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The vertical perspective in germinal : an analysis of thematic and structural patterns Leaney, Diana June 1971

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THE VERTICAL PERSPECTIVE IN GERMINAL: AN ANALYSIS OF THEMATIC AND STRUCTURAL PATTERNS by DIANA JUNE LEANEY B.A., University of British Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of FRENCH We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s thes,is f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date <^JL^l^bUl .SLQ ? (^/ ABSTRACT In view of the fact that very l i t t l e of the tot a l body of Zola scholarship concerning Germinal can be classed as "new" criticism and that u n t i l recent years, most studies of the novel have stressed the h i s t o r i c a l , biographical and sociologi-cal issues which are central to the plot, this analysis w i l l attempt to analyze in terms of the ve r t i c a l perspective the thematic and structural patterns which form the basis of Germ-i n a l . Indeed Zola insists in his letters that we read Germinal as a symbolic structure and not Just as the mere reproduction of facts or r e a l i t y in that he claims facts function as a springboard from which his creative imagination takes a leap towards the higher, more complex level of symbolic meaning. Thus, i f Zola i s creating a work of art, as he insists he i s , and i f art by definition i s the product of the creative imag-ination, i t i s then essential to read Germinal as such and , thus to employ one's own imagination in order to examine the complex structure the a r t i s t has produced. Clearly, to res-t r i c t one's vision of the novel to the surface events and i s -sues i s to pass over the more subtle and exciting aspects of the novel which remain hidden in the intricacy of i t s symbolic structure. Zola's use of symboli'Sm becomes apparent by analyzing the v e r t i c a l perspective revealed in the thematic and structural patterns around which the plot i s woven and hence which are cen-t r a l to the novel as a unified, t o t a l work of art. As a d e f i n i -tion of v e r t i c a l perspective, I am using Northrop Frye's con-cept that in a l l great works of literature, the a r t i s t presents two t o t a l l y opposite visions of human existence: one inferior and one superior to our own which together form the demonic and divine poles respectively and which thus correspond to the ver-t i c a l poles of Heaven and Hell in re l i g i o n . In Germinal, the analysis of thematic patterns w i l l focus on the general theme of sexual relations which i s presented in terms of the demonic and divine perspective. The least complex sexual relationships are those which represent the divine pole; for example, the Gregoire and the MahSu marriages. The negative or demonic sex-ual relationships are divided into three sub-themes: the theme of adultery, the theme of castration and the theme of the virgin which i s central to the 'Gothic tradition in li t e r a t u r e . The structural patterns center on what Frye calls the moral and anagogic levels of meaning. The f i r s t pattern involves the intricate link Frye makes between the four narrative forms of comedy, tragedy, romance and irony, the four seasons which he associates with the forms and the one year time span of Germinal. Together, these three factors chronicle Etienne's progression to-wards moral maturity. Secondly, the anagogic structure presents in symbolic terms a vision of man's destiny as he struggles to maintain an existence between the demonic and divine poles of his society which correspond to the Heaven and Hell of tradition-a l Christian doctrine. Moreover, on the anagogic l e v e l , Germinal • embodies the Christian archetypes of the Creation, the Battle of Armageddon and the Apocalypse in terms of the social rebel li o n which Zola portrays. THE -VERTICAL PERSPECTIVE IN GERMINAL: AN ANALYSIS OF THEMATIC AND STRUCTURAL PATTERNS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I: A Resume o f Past C r i t i c i s m . . . 1 Notes to.Chapter 1 16 Chapter I I : Thematic P a t t e r n s 18 Notes t o Chapter I I 68 Chapter I I I : N a r r a t i v e P a t t e r n s 69 Notes t o Chapter I I I . . 91 Chapter IV: Anagogic P a t t e r n s 92' Notes t o Chapter IV ... 131 Chapter 'V: C o n c l u s i o n 132 B i b l i o g r a p h y 1^ 0 A RESUME OF PAST: CRITICISM Although Germinal has received a great amount of c r i t i c a l attention, the t o t a l "body of criticism remains somewhat unsat-isfactory for a novel which undoubtedly i s one of the most pop-ular in Zola's Rougon-Macquart series. For the most part and particularly u n t i l recent years, Zola scholarship has focussed primarily on Zola's precise documentation of social history and consequently on his qualities as a r e a l i s t i c and natural-i s t i c writer, as well as on his biography and on his known art-i s t i c intentions. Indeed the studies of Frandon, Lukacs, Bern-ard, Raimond and Grant, to mention only a few, provide interest-ing and useful background material v i t a l to any l i t e r a r y study, but as c r i t i c a l analyses of the novel, they f a i l to illuminate in any depth the structural, thematic and archetypal patterns which unify the novel and thus constitute i t s being a coherent or t o t a l work of art. In such studies the movement i s away from the novel per se and outwards, into a larger, and hence more general, sphere of interest. U n t i l the recent shift to "new" criticism, Zola's-use of precise documentation has been a major topic of discussion for many of his c r i t i c s . For example, in her study of Germinal, 1 Ida-Marie Frandon discusses at length the relevance and s i g n i f -icance of the particular social tracts which she and many other c r i t i c s believe to be the authoritative basis of Germinal; Sans f a m i l l e . La iVie s o u t e r r a i n e , Le G r i s o u , La S c i e n c e econo-mjque, Le B a s s l n ftoulller de 'Valenciennes and M a l a d i e s , a c c i -dents e t d i f f o r m i t e s des h o u i l l e u r s . In each o f these s t u d i e s , the f o c u s i s on contemporary s o c i a l problems and, more s p e c i f -i c a l l y , on problems r e l a t i n g d i r e c t l y t o the mining i n d u s t r y . A c c o r d i n g t o Frandon, " Z o l a soumet son e s p r i t a l ' i n f o r m a t i o n . q u ' i l r e c e u i l l e , seulement, l a ou d»autres . . . ont c r u pou-v o i r degager une l o i , t o u t au moins une c o n t e s t a t i o n g e n e r a l e , c ' e s t - a - d i r e une formula a b s t r a i t e . . . Z o l a v o i t l e groupe, l ' i n d i v i d u , l e g e s t e , 1 ' a t t i t u d e , l e s entiment, l a r a i s o n d'une i n t r i g u e , l 1 e l e m e n t du drame"(p. 110). Thus her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n s i s t s t h a t Z o l a ' s c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by the f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n which i s h i s s o u r c e , and a l t h o u g h she admits Z o l a m a n i p u l a t e s h i s m a t e r i a l , her v i s i o n o f h i s a r t i s r e s -t r i c t e d t o s u r f a c e e f f e c t s . Georg Lukacs, the renowned M a r x i s t c r i t i c , d i s c u s s e s the i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y of Z o l a ' s "new r e a l i s m " ( n a t u r a l i s m ) , by com-p a r i n g i t w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l r e a l i s m of B a l z a c which Lukacs defends w i t h u n m i t i g a t e d f e r v o r . C l e a r l y h i s concern i s w i t h l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y and t r e n d s and w i t h g e n e r a l s o c i o l o g i c a l i s s u e s r a t h e r than w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r n o v e l as a t o t a l work of a r t . Lukacs o b j e c t s above a l l t o the f a c t t h a t i n the n a t -u r a l i s t n o v e l ". . . the w r i t e r no l o n g e r p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the g r e a t s t r u g g l e s o f h i s time, b u t i s reduced to a mere s p e c t a -t o r and c h r o n i c l e r of p u b l i c l i f e . . . . Z o l a ' s n a t u r a l i s t • e x p e r i m e n t a l 1 n o v e l s were . . . merely attempts to f i n d , a method by which the w r i t e r , , now reduced t o a mere s p e c t a t o r , c o u l d once a g a i n master r e a l i t y " (pp. 89-90). Lukacs goes on t o remonstrate t h a t " . . . a m e c h a n i c a l average takes the p l a c e of the d i a l e c t i c u n i t y o f type and i n d i v i d u a l ; d e s c r i p -t i o n and a n a l y s i s i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r e p i c s i t u a t i o n s and e p i c p l o t s " (p. 91) . Indeed Lukacs c l a i m s t h a t Z o l a ' s f a i l u r e as a g r e a t w r i t e r stems from h i s p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t between the me-thod he p r e s c r i b e s and the a r t he c r e a t e s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t Z o l a l o n ged t o exceed the narrow l i m i t a t i o n s o f h i s n a t u r a l i s t t h e o r y but o n l y succeeded on i s o l a t e d o c c a s i o n s i n some n o v e l s . I f Z o l a s u r v i v e s the t e s t o f time a t a l l , Lukacs contends t h a t i t w i l l be not as a n o v e l i s t but r a t h e r as a champion o f soc-i a l p r o g r e s s , a r o l e which Z o l a r e v e a l s i n h i s a r d e n t defense o f D r e y f u s . Marc Bernard's volume, Z o l a par lui-meme, d w e l l s p r i m a r -i l y on Z o l a ' s l i f e , h i s c a r e e r as a w r i t e r , h i s c o m p l i c i t y i n the Dreyfus a f f a i r , and i n t h i s l i g h t , i t i s v e r y u s e f u l as background m a t e r i a l . However, i n the f i v e c h a p t e r s which he devotes t o i n d i v i d u a l n o v e l s , B e r n a r d f a i l s most p o i n t e d l y t o g i v e c r i t i c a l commentary where seemingly i t would be o f g r e a t v a l u e . Indeed the chapter on Germinal i n c l u d e s f o r the most p a r t l e n g t h y q u o t a t i o n s from the n o v e l which u l t i m a t e l y serve o n l y as p l o t summaries or as reminders o f key scenes and conse-q u e n t l y o f f e r s no c r i t i c a l i n s i g h t i n t o the n o v e l as a u n i f i e d work of a r t . Frequently Bernard mentions a s i g n i f i c a n t theme ••: which merits deeper study hut which he f a i l s to develop i n any d e t a i l and thus to show i t s worth. For example, he claims, "Le sujet de Germinal est epique, et Zola ne l u i sera pas i n f e r i e u r . • . l ' e c r i t u r e maladroite f i n i t par atteindre au grand s t y l e par l'ampleur de sa v i s i o n " (p. 100). This f a u l t i s t y p i c a l of much Zola scholarship i n that c r i t i c s tend to discuss the no-vels from an h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l or biographical standpoint and i n so doing only mention i n passing what i s perhaps a c r u c i a l thematic or s t r u c t u r a l pattern which i n the example just c i t e d i s the epic q u a l i t y of the novel. Often t h i s problem i s i n part inherent i n the nature of the p u b l i c a t i o n for indeed a general survey of the nineteenth century French novel stresses by i t s very d e f i n i t i o n scope rather than depth. Michel Raimond's b r i e f discussion of Zola i n h i s survey of the post-revolutidary novel focusses on the importance of naturalism and on the structure of the novel. Raimond i n d i c a t e s yet another source of Zola's documentation: the s c i e n t i f i c studies of Claude Bernard (Introduction £ l'etude de l a medecine  experimentale), of Dr. Lucas (Tr a i t e de 1 'he^redite), and of Le-tourneau (La Physique des passions). He also emphasizes the s o c i a l l y oriented subject of the novel which Zola described i n the Ebauche as " l a l u t t e du c a p i t a l contre l e t r a v a i l " (p. II 1*) ? and he underlines Zola's v i s i t to the s i t e of the lS8k s t r i k e i n the Anzin mine shaft.at which time Zola spoke with the miners and descended into the p i t himself.. Raimond points out many s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of the structure»of the novel but is' un-w i l l i n g or unable because of the nature of h i s book to develop them i n any d e t a i l ; for instance the dramatic arrangement of events, the use of opposition, the recurrence of s p e c i f i c themes,: the patterns of the c l a s s i c a l epic and hence the mythic l e v e l suggested by the archetypes of Fecundity,,. Hope, Catastrophe and Mother Earth*- Each of these i s o l a t e d comments i s stimulating, but the f a c t that they are not developed r e s t r i c t s t h e i r worth, E l l i o t t M. Grant, a very distinguished Zola scholar, com-bines the h i s t o r i c a l , b iographical approach to Germinal with an • attempt towards te x t u a l a n a l y s i s . In h i s book, "Germinal nt .4. C r i t i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l Study,' he discusses the authentic, r e a l -i s t i c aspect of the novel i n terms of Zola's thorough documenta-t i o n and exhaustive research. Grant claims that the studies of Dormoy (Le Bassin h o u i l l e r de ^Valenciennes), and of Simonin (La  iVie s o u t e r r a i n e ) ? provided more than j u s t data, " . . . they also stimulated h i s imagination" Cp. 2 9 ) . However, the very f a c t that Grant constantly f i n d s such close p a r a l l e l s between the c o l o r f u l , e x c i t i n g events of Germinal and La fVie souterraine, f o r example, Etienne and Catherine's imprisonment i n the c o l l a p -sing mine shaft, seems to negate Zola's having exercised any creative imagination at a l l . Grant goes on to state that although Zola's sources r e i n f o r c e h i s n a t u r a l i s t i c preoccupations, they also r e v e a l his concern f o r "the c o l o r f u l , the dramatic, the picturesque, the e f f e c t i v e " ' (p . . 3 8 ) . . Both i n t h i s book and i n his volume entitled Emile Zola? Grant discusses to a consider-able extent the use of symbols, images and other patterns; for example, the moon, the mine, colors, epic struggle and the ele-ments.. Nevertheless,-, his interpretation remains inextricably tied to his basically h i s t o r i c a l , biographical and sociological outlook in that images, symbols and patterns have significance only insofar as they are effective representations of r e a l i t y . Thus Grant refutes Walker's idea that Germinal embodies many Christian, Celtic and Greco-Roman mythological patterns for according to Grant, the use of the supernatural destroys the image of r e a l i t y which he claims Zola was at pains to reproduce. 7 In his introduction to Germinal, Grant attempts to define the scope of the novel by asserting that "" . . . i t 1 i s more than a narrative of strike, more than a mere economic or sociolgical tract. It i s a work of indignation and compassion." Clearly such a statement limits his view of the novel, i f not just to socio-economic concerns, at least to i t s mere emotional impact upon the reader 0 He concludes his book, "Germinal": A' C r i t i c a l 8 and Historical Study with the following remark which indicates his basic attitude towards Zola's art: . . . not only does i t depict social suffering, not only does i t reveal the existence and effect of ignorance and poverty, i t discloses some of the economic forces operating within a nation, and above a l l , i t narrates in a l l i t s intensity . the bitterness of a social c o n f l i c t , (p*. 135) The most valuable Zola scholarship in terms of an analysis of the novel i t s e l f , i t s themes, images and structural patterns i s to be found i n recent publications and a r t i c l e s . A few of the most informative studies of Germinal i n t h i s respect i n c l -ude Jean-Pierre Davoine's a r t i c l e on animal imagery. Marcel Girard's on the universe of the novel, Irvi n g Howe's on the genesis of Germinal and f i n a l l y , a l l of P h i l l i p Walker's con-t r i b u t i o n s . To a l e s s e r degree, the introductory study by Angus Wilson and Proulx' study of the epic s t r a i n i n Zola also offer s i g n i f i c a n t observations. 9 Walker and Grant's debate over the s i g n i f i c a n c e of color in Germinal r a i s e s the c r u c i a l question of c r i t i c a l approaches to Zola. Walker argues that t h e i r basic disagreement r i s e s from the importance each i s w i l l i n g to attach to the r o l e of poetic imagination i n the novel and the degree to which each l i m i t s his i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the novel by Zola's statements of i n t e n t i o n . While admitting the value of Grant's scholarship, Walker points out that the numerous notes and manuscripts which Zola has l e f t behind create the i l l u s i o n of knowing more about the author's int e n t i o n than i t i s possible to know. Indeed he suggests that the c r i t i c be s c e p t i c a l of such information and not l i m i t himself by i t . According to Walker's categorization of Zola c r i t i c i s m , Grant represents the t r a d i t i o n a l , orthodox approach which stresses the dramatic, s o c i o l o g i c a l , p h y s i o l o g i -c a l and f a c t u r a l q u a l i t y of h i s f i c t i o n . Thus Grant's school of c r i t i c i s m admits Zola's " . . . admirable imaginative and poetic q u a l i t i e s and i n s i s t s on regarding h i s f i c t i o n as p r i -marily a v i c a t i o u s experience of ordinary r e a l i t y " (p. 3^9), and subsequently Grant e_t a l . have f a l l e n under the " s p e l l of the r e a l i s t i c i l l u s i o n " which Zola has created. Walker argues accordingly that Grant has f a i l e d to acknowledge f u l l y . " . . . the passing images [which] are symbolic or symptomatic of emo-t i o n a l values and ideas s t i r r i n g the imagination out of which Lthe novel] a r i s e s " (p. 3^9). Although Grant recognizes Zola's poetic q u a l i t y he very c l e a r l y sees t h i s aspect of Zola's f i c -t i o n as subordinate to the exact reproduction of r e a l i t y . Walker, on the other hand, emphasizes Zola's poetic genius i n r e l a t i o n to his n a t u r a l i s t i c tendencies. The suggestion of a " r e a l i s t i c i l l u s i o n " which Walker a t -t r i b u t e s to Zola's a r t i s extremely s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of Zola's own conception of his a r t i s t i c goal f o r , despite his ap-parent preoccupation with, naturalism w i t h ' i t s accents on science and exact documentation, Zola admits i n a l e t t e r to Henry Ceard 10 i n March, 1885, j u s t p r i o r to the pu b l i c a t i o n of Germinal; . . ^ je mens pour mon^compte dans le, sens de l a verite'. J ' a i 1 'hypertrophic du d e t a i l v r a i , l e saut dans l e s e t o i l e s sur le^tremplin de 1 'observation exacte. La ve"rite monte d'un coup d ' a i l e jusqu'au symbole. (p. hk2) Here then i n an e x p l i c i t statement, Zola i n s i s t s that precise documentation i s merely a mask, a "mimesis of science", to bor-row Walker's words. Rather than an end i n themselves, f a c t s become the means by which Zola w i l l reach " l e s e t o i l e s " or the realm of the imagination, thus a l e v e l of symbolic meaning. Thus Zola i n s i s t s that h i s novel i s symbolic and to achieve i n -sight i n t o the symbolism of the novel, he i n v i t e s us to read Germinal not only with the l i t e r a l , p h y s i c a l eye hut also through the more perceptive eye of the imagination, i n the Blakean sense. Ea r l y i n his career, Zola defined a work of a r t as ". . . / j s t a n t j l a realite"transposed par une v i s i o n d»ar-t i s t e . Cette t r a n s p o s i t i o n devait etre fondee sur l a raison et la verite'; e l l e devait surtout proceder d'un puissant tempera-z 11 ment de createur." Thus he conceives of his own novels as a r t i s t i c creations or adaptations of r e a l i t y rather than as mere embodiments of data. 12 Marcel Girard was one of the f i r s t c r i t i c s to cast aside, the w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d documentary and r e a l i s t i c concerns of his colleagues and to concentrate s p e c i f i c a l l y on the poetic qual-i t y of the universe Zola created out of the r e a l i t y he so c l o s e l y observed. Girard discusses i n some d e t a i l Zola's symbolic use of color, water and weight imagery, the epic v i s i o n and Le -Vor-eux as a mythic and symbolic st r u c t u r e . Moreover, he shows t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n terms of the novel as a coherent and cohesive 13 e n t i t y . Irving Howe sees i n Germinal the embodiment of several myths: the myth of the P r o l e t a r i a t , the myth of emergence and the myth of Le vVoreux. According to Howe, Zola's great achieve-ment l i e s i n his successful i n t e r p s a e t r a t i o n of myth and h i s t o r i -c a l information, for c l e a r l y i t i s out of the h i s t o r i c a l sub-stance that the mythic and symbolic l e v e l s r i s e . However, Howe f a i l s , i n my opinion, to see the symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e (to be discussed l a t e r ) , of the cast r a t i o n of Maigrat and of Chaval's dead body f l o a t i n g below Etienne as he embraces the dying Cather-ine; these scenes according,to Howe are the product of an un-d i s c i p l i n e d imagination, although he does suggest v/e overlook t h i s "flaw." Indeed Howe perceives the imaginative q u a l i t y of these two scenes hut he i s u n w i l l i n g to grant them any kind of symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e . Ik Jean-Pierre Davoine's analysis focusses on the epic na-ture of Zola's v i s i o n of human destiny: "Ce romancier n a t u r a l -l s t e se revele un poete puissamment l y r i q u e dans ses meilleurs ouvrages et a t t e i n t meme au lyric l s m e de l'epopee" (p. 383). The l y r i c a l devices of the epic which Davoine i s o l a t e s i n Ger-minal are the recurring l e i t m o t i f s of the mine as a machine-monster and as a mythical Minotaur, also the constant use of animal imagery which he claims a t t r i b u t e s more to the epic na-. ture of the novel than to a symbolic v i s i o n of human degrada-t i o n . Although the miners are described i n terms of animal metaphors and the animals i n terms of t h e i r humanity^-.'/Davoine i n s i s t s that both the miners and the animals u l t i m a t e l y share the same destiny; a l l are v i c t i m i z e d and destroyed by t h e i r so-c i e t y . Several of the more recent c r i t i c s have focussed on the Freudian sexual i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the novel, another possible approach to a study of the thematic and metaphoric patterns. 15 Indeed Richard Grant shrewdly points out that the mine, Le (Voreux, i s not only a tomb, a gluttonous, devouring and l i f e -destroying beast, but i t i s also a womb, the s i t e of r e b i r t h . As proof, he centers h i s b r i e f discussion on the cl o s i n g section of the novel, the scene in which Etienne and Catherine tap with the hope of alerting their rescuers. Grant compares this noise to the faint thumpings of the foetus, and thus he u l t i -mately sees Etienne and Catherine as being delivered into the world by a symbolic Caesarian section in which Catherine i s the stil l - b o r n infant. Grant's view of the novel depends on the i n -extricable link which he perceives between l i f e and death, and moreover, i t also suggests the total c y c l i c a l pattern of human 16 17 evolution. Martin Turnell and Angus Wilson also analyze Germinal in terms of i t s thematic patterns to which they give a Freudian interpretation. For example, Turnell discusses, the theme of castration, the images of the limp cables and of the erect chimney, and Wilson depicts the connection between sexual and social s t e r i l i t y , corruption and death. Philip Walker has made some of the most outstanding contri-butions towards Zola scholarship in the f i e l d of thematic, sym-bolic and mythic analysis. On the strength of Zola's already quoted " l i e " , throughout his studies, Walker emphasizes Zola's mythopoeism. Not only does Zola develop themes which are tra -ditionally associated with myth, such as world creation, destr-uction 0and renewal, the descent into the underworld, but Walker claims he achieves this through the use of symbols and images 18 which in themselves embody the force of myth. Walker goes on to state that: What at f i r s t seemed to be predominantly the work, of a r e a l i s t becomes more and more obviously the creation of a profoundly poetic.imagination. And we may be tempted t o r e g a r d even Z o l a ' s r e a l i s m as the i n v e n t i o n of a poet and i t s e l f , perhaps i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , a form of p o e t r y — o n e of the many masks t h a t the e t e r n a l s p i r i t of p o e t r y has f a s h i o n e d f o r i t s e l f i n the course of the ages. (p.105) Most t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c s c o n s i d e r Z o l a ' s e p i c v i s i o n o n l y i n terms o f the s u b j e c t matter he p r e s e n t s , whereas Walker i n s i s t s t h a t the e p i c q u a l i t y of Germinal r e s u l t s p r i m a r i l y from Z o l a ' s v e r y p o w e r f u l p o e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n . In h i s a r t i c l e , "Remarques 19 sur l'image du s e r p e n t dans Germinal ," Walker i n d i c a t e s Z o l a ' s c a r e f u l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f an image and suggests t h a t each time an image r e c u r s , Z o l a develops i t s i n t e n s i t y . He chooses the s e r -pent image as an example and r e v e a l s the p r o g r e s s i o n by which i t grows more monstrous and more t e r r i b l e and thus u l t i m a t e l y t r a n s forms r e a l i t y i n t o a p o e t i c v i s i o n . In.the same l e t t e r t o Ceard a l r e a d y quoted, Z o l a a l s o d i s c l o s e s t h a t ". . . l a v e r i t e e s t 20 que ce roman e s t une grande f r e s q u e , " a statement which Walker uses as support f o r the emphasis which he p l a c e s on the use o f 21 c o l o r imagery i n G e r m i n a l . Moreover, Walker c l a i m s i n h i s a r t i c l e on c o l o r t h a t " Z o l a symbolic treatment of c o l o r . . . suggests a f f i n i t i e s w i t h the s y m b o l i s t s . . . not o n l y does he s i m p l i f y and o r g a n i z e h i s c o l -ors i n t o a scheme c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s d r a matic s u b j e c t , a g r e a t s t r i k e ; he a l s o i n v e s t s them l i k e l e i t m o t i f s w i t h a s s o c i a t i o n s e x p r e s s i v e of a l l l e v e l s of meaning i n the n o v e l — t h e dramatic cadre of the miners'- s t r i k e , the p r o p h e t i c and h i s t o r i c a l e'tude of the s t r u g g l e between c a p i t a l and l a b o r , and f i n a l l y , the u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i s i o n of man and n a t u r e " ( p . kk2). Indeed Walker's d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f c o l o r imagery v e r y d e f i n -i t e l y s upports Z o l a ' s own admission of h i s " l i e " ' f o r , a c c o r d i n g t o Walker, . . . c o l o r imagery p r o v i d e s a means of i n t r o d u -c i n g the i m a g i n a t i o n o f the a r t i s t i n t o what i s i n t e n d e d t o be r e c e i v e d as a p r i m a r i l y n a t u r a l -i s t i c document, f o r not o n l y has Z o l a imposed upon the whole n o v e l a d e f i n i t e , r e s t r i c t e d c o l o r scheme, i n \%rhich r e d and b l a c k are s t r e s s e d twice as much as a l l other c o l o r s t o g e t h e r , but he has a l s o combined these c o l o r s i n such a way which t r a n s c e n d s simple r e a l i s m and suggests d e l i b e r a t e s t r u c t u r a l and p o e t i c aims. (p. ¥+3) 22 F i n a l l y , - i n h i s a r t i c l e on " P r o p h e t i c Myths i n Z o l a , " Walker a s s e r t s w i t h d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o the t e x t t h a t n e a r l y a l l o f Z o l a ' s myths embody i n some form c a t a s t r o p h e , death, redemption and r e b i r t h which c h a r a c t e r i z e C h r i s t i a n , C e l t i c and Greco-Roman mythology. Because the t o t a l body of "new" c r i t i c i s m on Germinal r e -mains r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , t h i s study w i l l attempt t o analyze the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n the n o v e l and the s t r u c t u r a l and them-a t i c p a t t e r n s which r a d i a t e from i t . N o r t h r o p F r y e ' s a r c h e t y p a l approach t o l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s an i n t e r e s t i n g and as y e t unex-p l o r e d method of a n a l y s i s o f Germinal . In The Educated Imagina-23 t i o n , F r y e d e f i n e s the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e by s t a t i n g t h a t "In l i t e r a t u r e we always seem t o be l o o k i n g e i t h e r up or down. I t ' s the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t ' s i m p o r t a n t , not the h o r i z o n -t a l one t h a t l o o k s out t o l i f e . . . i n the g r e a t e s t works of l i t e r a t u r e we get both the up and down views, o f t e n a t the same time or as d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f one event . . . L i t e r a t u r e Ik g i v e s us an ex p e r i e n c e t h a t s t r e t c h e s us v e r t i c a l l y t o the h e i g h t s and depths of what the human mind can c o n c e i v e , t o what corresponds t o the co n c e p t i o n s of heaven and h e l l i n r e -l i g i o n " (p. *+(), P. k2). A c c o r d i n g t o Fry e " I m a g i n a t i o n . . . i s j the,power of c o n s t r u c t i n g p o s s i b l e models of human exper-i e n c e . . . A r t be g i n s w i t h the w o r l d we c o n s t r u c t , not w i t h the w o r l d we see" (pp. 5-6). C l e a r l y then, he would wish us t o r e a d Germinal w i t h our i m a g i n a t i o n and thus see i t . a s more than j u s t a b i o g r a p h i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l or s o c i o l o g i c a l account. t h a t the anagogic or u n i v e r s a l l e v e l o f meaning i n l i t e r a t u r e . " . . . l e a d s t o the c o n c e p t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e as e x i s t i n g i n i t s own u n i v e r s e , no l o n g e r a commentary on l i f e or r e a l i t y , but c o n t a i n i n g l i f e and r e a l i t y i n a system o f v e r b a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s " ( p . 122). By " v e r b a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " , I assume Fr y e means metaphor, image and symbol. Thus on the anagogic l e v e l , Germinal embodies a v i s i o n o f human d e s t i n y as men s t r u g g l e t o m a i n t a i n an e x i s t e n c e between the metaphoric p o l e s of an e a r t h l y Heaven and H e l l . A l s o i n the Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m , Frye c l a s s i f i e s f o u r l e v e l s o f meaning i n l i t e r a r y symbolism. F i r s t i n ascending order of complexity i s the l i t e r a l l e v e l which i s concerned w i t h the p l o t . The second l e v e l i s the a l l e g o r i c a l one to one r a t i o between the symbol and i t s meaning such as i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Montsou-Anzin e q u a t i o n . T h i r d l y i s the moral l e v e l which d e a l s w i t h w i t h s o c i a l and e t h i c a l issues- and i m p l i c a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n E t i e n n e ' s moral development... And f i n a l l y , the f o u r t h or anagogic Furthermore, i n the Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m , F r y e c l a i m s l e v e l i s the phase which Frye defines as the stage i n which the symbol acquires u n i v e r s a l meaning and hence becomes the center of one's t o t a l l i t e r a r y experience. On t h i s l e v e l , symbols are interpreted i n terms of t h e i r mythopoeic q u a l i t y and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n terms of t h e i r divine or q u a s i - r e l i g i o u s s i g -n i f i c a n c e . C l e a r l y , because Zola scholarship has tended i n the past to focus on the f i r s t three l e v e l s of meaning and i s only beginning to move towards analysis on the anagogic l e v e l , t h i s phase of meaning then merits deeper study. Notes Ida-Marie 'Frandon, Autour de "Germinal"':- l a mine et l e s  mineurs (Geneve: L i b r a i r i e Droz, 1955). 2. / Georg Lukacs, Studies i n European Realism (New York:• Grosset and Dunlap, 1964). 3- A Marc Bernard, Zola par lui-meme (Paris:-. E d i t i o n s du s e u i l , 1952). Michel Raimond, Le Roman depuis l a r e v o l u t i o n ( P a r i s : Armand C o l i n , I9b7). 5. E l l i o t t - M, Grant, "Germinal": A. C r i t i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l  Study (Amsterdam:: L e i c e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1962). 6. , Emile Zola (New York:- Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1966). 7. Emile Zola, Germinal, ed. E l l i o t t M. Grant (New York: Charle S c r i b n e r r s Sons, 1951), p«- x x i i i . . 8. E l l i o t t M. Grant, "Germinal"-:- A C r i t i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l  Study. 9. and P h i l i p D, Walker, "Concerning Color i n Germi n a l, " HMLA, 79 (1964), 3^Q-&. 10. P h i l i p Do Walker, "Zola's Use. of Color Imagery i n Germinal," PMLA 77 (1962)), 4 4 2 - 4 9 . -11* , Michel Raimond, Le Roman depuis l a r e v o l u t i o n . 12. : Marcel Girard, "L'Univers de Germinal," Revue des sciences  humaines, 69 (January-March, 1953)> 59-76* 13. ' I r v i n g Howe, "The Genesis of Germinal," Encounter, 34 ( A p r i l , 1970), 53-61. 14. • , Jean-Pierre Davoine, "Metaphores animales dans Germinal," Etudes fr a n c a i s e s , 4 (1968), 383-92,, 15. 9 Richard Bo Grant, "Zola's Germinal," E x p l i c a t o r , i f f (March* I 9 6 0 ) , item 37o- -Martin T u r n e l l , The Art of French F i c t i o n (New York: New Di r e c t i o n s PublishingH?orporation, 1959') •• Angus Wilson, Emile Zola;: An Introductory Study of His Hovels-(London: Mercury Books, 19&F). 18. Philip D. Walker, Emile- Zola (New York;: Humanities-Press, 1968). 5 19* « "Remarques sur 1'image du serpent dans Germinal," Cahi?rs naturalistes, 31 (1966), 83-85. 20* s "Zola's Art of Characterization in Germinal; A Note for Further Research," L'Esprit cr^ataur, k (Summer, 196*0, 6O-67. ~-21* , "Zola's Use of Color Imagery in Germinal*" 22. _ o "Prophetic Myths i n Zola,"' PMLA, 7^ (1959), 23* Northrop Frye s The Educated- Imagination (Toronto: The Hunter Rose Company, 19^3). , Anatomy of Criticism (New York: Atheneum, 1968). \ THEMATIC PATTERNS The network of thematic patterns around which Germinal*1". &s organized reveals the v e r t i c a l structure which i s at the very core of the novel i n that they re v e a l the demonic and divine q u a l i t i e s of both s o c i a l worlds: the working class and the bourgeoisie. The theme of sexual r e l a t i o n s i s c r u c i a l to any analysis of Zola's f i c t i o n and i n p a r t i c u l a r to the v e r t i c a l perspective he develops i n Germinal i n that the desire f o r a sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p and the union which may r e s u l t from i t can ei t h e r r a i s e the i n d i v i d u a l s to a state of love or mutual con-s i d e r a t i o n t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with Heaven or the u n f a l l e n universe or lower them to a state of l u s t or animal passion typ-i c a l of H e l l or the f a l l e n world. