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Aspects of temperance in Spencer and Milton Sexton, James Penman 1971

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ASPECTS OF TEMPERANCE IN SPENSER AND MILTON by James Penman Sexton B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF . M a s t e r o f A r t s i n t h e Department o f E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1971 In present ing th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It i s understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on of th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h e t h e s i s i s f i r s t t o anatomize t h e c o n c e p t o f "temperance," s t u d y i n g i t i n i t s C l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n c o n t e x t s . A f t e r h a v i n g done so I examine t h e use o f t h e c o n c e p t i n Spenser's F a e r i e Queene, Book I I and i n a s e r i e s o f works by M i l t o n . We see t h a t "temperance" i s a many-sided term, v a r i o u s l y d e f i n e d as " q u i e t n e s s , " "modesty," " d o i n g one's own work," and " s e l f - k n o w l e d g e . " S i n c e i t s l i n g u i s t i c p r o t o t y p e was t h e Greek s o p h r o s y n e , t h e n o t i o n o f " o r d e r " and "harmony" a l s o c a r r i e s o v e r t o t h e word "temperance." I t becomes c l e a r t h a t temperance has c o s m o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e — i t i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e o r d e r l y u n i v e r s e w i t h r e g a r d t o p e r s o n a l m o r a l i t y . As such i t i s an i n s t r u m e n t o f God's g r a c e a g a i n s t t h e f o r c e s o f S a t a n i c d i s o r d e r and i n t e m p e r a n c e . Temperance s e r v e d t o keep t h e C h r i s t i a n h ero a l i v e t o g r a c e and a b l e t o r e s p o n d t o i t when t h e r i g h t moment a r r i v e d , o n l y a f t e r much t r i a l . Temperance, t h e ^ h e l p s man t o weather t h e s t a t e o f t r i a l w h i c h comes b e f o r e t h e s t a t e o f g l o r y and makes him worthy o f f e l i c i t y . I n C h a p t e r One, t h e n o t i o n o f temperance i s examined w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o v a r i o u s C l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n works, thus u n c o v e r i n g a wide range o f meanings f o r t h e t erm. i i C h a p t er Two i s d e v o t e d t o a c h r o n o l o g i c a l j o u r n e y t h r o u g h Spenser's Book o f Temperance, and showing how Spenser was a l i v e t o the t r a d i t i o n b e h i n d him. The t h i r d c h a p t e r examines Comus, P a r a d i s e L o s t , P a r a d i s e  Regained and Samson /..jfljgonls'fes and i n so d o i n g u n d e r s c o r e s M i l t o n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f and c o n c e r n w i t h temperance. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION . 1 CHAPTER ONE: An Anatomy o f Temperance 9 CHAPTER TWO: A s p e c t s o f Temperance i n Spenser . . . . 31 CHAPTER THREE: A s p e c t s o f Temperance i n M i l t o n . . . . 75 CONCLUSION 122 FOOTNOTES 128 BIBLIOGRAPHY 139 INTRODUCTION I n t h i s e s s a y I i n t e n d t o show how Spenser and M i l t o n used a " f u l l - b o d i e d " c o n c e p t i o n o f temperance as one o f c h i e f i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e i r h e r o e s ' movements towards s a l v a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r use o f t h i s i d e a we must f i r s t p o i n t t o t h e w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e o f temperance as " i n t e l l e c t u a l t e n d e r " i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e s t r e s s i n g t h a t t h e use o f t h e term was i n f l u e n c e d by a l o n g , c u m u l a t i v e t r a d i t i o n . One need o n l y g l a n c e a t t h e p l e t h o r a o f sermons e x h o r t i n g sundry c o n g r e g a t i o n s t o l e a d t h e temperate l i f e t o r e a l i z e t h e c u r r e n c y o f t h e word "temperance." Of t h e s p a t e o f e t h i c a l p r i m e r s , Edward R e y n o l d e s ' A T r e a t i s e o f t h e P a s s i o n s t y p i f i e s t h e a pproach t o temperance as a d e s i r e d v i r t u e , e x a m i n i n g i t i n d e t a i l . ^ " M oreover, w r i t e r s as u n l i k e as La Primaudaye, Shakespeare, Chapman, P h i n e a s F l e t c h e r , and Traherne a l l d e a l w i t h t h e s u b j e c t . I n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f h i s e n c y c l o p e d i c work, The F r e n c h  Academy, 2 P i e r r e de l a Primaudaye e s t a b l i s h e s h i s fundamental a s s u m p t i o n s : t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e , man's pre- e m i n e n t p l a c e i n t h e . u n i v e r s e , and a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e goods o f t h e p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e a r e t o be used by man, t h u s e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i d e a t h a t t h e y a r e not an end i n t h e m s e l v e s : 2 when I admire . . . so many w o n d e r f u l works under t h e cope o f heaven, I cannot m a r v e l l enough a t t h e e x c e l l e n c i e o f Man, f o r whom a l l t h e s e t h i n g s were c r e a t e d , and a r e m a i n t a i n e d and p r e s e r v e d i n t h e i r b e i n g and mooving, by one and t h e same d i v i n e p r o v i d e n c e always l i k e u n t o i t s e l f e . . . . There i s n o t h i n g more c e r t a i n t h a n t h i s , t h a t a l l t h i n g s whatsoever w i t h e r t h e eye c a n b e h o l d , o r t h e e a r e h e a r e , were c r e a t e d f o r t h e b e n e f i t e , p r o f i t and use o f man, and t h a t he was made e x c e l l e n t above a l l t h i n g s t o r u l e o v e r them. (French Academy, p.5) A c h i t o b , t h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n t h i s P l a t o n i c d i a l o g u e , C h r i s t i a n i z e s P l a t o n i c t h e o r y by m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t S o c r a t e s ' d i c t u m , "Know t h y s e l f " i s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f s a l v a t i o n . Here we a l s o d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e i n q u i r y i n t o man's own n a t u r e i s an example o f s t u d i o s i t a s (or t h e r i g h t p u r s u i t o f k nowledge), f o r A c h i t o b c o n t r a s t s t h e w i s e S o c r a t e s w i t h " a l l t h e P h i l o s o p h e r s o f h i s t i m e . . . who b u s i e d t h e m s e l v e s about n o t h i n g , bu t o n e l y i n f i n d i n g o u t t h e causes o f n a t u r a l t h i n g s , and i n d i s p u t i n g c u r i o u s l y o f them-" (French Academy, p.5). I n s t e a d , S o c r a t e s b u s i e d h i m s e l f w i t h an i n q u i r y i n t o v i r t u e and t h e s o v e r e i g n good o f t h e s o u l . Hence, v a i n knowledge o r a p r e - o c c u p a t i o n w i t h causes r a t h e r t h a n an i n q u i r y i n t o t h e s e l f can be r e g a r d e d as c u r i o s i t a s . (We s h a l l l a t e r see t h a t s t u d i o s i t a s and c u r i o s i t a s were t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d t o be a s p e c t s o f temperance and intemperance r e s p e c t i v e l y . ) A f t e r q u o t i n g H e r a c l i t u s ' remarks on S o c r a t e s , A c h i t o b says 3 the duty of the wise man to seek out . . . a knowledge of ones s e l f e , which consisteth i n the soule . . . i s i n such sort joyned with the knowledge of God that the one without the other cannot be sincere and perfect. (French Academy,p.5) Achitob distinguishes between pagan and C h r i s t i a n philosophers. The former, unaware of Christ and grace, were too often overly pessimistic. He mentions Tiraon of Athens, an advocate of mass suicide as an escape from the misery of l i f e ; P l i n y , who f e l t that i t would have been better never to have been born; and the Scythians who wept at the b i r t h of t h e i r c h i l d r e n and rejoiced at t h e i r death. At the same time he reproached the Stoics for holding the other extreme viewpoint, that man, through reason alone had the a b i l i t y to become "master of a l l e v i l l passions and perturbations and a t t a i n a rare and supreme kind of vertue . . . . Being thus exempted and freed from a l l v i c e : he may leade a most happy and perfect l i f e " (French Academy, p.7). In f a c t , the Stoic Chrysippus maintained that the wisest man i n Syracuse was equal to the god Jup i t e r . Achitob quickly chastens such pride: Thus while they granted to man's power such an excellent and divine d i s p o s i t i o n , they l i f t him up i n a vaine presumption, i n pride and t r u s t i n himselfe, and i n his own vertue, which i n the end cannot but be the cause of his utter undoing . . . . We therefore hold the mean betweene these two contrary oppinions . . . . He has cause both to be humbled greatly, as also to glory and rejoyce. (French Academy, p.7) 4 Through grace man can f i n d the strength to become "dead to s i n and a l i v e to himself," (French Academy, p. 7) that i s r he may a t t a i n true temperance and g l o r i f y God. Thus Achitob*s p o s i t i o n , the v i a media between the t r i s t i t i a derived from ignorance of grace and superbia derived from an unfounded t r u s t i n man's continence i s that of Spenser, as we s h a l l see l a t e r . Each work by Spenser and Milton which we examine w i l l be concerned to a greater or lesser extent with paradise l o s t and i t s subsequent recovery. The r e s u l t of o r i g i n a l s i n i s intemperance and i t must be overcome by grace. This was an idea common to most thinkers from the p a t r i s t i c period through the Renaissance, and Spenser and Milton shared t h i s idea. Temperance was one of Shakespeare's great themes. Like the Greek heroes, his t r a g i c figures are flawed by intemperance, most notably, Antony and Cleopatra. Antony's words to Cleopatra apply to himself as well: "For I am sure though you can guess what temperance should be/You know not what i t i s " (Antony and Cleopatra, 3,13,78-80). In 1 Henry IV, F a l s t a f f , a f t e r a l l u d i n g to Hal's intemperance, says And I prithee, sweet wag, when thou a r t King, as God save thy Grace—Majesty I should say, for grace thou w i l t have none . . . . (1 Henry IV, 1,2, 18-20) This i s not to say that i n t h i s instance the poet dons the moralist's robes; i t merely i l l u s t r a t e s a common l i n k i n g 5 of intemperance with a witholding of grace and suggests the c o r o l l a r y that grace w i l l be granted to the temperate. In Love's Labour's Lost, Berowne notes: "For every man with his a f f e c t s i s born,/Not by might mastered, but by special grace" (1,1, 152-53). The notion i n Elizabethan "psychology" that affections must be mastered by r a t i o n a l government or temperance was a comnonphce, but t h i s quotation also places the emphasis upon grace for the mastery of the a f f e c t i o n s — a prerequisite for salvation. George Chapman i n BussyD'Ambois and his brother Clermont D'Ambois, produced exemplars of intemperance and temperance. As Peter Ure states, "Bussy . . . and Clermont . . ., are studies i n men s t r i v i n g to achieve t h e i r perfect images by hacking from them the 'excess of Humours, perturbations and A f f e c t s . ' " 3 In The Purple Island,^ Phineas Fletcher sees temperance as one of the two indispensable conditions for salvation. The "i s l a n d " i s an emblem of man. After a l l u d i n g to man's f a l l , he w i l l "sing t h i s Islands new recover'd seat" (Purple  Island, 1,58). The s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s anatomy i s that the soul can prove her worthiness to God only i n the theatre of the body which i s beset by v i c e . In Fletcher's poem the body i s an e d i f i c e ; temperance, personified as Encrates (enkratia, temperance), must ward o f f the temptations to intemperance such as Porneios (Fornication) and False Delight. 6 However, temperance must be combined w i t h g r a c e f o r man t o be saved. To show t h e scope o f temperance f o r a l a t e - R e n a i s s a n c e f i g u r e one need o n l y l o o k a t Thomas Trah e r n e ' s C h r i s t i a n  E t h i c k s ^ and h i s c h a p t e r , "Of Temperance i n M a t t e r s o f A r t , as M u s i c k , D a n c i n g , P a i n t i n g , Cookery, P h y s i c k , &c. I n t h e works o f N a t u r e ; E a t i n g , D r i n k i n g , S p o r t s and R e c r e a t i o n : I n o c c a s i o n s o f P a s s i o n , i n o u r L i v e s and C o n v e r s a t i o n s . I t s e x e r c i s e i n S e l f - d e n i a l , Measure, M i x t u r e and P r o p o r t i o n . I t s e f f e c t s and a t c h i e v e m e n t s " ( C h r i s t i a n E t h i c k s , p. 170). But i t i s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f temperance i n God t h a t T r a h e r n e ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f temperance s h i n e s f o r t h most c l e a r l y . Temperance i s D i v i n e Wisdom, e x p r e s s e d as m o d e r a t i o n : "As i n a L o c k , ' t i s h i n d e r ' d - F o r c e d o t h b r i n g / T h e Wheels t o o r d e r ' d M o t i o n , by a S p r i n g . . . '.' ( C h r i s t i a n E t h i c k s , p . 1 8 1 ) . The poem i s a paean o f p r a i s e f o r t h e G r e a t C h a i n o f B e i n g , a c h a i n w h i c h i s o r d e r e d by t e m p e r a n c e — a s o r t o f u n i v e r s a l decorum: But a l l b e i n g bounded f o r each o t h e r s s a k e , He bounding a l l d i d a l l most u s e f u l make. And w h i c h i s b e s t , i n P r o f i t and D e l i g h t , Though n o t i n B u l k , he made a l l I n f i n i t e . He i n h i s Wisdom d i d t h e i r use e x t e n d , By a l l , t o a l l t h e World from End t o End. I n a l l T h i n g s , a l l T h i n g s s e r v i c e do t o a l l : And t h u s a Sand i s E n d l e s s , though most s m a l l . And e v e r y T h i n g i s t r u l y I n f i n i t e , I n i t s R e l a t i o n deep and e x q u i s i t e . ( C h r i s t i a n E t h i c k s . p.181) 7 "This," says Traherne r " i s the best way of accommodating things to the Service of each other, for the f r u i t i o n of a l l Spectators" (Christian Ethicks, p.181). Temperance s p i r i t s the cosmic dance. It i s a harmony between a l l created l i f e with everything serving each other so as to better serve and g l o r i f y God. To Traherne, temperance i s synonymous with harmony, order, and proportion: Others . admit of i t s use i n a l l Conditions, but confine i t to one p a r t i c u l a r employment, even that of enlarging or bounding the Measure of every Operation, but i n r e a l truth i t has another O f f i c e . . . more important than the former: The s k i l l of Mingling i s l i k e the : vertu© of Prudence, but the actual tempering of a l l together, exhibits the vertue of Temperance to the L i f e , because i t reduces the s k i l l to i t s operation. (Christian Ethicks, p.171). Temperance has become a super-virtue, analogous to Spenser's "goodly frame", the matrix from which each p a r t i c u l a r v i r t u e evolves. In t h i s sense i t corresponds to one of the four Causes—the Formal Cause. I t i s the means by which God, the E f f i c i e n t Cause, puts his divine plan into operation. Almighty Power i s c a r r i e d f a r beyond i t s e l f , or r e a l l y i s made Almighty by vertue of that Temperance, wherin Eternal wisdom i s ete r n a l l y G l o r i f i e d . If any thing be wanting to the f u l l demonstration of the perfection of GODS Kingdom, i t i s the consideration of his Delay: for we are apt to think, he might have made i t e t e r n a l l y before he d i d . But to t h i s no other Answer i s necessary . . . then that a l l things were from a l l E ternity before his eyes, and he saw the f i t t e s t moments wherein to produce them: and judged i t f i t i n his Wisdom f i r s t to f i l l E t e r n i t y with his deliberations and Counsels, and then to b e a u t i f i e Time with the execution of t h i s Decree . . . . (Christian Ethicks, p.183) 8 We can see t h e n t h a t m a t e r i a l measurement i n a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e s T r a h e r n e ' s temperance, b u t t h a t t e m p o r a l measurement must a l s o be i n c l u d e d . Temperance a c t u a l i z e s t h e t e m p o r a l b l u e p r i n t o f God's e v e r l a s t i n g Moment, i n f i n i t e i n d u r a t i o n , b u t permanent i n a l l i t s p a r t s , a l l t h i n g s p a s t , p r e s e n t , and t o come, . . . a t once b e f o r e him, and e t e r n a l l y t o g e t h e r . . . a s t a n d i n g o b j e c t b e f o r e t h e Eye o f t h e S o u l , and a l l i t s p a r t s , b e i n g f u l l o f Beauty and P e r f e c t i o n , f o r e v e r t o be e n j o y e d . ( C h r i s t i a n E t h i c k s , p.184) The „ c o m p a r a t i v e l y l o w - l e v e l t o w h i c h t h e c o n c e p t o f temperance has sunk from T r a h e r n e ' s t i m e i s b e s t e x p r e s s e d by John R u s k i n , who commented t h a t t h e Greek n o t i o n o f temperance, "a t r u l y c a r d i n a l v i r t u e , t h e moderator o f a l l t h e p a s s i o n s , " had d e g e n e r a t e d i n h i s day i n t o a "somewhat v u l g a r c o n f u s i o n w i t h mere a b s t i n e n c e , t h e o p p o s i t e o f G u l a o r g l u t t o n y . " ^ S i n c e R u s k i n ' s day t h e d e g e n e r a t i o n has c o n t i n u e d u n t i l temperance has become synonymous w i t h a b s t i n e n c e i n l i q u o r , and t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y symbol o f temperance i s no t G i o t t o ' s s u b l i m e female who c a r r i e d a sword i n her hand, "the h i l t o f w h i c h she i s b i n d i n g t o t h e scabbard,"** b u t t h e r a t h e r l e s s s u b l i m e f e m a l e , t h e a x e - w i e l d i n g C a r r y N a t i o n . CHAPTER ONE AN ANATOMY OF TEMPERANCE P l a t o ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f temperance went f a r beyond t h e i d e a o f r e s t r a i n i n g t h e a p p e t i t e s . Indeed, h i s sophrosyne (which has been u n i v e r s a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as "temperance") has been c a l l e d t h e b a s i s o f a l l m o r a l i t y . 1 We s h a l l c o n f i n e our e x a m i n a t i o n o f P l a t o ' s n o t i o n o f temperance t o t h e Charmides, G o r g i a s , R e p u b l i c , Timaeus, and Laws. The Charmides, an e a r l y d i a l o g u e , d e v o t e s i t s e l f t o s e e k i n g a d e f i n i t i o n o f sophrosyne, and f o u r more o r l e s s adequate d e f i n i t i o n s o c c u r , namely: q u i e t n e s s , modesty, d o i n g one's own work,^and f i n a l l y , s e l f - k n o w l e d g e — t h a t i s , d o i n g what i s good and knowing t h a t i t i s good. S o c r a t e s demands t h a t sophrosyne c o n t a i n "the knowledge o f Good and E v i l " w i t h o u t w h i c h i t does n o t p a r t a k e o f t h e n a t u r e o f v i r t u e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f temperance i n Charmides i s based upon t h e c u r i n g o f S o c r a t e s ' i l l n e s s and t h e s e e k i n g f o r h e a l t h . I n f a c t , t o S o c r a t e s , " h e a l t h " becomes synonymous w i t h sophrosyne and when one a t t a i n s t h e c o n d i t i o n o f s o p h r o s y n e , he w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be h e a l t h y , f o r h e a l t h i n t h e s o u l must r e s u l t i n h e a l t h i n t h e body. 10 I n t h e G o r g i a s we meet w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f temperance; i t i s d e f i n e d as " s e l f m a s t e r y " , th e c o n t r o l 3 o f p l e a s u r e s and a p p e t i t e s i n o n e s e l f . " Thus, e x p l i c i t i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n i s a r e j e c t i o n o f hedonism. As Helen N o r t h , s a y s * i t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e two o p p o s i n g aims o f l i f e : t h e S o c r a t i c and t h e S o p h i s t i c ; t h e former i s based upon t h e s t r i v i n g f o r t h e Good, w h i l e t h e l a t t e r i s based upon the s t r i v i n g f o r power and p l e a s u r e . As t h e Charmides spoke o f h e a l t h i n t h e body and i n t h e s o u l , so i n t h e G o r g i a s we t u r n from t h e microcosm and move t o t h e macrocosm. S o c r a t e s l i k e n s t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e temperate body and s o u l t o t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e s t a t e : Now t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f a n y t h i n g , whether i t be an implement o r a p h y s i c a l body o r a s o u l o r any l i v i n g b e i n g i s n o t m a n i f e s t e d a t random i n i t s h i g h e s t form, b u t s p r i n g s from a c e r t a i n o r d e r and r i g h t e n e s s and a r t a p p r o p r i a t e i n each case . . . . t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f a t h i n g depends on i t s h a v i n g a c e r t a i n o r d e r e d beauty w h i c h i s t h e r e s u l t o f arrangement . . . . i f a d i s c i p l i n e d s o u l i s good, a s o u l i n t h e o p p o s i t e c o n d i t i o n . . . a s o u l marked by f o l l y and l i c e n c e , w i l l be bad . . . . The man who i s d i s c i p l i n e d w i l l behave w i t h p r o p r i e t y towards God and man . . . . T h i s seems t o me t h e g o a l t h a t one s h o u l d have i n v i e w throughout one's l i f e ; we can w i n h a p p i n e s s o n l y by b e n d i n g a l l our own e f f o r t s and t h o s e o f t h e s t a t e t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f u p r i g h t n e s s and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , n o t by a l l o w i n g our a p p e t i t e s t o go unchecked. 4 11 The i n t e m p e r a t e man i s i n c a p a b l e o f w i n n i n g t h e l o v e o f God o r man because he i s i n c a p a b l e o f s o c i a l l i f e . Hence S o c r a t e s c o n c e i v e s o f o r d e r as t h e i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y w i t h i n s o c i e t y , w i t h temperance as t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r o p e r v i r t u e . He t h e n r e f e r s t o t h e u n i v e r s a l emblem f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r o p e r f u n c t i o n i n g : t h e P y t h a g o r e a n d o c t r i n e o f kosmos: We a r e t o l d on good a u t h o r i t y , C a l l i c l e s , t h a t heaven and e a r t h and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s a r e h e l d t o g e t h e r by t h e bonds o f s o c i e t y and l o v e and o r d e r and d i s c i p l i n e and r i g h t e o u s n e s s , and t h a t i s why t h e u n i v e r s e i s c a l l e d an o r d e r e d whole o r cosmos and not a s t a t e o f d i s o r d e r and l i c e n c e . . . . You have not o b s e r v e d how g r e a t a p a r t g e o m e t r i c e q u a l i t y p l a y s i n heaven and e a r t h . ( G o r g i a s , 508) The n o t i o n o f g e o m e t r i c e q u a l i t y p a r a l l e l s t h e l a t e r , C h r i s t i a n c o n c e p t o f t h e G r e a t C h a i n o f B e i n g w h i c h a p p l i e s b o t h i n t h e macrocosm and t h e microcosm's h i e r a r c h y o f f a c u l t i e s : r a t i o n a l , s e n s i b l e , n u t r i t i o n a l ; w h e r e i n each p a r t i s a s s i g n e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e , b u t t h a t o f government b e l o n g s t o t h e r a t i o n a l p a r t . The i d e a o f o r d e r a p p l i e s t o a r t , p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , and t o t h e s o u l : Take, f o r example, p a i n t e r s , a r c h i t e c t s , s h i p w r i g h t s , any o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n . . . and see how each o f them a r r a n g e s t h e d i f f e r e n t elements o f h i s work i n a c e r t a i n o r d e r , and makes one p a r t f i t and harmonize w i t h one a n o t h e r u n t i l t h e whole t h i n g emerges as a c o n s i s t e n t and o r g a n i z e d whole. ( G o r g i a s , Here we s h o u l d t h i n k o f Leo S p i t z e r ' s e t y m o l o g i c a l n ote t h a t temperance o r i g i n a l l y meant " m i x i n g . " 5 S o c r a t e s c o n t i n u e s : 12 Among o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l men a r e t h o s e who d e a l w i t h t h e body, t r a i n e r s and d o c t o r s . . . . t h e y may be presumed t o g i v e o r d e r and p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e body. ( G o r g i a s , 504) C a l l i c l e s accedes t o S o c r a t e s * c l a i m t h a t t h e degree o f goodness o f a house, a s h i p , a body o r a s o u l depends on t h e o r d e r l i n e s s o f t h e m i x i n g o f e l e m e n t s . J u s t as h e a l t h and s t r e n g t h a r e t h e names g i v e n t o t h e " q u a l i t y w h i c h o r d e r and p r o p o r t i o n g i v e t o t h e body" so i t i s i n t h e s o u l . The c o n c e p t i o n o f o r d e r and harmony i s perhaps t h e g r e a t m a t r i x w i t h i n w h i c h t h e v i r t u e s a r e m e r e l y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f some p r o t o t y p a l v i r t u e . As Helen N o r t h p o i n t s out i n her d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e G o r g i a s , S o c r a t e s h o l d s t h a t t h e c r i t e r i o n o f e x c e l l e n c e i s t h e o r d e r ( t a x i s ) and harmony o f t h e p a r t s . She c o n t i n u e s : T h i s s t a t e m e n t h o l d s good i n e v e r y c o n t e x t — b o d i l y h e a l t h , h e a l t h o f s o u l (which i s sophrosyne and j u s t i c e ) , t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f t h e S t a t e , and t h e p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e . I n f a c t i t i s t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f o r d e r t h a t h o l d s t o g e t h e r heaven and e a r t h , gods and men: community, f r i e n d s h i p , o r d e r l i n e s s , s o p h r o s y n e , and j u s t i c e a r e a l l names f o r t h e same f o r c e . Hence t h e t e rm a p p l i e d t o t h e u n i v e r s e i s Kosmos r a t h e r t h a n d i s o r d e r (akosmia) o r wantonness. 6 She f u r t h e r adds t h a t t h e i d e n t i t y o f kosmos and sophrosyne i s i m p l i e d by t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i r a n t i t h e s e s as synonyms.7 I t i s , however, t o t h e R e p u b l i c t h a t we s h o u l d t u r n t o see t h e u l t i m a t e s o u r c e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r o f temperance. One a s p e c t o f temperance i n t h e R e p u b l i c i s c o n t a i n e d i n what S o c r a t e s c a l l s a u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e o f t h e commonwealth: 13 "Everyone ought t o p e r f o r m t h e one f u c t i o n i n t h e community f o r w h i c h h i s n a t u r e b e s t s u i t e d h i m . " 8 That S o c r a t e s terms t h i s p r i n c i p l e " j u s t i c e " does not n u l l i f y i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f sophrosyne i n Charmides as " d o i n g one's own work." Perhaps t h i s i s a common l i n k between t h e two v i r t u e s . And c e r t a i n l y t h i s u p h o l d s t h e i d e a t h a t each f a c u l t y o f t h e body does t h a t j o b f o r w h i c h i t i s b e s t s u i t e d . Two o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s o f sophrosyne a r e o b e d i e n c e t o a u t h o r i t y and c o n t r o l o f t h e a p p e t i t e s ( R e p u b l i c , 389, d , e ) . I t i s i n t h e R e p u b l i c t h a t P l a t o f i r s t l i s t s t h e f o u r v i r t u e s , s i n c e r e c o g n i z e d by t h e C h r i s t i a n f a t h e r s as t h e c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s : wisdom, c o u r a g e , temperance and j u s t i c e . "Temperance," says P l a t o , " more t h a n any o t h e r s u g g e s t s q t h e i d e a o f harmony."^ P l a t o h e r e d e f i n e s temperance as s e l f - m a s t e r y , whereby man's b e t t e r p r i n c i p l e m a s ters th e worse. P l a t o a p p l i e s t h i s h i e r a r c h y t o t h e s t a t e ; "There a r e i n c i t i e s whole c l a s s e s — w o m e n , s l a v e s and t h e l i k e — who c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e worse, and a few o n l y t o t h e b e t t e r ; and i n our S t a t e t h e former c l a s s a r e h e l d under c o n t r o l by t h e l a t t e r " ( R e p u b l i c , 431). T h i s harmony between t h e c l a s s e s a l l o w s "the d w e l l e r s i n t h e c i t y t o be o f one mind, and a t t u n e s t h e upper and m i d d l e and l o w e r c l a s s e s l i k e t h e s t r i n g s o f an i n s t r u m e n t " ( R e p u b l i c , 4 3 2 ) . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d h e r e t h a t P l a t o r e g a r d e d t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e s t a t e and t h e s o u l t o be t h e r e s u l t o f a l o s s o f temperance. 14 Must n o t i n j u s t i c e be a s t r i f e w h i c h a r i s e s among t h e same t h r e e p r i n c i p l e s — a meddlesomeness, and i n t e r f e r e n c e , and r i s i n g up o f a p a r t o f the s o u l a g a i n s t t h e whole, an a s s e r t i o n o f u n l a w f u l a u t h o r i t y , w h i c h i s made by a r e b e l l i o u s s u b j e c t a g a i n s t a t r u e p r i n c e , o f whom he i s th e n a t u r a l v a s s a l — w h a t i s a l l t h i s c o n f u s i o n and d e l u s i o n b u t i n j u s t i c e and intemperance and c o w a r d i c e and i g n o r a n c e , and i n s h o r t , e v e r y form o f v i c e . ( R e p u b l i c , 444 b) I t i s t h i s speech w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e l i n k between a l l f o u r v i r t u e s : a p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o r d e r i n t h e s t a t e and i n t h e s o u l . I t i s t h i s o r d e r w h i c h c r e a t e s h e a l t h i n s o u l and s t a t e : And t h e c r e a t i o n o f h e a l t h i s t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f a n a t u r a l o r d e r and government o f one by a n o t h e r i n t h e p a r t s o f t h e body, and t h e c r e a t i o n o f d i s e a s e i s t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a s t a t e o f t h i n g s a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h i s n a t u r a l o r d e r . . . . V i r t u e i s one, b u t . . . t h e forms o f v i c e a r e i n n u m e r a b l e . ( R e p u b l i c , 444 e) N o r t h a s s e r t s t h a t t h e r e a r e two fundamental causes o f c o r r u p t i o n — o n e emphasized i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e S t a t e , t h e o t h e r w i t h t h e s o u l — a n d h o t h r e s u l t from t h e absence o f s o p h r o s y n e . ^ She d e s c r i b e s t h e l o s s o f harmony i n t h e s t a t e w h i c h r e s u l t s u l t i m a t e l y i n t y r a n n y : Loss o f homonoia (concord) i s t h e f i r s t c ause: s t a s i s ( d i s c o r d ) a r i s e s w i t h t h e l o s s o f t h e agreement t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e r u l i n g c l a s s : t h a t i s , s o p h r o s y n e , t h e harmony and p h i l i a o f the p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s m , d i s a p p e a r s , and t h e p a r t s become u n b a l a n c e d . T i m o c r a c y , t h e f i r s t s t a g e i n t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f t h e i d e a l s t a t e , r e p r e s e n t s t h e t r i u m p h o f . . . t h e s p i r i t e d element w h i c h e x a g g e r a t e s t h e v a l u e o f honor . . . and s e c r e t l y l u s t s a f t e r w e a l t h and p l e a s u r e . The second s t a g e i s o l i g a r c h y , i n w h i c h w e a l t h i s t h e c r i t e r i o n . . . u n i t y d i s a p p e a r s , as t h e c i t y s p l i t s i n t o r i c h and p o o r . Democracy d e v e l o p s from o l i g a r c h y when w e a l t h i s pu r s u e d t o t h e p o i n t o f w a n t o n n e s s — w h i c h i s i n c o m p a t i b l e 15 w i t h s o p h r o s y n e — a n d t h e poor t u r n a g a i n s t t h e r i c h . Tyranny i n t u r n d e v e l o p s from democracy when t h e l u s t f o r l i b e r t y l e a d s t o anarchy and u l t i m a t e l y t o t h e r i s e o f a f a c t i o n a l l e a d e r who becomes a d e s p o t . " The s o u l f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r p a t h t o d e g e n e r a t i o n , Ithrough l o s s o f sophrosyne. 