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The madrid novels of pereda Smith, Clifford 1971

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THE MADRID NOVELS OF PEREDA by C l i f f o r d Smith B.A., Cantab», 1 9 6 8 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Hispanic and I t a l i a n Studies We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1 9 7 1 In present ing th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ib ra ry sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le fo r reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It i s understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on o f t h i s thes i s fo r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of H(spo.nic tto.Up.ii Sbu .oUes The Un iver s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date l b * " A p r i l ( ABSTRACT Jose Maria de Pereda (I833-I906) l i v e d most of h i s l i f e at h i s house i n Polanco, i n Santander Province on the C a n t a b r i a n Coast. The g r e a t e r p a r t of h i s novels and s t o r i e s are s e t i n the towns and v i l l a g e s of t h i s p r o v i n c e , but throughout them, he was conscious of the i n f l u e n c e t h a t Madrid and i t s customs was e x e r t i n g on the t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e i n the s m a l l centers of p r o v i n c i a l s o c i e t y . His awareness of t h i s s o c i a l f o r c e i s most c l e a r l y expressed i n three long s h o r t s t o r i e s and two f u l l - l e n g t h n o v e l s , Pedro Sanchez and La Montalvez, i n which the p r i n c i p a l s e t t i n g i s the Spanish c a p i t a l c i t y . These novels have never r e c e i v e d the c r i t i c a l a c c l a i m t h a t Is t h e i r due, because of the d e s i r e of many c r i t i c s to judge them by n o n - l i t e r a r y c r i t e r i a . T h i s t h e s i s s t u d i e s Pereda's p r e s e n t a t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l background to the novels and h i s a n a l y s i s of v a r i o u s aspects of Madrid l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y the p o l i t i c a l system, the press and the a t t i t u d e s of f a s h i o n -able s o c i e t y to love and sex, to e d u c a t i o n and r e l i g i o n . His ideas on the a e s t h e t i c s of a r t and on Spain's l i t e r a r y h e r i t a g e g i v e r i s e to c e r t a i n trends i n h i s n a r r a t i v e s t y l e ; t h i s and the t e c h n i c a l accomplishment of the two f u l l - l e n g t h n o v e l s , i s d i s c u s s e d a t some l e n g t h . A f i n a l s e c t i o n analyses h i s c r e a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s and s i t u a t i o n s , and h i s treatment of themes i n these two n o v e l s , i n order to show t h a t the r e a l measure of h i s success i s the host of c h a r a c t e r s , whom he made human and a r t i s t i c a l l y c r e d i b l e . TABLE OF CONTENTS I n t r o d u c t i o n The Theme of Madrid i n Pereda's Novels The F i v e Madrid Novels Suum Cuique La Mu.jer d e l Cesar Los Hombres de Pro Pedro Sanchez La Montalvez Chapter I s The H i s t o r i c a l Background to Pedro Sanchez Chapter 2; Pereda's L i t e r a r y Opinions and Technique i n the Madrid Novels Chapter 3! Chapter 4: P o l i t i c s and the Press i n Pereda's Madrid Novels S o c i e t y i n Pereda's Madrid Novels Fashion Love Education R e l i g i o n Chapter 5 : The Themes and Characters of Pedro Sd.nch.ez and La Montalvez Conclusion B i b l i o g r a p h y 24 4-9 78 104 137 191 197 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my thanks to Miss Maria G. Tomsich, without whose unstinting e f f o r t s , guidance and advice* the writ i n g of t h i s thesis would not have been possible. I would also l i k e to express my appreciation f o r the encouragement and many h e l p f u l suggestions made by the other members of the Department of Hispanic and I t a l i a n Studies at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia; and to the members of the Inter-Library Loan D i v i s i o n of the Library of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r u n t i r i n g search for obscure materialo F i n a l l y I should l i k e to thank my wife, Ann, and Miss Lynne Gardner f o r typing t h i s thesis, and Mr. Ron Rit e r for e d i t i n g i t . Y este c u l t o l o c a l de Pereda, que l o ahogo, enroscan-dose a e l como una "boa c o n s t r i c t o r , l o ha seguido a n i q u i -lando"despues de muerto. A l e l debemos l o s t o p i c o s de l o s manuales y e l que e x i s t a una t a n extrana d e s p r o p o r c i o n entre l a s a f i r m a c i o n e s de l a c r i t i c a " o f i c i a l " de Pereda y l a r e a l i d a d de su i n f l u j o en l a n o v e l a moderna. No se encuentra nunca su nombre bajo l a pluma de l o s n o v e l i s t a s que hoy t r a b a j a n y crean, l o que no d e j a de sorprender, s i l a susomentada c r i t i c a y l o s susodichos manuales t u v i e r a n r a z o n . Hoy ya, que Pereda se nos aparece como d e f i n i t i -vamente pasado, e l dano es i r r e m e d i a b l e ; pero hubo un tiempo en que no l o era, en que e l n o v e l i s t a , n e u r o s i s o no, a s i s -t i d o por una mas comprensiva--o mas r i g u r o s a — c r i t i c a , mas aguda, mas a l e r t a , h u b i e r a podido cumplir plenamente l a gran promesa que f u e . La f r a s e h i s t o r i c a de que C a s t i l l a — mas exactamente, toda e s t a e s p a c i o s a y t r i s t e p a t r i a n u e s t r a - -hace sus hombres y l o s g a s t a , p o d r i a tomar un sesgo mas sombriamente dramatico en e l caso de Pereda. A Pereda, a q u e l l a a g r i a C a s t i l l a cantabra l o gasto s i n h a c e r l o . JOSE F. MONTESIMOS1 INTRODUCTION Many attempts have been made to c l a s s i f y the works of Jose* Maria de Pereda. The f i r s t was that of Augusto Charro Hidalgo y D i a z 2 , and many c r i t i c s since have s i m i l a r l y attempted to categorise Pereda's novels. They have immediately discovered that t h i s i s an unrewarding, i f not impossible, task. At f i r s t glance i t may not appear so, for Pereda's production i s not large by any standards; but the d i f f i c u l t i e s occur once the categories have been decided upon, and an attempt made to assign the novels to these categories. A c r i t i c could, f o r example, c a l l the novel Don Gonzalo Gonzalez  de l a Gonzalera a p o l i t i c a l novel, a regional novel, a humorous novel, a costumbrista novel or a thesis novel. Because i t i s impossible to place Pereda's novels into mutually exclusive categories, any s i g n i f i c a n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s can be made only by concentrating on a theme which i s common to several of them, and by discussing these novels with regard to t h e i r theme. Then, instead of having f i v e categories, each of which contains a f i f t h part of his novels, any novel may be assigned to four or even f i v e of these c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , and consequently any category may be comprised of a l l , or most of, the novels. The two largest groups which r e s u l t from such a thematic d i v i s i o n of Pereda's works are the regional novels—which include a l l but La Montalvez—and the thesis novels—which - 2 -include a l l but S o t i l e z a . Such d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the author's writings by a comparison of t h e i r subject matter would produce smaller and more clear-cut d i v i s i o n s . One of these would be that of the Madrid s t o r i e s , whose action, or a large part of i t , takes place within the Spanish c a p i -t a l . This group has never been studied i n d e t a i l , nor has i t received the c r i t i c a l acclaim that i t deserves. The f i v e novels whose se t t i n g i s Madrid were written at d i f f e r e n t periods of Pereda's l i f e . The dates are not with-out s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r they reveal the author's continuing preoccupation with the metropolis. The f i v e novels, and the dates of t h e i r f i r s t p ublication, are» 1864, Suum cuique 18?0, La mujer del Cesar 1871, Los hombres de pro 1884, Pedro Sanchez 1888, La Montdivez The theme of Madrid i n Pereda's novels It can be argued that assigning of Pereda's works to watertight compartments i s purely a r b i t r a r y , since the theme of Madrid runs through the majority of his novels. I t would be an immense task to document th i s motif i n the whole of his production, but a b r i e f outline of i t would be i n order at t h i s point. The f i r s t ' appearance of the theme i s , i n f a c t , Suum  cuique i n his f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n , Escenas montanesas. This - 3 -short novel w i l l be studied i n d e t a i l , as w i l l the next two developments of the theme i n the c o l l e c t i o n Bocetos a l temple (the two novels La mu.jer del C6sar and Los hombres de pro)* He followed t h i s c o l l e c t i o n with another of shorter pieces en-t i t l e d Tipos trashumantes, which was to be his f i r s t venture into anti-Madrid writings by default. This approach was to become a favorite with Pereda from t h i s point on i n his develop ment. He achieves i t either by describing the virtues of the Montana and then revealing the disruptive force of the sophis-t i c a t e d ideas of the c a p i t a l or he describes the f a u l t s and the ridiculousness of the madrilenos by contrast with the sane and healthy country people. It i s th i s technique of negation and contrast which supplies the solut i o n to the apparent paradox i n Pereda's novels. Pereda's production was paradoxical since he only composed f i v e novels set i n Madrid, and yet the well-worn theme of Menosprecio de Corte y Alabanza de Aldea i s e v i -dent i n everything he wrote. Pereda had an almost g u i l t y preoccupation with the Court and consequently the reader must always supply the f i r s t half of the phrase (Menosprecio de  Corte) to his thoughts on any work that praises the pastoral i d e a l (Alabanza de Aldea). These two aspects of Pereda'a technique can be found i n many of his novels about l i f e i n the mountains of Santander. The two early thesis novels, Don Gonzalo Gonzalez de l a Gonzalera and De t a l palo, t a l a s t i l l a are constructed i n accord with t h i s method. The former describes the impact of _ 4 -revolutionary Madrid p o l i t i c s on a small community i n Santander province. S i m i l a r l y De t a l palo, t a l a s t i l l a i s concerned with the clash between old-fashioned r e l i g i o n and "new-fangled" Madrid atheism. His f i r s t novel, E l buey suelto... had gone one stage further. I t attacked the ideas expressed i n Balzac's Physiologie du mariage and Petites miseres de l a vie con.jugale, which were, by implication, Madrid Society's ideas on marriage, since Madrid so often aped P a r i s . The f i v e novels that form the central part of Pereda's publications, and which are his greatest achievements, make a strange contrast with his e a r l i e r and l a t e r books, and with each other. Three of the f i v e simply describe the Montana, i t s l i f e and i t s beauties, and show a world completely free from the e v i l influence of the metropolis* In the two i n t e r -vals between wr i t i n g them he produced the f i v e works which deal most s p e c i f i c a l l y with the Corte, i n the following orders 1882, E l sabor de l a t i e r r u c a 1883, Pedro Sanchez 1885, S o t i l e z a 1888, La Montalvez 1889, La puchera These f i v e form a strange group, since three are free from a n t i -Madrid s a t i r e and the other two comprise i t s most complete manifestation. His l a s t three novels, Nubes de es t i o , A l primer vuelo, and Penas a r r i b a are a l l thesis novels, as his e a r l i e s t ones - 5 -had been. Two of the three reveal Pereda's view of madril-enos i n the Montana, i n a s i m i l a r vein to Tipos trashumantes. Nubes de es t i o contains many of Pereda's most v i t r i o l i c attacks on the treatment of the provinces by the c a p i t a l , e s p e c i a l l y the chapter e n t i t l e d "Palique"; and some c r i t i c s have seen the"summer clouds" as the veraneantes themselves. The s i m i l a r i t y between the thesis of t h i s novel and that of the somewhat i d y l l i c A l primer vuelo, a f a c t caused by the composition of the two within the same year and from the same ideas, makes the l a t t e r seem f a r worse despite i t s bucolic charm. Penas a r r i b a , so often claimedas Pereda's masterpiece, now appears to present a rather forced thesis, i n which the madrileno Marcelo i s converted to a love of the Montana. Thus i t can be seen that the theme of the praise of the country and the despising of the c a p i t a l can be found i n the majority of Pereda's writings. Even the so-called E s c r i t o s  de juventud (I858-79) contain many p o l i t i c a l a r t i c l e s which attack the government.3 Madrid i s a major theme, whether i t be by negation (as i n E l sabor de l a t i e r r u c a , La puchera), contrast (Penas a r r i b a , Nubes de es t i o which are manifestations of Alabanza de Aldea), or by a d i r e c t s a t i r i c a l attack (La mujer del Ce^sar, La Montalvez which are manifestations of Menosprecio de Corte)• - 6 -The Five Madrid Novels Suum Cuique This was Pereda's f i r s t excursion to Madrid, and was also his very f i r s t story, as opposed to sketch, scene, or cuadro. I t was included i n his f i r s t publication, the Escenas montanesas of 1864, which was the biggest step f o r -ward i n Spanish realism since the publication of La gaviota by Fernan Gaballero i n 1849. Suum cuique i s a very simple story with a double action. It has a minimum of characters f o r i t revolves around the figures of Don S i l v e s t r e Seturas and an unnamed pea, gordo from Madrid who i s always referred to as Don Fulano de T a l . The two men require a c e r t a i n amount of attention f o r they are the prototypes of important stock figures i n Pereda's f i c t i o n . Like many nineteenth century n o v e l i s t s , Pereda gave names to c e r t a i n of his characters to emphasize t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Dickens i s the prime example with Count Smorl-tork, Lords Dedlock and Verisopht, and Captain C u t t l e . Galdos was to use the same sort of symbolism with Teresa and Santiago Ibero, Don Benigno Cordero, Angel Guerra and many others. Pereda was not given to using symbolic names with such frequency, but there are occasions when he does so. It i s s u f f i c i e n t to mention the stubborn Don Roque i n Nubes de  es t i o , Angel and Luz i n La Montalvez, and Don Serafin i n Pedro Sanchez as examples of protagonists with meaningjul names; and such secondary figures as the " p r i c k l y * L e t i c i a Espinosa and the a r i s t o c r a t i c Sagrario M i r a l t a and Manolo - 7 -Casa-Vieja. The symbolism i n Suum cuique reveals Don Si l v e s t r e ' s pastoral origins and nature. Don Fulano de Tal i s the f i r s t appearance of a pez gordo i n PeredaV This character w i l l be developed i n l a t e r novels, but here i s the primitive o r i g i n a l of such "great" men as Don Augusto Valenzuela (Pedro Sanchez) and E l margues de Casa-Gutierrez (Nubes de e s t i o ) • In t h i s f i r s t a i r i n g he i s , indeed, the harassed man of the world who has l i t t l e or no time to rest from his problems, but he i s a very kindly, benevolent soul . He has no malice i n him, but, being human, has many f a u l t s . Pereda s a t i r i s e s his f a u l t s constantly. What i s , perhaps, much more surp r i s i n g i s that Pereda s a t i r i s e s Don S i l v e s t r e f a r more harshly than Don Fulano de T a l . Don S i l v e s t r e i s the l a s t of a long l i n e of rather s i n g l e -minded hidalgos, who have carried on a pointless and r i d i -culous p l e i t o f o r many years. This aspect of his character i s stressed by Pereda at a l l times, although he does allow that " S i l v e s t r e no carecia completamente de sentido comun" (I, 262). The l a t e r analysis of S i l v e s t r e * s character w i l l reveal that he suffered from a Galdosian monomania. Don S i l v e s t r e i s another o r i g i n a l f o r l a t e r characters, since he i s marked by a benevolent and virtuous i f somewhat boorish nature. His adventures i n Madrid are amusing, but the humor i s based on the old device of se t t i n g a country-man's lack of p o l i s h against the n i c e t i e s and f i n e r y of society. The character, f i r s t seen here, w i l l l a t e r be developed as Ram6n (La mu.jer del C^sar) and Pedro Sanchez. - 8 -Suum cuique i n i t s anti-Madrid ideas also prefigures the l a t e r development of Pereda's novels. This novel must always be taken into consideration when discussing the c i t y / country theme i n Pereda. The country i s never i d e a l i s e d . Pereda i s at great pains to describe the Montana and i t s beauties but his novels always remain r e a l i s t i c . Pereda never doubts for a moment the virtues of the country over the c i t y f o r him, but he has no patience with the pastoral i d e a l of the countryside i n which f a i r shepherds make chaste love to b e a u t i f u l shepherdesses, under cloudless skies, with flocks that never wander. Don Fulano meets with many discomforts i n the country. Perhaps the most famous of these occurs a f t e r Garcilaso has been invoked on account of his "tiernas eglogas" and Don Fulano has been described as reading "cualquiera de los poetas, desde Gonzalo de Berceo hasta e l ultimo bucolico de nuestros g a c e t i l l e r o s y romancistas," (I, 279)• Pereda drives home the fa l s e impression given of the country by these poets by quoting two pastoral stanzas and exclaims "IY diran las almas de prosa que l a poesia es una quimeral The sequence i s c a r e f u l l y prepared i n order to make the reader's and Don Fulano*s disillusionment greater. This comes when Don Fulano, thinking he hears Galatea approach through the bushes, goes to investigate and discovers "en lugar de los cabellos de l a ninfa...atropellando las enmaranadas argomas, madreselvas, espinas, zarzas, juncias y ortigas, - 9 -las a f i l a d a s astas de un n o v i l l o de cuatro anos," (I, 279-80). He does not stop running t i l l he reaches Don S i l v e s t r e * s house. Montesinos has pointed out that these ideas were old-fashioned by 1864 , but does reveal that Pereda was con-cerned with the r e a l i t y of the country, not with an i d e a l i s -ation of i t . Montesinos has developed a theory about Pereda's realism, which i s c l e a r l y revealed i n Suum cuique. Pereda's novels are an uneasy mixture of i d y l l s — i n t h e i r t o t a l i t y — and of Realism or even N a t u r a l i s m — i n t h e i r d e t a i l s — . Pereda's view of l i f e was that the country was preferable to the c a p i t a l , but i t was s t i l l the lesser of two e v i l s . He could see the f a u l t s of the countryside and constantly attacked the vices of i t s inhabitants. C i t i e s , a f t e r a l l , contain more people, and provide mathematically a greater p o s s i b i l i t y f o r e v i l . Pereda never l o s t the v i s i o n of the country he had i n Suum cuique, and both his own house at Polanco, and the Casona of Penas a r r i b a had many c i v i l i s e d a l t e r a t i o n s made to accommodate the sophisticated Pereda and the madrileno Marcelo. Pereda was never able to forget the advantages of progress and Madrid, despite his hatred of i t s f a u l t s . La Mu.jer del Cesar5 This, the second of Pereda's s a l l i e s from the Montana, has much i n common with Los hombres de pro and follows Suum  cuique by s i x years. It also has two heroes, but, unlike the heroes of Suum cuique, they do not both suff e r discomfiture - 10 -as the novel progresses. On the contrary, there i s a ten-dency fo r the very s t r i c t moral to be emphasized by Pereda, and the moral judgments of one of the heroes are supported by the author rather too f u l l y . Far from s u f f e r i n g d i s -comfiture, he i s shown as being a paragon. The novel concerns two brothers, Ramdn and Carlos. Ramon has remained i n the Montana, Carlos has become a successful Madrid lawyer. The description of Ramon, which opens the novel, brings to mind S i l v e s t r e Seturas, and one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s stressed by Peredai " n i de su aire n i de su rostro podia deducirse que fuera un palurdo..." (I, 533)• Another s i m i l a r i t y whichKas a bearing on the action i s that both men are large and powerful. Ramon i s to be the hero of the novel, yet his brother r e a l l y provides the central action i n i t . The contrast between the two i s continually stressed, but despite what has been said about the extreme perfection of the countryman, i t i s the city-lawyer, Carlos, who i s described as "mas i d e a l i s t a y mas f i n o " (I, 538)• Pereda i s once more throwing into r e l i e f the true nature of the countryside, which he does not i d e a l i s e , f o r his realism stresses both i t s beauty and short-comings . Despite the over-emphasis on the virtue of the montanes, what has escaped most c r i t i c s i s the fact that he i s not the only virtuous character i n the story. Carlos and Isabel, his wife, are shown to be both honest and honorable, even though he i s a l i t t l e " b l i n d " and " l a veta de Isabel era l a - 11 -ostentaci6n" (I, 539)• As such they provide the o r i g i n a l s for Pedro Sanchez (who i s "blind") and his f i r s t wife Clara (who i s ostentatious), although the l a t e r novel develops the characters much more f u l l y . There are wicked and vicious people i n Madrid, but Pereda gives a reasonably balanced picture of society for there i s a mixture of vice and virtue i n the main characters. He may appear to be censuring the whole of Madrid Society very severely, but, given the ^offes , c r i t i c i s m must be tempered accordingly. Pereda's two most severe attacks on high society occur i n thi s novel and i n La Montalvez, and both are b u i l t around b e a u t i f u l women and the attempts that are made on th e i r honor. Another t r a i t of many of Pereda's thesis novels, re-vealed by Suum cuique and La mu.jer del C^sar, i s that he has a tendency to use a proverb or saying as a basis for a novel. Suum cuique exemplified the idea of "to each his own," La mu.jer del C6sar the importance of "appearing and not just being virtuous," just as De t a l palo, t a l a s t i l l a i l l u s t r a t e d the idea of "a chip off the old block" or " l i k e father, l i k e son," and (unusually) E l buey suelto... Qbien se lame] attacks the idea that the "unyoked f j i . e . unmarried) steer does well f o r himself." Much of the plot and the theme of the story w i l l be dealt with l a t e r i n more d e t a i l , but the conclusions drawn from the theme must be treated with caution. Although i t may appear somewhat old-fashioned i n i t s exhortation to women * 12 -t o s t a y a,t home and l o o k a f t e r t h e i r husbands and f a m i l i e s , i t was v e r y much i n l i n e w i t h t h e i d e a s o f more l i b e r a l n o v e l i s t s . M o n t a i g n e had, p e r h a p s , been most i n f l u e n t i a l i n h i s a d v o c a t i o n o f d o m e s t i c p l e a s u r e s and a r e t u r n t o t h e s i m p l e v a l u e s o f t h e home. These i d e a s were a b s o r b e d and r e a s s e r t e d by t h e g r e a t e s t n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y n o v e l i s t s — B a l z a c , D i c k e n s , G a l d 6 s — a n d a l s o t h e m a j o r i t y o f S p a n i a r d s . P e r n a n C a b a l l e r o had, p r e d i c t a b l y , s u b s c r i b e d t o t h i s t h e s i s , b u t so had o t h e r S p a n i s h n o v e l i s t s o f such d i v e r s i f i e d p o l i t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a c k g r o u n d s as A l a r c 6 n , Coloma, P a l a c i o V a l d e s and G i a r i n . B ecause o f t h i s n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r e n d , c a r e must be t p k e n i n a s s e s s i n g P e r e d a t h a t one i s n o t b l i n d l y p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t him. He d e s c r i b e d l i f e as i t r e a l l y was and sought l a s t i n g v a l u e s among i t s many f a l s e a l l u r e m e n t s . He had a te n d e n c y to o v e r - m o r a l i s e , s o m e t h i n g he s h a r e s w i t h many o t h e r w r i t e r s . Los hombres de p r o ^ T h i s n o v e l has s i m i l a r i t i e s t o .La mujer d e l C e s a r f o r i t p r e f i g u r e s themes i n P e r e d a ' s l a t e r n o v e l s , and p a r t o f i t c an be seen as t h e immediate p r e c u r s o r t o Pedro Sanchez. The themes t h a t a r e t r e a t e d i n some d e t a i l i n t h i s book a r e a m p l i f i e d i n Pedro Sanchez i n v e r y much t h e same way as t h o s e i n L a m u j e r d e l C e s a r a r e expanded i n L a M o n t a l v e z . - 13 -Los hombres de pro i s a much more complex work than either of the two e a r l i e r ones. Suum cuique had a c e r t a i n plot development but consisted e s s e n t i a l l y of the contrast between two extended sets of scenes; the f i r s t showed the p e r i l s of l i f e i n the big c i t y , the second described the disadvantages of country l i f e . La mu.jer del Cesar was l i k e -wise a series of scenes which set i n r e l i e f the vices of the c a p i t a l , but i t had a more complex plot structure which held the scenes together. Los hombres de pro i s a further advan-cement i n narrative technique, for the emphasis i s now on the story i t s e l f , and the costumbrista scenes are used to f i l l i n the d e t a i l s of the stages of the story. It also contains - large autobiographical element* as do the two-full-length Madrid novels (Pedro Sanchez and La  Montalvez). Pereda's use of these elements i s rather l i k e Dickens' i n David Copperfield and Great Expectations, f o r he describes the heroes i n situations s i m i l a r to those he himself had experienced, but he creates autonomous heroes whose l i f e as a whole i s completely d i f f e r e n t from his own. In Los hombres de pro, f o r example, the p o l i t i c a l campaign which Don Simon . c c r v d u c t s i s modelled c l o s e l y on Pereda's own p o l i t i c a l campaign, but the characters of Don Simon and Pereda are t o t a l l y d i s s i m i l a r , as are the developments i n t h e i r l i v e s a f t e r the campaign i s over. The novel has a greater va r i e t y of scenes than the e a r l i e r ones, which had either a single s e t t i n g (Madrid i n La mu.jer del C6sar) or a double s e t t i n g (the country and - 14 -Madrid i n Suum cuique). Los hombres de pro has a t r i p l e s e t t i n g which prefigures a l l the l a t e r developments i n Pereda's f i c t i o n . The f i r s t stage of the story i s set i n a mountain v i l l a g e , a s e t t i n g which was to be Pereda's favorit e and was to be expanded throughout his l a t e r creative l i f e . Thus he uses i t f o r his second long novel, Don Gonzalo  Gonzalez de l a Gonzalera, and develops i t i n EdL sabor de l a  t i e r r u c a and La puchera, using i t f i n a l l y i n his l a s t long novel, Penas a r r i b a . The second stage occurs i n p r o v i n c i a l towns, one f a i r l y small, the other the p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l . This s e t t i n g was also to be developed i n l a t e r novels. The l a s t of the Bocetos a l temple (Pros son triunfos) i s set i n Santander, as are S o t i l e z a , Nubes de estio and his l a s t short novel, Pachin Gonzalez. The t h i r d stage of the novel i n -volves Madrid, and th i s w i l l be developed i n the two novels Pedro Sanchez and La Montalvez. In many ways Los hombres de pro i s closer to Suum cuique than to La mu.jer del Cesar, f o r the l a t t e r tends to s a t i r i s e Madrid Society and to set up Ramon, the montanes, as a symbol of v i r t u e . Although the other novels also attack Madrid, the pr o v i n c i a l s are shown as having considerable f a u l t s as w e l l . It has been noted that Pereda s a t i r i s e d Don S i l v e s t r e more than Don Fulano de T a l . In the same way he also exposes the f a u l t s of Don Simon, his wife and daughter, who are the main representatives of the Montana. This novel, despite i t s , f a u l t s , i s Pereda's f i r s t r e a l attempt to construct a complex p l o t . It suffers from being - 15 -too episodic, as do many of his novels; Pedro Sanchez having been compared to Lesage's G i l Bias?* Los hombres de  pro i s s i m i l a r l y picaresque—in i t s widest meaning-in con-s t r u c t i o n . He was to achieve a f a r greater unity i n his narrative technique, e s p e c i a l l y i n La Montalvez, although he never achieves the painstaking complexity of such a novel as Dickens* Our Mutual Friend, i n which i t seems the removal of oris t i n y thread would cause the complex f a b r i c to d i s -integrate • Pereda*s n o v e l i s t i c technique w i l l be analysed i n greater d e t a i l l a t e r . No c r i t i c , with the possible exception of Montesinos, has paid much attention to the technical excel-lence of many of Pereda*s novels, nor has the influence of his technique on l a t e r writers, including Galdos, been taken into account. Pedro Sanchez "La mejor novela de Pereda." 0 "La perla de l a coleccion de Pereda."9 "Aquella gran hazana de n o v e l i s t a que le ponia a par de Galdos." 1 0 Despite the enthusiastic c r i t i c a l acclaim that Pedro Sanchez received, the novel has been the subject of more controversy than any of his other novels, with the exception of La Montalvez. The reasons f o r the conten-tiousness were very d i f f e r e n t , however. The l a t e r novel was c r i t i c i s e d because of i t s subject matter, Pedro Sanchez f o r the way i t came to be written. - 16 -In her famous hook La cuestion palpitante, E m i l i a Pardo Bazan took Pereda to task for his regionalism. In what are probably her most famous words she described Pereda's a r t as "huerto hermoso, bien regado, bien cultivado, oreado por aromaticas y salubres aires campestres, pero de muy limitados horizontes."** These words have been quoted by every c r i t i c of Pereda since; but very few have done more than accept them. Menendez y Pelayo took them as a compliment, f o r he says "aquel huerto e t c . , como d i j o de perlas, E m i l i a Pardo Bazan."* 2 Jean Camp, i n his worthy but atrociously edited thesis on Pereda, has pointed out that l a Pardo Bazan's c r i t i c i s m i s neither accurate nor t o t a l l y justified.*-3 i n her attack she goes on to says' "jamas intento estudiar a fondo los medios c i v i l i z a d o s , l a vida moderna en las grandes c a p i t a l e s , vida que le es a n t i p a t i c a y de l a cual abomina." Her remarks are not f u l l y j u s t i f i e d for two reasonss Pereda had already written three novels about l i f e i n Madrid; and she suggests that he i s not c i v i l i s e d and hates a l l aspects of modern c i t y - l i f e , which i s patently a complete exaggera-t i o n of Pereda's r e a l attitude to large c i t i e s and to progress. The b i t t e r polemic which took place between the two novelists has been dealt with i n great d e t a i l by the majority of c r i t i c s T h e various writings of l a Pardo Bazan are co l l e c t e d i n her book Polemicas y estudios l i t e r a r i o s , which includes Pereda's Las comezones de l a senora Pardo Bazin. In order to understand the issue f u l l y , i t i s necessary to read Chapter XIII of Nubes de e s t i o , e n t i t l e d "Palique." In - 17 -t h i s chapter there i s a great deal of c r i t i c i s m of the Madrid press and there i s a description of La cuestion palpitante i n very disparaging terms, which nobody has mentioned d i r e c t l y , but which must have caused the argument between the two n o v e l i s t s , (II, 884). It may be taking matters to extremes, but i t i s possible that the i n q u i s i t i v e and " p r i c k l y " L e t i c i a Espinosa could be a parody of the Condesa de Pardo Bazan, since Pereda stigmatises the l a t t e r for her comezones, and her " p r i c k l y " nature has been attested by her contemporaries Perhaps the only good to come of t h i s controversy—which improved the reputation of neither of them—was that Pereda was d i r e c t l y stimulated to write Pedro Sanchez, and l a t e r , i n d i r e c t l y to write La Mon'talvez. Pedro Sanchez makes a s l i g h t development from the tech-nique of Los hombres de pro, but s t i l l retains the e s s e n t i a l l y picaresque construction. The character of Pedro himself i s f a r more complex than Don Simon, but the novel i s s t i l l held together by the figure of the hero. The autobiographical narrative form was to provide Pereda with a model f o r the complexity of technique of La Montalvez. La Montalvez La Montalvez was written at a time when many s o c i a l problems were under heated dis'cussion. Several had attracted public attention; a l l were p r i n c i p a l l y concerned with sexual ethi c s , but, by implication, also with the whole f a b r i c of - 18 -society. Among these problems were sexual morality and v i r t u e ; a r e s u l t i n g problem of the que diran, of the escandalo; the r e t r i b u t i o n for s i n s — t h e b i b l i c a l "reaping the whirlwind;" and the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the education of young women. Pereda had already approached the theme i n La mu.jer del Cesar i n "JE 1870, but Areceived i t s greatest p u b l i c i t y with the publication of Alarcon's E l escandalo i n I875« l 6 Valera was to add to the problem with his somewhat immoral and d i s i l l u s i o n e d Pasarse de l i s t o i n 1877• Other no v e l i s t s also dealt with some of these problems i n the f o l -lowing years: E l marques de Figuerq^a i n La Vizcondesa de  Armas, Antonio Flores i n Fe, esperanze y garidad, Martinez V i l l e r g a s i n Los misterios de Madrid and Ayguals de Izco i n a very popular novel Maria, o l a h i j a de un gornalero. In 1888 La Montalvez appeared and i n the next ten years three more important novels were to deal with the theme: Pequeneces by Luis Coloma i n 1890; Palacio Valdes• La espuma i n 1891 and i n I898 Valera's Genio y f i g u r a . . . . This was the most Peredian of a l l , since Valera not only supported much of Pereda's thesis but chose the proverb f o r the t i t l e : "Genio y f i g u r a hasta l a sepultura." This l a s t novel was the only one to develop the education theme as f u l l y as E l  escandalo and La Montalvez. These themes w i l l be dealt with l a t e r i n f a r greater d e t a i l , but i t i s necessary to give the background to the controversy over La Montalvez at t h i s junc-ture. This began with a great furore over the morality, or lack of i t , i n the novel. Because of the accusations that - 19 -the novel was immoral, i t probably gave Pereda the greatest heartache, f o r i t had been the novel he had hoped the most from, and i t was the one that he was to despair?of, and v i r -t u a l l y disown. The c r i t i c s have classed Pereda as being a mere observer, who only describes i n great d e t a i l what he sees. The same c r i t i c s were just as quick to seize on the inaccuracies of his picture of High Society i n Madrid. "Los mismos que con tenacidad habian aconsejado a Pereda a que dilatase e l campo de l a observacion, fueron los primeros en a p l i c a r e l lente microscopico y e l espejo multiplicador de doce caras a los lunares de La Montalvez."*''7 One wonders whether Padre Blanco had E m i l i a Pardo Bazan i n mind when he wrote t h i s . These arguments, l i k e those as to whether Pereda was a n a t u r a l i s t or a r e a l i s t , now seem, not only petty but i r r e l e v a n t . The same reasons that make Pereda's Montana novels excellent material f o r s o c i o l o g i s t s and/or anthropologists, make La  Montalvez less useful for such s c i e n t i s t s , but i n no way negate i t s value as f i c t i o n . La Montalvez i s the novel that poses most c l e a r l y the question of what one i s looking for i n a work of a r t , and more esp e c i a l l y i n a novel. Reading the c r i t i c i s m of t h i s novel, one i s struck by the fact that the majority of c r i t i c s are not looking for f i d e l i t y to a r t , i n the A r i s t o t e l i a n sense that everything that happens must be r e a l i s t i c because i t i s a r t i s t i c a l l y necessary, but they are concerned with judging how accurately Pereda paints the customs, the habits, the l i f e - 20 -of Madrid s o c i e t y . His i n a c c u r a c i e s and shortcomings are c a r e f u l l y h i g h l i g h t e d ; h i s f i c t i o n i s i g n o r e d . L i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m i s not concerned w i t h the accuracy of p h y s i c a l d e t a i l s , but w i t h the t r u t h and harmony of the people des-c r i b e d . Pereda's work has been debased to the l e v e l of a "documentary" on l i f e i n the Montana "como s i se t r a t a r a de un aduar de Marruecos o de l a i s l a de A n n o b o n . H e began w r i t i n g w i t h the i d e a of c o r r e c t i n g the f a l s e p i c t u r e of the Montana t h a t was c u r r e n t ( t h i s was very s i m i l a r to the purpose of Mesonero Romanos i n Escenas m a t r i t e n s e s ) . He was never allowed to f o r g e t t h a t he was a r e g i o n a l w r i t e r . The Madrid p r e s s , headed by E m i l i a Pardo Bazan, was i n t e n t on a t t a c k i n g Pereda f o r h i s f a i l i n g s i n h i s d e s c r i p -t i o n of the d a i l y l i f e of the Madrid a r i s t o c r a c y . On the other hand, the Montana f a c t i o n , headed by Menendez y Pelayo, was i n t e n t on s h u t t i n g Pereda i n , i n t e n t on keeping him i n -s i d e h i s h u e r t o . N e i t h e r c r i t i c a l approach i s honest: The f i r s t group based i t s judgments on a very elementary c r i t i c i s m of d e t a i l , ^ 9 the l a t t e r based i t s comments on how w e l l Pereda d e s c r i b e d the l i f e of the Montana. I t i s the same c r i t i c i s m stood on i t s heado I t i s because of these two s c h o o l s of thought t h a t Pereda has been shelved, why he has been pigeon-holed as a minor, r e g i o n a l n o v e l i s t . I t i s be-cause of the Montanista s c h o o l of c r i t i c i s m t h a t g e n e r a t i o n s of readers have been s u b j e c t e d to Perias a r r i b a , which may be a g r e a t "document" on the w i l d beauty of the Montana, but docu-ment and n o v e l are not the same at a l l . - 21 -The greatest of a l l Pereda's regional novels i s un-doubtedly S o t i l e z a . Despite the b r i l l i a n c e of the "photo-graphy," however, i t i s the drama of S o t i l e z a , of Andres, of Cleto and Muergo that l i f t s t h i s from being merely a picture of l i f e i n one region of Spain. Pereda's writing was at the height of i t s powere when he wrote t h i s novel. I cannot accept the idea that his creative powers then plunged to t h e i r nadir with La Montalvez, soared up again for La puchera, plunged again f o r A l primer vuelo and Nubes de est i o and then achieved a shattering climax with Penas a r r i b a . 2 0 I believe that what was so inconstant was not his creative a b i l i t y , but rather his recreative a b i l i t y . In Pedro Sanchez, S o t i l e z a and La Montalvez he i s concerned with the dramatic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of human c o n f l i c t s . To a lesser extent t h i s i s also true of La puchera, but although he manages to set the jewel off b e a u t i f u l l y i n S o t i l e z a , t h i s b e a u t i f u l s e t t i n g i s missing from the Madrid novels, and i t was t h i s s e t t i n g that most c r i t i c s were concerned with. - 22 -FOOTNOTES Introduction 1. Montesinos, Pereda o l a novela i d i l i o ( C a s t a l i a : Madrid, 1969) pp. 294-5. 2. "Don Jose Maria de Pereda", i n Revista Contemporanea (15 A p r i l 1884), pp. 345-6. 3. A l l quotations to Pereda's works are to the following e d i t i o n : Jose Maria de Pereda, Obras completas (2 volumes), ed. Jose' Maria de Cossio (Aguilar: Madrid, 1954). The reference here i s to I, 47-200. 4. Jos! F. Montesinos, Pereda o l a novela i d i l i o ( C astalia: Madrid, I 9 6 9 ) . 5* It was published f i r s t i n the Revista de Espafia (1870, XVII, 18-39, 180-199, 556-587); then i t was re-published with Los hombres de pro i n I876 under the t i t l e of Bocetos a l temple, f o r which Pereda wrote a t h i r d novel Pros son t r i u n f o s . This was s i m i l a r to the others i n i t s s a t i r i c c r i t i c i s m of c i t y l i f e and the power of money, but was unlike them i n not being set i n Madrid. When Los hombres de pro was published separately i n 1884, as Volume I of Pereda's Pbras completas, the two remaining novels were published as Volume VIII along with Tipos trashumantes, a few years l a t e r . 6. It had, i f anything, a more complicated history than La mu.jer del Cesar. It was written i n 1871 and dedicated to La Revista de Espana, who turned i t down. Then, as f a r as can be ascertained, i t was published i n La Reconquista i n the early part of the following year. In I876 i t was republished as the longest of the Bocetos a l temple (along with La mu.jer del Cesar and Pros son t r i u n f o s ) . In 1884 i t was s p l i t off from the other two novels and published separately as the f i r s t volume of the Obras completas. In t h i s e d i t i o n i t has a long prologue by the young Marcelino Menendez y Pelayo. 7. Albert Savine, "Le G i l Bias du XIX s i e c l e , " Revue du Monde Latine, 25 July 1884. 8. C l a r i n , Sermon perdido (Madrid, n.d.) p. 77. 9. E m i l i a Pardo Bazan, 'Pereda y su ultimo l i b r o , • i n Nuevo teatro c r i t i c o (Madrid, I89I - 3 ) p. 45-6. - 23 -10. Montesinos, p. 295. 11. E m i l i a Pardo Bazan, La cuestion palpitante, (Madrid, 1891) pp. 268-9. 12. M. Menendez y Pelayo, Prologo to Los hombres de pro (Madrid, 1917) P» lxxv. 13. Jean Camp, Jose Maria de Pereda, sa v i e , son oeuvre, son temps TTc3"33-1906) (Paris, 1934-) P» 153. 14. For example, J . Montero, Pereda (Madrid, 1919) PP» 14-1-176. 15* Montesinos, p. 281, says "nadie le podia s u f r i r , n i C l a r i n , n i Menendez y Pelayo, n i Pereda, n i Valera mismo, a.unque mas transigente•" 16. This was the most popular nineteenth-century Spanish novel; i t sold 4-0,000 copies i n i t s f i r s t three months• 17« Padre Francisco Blanco Garcia, La Li t e r a t u r a espanola  en e l s i g l o XIX (Madrid, 1910) Part I I , p. 523. 18. J . M. Pereda, Obras completas, I, Suum cuique, p. 277« 19« It would be l i k e tearing to pieces H. G. Wells' The F i r s t Men i n the Moon, The Time Machine or si m i l a r romances, because they are inaccurate i n the l i g h t of modern s c i e n t i f i c research. Whatever t h e i r f a i l -ure i n thi s way, they remain humanly "true." 20. As for example i n J . M. Cossio, La obra l i t e r a r i a de  Pereda (Santander, 1934). - 24 -THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND TO PEDRO SANCHEZ Before c a l l i n g Pedro Sanchez an h i s t o r i c a l novel, i t i s necessary to define what i s meant by the adjective " h i s -t o r i c a l " i n this context. During the nineteenth century two types of h i s t o r i c a l novel were written: One described events that had taken place centuries e a r l i e r , the other related things that had occurred within l i v i n g memory. S i r Walter Scott i s the best example of the f i r s t trend, and he had many followers, such as Larra, Espronceda and Canovas del C a s t i l l o . D i s r a e l i i s an example of the second group, but his contribution was dwarfed by that of Galdos i n Spain. Both sets of writers document the customs and habits of the people of the period they are describing and relate t h e i r l i v e s to s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l events. The e s s e n t i a l d i s -t i n c t i o n between the two i s that the f i r s t group received information through l i t e r a r y means, by reading contemporary documents and reports; the second group discovered facts by human means, by either knowing personally the period about which they were writing or by questioning someone who d i d . 