i a l g e o l o g y u n i t s . In a d d i t i o n , g e n e r a l p l a n n i n g f o r s e e d i n g , p l a n t i n g , and l o g g i n g can a l s o be u n d e r t a k e n on t h e b a s i s o f g e o l o g i c a l u n i t s . -40 Photos at a sca le of 1:31, 680 are most su i tab le for de l ineat ing geologic mapping un i t s . Geologic Unit-Drainage Classes Map IV: This step provides the smallest and most homogeneous as well as the highest number of mapping un i t s , 99 uni ts in t o t a l . Mapping uni ts were obtained by de l ineat ing the drainage c lasses within the geologica l un i t s . Six drainage c lasses were employed: r ap id , w e l l , moderately we l l , imperfect, poor and very poor. When i t was not poss ib le or p rac t i ca l to de l ineate the indiv idual drainage c l a s se s , complexes such as rapid to w e l l , well to moderately well or imperfect to poorly drained were employed. Each mapping unit represents a very homogeneous unit that can be studied in de ta i l in respect to i ts components: c l imate , landform, so i l and vegetat ion. Each unit contains one so i l se r ies (or phase) and one forest s i t e type. The geologic unit-drainage c lass may be looked upon as the ideal mapping unit for intensive forest management. Because of homogeneity and high information content , the mapping units can be employed for operat ional pfanning of any management or si1vicu1tura1 p r a c t i c e s . They are most su i tab le for experimental undertakings, such as th inn ing , f e r t i l i z a t i o n and growth s tud ies . De l ineat ion of the geologic uni ts and geologic unit-drainage c lasses can be ca r r i ed out simultaneously on 1:31, 680 sca le photos i f i t is des i red . In the present case, the drainage c lasses were del ineated a f te r the com-p le t ion of geo log ica l un i t s . When establishment of a f i e l d experiment is in quest ion , the boundaries of the mapping should be re-del ineated on 1:15, 840 scale photos comple-mented with f i e l d checkings. So i l Assoc ia t ions Map V: A so i l assoc ia t ion is a group of defined and named taxonomic u n i t s , regu lar l y geographica l ly associated in a defined proport ional pattern (U.S.D.A. Handbook, 1951). There were two pr inc ipa l reasons for the establishment of the so i l a s soc i a t i on : 1) approximately 20 to 30 so i l ser ies are estimated to occur in the area , and the study of only a few was f e a s i b l e . Preparation of a so i l map would have been cos t l y and time consuming. Soi l assoc ia t ions were easy to e s t ab l i sh since there was s u f f i c i e n t information on the parent mater ia ls and the major so i l ser ies in the area; and 2) so i l assoc ia t ions del ineate mapping uni ts appropriate for present day fo res t ry prac t i ces both in s i ze and information content.5 Whenever poss ib l e , de ta i l ed i n fo r -mation about so i l se r ies was obtained and presented. Ful l use was made of the information presented by Day, Farstad and La ird (1959) on the s o i l s of the East coast of Vancouver Is land. Twelve so i l assoc ia t ions were es tab l i shed : 1. So i l developed from g l a c i a l t i l l s Gos1ing-Whymper Assoc i a t i on : coarse textured t i l l s r i ch in vo lcan ic rocks and under la in by Vancouver vo l can i c s ; domi-nantly rapid to well drained Strathcona Assoc i a t i on : f ine textured t i l l s r i ch in vo lcan ic rocks and under la in by Vancouver vo l c an i c s ; dominantly rapid and wel1 d ra i ned Gooseneck Assoc i a t i on : coarse textured t i l l s , r i ch in g r a n o d i o r i t i c rocks and under la in by Coastal i n t rus i ves ; dominantly rapid to well drained Quinsam Assoc i a t i on : coarse textured t i l l s r i ch in sandstone and ^Although the geologic unit-drainage c lass is the ideal unit for forest management, i t may be too de ta i l ed and cos t l y for the present fo res t ry prac -t i c e . underla in by Cretaceous sediments: dominantly rapid to well drained II. So i l developed from grave l l y and sandy outwash, beach and deltas Hart-Senton Assoc i a t i on : Coarse sandy and grave l l y outwash mate r i a l s ; dominantly well drained Chemainus-Cassidy Assoc i a t i on : Beach and de l ta mater ia ls in va r i ab le texture ; dominantly well drained III. So i l s developed from marine sediments Fairbridge-Memekay-Qua1icum 6 Assoc i a t i on : Pr imar i ly f ine textured mate r i a l s : dominantly well to moderately well drained Parksvi11e-Punt1 edge-Bowser Assoc i a t i on : Pr imar i ly sandy textured mater ia l s ;^ dominantly imperfect to poorly drained IV. So i l s developed from Quadra Sediments Ketone-Quadra-Felix Assoc i a t i on : Pr imar i ly stone-free t i l l underla in by sand; dominantly well drained V. So i l s developed on eroded channels Channel Assoc i a t i on : P r imar i l y coarse textured ma te r i a l ; dominantly well drained VI. So i l developed from organic deposits Arrowsmith Assoc i a t i on : Par t ly and well decomposed organic mate r i a l s ; dominantly poorly and very poorly drained The so i l assoc ia t ions may be looked upon as compartments basic to present fores t management. Mapping uni ts contain considerable amounts of information relevant to d i f f e r en t fo res t ry pract i ces and land management. Consequently, for each unit a set of s p e c i f i c a t i o n one can draw Qualicum Ser ies is coarse textured. It was included in th is a s s o c i -a t ion s ince i t was too small in extent to be set up as a separate un i t . ^Bowser ser ies has a coarser texture . It a l so was, as Qualicum, small in extent. 43 up guides to prac t i ces such as th inn ing , f e r t i l i z a t i o n , logging or s lash bu rn i ng. The so i l assoc ia t ion map may be best presented on a 1:31, 680 scale photo mosaic. Photo mosaics should be used whenever poss ib le in l i eu of topographic maps. Soi l Centenas (Map V l ) : A so i l catena is an assoc ia t ion of s o i l s developed from one kind of parent material but d i f f e r i n g in cha r a c t e r i s t i c s due to d i f f e rences in r e l i e f and drainage (U.S.D.A. Handbook, 1951). A l -though catenary members may correspond to the drainage phases of s u r f i c i a l ma te r i a l , they contain more information by having data on so i l morphology, genesis and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Four drainage c lasses were employed: r ap id , we l l , moderately we l l , and imperfect to poor. This map is presented as an a l t e rna t i ve to the so i l a ssoc i a t i ons . D is -t r i bu t i on of drainage c lasses provides a framework that can be employed for forest management. Photo mosaics, at a scale of 1:31, 680, are best su i tab le in the presentat ion of the catena map. As a summary of the presented mappings, the re l a t ionsh ips between the bedrock geology, s u r f i c i a l geology, so i l and vegetat ion are presented in Table 3. The correspondence among s u r f i c i a l mate r i a l s , s o i l s and vegetation provides the re l a t ion from one concept to the other at the same abst rac t ion l e ve l s . Furthermore, the information under d i f f e r en t concepts is add i t i ve and consequently, in p r a c t i c e , these re l a t ionsh ips w i l l resu l t in an increase in the amount of tota l information. 2. Geology a. Bedrock geology Table 3- Relat ionships between bedrock geology, s u r f i c i a l geology, so i l s and vegetation units Bedrock Geology Su r f i c i a l geology So i 1 s Vegetat ion Appropr iate sca le for mapping Cl-Su r f i c i a l material So i1 assoc iat ion Fores t-s i te type assoc ia t ion or forest type 1 : 6 3 , 3 6 0 ock ty Geologic unit Soi l assoc ia t ion or catena Fores t-s i te type assoc iat i on 1 : 3 1 , 6 8 0 Bedr Geologic unit -drainage c lasses So i1 ser i es or type Fores t-s i te type 1 : 1 5 , 8 4 0 45 Studies were l imited to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r en t bedrock mate r i a l s . Air-photo in terpre ta t ion was pr imar i l y employed in the l a t t e r case. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the bedrock mater ia ls are presented on the bedrock geology map (Appendix Map 1) prepared for the area. A summary of the cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the three major bedrock types occurr ing in the study area is as fo l lows : 1. Vancouver vo l can i c s : The rocks of th is group occupy mainly the northern and northeastern port ions of the area. Along the coast , a th i ck s u r f i c i a l layer ove r l i e s the Vancouver vo lcan ics and as a resu l t the bedrock exposures often are not encountered. Towards the north and northwest the bedrock is well exposed and it r i ses gradual ly towards the steeper mountains which are members of the Vancouver Island Range. Within the study area, the e levat ion does not exceed 1,100 f t . The basa l t i c and andes i t i c nature of the material are eas i l y recog-n izable and the remnants of old lava flows are often apparent (Figure 4). A few basal t i c "-cl i f f s were noted. One of these occurs along the Gold River road one-half mile west of Forbes Landing, Most of the observed basa l t i c rocks were amygdaloidal in nature. A limestone exposure, with some marble, was observed near the Strathcona damsite just above the power house. Approximately a 50-foot exposure of a rg i l l i t e was a lso noted on the opposite shore. The rocks encountered in the northern part of the study area cor -respond to Bancrof t ' s (1913) Valdes group reported in his study "Geology of the Coast and Islands between S t r a i t of Georgia and Queen Char lot te Sound, B.C." The rocks exposed along the coast may belong to Karmutson group which l i ke Valdes group, is a d i v i s i o n within Van-couver vo l can i c s . No attempt was made to study^the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these groups. 46 Figure 4. A s tereoscopic pa i r from the Vancouver Volcanic rocks north-west of Lost Lake. (Scale: 1:15,840) Figure 5- Quinsam Granodior i te south-west of Reginald Lake. The c r i s s-c ross pattern of j o i n t s is well expressed. (Scale: 1:15,840) hi i i . Coastal in t rus ive - Quinsam granod io r i t e s : They occur in the western and southwestern sect ion of the area in the v i c i n i t y of Middle Quinsam Lake. They are well exposed and control the topography. They extend to 1,400 f t e levat ion and show steeper slopes than Vancouver vol can i cs . Most of the exposures and specimens studied were i den t i f i ed as granod ior i te and d i o r i t e . Figure 5 presents typ ica l photo-features of Quinsam granod io r i t e . i i i . Upper Cretaceous sediments: The sandstones are the major Upper Cretaceous mater ia ls found in the area. They occur in two separate l o c a l i t i e s (Appendix Map 1). An iso la ted port ion is located between Middle Quinsam River and Lower Campbell Lake, and a large sect ion occurs in the southeastern part of the study area. The l a t t e r extends south beyond the area as far as Nanaimo along the S t r a i t of Georgia. Because of a th ick over l a in t i l l , the sandstone exposures were not often encountered; however, the i r existence can be e a s i l y inferred from the air-photos due to the i r bedded nature (Figure 6). The i r e levat ions do not exceed 1,000 f t . A small port ion of upper shales were observed along the road located on the north side of Middle Quinsam Lake under la in by conglomerates. Both mater ia ls l i e on sandstone which does not outcrop at th is pa r t i cu l a r p lace , but i t s existence can be inferred from the a i r-photos. However, c lose by, where Quinsam River leaves Middle Quinsam Lake, a small sand-stone canyon occurs and the nature of the sandstone may be eas i l y ob-served on the v e r t i c a l wal ls of th i s narrow gorge (Figure 6). A conglomerate exposure a l so occurs on the Butt le Lake road just east of Snakehead Lake. It is approximately 1/4 mile long and up to 30 f t . th ick . Some sandstone outcroppings are exposed in several Figure 6. The cretaceous sandstones(B3) bordering the Vancouver Volcanics (Bj) . The canyon at upper-r ight has been cut in the sandstone by Quinsam R iver . A r i v e r de l t a appears in the center . (Scale: 1:15,840) oc 4 9 places along the Elk River Timber Company road between Camp #8 and Beaverta i l Lake and on the Butt le Lake access road between Camp #8 and Snakehead Lake. Along th i s road a small coal exposure was a lso noted. b. S u r f i c i a l geology S u r f i c i a l mater ia ls for the area were studied in de ta i l s ince they cons t i tu te the basis to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o i l s . In the study of these mate r i a l s , Fy les 1 (1963) working hypothesis , concept and termino-logy (see page 11) were adopted from his work undertaken in the v i c i n i t y of P a rksv i l l e area , approximately 60 miles south of the study area. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the mater ia ls are presented on the S u r f i c i a l Geology Map (Appendix Map II) and comprehensive d iscuss ions are given below: i. Sa l i sh sediments: These are the most recent mater ia ls re lated to the present sea, r i ver and lake l e v e l s , and they can be eas i l y found at these l oca t ions . In f a c t , some of these mater ia ls are present ly in the process of formation. The Campbell River de l ta comprises the largest s ing le unit of these depos i t i ons , and it is s t i l l in the process of formation. Probably, i f the currents were not so strong in Discovery Passage, one might expect a much bigger de l ta consider ing the erosion pattern of Quinsam R i v e r 8 which flows through ea s i l y erodable ma te r i a l , marine sand and c l a y s , as well as the extent of the watershed of Campbell River^ that reaches as far as Elk Va l ley and Butt le Lake. The l a t t e r a l so flows through e a s i l y erodable mate r i a l s , outwash sand and grave ls , ^Quinsam River : 14 mi les long (lakes, excluded) , drainage area . 1 07 sq m i l e s , mean discharge 360 cu f t/sec ^Campbel1 R iver : 19 mi les long (lakes exc luded) , drainage area 564 sq m i l e s , mean discharge 4190 cu f t/sec (Data provided by the B.C. F ish and Game Department) 50 before i t terminates at the sea. A smaller r i ve r de l ta occurs where Quinsam River flows into Lower Quinsam Lake. This de l t a forms in the v i c i n i t y of the Iron River and Quinsam River junct ion where sharp gradient changes occur in both r i vers causing unloading. In both r i v e r s , deeply cut canyons jus t before th is point may be i den t i f i ed as the immediate sources of the de l t a i c mate r i a l . The de l ta is present ly extending into the Lower Quinsam Lake and probably w i l l f i l l the lake in the future . Act ive formation is more apparent where creeks or streams are f low-ing into lakes. Formation of new beaches can be eas i l y observed along the shores of Campbell and Hart Lakes fo l lowing the r ise in water level which resulted in the drowning of the old beaches. Peats and mucks were observed in and along swamp area , a l though, in some cases, formation might have started much e a r l i e r in re l a t ion to the present time. The e a r l i e r ones were a lso c l a s s i f i e d under the Sa l i sh sediments for p rac t i ca l reasons.,, The majority of the peaty areas are located c lose to the coas t , e spec i a l l y on the southern port ion of the area. The swampy areas have been located on sandy mater ia ls underlain by impermeable marine c lays and t i l l s . Col luvium, ta lus and lands l ides can be recent in formation and i f so, they should be c l a s s i f i e d with the Sa l i sh sediments. Although there was no way to estimate the in tens i ty of the col luvium process in the area, i t was suspected that a considerable amount of surface mater ia ls have been moved along the Steep s lopes. Talus is not commonly seen in the area. A small ta lus occurs jus t north of Forbes Landing along, the Gold River road, below a basa l t i c b l u f f . '• e . No major land s l i des were located in the area ; however, slumping 51 is a common feature along the Quinsam River where the r i ver flows through marine c l a y . The a l l u v i a l fans, channel f lood p la ins and lacus t r ine sediments were c l a s s i f i e d under the Sa l i sh sediments. Their occurrences are r e l a t i v e l y minor. The de l tas and major beaches were del ineated as mapping uni ts and the locat ions of swamps were a lso noted to indicate the general d i s -t r i bu t ions of peat and muck. Phys i ca l , chemical and minera1ogica1 studies of these mater ia ls were not undertaken since they const i tuted a small port ion of the general area, and furthermore, the i r importance in respect to forest growth is neg l i g i b l e at present. i i . Capilano sediments: These sediments are re lated to former (higher) sea, r i ve r and lake l e ve l s . The members of th i s s t r a t ig raph i c unit in the area cons is t of marine sediments and f l u v i a l depos i t s . Fine textured marine sediments: They occur on the west port ion of the area between the sea and the 600-foot contour level which is appro-ximately the maximum reach of the shore l i ne fo l lowing the ice re t rea t . Although they extend over a large area , in many places these mater ia ls were over l a in by sandy and grave l l y mater ia ls of g1aciof1uvia 1 or marine o r i g i n . In general because the over ly ing material is~not too th i ck , marine c lays and s i l t s control the topography, and the drainage pattern of these areas is t yp ica l of c l a y s . In a few locat ions the marine c lay appears without any over ly ing mater ia l s . Some of these locat ions are : The area between Lost Lake and John Hart Lake, Josephine F l a t s , in places along the Quinsam River west of Lower Quinsam Lake, such as Quinsam Nursery, Quinsam Seed Orchard, and within the Campbell River mun ic ipa l i t y at the west port ion of the town (Appendix Map 11). 52 The marine c lays were a lso observed on Quadra Is land, although the i r d i s t r i b u t i o n is very l im i t ed . A small exposure of c lay was located on a road cut in the v i c i n i t y of Hyacinthe Bay. The thickness of marine c lay var ies from a foot to one hundred f t . The exposures are p l e n t i f u l and they can be e a s i l y located along the road cuts and r i ve r banks. They l o c a l l y contain marine s h e l l s . The s h e l l -conta in ing c lays were found in the v i c i n i t y of Snowdon Camp and Campbell River A i r p o r t . The s h e l l s , genera l l y , are found at least a few feet below the sur face . In the Snowdon Camp water we l l , she l l s were co l l ec ted from 40 feet below the surface. The sediments are stone free and massive and upon drying they become extremely hard. The mean bulk densi ty of the subsurface (4-5 f t ) is approximately 1.7 gms/cc. In respect to texture , the marine sediments may be div ided into two sub-groups: Clayey and s i l t y . The l a t t e r is minor in occurrence and, in genera l , is ove r l a in by the former. Table 4 presents the va r i a t ions in p a r t i c l e s ize c lasses of these two texture groups. The clayey material appears to be more g r a ve l l y , but less sandy than the s i l t y one. In the l a t t e r , the c lay content may be as low as 8.4%, and s i l t content as high as 77-7%. The p a r t i c l e s ize analyses of the selected samples are presented in Table 5 and i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 7a. Sample CR-26-65 represents the s i l t y group. Its d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern is d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r en t from the others which a l l belong to the clayey group and show very s imi la r d i s t r i b u t i o n s among themselves. The low c lay (8.4%) and high sand (14%) contents of CR-26-65 should a l so be noted. Most of i ts ' sand content occurs as very f ine sand. The sand content of the other samples a re , with the exception of CR-64-65, comparatively low, 3 to'8%, in genera l . Table 4 . P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n of f ine textured marine sediments PART 1 CLE SURFICIAL MATERIAL CLAYEY MARINE SILTY MARINE Percent by weight Class S i ze mm"" max. min. mean max. min. mean COBBLE 2 5 4 . 0 - 7 6 . 2 0 . 0 0 .0 GRAVEL coarse 7 6 . 2 - 2 5 . 4 0 .0 0 .0 f i ne 2 5 . 4 - 2 . 0 3-0 0 .6 1 .8 0 .0 tota l 7 6 . 2 - 2 . 0 3-0 0 .6 1.8 0 .0 SAND very coarse 2-1 1 .6 0 .0 0 .8 0 .0 coarse 1-.5 1 .4 0 .0 0 .7 0 . 0 med i urn . 5 " . 2 5 0 .5 0.1 0 .3 0 .0 f i ne . 2 5 " . 1 4 .4 0 .0 2 .2 0 .2 0 .2 0 .2 very f ine . 1-.05 6 .4 0 .0 3-2 13 .7 13 .4 13 .6 tota l 2-.05 14.3 0.1 7-2 13-9 13-6 13 .8 SILT coarse . 0 5 " . 0 2 2 6 . 5 1 1.5 19 .0 5 4 . 7 5 3 . 9 5 4 . 3 med i urn . 0 2 - . 0 0 5 31 -7 18 .6 2 5 . 2 2 3 . 0 21 .4 2 2 . 2 f i ne . 0 0 5 " . 0 0 2 16 .6 11.6 14.1 0 .4 0 .3 0 .4 total . 0 5 " . 0 0 2 7 4 . 8 41 .7 5 8 . 3 78.1 7 5 . 6 7 6 . 9 CLAY coarse . 0 0 2 - . 0 0 0 2 2 7 . 8 12.8 2 0 . 3 3.4 2 .0 2 .7 f i ne < .0002 17-8 6 .9 12 .4 6 .7 6 .4 6 .6 total < .002 4 5 . 6 19-7 3 2 . 7 10.1 8 .4 9-3 25-4 mm = 1" Table 5. P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n of less than 2 mm pa r t i c l e s of f i ne textured marine sediments (percent by weight) LAB NO. LOCATION DEPTH feet C R -10 - 6 5 Lost Lake 4 - 5 C R - 2 6 - 6 5 Frog Lake Road 3 - 4 C R - 5 6 - 6 5 Qu i nsam Nursery 3 - 4 C R - 6 0 - 6 5 Hyac i nthe Bay 3 - 4 CR-64-65 Snowdon Camp 3 5 - 4 0 SAND V . CO. CO. med. f i ne v . f i . total m i l l 2-1 1-.5 .5-.25 .25-.10 .10-.05 2-.05 .2 .6 .3 .5 2.0 3.6 .0 .0 .0 .2 13.8 14.0 .0 .1 . 1 .6 3-3 4.1 . 1 .1 .2 2.5 5-3 8.2 . 1 .2 • 3 4.4 6.7 11.7 SILT CO. med . f i ne tota l CLAY CO. f i ne total .05-.02 .02-.005 .005-.002 .05-.002 17.2 31 .8 15-9 64.9 54.2 23.1 • 3 77.6 14.6 3 1.4 14.8 60.8 15.1 3 1.6 16.6 63.3 27.8 20.4 12.6 60.8 .002-.0002 <0002 <002 23.8 7-7 31 .5 2.0 6.4 8.4 24.6 10.5 35.1 19-9 8.6 28.5 18.0 9-5 27.5 y\ ••V\ Figure 7- P a r t i c l e s i ze d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns of s u r f i c i a l mater ia ls u n 56 The tota l c lay content of the samples var ies between 27 and 35%- They contain more coarse c lay than f ine c l ay . The s i l t values of the samples are comparable. In sp i te of the textural d i f fe rences both groups were del ineated and mapped under one s u r f i c i a l mate r i a l , "marine c l a y " , s ince the i r separat ion was not p r a c t i c a l . The chemical analyses of the samples are presented in Table 6. The high pH (7.56) of CR-64-65 may be a t t r ibu ted to i ts marine she l l s content. Samples CR-6O-65 is the most a c i d i c (pH 4.75) and CR-26-64, the representa-t i ve of s i l t y ma te r i a l , shows lower values in H a , K. Ca+Mg, B, Zn, Mn and Fe than the clayey samples, but it has high OM and P values. Sample CR-lO-65 presents highest values of Ca+Mg, Mn, Fe and Mg. The lowest P' value (2.45 ppm) belongs to CR-64-65 followed by the Quadra Island c l a y , CR-60-65; however, CR-64-65 contains highest amount of K, B, and Pb. In genera l , the chemical makeup, both macroelements and microelements, of the f ine marine sediments are rather va r i ab l e . The c lay mineral compositions of the samples appear quite s imi la r (Table 7 ) . A l l samples contain c h l o r i t e and T i l l t e except CR-10-65 which has only c h l o r i t e . Sample CR-64-65 is the only one with no mixed layer c l a y s . This may be re lated to depth s ince i t was co l l ec ted 40. f t below the sur face , and as a consequence was not af fected by weathering. Other samples being c lose to the sur face , might be s l i g h t l y a l t e r ed . To charac ter ize the s u r f i c i a l mater ia ls more f u l l y the moisture release propert ies of the samples were a lso determined. Moisture release curves are presented in Figure 8a. There is a sharp drop from .1 to .3 bar values in CR-26-65; and furthermore, th is sample presents the lowest value corresponding to 15-0 bars of tens ion. The observed water release pattern of CR-26-65 is probably due to i ts high content of s i l t (11.1%) Table 6. Selected chemical cha rac t e r i s t i c s of f ine textured sediments LAB NO LOCATION DEPTH feet pH MACROELEMENTS MICROELEMENTS 0M N C/N Na K Ca+ Mg P B Co Mo Cu Zn Mn Pb Fe Mg percent rat io me / 100 g ppm percent CR-lO-65 Lost Lake 4-5 5.88 .68 .017 22.94 .43 .21 17.48 8.50 19 25 1 .0 50 95 1200 ND 8.8 1 .70 CR-26-65 Frog Lake Road 3-4 5.80 1.15 .014 47.85 .15 • 09 .72 13.90 14 20 ND 15 29 700 <.4 5.4 1 .20 CR-56-65 Qu i nsam Nursery 3-4 5.50 .63 n i l .51 .15 6.71 17.35 18 25 ND 80 97 680 ND 8.4 1.10 CR-60-65 Hyac i nthe Bay 3-4 4.75 .25 ni l .54 • 30 4.02 9.75 17 20 ND 24 54 680 ND 6.6 1 .20 CR-64-65 Snowdon Camp 35-40 7.56 .39 ni l .27 .43 5.57 2.45 22 25 <.8 42 93 1000 1 .0 7.8 1 .60 ND - not detectable r o -tr-i o CD o 70 OS jr-i OS v n CR-60-65 o 70 1 v n OS i OS v n CR-26-65 • CR-10-65 LAB NO. v n OS v n v n v n Jr-v n CO v n V A > X-RAY NO. Snowdon Camp Hyac i nthe Bay Quinsam Nursery Frog Lake Road Lost Lake LOCATION V A ) v n i -c-o V A ) V A ) 1 - c -V A ) 1 - t -- C -i v n DEPTH feet rs) I v n O I S 3 1 tsj A t o N) 1 O r o 1 rs) A rs) IS) 1 v n o IS) 1 r o A r o IS) 1 v n o IS) Is) A r o 2-50 .2-2 A r o l/> ~Q — > XT |sj 73 m —1 J J V A ) r o Is) r o r o — — IS) r o Relative quantities* MI.XED LAYERS Relative quantities* M0NTM0R1L-LONITE r o ho Is) — — — - s - - t - — i r o IS) -Er- - e - Relative quantities* CHLORITE — — i r o V A ) U J Relative quantities* VERMICUL-ITE V A ) O J 1 -C-V A ) 1 -Er- rs) V A > IS) r o r o Relative quantities* ILLITE Relative quantities* KAOLINITE Is) 1 V A ) rsj rs) -tr- rs) i V A ) rs) Is) 1 V A ) r o V A ) r o i V A ) r o — Relative quantities* AMPHIBOLES r o IS) is) N ) — -Er- IS) r o IS) IS) -c-Relative quantities* QUARTZ 4r- rs) -E~ rs) — -Er- IS) - t - -c- r o -Er — Relative quantities* FELDSPAR i11-ver-chl chl-il1 ver-chl-ill ch1 -i11-mon NATURE OF MIXED LAYERS 85 i V 0 ' l l I (a) Fine Marine Sediments (c) Vashon Tilts C R - 4 2 - 6 5 C B - 50 -65 •- C R - 5 i - 65 C R - 30 - 6 5 (b) G I ac i of luvial s J O n T E N S I O N (d) Quadra IN B A R S Sediments C R - 5 3 - 6 5 CR - 5 5 - 6 5 CS - 59 - 65 CR - 63 - 65 (e) Dashwood T i l l s and Sedimentar ies Figure 8. Moisture release curves of s u r f i c i a l materials (moisture, percent by weight) 60 which becomes or iented and packed under the pressure. The moisture release propert ies of CR-64-65 are a f fected by i t s high sand and coarse s i l t content and by i t s low c lay va lue. The propert ies of CR - 1 0 - 6 5 , CR-56-65 and CR -60-65 are somewhat s im i l a r . Coarse textured marine sediments: They include sandy, g r ave l l y , and stony deposi ts in the form of beach s p i t , bar or marine-veneer. Although marine-veneer deposi ts are mentioned under the coarse marine sediments, they may a lso be loamy or c layey in texture. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of these deposi ts are very c lose l y re lated to that of the f ine textured marine sediments. In f a c t , the coarse marine sediments general 1y over l i e- the l a t t e r . However, in p laces , a t i l l appears in l i eu of the f ine marine sediments. Some old beach sediments occur to the north of John Hart Dam. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c beach l ines of these sediments are well pronounced on a i r-photos. A few o ld of fshore bars were noted in the area. One of these bars can be viewed in the town of Campbell River and two others were noted west of Willow Point . The coarse marine sediments were del ineated whenever poss ib le but they were not sampled for de ta i l ed s tud ies . F luv ia l depos i t s : Since these are d e l t a i c , f lood p la in and channel deposits which are re lated to the former sea, r i ve r and lake l e ve l s , they occur inland and at higher e levat ions than the Sa l i sh sediments. As i t was mentioned p rev ious l y , some of the mater ia ls in th is uni t were c l a s s i -f i ed and mapped under the Sa l i sh sediments purely for p rac t i ca l purposes. The composition of these sediments is p r imar i l y sand and g rave l , but f ine mater ia ls are common in f lood p la ins and channel depos i t s . De l ta ic depos i ts are genera l l y under la in by marine c lays and s i l t s . Such a de l ta occurs a mile east of Lower Quinsam Lake, along the Quinsam River . This 61 de l ta was probably formed when the sea level was high and the r i ver was flowing d i r e c t l y into the sea. The f l u v i a l deposi ts were del ineated but not sampled, i i i . Vashon d r i f t : Vashon d r i f t includes the various g l a c i a l deposits that cons t i tu te the uppermost d r i f t sheet in the area. It p r imar i l y con-s i s t s of t i l l s and re lated g l a c i o f l u v i a l deposi ts resu l t ing from the last glac iat ion. G l a c i o f l u v i a l depos i t s : These mater ia ls were la id down by the streams o r i g i na t i ng from g l a c i e r s . In the area , they are located p r i -mar i ly around John Hart Lake and they extend southward for some distance from the lake margin and merge into the marine depos i t s . They were separated into two d i s t i n c t stony and grave l l y members. These two members occur s ide by s ide and a gradual t r ans i t i on from one to the other can be e a s i l y noted. The stony member l i e s to the west, c lose to the o r i g i n , whereas the g rave l l y one is found to the east and extends over a r e l a t i v e l y larger area than that of the former. : The thickness of these deposi ts var ies from a foot to more than a hundred fee t . Deep deposi ts can be observed on the terraces exposed along John Hart Lake and on the outwash de l ta s i tuated at the junct ion of the Gold River and Arganaut roads. The p a r t i c l e s i ze c lasses are presented in Table 8. The grave l l y member does not contain any cobbles , otherwise, the maximum occurrences of gravel in both members are almost i d e n t i c a l . The stony member has more s i l t but less sand, and the c lay content of both members appears rather low. Figure 7b presents the p a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns of three se lected samples frogr g l a c i o f luv i a l depos i t s . The samples CR-48-65 and CR-L;28-65 represent the g rave l l y member, whereas CR-32-65 was co l l e c t ed Table 8. P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n of g1aciof 1uvia 1 mater ia ls PARTICLE SURFICIAL MATERIAL COBBLY OUTWASH GRAVELLY OUTWASH PERCENT BY WEIGHT C1 ass S i ze mm;; max. min. mean max. min. mean COBBLE 254.0-76.2 12 3 6 7 9 5 0.0 GRAVEL coarse 76.2-25.4 23 2 3 2 13 2 21 3 3 6 12.5 f i ne 25.4-2.0 39 0 13 .6 26 3 39 .5 . 0 • 3 19-9 tota l 76.2-2.0 62 2 16 8 39 5 60 8 3 9 32.4 SAND very coarse 2-1 15 3 3 5 9 4 16 5 5 7 11.1 coarse 1-• 5 17 4 5 2 11 3 38 6 8 4 23-5 med i urn • 5-.25 6 4 1 4 3 9 22 1 1 9 12.0 f i ne .25- . 1 25 2 1 0 13 1 21 4 1 4 1 1 .4 very f ine . 1-.05 7 6 0 0 3 8 3 2 0 0 1 .6 tota l 2- .05 71 9 11 1 41 5 101 8 17 4 59.6 SILT coarse .05-.02 7 4 0 0 3 7 med i urn .02-.005 1 2 0 0 0 6 f i ne .005-.002 4 9 0 0 2 5 tota l .05-.002 13 5 0 0 6 8 10 2 0 4 5.3 CLAY coa rse .002-.0002 1 0 0 0 0.5 f i ne < .0002 4 4 0 0 2.2 tota l < .002 5 2 0 1 2 7 5 4 0 0 2.7 25.4 mm = 1" from the stony outwash. Samples CR-48-65 and CR-32-65 show s imi l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n trends although the l a t t e r contains more coarse sand, but, less f ine sand and coarse g rave l . The highest coarse sand occurs in CR-128-65 which is low in grave ls . The c lay and s i l t contents of these mater ia ls are quite low (Table 9)- No s i l t was detected in CR-51-65 and the c lay content of CR-48-65 is only .3% which is made up e n t i r e l y of f ine c l ay . The percent-age of sand is nowhere less than 95% and var ies between 95 and 97%. The f ine sand values are rather low. The chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the g1aciof1uvia 1 deposits are presented in Table 10. They are low in bases e spec i a l l y when they are compared with those of the marine sediments. However, the i r phosphorus values are higher probably because they contain phosphorus bearing mineral in the i r make-up. In respect to the microelements, B, Zn, Mn, Fe and Mg, the contents of these mater ia ls are lower than genera l ly found in the marine c l a y s . The stony outwash, CR-32-65, has higher Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Mg values than CR-48-65 which represents the grave l l y member. When the c lay mineralogy of CR-32-65 and CR-48-65 are reviewed (Table 11), both samples appear s im i l a r in composit ion. They contain trace to small amounts of i ron-r ich c h l o r i t e with equal amounts of mixed layers , varying between vermicul i te-.i 1 1 i te and i 1 1 i te-verm i cu 1 i te-chl or i te It is in te res t ing to note that the amphibole, quartz and fe ldspar contents of these samples are quite low compared to those of the marine c l ays . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c may be interpreted, as an ind ica t ion of the i r more advanced weathering. The moisture release propert ies of the g lac io f1uv ia l deposits are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of coarse textured mater ia ls (Figure 8b). These patterns are very much d i f f e r en t from the d i s t r i b u t i o n curves observed in the f ine Table 9. P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n of less than 2 mm pa r t i c l e s of g1aciof 1uvia 1 mater ia ls (percent by weight) 9 ". LAB NO. LOCATION DEPTH feet CR-32-65 Hart Lake 2-3 CR-48-65 Gold River Road 3-4 a' " CR-51B6'5 Hart Dam 3-4 CR-128-65 Camp #5 Road 3-4 SAND V . CO. CO. med. f i ne v . f i . t o t a l SILT *co. med. f i ne to ta l CLAY CO. f i ne t o t a l mil l imeters 2-1 1-.5 • 5-.25 .25-.10 .10-.05 2-.05 17.1 59-0 11.3 9.4 .9 97-7 38.0 36.2 11 .0 9-7 • 9 95.8 4.5 30.7 19-9 40.3 2.0 97-4 29-3 41.8 10.5 13.7 .8 96.1 • U5-.02 .02-.005 .005" .002 .05-.002 .1 • 3 .6 1 .0 3-9 .0 r, .0 0.0 • 5 .002-.0002 <0002 <002 1 .3 .0 • 3 • 3 2.6 • 9 2.5 3.4 Table 10. Selected chemical cha rac te r i s t i c s of g1aciof 1uvia 1 mater ia ls LAB NO. LOCATION DEPTH feet pH MACROELEMENTS MICROELEMENTS O.M. N C/H Na K Ca+ Mg P B Co Mo Cu Zn Mn Pb Fe Mg percent rat ic me/100 g. p.p.m. percent CR-32-65 Hart Lake 2-3 6.87 .06 .002 14.40 • 19 .09 .55 19.60 1 1 25 1 .0 90 45 620 ND 7.0 1.30 CR-48-65 Gold River Road 3-4 6.00 .46 .028 9.64 .19 .12 • 30 18.80 14 20 1 .0 70 35 590 ND 5.1 • 90 CR-51-65 Hart Dam 3-4 5.83 .11 .000 - .44 9.65 ND = not detectable o o Za 1 ZO , -c- O J • co ro OS OS H U l 01 o CD oo ro o CO za o r r 3 o o 01 QJ 01 — - -i — ' O- CL r t za r— — • 01 < CD CD -I O J ro O 1 i CL -C" O J CD T QJ r t ro • ro • CD i ro A i ho A V U l i • U l 1 • o ro ro o ro ro ro I , , , , ro I -QJ -1 CO CD . . , — • i i i ro ro ro •o — — ro ro O J ro i 1 i ro —< -e-O J -c- ro — < — • CD — • ~\ < CD —> -1 — ' n z r — • > CO X-RAY NO. o r-> > m rr CO 3> — ZO m MIXED LAYERS MONTMORIL-LONITE CHLORITE VERMICUL-I TE ILLITE KAOLINITE AMPHIBOLES QUARTZ FELDSPAR > — <= -< x za m m m za o co o QJ CT QJ -< CD Q -cr c O 3 CQ QJ O < 3 QJ 99 6 7 marine deposi ts (Figure 8a). The moisture holding capac i t i e s of the samples are extremely low. Ground moraine depos i t s : The t i l l s are genera l ly observed over or c lose to bedrock although they a lso occur at locat ions where no bedrock is ev ident . A large part of the eree is covered by t i l l s and many exposures occur at road cu t s , r i ve r banks and sea c l i f f s . One of the best t i l l exposures is found on the southern end of Quadra Is land, at Cape Mudge. where a t i l l c l i f f , approximately 150 feet in thickness is exposed as a resul t of marine e ros ion . Because bedrock suppl ies the majority c f the mater ia ls which con-st i tute, the t i l l , the nature and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the bedrock are re -f l ec ted in the p a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n , s ton iness , mineralogica l and chemical make-up of the t i l l . For th is reason, the t i l l s of the area were c l a s s i f i e d in reference to the bedrocks from which they were der ived. Four groups were recognized: a) t i l l s r i ch in vo lcanic rocks and general ly under la in by the Vancouver vo lcan ic group (Vo lcan ic-r ich t i l l ) , b) t i l l r i ch in granod ior i te and genera l l y under la in by the Quinsam granodior i te formation (Granod ior i te-r ich t i l l ) , c) t i l l r i ch ir, sandstone which is found over the Cretaceous sandstone (Sandstone-rich t i l l ) , and d) M i s c e l -laneous t i l l s that comprise the mater ia ls which dc not belong to any major group or are toe small or local in the i r occurrences. The thickness of the t i l l s is v a r i a b l e , ranging from a few feet to 200 f t . They are very compacted and massive and the i r bulk dens i t i es vary between 2.0 and 2.5 gms/'ec. Although textures are genera l ly sandy, the i r stone content is extremely v a r i ab l e . The p a r t i c l e s ize c lasses of the major Vashon t i l l s are presented in Table 12. Granod ior i te-r i ch t i l l is the most g r a ve l l y , c l o se l y followed by Vo l can i c- r i ch t i l l . In the former, the gravel const i tu tes approximately Table 12. Pa r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i bu t i on of Vashon t i l l s PARTICLE • SURFICIAL MATERIAL V0LCAN-1C-RICH TILL GRANODIORITE- -RICH TILL SANDSTONE-RICH TILL Percent bv weiqht .Class S i ze mm-> max. min. mean max. min. mean max. min. mean COBBLE 254.0-76.2 0 0 0. 0 0.0 GRAVEL coarse 76.2- 25.4 12. 6 4 3 8 5 15 4 2 9 9. 2 6. 6 0. 0 3.3 f i ne 25 . 4 - 2.0 54. 6 30 9 42 8 59 7 29 4 44. 5 ' 51 -4 9. 2 30.3 to ta l 76.2- 2.0 67. 2 35 2 51 3 75 1 32 3 53. 7 58. 0 9. 2 33.6 SAND very coarse 2- 1 7. 6 4 3 5 9 8 7 4 6 6. 7 3- 6 1 . 7 2.6 coarse 1- .5 6. 6 >.o 4 8 8 2 4 5 6. 3 10.4 6. 1 8.3 med i urn .5- .25 3. 0 1 4 2 2 2 9 1 6 2. 2 6. 9 3. 4 5.2 f i ne .25- .1 13- 1 6 3 9 7 10 1 6 4 8. 3 27. 0 11. 9 19.5 very f ine . 1- .05 8. 7 3 4 6 1 5 3 3 9 4. 6 11. 8 4. 5 8.1 to ta l 2- • 05 39. 0 18 4 28 7 35 2 21 0 28. 1 59- 7 27- 6 43.7 SILT 4.6 coarse .05- .02 8 5 9 med i urn .02- .005 9 8 0 0 4.9 f i ne .005- .002 9 9 8 5.4 to ta l .05- .002 21 5 9 8 15 6 19 .4 9 .6 14. 5 28 2 1 7 14.9 CLAY coarse .002- .0002 2 6 8 1 7 1 .5 2 .5 . 7 9 1 1 3 5-2 f i ne < .0002 3 1 2 4 2 7 3 .5 0 .0 3. 0 4 5 7 2.6 tota l < .002 5 7 3 2 4 4 5 .0 2 .5 3. 7 13 6 2 0 7.8 * 25.4 mm = 1" 69 50% of the t i l l . Sandstone-rich t i l l is the sandiest (43%) and most clayey (7%) of the three. Vo lcan ic- r i ch t i l l has s l i g h t l y more sand and c lay than Granod ior i te-r i ch t i l l . Figure. 7c presents the p a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns of three t i l l samples, CR-18-65, CR-105-65 and CR-135-65, representing the Sand-stone-r ich t i l l , Vo l can i c- r i ch t i l l and Granod ior i te-r i ch t i l l respec t i ve -ly . Sample CR-105-65 and CR-135-65 exh ib i t rather s imi la r patterns whereas the pattern of sample CP .-I8-65 is somewhat d i f f e r e n t . It should be. noted that a l l three, samples show peeks in f ine sand, coarse sand and f ine g rave l . The p a r t i c l e s ize analyses of less than 2 mm mater ia ls are presented in Table 13- Vc l can i c- r i ch t i l l is represented by CR-49-65, CR-54-65, CR-62-65 and CP-105-65 ; sample CR-135-65 belongs to Granod ior i te-r i ch t i l l and CP . -I8-65 to Sandstone-rich t i l l . Samples CP-57-65 and CR - 6 I - 6 5 are representat ive of the two miscel laneous t i l l s . The sandiest sample (87%) is CP-57-65 and the most s i l t y one (50%) is CR-61-65. The highest amount of c lay (13%) occurs in CR-49-65, CR-54-65 and CR-62-65. In genera l , the t i l l s are very va r i ab le in respect to the i r pa r t i c l e s ize d i st r i but i cn . Table 14 presents the chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Vashon t i l l . The pH values are higher than those of the f ine marine sediments but s im i l a r to those of the g1aciof1uvia1s. The high pH, Na, K values of CR-62-65 may be a t t r ibu ted to i t s l o ca t i on . This sample was co l l e c ted from a sea c l i f f a f fec ted by sea spray. Na and K values are higher in the t i l l s than in the g l a c i o f l u v i a l mater ia ls but P values are higher in the l a t t e r . In a d d i t i o n , Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg contents of the Vashon t i l l s are lower than those observed in the f i ne marine sediments and g l a c i o f l u v i a l Table 13. P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n of less than 2 mm p a r t i c l e s of Vashon t i l l samples (percent by weight) LAB NO. LOCATION DEPTH feet CR-18-65 Camp #8 3-4 CR-49-65 Campbelton 8-10 CR-54-65 Mohun Lake 3-4 CR-57-65 Wymper Lake 4T5 CR-61-65 Strathcona Dam 3-4 CR-62-65 Cape Mudge 20-22 CR-105-65 Lower Campbel1 3-4 CR-135-65 Gooseneck Lake 3-4 SAND v . co . C O . med. f i ne v . f i . total mi 11 2-1 1-.5 .5-.25 .25" .10 .10-.05 2-.05 3.9 1 1.2 7f5 29-3 12.7 64.6 5.8 18.4 12.0 31 .3 6.9 74.4 2.0 5.6 5-2 29-7 12.4 54.9 7-9 10.1 8.2 46.1 14.7 87.0 4.6 5.2 2.7 12.1 12.9 37.5 6.4 9-0 4.4 21.0 14.0 54.8 11.7 10.4 4.6 20.3 13.4 60.4 11.9 13-5 4.6 17.6 10.9 58.5 SILT C O . med . f i ne tota l CLAY C O . f i ne total .05-.02 .02-.005 .005-.002 .05-.002 9.1 10.6 4.0 23-7 1 .7 4.9 5.4 12.0 11 .0 13-7 7-4 32. 1 4.3 2.8 1.1 8.2 17-3 22.9 9-9 50.1 19.0 10.2 2.6 31.8 33-3 33-4 .002-.0002 <0'002 <002 9-9 1 .8 1 1.7 8.3 5-3 13-6 6.9 6.1 13-0 .2 4.6 4.8 6.0 6.4 12.4 7-0 6.4 13.4 2.6 3-7 6.3 6.0 2.1 8.1 Table 14. Selected chemical cha rac t e r i s t i c s of Vashon t i l l samples LAB NO LOCATION DEPTH feet P H MACROELEMENTS MICROELEMENTS 0M N C/N Na K Ca+ Mg P B Co Mo Cu Zn Mn Pb Fe Mq percent rat i 0 me / 100 g ppm percent CR-18-65 Camp #8 3-4 5.90 .61 .011 31 .82 .19 .12 8.19 9.25 18 15 1.0 30 35 540 ND 3-7 • 70 CR-49-65 Campbelton 8-10 5.96 .04 .000 .36 .12 2.35 4.50 16 15 1 .0 10 20 370 ND 2.7 .35 CR-54-65 Mohun Lake 3-4 6.00 . 11 .000 .27 .20 7.38 5.25 14 20 1.0 50 30 620 ND 4.4 .62 CR-57-65 Wymper Lake 4-5 6.40 .11 .000 .23 . 