11 The Timaeus d i s c u s s e s t h e c r e a t i o n o f kosmos o r o r d e r f r om chaos. The Demiurge l e f t h i s o f f s p r i n g t o c r e a t e man; from God, t h e o f f s p r i n g " r e c e i v e d " t h e i m m o r t a l p r i n c i p l e . , o f t h e s o u l ; and around t h i s t h e y p roceeded t o f a s h i o n a 12 m o r t a l body, and made i t t o be t h e v e h i c l e o f t h e s o u l . " A g a i n t h e t r i p a r t i t e s o u l i s d i s c u s s e d . W i t h i n t h e body a n o t h e r s o u l , t h e s p i r i t e d element was c r e a t e d " s u b j e c t t o t e r r i b l e and i r r e s i s t i b l e a f f e c t i o n s " f i r s t t h e c o n c u p i s c i b l e and t h e n t h e i r a s c i b l e a p p e t i t e s . The c r e a t i o n o f t h e s e m o r t a l a f f e c t s was n e c e s s a r y l e s t man became e q u a l t o God: The fundamental cause o f e v i l i n t h e u n i v e r s e and i n t h e human s o u l a l i k e i s l a c k o f p r o p o r t i o n between Reason and N e c e s s i t y ( m o r t a l a p p e t i t e s ) . Hence . . . t h e need f o r p r o p o r t i o n (symmetria) and o r d e r i n t h e macrocosm and microcosm. 13" I n t h e Laws temperance becomes t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e t o v i r t u e : F o r no man ought t o have pre-eminent honour i n a s t a t e . . . u n l e s s he have some v i r t u e i n him; nor even i f he have v i r t u e , u n l e s s he have t h i s p a r t i c u l a r v i r t u e o f temperance . . . . We m a i n t a i n . . . t h a t a s t a t e w h i c h would be s a f e and happy, as f a r as t h e n a t u r e o f man a l l o w s , must . . . d i s t r i b u t e honour and d i s h o n o u r i n t h e r i g h t way. And t h e r i g h t way i s t o p l a c e t h e goods o f t h e s o u l f i r s t and h i g h e s t i n t h e s c a l e , always assuming temperance t o be t h e c o n d i t i o n o f them; and t o a s s i g n t h e second p l a c e t o t h e goods o f t h e body; and t h e t h i r d p l a c e t o money and p r o p e r t y . 14 16 However, t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t passage w h i c h p e r t a i n s t o sophrosyne i n t h e Laws i s t h a t w h i c h gave t h e C h r i s t i a n f a t h e r s a p r e c e d e n t i n t h e i d e a o f i m i t a t i o C h r i s t j , f o r t h e Laws i s c o n c erned w i t h judgement a f t e r l i f e ' s j o u r n e y , and t h e way t o d i v i n e f a v o r was t h r o u g h i m i t a t i o n o f g o d l y temperances God, as t h e o l d t r a d i t i o n d e c l a r e s , h o l d i n g i n H i s hand t h e b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e and end o f a l l t h a t i s , t r a v e l s a c c o r d i n g t o H i s n a t u r e i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e a c c o r d i n g t o " t h e accomplishment o f H i s end. J u s t i c e always accompanies Him, and i s t h e p u n i s h e r o f t h o s e who f a l l s h o r t o f t h e d i v i n e law. T o - j u s t i c e , he who would be happy h o l d s f a s t , and f o l l o w s i n h e r company w i t h a l l h u m i l i t y and o r d e r ; b u t he who i s l i f t e d up w i t h p r i d e . . . e l a t e d by w e a l t h o r r a n k , o r beauty . . . (who) has a s o u l h o t w i t h i n s o l e n c e , and t h i n k s t h a t he has no need o f any g u i d e o r r u l e r . . . i s l e f t d e s e r t e d o f God; and b e i n g t h u s d e s e r t e d , he t a k e s t o him o t h e r s who a r e l i k e h i m s e l f , and dances a b o u t , t h r o w i n g a l l t h i n g s i n t o c o n f u s i o n . . . . And he who would be dear t o God must be l i k e Him . . . . Wherefore t h e temperate man i s t h e f r i e n d o f God, f o r he i s l i k e Him,' and t h e i n t e m p e r a t e o r u n j u s t man i s u n l i k e Him . . . . (Laws, 716 b) As N o r t h s a y s , t h i s i s t h e key t e x t f o r t h e r o l e o f sophrosyne i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n t o God, on w h i c h i t s 7 15 v a l u e f o r t h e C h r i s t i a n F a t h e r s l a r g e l y depends. The n e x t major t h i n k e r whom we s h a l l examine i s A r i s t o t l e , 16 who i n t h e Nichomachean 'Ethic;s sees temperance as t h e b a s i s o f a l l m o r a l v i r t u e , f o r t h e a v o i d a n c e o f d e f e c t and e x c e s s i s a n a t u r a l law: 17 I t i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s t o be d e s t r o y e d by d e f e c t and e x c e s s , as we see i n t h e case o f s t r e n g t h and o f h e a l t h . . . e x e r c i s e e i t h e r e x c e s s i v e o r d e f e c t i v e d e s t r o y s t h e s t r e n g t h , . . . w h i l e t h a t w h i c h i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e b o t h produces and i n c r e a s e s and p r e s e r v e s i t . . . . Temperance ( i s ) d e s t r o y e d by e x c e s s and d e f e c t , and p r e s e r v e d by t h e mean. (Nichomachean E t h i c s , 1104 a) A l t h o u g h temperance as m o d e r a t i o n o r t h e g o l d e n mean c h a r a c t e r i z e s e v e r y v i r t u e , A r i s t o t l e ' s n o t i o n o f temperance i n p a r t i c u l a r i s somewhat r e s t r i c t i v e , as he c o n f i n e s i t s p r o v i n c e t o " c e r t a i n p l e a s u r e s o f t o u c h " (Nichomachean E t h i c s , 1118 "Temperance," he s a y s , " i s a mean w i t h r e g a r d t o p l e a s u r e s ( f o r i t i s l e s s , and not i n t h e same way concerned w i t h p a i n s ) ; s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e i s m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e same sph e r e " (Nichomachean E t h i c s , 1118 b ) . Only t h e p l e a s u r e s o f t o u c h and t a s t e , t h o s e w h i c h t h e a n i m a l s s h a r e w i t h man a r e i n t h e sphere o f temperance. But i t i s p r i m a r i l y t o u c h — w h i c h l e a d s t o enjoyment i n f o o d , d r i n k , and s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e — w h i c h A r i s t o t l e s i n g l e s o u t as b e i n g p r o p e r l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h temperance. Intemperance i s worthy o f r e p r o a c h because " i t a t t a c h e s t o us n o t as men b u t as a n i m a l s " (Nichomachean E t h i c s , 1179 a ) . He compares t h e a p p e t i t e f o r p l e a s u r e t o a s p o i l t c h i l d who needs t h e c h a s t e n i n g o f h i s t u t o r . Reason f u l f i l s t h e r o l e o f t u t o r f o r t h e temperate man, and as a r e s u l t , " the a p p e t i t i v e , element . . . harmonizes w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e " ( N i c h o m a c h e a n E t h i c s , 1119 b ) . He i s q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t however, t h a t t h e temperate man e n j o y s normal human p l e a s u r e and i s not t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e hagrios, 18 who i n h i s p u r i t y r e s e m b l e s God. N o r t h n o t e s t h a t t h e P a t r i s t i c w r i t e r s tended t o i d e n t i f y sophrosyne w i t h h a g n e i a ( c h a s t i t y , p u r i t y ) and t h u s produced a c o n c e p t o f sophrosyne 1 7 t h a t would Aseemed inhuman t o A r i s t o t l e . "The sophron p e r s o n e n j o y s p l e a s u r e i n m o d e r a t i o n ; he m e r e l y a v o i d s t h e wrong p l e a s u r e s and any p l e a s u r e i n e x c e s s " ( 1 1 1 9 a , 5-7). So f a r , A r i s t o t l e ' s temperance h a r d l y m e r i t s R u s k i n ' s p r a i s e as "the moderator o f a l l t h e p a s s i o n s . " We come c l o s e r t o t h i s v i r t u e i n A r i s t o t l e ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f c o n t i n e n c e . The c o n t i n e n t man, knowing t h a t h i s a p p e t i t e s a r e bad, r e f u s e s on acco u n t o f h i s r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e t o f o l l o w them . . . . The c o n t i n e n t man, u n l i k e t h e temperate man, does have s t r o n g and bad a p p e t i t e s . (Nichomachean E t h i c s , 1145b) C o n t i n e n c e i n c l u d e s m o d e r a t i o n i n f o o d and sex b u t a l s o c o v e r s such a r e a s as "honour, v i c t o r y , w e a l t h , and good and p l e a s a n t t h i n g s o f t h i s s o r t " (Nichomachean E t h i c s , 1147b). C l e a r l y , P l a t o ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f temperance i s much b r o a d e r . To P l a t o , temperance i s t h e r u l e o f r e a s o n o v e r man's s e n s i b l e s o u l , "the s p i r t e d element" a c t i n g as i t s s u b o r d i n a t e and a l l y . Hence we have t h e n o t i o n here o f b a l a n c e — t h e two elements a r e br o u g h t i n t o a c c o r d . I n m u s i c a l terms he speaks o f " t u n i n g up one s t r i n g and r e l a x i n g t h e o t h e r , n o u r i s h i n g t h e r e a s o n i n g p a r t . . . and a l l a y i n g t h e o t h e r ' s w i l d n e s s by harmony and rhythm'.'^8 Temperance o r " s e l f - c o n t r o l " i s a c o n d i t i o n o f i n t e r n a l harmony. " A l l t h e p a r t s a r e c o n t e n t w i t h t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e s a t i s f a c t i o n s . " P l a t o ' s 19 t h r e e p a r t s o f t h e s o u l : t h e d e l i b e r a t i v e and g o v e r n i n g , t h e e x e c u t i v e , and t h e p r o d u c t i v e c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e Re n a i s s a n c e commonplace n o t i o n s o f t h e t r i p a r t i t e s o u l as r a t i o n a l , s e n s i b l e and v e g e t a t i v e . P l a t o ' s n o t i o n o f i n t e r n a l harmony presupposes w a r r i n g e l e m e n t s , and t h e r e s u l t i s a k i n d o f d i s c o r d i a c o n c o r s . The a p p e t i t e s form t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f man's s o u l and a r e e v e r i n danger o f r e b e l l i o n , f o r t h e y a r e by n a t u r e i n s a t i a b l y c o v e t o u s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s p a r t must be c l o s e l y watched l e s t i t " t r y t o e n s l a v e o t h e r s and usurp a dominion t o w h i c h i t has no r i g h t , t h u s t u r n i n g t h e whole o f l i f e u p s i d e down." P l a t o ' s i d e a l i s t o have u n a n i m i t y and c o n c o r d o f a l l t h r e e , when t h e r e i s n o t i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t between t h e r u l i n g element and i t s two s u b j e c t s . The t e m p e r a t e 5 man s e t s h i s house i n o r d e r , by s e l f - m a s t e r y and d i s c i p l i n e . . . b r i n g i n g i n t o tune t h o s e t h r e e p a r t s , l i k e t h e terms i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f a m u s i c a l s c a l e , t h e h i g h e s t and t h e l o w e s t n o t e s and t h e mean between them . . . . Only when he has l i n k e d t h e s e p a r t s t o g e t h e r i n a w e l l - t e m p e r e d harmony and has made h i m s e l f one man i n s t e a d o f many, w i l l he be read y t o go about what he has t o do. 19a I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t P l a t o uses m u s i c a l t e r m i n o l o g y i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f temperance, as Leo S p i t z e r produces e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t t h e v e r b 'temperare may a l s o mean t o tune t h e s t r i n g s t o harmony. "Temperament" was used i n t h e M i d d l e Ages t o r e f e r t o t h e a r t o f t u n i n g i n s t r u m e n t s . . . . A l l t h e s e developments have t h e i r s o u r c e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between L a t i n temperamentum and t h e e n k r a t i a . 19 A l s o , he submit s as t h e u l t i m a t e etymology a d e r i v a t i o n f r o m tempus "which o r i g i n a l l y must have d e s i g n a t e d a segment (of t i m e ) . ' u T h i s s h o u l d be compared w i t h templum, l i t . "a c u t - o f f s e c t i o n . " The d e f i n i t i o n o f tempus as "the r i g h t t i m e " shows i t s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h Greek " k a i r o s " — t h e r i g h t measure . . . r i g h t t i m e . . . . A c c o r d i n g l y "temperare" would mean an i n t e r v e n t i o n a t t h e r i g h t t i me and i n t h e r i g h t measure, by a w i s e "moderator" who a d j u s t s , a d a p t s , m i x e s , a l t e r n a t e l y s o f t e n s o r hardens ( w i r e , - i r o n , e t c . ) Any p u r p o s e f u l a c t i v i t y w h i c h proceeds w i t h a vi e w t o c o r r e c t i n g e x c e s s e s was c a l l e d t e mperare. 21 20 We s h a l l l a t e r see how t h i s a s p e c t o f temperance was t o f i g u r e i n M i l t o n ' s P a r a d i s e Regained i n our d i s c u s s i o n o f K a i r o s . S i m i l a r l y t h e l o s t nuances o f temperance mentioned above a r e more ap p a r e n t i n Spenser's Book I I o f The F a e r i e Queene, as Guyon's s o u l goes t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f t e m p e r i n g s — exposed as i t i s a l t e r n a t e l y t o f i r e and w a t e r , t h r o u g h t h e agents P y r o c h l e s and Cymochles. S p i t z e r p o i n t s t o a " w o r d - c l u s t e r " i . e . "temper," " t e m p e r a t u r e , " "temperament," and "temperance" w h i c h has s u r v i v e d b u t n o t as a t e x t u r e ; even t h e members o f t h e w o r d - f a m i l y c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e w o r d - c l u s t e r have sometimes become e s t r a n g e d from each o t h e r : t h e ; w a l l s o f t h e compartment wh i c h h e l d them t o g e t h e r have caved i n , because t h e o r i g i n a l e m o t i o n a l n u c l e u s has v a n i s h e d ( f o r example, "temperance-t e m p e r a t u r e - temperament," r e f l e c t i n g an o l d u n i t , have d e v e l o p e d i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s . The h i s t o r y o f t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e one f i e l d — w o r l d harmony, w e l l - t e m p e r e d n e s s — i s t h e h i s t o r y o f modern c i v i l i z a t i o n , o f . . . d e c h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n . 22 He adds t h a t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s homogeneous " f i e l d " began i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y and was completed i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h . As we move t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n t h e o r e t i c i a n s o f temperance i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t f o r them t h e " o r i g i n a l e m o t i o n a l n u c l e u s " was v e r y much i n t a c t . S t . A u g u s t i n e t h o u g h t o f temperance as a c o r n e r s t o n e o f t h e C h r i s t i a n w o r l d . I n h i s b l u e p r i n t o f t h e o r d e r l y u n i v e r s e A u g u s t i n e sees temperance as one m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f God's a r c h i t e c t u r e . 21 S i n c e temperance has as i t s essence t h e i d e a o f h i e r a r c h y — t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f r e a s o n o v e r t h e body, i t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f w o r l d o r d e r w h i c h we have seen i n P l a t o , w i t h a c h a i n o f h i g h e r and l o w e r r e a l i t i e s and d i f f e r i n g s t a g e s o f p u r i f i c a t i o n . N a t u r e , a c c o r d i n g t o A u g u s t i n e i s r u l e d by t h i s o r d e r because God has imposed i t . As E t i e n n e G i l s o n says as a p a r t o f n a t u r e , man a l s o i s s u b j e c t t o th e d i v i n e o r d e r . But t h e r e i s an i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e case o f a c t i o n s w h i c h depend on t h e human w i l l . These a r e n o t performed under t h e c o m p u l s i o n o f t h e d i v i n e o r d e r ; t h e y have a purpose o f t h e i r own, and t h i s purpose i s t o r e a l i z e t h e d i v i n e o r d e r . W i t h them i t i s n o t a m a t t e r o f b e i n g s u b j e c t t o t h e law b u t o f w i l l i n g i t and c o l l a b o r a t i n g i n i t s f u l f i l l m e n t . Man knows t h e law. I s he g o i n g t o w i l l i t ? H e n c e f o r t h t h a t i s t h e q u e s t i o n . E v e r y t h i n g depends on t h e d e c i s i o n man w i l l o r w i l l n o t make t o a l l o w t h e o r d e r he sees im^posed by God on n a t u r e t o r e i g n w i t h i n h i m s e l f . . . . The power on w h i c h t h i s i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n r e s t s i s none o t h e r t h a n t h e w i l l . 23 The w i l l , t h e n , must be governed by r e a s o n . Now A u g u s t i n e h e l d t h a t t h e s o u l had f o u r s e n s i b l e movements, each o f w h i c h had t o be governed by t h e w i l l : d e s i r e ( c u p i d i t a s ) , j o y ( l a e t i t i a ) , f e a r (metus) and sorrow ( t r i s t i t i a ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , temperance, t o A u g u s t i n e , was concerned w i t h more t h a n t h e c h e c k i n g o f c u p i d i t y , b u t a l s o w i t h f e a r and s o r r o w , a r e a s w h i c h we s h a l l see Spenser and M i l t o n examined i n r e l a t i o n t o temperance. These s e n s i b l e movements must a l l be governed by temperance. D e s i r e i s t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e w i l l as 22 i t moves toward a t h i n g , n o t j u s t p h y s i c a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n , f o r A u g u s t i n e i n c l u d e s undue d e s i r e f o r p o p u l a r renown and undue i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s ( s t u d i o s i t a s ) as t e n d e n c i e s w h i c h must be c h a s t e n e d by temperance. F e a r i s y i e l d i n g t o t h e w i l l ' s movement i n s h r i n k i n g f r o m a t h i n g and t u r n i n g a w ay ffrom i t — o f t e n a-good;"-This tendency can a l s o be an e v i l . w i t h i n , t h e C h r i s t i a n s t r u g g l e . The n o t i o n o f p u s i l l a n i m i t y i n b o t h Spenser and M i l t o n has much i n common w i t h t h i s i d e a . When c o n f r o n t e d by t h e arduousness o f m a i n t a i n i n g m o r a l r e c t i t u d e , o f s t a y i n g on t h e s t r a i g h t and narrow way, t h e w i l l i s o f t e n tempted t o g i v e i n . The p r e v e n t i o n o f s o r r o w , o r t r ' i ' s t i t i a i s a n o t h e r a r e a where temperance must o c c u r , w h i l e j o y i s a n o t h e r a r e a w h i c h needs t h e g o v e r n i n g o f temperance, l e s t t h e wrong o b j e c t be t h e s o u r c e o f j o y . The w i l l , however, i s s u b o r d i n a t e t o l o v e , t h e p e n u l t i m a t e v i r t u e f o r A u g u s t i n e . I n fact,• ? Augustine-"' s t h e o r y o f v i r t u e r e v o l v e s around t h e q u e s t i o n o f what one s h o u l d l o v e . " V i r t u e . . . i s t o w i l l what we s h o u l d w i l l , o r t o l o v e what 24 we s h o u l d l o v e . " The i n s t r u m e n t o f d i v i n e l o v e , g r a c e , w i l l c u r e t h e f e e b l e n e s s w h i c h r e s u l t e d from man's o r i g i n a l s i n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t A u g u s t i n e uses s i m i l a r t e r m i n o l o g y t o t h a t o f P l a t o i n t h e Charmides. Q u o t i n g P s a l m 102, A u g u s t i n e C h r i s t i a n i z e s t h e c o n c e p t o f h e a l t h by s a y i n g t h a t s p i r i t u a l h e a l t h , n o t j u s t t e m p o r a l h e a l t h w i l l r e s u l t from 23 man's v i c t o r y o v e r d i s o r d e r . Temperance becomes an i n s t r u m e n t 25 o f God's g r a c e , "He h e a l s f e e b l e n e s s by g i v i n g c o n t i n e n c e . " A u g u s t i n e a l s o r e f e r s t o James 1.' 14: "Every man i s tempted by h i s own c o n c u p i s c e n c e , b e i n g drawn away and e n t i c e d . " He n o t e s t h a t a g a i n s t t h i s f a u l t m e d i c i n a l a i d i s sought from him who can h e a l a l l l a n g o u r s o f t h i s s o r t not i n t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f an a l i e n n a t u r e from u s , b u t i n t h e r e p a i r o f our own n a t u r e . . . . Man f i g h t s w i t h h i m s e l f i n t h a t p a r t by w h i c h i t i s weakened i n t h e f l e s h . Common t o a l l t h e commentators we have examined i s A u g u s t i n e ' s b a s i c d u a l i s m , an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e f l e s h i s "human, n a t u r a l and c o r p o r e a l " whereas t h e s p i r i t i s " d i v i n e and s u p e r n a t u r a l . " Y e t t h e body i s n o t bad, i t i s s i m p l y l e s s p e r f e c t t h a n t h e s p i r i t . A u g u s t i n e e m p h a t i c a l l y made t h i s p o i n t as a b r o a d s i d e a g a i n s t t h e Manichean d u a l i s m . Good i s u n i t y and o r d e r — e v i l i s d i s o r d e r o r m u l t i p l i c i t y . Much as Spenser's power o f e v i l i n Books I and II i s r e f e r r e d t o as Duessa, w h i l e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Good i s r e f e r r e d t o as Una, so A u g u s t i n e d i s t i n g u i s h e s between " t h e s e two (body and s o u l ) w h i c h now s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t each o t h e r w i t h i n u s , s i n c e we c o n s i s t o f b o t h " and a s t a t e w h e r e i n body and s o u l a r e i n a c c o r d . "For we not o u g h t ^ t o c o n s i d e r one o f them an enemy, b u t an i m p e r f e c t i o n whereby t h e f l e s h l u s t s a g a i n s t t h e s p i r i t and when t h i s i s h e a l e d x t w i l l °not e x i s t as i t s e l f . " ' A g a i n A u g u s t i n e f l a y s t h e i d e a t h a t e v i l e x i s t s as an e s s e n t i a l element i n t h e scheme o f t h i n g s . R a t h e r 24 . . . t h e r e i s no m i x t u r e o f two n a t u r e s made from c o n t r a r y p r i n c i p l e s , b u t t h e r e i s a d i v i s i o n o f one made a g a i n s t i t s e l f because o f t h e payment due t o s i n . . . . E v i l i s n o t a s u b s t a n c e , b u t as a wound i n a body . . . ceases t o be when soundness i s r e t u r n e d . 28 E v i l i s m e r e l y a d e f e c t , an absence o f good. C o n s e q u e n t l y , Spenser's p o r t r a y a l o f Archimago as c h i m e r i c a l , an i l l u s o r y b e i n g , i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h A u g u s t i n e ' s n o t i o n o f e v i l . A u g u s t i n e ' s n o t i o n o f an o r d e r l y u n i v e r s e was based upon a b e l i e f i n a s e r i e s o f n a t u r a l h i e r a r c h i e s , whereby t h e s p i r i t i s t o t h e f l e s h what t h e husband i s t o t h e w i f e , what C h r i s t i s t o t h e c h u r c h . I n each case t h e s u p e r i o r c a r e s f o r t h e i n f e r i o r , w h i l e t h e i n f e r i o r w a i t s w i l l i n g l y upon t h e s u p e r i o r . " A l l a r e good when, among them, some, e x c e l l e n t l y as s u p e r i o r s , and o t h e r s , f i t t i n g l y as s u b j e c t s , p r e s e r v e t h e beauty o f o r d e r . " 2 ^ L e s t t h i s system sound l i k e s l a v e r y i t s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t b o t h s i d e s a r e bound by o b l i g a t i o n s ; t h e s u p e r i o r i s o b l i g e d t o n u r t u r e and c a r e f o r i t s s u b j e c t . T h i s n o t i o n , t o o , b e a r s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f P l a t o , as t h e Charmides d e f i n e d sophrosyne as "do i n g one's own work." Decorum i s t o be f o l l o w e d i n e v e r y sphere o f l i f e . A u g u s t i n e q u o t e s S t . P a u l : God h a t h so tempered t h e body t o g e t h e r as t o g i v e more abundant honor where i t was l a c k i n g t h a t t h e r e m^ay be no d i s u n i o n i n t h e body, b u t t h a t t h e members may c a r e f o r one a n o t h e r . And i f one member s u f f e r s a n y t h i n g , a l l t h e members s u f f e r w i t h i t , o r i f one member g l o r i e s , a l l t h e members r e j o i c e w i t h i t . (1 C o r i n t h i a n s 12, 24-26) 25 H i s w o r l d p i c t u r e , based on S t . P a u l ' s "Do you know t h a t y o u r b o d i e s a r e t h e members o f C h r i s t ? " sees man as a humble l i n k i n a g r e a t c h a i n , and e s t a b l i s h e s t h e h e i n o u s n e s s o f p r i d e . 3 0 " L e t him who t a k e s p r i d e , t a k e p r i d e i n t h e L o r d . " E x c e s s i v e p r i d e i s perhaps t h e g r e a t e s t o f f e n c e t o t e m p e r a n c e — p r i d e o f l i f e , t h e l o v e o f s e l f , i s a g r e a t impediment t o t h e l o v e o f God and as i t f o c u s e s on t h e World we see i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r d i s o r d e r . F o r a l t h o u g h " w o r l d " means o r d e r , so a l s o i n a n o t h e r s e n s e , "The World" r e p r e s e n t s a p o t e n t enemy o f temperance. The d i r e c t i o n o f A u g u s t i n e ' s n o t i o n o f temperance i s n i c e l y summed up i n h i s t r e a t i s e Of M u s i c : . . . t h e s o u l , i t s God and M a s t e r w i l l i n g , e x t r a c t s i t s e l f from t h e l o v e o f an i n f e r i o r b e auty By f i g h t i n g and downing i t s own h a b i t t h a t wars a g a i n s t i t ; on t h a t p o i n t o f v i c t o r y w i t h i n i t s e l f o v e r t h e powers o f t h i s a l l o y f r o m whose e n v i o u s d e s i r e t o entangle i t , i t s o a r s t o G o d — i t s s u p p o r t and s t a t i o n — i s n ' t such an a c t i o n f o r you c a l l e d t h e v i r t u e temperance?31 "Temperance," says A u g u s t i n e , " i s l o v e bestowed w h o l e h e a r t e d l y upon t h e t h i n g l o v e d . . . . Temperance i s a l o v e w h i c h saves 32 i t s e l f w h o l l y f o r God." P e r h a p s , on t h e s u r f a c e , t h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f temperance i m p l i e s a s c e t i c i s m , b u t n o t when one c o n s i d e r s A q u i n a s ' c o n c e p t o f use and enjoyment. S i n c e God c r e a t e d a l l t h i n g s , t h e n a l l t h i n g s a r e good. Y e t some t h i n g s a r e b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r s . The c h i e f good i s God, and He a l o n e i s t o be e n j o y e d o r l o v e d w i t h o u t measure. A n y t h i n g e l s e must be l o v e d w i t h measure. As G i l s o n n o t e s 26 We must a t t e m p t t o e n j o y t h i n g s we s h o u l d o n l y seek t o use t o a t t a i n b e a u t i t u d e . We must e n j o y God a l o n e and m e r e l y use e v e r y t h i n g e l s e w i t h a v i e w t o e n j o y i n g God . . . . Now t h e man o f j u s t and h o l y l i f e i s he whose l o v e i s n o t m i s p l a c e d . . . . V i r t u e i s l o v e ' s s u b m i s s i o n t o o r d e r — a n d o r d e r i s d e t e r m i n e d by a h i e r a r c h y o f ends. The l o w e s t ends a r e e x t e r n a l and m a t e r i a l g o o d s — f o o d , c l o t h i n g , g o l d and s i l v e r . The second end i s o t h e r men, t h i r d — g r a c e , t h e f o u r t h — t h e c l a s s i c a l , o r d e r e d l i f e . 3 3 We s h o u l d remember A u g u s t i n e ' s p i c t u r e o f a w e l l - t e m p e r e d s o c i e t y when we come t o Spenser's C a s t l e o f Alma: F o r a number o f p a r t s and a number o f w i l l s t o work t o g e t h e r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n t h e p u r s u i t o f an end, e a ch must be i n i t s p r o p e r p l a c e , and p e r f o r m i t s own f u n c t i o n p r e c i s e l y as i t s h o u l d be p e r formed . . . . A body's peace (the end o f a l l s o c i e t i e s ) c o n s i s t s i n t h e w e l l - o r d e r e d b a l a n c e o f a l l i t s p a r t s ; peace i n t h e a n i m a l ' l i f e i s t h e o r d e r e d agreement o f a p p e t i t e s . The r a t i o n a l s o u l ' s peace i s harmony between members o f one and t h e same h o u s e h o l d i n g i v i n g commands and o b e y i n g them . . . . F i n a l l y , t h e peace o f a C h r i s t i a n c i t y i s a p e r f e c t l y o r d e r e d s o c i e t y o f men who e n j o y God and l o v e one a n o t h e r i n God. Peace i s t h e t r a n q u i l i t y o f o r d e r . 3 4 Undoubtedly t h e most e x h a u s t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f temperance comes w i t h S t . Thomas Aqui n a s * T r e a t i s e on Temperance. As J o s e f P i e p e r s a y s , A q u i n a s d e f i n e s temperance as " s e r e n i t y o f 3 S s p i r i t . " J T h i s peace, as f o r A u g u s t i n e , stems from an i n n e r o r d e r i n man. F o r A q u i n a s t h e i n t e g r a l p a r t s o f temperance a r e shamefacedness and h o n e s t y . Shamefacedness i s a f e a r o r l o a t h i n g o f something b a s e , o f t h e d i s g r a c e f u l . Base a c t i o n must be a v o i d e d n o t s i m p l y by o b s e r v i n g t h e mean b u t 2 7 by " e l e c t i v e h a b i t " — o p e r a t i n g f rom c h o i c e . "An i m p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e v i r t u e o f shamefacedness i s seen when a man i s ashamed o f t h e r e p r o a c h e s he s u f f e r s on acco u n t o f v i r t u e . . . . Wherefore i t i s w r i t t e n , 'Fear ye n o t t h e r e p r o a c h o f men.'" The heroes o f Spenser and M i l t o n a r e armed w i t h t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f shamefacedness, f o r th e y a r e i m p e r v i o u s t o t h e r e p r o a c h o f o t h e r s f o r f o l l o w i n g v i r t u e ; l i k e t h e a p o s t l e s t h e y u l t i m a t e l y r e j o i c e " t h a t they., were, a c c o u n t e d worthy, -to s u f f e r r e p r o a c h f o r t h e name o f J e s u s . A s Ambrose s a y s , "Shamefacedness l a y s t h e f i r s t f o u n d a t i o n s o f temperance 38 by i n s p i r i n g man w i t h t h e h o r r o r o f whatever i s d i s g r a c e f u l . " Honesty i s synonymous w i t h s p i r i t u a l b e auty o r v i r t u e . The "honest" i s t h a t w h i c h i s worthy o f honour an a t t e s t a t i o n t o someone's e x c e l l e n c e . But one a t t e s t s o n l y t o what one knows; and t h e i n t e r n a l c h o i c e i s not made known save by e x t e r n a l a c t i o n s . Wherefore e x t e r n a l c o n d u c t has t h e c h a r a c t e r o f h o n e s t y , i n so f a r as i t r e f l e c t s i n t e r n a l r e c t i t u d e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n h o n e s t y c o n s i s t s r a d i c a l l y i n t h e i n t e r n a l c h o i c e , b u t i t s e x p r e s s i o n l i e s i n t h e e x t e r n a l c o n d u c t . 39 The i m p o r t a n c e o f h o n e s t a s , t h e n cannot be m i n i m i z e d w i t h r e g a r d t o temperance. F o r i t i s t h a t w h i c h s t r e s s e s a c t i o n and works. I n t h i s sense h o n e s t a s i s t h e second p a r t o f t h e C h r i s t i a n tandem o f f a i t h and good works. M o r e o v e r f i t i s honeStas t h a t makes temperance t h e e s s e n t i a l v i r t u e o f t h e f o u r c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s , f o r w i t h o u t i t , t h e o t h e r s a r e s t i l l b o r n . A l t h o u g h f a i t h , i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l c h o i c e , i t i s demonstrated t h r o u g h a c t i o n s . 