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s theme transcends the b a r r i e r s of s o c i a l class for indeed divine or demonic sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t both i n the bourgeoisie and i n the working c l a s s . In Germinal, p o s i t i v e or divine sexual r e l a -tionships are based on love which seeks the good of the other i n d i v i d u a l as opposed to negative or demonic sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s which are based on the s e l f - g r a t i f y i n g desire for l u s t / Rela-tionships can be classed as demonic or divine according to these c r i t e r i a i n that love prevailed i n the Edenic world, whereas i n the post-lapsarian world, l u s t threatens to overcome love at every moment. By expressing love, one does not regain the l o s t Edenic state, but one does achieve the best possible environment i n the irrevocably f a l l e n world. Indeed no marriage or sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the novel i s perfect, but one can be considered as being more or less i d e a l than another. E i t h e r as a serious concern or as a subject for f r i v o l o u s l o c a l gossip, the question of marriage or i l l i c i t sexual r e l a -tions recurs and thus becomes one of the major themes as the novel progresses. For obvious f i n a n c i a l reasons l a Maheude ser-i o u s l y opposes Zacharie's marriage to Philomene because i t w i l l , deprive her own family of hi s income and thus increase t h e i r poverty.. In addit i o n , Madame Hennebeau's only serious thoughts focus on the planned marriage of Cecile and Paul. The miners' wives, on the other hand, d e l i g h t i n gossipping constantly about the hushed a f f a i r between l a Pierronne and Dansaert, l a Levaque and her boarder, Bouteloup, and about Catherine's r e l a t i o n s h i p with Chaval and Etienne. For the miners, time not spent working in the p i t s i s most often spent on the wasteland f i e l d s behind. R e q u i l l a r t , the s i t e of sexual promiscuity i n the v i l l a g e . Throughout the novel v/e frequently return to t h i s scene either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y with reference to the many i l l e g i t i m a t e children conceived there and the marriages which subsequently took place, thus providing subjects for i d l e chatter and rumor. . Germinal embodies the Blakean concept of the f a l l from Beu-lah or the.state of childhood innocence i n t o Generation or the adult world of sexual experience at the time of puberty. This f a l l c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the F a l l of Man from Eden following which a l l men l i v e i n a world where e v i l constantly threatens to des-troy good, where l u s t challenges love. Sexual evolution i s most e x p l i c i t in terms of Catherine who, although forced i n t o i l l i c i t sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s before puberty as a r e s u l t of in h a b i t i n g a f a l l e n world of t o i l and l u s t , remains throughout most of the novel s t i l l i n the world of sexual innocence. This f a c t reas-sures l a Maheude of not l o s i n g another c h i l d ' s income as the r e -s u l t of the conception of an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d . Nevertheless, Catherine i s c l e a r l y treated as a mature adult, "Depuis l'age de dix ans, depuis qu'elle gagnait sa vie a l a fosse, e l l e courait a i n s i l e pays toute seule, dans l a complete l i b e r t e 7 des f a m i l i e s de h o u i l l e u r s ; et, s i aucun homme ne 1 ' a v a i t eue, a quinze ans, c ' e t a i t grace a l ' e v e i l tar'dif de sa puberte, dont e l l e atten-d a i t encore l a c r i s e " (p. 129). S i g n i f i c a n t l y , when Etienne f i r s t sees Catherine, she appears as an androgenous being. As she dresses for work, " . . . e l l e a v a i t l ' a i r d'un p e t i t homme, r i e n ne l u i r e s t a i t de son sexe, que l e dandinement leger des hanches" (p. 15) , and when Etienne f i r s t sees her, " . . . i l Xl 1] apercut, . . . avec son a i r doux de garcon, . . . " (p. 26) . F i n a l l y a f t e r the struggle against the Belgian miners which claims the l i f e of her father and several f r i e n d s , Catherine r e -turns home i n Etienne's arms, " . .'. boueuse, a demi-morte; . . . l a chemise av a i t de larges taches de sang. . . . c ' e t a i t le f l o t de l a pubert/ qui c r e v a i t e n f i n , dans l a secousse de cette journee abominable" (p. 435)• Thus Catherine progresses i n the course of the novel from the androgenous state of c h i l d -hood to the adult state of sexual experience.. Moreover, her evolution towards t h i s state p a r a l l e l s two other evolutionary p a t t e r n s In the n o v e l : the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f human e v o l u t i o n Inherent i n Z o l a ' s " H i s t o i r e d'une f a m i l l e sous l e second em-p i r e , " and the c o n t i n u a l r i p e n i n g or development o f the s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n which the working c l a s s p i t s i t s e l f a g a i n s t the wealthy b o u r g e o i s i e i n order t o s e i z e power, a s t r u g g l e which i s shown i n the e v o l u t i o n of the G r e g o i r e and Maheu f a m i l i e s . Both the G r e g o i r e and the Maheu ma r r i a g e s r e p r e s e n t the d i v i n e pole o f the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n terms of the theme of s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h a t t h e i r m a r r i ages are founded on l o v e r a t h e r than l u s t d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the couples come from o p p o s i t e ends o f the s o c i a l s c a l e . N e i t h e r marriage i s p e r f e c t ' or t o t a l l y i d e a l , a l t h o u g h the G r e g o i r e marriage r e p r e s e n t s a p o i n t c l o s e r t o i d e a l on the s l i d i n g s c a l e of s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s than the Maheus 1. In a d d i t i o n , the degree t o which t h e i r mar-r i a g e s are i d e a l i s i n p a r t suggested i n the metaphors used t o d e s c r i b e them. Indeed the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the G r e g o i r e f a m i l y c l e a r l y ev-okes an e x i s t e n c e which i s almost E d e n i c or as p e r f e c t as poss-i b l e i n the f a l l e n w o r l d . Upon e n t e r i n g the s o c i a l xrorld o f the b o u r g e o i s s h a r e h o l d e r s , the f i r s t a s p e c t o f t h e i r w o r l d which i s d e s c r i b e d i s the home: . . . l a P i o l a i n e , . . . se t r o u v a i t a deux k i l o -metres de, Montsou, . . . . C'e'tait une grande mai-son c a r r e e , sans s t y l e , b£tie.au commencement du s i e c l e d e r n i e r . Des v a s t e s t e r r e s q u i en ddpend-a i e n t d'abord, i l ne r e s t a i t qu'une t r e n t a i n e d'hec-• t a r e s , ' c l o s de murs, d'un f a c i l e e n t r e t ^ e n . On c i -t a i t s u r t o u t l e v e r g e r e t l e p o t a g e r , c e l e b r e s par l e u r s f r u i t s e t l e u r s legumes, l e s p l u s beaux d"a pays. D ' a i l l e u r s l e par© manquait, un p e t i t b o i s en t e n a i t l i e u . L'avenue des v i e u x t i l l e u l s , une , voute de f e u i l l a g e de t r o i s cents metres, p l a n t o e de l a g r i l l e au p e r r o n , e t a i t une des c u r i o s i t e ' s de c e t t e p l a i n e r a s e , o\i l ' o n comptait l e s grands a r b r e s , de Marchiennes £ Beaugnies. (p. 73) S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e i r home i s a s t a b l e , secure b u i l d i n g c o n s t -r u c t e d on the f o u n d a t i o n of an i n h e r i t e d f o r t u n e , and a l t h o u g h i t s area has d i m i n i s h e d over the y e a r s , the w o r l d o u t s i d e the home i s s t i l l l i k e the green, s p r i n g - t i m e garden of the E d e n i c w o r l d . I n s i d e , the house i s warm, c l e a n , l a r g e and w e l l s t o c k e d , "La c u i s i n e e t a i t immense, e t on l a d e v e n a i t l a p i e c e , i m p o r t a n t e , a l a p r o p r e t e extreme, a 1 ' a r s e n a l des c a s s e r o l e s , des u s t e n s i l e s , des pots q u i 1 ' e m p l i s s a i t . Cela s e n t a i t bon l a bonne n o u r r i t u r e . Des p r o v i s i o n s d e b o r d a i e n t des r a ^ t e l i e r s e t des a r m o i r e s . . . . Malgre" l e c a l o r i f e r e q u i c h a u f f a i t toute l a maison, un f e u d ' h o u i l l e / g a y a i t c e t t e s a l l e . Du r e s t e , i l n'y a v a i t aucun l u x e : . . . . On n ' a l l a i t jamais au s a l o n , on demeurait l a en f a m i l l e " ' ( p . 74). C l e a r l y , the G r e g o i r e s are a c l o s e - k n i t fami3.y and choose t o c l u s t e r around the h e a r t h toge-t h e r . Moreover, the house i s p a t r i a r c h a l i n t h a t s e v e r a l s e r -v a n t s manage the b a s i c a f f a i r s whereby, " . . . d'une douceur familial©?, ce p e t i t monde v i v a i t en bonne amitie"' (p. 74). L i k e the p r e - l a p s a r i a n w o r l d , the G r e g o i r e ' s w o r l d i s a . p l a c e of l e i s u r e and comfort, not t o i l and p a i n , and i n a d d i t -i o n , the t r a d i t i o n a l c o l o r of Heaven, w h i t e , i s the primary c o l -or used to d e s c r i b e the i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h i s E d e n i c w o r l d . When Madame G r e g o i r e i s f i r s t p r e s e n t e d , "' |_ellej v e n a i t de descendre a l a c u i s i n e , en p a n t o u f f l e s e t en p e i g n o i r de f l a n e l l e . Courte, g r a s s e , agee deja de cinquante ans, e l l e g a r d a i t une grosse f i g u r e poupine e t etonnee, sous l a blancheur e c l a t a n t e de ses cheveux" (p. 73)• Her husband, t o o , f i r s t appears, " . . . v e t u d'un g r o s v e s t o n de f u t a i n e , r o s e l u i a u s s i pour ses s o i x a n t e ans, avec de grands t r a i t s honnetes e t bons, dans l a neige de ses cheveux b o u c l e s " (p. 7*0. C e c i l e , who i s s t i l l s l e e p i n g when we enter her home, i s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g c h e r u b i n -l i k e , "Dans l e s b l a n c h e u r s vagues du l i t , sous l e demi-jour q u i tombait de l ' e c a r t e m e n t d'un r i d e a u , l a jeune f i l l e dormait, une joue appuyee sur son bras nu. . . . e l l e a v a i t une c h a i r superbe, une f r a i c h e u r de l a i t , avec ses cheveux c h a t a i n s , sa f a c e ronde au p e t i t nez v o l o n t a i r e , noye e n t r e l e s j o u e s . . . • —i / j ^ e l l e d o r m a i t j dans sa n u d i t e de v i e r g e " (p.75). C l e a r l y l e i -sure not work f i l l s the day-time hours; f o r example, M. Greg-o i r e 's main t a s k i s t o i n s p e c t and care f o r h i s i n h e r i t e d p r o -p e r t y , C e c i l e spends her day s t u d y i n g music and l i t e r a t u r e , and both p a r e n t s devote t h e i r e n t i r e l i f e t o s p o i l i n g and c a r i n g f o r t h e i r o n l y c h i l d . As an example of t h e i r s p o i l i n g Cecile, they delay b r e a k f a s t u n t i l Ce'cile awakens and keep her meal warm r a t h e r than wake her up. As a f u r t h e r comment on t h e i r heavenly e x i s t e n c e , the f a c t t h a t t h e i r marriage i s founded on l o v e r a t h e r than on l u s t a l -lows them t o e x i s t i n a w o r l d s i m i l a r t o the u n f a l l e n u n i v e r s e . Moreover, because they possess s u f f i c i e n t w e a l t h , they do not have t o face d i s s e n s i o n or q u a r r e l l i n g caused by the problems of s t a r v a t i o n , p o v e r t y and c o l d , such as the Maheus must c o n f r o n t . In the Gr e g o i r e m a r r i a g e , as i n the p e r f e c t E d e n i c u n i o n , the wif e i s t o t a l l y submissive t o the husband, the r e s u l t o f which i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f oneness: . . . l e s bonheurs p l e u v a i e n t sur c e t t e maison. M. G r e g o i r e , tre^s jeune, a v a i t e"pousl l a f i l l e d'un pharmacien de Marchiennes. une d e m o i s e l l e l a i d e -sans un sou^ q u ' i l adoraix; et q u i l u i a v a i t t o u t rendu, en f e l i c i t e . E l l e s ' e t a i t enfermee dans son menage v e x t a s i e e devant son-mari, n^ayant d'autre v o l o n t e que l a si e n n e ; jamais^de gouts d i f f e r e n t s ne l e s s e p a r a i e n t , un meme i d e a l de b i e n - e t r e con-f o n d a i t l e u r s d e s i r s ; e t i l s v i v a i e n t a i n s i depuis quarante ans, de tend r e s s e e t de p e t i t s s o i n s r e -c i p r o q u e s . (pp. 78-79) They devote t h e i r complete l i f e t o l o v i n g and c a r i n g f o r Ce'cile, whose every whim they s a t i s f y i mmediately. Indeed t h e i r o n l y s e r i o u s cause f o r worry, e x c l u s i v e o f t h e i r c o n t i n u a l f e a r o f l o s i n g t h e i r f o r t u n e and hence t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , o ccurs the day when the miners' wives march vehemently through the s t r e e t s o f Montsou, "Pour l a premiere f o i s , une i n q u i e t u d e emo-t i o n n a l e s G r e g o i r e . C e c i l e pas r e n t r e V ' (p. 3 5 9 ) . And as the crowd becomes more v i o l e n t , " . . . [ l e s ] Gre'goire, . . . ne pe n s a i e n t qu'aX l e u r f i l l e : l a pauvre c h e r i e q u i s ' e f f r a y a i t s i v i t e l . . . " (pp. 3 6 1 - 6 2 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the death o f Ce-c i l e l e a v e s them w i t h n o t h i n g t o l i v e f o r i n t h a t the v e r y cen-t e r o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e has d i s a p p e a r e d , " . . . c'e' t a i t l ' e f f o n -drement meme de l e u r v i e , a qu o i bon v i v r e , maintenant q u ' i l s v i v r a i e n t sans e l l e ? " (p. 4 9 0 ) . Although more i d e a l than the Maheus'' m a r r i a g e , the G r e g o i r e marriage i s n o t t o t a l l y p e r f e c t i n t h a t t h e i r l o v e i s n o t always s e l f l e s s . C l e a r l y they u l t i m a t e l y care o n l y about t h e i r own. c h i l d for while the starving women run desperately through the streets i n search of bread which they need i n order to l i v e , the Gregoires are only worried about the whereabouts of t h e i r daughter; thus they do not care as equally about t h e i r f e l l o w -man as they care about t h e i r own happiness. Their s e l f i s h love for money and t h e i r s e l f - i n d u l g i n g love f o r Cecile b l i n d s them to the miners' very basic needs of f u e l and food. Indeed, " I I f a l l a i t etre c h a r i t a b l e , i l s d i s a i e n t eux-memes que leur maison e t a i t l a maison du bon Dieu. Du r e s t e , i l s se f l a t t a i e n t de f a i r e l a charite' avec i n t e l l i g e n c e , travaille's de l a continuelle A / c.rainte d'etre trompes, et d'encourager l e v i c e . A i n s i , i l s ne donnaient jamais d'argent, jamais, . . . . Leurs aumones "etaient done toujours en nature, surtout en Vetements chauds, d i s t r i b u e s en hiver aux enfants indigents" (p. 9 2 ) . Indeed t h e i r f a i t h i s ' i n the God of Money, not the God of Charity, " . . . l e s Gregoire avaient . . <.. une f o i obstinee en leur mine. . . . Dieu n ' e t a i t pas plus s o l i d e . Puis a cette croyance r e l i g i e u s e , se melait une profonde gratitude pour une valeur, qui depuis un s i e c l e , n o u r r i s s a i t l a f a m i l l e a ne r i e n f a i r e . C'e'tait comme une d i v i n -i t e a eux, que leur egoisme entourait d'un c u l t e , l a b i e n f a i t -r i c e du foyer, l e s bercant dans leur grand l i t de paresse, l e s engraissant a leur table gourmande" (p. 7 8 ) . In addition to t h e i r lack of c h a r i t y i n terms of donations to the Montsou poor, the Gregoires are c r i t i c i z e d on the s o c i a l l e v e l i n terms of t h e i r lack of perception. C l e a r l y t h e i r con-cern and love f o r Ce'cile, t h e i r home and t h e i r fortune occupies t h e i r thoughts so much that they can see nothing beyond these personal preferences. Throughout the miners' march through the streets of Montsou, the Gregoires remain safe inside the Hennebeau home. Before they ar r i v e at the Hennebeaus', they go through the streets, where violence a f t e r violence takes place, " . . . i l s semblaient s i p a i s i b l e s , i l s avaient s i bien l ' a i r de c r o i r e a une pure p l a i s a n t e r i e de l a part de leurs braves mineurs, dont l a resignation l e s n o u r r i s s a i t depuis un s i e c l e , que ceux-ci, etonnes, avaient en e f f e t cesse de j e t e r des p i e r r e s , de peur d'atteindre ce vierac monsieur et cette v i e i l l e dame, 'tombes du c i e l . " (pp. 3 5 8 - 5 9 ) . Moreover, M. Gregoire f o o l i s h l y believes that "'. . . i l s n'ont pas de malice, au fond. L o r s q u ' i l s auront bien c r i e , i l s i r o n t souper avec plus d'appetit'" (p. 3 5 9 ) . The r e a l i t y of the entire march means nothing to them u n t i l they fear Cecile may have been a t -tacked. Their misdirected sense of cha r i t y i s again c r i t i c i z e d a f t e r the explosion i n the p i t which occurred while Zacharie was attempting to rescue Catherine and which claimed his l i f e . At t h i s point the G r e g o i r e s ' charity mission i s presented i n neg-ative terms, "Le nouvel accident redoubla l a c u r i o s i t e de Mont-sou, l e s bourgeois organisaient des excursions avec un t e l en-t r a i n , que l e s Qre'goire se deciderent a suivre le monde. On ar-rangea une p a r t i e , . .. . " (p. k8k). Thus, although the Gre-goire marriage i s presented as an i d e a l sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p i n that i t i s founded on love, they are c r i t i c i z e d on the s o c i a l l e v e l f o r t h e i r lack of the correct s p i r i t of c h a r i t y A f o r t h e i r g e n e r a l l a c k of p e r c e p t i o n . The Maheu m a r r i a g e , which i s a l s o founded on l o v e , i s c l e a r l y p resented as a p o s i t i v e s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p but as l e s s i d e a l than the G r e g o i r e s ' m a r r i a g e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , l a Maheude comments e a r l y i n the n o v e l on her l i f e i n the mine a t which p o i n t she r e v e a l s t h a t her un i o n w i t h Maheu was a t f i r s t l u s t -f u l , a f a c t which e x p l a i n s i n p a r t the reason t h e i r marriage i s l e s s i d e a l than the G r e g o i r e s ' : "Moi, j e s u i s descendue jusqu'a v i n g t ans. Le medecin^a d i t que j ' y r e s t e r a i s $ l o r s q u e j ' a i accouche l a s e c o n d e • f o i s , parce que, p a r a z t - i l , ca me d e r a n g e a i t des choses dans l e s os. D ' a i l -l e u r s , c ' e s t £ ce moment que je me s u i s mariee, e t j ' a v a i s a s s e z de besogne a" l a maison...". (p. 93) . U n l i k e the P i o l a i n e , the Maheu home i s s m a l l and i s b u i l t on the d u s t y , dark wasteland p l a i n i n the v i l l a g e o f Montsou. A l -though i t i s c l e a n , t h e i r home i s p o o r l y f u r n i s h e d and s t a l e cooking odors f i l l the atmosphere, "Malgre l a p r o p r e t e , une odeur d'oignion c u i t , enferme'e depuis l a v e i l l e , empoisonnait l ' a i r chaud, c e t a i r a l o u r d i , t o u j o u r s charge d'une ' a c r e t / de h o u i l l e " (ps 20). In d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o the b a s t i o n - l i k e Gre-g o i r e home which f o s t e r s l i f e i n i t s E d e n i c s e t t i n g , the Maheus' home i s not a secure p l a c e i n which t o l i v e f o r g r a d u a l l y , as a r e s u l t o f p o v e r t y , they must s e l l t h e i r f u r n i s h i n g s p i e c e by p i e c e through a p a i n f u l p r o c e s s p r e s e n t e d as a s t e a d i l y e n c r o a -c h i n g form o f death, " I l s e'taient nus, i l s n ' a v a i e n t p l u s a"1 vendre que l e u r peau, s i entamee, s i compromise, que personne n'en a u r a i t donne" un l i a r d . . . . i l s s a v a i e n t . . . que c ' e t a i t l a f i n de t o u t , . . . i l s a t t e n d a i e n t d'en mourir, . . . . . . . . dans c e t t e maison morte, sans l u m i e r e , sans f e u , sans p a i n " (p. 3 8 7 ) . Indeed the metaphors used t o de s c r i b e the Maheus create a l e s s i d e a l v i s i o n of human l i f e than i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Gr e g o i r e s . U n l i k e the cherubin C e c i l e , the Maheu g i r l s are n e i -t h e r h e a l t h y nor plump,, The nine year o l d A l z i r e i s "chetive"" and p h y s i c a l l y deformed by a hump on her back s and the f i f t e e n year o l d Catherine appears i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o the a n g e l i c C e c i l e . Indeed Catherine i s not p e r m i t t e d l o n g s l e e p i n g hours, f o r she i s the f i r s t person up i n the morning,,. Moreover, no one prepares her b r e a k f a s t ' i n advance and w a i t s on her, i n s t e a d she must make b r e a k f a s t and l u n c h f o r the r e s t o f the f a m i l y and then wake them up„. Catherine i s a l s o t h i n and p h y s i c a l l y s c a r r e d by her l i f e i n the mine, " j e l l e d ) des pi e d s b l e u i s , comme tatoues de charbon, et des bras d e ' l i c a t s , dont l a blancheur de l a i t t r a n -c h a i t sur l e t e i n t bleme du v i s a g e 9 deja gate par l e s c o n t i n u e l s lavages au savon n o i r . Un d e r n i e r b ^ i l l e m e n t o u v r l t sa bouche un peu grande, aux dents superbes dans l a paleur c h l o r o t i q u e des gen-cives$ pendant que ses yeux g r i s p l e u r a i e n t de sommeil combattu ?. avec une ex p r e s s i o n douloureuse et b r i s e e , q u i sem b l a i t e n f l e r de f a t i g u e sa nudite' e n t i e r e " ( p e 1 3 ) * L i k e a l l members o f h e r • f a m i l y s she s u f f e r s from the same anaemic palor$ thus the images o f white which describe-her have the negative connotation o f un-h e a l t h i n e s s . At home, Zach a r i e and Maheu speak h a r s h l y t o the r e s t o f the f a m i l y f o r the-words used t o describe: t h e i r tone o f voice are "grogner," " c r i e r , " a n d "gronder"* As they get up for work i n the second chapter of the n o v e l 9 the atmosphere i s d i s -t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the s i m i l a r event j u s t mentioned i n the Gregoire home. Here people are shouting at and arguing w i t h one another, and i n genera l , they are i n an angry d i s p o s i t i o n * In p a r t i c u l a r , J e a n l i n , the youngest working member i n the f a m i l y , i s presented" throughout the novel i n terms of animal imagery 9 thus as a degenerate' human being who goes about c r e a t i n g havoc and corrupt ing other c h i l d r e n . J u s t before the accident which c r i p p l e s him 5 J e a n l i n looks about for Bebert: , I I a r r i v a i t sournoisement, sans sa lampe, p i n p a i t l e camarade au sang, i n v e n t a i t des farces de mau-v a i s s inge, avec ses cheveux jaunes^ ses grandes o r e i l l e s ? son museau maigre, e c l a i r e ' de p e t i t s yeux veri ;s 9 l u i s a n t s dans 1 'obscurite". D'une pre 7-cocite" maladive, i l semblait avoir 1 ' i n t e l l i g e n c e et l a v ive adresse d'un avorton humain 9 q u i r e t o u r -n a i t \ l ' a n i m a l i t e d"or ig ine* (p.. 189). Indeed when he plans to s t e a l the f i s h from the market, he i s described as having "une adresse de be\e malfaisante et voleuse" (p* 268) . Later as he hides amid the t a l l grass to f r i g h e n Etienne who subsequently f l e e s , J e a n l i n i s presented as "Une. couleuvre" (p*. 273) c . In h i s l i t h e movements, he possesses *"[unej souplesse de serpent"" (p* 271+):9 and moves about "sournoisement"*" (p . 11*+)«•- During the scene i n which he k i l l s the young s e n t i n e l * A / J e a n l i n . •• se t r a i n a sur l e s mains avec l e renflement f e l i n de sa maigre echine"' (p„. and upon r e t u r n i n g to h i s h i d e -out , "Etienne » • • l e chassa encore* d'un coup de p i e d , a i n s i qu'une be^ te i n c o n s c i e n t e " ( p . ^11) * La M aheude's capacity for love i s the only s t a b i l i z i n g and u n i f y i n g force within t h e i r marriage. As the family slowly d i s i n t e g r a t e s before her eyes as the r e s u l t of working i n the mine j . . she alone stands beside t h e i r dead bodies 9 l amenting as i f a modern, t e a r l e s s Niobe f i g u r e . Thus as she watches the approach of the stretcher bearing Jeanlin's i n j u r e d body, " , . . i l y eut x / \ y en e l l e une s i brusque r e a c t i o n qu'elle etouffa de colere, be-gayant, sans larmes" (p, 1 9 6 ) , Later,; she s i t s beside, her hus-band's corpse, " regardant son vieux d'un a i r hebete^ (p*. ¥32)*, As Zacharie's dead body i s r a i s e d from the p i t , now reduced to a . mere piece of black c o a l , "La Maheude „ «, « s u i v a i t d'un pas machinal, l e s paupieres ardentes, sans une larme r r (p, 483)». F i n a l l y , when she sees Catherine!'sr corpse being l i f t e d from the c o l l a p s i n g p i t , "" c , . | _ e l l £ j jeta un c r i , puis un autre, puis un autre, de grandes p l a i n t e s longues, incessantes. . . . Lorsqu' • . . Etienne apparut decharne, l e s cheveux tout blancs; . . . • La Maheude s'arreta de crier.', pour l e regarder stuplde-ment, . . . (p, 512) , Indeed, throughout the novel, l a Maheude o v e r t l y reveals her concern and her love f o r her husband. For example, she and her c h i l d r e n w i l l i n g l y a n d u n s e l f i s h l y deprive themselves of meat i n order that Maheu have enough for h i s dinner; she constantly worries about h i s being k i l l e d or i n j u r e d i n a mine accident; she begs him not to believe i n Etienne''s "reve s o c i a l " ; she objects to h i s becoming involved i n the s t r i k e a c t i o n by being the delegate chosen to address: M. Hennebeau; and i n addition, she has reformed Maheu whos before his marriage, " • « . buvait en vrai cochon"" (p. 9*0. The strength which allows their marriage to withstand the hard blows of reality (pains. starvation and poverty), and thus to endure is clearly the result of the common bond of love which unites thema The bathing scene, in which l a Maheude gently rubs her husband:,s tired body reveals the tenderness, intimacy and understanding which they share in their marriage. Alone together, they quietly discuss the problems of the d'ayr begging credit from Maigrat and charity from the Gregoires, and the means of repaying them.. Later Maheu despairs over his inabilty to pro-vide for his family when he returns: home from the market without the supplies his wife requested, " i f Eh bien,. tu es gentili dit-elle. Eh mon cafe, et mon sucre, et la viande? Un morceau de veau ne t'aurait pas ruineY' I I ne repondit point, £trangle" d'une emotion qu'il renforcait. Puis dans ce visage epais d'homme, durci aux travaux des mines, i l y eut un gonflement de desespoir, et de grosses larmes creverent: des yeux, tomberent en pluie chaude. II s"etait abattu sur une chaise, i l pleurait comme un enfant, en jetant les cinquante francs.:sur la table"" (p« 185)„ C l e a r l y their marriage is not perfect for they frequently qu grrel with and shout at one another, but in terms of the rest of the mining community^ their marriage is : the most "divine"" one presented in this social class because'more than any other marriage, their relationship is based on selfless love and concern for one another rather than on self-gratifying lust*. Their marriage is surpassed only by.the Gre'goires'" according to this' criteria, and since both marriages are founded on l o v e , they are r e p r e s -e n t a t i v e o f the Edenic s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and thus r e v e a l two d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s along the s l i d i n g s c a l e o f d i v i n e s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , , ..'IChe opposite p o l e , t h a t o f demonic se x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c e n t e r s on three sub-themes?. the theme o f a d u l t e r y , the theme o f c a s t r a t i o n and the theme.of the v i r g i n which i s c e n t r a l t o a l l t r a d i t i o n a l Gothic novels,,- Negative or demonic s e x u a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s are unquestionably based on l u s t which, as one o f the seven', s i n s , seeks s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n . Once a g a i n , the p r i n c i p a l theme of s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s transcends the b a r r i e r of s o c i a l c l a s s i n t h a t demonic se x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are not r e s t r i c t e d t o merely one l e v e l o f s o c i e t y . Indeed l a Pierronne and l a Levaque, wives of the working c l a s s miners, engage i n a d u l t e r o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s as a r e s u l t of t h e i r u n s a t i s f y i n g marriages r. Throughout the n o v e l , r e f e r e n c e a f t e r r e f e r e n c e i s made t o the i l l i c i t a f f a i r s between the two women and t h e i r l o v e r s . Prom the beginning of. the book, the Dansaert-l a Pierronne r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the s u b j e c t o f m a l i c i o u s l o c a l g o s s i p f o r "Les amours du m a i t r e - p o r i o n et de l a Pierronne Etaient l a c o n t i n u e l l e p l a i s a n t e r i e de l a fosse"' (p, 50). Moreover, Dansa-e r t i s d e s c r i b e d i n sexual terms; f o r example., h i s most o u t s t a n d -i n g f e a t u r e i s "'/SrrJ gros nez sensuel"; (p,. 51), which suggests t h a t Z o l a i s working w i t h the widespread, t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f i n the nose-penis r e l a t i o n s h i p . L a t e r as Dansaert t r i e s t o deny h i s a f f a i r w i t h l a P i e r r o n n e , " «. . . son grand nez a v o u a i t l e crime s par sa rongeur subite"' (p, 3*+5). Their i l l i c i t , secret a f f a i r becomes public i n the scene where Maheu and l a Levaque peer through a crack i n the shutter at the woman and her lover as i f they are catching a glimpse a- forbidden t r a v e l l i n g c i r c u s or play, the same scene which Pierron l a t e r witnesses through the 2 half-open door. S i g n i f i c a n t l y the onlookers react with d i s -gust and contempt rather t h a n with, laughter or enjoyment. Also withini the working c l a s s society, another adulterous r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the subject of l o c a l gossip and mockery, but i t i s not devel-oped i n as much d e t a i l or to the point.of overt discovery: the "menage a t r o i s " ' of the Levaques a n d t h e i r boarder, Bouteloup* Despite t h e i r f i n a n c i a l success and se c u r i t y , the Hennebeaus have an unhappy marriage. Just a f t e r the s t r i k e begins, as Mme Hennebeau discusses with her husband her plans for Paul and C e c i l e " s wedding, we learn f o r the f i r s t time of the troubled course of t h e i r m a r r i e d ' l i f e . Indeed, although Madame Hennebeau i s described as being sexually a t t r a c t i v e , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p remains u n f u l f i l l e d : II l a regarda, , , , et son visage dur et forme' d''homme de d i s c i p l i n e exprima l a secr&te-douleur d'un coeur meurtri, E l l e e"tait restee l e s e^paules nues, de'j^ trop mure, mais elegante et desirable encore, avec sa carrure de Ce'res, doreV par l'automae* Un in s t a n t , i l dut avoir l e ddsir b r u t a l de l a prendre, de rouler sa t$te entre ses deux seins qu'elle e'clatait, d'un luxe de femme sensuelie, et l'on t r arenait un parfum i r r i -tant de muse,; mais i l se re c u l a , depuis dix anne'es l e menage f a i s a i t chambre £ part, (pp., 200-201) The comparison of Madame Hennebeau with £&res, the Roman goddess of a g r i c u l t u r e or harvest, c l e a r l y suggests one of Z o l a r s four gospels. Fecundity. However, t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p remains uncon-summated "because t h e i r marriage i s not a union of two souls or minds, hence a union based on love, but rather t h e i r s i s the union'of two fortunes,, Their marriage i s described as, " . . . un de ces coups de fortune qui sont l a regie pour l e corps des nines:, . .- ""'(p. 201)'.. Unhappy with l i f e i n a small mining town and-with a husband who lacks ambition, Madame Hennebeau shares no bond of love, no common i n t e r e s t with her partner i n marriage: TJne i r r i t a t i o n croissante de'tachait Madame Hennebeau, -elevee dans le respect de l 1 argent, de'daigneuse de . ce mari qui gagnait durement ses appointements medio-; cres, et don^ e l l e ne t i r a i t aucune des s a t i s f a c t i o n s vaniteuses revees en pension. . . Le desaccord n 1 a v a i t f a i t que grandir, aggrave par un de ces s i n -, g u l i e r s malentendus de l a chair qui glacent l e s plus ardents:- ^ i l adorait sa femme, e l l e e t a i t d'une sensualite de blonde gourmande, et deje i l s - c o u c h e i e n t a part, mai a^  I'aise- tout de suite blesses. E l l e eut'dds l o r s un-amant, q u ' i l ignora. (p. 201) As he r i d e s through the streets' of Montsou during the s t r i k e , M. Hennebeau reveals h i s desire for a complete sexual r e l a t i o n -ship, "" . . . i l tombait l e plus souvent sur des amoureux qui se moquaient de l a p o l i t i q u e et se bourraient de p l a i s i r , .dans l e s coins. Au t r o t de sa jument, l a tete droite pour ne derangef personne, i l p a s s a i t , tandis que son coeur se g o n f l a i t d'un besoin inassouvi, a^  travers cette goinferie des amours l i b r e s " (p„. 269 ) 0 - Moreover, he envies the working class people who can at l e a s t indulge f r e e l y i n sexual passion which although i t costs nothing, i s the one pleasure i n l i f e which i s ina c c e s s i b l e t o him; I I a v a i t rencontre^des couples, 0 • „ . Encore des g a l a n t s q u i a l l a ^ e n t l a "bouche s u r - l a bouche, prendre du p l a i s i r d e r r l e r e l e s murs. N'etaient-ce pas l a ses rencontres h a b i t u e l l e s , des f i l l e s . culbute'es au fond de chaque^fosse, des gueux se boijrrant de l a seule j o i e q u i ne c o u t a i t r i e n ? E t ces i m b e c i l e s se p l a i -gnaient de l a v i e , l o r s q u ' i l s a v a i e n t , a p l e i n e s ventrtfes, c et unique bonheur de s'aimer j i V o l o n t i e r s , i l a u r a i t cr.eve de fa i m comme eux, s ' i l - a v a i t pu recommencer 1'existence avec une femme q u i se s e r g i t donnee aN l u i sur des c a i l l o u x , de tous ses r e i n s et.de t o u t son coeur. x Son malheur e'tait sans c o n s o l a t i o n , i l e n v i a i t ces m.is,erables 0' La te^te basse, i l r e n t r a i t , . . . desespere par ces longs b r u i t s , perdus au fond de l a campagne n o i r e , et ou i l n'entendait que des b a i s e r s . (p. 283) -F i n a l l y , as the angry women march i n p r o t e s t i n f r o n t of t h e i r home, M. Hennebeau i n w a r d l y d e s i r e s t o give up h i s f o r t u n e i n .exchange f o r a s a t i s f y i n g s exual r e l a t i o n s h i p , " I I l e u r en a u r a i t f a i t cadeau V o l o n t i e r s , de ses gros appointements, pour a v o i r , comme eux, l e c u i r dur, 1'accouplement f a c i l e et sans r e g r e t . Que ne p o u v a i t - i l l e s a s s e o i r aN sa t a b l e , l e s empater de son f a i -san, t s n d i s q u ' i l s'en a l l a i t f o r n i q u e r d e r r i e r e l e s h a i e s , c u l -buter' des f i l l e s , en se moquant de ceux q u i l e s a v a i e n t culbute'es a v a n t l u i I I I a u r a i t t o u t donne, . . . s ' i l a v a i t pu e t r e , une journee, l e d e r n i e r des m i s e r a b l e s q u i l u i o b e i s s a i e n t , l i b r e de sa c h a i r , assez goujat pour g i f l e r da femme et prendre du p l a i s i r sur l e s v o i s i n e s . . . . AhT v i v r e en b r u t e , , . „ b a t t r e l e s b l e s avec l a herscheuse l a plus l a i d e , l a p l u s s a l e , et etr e capable de s'en contenter" (p. 355). Although both i n d i v i d u a l s d e s i r e a complete sexual r e l a t i o n -s h i p , o n l y Madame Hennebeau a c t u a l l y seeks a l o v e r . Bored w i t h her l i f e i n the e x i l e of Montsou and tr u e t o her Ceres n a t u r e , she i s immediately a t t r a c t e d t o her nephew, P a u l , and w i l l i n g l y serves as h i s surrogate mother, " j e l l e ^ , t o u t de s u i t e , a v a i t p r i s un r o l e de bonne t a n t e , t u t o y a n t son neveu, v e i l l a n t a son b i e n - e t r e 0 Les premiers mois s u r t o u t , e l l e montra une mat e r n i t e debordante de c o n s e i l s , aux moindres s u j e t s , Mais e l l e r e s t a i t femme pour t a n t , e l l e g l i s s a i t a des confidences p e r s o n n e l l e s " (p.. 203>. U n t i l the scene i n which her husband d i s c o v e r s w i t h great shock the t r u t h of her i n f i d e l i t y , there i s no e x p l i c i t l i n k between Madame Hennebeau and N e g r e l . Her plans f o r h i s marriage t o Ce'cile serve as an e x c e l l e n t d i s g u i s e f o r her a d u l t -erous r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her nephew i n t h a t the time she spends w i t h the young couple appears t o be- spent i n the u n s e l f i s h i n t e r -e s t of u n i t i n g the young couple. J u s t before M, Hennebeau f i n d s h i s wife^'s ether f l a s k i n Paul's bed, the References t o heat and perfume suggest the sexual p a s s i o n which h i s w i f e f e e l s f o r her nephew, " I I 'regnait Is! une chaleur morte, l a chaleur enfermee de de toute une n u i t , alour.di par l a bouche du c a l o r i f e r e , r e s t e ouverte; e t ^ M. Hennebeau^ tut p r i s aux marines, i l suffoqua dans un parfum p e n e t r a n t , , q u ' i l c r u t e t r e I'odeur des eaux de t o i l e t t e , • Un grand desordre encombrait l a p i ^ c e , . . . "" '3 ' (p« 327)o- Wondering how t o handle the s i t u a t i o n , he i s overcome by " „ « « l e u r s s o u p i r s , «< • . l e u r s h a l e i n e s confondue.s dont s ' a l o u r d i s s a i t j l a tie'deur moite de c e t t e chambre; li'odeur penetrante q u i 1 ' a v a i t suffoque, c ' e t a i t 1''odeur de muse que l a peau de l a femme e x h a l a i t , un a u t r e gout p e r v e r s , un besoin c h a m e l , I'odeur de l a f o r n i c a t i o n , l''adultere v i v a n t , ..