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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An examination of selected aspects of julius nyerere's political thought Hawkesworth, Nigel Ross 1971

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AN EXAMINATION OF SELECTED ASPECTS OF JULIUS NYERERE'S POLITICAL THOUGHT by Nigel Ross Hawkesworth B.A., Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 6 A Thesis Submitted in Par t ia l Fulf i lment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in the Department of P o l i t i c a l Science We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f P o l i t i c a l Seienco The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date 20 A p r i l T 1Q71 The p o l i t i c a l thought of President Ju l ius Nyerere of Tanzania is examined in three main contexts: the ind iv idua l and soc iety , leadership, and economic and rural development. His published wr i t ings and speeches are the main sources of information, while relevant Tanzania Government publ icat ions are a lso consulted. It is seen that much of Nyerere's soc io -p o l i t i c a l thought rests on values and behaviour patterns inherent in A f r i can t r ad i t i ona l soc iety . Leadership regulat ions have been devised to check e l i t i s t a t t i tudes and behaviour. Co l l e c t i ve e f f o r t s at rural development are considered to be the only r e a l i s t i c way to induce soc io -economic development throughout the whole country. It i s found that Nyerere has developed a consistent and compre-hensive body of ideas which deal with numerous aspects of the development of his nat ion. His thought i s used as an emotive ideology in order to mobi l ize the people of Tanzania to develop their country both soc i a l l y and economically through co-operative l i v i ng and work habi ts . Various problems in regard to the implementation of Nyerere's ideas are considered; the most notable being his reluctance to take strong coercive measures to ensure that his fe l low p o l i t i c i a n s remain true to the s p i r i t of the Tanzanian ideology. INTRODUCTION 1 I. TANZANIA AND NYERERE 5 The P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g 5 P re- Independence H i s t o r y 6 J u l i u s K. N y e r e r e 11 Independent T a n z a n i a 13 I I . GENERAL OUTLINE OF NYERERE 1S THOUGHT 19 S t y l e o f P r e s e n t a t i o n 20 E v o l u t i o n o f Ideas 21 L i m i t s o f H i s Thought 22 S o c i a l i s m 23 T a n z a n i a n S o c i a l i s m 26 Compet ing P r i n c i p l e s and Long-Term Ou t l ook . . 29 Success So Far 30 Summary 31 I I I . THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY 33 V a l u e s o f T r a d i t i o n a l S o c i e t y 33 C o n c l u s i o n - - T r a n s f e r e n c e of t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s t o a modern p o l i t i c a l sys tem . . . 41 S o c i a l P e r s p e c t i v e s 46 C o n c l u s i o n — T h e key v a l u e o f e q u a l i t y . . . 59 R e s p o n s i v e Government 61 IV . LEADERSHIP 71 V. ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT 91 A c t i o n s From Independence t o 19&7 92 The V i l l a g e S e t t l e m e n t Program 96 The A rusha D e c l a r a t i o n 100 S t a t e C o n t r o l o f The Means o f P r o d u c t i o n . . . 107 S e l f - R e l i a n c e 110 The Ujamaa V i l l a g e s 113 C o n d u s i on 115 CONCLUSION 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY 128 J u l i u s N y e r e r e , the P r e s i d e n t o f t h e E a s t A f r i c a n r e p u b l i c o f T a n z a n i a , i s an unusual i n d i v i d u a l . He has been i n power f o r t e n y e a r s and s t i l l a p p e a r s t o command m a s s i v e p u b l i c s u p p o r t . ^ He i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l and a t e a c h e r who seeks t o a p p l y b a s i c moral p r i n c i p l e s t o the task of g o v e r n i n g . He i s t r y i n g t o l e a d h i s c o u n t r y towards a v i s i o n of t h e f u t u r e which he has w r i t t e n and spoken about at g r e a t l e n g t h . He i s a l s o a v e r y c h a r m i n g and p e r s o n a b l e man. A l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s have c r e a t e d a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n and even commitment t o T a n z a n i a on the p a r t of Western A f r i c a n i s t s . One o b s e r v e r has gone so f a r as t o c h a r a c t e r -i z e t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l enamourment as an a f f l i c t i o n c a l l e d 2 " T a n z a p h i 1 i a " . T h i s r a t h e r u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n f o r a p o l i t i c i a n makes one i n t e r e s t e d i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g what i t ' I n 1 9 6 2 , I 9 6 5 and 1 9 7 0 he was e l e c t e d P r e s i d e n t w i t h an average o f 9 ° per cent o f the v o t e each t i m e . In 1962 he was opposed by a n o t h e r c a n d i d a t e , but under t h e o n e - p a r t y s t a t e mechanism i n t r o d u c e d i n 19°5 he was the o n l y c a n d i d a t e i n the l a s t two e l e c t i o n s , the v o t e r s b e i n g asked t o v o t e ' y e s ' or ' n o ' f o r h i m . Such an arrangement does not p r o v i d e c o n c l u s i v e p r o o f o f h i s p o p u l a r i t y , but see L i o n e l C l i f f e ( e d . ), One P a r t y Democracy: The 1965 T a n z a h i a General E l e c t i ons ( N a i r o b i : E a s t Af r i can Publ i shi ng House, f967) f o r an a n a l y s i s o f h i s p o p u l a r i t y i n both t h e r u r a l and u r b a n a r e a s . "The P r e s i d e n t i s i n f a c t e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y p o p u l a r ; h i s w i d e l y acknowledged p e r s o n a l l e g i t i m a c y r e i n f o r c e s the l e g i t i m a c y of the whole r e g i m e . " P. 331. See All* M a z r u i , " T a n z a p h i 1 i a , " T r a n s i t i o n , No. 31 ( J u l y , 1967), pp. 20-26. i s t h a t Nye re r e has c r e a t e d w h i c h makes h i s c o u n t r y such a c e n t r e o f i n t e r e s t . I t appea r s t h a t much o f what t r a n s p i r e s i n T a n z a n i a t a k e s p l a c e as a r e s u l t o f N y e r e r e ' s i d e a s and i n i t i a t i v e . T h i s p a p e r , t h e r e f o r