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The vertical perspective in germinal : an analysis of thematic and structural patterns Leaney, Diana June 1971

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THE VERTICAL PERSPECTIVE IN GERMINAL: AN ANALYSIS OF THEMATIC AND STRUCTURAL PATTERNS  by  DIANA JUNE LEANEY B.A., University of British Columbia, 1969  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in the Department of FRENCH  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1971  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  advanced degree at  the  Library  I further for  shall  the  his  of  this  agree that  written  be  available  gain  by  shall  of Columbia  .SLQ  ?  for  for extensive  granted  for financial  ^JL^l^bUl  British  the  It is understood  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  <  of  permission.  Department  Date  University  permission  representatives. thes,is  f u l f i l m e n t of  make i t f r e e l y  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  in p a r t i a l  (^/  requirements  Columbia,  Head o f my  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  that  not  the  that  Study.  this  thesis  Department  copying or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT  In view of the f a c t that very l i t t l e  of the t o t a l body of  Zola scholarship concerning Germinal can be classed as "new" c r i t i c i s m and that u n t i l recent years, most studies of the novel have stressed the h i s t o r i c a l , b i o g r a p h i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l issues which are c e n t r a l to the p l o t , t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l attempt to analyze i n terms of the v e r t i c a l perspective the thematic and s t r u c t u r a l patterns which form the basis of Germinal.  Indeed Zola i n s i s t s i n h i s l e t t e r s that we read Germinal  as a symbolic structure and not Just as the mere reproduction of f a c t s or r e a l i t y i n that he claims f a c t s function as a springboard from which h i s creative imagination takes a leap towards the higher, more complex l e v e l of symbolic meaning. Thus, i f Zola i s creating a work of a r t , as he i n s i s t s he i s , and i f a r t by d e f i n i t i o n i s the product of the creative imagi n a t i o n , i t i s then e s s e n t i a l t o read Germinal as such and , thus to employ one's own imagination i n order to examine the complex structure the a r t i s t has produced.  C l e a r l y , to r e s -  t r i c t one's v i s i o n of the novel to the surface events and i s sues i s to pass over the more subtle and e x c i t i n g aspects of the novel which remain hidden i n the i n t r i c a c y of i t s symbolic structure. Zola's use of symboli'Sm becomes apparent by analyzing the v e r t i c a l perspective revealed i n the thematic and s t r u c t u r a l patterns around which the p l o t i s woven and hence which are cent r a l to the novel as a u n i f i e d , t o t a l work of a r t .  As a d e f i n i -  t i o n of v e r t i c a l perspective, I am using Northrop Frye's concept that i n a l l great works of l i t e r a t u r e , the a r t i s t two t o t a l l y opposite v i s i o n s of human existence:  one  presents inferior  and one superior to our own which together form the demonic and divine poles r e s p e c t i v e l y and which thus correspond to the vert i c a l poles of Heaven and H e l l i n r e l i g i o n .  In Germinal,  the  analysis of thematic patterns w i l l focus on the general theme of sexual r e l a t i o n s which i s presented i n terms of the demonic and divine perspective.  The l e a s t complex sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s  are those which represent the divine pole; for example, the Gregoire and the MahSu marriages.  The negative or demonic sex-  u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are divided i n t o three sub-themes:  the theme  of adultery, the theme of c a s t r a t i o n and the theme of the v i r g i n which i s central to the 'Gothic t r a d i t i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e . The s t r u c t u r a l patterns center on what Frye c a l l s the moral and anagogic l e v e l s of meaning.  The f i r s t pattern involves the  i n t r i c a t e l i n k Frye makes between the four narrative forms of comedy, tragedy, romance and irony, the four seasons which he associates with the forms and the one year time span of Germinal. Together, these three f a c t o r s chronicle Etienne's progression t o wards moral maturity.  Secondly,  the anagogic structure presents  i n symbolic terms a v i s i o n of man's destiny as he struggles to maintain an existence between the demonic and divine poles of his society which correspond to the Heaven and H e l l of t r a d i t i o n a l Christian doctrine.  Moreover, on the anagogic l e v e l , Germinal •  embodies the C h r i s t i a n archetypes of the Creation, the B a t t l e of Armageddon and the Apocalypse i n terms of the s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n which Zola portrays.  THE -VERTICAL PERSPECTIVE IN AN ANALYSIS OF THEMATIC AND  TABLE OF  GERMINAL:  STRUCTURAL  PATTERNS  CONTENTS Page  Chapter  I:  A Resume Notes  Chapter  II:  Chapter  III:  IV:  Notes C h a p t e r 'V: Bibliography  t o Chapter  II  III..  Patterns  t o Chapter  Conclusion  1 16 18  Patterns  t o Chapter  Anagogic  1  Patterns  Narrative Notes  Chapter  to.Chapter  Thematic Notes  o f Past C r i t i c i s m . . .  68 69 91 92'  IV  ... 131 132 1^0  A RESUME OF PAST: CRITICISM Although Germinal has received a great amount of c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n , the t o t a l "body of c r i t i c i s m remains somewhat unsati s f a c t o r y for a novel which undoubtedly i s one of the most popu l a r i n Zola's Rougon-Macquart s e r i e s .  For the most part and  p a r t i c u l a r l y u n t i l recent years, Zola scholarship has  focussed  p r i m a r i l y on Zola's precise documentation of s o c i a l h i s t o r y and consequently  on his q u a l i t i e s as a r e a l i s t i c and n a t u r a l -  i s t i c w r i t e r , as w e l l as on h i s biography and on h i s known a r t i s t i c intentions.  Indeed the studies of Frandon, Lukacs, Bern-  ard, Raimond and Grant, to mention only a few, ing  provide  interest-  and u s e f u l background material v i t a l to any l i t e r a r y  study,  but as c r i t i c a l analyses of the novel, they f a i l to illuminate in any depth the s t r u c t u r a l , thematic and archetypal patterns which u n i f y the novel and thus constitute i t s being a or t o t a l work of a r t .  coherent  In such studies the movement i s away  from the novel per se and outwards, i n t o a l a r g e r , and hence more general, sphere of i n t e r e s t . U n t i l the recent s h i f t to "new"  c r i t i c i s m , Zola's-use  of  precise documentation has been a major t o p i c of discussion for many of h i s c r i t i c s .  For example, i n her study of Germinal,  1  Ida-Marie Frandon  discusses at length the relevance and  signif-  icance of the p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l t r a c t s which she and many other c r i t i c s believe to be the a u t h o r i t a t i v e basis of Germinal;  Sans f a m i l l e . L a iVie m j q u e , Le dents the  et  Bassln  souterraine,  ftoulller  ically,  i s on  on  According  houilleurs.  contemporary  social  problems r e l a t i n g to Frandon,  "Zola  voir  l o i , tout  l'individu, intrigue,  une  formula  l e geste,  l element  insists  that  factual  information  Zola  Zola's  to  surface  Georg  Lukacs,  inferior paring  abstraite  creative which  the  issues  the  of a r t . uralist great  than w i t h  ".  struggles  and  "new  specif-  industry.  l'information  voit  cru  le  pou-  generale, groupe,  la raison  d'une  interpretation  i s c o n t r o l l e d by  the  and  admits  although  v i s i o n of h i s  any  c h r o n i c l e r of  realism  and  critic,  she  art i s  res-  Clearly his with  no  time, but public l i f e  by  which  concern  the com-  Lukacs i s with  general s o c i o l o g i c a l  p a r t i c u l a r novel  writer  discusses  (naturalism),  of Balzac  above a l l t o the  . . the of h i s  realism"  fervor.  trends  Lukacs o b j e c t s novel  source,  accistudies,  more  . . . ont  Thus h e r  renowned M a r x i s t  traditional  h i s t o r y and  rather  a  l e sentiment,  her  these  contestation  imagination  i s his  Maladies,  mining  . . . Zola  econo-  effects.  defends w i t h u n m i t i g a t e d literary  the  esprit  drame"(p. 110).  q u a l i t y of Zola's  i t with  to  m o i n s une  manipulates h i s material,  tricted  tor  au  Science  each o f  d»autres  1'attitude,  du  1  La  p r o b l e m s and,  soumet son  s e u l e m e n t , l a ou  c'est-a-dire  In  directly  .qu'il r e c e u i l l e , d e g a g e r une  Grisou,  de ' V a l e n c i e n n e s and  d i f f o r m i t e s des  focus  Le  longer  fact  a total  that  work  i n the  participates in  i s reduced . . . .  as  t o a mere  Zola's  natthe  specta-  naturalist  •experimental m e t h o d by could  novels  1  which  once a g a i n  to remonstrate place tion  o f the and  plots"  t h o d he  ( p . 91).  of type  prescribes  but  only  not  progress,  and  exceed  the the  a r t he  the  as  test  takes  individual;  that Zola's conflict  creates.  isolated  of time  a n o v e l i s t but  a r o l e which Zola  rather  He  a  epic  failure  believes  as  a  me-  that  naturalist  i n some  Lukacs  as  reveals  descrip-  between the  occasions  at a l l ,  on  the  s i t u a t i o n s and  narrow l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s  s u c c e e d e d on  be  novels.  contends  champion  of  i n h i s ardent  that soc-  defense  Dreyfus. Marc B e r n a r d ' s volume, Z o l a  ily  on  the  Dreyfus  Zola's  life,  his  career  affair,  and  in this  background m a t e r i a l . devotes give  and  claims  stems f r o m h i s p e r s o n a l  it  of  unity  spectator,  L u k a c s goes  a mechanical average  Indeed Lukacs  survives  ial  89-90).  (pp.  to find, a  t o a mere  analysis i s substituted for epic  If Zola will  " . . .  attempts  reduced  master r e a l i t y "  that  longed to  theory  . . . merely  w r i t e r , , now  dialectic  great writer  Zola  the  were  value. part  lengthy  only  as  quently  chapter  quotations  p l o t summaries o f f e r s no  on  light,  critical  as  five  primar-  complicity  i t i s very  seemingly  useful  chapters  i t w o u l d be  which  of  o f key  i n s i g h t i n t o the  he  f o r the  most serve  s c e n e s and  novel  as  a  to  great  novel which u l t i m a t e l y  reminders  in  as  most p o i n t e d l y  Germinal includes  from the or  dwells  a writer, his  Bernard f a i l s  commentary where  I n d e e d the  as  lui-meme,  However, i n the  to i n d i v i d u a l novels,  critical  par  conse-  unified  work o f a r t .  Frequently  which m e r i t s deeper study d e t a i l and s u j e t de .  Bernard mentions a s i g n i f i c a n t hut which he  thus t o show i t s w o r t h .  f a i l s to develop i n  For example, he  par l'ampleur de sa v i s i o n "  finit  and  i n so doing  thematic i s the  cited  a  general  scope r a t h e r than depth.  o f the p o s t - r e v o l u t i d a r y n o v e l f o c u s s e s on the  y e t another source  in his  s t r u c t u r e o f the n o v e l .  o f Z o l a ' s documentation:  of Dr. Lucas ( T r a i t e  t o u r n e a u (La Physique des  passions).  survey  on the importance  the  scientific de l a medecine  de 1 'he^redite), and He  of  Raimond i n d i c a t e s  s t u d i e s o f Claude B e r n a r d ( I n t r o d u c t i o n £ l ' e t u d e experimentale),  crucial  c e n t u r y F r e n c h n o v e l s t r e s s e s by i t s  M i c h e l Raimond's b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f Z o l a  n a t u r a l i s m and  no-  t h i s problem i s i n p a r t  o f the p u b l i c a t i o n f o r indeed  o f the n i n e t e e n t h  very d e f i n i t i o n  Often  of  standpoint  p a t t e r n which i n the example j u s t  e p i c q u a l i t y o f the n o v e l .  i n h e r e n t i n the nature survey  or b i o g r a p h i c a l  o n l y mention i n p a s s i n g what i s perhaps a  or s t r u c t u r a l  style  This f a u l t i s t y p i c a l  much Z o l a s c h o l a r s h i p i n t h a t c r i t i c s t e n d t o d i s c u s s the v e l s from an h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l  "Le  inferieur  par a t t e i n d r e au grand  (p. 1 0 0 ) .  any  claims,  Germinal e s t epique, e t Z o l a ne l u i s e r a pas  • . l ' e c r i t u r e maladroite  theme ••:  a l s o emphasizes  of  Le-  the  s o c i a l l y o r i e n t e d s u b j e c t o f the n o v e l which Z o l a d e s c r i b e d i n the Ebauche as " l a l u t t e and  du c a p i t a l c o n t r e l e t r a v a i l "  he u n d e r l i n e s Z o l a ' s v i s i t t o the  s i t e o f the  lS8k  (p. II *) 1  ?  strike i n  the A n z i n mine s h a f t . a t which time Z o l a spoke w i t h the miners  and descended i n t o the p i t h i m s e l f . . Raimond p o i n t s out many s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s o f the structure»of the n o v e l but i s ' unwilling  or unable  them i n any  because o f the nature  detail;  e v e n t s , the use  o f h i s book t o  f o r i n s t a n c e the dramatic  arrangement of  o f o p p o s i t i o n , the r e c u r r e n c e o f s p e c i f i c themes,  the p a t t e r n s o f the c l a s s i c a l e p i c and hence the mythic suggested  develop  by the archetypes  :  level  o f Fecundity,,. Hope, Catastrophe  and  Mother E a r t h * - Each o f these i s o l a t e d comments i s s t i m u l a t i n g , but the f a c t t h a t they are not developed E l l i o t t M.  Grant,  r e s t r i c t s t h e i r worth,  a v e r y d i s t i n g u i s h e d Z o l a s c h o l a r , com-  b i n e s the h i s t o r i c a l , b i o g r a p h i c a l approach t o Germinal attempt towards t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s .  w i t h an • .4.  In h i s book, " G e r m i n a l t n  C r i t i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l S t u d y , ' he d i s c u s s e s the a u t h e n t i c , r e a l istic  a s p e c t o f the n o v e l i n terms o f Z o l a ' s thorough documenta-  t i o n and  exhaustive  research.  Grant  c l a i m s t h a t the  studies of  Dormoy (Le B a s s i n h o u i l l e r de ^Valenciennes), and o f Simonin (La iVie s o u t e r r a i n e )  ?  p r o v i d e d more than  s t i m u l a t e d h i s i m a g i n a t i o n " Cp. t h a t Grant  29).  j u s t data, " . . . However, the v e r y  they a l s o fact  c o n s t a n t l y f i n d s such c l o s e p a r a l l e l s between the  c o l o r f u l , e x c i t i n g events o f Germinal f o r example, E t i e n n e  and La fVie s o u t e r r a i n e ,  and C a t h e r i n e ' s imprisonment i n the  s i n g mine s h a f t , seems t o negate Z o l a ' s having creative imagination at a l l .  e x e r c i s e d any  Grant goes on t o s t a t e t h a t  Z o l a ' s sources r e i n f o r c e h i s n a t u r a l i s t i c p r e o c c u p a t i o n s , a l s o r e v e a l h i s concern  f o r "the c o l o r f u l , the d r a m a t i c ,  p i c t u r e s q u e , the e f f e c t i v e " ' ( p . . 3 8 ) . .  collap-  although they the  Both i n t h i s book and i n  his volume e n t i t l e d Emile Zola?  Grant discusses to a consider-  able extent the use of symbols, images and other patterns; for example, the moon, the mine, c o l o r s , epic struggle and the  ele-  ments.. Nevertheless,-, his i n t e r p r e t a t i o n remains i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d to h i s b a s i c a l l y h i s t o r i c a l , biographical and  sociological  outlook i n that images, symbols and patterns have s i g n i f i c a n c e only i n s o f a r as they are e f f e c t i v e representations of r e a l i t y . Thus Grant refutes Walker's idea that Germinal embodies many C h r i s t i a n , C e l t i c and Greco-Roman mythological patterns f o r according to Grant, the use of the supernatural destroys the image of r e a l i t y which he claims Zola was  at pains to reproduce.  7  In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to Germinal,  Grant attempts to define the  scope of the novel by asserting that "" . . .  i t i s more than a 1  narrative of s t r i k e , more than a mere economic or s o c i o l g i c a l tract.  I t i s a work of indignation and compassion."  Clearly  such a statement l i m i t s h i s view of the novel, i f not just to socio-economic concerns, at l e a s t to i t s mere emotional upon the reader  0  He concludes  h i s book, "Germinal":  impact  A' C r i t i c a l  8  and H i s t o r i c a l Study  with the following remark which i n d i c a t e s  h i s basic a t t i t u d e towards Zola's a r t : . . . not only does i t depict s o c i a l s u f f e r i n g , not only does i t r e v e a l the existence and e f f e c t of ignorance and poverty, i t d i s c l o s e s some of the economic forces operating within a nation, and above a l l , i t narrates i n a l l i t s i n t e n s i t y . the b i t t e r n e s s of a s o c i a l c o n f l i c t , (p*. 135) The most valuable Zola scholarship i n terms of an a n a l y s i s of the novel i t s e l f , i t s themes, images and s t r u c t u r a l patterns  is  t o be found i n r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s and a r t i c l e s .  A few o f  the most i n f o r m a t i v e s t u d i e s o f Germinal i n t h i s r e s p e c t ude J e a n - P i e r r e Davoine's  article  incl-  on a n i m a l imagery. M a r c e l  G i r a r d ' s on the u n i v e r s e of the n o v e l , I r v i n g Howe's on the g e n e s i s o f Germinal and f i n a l l y , a l l o f P h i l l i p Walker's tributions.  con-  To a l e s s e r degree, the i n t r o d u c t o r y study by  Angus W i l s o n and P r o u l x ' study o f the e p i c s t r a i n i n Z o l a  also  offer s i g n i f i c a n t observations.  9 Walker and Grant's debate  over the s i g n i f i c a n c e  i n Germinal r a i s e s the c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n o f c r i t i c a l to Z o l a .  of color  approaches  Walker argues t h a t t h e i r b a s i c disagreement  from the importance  rises  each i s w i l l i n g t o a t t a c h t o the r o l e  p o e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n i n the n o v e l and the degree  t o which  of  each  l i m i t s h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the n o v e l by Z o l a ' s statements o f intention.  While a d m i t t i n g the v a l u e o f Grant's  scholarship,  Walker p o i n t s out t h a t the numerous notes and m a n u s c r i p t s Z o l a has l e f t b e h i n d c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n  which  o f knowing more about  the a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n than i t i s p o s s i b l e t o know.  Indeed  he  suggests t h a t the c r i t i c be s c e p t i c a l o f such i n f o r m a t i o n and not l i m i t h i m s e l f by i t .  A c c o r d i n g t o Walker's  categorization  o f Z o l a c r i t i c i s m , Grant r e p r e s e n t s the t r a d i t i o n a l , approach which  s t r e s s e s the d r a m a t i c , s o c i o l o g i c a l ,  c a l and f a c t u r a l q u a l i t y o f h i s f i c t i o n . of c r i t i c i s m admits Z o l a ' s " . . . poetic qualities  and  orthodox physiologi-  Thus Grant's s c h o o l  admirable i m a g i n a t i v e and  i n s i s t s on r e g a r d i n g h i s f i c t i o n as  m a r i l y a v i c a t i o u s experience of ordinary r e a l i t y "  (p.  pri-  3^9),  and subsequently  Grant e_t a l . have f a l l e n under the " s p e l l o f  the r e a l i s t i c i l l u s i o n " which Z o l a has c r e a t e d .  Walker  argues  a c c o r d i n g l y t h a t Grant has f a i l e d t o acknowledge f u l l y . " . the p a s s i n g images [which] are symbolic  . .  or symptomatic o f emo-  t i o n a l v a l u e s and i d e a s s t i r r i n g the i m a g i n a t i o n out o f which Lthe novel] a r i s e s " ( p . 3^9).  Although  Grant r e c o g n i z e s Z o l a ' s  p o e t i c q u a l i t y he v e r y c l e a r l y sees t h i s a s p e c t o f Z o l a ' s  fic-  t i o n as s u b o r d i n a t e t o the e x a c t r e p r o d u c t i o n o f r e a l i t y . Walker, on the other hand, emphasizes Z o l a ' s p o e t i c genius i n relation to his naturalistic The  tendencies.  s u g g e s t i o n o f a " r e a l i s t i c i l l u s i o n " which Walker a t -  t r i b u t e s t o Z o l a ' s a r t i s extremely  s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms o f  Z o l a ' s own c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s a r t i s t i c g o a l f o r , d e s p i t e h i s apparent p r e o c c u p a t i o n with, n a t u r a l i s m w i t h ' i t s a c c e n t s on s c i e n c e and e x a c t documentation, Z o l a admits i n a l e t t e r  t o Henry  Ceard  10 i n March, 1885, j u s t p r i o r t o the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Germinal; . . ^ j e mens pour mon^compte dans le, sens de l a v e r i t e ' . J ' a i 1 ' h y p e r t r o p h i c du d e t a i l v r a i , l e saut dans l e s e t o i l e s sur l e ^ t r e m p l i n de 1 ' o b s e r v a t i o n e x a c t e . La ve"rite monte d'un coup d ' a i l e jusqu'au symbole. ( p . hk2) Here then i n an e x p l i c i t statement, documentation i s merely row Walker's words.  Zola i n s i s t s that precise  a mask, a "mimesis o f s c i e n c e " , t o bor-  Rather  than an end i n themselves,  facts  become the means by which Z o l a w i l l r e a c h " l e s e t o i l e s " or the realm o f the i m a g i n a t i o n , thus a l e v e l o f symbolic meaning. Thus Z o l a i n s i s t s t h a t h i s n o v e l i s symbolic and t o a c h i e v e i n s i g h t i n t o the symbolism o f the n o v e l , he i n v i t e s us t o r e a d  Germinal n o t o n l y w i t h the l i t e r a l , through the more p e r c e p t i v e B l a k e a n sense.  p h y s i c a l eye h u t a l s o  eye o f the i m a g i n a t i o n ,  Early i n his career, Zola defined  as ". . . / j s t a n t j l a r e a l i t e " t r a n s p o s e d tiste.  Cette  a work o f a r t  par une v i s i o n d»ar-  t r a n s p o s i t i o n d e v a i t e t r e fondee s u r l a r a i s o n e t  l a verite'; e l l e z  devait surtout  proceder d'un p u i s s a n t  tempera-  11  ment de c r e a t e u r . " artistic  i n the  Thus he c o n c e i v e s o f h i s own n o v e l s as  c r e a t i o n s or a d a p t a t i o n s  o f r e a l i t y r a t h e r than as  mere embodiments o f d a t a . 12  Marcel Girard  was one o f the f i r s t  c r i t i c s to cast  the w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d documentary and r e a l i s t i c colleagues ity  and t o c o n c e n t r a t e  o f the u n i v e r s e  observed.  Zola  specifically  created  Girard discusses  aside,  concerns o f h i s  on the p o e t i c  qual-  out o f the r e a l i t y he so c l o s e l y  i n some d e t a i l Z o l a ' s  symbolic use  of c o l o r , water and weight imagery, the e p i c v i s i o n and Le -Voreux  as a mythic and symbolic s t r u c t u r e .  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms o f the n o v e l  Moreover, he shows t h e i r  as a c o h e r e n t and cohesive  13  entity. myths:  I r v i n g Howe  sees i n Germinal the embodiment o f s e v e r a l  the myth o f the P r o l e t a r i a t , the myth o f emergence and  the myth o f Le vVoreux.  According  t o Howe, Z o l a ' s  great  achieve-  ment l i e s i n h i s s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r p s a e t r a t i o n o f myth and h i s t o r i cal  information,  f o r c l e a r l y i t i s out o f the h i s t o r i c a l  stance t h a t the mythic and symbolic l e v e l s r i s e . fails,  sub-  However, Howe  i n my o p i n i o n , t o see the symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e ( t o be  discussed  later),  o f the c a s t r a t i o n o f M a i g r a t and o f Chaval's  dead body f l o a t i n g below E t i e n n e  as he embraces the d y i n g  Cather-  i n e ; these  scenes  a c c o r d i n g , t o Howe a r e the p r o d u c t  o f an u n -  d i s c i p l i n e d i m a g i n a t i o n , a l t h o u g h he does suggest v/e o v e r l o o k t h i s "flaw." these  Indeed Howe p e r c e i v e s the i m a g i n a t i v e q u a l i t y o f  two scenes  symbolic  h u t he i s u n w i l l i n g t o g r a n t them any k i n d o f  significance. Ik  J e a n - P i e r r e Davoine's a n a l y s i s ture o f Zola's v i s i o n lste  f o c u s s e s on the e p i c n a -  o f human d e s t i n y :  natural-  se r e v e l e un poete puissamment l y r i q u e dans ses m e i l l e u r s  ouvrages e t a t t e i n t meme au l y r i c l s m e The  "Ce romancier  ( p . 383).  de l'epopee"  l y r i c a l d e v i c e s o f the e p i c which Davoine i s o l a t e s i n Ger-  m i n a l are the r e c u r r i n g l e i t m o t i f s  o f the mine as a machine-  monster and as a m y t h i c a l M i n o t a u r ,  a l s o the c o n s t a n t use o f  animal  imagery which he c l a i m s a t t r i b u t e s more t o the e p i c na-.  t u r e o f the n o v e l than t o a symbolic v i s i o n o f human degradation.  Although  the miners are d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f animal  metaphors and the animals  i n terms o f t h e i r humanity^-.'/Davoine  i n s i s t s t h a t both the miners and the animals u l t i m a t e l y share the same d e s t i n y ; a l l a r e v i c t i m i z e d and d e s t r o y e d by t h e i r s o ciety. S e v e r a l o f the more r e c e n t c r i t i c s have f o c u s s e d on the Freudian  s e x u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the n o v e l , another  approach t o a study o f the thematic  and metaphoric  possible  patterns.  15 Indeed R i c h a r d Grant  shrewdly  p o i n t s o u t t h a t the mine, Le  (Voreux, i s n o t only a tomb, a g l u t t o n o u s , devouring d e s t r o y i n g b e a s t , b u t i t i s a l s o a womb, the s i t e  and l i f e -  of r e b i r t h .  As p r o o f , he c e n t e r s h i s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n on the c l o s i n g s e c t i o n  of  the novel, the scene i n which Etienne and Catherine tap  with the hope of a l e r t i n g t h e i r rescuers.  Grant compares t h i s  noise to the f a i n t thumpings of the foetus, and thus he  ulti-  mately sees Etienne and Catherine as being d e l i v e r e d i n t o the world by a symbolic Caesarian section i n which Catherine i s the still-born infant.  Grant's view of the novel depends on the i n -  extricable l i n k which he perceives between l i f e and death,  and  moreover, i t also suggests the t o t a l c y c l i c a l pattern of human 16 17 evolution. Martin T u r n e l l and Angus Wilson a l s o analyze Germinal i n terms of i t s thematic patterns to which they give a Freudian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  For example, T u r n e l l discusses, the  theme of c a s t r a t i o n , the images of the limp cables and of the erect chimney, and Wilson depicts the connection between sexual and s o c i a l s t e r i l i t y ,  corruption and  death.  P h i l i p Walker has made some of the most outstanding c o n t r i butions towards Zola scholarship i n the f i e l d b o l i c and mythic a n a l y s i s . quoted " l i e " , throughout mythopoeism.  of thematic, sym-  On the strength of Zola's already  h i s studies, Walker emphasizes Zola's  Not only does Zola develop themes which are t r a -  d i t i o n a l l y associated with myth, such as world c r e a t i o n , d e s t r uction and renewal, the descent i n t o the underworld, but Walker 0  claims he achieves t h i s through the use of symbols and images 18 which i n themselves embody the force of myth. Walker goes on to  state that: What at f i r s t seemed to be predominantly the work, of a r e a l i s t becomes more and more obviously the creation of a profoundly poetic.imagination. And  we may be t e m p t e d t o r e g a r d e v e n Z o l a ' s r e a l i s m as the i n v e n t i o n o f a p o e t and i t s e l f , p e r h a p s i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , a form o f p o e t r y — o n e o f the many masks t h a t the e t e r n a l s p i r i t o f p o e t r y has f a s h i o n e d f o r i t s e l f i n the c o u r s e o f t h e a g e s . (p.105) Most  traditional  terms  of  the  critics  subject  that  the  epic  very  powerful poetic  consider  matter  q u a l i t y of  he  Zola's  epic v i s i o n only  presents,  whereas Walker  insists  Germinal r e s u l t s p r i m a r i l y from  imagination.  In  his  article,  in  Zola's  "Remarques  19 sur  l'image  du  serpent  careful manipulation image r e c u r s ,  Zola  pent  an  image as  dans G e r m i n a l , "  of  an  develops  example  already  quoted, Zola  reveals  more  into a poetic  suggests  i t s intensity.  and  grows more m o n s t r o u s a n d forms r e a l i t y  image a n d  Walker  the  terrible  vision.  that  each  chooses  progression  and  In.the  also discloses that  He  indicates  ".  Zola's  time the  by  ser-  which i t  thus u l t i m a t e l y same l e t t e r  an  trans  to  . . la verite  Ceard est  20 que ce roman e s t une g r a n d e f r e s q u e , " a statement which Walker u s e s as s u p p o r t f o r the e m p h a s i s w h i c h he p l a c e s on t h e u s e o f  21 color  imagery  in  Germinal.  Moreover, Walker symbolic  treatment  of  claims color  symbolists  . . . not  ors  scheme c o n s i s t e n t  into a  strike;  he  expressive cadre of  the  of  also  invests  .  article  . . suggests  d o e s he with  them l i k e  miners'- s t r i k e ,  struggle  between  the  capital  on  color  that  affinities  "Zola  with  the  s i m p l i f y and  organize  his  his dramatic  subject,  a  l e i t m o t i f s with  o f a l l l e v e l s o f meaning i n the  the  underlying  only  in his  prophetic and  labor,  p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i s i o n o f man  and  great  associations  novel—the  dramatic  and  historical  and  finally,  nature"  col-  (p.  e'tude  the kk2).  Indeed Walker's itely to  detailed analysis  supports Zola's  of color  own a d m i s s i o n  imagery very  of h i s " l i e " ' f o r ,  definaccording  Walker, . . . c o l o r i m a g e r y p r o v i d e s a means o f i n t r o d u c i n g t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t i n t o what i s i n t e n d e d t o be r e c e i v e d a s a p r i m a r i l y n a t u r a l i s t i c document, f o r n o t o n l y has Z o l a imposed upon t h e whole n o v e l a d e f i n i t e , r e s t r i c t e d c o l o r scheme, i n \%rhich r e d a n d b l a c k a r e s t r e s s e d t w i c e as much a s a l l o t h e r c o l o r s t o g e t h e r , b u t he h a s a l s o c o m b i n e d t h e s e c o l o r s i n s u c h a way w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s simple r e a l i s m and s u g g e s t s d e l i b e r a t e s t r u c t u r a l and p o e t i c aims. (p. ¥+3) 22  Finally,- i n his article asserts Zola's and  with myths  on " P r o p h e t i c  d i r e c t reference  Myths i n Z o l a , "  t o the t e x t t h a t  embody i n some f o r m  r e b i r t h which c h a r a c t e r i z e  catastrophe,  Walker  nearly death,  Christian, Celtic  a l l of redemption  and Greco-  Roman m y t h o l o g y . Because  the t o t a l  mains r e l a t i v e l y vertical atic  small,  perspectives  patterns  body this  which r a d i a t e  "In It's tal  Frye  literature  we  the v e r t i c a l one t h a t  literature time  defines  we  looks  from  provides  p l o r e d method o f a n a l y s i s 23  archetypal  I n The E d u c a t e d  perspective  that's  by s t a t i n g  important,  that  not the horizon-  . . . i n the g r e a t e s t  o f one e v e n t  Imagina-  e i t h e r u p o r down.  t h e u p a n d down v i e w s ,  or as d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s  t o analyze the  an i n t e r e s t i n g a n d a s y e t u n e x -  seem t o be l o o k i n g  out t o l i f e  get both  attempt  Northrop Frye's  o f Germinal.  perspective  on G e r m i n a l r e -  and t h e s t r u c t u r a l and them-  i t .  the v e r t i c a l  always  criticism  study w i l l  i n the novel  approach t o l i t e r a t u r e  tion,  o f "new"  often  . . .  works o f a t t h e same Literature  Ik  g i v e s u s an e x p e r i e n c e heights what  and depths  corresponds  the,power  ience  just  that  According  s e e " ( p p . 5-6). with  t o Frye  Clearly  historical  or u n i v e r s a l l e v e l  (p. 122).  and r e a l i t y  embodies a v i s i o n  o f human d e s t i n y a s men  Hell.  A l s o i n t h e Anatomy  levels  o f meaning  of complexity  plot.  between  i s the l i t e r a l  The s e c o n d  level  Montsou-Anzin equation. withwith  social  Etienne's moral  Thirdly  and e t h i c a l  as e x i s t i n g i n or r e a l i t y ,  I assume F r y e level,  p o l e s o f an e a r t h l y Frye  Germinal  Heaven  classifies  symbolism.  First  l e v e l which  i s concerned  such  i n ascending  one t o one  as i s e s t a b l i s h e d  i s the moral  l e v e l which  issues- and i m p l i c a t i o n s  development...  means  struggle to maintain  i s the a l l e g o r i c a l  the symbol and i t s meaning  And f i n a l l y ,  .  of verbal r e l a t i o n -  of Criticism,  in literary  claims  i n literature  Thus on t h e a n a g o g i c  e x i s t e n c e between t h e m e t a p h o r i c  order the  i n a system  account.  Frye  on l i f e  By " v e r b a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " ,  m e t a p h o r , image a n d s y m b o l .  s e e i t . a s more  o f meaning  leads t o the conception of l i t e r a t u r e  ships"  four  he w o u l d w i s h u s  the anagogic  containing l i f e  exper-  construct, not with  i n t h e Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m ,  but  . . .  o f human  or s o c i o l o g i c a l  own u n i v e r s e , no l o n g e r a commentary  and  models  then,  its  in re-  "Imagination  Furthermore,  " . . .  an  can c o n c e i v e , t o  our i m a g i n a t i o n and thus  a biographical,  t o the  o f heaven and h e l l  of constructing possible  read Germinal  than  t o the conceptions  . . . A r t b e g i n s w i t h t h e w o r l d we  t h e w o r l d we to  s t r e t c h e s us v e r t i c a l l y  o f w h a t t h e human m i n d  ( p . *+(), P. k2).  ligion" isj  that  with  ratio i n the deals  inherent i n  the fourth  or  anagogic  l e v e l i s the phase which F r y e d e f i n e s as the stage i n which the symbol a c q u i r e s u n i v e r s a l meaning of one's t o t a l l i t e r a r y  and hence becomes the c e n t e r  experience.  On t h i s l e v e l ,  symbols are  i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f t h e i r mythopoeic q u a l i t y and, more specifically, nificance.  i n terms o f t h e i r d i v i n e or q u a s i - r e l i g i o u s  sig-  C l e a r l y , because Z o l a s c h o l a r s h i p has tended i n the  past t o f o c u s on the f i r s t  t h r e e l e v e l s o f meaning  and i s o n l y  b e g i n n i n g t o move towards a n a l y s i s on the anagogic l e v e l , phase o f meaning  then m e r i t s deeper  study.  this  Notes  2.  3-  5. 6.  7.  Ida-Marie 'Frandon, Autour de "Germinal"':- l a mine e t l e s mineurs (Geneve: L i b r a i r i e Droz, 1 9 5 5 ) . / Georg Lukacs, S t u d i e s i n European R e a l i s m (New York:• G r o s s e t and Dunlap, 1964). A Marc B e r n a r d , Z o l a par lui-meme (Paris:-. E d i t i o n s du s e u i l , 1952). M i c h e l Raimond, Le Roman depuis l a r e v o l u t i o n Armand C o l i n , I9b7).  (Paris:  E l l i o t t - M, Grant, " G e r m i n a l " : A. C r i t i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l Study (Amsterdam:: L e i c e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) .  Inc., 1966).  , E m i l e Z o l a (New York:-  Twayne P u b l i s h e r s ,  E m i l e Z o l a , Germinal, e d . E l l i o t t M. Grant (New York: S c r i b n e r s Sons, 1951), p«- x x i i i . .  Charle  r  8.  E l l i o t t M. Grant, "Germinal" :Study. -  9. 10.  A C r i t i c a l and  and P h i l i p D, Walker, G e r m i n a l , " HMLA, 79 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , 3^Q-&.  Historical  "Concerning C o l o r i n  P h i l i p Do Walker, " Z o l a ' s Use. o f C o l o r Imagery i n G e r m i n a l , " PMLA 77 (1962)), 4 4 2 - 4 9 . 11* , M i c h e l Raimond, Le Roman d e p u i s l a r e v o l u t i o n . 12. : M a r c e l G i r a r d , " L ' U n i v e r s de G e r m i n a l , " Revue des s c i e n c e s humaines, 69 (January-March, 1953)> 59-76* 13. ' I r v i n g Howe, "The Genesis o f G e r m i n a l , " E n c o u n t e r , 34 ( A p r i l , 1 9 7 0 ) , 53-61. 14. • , J e a n - P i e r r e Davoine, "Metaphores animales dans G e r m i n a l , " Etudes f r a n c a i s e s , 4 ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 383-92,, 15. 9 R i c h a r d Bo Grant, " Z o l a ' s G e r m i n a l , " E x p l i c a t o r , i f f (March* I 9 6 0 ) , i t e m 37oM a r t i n T u r n e l l , The A r t o f F r e n c h F i c t i o n (New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g H ? o r p o r a t i o n , 1959') ••  18. 19* 20*  Angus Wilson, Emile Zola;: An Introductory Study of His Hovels(London: Mercury Books, 19&F). P h i l i p D. Walker, Emile- Zola (New York;:  1968).  5  « "Remarques sur 1'image du serpent dans Germinal," Cahi?rs n a t u r a l i s t e s , 31 (1966), 83-85. A Note f o r  21*  Humanities-Press,  s "Zola's A r t of Characterization i n Germinal; Further Research," L ' E s p r i t cr^ataur, k (Summer,  196*0, 6O-67.  ~-  , "Zola's Use of Color Imagery i n Germinal*"  22. _  o  "Prophetic Myths i n Zola,"' PMLA, 7^ (1959),  23* Northrop F r y e The Educated- Imagination (Toronto: The Hunter Rose Company, 19^3). , Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m (New York: Atheneum, 1968). s  \  THEMATIC PATTERNS The  network o f t h e m a t i c p a t t e r n s  organized reveals core of the  around which Germinal* ". &s 1  the v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e which i s a t the  n o v e l i n t h a t they r e v e a l the  demonic and  very  divine  q u a l i t i e s of b o t h s o c i a l w o r l d s :  the working c l a s s and  bourgeoisie.  r e l a t i o n s i s c r u c i a l to  The  theme o f s e x u a l  a n a l y s i s of Zola's perspective sexual  he  f i c t i o n and  i n p a r t i c u l a r t o the  develops i n Germinal i n t h a t the  r e l a t i o n s h i p and  e i t h e r r a i s e the  the u n i o n which may  the  vertical  desire for a  r e s u l t from i t can  i n d i v i d u a l s to a state of love  or mutual con-  s i d e r a t i o n t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Heaven or the universe  or lower them t o a s t a t e  i c a l of H e l l or the  f a l l e n world.  