«,.. dans l e desordre de l a piece e n t i e r e , empestee de v i c e " (p c 330)» Immediately •upon discovering " l e l i t chaud encore de l^adulte^re"' (p„ 328), M. Hennebeau r e c a l l s with great pain: Le long passe'de souffrance » 0 » son mariage avec cette femme, leur malentendu lmmediat de coeur et de chairo l e s amants qu'elle a v a i t eus ^ajas q u ' i l s'en doutat, c e l u i q u ' i l l u i a)(ait t o l e r e pendant dix ans, comme on tolere un gout immonde a* une maladeo o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o * . Maintenant une rage 1'envahissait, l e besoin cl'un cloaque, pour y enfoncer, de t e l l e s saletes & coup • de talono Cette femme e t a i t une salope, o o o o L'idee brusque du mariage qu'elle poursuivait d'un sourire s i ^ t r a n q u i l l e r entre C e c i l e et Paul, acheva de l'exasperer 0 JJL n.'.y a v a i t done plus de p 8 s s i o n , plus-de jalousie,, au fond de cette sensualite vivace? Ce n'<*etait ^ cette heure qu'un joujou pervers, „ . • E t i l 1'accusait de tout,.- i l innocentait presque ^'enfant, auquel e l l e avait mordu, dans ce re'veil d^appelbit,: a i n s i qu'on mord au premier f r u i t v e r t , vol<T sur l a route e ~ (pp« 328-29) C l e a r l y then, the Hennebeau marriage, which as t h e i r surname implies i s b u i l t on "haine" rather than on love, remains an un-f u l f i l l e d sexual relationship- of which the r e s u l t i s unhappiness, a l i e n a t i o n and u l t i m a t e l y adultery. Thus t h e i r marriage can be classed as demonic i n that i t d i s i n t e g r a t e s and descends to the the l e v e l of t o t a l l y l u s t f u l g r a t i f i c a t i o n The second sub-theme of the demonic sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s the theme' of. c a s t r a t i o n which Zola expresses both l i t e r a l l y and symbolically i n Germinal as the destruction of the bourgeois, c a p i t a l i s t movemento Maigrat d e f i n i t e l y belongs to the bourgeois s o c i a l order- i n that he owns the l o c a l grocery store and as a r e s u l t of very shrewd business transactions, he has destroyed a l l competition and gained a monopoly over a l l l o c a l business: Ancien s u r v e i l l a n t au ;Voreux, i l a v a i t debute par une £troite cantine; puis, grace as l a protection de ses chefs, son commerce s * e t a i t e"largi, tuant' peu £ peu le d e t a i l de Montsou. II c e n t r a l l s a i t l e s marchandises, l a c l i e n t e l e considerable des corons l u i permettait de vendre moins cher et de f a i r e des c r e d i t s plus grands. D ' a i l l e u r s , i l e'tait reste dans l a main de l a Compaghie,- qui l u i a v a i t b a t i sa petite maison et'son magasin. Cp. 89) In terms of his r e l a t i o n s h i p with his customers, Maigrat i s presented as being a sexually potent male who copulates with the weak and receptive female. From the moment of the f i r s t appearance in the novel of Maigrat and his wife, an important / fa c t i s established, "On r a c o n t a i t qu'elle cedait l e l i t conju-gal aux herscheuses de l a c l i e n t e l e . C e t a i t un f a i t connu: quand un mineur v o u l a i t une prolongation de c r e d i t , 11 n'avait qu'a envoyer sa f i l l e ou sa femme, laides. ou b e l l e s , pourvu qu'elles fussent complaisantes" (p. 90). Moreover, when l a Maheude f i n a l l y succeeds i n begging c r e d i t from the grocer and returns with provisions and money, she r e a l i z e s that according to Maigrat's system, payment for c r e d i t i s made i n the form of . p r o s t i t u t i o n . Although when she f i r s t begs c r e d i t from Maigrat, he undresses her with his l u s t f u l eyes,\ she recognizes a f t e r r e c e i v i n g the goods that "Ce n ' e t a i t pas d' e l l e q u ' i l v o u l a i t , e ' e t a i t de Catherine: e l l e l e comprit, q.uand i l l u i recommanda d'envoyer sa f i l l e chercher les provisions" (p. 96). Later, as the women make t h e i r f i r s t but unsuccessful march to Maigrat's' shop i n search of extended c r e d i t , ". .'• . i l o f f r i t sa boutique a l a flrul^, s i e l l e ' l e prenait pour galant" (p. 260). During the c r u c i a l march of protest of the angered wives of the impoverished m i n e r s , E t i e n n e urges the rampant crowd t o storm M a i g r a t ' s shop i f they want bread, f o r the a v a r i c i o u s M a i g r a t and h i s w i f e w i l l p a r t w i t h n o t h i n g f o r the sake o f c h a r i t y . Indeed as the marchers approach, he and h i s w i f e r i s k t h e i r own l i v e s i n order t o p r o t e c t t h e i r goods. A f t e r M a i g r a t ' s death, the s t i l l angry women achieve t h e i r revenge on the bo u r g e o i s c a p i t a l i s t s i n a scene o f l i t e r a l c a s t r a t i o n , ". . . l e s femmes a v a i e n t a t i r e r de l u i d ' a u t r e s vengeances. E l l e s t o u r n a i e n t en l e f l a i r a n t , p a r e i l l e s a des l o u v e s . Toutes c h e r c h a i e n t un outrage, une sauvagerie q u i l e s s o u l a g e a t " (p. 3 6 9 ) . La B r f i l e , whose v e r y name suggests mad p a s s i o n , p r o u d l y commits the most d e s t r u c t i v e and the most c r u c i a l a c t — the l i t e r a l e m a s c u l a t i o n o f M a i g r a t . As a group, the women l a u g h i n g l y march through the s t r e e t d i s p l a y i n g the g r o c e r ' s d i s -membered organ, " E l l e s se m o n t r a i e n t l e lambeau s a n g l a n t , comme une bete mauvaise, dont chacune a v a i t eu a s o u f f r i r , e t q u ' e l l e s v e n a i e n t d'e'craser e n f i n , q u ' e l l e s V o y a i e n t l a , i n e r t e , en l e u r p o u v o i r " (p. 3 5 2 ) • Thus, the women ac h i e v e t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l triumph over one m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the much hated c a p i t a l i s t power. Now the r o l e s have been r e v e r s e d i n t h a t the miners, who-have be-come human b e a s t s i n the hands o f t h e i r .oppressors, r i s e a g a i n s t the b o u r g e o i s owners and d e s t r o y Maigrat' as i f he were a v i c i o u s b e a s t and not a human b e i n g , "Des go u t t e s de sang p l e u v a i e n t , c e t t e c h a i r lamentable p e n d a i t , comme un dechet de viande 'a lle-t a l dTun boucher. . . . . . . quand l a bande des femmes g a l - . opa, avec l a bete mauvaise, l a b i t e e'crasee, au bout du baton" 8 (p. 3 5 2 ) . M a i g r a t ' s demonic q u a l i t y i s expressed s y m b o l i c a l l y ho throughout h i s death scene i n t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l c o l o r s o f H e l l , r e d and b l a c k , c o n t r a s t s h a r p l y w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l c o l o r o f Heaven, w h i t e , "Ces d e m o i s e l l e s , t r e s p a l e s , ne ques-t i o n n a i e n t p l u s , s u i v a i e n t de l e u r s grands yeux c e t t e v i s i o n / \ 9 rouge, au fond des t e n e b r e s " ( p . 353)^ and l a t e r when the p o l i c e a r r i v e , "Le cadavre de M a i g r a t f a i s a i t s e u l une tache d'ombre sur l a t e r r e b l a n c h e " (pp. 370-71). Moreover, t h i s scene, bathed i n b l o o d and darkness which concludes the f i f t h p a r t o f the n o v e l ends w i t h a t r a d i t i o n a l e v o c a t i o n o f the f i r e s o f H e l l , "La p l a i n e se n o y a i t sous 1'epaisse n u i t , i l n'y a v a i t p l u s que l e s hauts fourneuux e t l e s f o u r s a coke incendi'e's au f o n d du c i e l t r a g i q u e " ( p . 371). S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the image o f " l a bete mauvaise" which c h a r -a c t e r i z e s M a i g r a t i s one o f the major metaphors used t o d e s c r i b e l e i V o r e u x , the symbol o f c a p i t a l i s t power and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Indeed from the f i r s t chapter on, l e 'Voreux i s p r e s e n t e d as a . greedy c a r n i v e r o u s b e a s t , "Cette f o s s e , t a s s e e au fond d'un creux, avec ses c o n s t r u c t i o n s t r a p u e s de b r i q u e s , d r e s s a n t sa cheminee comme une corne mena^ante, l u i s e m b l a i t a v o i r un a i r mauvais de b^ete g o u l u e , a c c r o u p i e l a pour manger l e monde" ( p . h), A / / which ". . . avec son tassement de bete mechante, s ' e c r a s a i t davantage, r e s p i r a i t d'une h a l e i n e p l u s grosse e t plus longue, l ' a i r gene par sa d i g e s t i o n p e n i b l e de c h a i r humaine" (p. 12). As.the miners make t h e i r d a i l y descent i n t o the p i t , " . . . l e p u i t s a v a l a i t des hommes par bouchees de v i n g t e t de t r e n t e , d'un coup de g o s i e r s i f a c i l e , q u ' i l s e m b l a i t ne pas l e s s e n t i r p a s s e r . . . . Pendant une demi-heure, l e p u i t s en devora de l a s o r t e , d'une gueule p l u s ou moins glouto n n e , s e l o n l a profondeur de 1'accrochage ou i l s d e s c e n d a i e n t , mais sans un a r r e t , t o u j o u r s affame, de boyaux geants c a p a b l e s de d i g e r e r un peu p l e " (pp. 24-25) . C l e a r l y the words used t o d e s c r i b e the p i t imply i t s a n i m a l i t y . ' Moreover as an asp e c t o f i t s b e s t i a l i t y , the mine, l i k e M a i g r a t , i s p r e s e n t e d s y m b o l i c a l l y as a v i t a l masculine l i f e f o r c e which c o p u l a t e s w i t h the feminine e a r t h . Z o l a , who o v e r t l y s t a t e d i n a l e t t e r t o Ce'ard t h a t i n Germinal he con-s c i o u s l y worked w i t h i n a symbolic framework, appears t o use F r e u d i a n p h a l l i c symbols t o some degree. A l t h o u g h Z o l a was v e r y d e f i n i t e l y p r e - F r e u d , a F r e u d i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s no-v e l i s p o s s i b l e f o r as Z o l a i n s i s t e d , "fe'condite" or s e x u a l i t y was one of h i s f o u r g o s p e l s . Indeed, i n F r e u d i a n terms, the chimney o f l e Woreux c l e a r l y f u n c t i o n s as a masculine p h a l l i c symbol, "Cette f o s s e , tasse'e au fo n d d'un creux, . . . d r e s s LgJ sa cheminee comme une corne menacante" (p. 4 ) . And throughout the n o v e l , r e f e r e n c e a f t e r r e f e r e n c e i s made t o the u p r i g h t chimney as being one of the most c r u c i a l f e a t u r e s of the mine. In a d d i t i o n , the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the moving water w i t h i n the- p i t has d i s t i n c t masculine s e x u a l overtones a c c o r d i n g t o a F r e u d i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , "Etienne se demandait justement q u e l e'tait ce b r u i t d'averse. Quelques g r o s s e s g o u t t e s a v a i e n t d'abord sonne sur l e t o i t de l a cage, comme au deVut d'une ondee; e t , main-t e n a n t , l a p l u i e augmentait, r u i s s e l a i t , se c h a n g e a i t en un v e r -i t a b l e d e l u g e . Sans doute, l a t o i t u r e e t a i t t r o u e e , ear un f i l e t d'eau, c o u l a n t sur son epaule, l e t r e m p a i t jusqu'a l a c h a i r " (p. 3 2 ) . When combines w i t h the a c t u a l time scheme of the n o v e l , the images of r a i n and storms i n d i c a t e the f e c u n d i t y of s p r i n g a t which time l i f e i s c o n c e i v e d . Indeed, s i t u a t e d above ground and near the entrance to l e Voreux, the evergreen f i e l d s o f R e q u i l l a r t f l o u r i s h amid the d r e a r y w a s t e l a n d and serve throughout the n o v e l as the s i t e of human c o p u l a t i o n and l u s t -f u l a n i m a l - l i k e , p a s s i o n : ce c o i n de t e r r e , s ' e t a l a i t en herbe e p a i s s e , j a i l -l i s s a i t en jeunes a r b r e s deja" f o r t s . A u s s i chaque f i l l e s'y t r o u v a i t - e l l e chez e l l e , i l y a v a i t des des t r o u s perdus j^our t o u t e s , . . . . . . E t i l s e m b l a i t que ce f u t • . . une revanche de l a c r e a -t i o n , l e l i b r e amour q u i , sous l e coup de f o u e t de l ' i n s t i n c t , p l a n t a i t des e n f a n t s dans l e s v e n t r e s de f i l l e s , a* peine femmes. (pp. 125-26) S i m i l a r l y , i n the s p r i n g - t i m e w o r l d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the n o v e l , the e a r t h i s p r e s e n t e d i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l m a t e r n a l r o l e , the f e -cund womb o f a l l n a t u r a l l i f e about t o c o n c e i v e through the a c -t i o n of the f e r t i l i z i n g water, f l o w i n g i n the p i t , "Le printemps e t a i t venu. E t i e n n e , . . . a v a i t r e c u a" l a f a c e c e t t e b o u f f e e • ? t i e d e d ' a v r i l , une bonne odeur de t e r r e jeune, de verdure t e n d r e , de grand a i r pur; et, maintenant, a chaque s o r t i e , le p r i n -temps sen t a i t meilleur et le c h a u f f a i t davantage, . . . en mai, . . . le c i e l vermeil e c l a i r a i t le Voreux d'une poussiere d'aurore, ou l a vapeur blanche des ^ chappements mon-t a i t toute rose. . . . En j u i n , l e s bles t t a i e n t grands de^a^, d'un vert bleu qui tranchait sur l e vert noir des bette-raves. C'e t a i t une mer sans f i n , ondulante au moindre vent, . . . . . . . toute une vie germait, j a i l l i s s a i t de cette t e r r e , . . . " (pp. 138-39). S i g n i f i c a n t l y then, the masculine mine, which deep down i n the feminine earth ingests i t s d i e t of human bodies and which i s described throughout the novel i n sexual terms, serves as an enormous womb i n which the foetus develops. In Zola's terms, the o f f s p r i n g which w i l l r e s u l t from from the symbolic sexual union of the mine and the earth i s s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n ; indeed the novel closes on t h i s note, thus i n s i s t i n g on Zola's viewpoint: 2-laintenant, en p l e i n c i e l , l e s o l e i l d ' a v r i l ray-onnait dans sa g l o i r e , e'cnauffant l a terre qui. en-f a n t a i t . Du f l a n c n o u r r i c i e r j a i l l i s s a i t l a v i e , le s bourgeons crevaient en f e u i l l e s vertes, l e s champs t r e s s a i l l a i e n t de l a pousse"e des herbes. De toutes parts, des graines se gon f l a i e n t , s ' a l -longeaient, ger^aient l a plaine, t r a v a i l l ^ e s d'un besoin de chaleur et de lumiere. Un debordement de seve c o u l a i t avec des voix chuchotantes, le b r u i t des germes s'e^pandait en un grand baiser. . . '. Aux rayons enflamme's de l ' a s t r e , par cette matinee de jeunesse, c ' e t a i t de cette ru-meur que l a campagne e'tait grosse. Des hommes poussaient, une a mile noire, vengeresse, qui ger-mait lentement dan^ l e s s i l l o n s , grandissant pour les r l c o l t e s du s i e c l e f u t u r , et dont l a germina-ti o n a l l a i t f a i r e bient&t eclater l a t e r r e . (p. 525) . As a symbol of bourgeois oppression and capitalism, le >Voreux stands alone w i t h i t s t a l l chimney marking the landscape which i t hathes i n soot and smoke. U l t i m a t e l y the mine i s des-t r o y e d f o l l o w i n g Souvarine's a c t of sabotage and crumbles t o d u s t . S i g n i f i c a n t l y the event f u n c t i o n s s y m b o l i c a l l y as a c a s -t r a t i o n scene which p a r a l l e l s the f i n a l d e s t r u c t i o n through e m a s c u l a t i o n of the other "bete mediante," M a i g r a t . C l e a r l y ' a t t h i s p o i n t i n the n o v e l the major p h a l l i c symbol, the chimney, c o l l a p s e s as i t f a l l s i n t o dust on the ground. And a f t e r a s e r i e s o f v i o l e n t earthquakes-like movements, the mine i s t o t -a l l y d e s t r o y e d or s y m b o l i c a l l y c a s t r a t e d : D'abord, une s o r t e de t o u r b i l l o n emporta l e s d e b r i s du c r i b l a g e e t de l a s a l l e de r e c e t t e . Le batiment des c h a u d i l r e s c r e v a ^ e n s u i t e , d i s p ^ r u t . P u i s , ce f u t Is t o u r e l l e c a r r e e ou r a l a i t l a pompe d'dpuise-ment, q u i tomba sur l a ' f a c e , . . . . E t l ' o n v i t a l o r s une e f f r a y a n t e chose, on v i t l a machine, d i s -loqu.c'e sur son m a s s i f , l e s membres e c a r t e l e s , l u t t e r contre l a mort: e l l e marcha, e l l e d e t e n d i t sa b i e l l e , son genou de g'eante, comme i^our se l e v e r ; mais e l l e e x p i r a i t , broye^e^ e n g l o u t i e . S e u l e , l a haute chemine'e de treni^e metres r e s t a i t debout, se-coue'e, p a r e i l l e a un mat dans 1'ouragan. On c r o y -" a l t q u ' e l l e a l l a i t s ' e m i e t t e r e t v o l e r en poudre, l o r s q u e , t o u t d'un coup, e l l e s'enfonca ..d'un b l o c , bue par l a t e r r e , fondue a i n s i qu'un cie'rge c o l o s s a l ; . . . . C ' e t a i t f i n l , l a b t t e mauvaise, aec r o u p i e dans ce creux, gorgee de c h a i r humaine, ne s o u f f l a i t p l u s de son h a l e i n e grosse e t longue. Tout e n t i e r l e :-Voreux v e n a i t de c o u l e r a" l'abime. (p. 473) * In a d d i t i o n to the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the chimney, the verb " e x p i -r e r " a l s o has s e x u a l undertones which again suggest s e x u a l d e a t h . The v o l c a n o imagery which d e s c r i b e s the symbolic c a s t -r a t i o n of the mine suggests a masculine s e x u a l f o r c e ; f o r ex-ample, as the s h a f t crumbles, ".' . . l a t e r r e ne cessa de trem-b l e r , l e s secousses se s u c c e d a i e n t , . . . des grondements de volcan en eruption" (p. Li - 7 D . Once the walls collapse, ". . . le cratere s'emplit, un lac d'eau boueuse occupa l a place ou e t a i t naguere le »Voreux, . . . " (p. k7k), and f i n a l l y , "Ce torrent de flamme . . . j a i l l i t au grand jour en une erup-tion', qui crachait des roches et des debris de charpente" (p . ^ 8 2 ) . Whereas the l i t e r a l c a s tration of Maigrat represents an i n d i v i d u a l or small v i c t o r y over the s t e a d i l y encroaching power of capitalism, the symbolic.castration of the mine s i g n i f i e s a much greater and more vast conquest f o r the symbol of the mine embodies a whole series of i n j u s t i c e s , truths which Zola i s at pains to declaim. By reducing the p i t to a mere mound of dust and debris, there i s thus strong grounds for the o p t i m i s t i c be-'-l i e f in a new j u s t society which w i l l be born i n the future. And although the mine i s emasculated at the end of the novel, i t s l o s s of sexual force comes a f t e r i t s copulation with the earth. As a r e s u l t , the foetus of s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n has indeed been conceived within the giant womb of the earth and w i l l be born i n the future. Central to a l l Gothic novels i s the theme of the v i r g i n which i n Germinal i s the t h i r d and f i n a l sub-theme under the general theme of demonic sexual r e l a t i o n s . The theme of the v i r g i n embodies both poles of the v e r t i c a l perspective i n that the v i r g i n i s indeed, as Emily Bronte aptly states i n a poem,"**^  the earth which by arousing a human heart to either p o s i t i v e or negative f e e l i n g centers the worlds of Heaven and H e l l . In the t r a d i t i o n a l Gothic novel, such as prevailed in England around the t u r n of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a v e r y young, v i r g i n a l g i r l i s i m p r i s o n e d i n a dark, l a b y r i n t h i n e , d e c a ying c a s t l e where a demonic and powerful male f i g u r e who i s t o t a l l y g i v e n over t o v i o l e n c e , sadism and l u s t c o n s t a n t l y t h r e a t e n s t o rape her and thus l e a d her i n t o an e x i s t e n c e s i m i l a r t o l i f e i n the' underworld. At the same time, the g i r l i s a t t r a c t e d to a another man who, by comparison, i s " d i v i n e " male f i g u r e i n t h a t he o f f e r s her l o v e r a t h e r than l u s t and as a r e s u l t , o f f e r s her a heavenly e x i s t e n c e . Fom the b e g i n n i n g o f the n o v e l , l e Voreux i s p r e s e n t e d as the t y p i c a l g o t h i c c a s t l e : a dark l a b y r i n t h i n e and decaying p r i s o n - l i k e s t r u c t u r e which a l s o resembles the c l a s s i c a l des-c r i p t i o n of the underworld i n Dante's I n f e r n o or of H e l l i n the B i b l e . Moreover, i n t h i s m a l e v o l e n t , demonic environment, three young v i r g i n s are c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g t o r n between the v e r t i c a l p o l e s o f Heaven and H e l l which t h e i r l o v e r s r e p r e s e n t : J e a n l i n and B e b e r t both d e s i r e t o possess L y d i e , Bonnemort and N e g r e l v i e f o r C e c i l e , and l a s t l y , C h a v a l and E t i e n n e c o n s t a n t l y s t r u g g l e t o possess C a t h e r i n e . Moreover the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e b e h i n d the demonic male f i g u r e i n each of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s sadism. From the b e g i n n i n g scenes, Z o l a s t r e s s e s the l a b y r i n t h i n e s t r u c t u r e o f l e >Voreux, and d u r i n g E t i e n n e ' s i n i t i a l descent i n t o the p i t , these metaphors become most e x p l i c i t , " . . . i l v o y a g e a i t dans un dedale d ' e s c a l i e r s e t de c o u l o i r s o b s c u r s " (p. 29). Indeed h i s entrance i n t o the p i t i s c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e d i n s i m i l a r terms t o the c l a s s i c a l descent i n t o the dark abyss o f the underworld, " E n f i n , une secousse l ' e b r a n l a , e t t o u t sombra, l e s o b j e t s autour de l u i s ' e n v o l e r e n t ; t a n d i s q u ' i l e p r o u v a i t un v e r t i g e anxieux de chute, q u i l u i t l r a i t l e s en-t r a i l l e s . Cela dura t a n t q u ' i l f u t au j o u r , f r a n c h i s s a n t l e s deux etages des r e c e t t e s , au m i l i e u de l a f u i t e tournoyante des c h a r p e n t e s . P u i s , tombe dans l e n o i r de l a f o s s e , i l r e s t a e t o u r d i , n'ayant p l u s l a p e r c e p t i o n n e t t e de ses s e n s a t i o n s " (p. 3 D - H i s f a l l i n t o the underworld p a r a l l e l s Satan's f a l l i n t o the descending s p i r a l i n P a r a d i s e L o s t Z o l a g i v e s the i m p r e s s i o n i n Germinal t h a t the mine i s a c o m p l i c a t e d m a z e - l i k e s t r u c t u r e s i m i l a r t o the t y p i c a l g o t h i c c a s t l e and i s composed o f l a y e r upon l a y e r o f narrow passages. For example, d u r i n g E t i e n n e ' s f i r s t day i n the p i t , he and the other miners move alon g towards t h e i r own seam, "Les o u v r i e r s se s e p a r a i e n t , se p e r d a i e n t par groupes, au f o n d de ces t r o u s n o i r s . Une q u i n -z a i n e v e n a i e n t de s'engager dans c e l u i de gauche; . . . P l u s l o i n , u n c a r r e f o u r se p r e s e n t a , deux n o u v e l l e s g a l e r i e s s ' o u v r a i e n t , e t l a bande s'y d i v i s a encore, l e s o u v r i e r s se r e -p a r t i s s a i e n t peu a peu dans tous l e s c h a n t i e r s de l a mine" (pp. 33-31+)« Thus the Maheu group climbs from seam to seam i n s e a r c h of t h e i r s i t e , " . . . l a t a i l l e de Maheu e t c o n s o r t s e t a i t a l a sixieme v o i e , dans l ' e n f e r , a i n s i q u ' i l s d i s a i e n t ; e t , de quinze metres en quinze metres, l e s v o i e s se superpos-a i e n t , l a montee n'en f i n i s s a i t p l u s " (p. 35) , and l a t e r , "Ce c o n v o i sous 1© t e r r e , au m i l i e u des e p a i s s e s t e n e b r e s , n-len f i n i s s a i t p l u s , l e l o n g des g a l e r i e s q u i b i f u r q u a i e n t , t o u r - . n a i e n t , se de'roulaient" (p. 1 9 3 ) . A t the end of the n o v e l , as the p i t c o l l a p s e s around them and c l o s e s o f f the paths l e a d i n g out, C a t h e r i n e , E t i e n n e ^ Mou que and B a t a i l l e i n s p i t e o f t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the i n t r i c a t e passages a l l l o s e t h e i r sense o f d i r e c t i o n as they run madly from dead end t o dead end i n s e a r c h of a way out, "Les a u t r e s c o n t i n u e r e n t a g a l o p e r d e r r i e r e l e p^re Mouque, q u i a v a i t g r a n d i au fond de R e q u i l l a r t . P o u r t a n t , i l h e s i t a i t lui-meme, ne s a v a i t par ou t o u r n e r . Les t e t e s s'e'-g a r a i e n t , l e s a n c i e n s ne r e c o n n a i s s a i e n t p l u s l e s v o i e s , dont l'/che v e a u s' e ' t a i t comme e m b r o u i l l e devant eux. A chaque b i f u r -c a t i o n , une i n c e r t i t u d e l e s a r r e t a i t c o u r t , . . . " ( p . * + 9 2 ) . A l s o l i k e the g o t h i c c a s t l e , l e 'Voreux i s p r e s e n t e d as a n o i s y , stormy p r i s o n , p r o t e c t e d d u r i n g the s t r i k e by p o s t e d s e n t i n e l s . As E t i e n n e makes h i s i n i t i a l d e s c e n t by cage i n t o the p i t , he passes through the complex i r o n s c a f f o l d i n g which supports the e x c a v a t i o n , " l e s rampes de f e r , l e s l e v i e r s des signaux e t des v e r r o u s , l e s m a d r i e r s des g u i d e s , ou g l i s s a i e n t l e s deux cages" (p. 2 3 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the miners descend i n t o and a r i s e from the p i t i n i r o n cages which are l i k e i n d i v i d u a l p r i s o n c e l l s , "La cage, . . . g a r n i e de bandes de t o l e e t d'un g r i l l a g e a1 p e t i t e s m a i l l e s , l e s a t t e n d a i t , d'aplomb sur l e s v e r -r o u s " (p. 3 1 ) . Indeed w h i l e working, the miners are im p r i s o n e d between, the c l o s e w a l l s o f the seam, " . . . c e t t e v e i n e e t a i t s i mince, e'paisse a peine en c e t e n d r o i t de cinquante c e n t i m e t r e q u ' i l s se t r o u v a i e n t l a comme a p l a t i s e n t r e l e t o i t e t l e mur, se t r a i n a n t des genoux e t coudes, ne pouvant se r e t o u r n e r sans se m e u r t r i r l e s e'paules" (p. 37) . T h e i r p r i s o n i s , however, not an i n s t i t u t i o n o f c o r r e c t i o n and punishment "but r a t h e r a t r a p i n t o which poverty condemns them; f o r as l a Maheude s t a t e s , , '"Quand on e s t jeune, on s'imagine que l e bonheur v i e n d r a , . . . e t p u i s , l a misere recommence t o u j o u r s , on r e s t e enferme l a -d edans... 1" (p. 168). And c l e a r l y as the n o v e l c l o s e s , " . . . t o u t l ' o b s c u r t r a v a i l du bagne s o u t e r r a i n " ( p. 52k) begins once more. Again and again the re a d e r becomes aware of the harsh n o i s e s which come from the p i t ; as E t i e n n e descends i n t o the mine, ". . . une emotion desagreable l e s e r r a i t a l a gorge, dans l e t o n n e r r e des b e r l i n e s , l e s coups sourds des signaux, l e beu-glement e t o u f f e e du p o r t e - v o i x T.,.(p. 3 0 ) . Moreover, the morning of h i s a r r i v a l i n Montsou, he i s p u z z l e d by ". . . I'e'chappement de l a pompe, c e t t e r e s p i r a t i o n grosse e t longue, s o u f f l a n t sans r e l a c h e , q u i e t a i t comme l ' h a l e i n e engorgee du monstre" (p. k). Le 'Voreux i s a l s o the p r i s o n i n a s t a t e o f r u i n s f o r only t h r e e weeks a f t e r the s t r i k e b e g i n s , " C ' e t a i t 1'usine morte, ce v i d e e t c e t abandon des grands c h a n t i e r s , ou d o r t l e t r a v a i l . . . . En bas, . l e s t o c k de charbon s'e ' p u i s a i t , l a i s s a n t l a t e r r e nue e t n o i r e ; t a n d i s que l a p r o v i s i o n des b o i s p o u r r i s s a i t sous l e s a v e r s e s . . . . sur l e t e r r i d e s e r t , . . . l e s s u l -f u r e s decomposes fumaient malgre l a p l u i e , . . . . . . E t , au-dessus de c e t t e mort des batim e n t s , e n s e v e l i s dans l e u r drap de p o u s s i e r e n o i r e , i l n'y a v a i t t o u j o u r s que I'e'chappement de l a pompe s o u f f l a n t son h a l e i n e g rosse e t longue, . . . " (pp.225-26) . In the t y p i c a l g o t h i c n o v e l , g r e a t emphasis i s p l a c e d on the movement and l i g h t o f the moon and on the g h o s t l y atmos-phere i t evokes. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the novel, opens i n an atmos-phere o f darkness broken on l y by the m o o n l i g h t which i l l u m i n -a t e s " [ l e s ] ombres v i v a n t e s " of the miners, and the s i l h o u e t t e o f the g o t h i c c a s t l e , l e Voreux: Un chemin creux s'enfoncait„ Tout d i s p a r u t . . . . Brusquement, a" un coude du chemin, l e s f e u x r e p a r u r e n t pre"s de l u i , sans q u ' i l comprlt davantage comment i l s b r t f l a i e n t s i haut dans l e c i e l mort, p a r e i l s a des lunes fumeuses. M a i s , au r a s du s o l , un a u t r e s p e c t a c l e v e n a i t de 1' a r r ^ t e r . C ' l t a i t une masse l o u r d e , un t a s e^crase de c o n s t r u c t i o n s , d'ou se d r e s s a i t l a s i l h o u e t t e d'une cheminle d' u s i n e ; de r a r e s l u e u r s s o r t a i e n t des fene^tres e n c r a s s e e s , c i n q ou s i x l a n t e r n e s t r i s t e s E t a i e n t pendues dehors, & des charpentes dont l e s b o i s n o i r c i s a l i g n -a i e n t vaguement des p r o f i l s de t r e t e a u x g i g a n t e s ^ ques; e t , de c e t t e a p p a r i t i o n f a n t a s t i q u e , noye'e , de n u i t et de fumee, une s e u l e v o i x m o n t a i t l a r e s p i r a t i o n grosse e t longue d.'un e'chapperaent de vapeur, qu'on ne v o y a i t p o i n t . , (p. 2) Indeed when E t i e n n e f i r s t descends i n t o the p i t , he sees o n l y "Des formes s p e c t r a l e s . . . l e s l u e u r s p e r d u e s ^ q u i ^ l a i s s a i e n t e n t r e v o i r une rondeur de hanche, un b r as noueux, une t e t e v i o l -e n t e , barbouille'e comme pour un crime" (p. 3'8). During the c r u -c i a l meeting i n the f o r e s t , the moon p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t - r o l e . A t the s t a r t o f the meeting, " I I f a i s a i t n u i t n o i r e a t e r r e , l e s branches hautes se decoupaient sur l e c i e l pale ou l a lune p l e i n e , montant a 1 ' h o r i z o n , a l l a i t e t e i n d r e l e s e t o i l e s " (p. 283), and a t t h i s p o i n t E t i e n n e i s not y e t . i l l u m i n a t e d , "La l u n e , t r o p basse encore a l ' h o r i z o n , n ' e ' c l a i r a i t t o u j o u r s que l e s . branches hautes; e t l a f o u l e r e s t a i t noyee de t e n e b r e s , . . . . L u i , n o i r egalement, f a i s a i t au-dessus d ' e l l e , en haut de l a pente, une b a r r e d'ombre" (p. 285). Inasmuch as E t i e n n e arouses h i s audience by h i s vehement but c o n v i n c i n g speeches, " . . . l a l u n e , q u i mon t a i t de l ' h o r i z o n , g l i s s a n t des hautes branches, l ' e c l a i r a " (p. 287). Thus the moon a c t s as a s p o t l i g h t which f o c u s s e s i n on E t i e n n e as he moves up the l a d d e r of p o p u l a r i t y . When he wins over the crowd w i t h h i s U t o p i a n v i s i o n , "La l u n e , . . . b l a n -\ / . A c h i s s a i t toute l a c l a i r i e r e , d e c o u p a i t en a r e t e s v i v e s l a houle des t e t e s , jusqu'aux l o i n t a i n s confus des t a i l l i s , e n tre l e s grands t r o n c s g r i s a t r e s " (pp. 288-89). F i n a l l y , P a r t Four o f the n o v e l c l o s e s w i t h a " v i s i o n rouge"' i n which the moon c a s t s a s p e c t r a l , m a l i g n a n t l i g h t over the f o r e s t , a l i g h t which em-b o d i e s the n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s quest f o r s o c i a l j u s -t i c e and which foreshadows the bloody events t o come: Les t e t e s , v i d e e s par l a famine, v o y a i e n t rouge, r'e'-v a i e n t d ' i n c e n d i e e t de sang, au m i l i e u d'une g l o i r e d'apothe'ose, ou~ m o n t a i t l e bonheur u n i v e r s e l . E t l a lune t r a n q u i l l e b a i g n a i t c e t t e h o u l e , l a forest p r o -fonde c e i g n a i t de son grand s i l e n c e ce c r i de mas-s a c r e , (p. 295) The moon i s a l s o p r e s e n t when the miners make t h e i r a t t a c k on the J e a n - B a r t p i t , when A l z i r e d i e s from s t a r v a t i o n and c o l d , when E t i e n n e and Chaval f i g h t a g a i n s t one another and when J e a n l i n murders the young s e n t i n e l . S i g n i f i c a n t l y each o f these events i s d e s t r u c t i v e and r e s u l t s from E t i e n n e ' s "reve s o c i a l , " the seeds o f which have matured s i n c e t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n i n the meeting i n - t h e f o r e s t . Thus the s p e c t r a l atmosphere c r e a t e d by.the m o o n l i g h t and the i n t e r p l a y between l i g h t and dark throughout the n o v e l s y m b o l i c a l l y r e v e a l s the s e r i o u s n e g a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s of E t i e n n e ' s dream of a new j u s t s o c i e t y . As i n the t r a d i t i o n a l g o t h i c n o v e l , the emotions which a c -company the g h o s t l y atmosphere are f e a r , t e r r o r and h o r r o r . S i g n i f i c a n t l y then, Z o l a s t r e s s e s these emotions from the open-i n g scene o f the n o v e l . Indeed E t i e n n e 1 s i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n t o the r e d flames i s s u i n g from the p i t f i r e s i s f e a r , "D'abord, i l h e s i t a , p r i s de c r a i n t e ; . . ." (p. 2 ) . And as he attempts t o see the c o u n t r y s i d e around him through the e n g u l f i n g n i g h t , ". . . i l s ' e f f o r c a i t de p e r c e r l e s ombres, tourmente' d u . d e s i r e t de l a peur de v o i r " ( p. 6 ) . . However i n s p i t e o f "\la3 peur du >Voreux" (p. 11) which r e s t r a i n s him, he does p e r s i s t i n seek-i n g work i n the p i t . T e r r o r i s the emotion which p a r a l y z e s Trompette the day of h i s descent i n t o the n i g h t m a r i s h h e l l o f l e Voreux, " E n f i n , i l p a r u t , avec son im m o b i l i t e ' d e p i e r r e , son o e i l fixe', d i l a t e ' d e t e r r e u r " (p. 59). In a d d i t i o n , l i k e the monster crouched deep i n one of the l a b y r i n t h i n e passages o f the g o t h i c c a s t l e , l e 'Voreux ex h a l e s " ls.or^ h a l e i n e d'un monstre"' (p. 71). Throughout the women's march through the s t r e e t s o f Montsou, the common emotion aroused w i t h i n the b r e a s t s o f the s p e c t a t o r s i s f e a r and t e r r o r . Thus, the band of men march w i t h ' e q u a l f u r y "dans une u n i f o r m i t e ' t e r r e u s e " (p. 350) b e h i n d angry . women.