28 Now t h e p a r t s o f temperance and t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g v i c e s , a c c o r d i n g t o A q u i n a s , a r e as f o l l o w s : c h a s t i t y ( l u s t ) , m o d e r a t i o n i n e a t i n g ( g l u t t o n y ) , m o d e r a t i o n i n d r i n k i n g ( s o b r i e t y ) , meekness ( a n g e r ) , clemency ( e x c e s s i v e l e n i e n c y ) , h u m i l i t y ( p r i d e ) and s t u d i o s n e s s ( c u r i o s i t y ) . Modesty o f movement and a p p a r e l a l s o have c o r r e s p o n d e n t v i c e s . We s h a l l d e a l b r i e f l y w i t h c h a s t i t y and s t u d i o u s n e s s , as t h e o t h e r s a r e s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . F i r s t l e t us examine c h a s t i t y . J o s e f P i e p e r c a l l s temperance " s e l f l e s s s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n . " ^ W i t h r e g a r d t o c h a s t i t y t h e key word here i s " s e l f l e s s . " F o r A q u i n a s , c h a s t i t y was s e l f l e s s l o v e , p e r f e c t e d i n t h e l o v e o f God, b u t n o t n u l l i f i e d i f v i r g i n i t y was l o s t . M a r r i e d l o v e governed by God was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s n o t i o n o f c h a s t i t y . I d e a l l y , and w i t h S t . P a u l as a u t h o r i t y , m a r r i e d l o v e r s beome one f l e s h ; a n o t h e r example o f u n i t y t r i u m p h i n g o v e r f r a g m e n t a t i o n . L i k e A u g u s t i n e b e f o r e him, Aq u i n a s f e l t t h a t " k e e p i n g o n e s e l f pure f o r God o n l y " d i d n o t r u l e o u t s e x . Sex t o A q u i n a s was n o t e v i l b u t a g r e a t good. As P i e p e r s a y s , A q u i n a s f e l t t h a t l i k e e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g , t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e n a t u r a l sex urge and i t s accompanying p l e a s u r e a r e good and n o t i n t h e l e a s t s i n f u l assuming t h a t o r d e r " a n d m o d e r a t i o n a r e p r e s e r v e d . ^ S i n c e t h e p r i m a r y meaning o f temperare i s " t o d i s p o s e v a r i o u s p a r t s i n t o one u n i f i e d and o r d e r e d whole" c h a s t i t y r e a l i z e s t h e o r d e r o f r e a s o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f s e x u a l i t y . The danger o f 29 u n c h a s t i t y i s t h a t i t " c o n s t r i c t s man and t h u s r e n d e r s him i n c a p a b l e o f s e e i n g o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y — b e c a u s e s e l f i s h n e s s 4 2 o v e r r u l e s i t . I t l o o k s f o r a r e w a r d , a p r i z e from l o v e " ( e x c l u s i v e l y p h y s i c a l p l e a s u r e ) t h u s v i o l a t i n g t h e maxim "Chaste i s t h e h e a r t t h a t l o v e s God w i t h o u t l o o k i n g f o r a 43 r e w ard." Reason m e r e l y demands t h a t t h e purpose of sex not be p e r v e r t e d — t h a t sex be a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f c a r i t a s , n o t o f s e l f i s h l o v e . The o t h e r a s p e c t o f temperance w h i c h needs c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s s t u d i o s i t a s . The word, " s t u d i o s i t a s " and i t s o p p o s i t e , " c u r i o s i t a s * mean temperateness and i n t e m p e r a t e n e s s r e s p e c t i v e l y i n t h e s t r i v i n g f o r knowledge, above a l l i n "the i n d u l g e n c e o f t h e s e n s u a l p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e m a n i f o l d sensuous beauty o f t h e w o r l d . . . , " 4 4 Perhaps t h e r o o t o f s t u d i o s i t y ' s i m p o r t a n c e i s t h a t i f f o l l o w e d i t saves man f rom d i s t r a c t i o n , from v a i n e n q u i r i e s w h i c h i n t e r f e r e w i t h a comprehension o f t h e s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e u n i v e r s e . I t i s what P i e p e r c a l l s an " a s c e t i c i s m 4 5 o f c o g n i t i o n . " C u r i o s i t y i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o - p r i d e , as t h e c u r i o u s man a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e s s e n t i a l mystery o f God's p r o v i d e n c e and t h e r e b y competes w i t h t h e c r e a t o r . I t i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o a c e d i a ( d e s p a i r ) ] a n d i t i s t h i s a s p e c t w h i c h b e a r s upon M±lton*s Samson, f o r t h e d e f i n i t i o n s q u a r e s w i t h Samson's a c t i o n s : 30 . . .the dreary sadness of a heart unwilling to accept the greatness to which man i s c a l l e d by God, f o r t h i s i n e r t i a raises i t s paralyzing face whenever man i s t r y i n g to shake o f f the obligatory n o b i l i t y of being that belongs to his essential dignity as a person and p a r t i c u l a r l y the n o b i l i t y of the sonship of God, thus denying his true s e l f . 46 The other aspects of temperance need l i t t l e explanation and s h a l l be dealt with i n conjunction with our study of Spenser. CHAPTER TWO ASPECTS OF TEMPERANCE IN SPENSER Despite the Letter to Raleigh, Spenser's conception of temperance was not s o l e l y A r i s t o t e l i a n , but rather, Spenser's understanding of temperance was shaped by the C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n of the A r i s t o t e l i a n v i r t u e , so that ultimately his notion of temperance was based more on an i Aquinian synthesis of A r i s t o t e l i a n and C h r i s t i a n writings than on A r i s t o t l e alone. F i r s t , A r i s t o t l e ' s temperance was too r e s t r i c t i v e to sustain a narrative which c l e a r l y evinces a much broader scope for temperance than the provinces of touch and taste. Just as Books V and VI i l l u s t r a t e aspects of t h e i r respective virtues i n a l l narrative incidents, so does Book II, and c l e a r l y there are many examples of temptations which do not deal with pleasures of taste and touch, yet which do come under the aegis of temperance. Spenser's anatomy of temperance, then, begins i n the f i r s t canto, and continues u n t i l the end of the book. The f i r s t threat to temperance i n Book II i s wrath. Archimago, with his slanderous t a l e of Red Cross' treatment of Duessa, separates Guyon from his r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e , 32 the "sage and s o b e r sire/Who e v e r w i t h slow pace t h e k n i g h t d i d l e a d . . ." ( 1 , 7 ) . The " f i e r c e i r e " (1,13) w h i c h Archimago k i n d l e s i n Guyon l e a d s t o h i s abandonment o f r e a s o n f o r " z e a l o u s h a s t e . " Archimago and Duessa l e a v e Guyon " i n f l a m e d w i t h w r a t h f u l n e s s " (1,25). Thus Guyon i s a f f e c t e d by an e x c e s s o f c h o l e r , a p e r t u r b a t i o n w h i c h d i s t u r b s h i s r a t i o n a l b a l a n c e . Y e t Guyon m a i n t a i n s , t h r o u g h temperance, h i s r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l , f o r i t i s he who f i r s t l o w e r s h i s spear i n t h e c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h R e d c r o s s . T h i s i n c i d e n t , w h i c h b e g i n s as a t h r e a t t o Guyon's temperance, ends as an exemplum o f Guyon's "goodly h a n d l i n g and w i s e temperance" (1,31), f o r i t demonstrates h i s a b i l i t y t o g o v e r n h i s i r a s c i b l e power. I t a l s o s e r v e s t o show t h e p o s s i b l e g r a v e e f f e c t s o f an i n a b i l i t y t o q u e l l w r a t h . The i n c i d e n t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h z e a l o u s anger i s no v i c e , "we must beware l e s t , when we use anger as an i n s t r u m e n t o f v i r t u e , i t o v e r - r u l e s t h e mind, and go b e f o r e i t as i t s m i s t r e s s . . . " (Summa, I I , 158.1). A n o t h e r p o i n t w h i c h t h e i n c i d e n t makes, a c c o r d i n g t o K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , i s t h a t Reason and F a i t h , N a t u r e and G r a c e , Guyon and R e d c r o s s a r e i n a c c o r d ; t h e y a r e n o t opposed t o one a n o t h e r . The Mordant-Amavia s e c t i o n o f Canto I p o i n t s t o s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s w h i c h a r e governed by temperance. F o r example, 33 s t a n z a 44 r e f e r s t o Guyon's c o u n s e l t o Amavia as " m e d i c i n e . " T h i s i s n o t j u s t a f o r t u i t o u s metaphor, b u t a n a t u r a l way o f r e g a r d i n g temperance as t h e v i r t u e c o n cerned w i t h t h e h e a l t h o f s o u l and body. The m e d i c i n e m o t i f r e c u r s i n s t a n z a 54 when Amavia speaks o f temperance as a c u r e , a means o f p u r g i n g Mordant from "the drugs o f f o u l i n t e m p e r a n c e . " The r e f e r e n c e s i n stanza. 4.4. t o time a l s o p o i n t t o a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f temperance, t h a t i s , i t s e t y m o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h tempus o r t i m e . Leo S p i t z e r p r o p o s e s an u l t i m a t e d e r i v a t i o n from tempus (a segment o f t i m e ) — i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e r i g h t t i m e . ^ A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s i s t h e n o t i o n t h a t t r o u b l e must be borne p a t i e n t l y u n t i l p r o v i d e n c e moves man t o overcome t h e cause o f h i s t r o u b l e . Thus, d e s p a i r must be a v o i d e d : "Help never comes t o o l a t e . " That Spenser c o n c e i v e s ;*:of temperance as a v i r t u e w h i c h guards us ( l i k e f o r t i t u d e ) i n t i m e s o f a d v e r s i t y as w e l l as i n t i m e s o f p r o s p e r i t y i s c l e a r . And i n d e e d , as V i o l a 9 H u l b e r t has shown, t h e r e was a s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n w h i c h connected t r i s t i t i a w i t h temperance. " C i c e r o warns h i s r e a d e r s i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f temperance i n De O f f i c i i s t o guard a g a i n s t d e p r e s s i o n , and Seneca s t r e s s e s f i r m n e s s 3 i n a d v e r s i t y . " F u r t h e r m o r e , Spenser says i n Canto V I , "A h a r d e r l e s s o n t o l e a r n c o n t i n e n c e / I n j o y o u s p l e a s u r e t h e n i n g r i e v o u s p a i n e , " ( V I , 1) p r o o f t h a t temperance must govern a l s o i n t i m e s o f g r i e f . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h a t i n Canto X I , 23, one o f M a l e g e r ' s 34 a t t e n d a n t s i n I m p a t i e n c e , an enemy o f temperance, who i s armed " w i t h r a g i n g f l a m e . " A n o t h e r v i c e d e p i c t e d i n Canto : r I w h i c h opposes temperance i s Mordant's l e c h e r y w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms w h i c h s u g g e s t t h e v i c e o f drunkenness: A c r a s i a "makes her l o v e r s drunken mad," ( I , 52) and i m p r i s o n s Mordant " i n c h a i n s o f l u s t and lewd d e s i r e s . . . " ( I , 5 4 ) . The r e f e r e n c e t o Bacchus ( I , 55) as a l i e u t e n a n t o f A c r a s i a f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s drunkenness as a v i c e w i t h w h i c h A c r a s i a p o l l u t e s man's w i l l . The sad e n c o u n t e r w i t h Mordant and Amavia prompts Guyon t o t r e a t them b o t h as t y p e s o f i n t e m p e r a n c e : Be h o l d t h e image o f m o r t a l i t y , And f e e b l e n a t u r e c l o t h e d w i t h f l e s h l y t i r e , When r a g i n g p a s s i o n w i t h f i e r c e t y r a n n y Robs r e a s o n o f h e r due r e g a l i t y , And makes i t s e r v a n t t o her b a s e s t p a r t . The s t r o n g Qtordant) i t weakens w i t h i n f i r m i t y , And w i t h b o l d f u r y arms t h e weakest h e a r t . The s t r o n g t h r o u g h p l e a s u r e s o o n e s t f a l l s , t h e weak t h r o u g h smart. ( I , 57) 'But temperance,' s a i d he, ' w i t h g o l d e n s q u i r e B e t w w i x t them b o t h can measure o u t a mean: N e i t h e r t o m e l t i n p l e a s u r e ' s h o t d e s i r e Nor f r y i n h e a r t l e s s g r i e f and d o l e f u l t e e n . ( I , 58) The C a s t l e o f Medina i n Canto I I i l l u s t r a t e s t h e t h r e e powers o f t h e s o u l , t h e r a t i o n a l , a p p e t i t i v e , and t h e i r a s c i b l e as d e s c r i b e d i n P l a t o ' s R e p u b l i c , I X , 580-81. Medina, t h e f a i r e s t o f t h e s i s t e r s r e p r e s e n t s t h e g o l d e n mean wh i c h guards a g a i n s t e x c e s s ( P e r i s s a ) and d e f e c t ( E l i s s a . ) 35 This incident personifies Guyon*s discussion of the mean and the two extremes i n I, 57-58, but more than t h i s , the incident also a l l e g o r i z e s the Anglican Church or v i a media between the Puritan and Catholic Churches. The Puritan sects are represented by E l i s s a , who disdained entertainment and food (II, 35). She. represents a state of i n s e n s i b i l i t y , the extreme of joylessness, which i s as much a danger to temperance as i s excessive pleasure-seeking. According to Aquinas, i n s e n s i b i l i t y i s contrary to the natural order and i s therefore v i c i o u s , for nature has introduced pleasure* into the operations that are necessary for man's l i f e . Wherefore the natural order requires that man: should make use of these pleasure, i n so far as they are necessary for man's well being, as regards the preservation either of the in d i v i d u a l or the species. 4 Perissa, on the other hand, represents the excesses of the Catholic Church; she i s " f u l l of disport, s t i l l laughing, loosely l i g h t . . ./In sumptuous t i r e she joyed herself to prank . . ." (II, 36). One thinks here of Elizabethan c r i t i c i s m of o v e r l y - l a v i s h forms of worship, and indeed, Perissa i s "too l a v i s h . " Sansloy and Huddibras are f i t t i n g complements to the ladies they woo; Sansloy shares the "looseness" of Perissa, while Huddibras shares E l i s s a ' s i n s e n s i b i l i t y : "But Huddibras, more l i k e a malcontent/Did see and grieve . . . he sat and i n l y d i d himself torment.(II, 37). 36 Canto I I I b e g i n s as Guyon once more s e t s out on h i s q u e s t , b u t b e f o r e he l e a v e s he commits Ruddymane t o t h e c a r e o f Medina, who w i l l n u r t u r e t h e boy " i n v i r t u o u s l o r e " and t e a c h him"T" avenge h i s p a r e n t s ' d e a t h on them t h a t had i t wrought" ( I I I , 2 ) . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t Ruddymane i s l e f t i n t h e c a r e o f t h e Church o f E n g l a n d , where he w i l l l i v e a t e m p e r a t e , f a i t h f u l l i f e — t h u s a v e n g i n g h i s p a r e n t s ' d e a t h by w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e t e m p t a t i o n s o f S a t a n and h i s l i e u t e n a n t , A c r a s i a . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t once more Spenser seems t o i n c l u d e p a t i e n c e as a p a r t o f temperance, f o r Guyon b e g i n s h i s j o u r n e y on f o o t w i t h " P a t i e n c e f o r what may i t boot/To f r e t f o r anger o r f o r g r i e f t o moan, (111,3). F o r b e a r a n c e i n t h e f a c e o f t r i a l i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f temperance. One must w a i t u n t i l p r o v i d e n c e r e d r e s s e s t h e wrongs done by S a t a n . B r a g g o d o c h i o , a low-born v a r l e t , r e p r e s e n t s t h e v i c e o f v a i n g l o r y , t h e o p p o s i t e o f h u m i l i t y , w h i c h A q i n a s i n c l u d e s as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f temperance. He v i o l a t e s A r i s t o t l e ' s t e n e t t h a t " v i r t u e does n o t c o n s i s t i n e x t e r n a l s , b u t c h i e f l y i n t h e i n w a r d c h o i c e o f t h e mind." Braggodochio's v a i n g l o r y i s a l s o a v i o l a t i o n o f r i g h t r e a s o n , f o r a low-born b e i n g has no b u s i n e s s a i m i n g a t g r e a t t h i n g s . " H u m i l i t y , " says A q u i n a s , " r e s t r a i n s t h e a p p e t i t e from a i m i n g a t g r e a t t h i n g s a g a i n s t r i g h t r e a s o n . " 5 A q u i n a s s t a t e s f u r t h e r t h a t a man must 37 r e s t r a i n himself from being borne towards that which i s above him . . . . he must know his disproportion to that which surpasses his capacity. Hence knowledge of one's own deficiency belongs to humility, as a rul e guiding the appetite.6 Next, Aquinas addresses himself to something which Bragg&tdochio represents: "Excess i n outward expenditure and parade i s wont to be done with a view of boasting, which i s suppressed by humility." Braggadochio obviously f i t s the description of the vainglorious man; one need only notice h i s name and his ostentatious manner. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Cicero deals with the miles gloriosus i n his discussion of temperance i n De O f f i c i i s (I, 37-38). Trompart, Braggadochio's attendant, embodies the vices of deceit and f l a t t e r y . Miss Hulbert points out that i n th e i r t r e a t i s e s on temperance, Seneca and Alanus warn us against f l a t t e r y and obsequiousness. "The boasting of Braggadochio.and the l y i n g of Trompart represent . . . the necessity of b r i d l i n g one's tongue by temperance."^ she neglects to add that Guyon must b r i d l e Occasion's tongue one Canto l a t e r (IV, 12). With the entrance of Belphoebe we see the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of Acrasia's opposite. She stands for everything Acrasia disdains. Their d i s s i m i l a r i t y i s apparent. Belrj-pebe's eyes "broke Cupid's wanton darts" and quenched base desire" (III, 23), while Acrasia's eyes provoke passion. Moreover, Belphoebe 38 r e p r e s e n t s t h e 'work e t h i c ' w h i c h i s i m p l i c i t i n Spenser's n o t i o n of t e m p e r a n c e — a n e t h i c t o w h i c h Braggadochio (and, o f c o u r s e , P h a e d r i a and A c r a s i a ) a r e s t r a n g e r s . L i f e i s a s t r u g g l e , an a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t . Guyon i s t o be t r i e d by "many a hard a s s a y ; " t h e a s s a y s w i l l t a k e t h e form o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f i n t e m p e r a n c e . The i r o n y , t h e n , i n B r a g g a d o c h i o * s s t a t e m e n t t o Archimago t h a t he has undergone a "hard a s s a y " (111,12) emphasizes B r a g g a d o c h i o ' s l u s t f o r e a s e , a v i c e w h i c h Belphoebe opposes. Braggadochio d e m o n s t r a t e s h i s l a c k o f m e t t l e when he t e l l s Belphoebe t h a t she s h o u l d be seen a t c o u r t and t h a t t h e wood i s " f i t f o r b e a s t s . " Her r e p l y r e v e r s e s B r a g g a d o c h i o ' s s t a t e m e n t , f o r she shows t h a t i t i s t h e c o u r t w h i c h i s f i t f o r b e a s t s . I t i s t h e c o u r t w h i c h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s l o t h , a v i c e opposed t o temperance: Whoso i n pomp o f proud e s t a t e . . . Does swim, and b a t h e s h i m s e l f i n c o u r t l y b l i s s , Does waste h i s days i n dark o b s c u r i t y . And i n o b l i v i o n e v e r b u r i e d i s . Where ease abounds, i t ' s e a t h t o do a m i s s ; But whohis l i m b s w i t h l a b o r s , and h i s mind Behaves w i t h c a r e s , cannot so easy m i s s . . . . Who seeks w i t h p a i n f u l t o i l s h a l l Honor s o o n e s t f i n d . (111,40) She shuns s l o t h : "The man t h a t molds i n i d l e c e l l , " w i l l n e v e r a t t a i n heaven ("that happy mansion") f o r "God d i d sweat o r d a i n / A n d w a k e f u l watches e v e r t o a b i d e " C H I , 4 1 ) . Her d i a t r i b e c o n t i n u e s , and one s h o u l d keep i n mind t h e v i s i o n o f A c r a s i a as Belphoebe speaks: 39 But easy i s the way .and passage p l a i n To Pleasure's palace; i t may soon be spied, And day and night her doors to a l l stand open wide. (.111,41) One thinks here of Bunyan and the contrast between the str a i g h t and narrow way to the C e l e s t i a l C i t y and wide highway to H e l l . I t i s f i t t i n g that the ignoble Braggadochio i s unable to understand Belphoebe's preference, and as the Canto ends he i s shown mounting Guyon's steed . . . and gan to ride As one u n f i t therefor . . . Which well that v a l i a n t courser did discern; For he despised to tread i n due degree But chafed and foamed . . . And to be eased of that base burden s t i l l did earn. ( IH,46 ) His poor horsemanship i s proof of his intemperance. The horse w i l l not be governed by Braggadochio, rather, animal nature leads him; he i s unable to e s t a b l i s h his superiority even over brute creation. The horse, of course, i s also an emblem of the s p i r i t e d part of man and stems from Plato's my^th of the charioteer i n the Phaedrus. Braggadochio, unlike Guyon, i s unable to manage and subdue his appetites, and Spenser's comment that Guyon "well could manage and subdue his pride" (IV,2) i s meant to contrast with Braggadochio's i n a b i l i t y to doothe same. 40 S i n c e Cantos IV t h r o u g h V I d e p i c t p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a v e t h r e a t s t o Guyon and temperance, i t i s w e l l t h a t Spenser r e i t e r a t e s , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Canto IV, t h e n a t u r e o f temperance. The p a l m e r , o r Judgement, i s Guyon's "most t r u s t y g u i d e " . . . Who s u f f e r e d n o t h i s wandering f e e t t o s l i d e , But when s t r o n g p a s s i o n s o r weak f l e s h l i n e s s Would from t h e r i g h t way seek t o draw him w i d e , He w o u l d , t h r o u g h temperance . . . Teach him t h e weak t o s t r e n g t h e n and t h e s t r o n g s u p p r e s s . (IV,2) These l i n e s s t r e s s a g a i n t h a t man's i r a s c i b l e ( s t r o n g p a s s i o n s ) and c o n c u p i s c i b l e (weak f l e s h l i n e s s ) p a r t s must be governed by r e a s o n o r judgement. I n Cantos IV t h r o u g h V I we w i l l see Guyon s t r e n g t h e n t h e weak and "the s t r o n g s u p p r e s s . " Once a g a i n we see t h a t b a l a n c i n g and m i x i n g a r e t h e f u n c t i o n s o f temperance. Guyon*s e n c o u n t e r w i t h F u r o r i n Canto IV r e p e a t s t o some e x t e n t t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h Guyon e n c o u n t e r s i n Canto I as he w r a t h f u l l y a t t a c k s R e d c r o s s . Here t o o , he t e m p o r a r i l y l e t s h i s i r a s c i b l e f a c u l t y overpower h i s r a t i o n a l f a c u l t y , and t h e r e s u l t i s h i s own o v e r t h r o w a t t h e hands o f F u r o r , f o r from h i s wonted manner o f f i g h t i n g , h i s "goodly managing/ Of arms," Guyon descends t o e m u l a t i o n o f F u r o r and f i g h t s him on h i s terms: "But more e n f i e r c e d . . . ./Him s t e r n l y g r i p p e d . . ./But o v e r t h r e w h i m s e l f unwares, and l o w e r l a y " (IV,8 ) . 41 The palmer c o u n s e l s Guyon t h a t i n t e m p e r a t e a nger, embodied by F u r o r , can o n l y be d e f e a t e d by c o n t r o l l i n g t h e o c c a s i o n f o r anger. L i k e t h e B l a t a n t B e a s t , h i s s l a n d e r o u s tongue must be c h a i n e d . One o f t h e g r e a t e s t o c c a s i o n s t o w r a t h i s t h e B l a t a n t B e a s t , and we have a l r e a d y seen t h e p o s s i b l e consequences o f f a i l i n g t o c o n t r o l t h e s l a n d e r o u s o c c a s i o n t o anger i n Guyon's r a s h p u r s u i t o f Redcross i n Canto ' I . The p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f F u r o r i s s i g n i f i c a n t : H i s b u r n i n g eyne, whom b l o o d y s t r e a k s d i d s t a i n , S t a r e d f u l l wide and threw f o r t h s p a r k s o f f i r e ; . . . Shaked h i s l o n g l o c k s , c o l o r e d l i k e copper w i r e , And b i t h i s tawny b e a r d t o show h i s r a g i n g i r e . (IV,15) T h i s p o r t r a i t o f t h e c h o l e r i c man, b e s e t by p e r t u r b a t i o n s o f e x c e s s i v e c h o l e r c o n n e c t s i ntemperance t o a p h y s i c a l malady as w e l l as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l one. Phedon's s t o r y i s a n o t h e r example o f o c c a s i o n t o anger. A g a i n , s l a n d e r u p s e t s t h e harmony i n a man's microcosm. P h i l e m o n , an I a g o - l i k e agent o f t h e B l a t a n t B e a s t , p l a n t s t h e seeds o f j e a l o u s y i n Phedon. The r e s u l t i s d i s r u p t i o n and p e r t u r b a t i o n i n Phedon's body: The gnawing a n g u i s h and sharp j e a l o u s y Which h i s sad speech i n f i x e d i n my b r e a s t R a n k l e d so s o r e and f e s t e r e d i n w a r d l y . (IV, 31) T h i s c o n d i t i o n u l t i m a t e l y l e a d s t o murder. The p o i n t about F u r o r — " t h i s madman" c h a s i n g Phedon, i s t h a t i s a l l e g o r i z e s what Phedon h i m s e l f b e c o m e s — c r a z e d by gnawing a n g u i s h and shar p j e a l o u s y — h e becomes F u r o r , and i t i s t h e madness 42 w h i c h o v e r t a k e s him w h i c h w i l l a l s o "do him t o d i e " u n l e s s he i s a b l e t o c o n t r o l i t " t h r o u g h temperance", as Guyon a d v i s e s ( I V , 3 3 ) . The palmer t h e n c h a s t i s e s Phedon f o r t a k i n g t h e r e j i s from r e a s o n , t h u s u n b r i d l i n g t h e a f f e c t i o n s w h i c h a t f i r s t a r e "weak and wan" b u t "through s u f f e r a n c e grow t o f e a r f u l end." He c o n t i n u e s : W h i l e s t h e y a r e weak b e t i m e s w i t h them c o n t e n d ; F o r when t h e y once t o p e r f e c t s t r e n g t h do grow, S t r o n g wars t h e y make and c r u e l b a t t e r y bend G a i n s t f o r t o f r e a s o n , i t t o o v e r t h r o w . Wrath, j e a l o u s y , g r i e f , l o v e t h i s s q u i r e have l a i d t h u s low. (IV,34) An e x c e s s o f t h e f o u r " a f f e c t i o n s " mentioned i n t h e l a s t l i n e w i l l t u r n man u p s i d e down. A p r e v e n t i v e f o r t h e s e a f f e c t i o n s i s " d e l a y " and "wary governance" (IV,35-36). A f t e r Phedon has r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n , A t i n appears upon t h e scene. He i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d u s t , heat and sweat (emblems o f wrath) b u t a l s o w i t h s c o r n ( I V , 3 6 ) , d e s p i t e , and m a l i c e ( I V , 3 8 ) , a l l o f w h i c h we see i n Book V I . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , he i s a descendant o f A t e , goddess o f s t r i f e . The A t i n i n c i d e n t i l l u s t r a t e s Guyon's meekness, an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f temperance t o such men as A q u i n a s and Thomas T r a h e r n e . Meekness, as t h e y u n d e r s t o o d i t , was a slowness t o anger. Thus, we see t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e palmer's words about " d e l a y . " A t i n ' s message i s t h a t P y r o c h l e s seeks O c c a s i o n t o w r a t h , and t h e palmer's answer i s : Madman, . . . t h a t does seek O c c a s i o n t o w r a t h and cause o f s t r i f e . She comes unsought and, shunned, f o l l o w s eke. Happy who can a b s t a i n when r a n c o r r i f e 43 K i n d l e s revenge and t h r e a t s h i s r u s t y k n i f e . Woe never wants where evey cause i s caught And r a s h O c c a s i o n makes u n q u i e t l i f e . (IV,44) A t i n waxes w r o t h a t t h i s answer and f l i n g s i n s u l t s a t Guyon, a c c u s i n g him o f t h e h e i n o u s f a u l t o f c o w a r d i c e i n s h a c k l i n g O c c a s i o n , an o l d woman (IV,4 5 ) . Not c o n t e n t t o h u r l g r a v e i n s u l t , he f l i n g s a d a r t a t Guyon, "Headed w i t h i r e and v e n g e a b l e d e s p i t e . " But Guyon w a r i l y a v o i d s i t as i t l a n d s on h i s s h i e l d . T h i s a c t i o n shows Guyon*s meekness. Faced w i t h r e a l cause f o r w r a t h , he does n o t r e l e a s e t h e b r i d l e from i r a s c i b i l i t y . That Spenser c o n s c i o u s l y t r i e d t o i l l u s t r a t e meekness i s a p p a r e n t when P y r o c h l e s p r e s e n t s Guyon w i t h a n o t h e r cause f o r r i g h t e o u s w r a t h w h i c h a g a i n i s c o n t r o l l e d by meekness. F o r i n Canto V Guyon i n a d v e r t e n t l y d e c a p i t a t e s P y r o c h l e s ' h o r s e , and he i s r e g a l e d as a coward once more. Aq u i n a s says t h a t meekness " m i t i g a t e s t h e p a s s i o n o f anger." He f u r t h e r c i t e s A r i s t o t l e ' s Nichomachean E t h i c s I V . 