1 Three of Pereda*s novels can be dated exactly because they deal with actual events. Don Gonzalo Gonzalez de l a  Gonzalera deals with the e f f e c t of the Revolution of 1868 on a r u r a l community. Pedro Sanchez i s set i n the early f i f t i e s i n Madrid, and describes the Revolution of 1854. Pachin Gonzalez chronicles the effects of the explosion on board the Cabo - 25 -Machichaco i n Santander harbor on November 3, 1893* More than 600 people were k i l l e d and more than 1,000 injured i n th i s d i s a s t e r . Three other novels can be t e n t a t i v e l y dated: Los hombres de pro occurs about two years aft e r Don Gonzalo  Gonzalez de l a Gonzalera as does Penas a r r i b a , and the Revolu-t i o n of 1868 occurs between the two parts of La Montalvez. Although the l a t t e r recreates the high society of the period, i t i s not as c a r e f u l l y linked to h i s t o r i c a l events as Coloma's Pequeneces i s to the reign of Amadeo I. Pedro Sanchez and Los hombres de pro also contain large elements of autobiographical d e t a i l . The f i r s t relates Pereda's sojourn i n the c a p i t a l at the time he studied there, the second describes his p o l i t i c a l campaign, and to a lesser degree his succeeding experience i n the Cortes. There are autobiographical elements of less importance i n Suum cuique, La mu.jer del Cesar and La Montalvez, but they are not c l o s e l y connected with s p e c i f i c events. As such they become auto-biographical impressions rather than d e t a i l s of Pereda's l i f e . This section w i l l deal mainly with Pedro Sanchez since i t contains the majority of h i s t o r i c a l information. An attempt w i l l be made to show how Pereda describes most of the elements of society within the h i s t o r i c a l background. This section w i l l concern i t s e l f with his introduction of l i v i n g p o l i t i c i a n s and writers into the novel. Los hombres de pro does not require much comment at this stage, since the majority o f i t s issues are more relevant to the theme of p o l i t i c s . The e l e c t o r a l campaign described - 26 -here was that which Pereda undertook i n 1871* when he was elected C a r l i s t deputy for Cabuerniga. He seems to have done t h i s more out of duty than p o l i t i c a l ambition, and ap-pears not to have been i n complete agreement with the C a r l i s t party. What i s c e r t a i n i s that he remained i n Madrid for only a short period. This autobiographical d e t a i l comprises the whole of the h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t . One can thus l i n k the p o l i t i c a l campaign and the scenes i n the Cortes not only to a period but to a s p e c i f i c year. But because there are no p o l i t i c a l or monarchical events described, the value of the novel must be more as a history of Pereda rather than as a history of Spain. Pedro Sanchez i s a completely d i f f e r e n t matter. This novel i s h i s t o r i c a l , not only because i t i s set i n a very d e f i n i t e dated period, but because i t describes h i s t o r i c a l events i n d e t a i l . Pereda went to Madrid i n I852 to study mathematics pr i o r to joining the a r t i l l e r y . He found that he did not l i k e mathematics, however, and spent most of his time i n cafes and at the theatre, and generally l i v i n g a carefree student's l i f e . When events took the turn they d i d — the Revolution of 1854-—he wandered the streets, s a t i s f y i n g his own c u r i o s i t y . Pereda took a great in t e r e s t i n Madrid at t h i s time, and Pedro Sanchez reveals his continuing fond-ness for the l i f e of the c a p i t a l . But at the end of 1854- he returned to Santander, d i s i l l u s i o n e d with mathematics, with p o l i t i c s and with Madrid. - 2? -This novel i s one of the few eye-witness accounts of the occurences i n Madrid which led up to the Revolution of 1854. The only other novel dealing with t h i s event i s Galdos' La revolucion de j u l i o and accompanying novels of the fourth series of the Episodios nacionales. Galdos' novel was written i n 1903-4-, and i t i s probable that Galdos used Pedro Sanchez as source material, since Pereda was witness and Galdos was not even i n Spain at that time. The comparison with La revolucion de .julio i s appropriate since there are s i m i l a r i t i e s between Pedro Sanchez and the Episodios nacionales. Both Montesinos and Cossio^ have discussed these s i m i l a r i t i e s . The comparison i s primarily based on the technique used by both n o v e l i s t s . Gald6s had created the heroes Gabriel A r a c e l i and Salvador Monsalud, and both of them symbolised the Spanish people. Pedro Sanchez i s another such symbol of the Spanish, for his fortunes undergo changes at the same time as the nation's. This comparison i s only made once e x p l i c -i t l y by Pereda, but i t i s i m p l i c i t at a l l times: Pedro says "entre tanto e l gobierno de l a nacion andaba tan desatinado como lo habia estado e l mio." (II, 176) Other characters represent s i m i l a r things i n Galdos* novels as i n Pedro Sanchez. In the second series of the Episodios nacionales, the hero, Salvador Monsalud, i s torn between two women who represent two ideas of Spain—Jenara and Sola. S i m i l a r l y Pedro finds his affections divided be-tween Clara and Carmen, Clara standing for the a r i s t o -c r a t i c , opulent and corrupt Spain of the polacos, and Carmen - 28 -representing the honest, homeloving bourgeois Spain of the l i b e r a l s . The fathers of the two g i r l s also represent the same visions of Spain. What i s most disconcerting i n the novel i s that Pereda gave his support to the same i d e a l of Spain as Galdos had. Pedro, l i k e Salvador, i s seduced by-i l l u s i o n s of grandeur and marries the representative of a " t r a d i t i o n a l i s t " system, but both f i n d r e a l happiness with a simple, honest, hard-working and level-headed woman. In the f i n a l reckoning, however, there i s one e s s e n t i a l difference between the symbolic endings of the second series of the Episodios nacionales and Pedro Sanchez. Although the ending of the former i s much lower-pitched than the triumphant close to the f i r s t s e r i e s , Gald6s manages to salvage some hope for the future and he l e t s the reader i n f e r that Salvador and Sola w i l l be happy. The end of Pedro Sanchez on the contrary i s very pessimistic, f o r Pedro loses everything that has meant anything to him—even his enemies los Garcias. There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that Pereda i s being i r o n i c a l about the l i b e r a l s , but i t i s much more probable that i t stems from a pessimism about l i f e m general. These abstract ideas on history are not without r e l e -vance here, but the second method which both novelists used was to give t h e i r symbolic dramas about Spain i n a detailed h i s t o r i c a l background. It i s th i s background which makes th i s type of h i s t o r i c a l novel so r i c h i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . If they were simply figures who stood for cert a i n q u a l i t i e s or i n s t i t u t i o n s , and they fought and loved, argued and hated, and - 29 -f i n a l l y came to a moral conclusion, the novels would be no-thing more than medieval morality plays. On the contrary, these novels are enriched because the main characters symbolise actual events and take part i n the same events. They have dealings with the people who influenced history and, at times, influence i t themselves. To ascertain the way Pereda uses th i s h i s t o r i c a l back-ground, i t i s necessary to gather the information he gives us about the period and relate i t to i t s context. One h i s t o r i c a l fact that Pereda makes ce r t a i n the reader i s aware of i s that the period he i s describing i s one of change. There are many occasions i n his writings when he introduces t h i s element, but none i s so clear as i n Pedro  Sanchez: The whole novel describes the changes i n Spain. The reader i s made aware of this very early i n the novel, for Pedro i s concerned with the eff e c t s that trains and summer vacationers from Madrid have had on his native province. He describes the old customs of the Montana and then introduces the t r a i n which i s personified and appears almost as a d e v i l incarnate exercising a magic power over nature. "Hasta que, de repente y como por r e f l u j o de lejana tempestad, alLanaronse los monies, alzaronse los barrancos, taladraronse las rocas y llego e l bufido de l a locomotora a confundirse con e l bramar de las olas a l e s t r e l l a r s e en l a antes desierta ociosa playa." (II, 10) This use of the t r a i n i s a s k i l f u l introduction for the figure of Valenzuela. Valenzuela i s modelled to a large - 30 -extent on Salamanca, and the name of the l a t t e r came to be associated with the rai l r o a d s i n Spain. The most e x p l i c i t l i n k i n g of the two men occurs when Valenzuela's house i n Pedro Sanchez i s nearly sacked, and i t was, indeed, Salamanca's house that was sacked i n r e a l i t y . Pereda was aware that his creation would make his readers think of Salamanca, and there-fore he li n k s his representative of the corrupt administration, Valenzuela—Salamanca, with a symbol of the ideals of that administration, the r a i l r o a d s . Pereda's evocation of the old, and his love of stage-coaches, are part of the s i m i l a r i t y that exists between him and Dickens. Both were noted f o r t h e i r realism and t h e i r Romanticism ( i n Pereda th i s i s exemplified by the i d y l l i c nature of ce r t a i n novels). Both were also t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s i n a c e r t a i n sense, f o r they t r i e d to f i n d and keep what was good i n the old tr a d i t i o n s (as, f o r example, Dickens' love of Christmas). The f a c t that the novel takes place at a time of change i s r e i t e r a t e d i n the f i r s t chapters, and i s evident from the events i n the l a t e r stages. Pedro's father, a symbol of an almost perfect "paternalism," i s himself aware of t h i s change, although he never appreciates i t f u l l y : "Una insinuacion..., de mi padre, sobre l a corrupcion de los tiempos y los peligros de l a juventud ociosa en los pueblos, por f a l t a de medios o valedores." (II, 29) The change i s made most clear by Valenzuela, i t s re-presentative, and the origins of the new l i f e are i d e n t i f i e d . - 31 -This i s one of the few moments when the influence of Madrid over the provinces i s stated i n no uncertain terms. "Y para entonces...trasformado completamente este pueblo, porque llegara. hasta e l , un dia no lejano, e l movimiento de l a nueva vida que comienze. a extenderse desde e l corazon a las extremidades de l a Peninsula." (II, 30) The new h i s t o r i c a l background i s b u i l t up very slowly from t i n y pieces of information which blend to form a composite p i c t u r e . The f i r s t mention sets the novel within the reign of Isabel I I , for Valenzuela i s s i t t i n g "debajo de un retrato de l a soberana." (II, 6 l ) The comment does not have any great significance for the novel, although i t does give the reader some i n d i c a t i o n of Valenzuela's p o l i t i c s ; but i t i s sur p r i s i n g that t h i s i s the only reference to the queen, towards whom Pereda, as an ex - C a r l i s t deputy, could not have f e l t much a f f e c t i o n . His passing up of the chance to i n -veigh against Isabel i s an example of his open-mindedness. It i s not the purpose of thi s study to give the history of the period, and so only indications w i l l be given of the way he mentions r e a l persons and events. When Pedro v i s i t s the Dickensian de los Trucos' family, Don Magin talks about the f i n a n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of Bravo Murillo ("las economias de Bravo M u r i l l o " , " e l mismo d i a en que fue nombrado Bravo Murillo presidente del Consejo" (II, 70)) . This i s the f i r s t mention of any h i s t o r i c a l figure i n the government, except f o r the Salamanca-like figure of the f i c -t i o n a l Valenzuela. It i s not r e a l l y s u r p r i s i n g that the - 3 2 -f i r s t p o l i t i c i a n mentioned by name should be another re-presentative of the group which was t r y i n g to change Spain. Pereda's attitude toward these figures i s natu r a l l y some-what ambiguous, since Bravo Murillo honestly t r i e d to im-prove Spain but only succeeded i n corrupting i t . I t i s Matica,ooften Pereda's oracle, who indicates that Valenzuela*s days are nui»i»ered. Pedro had already mentioned with hindsight " l a borrasca que reinaba en l a mar de l a p o l i t i c a espanola" (II, 8 2 ) , but Matica centers the reader's attention on the fac t that i t i s Valenzuela (and what he stood for) who i s to bear the brunt^of t h i s storm: ".listed no sabe que los dias de Valenzuela estan contados, porque los gobernantes a cuyo amparo vive y medra se tambalean ya?" ( 1 1 , 9 0 ) The other characters with whom Pereda sympathises are the Balduque family, and i t i s Don Serafin who w i l l assume a h e r o i c a l l y defiant role and who i s a major factor i n the development of the h i s t o r i c a l background. The heroism of Don Serafin i s very s i m i l a r to that of " e l gran eapitan" and Don Benigno Cordero i n Galdos' Episodios nacionales. It i s t h i s element of his character which enables Pereda to use him to advance the h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g , f o r he awakens Pedro one day with the cry "jMueran los p i l l o s ! " and i n t r o -duces him to the l i b e r a l paper E l C l a r i n de l a P a t r i a . Within a few chapters following t h i s , Pereda introduces many ideas that were important, as for example the Constitution of 1 8 3 ? (II, 9 5 , 9 8 ) and the M i l i c i a Nacional (II, 9 5 , 9 8 , 1 2 0 ) ; - 33 -many i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e s , s u c h as E s p a r t e r o ( I I , 95» 98, 136, 137, 138, 155). O ' D o n n e l l ( I I , 109, 116, 155)> O l o z a g a ( I I , 9 5 ) ; as w e l l a s men and e v e n t s t h a t were c o n n e c t e d o n l y w i t h t h i s r e v o l u t i o n , Armero, Concha, I n f a n t e , B r i g a d i e r Hons ( I I , 109), L a r a ( I I , 117), B l a s e r ( I I , 118), B r i g a d i e r B u c e t a ( I I , 119); Z a r a g o z a ( I I , 109), 30 June ( I I , 117), 19 J u l y ( I I , 1 3 D -As m e n t i o n e d , Don S e r a f i n i n t r o d u c e s P e d r o t o E l C l a r i n  de l a P a t r i a , f o r w h i c h P e d r o w i l l work. T h e r e a r e i n -d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h i s p a p e r was b a s e d on E l M u r c i e l a g o , 5 w h i c h i s m e n t i o n e d by name once ( I I , 1 1 1 ) . T h i s p a p e r must be t a k e n as a s e m i - h i s t o r i c a l s y m b o l o f t h e l i b e r a l p r e s s o f t h e t i m e . ^ P e d r o , as n o t e d , i s a s y m b o l , and h i s d e s t i n y i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h S p a i n ' s . The p a r a l l e l b e t w e e n t h e two becomes e v i d e n t when P e d r o ' s f i r s t a r t i c l e i s p u b l i s h e d ! N i C e s a r mas r e s u e l t o y d e c i d i d o a l o t r o l a d o d e l R u b i c o n , que yo u f a n o , cuando l e i , c o n m o v i d o , en l a s e c c i o n de ' V a r i e d a d e s ' de E l C l a r i n de l a P a t r i a , e l p r i m e r p a r t o de mi i n g e n i o que h a b i a m e r e c i d o l o s h o n o r e s de l a i m p r e n t a . A q u e l mismo d i a c a y o e l M i n i s t e r i o , ( I I , 100). A s i m i l a r t h i n g had happened on t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e f i r s t p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l , f o l l o w i n g w h i c h P e r e d a had g o t h i s j o b a t t h e C l a r i n . P e d r o r e p r e s e n t s t h e l i b e r a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e , and as s u c h he i s a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e " o f f i c i a l " v i e w t h a t P e r e d a s u p p o r t s o n l y t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a l s . The d e s t i n y o f P e d r o i m p r o v e s d u r i n g t h e r e v o l u t i o n , u n t i l f i n a l l y he c o n -t r o l s h i s t o r y and assumes a p o s i t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e . P e r e d a t h e n t r a c k s h i s d o w n f a l l , w h i c h i s i n v o l v e d , a s i s S p a i n ' s , w i t h t h e n e o - n o l a c o s . ' The c o n c l u s i o n s t o be drawn f r o m t h i s - 3 4 -symbolism are complex, f o r i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Pereda saw Pedro's view of l i f e , the G a l d o s i a n l i b e r a l v i e w , as the l e s s e r of many e v i l s , and, s i n c e he knew t h a t the t r a d i t i o n -a l way of l i f e was doomed, he p r e f e r r e d the s i m p l e s i n c e r i t y of Pedro, of Don Serafin and of Don S a n t i a g o NuKez (La  M o n t a l v e z ) t o the extremes of e i t h e r V a l e n z u e l a or the r a d i c a l Redondo. A l t h o u g h Pereda has been branded a t r a d i t i o n a l i s t , h i s a t t a c k s were on the c o r r u p t i o n of the a r i s t o c r a c y . He was the c h r o n i c l e r of c h a n g i n g t i m e s , and a l m o s t an h i s t o r i c a l p r o p h e t . He was not a s u p p o r t e r of the M a r x i s t d o c t r i n e s o f 1848, but he was j u s t as f a r from the a d o r a t i o n o f the a r i s t o c r a c y of Bismarck's Germany. I t was because he s t o o d between two extremes t h a t Pedro was a l l o w e d t o succeed and t h e n t o succumb t o the r i f e c o r r u p t i o n . P e r e da was s t i l l i n t r i g u e d by the p o l i t i c a l m a c h i n a t i o n s of the c a p i t a l t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r t h e y had f i n i s h e d . As i s e v i d e n t from the f a c t t h a t he wrote f i v e n o v e l s about M a d r i d , Pereda's i n t e r e s t i n the c a p i t a l never waned. He had f o r i t a p e c u l i a r l o v e / h a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p , w h i c h was i n c r e a s e d by h i s g r e a t f r i e n d s h i p w i t h G a l d 6 s . Pereda went t o M a d r i d i n 1852 w i t h g r e a t hopes, and r e t u r n e d two y e a r s l a t e r , d i s -i l l u s i o n e d . H i s n o v e l s on the m e t r o p o l i s r e v e a l h i s c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t i n i t , and t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y seen from h i s g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n the l i t e r a r y scene w h i c h was e s s e n t i a l l y based i n M a d r i d a t the p e r i o d of the n o v e l . - 35 -The h i s t o r i c a l background i s f i l l e d out f a r more and far better by his l i t e r a r y commentary than by his treatment of the p o l i t i c a l themes. This i s , however, understandable, since i t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to create f i c t i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s but not f i c t i o n a l w r iters. It w i l l be found, because of t h i s , that the information on actual writers i s more detailed and i n t e r e s t i n g than that on the p o l i t i c a l figures, who are analysed at greater length i n the section of P o l i t i c s and the Press. The f i r s t aspect of l i t e r a t u r e which he introduces the reader to i s the theatre. It must be borne i n mind that Q Pereda, l i k e many other nineteenth-century n o v e l i s t s , 0 wanted to be a playwright; his f i r s t published work was a c o l l e c t i o n of f i v e plays, which were not well received. Despite his f a i l u r e , he maintained his love of the theatre, and was assured of the s u p e r i o r i t y of both the theatre and poetry over the novel, although history proved otherwise i n the nine-teenth century. Pereda's in t e r e s t i n t h i s genre was not limited to i t s l i t e r a r y content, but took i n a l l aspects of the l i v e theatre. He gives the reader some information on the best-known actors of the day: J u l i a n Romea, Joaquin Arjona, Mariano Fernandez, Teodora Lamadrid, Calvo, los Osorios,"el v i e j o Guzman" and " l a Palma." He also gives the reader information on where the various actors worked: e l principe Pio; teatro de Variedades (Lamadrid, Arjona); los B a s i l i o s ( l a Palma and Guzman); e l del Principe (Arjona, Lamadrid, Calvo, and - 36 -los Osorios); l a Cruz, Variedades e Institute- (II, 55$9, 105) • However,interesting t h i s information may be, i t gives l i t t l e or no i n d i c a t i o n of the r e a l state of the theatre at the time. There are also a few comments on the s o c i a l aspects of the theatre, but t h i s was such a commonplace i n the nineteenth century as to need no elaboration: Observe que casi todas las damas de copete y l a mayor parte de los caballeros distinguidos veian con l a misma i n d i f e r e n c i a que l a f a m i l i a Valenzuela lo que ocurria en e l escenario, y que cuanto mas nutrido era e l aplauso que arrancaba a l s e n c i l l o t e publico un arrebato apasionado de Teodora Lamadrid, mas se acentuaba e l desden en las gentes p r i n c i p a l e s . An-dandq e l tiempo, me persuadi de que l a moda impone a sus esclavos exigencias verdaderamente inconcebibles. (II, 5 8 ) . 9 Pedro has a completely d i f f e r e n t concept of the theatre, although he had never been inside one before, and pronounces with great conviction that " e l teatro es escuela de moral y buenas costumbres." (II, 55) There may be an i r o n i c a l turn to t h i s phrase, for Pedro i s quoting a favorite newspaper; i t i s more probable that this forms part of Pereda's l i t e r a r y credo and that he was s a t i r i s i n g what had become of the theatre, an i n s t i t u t i o n which should be for the e d i f i c a t i o n of the pu b l i c . Pedro's general attitude to the contemporary drama i s summed up when he compares i t to the theatre of the Golden Age: No estaba tan boyante e l teatro espafiol, como en aquel s i g l o de colosales ingenios, en las humildes calendas a que me r e f i e r o ; mas no por e l l o me merecian menos respeto y admiracion los escasos poetas que sostenian l a p a t r i a escena con sus creacion^. ; Cuan exiguo era e l num..ero de estos, y que escaso e l pos i t i v o valor de^ia mayor parte de las obras1 - 37 -He then amplifies t h i s with a truism that could be applied to a l l the types of contemporary l i t e r a t u r e : Lo que mas abundaban eran las traducciones y arreglos del frances, (II, 6 3 ) . 1 0 Pedro goes on to give a long description of the dramatists who were writing at the time, and who made the theatre more f l o u r i s h i n g than the novel, "ya que no por l a cantidad, por l a calidad de los poetas." (II, 105) It i s rather i r o n i c a l that the majority of the playwrights he men-tions are remembered today mainly because there were no better at the time, and none are considered of great l i t e r a r y value. His l i s t i s almost complete, but he does not mention "otras producciones mas efimeras, n i mencionar otros poetas de menor cuantin." (II, lC-5)"1"^ The information that Pedro gives the reader about these authors i s noteworthy, but such d e t a i l s can be obtained from a history of l i t e r a t u r e — a l t h o u g h his own contemporary reaction to the drama i s stimulating. The most rewarding of a l l his information concerns the lesser t h e a t r i c a l genres. His c r i t i c a l account of the "Andalusiojn" theatre and the Zarzuela i s of immense value for a history of the theatre of the period. Aun se representaba...algo del genero andaluz, puesto de moda anos antes por e l actor Dardalla...Yo alcance a ver todavia E l corazon de un bandido £drama romantico muy afamadq] en e l In s t i t u t o , y e l T10 Canayitas en e l del Circo»..popularisima zarzuela...de Franquelo y Sanz Perez...como c a s i todo lo que se representaba y se habia representaUo del mismo abominable genero. E l teatro de moda era e l Circo, de l a plaza del Rey, donde Salas y Caltanazor habian encontrado una mina de oro con l a zarzuela...y se estrenaron... - 38 -E l Marques de Caravaca de Ventura de l a Vega y B a r b i e r i ; E l grumete de Garcia Gutierrez y A r r i e t a ; E l v a l l e de Andorra de Olona y Gaztambide y E l domind  azul de Camproddn y A r r i e t a (II, 105) He follows up t h i s account of the popular theatre with a short mention of the foremost c r i t i c s of the day,* 2 a n d 0 f the writers of t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e s on the theatre, whose ideas had most influence at the time.*3 Pereda's least concern was with l y r i c poetry, for which he f e l t neither the a f f e c t i o n he did for the theatre, nor the a b i l i t y he Rdd f o r the novel. It i s Matica who makes the only c r i t i c i s m of l y r i c poetry, and since i t i s spoken by t h i s impartial c r i t i c , i t i s safe to assume that his view i s Pereda's: De l i r i c o s tampoco andabamos sobrados, pues los buenos, o estaban ausentes de Espafta o dados a l a p o l i t i c a , o tenian enfundado e l latid; y de los malos no quiero hablar, aunque mucho me hablo de e l l o s Matica para ponermelps por ejemplo de lo abominable y vitando. (II, 66)^ The t h i r d l i t e r a r y genre that Pedro reviews i s the novel. This was probably the most useful of a l l , since there are few novels of the period which contain discussions of the contemporary attitude to the genre. 15 I t i s even more valuable, as i t was written about a time when the Spanish novel was i n the throes of a r e v i v a l . Pedro Sanchez i s set less than f i v e years a f t e r Fernan Caballero's La gaviota, and so chronicles another period of change i n Spain and a change that was c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d with i t s " i n d u s t r i a l revolution." The novels of the early part of the century - 39 -had been Romantic imitations of Scott, but they were to give way to the realism that began with Fernan Caballero." 1"^ The most i n f l u e n t i a l novels during the l a t t e r part of the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century were those of such French writers as Soulie, Sue, Kock, Dumas, and Hugo. The only other novelists who seem to have had much vogue at the period were Scott and Richardson, and Goethe. Pereda mentions only Richardson of these, but he mentions the French no v e l i s t s many times. It wa.s Scott who had started the fashion for the h i s t o r i c a l and the f a n t a s t i c , but i t was the French who exacerbated the f a u l t s of th e i r mentor, and who produced the majority of the " t h r i l l e r s " of the day. Pedro was a bad judge of novels i n his youth and he gives his only c r i t e r i o n f or the novel at the time: »Ah los argumentos!...Las sorpresas, lo desconocido..., lo inesperado, las anagnorisis, que dino e l pedante: jsobre todo, las a n a g n o r i s i s ! (II, 6 5 ) . This i s very t y p i c a l of the " t h r i l l e r " to thi s day, and a l -though the use of trag i c admiratio and anagorisis may be per-f e c t l y acceptable on the stage, i t lacks v e r i s i m i l i t u d e i n the novel. Pereda was one to s a t i r i s e very severely the things of which he did not approve. His attack on French pseudo-academic writings i n E l Cervantismo i s probably the most vi o l e n t , and i s one of the funniest pre-Borgesian parodies of the over-serious, s t u f f y and worthless world of academia. His f i n a l suggestion i s that soon the c r i t i c s w i l l decide E l Quijote must be a t r a n s l a t i o n from the French, f o r no - 4-0 -Spaniard of the time could write I (I, 1311-1319). In the same s e r i e ^ s , Esbozos y rasgunos, he s a t i r i s e s the popular novels of the day. Once again, i n Las D e l i a s t e o r i a s , he gives the ingredients for a novel. His recipe seems v a l i d for our own times, for i t has been said that the two ingredients for a b e s t - s e l l e r today ane sex and violences S i fuera una novela p a t i b u l a r i a , inqendiaria, f o r a j i d a p a r r i c i d a , o adulterina... £ No podria usted [Introducir] en e l s i q u i e r a un par de f r a i l e s c i n i c o s , una ramera virtuosa, an bandido f i l a n t r o p i c o , un banquero ex p r e s i d i a r i o , una marquesa adtiltera...,cualquier cosa asi? Porque con un t i t u l o ad hoc, verbigracia: E l craneo del monje, La caverna del crimen, Cien genera-ciones de adulteras, E l puflal y e l hisopo, le dariamos a luz con £xito seguroT (T» 12177* When one looks at t h i s attack, however, one wonders what Pereda's reaction to his own s a t i r e would be, a f t e r writing La Montalvez which does deal with a criminal banker and an adulterous marchioness. Even the t i t l e , Cien generaciones  de adulteras, has some relevance to the problem of the inher-itance of s i n and g u i l t , which forms one aspect of his own novel. Pedro does mention the most important French novels, but he makes no further c r i t i c a l judgment, a f t e r the one quoted above, except to say that "no era yo otra cosa que un gloton insaciable s i n pizca de paladar." (II, 59) This statement tends to give the reader the impression that a l l the novels he l i s t s were not very good. His testimony, for he i s merely repeating Pereda's own experience i n Madrid, i s valuable once again as an eye-witness report of the f i c t i o n that was being devoured i n vast quantities at the time; - 4-1 -En l a novela imperaban las traducciones del franees; y eran los autores preferidos Victor Hugo, Dumas, Jorge Sand, Sue, Paul de Kock y Soulie (II, 103) Todo Paul Kock andaba por a l i i ; l o mas crudo de Pigault-Lebrun; lo selecto de Dumas y Soulie; E l .judio errante, a l a sazdn abjeto de los mas t e r r i b l e s anatemas de l a censura e c l e s i a s t i c a , y Nuestra  Senora de Paris, prohibido tambie'n por e l Ordinario, (II, 51). He also reads Los tres mosqueteros and Paul de Kock's Z i z i n a . His l i s t i s v i r t u a l l y complete, for he includes a l l the best-known authors, and i t i s noteworthy that the pronouncements of the I n q u i s i t i o n seem to have r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e import-ance f o r Pedro. Perhaps the greatest evidence of the popularity of these novels i s that the best of them continued to be read i n the twentieth century. On the l a s t occasion that he l i s t s the popular French novels, three t i t l e s , at lea s t , have survived the passage of years. The Three Musketeers and The Count of  Monte Cr i s t o are s t i l l extremely popular (as i s Notre Dame de  Paris) and the aging prostitute i n Camilo Jose Cela's La  Colmena was avidly reading Los misterios de Pa r i s . This was a. &a.ct.:.. that Pereda'was to be unaware of; but what he does emphasize, yet again, i s that the " t h r i l l e r s " that were popu-l a r and that delighted him. Titulabase l a novela La enferma del coraz6n, y a pique me puso su lectura de padecer yo l a misma enfermedad que l a heroina. De E l .judio errante, Los misterios de  Paris, Los tres mosqueteros, con todas sus consecuencias; E l hi.jo del diablo, E l conde de Monte-cristo y otras que por entonces imperaban en e l gusto publico, no necesito decir hasta que extremo me emborrachaban. (II, 6 5 - 6 ) 1 7 - 4-2 -After dealing at some length with the French, Pedro turns to the Spanish novel which "tenia pocos cultivadores, y no abundaban los lectores que preguntaban por e l l a . " (II, 103) Of a l l the no v e l i s t s , only one i s now worth dealing with i n d e t a i l . This i s , of course, Fernan Caballero. Pedro gives the reader a f a i r l y comprehensive view of the novel which i s extremely valuable since most of the novels have long since disappeared, and t h i s i s one of the very few contemporary accounts which give a detailed c r i t i c a l summary of the posi-t i o n of the novel i n the early 1859s. It must be remembered that the only other writer of r e a l merit who had begun pub-l i s h i n g seriously was Trueba, about whom Pedro makes some sur p r i s i n g remarks; . • ..- . . • Alarc"6n*s f i r s t major contribution, E l -1 Q f i n a l de Norma,appeared i n 1855. It i s s u f f i c i e n t to mention the h i s t o r i c a l facts that "Fernan Caballero acababa de publicar Clemencia, despues de haber adquirido fama con La gaviota en 184-9..." (II, 103), for Pereda's treatment of contemporary novelists w i l l be d i s -cussed i n greater d e t a i l i n the section on L i t e r a t u r e . What i s at issue here i s merely the novels published i n the early f i f t i e s . In Pereda's e a r l i e s t writings one can f i n d other r e f e r -ences to the l i t e r a t u r e of the time. In an open l e t t e r to the Santander newspaper, La abeja montanesa, which Pereda sent from Paris, he gives his opinion on the French attitude to Spain, and on the state of a f f a i r s i n Spain i t s e l f . The - 43 -l e t t e r i s dated January 12, I865, and there had been no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the Spanish novel since 185^, with the dubious exception of Alarcon's f i r s t romantic novel (El f i n a l  de Norma) and Pereda's own Escenas montanesas. On the French attitude to Spain he says " e l embustero Dumas...se nos viene ensenando...que para juzgar a un pais lo que menos f a l t a hace es conocerlo a fondo." (I, 93) This was perhaps an under-standable reaction from such a castizo Spaniard as PeredaJ who must have found the modern t o u r i s t ' s idea of Spain, which was just beginning, somewhat unpalatable. His l e t t e r also discusses, among other things, Spanish painting and the French theatre, but i t i s his assessment of the f a u l t s of the contemporary Spanish novel that i s most i n t r i g u i n g since he had produced, the year before, the book which was f i n a l l y to mark the break between the old and the new types of novel i n Spain: i Cuanto me a f l i g e ver que solo como una rareza se encuentran los autoa?es modernos espanoles en estas l i b r e r i a s , ana de las tentaciones mas i r r e s i s t i b l e s de Paris! Desgraciadamente para nosotros, hay que convenir en que no tiene l a culpa de e l l a e l desden de los franceses. (I, 100) The quotation also serves to stress a point about Pereda which seemingly has been ignored and which formed an important part of his personality. This was his delight i n such a place as P a r i s . The bookstores were one of i t s most i r r e s i s t i b l e temptations; he does not say i t s most i r r e s i s t i b l e temptation, nor i t only temptation. Pereda may have remained a c i t y hater, but i t was an ambivalent love/hate r e l a t i o n s h i p . _ 4 4 -Pereda's g r e a t e s t l o v e i n l i f e was l i t e r a t u r e , and a l -though i t may have i t s i n s p i r a t i o n i n the c o u n t r y , the p l a c e where i t f l o u r i s h e s i s the c i t y , e s p e c i a l l y the m e t r o p o l i s . I t may be an unpalafoWefact f o r many p e o p l e , but the g r e a t c e n t e r s of l i t e r a t u r e have been A t h e n s , Rome, London, P a r i s , M a d r i d . . . , the c a p i t a l s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e m p i r e s . P e r e d a r e c o g n i z e d t h i s f a c t , and, t r y as he would t o f i g h t i t , h i s i n t e r e s t had t o remai n i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the C o r t e . F o r much the same re a s o n s he remembered the d e t a i l s of h i s s t a y i n M a d r i d i n 1 8 5 2 - 4 and was a b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t the p e r i o d and the p l a c e so w e l l . Pereda's problem was t h a t he was a t t r a c t e d t o c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of M a d r i d , o f w h i c h he approved, as w e l l as b e i n g t o r n between the s i m u l t a n e o u s a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u l s i o n of the c a p i t a l and o f the i n d i v i d u a l s who i n h a b i t e d and c h a r a c t e r i z e d i t . - 45 -FOOTNOTES Chapter 1 1. As, for example, Galdos, who questioned Mesonero Romanos about l i f e i n the early years of the century, i n order to gain background material for his e a r l i e s t Episodios nacionales* 2. Montesinos, p. 140. 3. Pereda, Pedro Sanchez ed. J.M. Cossio (Clasicos Castellanos: Madrid, 1969.) 4. The ending seems to indicate the immense debt that Baroja owed to Pereda. Pedro Sanchez i s the model for Cesar o nada. 5. See, for example, Raymond Carr, Spain 1808-1939 (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1966), p. 245, who mentions th i s paper. 6. See Section on P o l i t i c s and the Press. 7. The polacos was the name given to the corrupt government of Bravo M u r i l l o , which was removed from power by the Revolution of 1854. The neo-polacos were those polacos who reappeared i n positions of power af t e r the revolution. 8. The only n o v e l i s t who successfully turned playwright was Galdos. Many, including Alarcon, Alas and Dickens, f a i l e d . 9. Compare Frances Burney, Evelina, l e t t e r 20 "Do you come to the play without knowing what i t i s ? " £Mr. Lovell_J "0 yes, S i r , yes, very frequently: I have no time to read p l a y - b i l l s j one merely comes to meet one's friends, and show that one's alive.": This i s perhaps the best known example of t h i s a t t i t u d e . 10. See J.F. Montesinos, Introduccion a una h i s t o r i a de l a novela en Espana en e l s i g l o XIX, (Castalia: Madrid, 1966), with reference to the novel of t h i s period. 11. The following are the dramatists Pedro mentions, includ-ing his c r i t i c i s m of both plays and playwrights: 1. " E l mismiscno" Manuel Breton de los Herreros (I796-I873) author of Mar cela and the peem La desvergiienza (II, 79, 105) - 4-6 -2. Juan Eugenio H a r t z e n b u s c h (1806-1880) who wrote "comedias t a n d e l i c a d a s como Un s i y un no" ( I I , 1 0 5 ) . , 3. A n t o n i o G a r c i a G u t i e r r e z (1813-1884) "no o l v i d a b a d e l todo a l a musa que i n s p i r o E l  t r o v a d o r " , a l t h o u g h he l a t e r s t i g m a t i s e s him f o r w r i t i n g a z a r z u e l a , w h i c h he d e s c r i b e s as an "abominable g6nero," c a l l e d E l grumete (music by A r r i e t a ) ( I I , 105). 4. Manuel Tamayo y Baus J1829-1898) who " t r e p a b a a l a mas a l t a j e r a r q u i a d e l i m p e r i o d r a m a t i c o con su t r a g e d i a V i r g i n i a " ( I I , 105)* 5. " E l p e q u e n i t o " V e n t u r a de l a Vega (I807-I865) who had a g r e a t s u c c e s s w i t h E l hombre de mundo ( I I , 5 9 ) , a l t h o u g h he, t o o , had t a k e n t o w r i t i n g z a r z u e l a s , s uch as E l marques de C a r a v a c a (music by B a r b i e r i ) , ( I I , 77, 1 0 5 ) . , 6. " E l i n g e n i o s o bohemio, haragan i m p e n i t e n t e , " F l o r e n t i n o Sanz (1822-1881) a u t h o r o f the s u c c e s s -f u l Don F r a n c i s c o de Quevedo ( I I , 105). 7. " E l d o n c e l , " A d e l a r d o L6pez de A y a l a (1828-1879) "todo un i n g e n i o de l a C o r t e d e l buen R e t i r o , c onservado de m i l a g r o desde e l s i g l o d i e c i s i e t e p a r a . r. honra y g l o r i a d e l muy p r o s a i c o en que u s t e d y yo CMatica y P e d r o ] v i v i m o s . " He had been s u c c e s s f u l w i t h Un hombre de e s t a d o and Los dos  Guzmanes, b u t h i s Rio.ja had n o t been r e c e i v e d t o o w e l l , ( I I , 78, 1 0 5 ) . 8. Tomas R o d r i g u e z Rub! (1817-1890) had produced De p o t e n c i a a p o t e n c i a , as w e l l as La t r e n z a de sus  c a b e l l o s , B o r r a s c a s de c o r a z o n , "pero sobre todo E l a r t e de h a c e r f o r t u n a , una de l a s mias l i n d a s y mejor contadas comedias d e l t e a t r o moderno," ( I I , 77, 10i>). 9. L u i s de E g u i l a z (1830-1874) was a newcomer, and h i s comedy Verdades amargas had been "ruidosamente a p l a u d i d a " and he had g r e a t s u c c e s s w i t h b o t h A l a r c o n and E l c a b a l l e r o d e l m i l a g r o , ( I I , 105). 10. N a r c i s o S e r r a (I83O-I877) "emulaba l o s d o n a i r e s de B r e t o n " i n h i s La boda de Quevedo, ( I I , 105). 11. Juan de A r i z a (1816-1876) who wrote "comedias muy a g r a d a b l e s " ( I I , 105). 12. He f i n a l l y mentions two p l a y s w h i c h were " t r a d u c c i o n e s . . . i m p o r t a n t e s , " S u l l i v a n ( I I , 105) and A d r i a n a ( I I , 56, 1 0 5 ) o 12. W r i t i n g i n La Espana were " e l entonces y a s a b i o y r e s p e t a -do" A u r e l i a n o F e r n a n d e z - G u e r r a (1816-1894) whose pen-name was P i p i and Eugenio Ochoa (I8I5-I872); and i n E l H e r a l d o Manuel^Cafiete (1822-1891), (II, 105-6). B o t h Ochoa and Canete were p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t i n the Golden Age drama, w h i c h Pedro a l s o r e l a t e s (see s e c t i o n on L i t e r a t u r e ) . - 47 -13» Pedro says he knows of the following worksJ Nicolas Boileau's (I636-I7II) Arte poetica which he describes as " r e f l e j o de otro de Horacio" which was known as the E p i s t o l a a los Pisones and which was inspired, i n turn, by A r i s t o t l e ' s Poetics. He also knew that some of Moli&re's works were adaptations of others of Planus, he c a l l e d a l l swindlers Tartuffe and knew a l i t t l e of Corneille's Horace. 14. Pedro's own review of l y r i c poetry i s s i m i l a r l y very concise. Of the good poets he says: E l duque de Rivas, Z o r r i l l a , V i l l e g a s y otros poetas de nota, andaban fuera de l a p a t r i a , o c a l l a d i t o s en su pueblo o a l a sombra de un destino _the Duke of Rivas was appointed premier i n 18 54] . And of the bad ones he says: La Avellaneda, l a Coronado y Garcia de Quevedo publican _sic_f t a l cual lucubracion romantica de tarde en tarde. E l surtido de poesias de los pocos y malos periddicos l i t e r a r i o s que e x i s t i a n c o r r i a de cuenta de los Larranaga, V i l a y Goyri, Ribot y otros de quienes no me acuerdo o no quiero acordarme, ( I I , 104-5)• 15. This was unlike e a r l i e r Spanish novels, Don Qui.jote, f o r example, or such nineteenth century English novels as Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey. 16. The Aguilar publishing house have produced an excellent c o l l e c t i o n of these early nineteenth-century h i s -t o r i c a l romances: Antologia de l a novela histoVica  espanola (1830-1844) ed. F e l i c i d a d Buendia (Aguilar: Madrid, 1963) which contains novels by Lopez Soler, Cosca Bayo, Espronceda, Larra, Escosura*, V i l l a l t a , Cortada y Sala, Martinez de l a Rosa*, Estebanez Calderon, G i l y Carrasco. Other such novelists are Trueba y Cosio, Ayguals de Izco, Navarro V i l l o s l a d a , A v e c i l l a , Padtor Diaz, Fernandez y Gonzalez... It would be i n t r i g u i n g to compare the d i f f e r e n t roles that realism and fantasy played i n the develop-ment of the English and the Spanish novels during the nineteenth century. * 0 f these two Matica says: " E l anciano" Francisco Martinez de l a Rosa (1787-1862), "no quiero ofender l a i l u s t r a c i o n de usted ponderandole sus muchos, grandes y ya gloriosos talentos." And "11 malicioso y risueno" P a t r i c i o de l a Escosura (1807-1878)"el hombre que b r i l l a lo mismo cultivando l a p o l i t i c a que e l teatro, que l a h i s t o r i a , que l a novela," (II, 7 7 ) . - 48 -17. F o r d e t a i l s of t r a n s l a t i o n s of n o v e l s i n t o S p a n i s h see the l i s t of them i n M o n t e s i n o s * , I n t r o d u c c i o n , pp. 154—257* 18. The n o v e l i s t s Pedro mentions a re as f o l l o w s , h i s c r i t i c a l comments on n o v e l s and n o v e l i s t s have been r e t a i n e d : 1. F r a n c i s c o Nav^arro V i l l o s l a d a (1818-1895) a u t h o r of Dona B l a n c a de flaflarra "una n o v e l a e x c e l e n t i s i m a a l modo de l a s de W a l t e r S c o t t " ( I I , 103). 2. Manuel Fernandez y Gon z a l e z (1821-1888) " a l g u n a £de sus n o v e l a s j e r a b a s t a n t e mas l e i d a y c e l e b r a d a , " ( I I , 103). 3. C a r o l i n a de Coronado (1823-1911) who wrote J a r i l l a and La S i g e a ( I I , 1 0 4 ). 4. G e r t r u d i s Gbmez de A v e l l a n e d a (1814-1873) a u t h o r e s s " E l — n o r e c u e r d o q u e — d e Monfaucon." B o t h o f the l a t t e r a u t h o r e s s e s a r e d i s a p p r o v e d of by Pedro f o r t h e i r R o m a n t i c i s m . ( I I , 1 0 4 ) . 5. A n t o n i o F l o r e s ( I 8 I8-I865) who had p u b l i s h e d a n o v e l w h i c h has been r e g a r d e d as a model f o r La M o n t a l v e z , c a l l e d Fe, e s p e r a n z a y c a r i d a d , * "abundantes en cuadros c u r i o s o s y no mal p i n t a d o s , pero a t e s t a d o s de l u g a r e s comunes de n o v e l o n por e n t r e g a s . V a l e mucho mas que e s t o su g a l e r x a de c u a d r o s , A y e r , hoy y manana" ( I I , 1 0 4 ) . 6. A n t o n i o Trueba (I8I9-I889) " e l mejor y mas fecundo c u e n t i s t a de cuantos se pasean en Espana, y e l a u t o r mds t r a d u c i d o a e x t r a n a s l e n g u a s . " T h i s l a t t e r f a c t i s c e r t a i n l y amazing. He was a u t h o r o f E l l i b r o de l o s c a n t a r e s . Trueba i s b e s t remembered f o r h i s i l l - j u d g e d and d i s a s t r o u s p r o l o g u e t o the f i r s t e d i t i o n o f Pereda's Escenas montanesas. ( I I , 1 0 4 ). 7. Wenceslao A y g u a l s de I z c o (1801-1873) "se h a b i a p r o p u e s t o s e r e l Eugenio Sue de a c a , y no q u i e r o d e c i r como l o l o g r a b a . " ( I I , 1 0 4 ) . 8. A n t o n i o de Hurtado (I825-I878) had been awarded a P r i z e by the R e a l Academia f o r h i s Cosas d e l mundo.* ( I I , 104~7^ 9. P a t r i c i o E s c o s u r a (1807-1878) a u t h o r of E l p a t r i a r c a d e l v a l l e ( I I , 1 0 4 ) . M a t i c a ' s j u d g -ment o f t h i s man has a l r e a d y been q u o t e d . 10. Juan de A r i z a (I8I6-I876) p u b l i s h e d Un v i a j e a l  i n f i e r n o , " s a t i r a d e l Ma d r i d de e n t o n c e s , en que h a b f a muchos anagramas demasiado t r a s p a r e n t e s " * ( I I , 1 0 4 ) . 