any  unfallen  of l u s t or a n i m a l p a s s i o n S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s theme  t r a n s c e n d s the b a r r i e r s o f s o c i a l c l a s s f o r indeed d i v i n e demonic s e x u a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t both i n the  the working c l a s s .  t i o n s h i p s are based on l o v e which seeks the  bourgeoisie  good of the  i n d i v i d u a l as opposed t o n e g a t i v e or demonic s e x u a l  t i o n s h i p s can be criteria the  i n that love  every moment.  By  E d e n i c s t a t e , but  and  rela-  relationships  demonic or d i v i n e a c c o r d i n g  Relat o these  p r e v a i l e d i n the E d e n i c w o r l d , whereas i n  w o r l d , l u s t t h r e a t e n s t o overcome l o v e expressing one  in  other  s e l f - g r a t i f y i n g desire for l u s t /  c l a s s e d as  post-lapsarian  or  In G e r m i n a l , p o s i t i v e or d i v i n e s e x u a l  which are based on the  typ-  l o v e , one  does not r e g a i n  does achieve the b e s t  possible  the  at lost  environment  in  the i r r e v o c a b l y f a l l e n w o r l d .  Indeed no marriage  or s e x u a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the n o v e l i s p e r f e c t , b u t one can be c o n s i d e r e d as b e i n g more or l e s s i d e a l than a n o t h e r . E i t h e r as a s e r i o u s concern or as a s u b j e c t f o r f r i v o l o u s l o c a l g o s s i p , the q u e s t i o n o f marriage or i l l i c i t  sexual r e l a -  t i o n s r e c u r s and thus becomes one o f the major themes as the novel progresses. i o u s l y opposes  F o r obvious f i n a n c i a l reasons l a Maheude  Z a c h a r i e ' s marriage t o Philomene  because  ser-  i t will,  d e p r i v e her own f a m i l y o f h i s income and thus i n c r e a s e  their  poverty..  thoughts  In a d d i t i o n , Madame Hennebeau's o n l y s e r i o u s  f o c u s on the planned marriage o f C e c i l e and P a u l .  The m i n e r s '  w i v e s , on the other hand, d e l i g h t i n g o s s i p p i n g c o n s t a n t l y the  hushed  about  a f f a i r between l a P i e r r o n n e and D a n s a e r t , l a Levaque  and her b o a r d e r , Bouteloup, and about C a t h e r i n e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C h a v a l and E t i e n n e . in  F o r the miners, time n o t spent working  the p i t s i s most o f t e n spent on the w a s t e l a n d f i e l d s behind.  R e q u i l l a r t , the s i t e Throughout  o f s e x u a l p r o m i s c u i t y i n the v i l l a g e .  the n o v e l v/e f r e q u e n t l y r e t u r n t o t h i s scene  either  directly  or i n d i r e c t l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the many i l l e g i t i m a t e  children  c o n c e i v e d t h e r e and t h e m a r r i a g e s which  took p l a c e , thus p r o v i d i n g s u b j e c t s f o r i d l e  subsequently  c h a t t e r and rumor.  . Germinal embodies the Blakean concept o f the f a l l lah  from Beu-  or t h e . s t a t e o f c h i l d h o o d innocence i n t o G e n e r a t i o n or the  a d u l t w o r l d o f s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e a t the time o f p u b e r t y . fall  c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the F a l l o f Man from Eden f o l l o w i n g  a l l men l i v e  This which  i n a w o r l d where e v i l c o n s t a n t l y t h r e a t e n s t o d e s -  t r o y good, where l u s t c h a l l e n g e s l o v e .  S e x u a l e v o l u t i o n i s most  e x p l i c i t i n terms o f C a t h e r i n e who, a l t h o u g h f o r c e d i n t o  illicit  s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e f o r e puberty as a r e s u l t o f i n h a b i t i n g a f a l l e n w o r l d o f t o i l and l u s t , remains throughout novel s t i l l  i n the w o r l d o f s e x u a l i n n o c e n c e .  sures l a Maheude o f n o t l o s i n g another  most o f t h e  This fact reas-  c h i l d ' s income as t h e r e -  s u l t o f the c o n c e p t i o n o f an i l l e g i t i m a t e  child.  Nevertheless,  C a t h e r i n e i s c l e a r l y t r e a t e d as a mature a d u l t , "Depuis l'age de dix  ans, depuis q u ' e l l e g a g n a i t sa v i e a l a f o s s e , e l l e  a i n s i l e pays t o u t e s e u l e , dans l a complete l i b e r t e de h o u i l l e u r s ; e t , s i aucun homme ne 1 ' a v a i t  7  courait  des f a m i l i e s  eue, a quinze ans,  c ' e t a i t grace a l ' e v e i l tar'dif de sa p u b e r t e , dont e l l e a t t e n d a i t encore first  l a crise"  (p. 129).  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , when E t i e n n e  sees C a t h e r i n e , she appears as an androgenous b e i n g .  she d r e s s e s f o r work, " . . . e l l e a v a i t l ' a i r  As  d'un p e t i t homme,  r i e n ne l u i r e s t a i t de son sexe, que l e dandinement l e g e r des hanches" ( p . 1 5 ) , and when E t i e n n e f i r s t Xl ] 1  apercut,  sees her, " . . . i l  . . . avec son a i r doux de garcon,  . . . " (p. 26).  F i n a l l y a f t e r the s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e B e l g i a n miners which c l a i m s the l i f e  o f her f a t h e r and s e v e r a l f r i e n d s , C a t h e r i n e r e -  t u r n s home i n E t i e n n e ' s arms, " . .'. boueuse, a demi-morte; .  . . l a chemise a v a i t de l a r g e s taches de sang. . . . c ' e t a i t  le  f l o t de l a p u b e r t / q u i c r e v a i t e n f i n , dans l a secousse de  c e t t e journee  abominable" ( p . 435)•  in  o f the n o v e l from the androgenous s t a t e o f c h i l d -  the course  Thus C a t h e r i n e  progresses  hood t o the a d u l t s t a t e o f s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e . . Moreover, her e v o l u t i o n towards t h i s s t a t e p a r a l l e l s two other e v o l u t i o n a r y  patterns  In  Inherent  i n Zola's  pire,"  and  is  i n which the  the  pole  of sexual rather  than  the  the  lust  ideal  itself  t o s e i z e power, a Gregoire  o f the  and  social  against  struggle Maheu  their  marriages  fact  t h a t the  scale. the  the  sliding  are  founded  scale degree  come  marriage  marriage of  which  the theme on  love  from  i s perfect'  represents  a  sexual r e l a t i o n s  t o which t h e i r  suggested i n the  the  families.  of the  couples  Neither  Gregoire  a d d i t i o n , the  i s in part  i n terms  em-  mar-  metaphors used  to  family  ev-  them.  Indeed o k e s an  on  sous l e second  development  perspective  social  In  1  o f human e v o l u t i o n  t h e Maheu m a r r i a g e s r e p r e s e n t  the  although  Maheus .  describe  and  despite  ideal,  are  pattern  class pits  o f the  vertical  closer to i d e a l  riages  ible  evolution  ends o f the  totally  point  i n order  Gregoire  of  working  relations in that  than  opposite  general  c o n t i n u a l r i p e n i n g or  shown i n t h e  divine  the  " H i s t o i r e d'une f a m i l l e  bourgeoisie  Both  or  novel:  the  revolution wealthy  the  the  presentation  existence  i n the  which  fallen  shareholders,  described  i s the  the  Gregoire  i s almost Edenic  world.  bourgeois  of  the  Upon e n t e r i n g first  aspect  or the of  as  clearly  p e r f e c t as  s o c i a l xrorld their  world  possof  which  home:  . . . l a P i o l a i n e , . . . se t r o u v a i t a d e u x k i l o m e t r e s de, M o n t s o u , . . . . C ' e ' t a i t une g r a n d e m a i s o n c a r r e e , s a n s s t y l e , b £ t i e . a u commencement du siecle dernier. Des v a s t e s t e r r e s q u i en d d p e n d a i e n t d ' a b o r d , i l ne r e s t a i t qu'une t r e n t a i n e d ' h e c • t a r e s , ' c l o s de m u r s , d'un f a c i l e e n t r e t ^ e n . On c i t a i t s u r t o u t l e v e r g e r e t l e p o t a g e r , c e l e b r e s par l e u r s f r u i t s e t l e u r s l e g u m e s , l e s p l u s b e a u x d"a pays. D ' a i l l e u r s l e par© m a n q u a i t , u n p e t i t b o i s en  the is  tenait lieu. L ' a v e n u e des v i e u x t i l l e u l s , une , v o u t e de f e u i l l a g e de t r o i s c e n t s m e t r e s , p l a n t o e de l a g r i l l e au p e r r o n , e t a i t une des c u r i o s i t e ' s de c e t t e p l a i n e r a s e , o\i l ' o n c o m p t a i t l e s g r a n d s arbres,  de  Significantly, ructed its  on  area  t h e i r home i s a s t a b l e ,  the has  foundation  "La  importante, des  like  Inside,  stocked,  the  the  u s t e n s i l e s , des  armoires.  a v a i t aucun  demeurait  l a en  close-knit ther.  familial©?, ce Like place ion,  Malgre" l e  d'houille  the  On  choose t o house  world,  comfort, not  the  traditional  color  a l a c u i s i n e , en  the  is first  well  toil  Du  o f Heaven, w h i t e ,  presented,  pantouffles  e t en  of  peignoir  venait de  ser-  74). is a  in  .  addit-  primary  de  a  douceur  world and  on  toge-  several  this Edenic world.  "' | _ e l l e j  toute  are  hearth  i s the  et  salon,  d'une  pain,  la  reste, i l  Gregoires  Gregoire's and  piece,  chauffait  bonne a m i t i e " ' ( p . the  inhabitants  la  ra^teliers  j a m a i s au  a f f a i r s whereby, " . . .  l e i s u r e and  Madame G r e g o i r e  qui  i s patriarchal i n that  pre-lapsarian  Edenic  casseroles,  c l u s t e r around the  en  the  s e n t a i t bon  des  C l e a r l y , the  p e t i t monde v i v a i t  to describe  the  and  salle.  n'allait  f a m i l l e " ' ( p . 74).  of  or u s e d  outside of  Cela  calorifere cette  although  l a devenait  debordaient  /gayait  . . . .  basic  large  1'emplissait.  . . .  Moreover, the  on  world  garden  const-  and  e x t r e m e , a 1 ' a r s e n a l des  provisions  luxe:  the  spring-time  immense, e t  pots qui  fami3.y and  v a n t s manage t h e  years,  Des  feu  73)  secure b u i l d i n g  i s warm, c l e a n ,  etait  (p.  inherited fortune,  the  green,  a l a proprete  l a m a i s o n , un n'y  over  house  cuisine  bonne n o u r r i t u r e . des  o f an  diminished  home i s s t i l l world.  Marchiennes £ Beaugnies.  colWhen  descendre  flanelle.  Courte,  grasse, figure  agee d e j a poupine  d'un  gros  soixante  ans,  neige  ses  de  avec  de  joue  futaine,  grands  e n t e r her  l'ecartement  une  ronde  sur  nez  dormaitj  both for they  parents their  lait,  As that  the  ses  devote  day  their  t h a n wake h e r a further  who  ses  is  still  being  fille  cherubinqui  dormait,  a v a i t une  chair  c h e v e u x c h a t a i n s , sa  v i e r g e " (p.75).  As  and  . . •  an  care  life  example  Clearly  f o r e x a m p l e , M.  and  C e ' c i l e awakens a n d  pro-  literature,  to spoiling of t h e i r  lei-  Greg-  for his inherited  studying music  entire  and  and  caring  spoiling  Cecile,  k e e p h e r m e a l warm  up.  comment on  marriage  Moreover, because  their  i s founded i n a world  they  possess  on  heavenly  p o v e r t y and  cold,  similar  as  on  wealth,  caused  by  universe.  they the  fact  lust a l -  t o the u n f a l l e n  sufficient  such  e x i s t e n c e , the  love r a t h e r than  t o f a c e d i s s e n s i o n or q u a r r e l l i n g  starvation,  pour  noye e n t r e l e s j o u e s .  day-time hours;  spends her  l o w s them t o e x i s t  have  avec  d a n s sa n u d i t e de  only c h i l d .  their  " . . .  l i t , sous l e demi-jour  . . . elle  volontaire,  delay breakfast u n t i l  rather  Cecile,  r i d e a u , l a jeune  o i r e 's m a i n t a s k i s t o i n s p e c t Cecile  appears,  ses  /  sure n o t work f i l l s  perty,  e c l a t a n t e de  l u i aussi  ( p . 7*0.  nu.  grosse  h o n n e t e s e t b o n s , dans l a  v a g u e s du  —i  j^elle  g a r d a i t une  home, i s d e s c r i b e d as  d'un  de  rose  traits  son b r a s  fraicheur  au p e t i t  elle  sous l a b l a n c h e u r  cheveux b o u c l e s "  appuyee  superbe, face  de  de  ans,  husband, t o o , f i r s t  "Dans l e s b l a n c h e u r s  tombait une  Her  veston  s l e e p i n g when we like,  cinquante  et etonnee,  ( p . 73)•  cheveux" vetu  de  do  not  problems  of  t h e Maheus m u s t c o n f r o n t .  In  the Gregoire marriage,  wife is  i stotally  as i n t h e p e r f e c t E d e n i c u n i o n , t h e  submissive  a relationship  t o the husband, t h e r e s u l t  o f which  o f oneness:  . . . l e s bonheurs p l e u v a i e n t s u r c e t t e maison. M. G r e g o i r e , tre^s j e u n e , a v a i t e"pousl l a f i l l e d'un p h a r m a c i e n de M a r c h i e n n e s . une d e m o i s e l l e l a i d e sans un s o u ^ q u ' i l adoraix; e t q u i l u i a v a i t t o u t r e n d u , en f e l i c i t e . E l l e s ' e t a i t e n f e r m e e dans s o n menage e x t a s i e e devant son-mari, n^ayant d'autre v o l o n t e que l a s i e n n e ; j a m a i s ^ d e g o u t s d i f f e r e n t s ne l e s s e p a r a i e n t , u n meme i d e a l de b i e n - e t r e c o n fondait l e u r s d e s i r s ; e t i l s v i v a i e n t a i n s i depuis q u a r a n t e a n s , de t e n d r e s s e e t de p e t i t s s o i n s r e ciproques. ( p p . 78-79) v  They  devote  their  complete  whose e v e r y whim t h e y serious losing the  cause their  life  satisfy  f o r worry,  exclusive  f o r t u n e and hence  tionna  o f M o n t s o u , "Pour les Gregoire.  and caring  immediately. of their  their  d a y when t h e m i n e r s ' w i v e s  streets  to loving  social  Indeed  fois,  their  fear o f  position,  occurs  through the  u n e i n q u i e t u d e emo-  pas r e n t r e V ' ( p . 3 5 9 ) .  Cecile  only  continual  march vehemently  l a premiere  f o r Ce'cile,  And as t h e  c r o w d becomes more v i o l e n t ,  " . . . [ l e s ] G r e ' g o i r e , . . . ne  pensaient  l a pauvre  si  vitel  cile ter  qu'a  X  leur  fille:  . . . " (pp. 361-62).  selfless.  the death  for i n that  sans  elle?"  cen-  l'effonqu'ils  (p. 4 9 0 ) .  i s nottotally Clearly  o f Ce-  the very  v i e , a q u o i bon v i v r e , maintenant  A l t h o u g h more i d e a l marriage  s'effrayait  e x i s t e n c e has disappeared, " . . . c'e'tait  d r e m e n t meme de l e u r vivraient  qui  Significantly,  l e a v e s them w i t h n o t h i n g t o l i v e of their  cherie  than  t h e Maheus'' m a r r i a g e ,  perfect  i n that  they u l t i m a t e l y  their  love  care only about  the Gregoire i s n o t always t h e i r own.  c h i l d f o r w h i l e the s t a r v i n g women run d e s p e r a t e l y through  the  s t r e e t s i n s e a r c h of bread which they need i n order t o l i v e , the G r e g o i r e s are o n l y w o r r i e d about the whereabouts o f t h e i r daughter; man  thus they do not care as e q u a l l y about t h e i r f e l l o w -  as they care about t h e i r  f o r money and  their  t o the miners' fallait  own  happiness.  Their s e l f i s h love  s e l f - i n d u l g i n g l o v e f o r C e c i l e b l i n d s them  v e r y b a s i c needs o f f u e l and f o o d .  Indeed, " I I  e t r e c h a r i t a b l e , i l s d i s a i e n t eux-memes que  e t a i t l a maison du bon D i e u .  l e u r maison  Du r e s t e , i l s se f l a t t a i e n t  de  f a i r e l a c h a r i t e ' avec i n t e l l i g e n c e , t r a v a i l l e ' s de l a c o n t i n u e l l e A  /  c.rainte d ' e t r e trompes, e t d'encourager l e v i c e . donnaient  jamais d'argent,  jamais,  . . . .  A i n s i , i l s ne  Leurs aumones "etaient  done t o u j o u r s en n a t u r e , s u r t o u t en Vetements chauds, d i s t r i b u e s en h i v e r aux e n f a n t s i n d i g e n t s " (p. 9 2 ) . i n the God avaient  of Money, not the God  . . <.. une  pas p l u s s o l i d e . une  profonde  of C h a r i t y , " . . .  f o i o b s t i n e e en l e u r mine. P u i s a c e t t e croyance  g r a t i t u d e pour une  rice  que  . . . Dieu  n'etait  r e l i g i e u s e , se m e l a i t siecle,  C'e'tait comme une  l e u r egoisme e n t o u r a i t d'un  divin-  culte, la bienfait-  du f o y e r , l e s b e r c a n t dans l e u r grand l i t  e n g r a i s s a n t a l e u r t a b l e gourmande" ( p .  is '  l e s Gregoire  v a l e u r , q u i depuis un  n o u r r i s s a i t l a f a m i l l e a ne r i e n f a i r e . i t e a eux,  Indeed t h e i r f a i t h  de p a r e s s e , l e s  78).  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r l a c k o f c h a r i t y i n terms o f  donations  t o the Montsou poor, the G r e g o i r e s are c r i t i c i z e d on the l e v e l i n terms of t h e i r l a c k o f p e r c e p t i o n .  social  Clearly their  c e r n and l o v e f o r Ce'cile, t h e i r home and t h e i r f o r t u n e  con-  occupies  their  thoughts  so much t h a t they can see n o t h i n g beyond these  personal preferences.  Throughout the m i n e r s ' march  the s t r e e t s o f Montsou, the G r e g o i r e s remain Hennebeau home.  through  s a f e i n s i d e the  Before they a r r i v e a t the Hennebeaus', they  go through the streets, where v i o l e n c e a f t e r v i o l e n c e takes p l a c e , " . . . i l s semblaient s i p a i s i b l e s , i l s avaient s i bien l'air  de c r o i r e a une pure  braves mineurs,  p l a i s a n t e r i e de l a p a r t de l e u r s  dont l a r e s i g n a t i o n l e s n o u r r i s s a i t d e p u i s un  s i e c l e , que c e u x - c i , etonnes,  a v a i e n t en e f f e t cesse de j e t e r  des p i e r r e s , de peur d ' a t t e i n d r e ce vierac monsieur e t c e t t e vieille  dame, 'tombes du c i e l . "  (pp. 3 5 8 - 5 9 ) .  Moreover, M.  G r e g o i r e f o o l i s h l y b e l i e v e s t h a t "'. . . i l s n'ont pas de m a l i c e , au f o n d .  L o r s q u ' i l s auront b i e n c r i e , i l s i r o n t souper  plus d'appetit'" (p. 3 5 9 ) .  The r e a l i t y  avec  o f the e n t i r e march  means n o t h i n g t o them u n t i l they f e a r C e c i l e may have been a t tacked. after  T h e i r m i s d i r e c t e d sense  o f c h a r i t y i s again  criticized  the e x p l o s i o n i n the p i t which o c c u r r e d w h i l e Z a c h a r i e  was a t t e m p t i n g t o rescue C a t h e r i n e and which c l a i m e d h i s l i f e . At t h i s p o i n t the G r e g o i r e s ' c h a r i t y m i s s i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n nega t i v e terms,  "Le n o u v e l a c c i d e n t r e d o u b l a l a c u r i o s i t e  de Mont-  sou, l e s b o u r g e o i s o r g a n i s a i e n t des e x c u r s i o n s avec un t e l ent r a i n , que l e s Qre'goire se d e c i d e r e n t a s u i v r e l e monde. rangea une p a r t i e , g o i r e marriage  . .. . " ( p . k8k).  On a r -  Thus, a l t h o u g h the Gre-  i s p r e s e n t e d as an i d e a l s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n  t h a t i t i s founded  on l o v e , they are c r i t i c i z e d on the s o c i a l  l e v e l f o r t h e i r l a c k o f the c o r r e c t s p i r i t o f c h a r i t y f o r A  their  general  lack of perception.  The clearly ideal  Maheu m a r r i a g e , w h i c h i s a l s o f o u n d e d presented  than  as a p o s i t i v e sexual  the Gregoires'  marriage.  comments e a r l y i n t h e n o v e l point  she r e v e a l s  ful,  a f a c t which  less  ideal  than  explains  r e l a t i o n s h i p b u t as l e s s  Significantly,  on h e r l i f e  that her union  on l o v e , i s  i n t h e mine  l a Maheude a t which  Maheu was a t f i r s t  with  i n part the reason  lust-  t h e i r marriage i s  the G r e g o i r e s ' :  "Moi, j e s u i s descendue j u s q u ' a v i n g t a n s . Le m e d e c i n ^ a d i t que j ' y r e s t e r a i s $ l o r s q u e j ' a i accouche l a s e c o n d e • f o i s , p a r c e que, p a r a z t - i l , ca me d e r a n g e a i t d e s c h o s e s d a n s l e s o s . D ' a i l l e u r s , c ' e s t £ ce moment que j e me s u i s m a r i e e , e t j ' a v a i s a s s e z de b e s o g n e a" l a m a i s o n . . . " . (p. 93). Unlike the  t h e P i o l a i n e , t h e Maheu home i s s m a l l a n d i s b u i l t  dusty,  dark wasteland  though i t i s c l e a n , cooking  odors f i l l  their  plain  home i s p o o r l y  d'oignion  l'air  chaud, c e t a i r a l o u r d i ,  goire  cuit,  (ps 2 0 ) .  In d i r e c t  home w h i c h f o s t e r s l i f e  home i s n o t a s e c u r e result  of poverty, through  ching  form o f death,  vendre  place  they  piece  n'en  enferme'e d e p u i s  l a p r o p r e t e , une  la veille,  toujours contrast  charge  i n i t s Edenic  sell  a p a i n f u l process  empoisonnait  d'une ' a c r e t / de  t o the b a s t i o n - l i k e Gre-  i n which t o l i v e  must  o f Montsou. A l -  f u r n i s h e d and s t a l e  the atmosphere, "Malgre  odeur  houille"  i n the v i l l a g e  on  their  setting,  t h e Maheus'  f o r g r a d u a l l y , as a  f u r n i s h i n g s p i e c e by  presented  as a s t e a d i l y  " I l s e'taient nus, i l s n ' a v a i e n t  encroa-  p l u s a" 1  que l e u r p e a u , s i entamee, s i c o m p r o m i s e , que p e r s o n n e  a u r a i t donne" u n l i a r d .  . . . i l s savaient  . . . que c ' e t a i t  la  f i n de t o u t , . . . i l s a t t e n d a i e n t d'en m o u r i r ,  . . .  . . . . .  dans c e t t e m a i s o n m o r t e , sans l u m i e r e , sans f e u , sans  pain" (p.387). Indeed t h e metaphors u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e Maheus c r e a t e a l e s s i d e a l v i s i o n o f human l i f e t h a n i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Gregoires.  U n l i k e t h e c h e r u b i n C e c i l e , t h e Maheu g i r l s a r e n e i -  t h e r h e a l t h y n o r plump,, and  p h y s i c a l l y deformed by a hump on h e r b a c k  year o l d Catherine Cecile. for  The n i n e y e a r o l d A l z i r e i s " c h e t i v e " " s  and t h e f i f t e e n  appears i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o the a n g e l i c  Indeed Catherine  i s not permitted long sleeping hours,  she i s t h e f i r s t p e r s o n up i n t h e morning,,. M o r e o v e r , no one  p r e p a r e s h e r b r e a k f s t ' i n advance and w a i t s on h e r , i n s t e a d she a  must make b r e a k f a s t and l u n c h f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e f a m i l y and t h e n wake them up„. C a t h e r i n e  i s a l s o t h i n and p h y s i c a l l y s c a r r e d by  her l i f e i n t h e m i n e , " j e l l e d )  des p i e d s b l e u i s , comme t a t o u e s  de c h a r b o n , e t des b r a s d e ' l i c a t s , dont l a b l a n c h e u r de l a i t t r a n c h a i t s u r l e t e i n t bleme d u v i s a g e lavages peu  au savon n o i r .  9  d e j a gate p a r l e s c o n t i n u e l s  Un d e r n i e r b ^ i l l e m e n t o u v r l t sa bouche un  g r a n d e , aux d e n t s s u p e r b e s dans l a p a l e u r c h l o r o t i q u e des g e n -  c i v e s $ pendant que s e s yeux g r i s p l e u r a i e n t de sommeil combattu . ?  avec une e x p r e s s i o n  d o u l o u r e u s e e t b r i s e e , q u i s e m b l a i t e n f l e r de  f a t i g u e sa n u d i t e ' e n t i e r e " ( p 1 3 ) * e  she  L i k e a l l members o f h e r • f a m i l y  s u f f e r s f r o m t h e same anaemic p a l o r $  white which describe-her healthiness.  t h u s t h e images o f  have t h e n e g a t i v e  A t home, Z a c h a r i e  connotation  o f un-  and Maheu speak h a r s h l y t o t h e  r e s t o f the f a m i l y f o r the-words u s e d t o d e s c r i b e : t h e i r t o n e o f  s  voice are "grogner," " c r i e r , " n d "gronder"*  As they get up f o r  a  work i n the second chapter of the n o v e l  9  the atmosphere i s d i s -  t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the s i m i l a r event j u s t mentioned i n the Gregoire home.  Here people are shouting at and arguing w i t h one  another, and i n g e n e r a l , they are i n an angry d i s p o s i t i o n * In p a r t i c u l a r , J e a n l i n , the youngest working member i n the f a m i l y , i s presented" throughout the novel i n terms of animal imagery  9  thus as a degenerate' human being who goes about c r e a t i n g  havoc and c o r r u p t i n g other c h i l d r e n . which c r i p p l e s him  J u s t before the a c c i d e n t  J e a n l i n l o o k s about f o r B e b e r t :  5  ,  I I a r r i v a i t sournoisement, sans sa lampe, p i n p a i t l e camarade au sang, i n v e n t a i t des f a r c e s de mauv a i s s i n g e , avec ses cheveux jaunes^ ses grandes o r e i l l e s son museau maigre, e c l a i r e ' de p e t i t s yeux v e r i ; s l u i s a n t s dans 1 'obscurite". D'une pre cocite" m a l a d i v e , i l semblait a v o i r 1 ' i n t e l l i g e n c e et l a v i v e adresse d'un avorton humain q u i r e t o u r n a i t \ l ' a n i m a l i t e d " o r i g i n e * (p.. 189). ?  7  9  9  Indeed when he plans t o s t e a l the f i s h from the market, he i s d e s c r i b e d as having "une adresse de be\e m a l f a i s a n t e et v o l e u s e " (p* 2 6 8 ) .  L a t e r as he hides amid the t a l l grass t o f r i g h e n  Etienne who subsequently f l e e s , J e a n l i n i s presented as "Une. c o u l e u v r e " (p*. 273) . c  In h i s l i t h e movements, he possesses *"[unej  souplesse de serpent"" (p* 27 +): and moves about "sournoisement"*" 1  9  ( p . 11*+)«•- During the scene i n which he k i l l s the young s e n t i n e l * Jeanlin .  A  •• se t r a i n a sur l e s mains avec l e renflement  de sa maigre echine"' (p„.  /  felin  and upon r e t u r n i n g t o h i s h i d e -  o u t , "Etienne » • • l e chassa encore* d'un coup de p i e d , a i n s i qu'une be^te i n c o n s c i e n t e " ( p . ^11) *  La M heude's c a p a c i t y f o r l o v e i s the o n l y s t a b i l i z i n g  and  a  u n i f y i n g force w i t h i n t h e i r marriage.  As the f a m i l y s l o w l y  d i s i n t e g r a t e s b e f o r e her eyes as the r e s u l t o f working i n the mine j . . she alone  stands b e s i d e t h e i r dead b o d i e s  a modern, t e a r l e s s Niobe f i g u r e .  l menting  9  as i f  a  Thus as she watches the  approach  o f the s t r e t c h e r b e a r i n g J e a n l i n ' s i n j u r e d body, " , . . i l y eut en e l l e une  /  x  \  gayant, sans l a r m e s "  (p, 1 9 6 ) ,  band's c o r p s e , " r e g a r d a n t  L a t e r , ; she  son v i e u x d'un  s i t s beside, her  mere p i e c e o f b l a c k c o a l , l e s paupieres  F i n a l l y , when she  sans une  , . |_ell£j  c  j e t a un  un a u t r e , de grandes p l a i n t e s l o n g u e s ,  .  . . •  • . . E t i e n n e apparut  rr  pas  (p, 483)».  c r i , p u i s un a u t r e , p u i s incessantes.  . . .  decharne, l e s cheveux t o u t b l a n c s ;  La Maheude s ' a r r e t a de crier.', pour l e r e g a r d e r  ment, . . . (p,  stuplde-  512),  Indeed, throughout concern  larme  the n o v e l , l a Maheude o v e r t l y r e v e a l s her  and her l o v e f o r her husband.  children w i l l i n g l y nd a  F o r example, she and  her  u n s e l f i s h l y d e p r i v e themselves o f meat i n  o r d e r t h a t Maheu have enough f o r h i s d i n n e r ; she  constantly worries  about h i s b e i n g k i l l e d or i n j u r e d i n a mine a c c i d e n t ; she him  to a .  sees Catherine!'sr corpse b e i n g l i f t e d from the  c o l l a p s i n g p i t , ""  Lorsqu'  reduced  "La Maheude „ «, « s u i v a i t d'un  ardentes,  hus-  a i r h e b e t e ^ (p*. ¥32)*,  As Z a c h a r i e ' s dead body i s r a i s e d from the p i t , now  machinal,  y  s i brusque r e a c t i o n q u ' e l l e e t o u f f a de c o l e r e , be-  not t o b e l i e v e i n Etienne''s "reve  social";  begs  she o b j e c t s t o  h i s becoming i n v o l v e d i n the s t r i k e a c t i o n by b e i n g the chosen t o address: M. Hennebeau; and i n a d d i t i o n , she has  delegate reformed  Maheu  (p.  who before his marriage, " • « . buvait en vrai cochon"" s  9*0. The strength which allows their marriage to withstand  the hard blows of reality (pain . starvation and poverty), and thus s  to endure i s clearly the result of the common bond of love which unites them  a  The  bathing scene, in which l a Maheude gently rubs  her husband s tired body reveals the tenderness, intimacy and :,  understanding which they share in their marriage. they quietly discuss the problems of the d'ayr  Alone  together,  begging credit  from M a i g r a t and charity from the G r e g o i r e s , and the means of repaying them.. L a t e r Maheu despairs over his inabilty to provide for his family when he returns: home from the market without the supplies his wife requested, " i elle.  f  Eh bien,. tu es gentili d i t -  Eh mon cafe, et mon sucre, et la viande?  Un morceau de  veau ne t'aurait pas ruineY' I I ne repondit point, £trangle" d'une emotion qu'il renforcait.  Puis  dans ce visage epais d'homme,  durci aux travaux des mines, i l y eut un gonflement de desespoir, et de grosses larmes creverent des yeux, tomberent en pluie chaude. :  I I s"etait abattu sur une chaise, i l pleurait comme un enfant, en jetant les cinquante francs.:sur l a table"" (p« 185)„ Clearly  their marriage is not perfect for they frequently  qu rrel with and shout at one another, but in terms of the rest g  of the mining community^ their marriage is the most "divine"" one :  presented in this social class because'more than any other marriage, their relationship i s based on selfless love and concern for one another rather than on self-gratifying lust*. T h e i r marriage i s surpassed only by.the Gre'goires'" according to this' criteria,  and  since both marriages  e n t a t i v e o f the Edenic  a r e f o u n d e d on l o v e , t h e y a r e r e p r e s -  s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h u s r e v e a l two  d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s along the s l i d i n g scale o f d i v i n e sexual relationships,, ..'IChe o p p o s i t e p o l e , t h a t o f demonic s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c e n t e r s on t h r e e sub-themes?.  t h e theme o f a d u l t e r y , t h e theme o f  c a s t r a t i o n and t h e theme.of t h e v i r g i n w h i c h i s c e n t r a l t o a l l t r a d i t i o n a l G o t h i c novels,,ships are unquestionably  Negative  o r demonic s e x u a l  relation-  b a s e d on l u s t w h i c h , a s one o f t h e seven',  s i n s , seeks s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n . of sexual r e l a t i o n s transcends  Once a g a i n , t h e p r i n c i p a l theme the barrier of s o c i a l class i n  t h a t demonic s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o m e r e l y one  level of society. I n d e e d l a P i e r r o n n e and l a L e v a q u e , w i v e s o f t h e w o r k i n g  miners,  class  engage i n a d u l t e r o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r  u n s a t i s f y i n g marriages . r  Throughout t h e n o v e l , r e f e r e n c e  r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e i l l i c i t and t h e i r l o v e r s .  after  a f f a i r s between t h e two women  Prom t h e b e g i n n i n g  of. t h e book, t h e D a n s a e r t -  l a Pierronne r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the subject o f m a l i c i o u s l o c a l f o r " L e s amours du m a i t r e - p o r i o n e t de l a P i e r r o n n e c o n t i n u e l l e p l a i s a n t e r i e de l a f o s s e " ' ( p , 50).  Etaient  "'/SrrJ  t h a t Zola i s working  la  Moreover, Dansa-  e r t i s d e s c r i b e d i n s e x u a l t e r m s ; f o r example., h i s most ing feature i s  gossip  g r o s n e z s e n s u e l " ; (p,. 51), w h i c h  outstandsuggests  w i t h the widespread, t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f i n  the nose-penis r e l a t i o n s h i p .  L a t e r a s D a n s a e r t t r i e s t o deny  h i s a f f a i r w i t h l a P i e r r o n n e , " «. . . son g r a n d n e z a v o u a i t l e  crime  s  affair  par sa rongeur s u b i t e " ' ( p , 3*+5).  Their  illicit,  secret  becomes p u b l i c i n the scene where Maheu and l a Levaque  peer through a c r a c k i n the s h u t t e r as i f they a r e c a t c h i n g  a t the woman and her l o v e r  a glimpse a- f o r b i d d e n  travelling  or p l a y , the same scene which P i e r r o n l a t e r w i t n e s s e s  circus  t h r o u g h the  2 half-open  door.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y the o n l o o k e r s r e a c t w i t h  gust and contempt r a t h e r  t h n with, l a u g h t e r a  or enjoyment.  w i t h i n i the working c l a s s s o c i e t y , another a d u l t e r o u s is  the s u b j e c t  of l o c a l gossip  disAlso  relationship  and mockery, b u t i t i s n o t d e v e l -  oped i n as much d e t a i l o r t o the p o i n t . o f o v e r t  discovery:  the  "menage a t r o i s " ' o f the Levaques n d t h e i r b o a r d e r , B o u t e l o u p * a  Despite t h e i r f i n a n c i a l have an unhappy m a r r i a g e . Hennebeau d i s c u s s e s  success and s e c u r i t y , the Hennebeaus  J u s t a f t e r the s t r i k e b e g i n s , as Mme  w i t h her husband her p l a n s f o r P a u l and  C e c i l e " s wedding, we l e a r n f o r the f i r s t course o f t h e i r m a r r i e d ' l i f e .  time o f the t r o u b l e d  Indeed, a l t h o u g h Madame Hennebeau  i s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g s e x u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p remains u n f u l f i l l e d : I I l a r e g a r d a , , , , e t son v i s a g e dur e t forme' d''homme de d i s c i p l i n e exprima l a s e c r & t e - d o u l e u r d'un coeur m e u r t r i , Elle e"tait r e s t e e l e s e^paules nues, de'j^ t r o p mure, mais e l e g a n t e e t d e s i r a b l e encore, avec sa c a r r u r e de Ce'res, doreV par l'automae* Un i n s t a n t , i l dut a v o i r l e d d s i r b r u t a l de l a p r e n d r e , de r o u l e r sa t $ t e entre ses deux s e i n s q u ' e l l e e ' c l a t a i t , d'un l u x e de femme s e n s u e l i e , e t l ' o n t r arenait un parfum i r r i t a n t de muse,; mais i l se r e c u l a , d e p u i s d i x anne'es l e menage f a i s a i t chambre £ p a r t , (pp.,  The  200-201)  comparison o f Madame Hennebeau w i t h £ & r e s , the Roman goddess  o f a g r i c u l t u r e or h a r v e s t , gospels. Fecundity.  clearly  suggests one o f Z o l a s r  four  However, t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p remains uncon-  summated "because t h e i r m a r r i a g e i s n o t a u n i o n o f two s o u l s or minds, hence a union based on l o v e , b u t r a t h e r t h e i r s i s the u n i o n ' o f two fortunes,, un  T h e i r marriage i s d e s c r i b e d  de ces coups de f o r t u n e  nines:,  . .- ""'(p. 201)'..  as, " . . .  q u i sont l a r e g i e pour l e corps des Unhappy w i t h  life  town and-with a husband who l a c k s a m b i t i o n ,  i n a small mining Madame Hennebeau  shares no bond o f l o v e , no common i n t e r e s t w i t h her p a r t n e r i n marriage: TJne i r r i t a t i o n c r o i s s a n t e de'tachait Madame Hennebeau, elevee dans l e r e s p e c t de l a r g e n t , de'daigneuse de . ce m a r i q u i g a g n a i t durement ses appointements medio-; c r e s , e t don^ e l l e ne t i r a i t aucune des s a t i s f a c t i o n s v a n i t e u s e s r e v e e s en p e n s i o n . . . Le desaccord n a v a i t f a i t que g r a n d i r , aggrave par un de ces s i n , g u l i e r s malentendus de l a c h a i r q u i g l a c e n t l e s p l u s ardents:- ^ i l a d o r a i t sa femme, e l l e e t a i t d'une s e n s u a l i t e de blonde gourmande, e t deje i l s - c o u c h e i e n t a p a r t , mai a^ I ' a i s e - t o u t de s u i t e b l e s s e s . Elle eut'dds l o r s un-amant, q u ' i l i g n o r a . ( p . 201) 1  1  As he r i d e s through the s t r e e t s ' o f Montsou d u r i n g M. Hennebeau r e v e a l s h i s d e s i r e f o r a complete s e x u a l  the s t r i k e , relation-  s h i p , "" . . . i l tombait l e p l u s souvent sur des amoureux q u i se moquaient de l a p o l i t i q u e e t se b o u r r a i e n t coins.  de p l a i s i r , .dans l e s  Au t r o t de sa jument, l a t e t e d r o i t e pour ne derangef  personne, i l p a s s a i t , t a n d i s que son coeur se g o n f l a i t d'un besoin  i n a s s o u v i , a^ t r a v e r s c e t t e g o i n f e r i e des amours l i b r e s "  (p„. 2 6 9 ) 0 at  Moreover, he e n v i e s the working c l a s s people who c a n  l e a s t indulge  costs nothing,  f r e e l y i n s e x u a l p a s s i o n which a l t h o u g h i t  i s the one p l e a s u r e  inlife  which i s i n a c c e s s i b l e  to him; I I a v a i t rencontre^des couples, • „ . E n c o r e des g a l a n t s q u i a l l a ^ e n t l a "bouche s u r - l a bouche, p r e n d r e du p l a i s i r d e r r l e r e l e s murs. N ' e t a i e n t - c e pas l a ses r e n c o n t r e s h a b i t u e l l e s , des f i l l e s . culbute'es a u f o n d de c h a q u e ^ f o s s e , des gueux se b o i j r r a n t de l a s e u l e j o i e q u i ne c o u t a i t r i e n ? E t c e s i m b e c i l e s se p l a i g n a i e n t de l a v i e , l o r s q u ' i l s a v a i e n t , a p l e i n e s v e n t r t f e s , c e t u n i q u e bonheur de s'aimer j i V o l o n t i e r s , i l a u r a i t cr.eve de f a i m comme eux, s ' i l - a v a i t pu recommencer 1 ' e x i s t e n c e avec une femme q u i se s e r g i t donnee a l u i s u r des c a i l l o u x , de t o u s s e s r e i n s et.de t o u t son c o e u r . Son malheur e'tait sans c o n s o l a t i o n , i l e n v i a i t c e s m.is,erables ' L a te^te b a s s e , i l r e n t r a i t , ... desespere par ces longs b r u i t s , perdus au fond de l a campagne n o i r e , e t ou i l n ' e n t e n d a i t que des baisers. ( p . 283) 0  N  x  0  F i n a l l y , as t h e a n g r y women march i n p r o t e s t home, M.  Hennebeau i n w a r d l y d e s i r e s  i n front of their  t o g i v e up h i s f o r t u n e i n  .exchange f o r a s a t i s f y i n g s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , " I I l e u r en a u r a i t f a i t cadeau V o l o n t i e r s , de s e s g r o s a p p o i n t e m e n t s , pour comme eux, l e c u i r d u r ,  1'accouplement f a c i l e e t sans  Que ne p o u v a i t - i l l e s a s s e o i r san,  N  s  av nt l u i I a  regret.  a sa t a b l e , l e s empater de son f a i -  t n d i s q u ' i l s'en a l l a i t f o r n i q u e r  b u t e r ' des f i l l e s ,  avoir,  derriere les haies,  cul-  en se moquant de ceux q u i l e s a v a i e n t culbute'es  I I a u r a i t t o u t donne, . . . s ' i l a v a i t pu e t r e , une  journee, l e dernier  des m i s e r a b l e s q u i l u i o b e i s s a i e n t ,  l i b r e de  sa c h a i r , a s s e z g o u j a t pour g i f l e r da femme e t p r e n d r e du p l a i s i r sur l e s v o i s i n e s . les  . . .  AhT  v i v r e en b r u t e ,  , . „ battre  b l e s avec l a h e r s c h e u s e l a p l u s l a i d e , l a p l u s s a l e , e t e t r e  c a p a b l e de s'en c o n t e n t e r " ( p . 