5 , t h a t meekness moderates anger a c c o r d i n g t o r i g h t r e a s o n . He Q adds t h a t meekness i s annexed t o temperance as a p a r t t h e r e o f . A q u i n a s , t o o , sees danger i n r a s h n e s s , f o r w h i c h meekness i s a p r e v e n t i v e : F o r a nger, w h i c h i s m i t i g a t e d by meekness, i s on a c c o u n t o f i t s i m p e t u o u s n e s s , a v e r y g r e a t o b s t a c l e t o man's f r e e judgement o f t r u t h : w h e r e f o r e meekness above a l l '.makes a man s e l f -p o s s e s s e d . . . . Meekness d i s p o s e s man t o t h e knowledge o f God, by removing an o b s t a c l e ; and t h i s i n two ways. F i r s t , because i t makes man 44 s e l f - p o s s e s s e d by m i t i g a t i n g h i s anger . . . s e c o n d l y , because i t p e r t a i n s t o meekness t h a t a man does n o t c o n t r a d i c t t h e words o f t r u t h , w h i c h many do t h r o u g h b e i n g d i s t u r b e d by anger.10 Thomas T r a h e r n e ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f meekness a l s o h e l p s p l a c e t h e s e e p i s o d e s w i t h A t i n and P y r o c h l e s i n t h e i r R e n a i s s a n c e e t h i c a l c o n t e x t . Traherne says t h a t meekness, l i k e p a t i e n c e , i s a v i r t u e , t h e l a t t e r r e g a r d i n g c a l a m i t i e s , t h e f o r m e r , wrongs. A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t element o f meekness, w h i c h Spenser s u r e l y f e l t , was t h a t i t "makes our w o r t h not t o depend on o t h e r Mens D e s e r v i n g s , b u t our own R e s o l u t i o n s . I n h i s b a t t l e w i t h P y r o c h l e s , Guyon r e p r e s e n t s b o t h p a t i e n c e ( d e l a y ) and clemency. Spenser a g a i n c i t e s p a t i e n c e as a p a r t o f temperance, f o r Guyon " . . . i n t h e h e a t o f a l l h i s s t r i f e / W a s wary w i s e and c l o s e l y d i d a w a i t / A d v a n t a g e , w h i l s t h i s f o e d i d r a g e most r i f e " ( V , 9 ) . But i t i s clemency w h i c h most s t a n d s o u t as a v i r t u e a f t e r Guyon's h a r d v i c t o r y o v e r P y r o c h l e s , who when b e a t e n c r i e s t o Guyon: Mercy, do-iue n o t d i e , Ne deem t h y f o r c e , by f o r t u n e ' s doom u n j u s t , That h a t h , maugre h e r s p i t e , t h u s low me l a i d i n d u s t . (V,12) P y r o c h l e s f a i l s t o a c c e p t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own g u i l t , s t a t i n g t h a t he has been a v i c t i m o f some i r r e s i s t i b l e e x t e r n a l f o r c e , F o r t u n e . A c c o r d i n g t o P y r o c h l e s , i t i s f a t e t h a t has l a i d him i n t h e d u s t , n o t h i s i n a b i l i t y t o master t h e e x c e s s i v e p a s s i o n o f w r a t h . Y e t Guyon s t a y s h i s " c r u e l hand . . . t e m p e r i n g t h e p a s s i o n w i t h advisement slow/And m a s t e r i n g m i g h t on enemy dismayed" (V,13). He s p a r e s h i s l i f e 45 and hopes t o mend P y r o c h l e s ' ways. He w i l l be h i s t e a c h e r , i l l u s t r a t i n g by h i s own a c t i o n s t h e v i r t u e o f meekness. I t m i t i g a t e s anger and t h u s a l l o w s him t o see t h e t r u t h . Guyon r e l e a s e s O c c a s i o n and F u r o r f o r P y r o c h l e s , b u t no sooner a r e th e y r e l e a s e d t h a n t h e y a t t a c k P y r o c h l e s . F u r o r " c a s t him [ p y r o c h l e s ] t o ground, and a l l along/Drew him t h r o u g h d i r t and m i r e w i t h o u t remorse" (V,23). When P y r o c h l e s c r i e s t o Guyon, " h e l p most n o b l e k n i g h t / T o r i d a w r e t c h e d man from hands o f h e l l i s h w i g h t , " he s t r i k e s a p i t e q u s ; c h o r d i n Guyon's h e a r t : "The k n i g h t was g r e a t l y moved a t h i s p l a i n t / A n d gan him d i g h t t o s u c c o r h i s d i s t r e s s " ( V , 2 4 ) . But t h e palmer i n t e r v e n e s : T i l l t h a t t h e p a l m e r , by h i s g r a v e r e s t r a i n t Him s t a y e d from y i e l d i n g p i t i f u l r e d r e s s , And s a i d , 'Dear son, t h y c a u s e l e s s r u t h r e p r e s s , Ne l e t t h y s t o u t h e a r t m e l t i n p i t y v a i n . (V,24) Here t h e palmer r e p r e s e n t s s e v e r i t y , w h i c h A q u i n a s d e f i n e s as i n f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e i n f l i c t i o n o f punishment, when r i g h t r e a s o n r e q u i r e s i t . F o r Guyon t o have i n s i s t e d on clemency i n t h e c a s e o f P y r o c h l e s * " w i l l f u l n e s s " would have been an a f f r o n t t o r i g h t r e a s o n . Hence "Guyon obeyed." I n t h i s e p i s o d e t h e r e i s a f o r e s h a d o w i n g o f t h e G r i l l e p i s o d e i n Canto X I I . J u s t as P y r o c h l e s , " h i s f o e , f e t t e r e d , w ould r e l e a s e a g a i n , " so G r i l l , when r e l e a s e d from A c r a s i a ' s f e t t e r s , w i l l f u l l y r e t u r n s t o them. Only by now, Guyon has l e a r n e d s e v e r i t y , and i n s t e a d o f t r y i n g t o f r e e G r i l l , 46 he comments r u e f u l l y upon G r i l l ' s c h o i c e o f e v i l . The palmer u n d e r s c o r e s G r i l l ' s f o l l y by r e m a r k i n g w i t h s e v e r i t y , " L e t G r i l l be G r i l l , and have h i s h o g g i s h mind/But l e t us d e p a r t , w h i l e s weather s e r v e s and w i n d " ( X I I , 8 7 ) . A q u i n a s s t a t e s t h a t clemency and s e v e r i t y "are not r e a l l y opposed t o one another*? s i n c e t h e y b o t h c o n s i s t w i t h r i g h t r e a s o n . F o r s e v e r i t y i s i n f l e x i b l e i n t h e i n f l i c t i o n o f punishment, when r i g h t reason, r e q u i r e s i t ; w h i l e clemency m i t i g a t e s punishment, a l s o a c c o r d i n g t o r i g h t r e a s o n , when and where t h i s i s r e q u i s i t e . I t would seem, t h e n , t h a t clemency i s i n a c c o r d w i t h r i g h t r e a s o n when d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i n c o n t i n e n t man, whose s i n i s v e n i a l i n t h a t h i s w i l l i s n o t p o l l u t e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e i n t e m p e r a t e man, l i k e P y r o c h l e s and G r i l l , knows he does e v i l , b u t w i l l f u l l y c o n s e n t s t o i t . F o r t h o s e who a r e h a b i t u a l l y f i x e d t o t h e c o u r s e o f i n t e m p e r a n c e , s e v e r i t y i s t h e o n l y way t o d e a l w i t h them. W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Cymochles a p a t t e r n emerges by w h i c h we see t h a t c e r t a i n o f Spenser's c h a r a c t e r s a r e i n t e n t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f v a r i o u s i m b a l a n c e s . We have p r e v i o u s l y seen t h a t P y r o c h l e s (from Greek p y r — f i r e and o c h l e o n — m o v e d ) i s e x c e s s i v e l y c h o l e r i c , w h i l e i t i s c l e a r t h a t Cymochles has an o v e r p l u s o f t h e p h l e g m a t i c humour, as h i s name (from Greek kyma—wave, o c h l e o n — m o v e d ) would i n d i c a t e . 47 I t w i l l become e v i d e n t l a t e r t h a t P h a e d r i a and Mammon r e p r e s e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y b l o o d and m e l a n c h o l y , t h e r e m a i n i n g humours, a f a c t w h i c h argues a c o n s c i o u s p i c t u r e o f t h e humour t h e o r y as germane t o temperance; f o r temperance means b a l a n c i n g , w h i l e each o f t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t s a c h r o n i c i m balance o f humours. I t i s i n t h i s r e g a r d t h a t we see t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c o n n o t a t i o n o f h e a l t h w h i c h a p p l i e s t o temperance. W i t h th e appearance o f Cymochles, a k n i g h t " g i v e n a l l t o l o v e and l o o s e l i v i n g " (V,28) we move from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i r a s c i b l e powers t o t h e c o n c u p i s c i b l e powers. H i s " d e a r e s t dame" i s A c r a s i a . When A t i n comes upon him he sees him pouring o u t h i s i d l e mind I n d a i n t y d e l i c e s and l a v i s h j o y s Having h i s w a r l i k e weapons c a s t b e h i n d And f l o w s i n p l e a s u r e s and v a i n p l e a s i n g t o y s , M i n g l e d among l o o s e l a d i e s and l a s c i v i o u s boys. (V, T h i s scene p r e f i g u r e s t h e t e m p t a t i o n w h i c h Guyon i s t o undergo i n Canto V I on P h a e d r i a ' s i s l a n d . Cymochles, t h e n a t u r a l l y c o n c u p i s c e n t man, "by k i n d " succumbs t o A c r a s i a * s t e m p t a t i o n s o f t h e f l e s h . The danger o f succumbing t o t h e a p p e t i t e s o f t h e f l e s h , o f c o u r s e , i s t h a t by so d o i n g , one i s d e t a i n e d from v i r t u o u s a c t i o n . Cymochles, a k n i g h t , i s " s o u j o u r n i n g / T o s e r v e h i s leman's l o v e " (V,28) i n s t e a d o f s e r v i n g God. 48 There i s a S a t a n i c q u a l i t y about t h i s bower o f b l i s s , a q u a l i t y w h i c h i s enhanced by t h e p i c t u r e o f Cymochles* arms " e n t r a i l e d w i t h r o s e s r e d . " H i s weapons a r e c o v e r e d w i t h e g l a n t i n e and a r e h i d d e n from v i e w . The c o n t r a s t t o t h e C h r i s t i a n s o l d i e r s h o u l d be o b v i o u s . The C h r i s t i a n s o l d i e r c a nnot g i v e i n t o s l o t h , b u t must c o n s t a n t l y keep on th e j o u r n e y t o s a l v a t i o n . As A.B. G i a m a t t i r i g h t l y p o i n t s o u t , "an e v e r - p r e s e n t danger w h i c h a s s a i l s many o f t h e main f i g u r e s o f The F a e r i e Queene . . . i s t h e t e m p t a t i o n o f t a k i n g t h e easy way o u t , o f s t o p p i n g , o f g i v i n g up t h e s t r u g g l e , o f d y i n g . " He t h e n q u o t e s C.S.Lewis: I n o t h e r p o e t s t e m p t a t i o n u s u a l l y summons t h e w i l l t o T i t a n i c a c t i o n , t o t h e i n o r d i n a t e r e s o l u t i o n s o f a T a m b u r l a i n e , a F a u s t u s , a Macbeth, o r a S a t a n . I n Spenser i t more o f t e n w h i s p e r s ' L i e down. R e l a x . L e t go. I n d u l g e t h e d e a t h w i s h . ' 12 The dichotomy between p e r s o n a l p l e a s u r e and t h e w a r f a r i n g C h r i s t i a n ' s d u t y i s a r e c u r r e n t theme i n The F a e r i e Queene. Spenser's answer t o t h i s t h r e a t o f d e s p a i r t o d u t y i s g i v e n by B r i t o m a r t : " L i f e i s n o t l o s t ( s a i d she) f o r w h i c h i s bought/ E n d l e s s renown, t h a t more t h a n d e a t h i s t o be sought (111,11,19). Cymochles' s i t u a t i o n p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f t h e Son's i n th e second book o f P a r a d i s e Regained, f o r t h e scene w h i c h S a t a n c o n j u r e d f o r t h e Son has many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Bower. F o r example, i t t o o o f f e r s a "haven" from t h e r i g o r s o f t r i a l , and a l t h o u g h t h e manners o f t e m p t a t i o n d i f f e r 49 (Cymochles i s tempted and f a l l s v i c t i m t o s l o t h ) w h i l e t h e Son i s tempted by sensuous f o o d s ; y e t b o t h scenes a r e p e o p l e d r e p e c t i v e l y by " T a l l s t r i p l i n g y o u t h s r i c h c l a d , " (P.R. I I , 352) and " l a s c i v i o u s boys . . . nymphs and L a d i e s , " (P.R. I I , 354) and l o o s e l a d i e s and l a s c i v i o u s boys" (V,28). Both scenes a r e marked by a c o m p e t i t i o n between a r t and n a t u r e ; "Nature's own work i t seem'd (Nature t a u g h t A r t ) " (P.R. I I , 295); "And o v e r him, a r t s t r i v i n g t o compare/With n a t u r e d i d an a r b o r g r e e n d i s p r e a d . . . " ( V , 2 9 ) . Perhaps t h e c h i e f f u n c t i o n o f th e Cymochles scene i s t o foreshadow t h e g r e a t t e m p t a t i o n w h i c h Guyon must undergo i n t h e Bower o f B l i s s . Perhaps Spenser even a n t i c i p a t e d such modern " p s y c h o l o g i s t s " as Dostoevsky and K i e r k e g a a r d who r e g a r d e d s e n s u a l abandonment as a s t a g e o f d e s p a i r o r " s i c k n e s s unto d e a t h . " By y i e l d i n g t o t h e morphine o f s e n s u a l i t y , Cymochles i s a b l e t o f o r g e t h i s s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e ; hence, he t a k e s on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b o t h Amavia and Mordant, t h e former i n h i s p u r s u i t o f s l e e p as balm, and t h e l a t t e r i n r p u r s u i t o f t h e "drugs o f dear v o l u p t u o u s r e c e i p t " (V,34). We s h o u l d r e c a l l t h a t Mordant i s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g "purged from drugs o f f o u l i n t e m p e r a n c e " (1,54). However, much o f what a p p l i e s t o our c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s s e c t i o n appears a g a i n , more f u l l y d e v e l o p e d i n Canto X I I , and i s b e s t d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o A c r a s i a ' s Canto. 50 The s t e r i l e voyeurism, a r t i f i c i a l i t y and exhortations to sensual abandonment are evident i n the f i n a l canto as w e l l . But we should not pass on to a consideration of the next Canto without f i r s t commenting on Atin's contempt for Cymochles' sloth (V,35-37). A t i n , having arrived at the bower, sees Cymochles " i n s t i l l waves of deep delight . . . " and expostulates: CymochlesI 0 no, but Cymochles' shade, In which that manly person late did fade . . . Or where hath he hung up his mortal blade. . . Is a l l his force f o r l o r n , and a l l his glory done? Then pricking him with his sharp pointed dart, He said, "Up, up, thou womanish weak knight That here i n ladies womb entombed a r t — Unmindful of thy praise and prowest might . . . . (V,35-36) This incident i s another i n the t r a d i t i o n of Mercury's speech to Aeneas (Aeneid 4, 265-76) where duty must eventually overrule the demands of the concupiscible soul, and i t finds p a r a l l e l s i n Tasso (J.D. 16,33) and Ariosto (O.F. 7,50-64) and notably i n Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. Indeed, A t i n resembles Enobarbus i n locating the error of his superiors: Antony . . . that would make his w i l l Lord of his reason . . . . The i t c h of his a f f e c t i o n should not then Have nicked his captainship. ( I l l , 13,2-8) The notion of effeminacy, of Mars y i e l d i n g to the pleasures of Venus, i s developed i n Canto VI when Guyon i s subject to the same temptation as Cymochles. 51 Canto V I opens w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t i t i s h a r d e r t o temper t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e c o n c u p i s c i b l e s o u l t h a n t h e i r a s c i b l e s o u l . T h i s s t a n z a i s based upon A r i s t o t l e ' s E t h i c s 11,3: . . . i t i s h a r d t o f i g h t a g a i n s t a nger, b u t i t i s h a r d e r s t i l l t o f i g h t a g a i n s t p l e a s u r e . Y e t t o g r a p p l e w i t h t h e h a r d e r has always been t h e b u s i n e s s , as o f a r t , so o f goodness, s u c c e s s i n a t a s k b e i n g p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o i t s d i f f i c u l t y . 13 T h i s b r i n g s us t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e n o t i o n o f d i f f i c u l t a as a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e eminent p o s i t i o n w h i c h temperance h e l d f o r b o t h Spenser and M i l t o n . As John Shearman says i n h i s book, Mannerism: . . . t h e n o t i o n o f d i f f i c u l t y , t h a t i s t o s a y , o f d i f f i c u l t y overcome . . . a c h i e v e d d u r i n g t h e R e n a i s s a n c e . . . a s i g n i f i c a n c e w h i c h now seems h y p n o t i c and i r r e l e v a n t . L o r e n z o de' M e d i c i , i n a commentary upon h i s own s o n n e t s , argued t h a t t h i s v e r s e - f o r m i s t h e e q u a l o f any o t h e r because o f i t s d i f f i c u l t a — b e c a u s e v i r t u , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s , c o n s i s t s i n t h e c o n q u e s t o f d i f f i c u l t y . . . . P a i n t e r s and s c u l p t o r s each argued t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e i r a r t o v e r t h e o t h e r because i t was more d i f f i c u l t . 14 What a p p l i e d t o v a l u e s i n a r t a p p l i e d a l s o t o e t h i c s . Hence, t h e more d i f f i c u l t t h e t e m p t a t i o n , -the g r e a t e r t h e v i r t u e i n overcoming i t . One c o u l d argue t h a t each Canto i n Book I I i n t r o d u c e s a g r e a t e r t e m p t a t i o n t h a n p r e v i o u s C a ntos. W h i l e t h e overcoming o f d i f f i c u l t y was l a u d e d i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , t h e r e a l t e s t o f consummate a r t i s t r y was "the r e d u c t i o n o f d i f f i c u l t y t o f a c i l i t y . " Guyon (and a l s o M i l t o n ' s Adam) overcomes t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t e m p t a t i o n o n l y a t t h e c o s t o f g r e a t p a i n . 52 I n Canto V I we meet P h a e d r i a . I t would seem t h a t P h a e d r i a i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e element a i r , j u s t as P y r o c h l e s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f i r e and Cymochles, w a t e r . She r e s e m b l e s Chaucer's F r a n k l i n and i s a s a n g u i n e c h a r a c t e r . L i k e t h e F r a n k l i n she i s an e p i c u r e " t h a t h e e l d o p i n i o u n t h a t p l e y n d e l i t / W a s v e r r a y f e l i c i t e e p a r f i t , " 1 * ' and h e r "immodest m i r t h " i s a d i s t e m p e r o f t h e a i r y s a n g u i n e c o m p l e x i o n . The key t o P h a e d r i a ' s c h a r a c t e r and her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v i c e i s t h e word " i m m o d e s t " — f o r i t i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f modesty. A q u i n a s ' d i s t i n c t i o n o f "modesty as c o n s i s t i n g i n t h e outward movements o f t h e body," 1'? I t h i n k , b e a r s upon P h a e d r i a ' s c h a r a c t e r . He q u o t e s s c r i p t u r e . "The a t t i r e o f t h e body, and t h e l a u g h t e r o f t h e t e e t h , and t h e g a i t . . . show what he i s , " w h i l e Ambrose i s a l s o c i t e d : "The h a b i t o f mind i s seen i n t h e g e s t u r e o f t h e body . . . . The body's movement i s an i n d e x o f t h e s o u l . " Ambrose says t h a t f r i v o l i t y i s a v i c e . P h a e d r i a a l s o s t a n d s opposed t o A u g u s t i n e ' s s t r i c t u r e s on temperate b e h a v i o u r : " I n a l l y o u r movements, l e t n o t h i n g be done t o o f f e n d t h e ;eye o f a n o t h e r , b u t o n l y t h a t w h i c h i s 18 becoming t o t h e h o l i n e s s o f y o u r s t a t e . " I n her f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h Guyon she p a s s e s "the bonds o f modest merrimake," and t h e r e b y e a r n s Guyon's d i s a p p r o v a l ( V I , 2 1 ) . 53 The t r a d i t i o n w h i c h h e l d t h a t l a u g h t e r and f u n were i n h e r e n t l y e v i l i s perhaps a l s o b r o u g h t t o b e a r i n s h a p i n g t h e r e a d e r ' s r e s p o n s e t o P h a e d r i a , f o r Ambrose q u o t e s t h e L o r d , "Woe t o you who l a u g h , f o r you s h a l l weep." "Wherefore," says Ambrose, " I c o n s i d e r t h a t a l l , and not o n l y e x c e s s i v e games s h o u l d be a v o i d e d , " w h i l e under t h e same h e a d i n g o f modesty o f movement, A q u i n a s c i t e s Chrysostom: " I t i s n o t God, b u t t h e d e v i l , t h a t i s t h e a u t h o r o f fun. , , J- I am n o t s a y i n g t h a t S p enser, i n d e p i c t i n g P h a e d r i a , i s showing h i s t r u e C a l v i n i s t c o l o u r s , o r t h a t he a d v o c a t e s j o y l e s s n e s s ; however, by d e p i c t i n g P h a e d r i a ' s e x c e s s i v e f r i v o l i t y he i s a b l e t o draw upon a t r a d i t i o n w h i c h t o d a y ' s r e a d e r might not be aware o f , t h a t i s , t h e S a t a n i c q u a l i t y o f "immodest m i r t h . " A q u i n a s c o n c l u d e s t h a t j u s t as man needs b o d i l y r e s t , so t h e s o u l must a l s o t a k e r e s t : " C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e remedy f o r w e a r i n e s s o f s o u l needs c o n s i s t i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f 9 o some p l e a s u r e , by s l a c k e n i n g t h e t e n s i o n o f t h e r e a s o n ' s s t u d y . " ^ " He c a u t i o n s however, t h a t p l e a s u r e s h o u l d n o t be sought i n i n d e c e n t o r i n j u r i o u s words. O b s c e n i t y i s t o be eschewed. S e c o n d l y , he c a u t i o n s t h a t t h e f u n s h o u l d r e f l e c t something o f an u p r i g h t mind, and t h i r d l y , "we must be c a r e f u l . . . t o conform o u r s e l v e s t o p e r s o n s , t i m e , and p l a c e . . . so t h a t our f u n b e f i t t h e hour and t h e man . . . . M ^ A 54 I f we examine P h a e d r i a * s a c t i o n s we see t h a t she v i o l a t e s t h e s e w a r n i n g s , f o r h e r b e h a v i o u r i s d e s c r i b e d as " l i g h t " and she a c t s w i t h " l o o s e d a l l i a n c e . " The d i v e r s i o n she o f f e r s c a t e r s t o t h e l u s t o f t h e eyes and s e n s e s : "Thus when she had h i s eyes and senses f e d . " W i t h Guyon he r m i r t h i s e x c e s s i v e : she " t o y s , and j e e r s , and g i b e s " ( V I , 2 1 ) . She m a n i f e s t s l ewdness, and even i n s o l e n c e , t h e r e b y v i o l a t i n g two o f A q u i n a s 1 w a r n i n g s . I t i s t h e i n o r d i n a t e use o f f u n t h a t A q u i n a s condemns, an i n d i c t m e n t t h a t t h e a c t i o n o f Canto V I p a r a l l e l s . P h a e d r i a i s g u i l t y o f making t h e p l e a s u r e s o f games he r end. What Chrysostom s a i d a p p l i e s e m i n e n t l y t o P h a e d r i a : "They have a c c o u n t e d t h e i r l i f e a p a s t i m e . " C i c e r o condemns t h i s t y p e o f immodesty i n words w h i c h c o u l d s e r v e as an e p i g r a p h t o t h e Canto: We a r e so b e g o t t e n by n a t u r e t h a t we appear t o be made no t f o r p l a y and f u n , b u t r a t h e r f o r h a r d s h i p s , and f o r o c c u p a t i o n s o f g r e a t e r g r a v i t y and moment. 22 A q u i n a s ' s t a t e m e n t t h a t " e x c e s s i v e p l a y p e r t a i n s t o s e n s e l e s s m i r t h " * - ' l i n k s Spenser even more c l o s e l y t o t h e A q u i n i a n t r a d i t i o n . P h a e d r i a ' s words i n Canto V I , 16-17 c l e a r l y p o i n t t o Matthew 6: 25-34, 'The Sermon on t h e Mount.' She a l m o s t p a r a p h r a s e s t h e argument o f t h i s p a r t o f s c r i p t u r e : 55 The l i l y . . . l e a v e fJPl o f f t h i s t o i l s o m e weary s t o u r L o f l o how b r a v e she decks h e r bounteous bower . . . Y e t n e i t h e r s p i n s nor c a r d s , ne c a r e s nor f r e t s But t o h e r mother, N a t u r e , a l l her c a r e she l e t s . ( V I , 16) W h i l e v e g e t a b l e n a t u r e t a k e s ease, man must s t r u g g l e : "What b o o t s i t a l l t o have and n o t h i n g use" (VI,17)? The answer was g i v e n by C i c e r o . P h a e d r i a would have man evade t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g human. F o r man i s c l o s e r t o God t h a n any l i l y o f t h e f i e l d . I n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t , G e o f f r e y C l i v e e x p l a i n s t h e p a r a b l e o f t h e Sermon on t h e Mount: F o r man, w h i c h i s t h e p o i n t o f t h e New Testament parable*,,can o n l y become l i k e a l i l y i n t h e f i e l d w h i l e t h e l i l y -i:s~what i t i s by n a t u r e . 2 5 Cymochles l i s t e n s t o P h a e d r i a ; Guyon does n o t . P h a e d r i a embodies a t h r e a t t o Guyon's h e r o i c q u e s t . Her championship o f e x c e s s i v e c o n c u p i s c e n c e w i l l " d i m i n i s h a n g e r , " hence, Guyon*s anger w i l l be d i s s o l v e d by c o n c u p i s c e n c e . She i s s u c c e s s f u l i n overcoming Cymochles' w r a t h f u l purpose ( V I , 1 3 ) , b u t t h i s i s because Cymochles i s p a t h o l o g i c a l l y c o n c u p i s c e n t . P h a e d r i a ' s t e m p t a t i o n o f Guyon i s e x a c t l y t h e same: "So d i d she a l l t h a t n i g h t h i s c o n s t a n t h e a r t / Withdraw from t h o u g h t o f w a r l i k e e n t e r p r i s e / And drown i n d i s s o l u t e d e l i g h t s . . . " ( V I , 2 5 ) . On a n o t h e r l e v e l , P h a e d r i a becomes an agent o f S a t a n , b e n t on impeding t h e C h r i s t i a n s o l d i e r ' s q u e s t . 56 A l t h o u g h s e p a r a t e d from t h e Palmer, Guyon i s a t no time s e r i o u s l y tempted: "But he was w i s e and wary o f h e r w i l l / And e v e r h e l d h i s hand upon h i s h e a r t . . . / F a i r l y t e m p e r i n g , f o n d d e s i r e subdued/And e v e r h e r d e s i r e d t o d e p a r t " ( V I , 2 6 ) . Here Spenser m a n i p u l a t e s t h e r e a d e r ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e t e m p t a t i o n . I n Canto X X I I I P h a e d r i a l i k e n s Guyon t o a s h i p : "Who f a r e s on sea mayy n o t command h i s way,/Ne wind and weather a t h i s p l e a s u r e c a l l . " T h i s b r i n g s t o mind t h e l a s t l i n e o f Book I I , as t h e palmer s a y s , "But l e t us hence d e p a r t , w h i l s t weather s e r v e s and w i n d . " That t h e f i n a l Canto complements Canto V I i s c l e a r . The p a r a l l e l f i g u r e s o f Cymochles G r i l l , P h a e d r i a - A c r a s i a r e - i n f o r c e our r e s p o n s e t o t h e e a r l i e r e p i s o d e . Man i n time has l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o work ou t h i s own d e s t i n y . We a r e c o n s t a n t l y reminded t h a t time moves e v e r onward: P h a e d r i a "ever bade Guyon s t a y t i l l t i m e t h e t i d e renewed." The a l l u s i o n t o t h e adage i s o b v i o u s — t i m e and t i d e do.not w a i t f o r any man. He i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h two c h o i c e s : a c t c o n s t r u c t i v e l y o r a c t d e s t r u c t i v e l y , and t h e p a s s i v i t y w h i c h P h a e d r i a embodies i s f o r Spenser j u s t as d e s t r u c t i v e and j u s t as u n d e r m i n i n g t o t h e h e r o i c q u e s t as i s i M a m r a o n ' s p e r v e r s i o n o f t h e h e r o i c q u e s t i n t h e n e x t Canto. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Guyon a g a i n e x e r c i s e s clemency, t h i s t i m e i n r e l a t i o n t o Cymochles. We a r e l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t Guyon g i v e s up h i s f i g h t due t o clemency, whereas Cymochles d e s i s t s o n l y i n o r d e r t o r e t u r n t o h i s " p l e a s a n c e : " 57 Yet at her f a i r speech t h e i r rages gan rele n t . . .Such power have; such i s the might Of courteous clemency i n gentle heart. (VI f36) The pleasing words are Phaedria's reference to "gentle amity and amours." These are what appeal most to Cymochles. After Guyon has successfully weathered the temptation of excessive concupiscence he i s immediately tested by excessive i r a s c i b i l i t y . A t i n once more accuses Guyon of cowardice: (VI,39) "But sober Guyon hearing him so r a i l / Though somewhat moved i n his mighty heart/Yet with strong reason mastered passion f r a i l . . . " (VI,40). Meekness once more masters anger. At t h i s point, Pyrochles, now i n a state of t o t a l domination by his choler, enters and t r i e s to drown himself, and can only be restored to health by Archimago. The idea that intemperance can lead to actual physical disease here i s re-inforced, and emphasizes to the reader, the t r a d i t i o n a l , Platonic notion of temperance as health. We come now to,.a consideration of Canto VII. Mammon, an example of the fourth complexion—melancholy, i s "a dweller i n earth,. . . cr a f t y , avaricious, despondent, misanthropic and t i m i d . " ^ The four perturbations: Pyrochles excessive choler, Cymochles' excessive phlegm, Phaedria's excessive sanguineness, and Mammon's excessive melancholy are a l l aspects of what James Carscallen c a l l s "a world i n furor." In f a c t , his account of what happens i n the book of temperance encompasses these four examples: 58 . . . t h e demon o f chaos p u t s on more and more s u b t l e forms i n an att e m p t t o b r i n g Guyon's temperance t o r u i n , u n t i l c o n c l u s i v e l y overcome by a ' v i r t u e whose s t r u c t u r e i s more whole t h a n any t h a t chaos can overcome.27 J u s t as P h a e d r i a ' s t e m p t a t i o n would have undermined Guyon's h e r o i c n a t u r e , so Mammon's t e m p t a t i o n , "a p e r v e r s i o n 28 o f t h e i r a s c i b l e a p p e t i t e i n t o c r u e l means and i g n o b l e ends" would l e a d G u y o n . i n t o p u r s u i t o f t h e f a l s e h e r o i c r a t h e r t h a n t h e t r u l y h e r o i c . Mammon,'s t e m p t a t i o n o f Guyon p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f S a t a n i n P a r a d i s e Regained and b o t h a r e based on Satan's t r i p l e t e m p t a t i o n o f C h r i s t i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s as d e s c r i b e d i n Luke 4. Donald R. Howard has shown t h a t t h e t e m p t a t i o n i n Luke was t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e t h r e e t e m p t a t i o n s i n 1 John 2: 15-16: Love n o t t h e w o r l d , n e i t h e r t h e t h i n g s t h a t a r e i n t h e w o r l d . I f any man l o v e t h e w o r l d , t h e l o v e o f t h e F a t h e r i s n o t i n . h i m . F o r a l l t h a t i s i s i n t h e w o r l d , t h e l u s t o f t h e f l e s h , and t h e l u s t o f t h e ey e s , and t h e p r i d e o f l i f e , i s not o f t h e F a t h e r , b u t i s o f t h e w o r l d . 29 I t i s c l e a r t h a t Mammon r e p r e s e n t s t h e World i n i t s e t h i c a l , r e l i g i o u s sense: "God o f t h e w o r l d and w o r l d l i n g s I me c a l l , " ( VII,8) b u t he r e p r e s e n t s more s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e l a s t two v i c e s o f t h e u n h o l y t r i n i t y p r e v i o u s l y q u o t e d : t h e l u s t o f t h e eyes and t h e p r i d e o f l i f e . He v i e s w i t h God H i m s e l f , and i s th u s g u i l t y o f t h e p r i d e o f l i f e . 59 Guyon has a l r e a d y r e s i s t e d , i n t h e form o f P h a e d r i a , t h e l u s t o f t h e f l e s h ; Mammon c o n t i n u e s t h e t e m p t a t i o n , however; and h i s t e m p t a t i o n i s t h e l u s t o f t h e e y e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Howard, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e t h r e e f o l d form o f t e m p t a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o cthe n o t i o n o f t h e t r i p a r t i t e s o u l , w i t h each t e m p t a t i o n aimed a t a p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f man's s o u l . Thus, t h e l u s t o f t h e f l e s h was aimed a t t h e v e g e t a t i v e s o u l (whose f a c u l t i e s a r e con c e r n e d w i t h b e g e t t i n g . ) Indeed, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l u s t o f t h e f l e s h and v e g e t a b l e n a t u r e i s such t h a t P h a e d r i a d e l i b e r a t e l y aims a t man's t e n d e n c i e s t o become l i k e t h e l i l i e s o f t h e f i e l d ; and Cymochles, who f a l l s p r e y t o t h e t e m p t a t i o n i s l i t t l e b e t t e r t h a n a v e g e t a b l e , s u r r o u n d e d as he i s i n h i s s l o t h f u l s t u p o r by t e n d r i l l e d p l a n t s i n Canto V I . The l u s t o f t h e eyes i s aimed a t man's s e n s i b l e s o u l , h i s w i l l . G l u t t o n y , a v a r i c e , and v a i n g l o r y were a r r a n g e d i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e f l e s h and c o n c l u d i n g w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l f a c u l t y . 30 Thus, P h a e d r i a ' s t e m p t a t i o n i s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v o c a b u l a r y o f t e m p t a t i o n , e q u i v a l e n t t o s u g g e s t i o n ( s i n c e Eve was f i r s t tempted by g l u t t o n y t h e a p p l e , w h i l e t h e l u s t o f t h e eyes r e p r e s e n t s t h e second s t a g e o f t e m p t a t i o n : d e l e c t a t i o n — d e l i g h t i n s i n ( r e l a t e d t o t h e w i l l ) , w h i l e t h e t h i r d and f i n a l s t a g e i s c o n s e n t , r e p r e s e n t e d by v a i n g l o r y ( and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e a s o n ) . 60 I n t h e s e t e r m s , t h e most one c o u l d say about Mammon i s t h a t he su c c e e d s , perhaps i n i n a d v e r t e n t l y d u p i n g Guyon i n t o d e l e c t a t i o n : a s o r t o f a v a r i c i o u s l u s t o f t h e e y e s , f o r t h e c u r i o s i t a s w h i c h Guyon m a n i f e s t s was t r a d i t i o n a l l y l i n k e d w i t h a v a r i c e . And A q u i n a s h e l d c u r i o s i t y t o be a p a r t o f in t e m p e r a n c e . However, P a t r i c k C u l l e n w i s e l y draws t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between a tendency t o s i n and a c t u a l s i n , p l a c i n g Guyon i n t h e former c a t e g o r y . He adds t h a t Guyon i s w e a k - w i l l e d i n t h e P h a e d r i a and A c r a s i a e p i s o d e s , b u t a g a i n , h i s a c t i o n s i n a l l t h r e e e p i s o d e s do n o t c o n s t i t u t e s i n . Mammon f i r s t tempts Guyon w i t h g o l d (the W o r l d , o r a v a r i c e ) and n e x t w i t h g l o r y (the D e v i l , p r i d e o f l i f e ) b o t h w h i c h he r e f u s e s , as he does w i t h t h e n e x t t e m p t a t i o n — t h a t o f t h e f l e s h . I t o c c u r s when Mammon i m p l o r e s Guyon t o e a t t h e g o l d e n a p p l e and t o s i t on t h e s i l v e r s t o o l i n t h e Garden o f P r o s e r p i n e ( V I I , 6 3 ) . P r i d e o f l i f e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f i g u r e s o f T a n t a l u s and P i l a t e , t h e common denominator between whom i s presumptuous p r i d e w h i c h i s m a n i f e s t e d i n a d i s t r u s t o f God and a p r o f a n a t i o n by parody o f t h e two sacraments whereby man i s renewed i n g r a c e and i n f a i t h , t h e E u c h a r i s t and Holy B a p t i s m . . . . T a n t a l u s p r o f a n e d t h e h o l y s e c r e t s o f d i v i n e knowledge by o f f e r i n g them t o m o r t a l s , and he s t o l e n e c t a r and ambr o s i a from t h e gods; Adam a l s o b r o k e a d i v i n e i n j u n c t i o n apropos knowledge, and he s e i z e d what was a l l o c a t e d f o r t h e gods and p r o h i b i t e d t o m o r t a l s . L i k e Adam, t h e n , T a n t a l u s 61 presumed a g a i n s t , and t o t h e Godhead . . . . T a n t a l u s , 'blaspheming heaven' presumes t o judge th e gods j u s t as P i l a t e was t o judge a n o t h e r God. P i l a t e ' s 'washing o f h i s hands* i s a blasphemous parody o f t h e C h r i s t i a n man's ac c e p t a n c e of t h e c l e a n s i n g w a t e r s o f b a p t i s m and g r a c e , j u s t as T a n t a l u s ' d e s i r e f o r t h e f r u i t and w ater i s a parody o f t h e E u c h a r i s t . . . . The s u p e r b i a v i t a e . . . t h a t l e d t h e D e v i l t o presume t o t h e Godhead, ITnks T a n t a l u s and P i l a t e t o each o t h e r and t o Mammon. 