11 8.90 15 20 1 .0 35 30 550 ND 3.9 .58 CR-61-65 Strathcona Dam 3-4 7.78 .00 .000 • 39 .20 11.41 4.30 20 25 2.0 65 55 680 ND 7.2 2.00 CR-62-65 Cape Mudge 30-40 7-98 .00 .000 .60 .75 5.88 1.50 20 20 1.0 20 25 600 ND 4.2 • 70 CR-105-65 Lower Campbel1 3-4 5.51 .081 .005 10.00 .10 .10 1.53 25.97 36 38 ND ND = not detectable deposits. It should be noted that both the marine sediments and g l a c i o -f l u v i a l deposits contain sorted materials which may have been physically or chemically broken down to some extent prior to t h e i r deposition. Furthermore, weathering is considerably slower in t i l l s compared to the g l a c i o f l u v i a l deposits where water and a i r move quite f r e e l y within the material. For the same reason, the weathering process would be r e l a t i v e l y faster in clays than in t i l l s . The clay mineralogy of the Vashon t i l l s is most interesting (Table 15). These are the only materials in the area that contain montmori1 Ionite and k a o l i n i t e type clays. Montmori1 Ionite occurs in both CR-18-65 and CR-54-65 and the l a t t e r also contains k a o l i n i t e which is the f i r s t reported occur-rence of i t on Vancouver Island. The reason why only CR-18-65 shows k a o l i n i t e may be related to the o r i g i n of the t i l l which is primarily sand-stone. K a o l i n i t e may be expected as one of the weathering products of sandstone (Grim, 1953). The occurrence of montmori11 onite may indicate the less weathered nature of these materials since under the regional climate montmori11 onite should be transformed into c h l o r i t e . It should be noted that the montmori11 onite-containing samples do not show any c h l o r i t e . The extent of weathering can also be inferred from the amount of amphiboles and feldspar since these materials weather f i r s t and quickly. Judging by this c r i t e r i a , the most weathered t i l l is CR-61-65 since i t contains the lowest amphiboles and feldspar. The occurrence of i l l i t e is more common than that of vermiculite which occurs only in CR-49-65 and CR-I8-65. A l l samples contain mixed layer clays in varying degree and composition except for CR-49-65 and CR-62-65. The moisture release properties of d i f f e r e n t t i l l samples are pre-sented in Figure 8c. Sample CR-57"65 is not included in the presentation because the data was incomplete. However, i t s percent moisture values -1 01 o ro cn 3 01 2 O Q-fD -i 01 CR-62-65 CR-61-65 o za i un i CT< U l o za U l -P-1 OS U l o za I -P-U ) OS U l CR-18-65 OS CO OS U l OS -p-OS Os OS U J Cape Mudge Strathcona Dam Wymper Lake Mohun Lake Campbelton Camp #8 U J o -p-o U J -p--c-i U l U J 1 -p-OO o U J 1 -p-SJ 1 J l o IS) 1 IO A IS) O 1 J i ro i ro A ro 2-50 ro i ro A ro ro i U l o ro i ro A ro S 3 1 J l o ro i ro A ro 2-50 ro i ro A ro i ro ro — i ro ro i U J i ro ro ro -p- — ro ro i U J ro i U J — — — i ro -p- — ro U J — — • ro ro — — — — ro — — ro — — — ro ro ro -p- 1 U J Is) U J — -p- -c- U J ro U J ro U J ro i U J ro i U J U J i j=-ro ro -p- -p- r*o -c- ro — -p-U J 1 -p-ro -P- ro ro -p- U J 1 -p-ro -p-ro i U J ro -p- J > -p- ro — -t- -P- U J -C- ro U J -p- -p- U J -C- ro • U J ro U J i 1 1 -ch1-mon i 1 1 -ver-ch1 ver-mon i 1 1-ver-mon > CO ZZ. o X-RAY NO. i -o o > —1 o z. o -h m CD T J fD —1 r t zr -c PART SIZE 01 -< 3 ZJ MIXED LAYERS eral d MONTMOR1L-LONITE i str i b za CHLORITE ut i on elat iv VERMICUL-ITE in Vas e quan ILLITE hon t i t i t i es KAOLINITE 11 sam -o AMPHIBOLES fD in QUARTZ FELDSPAR NATURE MIXE LAYE za o cn O -n ii 74 corresponding to .1 and 15 bars are 4.19 and 3.86 r espec t i ve l y . These 1 values are lower than corresponding percentages of the other samples. ft This is expected since CR-57^65 cons is ts of 87% sand (Table 13). Sample CR-61-65 has the highest values as a resu l t of having the lowest sand content (37%) among the samples. Except for CR-18-65 a l l the curves appear more or less p a r a l l e l . The observed behaviour of CR-18-65 may be a t t r ibuted to i t s higher organic matter content (Table 14) and/or i ts kao l i n i t e content which is unique to th i s sample (Table 15). The locat ion and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the d i f f e r en t t i l l s are presented below (Appendix Map II): Vo l can i c- r i ch t i l l : It is the most common t i l l s ince the Vancouver vo lcan ics are the major bedrock Mn the area. They are found to the north . of Lower Campbel1 and John Hart Lakes. In the v i c i n i t y of Menzies Bay and Race Po in t , the t i l l occurs c lose to the sea. Its thickness is v a r i ab l e , however th ick deposits were not often encountered over large areas. Granod ior i te-r i ch t i l l : The d i s t r i b u t i o n of th i s material is c l o se l y re lated to that of the Quinsam granod io r i t e . It is l imi ted to the area between Upper Campbell Lake and the Reginald-Snakehead~Gooseneck-Middle Quinsam Lakes. In genera l , the t i l l is th in over the bedrock. Some deep material was observed to the west of Beavertai l Lake. Sandstone^-rich t i l l : It occupies a pos i t ion between Vo lcan ic- r i ch t i l l and Granod ior i te-r i ch t i l l to the south of the Lower Campbell R iver . The t i l l , in genera l , is deep and the bedrock exposures are not very of ten encountered. Miscel laneous t i l l s : These t i l l s were i den t i f i ed and del ineated because i t was f e l t that they were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r en t from the 75 major ones, although sometimes they occur on known bedrock. These t i l l s were: Whymper t i l l : It is found in the v i c i n i t y of Whymper Lake and northwest of Strathcona dam. It is a very g rave l l y and sandy t i l l (87% sand; CR-57-&5 Table 13). It contains small shale pa r t i c l e s and shows a ce r ta in amount of water sort ing along lake shores. Quadra t i l l : It occurs between Beavertai l creek, Beavertai l Lake, Reginald Lake and Lower Campbell Lake. It is the sandiest t i l l in the area c o n s i s t i n g , approximately, of pure sand (up to 3d%) with l i t t l e or no grave ls . It is hypothesised that th is t i l l is derived from the upper layers of the Quadra sand deposits located in th is area by the moving ice . Loose Quadra sands were observed below 50 to 70 f t of Quadra t i l l in th is 1 oca 1i ty. Strathcona t i l l : This is the f i nes t textured t i l l in the area with a loam texture ( s i l t 50%, c lay 12?; CR-61-65, Table 13)- It occurs to the south of the Strathcona dam next to Granod ior i te-r i ch t i l l which occupies the higher grounds. It contains a considerable amount of small a rg i l l a ceous fragments. It is most probable that th i s t i l l is local and developed from the a rg i l l a ceous natured bedrock which under l ies the t i l l . A s im i l a r t i l l (Royston t i l l ) was i den t i f i ed and mapped by Day and Farstad (1959) in the v i c i n i t y of Courtenay. iv . Quadra sediments: The Quadra sediments are non-glacia l mater ia ls that occupy the s t r a t i g raph i c pos i t ion between the Vashon and Dashwood d r i f t s . According to Fyles (1962) they cons is t of three major un i t s : a) a lower uni t of marine c lay and stony c lay which corresponds to an interva l of marine submergence during and fo l lowing the Dashwood g l a c i a l age; b) a middle unit of plant-bearing s i l t , gravel and sand which was accumulated on the swamps of the coastal lowlands fo l lowing the regression 76 of the sea a f te r the g l a c i a t i on ( C ^ d a t e d 1 0 25,000 years B.P.) and c) a th ick upper uni t of widespread, uniform white sand a l l u v i a l in o r i g i n that exh ib i t s cut and f i l l s t ructure and contains plant-bearing s i l t and debr is o r i g i n a t i n g , to a large extent , from the Coast Range. In the map area , the upper uni t was the most widely encountered one, although i ts d i s t r i b u t i o n was somewhat l im i t ed . Its largest occurrence was observed at the north of Beaverta i l Lake along and beginning at Beaverta i l creek. A g u l l y , approximately 100 f t deep in p laces , has been cut in th i s material by spring-sapping from the lake. The loose sandy material is capped by the prev ious ly mentioned Quadra t i l l which was derived from th i s mate r i a l . Another good exposure of the Quadra sands occurs at Cape Mudge, along the sea c l i f f . Here, approximately a 100-foot th ick Quadra sand deposit is ove r l a in by Vashon t i l l . In add i t i on , small Quadra sand deposi ts were located at the south-east corners of Beaverta i l and Mohun Lakes, and in the v i c i n i t y of Morton Lake. Also a small occurrence of the material was noted on the Discovery Passage at Race po int . The material is f a i r l y loose with the bulk densi ty varying between 1.23 and 1.43 gms/cc. The texture is extremely sandy and percentage sand values over 90% are common (Table 16). S i l t and c lay values are rather low, on the average, below 3~4%. The p a r t i c l e s i ze d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns of the samples fo l low s im i l a r trends (Figure 7d) in sp i te of the widely separated sampling loca t ions . Except for CR-50-65 they show two peaks, one major and one minor, in f ine sand and coarse sand f r a c t i o n s , r espec t i ve l y . Samples were taken from the Quadra beds at Dashwood (Fy les , 1962). Table 16. Pa r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n of less than 2 mm pa r t i c l e s (percent by weight) in Quadra sediments LAB NO. LOCATION DEPTH feet CR-42-65 Beaverta i Lake 4-5 CR-50-65 D i scovery Passage 5-6 CR-52-65 Morton Lake 8-10 * CR-58-65 Cape Mudge 80-90 SAND v .co . C O . med. f i ne v . f i . tota l SILT C O . med . f i ne tota 1 m1111 meters 2-1 1--5 • 5-. ?=; .25-.10 .10-.05 2-.05 3.6 16.6 13.7 55.4 6.8 96.1 .6 • 3 .2 18.4 70.4 89.9 .2 • 9 5-9 79-3 6.8 93.1 1.6 34.0 24.7 32.8 1.6 94.7 .05-.02 .02-.005 .005" .002 • 05-.nn? 3-9 1.5 • 5 4.2 6.2 1.2 2.1 .0 3.3 .4 1 -3 .8 2.5 CLAY  tota l <.002 0.0 3-9 3.6 2.8 78 The chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Quadra sands are presented in Table 17- Higher pH, Na, K and Ca+Mg values of the sample CR-58-65 is due to i t s l oca t ion . It was sampled from the sea c l i f f at Cape Mudge where the material can eas i l y receive sea sprays. The Na, K and Ca+Mg values are very c lose to those of the g lac io-f l u v i a l deposi ts but lower than those of the marine and t i l l mater ia l s . In respect to microelements, the samples are s im i l a r in composit ion. Their Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Mg values are much lower than the corresponding values encountered in a l l prev ious ly studied mater ia l s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the c lay minerals are s im i l a r (Table 18), being pr imar i l y c h l o r i t e , vermicu l i te and i l l i t e . I l l i t e appears to be the dominant c lay in samples CR-52-65 and CR-58-65. They a l l contain mixed-layer c l a y s , mainly i11 i te-vermicu1 i te intergrade. As a consequence of the i r p a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n , the moisture-holding and release propert ies of the Quadra sands are very l imited (Table 16, Figure 8d). Consequently, they hold very l i t t l e moisture and d ry eas i1y. v. Dashwood d r i f t : Dashwood d r i f t belongs to a g l a c i a t i on that precedes the non-glacia l interval represented by the Quadra sediments. It, there fore , represents a d i s t i n c t and separate event from the Vashon g l a c i a t i o n . Although i ts occurrence was not d e f i n i t e l y es tab l i shed in the study area, in two l o ca t i ons , the t i l l s ly ing below sedimentary deposits which were ove r l a in by Vashon t i l l s , were t en ta t i ve l y i den t i f i ed as Dashwood t i l l s . There was no d e f i n i t e evidence that the observed sediments were Quadra. Consequently, the pos i t i v e proof that these sediments are Dashwood is l ack ing . Some s t a t i s t i c a l analyses were undertaken to e s t ab l i sh the r e l a t i onsh ip between Vashon t i l l and t en ta t i ve l y i den t i f i ed Dashwood Table 17. Selected chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Quadra sediments LAB. NO. LOCATION DEPTH feet pH MACROELEMENTS MICROELEMENTS 0M N C/N Na K % P B Co Mo Cu Zn Mn Pb Fe Mg percent ratio G X me / 100 g. p.p.m. percent CR-42-65 Beaverta i 1 Lake 4-5 6.58 .13 .022 5.91 .11 .09 .30 18.30 22 15 .5 15 20 280 ND 2.3 .58 CR-50-65 D i scovery Passage 5-6 5.12 .00 .000 .24 .10 .36 3.75 16 20 1.0 15 35 490 ND 3.2 .50 CR-52-65 Morton Lake 8-10 5.82 .04 .000 .24 .14 1.08 4.40 16 15 1.0 10 20 370 ND 2.7 .26 CR-58-65 Cape Mudge 50-60 7.80 .00 .000 .27 .20 1.99 3,60 12 15 1 .0 20 20 320 ND 2.3 .34 ND = not detectab le QJ O CD cn 3 QJ o CL CD - 1 QJ rt CD CO CD o 7 3 v n CO i ON o 7 3 v n ro i ON vn o 7 3 1 v n o i ON vn o ' 7 3 1 -C-ro i ON vn vo • ^ i ro Cape Mudge Morton Lake Discovery Passage Beaverta i1 Lake vn O i ON <-> CO i c-> vn i ON -e-i U l ro I vn O ro i ro A ro 2-50 IN) i ro A ro 2-50 ro i ro A ro ro i J-I o ro i ro A ro ro ro ro ro V O V O 1 . E -vo -c-JJ i ro i ro V O — ro 1 ro — — — 1 ro 1 ro - i ro ro — V O — — ro — — V O C O S 3 — — M ro V O ro ro C O — - — — ro I . o ro — -e- _o . / J 1 J = -.t- ro ro I C O O ro ro ro J O ro ro -t- — ro J > ro ro I U O .c- — INJ -C- V O ro -C- ro . A ) •t- — ro i 1 1 -ver i11-ver i11-ver ver-i11-ch1 CD X-RAY NO. o o > o o rn -x> —I cn -o — > M 7 3 m —i Ml XED LAYERS MONTMORIL-LONITt CHLORITE VERMICUL-I TE ILLITE KAOLINITE AMPHIBOLES QUARTZ FELDSPAR > — cr -< X 7 3 m m n i 7 3 o cn o OK CT CD OO QJ CD C o 3 c QJ in CD CL 3 CD 13 08 81 t i l l . The resu l t of the s t a t i s t i c a l study is presented at the end of th i s sec t ion . The t i l l thought to be Dashwood was f i r s t observed on a cut which occurs at the north-west of Campbelton jus t north of the Duncan Bay logging road br idge. A second exposure was located on Cape Mudge sea c l i f f , at the southern t i p of Quadra Island. The samples CR-55-65 ar>d CR-53-65 were taken from sedimentary and Dashwood t i l l , r e spec t i ve l y , from the bridge cut . S i m i l a r l y , CR-63-65 and CR-59 _°5 represent the corresponding deposi ts in Cape Mudge. Percent p a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n of the samples are presented in Table 19 and Figure 7e. In both l oca t i ons , the Dashwood t i l l s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r from the over ly ing sedimentary depos i t s . The t i l l s have s im i l a r c lay content but the t i l l from the bridge cut (Campbelton) is sandier (70.6%). The sedimentary sample from Cape Mudge is less clayey (26.5%) than one taken from the sedimentary occurr ing in the bridge cut . Chemical make-up of the sedimentary material somewhat d i f f e r from that of the t i l l s (Table 20). Na, K, and Ca+Mg values are higher in the bridge cut samples. In f a c t , CR-63-65 shows the highest Na, K and Mg values in the en t i r e study area . The B contents appear s im i l a r in a l l samples. Clay mineral studies were only made on the t i l l samples. The resu l t s are presented in Table 21. Both samples contain trace amounts of i ron-r ich c h l o r i t e . The bridge cut sample a lso shows some i l l i t e , whereas the Cape Mudge sample contains a very l i t t l e amount of ve rm icu l i t e . Mixed layer c lays made up p r imar i l y from i 1 1 i t e-vermicu l i te-ch lor i te appear only in the bridge cut (Campbelton) samples. 1 The moisture re lease curves of the.samples are presented in f igure 8e. T a b l e 19- P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l e s s than 2 mm p a r t i c l e s i n Dashwood t i l l and Se d i m e n t a r y samples ( p e r c e n t by w e i g h t ) LAB. NO. LOCATION DEPTH f e e t CR-53-65 Campbelton 10-15 CR-55-65 Campbelton 40-50 CR-59-65 Cape Mudge 75-80 CR-63-65 Cape Mudge 50-6C SAND V . C O . C O . med. f i ne v . f i . t o t a l SILT C O . med. f i n e t o t a l m i l l i m e t e r s CLAY co. j f i ne t o t a 1 2-1 1-.5 .5-.25 .25-.10 .10-.05 2-.05 5.2 11.7 8.2 35.8 9.8 70.7 .1 .4 .8 7.1 3-0 11.4 3.2 7.5 •4.5 22.3 12.5 50.0 7-3 9.4 21 .2 6.7 14.7 59.3 .05-.02 .02-.005 .005-.002 .05-.002 4.5 5.7 3.2 13.4 4.4 20.2 13.7 38.3 18.7 15-8 1.4 35.9 2.3 6.4 5.5 14.2 .002-.0002 < .0002 < .002 11.9 4 . 0 15-9 37.5 12.8 50.3 7-3 6.8 14.1 12.9 13.6 26.5 Table 20. Selected chemical cha rac t e r i s t i c s of Dashwood t i l l and sedimentary samples LAB NO. LOCATION DEPTH feet pH MACROELEMENTS MICROELEMENTS O.M. N C/N Na !< Ca+ Mq P B Co Mo Cu Zn Mn Pb Fe Mg percent ratio me/1 00 g. p.p.m. percent CR-53-65 Campbe1 ton 10-1.5 7.26 . 00 .00 • 23 .14 3.45 4.45 16 25 2.0 21 27 710 <.8 5.2 .96 CR-55-65 Campbelton 40-50 6.18 .04 .00 .63 .28 11.68 9.30 16 25 ND 40 65 680 ND 6.6 .98 CR-59-65 Cape Mudge 75-80 7.98 .00 .00 .85 • 58 6.92 1 .80 14 15 1 .0 20 34 560 ND 3-4 .68 CR-63-65 Cape Mudge 50-60 7.83 • 39 .00 1.43 2.31 21.16 1 .05 16 25 85 840 ND 8.3 2.30 ND = not detectable Table 21. Clay mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n in Dashwood t i l l samples LAB NO. X-RAY NO. LOCATION DEPTH PART SIZE MIXED LAYERS MONTMORIL-LONITE CHLORITE VERMICUL-ITE ILLITE KAOLINITE AMPHlBOLES QUARTZ FELDSPAR NATURE OF Ml XED LAYERS feet y Re 1 a t i ve quant i t ies* <.2 1 1 . 1 3-4 3-4 4 i11-ver-chl CR-53-65 167 Campbelton 10-15 .2-2 1-2 1-2 2 3 4 .4 2-50 1 1 1 2 4 4 <.2 1 1-2 1-2 1-2 CR-59-65 198 Cape Mudge 75-80 .2-2 1 1 4 4 4 2-50 1 4 4 4 1. Trace, 2. Smal l , 3- Moderate, 4. Large 85 A considerable d i f f e rence is observable between the moisture propert ies of t i l l and sedimentary samples. These va r i a t ions may be a t t r ibuted pr imar i l y to the textural d i f fe rences of the samples (Table 19). c. S t a t i s t i c a l analyses Co r r e l a t i on , regression and c lus t e r analyses were undertaken on the data perta in ing to the s u r f i c i a l mater ia l s . However, only the resul t of the c l us t e r ana lys i s which is thought to be the f i r s t app l i ca t ion to s u r f i -c i a l mate r i a l s , is presented. C luster analyses were undertaken for two ob jec t i ves : 1. To evaluate the app l i ca t i on of the technique to the s u r f i c i a l geology and to see i f c lus te rs conta in ing s im i l a r mater ia ls can be obtained. 2. To evaluate the re l a t ionsh ip between the Vashon and ten ta t i ve l y i den t i f i ed Dashwood t i l l s . Twelve s u r f i c i a l samples^' cons is t ing of 2 marine-clays, 2 outwashes, 2 Quadra sands, 4 Vashon t i l l s , and 2 Dashwood t i l l s were se lec ted . These were i den t i f i ed as fo l l ows : CODE SURFICIAL MATERIAL LOCATION MC 10 Marine c lay Lost Lake MC 64 I I I I Snowdon camp TV 18 Vashon t i l l Camp #8 TV 49 " " Campbelton TV 54 11 " Mohun Lake TV 62 "'" " Cape Mudge TD 53;,,. Dashwood t i l l Campbelton TD 59 " " Cape Mudge Number of samples was l imi ted by the ava i l ab l e computer time. 86 OU 33 Outwash sand Hart Lake OU 48 11 11 Gold River Rd. QD 42 Quadra sand Beaverta11 Lake QD 58 11 11 Mohun Lake Samples TV49 and TD53 were taken from an exposure at Campbelton and TV62 and TD59 were co l l e c t ed from the c l i f f at Cape Mudge (see Dashwood t i l l s , S u r f i c i a l geology) . Samples TD53 and TD59 were ten ta t i ve l y i den t i f i ed as Dashwood since they are ove r l a in by Vashon t i l l s (TV49 and T V 6 2 ) . Furthermore, in both locat ions a sedimentary layer ( less than a foot) ex i s t s between the two t i l l s . However, the nature of these s e d i -mentary l aye rs , and whether or not they are Quadra in o r i g i n , is not c lear at p r e s e n t . T h e rest of the samples were widely separated. Three d i f f e r e n t types of c l u s t e r i ng were studied by using d i f f e r en t sets of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the mate r i a l s : a) a l l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s (61 v a r i a b l e s , Appendix Table 2 ) , b) chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s alone (31 v a r i -ab l e s ) , c) physica l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s alone (30 v a r i ab l e s ) . The marine c l a y s , outwash sands, and Quadra sands c l u s t e r into separate groups on the basis of a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Figure 9a). Samples TV49 and TD53 are separated from the rest of the t i l l s which appear together. The assoc i a t i on of TV49 with Quadra sand and of TD53 with the outwash samples may be interpreted as ind ica t ing s im i l a r o r i g i ns for the associated mate r i a l s . The assoc i a t ion of TD53 and outwash mater ia ls may be e a s i l y explained since TD53 l i e s in the d i r e c t i on of the ice movement which , z l f these sedimentary layers were Quadra then the underly ing t i l l s (TD 53 and TD59) would d e f i n i t e l y be i den t i f i ed as Dashwood. Figure 9. C lus ter ing of 12 s u r f i c i a l mater ia ls a. A l l cha rac t e r i s t i c s (6l va r iab les ) b. Chemical cha rac t e r i s t i c s (31 var iab les ) c. Physical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s (30 var iab les ) 88 probably ca r r i ed a material s im i l a r to the one from which the outwash o r i g i na t ed . However, the depos i t ion of the outwash took place during the retreat of the ice much la ter than the depos i t ion of TD53. S i m i l a r l y , the assoc ia t ion between T\lhS and the Quadra sand samples may indicate that the t i l l o r ig ina ted from the south of Mohun Lake, 1 ^  anywhere between the lake and the sea, and moved southward (or south-east d i r e c t i o n ) . As TD53, th i s t i l l was a lso deposited p r io r to the advance of the sea as they both are ove r l a in by marine c l a y s . From the c lus te r of TV18 and TD59 i t may be inferred that these t i l l s are from the same o r i g i n . This may a lso be said for the c l us t e r of TV62 and TV54. As a consequence, i t can be inferred that TD59, l i ke TV18, is a t i l l developed from the Cretaceous sandstone on Vancouver Is land, t r ans -ported to Quadra Island by the eas te r l y moving i ce . S i m i l a r l y , TV62 was developed from the Vancouver vo lcan ics and transported to i t s present locat ion from the north or northwest, most l i k e l y within Quadra Island. The second c l u s t e r , which is based on chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a l so presents a somewhat s im i l a r pattern to that of the f i r s t one. Nine samples appear in the same pos i t ions in both c l u s t e r s . The marine c lays are a lso separated from the r e s t , and the assoc ia t ion between the Quadra sand samples and TV49 s t i l l remains. The c lus te r ing of TV18 and TD59 provides fur ther evidence as to the common o r i g i n of the two t i l l s . Sample TV54 c lus te rs with 0UH8 and th i s may be interpreted as the outwash o r i g i na t i ng from the same material as that of TV54. The separation of TV5H from TV62 may indicate that although both t i l l s are from the ^An a l t e rna t i ve hypothesis would be that the t i l l o r ig inated from Quadra sands at a d i f f e r en t locat ion but the source was destroyed during the retreat of the ice by melt waters. 89 Vancouver volcanics, they probably are from d i f f e r e n t locations (Vancouver Island vs. Quadra Island) which may correspond to d i f f e r e n t formations within t h i s bedrock type. The c l u s t e r s obtained on the basis of physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s coincide very well with the f i e l d observations. Materials are separated into three main groups: fine materials (marine c l a y s ) , coarse materials (outwashes and Quadra sands) and medium textured materials ( t i l l s ) . Furthermore the coarse materials are clustered into outwashes and Quadra sands. The t i l l s show further c l u s t e r i n g among themselves. Samples from locations close by appear together and samples from d i f f e r e n t places are set apart. The close relationships between the f i e l d separation and c l u s t e r i n g based on the physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be attributed to the fact that these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are more e a s i l y observable and the f i e l d c r i t e r i a are based on these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s more than the chemical c r i t e r i a . However, the l a t t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be more important in the evaluation of the materials as to the i r o r i g i n s as well as in the establishment of the r e l a -tionships between and within the materials. On the basis of the foregoing discussion, i t can be concluded that: 1. Cluster analysis successfully c l a s s i f i e s the s u r f i c i a l materials. 2. When there are several members of one type of s u r f i c i a l material (e.g. t i l l s ) , the technique provides a further d i v i s i o n within the type. 3. Clustering indicates the rel a t i o n s h i p .within and between d i f f e r e n t materials. The o r i g i n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and movement of materials may be inferred from these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . k. Although TV59 and TD53 look very s i m i l a r , they are from d i f f e r e n t 90 or ig ins and locat ions and consequently are d i f f e r en t t i l l s . This conclus ion a lso appl ies to TV62 and T D 5 3 . 5 . Although i t was not poss ib le to e s t ab l i sh that TD53 and TD59 were Dashwood, i t was demonstrated that they have d i f f e r en t o r ig ins than those of the over ly ing t i l l s . It is probable that TD53 and TD59 were deposited during the post-Quadra period (Vashon) p r io r to the depos i t ion of TV59 and T V 6 2 . It should be added that the technique requires some refinements. It would be most des i rab le i f the p r inc ipa l cha r a c t e r i s t i c s that d i f f e r e n t i a t e the mater ia ls could be i d e n t i f i e d . The author wishes to pursue th is ob ject ive in the future . So i 1 s The s o i l s of the area present a broad spectrum in respect to both the i r nature and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As noted in the previous sect ion the range in parent material is wide and var ies from heavy marine c lay to very cobbly and grave l l y outwash sand. Sola are shallow in general and a r e l a t i v e l y deeper solum was noted on coarser mater ia l s . So i l s repre -senting the Podso l i c , B runoso l i c , Regosol ic , G leyso l i c and Organic 1 k Orders were found in the study area. The G leyso l i c and Organic s o i l s are resu l ts of r es t r i c t ed and poor drainage cond i t ions . The c ircumstan-ces leading to the development of Podsol ic and Brunosol ic s o i l s are more complex, and more than l i k e l y are the combined e f fec t of 1) nature of ma te r i a l , 2) c l imate , 3) vegeta t ion , and k) topography governing the development of these s o i l s . The Regosol ic s o i l s are young and show very l i t t l e development. Both the Organic and Regosol ic s o i l s are Canadian Soi l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (National Soi l Survey Committee, 1965) 91 minor in extent. The Podsol ic and Brunosol ic s o i l s , e spec i a l l y the l a t t e r , cover the major part of the area. It was estimated that 20 to 30 so i l ser ies may occur in the study area. For the de ta i l ed so i l studies only the well drained s o i l s occurr ing on major s u r f i c i a l mater ia ls were se lec ted . V/ell es tab l ished Douglas f i r stands were often located on these well drained locat ions since the planted tree surv iva l was poor on r es t r i c t ed or poorly drained s o i l s . Where there were excessive moisture cond i t i ons , other tree species such as red a lde r , western red cedar and S i tka spruce were abundant and made up the major part of the stand. On the excess ive ly drained s o i l s , the stocking was often below normal. The study area l i e s within the Coastal Douglas f i r zone (Kra j ina, 1964) and the southern P a c i f i c Coast (C-2) sect ion of the Coastal Forest (Rowe, 1959). The de ta i l ed vegetat ion studies were undertaken only on the l o c a l i t i e s where the so i l examination and sampling were ca r r i ed out. The resu l ts of the so i l and vegetat ion studies are presented below: a. So i l s developed on marine sediments 1. Memekay pedon: This so i l has been developed on marine c l ay . The pedon is to the west of Lost Lake between the lake and the Camp #5 road. The land in th is locat ion shows a southern exposure with a k-6% s lope. The stand cons is ts p r imar i l y of Douglas f i r [planted in 1939). The s i t e was c l a s s i f i e d as Polystichum (Sword Fern) S i te Type in the Forest S i te Type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Spi lsbury and Smith, 1947). The species and the i r f requenc ies , observed within a 100-foot radius of the so i l p i t , are presented as fo l l ows : 92 Trees Frequency'^ Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) 5 Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) 2 Western red cedar (Thuja plicata) 1 Shrubs Red huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium) 5 Oregon grape (Mahonia nervosa) k T r a i l i n g blackberry (Eubus v i t i f o l i u s ) 2 Willow (Salix spp. j 1 Salal ('Gaultheria shallon) 1 Dev i l ' s c lub (Oplopanax horridus) 1 Ferns Sword fern (Polystichum munition) 5 Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) 3 Oak fern (Gymnocavpium dryopteris) 2 Herbs Van i l l a leaf (Achlys triphylla) 5 Common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) k S i l ve r green (Adenocaulon bicolor) 3 V io l e t spp. (Viola s pp . J 3 Western t r i l l i u m (Trillium ovatum) 2 Star flower (Trientalis l a t i f o l i a ) 2 ^1. ra re , 2 . seldom, 3 . few, h. f requent , 5 . abundant and dominant. 93 The solum is well developed and contains a considerable amount of concret ions in the topmost hor izons. A summary of the morphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p r o f i l e is presented below: L-H 1 1/2 to 0 inches, cons i s t ing of needles, twigs and bark; black (5 YR 2/1) and p a r t i a l l y humif ied. Ae Not cont inuous; found only under decaying logs. Thickness is less than 1 inch. Bfcc] 0 to 4 inches; dark reddish brown (5 YR 3/4); s i l t y c lay loam; strong brown (7-5 YR) when dry ; moderate medium to f ine sub-angular b locky; very f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , p l en t i f u l roots ; common concret ions 2 to 5 mm in diameter: gradual wavy boundary. Bfcc2 4 to 8 inches; dark brown (7-5 YR 3/2) s i l t y c lay loam, l ight ye l lowish brown (10 YR 6/4) when dry ; moderate medium subangular blocky s t ruc tu re ; f r i a b l e , p l a s t i c ; many roots ; common concret ions 2 to 3 mm in diameter; c l ea r wavy boundary. Bf 8 to 13 inches; dark ye l lowish brown (10 YR 4/4) s i l t y c lay loam, l i gh t ye l lowish brown (10 YR 6/4) when dry ; moderate medium sub-angular blocky s t ruc tu re ; f r i a b l e , p l a s t i c ; some roots ; gradual wavy boundary. Btj 13 to 17 inches; dark ye l lowish brown (10 YR 4/4); s i l t y c lay loam; pale brown (10 YR 6/3) when dry ; moderate angular blocky; f r i a b l e , very p l a s t i c ; some c lay sk ins ; few roots ; d i f fuse boundary. Bt£ 17 to 22 inches; o l i v e brown (2.5 Y 4/4); s i l t y c lay loam; coarse strong blocky s t ruc tu re ; f i rm to f r i a b l e , very p l a s t i c , c lay skins and blackened ped sur faces ; few roots ; d i f f u se wavy boundary. 94 Btj 22 to 28 inches; o l i v e brown to o l i v e (2.5 Y 4/4 to 5 Y 5/4); s i l t y c lay loam; coarse to very coarse strong blocky s t ruc tu re ; f i rm , very s t i c k y ; c lay skins and blackened ped sur faces , very few roots ; c leary wavy boundary. BC 28 to 36 inches; o l i v e (5 Y 5/4); s i l t y c lay loam; pale yellow (5 Y 7/3) when dry ; massive, very p l a s t i c ; blackened ped sur -faces ; few f ine fa in t o l i v e yellow (5 Y 6/8) mott les ; no roots ; d i f f u se wavy boundary. Cj 36 to 58 inches; o l i v e (5 Y 5/3); s i l t y c lay loam, pale yellow (5 Y 7/3) when dry ; massive, very p l a s t i c ; common coarse d i s t i n c t l igh t o l i v e brown (2.5 Y 5/6) mott les ; no roots. The p r o f i l e is well to moderately well dra ined, stone free and contains l i t t l e or no coarse skeleton (Table 22). The p a r t i c l e s larger than 2 mm observed in the B f c c j , Bfcc2 and Bf horizons p r imar i l y cons is t of concre-t i ons . The bulk density increases with depth. The p a r t i c l e s i ze d i s t r i b u t i o n is presented in Table 23. There is an increase in the c lay ^content of the Bfcc and Bt hor izons ; in the f i r s t case due to the concret ions and in the second because of a c lay enrichment. How-ever , the weathering of s i l t s ize p a r t i c l e s into c lay s izes should a lso be taken into account in the study of c lay va r i a t ions among the hor izons. The maximum accumulation of f ine and coarse c lay occurs in d i f f e r en t hor izons. When the f i n e , coarse and tota l c lays of d i f f e r en t horizons are compared, the f ine c lay presents the largest va r i a t i on among the three. A f ine c lay peak occurs in the Bfccj horizon which contains 8% more f ine c lay than that of the C hor izon. The f ine c lay values of the Bt horizons are lower than those of the Bfcc hor izons. However, the coarse c lay maxima take place in the Bt hor izons. Table 22. Coarse skeleton and bulk densi ty s t a t i s t i c s for the Memekay pedon HOR. DEPTH i nches PARTICLE SIZE mi l l imeters BULK DENSITY gms/cc 76.2 76.2-25.4 25.4-2 <2 Bfcc, 1-7 2.1 97-9 B f cc 2 7-11 3-1 96.9 • 75 Bf 11-16 • 7 99-3 Bt, 16-21 100.0 • 85 B t 2 21-25 100.0 25-34 100.0 BC 34-50 100.0 C l 50 + 100.0 1 .68 25.4 mm = 1" Table 23. Pa r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Memekay pedon (percent by weight) HOR. DEPTH i nches Bfcc, 0-4 B f c c 2 4-8 Bf 8-13 B t l 13-17 B t 2 17-22 B t 3 22-28 BC 28-36 C l 36-58 SAND v .co . j co. "med. | f i ne vTTi total SILT co. I med. | f i n e | to ta l CLAY co. j t i ne j tota I mil l imeters ITEXTURAL CLASS 2-1 1-.5 .5-.25 .25-.10 . 10-.05 2-.05 .6 .6 • 3 1.2 • 5 3.2 .3 .5 • 3 1.2 .5 2.8 • 7 • 5 .2 1 .1 .7 3-2 .2 . 1 • 3 • 5 • 7 1 .8 .2 .6 • 3 • 7 • 9 2.7 .2 .8 . 4 2 . 4 2.8 6.6 1.8 1.5 .5 • .8 1 . 1 5-7 .2 .6 • 3 • 5 2.0 3-6 .05-.02 .02-.005 .005-.002 .05-.002 15-7 32.1 15.8 63.6 14.1 34.5 15.6 64.2 18.6 32.3 14 .6 65.5 18.4 30.5 12.7 61 .6 14.2 29.2 17-5 60.9 14 .6 26.6 16.8 58.0 12.8 32.6 16.6 62.0 17.2 31.8 15.9 64.9 .002-.0002 <.0002 <.002 18.3 14.9 33-2 16.4 16.6 33-0 19.1 12.2 31.3 25.8 10.8 36.6 24.7 11.7 36.4 24.8 10.6 35-4 23.4 8 .9 32.3 23.8 7-7 31 .5 S i l t y c lay 1 oam Si 1 ty c 1 ay 1 oam Si l t y cl ay 1 oam Si l ty c lay 1 oam Si 1 ty cl ay 1 oam Si l t y c 1 ay 1 oam Si l ty c 1 ay loam S i 1 ty c l ay 1 oam 97 The maximum amount of s i l t occurs in C hor izon. D i f fe rent values from C horizons may be interpreted as the loss due to weathering and/or movement both downward and l a t e r a l l y . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , there may be four reasons why the pa r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n of a horizon is d i f f e ren t from that of the C hor izon: a) i t may be o r i g i n a l l y d i f f e r en t due to the ve r t i c a l heterogeneity of the material from the time of deposi t ion or f o r -mation; b) i t may become d i f f e ren t due to weathering; c) downward movement, and d) la tera l movement of the p a r t i c l e s . It is often d i f f i c u l t to ident i fy the e f f ec t of these four factors and caution must be exercised when exp l a i n -ing va r i a t i on a t t r ibuted to these components. The percentage of tota l sand is rather small and does not exceed 7%• Except for very coarse sand and f ine sand, there i s , in genera l , a decrease in the sand f rac t ions of the solum as compared to the corresponding c lasses in the C hor izon. The chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p r o f i l e are presented in Table 2k. The pH values indicate the s l i g h t l y ac id i c nature of the solum. Carbon and N decrease with depth, although the C/N ra t io f luc tuates s l i g h t l y from horizon to hor izon. These C/N values are s imi la r to those given for some Washington State forest s o i l s (Gessel et al. , 1965). The f luc tua t ions may be a t t r ibuted to the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of roots in the p r o f i l e . Calcium plus magnesium and P contents of the Bfcc and Bf horizons are considerably less than that of the lower hor izons. Except for the L-H layer and Bfcc^ hor izon , the base saturat ion is 100% for a l l hor izons. The high base saturat ion values should be reviewed within the concept presented by Clark (1965a, 1965b). The measured C .E .C . is the e f f e c t i v e C.E .C. or the charge encountered by t ru l y exchangeable cat ions s ince the employed ana l y t i ca l technique excludes the C .E .C . inact ivated by hydrous oxides of Al and Fe. Table 24. Selected chemical cha rac te r i s t i c s of the Memekay pedon HOR. DEPTH i nches P H MACRONUTRIENTS M1CR0NUTR1ENTS O.M. N C/N Na K Ca+ Mq Al P B Co Mo Cu Zn Pb Mn Ni Fe Mg percent rat io me/100 g. p.p • m. percent L-H 4.58 32. 12 .510 36.53 • 32 .66 17-41 6.28 10 .40 ND 16 97 28 .0 Bfccj 0-k 5.05 3.84 .120 18.58 .26 .18 2.07 1 .85 18 20 <.4 21 220 1 .4 750 8.3 1.10 B f c c 2 4-8 4.80 5.26 .160 19.06 .18 .16 1.46 1.94 2 .25 <.4 55 165 ND 45 Bf 8-13 5.10 3.84 .090 24.77 • 29 .19 3.26 1 • 50 <.4 40 120 0 .6 B t l 13-17 5.25 2.26 .060 21.82 • 35 .23 4.34 4 90 <.8 60 115 ND 50 B t 2 17-22 5.55 1.13 .045 14.67 • 43 .23 11.04 4 .05 ND 56 108 ND B t 3 22-28 5-99 .81 .020 23.50 • 43 .20 13-92 6 .40 ND 80 96 ND 40 BC 28-36 6.00 .68 .010 39.00 .44 .22 14.18 7 .10 ND 85 85 ND 45 C l 36-58 5.88 .68 .017 22.94 .43 .21 17.48 8 .50 19 25 ND 50 95 ND 1200 8.8 1.70 ND = not detectable 8 - • oo 99 In respect to the micronutr ients , the amount of Cu increases with depth whereas a decrease is noted in Zn values (Table 2k). Boron, Co, Mn, Fe and Mg values of the C horizon are higher than those of the Bfcc^ hor izon. The L-H layer contains a considerable amount of Pb. Small amounts of Mo are detectable in the upper hor izons. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the clay minerals are presented in Table 25. Ch lo r i t e is the only c lay mineral i den t i f i ed in the C hor izon, Vermicul i te and i l l i t e appear in the Ae hor izon. I l l i t e is a lso expected to occur in the C horizon since the diagenet ic changes w i l l resu l t in both i l l i t e and c h l o r i t e in marine sediments (Grim, 1953). In f a c t , a l l other marine sediments presented e a r l i e r contain both c h l o r i t e and i l l i t e (Table 7)• It is probable that , at the outset there was no montmori11 oni te to d i f f e r e n t i a t e into i l l i t e by d iagenes is . The c h l o r i t e was e i ther transformed from kao l i n i t e and/or accumulated as a primary minera l . Furthermore, during and fo l lowing the P le i s tocene , sedimentation probably was too rap id , e spec i a l l y in ner ic and l i t t o r a l zones, to allow the occurrence of a strong d iagenet ic process. However, because the diagene-t i c a l t e r a t i on of kao l i n i t e is so slow, i t f requent ly pe rs i s t s in varying amounts in marine sediments (Grim, 1953). Kao l in i t e may be present in these samples but not detected since the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of kao l i n i t e is d i f f i c u l t in the presence of c h l o r i t e with the employed technique. Ch lo r i t e is the primary c lay mineral in these marine sediments as^  well as in the marine sediments reported by the other workers (Thiesen e t aZ. ,''1959; Osborne, 1 960; :-Clark et al. , 1962). C lark (1962) emphasized c h l o r i f i z a t i o n as one of the p r inc ipa l features of the con-cre t ionary brown s o i l s (Alberni ser ies ) developed from a f ine marine sediment s im i l a r to that of Memekay. He stated that " T o . f o r m c h l o r i t e , O) o fD 3 o Q_ fD Ol rt fD fD un uo un ro un o co -h O O Ae uo CTN 1 un OO o 1 4 r ro 1 un O K) ro A ro ro i un O ro i ro A o 2-50 to i ro A ro — — to — — — — to 4r- ro U J — ro ro — ro ro — rO — ro ro ro ro i UO ro U J ho — -c- ro U J i J > ro -e- -c- ro UO i 4=" U J ro i U J chl-i11-mon chl-i11-mon ver-chl X-RAY NO. HORIZON DEPTH •c PART SIZE able 2 un MIXED LAYERS o MONTMORIL- 0) •< LONITE U J UJ CHLORITE era 1 73 CD o_ lat VERMICUL- r t < fD 1 TE ~~\ CT 43 C r t jant ILLITE o f t 73 fD to KAOLINITE the Memekay AMPHIBOLES Memekay Memekay QUARTZ TJ m sdon sdon FELDSPAR NATURE 111 vt LAYE 73 O Ul O 001 101 the aluminum ev ident ly l iberated from s i l i c a t e minerals is p rec ip i ta ted or polymerized between the uni ts of expanding-1ayer phy11osi1 icate." The moisture release curves of the d i f f e r en t horizons are presented in Figure 10. The ava i l ab le water was ca lcu la ted both for .1-15 and .3-15 bars (Table 26). The amount of the ava i l ab le water was presented as a) percent by weight (Pw), b) percent by volume, c) inches per foot and d) tota l inches for solum. It should be noted that the presented ava i l ab le water values are estimates derived from the data obtained in the laboratory on disturbed so i l samples. The most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of th i s p r o f i l e is the concret ions observed in the upper B horizons (Bfcc^ and Bfccj) of the solum. Con-c re t ions occur in many Vancouver Island and Fraser Va l ley s o i l s (Chancey, 1953; Sprout and Ke l l ey , 1958; Day et al., 1959; Osborne, I960; Clark et al., 1962; C lark and Brydon, 1963). Concret ionary s o i l s are a lso found in Washington and Oregon States (Wheeting, 1936; Drosdoff and N i k i f o r o f f , 19^0; Whitt ig et al., 1957; Brackett , I966). However, the occurrence of these s o i l s is not l imited to the P a c i f i c Northwest. Winter (1938) reported the i r occurrences in I l l i n o i s . The interest in concret ions is world-wide since they are found in many parts of the world. According to Wheeting (1936), Winter (1938), Beater (1940), and Drosdoff and N i k i f o r o f f (19^0) these have been observed in South A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a , Cuba, Puerto R ico, Morovia, Greece, Hungary and Manchuria. The name " conc re t i on " has been often used as the synonym of " sho t " which i s , in most instances, more appropriate for th i s type of formation. However, there is a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rence between the two and the concret ion can be e a s i l y d i f f e r en t i a t ed on the basis of the concentr ic r ings observed when the s t ructure is s l i c e d . In the f i e l d , these two « 102 pigure 10. Moisture release curves for d i f f e r en t horizons in the Memekay pedon (moisture, percent by weight) Table 26. A va i l ab l e water In the Memekay pedon BULK COARSE AVAILABLE WATER AVA ILABLE WATER . HOR. DEPTH DENSITY SKELETON p e r c e n t i n c h e s / f o o t (< 2mm) .1-15 b a r s • 3-15 b a r s b e f o r e c o r r e c t i o n a f t e r c o r r e c t i o n i nch.es gms/cc p e r c e n t Pw Pv Pw Pv • 1-15 .3-15 .1-15 . 