e , i s an a t tempt t o look at h i s i d e a s and i d e n t i f y t h e i r main components . I w i l l l ook at h i s p o l i t i c a l thought i n t h r e e main c o n t e x t s : (1 ) the r e l a t i o n between t he i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y , (2) l e a d e r s h i p , and (3 ) economic and r u r a l deve lopment . The s tudy w i l l be s e l e c t i v e i n t h a t one l a r g e p a r t o f h i s w r i t i n g s w i l l not be exami ned--tha t c o n c e r n i n g A f r i c a n u n i t y , l i b e r a t i o n s t r u g g l e s , and o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . Thus , the f o c u s o f t he s tudy wi11 be on h i s i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g the i n t e r n a l n a t u r e and deve lopment o f T a n z a n i a . H i s thought w i l l not be a n a l y s e d i n the c o n t e x t o f a c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e thought o f o t h e r l e a d e r s , a l t h o u g h r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be made t o some s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between h i m s e l f and o t h e r A f r i c a n r u l e r s . Nor w i l l i t be conce rned w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p e r s o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f h i s t h i n k i n g , a l t h o u g h f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g change i n h i s thought w i l l be ment ioned f rom t ime t o t i m e . R a t h e r , the s tudy w i l l o u t l i n e the deve lopment o f h i s thought t h r o u g h t i m e , no te t he changes i n c o n t e n t and emphas i s , and examine the c o n s i s t e n c y o f h i s i d e a s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n . That i s , I s h a l l t r y t o see w h i c h i d e a s r e f l e c t a p r o f o u n d v a l u e commitment i n r e g a r d s t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new s o c i e t y and whether t h e s e a re m o d i f i e d or m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h t i m e , and wh i ch ones a r e d e s i g n e d t o se rve more immedia te p o l i t i c a l needs--such as t he c r e a t i o n o f p o p u l a r suppor t f o r the p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y or t he m o b i l i z a t i o n o f the p e o p l e i n o r d e r t o implement c e r t a i n g o a l s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e v a l u e commitments . A l s o , the l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y of h i s i d e a s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n o r d e r t o see how comprehens i ve and how f e a s i b l e they may be i n r e g a r d s t o t h e i r p r a c t i c a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 3 P o l i t i c a l thought or i d e o l o g y i n the modern A f r i c a n c o n t e x t can be seen t o e x i s t on two l e v e l s . One i s t h e t h e o r y and i d e a l s t ha t seek t o c r e a t e a p h i l o s o p h i c a l r a i son  d 1 et re w i t h i n wh i ch the i n d i v i d u a l and the n a t i o n work towards the f u t u r e . The o t h e r i s t h e set o f f u n c t i o n a l d i r e c t i v e s t h a t a r e d e s i g n e d t o implement the i d e a l s on a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l . The t h e o r e t i c a l thought o f v a r i o u s A f r i c a n l e a d e r s d i f f e r s i n the degree o f i t s r i g i d i t y . There a l s o appea r s t o be w ide d i f f e r e n c e s i n the degree t o wh i ch the t h e o r e t i c a l work i s f o l l o w e d by c o n s i s t e n t and p r a c t i c a l 3 ' P o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t ' and ' i d e o l o g y ' a r e o b v i o u s l y not synonymous. In t h i s s tudy I s h a l l use the word ' t h o u g h t ' i n r e f e r e n c e t o N y e r e r e ' s own i d e a s . ' I d e o l o g y ' w i l l r e f e r t o t he t o t a l f ramework o f i d e a s adop ted by t h e T a n z a n i a n Government and used as t he b a s i s f o r p o l i c y . I t i s o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s a s s o c i a t e N y e r e r e ' s i d e a s f rom the c o n t e n t o f the T a n z a n i a n i d e o l o g y , but t h e - d i s t i n e t i o n s h o u l d be made between the i n d i v i d u a l ' s thought and t he n a t i o n a l p o l i c y r e s u l t i n g f rom i t and o t h e r i n p u t s . a p p l i c a t i o n s . These f a c t o r s p a r t l y account f o r the s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e o f the i n d i v i d u a l p o l i t i c i a n . In t h i s s tudy I s h a l l t r y t o see how Nye re re f i t s i n t o t h i s p i c t u r e . What i s the c o r e o f h i s p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t ? Does he d e a l w i t h bo th t h e o r y and a p p l i c a t i o n ? Has the emphas i s changed ove r t ime ? What i s the n a t u r e o f the t h e o r y ; a g e n e r a l e x p l a n a -t i o n o f h i s t o r y and the n a t u r e o f man, or a more p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n w i t h i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o T a n z a n i a ? Nkrumah, f o r i n s t a n c e , e n u n c i a t e d a f a i r l y r i g i d t h e o r y o f h i s t o r y and s o c i e t y and d i d not t a k e many p r a c t i -c a l s t e p s t o have i t imp l emen ted . CHAPTER I TANZANIA AND NYERER'E The P h y s i c a l S e t t i n g T a n z a n i a , t h e fo rmer B r i t i s h c o l o n y o f Tangany i ka j o i n e d w i t h Z a n z i b a r , i s a m o d e r a t e l y s i z e d r e p u b l i c w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n l a r g e r t han t h o s e o f most o t h e r A f r i c a n s t a t e s . I t i s s t r a t e g i c a l l y s i t u a t e d i n Eas t A f r i c a on the sho res o f t he I n d i a n Ocean. I t s w e s t e r n bo rde r t o u c h e s the Congo. To the n o r t h l i e Kenya and Uganda, and i n t he south T a n z a n i a s h a r e s a bo rde r w i t h t he Po r tuguese c o l o n y o f Mozambique. Zambia and Malawi i n t he southwest a l s o bo rde r T a n z a n i a . In I965 t he p o p u l a t i o n o f T a n z a n i a was composed o f 10,500,000 A f r i c a n s , 100,000 A s i a n s , 20,000 A r a b s and 