32 Having undergone such r i g o r o u s t e m p t a t i o n , Guyon f a i n t s . T h i s f a i n t has been r e g a r d e d by some c r i t i c s i n a n e g a t i v e l i g h t . C u l l e n n o t e s t h e v i e w s o f some o f Guyon's s t e r n e r c r i t i c s : B e r g e r contends t h a t t h e f a i n t i s r e l a t e d t o 'an u n p r o f i t a b l e c u r i o s i t y ' . . . . H a m i l t o n . . . argues t h a t t h e f a i n t i s 'a s p i r i t u a l d e a t h , ' t h a t t h e p r o s t r a t e Guyon i s 'an emblem o f man's body dominated by t h e i r a s c i b l e and c o n c u p i s c e n t a f f e c t i o n s . . .; Evans m a i n t a i n s t h a t . . . 'His f a l l i s due t o p r i d e : he has f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f human s t r e n g t h and . . . i s o v e r c o n f i d e n t i n h i s own v i r t u e s . . . . 33 C u l l e n c o n t e n d s , and I t h i n k , r i g h t l y , t h a t i n f a c t t h e f a i n t m e r e l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t Guyon, b e i n g human, i s u n a b l e t o d e f e a t t h e d e v i l w i t h o u t g r a c e , t h a t a l t h o u g h he can r e s i s t t h e d e v i l , he i s p o w e r l e s s t o d e f e a t him. Guyon i s p l a c e d i n t h e same p o s i t i o n as C h r i s t and a l t h o u g h a b l e t o i m i t a t e him i n r e s i s t a n c e t o i n t e m p e r a n c e , he i s u n a b l e t o harrow h e l l as d i d C h r i s t . I n r e g a r d t o Guyon*s r e s i s t a n c e t o t e m p t a t i o n s i n Cantos V I and X I I , t h e p o e t emphasizes t h e r o l e o f h a b i t i n t h e former ( w i t h P h a e d r i a he i s s e p a r a t e d from t h e p a l m e r ) , w h i l e 62 i n t h e l a t t e r Canto he s t r e s s e s t h e r o l e o f r e a s o n as t h e palmer i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p e r f e c t i n g Guyon's w i l l , w h i c h has been t e m p o r a r i l y a t t r a c t e d t o t h e nymphs i n t h e pond. However, Canto V I I p l a c e s t h e emphasis n o t on man's s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y , b u t on God's g r a c e . Guyon's c l a s s i c a l temperance cannot redeem t h e f l e s h . We c a n , t h e r e f o r e , see Canto V I I as t h e p i v o t a l p o i n t i n Book I I . U n t i l Canto V I I we see a p u r e l y c l a s s i c a l p i c t u r e o f temperance; from Canto V I I th e C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n o f temperance i s e f f e c t e d . H a r r y B e r g e r ' s n o t i o n t h a t Cantos I t h r o u g h V I I r e p r e s e n t n a t u r a l man, w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g Cantos f e a t u r e 34 man xn a s t a t e o f g r a c e i s w e l l founded, e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f t h e p r e v i o u s r e a d i n g o f Canto V I I . Then t o o , Spenser p r e f a c e s Canto V I I I w i t h two s t a n z a s on f r e e l y - g i v e n g r a c e : "And a l l f o r l o v e , and n o t h i n g f o r reward." Perhaps Spenser m i n g l e d c l a s s i c a l temperance w i t h g r a c e i n o r d e r t o show man's u l t i m a t e l a c k o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y : temperance a l o n e i s n o t adequate t o e n s u r e t h e d e f e a t o f S a t a n . Reason must be b u t t r e s s e d by g r a c e ; t h e m i n i s t e r i n g a n g e l t e l l s t h e palmer The charge w h i c h God unto me a r e t Of h i s d e a r s a f e t y , I t o thee command; Yet w i l l I n o t f o r g o . . . The c a r e . . . . But ever more him s u c c o r and d e f e n d A g a i n s t h i s f o e and mine. ( V I I I , 8 ) 63 The i n s t r u m e n t o f g r a c e i s A r t h u r ( C h r i s t ) who i n Canto V I I I d e f e n d s Guyon from t h e a s s a u l t s o f P y r o c h l e s and Cymochles. S i n c e Guyon has a l r e a d y r e s i s t e d them, however, t h i s seems un d u l y r e p e t i t i o u s u n l e s s t h e two b r o t h e r s here r e p r e s e n t "the enemies o f God and t r u e r e l i g i o n " as d i s t i n c t from t h e i r e a r l i e r f u n c t i o n as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f " i r r a t i o n a l t e n d e n c i e s o r t y p e s o f human n a t u r e " as K e l l o g g and S t e e l e s u g g e s t . That Spenser's i n t e n t i o n i s t o use t h e b r o t h e r s i n a C h r i s t i a n c o n t e x t i s v e r y l i k e l y , s i n c e , f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e y a r e r e f e r r e d t o as. paynims o r enemies o f t r u e r e l i g i o n . There a r e more r e a s o n s t h a n t h i s f o r s u g g e s t i n g a C h r i s t i a n scheme f o r t h e remainder o f t h e book, o r t h a t t h e r e s t o f t h e book f u n c t i o n s i n t h e r e a l m o f g r a c e r a t h e r t h a n t h e r e a l m o f n a t u r e . A r t h u r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n as "An armed k n i g h t o f b o l d and bounteous g r a c e , " ( V I I I , 1 7 ) becomes more s i g n i f i c a n t when we n o t e t h a t t h i s r e f e r e n c e i s b u t one o f s i x e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e s t o g r a c e ( V I I I : 1,17,25,52,55 t w i c e ) . Moreover, Guyon*s r e l a t i o n t o Adam i s made c l e a r when Cymochles' words remind us o f man's i n h e r i t a n c e from h i s g r e a t g r a n d p a r e n t : "The t r e s p a s s s t i l l d o t h l i v e , a l b e t h e p e r s o n d i e , " and A r t h u r c o n t i n u e s : 64 Indeed . . . t h e e v i l done D i e s n o t when b r e a t h t h e body f i r s t d o t h l e a v e , But from t h e g r a n d s i r e t o t h e nephew's son And a l l h i s seed t h e c u r s e d o t h o f t e n c l e a v e T i l l vengeance u t t e r l y t h e g u i l t b ereave So s t r a i t l y God d o t h j u d g e . ( V I I I , 2 9 ) Guyon, c u r s e d by o r i g i n a l s i n , must a g a i n and a g a i n be f a c e d w i t h t h e r e b e l l i o u s n e s s o f t h e i r a s c i b l e and c o n c u p i s c i b l e s o u l s u n t i l C h r i s t redeems man from t h e weakness o f t h e f l e s h . Guyon's f a i n t i n t h e p r e v i o u s Canto and t h e v a n q u i s h i n g of Cymochles and P y r o c h l e s by A r t h u r , r e p r e s e n t s Guyon's d y i n g t o t h e o l d man and a r e b i r t h i n t o t h e new man, a p r o c e s s w h i c h w i l l be c h r o n i c l e d i n t h e r e m a i n i n g C a n t o s . The words 'seed', ' c u r s e ' , and 'vengeance*, a r e a l l h i g h l y c h a r g e d . The c u r s e o f o r i g i n a l s i n w i l l be avenged by t h e seed o f woman. The r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r i g o u r o f God's judgement i s p r o o f t h a t Guyon's t r i a l s a r e y e t f a r from o v e r . A n o t h e r argument f o r t h e C h r i s t i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Canto V I I I l i e s i n t h e second s t a n z a , as t h e p o e t speaks of m i n i s t e r s o f god who a r e p l e d g e d " A g a i n s t f o u l f i e n d s t o a i d us m i l i t a n t . " One t h i n k s here o f t h e Church M i l i t a n t , and t h e c h u r c h as t h e body o f C h r i s t . J u s t as t h e Church i s t h e body o f C h r i s t , so t h e C a s t l e o f Alma, w h i c h f o l l o w s i n Canto IX i s t h e body o f temperate man: t o g e t h e r t h e y a r e a b l e t o d e f e a t t h e d e v i l and h i s a g e n t s . I n God's d i v i n e p l a n t h e u n r e p e n t a n t s i n n e r must u l t i m a t e l y be damned. So Cymochles meets h i s f a t e d h o u r , "For now 65 a r r i v e d i s h i s f a t a l h o u r , / That n o t a v o i d e d be by e a r t h l y s k i l l o r power." The judgement escapes no one, and Cymochles i s k i l l e d by A r t h u r and b a n i s h e d t o e v e r l a s t i n g torment ( V I I I , 4 5 ) . A r t h u r i s l o a t h t o k i l l P y r o c h l e s a l s o , and o f f e r s him clemency, b u t P y r o c h l e s d e n i e s i t : " F o o l . . . I t h y g i f t d e f y " ( V I I I , 5 2 ) . A r t h u r t h e n d e c a p i t a t e s P y r o c h l e s who "so w i l f u l l y r e f u s e d g r a c e " ( V I I I , 5 2 ) . A r t h u r ' s clemency i s p a r a l l e l e d by C h r i s t ' s f r e e g i f t o f g r a c e , w h i c h t h e s i n n e r d e n i e s . A r t h u r o f f e r s t o f o r g i v e a l l t h e paynim's s i n s and h i s i n f i d e l i t y i f he w i l l o n l y have f a i t h : "And my t r u e l i e g e m a n y i e l d t h y s e l f . . . / L i f e w i l l I g r a n t thee . . ./And a l l t h y wrongs w i l l wipe o u t o f my souvenance" ( V I I I , 5 1 ) . P y r o c h l e s answers, "But i n d e s p i t e o f l i f e f o r d e a t h do c a l l . " L i k e a l l t h e damned, P y r o c h l e s d e s p a i r s and d e n i e s l i f e . On t h e o t h e r hand, Guyon, wakened from h i s swoon,. -a d d r e s s e s A r t h u r as My L o r d , my l i e g e by whose most g r a c i o u s a i d I l i v e t h i s day and see my f o e subdu ';d What may s u f f i c e t o be f o r meed r e p a i d Of so g r e a t g r a c e s as ye me have showed . . . . ( V I I I , Guyon, t h r o u g h f a i t h and temperance, w i l l be s a v e d , and t h i s w i l l be adequate repayment f o r h i s redeemer. K e l l o g g and S t e e l e p o i n t o u t that t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f P y r o c h l e s and Cymochles w i t h Archimago. argues a more s i n i s t e r r o l e f o r t h e two b r o t h e r s t h a n mere t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e s e n s i b l e s o u l . 66 A g a i n s t t h e S a t a n i c , something more t h a n Greek c o n t i n e n c e i s r e q u i r e d , f o r a l t h o u g h c o n t i n e n c e may h o l d i t s own a g a i n s t anger and intemperance f o r a t i m e , o n l y C h r i s t and C h r i s t i a n f a i t h can d e s t r o y them. 36 Canto IX i n t r o d u c e s us t o t h e i d e a l m o r t a l s t a t e towards w h i c h Guyon i s q u e s t i n g . Alma's c a s t l e i s a t once an emblem o f t r u e temperance and an e d u c a t i o n f o r Guyon. However, t h e s t a t e w h i c h i t r e p r e s e n t s w i l l be u n a t t a i n a b l e u n l e s s C h r i s t f i n a l l y d e f e a t s t h e S a t a n i c i m p u l s e t o i r r a t i o n a l i t y r e p r e s e n t e d by M a l e g e r . Speneer p o i n t s t o t h e i r m u tual antagonism i n t h e f i r s t s t a n z a o f Canto IX when he opposes t h e temperate body and t h e d i s t e m p e r e d "monster:" "Behold who l i s t , b o t h one and o t h e r i n t h i s p l a c e . " However, i n Canto IX he d e v o t e s most o f h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f o r m e r , temperate i d e a l and o n l y g i v e s us a g l i m p s e o f t h e d i s t e m p e r e d r o u t o f M a l e g e r ' s army. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t w h i l e t h e e a r l i e r c a s t l e o f Medina was endangered o n l y from w i t h i n , t h e C a s t l e o f Alma i s a t t a c k e d f rom w i t h o u t . K e l l o g g and S t e e l e m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e former r e p r e s e n t s t h e c l a s s i c a l , c o n t i n e n t m a n — i n d e e d , Guyon h i m s e l f i n h i s i m p e r f e c t s t a t e — w h i l e Alma's c a s t l e r e p r e s e n t s t h e harmonious i n t e r a c t i o n between a l l man's p a r t s under t h e h e a d s h i p o f t h e r a t i o n a l f a c u l t y . I n f a c t , Alma's c a s t l e a c t s as a f o r e c o n c e i t t o A q u i n a s ' n o t i o n o f temperance as t h e d i s p o s i t i o n "of v a r i o u s p a r t s i n t o one u n i f i e d and o r d e r e d whole." Alma's c a s t l e i s l i k e S i d n e y ' s A r k i t e c h t o n i k 67 w h i c h s t a n d s i n t h e knowledge o f man's s e l f i n t h e e t h i c k a l and p o l i t i c k c o n s i d e r a t i o n , w i t h t h e end o f w e l l d o i n g and n o t o f w e l l knowing o n l y . 37 Spenser's image t e a c h e s ( v i r t u e ) n o t o n l y by d e l i v e r i n g f o r t h h i s v e r y b e i n g , h i s causes and e f f e c t s , b u t a l s o by making known h i s enemy v i c e , w h i c h must be d e s t r o y e d , and h i s combersome s e r v a n t , P a s s i o n , w h i c h must be m a i s t e r e d by p l a y n e s e t t i n g downe, how i t e x t e n d e t h i t s e l f e o u t o f t h e l i m i t s o f man's own l i t t l e w o r l d t o t h e government o f f a m i l i e s , and m a i n t a y n i n g o f p u b l i c s o c i e t i e s . 3 8 Spenser's o v e r v i e w o f t h e c a s t l e c o n t a i n s much m a t t e r w h i c h would have l e d t h e R e n a i s s a n c e r e a d e r t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n efc man's l i t t l e w o r l d t o more macrocosmic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : The frame t h e r e o f seemed p a r t l y c i r c u l a r And p a r t t r i a n g u l a r — 0 work d i v i n e . The two t h e f i r s t and l a s t p r o p o r t i o n s a r e — The one i m p e r f e c t , m o r t a l , f e m i n i n e , T h 'other i m m o r t a l , p e r f e c t , m a s c u l i n e — And t w i x t them b o t h a q u a d r a t e was t h e base, P r o p o r t i o n e d e q u a l l y by seven and n i n e ; Nine was t h e c i r c l e s e t i n heaven's p l a c e , A l l w h i c h compacted made a g o o d l y d i a p a s e . (IX,22) T h i s i s o b v i o u s l y an a l l e g o r i c a l p i c t u r e o f man's t r i p a r t i t e s o u l : r a t i o n a l , s e n s i b l e , v e g e t a b l e w h i c h Stephen Batman, t r a n s l a t i n g Bartholomaeus i n 1535, d e s c r i b e s : The p h i l o s o p h e r l y k e n e t h t h e s o u l e t h a t i s c a l l e d v e g e t a b i l i s , t o a t r i a n g l e . F o r as a T r i a n g l e h a t h t h r e e c o r n e r s , t h i s manner s o u l e h a t h t h r e e v e r t u e s , o f b e g e t t i n g , o f n o u r i s h i n g , and o f g r o w i n g . And t h i s s o u l V e g e t a b i l i s i s ]jke t o a T r i a n g l e i n Ge o m e t r i e . And he l y k e n e t h t h e s o u l e S e n s i b i l i s , t o a q u a d r a n g l e s q u a r e , and f o u r e c o r n e r e d . . . . And hee l y k e n e t h t h e s o u l e R a c i o n a l i s t o a c i r c l e , because o f h i s p e r f e c t i o n and • c o n t e i n i n g . 39 68 Moreover, Spenser's d e s c r i p t i o n o f man's body and s o u l c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e o r d e r l y u n i v e r s e o f w h i c h La Primaudaye speaks The d i v i n e e x c e l l e n c i e o f t h e o r d e r , o f t h e e q u a l l and w o n d e r f u l c o n s t a n c y o f t h e p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , as w e l l i n t h e g o o d l y and temperate m o d e r a t i o n o f t h e seasons o f t h e y e a r e , as i n t h e m u t u a l l c o n j u n c t i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t s , o b e y i n g a l t o g e t h e r w i t h a p e r f e c t harmony t h e g r a c i o u s and s o v e r a i g n e government o f t h e i r C r e a t o r , was t h e cause t h a t P y t h a g o r a s f i r s t c a l l e d a l l t h e compasse o f t h i s u n i v e r s a l l frame by t h i s name o f W o r l d , (kosmos) w h i c h w i t h o u t such an e x c e l l e n t d i s p o s i t i o n would be b u t d i s o r d e r and a w o r l d o f c o n f u s i o n . F o r t h i s word World s i g n i f i e t h as much as Ornament, o r a w e l l d i s p o s e d o r d e r o f t h i n g s . Now as a c o n s t a n t and temperate o r d e r i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n t h e r e o f , so t h e ground-worke and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f man's happy l i f e , f o r whom a l l t h i n g s were made, i s t h e v e r t u e o f Temperance. 4 0 W i t h r e g a r d t o Canto X, M i s s W i n s t a n l e y s t a t e s t h a t an i n t e r e s t i n g and r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t p r o b lem i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e q u e s t i o n why Spenser i n t r o d u c e d t h i s c h r o n i c l e m a t e r i a l a t a l l ; t h e c a n t o c o n t a i n i n g t h e l i s t o f B r i t i s h k i n g s i s one o f t h e l o n g e s t and c e r t a i n l y one o f t h e d u l l e s t i n t h e F a e r i e Queene, and i t has not t h e l e a s t b e a r i n g on t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e l e g e n d — t h e v i r t u e o f T e m p e r a n c e — w h i l e i n a l l o t h e r a s p e c t s t h e book i s a d m i r a b l y p l a n n e d and keeps v e r y c a r e f u l l y t o i t s main theme. 41 M i s s W i n s t a n l e y m i s s e s t h e p o i n t . T h i s c a n t o i s an extended i l l u s t r a t i o n o f temperance and inte m p e r a n c e i n h i s t o r y ; as B e r g e r says one i n o r d i n a t e example f o l l o w s a n o t h e r : c a r n a g e , a n a r c h y , s e d i t i o n ; murders n o t o n l y o f k i n g s , b u t o f f a t h e r s , husbands, b r o t h e r , c h i l d r e n . . . . Y e t A r t h u r , a f t e r r e a d i n g t h e c h r o n i c l e , i s o p t i m i s t i c due to a 69 p e r s p e c t i v e , b o r n o f h u m i l i t y , w h i c h r e a d s deep i n t o t h e e s s e n t i a l goodness o f man's l i f e i n h i s t o r y . . . . I t i s a p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h may be a r t i c u l a t e d somewhat as f o l l o w : 'How b r u t i s h n o t t o u n d e r s t a n d what we owe t o t h i s f a l l e n s t a t e . . . . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e many d i s r u p t i o n s , t h i s m o r t a l l i f e on e a r t h and i n h i s t o r y g i v e s us a l l ' w h a t e v e r good we have.'" 43 The i m p o r t a n c e o f F o r t u n e , however, makes t h i s Canto s i g n i f i c a n t n o t o n l y on t h e e t h i c a l l e v e l , b u t on t h e C h r i s t i a n l e v e l . O f t e n , an exemplary k i n g i s undone t h r o u g h no f a u l t o f h i s own. F o r example, kingdoms a r e reduced t o chaos because t h e k i n g i s u n l u c k y enough n o t t o produce and h e i r . I n s h o r t , t h e p l i g h t o f t h e temperate r u l e r s l i k e L u c i u s and Bunduca i l l u s t r a t e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f c l a s s i c a l temperance, and " a l t h o u g h we see t h e p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t o f P l a t o n i c sophrosyne . . . t h e a s s e n t o f t h e lo w e r t o h i g h e r 44 powers," s t i l l , by and l a r g e , t h e Canto p r e s e n t s c o r r u p t x o n i n t h e s o u l o f t h e government t h r o u g h weakness i n w i l l o r r e a s o n . The p o l i t i c a l anatomy d i s c l o s e s t h e weakness o f th e f l e s h — t h e c o n t i n g e n c i e s o f k r a s i s — m a y e f f e c t k i n g s . . . . N e i t h e r h i s t o r y as p r o c e s s nor any man i n h i s t o r y p o s s e s s e s t h e power t o redeem once f o r a l l t h e f l e s h l y s l i m e — o n l y C h r i s t . 45 The second s t a n z a o f Canto X I r e i t e r a t e s a major theme of t h e p r e v i o u s Canto. J u s t as i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t a f t e r an i n t e r r e g n u m t h e p e o p l e a s s e n t t o t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e new r u l e r , so t h e l e s s e r p a r t s o f t h e body, i n a time o f e x t e r n a l t h r e a t , must l e t t h e w o r t h i e s t member r u l e ; i n t h i s c a s e , i t i s r e a s o n : 70 But i n a body w h i c h d o t h f r e e l y y i e l d H i s p a r t s t o r e a s o n ' s r u l e o b e d i e n t . And l e t t e t h her t h a t ought t h e s c e p t e r w i e l d A l l happy peace and g o o d l y government I s s e t t l e d t h e r e i n s u r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . Y e t , as was i l l u s t r a t e d i n Canto X, even r a t i o n a l governance w i l l n o t always s a f e g u a r d man from woe. I t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r g r a c e i n t h e p e r s o n o f A r t h u r t o d e f e a t t h e e x t e r n a l enemies o f temperance, t h e a f f e c t i o n s . "Here A r t h u r d e s t r o y s s i n and S a t a n h i m s e l f , and h i s v i c t o r y i s a t y p e o f C h r i s t ' s 4 6 v i c t o r y o v e r s i n and t h e d e v i l . " A r t h u r ' s n a t u r e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n Canto IX as one w h i c h r e a c h e s o u t ( P r a y s e -D e s i r e ) — h e a l o n e can g r a p p l e w i t h s i n , and a l l e g o r i c a l l y , l i k e C h r i s t , he i n v e s t s h i m s e l f w i t h s i n and k i l l s i t . Guyon i s not a w a r r i o r i n t h e sense t h a t A r t h u r i s . R a t h e r h i s v i r t u e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a t u r n i n g away from v i c e ( S h a m e f a s t n e s s ) . The b e s t t h a t he can do i s t o c o n t a i n s i n , and t h i s i s why A c r a s i a i s o n l y c h a i n e d , n o t k i l l e d , i n t h e l a s t Canto. The e t e r n a l s t r u g g l e o f t h e a f f e c t i o n s t o s u b v e r t r e a s o n i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e adverb "evermore" ( X I , i ) . The s t r u g g l e w i l l be c o n t i n u o u s . A r t h u r , as i n Canto X, i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h man's e t e r n a l s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t e v i l . M a l e g e r hopes " t o w i n t h e v i c t o r i o u s s p o i l " ( X I , 7 ) — m a n h i m s e l f . H i s arrows a r e i n v a r i a b l y murderous: Ne was t h e r e s a l v e , ne was t h e r e m e d i c i n e That mote r e c u r e t h e i r wounds, so i n l y t h e y d i d t i n e . (XI,21) F o r damnation t h e r e i s no c u r e , u n l e s s i t i s t h e d e a t h o f t h e agent o f damnation. 71 M a l e g e r , whose name means " d e a t h l y i l l " , p r o b a b l y s y m b o l i z e s t h e " s i c k n e s s u n t o d e a t h " , a s o r t o f S a t a n i c d e s p e r a t i o n , f o r he i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d "As p a l e and wan as ashes . . . / H i s body l e a n and meager as a r a k e / . . . as c o l d and d r e a r y as a snake ( X I , 2 2 ) . H i s h e l m e t , "made o f a dead man's s k u l l " , s u g g e s t s G o l g o t h a . T h i s , as w e l l as t h e a l l u s i o n t o t h e snake, h e i g h t e n s t h e sense o f a p o c a l y p t i c b a t t l e between C h r i s t and S a t a n . I n t h i s b a t t l e A r t h u r must be p a t i e n t , f o r M a l e g e r ' s a l l y i s I m p a t i e n c e , who o v e r t h r o w s A r t h u r and would have k i l l e d him had n o t T i m i a s r e s c u e d him. I n t h i s e p i s o d e A r t h u r r e p r e s e n t s b o t h man and man's redeemer. Grace i s a g a i n n e c e s s a r y t o r e s t o r e o r d e r . T h i s i s t h e l e s s o n o f h i s t o r y and t h i s we l e a r n i n Canto X I ; even a p e r f e c t man i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e f a c e o f f o r t u n e , and o n l y t h e g r e a t e r f o r c e o f g r a c e can c o u n t e r a c t i t . The p r o o f o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n l i e s i n s t a n z a 30: So g r e a t e s t and most g l o r i o u s t h i n g on ground May o f t e n need t h e h e l p o f weaker hand; So f e e b l e i s man's s t a t e and l i f e unsound That i n a s s u r a n c e i t may never s t a n d T i l l i t d i s s o l v e d be from e a r t h l y band. P r o o f be t h o u p r i n c e , t h e prowest man a l i v e And n o b l e s t b o r n o f a l l i n B r i t a i n l a n d ; Y e t t hee f i e r c e F o r t u n e d i d so n e a r l y d r i v e That had n o t g r a c e thee b l e s s e d , thou s h o u l d s t n o t s u r v i v e . A r t h u r i s saved by T i m i a s , who perhaps r e p r e s e n t s A r t h u r ' s human n a t u r e t o whom g r a c e i s g i v e n . I t i s o n l y i n t h i s a s p e c t t h a t A r t h u r can a c c e p t g r a c e , s o l . l i k e M a l e g e r , h i s weakness 72 i s h i s s t r e n g t h . T h i s weakness i s f i t t i n g f o r A r t h u r , who r e p r e s e n t s man, as opposed t o Guyon, an e l f . The h i s t o r y w h i c h A r t h u r r e a d s i s t h e h i s t o r y o f r e a s o n ' s c o n s t a n t b a t t l e a g a i n s t i r r a t i o n a l f o r t u n e and i s marked by t h e weakness o f man. T h i s i s n o t t h e case o f e l f i n h i s t o r y w h i c h i s marked by p l e a s a n t n e s s and no s e t b a c k s . I n a s e n s e , A r t h u r , a f t e r h i s " f a l l " (XI,30) becomes t h e embodiment o f b o t h c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n temperance, f o r he t a k e s on Guyon's i n t e g r a l q u a l i t y o f shamefastness ( " p r i c k e d w i t h r e p r o a c h f u l shame") w h i l e he a l s o r e v i v e s "thought o f g l o r y and o f fame" ( P r a i s e d e s i r e . ) ~ Thus he has " u n i t e d a l l h i s powers t o purge h i m s e l f from blame" ( X I , 3 1 ) . A r t h u r ' s a l l e g o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e now s h i f t s from t h a t o f common humanity t o t h a t o f d i v i n i t y , s y m b o l i z e d i n Canto X X X I I - I I I as f i r e w h i c h , a f t e r l o n g imprisonment i n so s t r a i t p r i s o n . . . A t l a s t b r e a k s f o r t h w i t h f u r i o u s i n f e s t And s t r i v e s t o mount unto h i s n a t i v e s e a t . . . . So b e g i n s t h e b a t t l e between M a l e g e r (Satan) and A r t h u r ( C h r i s t ) w h i c h reminds one o f M i l t o n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f C h r i s t ' s v i c t o r y o v e r S a t a n i n P a r a d i s e Regained (IV, 502-71). M a l e g e r ' s seeming i n a b i l i t y t o d i e can o n l y be overcome by t h e Son o f God; and t h e r o l e o f b a p t i s m — t h e symbol o f man's a c c e p t a n c e o f g r a c e , i s a l l u d e d t o as M a l e g e r i s thrown i n t o t h e l a k e . T h i s b a p t i s m i s seen as a d e a t h t o o r i g i n a l s i n . A r t h u r ' s f a i n t and h i s l o s s o f b l o o d (XI,48) r e p r e s e n t ; t h e c r u c i f i x i o n . As a r e s u l t o f A r t h u r ' s v i c t o r y o v e r Maleger, 73 Guyon i s now able to confront akrasia, incontinence. With the source of impediments to temperance destroyed, a l l that remains i s f o r Guyon to r e - a t t a i n for man a state of emotional equilibrium. Just as Arthur took on Guyon's r o l e , so Guyon now takes on Arthur's. For the f i r s t time he d e l i b e r a t e l y seeks out an opponent, s h i f t i n g from a "turning away" to a "reaching out", from defence to offence. His long-desired confrontation i s about to become a r e a l i t y . A r r i v i n g at l a s t at Acrasia's t e r r i t o r y , The noble Guyon s a l l i e d And his sage palmer, that him governed . . . Both firmly armed for every hard assay . . ... (XII,38) They immediately encounter a grojp of beasts, representatives of the passions, who are e a s i l y quelled by the palmer. The i n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y of the passions i s hinted at as "The palmer over them his s t a f f upheld/His mighty s t a f f that could a l l charms defeat!? (XII,40). The palmer's s t a f f here (and e s p e c i a l l y i n Canto LXXXV) takes on the medicinal properties of the c a d u c e u s — i t keeps the temperate man healthy i n Canto XL, and cures the intemperate i n Canto LXXXV. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Spenser alludes e x p l i c i t l y to Mercury and the caduceus i n Canto XLI. This medical connotation of the palmer's s t a f f reiiforces the Platonic concept of temperance as health (see, for example, Plato's Charmides.) I t i s i n a state of s p i r i t u a l health and balance 74 t h a t t h e y e n t e r t h e Bower o f B l i s s , a s t a t e where t h e y " r u l e t h e f u r i e s w h e r e i n most t h e y r a g e " ( X I I , 4 1 ) . Here t h e y d e f e a t t h e c a r n a l s i n s o f g l u t t o n y , as r e p r e s e n t e d by E x c e s s , and l u s t , as r e p r e s e n t e d by A c r a s i a . Spenser h e r e r e t u r n s t o t h e s t r i c t A r i s t o t e l i a n d e f i n i t i o n o f temperance as r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e senses o f t o u c h and t a s t e . Thus, Spenser, m e l d i n g c l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h y t h r o u g h o u t t h e book, emphasizes t h e immense scope of t h e v i r t u e o f temperance. T r u l y , Spenser's c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e v i r t u e makes i t a worthy p a r t n e r o f g r a c e f o r t h e w o r k i n g o u t o f man's s a l v a t i o n . CHAPTER THREE ASPECTS OF TEMPERANCE IN MILTON M i l t o n ' s c e l e b r a t i o n o f c h a s t i t y i s n o t t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f a n e g a t i v e v i r t u e — w h a t Comus terms "mere a b s t i n e n c e . " Indeed, M i l t o n i s t r u e t o t r a d i t i o n s o f b o t h " c l a s s i c a l " p h i l o s o p h y and C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g y . He f o l l o w s t h e l e a d o f b o t h P l a t o and o f s e v e r a l C h r i s t i a n f a t h e r s i n r e l a t i n g c h a s t i t y t o t h e more comprehensive v i r t u e o f sophrosyne o r temperance. The a l l e g o r y o f Comus i s b o t h C h r i s t i a n and n e o - P l a t o n i c , and by d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e p a r a l l e l s between t h e two, M i l t o n h e l p s r e c o n c i l e them. C o n f l i c t i n t h e poem i s based upon two d u a l i t i e s , t h e C h r i s t i a n d u a l i t y o f t h e r e a l m o f n a t u r e and r e a l m o f g r a c e and t h e P l a t o n i c d u a l i t y between r e a s o n and a p p e t i t e . The h i g h e r o f t h e two r e a l m s , i n b o t h c a s e s , i s a t t a i n e d by f o l l o w i n g temperance, w h i l e t h e lo w e r f o l l o w s abandonment o f temperance. However, even t h e g r e a t v i r t u e o f temperance, under w h i c h M i l t o n groups s o b r i e t a s and c a s t i t a s , i s s t i l l w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f n a t u r e . No m a t t e r how v i r t u o u s , man i s i n c a p a b l e o f a s c e n t t o Heaven w i t h o u t g r a c e , r e p r e s e n t e d i n Comus by S a b r i n a . I n t h i s d e t a i l , Comus p a r a l l e l s Spenser's Book I I , Canto 8, where Guyon f a l l s p o w e r l e s s u n t i l r e s c u e d by g r a c e . 