3-15 L-H l%-0 7 8 . 4 9 3 3 . 6 3 Bf c c j 0-4 .75 2 .05 4 1 . 7 8 31 .42 27-42 20.62 3-77 2 . 4 7 3 . 6 9 2 .42 B f c c 2 4-8 3 . 0 9 37.28 2 8 . 0 3 26.54 19 .96 3 .36 2 .39 3 .26 2 .32 B f 8-13 . 6 9 41 .36 31.10 26.87 20.21 3-73 2 . 4 2 3-71 2.41 B t i 13-17 .85 32.32 2 7 . 5 4 2 1 . 2 5 18.10 3 . 3 0 2.17 3 .30 2.17 B t 2 17-22 2 1 . 9 9 18 .74 15 .76 13.43 2 .25 1.61 2 .25 1.61 St-j 22-28 17.09 14 .56 9 .45 8 .05 1 .75 . 9 7 1.75 • 97 BC 28-36 15.15 2 5 . 4 5 10 .47 17.59 3 .05 2.11 3-05 2.1 1 C l 36-58 1.68 .16 .82 28.26 1 0 . 4 2 17-51 3-39 2 .10 3 . 3 9 2 . 1 0 • T o t a l f o r s o l u m ( I n c h e s ) 8 . 8 8 5 .94 8 .82 5.89 Pw = p e r c e n t by w e i g h t , Pv = p e r c e n t by vo lume formations look very much a l i k e and may be e a s i l y mistaken. In fact most of the concretionary s o i l s which were studied and reported primarily contain shots. This is e s p e c i a l l y true for the Vancouver Island s o i l s . The concretionary s o i l s of Vancouver Island have been studied in considerable d e t a i l by Chancey (1953), Osborne ( i960), Clark et al., (1962), and Clark and Brydon (1963) -Chancey (1953) separated the concretions into two categories as the true and pseudo-shots. The true shots were less than 8 mm in size and hard; the pseudo-shots were larger than 8 mm and so f t . Furthermore, the true shots contained more iron, aluminum, manganese and phosphorus than the pseudo-shots, but thei r s i l i c a and organic matter contents were lower. The dominant minerals in the true shots were quartz, feldspar and micas, whereas in pseudo-shots they were quartz and feldspars. Chancey (1953) stated that concretions were limited to brown podzol ic l6 s o i l s with r e s t r i c t e d internal drainage. He proposed a weathering sequence from the parent material to true shots through pseudo-shots. He suggested that the pseudo-shots are aggregates of parent materials acting as nuclei for iron, aluminum, manganese and phosphorus deposition. As a result of the large accumulation of these compounds in the pseudo-shots by th e i r precip-i t a t i o n from the s o i l s o l u t i o n , the true shots were formed. Osborne (I960) undertook an intensive study of the concretions occurring in Alberni s o i l . He noted that with repeated d i t h i o n i t e -c i t r a t e extractions, the fine clay content of A-B horizons was increased. A petrographic examination of thin sections prepared from concretions revealed that they consist of s o i l p a r t i c l e s cemented by iron oxides with no d e f i n i t e c r y s t a l structure. The analyses indicated that the iron, aluminum, titanium and manganese content of A-B horizons, where the ! 6 A c i d brown wooded in the present Canadian So i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (1965). 105 concret ions occurred , were, r espec t i ve l y , 3, 2k, kk and k.h times higher that than of C hor izon. A f te r observing the magnetic nature of the concret ions and e s t a b l i s h -ing the existence of magnetite in the coarse s i l t and sand f rac t ions of the s o i l , Osborne (I960) concluded that th is feature was very cha r a c t e r i s t i c of the Alberni so i l and played a s i g n i f i c a n t ro le in the formation of the concret ions . He s ta ted : "It seems highly probable that the occurrence of concret ions in s o i l s formed from basic material is inf luenced not only by the fact that such rocks contain minerals which are eas i l y weathered to release i ron , manganese and t i tanium which form cementing compounds, but that magnetite c r y s t a l s contr ibute to the retent ion and eventual p r e c i p i t a t i on of these mater ia ls in the so i l p r o f i l e . Th is mechanism could be act ivated by the in terac t ion between the p o s i t i v e l y charged surface of the magnetite c r ys ta l s and anionic complexes of F e + + , F e + + + , Mn and T I . " Clark and Brydon (1963) a lso studied Alberni soi1 as well as Fair-bridge s i l t loam which occurs in the southern part of Vancouver Island. They, too , noted the magnetic nature of the concre t ions , a magnetic s u s c e p t i b i l i t y corresponding to that of magnetite. However, they found that the magnetite const i tuted less than .05% of the so i l and could not be the cause of the magnetic nature of the concret ions . Examinations of thin sect ions did not reveal the existence of any concentr ic r ings . The concret ions were merely composed of so i l p a r t i c l e s stained by a dark brown mate r i a l . When Clark and Brydon (1963) invest igated the chemical propert ies of the so i l and concre t ions , they found that the i ron , aluminum and phosphate contents of the concret ions were higher than that of the s o i l . 106 However, the s i l i c a content of the concret ions was lower. Contrary to the f ind ings of Winters (1938), Drosdoff and N i k i f o r o f f (1940), Whitt ig et al. 0957), they found no pre fe rent ia l accumulation of manganese in the concre-t i ons . Clark and Brydon (1963) concluded that there were two d i f f e ren t types of formations. One has been developed from the progressive weathering of small peds but not by any process of a cc re t i on . They suggested the ' 'shot" or "nodule" terminology for i t . The second one was a magnetic concret ion composed of so i l p a r t i c l e s cemented together by iron ox ides . The secondary iron ox ide , they speculated, may be the source of the magnetic propert ies of the aggregated s o i l s . The most recent work on concret ions has been undertaken by Brackett (1966) on Alderwood s o i l s occurr ing in Washington. He reported that the shots were higher in iron but lacked apprec iable manganese. X-ray analyses indicated that the shots had the same c lay minerals as the surrounding so i l and the mineral counts of the very f ine sand presented a s im i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n of minerals both in the shots and s o i l . However, the .minerals in the shots were more weathered. Brackett (1966) stressed the d i f f i c u l t y in s ta t ing the exact nature of the shot formation in Alderwood s o i l s . He suggested, as Clark and Brydon (1963), two poss ib le modes of shot format ion: Intensive weathering of parent rock and aggregation of so i l p a r t i c l e s . As to the formation of concret ions or shots , several hypotheses were put forward by several workers. The major hypotheses are : (a) Progressive weathering of peds of parent material into shots or con-c re t ions (Chancey, 1953; Clark and Brydon, 1963; Brackett , 1966). Chancey proposed a ped -^ pseudo shot-true sequence for the formation. (b) Aggregation of small p a r t i c l e s by cementing agents such as i ron , 107 manganese, aluminum and t i tanium (Osborne, 196O; Clark and Brydon, 1963; Brackett , 1966) . Osborne (i960) suggested that magnetite c r y s t a l s contr ibute to the retent ion and eventual p r e c i p i t a t i on of these mater ia l s . (c) P r e c i p i t a t i on and dehydration of i r on , aluminum and manganese oxide so lu t ions in the f ine pockets of s o i l s to form a concret ion nucleus that progress ive ly removes iron and manganese s e l e c t i v e l y from so i l so lu t ion (Wheeting, 1936; Whitt ig et al., 1957). (d) As a resu l t of microbia l a c t i v i t i e s (Drosdoff and N i k i f o r o f f , 19^0). These authors emphasized the importance of microbia l a c t i v i t i e s in the formation of concret ions and they c i ted the other inves t iga to rs , such as Tsukunaga, Omeliansky, Waksman, Be i j e rn i ck and Thie l who a lso studied and demonstrated the s i g n i f i c a n t ro le of the microbia l a c t i v i t i e s in th is process. Drosdoff and N i k i f o r o f f (19^0) hypothesized that under submerged cond i t i ons , the so i l so lu t ion contains a high concentrat ion of ferrous and manganous bicarbonates as a resu l t of water logging and mic rob io log ica l ac t ion on organic matter. As the so i l d r i e s , the iron and manganese are prec ip i ta ted and ox id ized to form n u c l e i , although the p r e c i p i t a t i on of micro -organisms may a lso form a nucleus. Once the nuclei are formed, the concret ions gradual ly grow by absorbing and ox id i z i ng ferrous and manganous sa l t s to the i r sur face . The authors interested in concret ions a l so became concerned with the condi t ions that brought about the formation of concret ions . Although the occurrence of concret ions was reported from s o i l s r esu l t ing from widely d i f f e r e n t pedogenic processes, it was genera l ly es tab l i shed that the r e s t r i c t ed drainage with dry and wet cyc l ing was e s s e n t i a l . Winters 108 (1938) considered that the most important features associated with shot formation are intensive and prolonged weathering, slow removal of weather-ing products from the p r o f i l e , and the frequent a l t e r a t i on of ox id i z i ng and reducing condi t ions in the s o i l . Clark and Brydon (1963) emphasized the importance of the seasonal d i s t r i b u t i o n of the r a i n f a l l as well as i t s tota l which was found to be approximately between 2k and 66 inches corresponding to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the concret ionary s o i l s on Vancouver Island. Furthermore, they (Clark and Brydon, 1963) s t rongly stressed the necess i ty of a pronounced moisture de f i c i ency during the vegetat ive period for the formation of concret ions . Memekay pedon, the so i l present ly under-study, is located kO miles north-west of the Alberni so i l which was in tens ive ly studied and reported by Day et al. (1959); Osborne (i960): and Clark and Brydon (1963). It contains a considerable amount of concret ions in the upper B horizons (Bfccj and B f c c £ , see p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n ) . From the macroscopic and microscopic studies and the l imited amounts of thin sec t ions , i t appeared that these concret ions were very s im i l a r to those invest igated by Osborne (i960), and Clark and Brydon (1963). The concret ions were genera l ly s p h e r i c a l , although the larger ones often were i r regu la r and elongated. Their i n t e r i o r var ied from dark gray, gray ish brown to yel lowish brown. Two types of shot formations were observed: ped types and aggregate types. The former were encountered more often and the i r i n t e r i o r had a s im i l a r appearance to that of the parent mate r i a l . On the thin sec t i ons , i rony organic matter and sometimes manganese were observed as the cementing agents in the aggregate type concret ions . A study was undertaken to study the d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern of the less than 2 mm p a r t i c l e s as a f fec ted by concret ions . On selected hor izons , Bfcc] , Bf, B t 2 and C, the p a r t i c l e s ize ana lys is was undertaken before 109 and a f te r the free iron removal (Table 27a, b) . A decrease occurs in a l l sand c lasses fo l lowing the f ree iron removal. The total sand decreases as much as 12.5% n o r ' z o n ) * Both an increase and decrease occur in s i l t c l a sses . The maximum decrease is 11.0% in medium s i l t and the maximum increase is 3.4% in f ine s i l t (Table 28). The tota l c lay increases in a l l horizons (maximum 19.2% in B fcc , horizon) although the major increase takes place pr imar i l y in the f ine clay p a r t i c l e s . The amount of increase both in the f ine and tota l clay becomes smal ler with depth. It should be empha-s ized that for a given class the observed va r i a t i on fo l lowing the free iron removal is a resu l t of two processes: a) an increase due to pa r t i c l e s received from a c lass above, and b)a decrease due to pa r t i c l e s lost to the c lass below. However, the coarse clay would always show a decrease or remain constant, and s i m i l a r l y , the f ine clay could only increase or remain cons tant. Figure 11 presents the d i s t r i b u t i o n and in tens i ty of the concret ions in the d i f f e r en t p a r t i c l e s i ze c l asses . The Y = 1 l ine represents the treated B fcc , and Bf hor izons . The values above Y = 1 ind icate a decrease and below the l ine an increase as a resu l t of the f ree iron removal. The maximum amount of concret ions occur in the very f ine sand and coarse sand c l a s ses . It should be noted that the concret ions ex i s t in a l l p a r t i c l e s izes larger than f ine s i l t with the exception of coarse s i l t of the Bf hor i zon . In genera l , more concret ions occur in the Bfcc , hor izon than in Bf although the amount of concret ions occurr ing in the coarse sand c lass of the Bf horizon is larger than that of B f c c , . There is cons iderable amount of increase in the c l a y s , e spec i a l l y in the f ine f r a c t i o n . An increase a l so appears in the f i ne s i l t p a r t i c l e s . Figure 12 presents the p a r t i c l e s i ze d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Bfcc , and T a b l e 27. P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Memekay pedon ( p e r c e n t by weight) a. b e f o r e f r e e i r o n removed HOR. DEPTH i nches Bf co. 0-4 Bf 8-13 B t 2 17-22 C l 36-58 B f c c ] 0-4 Bf 8-13 Bt2 17-22 Cl 36-58 SAND 1.co. | co. I med. | f i ne | v . f i . | t o t a l C O . S I LT med. [ f i n e |tot"aT m i l l i m e t e r s 2-1 1-.5 .5-.25 .25-.10 .10-.05 2-. 05 .7 1.1 .5 2.5 2.9 7.7 • 9 1.1 .4 2.3 2.4 7.1 3-9 4.1 1.1 3.5 2.6 15.2 .8 1.7 .6 2.0 2.3 7.4 .05-.02 .02-.005 .005-.002 .05-.002 21.4 43.1 13.8 78.3 18.4 41.9 12.8 73.1 17.9 25.3 14.1 57.3 22.5 29.6 13.3 65.4 b. a f t e r f r e e i r o n removed .6 .6 • 3 1 .2 .5 3.2 .7 • 5 .2 1 . 1 • 7 3.2 .2 .6 .3 • 7 • 9 2.7 .2 .6 • 3 • 5 2.0 3.6 15.7 32.1 15.8 63.6 18.6 32.3 14.6 65.5 14 .2 29.2 17.5 60.9 17 .2 31.8 15 .9 64 . 9 CLAY co. | f i n e | total .002-.0002 < .0002 < .002 14.0 00.0 14 .0 19.4 .4 19-8 25-7 1 .8 27.5 26.8 .4 27.2 18.3 14 .9 33.2 19.1 12.2 31 . 3 24 . 7 11.7 36.4 23.8 7.7 31-5 TEXTURAL CLASS S i l t Loam S i l t Loam S i l t loan-t o s i l t y c l a y loarr S i l t loarr t o s i 1 t y c l a y loarr Si l t y c 1 ay 1 oam Si l t y c l a y 1 oam Si l t y c 1 ay 1 oam Si l t y c 1 ay 1 oam Table 28. Increase (+) and decrease (-) in the p a r t i c l e s ize c lasses of the Memekay pedon as the resul t of free iron removal (percent by weight) HOR. DEPTH i nches Bfccj 0-4 Bf 8-13 B t 2 17-22 36-58 SAND V . CO . CO . med. f i ne v . f i . t o t a l CO. SILT med . | f i ne |tot"aT mi l l imeters 2-1 1-.5 .5-.25 .25-.10 .10-.05 2-.05 . 1 .5 .2 1 .3 2.4 4.5 .2 .6 .2 1.2 1.7 3.9 3.7 3-5 .8 2.8 1.7 12.5 .6 1.1 .3 1.5 .3 3.8 .05- .02- .005- .05-.02 .005 .002 .002 - - + -5.7 11.0 2.0 14.7 + • _ + _ .2 9.6 1.8 7.6 - + + + 3.7 3.9 3.4 3.6 - + + -5.3 2.2 2.6 .5 CLAY  co. | t i ne | to faT .002-.0002 c.0002 <.002 + 4.3 + 14.9 + 19.2 .3 + 11.8 + 11.5 1.0 + 9.9 + 8.9 3.0 + 7.3 + 4.3 112 F I N E F INE C 0 A H E •J E H ' F I N E • i N E M E D I U M C O A R S L cCAMor C L A Y C L A Y S I L T S 1 L T 5 I L T S A N 0 S A N G S A N D S A N D 5 M E M E K A Y Q U I N S A M s F c c P A R T I C L E S I Z E I N M I L L I M E T E R S Figure 11. The p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n of Bfcc and Bf horizons in r e l a t i on to the i r f ree Iron removal va lues . Y = 1 l ine represents the horizons a f te r the iron removal a) Memekay pedon b) Quinsam pedon F I N E C O A R S E F I N E M E D I U M C O A R S E VERY F INE MEDIUM COARSE VERY FINE COARSE CLAY C L A Y S I L T S ILT SI LT SAND SAND SAND SAND SAND .0005 .001 .005 .01 .05 .1 .5 1.0 PART ICLE SIZE IN M I L L I M E T E R S Figure 12. The pa r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n of Bfcc, and Bf horizons of the Memekay pedon pr io r to and a f t e r the free iron removal. Y = 1 l ine represents the free iron removed C, horizon 114 Bf horizons on the basis of the free iron removed C] horizon (Y = 1). The va r i a t i on from Y = 1 expresses the tota l va r i a t i on as a resul t of the weathering, t rans loca t ion and formation of concret ions which has taken place s ince the beginning of the so i l formation. However, i t should be noted that the va r i a t i on due to inherent v a r i a b i l i t y of the so i l ( espec ia l l y v e r t i c a l heterogenei ty ) , the va r i a t i on resu l t ing from some processes which are not yet known as well as the sampling va r i a t ions are a l so included in th is t o t a l . This probably explains why a f te r the free iron removal (assumed that a l l f ree iron removed) the d i s t r i b u t i o n curves do not fo l low the Y = 1 l i n e s . Since the tota l va r i a t i on and the va r i a t i on due to concret ions are known, the va r i a t ions due to other causes (weathering, t r ans loca t i on , e tc . ) can be ca lcu la ted (Table 29 and 30). It is in te res t ing to note that the largest va r i a t ions regardless of the o r i g i n , occur in the f i ne s ize pa r t i c l e s (espec ia l l y in the f ine c l a y ) , followed by the s i l t c l a s ses . The least amount of va r i a t ions are noted in the sand s ize c l a s ses . Genesis and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : So i l s are natural bodies formed on the land surface occupying space and having unique morphology. This is the present understanding of s o i l s which somewhat d i f f e r s from the previous one that was heav i l y based on the p r o f i l e morphology. The a l t e r a t i on in the con-cept , according to CIine (1961) has resulted from the new understanding of the so i l genes is , which now a lso includes the concepts of geomorphology and of time as fac tors in so i l genes is . In the new concept, s o i l genesis can be viewed as cons i s t ing of two steps (Simonson, 1959): a) accumulation of parent ma te r i a l s , and b) d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of horizons in the p r o f i l e . Horizon d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n in the so i l is considered due to four p r i n c i p l e kinds of changes. These are : add i t i ons , removals, t ransfers and trans-Table 29- Total va r ia t ion ( increase, decrease) in the p a r t i c l e s ize c lasses of the Memekay pedon as a sum of the va r i a t ions due to weathering, t r ans loca t ion , iron cementation and inherent v a r i a b i l i t y * (percent by weight) SAND SILT HOR. DEPTH V . CO . CO. med. | f i ne | v . f i . | total CO. med. f i ne [total mi l l imeters • 5" .25" .10- .05- .02- .005- .05-i nches 2-1 1-.5 • 25 .10 .05 2-.05 .02 .005 .002 .002 Bfcc] + + + + + + + + _ + 0-4 .5 .5 .2 2.0 • 9 4.1 4.2 11.3 2.1 13.4 + + + + + + + + _ + Bf 8-13 .7 • 5 . 1 1.8 .4 3-5 1 .2 10.1 3.1 8.2 B t 2 + + + + + + + _ _ _ 17-22 3-7 3.5 .8 3.0 .6 11.6 .7 6.5 1.8 7.6 + + + + + + + _ _ + C l 36-58 .6 1.1 .3 1.5 • 3 3.8 5.3 2.2 2.6 .5 CLAY co. t ine |totaI .002- < < .0002 .0002 .002 9-8 7.7 17-5 4.4 7.3 11.7 + _ _ 1.9 5.9 4.0 + _ _ 3.0 7.3 4.3 * Based on the free iron removed C^  horizon (Table 27a and b) Table 30. Increase (+) and decrease (-) in the p a r t i c l e s ize c lasses of the Memekay pedon as the resul t of weathering, t r ans loca t i on , and inherent v a r i a b i l i t y * (percent by weight) HOR. DEPTH i nches Bfcc , 0-4 Bf 8-13 B t 2 17-22 C l 36-58 SAND v.r;n I co. I med.| f ine | v . f i .| total ' co. SILT  med. | f i ne |totaT mi l l imeters •5- .25- .10-2-. 05 2-1 1-.5 .25 .10 .05 + + - -.4 0.0 0.0 .7 1.5 .4 + _ + _ _ .5 .1 . 1 .6 1.3 .4 + _ -.0 .0 .0 .2 1.1 .9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 .05- .02- .005- .05-.02 .005 .002 .002 _ + - -1.5 .3 .1 1.3 + + - + 1 .k .5 1.3 .6 „ + 3.0 2.6 1.6 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 CLAY co. | t ine | total .UU2-.0002 .0002 < .002 5-5 + 7.2 + 1.7 k.7 + 4.5 .2 + .9 + 4.0 + 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 Based on the free iron removed C, horizon (Table 27b) 117 formations. The new understanding e l iminates the concepts such as podzo l i z a t i on , l a t e r i z a t i o n or sol on i za t i on . The new genetic concept is conceived as an aggregate of many indiv idual phys i c a l , chemical and b io -log ica l processes. CI ine (1961) stated that : " i t is conceived that a l l these processes are potent ia l cont r ibut ions to development of every so i l but that the i r rates d i f f e r in d i f f e r en t environments. With constant r e l a t i v e rates among these processes, one may expect a so i l to develop along a given course and to change mainly in degree of expression of propert ies rather than in k ind. With changes of the so i l i t s e l f , or of the environment, however, one may expect the rates of such processes to change r e l a t i ve one to another, and as a consequence, the process of so i l formation may be expected to s h i f t in time to produce new sets of propert ies we recognize as d i f fe rences in kind rather than degree . " Jenny (i960 recent ly reviewed his well known presentat ion on the so i l forming f a c t o r s , c l imate , organisms, topography, parent material and age of s o i l . The new presentat ion is more eco log ica l in nature; i t is based on the concept of ecosystem, and the changes in ecosystem propert ies are viewed as inf luxes or ou t f l uxes , of matter and energy. This new understanding t reats the so i l fac tors not as the formers or the creators but as the var iab les (state f a c t o r s ) , and furthermore, i t places the so i l- forming fac tor equation upon a broader basis under the name of " s ta te fac tor equat ion" . The state fac tor equation is given as: 1, s, v, a =.f ( L 0 , P x , t) where 1 stands for the ecosystem p roper t i e s , s for so i l p rope r t i e s , v for vegetat ion p rope r t i e s , and a for animal p roper t i es . These propert ies are 118 re lated to , or are a funct ion of three state f a c t o r s : the i n i t i a l state of the system, L ; external f lux p o t e n t i a l , P ; and the age of the system, t. The factor L Q includes parent material and i n i t i a l topography; the factor P x includes c l imate , b iota and any other environmental propert ies that provide potent ia l f luxes in the system. Arnold ( 1 9 6*0 has success fu l l y appl ied these new concepts and under-standings in developing mul t ip le working hypotheses in the genesis of some s o i l s in eastern Iowa. The introduct ion of the mul t ip le hypotheses, into the so i l genesis should be viewed as a very s i g n i f i c a n t step since th is technique is one of the most appropriate too ls in the s c i e n t i f i c inquiry ( P i a t t , 1 9 6 4 ; A rno ld , 1 9 6 4 ) . An attempt has been made to develop mul t ip le working hypotheses for the genet ic processes that may have taken place in the evolut ion of Memekay s o i l . The methodology presented by Arnold ( 1 9 6 4 ) has been f o l 1 owed. Because a very c lose re l a t ionsh ip ex i s t s between the geomorphology of a land and the genet ic process in the so i l developed on th is land, the evo lut ion of Memekay may be constructed as related to the geomorphic h i s to ry of the area. Following the P le i s tocene , the sea retreated slowly in the area and the marine sediments emerged above the water. This ma te r i a l , from which the Memekay so i l developed was r i ch in bases, e spec i a l l y in Ca, Mg, Na and K; and i t had a pH value above 7 ( inferred from the sample, C R - 6 4 - 6 5 ; see s u r f i c i a l geology, the f ine marine sed iments). The most important aspect in the development of th is so i l was the drainage and moisture condi t ion of the so i l that showed d e f i n i t e changes with time as the base level of the area gradual ly became, lower, f o l l ow ing* * .• the sea re t rea t . The wa^er table i'o- the area has a lso fo-llowe.d the changes in the base l e v e l . It may be inferred that these s o i l s were f u l l y saturated at the outset and for a considerable time they remained poorly dra ined. Probably, the drainage of the so i l fol lowed a poorly drained-well drained sequence and more than l i k e l y moved from one drainage c lass to the next very slowly possessing a l l the intermediate steps. The change was always towards d r i e r condi t ions since there is no evidence that the retreat of the sea was reversed for any durat ion fo l lowing the P le is tocene. The fo l lowing process probably took place during the formation of th i s so i 1 : 1) removal of carbonates 2) removal and recyc l ing of bases 3) add i t ions and transformations of organic matter k) t r ans loca t ion of inher i ted c lays 5) transformation (synthesis and dest ruct ion of 2:1 c lays) 6) transformation of primary minerals ( inc ip ien t weathering) 7) occurrence of a poor to well drainage sequence At the beginning, the removal of the carbonates probably was slow due to high water tab le . Because the carbonates act as an inh ib i to r of weathering of the s i l i c a t e minerals (Grim, 1953; McCaleb and C l i n e , 1950; Arno ld , 1964), weathering was rather slow at the beginning. As a r e su l t , the dest ruct ion of the inher i ted c l a y , c h l o r i t e , as well as the formation of the new c lay minerals were res t ra ined . However, c lay movement took place at e a r l i e r stages of development fo l lowing the removal of the bases. Removal and recyc l ing of the bases were i n i t i a t e d with the e s t a b l i s h -ment of vegetat ion on the exposed marine mate r i a l . The vegetat ion 120 probably started with marsh - swamp - wil low - a lder sequence and followed by lodgepole pine - spruce - hemlock - Douglas f i r . Depth of the recyc l ing increased with the establishment of the t rees . As a resu l t of the recyc l ing and removal of the bases the pH of the surface so i l was lowered. Because of the poorly drained nature of the so i l there was a th ick organic layer (muck or peat) at the surface of the so i l at the ear ly stages of the development. The amount of th i s organic layer began to decrease a f te r the establishment of shrubs and completely disappeared under the tree canopy, leaving in i t s place a L-H layer . It is l og i ca l to think that a large amount of organic matter moved into the so i l corresponding to the amount of the organic layer ex i s t i ng in the ear ly stages. Memekay so i l present ly does not contain any A hor izon. The occurrence of Ae (e luviated horizon) is very l imited and only found under decaying logs. This observed Ae probably is f a i r l y recent and i t s occurrence may be due to the more a c i d i c condi t ions in these pa r t i cu l a r places and/or to the ce r ta in chemicals released by decaying logs. More than l i k e l y a noraml Ae horizon existed in th i s s o i l ; but as a resu l t of churning, mixing of Ae and mineral so i l has taken p lace. Consequently i t is often d i f f i c u l t to f ind a continuous Ae hor izon. The existence of an Ah horizon in the Memekay p r o f i l e in the past is qui te conceivable s ince the existence of a large amount of organic matter has been already postu la ted . Moreover, some concret ionary brown s o i l s encountered elsewhere on Vancouver Island contain Ah horizons (Clark et al, , 1962). The disappearance of Ah horizon probably occurred during the change of drainage as well as the vegetat ion. When there was not enough accumulation of organic matter, some of the organic matter was lost un t i l the new equ i l i b r ium was es tab l i shed as the resu l t • 8 . . 121 of the new state fac tors (Px). Trans locat ion of the inher i ted c lays is regulated by the channels and pores through which the p a r t i c l e s phys i ca l l y may move (Arnold, 1 9 6 4 ) . The t rans loca t ion of c lays is accelerated by the development of so i l s t ructure aided by plant roots . However, i t is often hard to evaluate the amount of the c lay translocated since the formation and/or the dest ruct ion of c lays can be superimposed. Formation of c lay has been l imited pr imar i l y to i 1 1 i t e and vermicu l i te observed only in the Ae hor izon. Several hypotheses may be developed for the evolut ion of Bfcc hor izon. F i r s t l y , i t may be assumed that the Bfcc horizon evolved independently below the Ah horizon and above the Bf horizon and advanced upward fo l lowing the disappearance of the Ah hor izon. Secondly, i t may be hypothesised that the Bfcc horizon evolved from the Ah horizon fo l lowing the changes in the state fac tors which correspondingly resulted in a d e f i n i t e change in the Ah hor izon. It should be stressed that the large amounts of organic matter may i nh ib i t the formation of concret ions since the organic matter would compete with iron for oxygen (Oades, 1 9 6 4 ) . Consequently, i t may have taken some time for the formation of concret ions. As the th i rd hypothesis , i t can be stated that the Bfcc horizon evolved from a Ah/Bf/C horizon sequence, from the upper part of Bf at the i n te r -phase of Ah/Bf horizons as a resu l t of churning. As the Ah horizon retreated upward, the Bfcc horizon followed i t . It is speculat ive but in t r igu ing to think that organic matter played an important ro le in the formation of concre t ions . It is probable that organic matter act ing as a complexing agent provided the means for d i s t r i b u t i o n of iron around the p a r t i c l e s and into the pores; l a te r on, the amount of organic matter 122 diminished due to ox idat ion leaving the iron as a cementing agent in the noncrystal form. As the fourth hypothesis , the Bfcc horizon may have been developed from an Ae/Bf/C sequence, at the Ae/Bf inter face and advanced downward. At present, the evolut ion of Bfcc horizon cannot be d e f i n i t e l y s ta ted . The workers (Chancey, 1953; Osborne, 1 9 6 0 ; C la rk , et al., 1959; Clark and Brydon, 1963; Brackett , I966) who have contr ibuted to the understanding of the concret ionary brown s o i l s were pr imar i l y con-cerned with the morphological and chemical aspect of the problem and, the i r hypothesis of the formation of the concret ions does not include the evo lut ion of the Bfcc hor izon. Furthermore, one might even ask, are the concret ions not a resu l t of the present ly operat ing state factors? The Bf horizon probably developed from the Bm horizon which appeared fo l lowing the removal of the bases. As the development of the so i l progressed, the Bm horizon completely disappeared leaving i t s place to the Bf and Bt hor izons. The present Bf horizon meets the c r i t e r i a set by the Canadian C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System for i t s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . ^ The oxalate ext ractab le Fe and Al values and the organic matter contents 1 8 of Bf and C, horizons of the Memekay pedon are given below: Horizon Organic matter Oxalate extractab le Fe Al % % % Bf 2.2k 1 .30 1 .00 Cj (IC) . 2 9 .66 .32 The oxalate ext ractab le Fe+Al exceeds that of the IC horizon by .8% or more (Fe+Al>.8%) and the organic matter to oxalate extractable Fe r a t io is less than 20 (National Soi l Survey Committee of Canada-, 1965) -18 Data suppl ied by L. Fars tad, Senior Pedo log is t , .Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Vancouver, B.C. 1 2 3 The tota l ext rac tab le Al and Fe for the Bf horizon is 2.30% which is 1.32% higher than that of the (l.C) hor izon . Furthermore, the C/Fe r a t i o is 1.73, considerably below 20. It is most probable that the development of the Bt horizon star ted before that of the Bf ho r i zon , at the lower part of the Bm. Consequently, a Bm/Btj sequence which might have appearedat an e a r l i e r date evolved into a Bf/Btj sequence later on. In the present pedon, the increase in clay content between 13 and 28 ins is k to 5% (Table 23). This increase with the evidence of c lay skins on ped surfaces is interpreted as an i l l u v i a l c lay horizon (Bt). Because no p a r t i c l e s i ze ana lys is of the e luv i a l horizon was undertaken, i t was not poss ib le to ascer ta in i f the percent c lay increase between the e luv i a l and i l l u v i a l horizons would meet the c r i t e r i a set for Bt horizon (National So i l Survey Committee, 1965). The evo lut ion and development of the present Memekay pedon under the fores t succession which has taken place s ince the retreat of the Ice Age (see the sect ion under Vegetation and time)' is presented in Figure 13-The i l l u s t r a t i o n is hypo the t i ca l . The water table is re lated to the rebound-ing of the land which took place a f te r the deg1aciat ion. The removal and the accumulation of the s i l t s were con t ro l l ed by the water table which a lso determined the drainage of the solum. The lack of a d e f i n i t e Ae horizon at present may be a t t r ibu ted to churning which appear to be a common process in the area. The Memekay pedon is present ly and tenta t i ve ly c l a s s i f i e d as a Concretionary Brown, Concretionary Podzol as a poss ib le a l t e rna t i ve (see Appendix Table 7)• b. So i l s developed on g1aciof 1uvia 1 mater ia ls i. Hart pedon: The Hart pedon has been developed on the stony and 124 Lote- glociol ) Postglacial Present I 10 Millenia B.P. H ypsithermal I nte rval Ice >Swam p Willow — Alder ) Lodgepole Pine Spruce Mm: H D. Fir - W. Hemlock emlock — Fir — W. W. Pine Douglas Fir D ou g 1 as Fir W. Hemlock W. Hemlock -Mtn. Hemlock Sprue e - F i r nted D.fir 0 veors) Lodge pole Pine / Alder Alder Alder Alder Lodgepole Pine — W White Pine o ro a. (a) Forest succession (after Heusser, I960) L-H Ah L-H L-H L-H L - H w o < L_ L-H U QO L-H Cgsk Cgsk C z C z Cgsk Bgm Cgsoca Cgsaca Ah Bl j Cca Aej Btj Ahe or Aej Ahe Bf Btj Bfcc j Bf Btj A e Bfcc Bf Btj or Bt (b) Soil profile development (c) Variat ion in permafrost, water table, and C a C 0 3 layer as results of ice retreat, weathering and rebounding of land Figure 13- Hypothet ical s o i l p r o f i l e sequences r esu l t i ng in the present Memekay pedon as a r e s u l t . o f geomorphic events , fo res t succession and pedogenic processes s ince the last g l a c i a t i on 125 cobbly member of the g1aciof1uvia1 mater ia l s . It was estab l i shed on the outwash terrace which const i tu tes the northeastern shore of John Hart Lake. The land in th is locat ion is almost f l a t with a minor micro-topography. The stand cons is ts of Douglas f i r planted in 1939. The s i t e was c l a s s i f i e d as a Gaultheria-Parmelia (Salal-pale green l ichen) S i te Type (Spi lsbury and Smith, 1947). A l i s t of vegetat ion which was observed within a 100-foot radius around the so i l is presented below: Trees Frequency Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) 5 Shrubs Salal (Gaulthevia shallon) 5 T r a i l i n g blackberry (Rubus v i t i f o l i u s ) 4 Red huckleberry (Vaccinium pavvifolium) 4 Wild rose (Rosa spp.) 1 Herbs Twin-flower (Linnaea bovealis) 2 V a n i l l a leaf (Achlys t r i p h y l l a ) 2 Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) 1 Fern Bracken (Ptevidium aquilinum) 5 The solum is well developed but unl ike the prev ious ly presented s o i l , i t does not contain any concret ions . The organic matter at the surface is well decomposed and mixed with the mineral s o i l . A summary of the morphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p r o f i l e is presented as fo l lows : 1. ra re , 2. seldom, 3. few, 4. f requent , 5> abundant and dominant 1 to 0 inch, p r imar i l y L cons is t ing of needles, twigs. 0 to 2 inches, dark reddish brown (5 YR 3/3) loamy sand, dark brown (10YR 4/3) when dry ; so f t , s ing le grained in s t ruc tu re ; non-st icky, non-p las t i c ; p l e n t i f u l roots , c lear wavy boundary. It is not cont inuous; found often under decaying logs; thickness is less than 1/4 inch. 2 to 10 inches, ye l lowish red (5YR 4/6) g rave l l y loamy sand, ye l lowish brown (10YR 5/8) when dry ; very weak coarse subangular blocky and s ing le gra in s t ruc tu re ; non-st icky, non-p las t i c ; many roots , gradual i r regu la r boundary. 10 to 19 inches, ye l lowish red (5YR 4/6) g rave l l y loamy sand, brownish yel low (10 YR 6/6) when dry ; coarse subangular blocky s t ruc tu re , weakly cemented; non-st icky, non-p las t i c ; common roots ; abrupt wavy boundary. 19 to 25 inches, dark ye l lowish brown (10YR 4/4) g rave l l y sand, very pale brown (10YR 7/4) when dry ; s ing le g r a i n , well cemented ( i ronpan) ; pebbles are iron coated, few roots ; d i f f u se i r regu la r boundary. 25 to 29 inches, o l i v e brown (2.5Y 4/4) g rave l l y sand, pale brown (10YR 6/3) when dry ; loose st ructure sand g r a i n ; no roots , d i f f u se i r regu la r boundary. 29 to 33 inches, l i gh t o l i v e (2.5Y 5/4) g rave l l y sand, pale yel low (2.5Y 7/4) when dry ; loose sand g r a i n ; no roots . It is a mixture of Ah and Ae hor izons. 127 The solum is well to excess ive ly well dra ined. This is one of the pedons where stoniness determination was undertaken. The resu l ts of the stoniness study are presented in Table 3 1 . The maximum and minimum va lues , in add i t ion to the means, are a lso included to indicate the ranges. The middle layer ( 1 5 _ 2 3 " ) appears coarser than both the top ( 0 - 9 " ) and the lowermost ( 3 0 - 3 8 " ) layers in respect to the pa r t i c l e s larger than 1 in ( 2 5 . 4 mm). In the lowermost layer , approximately, one half of the volume is occupied by the p a r t i c l e s between 1 in and 2 mm. The amount of pa r t i c l e s less than 2 mm in s ize decreases with depth and const i tu tes only 1/6 of the tota l volume in the lowermost layer . Bulk density increases with depth. The low bulk density of the top layer may be a t t r ibu ted to the organic matter, roots and the s t ructure of th is layer . The high bulk densi ty va lues , 2 . 2 0 and 2 . 2 5 gms/cc, co r r es -pond to a great degree of compaction which may a lso be inferred from the i r tota l poros i ty va lues. The tota l poros i ty sharply decreases from the top to lower layers . The real density decreases with the s ize of the p a r t i c l e s . The lower bulk densi ty of the smaller s i ze p a r t i c l e s , e spec i a l l y that of the 2 5 . 4 - 2 mm c lass is due to a coating of the pa r t i c l e s with f ine s o i l . In the top layer , the coat ing becomes r e l a t i v e l y th icker and consequently a ce r ta in amount of errors may be introduced during the determinat ion. The p a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n of the samples are presented in Table 3 2 . The tota l sand, very coarse sand and coarse sand increase with depth, whereas a decrease is noted both in f ine and very f ine sand c l a sses . A decrease with depth is a lso noted in the s i l t and c lay f r a c t i o n s . In a l l c lasses below the f ine sand a decrease with depth takes p lace. The selected chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the pedon is presented in Table 31. Coarse ske le ton, bulk densi ty and tota l poros i t y at three depths in the Hart pedon (mean of three separate determinations) DEPTH i nches PARTICLE SIZE mm* WE 1GHT VOLUME BULK DENSITY gms/cc TOTAL percent P0K0SITY % m i n max mean m i n max mean 0-9 >76.2 3-3 5.2 4.3 2.1 2.8 2.5 1.45 47.28 76.2-25.4 5.4 12.8 9- 1 2.5 7.2 4.9 25.4-2 19-3 61 .0 40.2 9.5 38.3 23.9 <2 23.4 66.8 45.1 - - (66.6) roots .8 1.7 1-3 1 .5 2.6 2.1 15-23 >76.2 3.4 13-0 8.2 2.8 11.0 6.9 2.20 20.00 76.2-25.4 22.9 32 .9 27 .9 17-9 24.3 21 . 1 25.4-2 39.8 41.7 40.8 33.5 35.3 34.4 <2 22.3 23-7 23.0 - - (37 roots . 1 . 1 . 1 .1 .3 .2 30-32 >76.2 - - 1.9 - - 1.6 2.25 18.19 76.2-25.4 14.1 17-3 15.7 1 1 .0 14.6 12.8 25 .4-2 55.4 ' 64.2 59.8 48.1 53.6 50.s <2 19.6 25.4 22.5 - - (34.3) roots . 1 . 1 . 1 .2 .5 .4 *• 25.4 mm = 1" ( ) obtained by subtract ion Table 32. P a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Hart pedon (percent by weight) HOR. DEPTH i nches Ap 0-2 B f l 2-10 B f2 10-19 Bfc 19-25 HC, 25-29 i i c 2 29-33 SAND v.co.| co. | med.|fine j v . f i . | t o t a l i l l ! imeters 2-1 1-.5 .5-.25 .25-.10 .10-.05 2-. 05 10.8 15.7 7.3 30.1 10.1 74.0 7.7 16.7 8.6 32.8 9.9 75.7 14.4 20.6 10.1 32.3 7.4 84.8 19.8 45.6 12.6 13.9 1.7 93.6 17.1 59.0 11.3 9.4 0.9 97.7 52.0 31.2 5.4 6.4 .9 95.9 CO. SILT  med . I f i ne Itota 1 .05-.02 .02-.005 .005-.002 .05-.002 8.5 .8 10. 1 19.4 9.9 1.2 6.4 17.5 1.2 4.3 2.5 8.0 .8 .8 2.6 4.2 . 1 .3 .6 1.0 .4 .2 1 .1 1.6 CLAY t o t a l < ,002 6.6 6.8 7.2 2 . 2 1.3 2 . 