21,000 Eu ropeans . The l a t t e r t h r e e groups were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the urban a r e a s as t r a d e r s , c i v i l s e r v a n t s and b u s i n e s s m e n . S i n c e i n d e p e n -dence i n I96I t h e number o f A s i a n s and Europeans has d e c r e a s e d m o d e r a t e l y . The 1957 c ensus showed t h a t about h a l f the p o p u l a t i o n spoke S w a h i l i , the l i n g u a f r a n c a . The use o f S w a h i l i has i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e t h e n , and i n I967 i t was made t he o f f i c i a l l anguage . In 1964 i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t about t h r e e m i l l i o n peop l e were o f M u s l i m f a i t h and 2 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 were C h r i s t i a n . These two groups c o n s t i t u t e d 58 per cen t o f t he p o p u l a t i o n . There a r e one hundred twenty t r i b e s i n T a n z a n i a . None o f them a r e dominant i n s i z e , t he t e n l a r g e s t h a v i n g r o u g h l y equa l membership o f 250,000 t o 300,000. T a n z a n i a i s s e v e r e l y l a c k i n g i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , a f a c t r e f l e c t e d i n t he per c a p i t a g r o s s n a t i o n a l p roduc t o f e i g h t y d o l l a r s i n 1968. We l l over h a l f o f i t s e x p o r t s a r e a g r i c u l t u r a l , t he ma in p r o d u c t s b e i n g c o f f e e , c o t t o n and s i s a l . Diamonds a r e v i r t u a l l y the o n l y m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e t ha t has been found and e x p l o i t e d . N i n e t y per cent o f t he p e o p l e l i v e i n the r u r a l a r e a s engaged i n s u b s i s t e n c e or c a sh f a r m i n g . Only about o n e - f i f t h o f the c o u n t r y i s w e l l w a t e r e d enough t o p roduce c o n s i s t e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l s u r p l u s e s , and about 80 per cen t o f the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e i n t h o s e a r e a s . These a r e s c a t t e r e d a round the p e r i p h e r y o f the c o u n t r y , l e a v i n g a s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d s e m i - d e s e r t i n the c e n t e r . These f a c t o r s , combined w i t h some rough t e r r a i n , have made commun i ca t i on r o u t e s c o s t l y and d i f f i c u l t . In t h e Second F i v e Year P l a n o f 1969-197^ t he government i s a i m i n g a t an o v e r a l l growth r a t e o f 6.5 per c e n t , wh i ch i s 4 per c en t i n r e a l terms a f t e r a l l o w i n g f o r the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e . The F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n 1964-1969 a l s o se t a 4 per cent r e a l growth r a t e , but a c h i e v e d one o f 2.5 per c e n t . P re- Independence H i s t o r y T a n z a n i a ^ b e f o r e t h e advent o f c o l o n i a l i s m was r i c h i n c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y . At no t i m e Vpr ior t o the union w i th Zanzibar i n 1964 T a n z a n i a was named Tanganyika, but I s h a l l use the name Tanzania throughout the p a p e r . was t h e r e a s i n g l e p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y c o v e r i n g even a l a r g e p a r t of what i s now the m a i n l a n d of T a n z a n i a . The p e o p l e who e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e d i n the a r ea came f rom the n o r t h , the west ( f rom the Congo) and the south ( f rom as f a r away as what i s now South A f r i c a ) . Today the n o r t h - c e n t r a l p a r t o f t he c o u n t r y i s the most l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i v e r s e , w i t h K h o s i a n - , C u s h i t i c - , N i l o t i c - , and B a n t u - s p e a k i n g p e o p l e s . The r e s t o f the c o u n t r y speaks one or o t h e r o f the one 2 hundred or so Bantu d i a l e c t s . The p resen t o f f i c i a l l anguage o f the c o u n t r y , S w a h i l i , i s e s s e n t i a l l y of Bantu o r i g i n , but has been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by A r a b i c and i n c o r p o r a t e s e l e m e n t s o f o t h e r d i a l e c t s o f the i n t e r i o r . I t s t a r t e d t o become a l i n g u a f r a n c a i n the 1800 ' s when the A rabs began t o p e n e t r a t e the i n t e r i o r i n f o r c e , and i s now spoken w i d e l y t h r o u g h o u t East A f r i c a . P r e v i o u s t o the s l a v e t r a d e and Arab c a r a v a n s o f t he e a r l y 1 8 0 0 ' s , t h e r e were a number of c o a s t a l k ingdoms wh i ch r o s e and t hen fe11 under the impact of t he Po r tuguese and the e x p a n d i n g A r a b s . The i n t e r i o r of the c o u n t r y was r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e u n t i l i t came i n c o n t a c t w i t h t he o u t s i d e w o r l d . F i r s t was the d i s r u p t i v e impact o f the Arab s l a v e t r a d e r s . Then , waves o f m i l i t a r y t r i b e s swept up f rom the Al. N. Kimambo and A . J . Temu ( e d s . ) , A H i s t o r y of  T a n z a n i a ( N a i r o b i : East A f r i c a n P u b l i s h i n g House" 1969 ) , p. 12. sou th a f t e r the b reakup of the Ngoni k ingdom and t he Z u l u wars w i t h the B r i t i s h and the Dutch p u s h i n g up f rom the Cape. The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was marked by t h e s h o r t - l i v e d e x i s t e n c e o f a number o f m i l i t a r y k ingdoms i n t he sou th and c e n t r a l p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y . The n a t u r e of p o l i t i c a l change d u r i n g t h i s t ime c o n s i s t e d o f a s h i f t f rom r e l i g i o u s 3 t o m i l i t a r y power as t he b a s i s of p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y . The methods o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the forms of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n d i f f e r e d marked l y among the v a r i o u s k i ngdoms . Few of them s u r v i v e d long a f t e r t he dea th o f t h e i r f o u n d e r , and a f t e r the a r r i v a l o f the Germans i n I 8 8 5 they d e c l i n e d i n power , and i n many c a se s j u s t d i s i n t e g r a t e d . German c o l o n i s a t i o n was v i o l e n t and o p p r e s s i v e . There was c o n t i n u e d r e s i s t a n c e i n many p a r t s o f the c o u n t r y f rom I 8 9 I t o I 8 9 8 , and t h e r e was the l a r g e - s c a l e u p r i s i n g i n s o u t h e r n T a n z a n i a d u r i n g t h e Ma j i Ma j i war o f 1905-1907-T h i s u p r i s i n g i s now r e g a r d e d as t he f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t move toward A f r i c a n i n d e p e n d e n c e , and i s r e v e r e d among T a n z a n i a n s as the f i r s t p a n - t r i b a l s t r u g g l e on a c o h e r e n t b a s i s a g a i n s t c o l o n i a l o p p r e s s i o n . In the e a r l y 1 9 0 0 ' s , b e f o r e t h e i r e x p u l s i o n by t he B r i t i s h d u r i n g Wor ld War I, t h e Germans l a i d t he b e g i n n i n g s o f commerc i a l a g r i c u 1 t u r e - - m a i n i y c o t t o n and s i s a l - - a n d w i d e s p r e a d e d u c a t i o n - - a 1 though t h i s was l a r g e l y h a n d l e d by t h e i r m i s s i o n s . B r i t i s h r u l e between the wars was u n e v e n t -f u l . I t s ma in impact was t he sp read o f the money economy, the b e g i n n i n g s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n , and the f u r t h e r a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s . By 1938 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 per cent o f s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n were i n s c h o o l , and 16 per cen t o f the ma l e s were employed i n the money economy i n e i t h e r the u rban or r u r a l a r e a s . In g e n e r a l t h e r e was a f e e l i n g o f p o l i t i c a l a p a t h y , but the s low p r o c e s s of s o c i a l m o b i l i z a t i o n was sowing the seeds o f the n a t i o n a l i s t movement of the 1 9 5 0 ' s . A f t e r Wor ld War I I changes began t o occu r more r a p i d l y . In 19^7 the t e r r i t o r y was p l a c e d under the U n i t e d N a t i o n s T r u s t e e s h i p Sys tem. T h i s removed i t f rom a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l by t h e B r i t i s h , e n a b l i n g t he U n i t e d N a t i o n s t o watch and s tudy t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and ensu re e v e n t u a l i n d e p e n -dence . Other B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r i e s began t o e x p e r i e n c e u n r e s t and the movements f o r i ndependence c o u l d not escape t he n o t i c e o f the T a n z a n i a n p e o p l e . The B r i t i s h government p a i d more a t t e n t i o n t o p r o m o t i n g economic deve lopmen t , but the r e s o u r c e s were sma l l and the s t a r t i n g p o i n t was v e r y low . A t o t a l o f k 2 4 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 was a l l o c a t e d f o r deve lopment e f f o r t s f rom 19^7 t o 1 9 5 6 . 5 L Hugh S t e v e n s , The P o l i t i c a 1 T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f Tangany i ka 1920-67 (New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 196b ) , pp . 4B7 56. A f r i c a n a g i t a t i o n f o r i ndependence began i n e a r n e s t i n 195^ w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f TANU (Tangany ika A f r i c a n N a t i o n a l U n i o n ) . P r e v i o u s t o t h a t t h e r e had been a number o f t r i b a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and one s i g n i f i c a n t n a t i o n a l body fo rmed between the wa r s-- the T a n g a n y i k a A f r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n (TAA)--which was p r i m a r i l y u rban i n n a t u r e but had c o n t a c t t h roughou t t he c o u n t r y . I t s a c t i v i t i e s were s p o r a d i c , t h e most r e cen t b e i n g a p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s V i s i t i n g M i s s i o n i n 1951. In 1953 J u l i u s Nye re re was e l e c t e d P r e s i d e n t o f t he TAA and set about w r i t i n g a c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r a new o r g a n i z a t i o n tha t would work toward i n d e p e n d e n c e . On J u l y ~], 195*+ TANU, the new o r g a n i z a t i o n , was formed and r e p l a c e d the TAA. The new c o n s t i t u t i o n w i t h i t s e x p l i c i t demands f o r m a j o r i t y r u l e and A f r i c a n c i v i l and p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s , and the w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c i t y TANU r e c e i v e d f rom i t s b r i e f s t o the U n i t e d N a t i o n s V i s i t i n g M i s s i o n i n A u g u s t , 195^ s t a r t e d i t on t he road t o n a t i o n a l p rom inence . By 1957 i t had 175,000 members, a year l a t e r 300,000 i n 134 b r a n c h e s , and by mid-1960 t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y one 6 m i l l i o n members. Such m a s s i v e suppor t and u n i t y t h roughou t the c o u n t r y was o b v i o u s l y a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n the e a r l y g r a n t i n g o f i n d e p e n d e n c e . In 1959 and a g a i n i n i960 TANU won ove rwhe lm ing v i c t o r i e s i n t he f i r s t e l e c t i o n s , and independence came q u i c k l y a f t e r - - o n December 9, 1961. S t e v e n s , op . c i t . , p. 146. J u l i u s K. N y e r e r e TANU emerged at a t ime when many f a c t o r s f a v o u r e d i t s s u c c e s s . Much of i t , however , was due t o t he t a l e n t s and l e a d e r s h i p o f J u l i u s N y e r e r e . The r a r e c o m b i n a t i o n o f cha rm, t o l e r a n c e , ye t b u r n i n g d e v o t i o n t o t he cause of A f r i c a n d i g n i t y wh i ch he p e r s o n i f i e d succeeded i n a t t r a c t i n g maximum suppor t f rom t h o s e i n c l i n e d toward t h i s i d e a and minimum o p p o s i t i o n f rom t h o s e opposed t o i t . 