76 John A r t h o s r i g h t l y s t a t e s t h a t M i l t o n a s s o c i a t e s c h a s t i t y w i t h temperance, prudence, wisdom, t h e power o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n , and t h e power o f a s p e c i a l v i r t u e o v e r n a t u r e . The m i n g l i n g such a v a r i e t y o f v i r t u e s under t h e name o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r one i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y , and . . . i t i s c o n f u s i n g i f we l i m i t our n o t i o n o f c h a s t i t y t o c o n t i n e n c e , whether a b s o l u t e o r q u a l i f i e d , and t h u s r e g a r d i t as a n e g a t i v e v i r t u e . . . . I am persuaded t h a t . . . i t i s p r i m a r i l y a p h i l o s o p h i c v i r t u e t h a t M i l t o n i s . c e l e b r a t i n g under t h e name o f c h a s t i t y . F i c i n o ' s commentary on t h e Charmides, and i n p a r t i c u l a r on . . . sophrosyne (which he t r a n s l a t e d as t e m p e r a n t i a ) Includes so much t h a t M i l t o n seems t o mean by C h a s t i t y t h a t I t h i n k we may d i s c o v e r h e r e a t once t h e s o u r c e and e x p l a n a t i o n o f M i l t o n ' s meaning. 1 I t i s c u r i o u s t h a t F i c i n o i n h i s f o r e w o r d t o t h e commentary emphasized S o c r a t e s ' c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e young, t h e n o b l e and t h e b e a u t i f u l as p a r t i c u l a r l y n e e d i n g s o p h r o s y n e , f o r t h e s e a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r : t h e i r f a t h e r i s "a n o b l e p e e r " (31) w h i l e t h e y t h e m s e l v e s a r e " f a i r " (34) and o f " t e n d e r age" (4 0 ) . J u s t as t h e Lady speaks r a t h e r c o n t e m p t u o u s l y o f h e r " c o r p o r a l r i n d " so S o c r a t e s i n t h e d i a l o g u e speaks o f t h e need t o l o v e i n c o r p o r e a l b eauty r a t h e r t h a n b o d i l y f orm, o r as t h e Lady c a l l s i t , " t he u n b l e m i s h t form o f c h a s t i t y . " A c c o r d i n g t o F i c i n o , S o c r a t e s "wants a l l human a c t i o n s t o be o r d e r e d so t h a t t h e y e f f e c t t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e mind, and t o be d i r e c t e d towards l i k e n e s s w i t h t h e d i v i n e and t h e a c q u i r e m e n t o f wisdom." F u r t h e r , F i c i n o a s s i g n s t h e a e g i s o f sophrosyne t o t h a t p r i n c i p l e o f o r d e r w h i c h s p i r i t s 77 t h e work o f a r t i s t s and i n d e e d t o "the o r d e r o f t h e u n i v e r s e i t s e l f w h i c h i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e G o r g i a s . " F i c i n o r e f e r s h e r e t o t h e s e c t i o n w h i c h defends o r d e r and d i s c i p l i n e as opposed t o l i c e n t i o u s n e s s . T h i s h o l d s t r u e f o r t h e s o u l : I m a i n t a i n t h a t i f a d i s c i p l i n e d s o u l i s good, a s o u l i n t h e o p p o s i t e c o n d i t i o n . . . a s o u l marked by f o l l y and l i c e n c e , w i l l be bad . . . . i t appears t h a t each o f us who wants t o be happy must pursue and p r a c t i c e s e l f ^ - d i s c i p l i n e , and r u n as f a s t as h i s l e g s w i l l c a r r y him from l i c e n t i o u s n e s s . .". . We can w i n h a p p i n e s s o n l y by b e n d i n g a l l o ur e f f o r t s and t h o s e o f th e s t a t e t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f u p r i g h t n e s s and s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , n o t by a l l o w i n g o ur a p p e t i t e s t o go unchecked, and, i n an a t t e m p t t o s a t i s f y t h e i r e n d l e s s i m p o r t u n i t y , l e a d i n g t h e l i f e o f a b r i g a n d . 2 What a p p l i e s t o t h e s o u l a p p l i e s t o t h e universe. As we have seen, S o c r a t e s r e f e r s t o P y t h a g o r a s ' c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e o r d e r l y u n i v e r s e . There i s much i n t h i s speech t h a t b e a r s upon Comus. Comus h i m s e l f a l l u d e s t o t h e "cosmic dance:" We t h a t a r e o f p u r e r f i r e I m i t a t e t h e S t a r r y C h o i r , Who i n t h e i r n i g h t l y w a t c h f u l Spheres Lead i n s w i f t round t h e Months and Y e a r s . The Sounds and Seas w i t h a l l t h e i r f i n n y d r o v e Now t o t h e Moon i n w a v e r i n g M o r r i s move . . . . (110 However, u n l i k e t h e r e g u l a t e d dance o f t h e u n i v e r s e , Comus * c o n c e p t i o n i s a p e r v e r s i o n o f t h e o r d e r l y movement o f t h e u n i v e r s e — h e would b a n i s h ' R i g o r , ' ' A d v i c e , ' ' S t r i c t n e s s , ' and would s t r i k e up t h e band f o r an o r g i a s t i c r i o t — a f a r c r y from t h e o r d e r l y dance w h i c h a near-contemporary o f M i l t o n , John D a v i e s , d e s c r i b e s i n O r c h e s t r a . 78 Further, the idea of geometric equality as taught by observation of the heavens and earth i s the same argument which :the Lady uses to rebut Comus' famous speech on the earth's plenitude as an unregulated enjoyment of bounty. The Lady immediately sees the extremism of Comus' po s i t i o n and answers his charge that temperance i s mere niggardliness with the proportional geometric equality of Socrates. Comus obviously misunderstands the meaning of temperance when he says If a l l the world Should i n a pet of temperance feed on Pulse, Drink the clea r stream, and nothing wear but Frieze , T h ' a l l - g i v e r would be unthank't . . . And we should serve him as a penurious niggard of his wealth. (720-25) He adds that i t i s man's duty to l i v e a l i f e of licentiousness i n order to prevent the strangling of the earth with "her waste f e r t i l i t y " . But Comus confuses temperance with abstinence, unable to conceive of geometrical balance, of measure. The Lady corrects his error by c i t i n g moderation and proportion as correctives to o v e r - f e r t i l i t y : Impostor, do not charge most innocent nature As i f she would her children should be riotous With her abundance . . . . If every just man that now pines with want Had but a moderate and beseeming share Of that which lewdly-pamper'd Luxury Now heaps upon some few with vast excess, Nature's f u l l blessings would be well dispens't In unsuperfluous even proportion And she no whit encumber'd with her store . . . . (762-74) 79 The Lady i s associated with the v i r t u e of sophrosyne since she abstains from pleasures of the body i n order to f a c i l i t a t e "the p u r i f i c a t i o n of the mind, and to be directed towards likeness with the divine . . . ." This ordering of the soul and body while establishing and maintaining the su p e r i o r i t y of soul over body, i s e s s e n t i a l to the v i r t u e of sophrosyne, and i t s opposite i s the intemperance of Comus. As F i c i n o says i n his commentary, "But for the soul that i s not well ordered nothing e i t h e r i n or without the body can be well ordered." And i n his discussion of the d e f i n i t i o n of sophrosyne i n Plato's Cratylus we have an idea that may illuminate Comus. In the Cratylus Socrates defines the Greek term for temperance, sophrosyne, as i t were the welfare and preserving of prudence. For he thinks that the l i g h t s of a l l truths are inborn i n the mind, and i f one looks deep within oneself, a l l truths w i l l be discovered. And from t h i s we understand why he does not turn his gaze inward who i s immoderately attached to the body . . . . This i s why from the very beginning there i s a need for sophrosyne, for i t i s through t h i s that, the fog of passions being d i s p e l l e d , the mind i s made more serene and i s illuminated with the divine l i g h t of the sun, whence i t recovers f i r s t wisdom and then prudence. Since . . wisdom and prudence accompany sophrosyne, Plato. . . wishes i t to be understood that wisdom and prudence also are included under the name of sophrosyne. 3 In t h i s regard, one thinks of the Lady's praise of the "sun-clad power of Chastity,:" (782). Indeed the light-dark imagery throughout Comus underlines the d u a l i t y of reason and passion, s p i r i t and body, represented by the Lady and Comus. 80 So t o o t h e b r o t h e r s seem t o a t t r i b u t e t o " s a i n t l y c h a s t i t y " t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f sophrosyne: T i l l o f t c o n v e r s e w i t h h e a v ' n l y h a b i t a n t s B e g i n t o c a s t a beam on t h ' o u t w a r d shape, The u n p o l l u t e d temple o f t h e mind, And t u r n s i t by d e g r e e s t o t h e s o u l ' s e s s e n c e , T i l l a l l be made i m m o r t a l : b u t when l u s t By u n c h a s t e l o o k s , l o o s e g e s t u r e s , and f o u l t a l k , But most by lewd and l a v i s h a c t s o f s i n L e t s i n d e f i l e m e n t t o t h e i n w a r d p a r t s , The s o u l grows c l o t t e d by c o n t a g i o n Imbodies and I m b r u t e s , t i l l she q u i t e l o s e The d i v i n e p r o p e r t y o f h e r f i r s t b e i n g . (459-69) I n t h i s sense sophrosyne o r temperance i s t h e n e c e s s a r y v i r t u e w h i c h wards o f f sin-spawned elements w h i c h hamper man i n h i s a t t e m p t t o i g n i t e t h e d i v i n e s p a r k w i t h i n . These l i n e s s h o u l d be r e a d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h R aphael's speech t o Adam (P.L. V, 469-503). S i g n i f i c a n t l y , b o t h speeches h o l d o u t t o man t h e p o s s i b l i t y o f a s c e n t t o godhead by s p i r i t u a l p u r i f i c a t i o n y e t b o t h p r o m i s e s a r e u l t i m a t e l y f u l f i l l e d , n o t as a r e s u l t o f man's own v i r t u e , b u t as a r e s u l t o f g r a c e . We must remember t h a t t h e i n e x p e r i e n c e d b r o t h e r s a r e t h e s p e a k e r s i n t h e Comus passage above, and we soon d i s c o v e r t h a t a p o t h e o s i s i s i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t d i v i n e i n t e r v e n t i o n , f o r t h e Lady remains c h a i n e d , even a f t e r t h e b r o t h e r s smash Comus' cup i n t h e manner o f Guyon who d e s t r o y e d A c r a s i a ' s cup i n t h e Bower o f B l i s s . T h i s shows t h a t t h e v i r t u e o f temperance a l o n e , a l t h o u g h p o w e r f u l enough t o w i t h s t a n d t e m p t a t i o n , i s p o w e r l e s s t o a t t a i n f o r man u n i o n w i t h godhead. So, a l s o , must we remember t h a t Raphael's h i n t t h a t man's 81 bodies may at l a s t turn a l l to s p i r i t Improv'd by t r a c t of time, and wing'd ascent Ethereal, as wee, or may at choice Here or i n Heav'hly Paradises dwell . . .-. (P.L. V, 497-500) was followed by the warning, "If ye be found obedient, and r e t a i n / Unalterably firm his love e n t i r e / Whose progeny you are" (P.L. V, 501-03). Neither promise i s soon r e a l i z e d because neither takes into account o r i g i n a l s i n . Raphael states t h a f ' A l l things proceed from the one almighty" while the brothers r e a l i z e the "divine property of her f i r s t being," yet that which prevents man from returning to his f i r s t being i s incarnate i n Comus, "carnal sensuality." He i s l i v i n g proof that man has not retained unalterably firm His love e n t i r e . C e r t a i n ly Adam and Eve do not, and the Lady must pay the penalty for t h e i r l a x i t y . Milton was fond of St. Paul's statement that the body i s for the Lord and the Lord for the body. The brothers' words seem to draw upon Paul's e p i s t l e : Shun immorality. Every other s i n which man commits i s outside the body; but the immoral man sins against his own body. Do you not know that your body i s a temple of the Holy S p i r i t within you, which you have from God? (1 Cor. 6: 18-20) Milton quotes these l i n e s i n C h r i s t i a n Doctrine I I , 9 i n his section on Temperance. The poem's allegory from the outset stresses the difference between heaven (Jove's court) and earth. Heaven of course i s s p i r i t u a l , "calm," "serene," while earth i s "feverish." The virtuous are God's true servants. The Golden Key i s sophrosyne which opens the door to "the 82 P a l a c e o f E t e r n i t y . " The A t t e n d a n t S p i r i t s t r e s s e s t h a t he o n l y s e r v e s t h e good: "To such my e r r a n d i s . . ." He seems t o r e p r e s e n t t h e r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e and s e r v e s a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n t o t h a t o f Guyon's Pal m e r . The " f a i r o f f s p r i n g " r e p r e s e n t s v i r t u o u s o r r e a s o n a b l e mankind, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e b r o t h e r s and t h e i r s i s t e r . The " f a i r o f f s p r i n g " a r e " n u r s ' t i n P r i n c e l y l o r e " t h a t i s , t h e y emanate from t h e D i v i n e B e i n g , an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w h i c h i s enhanced by t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s . They "are coming t o a t t e n d t h e i r F a t h e r ' s s t a t e / And new e n t r u s t e d S c e p t r e " (35-36). T h i s i s an a l l u s i o n t o man's j o u r n e y t h r o u g h l i f e w h i c h ends w i t h a p r o m o t i o n t o Heaven where he may w o r s h i p t h e K i n g o f Heaven. I n t h e n e x t l i n e M i l t o n s u r e l y s u g g e s t s t h e v i a  d o l o r o s a o f t h i s l i f e en r o u t e t o t h e C e l e s t i a l C i t y : "But t h e i r w a y / L i e s t h r o u g h t h e p e r p l e x * t p a t h s o f t h i s d r e a r Wood." T r a d i t i o n a l l y t h e wood has s y m b o l i z e d e r r o r , as i n Spenser's F i r s t Book o f The F a e r i e Queene. I n t h i s c a s e t h e wood i s i n h a b i t e d by t h e S a t a n i c Comus (whose name d e r i v e s from t h e Greek k o m o s — r e v e l r y ) . The c h i e f e r r o r w h i c h he r e p r e s e n t s c l e a r l y i s i n t e m p e r a n c e . I t i s t o guard a g a i n s t t h i s e r r o r t h a t Reason o r t h e A t t e n d a n t S p i r i t has been s e n t : " I was d i s p a t c h ' t f o r t h e i r d e f e n s e and guard" ( 4 3 ) . To r e i n f o r c e t h e l e s s o n t h a t intemperance i s what he defends a g a i n s t , he t e l l s us o f C i r c e , a t r a d i t i o n a l R e n a i s s a n c e " t y p e " o f i n t e m p e r a n c e , "Whose 83 charmed Cup/Whoever t a s t e d l o s t h i s u p r i g h t shape/ and downward f e l l i n t o a g r o v e l l i n g Swine" (51-53). Here i s a r e m i n d e r o f t h e S a t a n i c p r i n c i p l e a g a i n s t w h i c h Guyon f o u g h t i n Book I I I , and a l s o a p a r a l l e l f o r S i d n e y ' s famous comment on t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f man: " s i t h o ur e r e c t e d w i t maketh us know what p e r f e c t i o n i s and y e t o u r i n f e c t e d w i l l k e e p e t h us from r e a c h i n g u n t o i t . " ^ I t i s a l s o c o r r e s p o n d s t o R o b e r t B u r t o n ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f man: So l o n g as we a r e r u l e d by r e a s o n , . c o r r e c t our i n o r d i n a t e a p p e t i t e s , and conform o u r s e l v e s t o God's word, we a r e as so many l i v i n g s a i n t s . . . b u t i f we g i v e r e i n s t o l u s t , a n ger, a m b i t i o n , p r i d e , and f o l l o w o u r own ways, we d e g e n e r a t e i n t o b e a s t s — a n d heap upon us j u s t and d e s e r v e d punishments. 5 M i l t o n sees t h a t t h e a l l u r i n g q u a l i t y o f intemperance i s i t s s o o t h i n g , b a l m i n g e f f e c t . I t can"quench t h e d r o u g h t o f Phoebus . . . .(.66)" T h i s l i n e s u r e l y r e f e r s t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e j o u r n e y , s o l a c e from w h i c h t h e p r o f f e r e d p o t i o n s seems t o g r a n t . I n s t e a d , man's "fond i n t e m p e r a t e t h i r s t " m e r e l y b l o t s o u t h i s r a t i o n a l p a r t and s t r e n g t h e n s h i s b e s t i a l p a r t . A f t e r h a v i n g t a s t e d i t , man, once " t h ' e x p r e s s resemblance o f t h e gods," i s changed i n t o a b e a s t from t h e neck u p — a p a r a l l e l t o G r i l l ' s mob i n Spenser. The A t t e n d a n t S p i r i t s t a t e s t h a t i n l i g h t o f t h i s p o s s i b l e f a t e he s h o o t s l i k e a " g l a n c i n g s t a r 1 from Heaven t o " g i v e him s a f e convoy." 84 Comus' ro l e i s that of the tempter, and l i k e Satan, Archimago, and Duessa he depends upon deception to defeat his adversary, the Lady. I t i s f i t t i n g that he be associated with i l l u s i o n , "the power to cheat the eye." Later the Lady f e e l s "a thousand fantasies/ . . . throng into my memory,/ Of c a l l i n g shapes and beck'ning shadows d i r e . . ."(205-207). I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Comus i s associated with the melancholic temperament. For of the three d i v i s i o n s of the mind: fancy, judgement and memory, the fantasy i s the most dangerous, able to produce "many monstrous and prodigious things" as Burton says. In Paradise Lost, Satan, too, r e a l i z e d the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of the fancy. I t h u r i e l and Zephon f i n d Satan next to Eve i n her bower Squat l i k e a Toad, close at the ear of Eve; Assaying by his D e v i l i s h a r t to reach The Organs of her Fancy, and with them forge I l l u s i o n s as he l i s t , Phantasms and Dreams, . . . thence r a i s e At l e a s t distemper'd, discontented thoughts, Vain hopes, vain aims, inordinate desires Blown up with high conceits ingend'ring pride. (P.L. IV, 800-809) Opposed to these chimerical fancies however, the Lady sees v i s i b l y the "unblemish't form of Chastity." At t h i s point there i s much to be said for Coleridge's emphasis on the Attendant S p i r i t ' s Prologue as a summary of Plato's doctrine of v i r t u e as reason i n the Phaedo. Here chast i t y primarily represents clear-eyed reason opposing passion. ("I see ye v i s i b l y " £216] .) Chastity as reason i s the guardian 85 that w i l l keep her " l i f e and honour unassail'd" (220). The Lady i s separated from Reason (Attendant S p i r i t ) , therefore, l i k e Guyon she must s a l l y f o r t h alone to be tested through a hard assay. Immediately she comes upon Comus who by false-seeming-good w i l l "wind his way into the easy-hearted man,/And hug him into snares" (163-64). The verb "wind" suggests the serpent, while "easy-hearted" s i g n i f i c a n t l y suggests the seat of the passions, which when overly powerful hug the body into snares. The song which r e c a l l s Echo's wanderings i n search of Narcissus p a r a l l e l s the Lady's wanderings i n search of God. Here the Lady represents Psyche, or the human soul, searching for the heavenly Cupid, or C h r i s t . The l i n e "so mayst thou be translated to the skies" (242-43) as well as the reference i n the next l i n e to grace establishes the C h r i s t i a n context. The C h r i s t i a n aspects of Comus also support the int e r p r e t a t i o n of chasti t y as temperance, p a r t i c u l a r l y since Milton i n Comus i s drawing upon Pauline and P a t r i s t i c notions of c h a s t i t y . I t i s i n the e p i s t l e s of St. Paul that sophrosyne f i r s t attains a place i n C h r i s t i a n ethics and morality, although i t s nature i s completely transformed by Paul's conception of grace as the source of v i r t u e : 86 For the grace of God has appeared for the salvation of a l l men t r a i n i n g us to renounce i r r e l i g i o n and worldly possessions, and to l i v e sober, upright and godly l i v e s i n t h i s world, awaiting our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior Jesus C h r i s t . . . . 6 This could stand as a broadside against Comus. The Lady's argument i n the debate with Comus i s e s s e n t i a l l y Pauline, for Paul counsels moderation i n the use of the goods of creation i n Romans 14: 17, 21 and elsewhere. Yet, as Helen North says, he avoids fanaticism and establishes the p r i n c i p l e that a l l God's creation i s good.^ He c a l l s them l i a r s "who fo r b i d marriage and enjoin abstinence from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the t r u t h . " 8 Paul normally conceives of sophrosyne as control of the appetites; hence i t i s easy to see how chas t i t y i s held as a subdivision of t h i s v i r t u e . North states that p u r i t y and chast i t y were regarded as the signs of C h r i s t i a n morality i n the writings of early C h r i s t i a n apologists "who confined sophrosyne almost completely to t h i s sphere."^ Here begins "the stubborn and r e a l l y quite f a n a t i c a l preference given to temperantia, e s p e c i a l l y to chastity, which runs through the whole history of C h r i s t i a n doctrine as a more or less hidden undercurrent." 1^ I t i s not possible that Milton's conception of the Lady's v i r t u e of c h a s t i t y was r . one of perpetual v i r g i n i t y . I t i s not so much sex that she shuns, but rather, f o r n i c a t i o n . 87 As mentioned before, Milton delighted i n the mystery that "the body i s for the Lord and the Lord i s for the body." This mystery i s further developed by Paul i n 2 Corinthians 11: 2-4: I f e e l a divine jealousy for you, for I betrothed you to Ch r i s t to present you as a pure bride to her one husband. But I am a f r a i d that as the serpent deceived Eve by his cunning, your thoughts w i l l be led astray from a sincere and pure devotion to C h r i s t . The "you" Paul r e f e r s to are the people of Corinth, obviously not a l l v i r g i n s . I t i s a s p i r i t u a l chastity that Paul speaks of here, a chast i t y attainable for a l l , and i t i s i n t h i s quotation that I f e e l we have the germ of Milton's e t h i c a l theme i n Comus. I t i s the nature of the vi r t u e of temperance to guard against Satan-Comus' leading men away from a "sincere and pure devotion to God." Let us explicate the r e s t of the poem i n t h i s l i g h t . At f i r s t sight of the Lady, Comus notices the "hidden residence" of d i v i n i t y i n her "mortal mixture." He r e a l i z e s at once that"something holy lodges" there. Her temperance i s superior to the sense-robbing "herbs and b a l e f u l drugs" of his mother, Circe; for the Lady's v i r t u e provides "waking b l i s s . " The contrast between the e v i l herbs and moly i s also set up here; the one symbolizing intemperance and the other, temperance. The juxtaposition of the Lady's "mortal mixture" and that of Circe r e i t e r a t e s the idea that man on earth i s midway between po t e n t i a l "brutal degeneration" due 88 to a f a l l i n g away from a l i f e of reason—as Comes interpreted the image of S c y l l a — o r to a po t e n t i a l union with God. 1 1 Man's divine or b e s t i a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s are thus reinforced through a c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n . We have already noted the a l l e g o r i c a l s i gnificance of the "way" i n l i n e 36; however, the a l l u s i o n recurs. Comus says, " I t were a journey l i k e the path to Heav'n/To help you f i n d them Cthe brothers)** (302-303) . After which the Lady asks for the "readiest way" that would bring her to that place (305). Comus r e p l i e s "due west . . . " and we are immediately reminded of Donne's "Riding Westward", wherein t r a v e l l i n g westward symbolizes a movement away from God. This of course i s what Comus desires to i n s t i l l i n the Lady's heart and intemperance would be the readiest way for her to embark on a journey away from God and from her "sincere and pure devotion to Ch r i s t . " In order to inv e i g l e the Lady into his parlour, he a f f e c t s the kind of temperance which Ben Jonson describes i n "To Penshurst", a scorn for a r c h i t e c t u r a l excess and ostentation: Comus would bring the Lady to "a low/But l o y a l cottage." S t i l l , the Lady places her t r u s t i n Providence, aware that she i s being tested. At t h i s point we see the brothers perplexed by t h e i r separation from t h e i r s i s t e r and greatly fearing for her safety. The second brother unwittingly names the two dangers 89 that beset her i n the person of Comus: "savage hunger" and "savage heat." According to Milton's C h r i s t i a n Doctrine both of these are forms of intemperance; the former must be fended o f f by sobriety, while chas t i t y must oppose the l a t t e r (Christian Doctrine I I , i x , 213, 217). "Sobriety," says Milton, "consists i n abstinence from immoderate eating and drinking . . . . The opposites of t h i s v i r t u e aiB drunkenness and gluttony" (CD., I I , i x , 213, 217). The danger of f a l l i n g to t h i s type of intemperance Milton emphasizes by quoting s c r i p t u r e : . . . be sober, be v i g i l a n t ; because your adversary the d e v i l , as a roaring l i o n , walketh about seeking whom he may devour. (CD. , I I , i x , 213) and secondly . . . nor drunkards . . . s h a l l i n h e r i t the kingdom of God. (CD. , I I , i x , 213) The outcome of the Lady's t r i a l then concerns the highest of a l l stakes, her immortal soul. Thus, on t h i s l e v e l we can share i n the brothers' concern. The second safeguard against intemperance, ch a s t i t y , Milton defines as "temperance as regards the unlawful l u s t s of the f l e s h : which i s also c a l l e d sanctification. s The unlawful laws of the f l e s h are fo r n i c a t i o n . . . "(CD.II, i x , 217), Chastity here does not mean v i r g i n i t y but lawful sexuality. The elder brother minimizes the danger, stating that his s i s t e r ' s "calm thoughts" (one i s here reminded of Aquinas' 90 d e f i n i t i o n of temperance as "serenity of s p i r i t " ) could not be s t i r r e d by intemperance (371). His next words illuminate the nature of her v i r t u e as they suggest that hers i s innate, not one of mere habituation, and thus i t i s able to stand unpropped by reason (Attendant S p i r i t , brothers): "Virtue could see to do what v i r t u e would/ By her own radiant l i g h t , though Sun and Moon/Were i n that f l a t Sea sunk"(373-74), Here Milton wishes to show the power of v i r t u e to stand alone. There i s , however, a suggestion of dangerous s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y on the brother's part, an overconfidence i n virtue's powers to defeat v i c e . He praises the realm of nature too much and we s h a l l see l a t e r that v i r t u e alone i s unable to rescue the soul completely although i t c e r t a i n l y i s able to ward o f f many of i t s enemies. The brother then goes on' to describe ch a s t i t y , which becomes a sort of s p i r i t u a l p u r i t y , a heaven-sent v i r t u e , yet her own. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the brother's unwillingness to a t t r i b u t e only to grace the v i r t u e of chas t i t y i s that i f he did, he would be disavowing the notion of fiee w i l l . For Milton the i n d i v i d u a l must make the f i r s t step towards his redemption. This i s the r o l e of temperance. Like Aquinas, however, the brother adds that one must not delight i n the v i r t u e as an end i n i t s e l f , but as a means to g l o r i f y God. At t h i s point Platonism and Paulinism merge, for i n the famous passage on the soul's graduation to heaven are combined common Platonic notions as well as St. Paul's concept of man 91 as the temple of God, while the reference to gross l a s c i v i o u s souls "Oft seen i n Charnel vaults and Sepulchers/Lingering . . . by a new made grave/As loath to leave the body that i t lov'd . . ." i s almost c e r t a i n l y based upon Milton's reading of Plato's Phaedo, section 81, a work greatly concerned with temperance. Such people, who according to Socrates . . . have followed a f t e r gluttony, and wantonness, and drunkenness experience t h i s fate, whereas the happiest i n the place to which they go are those who have practiced the c i v i l and s o c i a l v i r t u e s which are c a l l e d temperance and j u s t i c e . 12 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t also that Plato discusses retirement i n the Phaedo as a means of p u r i f i c a t i o n . He states that . . .the eye and the ear and the other senses are f u l l of deception, and persuading her to r e t i r e from them, and abstain from a l l necessary use of them . . . be gathered up and c o l l e c t e d into herself bidding her t r u s t i n herself and her own pure apprehensions of pure existence . . . (for) what she sees i n her own nature i s i n t e l l i g i b l e and i n v i s i b l e . 13 Surely t h i s bears upon the previous discussion of solitude i n Comus (11. 375-85). Chastity or temperance i s to be maintained because the more physical pleasures one receives the harder are driven the n a i l s which clasp the body to the soul. The temperate person w i l l calm passion, and follow reason, and dwell i n the contemplation of her, beholding the true and divine . . . . Thus she seeks to l i v e while she l i v e s , and a f t e r death she hopes to go to her own kindred . . . and to be freed from human i l l s . 14 The C h r i s t i a n conception of the u n i t i v e way d i f f e r s from the Platonic i n that i t i s not s t r i c t l y contemplative, but 92 active; i t i s beset by temptation and "assays." The C h r i s t i a n v i s i o n of e v i l as a force that w i l l eventually redound upon Satan i s stressed: Yea even that which mischief meant most harm Sha l l i n the happy t r i a l prove most glory But e v i l on i t s e l f s h a l l back r e c o i l . . . I t s h a l l be i n eternal r e s t l e s s change Sel f - f e d and self-consum'd . . . (591-97) Here Milton begins to emphasize the realm of grace as opposed to nature; the elder brother voices his t r u s t i n providence (11. 