5 FEXTURAL CLASS Loamy sand Loamy sand Loamy sand Sand Sand Sand 130 Table 33- Except f o r the IIC, horizon the pH v a r i e s between 5 and 6. The pH of the IIC, i s r e l a t i v e l y high, 6.87. Both the C and N contents decrease with depth and the C/N r a t i o becomes s t a b l e a f t e r 19 ins of depth. Sodium and K values a l s o s t a b i l i z e a f t e r t h i s depth. The high Ca+Mg value of the Ap horizon is probably due to i t s high organic matter content. This may al s o be true f o r the P content of the Ap h o r i z o n , although higher P values occur in I IC horizons. The Cu content of the Ap horizon i s rather low in comparison to the underlying horizons. The high Pb value of t h i s horizon should a l s o be noted. In f a c t , the occurrence of Pb at a l l l e v e l s of the pedon i s worthy of note s i n c e , in g e n e r a l , the occurrence of Pb in mineral s o i l has not often been reported. Boron and Co are somewhat evenly d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n the pedon. However, Mn decreases with depth. An accumulation of Fe and Mg appears in the Bfc horizon. An increase in Zn i s a l s o noted in t h i s horizon. The c l a y mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n i s presented in Table 34. The amount of i r o n - r i c h c h l o r i t e increases towards the surface. This may be a t t r i b u t e d o to c h l o r i t i z a t i o n in the surface s o i l . The I IC horizon appears more weathered than the horizons above i t when the amphiboles, quartz and f e l d -spar values of the horizons are considered. This could be due to the o r i g i n of the d e p o s i t i o n which may have been considerably weathered p r i o r to i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r e - d e p o s i t i o n . The moisture release curves of the d i f f e r e n t horizons are presented in Figure 14. The values corresponding to .1, .3, .9, 5 and 15 bars decrease with depth and the curves of the horizons appear s i m i l a r in trend except f o r the Ap horizon. The values are very low and consequently the water a v a i l a b l e in the s o i l f o r tree growth is very l i m i t e d (Table 35). Table 33. Selected chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Hart pedon HOR. DEPTH i nches pH MACRONUTRIENTS Ml CR0NUTRIENTS OM N C/N Na K Ca+ Mq Al P B Co Mo Cu Zn Pb Mn Ni Fe Mg percent rat io me / 100 g. p.p.m. percent L-H 1-0 5.20 9.80 .162 35.06 16.35 Ap 0-2 4.90 4.21 .102 23.92 .24 .29 3.13 2.17 17.50 15 • 20 ND 7.2 50 2.0 1 400 5.0 .76 Bf, 2-10 5.45 2.32 .064 21 .10 .23 .16 0.66 14.80 ND 36.0 99 <.4 Bf 2 10-19 5.92 1.55 .056 16.10 • 23 .16 0.72 10.90 <.4 46.0 67 <.4 Bfc 19-25 5.80 0.62 .025 14.40 .19 .10 0.56 17.25 15 20 ND 55.0 82 <.4 800 7.3 1.40 1 1 C j 25-29 6.87 0.06 .002 14.40 .19 • 09 0.55 19.60 ND 57.0 75 <.8 1 1C 2 29-33 5.95 0.62 .025 14.40 .19 .09 0.89 19.90 1 1 25 620 7.0 1.30 ND = not detectable Table 34. Clay mineral d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Hart pedon X-RAY NO. HORIZON X r— Q_ LU O i nche« PART. SIZE MIXED LAYERS MONTMORIL-LONITE CHLORITE VERMICU-L 1 TE ILLITE KAOLINITE AMPHI BOLES QUARTZ FELDSPAR NATURE OF MIXED y Relat ive quant i t i es* LAYERS <.2 3 1 2-3 2 k .2-2 1 2 1 2 3 k 111-chl 175 Ap 0-2 2-50 1 1 k k <.2 1 2 1 2 2 3 .2-2 1 2 1 2 2 2 chl-i11 176 Bfc 19-25 2-50 1 1 2 3 2 <,2 1 1-2 1 1 1 .2-2 1 1-2 2 2 2 ver-i11 177 1 1 C 2 25-29 2-50 1 1 2 3-4 4 * 1. Trace , 2. Smal l , 3- Moderate, 4. Large 133 A p B f i B f 2 0 TENSION IN BARS Figure 14. Moisture release curves for d i f f e r en t horizons in the Hart pedon (moisture, percent by weight) Table 35. Available water In the Hart pedon HOR. DEPTH i nches BULK DENSITY gms/cc COARSE SKELETON (<2mm) percent AVAILABLE WATER pe rcent AVAILABLE WATER 1nches/foot .1-15 bars .3-15 bars before c o r r e c t i o n a f t e r c o r r e c t i o n Pw Pv Pw Pv .1-15 .3-15 .1-15 .3-15 Ap Bf, •Bf ? Bfc SIC, 0-2 2-10 10-19 19-25 25-29 .90 1.45 1 .50 2.20 2,25 35.2 76.2 23.50 20.30 7.46 4.62 3.95 1.28 18.27 10.81 6.93 8.69 2.88 13.85 12.56 5.23 2.47 1.48 .32 11.30 7.58 3.70 3.26 1.84 2.19 1 .29 .82 1 .04 .34 1.51 .63 .44 .39 .22 1 .42 .84 .19 .25 .08 . ... .87 .59 .10 .09 .05 Total for solum (inches) 2.37 1 .20 1.07 .67 Pv/ - percent by weight, Pv = percent by volume. The coarse skeleton fur ther decreased the amount of the ava i l ab le water and i ts e f f ec t can be observed by comparing the corrected and uncorrected ava i l ab le water va lues. Genesis and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : Land on which the Hart pedon developed is a coarse g l a c i o f l u v i a l material l a id down by the melt water at or in the sea which stood approximately 600 f t above i t s present l e v e l . Following the ice r e t r ea t , the ma te r i a l , most probably, was f u l l y saturated unt i l the rebounding of the land had taken p lace. As the base level lowered, that i s , as the sea retreated Campbell River started cut t ing the g l a c i o f l u v i a l mate r i a l . The erosion continued un t i l the construct ion of the John Hart dam and the depth of the r i ve r bed was approximately 100 f t p r io r to the construct ion in 1951 . The level of the water was elevated about 30 to kO f t due to damming. However, the increased water level had no e f f ec t on the present Hart pedon although some low areas may have been a f f ec ted . As the water level slowly lowered, so i l development, which was started as soon as the land was exposed above the water, gradual ly advanced. The drainage of the p r o f i l e has changed from poor to well drained passing through a l l intermediate steps. Drainage has not only a f fec ted so i l development by con t ro l l i ng pH, downward leaching of the bases and v e r t i c a l movement of the water (downward and upward) but a l so plant succession which in turn played an important ro le in the development and genesis of the s o i l . Plant succession was a lso con t ro l l ed by the c l imate that became progress ive ly warmer since the g l a c i a t i o n although a period with a warmer c l imate than the present one has a l so taken place (see the sect ion under Vegetation and time. The development of the Hart pedon followed a somewhat d i f f e r en t course from that of the Memekay although both had the same geomorphic h i s to ry and most l i k e l y s im i l a r vegetat ion succession fo l lowing the retreat of the i ce . The major d i f f e rences between these two pedons are in the parent mater ia ls from which they are developed. The stony g l a c i o f l u v i a l from which the Hart pedon or ig ina ted d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r s from the marine c l a y , the parent material of the Memekay pedon. Because of the coarse texture (loamy sand to sand) and the stony nature of the former, not only a low base status existed at the outse t , but a lso the removal of the bases were acce le ra ted . The ironpan which occurs between 19 and 25 ins in the p r o f i l e is the s i g n i f i c a n t genet ic feature of th i s pedon. The formation of pan is often a t t r ibu ted to a l i t h o l o g i c a l d i s con t inu i t y resu l t ing in the p r e c i p i t a t i o n of i r on , s i l i c a and organic matter at the textural i n t e r -face . A l i t h o l o g i c a l d i s con t inu i t y is present in the p r o f i l e although the pan occurs below the inter face instead, as i t would be expected, above i t . The evidence is not conc lus ive to accept the l i t h o l o g i c a l d i s con t i nu i t y as the sole source for pan format ion; furthermore, the ironpan formation was a l so observed in s o i l s without th is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c in the area. The hypothesis that the pan formation in the p r o f i l e takes place at the maximum reach of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n that ca r r i e s down the chemical in the process of perco la t ing downward is not app l i cab le to the pans of the area since the depth of the pans from the so i l surface vary from 3 i to k f t . Moreover, th is hypothesis is more app l i cab le to high base saturated s o i l s where the downward movement of the bases resu l t in the formation of c a l i c h e , accumulation of a secondary calcareous mate r i a l . 137 Vegetation is another fac tor re lated to pan formation and a c lose r e l a t i on between the pan formation and ce r ta in plant species has been observed. In Scot land, pan formation is often found under heather cover and th i s species is considered to be a pan promoting plant by some workers. However, there is no d e f i n i t e evidence i f heather causes pan format ion, or on the cont rary , the existence of the pan provides the condi t ions su i t ab le to the establishment of heather. Very l i t t l e is known about the' pan promoting plants in B r i t i s h Columbia and no assoc ia t ion is noted between pan formation and any pa r t i cu l a r plant species in the area. However, i t was f e l t that Douglas f i r was not pan inducing. Both Gl inka (1931) and Jo f fe (1936) made deta i led reviews of the work re lated to pan formation. In both reviews, the pan formation appears as a resu l t of the internal so i l fac tors rather than a forma-t ion induced by the external fac tors such as vegetat ion. The pans of the area are probably formed under r e s t r i c t ed and/or poor drainage condi t ions where a f l uc tua t ing water table e x i s t s . Pans have been observed in s o i l s with the above drainage condi t ions in the area. The Hart pedon is present ly well drained and i t is probable that pan formation took place when th is pedon was poorly or r e s t r i c t i v e l y drained fo l lowing the ice re t rea t . Furthermore, the existence of more than one pan in some s o i l s can only be explained with the ret reat ing water table corresponding to the lowering of the sea l e v e l . The Hart pedon is c l a s s i f i e d as an Or ts te in Podzol and i ts development s ince the retreat of the ice is presented as fol lows (hypothet i ca1) : 138 Hor i zon Subgroup Ahj , Ckg , Cz Cry ic Rego Gleysol Ah, Cgk Rego Humic Gleysol Ah, Bgm, Cgk Humic Gleysol Ah, A e j , B t j , Bmg, Cgk Gleyed Degraded Brown Forest Ahe, Bf, B t j , Cg Acid Brown Forest Ae, Bf, B f c j , Cg Acid Brown Wooded Ae, Bf, B fc , Cg Orth ic Or ts te in Podzol Ae, Bf, B fc , C Orth ic Or ts te in Podzol The s i gn i f i c ance of pans in tree growth should be emphasized. When the pan is c lose to the surface ( less than 2 f t ) , i t r e s t r i c t s root growth causing stagnation at ear ly ages. However, on the other hand, in very coarse s o i l s such as the Hart pedon, i t retards the v e r t i c a l movements of water and nutr ients resu l t ing in a better water and nutr ient regime for p l an ts . The e f f ec t of the pan in r e l a t i on to the Douglas f i r growth w i l l be presented la ter under Soi l and forest growth. i i . Senton pedon: This pedon has developed on the g rave l l y and sandy member of the g l ac io f1uv i a 1 mater i a l s . It was estab l ished on the southern part of the outwash te r race , approximately a mile west of Elk F a l l s . The land slopes very gent ly {]%) toward the south and southwest. The area was planted in 19^1 with 1-0 Douglas f i r . The s i t e was c l a s s i f i e d as a Gaul ther ia (Salal ) S i te Type (Spi lsbury and Smith, 19^7). A l i s t of vegetat ion which was observed within a 100-foot radius around the so i l p i t is presented as fo l l ows : 139 Trees Frequency Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) 5 Broadleaf maple (Acer macrophy Hum) 1 Shrubs Salal (Gaultheria shallon) 5 Oregon grape (Mahonia nervosa) 4 Red huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium) 4 Black raspberry (Rubus leucodermis) 3 Willow (Salix s p p j 2 Wild rose (Rosa spp. j 2 Herbs Van i l l a leaf (Archlys t r i p h y l l a ) 1 Ferns Bracken (Pteridium aguilimwn) 5 The p r o f i l e is well developed and unl ike the Hart , th is pedon does not contain an ironpan. A summary of the morphological cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the pedon are as fo l lows : L-H 1 to 0 inch, very dark brown (10YR 2/2); needles, leaves and twigs. The H layer is well decomposed. Ae Not cont inuous; found often under decaying logs. Thickness is less than 1/4 inch. 1. rare , 2. seldom, 3. few, 4. f requent , 5. abundant and dominant 140 Bf] 0 to 2 inches, dark brown (7-5YR 4/4), loamy sand, brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) when moist; weak f i n e subangular blocky s t r u c t u r e ; f r i a b l e , non-sticky, n o n - p l a s t i c ; roots p l e n t i f u l , gradual i r r e g u l a r boundary. Bf2 2 to 7 inches, y e l l o w i s h brown (10YR 5/6) loamy sand, weak medium subangular blocky in s t r u c t u r e ; f r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c ; s l i g h t l y com-pacted in places; many roo t s ; gradual wavy boundary. Bf} 7 to 15 inches, y e l l o w i s h brown (10YR 5/6) sand, l i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown when moist; s i n g l e g r a i n , compacted in l o c a t i o n s ; some r o o t s , gradual wavy boundary. BC 15 to 30 inches, o l i v e brown (2.5Y 4/4) sand, pale brown (10YR 6/3) when moist; loose s i n g l e g r a i n ; few r o o t s , d'iffuse i r r e g u l a r boundary. C 30 to 51 inches, o l i v e brown (2.5Y 4/4), sand, pale brown (10YR 6/3) when moist; loose sand, no roots. This pedon is one of the s o i l s where stoniness and bulk density determinations were undertaken in the f i e l d (see methods). The r e s u l t s are presented in Table 36. The increase in the bulk d e n s i t y from the surface to the lower layers corresponds to an increase in compaction as r e f l e c t e d by the t o t a l p o r o s i t y which decreases from 53-59% at the sur-face to the 31-19% at the lower most layer (40-48"). No p a r t i c l e s l a r g e r than 1 in occur in the surface l a y e r . The p a r t i c l e between 1 in and 2 mm increase with depth, whereas the p a r t i c l e s less than 2 mm decreases. P a r t i c l e s l a r g e r than 3 ins do not»occur in T a b l e 36. Coarse s k e l e t o n , b u l k d e n s i t y and t o t a l p o r o s i t y at t h r e e depths i n the Senton pedon (mean of t h r e e s e p a r a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s ) DEPTH i nches PARTICLE SIZE mm* WEIGHT VOLUME BULK DENSITY gms/cc TOTAL POROSITY % p e r c e n t m i n max mean m i n max mean 0-7 >76.2 - - - - - -1 .23 53.59 - _ _ _ 25.4-2 1.9 2.0 1.9 1.0 1.2 1 . 1 95.0 95.8 95.4 - - 94.7 r o o t s 2.2 3.1 2.7 3.7 4.7 4.2 15-24 >76.2 - - - - - -1 .82 31.33 2.8 4.2 3.5 2.0 2.5 2.3 25.4-2 19 .8 23.3 21 .6 12.9 16 .3 14 .6 73.5.. 76.1 74.8 - - 82.9 r o o t s .0 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 3 .2 40-48 >76.2 - - - - - -1.85 30.19 3.7 6.9 5.3 2.5 4.4 3.5 25.4-2 18.5 28.6 23.6.. 13 .8 20.0 16 .9 65.0 77.0 71 .0 - - 79.4 r o o t s . 1 . 1 . 1 .2 .2 .2 * 25.4 mm = 1" o b t a i n e d by s u b t r a c t i o n 142 the p r o f i l e . The amount of roots sharply decreases with depth. In the lowermost layer (40-48M), roots were observed in only one of the three pi ts es tab l i shed. The amount of sand (2-.05 mm) is high in the p r o f i l e and increases with depth cons t i tu t ing 95% of the so i l in the horizon (Table 37). Clay content shows a sharp decrease in the BC and C^  horizons and a decrease in s i l t content is evident with depth. The pH of the so i l var ies between 5 and 6 and increases with depth (Table 3 8 ) . There is a sudden decrease in the C/N r a t i o in the BC and C^  hor izons. The Ca+Mg values are rather low and there is a decrease with depth. The P content of the Bf^ horizon is somewhat lower than that of the other hor izons. In respect to the micronutr ients B, Zn and Ni contents decrease with depth whereas an increase is noted in Cu va lues. The Fe and Mg values are higher at the surface layer than at the lower hor izons. Lead occurs only in the L-H hor izon. Ch lo r i t e is the main c lay mineral (Table 39). Vermicu l i te a lso occurs in the Bf hor izon. 1 The moisture release curves of the horizons are presented in Figure 15- Except for the Bf , the curves show s imi l a r trends and are 2 more or less pa ra l l e l to each other . The ava i l ab l e water values ( ins/ft ) decreases with depth probably as a resu l t of the decreases both in the c l a y , s i l t and 0M contents in the lower hor izons. Because of the sandy nature of th is p r o f i l e , the ava i l ab l e water ca l cu la ted from .1 and 15 bar values might provide a better est imat ion of the f i e l d condi t ion than i f i t would be ca lcu la ted from the . 3 and 15 bars retent ions values (Table 40). Table 37- P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Senton pedon (percent by weight) HOR. DEPTH i nches Bf 1 0-2 B f 2 2-7 B f3 7-15 BC 15-30 C l 30-51 SAND v . c o . | co. I med. | f ine j v . f i tota SILT tota l CLAY  co. | f i ne to ta ' mi l l imeters 2-1 1-.5 .5-.25 .25-.10 .10-.05 2-.05 11.0 28.5 18.7 21.4 3.5 83.1 11.6 28.5 18.6 21.8 3.4 83.9 8.0 33.3 25.8 25.2 1 .0 93.3 23.1 53.6 12.3 4.6 .8 94.4 38.0 36.2 11 .0 9.7 • 9 95.8 .05-.002 10.4 11.5 3.3 5.1 3.9 .002-.0002 < .0002 < .002 1 . 1 5.4 6.5 0.0 4.6 4.6 0.0 3.4 3.4 0.0 .5 .5 0.0 • 3 .3 TEXTURAL CLASS Loamy sand Loamy sand Sand Sand Sand Table 38. Selected chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Senton pedon HOR. DEPTH i nches PH MACRONUTRIENTS MlCR0NUTRIENTS OM N C/N Na K % Al P B Co Mo Cu Zn Pb Mn Ni Fe Mg percent rat io me / 100 q. p.p.m. percent L-H 1-0 5.62 41 .40 .612 39.21 .65 2.25 18.69 12.50 ND 24 96 16 40 Bf 1 0-2 6.13 1 .38 .050 16.00 . 1 1 0.20 0.76 13.40 18 20 ND 32 61 ND 680 20 5.2 • 93 B f 2 2-7 5.43 1 .24 .050 14.40 .22 0.17 0.59 17.85 ND 22 59 ND 16 B f 3 7-15 6.3C 1 .30 .042 17.86 .22 0.14 0.49 8.35 16 20 ND 36 48 ND 490 18 4.7 • 92 BC 15-30 5.97 0.28 .028 5.72 .22 0.16 0.36 13.70 ND 50 42 ND 18 Cl 30-51 6.0C 0.46 .028 9.64 .19 0.12 0.30 18.80 14 20 ND 60 40 ND 590 18 5.1 .90 ND = not detectable CO o ^1 VO — t CO X-RAY NO. o •0 - h Oo CO - h HORIZON OO o 1 U o --~J 1 v n o 1 t o 9- DEPTH CD in N> 1 v n o t o i t o A t o t o I v n o t o t o A t o t o 1 v n o t o t o A t o CO TO — > m - | t o 1 t o Relative quantities-MIXED LAYERS Relative quantities-MONTMOR|L-LONITE t o Relative quantities-CHLORITE t o Relative quantities-VERMICU-LITE • o Relative quantities-ILLITE Relative quantities-KAOLINITE t o t o t o Relative quantities-AMPHIBOLES t o — t o t o o o t o Relative quantities-QUARTZ — t o — - c - o o JO Relative quantities-FELDSPAR i 11 -ver-chl chl-i11-ver i11-ver-chl NATURE OF MIXED LAYERS 146 3 0 2 0 -I 0 -Bf i Bf 2 Bf 3 B C C i tr-r 1.3 .9 i 5.0 T E N S I O N IN B A R S 15.0 Figure 15- Moisture re lease curves for d i f f e r en t horizons in the Senton pedon (moisture, percent by weight) Table 40, Ava i l ab le water for the Senton pedon HOR. DEPTH i n c h e s BULK DENSITY qms/cc COARSE SKELETON (>2mm) • percent AVAILABLE WATER pe rcent AVAILABLE WATER i nches/foot .l->5 bars Pw Pv 3-15 bars I before correction j after correction Pw PV .1-15 ! 1-15 J o Bf, 3f. Bf{ BC" C, 0 - 2 2-7 7-15 15-30 30-51 1.23 1 .82 1.85 4.5 25.5 30.8 6.29 5.16 3.40 1.87 1 P,7 7.74 6.35 6.19 3.40 3.46 4.46 3.61 • 92 .85 . 53 5-49 4.44 K 6 7 1 .55 QP, 76 -7 ! , . I" , 4} .ko 66 13 12 82 73 71 • 30 | ; i ! { ) i ; i total t for so lum (inches) j j l.*7 ! • 70 T • 1.30 | .63 ; Pw = percent by weight, Pv = percent by volume. 148 Genesis and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : The geomorphic h is tory of the land is s im i l a r to that of the Hart pedon. Consequently, i t may be assumed • that both pedons have passed through s im i l a r stages, although the end products are somewhat d i f f e r e n t . The present pedon does not show any ironpan which is found in the Hart pedon, although some compacted sect ions occur . Probably, the processes which resulted in the ironpan took place in both s o i l s but the end resu l t may have been expressed much more in the Hart pedon. The major d i f fe rences between the Senton and Hart pedons are that the l a t t e r contains cobbles and shows a l i t h o -log i ca l d i s con t inu i t y (see Hart pedon). It is not bel ieved that the cobbles and stones which are present in the Hart pedon are involved in pan development. The pan observed in the Hart pedon is thought to have been developed during the ear ly stages of the so i l formation when the so i l had poor or r e s t r i c t ed drainage cond i t ions . It may be hypothesised that the pans that were developed under poor drainage condi t ions started degrading as soon as the drainage condi t ions improved. The degradation was slow s ince the processes resu l t ing in the formation of pan are not genera l l y revers ib le although some combination of the state fac tors (Px) may have caused the slow r e v e r s i b i l i t y of some of the pro-cesses. Consequently, the pan in the Senton pedon which has almost d i s -appeared may represent a more advanced stage of degradation than that of the Hart pedon. The suggested sequence of p r o f i l e development that has occurred since the ice retreat resu l t ing in the present Senton pedon is given in Figure 16. The lack of a good Ae horizon in the present pedon may be a t t r ibu ted to churning. The present Senton pedon is c l a s s i f i e d as a Degraded Acid Brown Wooded. 149 Lote- glacial 1 Postglocial 10 Millenio BP. 1 H ypsithermal Interval Wil low — Alder ) Lodgepole Pine Sp ruce — W. Hemlock Mtn. Hemlock — Fir Douglas F i r ' Douglas Fir W. He mlock — Sprue e D. fir »ors) ice -*-S warn p D. Fir - W. W. Pine W. Hemlock Mtn Hemlock -F i r •o >. a> | o Lodge pole Pine / A 1 der Alder A 1 der A ] d r. Lodgepole Pine - W While Pine 57 Ckg C z Ckg C gk Bgm Cgk O CD L-H Btj Bmg Cgk (a) Forest succession (after Heusser, I960) TD TJ ._ V U T3 < O O T. * ! i O CD Cgk Bf A e (b) Soil profile development (c) Variation in pe rmaf ros t , water table , and C a C 0 3 layer as results of ice retreat, weathering , and rebounding of land Figure 16. Hypothet ical s o i l p r o f i l e sequences r esu l t i ng in the present Senton pedon as a resu l t of geomorphic events, fo res t succession and pedogenic processes s ince the last g l a c i a t i on 150 c. So i l s developed on g l a c i a l t i l l s i. Gosl ing pedon: The Gosl ing pedon has been developed on a vo lcan ic-r ich t i l l under la in by the Vancouver vo l can i c s . The pedon was estab l ished approximately a mile southwest of Gosl ing Lake along the Gosling Lake -Boot Lake road. The land shows a northwesterly aspect with a 12% s lope. The tree cover is p r imar i l y Douglas f i r (planted in 19^7) with a few cedar and hemlock. The s i t e was c l a s s i f i e d as a Gaulther ia (Salal) S i te Type (Spi1sbury and Smith, 19^7)• A l i s t of vegetat ion which was observed within a 100-foot radius around the so i l p i t is presented below: Trees Frequency Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) 5 Cedar (Thuja plicata) 2 Hemlock • (Tsuga heterophylla) 1 Alder (Alnus rubra) 1 Shrubs Sa la l (Gaultheria shallon) 5 Willow (Salix spp.J k Red huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium) 2 Herbs V a n i l l a leaf (Achlys triphylla) 3 Ferns Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) h Sword fern (Polystichum munitum) 1 1. rare , 2. seldom, 3. few, h. f requent , 5. abundant and cominant 151 The solum is shallow with a well developed Bf hor izon. A b r i e f summary of the cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the pedon is presented below: L-H 1 1/2 to 0 inches, dark brown (10YR 3/3), pr imar i l y of needles, twigs, leaves and bark. The H layer is moderately well decomposed. Ae Incipient and d iscont inuous; thickness is less than one-half inch, sandy loam in texture. Bf 0 to 1 inch, strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) loam, weak medium subangular block in s t ruc tu re ; f r i a b l e s l i g h t l y s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c ; roots p l e n t i f u l , gradual d i f f u se boundary. B f 2 1 to 6 inches, strong brown (7-5YR 5/6) sandy loam, weak coarse subangular blocky in s t ruc tu re ; f r i a b l e , non-st icky, non-p l a s t i c ; many roots , gradual wavy boundary. Bf 6 to 18 inches, l igh t ye l lowish brown (10YR 6/4) sandy loam, very weak subangular blocky to s ing le gra in s t ruc tu re ; non-st icky, non-p las t i c ; roots common, abrupt wavy boundary. BC 18 to 24 inches, l igh t ye l lowish brown (2.5Y b/k) sandy loam, s ing le gra in s t ruc tu re ; s l i g h t l y compacted, some roots ; abrupt wavy boundary. Cj 2k to 42 inches, l i gh t ye l lowish gray (5Y 6/2) sandy loam, massive, extremely f i rm ; no roots . The pedon is moderately stony and cobbly. Occasional cobbles were observed on the soil- sur face . The coarse skeleton const i tu tes more than 50% of the solum (Table 41). The B f 2 and Bf^ horizons appear coarser than both the horizons above and below. The C, horizon does Table 41 . Coarse skeleton and bulk densi ty s t a t i s t i c s for the Gosling pedon HOR. DEPTH i nches PARTICLE SIZE m i11 i meters BULK DENSITY gms/cc >76.2 76.2-25.4 25.4-2 <2 Percent by weight Bf, 0-1 5.4 49.6 45.0 8 f 2 1-6 13.0 45.2 41.8 1.55 B f3 6-18 12.6 46 . 9 40.5 BC 18-24 4.7 56.8 38.5 1 .61 C l 24-42 33.1 6 6 . 9 153 not" contain any p a r t i c l e s larger than 1 in. The Bf| horizon has a loam texture which is f i n e r than the texture of the other horizons (Table 42). The f i n e texture of the surface is probably the result of the movement of the f i n e materials from higher ground. The amount of sand increases with depth and the C, horizon contains the largest amount of sand in the pedon. The lowest amount of clay also occurs in t h i s horizon. The chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Gosling pedon are presented in Table 43. This is the most a c i d i c s o i l encountered in the area. Be-cause of the low pH (less than 5) of the horizons Al determinations were carried out for a l l horizons. The decreasing Al values become constant below the depth of 6 ins. The base saturation of the solum is less than 100. In this respect, the Senton pedon d i f f e r s from a l l other studied pedons. The Na and K values are rather constant within the p r o f i l e . The Ca+Mg and P values show va r i a t i o n s among the horizons. It is interesting to note that a l l horizons contain Pb which is somewhat unusual in the area, since, in general, Pb occurs in the L-H layer or topmost horizons. Copper shows an increasing trend with depth. No Mo was detected in the s o i l . Studies on clay mineralogy and degree of stoniness were not undertaken for the pedon. The moisture release curves of the horizons are presented in Figure 17. The a v a i l a b l e water is s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced when the correction for the coarse skeleton is undertaken (Table 44). Genesis and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : Unlike the lowland s o i l s (Memekay, Hart and Senton) the Gosling pedon l i k e l y did not have a poorly drained Table 42. Pa r t i c l e s i ze d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Gosl ing pedon (percent by weight) HOR. DEPTH i nches Bf , 0-1 Bf 2 1-6 Bf 3 6-18 BC 18-24 C l 24-42 V . C O . SAND co. Imed. | f ine v . f i . tota l SILT tota l CLAY co. f i ne |tota mi l l imeters 2-1 1-.5 'is .10-.05 2-.05 10.3 7.4 3.7 15-5 11.0 47-9 14.8 9-1 3.6 16.2 10.5 54.2 16.8 10.0 3.9 17.0 9.9 57.6 14.1 12.0 4.6 20.9 9-7 61.3 11.7 10.3 4.6 20.3 13-5 60.4 .05-.002 39.2 35.0 33.0 27.6 33-3 .002-.0002 .0002 .002 6.1 6.8 12.9 3-2 7-6 10.8 2.2 7.2 9.4 3-4 7-7 11.1 2.6 3-7 6.3 TEXTURAL CLASS Loam Sandy loam Sandy 1 oam Sandy loam Sandy 1 oam -E-Table 43. Selected chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Gosling pedon HOR. DEPTH i nches pH MACRONUTR1ENTS MlCR0NUTRIENTS 0M N C/N Na K Ca+ Mg Al P Mo Cu Zn Pb percent rat io me / 100 g. p.p.m. L-H 1 1/2-0 3.8C 4 1 .56 .297 81.18 .26 .61 12.15 3.64 18.56 ND 25 76 4.4 Bf 1 0-1 4 . 6 ' 2.21 .048 26.67 • 09 .10 2.58 •23 4.07 ND 15 46 <.8 B f 2 1-6 4 . 8 / 1 -73 .043 23.25 .08 .08 1 .64 .08 1 .71 ND 26 38 < . 4 B f 3 6-18 5.15 1 .91 .079 13.92 .12 .12 2.25 3.79 ND 45 54 <.k BC 18-24 5.3c 1 . 4 2 .038 21 .58 .10 .10 3-09 6.92 ND 3? 46 < . 4 Cl 2 4 - 4 2 5.51 .08 .005 10.00 .10 .10 1 .53 25.97 ND 39 36 ND = not detectable Bf 2 Bf 3 B C C i .0 T E N S I O N IN B A R S Figure 17. Moisture release curves for d i f f e r en t the Gosl ing pedon (moisture, percent horizons in by weight) T a b l e 44. A v a i l a b l e w a t e r In t h e G o s l i n g pedon HOR. DEPTH , BULK DENSITY COARSE SKELETON AVAILABLE WATER percent AVAILABLE WATER inches/foot (>2mm) percent .1-15 ba rs .3-15 bars before co r r e c t i on a f t e r cor rec t ion . . i nches qms/cc Pw Pv Pw Pv .1-15 • 3-15 .1-15 .3-15 Bf] 0-1 :• 55.0 19.46 30.16 12.02 18.63 3.62 2.24 1,69 1 .01 Bf2 1-6 1 - 55 58.2 17.84 27.65 9.03 14.00 3-32 1.68 1.39 .70 B f 3 6-18 59.5 19.33 29.96 10.67 16.54 3-59 .1.98 1.45 .80 BC 18-24 1.61 61.6 18.74 30.17 12.65 20.37 3.62 2.44 1 .39 .92 C l 2 4 - 4 2 33.1 Tota l for solum ( inches) 7.03 4.09 2.87 1.63 Pw = p e r c e n t by w e i g h t , Pv = p e r c e n t by v o l u m e . stage in i ts development since i t is s i tuated on an upland. The water table was not a f fec ted by the lowering of the sea level fo l lowing the Ice Age. Following the retreat of the i ce , the so i l forming processes started operat ing on a well drained material inf luenced pr imar i l y by c l imate which a lso cont ro l l ed the plant success ion. The development of th is pedon probably followed a Regoso l i c-Brun iso l i c sequence. With the present c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the Gosl ing pedon is c l a s s i f i e d as a Degraded Acid Brown Wooded. The fo l lowing development stages (hypothetical ) are suggested for the Gosl ing pedon since the retreat of the i ce : Horizon Ah j , Cz L-H, Ah, Ck L-H, Ah, Bm, Cca L-H, Ah, Ae j , Bm, B t j , Ccaj L-H, Ah j , Ae, Bfj , Btj , C L-H, Ae, Bf, C Subgroup Cry ic Regosol Orth ic Regosal Or th ic Brown Forest Degraded Brown Forest Degraded Brown Wooded Degraded Acid Brown Wooded The present inc ip i en t and discontinuous nature of Ae is the resul t of churning which is a common process to the area. i i . Quinsam pedon: This pedon has developed on a sandstone-rich t i l l under la in by the Cretaceous Sandstone. The pedon was estab l i shed approx-imately a mile west of Echo Lake.(Camp #8) along the Gold River road. . The land has a north-westerly aspect with a 5 to 6% s lope. The area was planted in 1947 with 1-0 Douglas f i r . The, s i te^wa s^* "'• c l a s s i f i e d as a Gaul ther ia (Salal ) S i te Type (Spi 1 sbury arvcT 5m-i th , 1947). A l i s t of plant species that were observe'd within a TOO-foot radius around the so i l p i t is presented below: Trees Frequency^ Cedar (Thuja pliaata) h Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii) k Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) 2 Shrubs Salal (Gaultheria shallon) 5 Twin flowers (Linnaea borealis) 5 Red huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium) 5 T r a i l i n g blackberry (Rubus v i t i f o l i u s ) 3 Wild rose (Rosa spp.J 3 Willow (Salix spp. j 3 Oregon grape (Mahonia nervosa) 2 Red flower currant (Ribes sanquineum) 2 Herbs V a n i l l a leaf (Achlys t r i p h y l l a ) 5 Bunch berry (Cornus canadensis) 5 Pearly eve r l as t ing (Anaphalis margaritacea) 3 Star flower ( T r i e n t a l i s l a t i f o l i a ) 2 Ferns Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum). 1 The so i l is well developed. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the pedon are the existence of an e luv i a l horizon and concret ions found in the. upper most • - . . . . # 2 3 l . ra re , 2. seldom*, 3. few, h. f requent , 5. abun<4arit.' and^ dominant 160 hor izons. A summary of the morphological cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the pedon is given below: L-H 2 to 0 inches, dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2), p r imar i l y needles, twigs, leaves and bark. The H layer is moderately well decomposed. Ae 0 to 2 inches, reddish gray (5YR 5/2) sandy loam, p ink ish gray (7-5YR 6/2) when dry ; s ing le gra in in s t ruc tu re ; abrupt, i r regu la r boundary. Bfcc] 2 to 4 inches, ye l lowish red (5YR 4/6) sandy loam, brown (7-5YR 5/4) when dry ; moderate medium subangular blocky in s t ruc tu re ; many concre t ions , roots p l e n t i f u l ; gradient d i f f u se boundary. Bfcc2 4 to 6 inches*, ye l lowish red (5YR 4/4) sandy • loam, brown (7-5YR 5/4) when dry ; weak coarse subangular blocky in s t ruc tu re ; non-st icky, non-p las t i c ; some concre t ions , many roots ; c l ea r wavy boundary. Bfi 6 to 12 inches, strong brown (7-5YR 5/6) sandy loam, reddish yellow (7-5YR 6/6) when 'dry, weak coarse subangular blocky in s t ruc tu re ; non-st icky, ••non-plast ic ; roots common, gradual wavy boundary. B f 2 12 to 19 inches, dark ye l lowish brown (10YR 4/4) sandy loam, pale brown (10YR 6/3) when dry ; weak coarse subangular blocky in s t ruc tu re ; e non-st icky, non-p las t i c ; some roots;;, c l ea r wavy boundary. -161 BC 19 to 26 inches, dark brown (10YR 4/3) sandy loam, pale brown (10YR 6/3) when dry ; moderate subangular blocky in s t ruc tu re ; moderately compacted; root mat at BC/C in te r face , abrupt wavy boundary. C] 26 to 31 inches, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) sandy loam, l igh t brownish gray (10YR 6/2) when dry ; massive, extremely f i r m , no roots . The so i l contains a few boulders ( >10 ins ) . The bulk densi ty and stoniness determinations were a l so undertaken in th is pedon (see methods) Because of the massive s t ructure of the C horizon the determinations were l imited to the solum (Table 4 5 ) . The surface layer is more cobbly than the layer under i t , although the l a t t e r has a larger amount of p a r t i c l e s of 2 5 . 4 - 2 mm in s i z e . The bulk density increases with depth. The percent p a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n is presented in Table 46. There is a c lay increase in the Bfccj and Bfcc2 hor izons. The Bfcc] oh horizon comes very c lose to being a Bt hor izon. A s l i g h t l y sandier layer occurs a foot below the surface ( B f i ) . The c lay contents of the Bf] and Bf2 horizons are 3~5% lower than the other hor izons. The pH of the pedon var ies between 5 and 6 except for that of the Ae horizon which is 4 . 7 6 (Table 47). . Both the OM and N decrease with depth although the C/'N ra t ios of the BC and C] horizons are higher than that of the horizons "above them. This is probably d-ue to the root ac-cumulation (root ra.at) which was observed at the BC/C in te r face . The Na, 2^"|f any part of f ^e ' e l uv i a l horizon has. less tha/i T5 percent tota l c lay in the f i ne earth f r a c t i o n , the Bt horizon .must; contain at least 3 percent more c l a y " -(National Soi l Survey Committee, 1965).* -Table 45. Coarse ske leton, bulk density and tota l poros i ty at two depths in the Quinsam pedon (mean of three separate determinations) Pa r t i c l e WEIGHT VOLUME Bui k Total Depth S i ze percent Dens i ty Poros i ty i nches mm* min max mean m i n max mean gms/cc % >76.2 4.1 23.0 13.6 2.6 12.5 7.6 76.2-25.4 6.2 12.3 9-3 3.4 7.1 5.1 2-9 25.4-2 34.2 38.2 36.2 28.5 33.1 30 .8 1.54 41.89 < 2 36.1 44.7 40.4 - - 55.5 roots .4 .6 .5 .8 1.2 1.0 >76.2 0.0 8.0 4.0 0.0 5.7 2.9 76.2-25.4 4.1 10.1 7.1 2.8 5.9 4.4 16-24 25.4-2 41.1 53.7 47.4 34.9 42.7 38.8 1 .61 < 2 38.7 44.1 41.4 - - 53-7 roots . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 • 3 .2 39-25 * 25.4 mm = 1" obtained by subtract ion Table 46. P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Quinsam pedon (percent by weight) HOR. DEPTH i nches Ae 0-2 Bf cc , 2-4 B f c c 2 4-6 B f l 6-12 Bf 2 12-19 BC 19-26 C l 26-31 SAND v . co . | co. | med.| f ine | v . f i . |tota1 SILT co. | med . If i ne I total ' mi l l imeters 2-1 1-.5 .5-.25 .25-.10 .10-.05 2-.05 3.6 14.4 7.6 28.1 13.3 67.0 3.9 13.8 7.7 26.7 11.8 63.9 7.0 20.3 11.1 30.4 8.9 77.7 6.9 19.4 10.8 34.1 9.0 80.2 5.4 14.6 9-0 34.1 12.4 75.5 3.4 11.1 6.7 29-9 14.2 65.3 3.9 11.2 7.5 29-3 12.7 64.6 .05-.02 .02-.005 .005-.002 .05-.002 .9 17.6 2.9 21 .4 7.1 13.7 1 .7 22.5 5.1 2.4 2.4 9-9 1.6 7.1 2.3 11.0 8.7 0.0 8.1 16.8 10.0 0.0 12.9 22.9 9.1 10.6 4.0 23.7 CLAY co. Ifine Itotal FEXTURAL CLASS .002-.000? < .000? < .00? 7.0 4.6 11.6 5.8 7.8 13.6 7.5 4.9 12.4 7.5 1.3 8.8 2.2 5.5 7.7 6.0 5.8 11.8 9.9 1.8 11.7 Sandy 1 oam Sandy loam Sandy 1 oam Loamy sand Loamy sand Sandy 1 oam Sandy 1 oam ON 0 0 Table 47. Selected chemical cha rac t e r i s t i c s of the Quinsam pedon HOR. DEPTH i nches pH MACRONUTR1ENTS M1 CR0NUTR1ENTS 0M N C/N Na K Ca+ Mg Al P B Co Mo Cu Zn Pb Mn Ni Fe Mg percent rat io me / 100 g. p.p.m. percent L-H 2-0 5.10 52.2C .470 64.43 • 55 1.65 5.02 19.65 Ae 0-2 4.76 1.9] .042 26.66 .23 .17 2.61 4.44 5.58 20 10 <.4 32 19 1.2 380 2.7 .33 •Bfcc \ 2-4 5.10 1 .66 .042 22.86 . 11 .10 1.52 4.00 17 15 ND 1 1 28 ND 380 10 3.8 • 37 Bf c c 2 4-6 5.40 1 .6i .039 24.61 • '9. .10 1 .46 8.05 ND 16 30 ND 12 Bf 1 6-12 5 .48 1.1; .028 23-57 .18 .08 1.18 9.00 ND 19 24 ND 15 B f 2 12-19 5.10 }.0i .026 24.23 .24 .10 1.80 15-30 ND 20 23 ND 12 BC 19-26 5.60 0.61 .011 31 .82 .25 .14 6.60 10.05 ND 20 33 <.4 16 Cl 26-31 5-90 0.61 .011 31 .82 .19 .12 8.19 9.25 18 15 ND 16 27 ND 540 12 3-7 • 70 .." ND-= not detectable 1&5 K and Ca+Mg values decrease at the middle of the pedon and increase again in the lower hor izons. This pattern is very s im i l a r to the behavior of the s i l t and c lay p a r t i c l e s (Table 4 6 ) . There is an i n -crease in P content with depth and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Ca+Mg, K and C/N present a considerable l ikeness . The Na-K and N-OM pairs a lso show s im i l a r pat terns . The Ae. horizon has the highest B (20 ppm) content but the lowest Co and Cu va lues. The percent Fe of the Bfcc^ horizon is higher than that of the Ae horizon although the d i f fe rence between the Fe contents of the BfcCj and C^  horizons is very smal l . The Mg and Mn values i n -crease with depth. This is the only pedon which contains montmori11 oni te and kao l i n i t e types of c lay (Table 48). It is in te res t ing to note that in the Bfcc^ horizon c h l o r i t e takes the place of montmori1 Ionite probably due to ch1 o r i t i z a t i o n (Clark et al., 1962). I 11ite appears to-be associated with c h l o r i t e s ince i t occurs only' in the Bfcc^ hor izon. Vermicul i te and kao l i n i t e are found in a l l hor izons. The moisture release curves are presented in Figure 18. The curves corresponding to the Bfcc^ , BC and C^  horizons show s i m i l a r i t i e s and appear to be separated from the rest of the hor izons. These three horizons contain s im i l a r amounts of s i l t and sand which may a f fec t the shape of the i r release curves. The ava i l ab le water values ( ins/f t ) are considerably reduced when the cor rec t ions for the stoniness and coarse skeleton are made (Table 4 9 ) . The ava i l ab le water content of the horizons decrease with depth in the pedon although some increase takes place in the BC and C^  hor izons . ro ON o CO - h o o > CD ro cr\ i U J ro i -tr-O 1 ro N> u i O NJ i ro A ro i o 1 U l o to i ro A ro ro i U l o ro i ro A ro — ro ro ro U J ro ro ro ro i U J ro i U J ro ro i U J ro U J — ro i U J ro ro ro ro — ro i ro — — ro I U J ro — — ro ro ro U J U J U J i -c- ro U J ro U J i -C-ro ro ro i U J ro i U J ro i U J ro ro ro i U J ro -C-to i U J -t-U J i .c-ro i U J ro i U J -C-ro U J .c- U J i11-ver-mon ver-chl < CD -> t X-RAY NO. HORIZON CO T J — > M za m —| MIXED LAYERS MONTMORIL-LONITE CHLORITE VERMICU-LITE ILLITE KAOLINITE AMPHIBOLES QUARTZ FELDSPAR > 3 > -< — o — i m x -ri cr za m za oo CT m 167 0 .1.3 .9 5.0 15.0 TENSION IN BARS Figure 18. Moisture release curves for d i f f e r en t horizons in the Quinsam pedon (moisture, percent by weight) Table 49. Ava i l ab l e water in the Quinsam pedon BULK COARSE AVAILABLE WATER AVAILABLE WATER HOR. DEPTH DENSITY SKELETON percent inches/foot .(>2mm) .1-15 bars .3-15 ba rs before co r r e c t i on a f t e r co r r e c t i on i nches gms/cc percent Pw Pv Pw Pv • 1-15 • 3-15 .1-15 .3-15 Ae 0-2 1 .48 1 9 . 1 5 28.34 9-43 13 . 9 6 3 .40 1 . 68 1 .38 .68 Bfccj 2-4 5 9 . 4 16 .05 23 .75 8 . 3 0 1 2 . 2 8 2 .85 1.47 1.17 .61 B f c c 2 4-6 1.54 9.73 14.98 4 . 3 9 6.76 . 1 . 80 .81 .73 .33 Bf, 6-12 8.39 12 .92 3 .28 5 .05 1 .55 .61 .63 .25 B f 2 12-19 1.56 9.24 14.41 • 3-52 5 .49 1.73 .66 .72 .27 BC 19-26 1.61 5 9 . 0 1 0 . 4 6 1 6 . 8 4 6 .24 10 .05 2 .02 1.21 . 3 4 ' .50 Cl 26-31 2 .'1 2 8.30 17 .60 ^.13 8 .75 2.11 1 .05 .87 .44 • • Tota l for solum (inches) 4.31 2 . 03 1.81 .85 Pw = percent by weight , Pv = percent by volume 169 The concret ions , in add i t ion to the clay mineralogy and the well developed Ae hor izon , are the p r i nc ipa l cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Quinsam pedon. As in the Memekay pedon, a study was undertaken on the d i s t r i b u -t ion pattern of the less than 2 mm pa r t i c l e s as a f fec ted by the concre-t ions . On four se l e c t i ve horizons (BfcCj , B f ^, 3f^ and C,)> the par-t i c l e s i z e analyses were undertaken before and a f ter the free iron removal (Table 50). The tota l c lay increases considerably (up to 1%) af te r the removal of free i ron . The decreases that occur both in the sand and s i l t s i z e correspond to the increases noted in the tota l c lay f r a c t i o n s . In genera l , there is an increase both in the f ine and coarse clay p a r t i c l e s , although the magnitude of the increase is larger in the former. The d i s t r i b u t i o n and in tens i ty of the concret ions in the d i f f e r en t p a r t i c l e s i z e c lass is presented in Figure 11. The Y = 1 l ine repre-sents the treated BfcCj and Bf^ hor izons . The concret ion maxima occur in the f i ne and coarse s i l t c l a sses . The 3fcc^ horizon contains more concret ions than the Bf^ hor izon in the f ine s i l t s i ze but less amount in the coarse s i l t c l a s s . When the concret ion d i s t r i bu t i ons of the Memekay and Quinsam pedons are compared (Figure 11a and b) some s i m i l a r i t i e s become ev ident : a) the concret ions show two pr inc ipa l maxima, b) the locat ions of the concret ions are the same for both horizons (Bfcc and Bf) in a given pedon, c) in the f i ne r c l a s s , the amount of the concret ions in the Bfcc horizon is larger than that in Bf. But a reverse r e l a t i onsh ip noted in the coarser c l a s s , and d) a r e l a t i onsh ip may ex i s t between the s i z e of concret ions ( locat ion of 25 • v A comprehensive d i s.cuss i on on- concret i o'ns i s pirese'nted u,nder.the Memekay pedon. ; Table 50. P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Quinsam pedon (percent by weight) a. before free iron removed SAND HOR. DEPTH v . co . C O . med. f i ne | v . f i . tota l m i 1 i nches 2-1 1-.5 •M .25-.10 .10-.05 2-.05 Bfcc, 2-4 5.6 1.4.6 7.9 27.2 11.6 67-9 Bf! 6-12 7.2 19.7 11.8 35.2 10.4 84.3 Bf 2 12-19 4.9 15,1 9.2 36.1 13.4 78.7 Cl 26-31 4.4 12.0 7.5 29.5 12.6 66.0 C O . imeters SILT med . I f i ne [tota 1 CLAY C O . f i ne tota l .05-.02 .02-.005 .005-.002 .05-.002 10.8 7.8 8.3 26.9 4.3 4.1 3.0 11.4 9.1 10.1 0.0 19-2 14.1 12.8 0.0 26.9 .002-.0002 .0002 • 002 6.2 0.0 6.2 4.3 0.0 4.3 1.8 • 3 2.1 7.1 0.0 7.1 TEXTURAL CLASS Sandy loam Loamy sand Loamy sand Sandy 1 oam b. a f ter free iron removal Bfcc 2-4 Bf, 6-12 "Bf 2 12-19 C l 26-31 3.9 13.8 7.7 26.7 11.8 63.9 6.9 19.4 10.8 34.1 9.0 80.2 5.4 14.6 9.0 34.1 12.4 75.5 3.9 11.2 7.5 29-3 12.7 64.6 7.1 13-7 1.7 22.5 1.6 7.1 2.3 11.0 8.7 0.0 8.1 16.8 9-1 10.6 4.0 23.7 5.8 7.8 13.6 7.5 1.3 8.8 2.3 5.4 7.7 9-9 1.8 11.7 Sandy c 1 ay 1 oam Loamy sand Sandy loam Sandy 1 oam o 171 maxima) and the texture of the solum. It appears that the f ine r the so i l ma te r i a l , the coarser the concret ions . Needless to say such a g e n e r a l i -zat ion requires more evidence for v a l i d i t y . The deta i l ed studies which were undertaken on the concret ions in the Memekay pedon were not repeated here, although the necessary data are given in Table 50. Genesis and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : The genesis of th i s pedon var ies cons ider -ably from that of the Memekay which is a lso a concret ionary s o i l . It can be conceived that fo l lowing the Ice Age the so i l forming factors had immediately started operating on the t i l l . Unlike the Memekay, the Quinsam pedon, being a upland s o i l , did not evolve from a poorly drained s ta te . Following the ice re t rea t , the drainage, most l i k e l y var ied between well and moderately well and the water table was not a major fac tor in the genesis and development of th i s s o i l . The parent mate r i a l , c l imate and vegetat ion were the p r inc ipa l so i l forming f a c to r s . The Quinsam pedon, with the present c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , is c l a s s i f i e d as a Concret ionary Podzol . The present pedon probably has possessed the fo l lowing horizon sequences and subgroup during i t s development since the last Ice Age. Hor i zon Subg roup Ah, Ck Cry ic Regosol L-H, Ah, Ck Orthic Regosol L-H, Ah, Bm, Cca Orth ic Brown Forest L-H, Ah, A e j , Bm, B t j , Ccaj Degraded Brown Forest L-H, Ah j , Ae, B f j , B t j , C Degraded Brown Forest L-H, Ae, B f c c j , Bf, C I ntergrade L-H, Ae, B fcc , Bf, C. Concret ionary Podzol The c o n d i t i o n r e s u l t i n g in the format ion of the Bfcc hor izon in the Quinsam pedon is not too c l e a r . Both the Gos l ing and Quinsam pedons are developed from a sandy t i l l w i th a s i m i l a r topography but only the l a t t e r has a Bfcc h o r i z o n . In f a c t , i t appears that both pedons went through the same development stages u n t i l the format ion of the Bfcc hor izon in Quinsam. There i s no reason to be l i e ve that the vege ta t ion success ions on these two pedons were d i f f e r e n t . However there are some inherent d i f f e r e n c e s between the s o i l s that can be pointed out . The Quinsam pedon has developed from a sandstone-r ich t i l l and conta ins montmori1 I on i t e and k a o l i n i t e type of c l a ys which are unique to t h i s pedon. On the other hand, the Gos l ing pedon has developed from a v o l c a n i c - r i c h t i l l and conta ins p r i m a r i l y c h l o r i t e . However, the im-portance of these d i f f e r e n c e s in the genesis of the Bfcc hor izon cannot be s ta ted at t h i s t ime. S o i l s developed on Quadra sediments i . Quadra pedon: Th is pedon has been developed on Quadra sands located on the northeast of Beave r t a i l Lake along the g u l l y that conta ins the Beave r t a i l c reek . The land has a s lope of 24% w i th a wes te r l y aspect . The stand c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of Douglas f i r (planted 1954), some lodgepole and whi te p ines . The s i t e i s c l a s s i f i e d as a Gau l t he r i a ( Sa la l ) S i t e Type ( Sp i l sbu r y and Smith, 1947). A l i s t of p lant spec ies that were observed w i t h i n a 100-foot radius around the s o i l p i t is presented below: Trees Frequency2° ; Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesii)\ 5 2 6 l . r a r e , 2. seldom, 3 . few, 4 . f r equen t , 5- abundant and dominant 173 Trees Frequency White pine (Pinus montiaola) 2 Lodgepole pine (shore form) (Pinus oontorta 1 oontorta) Shrubs Salal (Gaultheria shallon) 5 Red huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium) 3 Oregon grape (Mohonia nervosa) 2 Herbs Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) k Canada t h i s t l e (Cirsium arvenis) 2 F i re weed (Epilobium angustifolium) 1 Pearl eve r l as t ing (Anaphalis margaritaoea) 1 Fern Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) 5 The pedon is deeper than the ones prev ious ly s tud ied . It presents a well developed e luv i a l (Ae) hor izon. A summary of the morphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the pedon is presented below: L-H 1 to 0 inches, p r imar i l y needles and twigs. The H layer is well decomposed. Ae 0 to 2 inches, l i gh t brownish gray (10YR 6/2) loamy sand, p ink ish gray (10YR 6/2) when dry ; tongues up to 10 inches, abrupt i r regu la r boundary. Bfi 2 to 7 inches, ye l lowish brown (10YR 5/8) loamy sand, l i gh t ye l lowish brown (10YR b/k) when dry ; medium coarse angular blocky in s t ruc tu re ; weakly developed ironpans espec i a l l y below Ae tongues; roots p l e n t i f u l ; d i s t i n c t wavy boundary. 