- A l s o the women's a t t a c k on the corpse o f M a i g r a t . t a k e s p l a c e amid a s p i r i t o f " g a i e t e ' t e r r i b l e . . . . Cette m u t i l a -t i o n a f f r e u s e s ' e t a i t accomplie dans une h o r r e u r g l a c e e " (p. 352) Moreover d u r i n g the . f i n a l c o l l a p s e o f l e iVoreux, E t i e n n e , Cath-e r i n e and B a t a i l l e are a l l overcome by f e a r as the p i t crumbles around them, and death threatens t o e x t i n g u i s h l i f e i n the f i n a l "horreur du d e s a s t r e " (p. h66). As hope f o r escape dim-i n i s h e s and a f t e r the t r a g i c drovraing of B a t a i l l e , Catherine moi, . . . . j ' a i peur, je ne veux par mourir . . . ' " ( p . k9k) i n " l e t e r r i f i a n t vacarme des cataclysmes i n t e r i e u r s ..." (p. !+95). S i g n i f i c a n t , too, i n terms of the g o t h i c p a t t e r n s i n the n o v e l i s Zola's use of c o l o r imagery. More than j u s t u t i l i z i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l c o l o r s of Heaven and H e l l (white, r e d and b l a c k ) , Zola uses two c o l o r s which are p r e v a l e n t i n . g o t h i c l i t e r a t u r e , blue and white and which evoke a q u a s i - g o t h i c atmosphere. As' we have already remarked, the white glow of the moonlight c a s t s a g h o s t l y , malignant glow over the f i c t i o n a l ' w o r l d ; thus i t i s a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of white- than the white used t o describe the ang-e l i c C e c i l e G r e g o i r e . Blue i s f r e q u e n t l y used to q u a l i f y f i r e s or l i g h t s which burn throughout the n o v e l and i t i m p l i e s a very u n n a t u r a l , c o l d , h o r r i f y i n g or g h o s t l y q u a l i t y present i n the miners' w o r l d . Indeed when Etienne f i r s t approaches Montsou, "Tout s ' a n e a n t i s s a i t au fond de 1'inconnu des n u i t s obscures, i l n ' a p e r c e v a i t , t r e s l o i n , que l e s hauts fourneaux et l e s f o u r s a coke. C e u x - c i , des b a t t e r i e s de cent chernine'es, plantees o b l i -quement, a l i g n a i e n t des rampes de flammes rouges; t a n d i s que l e s V A deux t o u r s , plus a gauche, b r u l a i e n t toutes. bleues en p l e i n c i e l , comme des torches geantes. C ' e t a i t d'une t r i s t e s s e d ' i n c e n d i e , i l n'y a v a i t d'autres l e v e r s d ' a s t r e s . a^  l ' h o r i z o n menacant, aue 7 ces feux nocturnes des pays de l a h o u i l l e et du fer',' (p. 6). who once wished t o die now f e a r s death, Later, af t e r watching Chaval k i s s Catherine, Etienne, who i s overcome hy his feel i n g s of sexual r i v a l r y , ' " ' . . . examin [jf] .sa A A lampe qui b r u l a i t bleue avec une large c o l l e r e t t e pale . . ." (p. 40). In addition, Etienne' s . r i v a l r y with Chaval for Cathe-riiiQ(-o:ccurs when.he watches Chaval and Catherine returning from Re'quillart at which time the red f i r e s burn blue: Decant l u i ? le Voreux s'accroupissait de son a i r de be^te mauvaise, vague, pique' de quelques lueurs de lanterne. Les t r o i s b rasiers du t e r r i b r u l a i e n t en l ' a i r , i^areils a des lunes sanglantes, detachant par instants l e s silhouettes de'mesure'es du pere Bonne-mort et de son cheval jaune. E t, au-dela", dans l a zl plaine rase, 1*ombre ava i t tout submerge", Montsou, Marchiennes, l a forest de tVandame, l a vaste rner de betteraves et de bltf, o u ne l u i s a i e n t plus, comme des phares l o i n t a i n s , que l e s feux bleus des hauts fourheaux et l e s feux rouges des fours a" coke. Peu 3s peu, l a nuit se noyait.. l a pluie tocibait mainten-ant, lente, continue, abimant ce ne'ant .... (p~. 134) C l e a r l y the use of the t y p i c a l gothic colors of blue and ghostly white i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n that these colors act as symbols and oc-cur at moments of sexual r i v a l r y ; for example the r i v a l r y be-tween Etienne and. Chaval for possession of Catherine and the symbolic mine-earth sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p which are two of the major sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the novel. Indeed the unnatural, h o r r i f y i n g q u a l i t y of these colors r e i n f o r c e s the same -quality i n the sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s they describe. •' ' In terms of the gothic t r a d i t i o n , the theme of sexual r e -la t i o n s h i p s focusses on the v i r g i n a l , young g i r l caught between a demonic male fi g u r e who desires a s a d i s t i c , perverse r e l a t i o n -ship based on l u s t and a divine male figure who desires a r e l a -t i o n s h i p based on love. The Jeanlin-Lydie-Bebert r e l a t i o n s h i p serves as a microcosm for the perverse adult sexual r e l a t i o n -ships in that although they are only c h i l d r e n , they, too, are involved i n pseudo-sexual r e l a t i o n s and f e e l i n g s which are i n themselves morally perverse. As we have already seen, J e a n l i n i s c l e a r l y described i n terms of demonic metaphors; for example animal images, and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , serpent images which im-. mediately c a l l up associations with Satan, the archetypal de-monic f i g u r e . Indeed, under Jeanlin's influence and i n s t r u c -t i o n , the threesome become, "^desj satanes" n 'enfants" 7' (p. 1 5 6 ) , thus morally corrupt beings who run w i l d l y through the town st e a l i n g and p i l l a g i n g l i k e "une horde sauvage . . . dont Je a n l i n r e s t a i t le capitaine . . . jetant l a troupe sur toutes les proies, ravageant l e s champs d'oignons, p i l l a n t l e s vergers, attaquant les'etalages" (pp. 2 7 0 - 7 1 ) . For as a r e s u l t of Jean-l i n " s tutelage, "II l e s a v a i t debauches, jamais on ne sut a qu-\ / ' e l l e s rapines, a quels jeux d'enfants precoces i l s s'etaient livre"s tous les t r o i s " (p. 1 8 7 ) . Moreover both Lydie and Bebert are puppets or obedient slaves whom he has corrupted to serve as his partners i n crime. C l e a r l y Jeanlin i s the t y p i c a l gothic v i l l a i n or lover i n that besides being, morally perverse, he i s motivated by sadism. For example, ont of h i s love for cr u e l t y , he beats Lydie for disobedience, he teaches Lydie and Bebert to throw-stones i n a slings-hot to see who can .do the most damage, and he encourages them to j o i n him in t o r t u r i n g Rasseneur's pregnant r a b b i t by chasing i t m e r c i l e s s l y , by shouting and throwing' things at i t i n order t o f r i g h t e n i t , and hy dragging i t s exhausted, v a i l i n g body along the ground. From the beginning of the n o v e l , Jean-l i n and Lydie attempt to have an a d u l t sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p , and i t i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n w h i c h . t h e - v i r g i n a l woman i s beaten by the demonic male, " L y d i e , . . . .eprouvait, devant J e a n l i n , une peur et une tendresse de p e t i t e femme ba t t u e . . . i l se r o u i a i t avec e l l e sur l e t e r r i . C ' e t a i t sa p e t i t e femme, i l s e s s a y a i e n t ensemble, dans l e s coins n o i r s , l'amour q u ' i l s . entendaient et q u ' i l s v o y a i e n t chez eux, d e r r i e r e l e s c l o i s o n s , par l e s ferites des portes.. I l s savaient t o u t , mais i l s ne pou-v a i e n t guere, t r o p jeunes, tatonnant, jouant, pendant des heures, a* des jeux de p e t i t s chiens v i c i e u x . L u i a p p e l a i t ca ' f a i r e papa et maman"; • .• . .. "' (pp. 125+-25). On the other hand and i n d i r e c t , c o n t r a s t t o the demonic J e a n l i n -. Lydie r e l a t i o n s h i p , Be'bert's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Lydie r e p r e s e n t s the d i v i n e pole of the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Indeed Lydie and Bebert, who both s u f f e r under J e a n l i n ' s c r u e l blows, both o v e r t l y love one another: Lydie et Bebert , . . . av a i e n t passe l a n u i t aux aguets, sans se permettre de r e n t r e r . c h e z eux, du moment ou. l ' o r d r e de J e a n l i n eta i t de l'attendre-: . . . l e s deux enfants s'e'taient p r i s aux bras l'un de l ' a u t r e , pour a v o i r chaud. Le vent s i f f l a i t entre l e s perches de ch'ataignier et de chene, l i s se p e l o t o n n a i e n t , comme dans une shutte de bucheron abandonnee. Lydie n ' o s a i t d i r e a v o i x haute ses souffranees de p e t i t e femme b a t t u e , pas plus que Bebert ne t r o u v a i t l e courage de se p l a i n d r e des claques dont l e c a p i t a i n e l u i e n f l a i t l e s joues; mais, a* l a . f i n , c e l u i - c i a b u s a i t t r o p , r i s q u a n t l e u r s os dans des maraudes f o l i e s , r e f u s a n t ensuite t o u t partage; et l e u r coeur se s o u l e v a i t de r l " -v o l t e , i l s a v a i e n t f i n i par s'embrasser, malgre' sa defense, q u i t t e s a1 r e c e v o i r une g i f l e de l ' i n v i -s i b l e , a i n s i q u ' i l l e s en rnenacait. La g i f l e ne ven-ant pas, i l s continuaient de se baiser douce-ment, sans avoir l ' i d ^ e d'autre chose, mettant dans cette caresse leur longue passion combattue, tout ce qu ' i l ' y a v a i t en eux de martyrise et d'at-tendri.. La nuit entiere, i l s s'^taient a i n s i r e - "• chauffes, s i heureux au fond de-ce trou perdu, . . . . (pp. ¥17-18) Of the two adult gothic sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the l e a s t developed i s the Ne^grel-Cecile-Bonnemort p o l a r i z a t i o n . . Indeed th e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p hovers over the atmosphere of the novel and c l e a r l y embodies many of the same q u a l i t i e s which are developed i n the other adult gothic sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p between Etienne, Catherine and Chaval. However the' C e c i l e , Bonnemort and Negrel sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p remains i n an embryonic stage and thus i s not worked out i n a complete way. Throughout the novel, Ce'cile i s c l e a r l y presented as the perfect v i r g i n or angelic c h i l d i n that she i s described i n terms of white imagery which suggests s a i n t l i n e s s , purity and v i r g i n i t y . C l e a r l y i n terms of the v e r t i c a l perspective, Negrel represents the divine male figu r e in- t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p for what l i t t l e f e e l i n g s he has for Ce-c i l e are d e f i n i t e l y not l u s t f u l , i f even they may be termed sexual, "Cecile ne l u i d e p l a i s a i t pas,,et i l v o u l a i t bien l'e^-pouser, pour etre agreable. a sa tante; mais i l n'y apportait aucune fie^vre amoureuse, en garcon d'experience qui ne s'embal-l a i t plus, . . . (p. 211). On the other hand, Bonnemort i s presented explicitly'throughout the novel as the t r a d i t i o n a l gothic v i l l a i n i n that he i s constantly described i n satanic terms; thus he represents the demonic pole of the v e r t i c a l per-spective - ' Again and a g a i n , Bonnemort. s p i t s up b l a c k c o a l dust which suggests t h a t the H e l l o f the mine i s b u r i e d deep w i t h i n him. Indeed d u r i n g E t i e n n e ' s i n i t i a l encounter w i t h the o l d man, the t r a d i t i o n a l c o l o r s of H e l l are used t o d e s c r i b e him "' Un v i o l e n t acces de toux l ' e t r a n g l a i t . E n f i n , i l c r a c h a , e t son c r a c h a t , sur l e s o l empourpre, l a i s s a une tache n o i r e " (p. 3 ) . Moreover, Bonnemort a l s o d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f i n terms of an i m a l images when he t e l l s E t i e n n e about h i s many a c c i d e n t s i n the p i t , "'On m'a r e t i r e ' , t r o i s f o i s de la-dedans en morceaux, une foi-s avec t o u t l e p o i l r o u s s i , une aut r e avec de l a t e r r e j u s -que dans l e g e s i e r , l a t r o i s i e m e avec l e v e n t r e g o n f l e d'eau comme une g r e n o u i l l e . . .'" (p. 7)« The two g o t h i c c o l o r s o f blue and g h o s t l y white are a l s o used twice i n the n o v e l t o des-c r i b e him. During Bonnemort's f i r s t i n t e r v i e w w i t h E t i e n n e under the moonlight, and f i r e l i g h t , h i s f a c e appears "d'une p a l e u r l i v i d e , maculee de taches b l e u a t r e s " (p. 7) • L a t e r as he addresses the crowd a t the meeting on the f o r e s t , ". . . l a s ' e t a i t f a i t , on e c o u t a i t ce v i e i l l a r d , d'une.paleur de s p e c t r e sous l a l u n e ; . . . " ( p . 291). In the manner of the t y p i c a l g o t h i c v i l l a i n , Bonnemort s a d i s t i c a l l y a t t a c k s the i n n o c e n t and v i r g i n a l C e c i l e who, as an i n d i v i d u a l , has done n o t h i n g t o m e r i t t h i s f a t e . Overcome by the f e r o c i o u s s p i r i t o f the miners' march f o r bread, Bonnemort r e v e a l s h i s own c r u e l t y when he a t -tempts t o s t r a n g l e C e c i l e , ". . . E l l e eut un c r i rauque: des mains f r o i d e s v e n a i e n t de l a prendre au cou. C ' e t a i t l e v i e u x Bonnemort, pre^s duquel l e f l o t l ' a v a i t poussee, e t q u i l'empoig-. muette e t b l a n c h e . Un grand s i l e n c e n a i t . I I semblait i v r e de f a i m , hebete par sa longue misere, s o r t ! brusquement de sa r e s i g n a t i o n d'un d e m i - s i e c l e , sans A • / • q u ' i l f u t p o s s i b l e de s a v o i r sous q u e l l e poussee de rancune. . . . i l c e d a i t a vdes choses q u ' i l n ' a u r a i t pu d i r e , a un be-s o l n de f a i r e ca, a" l a f a s c i n a t i o n de ce cou blanc de jeune" f i l l e . E t , . . . i l s e r r a i t l e s d o i g t s , de son a i r de v i e i l l e bete i n f i r m e , en t r a i n de ruminer des souvenirs"' (pp. 363-6*+). F i n a l l y , he makes h i s second a t t a c k on her: C e t a i t l u i , e l l e r e t r o u v a i t l'homme, e l l e r e g a r d a i t l e s mains posees sur l e s genoux, des mains d' o u v r i e r a c c r o u p i dont. toute l a f o r c e e s t dans l e s p o i g n e t s , s o l i d e s encore malgre" l ' ^ g e . Peu a^  peu, Bonnemort a v a i t paru s ' e v e l l l e r , . et i l I'examinait . . . Une flamme montait a ses joues, une secousse ner-veuse t i r a i t sa bouche, d'oft c o u l a i t un mince f i l e t de s a l i v e n o i r e . A t t i r e s , tous deux r e s t a i e n t 1'un devant l ' a u t r e , e l l e f l o r i s s a n t e . grasse et fraliche des longues paresses et du b i e n - e t r e repu de sa r a c e , l u i gonfle^d'eau, d'une l a i d e u r lamentable de xbe\e fourbue, d e t r u i t d e p e r e en f i l s par cent.annees de t r a v a i l et de f a i m . . . . £ar t e r r e , C Ce'cile} g i s a i t , l a face bleue, i f t r a n g l e e . (p.*fo9) C l e a r l y t h i s passage presents the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n h e r e n t i n the c o n t r a s t between the opposite s o c i a l l e v e l s , and the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Indeed Bonnemort i s once again d e s c r i b e d i n terms of r e d and b l a c k images thus making him the h e l l i s h , s a t a n i c f i g u r e . The E t i e n n e - C a t h e r i n e - C h a v a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s the second and the more-developed of the two a d u l t g o t h i c s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Catherine f u n c t i o n s as the Bronte e a r t h whic'h arouses other hu-man hearts t o f e e l i n g and thus centers the worlds of Heaven and H e l l i n t h a t throughout the n o v e l she i s d e s c r i b e d as heing c o n s t a n t l y between Etienne and Chaval who r e p r e s e n t the d i v i n e and the demonic poles of the v e r t i c a l perspective respect-i v e l y . To mention only a few of the occasions i n which Cath-erine i s trapped between Etienne and Chaval one can examine the scenes i n which the three work side by side i n the p i t , the scenes where Etienne observes Catherine and Chaval making love on the Re'quillart f i e l d s and most s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n the f i n a l scenes of the novel where a l l three are trapped i n the co l l a p s i n g , flooding mine while they wait to be rescued. C l e a r l y the fe e l i n g s which Catherine arouses within the two men r e v e a l the two poles of the v e r t i c a l persioective i n that she awakens Chaval's l u s t f u l desires as opposed to Etienne's •feelings of love, sympathy and compassion. Moreover, the gen-e r a l r i v a l r y between Etienne and Chaval begins from t h e i r i n -i t i a l encounter, the day of Etienne's descent i n t o the p i t when, "Les deux hommes e"changerent un regard, allume' d'>une de ces haines d ' i n s t i n c t qui flambent subitement" (p. 3 6 ) . As the novel progresses, the object of t h e i r quarrels i s c l e a r l y Catherine; for Chaval, ". . . i l y a v a i t une j a l o u s i e inavouee . . . l a peur qu'on ne l u i volat Catherine" (p. 173) j j u s t as . . une v i e i l l e haine, une ja l o u s i e longtemps inavouee . • . e c l a t a i t ]^en Etienne]. Maintenant, i t f a l l a i t que l'un des deux mangeat l' a u t r e " (p. -233). The quarrel which begins at . Rasseneur's bar and i n which Etienne i s the winner, ends i n the flooding p i t when Etienne,, overcome by h i s i n h e r i t e d s p i r i t of / Le], dans le mur, une feuille de schi-et . . .l'arrach^V], tres large, tres lourde. Puis, a deux mains, avec une force decuplee, i l l'abaj_tj sur le crane de Chaval" (p. 502) and k i l l s h i s enemy and r i v a l for Catherine. As we have already in d i c a t e d , Catherine i s c l e a r l y the young v i r g i n on whom the demonic v i l l a i n preys i n that only late i n the novel does she reach puberty. As the demonic Gothic v i l l a i n , Chaval i s presented simul-taneously as a satanic being and as a very potent male sexual fo r c e . For example, Cheval b r u t a l l y kisses Catherine early i n the novel while Etienne looks on, at which time, "Ses moustaches et sa barbiche rouges flambaient dans son visage n o i r , au grand nez en bee d'ai g l e " (p. k8)9 C l e a r l y the images of red and black suggest his h e l l i s h q u a l i t i e s and satanic nature, and the r e f -erences to his hair and nose have decided sexual overtones which imply h i s sexual potency. Even i n death Chaval remains the same potent demonic sexual force f o r , as h i s corpse f l o a t s back up to the surface of the flooded p i t where i t haunts Etienne and Cath-erine, "Continuellement, i l le voyait, gonfle', v e r d i , avec ses moustaches rouges, dans sa face broyee" (p. 5 0 8 ) . Throughout the novel we see Chaval*s sexuality as negative or demonic be-cause he seeks only l u s t or mere p h y s i c a l , s e l f i s h g r a t i f i c a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , Catherine becomes ju s t an object which provides him with sexual, sensual pleasure for c l e a r l y he has no considera-tion for her wishes or needs. Like the t r a d i t i o n a l gothic v i l -l a i n , Chaval's main design throughout the novel i s . the seduction of the v i r g i n , "Son idee, depuis longtemps, e'tait de l a decider a" monter dans l a chambre q u ' i l occupait au premier £tage de l'estaminet Piquette, une b e l l e chambre qui a v a i t un grand l i t , pour un menage" (pp. lg*Jt-30). Although Chaval i s repugnant to Catherine,, he succeeds i n seducing her, ". . . e l l e cessa de se defendre, subissant le male avant l'age, avec cette soumission h e r e d i t a i r e , q u i , des l'enfance, c u l b u t a i t en p l e i n vent l e s f i l l e s de sa race" (pp. 131-32). Late i n the novel, while they are trapped deep down i n the flooding p i t , Chaval"s l u s t f u l de-s i r e to possess Catherine i s aroused and again demonic and sex-u a l metaphors are used to describe him, ". . . i l l u i av a i t s o u f f l e sur le cou; i l e t a i t r e p r i s d'une de ses anciennes f u -reurs de d e s i r , en l a voyant pres de l ' a u t r e . Les regards dont i l 1'appelait avaient une flamme qu'elle connaissait bien, l a flamme de ses c r i s e s jalouses, . . . " (p. 500), and moments l a t e r , ". . . i l l a serra, par bravade, l u i ecrasant sur l a bouche ses moustaches rouges, . . . "' (p. 501). Moreover Chaval i s c l e a r l y motivated by sadism throughout his r e l a t i o n s h i p with Catherine. Jealous of Etienne's proxim-i t y to Catherine as the Maheus' boarder, Chaval does not allow Catherine to go home; he keeps her out a l l night and threatens to beat her i f she attempts to run away. Later, aft e r l a Man--eude accuses Catherine of being.a whore, "Chaval entr^ V ] d'un bond par l a porte ouverte, J^etQ l u i allong (V^\ une ruade de bete mauvaise" (p. 233).. That Catherine i s merely an object i s e v i -dent i n the scene where Chaval kisses Catherine v i o l e n t l y : II s'avanca, s'as sura que Maheu ne pouvait le v o i r ; et, comme 7Catherine "etait restee t e r r e , sur son se"ant,.il 1'empoigna par.les I p a u l e s , l u i renversa la te'te, l u i ecrasa l a bouche sous un baiser b r u t a l , tranquillement, en a f f e c t a n t de ne pas se preoccuper •d'Etienne. II y av a i t , dans ce baiser, une prise de possession, une sorte de decision jalouse. (p. 48) And aft e r returning home from his f i g h t with Etienne at Rasse-neurs and fin d i n g Catherine asleep, "Chaval . . . l : a v a i t mise debout d>;un s o u f f l e t . II l u i c r i a i t de passer tout de suite par l a porte, s i e l l e ne v o u l a i t pas s o r t i r par l a fenetre; et A s pleurante, vetue a peine, meurtrie de coups de pied dans l e s jambes, e l l e avait d$ descendre, pousse'e dehors d'une derniere claque. Cette separation brutale 1 ' e ' t o u r d i s s a i t " (p. 4l6), and forever a f t e r , Catherine l i v e s i n constant fear of further beatings. Chaval*s one moment of tenderness and concern i s f l e e t i n g , a f t e r Catherine collapses while working in' the very hot p i t at Jean-Bart, he gently dresses her and jokes with her when she re-gains consciousness, "Jamais e l l e ne I'avait w s i g e n t i l . D'or-di n a i r e , pour une bonne parole q u ' i l l u i d i s a i t , e l l e ernpoignait tout de suite deux s o t t i s e s . Cela a u r a i t e'te" s i bon de vivre d'accordi" (p. 3 1 4 ) . Indeed moments l a t e r when the Montsou min-ers cut the cables, he soon forgets his tenderness for Catherine and concerns himself only with s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n and escape, ". . . deja i l o u b l i a i t son serment, jamais e l l e ne s e r a i t heur-euse. . . . tout le temps i l l a b r u t a l l s [ a i t j - " (p. 3 1 7 ) . In d i r e c t contrast to the demonic Chaval-Catherine r e l a t i o n -ship i s the Etienne-Catherine r e l a t i o n s h i p which represents the divine pole of the v e r t i c a l perspective i n that i t i s founded on love, respect, compassion and p i t y . During Etienne's f i r s t day in the p i t , he and Catherine share.her'lunch at which time Etienne d i s c o v e r s t h a t she i s a woman and more s p e c i f i c a l l y one who i s s e x u a l l y a t t r a c t i v e ; thus, " . . . hrusquement^'/'sT e t a i t demande s ' i l ne d e v a i t pas l a s a i s i r dans ses b r a s , pour l a bniser sur l e s l e v r e s . E l l e a v a i t de grosses l e v r e s d'un rose A ' p a l e , avivees par l e charbon, qui l e tourmentaient d'une envie c r o i s s a n t e " (p. ^ 6 ) . However, ". . . i l l a s e n t Q i t \ v i e r g e de corps, v i e r g e enfant, retardee dans l a maturite" de son sexe ..-. ." (p. * . L 7) • Indeed because he f i n d s her "de'cidement t r e s g e n t i l l e " (p. * * 7 ) , he makes the t i m i d d e c i s i o n to take her i n h i s arms a n d k i s s her but i s prevented by the a r r i v a l of Chaval. Like Chaval, Etienne has i n the past sought mere p h y s i c a l , sex-u a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n , but u n l i k e Chaval, he perceives Catherine t o be d i f f e r e n t from other women and chooses to t r e a t her i n a d i f f e r e n t manner. A f t e r he moves i n t o the Haheu home, a new intimacy i s e s t a b l i s h e d between them, but i t a l s o sets up new b a r r i e r s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p ; The f a c t t h a t she i s so w h i t e , so v i r g i n a l d i s t i n g u i s h e s her from other women, " . . . i l gar-d a i t . . . pour e l l e un sentiment f a i t d ' a m i t i e ' e t de rancune, qui 1 'eirmechait de l a t r a i t e r en f i l l e qu'on d e s i r e , * . ." (p. 16k). Soon a f t e r as they l i e i n bed unable t o s l e e p , Etienne f e e l s each one i s t h i n k i n g about the other but n e i t h e r can express h i m s e l f : Des minutes s ' I c o u l e r e n t , n i l u i n i e l l e ne r e n u a i t , l e u r s o u f f l e s'embarrassait seulement, malgre' l e u r e f f o r t pour l e r e t e n i r . A deux r e p r i s e s , i l f u t sur le. p o i n t de se l e v e r et de l a prendre. C ' e t a i t im-b e c i l e , d'avoir un s i gros d£sir 1'un de l ' a u t r e , sans jamais se contenter. Pourquoi done bouder a i n s i contre leui> e n v i e . . . . e l l e v o u l a i t b i e n tou,t de s u i t e , i l e t a i t c e r t a i n q u ' e l l e l ' a t t e n d a i t en etou-f f a n t , q u ' e l l e r e f e r m e r a i t l e s bras sur l u i , muette, l e s dents s e r r e e s . Pres d'une heure se passa. I I n'a 11a nos l a nrendre, e l l e ne se retourna "ocs, de peur de l ' a p p e l e r ^ Plus i l s v i v a i e n t cote a cote, et plus une b a r r i e r e s ' e l e v a i t , des hqntes, des repugnances, des d e l i c a t e s s e s d'ami t i e , q u ' i l s n'auraient pu e x p l i q u e r eux-meVne s. (p. 174) A f t e r h i s f i g h t w i t h Chaval, when he i s once again alone w i t h Catherine, he r e c a l l s t h e i r s e c r e t f e e l i n g s f o r one another i n the past and t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to come together and the d e s i r e t o t a v c her t o R e q u i l l a r t overwhelms him again "but i n s t e a d takes her hone. Later when Catherine demeans her own sexual a t t r a c -t i v e n e s s compared to l a Kouquette's, Etienne takes p i t y on her and k i s s e s her i n the dark, " . . . i l s ne d i s t i n g u a i e n t meme plus l e u r s v i s a g e s , et l e u r s s o u f f l e s se r J e l a i e n t , l e u r s l e v r e s se cherchaient, pour ce b a i s e r dont l e d e s i r l e s a v a i t tourmentes pendant des mois" (p. 407) . When Catherine and Etienne meet again the day when work resumes at the p i t , ". . . i l l r a v a i t p r i s e a l a t a i l l e , dans une c s r e s s e de chagrin et de p i t i e " (p. 455). F i n a l l y , throughout the c a t a c l y s m i c c o l l a p s e of the p i t , Etienne t r i e s to calm and comfort the t e r r i f i e d C a t h e r i n e , c a r r i e s her i n h i s arms when she i s too weak t o walk and watches over her as she sleeps i n a s t a t e of d e l i r i u m . S i g n i f i c a n t l y i n terms of the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , Cather-ine a s s o c i a t e s her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Chaval w i t h the f i e r y myth-o l o g i c a l H e l l of T a r t a r u s , " [ l a ^ cite maudite au m i l i e u des flanmes que l e s passants de l a p l a i n e v o y a i e n t par l e s f i s s u r e s , crachant du soufre et des vapeurs abominables" (p. 30S) i n which the naughty haulage g i r l s were punished. As she climbs the ladd e r s from the abyss o f the Jean-Bart p i t , Catherine c o l l a p s e s from exhaustion and f i n a l l y f a l l s backwards i n t o the b l a c k g u l f and, "Dans son e'vanouissement, e l l e r e v a i t : i l l u i semblait qu'elle e t a i t une des p e t i t e s herscheuses de j a d i s , . . . " (p. 321). Moreover, her r e l a t i o n s h i p with Chaval ends i n the h e l l i s h under-world of the Torrent, "cette mer souterrainc, l a torreur des h o u i l l e r e s du Nord, une mer avec ses tempetes et ses naufrages, une mer ignoree, insondahle, roulant ses f l o t s n o i r s , a plus de t r o i s cent metres du s o l e i l " (p. 452). On the other hand however, her r e l a t i o n s h i p with Etienne leads her closer to the' Edenic garden or i d e a l , heavenly world of her dreams. While Etienne caresses and soothes her i n her delirium, "Les bourdonnements de ses o r e i l l e s 'etaient devenus des murmures d'eau courante, des chants d roiseau; et e l l e sentait un v i o l e n t parfum d'herbes ecrasees, et e l l e voyait c l a i r , de grandes taches j aunes v o l a i e n t devant ses yeux, s i l a r g e s , qu'elle se c r o y a i t dehors, pres du canal dans l e s b l e s , par une journee de beau s o l e i l " ' (p* 509). F i n a l l y , when Etienne and Catherine unite sexually and consummate thei r r e l a t i o n s h i p only moments before her death, Catherine ima-gines she has attained the s d e n i c world of her dreams which contrast d i r e c t l y with her dreams of entering the H e l l of Tartarus with Chaval: D'un elan, e l l e s ' e t a i t pendue ^ l u i , e l l e chercha sa bouche et y c o l l a passionnement l a sienne. Les tenebres s' e c l a i r e r e n t , e l l e r e v i t le s o l e i l , e l l e retrouva un r i r e caime d'amou-reuse. L u i fremissant de l a s e n t i r a i n s i contre sa chair, demi-nue sous l a veste et l a culotte en lambeaux, l'e*poign s, dans un re^veil de sa v i r i l i t e " . Et ce fut l e u r n u i t de noces, au fond de cette tombe, sur ce l i t de boue, l e besoin de ne pas mourir avant d'avoir eu l e bonheur, l'obstine' besoin de v i v r e , de f a i r e l a vie. une derniere f o i s . I l s s'aimerent dans l e desespoir de tout, dans l a mort. (p. 511) C l e a r l y then, Catherine achieves with Etienne the happiness she r e a l i z e d she could never share with Chaval, Thus i s Germinal, the complex network of thematic patterns which center on the general theme of sexual r e l a t i o n s reveal i n terms of the l o v e - l u s t opposition the v e r t i c a l perspective which Zola develops i n other ways throughout the novel. Moreover, the theme of sexual r e l a t i o n s transceds the h a r r i e r of s o c i a l c l a s s i n that divine and demonic r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t on "both l e v e l s of society as t h i s analysis has shown. Indeed the only two single sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s , that i s oneS: which involve only two people, which can he considered as p o s i t i v e or divine are the Maheu a n d Gregoire marriages. T o t a l l y ne.gative or demonic sexual r e l a t i o n -ships can he c l a s s i f i e d according to the two sub-themes of adultery and c a s t r a t i o n i n t o which categories f i t the a f f a i r s of l a Levaque and Bouteloup, l a Pierronne a n d Dansaert and : Madame Hennebeau and Wegrel as w e l l as Maigrat' and the mine's acts of copulation and the eventual destruction which both the man and the human beast must undergo. In addi t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s which embody both the demonic a n d divine poles of the v e r t i c a l perspec-t i v e center on the theme of the v i r g i n which i s c r u c i a l to the t r a d i t i o n a l Gothic novel snd i n which the v i r g i n i s constantly p u l l e d between the poles of Heaven and Hell, which her' l o v e r s represent,. l o 2. 3o 4. 5* ' 60. 8e 9* 10* E m i l e Z o l a , Germinal, e d 0 E l l i o t t M.. Grant (New York: C h a r l e s S c r i o n e r ' s Sons, 1951)» A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s t o Germinal w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e notexl are from t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be made w i t h i n the t e x t * E m i l e Z o l a , Germinal ( P a r i s : F a s q u e l l e , 1968), pp* 369-70, I b i d e • • <• I b i d . I b i d . I b i d * I b i d 0 . I b i d . I b i d o Norman S h e r r y , C h a r l o t t e and E m i l y Bronte (London: Evans B r o t h e r s L t d . , 1969), Po l l " 2 ' . . "Tne e a r t h t h a t wakes one human h e a r t t o f e e l i n g / C a n centre' both the w o r l d o f Heaven and H e l l o " 11. John M i l t o n , P a r a d i s e L o s t , Book W, 11* 7^ -80* 12. E m i l e Z o l a , Germinal ( P a r i s s F a s q u e l l e , 1968)* NARRATIVE PATTERNS Another f o c a l p o i n t f o r the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n Germi-n a l c e n t e r s on the development o f E t i e n n e L a n t i e r ' s c h a r a c t e r i n terms o f the s e a s o n a l c y c l e and the n a r r a t i v e forms of a r c h e t y p a l comedy, traigedy, romance and i r o n y which form the s t r u c t u r e o f the n o v e l . In Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m , 1 Northrop F r y e e s t a b l i s h e s the l i n k between the seasons and the f o u r n a r r a t i v e p a t t e r n s by a s s o c i a t i n g s p r i n g w i t h comedy, autumn w i t h t r a g e d y , summer w i t h romance, and w i n t e r w i t h i r o n y and s a t i r e . From these a s s o c i a -t i o n s come the v e r t i c a l " e q u a t i o n s " S p r i n g s Autumn ss Comedy : Tragedy Summer s Winter :s Romance s- Irony and S a t i r e The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f F r y e ' s statements are t w o f o l d i n t h a t the p a t t e r n s are s i m u l t a n e o u s l y both c y c l i c a l and v e r t i c a l . Indeed" • when a p p l i e d t o an a n a l y s i s o f Germinal„ they r e v e a l the v e r y complex nature o f the a r t i s t i c s t r u c t u r e Z o l a has c r e a t e d ^ a l t h o u g h no one n a r r a t i v e form dominates, a l l are i n t r i c a t e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d through the c r u c i a l l i n k o f Etienne>*"s c h a r a c t e r development. Two c e n t r a l themes o f comedy a c c o r d i n g t o F r y e are marriage and s o c i e t y . The hero o f comedy i n e v i t a b l y s u f f e r s from some k i n d o f thwarted l o v e , u s u a l l y l o v e f o r a b e a u t i f u l g i r l whom he cannot immediately have, and the comic r e s o l u t i o n r e s u l t s o n l y from h i s f i n a l triumph over the o b s t r u c t i n g f o r c e which has p r e -v e nted h i s u n i o n w i t h the g i r l , ^ Moreover, the hero's c h i e f motivation.v.in m arriage i s t o e s t a b l i s h a new s o c i a l w o r l d , one which w i l l be s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f the p r e s e n t o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n . * T r a d i t i o n a l l y , • c o m e d y begins w i t h a group o f o b s t r u c t i n g c h a r a c t e r s , u s u a l l y the p a r e n t s o f the younger g e n e r a t i o n , who are i n charge o# a g i v e n s o c i e t y but whom the a u d i e n c e . r e c o g n i z e s as the unjust-u s u r p e r s o f s o c i a l power. As a r e s u l t o f the heroes a c t i o n s , comedy moves towards the c r e a t i o n o f a new s o c i e t y which w i l l u l t i m a t e l y c r y s t a l l i z e around the triumphant hero and h i s b r i d e i n a k i n d o f f e s t i v e r i t u a l o Moreover, the f i n a l new s o c i e t y c r e a t e d by the hero i n c l u d e s the maximum number o f pe o p l e , f r e -q u e n t l y many o f the former o b s t a c l e - c h a r a c t e r s . C l e a r l y then, i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the newly c r e a t e d s o c i e t y i s another major theme of comedy. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , Germinal can be r e a d as a comic n o v e l i n t h a t i t p r e s e n t s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l manner the hero's attempt t o c r e a t e a new s o c i e t y , and i t a l s o o f f e r s the theme o f thwarted love: on two very s e p a r a t e l e v e l s , the l i t -e r a l one which f a i l s and the symbolic one which succeeds,, The c e n t r a l s u b j e c t o f Germinal i s w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n one o f s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n , a r e v o l t i n which the i d e a s o f the younger gen-e r a t i o n w i l l triumph over- those o f the p r e s e n t s o c i e t y * From the b e g i n n i n g , Germinal c o n t a i n s the t r a d i t i o n a l and a r c h e t y p a l theme o f a l l comic p l o t s where the younger g e n e r a t i o n seeks t o r e c a p t u r e the usurped power, thus t o c o n t r o l t h e i r w o r l d and b r i n g about the r e t u r n t o the l o s t golden era o f the p a s t by de-f e a t i n g the p r e s e n t r u l e r s o f t h e i r society,. The d e t a i l e d account o f the h i s t o r y o f the G r e g o i r e f o r t u n e r e v e a l s the power-mono-p o l y h e l d by the b o u r g e o i s i e as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r accumulated w e a l t h . For the workers, the power o f money has c r e a t e d a h e l l i s h w o r l d o f p a i n and hunger ? s l a v e l a b o r and o f near b e s t i a l e x i s -tence* By i t s v e r y n a t u r e , the power-monopoly o f the b o u r g e o i s i n d u s t r i a l i s t s condemns the miners t o an e t e r n a l l i f e o f p o v e r t y , submission and t o i l and thus p r e v e n t s them from e n t e r i n g the a p p a r e n t l y p a r a d i s i c w o r l d o f the b o u r g e o i s i e * C l e a r l y the miners are d e s c r i b e d throughout the n o v e l as h a v i n g been reduced t o "une f o n c t i o n de machine" (p* 137) 3 and t o the l e v e l o f mere " b e t a i l humain" (p* 12) 5 as the r e s u l t o f t h e i r i n f e r i o r s o c i a l s t a t u s * E t i e n n e , the young s o c i a l i s t who p e n e t r a t e s i n t o the c l o s e Montsou s o c i e t y from the o u t s i d e w o r l d , soon becomes aware o f s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e and c o n s e q u e n t l y l e a d s an a n t i - b o u r g e o i s campaign which t h r e a t e n s t o d e s t r o y the c a p i t a l i s t s ' * power• A f t e r h i s f i r s t day's work i n the p i t s , E t i e n n e " s p r i d e as a member o f the human r a c e makes him r e v o l t , a t the thought o f r e t u r n i n g t o work. T h i s vague sense o f r e v o l t l a t e r develops i n t o h i s "reve s o c i a l " which promises t o open the c l o s e d h o r i z o n s the h e l l i s h p r i s o n o f p o v e r t y , and t o admit the b r i g h t l i g h t o f j u s t i c e , e q u a l i t y and f r a t e r n i t y . Indeed, " I I v o u l a i t l e u r e l a r g i r l e c i e l , l e s e l e v e r au b i e n - e t r e e t aux bonnes manieres de:-la b o u r g e o i s i e , en f a i s a n t d'eux l e s mall*tres , , , ""' (p* 376) 9 and thus t o cause the v e r y f o u n d a t i o n o f the p r e s e n t s o c i e t y to c r a c k . The other c e n t r a l theme o f comedy which i s l i n k e d t o the i d e a o f the c r e a t i o n o f a new s o c i e t y i s marriage and i t s f o r e -r u nner, thwarted l o v e . The t r a d i t i o n a l "boy wants g i r l " a s p e c t o f t h i s comic theme i s i n h e r e n t i n the E t i e n n e , C a t h e r i n e and C h a v a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . In order to possess C a t h e r i n e , E t i e n n e must triumph over the o b s t a c l e or enemy, the l u s t f u l C h a v a l , and i n so doing he must k i l l his opponent. S i g n i f i c a n t l y however, the apocalyptic wedding which occurs when Etienne and Catherine u l t i m a t e l y come together i n the flooding mine at the end of the novel does not r e s u l t i n the creation of a. new society around the bride and groom because here, the bride dies on her b r i d a l bed. C l e a r l y the union of Catherine and Etienne does not restore the world to the state of a previous golden era % thus the thwar-ted love theme remains unresolved i n that no new s o c i a l order i s immediately formed to replace the o l d , decaying soci e t y . On the other hand, as Frye believes, "The appearance of t h i s new society i s frequently s i g n a l i z e d by some kind of party or f e s t i v e r i t u a l which either appears at the end of the play or i s 2 assumed to take place immediately afterwards,'*1" The f e s t i v e r i t -u a l i n Germinal i s symbolic and inherent i n the r e c u r r i n g im ages of f e r t i l i t y , growth and harvesting. These images together imply an act of consummation, a. symbolic marriage which embodies the promises ,of a new l i f e to come,. Thus i n t h i s sense, the future apocalypse, the ultimate f r u i t of Etienne'*s dream, i s implied i n the c l o s i n g words of the novel which suggest the cre-ation of a new society based, on j u s t i c e , equality and f r a t e r n i t y i n the future. Before E t i e n n e r s v i s i o n of a new society takes hold of the miners'* imaginations, the world of Montsou i s metaphorically presented as a wasteland i n which only the most hardy crops w i l l grow. Surrounding le "V'oreux i s the p l a i n smothered i n coal dust, " p a r e i l l e a l a moissoh d'une f o r e t fauchee"' (p, 7 0 ) , Moreover, " ,. , , l e s champs se deroulaient, des champs sans f i n de ble et de. betteraves, nus a cette epoque de 1 'annee 5 des marais aux vegetations dures,.' coupes de quelques saules rabougrls,. des p r a i r i e s l o i n t a i n e s , que s'eparaient des f i l e s maigres de pe u p l i e r s " (p* 70)«. In his s o c i a l dreara3 Etienne envisions "'une societe qui jj?ousserait\ en un jour"' (p«. 170), and under his leadership, ' '"' «• .' . l e mineur s ' e v e i l l a i t au fond, germait dans l a t e r r e , a i n s i qu'une vraie graine; et,. c „ . un matin « * i l pousserait des hommes, une vraie armee d"hommes qui r e t a b l i r a i t l a . j u s t i c e 0 * „ ca poussait p e t i t a petit,-, une rude moisson d;*hommes?. qui murissait au s o l e i l " " (pp*-168-69) *• C l e a r l y the centfal image i n these l i n e s i s one of growth and f e r t i l i t y of which the f r u i t s w i l l he • s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n and the subsequent creation of a new s o c i e t y * Although Etienne'*s dream does not r e s u l t i n any immediate s o c i a l changes, the hope of a new society glimmers i n the future and i s inherent i n the f i n a l v i s i o n of the no v e l 0 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the ce n t r a l image i n t h i s v i s i o n once again suggests f e r t i l i t y and growth, symbolic of the consummation of marriage which i n comedy becomes the center of the new young society: Maintenant, en p l e i n c i e l , l e s o l e i l d ' a v r i l rayon-n a i t dans sa g l o i r e , echauffant l a terre qui.enfan-t a i t o Du f l a n c n o u r r i c i e r j a i l l i s s a i t l a v i e , l e s <• bourgeons crevaient en f e u i l l e s vertes, l e s champs t r e s s a i l l a i e n t de l a pousse'e des herbes 0 De toutes parts, des graines se gonflaient, s"allongeaient, gercaient l a plaine, travaille'es d'un besoin de cha-leur et de lumiere o Un debordernent de seve c o u l a i t avec des voix chuchotantes, l e b r u i t des germes • ;. s'dpandait en un grand baiser . „ . . Aux rayons en^lammes de I'astre, par cette matinee d,e jeunesse, c'e'tait de cette rumeur que l a campagne e t a i t grosse. Des hommes poussaient, une armee noire, vengeresse, qui germait.lentement d^ns l e s s i l l o n s , grandisssnt pour l e s re'coltes du s i e c l e f u t u r , et dont l a germi-nation a l l a i t f a i r e bientot dclater l a t e r r e * (p* 52?) Whereas comedy i s concerned w i t h the heroics i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o s o c i e t y , g e n e r a l l y through some k i n d of marriage,, and h i s movement away from catastrophe towards happiness and s a l v a t i o n , • tragedy i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d hy the hero's a l i e n a t i o n from s o c i e t y , h i s f a l l from the w o r l d of success, i n t o the w o r l d of f a i l u r e , d e f e a t and c a t a s t r o p h e . In s t a t u r e , the c l a s s i c a l t r a g i c hero i s •halfway between human s o c i e t y and d i v i n i t y f o r although/he appears greater than any other human being, he i s i n f e r i o r to something ou t s i d e the human c r e a t i o n : God, gods, f a t e , a c c i d e n t or f o r t u n e . As the p l a y or novel progresses, the t r a g i c hero occupies a p o s i t i o n atop the wheel of fortune 'where he reaps only success and power* Nevertheless-as the r e s u l t of a p e r s o n a l t r a g i c f l a w , he a s s e r t s h i s humanity and thus f a l l s from the- p i n n a c l e of d i v i n e - l i k e s t a t u r e , thus b r i n g i n g about the a r c h e t y p a l c a t a s t r o p h e . Nemesis i s i n e v i t a b l e and i s provoked by a number of p o s s i b l e agents:- human, g h o s t l y or d i v i n e vengeance, .divine j u s t i c e , a c c i d e n t , .• fate" or the l o g i c of events. As the t r a g i c hero,, Etienne c l e a r l y appears s u p e r i o r to ' the other Montsou i n h a b i t a n t s , a f a c t which becomes evident i n the many d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view. We see him as-he sees h i m s e l f , as the other c h a r a c t e r s see him and as the n a r r a t o r sees him. Again and again the n a r r a t o r impresses upon us Etienne' 1 s sense of h i s own s u p e r i o r i t y , both i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l o U n l i k e the r e s i g n e d miners, Etienne cannot accapt a l i f e of hard l a b o r i n which he i s reduced to the l e v e l of a beast of burden; moreover, t h i s acute f e e l i n g of h i s own humanity compared' to the miners' a n i m a l i t y provokes h i s i n i t i a l d e s i r e f o r r e v o l t o n l y one day a f t e r being h i r e d . Thus rather than return to the degrading job i n the mine, Etienne chooses to leave Montsou and seek work e l s e -' w h e r e „ • »• car, avec son i n s t r u c t i o n plus l a r g e , i l ne se sentait pas l a resignation de ce troupeau, i l f i n i r a i t par etran-gler quelque chef"' (p 0. 6l)<, Indeed, " »• . . i l l u i r'epugnait de recommencer, c ' e t a i t i n j u s t e et trop dur, son o r g e u i l d'homme se r e v o l t a i t a 1'idee d'etre tine bete qu'on aveugle et qu'on ecrase" (p«- 70)'. C l e a r l y , at t h i s point i n the novel, Eti'enne:'s sense of h i s own s u p e r i o r i t y i s dangerous neither to himself nor to other • people for h i s pride does not stem fromaa s p i r i t of selfishness,, However, once the miners grasp h i s v i s i o n of a future just society soon to be created, and once they put t h e i r complete t r u s t i n h i s leadership, Etienne-'s pride begins, to develop i n t o a nega-t i v e force inasmuch as h i s main motivation s h i f t s from the s e l f -l e s s desire to improve the miners'' s o c i a l world to the s e l f - g r a t -i f y i n g desire to become a successful p o l i t i c a l leader of s o c i a l -i s t i c doctrine So- As. h i s p o l i t i c a l knowledge expands, Etienne''s sense of i n f e r i o r i t y i n t h i s area gradually disappears giving r i s e to f e e l i n g s of pride, "La 'honte de son ignorance s ' e n a l l a i t , i l l u i venait un o r g e u i l depuis q u ' i l se sentait penser" (p» 166). Moreover, aft e r he gains the miners' support for h i s "reve s o c i a l " , and his p o l i t i c a l knowledge increases, h i s pride develops i n t o a sense of vanity; L'influence d'Etienne s ' e l a r g i s s a i t , i l revo-l u t i o n n a i t peu a" peu l e cor on v , , « i l g r a n d i s s a i t dans l'estime de tous . . „ des l e mois de septembre, t j i l avait] cre'e enfin sa.fameuse caisse de prevoyance c o o . On venait de l e nommer secretaire de 1'asso-c i a t i o n , et i l touchait nitrite des p e t i t s appointeinents 9 pour ses e c r i t u r e s , Cela l e rendait plus riche „ . . . De*s l o r s , i l . s ' o p e r a chez Etienne une t r a n s f o r -mation l e n t e * Des i n s t i n c t s de coquetterie e t de •bien-etre 0 * « se revele; rent, l u i f i r e n t acheter des vehement s de drapo I I se paya une paire de bottes f i n e s , et du coup i l p assa chef, tout l e coron se grotipa autour de lui©. Ce furent des s a t i s -f a c t i o n s d"amour-propre det i c i e u s e s , i l se grisa des premieres jouissances de l a popularite: "etre a" l a tete des autres, commander, l u i s i jeune et qui la, v e i l l e encore e t a i t une manoeuvre, 1'emplis-s a i t d i"orgeuil 5 : agg^randissant son re*Ve d"une revol-ution prochaine,.. ou i l j o u e r a i t un r&Le e- (p* 173) In the scenes preceding the scheduled meeting at the Bon Joyeux 5 Etienne ! rs po p u l a r i t y continues to r i s e as he r e i n f o r c e s the miners'* b e l i e f i n a new society, a return to a golden age o f the past, "Desormais, Etienne e t a i t l e chef inconteste „ * o . Sa p o p u l a r i t y croissante l e s u r e x c i t a i t chaque jour davantage* Tenir une correspondance etsndue, discuter du sort" des t r a v a i l l e u r s aux quatre coins de l a province, dbnner des consultations aux mineurs-du iVoreux,. surtout devenir un centre, s e n t i r l e monde rouler autour de - s o i s c! ?'etait un continuel gonflement de vanite pour l u i % * *• * n montait d'"un echelon, i l e n t r a i t dans cette bourgeoisie execreVj . avec des s a t i s f a c t i o n s ^""intelligence et de bien-^tre q u ' i l ne s'^avouait pas r r (p* 228)* Moreover, he imagines himself i n the future climbing s t i l l higher, " * * „ Montsou V ses pieds, Paris d ans un l o i n t a i n b r o u i l l a r d 5 qui s a i t ? l a depu-t a t i o n un jour, l a tribune d!'une s a l l e : r i c h e , ou i l se voyait foudroyant l e s bourgeois,, du premier secours prononce par un ouvrier d ans un Parlement"" (p c 229)* Thus h i s dream, slowly trans-forms i t s e l f i n t o the desire for personal glory from which he reaps s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n * - At the end of the chapter 3 h i s desire for re v o l u t i o n becomes "une fureur de bataille 9,- inn""] besoin f arouche d i !en f i n i r avec l a misere" (pv 236) 0 Indeed the "gaiete rouge" of h i s v i s i o n awakens- wi t h i n him ? " „• „. des bouffe'es d'or g e n i i : j^tdT] reparaissaient : et j^quij li'emportaient plus haut 9 l a j o i e -di'etre l e chef, de se v o i r obei jusqu'au s a c r i f i c e , l e :r/eVe e i ar-g i de sa puissance, l e soir du triomphe e De'ja, i l s !'iinaginait une scene di'une grandeur .simple, son refus du pouvoir 3 l^'autorite remise entre l e s mains du peuple, quand i l s e r a i t l e maitre" (p©236). Etienne reaches the peak of h i s popularity and vanity at the meeting i n the f o r e s t of Wandame for at t h i s p o i n t R a s s e n e u r f a i l s to command the crowd that once cheered him whereas Etienne i s h a i l e d as their'new leader, "La clameur recommencao Etienne goutait I''ivresse de sa p o p u l a r i t e l Ci'etait son.pouvoir q u ' i l t e n a i t , comme m a t e r i a l i s e , dans ces t r o i s m i l l e p o i t r i n e s dont i l f a i s a i t d'un mot b a t t r e l e s coeurs , r (p e 289) 0 In addit i o n , he reveals his vanity through h i s desire to impress Catherine whom he hopes i s watching h i s performance,, Whereas at the Bon Joyeux meeting, Etienne f e l t "empeche encore par l e s scrupules de sa s e n s i b i l i t e et de sa r a i s o n " " ( p 0 242), now at the f i r s t iVandame meeting, passion rather than reason d i r e c t s him during h i s sca-thing attack on society: Cela entra'inait une refonte t o t a l e de l a v i e i l l e societe' pourrie; i l a t t a q u a i t l e mariage, l e d r o i t de t e s t e r , i l reglementait l a fortune de chacun, i l j e t a i t has l e monument inique des s i e c l e s morts, d'un grand geste de son bras, toujours l e me^ rne, l e geste du faucheur qui rase l a moisson mure; et i l r e c o n s t r u i s a i t ensuite de l'autre main, , i l b ^ t l s -s a i t l a future humanite," I ' / d i f i c e de v e r i t e et de justice' grandissant dans l'^aurore du vingtieme s i e c l e 0 A cette tension c t r i b r a l e , l a raison.chan-c e l a i t , i l ne r e s t a i t que I'ide'e f i x e du s e c t a i r e . Les scrupules, de l a s e n s i h i l i t e et de bon sens Et-aient emportes, r i e n ne devenait plus f a c i l e que l a r e a l i s a t i o n cie ce monde. nouveau: i l a v a i t tout prevu, i l en p a r l a i t comme d'une machine q u ' i l monterait en" deux heures,- et n i l e feu n i le-sang ne l u i coutaient. (p. 288) Mien the second meeting i n the f o r e s t f a i l s to come to order as the miners prefer to attack the Jean-Bart p i t , Etienne. witnesses his gradual loss of c o n t r o l over the miners, "II souf— . f r a i t aussi' dans son o r g e u i l de chef, en voyant l a 'bande echapper a son a u t o r i t ^ , • „ . „ •Vainement, i l re'clam ait du sang-froid, i l c r i a i t qu'on ne devait pas donner ra i s o n a*" l e u r s ennemis par des actes de destruction i n u t i l e , r (p. 326)« Indeed the miners'' march through the streets i n search of bread goes unchecked as Etienne can no longer control the mob0 Because Etienne himself becomes more and more vain and hence bourgeois i n his outwards appearance, and because his v i s i o n of a new, just society turns in t o a s e l f i s h .vision of personal power, the miners, with t h e i r l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e and resources, are. thus forced i n t o the p o s i -t i o n of waging t h e i r own b a t t l e for a Utopian s o c i e t y e ^Violence a f t e r violence i n d i c a t e s that b e s t i a l behavior i s the only means they knowingly-possess as weapons against the encroaching forces of capitalism,,- "'Seul •- o o j j s t j au m i l i e u de l a route" : (p* 357)? Etienne stands i n shock as the marchers stop at the Hennebeau home, "II n'avait r i e n voulu de ces choses, comment p o u v a i t - i l se f a i r e • que, p a r t i pour Jean-Bert dans l e but d'agir froidement et d'em-p'echer un desastre,. i l achevat l a journee, de violence en violence par assieger I'ho^tel du directeur«,,., ». • . • Desespere, Etienne rentra dans l a foule,. pret a mourir. . • • Personne, du r e s t e , n'obeissait plus, a Etienne,, • ... Tout l e vieux sang flamand e t a i t l a , lourd et p l a c i d e , mettant des mois a" s' e'chauffer, se jetant aux sauvageries abominableSj sans r i e n entendre jusqu'a* ce que l a bete f u t soule d ' a t r o c i t e s " (pp 0 356-57-58)o Thus E t i e n n e T s pride, which begins as an asset i n that i t arouses his desire to help h i s fellow-man, turns i n t o a negative force, h i s t r a g i c flaw. Indeed out of pride, Etienne chooses s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n over the s e l f l e s s o f f e r of help, a choice which r e s u l t s i n h i s l o s s of power and authority, and which u l t i m a t e l y leads to h i s t o t a l defeat. Ashamed and unable to face his fellow-miners a f t e r the f a i l u r e of his "reve s o c i a l " and conscioiis of his r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the miners : t acts of violence, Etienne f e e l s he must i s o l a t e himself from the entire community by hiding deep i n the ruins of ^ e q u i l l a r t i n Je a n l i n ' s secret den. Indeed, " 0 . . toute l a severite*retombait sur Etienne „• . . " (p 0 373)o During h i s period of i s o l a t i o n , Etienne undergoes a process- of s p i r i t u a l renewal i n which he repents h i s decisions which caused the present econ-omic disaster,. The very language used to describe E t i e n n e r s tho thoughts at t h i s point c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s the s p i r i t u a l change brought about by his .mental suff e r i n g s i n a symbolic purgatory, "Cette nui t interminable, complete, toujours du riieme n o i r , e'tait sa grande souffrance. II avait beau dormir en surete, e\;re pourvu de p a i n , avoir chaud, jamais l a nuit n'avait pese s i lourdement a son crane e E l l e semblait comme I'e^crasement meme de ses pensees. . Une autre honte I ' a c c a b l a i t , l e remords de cette ivresse sauvage, du genievre bu dans l e grand f r o i d , I'estomac v i d e 5 et qui l''avait j e t / sur Chavalg arm/ d!'un couteau" (p* 3 7 5 ) » Although he continues to f e e l s o c i a l l y superior to the miners, Etienne admits he acted out of a pride which was i n i m i c a l to the miners he wished to help: Des id/es vagues l e ^ t r a v a i l l a i e n t , q u ' i l ne cro-yait,pas a v o i r 0 C"*etait une sensation de superio-r i t e qui le mettait a part des camarades ? une e x a l -t a t i o n de sa personne," a" mesure q u ' i l s ' m s t r u i s a i t . Jamais i l n'avait tant r e f l e x h i , . i l se demandait pourquoi son de'gdiVfc, l e lendemain de l a furieuse course & travers l e s fosses: et i l n'osait pas se repondre, des souvenirs l e re%ugnaient, l a bassesse des convoTtises, l a grossi^rete' des i n s t i n c t s , I'odeur de toute cette mise"re secouee au vent, Mai-gre" l e tourment des t<*h£bres, i l en a r r i v a i t £ r e -douter l'heure ou i l r e n t r e r a i t au coron, (p„ 376) Moreover a sense of g u i l t pervades his conscience at the same time as he admits personal defeat, "' „ . . une angoisse l e t o r -t u r a i t , l o r s q u ' i l songeait aux miseres de l a de'faite, a toute cette lourde responsabilite" de souffrance qui peserait sur l u i . La f i n de l a greh/e, n'etait-ce pas l a f i n de son r o l e , son ambi-t i o n par t e r r e , son existence retombant h 1'abrutisseinent de l a mine et au dugout du coron?" Cp* 3 7 7 ) • As punishment for his s i n of pride, Etienne's t r a g i c flaw, he i s forced to repent i n i s o l a t i o n amid the nightmarish darkness of K e q u i l l a r t * His ultimate punishment which leads to.his s p i r i - ' t u a l r e b i r t h 3nd salvation i s h i s imprisonment i n l e iVoreux, a symbolic descent i n t o the 'Valley of the Shadow of Deaths" from which he emerges cleansed of his pride as i f reborn into a new world of growth and f r u i t i o n * Once purged of h i s pride, Etienne r e a l i s e s h is o r i g i n a l dream for as he leaves Montsou, he goes to r e j o i n P l u c h a r t and t o become a s o c i a l i s t p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r whose aim i t w i l l be t o improve the l o t o f the working c l a s s people in t h e i r s o c i e t y . As he walks away, " «, , . E t i e n n e r a l e n t i t sa marche, l e s yeux perdus a d r o i t e e t § gauche 3 dans c e t t e g a i e t e de l a n o u v e l l e s a i s o n , I I s o n g e a i t a l u i 5 i l se s e n t a i t f o r t , muVi par sa dure e x p e r i e n c e au fond de l a mine« Son e d u c a t i o n e t a i t f i n i e , i l s'en a l l a i t arme, en s o l d a t r a i s o n n e u r de l a r e -v o l u t i o n , ayant d e c l a r e l a guerre a l a s o c i e t e , t e l l e q u ' i l l a v o y a i t e t t e l l e q u ' i l 2ia condamnait r r (pp, 521-22), At t h i s p o i n t i n the n o v e l the c i r c u l a r p a t t e r n s o f comedy, and t r a g e d y are complete i n t h a t the downward movement o f t r a g e d y towards i s o l a t i o n swings upward a g a i n towards i n t e g r a t i o n , the major theme o f comedy, Indeed s as the n o v e l c l o s e s , Etiennei's r e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o s o c i e t y i s symbolized by the handshakes he r e c e i v e s from h i s f e l l o w - w o r k e r s the d a y o f h i s departure,. More-over, the other comic theme, t h a t o f m a r r i a g e % i s suggested by the images o f growth, f r u i t i o n and f e r t i l i t y which d e s c r i b e the n a t u r a l w o r l d i n t o which i s r e b o r n a t the end o f the n o v e l . Thus E t i e n n e i s s y m b o l i c a l l y r e u n i t e d t o h i s world' and i s a t oneness w i t h i t , Romance, as a n a r r a t i v e form, r e p r e s e n t s w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t , the w o r l d o f dreams i n which the quest o f the hero i s a n o s t a l -g i c s e a r c h f o r a l o s t golden age* Moreover, romance i s the hea-v e n l y p o l e o f the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e whereas i t s c o u n t e r p a r t , i r o n y , i s the demonic p o l e formed by the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f these two n a r r a t i v e forms. The two most common forms o f romance l i t e r -t u r e are the m e d i e v a l c h i v a l r i c romances and the f a i r y - t a l e , In m e d i e v a l romance, the " d a r i n g y^ung k n i g h t i n s h i n i n g armor" •undertakes the quest f o r the Hol y G r a i l , , and i n the f a i r y - t a l e , the h o l d young q u e s t i n g hero i s t r a d t i o n a l l y the t h i r d son who s e t s out t o find " adventure, In Germinal the a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n s o f romance c e n t e r on E t i e n n e who i s i n d e e d the "k n i g h t i n s h i n i n g armor"" i n t h a t he appears? t o promise t o b r i n g l i g h t to the miners p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n g i n l i t e r a l and symbolic d a r k n e s s . Moreover, a s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l f a i r y - t a l e , E t i e n n e i s a l s o the t h i r d son o f G e r v a i s e L a n t i e r , the son who goes o f f t o make h i s f o r t u n e i n the w o r l d . In terms o f the f a i r y - t a l e archetype,- Germinal p r e s e n t s a v i s i o n o f an im a g i n a r y w o r l d , a "never-never"' land' o f dreams which q u i c k l y l o d g e s i t s e l f w i t h i n the miners^* i m a g i n a t i o n s * As the n o v e l p r o g r e s s e s , E t i e n n e " s dream o f a new s o c i e t y which w i l l r e p l a c e the p r e s e n t c o r r u p t one g r a d u a l l y o v e r t a k e s h i s i m a g i n -a t i o n t o the p o i n t where, " * , „ i l m a r c h a i t dans un reN/e" (p e 1 6 6 ) . E t i e n n e ; s s quest i s i n d e e d the q u i x o t i c i m p o s s i b l e dream, a f a c t which becomes apparent i f o n l y i m p l i c i t l y i n the f i r s t extended d e s c r i p t i o n o f him through the use o f f a i r y - t a l e images and which f i n a l l y becomes e x p l i c i t when E t i e n n e must admit d e f e a t t o l a Maheuder o , o l ^ h o r i z o n ferme , , « e c l a t a i t * une trouee de l u m i e r e s ' o u v r a i t dans l a v i e sombre de ces pauvres gens* , , , t o u t l e malheur d i s p a r a i s s a i t ? comme ba l a y if par un grand coup de s o l e i l ; e t , sous un Sfblouissement de f e e r i e , l a j u s t i c e d e s c e n d a i t du c i e l , « ,- , Une socie'te' n o u v e l l e p o u s s a i t en un j o u r , a i n s i que dans l e s songes, une v i l l e immense, d'une splendour de mirage, ou chaque c i t o y e n v i v a i t de sa tache e t p r e n a i t sa p a r t des j o i e s communes* , . . E t , c o n t i n u e l l e m e n t , ce .A / , re,ve s * e l a r g i s s a i t 9 s'embellissait, d'au.tant plus seducteur q u ' i l montait plus haut dans 1'impossible, (pp0- 170-71).-,When l a Maheude responds to his dream 3 : she i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y described as having f a l l e n under a magic s p e l l cast over her by her symbolic f a i r y god-mother 9 " , , . peu a" peu, l e charme s ' a g i s s a i t aussi sur e l l e , E l l e f i n i s s a i t par sourire 9. ^ i m a g i -nation e v e i l l e e 9 entrant dans ce monde merveilleux de l i " e s p o i r 0 II e t a i t s i doux d'oublier pendant une heure l a r e a l i t e tristeL" Lorsqu'on v i t comme des betes 9. l e nez a"" t e r r e , i l faut bien un coin de mensonge5- ou l'on s'amuse a~ se regaler des choses qu'on ne possedera j amais"' (p<> 171) <>• Like a l l f a i r y - t a l e s , - Etienne 1's dream o f f e r s only the i l l u s i o n of escape 9 a momentary release from r e a l i t y . Howevery. he must u l t i m a t e l y admit defeat to l a Maheude for i n e v i t a b l y r e a l i t y impinges upon the world of h i s i l l u s i o n s a n d thus crushes his dreams. For l a Maheude 9 " L l s h o r i z o n ferme n'avait pas voulu s'ouvrir, I'ide'al impossible tournait en poison au fond de ce crane f e l e par l a douleur"" (pp-, 3 9 2 - 9 3 ) o The harsh r e a l i t y of death 9 pain and starvation convinces- l a Maheude that Etienne ;*s v i s i o n was indeed the impossible dream. Looking back on her i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n to.Etienne ;'s dream, she says: "Puis l e s malins sont toujours l a ? ; pour vous promettre que pa £june meilleure s o e i e t i j peut s'arran-ger, s i l'on s'en donne seulement l a peine,.. On se monte l a . f e t e , on souffre tellement de ce qui e x i s t e , qu'on demande ce qui n'existe pas, Moi je revassais deja" comme une beTe,.-je yoyais une vie de bonne amitie' avec tout l e monde, j'^'etais p a r t i e dans l ' a i r , ma parole'], dans l e s images,. Et l'on se c asse ': l e s r e i n s , en retomb ant dans l a c r o t t e , , . - Ce ii'o'tait pas v r a i , i l n'y a V a i t r i e n l a - b a s desi choses qu'on s ' i m a g i n a i t v o i r . Ce q u ' i l y a v a i t , o ' e t a i t encore de l a misere, ahi de la - m i s e r e t a n t qu'on en veut, et des coups de f u s i l par-dessus l e march's I ( p 0 k39) Thus Germinal c o n t a i n s both poles of the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n terms of the opposite n a r r a t i v e forms o f romance and i r o n y f o r i r o n y d e p i c t s the f a i l u r e ' o f romance t o w i t h s t a n d the hard blows t h r u s t upon i t by the c o n s t a n t l y impinging f o r c e of r e a l i t y which causes the dreams' to crumble« •In terms o f the medieval c h i v a l r i c romance t r a d i t i o n , Germi-nal' c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l themes which are c e n t r a l to the C e l t i c King Arthur legend* • Indeed the theme of s o c i a l change i s c l e a r l y one which appears both i n Germinal and i n the Round Table myth* In-"The Coming of Arthur"' and ,TThe Passing of Arthur''* s e c t i o n s o f 3 I d y l l s of the K i n g , the r e c u r r i n g l i n e i s "The o l d order changeth y i e l d i n g place t o new." L i k e A r t h u r , Etienne' i s presented as the i d e a l man who as the- r u l e r w i l l . b r i n g new order t o a s o c i e t y now e x i s t i n g i n c h a o s . From the moment t h a t he f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e s h i s dream of a new s o c i e t y , the n a r r a t o r claims t h a t , "La v i e i l l e s o c i e t e " era qua i t „ e . " (p.- 1 7 1 ) » However' when h i s dream f a i l s t o produce a new s o c i e t y and thus when h i s quest i s f i n a l l y thwarted, romance turns .to i r o n y and the. union which was intended to improve the miners''' working c o n d i t i o n s crumbles before, the defeated hero's eyes* Indeed a f t e r Etienne t e l l s l a Maheude they would be best to surrender and end t h e i r s t r i k e , Rasseneur begins to climb back i n t o p u b l i c favor as he announces the d i s s o l u t i o n of the union: E ^ A s s o c i a t i o n , o o o e t a i t maintenant devoree, d e t r u i t e ' u n peu chaque j o u r par l a b a t a i l l e i n -t e r i e u r e des va niters e t des ambitions,, Depuis que l e s a n a r c h i s t e s y t r i o m p h a i e n t , c h a s s a n t l e s e v o l u t i o n n i s t e s de l a premiere heure,, t o u t c r a -q u a i t , l e but p r i m i t i f , l a rtfforme du s a l a r i a t , se n o y a i t au m i l i e u du t i r a i l l e m e n t des s e c t e s , l e s cadres savants se d c f s o r g a n i s a i e n t dans l a haine de l a discipline» E t d e j a l'on, p o u v a i t v o i r l i favortement f i n a l de c e t t e l e v e e en masse, q u i a v a i t menace'tin i n s t a n t d'emporter d ; tune h a l e i n e l a v i e i l l e s o c i e t e p o u r r i e * (p<?-396) , Another A r t h u r i a n theme p r e s e n t i n Germinal i s the a r c h e -t y p a l m y s t e r i o u s b i r t h o f the hero, When E t i e n n e a r r i v e s i n Montsou,- n o t h i n g i s immediately known about h i s past, : and he i s i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from any o t h e r ihuman b e i n g s i n t h a t he bears ho mark o f a hero t o s e t him a p a r t from other p e o p l e 0 G r a d u a l l y i n as much as he c o n v i n c e s the miners o f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c r e a t i n g a new s o c i e t y and thus arouses t h e i r hopes f o r a U t o p i a n w o r l d , he emerges from the background and assumes a p o s i t i o n o f leader*-* s h i p * Moreover, E t i e n n e and A r t h u r both appear' i n i t i a l l y amid a g r e a t b u r s t o f l i g h t which foreshadows the i m p o r t a n t r o l e t h e y w i l l have l a t e r i n the novel*. The t r a d i t i o n a l d r a g o n - k i l l i n g theme o f many quest-romances f i n d s symbolic e x p r e s s i o n i n Germinal i n terms o f E t i e n n e * s dream o f changing the p r e s e n t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e * F o r the m i n e r s , the dragon i s l e 'Voreux, the monster c r e a t e d by the b o u r g e o i s c a p i t a -l i s t s t o perpetuate t h e i r a l r e a d y l a r g e f o r t u n e . L i k e the m y t h i c a l dragon o f romance l i t e r a t u r e - , l e JVoreux f i r s t emerges i n t o E t i e n n e! 3s s i g h t as i f out o f a dream,. "Le iVoreux 9 : a p r e s e n t , s o r t a i t du r e v e * o * C e t t e f o s s e , t a s s e e au f o n d d ; ?un c r e u x * * *• l u i s e m b l a i t a v o i r un a i r mauvais de b^te goulue,.- accroupie pour manger l e mondefr (ppB. 3-h)9 And as Etienne q u i e t l y ob-serves i t s operation^ he hears " , , , 1 ""e'ehappement de. l a pompe, cette r e s p i r a t i o n grosse et longue, soufflant-sans relache, qui e t a i t comme l'h a l e i n e egorgee du monstre r r (p, h), Throughout the novel, the mine i s constantly presented as a beast crouching i n i t s den, ready to devour human f l e s h at any moment, " 0 , , l e puits a v a l a i t des hommes par bouche'es de vihgt ou de trente, et d'un coup de gosier s i f a c i l e , q u ' i l semblait ne pas l e s s e n t i r passer " (p,- .2h) & Moreover, "jTl. aj l ' a i r gene par sa digestion . penible de chair humaine" (p» 1 2 ) , The cataclysmic destruction of the mine at the end of the novel represents the archetypal k i l l i n g of the dragon or monster which, i n terms of the novel, i s intended to symbolize the defeat of the bourgeois c a p i t a l i s t s . However, the death i s not complete for work resumes once again, thus the power of the bourgeoisie continues although somewhat diminished by the s t r i k e . A l l that remains i s the hope that i n the future the dragon w i l l u l t i m a t e l y bs t o t a l l y destroyed, that the working cl a s s w i l l f i n a l l y r i s e to power and thus c o n t r o l t h e i r world. The c y c l i c a l pattern of the seasons and the cycle of human l i f e from b i r t h through growth to maturity, death and r e b i r t h often associated-with the seasonal cycle i s present i n Germinal i n terms of Etienne''"s moral development. Throughout the course of his progression towards a state of moral maturity, Etienne f l u c t u a t e s metaphorically between the two v e r t i c a l ' p o l e s of Heaven and H e l l which we have just analyzed i n terms of the v e r t i c a l p a i r s of narrative'patterns present i n the hovel,,- T r a d i t i o n a l l y , s p r i n g i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b i r t h , summer w i t h growth, autumn w i t h m a t u r i t y and h a r v e s t i n g and f i n a l l y , w i n t e r w i t h death. The con-cept of r e b i r t h i s suggested by the c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n of the r e t u r n t o s p r i n g a f t e r w i n t e r , Frye''s l i n k between the four seasons and the four n a r r a t i v e p a t t e r n s mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s study h a s • i n t e r e s t i n g r a m i f i -c a t i o n s i n terms o f Etienne's'moral development. Moreover, Frye sees the four n a r r a t i v e p a t t e r n s as components of a much l a r g e r . I f p a t t e r n which he l a b e l s the quest myth* The four aspects o f the quest myth a r c c o n f l i c t , which i s the c e n t r a l i s s u e of rom snce l i t e r a t u r e , death e i t h e r o f the hero or the. enemy, which i s the ; b a s i c element o f tragedy, the disappearance of the hero which i s i m p l i e d i n i r o n y where heroism seems t o t a l l y . a b s e n t and where con-f u s i o n or anarchy e i t h e r t h r e a t e n or p r e v a i l , and f i n a l l y , the reappearance or the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the hero, which i s the c e n t r a l element of comedy-where a new society, r i s e s t r i u m p h a n t l y around She hero i n the c l o s i n g scenes. I f one of the b a s i c threads o f the p l o t i n Germinal concerns Etienne''s c h a r a c t e r development, as indeed i t does, the novel c a n then be read as quest l i t e r a t u r e i n which the search i s f o r moral m a t u r i t y . Thus the four. s s p e c t s of the quest myth and the n a r r a t i v e forms which sre t h e i r e quiva-l e n t s embody, the four stages of Etienne ; rs moral e d u c a t i o n . To go one step f u r t h e r , the seasonal p a t t e r n s which Frye has l i n k e d w i t h the four n a r r a t i v e forms a l s o c h r o n i c l e Etienne''s p r o g r e s s i o n towards moral m a t u r i t y i n terms of the l i t e r a l time scheme' i n the n o v e l . Indeed the b i r t h o f E t i e n n e ' s impulse to r e v o l t against the given s o c i a l order occurs during his f i r s t day's work i n the mine i n March, the f i r s t month of spring. Throughout the summer months,.