355). A l t h o u g h b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s d e s i r e a complete s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , o n l y Madame Hennebeau a c t u a l l y seeks a l o v e r . her  life  Bored  with  i n t h e e x i l e o f Montsou and t r u e t o h e r C e r e s n a t u r e ,  she i s i m m e d i a t e l y  a t t r a c t e d t o h e r nephew, P a u l , and w i l l i n g l y  s e r v e s as h i s s u r r o g a t e m o t h e r , " j e l l e ^ , t o u t de s u i t e , a v a i t p r i s un r o l e de bonne t a n t e , t u t o y a n t son n e v e u , v e i l l a n t a son bien-etre  L e s p r e m i e r s m o i s s u r t o u t , e l l e montra une m a t e r n i t e  0  d e b o r d a n t e de c o n s e i l s , aux m o i n d r e s s u j e t s , M a i s e l l e femme p o u r t a n t , e l l e g l i s s a i t a des c o n f i d e n c e s (p.. 203>.  restait  personnelles"  U n t i l the scene i n w h i c h h e r husband d i s c o v e r s w i t h  g r e a t shock t h e t r u t h o f h e r i n f i d e l i t y , t h e r e i s no e x p l i c i t l i n k between Madame Hennebeau and N e g r e l .  Her p l a n s f o r h i s  m a r r i a g e t o Ce'cile serve a s an e x c e l l e n t d i s g u i s e f o r h e r a d u l t e r o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r nephew i n t h a t t h e time w i t h t h e young c o u p l e  she spends  a p p e a r s t o be- s p e n t i n t h e u n s e l f i s h  e s t o f u n i t i n g t h e young c o u p l e .  inter-  J u s t b e f o r e M, Hennebeau f i n d s  h i s wife^'s e t h e r f l a s k i n P a u l ' s bed, t h e R e f e r e n c e s t o h e a t and perfume s u g g e s t t h e s e x u a l p a s s i o n w h i c h h i s w i f e f e e l s f o r h e r nephew, " I I ' r e g n a i t Is! une c h a l e u r m o r t e , l a c h a l e u r enfermee de de t o u t e une n u i t , a l o u r . d i p a r l a bouche du c a l o r i f e r e , r e s t e o u v e r t e ; e t ^M. Hennebeau^ tut p r i s a u x m a r i n e s , i l  suffoqua  dans un parfum p e n e t r a n t , , q u ' i l c r u t e t r e I ' o d e u r des eaux de toilette, (p«  327)o-  •  '3  Un g r a n d d e s o r d r e  e n c o m b r a i t l a p i ^ c e , . . . ""  '  Wondering how t o h a n d l e t h e s i t u a t i o n , he i s overcome  by " „ « « l e u r s s o u p i r s , «< • . l e u r s h a l e i n e s confondue.s dont s ' a l o u r d i s s a i t j l a tie'deur m o i t e de c e t t e chambre; l i ' o d e u r p e n e t r a n t e q u i 1 ' a v a i t s u f f o q u e , c ' e t a i t 1''odeur de muse que l a peau de l a femme e x h a l a i t , un u t r e gout p e r v e r s , un b e s o i n c h a m e l , I ' o d e u r a  de l a f o r n i c a t i o n , l ' ' a d u l t e r e v i v a n t , ..«,.. dans l e d e s o r d r e  de  la  piece  e n t i e r e , empestee de v i c e " ( p  •upon d i s c o v e r i n g M.  c  330)»  Immediately  " l e l i t chaud encore de l^adulte^re"' (p„  Hennebeau r e c a l l s w i t h g r e a t  328),  pain:  Le l o n g passe'de s o u f f r a n c e » » son mariage avec c e t t e femme, l e u r malentendu lmmediat de coeur e t de c h a i r o l e s amants q u ' e l l e a v a i t eus ^ajas q u ' i l s'en d o u t a t , c e l u i q u ' i l l u i a)(ait t o l e r e pendant d i x ans, comme on t o l e r e un gout immonde a* une maladeo o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o * . Maintenant une rage 1 ' e n v a h i s s a i t , l e b e s o i n cl'un cloaque, pour y enfoncer, de t e l l e s s a l e t e s & coup • de t a l o n o C e t t e femme e t a i t une s a l o p e , o o o o L ' i d e e brusque du mariage q u ' e l l e p o u r s u i v a i t d'un s o u r i r e s i ^ t r a n q u i l l e entre C e c i l e e t P a u l , acheva de l ' e x a s p e r e r JJL n.'.y a v a i t done p l u s de p s s i o n , p l u s - d e j a l o u s i e , , au fond de c e t t e s e n s u a l i t e v i v a c e ? Ce n'<*etait ^ c e t t e heure qu'un j o u j o u p e r v e r s , „ . • E t i l 1 ' a c c u s a i t de tout,.- i l i n n o c e n t a i t presque ^ ' e n f a n t , auquel e l l e a v a i t mordu, dans ce r e ' v e i l d^appelbit,: a i n s i qu'on mord au p r e m i e r f r u i t v e r t , vol<T sur l a r o u t e ~ (pp« 328-29) 0  r  0  8  e  C l e a r l y then, the Hennebeau m a r r i a g e , which as t h e i r surname implies  i s b u i l t on  fulfilled  "haine" rather  than on l o v e , remains an  s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p - o f which the  a l i e n a t i o n and  ultimately adultery.  r e s u l t i s unhappiness,  Thus t h e i r marriage can  c l a s s e d as demonic i n t h a t i t d i s i n t e g r a t e s and the  l e v e l of t o t a l l y l u s t f u l The  the  social  i n Germinal as the  d e s t r u c t i o n o f the  competition  and  bourgeois  owns the l o c a l g r o c e r y s t o r e and  r e s u l t o f v e r y shrewd b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s , he  and  bourgeois,  M a i g r a t d e f i n i t e l y belongs t o the  order- i n t h a t he  the  demonic s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s  theme' of. c a s t r a t i o n which Z o l a e x p r e s s e s both l i t e r a l l y  c a p i t a l i s t movemento  all  descends t o  be  gratification  second sub-theme o f the  symbolically  un-  has  g a i n e d a monopoly over a l l l o c a l  as a  destroyed business:  Ancien s u r v e i l l a n t au Voreux, i l a v a i t debute par une £troite c a n t i n e ; p u i s , grace a l a p r o t e c t i o n de ses c h e f s , son commerce s * e t a i t e " l a r g i , t u a n t ' peu £ peu l e d e t a i l de Montsou. II centrallsait l e s marchandises, l a c l i e n t e l e c o n s i d e r a b l e des corons l u i p e r m e t t a i t de vendre moins cher e t de f a i r e des c r e d i t s p l u s grands. D'ailleurs, i l e'tait r e s t e dans l a main de l a Compaghie,- q u i l u i a v a i t b a t i sa p e t i t e maison e t ' s o n magasin. ;  s  Cp. 89)  In  terms o f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s customers,  Maigrat i s  p r e s e n t e d as being a s e x u a l l y potent male who c o p u l a t e s w i t h the weak and r e c e p t i v e female.  From the moment o f the f i r s t  appearance i n the n o v e l of M a i g r a t and h i s w i f e , an important  /  f a c t i s e s t a b l i s h e d , "On r a c o n t a i t q u ' e l l e c e d a i t l e l i t c o n j u gal  aux herscheuses  de l a c l i e n t e l e .  C e t a i t un f a i t  connu:  quand un mineur v o u l a i t une p r o l o n g a t i o n de c r e d i t , 1 1 n ' a v a i t qu'a  envoyer sa f i l l e  ou sa femme, l a i d e s . ou b e l l e s ,  q u ' e l l e s fussent complaisantes" Maheude f i n a l l y  succeeds  pourvu  ( p . 90). Moreover, when l a  i n begging  c r e d i t from  the g r o c e r and  r e t u r n s w i t h p r o v i s i o n s and money, she r e a l i z e s t h a t a c c o r d i n g to  Maigrat's  system, payment f o r c r e d i t i s made i n the form  prostitution. he undresses  Although when she f i r s t begs c r e d i t from her w i t h h i s l u s t f u l eyes,\ she r e c o g n i z e s  r e c e i v i n g the goods t h a t "Ce n ' e t a i t pas d ' e l l e q u ' i l e ' e t a i t de C a t h e r i n e : d'envoyer sa f i l l e  elle  first  shop i n search o f extended a la  flrul^, During  s i elle'le  Maigrat, after  voulait,  l e comprit, q.uand i l l u i recommanda  chercher l e s p r o v i s i o n s " ( p . 96).  the women make t h e i r  of .  L a t e r , as  but u n s u c c e s s f u l march t o Maigrat's' credit,  ". .'• . i l o f f r i t  sa boutique  p r e n a i t pour g a l a n t " ( p . 260).  the c r u c i a l march o f p r o t e s t o f the angered wives o f  the  impoverished  storm  Maigrat's  Maigrat  Etienne urges  Indeed  their  Maigrat's  part with  as the marchers  own l i v e s death,  i n order  the s t i l l  ".  . . l e s femmes a v a i e n t a t i r e r  c h e r c h a i e n t un outrage,  369).  proudly the  L a B r f i l e , whose v e r y  literal  emasculation  bete  "Elles  d'e'craser  pouvoir"  (p.352) • over  chacune  enfin,  bourgeois  t h e women  sanglant,  eu a s o u f f r i r ,  l a , inerte, their  dis-  comme  et qu'elles en l e u r  individual  capitalist  power.  who-have b e -  i n t h e hands o f t h e i r . o p p r e s s o r s , r i s e  against  owners a n d d e s t r o y M a i g r a t ' a s i f he were a v i c i o u s  a n d n o t a human b e i n g ,  cette  chair  lamentable  dTun b o u c h e r . avec  act—  the grocer's  l e lambeau  T h u s , t h e women a c h i e v e  beast  opa,  crucial  have been r e v e r s e d i n t h a t t h e m i n e r s ,  come human b e a s t s  tal  displaying  qu'elles Voyaient  soulageat"  mad p a s s i o n ,  one m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e much h a t e d  Now t h e r o l e s  castration, vengeances.  As a g r o u p ,  avait  revenge  quiles  name s u g g e s t s  the s t r e e t  After  a des l o u v e s .  une s a u v a g e r i e  se m o n t r a i e n t  mauvaise, dont  venaient  the  their  of l i t e r a l  pareilles  wife  goods.  de l u i d ' a u t r e s  of Maigrat.  march t h r o u g h  membered o r g a n ,  triumph  he a n d h i s  commits t h e m o s t d e s t r u c t i v e a n d t h e m o s t  laughingly  une  i n a scene  t o u r n a i e n t en l e f l a i r a n t ,  Toutes  f o r t h e sake o f  women a c h i e v e  the bourgeois  (p.  capitalists  nothing  to protect their  angry  crowd t o  f o r the a v a r i c i o u s  approach,  on  Elles  t h e rampant  s h o p i f t h e y want b r e a d ,  and h i s w i f e w i l l  charity. risk  miners,  l a bete  "Des g o u t t e s  pendait,  . . .  de s a n g p l e u v a i e n t ,  comme u n d e c h e t  . . . q u a n d l a bande  mauvaise, l a b i t e  e'crasee,  de v i a n d e 'a l el  d e s femmes g a l - .  au b o u t  du b a t o n "  8 (p.  352).  Maigrat's  demonic q u a l i t y  i s expressed  symbolically  ho throughout  h i s death  scene  i n t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l  Hell,  r e d and b l a c k , c o n t r a s t s h a r p l y w i t h  color  o f Heaven, w h i t e ,  tionnaient  de l e u r s  / \  r o u g e , au f o n d  des t e n e b r e s "  police  "Le c a d a v r e  arrive,  d'ombre scene, part  sur l a terre bathed  o f t h e n o v e l ends w i t h  p l u s que l e s h a u t s  f o n d du c i e l  acterizes Maigrat  which  t h e image  the symbol o f c a p i t a l i s t the f i r s t  chapter  comme une c o r n e  m a u v a i s de b^ete  "Cette  fosse, tassee  d'un  daily  as a .  a u f o n d d'un  un a i r  l a p o u r manger l e monde" ( p . /  /  mechante,  gene p a r s a d i g e s t i o n p e n i b l e de c h a i r  avalait  t o describe  mena^ante, l u i s e m b l a i t a v o i r  d'une h a l e i n e p l u s g r o s s e  m i n e r s make t h e i r  char-  de b r i q u e s , d r e s s a n t s a  s o n t a s s e m e n t de b e t e  davantage, r e s p i r a i t  i l n'y  mauvaise" which  o n , l e 'Voreux i s p r e s e n t e d  goulue,accroupie  ". . . a v e c  puits  the f i f t h  power a n d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  A  le  this  evocation of the  i s one o f t h e m a j o r m e t a p h o r s u s e d  avec ses c o n s t r u c t i o n s trapues  As.the  tache  Moreover,  concludes  o f " l a bete  creux,  l'air  s e u l une  371).  carniverous beast,  which  when t h e  f o u r n e u u x e t l e s f o u r s a coke incendi'e's  greedy  cheminee  faisait  a traditional  tragique" (p.  Significantly,  Indeed from  and l a t e r  vision  " L a p l a i n e se n o y a i t s o u s 1 ' e p a i s s e n u i t ,  avait  iVoreux,  9  370-71).  i n b l o o d and darkness  of Hell,  le  de M a i g r a t (pp.  p a l e s , ne q u e s -  grands yeux c e t t e  ( p . 353)^  blanche"  fires  au  the t r a d i t i o n a l  "Ces d e m o i s e l l e s , t r e s  plus, suivaient  colors of  descent  into  s'ecrasait  e t plus  longue,  humaine" ( p .  12).  the p i t , " . . .  d e s hommes p a r b o u c h e e s de v i n g t e t de t r e n t e ,  c o u p de g o s i e r s i f a c i l e ,  qu'il  s e m b l a i t ne pas l e s s e n t i r  h),  passer. de  . . .  P e n d a n t une d e m i - h e u r e , l e p u i t s en  l a s o r t e , d'une g u e u l e  profondeur arret,  de 1 ' a c c r o c h a g e  24-25).  (pp.  imply  ou i l s d e s c e n d a i e n t ,  Maigrat,  a s an a s p e c t  i s presented  which  overtly  Clearly  very  symbolically as a v i t a l  copulates with  stated i n a letter  phallic  definitely  symbols  the feminine  pre-Freud,  i s p o s s i b l e f o r as Z o l a  was  one o f h i s f o u r  t o Ce'ard  o f l e Woreux c l e a r l y  symbol,  "Cette  cheminee  novel, reference  chimney as b e i n g  after  has  interpretation, bruit sur  d'averse.  le toit  tenant,  reference  Z o l a was o f h i s no-  terms, the  . . . d r e s s LgJ  d'un c r e u x , (p.4).  phallic  And  throughout  i s made t o t h e u p r i g h t  crucial  features  o f the mine.  o f t h e m o v i n g w a t e r w i t h i n the- p i t  se d e m a n d a i t  Quelques grosses  de l a c a g e , comme a u  l a pluie  he c o n -  "fe'condite" or s e x u a l i t y  sexual overtones  "Etienne  Although  f u n c t i o n s as a m a s c u l i n e  one o f t h e m o s t  d i s t i n c t masculine  Z o l a , who  interpretation  menacante"  In a d d i t i o n , the d e s c r i p t i o n  life  Indeed, i n F r e u d i a n  f o s s e , tasse'e a u f o n d  comme u n e c o r n e  masculine  framework, appears t o use  insisted,  gospels.  like  that i n Germinal  a Freudian  chimney  the  de d i g e r e r u n  the mine,  earth.  t o some d e g r e e .  vel  sa  sans un  t o describe the  of i t s bestiality,  s c i o u s l y worked w i t h i n a symbolic Freudian  mais  capables  t h e words used  selon l a  i t s animality.'  Moreover  force  ou m o i n s g l o u t o n n e ,  t o u j o u r s a f f a m e , de b o y a u x g e a n t s  peuple" pit  plus  devora  according  justement  gouttes  deVut  t o a Freudian  quel  avaient  e ' t a i t ce  d'abord  sonne  d'une o n d e e ; e t , m a i n -  augmentait, r u i s s e l a i t ,  se c h a n g e a i t  en u n v e r -  itable filet  deluge. d'eau,  chair"  (p.  Sans d o u t e , l a t o i t u r e  coulant  sur  at  images o f r a i n which  time  g r o u n d and of  ful  and  life  near  Requillart  throughout  epaule,  trouee,  le trempait  ear  un  jusqu'a  la  32).  When c o m b i n e s w i t h the  son  etait  a c t u a l time  storms  indicate  i s conceived.  the  entrance  flourish  the  the  amid  n o v e l as  the  scheme o f the  Indeed,  to l e Voreux, the  dreary  site  the  novel,  f e c u n d i t y of situated the  spring  above  evergreen  wasteland  and  fields  serve  o f human c o p u l a t i o n a n d  lust-  animal-like, passion:  ce c o i n de t e r r e , s ' e t a l a i t en h e r b e e p a i s s e , j a i l l i s s a i t en j e u n e s a r b r e s deja" f o r t s . A u s s i chaque f i l l e s'y t r o u v a i t - e l l e c h e z e l l e , i l y a v a i t des des t r o u s p e r d u s j^our t o u t e s , . . . . . . Et i l s e m b l a i t que ce f u t • . . une r e v a n c h e de l a c r e a t i o n , l e l i b r e amour q u i , s o u s l e c o u p de f o u e t de l ' i n s t i n c t , p l a n t a i t des e n f a n t s dans l e s v e n t r e s de f i l l e s , a* p e i n e femmes. (pp. 125-26) Similarly, the  i n the  spring-time  earth i s presented  etait  o f the venu.  fertilizing Etienne,  d'avril,  une  beginning  about t o conceive  water, flowing  . . . avait •  tiede  a t the  i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l maternal  c u n d womb o f a l l n a t u r a l l i f e tion  world  bonne  i n the  o f the  role,  through  p i t , "Le  r e c u a" l a f a c e  cette  the the  novel, feac-  printemps bouffee  ?  odeur  de  terre  jeune,  de  verdure  tendre,  de grand  a i r pur; e t , maintenant, a chaque s o r t i e , l e p r i n -  temps s e n t a i t m e i l l e u r e t l e c h a u f f a i t davantage, en mai,  . . .  p o u s s i e r e d'aurore, tait  toute r o s e .  l e c i e l vermeil e c l a i r a i t ou l a vapeur blanche . . .  . . .  l e Voreux d'une  des ^chappements mon-  En j u i n , l e s b l e s t t a i e n t  grands  de^a^, d'un v e r t b l e u q u i t r a n c h a i t sur l e v e r t n o i r des b e t t e raves. .  C ' e t a i t une mer sans f i n , ondulante  . . .  terre,  . . . toute une v i e germait,  . . . " (pp. 1 3 8 - 3 9 ) .  jaillissait  Significantly  mine, which deep down i n the feminine  au moindre  vent,  de c e t t e  then, the m a s c u l i n e  earth ingests i t s d i e t of  human bodies and which i s d e s c r i b e d throughout  the n o v e l i n  s e x u a l terms, serves as an enormous womb i n which the f o e t u s develops.  In Z o l a ' s terms, the o f f s p r i n g which w i l l  from from the symbolic is  sexual union  o f the mine and the e a r t h  s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n ; indeed the n o v e l c l o s e s on t h i s  thus  insisting  on Z o l a ' s  result  note,  viewpoint:  2-laintenant, en p l e i n c i e l , l e s o l e i l d ' a v r i l r a y o n n a i t dans sa g l o i r e , e'cnauffant l a t e r r e qui. enfantait. Du f l a n c n o u r r i c i e r j a i l l i s s a i t l a v i e , l e s bourgeons c r e v a i e n t en f e u i l l e s v e r t e s , l e s champs t r e s s a i l l a i e n t de l a pousse"e des herbes. De t o u t e s p a r t s , des g r a i n e s se g o n f l a i e n t , s ' a l l o n g e a i e n t , g e r ^ a i e n t l a p l a i n e , t r a v a i l l ^ e s d'un b e s o i n de c h a l e u r e t de l u m i e r e . Un debordement de seve c o u l a i t avec des v o i x chuchotantes, l e b r u i t des germes s'e^pandait en un grand b a i s e r . . . '. Aux rayons enflamme's de l ' a s t r e , par c e t t e matinee de j e u n e s s e , c ' e t a i t de c e t t e r u meur que l a campagne e'tait g r o s s e . Des hommes p o u s s a i e n t , une a mile n o i r e , vengeresse, q u i germait lentement dan^ l e s s i l l o n s , g r a n d i s s a n t pour l e s r l c o l t e s du s i e c l e f u t u r , e t dont l a germination a l l a i t f a i r e bient&t eclater l a t e r r e . ( p . 525) As a symbol o f bourgeois  o p p r e s s i o n and c a p i t a l i s m , l e  .  >Voreux s t a n d s which  alone with  i t hathes  in  soot  troyed  following  dust.  Significantly  tration  this  point  ally  as  the  act  event  other  novel  i t falls  chimney m a r k i n g  smoke.  parallels  the  i n the  collapses series  of  and  Souvarine's  scene which  emasculation  its tall  of  or  sabotage  functions the  final  the  and  the  major  i n t o dust  crumbles  symbolically destruction  phallic  on  symbolically  the  landscape  mine i s  symbol,  ground.  to a  cas-  Clearly'at  the  And  movements, t h e  as  des-  through  "bete mediante," M a i g r a t .  of v i o l e n t earthquakes-like  destroyed  Ultimately  the  chimney,  after a  mine  is  tot-  castrated:  D ' a b o r d , une s o r t e de t o u r b i l l o n e m p o r t a l e s d e b r i s du c r i b l a g e e t de l a s a l l e de r e c e t t e . Le b a t i m e n t des c h a u d i l r e s c r e v a ^ e n s u i t e , d i s p ^ r u t . P u i s , ce f u t Is t o u r e l l e c a r r e e ou r a l a i t l a pompe d ' d p u i s e ment, q u i tomba s u r l a ' f a c e , . . . . Et l'on v i t a l o r s une e f f r a y a n t e c h o s e , on v i t l a m a c h i n e , d i s loqu.c'e s u r son m a s s i f , l e s membres e c a r t e l e s , l u t t e r contre l a mort: e l l e m a r c h a , e l l e d e t e n d i t sa b i e l l e , son g e n o u de g'eante, comme i^our se l e v e r ; m a i s e l l e e x p i r a i t , broye^e^ e n g l o u t i e . Seule, l a h a u t e chemine'e de t r e n i ^ e m e t r e s r e s t a i t d e b o u t , s e coue'e, p a r e i l l e a un mat dans 1 ' o u r a g a n . On croy" a l t q u ' e l l e a l l a i t s ' e m i e t t e r e t v o l e r en p o u d r e , l o r s q u e , t o u t d'un c o u p , e l l e s ' e n f o n c a ..d'un b l o c , bue p a r l a t e r r e , f o n d u e a i n s i qu'un cie'rge c o l o s s a l ; . . . . C ' e t a i t f i n l , l a btte mauvaise, aecroupie dans ce c r e u x , g o r g e e de c h a i r h u m a i n e , ne soufflait p l u s de son h a l e i n e g r o s s e e t l o n g u e . Tout e n t i e r l e -Voreux v e n a i t :  In  addition  rer"  to  a l s o has  death.  The  the  ration  of  the  mine  ample,  as  the  shaft  bler,  l e s secousses  couler  destruction  sexual  volcano  de  of  the  chimney, the  undertones which again imagery which  suggests  se  describes  a masculine  crumbles,  ( p . 473)  a" l ' a b i m e .  suggest the  sexual  ".' . . l a t e r r e  succedaient,  . .  . des  *  verb  "expi-  sexual  symbolic  cast-  force; for  ex-  ne  cessa  de  grondements  tremde  v o l c a n en e r u p t i o n " (p. i - 7 D . L  le  c r a t e r e s ' e m p l i t , un  Once the w a l l s c o l l a p s e , ". . .  l a c d'eau boueuse occupa l a p l a c e  ou e t a i t naguere l e »Voreux, . . . "  (p. k7k),  "Ce  au grand j o u r en une  t o r r e n t de flamme  . . . jaillit  erup-  charpente"  (p.^82).  c a s t r a t i o n of M a i g r a t  represents  an  i n d i v i d u a l or s m a l l v i c t o r y of  ,  d e b r i s de  tion', q u i c r a c h a i t des roches Whereas the l i t e r a l  and f i n a l l y  et des  over  the  steadily  encroaching  power  c a p i t a l i s m , the s y m b o l i c . c a s t r a t i o n of the mine s i g n i f i e s a  much g r e a t e r and more v a s t conquest f o r the symbol o f the mine embodies a whole s e r i e s of i n j u s t i c e s , t r u t h s which Z o l a i s a t p a i n s to d e c l a i m . and lief And  By r e d u c i n g the p i t t o a mere mound of dust  d e b r i s , there i s thus i n a new although  s t r o n g grounds f o r the o p t i m i s t i c  j u s t s o c i e t y which w i l l be born i n the f u t u r e . the mine i s emasculated a t the  end  of the  novel,  i t s l o s s of s e x u a l f o r c e comes a f t e r i t s c o p u l a t i o n w i t h earth.  As  be-'-  a result,  the f o e t u s o f s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n has  the indeed  been c o n c e i v e d w i t h i n the g i a n t womb of the e a r t h and w i l l  be  born i n the f u t u r e . C e n t r a l to a l l G o t h i c n o v e l s which i n Germinal i s the t h i r d and  i s the theme o f the final  sub-theme under  g e n e r a l theme of demonic s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s . virgin  embodies both  the v i r g i n  i s indeed,  virgin  The  the  theme of the  p o l e s of the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h a t as E m i l y Bronte a p t l y s t a t e s i n a poem,"**^  the e a r t h which by a r o u s i n g a human h e a r t t o e i t h e r p o s i t i v e negative  f e e l i n g c e n t e r s the worlds of Heaven and H e l l .  In  or the  t r a d i t i o n a l G o t h i c n o v e l , such as p r e v a i l e d i n E n g l a n d around  the  turn  girl  o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a very young,  i s imprisoned  i n a dark,  labyrinthine,  virginal  decaying  where a d e m o n i c and p o w e r f u l m a l e  figure  over  to violence,  sadism  constantly threatens to  rape  her and thus  lead  in  the' u n d e r w o r l d .  and l u s t  her i n t o  A t t h e same  who  castle  i s totally  an e x i s t e n c e s i m i l a r time,  the g i r l  given  to life  i s attracted to  a  another he  man who,  offers  by comparison,  her love r a t h e r  than  i s " d i v i n e " male lust  figure  a n d as a r e s u l t ,  i n that  o f f e r s her  a heavenly e x i s t e n c e . Fom the  the b e g i n n i n g o f the n o v e l , l e V o r e u x i s p r e s e n t e d as  typical  prison-like cription Bible.  gothic  structure  Moreover,  i n Dante's  o f Heaven and H e l l which t h e i r desire  vie  for Cecile,  and l a s t l y ,  struggle behind  t o possess  t o possess Chaval  Catherine.  t h e demonic male f i g u r e  and d e c a y i n g  the c l a s s i c a l  des-  Inferno or of H e l l demonic  are constantly being torn  Bebert both  i n the  environment,  three  between t h e v e r t i c a l  lovers  represent:  Jeanlin  L y d i e , Bonnemort and N e g r e l and E t i e n n e c o n s t a n t l y  Moreover i n each  the m o t i v a t i n g  of these  force  relationships  sadism. From t h e b e g i n n i n g  structure into  scenes, Zola  stresses  the l a b y r i n t h i n e  o f l e >Voreux, a n d d u r i n g E t i e n n e ' s i n i t i a l  t h e p i t , t h e s e m e t a p h o r s become m o s t e x p l i c i t ,  voyageait (p.  labyrinthine  i n this malevolent,  and  is  a dark  which a l s o resembles  o f the underworld  young v i r g i n s poles  castle:  29).  dans un d e d a l e Indeed  d'escaliers  h i s entrance  into  e t de c o u l o i r s  descent " . . .i l obscurs"  the p i t i s c l e a r l y described  in  similar  of  the  terms t o the  underworld,  " E n f i n , une  sombra, l e s o b j e t s eprouvait  un  trailles.  des  des  into  His  the  structure  fall  i n Germinal that t o the  along  first  zaine Plus  par  loin,  own  de  uncarrefour e t l a bande  partissaient  peu  33-3 +)« 1  search etait et,  de  a peu  site,  a l a sixieme quinze  de  and  ouvriers ces  presenta,  s'y  divisa  se  trous de  de  en  quinze  metres,  aient,  l a montee n'en  finissait  convoi  s o u s 1©  au m i l i e u d e s  terre,  plus"  during  separaient, Une  quin-  galeries  les ouvriers  from  de  seam t o  re-  seam i n  consorts  qu'ils disaient;  les voies  epaisses  se  l a mine"  Maheu e t  ( p . 35),  se  . . .  deux n o u v e l l e s  . . . la taille  composed  m i n e r s move  gauche;  les chantiers  the  maze-like  is  noirs.  encore,  fall  gives  example,  v o i e , dans l ' e n f e r , a i n s i  metres  Satan's  Zola  other  i l resta  sensations"  c a s t l e and  Maheu g r o u p c l i m b s "  ses  For  en-  tournoyante  complicated  the  dans c e l u i  dans t o u s  Thus the  of t h e i r  fond  se  de  is a  les  la fosse,  Lost  gothic  p i t , he  s'engager  s'ouvraient,  (pp.  lui tlrait  la fuite  nette  mine  seam, " L e s  g r o u p e s , au  venaient  jour, franchissant les  typical  i n the  towards t h e i r  perdaient  f u t au  of narrow passages.  day  qu'il  qui  Paradise  the  tout  tandis  underworld p a r a l l e l s in  abyss  chute,  l a perception  spiral  dark  l'ebranla, et  l u i s'envolerent;  qu'il  i n t o the  l a y e r upon l a y e r  i n t o the  tombe d a n s l e n o i r de  plus  similar  Etienne's  tant  Puis,  descending  impression  de  r e c e t t e s , au m i l i e u de  n'ayant  (p. 3D-  of  dura  charpentes.  etourdi,  autour  descent  secousse  v e r t i g e a n x i e u x de  Cela  deux e t a g e s  classical  se  and  superposlater,  tenebres,  "Ce  n-len  finissait  C a t h e r i n e , E t i e n n e ^ Mou que  familiarity direction  with  p^re  r u n madly  "Les autres  Mouque, q u i a v a i t  hesitait  garaient,  cation,  noisy,  s'e'tait  like  stormy  sentinels.  supports signaux  e t des v e r r o u s ,  and  arise  grillage rous"  les voies,  eux.  . . ."(p.  the s t r i k e descent  close walls  e'paisse  by cage  scaffolding  a peine  des genoux e t  as a  into which  des g u i d e s ,  ou g l i s s a i e n t  the miners  descend  de b a n d e s de t o l e  the miners  e t d'un  sur l e s  le toit  c o u d e s , ne p o u v a n t  ver-  are imprisoned  en c e t e n d r o i t de c i n q u a n t e entre  into  individual  o f t h e seam, " . . . c e t t e v e i n e  se t r o u v a i e n t l a comme a p l a t i s  trainant  * + 9 2 ) .  by p o s t e d  cages which a r e l i k e  working,  bifur-  de f e r , l e s l e v i e r s d e s  Significantly,  . . . garnie  dont  A chaque  1  between, t h e  qu'ils  l e s madriers  Indeed while  Pourtant,  L e s t e t e s s'e'-  a p e t i t e s m a i l l e s , l e s a t t e n d a i t , d'aplomb  (p.3 1 ) .  s i mince,  "La cage,  during  " l e s rampes  (p.2 3 ) .  derriere l e  l e 'Voreux i s p r e s e n t e d  the complex i r o n  from t h e p i t i n i r o n  cells,  court,  makes h i s i n i t i a l  through  sense o f  de R e q u i l l a r t .  devant  les arretait  the e x c a v a t i o n ,  deux c a g e s "  a galoper  p a r ou t o u r n e r .  comme e m b r o u i l l e  As E t i e n n e  of their  a l l lose their  ne r e c o n n a i s s a i e n t p l u s  prison, protected  les  prison  continuerent  the gothic c a s t l e ,  p i t , he p a s s e s  i n spite  leading  from dead end t o dead end i n s e a r c h  g r a n d i au f o n d  une i n c e r t i t u d e  Also  passages  l u i - m e m e , ne s a v a i t  l e s anciens  l'/cheveau  se  A t the end o f the n o v e l , as  and B a t a i l l e  the i n t r i c a t e  as they  o f a way o u t ,  the  q u ibifurquaient, tour- .  p i t c o l l a p s e s a r o u n d them a n d c l o s e s o f f t h e p a t h s  out,  i l  des g a l e r i e s  se d e ' r o u l a i e n t " ( p . 1 9 3 ) .  naient, the  plus, l e long  etait  centimetre  e t l e mur,  se r e t o u r n e r  s a n s se m e u r t r i r not  l e s e'paules"  an i n s t i t u t i o n  trap  i n t o which  ( p . 37).  of correction  poverty  puis,  ( p . 168).  1  tout  l'obscur  o n c e more. noises  travail  Again  which  toujours,  And c l e a r l y du bagne  and a g a i n  tonnerre  as the n o v e l  the reader  du p o r t e - v o i x  relache,  Le 'Voreux i s a l s o weeks a f t e r et  the p r i s o n  the s t r i k e  c e t abandon des g r a n d s En  terre  bas,  .  l  e  nue e t n o i r e ;  sous l e s a v e r s e s . fures  a u - d e s s u s de c e t t e  chantiers,  e t longue,  of ruins  ou d o r t  . . . sur l e t e r r i  i l n'y a v a i t  la  pompe s o u f f l a n t s o n h a l e i n e  grosse  k).  three  ce v i d e . . .  laissant l a pourrissait  . . . les sul-  . . .  ensevelis  toujours  sans  (p.  f o r only  des b o i s  desert,  l a pluie,  mort des b a t i m e n t s ,  poussiere  soufflant  le travail.  s'e'puisait,  que l a p r o v i s i o n  de  26).  noire,  b y " . . . I'e'chappement  " C ' e t a i t 1'usine morte,  decomposes f u m a i e n t m a l g r e  dans  Moreover, the morning  engorgee du m o n s t r e "  s t o c k de c h a r b o n tandis  a l a gorge,  sourds des signaux, l e beu-  i n a state  begins,  begins  descends i n t o the  T.,.(p. 3 0 ) .  comme l ' h a l e i n e  closes, " . . .  le serrait  r e s p i r a t i o n grosse  quietait  . . .  becomes aware o f t h e h a r s h  i n M o n t s o u , he i s p u z z l e d  l a pompe, c e t t e  states,  enferme l a -  ( p . 52k)  souterrain"  des b e r l i n e s , l e s coups  of h i s a r r i v a l de  on r e s t e  come f r o m t h e p i t ; a s E t i e n n e  glement e t o u f f e e  a  que l e b o n h e u r v i e n d r a ,  m i n e , " . . . une e m o t i o n d e s a g r e a b l e le  i s , however,  condemns them; f o r a s l a Maheude  l a m i s e r e recommence  dedans... "  prison  a n d p u n i s h m e n t "but r a t h e r  , '"Quand on e s t j e u n e , on s ' i m a g i n e et  Their  . . . dans l e u r  Et, drap  que I'e'chappement de  e t longue,  . . . " (pp.225-  In the  the  typical  movement and  light  phere  i t evokes.  phere  of  ates of  of  novel, the  only  ombres v i v a n t e s "  gothic  castle,  great  moon and  Significantly,  darkness broken  "[les]  the  gothic  by  emphasis on  the  i s placed  ghostly  atmos-  the  n o v e l , o p e n s i n an  the  moonlight which  of the  m i n e r s , and  the  on  atmos-  illuminsilhouette  l e Voreux:  Un c h e m i n c r e u x s ' e n f o n c a i t „ Tout d i s p a r u t . . . . B r u s q u e m e n t , a" un coude du c h e m i n , l e s f e u x r e p a r u r e n t pre"s de l u i , s a n s q u ' i l comprlt d a v a n t a g e comment i l s b r t f l a i e n t s i h a u t d a n s l e c i e l m o r t , p a r e i l s a des l u n e s f u m e u s e s . Mais, au r a s du s o l , un a u t r e s p e c t a c l e v e n a i t de 1' arr^ter. C ' l t a i t une masse l o u r d e , un t a s e^crase de c o n s t r u c t i o n s , d'ou se d r e s s a i t l a s i l h o u e t t e d'une c h e m i n l e d ' u s i n e ; de r a r e s l u e u r s s o r t a i e n t des f e n e ^ t r e s e n c r a s s e e s , cinq ou s i x l a n t e r n e s t r i s t e s E t a i e n t p e n d u e s d e h o r s , & des c h a r p e n t e s d o n t l e s b o i s n o i r c i s a l i g n a i e n t v a g u e m e n t des p r o f i l s de t r e t e a u x gigantes^ q u e s ; e t , de c e t t e a p p a r i t i o n f a n t a s t i q u e , noye'e , de n u i t e t de fumee, une s e u l e v o i x m o n t a i t l a r e s p i r a t i o n g r o s s e e t l o n g u e d.'un e'chapperaent de v a p e u r , qu'on ne v o y a i t p o i n t . , ( p . 2) I n d e e d when E t i e n n e "Des  formes  entrevoir  first  spectrales  une  rondeur  descends  i n t o the  . . . les lueurs de  h a n c h e , un  b r a s n o u e u x , une ( p . 3'8).  crime"  cial  moon p l a y s  At  the  start  i n the  f o r e s t , the  of  meeting,  branches hautes pleine, 283),  se  and  at  this  encore  branches hautes;  "II faisait  decoupaient  montant a 1 ' h o r i z o n ,  t r o p basse  noir  the  sur  egalement, f a i s a i t  viol-  the  noyee  pale  ou  a terre, les la  lune  les etoiles"  au-dessus d ' e l l e ,  toujours de en  cru-  important-role.  (p.  y e t . i l l u m i n a t e d , "La  a l'horizon, n'e'clairait et l a foule r e s t a i t  an  eteindre  i s not  only  tete  During  nuit noire  le ciel  allait  point Etienne  sees  perdues^qui^laissaient  e n t e , b a r b o u i l l e ' e comme p o u r un meeting  p i t , he  que  les  tenebres,.... h a u t de  la  lune, . Lui,  pente,  une  ( p . 285).  b a r r e d'ombre"  audience lune,  Inasmuch as E t i e n n e  by h i s v e h e m e n t b u t c o n v i n c i n g s p e e c h e s ,  q u i montait  l'eclaira"  de l ' h o r i z o n ,  glissant  over  t h e crowd w i t h h i s U t o p i a n v i s i o n ,  jusqu'aux  s p e c t r a l , malignant  (pp.  bodies tice  The  light  des t a i l l i s ,  288-89).  Finally,  over  the f o r e s t ,  entre l e s  P a r t Four o f t h e moon  a light  o f h i s quest  l a houle  casts  which  for social  em-  jus-  a n d w h i c h f o r e s h a d o w s t h e b l o o d y e v e n t s t o come: L e s t e t e s , v i d e e s p a r l a f a m i n e , v o y a i e n t r o u g e , r'e'v a i e n t d ' i n c e n d i e e t de s a n g , a u m i l i e u d'une g l o i r e d'apothe'ose, ou~ m o n t a i t l e b o n h e u r u n i v e r s e l . Etla l u n e t r a n q u i l l e b a i g n a i t c e t t e h o u l e , l a forest p r o f o n d e c e i g n a i t de s o n g r a n d s i l e n c e ce c r i de massacre, ( p . 295) moon  i s also  p r e s e n t when t h e m i n e r s  p i t , when A l z i r e  when E t i e n n e and C h a v a l f i g h t J e a n l i n murders these  events  social,"  created  t h e young  the seeds  by.the  throughout  dies  from  and r e s u l t s  forest.  moonlight  their  a t t a c k on  starvation  and c o l d ,  a n d when  Significantly  each o f  from E t i e n n e ' s  o f w h i c h have m a t u r e d  in-the  make  a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r  sentinel.  i s destructive  the meeting  dark  rouge"' i n w h i c h  the n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s  the J e a n - B a r t  in  A  confus  the n o v e l c l o s e s w i t h a " v i s i o n a  . . .blan-  d e c o u p a i t en a r e t e s v i v e s  lointains  troncs grisatres"  When he w i n s  "La l u n e ,  / .  toute l a c l a i r i e r e ,  tetes,  grands  f o c u s s e s i n on  a s he moves u p t h e l a d d e r o f p o p u l a r i t y .  chissait  branches,  ( p . 287).  \  des  " . . .la  des hautes  Thus t h e moon a c t s a s a s p o t l i g h t w h i c h Etienne  arouses h i s  since  their  Thus t h e s p e c t r a l  "reve  conception  atmosphere  and the i n t e r p l a y between l i g h t and  the novel symbolically  reveals  the serious  negative As  implications of Etienne's i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  dream  o f a new j u s t  gothic novel,  the emotions which a c -  company t h e g h o s t l y  atmosphere a r e f e a r , t e r r o r  Significantly  Zola  then,  ing  scene  the  r e d flames  hesita, see  o f the n o v e l .  pris  issuing  ".  . . i l s'efforcait  et  de l a p e u r  de v o i r "  du >Voreux" ( p . 11) ing  Trompette  from the p i t f i r e s . . ." ( p . 2 ) .  de p e r c e r (p. 6)..  Terror  into  oeil  d i l a t e ' d e t e r r e u r " ( p . 59).  gothic  castle,  (p. 71).  tion  l e 'Voreux e x h a l e s  affreuse  i n seek-  h e l l of  p i e r r e , son  In a d d i t i o n , l i k e the  " ls.or^  haleine  within  Thus,  accomplie  the . f i n a l  and B a t a i l l e  ofthe  d'un m o n s t r e " ' the s t r e e t s o f  the breasts  o fthe  t h e b a n d o f men m a r c h ( p . 350)  on t h e c o r p s e  o f "gaiete' t e r r i b l e .  s'etait  during  peur  paralyzes  son immobilite'de  aroused  t h e women's a t t a c k  amid a s p i r i t  Moreover erine  avec  i s f e a r and t e r r o r .  Also  o f "\la3  the nightmarish  f u r y "dans une u n i f o r m i t e ' t e r r e u s e "  women.place  i n spite  T h r o u g h o u t t h e women's m a r c h t h r o u g h  spectators  night,  d e e p i n one o f t h e l a b y r i n t h i n e p a s s a g e s  M o n t s o u , t h e common e m o t i o n  equal  the e n g u l f i n g  i s the emotion which  "Enfin, i l parut,  crouched  i s f e a r , "D'abord, i l  h i m , he d o e s p e r s i s t  le Voreux,  monster  reaction to  A n d a s he a t t e m p t s t o  However  t h e day o f h i s d e s c e n t  fixe',  t h e open-  l e s ombres, t o u r m e n t e ' d u . d e s i r  which r e s t r a i n s  work i n t h e p i t .  initial  1  around him through  and h o r r o r .  emotions from  Indeed E t i e n n e s  de c r a i n t e ;  the countryside  s t r e s s e s these  society.  behind  with'  angry .  of Maigrat.takes  . . .  dans une h o r r e u r  c o l l a p s e o f l e iVoreux,  Cette  mutila-  glacee"  ( p . 352)  Etienne,  Cath-  a r e a l l overcome by f e a r a s t h e p i t c r u m b l e s  around them, and d e a t h t h r e a t e n s t o e x t i n g u i s h l i f e f i n a l " h o r r e u r du d e s a s t r e " ( p . h66).  As hope f o r escape dim-  i n i s h e s and a f t e r the t r a g i c drovraing o f B a t a i l l e , who  once w i s h e d  moi, "le  ....  t o d i e now  fears  i n the  Catherine  death,  j ' a i p e u r , j e ne veux par m o u r i r  t e r r i f i a n t vacarme des c a t a c l y s m e s  . . . ' " ( p . k9k)  interieurs  ..."  in  ( p . !+95).  S i g n i f i c a n t , t o o , i n terms o f the g o t h i c p a t t e r n s i n the n o v e l i s Z o l a ' s use  of c o l o r i m a g e r y .  More than j u s t  utilizing  the t r a d i t i o n a l c o l o r s o f Heaven and H e l l ( w h i t e , r e d and Z o l a u s e s two  black),  c o l o r s w h i c h are p r e v a l e n t i n . g o t h i c l i t e r a t u r e ,  b l u e and w h i t e and w h i c h evoke a q u a s i - g o t h i c atmosphere. we  have a l r e a d y remarked, the w h i t e glow o f the m o o n l i g h t  a g h o s t l y , malignant  As' casts  glow over the f i c t i o n a l ' w o r l d ; t h u s i t i s a  d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f white- t h a n the w h i t e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e ange l i c Cecile Gregoire.  Blue i s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o q u a l i f y  or l i g h t s w h i c h burn t h r o u g h o u t  fires  the n o v e l and i t i m p l i e s a v e r y  u n n a t u r a l , c o l d , h o r r i f y i n g or g h o s t l y q u a l i t y p r e s e n t i n the miners' world.  