7 to 16 inches, o l i v e yellow to l i gh t o l i v e brown (2.5Y 5/6) loamy, sand, brownish yellow (lOYR 6/6) when dry ; weak coarse angular blocky to loose sand in s t ruc ture ; non-st icky, non-p las t i c ; many roots ; d i f f u se wavy boundary. 16 to 24 inches; l igh t o l i v e brown (2.5Y 5/6) loamy sand, very pale brown (lOYR 7/4) when dry , weak coarse angular blocky to loose sand in s t ruc tu re : non-st icky, non-p las t i c ; roots common; gradual wavy boundary. 2k to 31 inches, l i gh t o l i v e brown (2.5Y 5/4) loamy sand, very pale brown (lOYR 7/3) when dry; loose sand; moderately compacted; few roots ; gradual wavy boundary. 31 to 39 inches, o l i v e (5Y 5/3) loamy sand, l i gh t gray (lOYR 7/2) when dry ; loose sand s l i g h t l y compacted; few roots , d i f f u se wavy boundary. 39 to 49 inches, o l i v e (5Y 5/3) loamy sand, very pale brown (lOYR 7/3) when dry ; loose sand, s l i g h t l y compacted; no roots , d i f f u se & wavy boundary. 49 to 60 inches, o l i v e (5Y 5/3) loamy sand, * very pale brown (lOYR 7/3); loose sand, no roots, 175 The solum is stone f r ee , loose at the surface and becomes gradual ly compacted with depth. The bulk densi ty increased from 1.23 gm/cc at the surface to the 1.44 gm/cc at the 50-inch depth (Table 51). The texture of the p r o f i l e is very coarse (Table 52). The tota l sand content is over 30% below 7 ins. The c lay content decreases with depth from 11.4% in the Ae horizon to n i l in the lowermost hor izons. The s i l t values vary very l i t t l e except for the Bf^ horizon where a small increase (approx. 2%) is noted. The pH of the surface is less than 5 (Table 53) and increases with depth. The OM, N, Na, l< and Ca+Mg values show decrease in the lower hor izons , although they do not present much va r i a t i on below 31 ins of depth. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of P is somewhat d i f f e r en t than those of the macronutrients mentioned above. The P content decreases to 31 ins in depth, then increases. The Na, K and Ca+Mg values of th is pedon are the lowest among the s o i l s s tud ied . However, th is pedon has high P va lues . The B content increases with depth whereas a decrease is noted in the Mn contents. The Co values do not vary within the s o i l . The Cu values of the surface horizons are lower than those of the horizons below 24 ins of depth. The Ae horizon is low both in Cu and Zn. The Fe and Mg contents of the Quadra pedon have values which are lower than those found for the other pedons. The primary c lay minerals are c h l o r i t e , v e rm i cu l i t e , i l l i t e and mixed-layers (Table 54). There is a considerable increase in the c h l o r i t e content of the Bf] horizon in comparison to that of the C ] . It is poss ib le that an intensive c h l o r i t i z a t i o n (Clark et al. , 1962) has taken place in th is hor izon. T h e A e and Cj horizons have the same Table 51. Coarse skeleton and bulk density s t a t i s t i c s for the Quadra pedon HOR. DEPTH i nches PARTICLE SIZE mi l l imeters BULK DENSITY gms/cc > 76.2 76.2-25.4 25.4-2 < 2 Percent by weight Ae 0-2 3.3 96.7 Bf, 2-7 3.3 96.7 1.23 Bf 2 7-16 3.2 96.8 B f 3 16-24 1.5 98.5 1.35 Bf 4 24-31 1.6 5.3 93.1 BC 31-39 2.6 97.4 Cl 39-49 1 .4 98.6 c 2 49-60 .6 1.5 97.9 1 .44 Table 52. P a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Quadra pedon (percent by weight) HOR. DEPTH i nches Ae 0-2 Bf, 2-7 B f 2 7-16 B f 3 16-24 B f4 24-31 BC 31-39 C l 39-49 c 2 4g + SAND v . c o . CO . med. f i ne v.f i . t o t a l m i l l i m e t e r s 2-1 1-.5 .5-• 25 .25-.10 .10-.05 2-.05 5.3 16.1 9.5 40.3 13.3 84.5 3.5 17.6 10.4 42.5 11.4 85.4 3.1 15.2 11.0 48.6 12.0 89-9 2.3 13.4 10.0 50.8 13.7 90.2 3.6 12.2 10. 1 56.3 12.8 95.0 4.6 13.8 11.5 54.1 10.7 94.7 2.6 12.9 11.8 58.0 10.2 95.5 3.6 16.6 13.7 55.4 6.8 96.1 SILT total .05-.002 4.1 5.0 4.7 6.8 4.3 4.4 2.6 3.9 CLAY tota l < .002 11.4 9.6 5.4 3.0 • 9 1.9 0.0 TEXTURAL CLASS Loamy sand Loamy sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Table 53- Selected chemical cha rac t e r i s t i c s for the Quadra pedon HOR. DEPTH pH MAC R0NUTR1ENTS M1CR0NUTF I ENTS 0M N C/N Na K Ca+ Ma Al P B Co Mo Cu Zn Pb Mn Fe Mg percent rat io me / 100 g. p.p.m. percent L-H 1-0 3-93 31 .74 .390 47.20 .26 • 59 10.01 19.70 Ae 0-1 1/2 4.38 3.O9 .046 38.91 • 23 .12 1 .52 4.44 18.45 14 15 1.2 12 1 .0 330 2.3 ,41 Bf 1 1 1/2-7 5.17 1.34 .030 25.67 .19 .10 0.53 20.45 16 15 5 .8 38 1.0 290 2.7 .41 Bf2 7-16 5.10 .83 .028 17.14 .10 .10 0.32 10.80 8 .8 27 <.8 Bf 3 16-24 5 .46 .69 .022 18.18 .19 .10 0.34 8.45 12.0 35 <.4 Bf 4 24-31 6.02 .21 .01 1 10.90 .19 .09 0.38 8.65 12.5 21 <.8 BC 31-39 5 .98 .13 .010 8 .00 .19 • 09 0.19 12.85 11 .0 13 <.4 Cl 39-49 6.53 .13 .022 5-91 .19 .09 0.28 16.25 12.0 22 c 2 49-60 6.5E .13 .022 5.91 . 11 .09 0.30 18.30 22 15 10.5 19 <.4 280 2 .3 .58 O ON KD o CD - h Ae -c-KO 1 ON O L-Z o ho ho 1 un O ho I hO A ho 2-50 ho 1 ho A ho 2-50 hO ho ^ ho UJ 1 hO 1 UJ ho UJ — — — — 1 ho 1 ho — 1 hO 1 ho UJ UJ UJ ho ho ho hO — ho ho ho — — — — — — — r-o hO ho UJ ho — -C- ho 1 UJ UJ - t - — N) UJ ho — UJ UJ UJ Jjr- — ho - t - hO — - t -< ft) > o ZT ver-ch1 i11-ver X-RAY NO. HORIZON §. DEPTH CD OO "O — > -c K I za m —\ MIXED LAYERS MONTMORIL-LONITE CHLORITE VERMICU-LITE ILLITE KAOLINITE AMPHIBOLES QUARTZ FELDSPAR I - ZZ. > > -< — O -I m X -n cz za m za oo o m 180 clay minera ls , namely c h l o r i t e , vermicu l i te and i l l i t e , although the quant i t i es of c h l o r i t e and ve rmicu l i te are larger in the Ae hor izon. The moisture release curves are presented in Figure 19. Except for the Ae horizon the curves fo l low the descending order of the h o r i -zons in the pedon. The curves show very l i t t l e slope between the .9 and 15 bar tensions ind ica t ing that most of the moisture is held under a low tens ion. The ava i l ab le water ( ins/f t ) decreases with depth although some increase is noted in the BC and C horizons (Table 55). There is very l i t t l e d i f f e rence between the corrected and non-corrected ava i l ab le water values since the coarse skeleton of the so i l is very smal l . Genesis and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n The Quadra pedon is s i tuated on an erosional landscape, on a side of a g u l l y . The pedon most l i k e l y has been truncated many times since g l a c i a t i o n , e spec i a l l y a f te r big f i r e s . Because the Quadra sands are of an i n te r-g lac i a l material they probably had so i l development on them pr io r to the Vashon g l a c i a t i o n . During the g l a c i a l advance these s o i l s were truncated and covered by the t i l l of the last g l a c i a t i o n . The present pedon may have started to develop a f te r the development and the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of th i s Pos tg lac ia l g u l l y . Th is may have been some time a f te r the retreat of the ice . Furthermore, it can be conceived that because of the wasting pro-cess (geological erosion) which is r e l a t i v e l y strong here, due to the topography and nature of the ma te r i a l , the downward movement of the pedon^? into the parent material is f as te r than those of the pedons , 8 . • © •• ' ' 0 27A s the surface of the horizon erodes, under the operat ing state fac tors a sect ion from the'upper part of the paVent material is developed into B hor izon. 181 L-H A e Bf i Bf z B f 3 B f 4 B C C i C 2 T E N S I O N IN B A R S Figure 19. Moisture release curves for d i f f e r en t horizons in the Quadra pedon (moisture, percent by weight) Table 55- Ava i l ab le water values for the Quadra pedon BULK COARSE AVAILABLE WATER AVAILABLE WATER HORIZON DEPTH DENSITY SKELETON percent i nches/foot (>2mm) .1-15. ba rs .3-15. bars before cr rrect ion a f te r co rrer.f ion i nches gms/cc percent Pw Pv Pw Pv .1-15 .3-15 .1-15 .3-15 L-H 1-0 20.00 . 10.19 Ae 0-2 3-3 8.70 10.70 5.63 6.92 1 .28 .83 1 .24 .80 Bf 1 2-7 1 .23 3-3 7.76 9.54 4.21 5.18 1.14 .62 1.11 .60 Bf2 7-16 3.2 4.95 6.09 3-75 4.61 .73 .55 .71 .54 B f 3 16-24 1 .35 1.5 4.19 5.66 2.98 4.02 .68 .48 .67 .48 Bf 1» 24-31 6.9 2.83 3.82 1.74 2.35 .46 .28 .43 .26 BC 31-39 2.6 3-96 5.70 2.51 3.61 .68 .43 .67 .42 Cl 39-49 1 .44 1.4 3.62 5.21 2.24 3.23 .62 • 39 .62 .33 C2 49-60 2.1 2.26 3.25 1.63 2.35 .39 .28 .33 .28 Total for solum ( inches) . 2.49 1 .62 2.44 1 .61 Pw = percent by weight, Pv = percent by volume. 133 studied prev ious ly . The Quadra pedon is c l a s s i f i e d as an Orthic Podzol . The fo l lowing development sequences are suggested (hypothetical ) for the pedon since i t s exposure from a gu l l y e ros ion . Hor izon Subgroup Ah, Ckj Orthic Regosol L-H, Ah, Bm, C Orthic Acid Brown Forest L-H, Ah j , Ae j , Bm, C Degraded Acid Brown Forest L-H, Ae j , Bf, C Degraded Acid Brown V/ooded L-H, Ae, Bf, C Orthic Podzol The Quadra pedon is ch rono log i ca l l y younger than the other pedons, although gene t i c a l l y i t is qui te mature. Intensive development in th is pedon may be a t t r ibuted to i t s coarse texture and the nature of the parent mate r i a l . e. S t a t i s t i c a l ana lys is Cor re l a t ion and regression analyses were undertaken on the phys i -c a l , chemical and minera logica l so i l data. The ob jec t i ve was to deter -mine the re la t ionsh ips among the various so i l cha r a c t e r i s t i c s and develop pred ic t ion equat ions. A tota l of 11 c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s were employed. The complete l i s t of the var iab les and s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a -t ions are presented in Appendix Tables 5a and 5b. A summary of the co r r e l a t i ons is as fo l lows : The mic ronut r ien ts , Cu and Zn are h ighly and pos i t i v e l y cor re la ted to the p a r t i c l e s izes e spec i a l l y to f ine sand and s i l t . Copper shows a higher co r r e l a t i on to c lay than Zn. The co r re l a t i ons are sharply reduced between the micronutr ients and the p a r t i c l e s larger than .1 mm I 184 in s i ze. Organic matter shows high co r re l a t ions to N (r = . 9 8 2 ) and the moisture retent ion values at .1 and .3 bar (r = .821 for both). The AWIP 2 8 and AW I IP 2 9 are a lso highly cor re la ted to OM. w w 3 / High co r r e l a t i on occurs among Na, K and Ca+Mg. The co r re l a t i on between Na and Ca+Mg (r = . 7 3 0 ) is greater than that of Na and P (r = . 7 0 6 ) . The r e l a t i onsh ip between K and Ca+Mg is the lowest (r = . 5 6 0 ) . A l l these three elements show very high co r re l a t ions to the tota l c l ay . Among the macronutrients P shows highest pos i t i ve co r r e l a t i on to the tota l sand (r = . 7 8 5 ) . Phosphorus is a lso highly but negat ive ly cor re la ted with s i l t and c lay content. The moisture retent ion values corresponding to . 1 , . 3 , . 9 , 5 and 15 bars tensions are highly cor re la ted among themselves (r = . 9 0 0 ) . Organic matter, tota l sand, tota l s i l t and s i l t + c lay are the highest cont r ibutors to the water retent ion values. The ava i l ab l e water values are a lso cor re la ted to the sand and s i l t values of the hor izons. High co r re l a t i ons a lso ex is t among the d i f f e ren t ava i l ab le water values (Table 5 6 ) . Because high co r re l a t i ons ex i s t among the d i f f e r en t var iab les many regression equations may be obtained for p red ic t ion of desired charac-t e r i s t i c s . In the present study, the primary interest was pred ic t ion of so i l water expressed in d i f f e r en t forms. In add i t i on , p red ic t ion of K and P were a l so undertaken from tota l c lay and tota l sand. In the p red i c t ion of the d i f f e r en t so i l water parameters the fo l lowing var iab les were s tud ied : OM (X4) , to ta l s i l t (X20) and tota l j 28 j Ava i l ab le water (.1 - 15 bars , percent by weight) 29 Ava i l ab le water ( . 3 - 15 bars , percent by weight) Table 56. Regression equations for pred ic t ing the so i l moisture values from OM (X4) , total s i l t (X20) and s i l t+c l a y (X46) contents of the solum DEPENDENT VARIABLES INDEPENDENT VARIABLES X20 X4, X20 X4, X46 Const. Term Reg. Coeff . R SE E Const. Term Reg. Coeff . R SE E Const. Term Reg. Coeff . R SE E X24 mr . 1 .44 .78 .98 4.52 2.79 2.27 .65 .99 2.94 2.25 2.91 .44 • 99 3.66 X25 mr .3 X46 1.62 2.07 .50 .99 2.22 1.11 2.13 .34 .99 2.08 2 .33 .41 .98 3.42 X28 mr 15 2.80 .16 .94 2.36 2.84 .53 .20 .93 2.63 2.54 .46 .15 • 95 2.33 X29 AWI Pw X20 - .05 2.18 .45 .97 4.36 - .29 .24 .29 .95 5 .08 1.27 .55 .95 5.11 X3Q AWI1 Pw .28 .37 .95 3.59 - .01 1.54 .29 .96 3-05 -1.43 1.66 .20 .96 3.32 X33 AWI .82 .48 .84 • .83 .82 .00 - .05 .84 .89 .83 - .07 - .03 .80 .99 X34 AWI 1 • 31 .03 • 90 .45 • 30 - .02 - .33 .90 .45 .30 .05 .02 .87 .52 mr .1 = water retent ion at .1 bar {% by wt) AWI = ava i l ab le water .1-15 bars ( ins/f t ) AWI Pw = ava i l ab le water .1-15 bars {% by wt) AWII = ava i l ab le water .3~15 bars ( ins/f t ) AWII Pw = avai1 able water . 3 " 15 bars {% by wt) 186 s i l t + c lay (X46) . Three regression equations were developed (one s ing le and two mult ip le ) for each predicted va r i ab le (Table 56). The predicted var iab les were: a) water retent ion values co r res -ponding to the f i e l d capaci ty (.1 bar = X24 and .3 bar = X25) and the permanent w i l t i ng point (15 bars = X28) ; b) the ava i l ab le water between .1-15 bars (X29) and .3-15 bars (X30) expressed as the percentage (by weight) of the s o i l , and c) the ava i l ab le water ( ins/f t ) co r r e s -ponding to the .1-15 and .3-15 bars tensions (X33 and X34, r e spec t i ve l y ) . Except in the pred ic t ion of X33 (.1-15 bars) a l l regressions present R values exceeding .900. The var iab les X24 (.1 bar) and X25 (.3 bar) are predicted with R values varying between .980 and .992. The accuracy of these p red i c t ion equations can be increased i f a textura l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n is undertaken. If separate regression equations are developed for sandy, s i l t y and clayey s o i l s , the standard error of estimate (SE^) values can be considerably decreased. The regression equations ' that were developed for K and P are as fol1ows: Y(K) = .0989 + .002X (total c lay) ± .0003 me / 100 gms Y(P) = 1.784 + .114X (total sand) ± 3.66 p.p.m. The co r r e l a t i on c o e f f i c i e n t values for the regressions are R = .702 and R = .785, r espec t i ve l y . These R values can a lso be increased by a textura l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . No textural s t r a t i f i c a t i o n was undertaken in the present study because of the small number of pedons which were included in the study. 187 IV. SOILS AND FOREST RELATIONSHIPS 1. Soi1s and Growth Studies involv ing so i l and growth re la t ionsh ips often present d i f f i c u l t i e s in se lec t ing the appropriate cha r a c t e r i s t i c s to study as well as in the in te rpre ta t ion of the resu l ts which may or may not be ind i ca t i ve of cause-effect r e l a t i onsh ip . Furthermore, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of in teract ions among the environmental factors often is more d i f f i c u l t than the construct ion of the hypothesis as to the i r ex is tence . It is a lso important to note that both so i l and forest stand contain inherent v a r i a b i l i t i e s which, under ce r ta in circumstances, may become a major source of v a r i a t i o n . In the present study, the v a r i a b i l i t y of the seed source of the selected stands was of con-cern . This problem was acknowledged at the outset but i t could not be deal t with since p lantat ions from a s ing le seed source ex-tending over var ious s u r f i c i a l mater ia ls and s o i l s do not ex i s t in the coastal forested areas. Furthermore, i t was not poss ib le to ident i f y and remove the va r i a t i on due to seed source because of the lack of necessary information. It should be strongly empha-sized that in so i l and stand-growth s tud ies , e spec i a l l y undertaken in p l an ta t i ons , the seed source of stands should be c r i t i c a l l y reviewed (personal communication with Dr. P. G. Haddock). The seed sources of the stands included in the present study are given in Table 57- A l l seed was from the coast and low e levat ion (<500 f e e t ) . There are a lso other fac tors which may contr ibute to the growth v a r i a t i o n . Some of these are : p lant ing season (Fal l and Spr ing ) , degree of brush and browsing (deer and grouse) Table 57. General information on the study p lots MATERIAL SOIL SERIES PLOT NO. ELEV. f t . ASPECT* deg. SLOPE deg. DRAINAGE SEED SOURCE AGE OF PLANTA-TION** LOCATION ELEV f t . Memekay MEM 1 575 80 4 we 1 1 1ower Van.1s1. <500 27 Marine c lay MEM 4 570 60 1 wel 1 upper Van.1s1. <500 27 MEM 5 570 300 2 wel 1 Cowli t z , Wash. <500 27 Senton SEN 2 425 95 2 wel 1 upper Van. Isl . <500 25 Outwash sand SEN 6 510 320 1 wel 1 upper Van. 1 si . <500 26 SEN 10 520 130 <.5 we 1 1 uppe r Van. Isl . <500 26 Hart HAR 1 515 180 1 wel 1 Fraser Va l l ey <500 28 Outwash gravel HAR 2 520 130 <.5 wel 1 Fraser Va l ley <500 28 HAR 3 525 150 <.5 wel 1 Fraser Va l ley <500 29 Gosling G0S 1 1025 140 8 wel 1 upper Van. •Isl . <500 20 Vo l can i c- r i ch G0S 3 825 110 7 wel 1 1 ower Van. Isl . <500 23 t i l l G0S 4 635 60 11 wel 1 upper Van. Isl . <500 24 Qu i nsam QUI 1 775 300 6 wel 1 upper Van. Isl . <500 23 Sandstone-r ich QUI 3 975 0 4 we 1 1 upper Van. Isl . <500 22 t i l l QUI 4 980 330 4 we 1 1 uppe r Van. Isl . <500 23 * Based on 360° ci r c l e . * * Determined from discs cut less than .5 f t above the ground in I966. 189 on a pa r t i cu l a r p lant ing s i t e , weather condi t ions fo l lowing the plant ing (drought or ear ly f r o s t ) , p lant ing techniques, condi t ions of the plant ing s i t e s , e t c . It was not poss ib le to determine the respect ive va r i a t ions resu l t ing from these fac tors s ince the fac tors themselves are d i f f i c u l t to i so la te and assess. It should be emphasized that the above-mentioned cond i -t ions are not unique - for th is area but are common in a l l p lantat ions here and elsewhere. The e f f ec t of these fac tors could have been minimized i f experimental p lantat ions were estab l i shed according to a pre-determined set of c r i t e r i a . Nevertheless, va r i a t ions caused by these fac tors are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the typ ica l p lant ing operat ions . The most appropriate way to study the so i l and growth re l a t ionsh ip appeared to be plot studies conducted on su i tab le locat ions to obtain least heterogenous so i l and stand cond i t ions . F i f teen p l o t s , three on each of the f i v e major so i l s e r i e s , were es tab l i shed . The general information on these p lots are presented in Table 57. Twenty-seven stand va r i ab l e s , corresponding to the present and past growth s t a t i s t i c s of the stand are presented in Table 58. The volume and basal area are given for both per average dominant tree and per acre. The densi ty values express the present dens i ty . The dens i t i es at the age of 20 cannot be ascerta ined and thus the basal areas and volumes per acre values corresponding to th i s age must be reviewed with caut ion . However, great d i f f e rences should not be expected s ince the ages of the present stands do not exceed 30 years , and furthermore, a l l p lantat ions were estab l ished at 6 x 6 spacing or 1210 trees per acre.^ Because of t e r r a in and p lant ing condi t ions (brush, slash) the number of trees may vary from th i s f igure from place to p lace . Table 58. Stand s t a t i s t i c s on f i ve so i l ser ies PLOT NO VOLUME (cu ft/ac) TOTAL HEIGHT (ft) MEAN HEIGHT/YEAR based on V20 v'66 H10 CV % H15 CV % H20 CV °/ 'a H'66 CV % H20 CV So- H'66 CV MEM 1 MEM 4 MEM 5 Mean 23M.37 2902.34 2135.32 2459.68 5687.89* 6597.90* 4734.31* 5673.37* 12.32 17.54 13.86 14.57 28.99 18.95 24.12 24.02 28.97 34.44 31.98 31.80 14.83 12.18 13.07 13-36 45.23 50.33 48.33 47.96 10.71 8.05 7.74 8.83 63.22* 69-35* 66.47* 66.35* 8.15 5.26 6.01 6.47 2.26 2.52 2.42 2.40 10.71 8.05 7.74 8.83 2.38* 2.51* 2.46* 2.45* 8.77 5.65 6.01 6.81 HAR 1 HAR 2 HAR J Mean 682.97 1362.61 889.52 978.36 3269.23* 3846.06* 4020.18* 3711.82* 6.68 11.18 7-51 8.46 13.73 10.12 21.79 15.21 13.55 20.25 16.78 16.86 14.49 6.70 17.04 12.74 24.41 30.83 29.96 28.40 8.61 6.18 11.93 8.91 41.06* 45.66* 51.69* 46.14* 6.36 5.02 7.46 6.28 1 .22 1.54 1 .50 1 .42 8.61 6.18 11 .93 8.91 1.48* 1.61* 1.79* 1.63* 7-25 6.77 8.53 7.52 SEN 2 SEN 6 SEN 10 Mean 4599.03 1443.32 1905.17 2649.17 8845.68 3823.66 4554.17 5741.17 11.83 8.51 10.05 10.13 11 .56 29.33 18.03 19.64 27.26 19.29 21.73 22.76 8.64 13-66 10.41 10.90 41.09 30.47 32.49 34.69 6.98 7.25 7.47 7.23 53.81 43.66 44.76 47.41 5.76 6.71 4.25 5.57 2.06 1 .52 1 .62 1 .73 6.98 7.25 7.47 7.23 2.18 1.67 1.73 1.86 6.61 8.07 5.05 6.57 GOS 1 GOS 3 GOS 4 Mean 890.62 1728.89 1146.60 1255.37 942.86 2839-88 2216.87 1999.87 6.82 10.08 7.21 8.04 18.18 20.46 15.38 18.01 16.41 21 .74 19-37 19.17 . 11.49 11.51 11.62 11.54 29.18 32.32 30.24 30.58 9.^ 5 8.95 8.63 9.01. 29.18 38.09 37.85 35.04 9.45 8.32 7.03 8.27 1 .46 1.62 1 .51 1.53 9.45 8.95 8.63 9.01 1.47 1.63 1.58 1.56 12.19 8.05 7.18 9.14 QUI 1 QUI 3 QUI 4 Mean 699.14 702.33 925.54 775.67 1199.31 1204.77 1868.07 1424.05 9.46 7-03 6.22 7.57 15.49 21 .90 24.37 20.59 20.81 15-95 15.67 17-48 11.50 13.01 17.30 13.94 35.27 30.09 28.71 31 .36 7.64 7.02 9.09 7.92 43.59 35.19 35.32 38.04 5.70 6.01 7.07 6.26 1.76 1.51 1.44 1 .57 7.64 7.02 9.09 7.92 1.87 1.57 1.52 1.65 6.74 8.50 6.64 7-30 V ,65 H l65 ( s e e Methods). H ] 0 , H 1 5 , H2o, V 2 n = height and volume at the end of 10, 15 and 20th years. V I £ A ' H ' £ £ = volume and height in 1966. C V = coe f f i c i en t of v a r i a t i o n . Table 58, continued I ).B .H. D. .B. BASAL AREA BASAL AREA VOLUME DENSITY FORM PLOT (ins) (ins) (sq f t/ t ree) (sq ft/ac) ( cu f t/ t ree ) trees/ac (rat io) NO 1966 CV 1/3 CV 20* CV 1966 cv 20* 1966 V20 CV V 66 CV 1966 '66 CV % H20 % % % % % X MEM 1 9 54 5.38 5.20 7.31 .15 14.72 • 50 10.45 68.52 230.57 5 06 22. 19 12. 29 15. 13 463 • 55 5.88 MEM 4 9 27 5.95 5.24 6.60 .15 13.17 .47 11.90 76.42 239.^4 5 70 17.82 12. 95 13. 50 509 .57 5-91 MEM 5 9 33 4.03 5.31 6.88 .15 13-77 .48 8.04 58.48 180.38 5 62 19.54 12. 47 11. 02 380 .57 7.52 Mean 9 38 5.12 5.25 6.93 .15 13.89 .48 10.13 67.81 216.80 5 46 19.85 12 57 13 21 451 .56 6.44 HAR 1 6 41 6.46 2.79 9-32 .04 18.66 .23 13.00 37.27 195-01 79 22.72 3. 77 15 45 867 .44 7.93 HAR 2 6 33 5.08 3.40 8.76 .06 17.47 .22 11.46 58.36 202.86 1 47 19.62 4. 15 12 93 926 .54 4.41 HAR 3 6 65 6.09 3.04 9.33 .05 18.64 .24 12.10 39.45 186.70 1 15 25.33 5. 21 14. 44 771 .46 7.01 Mean 6 46 5.88 3.08 9.13 .05 18.25 .23 12.19 44.99 194.86 1 14 22.56 4 38 14 28 855 .48 6.45 SEN 2 7 23 7.65 4.40 8.83 .11 17.70 .29 15.45 149.62 399.92 3 29 19. 17 6. 33 17. 17 1398 .61 5.47 SEN 6 6 73 6.36 3.62 9.14 .07 18.57 .25 12.64 62.53 215.37 1 66 25.05 4. 40 16 03 868 .54 7.23 SEN 6 31 7.67 3.54 9.70 .07 19.77 .22 14.92 77.65 245.32 1 69 24.27 4. 05 15. 15 1125 .56 4.95 Mean 6 76 7.23 3.86 8.62 .08 18.68 .25 14.34 96.60 286.87 2 22 22.83 4. 93 16 11 1130 .57 5.88 GOS 1 4 66 7.40 3.40 7.09 .06 13.74 .12 14.64 40.14 75.81 1 40 20.54 1. 48 21 . 13 637 • 73 4.10 GOS 3 5 64 10.24 3.55 11.14 .07 22.04 .18 20.16 70.01 177.56 1 70 29.12 2 80 24 09 1015 .63 4.18 GOS 4 5 51 11.37 3.31 10.26 .06 21.10 .17 23.31 49.78 139.38 1 38 28.10 2. 67 26 23 827 .60 4.02 Mean 5 27 9-67 3.42 9.49 .06 18.96 .15 19-37 53.31 130.92 1 50 25.92 2. 32 23 82 826 .65 4.10 QUI 1 6 57 4.21 3.79 6.64 .08 13.56 .24 8.49 42.95 128.30 2 09 18.32 4. 20 11 . 55 544 .58 4.41 QUI 3 5 21 8.78 3.21 11.13 .06 23.08 .15 18.07 31.13 81.37 1 29 26.00 2 21 17 85 546 .62 6.95 QUI 4 5 45 11.69 3.17 12.47 .06 23.56 .16 22.28 43.23 126.60 1 20 26.94 2. 42 23 63 772 .58 8.04 Mean 5 74 8.23 3.39 10.08 .06 20.07 .18 16.28 39.10 112.09 1 53 23.76 2. 94 17. 68 621 • 59 6.47 Basal area at 1/3 of H20 (see Methods) T a b l e 58, c o n t i n u e d ABSOLUTE HEIGHT GROWTH HEIGHT GROWTH RADIAL GROWTH PLOT (ft) (percent) (ins) NO HlO- CV H15- CV HlO- CV H20- H10-H15 CV H15-H20 CV H10-H20 CV 15-20th CV H 1 5 % H20 % H 2 0 % H 66 H20 % H20 H 20 % years* % MEM 1 16.66 8. 46 16 .26 8 52 32 92 7.24 17 98 37.00 7-71 3 6 . 1 7 9. 61 7 3 . 1 7 7-45 1 .32 8 .64 MEM 4 1 6 . 9 0 10. 06 15.89 14. 84 32 79 7.53 19 02 33.67 9.43 31.69 16. 15 65.36 7. 66 1.15 12.15 MEM 5 18 .12 8. 25 16 .35 6 12 34 47 3.73 18 14 37.57 6.82 3 4 . 0 7 11. 25 71.64 6.85 1 .25 8 .85 Mean 17 .23 8. 92 16 .17 9.83 33 39 6.17 18 38 36.08 7-99 33.78 12. 34 7 0 . 0 6 7-32 1 .24 9.88 HAR 1 6.87 23. 26 10.86 15 75 17 73 10.21 16. 65 2 8 . 0 4 2 0 . 8 2 44.54 13. 76 72.58 4. 54 .88 7.69 HAR 2 9.07 9. 30 10 .58 8 45 19 64 7.38 14. 83 29.43 7.74 34.31 5. 48 63.73 4. 37 .78 8.36 HAR 3 9.'28 19. 33 13 .18 10 70 22.46 12.91 21 73 30.71 11 .26 44.27 9. 92 7 4 . 9 8 5. 55 .94 6.18 Mean 8 .40 17. 30 11.54 11 63 19.94 10.17 17 74 2 9 . 3 9 13 .28 41 .04 9. 72 70.43 4. 82 .87 7.41 SEN 2 15;. 43 8. 21 13.84 14. 45 29 27 7 .87 12. 71 37.58 6.21 33.65 11 . 70 71 .22 3. 61 1.09 7.34 SEN 6 10.78 11. 39 11 .18 13 46 21 97 10.31 13. 19 35.38 8.73 36.86 14. 76 7 2 . 2 3 9. 92 .96 12.06 SEN 10 11.68 11. 10 10.76 9 25 22 44 7.00 12 27 36.00 9.84 33.21 9 81 69.21 6. 20 .85 1 1 .22 Mean 12.63 10. 23 11.93 12 39 24 56 8 .39 12 72 36.32 8 .26 3 4 . 5 7 12 09 70.89 6. 57 .97 10.21 GOS 1 9.58 14. 87 12,78 12 03 22 36 11.65 0 00 32.76 9.29 43.79 8. 18 76.55 5. 41 1.08 8.83 GOS 3 11:67 9. 01 10.58 13 21 22 24 8.02 5. 77 36.21 8.36 32.80 11. 77 69.01 6. 24 .81 10 .82 GOS 4 12 .16 12 . 84 10 .87 9 32 23 .03 8 .97 7 61 40 .14 7.03 36.04 8 85 76.18 3 64 .83 11 .71 Mean 11.14 12 . 24 11.41 11 52 22 54 9.55 4 46 36.37 8.22 3 7 . 5 4 9 60 73-91 5 09 .91 10 .45 QUI 1 11 .35 17. 07 14.46 8 30 25 .81 9.84 8 33 3 2 . 0 3 12 .07 41.11 8 33 73.13 5 27 1.11 8 .49 •QUI 3 8.92 16. 68 14.14 10 21 23 07 6.02 5 10 29.69 15 .79 47.11 9.89 76.79 5. 20 1.08 9.16 QUI 4 9 .45 23. 04 13 .03 8 43 22 48 9 .79 6 62 32.69 15.83 45.70 11 30 7 8 . 4 0 5 63 1 .05 10.51 Mean 9.91 18. 93 13.88 8 98 23 • 79 8.55 6 68 3 1 . 4 7 14 .56 44.64 9 84 76.11 5 37 1 .08 9-39 * At 1/3 of H 0 f ) (see Methods) I 193 The form value is ca l cu la ted by d i v id ing the dib at 1/3 of H20 by the present dbh. The radia l growth was measured on dib at 1/3 of H20 ar>d corresponds to the growth between 15th-20th years . The absolute and percentage height growths correspond to the rate of growth of the stands for ce r ta in time interva ls (0-1Oth , 10th-15th, 15th-20th , 0-15th , 0-20th, 20th to present ) . While these twenty-seven stand measures by no means exhaust a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s , they may provide the major cha r a c t e r i s t i c s required to e s t ab l i sh s o i l growth r e l a t i onsh ips . Discussions of the stands growing on f i v e s o i l s are presented below: a. Memekay So i1 This so i l has been developed on marine c l ay . Because it con-ta ins concre t ions , i t is c l a s s i f i e d as Concret ionary Brown. The solum is well to moderately well dra ined. The concret ionary nature of the so i l resu l t s in better permeabi l i ty s ince the concret ions increase the poros i ty of the solum. The Memekay So i l , is the most productive so i l in the area and the greatest he ight , basal area and volume values are obtained on th is s o i l . The stands growing on th is ser ies cons t i tu te a unique populat ion and s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r ( t- test , \% level ) from those growing on the other s o i l s in respect to a l l measured growth s t a t i s t i c s (Table 58, F igure 20a and b) . The mean height growth (based orvh^o' ) ' s 2.40 f t/y r (Table 58). The maximum growth ra te , 3-62 f t /y r occurs between the 10th and 15th years on MEM 5- There i s , in genera l , a decrease, i n„ the .. ' ' ® © . & ' • ® "-' " growth rate a f te r th is period (Table 59, Figure 2'la and b) . The ' ~t '*''*.' decrease may be a resu l t of the root competit ion for* nutr ients and ** Id) (e) (n gure 20. Height-age curves of Douglas-f ir on f i ve s o i l s : a) averages fo r s o i l s , b) MEM = Memekay, c) HAR = Hart, d) SEN = Senton, e) GOS = Gosl ing and f) QUI ='Quinsam -t-I 195 Table 59. Rate of height growth, i t s acce le ra t ion and dece lerat ion for se lected periods ACCELERATION OR RATE OF GROWTH DECELERATION PLOT f f t/v .0 f t/yr/yr ) 0-10 10-15 15 -20 20-P* 5. 0-12.5 12 .5-17.5 17 5-P* y rs . y r s . y rs . y r s . y r s . y r s . yr s. MEM 1 1 .23 3 33 2. 45 3 00 + .28 _ .18 + 06 MEM 4 1.75 3 38 3. 18 3 17 + .22 - .04 00 MEM 5 1.39 3 62 3. 27 3 02 + .30 - .07 - 03 Mean 1.46 3 45 2. 97 3 06 + .27 .10 + 01 HAR 1 .67 1 37 2. 17 2 38 + .09 + .16 + 02 HAR 2 1.12 1 81 2. 12 2 12 + .09 + .06 00 HAR 3 • 75 1 86 2. 64 2 72 + .15 + .16 + 01 Mean .85 1 68 2. 31 2 40 + .11 + .13 + 01 SEN 2 1.18 3 09 2. 77 2 54 + .25 _ .06 - 03 SEN 6 .85 2 16 2. 24 . 2 20 + .17 + .02 - 01 SEN 10 1.01 2 34 2. 15 2 04 + .18 - .04 - 01 Mean 1.01 2 53 2. 39 2 26 + .20 .03 . 02 GOS 1 .68 1 92 2. 56 + .16 + .13 GOS 3 1.01 2 33 2. 12 1 92 + .18 - .04 - 04 GOS 4 .72 2 43 2. 17 1 90 + .23 - .05 - .04 Mean .80 2 23 2. 28 1 91 + .19 + .01 04 QUI 1 .95 2 27 2. 89 2 78 + .18 + .12 _ 02 QUI 3 .70 1 78 2.83 2 55 + .14 + .21 - .06 QUI 4 .62 1 89 2. 61 2 20 + .17 + .14 - 07 Mean .76 1 98 2. 78 2 51 + .16 + .16 .05 P = Present = 1966 Figure 21 . Growth patterns of Douglas-f ir on f i ve s o i l s : a) averages for s o i l s , b) MEM = Memekay, c) HAR = Hart , d) SEN = Senton, e) GOS = Gosling and f) QUI = Qiiinsam -ON 1 9 7 water which may take place fo l lowing canopy c losure or a change in the rate of nitrogen cyc l i ng due to c losure of the canopy. The canopy c losure may a f f ec t the microcl imate (espec ia l l y temperature and humidity) below i t and consequently may resul t in a change in the rate of nitrogen minera l i za t ion in the L-H layer . The ob-served increase in the growth rate (Table 59, Figure 21b) on MEM 1 a f t e r the age of 20", may correspond to a decrease in the competi-t ion due to dying out of some t rees . The prac t i ca l s ign i f i c ance of the growth rate va r i a t i on with age (or time) should be noted. If the highest growth rate were sustained a f t e r i t has been estab-l i s h e d , say by f e r t i l i z e r and th inn ing , the trees on th is so i l se r ies would, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , reach a height of 150 feet at 50 years. The i n i t i a l growth ra te , when a l l p lots are cons idered, is s i g n i f i c a n t l y cor re la ted to the maximum rate and any treatment which w i l l increase the i n i t i a l rate might contr ibute subs tan t i a l l y to the tota l growth. The height growth on the indiv idua l p lots is very s i m i l a r , and the height s t a t i s t i c s do not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( t- test , 1%) between the p lots (Table 58, Figure 20b). Although the p lots present heterogeneous height growth at ear ly ages (Hio and H 1 5 ) , they become some of the most homogeneous p lots at the later dates ( H 2 0 a r | d Hg^) . The c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i on (CV) decreases from 2h% at the age 10 to 6% at present (Table 5 8 ) . The volume and basal area values expressed as mean dominant t r ee , are very uniform among the p lots and the c o e f f i c i e n t s of va r i a t i on decrease from the age of 20 to the present. The de-crease corresponds to the noted decreases in the c o e f f i c i e n t s of va r i a t i on for dbh and height. High co r re l a t ions (r = .96 / w l ) are 198 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among the he ight , basal area and volume (a l l per mean t r ee ) . The co r re l a t i ons of the height to per acre basal area and volume are lower and vary between r = .56"" and r = .77"". The rad ia l growth between the ages of 15 and 20 var ies from 1.15 to 1.32 ins and shows higher co r r e l a t i on to H^ Q (r = .70"") than to H (r = .55); i t s highest co r r e l a t i on is the - H^ Q (r = .77"). The form and densi ty values are low; and the lowest densi ty values for the study area occur on these p l o t s . Caution should be exerc ised in the comparison of the presented form values between s o i l s s ince the presented values are age dependent and the age is not constant between the study p l o t s . The productive nature of th is so i l resu l t s both from i ts high nutr ient content (Table 2k) as well as i t s good moisture regime. Because of i t s high ava i l ab le water content (Table 26) the Memekay so i l presents the lowest moisture de f i c i ency . The de f i c i ency occurs from June to September but does not exceed k ins in to ta l (Appendix Table 6). It is a lso conceived that the concret ions which are present in th i s so i l play and important ro le in the p roduc t i v i t y of the so i l s ince they increase the ae ra t ion , perco la t ion and decrease the bulk densi ty of the surface layer . A l l these, consequently, enhance root development. The stands on the Memekay Soi l not only present the highest y i e lds in the study area but are a lso the most homogeneous. The operat ional s i gn i f i c ance of the l a t t e r should be noted in respect to experimental undertakings and sampling. 7 Calcu lated d iscuss ion under accord i ng C l imate ) . to procedures proposed by Thornthwaite (see 1 199 b. Hart Soi l This so i l has been developed on cobbly and grave l l y outwash ma te r i a l . It contains an ironpan and as a resu l t i t is c l a s s i f i e d as an Or ts te in Podzol . In sp i te of the pan, because of i ts very coarse texture , the solum is well dra ined. The Hart Soi l presents the lowest height growth (H^Q) among the f i v e so i l se r ies (Table 57, Figure 20a). The rate of the height growth is slow and var ies from 1.2-1.5 f t /y r (based on H,^). The maximum growth rate occurs between the ages of 15 to 20 and there is a gradual increase in the rate of growth from the time of establishment to the present (Table 59, Figure 21c) . However, the rate of acce le ra t ion is decreasing with age and the acce le ra t ion rates for the last period (17.5-P) indicate that in the near future a decrease in growth rate wi11 take p lace. It is in te res t ing to note that in the e a r l i e r years ( f i r s t 8 or 10 years) the stands on th is s o i l ser ies performed better than on those developed from t i l l s and sandy outwash (Figure 20a), This is probably due to existence of a 2 inch-thick Ap horizon which is unique to th is s o i l . This horizon has a high water holding capaci ty (1.42 in/ft ) and nutr ient s ta tus , e spec i a l l y nitrogen (Tables 33 and 35). These charac-t e r i s t i c s provide for fast and ear ly growth. The height-age curves of the three p lo ts (Figure 20c) present d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t pat terns . With the exception of HAR 2 and HAR 3 at the age of 20, the height growths of the stands at d i f f e r en t stages d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( t- test , ]% level ) from each other (between p l o t s ) . This indicates the v a r i a b i l i t y of the stands growing on the Hart S o i l . The c o e f f i c i e n t s of va r i a t i on of height decrease with age and the stands become more uniform in the la ter years. 200 The d i f f e r en t growth patterns of the plots may be explained by the nature and cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the ironpans that occur in the s o i l s of these p lo t s . The growth on HAR 1 has been r e s t r i c t ed by the compacted th ick pan which l i e s c lose to surface (6-10 i ns ) . The pan in HAR 2 is less compact and deeper (20-25 i n s ) , and in HAR 3, i t is again c lose to surface but only moderately indurated. Another fac tor associated with plot HAR 3 is that a c lay layer under l ies the outwash approximately 10 to 15 f t below the surface. The existence of th is c lay layer is re -f l e c t ed in the tree growth a f te r the age of 18. This time period may correspond to the time when roots reach the f ine material a f te r pene-t r a t ing through the ironpan. At the age of 20, HAR 2, appears as the most productive s i t e among the three plots in respect to he ight , basal area and volume, whereas at the age of 27, HAR 3 is the most productive one (Table 57). This pro-bably is an ind ica t ion of the weakness of tree s t a t i s t i c s alone (e.g. tota l he ight , basal area, volume) as a reference system for s t r a t i f i -cat ion at ear ly ages e spec i a l l y on heterogeneous mater ia ls such as out-wash and a l luv ium. Any experimentation ( f e r t i l i z e r , thinning) which may have'been undertaken e a r l i e r on these three p lots would have given very misleading r e su l t s . The form values are low and d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y among themselves. The higher form value of HAR 3 may be a t t r ibu ted to i ts high p roduc t i -v i t y . The mean radia l growth, .87 inch, is the lowest in the area. Plot HAR 3 shows the highest radia l growth, ,3k inch, although the stand on HAR 2 is higher in he ight , basal area and volume at the age of 20. After th is age HAR 3 appears as the most productive p l o t . 