7 H i s a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s the d e e p l y h e l d but undeve loped f e e l i n g s o f t he p e o p l e , the p r e s t i g e o f h i s h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and h i s s u c c e s s i n c h a l l e n g i n g t h e a l l -p o w e r f u l B r i t i s h (who, a f t e r a l l , had d e f e a t e d the s t r o n g and r u t h l e s s Germans) gave r i s e t o h i s t remendous a u t h o r i t y as a l e a d e r . He was born i n 1922 near Lake V i c t o r i a , the son of a c h i e f o f the W a z a n a k i . H i s e a r l y e d u c a t i o n was i n m i s s i o n s c h o o l s , where he was c o n v e r t e d t o C h r i s t i a n i t y - - a f a i t h wh i ch he has h e l d d e e p l y e ve r s i n c e . He was one o f the v e r y few at t ha t t ime who succeeded i n g o i n g beyond p r i m a r y s c h o o l . A f t e r government secondary s c h o o l he took a degree i n e d u c a t i o n a t Makere re C o l l e g e and r e t u r n e d t o t e a c h a t a s e conda r y s c h o o l i n T a n z a n i a i n 19^5• In 1949 he went t o Ed i nbu rgh U n i v e r s i t y on a government s c h o l a r s h i p and g r adua t ed w i t h an M.A. i n economics and h i s t o r y i n 1952. At t ha t t ime he began t h i n k i n g and w r i t i n g about c o l o n i a l i s m i n h i s c o u n t r y . On h i s r e t u r n t o T a n z a n i a he t aught at a seconda ry s c h o o l near Dar es Sa laam, and s t a r t e d t o become a c t i v e i n p o l i t i c s . A f t e r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f TANU i n 1954 he c o n t i n u e d t e a c h i n g f o r a y e a r , but then devo ted h i m s e l f f u l l - t i m e t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . A f t e r the gene ra l e l e c t i o n i n i960 he was d e s i g n a t e d C h i e f M i n i s t e r and formed the f i r s t c a b i n e t . He became P r ime M i n i s t e r i n May, 1961, and independence was a c h i e v e d i n December. S i x weeks l a t e r he r e s i g n e d as Pr ime M i n i s t e r i n o r d e r t o r e o r g a n i z e TANU and t u r n i t i n t o an e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t f o r p r o m o t i n g deve lopment t h roughou t t h e c o u n t r y . He was prompted t o do t h i s by an o u t b r e a k o f r a c i a l i s m i n the p a r t y and the u n d i s c i p l i n e d mood o f t h o s e who e x p e c t e d t o reap i n s t a n t b e n e f i t s f rom i n d e p e n d e n c e . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e he s t a r t e d t o f o r m u l a t e h i s i d e a s and framework f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m i n T a n z a n i a . Ujamaa - The B a s i s o f  Af r i can Soci a 1 i sm appea red i n pamphlet fo rm at t h i s t i m e . In December, I962 N y e r e r e r an as t he TANU c a n d i d a t e f o r P r e s i d e n t o f the newly d e c i ded-upon R e p u b l i c and was e l e c t e d w i t h 97 per cen t o f t he v o t e . In 1965 n e w a s r e - e l e c t e d w i t h 96 per cen t o f t he v o t e s c a s t . He was a g a i n r e - e l e c t e d i n 1970. Independent T a n z a n i a T a n z a n i a a c h i e v e d independence w i t h a r a p i d i t y and p e a c e f u 1 n e s s t h a t was matched by few o t h e r c o l o n i e s . There a r e a number o f f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l t o t he a c t u a l p o l i t i c a l manoeuv r ing t h a t p a r t i a l l y a c c o u n t e d f o r t h i s . T a n z a n i a was a U n i t e d N a t i o n s T r u s t e e s h i p T e r r i t o r y and t h i s made the B r i t i s h government more r e s p o n s i v e t o e x t e r n a l c r i t i c i s m of t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . No one t r i b a l group domina ted o t h e r s i n s i z e , w e a l t h or e d u c a t i o n . The t r i b a l p o l i t i c a l e n t i t i e s were h i g h l y f r agmen ted p r i o r t o and d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f c o l o n i a l i s m . There a r e ove r one hundred twenty t r i b e s on the m a i n l a n d . T h i s f a c t f a c i l i t a t e d the spread of S w a h i l i as a common l anguage , and thus the p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s were a b l e t o sp read t h e i r message w i t h r e l a t i v e ease i n c o m p a r i -son t o o t h e r A f r i c a n s t a t e s . There was no s t r o n g w h i t e s e t t l e r g roup t h a t might have s t r e n g t h e n e d the c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s p o s i t i o n : t he w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n numbered about twenty- two thousand at t he t ime o f independence o f whom about o n e - q u a r t e r were ' s e t t l e r s ' , t h e r e s t b e i n g c i v i l 8 s e r v a n t s and b u s i n e s s m e n . The p a u c i t y o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and the l a c k o f economic deve lopment p r i o r t o independence meant t h a t t h e r e were no s t r o n g , i n d i g e n o u s v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s t ha t s u p p o r t e d p r i v i l e g e and c o l o n i a l i s m . These f a c t o r s and the s e e m i n g l y m a s s i v e u n i t y o f the c o u n t r y beh ind N y e r e r e ' s l e a d e r s h i p appea red t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p o s t - i ndependence f u t u r e was b r i g h t f o r p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y and m a s s i v e , c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s at deve l opmen t . In f a c t , one w r i t e r con t ends t h a t the ease of i ndependence se r ved t o l u l l the p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p i n t o a sense o f s e c u r i t y w h i c h a l l o w e d them t o o v e r l o o k some of the r e a l 9 prob lems they wou ld f a c e as the e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t y . T h i s seems an o v e r s t a t e m e n t , f o r w h i l e t h e r e c e r t a i n l y were s e r i o u s p rob lems t h a t even went so f a r as t o t h r e a t e n the v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f the reg ime i n t he f i r s t t h r e e y ea r s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , they were not o f an u n c o n t r o l l a b l e or unusua l s c a l e i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e s o f o t h e r A f r i c a n governments a f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e , and the p o l i t i c a l e l i t e seems t o have h a n d l e d t h e p rob lems w i t h s k i l l and s u c c e s s . There were c o n s i d e r a b l e p rob lems i n mee t i ng