Indeed when E t i e n n e f i r s t approaches M o n t s o u ,  "Tout s ' a n e a n t i s s a i t au f o n d de 1'inconnu des n u i t s o b s c u r e s , i l n ' a p e r c e v a i t , t r e s l o i n , que coke.  l e s hauts fourneaux  et l e s fours a  C e u x - c i , des b a t t e r i e s de c e n t chernine'es, p l a n t e e s  quement, a l i g n a i e n t des rampes de flammes r o u g e s ;  V  obli-  t a n d i s que l e s  A  deux t o u r s , p l u s a gauche, b r u l a i e n t t o u t e s . b l e u e s en p l e i n comme des t o r c h e s g e a n t e s . il  n'y  a v a i t d'autres  C ' e t a i t d'une t r i s t e s s e  d'incendie,  l e v e r s d ' a s t r e s . a^ l ' h o r i z o n menacant, 7  ces f e u x n o c t u r n e s  ciel,  des pays de l a h o u i l l e e t du fer',' ( p . 6 ) .  aue  L a t e r , a f t e r watching  Chaval k i s s C a t h e r i n e , E t i e n n e , who i s  overcome hy h i s f e e l i n g s A  . . examin [jf] .sa A  lampe q u i b r u l a i t bleue (p. 40).  of sexual r i v a l r y , ' " ' .  avec une l a r g e c o l l e r e t t e  pale  . . ."  In a d d i t i o n , E t i e n n e ' s . r i v a l r y w i t h Chaval f o r Cathe-  riiiQ(-o:ccurs when.he watches Chaval R e ' q u i l l a r t a t which time  and C a t h e r i n e r e t u r n i n g from  the r e d f i r e s burn b l u e :  Decant l u i l e Voreux s ' a c c r o u p i s s a i t de son a i r de be^te mauvaise, vague, pique' de quelques l u e u r s de lanterne. Les t r o i s b r a s i e r s du t e r r i b r u l a i e n t en l ' a i r , i ^ a r e i l s a des l u n e s s a n g l a n t e s , detachant par i n s t a n t s l e s s i l h o u e t t e s de'mesure'es du pere Bonnemort e t de son c h e v a l jaune. E t , au-dela", dans l a zl p l a i n e r a s e , 1*ombre a v a i t t o u t submerge", Montsou, Marchiennes, l a forest de tVandame, l a v a s t e rner de b e t t e r a v e s e t de bltf, ne l u i s a i e n t p l u s , comme des phares l o i n t a i n s , que l e s feux b l e u s des hauts fourheaux e t l e s feux rouges des f o u r s a" coke. Peu 3 peu, l a n u i t se noyait.. l a p l u i e tocibait maintenant, l e n t e , c o n t i n u e , abimant ce ne'ant .... (p~. 1 3 4 ) ?  o  u  s  Clearly  the use o f the t y p i c a l g o t h i c c o l o r s o f blue and g h o s t l y  white i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t these cur a t moments o f s e x u a l r i v a l r y ;  c o l o r s a c t as symbols and o c f o r example the r i v a l r y be-  tween E t i e n n e and. C h a v a l f o r p o s s e s s i o n o f C a t h e r i n e symbolic m i n e - e a r t h  s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p which are two o f the  major s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the n o v e l . horrifying in  quality  and the  o f these  Indeed the u n n a t u r a l ,  c o l o r s r e i n f o r c e s the same - q u a l i t y  the s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s they  d e s c r i b e . •' '  In terms o f the g o t h i c t r a d i t i o n , the theme o f s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s focusses  on the v i r g i n a l , young g i r l  caught between  a demonic male f i g u r e who d e s i r e s a s a d i s t i c , p e r v e r s e  relation-  s h i p based on l u s t and a d i v i n e male f i g u r e who d e s i r e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p based on l o v e .  The J e a n l i n - L y d i e - B e b e r t r e l a t i o n s h i p  serves as a microcosm f o r the perverse s h i p s i n t h a t although  r e l a t i o n s and  themselves m o r a l l y p e r v e r s e . clearly  animal  As we  s e r p e n t images which  c a l l up a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h Satan,  thus m o r a l l y c o r r u p t beings who s t e a l i n g and  the a r c h e t y p a l  Indeed, under J e a n l i n ' s i n f l u e n c e and  t i o n , the threesome become, "^desj  pillaging  Jeanlin restait  like  "une  through  horde sauvage  the town  . . .  l e s ' e t a l a g e s " (pp.  toutes  For as a r e s u l t of  2 7 0 - 7 1 ) .  \  on ne  /  e l l e s r a p i n e s , a q u e l s jeux d'enfants livre"s tous l e s t r o i s "  (p. 1 8 7 ) .  are puppets or obedient partners i n  sur  dont  l e s champs d'oignons, p i l l a n t l e s v e r g e r s ,  l i n " s t u t e l a g e , " I I l e s a v a i t debauches, jamais  his  de-  156),  7  run w i l d l y  im-.  instruc-  satanes" n 'enfants" ' (p.  l e c a p i t a i n e . . . j e t a n t l a troupe  p r o i e s , ravageant  attaquant  Jeanlin  d e s c r i b e d i n terms of demonic metaphors; f o r example  monic f i g u r e .  les  f e e l i n g s which are i n  have a l r e a d y seen,  images, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  mediately  relation-  they are only c h i l d r e n , they, t o o , are  i n v o l v e d i n pseudo-sexual  is  a d u l t sexual  precoces  sut a  '  qu-  i l s s'etaient  Moreover both L y d i e and  s l a v e s whom he has  Jean-  Bebert  c o r r u p t e d to serve  crime.  Clearly Jeanlin  i s the t y p i c a l g o t h i c v i l l a i n  t h a t b e s i d e s being, m o r a l l y p e r v e r s e , he  or l o v e r i n  i s motivated  by  sadism.  For example, ont of h i s l o v e f o r c r u e l t y , he beats L y d i e f o r d i s o b e d i e n c e , he  teaches  slings-hot to see who them t o j o i n him  as  L y d i e and Bebert  to throw-stones i n a  can .do the most damage, and  he  encourages  i n t o r t u r i n g Rasseneur's pregnant r a b b i t  c h a s i n g i t m e r c i l e s s l y , by  shouting and  by  throwing' t h i n g s a t i t  in  o r d e r t o f r i g h t e n i t , and hy d r a g g i n g  body a l o n g t h e g r o u n d .  i t s exhausted, v a i l i n g  From t h e b e g i n n i n g  o f the n o v e l ,  l i n and L y d i e a t t e m p t t o have an a d u l t s e x u a l and  Jean-  relationship,  i t i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n w h i c h . t h e - v i r g i n a l woman i s b e a t e n  by t h e demonic m a l e , " L y d i e , . . . . e p r o u v a i t , devant J e a n l i n , une  peur e t une t e n d r e s s e  de p e t i t e femme b a t t u e .  se r o u i a i t avec e l l e s u r l e t e r r i . ils  . . i  l  C ' e t a i t sa p e t i t e femme,  e s s a y a i e n t ensemble, dans l e s c o i n s n o i r s , l'amour q u ' i l s .  entendaient  e t q u ' i l s v o y a i e n t chez eux, d e r r i e r e l e s c l o i s o n s ,  par l e s f e r i t e s des portes..  I l s s a v a i e n t t o u t , mais i l s ne pou-  v a i e n t guere, t r o p jeunes, tatonnant, heures,  j o u a n t , pendant des  a* des j e u x de p e t i t s c h i e n s v i c i e u x .  L u i a p p e l a i t ca  ' f a i r e papa e t maman"; • .• . .. "' (pp. 12 +-25). 5  On t h e o t h e r hand and i n d i r e c t , c o n t r a s t t o the demonic J e a n l i n -. L y d i e r e l a t i o n s h i p , Be'bert's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h L y d i e r e p r e s e n t s the d i v i n e pole of the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e .  Indeed  L y d i e and B e b e r t , who b o t h s u f f e r under J e a n l i n ' s c r u e l b l o w s , b o t h o v e r t l y l o v e one a n o t h e r : L y d i e e t B e b e r t , . . . a v a i e n t passe l a n u i t aux a g u e t s , sans se p e r m e t t r e de r e n t r e r . c h e z eux, du moment o u . l ' o r d r e de J e a n l i n e t a i t de l ' a t t e n d r e - : . . . l e s deux e n f a n t s s'e'taient p r i s aux b r a s l ' u n de l ' a u t r e , pour a v o i r chaud. Le v e n t s i f f l a i t e n t r e l e s p e r c h e s de c h ' a t a i g n i e r e t de chene, l i s se p e l o t o n n a i e n t , comme dans u n e h u t t e de bucheron abandonnee. L y d i e n ' o s a i t d i r e a v o i x haute s e s s o u f f r a n e e s de p e t i t e femme b a t t u e , pas p l u s que B e b e r t ne t r o u v a i t l e courage de se p l a i n d r e des c l a q u e s dont l e c a p i t a i n e l u i e n f l a i t l e s j o u e s ; m a i s , a* l a . f i n , c e l u i - c i a b u s a i t t r o p , r i s q u a n t l e u r s os dans des maraudes f o l i e s , r e f u s a n t e n s u i t e t o u t p a r t a g e ; e t l e u r coeur se s o u l e v a i t de r l " v o l t e , i l s a v a i e n t f i n i p a r s'embrasser, malgre' sa d e f e n s e , q u i t t e s a r e c e v o i r une g i f l e de l ' i n v i s  1  s i b l e , a i n s i q u ' i l l e s en rnenacait. La g i f l e ne ven-ant pas, i l s c o n t i n u a i e n t de se b a i s e r doucement, sans a v o i r l ' i d ^ e d'autre chose, mettant dans c e t t e caresse l e u r longue p a s s i o n combattue, t o u t ce q u ' i l ' y a v a i t en eux de m a r t y r i s e e t d ' a t t e n d r i . . La n u i t e n t i e r e , i l s s ' ^ t a i e n t a i n s i r e - "• c h a u f f e s , s i heureux au fond de-ce t r o u perdu,  (pp. ¥17-18)  ....  Of the two a d u l t g o t h i c  sexual  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the l e a s t  developed i s the Ne^grel-Cecile-Bonnemort p o l a r i z a t i o n . . Indeed t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p hovers over the atmosphere o f the n o v e l and c l e a r l y embodies many o f the same q u a l i t i e s which are developed i n the other a d u l t g o t h i c C a t h e r i n e and C h a v a l . sexual  sexual  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  However the' C e c i l e , Bonnemort and N e g r e l  r e l a t i o n s h i p remains i n an embryonic stage and thus i s  not worked out i n a complete way. is  Throughout the n o v e l ,  c l e a r l y p r e s e n t e d as the p e r f e c t v i r g i n or a n g e l i c  t h a t she i s d e s c r i b e d saintliness,  Negrel  child i n  C l e a r l y i n terms o f the  represents  in- t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r what l i t t l e are d e f i n i t e l y not l u s t f u l ,  sexual,  Ce'cile  i n terms o f white imagery which suggests  p u r i t y and v i r g i n i t y .  v e r t i c a l perspective,  cile  Etienne,  the d i v i n e male f i g u r e  f e e l i n g s he has f o r Ce-  i f even they may be termed  " C e c i l e ne l u i d e p l a i s a i t p a s , , e t i l v o u l a i t b i e n l'e^-  pouser, pour e t r e agreable. a sa t a n t e ; mais i l n'y a p p o r t a i t aucune fie^vre amoureuse, en garcon d'experience q u i ne s'emballait  plus,  . . . ( p . 211).  On the other hand, Bonnemort i s  p r e s e n t e d e x p l i c i t l y ' t h r o u g h o u t the n o v e l as the t r a d i t i o n a l gothic v i l l a i n  i n t h a t he i s c o n s t a n t l y  terms; thus he r e p r e s e n t s spective  -  '  described  the demonic pole  i n satanic  o f the v e r t i c a l  per-  Again suggests  and a g a i n ,  Bonnemort. s p i t s  t h a t the H e l l  Indeed d u r i n g E t i e n n e ' s the  traditional  violent  acces  crachat,  o f t h e mine initial  up b l a c k  which  i s b u r i e d deep w i t h i n h i m .  encounter  colors of Hell  c o a l dust  are used  de t o u x l ' e t r a n g l a i t .  with  to describe  Enfin,  s u r l e s o l empourpre, l a i s s a  t h e o l d man, h i m "' Un  i l cracha,  e t son  noire" (p. 3).  une t a c h e  Moreover, Bonnemort a l s o d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f i n terms o f a n i m a l i m a g e s when he t e l l s pit,  "'On m'a  foi-s avec que  Etienne  retire',trois  tout l e p o i l  a b o u t h i s many a c c i d e n t s i n t h e  fois  roussi,  de l a - d e d a n s une a u t r e  avec  de l a t e r r e j u s -  dans l e g e s i e r , l a t r o i s i e m e a v e c l e v e n t r e  comme une g r e n o u i l l e . . . ' " ( p . 7)« blue  and g h o s t l y white  cribe  him.  under  the moonlight,  paleur he  en m o r c e a u x , une  During  livide,  addresses  Bonnemort's f i r s t and f i r e  maculee  fait,  sous l a l u n e ; gothic  this  i n the n o v e l  interview with  b l e u a t r e s " ( p . 7) • on t h e f o r e s t , Un  Bonnemort  sadistically  who, a s an i n d i v i d u a l ,  mains f r o i d e s  venaient  B o n n e m o r t , pre^s d u q u e l  ". . . E l l e  de l a p r e n d r e le flot  ". .  . l a  silence  de s p e c t r e  of the t y p i c a l  h a s done n o t h i n g  to merit  of the miners'  B o n n e m o r t r e v e a l s h i s own c r u e l t y  tempts t o s t r a n g l e C e c i l e ,  L a t e r as  a t t a c k s the i n n o c e n t and  Overcome b y t h e f e r o c i o u s s p i r i t  march f o r b r e a d ,  "d'une  grand  d'une.paleur  I n t h e manner  t o des-  Etienne  h i s face appears  e t blanche.  . . . " ( p . 291).  Cecile  fate.  de t a c h e s  twice  on e c o u t a i t ce v i e i l l a r d ,  villain,  virginal  light,  d'eau  The two g o t h i c c o l o r s o f  t h e crowd a t t h e m e e t i n g muette  s'etait  are a l s o used  gonfle  when he a t -  e u t un c r i r a u q u e : d e s au c o u .  l'avait  C'etait  l e vieux  poussee, e t q u i l'empoig-.  nait.  I I s e m b l a i t i v r e de f a i m , hebete par sa longue  s o r t ! brusquement de sa r e s i g n a t i o n d'un A  •  misere,  d e m i - s i e c l e , sans /  •  q u ' i l f u t p o s s i b l e de s a v o i r sous q u e l l e poussee de r a n c u n e . . . . i l c e d a i t a d e s choses q u ' i l n ' a u r a i t pu d i r e , a un  be-  v  s o l n de f a i r e c a , a" l a f a s c i n a t i o n de ce cou b l a n c de fille.  jeune"  E t , . . . i l s e r r a i t l e s d o i g t s , de son a i r de  bete i n f i r m e , en t r a i n de r u m i n e r des  vieille  s o u v e n i r s " ' (pp. 363-6*+).  F i n a l l y , he makes h i s second a t t a c k on h e r : C e t a i t l u i , e l l e r e t r o u v a i t l'homme, e l l e r e g a r d a i t l e s mains posees sur l e s genoux, des mains d ' o u v r i e r a c c r o u p i dont. t o u t e l a f o r c e e s t dans l e s p o i g n e t s , s o l i d e s encore malgre" l ' ^ g e . Peu a^ peu, Bonnemort a v a i t paru s ' e v e l l l e r , . et i l I'examinait ... Une flamme m o n t a i t a ses j o u e s , une secousse n e r veuse t i r a i t sa bouche, d'oft c o u l a i t un mince f i l e t de s a l i v e n o i r e . A t t i r e s , t o u s deux r e s t a i e n t 1'un devant l ' a u t r e , e l l e f l o r i s s a n t e . grasse et fraliche des l o n g u e s p a r e s s e s e t du b i e n - e t r e r e p u de sa r a c e , l u i g o n f l e ^ d ' e a u , d'une l a i d e u r l a m e n t a b l e d e b e \ e f o u r b u e , d e t r u i t d e p e r e en f i l s par cent.annees de t r a v a i l e t de f a i m . ... £ar t e r r e , C Ce'cile} g i s a i t , l a face bleue, i f t r a n g l e e . (p.*fo9) x  C l e a r l y t h i s passage p r e s e n t s the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n h e r e n t in  the c o n t r a s t between the o p p o s i t e  s o c i a l l e v e l s , and  the  v e r t i c a l perspective inherent i n their sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p . Indeed Bonnemort i s once a g a i n d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f r e d  and  b l a c k images thus making him the h e l l i s h , s a t a n i c f i g u r e . The  Etienne-Catherine-Chaval  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the second  and  the m o r e - d e v e l o p e d o f the two a d u l t g o t h i c s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . C a t h e r i n e f u n c t i o n s as the B r o n t e man  e a r t h whic'h a r o u s e s o t h e r  h e a r t s t o f e e l i n g and thus c e n t e r s the w o r l d s  o f Heaven  H e l l i n t h a t t h r o u g h o u t the n o v e l she i s d e s c r i b e d as c o n s t a n t l y between E t i e n n e and C h a v a l who  huand  heing  r e p r e s e n t the d i v i n e  and the demonic p o l e s o f the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e r e s p e c t ively.  To mention o n l y a few o f the o c c a s i o n s i n which  Cath-  e r i n e i s trapped between E t i e n n e and Chaval one can examine the scenes  i n which the t h r e e work s i d e by s i d e i n the p i t ,  the scenes where E t i e n n e observes  C a t h e r i n e and C h a v a l making  l o v e on the R e ' q u i l l a r t f i e l d s and most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n the f i n a l scenes  o f the n o v e l where a l l three are t r a p p e d i n the  c o l l a p s i n g , f l o o d i n g mine w h i l e they w a i t t o be r e s c u e d . C l e a r l y the f e e l i n g s which C a t h e r i n e arouses w i t h i n the two men r e v e a l the two p o l e s o f the v e r t i c a l persioective i n t h a t she awakens Chaval's  l u s t f u l d e s i r e s as opposed t o E t i e n n e ' s  • f e e l i n g s o f l o v e , sympathy and compassion.  Moreover, the gen-  e r a l r i v a l r y between E t i e n n e and Chaval begins from itial  encounter,  their i n -  the day o f E t i e n n e ' s descent i n t o the p i t  when, "Les deux hommes e"changerent  un r e g a r d , allume' d'>une de  ces h a i n e s d ' i n s t i n c t q u i flambent  subitement"  (p. 36).  As  the n o v e l p r o g r e s s e s , the o b j e c t o f t h e i r q u a r r e l s i s c l e a r l y C a t h e r i n e ; f o r Chaval, ". . . i l y a v a i t une j a l o u s i e .  /  inavouee  . . l a peur qu'on ne l u i v o l a t C a t h e r i n e " ( p . 173) j j u s t as .  . une v i e i l l e  h a i n e , une j a l o u s i e longtemps inavouee  e c l a t a i t ]^en E t i e n n e ] . deux mangeat l ' a u t r e "  Maintenant, (p. -233).  i tfallait  . • .  que l ' u n des  The q u a r r e l which begins a t .  Rasseneur's bar and i n which E t i e n n e i s the winner, ends i n the f l o o d i n g p i t when E t i e n n e , , overcome by h i s i n h e r i t e d s p i r i t o f  Le], dans le mur, une feuille de schiet . . .l'arrach^V], tres large, tres  lourde.  P u i s , a deux mains, avec une  f o r c e decuplee, i l l'abaj_tj  de C h a v a l " (p. 502) and k i l l s h i s enemy and  sur  l e crane  for  Catherine.  As we  have a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , C a t h e r i n e i s  c l e a r l y the young v i r g i n on whom the demonic v i l l a i n that only l a t e  rival  i n the n o v e l does she r e a c h  As the demonic G o t h i c v i l l a i n ,  preys i n  puberty.  Chaval i s p r e s e n t e d  simul-  t a n e o u s l y as a s a t a n i c b e i n g and as a very p o t e n t male s e x u a l force.  F o r example, Cheval b r u t a l l y k i s s e s C a t h e r i n e e a r l y i n  the n o v e l w h i l e E t i e n n e l o o k s on, a t which time, et  "Ses moustaches  sa b a r b i c h e rouges f l a m b a i e n t dans son v i s a g e n o i r , au  nez en bee  d ' a i g l e " (p. k8)  Clearly  9  suggest h i s h e l l i s h q u a l i t i e s and erences  grand  the images o f r e d and  s a t a n i c n a t u r e , and the  black  ref-  t o h i s h a i r and nose have d e c i d e d s e x u a l overtones which  imply h i s s e x u a l potency.  Even i n death Chaval remains the same  potent demonic s e x u a l f o r c e f o r , as h i s corpse f l o a t s back up  to  the s u r f a c e o f the f l o o d e d p i t where i t haunts E t i e n n e and  Cath-  e r i n e , "Continuellement,  ses  moustaches rouges, the n o v e l we cause he  dans sa face broyee"  see Chaval*s  seeks  i l l e v o y a i t , gonfle', v e r d i , avec (p. 5 0 8 ) .  Throughout  s e x u a l i t y as n e g a t i v e or demonic  o n l y l u s t or mere p h y s i c a l , s e l f i s h  be-  gratification.  As a r e s u l t , C a t h e r i n e becomes j u s t an o b j e c t which p r o v i d e s  him  w i t h s e x u a l , s e n s u a l p l e a s u r e f o r c l e a r l y he has no c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r her wishes or needs. lain, of  L i k e the t r a d i t i o n a l g o t h i c v i l -  Chaval's main d e s i g n throughout  the v i r g i n , "Son  the n o v e l i s . the s e d u c t i o n  i d e e , depuis longtemps, e'tait de l a d e c i d e r  a" monter dans l a chambre q u ' i l o c c u p a i t au premier  £tage de  l ' e s t a m i n e t P i q u e t t e , une  belle  pour un menage" (pp. lg*Jt-30). Catherine,, he succeeds  chambre q u i a v a i t un grand  lit,  Although Chaval i s repugnant  to  i n seducing h e r , ". . . e l l e  d e f e n d r e , s u b i s s a n t l e male avant l ' a g e , avec c e t t e  cessa de  se  soumission  h e r e d i t a i r e , q u i , des l ' e n f a n c e , c u l b u t a i t en p l e i n v e n t l e s filles  de sa r a c e " (pp. 1 3 1 - 3 2 ) .  Late i n the n o v e l , w h i l e they  are t r a p p e d deep down i n the f l o o d i n g p i t , Chaval"s l u s t f u l s i r e t o possess C a t h e r i n e i s aroused and again demonic and u a l metaphors are used t o d e s c r i b e him, souffle  sur l e cou; i l e t a i t r e p r i s d'une de ses anciennes f u -  1 ' a p p e l a i t a v a i e n t une  Les r e g a r d s  dont  flamme q u ' e l l e c o n n a i s s a i t b i e n , l a  flamme de ses c r i s e s j a l o u s e s , later,  sex-  ". . . i l l u i a v a i t  r e u r s de d e s i r , en l a voyant pres de l ' a u t r e . il  de-  . . . "  (p. 5 0 0 ) , and moments  ". . . i l l a s e r r a , par bravade,  bouche ses moustaches rouges,  l u i e c r a s a n t sur l a  . . . "' (p. 5 0 1 ) .  Moreover Chaval i s c l e a r l y m o t i v a t e d by sadism h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with Catherine.  throughout  J e a l o u s of E t i e n n e ' s  proxim-  i t y t o C a t h e r i n e as the Maheus' b o a r d e r , Chaval does not a l l o w C a t h e r i n e t o go home; he keeps her out a l l n i g h t and t h r e a t e n s to beat her i f she attempts  t o run away.  Later, after  la  eude accuses C a t h e r i n e of being.a whore, "Chaval e n t r ^ V ] bond par l a porte o u v e r t e , J^etQ l u i a l l o n g ( V ^ \ une ruade mauvaise" (p. 233)..  That C a t h e r i n e i s merely  Man-d'un  de bete  an o b j e c t i s e v i -  dent i n the scene where C h a v a l k i s s e s C a t h e r i n e v i o l e n t l y : I I s'avanca, s'as sura que Maheu ne p o u v a i t l e v o i r ; e t , comme Catherine " e t a i t r e s t e e t e r r e , sur son s e " a n t , . i l 1'empoigna p a r . l e s I p a u l e s , l u i r e n v e r s a l a te'te, l u i e c r a s a l a bouche sous un b a i s e r b r u t a l , t r a n q u i l l e m e n t , en a f f e c t a n t de ne pas se preoccuper 7  •d'Etienne. I I y a v a i t , dans ce b a i s e r , une p r i s e de p o s s e s s i o n , une s o r t e de d e c i s i o n j a l o u s e . ( p . 48) And  a f t e r r e t u r n i n g home from  neurs and f i n d i n g  C a t h e r i n e a s l e e p , "Chaval  debout d>;un s o u f f l e t . par l a p o r t e , s i e l l e A  ne v o u l a i t  . . . l a v a i t mise :  de passer  pas s o r t i r  t o u t de s u i t e  par l a f e n e t r e ; e t  a peine, meurtrie  a v a i t d$ descendre,  de coups de p i e d dans l e s  pousse'e dehors d'une d e r n i e r e  Cette s e p a r a t i o n b r u t a l e 1 ' e ' t o u r d i s s a i t "  claque. and  II l u i criait  a t Rasse-  s  p l e u r a n t e , vetue jambes, e l l e  h i s f i g h t with Etienne  forever after,  Catherine l i v e s  ( p . 4l6),  i n constant fear  of further  beatings. Chaval*s after  one moment o f tenderness  Catherine  Jean-Bart, gains  and concern  c o l l a p s e s w h i l e working i n ' the v e r y hot p i t a t  he g e n t l y d r e s s e s her and jokes w i t h her when she r e -  consciousness,  "Jamais e l l e  ne I ' a v a i t w  d i n a i r e , pour une bonne p a r o l e q u ' i l l u i d i s a i t , t o u t de s u i t e d'accordi"  deux s o t t i s e s .  (p. 3 1 4 ) .  s i gentil.  Cela a u r a i t e'te" s i bon de v i v r e  Indeed moments l a t e r when the Montsou min-  c u t the c a b l e s , he soon f o r g e t s h i s tenderness  and  concerns  f o r Catherine  h i m s e l f only w i t h s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n and escape,  . . deja i l o u b l i a i t  euse.  D'or-  e l l e ernpoignait  ers  ".  i s fleeting,  . . . In d i r e c t  son serment, jamais  e l l e ne s e r a i t  t o u t l e temps i l l a b r u t a l l s [ a i t j - "  heur-  (p. 3 1 7 ) .  c o n t r a s t t o the demonic C h a v a l - C a t h e r i n e  relation-  s h i p i s the E t i e n n e - C a t h e r i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p which r e p r e s e n t s the divine  pole o f the v e r t i c a l  p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h a t i t i s founded on  l o v e , r e s p e c t , compassion and p i t y . in  the p i t , he and C a t h e r i n e  D u r i n g E t i e n n e ' s f i r s t day  share.her'lunch  a t which  time  E t i e n n e d i s c o v e r s t h a t she i s a woman and more s p e c i f i c a l l y who  i s sexually a t t r a c t i v e ; thus, " . . .  one  hrusquement^'/'s e t a i t T  demande s ' i l ne d e v a i t pas l a s a i s i r dans ses b r a s , pour l a b n i s e r sur l e s l e v r e s . A  E l l e a v a i t de g r o s s e s l e v r e s d'un  '  p a l e , a v i v e e s par l e c h a r b o n ,  q u i l e t o u r m e n t a i e n t d'une e n v i e  c r o i s s a n t e " ( p . ^ 6 ) . However, ". . . i l  l a s e n t Q i t \ v i e r g e de  c o r p s , v i e r g e e n f a n t , r e t a r d e e dans l a m a t u r i t e " de son ..-. ." ( p . *. 7) • L  gentille"  rose  sexe  Indeed because he f i n d s her "de'cidement t r e s  (p. * * 7 ) , he makes the t i m i d d e c i s i o n t o t a k e her i n  h i s arms a n d k i s s her b u t i s p r e v e n t e d by the a r r i v a l o f C h a v a l . L i k e C h a v a l , E t i e n n e has i n the p a s t sought mere p h y s i c a l ,  sex-  u a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n , b u t u n l i k e C h a v a l , he p e r c e i v e s C a t h e r i n e be d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r women and d i f f e r e n t manner.  chooses t o t r e a t her i n a  A f t e r he moves i n t o the Haheu home, a  i n t i m a c y i s e s t a b l i s h e d between them, but i t a l s o s e t s up barriers in their relationship;  to  The  new new  f a c t t h a t she i s so w h i t e ,  so v i r g i n a l d i s t i n g u i s h e s her from o t h e r women, " . . .  il  d a i t . . . pour e l l e un s e n t i m e n t  rancune,  f a i t d ' a m i t i e ' e t de  q u i 1 ' e i r m e c h a i t de l a t r a i t e r en f i l l e (p. 16k).  qu'on d e s i r e , * . ."  Soon a f t e r as t h e y l i e i n bed u n a b l e  E t i e n n e f e e l s each one  gar-  to sleep,  i s t h i n k i n g about the o t h e r b u t n e i t h e r  can e x p r e s s h i m s e l f : Des minutes s ' I c o u l e r e n t , n i l u i n i e l l e ne r e n u a i t , l e u r s o u f f l e s ' e m b a r r a s s a i t s e u l e m e n t , malgre' l e u r e f f o r t pour l e r e t e n i r . A deux r e p r i s e s , i l f u t s u r l e . p o i n t de se l e v e r e t de l a p r e n d r e . C ' e t a i t imb e c i l e , d ' a v o i r un s i gros d£sir 1'un de l ' a u t r e , sans jamais se c o n t e n t e r . P o u r q u o i done bouder a i n s i contre leui> envie. . . . e l l e v o u l a i t b i e n tou,t de s u i t e , i l e t a i t c e r t a i n q u ' e l l e l ' a t t e n d a i t en e t o u f f a n t , q u ' e l l e r e f e r m e r a i t l e s bras sur l u i , muette,  l e s dents s e r r e e s . P r e s d'une heure se p a s s a . I I n'a 11a nos l a n r e n d r e , e l l e ne se r e t o u r n a "ocs, de peur de l ' a p p e l e r ^ P l u s i l s v i v a i e n t cote a c o t e , e t p l u s une b a r r i e r e s ' e l e v a i t , des h q n t e s , des repugnances, des d e l i c a t e s s e s d'ami t i e , q u ' i l s n ' a u r a i e n t pu e x p l i q u e r eux-meVne s. ( p . 174) A f t e r h i s f i g h t w i t h C h a v a l , when he i s once a g a i n a l o n e w i t h C a t h e r i n e , he r e c a l l s t h e i r s e c r e t f e e l i n g s f o r one a n o t h e r i n the p a s t and t h e i r i n a b i l i t y  t o come t o g e t h e r and the d e s i r e t o  t a c her t o R e q u i l l a r t overwhelms him a g a i n "but i n s t e a d t a k e s v  her hone.  L a t e r when C a t h e r i n e demeans her own s e x u a l a t t r a c -  t i v e n e s s compared t o l a K o u q u e t t e ' s , and k i s s e s her i n t h e d a r k , " . . .  E t i e n n e t a k e s p i t y on h e r  i l s ne d i s t i n g u a i e n t meme  p l u s l e u r s v i s a g e s , e t l e u r s s o u f f l e s se r J e l a i e n t , l e u r s l e v r e s se c h e r c h a i e n t , pour ce b a i s e r dont l e d e s i r l e s a v a i t tourmentes pendant des m o i s " ( p . 4 0 7 ) .  When C a t h e r i n e and E t i e n n e meet  a g a i n t h e day when work resumes a t the p i t , ". . . i l  l avait r  p r i s e a l a t a i l l e , dans une c r e s s e de c h a g r i n e t de p i t i e " s  F i n a l l y , throughout  ( p . 455).  t h e c a t a c l y s m i c c o l l a p s e o f the p i t , E t i e n n e  t r i e s t o calm and c o m f o r t  the t e r r i f i e d C a t h e r i n e , c a r r i e s her  i n h i s arms when she i s t o o weak t o w a l k and watches over her as she s l e e p s i n a s t a t e o f d e l i r i u m . S i g n i f i c a n t l y i n terms o f t h e v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , C a t h e r i n e a s s o c i a t e s h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C h a v a l w i t h t h e f i e r y mytho l o g i c a l H e l l o f T a r t a r u s , " [ l a ^ cite  m a u d i t e au m i l i e u des  flanmes que l e s p a s s a n t s de l a p l a i n e v o y a i e n t p a r l e s f i s s u r e s , c r a c h a n t du s o u f r e e t des v a p e u r s a b o m i n a b l e s " the naughty haulage g i r l s were p u n i s h e d .  ( p . 30S) i n w h i c h  As she c l i m b s t h e  l a d d e r s from t h e abyss o f t h e J e a n - B a r t p i t , C a t h e r i n e c o l l a p s e s from e x h a u s t i o n and f i n a l l y f a l l s backwards i n t o t h e b l a c k g u l f  and,  "Dans son e'vanouissement, e l l e r e v a i t :  q u ' e l l e e t a i t une  des p e t i t e s herscheuses  Moreover, her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C h a v a l world of the T o r r e n t , " c e t t e mer h o u i l l e r e s du Nord, une une mer  mer  de  i l l u i semblait jadis,  . . . "  321).  ends i n the h e l l i s h under-  s o u t e r r a i n c , l a t o r r e u r des  avec ses tempetes et ses  naufrages,  i g n o r e e , i n s o n d a h l e , r o u l a n t ses f l o t s n o i r s , a p l u s de  t r o i s cent metres du s o l e i l "  (p. 452).  On the other hand however,  her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h E t i e n n e l e a d s her garden or i d e a l , heavenly c a r e s s e s and  soothes  c l o s e r to the' E d e n i c  w o r l d o f her dreams.  While  Etienne  her i n her d e l i r i u m , "Les bourdonnements de  ses o r e i l l e s 'etaient devenus des murmures d'eau c o u r a n t e , chants  (p.  d oiseau; r  et e l l e  des  s e n t a i t un v i o l e n t parfum d'herbes  e c r a s e e s , e t e l l e v o y a i t c l a i r , de grandes taches  j unes volaient a  devant ses yeux, s i l a r g e s , q u ' e l l e se c r o y a i t dehors, c a n a l dans l e s b l e s , par une  journee  pres  de beau s o l e i l " ' (p*  F i n a l l y , when E t i e n n e and C a t h e r i n e u n i t e s e x u a l l y and  509).  consummate  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p only moments b e f o r e her death, C a t h e r i n e gines she has a t t a i n e d the d e n i c w o r l d s  du  ima-  of her dreams which  c o n t r a s t d i r e c t l y w i t h her dreams o f e n t e r i n g the H e l l o f T a r t a r u s with  Chaval: D'un e l a n , e l l e s ' e t a i t pendue ^ l u i , e l l e chercha sa bouche e t y c o l l a passionnement l a s i e n n e . Les t e n e b r e s s' e c l a i r e r e n t , e l l e r e v i t l e s o l e i l , e l l e r e t r o u v a un r i r e caime d'amour e u s e . L u i f r e m i s s a n t de l a s e n t i r a i n s i c o n t r e sa c h a i r , demi-nue sous l a v e s t e et l a c u l o t t e en lambeaux, l ' e * p o i g n , dans un r e ^ v e i l de sa v i r i l i t e " . E t ce f u t l e u r n u i t de noces, au fond de c e t t e tombe, sur ce l i t de boue, l e b e s o i n de ne pas mourir avant d ' a v o i r eu l e bonheur, l ' o b s t i n e ' b e s o i n de v i v r e , de f a i r e l a vie. une d e r n i e r e fois. I l s s'aimerent dans l e d e s e s p o i r de t o u t , dans l a mort. (p. 511) s  C l e a r l y then, C a t h e r i n e a c h i e v e s w i t h E t i e n n e the happiness r e a l i z e d she c o u l d never share w i t h Thus i s Germinal,  she  Chaval,  the complex network o f t h e m a t i c  patterns  which c e n t e r on the g e n e r a l theme o f s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s r e v e a l i n terms o f the l o v e - l u s t o p p o s i t i o n the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e which Z o l a develops  i n other ways throughout  the n o v e l .  Moreover, the  theme o f s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s t r a n s c e d s the h a r r i e r o f s o c i a l c l a s s i n t h a t d i v i n e and demonic r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t on "both l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y as t h i s a n a l y s i s has shown.  Indeed the  o n l y two s i n g l e  s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h a t i s oneS: which i n v o l v e o n l y two p e o p l e , which can he c o n s i d e r e d as p o s i t i v e or d i v i n e are the Maheu n d a  Gregoire marriages.  T o t a l l y ne.gative or demonic s e x u a l r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s can he c l a s s i f i e d  a c c o r d i n g t o the two sub-themes o f  a d u l t e r y and c a s t r a t i o n i n t o which c a t e g o r i e s f i t the a f f a i r s o f l a Levaque and Bouteloup,  l a P i e r r o n n e n d Dansaert a  and : Madame  Hennebeau and Wegrel as w e l l as Maigrat' and the mine's a c t s o f c o p u l a t i o n and the e v e n t u a l d e s t r u c t i o n which both the man and t h e human b e a s t must undergo.  I n a d d i t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which  embody both the demonic n d d i v i n e p o l e s o f the v e r t i c a l a  perspec-  t i v e c e n t e r on the theme o f the v i r g i n which i s c r u c i a l t o the t r a d i t i o n a l G o t h i c n o v e l n d i n which the v i r g i n i s c o n s t a n t l y s  p u l l e d between the p o l e s o f Heaven and H e l l , which her' l o v e r s represent,.  lo E m i l e Z o l a , G e r m i n a l , e d E l l i o t t M.. G r a n t (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i o n e r ' s S o n s , 1951)» A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s t o G e r m i n a l w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e notexl a r e f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n a n d w i l l be made w i t h i n t h e t e x t * 0  2. Emile  3o 4. Ibid. 5* ' Ibid. 6.  Zola,  Germinal  (Paris:  I b i d e  Fasquelle, •  •  1968),  pp*  369-70,  <•  0  Ibid*  8  Ibid . 0  e  9* 10*  11. 12.  Ibid. I b i d o  Norman S h e r r y , C h a r l o t t e a n d E m i l y Bronte (London: Evans Brothers L t d . , 1969), Po ll"2'.. "Tne e a r t h t h a t wakes one human h e a r t t o f e e l i n g / C a n c e n t r e ' b o t h t h e w o r l d o f H e a v e n and Hello" John M i l t o n , Emile  Zola,  Paradise Germinal  Lost, (Pariss  11* 7^-80* F a s q u e l l e , 1968)*  Book W,  NARRATIVE Another nal  centers  focal  point  comedy, t r a i g e d y , novel.  the  link  f o r the v e r t i c a l  perspective  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f E t i e n n e  terms o f the seasonal  the  PATTERNS  cycle  Lantier's  and the n a r r a t i v e  romance a n d i r o n y w h i c h f o r m  I n Anatomy  of C r i t i c i s m ,  1  spring with  narrative  comedy, autumn w i t h  romance, and w i n t e r w i t h  i r o n y and s a t i r e .  tions  "equations"  The  come t h e v e r t i c a l Spring  s Autumn  ss  Comedy  Summer  s Winter  :s  Romance  implications  patterns  are simultaneously  when a p p l i e d  t o an a n a l y s i s  complex nature no  and kind  form  the c r u c i a l  Two  society.  his final  vented  s- I r o n y  which w i l l  patterns  by  summer  with  associa-  and S a t i r e  cyclical  structure  i n t h a t the  and v e r t i c a l . they r e v e a l Zola  Indeed" •  the very  has c r e a t e d ^  o f Etienne>*"s c h a r a c t e r  love, usually  marriage  be s u p e r i o r  although  development.  to Frye  are marriage  i n e v i t a b l y s u f f e r s from  love  for a beautiful girl  some whom he  have, and the comic r e s o l u t i o n r e s u l t s  h i s union with  motivation.v.in  establishes  dominates, a l l are i n t r i c a t e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d  link  triumph  of  : Tragedy  o f Germinal„  The h e r o o f comedy  o f thwarted  in  archetypal  From these  c e n t r a l t h e m e s o f comedy a c c o r d i n g  cannot immediately from  both  of  tragedy,  statements are twofold  o f the a r t i s t i c  one n a r r a t i v e  through  of Frye's  character  the structure  Northrop Frye  between t h e seasons and the f o u r  associating  forms  i n Germi-  over  the o b s t r u c t i n g  f o r c e w h i c h has  the g i r l , ^ Moreover, the hero's i s t o e s t a b l i s h a new to that  only  o f the present  chief  s o c i a l world, older  pre-  one  generation.*  Traditionally,•comedy usually  the parents  o# a g i v e n usurpers  of social  ultimately a kind  with  a group o f o b s t r u c t i n g c h a r a c t e r s ,  o f the younger  generation,  who  s o c i e t y b u t whom t h e a u d i e n c e . r e c o g n i z e s  comedy moves  in  begins  power.  As a r e s u l t  of festive  s o c i e t y which  around the triumphant  ritualo  Moreover, the f i n a l  q u e n t l y many o f t h e f o r m e r  obstacle-characters.  integration  into  created  of  comedy.  According  as  a comic n o v e l  to this  i n that i t presents  social  rebellion,  eration w i l l the  and the symbolic  separate  a revolt  one w h i c h  i n which the ideas  over- t h o s e  o f the present  Germinal contains  bring  t h e u s u r p e d power, t h u s  feating  the present  o f the h i s t o r y  rulers  of their  o f the Gregoire  p o l y h e l d by t h e b o u r g e o i s i e wealth.  For the workers,  read  golden  society*  one o f  From  seeks t o  world  and  era o f the past The d e t a i l e d  of their  gen-  and a r c h e t y p a l  r e v e a l s the  as a r e s u l t  lit-  o f the younger  generation  society,.  fortune  the  question  to control their  about the r e t u r n t o the l o s t  c a n be  theme  succeeds,,  the t r a d i t i o n a l  theme o f a l l c o m i c p l o t s where t h e y o u n g e r recapture  major  levels,  subject o f Germinal i s without  triumph  beginning,  Germinal  then,  offers  theme o f t h w a r t e d l o v e : o n two v e r y  central  Clearly  fre-  s o c i e t y , and i t a l s o  the  The  of people,  manner  hero's attempt t o create  one w h i c h f a i l s  a new  society  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l  the  eral  new  s o c i e t y i s another  definition,  will  hero and h i s b r i d e  c r e a t e d by t h e h e r o i n c l u d e s t h e maximum number  the newly  as the unjust-  o f the heroes a c t i o n s ,  t o w a r d s t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new  crystallize  are i n charge  by d e account  power-monoaccumulated  t h e power o f money h a s c r e a t e d a  hellish  world  o f p a i n and  tence*  By  hunger  i t s very  s l a v e l a b o r and  ?  