201 The densi ty does not vary too much between the stands, and the present density for p lots HAR 1, HAR 2 and HAR 3 correspond to the respect ive reductions of 23%, 28% and 36%, from that of the p lant ing densi ty ( 6 1 x 6 ' ) . The stand s t a t i s t i c s that were presented for the Memekay and Hart 3 So i l s are comparable s ince the stands are the same age and located c lose to each other . On the average, the height growth (H 1 ^) on the Memekay Soi l is kk% (max 69%) greater than that on the Hart S o i l . S i m i l a r l y , on the average, the basal area (mean per tree) and volume (mean per tree) on Memekay a re , r espec t i ve l y , 109? and 186% larger than the corresponding values on the Hart. The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e rence ( t- test , 1%) between the form values growing on these two s o i l s may be interpreted that the form is a f fected by so i l and a c lose re l a t ionsh ip can be expected between form and so i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The homogeneity of the stands, between and within the s o i l s , should be re-emphasized because of i t s operat ional s i g n i f i c a n c e . The present densi ty on the Hart So i l is approximately twice as much (90%) of that on the Memekay although both were planted at the densi ty of 6 ' x 6 ' . The present densi ty of the Hart correspond to 7 ' x 7 ' spacing and that of the Memekay to 8 ' x 12' spac i ng. Figure 22 i l l u s t r a t e s the stand development (based on 18 sample trees) on the Memekay and Hart S o i l s . The p roduc t i v i t y d i f f e rences between the two s o i l s may be explained by the d i f fe rences between the i r nutr ient The stands were es tab l i shed Fa l l vs Spring p l an t ing . in the same year the d i f f e rence being 202 Figure 22. Stand development on Memekay (MEM) and Hart (HAR) So i l s 203 contents and moisture regimes. The Memekay S o i l conta ins higher 0M, Na, K, and Ca+Mg than the Hart So i l (Tables 26 and 35). The magnitude of the d i f f e r e n c e becomes l a rger when the coarse ske le ton of the two s o i l s , {12% f o r the Hart and less than 3% f o r the Memekay) is taken i n to c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The other big d i f f e r e n c e is in t h e i r water ho ld ing capac i t i e s ' * (6 ins fo r Memekay, .7 in fo r Hart) which r e s u l t in d i f f e r e n t moisture regimes in these s o i l s . The water d e f i c i e n c y in the Hart S o i l i s 'much grea te r than that of Memekay (76 vs 4 i n s , Appendix Table 6) and extends over a longer per iod (May-September vs June-September) . It should be noted that the pan which occurs in the Hart pedon may serve some usefu l purpose by re ta rd ing the v e r t i c a l movement of water in the solum. However, the same pan w i l l a l so r e s t r i c t v e r t i c a l root development. c. Senton Soi1 This s o i l has been developed on the sandy outwash m a t e r i a l . The s o i l has a we l l dra ined deep solum and is c l a s s i f i e d as Degraded Ac id Brown Wooded. The height growth ( ^Q ) on Senton So i l ranks second among the s o i l s s tud ied (Table 58, F igure 2 0 ) . The mean t o t a l height at 20 years (H^Q) d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( t - t e s t , \% l e ve l ) from the corresponding he ights on the Memekay and Hart S o i l s . The height growths on the Senton and Gos l ing S o i l s c l o s e l y f o l l o w one another u n t i l the age of 18, a f t e r which a be t t e r growth becomes ev ident on the former. Ca l cu l a t ed from .3-15 bars r e t e n t i o n v a l u e s , co r rec ted f o r the, coarse ske le ton and expressed as t o t a l inches f o r the solum. I 2 0 4 The average height growth i s 1.73 f t / y r (based on H 2 Q ) and the maximum growth r a t e , 3-09 f t / y r which takes p lace in SEN 2 between the ages of 10 and 15 (Tables 58 and 59; F igure 21a and d ) . The rate of growth dec l i ne s a f t e r the age of 20. The height-age curves of the d i f f e r e n t p l o t s show d i f f e r e n t pat te rns because of the heterogene i ty of the mate r i a l (F igure 20d). The be t te r pe r -formance of the stand on SEN 2 is due to a c l a y layer under l y ing the sandy mate r i a l at a depth of 6 f e e t . The stand on SEN 2 not on ly shows higher i n i t i a l growth but i t s rate of growth suddenly increases a f t e r the age of 8 . This increase corresponds to the increase in the growth rate from 1.18 f t / y r to 3.09 f t / y r (Table 59). In s p i t e of i t s slow s t a r t , the stand on SEN 6 performs bet te r than that on SEN 10 a f t e r the age of 15. The stand on SEN 6, u n l i k e the ones on SEN 2 and SEN 6, s t i l l shows growth a c c e l e r a t i o n between the ages of 12.5 and 17.5 years (Table 59 ) . The homogeneity of the stands on SEN 2, 6 and 10 increases wi th age and the c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n f o r he ight decreases on the average from 20% at the age of 10 to 6% at the present . These s tands , in g e n e r a l , keep t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s in respect to homogeneity w i th age. P l o t SEN 2 presents the sma l l es t c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n (height) at the ages of 10, 15 and 20, and p l o t SEN 6 appears as the l eas t homogeneous stand at these ages. The v a r i a t i o n in homogeneity w i th age when there are no other reasons may be a t t r i b u t e d to the v e r t i c a l heterogene i ty in s o i l s encountered by t ree r o o t s . The basal area va lues (per mean tree) are h igher than those observed on the Hart S o i l but sma l le r than those found on Memekay and s i m i l a r (a l i t t l e h igher in the average) to the va lues presented fo r the t i l l J 205 s o i l s (Table 58). However, the volume s t a t i s t i c s (per mean tree) are higher than those on the t i l l s . The v a r i a t i o n in volume (^O' P E R M E A N tree) i s 3 to k times greater than that of height. This observation on the c o e f f i c i e n t s of v a r i a t i o n of the height (H2Q) and volume leads to the con-c l u s i o n that height i s a better reference system than volume. Since the former is less v a r i a b l e , i t consequently requires a smaller sample s i z e . Furthermore, because these two v a r i a b l e s are h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d , (r = .98 ) a s i m i l a r conclusion would be obtained from e i t h e r one of them. The r a d i a l growth v a r i e s between .85 and 1.09 inches, and on the average, i t is lower than that of the Memekay but higher than that of the Hart S o i l . The r a d i a l growth i s c o r r e l a t e d (r = .77 ) to the height growth between the ages of 15 and 20 years (^Q - HJI-) a n c' to the height at 20 years (r = .70"") but to a l e s s e r degree to the height at 15 Cr = .55)-The form value v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( t - t e s t , ]%) between the p l o t s and the highest value, .610, corresponds to the most productive s i t e , SEN 2. The highest density 1398 t r e e s / a c , i s a l s o found on t h i s p l o t . This de n s i t y i s the highest in the area and i t i s a l s o higher than the density which corresponds to the nominal p l a n t i n g d e n s i t y , 1200 trees/ac. Probably t h i s i s p a r t l y due to the r e p l a n t i n g which took place in the year f o l l o w -ing the f i r s t p l a n t i n g and p a r t l y due to natural seeding that might have taken place. N u t r i e n t content of the Senton S o i l i s s l i g h t l y lower than that of the Hart when t h e i r chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s determined on less than 2 mm p a r t i c l e s are reviewed, (Tables 33 and 38). However, i f the coarse skeletons of these s o i l s (11% f o r Senton, 62% f o r Hart,, both mean f o r solum) are a l s o considered, the Senton S o i l would i n d i c a t e j 2 0 6 more nutr ient than the Hart. The water holding capaci ty of the Senton is lower than that of the Hart Soi l (Tables kO and 35). However the former, by not having a pan, provides a better growth medium for roots which can grow eas i l y beyond the solum to obtain extra moisture and nu t r i en t s . This cha r a c t e r i s t i c probably resu l ts in a better p roduc t i v i t y on the Senton S o i l . d. Gos1i ng Soi1 This so i l has been developed on vo l can i c- r i ch t i l l . It is an upland so i l and c l a s s i f i e d as a Degraded Acid Brown Wooded. The annual mean height growth is 1.53 f t / y r (based on H 2 Q ) and the maximum growth ra te , 2.28 f t /y r occurs between the 15th and 20th years (Tables 58 and 59, Figures 20a and e ) . The growth rate decreases a f te r the age of 15, except on GOS I where the increase of the growth rate continues a f te r th i s age at the rate of .13 f t /y r/y r . The growth patterns on GOS 3 and GOS k are quite s im i l a r and they d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( t- tes t , \% level ) from that on GOS 1. The l a t t e r is s i tuated on the top of a knoll presenting an ecosystem d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r en t from the others . P lot GOS I is located on the shallow phase of the Gosl ing S o i l . The smallest basal area ( B A 2 Q , mean per tree) and volume V 2 0 , (per mean tree) occurs on GOS k (Table 58). This corresponds to the small mean dib^g found in th i s p l o t . The per acre values (at age 20) for basal area and volume are the smallest on GOS I. The most productive s i t e is GOS 3 in respect to a l l parameters. This may be due to i t s locat ion which is a concave topographic pos i t ion on the mid-slope. The highest radia l growth, 1.08 ins , occurs on GOS I and it co r r e -sponds to the high growth on th i s plot between the ages of "15 and 20 207 The high form value on GOS 3 is par t l y due to the younger age of the stand. The density values may correspond to the moisture regimes of the p l o t s . The d r i e s t s i t e , GOS 1, shows the smallest dens i ty , 637 t rees/ac , which is a 47% decrease from the establishment density (1200 trees/ac) . In respect to nu t r i en t s , the Gosl ing So i l contains less Na and K than the ser ies prev ious ly d iscussed. However, the Ca+Mg content of th is so i l is higher than those of the Hart and Senton So i l s but lower than that of the Memekay. The ava i l ab le water of the Gosl ing is approximately twice as much as the values ca lcu la ted for the Hart and Senton (Tables 35, 40 and 4 4 ) . The moisture de f i c iency of the Gosl ing Soi l is s im i l a r to that of the Hart (>6 ins , Appendix Table 6) . e. Qu i nsam So i1 This so i l has been developed on the sandstone-rich t i l l . It is an upland so i l and c l a s s i f i e d as a Concretionary Podzol . The height growth s ta r t s rather slowly on the Quinsam Soi l in comparison to the other s e r i e s , but i t recovers a f te r the age of 16 (Figure 20a). The highest recovery occurs on QUI 3 between the ages of 15 and 20 which corresponds to a growth rate of 2.83 f t /y r and an acce le ra t ion of .21 f t /y r/y r (Table 21). The mean absolute height growth between the ages of 15 and 20 is the second highest in the area (Table 58). It is in te res t ing to note, that when the f i r s t ten years of growth are compared th i s so i l appears to be the least pro-duct ive among those s tud ied. At the age of 15, the growth is better than that on Hart ; and at the age of 20, i t surpasses the growth on 2 0 8 Gos l ing . From the Figure 20a, i t appears that the growth on th is ser ies might a lso overtake the growth on the Senton Soi l in the near fu ture . An explanation for the observed behaviour of the growth on the Quinsam is that the sandstone underlying the t i l l acts as a sponge and conserves a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of moisture which moves into the lower level of the so i l by c a p i l l a r y movement. As the roots extend deeper, the benef i c ia l e f f e c t of th i s add i t iona l moisture becomes evident in growth. The age-height curves on QUI 3 and QUI 4 are very s im i l a r and they d i f f e r d i s t i n c t l y from that on QUI 1 (Figure 20f). Plot QUI 1 is located on the lower part of the slope whereas plot QUI 4 on the top of the k n o l l ; p lot QUI 3 occupies the upper-middle slope p o s i t i o n . The growth values for QUI 3 and QUI 4 at the ages of 10, 15 and 20 do not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( t- tes t , SZ) from each other but the values for both p lots d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those for QUI 1. Plot QUI 1 is s i tuated on the deep phase of the Quinsam S o i l . The mean basal area at 20 years is (BA^/tree) , .06 sq f t and ident ica l to the mean value found on the Gosl ing S o i l . However, the volume (^o- P E R mean t r ee ) , on the Quinsam is higher than that on the Gosl ing but the l a t te r so i l ser ies shows higher per acre basal area and volume values both at the age of 20 and the present. o The high mean radia l growth (second in the study area) corresponds to the high absolute growth (also second in the area) between the ages of 15 and 20 ( H 2 0 - H 1 5 ) . The form values vary between .58 and .62 and on the average are lower than those for the Gosl ing S o i l . It i s , p resent l y , somewhat d i f f i c u l t to account for the between and within the p lots d i f f e rences which are often s i g n i f i c a n t ( t- tes t , 1%). However-, the comparisons I 209 between the Quinsam and Gosl ing as well as the Memekay and the Senton strongly indicate that the form is a f fected by the nature and kind of so i l or by the environment in genera l . If the form of the trees grow-ing on d i f f e r en t s o i l s (mapping unit ) can be determined, the volume measurements of the stands corresponding to the d i f f e r en t mapping uni ts may be more p rec i se l y obta ined. The s e n s i t i v i t y of the form to the environmental factors could be emphasized with the fact that stand treatments, such as f e r t i l i z a t i o n , would a lso resu l t in changes in the form (Mustanoja and Leaf, 1965). A s im i l a r e f f ec t can a lso be expected from th inn ing . When the nutr ient contents of the Gosl ing and Quinsam So i l s (both t i l l s o i l s ) are compared, the former appears to have higher amounts of OM, Ca+Mg, Cu and Zn but lower values for Na, K and P. Furthermore, the pH of the solum of the Gosl ing Soi l is lower than that of Quinsam. The p r i n c i p l e d i f f e rence between these two s o i l s is that the Quinsam Soi l contains montmori11 on i te and kao l i n i t e types of c lays which are unique to th is s o i l . Vermicu l i te and some c h l o r i t e are present. The Gosl ing Soi l contains pr imar i l y c h l o r i t e with some ve rmicu l i t e . The d i f fe rence observed in the c lay composition of these two s o i l s may have s i g n i f i c a n t e f f ec t on the i r p roduc t i v i t y . The hypothesis of the bene f i c i a l e f f e c t of the sandstone under-ly ing the t i l l to the moisture regime of the Quinsam Soi l should be re-emphasized s ince the water holding capac i ty of th is so i l is lower than that of the Gosl ing which may be judged as less productive than th i s so i1 . General comments on Douglas f i r growth in re l a t ion to d i f f e r en t s o i l s : The fo l lowing genera l iza t ions are based on the presented data and t 210 d i scuss ions . To determine the extent to which they could be extrapolated for d i f f e r en t s o i l s and areas would require further inves t iga t ions . The va r i a t i on in growth is re lated to the va r i a t ions in so i l mate r i a l . The more va r i ab le the ma te r i a l , the more var iab le the stand. The stands on the Memekay Soi l are the most homogeneous. Although the stands on the Gosl ing and Quinsam So i l s show some v a r i a b i l i t y , they could be separated into more homogeneous uni ts on the basis of depth phases. The most heterogeneous stands are found on the Hart and Senton S o i l s , and it appears d i f f i c u l t to separate them into less heterogeneous segments since the v a r i a b i l i t y in stands corresponds to the ve r t i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y in the material ( inherent v a r i a b i l i t y ) . These s o i l s do not show any eas i l y recognizable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that can be used as a basis for separat ion. The amount of va r i a t i on in the stand s t a t i s t i c s decreases with age. For example, in tota l he ight , a decrease as high as 25% may be observed from the age of 10 to the age of 25 (SEN 6 ) . The height measurements show smaller va r i a t ions than the corresponding basal area and volume s t a t i s t i c s (per mean t ree ) . The order in va r i a t i on i s : he ight , basal area, volume. At the age of 2 0 , the corresponding c o e f f i c i e n t s of va r i a t i on are : 7 - 12%, 13~24% and 18-24%. Cor re la t ions among these three s t a t i s t i c s are h igh: r = . 9 8 " " for height-volumes, r = . 9 8 " ' for height-basal area and r = . 9 9 for volume-basal area. At the younger ages, the growth s t a t i s t i c s may not t ru l y r e f l e c t the p roduc t i v i t y of a s o i l . For example, on the basis of the height data presented for the age of 10 , the Quinsam Soi l is the least pro-duct ive s i t e whereas at the age of 20, i t ranks as the th i rd and it appears that in the future i t may become the second most productive so i l in the area. It was not poss ib le to e s t ab l i sh a c r i t i c a l age above which the product i v i t y assessment may be more v a l i d . However, the stand age is not too c r i t i c a l when s o i l s with extreme p roduc t i -v i t i e s are compared since the d i f fe rences are establ ished at very ear ly ages. Stands growing on d i f f e r en t s o i l s or mater ia ls show d i f f e r en t growth pat terns . The rate of height growth (ft/yr) and the acce le -rat ion or dece lera t ion ( f t/yr/yr) of growth rate are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to each stand growing on d i f f e r en t s o i l s . It was observed that the maximum rate of height growth takes place between the 10th and 15th year on some s o i l s (Memekay, Senton and Gos l ing ) , and between the 15th and 20th year on others (Hart and Ojjinsam). No sa t i s f a c to r y explanat ions were found for th is observat ion except that the time d i f fe rences may correspond to the durat ion of establishment of the trees growing on d i f f e r en t s o i l s . A decrease in the growth rate may co inc ide with the canopy c losure in the stand which takes place e a r l i e r on some s o i l s than on the o thers . One speculat ion may be that the canopy c losure retards the nitrogen cyc le in the L-H layer and in the upper part of the solum, which in tu rn , resu l ts in a low a v a i l -a b i l i t y of nut r ients from the organic matter. There is strong evidence that the form factor and density ( less c evidence.was co l l e c ted for the l a t te r ) are re lated to the d i f f e r en t so i1s . ' ' ' • • " • " « » • • ' < • ' ' * ' • The operat ional usefulness and app-l legation of *trre®above genera l i~ ; • • • zat ion may be presented as fo l l ows : 212 Sampling densi ty and in tens i ty should be undertaken according to : a) the s o i l s on which the stand is growing, b) the age of the stand, and c) the va r i ab le under cons idera t ion : height, basal area or volume. Height appears to be the most p rac t i ca l and economical var iab le to employ as a reference system for comparing the p roduc t i v i t y of d i f f e ren t s o i l s under young Douglas f i r p lantat ions s ince : a) i t is not markedly a f fected by dens i t y , b) a smaller sample s ize is required because of i t s lower v a r i a b i l i t y in comparison to the other v a r i ab l e s , and c) i t is easy to obtain in the f i e l d . Furthermore, when there is a necess i ty to inquire into the past growth h is tory of a stand, height is a better tool since basal area and volume are densi ty dependent and the past densi ty of a stand cannot be ascerta ined from the present densi ty measurements. The optimum stand treatments may be undertaken on the basis of the growth patterns c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to each s o i l . The establishment period may be shortened by f e r t i l i z a t i o n or by cont ro l l ed burning on some s o i l s . Furthermore, the most appropr iate time for thinning and f e r t i -l i z a t i o n may be inferred from the growth pat terns . It might be poss ib le that by these treatments growth may be kept at i t s maximum rate for a longer period resu l t ing in a higher y i e l d . Because of the re l a t ionsh ips of he ight , form factor and density to s o i l s , i t becomes evident that for d i f f e r en t s o i l s , indiv idual s i t e index curves, volume and y i e l d tables would be required for ref ined assessments of the present stand as well as .future y i e l d s . The r e l a t i onsh ip between the stand density and s o i l s leads to the con-c lus ions that d i f f e r e n t spacing^ may be required in -planting o a d i f f e r e n t s o i l s . ; I 213 As a conclus ion it may be stated that the stands growing on d i f f e r en t s o i l s cons t i tu te d i f f e r en t populations and consequently show d i f f e r en t growth patterns. A pre requ is i te to evaluat ions of these stands is a comprehensive understanding of the i r behaviour in re l a t ion to so i l as well as other environmental f a c to r s . 2. Soi l Cha rac t e r i s t i c s and Growth Relat ionships between tree growth and morphologica l , physical and chemical so i l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s were invest igated . Because of the l imi ted data (small sample s i z e ) , co r r e l a t i on and regression s tud ies , in mathematical sense, were not undertaken. Instead, graphical techniques were employed. Consequently, the d iscuss ion presented below should be reviewed with care s ince the stated re la t ionsh ips are ob-served " t r ends " rather than the resu l t s of quant i ta t i ve analyses. The fo l lowing were studied in d e t a i l : 1. Re la t ionship of tota l he ight , volume and basal area to the morpho-l o g i c a l , physical and chemical so i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 2. Va r i a t ion of soi l-growth re la t ionsh ips with stand age. 3. Re lat ive importance of the physical and chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of solum and parent material in r e l a t i on to growth. Because of l imi ted space, only a summary of the resu l ts is presented. a. Morphological so i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The selected so i l morphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , recorded on f i f t e e n p l o t s , represent ing the f i v e s o i l s , namely, Memekay, Hart , Senton, Gosl ing and Quinsam are presented in Table 60. When a l l data is p lotted against the growth s t a t i s t i c s (Table 58) no co r re l a t ions were observed. However, i f the co r r e l a t i on was undertaken on the Table 60. Selected morphological so i l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of f i ve so i1 ser i es SOIL SERIES CO tu n: DEPTH THICKNESS r"LU 1 z t ^ <-> E |j_>— sol urn root ng Bf, B f 2 Bf, B f 2 tota l Bf X O 1- i nches MEM 1 38 28 0 25 3 5. 0 5 0 10 0 22 0 Memekay MEM 4 122 28 6 28 6 6. 1 8 2 14 2 16 8 MEM 5 76 26 2 26 2 4. 0 4 2 8 2 14 8 mean 79 27 6 26 7 5 0 5 5 10 5 16 3 HAR 1 25 24 2 24 2 5. 5 9 8 15 2 22 0 Hart HAR 2 8 29 0 23 5 8. 0 9 0 17 0 25 0 HAR 3 49 31 3 25 0 6. 2 10 1 16 3 24 0 mean 27 28 2 24 2 6 6 9 6 16 2 23 7 SEN 2 10 56 4 31 8 1. 6 11. 6 13 2 28 5 Senton SEN 6 39 40 2 25 3 3-2 7 3 10 4 23 5 SEN 10 25 42 0 29 2 2. 0 2 0 6 0 24 2 mean 25 46 2 28 8 2. 3 6 9 9 9 25 4 GOS 1 57 18 3 18 3 6 3 0 3 6 15 8 Gosl i ng GOS 3 51 23 2 23 2 1 . 0 5 0 6 0 16 0 GOS 4 38 19 4 19 4 1 . 8 5 6 7 4 14 0 mean 48 20 5 20 5 1 . 1 4 5 5 7 15 3 QUI 1 51 3l' 1 31 1 •7 0 8 0 15 0 24 0 Qu i nsam QUI 3 55 26 5 26 5 2 1 8 1 10 2 17 3 QUI 4 24 22 5 22 5 1 3 5 5 6 8 17 7 mean 43 26 7 26 7 3 4 7 2 10 7 19 6 215 basis of parent material ( s u r f i c i a l deposits) ce r t a in co r re l a t ions became evident . Furthermore, there were ind icat ions that if the study was ca r r i ed out on the so i l ser ies l e v e l , the kind and degree of the re l a t ionsh ips could be increased. This is expected since so i l ser ies are smaller and more homogeneous mapping uni ts than parent mate r i a l , and the former de l ineates smaller and more homogeneous stands (populat ions) . However, the present study was ca r r i ed out on the parent material basis because of the small sample s i z e . Among the stand s t a t i s t i c s , tota l height at the age of 20 (H20) shows the best r e l a t i onsh ip to the morphological so i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The re l a t ionsh ips are apparent between the depth of solum and the height (H20) o n s o i l s developed from vo l can i c- r i ch t i l l and outwash (Figure 23a and b) . On the outwash, the height (H2Q) a lso shows re l a t ionsh ips to the tota l thickness of the Bf horizons (Figure 23c). No re l a t i onsh ip trends were observed between the so i l morphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and ihe volume- a-nd basal area s t a t i s t i c s . Care should be exercised when so i l morphological cha r a c t e r i s t i c s are se lected as independent va r iab les in co r r e l a t i on and regression s tud ies . These var iab les present great va r i a t ions within short d i s -tances as a resu l t of " churn ing" and micro-topography which are both c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of forested s o i l s , and c e r t a i n l y well expressed in the present study area. In the immediate v i c i n i t y of a t ree , in genera l , horizons are deeper than would be found fur ther away. Around roots , because of more intensive p h y s i c a l , chemical and b io -log ica l r eac t ions , the so i l development is more advanced and "tongues" may develop. Soi l development is a lso rather unique under rotten logs where an Ae horizon is often found. Because of these a t t r i b u t e s , 216 4 0 - i 9 G o s l i n g Se^.es A Ouinsom Se<* ' e s (a) 0 Mfif t Series A j Bn lon Series - 1 50 DEP IH 0 r SOLUM IN INCHES l b ! A *6 O H o n Series A Senton Ser ies — I — 2 0 —T" - 1 — 3 0 THICKNESS OF Bf HORIZONS IN INCHES ( C ) Figure 2 3 . Re lat ionships of height at the age of 20 years to a) depth of solum in t i l l s o i l s , b) depth of solum in outwash s o i l s , and c) thickness of Bf horizons in outwash s o i l s 217 the sampling as well as in terpre ta t ions of the morphological so i l cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the forested so i l should always be car r ied out with extreme caut ion. b. Physical so i l cha r a c t e r i s t i c s The employed physical so i l cha r a c t e r i s t i c s studied in re l a t ion to growth were p a r t i c l e s ize d i s t r i b u t i o n and moisture retent ion character -i s t i c s of the solum and parent mate r i a l . The tota l height (h^n) appears to have a higher co r r e l a t i on to the so i l physical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s than the volume ( V 2 0 ) cr the basal area (BA2Q ) . The volume (V^Q) , in most cases, did not show any re la t ionsh ip to the so i l v a r i ab l e . When the basal area ( B A 2 0 ) w a s plotted against the so i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t was observed that the slope of the regres-sion l ine appeared too small to be s i g n i f i c a n t . Figure 2k i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i ve re la t ionsh ips of the height (h^rj) , volume (^Q, per mean tree) and basal area ( B A 2 0 , P e r m e a n tree) to the tota l s i l t and c lay content of solum. Height appears as the best reference system (dependent var iable) among the growth measurements. The lower c o e f f i c i e n t of va r i a t ion of th is s t a t i s t i c (Table 58) augments i ts p rac t i ca l u t i l i t y since i t is easy to obtain in p lantat ions and requires smaller sample s ize than both basal area and volume. The degree of r e l a t ionsh ip between so i l physical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s and height appears to increase with age when the heights corresponding to the d i f f e r en t ages (H|Q, HJI : , and H 2 0 ) were employed (Figures 25 and 2 6 ) . This is probably due to the fact that the l im i ta t ions resu l t ing from the so i l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s are more st rongly expressed in tree growth as the tree becomes o lder and occupies a larger space. It is speculated that the importance of so i l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s to growth var ies 218 (ui S i LI . CL»Y M f tBCENT Figure 2k. Re lat ionships of a) he ight , b) volume (per mean tree) and c) basal area (per mean tree) at the age of 20 years to s i l t + c l a y content of solum 219 (a) (b) C3 3CH 20+-2 0 4 ° 60 80 0 20 40 60 80 Age 20 80 0 Age 15 20 20 40 60 SILT CONTENT IN PERCENT 80 0 Age 10 20 40 60 SILT CONTENT IN PERCENT Figure 25. Relat ionships of heights at the ages of 10, 15 and 20 years to s i l t content of a) solum and b) parent material 220 (a) (b) 20 30 40 0 10 Age 20 30 — i 10 40 O Age 15 10 20 30 CLAY CONTENT IN PERCENT Age 10 10 20 30 CLAY CONTENT IN PERCENT Figure 26. Re lat ionships of heights at the ages of 10, 15 and 20 years to c lay content of a) solum and b) parent material 221 with age, and at the various stages of tree growth d i f f e r en t sets of so i l c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s become more important. Consequently, d i f f e r en t sets of equations may be required for the pred ic t ion of growth at the d i f f e r en t stages (ages) of stand development. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of solum and parent material show s imi la r re l a t ionsh ips to height (H20)• However, i t was f e l t that charac-t e r i s t i c s of parent material are somewhat better re lated to H20 than those of solum (Figures 25 and 26) although the d i f fe rences may not be s i g n i f i c a n t . Most of the textural s t a t i s t i c s show co r r e l a t i on to height growth (H|Q, H]ir and H2n) • The best re lated c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , in add i t ion to the g raph i ca l l y presented ones, are : very coarse sand, coarse sand, medium sand and coarse c l ay . Among the moisture s t a t i s t i c s , the tota l a va i l ab l e water c a l c u -lated from .3 to 15 bars tensions shows a better r e l a t i onsh ip to H20 a f te r i t is corrected for the coarse skeleton and bulk dens i ty . These two cor rec t ions are necessary s ince the laboratory determinations were undertaken on disturbed s o i l s and on less than 2 mm p a r t i c l e s . With-out the co r r e c t i ons , the comparison of the moisture regime of d i f f e r en t s o i l s may be mis leading. The cor rec t ions are qui te important for the present s o i l s s ince the i r textures vary from very stony sand to stone-free c lay and the i r bulk dens i t i es show considerable va r i a t ions both between and within the so i l s e r i e s . Figure 27 i l l u s t r a t e s the e f f ec t of the cor rec t ions for bulk densi ty (Figure 27b) and coarse skeleton (Figure 27c and d) on the ava i l ab l e water - height r e l a t i onsh ip . The re l a t ionsh ip increases with the co r r e c t i ons . Although the d i f f e rence between the r e l a t i on-50-1 40-30-1 1 10 20 AVAILABLE WATER I 30 % WEIGHT —I 40 20- 10 15 20 AVAILABLE WATER , % VOLUME (a) (b) 50-40-30- 30- 8 20- I 1 1 0 .5 . 1.0 1.5 AVAILABLE WATER , INCHES/FT. 20-2.0 (c) AVAILABLE WATER 6 INCHES (d) F i g u r e 27. R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f h e i g h t a t t h e age o f 20 y e a r s t o f o u r d i f f e r e n t e x p r e s s i o n s o f a v a i l a b l e wa te r (.3-15 b a r s ) a) a v a i l a b l e w a t e r , no c o r r e c t i o n s b) a v a I l a b l e w a t e r , c o r r e c t e d f o r t c ) a v a i l a b l e w a t e r , c o r r e c t e d f o r and c o a r s e s k e l e t o n , e x p r e s s e d f o o t d) a v a i l a b l e w a t e r , c o r r e c t e d f o r and c o a r s e s k e l e t o n , e x p r e s s e d as so lum b u l k d e n s i t y b u l k d e n s i t y as i n c h e s pe r b u l k d e n s i t y i n c h e s f o r 223 ships of height to ava i l ab le water expressed in inches per foot (Figure 27c) and to that ca lcu la ted for the solum (Figure 27d) is rather sma l l , the l a t t e r r e l a t ionsh ip appears somewhat bet ter . However, the present sample s ize is too small to reach a de f i n i t e cone 1 us i on. The co r r e l a t i on between height growth ( H J Q , H,^ and H 2 Q ) A N ( J L so i l moisture cha r a c t e r i s t i c s increases as the age advances. This is i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 28 where the f i e l d capaci ty as estimated from .3 bar retent ion values is p lotted against H]n> H,e; and H 2 Q . This f igure a lso presents a r e l a t i ve comparison between the f i e l d capac i t i es of the solum and parent material as they are related to the height growth at the d i f f e r en t ages (H]g, H ] ^ and H 2 Q ) . Di f ferences due to the solum or parent material are sma l l , although the l a t t e r shows s l i g h t l y better r e l a t i onsh ips . This observat ion , in genera l , is a lso true for the other moisture c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . It seems that p a r t i c l e s ize and so i l moisture cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of the parent material show higher re la t ionsh ips ,to the height growth than those of the solum. This observed t rend, provided that i t is substant iated with more data , could have p rac t i ca l imp l i ca t ions . The determination of the moisture c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of parent material is less cos t l y and time consuming than those of the solum since a larger sample s ize is required for the l a t t e r . The other moisture c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that a lso show re la t ionsh ip to the height growth are : The water retent ion values corresponding to .1 , . 9 , 5 and 15 bars tens ions , r espec t i ve l y ; and the ava i l ab le water both between .1-15 and .3~15 bar tens ions. • c. Chemical so i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Invest igat ions s im i l a r to those undertaken for the physical so i l 224 5 0 - , 5 0 -30-, 20 — I — 30 2 0 -Age 20 20 — I — 30 —I 40 50 - 1 — 20 - 1 — 30 40 0 10 Age 15 2 0-, 10 20 30 40 0 WATER RETENT ION , % VOLUME Age 10 I 20 30 40 WATER RETENTION , % VOLUME Figure 28. Re lat ionships of heights at the ages of 10, 15 and 20 years to f i e l d capac i ty expressed as moisture retent ion determined at .3 bar tension 225 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were also carried out for both the macroelements and micro-elements . Relationships between the chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and growth varies with the kind of element and the employed growth s t a t i s t i c s ; i.e. height (H20) , basal area ( B ^ Q ) or volume (^rj) • Figure 29 presents the r e l a t i o n -ships of the OM and same selected chemical elements (N, P and K) to the height, basal area and volume. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between potassium and basal area is p o s i t i v e , (Figure 29c) and the relationship of the nitrogen to height appears some-what better than that of organic matter to volume (Figure 29a and d). The negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between phosphorus and the height is interesting to note (Figure 29b). This r e l a t i o n s h i p does not seem to be a cause-and-effect proposition since there is no evidence that the increasing phosphorus con-tent of the s o i l s decreases the growth in the area. However, the phosphorus contents of these s o i l s are related.to t h e i r texture; coarser the texture, the higher the phosphorus content; and in turn, the texture, as shown e a r l i e r , is correlated to height; 'the coarser the texture, the poorer the height growth (negative c o r r e l a t i o n ) . As a consequence of these two r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the observed trend between phosphorus and height occurs. This is a v a l i d c o r r e l a t i o n in the mathematical sense and i t can be employed in a prediction system. However, i t w i l l be a serious mistake to interpret this c o r r e l a t i o n as a cause-and-effeet r e l a t i o n s h i p . Often, cause-and-e f f e c t relationships are concluded from c o r r e l a t i o n studies without further evidence. The foregoing presentation may i l l u s t r a t e why considerable caution is required in the interpretation of the relationships observed between s o i l and stand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . BASAL AREA (BA20) IN SO. FT. / AC. HEIGHT (Hto) IN FEET IO C r o r t 73 O CD —-O DJ 12 r t -O Z3 in IT —• -O Q) in Q. O - h ZT n CD 0 —-i n r t zr CD r t 3 r t in < O O —* - h 3 in CD O —• Ol c rj 3 Q_ e •e a 1 VOLUME (V20) IN CU.FT./AC. O O O HEIGHT (Hzo) IN FEET o cr 0 ) cu -s CD Ol D J UD CD r o o -< CD 0 1 9ZZ 227 (a) ( b) 5 0 --1 1 1 c 10 0 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 ! 1 1 I I 5 10 15 20 30-, Age 20 30-~1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 10 0 - i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — I— i — i — I — I — I — i — i r ' Age 15 30-, 2 0 H 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 10 Ca+ Mg, me/ lOOg -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 10 15 20 Ca+Mg , me/ lOOg Age 10 F i g u r e 30. R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f h e i g h t a t t h e ages o f 10, 15 and 20 y e a r s t o Ca+Mg c o n t e n t o f a) solum and b) paren t m a t e r i a l 228 As the age of the stand advances the degree of the re l a t ionsh ip between the chemical cna r a c t e r i s t i c s and height ( H , r , H l c and H ) increases (Figure 30). It appears that the chemical cha rac t e r i s t i c s of the solum are better cor re la ted to growth than those of the parent mate r i a l . This is a reverse s i tua t ion to the one encountered for the physical so i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This observat ion may be quite va l i d s ince the solum is the weathered part of parent mate r i a l , and furthermore, as a resu l t of so i l development, it has more nutr ients than the parent mate r i a l . The other chemical s o i l cha r a c t e r i s t i c s such as Na, Cu and Zn a l so present co r re l a t i on trends to growth. The reader should again be reminded of the l imi ta t ions under-ly ing the aforegoing d i scuss ions . 229 V. INTERPRETATION AND GROUPING 1. Interpretat ion of Mapping Units for Forestry The maps discussed e a r l i e r and included in Appendix d isp lay the kind and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the geologica l mater ia ls and s o i l s in the area , and the i r physical and chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s are discussed in the previous sec t ions . The usefulness of these maps and of the physical and chemical information is great ly increased i f the i n te r -pretat ions are provided r e l a t i ve to poss ib le pract ices and uses that may be made of the units which are mapped and descr ibed. In terpretab i1 i t y of a map resu l ts from the fo l lowing two pr i nc i p l e s : 1) d i f f e r en t mapping uni ts are d i f f e r en t in nature, and 2) repeated occurrences of a mapping unit have the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The degree of the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among the mapping uni ts depends on the set of c r i t e r i a establ ished for the i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and de l i nea t i on ; and the degree of the s i m i l a r i t y among the repeated members of a mapping unit is re lated to the amount of va r i a t i on allowed for the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that make up the c r i t e r i a . Furthermore, kind and degree (ref ineness) of the in te rpre ta t ion is re lated to the level of abst rac t ion at which the mapping is undertaken. From a general map only l imited numbers and broad in terpre ta t ions can be made; on the other hand from a de ta i l map, deta i l ed in terpre ta t ions as well as a general one can be obtained. Because of the f i r s t p r i n c i p l e presented above, the observa-t ions and experience within a mapping area can be sorted out (arranged) on the basis of the mapping un i t s . That i s , assoc ia t ions can be es tab l i shed between the mapping uni ts and the observed events. On the basis of the second p r i n c i p l e , observat ions can be 230 extended or extrapolated to the repeated members of the un i t s . The estab l ished assoc ia t ions between the mapping uni ts and events a lso provide a se r ies of re l a t ionsh ips often useful in studying the i n te r -act ion between these two sets of v a r i ab l e s . P red ic t ion mechanism (regression equations) f requent ly "a re developed for the est imation of selected dependent var iab les from some known cha ra c t e r i s t i c s (independent v a r i ab l e s ) . In the previous sect ions the resu l t s of such undertakings were presented. The organizat ion of the knowledge in respect to mapping units and establishment of re l a t ionsh ips between the observed event and the cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of these units const i tu tes the basis of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . ' The in te rpre ta t ion cons is ts of some basic log ica l operations^ and for an object ive in te rpre ta t ion a quant i ta t i ve approach is a must. However, in fo res t r y where s c i e n t i f i c inqu i r i es are f a i r l y recent, one is often forced to i n te rpo l a te , extrapolate and- use a considerable amount of judgment in the process of i n te rp re ta t i on . Because of the lack of experimental data , the in terpreta t ions are based upon an understanding of the basic cha r a c t e r i s t i c s and propert ies of the mapped uni ts and on experience and judgment. It 'The doctr ine of the Uniformity of Nature under l ies a l l concepts of the natural sc iences . This doctr ine was expressed by M i l l (1874) as : "There are such things in nature as pa ra l l e l cases , that what happens once, w i l l under s u f f i c i e n t degree of s i m i l a r i t y of c i rcumstances, happen aga in . ' 1 ^The fundamental l og i ca l operat ions for in te rpre ta t ion are: a) d i s j u n c t i o n : th is or that b) con junct ion : th is and that c) in ference: i f t h i s , then that d) negat ion: not th is e) comparison: is th i s the same as that? If so, do x. If not do y. (Rapoport, 1953) 231 should be emphasized that the primary object ive in undertaking these in terpre ta t ions was to present an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the idea and the basic p r i n c i p l e s involved. More than l i k e l y some of the in te rp re ta t ions , as the amount of experimental data increases, may prove inadequate. Although in te rpre ta t ion could have been ca r r i ed out from any of the prev ious ly presented maps, the so i l assoc ia t ion map (Map V) was chosen for the purpose. It was conceived that the so i l assoc ia t ions del ineate mapping uni ts most appropriate in s ize and homogeneity for the present fo res t r y p rac t i c e s . However, the in terpre ta t ions were ca r r i ed out when the so i l ser ies or the drainage c lasses within a unit were known. The in te rpre ta t ion resu l ts are presented in Appendix Table 6, in a general format containing the fo l lowing information for each un i t : (1) legend, (2) desc r ip t i ve information on the landform, topography and geology (3) so i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and {h) i n te rp re ta -t i ons . The in terpre ta t ions are a) p roduc t i v i t y for Douglas f i r , b) species suitabi l i ty, .