- which ,are t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with growth* Eti'enne;'s. revolutionary ideas continue to develop* In August, when he moves int o the Maheu home, he begins to pose moral ques-tions concerning the present s o c i a l order, " 9. *. * pourquoi l a misere des uns? pourquoi l a richesse des autres? pourquoi ceux-ci sous l e talon de c e u x - l s , sans i ' e s p o i r de jamais prendre l e u r place? E t sa premiere etape f u t de comprendre son ignorance" (pp. 165-66),. Shortly following t h i s moment of i n t r o s p e c t i o n , Etienne formulates his "reve social"'which b e l i e v e s w i l l resolve the s o c i a l problems of i n j u s t i c e and inequality., As autumn approaches, h i s pop u l a r i t y continues to increase; at t h i s stage he reaps only success as the miners 1' b e l i e f i n h i s i d e a l becomes more intense* On December 1, however, the s t r i k e which w i l l u l t i m a t e l y cause his downfall begins*- Winter, which i s symbolic of death, begins i n a p o s i t i v e way f o r Etienne i n that he continues to r e t a i n h i s pop u l a r i t y as leader of the people u n t i l the day of the second scheduled meeting i n the f o r e s t when he f i r s t loses c o n t r o l of h i s followers,, In February,, the l a s t month of winter and hence the darkest moment of the season, Etienne appears powerless before h i s followers as the crowds of angered, starving miners scour the streets i n a v i o l e n t march i n search of bread* As a r e s u l t of .his downfall,- his defeat as the leader^ Etienne descends'into the abyss of J ^ q u i l l a r f r and following his return to Montsou, he joins Catherine to resume work i n the p i t s . Trapped i n the crumbling mine shaft, Etienne narrowly escapes p h y s i c a l death but does undergo a ki n d of s p i r i t u a l death i n which he r e -pents h i s pride, expiates' i t ' and subsequently achieves a s p i r i t u a l r e b i r t h whereby he emerges from the world of death and winter' i n t o the world of l i f e and-springy "muri par sa dure experience au fond de l a mine. Son education e t a i t f i n i e . . • . " Cp*' 521)9 for indeed, "Sa raison murissait,.- i l a v a i t 3ete" l a gourme; de ses ran-cunes"" (p. 52^)o Cl e a r l y when Etienne emerges- at the end of the novel, he has achieved' a new l e v e l of moral maturity which we assume w i l l prepare him to be a successful p o l i t i c i a n i n his new career with Plucharto S i g n i f i c a n t l y then, the patterns i m p l i c i t i n the four narrative forms which chronicle stages i n Etienne' fs moral development and each of which Frye associates with'a season also work i n t o the one year- seasonal cycle on which Zola has constructed the novel and through which Etienne must pass on h i s quest for-moral maturity,, Thus to conclude, the v e r t i c a l perspective in" Germinal i s a again revealed i n terms of the complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the four narrative forms and the cycle of the; seasons which toge-ther chronicle Etienne'*s progression towards a state of. moral maturity* the goal of his quest. In order to a t t a i n h i s goal, Etienne must pass through c o n f l i c t , a symbolic death before he reappears and' achieves r e c o g n i t i o n . Moreover, each of these stages represents a.narrative form which i n turn represents a season. For Etienne, the quest'terminates when he achieves a new kind of moral stature, and at' t h i s point, h i s education i s complete. As Frye has i n d i c a t e d , the r i s e and f a l l of the hero's fortunes frequently f o l l o w the seasonal cycle which i n Germinal i s made e x p l i c i t i n terms of the precise time scheme and i t s p a r a l l e l c y c l e — t h a t of Etienne"s s o c i a l dream from i t s conception through i t s growth to i t s maturity, harvesting and subsequent f a i l u r e . At the time of his symbolic r e b i r t h , Etienne*s ideas have become more p r a c t i c a l and'he has refocussed his desire for personal glory so that he no longer seeks mere s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n . 91 Notes Northrop Frye ?. Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m (New Yorks; Atheneum, 1 9 6 8 ) . Ibid., p. 163, 3-A l f r e d , Lord Tennyson, I d y l l s of the King' (New York: Bantam Books Inc., 1 9 6 5 ) y po 16, po- 269,-Northrop Frye, ; p<>. 192,-THE ANAGOGIC PATTERNS When applied to an analysis o f Germinal, F r y e r s concept o f the anagogic phase of l i t e r a r y symbolism develops yet another dimension of the v e r t i c a l perspective i n the novel by revealing : s i g n i f i c a n t archetypal r e l i g i o u s patterns„ In the Anatomy of  C r i t i c i s m , Frye defines the anagogic l e v e l of meaning i n l i t e r a -tures as being concerned " 0 . . xd.th the mythopoeic aspect o f l i t -erature 3 but with myth i n i t s narrower and more t e c h n i c a l sense of f i c t i o n s and themes r e l a t i n g to divine or quasi-divine beings and powers"" (p, ll6)«,„ In anagogy, symbols acquire a u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e for on t h i s l e v e l , l i t e r a t u r e no. longer comments on r e a l i t y but rather i t contains r e a l i t y within the framework of' un i v e r s a l symbols with which the a r t i s t has chosen to represent existence: When we pass in t o anagogy, nature becomes, not the container, but the thing contained, and the arche-t y p a l u n i v e r s a l symbols, the c i t y the "'garden, the quest, the marriage, are no longer the desirable' forms that man constructs inside nature, but are . themselves the forms of nature* Nature i s now i n -side the mind of Bn i n f i n i t e being who builds h i s c i t i e s out of the Milky Way.- (p, 119) For Frye then, l i t e r a t u r e represents "the t o t a l dream of man" because i n l i t e r a t u r e , r e a l i t y i s contained within the more en-compassing framework of i t s u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The anagogic phase of l i t e r a r y symbolism i s most evident i n scri p t u r e or apocalyptic r e v e l a t i o n which i n our Western culture occurs i n the Bible.- Frye claims that „• . . t h e transcendental and apocalyptic perspective of religion-comes as a tremendous emancipation of the imaginative mind" (p, 125) 9 for indeed r e l i -gion provides the basic metaphors for poetry, The B i b l e , which i s a highly organized mythic structure, belongs to the genre Frye c a l l s the encyclopaedic form which i s generally comprised of sacred books.presenting an anagogic form of symbolism. Moreover,, the Bible i s a source of "undisplaced myth;"' that i s , myth which i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with gods or demons, and which takes the form of two contrasting worlds of t o t a l metphorical i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , one desirable and the other undesirable 0 These worlds are often i d e n t i f i e d with the e x i s t e n t i a l heavens and h e l l s of the r e l i g i o n s contemporary vrilth such literatures,- These two forms of metaphor-i c a l organization we c a l l the apocalytic and the demonic respec-t i v e l y " (p, 139)o Germinal, although i t i s by no means a sacred book, i s 9 however, constructed around t r a d i t i o n a l b i b l i c a l arche-types which r e i n f o r c e the v e r t i c a l heaven-hell perspective i n the novel and thus also reveal the anagogic l e v e l of symbolism. As a d e f i n i t i v e myth, the Bible presents a single yet a l l encompassing archetypal and c y c l i c a l structure extending from Creation or Genesis to Apocalypse or Revelation, By incorporating a t o t a l v i s i o n of man's i n d i v i d u a l existence within a -larger v i s i o n of the created universe, the Bible i s a n anagogic structure which embodies the u n i v e r s a l symbols of the quest, the c i t y , and the garden, Germinal does not begin immediately with the moment of creation of the world" or of a society, but instead i t begins i n the t r a d i t i o n a l epic manner i n medias re_s with flashbacks to' inform the reader of preceding events. Hence Zola provides the very d e t a i l e d account of the formation of the Montsou Company which both for the bourgeois shareholders as w e l l as for the workers, i s c l e a r l y the creation of the world i n which they and t h e i r f u t -ure generations w i l l l i v e either i n luxury or i n poverty, . Indeed money alone creates and perpetuates t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l world. However9 t h i s i s merely an example of Zolai's use of the creation myth i n i t s most simple and l i t e r a l form. On a more complex and metaphoric l e v e l , the myth of creation .centers on the archetypal burst of l i g h t which i l l u m i n a t e s the darkness and issues f o r t h from an omnipotent and omniscient being who i s capable of imposing order on chaos, form on formlessness, and who creates verdure out of wasteland,-. In Germinalo the b i b l i -c a l Messiah figure represents one aspect of the character of Etienne L a n t i e r , the protagonist. As Etienne- approaches Montsou along the s t r a i g h t roadway, the world which unfolds before him suggests the cold*,, desolate, endlees and formless wasteland world of the universe before creation, a world buried deep i n darkness with no trace of l i g h t s Dans l a plaine rase, sous l a nuit sans e t o i l e s , d'une obscurite ? ; et d'rune epaisseur d'encre, un homme s u i v a i t seul la-grande route de-Marchiennes a Montsou, o . o , Devant l u i , i l ne voyait meme pas le s o l n o i r , et i l n'avait l a sensation de 1'immense horizon p l a t que par-les s o u f f l e s du vent d,e mars, des r a f a l e s larges comme sur une mer, glacees d'avoir balaye" des lieue-s de marais et de terres nues 0 Au-cujne ombre d'arbre ne ta c h a i t l e c i e l , l e pave" se der o u l a i t avec l a r e c t i t u d e , ^ u n e jetee, au m i l i e u de I'embrun aveuglant l e s tenebres, (p, 1) The image of the March storm which recurs throughout the novel suggests a chaotic force of sw i r l i n g gusts amid a black unfathom-able abyss for indeed there i s no d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e sky or earth. The o n l y l i g h t comes from the r e d f i r e s b u r n i n g i n the t h r e e open b r a z i e r s , but even so the n a r r a t o r remarks, "Aucune aube ne b l a n c h i s s a i t dans l e c i e l mort, l e s hauts fourneaux s e u l s f l a m -b a i e n t , sans en e c l a i r e r l ' i n c o n n u " (p, 1 1 ) — a v i s i o n more p r e c i s e l y 2 d e s c r i b e d by M i l t o n 8 s "darkness v i s i b l e , " Even i n d a y l i g h t the o u t l i n e of the mining v i l l a g e remains b a s i c a l l y enshrouded i n darkness; thus, on the d u l l l a n d s c a p e , the c o a l heaps appear as, "un l a c d'5'encre,r" (p. 7 0 ) . Moreover, "" ,• » .-.une fumee e p a i s s e , ' . . . au m i l i e u du g r i s b l a f a r d des s c h l s t e s e t des gres i_cI'ui3 ' l a i s s a i t . d e longues t r a i n e e s de r o u i l l e s s a n g l a n t e s " (p, 7 0 ) i s added t o the b l a n k e t o f c o a l dust which c o a t s the e n t i r e a r e a - — the t r e e s , the p l a i n and the r o a d s , "ensemanc Pnt l a t e r r e " ( p . 7 1 ) • In a d d i t i o n , the r e c u r r i n g images o f mud, scum and waste m a t e r i a l s which c h a r a c t e r i s e the miners' w o r l d suggest t h a t i t i s always on the verge o f s l i d i n g backwards i n t o a s t a t e o f p r i -m o r d i a l ooze or u t t e r f o r m l e s s n e s s t y p i c a l of the w o r l d b e f o r e c r e a t i o n . As l a Maheude p u l l s her two . c h i l d r e n behind her when she goes f i r s t t o beg c r e d i t from M a i g r a t and then c h a r i t y from' the G r e g o i r e s , the' c h i l d r e n p l a y i n the mud which oozes from the . e a r t h , " C ' e t n i t un d e g e l brusque, l e c i e l c o u l e u r de t e r r e , l e s \ mers g l u a n t s d'une humielite* v e r d a t r e , l e s r o u t e s empoissees de boue, une boue s p ^ c i a l e au pays du charbon, n o i r e comme-la su i e delaye'e, e p a i s s e et c o l l a n t e , d y l a i s s e r l e s s a b o t s , „ . , l e n o r e , , , . s' ramusait a. ramasser l a c r o t t e - .sur ses galoch.es, a i n s i que sur l e bout d'une p e l l e ( p . 8 7 ) " , . While working, the miners are g e n r a l l y s a t u r a t e d w i t h t h i c k mud. and water. For example, during h i s f i r s t day i n the mine,-, " „. 0 c Etienne t r a v e r s a i t de ve'ritables mares,- que l e gachis boueux des pieds r e v e l a i t seul"' Cp» 3*+)« and l a t e r , as he and h i s fellow-workers leave the p i t at the end of the day, "" 0 „• <, i l s passaient comme une hande de negres culbutes dans l a vase"' (p, 65)<* As Catherine works naked i n the Jean-Bart seam l a t e r i n the novel, her actions suggest those of a p r i m i t i v e beast s t r i v i n g to e x i s t , " 0 o • nue maintenant, pitoyable, ravalee au t r o t de femelle quetant sa, vie par l a boue des chemins, e l l e besognait,. l a croupe barbouillee de suie avec l a crotte jusqu'au ventre, « o <, "' (p 0 311)o- . A f r a i d to return home to Chaval, Catherine wanders alone through the streets where "" «, o l e dig e l r o u l a i t en fleuve- de fange" (p„ *+17)« For Catherine, the moment of sexual intercourse with Etienne, thus the moment of possible new l i f e , and the moment of death occur almost simultaneously on r rce l i t de boue" (p 0 511)© Follow-in g the v i o l e n t b a t t l e against the Belgian miners i n which many of the miners are k i l l e d , l a Maheu s i t s i n the mud beside the corpse of her husband and notices "Les blesses [Jquij h u r l a i e n t , l e s morts CJqul} se r e f r o i d i s s a i e n t dans l e s postures cass/es, bou-eux de l a boue l i q u i d e du degel, ca et l a envases parmi l e s taches d'encre du charbon qui r e p a r a i s s a i e n t sous l e s lambeaux s a l i s de l a neige" (p„ ^ 3 2 ) 0 F i n a l l y , a f t e r Souvarinel's act of sabotage' which causes the walls and c i e l i n g s of.the mine to collapse, a symbolic destruction which he hopes'will l e a d to r e c r e a t i o n , "Bien— t o t l e cratere s^emplit, un l a c d'eau boueuse occupa l a place ou e t a i t naguere l e iVoreux, e «• <>• (p«, k7k)a The mine i s u l t i m a t e l y destroyed completely and the present world s l i p s b ack towards a previous state of being, " , , . ce cratere se v i d a i t , l'eau hue par l e s ter r e s b a i s s a i t 5 de'crouvrait li'effrayant gachis du fond, o o , ci'etait un cloaquc, l e s ruines di'une v i l l e : abimee et fondue dans l a boue" (pp, 484-85), On the symbolic ^'evel,-, Etienne as the Messiah figu r e repre-sents the omnipotent force which w i l l i l luminate t h i s land of darkness and ' w i l l lead it's people from a world i n a state of p r i -mordial ooze into- an Edenic or Utopian universe,. Through him, the miners hope to recapture the l o s t Garden of Eden, to r e i n h a b i t the Promised Land—a world of j u s t i c e , e q u a l i t y and brotherhood, and as a r e s u l t of these f a c t o r s , a world of happiness. Although Etienne does' not appear i n Montsou amid the l i t e r a l halo of bright l i g h t which t r a d i t i o n a l l y surrounds' the Redeemer, hi s Utopian dreams based on Plu chart's i d e a l of the union cause him to assume the symbolic stature of the Redeemer i n the eyes of the miners he so greatly i n f l u e n c e s * C l e a r l y , we are to' see him as the apostle of s o c i a l j u s t i c e for he i s presented i n r e l i g i o u s terms from the moment he f i r s t attempts to convince h i s f e l l o w - • workers of the need for a provident fund, "II avai't l a propagande obstinee des nouveaux convertis, qui se creent une mission" (p*. 154), Moreover,- "Durant ces premiers mois, Etienne en resta au ravissement des' neophytes, l e coeur debordant d''indignations genereuses contre l e s oppresseurs, se jetant a^  1'esperance du prochain triomphe des opprimes" (p, l 6 6 ) 9 and s t i l l at the f e a s t -day celebrations, " | _ i l \ , , , t a c h a i t d'endoctriner Pierron , , ," (p* l 6 l ) . His mission i s undeniably s o c i a l i n nature i n that he preaches s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n * At the c r u c i a l meeting i n the f o r e s t , Etienne' 5s p o p u l a r i t y a n d i n f l u e n c e are a t t h e i r peak, and s i g n i f i c a n t l y 3 he stands above the crowd* "dominant" l a p e n t e 3 r r a p p e a r i n g t o h i s l i s t e n e r s as "ll'apotre a p p o r t a n t l a v e r i t e " ( p * 2 8 6 ) * In a d d i t i o n 3 t h r o u g h -out the novel s.. we see Etienne' i l l u m i n a t e d bythe l i g h t o f the moon 3 a l i g h t which suggests the s t a r o f Bethlehem s h i n i n g down on C h r i s t ' the n i g h t o f h i s b i r t h and d e s i g n a t i n g the Messiah* Again and a g a i n , Z o l a makes us aware o f the movement o f the moon. As E t i e n n e begins t o s p e a k 9 : " E a l u n e 3 t r o p basse encore a 1 ' h o r i z o n , n ' " e c l a i r a i t t o u j o u r s que l e s branches hautes*. l a f o u l e r e s t a i t noye'e de te n e b r e s * . „. *• L u i 3 n o i r e'galement*, f a i s a i t a"n-dessus d ' * e l l e 3 *. o o une b a r r e d!"ombre"' (p* 2 8 5 ) . However, inasmuch as E t i e n n e g a i n s the miners!"' support and thus f u l f i l s h i s m e s s i a n i c r o l e , the moon i l l u m i n a t e s h i s aS'a S a v i o r , "A'ce moment* l a l u n e 3 q u i m o n t a i t de l ! , h o r i z o n 3 g l i s s a ' n t des hautes branches l " e c l a i r a 0 Lorsque l a f o u l e , encore dans l ;"ombre, li sapercyut a i n s i , b l a n c de l u m i e r e 3 d i s t r i b u a n t l a f o r t u n e de ses mains o u v e r t e s , e l l e ap-p l a u d i t de nouveait, d;"un battement prolonge"' (p© 2 8 7 ) 0 "//hen as a r e s u l t o f h i s dream, E t i e n n e l o s e s t o u c h w i t h r e a l i t y , - s i m u l -taneously', "Ea l u n e , , , , b l a n c h i s s a i t toute l a c l a i r i e r e , • *" (p* 2 8 8 ) r and "Une e x a l t a t i o n r e l i g i e u s e , , , s o u l e v a i t l e s mineurs de t e r r e , l a f i e v r e d ' e s p o i r 1 des premieres Chre /tiens de l ' E g l i s e , a t t e n d a n t l e regne prochain-de l a j u s t i c e " ( p * ' 2 8 9 ) 0 Thus E t i e n n e i's c l e a r l y p r e s e n t e d i n metaphoric terms as the Messiah f i g u r e sent t o Montsou t o d e l i v e r i t s p r i s o n e r s from' bon-dage. Moreover,- the idea that the miners see him as a Redeemer sent amongst them to lead them out of the abyss i s revealed i n l a Mouquette's attitude towards him ? r r j e l l e ] Isadora i t comme un Jesus" (p.- 2 7 2 ) 5 . and i n the Maheu family's firm support of h i s theories,: "0. „ o- l e s Maheu a v a i e n t l ' a i r de comprendre, approu-vaient, acceptaient l e s solutions miraculeuses, avec l a f o i aveugle des nouveaux croyants, p a r e i l s a des Chretiens des premiers, temps de l''Eglise, qui attendalent l a venue d'une societe p a r f a i t e , sur l e fumier du monde antique"' (p„ 172)© Later, i n a moment of i n s e c u r i t y as the s t r i k e fund begins to diminish,. Etienne r e a l i z e s his important r o l e i n the s t r i k e and i's proud of h i s involvement, yet he experiences "une inquietude sur sa mission,, l a peur de n''e\re point l'homme att'endu r r" (pp.- 2 2 8 - 2 9 ) . C l e a r l y then, Etienne sees himself as the Redeemer or-Messiah figure and i n turn h i s peers also see him i n t h i s role.-Etienne f i r s t r e a l i z e s his r o l e Bs the Messiah figure, just a f t e r he .moves into the Maheu house-hold and becomes established i n h i s job a n d i n h i s correspondence with Plucharto In the eyes of the- i l l - f a t e d , poverty-stricken Maheus, Etienne has the power and the i n t e l l i g e n c e to turn the t i d e 'of t h e i r sofar predetermined l i f e of bondage to "' . . . l e dieu repu et accroupi,. auquel i l s donnaient tous leur c h a i r , et q u ' i l s ri'avaient jamais vu , r (p c 1 1 ) . . As Etienne speaks ardently to the crowd at the meeting i n the f o r e s t , " . „ o Catherine surtout, „ <, , ne q u i t t a i t pas Etienne de ses grands yeux c l a i r s , l o r s q u ' i l se r e c r i a i t , disant sa. f o i , ouvrant l''avenir enchante de son reve, s o c i a l " (p* 1 7 0 ) , P e r c e i -ving themselves as being hopelessly a n d e t e r n a l l y trapped i n the prison of poverty, a world with a closed horizon, the Maheus are ready to transfer t h e i r allegiance from the unjust, i n a c c e s s i b l e god of money to a human, sensi t i v e figure who understans t h e i r p l i g h t and whose c u l t promises a new l i f e of happiness i n a s o c i -ety based.on j u s t i c e and eq u a l i t y . As the miners l i s t e n to E t i e n n e r s gospel for salvation which urges them to create t h e i r own happiness on earth, Etienne appears as the God of Genesis whose l i g h t d i s p e l l s darkness and whose power creates a p o s i t i v e world":-f D'une voix grdente, i l p a r l a i ^ sans f i n . C'etait brusquement 1'horizon ferme qui e c l a t a i t , une trouee de lumiere- s'ouvrait dans l a vie sombre de ces- pauvres gens. L'e'ternel recommencement de l a misere, l e t r a v a i l de brute, ce d<fsir de b e t a i l qui donne sa la i n e et qu'on e n g o r g e , tout le malheur d i s p a r a i s s a i t , comme ^ /ba l a y e ' par un grand coup de . s o l e i l ; et, sous un eblouissement de f e e r i e , l a j u s t i c e descendait du c i e l . Puisque l e bon Dieu e t a i t mort, l a j u s t i c e a l i a i t assurer Ip bonheur des hommes, en faisanjt regner l ' e g a l i t e , l a f r a -ternite 7, Une societe nouvelle poussait en un jour, a i n s i que dans l e s sondes, une v i l l e immense, d'une splendeur de mirage, ou chaque citoyen v i v a i t de sa tache et prenait sa ,part des j o i e s communes. Le vieux monde pourri e t a i t tombe en poudre, une huma-n i t y jeune purgee de ces crimes g ne formait plus qu'un seul peuple de t r a v a i l l e u r s , qui a v a i t pour devise:. a chaque mejrite suivant ses oeuvres. Et, c o n t i n u e l l e -ment,. ce xeve s ' l i a r g i s s a i t , s ' e m b e l l i s s a i t , d'autant plus seducteur q u ' i l montait plus haut dans 1'impos-s i b l e , (pp, 170-71) -. Indeed the very words used to describe Etienne's speech suggest-a: r e l i g i o u s experience; for example, "ardente" i s frequently applied to a person s e r i o u s l y devoted to a r e l i g i o u s mission. Moreover, the tone of the entire passage implies an apocalyptic v i s i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the language Z o l a uses t o d e s c r i b e E t i e n n e " s U t o p i a n dream and the Maheus' r e a c t i o n t o i t r e v e a l s the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ' w h i c h i s a t the b a s i s o f the n o v e l . A lthough " . B » ce reve , . , m o n t a i t dans>1 'impossible' 1' (p«. 171) 9 the v i s i o n o f a s u p e r i o r e x i s t e n c e ends a b r u p t l y f o r the Maheus w i t h the i n -e v i t a b l e impingement o f r e a l i t y , "Neuf heures passe'es, e s t - i l p e r m i s l Jamais on ne se l e v e r a demain© E t l e s Maheu q u i t t a i e n t l a t a b l e , l e coeur mal a l ' a i s e , d e s e s p e r e . I I l e u r s e m b l a i t q u ' i l s v e n a i e n t d ' e t r e r i c h e s , e t q u ' i l s r e t ombaient d'un coup dans l e u r c r o t t e " (p„ 172) o The two u n d e r l i n e d words c l e a r l y , i n d i c a t e the v e r t i c a l "magnetic" p o l e s between which the miners f l u c t u a t e , but i n e v i t a b l y t h e y f i n d themselves s i n k i n g backwards i n t o a w o r l d i n a s t a t e o f p r i m o r d i a l ooze and chaos, t h e i r i n e s c a p a b l e domain,, A c c o r d i n g t o Z o l a ' s n a t u r a l i s t i c canon, i t i s a g i v e n t h a t the miners cannot escape the w o r l d i n t o which.they have been born," t h e y are doomed t o an e x i s t e n c e i n an e a r t h l y , h e l l o Moreover, the v e r y p r e s e n t a t i o n o f escape i n t o a b e t t e r w o r l d as a dream i n d i c a t e s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y t h a t the miners'' hope i s doomed from the s t a r t f o r , by d e f i n i t i o n , a dream i s m e r e l y an i l l u s i o n which crumbles the moment r e a l i t y impinges upon it© E t i e n n e ' s . U t o p i a n v i s i o n crumbles f o r as.we have a l r e a d y seen, i t . i s the q u i x o t i c i m p o s s i b l e deeam, a f a c t which Z o l a ' s c h o i c e o f language bears o u t . In the pa-ssage j u s t c i t e d the s u r f a c e tone of. optimism suggested by the words " j u s t i c e , " " e " g a l i t e , " " f r a t e r n i t e , " "societe'' n o u v e l l e , " and " j o i e s communes,"' t o mention o n l y a few, g i v e s way to a more p e s s i m i s t i c view when one considers the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the words "eblouissement de f e e r i e 2 ; r r "songes," "splendeur de mirage," and the c r u c i a l statement "ce reve montait * «, 0 dans 1'impossible©" A l l of these words imply an i l l u s o r y state which cannot be r e a l -i z e d , a "never-never land"" which can e x i s t only within the imagi-nation,, S i g n i f i c a n t l y , ; when l a Maheud'e f i r s t succumbs to Etiehne ; s o c i a l dream, she i s described as f a l l i n g under a magic s p e l l 5 ; " * o * peu a" peu, l e charme' si'agissait aussi. sur e l l e * - E l l e f i n i s s a l t par sour i r e , ^'imagination eyveille/e*.. entrant dans ce monde' mervellleux de l'espoir*- II e t a i t s i doux di'oublier, ; pen-dant une heure l a r e a l i t / t r i s t e * Lorsqu'on v i t comme des betes, l e nez a t e r r e , i l faut bien un coin de mensonge5; ou l !'on s'amuse 8s se regaler des choses qu'on ne possedera jamais" (p* 1 7 D © One again, the vocabulary suggests the i l l u s i v e world of dreams: "charme," "monde merveilleux," "imagination," "coin de mensonge," "o u b l i e r , " and "jamais*" Ultimately l a Maheude recognizes the f a i l u r e of Etiennei's messianic quest, as iGLzire slowly dies of s t a r v a t i o n and cold, the r e s u l t of t h e i r s t r i k e to achieve a better l i f e c At t h i s point she admits, the agony and destruction a r i s i n g from the seeds of Etienne!'s not/ poisonous dream, "L'horizon ferm/ n'avait pas voulu s^'ouvrir, l ' i d e a l impossible t o u r n a i f en poison, au fond de ce crane f e l e par l a douleur" (pp* 392-93)<> The collapse of Etienne-'s dream, hi s f a i l u r e to'create s u c c e s s f u l l y a new s o c i e t y also reveals the negative i m p l i c a t i o n s iherent i n the sowing, reaping and harvesting metaphors which recur- throughout the novel i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the i d e a o f s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n * The seeds o f r e b e l l i o n which germinate a,s a r e s u l t o f Etiennei's p o l i t i c a l a g i -t a t i o n produce as t h e i r f r u i t o n l y pain,, anguish and even death, as the p l i g h t o f the Maheu f a m i l y i n d i c a t e s * Indeed the images o f growth embody both the upward' swing o f ' t h e v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e towards hope, l i f e a'nd the r e t u r n t o the E d e n i c garden and the downward' swing towards disillusionment',.- thwarted growth and death* /•.though E t i e n n e u l t i m a t e l y f a i l ' s i n hi's r o l e as the Messiah f i g u r e , the v e r y presence o f t h i s C h r i s t i a n archetype g i v e s deeper s i g n i f i c a n c e , a r e l i g i o u s dimension* to the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n the n o v e l f o r i n the c h a r a c t e r o f the Messiah, he o f f e r s t o c r e a t e a U t o p i a n , heavenly world' f o r the miners* In d o i n g so 7. E t i e n n e • g i v e s them the i l l u s i o n o f c l i m b i n g out o f t h e i r dark, muddy abyss,, a w o r l d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o the u n i v e r s e b e -f o r e c r e a t i o n , towards a new E d e n i c garden which he p r e s e n t s as an improved s o c i a l world, : " « * * a present,- Ie mineur s , J e v e i l l a i t au fond,-. g e r m a i t dans l a t e r r e a i n s i qu'une v r a i e g r a i n e ; e t * * * l ' o n v e r r a i t un matin ce q u ' i l pousserai't au beau m i l i e u des champs;- oui' 5 i l p o u s s e r a i t des hommes, une armee &? hommes q u i r e t a b l i r a . i t l a j u s t i c e * * * « Ahl ca pouss'ait, ca p o u s s a i t p e t i t a petit,;, une rude moisson d'hommes, q u i m u r i s s a i t a u s o l e i l " (pp<r 168-69)0 However, the f i n a l . s l i d i n g backwards i n t o a s t a t e o f p r i m o r d i a l ooze i s suggested a t the v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f Etienne :'s dream when the s t r i k i n g c l o c k reminds the Maheus' t h a t i t w i l l be soon time t o get up f o r work and" i's f i n a l l y made e x p l i c i t when, a f t e r ' the p r o l o n g e d s t r i k e which brought a b o u t the death o f her husband and many of her chil d r e n , l a Maheude returns to work i n the muddy abyss of the mine, forced once again out of sheer necessity to pay hommage to the powerful and destructive d e i t y . Money. • As s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l agitators-and thinkers,. Souvarine and Etienne embrace philosophies which seek.the destruction of the present s o c i a l order i n the attempt to give r i s e to a new and better s o c i e t y . In t h i s sense Germinal embodies a symbolic v i s i o n of the b i b l i c a l Battle of Armageddon which precedes the Apocalypse, the f i n a l and conclusive b a t t l e between the forces of good and e v i l which w i l l r e s u l t i n the t o t a l decimation a n d purgation of the created universe by f i r e and by earthquake leading u l t i m a t e l y towards a v i s i o n of a new heaven and a new earth, the c e l e s t i a l c i t y of the ITew Jerusalem, Souvarine i s c l e a r l y Etienne's alter-ego i n that both men are described as being s o c i a l outcasts, wanderers with no home, dreamers and mystics who f i n a l l y f i n d refuge i n s o c i a l i s t i c p o l i - ' t i c a l b e l i e f s . Indeed at the end of the novel as Souvarine and Etienne walk together', they are described as r r deux promeneurs s o l i t a i r e s " * (p, 446), The difference between t h e i r the-ories i s merely one of degree. From the moment Souvarine f i r s t appears, his p o l i t i c a l bias tends towards a doctrine of t o t a l a n n i h i l a t i o n and anarchy, whereas the reader witnesses the gradual transforma-t i o n of Etienne Ts p o l i t i c a l stand from a simple desire to modify . the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l system to the n i h i l i s t i c desire to destroy society and thus purge the universe i n order that a new c i t y may be born. The s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e i r characters suggests that Souva-r i n e . r e p r e s e n t s one dimension of Etienne's p e r s o n a l i t y which Etienne i n i t i a l l y spurns, then embraces and f i n a l l y r e j e c t s . Indeed both men are described as dreamers and as l e a d e r s of spe-c i f i c q u a s i - r e l i g i o u s c u l t s . As Souvarine t a l k s q u i e t l y w i t h E t i e n n e , "Ses yeux va.gues de mystique s u i v a i e n t l a fumee au t r a -vers d'un reve" (p. 141), and l a t e r , "Une extase l e s o u l e v a i t sur sa c h a i s e , une flamme mystique s o r t a i t de ses yeux paries, . . . " (p. 245). In s p i t e of Etienne's r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t h i s ' dream of a j u s t . s o c i e t y has f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e , Souvarine has r e t a i n e d h i s t o t a l f a i t h i n d e s t r u c t i o n as the means of changing the present s o c i e t y " S a face blonde de f i l l e , . . . s'ensauva-geaient dans une r e v e r i e mystique, ou p a s s a i e n t des v i s i o n s san-g l a n t e s " (p. 397). Etienne's f e r v i d reading of a n a r c h i s t , bro-chures, h i s correspondence w i t h P l u c h a r t and frequent d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h Souvarine awaken, w i t h i n him " [un] reve s o c i a l " (p. 170), •" [de_s] i l l u s i o n s de neophyte, . . . un re've r e l i g i e u x " (p. 24l). L i k e E t i e n n e , Souvarine i s a l s o presented as a M e s s i a l f i g -ure whose m i s s i o n i s one of d e s t r u c t i o n . The a n a r c h i s t and n i h i l -i s t , Souvarine, searches f o r an a r c h e t y p a l B a t t l e of Armageddon which v a i l u l t i m a t e l y l e a d to the c r e a t i o n of an a p o c a l y p t i c u n i -v e r s e , a new heaven and a new e a r t h which w i l l i ssue from the ashes of d e s t r u c t i o n . Moreover, Souvarine i s i n i t i a l l y d e s c r i b e d i n terms of l i g h t images which i n themselves bear a d i s t i n c t negative.