nature,  the  power-monopoly o f the  industrialists  condemns t h e m i n e r s t o an  submission  and  toil  apparently  paradisic world  are  and  thus  d e s c r i b e d throughout  fonction  de  machine"  h u m a i n " ( p * 12) Etienne, Montsou social  as  5  the  which threatens first  young  and  socialist  T h i s vague  sense  the  pits,  and  of revolt  t o admit the  fraternity.  Indeed,  au  e t aux  bien-etre  The idea  o f the  other  o f the  leads  an  the  o f mere  into  the  of  a member o f  h i s "reve  the  s  hellish  justice,  elargir  376)  central  s o c i e t y to  and  thus  le ciel,  to  the  The  cause  l e s elever  the  obstacle  or  faisant very  crack.  s o c i e t y i s marriage  traditional  In order  of  e q u a l i t y and  "boy  and  to  to possess  enemy, t h e  the  i t s fore-  c o m i c theme i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e E t i e n n e , C a t h e r i n e  over  work.  prison  theme o f comedy w h i c h i s l i n k e d  c r e a t i o n o f a new love.  9  the  social"  of  triumph  his  b o n n e s m a n i e r e s de:-la b o u r g e o i s i e , en  present  relationship.  of campaign  After  thwarted  Chaval  close  of returning to into  "une  status*  runner, this  to  anti-bourgeois power•  miners  "betail  social  p r i d e as  develops  leur  the  s o o n becomes aware  closed horizon  "II voulait  poverty,  been r e d u c e d  inferior  thought  bright light  of  Clearly  level  capitalists'*  later  exis-  bourgeois  entering  penetrates  Etienne"s  d ' e u x l e s mall*tres , , , ""' ( p * foundation  who  r e v o l t , a t the  w h i c h p r o m i s e s t o open the poverty,  t o the  outside world,  to destroy  human r a c e makes him  having  of their  consequently  day's work i n the  them f r o m  as  and  3  eternal life  bourgeoisie*  novel  result  s o c i e t y from the injustice  o f the  ( p * 137)  the  prevents  the  o f near b e s t i a l  wants g i r l "  aspect and  Catherine, Etienne  lustful  Chaval,  and  must in  so doing he must k i l l h i s opponent.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y however, the  a p o c a l y p t i c wedding which o c c u r s when E t i e n n e and  Catherine  u l t i m a t e l y come t o g e t h e r i n the f l o o d i n g mine a t the end o f the n o v e l does not r e s u l t i n the c r e a t i o n of a. new  s o c i e t y around  the b r i d e and groom because h e r e , the b r i d e d i e s on her bed.  C l e a r l y the u n i o n o f C a t h e r i n e and E t i e n n e does not r e s t o r e  the w o r l d t o the s t a t e o f a p r e v i o u s golden ted  era % thus the  l o v e theme remains u n r e s o l v e d i n t h a t no new  immediately  formed t o r e p l a c e the o l d , d e c a y i n g  On the other hand, as F r y e b e l i e v e s , "The new  bridal  thwar-  s o c i a l order i s society.  appearance o f t h i s  s o c i e t y i s f r e q u e n t l y s i g n a l i z e d by some k i n d o f p a r t y or  f e s t i v e r i t u a l which e i t h e r appears  a t the end o f the p l a y or i s 2  assumed t o take p l a c e immediately ual of  i n Germinal fertility,  i s symbolic  afterwards,'* " 1  The  festive  and i n h e r e n t i n the r e c u r r i n g  growth and h a r v e s t i n g .  rit-  im ges a  These images t o g e t h e r  imply an a c t o f consummation, a. symbolic marriage  which embodies  the promises ,of a new  sense,  future apocalypse,  life  t o come,. Thus i n t h i s  the u l t i m a t e f r u i t o f Etienne'*s dream, i s  i m p l i e d i n the c l o s i n g words of the n o v e l which suggest a t i o n o f a new in  the  s o c i e t y based, on j u s t i c e , e q u a l i t y and  the  cre-  fraternity  the f u t u r e . Before E t i e n n e s v i s i o n o f a new r  miners'*  i m a g i n a t i o n s , the world o f Montsou i s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y  p r e s e n t e d as a wasteland grow.  s o c i e t y t a k e s h o l d o f the  Surrounding  i n which o n l y the most hardy  crops  l e "V'oreux i s the p l a i n smothered i n c o a l  " p a r e i l l e a l a moissoh d'une f o r e t fauchee"' (p, 7 0 ) ,  will dust,  Moreover,  " ,. , , l e s champs se d e r o u l a i e n t , des champs sans f i n de b l e e t  de. b e t t e r a v e s , vegetations  nus a c e t t e epoque de 1 ' a n n e e  dures,.' coupes de quelques s a u l e s rabougrls,. des  p r a i r i e s l o i n t a i n e s , que s'eparaient (p* 70)«.  des marais aux  5  I n h i s s o c i a l dreara  3  des f i l e s maigres de p e u p l i e r s "  Etienne  j j ? o u s s e r a i t \ en un jour"' (p«. 1 7 0 ) ,  envisions  "'une s o c i e t e q u i  and under h i s l e a d e r s h i p , '  '"' «• .' . l e mineur s ' e v e i l l a i t au fond, germait dans l a t e r r e , a i n s i qu'une v r a i e g r a i n e ;  et,.  c  „ . un matin « *  i l p o u s s e r a i t des  hommes, une v r a i e armee d"hommes q u i r e t a b l i r a i t l a . j u s t i c e ca p o u s s a i t au  p e t i t a petit,-, une rude moisson d *hommes . q u i ;  ?  0  * „  murissait  s o l e i l " " (pp*-168-69) *• C l e a r l y the centfal image i n these  l i n e s i s one o f growth and f e r t i l i t y o f which the f r u i t s w i l l he • • s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n and the subsequent c r e a t i o n o f a new s o c i e t y * A l t h o u g h Etienne'*s  dream does n o t r e s u l t i n any immediate  social  changes, the hope o f a new s o c i e t y glimmers i n the f u t u r e and i s inherent  i n the f i n a l v i s i o n o f the n o v e l  c e n t r a l image i n t h i s v i s i o n once a g a i n  0  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the  suggests f e r t i l i t y and  growth, symbolic o f the consummation o f marriage which i n comedy becomes the center  o f the new young s o c i e t y :  Maintenant, en p l e i n c i e l , l e s o l e i l d ' a v r i l r a y o n n a i t dans sa g l o i r e , e c h a u f f a n t l a t e r r e q u i . e n f a n taito Du f l a n c n o u r r i c i e r j a i l l i s s a i t l a v i e , l e s <• bourgeons c r e v a i e n t en f e u i l l e s v e r t e s , l e s champs t r e s s a i l l a i e n t de l a pousse'e des h e r b e s De t o u t e s p a r t s , des g r a i n e s se g o n f l a i e n t , s " a l l o n g e a i e n t , g e r c a i e n t l a p l a i n e , t r a v a i l l e ' e s d'un b e s o i n de chal e u r e t de l u m i e r e o Un debordernent de seve c o u l a i t avec des v o i x chuchotantes, l e b r u i t des germes • . s'dpandait en un grand b a i s e r . „ . . Aux rayons en^lammes de I ' a s t r e , par c e t t e matinee d,e jeunesse, c'e'tait de c e t t e rumeur que l a campagne e t a i t g r o s s e . Des hommes p o u s s a i e n t , une armee n o i r e , vengeresse, q u i germait.lentement d^ns l e s s i l l o n s , g r a n d i s s s n t pour l e s re'coltes du s i e c l e f u t u r , e t dont l a germination a l l a i t f a i r e bientot dclater l a t e r r e * (p* 52?) 0  ;  Whereas comedy i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the heroics i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o s o c i e t y , g e n e r a l l y t h r o u g h some k i n d o f marriage,, and h i s movement away from c a t a s t r o p h e t o w a r d s h a p p i n e s s and s a l v a t i o n , • t r a g e d y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d hy the h e r o ' s a l i e n a t i o n from his  society,  f a l l from the w o r l d o f success, i n t o the w o r l d o f f a i l u r e ,  d e f e a t and c a t a s t r o p h e . I n s t a t u r e , the c l a s s i c a l t r a g i c hero i s •halfway between human s o c i e t y and d i v i n i t y f o r a l t h o u g h / h e  appears  g r e a t e r t h a n any o t h e r human b e i n g , he i s i n f e r i o r t o something o u t s i d e the human c r e a t i o n : God, gods, f a t e , a c c i d e n t or f o r t u n e . As the p l a y or n o v e l p r o g r e s s e s , t h e t r a g i c h e r o o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n a t o p the wheel o f f o r t u n e 'where he r e a p s o n l y s u c c e s s and power*  N e v e r t h e l e s s - a s the r e s u l t of a p e r s o n a l t r a g i c  flaw,  he a s s e r t s h i s humanity and t h u s f a l l s from the- p i n n a c l e o f divine-like  s t a t u r e , t h u s b r i n g i n g about the a r c h e t y p a l c a t a s t r o p h e .  Nemesis i s i n e v i t a b l e and i s p r o v o k e d by a number o f p o s s i b l e agents:-  human, g h o s t l y or d i v i n e vengeance, . d i v i n e  justice,  a c c i d e n t , .• fate" or the l o g i c o f e v e n t s . As the t r a g i c hero,, E t i e n n e c l e a r l y appears s u p e r i o r t o ' the  o t h e r Montsou i n h a b i t a n t s , a f a c t w h i c h becomes e v i d e n t i n  the  many d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w .  We  see him as-he sees h i m s e l f ,  as the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s see him and as the n a r r a t o r sees him. A g a i n and a g a i n the n a r r a t o r i m p r e s s e s upon us E t i e n n e ' s sense o f 1  his  own  s u p e r i o r i t y , b o t h i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l o  r e s i g n e d m i n e r s , E t i e n n e cannot a c c a p t a l i f e  U n l i k e the  of hard labor i n  w h i c h he i s r e d u c e d t o the l e v e l o f a b e a s t o f burden; m o r e o v e r , t h i s a c u t e f e e l i n g o f h i s own humanity compared' t o the m i n e r s ' a n i m a l i t y provokes h i s i n i t i a l  d e s i r e f o r r e v o l t o n l y one  day  a f t e r being  hired.  Thus r a t h e r  i n the mine, E t i e n n e ' w h e r e „  than r e t u r n to the  chooses t o l e a v e  Montsou and  l a r e s i g n a t i o n de  g l e r quelque chef"' (p . 6l)<,  ce t r o u p e a u , i l f i n i r a i t par  recommencer, c ' e t a i t i n j u s t e et t r o p dur,  h i s own  etran-  son o r g e u i l d'homme se  tine bete qu'on aveugle et qu'on  C l e a r l y , a t t h i s p o i n t i n the n o v e l , Eti'enne 's :  s u p e r i o r i t y i s dangerous n e i t h e r t o h i m s e l f  people f o r h i s p r i d e does not  stem fromaa s p i r i t  nor  ecrase" sense  created,  i n h i s l e a d e r s h i p , Etienne-'s  and  once they put  of  t o other •  of selfishness,,  However, once the miners grasp h i s v i s i o n o f a f u t u r e s o c i e t y soon t o be  se  Indeed, " »• . . i l l u i r'epugnait de  0  r e v o l t a i t a 1'idee d'etre  job  seek work e l s e -  • »• c a r , avec son i n s t r u c t i o n p l u s l a r g e , i l ne  s e n t a i t pas  (p«- 70)'.  degrading  just  t h e i r complete t r u s t  p r i d e begins, to d e v e l o p i n t o a nega-  t i v e f o r c e inasmuch as h i s main m o t i v a t i o n  s h i f t s from the  self-  l e s s d e s i r e to improve the miners'' s o c i a l w o r l d t o the s e l f - g r a t i f y i n g d e s i r e t o become a s u c c e s s f u l p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r istic  d o c t r i n e So-  As. h i s p o l i t i c a l knowledge expands,  sense o f i n f e r i o r i t y i n t h i s area  Etienne''s  son  ignorance  s'enallait, 166).  l u i v e n a i t un o r g e u i l d e p u i s q u ' i l se s e n t a i t p e n s e r " (p»  Moreover, a f t e r he and  social-  gradually disappears giving  r i s e t o f e e l i n g s o f p r i d e , "La 'honte de il  of  gains  the m i n e r s ' support f o r h i s "reve  h i s p o l i t i c a l knowledge i n c r e a s e s , h i s p r i d e  sense o f  social",  develops i n t o a  vanity;  L ' i n f l u e n c e d'Etienne s ' e l a r g i s s a i t , i l r e v o l u t i o n n a i t peu a" peu l e cor on , , « i l g r a n d i s s a i t dans l ' e s t i m e de tous . . „ des l e mois de septembre, t j i l a v a i t ] cre'e e n f i n sa.fameuse c a i s s e de prevoyance c o o . On v e n a i t de l e nommer s e c r e t a i r e de 1 ' a s s o c i a t i o n , et i l t o u c h a i t nitrite des p e t i t s appointeinents pour ses e c r i t u r e s , Cela l e r e n d a i t p l u s r i c h e „ . . . De*s l o r s , i l . s ' o p e r a chez E t i e n n e une t r a n s f o r v  9  mation l e n t e * Des i n s t i n c t s de c o q u e t t e r i e e t de •bien-etre * « s e revele; r e n t , l u i f i r e n t a c h e t e r des vehement s de drapo I I se paya une p a i r e de b o t t e s f i n e s , e t d u coup i l p s s a c h e f , t o u t l e coron se grotipa autour de lui©. Ce f u r e n t des s a t i s f a c t i o n s d"amour-propre d e t i c i e u s e s , i l se g r i s a des premieres j o u i s s a n c e s de l a p o p u l a r i t e : "etre a" l a t e t e des a u t r e s , commander, l u i s i jeune e t q u i la, v e i l l e encore e t a i t une manoeuvre, 1'empliss a i t d i " o r g e u i l agg^randissant son re*Ve d"une r e v o l u t i o n prochaine,.. ou i l j o u e r a i t un r & L e - (p* 173) 0  a  5 :  e  In the scenes p r e c e d i n g the s c h e d u l e d meeting a t the Bon Joyeux  Etienne s p o p u l a r i t y continues to r i s e  as he r e i n f o r c e s  !r  5  the miners'* b e l i e f i n a new s o c i e t y , a r e t u r n t o a golden age o f the p a s t , Sa  "Desormais, E t i e n n e e t a i t l e c h e f i n c o n t e s t e  p o p u l a r i t y c r o i s s a n t e l e s u r e x c i t a i t chaque j o u r  „ * o .  davantage*  T e n i r une correspondance etsndue, d i s c u t e r du sort" des t r a v a i l l e u r s aux  dbnner des c o n s u l t a t i o n s aux  quatre c o i n s de l a p r o v i n c e ,  mineurs-du iVoreux,. s u r t o u t rouler  autour de - s o i  pour l u i % * *• * bourgeoisie bien-^tre himself  n  devenir  s e n t i r l e monde  c! 'etait un c o n t i n u e l gonflement de v a n i t e ?  s  m o n t a i t d'"un e c h e l o n , i l e n t r a i t dans c e t t e  e x e c r e V j . avec des s a t i s f a c t i o n s ^ " " i n t e l l i g e n c e e t de  q u ' i l ne s'^avouait  i n the f u t u r e  ses p i e d s ,  un c e n t r e ,  pas  climbing  rr  (p* 2 2 8 ) *  still  " * * „ Montsou V  higher,  P a r i s d n s un l o i n t a i n b r o u i l l a r d a  t a t i o n un j o u r , l a t r i b u n e  Moreover, he imagines  5  q u i s a i t ? l a depu-  d 'une s a l l e r i c h e , ou i l se v o y a i t !  :  f o u d r o y a n t l e s bourgeois,, du premier  secours prononce par un  ouvrier  Thus h i s dream, s l o w l y  d n s un Parlement"" ( p a  c  229)*  forms i t s e l f i n t o t h e d e s i r e f o r p e r s o n a l self-gratification*-  g l o r y from which he r e a p s  A t the end o f the c h a p t e r  r e v o l u t i o n becomes "une f u r e u r  trans-  3  h i sdesire f o r  de b a t a i l l e , - inn""] b e s o i n 9  f rouche a  d en f i n i r i!  of  avec l a m i s e r e "  (pv 2 3 6 )  h i s v i s i o n awakens- wi t h i n h i m  j^tdT]  reparaissaient  :  et  Indeed the  0  " „•  ?  „. des bouffe'es d'or g e n i i :  j^quij li'emportaient p l u s h a u t  di'etre l e c h e f , de se v o i r o b e i jusqu'au g i de sa p u i s s a n c e , l e s o i r du t r i o m p h e une  " g a i e t e rouge"  entre l e s mains du peuple,  E t i e n n e reaches  De'ja, i l s ' i i n a g i n a i t !  e  3  l^'autorite  quand i l s e r a i t l e m a i t r e "  (p©236).  the peak o f h i s p o p u l a r i t y and v a n i t y a t  the meeting i n the f o r e s t o f Wand me f o r a t t h i s a  fails  l a joie -  s a c r i f i c e , l e :r/eVe e i a r -  scene di'une grandeur .simple, son r e f u s du p o u v o i r  remise  9  t o command the crowd t h a t once cheered  pointRasseneur  him whereas E t i e n n e  i s h a i l e d as t h e i r ' n e w l e a d e r , "La clameur recommencao g o u t a i t I''ivresse de sa p o p u l a r i t e l  C i ' e t a i t son.pouvoir  Etienne qu'il  t e n a i t , comme m a t e r i a l i s e , dans c e s t r o i s m i l l e p o i t r i n e s dont il  f a i s a i t d'un mot b t t r e l e s c o e u r s a  r e v e a l s h i s v a n i t y through  sensibilite  (p  e  289)  0  h i s d e s i r e t o impress  he hopes i s watching h i s performance,, meeting, E t i e n n e f e l t  , r  In a d d i t i o n , he C a t h e r i n e whom  Whereas a t the Bon Joyeux  "empeche encore par l e s s c r u p u l e s de sa  e t de sa r a i s o n " " ( p  0  242), now a t the f i r s t iVandame  meeting, p a s s i o n r a t h e r than r e a s o n d i r e c t s him d u r i n g h i s s c a t h i n g a t t a c k on s o c i e t y : Cela e n t r a ' i n a i t une r e f o n t e t o t a l e de l a v i e i l l e s o c i e t e ' p o u r r i e ; i l a t t q u a i t l e mariage, l e d r o i t de t e s t e r , i l r e g l e m e n t a i t l a f o r t u n e de chacun, i l j e t a i t has l e monument i n i q u e des s i e c l e s morts, d'un grand geste de son b r a s , t o u j o u r s l e me^rne, l e geste du faucheur q u i r a s e l a moisson mure; e t i l r e c o n s t r u i s a i t e n s u i t e de l ' a u t r e main, , i l b ^ t l s s a i t l a f u t u r e humanite," I ' / d i f i c e de v e r i t e e t de j u s t i c e ' g r a n d i s s a n t dans l'^aurore du vingtieme siecle A cette tension c t r i b r a l e , l a raison.chanc e l a i t , i l ne r e s t a i t que I'ide'e f i x e du s e c t a i r e . Les s c r u p u l e s , de l a s e n s i h i l i t e e t de bon sens Eta i e n t emportes, r i e n ne d e v e n a i t p l u s f a c i l e que a  0  l a r e a l i s a t i o n cie ce monde. nouveau: i l a v a i t t o u t prevu, i l en p a r l a i t comme d'une machine q u ' i l m o n t e r a i t en" deux heures,- e t n i l e f e u n i l e - s a n g ne l u i c o u t a i e n t . (p. 288) Mien the  second meeting i n the f o r e s t f a i l s  to come t o  order as the miners p r e f e r t o a t t a c k the J e a n - B a r t witnesses frait  h i s g r a d u a l l o s s o f c o n t r o l over  aussi' dans son o r g e u i l de  a son a u t o r i t ^ , il  criait  • „ . „  chef, en voyant  Etienne  , r  (p. 326)«  l a 'bande echapper  Indeed the  0  Because E t i e n n e  appearance, and because h i s v i s i o n o f a new,  limited intelligence nd  just society turns with  t i o n o f waging t h e i r own  b a t t l e f o r a Utopian  a f t e r v i o l e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t b e s t i a l behavior  society  i s the only means  as weapons a g a i n s t the e n c r o a c h i n g  "'Seul •-  o  o  posi-  ^Violence  e  j j s t j au m i l i e u de l a r o u t e "  :  forces  (p* 357)?  stands i n shock as the marchers stop a t the Hennebeau home,  " I I n ' a v a i t r i e n v o u l u de  ces choses,  que,  dans l e but d ' a g i r f r o i d e m e n t  p rti  pour J e a n - B e r t  p'echer un desastre,. i l  achevat  comment p o u v a i t - i l  se f a i r e • et  d'em-  l a journee, de v i o l e n c e en v i o l e n c e  par a s s i e g e r I'ho^tel du directeur«,,., ». • . • rentra  their  r e s o u r c e s , are. thus f o r c e d i n t o the  a  they knowingly-possess  himself  i n h i s outwards  i n t o a s e l f i s h . v i s i o n of p e r s o n a l power, the miners,  a  miners''  s t r e e t s i n s e a r c h o f b r e a d goes unchecked as  becomes more and more v a i n and hence b o u r g e o i s  Etienne  .  donner r a i s o n a*" l e u r s ennemis par  can no l o n g e r c o n t r o l the mob  o f capitalism,,-  " I I souf—  a  des a c t e s de d e s t r u c t i o n i n u t i l e the  the m i n e r s ,  Etienne.  •Vainement, i l r e ' c l a m i t du s a n g - f r o i d ,  qu'on ne d e v a i t pas  march through  pit,  dans l a f o u l e , . p r e t a m o u r i r .  . • •  Desespere, E t i e n n e Personne, du  reste,  n ' o b e i s s a i t plus, a Etienne,,  • ... Tout l e v i e u x sang flamand  e t a i t l a , l o u r d e t p l a c i d e , mettant des mois a" s' e'chauffer, se j e t a n t aux s a u v a g e r i e s abominableSj sans r i e n entendre jusqu'a* ce que l a bete f u t soule d ' a t r o c i t e s " ( p p  0  356-57-58)o  Thus E t i e n n e s T  p r i d e , which b e g i n s as an a s s e t i n t h a t i t a r o u s e s h i s d e s i r e t o h e l p h i s fellow-man, t u r n s i n t o a n e g a t i v e f o r c e , h i s t r a g i c Indeed out o f p r i d e , E t i e n n e chooses s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n selfless  flaw.  over the  o f f e r o f h e l p , a c h o i c e which r e s u l t s i n h i s l o s s o f  power and a u t h o r i t y , and which u l t i m a t e l y l e a d s t o h i s t o t a l defeat. Ashamed and unable t o f a c e h i s f e l l o w - m i n e r s a f t e r failure  the  o f h i s "reve s o c i a l " and c o n s c i o i i s o f h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r the m i n e r s  :t  acts of violence,  h i m s e l f from the e n t i r e  community by h i d i n g deep i n the r u i n s o f  ^ e q u i l l a r t i n J e a n l i n ' s s e c r e t den. severite*retombait  E t i e n n e f e e l s he must i s o l a t e  Indeed, "  sur E t i e n n e „• . . " ( p  0  0  . . toute l a  373)o  During h i s period  o f i s o l a t i o n , E t i e n n e undergoes a process- o f s p i r i t u a l  renewal  i n which he r e p e n t s h i s d e c i s i o n s which caused the p r e s e n t economic d i s a s t e r , .  The v e r y language used t o d e s c r i b e E t i e n n e s tho r  thoughts a t t h i s p o i n t c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s the s p i r i t u a l  change  brought about by h i s .mental s u f f e r i n g s i n a symbolic p u r g a t o r y , "Cette n u i t i n t e r m i n a b l e , complete, t o u j o u r s du riieme n o i r , sa grande de p i n , a  souffrance. a v o i r chaud,  a son c r a n e .  e  Une  Elle  e'tait  I I a v a i t beau dormir en s u r e t e , e\;re pourvu jamais l a n u i t n ' a v a i t pese s i lourdement  s e m b l a i t comme I'e^crasement meme de ses pensees.  a u t r e honte I ' a c c a b l a i t , l e remords  de c e t t e  ivresse  sauvage, du g e n i e v r e bu dans l e grand q u i l ' ' a v a i t j e t / sur Chavalg he  continues to f e e l  socially  arm/  f r o i d , I'estomac v i d e (p* 3 7 5 ) »  d!'un couteau"  s u p e r i o r t o the m i n e r s ,  5  et  Although  Etienne  admits he a c t e d out o f a p r i d e which was i n i m i c a l t o the miners he wished t o h e l p : Des i d / e s vagues l e ^ t r a v a i l l a i e n t , q u ' i l ne c r o yait,pas a v o i r C"*etait une s e n s a t i o n de s u p e r i o r i t e q u i l e m e t t a i t a p a r t des camarades une e x a l t a t i o n de sa personne," a" mesure q u ' i l s ' m s t r u i s a i t . Jamais i l n ' a v a i t t a n t r e f l e x h i , . i l se demandait pourquoi son de'gdiVfc, l e lendemain de l a f u r i e u s e course & t r a v e r s l e s f o s s e s : e t i l n ' o s a i t pas se repondre, des s o u v e n i r s l e r e % u g n a i e n t , l a bassesse des c o n v o T t i s e s , l a g r o s s i ^ r e t e ' des i n s t i n c t s , I'odeur de t o u t e c e t t e mise"re secouee au v e n t , M a i gre" l e tourment des t<*h£bres, i l en a r r i v a i t £ r e douter l ' h e u r e ou i l r e n t r e r a i t au coron, (p„ 376) 0  ?  Moreover a sense o f g u i l t pervades h i s c o n s c i e n c e  a t the same  time as he admits p e r s o n a l d e f e a t , "' „ . . une angoisse turait, lorsqu'il  s o n g e a i t aux m i s e r e s  le tor-  de l a de'faite, a t o u t e  c e t t e l o u r d e r e s p o n s a b i l i t e " de s o u f f r a n c e q u i p e s e r a i t sur l u i . La f i n de l a greh/e, n ' e t a i t - c e pas l a f i n de son r o l e , t i o n par t e r r e ,  son ambi-  son e x i s t e n c e retombant h 1 ' a b r u t i s s e i n e n t de l a  mine e t au dugout du c o r o n ? "  Cp*  377)•  As punishment f o r h i s s i n o f p r i d e , E t i e n n e ' s t r a g i c he  i s f o r c e d t o r e p e n t i n i s o l a t i o n m i d the n i g h t m a r i s h  darkness  a  of K e q u i l l a r t *  flaw,  H i s u l t i m a t e punishment which l e a d s t o . h i s  spiri-'  t u a l r e b i r t h n d s a l v a t i o n i s h i s imprisonment i n l e iVoreux, a 3  symbolic  descent  i n t o the 'Valley o f the Sh dow o f Deaths" from a  which he emerges c l e a n s e d o f h i s p r i d e as i f r e b o r n i n t o world  o f growth and f r u i t i o n *  a  new  Once purged o f h i s p r i d e , E t i e n n e  r e a l i s e s h i s o r i g i n a l dream f o r as he l e a v e s Montsou, he goes t o  rejoin  P l u c h a r t a n d t o become a s o c i a l i s t  a i m i t w i l l be their  t o improve  society.  the l o t o f the working  l a nouvelle  muVi  par  etait  saison,  voyait At  this  and t r a g e d y  reintegration  over, the  into  the other  r r  swings upward a g a i n Indeed  (pp,  gaiete  Son  telle  fort,  education de l a r e qu'il la  521-22), p a t t e r n s o f comedy,  towards  as the n o v e l  s  s o c i e t y i s symbolized the d y a  by  integration,  the  the handshakes  he  o f h i s departure,.  and f e r t i l i t y  i n t o which i s reborn  tragedy  c l o s e s , Etiennei's  c o m i c theme, t h a t o f m a r r i a g e  o f growth, f r u i t i o n  natural world Etienne  a l a societe,  condamnait  from h i s fellow-workers  images  l a mine«  in  sa  a r e c o m p l e t e i n t h a t t h e downward movement o f  theme o f comedy,  receives  cette  i l se s e n t a i t  p o i n t i n the n o v e l the c i r c u l a r  towards i s o l a t i o n major  2ia  qu'il  de  5  ralentit  dans  3  people  arme, en s o l d a t r a i s o n n e u r  d e c l a r e l a guerre  et t e l l e  a lui  au f o n d  f i n i e , i l s'en a l l a i t ayant  et § gauche  II songeait  sa d u r e e x p e r i e n c e  volution,  class  As he w a l k s away, " «, , . E t i e n n e  marche, l e s yeux perdus a d r o i t e de  p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r whose  %  More-  i s suggested  which d e s c r i b e  a t the end o f the n o v e l .  i s s y m b o l i c a l l y r e u n i t e d t o h i s world' and i s a t  by the Thus  oneness  with i t , Romance, a s a n a r r a t i v e f o r m , r e p r e s e n t s w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t , the  world  gic  search  venly pole irony, two  o f dreams i n w h i c h for a lost  golden  o f the v e r t i c a l  i s the demonic  n a r r a t i v e forms.  pole The  the quest age*  o f the h e r o i s a  Moreover,  romance i s t h e  p e r s p e c t i v e whereas formed by the  nostalhea-  i t s counterpart,  juxtaposition of  two m o s t common f o r m s o f romance  these liter-  ture  are the medieval  In medieval •undertakes the  the quest  f o r the Holy  center  In Germinal  on E t i e n n e  a  s  of the  existing  i nliteral  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l Gervaise  s o n who  Etienne  patterns i n shining  to the miners  darkness.  Moreover,  i s a l s o the t h i r d son  L a n t i e r , t h e s o n who g o e s o f f t o make h i s f o r t u n e i n  world. In terms o f the f a i r y - t a l e  vision  o f an i m a g i n a r y  which q u i c k l y lodges the  the "knight  to bring light  and symbolic  fairy-tale,  the t h i r d  the archetypal  who i s i n d e e d  armor"" i n t h a t he a p p e a r s ? t o p r o m i s e presently  i n s h i n i n g armor"  Grail,, and i n the f a i r y - t a l e ,  hero i s t r a d t i o n a l l y  out t o find" adventure,  romance  romances a n d the f a i r y - t a l e ,  romance, t h e " d a r i n g y^ung k n i g h t  h o l d young q u e s t i n g  sets of  chivalric  itself  novel progresses,  replace ation  the present  world,  ; s  quest  w i t h i n t h e miners^*  i s indeed  " * , „ i lm rchait a  the quixotic  impossible  must  As will  h i s imagin-  d a n s u n reN/e" ( p dream, a  i n the f i r s t  t h e use o f f a i r y - t a l e  becomes e x p l i c i t when E t i e n n e  finally  imaginations*  dream o f a new s o c i e t y w h i c h  i fonly i m p l i c i t l y  o f him through  presents a  land' o f dreams  c o r r u p t one g r a d u a l l y o v e r t a k e s  w h i c h becomes a p p a r e n t description  Germinal  a "never-never"'  Etienne"s  t o t h e p o i n t where,  Etienne s  archetype,-  admit  e  166).  fact  extended  images and which defeat to l a  Maheuder o , o l ^ h o r i z o n f e r m e , , « e c l a t a i t * une t r o u e e de l u m i e r e s ' o u v r a i t d a n s l a v i e sombre de c e s pauvres gens* , , , t o u t l e malheur disparaissait comme ba l a y if p a r u n g r a n d c o u p de s o l e i l ; e t , s o u s un S f b l o u i s s e m e n t de f e e r i e , l a j u s t i c e descendait du c i e l , « ,- , Une socie'te' n o u v e l l e p o u s s a i t en u n j o u r , a i n s i que d a n s l e s s o n g e s , une v i l l e immense, d'une s p l e n d o u r de m i r a g e , o u chaque c i t o y e n v i v a i t de s a t a c h e e t p r e n a i t s a p a r t d e s j o i e s communes* , . . E t , c o n t i n u e l l e m e n t , ce  ?  .A  /  ,  re,ve s * e l a r g i s s a i t s ' e m b e l l i s s a i t , d'au.tant p l u s seducteur q u ' i l montait p l u s haut dans 1 ' i m p o s s i b l e , (pp - 170-71).9  0  ,When l a Maheude responds to h i s dream d e s c r i b e d as having her  symbolic  s ' a g i s s a i t a u s s i sur e l l e ,  II e t a i t  she i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  f a l l e n under a magic s p e l l c a s t over  f a i r y god-mother  nation e v e i l l e e  3:  9  " , , . peu a" peu,  E l l e f i n i s s a i t par  s i doux d ' o u b l i e r pendant une  by  l e charme  sourire . ^ i m a g i 9  e n t r a n t dans ce monde m e r v e i l l e u x  9  her  de  li"espoir  tristeL"  heure l a r e a l i t e  Lorsqu'on v i t comme des b e t e s . l e nez a"" t e r r e , i l f a u t b i e n  un  9  c o i n de mensonge - ou l ' o n s'amuse a~ se r e g a l e r des 5  0  c h o s e s qu'on  ne possedera j mais"' (p<> 171) < > • L i k e a l l f a i r y - t a l e s , - Etienne 's 1  a  dream o f f e r s o n l y the i l l u s i o n o f e s c a p e from  a momentary r e l e a s e  9  reality. Howevery. he must u l t i m a t e l y admit d e f e a t t o l a Maheude f o r  i n e v i t a b l y r e a l i t y impinges upon the w o r l d thus crushes  h i s dreams.  For l a Maheude " L h o r i z o n l s  9  pas v o u l u s ' o u v r i r , I'ide'al i m p o s s i b l e de ce crane of death  9  v i s i o n was  f e l e par l a douleur"" (pp-,  p a i n and  of h i s i l l u s i o n s  The  harsh  s t a r v a t i o n convinces- l a Maheude t h a t  indeed the i m p o s s i b l e  dream.  i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n to.Etienne 's dream, she ;  Looking  nd  ferme n ' a v a i t  t o u r n a i t en p o i s o n au 3 9 2 - 9 3 ) o  a  fond  reality  Etienne *s ;  back on  her  says:  "Puis l e s m a l i n s sont t o u j o u r s l a pour vous promettre que pa £june m e i l l e u r e s o e i e t i j peut s ' a r r a n ger, s i l ' o n s'en donne seulement l a p e i n e , . . On se monte l a . f e t e , on s o u f f r e t e l l e m e n t de ce q u i e x i s t e , qu'on demande ce q u i n ' e x i s t e pas, Moi je r e v a s s a i s deja" comme une beTe,.-je y o y a i s une v i e de bonne amitie' avec t o u t l e monde, j'^'etais p a r t i e dans l ' a i r , ma parole'], dans l e s images,. E t l ' o n se c s s e ': l e s r e i n s , en r e t o m b n t dans l a c r o t t e , , . - Ce ii'o'tait ? ;  a  a  pas v r a i , i l n'y a V a i t r i e n l a - b a s des c h o s e s qu'on s ' i m a g i n a i t v o i r . Ce q u ' i l y a v a i t , o ' e t a i t encore de l a m i s e r e , a h i de l a - m i s e r e t a n t qu'on en v e u t , e t des coups de f u s i l p a r - d e s s u s l e march's I (p k39) i  0  Thus G e r m i n a l  c o n t a i n s both poles o f the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n  t e r m s o f t h e o p p o s i t e n a r r a t i v e f o r m s o f romance and i r o n y f o r i r o n y d e p i c t s t h e f a i l u r e ' o f romance t o w i t h s t a n d t h e h a r d  blows  t h r u s t upon i t by the c o n s t a n t l y i m p i n g i n g f o r c e o f r e a l i t y w h i c h causes t h e dreams' t o crumble« •In terms o f t h e m e d i e v a l  c h i v l r i c romance t r a d i t i o n ,  Germi-  a  n a l ' c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l themes w h i c h a r e c e n t r a l t o t h e C e l t i c  King  A r t h u r l e g e n d * • Indeed t h e theme o f s o c i a l change i s c l e a r l y one which appears both i n Germinal  and i n t h e Round T a b l e myth*  In-  "The Coming o f A r t h u r " ' and The P a s s i n g o f Arthur''* s e c t i o n s o f ,T  3  I d y l l s o f the K i n g ,  t h e r e c u r r i n g l i n e i s "The o l d o r d e r  y i e l d i n g p l a c e t o new."  changeth  L i k e A r t h u r , Etienne' i s presented  as t h e  i d e a l man who as the- r u l e r w i l l . b r i n g new o r d e r t o a s o c i e t y now existing i n ch os.  From t h e moment t h a t he f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e s h i s  a  dream o f a new s o c i e t y , t h e n a r r a t o r c l a i m s t h a t , "La v i e i l l e s o c i e t e " era qua i t  „  e  . " (p.- 1 7 1 ) »  However' when h i s dream  fails  t o produce a new s o c i e t y and t h u s when h i s q u e s t i s f i n a l l y t h w a r t e d , romance t u r n s .to i r o n y and the. u n i o n w h i c h was t o improve the miners''' w o r k i n g defeated hero's eyes*  c o n d i t i o n s crumbles before, the  Indeed a f t e r E t i e n n e  w o u l d be b e s t t o s u r r e n d e r  intended  and end t h e i r  t e l l s l a Maheude  s t r i k e , Rasseneur  they  begins  t o c l i m b back i n t o p u b l i c f a v o r as he announces t h e d i s s o l u t i o n of the union:  E ^ A s s o c i a t i o n , o o o e t a i t maintenant devoree, d e t r u i t e ' u n peu chaque j o u r p a r l a b a t a i l l e i n t e r i e u r e d e s va n i t e r s e t d e s a m b i t i o n s , , Depuis que l e s a n a r c h i s t e s y t r i o m p h a i e n t , c h a s s a n t l e s e v o l u t i o n n i s t e s de l a p r e m i e r e heure,, t o u t c r a q u a i t , l e b u t p r i m i t i f , l a r t f f o r m e du s a l a r i a t , se n o y a i t au m i l i e u d u t i r a i l l e m e n t des s e c t e s , l e s c a d r e s s a v a n t s se d c f s o r g a n i s a i e n t d a n s l a h a i n e de l a d i s c i p l i n e » E t d e j a l'on, p o u v a i t v o i r l a v o r t e m e n t f i n a l de c e t t e l e v e e en m a s s e , q u i a v a i t menace'tin i n s t a n t d ' e m p o r t e r d une haleine l a v i e i l l e societe pourrie* (p<?-396) i f  ;t  , A n o t h e r A r t h u r i a n theme p r e s e n t t y p a l mysterious  birth  Montsou,- n o t h i n g  i s immediately  indistinguishable  o f the  from any  mark o f a h e r o t o s e t him a s much a s he a new he  s o c i e t y and  hero,  apart from other  the m i n e r s o f the their  b a c k g r o u n d and  Moreover, E t i e n n e  and  have l a t e r The  finds  i n the  traditional  symbolic  changing  present  t o perpetuate  both  sortait *  sight  as  du r e v e *  * *• l u i s e m b l a i t  ho  of creating world,  o f leader*-*  appear' i n i t i a l l y  i n Germinal  important  amid  role  they  social  their  i f out  structure* c r e a t e d by  For  the m i n e r s ,  the  bourgeois  already large fortune.  a v o i r un  Cette  fosse, tassee  a i r m a u v a i s de  b^te  9:  a  dream the  capita-  L i k e the  emerges  o f a dream,. "Le i V o r e u x  o *  quest-romances  i n terms o f E t i e n n e * s  -  3  is  bears  hopes f o r a U t o p i a n  d r a g o n o f romance l i t e r a t u r e , l e JVoreux f i r s t Etienne! s  he  Gradually i n  0  possibility  d r a g o n - k i l l i n g theme o f many  d r a g o n i s l e 'Voreux, t h e m o n s t e r lists  and  i n t h a t he  people  in  novel*.  expression  the  :  assumes a p o s i t i o n  Arthur  arche-  arrives  known a b o u t h i s p a s t ,  o t h e r ihuman b e i n g s  arouses  i s the  When E t i e n n e  g r e a t b u r s t o f l i g h t which foreshadows the  will  of  thus  emerges f r o m the  ship* a  convinces  i n Germinal  mythical  into  present,  au f o n d  d un  goulue,.-  accroupie  ;?  creux  pour manger l e monde  fr  (pp . 3-h)9 B  serves i t s o p e r a t i o n ^ he hears c e t t e r e s p i r a t i o n grosse  And as E t i e n n e  " , , , 1 ""e'ehappement de. l a pompe,  e t longue,  soufflant-sans relache, qui  e t a i t comme l ' h a l e i n e egorgee du m o n s t r e n o v e l , the mine i s c o n s t a n t l y p r e s e n t e d i t s den, ready  q u i e t l y ob-  rr  (p, h),  Throughout the  as a b e a s t  crouching i n  t o devour human f l e s h a t any moment, "  , , le  0  p u i t s a v a l a i t des hommes par bouche'es de v i h g t ou de t r e n t e , e t d'un  coup de g o s i e r s i f a c i l e , q u ' i l s e m b l a i t ne pas l e s s e n t i r  passer  " (p,- .2h) &  Moreover, " j T l . a j l ' a i r  p e n i b l e de c h a i r humaine" (p» 1 2 ) ,  gene par sa d i g e s t i o n .  The c a t a c l y s m i c d e s t r u c t i o n o f  the mine a t the end o f the n o v e l r e p r e s e n t s the a r c h e t y p a l k i l l i n g o f the dragon or monster which, i n terms o f the n o v e l , i s i n t e n d e d to symbolize  the d e f e a t o f the b o u r g e o i s  capitalists.  However,  the death i s n o t complete f o r work resumes once a g a i n , thus the power o f the b o u r g e o i s i e by the s t r i k e .  continues although  somewhat  A l l t h a t remains i s the hope t h a t i n the f u t u r e  the dragon w i l l u l t i m a t e l y bs t o t a l l y d e s t r o y e d , class w i l l The life  diminished  t h a t the working  f i n a l l y r i s e t o power and thus c o n t r o l t h e i r  world.  c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n o f the seasons and the c y c l e o f human  from b i r t h through growth t o m a t u r i t y , death and r e b i r t h  o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d - w i t h the s e a s o n a l c y c l e i s p r e s e n t i n Germinal i n terms o f Etienne''"s moral development.  Throughout the course  o f h i s p r o g r e s s i o n towards a s t a t e o f moral m a t u r i t y ,  Etienne  f l u c t u a t e s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y between the two v e r t i c a l ' p o l e s o f Heaven and H e l l which we have j u s t a n a l y z e d pairs of narrative'patterns  i n terms o f the v e r t i c a l  p r e s e n t i n the hovel,,-  Traditionally,  s p r i n g i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b i r t h , summer w i t h g r o w t h , autumn w i t h m a t u r i t y and h a r v e s t i n g and f i n a l l y , w i n t e r w i t h d e a t h .  