11. Diego Luque de Beas (1828-1890) who was s t i l l young and had w r i t t e n La dama d e l Conde-duque,* " b i e n pergenada y con mucho s a b o r de gpoca." ( I I , 1 0 4 ) . I t w i l l be n o t e d that many of the s e n o v e l i s t s have a l r e a d y been mentioned e i t h e r as p o e t s o r as drama-t i s t s , w h i c h r e v e a l s something about the way the n o v e l w a s s t i l l r e g a r d e d i n S p a i n . *These are a l l p o s s i b l e models f o r Pereda's La M o n t a l v e z . - 49 -PEREDA'S LITERARY OPINIONS AND TECHNIQUE IN THE MADRID NOVELS Throughout t h e M a d r i d n o v e l s , t h e r e a r e many r e f e r e n c e s to w r i t e r s who were n o t contemporaneous w i t h t h e a c t i o n o f Pedro Sanchez. T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l a t t e m p t t o g i v e an o v e r - a l l v i e w o f P e r e d a ' s c r i t i c i s m and m e n t i o n o f o t h e r w r i t e r s . I t w i l l p„lso d i s c u s s h i s t r e a t m e n t o f themes w h i c h t h e s e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t e d t o him and w h i c h a r e s u g g e s t e d i n t u r n t o t h e r e a d e r . These mnn o f l e t t e r s t o whom P e r e d a r e f e r s a r e "both e a r l i e r and c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s . The seconfl p a r t o f t h e s e c t i o n w i l l d e a l w i t h c e r t a i n o f P e r e d a ' s s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s and w i l l a n a l y s e how he p u t h i s l i t e r a r y i d e a s i n t o p r a c t i c e . I t w i l l , e s p e c i a l l y , d i s c u s s t h e n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s t h a t he employed i n t h e two l o n g M a d r i d n o v e l s , Pedro Sanchez and La M o n t a l v e z , b o t h o f w h i c h a r e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y . F i r s t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o see whether P e r e d a makes any c l e a r - c u t s t a t e m e n t s on t i i e n a t u r e o f a r t and l i t e r a t u r e . There a r e o c c a s i o n s i n t h e M a d r i d n o v e l s when he makes f a r - r e a c h i n g pronouncements on t h e n a t u r e o f p o e t r y . The f i r s t o c c u r s i n Suum c u i q u e , and t h i s s e n t e n c e must be k e p t i n mind when d e c i d i n g on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e a l i t y i n .his w r i t i n g : " d e j a r l a . l a po-esia. de s e r l o s i l o s p o e t a s c a n t a r a n l a . v e r d a d una. s o l a v e z en su v i d a . " ( I , 277) Here - 50 -i s one of the clearest statements of his a r t i s t i c b e l i e f s : although he valued the truth, he s t i l l thought that art should give i t an aura of enchantment. This c o n f l i c t i s seen even better i n Pedro Sanchez when he i s creating the characters of Pedro himself and of Clara. Clara, the clearsighted one, represents those who desire the truth at the expense of a l l e l s e . Her immense a b i l i t y to see the essentials of things and to act according to an unemotional and c o l d l y c a l c u l a t i n g logic i s to be her staple c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : Me encanta l a verdad, y jamas l a hallo en los copleros, en su afan de v e s t i r l a de arlequin y medirla por si l a b a s . Ya no se hacen versos mas que en Espana... y en Turquia. (II, 28) Pedro's reaction i s immediate. He r e f l e c t s , I believe, Pereda's own view of the s i t u a t i o n , and his b e l i e f i n a poetic form of the truth becomes evident. The quotation also reveals Pereda's b e l i e f that truth and nature could be improved by a rt and l i t e r a t u r e . I t s i m i l a r l y shows his opinion con-cerning the nature of women, who ought to be more " s o u l f u l " and less concerned with the "naked t r u t h " than Clara: Confieso que me gusto poco esta sinceridad en boca de una mujer tan joven; porque entendia yo, por i n s t i n t o natural, que para elevacion del alma, singularmente l a de l a mujer, hay mentiras necesarias y hasta indispensables, como son las del arte en cuanto tienden a embellecer l a Naturaleza y dar mayor expansion y nobleza a los humanos sentimientos. (II, 28) Pereda was not given to t h e o r e t i c a l speculations on the nature of art and i s probably unique among nineteenth-century n o v e l i s t s , Spanish p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n that the only c r i t i c a l writings on l i t e r a t u r e or art he l e f t are those which part of - 5 1 -an a r t i s t i c creation. Where he does pass judgment on l i t e r a -ture i t i s often for an a r t i s t i c purpose, such as the a n t i -bucolic humor i n Suum cuique, or i t comprises part of a character creation, such as Pedro's c r i t i c i s m of Fernan Caballero. There are c e r t a i n main areas of c r i t i c i s m which are of considerable s i g n i f i c a n c e : the pastoral, Fernan Caballero, Alarcon's s o c i a l novels, the Spanish Golden Age theatre and Cervantes. Each of these w i l l be dealt with here. The pastoral was evident most strangely i n Suum cuique^ and t h i s i s the only p r i n c i p a l section which deals with t h i s subject. There are mentions of t h i s theme i n both Pedro  Sanchez and La Montalvez. The two quotations are a l i t t l e puzzling, since they reveal the dichotomy i n Pereda's own adherence to the bucolic i d e a l . In Pedro Sanchez he says: Todo era a l i i p a t r i a r c a l y amoroso como una egloga de Garcilaso. (II, 69) The terms he uses to describe Nica Montalvez^s vacation cottage are less melifluous, for i t was no como l a choza r u s t i c a y grosera de los i d i l i o s , no tanto. (II, 5 1 5 ) Pereda's novels themselves f a l l within a broad de-f i n i t i o n of the pastoral theme and therefore any discussion of t h i s genre would have to include the majority of his novels. Since t h i s section i s destined to deal with his l i t e r a r y references, i t must be limited to other pastoral w r i t e r s . - 52 -The other no v e l i s t whose works f a l l into the broad d e f i n i t i o n of pastoral i s Fernan Caballero. In a short story e n t i t l e d E l tirano de l a aldea (Esbozos y rasgunos) Pereda includes a quotation from Fernan Caballero's Simon  Verde to condemn "los mas malos, los mas venales, los mas tiranos y los mas opresores de los hombres." (II, 1263) Pereda was referring to the corrupt secretaries of the Ayuntamientos i n the v i l l a g e s . This story tends to d i s -prove the t r a d i t i o n a l idea that Pereda was simply an ex-ponent of the e v i l s of the c i t y and the virtue of the country. What he does show i s that there i s less opportunity f o r e v i l i n the country, but that e v i l , i f anything, can be f a r worse i n the country than i n the c i t y . This exemplifies Pereda's concern with s a t i r i s i n g the vice that he saw i n Madrid, rather than with s a t i r i s i n g Madrid merely because i t was He i s normally very concerned with the l i t t l e figures of d a i l y l i f e and i n the same story he f e e l s unable to cope with the great passions: "Las grandes pasiones...que constituyen l a vida en los grandes centros de poblacian aturden a l hombre p a c i f i c o y sedentario." (I, 1261-2) But although he was to repeat the same idea i n Pedro Sanchez, he was to portray these very passions i n the novel. 2 As ever on th i s theme, Pereda's attitude varies from moment to moment, which makes any d e f i n i t i v e analysis of his bucolic theme impossible. Pedro Sanchez, a f t e r having become l i t e r a r y editor of C l a r i n , passes judgment on Fernan Caballero's Clemencia. - 53 -Although these c r i t i c i s m s are intended as part of the char-acter creation of Pedro, they are written from Pedro's point of view as an old man and so must be taken as being Pereda's own opinion of the novels. His c r i t i c i s m i s b u i l t up i n the following way: F i r s t he attacks the p r e v a i l i n g taste of the time which "por resabios romanticos" preferred " e l amor empalagoso e inverosimil de aquella sensible y lacrimosa heroina, a l r i d i c u l o y extravagante ingles, y las inaguantables escenas a que este punto da lugar." (II, 103) The reasons he attacks these aspects of the novel are very clear, f o r , a f t e r a l l , t h i s was exactly the type of l i t e r a -ture that Pereda was reacting against when he wrote his Escenas montanesas. He goes on to say that what w i l l give Fernan Caballero*s novels l a s t i n g fame was "precisamente de estar llenas de vulgaridades..." (II, 103) which was, he says, " l a miga de C su] ingenio." (II, 103) Pedro then gives examples of what he considers to be the excellent q u a l i t i e s of the novel, and which the public had despised as vulgar and inelegant "los sabrosos pasajes y cuadros llenos de color y de verdad, en los cuales entran, como figuras de primer termino, don Martin, don Galo Pando, l a Marquesa, l a Coronela y l a t i a Latrana." (II, 103-4) There i s a great deal of tnuth i n these statements f o r the Dickensian Coronela and the Galdosian Galo Pando are c e r t a i n l y two of the most remark-able creations of the period. When Pedro reveals the content of the review he had wr i t -ten for the C l a r i n , i t becomes a b r i l l i a n t example of Pereda's - 9, _ use of d u a l - r e a l i t y , which i s strongly i r o n i c . He creates, In Pedro, the type of over-confident, self-opinionated young man he despises and then cuts himii down to s i z e , through Pedro's own revaluation of his e a r l i e r opinions. He attacks Fernan because she was "un pertinaz propagandista de ideas reaccionarias." (II, 107) He attacks the novels on several counts (note the i r o n i c a l juxtaposition of the f i r s t two) since Fernan did not give them "interes l a b e r i n t i c o , n i unidad, n i fondo"—as they were "repletos de charranadas andaluzas." (II, 107( Pedro's l a s t attack on them i s sup-remely i r o n i c a l , for he has become a chico de l a prensa which were the bane of Nubes de e s t i o , for Fernan "era de los de afuera..., porque es de saberse...que no se podia tener talento en Espana mas que en Madrid." (II, 107) , The reader's reaction to these comments i s l e f t f a i r l y open, u n t i l Pedro himself brings everything down to earth with a succinct clo s i n g remarks "Por fartuna, nadie me hizo caso." (II, 107) This c r i t i q u e of the novels of Fernan Caballero reveals an attitude of Pereda's which has not been f u l l y explored. He s a t i r i s e s the Madrid press, because i t w i l l not accept novels by regional writers such as Fernan Caballero and Pereda him-s e l f . His anti-Madrid ideas are not constant, but what he i s doing, i n my opinion, i s exaggerating the regional novel i n order to make the Madrid press take notice of i t . The more they protested t h e i r open-mindedness, the more regional he became; af t e r a l l , such regional novels as S o t i l e z a have a universal drama but a regional s e t t i n g . How he would have - 55 -developed without the stimulus of Emilia Pardo Bazan, and Menendez y Pelayo, w i l l never be knowiv, but i t i s f a i r to say that her comments i n La cuestion palpitante produced not just Pedro Sanchez and La Montalvez but, by reaction, Penas  arriba * The other contemporary n o v e l i s t whom Pereda had i n mind at c e r t a i n moments was Alarcon. It seems clear that the pro-blems of morality and honor preoccupied the nineteenth century as much as they had the seventeenth. It i s i n La  Montalvez which seems to be a reworking of the themes of E l escandalo, that we f i n d the majority of the evidence that Pereda had Alarcon i n mind. There does not e x i s t , unfortuna-t e l y , any documentary evidence that he was thinking of Alarcon, as there does to show that De t a l palo, t a l a s t i l l a was a reply to Galdos' G l o r i a , f o r example. This makes i t d i f f i c u l t to prove that his use of the word escandalo was a conscious reminder, but i f not i t would mean that Pereda*s vocabulary was limited i n the concluding chapters of the novel. Perhaps t h i s i s most apparent when Angel describes his novel to Nica and Luz, for i n the same paragraph that he states very concisely the point at issue i n La Montalvez i t s e l f he talks of his heroine (who i s very l i k e Nica), and mentions that " e l publico llevaba una cuenta minuciosa de todas esas prodigalidades amorosas, aunque l a prodiga pensaba que nadie se las veian." (II, 527) The next sentence puts forward the ideas of the novel. Then the next two sentences state that "Tuvo tambien una hija...guapa y parecia muy buena. - 56 -Por de pronto, se habia educado de muy d i s t i n t a manera de l a madres lejos de e l l a y del ruido de los escandalos." (11,527) The r e p e t i t i o n of the words, prodigalidad and prodiga at such a short i n t e r v a l make them stand out, and when he l a t e r interpolates the word escandalos i n a phrase that i s also made to stand out "because i t i s s p l i t from the main sentence by a colon, and although consisting of nine words, has no verb. This s i g n i f i e s that Pereda sets down very suc-c i n c t l y the theme of his own novel—and of Alarcon's—and f r a -ming t h i s clear-cut exposition he emphasizes two words gram^Ltically, both of which are t i t l e s of novels by Alarcon. In the f i n a l twenty pages of the novel, he repeats over and over again the idea that Nica has been the cause of escandalo s i Cuanto perdia con aquel s i l e n c i o mio, que era l a declaracion de los escandalos de su madrel (II, 551). I Y todo aquel estrago era obra mia; de mis maldades, de mis escandalos! (II, 552). Mi sonada f e l i c i d a d , que solo c o n s i s t i a en que jamas turbara l a de Luz e l ruido de los escandalos de su madre. (II, 5 5 6 ) . _Que testimonios desean para creer que s i escandalice como mujer deshonesta, puedo e d i f i c a r como arrepentida? (II, 556). Jesus no pidi6 tanta penitencia a l a cortesana arrepentida, y habia escandalizado mas que yo. (II, 5 5 7 ) . De todas las mujeres malas era l a peor l a madre d e s j u i -ciada y deshonesta, porque sus escandalos danaban tambien a sus h i j o s . (II, 562). A l l of these quotations are stressed both by t h e i r content and t h e i r ^••^.oji'Ui.W.'. I r i n the prose. The l a s t time he uses the word i s i n the very l a s t sentence of the novel, i n the - 57 -stated purpose of the book. The emphasis i s immense and I cannot accept that Pereda did t h i s unconsciously, since every time he uses the word i t stands out from the text: No c r e e r i a nunca bastante barrida de gusanos l a con-c i e n c i a s i n entregar los escandalos de mi vida a l a abominacion de todas las mujeres honradas. (II, 567) The fact that Pereda was cori^ious of the denouement of Alarc'on's novels (El escandalo, and La prodiga to a lesser extent) w i l l be of significance to gain a f u l l e r understanding of his ideas on society. This influence must be borne i n mind i n that section (Spanish society i n the Madrid novels) which deals with the s o c i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the novels about metropolitan morality. Among his references to " c l a s s i c a l " Spanish l i t e r a t u r e are some h i s t o r i c a l l y revealing ones to the theatre. The following passage from Pedro Sanchez i s very i n t e r e s t i n g , f o r i t gives an eye-witness account of the esteem i n which the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century theatre was beginning to be held i n the 1850s. Vi varias comedias del teatro antiguo, y l e i muchas mas, y hasta hube a las manos...los inapreciables Origenes de Bohl de Faber, en una hermosa edicion de Hamburgoj con lo cual, los nombres de Naharro, Lope de Rueda, Juan del Encina, etc., me fueron tan queridos como los de Lope de Vega, Tirso, Moreto, Rojas y Calderon. (II, 63) It i s reassuring to know that the e a r l i e r dramatists were be-coming known, but Pereda's omiision of Ruiz de Alarcon i s puzzling since the majority of early nineteenth-century c r i t i c s placed him with Lope, Ti r s o , Moreto, Rojas and Calderon as being one of the six major playwrights of the Siglo de Pro. - 58 -His statements on the Golden Age drama r e a l l y belong to the h i s t o r i c a l review of l i t e r a t u r e at the time, were i t not that he makes use of at least one Golden Age theme—that of the so-called "Calderonian" honor-drama. In La mujer del Cesar he makes Carlos, the apparently cuckolded husband, utter these words: En cuestiones de honra propia no delego mis poderes en nadie; que yo soy l a ley, e l juez y e l ejecutor, y que no abrigue usted l a mas remota esperanza de que este compromiso pueda terminarse como tantos otros lances mai llamados de honor. (I, 5 7 5 ) Pereda was very concerned with the contemporary preoccupation with honor. He turns Carlos into a nineteenth-century Don* Gutierre, (El medico de su honra), i n search of the restora-t i o n of his honor, who arrogates to himself a l l the prero-gatives of God.3 As with the great majority of Spanish writers, Pereda i s much concerned with Cervantes, the majority of his r e f e r -ences being to Don Quijote: he does, however, r e f e r to Galatea i n the anti-bucolic sequence i n Suum cuique (I, 2 7 9 ) . The young Pedro Sanchez, when discussing his own f i r s t l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s , reveals an a t t r a c t i o n to both Quijote and the pastoral, for he says ",'Poco me dieron que hacer y que e s c r i b i r los amores de Grisostomo y Marcela!" (II, 1 1 ) He had already by th i s point stressed his knowledge of t h i s book while d e s c r i -bing his early reading: "Con leer a menudo...el Quijote... cobre senalada a f i c i o n a l a amena l i t e r a t u r a . " (II, 8) He further remarks "es decir, que me he limitado a seguir mi canto llano y no meterme en contrapunto'que se suelen quebrar de s o t i l e s * , como d i r i a e l buen maese Pedro." (II, 2 6 ) - 59 -T h e s e m e r e l y r e v e a l P e r e d a ' s knowledge o f C e r v a n t e s ' n o v e l b u t t h e r e i s no t r a n s c e n d e n t a l m e aning b e h i n d them, a l t h o u g h t h e P e r e d i a n h e r o i s o f t e n Q u i x o t i c . Don S i l v e s t r e i s p o r t -r a y e d e x p l i c i t l y as a modern Q u i j o t e . He i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a man whose head i s t u r n e d by p o l i t i c s and who w o u l d p r o b a b l y t a k e on t h e w o r l d were i t n o t f o r h i s p l e i t o . The o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f S i l v e s t r e i s a l s o r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h o f t h e Q u l . j o t e . I n t h e s e c t i o n on P o l i t i c s and t h e P r e s s he w i l l be compared t o t h e " k n i g h t o f t h e d o l e -f u l c o u n t e n a n c e , " and i n o r d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e t h i s t h e f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n must be b o r n e i n mind: No t a r d o en s u c e d e r l e a S e t u r a s c o n l o s a r t i c u l o s de f o n d o a l g o p a r e c i d o a l o que a Don Q u i j o t e l e s u c e d i o c o n l o s l i b r o s de c a b a l l e r i a s . . . S u D u l c i n e a e r a l a P a t r i a ; s u s e n c a n t a d o r e s , l o s enemigos p o l i t i c o s d e l peri6dico. F a l t a b a l e a s u c a r a c t e r l a e s e n c i a r o m a n c e s c a que h a b i a en e l de Q u i j a n o , e l Bueno; de o t r o modo, l e h u b i e r a c o s t a d o muy po c o h a c e r de s u p e l u d o c u a r t a g o un R o c i n a n t e y, o l v i d a d o de su p l e i t o , s a l i r en b u s c a de a v e n t u r a s h a s t a r o m p e r s e e l alma c o n l o s v e r d u g o s de l a p e r s e g u i d a P a t r i a ( I , 265). T h i s i s t h e most d e f i n i t e c o m p a r i s o n , b u t h i s o t h e r h e r o e s have Q u i x o t i c t r a i t s . Ramd'n i n L a mu.jer d e l C e s a r i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o S i l v e s t r e i n b u i l d and i n h i s r e a c t i o n t o t h e m e t r o p o l i s , b u t h i s "madness" t a k e s a n o t h e r f o r m , f o r Ramon " t a k e s on" t h e w o r l d and t r i e s t o improve i t s , a s , ^ f o r example, when he "cogi6 a l v i z c o n d e . . . y . . . l e sacudi6 l a s dos b e f e t a d a s mas s o n o r a s que ha o i d o e l p r e s e n t e s i g l o . " ( I I , 5&3) The t o n e i s e x a g g e r a t e d l i k e t h e p a r o d i e d c h i v a l r i c n o v e l s , b u t t h e a t t i t u d e o f Ramon i s p r e c i s e l y what i s te r m e d " q u i x o t i c . " - 60 -Pedro Sanchez i s the amalgamation of these two men. He, l i k e them, i s large and powerful, his head i s turned by Valenzuela, and he i s "blinded" by p o l i t i c s and his own apocryphal view of the world. Like Ram6*n, and unlike S i l -vestre, he attempts to take on the world. This comparison i s made f i r s t by Pedro himself, "encauzose, pues l a gober-nacion de mi i n s u l a . " (II, 167) Whether consciously or not he i d e n t i f e s himself with Sancho at the stage of Don Quijote when Sancho's q u i x o t i f i c a t i o n i s almost complete.^ The comparison i s reinforced shortly a f t e r , when Pedro and Clara have a tremendous row which i s the breaking point i n t h e i r marriage; i n the heated exchange, she accuses him of having " r i d i c u l o s pujos de caballero andante." (II, 175) This comparison can influence any inter p r e t a t i o n of the novels, since Pereda prepares one for the eventual d i s i l l u s i o n -ment of Pedro and his complete loss of f a i t h i n his ideals and i n himself. In a l l the novels i t adds an extra l e v e l to the meaning and an extra dimension to the heroes. Although his use of t h i s double r e a l i t y i s not completely o r i g i n a l , he i s one of the f i r s t to look back to Cervantes i n order to add a symbolic overtone to his f i c t i o n . This i s an attitude he shared with others, e s p e c i a l l y Gald&s and the Generation of 1898. # * # * There are aspects of Pereda's narrative technique that are obvious to every reader; there are others that never seem1 to have been discussed at a l l . This i s es p e c i a l l y true of - 61 -one mannerism of expression, and since no c r i t i c has commented upon i t some of the more obvious examples of i t are given be-low. He has a t r i c k of not saying exactly what he means, and then correcting himself. This i s very noticeable a l l through his w riting, but the examples given here are from the Madrid novels, and a few of the l a t e r c o l l e c t i o n s and novels; Pedro Sanchez (II) . . . e l juez...amigo p a r t i c u l a r del regente de l a Audi-encia del t e r r i t o r i o , muy emparentado—el juez, no e l t e r r i t o r i o — c o n . . . ( 1 1 ) . La Montalvez (II) ...no se cuenta por anos, sino por s i g l o s , como para los monumentos de los Faraones. Hacia aquellas fechas—no las de los Faraones— fue cuando...(497)• Esbozos y rasgufios (I) La mia—es decir, mi f a m i l i a , no mi cometa...(1237)• Dijonos, no e l Ciclope, sino don Bernabe, que l i b r o s necesitaba...(1282). Nubes de estio (II) ...don Roque intimo con l a f a m i l i a del pr6cer y vio que su hij o ( e l del procer) entraba en su casa (en l a de don Roque) como Pedro en su casa. ( 8 4 3 ) . . . . l e d i j e , no a l a langosta, sino a l a cocinera...(972). A l primer vuelo (II) Su h i j o , es decir, e l del r e l o j e r o . . . ( 9 9 9 ) • This mannerism i s used by Pereda for humorous e f f e c t , as aspect of his writing which ought not to be l o s t sight of as he i s not the over-serious, unsmiling character that he i s often made out to be. In contrast, he was a man who made a joke out of most things. Florence Williams, i n a thesis on Pereda's humor, has done some valuable documentation and shown how humor was one of the mainstays of his writing from beginning to end.5 - 62 -He used humor even a t tense moments; i n La mu.jer d e l Cesar, Ramon i s v i s i t e d by the two seconds of the man whose face he pushed the n i g h t b e f o r e , and they d e c l a r e t h a t they seek "Lo que es n a t u r a l que se l e o c u r r a despues d e l suceso de anoche." (I, 566) Ramon " p r i c k s the melodramatic bubble" by s a y i n g "Pero como l o mas n a t u r a l en ese caso s e r i a un d e n t i s t a y yo no l o soy..." (I, 566) S i m i l a r l y , at the climax of Los hombres de pro, Simon and Juana d i s c o v e r t h a t a l l t h e i r p l ans and dreams have come c r a s h i n g t o the ground. T h e i r r e a c t i o n a t t h i s dramatic moment i s to f a i n t "formando l o s dos cuerpos en e l s u e l o un s o l o monton—y no pequeno." (I, ?03) Another aspect of h i s humor was a debt t h a t he owed to Dickens, which may have been d i r e c t — h i s knowledge of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e was good--:or i n d i r e c t through h i s f r i e n d Galdos. His c r e a t i o n of a f a m i l y i n Pedro Sanchez owes much to the E n g l i s h n o v e l i s t ' s s t y l e . One of Pedro's f r i e n d s has a n o v i a , and Pedro goes along w i t h h i s f r i e n d to engage her s i s t e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . The f a m i l y owes much to such D i c k e n s i a n f a m i l i e s as the J e l l y b y s or the Micawbers, and l i k e the former has a strange name—de l o s Trucos. The f a t h e r ' s name i s Don Magin. Needles to say, he i s f a t but i s a l s o "muy c o r t o de v i s t a , de brazos y de c u e l l o . " (II 69) His wif e i s Dona Ar c a n g e l e s , but she i s "para angel...demasiado maciza." The daughters are T r i n i s and Luz, the l a t t e r i s "un t i p o de v e s t a l romana." (II, 71) F u r t h e r evidence of t h i s type of humor i s the i n t r o -d u c t i o n very s h o r t l y before of a c h a r a c t e r c a l l e d Agamen6n, - 63 -which i s the nickname he had been dubbed for always s t a r t i n g a sentence "Kagame... jousted e l obsequio de"])..." ( I I . 68) The humor may have often become caricature, but i t was a l -ways present i n his works. Any int e r p r e t a t i o n of his novels ought to be made with the p r o b a b i l i t y that his tongue may have been i n his cheek, which w i l l seriously influence any approach which accepts Pereda as being less that human, as as i f everything he wrote was dour and unsmiling. Pereda's narrative technique can be c r i t i c i s e d f or i t s waywardness. He i s an omniscient narrator i n the majority of the novels, but he does pretend that the characters are r e a l people and so he in v i t e s the reader to come with him and then explains how he knows the f a c t s . The best examples of th i s are i n La Montalvez. At the beginning of the second part of the novel he describes a conversation between Manolo Casa-Vieja and his frie n d Ballesteros, which gives a l l the relevant d e t a i l s of what has happened between the two parts of the novel. After they have fin i s h e d he says: Todos los informes dados por Manolo Casa-Vieja a su amigo Paco Ballesteros sobre lo ocurrido a los person-ajes de nuestro r e l a t o , desde que los despedimos en e l ultimo capitulo de l a primera parte de 4 1 , era l a pura verdad. En los Apuntes autografos, que me sirven de guia constan tambidn, aunque en otra forma menos interesante, por descolorida y difusa. ( I I , 4-81) Shortly a f t e r i n v i t i n g the reader into Nica Montalvez^s house he says: Asi estaban las cosas, con un pasito mas que luego conoceremos, a l i n v i t a r yo en los comienzos del capi-tulo precedente a l le c t o r amable y pio a que me acom-panara a l nuevo domicilio de l a marquesa de Montalvez. Reproduzcole l a invitaci<5n, y puesto que no l a desaira, vamos adentro con todas las cortesias y comedimientos del caso. ( I I , 488) - 64 -L a t e r while c o n f e s s i n g t h a t he does not know the d e t a i l s of her abandoned l i f e i n Madrid, he says: Quien p u d i e r a sacarnos de l a duda erajsu d o n c e l l a ; pero n i l a conozco, n i e x i s t e , que yo sepa, l a h i s t o r i a de su v i d a y m i l a g r o s . ( I I , 507) T h i s r e a l i s t approach i s t y p i c a l of the n a r r a t i v e t e c h -nique which Pereda abandoned only i n three major n o v e l s . Pedro Sanchez and Penas a r r i b a have f i r s t - p e r s o n male n a r r a t o r s , and c e r t a i n p a r t s of La Montalvez have a f i r s t - p e r s o n female n a r r a t o r . T h i s , although not unprecedented, was something of a v i r t u o s o t e c h n i c a l performance. Dickens had used i t i n Bleak House, which shares w i t h Pereda's n o v e l the m u l t i p l e -focus t e c h n i q u e . E s t h e r and N i c a keep d i a r i e s and they are used on occasions to add depth to the s t o r y , but n e i t h e r i s a continuous n a r r a t i v e l i k e Great E x p e c t a t i o n s or David Copper-f i e l d , Pedro Sanchez or La Montalvez. Sherman E o f f ? has compared the novels of the two w r i t e r s because of a s i m i l a -r i t y of a t t i t u d e between them, but i t i s c u r i o u s t h a t both produced two s e m i - a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l novels w i t h male f i r s t -p erson n a r r a t o r s , and another n o v e l which co n t a i n s l a r g e s e c t i o n s from the j o u r n a l of a woman. The reasons f o r t h i s p a r t l y f i r s t - p e r s o n s t r u c t u r e are the same i n both c a s e s . Q Montero g i v e s p a r t of the o r i g i n a l d r a f t of the be g i n n i n g of the n o v e l , which was w r i t t e n by "Nica h e r s e l f , " but which Pereda was unable to c o n t i n u e . S i m i l a r l y , G e o f f r e y T i l l o t s o n says "though Dickens does manage to convey the s i m p l i c i t y of Esther...he cannot keep i t up. " 9 - 65 -Pereda's technique has many precedents, including Cervantes, who placed Cide Hamete Benengeli between himself and the reader. A n o v e l i s t achieves three things with t h i s . He i s able to pretend better that the story a c t u a l l y happened; i t allows him to place the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the events i n the novel on somebody else, whether i t be the narrator (Pedro, Marcelo, Nica) or the characters themselves; and i t puts the narration more distant from author and reader and enables both to be more objective. The Madrid novels begin at a very low technical l e v e l . Suum cuique i s nothing more than a pair of contrasted scenes which are extended, but b a s i c a l l y s t i l l only cuadros de cos-tumbres. Pereda does show considerable v i r t u o s i t y at t h i s l e v e l , for his development of the Latin-school leitmotiv i s i m p e c c a b l e , b u t , despite t h i s , the novel remains funda-mentally s t a t i c . La mujer del Cesar has just one set t i n g , but t h i s enables a s l i g h t l y more complex plot to be interwoven into the cuadro. The d e t a i l s of the t r i c k played on Isabel by the Viscount are admirably worked out, as i s the denouement. Pereda had progressed from showing several of the inconveniences of Madrid, then comparing them with those of the country; now the boorishness of Ramdn i s used for more than humorous e f f e c t , and his personality motivates the action of the climax. In Suum cuique, Pereda related anecdotes about the reception of S i l v e s t r e i n the c a p i t a l , i n La mujer del Cesar, the inconven-iences expedite the p l o t . - 66 -Despite the rather grotesque caricatures of Los hombres  de pro the novel i s much better balanced and Pereda i s moving towards a more psychological drama. The appearance of Ramon and S i l v e s t r e was found r i d i c u l o u s and amusing i n Madrid, but although Simon C. de los Penascales lacked neither the money nor the p o s i t i o n to put on a good appearance, he was s t i l l found r i d i c u l o u s because of his personality. The novel contains severe c r i t i c i s m of Madrid, i t i s true, but i t provides l i t t l e evidence to show that Pereda had a patho-l o g i c a l phobia of Madrid. Indeed i t i s Simon who i s censured most strongly i n t h i s novel, as don Roque w i l l be i n Nubes  de e s t i o , and nobody could make that novel proof of Pereda's hatred of Santander. The madrilenos may not be angels, but the montanesas have an excess of f a u l t s . Don Roque and Simon both f i n d self-knowledge at the end of t h e i r respective novels and withdraw from the s o c i e t i e s i n which they have made fools of themselves. Los hombres de pro shows a great advance i n Pereda's technique for there are three main sets of scenes (aldea, v i l l a , and Corte) and the greed and the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l ambitions of the three characters drive them from v i l l a g e to town to Madrid. The sequence of chapters which are set i n the p r o v i n c i a l town i s c a r e f u l l y developed. The second chapter describes Simon's apparent success i n l o c a l p o l i t i c s , but his success i s based on his r i d i c u l o u s behaviour which amuses the others at the p o l i t i c a l meeting. Chapter III deals with his wife's s o c i a l f a i l u r e , and the next chapter relates t h e i r - 67 -daughter's l a c k of success w i t h the other c h i l d r e n of the town. Because of Simon's apparent success he wants more and g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l a c c l a i m . Juana and J u l i e t a , because of t h e i r complete l a c k of success, t h r u s t upwards i n s o c i e t y hoping to be accepted. In the traumatic moments when Simon's f i n a n c i a l and J u l i e t a ' s s o c i a l r u i n become known, a l l three r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i r g l o r y was ephemeral. Another t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n i n Los hombres de pro i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l sequences, which take the form of a p o l i t i c a l eampaign, and some i n c i d e n t s of the ensuing p o l i t i c a l s e s s i o n . One of the c h a r a c t e r s he met on the campaign he i n t r o d u c e d f o r the f i r s t time i n t o h i s f i c -t i o n i n t h i s n o v e l , as Don Recaredo. Both Don Recaredo, and h i s house, w i l l reappear i n l a t e r novels under d i f f e r e n t names. In Don Gonzalo Gonzalez de l a Gonzalera he w i l l become Don Roman Perez de l a L l o s i a and the house w i l l be i n Coteruco. In Penas a r r i b a , he w i l l become Don Celso and the house w i l l be the Casona a t Tablanca. Don Recaredo w i l l h i m s e l f reappear i n t h i s l a t t e r novel."'""1" Another i n t e r e s t i n g f i g u r e i s t h a t of Don Jeromo C u a r t e r o l a , or as he i s b e t t e r known, Don Zambombo. This i s a man who owns a country t a v e r n and whose background i s very s i m i l a r to Don Simon's, and i t does seem t h a t Don Zambombo i s the s o r t of man t h a t Simon might have become i f he had not attempted to improve h i s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . He p r o v i d e s a f u r t h e r example of Pereda's use of double r e a l i t y , or the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t , which adds more l e v e l s of meaning to the - 68 -s t o r y . He enables the reader to see the d i s a s t e r t h a t Simon makes of h i s own l i f e but he a l s o shows the way i n which a tavern-keeper can become b e s t i a l and a n i m a l - l i k e . There i s a l s o a note of s a t i r e about people w i t h e t e r n a l p l e i t o s and i n t h i s way Don Zambombo becomes a r e i n c a r n a t i o n of Don S i l v e s t r e . Pereda's use of double r e a l i t y i s one of the most i n t e r e s -t i n g aspects of h i s technique. As w i l l become more and more apparent, each of h i s heroes i s p a r a l l e l e d by another l e v e l of a c t u a l or l i t e r a r y e x i s t e n c e . Don S i l v e s t r e and Pedro become a new v e r s i o n of Q u i j o t e . In La Montalvez, the n o v e l w r i t t e n by Angel p r o v i d e s the most i n t e r e s t i n g use of t h i s d u a l r e a l i t y . The concept t h a t one man has at l e a s t one l i f e i s e x p l o i t e d by many Spa n i a r d s : Unamuno, e s p e c i a l l y i n E l o t r o ; B a r o j a i n Camino de p e r f e c c i o n and E l a r b o l de  l a c i e n c i a : and A z o r i n i n La v o l u n t a d , Antonio A z o r f n and Confesiones de un pequerio f i l o s o f o . Perhaps the c l o s e s t p a r a l l e l , however, i s Ram6n Sender i n C r d n i c a d e l a l b a , f o r h i s hero Pepe Garces i s the "other r e a l i t y " of Ramtfn Jose Sender Garces; Pedro Sanchez i s the other r e a l i t y of Jose Maria Pereda ( i s Pedro a near anagram?) Sanchez. What makes the s i m i l a r i t y even g r e a t e r i s the f a c t t h a t both descend from Don Sancho Abarcas. The l a t e r developments i n the n o v e l Los hombres de pro are a l l c l o s e l y connected w i t h the theme. I t i s the s o c i a l a mbition of Simon t h a t makes him become h o p e l e s s l y i n v o l v e d w i t h A r t u r o ; i t i s p o l i t i c a l a mbition t h a t f o r c e s him to - 69 -d e l i v e r a hopeless speech i n the Congreso, which i s about everything and about nothing, and which makes him the laughing-stock of Madrid. The great step forward made by t h i s novel i s the devel-opment of characters which produces the events that form the novel. His technique had advanced considerably from Suum  cuique, which was merely the portrayal of two stock characters and how they reacted to the events which happened to them; the characters i n no way caused these happenings. In much the same way, Ramon i s an observer of Madrid customs, and although he may control them, none of the occurences spring d i r e c t l y from his character. La mu.jer del Cesar was a great improvement on Suum cuique i n t h i s aspect, despite the s t a t i c character of Ramon. There are scenes which simply portray the amazement of the montanes at l i f e i n Madrid, just as S i l v e s t r e ' s amazement had been revealed. The s a t i r e i n these scenes i s , s u r p r i s i n g l y , directed as much against the countrymen as against the c i t y customs. Events are shaped by the characters of Carlos and Isabel, so that La mu.jer del Cesar provides a halfway point between the s t a t i c characters and scenes of Suum cuique and the scenes produced by the character of the hero i n Los hombres de pro. The married pair, Carlos and Isabel, shape the action by t h e i r contrasting p e r s o n a l i t i e s . She loves high society and being ostentatious within that society, he abhors i t and leaves her to do as she l i k e s , and has complete f a i t h i n her. It i s t h i s lack of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by both partners - 7 0 -which produces the dramatic c o n f l i c t . Certain of the e p i -sodes, such as the dance, the duel and the happy denouement, involve a l l three protagonists, hut the plot does not i n -volve the hero, Ramon, d i r e c t l y , only i n d i r e c t l y as Carlos* brother. Pereda's technique improved over the following years, as he t r i e d out new ideas. He managed to combine such facets as the thesis exposition of De t a l palo, t a l a s t i l l a and the landscape painting of E l sabor de l a t i e r r u c a i n three novels of great technical s k i l l . These were Pedro Sanchez, S o t i l e z a and La Montalvez. Pereda used the f i r s t - p e r s o n narrative with remarkable e f f i c a c y . He had ventured occasionally into this form i n his E s c r i t o s de juventud and Tipos trashumantes. The a r t i c l e , from the former, c a l l e d Correspondencia publica i s a l e t t e r from "Pepe" Pereda to the Abe.ja montanesa, which, naturally, i s i n the f i r s t person. Correspondencia privada i s s i m i l a r l y 1 In the f i r s t person, but the protagonist i s female, and the a r t i c l e provides evidence that she was the prototype f o r Nica Montalvez. Un .joven distinguido from the second series of a r t i c l e s i s the only other example of f i r s t person technique p r i o r to Pedro Sanchez. The technique has been t r i e d many times, and i t s virtues and shortcomings are well known. Defoe i s probably the e a r l -i e s t n o v e l i s t to develop t h i s form; by 1 7 2 2 when he f i n i s h e d Moll Flanders he had achieved the perfection of the auto-biographical novel; which relates events with incredible c l a r i t y , - 71 -w h i l e a l l o w i n g the reader to judge of the hero's t r u e char-a c t e r . I t i s w i t h amazement t h a t one reads Robinson Crusoe, C a p t a i n S i n g l e t o n and M o l l F l a n d e r s and r e a l i z e s t h a t , a l -though the apparent concern i s w i t h events, i n r e a l i t y the o b j e c t of the n o v e l i s the development of a complex c h a r a c t e r . The reader f o l l o w s the c r e a t i o n of the new p e r s o n a l i t i e s of Robin Crusoe, Bob S i n g l e t o n , and watches M o l l ' s c h a r a c t e r a p p a r e n t l y undergoing repentance. T h i s t r a i t of a l l o w i n g the n a r r a t o r to r e l a t e t h i n g s and g i v e h i s own o p i n i o n , while e n a b l i n g the reader to see the t r u t h , was developed most e f f e c t i v e l y by Maria Edgeworth i n C a s t l e Rackrent and by Thackeray i n B a r r y Lyndon. The Spanish n o v e l i s t s had not developed t h i s technique so h i g h l y , w i t h the p o s s i b l e ex-c e p t i o n of Galdos i n h i s enigmatic Second S e r i e s of E p i s o d i o s  n a c i o n a l e s , u n t i l Pereda changed a l l the p r e v a i l i n g ideas about h i s w r i t i n g w i t h Pedro Sanchez. To c r e a t e such a d e l i g h t f u l l y naive c h a r a c t e r would have been impossible i n a t h i r d - p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n . His heroism, good-ness, greatness and honesty were too i d e a l i s e d to be accepted e a s i l y , but a t the same time they were so i n t e r m i n g l e d w i t h h i s s h o r t - s i g h t e d n e s s , p r e j u d i c e , n a i v e t e , ambition and down-r i g h t s t u p i d i t y as to make i t even more d i f f i c u l t f o r t h i r d -person r e p o r t a g e . Pereda was thus able to use h i s dramatic a b i l i t i e s t o c r e a t e a c h a r a c t e r through the words he u t t e r s . The reader can see c l e a r l y the c h a r a c t e r s of C l a r a and Carmen, y e t Pedro, who i s d e s c r i b i n g them, i s b l i n d to t h e i r t rue worth: The reader knows how V a l e n z u e l a w i l l a c t , y e t Pedro - 72 -does not . The only c h a r a c t e r s of whom h i s judgment seems sound are Don S e r a f i n , Quica and M a t i c a . T e c h n i c a l l y , Pedro Sanchez i s consummate; w i t h S o t i l e z a i t marks the h i g h p o i n t of Pereda's l i n e a r n a r r a t i v e t e c hnique. Pereda adds l a y e r s of s i g n i f i c a n c e and f r e q u e n t l y r e a l i t y assumes a d u a l i t y , which does not d e t r a c t from i t s b a s i c a l l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i v e form. S o t i l e z a , d e s p i t e the enigmatic c h a r a c t e r of i t s eponymous he r o i n e , i s a s i m i l a r masterpiece of s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , l i n e a r n a r r a t i o n . A f t e r these two n o v e l s , Pereda p u b l i s h e d La Montalvez. L i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m has hidden many of i t s m e r i t s beneath a smoke s c r e e n of t r i v i a l i t i e s c o n c erning i t s c r i t i c i s m of Madrid s o c i e t y . La Montalvez does not succeed completely, but i t i s t e c h n i c a l l y one of the most complex Spanish novels w r i t t e n i n the l a s t century, although not n e a r l y as d i f f i c u l t as t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y novels were to become. La Montalvez i s the only n o v e l of Pereda's which i s d i v i d e d i n t o p a r t s . The f i r s t d e a l s w i t h the c h i l d h o o d of N i c a Montalvez, the second w i t h t h a t of her daughter, Luz. The f i r s t c h a r t s the moral d o w n f a l l of a young g i r l ; i t shows how her whole u p b r i n g i n g d e s t i n e d her to f a i l u r e . The second c h a r t s the p h y s i c a l d o w n f a l l of another young g i r l ; her up-b r i n g i n g was the exact o p p o s i t e , but i t s t i l l d e s t i n e d her to f a i l u r e . Pereda was concerned a l l h i s l i f e w i t h e d u c a t i o n and u p b r i n g i n g . T h i s was one of h i s major themes and h e * i s s u r p r i s i n g l y modern i n h i s i d e a s . - 73 -The novel has t h i s dual r e a l i t y of Nica and Luz, yet i t i s the character of Angel which provides the most profound d u a l i t i e s : Comparison i s made, through Angel, of the love of mother and daughter; the parents of Angel and Luz are con-trasted; and Angel's novel provides a l i t e r a r y d u a l i t y that i s unprecedented among Spanish novels and foreshadows Confusio's H i s t o r i a logiconatural deEspana, which, i n turn, i s the proof of A r i s t o t l e ' s dictum that " a r t " i s more r e a l than "history." Angel i s present as the i d e a l man, the i d e a l husband; Luz i s the perfect woman, the perfect wife. The characterisation of both i s supremely romantic and Pereda i s possibly parodying the romanticism of Alarcon. It i s even possible that the m u l t i p l i c i t y of the p o t e n t i a l endings to the novel are a parody of Alarc6n*s E l nino de l a bola, i n which the author provided a C h r i s t i a n and a Romantic denouement which he hoped would s a t i s f y a l l his readers. Pereda determines that there can be only one solution, which i s the most s a t i s -f y i n g since i t i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y "necessary." Angel's character i s b u i l t up by Pereda i n a way that suggests he was not too serious when portraying him. Once again i t seems that Pereda was using a l i t e r a r y convention for semi-humorous ends. There i s an abundance of dual characters i n the novel. Nica and Luz are the good and bad aspects of the same r e a l i t y ; the one i s destroyed d i r e c t l y by her mother, the other i n -d i r e c t l y . Angel and Pepe Guzman are two sides of the same coin. Pepe's judgment and taste are highly praised, as are Angel's, but both men destroy t h e i r loved ones. Nica and Dona Ramona - 74 -are the two i n t e n s e l y maternal mothers; one i s b l i n d e d by p r e j u d i c e , the other by p r i d e and p a s s i o n . The most unusual m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the d u a l r e a l i t y i n the n o v e l i s pro v i d e d by the n o v e l - w i t h i n - t h e - n o v e l being w r i t t e n by A n g e l . I t parod i e s the n o v e l c o n t a i n i n g i t and adds depth to the c o n c e p t i o n of La Montalvez. Angel cannot r e s o l v e how to end h i s n o v e l , but Pereda i s never i n doubt; he makes Angel choose h i s love f o r Luz r a t h e r than h i s f i l i a l d u t i e s d e s p i t e apparent moral s t r i c t u r e s . The f a c t t h a t Pereda b u i l d s i n t o h i s n o v e l another n o v e l , which m i r r o r s i t , i s one of the most o r i g i n a l p a r t s of La Montalvez s I t mirroiss the a c t i o n , but d i s t o r t s i t . I t makes the reader look f a r more c l o s e l y a t what he i s r e a d i n g , makes him r e c o n s i d e r the f a c t s , makes him more keenly aware of the problems being examined; Pereda was i n many ways l i k e E l i z a b e t h G a s k e l l , and Walter A l l e n ' s comment on the l a t t e r holds good f o r Pereda: I t was, i n a sense, a v i r t u e i n _her_J t h a t she d i d not know her p l a c e as a n o v e l i s t , and very i m p e r f e c t as Mary Barton and North and South are, i t i s on these t h a t her r e p u t a t i o n mainly r e s t s . * 3 In the same way, Pereda, having achieved new p e r f e c t i o n i n S o t i l e z a , was to move out s i d e the sphere i n which he was completely i n command to attempt something t h a t he may not have been f u l l y equipped to t a c k l e . The other i n t r i g u i n g f a c e t of t h i s n o v e l i s the use of two types of n a r r a t i o n , or p o s s i b l y t h r e e . I t has been noted how Pereda uses the Apuntes to r e v e a l h i s heroine's thoughts - 75 -and how she, much d i f f e r e n t t o Pedro Sanchez, i s able to judge c h a r a c t e r w e i l - I t has a l s o been noted t h a t Pereda uses an omniscient t h i r d - p e r s o n technique, and i s fond of u s i n g the conversations of h i s c h a r a c t e r s to p o r t r a y events, the f i r s t c hapter of the second p a r t , f o r example, which forms a t h i r d n a r r a t i v e s t y l e . The three s t y l e s p r ovide a much more r i c h l y o r c h e s t r a t e d n a r r a t i o n , and enable the reader to see the events from more than one p e r s p e c t i v e . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t example of c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g through a p r o t a g o n i s t ' s own words. N i c a i s an enigmatic and i n t r i g u i n g p e r s o n a l i t y whose downfall i s brought about because, d e s p i t e her a b i l i t y to judge o t h e r s , she cannot judge h e r s e l f . She knows she ought to s e t a good example f o r Luz, but her d e s i r e s overcome her m o r a l i t y . Rather l i k e The Tenant of  W i l d f e l l H a l l , i t i s a g r i p p i n g v i s i o n of moral d e p r a v i t y which i s d i s p l a y e d from w i t h i n as w e l l as observed from w i t h o u t . La Montalvez i s not the most s u c c e s s f u l of Pereda's n o v e l s , but i t i s by f a r the most r a d i c a l i n i t s experiment-a t i o n . There are f a u l t s i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and of d e t a i l , but the main problem, as envisaged by C l a r i n , i s t h a t i t i s too s h o r t . There are many occasions when scenes could have been analysed more de e p l y . There i s no r e a l account, f o r example, of Nica's s c h o o l i n P a r i s — i t i s mentioned, never d e s c r i b e d ; the three g i r l s , N i c a , L e t i c i a , and S a g r a r i o , p r e s e n t an em b r y o n i c a l l y f a s c i n a t i n g s i t u a t i o n , but the promise g i v e n i s never f u l l y e x p l o i t e d . - 76 -It was the genius of Pereda which made him s t r i v e "hacia afuera" despite having proved i n Pedro Sanchez that he could leave the Montana. In La Montalvez he revealed that he had the talent to write novels of o r i g i n a l i t y and of European sign i f i c a n c e hut having twice demonstrated his genius, i t was only to be brought back, tied-hand-and-foot, to his huerto "como d i j o de perlas, Emilia Pardo Bazan."^ Pereda t r i e d very hard to break away but he was not to succeed, despite the evidence of his dazzling t a l e n t . He did not and does not succeed, but "Pereda no fracasa; lo fracasan; lo hacen fracasar Menendez y Pelayo, Escalante, Q u i n t a n i l l a , Las  Catacumpas, l a bandera blanca y r o j a de l a matricula de Santander, ique se yo? Lo fracasa s e r - - h o r r i b i l e d i c t u — profeta en su p a t r i a . Todo e l l o unido a sus circunstancias economicas y, s i n duda, a rasgos de caracter h i c i e r o n — s i g l o XIX espanol, segun l a formula de Ortega—un aldeano de quien debio ser un gran senor."-'--5 - 77 -FOOTNOTES Chapter 2 1. See the I n t r o d u c t i o n . 2. Pedro d e c l a r e s t h a t , a l t h o u g h from a d i s t a n c e i t i s the h i g h mountains and g r e a t people who are a t t r a c t i v e , when one g e t s c l o s e one f i n d s t h e y a re " t r i s t e por e s c a b r o s a y a r i d a . " I n c o n t r a s t what r e a l l y a t t r a c t s one a t c l o s e q u a r t e r s i s the "mas i n s i g n i f i c a n t e de £stos y o t r o s m i l d e t a l l e s . " ( I I , 20) 3. The vogue f o r t h i s type of hero i s most c l e a r l y seen i n the m a g n i f i c e n t t r a g i c o m i c don V i c t o r i n Leopoldo A l a s ' La Regenta and i n Perez de A y a l a ' s T i g r e J u a n / E l c u r a n d e r o de su ho n r a . 4. A b a l a n z o s e £Don S e r a f i n J a mi 'fJPedrqJ y me abraz o por e l pecho, por no a l c a n z a r sus b r a z o s mas a r r i b a ( I I , 49) 5. See S a l v a d o r de Ma d a r i a g a , Don Q u i j o t e ( O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : London, 19 -^8) pp. 137-146, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s p r o c e s s . 6. F l o r e n c e I r e n e W i l l i a m s , Humor i n the works of P e r e d a , C i n c i n n a t i , 1961. 7. S.H. E o f f , The Modern S p a n i s h N o v e l , New Yo r k , 1 9 6 1 . 8. Montero, pp. 123-125. 9* C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , B l e a k House, a f t e r w o r d by G e o f f r e y T i l l o t s o n (New American L i b r a r y : C h i c a g o , 1964) p. 889. 10. See S e c t i o n on E d u c a t i o n . 11. The house was a c t u a l l y i n Tudanca and the o r i g i n a l of Don Recaredo/Roman/Celso was an a n c e s t o r of Jose M a r i a de C o s s i o . 12. See S e c t i o n on E d u c a t i o n . 13. W a l t e r A l l e n , The E n g l i s h N o v e l ( P e n g u i n : London, 1965) p. I83. 14. M. Menendez y P e l a y o , P r o l o g o t o Los hombres de p r o , 1917, p. LXXV. 15. M o n t e s i n o s , P e r e d a , p. 295. - 78 -POLITICS AND THE PRESS IN PEREDA'S MADRID NOVELS In Spain i n the nineteenth century the p o l i t i c a l novel was of much more importance than i t was, for instance, i n England. The only t r u l y p o l i t i c a l English novels of the period are those of Benjamin D i s r a e l i , and his successor H.G. Wells. Other novelists only dealt with p o l i t i c s as a s o c i a l force, as i n The Parliamentary Novels of Anthony Trollope, which are not e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l but are con-cerned with the s o c i a l side of p o l i t i c s , just as his Barsetshire Novels had dealt with the s o c i a l aspects of r e l i g i o n . Nearly a l l the major Spanish no v e l i s t s , on the other hand, wrote books with a p o l i t i c a l settings Valera, Alarcon, Pereda, G a l d 6 s , Palacio Valdes and Coloma are very concerned with p o l i t i c s ; Leopoldo Alas i s one of the few who does not dissect the p o l i t i c a l scene; both he and Emi l i a Pardo Bazan are more i n c l i n e d to approach the p o l i t i c s of r e l i g i o n and the Church. This phenomenon was probably occasioned by three tenden-cies that were strong i n Spain: Spaniards tended to write novels that had a recent h i s t o r i c a l background (English h i s t o r i c a l novels, with the important exception of D i s r a e l i ' s , were set i n preceding centuries.) This may have been caused by the involvement of Spanish novelists i n p o l i t i c s ; Galdos, Pereda and Alarcon were deputies, Valera was a diplomat (English n o v e l i s t s , with the exception of D i s r a e l i , were not - 79 -i n v o l v e d i n p u b l i c l i f e . ) Spanish p o l i t i c s were s t i l l very-much dominated by c i v i l s t r i f e and monarchical t r o u b l e s ( E n g l i s h p o l i t i c s were much more concerned w i t h s o c i a l prob-lems.*) A l a r c o n shows some aspects of day-to-day p o l i t i c s i n La p r o d i g a , j u s t as Estebanez Calderdn had i n Don Opando, o Unas e l e c c i o n e s (Escenas a n d a l u z a s ) , and both of these were to be absorbed i n V a l e r a ' s J u a n i t a l a l a r g a . T h i s n o v e l c o n t a i n s the best d e s c r i p t i o n of the workings of the And a l -u s i a n Cacique system. Although Galdos had preceded them, he was concerned w i t h a d i f f e r e n t aspect of p o l i t i c s — M a d r i d p o l i t i c s . Both Pereda and P a l a c i o Valdes (Riverita/Maximina) were to f o l l o w the same l i n e s as Galdos, as were B l a s c o Ibanez and P i o B a r o j a a few years l a t e r . Pereda, i r o n i c a l l y , d i d not attempt to p o r t r a y the C a r l i s t wars and a l l h i s p o l i t i c a l n ovels d e a l w i t h the l i b e r a l p a r t i e s r a t h e r than w i t h h i s own p a r t y . I t was to be V a l l e - I n c l a n and Unamuno who were to pursue t h i s tack, probably without the a u t h o r i t y t h a t Pereda had. T h i s b r i n g s i n t o q u e s t i o n how c l o s e l y he adhered t o the C a r l i s t p a r t y , and i t seems from the e v i -dence of Pereda h i m s e l f t h a t he was not such a r a b i d t r a d i -t i o n a l i s t as i s o f t e n b e l i e v e d . In what a p p a r e n t l y i s an unique i n t e r v i e w , B o r i s de Tannenberg quotes, i n French, what Pereda s a i d to him w i t h regard to p o l i t i c s . I t i s worth q u o t i n g a t l e n g t h s i n c e i t i s most i l l u m i n a t i n g of Pereda's p o l i t i c s : - 80 -Par opposition aux attaques contre l a f o i , . . . e s t devenue de mode parmi nous une sorte de mysticisme exalte, une e*ageration r e l i g i e u s e , qui f a i t , a mon avis, le plus grand t o r t a l a r e l i g i o n . Lors de l a premiere guerre c a r l i s t e , en I835, i l y avait un p a r t i qu'on nommait les apostolicos, des exaltes qui auraient presque voulu le retablissement de L*Inquistion. Aujord'hui on les appelle les integres, les purs, par rapport aux plus moderns, les mestizos. Tenez, moi, je suis bon catholique, mais je ne crois pas q u ' i l s o i t necessaire de se f a i r e une r e l i g i o n de sacristain...Pas plus qu'en politique je ne voudrais le retour pur et simple de Philippe II...Philippe II lui-m§me, s ' i l revenait, t r a n s i g e r a i t avec le s i e c l e . . . I I ne supprimerait pas les chemins de fe r et le telegraphe, bien sur...Ce q u ' i l a b o l i r a i t , par exemple, c'est l a l i b e r t e de l a presse, le parlementerisme... V o i l a ce qui nous tue...0hl ne defendez pas le liberalisme; le liberalisme est le contraire meme du caractere espagnol. Et puis, tenez, ne parIons plus de politique...La p o l i t i q u e , je n'en f a i s plus; le peu que j'en a i vu m'a degoute, e'coeure... Je suis passionne pour les idees, mais j ' a i perdu l a f o i dans les hommes fmy stress!...Suis -je c a r l i s t e aujourd'hui? Je ne puis di r e ; je suis catholique, voila. tout... J ' a i vu le p a r t i c a r l i s t e a l'oeuvre: i l y a eu, lors de l a guerre, une sorte de gouvernement, avec des ministres.. .eh bien! C'est f&cheux a. d i r e , mais c' e t a i t les memes r i v a l i t e s , les me*mes ambitions mesquines, les memes di v i s i o n s interieures que chez nos adversaires...Voila l a v e r i t e bien t r i s t e . . . L e s hommes se ressemblent toujours _my stress} Je suis tres pessimiste.. This i s not the usual idea of Pereda, as exemplified by Gerald Brenan: "Pereda...was one of those hidalgos whom e l Greco had painted, and his opinions matched his looks, fo r he hated large towns, foreign customs, and everything  modern. i[my stress] In p o l i t i c s he was a C a r l i s t . "3 Brenan's c y n i c a l version does not t a l l y with Pereda's own remarks, but then Brenan's account of Pereda seems based on Peftas a r r i b a , and following the t r a d i t i o n of Hannah Lynch,^ he bases his arguments on selected novels. She - 81 -e x t o l l e d the greatness of Pereda's r e g i o n a l i s m but never mentions t h a t he wrote Pedro Sanchez and La Montalvez be-cause they were not e a s i l y absorbed i n t o her t h e o r i e s . There i s o f t e n a g r e a t p r o x i m i t y between the press and p o l i t i c s , and Pereda's own statements bear out t h i s i d e a . A t t a c k s on p o l i t i c s are found i n a l l the Madrid novels w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of La mu.jer d e l C6sar. Each n o v e l w i l l t h e r e -f o r e be d e a l t w i t h i n t u r n as f a r as i t r e l a t e s to p o l i t i c s , the press and a l s o to high f i n a n c e , which i s c l o s e l y connected w i t h p o l i t i c s . One has only to remember the f i g u r e s of Salamanca and of Bravo M u r i l l o to r e a l i z e t h i s ; i n three novels there i s a d e f i n i t e c o n n e c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d between f i n a n c e and p o l i t i c s and these are e x e m p l i f i e d i n the f i n a n c i a l a s p i r a t i o n s and d i s a s t e r s of Simon i n Los hombres de pro, i n the marques de Montalvez (La Montalvez), and i n the c o r r u p t i o n of the pro v i n c e which Pedro Sanchez governs. Perhaps the g r e a t e s t c r e a t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d i s t h a t of the marques de Requena by P a l a c i o Valdes i n La espuma, who i s e v i d e n t l y based on Salamanca. The other aspect of f i n a n c e i s t h a t o f f e r e d by Don Santiago Nunez (La Montalvez) who i s probably the P e r e d i a n e q u i v a l e n t to Don F r a n c i s c o Torquemada; although GaldtSs f i r s t c r e a t e d t h i s c h a r a c t e r i n 1884 (La de B r i n g a s ) , he d i d not w r i t e the f i r s t of the Torquemada s e r i e s u n t i l the year a f t e r La Montalvez was p u b l i s h e d . Pereda's f i r s t s t o r y to d e a l w i t h p o l i t i c s i s Suum cuique, where i t i s seen a t i t s most simple l e v e l . The c o n t r a s t i s made between the view t h a t S i l v e s t r e gains of p o l i t i c s from - 82 -the press, and the r e a l i t y of the state of both which he soon discovers once he i s i n Madrid. It has already been seen how Don S i l v e s t r e had had his head turned by the a r t i c u l o s de  fondo of the paper that he read. There i s a further c r i t i c -aim of t h i s paper, for i t makes S i l v e s t r e d i s s a t i s f i e d with the Montana. The net r e s u l t i s that S i l v e s t r e wants to see Madrid, and, a f t e r discovering that Fulano de Tal i s his old school f r i e n d , he has an excuse to go to Madrid. "Hizo l a pir&eta porque hallaba un amigo de campanulas que, s i r v i e n -dole en e l p l e i t o , le proporcionaba motivo para i r a Madrid." (I, 2 6 7 ) His attitude to p o l i t i c s whilst i n his v i l l a g e i s ampl-i f i e d : En su a f i c i o n era ciego y testarudo, y estaba tan en-carrilado en l a senda del periodico, que hubiera creido i n s u l t a r a l a razon dudando una sola vez de sus declamaciones...y...al hablar de p o l i t i c a con sus amigos, r e s o l v i a todas las cuestiones citando las palabras del d i a r i o , y con e l apoyo de este, refiia con cuantos le contradijesen. (I, 2 6 5 ) It i s evident that these two sections of l i f e are set up i n the mind of S i l v e s t r e as being complementary and i n f a l l i b l e . His brain i s turned by these a r t i c u l o s de fondo, and, accord-ing to Pereda, he becomes a Don Quijote who thus attacks the p o l i t i c s of the period, and the press which a s s i s t s the cor-ruption of p o l i t i c s and g l o r i f i e s the ideals set f o r t h by the p o l i t i c i a n s . S i l v e s t r e arrives i n Madrid with a l l the hopes of f i n d i n g a U t o p i a , but he finds the exact opposite. His inconveniences i n Madrid are endless, but even i n the realm of p o l i t i c s he - 83 -d i s c o v e r s t h a t n o t h i n g i s what i t seems. He meets the e d i t o r of h i s f a v o r i t e paper and h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t probably echoes Pereda's own when he a r r i v e d i n Madrid: _Es d e c i r que aquel p e r i d d i c o que yo l e i a en un l u g a r conftanta f e esta" e s c r i t o por este hombre, y a q u e l l o s a r t i c u l o s en que tanto se clamaba por e l orden, por l a moralidad, por e l b i e n de l o s pueblos* eran d i c t a d o s por un a n a r q u i s t a c i n i c o y desmoralizado? I Conque esas p a l a b r a s de humanidad, f i l a n t r o p i a , compafierismo, r e l i g i o n , hogar, derechos, l e j o s de s e r una verdad en semejantes p e r i o d i c o s , son una b u r l a s a c r i l e g a , un i n s u l t o a Dios y a l o s hombres, una explotaci6n innoble de l a p u b l i c a buena f e ? ( I , 271) S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s , now doubting the p r e s s , he i n v e s t i g a t e s p o l i t i c s : Siendo l a p o l i t i c a su c a b a l l o de b a t a l l a . . . f u e s e a l Cungreso, donde esperaba o i r a q u e l l o s d i s c u r s o s que, impresos _fhy stress}' l e admiraban, y aqUellos hombres que, pronunciandolos, l e p a r e c i a n semidioses o c r i a t u -r a s de d i s t i n t a n a t u r a l e z a , forma y c o l o r que e l r e s t o de l a Humanidad. ( I , 272) The c l o s e l i n k between the two i s emphasised by the placement of the word impresos, and Pereda had prepared the reader f o r S i l v e s t r e * s bewilderment s i n c e S i l v e s t r e d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a l l p o l i t i c a l papers "Decian de s i p r o p i o s l o mismo que e l d e l c i r u j a n o de su l u g a r e s c r i b i a de s i mismo y de su p a r t i d o , es d e c i r , que eran unos santos, a l paso que renegaban de todos l o s demas." ( I , 272) S i l v e s t r e approached parliament w i t h a somewhat ambivalent a t t i t u d e . He s t i l l b e l i e v e d t h a t the p o l i t i c i a n s were demi-gods and y e t he- knew t h a t the papers were not to be t r u s t e d : Mas; joh desengano!, en e l p a l a c i o de l a s l e y e s h a l l d de todo menos d i s c u r s o s . P r e s e n c i o . . . d i s p u t a s a c a l o r a d a s , y encontro en l o s diputados unos hombres de t a l l a comun, que t e n i a n e l mismo p r u r i t o que l o s p e r i o d i c o s : l a inmodestia de d e c i r cada uno de s i p r o p i o , coram populo, - 84 -l o que todos los demas les negaban: que eran lo mejor-c i t o de l a casa, y de lo poco que en virtudes c i v i c a s y hasta domesticas se encontraba por e l mundo. (I, 272) Poor S i l v e s t r e i s so baff l e d that he asks i f there might not be "dos Congresos de Diputados en Madrid..." (I, 272), but of course there i s not. It leaves him with a d i f f i c u l t problem to solve: Whence do a l l the b e a u t i f u l speeches come? At l a s t he discovers the conspiracy of the press and the p o l i t i c i a n s : Cuando supo algo de lo que pasaba en l a Redaccion del Diar i o de Sesiones, "Cascaras"—dijo—"pues con un buen redactor tambien habria oradores en e l concejo de mi pueblo." (I, 272) As can be seen from what Pereda said to Boris de Tannenberg, his own parliamentary experiences reinforced those of S i l v e s t r e , which he described i n 1864 long before he was deputy, but af t e r his Madrid experience of 1852-4. Even so, t h i s section must represent the young Pereda's own reaction to, and disillusionment with, p o l i t i c s and the press when he arrived i n Madrid.in 1852. From the account of Ricardo Gullon i t seems that Pereda was optimistic when he arrived i n the metropolis. But a f t e r two years the atmosphere of the c a p i t a l — p o l i t i c a l , l i t e r a r y and s o c i a l — s o appalled him that he l e f t with a l l his i l l u s i o n s shattered.$ It i s i n Suum cuique that these ideas are stated i n the most straightforward manner and because of thi s extended quotations have been given which reveal Pereda's views on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p o l i t i c s and the press. Because the s i t -ations c l a r i f y an attitude that exists throughout a l l f i v e - 85 -novels about the p o l i t i c s of the c a p i t a l , these w i l l be used as a point of reference f o r the other four novels. In La mu.jer del C£sar, Pereda describes the columns of Lucas G6mez, the "gossip-columnist": Para aquel hombre todo se subordinaba a las leyes del buen tono: hasta l a muerte, pues a l gemir sobre l a fresca tumba de una dama noble, no recordaba sus virtudes, n i las f i n g i a s i q uiera, sino que inventariaba sus roper6s> sus joyas, sus carrue-jas, sus admiradores y un talento para b r i l l a r en aquel mundo que perdia en e l l a e l mejor de sus atractivos, e l mas esplendente de sus astros. (I, 5^1) Pereda was t r y i n g to emphasize that the press was just as wrong-headed regarding s o c i a l and moral matters as i t was i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s , and also that i t s l i t e r a r y ideas were much the same. His attitude was consistently that the press d i s -torted everything, lauded what was hollow and worthless and paid l i t t l e or no attention to things of value. One finds these ideas i n Los hombres de pro, where they have become much more personal and harrowing. Simon's pat-ron, a colonel who becomes a general, i s a motif which runs through the f i r s t part of the story, keeping the reader aware of the p o l i t i c a l scene without involving him i n i t d i r e c t l y . As the story develops Simon attends an h i l a r i o u s meeting i n the Casas C o n s i s t o r i a l e s . This i s not e s s e n t i a l l y p o l i t i c a l nor i s i t set i n Madrid, but i t i s a good example of the r i d i c u l o u s speeches and the i n s u l t i n g behaviour that S i l v e s t r e found i n parliament. It must make any a l e r t reader think back to S i l v e s t r e * s comment, just quoted, that with a good editor there would also be orators i n his own v i l l a g e c o u n c i l . This - 86 -overtone i s subtly introduced and i s not stressed, but i t e x i s t s . The novel develops and the Penascales family move to Madrid. It i s here that Simon's p o l i t i c a l ambitions are stressed: Su entretenimiento favorito era e l Congreso, y...rara era l a sesion que e l no presenciara desde l a tribuna publica. No se habra olvidado que Simdn era muy dado a l a p o l i t i c a y a l a elocuencia. Por eso buscaba a l i i una buena escuela en que n u t r i r sus inclinaciones..• (I, 648) Simon's ambition, fostered by his regard for his colonel, now general, makes him follow p o l i t i c s , much as S i l v e s t r e had, but there i s an e s s e n t i a l difference: S i l v e s t r e had been disabused when he saw what parliament was r e a l l y l i k e ; Sim6n was taken i n by i t . Some c r i t i c s , Montesinos amongst them, have viewed Pereda as being unfair because he makes his heroes l i b e r a l s and then caricatures them. In t h i s novel, on the contrary, Simon be-longs to a right-wing party: Ya no es hombre que ama las situaciones eminentemente l i b e r a l e s , porque en e l l a s cada uno puede hablar de cuanto le acomode, aunque no lo entienda; a l contrario, es apasionado defensor de los Gobiernos de orden, que s i n negar a l tiempo las libertades que le corresponden, sostengan a cada uno en su esfera, y no alimente, en c i e r t a s clase.s, insensatas ambiciones. (I, 651) Pereda i s , of course, being very i r o n i c a l , since t h i s l a s t , which Simon despises, i s exactly what characterises him. It can also be held that the novel as a whole i s not merely a s a t i r e on p o l i t i c s i n general but on t r a d i t i o n a l i s t ( C a r l i s t ) p o l i t i c s s p e c i f i c a l l y . This irony becomes most apparent when one learns that Simon's protector, the upholder of law and - 87 -order, had just been exiled to the Ph i l i p i n e s f or his part i n an abortive pronunciamiento. The irony i s that Simon looks to the general as a demi-god, and yet this very general has just revolted against the established government. (I, 64-9) In chapter VIII the s a t i r e on the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s i s taken to extremes, f o r the party which picks Sim6n as i t s candidate i s portrayed as a very a n t i - l i b e r a l party and there i s a hint—because of Pereda's own C a r l i s t background—that he intends i t as a caricature of the C a r l i s t s . His portrayal i s f ar from aff e c t i o n a t e . If Galdds or Leopoldo Alas had portrayed the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s l i k e t h i s they would have been harshly c r i t i c i s e d because "temieron por sus casas, por sus campos, por sus fabricas, por sus tesoros, es decir, su Dios, su p a t r i a , su alma." (I, 653) Chapters IX and X are a description of contemporary Spanish p o l i t i c s and the power of the caciques i n l a Montana. The p o l i t i c a l corruption i s stressed on many occasions: E l sujeto ese vende vino y tabaco, raz6n por l a que no hay vecino que no le deba algo, como no le hay del Mayorazgo que no le deba a este por razon de arrendamiento o de prdstamo..., o de otra cosa peor. A s i se ejercen en los pueblos las grandes in f l u e n c i a s , y con este c r i t e r i o se hacen siempre las elecciones. (I, 659) Pereda's c r i t i c i s m of the system i s very harsh and yet i t i s sometimes very subtle: Simo'n i s seeking the support of one of the caciques, Don Zambombo, and to convince him he says "los hombres de mi posicion nos lanzamos esta vez a l a lucha, resueltos a que sea una verdad e l sistema representative." (I, 661) He i s asserting his b e l i e f i n the id e a l of - 88 -representative government and seeking the support of someone who has just been described as one of the best examples of the corruption of that system through the power of money. Pereda makes many more attacks on a system which was not t y p i c a l l y Spanish, for contemporary English p o l i t i c s were dishonest as w e l l . " Pereda does regret the whole parliamentary system; but since he must accept i t , he looks for p o l i t i c a l honesty within the system. This marks the e s s e n t i a l difference between Pereda and the l i b e r a l s : They often had a b l i n d f a i t h i n the e f f i c a c y of universal suffrage, of democracy. Pereda could not believe i n p o l i t i c a l honesty, upon which democracy must be founded, and thus he could not support democracy. These ideas about the e l e c t o r a l process i t s e l f are taken farther by ideas he puts forward about the parliamentary debates. He paints a t y p i c a l scene, l i k e the one S i l v e s t r e witnessed, and makes one of the deputies sum i t up l i k e t h i s : — JEstupidos! JJEI publico") iveinte veces nos han v i s t o hacer lo mismo, y todavia no se convencen de que todo e l l o es una f a r s a ! • • . E l pais va a l abismo...Esto es una farsa.•.atreVa&e usted £a d e c i r l q j , aqui que no nos oye l a patMa.».'/Todo esto del Parlamentoj Es una c a l a -rnidad. Aqui no hay mas que ambiciones personales, con las que es imposible todo gobierno. --^De manera que s i esto, que es notoriamente malo, se suprimiese...? —JJamas! 8.ojYo soy muy l i b e r a l ! —Oh en cuanto a eso, tambie'n y o !— r e p l i c a b a £SimonJ, contoneandose, y hasta mirando con cara de ldstima a l primer t r a d i c i o n a l i s t a que...pasara... — J V i v i r s i n Parlamento es v i v i r fuera del s i g l o , caer en l a abyeccidn! — j Y en l a iznoranria! £sicj (I, 680) - 89 -T h i s pasaage shows Pereda's d i s g u s t a t the d i s h o n e s t y and immorality of p o l i t i c s . I t a l s o shows Simon's change of i d e a l s when t a l k i n g w i t h a l i b e r a l — f o r he i s a t r a d i t i o n a l i s t deputy. The mention i n t h i s passage of t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s by name i s s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e i t r e v e a l s t h a t Pereda was t e n d i n g to c l a s s people as e i t h e r l i b e r a l or t r a d i t i o n a l i s t and i s making c l e a r , once again , t h a t Simon, who i s not a l i b e r a l , i s a s a t i r i c p o r t r a i t of a t r a d i t i o n a l i s t . Pereda's s a t i r e i n t h i s s e c t i o n has become double-edged. He i s a t t a c k i n g the democratic system of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government by r e v e a l i n g i t s misuse by the a u t o c r a t i c p a r t i e s . Pereda, f a r from being the r a b i d C a r l i s t t h a t Brenan t r i e s to p a i n t him, was f i r s t and foremost an a r t i s t who maintained h i s d i s p a s s i o n a t e view of the w o r l d . He d i s a g r e e d v i o l e n t l y w i t h the l i b e r a l d e v o t i o n to u n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e because he c o u l d see t h a t i n the hands of both p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , and e s p e c i a l l y the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s , i t was w o r t h l e s s . His s a t -i r e i s f a r from simple, and the nuances of p o l i t i c a l c r i t i c i s m t h a t have been suggested above are q u i t e complex and d e l i c a t e l y suggested. The f i n a l p o l i t i c a l s e c t i o n of the n o v e l i n v o l v e s Simon's speech and the d i s a s t r o u s b e g i n n i n g and end of h i s o r a t o r i c a l p r e t e n s i o n s . T h i s f o l l o w s i n the l i n e of humorous p o l i t i c a l speeches t h a t have been presented e a r l i e r i n the n o v e l and i n Suum cuique. I t a l s o makes the reader aware once more of the c o n s p i r a c y of the press which'makes the best of p o l i t i c a l incompetence. There i s a g r e a t d e a l of i r o n y i n the c o n t r a s t - 9 0 -between the way a speech i s reported by papers of opposing p o l i t i c a l opinions: J s i m 6 n ) dejo sobre l a mesa Cde l a Redaccion del Diariq] todo e l discurso t a l como se lo habia corregido Arturo cuando atSn era su amigo...Al otro dia...leyo su discurso en e l extracto de l a sesion y se admiro a l ver que bonito estaba. (I, 6 9 8 ) In another paper Arturo, who had written the speech, c a l l s Una verdadera monstruosidad en l a forma y en e l fondo. (I, 6 8 0 ) These are the ideas about the p o l i t i c a l system that Pereda sets f o r t h and which he i s to reinforce i n Pedro Sanchez. The concluding l i n e s of Los hombres de pro makes clear many of Pereda's b e l i e f s concerning Madrid and p o l i t i c s . E l mal no esta en que, por casualidad, saiga de un mal tabernero un buen ministro, o un gran alcalde, o un perfecto modelo de hombre de l a sociedad; l a desgracia de Espana, l a del mundo actual, consiste en que quieran ser ministros todos los taberneros y en que haya dado en llamarse verdadera cultura a l a de una sociedad en que dan e l tono los c a l d i s t a s como yo. (I, 7 0 5 ) Here the reader has c l e a r l y expounded the f a u l t s of Simd'n and Pedro Sanchez, and other Peredian characters. He i s stress i n g what novelists of a l l p o l i t i c a l creeds were to stress i n Spain: The importance of being the r i g h t man for the r i g h t job, and of not l e t t i n g ambition make one s t r i v e upwards to where one becomes out-of-touch and i n e f f i c i e n t . There i s an amusing anecdote i n Los hombres de pro which must r e f l e c t Pereda's own experiences as a deputy. Recibia por docenas y cada dia las cartas de sus amigos y electores, y en todos e l l o s le pedian algo..., desde un destino hasta un sombrero; desde una - 91 -r e c o m e n d a c i d n p a r a e l o t r o mundo h a s t a l a c o l o c a c i d n de u n a n o d r i z e . ( 1 ) . P o r q u e a un di_)putado se l e c o n s i d e r a en s u d i s t r i t o c a p a z de l o s i m p o s i b l e s , y, p o r . e n d e , se l e c r e e y se l e hace e l m e j o r y mas b a r a t o a g e n t e de n e g o c i o s de M a d r i d . ( I , 680) What does make t h e r e a d e r r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h i s i s t a k e n f r o m p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s t h e f a c t t h a t i t has a n o t e ( 1 ) , w h i c h s i m p l y s a y s " H i s t o r i c o , " w h i c h does do much t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e way t h a t d e p u t i e s were r e g a r d e d a t t h e p e r i o d o f P e r e d a ' s p o l i t i c a l a d v e n t u r e . P e r e d a a t t a c k s p o l i t i c s i n two ways i n P e d r o S a n c h e z ; H i s a t t a c k s on t h e l i b e r a l s a r e l e v e l l e d a t P e d r o ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e p r e s s , and he opposes t h e o p p o r t u n i s m o f t h e p o l a c o s , r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e V a l e n z u e l a f a m i l y . He was much f a i r e r i n h i s i d e a s on t h e l i b e r a l s t h a n he i s o f t e n g i v e n c r e d i t f o r . He a p p r o a c h e s many f i g u r e s c a u t i o u s l y and one f i n d s t h a t t h e o n l y good c h a r a c t e r s a r e l i b e r a l s . Don S e r a f i n i s t h e i d e a l -i s t l i b e r a l , who d i e s f o r h i s b e l i e f s , and P e r e d a n e v e r d e t r a c t s f r o m t h e g l o r y o f h i s h e r o i s m a l t h o u g h he l e t s t h e r e a d e r s ee t h e f u t i l i t y o f h i s a c t i o n s . M a t i c a i s t h e o t h e r p o s i t i v e f i g u r e he p o r t r a y s , and he, t o o , i s a l i b e r a l . I t i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s , t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e s t a t u s quo who a r e condemned and p a i n t e d i n v e r y u n s a v o r y c o l o r s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e V a l e n z u e l a s . A l t h o u g h P e d r o i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e B a l d u q u e s , he m a r r i e s i n t o t h e V a l e n z u e l a f a m i l y , and he d i s c o v e r s t h a t h i s q u i x o t i c i d e a l i s m does n o t h e l p him a g a i n s t t h e u n s c r u p u l o u s n e s s o f C l a r a and P i l i t a . He Beeomes t h e g o v e r n o r o f an A n d a l u s i a n p r o v i n c e and he d e l e g a t e s h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a s e c r e t a r y ; - 92 -f i n a l l y he d i s c o v e r s the c h i e f of p o l i c e , " t i e n e puestos a c o n t r i b u c i o n a todos l o s c r i m i n a l e s y a todos l o s v i c i o s o s de l a ciudad." ( I I , 173) Pedro i s astounded when he r e a l i z e s what i s happening, f o r the newspapers "declaraban que jamas, n i aun durante l a s mas inmorales a d m i n i s t r a c i o n e s , habia habido en a q u e l l a c a p i t a l un desgobierno mas completo, una f a l t a mas absoluta de p o l i c i a y p u b l i c a mor.alldad." ( I I , 173) This i s one f u r t h e r c o r r u p t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l system i n Spain, and i t i s merely a c o n t i n u a t i o n of what Valenzuela had been doing f o r years i n Madrid: E l senor de Valenzuela es un c a b a l l e r o que, s i e l Codigo c i v i l r i g i e r a en Espana por i g u a l para todos l o s espanoles, e s t a r i a hace anos a r r a s t r a s d o t r e i n t a l i b r a s de cadena en un p r e s i d i o , con otros muchos personajes que tambie'n gastan coche a expensas d e l Estado. ( I I , 87) The l a s t Madrid novel contains the bulk of h i s treatment of f i n a n c e . This centers on the Marquis of Montalvez, who l i k e Don Sim6n i s deceived; Don Mauricio Ibanez, the f i g u r e of the great f i n a n c i e r ; Simon, the Marquis* steward, who swindles him; and Don Santiago Nunez, the money-lender. They may not be a l l d i r e c t l y p o l i t i c a l , but they have some p o l i t i c a l overtones. I n La Montalvez, Part I , Chapter XI, r e v e l a t i o n s are made about the Montalvez f o r t u n e , which i s t o t t e r i n g , and the character of Simon i s introduced, I t i s made c l e a r that although Simon i s p i l f e a r i n g from the marquis, the marquis i s being defrauded by Don M a u r i c i o : Los grandes desembolsos que l e han costado...los negocios emprendidos en compania de don Mauricio Ibaflfez... ( I I , 4-33). - 93 -He i s another Peredian creation who can be taken i n by an unscrupulous p o l i t i c i a n s Don Simon was taken i n by the minister: Pedro by Valenzuela; the marquis by Don Mauricio. Although Pedro had no money to lose, a l l three are deceived because of t h e i r vanity, and two lose t h e i r fortunes to p o l i t i c i a n s . This i s another of Pereda's s t r i c t u r e s of p o l i t i c s , that there are too many opportunists who w i l l " f l e e c e " the unwary who.fall into t h e i r clutches. Valenzuela and Don Mauricio Ibanez are manifestations of the same figure, which i s one of the stock nineteenth-century fi g u r e s . Dickens created one of the greatest i n the figure of Merdle i n L i t t l e D o r r i t t ("vrhose wife "piques herself on being society" s i g n i f i c a n t l y . ) Ibanez plays a minor but important role i n the novel, being Nica's husband, but he does not appear i n the second part, except i n retrospects Fue a parar adonde van todos los picaros gordos que juyen de l a j u s t i c i a de su p a t r i a : a los Estados Unidos. (II, 4-80)' Most of his c r i t i c i s m of p o l i t i c s i s cl o s e l y related to f i n -a n c i a l a f f a i r s ; t h i s reaches i t s culmination i n La Montalvez. In t h i s l a t t e r novel one finds that the marques de Montalvez, the father of the eponymous heroine, i s very much a r e i n c a r n a t i of Don Simon C. de las Penascales. I f the reader looks back to t h i s figure he w i l l f i n d that "no era...tan t i r o l e s en negocios como en p o l i t i c a . " (I, 692) Despite his knowledge of finance, however, he i s tempted by the minister with the bait of a t i t l e . The succeeding episode relates his ultimate downfall because his ambition i s even more powerful than his _ 94 -mercantile a b i l i t i e s . His p o l i t i c a l and o r a t o r i c a l a s pira-tions were doomed, so were his s o c i a l aspirations; both are d i r e c t l y caused by his f i n a n c i a l f a i l u r e since the minister reveals Arturo's s o c i a l p o s i t i o n which accelerates his o r a t o r i c a l f a i l u r e and causes J u l i e t a ' s elopement with Arturo. The second character i s Simon, the marquis* steward. He i s a reincarnation of Don Sotero of De t a l palo, t a l a s t i l l a and i s reminiscent of Don A c i s c l o of Valera's DonaLuz. Whether the l a t t e r , which was written i n 1879, provided Pereda with a model for De t a l palo, t a l a s t i l l a i n 1880, i s uncertain. Simon i s the other t r a d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l s w i n d l e r — the petty swindler, who makes himself r i c h at the expense of his master—his behaviour i s described by Manolo Casa-Vieja: Estaba su caudal fdel marquesD mermado en lo mas jugoso y medio en quiebra e l resto...en manos de un administrador que se pasaba de l i s t o y de aprovechado. (II, ^79) None of these figures are exceptional, but they represent another facet of society which i s corrupt. In t h i s aspect they are linked to a l l other rogues that abound. Pereda was writing a contemporary history of society and within each category one finds that people are much the same. Among a l l sections of society he finds that people are corrupt, i d e a l o g i c a l l y or f i n a n c i a l l y . There are exceptions, but he finds that the majority of people are either rogues or " f o o l s " (tontos). The fools often gain self-knowledge, but lose money, prestige, reputation and i n t e g r i t y . - 95 -Pedro Sanchez i s f o o l i s h and "b l i n d , " When he learns of his deception by Clara, both emotionally and f i n a n c i a l l y , he says s Solo dominado por una preocupacion semejante podia yo estar tan ciego...que no v i e r a l o que tenia delante de los ojos. (II, 172) Dile las gracias, prometiendole que no le pesaria de haberme arrancado l a venda de los ojos. (II, 173) His secretary t e l l s him that he was to blame because he (Pedro) had placed "ciega confianza" (II, 174-) i n the secretary. Once before he himself had given i n d i c a t i o n of his own blindness, when he talks of " l a ceguedad de mi p a s i o n — " (II, 158) on his wedding day. When Pedro discovers the adultery of Clara with Barrientos, the scales f i n a l l y f a l l from his eyes; s i g n i f i c a n t l y , he says, he "arrojaba jcuanto halle] a ciegas sobre e l ladron," (II, I85) thus stressing that he was, and had been, b l i n d to i t a l l . Simon Cerrojo de las Penascales i s s i m i l a r l y f o o l i s h . He, l i k e Pedro, finds self-knowledge, but he i s branded as "estupido" (I, 696) and "ignorante r i d i c u l o " (I, 699) by Arturo. In contrast, the marquis never gains self-knowledge but i s ca l l e d "un padre tonto" (II, 4-78) by Manolo Casa-Vieja. These are probably the three men who are deceived most reaflily by Valenzuela and Clara, by the minister and by Don Mauricio Ibanez and Simon. In Pedro Sanchez, Pereda's disapproval of the l i t e r a r y press i n Madrid i s evidenced by the ideas which are set out as the po l i c y of E l C l a r i n de l a p a t r i a . These attitudes - 96 -are expressed i n a s a t i r i c a l form and Pereda manages to con-vey a wider impression of the e d i t o r i a l , judgments of the Madrid press than simply i t s views of l i t e r a t u r e : Comience usted por d i v i d i r las obras que examine en dos grandes grupos: las de nuestrosr amigos y las de los otros. Entiendo por obras de nuestros amigos las comedias, las novelas, los f o l l e t o s , cuanto publiquen los hombres de nuestras ideas o de nuestra amistad intima...: y entiendo por obras de los otros las que publiquen los enimigos de l a Libertad.