^ i m p l i c a t i o n , "Ses dents blanches et p o i n t u e s , sa bouche et son nez mince, l e rose de son t e i n t , l u i donnaient un a i r de f i l l e , un a i r de douceur entetee, que l e r e f l e t g r i s de ses yeux d'a c i e r en-sauvageait par E c l a i r s " (p. 140). In t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n the a d j e c -t i v e " g r i s " immediately cast's darkness over the l i g h t emanating from him, and i n a d d i t i o n , the "toerb "ensauvageait" which i m p l i e s a mad passion together w i t h the word " / c l a i r s " i m p l i e s a storm and, hy extension, v i o l e n c e . C l e a r l y , as the novel progresses , the •violence i m p l i c i t i n Souvarine 1 s character from the beginning becomes the mot ivat ing force behind h i d ideas o f r e v o l u t i o n as he preaches' a doctr ine of t o t a l a n n i h i l a t i o n , Souvarine s t a t e s - h i s n i h i l i s t i c b e l i e f s e a r l y i n the n o v e l , "Allumes l e feu aux quatre coins des v i l l e s , fauchez l e s peuples, rasez t o u t , et quand i l ne res tera plus , r i e n de ce monde pourr i ' , peut-etre ' en r e p o u s ' s e r a - t-il un m e i l l e u r f r ( p , 143"), 3efore the meeting, ' a t the Bon Joyeux, Etienne and Souvarine discuss the union and other p o l i t i c a l matters at which time Souvarine mentions h i s master, the m i l i t a n t Russian a n a r c h i s t , Bakunin, Souvarine stands at t h i s meeting as the leader' of a r e l i g i o u s c u l t , as the Messiah of des t ruc t ion : ' I I ava i t prononce ce mot {_Bakouninej a demi-v o i x , d'un a i r de f e r v e u r ^ r e l i g i e u s e . en je tant un regard vers 1 ' o r i e n t , , C ' e t a i t du moitre q u ' i l p a r -l a it',, de Bakounine, 1 ' 'exterminoteur, • — L u i seul peut donner l e coup de massue, , , , tandis aue t'es saVnhts sont des I'aVnes, avec l e u r e v o l u t i o n , , * Avant t r o i s ans 1 1 1 n t e r n a t i o n a l e , .sous ses 'ordres , . d o i t e"craser l e v ieux monde, gtienne tenda i t l e s o r e i l l e s , t res a & t e n t i f , I I b r u l a i t de s ' i n s t r u i r e , de comprendre 'ce cu l te de la. d e s t r u c t i o n , - , » , , —Hais enrin,- expl ique-moi , ,„ Quel est votre but? —Tout d e t r u i r e , , , - Plus^de. n a t i o n s , plus de ' gouvernements,; plus de propr ie te , . p lus de Dieu n i de c u l t e , O O © O « O O O O A ° . ° ° ° 4 * O O 0 O « O O « O Q —Et l e s moyens d ; f execution? * , , —Par l e feu,, p a r - l e poison, par l e poignard, Le brigand est l e vrai'.-her os, l e vengeur p o p u l a i r e , l e r e v o l u t i o n n a i r e en a c t i o n , sans phrases puisees dans l e s l i v r e s , . , , « En p a r l a n t , Souvarine devient t e r r i b l e * Une extasc l e soialeva.it sur sa c h a i s e , une flamme mys-ti q u e s o r t a i t de ses yeux p a l e s , et ses mains d e l i -cate s e t r e i g n a i e n t l e bord de l a t a b l e , a* l a b r i s e r * (pp... 2kk-k5) Indeed a t the meeting In the f o r e s t l a t e r i n the -novel/ when Etienne reaches the peak o f h i s p o p u l a r i t y inasmuch as the crowd o f miners accepts h i s d e s i r e f o r re v o l u t i o n s . Etienne i s presented as a student o f Souvarine !"s i n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n t o anarchy, "Souva-r i n e r ; . .- • a u r a i t a p p l a u d i ses i d e e s , * . . content des progres anarchiques de son eleve * „ " (p*. 2 8 9 ) . As the Hessian f i g u r e , Souvarine i s c l e a r l y the son of the God o f Wrath, not the God of Love f o r very r a r e l y does he r e v e a l any tendernees or l o v e . Moreover, the r e c i p i e n t o f h i s a f f e c t i o n i s the r a b b i t , Pologne, r a t h e r than a human b e i n g * T h i s f a c t a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to the very i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t dichotomy between the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f human and animal l i f e i n the n o v e l * Indeed man seems f o r the most p a r t unable t o l o v e h i s fellow-man as the B i b l e i n s i s t s lie must,; and as a result,., the r e l a t i o n s h i p between men throughout the n o v e l i n many cases: has been reduced to a l e v e l o f beasts i n a jungle whose only motive i s s e l f - p r e s e r -v a t i o n * In addition,-, the p h i l o s o p h y which Souvarine expounds breeds o n l y the seeds of contempt, d e s t r u c t i o n and s e l f i s h n e s s , e v ident l a t e r i n the novel when h i s student, E t i e n n e , urges- r e v o -l u t i o n through anarchy and d e s t r u c t i o n * F i n a l l y , -at the end of the n o v e l , when Souvarine u a l k s away- from the v i l l a g e soon to crumble i n t o dust" as a r e s u l t of h i s owm d e s i r e f o r a n n i h i l a t i o n , , r „ . * i l a l l a i t , a^  I'inconnu* I I a l l a i t . d e son a i r t r a n q u i l ! a a l i * extermination,: par t o u t ou i l y a u r a i t de l a dynamite, pour f a i r e sauter l e s v i l l e s et l e s hommes" (p*. Hjk) e In h i s heartless and remorseless act of sabotage,. Souvarine openly reveals himself to be the Messiah of the God of "Wrath whose malevolent powers allow him to weaken the structure of the mine and thus cause the cataclysmic earthquake symbolic of the Battle of Armageddon which u l t i m a t e l y destroys l e iVoreux and many of hi s fellow-miners* In so doing, Souvarine re-enacts the great Deluge of Genesis and causes the.destructive floods to inondate the p i t j u s t as the God of Wrath produced i n order to purge the universe of a l l e x i s t i n g e v i l * The miners?" r e v o l u t i o n , of which Etienne i s the c h i e f i n s t i -gator, i s presented both l i t e r a l l y and metaphorically as a b a t t l e designed to purge so c i e t y of a. p a r t i c u l a r e v i l to make way for the cre a t i o n of a new s o c i a l order c Etiennei's s o c i a l dream*;, hi s g o l -den v i s i o n of a New Jerusalem xd.thin the reach of a l l men, c l e a r l y embodies the b i b l i c a l Armageddon-Apocalypse archetype i n terms of the images of f i r e , b a t t l e , cracking, l i g h t a n d c o l o r * Unlike Etienne, the miners,, so long accustomed to submission,: accept the new wage system with anger and h o s t i l i t y but without the vehement desire for r e v o l t , "Un sourd grognement des haveurs a c c e u i l l i t ses paroles*; La force de l a hie r a r c h i e l e s r e t e n a i t seule, cette hierarchies m i l i t a i r e qui, du gal i b o t au maitre-porion, l e s cour-b a i t : l e s uns sous les. autres* * „ 0 Etienne e t a i t peut-'etre l e plus fremissant* Depuis q u ' i l se t r o u v a i t au fond de cet enfer s une revolte: lente l e soulevait"" (pp0, 5 2 - 5 3 ) » As h i s p o l i t i c a l involvement with Pluchart and Souvarine deepens, h i s b e l i e f i n the need for the purgation of society hy s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n gathers f o r c e r L'ouvrier ne pouvait pas t e n i r l e coup, l a r e v o l u -t i o n n'avait f a i t q/u'aggraver sss' miser es*, c'e't.aient l e s bourgeois qui s'engraissaient depuis o 9 5 - * * * a Qu'on dise un peu s i l e s t r a v a i l l e u r s avaient eu leur part raisonnable, dans l i ? extra o r d i n a i r e a c c r o i s s e -inent de l a richesse et du bien-etre, depuis cent ans? o o o lion, d'une facon ou d'une autre,, i l f a l l a i t en f i n i r , . que ce.fut" gentiment, par des l o i s , par une entente de bonne amitie, ou que ce f u t en sauvages, en brulant tout et en se mangeant l e s uns l e s autres* Les enfants v e r r a i e n t stlrement c e l a , s i l e s vieux ne le voyaient pas, car l e s i e c l e ne pouvait s'achever sans q u ' i l y eux une autre r e v o l u t i o n , c e l l e des ou-v r i e r s cette f o i s , un chambardenmt qui net t o y e r a i t l a societe du^haut en bas, et qui l a r e b a t i r a i t avec plus de propre te et de j u s t i c e * (p* 1VT)\, Indee;d the vague sense of discontent and the threat of growing r e b e l l i o n which ,Etienne perceives the moment' the new wage system i s announced, becomes.'increasingly imminent as a r e s u l t of the influence of his convincing b e l i e f i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o£ es t a b l i s h i n g a ju s t society, "Du temps du vieux ? : l e mineur v i v a i t dans l a mine comme. une brute, comme une machine a1 e x t r a i r e l a h o u i l l e , toujours sous l a t e r r e , l e s o r e i l l e s et l e s yeux bouches aux evenements du dehors* * » <, Mais, a present, l e mineur1 s i ' e v e i l l a i t au fond, germait dans l a terre a i n s i qu'une vra i e grainef et l'on v e r r a i t un matin ce: q u ' i l pousserait au beau mi-l i e u des champs: o u i , i l pousserait des hommess-.. une' arme'e -'• d'hommes q u i ' r e t a b l i r a i t l a ju s t i c e " ' (p*. 168), S l o w l y t h e race of t r a d i t i o n a l l y submissive miners i s transformed i n t o a raging . army sweeping i n vengeful fury across the nation* The archetypal Battle of Armageddon suggested metaphorically i n the preceeding two quotations becomes a psychological r e a l i t y at the close of the meeting i n the f o r e s t * At t h i s point i n the novel, the narrator comments on the miners' state of mind, "Des orateurs se succedaient . . . gest i c u l a n t dans le b r u i t , lancant des propositions farouches. C ' e t a i t le coup de l a f o l i e de l a f o i , l'impatience d'une secte r e l i g i e u s e , qui, lasse d'es-perer le miracle attendu, se decidant a le provoquer e n f i n . Les tetes videes par l a famine, voyaient .rouges, revaient d'incendie et de sang, au mi l i e u d'une g l o i r e d'apotheose, ou montait le bonheur u n i v e r s e l " (pp. 294-95). Here the b i b l i c a l b a t t l e i s implied metaphorically through the images of f i r e , blood and red, and t h i s revolutionary s p i r i t l a t e r dominates the minds of the miners as they seek actual r e v o l u t i o n . L i t e r a l b a t t l e or revo-l u t i o n u l t i m a t e l y breaks out during the march through the streets by the poor women angered to the point of violence as a r e s u l t of s u f f e r i n g from starvation and want. As they march toward the Hennebeau home: C ' e t a i t l a 1 v i s i o n rouge de l a revolut i o n qui le s emportait tous, fatalement, par une soiree , sanglante de cette f i n de s i e c l e . U u i ? un soir« le peuple la^che, debride", galoperait a i n s i sur les charnins^ et i l r u i s s e l l e r a i t du sang des bourgeois, i l promenerait des fetes, i l semerait l ' o r des cof-fres ^ventre's. Les femmes h u r l e r a i e n t , l e s hommes auraient ces machoires de loups, ouvertes pour mor-dre. Oui, ce seraient les memes guenilles^. le meme tonnerre de gros sabots, l a m£me cohue effroyable, de peau sale, d'haleine^ empeste'e, balayant le vieux monde, sous leur poussee de^bordante de barbares. Des incendies flamberaient, on ne l a i s s e r a i t pas debout une pierre des v i l l e s , on retournerait. a1 la vie sauvage dans les bois, apres le grand r u t , la grande r i p a i l l e , ou les pauvres, en une nui t , e f f l a n -queraient les femmes et vid e r a i e n t les caves des ri c h e s . II n'y au r a i t plus r i e n , plus un sou des fortunes, plus un t i t r e des •  s i t u a t i o n s acquises, jusqu'au jour ou une nouvelle terre repousserait peut-etre. (pp. 351-52) Thus the miners, aroused p r e v i o u s l y i n t o a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e i n which they d e s i r e r e v o l u t i o n , attempt d u r i n g t h e i r march of • v i o l e n c e t o "bring about an a r c h e t y p a l B a t t l e of Armageddon, one tha t e x i s t s on the s o c i a l l e v e l . The image of the clo s e d h o r i z o n opening suddenly i n t o a bur s t of l i g h t represents a symbolic . v i s i o n of the b i b l i c a l Apo-calypse f o r beyond the darkness i n the l i g h t of the d i s t a n c e , stands the c e l e s t i a l , golden c i t y of the New Jerusalem, " . . . brusquement 1'horizon ferme . . . e c l a t a i t , une trouee.de lumiere s'ouvrait.dans l a v i e sombre de ces pauvres gens. . . . t o u t l e malheur d i s p a r a i s s a i t , comme balaye par un grand coup de s o l e i l ; e t , sous un eblouissement de feerie, l a j u s t i c e descendait du c i e l " (p. 170). L a t e r , the miners make the d e c i s i o n t o s t r i k e amid. " . . . 1'impatience devant l'age d'or promis, l a hate d'a-v o i r sa part du bonheur, au-dela.de cet h o r i z o n de misere ferme' comme une tombe. . . . Les femmes s u r t o u t a u r a i e n t voulu en-t r e r d'assaut, t o u t de s u i t e , dans c e t t e c i t e ' i d e a l e du progres, ou i l n'y a u r a i t plus de m i s e r a b l e s " (p. 1 8 6 ) . Although the s t r i k e fund i s f a s t d i m i n i s h i n g , the miners r e t a i n t h e i r t o t a l confidence i n a s u c c e s s f u l outcome t o the s t r i k e , "Fuisqu'on l e u r a v a i t promis l ' e r e de l a j u s t i c e , i l s e t a i e n t p r e t s a souf-f r i r pour l a conquexe du bonheur u n i v e r s e l . . . . jamais l ' h o -r i z o n ferme n ' a v a i t ouvert un au-dela plus l a r g e a^  ces h a l l u -c i n es de l a misere. I l s r e v o y a i e n t l a - b a s , . . . l a c i t e i d e a l e de l e u r r eve, mais prochain a ce t t e heure et comme r e ' e l l e , avec son peuple de f r e r e s , son age d'or de t r a v a i l e t de repas en commun" (pp. 227-28). Moreover g Etienne ;'s apocalyptic v i s i o n of a new heaven and a new earth u l t i m a t e l y f a i l s f o r , as we have seen e a r l i e r , h i s v i s i o n i s only a f a i r y - t a l e i l l u s i o n . F i n a l l y he admits, defeat to l a .. Maheude when, as a r e s u l t of poverty, t i n y A l z i r e dies of s t a r -vation, and the family home i s out of extreme neces s i t y consumed piece hy p i e c e 9 "L'horizon ferme n'avait pas voulu s''ouvrir, l ' r i d e a l impossible tournait en poison au fond fie ce crane fele" par l a douleur , r .'(pp, 3 9 2 - 9 3 ) * . The references to the changing society also comment s i g n i f i -c antly oil the f a i l u r e of Etiennei's millenium to m a t e r i a l i z e . When he f i r s t envisions the just society of the future, he pro-claims that "La v i e i l l e societe craquait, c^ a ne pouvait durer.au-dela de quel que s mois" (p, 1 7 1 ) * Whereas a f t e r h i s confession to l a Maheude, "" ,- , nous sommes foutus , , , i l faut se rendre" .(p. 3 9 l)o Easseneur announces the- d i s s o l u t i o n of the Association as the r e s u l t of i n t e r n a l s t r i f e , "" , , , tout craquait, l e hut p r i m i t i f , l a reforme du s a l g r i a t , se n o y ? i t au m i l i e u d.u t i r a i l l e -ment des sectes, l e s cadres savants se desor ga n i s a i ent dans l a haine de l a d i s c i p l i n e , Et deja li'on pouvait p r e v o i r l ravortement / - • •/. f i n a l de cette levee en masse,, qui a v a i t menace un i n s t a n t d'.T em-porter d'une haleine l a v i e i l l e societe pourrie"" (p, 3 9 6 ) , I r o n i -c a l l y , society does not disintegrate as Etienne and Souvarine had hoped, hut rather i t - i s the apocalyptic vision,,- the i l l u s i o n , which crumbles in t o nothingness- before the workers' very eyes. The v i s i o n of spring which closes,the novel presents a preg-nant world of light,.- growth and": l i f e and as such embodies the hope for a future apocalypse,, the return to an Edenic garden, the move-raent towards the golden c i t y of the new Jerusalem. Standing amid the h e l l i s h wasteland of Montsou, i s Etienne facing, " . . .. l e s dec ombres du '"Voreux, l e trou maudit , . . . l e s tours u i ] fumaient dans l ' a i r transparent du matin" (p. 52 )-r). In the distance he perceives a heavenly world which metaphorically suggests an apocalyptic v i s i o n , the other, h a l f of the v e r t i c a l perspective: , . . en p l a i n c i e l , le s o l e i l d ' a v r i l rayonnait dans sa g l o i r e , echauffant l a terre qui e n f a n t a i t . Du f l a n c n o u r r i c i e r g a i l l i s s a i t l a v i e , - les bour-geons crevaient en f e u i l l e s , vertes, les champs t r e s s a i l l a i e n t de la poussee des herbes. De toutes parts, des graines se gonflaient, s"allongeaient, gercaient la plaine, t r a v a i l l e e s d'un besoln de chaleur. et de lumiere. Un de"bor dement de seve coulait. avec des voix chuchotantes, le b r u i t des germes s'Ipandaient en un grand b a i s e r . . . . aux rayons enflammes de 1'astre, par cette mati-nee de jeuuesse, c ' e t a i t de cette rumeur que l a campagne e t a i t grosse.. Des hommes poussaient, une armee noire, vengeresse. qui germait. lentement dans les s i l l o n s , .grandissant pour les r e c o l t e s du siecle futur, et dont l a germination a l l a i t f a i r e bientdt eclater l a t e r r e . (p. 525) The future world which w i l l be created by the venging army of the working class w i l l c l e a r l y be s i m i l a r to the u n f a l i e n u n i -verse, the garden of the pre-lapsarian world—one of eternal spring, f e r t i l i t y and growth to replace the deadly wasteland of the p l a i n , a peaceful environment characterized by "des voix chuchotantes" instead.of the grating, clashing noises.of the mine. In the mouth of l a Maheude, however, Zola places the cen-t r a l message of the novel, a message-which i s i n accordance with his n a t u r a l i s t i c philosophy and which embodies the v e r t i c a l pole elevees des hauts fourneaux et les b a t t e r i e s des fours a coke opposite to the apocalyptic v i s i o n , '"Quand on est jeune, on s'imagine que le bonheur viendra, on espere des choses; et puis, la misere recommence toujours, on reste enferme la-dedans . . . ' (p. 168). In Zola's canon then, no hope of immediate escape e x i s t s , only the vague hope for a new Jerusalem i n the future. I f the heavenly v e r t i c a l perspective i s inherent i n the apocalyptic v i s i o n , then the just quoted comment of l a Maheude reveals the corresponding h e l l i s h perspective implied i n the c y c l i c a l pattern Frye r e f e r s to as " . . . the i r o n i c or ' a l l too human' cycle , the mere cycle of human l i f e without redemp-ti v e assistance which goes recurrently, i n the 'same d u l l round' . . . from b i r t h to death" (p. 317)• Indeed the c y c l i c a l pattern of man's existence stated i n Genesis 3:19? "For dust thou art and unto dust shalt thou return,"' has s i g n i f i c a n t r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n terms of the recurring dust imagery i n the novel. The miners in h a b i t , are born in t o and out of a world blanketed i n coal dust, "' . . . i l semblait que tout l e noir du <Voreux, toute l a poussie^re volante de l a h o u i l l e se f u t abattue sur l a plaine, poudrant l e s arbres,•sablant les routes, ensemencant l a t e r r e " (pp. 70-71). Here the image of sowing implies the creation of l i f e out of dust. Moreover the darkness of the mine i s i n -creased by the layer of dust p a r t i c l e s which coats the walls of the shaft. As the uncovered tubs of coal move s w i f t l y along the tracks," . . . l a h o u i l l e . . . montait une fine poudre de char-bon, qui poudrait k noir le s o l , l e s murs, jusqu'aux s o l i v e s du b e f f r o i " (p. 62) . Even the sky becomes a dark abyss, i n d i s t i n -guishable from the black void of the mine shaft, " . . . le c i e l bas. semblait se fondre en noire poussi^re, sans un souffle de vent . . . qui animait les tenebres" l.(p. 1 2 0 ) . In addition, the sun no longer functions as a l i g h t producing force, for'when.Mme Hennebeau's excursion group a r r i v e s at Marchiennes," . . . l e s o l e i l semblait l e s eteindre, l e s b a t t e r i e s des fours a* coke et les tours des hauts fourneaux laVhaient des fume'es, dont l a suie e t e r n e l l e pleuvait dans l ' a i r " (p. 3 0 9 ) . The use of- the dust metaphors also points out the f a i l u r e of the apocalypse for at . the end of the novel, as l a Maheude returns to the pit,."Par l e s grandes fenetres poussiereuses, le p e t i t jour e n t r a i t , noyant les lanternes d'une lueur grise . . . " (p. 5 1 & ) . Just as i n the opening scene, darkness pervades the miners' world? nothing has changed for as i n the beginning, " . . . de rares lueurs s o r t -aient des fenetres encrasse^es . ... " (p. 2 ) . The b i b l i c a l b e l i e f that man, created out of dust, w i l l r e -turn to dust i s implied in.our l a s t glimpse of J e a n l i n at the end of the novel, In h i s new p o s i t i o n as "nettoyer de gros;" his task i s to remove b i t s of shale from the large pieces of c o a l , and as he hammers, ". . . une fine poudre le noyait d'un t e l f l o t de suie, que jamais le jeune homme ne 1 ' a u r a i t reconnu, . . . i l cassa le bloc d'un dernier coup, disparu dans l a pous-siere noire qui montait" (p. 5 2 1 ) . Because i n Zola's canon the miners cannot escape t h e i r h e l l i s h environment, i t i s i n e v i t -able that t h e i r coal-covered bodies w i l l decay in t o dust, and new l i f e ' , conceived so often on the f i e l d behind R e q u i l l a r t , w i l l come f o r t h out of the e a r t h e t e r n a l l y bathed i n i t s cover-i n g of c o a l dust; "On ^a ' i jTj dans l e charbon . . . " - ( p . 168). B a t a i l l e , the work-horse of the mine, i s a l s o presented i n terms of a Messiah f i g u r e . L i k e E t i e n n e , B a t a i l l e f i r s t appears, as a sudden b u r s t of l i g h t which d i s p e l l s the darkness of the underground abyss, as a redeemer who r i s e s out of the chaos of the. f a l l e n w o r l d b r i n g i n g f o r t h the v i s i o n of a new u n i v e r s e . For t h i s reason i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the metaphors d e s c r i b i n g B a t a i l l e ' s f i r s t and l a s t appearances i n the novel evoke l i g h t and the chaos of a tempest. The day Etienne begins h i s work i n l e Voreux, he and Catherine passthrough s e v e r a l dark g a l l e r i e s on the way t o t h e i r seam; as they walk, they become aware of . . « un b r u i t sourd . . . l e b r u i t l o i n t a i n d'un orage dont l a v i o l e n c e semblait c r o i t r e et v e n i r des e n t r a i l l e s de l a t e r r e . E t a i t -ce l e tonnerre d'un e^oulement, ecrasant sur l e u r s testes l a masse enorme q u i l e s se'parait du j o u r ? Une d a r t e * perca l a n u i t , i l s e n t i t trembler l e r o c ; e t , l o r s q u ' i l se f u t range* l e long du mur, comme l e s camarades, i l v i t passer contre sa face un gros c h e v a l blanc a t t e l e a un tra.in.de b e r l i n e s . (pp. 33-34) Much l a t e r i n the n o v e l , when a new s l i d e cuts Catherine and Etienne o f f from the other trapped miners, the Messiah f i g u r e reappears amid the a p o c a l y p t i c earthquakes and f l o o d s i n the dark abysmal g a l l e r i e s : Le f l o t b a t t a i t l e u r p o i t r i n e , i l s march-a i e n t tree's lentement. Tant q u ' i l s a u r a i e n t de l a l u m i e r e . i l s ne desespdreraient pas; y et i l s s o u f f l e r e n t l'une. des lampes, pour en economiser l ' h u i l e , . . 6 l i s a t t e i g n a i e n t l a cheminee, lorsqu'un b r u i t , d e r r i e r e eux.les f i t se t o u r n e r . E t a i e n t - c e done l e s camarades, barrels a l e u r t o u r , qui r e v e n a i e n t ? Un s o u f f l e r o n f l a i t au l o i n , i l s ne s'expliq.ualent cette- temp^te qui se rapprochai^, dans un e'claboussement d'e'curne. Et i l s c r i e r e n t , quand. i l s v i r e n t une masse geante, blancharre, s o r t i r de 1"ombre et l u t t e r pour le s rejoindre, entre l e s boisages trop I t r o i t s , ou e l l e s ' e c r a s a i t . C " e t a i t B a t a i l l e . (p. 1+93) Moreover, i n C h r i s t i a n terms, B a t a i l l e , although he i s a non-human being, becomes a true Messiah fig u r e i n that he des-cends to earth and becomes a "man". Throughout the novel, Zola seems i n many cases to have reversed the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s of man and animal for indeed the human beings e x i s t primarily i n a dog-eat-dog world of anger, l u s t , jealousy and hatred i n which they constantly follow t h e i r animal passions and as a r e s u l t k i l l , cheat, deceive and harm t h e i r fellow man. Indeed i n the human world of Germinal, the second part of the Great Command-ment i n the B i b l e , "to love thy neighbor a s . t h y s e l f " , i s very often t o t a l l y neglected so that r e l a t i o n s h i p s between human beings descend to the l e v e l of mere b e s t i a l passion. On the other hand, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two horses, B a t a i l l e and Trompette, reveals a d i s t i n c t l y human q u a l i t y . According to the Great Chain of Being, Man i s i n f e r i o r to the angels, but-superior to a l l other.animals because of his a b i l i t y to reason and thus c o n t r o l his passions. • In Germinal, however, we see just the opposite for c l e a r l y man i s presented as a passionate, reasonless being, whereas the animals co n t r o l t h e i r passions. As we s h a l l see, B a t a i l l e represents the only r a t i o n a l philoso-phy i n the novel, and i n his r e l a t i o n s h i p with Trompette, he appears to possess 'an almost human s e n s i b i l i t y and s e n s i t i v i t y which most human beings seem to lac k . Zola has thus created a very s i g n i f i c a n t and complex i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between the human and the animal worlds whereby the r o l e s , of each has been reversed so t h a t B a t a i l l e may step f o r t h as the human Mes.siah f i g u r e who, as a man l i v i n g among men, embodies the redemptive philosophy. However, u n l i k e E t i e n n e , B a t a i l l e as the Messiah f i g u r e does not rep r e s e n t a philosophy which prophesies the r e t u r n t o a p r e - l a p s a r i a n or a p o c a l y p t i c world by means of a B a t t l e of Armageddon. As a Messiah, B a t a i l l e r e p r e s e n t s the C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e of c a r i t a s or of love f o r one's f e l l o w man. Indeed . both Etienne and B a t a i l l e e n v i s i o n a Utopian u n i v e r s e , but E t i -enne 's dream i s of a new wor l d i n the future,, compared to Ba-t a i l l e ' s acute r e c o l l e c t i o n of a wor l d of j o y , beauty"and f r e e -dom now pa s t . Whereas Etie n n e ' s Utopian dream, w i l l u l t i m a t e l y stem from the seeds of chaos and r e v o l u t i o n , thus from p a s s i o n , B a t a i l l e ' s r e s u l t s from an a c t i v e b e l i e f i n b r o t h e r l y l o v e , r e -vealed i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Trompette, which he has reasoned to be the only p o s s i b l e way t o t o l e r a t e l i f e i n . t h e inescapable f a l l e n w o r l d of the present. B a t a i l l e , then, seeks a means of rende r i n g l i f e i n t h i s w o r l d more pleasant whereas Etienne c l i n g s . t o the im p o s s i b l e dream of d e s t r o y i n g the f a l l e n u niverse and c o n s t r u c t i n g a New Jerusalem i n the immediate f u t u r e . B a t a i l l e , who has never seen the sun or d a y l i g h t of the out-side world f o r ten y e a r s , often, dreams sadly i n h i s d e c l i n i n g years of the Edenic .free w o r l d of h i s youth i n the green.outdoors: Maintenant, l'age v e n a i t , / s e s yeux de chat se v o i l a i e n t p a r f o i s d'une m e l a n c o l i e . Peut-etre A r e v o y a i t - i l vaguement, au 'fo^d de ses revas- N series obscures, le moulin ,ou i l "etait ne"", pres de Marchiennes, un moulin plante sur la bord de la Scarpe, entoure de larges verdures, tou-jours "evente par le vent. . Quelque chose brulait en l ' a i r , une lampe enorme, dont le souvenir exacte "echappait 3s sa memoire de bete. Et i l restait la tete basse } tremblant sur ses vieux pieds, faisant d'inutiles efforts pour se rap-peler le s o l e i l . ( p p . 5 3 - 5 9 ) . His present environment, the barn in le *7oreux, is clearly an ideal heavenly home in terms of the novel when compared to the hellish homes of the miners who are his social equals since both are slaves to the bourgeois owners, "II y f a i s a i t bon en effet, une bonne chaleur de betes vivantes, une bonne odeur de l i t i e r e fra'i'che, tenue proprement. L'unique lampe avait une lueur veilleuse. Des chevaux au repos tournaient la tete, avec leurs gros yeux d'enfants, puis se remettaient a" leur avoine, sans hate, en travailleurs gras et bien portants, aimes de' tout le monde" (p. 5 7 ) . ' As-Milton's Satan states "The mind i s i t s own place, and in i t s e l f / Can make a Heav'n of Hell, a 5 Hell of Heav'n," . Clearly, as a result of extending affection and thus of intui t i v e l y responding to situations by loving.his fellow-man, Bataille represents a state,of mind. Which can in--deed create "a heaven of h e l l " in that his physical environment, although buried deep in the dark, h e l l i s h abyss of le -Voreux, i s a heavenly refuge, a world of rest, comfort, peace, light and-love. Significantly then, the mental outlook which he represents serves as the redemptive vision, the practical vision which can improve the quality 'of the social world and can change i t from a symbolic h e l l to a•symbolic heaven, as Bataille's example i l l u s -t r a t e s . Throughout the novel, B a t a i l l e 1 s mission i s that ,of extend-ing love and comfort to his fellow-man, primarily to Trompette. The day of his descent i n t o the h e l l i s h p i t , Trompette remains r e s t i n g on his side, "'. . . . comme s ' i l eut continue a se n t i r le f i l e t 1'etfeindre, garrotte'par l a peur" (p. 6 0 ) . Indeed^ .-..after a r r i v i n g at pit-bottom, "II. ne-bougeait toujours pas, i l semb-l a i t dans le cauchemar de ce trou o b s c u r , . i n f i n i , de cette s a l l e profonde, retentissante de vacarme" (p. 59)« Immediately Ba-t a i l l e sees Trompette as a f r i e n d , a f e l l o w - s u f f e r e r doomed to die trapped i n the dark abyss; thus he reacts with love and com-passion i n an attempt to ease Trompette's f e a r , " '. . . B a t a i l l e , . . . s'approcha, allongea le cou pour f l a i r e r ce compagnon, qui tombait a i n s i de l a t e r r e . . . .' quelle bonne odeur l u i t r o u -v a i t - i l ? . . . II l u i t r o u v a i t sans doute l a bonne odeur du grand a i r , I'odeur oublie'e du s o l e i l dans les herbes. Et i l eclata tout 3s coup d'un henissement. sonore, d'une musique d'alle'-gresse, ou i l semblait y avoir l'attendrissement d'un sanglot. C ' e t a i t l a bienvenue, l a j o i e de ces choses anciennes dont une bouffe'e l u i a r r i v a i t , l a melancolie de\ce prisonnier de plus qui ne remonterait'que-mort"' (p. 59)'. For B a t a i l l e , Trompette i s ... more than just a fe l l o w - s u f f e r e r i n that through him, B a t a i l l e i s able to escape temporarily.the h e l l i s h . w o r l d of h i s l i f e of t o i l and pain i n the present and return to the l o s t Edenic gar-den of his youth. Both for Trompette and. for B a t a i l l e , the f a l l from.Eden i s the l i t e r a l f a l l made the day of t h e i r i n i t i a l des-cent i n t o the p i t from which they w i l l never emerge a l i v e , a f a c t which B a t a i l l e r e a l i z e s only too a c u t e l y 8 Recognizing t h a t there i s no escape from the abyss, B a t a i l l e accepts h i s f a t e a n d ' t r i e s to r e l i e v e h i s own pain caused by the r e c o l l e c t i o n s , of a Utopian past and Trompette rs caused by the sudden l o s s of Eden, In the attempt to comfort Trompette a n d to ease h i s own misery, B a t a i l l e m aintains a c h e e r f u l whinnying "d'une musique d ' a l l e g r e s s e " and" f o n d l y rubs h i s body a g a i n s t Trompette's. I n -deed, u n l i k e many of the human beings i n the novel who c o n s t a n t l y q u a r r e l and. k i l l , " l e s deux betes . . . f r a t e r n i s a i e n t " (p. 6 0 ) 9 thus e s t a b l i s h i n g the i d e a l human r e l a t i o n s h i p - ~ i n which love forms the bond, between two i n d i v i d u a l s . . . The f a c t t h a t B a t a i l l e i s d e s c r i b e d twice i n the novel as " l e doyen de l a mine" (p. 58, p, ^1 9 ) , i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r , i n i t s r e l i g i o u s sense, "doyen" suggests an e c c l e s i a s t i c who occupies a p o s i t i o n of a s u p e r i o r rank i n the church h i e r a r c h y , and thus someone who holds a p o s i t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards the people below him on the h i e r a r c h i c a l l a d d e r . C l e a r l y B a t a i l l e f u l f i l s the r o l e of a dean i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Trompette t o whom he attempts t o teach the philosophy of r e s i g n a t i o n , s t o i c i s m and patience which h i s a c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t and over whom he watches constantly,- Aware of Trompette's i n a b i l i t y to adapt h i m s e l f to l i f e i n the mine, B a t a i l l e c o n s t a n t l y t r i e s t o encourage h i s f r i e n d w i t h h i s own l o v i n g and sympathetic a t t i t u d e . Indeed the.