The c o n -  c e p t o f r e b i r t h i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n o f t h e r e t u r n to spring after  winter,  Frye''s l i n k between t h e f o u r seasons and the f o u r p a t t e r n s mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s study  narrative  has•interesting  c a t i o n s i n terms o f E t i e n n e ' s ' m o r a l development.  ramifi-  Moreover, Frye  sees t h e f o u r n a r r a t i v e p a t t e r n s as components o f a much l a r g e r . If  p a t t e r n w h i c h he l a b e l s t h e q u e s t myth*  The f o u r a s p e c t s o f t h e  q u e s t myth a r c c o n f l i c t , w h i c h i s t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e o f r o m n c e s  l i t e r a t u r e , d e a t h e i t h e r o f t h e h e r o or the. enemy, w h i c h i s t h e ; b a s i c element o f t r a g e d y , the d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e h e r o w h i c h i s i m p l i e d i n i r o n y where h e r o i s m seems t o t a l l y . a b s e n t and where c o n f u s i o n o r a n a r c h y e i t h e r t h r e a t e n o r p r e v a i l , and f i n a l l y , t h e r e a p p e a r a n c e o r the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e h e r o , w h i c h i s the c e n t r a l element o f comedy-where a new s o c i e t y , r i s e s t r i u m p h a n t l y around She hero i n the c l o s i n g s c e n e s .  I f one o f t h e b a s i c t h r e a d s o f  the p l o t i n G e r m i n a l c o n c e r n s Etienne''s c h a r a c t e r development,  as  i n d e e d i t does, the n o v e l c n t h e n be r e a d as q u e s t l i t e r a t u r e i n a  w h i c h the s e a r c h i s f o r m o r a l m a t u r i t y .  Thus t h e f o u r . s p e c t s s  o f the q u e s t myth and t h e n a r r a t i v e forms w h i c h sre t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t s embody, t h e f o u r s t a g e s o f E t i e n n e s m o r a l e d u c a t i o n . ; r  To go one s t e p f u r t h e r , the s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n s w h i c h F r y e has l i n k e d w i t h the f o u r n a r r a t i v e forms a l s o c h r o n i c l e Etienne''s p r o g r e s s i o n towards m o r a l m a t u r i t y i n terms o f the l i t e r a l scheme' i n the n o v e l .  time  Indeed the b i r t h o f E t i e n n e ' s i m p u l s e t o  r e v o l t a g a i n s t the g i v e n s o c i a l o r d e r o c c u r s d u r i n g h i s f i r s t work i n the mine i n March, the f i r s t month o f s p r i n g .  Throughout  the summer months,.- which ,are t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Eti'enne 's. r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a s continue to d e v e l o p * ;  day's  growth*  In August,  when he moves i n t o the Maheu home, he begins t o pose m o r a l quest i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the p r e s e n t s o c i a l o r d e r , " . *. * p o u r q u o i l a 9  misere  des uns? pourquoi l a r i c h e s s e des a u t r e s ? pourquoi  sous l e t a l o n de c e u x - l , sans i ' e s p o i r de s  p l a c e ? E t sa premiere 165-66),.  etape  jamais prendre  ceux-ci leur  f u t de comprendre son i g n o r a n c e "  (pp.  S h o r t l y f o l l o w i n g t h i s moment o f i n t r o s p e c t i o n , E t i e n n e  f o r m u l a t e s h i s "reve s o c i a l " ' w h i c h b e l i e v e s w i l l r e s o l v e the  social  problems o f i n j u s t i c e n d  his  a  inequality.,  As autumn approaches,  p o p u l a r i t y c o n t i n u e s to i n c r e a s e ; a t t h i s stage he reaps  only  success as the miners ' b e l i e f i n h i s i d e a l becomes more i n t e n s e * 1  On December 1, however, the s t r i k e which w i l l u l t i m a t e l y cause his in  d o w n f a l l begins*a p o s i t i v e way  W i n t e r , which i s symbolic  f o r E t i e n n e i n t h a t he  o f death,  continues to r e t a i n h i s  p o p u l a r i t y as l e a d e r o f the people u n t i l the day o f the scheduled meeting i n the f o r e s t when he f i r s t followers,,  begins  second  loses control of his  In February,, the l a s t month o f w i n t e r and hence the  d a r k e s t moment o f the season, E t i e n n e appears powerless  before h i s  f o l l o w e r s as the crowds o f angered, s t a r v i n g miners scour s t r e e t s i n a v i o l e n t march i n s e a r c h o f  the  bread*  As a r e s u l t o f .his downfall,- h i s d e f e a t as the l e a d e r ^ E t i e n n e descends'into Montsou, he  the abyss o f J ^ q u i l l a r f r and f o l l o w i n g h i s r e t u r n t o  j o i n s C a t h e r i n e to resume work i n the p i t s .  Trapped  i n the crumbling mine s h a f t , E t i e n n e narrowly  escapes  physical  death but does undergo a k i n d o f s p i r i t u a l death i n which he r e pents h i s p r i d e , expiates' i t ' and subsequently  achieves a s p i r i t u a l  r e b i r t h whereby he emerges from the w o r l d o f death and winter' i n t o the w o r l d o f l i f e  and-springy  f o n d de l a mine.  Son e d u c a t i o n e t a i t f i n i e  indeed,  "muri par sa dure e x p e r i e n c e au  "Sa r a i s o n murissait,.- i l  cunes"" ( p . 52^)o  avait  . . • . " Cp*' 521) f o r 9  3ete" l a gourme; de ses r a n -  C l e a r l y when E t i e n n e emerges- a t the end o f the  n o v e l , he has achieved' a new l e v e l o f m o r a l m a t u r i t y assume w i l l prepare  him t o be a s u c c e s s f u l p o l i t i c i a n i n h i s new  career with Plucharto  S i g n i f i c a n t l y then, the p a t t e r n s i m p l i c i t  i n the f o u r n a r r a t i v e forms which c h r o n i c l e moral  which we  stages i n E t i e n n e ' s f  development and each o f which F r y e a s s o c i a t e s w i t h ' a  season  a l s o work i n t o the one year- s e a s o n a l c y c l e on which Z o l a has c o n s t r u c t e d the n o v e l and through which E t i e n n e must pass on h i s quest f o r - m o r a l maturity,, Thus t o c o n c l u d e , the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e in" Germinal  is a  a g a i n r e v e a l e d i n terms o f the complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f o u r n a r r a t i v e forms and the c y c l e o f the; seasons which  toge-  t h e r c h r o n i c l e Etienne'*s p r o g r e s s i o n towards a s t a t e of. m o r a l m a t u r i t y * the g o a l o f h i s q u e s t . E t i e n n e must pass through reappears  In o r d e r t o a t t a i n h i s g o a l ,  c o n f l i c t , a symbolic  and' a c h i e v e s r e c o g n i t i o n .  death b e f o r e he  Moreover, each  o f these  r e p r e s e n t s a . n a r r a t i v e form which i n t u r n r e p r e s e n t s a  stages  season.  F o r E t i e n n e , the q u e s t ' t e r m i n a t e s when he a c h i e v e s a new k i n d o f moral  stature, and at' t h i s p o i n t , h i s e d u c a t i o n i s complete.  As Frye has  i n d i c a t e d , the r i s e  and f a l l  o f the hero's  f r e q u e n t l y f o l l o w the s e a s o n a l c y c l e which i n Germinal e x p l i c i t i n terms o f the p r e c i s e time c y c l e — t h a t of Etienne"s s o c i a l its  of h i s symbolic  more p r a c t i c a l  i s made  scheme and i t s p a r a l l e l  dream from i t s c o n c e p t i o n  growth to i t s m a t u r i t y , h a r v e s t i n g and  At the time  fortunes  subsequent  through  failure.  r e b i r t h , E t i e n n e * s i d e a s have become  and'he has r e f o c u s s e d h i s d e s i r e f o r p e r s o n a l g l o r y  so t h a t he no l o n g e r seeks mere  self-gratification.  91 Notes  Northrop F r y e . Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m ?  (New Yorks; Atheneum, 1 9 6 8 ) .  Ibid., p. 163, 3A l f r e d , L o r d Tennyson, I d y l l s o f the King' (New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1 9 6 5 ) po 16, po- 269,y  Northrop F r y e , p<>. 192,;  THE  ANAGOGIC PATTERNS  When a p p l i e d t o an a n a l y s i s o f Germinal, F r y e s r  the anagogic dimension  phase o f l i t e r a r y  symbolism develops y e t another  o f the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n the n o v e l by r e v e a l i n g  s i g n i f i c a n t a r c h e t y p a l r e l i g i o u s patterns„ Criticism,  F r y e d e f i n e s the anagogic  tures as b e i n g concerned erature  3  concept o f  "  0  :  In the Anatomy o f  l e v e l o f meaning i n l i t e r a -  . . xd.th the mythopoeic a s p e c t o f l i t -  b u t w i t h myth i n i t s narrower and more t e c h n i c a l  o f f i c t i o n s and themes r e l a t i n g  sense  t o d i v i n e or q u a s i - d i v i n e b e i n g s  and powers"" (p, ll6)«,„ In anagogy, symbols a c q u i r e a u n i v e r s a l significance  f o r on t h i s l e v e l , l i t e r a t u r e no. l o n g e r comments on  r e a l i t y but r a t h e r i t c o n t a i n s r e a l i t y w i t h i n the framework of' u n i v e r s a l symbols w i t h which t h e a r t i s t has chosen t o r e p r e s e n t existence: When we pass i n t o anagogy, nature becomes, not the c o n t a i n e r , but the t h i n g c o n t a i n e d , and the a r c h e t y p a l u n i v e r s a l symbols, the c i t y the "'garden, the quest, the m a r r i a g e , are no l o n g e r the d e s i r a b l e ' f o r m s t h a t man c o n s t r u c t s i n s i d e n a t u r e , but are . themselves the forms o f nature* Nature i s now i n s i d e the mind o f n i n f i n i t e b e i n g who b u i l d s h i s c i t i e s out o f the M i l k y Way.- ( p , 1 1 9 ) B  F o r F r y e then, l i t e r a t u r e r e p r e s e n t s "the t o t a l dream o f man" because i n l i t e r a t u r e , r e a l i t y i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n the more e n compassing framework o f i t s u n i v e r s a l The  anagogic  phase o f l i t e r a r y  significance.  symbolism i s most e v i d e n t i n  s c r i p t u r e or a p o c a l y p t i c r e v e l a t i o n which i n our Western o c c u r s i n the B i b l e . -  Frye claims that  culture  „• . . t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l  and a p o c a l y p t i c p e r s p e c t i v e o f r e l i g i o n - c o m e s as a tremendous  emancipation  o f the i m a g i n a t i v e mind" (p, 125)  g i o n p r o v i d e s the b a s i c metaphors f o r p o e t r y , i s a h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d mythic  for indeed  9  The  s t r u c t u r e , belongs  B i b l e , which  t o the genre Frye  c a l l s the e n c y c l o p a e d i c form which i s g e n e r a l l y comprised sacred books.presenting  an anagogic  reli-  form o f symbolism.  of  Moreover,,  the B i b l e i s a source o f "undisplaced myth;"' t h a t i s , myth which i s p r i m a r i l y concerned form one  o f two  w i t h gods or demons, and which t a k e s  c o n t r a s t i n g worlds  d e s i r a b l e and  of t o t a l metphorical  the o t h e r u n d e s i r a b l e  0  identification,  These worlds  are o f t e n  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the e x i s t e n t i a l heavens and h e l l s o f the contemporary vrilth such l i t e r a t u r e s , i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n we tively" book, i s  (p, 139)o 9  These two  c a l l the a p o c a l y t i c and  Germinal,  the  religions  forms o f metaphor-  the demonic r e s p e c -  a l t h o u g h i t i s by no means a s a c r e d  however, c o n s t r u c t e d around t r a d i t i o n a l b i b l i c a l  arche-  types which r e i n f o r c e the v e r t i c a l h e a v e n - h e l l p e r s p e c t i v e i n the n o v e l and thus a l s o r e v e a l the anagogic  l e v e l o f symbolism.  As a d e f i n i t i v e myth, the B i b l e p r e s e n t s a s i n g l e y e t a l l encompassing a r c h e t y p a l and  c y c l i c a l s t r u c t u r e extending  C r e a t i o n or Genesis t o Apocalypse  or R e v e l a t i o n ,  a t o t a l v i s i o n o f man's i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e  from  By i n c o r p o r a t i n g  w i t h i n a -larger  v i s i o n o f the c r e a t e d u n i v e r s e , the B i b l e i s n a  anagogic s t r u c t u r e  which embodies the u n i v e r s a l symbols o f the q u e s t , the c i t y , the garden,  Germinal  does not b e g i n immediately  and  w i t h the moment  o f c r e a t i o n o f the world" or o f a s o c i e t y , but i n s t e a d i t b e g i n s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l e p i c manner i n medias re_s w i t h f l a s h b a c k s to' i n f o r m the r e a d e r o f p r e c e d i n g e v e n t s . v e r y d e t a i l e d account  Hence Z o l a p r o v i d e s the  o f the f o r m a t i o n o f the Montsou Company which  both f o r the b o u r g e o i s is  clearly  s h a r e h o l d e r s as w e l l as f o r the workers,  the c r e a t i o n o f the w o r l d i n which they and t h e i r  ure g e n e r a t i o n s w i l l l i v e money alone However  9  fut-  e i t h e r i n l u x u r y or i n p o v e r t y , . Indeed  c r e a t e s and p e r p e t u a t e s  this particular  social  world.  t h i s i s m e r e l y an example o f Zolai's use o f the c r e a t i o n  myth i n i t s most simple  and l i t e r a l  form.  On a more complex and metaphoric  l e v e l , the myth o f c r e a t i o n  .centers on the a r c h e t y p a l b u r s t o f l i g h t which i l l u m i n a t e s t h e darkness who  and i s s u e s f o r t h from an omnipotent and o m n i s c i e n t  i s capable  o f imposing  and who c r e a t e s verdure cal  being  order on chaos, form on f o r m l e s s n e s s ,  o u t o f wasteland,-.  In Germinalo  the b i b l i -  Messiah f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s one a s p e c t o f the c h a r a c t e r o f  E t i e n n e L a n t i e r , the p r o t a g o n i s t .  As Etienne- approaches Montsou  a l o n g the s t r a i g h t roadway, the w o r l d which u n f o l d s b e f o r e him suggests of  the cold*,, d e s o l a t e , endlees  and f o r m l e s s w a s t e l a n d  world  the u n i v e r s e b e f o r e c r e a t i o n , a w o r l d b u r i e d deep i n darkness  w i t h no t r a c e o f l i g h t s Dans l a p l a i n e r a s e , sous l a n u i t sans e t o i l e s , d'une o b s c u r i t e e t d' une e p a i s s e u r d'encre, un homme s u i v a i t s e u l la-grande r o u t e de-Marchiennes a Montsou, o . o , Devant l u i , i l ne v o y a i t meme pas l e s o l n o i r , e t i l n ' a v a i t l a s e n s a t i o n de 1'immense h o r i z o n p l a t que p a r - l e s s o u f f l e s du v e n t d,e mars, des r a f a l e s l a r g e s comme sur une mer, g l a c e e s d ' a v o i r balaye" des lieue-s de m a r a i s e t de t e r r e s n u e s Aucujne ombre d'arbre ne t a c h a i t l e c i e l , l e pave" se d e r o u l a i t avec l a r e c t i t u d e , ^ u n e j e t e e , au m i l i e u de I'embrun a v e u g l a n t l e s t e n e b r e s , (p, 1 ) r  ? ;  0  The  image o f the March storm which r e c u r s throughout  suggests  the n o v e l  a c h a o t i c f o r c e o f s w i r l i n g gusts amid a b l a c k unfathom-  a b l e abyss f o r i n d e e d t h e r e i s no d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e sky or e a r t h .  The  only l i g h t  braziers,  but  blanchissait baient,  comes f r o m even  so t h e  eclairer  s a n s en  darkness; "un  .  burning  n a r r a t o r remarks,  o f the m i n i n g  thus,  on  the  three  "Aucune aube  fourneaux  visible,"  village  dull  l a c d' 'encre " ( p . 7 0 ) . 5  i n the  seuls  Moreover,  ,r  longues  added t o the the  trees, In  blanket  the  plain  addition,  m a t e r i a l s which is  a l w a y s on  mordial  t r a i n e e s de  the  c o a l heaps appear  "" ,• » .-.une fumee  dust which  and  roads,  the  recurring  verge  coats  formlessness  l a Maheude p u l l s  goes f i r s t  t o beg  the  G r e g o i r e s , the' c h i l d r e n "C'etnit  un  credit  the  her  delaye'e, lenore, ainsi  boue  epaisse  typical two  o f the w o r l d  and  p l a y i n t h e mud  miners are  p a y s du  then  r  sur l e bout genrally  d y laisser  saturated with  t h i c k mud.  pri-  before her  when from'  terre,  n o i r e comme-la  l e s sabots,  8 7 ) " , .  that i t  While and  the . les \  empoissees  a. r a m a s s e r l a c r o t t e - .sur s e s  d'une p e l l e ( p .  (p. 7 1 ) •  waste  charity  de  '  area-—  which oozes from  couleur  charbon,  u  a state of  .children behind  from M a i g r a t  et c o l l a n t e ,  , , . s' amusait  que  au  entire  suggest  backwards i n t o  degel brusque, l e c i e l  sp^ciale  c  (p, 7 0 ) i s  scum and  m e r s g l u a n t s d'une humielite* v e r d a t r e , l e s r o u t e s b o u e , une  i_ I' i3  P  world  as,  epaisse,'  "ensemanc nt l a t e r r e "  i m a g e s o f mud,  of s l i d i n g  she  earth,  sanglantes"  c h a r a c t e r i s e the m i n e r s '  the  As  of coal  the  ooze o r u t t e r  creation.  rouilles  precisely  enshrouded i n  . . au m i l i e u du g r i s b l a f a r d des s c h l s t e s e t des g r e s  laissait.de  flam-  Even i n d a y l i g h t  remains b a s i c a l l y  landscape,  open  ne  l ' i n c o n n u " ( p , 1 1 ) — a v i s i o n more 2  "darkness  8  outline  red fires  dans l e c i e l m o r t , l e s h a u t s  d e s c r i b e d by M i l t o n s the  the  de suie  „ . , galoch.es,  working,  water.  For  the  example, d u r i n g h i s f i r s t day  i n the mine,-, " „.  t r a v e r s a i t de v e ' r i t a b l e s mares,- que  l e g a c h i s boueux des  l e a v e the p i t a t the end o f the day,  suggest  those  of  a  0  „• <, i l s p a s s a i e n t comme As  Catherine  seam l a t e r i n the n o v e l , her  p r i m i t i v e beast  striving  to e x i s t ,  "  0  actions o •  maintenant, p i t o y a b l e , r a v a l e e au t r o t de f e m e l l e quetant  v i e par l a boue des de  ""  pieds  fellow-workers  hande de negres c u l b u t e s dans l a vase"' (p, 65)<*  works naked i n the J e a n - B a r t  nue  Etienne  c  seul"' Cp» 3*+)« and l a t e r , as he and h i s  revelait  une  0  chemins, e l l e besognait,. l a croupe b a r b o u i l l e e  s u i e avec l a c r o t t e jusqu'au v e n t r e ,  t o r e t u r n home t o Chaval, s t r e e t s where "" «,  « o <, "' ( p  C a t h e r i n e wanders alone  311)o- . A f r a i d  0  through  o l e d i g e l r o u l a i t en fleuve- de fange"  For C a t h e r i n e , the moment o f s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h thus the moment o f p o s s i b l e new occur  sa,  almost s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on  life, rr  the (p„ *+17)«  Etienne,  and the moment o f death  ce l i t  de boue" ( p  511)©  0  Follow-  i n g the v i o l e n t b a t t l e a g a i n s t the B e l g i a n miners i n which many o f the miners are k i l l e d , l corpse  o f her husband and  a  Maheu s i t s i n the mud  beside  n o t i c e s "Les b l e s s e s [Jquij h u r l a i e n t ,  l e s morts CJqul} se r e f r o i d i s s a i e n t dans l e s p o s t u r e s eux  the  cass/es,  de l a boue l i q u i d e du d e g e l , ca e t l a envases parmi l e s t a c h e s  d'encre du charbon q u i r e p a r a i s s a i e n t sous l e s lambeaux s a l i s la  bou-  neige"  (p„ ^ 3 2 ) 0  F i n a l l y , a f t e r Souvarinel's a c t o f sabotage'  which causes the w a l l s and symbolic  c i e l i n g s o f . t h e mine to c o l l a p s e , a  d e s t r u c t i o n which he h o p e s ' w i l l l e a d to r e c r e a t i o n , " B i e n —  t o t l e c r a t e r e s ^ e m p l i t , un l a c d'eau boueuse occupa l a p l a c e e t a i t naguere l e iVoreux, destroyed  de  completely  e  «• <>• (p«, k7k)  a  ou  The mine i s u l t i m a t e l y  and the p r e s e n t w o r l d  s l i p s b c k towards a a  previous state of being,  " , , . ce c r a t e r e se v i d a i t , l ' e a u  par l e s t e r r e s b a i s s a i t  de'crouvrait l i ' e f f r a y a n t g a c h i s du  o o , c i ' e t a i t un  5  hue  fond,  c l o a q u c , l e s r u i n e s di'une v i l l e : abimee e t fondue  dans l a boue" (pp,  484-85),  On the symbolic  ^'evel,-, E t i e n n e as the Messiah f i g u r e  repre-  s e n t s the omnipotent f o r c e which w i l l i l l u m i n a t e t h i s l a n d o f and ' w i l l l e a d it's  darkness  people  from a w o r l d i n a s t a t e o f  m o r d i a l ooze into- an E d e n i c or U t o p i a n universe,. miners hope t o r e c a p t u r e the l o s t  Through him,  as a r e s u l t o f these  E t i e n n e does' not appear i n Montsou amid the l i t e r a l  Utopian to  brotherhood,  f a c t o r s , a world of happiness.  b r i g h t l i g h t which t r a d i t i o n a l l y  Although  halo of  surrounds' the Redeemer, h i s  dreams based on P l u c h a r t ' s i d e a l o f the u n i o n cause  assume the symbolic  miners he  the  Garden o f Eden, to r e i n h a b i t  the Promised L a n d — a w o r l d o f j u s t i c e , e q u a l i t y and and  pri-  him  s t a t u r e o f the Redeemer i n the eyes o f the  so g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e s *  C l e a r l y , we  are to' see him  as  the a p o s t l e o f s o c i a l j u s t i c e f o r he i s p r e s e n t e d i n r e l i g i o u s terms from the moment he f i r s t  attempts t o convince  workers o f the need f o r a p r o v i d e n t fund, o b s t i n e e des nouveaux c o n v e r t i s , q u i se 154),  " I I avai't l a propagande  c r e e n t une m i s s i o n " (p*.  Moreover,- "Durant ces premiers mois, E t i e n n e  ravissement  des'  neophytes,  l e coeur  genereuses c o n t r e l e s o p p r e s s e u r s ,  celebrations, " | _ i l \  (p*  l6l).  en r e s t a  au  debordant d''indignations se j e t a n t a^ 1'esperance  p r o c h a i n triomphe des o p p r i m e s " (p, day  his fellow- •  l66)9  and  still  , , , t a c h a i t d'endoctriner  His mission i s undeniably  a t the  du feast-  P i e r r o n , , ,"  s o c i a l i n nature  i n t h a t he  preaches At a  nd  social revolution* the c r u c i a l meeting  influence are a t their  a b o v e t h e crowd* as  "ll'apotre  out a  apportant s  which  l a verite"  again,  Etienne  suggests  begins  the star  to speak  role,  gains  Lorsque lumiere plaudit  de l  ! ,  o f Bethlehem  2 8 8 )  lune  Lui  3  r  l'Eglise,  o f the moon  noir  3  support  Again  encore  "Ea l u n e ,  a 1'horizon,  Thus E t i e n n e  e'galement*, f a i s a i t  figure  a  "n-dessus  However, inasmuch as  and thus  fulfils  h i s messianic  " A ' c e moment* l a l u n e  dans l "ombre, li apercyut a i n s i ,  b l a n c de  ;  l a fortune  s  de s e s m a i n s o u v e r t e s ,  d "un b a t t e m e n t ;  p r o l o n g e " ' (p©  l o s e s touch  , , , blanchissait  l a fievre l e regne  i's c l e a r l y  restait  l"eclaira  a n d "Une e x a l t a t i o n  attendant  As  glissa'nt des hautes branches  3  d'espoir  1  simul, • *"  , , , soulevait l e s C h r e t i e n s de  l a justice"  i n metaphoric  sent t o Montsou t o d e l i v e r  "//hen a s  0  l a clairiere  des premieres  prochain-de  presented  2 8 7 )  0  e l l e ap-  with reality,-  toute  religieuse  3  s h i n i n g down o n  t r o p basse  !  o f h i s dream, E t i e n n e  m i n e u r s de t e r r e ,  Messiah  encore  de nouveait,  taneously',  through-  3  and d e s i g n a t i n g the Messiah*  d "ombre"' ( p * 2 8 5 ) .  horizon  distribuant  a result  dage.  "Ea  t h e miners!"'  l a foule, 3  to his listeners  In a d d i t i o n  2 8 6 ) *  t h e moon i l l u m i n a t e s h i s aS'a S a v i o r ,  qui montait  (p*  9 :  * . „. *•  *. o o une b a r r e  Etienne  (p*  stands  t o u j o u r s que l e s b r a n c h e s h a u t e s * . l a f o u l e  noye'e de t e n e b r e s 3  appearing  r r 3  he  3  Z o l a makes u s aware o f t h e movement o f t h e moon.  n'"eclairait  d'*elle  5  see E t i e n n e ' i l l u m i n a t e d b y t h e l i g h t  Christ' the night o f h i s b i r t h and  Etienne' s p o p u l a r i t y  peak, and s i g n i f i c a n t l y  "dominant" l a p e n t e  t h e novel .. we  light  i n the f o r e s t ,  /  ( p * ' 2 8 9 )  0  terms as the  i t s p r i s o n e r s from' b o n -  3  Moreover,- the i d e a t h a t the miners see him  as a Redeemer  sent amongst them t o l e a d them out o f the abyss i s r e v e a l e d i n l a Mouquette's a t t i t u d e towards h i m Jesus"  r r ?  j e l l e ] Isadora i t  (p.- 2 7 2 ) . and i n the Maheu f a m i l y ' s f i r m 5  t h e o r i e s , : " . „ o- l e s Maheu a v i e n t l ' a i r 0  comme un  support o f h i s  de comprendre, approu-  a  v a i e n t , a c c e p t a i e n t l e s s o l u t i o n s m i r a c u l e u s e s , avec l a f o i aveugle  des nouveaux c r o y a n t s , p a r e i l s a des C h r e t i e n s des  temps de l ' ' E g l i s e , q u i a t t e n d a l e n t l a venue d'une s o c i e t e sur l e fumier du monde antique"' (p„ 1 7 2 ) ©  parfaite,  L a t e r , i n a moment o f  i n s e c u r i t y as the s t r i k e fund begins t o diminish,. E t i e n n e h i s important r o l e i n the y e t he  e x p e r i e n c e s "une  s t r i k e and i's proud  rr  a  sees h i m s e l f as the Redeemer or-Messiah see him  in this  a f t e r he .moves i n t o the Maheu house-hold i n h i s correspondence  o f the- i l l - f a t e d ,  figure, just  and becomes e s t a b l i s h e d  with Plucharto  In the  t o t u r n the t i d e 'of t h e i r  sofar  eyes  the power predetermined  o f bondage t o "' . . . l e d i e u r e p u e t a c c r o u p i , . auquel i l s  donnaient As E t i e n n e forest, de  f i g u r e and i n t u r n h i s  p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n Maheus, E t i e n n e has  and the i n t e l l i g e n c e life  C l e a r l y then, Etienne  the Messiah  B  a  involvement,  role.-  Etienne f i r s t r e a l i z e s h i s role s  i n h i s job n d  of h i s  realizes  i n q u i e t u d e sur sa mission,, l a peur de  n''e\re p o i n t l'homme tt'endu " (pp.- 2 2 8 - 2 9 ) .  peers a l s o  premiers,  tous l e u r  c h a i r , et q u ' i l s  ri'avaient  jamais v u  ,r  (p  c  11). .  speaks a r d e n t l y to the crowd a t the meeting i n the  " . „ o Catherine  ses grands yeux c l a i r s ,  s u r t o u t , „ <, , ne q u i t t a i t pas E t i e n n e lorsqu'il  ouvrant l''avenir enchante de v i n g themselves  se r e c r i a i t ,  son reve, s o c i a l "  as b e i n g h o p e l e s s l y n d a  d i s a n t sa. f o i ,  (p* 1 7 0 ) ,  Percei-  e t e r n a l l y t r a p p e d i n the  p r i s o n o f p o v e r t y , a w o r l d w i t h a c l o s e d h o r i z o n , the Maheus are ready t o t r a n s f e r  their  a l l e g i a n c e from the u n j u s t , i n a c c e s s i b l e  god o f money t o a human, s e n s i t i v e plight ety  a  n d whose c u l t promises a new  based.on  j u s t i c e and e q u a l i t y .  f i g u r e who life  understans  o f happiness i n  As the miners  soci-  a  l i s t e n to  E t i e n n e s g o s p e l f o r s a l v a t i o n which urges them t o c r e a t e r  own  their  happiness on e a r t h , E t i e n n e appears as the God  their  o f Genesis  whose l i g h t d i s p e l l s darkness and whose power c r e a t e s a p o s i t i v e world":D'une v o i x g r d e n t e , i l p a r l a i ^ sans f i n . C ' e t a i t brusquement 1 ' h o r i z o n ferme q u i e c l a t a i t , une trouee de lumiere- s ' o u v r a i t dans l a v i e sombre de ces- pauvres gens. L'e'ternel recommencement de l a m i s e r e , l e t r a v a i l de b r u t e , ce d<fsir de b e t a i l qui donne sa l a i n e e t qu'on e n g o r g e , t o u t l e malheur d i s p a r a i s s a i t , comme ^/ba l a y e ' par un grand coup de . s o l e i l ; e t , sous un e b l o u i s s e m e n t de f e e r i e , l a j u s t i c e d e s c e n d a i t du c i e l . Puisque l e bon D i e u e t a i t mort, l a j u s t i c e a l i a i t a s s u r e r Ip bonheur des hommes, en faisanjt regner l ' e g a l i t e , l a f r a ternite , Une s o c i e t e n o u v e l l e p o u s s a i t en un j o u r , a i n s i que dans l e s sondes, une v i l l e immense, d'une splendeur de mirage, ou chaque c i t o y e n v i v a i t de sa tache e t p r e n a i t sa ,part des j o i e s communes. Le v i e u x monde p o u r r i e t a i t tombe en poudre, une human i t y jeune purgee de ces c r i m e s ne f o r m a i t p l u s qu'un s e u l peuple de t r a v a i l l e u r s , q u i a v a i t pour d e v i s e : . a chaque mejrite s u i v a n t ses o e u v r e s . E t , c o n t i n u e l l e ment,. ce xeve s ' l i a r g i s s a i t , s ' e m b e l l i s s a i t , d'autant p l u s seducteur q u ' i l m o n t a i t p l u s haut dans 1'impossible, (pp, 170-71) -. f  7  g  Indeed the v e r y words used t o d e s c r i b e E t i e n n e ' s speech suggesta: r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e ; f o r example, " a r d e n t e " i s f r e q u e n t l y a p p l i e d to a person s e r i o u s l y devoted t o a r e l i g i o u s m i s s i o n . Moreover, vision.  the tone o f the e n t i r e passage  i m p l i e s an  apocalyptic  In a d d i t i o n , U t o p i a n dream and  the language  Zola uses t o describe E t i e n n e " s  the Maheus' r e a c t i o n  p e r s p e c t i v e ' w h i c h i s a t the b a s i s ce r e v e  existence  impingement  permisl  Jamais  table,  abruptly  of r e a l i t y ,  on ne  se l e v e r  l e coeur mal  a l'aise,  indicate  crotte"  (p„ 172) o  the v e r t i c a l  fluctuate,  a world i n a state  E t l e s Maheu  desespere.  two  they f i n d  themselves ooze  and  to Zola's n a t u r a l i s t i c  cannot escape  canon,  f o r , by d e f i n i t i o n ,  that  crumbles  "joies  backwards their  "justice,"  Moreover,  t h e m i n e r s ' ' hope i s doomed f r o m  i m p i n g e s u p o n it©  deeam, a f a c t w h i c h Z o l a ' s cited  born,"  a b e t t e r w o r l d a s a dream  f o r as.we have a l r e a d y  just  that  have b e e n  a dream i s m e r e l y an i l l u s i o n  t h e moment r e a l i t y  I n t h e pa-ssage  and  miners  i t i s a given  the world i n t o which.they  o f escape  indicates metaphorically  the words  the  chaos,  into  impossible  coup  clearly,  sinking  the v e r y p r e s e n t a t i o n  vision  semblait  u n d e r l i n e d words  of primordial  est-il  r e t o m b a i e n t d'un  i n an e a r t h l y , h e l l o  crumbles  of  quittaient  II leur  t h e y a r e doomed t o an e x i s t e n c e  start  »  B  domain,,  According the miners  the v i s i o n  "magnetic" p o l e s between w h i c h  but i n e v i t a b l y  inescapable  9  "Neuf h e u r e s passe'es,  et q u ' i l s  The  vertical  f o r t h e Maheus w i t h t h e i n -  demain©  a  venaient d'etre riches,  dans l e u r  into  ends  the  Although " .  1  evitable  qu'ils  o f the n o v e l .  , . , m o n t a i t dans>1 ' i m p o s s i b l e ' ' (p«. 171)  a superior  la  to i t reveals  the s u r f a c e  "e"galite,"  communes,"' t o m e n t i o n  tone  the  o n l y a few,  quixotic  of language  of. o p t i m i s m  "fraternite,"  which  Etienne's.Utopian  seen, i t . i s choice  the  bears  out.  suggested  "societe'' n o u v e l l e , " g i v e s way  t o a more  by  p e s s i m i s t i c view when one "eblouissement the c r u c i a l  de f e e r i e  statement  nation,,  "songes," "splendeur  r r 2 ;  "ce reve m o n t a i t  A l l o f these words imply i z e d , a "never-never  c o n s i d e r s the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the words  * «,  de m i r a g e , "  dans 1'impossible©"  0  an i l l u s o r y s t a t e which cannot be  real-  land"" which can e x i s t o n l y w i t h i n the  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , ; when l a M heud'e f i r s t a  and  imagi-  succumbs t o E t i e h n e  s o c i a l dream, she i s d e s c r i b e d as f a l l i n g under a magic  spell  " * o * peu a" peu, l e charme' s i ' a g i s s a i t a u s s i . sur e l l e * -  Elle  f i n i s s a l t par  y  /  I I e t a i t s i doux di'oublier,  heure l a r e a l i t / t r i s t e *  s  se r e g a l e r des  choses qu'on ne possedera  a g a i n , the v o c a b u l a r y  suggests  pen-  ;  Lorsqu'on v i t comme des  l e nez a t e r r e , i l f a u t b i e n un c o i n de mensonge 8  5 ;  sour i r e , ^ ' i m a g i n a t i o n e veille e*.. e n t r a n t dans ce  monde' m e r v e l l l e u x de l ' e s p o i r * dant une  ;  betes,  ou l 'on s'amuse !  5;  jamais"  the i l l u s i v e w o r l d  (p* 1 7 D ©  One  o f dreams:  "charme," "monde m e r v e i l l e u x , " " i m a g i n a t i o n , " " c o i n de mensonge," " o u b l i e r , " and  "jamais*"  U l t i m a t e l y l a Maheude r e c o g n i z e s the f a i l u r e messianic  quest, as iGLzire s l o w l y d i e s o f s t a r v a t i o n and  the r e s u l t o f t h e i r point  o f Etiennei's  s t r i k e to a c h i e v e  she admits, the agony n d a  o f Etienne!'s not/ poisonous  a better l i f e  c  cold,  At  this  d e s t r u c t i o n a r i s i n g from the  dream, " L ' h o r i z o n f e r m / n ' a v a i t  seeds pas  v o u l u s^'ouvrir, l ' i d e a l i m p o s s i b l e t o u r n a i f en p o i s o n , au f o n d ce crane  f e l e par l a d o u l e u r "  (pp* 392-93)<>  The  de  c o l l a p s e of  Etienne-'s dream, h i s f a i l u r e t o ' c r e a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y a new a l s o r e v e a l s the n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s i h e r e n t i n the r e a p i n g and h a r v e s t i n g metaphors which recur- throughout  society  sowing, the  novel  in  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the  rebellion  which  tation  produce  as the  plight  germinate as t h e i r  hope, l i f e  downward' s w i n g /•.though figure,  fruit  'nd the  towards  return  the v e r y presence  t o the E d e n i c  fail's  creation,  towards  an  improved  au  fond,-. g e r m i t d a n s l a t e r r e  l'on  verrait  un m a t i n  oui'  retablira.it  5  i lpousserait  a p e t i t , ; , une  of primordial dream when t h e time  qu'il  l a justice*  (pp<r 168-69)0  soon  ce  archetype  des  Ahl  deeper  offers  In doing  to so . 7  dark,  t o the u n i v e r s e he  be-  p r e s e n t s as s  , J  eveill it a  graine;  et  * * *  des  a r m e e & hommes q u i ?  ca p o u s s ' a i t ,  ca  d'hommes, q u i m u r i s s a i t  final.sliding  death*  gives  au beau m i l i e u  hommes, une  the  Messiah  out o f t h e i r  which  of  perspective  he  qu'une v r a i e  pousserai't  rude moisson  poussait a  u  backwards i n t o  soleil" a  state  i s suggested a t the v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f E t i e n n e ' s :  striking  t o g e t up  ainsi  * * «  However, t h e ooze  and  " « * * a present,- Ie mineur  :  a  champs;-  petit  s o c i a l world,  Edenic garden  images  as t h e  t o the v e r t i c a l  of climbing  death,  growth and  world' f o r the m i n e r s *  a new  of  perspective  i n hi's r o l e  muddy abyss,, a w o r l d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y s i m i l a r fore  the  garden  c h a r a c t e r o f the M e s s i a h ,  them t h e i l l u s i o n  even  Indeed  of'the v e r t i c a l  dimension*  a Utopian, heavenly  Etienne•gives  indicates*  of this Christian  a religious  seeds  of Etiennei's p o l i t i c a l a g i -  disillusionment',.- t h w a r t e d  the n o v e l f o r i n the  create  The  o n l y pain,, a n g u i s h and  t h e upward' s w i n g a  revolution*  a,s a r e s u l t  Etienne ultimately  significance, in  of social  o f t h e Maheu f a m i l y  g r o w t h embody b o t h towards  idea  c l o c k reminds  t h e Maheus' t h a t  f o r w o r k and" i's f i n a l l y  a f t e r ' the prolonged s t r i k e  which  brought  a  i t will  made e x p l i c i t  bout  the  be  when,  death of  her  husband and many o f her c h i l d r e n , l a Maheude r e t u r n s t o work i n the muddy abyss o f the mine, f o r c e d once a g a i n o u t o f sheer n e c e s s i t y t o pay hommage t o the p o w e r f u l and d e s t r u c t i v e  deity.  Money. • As s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t o r s - a n d t h i n k e r s , . Souvarine and E t i e n n e embrace p h i l o s o p h i e s which seek.the p r e s e n t s o c i a l order i n the attempt better  society.  d e s t r u c t i o n o f the  to give r i s e  t o a new and  In t h i s sense Germinal embodies a symbolic  vision  o f the b i b l i c a l B a t t l e o f Armageddon which precedes the Apocalypse, the f i n a l and c o n c l u s i v e b a t t l e between the f o r c e s o f good and e v i l which w i l l r e s u l t i n the t o t a l d e c i m a t i o n n d p u r g a t i o n o f a  the c r e a t e d u n i v e r s e by f i r e  and by earthquake  leading  ultimately  towards a v i s i o n o f a new heaven and a new e a r t h , the c e l e s t i a l c i t y o f the ITew J e r u s a l e m , Souvarine i s c l e a r l y E t i e n n e ' s a l t e r - e g o i n t h a t b o t h men are d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g s o c i a l o u t c a s t s , wanderers w i t h no home, dreamers and m y s t i c s who f i n a l l y f i n d r e f u g e i n s o c i a l i s t i c tical beliefs.  poli-'  Indeed a t t h e end o f the n o v e l as Souvarine and  E t i e n n e walk together', they are d e s c r i b e d as  r r  deux promeneurs  s o l i t a i r e s " * (p, 446),  The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r the-ories i s  merely  From the moment Souvarine f i r s t  one o f degree.  h i s p o l i t i c a l b i a s tends towards a d o c t r i n e o f t o t a l  appears,  annihilation  and anarchy, whereas the r e a d e r w i t n e s s e s the g r a d u a l t r a n s f o r m a tion of Etienne s T  political  stand from a simple d e s i r e t o m o d i f y .  the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l system t o the n i h i l i s t i c s o c i e t y and thus purge be b o r n .  desire t o destroy  the u n i v e r s e i n order t h a t a new c i t y may  The s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e i r  c h a r a c t e r s suggests t h a t Souva-  rine.represents  one  Etienne i n i t i a l l y Indeed b o t h men cific  dimension of E t i e n n e ' s p e r s o n a l i t y which  s p u r n s , t h e n embraces and  are d e s c r i b e d  quasi-religious cults.  Etienne, v e r s d'un  "Ses  finally rejects.  as dreamers and  as l e a d e r s  of spe-  As S o u v a r i n e t a l k s q u i e t l y w i t h  yeux va.gues de m y s t i q u e s u i v a i e n t l a fumee au  r e v e " (p. 141),  and  l a t e r , "Une  tra-  extase l e s o u l e v a i t  sur sa c h a i s e , une  flamme m y s t i q u e s o r t a i t de  . . . " (p. 245).  In s p i t e o f E t i e n n e ' s r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t h i s '  dream of a j u s t . s o c i e t y has  ses yeux paries,  f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e , Souvarine  has  r e t a i n e d h i s t o t a l f a i t h i n d e s t r u c t i o n as the means of c h a n g i n g the  present s o c i e t y " S a  g e a i e n t dans une glantes"  f a c e blonde de f i l l e ,  r e v e r i e m y s t i q u e , ou p a s s a i e n t  (p. 3 9 7 ) .  Etienne's f e r v i d reading  chures, h i s correspondence w i t h  P l u c h a r t and  w i t h S o u v a r i n e awaken, w i t h i n him  Like Etienne,  i s one  heaven and  of d e s t r u c t i o n .  of anarchist, b r o frequent  discussions 170),  of d e s t r u c t i o n .  