- c) logging opera t ion , d) s lash burning i n t ens i t y , e) natural regeneration p o t e n t i a l , f) brush hazard, g) thinning p r e s c r i p -t i ons , h) f e r t i l i z e r recommendations, i) road construct ion s u i t a b i l i t y , and j) e ros ion . A summary of the in te rpre ta t ions is presented below: a) Potent ia l p roduc t i v i t y for Douglas f i r Th is refers to the p roduc t i v i t y of a pure stand (Douglas f i r makes up more than 8]% of the stand) . The produc t i v i t y c lasses are as fol1ows: 232 NS - Not su i tab le (or low) P - Poor S i te index: 60-125 f t m.a. i .3 : AO cu f t (79 y r s ) 4 M - Medium S i te index: 125-160 f t m.a. i. : 98 cu f t (63 yrs) G - Good S i te index: 160-180 f t m.a . i . : 147 cu f t (72 yrs) E - Excel 1ent S i te index: 180 f t m. a . i . : 147+ cu f t The p roduc t i v i t y rat ing of the mapped uni ts was determined from the f i e l d plot data supported by the recent inventory map of the area, b) Species s u i t a b i l i t y S u i t a b i l i t y of the indigenous con i fe r species was indicated for each mapping un i t . The in te rpre ta t ion does not take into account the market values nor the economical rotat ions of the spec ies . The species considered were: F - Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga menziesi-L) H - Western hemlock (Tsuga hetevophylla) C - Western red cedar (Thuja pliaata) ^Mean annual increment; lower diameter l im i t 9.1", c lose u t i l i z a t i o n less decay (Data from the Inventory D i v i s i o n , B.C. Forest Se rv i ce ) . ^Culmination age. 233 G - Grand f i r (Abies grandis) P - Lodgepole pine (shore form) (Pinus contovta oontorta) S - S i tka spruce (Pioea sitchensis) c) Logging operat ion This indicates where logging operat ions should be c a r e fu l l y planned due to the fo l lowing r e s t r i c t i o n s : N = no r e s t r i c t i o n : normal logging^ R( e) = r e s t r i c t i o n ; erosion hazard R(w) = r e s t r i c t i o n ; excess wetness Where there are erosion hazards, the type of logging and kind of machinery to be used require careful cons idera t ion . Logging on wet areas should be r es t r i c t ed to dry season; furthermore, use of heavy machinery should be avoided to minimize so i l compaction. d) Slash burning in tens i ty The degree of in tens i ty is defined in terms of the amount of the exposed mineral so i l fo l lowing the f i r e . The thoughts under-ly ing the in te rpre ta t ion are 1) the conservation of nitrogen where i t is low, and 2) the prevention of erosion which may result fo l low-ing s lash burning. The fo l lowing in tens i ty c lasses are employed: R ( e) = no burning: erosion hazard L = low; exposed mineral so i l is less than 20% M = medium; exposed mineral so i l is 20-60% H = h igh ; exposed mineral so i l is > 60% e) Natural regeneration p robab i l i t y It is based on the nature and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the so i l that w i l l serve as a seed bed when s u f f i c i e n t quant i ty of seed is a va i l -^Any of the present logging techniques may be employed. 234 able . The i n t e rp re t a t i on , consequently, is a lso va l id for a r t i f i c i a l seeding and s c a r i f i c a t i o n cons idera t ions . The fol lowing c l a s ses , based on the assumption that a good d i s t r i b u t i o n of seedl ings is present, were emp1oyed: L - low; less than 200 trees/ac M - medium; 200-500 trees/ac H - h igh ; 500+ trees/ac f) Brush hazard This hazard refers to brush encroachment which fol lows s lash burning and which in ter fe res with the establishment of the natural and planted seed l ings . The in te rpre ta t ion indicates how soon the area should be planted fo l lowing s lash burning. The three brush hazard c lasses used are: L - low; p lant ing required within 4-6 yrs M - medium; p lant ing required within 2-4 yrs H - h igh: p lant ing required within 2 yrs g) Browsing hazard This refers p r imar i l y to deer browsing and is app l i cab le to the p lantat ions less than 5 f t in height . The estab l ished c lasses are based on the percentage of the browsed trees in a given area: L - low; less than 20% browsed M - medium; 20-40% browsed H - h igh; more than 40% browsed h) Thinning p resc r ip t ions Th inn ing , i t s kind and degree, is determined by management ob jec t i ves , stand and s i t e cha r a c t e r i s t i c s as well as by i t s economical f e a s i b i l i t y . The p resc r ip t ions given below are based on the resu l ts and experience obtained from the thinning experiments ca r r i ed out by Warrack 235 (Warrack and Bradley, 1964; Warrack, 1967) in the Sayward Forest and e l s e -where on Vancouver Island since 1947- The presented c lasses indicate the number of thinnings to produce saw timber at 80 to 100 years as well as the p r i o r i t y that should be fol lowed. The general nature and local a p p l i c -a b i l i t y of these p resc r ip t ions should be noted. NR - no thinning A - 3 th inn ings ; between the ages of 15-20, 25~30, 60-65 years B - 2 th inn ings ; between the ages of 20-25, 50-60 years C - 1 th inn ing ; between the ages of 20-30 years D - specia l cases require f i e l d examinations Thinning p r i o r i t y ; highest to lowest: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Special cases refer to the mapping unit with large va r i a t ion in so i l cond i t i ons . The stands growing on these areas require intensive f i e l d examination. The thinning p r i o r i t y is based on the growth performances of the stands on the d i f f e r en t mapping un i t s , i) F e r t i l i z e r requirements They were assessed from the physical and chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of s o i l . P resent ly , there is a well designed f e r t i l i z e r experiment^ on the f i ve major so i l s e r i e s , namely, Memekay, Hart , Senton, Gosl ing and Quinsam. The experiment cons is ts of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutr ients a p p l i c a -t ions at d i f f e r en t leve ls (a tota l of ten treatments) . The present f e r t i -l i z e r requirements w i l l be reviewed a f ter an evaluat ion of the treatments are undertaken in 1969. b The experiment was i n i t i a t e d 1964 as a j o i n t project between the Research D i v i s i o n , B.C. Forest Serv ice and Cominco L t d . , T r a i l , B.C. 1 236 j) Road construct ion s u i t a b i l i t y This refers to the cost of road bui ld ing on per mile bas is . The employed three c lasses were: P - poor; more than $30,000/mi1e M - medium; $30,000-$10,000/mi1e G - good; less than $10,000/mile k) Erosion The c lasses contain in te rpre ta t ion of potent ia l sheet and gu l l y e ros ion . The subscr ipt indicated the type of e ros ion . L - low; l i t t l e material lost M - moderate; small g u l l i e s or some bedrock exposures H - h igh ; deep g u l l i e s or large bedrock exposures (s) sheet erosion (g) gu l l y eros ion 2. Grouping of Mapping Units for Forestry Grouping cons is ts of c l u s t e r i ng the mapping units that have the same or s im i l a r in te rpre ta t ion for a given purpose. Grouping can be made for any of the in te rp re ta t ions . As an i l l u s t r a t i o n , groupings for potent ia l p roduc t i v i t y for Douglas f i r and thinning requirements are presented on a se lected port ion of the map (Appendix Maps VII and VII I ) . The v a l i d i t y of the grouping is d i r e c t l y re lated to the v a l i d i t y of the in te rpre ta t ion and the tentat iveness of the l a t t e r should be re-emphasized. It should again be stressed that the primary object ive of the mappings, in te rpre ta t ion and groupings is to demonstrate the capacity and potent ia l of the proposed mapping scheme. It should be noted that because th is is an open system, the accumulation of information from-. 237 experiments e speca i l l y set up for th i s purpose (such as the present f e r t i l i z e r experiment in the area) and careful observat ions with de f i n i t e object ives w i l l resu l t in more prec ise in terpreta t ions which, in turn, w i l l provide a basis for more v a l i d grouping. 238 VI CONCLUSIONS The summary and conclusions are as fo l lows : 1. The proposed mapping system is well suited to forested lands of the Coastal Region and i t possesses the fo l lowing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : a. It is a h ie ra rch i ca l system which contains several leve ls of abst rac t ion corresponding to d i f f e r en t mapping i n t e n s i t i e s . The scheme cons is ts of the fo l lowing l e ve l s , which in turn correspond to the successive stages of mapping: 1) Bedrock geology, 2) s u r f i c i a l geology, 3) geologic un i t s , k) geologic unit-drainage c l a s ses , 5) so i l a s soc i a t i on , and 6) so i l catena. b. The scheme is simple to employ and is not time-consuming. An area can be mapped at any desired level or in tens i ty to su i t the immediate purpose. Furthermore, d i f f e r en t parts of the area can be mapped at d i f f e r en t i n t ens i t i e s providing mul t i-i ntens i ty mapp i ng. c. The system is f l e x i b l e in permitt ing the in te rpre ta t ion of mapping and grouping of mapping uni ts at any desired l eve l s . The information co l l e c ted in the course of mapping and s o i l -growth studies was s u f f i c i e n t to t en ta t i ve l y interpret the so i l assoc ia t ion and so i l ser ies for the fo l low ing : a) p roduc t i v i t y for Douglas f i r , b) species s u i t a b i l i t y , c) logging hazard, d) s lash burning, e) natural regeneration p r o b a b i l i t y , f) brush hazard, g) browsing hazard, h) thinning p r e s c r i p t i o n , i) f e r t i l i z e r recommendation, j) road construct ion s u i t a b i l i t y , and k) e ros ion . Although grouping can be undertaken for a l l of the above i n te rp re ta t i ons , two groupings were presented: grouping for potent ia l p roduc t i v i t y and grouping for th inn ing. 239 d. Mapping of bedrock geology, s u r f i c i a l ma te r i a l , and so i l provides a rat ional basis for s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of stands. Bedrock geology should a lso be included in the inventory and study of forest land. When the bedrock is at or near the surface i t imposes r e s t r i c t i o n s upon land use. Furthermore, when bedrock is within the reach of tree roots , it d i r e c t l y a f f ec t s growth. Bedrock may a lso provide a basis in the f i r s t d i v i s i o n of t i l l s s ince t i l l s can be character ized on the basis of the bedrock from which they have developed. S u r f i c i a l geology is the p r i n c i p l e phase in mapping. S u r f i c i a l deposi ts cons t i tu te the basic framework in studying the d i s t r i -bution and genesis of s o i l s . The importance of s u r f i c i a l mater ia ls emanates from the fo l low ing : a. They are d i s t i n c t uni ts with de f i n i t e morphologica l , phys i c a l , chemical and minera1ogica1 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . They are eas i l y recognizable on the ground and on a i r-photos. '•' b. Because they correspond to so i l parent mater ia l s , the i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n - fac i l i t a te the recognit ion of so i l s e r i e s , so i l assoc ia t ions and so i l catenas. c. They can be subdivided on the basis of the i r physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and drainage cond i t ions . d. They can be interpreted for fo res t r y purposes and can serve as a basis for forest management. Geologic uni ts are f i ne r d i v i s i ons of the s u r f i c i a l geology uni ts and provide more prec ise information than the l a t te r for the same pu rposes. Geologic unit-drainage c lasses are the most homogeneous mapping 240 uni ts and contain the highest amount of information.7 They are well suited for intensive fores t management and most appropriate for experimental purposes. 6. So i l assoc ia t ions and so i l catenas are easy to e s t ab l i sh and provide compartments su i tab le for present day fo res t r y p rac t i ces . 7. So i l s representing the Podzo l i c , B run i so l i c , Regosol ic , G leyso l i c and Organic Orders occur in the study area. Concretions and iron pans which were noted in Podzol ic and B run i so l i c Orders are the prominent so i l morphological features . 8. So i l ser ies are fundamental units in studying the growth performances of stands and are basic uni ts for in te rpre ta t ion and grouping. 9. Re lat ionships ex i s t between growth and cer ta in morphologica l , physical and chemical cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of s o i l . The degree of co r re l a t i on i n -creases and/or new co r re l a t i ons become evident when the re la t ionsh ips are studied in respect to the so i l ser ies instead of the s u r f i c i a l mate r i a l s . Furthermore, the so i l-s tand growth re l a t ionsh ip increases with increas ing 'age . 10. More physical so i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s show re l a t ionsh ip to growth than the morphological and chemical ones. Total sand, s i l t and c l ay , .3 bar ( f i e l d capacity) and ava i l ab le water contents are the most important f a c to r s . 11. From the so i l-s tand growth re l a t ionsh ip s tud ies , gu ide l ines can be set for the quant i ty and timing (stage or age of stand) of some si 1v i cu l tura l prac t i ces such as thinning and f e r t i l i z a t i o n . ^Soil ser ies contain more information than geologic-uni t drainage c l a sses . The present study, however, does not provide a map showing the d i s t r i b u t i o n of so i l s e r i e s . 241 12. Studies such as the one presented here can provide necessary information for developing models that can be used as a basis for operat ional and economical management of forest and so i l resources. However, before the models can be developed, fur ther studies of th is nature are required. 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F o r e s t . 10(1): 90-102. K e s e r , N. i960. A s t u d y o f s o i l s as r e l a t e d t o s i t e index o f Douglas F i r a t Haney, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s . U n i v . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver. 148 p. Lag, J . 1961. Some i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f f o r e s t s o i l s i n Norway. A c t a Agr. Scand. X I : 82-86. L e a f , A.L., and H.A.I. Madgwick. i960. E v a l u a t i o n o f c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s o f s o i l s and p l a n t s as a i d e i n i n t e n s i v e s o i l management, V o l . 1, p. 554-556. In P r o c . F i f t h World F o r e s t . Congr. , S e a t t l e . L e a f , A.L., and R.E. Leona r d . 1967- Measurement o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a F o r e s t s t a n d , p. 282-297. In F. R i c h a r d ( l e a d e r ) , XIV. l u f r o C o n g r e s s , Munich. Lemmon, P.E. 1958. S o i l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r woodland c o n s e r v a t i o n , .p. 153-158. In P r o c . F i r s t N. Amer. F o r e s t S o i l Conf., E a s t L a n s i n g , M i c h i g a n . L u t z , H.J. 1958. Geology and s o i l i n r e l a t i o n t o f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n , p. 75-85. In P r o c . F i r s t N. Amer. F o r e s t S o i l C o nf., E a s t L a n s i n g , M i c h i g a n . P h i l l i p s , J . J . 1966. S i t e index o f y e l l o w p o p l a r r e l a t e d t o s o i l and topogr a p h y i n s o u t h e r n New J e r s e y . U.S. F o r . S e r v . Res. N o r t h e a s t e r n F o r e s t Exp. S t a , Res,.Note, NE-52. 10 p. Re n n i e , P e t e r J . 1955. The up t a k e o f n u t r i e n t s by mature f o r e s t g r o w th. P l a n t and Soi 1 , VII (1): 49~95-250 Retzer, J . H. 1965. S ign i f i cance of stream system and topography in managing mountain lands, p. 399 to 412. In C. T. Youngberg (ed . ) ; For -e s t - so i l s re l a t ionsh ips in North America. Oregon State Univ. Press. C o r v a l l i s . Sp i l sbury , R. H., J . W. C. A r l i d g e , N. Keser, L. Farstad and D. S. Lacate, 1965. A cooperat ive study of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of forest land in B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 503-520. In C. T. Youngberg (ed. ) ; Forest-so i l re la t ionsh ips in North America. Oregon State Univ. Press, C o r v a l l i s . Spurr, S. H. 1956. So i l s in r e l a t ion to s i t e- index , p. 80-85. In Proc. Soc. Amer. Forest . Meeting, Port land. Steinbrenner, E. C. 1965. The inf luence of indiv idual s o i l s and phys io -graphic factors on the s i t e index of Douglas-f i r in western Washington, p. 261-278. In C. T. Youngberg (ed. ) : Forest-so i l re la t ionsh ips in North America. Oregon State Univ. Press, C o r v a l l i s . Stephens, F. R. 1965. Relat ion of Douglas-f i r p roduc t i v i t y to some zonal s o i l s in the northwestern Cascades of Oregon, p. 245-260. In C. T. Youngberg (ed. ) ; Fores t-so i l re la t ionsh ips in North America. Oregon State Univ. Press, C o r v a l l i s . Stevens, M. E. 1965- Relat ion of vegetat ion to some s o i l s in southern A laska , p. 177 to 188. In C. T. Youngberg (ed. ) ; Forest-so i l r e l a t ionsh ips in North America. Oregon State Univ. Press, C o r v a l l i s . Tarrim, C. 0 . , T. Troedsson, J . E. Lundmark, and Persson. 1967- Forecasting forest y i e l d from observat ions on s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A c r i t i c a l d i s cuss i on , p. 2-21. In F. Richard ( leader ) ; XIV. lufro Congress, Mun i ch. Tar rant , R. F. 1949- Douglas-f i r s i t e qua l i t y and f e r t i l i t y . J . Forest . 47=716-720. Tarrant , R. F. 1961. Stand development and so i l f e r t i l i t y in a Douglas-f i r - red alder p l an ta t ion . For. S c i . 7(3): 238-246. Van Lear, D. H., and J . F. Hosner. 1967- Cor re la t ion of s i t e index and so i l mapping un i t s . J . Forest . 65(1): 22-24. Vo ig t , G. K. P lant-so i l fac tors in chemical so i l ana l y s i s : p. 31 -34. In Proc. 1st N. Amer. Forest Soi l Conf . , East Lansing, Michigan. White, D. P. 1958. Ava i l ab le water: the key to forest s i t e eva lua t ion , p. 6-7. In Proc. 1st N. Amer. Forest Soi l Conf . , East Lansing, Michigan. W i t t i ch , W. H. L. i960. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , Mapping, and in te rpre ta t ion of s o i l s for fo res t r y purposes. Vo l . 1: p. 5O2.--507. In Proc. 5t.h • World Forest . Congr. , Sea t t l e . 251 APPENDICES 252 LAKE V "VN 1 .--7/ Hyacinthe Pt f f ^ X 5 V I 1 fiMiddle Pt StMfl t Is 50-ooi \ .1 I? ' R i v e r ! ETC'J. I* NANA^Sfy "'y'ttl. AY \ LA 4 m) Tp B K 41 / •••TV jr » 3 i •< J3 i • v-i . . I . B K 27 -1 24 5*1 19 i> \ l \ - T p l -y 1 - . , : : . i i . I I V I — 1-.. ••+ 1 4.V-: * \ ^0 \1 16 \ Appendix Figure 1 . Sampli ng locat ions 0 Bedrock geology B S u r f i c i a l geology O Soi 1 A Stand INDEX TO ADJOINING SHEETS Contour IOD Feet S C A L E 1 : 100,000 Hour H~i.-t . •> SdkMl I C M * tWOftv * 1mm, RaJu Mai. 0 Q MW] t 3 K i O^ ... M«G>WN Off.- =535 Emrwiimfnl , , Dr, M M FU . R E F E R E N C E . Ukt* Pond, r—™, GUof.0. iMMtWI -C A M P B E L L R I V E R U . B . C . L I B R A R I E S 253 Appendix Table 1. S c i e n t i f i c names of plants S c i e n t i f i c Name Common Name Trees Abies grandis (Dougl.) L indl Alnus rubra Bong. Acer macrophllyum Pursh Pseudotsuga mensiesii (Mirb.) Franco Pinus oontorta var. oontorta (Dougl.) C r i t ch , Pinus monticola Dougl. Thuja plioata Donn Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Grand f i r Red Alder Broadleaf maple Doug l a s - f i r Lodgepole pine (shore form) Western White pine Western red cedar Western hemlock Shrubs Gaultheria shallon Pursh Mahonia nervosa (Pursh) Nutt. Oplopanax horridus (J.E. Smith) Miq. Ribes sanquineum Pursh Rubus vitifolius Cham and Sch l . Vaccinium Nutt. Salal Oregon grape Dev i1 1 s c lub Red flower currant Tra i1 i ng black berry Red huckleberry Appendix Table 1, continued Herbs Adenocaulon bicolor Hook Anaphalis margaritacea Beuth. Achillea millefolium L. Achlys triphylla D.C. Coimus canadensis L. Linnaea boralis L. Senecio vulgaris L. Trientalis latifolia Hook Trillium ovatum Pursh Fern Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newm. Polystichum munitum (Kaulf . ) P r e s l . Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Si1ver green Pearly eve r l a s t in Yarrow Van i l i a 1eaf Bunch berry Twin flower Common groundsel Star flower Western tr i11 ium Oak Fern Sword Fern Bracken Fern 255 Appendix Table 2. Var iables employed in c lus te r ana l y s i s VARIABLE NO. VARIABLE CODE X 1 Boron, ppm B X 2 Cobal t , ppm Co X 3 Copper, ppm Cu X 4 Manganese, ppm Mn X 5 Molybdenum, ppm Mo X 6 Z inc , ppm Zn X 7 1ron, percent Fe X 8 Magnesium, percent Mg X 9 pH pH X 10 Organic matter, percent OM X 11 Carbon, percent C X 12 Ni t rogen, percent N X 13 Sodium, me/100 g Na X 14 Potassium, me/100 g K X 15 Calcium + magnesium, me/100 g Ca + Mg X 16 Phosphorus, me/100 g P X 17 Very coarse sand, percent V . C O . s X 18 Coarse sand, percent C O . s X 19 Medium sand, percent med. s X 20 Fine sand, percent f i . s X 21 Very f ine sand, percent v. f i. s X 22 Total sand, percent to . s X 23 Coarse s i l t , percent C O . s i 256 Appendix Table 2, continued VARIABLE NO. VARIABLE CODE X' 24 Medium s i l t , percent med. si X 25 Fine s i l t , percent f i . si X 26 Total s i l t , percent to. s i X 27 Coarse c l a y , percent co. c 1 X 28 Fine c l a y , percent f i . c l X 29 Total c l a y , percent to . cl X 30 Mixed layered c l a y s , r e l a t i ve quantity m. lay X 31 Montmori11 on i t e , r e l a t i v e quant i ty mont X 32 C h l o r i t e , r e l a t i v e quantity chl X 33 Vermicu l i t e , r e l a t i ve quant i ty ver X 3k l l l i t e , r e l a t i ve quant i ty i 1 1 X 35 K a o l i n i t e , r e l a t i ve quantity kaol X 36 Amph i bo les , re la t i ve quant i ty amp X 37 Quartz, r e l a t i ve quantity qtz X 38 Fe ldspars , r e l a t i ve quantity f e l d . X 39 Moisture re ten t ion , at .1 bars ; X wt mr . 1 X 40 Moisture re ten t ion , at .3 bars ; % wt mr . 3 X 41 Moisture re ten t ion , at .9 bars ; % wt mr .9 X 42 Moisture re ten t ion , at 5 bars; % wt mr 5 X 43 Moisture re ten t ion , at 15 bars: % wt mr 15 X 44 Ava i l ab le water, .1-15 bars ; % wt AW 1 X 45 Ava i l ab le water, .3-15 bars ; X wt AW 1 1 X 46 Co/B, r a t i o Co/B 257 Appendix Table 2, continued VARIABLE NO. VARIABLE CODE X 47 Cu/B, ra t io Cu/B X 48 Mn/B, ra t io Mn/B X 49 Zn/B, r a t io Zn/B X 50 Cu/Co ? r a t io Cu/Co X 51 Mn/Co, ra t io Mn/Co X 52 Zn/Co, ra t io Zn/Co X 53 Cu/Zn, ra t io Cu/Zn X 54 Mg/Zn, r a t io Mg/Zn X 55 Mn/Cu, r a t io Mn/Cu X 56 Fe/Mg , r a t i o Fe/Mg X 57 B/P, r a t io B/P X 58 Na/K, r a t io Na/K X 59 Na/Ca + Mg-,. r a t i o Na/Ca + Mg X 60 K/Ca + Mg, rat io K/Ca + Mg X 61 S i l t + Clay , percent si + cl 258 Appendix Table 3-Lab. no. Tens ion i n bars Moi sture i n percent MAR C R - 1 0 - 6 5 . 1 • 3 . 9 5 . 0 1 5 . 0 4 2 . 0 6 3 5 . 6 6 3 2 . 4 4 28 . 9 1 2 5 . 2 4 MAR C R - 2 5 - 6 5 . 1 . 3 • 9 5 . 0 1 5 . 0 3 4 . 3 1 7 . 2 4 4 . 9 4 3 . 2 7 2 .71 MAR CR-56-65 . 1 . 3 • 9 5 . 0 1 5 . 0 3 8 . 6 5 29.38 2 8 . 1 8 2 6 . 1 5 2 5 . 3 8 MAR C R - 6 0 - 6 5 . 1 • 3 • 9 5 . 0 1 5 . 0 3 6 . 2 2 3 0 . 6 6 2 8 . 4 5 2 5 . 0 8 2 4 . 2 8 MAR C R - 6 4 - 6 5 . 1 • 3 • 9 5 . 0 1 5 . 0 3 5 . 8 2 2 8 . 5 9 1 8 . 1 4 1 6 . 2 8 1 5 . . 7 5 GLA C R - 3 2 - 6 5 . 1 • 3 • 9 5 . 0 1 5 . 0 4 . 3 2 3 . 8 6 3 . 5 3 3 . 1 2 3 . 0 4 GLA C R - 4 8 - 6 5 . 1 . 3 • 9 5 . 0 1 5 . 0 4 . 4 4 3 . 1 0 2 . 6 6 2 . 6 0 2 . 5 7 MAR = Marine QDR = Quadra Moisture retent ion value mater ia ls (mean of three Lab. no. Tens ion in bars Mo i stu re i n percent GLA CR-51-65 . 1 .3 • 9 5.0 1 5 . 0 2.57 2.05 1.85 1.50 1.45 VAS CR-18-65 . 1 .3 • 9 5.0 15.0 15.80 11.63 9.81 9.29 7-50 VAS CR-49-65 . 1 • 3 • 9 5.0 1 5 . 0 8.71 7.11 5.44 5.10 4 . 6 4 VAS CR-54-65 . 1 • 3 .9 5.0 1 5 . 0 18.06 12.70 8.82 8.01 7.83 VAS CR-57-65 . 1 • 3 • 9 5.0 15.0 10.78 4 . 1 9 4.08 3.98 3.86 VAS CR-61-65 .1 • 3 • 9 5.0 15.0 21.44 15.52 11.17 1 0 .40 9.75 QDR CR-42-65 . 1 .3 • 9 5.0 15.0 4.26 3.63 2.57 2.13 2.00 GLA = G l a c i o f l u v i a l DAS = Dashwood t i l l of the s u r f i c i a l measu rements) 0 LZ 0 c • — (U _Q in c 1_ in c u ro <U ro J 3 O O) _i h- Q-QDR 1 5 4 0 CR-50-65 3 2 21 9 1 53 5 0 1 05 15 0 93 QDR 1 2 53 CR-52-65 3 1 52 Q 1 16 5 0 1 05 15 0 96 QDR 1 3 41 CR-58-65 3 2 63 9 1 93 5 0 1 77 15 0 1 50 DAS 1 12 2 4 CR-53-65 3 8 09 9 6 20 5. 0 5 26 15. 0 4 80 DAS 1 13 43 CR-59-65 3 9 00 9 6. 99 5. 0 6. 90 15. 0 6 85 SED 1 37 21 CR-55-65 3 31 . 08 9 29.94 5. 0 25 00 15. 0 23. 63 SED 1 4 0 . 6 4 CR-63-65 3 34 33 9 34 11 5. 0 31 43 15. 0 30 25 VAS = Vashon t i l l SED = Sedimentary 259 Appendix Table 4. Moisture r e t e n t i o n values of the s o i l horizons (means of three measurements) 0) c o 3 c o • Ul C i_ ui •— O ~o I— CU o c "— cu -Q o <u o_ re p- CL MEM . 1 58 .54 Bfcc, • 3 44 .18 .9 34 • 50 5 .0 23 .89 15 .0 16 .76 MEM . 1 55 .13 Bfcc2 .3 44 .39 .9 36 .01 5 .0 26 .29 15 .0 17 85 MEM . 1 57 16 Bf .3 42 67 .9 32 81 5 0 23 35 15 0 15 80 MEM 1 48 70 Bt] 3 37 63 9 31 85 5 0 24 41 15 0 16 38 MEM 1 41 12 B t 2 3 34 89 9 32 36 5 0 24 73 15 0 19 13 MEM 1 41. 66 B t 3 3 34. 02 9 32. 45 5 0 26. 16 15. 0 24. 57 MEM 1 40. 68 BC 3 36. 00 9 33. 26 5. 0 29. 06 15. 0 25. 53 (U O ul 3 c o • in — ro Ul • L T CD - O ~D I— <u o (U O cu o_ zn h- s; Q. MEM . 1 42 .06 .3 35 .66 Cl • 9 32 .44 5.0 28 • 91 15.0 25 .24 HAR . 1 33 .25 • 3 23 .60 L - H .9 16 .18 5.0 13 .18 15.0 9 75 HAR . 1 27 01 • 3 19 27 Ap • 9 11 75 5.0 9 16 15.0 6 71 HAR . 1 22 94 • 3 13 71 Bf 1 • 9 10 49 5.0 9 44 15.0 8 48 HAR . 1 12 40 • 3 10 25 Bf2 • 9 9 57 5.0 8 11 15.0 7 78 HAR . 1 8 53 • 3 6 06 Bfc • 9 5 48 5.0 4 72 15.0 4 58 HAR . 1 4. 32 • 3 3. 86 1 1 Ci • 9 3. 53 5.0 3- 12 15.0 3. 04 <u c o 3 C o • ui c i _ Ul — O "D L_ C — TO .— L_ 0) o 0) -Q o ai D_ h- 2.: D_ SEN . 1 1 1 .92 .3 10.09 Bf, .9 8.16 5.0 6.75 15.0 5.63 SEN . 1 11.06 .3 9-51 B f 2 .9 7.81 5.0 6.44 15.0 5.90 SEN . 1 9.01 • 3 6.53 B f 3 .9 6.41 5.0 5.67 15.0 5.61 SEN . 1 5.90 .3 4.88 BC • 9 4.62 5.0 4.03 15.0 4.03 SEN . 1 4.44 • 3 3.10 Cl • 9 2.66 5.0 2.60 15.0 2.57 GOS . 1 31.11 • 3 23-67 Bf, • 9 18.62 5.0 11 .66 15.0 11 .65 GOS . 1 29-74 • 3 20.93 B f 2 .9 16.72 5.0 12.75 15.0 11 .90 MEM = Memekay HAR = Hart SEN = Senton 260 Appendix Table 4, continued Pedon Hor. Tens ion i n bars Mo i stu re i n percent GOS Bf 3 .1 • 3 .9 5.0 15.0 29.03 20.37 16.65 12.00 9.70 GOS BC . 1 .3 .9 5.0 15.0 23.47 17.38 13.52 9.00 4.73 GOS C l . 1 • 3 • 9 5.0 15.0 16.57 11 .02 7.64 QUI Ae . 1 • 3 • 9 5.0 15.0 23.74 14 .02 9-87 5.60 4.59 QUI Bfcc, . 1 .3 .9 5.0 15.0 23.87 16.12 12.90 8.87 7.82 QUI B f cc 2 . 1 • 3 • 9 5.0 15.0 15.31 9.97 7.99 6.26 5.58 QUI Bf, .1 .3 .9 5.0 15 .0 13.62 8.51 7.43 5.87 5.23 Pedon Hor. Tens ion i n bars Moi sture i n percent QUI Bf 2 . 1 .3 • 9 5.0 15.0 15.26 9.54 8.18 6.26 6.02 QUI BC . 1 • 3 • 9 5.0 15.0 17.77 13.55 10.45 8.79 7.31 QUI C l . 1 • 3 .9 5.0 15.0 15 .80 11.63 9.81 9.29 7.50 QUA L - H . 1 .3 • 9 5.0 15 .0 37.00 27.19 20.20 18.86 17.00 QUA Ae . 1 • 3 • 9 5.0 15.0 11.65 8.58 6.23 3.11 2.95 QUA Bf, . 1 • 3 .9 5.0 15.0 11.92 8.37 6.63 5.13 4.16 c o • -a s -cu o Q_ zc QUA Bf, QUA Bf, QUA Bf 4 QUA BC QUA C l QUA c 2 LZ o .— Ul LT) LZ L. LZ — ro . 1 .3 • 9 5.0 15.0 . 1 .3 • 9 5.0 15.0 . 1 .3 • 9 5.0 15.0 5 15 .1 • 3 .9 5.0 15.0 . 1 .3 • 9 5-0 15-0 cu L. J-J LZ •M CU Ul C O .— — !_ O <u 21 CL GOS = Gosl ing QUI = Quinsam QUA = Quadra 261 Appendix Table 5a. Soi l var iab les employed in co r re l a t i on s tud ies . VARIABLE NO. VARIABLE CODE XI Copper, ppm Cu X2 Z inc , ppm Zn X3 pH, Unit pH Xk Organic matter, percent OM X5 Nitrogen, percent N X6 Carbon/nitrogen, r a t io C/N X7 Sodium, me/lOOg Na X8 Potassium, me/lOOg K X9 Ca1cium+magnesiurn, me/lOOg Ca + Mg X10 Phosphorus, me/lOOg P XI1 Very coarse sand, percent V . C O . ' s X12 Coarse sand, percent C O . s X1 3 Medium sand, percent med. s i XI4 Fine sand, percent f i . *s XI 5 Very f ine sand, percent v. f i . s XI6 Total sand, percent to . s X17 Coarse s i l t , percent co. si XI8 Med i urn s i l t , percent med. s i XI 9 Fi ne s i l t , percent f i . si X20 Tota1 s i l t , percent to. si X21 Coarse c l a y , percent co. c l X22 Fine c l a y , percent f i . c l X23 Total c l a y , percent to. cl X2k Moisture retent ion at .1 bars , percent by wt mr. 1 262 Appendix Table 5a, continued VARIABLE NO. VARIABLE CODE X25 Moi sture retent ion at .3 bars, percent by wt mr 3 X26 Moi sture retent ion at .9 bars, percent by wt. mr 9 X27 Moi sture retent ion at 5 bars, percent by wt. mr 5 X28 Mo i stu re retent ion at 15 bars, percent by wt. mr 15 X29 Ava i1able by weight water between . 1-15 bars, percent AW 1 Pw X30 Ava i l ab le by weight water between . 3-15 bars , percent AW 1 1 Pw X31 Ava i1able by volume water between . 1-15 bars, percent AW 1 Pv X32 Ava i l ab le by volume water between . 3-15 bars, percent AW 1 1 Pv X33 Ava i l ab l e water between . 1-15 bars, inches/ft AW 1 X3k Ava i1able water between . 3-15 bars, i nches/ft AW 1 1 X35 Ava i l ab l e corrected water between . for p a r t i c l e s < 1-15 2mm bars, inehes/ft AW Ic X36 Ava i1 able corrected water between . for p a r t i c l e s < 3-15 2mm bars , inches/ft AW 1 Ic X37 Total ava i l ab le water for solum between .1-15 bars before c o r r e c t i o n , inches AW 1 Ts X38 Total a va i l ab l e water fo r solum between .3~15 bars before co r r e c t i on , inches AW 1 1 Ts X39 Total a va i l ab l e water for solum between .1-15 bars, a f t e r cor rec t ion for p a r t i c l e s < 2mm, inches AW 1 Tsc XkQ Total a va i l ab l e water for solum between .3-15 bars, a f t e r co r rec t ion for p a r t i c l e s < 2mm, inches AW 1 1 Tsc Xk] Copper/zinc, r a t io Cu/Zn 263 Appendix Table 5a, continued VARIABLE NO. VARIABLE CODE Xk2 Sodium/potassium, ra t io Na/K X43 Sodium/ca1ciurn + magnesium, ra t io Na/Ca+Mg Xkk Pa r t i c l e s < .005 mm (Total c lay + f ine s i l t ) , percent part<.005 mm XkS Pa r t i c l e s < .02 mm (Total c lay + f ine s i l t + medium s i l t ) , percent part<.02 mm X46 S i l t + c l a y , percent si + cl X47 Pa r t i c l e s < .1 mm ( s i l t + c lay + very f ine sand), percent part<.1 mm Xk8 Pa r t i c l e s < .25 mm ( s i l t + c lay + very f ine sand + f ine sand) percent part<.25 mm xks Pa r t i c l e s < .5 mm ( s i l t + c lay + very f ine sand + f ine sand + medium sand), percent part<.5 mm X50 Pa r t i c l e s < 1 mm ( s i l t + c lay + very f ine sand + f ine sand + medium sand + coarse sand), percent part<l mm X51 Sodium + potassium + calcium + magnesium, me/lOOg Na+K+Ca+Mg 264 Appendix Table 5b. S i gn i f i c an t co r re l a t ions (at 5% and \% levels) among so i l va r iab les Dependent Var iab les Independent Var iables Zn (.512) to. •si (.756) AW 11 c (.685) OM (.543) f i. •cl (.759) AW 1 Ts (.508) N (.590) to. .cl (.703) AW 11 Ts (.518) Na (.560) mr .1 (.746) AW 1 Tsc (.613) K (.582) mr •3 (.751) AW 11 Tsc (.587) Ca+Ma (.448) mr •9 (.750) Ca/Zn (.527) Copper P (-.512) mr 5 (.764) Na/Ca + Mg (-.406) ppm co.s (-.457) mr 15 (.777) part < .005 mm (.731) (XI) med.s (-.570) AW 1 Pv/ (.692) part < .02 mm (.760) f i . s (-.796) AW 11 Pw (.680) si + c l (.749) v . f i . s (-.779) AW 1 Pv (.586) part < .1 mm (.713) to .s (-.749) AW 11 Pv (.619) part < .25 mm (.490) co . s i (.526) AW 1 (-687) part < .5 mm (.432) med.si (.776) AW 11 (.619) Na+K+Ca+Mg (.459) f i . s i (.716) AW 1 c (.681) Cu (.512) C O . ,cl (.642) AW 1 c (.570) OM (.594) • f i , •cl (.579) AW 11 c (.612) N (.593) to. .cl (.741) AW 1 Ts (.673) Z i nc Na (.467) mr •1 (.721) AW 11 Ts (.703) ppm K (.681) mr •3 (.738) AW 1 Tsc (.786) (X2) P (-.443) mr •9 (-764) AW 11 Tsc (.770) v . co . s (-.372) mr 5 (.771) Na/Ca+Mg (-.400) co.s (-.470) mr 15 (.691) part < .005 mm (.760) med.s (-.551) AW 1 Pw (.694) part < .02 mm (.747) f i . s (-.724) AW 11 Pw (.715) si + cl (.718) v . f i . s (-.728) AW 1 Pv (.456) part < .1 mm (.686) to . s (-.718) AW 11 Pv (.537) part < .25 mm (.507) med. s i (.658) AW 1 (.456) part < .5 mm (.463) f i . s i (.740) AW 11 (.537) part < 1 mm (.368) to . s i (.693) r = .355 at 5% and r = .456 at \% level 265 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var iables Independent Var iables  OM (- .460) mr .3 (- .466) AW 1 c (- .433) pH N (-.387) mr . 9 (- .421) AW 11 c (- .446) (X3) C/N (- .468) mr 5 (- .366) AW 1 Ts (- .505) P ( .430) AW 1 Pw (- .540) AW 11 Ts (- .469) Co.s ( .520) AW 11 Pw (- .524) Na/Ca + Mg ( .512) med.s ( .603 ) AW 1 Pv (- .605) si + c l (- .449) to .s ( .449) AW 11 Pv (- .607) part < .1 mm (- .497) t o . s i (- .475) AW 1 (- .603) part < .25 mm (- .516) to . c l (- .376) AW 11 (- .607) part < .5 mm (- .455) mr.l (- .493) Cu ( .543) f i . cl (.726) AW 1 Ic ( .693) Zn ( .594) C O . cl ( .686) AW 1 Ts ( .409) pH (-.460) mr .1 ( .821) AW 1 1 Ts ( .428) N ( .982) mr .3 ( .821) AW 1 Tsc ( .530) K ( .389) mr •9 ( .779) AW 1 1 Tsc ( .512) P (- .613) mr 5 ( .767) Na/C a + Mg (- .458) Organ i c v . co . s (- .448) mr 15 (.742) pa r t < .005 mm ( .691) Matter co .s (- .581) AW 1 Pw ( .811 ) part < .02 mm ( .714) med.s (- .594) AW II Pw ( .813) si + cl ( .726) percent f i . s (- .671) AW 1 Pv (-613) part < .1 mm ( .715) v . f i . s ( - .579) AW II Pv ( .673) part < .25 mm ( .598) (X 4) to .s (- .726) AW 1 ( .613 ) part < .5 mm ( .569) med.si ( .579) AW M (-673) part < 1 mm ( .447) t o . s i ( .730 ) AW Ic ( .664) 266 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var iab les Independent Var iab les Cu (.590) to. si (-715) AW Ic (.660) Zn (.593) f i cl (.771) AW 1Ic (.693) pH (-.387) to. cl (.659) AW 1 Ts (.409) OM (.982) mr .1 (.806) AW 11 Ts (.428) K (.396) mr .3 (.809) AW 1 Tsc (.504) N i t rogen P (-.597) mr .9 (.763) AW 11 Tsc (.487) v . co . s (-.414) mr 5 (.755) Na/Ca + Mg (-.410) percent co.s (-.551) mr 15 (.730) part < .005 mm (.670) med.s (-.563) AW 1 Pw (.795) part < .02 mm (.700) (X 5) f i . s (-.664) AW 11 Pw (.802) si + c l (.706) v . f i . s (-.606) AW 1 Pv (.594) part < .1 mm (.690) to . s (-.706) AW 11 Pv (.661) part < .25 mm (.563) med. s i (.609) AW 1 (.594) part < .5 mm (. 535) f i . s i (.515) AW II (.661) part < 1 mm (.411) C/N pH (-.468) f i . si (-.576) (X 6) med. s i (-.534) f i . c l (-.672) Na/Ca + Mg (-.493) Sod i urn me/1OOg (X 7) Cu (.560) Zn (.467) K (.706) Ca + Mg (.730) v . co . s (-.522) co.s (-.397) med.s (-.392) f i . s (-.461) v . f i . s (-.563) to .s (-.549) f i . s i (.640) . t o . s i (.498) co. c l (.762) to . cl (.635) mr .1 (.428) mr .3 (.452) mr .9 (.534) mr 5 (.574) mr 15 (.580) AW Ic (.361) AW IIc (.366) AW I Ts (.472) AW II Ts (.517) AW I Tsc (.678) AW I I Tsc (.671) Na/K (.510) part < .005 mm (.679) part < .02 mm (.633) si + c l (.549) part < .1 mm (.524) part < .25 mm (.463) part < .5 mm (.469) part < 1 mm (.531) Na + K + Ca + Mg (.747) 267 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var iab les Independent Var iables Cu (.582) to. si (.599) AW lie (.527) Zn (.681) C O . c l (.920) AW 1 Ts (.467) OM (.389) • f i . cl (.460) AW 11 Ts (.525) N (.396) to . cl (.702) AW 1 Tsc (.693) Potass i urn Na (.706) mr .1 (.554) AW M Tsc (.678) C + Mg (.560) mr .3 (.592) part < .005 mm (.709) me/lOOg v . co . s (-.414) mr .9 (.651) part < .02 mm (.669) co.s (-.403) mr 5 (.686) si + cl (.641) (X 8) f i . s (-.664) mr 15 (.666) part < .1 mm (.597) v . f i . s (-.758) AW 1 Pw (.476) part < .25 mm (.413) to .s (-.641) AW 11 Pw (.503) part < .5 mm (.421) co . s i (.615) AW II Pv (.380) part < 1 mm (.336) med.si (.582) AW II (.380) Na + K + Ca + Mg (.578) f i . s i (.794) AW Ic (.476) Cu (.448) Na (.730) K (.560) Calcium co.s (-.447) + med.s (-.465) Magnesium f i . s (-.477) to .s (-.527) me/lOOg t o . s i (.474) (X 9) co. cl (.717) to . c l (.618) mr .1 (.367) mr .3 (.416) mr .9 (.536) mr 5 (.584) mr 15 (.668) AW I Ts (.621) AW I I Ts (.637) AW I Tsc (.624) AW I I Tsc (.617) Na/Ca + Mg (-.461) part < .005 mm (.613) part < .02 mm (.526) si + c l (.527) part < .1 mm (.530) part < .25 mm (.461) part < .5 mm (.435) Na + K + Ca + Mg (.999) 268 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var iab les Independent Var iab les Cu (-.512) f i cl (-.824) AW 1 Ic (-.709) Zn (-.443) to cl (-.713) AW 1 Ts (-.715) Phosphorus pH (.430) mr •1 (-.795) AW 1 1 Ts (-.721) OM (-.613) mr .3 (-.790) AW 1 Tsc (-.650) ppm N (-.597) mr .9 (-.778) AW 1 1 Tsc (-.639) v . co . s ( .466 ) mr 5 (-.744) Na/C a + Mq (.530) (X 10) co.s (.774) mr 15 (-.718) part < .005 mm (-.683) med.s (.732) AW 1 Pw (-.785) part < .02 mm (-.712) f i . s (.656) AW 11 Pw (-.780) si + cl (-.785) v . f i . s (.432) AW 1 Pv (- .740) part < .1 mm (-.799) to .s (.785) AW II Pv (-.786) part < .25 mm (-.747) med.si (-.856) AW 1 (-.739) pa rt < .5 mm (-.714) f i . s i (-.552) AW II (-.786) part < 1 mm (-.474) t o . s i (-.804) AW Ic (-.687) Zn (- .372) f i cl (- .878) AW 1 c (- .613) 0M (- .448) to c l (- .682) AW 1 Ic (- .645) N (- .414) mr .1 (-.600) AW 1 Ts (- .374) Na (- .522) mr •3 (- .612) AW 1 1 Ts (- .471) Very K (- .414) mr .9 (- .607) AW 1 Tsc (- .671) Coa rse P ( .466) mr 5 (- .599) AW 1 1 Tsc (- .690) Sand co.s ( .745 ) mr 15 (- .535) part < .005 mm (- .697) med.s ( .539 ) AW 1 Pw (- .595) part < .02 mm (- .716) percent to .s ( .639) AW 11 Pw (- .618) si + c l (- .639) co . s i (-.690) AW 1 Pv (- .367) part < .1 mm (- .653) (X 11) med.si (-.901) AW 11 Pv (- .460) part < .25 mm (- .809) f i . s i (- .890) AW 1 (- .367) part < .5 mm (- .879) t o . s i (-.606) AW II (- .460) part < 1 mm (- .997) co . c l (-.626) 269 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var iab les Independent Var iables Cu (-.457) to si (-.848) AW Ic (-.736) Zn (-.470) C O cl (-.644) AW 1Ic (-.764) pH (.520) f i cl (-.868) AW 1 Ts (-.749) OM (-.581) to cl (-.809) AW II Ts (-.793) N (-.551) mr .1 (-.816) AW 1 Tsc (-.786) Coarse Na (-.397) mr .3 (-.820) AW 11 Tsc (-.792) Sand K (-.403) mr .9 (-.820) Na/Ca + Mg (.425) Ca + Mq (-.447) mr 5 (-.799) part < .005 mm (-.795) percent P (.774) mr 15 (-.765) part < .02 mm (-.792) v . co . s (.745) AW 1 Pw (-.794) si + c l (-.847) (X 12) med.s (.891) AW 11 Pw (-.795) part < .1 mm (-.886) f i . s (.538) AW 1 Pv (-.693) part < .25 mm (-.984) to .s (.847) AW II Pv (-.763) part < .5 mm (-.972) co . s i (-.696) AW 1 (-.693) part < 1 mm (-.750) med.si (-.897) AW II (-.763) Na + K + Ca + Mg (-.451) f i . s i (-.918) Cu (-.570) to si (-.873) AW Ic (-.730) Zn (-.551) C O cl (-.652) AW 1Ic (-.752) pH (.603) f i cl (-.872) AW 1 Ts (-.859) 0M (-.594) to cl (-.824) AW 11 Ts (-.856) N (-.563) mr .1 (-.846) AW 1 Tsc (-.792) Na (-.392) mr .3 (-.842) AW 11 Tsc (-.785) Med i urn Ca + Mq (-.465) mr .9 (-.845) Na/Ca + Mg (.540) Sand P (.732) mr 5 (-.824) part < .005 mm (-.818) v . co . s (.539) mr 15 (-.801) part < .02 mm (-.809) percent co.s (.891) AW 1 Pw (-.820) si + c l (-.868) f i . s (.658) AW 11 Pw (-.808) part < .1 mm (-.902) (x 13) to .s (.868) AW 1 Pv (-.761) part < .25 mm (-.911) co . s i (-.692) AW 11 Pv (-.802) part < .5 mm (-.827) med.si (-.906) AW 1 (-.760) part < 1 mm (-.557) f i . s i (-.914) AW II (-.803) Na + K + Ca + Mg (-.468) 270 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var iables Independent Var iab les Cu (-.796) to . s i (-.889) AW Ic (-.751) Zn (-.724) C O cl (-.673) AW 1Ic (-.768) OM (-.671) f i cl (-.871) AW 1 Ts (-.757) N (-.664) to c l (-.856) AW 11 Ts (-.754) Na (-.461) mr .1 (-.874) AW 1 Tsc (-.753) Fi ne K (-.664) mr .3 (-.880) AW 11 Tsc (-.721) Sand Ca + Mg (-.477) mr .9 (-.890) Na/Ca + Mg (.701) P (.656) mr 5 (-.881) part < .005 mm (-.848) percent co.s (.538) mr 15 (-.877) part < .02 mm (-.842) med.s (.658) AW 1 Pw (-.825) si + c l (-.890) (X 14) v . f i . s (.850) AW 11 Pw (-.813) part < .1 mm (-.857) to .s (.890) AW 1 Pv (-.739) part < .25 mm (-.555) c o . s i (-.684) AW II Pv (-.782) part < .5 mm (-.484) med.si (-.913) AW 1 (-.739) Na + K + Ca + Mg (-.486) f i . s i (-.894) AW M (-.783) Cu (-.779) C O . cl (-.669) AW 1 (-.469) Zn (-.728) f i cl (-.822) AW 11 (-.553) OM (-.579) to. cl (-.725) AW Ic (-.656) N (-.606) mr .1 (-.708) AW 1Ic (-.689) Very Na (-.563) mr •3 (-.731) AW 1 Ts (-.470) Fi ne K (-.758) mr •9 (-.736) AW 11 Ts (-.516) Sand P (.432) mr 5 (-.743) AW 1 Tsc (-.684) f i . s (.850) mr 15 (-.704) AW 11 Tsc (-.661) percent to .s (.721) AW 1 Pw (-.671) part < .005 mm (-.742) co . s i (-.634) AW 11 Pw (-.695) part < .02 mm (-.762) (X 15) med.si (-.890) AW 1 Pv (-.469) si + cl (-.721) f i . s i (-.861) AW M Pv (-.553) part < .1 mm (-.651) t o . s i (-.704) 271 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var i abl es Independent Var iables Cu (-.749) f i si (-.906) AW Ic (-.866) Zn (-.718) to si (-.994) AW 1Ic (-.895) pH (.449) C O cl (-.666) AW 1 Ts (-.839) OM (-.726) f i cl (-.873) AW 11 Ts (-.869) N (-.706) to cl (-.972) AW 1 Tsc (-.905) Total Na (-.549) mr •1 (-.973) AW 11 Tsc (-.890) Sand K (-.641) mr .3 (-.980) Na/Ca + Mg (.605) Ca + Mq (-.527) mr .9 (-.985) part < .005 mm (-.967) percent P (.785) mr 5 (-.971) part < .02 mm (-.967) v . co . s (.639) mr 15 (-.941) si + cl (-1.000) (X 16) co.s (.847) AW 1 Pw (-.933) part < . 1 mm (-.995) med.s (.868) AW 11 Pw (-.934) part < .25 mm (-.870) f i . s (.890) AW 1 Pv (-.795) part < .5 mm (-.825) v . f i . s (.720) AW 11 Pv (-.866) part < 1 mm (-.640) co . s i (-.689) AW 1 (-.795) Na + K + Ca + Mg (-.537 med.si (-.913) AW II (-.867) Cu (.526) mr .1 (.621) AW Ic (.841) K (.615) mr .3 (.572) AW 1Ic (.783) v . co . s (-.690) mr .9 (.549) AW 1 Tsc (.524) Coarse co.s (-.696) mr 5 (.498) AW 11 Tsc (.524) S i l t med.s (-.692) mr 15 (.518) part < .005 mm (.575) f i . s (-.684) AW 1 Pw (.589) part < .02 mm (.527) percent v . f i . s (-.634) AW 11 Pw (.524) si + cl (.689) to .s (-.689) AW 1 Pv (.794) part < .1 mm (.692) (X 17) f i . s i (.581) AW M Pv (.758) part < .25 mm (.695) t o . s i (.726) AW 1 (.794) part < .5 mm (.695) f i . c l (.576) AW II (.758) part < 1 mm (.690) t o . c l (.549) 272 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Variables Independent Variables Cu (.776) to. s i (.919) AW 1 c (.708) Zn (.658) f i . cl (.900) AW 1 1 c (.801) OM (.579) to. c l (.830) AW 1 Ts (.533) Med ium N (.609) mr .1 (.929) AW 1 Ts (.599) S i l t C/N (-.534) mr •3 (.948) AW 1 Tsc (.713) percent K (.582) . mr .9 (.911) AW 1 Tsc (.712) (X 18) P (-.856) mr 5 (.869) part < .005 mm (.825) v.co.s (-.901) mr 15 (.763) . part < .02 mm (.951) co.s (-.899) AW 1 Pw (.886) si + c l (.913) med.s (-.906) AW 11 Pw (.924) part < .1 mm (.911) f i . s (-.913) AW 1 Pv (.563) part < .25 mm (.901) v . f i . s (-.890) AW II Pv (.740) part < .5 mm (.899) to.s (-.913) AW 1 (.563) part < 1 mm (.901) f i . s i (.757) AW M (.740) Cu (.716) mec • s i (.757) . AW 1 c (.570 Zn (.740) to. si (.883) AW 1 c (.629) Fine N (.515) C O . c l (.680) AW 1 Ts (.740) S i l t C/N (-.576) f i . c l (.751) AW 1 Ts (.789) percent Na (.640) to. c l (.890) AW 1 Tsc (.864) (X 19) K (.794) mr •1 (.813) AW 1 Tsc (.864) P (-.552) mr •3 (.849) part < .005 mm (.953) v.co.s (-.890) mr .9 (-910) part < .02 mm (.900) co.s (-.918) mr 5 (.916) si + cl (.906) med.s (-.914) mr 15 (.887) part < 1 mm (.907) f i . s (-.894) AW 1 Pw (.682) part < .25 mm (.913) v . f i . s (-.861) . AW 11 Pw (.704) part < .5 mm (.912) to.s (-.906) AW 11 Pv (.504) part < 1 mm (.890) co.si (.581) AW II (-504) 273 Append ix l a b l e 5b , c o n t i n u e d Dependent Va r i ab1es 1ndepf ,rident Variables Cu (.756) mec i . s i (.919) AW 1 c (.894) Zn ( . 