--day of the cave - i n which k i l l s C h i c o t and maims J e a n l i n , B a t a i l l e , the wise " 'philosophe 1'"' passes Trompette i n the seam. Le cheval a v a i t reconnu de l o i n , au f l a i r , son camarade Trompette, pour l e q u e l i l s ' e t a i t p r i s d'une grande tendresse, depuis le .jour cut i l l ' a -. v a i t vu debarquer dans la fosse. On' a u r a i t d i t l a p i tie 7 affectueuse d'un vieux philosophe, d(fsir-eux' de soulager un .jeune ami, en l u i donnant sa resignation et sa joatience; car Trompette ne s'ac- . c l i m a t i s a i t pas, t i r a i t ses b e r l i n e s sans gout, r e s t a i t la fete basse, aveugle de n u i t , avec le constant regret du s o l e i l . Aussi, chaque f o i s que B a t a i l l e le ren c o n t r a i t , a l l o n g e a i t - i l l a tet e , s'ebrouant, le mouillant d'une caresse d'en-couragement. (pp. 189-90) F i n a l l y , when Trompette dies, "torture" du regret de l a lum-i e r e " (p. 419), a f t e r never having been able to adapt himself•to the darkness of the p i t , B a t a i l l e grieves alone beside his corpse. The narrator remarks on B a t a i l l e ' s attempts and f a i l u r e to i ndoctrinate his f r i e n d with his philosophy, "•Vainement, Ba-t a i l l e , . . . le f r o t t a i t amicalement de ses Cotes, l u i mordil-l a i t le cou, pour l u i donner un peu de sa r e s i g n a t i o n de ses dix annees de fond"' (p. 419)« S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n terms of the com-plex l i n k between human and animal existence established by Zola's r e v e r s a l of t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s , Trompette i s presented throughout the.novel as the pathetic v i c t i m of his c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y . Like the miners, Trompette i s imprisoned and then brought down f o r c i b l y by cage in t o the h e l l i s h abyss where he, too, i s doomed to' die as a r e s u l t of a l i f e of exhausting Slav-, ery to the c a p i t a l i s t "dieu repu et accroupi" (p. 1 1 ) . Indeed his death becomes even more poignant i n terms of i t s p o s i t i o n in the novel for c l e a r l y his death forebodes the t r a g i c outcome of the confrontation with the Belgian miners. As the chapter opens, Trompette's corpse i s being r a i s e d from the p i t , at which time the narrator gives a d e t a i l e d account of B a t a i l l e ' s loving concern for and care of h i s f r i e n d from the beginning of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p u n t i l Trompette's death. B a t a i l l e ' s love makes death the most comfortable as possible for the pa-th e t i c v i c t i m , Trompette. In d i r e c t contrast to t h i s scene, Zola presents the v i o l e n t , bloody b a t t l e between the Montsou miners and the Belgians, a c o n f l i c t which r e s u l t s i n the death of Mouquet, l a Mouq.uette, Maheu and Zacharie's two c h i l d r e n . C l e a r l y the death of Trompette foreshadows t h i s mass murder, and moreover, unlike Trompette, the miners have no one to com-f o r t them os they die. This dichotomy reveals once again the v e r t i c a l perspective on which the novel i s structured. As the chapter closes, the narrator pre sents a view of the aftermath of tragedy i n which Trompette stands out as the arch-victim and which r e i n f o r c e s the ' c r u c i a l l i n k between the common des-t i n y of both man and animal i n t h i s world: Les blesses h u r l a i e n t , l e s morts se refr'oidissaient dans^les postures- C 3 s s e e s , boueux de l a boue l i q u i d e du. degel, ca et l a envastfs parmi l e s taches d'encre du charbon^ qui repa r a i s s a i e n t sous l e s lambeaux sa-i l s de la neige. E t , au mi l i e u de ces cadavres d"hommes, tout p e t i t s , l ' a i r pauvre avec leur mai-greur de misere, g i s a i t le cadavre de Trompette, un • ' . tas de chair morte, monstrueux et lamentable, (p. Ii-32) The bond which unites the two horses i s their' eternal dream of returning to the Edenic garden of the unfall e n world, and i t i s thus s i g n i f i c a n t that Trompette whose very presence reminds B a t a i l l e of the home of his youth, i s constantly described as having f a l l e n into the underground h e l l of the mine; "ce com-pagnon qui tombait a i n s i de l a terre"' (p. 5 .9)? and "cet ami. j_qui est tombe'd'en haut"" (p. ^ 2 0 ) . Just before Trompette dies, B a t a i l l e gently caresses him to ease his f r i e n d ' s sorrow: Ces caresses redoublaient sa melancolie, son p o l l f r 6 n i s s a i t j s o ns les confidences du camarade v i e i l l ! dans les tenebres; et tons deux, chaque. f o i s q u ' i l s se rencontraient et q u ' i l s s' ebrouaie'nt ensemble, avaient l ' a i r de se lamenter, le vieux d'en etre a ne plus se souvenir, le jeune de ne pouvoir o u b l i e r . A i ' e c u r i e , v o i s i n s de mangeoire, i].s v i v a i e n t l a tete basse, se s'oufflant aux naseaux, €changeant leur continuel reve du jour, des v i s i o n s d'herbes vertes, de routes blanches, de darters jaunes, 3 s 1 ' i n f i n i o ' Puis, quand Trompette, trempe* de sueur, avait agonise', sur sa l i t i e r e , B a t a i l l e s'etait.mis 8s le f l a i r e r de'sesperement, avec des reniflements courts, p a r e i l s a" des sanglots. II le sentait de-.venir f r o i d , la mine l u i prenait sa j o i e derniere, cet ami tombe d'en haut, f r a i s de bonnes odeurs, qui l u i rappelaient sa jeunesse au p l e i n a i r , Et i l a v ait casse" sa longe, hennissant de peur, l o r s -q u ' i l s ' e t a i t apercu cms 1 'autre ne remuait plus, (pp. 4 1 9 - 2 0 ) . A C l e a r l y the death of Trompette deprives B a t a i l l e of his only hope of escape from the h e l l i s h world of the mine and his only hope of returning to the earthly paradise of his dreams'. Ba--t a i l l e ' s apocalyptic v i s i o n i s thus based on a human r e l a t i o n -ship for indeed the new Heaven and new Earth of h i s dreams can only be achieved as a r e s u l t of e s t a b l i s h i n g a l o v i n g , compas-sionate r e l a t i o n s h i p with another.individual. •During the cataclysmic collapse of le Voreux intended, to bring about the Apocalypse, B a t a i l l e runs, madly through the seams i n which he i s trapped s t i l l seeking the l i g h t of h i s . long-dreamed of garden, as the walls crumble around him, "Ou a l l a i t - i l ? la-bas peut-etre, a cette v i s i o n de sa jeunesse, au moulin ou i l e t a i t ne", sur l e bord de l a Scarpe, au souvenir •. confus du s o l e i l , b'rulant en l ' a i r comme une grosse lampe, I I v o u l a i t v i v r e , sa memoire de bete s ' e v e i l l a i t , l'envie de r e s -p i r e r encore l ' a i r des plaines le poussait d r o i t devant l u i , jusqu'a ce q u ' i l eut decouvert l e t r o t , l a so r t i e sous le c i e l . chaud, dans l a lumiere" (pp. 493-94). As he vainly searches for the l i g h t , the r i s i n g tide of the Deluge chokes his l a s t breath. Indeed t h i s scene re-establishes the bond between men and animal i n that Zola creates two almost p a r a l l e l death scenes: . that of B a t a i l l e and of Catherine. Both Catherine and. B a t a i l l e die imagining the Edenic garden of t h e i r dream world: B a t a i l l e envisions the m i l l by the r i v e r Scarpe, a world of beauty, l i g h t , growth and freedom, and Catherine, d e l i r i o u s with fever and also trapped, deep in the black' abyss, sees again for the l a s t time as the water continually r i s e s , threatening to engulf her, the world i n t o which she longed to escape. In her desperate ravings, "Les bourdonnements de ses o r e i l l e s etaient devenus des murmures d'eau courante, des chants d'oiseaux; et e l l e sentait un v i o l e n t parfum d'herbes ec'rasees, et e l l e voyait c l a i r , de grandes taches jaunes v o l a i e n t devant ses yeux, s i larges, qu'elle se cr o y a i t dehors, pres du canal, dans les hies, par une journee de beau s o l e i l " (p. 509). Moreover both B a t a i l l e and Catherine are described-as having " l e s yeux de chatCte)" (p. 58 and p. 46) . C l e a r l y , once again Zola i n s i s t s that man and animal share the same, destiny: both die deep down i n the h e l l i s h abyss of le ''Voreux, the only difference being that Catherine narrowly escapes drowning i n the r i s i n g tide of the flood, waters. Indeed the metaphors of l i g h t and tempest used to describe B a t a i l l e , his function in the mine and the q u a l i t i e s of the philosophy he represents also suggest on the anagogic l e v e l that he symbolizes the white, and pale horses of the b i b l i c a l , o 6 Apocalypse. In Revelation 6 : 8 , Saint John describes the-pale horse whose name i s Death and whom Hell, follows. Thus i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that twice i n the novel B a t a i l l e i s required to p u l l the funer a l cortege of a fellow-worker out of the h e l l i s h abyss of-the miner f i r s t the body of Chicot who was k i l l e d i n the cave-in which c r i p p l e d Jeanlin,' and secondly, the corpse of his beloved companion, Trompette. Moreover, B a t a i l l e represents above a l l the white horse of the Apocalypse described f i r s t i n 7 Revelation 6 : 2 as being a r i d e r wearing a crown, carrying a bow as he goes o f f to conquer, and i n Revelation 1 9 : 1 1 - 1 6 i n which a white horse bursts f o r t h from the open heaven, the horse whose name i s F a i t h f u l and True, who embodies the Word of o God and whose name i s KING OF KINGS, LORD OF LORDS . The p h i l -osophy which B a t a i l l e expounds embodies God's Great Commandment to love one's neighbor i n that he urges his followers to remain f a i t h f u l and true through a s p i r i t of resignation and patience; the Edenic world i s far o f f i n the past and cannot be recap-tured i n t h i s l i f e except" vicarious3.y. The C h r i s t i a n doctrine of c a r i t a s or brotherly love and the philosophy of resi g n a t i o n , stoicism and patience which B a t a i l l e represents throughout the novel i s ult i m a t e l y the only viable philosophy proposed. Both. Etienne and Souvarine aspire to create a new Heaven and a new Earth but t h e i r philosophy i s , i n i t s f i n a l a n a l y s i s , s e l f i s h and destructive whereas B a t a i l l e seeks to create a better .world not by changing society i t s e l f but by changing the.attitudes of the people who inh a b i t i t . Although each apocalyptic dream f a i l s to m a t e r i a l i z e , only B a t a i l l e ' s thwarted quest does not r e s u l t i n the destruction of either people or places. In his attempt to ann i h i l a t e the world, Sou-varine sabotages the mine and consequently k i l l s many of his fellow-workers. Etienne"s quest for a new, just society leads him to provoke a s t r i k e which ultimately k i l l s many of his ' friends as the r e s u l t of poverty manifested i n cold and starva-t i o n . The philosophy, inherent i n B a t a i l l e ' s example on the other hand, embodies the s e l f l e s s C h r i s t i a n concept of brotherly, love, of acceptance of one's f a l l e n world and the need to e x i s t peacefully within i t s l i m i t s . Although B a t a i l l e cannot prevent poverty and i t s r e l a t e d manifestations, he can by loving and having compassion for his fellow-man at l e a s t ease the misery of l i v i n g i n a post-lapsarian universe for clearly,- his own world, the underground barn, i s by f a r the most Edenic environment to which the working class can asp i r e . In his home there i s r e s t , plenty, love, care, cl e a n l i n e s s and fresh a i r and odors-. William Blake a p t l y states as one of the Proverbs of H e l l i n 9 The Marriage of Heaven and H e l l that "The tygers of wrath are wiser than-the horses of i n s t r u c t i o n . " S i g n i f i c a n t l y , in terms of Germinal, his proverb suggests that people learn as a r e s u l t of b i t t e r experience rather from the wise advice of th e i r fellow human beings. Indeed "the tygers of wrath", Etienne and Souvarine, cause vast s u f f e r i n g through the .pain of poverty, cold, starva-t i o n and ph y s i c a l i n j u r y , hut i t i s only as the r e s u l t of t h e i r s u f f e r i n g that the miners r e a l i z e the wisdom inherent i n the philosophy which B a t a i l l e , the gentle horse of i n s t r u c t i o n , rep-resents-. At the end of the"novel when the defeated miners r e -turn to t h e i r jobs i n the p i t s , they .recognize that nothing has r e a l l y changed as the r e s u l t of t h e i r s t r i k e ; there w i l l indeed he future r e v o l t s , s t r i k e s and f a i r y t a l e dreams of a new society, hut they must wait for the slow creation of a new. world, and i n . the meantime resign themselves to t h e i r f a l l e n existence. Indeed Blake's ."Proverb of Hell"' i s also s i g n i f i c a n t i n that. B a t a i l l e , the wise horse of i n s t r u c t i o n , i s always associated with the wise old men, Bonnemort and Mouque who, throughout the novel, represent the- unchanging evolutionary q u a l i t y of the i r s o c i a l world. Trained by many long, p a i n f u l years of experience in the mine to submit to the r u l i n g bourgeois a u t h o r i t i e s , these two old men embody the t r a d i t i o n a l aspects of t h e i r r a c i a l h i s -t ory. Indeed i t i s Bonnemort who t e l l s Etienne of h i s own f i f t y years of service i n le vVoreux and of his family's accumulated "cent s i x ans d'abattage, l e s mioches apres l e s vieux"'-(p. 9). Unlike.the younger, revolutionary men, Bonnemort and Mouque hold no i l l u s i o n s of changing society overnight i n t o the Utopia of t h e i r dreams, but rather they accept t h e i r destiny as B a t a i l l e does. The r e l a t i o n s h i p established between the horses and the old men reveals one more l i n k Zola has forged between animal and human creations. Indeed B a t a i l l e f i r s t appears alongside Bonne-mort who,." » . . 'comme son cheval qui demeurait immohile sur A les.pieds, sans paraitre s o u f f r i r du vent, 1 1 semblait en p i e r r e , i l n'avait l ' a i r de se-douter n i du f r o i d n i des bourrasques s i f -f l a n t a ses o r e i l l e s " (p. 7 ) . Both the wise horse and the wise old man have hardened themselves against the blows issued them by the r e a l i t y i n which they must e x i s t . At the end of the novel, Mouque and B a t a i l l e are trapped together i n the col l a p s i n g mine/ shaft. Later as Mouque gently, although with great d i f f i c u l t y , ' leads the frightened horse onward through the crumbling g a l l e r i e s , ' they are presented i n equal terms, "Le pere Mouque, qui.avait ramene* B a t a i l l e , sans hate, l e tena i t encore par la bride, tous / / A les deux stupefies, l e vieux e t - l a bete, devant l a hausse rapide de 1'inondation" (p. k6k). Indeed once again both man and animal face the same destiny and both die from the i d e n t i c a l causes. Throughout Germinal, the complex anagogic or u n i v e r s a l l e v e l of symbolic meaning i s made.manifest i n an analysis of the. C h r i s t i a n archetypes which.form the basis of. the novel. R e a l i t y , the miners' s t r i k e i n search of s o c i a l j u s t i c e , i s contained within the framework of the universal' symbolism i n the novel. C l e a r l y the basic C h r i s t i a n pattern i n Germinal.is that of the Creation, Battle of Armageddon and. Apocalypse cycle which i s also the s t r u c t u r a l pattern of the B i b l e . Within t h i s large s t r u c t u r a l pattern are other r e l a t e d patterns, the "arrival and quest of the Messiah f i g u r e , the cycle of human l i f e from'birth to death, the search for the l o s t Edenic garden and escape from the wasteland. Moreover, as i n the Bible where the d i d a c t i c parables frequently center around animals, i n Germinal true wisdom or the only viable.answer i s embodied i n the philosophy represented by the wise horse of i n s t r u c t i o n , B a t a i l l e . Notes: N o r t h r o p F r y e * Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m (New Yorks Atheneum, 1968). — 2.. John M i l t o n ? - P a r a d i s e L o s t ? e d Q M e r r i t t Yo Hughes (New Yorks Odyssey Press,- 196^ J , Book I , 1, 60. 3-Northrop: F r y e , Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m 0 Matthew 22s- 39, "Thou s h a l t l o v e t h y neighbour as t h y s e l f , " 5. John M i l t o n , P a r a d i s e L o s t , Book I 9 11, 2'5l+-55* 6 . - ~ R e v e l a t i o n 6: 8, " a , . be h o l d a p a l e horses and h i s name t h a t s a t upon him was Death, and H e l l f o l l o w e d w i t h him," 7o . R e v e l a t i o n 6s- 2 9 ", , , b e h o l d a white horses and he t h a t s a t on him had a box^ s, and a crown was g i v e n unto hims and he went f o r t h c onquering and to conquer." R e v e l a t i o n 19s 11-16 9 "AUd I saw heaven opened, and b e h o l d a white h o r s e ; and he t h a t s a t on him was c a l l e d F a i t h f u l and True, and i n r i g h t -eousness- doth judge and make war, • H i s eyes were, as flames o f fire,-, and on h i s head were many crowns-; 3 n d he had a name w r i t t e n , t h a t no man knew, but he h i m s e l f . And he was c l o t h e d ' w i t h a v e s t u r e dipped i n bloods and h i s name i s c a l l e d The .Word o f God,, And the armies- which were i n heaven f o l l o w e d him:;upDn white h o r s e s , clou"hed i n f i n e l i n e n , white and c l e a n . And out o f his- mouth goeth a sharp sword, t h a t i n i t he • s h o u l d smite the n a t i o n s t and he s h a l l r u l e them w i t h a a r o d o f i r o n s and he t r e a d e t h the winepress of the f i e r c e -ness and wraith o f A l m i g h t y GodQ. And he hath on h i s v e s t u r e and on h i s t h i g h a name w r i t t e n , KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS."' CONCLUSION C l e a r l y , Germinal i s indeed.a work of art and not just an h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l and biographical document i n which Zola presents a series of accumulated f a c t s . As Northrop Frye has suggested, art begins with the world the a r t i s t has construct-ed within h i s imagination and not with the world as we l i t e r a l l y see i t , " 1 " In order for us to know the nature of r e a l i t y , the a r t i s t must f i r s t transform experience i n t o a metaphor which ex-presses i t . Art does not r e j e c t f a c t s e n t i r e l y , but i t trans-forms them i n t o a n i l l u s i o n through which we discover t r u t h . Because i n a r t r e a l i t y i s i n the form of metaphor, r e a l i t y becomes easier for us to accept, Moreover, a r t i s the product of the a r t i s t ' s creative imagination; thus, we as- observers, must also exercise and involve our imaginations i n order to i n t e r p r e t i t and attempt to understand i t as completely as p o s s i b l e . Accord-ing to Blake we must see not just with our l i t e r a l , p h y s i c a l eyes which perceive only f a c t u a l data but also through the more perceptive eye of our imagination. In Germinal Zola's more deep and subtle implications are woven i n t o the underlying thematic and s t r u c t u r a l patterns on which the novel i s based and thus remain hidden behind the complex mask of symbolism. By r e s t r i c t i n g one's approach to the novel to the surface meanings and events, hence to the h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l and biographical f a c t s , one over-looks the more profound implications which are inherent i n the novel insofar-as i t i s a minified, t o t a l work of a r t . In terms of the c o n f l i c t between a r t and r e a l i t y or between imagination or i l l u s i o n and f a c t , Zola scholarship has tended to center p r i m a r i l y on the r e a l i s t i c , f a c t u a l q u a l i t i e s of Zola's f i c t i o n . As a r e s u l t 3 - several c r i t i c s who were quoted e a r l i e r discuss- at great lengths Zola's use of precise documentation;, for example, the f a c t that experienced l i f e i n the mine before w r i t i n g the novel, that he modelled the novel on a p a r t i c u l a r s t r i k e i n a nearby coal mine, that the novel contains .the essent-i a l elements of r e a l i s t i c and n a t u r a l i s t i c f i c t i o n , that Zola researched h i s subject thoroughly by r e f e r r i n g to s p e c i f i c s o c i a l t r a c t s written at that time and dealing with problems r e l a t i n g to the mining industry, and that Zola was a "dramaturge manque" who used dramatic techniques throughout the novel. In these studies, c r i t i c s such as E.M, Grant and I-M, Frandon i n s i s t that Zola's creative imagination i s c o n t r o l l e d by the f a c t u a l data which he gathered and then organized i n t o a novel. On the other hand, many, c r i t i c s of- t h i s kind, while pursuing the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the h i s t o r i c a l , b iographical and s o c i o l o g i c a l i s s u e s , also make i s o -l a t e d stimulating comments', which suggest thematic or s t r u c t u r a l . u n i t y , but because they do not develop these points, the value of t h e i r comments i s l i m i t e d . In d i r e c t contrast to t h i s s t y l e of c r i t i c i s m , the s o - c a l l e d "new c r i t i c i s m " : is.concerned with l i t e r a t u r e as. an a r t i s t i c crea-t i o n or i l l u s i o n and as a c a r e f u l l y constructed t o t a l structure which i s the product of the a r t i s t ' s creative mind rather than h i s f a c t u a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l mind, . Indeed, i n a . l e t t e r to h i s f r i e n d Henry Ceard dated, just p r i o r to the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of, Germinal., Zola i n s i s t s that although the novel has a strong f a c t u a l basis , f a c t s are not an end i n themselves but merely a means to an end which he defines as symbolism: , , , je, men,s pour mon compte dans l e sens de l a v e r i t e . J ' a i 1'hypertrophie du d e t a i l v r a i , le saut dans l e s e'toiles sur l e tr,em-p l i n de 1'observation exacte. La v e r i t e 0-monte d'un coup d ' a i l e jusqu'au symbole,"" Thus his novel extends beyond the world of r e a l i t y i n t o the his career, Zola defined a work of art as "' , ,',LetantJ l a r e a l i t e transposee par une v i s i o n d ' a r t i s t e , Cette t r a n s p o s i t i o n devait etre fondee sur l a rais o n et l a v e r i t e ; e l l e devait'etre' surtout procedee d'un puissant temperament de createur," C l e a r l y then, a r t according to Zola i s f p c t s molded by the shap-ing hand of the imagination. C r i t i c s such as Walker, Howe, Wilson, Davoihe and Girard who subscribe to the new c r i t i c a l theories focus t h e i r studies on the.symbolic l e v e l of meaning which Zola claims to have-implied. Thus they concentrate on the thematic and s t r u c t u r a l patterns they find" inherent i n the recur-rent imagery and s p e c i f i c archetypes of r e l i g i o n and mythology. This a n a l y s i s has attempted to reveal the s t r u c t u r a l and thematic unity of Germinal i n terms of the v e r t i c a l perspective which i s at the very core of the novel'. C l e a r l y , as one reads the novel, one i s constantly aware of the demonic and divine poles which are present i n nearly every aspect of the novel. In terms of the thematic patterns, the general theme of sexual r e -l a t i o n s h i p s embodies the two v e r t i c a l poles of Heaven and H e l l i n that both positve and negative sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t within the novel and e x i s t on both l e v e l s of socie t y . The only two realm of the imagination,, "les e t o i l e s Moreover, e a r l i e r i n i n d i v i d u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which can he termed positve or divine are the Gregoire and Haheu marriages which ore founded on love rather than or l u s t . The negative sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s are demonic i n that the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned seek s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n through l u s t rather than seek love which i s u n s e l f i s h . The negative sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p s divide i n t o three categories: the theme of adultery i n t o which f a l l the a f f a i r s of l a Pierronne and Dansocrt, l a Levaque and Bouteloup and Madame Hennebeau and I'egrel; the theme of c a s t r a t i o n which Zola presents l i t e r a l l y and metaphori-c a l l y i n terms of Maigrat and the mine, l e •Vorcux, and f i n a l l y , the theme of the v i r g i n which occurs i n the t r a d i t i o n a l Gothic novel and which i n Germinal recurs i n terms of the young v i r g i n who i s both i n love with and loved by a young man but whose happiness i s thwarted by the f a c t that she i s trapped i n a dark, labyrinthine and decaying castle i n which a demonic male figure preys upon her. The theme of the v i r g i n i s implied i n the C e c i l e , Negrel and Bonnemort r e l a t i o n s h i p and i s e x p l i c i t i n the Lydie, . Jea n l i n and Bebert r e l a t i o n s h i p and the Catherine, Etienne and Chaval r e l a t i o n s h i p . The v e r t i c a l perspective also centers on the s t r u c t u r a l patterns created by the i n t i c a t e l i n k between the four seasons, the four narrative patterns and the one year time lapse of the novel whichtogether chronicle Etienne"s progression towards a state of moral maturity. In terms of Frye's d e f i n i t i o n s , the inythos of spring, comedy, embodies the themes of marriage and society, and, i n general, the theme of i n t e g r a t i o n . As comedy then, Germinal represents a movement towards the creation of a new s o c i e t y which w i l l form around the comic hero and h i s "bride. In t h i s cose however, the "bride i s not a l i t e r a l b r i d e , but the A symbolic b r i d e o f E t i e n n e ' s "reve s o c i a l " which i s p r e s e n t e d a t the end o f the n o v e l as the hope f o r a b e t t e r l i f e i n t h i s w o r l d and which i s p r e s e n t e d i n terms o f images o f growth, b i r t h and f e r t i l i t y . A r c h e t y p a l tragedy, F r y e ' s mythos o f F a l l , r e v e a l s the hero's f a l l from the w o r l d o f success i n t o the w o r l d o f f a i l u r e as the r e s u l t o f a s p e c i f i c t r a g i c f l a w and the hero's subse-quent a l i e n a t i o n from s o c i e t y . E t i e n n e ' s t r a g i c f l a w i s h i s p r i d e which causes him t o f o r g e t the p l i g h t o f the s t a r v i n g miners and t o seek o n l y the s e l f - g r a t i f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e s o f p o p u l a r i t y as a s o c i a l l e a d e r . E t i e n n e i s i n d e e d i s o l a t e d from h i s s o c i e t y when he h i d e s i n the b l a c k abyss o f R e q u i l l a r t and f e a r s meeting h i s former f r i e n d s whom expects w i l l r e j e c t him. The other v e r t i c a l pair-.of n a r r a t i v e p a t t e r n s i s composed o f the mythos of Summer, romance, and the mythos o f W i n t e r , i r o n y . Romance i s the w o r l d o f dreams and w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t , and i n romance, the hero quests n o s t a l g i c a l l y i n s e a r c h o f a l o s t golden age o f the p a s t . C l e a r l y , E t i e n n e ' s dream o f a new, j u s t s o c i e t y t o be a c h i e v e d i n the immediate f u t u r e i s the q u i x o t i c i m p o s s i b l e dream, a mere f a i r y - t a l e i l l u s i o n which crumbles the moment r e a l i t y impinges upon i t * E t i e n n e ' s quest i s a l s o s i m i l a r t o the m e d i e v a l A r t h u r i a n romance i n t h a t l i k e the myth o f A r t h u r , Germinal i s c o n s t r u c t e d around the m y s t e r i o u s b i r t h o f the hero, h i s r i s e t o and f a l l from s u c c e s s , the theme o f d r a g o n - k i l l i n g and o f s o c i a l change whereby the young g e n e r a t i o n t a k e s over the power from tho oldo Moreover, i n Germinal the c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n o f the seasons which forms the time scheme o f the n o v e l and the c y c l e o f human l i f e from b i r t h t o death and s u b s e q u e n t l y to r e b i r t h i s the b a s i c p a t t e r n o f E t i e n n e 1 s m o r a l development whereby he moves from a s t a t e o f i g n o r a n c e or innocence i n t o a s t a t e o f knowledge or ex-p e r i e n c e . At t h i s p o i n t h i s s e l f i s h . i d e a s b r i n g about h i s p e r s o n a l -d e f e a t and thus f o r c e him t o e n t e r ' a symbolic "Valley o f the Shadow o f Death from which he l a t e r emerges purged o f h i s p r i d e , ready t o put h i s i d e a s t o a more p r a c t i c a l end. The other b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n on which the n o v e l i s founded i s the C h r i s t i a n c y c l i c a l myth o f the C r e a t i o n , the B a t t l e o f Armageddon and the Apocalypse from the dust o f which w i l l a r i s e the c i t y o f the New J e r u s a l e m , As we have a l r e a d y seen i n d e t a i l , E t i e n n e , : Souvarine and B a t a i l l e a l l r e p r e s e n t Messiah f i g u r e s who wish t o c r e a t e a new s o c i a l order,- However, i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n t h e i r g o a l , Souvarine and E t i e n n e r e s o r t t o v i o l e n c e and d e s t r u c t i o n as a r e s u l t o f which they hope t o b r i n g about a symbolic B a t t l e o f Armageddon t o a n n i h i l a t e the o l d s o c i e t y and g i v e b i r t h t o a new one. Indeed Souvarine and E t i e n n e are the sons o f the God o f Wrath, whereas B a t a i l l e as a M e s s i a h f i g u r e i s d e f i n i t e l y the descendant o f the God o f Love because t o r e a l i z e h i s a p o c a l y p t i c w o r l d one must o n l y l o v e h i s fellow-man. H i s be-l i e f i n c a r i t a s or b r o t h e r l y l o v e i s what triumphs as his! r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h Trompette r e v e a l s . As the white horse o f the Apocalypse, B a t a i l l e embodies the o n l y v i a b l e p h i l o s o p h y f o r a b e t t e r l i f e i n t h i s world,, and i t i s i n d e e d a p h i l o s o p h y o f l o v e . To c o n c l u d e , ^ V i r g i n i a Woolf makes' a s i g n i f i c a n t comment i n her n o v e l To The L i g h t h o u s e which n e a t l y sums up the problem f a c i n g most Z o l a c r i t i c s : ' the q u e s t i o n o f f a c t s v e r s u s i m a g i n a -t i o n or o f r e a l i t y v e r s u s i l l u s i o n . Woolf as the n a r r a t o r j o i n s f o r c e s w i t h two o f her c h a r a c t e r s , M r s 0 Ramsay and L i l y B r i s c o e , the a r t i s t , both o f whom are endowed w i t h the c a p a c i t y t o c r e a t e or t o imagine. Together they oppose Mr* Ramsay and h i s son Jamess who are t o t a l l y unable t o imagine and who c o n s e q u e n t l y r e p r e s e n t the s i d e o f r e a l i t y . Throughout the n o v e l , the c e n t r a l i s s u e i s the q u e s t i o n o f going t o the L i g h t h o u s e , whatever t h a t i s f&r i n d e e d i t i s a symbol* Wear the end o f the n o v e l , Woolf speaks as t h 6 n a r r a t o r and d e s c r i b e s the two opposing p o i n t s o f view: The L i g h t h o u s e was then a s i l v e r y , m i s t y - l o o k i n g tower w i t h a. y e l l o w eye t h a t opened suddenly and s o f t l y i n the evening* Now James l o o k e d a t the L i g h t h o u s e . He c o u l d see the white-washed r o c k s ; the tower, s t a r k a n d s t r a i g h t 5 he c o u l d see t h a t i t w as b a r r e d w i t h b l a c k and white; he c o u l d see windows i n i t : he c o u l d even see washing spread on the r o c k s zo d r y . So t h a t was the L i g h t h o u s e was i t ? No, the other was a l s o the Lighthouse*. For n o t h i n g i s ever j u s t one t h i n g . The o t h e r was the L i g h t h o u s e too* C l e a r l y , James sees the L i g h t h o u s e i n f a c t u a l terms o n l y , whereas Woolf, the a r t i s t sees the same t h i n g i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t way; one sees w i t h the eye, the o t h e r through the eye as Blake b e l i e v e s . In the same vein,; Germinal can be approached as a b i o g r a p h i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l document i n terms o f the f a c t s Z o l a p r e s e n t s * On the other hand, Germinal i s more than a s e r i e s o f facts," i t i s an a r t i s t i c a d a p t a t i o n o f them i n t o a symbolic work o f a r t which c e n t e r s on the t h e m a t i c and s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n s i n h e r e n t i n the v e r t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on which the n o v e l i s con-structed*-Notes. Northrop Frye, The_ Educated, imagination, (Toronto: The Hunter Rose Company, 19t>3)? PP» 5-6". 2. P h i l i p D 9 Walker. "Zola's Use of Color Imagery i n Germinal/' PMLA. 77 ( 1 9 6 2 ) ' , - 4 4 2 - 4 9 . 3»-Michel Raimond, Le Roman depuis la, r e v o l u t i o n ( P a r i s : Armand C o l i n , 1967), p. 106~. 4 . V i r g i n i a Woolf, To The Lighthouse (Middlesex:. Penguin Books, Ltd., 1964) 3 p. 2118. Io Works by Emile Zola Zola, Emileo GermjinaJL- ed. E l l i o t t ' M. Grant* New York: Charles ScrTb"her rs Sons, 1 9 5 1 ° * Germinalo P a r i s : Fasquelle, 1968* I I * . General Works Consulted Auerbach, E r i c h c Mimesis: - The Repr e s e n t a t i o n of R e a l i t y , i n Western L i t e r a t u r e 0 New York: Double d~ay and Company, I n c . , 1957* Bernard, Marc» Zola par lui-meme 0 Paris:- E d i t i o n s du s e u i l , 1952* B l a k e , W i l l i am . The Marriage, of Heaven and He 11, The. Norton Anthology o f En, gi"i'sh| Lx te r'a ture y eds. M.Ho Abrams, e"t" V l 7 ? v o l . 2'*. New York: W0W0 Norton and Company I n c * , 19*6"BV Brown ? C a l v i n S* R e p e t i t i o n i n Zola's. Novels. Athens* U n i v e r s i t y o f Georgia Press,. 1*957. Burns, C o l i n * "Documentation et i m a g i n a t i o n chez Emile Z o l a , " C a h i e r s n a t u r a l i s t e s , 24-25 ( 1 9 6 3 ) s 69-78* Davoine, Jean-Pierre*, "Metaphores animales dans Germinal," Etudes f r a n c a i s e s , 4 (1968), 383-92* Doucet, F* L 'Esthetique de Zola, et son a p p l i c a t i o n a. la, c r i t i q u e 0 Den Haag:: De Nederlandsche boek-en steendrukk-e r i j , 1923* Duncan, P h i l l i p - A* "Zola i ?s Machine-Monsters g"" Romance, Notes. I l l , i i ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 2 ) , 10-12. F a s q u e l l e , Eugene, ed* Les Personnages des "Rougon-Macquart" pour s e r v i r a^  l a l e c t u r e jg""fc a s lv*e""tud*e""are IToeuvre""d'e'  Emile. Zola*. P a r i s : B i b l i o t h ^ q u e C h a r p e n t i e r , 1901* Frandon, Ida-Marie. Autour de, "Germinal"':' l a mine et l e s mineurs* Geneve: L i b r a i r i e Droz,,-19f?5* F r y e , Northrop*- Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m : - Four Essays* New York:- Atheneum, 196~cC _o. The Educated Imagination* Toronto: The Hunter Rose Company, 19"o"3* *• F a b l e s o f I d e n t i t y : S t u d i e s in, P o e t i c Mythology. New York: Harcoift, Brajce, and World, I n c * , 196T*-Girard, Marcelo "L'Univers de Germinal," Revue des sciences. humaines, 6 9 (January-March," 1 9 5 ' 3 ) , 5 9 - 7 6 . Goldberg, M.A. "Zola and S o c i a l Revolution: A Study of Germinal," Antioch Review, 2 7 (Winter, 1 9 6 7 - 6 3 ) , J + 9 1 - 5 0 7 . Grant, E l l i o t t M. Emile Zola. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1 9 6 6 o . , Zola's "Germinal": A C r i t i c a l and H i s t o r -i c a l Study. Amsterdam: L e i c e s t e r U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 6 2 0 o, "Marriage or Murder: Zola's Hesitations Concerning Cecile Gregoire," French 'Studies, xv ( 1 9 6 M - ) , • > H J + 5 o '. • and P h i l i p D» Walker. "Concerning Color i n Germinal ?" PMLA, 7 9 ( 1 9 6 ^ ) , 3 ^ 8 - 5 ^ - . Grant, Richard B. "Zola's Germinal," E x p l i c a t o r , 1 8 (March, • I960), item 3 7 . Guillemin, Henri. Presentation des "Rougon-Hacquart. P a r i s r Gallimard7"T% L fV . Guy, Roberto Emile Zola: urincipes et caracteres generaux ' de son, oeuvre 0 P a r i s : Socie'te' d'e^dition l e s b e l l e s l e t t r e s , 19T20 Heilman, ( (Robert B. "Charlotte Bronte's irNew"; Gothic," The  Brontes: A C o l l e c t i o n of C r i t i c a l Essays, ed. Ian Gregor. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c 0 , 1 9 7 0 . Hemmings, F.W.J. Emile, Zola . Oxford:- Clarendon Press, 1 9 5 3 « '• ] o "Emile Zola: romancier innovateur," Cahiers n a t u r a l i s t e s , 3 3 ( 1 9 6 7 ) , 1 - 1 1 . Holy B i b l e , The. The King James- "Version. Howe, I r v i n g . "The Genesis of Germinal,"" Encounter, 3k ( A p r i l , 1 9 7 0 ) 5 5 3 - 6 1 . James, Henry. Notes on Novelists with Some Other Notes. London: J.M. Dent and Sons, Ltd., 1 9 1 1 ! - . Kanes, Martin. "Zola, Germinal, et l a censure dramatique," - Cahiers n a t u r a l i s t e s , 2 9 ( 1 9 6 5 ) « 3 5 - * + 2 . Lapp, John C. "The Watcher Betrayed and the F a t a l Woman: . Some Recurring Patterns i n Zola," PMLA, 7k ( 1 9 5 9 ) , 2 7 6 -8k. ' 1 ^ 2 Levin, Harry. The Gates of Horn; A Study; of Five French  .Realists„ New York:' "Oxford"Univer'slty Press, 1 ' 9 ' 5 3 ° Lewis, C.S. A Preface to "Paradise Lost." London: Oxford University~"Press, 1 9 ^ + 2 < > Lukacs, Georg. Studies? i n Eur one an Realism. New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1 9 6 % . Matthews, J.H. Les Deux Zola: science et -personnalite" dans l . 1 expression. Geneve: L i b r a i r i e Droz, 1 9 2 7 ° Martino, P i e r r e . Le Roman r e a l i s t e sous le second empire 0 P a r i s : Hachette, 1 9 1 3 • Milton, John. Paradise Lost, ed. M e r r i t t Y. Hughes. New York: Odyssey Press, T 9 ^ 2 " . . Mitterand, Henri.- "Quelques aspects de l a c r e a t i o n - l i t e r a i r e dans l'oeuvre d'Emile Z o l a , " Cahiers n a t u r a l i s t e s , 2k-25 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 9 - 2 0 „ Praz, Mario. The Romantic Agony. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 5 1 . Proulx, A l f r e d . Aspects e'pjques des "Rougon-Macauart. "• • La Ha ye:- Mouton, T9~&ol Pschari, Henriette. Anatomie d"uii chef-d'oeuvre, "Germinal." Paris:- Mercure de France, l " 9 6 3 « . "L'Enfant, martyr de l a mine." Mercure • de, France, c c c x l (septembre "a de'cembre, 1 9 6 9 5 , 5 ^ - 6 5 . Rairnond, Michel. Le Roman depuis, l a r e v o l u t i o n . Paris: Arrnand C o l i n , 19^ 7 . • Sherry, Norman. Charlotte and Emile Bronte. London: Evans Brothers Ltd., 1 9 6 9 . Summers, Montague. The Gothic Quest. New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , Inc., 5 9 6 V . -Tennyson, A l f r e d , Lord. Idylls, of the King. New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 19~&5<> T u r n e l l , Martin. The Art of French F i c t i o n . New York: New Directions Publishing Corporation, 1 9 5 9 * . Van Tieghem, Philippe© Introduction a, l'etude de Zola: "Germinal."' P a r i s : Centre documentation u n i v e r s i t a i r e , . T9yra— "Varma, Devendra. The Gothic Flame: Being a. History of the . Gothic Novel i n England. London: A. Barker, 195/o. V i s s i e r e , Jean-Louis.. "Politique et prophetie dans Germinal ?" Cahiers n a t u r a l i s t e s . 20 (1962), l66-6'7o Walker, P h i l i p D.' "The Ehauche of Germinal," PMLA, 8 0 (1965), 571-83. ~ -. Emile Zola* New York: Humanities Press. 1955; t ^ "Prophetic Myths i n Zola , " PMLA, 74 (1959), 4^4-1? 2. " «, "Remarques sur l'image du serpent dans Germinal," Cahiers, n a t u r a l i s t e s , 31 ( 1 9 6 6 ) , 8 3 - 8 5 „ o "Zola's Art of Characterization i n Germinal A Note for Further-Research," L 'Esprit createur, 4" (Summer*.1964), 60 - 6 7 . . "Zola's Use of Color Imagery i n Germinal," M 2 7 T 7 T T % 2 ) , 442-49. • \ . , and E l l i o t t Mo Grant. "Concerning Color i n Germinal," PMLA. 79 ( 1 9 6 4 ) , 348-54.-Wilson, Angus. Emile, Zola: An Introductory Study of His  Novels. London: Mercury Books, 1965» Woolf, V i r g i n i a o "To The Lighthouse. Middlesex: Penguin Books Ltd., 1964T 

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