••• (II, 102) The"ideas are then amplified and Pedro i s told how to praise the works of the former, minimizing f a u l t s and exaggerating what i s good, but i t i s the method of attack on the "enemies of Liberty" that Pereda i s s a t i r i s i n g most harshly, for Pedro and his colleagues are p r e c i s e l y those chicos de l a prensa against whom Juan Fernandez was to be so b i t t e r i n the "Palique" of Nubes de e s t i o . In Pedro Sanchez the reader can also f i n d various mis-cellaneous statements generalising about the press. Pereda presents the chief editor of E l C l a r i n , whose name i s Redondo, and he goes on to describe his personal appearances Aunque se preciaba de esmerado en e l ornamento y atavio de su persona, atrasaba mucho, pero mucho en e l r e l o j de l a moda imperante. Achaque era este muy comun en los hombres de sus mismas ideas. jY s i atrasaran s 6 l o en e l v e s t i r y afeitarse!...pero no es de extranar; ocupados en predicar e l progreso, se olvidaban de p r a c t i c a r l o . (II, 96) As with many of his d i a t r i b e s , i t can lead to a generalisation about j o u r n a l i s t s , but also one on the character of l i b e r a l s of Redondo's type. Shortly a f t e r describing the e d i t o r - i n - c h i e f he describes e d i t o r i a l p o l i c i e s regarding newsj having enume-rated the s t a f f of the paper, he recapitulates with the - 97 -following words: Estos hombres, mas otro inofensivo redactor de ti:j.era, a cuyo cargo estaban las n o t i c i a s de provincias y del extranjero. (II, 97) He captures the utter disdain that Madrid had for what was outside i t s own immediate horizons, and, by juxtaposing the provinces and the rest of the world, Pereda drives home his Q s a t i r i c a l invective. Although he does not mention any of the events of the outside world, he would have been aware of them, and he does t h i s merely to emphasize the inanity and incompetence of the Madrid press. One must therefore ask whether Pereda's view of these aspects of l i f e i s completely negative. It i s most d e f i n i t e l y not: Pereda portrays many people within Madrid society as being humanly good. They may be naive, or may have other f a u l t s , but any writer who can balance his negative characters with very positive ones cannot be regarded as t o t a l l y prejudiced. His p o s i t i v e , good characters are Don Serafin Balduque, Carmen and Quica, and Matica i n Pedro Sanchez. Don Serafin forms part of the p o l i t i c a l scene as an empleado; Carmen i s the counter-balance to Clara; Matica represents the press. The f i n a n c i a l rogues are counter-balanced by Don Santiago Nunez and his wife Dona Ramona Pacheco. Objections may be raised, since these l a t t e r were not from Madrid, but neither were the Valenzuela family nor the Montalvez family nor were Pedro and Don Simon. Pereda was to look f o r , and f i n d , the greatest source of good i n Don Santiago and his wife i n La Montalvez. Any - 98 -s o c i e t y t h a t can produce such a man i s not without hope. Don Santiago i s a money-lender, hut, u n l i k e the t r a d i t i o n a l money-l e n d e r , he only charged s i x per cent i n t e r e s t . He i s the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p o s i t i v e f o r c e of f i n a n c e and i n d u s t r y w i t h i n s o c i e t y ; h i s t i m i d i t y and low i n t e r e s t r a t e are i n harmony w i t h h i s a t t i t u d e to s o c i e t y . Don Santiago i s a bourgeois of the h i g h e s t c a l i b r e and as such i s a mainstay of the s o c i e t y i n which he l i v e s . Pereda was, indeed, to look f o r the simple, l a s t i n g v a l u e s i n s o c i e t y and he was to f i n d them i n the l a c k of ambition and the p a t i e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y of Don S a n t i a g o . In many ways Don Santiago i s the counter-balance to Simon, but he a l s o r e p r e s e n t s one of the f o r c e s which counter-balance the g r e a t rogues such as Don M a u r i c i o . Don S e r a f i n and M a t i c a are the other f i g u r e s who r e p r e s e n t the p o s i t i v e values of l i f e i n Madrid. They counter-balance the bad impression g i v e n by the other s e m i - p o l i t i c a l and j o u r n a l i s t i c c h a r a c t e r s . Don S e r a f i n stands f o r the i d e a l i s -a t i o n of p o l i t i c s ; he may be naive and may s u f f e r martyrdom, yet the very f u t i l i t y of h i s a c t i o n s provide the hope t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of such an i d e a l i s t may save mankind from be-coming as c y n i c a l , o p p o r t u n i s t and c o r r u p t as the Valenzuelas and the Ibanezes. M a t i c a r e p r e s e n t s the good t a s t e and judg-ment p o s s i b l e w i t h i n s o c i e t y and the p r e s s . He has h i s f a u l t s , but he i s Pedro's mentor and guide; i f a l l men were l i k e M a t i c a then there would be hope f o r mankind. They can be seen as being r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of v i r t u e s , which are doomed to f a i l u r e because of too much n a i v e t e or too much s o p h i s t i c a t i o n s - 9 9 -Only the b l i n d fools succeed, but they only f i n d f r u s t -r a t i o n — P e d r o Sanchez and Nica Montalvez have material success i n l l i f e , but they are doomed to physical and moral f r u s t -r a t i o n , the l a t t e r i n Madrid, Pedro i n the Montana. When one looks back at Pereda's ideas on p o l i t i c s and the press there are c e r t a i n general conclusions that can be made regarding the two i n s t i t u t i o n s separately and as part of a complex s o c i a l f a b r i c which was ;/;:': beginning to fray noticeably. Through the years he stayed true to his o r i g i n a l thoughts on p o l i t i c s . What i s unusual i s to note that, i f anything, he becomes more l i b e r a l i n l a t e r years; t h i s i s most sur p r i s i n g since, as a rule, men become less and less so. What does not change i s his lack of b e l i e f i n the effectiveness of democracy because of his self-confessed pessimism and be-cause of his own complete lack of f a i t h i n man and man's a b i l i t y to progress morally. His tirades against the press are most astringent since i t i s often the press which forms public opinion. He inveighs against i t on three main i s s u e s — l i t e r a t u r e , p o l i t i c s and s o c i e t y — t h e three major aspects of Madrid l i f e that he v i s u a l i s e s as corrupting the attitudes and morals of Spain. Fundamentally, his c r i t i c i s m can be summarised i n one word— hypocrisy. This was what Pereda s a t i r i s e d a l l his l i f e , whether i n Madrid or i n Santander, i n the c i t y or i n the country. His d i s l i k e of Madrid can be r e a d i l y understood when i t i s r e a l -ized what he found Madrid stood f o r , and how he found the majority of madrilenos. - 100 -He was not being o r i g i n a l or extreme when he accused the p o l i t i c i a n s of d i s h o n e s t y . "Get thee g l a s s eyesj/And l i k e a s curvy p o l i t i c i a n , seem/To see t h i n g s thou dost not."-*-0 His d i a t r i b e a g a i n s t h i g h s o c i e t y i s no more unusual, and of course the press has always been the t a r g e t of much censure. Why then was Pereda's m o r a l i t y so b i t t e r f o r the s o c i e t y of Madrid to take? He was no l e s s s c a t h i n g about Madrid than G a l d 6 s , but Madrid appealed to the l a t t e r w h i le i t r e p u l s e d the former. There i s a f e e l i n g t h a t Pereda was i n t r a n s i g e n t , and t h i s i s r e i n f o r c e d by Galdos' own p i c t u r e of him i n h i s prologue to E l sabor de l a t i e r r u c a , but what i s perhaps not f u l l y r e a l i z e d i s t h a t Pereda was t o t a l l y honest and s i n c e r e , but not i n t o l e r a n t His views were not shared by many people. But although he would not change then, nor allow h i m s e l f to be swayed by t h i n g s he d i d not approve of, t h i s d i d not mean he would not allow h i s opponents to a i r t h e i r views. I t i s t h i s t o l e r a n t s i n c e r i t y t h a t made the f r i e n d s h i p of Pereda and Galdos so du r a b l e , t h a t made h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Leopoldo A l a s f i r m , and which made h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h A l a r c o n i m p o s s i b l e and w i t h Palaeio Valdes d i f f i c u l t . Montesinos remarks t h a t the l a t t e r never made any r e a l c r i t i c a l comment on Pereda but "No nos e x t r a n a . P a l a c i o no pudo aceptar a nadie a su lado, e n v i d i o s o y e g o c e n t r i c o como e r a . . . " 1 ^ One can thus look t o Pereda's i n v e c t i v e on the l i t e r a r y scene and r e a l i z e t h a t much was caused by h i s own d i s i l l u s i o n -ment w i t h Madrid and e s p e c i a l l y by h i s f e e l i n g t h a t w r i t e r s - 101 -were not s i n c e r e . He was a l s o l o o k i n g f o r something genuine and spontaneous i n the dramatic, p o e t i c and n o v e l i s t i c f i e l d s . A l l he found, however, was a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h appearances, whether they were i n s i n c e r e romantic gushings, or the suspense of p i l o t s and a n a g n o r i s i s . N a t u r a l l y , Pereda had a vested i n t e r e s t i n promoting costumorismo, s i n c e t h i s was h i s own s p e c i a l i t y , but h i s novels had developed c o n s i d e r a b l y from the s e r i e s of sketches t h a t B e l l , f o r example, claimed they were: A f u r t h e r weakness was the s l i g h t n e s s of h i s p l o t s . His books were r e a l l y always a s e r i e s of cuadros de costumbres more or l e s s c l o s e l y s t r u n g t o g e t h e r . 3 D e s p i t e a c c u s i n g Pereda of such a f a u l t , B e l l was able to say t h a t Galdo's was "the g r e a t e s t Spanish n o v e l i s t of the Nine-t e e n t h Century a f t e r Pereda."-^ - 102 -FOOTNOTES Chapter 3 lo T h i s i s c l e a r l y shown by §iome of the most memorable dates of the century: i n S p a i n these were i n v a s i o n (1808, 1823), r e v o l u t i o n s (1848, I854, 1868), c i v i l wars (1833-40, i860, l870-3 ) j i n England they were the Corn Law (1815), Trades Unions (1824 onwards), F i r s t r a i l w a y (1825), the Reform B i l l s (I832, I867), F a c t o r y a c t s (l833)and Postage (1840). 2* B o r i s de Tannenberg,'Ecrivains c a s t i l l a n s contemporains: J.M. de Pereda! Revue Hispanique t.V(l898) pp. 330-364. 3. G. Brenan, The l i t e r a t u r e of the Spanish people (Penguins London, 1963), p. 365. 4. Hannah Lynch,'Pereda, the Spanish N o v e l i s t ' The Contemporary Review, 1895, pp. 218-232. 5. R. G u l l 6 n , V i d a de Pereda (Madrid, 1944) 6. See, f o r example, D i s r a e l i ' s Coningsby. In t h i s there i s much t a l k of " r o t t e n boroughs" and Mr. Taper and Mr. Tadpole have d i f f e r i n g ideas of how to win e l e c t i o n s : The one worships " R e g i s t r a t i o n " ( j u g g l i n g the number of the e l e c t o r s ) the other a "Good Cry" (a meaningless cateh-phrase t h a t w i l l win votes through emotion). 7* T h i s comment on the U.S.A. being Pereda's g r e a t p r e j u d i c e : " l o s Estados Unidos, dep6sito immenso de todos l o s grandes ladrones d e l mundo." (I Pros son t r i u n f o s , p. 6l6) 8. His i r o n y i s r e i n f o r c e d by what was happening i n the world: 1848, P u b l i c a t i o n of the Communist Manifesto and r e s u l t a n t r e v o l u t i o n s throughout Eurppe; the a b d i c a t i o n of Louis P h i l l i p e and the f a l l of M e t t e r n i c h ; the C a l i f o r n i a Gold Rush; 1849, the f a l l of Venice and the s i e g e of Rome; I85O, the r i s e of Cavour; I85I, the f i r s t submarine c a b l e ; the A u s t r a l i a n Gold Rush; I852, the s t a r t of Napoleon I l l ' s r e i g n ; 1853-4, the beginnings of the Crimean War and the t r o u b l e s i n B r i t i s h South A f r i c a . 9. " l o v u l g a r , l o g r o t e s c o , l o carnalmente b r u t a l l e s o l i c i -t a ba" ( I I , 44). 10 o W i l l i a m Shakespear, King- -Lear, Act IV, Sc V I . - 103 -11. As B e l l s a y s ; "He was not i n t o l e r a n t , he c o u l d see two s i d e s of a q u e s t i o n , h i s t o l e r a n t remarks about the r e l i g i o n of the E n g l i s h c o n t r a s t s w i t h the r a b i d i n t o l e r a n c e of George Borrow i n S p a i n . " B e l l , p. 40. 12. M o n t e s i n o s , P e r e d a , p. 287. 1 3 . B e l l , p. 41. 14. B e l l , p. 60. The s t r e s s i s mine. - 104 -SOCIETY IN PEREDA'S MADRID NOVELS Pereda's novels deal with society as a whole, but the Madrid novels have a much more specialised concern with high society, or e l mundo, as i t i s often c a l l e d . Within the metropolitan novels, Pereda has already been seen to have shown a great i n t e r e s t i n ce r t a i n aspects of society at large, and he himself emphasizes the rel a t i o n s h i p between the various s t r a t a of l i f e i n the c a p i t a l ; he compares, for instances Un l i t e r a t o de nota, un personaje p o l i t i c o J y J una mujer de h i s t o r i a . (II, Pedro Sanchez, p. 66) Las eminencias de l a p o l i t i c a , los Cresos de l a Banca... las lumbreras de l a l i t e r a t u r a . . . PyJ l a f l o r y nata del mundo elegante. (II, La Montalvez, p. 413) Todo Madrid, lo mas cogolludo de l a a r i s t o c r a c i a , de l a Banca, de l a politfca, de las artes y de las l e t r a s . (II, La: Montalvez, p. 4l4) Pereda, himself, thus distinguishes between the various categories of society, but his c r i t i c i s m of a l l these parts i s very similars He can see that they suffer from the same dishonesty, hypocrisy and hollowness. To further demonstrate t h i s , i t i s necessary to discuss four aspects of s o c i a l behaviour within the c a p i t a l . These are fashion, which has a ce r t a i n bearing on the second topic, which i s love, which w i l l deal with the whole spectrum of relationships between male and female; education, which does have some bearing on the formal educating of young men, but which w i l l be primarily concerned with the upbringing of young g i r l s , and t h e i r - 105 -attitudes to the question of love; and f i n a l l y r e l i g i o n , which i s also connected to the problem of education, but with regard to the divine not the s o c i a l . Fashion In La mu.jer del Cdsar, Pereda li n k s the defects of the society of the Corte to i t s desire f o r clothem's and fashions, jewels anft f i n e r y . Nada mas natural que fuesen las grandes v i d r i e r a s y los caprichos de las artes suntuarias e l especial ornamento de l a c a p i t a l de Espana, centro del lu j o , de l a galanteria y de los grandes v i c i o s de toda l a nacidn. (I, 533) This statement on the f i r s t page of the novel i s to prepare the reader for Pereda's continual d i a t r i b e s against the e v i l s of ostentation. Carlos i s not influenced yery much by the great world, but exists alongside i t ; Isabel, his wife, was brought up i n high society and Pereda says simply, " l a veta de Isabel era l a ostentacidn." (I, 539) This i s an es s e n t i a l part of her character and she i s i n many ways a precursor of Nica Montalvez. Perhaps i t i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of Pereda's growing pessimism that Nica can f i n d no hero to save her, as Ramdn saves Isabel; indeed, the irony i s increased, for the almost perfect man, Angel, destroys Luz as e f f e c t i v e l y as Pepe Guzman had destroyed her mother. Other major characters are the Marqueses del A z u l e j o 1 and Frasco PeVez. Although a l l three are characterised by t h e i r continual absorption i n the mutations of fashion, i t i s the l a t t e r who i s the most " o r i g i n a l " i n t h i s sphere. - 1 0 6 -This i s one of the f i r s t appearances i n Spanish f i c t i o n of the fop, the dandy, and he constantly referred to as a t i t e r e , perhaps best rendered into English as "dummy," since he i s nothing more than a t a i l o r ' s dummy. He manages to get the attention of the public by his unusual name, Frasco, which i s short for Francisco. He keeps th i s attention by his "mil originalidades" (I, 5^7) which Pereda recounts at length. These are t y p i f i e d by sending his dress s h i r t s to be washed i n Andalusia and ironed i n Pa r i s : "En f i n todo se contaba de e l , menos que hubiese dado jamas unos calzones viejos a un pobre." (I, 5^7) This i s Pereda's harshest censure of the e v i l s of fashion. Perez i s shown on many occasions to be merely a dummy, " e l consabido, t i t e r e a l a moda," (I, 5^3) a n d his actions are shown to be empty: "Eran...sus gastos reproductivos, s i no en dinero, en fama, que era l o que e l buscaba." (I, 5^7) These ideas of hollowness are taken to extremes a l i t t l e l a t e r . Frasco P e r e z j i s , i n Pereda's eyes, the most despicable of creatures for he has no substance, he i s a "hollow man." An aspect of men's dress which Pereda s a t i r i s e s i s the use of the bata. In the f i r s t four Madrid novels t h i s i s used for e f f e c t , on the f i r s t appearance of the fashionable madrileno, or, i n Los hombres de pro, the f i r s t appearance of Simon a f t e r he has moved up i n society. Its absence from La Montalvez i s probably because i t w i l l not have the same ef f e c t ; the novel i s set i n the c a p i t a l from the beginning and has no outsider to be dazzled: - 10? -Tampoco detallare los efectos que en j s i l v e s t r e j caus-aron l a bata persa...(I, Suum cuique, p. 268) Entonces...aparecid ^Carlos], envuelto en perezosa bata. (I, La mu.jer del Cesar, p. 534-) Hay...un hombre...de cincuenta anos de edad CSimon!?... con...lujosa bata. (I, Los hombres de pro, p. 64-7) Se presento...el senordn de Madrid fyalenzuelajl de bata chinesca. (II, Pedro Sanchez, p. 22) In every instance the luxurious (lu,j.osa), exotic (chinesca, persa) or morally detrimental (perezosa) q u a l i t i e s o f the robe are indicated. Society i s i t s e l f seen as being hollow and morally empty i n La mu.jer del Cesar, since i n two s p e c i f i c instances dress and appearance are shown as being sought a f t e r i n preference to things of more substance, whether physical (food) or m o E a l ( v i r t u e ) : Las del jubilado funcionario X., de quienes se contaba que, puestas por su padre en l a a l t e r n a t i v a de comer patatas y v e s t i r con luj o o comer de firme y v e s t i r indiana, optaron s i n v a c i l a r por lo primero. (I, 560) A page l a t e r (I, 561) the gossip columnist Lucas Gomez i s described, and so i s an obituary for a woman i n which he mentioned her jewels, clothes etc., but never once her virtues (See Section on the Press.) The hollowness of Perez i s most c l e a r l y seen i n his attack on Isabel's honor, which depends on a sleight-of-hand with a set of jewels. The whole incident i s redolent of falseness, since i t i s a l l dependent on jewels--and Pereda has c l a r i f i e d his po s i t i o n on these e a r l i e r , — a n d also on the lack of perception of Isabel and the deception of Perez. The reasons she accepts the jewels are i r o n i c a l , for she cannot - 108 -see that while she i s humiliating someone else's vanity she i s g r a t i f y i n g her owns No digo yo dos mil duros, diez anos de mi vida me hubieran parecido hoy poco para comprar una ocasion como l a que se me presenta de humillar l a tonia vanidad de esa mujer. (I, 55°) Women's clothes are censured by Pereda, not simply because they follow fashions, but for the style themselves. Examples of his attacks on the excessive decolletage of the ladies of high society can be found i n both La mujer del Cesar and La Montalvez s Los altos del cuerpo del vestido iban sumamente bajos, y...los bajos de las mangas subian hasta muy cerca del s i t i o que debian ocupar los altos del cuerpo, merced a lo cual Isabel llevaba a l aire l i b r e mayor cantidad de carnes que l a que autorizaba una moral severa y los usos ordinarios de l a sociedad. (I, 55^) E l vestido, s i n mangas y casi s i n cuerpo, dejabame las carnes, de cintura a r r i b a , medio a l a intemperie...; quejabame yo de que era mucho lo descubierto; replicabame que, por lo mismo, y por ser bueno, habia que l u c i r l o . . . . Vestida de pecadora...me cubri e l seno con e l abanico (II, 406-7). Pereda stresses i n both cases that these dresses are not authorized by the day-to-day customs of society i n general, and that both compromised the modesty, and the morality, of t h e i r wearers. Love Pereda was at pains to point out the hollowness of fashion and i t s detrimental e f f e c t on morality and modesty i n high society. This section w i l l continue the c r i t i c i s m s he l e v e l l e d at the fi n e r y of the great world and w i l l show how this concern with appearance was of s i m i l a r consequence i n - 109 -s o c i e t y * ? a t t i t u d e to love and i t s concomitants sex, marriage, honor and m o r a l i t y . Of the f i v e n o v e l s , Suum cuique has l e a s t to say about t h i s s u b j e c t s i n c e there i s no love i n t e r e s t i n the s t o r y . On one oc c a s i o n , however, sex pl a y s a p a r t , and a t the c l o s e of the n o v e l , S i l v e s t r e * s reasons f o r marrying are s e t out. The moment when sex is. i n t r o d u c e d i s to culminate the s e r i e s of d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t S i l v e s t r e meets i n Madrid; he i s scorned by some p r o s t i t u t e s t h a t he had been watching. T h i s i s probably the only o c c a s i o n when Pereda s p e c i f i e s t h i s p o r t i o n of l i f e , and i t i s , perhaps, s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he accepts them; although d o u b t l e s s d i s a p p r o v i n g of t h e i r m o r a l i t y , he v o i c e s no o p i n i o n on ".the o l d e s t p r o f e s s i o n " : Observo* q u e . . . d i s c u r r i a n por una y o t r a a c e r a , pasaban, v o l v l a n a pasar, y siempre l a s mismas..»mujeres de i n c i s i v a y elocuente mirada, beldades de e s b e l t o t a l l e , y d e s e n v u e l t a marcha... Mas Jay!. . . a q u e l l a s mujeres, cuyas miradas devoraban a l o s tr a n s e u n t e s , con cuyos moviaientos, con cuya v o z . . . i n t e n t a b a n s e d u c i r l o s , s o l o para don S i l v e s t r e eran a r i s c a s y desaboridas ( I , 273-4-). I t may perhaps, be i n d i c a t i v e of Pereda's own u n c e r t a i n t y about women t h a t he d i d not p o r t r a y them i n d e t a i l u n t i l a f t e r h i s marriage i n I 8 6 9 , f o r one f i n d s l i t t l e evidence of the presence of women i n the whole of the Escenas Montanesas. The mention of love i n Suum cuique i s r a t h e r p r o s a i c , and S i l v e s t r e marries f o r v a r i o u s reasons, a f t e r winning h i s c o u r t -case he "se sinti<5 t a n a b u r r i d o " , and "hablaba. o .de l a necesidad de perpetuar su c a s t a " ( I , 2 9 8 - 9 ) . Because of t h i s he determines to marry, and many people b e l i e v e d h i s choice was decided by " l o s ojazos negros de una moza de ocho a r r o b a s , " - 110 -but the romantic e f f e c t i s lessened by the f a c t that she was "heredera de un decente patrimonio." (I, 299) When Pereda began writing La mu.jer del Ceaar and Los  hombres de pro he had been married for two years, and, possibly because of t h i s , his i n t e r e s t i n love and i t s adjuncts was much greater. La mu.jer del Ce'sar i s based upon the attempt of Frasco Plrez to seduce Isabel, which he recognises as being extremely d i f f i c u l t : "Pareci<5le su conquista, ya que no imposible, muy d i f i c i l . " (I, 5^7) The most v i r u l e n t s a t i r e occurs when Pereda considers Perez's strategy, f o r he "no busca los triunfos sino por e l escandalo, y le importa poco que existan, con t a l que e l publico los acepte como hechos consumados." (I, 553) Once again he i s r e i n f o r c i n g the emptiness, not only of Perez, but of society, i n which sexual morality i s based on appearance; even i n adulterous a f f a i r s , there i s no love, merely a desire to "score," so that the woman i s nothing more than another number on a l i s t . This novel i s probably the most narrow-minded of a l l of Pereda's output, and c e r t a i n l y of a l l the metropolitan novels. His l a t e r works may have been influenced by other novelists* views on the s i t u a t i o n . The s t r i c t n e s s of the morality i s clear when, just p r i o r to the dance which w i l l bring the novel to a climax, "Ramon...miraba como se retorcian las cintas de fuego entre los tizones, que se iban consumiendo a su contacto, como l a humana vida entre las malas pasiones." (I, 553) The marriage of Carlos and Isabel i s put under close scrutiny and the f a u l t s of both are magnified. It can be - I l l -seen as f a i l i n g through "lack of communication" and i t i s only at the end, that they decide that the " r e l i g i o n of the home" may he far better than one l i v i n g too much i n the public eye, the other too secluded from l i f e : E l hogar domestico; sus mil d e t a l l e s . . . a l calor de los cuales...se forman y viven las dos grandes figuras de l a Humanidad: La esposa y l a madre. (I, 578) The importance of Love i n La mu.jer del Cesar i s apparent since the whole plot i s based upon i t ; i n Los hombres de pro there i s less insistence on the topic, but i t i s s t i l l i n t e g r a l to the novel. As with Suum cuique there i s one mention of sex and a subsidiary love story i n the novel; t h i s l a t t e r , concerning J u l i e t a and Arturo, i s the conventional elopement of two lovers, and needs no further analysis. The character of Don Recaredo i s c l e a r l y the prototype fo r Don Celso, but there are v a r i a t i o n s . Don Celso, i n keep-ing with Pereda's purpose i n Penas a r r i b a , i s morally almost perfect. Don Recaredo, i n contrast, has certa i n pecadilloes which include a fondness for wine and "ciertos mocetones del pueblo, que, a mas de parecersele en f i g u r a como un huevo a otro, r e c i b i a n de e l frecuentisimos agasajos y deferencias, y le llamaban padrino, s i n haberlos sacado de p i l a . " (I, 668) Pereda's view i n 1871 was somewhat d i f f e r e n t from his moral dictum the previous year: "fBuen caso hacia don Recaredo de esas debilidades de l a Naturalezai" (I, 668) As with comments on p r o s t i t u t i o n i n Suum cuique, Pereda seems to have accepted cer t a i n e s s e n t i a l l y sexual aspects of human behaviour but to have been intransigent about the general lack or morality.in society. - 112 -His ideas underwent some changes i n E l buey suelto... and De t a l palo, t a l a s t i l l a , the former dealing with the sexual education of Gedeon, the l a t t e r with the incompatibility of r e l i g i o u s extremes within marriage. His other novels, Pros son triunfos and Don Gonzalo Gonzalez de l a Gonzalera reinforce the Ideas that he had expressed i n his early Madrid novels. Dne point that must be c l a r i f i e d i s Pereda's attacks on the mercantile and middle classes i n the l a t t e r novels. He has praised these classes on many occasions, but what he regards as t h e i r worst f a u l t i s that they ape the morals of the arist o c r a c y . His attacks on the upper classes are v i t r i o l i c at times, but he retains his most b i t i n g scorn f o r those who have not the moral f i b r e to eschew the vice of the aristocracy. More e x p l i c i t l y , he i s extremely scathing about those who are immoral and vicious through t h e i r upbringing, but he adds to t h i s harsh s a t i r e of those who copy t h i s behaviour of the aristocracy merely to be l i k e them. In Pedro Sanchez much i s made of the theme of honor, but the love inte r e s t does not form as large a part of the theme as i t w i l l i n La Montalvez. From the very beginning the semi-a r i s t o c r a t i c p o s i t i o n of Pedro i s made e x p l i c i t s "[Los ffarcaas^ eran labriegos bien acomodados, a l paso que los Sanchez eramos senores menesterosos." (II, 12) This marks Pedro from the st a r t as being proud, for he belonged to the family of Sancho Abarca. His pride i s to play a decisive role i n the novel, but i t also means that when Pedro married Clara he was not - 113 -r e a l l y marrying above himself; on the contrary, Valenzuela was of a common family: Su padre era secretario del Ayuntamiento en un pue b l e c i l l o cercano a Ciudad Real. (II, 87) This provides another l e v e l of symbolic d u a l i t y i n thi s novel, for the l i v e s of Pedro and Valenzuela are thus made v i r t u a l l y p a r a l l e l i n t h e i r development; his wife was the daughter of the "deshravador Pedro J i j o s " (II, 87-8), the very name revealing her lack of "family." The love aspect i s primarily based on the contrast bet-ween the personalities of Clara and Carmen, who "era l a mas acabada a n t i t e s i s de Clara." (II, 37) The climatic point i n th i s contrast i s reached when Pedro f i r s t r e a l i z e s that he has been deceived by Valenzuela, and t h a t " e l farsante manchego que a s i jugaba, no ya con mi incredulidad, sino con l a de mi padre." (II, 83) As he goes out into the street, Manolo Valenzuela rides past and heedlessly runs down a young woman; Pedro discovers that i t i s Carmen. The allegory of thi s incident i s emphasized when, walking Carmen back home, she finds Pedro's condescension and boldness unseeming and repre-hensible; i t i s as i f the influence exerted on Pedro by high society had made him trample on Carmen's innocence as Manolo had trampled on her body. The presentation of the characters of the two g i r l s i s extended throughout the novel. Clara and her:mother, P i l i t a , are motivated by vanity and ostentation. They are d i f f e r e n t from Isabel, who had t h i s vice, but which formed only one part of her character; Clara and P i l i t a and Manolo were driven - 114 -s o l e l y by a love of ostentation and by opportunism. P i l i t a was rather stupid, but Clara was l i k e her name, clear-sighted, a q u a l i t y that t y p i f i e d her, just as Carmen was the incarnation of love, of f e e l i n g and of domesticity. The occasions when love becomes a r e a l problem are not found u n t i l near the end of the novel. Barrientos has always followed Clara and Pedro around, and the l a t t e r r e a l i z e s a f t e r the t r i a l s of governing the province that "Clara...nunca me amo . i . " ( I I , 181) He r e a l i z e s that his marriage had been a mistake, but he i s s t i l l incapable of seeing everything; eventually he discovers the adultery of his wife with Barrientos. He turns to Matica for consolation, but fate puts Barrientos i n his path again; they duel, and Pedro i s vanquished: Yo me v o l v i a casa acompanado de mis amigos, tan afrent-ado como habia salido de e l l a , mas con l a verguenza de haber sido apaleado por e l mismo que me afrento. JY estos lances los han discurrido los hombres cultos para lavar manchas de honor! jMentecatos! ( I I , 186) This i s one of the few occasions when a duel takes place i n Pereda's novels, and he i s predictably opposed to th i s method of remedying a f f a i r s of honor. Pedro r e a l i z e s f i n a l l y that he should have married Carmen ("la amaba y me amaba" [ I I , 18?J ) and so turns to her. The only noteworthy part of t h i s i s that Pedro turns from a g i r l who may have been born a madrilena, i t i s never stated e x p l i -c i t l y , to one who d e f i n i t e l y was from Madrid, "donde e l l a habia nacido" ( I I , 37) ' This i s another instance of Pereda not carrying his attacks on the c a p i t a l to extremes. Pedro has the temerity to suggest that they should l i v e together - 115 -because they are i n love (II, 18?). Her r e f u s a l establishes Pereda's t r a d i t i o n a l attitude which w i l l be overturned by Galdos—but even he can support the idea of extra-marital l i a i s o n s only a f t e r the turn of the century.^ In the f i n a l chapter Pereda chronicles the anticipated death of Clara and the happiness of Pedro's second marriage, to Carmen, with the b i r t h of one c h i l d and the expectation of a second. The second part of the chapter i s one of the most hard-hitting written at that period, for i t establishes a b l i s s f u l marriage and the prospect of a happy ending and then destroys i t ; the chapter narrates the deaths of Pedro's father, Carmen (and her unborn c h i l d ) , and Pedro's son, Quica and Matica. This ending would not have found favor i n England, but i t must be remembered how many major Spanish novels of the period end t r a g i c a l l y o 3 Pereda's clearest prognostications on love are to be found i n La Montalvez. This novel, the l a s t of his three best, was to attack Madrid Society without the over-simplified theme of La mujer del Cesar which had elevated Ram6n morally to the position of a demi-god because he was a montanes. In La Montalvez, on the other hand, the action takes place i n Madrid and the Montana never intrudes ;neither as i t s e l f , nor personified, i n a morally perfect character. Several marriages and love-relationships are dealt with i n the novel, the f i r s t being that of the Marques de Montalvez with the daughter of a " r i c o excontrasista de carreteras y suministros." (II, 391) The marriage i s very much a marriage - 1 1 6 -o f convenience; he wants money, she wants the t i t l e . - The marquis i s comparable to Don S i l v e s t r e , f o r he marries to keep up the f a m i l y name; u n f o r t u n a t e l y the p a i r produce only a daughter, then a s i c k l y ' son who d i e s i n h i s t e e n s . He i s not regarded as important enough f o r Pereda to g i v e him a name• There i s a complete l a c k of f a m i l y love and consequently the e d u c a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n i s very much at f a u l t , but t h i s i s more appropriate to a d i s c u s s i o n of e d u c a t i o n than of l o v e , which i s e s s e n t i a l l y s e x u a l love r a t h e r than p a t e r n a l , maternal or f i l i a l l o v e . When Nica's g r a n d f a t h e r d i e s she weeps f o r him which arouses the wrath of her f a t h e r who regards i t as h y p o c r i s y . Pereda comments on her sorrow and concludes "de todo l o c u a l se deduce que q u e r i a de veras a su abuelo.." ( I I , 410) I t i s a l s o very e v i d e n t t h a t she has the c l a r i t y of v i s i o n of C l a r a and r e p r e s e n t s a s y n t h e s i s of the l a t t e r and Carmen; t h i s d u a l i t y i s r e i t e r a t e d time and again, f o r there i s a dichotomy between N i c a as a woman and as a mother. Nica's f i r s t meeting w i t h love shows how l i g h t l y i t was regarded i n the .high s o c i e t y of the time: E l tema amoroso...que ya consideraba...una r u t i n a o b l i g a d a en l o s usos de l a buena s o c i e d a d . ( I I , 4 l 6 ) Pereda a g a i n r e v e a l s t h a t , beneath.^the words and the a c t s , love was hollow. L i k e p o l i t i c s , l i k e the p r e s s , l i k e some l i t e r a t u r e , love was words which expressed no f e e l i n g ; n o t h i n g was r e a l i n S o c i e t y , a l l was an empty s h e l l f u l l of sound and f u r y , s i g n i f y i n g n o t h i n g . - 117 -Society's attitude to love and marriage i s expressed three times i n the novel—by L e t i c i a , by Sagrario and by Nica's mother. Each time i t i s expressed to Nica who cannot, nor wants to, believe i t s Dicen que las mujeres de nuestra alcurnia deben casarse a c i e r t a edad con hombres de determinadas condiciones. <>.; se acuerda entre ambas familias que Gonzalo y yo nos casemos...; no se admiten consultas, n i protestas, n i reparos, porque...lo p r i n c i p a l es que se haga e l matri-minia, lo demas no importa tres cominos...y a este papel nos vamos acomodando poco a poco e l galan y l a dama de esta comedia de l a buena sociedad... (II, 4-22) Muy i l i c i t o no debe de ser cua^io tanto se usa...el v i v i r con e l marido y e l gozar con e l amante. (II, 4-23) S i quieres conservar e l amor que sientas por un hombre, con todo lo que de este amor se sigue y se desprende, no te cases con e l . (II, 4-23) Nica i s i n love with Pepe Guzman, but Sagrario i s advising her on her conduct; she believes that Nica ought to marry— but not Guzman. This t e o r i a deals with "amor de mas sustancia, que no es amor para doncellas." (II, 4-25) "--<f*De manera que, para complemento de l a t e o r i a , es tambien de necesidad algo de matrimonio? —Indispensable." (II, 4-25) The advice i s f i n a l l y brought down to detailss "No te cases con Pepe Guzman, aunque, por milagro de Dios, lo pretenda e l ; pero s i don Mauricio e l Solemne, pide tu mano, aceptale." (II, 4-26) This i s the occasion when high society's views on marriage are set out most c l e a r l y . The cynicism of the advice i s brought out even more strongly when Don Mauricio Ibanez i s glimpsed t r a v e l l i n g through Europe with at least two d i f f e r e n t women, both of whom "a su lado habitaba en e l hotel, es decir tabique en medio." (II, 4-36) The profligacy of Don - 118 -Mauricio w i l l be important l a t e r i n establishing the conditions of his marriage to Nica. Another aspect of high society's cynicism occurs when two of L e t i c i a ' s lovers duel, and her husband seconds one of them. (II, ^38) L e t i c i a repeats Sagrario's adyice, immediately a f t e r t e l l i n g Nica of Ibanez<?s a f f a i r s , and i t i s she who picks up the carnal advantages of marriage to the banker, which Sagrario had suggested: Te conviene para marido e l hombre que te he propuesto, por lo mismo que es raro y tiene v i c i o s y mala fama; o lo que es i^.ual, todo lo que necesita una mujer de mundo para lograr de casada, con ciertos derechos, lo que no es l i c i t o de s o l t e r a . (II, 460) The t h i r d time that the theory i s expounded i s by her mother, a f t e r Don Mauricio has proposed marriage; her mother's reason f o r seconding the marriage d i f f e r from those of her two f r i e n d s . They advised the marriage for sexual ends, Nica's mother because "dinero, dinero a todo trance, y mundo esplendoroso en que l u c i r l o Cera)...el objeto, e l f i n , l a aspiracion unica, y hasta l a r e l i g i o n de mi madre. " (II, 460) Nica's revulsion at her mother's desires brings out c e r t a i n aspects i n her character, for they were "teorias repugnantes a mi naturaleza de mujer de honradas inclinaciones y mis sentimientos de enamorada." (II, 460) When Nica f i n a l l y accepts the banker, i t i s to become the most extreme sexual s i t u a t i o n i n Pereda's writings, and indeed one of the strangest arrangements i n contemporary l i t e r a t u r e . Nica establishes a manage a t r o i s , and because of Ibanez-Js bad reputation she i s able to convince him to l i v e - 119 -apart from h e r — w i t h i n the same house—while she enjoys her new-found freedom. She t e l l s the reader that "no era un ladrdn de caudales e l homhre que se escondia por l a noche en e l cuarto contiguo a l de mi doncella y se escapaba a l amanecer." (II, 4 7 2 ) Her immoral conduct i s emphasized by the b i r t h of a daughter—the image of Pepe Guzman—eight months af t e r the wedding. Although Pereda i n no way approves of her behaviour, he does see i t as being both t y p i c a l a£i and produced by, high society. This i s possibly his most funda-mental c r i t i c i s m of e l mundo, that i t tended to pervert those who by i n c l i n a t i o n would not have been immoral or v i c i o u s . Pereda can be seen as a l i t t l e i n tolerant, for he has Manolo Casa-Vieja says Quien debia dar l a nota duice y armdnica en este des-concierto de pasiones es l a mujer; y bien sabes tu que agallas tiene l a nuestra. Por eso ya no hay f a m i l i a sino entre las gentes oscuras y de poco mas o menos. (II, 4 7 7 ) He seems to be throwing most of the blame on to the female half of society, whereas the disorder i n society i s caused by both sexes. There i s no r e a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the p a r t i a l prejudice shown by Pereda unless one turns to his ideas on education, wherein he advocates a better upbringing for women, which may improve society's a t t i t u d e s . It i s into t h i s framework that the characters of Nica, Luz and Angel are developed. The love of the l a t t e r i s highly poetic, and can be seen as c u r s i . The sequence was praised by C l a r i n , and both the episode and C l a r i n have been accused of c u r s i l e r l a by Montesinos.^ - 120 -The r e l a t i o n s h i p of Luz and Angel i s b u i l t up by Pereda from a rather sketchy dream of Luz, which gradually becomes more c l e a r l y manifested. As time goes on, he adds d e t a i l s , and f i n a l l y he gives the f u l l range of images: La azotea, e l mancebo, e l paraiso, arcangel guardador, e l terrado, e l  sendero, l a c a s i t a , e l piano. Thus Luz dreams of her earthly paradise, i n which appears the unknown guardian angel. (II, 515 Within a few pages of showing Luz's inner dream, an unknown youth arrives at a dance who was " e l otro, e l mancebo de sus imaginaciones, l a f i g u r a de su cuadro... ^De donde venia? J J A que iba a l i i ? . . . " ( II, 521) It then turns out that Angel had exactly the same visions as Luz. It i s a very imaginative sequence which supports the idea of a perfect, heaven-born love sensed by both partners, almost as i f both were able to communicate extra-sensorily. It i s the most romantic part of any of Pereda's novels, and i s the only section i n his novels f i l l e d by two lovers who become all-engrossed i n each other and who are involved with love from the very s t a r t . A l l of Pereda's other heroes and heroines who f a l l i n love never do so v i o l e n t l y and passionately. Perhaps the next most passionate of Pereda's heroes i s Pedro Sanchez, but his passion for Clara begins as d i s l i k e : Marcelo i n Fenas a r r i b a marries Lituca only when he discovers the doctor does not love her: none of Sotileza's lovers have t h e i r love reciprocated, e s p e c i a l l y Andres. Even i n the romantic i d y l l , A l primer vuelo, the love of the two young people develops very slowly. Only t h i s once i n Pereda's repertoire does there -on. occur the phenomen^of "love at f i r s t sight." - 1 2 1 -Luz and Angel are the only two lovers whose passion for each other towers over a l l else; i n no other book i s there a f e e l i n g i n the reader that he i s witnessing two people whose mutual feelings are to dominate a l l else. Indeed, these are Pereda's only "pair of star-crossed lovers," and thi s analogy i s true of other aspects of the novel, since the marriage i s opposed by the antagonism of the f a m i l i e s . The novel poses many problems i n the dichotomous attitude to love. There i s love as accepted by e l mundo which i s heartless, immoral, and c y n i c a l . There i s love as personified by Luz and Angel, which i s pure, angelic and p a r a d i s i a c a l . How must the reader regard these c o n f l i c t i n g attitudes? Pereda condemns the one morally, society condemns the other. It can be claimed that Pereda v i s i t s the sins of the mother upon the c h i l d , since Luz i s the only one who suffers p h y s i c a l l y i n the novel. It can be claimed that she, l i v i n g innocently, i s punished; Nica, l i v i n g i n g u i l t and s i n , i s not punished. One wonders whether Luz, i f brought up i n l i n e with the stand-ards of society, would have succumbed. The c o n f l i c t as envisaged by Pereda i s that of two ext-remes. One i s too worldly, the other i s too other-worldly. Pereda's world i s one of a c a r e f u l l y measured balancing of i d e a l s . He t r i e s to weigh realism with idealism. His ideas were rejected by the i d e a l i s t Trueba and by the r e a l i s t Pardo Bazan; his ideas were too t r a d i t i o n a l for the l i b e r a l s and too l i b e r a l for the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s . Nowhere i s thi s c o n f l i c t r e f l e c t e d more c l e a r l y than i n La Montalvez. Perhaps - 122 -most c r i t i c s do not l i k e t h i s n o v e l because they cannot see why Luz must he punished f o r the s i n s of N i c a . What they do not a l l o w i s t h a t Luz should a c t and r e a c t h e r s e l f ; they never a l l o w her autonomy of a c t i o n . The reasons f o r Luz's down-f a l l are not to be looked f o r i n N i c a , but i n Luz h e r s e l f : She d i e s not because of the f a u l t s of her mother, but because of f a u l t s w i t h i n h e r s e l f . T h i s theme w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r as i t i n v o l v e s the e d u c a t i o n of women. Madrid S o c i e t y ' s a t t i t u d e to love i s to fragment sex, love and marriage. Pereda i s s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s of the f a m i l y , which are r e p l a c e d by l o v e l e s s , u n s t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the s o c i e t y he d e s c r i b e s . Both men and women seek a l l three but never t o g e t h e r . As suggested b e f o r e , i t was not t i l l much l a t e r t h a t Galdos was to a t t a c k marriage as an i n s t i t u t i o n , whereas Pereda a t t a c k e d i t s abuse by s o c i e t y — both men despised the f a l s e n e s s and h y p o c r i s y of the e x i s t i n g s t a t e of love and marriage i n S p a i n . Pereda a t t a c k s the Romanticism of Luz's view of Love j u s t as h a r s h l y as the c y n i c i s m of her grandmother. Pereda i s somewhat r e t i c e n t about s e x u a l l o v e , but he f i n d s i t a source f o r much c r i t i c i s m s i n c e i t i s a b a s i c malaise i n Spanish s o c i e t y . What he i s a t t a c k i n g i s the l a t e r development of the c e n t u r i e s - o l d theme of honor, which the a r i s t o c r a c y had adopted f o r i t s own ends. Some aspects of t h i s theme are a c c e p t a b l y , and are supported by Pereda: A person must not only be innocent but seem i t — w h i c h i s very C a l d e r o n i a n . The a t t i t u d e adopted by s o c i e t y , on the other - 123 -hand, was that one l o s t one's honor only when other people found out. The next step i n the development i s that one can do anything, p r o v i d i n g one appears good.