600-601). But the d e f i n i t e indicator of the need for grace i s the Attendant S p i r i t ' s advice: I love thy courage yet and bold Emprise, But here thy sword can do thee l i t t l e stead; Far other arms and other weapons must Be those that q u e l l the might of h e l l i s h charms. (610 The power of Satan can crush the brothers. What follows i s the i l l u s t r a t i o n of temperance's defensive powers; but we also see that temperance alone has no offensive power. The herb haemony which the Attendant S p i r i t likens to moly i s a symbol of temperance and with i t the brothers can break the enchanter's glass. When the brothers are given the herb they c a l l to Thyrsis " . . . lead on . . . I ' l l follow thee; t h e i r words are tantamount to saying, "Reason, be my guide." When we come upon Comus" dwelling place we see his true colours; he l i v e s i n an ostentatious p a l a c e — a monument to intemperance. Within the c a s t l e we see Comus pro f f e r i n g the ubiquitous cup, which the Lady refuses. I t i s clear that the 93 narrative action centers around t h i s Acrasian cup—the opposite of another notable cup--the g r a i l or the baptismal cup. Comus alludes to "fresh blood," and although he speaks i n the sensual sense we cannot help but think of the blood of C h r i s t . A l l the while the Lady has been r e i t e r a t i n g her lack of concern for the body. "Thou canst not touch the freedom of my mind/ With a l l thy charms, although t h i s coporal rind/Thou has immanacl'd . . . " (663-65). However, Comus continues his temptation; he o f f e r s her refreshment a f t e r t o i l , ease aft e r pain . . ./timely r e s t . . ." (687, 689). This he says w i l l " r e s t o r e a l l " (689). The irony here of course i s that Comus uses "restore^ i n the sense of "redeem", to bring back to health, which only the contents of the other c u p — C h r i s t ' s blood—can restons. She refuses the cup " f i t to ensnare a brute" and i n so doing, resembles the Son who refused Satan's g i f t — " T h e r e a f t e r as I like/The giver" (Paradise Regained, I I , 321-22). Like Guyon, the Lady r e a l i z e s that only such as are good men can give good things And that which i s not good, i s not d e l i c i o u s To a well-governed and wise appetite. (703-705) We have already discussed the celebrated debate which when concluded, gives Comus pause: Her words set o f f by some superior power And though not mortal, yet a cold shudd'ring dew Dips me a l l o'er, as when the wrath of Jove Speaks thunder and the chains of Erebus To some of Saturn's crew . . . . (801-05) 94 These l i n e s re-inforce the C h r i s t i a n framework of Comus, the wrath of Jove suggests the wrath of God which w i l l be vented upon the rebel Satan. The breaking of Comus1 glass by the brothers follows Spenser's Bower of B l i s s episode when Guyon smashes Acrasia's cup. I t also probably s i g n i f i e s the power of reason to r e s i s t temptation. But the Lady's bondage i s s t i l l not broken and w i l l not be broken u n t i l Sabrina "can unlock/The clasping charm and thaw the numbing s p e l l / I f she be r i g h t invok't . . . " (852-53, 54). This l i n e r e c a l l s the Attendant S p i r i t ' s Words "Yet some there be that by due steps aspire/ To lay t h e i r just hands on that Golden Key/That opes the Palace of Eter n i t y " (12-14). The c r u c i a l word here i s "aspire." Grace w i l l be given to those who seek i t , and t h i s i s the function of l i f e ' s t r i a l s , to e s t a b l i s h the "seekers." Sabrina provides the magic key of the kingdom to those who perfect themselves i n temperance. She represents grace. The f a c t that her invocation ends with the exhortation "Listen and save" supports t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Further, Comus i s "unblest", that i s , he i s cut o f f from grace (908), while the "fountain pure" c a l l s to mind baptism and grace. Moreover, the reference, "May thy l o f t y head be crownedM (934) establishes Sabrina i n a C h r i s t l y r o l e , a r o l e which i s further developed by the S p i r i t ' s , "Come Lady while Heaven lends us grace" (938). C l e a r l y Sabrina i s the instrument of t h i s grace. 95 Thus protected by Reason i n the form of the S p i r i t , and by Grace i n the person of Sabrina, the Lady i s "not many furlongs" from her "father's residence" (Heaven) 948 . Even with grace and reason, the human condition i s s t i l l benighted, however: "Come l e t us haste, the stars grow high/But night s i t s monarch yet i n the mid sky" (955-56). As the scene changes from forest to the Father's c a s t l e we r e a l i z e that the Lady's journey has been a journey to apotheosis, the way i s the C h r i s t i a n way. This apotheosis i s consistent with both Platonic and C h r i s t i a n interpretations. The s p i r i t addresses the Noble Lord of the Castle (God): Noble Lord . . . I have brought ye new deli g h t , Here behold so goodly grown Three f a i r branches of your own. Heav'n hath timely t r i ' d t h e i r youth, Their f a i t h , t h e i r patience, and t h e i r truth, And sent them here through hard assays With a crown of deathless Praise, To triumph i n v i c t o r i o u s dance O'er sensual F o l l y and Intemperance. (966-975) The three f a i r branches correspond not only to the scions of the Egerton family, but to the Platonic tree of ascent as described by Raphael i n Paradise Lost V, 496-503; they serve as well a metaphor for union, through p u r i f i c a t i o n with God. The notion of t r i a l as the purpose of l i f e i s contained here (970), and i t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t that i n the T r i n i t y Manuscript, l i n e 971 read o r i g i n a l l y : "Their f a i t h , temperance and t h e i r truth." The crown, t r a d i t i o n a l symbol of heavenly glory i s 96 the reward for having successfully weathered the assays of l i f e . The f i n a l picture of Heaven as the Garden of Hesperus contains the images of Ch r i s t ( C e l e s t i a l Cupid) and his spouse Psyche (the human soul). "After her wandring labours long" she i s rewarded with heavenly b l i s s . And a f t e r t h i s image of heavenly f e l i c i t y the s p i r i t s o l i c i t s the attention of "Mortals that would follow me" to heaven. He urges them to "love Virtue." Virtue alone i f free because i t alone i s obedient to natural law. This obedience to natural law which i s the essence of temperance, t h i s alone i s freedom; while Comus' disregard for natural law i s bondage. The general e f f e c t of -sophrosyne i s harmony and balance, whereas Comus' intemperance leads only to imbalance. "Virtue," says the S p i r i t , ". . . can teach ye how to climb Higher than the sphery clime . . . " (1019-20). I t can do t h i s by showing the way to p u r i f i c a t i o n . This i s both a Platonic and C h r i s t i a n concept, but the l a s t two l i n e s leave no doubt as to-the precedence of the C h r i s t i a n viewpoint: "Or i f Virtue feeble were/ Heav'n i t s e l f would stoop to her"(1022-23). Grace w i l l complete the process of apotheosis for the d i l i g e n t seeker of p u r i f i c a t i o n . 97 Earth cannot show so brave a sight As when a single soul does fence The b a t t ' r i e s of a l l u r i n g sense, And Heaven views i t with d e l i g h t . 15 The attitude contained i n these l i n e s from Andrew Marvell's "A Dialogue Between the Resolved Soul and Created Pleasure" corresponds c l o s e l y to M i l t o n ' s — t h e r e i s no "braver sight," no better way to g l o r i f y God than the exercising of temperance i n the face of temptation; for as Ml ton says i n Areopagitica: . . .what wisdom can there be to choose, what continence to forebear without the knowledge of e v i l ? He that can apprehend and consider vice with a l l her baits and seeming pleasures, and yet abstain, and yet dis t i n g u i s h , and yet prefer that which i s t r u l y better, he i s the true warfaring C h r i s t i a n . 16 Further evidence of Milton's reverence towards temperance can be seen i n these l i n e s from the same pamphlet: How great a vi r t u e i s temperance, how much of moment through the whole l i f e of man! Yet God commits the managing of so great t r u s t , without p a r t i c u l a r law or pr e s c r i p t i o n , wholly to the demeanor of every grown man . . . . God uses not to captivate under a perpetual childhood of pr e s c r i p t i o n , but trusts him with the g i f t of reason to be his own chooser . . . . 17 Milton's conception of temperance contains the notion of the mean between excess and deficiency, as well as r a t i o n a l governance of the soul's i r r a t i o n a l parts. I t represents imperviousness to the temptations of the world, the f l e s h and the d e v i l . 98 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the f i r s t lesson which Michael gives Adam i s a lesson i n temperance: . . . learn True patience, and to temper joy with fear And pious sorrow equally inur'd By moderation either state to bear Prosperous of adverse. (P.L. XI, 360-64) Prosperity, as well as adversity, i s a t r i a l - s t a t e to which one must be inured, for the danger of prosperity i s that one may grow to love the world too much. The danger of adversity i s that one may f a l l prey to despair and therefore become incapable of the action necessary for personal salvation. Adam's "teacher" also warns him to be temperate i n food and drink (P.L. XI, 472-76), and a f t e r showing him "what misery th' inabstinence of Eve/Shall bring on men," (P.L. XI, 476-77) he answers Adam's question: . . . why should not man Retaining s t i l l Divine similitude In part, from such- deformities be free, And for his Maker's Image sake exempt? (P.L.XI, 511-14) Michael's answer stresses the sage doctrine of temperance: Thir Maker's Image . . . then Forsook them, when themselves they v i l i f i ' d To serve ungovern'd appetite, and took His Image whom they served, a brutish v i c e , Inductive mainly to the s i n of Eve . . . Dis f i g u r i n g not God's likeness, but t h i r own, • • • While they pervert pure Nature's hea l t h f u l rules To loathsome sickness, worthily, since they God's Image did not reverence i n themselves. (P.L. XI, 515-19; 21-25) 99 Rather than serve God's image, or reason, they served Satan's image, or excessive appetite, and so were they j u s t l y punished. Adam must " y i e l d i t j u s t " (P.L. XI, 526). By r e f e r r i n g to "Nature's heal t h f u l r u l e s " Michael r e i t e r a t e s the natural law which Adam and Eve followed before the f a l l , "when with meats and drinks they . . . s u f f i c e d , / Not burd'n'd Nature . . ." (P.L. V, 451-2). Michael says that l i f e w i l l be tolerable only . . . i f thou well observe The rule of not too much, by temperance taught, In what thou eat'st and drink*st, seeking . . . Due nourishment, not gluttonous d e l i g h t . (P.L. XI, 530-33) Temperance, then does not rule out " f u l l measure" (provided Nature, not Satan, be the provider). Temperance i s not Comus's "lean and sallow abstinence" but the middle road between excess and deficiency. In his i n i t i a l discussion with Michael, however, Adam views temperance as a sanction for ease; indeed, Adam tends almost to p u s i l l a n i m i t y : Henceforth I f l y not Death, nor would prolong L i f e much, bent rather how I may be qui t F a i r e s t and easiest of t h i s cumbrous charge . . . (P.L. XI, 547-49) Adam too re a d i l y praises a l i f e of ease and i s "soon i n c l i n ' d to admit delight/The bent of Nature" (P.L. XI, 596-97). 100 Perhaps i t i s not worrying the text to note an element • of effeminacy here on Adam's part, for he i s described as " i n c l i n ' d " (P.L. XI, 596) and "bent" (P.L. XI, 548). Usually, Milton reserves such cfcLique imagery f o r Eve. Adam, at his manly best, i s firm, for example: "Such coueel nothing swayed/. . . his more attentive mind" (P.L. X, 1010-1011). And when Adam governs Eve i n the ide a l state he i s "erect and t a l l , / G o d - l i k e erect" (P.L. IV, 288-89). But Michael i s quick to point out that ease i s i n i m i c a l 5 to the d i s c i p l i n e d l i f e : . . .Judge not what i s best By pleasure, though to Nature seeming meet, Created, so thou a r t , to nobler end Holy and pure, conformity divine. (P.L. XI, 603-06) The "nobler end" i s to g l o r i f y God by r e s i s t i n g Satan's temptations. The showing of "the sons of Seth" to Adam d i s t i l l s a l l Michael's lessons, for t h i s v i s i o n demonstrates the necessity for constant v i g i l a n c e against Satan. Described as "Sons of God" (P.L. XI, 622)—a phrase used throughout the Bible to depict the epitome of the "true warfaring C h r i s t i a n " — they are undone by intemperance. They " . . . l e t t h i r eyes/ Rove without r e i n , t i l l i n the amorous Net/ They are Fast caught" (P.L. XI, 585-87). These erstwhile sons of God f a l l from the harmonious state of self-mastery, a state of 101 "melodious chime" (P.L. XI, 559) and "proportion" (P.L. XI, 562) by permitting t h e i r passions to usurp reason's throne. By so doing, they w i l l s i r e a l l the D a l i l a s of the world, those females who are " . . . so b l i t h e , so smooth . . ./Yet empty of a l l good . . ./Bred only and completed to the taste/Of l u s t f u l appetance" (P.L. XI, 616-19). Michael upbraids these former "sons of God" for y i e l d i n g " a l l t h i r v i r t u e , a l l t h i r fame/Ignobly . . ./ . . . t o swim i n joy (Erelong to swim at lar g e ) " (P.L. XI, 623-26). Michael's reference to the Flood at t h i s point shows the gravity of y i e l d i n g to excessive pleasure and turning from godliness to worldliness. John Donne's poem, "To Sr. Edward Herbert at Julyers" treats intemperance with s i m i l a r scorn: Man i s a lumpe, where a l l beasts kneaded bee, Wisdome makes him an Arke where a l l agree; The foole, i n whom these beasts do l i v e at j a r r e , Is sport to others, and a Theater, Nor scapes he so, but i s himselfe t h e i r prey; A l l which was man i n him, i s eate away. And now his beasts on one another feed, Yet couple i n anger, and new monsters breed; How happy i s hee, which hath due place assign'd To his beasts, and disaforested his minde! Empail'd himselfe to keep them out, not i n . . . .18 The image of the ark i n the second l i n e i n e v i t a b l y brings to mind the Flood, and so serves as a reminder of the rewards of wisdom (temperance) and the b i t t e r f r u i t s of intemperance, or the lack of r a t i o n a l governance i n the body p o l i t i c . Both Donne and Milton, and indeed, most Renaissance men believed that the duty of the warfaring C h r i s t i a n was to exorcize 102 the "beasts" of excessive concupiscence (emotions related to desire and pleasure) and i r a s c i b i l i t y (emotions related to anger and f e a r ) . After seeing the v i s i o n of the sons of Seth, Adam again approaches p u s i l l a n i m i t y . He bemoans the fac t that the sons of God " i n mid-way f a i n t " (P.L. XI, 631) but he t r i e s to blame women: "But s t i l l I see the tenor of man's woe/ Holds on the same, from Woman to begin" (P.L. XI, 632-33). Michael w i l l not tolerate Adam's i n d i r e c t shirking of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but r e p l i e s : From man's effeminate slackness i t begins . . .Who should better hold his place By wisdom, and superior g i f t s receiv'd. (P.L. XI, 634-36) As well as Adam, Samson—and indeed a l l men who y i e l d to the "batt'ries of a l l u r i n g senses-are rebuked by Michael. On an a l l e g o r i c a l l e v e l , Michael represents reason; he f u l f i some of the same function as the Palmer i n Spenser * s Faerie Queene. Reason prevents Adam (who i n his f a l l e n state 19 represents the "blind and fumbling w i l l " to which Milton refe r s i n "The Seventh Prolusion") from y i e l d i n g to pu s i l l a n i m i t y Adam, soundly instructed, c a l l s Michael the "true opener of my eyes" and the "enlightner of my darkness." In Books x'l and XII we witness tb? education of Adam; he i s taught temperance. Adam resembles the pupils i n 103 Milton's proposed i d e a l school i n Of Education, whose "young and p l i a n t a f f e c t i o n s " require a "special reinforcement of constant and sound indoctrinating to set them r i g h t and firm . . . in s t r u c t i n g them more amply i n the knowledge of v i r t u e and the hatred of v i c e . " 2 ^ Adam w i l l i n g l y accepts Michael's sound indoctrination: Ascend, I follow thee, safe guide, the path Thou lead*st me, and to the hand of Heaven submit, However chast'ning, to the e v i l turn My obvious breast, arming to overcome By s u f f e r i n g , and earn r e s t , from labor won, If so I may a t t a i n . (P.L. XI, 370-76) Michael's teaching f i l l s Adam with "admiration of v i r t u e , " and s t i r s him "with high hopes of l i v i n g to be a brave man" delighting " i n manly e x e r c i s e s , " 2 x the manliest of which i s to turn one's breast, shielded by temperance, towards Satan's darts. Adam's speech (P.L. XI, 381-83) suggests the C h r i s t i a n s o l d i e r of Ephesians who repelled Satan's darts. Michael's lessons provide Adam with the Ch r i s t i a n s o l d i e r ' s armour— temperance: Reason i n man obscur'd, or not obey'd, Immediately inordinate desires And upstart Passions catch the Government From Reason, and to servitude reduce Man t i l l then f r e e . (P.L. XII, 86-90) The e s s e n t i a l meaning of Michael's speech i s contained i n t h i s . speech from P l a t o 1 s Republic: 104 Temperance surely means a kind of orderliness, a control of c e r t a i n pleasures and appetites. People use the expression 'master of oneself* . . . . I think . . . the phrase means that within the man himself . . . there i s a better part and a worse; and that he i s his own master when the part which :is better by nature has the worse under control . . . . I t i s considered a disgrace when . . . the better part i s overwhelmed by ;the worse, l i k e a small force overwhelmed by a multitude. A man i n that condition i s . . . a slave to himself and intemperate. 22 Michael emphasizes the speed with which desires and passions can overturn man's r a t i o n a l world. Temperance, the " s p i r i t u a l armour" (P.L. XI, 491) derived from f a i t h , enables man to r e s i s t "Satan's assaults" (P.L. XII, 492). Adam i s now prepared to embark upon his journey through the wilderness of the world on his way to the c e l e s t i a l c i t y , and the phrase "where to choose t h i r place of r e s t " takes on further meaning; through the proper exercise of reason "which i s but choosing," they w i l l "earn r e s t " i n Heaven. He that committeth s i n i s of the d e v i l ; f o r the d e v i l sinneth from the beginning. For t h i s purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the d e v i l . (l John, 3. 8) Milton, according to Louis Martz, uses the phrase "Son of God" when r e f e r r i n g to Jesus i n Paradise Regained, no less than 39 times, whereas he refer s to him as "Saviour" 21 times, "Messiah" 7 times, and "Jesus" 6 times. Never 105 does he c a l l him "Christ." Martz thinks that Milton avoids the term "Christ" because he i s not writing about the l i f e of C h r i s t , but "about a composite, generalized being whom he c a l l s the son of God i n such an i n s i s t e n t way as to r e c a l l the opening of John's Gospel: 'But as many as received him to them gave he power to become the sons of God1 (1. .2)." Milton uses the phrase "son of God" so often because he wishes to stress Christ's exemplary nature and his manhood, not his d i v i n i t y . Christ's conduct through the road of "many a hard assay" (P.R. I, 264) becomes an exemplum which a l l temperate, f a i t h f u l "men can follow. Martz's idea i s convincing, even though he overlooks a c r u c i a l reference to the "sons of God" i n Paradise Lost (XI, 556-628). This reference i s important because i t i s the f i r s t d i r e c t a l l u s i o n to the promise that a l l men can become true Sons of God through r i g h t action. I t i s a message which echoes and ns-echoes throughout Paradise Lost, Paradise  Regained, and Samson Agonistes. Paradise Regained i s an exemplum of true C h r i s t i a n a c t i o n — the essence of which i s r a t i o n a l governance, t r u s t i n God's providence and resistance to the constant, C i r c e - l i k e c a l l of p u s i l l a n i m i t y . 106 As i n Comus, Paradise Lost and Samson Agonistes, the hero of Paradise Regained finds himself at the crossroad of "the straight and narrow way" and "the path of least resistance." The former path leads to Heaven; the l a t t e r leads to H e l l . Perhaps the chief difference between Chr i s t , the "perfect man," and two imperfect men, Adam and Samson, i s that both Adam and Samson at some point weaken and express the desire to submit to pu s i l l a n i m i t y (even a f t e r t h e i r i n i t i a l f a l l s ) . C h r i s t never even entertains the idea of taking the path of le a s t resistance. Adam, as we have seen, joys i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of a l i f e of "ignoble ease" before he i s armed against t h i s Satanic tendency by Michael. Samson, as we s h a l l see, on several occasions seems ready to submit, through despair. This i s why only C h r i s t (and the Lady) are t r u l y temperate, and Adam and Samson are merely continent, for according to A r i s t o t l e : . . .the continent man does f e e l temptation and the emotional perturbations which r e s u l t , but he imposes a reasonable control over his emotions through the w i l l , while the temperate man i s never tempted to emotional excess under any circumstance. 24 In a sense, Christ's experiences i n Paradise Regained are an education, an education which i s consistent with Milton's educational i d e a l , for although C h r i s t needs no exterior agent to subject him, l i k e Adam, to "constant and sound indo c t r i n a t i n g , " his experiences buttress the truth 107 already present within him. The goal of Christ's "education" i s the same as Milton's: " . . . the end of learning i s to repair the ruins of our f i r s t parents." Christ learns by experience, for his experience of Satan's temptations ensure that his truth w i l l not sicken into a muddy pool of conformity and t r a d i t i o n . For a man may be a heretic i n the truth, and i f he believe things only because his pastor says so . . . without knowing other reason, though his b e l i e f be true, yet the very truth he holds becomes his heresy. 26 Christ's experiences provide a pattern for man to follow " . . . by possessing our souls of true v i r t u e , which being united to be heavenly grace of f a i t h , makes up the highest p e r f e c t i o n . " 2 ^ Even the very l i t e r a r y s t y l e of Paradise Regained adds to the theme of temperance. Martz suggests that Paradise Regained i s not an epic, but a georgic. He l i s t s some s i m i l a r i t i e s between V i r g i l ' s Georgics and Paradise Regained. Both poems were of almost exactly the same length, and both were divided into four books. Moreover, Paradise Regained i s not written i n the grand s t y l e of Paradise  Lost . . . i t s writing i s simpler, more subdued, more d i r e c t . . . . I t seems, i n Paradise Regained that Milton chooses to make a 'middle f l i g h t ' i n the georgic s t y l e . Furthermore, the two works share a common e t h i c a l theme: the p r a i s e c of the temperate, d i s c i p l i n e d , frugal l i f e , as opposed to the grandeur, luxury, and vices of empires. 28 108 The former ethic i s Christ's; the l a t t e r i s Satan's. Satan attempts to shatter Christ's resolved soul through temptations of the f l e s h , the world, and the d e v i l ; and each temptation i s r e s i s t e d by true temperance. Christ's v i r t u e i s that of a r e a l man; i t i s the very opposite of that detestable " f u g i t i v e and c l o i s t e r e d v i r t u e , " the contemptuous description of which could serve as a preface to Paradise Regained; That v i r t u e which i s but a youngling i n the contemplation of e v i l , and knows not the utmost that vice promises to her followers, and rej e c t s i t , i s but a blank v i r t u e , not a pure . . . . Which was the reason why our sage and serious poet Spenser, whom I dare be known to think a better teacher than Scotus or Aquinas, describing true temperance under the person of Guion, brings him . . . with his palmer through the cave of Mammon, and the bower of earthly b l i s s s , that he might see and know and yet abstain. 29 Just as Guyon must t r a v e l "through wide, wa s t f u l l ground/ 30 That nought but desert wilderness show'd around," so must Chris t ; and as Guyon "At l a s t comes into a gloomy glade/ 31 Covered with boughs and shrubs from heaven's l i g h t , " J so does C h r i s t : "He enter'd now the bordering Desert wild/ . . . with dark shades and rocks environed round" (P.R. I, 193-94). Both Guyon and Christ are alone and cut o f f from external l i g h t . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n they are both confronted with The Prince of Darkness. (In Guyon's case, a : :Satanic "type"—Mammon.) For both heroes, the inner l i g h t of temperance must provide the strength to r e s i s t Satan's attacks. 109 Christ i s taken through types of the Cave of Mammon and the Bower of B l i s s . Like Guyon, Ch r i s t destroys the Bower of B l i s s , or rather, he destroys Satan, the creator of t h i s anti-Eden, by weathering his temptations. What Milton says of Adam applies equally to C h r i s t : God therefore l e f t him free, set before him a provoking object, ever almost i n his eyes; herein consisted his merit . . . the r i g h t of his reward, the praise of his abstinence. 32 The reason why there are few, i f any, dramatic tensions i n Paradise Regained i s that C h r i s t i s the p e r f e c t l y temperate man. Unlike Adam and Samson, C h r i s t at no time d i s t r u s t s God's providence: "Why dost thou then suggest to me d i s t r u s t ? " (P.R. I, 355) he asks, a f t e r Satan's f i r s t temptation—to turn stone into bread. Not only w i l l C h r i s t not y i e l d to the temptation of the f l e s h , but more importantly, he w i l l not permit Satan to lure him into p u s i l l a n i m i t y . The objects which Satan o f f e r s to Ch r i s t are things i n d i f f e r e n t ; i t i s the mental state which Satan represents and o f f e r s — a sanctioning of the easy way o u t — t h i s i s the r e a l danger which Satan presents to the Son; but He overcomes t h i s danger without wavering. Ch r i s t "temperately" r e j e c t s Satan's second temptation, a type of Bower of B l i s s , complete with an a r t i f i c i a l garden— "Nature's own work i t seem'd (Nature taught A r t ) " (P.R. I I , 295), 110 sumptuous and excessive food, music and b e a u t i f u l women. Again, Satan had hoped that C h r i s t would y i e l d to the f l e s h ; but to no a v a i l . C h r ist answered: I can at w i l l . . . as soon as thou, Command a table i n t h i s Wilderness And c a l l swift f l i g h t s of Angels " ministrant Array*d i n glory on my cup to attend . . . . (P.R. II, 383-86) In e f f e c t , C h r i s t t e l l s Satan that at any time He can "sli n k out of the race," but he w i l l not. Realizing that C h r i s t i s impervious to temptations of the f l e s h , Satan concentrates his e f f o r t s on t r y i n g to make Chr i s t d i s t r u s t God's providence. He therefore tempts Chr i s t with money, not so much hoping that C h r i s t w i l l f a l l v i c t i m to avarice, but hoping that C h r i s t w i l l y i e l d to the temptation to "take a short-cut" towards the achievement of his "high designs" (P.R. I I , 410). S t i l l , Satan by no means ignores the worldly appeal of his proffered g i f t , and points to those, who, favored by Satan, "thrive i n wealth amain,/ Wile Virtu e , Valor, Wisdom s i t i n want" (P.R. I I , 430). What Satan says i s true; i t i s an argument "prankt i n reason's garb." In Paradise Lost, Adam had noted that often. Satan's agents fared better i n the world than the agents of C h r i s t . Satan hopes C h r i s t w i l l use worldly success as an index of the f r u i t s of action. C h r i s t dashes t h i s temptation through patience, another element of self-mastery. Internal sovereignty i s more important than external sovereignty: I l l Yet he who reigns within himself, and rules Passions, Desires, and Fears i s more a King; Which every wise and virtuous man a t t a i n s : And who attains not, i l l aspires to rule . . . Subject himself to Anarchy within, Or lawless passions i n him, which he serves. • • • To know and knowing worship God aright, Is yet more Kingly: t h i s a t t r a c t s the Soul, Governs the inner man, the nobler part; That other o'er the body only reigns, And o f t by force . . . . (P.R. I I , 467-69; 471-79) Satan continues his temptations of the world by imploring Christ to seek worldly glory. But Christ disparages worldly glory; he seeks a higher g l o r y — t h e approbation of God: This true glory and renown, when God Looking on the Earth, with approbation marks The Just man, and divulges him through Heaven To a l l his Angels, who with true applause Recount his praises. (P.R. I l l , 60-64) Christ seeks not his own glory, "but his/Who sent me . . ." (P.R. I l l , 106-07) and the means by which one g l o r i f i e s God a r e through "wisdom eminent/ . . . patience, temperance" (P.R. I l l , 91-92). Satan next t r i e s to tempt Christ to act impatiently, to seize his " r i g h t f u l kingdom." Satan appeals to Christ's zeal and duty: Zeal and Duty are not slow, But on Occasion's forelock watchful wait . . . Reign then, what can thou better do the while? (P.R. I l l , 172-73; 18 0) The danger here i s that i f Christ heeds Satan he w i l l upset his emotional balance; i r a s c i b i l i t y w i l l take over his 112 r a t i o n a l government. The reference to "occasion's forelock" (P.R. - I l l , 173) r e c a l l s Spenser's wicked hag, Occasion, who i n c i t e d men to Wrath (Furor). Guyon i s almost overcome by Furor u n t i l the Palmer t e l l s him: With her {(Occasion] whoso w i l l raging Furor tame Must f i r s t begin, and well her amenage F i r s t her r e s t r a i n from her reproachful blame And e v i l means, with which she doth enrage Her f r a n t i c son . . . . 33 Unlike Guyon, however, Christ never submits to Occasion, mother of Wrath. It i s a curious f a c t that Spenser followed A r i s t o t l e ' s dictum that " i t i s hard to f i g h t against anger, but i t i s harder s t i l l to f i g h t against pleasure."34 Milton did not. Spenser exposes Guyon to excessive anger or i r a s c i b i l i t y before he exposes him to excessive concupiscence or pleasure. Milton reverses t h i s order, and i n the hierarchy of temptations, excessive pleasure i s at the bottom of the ladder, whereas anger ranks as a greater temptation. I t i s perhaps a comment on the nature of the poet who wrote so vehemently on the massacre at Piedmont: "Avenge, 0 Lord, thy slaughtered Saints."35 Perhaps Milton found i t easier to suppress pleasure than anger. Chr i s t answers Satan with a comment on the merits of patience: " A l l things are best f u l f i l l e d i n t h e i r due time . . . ." (P.R. I l l , 182). We have previously seen how Milton 113 subsumed patience under the v i r t u e of temperance (P.L. XI, 360 Patience i s a state of balance, of moderation which inures man to either prosperity or adversity. But patience i s also contr o l . It i s the a b i l i t y to r e i n i n the beasts of i r a s c i b i l i t y . Christ i s anxious to serve God, but he t e l l s Satan, "My time i s not yet come" (P.R. I l l , 396-97). His s i t u a t i o n i s much l i k e Milton's i n Sonnet XIX. The poet's soul longs to serve i t s maker "and present i t s true account But patience to prevent that murmur soon r e p l i e s . . ./ They also serve who only stand and wait."36 This l a s t l i n e i s ambiguous, for as well as meaning "they also serve who renounce the world" i t can also mean that the servants of God serve by r e s i s t i n g impatience and waiting for the kairos (the proper moment for a thing to occur i n God's plan for the world). Such moments, designated for c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t events, were c a l l e d k a i r o i by the Greeks and the New Testament writers, the most famous b i b l i c a l reference being John 7. 6: 'My time i s not yet come.' Satan's constant e f f o r t i s to get Christ to act before his time or kairos, and thus pervert God's plan. 37 Ch r i s t , through r a t i o n a l governance, quells Satan's temptation to f a l l into p r e c i p i t a t e action. Satan's f i n a l temptation i n Book 3, "to render thee the Parthian at dispose," (P.R. I l l , 369) i s another attempt to make Christ doubt God's providence and thereby prove him pusillanimous; for part of Christ's t r i a l i s i n the waiting. 