the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the newly m o b i l i z e d p o p u l a c e . T a n z a n i a d i d not have the n a t u r a l or f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o i n d u c e immediate and m a s s i v e economic improvement , and i t was s e v e r e l y hand i capped by a l a c k o f t r a i n e d t e c h n i c i a n s , t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Very few o f the p a r t y f a i t h f u l c o u l d be rewarded w i t h government j o b s . A g i t a t i o n f o r b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s took a r a c i a l as w e l l as economic hue . W i t h i n the p a r t y t h e r e was s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m o f the g o v e r n -m e n t ' s n o n - r a c i a l p o l i c y and the c o n t i n u e d employment o f s k i l l e d e x p a t r i a t e s . T h i s prompted Nye re re t o r e s i g n as P r ime M i n i s t e r i n o r d e r t o r e o r g a n i z e the p a r t y and a t tempt t o educa te the c o u n t r y as w e l l as the p a r t y about the r e a l i t i e s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e . In a c t u a l f a c t , i t has been s u r m i s e d , t ha t Nye re re spent most o f t h i s t e n months out o f o f f i c e not i n r e s t r u c t u r i n g the p a r t y , but i n r e s h a p i n g h i s own i d e a s and g e t t i n g suppor t f o r them among TANU o f f i c i a l s . ^ The t r a d e u n i o n s embarked on a s e r i e s o f s t r i k e s i n 1962 f o r h i g h e r pay and f a s t e r A f r i c a n i z a t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n l e g i s l a t i o n t ha t v i r t u a l l y o u t l a w e d s t r i k e s . I n J anua ry , 1964 two r e g i m e n t s of t he T a n z a n i a n army m u t i n i e d and took c o n t r o l o f p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . T h e i r g r i e v a n c e s were poor pay and the c o n t i n u e d p re sence o f B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s . They were not i n t e n d i n g t o o v e r t h r o w the government , but they a lmos t d i d , and c o u l d have done so w i t h e a s e . Nye re re was f o r c e d t o c a l l on the B r i t i s h t o supp re s s the m u t i n y - - a h u m i l i a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r him and the young c o u n t r y . These o u t b r e a k s o f s t r i f e prompted the government t o e x t e n d i t s c o n t r o l over as many a s p e c t s o f T a n z a n i a n l i f e as p o s s i b l e . The Army was v i r t u a l l y d i s m i s s e d , renamed the Kimambo and Temu, op . c i t . , p. 246. P e o p l e ' s De fence F o r c e , and o n e - h a l f o f i t s t a f f e d w i t h v o l u n t e e r s f rom t h e TANU Youth League and the N a t i o n a l Youth S e r v i c e . T rade u n i o n s were a b o l i s h e d and a l l w o r k e r s were o b l i g e d t o b e l o n g t o a s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n , the N a t i o n a l Un ion o f T a n g a n y i k a Workers (NUTA), w i t h the M i n i s t e r o f Labour as i t s Genera l S e c r e t a r y . A g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i v e s were more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h government p o l i c y t h rough the c r e a t i o n o f t h e C o o p e r a t i v e Un ion of T a n g a n y i k a . TANU was g r e a t l y expanded and o r g a n i z e d as a r o u t e f o r g r i e v a n c e s t o r each the government f rom the s m a l l e s t t en-house c e l l s , as w e l l as a means f o r m o b i l i z i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g o v e r n -ment and l o c a l sponso red p r o j e c t s . TANU o f f i c i a l s were g i v e n o v e r l a p p i n g p o s i t i o n s i n d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as w e l l as i n the p a r t y and p o s s i b l y the N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y . C h i e f s were removed f rom t h e i r p o l i c y - m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s at •the l o c a l l e v e l and r e p l a c e d by e l e c t e d c o u n c i l s , u s u a l l y c h a i r e d by the l o c a l TANU l e a d e r . These measures were c o n s o l i d a t e d i n I965 w i t h t he c r e a t i o n of T a n z a n i a as a one-pa r t y s t a t e , t h u s l e g i t i m i z i n g t he a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e of TANU. Ano the r s i g n i f i c a n t deve lopment o f t h i s p e r i o d was the u n i o n o f the m a i n l a n d T a n g a n y i k a w i t h Z a n z i b a r i n A p r i l , 1964 t o fo rm the U n i t e d R e p u b l i c o f T a n z a n i a . The c e n t r a l i z i n g t e n d e n c i e s i n h e r e n t i n t he above p o l i c i e s s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the c o r r e c t l i g h t . I t i s t r u e t h a t they a r e measures t o ensu re the s e c u r i t y and u n i t y of the s t a t e and the c o n t i n u e d power o f t he l e a d e r s h i p . U n l i k e the r a t i o n a l e of some o t h e r c o u n t r i e s f o l l o w i n g s i m i l a r p o l i c i e s , however , t h e r e i s a w ide r p u r p o s e . B a s i c a l l y i t i s t o make t he p o l i t i c a l system r e s p o n s i v e t o the needs o f the p e o p l e as w e l l as t o l ead them t o the c r e a t i o n o f a s o c i a l i s t s t a t e based on the A f r i c a n e t h i c s o f communal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s o l i d a r i t y . The commitment of the government and the p a r t y t o the c o n t i n u e d i m p l e m e n t a -t i o n o f t h e s e g o a l s i s the most c r u c i a l and perhaps most d e l i c a t e f a c t o r i n the c o n t i n u e d s t a b i l i t y and economic deve lopment o f T a n z a n i a . S i n c e 1967 more cohe ren t s t e p s have been t aken i n i m p l e m e n t i n g the s o c i a l i s t i d e a l s . The A rusha D e c l a r a t i o n and the p o l i c y o f " S e I f - R e l i a n c e " i n F eb rua r y o f t ha t year marked t he b e g i n n i n g s of major changes i n the s t r u c t u r e o f T a n z a n i a n s o c i e t y . Emphasis had a l r e a d y been p l a c e d on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d e v e l o p