^ Pereda i n h i s apparent inocentadas about s o c i e t y was not a t t a c k i n g a set of standards, but the very f a b r i c that the s o c i e t y was based on. As he s a i d i n h i s i n t e r v i e w w i t h B o r i s de Tannenberg, he had l o s t h i s f a i t h i n man. Because Pereda was a t t a c k i n g such b a s i c i s s u e s , he seems to have r e a l i z e d that he was d i g -g i ng the ground from under h i s very f e e t . He could see that new ideas would e v e n t u a l l y destroy even h i s own i d y l l i c s o c i e t y and that the o l d ideas could not stand f o r long. He r e a l i z e d that an atta c k on man's nature would n a t u r a l l y t h r e a t e n everyone, even the montaneses; he e s p e c i a l l y recognized t h a t the acceptance of progress by Marcelo (Penas a r r i b a ) would destroy Tablanca as i t had been. These idea s , though not e x p l i c i t i n the novels of the Corte, are i m p l i e d by them, and can e a s i l y be taken to t h e i r l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s . Education Pereda deals w i t h two aspects of education i n some d e t a i l . He i s concerned w i t h the upbringing and education of the young of both sexes. This i s oft e n formal, i n school or u n i v e r s i t y , w i t h regard to young men, or more i n f o r m a l when the subject i s the upbringing of young l a d i e s . I t would be most u s e f u l to consider f i r s t the elements of formal education t h a t are present i n the novels. The f i r s t evidence of t h i s i s i n Suum cuique, i n which Pereda describes S i l v e s t r e ' s years i n a p r o v i n c i a l L a t i n - s c h o o l . I f a - 124 -comparison be made between the description of the domine of th i s novel and Don Bernabe i n Mas reminiscencias (Esbozos y ras£unos), i t would seem probable that the anecdotes about the school i n Suum cuique are from Pereda's own experience. The school was attended both by S i l v e s t r e and Don Fulano de Tal,and i s , therefore, the point of contact between them. It was situated i n a p r o v i n c i a l v i l l a , and at thi s l e v e l i t not only l i n k s but divides them, since Fulano progressed to Madrid, and S i l v e s t r e r e t i r e d to his v i l l a g e . The Lat i n of the Latin-school i s therefore used several times to stress t h e i r friendship and yet to emphasize t h e i r d i f f e r i n g natures. The usage of Latin i s as follows, the l i n k between them not being stressed on every occasions Don S i l v e s t r e Seturas tenia cuarenta anos de edad, plus  minusve. (I, 26l) £ Concerning the court case] e l abogado trabaja a subio.... (I, 261) "^'Eres tu 0 no es usted?" --"Mi querido S i l v e s t r e s Ego sum'.' (I, 271) E l primer consejo que le dio e l personaje fue e l siguiente..."Dum Roma f u e r i s . . . l o que sigue." (I, 271) Los diputados,..tenian l a inmodestia de decir cada uno de s i propio, coram populo, lo que todos los demas les negaban. (I, 272) Apenas pronuncio e l cura e l Ite misa e s t . . . . ( I , 282) Barbarus hie ego sum, quia nom i n t e l l i g o r u l l i . . . C a d a uno necesita para v i v i r e l elemento que le ha formados e l hombre culto, l a c i v i l i z a c i o n ; e l salvaje, l a Naturaleza. Suum cuique, S i l v e s t r e , como decia nuestro domine cuando daba un vale a algun disc i p u l o aplicado, mientras desencuadernaba las c o s t i l l a s a zurriazgos a otros veinte holgazanes. (I.,. 298) - 125 -Each use o f a L a t i n t a g reminds the r e a d e r o f the common e d u c a t i o n a l background and emphasizes the l a t e r development of the two h e r o e s . There i s no mention of f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n e i t h e r La mujer d e l C e s a r or Los hombres de p r o . I n c o n t r a s t i t has a major r o l e i n the e a r l y p a r t of Pedro Sanchez. Pedro's two s o u r c e s o f knowledge are the l i t t l e L a t i n and " l e t r a s humanas" ( I I , 1 0 ) , t a u g h t him by the p a r i s h p r i e s t , and the books he r e a d s and r e r e a d s : Con l e e r a menudo C l a r i s a Harlowe, E l hombre f e l i z y E l Q u i j o t e . . . c o b r e s e f i a l a d a a f i c i d n a l a amena l i t e r a t u r a . ( I I , 8) La n o v e l a e r a mi t e n t a c i o n . . . . ( I , 4-3) P a r a mi, a f i c i o n a d o h a s t a l a paslon a l a s f i c c i o n e s n o v e l e s c a s . . . ( I I , 59 ) The importance of b o t h i s a p p a r e n t i n the development: Because Pedro i s r e a s o n a b l y w e l l e d u c a t e d , he a t t r a c t s the a t t e n t i o n of V a l e n z u e l a ; because of h i s e a r l y r e a d i n g of n o v e l s , he becomes a somewhat q u i x o t i c c h a r a c t e r . I t i s , i n f a c t , h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , . s t i r r e d by the books, w h i c h makes him a c c e p t V a l e n z u e l a ' s o f f e r , f o r , l i k e S i l v e s t r e (and Don Q u i j o t e ) , h i s head i s t u r n e d by r e a d i n g . The o t h e r o c c a s i o n when mention i s made of f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i s when Pedro f i r s t a r r i v e s i n M a d r i d . He boards w i t h seven o t h e r young men, m o s t l y montaneses, and a l l s t u d e n t s ; h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of them i s amusing but a p p a r e n t l y n o t h i n g more. Pereda does use the e f f e c t of t h e i r s t r a n g e c l o t h e s and a c t i o n s , however, t o draw a s e r i o u s c o n c l u s i o n - 126 -about student l i f e at the periods Pues han de saber estos hombres precoces que aquellos muchachos re c a l c i t r a n t e s no eran menos l i s t o s , n i mas tontos, n i mas ingeniosos que e l l o s ; pero les daba por las susodichas inocentadas porque no era costumbre entonces entre los estudiantes fundar peri6dicos batalladores mi asaltar las catedras del Ateneo y de las Academias para difundir l a luz de l a cie n c i a por todos los amifitos de l a p a t r i a . (II, 43) This was the state of the u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the 1850s. Pereda's words sound prophetic, yet he was complaining of student unrest i n 1884. 7 In La Montalvez there i s perhaps the most decisive state-ments about formal education and the careers that men can follow. Angel i s i n many ways the Peredian a l t e r ego, and although Pedro i s s i m i l a r to Pereda because of his experiences i n Madrid, Angel i s s i m i l a r because of his attitudes. Angel reviews the p o s s i b i l i t i e s open to him and decides against medicine because he could not stomach the thought of the blood and the horrors i t entailed. He rejects philosophy and i t s alambicados y abstrusos conceptos because of i t s uselessness i n everyday l i f e . He i s most scathing about mathematics, a topic which Pereda scorned i n his own l i f e . F i n a l l y Angel decides, by elimination, to become a lawyer, since this was " l a carrera en que caben todos, los grandes y los pequenos, los l i s t o s y los tontos, y los que se buscan e l t i t u l o como puerta para s a l i r a todos los campos de las humanas ambiciones, que no eran pocos a l a fecha." (II, 525) As with the very t e l l i n g comments on Angel's poetic attempts, Pereda i s s a t i r i s i n g so many of those men who studied - 1 2 7 -law because they knew not what else to do. He f a i l s as both painter and poet, but he r e a l i z e d he could neither paint nor write poetry, so he became an impartial judge and c r i t i c of others. "Y esto era ser poeta y a r t i s t a . " (II, 5 2 6 ) The l a s t comment that Pereda makes rings very l i k e the con-cl u s i o n to Los hombres de prot "Las pruebas abundaban, a l decir de las gentes, de que en Espana bastaba querer para convertirse un zapatero en l i t e r a t o distinguido." (II, 5 2 7 ) The moral i s therefore even more c l e a r l y "zapatero a tu zapato."8 What i s more central to Pereda's main thesis i s the up-bringing of young people, g i r l s i n p a r t i c u l a r . The f i r s t time i t i s dealt with i s i n the description of Isabel, i n La mujer del Cesar, who was the c h i l d of a widower, and was "educada en e l gran mundo casi desde nina," (I, 5 3 9 ) with the r e s u l t that she knew l i t t l e else and consequently her l i f e was l i v e d i n accordance with the c r i t e r i a of fashionable society. Pereda makes no other comment expressly on t h i s point, yet the novel i s based on the concept of Isabel's inherent goodness. She i s led astray by her lack of education, but t h i s i s put r i g h t by Ramon. Any comparison between La  mujer del Cesar and La Montalvez, must be merely tentative, however, since i n the l a t t e r a society i s depicted i n which i t i s impossible for a woman to be f a i t h f u l . Despite some s i m i l a r i t i e s of character, despite t h e i r own desire to be virtuous, Nica and Isabel are poles apart: Isabel i s f a i t h f u l but appears untrue; Nica i s u n f a i t h f u l but puts up a facade.— - 128 -flimsy though i t i s — o f f i d e l i t y . Both novels attack the appearances that society puts on, but one i s o p t i m i s t i c — the figure of Ramon bringing h o p e — i n the other there i s no hope. There i s only one r e a l pronouncement on education i n Los hombres de pro, "Yo tengo para mi que e l mejor colegio para una nina es una buena madre" (I, 63I) Pereda's most c l e a r -cut statement of this idea, but Juana i s described as tonta and vanidosa (I, 690-l)_ which i s i n l i n e with a l l the bad mothers i n Pereda's f i c t i o n . J u l i e t a i s sent to a l l the best schools, but she never receives the most important education— a mother's example. As Pereda i s to say i n La Montalvez, " l a educacidn menos peligrosa y mas esmerada de una nina sera, aquella en que mas se deje s e n t i r l a intervencion amorosa de su madre, s i , por dicha, tiene madre, y madre buena." (11,398) The reader i s shown J u l i e t a at various stages i n her development. She i s another model fo r Nica Montalvez since she i s characterized by her absorption of her parents' vanity and ambition, with the addition of her own i n t e l l i g e n c e . She i s also s i m i l a r to Clara, for she i s epitomised by her l u c i d i t y . J u l i e t a , l i k e Nica and Clara, reveals the e v i l s of absorbed vanity plus those of i n t e l l i g e n c e which i s used to further the desires of vanity. Her nature i s , however, f r u s -trated hy the presence of Arturo, who inspires a passion i n her which causes her eventually to be deceived by him. In Pedro Sanchez the reader sees the du a l i t y of the natures of J u l i e t a and Nica divided between Clara and Carmen. - 1 2 9 -C l a r a i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of C o r n e l i a n l u c i d i t y and i s the e x t r e m i t y t o w h i c h J u l i e t a c o u l d move. She i s d r i v e n "by her i n t e l l i g e n c e and her v a n i t y , and never seems t o be d i s t u r b e d by p a s s i o n s There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t her a d u l t e r y w i t h B a r r i e n t o s i s i n s p i r e d by l o v e . Carmen i s the o p p o s i t e extreme, the p r o o f t h a t a widower can r e p l a c e a m o t h e r — w i t h h e l p ; Don S e r a f i n seems--with Q u i c a ' s h e l p — t o have p r o v i d e d an example f o r Carmen. She seems t o be the one example, i n Pereda's M a d r i d n o v e l s , of the g i r l who has been c o r r e c t l y e d u c a t e d . The whole f i r s t s e c t i o n of La M o n t a l v e z i s concerned w i t h one method of e d u c a t i n g c h i l d r e n . N i c a ' s g r a n d f a t h e r has v e r y d e f i n i t e i d e a s on the f a u l t s he sees i n her e d u c a t i o n and " a p o s t r o f a b a a l a h i j a p o r su f r i a l d a d y p r e d i c a b a a su yerno por su i n j u s t i f i c a b l e i n d i f e r e n c i a . " ( I I , 3 9 3 ) The p a r e n t s l a v i s h t h e i r a f f e c t i o n on her b r o t h e r , who i s s p o i l e d , and t h i s a c t s on h i s m a l e v o l e n t n a t u r e t o produce an e x t r e m e l y v i c i o u s i n d i v i d u a l . N i c a ' s one anecdote concerns h i s a t t e mpt t o r u i n her d r e s s and her f i r s t n i g h t i n s o c i e t y ( I I , 4 0 7 ) . What i s s t r e s s e d time and a g a i n i s the f a c t t h a t N i c a ' s " c o r a z d n no p o d i a dar o t r o f r u t o que e l de l a s s e m i l l a s que se h a b i a n d e p o s i t a d o en e l . " ( I I , 3 9 6 ) Pereda f r e q u e n t l y mentions the f a u l t s of her p a r e n t s i n n e g l e c t i n g h e r , and her l a t e r development under the i n f l u e n c e of L e t i c i a and S a g r a r i o i s a l s o made much o f : She i s formed by her p a r e n t s and s o c i e t y , d e s p i t e her own d e s i r e s . I n the words of Manolo Casa-V i e j a : - 130 -Fue de lo mas honrado de l a clase.. .naci<5 para buena y aun creo que lo habria sido, a no caer entre un padre tonto y una madre s i n educacion y s i n entranas y una caterva de p i l l o s y bribones. (II, 478) The second part of the novel deals with the education of Luz, and Pereda i s normally taken as supporting the idea that " s i n un milagro de Dios, de madre mala no puede nacer h i j a buena, porque...hay quien cree que los v i c i o s se heredan como escrofulas y l a t i s i s . " ( II, 527) But La Montalvez goes on to prove the exact opposite of t h i s ; Luz i s the prime example of a good daughter being born of a wicked mother. Pereda's thesis i s contained p a r t l y i n a qu a l i f y i n g statement that Pereda interpolates " s i n contar lo que influye en las inclinaciones de las Chijas*} e l mal ejemplo de las {jnadresj." (II, 527) What Pereda i s indeed concerned with i s the dicho-tomy between Nica as woman and mother, and he i s f u l l y convinced that the only way a mother can educate her daughter i s by example. Yet Nica wanted to enjoy herself l a s c i v i o u s l y and s t i l l keep Luz pure, away from the corruption of the world, l i k e a treasure hidden from the world ("Recogio su tesoro del escondite." £ll> 5®5]) It i s thi s f a u l t i n Nica which i s also to be highlighted by Pereda: She desires to keep Luz free from the world and si n , and the irony of the novel i s that "somos del mismo parecer e l espectro y yo tocante a l a educacion de los h i j o s . " (II, 506) The woman who believes i n the inheritance of s i n (Dona Ramona), and the woman who does not (Nica), both believe i n attempting to keep t h e i r children pure.9 Pereda shows the reader that t h i s view i s unfeasible. - 131 -There i s a c o n f l i c t within Nica but the outcome i s i n no doubts "La madre escrupulosa tr i u n f o s i n lucha de l a mujer l i v i a n a . " (II, 512) But from the f i r s t moment that he presents Luz, Pereda i s not i n agreement with her education. He c a l l s i t "Vida de invernadero" (II, 513) a n d goes on to says Y es l a verdad en c a s i todo e l r i g o r de l a f r a s e : . . . l a marquesa £dio_...a aquella excepcional naturaleza e l unico medio en que podia desenvolverse s i n deformarse. No a todas las plantas conviene e l c u l t i v o a l aire l i b r e y a l c i e l o abierto. En lo humano era Luz una de esas plantas. No es de extranar que a l s a l i r i e su estufa s i n t i e r a l a impresidn de otro ambiente mas f r i o y que esta impresi6n no le fuera agradable. (II, 513) Pereda sets out the problem at the beginning of his presentation of Luz, and he w i l l repeat the same words as she i s dying. He c r i t i c i s e d Nica's parents for making her develop as she did because of t h e i r method "of bringing her up. Now she has repeated the procedure d i f f e r e n t l y , but the e f f e c t i s the same. Luz i s a rather weak g i r l ; Nica "tenia una salud de bronce." (II, 395) This d i s t i n c t i o n i s important: La pobre Luz se destruia a l primer choque de su inocencia con las maldades del mundo, en s i f u i o no f u i d i s c r e t a a l c u l t i v a r a l a sombra una planta destinada a v i v i r a l aire l i b r e , para venir a parar a que no estaba lo malo en esconder mds o menos a una h i j a para que v i e r a o no v i e r a c i e r t a s cosas, sino en que una madre tenga f a l i a s que no pueden ser confesadas a. voces." (II, 5^5) This i s what Nica herself i s thinking, and the conclusion that Pereda wants the reader to reach i s that both of these f a u l t s destroyed Luz, for both concern her education. If Nica had not been ashamed of herself she need not have hidden Luz away and could therefore have educated her he r s e l f . - 132 -Religion Perhaps the most surp r i s i n g thing about Pereda's Madrid novels i s the r e l a t i v e unimportance of r e l i g i o n i n them. In most of the other novels which deal with metropolitan society the solu t i o n i s provided by a p r i e s t . There i s no point where a p r i e s t plays a s i g n i f i c a n t role i n Pereda's Madrid novels.* 0 This i s probably the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that distinguishes Pereda from a l l nineteanth-century Spanish nuvelists but Valera. Every other n o v e l i s t dealt with r e l i g i o n on more than one occasion, but Pereda's only r e l i g i o u s novel, De t a l palo, t a l  a s t i l l a , was an answer to Galdos' G l o r i a , and i t does not r e a l l y deal with r e l i g i o u s questions as such but merely states two sides of an argument. And i t s denouement i s human and dramatic rather than t h e o l o g i c a l . There are various occasions when the Church i s introduced into the novels, often with a s a t i r i c , or character-building, purpose. In Los hombres de pro i t i s a p r i e s t who advises Simon and Juana not to leave t h e i r v i l l a g e (I, 631) and the pastoral i d y l l i s re i t e r a t e d when the same santo varon com-ments that although Simon may be r i c h "^Le dan mas importancia? _Es mas f e l i z que aqui? Este es e l problema." (I, 646) Yet although he i s the spokesman for Pereda's anti-Madrid ideas, he i s only a commentator, he never imposes a solution nor even af f e c t s the action. There are s a t i r i c a l elements also i n Los hombres de pro when Pereda says of the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t that "temieron por sus casas, por sus campos, por sus fabricas, por sus tesoros, es - 133 -d e c i r , su Dios, su p a t r i a , su alma." (I, 653) This i s very-s i m i l a r to Nica's r e a l i z a t i o n that "Dinero...y mundo esplendoroso en que l u c i r l o . • . E s t e venia a ser...hasta l a r e l i g i o n de mi madre." (II, 460) Once again Pereda i s revealing the hypocrisy of society i n both novels, and this i s made even more apparent when, i n La Montalvez, t h i s very same mother becomes a luminary i n "las Madres Ejemplares." a r e l i g i o u s c h a r i t y . The s a t i r e i s double i n that the Marchioness has no r e l i g i o n but money and i s far from being an exemplary mother, as the novel i s at pains to i l l u s t r a t e . Nica, herself, i s a leading figure i n the "Doncellas Humildes y Temerosas de Dios," (II, 4 l 4 ) and here the s a t i r e i s apparent i n each word of the name: Nica i s f a r from humble, her awe of God i s never an ess e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , and at the end of the f i r s t part of the novel she eschews her v i r g i n i t y . Mother and daughter thus almost parody the monastic vows of poverty, chastity and obedience (or humility.) There i s one r e l i g i o u s sequence i n Pedro Sanchez which i s used to es t a b l i s h how impressionable Pedro i s . This i s when he goes into an e c s t a t i c trance while v i s i t i n g Santander with his father (II, 16-17): "En toda mi vida he vuelto a se n t i r impresiones como aquellas" i s his verdict on the experience. The episode i s also i r o n i c a l i n that he l a t e r becomes a l i b e r a l and as such his views would be anti-Church. An i n t e r e s t i n g quotation from the same novel i s the speech of the dying i d e a l i s t Don Serafin, who talks of "este mundo s i n j u s t i c i a . " (II, 135) This i s also used f o r character building - 1 3 4 -s i n c e Don S e r a f i n has h e e n p e r s e c u t e d a l l h i s l i f e : as s u c h , t h i s d y i n g s t a t e m e n t must n o t be t a k e n as a g e n e r a l v i e w o f t h e w o r l d t h a t h o l d s t r u e f o r a l l o f P e r e d a . He r e j e c t s a l l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o i n t r o d u c e r e l i g i o n and t h e c l e r g y ; t h e y a p p e a r g e n e r a l l y t o p e r f o r m t h e i r r i t u a l f u n c t i o n s — c o n f e s s i o n , a b s o l u t i o n , and t h e m i n i s t e r i n g o f t h e l a s t r i t e s . T h e i r b e n e f i c i a l i n f l u e n c e s a r e r e d u c e d t o human t e r m s , and P e r e d a ' s h e r o e s and h e r o i n e s must make t h e i r own p e a c e w i t h t h e w o r l d . He t h u s r e v e a l s h i s m o d e r n i t y and t h i s t r a i t c o u l d j u s t i f y l a b e l l i n g him " n a t u r a l i s t , " f o r he seems t o r e j e c t s u p e r n a t u r a l o r r e l i g i o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n . H i s c h a r a c t e r s must a c t o u t t h e i r l i v e s i n p u r e l y human terms s i n c e t h e p r e s e n c e o f a P a d r e M a n r i q u e i s n o t a n o r m a l o c c u r e n c e and P e r e d a does n o t b e l i e v e t h a t r e l i g i o n i s an e x t e r n a l : He c a n n o t see a J e s u i t w a v i n g h i s m agic wand and p u t t i n g t h i n g s r i g h t . E v e n i n De t a l p a l o , t a l a s t i l l a , r e l i g i o n does n o t t r i u m p h o v e r h e r e s y o r a t h e i s m . P e r e d a b e l i e v e s i n r e l i g i o n , b u t i t i s an i n t e r n a l f o r c e w h i c h t r a n s f o r m s man p e r s o n a l l y , n o t a m a g i c i n f l u e n c e w h i c h w i l l t r i u m p h o v e r e x t e r n a l phenomena. None o f P e r e d a ' s h e r o e s d i e s w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f a b e t t e r l i f e t o come, b u t , l i k e Don C e l s o , w i t h t h e knowledge o f a l i f e w e l l l i v e d . P e r e d a m a i n t a i n s t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f C a t h o l i c i s m , b u t he d o e s n o t f l a u n t i t as t h e o n l y a n swer. I t i s an i n t e r n a l f o r c e f o r him and i t s o n l y power i s i n s i d e man; he n e v e r p u t s i t f o r w a r d as a p a n a c e a w h i c h has e f f e c t f r o m th e o u t s i d e i n , b u t f r o m t h e i n s i d e o u t . - 135 -From th i s summary of Pereda's presentation of Madrid society of the period, c e r t a i n common factors can be c l e a r l y seen. Love and marriage and sex and honor are seen to be a sham. Because of the attitude of the adults i n society, the education of the p u n g — e s p e c i a l l y of g i r l s — i s shown to be f a u l t y , f o r the p r i n c i p a l mode of education he advocates i s that of example. Above and beyond a l l i s God, but society ignores God, or only pays him l i p service. Pereda, despite his Catholic f a i t h , believes with Valera i n "g_.nio y f i g u r a , hasta l a sepultura," for t h e i r human philosophy i s very s i m i l a r ; and, despite his f a i t h , he cannot believe with Coloma and Alarcon that God i s a short-cut to worldly happ-iness. He belongs to a much more r e a l i s t i c and t e r r e s t i a l school of writing than either of the l a t t e r n o v e l i s t s . Ultimately Pereda's view of the world i s pessimistic, since he envisages man and society as being i n a vicious c i r c l e . There i s no hope, he prophesies, for society unless the education of the young improves, and there i s no hope of t h i s u n t i l society improves. Man i s condemned both by his own nature and by society; society i s condemned by the nature of man. It i s an impasse from which he can see no s o l u t i o n . - 1 3 6 -FOOTNOTES Chapter 4 1 . The marchioness, e s p e c i a l l y , i s to he more important than she appears, as she i s the prototype f o r S a g r a r i o i n La Montalvez. Pereda d e s c r i b e s both as having a g r e a t weakness: " l a c u r i o s i d a d l l e v a d a a l a exageracidn." ( I , 5 ^ 1 ) 2. See, f o r example, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Teresa V i l l a e s c u s a and S a n t i a g u i t o Ibero i n the f o u r t h and f i f t h s e r i e s of the E p i s o d i o s n a c i o n a l e s . 3 » Perhaps one of the few exceptions i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e i s C h a r l o t t e Bronte's V i l l e t t e . In Spanish one need only remember G a l d 6 s * F o r t u n a t a y J a c i n t a , Angel Guerra, Miau, Doffa P e r f e c t a . . . : E m i l i a Pardo Bazan's E l  c i s n e de V i l a m o r t a , Los pazos de U l l o a , La p i e d r a  angular...; Leopoldo A l a s * La Regenta and Su u n i c o  hi,jo and V a l e r a * s Las i l u s i o n e s d e l d o c t o r F a u s t i n o , Morsamor, Genio y f i g u r a . . . . 4 . Montesinos, Pereda, p. 1 9 7 , 1 9 8 n . 5 . T h i s had been p a r t of the t h e s i s of A l a r c o n ' s La p r d d i g a and E l escandalo. 6 . Montesinos, p. 4 9 * 7 . Perhaps t h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g as Mai-Lara complains of the i n c r e a s e of the use of drugs at S a l a m a n c a — i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 8. See, f o r example, Perez de Ayala's Belarmino y Apolonio f o r a treatment of t h i s theme. 9 . Perez de A y a l a a l s o develops the them i n Luna de m i e l , luna de h i e l / L o s traba.jos de Urbano y Simona. 1 0 . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t to the novels of A l a r c o n and Coloma, e s p e c i a l l y . - 1 3 7 -THE THEMES AND CHARACTERS OF PEDRO SANCHEZ AND LA MONTALVEZ The four previous sections have been intended to out-l i n e Pereda's view of the society of Madrid during the period 1850 to 1888. Every part of t h i s society that he deals with, he c r i t i c i z e s for c e r t a i n basic f a u l t s : P o l i t i c s and the press, the f i n a n c i a l world, high society and i t s attitude to fashion, love, education and r e l i g i o n , and c e r t a i n aspects of l i t -erature are accused by being insubstantial and hollow. A l l of these attacks are present i n the three early, short novels (Suum cuique, La mu.jer del Cesar, and Los hombres de pro) which contain soma redeeming q u a l i t i e s , but which are l i t t l e more than thesis novels. Their importance i n this study of Pereda's metropolitan novels i s to show that his ideas re-mained constant from 1864 u n t i l 1888, i f not l a t e r . The two mature works (Pedro Sanchez and La Montalvez), while remaining e s s e n t i a l l y thesis novels, have a much greater and more universal scope. This section i s an attempt to gain an o v e r f a l l view of the two books and to introduce the themes which are common to both and to S o t i l e z a . This novel must be taken into consideration here, for i t i s the only one written between the two novels about the c a p i t a l . Because of i t s date, and i t s excellence, i t cannot be ignored i n t r y i n g to achieve a v i s i o n of Pereda's philosophy. The e s s e n t i a l difference between the characterization i n Pedro Sanchez and La Montalvez i s that i n the former Pereda - 1 3 8 -i s most concerned with creating the personality of Pedro himself; a l l the other characters are introduced for the reaction they cause i n the hero rather than as people. This does not mean that Pereda does not create l i f e l i k e secondary personages, hut they are a l l b a s i c a l l y sketches and are not f u l l y rounded characters i n the way that Pedro i s . In La Montalvez these two-dimensional characters also e x i s t , hut there are a number of f u l l y rounded p e r s o n a l i t i e s . There i s never any doubt that Nica i s the heroine, but the reader feels that others i n the novel exist despite her, whereas some characters i n Pedro Sanchez exist only because of Pedro him-s e l f . This difference i s one that springs from the d i f f e r i n g technique: the problems of character-drawing i n an "atuo-biographical" novel have haunted most n o v e l i s t s , who have solved them with varying success. The theme of Pedro Sanchez i s s i m i l a r to that expressed i n Los hombres de pro, which i s e s s e n t i a l l y that everybody should stay i n the p o s i t i o n to which he i s most suited i n l i f e . Perhaps the most famous version of t h i s theme i s that expressed by Cervantes i n Don Qui.jote. It can be found i n the episode of Sancho's governing the " i s l a n d " of Barataria; i t w i l l be remembered that Pedro himself makes a reference to t h i s incident when leaving for the province he was to govern.* This theme underlies the whole structure of the novel, but i s not a l l that the novel has to say to the reader. The novel has many comments to make on contemporary l i f e , but everything i s subordinated to the character of Pedro; i f the - 139 -novel has a l a s t i n g value, i t i s because of Pereda's creation of an immensely human hero. Although the previous sections i n t h i s study have been designed to show that his ideas were more tolerant and modern than he i s usually given c r e d i t f o r , i t i s his f i c t i o n a l a b i l i t y , the characters he creates, which make the moral thesis i r r e l e v a n t when discussing his f i c t i o n . Pedro i s born i n the Montana into a poor but proud family--the Sanchezes--who l i v e i n perpetual r i v a l r y with a well-to-do, but lower-class f a m i l y — t h e G a r c i a s . One t r a i t of Pedro stressed continually by Pereda i s his p r i d e — i t i s the one constant source of Pedro's f a i l u r e i n l i f e . He i n h e r i t s his pride from his father, who i s one of the r e a l hidalgos, which Pereda s a t i r i s e d on numerous occasions.2 The p o r t r a i t of Juan Sanchez i s the f i r s t detailed character study that i s made i n the novel, and i t i s one of Pereda's best sketches of a proud, petty nobleman who i s over-conscious of what i s owed to him i n the world. Despite being a stock-character i n Pereda's f i c t i o n , his humanity i s never compromised. He i s upheld by his family pride and never once does he deviate from his own honest b e l i e f s , nor does he ever downcry anyone else nor attempt to detract from what i s due another human being. Pereda displays superb psychological insight i n his presentation of the Sanchezes, father and sonj Pedro remains bli n d to Clara's wiles at the period of t h e i r marriage, but he i s able to see his father's short-sightedness regarding Valenzuela. It i s one of the most perceptive creations of a "worldly wise" young man who i s b l i n d to his own f a i l i n g s . - 140 -The character of Juan Sanchez i s b u i l t up, piece by piece, throughout the novel. When Pedro's s i s t e r marries a well-to-do jandalo, i t i s not " s i n grandes repugnancias de _su_J padre, que tasaba e l lustre de su alcurnia en mucho mas." (II, 8) His aspirations for Pedro are no higher than the secretary-ship of t h e i r v i l l a g e , and both would have been content were i t not for the a r r i v a l of Valenzuela. Their reception by t h i s eminent p o l i t i c i a n causes Pedro to leave the v i l l a g e under Valenzuela's auspices. Although Pedro recognizes his father's pride, he sees him most c l e a r l y as a warm and very human father for whom he has the greatest respect. Juan's love for Pedro i s revealed when Pedro i s about to leave; he gives him "dos ronosas onzas de oro, que quiza eran las economias de toda su vida," (II, 33) and as Juan disappears from Pedro's sight, his conscience pricks him for leaving " e l honrado y amoroso anciano, que se quedaba solo y t r i s t e cuando mas necesitaba e l amparo y carino de l a f a m i l i a . " (II, 33) Although Juan w i l l only appear once more, the reader i s consistently aware of his presence through his l e t t e r s . His benevolence and f a i t h i n Valenzuela are contrasted sharply with the r e a l i t y of l i f e . Pedro himself comments i r o n i c a l l y on his father's judgment at a climactic point i n the novel, "jOjo ducho en conocer a los hombresI...Santo varon! /Modelo de caballeros, campechano y noblote e l senor de Valenzuela!" (II, 83) The f i n a l appearance of Juan Sanchez i s when Pedro returns to his v i l l a g e as governor-elect, to a tumultuous hero's - 141 -welcome. The character of his father i s reaffirmed, as are the a f f e c t i o n between father and son, and Juan's pride i n Pedro, and his pride i n his family which makes him say " — j Q u i e n piensa ya en los Garcias...Era polvo indecente y esta donde debe estar: bajo mis zapatos." (II, 1 6 2 ) Juan Sanchez i s used to set off the character of his son, and i s also a contrapuntal device which shows up the dishonesty of the madrileflos. He could be seen as prooT that Pereda supports a purely pastoral and anti-Madrid thesis i n the novel, but he i s not the only honest person that Pedro meets, and he i s not the only contrast to the i n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y of Madrid society that Pereda presents. Apart from his a l l e g o r i c a l function i n the novel, Juan Sanchez i s a warm and human crea-t i o n , but the reader can only see him through Pedro's eyes. As such he i s rather two-dimensional and does not seem capable of coming a l i v e outside the novel. The same remarks hold true for a l l the members of the Valenzuela family, with the exception of Clara h e r s e l f . There i s an attempt to make her father a more human creation than that of the t r a d i t i o n a l unscrupulous p o l i t i c i a n . When Pedro f i r s t meets him i n his v i l l a g e he i s courteous and deferent to Juan Sanchez, and his promise to Pedro i s warm and f r i e n d l y : " e l buscarle un d e s t i n i l l o a Pedro...es para mi cosa f a c i l i s i m a " (II, 3 1 )• When Pedro t r i e s to see him and get him to f u l f i l l his promise, he i s cold, distant and antagonistic. It i s l a t e r i n the novel that Clara t r i e s to j u s t i f y the conduct of her father: "mi padre es e l mejor de los hombres entre su - 142 -f a m i l i a , en los p a s i l l o s del teatro, un su pueblo de usted..., en todas partes menos en e l s i l l d n de su despacho y dondequiera que ejerza de p o l i t i c o entre los suyos" (II, 125-6) and she goes on to give Pedro some idea about the schizophrenia which i s inherent i n a p o l i t i c i a n ' s l i f e . The creation of Valenzuela i s one of the least successful i n the novel. The reader i s never shown convincingly t h i s dichotomy i n the p o l i t i c i a n . It i s a f a i l i n g that Pereda makes him appear stereotyped and rather l i f e l e s s : Valenzuela i s a straw man at whom he can vent his spleen. He i s a creation that lacks the humanity of Juan Sanchez and i s never convincing even as a two-dimensional character who sets up a reaction i n Pedro. There i s a great deal of symmetry i n the novel and Pereda creates three fathers, each of whom represents a d i f f e r e n t attitude to l i f e . It would therefore be as well to consider the character of thi s t h i r d consuegro, before going into the character of Clara i n depth. This t h i r d father i s Don Serafin, and he i s another powerful character-creation. Like Juan Sanchez he i s epito-mised by his s i n c e r i t y and honesty, but also by his humanity and the love he has for his daughter. Pedro's f i r s t impression of Don Serafin i s that he i s "inquieto y muy impresionable" and a l i t t l e "pintoresco," but his personality comes across and Pedro c a l l s him "llamativo y simpatico." (II, 35) He i s a rather strange creation, who could have walked straight out of a Gald6s novel. Pereda had the a b i l i t y to create the same type of figure as Galdos.loved to present, and th e i r presence - 143 -w i l l mark some of the great achievements of the Madrid novels. The s i m i l a r i t y of characters i s limited, to secondary figures, since both novelists created protagonists who were much too complex to be " t y p i c a l . " The dominant t r a i t i n Don Serafin's character, at the time that Pedro met him, was his monomania about being a cesante. He has a serious grievance and i t i s a very d e f i n i t e c r i t i c i s m of the p o l i t i c a l system of the time. Like Galdos' V i l l a a m i l he takes i t to heart, but the way he describes his loss of jobs i s very well-drawn. Everyone has a grievance which he exaggerates to impress others, but with the knowledge that i t i s an exaggeration which adds humor to the tales Es cosa sabida...y hasta proverbial entre las gentes de o f i c i o : _ hay que hacer un hueco para colocar a un intruso recien llegado? Pues Serafin Balduque, cesante. ^Ambiciona alguien e l puesto mio en una c a p i t a l deter-minada? A l dia siguiente ya esta Serafin Balduque trasladado a los quintos i n f i e r n o s . _Se habia de c r i s i s ? Balduque, a l agua. _Se arma un t i b e r i o p o l i t i c o en cualquier parte del mundo? Don Serafin, s i n empleo. (II, This i s f a r better characterization than that of Valenzuela; Pedro had mentioned that Don Serafin was witty (chistoso) and he then goes on to demonstrate i t . While Pedro was new i n Madrid, Don Serafin was "incans-ableV i n showing Pedro around the c i t y "en su tenaz prop-osito de que lo conociera yo como l a palma de l a mano." (II, 60 This i s one of those small touches which every great n o v e l i s t adds to the characterization of t h e i r creations to round them out. - 144 -Don Serafin i s contrasted to Valenzuela d i r e c t l y , and also i n d i r e c t l y through the opposing natures of t h e i r daughters. Thus any d i s t i n c t i o n that i s expressed between Carmen and Clara i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r fathers. The conrvtrast between the two men i s developed into antagonism, for Don Serafin enters Pedro's room afte r one of the governmental crises shouting "jMueran los p i l l o s ! " His attack on the polacos is extended and he say "Excuso decir que e l primogenito esta su amigote Valenzuela." (II, 90-91) The two men represent opposing p o l i t i c a l factions; n a t u r a l l y there i s much made of the scorn of the p o l i t i c i a n and the f r i e n d l i n e s s of the l i b e r a l . Another aspect worth considering here i s that both men are contrasted with Pedro's father, and the three men stand for d i f f e r i n g p o l i t i c a l outlooks which can be summarised as the honest traditionalist;".'?, Juan Sanchez, the honest, idealised l i b e r a l , Don Serafin, and the corrupt opportunist, Valenzuela. The powerlessness of the f i r s t two and t h e i r lack of p r a c t i c a l judgment i s contrasted very sharply with the power assumed by Valenzuela, who does not regard the feelings of others as long as he can a t t a i n his own desires. It i s because of Pereda's a t t r a c t i o n to the more human figures, l i k e Juan Sanchez and Don Serafin, that he i s able to turn them into l i v i n g c h a p t e r s , whereas the cynicism of Valenzuela repulsed him and he created a caricature. Don Serafin always appears i n order to t e l l Pedro of the events that have taken place on the p o l i t i c a l scene. When the revolution f i n a l l y s t a r t s i t i s he who says "jSe armo l a - 145 -gorda!" (II, 117) and although he i s made into a warm family man, he seems to represent the Spanish people, for his fortunes appear to be t i e d up with those of the common people. After a l l , i n a government c r i s i s i t i s the common people who suffe r , and i n the same way Don Serafin has continually been put out of a job. He, and the Spanish people, achieve t h e i r moment of glory i n the streets, but any hope of an improvement of t h e i r p o s i t i o n i s c r u e l l y shattered. The death of Don Serafin i s one of the most dramatic and tragi c moments i n Pereda's f i c t i o n . It i s tragic f or Don Sara f i n does no one any harm and does as much good as he can; he i s h e l p f u l , f r i e n d l y and loves his daughter and brings her up w e l l . His death, nevertheless, seems necessary a r t i s t i c a l l y , and he dies on the streets, just as l i b e r t y died there. It i s Don Serafin who says exultantly "no hay mas Gobiernos en Madrid que l a gente que g r i t a por l a c a l l e . " (II, 119) His f i n a l act i s one of desperation as he t r i e s to take on the government that i s t o t t e r i n g "jA ganar con mis punos lo que se debe en j u s t i c i a ! . . . 1 A enviar a l Gobierno con una bala e l memorial de mis agra v i o s l " (II, 135) Don Serafin goes into the streets because of a personal grudge, but also to vent his spleen on the au t h o r i t i e s , just as the people had done when they had sacked the houses of various notables. He throws himself on to one of the parapets with a gun— " jque n i siq u i e r a estaba cargadoi" (II, 135) This i s symbolic of his lack of foresight; he i s so sure of his ideals that he i s gunned down quite needlessly. Perhaps the f i n e s t touch - 146 -that Pereda gives to thi s p o r t r a i t of a man, beset by the h o s t i l i t y of fate, i s to make him r e f l e c t before he dies that he has forsaken the thing most dear to him; — h i s daughter--"/Sola en este mundo s i n justiciar. .. .Y sola, porque yo no pense bastante en e l l o . . . a l arriesgar hoy mi vida entre las balaso.., con e l deseo de ganar a t i r o s lo;.que se me debe en buena le y . " (II, 135) Don S e r a f i n i s one of the f i n e s t creations of the novel, and he i s intended as a f o i l to the many s e l f i s h and s e l f -centred people who are found there; he contrasts with'Valen-zuela, but also with the egotism of Pedro himself. He i s also established as a comparison to Juan Sanchez, and thus Pereda represents the id e a l of two p o l i t i c a l extremes. Don S e r a f i n also assumes the role of the common people who were f i g h t i n g for j u s t i c e i n the streets but who only found death. There are three other important characters i n the novel, along with a host of minor ones. It would be useful to point to a few of these minor characters here, since they have some bearing on those who have just been discussed. Valenzuela's family consists of his wife and a son, as well as Clara. These two are not nearly as complex as the l a t t e r , nor i s t h e i r stature as great as Valenzuela's. Both are seen as fops whose only thoughts are of th e i r own p r o f i t and of ostentationo Manolo i s a very shadowy figure, even more of a caricature than the Vizconde del Cierzo of La mujer  del Cesar. He i s more interested i n clothes than i n anything else, and i s a craven coward. He i s one of Pereda's least - U n -successful creations, and the only time any l i f e i s injected into him i s i n the l a s t chapter: ROPO a una bolera de cuarta f i l a , del teatro de l a Cruz, y se caso con ella...No durd seis meses e l pobre chico. Verdad que lo que hicieron las escrdfulas, a f a l t a de e l l o s lo hubiera hecho su apreciable suegro, que tenia e l peor de los aguardientes. (II, 188) One could say that he enlivens him only i n time to k i l l him, but Pereda with t h i s l a s t deft touch makes the reader see that perhaps Manolo's l i f e was r e a l l y a tragedy a f t e r a l l , and that the f a u l t lay i n his upbringing. P i l i t a J i j o s de Valenzuela has the pride and foppishness of her son but lacks his tastej she has a l l the malice of her husband, though lacking his i n t e l l i g e n c e . Her character i s not developed by Pereda u n t i l the period of Pedro's marriage to Carmen, when i t appears that she takes on the dominant role i n the marriage. It i s during Pedro's i l l - f a t e d govern-orship that P i l i t a shows her r e a l colors and argues frequently with Pedro. She i s s l i g h t l y more v i t a l than Manolo, but only' just, for she i s a negative creation and there are no human touches to round off her f i g u r e . P i l i t a i s an inhuman caricature i n whom a l l i s feigned but her s e l f i s h n e s s . In Don Serafin's family, on the other hand, there i s only the servant Quica. She plays a very minor r o l e , but somehow gains the reader's sympathy, perhaps because she has no pretensions, "Ya cincuentona, pequenita y fea...inmovil, casi r i g i d a " (II, 35 ) perhaps because she i s a figure of fun, "Es raro...lo que le pasa a e-sta mujer en e l t e a t r o . t o d o l a hace l l o r a r . " (II, 5 5 ) Quica i n her devotion to Carmen i s the counterbalance to P i l i t a (and Manolo) and she i s one of - 147 -the most sympathetic creatures that Pereda created. It i s Quica who begs Pedro "Escribale usted de cuando en cuando..., que se queda muy so l a . " (II, I65), i t i s always Quica who seems to have a kind word for Pedro, and who st i c k s by Carmen without complaint. An exquisite touch to Pedro's own char-acter, and his highest tribute to thi s ugly but bene-volent l i t t l e woman, i s that when he describes his great test he says "Todos L*mis planes} se destruyeron como c a s t i l l o de naipes a l primer soplo del viento. Carmen, nuestro h i j o , Quica; los tres desaparecieron del mundo..." (II, 189) He may place Quica l a s t , but she i s one of the' most important parts of his l i f e . He feels her loss almost as deeply as that of his wife and son. There are one or two other minor characters who are w e l l -drawn, but these are very s l i g h t , however much they come a l i v e . Redondo, the e d i t o r - i n - c h i e f of the C l a r i n has already been described, and he stands out from the background, preaching progress but forgetting to practise., i t . The secretary assigned to Pedro during his term as governor i s another well-executed cameo. Bujes, the p o l i t i c a l informant, i s the th i r d of these, and his character serves well to bring about Pedro's success i n the revolution. Other minor figures are introduced for comic r e l i e f s -The family of Don Magin de los Trucos has already been mentioned as has Agamendn. Perhaps the most amusing of a l l these are Pedro's seven fellow boarders; they cause Pereda to make a serious comment on univer s i t y education, but they do reveal - 148 -that "bohemians" or "hippies" were very much i n vogue i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s during t h i s period. Shortly a f t e r his introduction of these seven strange young men, he i s introduced to one who " v a l i a mucho mas." ( I I , 4-5) This i s a poet c a l l e d Mata, or Matica; he i s never given any other name, but he i s one of the most consummate p o r t r a i t s i n the novel. Matica has his f a u l t s , he i s prone to obscenity—Pedro declares "No he oido jama's cosas mas indecentes" ( I I , 4 4 ) and "Me daba miedo...las liviandades de su obscena musa" ( I I , 62)--he i s lazy, "un vagabundo incurable que derrochaba su ingenio a borbotones en las mesas de los cafes y entre estudiantes desenfadados." ( I I , 4 4 ) Yet he has many vi r t u e s ; Pedro describes his moral q u a l i t i e s at.some length ( I I , 62) but Matica i s best seen i n the novel for his good, clear-cut judgment and by his l o y a l t y and friendship to Pedro. When Don Serafin dies, i t i s i n the company of Pedro and Matica, and one feels that these two men are the r e a l friends of Pedro and are his mentors i n a way that his father had not been. Both Don Serafin and Matica are doomed to f a i l u r e , but i t i s i n t h e i r v a l i a n t mediocrity that Pereda's genius i s best revealed. Any n o v e l i s t can create a bad character e a s i l y ; to create two good characters l i k e these who are never sentimentalised, i s extremely d i f f i c u l t . Matica, who must surely have an h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n a l , i s Pedro's mentor i n l i t e r a t u r e - - " L e i muchas comedias...siempre por mediacion de Matica" ( I I , 63); i n p o l i t i c s - - M a t i c a - 149 -enlightens Pedro as to Valenzuela's r e a l character; i n s o c i e t y — M a t i c a takes him to his f i r s t s o c i a l event; and i n the press—Matica gets him his job at the C l a r i n , which w i l l mean so much for Pedro's success. Matica i s also Pedro's conscience; i t i s he who "se quedo hecho una estatua a l saber con quien me casaba." (II, 15?) There i s a difference between the characterizations of Matica and Ser a f i n . The l a t t e r i s a good example of a figure who i s developed throughout the novel and who undergoes a change. This i s pe r f e c t l y convincing, but his ide a l i s e d heroism i s not obvious from the s t a r t . Matica, on the other hand, i s f u l l y developed from the beginning and undergoes no-thing more than amplification as Pedro gets to know him. Once his character i s established nothing he does can surprise the reader, or rather he does nothing for which the reader i s not prepared. This comparison does not detract from the accuracy of the presentation of Don Serafin, for he i s e s s e n t i a l l y impetuous and unpredictable, and his heroism does not surprise the reader, but catches him unawares. There i s something very moving about the figure of Matica, since the account of his death, following that of Carmen and of Juan Sanchez, s t i l l has an impact. Perhaps i t i s because Carmen's death follows a t r a d i t i o n of the fleetingness of b l i s s , and Pedro's father i s old and forgotten (Ke was an anciano i n the early pages) but Matica's death i s so unlooked f o r — h e does not end his days i n glory l i k e Don Serafin, but s l i p s quaetly away. It may be that the reader has forgotten - 150 -Matica amid Pedro's sorrow, and i t i s the knowledge that the wheel of fortune—Pedro's own image (II, 1 8 9 ) — i s irrevocably destroying everything he holds dear: Le a f l i g i a bastante un pertinaz catar£o desde e l inv-ier-no anterior: pero esperaba curarlo con las brisas. de mayo. Esto me decia en febrero. Pues en a b r i l , con l a inesperada n o t i c i a de su muerte, h u n d i 6 Redondo, que me l a transmitia, e l ultimo clavo doloroso en mi corazdn. (I I . 