114 This temptation merely provides another opportunity for Christ to prove the strength of truth i n an open confrontation with falsehood: "So fares i t when with truth falsehood contends" (P.R. I l l , 442-43). Ch r i s t i s also unmoved by Satan's ultimate worldly temptation, the kingdom of Rome. He sees the Roman Empire as an effete monument to intemperance, and describes i t as luxurious and gluttonous (P.R. IV, 110-14). Satan pretends to act as Christ's lieutenant by o f f e r i n g to r i d the world of the o l d l a s c i v i o u s emperor; C h r i s t i s only concerned with ridding the world of the A r c h - E v i l , Satan himself: "What i f I withal/Expel a d e v i l who f i r s t made him such?" (P.R. IV, 128-9). Chr i s t was not sent to depose the Roman emperor: "For him I was not sent;" he was, however, sent to b a t t l e " . . . Satanic strength/And a l l the world, and mass of s i n f u l f l e s h . . . " (P£R. I, 161-62). Chr i s t shows his contempt for the Romans, a people whom he describes as former v i c t o r s , but who now are t h r a l l s . The m i l i t a r y image meshes p e r f e c t l y with Milton's "warfaring C h r i s t i a n " concept. The Romans were once v i c t o r s or r u l e r s over the beasts within; now they are slaves to them; t h e i r passions r u l e . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , Milton describes these intemperate people as "effeminate" (P.R. I l l , 143). He contrasts them with, the "wise and v a l i a n t man" who, l i k e 115 Guyon, f e l t no compulsion to free G r i l l , the w i l l i n g slave to the passions. . . . See the mind of beastly man That hath so soon forgot the excellence of his creation . . . That now he chooseth . . . To be a beast and lack i n t e l l i g e n c e . . . . The dunghill kind Delights i n . . . fou l incontinence: Let G r i l l be G r i l l and have his hoggish mind. 38 Christ echoes Guyon, saying that "no wise and v a l i a n t man would seek to free/These thus degenerate, by themselves enslaved/Or could of inward slaves make outward freeT (P.R. IV, 143-45). Christ here stresses the importance of temperance. He then alludes to the Second Coming, and .. the Last Judgement (149-151). An eter n i t y of torture awaits the intemperate, f a i t h l e s s men. Satan t o t a l l y misunderstands the nature of Christ's temperance. He says that Christ's temperance i s " d i f f i c u l t and nice," (P.R. IV, 157) thinking, l i k e Comus, that the temperate person i s motivated only by whim, i l l - n a t u r e and the desire for "nothing more than to contradict," (P.R. IV 1 5 8 ) — a c r i t i c i s m which,/if applicable to anyone, applies only to himself. Satan's f i n a l two'temptations are temptations of the d e v i l . The second-last i s a temptation of knowledge. Satan asserts that knowledge i s not a worldly commodity; therefore i t i s desirable. Satan tempts C h r i s t to seek empiric 116 knowledge to the exclusion of revealed truth. This advocacy of s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y i s pride of the most insidious sort. This section i s not r e a l l y a comment on the f o l l y of studying anything other than the book of God's word. As Louis Martz says: Milton could have avoided a l l our worries i f he had only stopped a f t e r the l i n e s : '. . . h e who receives/Light from above, from the fountain of light/Nooother doctrine needs, though granted true' (P.R. IV, 288-90). But the personal involvement of Milton runs beyond the bounds of an easy propriety. For the C h r i s t i a n Humanist t h i s i s the greatest challenge: can he be brought to say that truth resides i n Greek achievements, i n and by themselves? 39 The answer i s , no; but Milton does not oppose knowledge. Rather, he i s opposed to excessive estimations of the value of knowledge; e s p e c i a l l y when knowledge i s held by some to be the "successor" of God's grace. To Milton, but for the grace of God, man would always be a beastly lump. We should remember Michael's words i n Paradise Lost: ". . .his obedience/Imputed becomes t h e i r s by F a i t h , his merits/To save them, not t h e i r own, though l e g a l works" (P.L. XII, 407-08). It i s imperative to govern a l l the beasts within, e s p e c i a l l y the beast of pride. Man i s "degraded by himself, on grace depending . . . ." and yet some " . . . a l l glory arrogate, to God give none" (P.R. IV, 312; 314-15). Satan f i n a l l y tempts C h r i s t with presumption or excessive pride; for i f C h r i s t accepts Satan's challenge 117 to jump from the pinnacle he w i l l be g u i l t y of t r a n s f e r r i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of his [ c h r i s t ' s j salvation to God. Christ's f a i t h and temperance combine to weather the f i n a l assault of Satan. When Christ says "Tempt not the Lord thy God" he paraphrases the second law i n Deuteronomy 6: 16: "You s h a l l not put the Lord Your God to the t e s t . " That i s , "one must not ask for unnecessary evidence of divine f a v o u r . " 4 0 C h r i s t "earns r e s t " by withstanding the batteries of every weapon i n Satan's a r s e n a l — t h e temptations of the world, the f l e s h and the d e v i l — " . . . a l l his darts were spent" (P.R. IV, 366). Samson, l i k e Adam and the Son, i s subjected to temptations not to serve God, but "to s l i n k out of the race where that immortal garland i s to be run for; not without dust and h e a t . " 4 1 The t i t l e of Milton's tragedy conveys the idea of struggle;° for "agonistes" means "a wrestler, or an a t h l e t e . " 4 2 Samson i s both an athlete running for the immortal garland and a wrestler struggling against Satan, the tempter, who i s embodied i n D a l i l a , Harapha, and even, to some extent, i n Manoa—for they are a l l the means whereby Samson may s l i n k out- of the race and never confront the P h i l i s t i n e . To Samson, temperance i s manliness; intemperance i s p u s i l l a n i m i t y . His conception of temperance i s s i m i l a r to Marvell's i n "A Dialogue Between The Resolved Soul and 118 Created Pleasure." Both Marvell's speaker and Samson use imagery of f o r t i f i c a t i o n to convey the idea of the soul's defense against Satan's assaults. Samson speaks of D a l i l a ' s "feminine assaults/Tongue b a t t e r i e s " (S.A., 403-04) and how he weakened: At times when men seek most repose and r e s t , I yielded, and unlocked her a l l my heart, Who with a grain of manhood well resolved Might e a s i l y have shook o f f a l l her snares: But f o u l effeminacy held me yok't Her Bondslave . . . . (S.A., 406-11) For y i e l d i n g to his passions, Samson received his just deserts, his " s e r v i l e mind was /Rewarded well with s e r v i l e punishment!" (S.A., 412-13). For Samson, slavery to the passions i s the greatest of a l l s l a v e r i e s , the most complete blindness. Inner thraldom i s much worse than external slavery: These rags, t h i s grinding, i s not yet so base As was my former servitude, ignoble, Unmanly, ignominious, infamous. True slavery, and that blindness worse than t h i s , That saw not how degenerately I served. (S.A., 415-19) Yet through t h i s admission, Samson i s able to r e s i s t any i n c l i n a t i o n s towards pride which should normally result from the Chorus's praise of his temperance i n food and drink: But what a v a i l * d t h i s temperance, not complete Against another object more enticing? What boots i t at one gate to make defense, And at another to l e t i n the foe, Effeminately vanquish't? (S.A., 558-62) 119 Samson's regeneration must be brought about by complete resistance to a l l manner of temptation. He f i r s t overcomes Manoa's unwitting temptation not to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for his own g u i l t : Appoint not heavenly d i s p o s i t i o n , Father, Nothing of a l l these e v i l s hath b e f a l l ' n me But j u s t l y . I myself have brought them on, Sole Author I, sole cause . . . . (S.A., 373-76) Next, he triumphs over the temptations of the f l e s h , as manifested i n D a l i l a (S.A. , 748-960). However, the temptation of p u s i l l a n i m i t y i s not so e a s i l y quelled. Samson has the most d i f f i c u l t y avoiding the s i n of despair, or as Chaucer's Parson c a l l e d i t , wanhope: . . . that i s despeir of the mercy of God, that comth sometyme of to muche outrageous sorwe, and sometyme of to much drede, ymaginynge that he hath doon so muche synne that i t wol not a v a i l l e n hym, though he wolde repenten hym and forsake synne . . . . 43 Samson looks upon death as a balm. I t represents to him, at t h i s point, the only way out of his s p i r i t u a l agony. He i s tempted to forego r i g h t action and s l i n k into the numbing arms of death: My hopes a l l f l a t , nature within me seems . . . weary of herself My race of glory run, and race of shame And I s h a l l shortly be with them that r e s t . Samson i s w i l l i n g to transfer to God the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for action against Satan: 120 This only hope r e l i e v e s me, that the s t r i f e With mee hath end; a l l the contest now Twixt God and Dagon. (S.A., 460-62) It i s not u n t i l the encounter with Harapha that Samson conquers despair. Harapha, l i k e Braggadochio i n The Faerie Queene, i s a comic fi g u r e , and l i k e his counterpart i n Spenser's epic, Harapha i s an important element i n the e t h i c a l theme. He i s a type of Satan, for he tempts Samson to despair: Presume not on thy God, what 'ere he be Thee he regards not, owns not, hath cut o f f Quite from his people . . . . (S.A., 1156-58) God sends him as a further t e s t for Samson, but Samson r e s i s t s t h i s t r i a l by moderation; for "although he continues to confess h i s sinfulness, he balances c o n t r i t i o n with f a i t h i n God's ultimate f o r g i v e n e s s . " 4 4 . . . these e v i l s I deserve and more Acknowledge them from God i n f l i c t e d on me J u s t l y , yet despair not of his f i n a l pardon Whose ear i s ever open; and his eye Gracious to re-admit the suppliant. (S.A., 1169-73) Here, Samson follows the v i a media between excessive c o n t r i t i o n and d e f i c i e n t humility. His anguish at the knowledge of his s i n i s tempered by his f a i t h and hope. He becomes "his own d e l i v e r e r . " Far from weakening him, Samson's resistance to the temptation of despair, i s a source of unexpected strength. He begins "to feel/Some rousing motions i n me which dispose/To something extraordinary my thoughts." 121 Samson has moved from a state of incomplete temperance (S.A., 558) to a state of complete temperance which enables him to bear adversity and to survive u n t i l God's kairos has come. Having conquered himself, Samson i s able to set o f f (li k e C h r i st at the end of Paradise Regained) as the magnanimous Ch r i s t i a n hero, worthy to represent God as an agent of the divine plan i n a confrontation with the P h i l i s t i n e s at the Feast of Dagon, where his actions earn him God's immortal garland, compared to which Manoa's earthly monument, garlanded with " l a u r e l ever green, and branching Palm" (S.A., 1735) i s but a toy. CONCLUSION The a c t i o n s o f The F a e r i e Queene, I I , Comus, P a r a d i s e L o s t , P a r a d i s e Regained and Samson A g o n i s t e s ate c e n t e r e d around t h e maintenance o f temperance. As w e l l , t h e r e s p e c t i v e h eroes undergo an e d u c a t i o n , a s l o w movement towards s e l f - k n o w l e d g e w h i c h i s i n a d v e r t e n t l y a i d e d by an agent o f t h e d e v i l o r t h e d e v i l h i m s e l f . Common t o a l l i s t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f g r a c e as t h a t w h i c h e n a b l e s man t o "exceed h i m s e l f , " t o overcome Satan's s e e m i n g l y i n s u r m o u n t a b l e advantage. Man, u n a i d e d by g r a c e , would be u n a b l e t o overcome t h e v i c e s o f intemperance w h i c h would e v e n t u a l l y ensure h i s damnation. Spenser's v i e w o f temperance i n c l u d e d a t e m p o r a l a s p e c t as w e l l . Guyon was p a t i e n t and r e f u s e d t o l e t t h e i r a s c i b l e p a s s i o n s u p s e t h i s e q u i l i b r i u m . We have p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d t h i s a s p e c t o f Spenser's c o n c e p t i o n o f temperance: What d i r e f u l chance armed w i t h a v e n g i n g f a t e Thus f o u l t o h a s t e n your u n t i m e l y d a t e Speak, 0 d e a r l a d y , speak; h e l p n e v e r comes t o o l a t e . (1,44) I t i s o f t h e essence o f temperance t o oppose chance, f a t e , o r t y c h e — t h e u n t i m e l y . Guyon a l l u d e s t o t h e b a l a n c i n g power o f p a t i e n c e ; p r o p h e t i c a l l y , he r e f e r s t o " h e l p " — t h e h e l p o f God. Tyche, t h e s p i r i t i n g f o r c e o f t h e S a t a n i c w o r l d i s c o u n t e r e d by k a i r o s , t h e p r o v i d e n t i a l f o r c e . 123 Temperance i s by nature an active v i r t u e , and the temperate hero must be patient while enduring the t r i a l - s t a t e : The v i t a a c t i v a i s one of wandering, t r i a l , and discovery . . . . (The hero) may not long remain i n the temple . . . he must 'turne againe/ Back to the world.' 1 Thus, we can see Amavia's error, for she t e l l s Guyon to "Leave, oh, leave o f f , whatever wight thou be,/To l e t a weary wretch from her due rest"(1,47). The temperate person must "earn r e s t " , to use a M i l t o n i c phrase, and one cannot earn rest by submitting to the i r a s c i b l e passions, e s p e c i a l l y to despair. Government of anger and fear i s just as important a part of temperance as i s government of the concupiscible appetites: "Neither to melt i n pleasure's hot desire/ Nor f r y i n heartless g r i e f and d o l e f u l teen (1,58). Man, through pursuit of temperance, can take part i n the divine plan. It i s useful, I think, to apply an observation of Angus Fletcher's to both Spenser and Milton. He distinguishes two archetypal planes i n Spenser's Faerie Queene, the temple and the labyrinth. The former has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been seen as a place which arrests the ordinary unbroken duration of temporal flow. Inside the temple time shares with space the immutable closure of the perfect c i r c l e . 2 In short, i t i s a sacred place which excludes the chaotic, profane world. Interestingly, however, i t too i s part of the word clu s t e r of which temperance i s a part. Fletcher r i g h t l y includes the words "temple" and "contemplate" i n the c l u s t e r . " S p a t i a l l y the temple breaks into and organizes the endless extension of the l a b y r i n t h . " J 124 There i s a temple i n each book of The Faerie Queene. In Book II i t i s the Castle of Alma. Contrasting with t h i s goodly frame i s the labyrinthine world o u t s i d e — t h e world of the wandering i s l e , the mazy cave of Mammon and the tanglewood of the Bower of B l i s s . I t i s clear that t h i s dichotomy holds i n Milton as well. We f i r s t see i t , as Fletcher mentions, i n the phrase, "the unpolluted temple of the mind" (Comus, 461). Interestingly, the labyrinth also appears: Comus asks the Lady, "What change Lady hath bereft thou here?" The Lady r e p l i e s , "Dim darkness and t h i s leavy Labyrinth1,' (Comus,278) . But Fletcher neglects to mention the temples i n Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained. Although he does not re f e r e x p l i c i t l y to them he recognizes the archetypal function of the natural temples: "Temples may r i s e out of the earth i n the form of sacred groves . . . ."^ He includes the sacred Mount Acidale as one of Spenser's seven temples. With t h i s as a precedent we should see the mountain top upon which Adam sees his destiny and the mountain top where The Son receives his f i n a l temptation, as "temples." In the temple The Son's slow movement towards self-knowledge i s : f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d . This,then, i s an I l l u s t r a t i o n of Traherne's conception of temperance as "Delay," or the " f i t t e s t moment." The temptation of The Son i s an instance of God's execution of his Divine Wisdom, or temperance i n God. He "beautifies time 125 with the execution of his Decrees" (Christian Ethicks, p. 183). The Son reaches f o r t h i s l i n k with Eternity by se i z i n g his " f i t t e s t moment." Now his words, "my time has not yet come" taker on a new meaning. T r i a l can be j u s t i f i e d by Traherne: God very well understandeth the beauty of Proportion, that Harmony and Symmetry springs from a variety of excellent Things i n several places, f i t l y answering to, and perfecting each other: that the state of T r i a l , and the state of Glory are so mysterious i n t h e i r Relation, that neither without the other could be absolutely perfect: Innumerable Beauties would be l o s t , and many transcendent Vertues and Perfections be abolished, with the estate of T r i a l . . . . (Christian Ethicks, p.184) The r e s u l t of "the Restraint of his Power" i s that " i t might more f u l l y be exerted i n the perfection of the whole . . . (Christian Ethicks, p.184). Only a f t e r much delay does The Son seize the f i t t e s t mpment to f u l f i l l his destiny: "Now enter, and begin to save mankind" (Paradise Regained,635). There i s a s i m i l a r process i n Samson Agonistes. Profane, continuous time (in which the hero acts) melds with sacred time. Through temperance, Samson manages to endure. He bears w i l l " a l l c a l a m i t i e s / A l l chances incident to man's f r a i l life"(Samson Agonistes, 655-56). His actions are an example of temperance with regard to the "grievous pain" to which Spenser alludes i n The Faerie Queene,TI,6. The forces of disorder and despair threaten to defeat Samson: 126 L i t t l e p r e v a i l s , or rather seems a tune Harsh, and of dissonant mood . . . Unless he f e e l within Some source of consolation from above; Sweet refreshings that repair his strength, And f a i n t i n g s p i r i t s uphold. (Samson Agonistes, 661 The p a r a l l e l here to Guyon*s " f a i n t " i s s t r i k i n g . An a n g e l — t h e instrument of grace—comes to revive Guyon*s " f a i n t i n g s p i r i t s . " The l i n e s : God of our fathers, what i s manI That thou towards him with hand so various Temper'st thy providence through his short course, Not evenly (Samson Agonistes, 667-71) i l l u s t r a t e how Samson i s propped up u n t i l the f i t moment when he may f u l f i l l h is destiny. God "tempers his providence"— that i s , he delays i t s a c t u a l i z a t i o n . One r e c a l l s Traherne's "Of Temperance i n God" here. We may now i l l u s t r a t e temperance i n Samson and God".. Samson shows a gradual movement to perception of the kairos: "I begin to feel/Some rousing motions . . . " (Samson Agonistes, 1381). And we see God's delay i n the l i n e s , "Were not his purpose/To use him further yet i n some great service" (Samson  Agonistes, 1498-99). Samson razes the antitype of the C h r i s t i a n temple, the Temple of Dagon,and ascends to the eternal temple, "his Father's house" (Samson Agonistes, 1717), while on earth his earthly father's house remains as a shrine. 127 Kairos i s a manifestation of grace; i t i s an example of God's temperance. But man must be temperate i n order to perceive the kairos, for i t w i l l go unheeded by an unquiet soul. Temperance, then, i s not simply the mean between excess and defect; i t i s also the mixing of the temporal and the eternal i n a serene s p i r i t which w i l l r e s u l t i n the overthrow of Satan and chaos. FOOTNOTES INTRODUCTION 1 Edward R e y n o l d e s , A T r e a t i s e o f t h e P a s s i o n s and  F a c u l t i e s o f t h e S o u l e o f Man (London: 1640). 2 P i e r r e de l a Primaudaye, The F r e n c h Academie (6th e d., London, 1618), p. 5. 3 P e t e r U r e , "Chapman as T r a n s l a t o r and T r a g i c P l a y w r i g h t , " i n The Age o f Shakespeare (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n , 1955) p. 329. 4 P h i n e a s F l e t c h e r , The P u r p l e I s l a n d i n The P o e t i c a l  Works o f G i l e s and P h i n e a s F l e t c h e r , ed. F.S. Boas (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1908-09). 5 Thomas T r a h e r n e , C h r i s t i a n E t h i c k s , eds. C a r o l L. Marks and G.R. G u f f e y ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), p. 170. 6 "A movement was t h o u g h t t o have some end o r purpose (the f i n a l c a u s e ) , t o be i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t a m a t e r i a l b a s i s (the m a t e r i a l c a u s e ) , t o r e q u i r e an agent o r f o r c e t o s t a r t i t ( e f f i c i e n t c a u s e ) , and t o have a form o r s t r u c t u r e t h a t was t h e p r o d u c t o f one o r a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e t h r e e c a u s e s . " K a r l R. W a l l a c e , F r a n c i s Bacon on  th e N a ture o f Man (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1967), pp. 40-41. 7 John R u s k i n , Stones o f V e n i c e (London: George A l l e n , 1892), p. 243. 8 Ibid. 129 CHAPTER ONE 1 T.G. Tuckey, Piato's Charmides (Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1968), p. 92. 2 Ibid., p. 93. 3 Plato, Dialogues, ed. B. Jowett (London: Oxford University Press, 1871, reprinted 1954), 4 vols., II, p. 585. 4 Plato, Gorgias, ed. W. Hamilton (London: Penguin, 1960), p. 117. 5 Leo Spitzer, C l a s s i c a l and Chr i s t i a n Ideas of World  Harmony (Baltimore -: Johns Hopkins Press, 1963), p. 83. 6 Plato, quoted by Helen North, Sophrosyne (Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1966), p. 162. 7 North, p. 162. 8 Plato, The Republic, ed. F. M. Cornford (London: Oxford University Press, 1941), p. 127. 9 Plato, Dialogues, ed. B. Jowett, v o l . I I , p.51. Nafch, p. 175. l l I b id. 12 Plato, Timaeus, ed. B. Jowett, vol I I I , p. 657. 13 North, p. 182. 14 Plato, Laws, ed. B. Jowett, v o l . IV, p. 265. 130 15 North, p. 194. 16 A r i s t o t l e , Nichomachean Ethics, trans. W.D. Ross (London: Oxford University Press, 1954). 17 North, p. 201..' 18 Cornford, p. 140. 19 Spitzer, p. 83. 20 Ibid., p. 82. 21 Ibid. 22 Ibid., p. 75. Etienne Gilson, The C h r i s t i a n Philosophy of St. Augustine (London: V. Gollancz, 1961), p. 132. 24 Gilson, p. 133. 25 St. Augustine, Basic Writings ed. Whitney J.Oates (New York: Random House, 1948), 2 vols., I, p. 210. 26 Ibid. 27 Ibid., p. 211. 28 Ibid., p. 214^ 29 Ibid., p. 219. 131 30 Ibid. 31 St. Augustine, "On Music" i n Writing s' of St. Augustine, v o l . 2 (New York: CIMA, 1947), p. 371. 32 Ibid. 33 Gilson, p. 170. 34 Josef Pieper, The Four Cardinal Virtues (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1965), p. 146. 35 Ibid., p. 147. 36 St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica (New York: Benziger Bros., 1947), 3 vo l s . , I I , p. 1778. 37 Ibid. 38 St. Ambrose, c i t e d by Aquinas, p. 1780. 39 Ibid. 40 Pieper, p. 151. 41 Ibid., p. 154. 42 Ibid. 43 Ibid. 44 Ibid., p. 198. 45 Ibid. 46 Ibid., p. 200. 132 CHAPTER TWO 1 Leo Spitzer, p. 82. 2 V i o l a Hulbert, "A Possible C h r i s t i a n Source for Spenser's Temperance" Studies i n Philology, XXXVIII, 1931, p. 184. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. 5 Aquinas, St. Thomas, Summa Theologica v o l . XIII, p. 217. 6 Ibid. 7 Hulbert, p. 200. 8 Aquinas, p. 184. 9 Ibid., p. 189. 10 Ibid. 11 Thomas Traherne, C h r i s t i a n Ethicks (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1968), p. 194. 12 A.B. Giamatti, The Earthly Paradise and the Renaissance  Epic (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966), p. 38. 13 A r i s t o t l e , Nichomachean Ethics, trans. S i r David Ross (London: Oxford University Press, 1954), p. 114. 14 John Shearman, Mannerism (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 19675, 133 15 Ibid,. 16 G e o f f r e y Chaucer, C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s , ed. F.N. Robinson (New York: Houghton, M i f l i n , 1957), p. 20. 17 A q u i n a s , p. 294. 18 I b i d . 19 I b i d . , p. 295. 20 I b i d . , p. 297. 21 I b i d . 22 H u l b e r t , p. 206. 23 A q u i n a s , p. 297. 24 G e o f f r e y C l i v e , The Romantic E n l i g h t e n m e n t (New York: M e r i d i a n Books, 1960), p. 97. 25 P a t r i c k C u l l e n , '"Guyon M i c r o c h r i s t u s 1 : The Cave o f Mammon Re-examined," ELH June 1970, p. 164. 26 James C a r s c a l l e n , "The Goodly Frame o f Temperance," U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Q u a r t e r l y , J a n u a r y , 1968, p. 40. 27 I b i d . 28 C u l l e n , p. 160. 29 Donald R. Howard, The Three Temptations ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966), p. 66. 134 30 Ibid. 31 Cullen, p. 168. 32 Ibid. 33 Ibid. 34 Harry Berger, The A l l e g o r i c a l Temper (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957), p. 103. 35 Kellogg and Steele, eds. Faerie Queene, p. 319. 36 Ibid. 37 O.B. Hardison, ed. English L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m (Appleton, Century, Crofts, 1963), p. 105. 38 Ruth L. Anderson, Elizabethan Psychology and Shakespeare's  Plays (Iowa University Humanistic Studies I I I , 1927), p. 7. 39 l a Primaudaye, p. 1. 40 L i l l i a n Winstanley, Spenser Variorum, I I , p. 380. 41 Harry Berger, The A l l e g o r i c a l Temper, p. 57. 42 Ibid. 43 Ibid. 44 Ibid., p. 71. 45 Ibid. 46 Kellogg and Steele, p. 71. CHAPTER THREE 1 John A r t h o s , " F i c i n o ' s T r a n s l a t i o n o f The Charmides and M i l t o n ' s Comus," S t u d i e s i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , XXXV, 19 p. 263. 2 W. H a m i l t o n , ed. G o r g i a s , p. 117. 3 A r t h o s , p. 265. 4 S i r P h i l i p S i d n e y , i n H a r d i s o n , p. 105. 5 Robert B u r t o n , i n E n g l i s h P r o s e , 1600-1660 (New York H o l t , R i n e h a r t , 1965), p. 168. 6 S t . P a u l , quoted by N o r t h , p. 320. 7 N o r t h , p. 320-21. 8 S t . P a u l , quoted by N o r t h , p. 321. 9 N o r t h , p. 32 0. 10 I b i d . 11 N a t a l i s Comes, quoted by K e l l o g g and S t e e l e , p. 379. 12 P l a t o , Phaedo, ed. B. J o w e t t , v o l . I , p. 436. 13 I b i d . , p. 474. 13 6 14 I b i d . 15 Andrew M a r v e l l , S e l e c t e d P o e t r y , ed. Frank Kermode (New York: S i g n e t C l a s s i c s , 1967), p. 49. 16 John M i l t o n , Complete Poems and Major P r o s e , ed. M.Y. Hughes (New York: Odyssey P r e s s , 1957), p. 728. 17 I b i d . , p. 727 18 John Donne, Complete P o e t r y , ed. J.T. Shawcross (New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), p.233. 19 Hughes, p. 624. 20 John M i l t o n , P a r a d i s e L o s t and S e l e c t e d P o e t r y and  P r o s e , ed. N. F r y e (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , 1965), p. 445. 21 I b i d . , p. 443. 22-P l a t o , The R e p u b l i c , ed. F.M. C o r n f o r d (New York: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), p. 124. 23 L o u i s M a r t z , " P a r a d i s e Regained: The M e d i t a t i v e Combat," ELH, XXVII (1960), p. 231. 24 Edmund Spenser, The F a e r i e Queene, ed. R. K e l l o g g and O. S t e e l e (New York: Odyssey P r e s s , 1965), p. 300. 25. F r y e , p. 442. 26. I b i d . 27 I b i d . , p. 439. 137 .28 M a r t z , p. 224-5. .29 F r y e , p. 474. 30 Spenser, p. 300. 31 I b i d . 32 F r y e , p. 480. "33 Spenser, p. 269. 34 I b i d . , p. 59. 35 M i l t o n , p. 169. 36 I b i d . , p. 168. 37 L a u r i e Zwicky, " K a i r o s i n P a r a d i s e Regained: The D i v i n e P l a n , " ELH, XXXI (1964), p. 272. Zwicky does not a p p l y h i s i d e a o f " k a i r o s " t o Sonnet 19;the a p p l i c a t i o n i s mine. 38 Spenser, p. 398. 39 M a r t z , p. 244. 40 I b i d . 41 Hughes, p. 728. 42 F r y e , p. 585. 138 4*3 Geoffrey Chaucer, Works, ed. F.N. Robinson (Boston: Houghton, M i f l i n , 1961), p. 250. 44 William O. Harris, "Despair and 'Patience .as the Truest Fortitude' i n Samson Agonistes," ELH, XXVIII (1961), p. 118. CONCLUSION 1 Angus Fletcher, The Prophetic Moment (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971), p. 50. 2 Ibid., p. 21. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid., p. 15. BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, Ruth L. E l i z a b e t h a n P s y c h o l o g y and Shakespeare's  P l a y s , Iowa U n i v e r s i t y H u m a n i s t i c S t u d i e s , I I I , 1927. A r t h o s , John. " F i c i n o 1 s T r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e Charmides and M i l t o n ' s Comus," S t u d i e s i n t h e R e n a i s s a n c e , XXXV, 1959, pp. 259-282. A r i s t o t l e . Nichomachean E t h i c s , t r a n s . W.D. Ross, London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , T954. A u g u s t i n e , S t . B a s i c W r i t i n g s , ed. Whitney J . O a t e s , New YOrk: Random House, 1948. B e r g e r , H a r r y . The A l l e g o r i c a l Temper, New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. C a r s c a l l e n , James. "The Goodly Frame o f Temperance." U n i v e r s i t y o f To r o n t o Q u a r t e r l y , XXXVII, 1968, pp. 19-30. G e o r f f r e y Chaucer. Works, ed. F.N. Rob i n s o n . Houghton, M i f l i n , 1957. C l i v e , G e o f f r e y . The Romantic E n l i g h t e n m e n t , New York: M e r i d i a n Books, 1960. C o r n f o r d , F.M. ed. The R e p u b l i c , London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941. C u l l e n , P a t r i c k . "'Guyon M i c r o c h r i s t u s ' : The Cave o f Mammon Re-examined." ELH, XXXVII, 1970, pp. 160-181. John Donne. S e l e c t e d P o e t r y , ed. A. Wanning. New York: D e l l , 1962. F l e t c h e r , A n g u s . The P r o p h e t i c Moment, C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1971. Fry*, Nortkro? . Se,lectt<L fodtry o-nk fr»se. »j- Jok* MUb>n.< A/eW %rk : h}o\tlRn\ik&tt~l G i a m a t t i , A.B. The E a r t h l y P a r a d i s e and the R e n a i s s a n c e E p i c , P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. G i l s o n , E t i e n n e . The C h r i s t i a n P h i l o s o p h y o f S t . A u g u s t i n e , London: V. G o l l a n c z , 19 61. H a m i l t o n , W. ed. G o r g i a s , Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n , 1962. H a r d i s o n , O.B. E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m , New York: A p p l e t o n , C e n t u r y , C r o f t s , 1963. H a r r i s , V i c t o r , ed. E n g l i s h P r o s e , 1600-1660, New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , 1965. 140 Harris, William. "Despair and'Patience a^ s the Truest Fortitude'", ELH, XXX, 1963, pp. 107-121. Howard, Donald R. The Three Temptations, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966. Hulbert, V i o l a . "A Possible Source for Spenser's Temperance", Studies i n Philology, XXXVIII, 1931, pp. 180-224. Jowett, B., ed. Dialogues of Plato, 4 v o l s . London: Oxford University Press, 1871, reprinted, 1954. La Primaudaye, Pierre de. The French Academie, 6th ed., London, 1618. Martz, Louis. "Paradise Regained: The Meditative Combat", ELH, XXVII, 1960, pp. 223-249. Marvell, Andrew. Selected Poetry, ed. Frank Kermode, New York: Signet C l a s s i c s , 1967. John Milton. Complete Poetry arid Selected Prose, ed. M.Y. Hughes, New York: Odyssey Press, 1957. North, Helen. Sophrosyne, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966. Pieper, Josef. The Four Cardinal Virtues, New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1965. Ruskin, John. Stories of Venice, London: George A l l e n , 1892. William Shakespeare. Complete Works, ed. G.B. Harrison, Harcourt, Brace, 1948. Edmund Spenser. The Faerie Queene, Books I and I I , eds. R. Kellogg and 0. Steele, New York: Odyssey Press, 1965. Spitzer, Leo. C l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n Ideas of World Harmony, Sa1timore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1963. Thomas Traherne. C h r i s t i a n Ethicks, ed. Carol Marks, G. Guffey, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966. Tuckey, T.G. P1ato's Cha rmi des, Amsterdam: Hakkert, 1968. 141 Ure, P e t e r . "Chapman as T r a n s l a t o r and T r a g i c P l a y w r i g h t , " i n The Age o f Shakespeare, ed. B o r i s F o r d , Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n , 1955. Zwicky, L a u r i e . " K a i r o s i n P a r a d i s e Regained: The D i v i n e P l a n " , ELH, XXX, pp. 271-278. 

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