a new  The  c r e a t i o n o f an a p o c a l y p t i c  e a r t h which w i l l  described  dents b l a n c h e s e t p o i n t u e s ,  m i n c e , l e r o s e de  son t e i n t , l u i d o n n a i e n t un a i r de f i l l e , l e r e f l e t g r i s de  ( p . 140).  uni-  i s s u e f r o m the  i m p l i c a t i o n , "Ses  s a u v a g e a i t par E c l a i r s "  nihil-  B a t t l e of Armageddon  Moreover, S o u v a r i n e i s i n i t i a l l y  de douceur e n t e t e e , que  fig-  a n a r c h i s t and  terms of l i g h t images w h i c h i n t h e m s e l v e s bear a d i s t i n c t  air  24l).  S o u v a r i n e i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d as a M e s s i a l  w h i c h v a i l u l t i m a t e l y l e a d t o the a new  san-  un re've r e l i g i e u x " (p.  i s t , S o u v a r i n e , s e a r c h e s f o r an a r c h e t y p a l  verse,  des v i s i o n s  " [un] r e v e s o c i a l " ( p .  •" [de_s] i l l u s i o n s de n e o p h y t e , . . .  ure whose m i s s i o n  . . . s'ensauva-  in negative.^  sa bouche e t son  nez  un  ses yeux d ' a c i e r  In t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n the  ashes  en-  adjec-  t i v e " g r i s " immediately cast's darkness over the l i g h t emanating from him, and i n a d d i t i o n , the "toerb "ensauvageait" which i m p l i e s a mad passion together w i t h the word " / c l a i r s " i m p l i e s a storm and, hy e x t e n s i o n , v i o l e n c e .  C l e a r l y , as the novel progresses  •violence i m p l i c i t i n S o u v a r i n e s character 1  , the  from the beginning  becomes the m o t i v a t i n g force behind h i d ideas o f r e v o l u t i o n as he preaches' a d o c t r i n e of t o t a l a n n i h i l a t i o n , Souvarine s t a t e s - h i s n i h i l i s t i c b e l i e f s e a r l y i n the n o v e l , "Allumes l e f e u aux quatre coins des v i l l e s , fauchez l e s p e u p l e s , rasez t o u t , et quand i l ne r e s t e r a p l u s , r i e n de ce monde p o u r r i ' , peut-etre' en r e p o u s ' s e r a - t - i l un m e i l l e u r  fr  ( p , 143"),  3efore the  meeting, ' a t the Bon Joyeux, Etienne and Souvarine d i s c u s s the union and other p o l i t i c a l matters at which time Souvarine mentions h i s master, the m i l i t a n t Russian a n a r c h i s t , B a k u n i n ,  Souvarine stands  at t h i s meeting as the leader' of a r e l i g i o u s c u l t , as the Messiah of d e s t r u c t i o n : ' I I a v a i t prononce ce mot {_Bakouninej a demiv o i x , d'un a i r de f e r v e u r ^ r e l i g i e u s e . en j e t a n t un regard vers 1 ' o r i e n t , , C ' e t a i t du moitre q u ' i l p a r l a it',, de Bakounine, 1 ''exterminoteur, • — L u i s e u l peut donner l e coup de massue, , , , t a n d i s aue t'es s a V n h t s sont des I'aVnes, avec l e u r e v o l u t i o n , , * Avant t r o i s ans 1 1 n t e r n a t i o n a l e , .sous s e s ' o r d r e s , . d o i t e"craser l e v i e u x monde, gtienne t e n d a i t l e s o r e i l l e s , t r e s a & t e n t i f , I I b r u l a i t de s ' i n s t r u i r e , de comprendre 'ce c u l t e de la. d e s t r u c t i o n , - , » , , —Hais enrin,- e x p l i q u e - m o i , , „ Quel est votre but? —Tout d e t r u i r e , , , - Plus^de. n a t i o n s , p l u s de ' gouvernements,; p l u s de p r o p r i e t e , . p l u s de Dieu n i de c u l t e , 1  O  O  ©  O  «  O O O  O  A  °.°  °  °  4  *  O O  0  O  «  O  O  «  O  — E t l e s moyens d execution? * , , —Par l e feu,, p a r - l e p o i s o n , par l e p o i g n a r d , Le brigand est l e vrai'.-her os, l e vengeur p o p u l a i r e , l e r e v o l u t i o n n a i r e en a c t i o n , sans phrases puisees dans l e s l i v r e s , . , , « ;f  Q  En p a r l a n t , S o u v a r i n e d e v i e n t t e r r i b l e * Une e x t a s c l e soialeva.it sur sa c h a i s e , une flamme myst i q u e s o r t a i t de ses yeux p a l e s , e t ses m a i n s d e l i c a t e s e t r e i g n a i e n t l e b o r d de l a t a b l e , a* l a b r i s e r * (pp... 2kk-k5) Indeed a t t h e m e e t i n g  I n the f o r e s t l a t e r i n the - n o v e l / when  E t i e n n e r e a c h e s the peak o f h i s p o p u l a r i t y inasmuch as the crowd of miners accepts h i s d e s i r e f o r revolutions. Etienne i s presented as a s t u d e n t o f Souvarine "s i n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n t o a n a r c h y ,  "Souva-  rine  progres  !  . .- • a u r a i t a p p l a u d i ses i d e e s , * . . c o n t e n t des  r ;  a n a r c h i q u e s de son e l e v e *  „ " (p*. 2 8 9 ) .  As the H e s s i a n f i g u r e , S o u v a r i n e i s c l e a r l y the son o f the God o f W r a t h , n o t t h e God o f Love f o r v e r y r a r e l y does he any t e n d e r n e e s or l o v e .  M o r e o v e r , the r e c i p i e n t o f h i s a f f e c t i o n  i s the r a b b i t , P o l o g n e , r a t h e r than a human b e i n g *  This fact  c o n t r i b u t e s t o the v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t between the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f human and a n i m a l l i f e Indeed man  reveal  also  dichotomy  i n the n o v e l *  seems f o r the most p a r t u n a b l e t o l o v e h i s  fellow-man  as t h e B i b l e i n s i s t s lie must, and as a result,., t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ;  between men  t h r o u g h o u t the n o v e l i n many cases: has been r e d u c e d  t o a l e v e l o f b e a s t s i n a j u n g l e whose o n l y m o t i v e i s s e l f - p r e s e r vation*  I n a d d i t i o n , - , the p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h S o u v a r i n e expounds  b r e e d s o n l y t h e seeds o f contempt, d e s t r u c t i o n and  selfishness,  e v i d e n t l a t e r i n t h e n o v e l when h i s s t u d e n t , E t i e n n e , urges- r e v o l u t i o n t h r o u g h a n a r c h y and d e s t r u c t i o n *  Finally,  - a t the end o f  the n o v e l , when S o u v a r i n e u a l k s away- from t h e v i l l a g e soon crumble ,r  i n t o dust" as a r e s u l t o f h i s owm  „ . * il  a l l a i t , a^ I ' i n c o n n u *  a l i * e x t e r m i n a t i o n , : par t o u t ou i l  to  desire for annihilation,  I I a l l a i t . d e son a i r t r a n q u i l ! a y a u r a i t de l a d y n a m i t e ,  pour  faire  s a u t e r l e s v i l l e s e t l e s hommes" (p*. Hjk)  and r e m o r s e l e s s a c t o f sabotage,. Souvarine t o be the Messiah  e  In h i s heartless  openly r e v e a l s h i m s e l f  o f the God o f "Wrath whose m a l e v o l e n t powers  a l l o w him t o weaken the s t r u c t u r e o f the mine and thus cause t h e c a t a c l y s m i c earthquake  symbolic o f the B a t t l e o f Armageddon which  u l t i m a t e l y d e s t r o y s l e iVoreux and many o f h i s f e l l o w - m i n e r s *  In  so d o i n g , Souvarine r e - e n a c t s t h e g r e a t Deluge o f Genesis and causes t h e . d e s t r u c t i v e f l o o d s t o i n o n d a t e the p i t j u s t as the God o f Wrath produced  i n order t o purge the u n i v e r s e o f a l l e x i s t i n g  evil* The miners?" r e v o l u t i o n , o f which E t i e n n e i s the c h i e f  insti-  g a t o r , i s p r e s e n t e d b o t h l i t e r a l l y and m e t a p h o r i c a l l y as a b a t t l e d e s i g n e d t o purge s o c i e t y o f a. p a r t i c u l a r c r e a t i o n o f a new s o c i a l o r d e r  c  e v i l t o make way f o r the  Etiennei's s o c i a l dream*;, h i s g o l -  den v i s i o n o f a New J e r u s a l e m xd.thin the r e a c h o f a l l men, c l e a r l y embodies the b i b l i c a l Armageddon-Apocalypse archetype i n terms o f the images o f f i r e , b a t t l e , c r a c k i n g , l i g h t n d c o l o r * a  Unlike  E t i e n n e , the miners,, so long accustomed t o submission,: a c c e p t the new wage system w i t h anger desire f o r revolt, paroles*;  and h o s t i l i t y but w i t h o u t the vehement  "Un sourd grognement des haveurs  L a f o r c e de l a h i e r a r c h i e l e s r e t e n i t a  hierarchies m i l i t a i r e :  une  seule, cette  q u i , du g a l i b o t au m a i t r e - p o r i o n , l e s c o u r -  b a i t l e s uns sous l e s . a u t r e s * plus fremissant*  a c c e u i l l i t ses  Depuis  * „  0  E t i e n n e e t a i t peut-'etre l e  q u ' i l se t r o u v a i t au f o n d de c e t e n f e r  r e v o l t e : l e n t e l e s o u l e v a i t " " (pp , 5 2 - 5 3 ) » 0  s  As h i s p o l i t i c a l  i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h P l u c h a r t and S o u v a r i n e deepens, h i s b e l i e f i n the  need f o r the p u r g a t i o n  o f s o c i e t y hy s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n  gathers  forcer L ' o u v r i e r ne p o u v a i t pas t e n i r l e coup, l a r e v o l u t i o n n ' a v a i t f a i t q/u'aggraver sss' miser es*, c'e't.aient l e s bourgeois q u i s ' e n g r a i s s a i e n t d e p u i s o 9 - * * * Qu'on d i s e un peu s i l e s t r a v a i l l e u r s a v a i e n t eu l e u r p a r t r a i s o n n a b l e , dans l i e x t r a o r d i n a i r e a c c r o i s s e inent de l a r i c h e s s e e t du b i e n - e t r e , d e p u i s cent ans? o o o lion, d'une f a c o n ou d'une autre,, i l f a l l a i t en f i n i r , . que ce.fut" gentiment, par des l o i s , par une entente de bonne a m i t i e , ou que ce f u t en sauvages, en b r u l a n t t o u t e t en se mangeant l e s uns l e s a u t r e s * Les e n f a n t s v e r r a i e n t stlrement c e l a , s i l e s v i e u x ne l e v o y a i e n t pas, c a r l e s i e c l e ne p o u v a i t s'achever sans q u ' i l y eux une autre r e v o l u t i o n , c e l l e des ouv r i e r s c e t t e f o i s , un chambardenmt q u i n e t t o y e r a i t l a s o c i e t e du^haut en bas, e t q u i l a r e b a t i r a i t avec p l u s de propre te e t de j u s t i c e * (p* 1VT)\, 5  a  ?  Indee;d the vague sense o f d i s c o n t e n t and the t h r e a t o f growing r e b e l l i o n which ,Etienne  p e r c e i v e s t h e moment' the new  wage system i s announced, becomes.'increasingly  imminent as a r e s u l t  o f the i n f l u e n c e o f h i s c o n v i n c i n g b e l i e f i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o£ e s t a b l i s h i n g a j u s t s o c i e t y , "Du temps du v i e u x dans l a mine comme. une b r u t e , h o u i l l e , toujours aux  l e mineur v i v a i t  ?:  comme une machine a e x t r a i r e l a 1  sous l a t e r r e , l e s o r e i l l e s e t l e s yeux bouches  evenements du dehors*  s i ' e v e i l l a i t au fond,  * » <,  Mais, a p r e s e n t , l e mineur  1  germait dans l a t e r r e a i n s i qu'une v r a i e  g r a i n e f e t l ' o n v e r r a i t un m a t i n ce: q u ' i l p o u s s e r a i t au beau m i l i e u des champs:  o u i , i l p o u s s e r a i t des hommes -.. une' arme'e -'• s  d'hommes q u i ' r e t a b l i r a i t l a j u s t i c e " ' (p*. 168), o f t r a d i t i o n a l l y submissive army sweeping i n v e n g e f u l The  Slowlythe  miners i s t r a n s f o r m e d  into a raging .  f u r y a c r o s s the n a t i o n *  a r c h e t y p a l B a t t l e o f Armageddon suggested  i n the p r e c e e d i n g  race  two q u o t a t i o n s  metaphorically  becomes a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y  a t the c l o s e o f the meeting i n the f o r e s t *  At t h i s p o i n t i n  the n o v e l , the n a r r a t o r comments on the m i n e r s ' s t a t e of mind, "Des  o r a t e u r s se s u c c e d a i e n t  . . . g e s t i c u l a n t dans l e b r u i t ,  l a n c a n t des p r o p o s i t i o n s f a r o u c h e s . de  l a f o i , l'impatience  C ' e t a i t l e coup de l a f o l i e  d'une secte r e l i g i e u s e , q u i , l a s s e d'es-  perer l e m i r a c l e a t t e n d u ,  se d e c i d a n t a l e provoquer e n f i n .  t e t e s v i d e e s par l a famine, v o y a i e n t .rouges, r e v a i e n t et de sang, au m i l i e u d'une g l o i r e bonheur u n i v e r s e l " (pp. 294-95).  this revolutionary s p i r i t  miners as they  d'incendie  d'apotheose, ou m o n t a i t l e Here the b i b l i c a l b a t t l e i s  i m p l i e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y through the images o f f i r e , and  Les  later  blood and r e d ,  dominates the minds o f the  seek a c t u a l r e v o l u t i o n .  L i t e r a l battle  or r e v o -  l u t i o n u l t i m a t e l y breaks out d u r i n g the march through the s t r e e t s by the poor women angered t o the p o i n t o f v i o l e n c e as a r e s u l t of s u f f e r i n g  from s t a r v a t i o n and want.  As they march toward the  Hennebeau home: C ' e t a i t l a v i s i o n rouge de l a r e v o l u t i o n q u i l e s emportait t o u s , f a t a l e m e n t , par une s o i r e e , sanglante de c e t t e f i n de s i e c l e . U u i un soir« l e peuple la^che, debride", g a l o p e r a i t a i n s i sur l e s charnins^ e t i l r u i s s e l l e r a i t du sang des b o u r g e o i s , i l promenerait des f e t e s , i l semerait l ' o r des c o f f r e s ^ventre's. Les femmes h u r l e r a i e n t , l e s hommes a u r a i e n t ces machoires de l o u p s , ouvertes pour mordre. O u i , ce s e r a i e n t l e s memes g u e n i l l e s ^ . l e meme tonnerre de gros s a b o t s , l a m£me cohue e f f r o y a b l e , de peau s a l e , d'haleine^ empeste'e, b a l a y a n t l e v i e u x monde, sous l e u r poussee de^bordante de b a r b a r e s . Des i n c e n d i e s f l a m b e r a i e n t , on ne l a i s s e r a i t pas debout une p i e r r e des v i l l e s , on r e t o u r n e r a i t . a l a v i e sauvage dans l e s b o i s , apres l e grand r u t , l a grande r i p a i l l e , ou l e s pauvres, en une n u i t , e f f l a n q u e r a i e n t l e s femmes e t v i d e r a i e n t l e s caves des riches. I I n'y a u r a i t p l u s r i e n , p l u s un sou des f o r t u n e s , p l u s un t i t r e des •• s i t u a t i o n s a c q u i s e s , jusqu'au jour ou une n o u v e l l e t e r r e r e p o u s s e r a i t 1  ?  1  peut-etre.  (pp. 351-52)  Thus t h e m i n e r s , a r o u s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t o a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  state  i n w h i c h t h e y d e s i r e r e v o l u t i o n , a t t e m p t d u r i n g t h e i r march o f • v i o l e n c e t o " b r i n g about an a r c h e t y p a l B a t t l e o f Armageddon, one t h a t e x i s t s on t h e s o c i a l The  level.  image o f t h e c l o s e d h o r i z o n o p e n i n g s u d d e n l y i n t o a  b u r s t o f l i g h t r e p r e s e n t s a s y m b o l i c . v i s i o n o f t h e b i b l i c a l Apoc a l y p s e f o r beyond t h e d a r k n e s s i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e d i s t a n c e , s t a n d s t h e c e l e s t i a l , g o l d e n c i t y o f t h e New J e r u s a l e m , " . . . brusquement 1 ' h o r i z o n ferme  . . . e c l a t a i t , une t r o u e e . d e l u m i e r e  s ' o u v r a i t . d a n s l a v i e sombre de ces pauvres gens. malheur  d i s p a r a i s s a i t , comme b a l a y e p a r un grand coup de s o l e i l ;  e t , sous un e b l o u i s s e m e n t de feerie, ciel"  . . . tout l e  (p. 170).  l a j u s t i c e d e s c e n d a i t du  L a t e r , t h e m i n e r s make t h e d e c i s i o n t o s t r i k e  amid. " . . . 1 ' i m p a t i e n c e devant l ' a g e d'or p r o m i s , l a h a t e d'av o i r sa p a r t du bonheur, au-dela.de c e t h o r i z o n de m i s e r e comme une tombe.  . . .  ferme'  L e s femmes s u r t o u t a u r a i e n t v o u l u e n -  t r e r d ' a s s a u t , t o u t de s u i t e , dans c e t t e c i t e ' i d e a l e du p r o g r e s , ou i l  n'y a u r a i t p l u s de m i s e r a b l e s " ( p . 1 8 6 ) . A l t h o u g h t h e  s t r i k e fund i s f a s t d i m i n i s h i n g , the miners r e t a i n t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n a s u c c e s s f u l outcome t o t h e s t r i k e ,  total  "Fuisqu'on  l e u r a v a i t promis l ' e r e de l a j u s t i c e , i l s e t a i e n t p r e t s a s o u f frir  pour l a conquexe du bonheur u n i v e r s e l .  . . . jamais l ' h o -  r i z o n ferme n ' a v a i t o u v e r t un a u - d e l a p l u s l a r g e a^ ces h a l l u c i n e s de l a m i s e r e .  I l s revoyaient la-bas, . . . l a cite  de l e u r r e v e , m a i s p r o c h a i n a c e t t e heure e t comme r e ' e l l e ,  ideale avec  son peuple de f r e r e s , son age d'or de t r a v a i l e t de r e p a s en commun" ( p p . 227-28).  Moreover new  Etienne 's ;  g  a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n o f a new  e a r t h u l t i m a t e l y f a i l s f o r , as we  i s only a f a i r y - t a l e i l l u s i o n .  have seen e a r l i e r , h i s v i s i o n  F i n a l l y he admits, d e f e a t  Maheude when, as a r e s u l t o f p o v e r t y , v a t i o n , and  douleur  ,r  The  9  "L'horizon  ferme n ' a v a i t pas v o u l u  t o u r n a i t en p o i s o n  s''ouvrir, l ' i d e a l r  au fond fie ce crane f e l e " par l a  .'(pp, 3 9 2 - 9 3 ) * . references  t o the  changing s o c i e t y a l s o comment  f a i l u r e o f Etiennei's m i l l e n i u m  When he  e n v i s i o n s the  first  t h a t "La v i e i l l e  l a Maheude, "" ,- ,  signifi-  to m a t e r i a l i z e .  j u s t s o c i e t y o f the  f u t u r e , he  s o c i e t e c r a q u a i t , c^a ne p o u v a i t  quel que s mois" (p, 1 7 1 ) *  d e l a de  pro-  durer.au-  Whereas a f t e r h i s c o n f e s s i o n  nous sommes f o u t u s  , , , i l f a u t se  .(p. 3 9 l ) o Easseneur announces the- d i s s o l u t i o n o f the  Association  "" , , , t o u t c r a q u a i t , l e  p r i m i t i f , l a reforme du  se n o y i t au m i l i e u d.u  /  cette levee  p o r t e r d'une h a l e i n e cally,  ?  E t deja li'on p o u v a i t  tiraille-  -  prevoir l avortement  •  r  •/.  en masse,, q u i a v a i t menace un la vieille  hoped, hut r a t h e r i t - i s  i n s t a n t d'. emT  s o c i e t e pourrie"" (p, 3 9 6 ) ,  s o c i e t y does not d i s i n t e g r a t e as E t i e n n e  Ironi-  and  Souvarine  the a p o c a l y p t i c vision,,- the  illusion,  which crumbles i n t o nothingness- b e f o r e The  hut  s e c t e s , l e s cadres savants se desor ga n i s a i ent dans l a  haine de l a d i s c i p l i n e , f i n a l de  salgriat,  to  rendre"  as the r e s u l t o f i n t e r n a l s t r i f e ,  ment des  ..  t i n y A l z i r e dies of s t a r -  c a n t l y oil the  claims  to l a  the f a m i l y home i s out o f extreme n e c e s s i t y consumed  p i e c e hy p i e c e impossible  heaven and a  the workers' v e r y  v i s i o n o f s p r i n g which c l o s e s , t h e  nant w o r l d o f light,.- growth and": l i f e  and  novel presents  had  eyes. a preg-  as such embodies the hope  f o r a f u t u r e apocalypse,, the r e t u r n t o an E d e n i c garden, the move-  raent towards the amid the  golden c i t y  o f the  new  Jerusalem.  h e l l i s h w a s t e l a n d of Montsou, i s E t i e n n e  l e s dec ombres du '"Voreux, l e t r o u maudit elevees  des  distance  he  perceives  transparent  f a c i n g , " . . ..  . . .  hauts fourneaux e t l e s b a t t e r i e s des  u i ] fumaient dans l ' a i r the  ,  les tours f o u r s a coke  du m a t i n " (p. 52 -r).  In  )  a heavenly world which  suggests an a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n , the  Standing  metaphorically  other, h a l f of the  vertical  perspective: , . . en p l a i n c i e l , l e s o l e i l d ' a v r i l r a y o n n a i t dans sa g l o i r e , e c h a u f f a n t l a t e r r e q u i e n f a n t a i t . Du f l a n c n o u r r i c i e r g a i l l i s s a i t l a v i e , - l e s bourgeons c r e v a i e n t en f e u i l l e s , v e r t e s , l e s champs t r e s s a i l l a i e n t de l a poussee des h e r b e s . De t o u t e s p a r t s , des g r a i n e s se g o n f l a i e n t , s " a l l o n g e a i e n t , g e r c a i e n t l a p l a i n e , t r a v a i l l e e s d'un b e s o l n de chaleur. et de l u m i e r e . Un de"bor dement de seve c o u l a i t . avec des v o i x chuchotantes, l e b r u i t des germes s'Ipandaient en un grand b a i s e r . . . . aux rayons enflammes de 1 ' a s t r e , par c e t t e m a t i nee de jeuuesse, c ' e t a i t de c e t t e rumeur que l a campagne e t a i t grosse.. Des hommes p o u s s a i e n t , une armee n o i r e , v e n g e r e s s e . q u i germait. lentement dans l e s s i l l o n s , .grandissant pour l e s r e c o l t e s du siecle f u t u r , et dont l a germination a l l a i t f a i r e bientdt eclater la terre. (p. 525) The  f u t u r e world which w i l l be  the working c l a s s w i l l verse,  the  of the  c l e a r l y be  garden of the  spring, f e r t i l i t y  and  similar  the venging army o f t o the u n f a l i e n u n i -  pre-lapsarian world—one  growth t o r e p l a c e  the  of e t e r n a l  deadly  wasteland  p l a i n , a p e a c e f u l environment c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  c h u c h o t a n t e s " i n s t e a d . o f the mine.  c r e a t e d by  "des  grating, clashing noises.of  In the mouth of l a Maheude, however, Z o l a  the the  cen-  t r a l message of the n o v e l , a message-which i s i n accordance  with  h i s n a t u r a l i s t i c philosophy  pole  and  places  voix  which embodies the v e r t i c a l  o p p o s i t e t o the a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n , s'imagine  que  '"Quand on e s t jeune, on  l e bonheur v i e n d r a , on espere des  choses; e t p u i s ,  l a misere recommence t o u j o u r s , on r e s t e enferme la-dedans (p. 168). exists,  In Z o l a ' s canon  then, no hope of immediate  only the vague hope f o r a new  . . . '  escape  J e r u s a l e m i n the  future.  I f the heavenly v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s i n h e r e n t i n the a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n , then the j u s t quoted  comment o f l a Maheude  r e v e a l s the c o r r e s p o n d i n g h e l l i s h p e r s p e c t i v e i m p l i e d i n the c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n Frye  r e f e r s t o as " . . . the i r o n i c or ' a l l  too human' c y c l e , the mere c y c l e o f human l i f e w i t h o u t redempt i v e a s s i s t a n c e which .  goes r e c u r r e n t l y , i n the  . . from b i r t h t o d e a t h " (p. 317)•  i n terms o f the r e c u r r i n g d u s t imagery i n h a b i t , are born i n t o and  round'  Indeed the c y c l i c a l  of man's e x i s t e n c e s t a t e d i n Genesis 3:19? and unto dust s h a l t thou r e t u r n , " ' has  'same d u l l  pattern  "For d u s t thou a r t  significant  ramifications  i n the n o v e l .  The  miners  out o f a w o r l d b l a n k e t e d i n c o a l  d u s t , "' . . . i l s e m b l a i t que  t o u t l e n o i r du <Voreux, t o u t e l a  poussie^re v o l a n t e de l a h o u i l l e  se f u t abattue sur l a p l a i n e ,  poudrant l e s a r b r e s , • s a b l a n t l e s r o u t e s , ensemencant l a t e r r e " (pp. 7 0 - 7 1 ) . life  Here the image o f sowing  out o f d u s t .  Moreover the darkness o f the mine i s i n -  c r e a s e d by the l a y e r the s h a f t . tracks," bon,  i m p l i e s the c r e a t i o n o f  o f dust p a r t i c l e s which  c o a t s the w a l l s o f  As the uncovered tubs o f c o a l move s w i f t l y a l o n g the  . . .  la houille  . . . m o n t a i t une  f i n e poudre  q u i p o u d r a i t k n o i r l e s o l , l e s murs, jusqu'aux  beffroi"  (p. 6 2 ) .  Even the sky becomes a dark abyss,  de c h a r -  solives  du  indistin-  guishable  from the b l a c k v o i d of the mine s h a f t , " . . . l e  bas. s e m b l a i t vent  se fondre  . . . qui animait  sun no l o n g e r  soleil  semblait  l e s t o u r s des  In a d d i t i o n , the  l  force,  for'when.Mme  group a r r i v e s at M a r c h i e n n e s , " . . . l e  l e s e t e i n d r e , l e s b a t t e r i e s des  hauts fourneaux  metaphors a l s o p o i n t s out the end  .(p. 1 2 0 ) .  l e s tenebres"  laVhaient  des  (p. 3 0 9 ) .  e t e r n e l l e p l e u v a i t dans l ' a i r "  the  poussi^re, sans un s o u f f l e de  en n o i r e  f u n c t i o n s as a l i g h t producing  Hennebeau's e x c u r s i o n  failure  f o u r s a* coke e t  fume'es, dont l a s u i e  The  o f the  use  of- the  apocalypse  dust f o r at .  of the n o v e l , as l a Maheude r e t u r n s t o the p i t , . " P a r l e s  grandes f e n e t r e s p o u s s i e r e u s e s ,  l e p e t i t jour e n t r a i t ,  l e s l a n t e r n e s d'une l u e u r g r i s e . . . "  (p. 5 1 & ) .  noyant  J u s t as i n the  opening scene, darkness pervades the m i n e r s ' world? n o t h i n g changed f o r as i n the b e g i n n i n g , a i e n t des The  f e n e t r e s encrasse^es  " . . . de r a r e s l u e u r s  . ... " (p.  b i b l i c a l b e l i e f t h a t man,  of the n o v e l ,  In h i s new  2).  c r e a t e d out o f d u s t , w i l l r e -  p o s i t i o n as  "nettoyer  de  as he hammers, ".  t e l f l o t de .  s u i e , que  . . i l cassa  . . une  f i n e poudre l e n o y a i t  jamais l e jeune homme ne  l e b l o c d'un  1'aurait  the  gros;"  h i s t a s k i s t o remove b i t s o f shale from the l a r g e p i e c e s c o a l , and  has  sort-  t u r n t o dust i s i m p l i e d i n . o u r l a s t glimpse of J e a n l i n at end  ciel  of d'un  reconnu,  d e r n i e r coup, d i s p a r u dans l a pous-  s i e r e n o i r e q u i m o n t a i t " (p. 5 2 1 ) .  Because i n Z o l a ' s canon  the  miners cannot escape t h e i r h e l l i s h environment, i t i s i n e v i t able t h a t t h e i r new  life',  coal-covered  conceived  b o d i e s w i l l decay i n t o dust,  so o f t e n on the f i e l d behind  and  Requillart,  w i l l come f o r t h out o f the e a r t h e t e r n a l l y bathed ing  i n i t s cover-  o f c o a l d u s t ; "On ^ a ' i j T j dans l e charbon . . . " - ( p .  168).  B a t a i l l e , the work-horse o f the mine, i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f a M e s s i a h  figure.  Like Etienne, Bataille f i r s t  as a sudden b u r s t of l i g h t w h i c h d i s p e l l s the d a r k n e s s u n d e r g r o u n d a b y s s , as a redeemer who the.  appears,  o f the  r i s e s o u t o f the chaos o f  f a l l e n w o r l d b r i n g i n g f o r t h the v i s i o n o f a new  universe.  F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the metaphors d e s c r i b i n g B a t a i l l e ' s f i r s t and l a s t appearances i n the n o v e l evoke l i g h t and the chaos o f a tempest.  The  day E t i e n n e b e g i n s h i s work i n  l e V o r e u x , he and C a t h e r i n e p a s s t h r o u g h on the way  s e v e r a l dark  galleries  t o t h e i r seam; as t h e y w a l k , t h e y become aware o f  . . « un b r u i t s o u r d . . . l e b r u i t l o i n t a i n d'un orage dont l a v i o l e n c e s e m b l a i t c r o i t r e et v e n i r des e n t r a i l l e s de l a t e r r e . Etaitce l e t o n n e r r e d'un e^oulement, e c r a s a n t sur l e u r s testes l a masse enorme q u i l e s se'parait du j o u r ? Une d a r t e * p e r c a l a n u i t , i l s e n t i t t r e m b l e r l e r o c ; e t , l o r s q u ' i l se f u t range* l e l o n g du mur, comme l e s camarades, i l v i t p a s s e r c o n t r e sa f a c e un g r o s c h e v a l b l a n c a t t e l e a un tra.in.de b e r l i n e s . (pp. 33-34) Much l a t e r i n the n o v e l , when a new  s l i d e cuts Catherine  E t i e n n e o f f from the o t h e r t r a p p e d m i n e r s , the M e s s i a h reappears  amid the a p o c a l y p t i c e a r t h q u a k e s  and  figure  and f l o o d s i n the  dark abysmal g a l l e r i e s : Le f l o t b a t t a i t l e u r p o i t r i n e , i l s marcha i e n t tree's l e n t e m e n t . T a n t q u ' i l s a u r a i e n t de l a l u m i e r e . i l s ne d e s e s p d r e r a i e n t pas; e t i l s s o u f f l e r e n t l'une. des lampes, pour en economiser l ' h u i l e , . . 6 l i s a t t e i g n a i e n t l a cheminee, l o r s q u ' u n b r u i t , d e r r i e r e e u x . l e s f i t se t o u r n e r . E t a i e n t - c e done l e s camarades, barrels a l e u r t o u r , q u i r e v e n a i e n t ? Un s o u f f l e r o n f l a i t au l o i n , i l s ne s ' e x p l i q . u a l e n t cette- temp^te q u i se y  r a p p r o c h a i ^ , dans un e'claboussement d'e'curne. E t i l s c r i e r e n t , quand. i l s v i r e n t une masse geante, b l a n c h a r r e , s o r t i r de 1"ombre e t l u t t e r pour l e s r e j o i n d r e , entre l e s b o i s a g e s t r o p I t r o i t s , ou e l l e s ' e c r a s a i t . C"etait Bataille. ( p . 1+93) Moreover, i n C h r i s t i a n terms, B a t a i l l e , non-human b e i n g , becomes a t r u e Messiah cends t o e a r t h and becomes a "man".  a l t h o u g h he i s a  figure  i n t h a t he des-  Throughout the n o v e l , Z o l a  seems i n many cases t o have r e v e r s e d the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o f man and animal f o r indeed the human beings e x i s t p r i m a r i l y i n a dog-eat-dog w o r l d o f anger, they c o n s t a n t l y f o l l o w t h e i r kill,  lust,  j e a l o u s y and h a t r e d i n which  animal p a s s i o n s and as a r e s u l t  cheat, d e c e i v e and harm t h e i r f e l l o w man.  human world  Indeed  i n the  of Germinal, the second p a r t o f the Great Command-  ment i n the B i b l e , often t o t a l l y beings descend  " t o l o v e t h y neighbor  as.thyself",  i s very  n e g l e c t e d so t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between human t o the l e v e l o f mere b e s t i a l p a s s i o n .  On the  other hand, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two h o r s e s , B a t a i l l e and Trompette,  reveals a d i s t i n c t l y  human q u a l i t y .  t o the Great Chain o f B e i n g , Man i s i n f e r i o r  According  t o the angels, but-  s u p e r i o r t o a l l o t h e r . a n i m a l s because o f h i s a b i l i t y  t o reason  and thus c o n t r o l h i s p a s s i o n s . • In Germinal, however, we see j u s t the o p p o s i t e f o r c l e a r l y man i s p r e s e n t e d as a p a s s i o n a t e , r e a s o n l e s s b e i n g , whereas the animals As we s h a l l see, B a t a i l l e phy  control their passions.  r e p r e s e n t s the only r a t i o n a l  philoso-  i n the n o v e l , and i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Trompette,  appears  t o possess 'an almost  human s e n s i b i l i t y  which most human beings seem t o l a c k .  he  and s e n s i t i v i t y  Z o l a has thus c r e a t e d a  v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t and complex i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e human and t h e a n i m a l w o r l d s whereby t h e r o l e s , o f each has been r e v e r s e d so t h a t B a t a i l l e may s t e p f o r t h as t h e human Mes.siah f i g u r e who, as a man l i v i n g among men, embodies t h e r e d e m p t i v e philosophy. However, u n l i k e E t i e n n e , B a t a i l l e as t h e M e s s i a h does n o t r e p r e s e n t a p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h p r o p h e s i e s  figure  the r e t u r n t o  a p r e - l a p s a r i a n or a p o c a l y p t i c w o r l d by means o f a B a t t l e o f Armageddon.  As a M e s s i a h ,  B a t a i l l e r e p r e s e n t s the C h r i s t i a n  d o c t r i n e o f c a r i t a s or o f l o v e f o r one's f e l l o w man.  Indeed .  b o t h E t i e n n e and B a t a i l l e e n v i s i o n a U t o p i a n u n i v e r s e , b u t E t i enne 's dream i s o f a new w o r l d i n the f u t u r e , , compared t o Bat a i l l e ' s acute r e c o l l e c t i o n of a w o r l d of j o y , beauty"and f r e e dom now p a s t .  Whereas E t i e n n e ' s U t o p i a n dream, w i l l  ultimately  stem f r o m t h e seeds o f chaos and r e v o l u t i o n , t h u s from p a s s i o n , B a t a i l l e ' s r e s u l t s from an a c t i v e b e l i e f i n b r o t h e r l y l o v e , r e v e a l e d i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h T r o m p e t t e , w h i c h he has r e a s o n e d to  be t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e way t o t o l e r a t e l i f e  f a l l e n w o r l d of the p r e s e n t . rendering l i f e to  in.the inescapable  B a t a i l l e , t h e n , seeks a means o f  i n t h i s w o r l d more p l e a s a n t whereas E t i e n n e c l i n g s .  t h e i m p o s s i b l e dream o f d e s t r o y i n g t h e f a l l e n u n i v e r s e and  c o n s t r u c t i n g a New J e r u s a l e m  i n the immediate f u t u r e .  B a t a i l l e , who has never seen t h e sun or d a y l i g h t o f the o u t s i d e w o r l d f o r t e n y e a r s , o f t e n , dreams s a d l y i n h i s d e c l i n i n g y e a r s o f t h e E d e n i c .free w o r l d o f h i s y o u t h i n t h e  green.outdoors:  M a i n t e n a n t , l ' a g e v e n a i t , s e s yeux de c h a t se v o i l a i e n t p a r f o i s d'une m e l a n c o l i e . Peut-etre /  A r e v o y a i t - i l vaguement, au 'fo^d de ses revasseries obscures, l e moulin ,ou i l "etait ne"", pres de Marchiennes, un moulin plante sur l a bord de l a Scarpe, entoure de larges verdures, toujours "evente par le vent. . Quelque chose b r u l a i t en l ' a i r , une lampe enorme, dont le souvenir exacte "echappait 3 sa memoire de bete. E t i l r e s t a i t l a tete basse tremblant sur ses vieux pieds, f a i s a n t d ' i n u t i l e s e f f o r t s pour se rappeler l e s o l e i l . (pp.53-59). N  s  }  His present environment,  the barn i n l e *7oreux, i s c l e a r l y an  i d e a l heavenly home i n terms of the novel when compared to the h e l l i s h homes of the miners who are h i s s o c i a l equals since both are slaves to the bourgeois owners, "II y f a i s a i t bon en e f f e t , une bonne chaleur de betes vivantes, une bonne odeur de l i t i e r e fra'i'che, tenue proprement. lueur v e i l l e u s e .  L'unique  lampe avait une  Des chevaux au repos tournaient l a tete, avec  leurs gros yeux d'enfants, puis se remettaient a" leur avoine, sans hate, en t r a v a i l l e u r s gras et bien portants, aimes de' tout l e monde" (p. 5 7 ) . ' As-Milton's Satan states "The mind i s i t s own place, and i n i t s e l f / Can make a Heav'n of H e l l , a 5  H e l l of Heav'n," .  C l e a r l y , as a r e s u l t of extending a f f e c t i o n  and thus of i n t u i t i v e l y responding to s i t u a t i o n s by loving.his fellow-man,  B a t a i l l e represents a state,of mind.  Which can i n - -  deed create "a heaven of h e l l " i n that h i s physical  environment,  although buried deep i n the dark, h e l l i s h abyss of l e -Voreux, i s a heavenly refuge, a world of r e s t , comfort, peace, l i g h t andlove.  S i g n i f i c a n t l y then, the mental outlook which he represents  serves as the redemptive  v i s i o n , the p r a c t i c a l v i s i o n which can  improve the quality 'of the s o c i a l world and can change i t from a symbolic h e l l to a•symbolic heaven, as B a t a i l l e ' s example i l l u s -  trates. Throughout  the n o v e l , B a t a i l l e s m i s s i o n i s t h a t ,of extend1  ing  love and comfort t o h i s fellow-man, p r i m a r i l y  The  day o f h i s d e s c e n t i n t o the h e l l i s h  t o Trompette.  p i t , Trompette  remains  r e s t i n g on h i s s i d e , "'. . . . comme s ' i l eut c o n t i n u e a s e n t i r l e 1'etfeindre, g a r r o t t e ' p a r l a peur" (p. 6 0 ) .  filet  I n d e e d ^ .-..after  a r r i v i n g a t p i t - b o t t o m , "II. n e - b o u g e a i t t o u j o u r s pas, i l semblait  dans l e cauchemar de ce t r o u o b s c u r , . i n f i n i , de c e t t e  profonde, r e t e n t i s s a n t e de vacarme" (p. 59)« taille die  sees Trompette  Immediately  salle Ba-  as a f r i e n d , a f e l l o w - s u f f e r e r doomed t o  t r a p p e d i n the dark abyss; thus he r e a c t s w i t h l o v e and com-  p a s s i o n i n an attempt to ease Trompette's f e a r , " '. . . B a t a i l l e , .  . . s'approcha, a l l o n g e a  tombait a i n s i de l a t e r r e . vait-il? grand a i r , eclata  . . . I'odeur  l e cou pour f l a i r e r  ce compagnon, q u i  . . .' q u e l l e bonne odeur l u i t r o u -  II l u i trouvait  sans doute l a bonne odeur  oublie'e du s o l e i l dans l e s h e r b e s .  t o u t 3 coup d'un s  C ' e t a i t l a bienvenue, l a j o i e bouffe'e l u i a r r i v a i t ,  sanglot.  l a m e l a n c o l i e de\ce p r i s o n n i e r de p l u s q u i  more than j u s t a f e l l o w - s u f f e r e r  For B a t a i l l e , Trompette i n t h a t through him,  able t o escape t e m p o r a r i l y . t h e h e l l i s h . w o r l d  toil  d'alle'-  de ces choses anciennes dont une  ne remonterait'que-mort"' (p. 59)'.  is  Et i l  henissement. sonore, d'une musique  g r e s s e , ou i l s e m b l a i t y a v o i r l ' a t t e n d r i s s e m e n t d'un  du  i s ...  Bataille  of h i s l i f e  of  and p a i n i n the p r e s e n t and r e t u r n to the l o s t E d e n i c g a r -  den o f h i s y o u t h .  Both f o r Trompette  and. f o r B a t a i l l e ,  from.Eden i s the l i t e r a l f a l l made the day of t h e i r cent i n t o the p i t from which they w i l l  the  fall  initial  des-  never emerge a l i v e , a  f a c t which B a t a i l l e r e a l i z e s only t o o a c u t e l y  8  Recognizing that  t h e r e i s no escape from t h e a b y s s , B a t a i l l e a c c e p t s h i s f a t e a n d ' t r i e s t o r e l i e v e h i s own p a i n caused by t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n s , of  a U t o p i a n p a s t and T r o m p e t t e s c a u s e d by t h e sudden l o s s o f r  Eden,  In t h e a t t e m p t t o c o m f o r t Trompette n d t o ease h i s own a  m i s e r y , B a t a i l l e m a i n t a i n s a c h e e r f u l w h i n n y i n g "d'une musique d ' a l l e g r e s s e " and" f o n d l y r u b s h i s body a g a i n s t T r o m p e t t e ' s . I n deed, u n l i k e many o f t h e human b e i n g s i n t h e n o v e l who c o n s t a n t l y q u a r r e l and. k i l l ,  " l e s deux b e t e s . . . f r a t e r n i s a i e n t " ( p . 6 0 )  9  t h u s e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i d e a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p - ~ i n w h i c h l o v e forms the bond, between two i n d i v i d u a l s . . . The f a c t t h a t B a t a i l l e i s d e s c r i b e d t w i c e i n t h e n o v e l a s "le  doyen de l  a  mine" ( p . 5 8 , p, ^ 1 9 ) , i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r , i n i t s  r e l i g i o u s s e n s e , "doyen" s u g g e s t s an e c c l e s i a s t i c who o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n o f a s u p e r i o r r a n k i n t h e c h u r c h h i e r a r c h y , and t h u s someone who h o l d s a p o s i t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards t h e p e o p l e below him on t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l l a d d e r . the  Clearly Bataille  fulfils  r o l e o f a dean i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Trompette t o whom he  a t t e m p t s t o t e a c h t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f r e s i g n a t i o n , s t o i c i s m and p a t i e n c e w h i c h h i s a c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t and over whom he watches constantly,life  Aware o f T r o m p e t t e ' s i n a b i l i t y t o a d a p t h i m s e l f t o  i n t h e mine, B a t a i l l e c o n s t a n t l y t r i e s t o encourage h i s  f r i e n d w i t h h i s own l o v i n g and s y m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e .  