189) Of the three characters l e f t to discuss—Pedro and his two wives--one i s a manifestation of Pereda's biggest f a i l i n g . In the whole range of his f i c t i o n he shows a p r e d i l e c t i o n for the virtuous, stay-at-home heroine, and he never manages to create a successful one. The reason i s that Carmen i s too perfect; i f one considers his f i c t i o n as a whole, one can see that the only heroines of stature are either wicked--such as l a Montalvez—mischievous—Nieves of A l primer vuelo--rebellious--Irene of Nubes de e s t i o — o r enigmatic--Sotileza. His good heroines, such as Luz Montalvez, Lituca (Penas arriba) or Ines (La puchera) do not stand out as l i v i n g people but as caricatures of v i r t u e . Carmen i s Pereda's version of Soledad G i l de l a Cuadra, but she cannot compare. Sola i s ugly and i s determined and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t ; Carmen i s b e a u t i f u l and without f a u l t . She exists as a symbol, not as a human being. If there i s a major flaw i n the construction of the novel i t i s that Pereda created a too^-perfect contrast to Clara. Pedro's f i r s t w i f e — C l a r a — i s the opposite; she i s the Peredian heroine who stands out along with Nica Montalvez and - 151 -S o t i l e z a as being flawed, and, therefore, human. Clara i s worth a detailed analysis since she dominates a large portion of the novel; her character i s seen to change and develop— or rather Pedro's view of i t does—as time goes on. The f i r s t time Pedro sees her, his impression i s f l e e t -ing and not very imposing--"Parecidme esbelta y de no vulgar continente; descolorida en extremo, dura de faz y mas que medianamente descarnada." (II, 23) His idea of her changes, as far as her physical beauty goes: "Porque s i alguna vez los aires han hecho milagros, fue aquella en l a enfermiza, palida y angulosa Clara" (II, 32) and thi s becomes greater as time goes on, and he f a l l s under her s p e l l : Estaba teifiblemente hermosa. (II, 123) Una hermosa mujer....(II, 146) Era hermosa, teno.blemente hermosa. (II, 151) La afamada, excepcional b e l l e z a de l a heroina....(II, 157) La ostentosa y soberbia hermosura... «.(II, 169) These quotations reveal Pedro's regard for Clara as a woman, but the adjectives he chooses are not without a cer-t a i n significance--twice he says her beauty was t e r r i b l e , and he also credits i t with pride and ostentation. When Pedro returns to his v i l l a g e before taking up the governorship of his island he compares her as he f i r s t met her, " l a yerta, s o l i t a r i a , seca y bravia f i g u r a de l a enfermiza h i j a de Valenzuela" with " l a imagen provocativa y sensual de mi mujer." (II, I63) This i s probably the clearest exposition of Pedro's great mistake i n l i f e ; he i s seduced by the physical a t t r a c t i o n of Clara, and neglects her moral f a i l i n g s . - 152 -What makes Clara so imposing a figure i s that she com-bines a hard, cold, c a l c u l a t i n g , mind with a sensual e x t e r i o r . Pedro f i r s t notes that "Faltaba a sus ojos l a dulzura, que es e l mayor encanto de l a b e l l e z a , " (II, 25) but he also comm-ents that her face i s "de los que se imponen, no de los que atraen y enamoran." (II, 25) Yet she l a t e r attracts him and makes him f a l l i n love. Their r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a l i t t l e strained at f i r s t , es-p e c i a l l y when he discovers her desire for the naked truth, a t r a i t which repulses him a l i t t l e : "para elevacidn del alma, singularmente l a de l a mujer, hay mentiras necesarias," (II, 28) Pedro i s putting forward a view of the po s i t i o n of women that has changed much since, but the es s e n t i a l idea s t i l l holds true that no rel a t i o n s h i p can ever l a s t i f based upon the naked truth, for the truth always hurts and destroys any "better f e e l i n g s " that may e x i s t . Pedro's encounters with her i n Madrid only serve to further confuse him for they fluctuate between " l a misma sequedad" (11,46) and " l a mas afectuosa de l a acogidas." (II, 79) This alternate repulsion and a t t r a c t i o n only serve to captivate him more. During the revolution, Pedro decides that he ought to save the Valenzuela family; i t i s Clara who understands his action and gives orders to her mother and brother. His action i s inexplicable to her, and she demands the reason for i t : Decir que habian obedecido a un impulso maquinal y f i l a n t r o p i c o era poco, y no era l a verdad; decir que, a pesar de que Valenzuela no l a merecia, me habia arriesgado a s a l v a r l e , era demasiado; que lo hice acordandome solamente de Clara, aunque no fuera verdad, no podia d e c i r l o . (II, 125) - 153 -Even by this stage, Pedro i s caught i n Clara's trap, and his love grows very quickly while she i s i n confinement. They are about to reveal t h e i r feelings for each other when P i l i t a i nterrupts; they repew the subject and are once more i n t e r -r u p t e d — t h i s time by Manolo. F i n a l l y Pedro believes he has the answer when he kisses her; .;",' Aquella hermosa estatua, lo que yo c r e i en un tiempo f r i o y duro marmol, abrasabal" (II, 15D After the marriage, however, Pedro begins to r e a l i z e what Cl&ra's character i s r e a l l y l i k e . A l l fefelings for him are subordinated to her own desire for ostentation; her l©ve based on selfishness and arrogance. The way she treats those she does not l i k e i s insolent, and i t i s not long before her cy n i c a l opportunism i s brought home to Pedro. He r e a l i z e s that She has never loved him at a l l , "Clara, que nunca me amd," (II, 181) andhhe talks of " l a f a l s a ley de £su] corazdn." (II, 1 75 ) After his return to Madrid and poverty, he i s forced to drain his cup of sorrow to the dregs when he discovers her adultery with Barrientos. This i s only the f i n a l touch i n his p o r t r a i t of the most e v i l woman i n the whole of Peredian f i c t i o n . Clara i s exemplified by her l u c i d i t y , both i n her dealings with others, and i n her knowledge of herself. Clara i s an exqu i s i t e l y conceived character. She i s just as detestable as her mother, but Pereda manages to match her callousness with her voluptuousness. It i s t h i s a b i l i t y to charm which makes her believable, and she remains l i f e -line to the end of her l i f e , when the i n t e g r i t y of Pereda's - 154- -p o r t r a i t , allows her to die unsentimentally "Murio impen-iten t e , f r i a y altanera, como una pagana." (II, 188) Complex as the character of Clara i s , Pedro i s f a r more d i f f i c u l t to approach. P h y s i c a l l y he i s a true heros "mozo ya de buen nutrido bigote, muy fornido de miembros y, segun publico d e c i r . . . l a mejor estampa de galan que se pas-eaba en muchas leguas a l a redonda" (II',' 18) although he admits i t may have been caused by "vanidosa ceguedad" on his part--a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that i s to have effects on his future. When he leaves the Montana he says he has "una salud de bronce." (II, 34-) He meets and embraces Don Serafin, once i n Madrid, "casi por e l cogote, por no poder hacerlo mas abajo s i n encorvarme mucho" (II, 4-9) and l a t e r Matica t e l l s him "Eres e l mas gallardo mozo que ha pisado madrilenos salones." (II, 75) The development of his character takes the whole of the novel, for that i s what the novel i s about. Pereda i s to give the reader the figure of a young man who i s b l i n d to c e r t a i n facets of his own nature, and to the true natures of those who surround him. He i s also characterized by a . r e f l e c t i o n of the people who surround him. He i s an excellent judge of character u n t i l passion begins to warp his v i s i o n . He i s soon capable of assessing the true worth of Valenzuela, but he never manages to see the r e a l i t y of Clara's personality u n t i l he has learned the hard way. One could summarise Pedro's character and show that i t contained a l l elements that can be found i n the others i n the novel. In the f i r s t sequence Pedro has the honesty and - 155 -g u l l i b i l i t y of his father, but he i s soon tinged with the p o l i t i c a l ambition of Valenzuela. Later he i s suffused with the l o y a l t y and friendship, the idealism and judgment of Don Serafin and Matica: his conduct with Carmen i s as heart-less as Clara's treatment of him, but i t i s only when the l a t t e r 1 s coldness repulses him, and he i s attracted by the former's warmth, that he finds a moment of f l e e t i n g happiness. The novel could be compared most cl o s e l y to Dickens' Great Expectations ( i n i t s o r i g i n a l form) f o r the story and the theme are very s i m i l a r indeed. Pedro i s a man of e s s e n t i a l l y good q u a l i t i e s , but he i s brought low by his pride, by his ambition, i n short by the very 6"eguedad vanidosa that he himself talks of, and which cause him to have as great expecta-tions i n l i f e as P h i l i p P i r r i p ever did, and which are just as rudely shattered. The a f f e c t i o n (which has been mentioned) which Juan Sanchez has for Pedro i s reciprocated by the l a t t e r just as strongly. One manifestation of t h i s i s that Juan takes Pedro on two journeys which provide the reader with premonitions of what i s to come. On Pedro's f i r s t journey to Santander, he undergoes an e c s t a t i c r e l i g i o u s experience. This i s an i n d i c a t i o n of Pedro's s e n s i b i l i t y and faculty of being e a s i l y overawed through his senses—he i s extremely sensitive and impressionable. His second journey makes him aware that 1here i s more to l i f e than he has imagined. He does q u a l i f y his statement and stress that as;yet he was not b i t t e n by " e l roedor gusano de las desmedidas ambiciones," (II, 20) but the - 156 -r e a d e r i s prepared f o r the a r r i v a l of V a l e n z u e l a shortly-a f t e r . Pedro i s a "montanes de pura r a z a " ( I I , 36) and h i s b i o g -raphy i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the f a t e of the Montana. J u s t as the p r o v i n c e s change because of the advent of the r a i l r o a d s , so Pedro i s changed by the coming of V a l e n z u e l a on the r a i l r o a d T h i s aspect of change i s fundamental i n the n o v e l , which i s a c h r o n i c l e of changing times, and i s emphasized by the opening words s Entonces no era mi pueblo l a mitad de l o que es hoy. ( I I , With the a r r i v a l of V a l e n z u e l a and C l a r a , Pedro w i l l f a l l under the i n f l u e n c e of three of h i s worst q u a l i t i e s — p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l ambition, p r i d e and p a s s i o n . I t could almost be s a i d t h a t the ValenzuelaC'S are the e x t e r n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of Pedro's f a u l t s ; j u s t as h i s f a t h e r i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the p o s i t i v e value of p r i d e ; and M a t i c a and Don S e r a f i n are the e x t e r n a l i s a t i o n of the good q u a l i t i e s w i t h i n Pedro. G e n e r o s i t y , l o y a l t y , f r i e n d s h i p , i d e a l i s m and r i g o r o u s c r i t i c a l judgment form p a r t of Pedro when i t i s r e f l e c t e d by these other c h a r a c t e r s and, of course, a f f e c t i o n and love are evidenced by Carmen and h i s f a t h e r . When i n Madrid, Pedro i s a t f i r s t marked out by h i s s i m p l i c i t y and h i s naive b e l i e f i n V a l e n z u e l a . As time goes on, and as he becomes more and more d i s i l l u s i o n e d , he becomes l e s s naive and much more c y n i c a l . T h i s i s brought out when Pedro rescues Carmen a f t e r she has been run down by Manolo V a l e n z u e l a ; she reprimands Sim f o r being a t r e v i d o , and he - 157 -i s a l s o condescending i n the way he addresses her, and she c o n t r a s t s him to how he was; — Y o l e p r e f i e r o a usted t a l y como l e con o c i v i n i e n d o de l a Montana...y algunos d i a s despues. —^Tambien por aqui peco, h i j a mia? Pues esto no es ha b l a r de l o s p i e s n i de l o s manos de u s t e d . --Pero a l f i n , son c h i c o l e o s de mai gusto, tan impropios de usted como d e " l a o c a s i d n . (II, 85) The b a s i s of Carmen's c r i t i c i s m i s the f a c i l e change t h a t Madrid has wrought i n h i s c h a r a c t e r . T h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a d i r e c t a t t a c k on the c i t y , but on the bad i n f l u e n c e i t may have on men l i k e Pedro, who adopt i t s e x t e r n a l appearance without comprehending i t s essence. This i s once a g a i n an a t t a c k on the hollowness of c e r t a i n p o i n t s of m e t r o p o l i t a n s o c i e t y . The t e n s i o n between the v a r i o u s s e t s of c h a r a c t e r s i s maintained and these are hel d t o g e t h e r by Pedro, who i s a t a l l times an ambivalent c h a r a c t e r p u l l e d d i f f e r e n t ways at d i f f e r e n t times by h i s w i l d l y opposed f e e l i n g s . He i s a l s o d r i v e n by h i s ambition; a f t e r succeeding as a j o u r n a l i s t he says ; Habia o t r o campo en que e s p i g a r nuevos y muy sabrosos t r i u n f o s , y nadie en mejores c o n d i c i o n e s que yo entonces para colocarme en e l . E s t e campo e r a e l mundo, l a buena s o c i e d a d . (II, 108) Th i s statement r e v e a l s Pereda's s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of s o c i e t y , f o r i t would be easy to take h i s image one stage f u r t h e r and thus he can be seen as winning i n the f i e l d of l i t e r a t u r e , s o c i e t y , and, l a t e r , p o l i t i c s — t h i s i s a very r e a l " f i e l d of b a t t l e " f o r Pedro. - 158 -It i s useless to point to the q u a l i t y of the character sketches as a source of the greatness of Pedro Sanchez* Well-drawn secondary characters can only save a novel from being completely worthless and cannot themselves make i t great; they can, however, add to the value of a good novel. Pedro—and Pereda--had himself c r i t i c i s e d Fernan Caballero's Clemencia while praising very highly cer t a i n secondary char-acters i n the novel. Posterity no longer places Clemencia very high as a novel because of the insipidness of the cen-t r a l action; but i t has endorsed Pereda's praise of the secondary characters who have saved the novel from being con-signed to oblivion. This does not happen with Pedro Sanchez, i n which the creation of the characteroof the hero i s the high-est achievement. The novel, as with a l l autobiographical novels, depends on the hero, and the action should spring from his character and should be mirrored by i t . This i s what Pereda does here, just as Dickens had done i n David Copperfield and Great Expectations. The picture of society i s used to set off the l i f e and opinions of Pedro, and i n a sense he creates and di r e c t s history i t s e l f : Entonces, de repente, me acorde yo de que era Pedro Sanchez...y aquella [revolucidn^que fermentaba en derredor mio era, en gran parte, obra de mi ingenio, chispa de mi pluma fulminante...Cientos y cientos, y creo que miles, de bocas repetian entonces mi nombre ...iQue Dios me perdone, en gracia del c a r i t a t i v o f i n que me inspiraba, l a culpa que tuve de que se anticipara algunas horas aquel desastre, que estaba decretado y habia de cumplirse de todas maneras! (II, 1 2 1 - 3 ) - 159 -It can be seen that Pedro not only becomes i n f l u e n t i a l i n , and a comentator on, the l i t e r a r y , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l worlds, but he influences events that r e a l l y did take place. This makes him s i m i l a r to Galdos* protagonists i n the Episodios nacionales and also adds a further dimension to his character. Pedro Sanchez i s one of the most finished novels i n that there i s a complete and absolute fusion of ideas i n the main character and the subsidiary ones. He, as narrator, i s involved with every stratum of middle- and upper-class society, and his destiny i s linked with the destiny of the nation, and at times controls i t . The secondary characters may exist as f u l l y rounded ones, but each has another r o l e — t o add to the hero's development. As a document of l i f e i n Madrid i t i s almost complete; but despite the care with which c e r t a i n figures are described, there i s one aspect which i s lacking and which distinguishes the "regional" writer from the "metropolitan" writer: Pereda never describes the lower classes of Madrid. This difference that exists between Galdos and Pereda reveals the r e a l d i v i -sion between t h e i r f i c t i o n a l production: Galdos can recreate the lower classes i n Madrid; Pereda those of the Montana. Apart from th i s major d i s t i n c t i o n , they often describe the other classes with the same mixture of a f f e c t i o n and c r i t i c i s m . It i s i n t h i s way that Pereda has developed considerably from the straightforward characters of Ramon (La mujer del  Cesar) S i l v e s t r e (Suum cuique) and Don Simon (Los hombres de pro), - 160 -a l l of whom were delineated as being uncomplicated represent-atives of c e r t a i n aspects of human nature. Pereda's development from Pedro Sanchez can be traced through Sotileza--which w i l l be discussed i n some d e t a i l later--and La Montalvez. In t h i s l a t t e r novel he was attemp-ti n g something f a r more demanding, and his success both i n the technique and i n his characterization i s less complete. In dealing with t h i s novel, the reader w i l l discover that there are three sets of characters: Those i n part one only; those who are only i n part two; and a few who are i n both. The ones who appear i n part one and then disappear are the least memorable. It was as i f they were merely introduced because they were needed for the exigencies of the p l o t . The f i r s t i s Nica's grandfather, who i s a " r i c o ex-c o n t r a t i s t a de carreteras y suministros" (II, 391), and whose ess e n t i a l q u a l i t y i s a clear business mind. The re s u l t s of th i s are, of course, vast wealth, which makes his entrance into society easy for him. His character i s not developed by Pereda, but remains dependent on t h i s one t r a i t . He loves his granddaughter—"estaba chocho con su n i e t a " (II, 393)— d&attv-as her parents do not; on his/\bed, he talks to Nica i n very u n f l a t t e r i n g terms: Pero s i he de decirte lo que siento, no f i o de tu cordura mucho mas que l a de tus padres. La unica ventaja que les s.acas es que tienes mejor entendimiento que e l l o s . ( I I , 410) To the end he maintains his c l a r i t y of v i s i o n and judg-ment—a capacity that enables him to forecast " s i sale [Nica! 1 - 1 6 1 -una mujer honrada es un milagro de Dios." (II, 395) 'He Is an ably drawn character sketch, but he has no r e a l depth or development of his nature to make him memorable. Nica's brother i s possibly less well drawn than the grand-father, i s c e r t a i n l y f ar less memorable and extremely unsympa-t h e t i c . His a r r i v a l i s greeted with great r e j o i c i n g and his baptism was an event i n Madrid. His upbringing i s the exact opposite of Nica's — "JPor/que detestais a l a una, tanto como quereis a l otro?" (II, 395) asks the grandfather—but he i s the f i r s t example of the errors of education that Pereda i s to stress so strongly i n the novel. He does make one cl e a r -cut statement which shows how close--and how f a r — h e r e a l l y was to the n a t u r a l i s t s . Talking aboutiftiis d i s t i n c t i o n between the education of the two children, he says: No puede negarse que e l medio ambiente, tan traido y tan llevado ahora por l a gente de mi o f i c i o , influye mucho en l a condicidn moral y hasta en e l desarrollo f i s i c o de los caracteres y de las naturalezasj pero no menos c i e r t o que las hay de t a l f i b r a , que, con ambiente y s i n ambiente, echan impavidas por l a c a l l e en medio y por e l l a siguen s i n torcerse n i extraviarse, aunque les iadren canes y les t i r e n vestiglos de l a ropa. (II, 394-) Pereda's stand i n thi s novel i s that people have a certa i n nat-ure which remains with them throughout t h e i r l i v e s ; but cer-t a i n aspects can be conditionedy by society, for he ci t e s as an example of the above precept, Nica's lack of jealousy of her brother. Later i n the novel, however, the fact that society has twisted c e r t a i n parts of her character i s funda-mental to the theme. - 162 -The brother i s shown as having a somewhat d i f f i c u l t nat-u r e — " l c mas encanijado, l l o r d n y cascarrabias que hubo venido nunca a l mundo" ( I I , 3 9 4 ) — a n d that his education serves only to make him worse. He deteriorates morally and p h y s i c a l l y , and at f i f t e e n he did not even know his l e t t e r s , and was "raquitico, sarmentoso y descuajaringadoV ( I I , 399) His death was l i k e his l i f e , and i t i s perhaps i n the des-c r i p t i o n of his l a s t whim that Pereda manages to make him come a l i v e , just as he had with Manolo Valenzuela i n Pedro Sanchez. The brother—whose names the reader never knows despite having "todos los nd.mbres de los grandes reyes, de los mayores santos del c i e l o , de todos los conquistadores c e l -ebres y de los mas gloriosos poetas y a r t i s t a s de l a t i e r r a " ( I I , 393-4)—demanded fresh cherries i n December, and "crec-io con e l obstaculo l a fuerza de su empeno" u n t i l f i n a l l y he died ( I I , 4 0 9 ) . Pereda i s using the pathetic idea that he should die over an unobtainable desire as a whip with which to lash the parents; fee can see that i t i s only because the c h i l d i s marred that he has more and yet more fan t a s t i c desires. His mother i s likewise a very pale character who has only one moment of decisive action; hers i s when she advises Nica to marry Don Mauricio. She i s t y p i c a l of the few mothers that Pereda describes: Sfie can be compared to P i l i t a (Pedro  Sanchez) and Juana (Los hombres de pro). She i s seen to be without any r e a l feelings-*-Hrer "love" for her son i s lavished on him because he i s the h e i r — a n d she i s probably the most - 16 3 -negative character i n the novel, being too much of a stereo-type of the vain and f o o l i s h mother without any s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s which mark her out from any other of Pereda's bad mothers. Her husband, while remaining rather stereotyped, i s s u f f i c i e n t l y developed to make him much more memorable, and i s one of Pereda's better drawn caricatures. The s i m i l -a r i t y between the marquis and Don Simon C. de los Penascales has been remarked upon before, but the comparison i s very v a l i d . Both men are seduced by p o l i t i c s , both have vain and rather stupid wives who encourage them, both are swindled by a f i n a n c i a l t r i c k s t e r for p o l i t i c a l reasons, and both end t h e i r p o l i t i c a l careers i n a disaster that i s linked with a speech. The e s s e n t i a l difference between them i s that the marquis* money i s being embezzled by his steward, Simon, whereas Don Simon i s extremely adroit i n money matters except when his vanity overpowers his greed. The way the marquis treats his children i s amply explained by the f a c t that he was i n love with "los timbres de su l i n a j e " (II, 391) and everything he does i s governed by t h i s q u a l i t y , although he has a modicum of common sense i n that he decides to marry a r i c h wife to replenish his empty c o f f e r s . The characterization follows predictable l i n e s , and Pereda paints the t r a d i t i o n a l picture of the vain and ambit-ious nobleman who, through his p o s i t i o n and his money, hopes to become a p o l i t i c a l force. It i s the marquis* l a s t act which makes him memorable, fo r the whole of Madrid s o c i e t y — - 164 -or that part which matters—gathers at the marquis's house, and he has to make a speech which w i l l be the culmination of his ambitions. At the very l a s t moment, as he prepares to speak, he collapses j within a few hours-.-: he i s dead. Pereda has prepared the reader for t h i s , and the contrast between the two occasions i s humorously emphasized: A no haberle recibido e l general entre sus brazos, hubiera dado e l pobre marques con su oronda humanidad en e l santo suelo. (II, 439) In his f i n a l collapse there are no half measures, there i s no one to s p o i l his l a s t e x i t — o r make i t less r i d i c u l o u s : Exhalando un alarido salvaje /yieronle) desplomarse en e l suelo, sobre e l cual reboto su c o l o d i l l o pelado y reluciente, s i n que nadie hubiera podido r e c i b i r l e entre sus brazos... (II, 447-8) The poor marquis, l i k e so many of Pereda's minor characters, can move the reader's p i t y only by dying. His death occurs at the most momentous occasion of his l i f e , and Pereda says that " s i , despues de muerto, se le hubiera permitido recobrar l a vida para comtemplar l a despedida que l a hicieron sus deudos y amigos, otra explosion de su vanidad hubiera vuelto a q u i t a r s e l a de repente." (II, 448) One must regard an author who can create and destroy such a character as being unusual. Pereda never relents i n his s a t i r i c a l attack on the marquis* f a u l t s , but his death i s a mixture of sadness and amusement for Pereda, and ha i s benevolent enough to allow the marquis a moment of triumph with his sudden death. The marquis i s another caricature; his moment of transcendence i s that of his death and one fe e l s - 1 6 5 -that Pereda's generosity always enables him to add a touch of humanity even to his most vicious creations i f they have to pay the f i n a l penalty* Three other characters appear i n the f i r s t part of the novel only: The f i r s t of these i s Gonzalo de Quiroga, who marries Sagrario M i r a l t a . He i s described as being "un completo perddido de buen tono." (II, 419) He i s one of Pereda's least sympathetic characters, whose marriage had been arranged simply because both were the eldest children of old families,-.,and i t suited family p o l i c y . Marriage meant nothing to either, and Gonzalo i s almost a complete nonentity, except that at one point he has s u f f i c i e n t "wit" to contradict Don Mauricio Ibanez. (II, 419) The second, the husband of L e t i c i a Espinosa, i s scarce-l y better characterized, for what glimmerings of i n d i v i d u a l i t y he has are more caricature than personality. He i s a general, and i s Pereda's most s a t i r i c a l attack on the m i l i t a r y — h e i s reminiscent of the colonel ( l a t e r general) who patronised Don Simon i n Los hombres de pro--whom he c r i t i c i s e d both for t h e i r lack of courage, and for t h e i r over-attention to p o l i t i c s . (II, 421, 438, 450) This p o r t r a i t i s more in t e r e s t i n g than many, since i t provides Pereda's view of the m i l i t a r y — o r of generals, at l e a s t — w h i c h i s s i m i l a r to the thumbnail sketch of the gen-e r a l i n Los hombres de pro. They reveal that there was just as much hollowness and deceit i n the army as i n the other leve l s of society. The main c r i t i c i s m i s one that i s true of - 166 -S p a i n a t t h e p e r i o d — a n d l a t e r — i n t h a t t h e g e n e r a l s , i n s t e a d o f c o n c e r n i n g t h e m s e l v e s w i t h d e f e n d i n g t h e c o u n t r y , became p o l i t i c a l l y minded and, i n d e e d , u n d e r m i n e d t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e n a t i o n . The t h i r d h usband i s Don M a u r i c i o I b a n e z , and t h e p o r t -r a i t o f him i s i n t e n d e d as a s a t i r i c a l a t t a c k on t h e f i n a n c i a l w o r l d o f t h e p e r i o d . Don M a u r i c i o i s c a r i c a t u r e d f a i r l y h a r s h l y by P e r e d a , b u t i t must be remembered t h a t he was e x t r e m e l y r i c h , and a l t h o u g h he may be s t u p i d i n p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s , he i s v e r y a s t u t e i n f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s . He i s a l i t t l e l i k e t h e m a r q u i s and Don Simon ( i n Los hombres de p r o ) i n t h a t he i s p o l i t i c a l l y a m b i t i o u s b u t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n i s a l i t t l e r e s t r i c t e d . He does h i m s e l f s a y t h a t i f somebody c o n t r a d i c t s him, he i s u n a b l e t o c o n t i n u e h i s argument ( I I , 4-18) hence G o n z a l o de Q u i r o g a ' s d e l i g h t i n o p p o s i n g him. L i k e Don Simon, as w e l l , h i s command o f S p a n i s h i s a l i t t l e f a u l t y w i t h h i s " m e r o o d e a d o o o r e s " and " t i e m p o s a z u t a l e s . " ( I I , 4-18) Don M a u r i c i o i s r a t h e r f o o l i s h — b u t n o t s t u p i d — a n d e x t r e m e l y i m m o r a l . ( I I , 4 - 5 9 ) A l l i n a l l , he i s a r a t h e r p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r who n e v e r g a i n s t h e r e a d e r ' s sympathy, w h i l e m e r i t i n g h i s s c o r n . P e r h a p s o f a l l P e r e d a ' s c h a r a c t e r s he i s one o f t h e most n e g a t i v e and t h e most u n c o m p r o m i s i n g l y b l a c k , a l o n g w i t h V a l e n z u e l a and t h e M a r c h i o n e s s o f M o n t a l v e z . None o f them assume any human d i g n i t y o r human warmth. T h e r e a r e f o u r c h a r a c t e r s , a p a r t f r o m N i c a , who a p p e a r i n b o t h p a r t s o f t h e n o v e l — t h e s e a r e Simon, t h e s t e w a r d , - 167 -Pepe Guzman, Nica's l o v e r , and her two f r i e n d s L e t i c i a y S a g r a r i o . They deserve treatment here because they form a l i n k w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s t h a t have j u s t been d e a l t w i t h , and because those t h a t appear i n the second h a l f o o f the n o v e l form a group a p a r t — t h e Nunez f a m i l y , and Luz. Simon appears twice i n the n o v e l , and on each o c c a s i o n the s e t t i n g i s the same—an i n t e r v i e w w i t h h i s employer. Although there i s a q u i c k s k e t c h made of h i s c h a r a c t e r , he i s most used to r e v e a l the d i f f e r e n c e s between the marquis and h i s daughter. Simon's b a s i c purpose i n the n o v e l i s to m i r r o r the f a u l t s and understanding of two of the more prominent f i g u r e s . Simon i s the p e t t y s w i n d l e r par e x c e l l e n c e , who f l a t t e r s the marquis and, while e n a b l i n g him to g a i n more p o l i t i c a l presjfcige, s l o w l y p i l f e r s the Montalvez f o r t u n e . The f i r s t appearance of the steward shows the marquis i n t e n t on having money, even though i t puts a g r e a t s t r a i n on h i s f o r t -une ( I I , 430-4). "Bien sabido se l o t e n i a e l avisado Simon, y v e r l e s o l o a l i i , que s i l e h a l l a r a acompanado d e l p r e s i d e n t e de l a s C o r t e s " ( I I , 431) i s the most c o l o r f u l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t can be seen i n S i m o n — h i s s e r v i l e f l a t t e r y . His second appearance i s intended to show t h a t N i c a has f a r b e t t e r u nderstanding than her f a t h e r . I t marks the d i s c o m f i t u r e of Simon and h i s f a l l from h i s p o s i t i o n of power: Simon...no se dobld en dos mitades a l a c e r a r s e a su sen'ora.. .Los tiempos habian cambiado y l a s c i r c u n s t a n -c i a s tambien: y lo: que halagaba c i e r t a s d e b i l i d a d e s d e l padre no l o aceptaba, por i n s t i n t i v a s r e s i s t e n c i a s , l a h i j a . ( I I , 489) - 168 -Although he i s designed as a f o i l to the two employers, he does have enough i n d i v i d u a l i t y as a swindler who only takes advantage of the carelessness of his master without the malice of a Uriah Heep or a Don Sotero. The characterization i s b r i e f and adds extra v i t a l i t y to the p l o t . Simon i s i n t r o -duced as an instrument to forward the plot, and to change him from a mere instrument to a humanly believable character Improves the whole sequence. L e t i c i a and Sagrario form, with Nica, Las Tres Gracias. Each of the g i r l s represents a d i f f e r e n t aspect of immorality i n high society. Sagrario i s described on her f i r s t appear-ance as: Una rubia inquieta y b u l l i c i o s a , avida de impresiones, de a i r e , de luz--y de golosinas. Fisgona impenitente, no habia castigo que l a curase de l a pasidn de arrimar, ora e l ojo, ora e l oido, a todas las rendijas y cerraduras de los aposentos. ( I I , 396-7) She i s the antithesis to L e t i c i a , and was the least o r i g i n a l of the three f r i e n d s . Her licentiousness, one f e e l s , was caused by her empty-headedness. Her type i s frequent i n society, and her exuberance demonstrates the axiom "empty vessels make the most sound" Her feelings are shallow and ephemeral, and Angel's judgment of her i s "Gastaba muy buen humor y s o l i a d e c i r l e cuchufletas, lo mismo que a los demas." ( I I , 530) Her f r i e n d L e t i c i a i s a far more complex character, i n whom smoulders f i e r c e passion and rank jealousy. Her character i s i n i t s e l f more stimulating than that of Sagrario; Pereda's portrayal of her i s f a r deeper," and her p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the novel i s more necessary to the argument. ' - 169 -On her f i r s t appearance she i s d e s c r i b e d , and both her p h y s i c a l and moral q u a l i t i e s are the opposite of S a g r a r i o ' s s L e t i c i a . . . e r a una morena t r i s t e , o, mejor dic h o , serena y algo f r i a . . . y s i n d e j a r de s e r animosa para todo, f a l t a b a c a s i siempre en sus actos y en sus dichos e l c o l o r de l a s i n c e r i d a d , l o c u a l se a t r i b u i a , mds que a un v i c i o de su c a r a c t e r , a que r a r a vez l a animaba e l c a l o r d e l entusiasmo. ( I I , 396) Th i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s i r o n i c a l , f o r the l a t e r developments r e -v e a l t h a t L e t i c i a i s n e i t h e r serene nor c o l d , but t h a t l i k e C l a r a " l o que yo c r e i en un tiempo f r i o y duro miarmol, abrasaba." ( I I , 151) I n her c o l d and c a l c u l a t i n g view of the world, L e t i c i a r e v e a l s f a r more malice than S a g r a r i o i n her rumbustiousness. L e t i c i a marries General Ponce de Lerma, although she i s i n love w i t h Pepe Guzmans Pues con este hombre se habia casado L e t i c i a , despues de convencerse en o p i n i o n de sus amigas--de que no habia en e l horno de sus e s p e c i a l e s hechizos fuegos bastante para f u n d i r e l h i e l o de Pepe Guzman, que l a d i s t i n g u i o por algun tiempo con sus c u l t a s y amenas f r i a l d a d e s ( I I , 421) I t i s t h i s hidden p a s s i o n which causes L e t i c i a to advise her f r i e n d , N i c a , to marry Ibanez while not adding any of the comments about Guzman t h a t S a g r a r i o had made. Her c o l d -ness becomes almost legendary when she remains s t o l i d l y i n Spa a f t e r the s c a n d a l daused by the du e l between the Russian . p r i n c e and the u n d e r s e c r e t a r y . L e t i c i a i s somewhat enigmatic, but Pereda r e v e a l s that under her coldness there i s more p a s s i o n and f e e l i n g than i n a l l of S a g r a r i o * s b l u s t e r . She has two l o v e r s i n her l i f e , and Pereda's mastery of the p o r t r a y a l of t h i s woman - 170 -• i s superb, f o r both men are,the l o v e r s of the Montalvezes. The f i r s t man f o r whom she f a l l s i s Pepe Guzman, who be-comes Nica's l o v e r , the second i s Angel, the l o v e r of Luz. Pereda never s t a t e openly the envy t h a t L e t i c i a has of N i c a , but i.t i s apparent i n her a c t i o n s . She can be viewed as a p r i m i t i v e v e r s i o n of Unamuno's p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of envy i n the f i g u r e of Joaquin (Abel Sanchez), although the agony of her soul'.is never a n a l y s e d . I t i s t h i s f i n a l sequence i n which L e t i c i a i s a p r o t a g -o n i s t . T h i s probably h o r r i f i e d many c r i t i c s , f o r her c o l d -blooded attempt to seduce Angel i s one of the most v o l u p t -uous and l a s c i v i o u s i n any n o v e l of Pereda*s--or h i s contemp-o r a r i e s . The e x o t i c i s m of the scene--and i t s e r o t i c i s m — i s used to the f u l l , " L e t i c i a p a r e c i a una s u l t a n a " , " A q u e l l o e r a un haren", amongst i t s d e c o r a t i o n s are "bronces desnudos." T h i s s u g g e s t i v e imagery a l s o g i v e s Pereda an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r humor: A l sentarse quedo f u e r a de l a f i m b r i a de su bata medio p i e c e ^ c i t o primorosamente calzado con una babucha de r a s o , muy escotada. ( I I , 5^4) The t r a n s f e r e n c e of i d e a s , which makes the s l i p p e r immoral and s u g g e s t i v e , i s more amusing today than i n 1888, but the i d e a remains the same. Angel remains b l i s s f u l l y unaware of the innuendoes of L e t i c i a , and the purpose of the e x o t i c r e c e p t i o n t i l l she s p e l l s i t out f o r him: Usted no sabe aun que l o s amores...se mejoran con l a s a l s a de l a e x p e r i e n c i a y q u i e r o d e c i r que para un p a l a d a r de buen gusto son mas sabrosos l o s mas experimentados. ( I I , 5^7) - 171 -It i s at t h i s point that her whole hody and attitude "revelaron una emocion y un fuego" (II, 5^7) and this i s the f i r s t moment i n the whole novel that her emotion takes control, and i s , i n f a c t , the turning point i n the novel. From the moment of Angel's r e j e c t i o n of her, her malice takes on a major role and i t Is through her intervention that the death of Luz occurs. L e t i c i a i s one of Pereda's most s t r i k i n g female creat-ions, and, as with most of his successes i n t h i s f i e l d , she i s cold, l i k e Clara, and enigmatic, l i k e Sotileza and Dona Ramona. She i s proof of the unusual nature of t h i s novel i n the whole corpus of Pereda's f i c t i o n , for she i s f a r more deeply analysed and characterized than many of his heroines, and yet she i s surpassed by two other female characters'in t h i s work--Dona Ramona and Nica he r s e l f . The comparison with Clara i s the most f r u i t f u l , for they are the two women who are described most u n f l a t t e r i n g l y i n Pereda's novels and are the two who, despite t h e i r humanity,' are the nearest to being thoroughly wicked. Both are amoral, for they have no moral standards and no consciences to save them—doubtless L e t i c i a , l i k e Clara, would have died impenitent. Pepe Guzman i s more sympathetically presented than L e t i c i a , but he too i s notable for his moral cynicism. As a man of the world he i s admired by Peredas He had read Kant, Krause, Saint Thomas, Machiavelli, Fray Luis de Granada, Shakespeare, Mourier, Santa Teresa and Ceryantes. Kk i s a man of p o t e n t i a l but lacked patience or the necessity to apply himself to anything, and had too much money and too - 172 -much freedom.3 Pepe Guzman i s a character to whom Pereda f e l t himself drawn, and the warmth of the description i n the f i r s t part i s cooled i n the second, when Pereda's moral i n s t i n c t s are more acute. Even i n the second half, however, some a f f e c t i o n for Pepe i s retained: He becomes the mentor of Angel to a c e r t a i n extent, and some of Pepe's good taste rubs off on the l a t t e r . Even Manolo Casa-Vieja has praise fo r him; a f t e r saying that Mica had f a l l e n for Pepe, he adds "otra prueba de su buen gusto" (II, 478). Pereda creates one of his most accomplished men of culture i n P e p e — a f t e r a l l he did give him his own name, Pepe, which usually reveals an element of sympathy between author and character. It i s i n the moral sphere that Pepe i s less perfect, and Nica i s h o r r i f i e d at his callousness. She always i n s i s t s that he helped her on her downward path, since i t was his r e j e c t i o n of her as a wife that made her become Ibanez's wife—and Pepe's mistress. His r e f u s a l of her hinted pro-posal (II, 464) i s to cause a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n Nica, for she hoped to f i n d some s t a b i l i t y and s o l i d i t y i n him, and found that he was as f a l s e as the rest of society. He i s the main f a i l i n g of La Montalvez, for his character i s too s l i g h t l y developed for the role he has to play i n the narrative, and instead of him being a dynamic force i n the denouement, his personality stagnates, and Pereda never s t r i v e s to f i l l out more than what he established early i n the novel. Only one other figure spans both parts; t h i s i s Nica, who w i l l be treated at length at the end of this section. - 173 -Of those that are found only i n Part Two, there are two groups. The f i r s t i s the two friends Manolo Casa-Vieja and Paco Ballesteros, who appear only i n Part II, Chapter I, and are introduced s o l e l y to bridge the gap between the two parts of the novel. The second i s formed by Don Santiago, his wife Dona Eamona, t h e i r son Angel, and his beloved, Luz Montalvez. A b r i e f appearance i s also made by a mother and her two daughters, but l i t t l e i s made of them. Paco Ballesteros and Manolo Casa-Vieja are not