6 2 3 ) f i . s i (.883) AW II c ( . 9 1 5 ) pH (- .475) CO . c l (.561) AW 1 Ts (.822) Total OM (.730) f i . c l ( . 9 0 8 ) AW 11 Ts ( . 8 5 0 ) S i l t N ( .715) to. c l ( . 9 3 9 ) AW 1 Tsc (.873) percent Na (.493) mr .1 ( . 9 7 9 ) AW 11 Tsc (.858) (X 20) K (.599) mr .3 (.980) Na/Ca + Mg (.587) Ca +. Mg (.474) mr . 9 (.974) part < .005 mm (.937) P (- .804) mr 5 (.952) part < .02 mm (.9**4) v.co.s ( - .606) mr 15 (.924) si + c l ( . 9 9 !0 co.s (- .848) AW 1 Pw (.949) part < .1 mm (.991) med.s ( - .873) AW 11 Pw (.945) part < .25 mm (.863) f i . s (.889) AW 1 Pv ( .840) part < .5 mm (.815) v . f i . s (-.704) AW II Pv ( .903) part < 1 mm (.608) to.s ( - .994) AW 1 (.839) Na+K+Ca+Mg (.482) co.s (.726) AW II (.903) Zn (.642) f i . s i ( .680) AW II Tsc (.883) Na (.762) t o . s i (.561) Na/Ca+Mg (- .590) K (.920) t o . c l (.854) part < .005 mm (.813) Coarse Ca + Mg (.717) mr .3 ( .516) part < .02 mm (.686) Clay v.co.s. ( - .626) mr .9 (.686) si + c l (.666) percent co.s (- .644) mr 5 ( .746) part < .1 mm (.661) (X 21) med.s (- .652) mr 15 (-719) part < .25 mm ( .644) f i . s (- .673) AW I Ts ( .900) part < .5 mm ( .640) v . f i . s ( - .669) AW II Ts (.902) part < 1 mm (.626) to.s ( - .666) AW I Tsc ( .883) Na+K+Ca+Mg (.726) 274 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Variables Independent Variables Cu (.759) mec . si (.900) AW 1 1 (.827) Zn (.579) f i . si (.751) AW Ic (.804) OM (.726) to. si (.908) AW 1 Ic (.863) N (.770 to. c l (.725) AW 1 Tsc (.565) Fine C/N (-.672) mr •1 (.944) AW 1 Tsc (.565) Clay K (.460) mr •3 (.937) Na/K (-.499) percent P (-.824) mr •9 (.856) part < .005 mm (.754) (X 22) v.co.s (-.878) mr 5 (.798) part < .02 mm (.862) co.s (-.868) mr 15 (.739) si + c l (.873) med.s (-.872) AW 1 Pw (.916) part < .1 mm (.875) f i . s (-.871) AW 11 Pw (.924) part < .25 mm (.872) v . f i . s (-.822) AW 1 Pv (.704) part < .5 mm (.872) to.s (-.873) AW 11 Pv (.827) part < 1 mm (.875) co.si (.576) AW 1 (.703) Cu (.703) mec . si (.830) AW Ic (.772) Zn (.741) f i . si (.890) AW l i e (.814) pH (-.376) to. si (.939) AW 1 Ts (.839) 0M (.686) C O . c l (.854) AW 11 Ts (.874) Total N (.659) f i . cl (.725) AW 1 Tsc (.936) Clay Na (.635) mr .1 (.918) AW 11 Tsc (.922) percent K (.702) mr .3 (.940) Na/Ca + Mg (-.617) (X 23) Ca + Mg (.618) - mr •9 (.968) part < .005 mm (.992) P (-.713) mr 5 (.970) part < .02 mm (.977) v.co.s (-.682) mr 15 (.938) si + cl (.972) co.s (-.809) AW 1 Pw (.860) part < .1 mm (.964) med.s (-.824) AW 11 Pw (.874) part < .25 mm (.847) f i . s (-.856) AW 1 Pv (.668) part < .5 mm (.813) v . f i . s (-.725) AW II Pv (.754) part < 1 mm (.681) to.s (-.972) AW 1 (.667) Na + K + Ca + Mg (.628) co.si (.549) AW II (.755) 275 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var i abl es Independent Var iab les Cu (.746) mec •si (.929) AW Ic (.891) Zn (.721) f i. si (.813) AW l i e (.912) pH (-.493) to . si (.979) AW 1 Ts (.764) OM (.821) f i. cl (.944) AW 11 Ts (.787) Moi sture N (.806) to . cl (.913) AW 1 Tsc (.324) Retent ion Na (.425) mr •3 (.993) AW 11 Tsc (.806) K (.554) mr •9 (.971) Na/Ca + Mg (-.578) at .1 bar Ca + Mg (.367) mr 5 (-949) part < .005 mm (.920) P (-.795) mr 15 (.910) part < .02 mm (.940) (X 24) v .co .s (-.600) AW 1 Pw (.984) si + cl (.973) co.s (-.816) AW 11 Pw (.975) part < .1 mm (.967) med.s (-.846) AW 1 Pv (.836) part < .25 mm (.837) f i . s (-.874) AW II Pv (.895) part < .5 mm (.790) v . f i . s (-.708) AW 1 (.836) part < 1 mm (.603) to .s (-.973) AW II (.895) Na + K + Ca + Mg (.377) co . s i (.621) Cu (.751) mec . s i (.948) AW Ic (.861) Zn (.738) f i . si (.849) AW 1Ic (.899) P H (-.466) to . si (.980) AW 1 Ts (.775) Mo i stu re 0M (.821) C O . cl (.516) AW 11 Ts (.806) Retent i on N (.809) f i . cl (.937) AW 1 Tsc (.854) %wt Na (.452) to. cl (.940) AW 11 Tsc (.839) at .3 bars K (.592) mr •1 (.993) Na/Ca + Mg (-.577) Ca + Mg (.416) mr •9 (.987) part < .005 mm (.938) (x 25) P (-.790) mr 5 (.970) part < .02 mm (.956) v . co . s (-.612) mr 15 (.931) si + cl (.980) co.s (-.820) AW 1 Pw (.965) part < .1 mm (.972) med.s (-.842) AW M Pw (.972) part < .25 mm (.840) f i . s (-.880) AW 1 Pv (.787) part < .5 mm (.796) v . f i . s (-.731) AW 11 Pv (.869) part < 1 mm (.613) to .s (-.980) AW 1 (.787) Na + K + Ca + Mg (.425) co . s i (.572) AW II (.869) 276 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var iabl es Independent Var iables Cu (.750) Med • si (.911) AW Ic (.804) Zn (.764) f i . si (.910) AW 1Ic (.844) pH (-.421) to . si (.974) AW 1 Ts (.829) OM (.779) C O . cl (.686) AW 11 Ts (.860) Moi sture N (.763) f i . cl (.856) AW 1 Tsc (.899) Retent i on Na (.534) to . cl (.968) AW 11 Tsc (.884) X wt K (.651) mr .1 (-971) Na/Ca + Mg (-.609) at .9 Ca + Mg (.536) mr .3 (.987) part < .005 mm (.964) bars P (-.778) mr 5 (.993) part < .02 mm (.964) v . co . s (-.607) mr 15 (.964) si + c l (.985) (X 26) co.s (-.820) AW 1 Pw (.922) part < .1 mm (.977) med.s (-.845) AW 11 Pw. (.930) part < .25 mm (.840) f i . s (-.890) AW 1 Pv (.728) part < .5 mm (.795) v . f i . s (-.736) AW I 1 Pv (.813) part < 1 mm (.608) to .s (-.985) AW 1 (.728) N a + K + C a + M g (.545) co . s i (.549) AW 11 (.813) Cu (.764) med . si (.869) AW Ic (.760) Zn (.771) f i . si (.916) AW l i e (.801) pH (-.366) to . si (.952) AW 1 Ts (.824) Moi sture 0M (.767) co. c l (.746) AW 11 Ts (.856) Retent i on N (.755) f i . cl (.798) AW 1 Tsc (.901) X wt Na (.574) to . cl (.970) AW 11 Tsc (.888) at 5 bars K (.686) mr .1 (.949) Na/Ca + Mg (-.604) Ca + Mg (.584) mr .3 (.970) part < .005 mm (.969) (x 27) P (-.744) mr •9 (.993) part < .02 mm (.961) v . co . s (-.599) mr 15 (.975) si + c l (.971) co.s (-.799) AW 1 Pw (.886) part < .1 mm (.960) med.s (-.824) AW 11 Pw (.897) part < .25 mm (.820) f i . s (-.881) AW 1 Pv (.672) part < .5 mm (.777) v . f i . s (-.743) AW 11 Pv (.757) part < 1 mm (.599) to .s (-.971) AW 1 (.672) N a + K + C a + M g (.593) co . s i (.498) AW M (-757) 277 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Variables Independent Variables Cu (.777) f i . s i (.887) AW Ic (.714) Zn ( . 691 ) t o . s i (.924) AW l i e (.739) OM (.7^2) C O . cl (.719) AW 1 Ts (.801) N (.730) f i . c l (.739) AW 11 Ts (.821) Moi sture Na (.580) to. c l (.938) AW 1 Tsc ( .845) Retent ion K (.666) mr .1 (.910) AW 11 Tsc (.825) % wt Ca + Mg (.668) mr .3 ( .931) Na/Ca + Mg (-.638) at 15 P (-.718) mr . 9 (.964) 5 (.975) part < .005 mm (.936) bars v.co.s (-.535) mr part < .02 mm (.912) co.s (-.765) AW 1 Pw (.821) si + c l (.9^1) (X 28) med.s (-.801) AW 11 Pw (.820) part < .1 mm (.933) f i . s (-.877) AW 1 Pv (.655) part < .25 mm (.780) v . f i . s (-.704) AW M Pv (.717) part < .5 mm (.731) to.s ( - .941) AW 1 (.655) part < 1 mm (.538) co.si (.518) AW II (.718) N a + K + C a + M g (.674) med.si (.763) Cu (.692) f i s i (.682) AW Ic (.918) Zn (.694) to s i (.949) AW 1Ic (.936) Available pH (-.540) f i c l (.916) AW 1 Ts (.706) water 0M (.811) t o . c l (.860) AW 11 Ts (.729) between N (.795) mr . 1 (.984) AW 1 Tsc (.770) .1 ~ 15 K (.476) mr • 3 (.965) AW 1 1 Tsc (,754) bars P (-.785) mr 9 (.922) Na/Ca + Mg (-.521) % wt v.co.s (-.595) mr 5 (.886) part < .005 mm (.863) co.s (-.794) mr 15 (.821) part < .02 mm (.900) (x 29) med.s (-.820) AW 11 Pw (.988) s i + c l (.933) f i . s (-.825) AW 1 Pv (.868) part < .1 mm (.929) v . f i . s (-.671) AW 1 1 Pv (.923) • part < .25 mm (.816) to.s (-.933) AW 1 (.868) part.< .5 mm (.772) co.si (.589) AW 11 (.923) part'< 1 mm (.598) med.si (.886) 278 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var iab les Independent Var iables Cu (.680) f i si (.704) AW 1 c (.894) Zn (.715) to si (.945) AW 1 c (.936) Ava i l ab le pH (-.524) f i cl (.924) AW 1 Ts (.703) water OM (.813) to cl (.874) AW 1 Ts (.739) between N (.802) mr .1 (.975) AW 1 Tsc (.799) 3-15 bars K (.503) mr •3 (.972) AW 1 Tsc (.787) % wt P (-.780) mr •9 (-930) Na/Ca+Mg (-.497) v .co .s (-.618) mr 5 (.897) part < .005 mm (.872) (X 30) co.s (-.795) mr 15 (.820) part < .02 mm (.915) med.s (-.808) AW 1 Pw (.988) si + cl (.934) f i . s (-.818) AW 1 Pv (.815) part < .1 mm (.927) v . f i . s (-.695) AW 11 Pv (.904) part < .25 mm (.819) to .s (-.934) AW 1 (.815) part < .5 mm (.781) co . s i (.524) AW II (.904) part < 1 mm (.618) med.si (.924) Cu (.586) to si (.840) AW 11 c(.875) Zn (.456) f i cl (.704) AW 1 Ts (.646) pH (-.605) to cl (.668) AW I 1 Ts (.626) Ava l i ab le 0M (.613) mr .1 (.836) AW 1 Tsc (.558) water N (.594) mr •3 (.787) AW 11 Tsc (.536) between P (-.740) mr .9 (.728) Na/Ca+Mg (-.524) .1-15 v . co . s (-.367) mr 5 (.672) part < .005 mm (.658) bars co.s (-.693) mr 15 (.655) part < .02 mm (.678) X wt •  med.s (-.761) AW 1 Pw (.868) si + c l (.795) f i . s (-.739) AW 11 Pw (.815) part < .1 mm (.805) (x 31) v . f i . s (-.469) AW II Pv (.971) part < .25 mm (.683) to .s (-.795) AW 1 (.999) part < .5 mm (. 623) co . s i (.794) AW II (.971) part < 1 mm (.376) med.si (.563) AW 1 c (.912) 279 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var iables Independent Var iables Cu (.619) f i si (.504) AW 1 c (.940) Zn (.537) to si (.903) AW 1 c (.940) pH (-.607) f i cl (.827) AW 1 Ts (.686) Ava i l ab le OM (.673) to cl (.754) AW 1 Ts (.692) water N (.661) mr •1 (.895) AW 1 Tsc (.664) between K (.380) mr .3 (.869) AW 1 Tsc (.648) .3-15 bars P (-.786) mr .9 (.813) Na/Ca+Mg (-.517) % vol v . co . s (-.460) mr 5 (.757) pa rt < .005 mm (.737) co.s (-.763) mr 15 (.717) part < .02 mm (.769) (X 32) med.s (-.802) AW 1 Pw (.923) si + cl (.866) f i . s (-.782) AW 11 Pw (.904) part < .1 mm (.872) v . f i . s (-.553) AW 1 Pv (.970 part < .25 mm (.760) to .s (-.866) AW 1 (.971) part < .5 mm (.703) co . s i (.758) AW M (.999) part < 1 mm (.464) med.si (.740) Cu (.587) to si (.839) AW 1 c (.875) Zn (.456) f i cl (.703) AW 1 Ts (.646) pH (-.603) to cl (.667) AW 1 Ts (.625) Ava i1able 0M (.613) mr .1 (.836) AW 1 Tsc (.558) water N (.594) mr •3 (.787) AW 1 Tsc (.535) between P (-.739) mr •9 (.727) Na/Ca + Mg (-.525) .1-15 bars v . co . s (-.367) mr 5 (.672) part < .005 mm (.657) ins/f t co.s (-.693) mr 15 (.655) part < .02 mm (.678) med.s (-.760) AW 1 Pw (.868) si + cl (.795) (X 33) f i . s (-.739) AW 11 Pw (.815) pa rt < .1 mm (.805) v . f i . s (-.469) AW 1 Pv (.999) part < .25 mm (.688) to .s (-.795) AW M Pv (.971) part < .5 mm (.622) co . s i (.794) AW II (.971) part < 1 mm (.375) med.si (.563) AW Ic (.912) 280 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var i abl es Independent Var iables Cu (.619) .fi. si (.504) AW Ic ( .940) Zn (.537) to •si (.903) AW 1Ic ( .940) Ava i1able pH (-.607) f i cl (.827) AW 1 Ts (.687) water OM (.673) to cl (.755) AW 11 Ts (.692) between N (.661) mr •1 (.875) AW 1 Tsc ( .664) .3-15 bars K (.380) mr .3 (.869) AW 11 Tsc ( .648) i ns/ft P (-.786) mr •9 (.813) Na/Ca + Mg (-.518) v . co . s (-.460) mr 5 (.757) part < .005 mm (.737) (X 34) co.s (-.763) mr 15 (.718) part < .02 mm (.769) med.s (-.803) AW 1 Pw (.923) si + cl (.867) f i . s (-.783) AW 11 Pw (.904) part < .1 mm (.873) v . f i . s (-.553) AW 1 Pv (.971) part < .25 mm (.760) to .s (-.867) AW II Pv ( .999) part < .5 mm (.703) C O . s i (.758) AW 1 (.971) part < 1 mm ( .464) med.si ( .740 ) Cu (.681) mec . s i (.708) AW 1 1 (. 940) Zn (.570) f i. si (.571) AW 1 1 c ( • 986) pH (-.433) to. si (.894) AW 1 Ts (.581) Ava i1able 0M ( .664) f i . cl (.804) AW 1 1 Ts (.620) water N (.660) to. cl (.772) AW 1 Tsc (.704) between Na (.361) mr .1 (.891) AW 1 1 Tsc (.693) .1-15 bars K (.496) mr .3 (.861) Na/Cs 1 + Mg (-.371) corrected P (-.687) mr .9 (.804) part 005 mm (..780) for v . co . s (-.613) mr 5 (.760) part < . 02 mm (.813) part i c l es co.s (-.736) mr 15 (.714) si + cl (.866) < 2 mm med.s (-.730) AW 1 Pw (.918) part 1 mm ( .858) ins/f t f i . s (-.751) AW 11 Pw (.894) part < . 25 mm (.763) v . f i . s (-.656) AW 1 Pv (.912) part < . 5 mm (.737) (X 35) to .s (-.866) AW 11 Pv ( .940) part < 1 mm (.612) co . s i ( .841 ) AW 1 (.912) 281 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Variables Independent Variables Cu ( . 6 8 5 ) med.si ( . 8 0 1 ) AW 1 1 ( . 9 4 0 ) Zn ( . 6 1 2 ) f i . s i (.629) AW 1 c ( . 9 8 6 ) Ava i 1 a b l e pH ( - . 4 4 6 ) t o . s i ( . 9 1 5 ) AW 1 Ts ( . 6 0 3 ) water OM ( . 6 9 3 ) f i . c l (.863) AW 1 1 Ts (.658) between N ( . 6 9 3 ) to.cl ( . 8 1 4 ) AW 1 Tsc ( . 7 5 5 ) . 3 - 1 5 bars Na (.366) mr .1 ( . 9 1 2 ) AW 1 1 Tsc ( . 7 4 8 ) corrected K ( . 5 2 7 ) mr . 3 (.899) Na/C a + Mg ( - . 3 8 0 ) for P ( - . 7 0 9 ) mr . 9 ( . 8 4 4 ) pa rt < . 0 0 5 mm ( . 8 1 6 ) p a r t i c l e s v.co.s ( - . 6 4 5 ) mr 5 (.801) part < . 0 2 mm ( . 8 5 7 ) < 2 mm co.s ( - . 7 6 4 ) mr 1 5 ( . 7 3 9 ) si + c l ( . 8 9 5 ) i n s / f t med.s ( - . 7 5 2 ) AW 1 Pw (.936) part < . 1 mm ( . 8 8 5 ) f i . s ( - . 7 6 8 ) AW 11 Pw ( . 9 3 6 ) part < . 2 5 mm (.792) (X 36) v . f i . s (-.689) AW 1 Pv ( . 8 7 5 ) part < . 5 mm ( . 7 6 7 ) to.s ( - . 8 9 5 ) AW 11 Pv ( . 9 4 0 ) part < 1 mm ( . 6 4 1 ) co.si ( . 7 8 3 ) AW 1 ( . 8 7 5 ) Cu (.508) •mec • s i (.533) AW 1 1 (.687) Zn (.673) f i . si ( . 7 4 0 ) AW Ic (.581) pH (-.505) to. si (.822) AW 1 1 c (.608) .OM (.460) C O . c l (.900) AW 1 1 Ts (.986) Total '•' N (.409) to. c l (.839) AW 1 Tsc (.866) ava i1able Na (.472) mr .1 (.764) AW 1 1 Tsc ( . 8 4 9 ) water for K (.467) mr . 3 (.775) Na/Ca + Mg ( - . 6 5 3 ) sol urn Ca + Mg (.621) mr •9 (.829) part < .005 mm (.819) between P (-.715) mr 5 (.824) part < .02 mm (.770) . 1 - 1 5 bars v.co.s (-.374) mr 1 5 (.801) si + cl (.839) ins co.s (-.749) AW 1 Pw (.706) part < .1 mm (.854) med.s (-.859) AW 11 Pw (.703) part < .25 mm (.751) (X 3 7 ) f i . s (-.757) AW 1 Pv ( . 6 4 6 ) part < .5 mm (.668) v . f i . s (-.470) AW II Pv (.686) part < 1 mm (.390) to.s (-.839) AW 1 ( . 6 4 6 ) Na + K + Ca + Mg (.623) 282 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Var i ables Independent Variables Cu ( .518) med •si ( .599 ) AW 11 (.692) Zn ( .703) f i . s i ( .789) AW Ic ( .620) pH (- .469) to. si ( .850 ) AW 1Ic (.658) Total OM ( .473) C O . c l ( .902) AW 1 Ts ( .986) ava i1able N ( .428) to. c l ( .874) AW 1 Tsc (.926) water Na ( .517 ) mr .1 ( .787) AW 11 Tsc ( .917) for solum K ( .525) mr .3 (.806) Na/Ca + Mg (- .598) between Ca + Mq ( .637 ) mr . 9 ( .860) part < .005 mm ( .854) .3-15 bars P (- .721) mr 5 (.856) part < .02 mm ( .810) ins v.co.s (- .471) mr 15 (.821) si + cl (.869) co.s (- .793) AW 1 Pw ( .729) part < .1 mm ( .880) (X 38) med.s (-.856) AW II Pw ( .739) part < .25 mm ( .797) f i . s (- .754) AW 1 Pv ( .626) part < .5 mm (.731) v . f i . s (- .516) AW II Pv (.692) part < 1 mm ( .483) to.s (-.869) AW 1 (-625) Na + K + Ca + Mq ( .641) Cu (.613) f i si ( . 8 6 4 ) AW 11 ( . 6 6 4 ) Zn (.786) to si (.873) AW Ic (.704) 0M (.530) C O c l (.883) AW 1Ic (.755) . Total N (.504) f i c l (.565) «: AW 1 Ts (.866) ava i l a b l e Na (.678) •to c l (.936) AW 11 Ts (.926) water K (.693) mr .1 (.824) AW 11 Tsc (.998) for solum Ca + M q . (.624) mr .3 (.854) Na/Ca + Mg (-.445) . 1-15 bars P (-.650) mr •9 (.899) part < .005 mm (.936) corrected v.co.s (-.671) mr 5 (-904) part < .02 mm (.913) for co.s (-.786) mr 15 ( . 8 4 5 ) si + c l (.905) p a r t i c l e s med.s (-.792) AW 1 Pw (.770) part < .1 mm (.297) < 2. mm f i . s (-.753) AW 11 Pw (.799) -part < .25 mm (.824) i ns v . f i . s ( - . 6 8 4 ) AW 1 Pv (.558) part < .5 mm (.794) to.s ( - . 9 0 5 ) AW 11 Pv ( . 6 6 4 ) part < 1 mm (.674) (X 39) co.si (.524) AW 1 (.558) N a + K + C a + M g (.635) med.si (.713) 2 8 3 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Variables Independent Variables Cu (.587) f i s i ( . 8 6 4 ) AW 11 ( . 6 4 8 ) Zn (.770) to. s i (.858) AW Ic (.693) Total OM (.512) C O . cl (.883) AW 1Ic ( . 7 4 8 ) ava i1able N (.487) f i . cl (.565) AW 1 Ts ( . 8 4 9 ) water Na (.671) to. cl (.922) AW II Ts (.917) for solum K (.678) mr . 1 (.806) AW 1 Tsc (.998) between Ca + Mg (.617) mr .3 (.839) Na/Ca + Mg ( - . 4 1 1 ) .3-15 bars P (-.639) mr • 9 ( . 8 8 4 ) part < .005 mm (.921) corrected v.co.s (-.690) mr 5 (.888) part < .02 mm (.899) for co.s (-.792) mr 15 (.825) si + cl (.890) part i cles med.s (-.785) AW 1 Pw (.754) part < .1 mm ( . 8 8 4 ) < 2 mm f i . s (-.721) AW 1 1 Pw (.787) part < .25 mm (.829) i ns v . f i . s (-.661) AW 1 Pv (.526) part < .5 mm (.805) to.s (-.890) AW 1 1 Pv ( . 6 4 8 ) part < 1 mm (.692) (x 4o) co.si (.524) med.si (.712) AW 1 (.535) N a + K + C a + M g (.628) Cu/Zn Cu (.527) (X 4 1 ) Na/K (X 4 2 ) Na (.510) f i . c l (-.499) 284 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Variables Independent Variables Cu (- .406) f i . c l (-.590) AW Ic (,-.371) Zn (- .400) to.cl (- .617) AW l i e (- .380) pH ( .512) mr .1 (- .578) AW I Ts (-.658) Sodium/ OM (- .458) mr .3 (- .577) AW II Ts (- .598) Calcium N (- .410) mr . 9 (- .609) AW I Tsc (- .445) + C/N (- .493) mr 5 (- .604) AW II Tsc (- .411) Magnesium Ca + Mg (- .461) mr 15 (-.638) part < .005 mm (.580) P ( .530) AW I Pw (-.521) part < .02 mm (- .535) (X 43) co.s ( .425 ) AW I I Pw (- .497) si + c l (- .605) med.s ( .540) AW I Pv (-.524) part < .1 mm (- .614) f i . s (.701) AW II Pv (- .517) part < .25 mm (- .411) to.s ( .605) AW I (- .525) N a + K + C a + M g (- .457) t o . s i (- .587) AW I I (- .512) Cu (.731) f i si (.953) AW Ic (.780) Zn (.760) to si (.937) AW l i e (.816) 0M (.691) co cl ( .813) AW 1 Ts (.819) Fine s i l t N (.670) f i cl (.754) AW 11 Ts (.854) + Na (.679) to cl (.992) • AW 1 Tsc (.936) Total Clay K (.709) mr • 1 (.920)' AW 11 Tsc (.921) percent •Ca + Mg (-..613) mr •3 (-938) Na/Ca + Mg (.580) P- (-.683) mr .9 (-964) part < .02 mm (.986) (X 44) v.co.s (-.697) mr 5 (.969) si + cl (.967) co.s (-.795) mr 15 (.936) part < .1 mm (.957) med.s (-.818) AW 1 Pw (.863) part < .25 mm ( .842) f i . s (- .848) AW 11 Pw (.872) part < .5 mm (.809) v . f i . s (- .742) AW 1 Pv (.658) part < 1 mm (.697) to.s (-.967) AW II Pv (.737) N a + K + C a + M g (.624) co.si (.575) AW 1 (-657) med.si (.825) AW M (.737) 285 Appendix Table 5b, cont inued Dependent Var i abl es Independent Va r i ab l e s Cu (.760) f i s i (.900) AW 1 1 (-769) Zn (.747) to s i (.944) AW 1 c (.813) OM (.714) C O c l (.686) AW 1 Ic (.857) Tota l c l a y N (.700) f i c l ( . 8 6 2 ) AW 1 Ts (.770) + Na ( . 6 3 3 ) to c l (.977) AW 1 1 Ts (.810) F i ne s i l t K (.669) mr •1 (-940) AW 1 Tsc (.913) + Ca + Mg (.526) mr .3 (.956) AW 1 1 Tsc ( . 8 9 9 ) Med i um P (-.712) mr .9 (.964) Na/C a + Mg (-.535) s i l t v . c o . s (-.716) mr 5 (.961) part < .005 mm (.986) percent co . s ( - . 7 9 2 ) mr 15 (.912) s i + c l ( . 9 6 7 ) med.s (-.809) AW 1 Pw (.900) part < .1 mm. (.954) (X 45) f i . s ( - . 8 4 2 ) AW II Pw (.915) part < .25 mm (.843) v . f i . s (-.762) AW 1 Pv (.678) part < .5 mm (.813) t o . s (-.967) AW II Pv (.769) part < 1 mm (.717) c o . s i (.527) AW 1 (.678) Na + K + Ca + Mg (.538) med.si (.951) Cu (.749) mec •si (.913) AW 1 1 (.867) Zn (.718) f i . s i (.906) AW 1 c (.866) pH (-.449) t o . s i (.994) AW 1 Ic (.895) Tota l s i l t OM (.726) C O . c l (.666) AW 1 Ts (.839) + N (.706) f i . c l (.873) AW 1 1 Ts ( . 8 6 9 ) Tota l c l a y Na (.549) t o . c l (.972) AW 1 Tsc (.905) percent K (.641) mr .1 (-973) AW 1 1 Tsc (.890) Ca + Mg (.527) mr .3 (-980) Na/C a + Mg ( - . 6 0 5 ) (X 46) P (-.785) mr •9 (.985) part < .005 mm (.-967) v . c o . s (-.639) mr 5 (.971) part < .02 mm (.967) co .s (-.847) mr 15 (.941) part < .1 mm (.995) med.s (-.868) AW 1 Pw (.933) part < .25 mm (.870) f i . s (-.890) AW 11 Pw (.934) part < .5 mm (.825) v . f i . s ( - . 7 2 1 ) AW 1 Pv (.795) part < 1 mm (.640) t o . s (-.1.000) ' AW 11 Pv (.866) Na + K + Ca + Mg (.537) c o . s i ( . 6 8 9 ) AW 1 (.795) 286 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Va r i abl es Independent Variables Cu (.713) • mec . s i (.911) AW 11 (.873) Zn (.686) f i . si (.907) AW Ic (.858) pH (.497) to. si (.991) AW 1Ic (.885) Total s i l t OM (.715) C O . cl (.661) AW 1 Ts (.854) + N (.690) f i . cl (.875) AW 11 Ts (.880) Total clay Na (.524) to. cl (.964) AW 1 Tsc (.897) + K (.597) mr .1 (.967) AW 11 Tsc (.884) Very fin e Ca + Mg (.530) mr .3 (.972) Na/Ca + Mg (-.614) sand P (-.799) mr. 9 (.977) part < .005 mm (.957) v.co.s (-.653) mr 5 (.960) part < .02 mm (.954) percent co.s (-.886) mr 15 (.933) si + cl (.995) med.s (-.902) AW 1 Pw (.929) part < .25 mm (.904) (X 47) f i . s (-.857) AW II Pw (.927) part < .5 mm (.858) v . f i . s (-.651) AW 1 Pv (.805) part < 1 mm (.657) to.s (-.995) AW 11 Pv (.872) N a + K + C a + M g (.538) co.si (.692) AW 1 (.805) Cu (.490) \ f i si (.913) AW 11 (.760) Zn (.507) to si (.863) AW Ic (.763) Total s i l t pH (-.516) C O c l (.644) ' AW 1Ic (.792) + OM (.598) f i cl (.872) AW 1 Ts (.750 Total clay N (.563) to cl (.847) AW 11 Ts (.797) + Na (.463) mr .1 (.837) AW 1 Tsc (.824) Very fin e K (.413) mr .3 (.840) AW 11 Tsc (.829) sand Ca + Mg (.461) mr .9 (.840) Na/Ca + Mg (-.411) + P (-.747) mr 5 (.820) part < .005 mm (.842) Fine sand v.co.s (-.809) mr 15 (.780) part < .02 mm (.843) co.s (-.984) AW 1 Pw (.816) si + cl (.870) percent med.s (-.911) AW II Pw (.819) part < .1 mm (.904) f i . s (-.555) AW 1 Pv (.688) part < .5 mm (.985) (X 48) to.s (-.870) AW 11 Pv (.760) part < 1 mm (.818) C O . s i (.695) AW 1 (.688) N a + K + C a + M g (.466) med.si (.901) 287 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Variables Independent Variables Cu ( . 4 3 2 ) mec •si ( - . 8 9 9 ) AW 1 ( . 6 2 2 ) Total s i l t Zn ( . 4 6 3 ) f i . si ( . 9 1 2 ) AW 1 1 ( . 7 0 3 ) + pH ( - . 4 5 3 ) to. si ( . 8 1 5 ) AW Ic ( . 737) Total clay OM ( . 5 6 9 ) C O . cl (.640) AW 1 Ic ( . 7 6 7 ) + N ( . 5 3 5 ) f i . cl ( . 8 7 2 ) AW 1 Ts ( . 6 6 8 ) Very f i n e Na ( . 4 6 9 ) to. cl (.813) AW 1 1 Ts ( .731) sand K (.421) mr .1 ( . 7 9 0 ) AW 1 Tsc ( . 7 9 4 ) + Ca + Mg ( . 4 3 5 ) mr •3 ( . 7 9 6 ) AW 1 1 Tsc ( . 8 0 5 ) Fine sand P ( - . 7 1 4 ) mr •9 ( . 7 9 5 ) part < . 0 0 5 mm ( . 8 0 9 ) + v.co.s ( - . 8 7 9 ) mr 5 ( .777) part < . 0 2 mm ( . 8 1 3 ) Med i um co.s ( - . 9 7 2 ) mr 15 ( .731) si + cl ( . 8 2 5 ) sand med.s ( - . 8 2 7 ) AW 1 Pw ( . 7 7 2 ) part < .1 mm ( . 8 5 8 ) f i . s (-.484) AW II Pw ( . 7 8 1 ) part < .25 mm ( . 9 8 5 ) percent to.s ( - . 8 2 5 ) AW 1 Pv ( . 6 2 3 ) part < 1 mm (.884) co.si ( . 6 9 5 ) AW II Pv ( . 7 0 3 ) Na + K + Ca + Mg (.442) (X 49) Total s i l t + Total clay + Very f i n e sand + Fine sand + Med i um sand + Coarse sand Zn (.368) OM (.447) N (.411) Na (.531) K (.386) P (-.474) v.co.s (-.997) co.s (-.750) med.s (-.557) to.s (-.640) co.si (.690) med.si (.901) f i . s i (.890) t o . s i (.608) co.cl (.626) f i . c l ( . 8 7 8 ) to.cl (.681) mr .1 (.603 mr .3 (.613) mr .9 (.608) mr 5 (.599) mr 15 (.538) AW I Pw (.598) AWII Pw (.618) AW I Pv (.376) AW I I Pv (.464) AW I (.375) AW I I (.464) AW Ic ( . 6 1 2 ) AW l i e ( .641) AW I Ts ( . 3 9 0 ) AW I I Ts ( . 4 8 3 ) AW I Tsc ( . 6 7 4 ) AW I I Tsc ( . 6 9 2 ) part < . 0 0 5 mm ( . 6 9 7 ) part < . 0 2 mm ( .717) si + cl ( . 6 4 0 ) part < .1 mm (.657) part < . 2 5 mm ( . 8 1 8 ) part < . 5 mm (.884) percent (X 50) 288 Appendix Table 5b, continued Dependent Variables Independent Variables Sodium Cu (.459) co.cl (.726) AW I Tsc (.635) + Na (.747) to.cl (.628) AW II Tsc (.628) Potassium K (.578) ' mr .1 (.377) Na/Ca + Mg (-.457) + Ca+Mg (.999) mr .3 (.425) part < .005 mm (.624) Calcium co.s (-.451) mr .9 (-545) part < .02 mm (.538) + med.s'(-.468) mr 5 (.593) si + c l (.537) Magnesium f i . s (-.486) mr 15 (.674) part < .1 mm (.538) me/lOOg to.s (-.537) AW I Ts (.623) part < .25 mm (.466) t o . s i (.482) AW I I Ts (.641) part < .5 mm (.442) (X 51) 289 Append ix T able 6. I NT E R PR E TAT ION FOR SOIL ASSOC IAT IONS 289 WITH REFERENCE TO SOIL SERIES AND GEOLOGIC UNIT DRAINAGE CLASSES A. SOILS DERIVED FROM GLACIAL TILLS a) T i l l s u n d e r l a i n by Vancouver V o l c a n i c s , dominantly r a p i d to w e l l drained 3. SOILS DEVELOPED FROM GRAVELLY AND SANDY OUTWASH, BEACH AND DELTA, DOMINANTLY WELL DRAINED A s s o c i a t i o n mapping u n i t and symbol Landform and topography Mode, o r i g i n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m a t e r i a l Texture s a n d : s i l t : c l a j INTERPRETATION F e r t i l i z e r recommend-a t i o n osling-Whyrape Ass. GS-WP Strathcona Ass. SR Bedrock-cont ro 1 1ed, steep and k n o l l y topo-graphy. Smooth where t i l l i s t h i c k . L e v e l to gently s l o p i n g areas are minor. Bedrock ex-posures are common. Moderately s l o p i n g foot h i l l s . T i l l i s t h i c k and c o n t r o l s the topography. No bedrock exposures. Vashon t i l l ( T i / B i ) g r a v e l l y s i Vashon t i l l (Tlt/Bl) g r a v e l l y Is Vashon t i l l (T6/B1) g r a v e l l y loam Whymper ABW sl - 5 5 - 3*»-ll l s - 8 7 : 8 : 5 : 5 0 : l 2 3 0 - 6 t . 8 5 4 0 - 7 0 b) T i l l s u n d e r l a i n by Co a s t a l I n t r u s i v e s , dominantly r a p i d to w e l l drained ooseneck Ass, Bedrock-controlled, steep and k n o l l y topo-graphy. T i l l i s t h i n . Bedrock exposures are very common. Vashon t i l l ( T 2/B 2) g r a v e l l y s i c) T i l l s u n d e r l a i n by Cretaceous Sediments, dominantly r a p i d to w e l l drained Quinsam Ass. QN F l a t to s l o p i n g sand-stone c o n t r o l s the topography. Slopes are r e l a t e d to beddings. Depth of t i l l i s v a r i a b l e Vashon t i l l ( T 3 / B 3 I g r a v e l l y s i Quinsam B l - 7 l : l 7 : l 2 5 0 - 6 0 llart-Senton Ass. Chemainus-Cassidy Ass. CM-CA F l a t topography w i t h some m i c r o - r e l i e f . F l a t to very g e n t l y s l o p i n g ; minor micro-r e l i e f . F l a t topography,micro-r e l i e f r e s u l t i n g from channel d e p o s i t i o n s . Outwash, g l s ; very stony and cobbly ( O 3 ) Outwash, g l s ; some stones t 0 i - 0 2 ) D e l t a and f l o o d plains,< s i l t and c l a y (AL, RD) Del t a k f l o o d plains,sand fc< gravel(AL,RD) Cheraainus Complex TCassidy Complex ORP l s - 8 0 : l 4 : 6 3 0 - i t o 3 0 - Uo 3 0 - R o l o - 5 0 1 - . 5 0 P P,F N L L L L 6C Exp SOILS DEVELOPED FROM MARINE SILT, CLAY AND SAND a) Dominantly w e l l to moderately w e l l drained F a i r b r i d g e -Memekay-Qualicum Ass. FR-ME-QU F l a t to s l o p i n g topo-graphy, g u l l y and sheet erosion patterns Sands and gravels S a n d s ( - : S i l t s & clay! (c) Clays (c Qualicum Kye F a i r b r t d e e I s - 9 0 : 7 : 3 Is s i l - 2 : 7 1 : 2 7 s t c l - V : 6 2 : 3 ^ 36-Wl 2 5 - 3 ^ 20-24 2 5 -3 5 - 7 0 2 5 - 7 5 < 5 5 < 5 0 H S-L P P,F N L L L L 6C S, K G L(S < 5 0 H S-L P P,F N L L L L 5C N, K G 1(8 1 5 0 H-L 3-F G-E 11,F N M M H M 2A N G H(g 2 0 0 L F E H,B N H 11 H H 1A Exp. G HIS b l Imperfect to poorly drained P a r k s v i l l e -Puntledge-Bowser Ass. F l a t to gently s l o p i n g topography, g u l l i e s are present. Sand to f g r a v e l l y sand / c l a y ( S 2 / c ) I sandOi-S^) P a r k s v i l l e Puntledge Sayward Bowser Custer s i f s l Is Is l s - 8 2 : l O : 8 18 - 2 0 15 - 2 2 18 - 2 0 2 0 - 2 5 2 5 - 3 0 < . 5 0 L - . 5 0 < . 5 0 < . 5 o < . 5 0 SOILS DEVELOPED FROM MARINE SANDS UNDERLAIN BY GLACIAL TILL, DOMINANTLY RAPID TO WELL DRAINED Dashwood-L a n d v i l l e -Saptone Ass. T i l graphy 1 - c o n t r o l l e d topo- I" . J rock c o n t r o l s the I" ography. J Sand, ( T i l washed Sand, rock (S1-33/T3/1 0 2 ! Dashwood L a n d v i l l e Saptone* l s : 6 0 : 2 5 : l 5 s i Is 2 5 - 3 0 18 - 2 2 2 0 - 2 5 2 0 - 7 0 20-40 2 0 - 6 0 < . 5 0 . 7 0 < . 5 0 M S p F N M L L L 3B N, K G Mlg M S M F N M M M L 3B N, K G L l g H s P F N M L L L 3B H, K G M ( 8 SOILS DEVELOPED FROM QUADRA SEDIMENTS, DOMINANTLY WELL DRAINED Ketone- Quadra-F e l i x Ass. KE-QD-FE S l o p i n g topography. ^ Steep e r o s i o n a l t o p o - ^ graphy. Gently s l o p i n g topi graphy. opo-^. po- ^ Quadra t i l K T ^ Quadra sand(Q' T i l l / Q u a d r a sand (T5/Q) w Ketone P Is 18 - 2 U < 5 < . 5 0 H S P-M F Rle) L L L L 4B w Quadra* OP l s - 9 0 : 5 : 5 35-110 < 5 • 52 H L P F . Rle) L L L L 6 C W F e l i x * P s 2 0 - 2 * 20-40 . 6 0 H S M F N L M M M 3B N, K N, K H, K SOILS DEVELOPED OH ERODED CHANNELS FROM ERODED MATERIAL, DOMINANTLY WELL TO MODERATELY WELL DRAINED G u l l y and sheet erosion p a t t e r n . Flowing creeks i n channels. Outwash/clay J ( 0 i - 0 2 / C ) l O u t w a s h / t i l l J l O l / T n l 1 T i l l / Q . s a n J I (T3/QI L ORGANIC S0IL3, POORLY AND VERY POORLY DRAINED Arrowsmlth Ass. OR F l a t topography e s t a b l i s h e d by plant remains. Peat (OR) Muck (OR) 'P-P ,-vp Arrowsmlth Metchosin R(u) Rlw) M L l g W w Greenstone* ABW Is 2 5 - 3 0 3 0 - 6 0 < . 5 0 11 L-S P F Rle) L L L L 6D N, K G n(e m w m Snakehead* ABW s l 18 - 2 4 5 0 - 6 0 . 6 0 M-H S P-M F R( e l L M M M 6 D N. K G IKS ABW - Ac i d Brown Wooded CB - Concretionary Brown P - Podzol OP - O r t h i c Podzol ORP - O r s t e i n Podzol OG - O r t h i c G l e y s o l R - Regosol OR - Organic Texture: s - sand Is - loamy sand s l - sandy loam f s l - f i n e sandy loam s i l - s i l t loam s i c l - s i l t y c l a y loam c l - c l a y loam P r o d u c t i v i t y f or Douglas f i r : poor s i t e i n d e x : 6 o - l 2 5 f t . m.a.i : 4 o c u . f t . ( 7 9 y r s ) M - medium s i t e tndex : l 2 5-160 f t . m.a.1:98 c u . f t . l 6 3 y r s ) good s i t e index:16o-18o f t . m.a.T : U 7 c u . f t . ( 7 2 y r s e x c e l l e n t s i t e index: 18o+ m.a.I: 147+ NOTES Drainage: r - r a p i d w. - w e l l m - moderately w e l l 1 - imperfect p - poor vp - very poor Urueri Great Group or Subgroup: S o i l moisture d e f i c i t : low; < 4 . " M - medium; b-6 H - high; > 6 " Forest s i t e type: L - l i c h e n S - s a l a l F - sword fern B - bog Species: F - F i r H - Hemlock Cedar Grand f i r Lodgepole pine S - S i t k a spruce Logging operation: N - No r e s t r i c t i o n ; normal logging R(e) — r e s t r i c t i o n ; e r o s i o n hazard R(w) = r e s t r i c t i o n ; excess wetness Slash burning I n t e n s i t y : (exposed mineral s o i l ) L - low; < 2 0 J M - medium; 2 0 - k o % H - high; > fco* N a t u r a l regen. p o t e n t i a l : (trees/acres ) L - low; < 2 0 0 M - medium; 2 0 0 - U o o high; > -100 Brush hazard: ( p l a n t i n g required w i t h i n ) L - low; 11-6 y r s . medium; 2-b y r a . H - high; < 2 y r s . Browsing hazard: t r e e s < 5 £t. i n height) , - low; < 2 0 * M - medium; 2 0 - 4 0 * high; >*ojf Thinning p r e s c r i p t i o n s : A - 3 t h i n n i n g s ; I 5 - 2 O ; 2 5 - 3 0 ; 6 0 - 6 5 y r s . B - 2 t h i n n i n g s ; 2 0 - 2 5 ; 5 0 - 6 0 y r s . C - l t h i n n i n g ; 2 0 - 3 0 y r s . ffi-No t h i n n i n g required. D-special cases that r e q u i r e f i e l d examina-t i o n of stands. Thinning p r i o r i t y , highest to lowest: 1 , 2 , 3 . » « . 5 . 6 . Road construction su i t a b i l i t y (cost/mile): P - poof, 130,000 H - medium;$30,000-10,000 G - good; $lo (ooo E r o s i o n : L - l o w ; l i t t l e m a t e r i a l l o s s M - moderate;small g u l l i e s or some bedrock exposures H - high;deep g u l l i e s or la r g e bedrock exposures (a) - sheet erosion (ft) - g u l l y erosion Newly e s t a b l i s h e d s e r i e s . *• F e r t i l i z e r experiment i n progress. Appendix Table J. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the S o i l s into Canadian, American and World Systems. SOIL HORIZONS (genera 1i zed) CANADIAN (1965) CANADIAN (1968) U.S.A. ( 7 t h Approx.) WORLD (present) MEMEKAY L-H (Ae) Bfcc, Bf, Bt, C Concret ionary B rown B i sequa Humo-Ferri c Podzol A l f i c Hap 1 orthod Humo-Ferr i c Podzol HART L-H, Ap, (Ae) Bf, Bfc C Degraded O r t s t e i n Podzol Mini Humo-Ferri c Podzol Typ i c Hap 1orthod Humo-Ferr i c Podzol (Ochric Podzol) SENTON L-H, (Ae), Bf, C Degraded Acid Brown Wooded Mini Humo-Ferr i c Podzol Ty p i c Hap 1orthod Humo-Ferr i c Podzol (Ochr i c Podzol) GOSLING L-H, (Ae) Bf, C Degraded Acid Brown Wooded Mini Humo-Ferr i c Podzol Ent i c Haplorthod Humo-Ferr i c Podzol (Ochric Podzol) QUINSAM L-H, Ae Bf, C Concret i ona ry Podzol Orth i c Humo-Ferr i c Podzol Ty p i c Hap 1 orthod Humo-Ferr i c Podzol QUADRA L-H, Ae, Bfcc, C Orthic Podzol Orth i c Humo-Ferr i c Podzol Typ i c Haplorthod Humo-Ferr i c Podzol Reference: National S o i l Survey Committee, 1968. Proceedings of the seventh meeting of the National S o i l Survey Committee of Canada, A p r i l 22-26, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . Appendix Map I Bedrock geolo. see maps i n tube Appendix Hap I I S u r f i c i a l geology-see maps i n tube Appendix Map I I I . Geologic units see iaaps i n tube 294 Appendix Map IV. Geologic unit-drainage classes see maps i n tube Appendix Map V. S o i l associations see maps i n tube Appendix Map VI. S o i l catenas see maps i n tube 297 Appendix Map VII. Grouping: Potential productivity for D. f i r . see maps i n tube 298 Appendix Map VIII Grouping: Thinning f o r D. f i r see maps i n tube 299 GLOSSARY Amphiboles: Me tas i1 i c a tes wi th general formula AS ( S i , A l ) ; A = Mg, F e + + , Ca, and Na; B = Mg, Fe++, Al and Fe+++. Amygda lo ida l : A general name f o r v o l c a n i c rocks ( o r d i n a r i l y basa l t s or andes i tes ) that conta in numerous gas c a v i t i e s f i l l e d wi th secondary minera l s ( z e o l i t e s , c a l c i t e . cha lcedony, or q u a r t z ) . The f i l l e d c a v i t i e s are c a l l e d amygdules or amygdale. A r g i l l i t e : Metamorphic rock der ived from s i l t s t o n e , c l ays tone or sha l e . It is s o f t e r then s l a t e . A v a i l a b l e moisture or water : S o i l water content between the f i e l d capac i t y and permanent w i l t i n g p o i n t . The water in t h i s range is not equa l l y a v a i l a b l e , i . e . water d e f i c i t s may develop before the 15~bar water content is reached, depending on the nature of the p a r t i c u l a r s o i l -plant-atmosphere system in ques t i on . Basal a r ea : The a r ea , u s u a l l y expressed in square f e e t , of the c ross s e c t i o n at breast height of a s i n g l e t ree or of a l l the t rees in a s tand . Th is is u s u a l l y i n s ide bark unless otherwise s t a t e d . B a s a l t : A f i n e gra ined dark-co lored igneous rock ; composed p r i m a r i l y of c a l c i c p l a g i o c l a s e and pyroxene. B r u n i s o l i c Order , S o i l s : Well to imper fec t l y dra ined s o i l s developed under f o r e s t , mixed f o r e s t and g r a s s , grass and f e r n , or heath and tundra v e g e t a t i o n , w i th brownish co lored so l a and without marked e l u v i a 1 hor i zons . Bulk d e n s i t y : The mass (weight) of a un i t of dry s o i l . Cha in : One chain = 66 f e e t . C h l o r i t e : A c l a y mineral c o n s i s t s of a l t e r n a t i n g m i c a - l i k e and b r u c i t e -l i k e l a y e r s . C .E .C . 10-kO me/1OOg. Coarse s k e l e t o n : S o i l p a r t i c l e s between 2 and 76.2 mm in s i z e . Conformable: When beds or s t r a t a l i e upon one another without showing any d i s tu rbance or denudation between them, they are sa id to be conformab1e. C o r d i l l e r a n ice sheet : The ice-sheet which covered B r i t i s h Columbia dur ing the Ice Age and which extended from Canadian C o r d i l l e r a to P a c i f i c Ocean. Cretaceous: The t h i r d and l a t e s t of the per iods inc luded in the Mesozoic e r a . Dac i t e : The e x t r u s i v e equ iva lent of quar tz d i o r i t e . The p r i n c i p a l minera ls are p l a g i o c l a s e , quar tz pyroxene or hornblende or both. 300 D i o r i t e : A plutonic rock composed primarily of sodic plagioclase, hornblende, b i o t i t e or pyroxene. Disorption curve, moisture release curve: A curve obtained by pl o t t i n g water content of s o i l against corresponding tensions under which i t is held. Drumlin: A streamlined h i l l or ridge of g l a c i a l d r i f t with long axis p a r a l l e l i n g d i r e c t i o n of flow of former g l a c i e r . Dyke, dike: A tabular body of igneous rock that cuts across the structure of adjacent rocks or cuts massive rocks. Ecosystem: It is any area of nature that includes l i v i n g and non-living organisms and non-living substances which interact to produce an exchange of materials between the l i v i n g and non-living parts, Era: A d i v i s i o n of geologic time of the highest order, comprising one or more periods. The eras are: Archeozoic, Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. Eu s t a t i c : Pertaining to simultaneous, world-wide changes in sea l e v e l . Feldspars: Polysi1icates such as orthoclase, a l b i t e , anorthite, anorthoclase and plagioclase. F e l s i t e : An igneous rock with or without phenocrysts. Fi e l d capacity: The water content of a s o i l two or three days after a heavy rain or i r r i g a t i o n when the rate of drainage has approached to a low value in comparison to i t s o r i g i n a l value. Flux: The flux of any vector quantity through an area is the product of the area and the component of the vector at right angles to the area. Form fa c t o r : The r a t i o between the inside bark volume of a tree and a geometric s o l i d having the same diameter and height. G1aciof 1uvia 1, f1uviog1acia 1: Pertaining to streams flowing from g l a c i e r s or to the deposits made by such streams. G l e y s o l i c Order, s o i l s : S o i l s saturated with water at one or more seasons, or are a r t i f i c i a l l y drained. They are developed under hydrophytic vegetation or they may be expected to produce hydrophytic vegetation i f l e f t undisturbed. Great Group, s o i l : A group of s o i l having c e r t a i n morphological features in common that r e f l e c t a s i m i l a r pedogenic environment. Holocrystal1ine: Applied to rocks consisting e n t i r e l y of c r y s t a l l i z e d minerals and no glass. Rocks may be granular or po r p h y r i t i c . Hypsithermal: Postglacial warm interval responsible for the 6-foot eustati c r i s e in sea l e v e l . 301 l l l i t e : A 2:1 type clay mineral; micaceous. Non-expanding due to K-bonding between i n t e r l a y e r s . C.E.C. 10-40 me/lOOg. I.ntrusive: Plutonic igneous rock contrasted with e f f u s i v e or extrusive. Isostasy: Theoretical balance of large portions of the earth's crust as though they were f l o a t i n g on a denser underlying layer. K a o l i n i t e : A non-expanding 1:1 type clay mineral. C.E.C. is low, 5~15 me/lOOg. Landform: Applied to the broad land features such as p l a i n , plateau, mountain as well as to minor features such as h i l l , v a l l e y , slope, canyon and a l l u v i a l fan. Magnetite: Magnetic iron ore. Fe 0 or F e + + F e + + + 0 / j . Mixed layer clay: A mixture of clay primarily of 2:1 types. Moisture release curve: See disorption curve. Montmori11 onite: An expanding 2:1 type clay mineral. C.E.C. is high, 80-150 me/lOOg. Order, s o i l : The highest level of gene r a l i z a t i o n , grouping s o i l s of si m i l a r gross genetic properties. Organic s o i l s : S o i l s with 30 percent or more of organic matter and with 12 inches of consolidated or 18 inches unconsolidated organic material. Permanent w i l t i n g percentage: ,11 is the s o i l water content at which plant remains permanently wilted (assuming that the leaves exhibit v i s i b l e wi 11 i ng) • un 1 ess water is added to s o i l . Permian: Last period of the Paleozoic era. Physiography: The study of the genesis and evolution of land forms. Pillow lavas: A general term for lavas, that exhibit pillow structure, occurring mostly in basic lavas (basalt and andesites). Pleistocene: The e a r l i e r of the two epochs comprised in the Quaternary period. Also c a l l e d Glacial epoch, Post-Pliocene and Post-t e r t i a r y . Podzolic s o i l s : Well to imperfectly drained s o i l s developed under forest or heath, having under v i r g i n condition organic surface horizons (L-H) , l i g h t colored eluviated horizons (Ae) and i 1 l u v i a l (B) horizons with accumulation of organic matter, sesquioxides or clay; or any combination of these. Regosolic s o i l s : Well to imperfectly drained s o i l s with no horizon development except a nonchernozemic Ah horizon that may or may not be present. 302 Regression: Gradual contract ion of a shallow sea resu l t ing in the emergence of land as when sea level f a l l s or land r i s e s . Re l i e f : The d i f f e rence in e levat ion between the high and low points of a land surface. S i l l : An in t rus ive body of igneous rock of approximately uniform thickness and r e l a t i v e l y th in compared with i t s l a te ra l extent which has been emplaced pa ra l l e l to the bedding or s ch i s t o s i t y of the intruded rocks. Soi l a s soc i a t i on : A group of defined and - named taxonomic so i l un i t s , regu lar ly geographica l ly associated in a d e f i n i t e proport ional pat tern . Soi l catena; An assoc ia t ion of s o i l s developed from one kind of parent material but d i f f e r i n g in cha r a c t e r i s t i c s due to d i f fe rences in re 1 i ef and d rai nage. Soi l phase: A subdiv is ion of any c lass in the taxonomic system but not in i t s e l f a category of the system. Soi l s e r i e s : A group of s o i l s having horizons s im i l a r in d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in the so i l p r o f i l e and .developed from a pa r t i cu l a r kind of parent mate r i a l . Soi l type: A d i v i s i o n of a ser ies d i f f e r i n g only on the texture of the surface horizon or layer . Solum: Total of A and B hor izons. Stock: A body of p luton ic rfo'ck that covers less than kO :->qua*re mi les , has steep contacts (general ly dipping outward) and although genera l ly d i scordant , may be concordant. Tec ton i c : Of, per ta in ing to , or des ignat ing the rock s t ructure and external" forms resu l t ing from the deformation of the ea r th ' s c rus t . Unconformable.: Having the r e l a t i on of unconformity to the unde r l y im rocks: not succeeding the underlying s t ra ta in irimied i a te order of age and in pa ra l l e l p o s i t i o n ; Ve rmicu l i t e : A 2:1 type c lay minera l . Very s im i l a r to b i o t i t e C .E .C . is high, 100-150 me/lOOg. Water holding capac i ty (ava i lab le water storage capac i t y ) : The d i f f e rence between the depth of water held by the rootzone at f i e l d capacity and the depth of water held by the so i l at permanent w i l t i ng point . 

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