I n d e e d the.--  day o f t h e c a v e - i n w h i c h k i l l s C h i c o t and maims J e a n l i n , the  w i s e " ' p h i l o s o p h e '"' p a s s e s Trompette i n t h e seam. 1  Le c h e v a l a v a i t r e c o n n u de l o i n , a u f l a i r , son camarade T r o m p e t t e , pour l e q u e l i l s ' e t a i t p r i s  Bataille,  d'une grande t e n d r e s s e , depuis l e .jour cut i l l ' a . v a i t vu debarquer dans l a f o s s e . On' a u r a i t d i t l a p i t i e a f f e c t u e u s e d'un v i e u x p h i l o s o p h e , d ( f s i r eux' de s o u l a g e r un .jeune ami, en l u i donnant sa r e s i g n a t i o n et sa joatience; car Trompette ne s'ac- . c l i m a t i s a i t pas, t i r a i t ses b e r l i n e s sans gout, r e s t a i t l a f e t e basse, aveugle de n u i t , avec l e c o n s t a n t r e g r e t du s o l e i l . A u s s i , chaque f o i s que B a t a i l l e l e r e n c o n t r a i t , a l l o n g e a i t - i l l a t e t e , s'ebrouant, l e m o u i l l a n t d'une c a r e s s e d'encouragement. (pp. 189-90) 7  F i n a l l y , when Trompette iere" the  (p. 419),  a f t e r never having been able t o adapt  himself•to  darkness of the p i t , B a t a i l l e g r i e v e s alone b e s i d e h i s  corpse. to  d i e s , " t o r t u r e " du r e g r e t de l a lum-  The n a r r a t o r remarks  on B a t a i l l e ' s attempts and  failure  i n d o c t r i n a t e h i s f r i e n d w i t h h i s p h i l o s o p h y , "•Vainement,  taille, lait  . . . l e f r o t t a i t amicalement  l e cou, pour l u i  Ba-  de ses Cotes, l u i m o r d i l -  donner un peu de sa r e s i g n a t i o n de ses d i x  annees de fond"' (p. 419)«  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n terms  of the com-  p l e x l i n k between human and animal e x i s t e n c e e s t a b l i s h e d by Z o l a ' s r e v e r s a l of t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s , Trompette  i s presented  throughout t h e . n o v e l as the p a t h e t i c v i c t i m of h i s c a p i t a l i s t society.  L i k e the m i n e r s , Trompette  i s i m p r i s o n e d and then  brought down f o r c i b l y by cage i n t o the h e l l i s h abyss where he, too,  i s doomed to' d i e as a r e s u l t of a l i f e  of e x h a u s t i n g Slav-,  ery  t o the c a p i t a l i s t  his  death becomes even more poignant i n terms of i t s p o s i t i o n  in  the n o v e l f o r c l e a r l y h i s death f o r e b o d e s the t r a g i c outcome  of  the c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the B e l g i a n m i n e r s .  opens, Trompette's  " d i e u repu e t a c c r o u p i " ( p . 1 1 ) .  Indeed  As the chapter  corpse i s b e i n g r a i s e d from the p i t , a t  which time the n a r r a t o r g i v e s a d e t a i l e d account of B a t a i l l e ' s  l o v i n g concern f o r and care of h i s f r i e n d from the b e g i n n i n g of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p u n t i l Trompette's  death.  Bataille's  love makes death the most c o m f o r t a b l e as p o s s i b l e f o r the pat h e t i c v i c t i m , Trompette.  In d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o t h i s  scene,  Z o l a p r e s e n t s the v i o l e n t , bloody b a t t l e between the Montsou miners and the B e l g i a n s , a c o n f l i c t which r e s u l t s i n the death of Mouquet, l a Mouq.uette, Maheu and Z a c h a r i e ' s two c h i l d r e n . C l e a r l y the death o f Trompette  foreshadows t h i s mass murder,  and moreover, u n l i k e Trompette, the miners have no one t o comf o r t them os they d i e .  T h i s d i c h o t o m y r e v e a l s once a g a i n the  v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on which the n o v e l i s s t r u c t u r e d .  As the  chapter c l o s e s , the n a r r a t o r pre sents a view o f the a f t e r m a t h of t r a g e d y i n which Trompette  stands out as the a r c h - v i c t i m  and which r e i n f o r c e s the ' c r u c i a l l i n k between the common destiny  o f both man and animal i n t h i s w o r l d : Les b l e s s e s h u r l a i e n t , l e s morts se r e f r ' o i d i s s a i e n t d a n s ^ l e s postures- C 3 s s e e s , boueux de l a boue l i q u i d e du. d e g e l , ca e t l a envastfs parmi l e s taches d'encre du charbon^ q u i r e p a r a i s s a i e n t sous l e s lambeaux s a i l s de l a n e i g e . E t , au m i l i e u de ces cadavres d"hommes, t o u t p e t i t s , l ' a i r pauvre avec l e u r m a i greur de m i s e r e , g i s a i t l e cadavre de Trompette, un • ' t a s de c h a i r morte, monstrueux e t l a m e n t a b l e , ( p . i-32)  .  I  The bond which u n i t e s the two horses i s t h e i r ' e t e r n a l dream o f r e t u r n i n g t o the E d e n i c garden o f the u n f a l l e n w o r l d , and i t i s thus s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Trompette whose v e r y presence Bataille  reminds  o f the home o f h i s y o u t h , i s c o n s t a n t l y d e s c r i b e d as  having f a l l e n  i n t o the underground h e l l o f the mine; "ce com-  pagnon q u i tombait a i n s i de l a t e r r e " ' ( p . 5 . 9 ) ? and " c e t ami. j_qui e s t tombe'd'en haut"" ( p . ^ 2 0 ) .  J u s t b e f o r e Trompette  dies,  Bataille  g e n t l y c a r e s s e s him  to ease h i s f r i e n d ' s  sorrow:  Ces c a r e s s e s r e d o u b l a i e n t sa m e l a n c o l i e , son p o l l f r 6 n i s s a i t j s o n s l e s c o n f i d e n c e s du camarade v i e i l l ! dans l e s t e n e b r e s ; et tons deux, chaque. f o i s q u ' i l s se r e n c o n t r a i e n t e t q u ' i l s s' ebrouaie'nt ensemble, a v a i e n t l ' a i r de se lamenter, l e v i e u x d'en e t r e a ne p l u s se s o u v e n i r , l e jeune de ne pouvoir o u b l i e r . A i ' e c u r i e , v o i s i n s de mangeoire, i].s v i v a i e n t l a t e t e basse, se s'oufflant aux naseaux, €changeant l e u r c o n t i n u e l reve du j o u r , des v i s i o n s d'herbes v e r t e s , de r o u t e s b l a n c h e s , de d a r t e r s jaunes, 3 1 ' i n f i n i o ' P u i s , quand Trompette, trempe* de sueur, a v a i t agonise', sur sa l i t i e r e , B a t a i l l e s ' e t a i t . m i s 8 l e f l a i r e r de'sesperement, avec des r e n i f l e m e n t s c o u r t s , p a r e i l s a" des s a n g l o t s . I I l e s e n t a i t de. v e n i r f r o i d , l a mine l u i p r e n a i t sa j o i e d e r n i e r e , cet ami tombe d'en haut, f r a i s de bonnes odeurs, qui l u i r a p p e l a i e n t sa jeunesse au p l e i n a i r , E t i l a v a i t casse" sa l o n g e , h e n n i s s a n t de peur, l o r s q u ' i l s ' e t a i t apercu cms 1 ' a u t r e ne remuait p l u s , (pp. 4 1 9 - 2 0 ) . s  s  A  Clearly  the death  of Trompette d e p r i v e s B a t a i l l e  hope of escape from  the h e l l i s h world  of h i s only  of the mine and h i s only  hope of r e t u r n i n g t o the e a r t h l y p a r a d i s e of h i s dreams'. t a i l l e ' s a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n i s thus based s h i p f o r indeed the new  Heaven and  only be a c h i e v e d as a r e s u l t  new  Ba--  on a human r e l a t i o n -  E a r t h of h i s dreams can  of e s t a b l i s h i n g a l o v i n g ,  compas-  sionate r e l a t i o n s h i p with a n o t h e r . i n d i v i d u a l . •During  the c a t a c l y s m i c c o l l a p s e of l e Voreux intended, t o  b r i n g about the Apocalypse,  B a t a i l l e runs, madly through  seams i n which he i s t r a p p e d s t i l l long-dreamed of garden,  seeking the l i g h t of h i s .  as the w a l l s crumble around him,  a l l a i t - i l ? l a - b a s p e u t - e t r e , a c e t t e v i s i o n de moulin  b'rulant en l ' a i r  v o u l a i t v i v r e , sa memoire de bete  comme une  "Ou  sa jeunesse,  ou i l e t a i t ne", sur l e bord de l a Scarpe,  confus du s o l e i l ,  the  au  au s o u v e n i r •.  grosse lampe,  II  s ' e v e i l l a i t , l ' e n v i e de r e s -  pirer  encore  l'air  des p l a i n e s l e p o u s s a i t d r o i t devant l u i ,  jusqu'a ce q u ' i l eut d e c o u v e r t l e t r o t , l a s o r t i e chaud, dans l a l u m i e r e " (pp. 493-94). for  the l i g h t ,  breath.  the r i s i n g  Indeed  tide  sous l e c i e l  As he v a i n l y  of the Deluge  searches  chokes h i s l a s t  t h i s scene r e - e s t a b l i s h e s the bond between men  and animal i n t h a t Z o l a c r e a t e s two almost p a r a l l e l scenes: . t h a t o f B a t a i l l e  and of C a t h e r i n e .  death  Both C a t h e r i n e and.  Bataille  d i e i m a g i n i n g the E d e n i c garden  o f t h e i r dream w o r l d :  Bataille  e n v i s i o n s the m i l l by the r i v e r  Scarpe, a world o f  beauty, l i g h t ,  .  growth and freedom, and C a t h e r i n e , d e l i r i o u s  w i t h f e v e r and a l s o trapped, deep i n the black' abyss, sees a g a i n for to  the l a s t time as the water c o n t i n u a l l y r i s e s , t h r e a t e n i n g e n g u l f h e r , the w o r l d i n t o which she longed t o escape.  desperate r a v i n g s , "Les bourdonnements de ses o r e i l l e s  In her  etaient  devenus des murmures d'eau c o u r a n t e , des chants d'oiseaux; e t elle  s e n t a i t un v i o l e n t parfum  clair,  de grandes  larges, qu'elle  d'herbes  ec'rasees, e t e l l e  taches jaunes v o l a i e n t devant  voyait  ses yeux, s i  se c r o y a i t dehors, pres du c a n a l , dans l e s h i e s ,  par une journee de beau s o l e i l "  ( p . 509).  Moreover both  Bataille  and C a t h e r i n e are d e s c r i b e d - a s h a v i n g " l e s yeux de c h a t C t e ) " (p.  58 and p. 4 6 ) .  C l e a r l y , once again Z o l a i n s i s t s t h a t man  and animal share the same, d e s t i n y : h e l l i s h abyss  both d i e deep down i n the  of l e ''Voreux, the only d i f f e r e n c e b e i n g t h a t  C a t h e r i n e narrowly escapes  drowning  i n the r i s i n g  tide  o f the  flood, w a t e r s . Indeed  the metaphors o f l i g h t and tempest  used t o d e s c r i b e  B a t a i l l e , h i s f u n c t i o n i n the mine and the q u a l i t i e s p h i l o s o p h y he r e p r e s e n t s a l s o suggest on the anagogic  o f the level  t h a t he symbolizes the white, and pale horses of the b i b l i c a l , Apocalypse.  o  6  In R e v e l a t i o n 6 : 8 , S a i n t John  describes the-pale  horse whose name i s Death and whom H e l l , f o l l o w s . s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t twice i n the n o v e l B a t a i l l e  Thus i t i s  i s required to  p u l l the f u n e r a l c o r t e g e of a f e l l o w - w o r k e r out o f the h e l l i s h abyss o f - t h e miner f i r s t the body o f C h i c o t who was k i l l e d i n the c a v e - i n which c r i p p l e d J e a n l i n , ' and s e c o n d l y , the corpse o f his  b e l o v e d companion, Trompette.  Moreover, B a t a i l l e r e p r e s e n t s  above a l l the white horse o f the Apocalypse  described f i r s t i n  7 Revelation 6 : 2  as being a r i d e r wearing  bow as he goes o f f t o conquer,  a crown, c a r r y i n g a  and i n R e v e l a t i o n  1 9 : 1 1 - 1 6  in  which a white horse b u r s t s f o r t h from the open heaven, the horse whose name i s F a i t h f u l and T r u e , who embodies the Word o f o  God  and whose name i s KING OF KINGS, LORD OF LORDS .  osophy which B a t a i l l e to  The p h i l -  expounds embodies God's Great Commandment  l o v e one's neighbor i n t h a t he urges h i s f o l l o w e r s t o remain  f a i t h f u l and t r u e through a s p i r i t  o f r e s i g n a t i o n and p a t i e n c e ;  the E d e n i c w o r l d i s f a r o f f i n the past and cannot be r e c a p tured i n this l i f e The  except" vicarious3.y.  C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e o f c a r i t a s or b r o t h e r l y l o v e and the  p h i l o s o p h y o f r e s i g n a t i o n , s t o i c i s m and p a t i e n c e which B a t a i l l e r e p r e s e n t s throughout  the n o v e l i s u l t i m a t e l y  the only v i a b l e  p h i l o s o p h y proposed.  Both. E t i e n n e and Souvarine  aspire to create  a new Heaven and a new E a r t h but t h e i r p h i l o s o p h y i s , i n i t s  f i n a l analysis, to  s e l f i s h and d e s t r u c t i v e whereas B a t a i l l e  c r e a t e a b e t t e r .world n o t by changing  society  i t s e l f but by  changing t h e . a t t i t u d e s o f the people who i n h a b i t i t . each a p o c a l y p t i c dream f a i l s  varine  sabotages  i n the d e s t r u c t i o n o f e i t h e r  In h i s attempt  t o a n n i h i l a t e the w o r l d , Sou-  the mine and consequently k i l l s many o f h i s  fellow-workers. him t o provoke  Although  t o m a t e r i a l i z e , only B a t a i l l e ' s  thwarted quest does not r e s u l t people or p l a c e s .  seeks  E t i e n n e " s quest f o r a new, j u s t s o c i e t y l e a d s a s t r i k e which u l t i m a t e l y k i l l s many of h i s '  f r i e n d s as the r e s u l t o f p o v e r t y m a n i f e s t e d i n c o l d and s t a r v a tion.  The p h i l o s o p h y , i n h e r e n t i n B a t a i l l e ' s example on the  other hand, embodies the s e l f l e s s C h r i s t i a n concept o f b r o t h e r l y , l o v e , of acceptance  of one's f a l l e n w o r l d and the need t o e x i s t  peacefully within i t s l i m i t s .  Although B a t a i l l e  cannot  prevent  p o v e r t y and i t s r e l a t e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , he can by l o v i n g and having compassion living  f o r h i s fellow-man  at least  ease  the misery o f  i n a p o s t - l a p s a r i a n u n i v e r s e f o r c l e a r l y , - h i s own w o r l d ,  the underground  barn, i s by f a r the most E d e n i c environment t o  which the working  c l a s s can a s p i r e .  In h i s home there i s r e s t ,  p l e n t y , l o v e , c a r e , c l e a n l i n e s s and f r e s h a i r and odors-. W i l l i a m Blake a p t l y s t a t e s as one o f the Proverbs of H e l l i n  9 The Marriage  of Heaven and H e l l  t h a t "The t y g e r s o f wrath are  w i s e r than-the horses o f i n s t r u c t i o n . "  Significantly,  i n terms  of  G e r m i n a l , h i s proverb suggests t h a t people l e a r n as a r e s u l t  of  bitter  e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r from the wise  human b e i n g s .  Indeed  advice of t h e i r  fellow  "the t y g e r s o f wrath", E t i e n n e and S o u v a r i n e ,  cause v a s t s u f f e r i n g through  the .pain of p o v e r t y ,  cold, starva-  t i o n and p h y s i c a l i n j u r y , hut i t i s only as the r e s u l t of t h e i r s u f f e r i n g t h a t the miners r e a l i z e p h i l o s o p h y which B a t a i l l e , resents-.  the g e n t l e horse  of i n s t r u c t i o n ,  rep-  At the end of t h e " n o v e l when the d e f e a t e d miners r e -  turn to their really  the wisdom i n h e r e n t i n the  jobs i n the p i t s , they .recognize t h a t n o t h i n g has  changed as the r e s u l t o f t h e i r  s t r i k e ; there w i l l  he f u t u r e r e v o l t s , s t r i k e s and f a i r y t a l e  indeed  dreams o f a new  society,  hut they must w a i t f o r the slow c r e a t i o n of a new. w o r l d ,  and i n .  the meantime r e s i g n themselves t o t h e i r f a l l e n Indeed B l a k e ' s ."Proverb B a t a i l l e , the wise horse  existence.  of H e l l " ' i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t .  of i n s t r u c t i o n ,  i s always a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h the wise o l d men, Bonnemort and Mouque who,  throughout  n o v e l , r e p r e s e n t the- unchanging e v o l u t i o n a r y q u a l i t y s o c i a l world. in  T r a i n e d by many l o n g , p a i n f u l y e a r s  the mine t o submit t o the r u l i n g b o u r g e o i s  two o l d men tory.  embody the t r a d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s  of t h e i r  of experience  authorities,  of t h e i r r a c i a l  Indeed i t i s Bonnemort who t e l l s E t i e n n e  the  of h i s own  these hisfifty  y e a r s of s e r v i c e i n l e vVoreux and of h i s f a m i l y ' s accumulated " c e n t s i x ans d'abattage,  l e s mioches apres l e s vieux"'-(p. 9 ) .  U n l i k e . t h e younger, r e v o l u t i o n a r y men, Bonnemort and Mouque h o l d no i l l u s i o n s their does. old  of changing  s o c i e t y o v e r n i g h t i n t o the U t o p i a o f  dreams, but r a t h e r they  a c c e p t t h e i r d e s t i n y as B a t a i l l e  The r e l a t i o n s h i p e s t a b l i s h e d between the horses  and the  men r e v e a l s one more l i n k Z o l a has f o r g e d between animal and  human c r e a t i o n s .  Indeed B a t a i l l e  first  appears a l o n g s i d e  Bonne-  mort who,." » . . 'comme son c h e v a l q u i demeurait immohile sur A  les.pieds, il  sans p a r a i t r e  n'avait l ' a i r  souffrir  du v e n t , 1 1 s e m b l a i t en p i e r r e ,  de se-douter n i du f r o i d n i des bourrasques s i f -  f l a n t a ses o r e i l l e s "  ( p . 7 ) . Both the wise horse and the wise  o l d man have hardened  themselves a g a i n s t the blows i s s u e d them  by the r e a l i t y  i n which they must e x i s t .  Mouque and B a t a i l l e shaft.  A t the end of the n o v e l ,  are t r a p p e d t o g e t h e r i n the c o l l a p s i n g m i n e /  L a t e r as Mouque g e n t l y , a l t h o u g h w i t h g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y , '  l e a d s the f r i g h t e n e d horse onward through the crumbling g a l l e r i e s , ' they are p r e s e n t e d i n e q u a l terms, "Le pere Mouque, q u i . a v a i t ramene* B a t a i l l e , /  sans h a t e , l e t e n a i t encore par l a b r i d e , /  tous  A  l e s deux s t u p e f i e s , l e v i e u x e t - l a b e t e , devant l a hausse r a p i d e de 1 ' i n o n d a t i o n " ( p . k6k).  Indeed once a g a i n both man and animal  f a c e the same d e s t i n y and both d i e from the i d e n t i c a l Throughout  causes.  Germinal, the complex anagogic or u n i v e r s a l  l e v e l of symbolic meaning i s made.manifest i n an a n a l y s i s o f the. C h r i s t i a n a r c h e t y p e s which.form the m i n e r s ' s t r i k e  the b a s i s of. the n o v e l .  i n search o f s o c i a l j u s t i c e ,  w i t h i n the framework o f the u n i v e r s a l ' symbolism  Reality,  i s contained i n the n o v e l .  C l e a r l y the b a s i c C h r i s t i a n p a t t e r n i n G e r m i n a l . i s t h a t o f t h e Creation, Battle  o f Armageddon and. Apocalypse  a l s o the s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n o f the B i b l e . s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n are other r e l a t e d  c y c l e which i s  Within t h i s  large  p a t t e r n s , the " a r r i v a l and  quest of the M e s s i a h f i g u r e , the c y c l e  of human l i f e  from'birth  t o death, the search f o r the l o s t E d e n i c garden and escape the w a s t e l a n d .  Moreover,  from  as i n the B i b l e where the d i d a c t i c  p a r a b l e s f r e q u e n t l y center around animals, wisdom or the only viable.answer represented  by  the wise horse  i n Germinal  i s embodied i n the  of i n s t r u c t i o n ,  true  philosophy  Bataille.  Notes:  Northrop  1968).  2..  F r y e * Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m  (New Y o r k s  —  John M i l t o n - P a r a d i s e Lost? e d M e r r i t t O d y s s e y P r e s s , - 1 9 6 ^ J , B o o k I , 1, 6 0 . ?  Q  Atheneum,  Yo H u g h e s (New Y o r k s  3N o r t h r o p : F r y e , Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m  5. 6.  M a t t h e w 22s- 3 9 , John  Milton,  "Thou s h a l t  0  l o v e t h y neighbour  P a r a d i s e L o s t , Book I  -~  9  11,  as  thyself,"  2'5+-55* l  R e v e l a t i o n 6: 8 , " , . behold a pale horses a n d h i s name t h a t s a t u p o n h i m was D e a t h , a n d H e l l f o l l o w e d w i t h h i m , " a  7o  . R e v e l a t i o n 6s- 2 ", , , b e h o l d a w h i t e h o r s e s a n d he s a t on h i m h a d a box^s, a n d a c r o w n was g i v e n u n t o hims he went f o r t h c o n q u e r i n g a n d t o c o n q u e r . " 9  that and  R e v e l a t i o n 19s 1 1 - 1 6 "AUd I saw h e a v e n o p e n e d , a n d b e h o l d a w h i t e h o r s e ; a n d he t h a t s a t on h i m was c a l l e d F a i t h f u l a n d T r u e , a n d i n r i g h t eousness- d o t h j u d g e a n d make w a r , • H i s e y e s were, a s f l a m e s o f f i r e , - , a n d on h i s h e a d were many crowns-; n d he h a d a name w r i t t e n , t h a t no man knew, b u t he h i m s e l f . And he was c l o t h e d ' w i t h a v e s t u r e d i p p e d i n b l o o d s and h i s name i s c a l l e d The .Word o f God,, And t h e a r m i e s - w h i c h were i n h e a v e n f o l l o w e d him:;upDn w h i t e h o r s e s , clou"hed i n f i n e l i n e n , w h i t e a n d c l e a n . And o u t o f h i s - m o u t h g o e t h a s h a r p s w o r d , t h a t i n i t h e • s h o u l d smite t h e n a t i o n s t a n d he s h a l l r u l e t h e m w i t h a a r o d o f irons a n d he t r e a d e t h t h e w i n e p r e s s of t h e f i e r c e n e s s a n d wraith o f A l m i g h t y God . And he h a t h o n h i s v e s t u r e a n d o n h i s t h i g h a name w r i t t e n , KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS."' 9  3  Q  CONCLUSION  C l e a r l y , Germinal historical, Zola has  i s indeed.a  work o f a r t and not j u s t  s o c i o l o g i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l document i n which  p r e s e n t s a s e r i e s o f accumulated suggested,  facts.  As Northrop  1  In order f o r us t o know the nature  a r t i s t must f i r s t presses i t .  Frye  a r t b e g i n s w i t h the w o r l d the a r t i s t has c o n s t r u c t -  ed w i t h i n h i s i m a g i n a t i o n and not w i t h the w o r l d as we see i t , " "  an  t r a n s f o r m experience  literally  of r e a l i t y ,  the  i n t o a metaphor which  ex-  A r t does not r e j e c t f a c t s e n t i r e l y , but i t t r a n s -  forms them i n t o n a  i l l u s i o n through which we  discover t r u t h .  Because i n a r t r e a l i t y i s i n the form o f metaphor, r e a l i t y e a s i e r f o r us t o a c c e p t ,  becomes  Moreover, a r t i s the p r o d u c t o f the  a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n ; t h u s , we  as- o b s e r v e r s , must a l s o  e x e r c i s e and i n v o l v e our i m a g i n a t i o n s i n order t o i n t e r p r e t i t and attempt  t o understand  i t as c o m p l e t e l y as p o s s i b l e .  i n g t o Blake we must see not j u s t w i t h our l i t e r a l ,  physical  eyes which p e r c e i v e o n l y f a c t u a l data but a l s o through p e r c e p t i v e eye o f our i m a g i n a t i o n . and  In Germinal  Accord-  the more  Z o l a ' s more deep  s u b t l e i m p l i c a t i o n s are woven i n t o the u n d e r l y i n g t h e m a t i c  and  s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s on which the n o v e l i s based and thus remain hidden b e h i n d the complex mask o f symbolism.  By r e s t r i c t i n g  one's  approach t o the n o v e l t o the s u r f a c e meanings and e v e n t s , hence to the h i s t o r i c a l ,  s o c i o l o g i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l f a c t s , one  l o o k s the more profound  over-  i m p l i c a t i o n s which are i n h e r e n t i n the  n o v e l i n s o f a r - a s i t i s a minified, t o t a l work o f a r t . In terms o f the c o n f l i c t between a r t and r e a l i t y  or between  i m a g i n a t i o n or i l l u s i o n and f a c t , Z o l a s c h o l a r s h i p has tended  to  center  p r i m a r i l y on the r e a l i s t i c ,  fiction.  As  a r e s u l t - s e v e r a l c r i t i c s who  example, the  ial  Zola's  of p r e c i s e  t h a t he m o d e l l e d the  nearby c o a l mine, t h a t the  a  elements o f r e a l i s t i c and  researched  use  f a c t that experienced l i f e  w r i t i n g the n o v e l , strike i n  Zola's earlier  documentation;,  i n the mine  novel novel  before  on a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t a i n s .the  naturalistic fiction,  essent-  that  Zola  h i s s u b j e c t t h o r o u g h l y by r e f e r r i n g t o s p e c i f i c  t r a c t s w r i t t e n a t t h a t time and the m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , and  such as E.M,  t h a t Z o l a was  creative imagination g a t h e r e d and  G r a n t and  a "dramaturge manque"  I-M,  novel.  that  On  many, c r i t i c s of- t h i s k i n d , w h i l e p u r s u i n g  the  the  other  to who  studies, Zola's  f a c t u a l data which  i n t o a novel.  h i s t o r i c a l , b i o g r a p h i c a l and  In these  Frandon i n s i s t  i s c o n t r o l l e d by the  then o r g a n i z e d  social  d e a l i n g w i t h problems r e l a t i n g  used d r a m a t i c t e c h n i q u e s throughout the critics  were quoted  3  discuss- a t g r e a t l e n g t h s for  f a c t u a l q u a l i t i e s of  he  hand,  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  the  s o c i o l o g i c a l i s s u e s , a l s o make i s o -  l a t e d s t i m u l a t i n g comments', which suggest t h e m a t i c or s t r u c t u r a l . u n i t y , but because they do not develop these p o i n t s , the v a l u e their  comments i s l i m i t e d . In d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to t h i s  "new  of  criticism": is.concerned  t i o n or i l l u s i o n and which i s the  s t y l e o f c r i t i c i s m , the  with l i t e r a t u r e  as. an a r t i s t i c  as a c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d  p r o d u c t o f the  so-called  total  crea-  structure  a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v e mind r a t h e r  than h i s  f a c t u a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l mind, . Indeed, i n a . l e t t e r to h i s f r i e n d Henry Ceard dated, j u s t p r i o r to the Zola  i n s i s t s t h a t a l t h o u g h the  f a c t s are not an  end  novel  first has  p u b l i c a t i o n of, Germinal., a strong  factual basis  i n themselves but merely a means to an  end  ,  which he d e f i n e s as symbolism: , , , je, men,s pour mon compte dans l e sens de l a v e r i t e . J ' a i 1 ' h y p e r t r o p h i e du d e t a i l v r a i , l e saut dans l e s e'toiles sur l e tr,emp l i n de 1 ' o b s e r v a t i o n e x a c t e . La v e r i t e monte d'un coup d ' a i l e jusqu'au symbole,"" 0  Thus h i s n o v e l extends beyond the world o f r e a l i t y i n t o the Moreover, e a r l i e r i n  realm o f the imagination,, " l e s e t o i l e s  h i s c a r e e r , Z o l a d e f i n e d a work o f a r t as "' ,  ,',LetantJ  realite  Cette t r a n s p o s i t i o n  transposee  par une v i s i o n d ' a r t i s t e ,  la  d e v a i t e t r e fondee sur l a r a i s o n e t l a v e r i t e ; e l l e d e v a i t ' e t r e ' s u r t o u t procedee d'un p u i s s a n t temperament de c r e a t e u r , " C l e a r l y then, a r t a c c o r d i n g t o Z o l a i s f c t s molded by the shapp  i n g hand o f the i m a g i n a t i o n .  C r i t i c s such as Walker, Howe,  W i l s o n , Davoihe and G i r a r d who s u b s c r i b e t o the new c r i t i c a l t h e o r i e s focus t h e i r  s t u d i e s on t h e . s y m b o l i c  which Z o l a c l a i m s t o h a v e - i m p l i e d . thematic  l e v e l o f meaning  Thus they c o n c e n t r a t e  on the  and s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s they find" i n h e r e n t i n the r e c u r -  r e n t imagery and s p e c i f i c a r c h e t y p e s  o f r e l i g i o n and mythology.  T h i s a n a l y s i s has attempted t o r e v e a l the s t r u c t u r a l and thematic  u n i t y o f Germinal  i n terms o f the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e  which i s a t the v e r y core o f the novel'.  C l e a r l y , as one reads  the n o v e l , one i s c o n s t a n t l y aware o f the demonic n d d i v i n e a  p o l e s which are p r e s e n t i n n e a r l y every a s p e c t o f the n o v e l . terms o f the thematic  In  p a t t e r n s , the g e n e r a l theme o f s e x u a l r e -  l a t i o n s h i p s embodies the two v e r t i c a l p o l e s o f Heaven and H e l l i n t h a t both p o s i t v e and n e g a t i v e  sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t w i t h i n  the n o v e l and e x i s t on both l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y .  The o n l y two  i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which can he are the G r e g o i r e and Haheu m a r r i a g e s r a t h e r than or l u s t .  The  negative  i n t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned  termed p o s i t v e or d i v i n e which ore founded on l o v e  s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are demonic seek s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n  l u s t r a t h e r than seek l o v e which i s u n s e l f i s h .  The  sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i v i d e i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s :  through  negative the theme o f  a d u l t e r y i n t o which f a l l  the a f f a i r s o f l a P i e r r o n n e  l a Levaque and  and Madame Hennebeau and I'egrel; the  Bouteloup  theme of c a s t r a t i o n which Z o l a p r e s e n t s l i t e r a l l y c a l l y i n terms o f M a i g r a t  and  and  and  metaphori-  the mine, l e •Vorcux, and  finally,  the theme o f the v i r g i n which o c c u r s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l and which i n Germinal who  i s thwarted  by the f a c t t h a t she  l a b y r i n t h i n e and d e c a y i n g preys upon h e r .  The  Gothic  r e c u r s i n terms o f the young v i r g i n  i s both i n l o v e w i t h and l o v e d by a young man  happiness  Dansocrt,  but whose  i s trapped i n a  c a s t l e i n which a demonic male  dark,  figure  theme o f the v i r g i n i s i m p l i e d i n the  Cecile,  N e g r e l and Bonnemort r e l a t i o n s h i p and i s e x p l i c i t i n the L y d i e , . J e a n l i n and Bebert r e l a t i o n s h i p and Chaval  the C a t h e r i n e , E t i e n n e  and  relationship.  The  v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e a l s o c e n t e r s on the  p a t t e r n s c r e a t e d by the i n t i c a t e  l i n k between the f o u r  the f o u r n a r r a t i v e p a t t e r n s and the one n o v e l whichtogether  structural  year time  seasons,  l a p s e o f the  c h r o n i c l e E t i e n n e " s p r o g r e s s i o n towards a  s t a t e o f moral m a t u r i t y .  In terms o f F r y e ' s d e f i n i t i o n s  inythos o f s p r i n g , comedy, embodies the themes o f marriage s o c i e t y , and, Germinal  i n g e n e r a l , the theme o f i n t e g r a t i o n .  , the and  As comedy then,  r e p r e s e n t s a movement towards the c r e a t i o n o f a  new  s o c i e t y which w i l l  form  this  the  cose  however,  around  the  comic hero  "bride i s n o t  and  a literal  h i s "bride.  b r i d e , but  In  the  A  symbolic  bride of Etienne's  the  end  o f the  and  which  n o v e l as  i s presented  "reve  the  hope f o r a b e t t e r  Archetypal tragedy,  hero's  fall  from  as  result  the w o r l d  pride which and a  to  causes  when he  leader.  tragic  society.  him  seek o n l y the  social  his  from  to forget  The  the  i s indeed  world  the  plight  reject  pair-.of n a r r a t i v e  failure subse-  starving  his  and  f e a r s meeting  him.  p a t t e r n s i s composed  Romance i s t h e w o r l d  w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t , and  hero  the  past.  achieved  quests  nostalgically  Clearly, i n the  a mere f a i r y - t a l e impinges Arthurian  fall  f u t u r e i s the  i l l u s i o n which  upon i t * E t i e n n e ' s  success, the  change w h e r e b y t h e y o u n g  quixotic  i s also  birth  similar  o f the  over  age  society  the  of  to  be  dream,  reality  t o the  medieval  Germinal  hero,  theme o f d r a g o n - k i l l i n g  generation takes  i n romance,  impossible  t h e myth o f A r t h u r ,  around the m y s t e r i o u s  from  just  of  irony.  golden  c r u m b l e s t h e moment  quest  romance i n t h a t l i k e  constructed and  i n search of a l o s t  E t i e n n e ' s dream o f a new,  immediate  miners  society  the mythos o f W i n t e r ,  o f dreams and  and  o f p o p u l a r i t y as  from  of R e q u i l l a r t  of  t h e m y t h o s o f Summer, r o m a n c e , and  the  world  flaw i s his  o f the  experiences  at  r e v e a l s the  hero's  tragic  isolated  f r i e n d s whom e x p e c t s w i l l  other v e r t i c a l  the  f l a w and  self-gratifying  Etienne  into  Etienne's  h i d e s i n the b l a c k abyss  former  i n this  F r y e ' s mythos o f F a l l ,  of success  of a s p e c i f i c  quent a l i e n a t i o n  life  i n terms o f images o f growth, b i r t h  fertility.  the  s o c i a l " which i s presented  is  his rise  and  of  power  to  social from  tho  oldo  Moreover,  which  forms  life  i n Germinal the c y c l i c a l  the time  from b i r t h  pattern state  scheme o f t h e n o v e l a n d  t o d e a t h and  o f i g n o r a n c e or i n n o c e n c e i n t o At t h i s  defeat  thus f o r c e  Shadow o f D e a t h ready  point  The  other basic  Armageddon and  arise  the  detail,  city  f i g u r e s who to  attain  and  their  give  Battle  birth  definitely his  goal,  in  about  on w h i c h  As we  social  o f which  one.  Indeed  his personal-  the n o v e l i s  order,-  reveals.  will seen i n  However, i n o r d e r to  violence about  the o l d s o c i e t y  a  and  S o u v a r i n e and E t i e n n e a r e the as a M e s s i a h f i g u r e i s  o f Love  because  to  realize  h i s fellow-man.  His  be-  i s what t r i u m p h s a s h i s ! r e l a t i o n -  As t h e w h i t e  embodies t h e o n l y v i a b l e  Battle  Messiah  t h e y hope t o b r i n g  must o n l y l o v e love  the  have a l r e a d y  a l lrepresent  o f Wrath, whereas B a t a i l l e  or b r o t h e r l y  ex-  end.  o f Armageddon t o a n n i h i l a t e  t h i s w o r l d , , and To  Jerusalem,  as a r e s u l t  s h i p w i t h Trompette Bataille  pattern  t h e d e s c e n d a n t o f t h e God  in caritas  bring  S o u v a r i n e and E t i e n n e r e s o r t  a p o c a l y p t i c w o r l d one  lief  o f knowledge or  c y c l i c a l myth o f t h e C r e a t i o n ,  a new  basic  emerges p u r g e d o f h i s p r i d e ,  S o u v a r i n e and B a t a i l l e  t o a new  s o n s o f t h e God  i s the  the Apocalypse from the dust o f which  wish to create  destruction  symbolic  :  later  structural  o f t h e New  Etienne,  he  o f human  symbolic "Valley o f the  t o a more p r a c t i c a l  founded i s the C h r i s t i a n of  to enter'a  from which  to put h i s ideas  a state  his selfish.ideas  him  cycle  seasons  w h e r e b y he moves f r o m a  1  perience.  the  o f the  subsequently to r e b i r t h  o f E t i e n n e s m o r a l development  and  pattern  horse o f the  Apocalypse,  philosophy for a better  i t i s indeed a philosophy of  c o n c l u d e , ^ V i r g i n i a W o o l f makes' a  life  love.  significant  comment i n  her  n o v e l To  The  Lighthouse  f a c i n g most Z o l a c r i t i c s : ' tion  or o f r e a l i t y  forces with  two  the  both  or  artist,  to imagine.  illusion.  o f whom a r e  W o o l f as  o p p o s e Mr*  the  side  the  q u e s t i o n o f going t o the L i g h t h o u s e , whatever  as  th6  i t is a  Throughout  symbol*  n a r r a t o r and  Wear t h e  and the  end  d e s c r i b e s the  who  o f the  create  h i s son  Jamess  represent  central that  issue  i s  i s f&r  n o v e l , Woolf  opposing  joins  L i l y Briscoe,  consequently  n o v e l , the  two  narrator  Ramsay a n d  are  of reality.  to imagine  imagina-  capacity to  who  indeed  unable  the  the  problem  versus  Ramsay a n d  0  endowed w i t h  they  the  question of facts  characters, Mrs  Together  totally  the  versus  o f her  w h i c h n e a t l y sums up  points of  speaks view:  The L i g h t h o u s e was t h e n a s i l v e r y , m i s t y - l o o k i n g t o w e r w i t h a. y e l l o w eye t h a t o p e n e d s u d d e n l y and s o f t l y i n the evening* Now James l o o k e d a t t h e L i g h t h o u s e . He c o u l d see the w h i t e - w a s h e d r o c k s ; the t o w e r , s t a r k n d s t r a i g h t 5 he c o u l d s e e t h a t i t w s barred with b l a c k a n d w h i t e ; he c o u l d see windows i n i t : he c o u l d e v e n see w a s h i n g s p r e a d on t h e r o c k s zo dry. So t h a t was t h e L i g h t h o u s e was i t ? No, t h e o t h e r was a l s o t h e L i g h t h o u s e * . For n o t h i n g i s e v e r j u s t one t h i n g . The o t h e r was the Lighthouse too* a  a  Clearly, Woolf, one In  James  the  artist  sees w i t h the  the  the  Lighthouse  and  presents*  On  the  same t h i n g  eye,  the  other  i t i s an  structed*-  i n the  other  artistic  work o f a r t w h i c h inherent  can  sociological the  in factual  sees  same v e i n , ; G e r m i n a l  historical  facts,"  sees  i n a very  through  the  approached  eye as  i s more  as a  thematic  and  p e r s p e c t i v e on w h i c h  Blake  believes.  a  facts a  Zola  series  of  symbolic  structural the  way;  biographical,  than  a d a p t a t i o n o f them i n t o the  whereas  different  document i n t e r m s o f t h e  hand, Germinal  c e n t e r s on  vertical  be  terms o n l y ,  patterns  novel i s  con-  Notes.  2. 3»-  N o r t h r o p F r y e , The_ Educated, imagination, ( T o r o n t o : Hunter Rose Company, 19t>3)? PP» 5-6". Philip D PMLA. 77  9  Walker. 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M.Ho Abrams, e"t" V l 7 v o l . 2'*. New Y o r k : W0W0 N o r t o n and Company I n c * , 19*6"BV y  Brown C a l v i n S* R e p e t i t i o n i n Zola's. N o v e l s . U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a Press,. 1*957. ?  ?  Athens*  B u r n s , C o l i n * "Documentation e t i m a g i n a t i o n chez E m i l e Z o l a , " C a h i e r s n a t u r a l i s t e s , 24-25 ( 1 9 6 3 ) 69-78* s  D a v o i n e , J e a n - P i e r r e * , "Metaphores a n i m a l e s dans G e r m i n a l , " Etudes f r a n c a i s e s , 4 (1968), 383-92* Doucet, F* L ' E s t h e t i q u e de Zola, e t son a p p l i c a t i o n a. l a , critique Den Haag:: De N e d e r l a n d s c h e boek-en s t e e n d r u k k e r i j , 1923* 0  Duncan, P h i l l i p A* " Z o l a s M a c h i n e - M o n s t e r s " " Romance, N o t e s . 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