i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l and m a r k e t i n g c o o p e r a -t i v e s i n the v i l l a g e s and the encouragement o f s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s . These e f f o r t s had not been w h o l l y s u c c e s s f u l , and they were r e j u v e n a t e d a f t e r A r u s h a . The e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y was d r a s t i c a l l y changed . B e f o r e , i t had c o n c e n t r a t e d on p r o d u c i n g t h e s k i l l e d e l i t e n e c e s s a r y t o run the c o u n t r y . Now, the emphas is i s on non-academic t r a i n i n g r e l e v a n t t o t h e a ve rage a g r i c u l t u r a l T a n z a n i a n i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s . The p r i v i l e g e s and l i f e - s t y l e s o f the educa ted p o l i t i c a l and economic e l i t e have been c u r t a i l e d . M o b i l i z a t i o n o f the peop l e f o r s e l f - h e l p i n the r u r a l a r e a s was o b v i o u s l y j e o p a r d i z e d by the l u x u r y - 1 i v i n g o f the e l i t e i n the u rban c e n t r e s . In 1966 Nye re r e d i s m i s s e d 39h u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s who demons t r a t ed a g a i n s t b e i n g f o r c e d t o do n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e . A p e r i o d o f f i v e months l abour i n the r u r a l a r ea s i s now r e q u i r e d f o r a l l e n t e r i n g the u n i v e r s i t y . The s a l a r i e s o f government o f f i c i a l s were cut and no p u b l i c o f f i c i a l was a l l o w e d t o have o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s i n p r o p e r t y or b u s i n e s s . Today T a n z a n i a appea r s t o be a s t a b l e p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y mak ing s low but su r e p r o g r e s s i n i t s deve lopment e f f o r t s . GENERAL OUTLINE OF NYERERE'S THOUGHT J u l i u s N y e r e r e 1 s ou tpu t o f w r i t i n g s and speeches has been f a i r l y s u b s t a n t i a l i n compa r i son t o t ha t o f many A f r i c a n l e a d e r s . ^ But i t i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n volume f rom tha t o f Kwame Nkrumah o f Ghana, Kenneth Kaunda o f Zambia , L eopo ld Senghor o f S e n e g a l , Sekou Toure o f G u i n e a , or pe rhaps even Tom Mboya o f Kenya . Each o f t h e s e l e a d e r s has a t t e m p t e d t o p r e s e n t a p h i l o s o p h i c a l f ramework f o r t he deve lopment o f h i s c o u n t r y . N y e r e r e ' s d i f f e r e n c e may be t h a t h i s ou tpu t has been a c o n t i n u i n g and c h a n g i n g p r o c e s s . He has e l a b o r a t e d and e x p l a i n e d each s t ep o f T a n z a n i a ' s deve lopment a l o n g the way. H i s a u d i e n c e has a lways been the p e o p l e of T a n z a n i a . He has not been c o n c e r n e d t o e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k e r on the w o r l d s c e n e . B a s i c a l l y , h i s c o n c e r n has been t o e s t a b l i s h a p r a c t i c a l i d e o l o g i c a l f ramework f o r the s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l deve lopment of T a n z a n i a wh i ch i s The re a r e two vo lumes of s e l e c t e d w r i t i n g s and speeches , Freedom and Uni t y , 19&6, and Freedom and Soc i a 1i sm, I 9 6 8 , bo th p u b l i s h e d by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . They cove r the p e r i o d 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 6 7 - There i s a l s o a s m a l l e r volume c a l l e d Ujamaa, Essays on Soci a 1 i sm. Dar es Sa laam, OUP, 1968 wh ich d u p l i c a t e d some of the m a t e r i a l f ound i n Freedom and  Soc i a 1i sm. There a r e a l s o a l a r g e number o f pamph le t s p roduced by TANU wh i ch a r e not o b t a i n a b l e o u t s i d e T a n z a n i a . However , t he most s i g n i f i c a n t of t hese a r e r e p r i n t e d i n t he two vo lumes men t i oned above . The m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s paper has been l a r g e l y t a k e n f rom Freedom and Uni t y and Freedom and  Soci a 1 i sm, and d e a l s w i t h h i s thought u n t i l December, 1 9 6 7 . u n d e r s t o o d , a c c e p t e d , and imp lemented by the p e o p l e o f Tanzan i a . S t y l e o f P r e s e n t a t i o n N y e r e r e ' s c o n c e r n f o r the p r a c t i c a l a c c e p t a n c e o f h i s i d e a s has d e t e r m i n e d h i s s t y l e o f w r i t i n g and t a l k i n g . H i s u n o f f i c i a l t i t l e i s Mwa1imu, or Teacher (wh ich i s at d i s -t i n c t v a r i a n c e w i t h Nkrumah's Osagye fo , or Redeemer ) . No doubt h i s e x p e r i e n c e as a t e a c h e r b e f o r e he became a c t i v e i n p o l i t i c s has had much i n f l u e n c e on h i s s t y l e o f s p e a k i n g . H i s i d e a s a r e e x p r e s s e d w i t h r emarkab l e c l a r i t y . Even the most c o m p l i c a t e d and t h e o r e t i c a l p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c o n c e p t s a r e e x p r e s s e d w i t h a s i m p l i c i t y t h a t makes them e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d by a lmos t any l i t e r a t e , and p o s s i b l y even n o n - 1 i t e r a t e , p e r s o n . T h i s seems t o a p p l y whether he i s s p e a k i n g or w r i t i n g i n h i s n a t i v e l anguage , S w a h i l i , or i n E n g l i s h . A l l h i s e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h p r a c t i -c a l examples drawn f rom the l i f e and env i ronment o f the a ve rage T a n z a n i a n i n the r u r a l a r e a s . For examp le , when s p e a k i n g of e q u a l i t y he makes the d i f f i c u l t p o i n t t h a t e q u a l i t y does not mean i d e n t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s but r e q u i r e s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r deg ree o f i n e q u a l i t y , and he i l l u s t r a t e s i t t h u s : " T o say , f o r examp le , t h a t a one-armed o l d man and an a c t i v e young man a r e equa l if they each have t e n a c r e s o f f e r t i l e l and and a 2 hoe would be t o make a mockery of e q u a l i t y . " E v o l u t i o n o f Ideas N y e r e r e ' s c o n c e r n w i t h e x p l a i n i n g t he s t e p s o f s