characters i n the r e a l sense, for they are only introduced as i n t e r -locutors, whose conversation reveals pertinent information about the main f i g u r e s . Paco "era lo contrario de Manolo s i n ser menos perdido" (II, 4-74). Manolo could be mistaken for Pepe Guzman; his judgments are concise and to the point and he i s one of the three men whose judgments are endorsed by Pereda. One of these three i s Angel, who i s also one of the two men who form the counter-balance to e v i l i n the novel. This contrast i s stressed by Manolo, who says of his children: Doy por hecho que esos pedacitos de mi corazon, de todas maneras han de s a l i r unos perdidos, como tu y yo. No puede dar otra cosa e l terreno... (II, 4-76) This forms one of the main themes of the novel: The impossibi-l i t y that the aristocracy w i l l ever change. Pereda looks to the middle classes and finds hope i n Don Santiago and his son, Angel. Angel i s the t h i r d representative of good taste i n the novel, which i s evidenced by the following passages descriptive - 174 -o f Pepe and A n g e l , w h i c h demonstrate the e x c e l l e n c e of t h e i r a e s t h e t i c judgment even though t h e i r m o r a l s t a n d - p o i n t s may be so d i v e r s e : [pepe Guzman] T e n i a e l buen g u s t o de no i n v e r t i r un ochavo en l i b r o s v i e j o s n i en barguenos a p o l i l l a d o s ; p r e f e r i a l a s obras contemporaneas, s i e r a n buenas, y, l o que es mas r a r o , l a s l e i a y s a b o r e a b a . Cosa mas r a r a aun: en i g u a l d a d de m e r i t o , e s t a b a por l a s espan-o l e s a n t e s que por l a s e x t r a n j e r a s . ( I I , 420) A n g e l , p a r a honra suya y t r a n q u i l i d a d de l o s e s p a n o l e s i n c a u t o s , a p r o v e c h d l a s c a i d a s p a r a e s t i m a r e l v a l o r de l o que a £l I"e e s t a b a vedado, y empled l a s f u e r z a s que o t r o h u b i e r a g a s t a d o en o d i a r a l o s que e r a n l o que e l ho p o d i a s e r en a d m i r a r l o s q u i e t a y sosegadamente. ( I I , 526) There i s a v a s t g u l f between the m o r a l i t y of the two men, but b o t h a re of e x q u i s i t e t a s t e , and seem t o form a p l e a f o r an i n t e l l i g e n t and e n l i g h t e n e d r e a d i n g p u b l i c : P e r e d a was s t i l l c o n s c i o u s of the l a c k of r e a d e r s i n S p a i n , w h i c h L a r r a had complained of b i t t e r l y some f i f t y y e a r s e a r l i e r . The f r i e n d s h i p between Pepe and A n g e l i s based upon t h e i r mutual esteem w h i c h i n t u r n i s based on t h e i r a e s t h e t i c s e n s i b i l i t i e s , b ut t h e r e i s a r e s p e c t f o r A n g e l i n Pepe founded upon h i s r e c o g n i z i n g A n g e l ' s s u p e r i o r m o r a l i n t e g r i t y . T h i s r e s p e c t marks Pepe as b e i n g among a group of c h a r a c t e r s t o whom Pereda has an ambiguous r e l a t i o n s h i p : Pepe, Manolo C a s a - V i e j a and N i c a a l l have a r e s p e c t f o r v i r t u e , a l t h o u g h t h e y may not themselves c o n f o r m - - t h i s i s based on t h e i r good judgment. The o t h e r group c o n s i s t s of L e t i c i a , S a g r a r i o , the Marqueses de M o n t a l v e z , Ibanez and Ponce de Lerma who are i m p e n i t e n t , and who have no r e g a r d f o r v i r t u e a t a l l ; t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n uncompromising terms by P e r e d a . A3l of these - 175 -c h a r a c t e r s are wicked out of f o o l i s h n e s s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of L e t i c i a . For her Pereda has t h a t regard which he g i v e s to i n t e g r i t y , j u s t as he had g i v e n i t to C l a r a . Angel i s i n many r e s p e c t s a s e l f - p o r t r a i t of a younger Pereda. T h i s i s evidenced by the c e s s a t i o n of h i s attempt to be a poet--Pereda, too, gave up a f t e r w r i t i n g f i v e s h o r t p l a y s ; by h i s r e j e c t i o n of p h i l o s o p h y , medicine, but e s p e c i a l l y mathematics as c a r e e r s , and by the f a c t t h a t he w r i t e s a n o v e l w i t h a p l o t s i m i l a r to t h a t of La Montalvez. Angel's c h a r a c t e r i s dominated by h i s love f o r h i s p a r e n t s . T h i s i s a p p a r e n t l y the only f i x e d motive i n h i s behaviour, but as the n o v e l develops he i s able to shake o f f t h i s domination, and h i s love f o r Luz becomes the g u i d i n g l i g h t of h i s conduct. The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Angel i s not as s t r o n g as i t might be, but Pereda i s able to g i v e him the autonomy to break f r e e of t h i s domination. Even so, he i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the values of h i s f a t h e r , and i s Pereda's attempt to modify the extreme moral a u s t e r i t y of h i s mother and the good nature of h i s f a t h e r w i t h the good t a s t e of Pepe Guzman. As such he i s a t best a compromise, and a compromise can never become a complete c h a r a c t e r . His s u f f e r i n g s i n the l a t e r stages are f o r e s e e a b l e , s i n c e he i s the romantic hero of the n o v e l . Pereda's d e p i c t i o n of Angel i s not a complete f a i l u r e , but he i s dwarfed by the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of h i s parents and of 1 N i c a h e r s e l f . He i s never f u l l y able to a s s e r t h i s i n f l u e n c e on the n o v e l , s i n c e i n the episode w i t h L e t i c i a he seems - 176 -naive, and i n the f i n a l sequence everything i s dominated by the personality of Nica i n her Apuntes-Angel's great love i s for Luz, a character who may be scorned were i t not for the fact that both Pepe Guzman and Nica love her to d i s t r a c t i o n . She thus becomes the central figure l i n k i n g the three persons of the best taste i n the novel, and to t h i s must be added the judgment of Manolo Casa-Vieja that Luz i s " l a c r i a t u r a mas a n g e l i c a l , de alma y de cuerpo, que pueda haber sobre l a t i e r r a " (II, 481), which means the r a t i f i c a t i o n of the fourth. Despite t h i s , Luz i s the f a i l u r e of the novel. She i s s i m i l a r to Carmen, but she does not even have the domestic virtues of the heroine of Pedro Sanchez. She i s continually referred to as an angel, as angelic; just as angels are ephemeral beings, merely symbols that man adopts for the quintessence of v i r t u e , so Luz i s nothing more than Pereda's symbol of an abstraction of v i r t u e . Unfortunately, Luz never becomes more than a symbol; the reader can never f e e l e n t i r e l y caught up i n her tragedy, for her character i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y developed. Or i s i t unfortunate? I would venture the opinion that Pereda never wants the reader to become too involved i n Luz's personality: Pereda was an (Immensely) s k i l f u l a r t i s t , and he must have re a l i z e d that the tragedy of Luz could e a s i l y detract from that of Nica. The novel i s , aft e r a l l , c a l l e d La Montalvez and the undisputed heroine i s Veronica Montalvez; i t s conclusion concerns her; the tragedy i n the novel i s hers, not Luz's. - 17? -One can argue t h a t i t i s not so t r a g i c i f she does not d i e , but compare the death of Luz, w i t h Nica*s f e e l i n g s - a f t e r i t : r-lQue a l t o me elevo! . . . j D i l e a Angel que l e espero!. #. iTambien te espero a ti!...«LMe oyes?...Es i m p o s i b l e , porque he l l e g a d o muy arriba...-?Y adn me elevo mas!..., i mas a l t o t o d a v i a ! . . . i Que regio'n de s o l e s ! . . . i Cuanta l u z ! ( I I , 567) Llame...con l a s angust i a s de todos l o s espantos e n l l a garganta...Solo me p e r t e n e c i a n l a s s a n g r i e n t a s y mort-a l e s l l a g a s de mi corazdn y l a s t o r t u r a s de mi con-c i e n c i a . . . L a v i d a que me r e s t a b a no t e n i a o t r o d e s t i n o que a r r a s t r a r l a cruz que merecia... ( I I , 5^7) There i s no comparison between the two, and one must look to L u z — a n d to A n g e l — n o t as autonomous c h a r a c t e r s , although the independence of Angel makes him f a r more human, but as r e f l e c t i o n s of the c h a r a c t e r of N i c a . N i c a becomes, i n the second h a l f of the n o v e l e s p e c i a l l y , a s i m i l a r f i g u r e to Pedro Sanchez; a l l the other c h a r a c t e r s are there to r e v e a l b e t t e r her nature, her c h a r a c t e r , her tragedy. There are two f i g u r e s i n the second p a r t of the no v e l who may have been o r i g i n a l l y intended as f o i l s to s e t a g a i n s t Mica, j u s t as Luz i s , but these two take c o n t r o l of Pereda's i m a g i n a t i o n i n the same way as L e t i c i a and C l a r a , Don S e r a f i n and M a t i c a had, and become i n d i v i d u a l and completely human c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e i r own r i g h t . The f i r s t of these i s Don Santiago Nunez, who r e p r e s e n t s many of the q u a l i t i e s t h a t Don S e r a f i n had stood f o r - - a n d i t i s c u r i o u s to note t h a t both have names which r e v e a l t h e i r p o s i t i v e value without being i n any way unusual or f o r c e d . One can applaud the sugg e s t i v e names M i r a l t a , C a s a - V i e j a and Es p i n o s a f o r secondary c h a r a c t e r s , while d e p l o r i n g the - 178 -t o p - h e a v y s y m b o l i s m o f t h e names A n g e l and L u z . The names Serafin and S a n t i a g o a r e common enough n o t t o s t a n d o u t , w h i l e c l e a r l y r e v e a l i n g what t h e y s t a n d f o r . Don S a n t i a g o i s a money l e n d e r , h i s t e r m s a r e a m a z i n g l y l o w . The whole p o r t r a y a l o f him i s a f f e c t i o n a t e and he seems so e a s y - g o i n g as t o be u n r e a l , y e t one i s aware a l l t h e t i m e o f h i s s u c c e s s . He i s t h e c o m p l e t e c o n t r a s t t o Don M a u r i c i o I b a n e z f o r he i s s e l f - a s s u r e d and u n a m b i t i o u s , b u t t h e r e a d e r r e c o g n i z e s t h e r e i s a n o t h e r s i d e t o e a c h o f t h e s e men w h i c h m a i n t a i n s t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s . He i s c o m p l e t e l y s e l f -p o s s e s s e d and a l t h o u g h t h e image o f t h e " i r o n hand i n t h e v e l v e t g l o v e " does n o t s t r i k e t h e r i g h t k e y f o r Don S a n t i a g o , t h e i d e a i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e p o r t r a y a l t h a t t h e r e i s , b e h i n d h i s a m i a b l e n e s s , a s o u n d f i n a n c i a l mind, w h i c h makes s u r e o f t h e s e c u r i t y o f h i s l o a n s , b e f o r e f o r w a r d i n g them. H i s l o v e f o r h i s w i f e and h i s s o n , h i s g o u t , h i s d e f e r e n c e — w i t h o u t b e i n g s e r v i l i t y - - h i s p r i d e i n h i m s e l f a r e t h e many s m a l l t o u c h e s t h a t P e r e d a g i v e s t o t h i s man, who comes a l i v e w i t h o u t any e f f o r t a t a l l ; H i s v i r t u e i s n e v e r q u e s t i o n e d , y e t he n e v e r makes demands on others,* he i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and k i n d ; he i s a d m i r e d by e v e r y o n e he meets and makes no demands on them, o r on t h e r e a d e r ' s c r e d i b i l i t y . I t i s , i r o n i c a l l y , h i s c o m p l e t e eve^iess o f c h a r a c t e r and l i k e -a b l e n e s s w h i c h makes him most u n u s u a l , f o r s u c h human g o o d n e s s i s r a r e among men. Don S a n t i a g o ' s w i f e , Dona Ramona P a c h e c o , i s a s t r a n g e woman. I t i s q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t h e r t y p e i s f o u n d more - 179 -f r e q u e n t l y i n r e a l l i f e than i s h i s , but she i s a f a r more d i f f i c u l t c h a r a c t e r to b r i n g o f f and she i s one of the major successes of the n o v e l . Dona Ramona i s a l i t t l e ambig-uous, and i t may be r e l e v a n t t h a t Pereda gave her the name of one of Galdos* g r e a t s u c c e s s e s — a n d a m b i g u i t i e s — o f a s h o r t time e a r l i e r : Pacheco. Galdos had c r e a t e d the supreme c h a r a c t e r of G u i l l e r m i n a Pacheco i n F o r t u n a t a y J a c i n t a . T h i s may not be more than c o i n c i d e n c e , but what i s more c e r t a i n i s t h a t Dona Ramona—in her b e l i e f i n the i n e x o r -a b i l i t y of f a t e , i n her s p h i n x - l i k e s i l e n c e , i n her brooding contemplation of her husband's b u s i n e s s , and i n her d e d i c a t i o n to her "genio c a l c e t e r o " ( I I , 49*0--is a r e i n c a r n a t i o n of Madame Deforge. She i s c a l l e d v a r i o u s l y La E s f i n g e and E l E s p e c t r o be-cause of t h i s i n s c r u t a b i l i t y and because of her s t e a d -f a s t n e s s of purpose. She has been seen as a g r e a t c r e a t i o n by some c r i t i c s ^ and as a t e r r i b l e one by others.5 Whether they have l i k e d her as a c h a r a c t e r , however, they never f a i l to be moved by her. As G i l Osorio y Sanchez says, she i s worthy, not only of Pereda, but of Dickens. She i s i n t r o d u c e d as a f o i l to N i c a , f o r both are the mothers of only c h i l d r e n , and both attempt to b r i n g up these c h i l d r e n f r e e from the t a i n t of the world and i t s s i n s . Dona Ramona bears w i t h f o r t i t u d e her cross which i s the l o s s of nine c h i l d r e n , one a f t e r the other, u n t i l the t e n t h and l a s t s u r v i v e s . There i s an immediate sympathy between the two mothers which N i c a admits t o , but which the Sphynx covers - 180 -up, i n her moral r e c t i t u d e , and one f e e l s t h a t her d i s l i k e of N i c a i s too i n t e n s e and hides a reproach t h a t she makes of h e r s & l f f o r warming to her. "^No hueies a l a peste?" ( I I , 505) Dona Ramona i s enigmatic and i n s c r u t a b l e , but two -flings r e v e a l another aspect of her nature--the u n q u a l i f i e d love •that Don Santiago and Angel have f o r her. What Pereda i s t r y i n g to do i s to show a woman racked by agony, but who never l o s e s her f a i t h i n h e r s e l f , and i n G o d — " E r a mujer de gran e s p i r i t u y a r r a i g a d a f e . Dios l a daba h i j o s y se l o s q u i t a b a . D i s p o n i a de l o suyo." ( I I , 495) But Pereda i s human and he knows the human mind w e l l — n o b o d y w i t h any f e e l i n g can s u f f e r such torments without being changed. He goes on to say "Pero su n a t u r a l e z a e r a de carne m o r t a l ; y sus h i j o s , pedazos de sus entranas, y t e n i a que d o l e r l e mucho a l i i cuando se l a s desgarraban f i b r a de f i b r a . Dios no p e d i a cuentos de es t a s t r i b u l a c i o n e s a sus c r i a t u r a s . " ( I I , 495) I t i s one of the most p r o p h e t i c p o r t r a i t s t h a t Pereda ever p a i n t e d , f o r i n Dona Ramona the p s y c h o l o g i c a l depths t h a t he plumbs and the e f f e c t t h i s has on her p e r s o n a l i t y w i l l l a t e r be h i s own. Dona Ramona i s not meant to be taken as the moral s t a n d p o i n t of the n o v e l at a l l , but a profound study of the m o r a l i s i n g e f f e c t of tragedy on a human be i n g . N i c a w i l l s u f f e r the same phenomenon a f t e r the death of Luz; so w i l l Pereda h i m s e l f . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the most s t r i c t l y moral and a n t i - M a d r i d p a r t of Penas a r r i b a was w r i t t e n when Pereda was s t i l l dazed from the s u i c i d e of h i s - 181 -best-loved child.°" Dona Ramona's neurotic phobia about Madrid i s s a t i r i s e d by Pereda--he cannot accept her complete r e j e c t i o n of the metropolis—but he r i g h t l y foresees that tragedy such as she suffered w i l l bring about such moralistic bigotry. This consideration must also q u a l i f y any conclusions on the theme of the novel. Far from being a thesis-novel i n which the bad are punished, the good rewarded, i t i s a nearly r e a l i s t i c study of human emotional tragedy. In thi s l i f e v i rtue i s not always rewarded, nor does e v i l get i t s just deserts; the opposite may often be true. Dona Ramona often appears as a reincarnation of the Old Testament God—the God of wrath and vengeance—but her severity i s m o l l i f i e d by her husband's benignity and by her own humanity. In the second interview which Nica has with "the espectro and her husband, the i n f l e x i b i l i t y of Dona Ramona seems complete—"no pretenda que l a ayude nadie a enmendar los decretos de Dios." (II, 555) But the absolute honesty of Nica, her psychological i n t e g r i t y , and her over-weaning love for Luz and Angel f i n a l l y overpower Dona Ramona. It i s perhaps one of the supreme moments i n Pereda's f i c t i o n when humanity triumphs over morality; Nica seems to have triumphed over the unsurmountable obstacle that prevented a happy conclusion; A l despedirme, e l marido me estrecho" con efusidn l a mano entre las dos suyas. No me at r e v i a.tenderselas en seguida a l a mujer; pero' en cambio 1* que asombro! me tendid e l l a l a suya. (II, 558) - 182 -This seemingly simple act marks the f i n a l deft touch which brings Dona Ramona to l i f e . She has appeared completely unmoved by Nica's reason, but even she has one weak spot, and Pereda has b r i l l i a n t l y revealed the way her weakness i s her strength and that Nica's appeal does not go unheard. ;'. There i s no more profound psychological study i n the whole of Pereda's works; only three figures are better de-lineated. They are the heroes/heroines of Pedro Sanchez, S o t i l e z a and La Montalvez and t h i s i s only because they are given greater scope and are analysed at greater length. Dona Ramona owes a great deal to S o t i l e z a , but i s a much more d i f f i c u l t character to r e a l i z e f u l l y since the reader knows her motive and her decisions despite her apparent inscru-t a b i l i t y . S o t i l e z a i s more i n t r i g u i n g , for she s t i l l remains a mystery, and the reader w i l l never know exactly what her motives were. Nica Montalvez i s , i n some ways, the female version of Pedro Sanchez. As with Pedro, Nica's l i f e i s correlated with the whole novels Everything that happens has some bearing on her, and her attitude has consequences on the action of the novel. The secondary characters, while often e x i s t i n g i n t h e i r own r i g h t , are e s s e n t i a l l y intended to r e f l e c t , and be r e f l e c t e d by, Nica's character and actions. c Before any contusions can be drawn on these themes, the character of Nica must be analysed to show Pereda's aims i n creating her. His depiction of her character i s divided into the two halves formed by the parts of the novels In r e a l i t y - 183 -one c o u l d say t h a t her l i f e i s i n three s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t p a r t i s concerned w i t h Nica's e a r l y y e a r s , from her p a r e n t s ' marriage, through her b i r t h and s c h o o l i n g , up to the co n c e p t i o n of her daughter. The i n t e r v e n i n g years between the two p a r t s are taken up by her marriage, the b'i.rth of Luz and the f i r s t years of the latter and of her mother's widowhood. The second p a r t of the no v e l t r a c e s the l a t e r years of Luz and her c o u r t s h i p and death. From the very beginning, c e r t a i n aspects of N i c a are made c l e a r : She i s exce e d i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e , she i s hea l t h y , she i s i n t e l l i g e n t and she has the d e s i r e to be good. These q u a l i t i e s are marred by her u p b r i n g i n g which make her value the wrong q u a l i t i e s i n l i f e — t h o s e empty q u a l i t i e s which Pereda detested--money, o s t e n t a t i o n , power, ambition and p r i d e . Even as a c h i l d she was never taught to c h e r i s h the higher moral va l u e s t h a t are of l a s t i n g worth. There are i n c i d e n t s t h a t could have been b e t t e r d e a l t w i t h — s u c h as her s o j o u r n i n the s c h o o l i n P a r i s — b u t on the whole i t g i v e s a good p i c t u r e of her. She i s a young g i r l , s t a r v e d of a f f e c t i o n , and who t r i e s v a i n l y to f i l l the gap made by her e a r l y n e g l e c t . Her two f r i e n d s only r e i n f o r c e the s e t of values she has found at home, and they are both, a p p a r e n t l y , devoid of deep emotion. N i c a manages to st a y on an even k e e l u n t i l her emotions^are i n v o l v e d w i t h those of Pepe Guzman. For the f i r s t time i n her l i f e she f e e l s her a f f e c t i o n i s r e c i p r o c a t e d ; the d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t t h a t f o l l o w s i s s h a t t e r i n g . - 184 -The c l o s i n g c h a p t e r s of P a r t One are the p a i n f u l s t r u g g l e between l o v e and v i r t u e w i t h i n a young g i r l ' s b r e a s t . F o r N i c a , l o v e , sex and m a r r i a g e are c o n c o m i t a n t , but when the ro a d she seeks t o f o l l o w i s c l o s e d t o h e r , her v i r t u e g i v e s way under the p r e s s u r e of her l o v e and of s o c i e t y . T h i s i s why her s t r u g g l e i s so p a i n f u l * I t i s not a c l e a r - c u t d e c i s i o n , s i n c e her m o r a l b e i n g , and r e l i g i o n , and e d u c a t i o n , a d v i s e one t h i n g , y e t her l o v e and s o c i e t y — t h e p r a c t i c e of s o c i e t y — a d v i s e a n o t h e r . D u r i n g the y e a r s t h a t i n t e r v e n e between the two p a r t s , N i c a becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y more c y n i c a l and l e s s m o r a l , y e t she s t i l l r e c o g n i z e s a h i g h e r s e t of v a l u e s , and, because of t h e s e , she t r i e s t o educate Luz i n the paths of v i r t u e . I t was La R o c h e f o u c a u l d who s a i d " L * h y p o c r i s i e e s t un hommage que l e v i c e rend a l a v e r t u " , ? and i f N i c a ' s b e h a v i o u r i s somewhat h y p o c r i t i c a l , i t must be a s s i g n e d t o t h i s homage, f o r d e s p i t e her own p l e a s u r e she can s t i l l r e c o g n i z e how man ought t o - a c t . The second p a r t d e a l s w i t h two i n t e r - r e l a t e d problems* The r e l a t i o n s h i p between N i c a and Luz and t h a t between Luz and A n g e l . There are a c u r i o u s s e r i e s of p a r a l l e l i d e a s i n the n o v e l , w h i c h i n c l u d e the b e h a v i o u r of the two mothers, N i c a and Dona Ramona, and the r e s u l t s t h a t t h i s p r o d u c e s . The c h a r a c t e r s of the two mothers are c a r e f u l l y c o n t r a s t e d a t a l l t i m e s , and the r e a d e r sees t h a t n e i t h e r of two extrem-i t i e s i s s u c c e s s f u l . N i c a i s h y p o c r i t i c a l , and i t makes the f l a w i n her c h a r a c t e r t h a t she cannot see the dichotomy - 185 -b e t w e e n h e r d e s i r e s and t h e r e a l i t y o f h e r l i f e . T h i s i s s e e n by L u z , who, j u s t p r i o r t o h e r d e a t h , has h e r v i s i o n o f p a r a d i s e b u t d i s c o v e r s t h a t i t has b e e n i n u n d a t e d . Her f i n a l s i g h t i s a " l o d a z a l t r i s t i s i m o " ( I I , 566) w h i c h c a r . e f u l l y l i n k s t h e r e c u r r e n t images o f c h a r & a , c e n a g a l , l o d a z a l , h e d i o n d o b a s u r e r o w h i c h a r e u s e d o f h i g h s o c i e t y . What P e r e d a i s d e a l i n g w i t h i s t h e i m p a c t o f t h e f a l s e v a l u e s o f s o c i e t y u pon a p a r a d i s i a c a l v i s i o n o f what ought t o b e . I n t h e c a s e o f N i c a , she was a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d i t , b u t t u r n e d t o c a r n a l p l e a s u r e s as a r e s u l t ; L u z , i t d e s t r o y e d . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u b t l e t y i s t h a t N i c a i s a b l e t o r e c o v e r f r o m h e r own d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t b u t i s c o m p l e t e l y d e v a s t a t e d by l o s s o f L u z ; i t i s a r e p e t i t i o n o f h e r own t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e and i s t o l e a v e a n i n d e l i b l e mark on h e r . R u n n i n g p a r a l l e l t o t h i s i s t h e o p p o s i t e extreme o f man e d u c a t e d i n v i r t u e by a mother who a b h o r s t h e w o r l d . Her w o r l d i s a l s o d e s t r o y e d , f o r A n g e l a p p a r e n t l y l o v e s v i c e ; and h i s w o r l d i s d e s t r o y e d , f o r i t , l i k e N i c a ' s , c r u m b l e s w i t h t h e d e a t h o f L u z . These p a r a l l e l themes a r e s u g g e s t e d n o t so much by t h e n o v e l as by t h e c h a r a c t e r o f N i c a h e r s e l f , and i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e t h e two i n t h i s s e c o n d p a r t . A l l t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s a r e u s e d t o r e f l e c t and b r i n g o u t h e r q u a l i t i e s as a p e r s o n . N i c a i s made up o f an a s s o r t -ment o f c o n f l i c t i n g i d e a s , whose i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y make h e r c h a r a c t e r so a l i v e . P e r e d a c r e a t e s i n h e r t h e most c o m p l e t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f any woman he d e s c r i b e s , and p o s s i b l y - 186 -captures t h a t q u a l i t y of women which i s i n e x p l i c a b l e to the opposite sex. Pereda grasps t h i s female t r a i t of i l l o g i c a l i t y which makes Nica's c h a r a c t e r even more d i f f i c u l t of a n a l y s i s . She b e l i e v e s t h a t she can be immoral h e r s e l f and not i n f l u e n c e her daughter: This i s best captured by the scene, when N i c a i s t r y i n g to prepare the house f o r the r e c e p t i o n of L u z — h e r p e r s p i c a c i t y concerning Guzman i s never a p p l i e d to h e r s e l f : — ( j T e parece bastante? s o l i a p r e g u n t a r l e e l l a — T o d a v i a no... --Voy sospechando--le d i j o j f J i c a ] — q u e nunca te ha de p a r e c e r e s t a casa bastante p u r i f i c a d a . — £ P o r que? '-'fPorque eres hombre de buen o l f a t o ; y mientras estes tu en e l l a , siempre has de h a l l a r t u f o de p e s t e . Es e l u n i c o que anda ya por aqui--en cuanto tu v i e n e s . ( I I , 5 13 ) The themes and purpose of the n o v e l are subsumed i n h i s t o t a l concept of c r e a t i n g a c h a r a c t e r , but both are c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the ideas rampant i n s o c i e t y concerning the i n h e r i t a n c e of s i n . These are, of course, very much a p a r t of the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h Darwinism and n a t u r a l i s m , w i t h the c o n f l i c t i n g i d e o l o g i e s of i n h e r i t a n c e and environment. What Pereda i s unable to accept i s any form of super-n a t u r a l or n a t u r a l p r e d e s t i n a t i o n which f o r c e s man's f a t e . His C h r i s t i a n i t y was too powerful to allow t h i s , and con-s e q u e n t l y h i s n o v e l combats any i d e a t h a t v i c e i s i n h e r i t e d but shows the g r e a t power of example. The treatment of the ideas i s not as simple as has been made out: f o r Pereda p r e s e n t s three cases of the wrong e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n . N i c a i s brought up too l a x l y , and without s u f f i c i e n t thought and - 18? -love; Luz i s educated away from the world, but when she f i n a l l y sees the r e a l world of Nica i t demolishes her; Angel i s brought up l i k e Luz, but although his mother's virtue i s without shadow he i s too attracted by " e v i l , " and i s crushed. Pereda sets t h i s novel i n Madrid, as he had Pedro Sanchez, and t h i s was for a very good reasons The e v i l s that he was attacking were most r i f e i n Madrid but they were not unique to the metropolis. The problems that he envisaged were s o c i a l , that i s they were germane to any group of people, who together form a society. Because of the nature of these problems, i t i s only natural that they should be focussed i n the c a p i t a l , which was the largest s o c i a l centre. In his acclaimed masterpiece S o t i l e z a , Pereda was deal-ing with many problems that were sim i l a r to those of the Corte novels. It i s much closer to them than to the sermon, Pen"as a r r i b a . It i s true that i t contains much that i s of beauty, but there i s much i n the novel that i s far from "picturesque" or "pretty." S i l d a , the heroine, may be very noble, i n her attempts to r e t a i n her vi r t u e , but then so was Nica Montalvez, up to a certa i n point. S i l d a , or S o t i l e z a , has a l l the potentials of a tragedy i n her l i f e ; she i s Nica i n another s o c i a l c l a s s , i n another s o c i a l centre. If one looks very b r i e f l y at the character of S o t i l e z a , one can see much that i s dark and disturbing--Sotileza lias to choose between three suitorss Andres, the senorito, whose re-jecti o n of S o t i l e z a i s highly m a t e r i a l i s t i c ; his change of heart i s gilded by a hint of love, but he remains a thoroughly - 188 -unlikeable character. Cleto, the honorable fisherman, who i s the Peredian negation of the inheritance of v i c e . Sotileza's acceptance of his s u i t i s , at best, a compromise, and i s another assertion of a false and rather hollow r e l a t i o n s h i p . Muergo i s the i l l i t e r a t e , b e s t i a l creature, who was semi-adopted by S o t i l e z a . The a t t r a c t i o n of her to t h i s strange being would intrigue many modern psychologists because of i t s i m p l i c i t masochistic aberrations. S o t i l e z a i s a grim tale of a sordid town. There i s no room i n i t for picturesqueness as i t i s concerned with men's passions. These may not be the so-called Grand Passions, but these petty passions often cause more heartbreak and produce more bloodshed, which can be barbarous and ignomin-ious, than the passions of C l a s s i c a l Tragedy. S o t i l e z a i s a novel about the pettiness of man, who w i l l often accept second-best i f he cannot get what he r e a l l y d e s i r e s — l i k e Andres and S o t i l e z a , herself, perhaps. • The three novels, Pedro Sanchez, S o t i l e z a and La Montalvez stand together at the core of Pereck's work. Despite t h e i r s u p e r f i c i a l differences, they have several things i n common. A complex, ambiguous main character holds the novel together. Around t h i s one character are a series of lesser figures who are there to r e f l e c t the hero/heroine's moods, personality and reactions. There are c e r t a i n thematic motifs which run through the novels and emphasize the problems of society, which Pereda r i g h t l y sees as the f a u l t s of i n d i v i d u a l men - 189 -m u l t i p l i e d by t h e i r contact with each other. Pereda has said that he had l o s t his f a i t h i n man: society i s made up of these men, and the whole i s greater than the constituent parts; i t i s therefore not su r p r i s i n g that Pereda had l o s t f a i t h i n society* In a l l three novels, there i s an a f f e c t i o n shown for the c i t y i n which they are set, but, despite the greater accuracy of d e t a i l i n S o t i l e z a , the c i t y i s always the target of Pereda's c r i t i c i s m . Perhaps the l a s t comparison between the three i s that a l l are absorbing s t o r i e s , which hold the reader's i n t e r e s t , and this a f t e r a l l i s the prime purpose, and the r e a l measure of the success of a novel. - 190 -FOOTNOTES Chapter 5 1. See S e c t i o n on L i t e r a t u r e . The episode i s a l s o r e m i n i -scent In the comparison of the c h a r a c t e r s of the two men: note Sancho's s e l f - c o n f e s s e d f a u l t s which made him want to govern an i s l a n d : Llegandose a l r u c i o . . . l e d i j o : --Venid vos aca...cuando yo me a v e n i a con vos... dichosas eran mis horas, mis d i a s y mis anosj pero despues que os deje y me s u b i sobre l a s t o r r e s de l a ambicidn y l a s o b e r b i a , se me han entrado por e l alma dentro m i l m i s e r i a s , m i l t r a b a j o s y cuatro m i l d e s a s o s i e g o s . . . B i e n se esta. San Pedro en Roma: q u i e r o d e c i r que b i e n esta.O cada uno usando e l o f i c i o para que fue n a c i d o . Mejor me e s t a a mi una hoz en l a mano que un c e t r o de gobernador. jECervantes, Don Q u i j o t e ( A u s t r a l : Madrid, i 9 6 0 ) p. 613.3 2. See, f o r example, Blasones y t a l e g a s from Tipos y p a i s a j e s , 3. His c h a r a c t e r has much i n common w i t h that, of Eugene Wrayburn i n Dickens* Our Mutual F r i e n d . 4. For example, A. Rubio y L l u c h , "La Montalvez" i n Correo de l a s a l d e a s , Bogota, 18 October 1888 and R. G i l Osorio y S&nchez, "La u l t i m a n o v e l a de Pereda" i n R e v i s t a de Espana, 29 February 1888. 5 . For example, G. P i c 6 n Febres, "En defensa de Pereda" i n Notas y o p i n i o n e s , Caracas, 1889» 6. T h i s can be seen from the D e d i c a t o r i a to Penas a r r i b a i n which Pereda uses the same image of " l a a g r i a pendiente de mi c a l v a r i o " about h i m s e l f as he does about Dona Ramona—and N i c a — . He a l s o quotes these l i n e s : Dominus d e d i t , Dominus a b s t u l i t . S i c u t Domino p l a c u i t , i t a factum e s t . His own f e e l i n g s on f a t e - - o r G o d - - r e f l e c t those of Dona Ramona ( I I , Peffas a r r i b a , p. 114-7) 7« Due de l a Rochefoucauld, Maximes, 218. - 1 9 1 -CONCLUSION Pereda wrote two major novels and three minor ones which were s e t i n Madrid. They a l l conform to the b a s i c t h e s i s which has been accepted by most c r i t i c s : the concensus d e c l a r e s t h a t the fundamental theme i n Pereda i s " p a s t o r a l " and i s be s t summarized by the phrase menosprecio de c o r t e  y alabanza de a l d e a . I t would be an unrewarding task to attempt to d i s p r o v e t h i s , s i n c e i t forms the core to the whole gamut of P e r e d i a n f i c t i o n . What does need to be changed i s the adoption and a d a p t a t i o n of t h i s fundamental i d e a l by the c r i t i c s . There are two opposing schools of c r i t i c i s m : Those who r e j e c t t h i s p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e and those who support i t . The f i r s t trend of thought was l e d by E m i l i a Pardo Bazan, and reached i t s c u l m i n a t i o n i n the a t t a c k of G e r a l d Brenan: "He hated l a r g e towns, f o r e i g n customs, and e v e r y t h i n g modern. In p o l i t i c s he was , a C a r l i s t . " 1 T h i s r e p r e s e n t s the s o - c a l l e d " l i b e r a l " a t t i t u d e , and i t c r i t i c i s e d Pereda's menosprecio de c o r t e , r e g a r d i n g i t as being a completely p r e j u d i c e d a t t a c k , by someone who knew very l i t t l e about Madrid: by someone who was completely b i a s e d a g a i n s t c a p i t a l s ? and by someone who was opposed to Madrid on a p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . The second c r i t i c a l approach was t h a t adopted by Menendez y Pelayo, and a m p l i f i e d by l a t e r commentators such as Cossio and Montero. These c r i t i c s endorsed and magnified the second aspect of the theme: alabanza de a l d e a . I t - 192 -r e p r e s e n t s the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t , montanista a t t i t u d e , and i t regarded Pereda's novels as being a f a i t h f u l p o r t r a y a l by someone who knew the Montana i n t i m a t e l y : by someone who gave u n c o n d i t i o n a l support to the c o u n t r y s i d e and i t s people; and by someone who supported the s u p e r i o r i t y of the s t a t u s quo. These opin i o n s a l l tend to a p e r v e r s i o n of the true q u a l i t i e s of h i s n o v e l s . S t r a n g e l y , both s c h o o l s emphasize the same f a u l t s : The one i n order to d i s m i s s the importance of Pereda i n the development of Spanish f i c t i o n , by making him merely a r e g i o n a l i s t j the second i n order to laud him as a r e g i o n a l i s t and to keep him to i t s e l f , i n a r a t h e r narrow-minded p r o v i n c i a l i s m . The true p i c t u r e of Pereda's ideas i s one t h a t shows h i s b a s i c a d v o c a t i o n of the " p a s t o r a l " i d e a l , but w i t h many r e s e r v a t i o n s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . His p o r t r a y a l of Madrid i s not without a f f e c t i o n , and h i s c r i t i c i s m s , f a r from being p r e j u d i c e d , are those of a r a t i o n a l man, who, by a t t a c k i n g c e r t a i n v i c e s , knows t h a t he i s i n v e i g h i n g a g a i n s t man, not a g a i n s t a c i t y . He d e s c r i b e s the c a p i t a l w i t h mixed f e e l i n g s , r e v e a l i n g t h a t dichotomy of a t t i t u d e common among authors, who can see the a t t r a c t i o n of what they are opposing. His p o r t r a y a l of the Montana does not l a c k a severe s a t i r i c a l content: h i s p r a i s e , f a r from being u n d o n d i t i o n a l , i s t h a t of an i n t e l l i g e n t w r i t e r , who, w hile approving of c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s , can see t h a t i t i s man who mars the p e r f e c t i o n of the s e t t i n g . One c o u l d examine P e r e d a ' s — a n d the " p a s t o r a l " - - d o c t r i n e c l o s e l y and f i n d t h a t there i s - 193 -p e r f e c t i o n s Nature; i f anything s p o i l s nature i t i s the p e t t i n e s s of man, and h i s d e s i r e s and p a s s i o n s . Opposed to the p e r f e c t i o n of nature i s the macrocosm of man, i . e . s o c i e t y , which magnifies and m u l t i p l i e s the i m p e r f e c t i o n s found i n the i n d i v i d u a l . The other q u e s t i o n which has kept c r i t i c s busy f o r many years i s the a c c u r a c i e s and i n a c c u r a c i e s of d e t a i l i n Pereda's f i c t i o n . T h i s i s an unrewarding and i r r e l e v a n t i s s u e , s i n c e such matters do not have any b e a r i n g on the q u a l i t y of f i c t i o n . I f l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m were to be based upon the exactness of minutiae, then i t would q u i c k l y d i s -c r e d i t Shakespeare, Goethe, Calderon, Racine and many others who p r o j e c t contemporary a t t i t u d e s i n t o s p a t i a l l y or tempt?, o r a l l y d i s t a n t s i t u a t i o n s . The three minor Madrid novels have c e r t a i n humorous q u a l i t i e s , but are e s s e n t i a l l y l i g h t r e a d i n g and of l i t t l e consequence i n t h e i r own r i g h t . They are s i g n i f i c a n t from an h i s t o r i c a l viewpoint i n t h a t they r e v e a l the c o n t i n u i t y of Pereda's outlook from the s t a r t of h i s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r (1864) to very l a t e i n i t (1888). I t would be impossible to c l a i m a nything more f o r them, and they cannot add to the q u a l i t y of the two major n o v e l s . These two books, i n common with; a l l of Pereda's mature works, were w r i t t e n w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of c r e a t i n g c h a r a c t e r s , and p u t t i n g them i n s i t u a t i o n s , as has been s t r e s s e d by A l f o n s o Par.2 Pedro Sanchez and La Montalvez c o n t a i n some of the best c r e a t i o n s of Pereda, and of contemporary f i c t i o n , - 194 -i n Pedro and Nica themselves, i n Don Serafin and Matica, i n Don Santiago and Dona Ramona, and i n Clara and L e t i c i a . His other novels may contain characters who are just as memorables S o t i l e z a , Don Valentin ( E l sabor de l a t i e r r u c a ) , P a t r i c i o Rigiielta and Don Gonzalo (Don Gonzalo Gonzalez de l a  Gonzalera), the Penarrubias (De t a l palo, t a l a s t i l l a ) , e l Berrugo (La puchera), Don Celso (Penas a r r i b a ) ; but those i n the metropolitan novels are of a type, and f i n d themselves i n s i t u a t i o n s , which the reader who i s not from the Montana can best associate himself with. One of the b e s t - j u s t i f i e d complaints about the Peredian novel i s i t s lack of structure, but, as the Section on Literature has shown, the Madrid novels are the most clos e l y textured that Pereda wrote because every event i n them i s a r t i s t i c a l l y necessary to the development of the personality of the protagonists. I have attempted to show that the Madrid novels contain a vast spectrum of contemporary society, and that there i s both breadth and depth to the scope of his thoughts on the Corte. He may at times be g u i l t y of merely heeding the popular prejudices that were i n the a i r when he was writing, as, for instance, i n La mujer del Cesar, but his views are generally those of a balanced and perceptive observer. Pereda never achieves o b j e c t i v i t y , but he comes closest to i t i n these two novels, as can be seen from the many positive forces and figures he discovers i n Madrid society. His anti-Madrid prejudice i s far stronger i n Penas arr i b a than - 195 -i n e i t h e r of the two Corte n o v e l s , and t h i s may have been due to a sense of p e r s o n a l tragedy, as I have a l r e a d y suggested; i t may a l s o have been caused by pique at the r e c e p t i o n of La Montalvez by the Madrid p r e s s . To sum up, I b e l i e v e t h a t these two novels are the most approachable of the whole of Pereda's f i c t i o n f o r two main reasons: The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s masterly; the events and s i t u a t i o n s are c l o s e r to the m a j o r i t y r o f r e a d e r s . The two novels about Madrid are v i r t u a l l y the only ones of Pereda's which are s u i t a b l e to be read f o r entertainment and p l e a s u r e . The s t o r i e s are e n t h r a l l i n g and the c r i t i c i s m forms p a r t of the n a r r a t i o n and i s not an extraneous element as i n Penas  a r r i b a . T h i s does not mean t h a t they are mere p o t - b o i l e r s , f o r there i s much depth of thought i n them; l i k e a l l g r e a t n o v e l s , they improve w i t h every new r e a d i n g . They are a l s o novels t h a t demand r e r e a d i n g , f o r they leave the reader w i t h the -^impression t h a t he has missed something, and ought to read them agai n to savor f u l l y the complexity of the t e x t u r e . Pedro Sanchez and La Montalvez continue to e n t e r t a i n and e n t h r a l l the reader to t h i s day; and, although t h e i r account of contemporary Madrid may not have been completely f a i t h f u l , they can s t i l l r e v e a l t r u t h s about Man's n a t u r e . T h i s i s the e x c e l l e n c e and l i v i n g q u a l i t y of these novels which r e f l e c t Man, h i s v i c e s and h i s v i r t u e s , and t h a t r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h other men, which i s c a l l e d human s o c i e t y . -x # # - 196 -FOOTNOTES C o n c l u s i o n 1. Brenan, p. 3^5» 2. A. Par, "Pereda y Cataluna" In Homenaje a l n o v e l i s t a don Jose Maria de Pereda, en e l primer c e n t e n a r i o de su  nacimiento (Numero e x t r a o r d i n a r i o d e l B o l e t i n de l a  B i b l i o t e c a Menendez y Pelayo: Santander, 1933) P« - 197 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources Pereda, Don Jose Maria de. Obras Completas. Two Volumes edited with a Prologue by Jose Maria de Cossio. Aguilar, Madrid, 1954 ( 6 t h . E d i t i o n ) . Secondary Sources Aicardo, L.M. "Pereda, Novelista y L i t e r a t o " . Razdn y Fe, v. XV, 1906, pp. 324-340, 473-48?; v. XVI, 1906, pp. 188-205, 452-468; v. XVII, 1907, pp. 44-66. Alarcon, Pedro Antonio de. Jui c i o s L i t e r a r i o s y Arti'sticos. Coleccio'n de Escri t o r e s Castellanos, Madrid, 1900. Alas, Leopoldo '("Clatin"). "Pedro Sanchez", E l Dia, 27 January 1884. a o e « « e o o 0 « o e « 0 « 0 o "Revista L i t e r a r i a " , E l Imparcial, 18 February 1895-• » O 0 O O 0 O 0 * 0 * * * 0 0 * O * Solos de C l a r i n . 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"Modern Spanish N o v e l i s t s " , Chapters  on Spanish L i t e r a t u r e , London, 1908, pp. 236-243. G a r c i a Loma, A d r i a n o . E l Lengua.je Popular de l a s Montanas de  Santander. Santander, 1949. G i l O s orio y Sanchez, R. "La u l t i m a Novela de Pereda", R e v i s t a  de Espana, 29 February 1888. Gomez de Barquero, Eduardo. "Perez Galdos y Pereda en l a Real Academia Esp a f i o l a " , Espana Moderna, March, 1897, pp. 163-175. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . "Don Jose Maria de Pereda", Espana Moderna, A p r i l , 1906, pp. 163-175. ..................... E l Renacimiento de l a Novela Espanoia en e l S i g l o XIX. Madrid, 1924. G u l l o n , R i c a r d o . V i d a de Pereda. E d i t o r a N a c i o n a l , Madrid, 1944. Homenaje a l N o v e l i s t a Don Jose Maria de Pereda, en e.l Primer  Centenario de su Nacimiento. Numero E x t r a o r d i n a r i o de l a  B o l e t i n de l a B i b l i o t e c a Menendez y Pelayo, v. 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