o c i e t a l deve lopment as they a r e p l anned and imp lemented i s i n d i c a t e d by the c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence of t o p i c s t ha t he d e a l s w i t h year by y e a r . He i s no s t a t i c t h i n k e r , but moves f rom one t o p i c and prob lem t o the next as they become r e l e v a n t t o T a n z a n i a . He d o e s , however , m a i n t a i n c o n s i s -t ency by i n t e g r a t i n g h i s new i d e a s i n t o the gene r a l f rame-3 work o f U jamaa--soc i a 1 i sm. The emphas is o f h i s t h i n k i n g p r i o r t o independence was n a t u r a l l y on the methods and i d e a l s o f i ndependence . A f t e r i t s ach ievement i n I96 I and up u n t i l I966 he p l a c e d emphas is on t h e c o n c e p t s o f e q u a l i t y and human d i g n i t y and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the s t r u c t u r e of the s t a t e . P a r a l l e l w i t h t h i s was t h e c o n c e r n f o r democracy and the creation o f T a n z a n i a ' s u n i q u e o n e - p a r t y s y s t e m . He was a l s o n a t u r a l l y conce rned w i t h t he s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f n a t i o n a l u n i t y . In 1962 appeared the f i r s t b e g i n n i n g s o f h i s s o c i a l i s t i c f ramework "Ujamaa, The B a s i s o f A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m " . In 1966 and I 9 6 7 2 J u l i u s K. N y e r e r e , Freedom and U n i t y (Dar es S a l a am: Ox fo rd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966 ) , p. 14. ^The l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f Ujamaa i s ' f am i 1 y h o o d 1 , but i n a Western sense i t r e f e r s t o ' s o c i a l i s m ' . h i s work s h i f t e d m a r k e d l y t o a c o n c e r n w i t h t he s o c i a l and economic deve lopment o f T a n z a n i a w i t h i n a s o c i a l i s t i c f r amework , w i t h s p e c i a l c o n c e r n b e i n g g i v e n t o change i n t he r u r a l a r e a s . The A rusha D e c l a r a t i o n i n F e b r u a r y , I967 was the s t a r t o f an i n t e n s i v e p e r i o d i n w h i c h g u i d e l i n e s and b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s were l a i d down w i t h i n t he s o c i a l i s t i c f ramework f o r t he deve lopment o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l economy, t h e r u r a l a r e a s , and e d u c a t i o n . I t was a l s o t i m e f o r t he c r e a t i o n o f a s t r i c t code o f b e h a v i o u r f o r the p o l i t i c a l and e d u c a t e d e l i t e . U n t i l 1966 Nye r e r e spent much e f f o r t commenting on i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , and e s p e c i a l l y A f r i c a n u n i t y . S i n c e then h i s c o n c e r n f o r e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s seems t o have d i m i n i s h e d , and h i s a t t e n t i o n t o A f r i c a n u n i t y has been r e p l a c e d by a c o n c e r n f o r l i b e r a t i o n o f t he c o l o n i a l and w h i t e - d o m i n a t e d s t a t e s i n Sou the rn A f r i c a . L i m i t s o f H i s Thought Nye re r e i s a lmos t e x c l u s i v e l y conce rned w i t h T a n z a n i a i n the c o r e o f h i s t h o u g h t . He does n o t , l i k e Nkrumah and T o u r e , a t t empt t o c r e a t e a g l o b a l t h e o r y o f h i s t o r y and p l a c e T a n z a n i a somewhere i n the f o r e f r o n t o f the march o f t i m e . Bo th Nkrumah and Toure were conce rned w i t h i m p e r i a l -i s m , c o l o n i a l i s m and neo-co l on i a 1 i sm as s t a g e s i n the emergence o f a new o r d e r i n A f r i c a and the w o r l d as a w h o l e . Nye re re i s not c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n e v i t a b l e t h e o r i e s o f h i s t o r y . L i k e Nkrumah and T o u r e , however , he i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t A f r i c a can p roduce a new s o c i e t y based on i t s t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and may even i n f l u e n c e o t h e r p a r t s o f t he w o r l d t o t he good , but he f e e l s t h a t i t w i l l o n l y do so t h rough the m o b i l i z a -t i o n o f i t s own e f f o r t s and r e s o u r c e s , not i n r e s p o n s e t o movements o f h i s t o r y . In t h i s sense Nye re re i s one o f the most p r a g m a t i c o f A f r i c a n p o l i t i c a l t h i n k e r s . He does not a t tempt t o speak t o t he w o r l d and c r e a t e a new p h i l o s o p h y o f human deve l opmen t , or even become the vanguard o f ano the r i d e o l o g y - - s u c h as Nkrumah sought t o do w i t h M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m . He speaks o n l y t o t h e pu rpose of b u i l d i n g a new s o c i e t y i n Tanzan i a . Soc i a 1i sm Nye re re has commi t t ed h i m s e l f and T a n z a n i a t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . He i s a l s o conce rned t o b u i l d s o c i a l i s m out o f t he T a n z a n i a n e n v i r o n m e n t . He has devo ted c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t t o e x p l a i n i n g why a un ique s o r t o f s o c i a l i s m w i l l have t o be b u i l t i n T a n z a n i a , one t h a t w i l l adhere t o t he u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d v a l u e s o f s o c i a l i s m but w i l l r e a l i s e them i n ways t h a t a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t he T a n z a n i a n e n v i r o n m e n t . He f e e l s t h a t t h e r e a r e many pa ths t o t he goa l o f a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y , depend ing on where one s t a r t s c u l t u r a l l y , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , and e c o n o m i c a l l y . B e f o r e o u t l i n i n g h i s thought on A f r i c a n or T a n z a n i a n s o c i a l i s m , l e t us look a t what he c o n s i d e r s t o be t h e u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s k of s o c i a 1 i sm. 1. The b a s i c purpose o f a l l s o c i a l a c t i v i t y i s MAN, and t he f u r t h e r a n c e o f h i s human d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 . The d e v o t i o n t o MAN i m p l i e s equa I i t y . T h i s must be t he c o r e and e s sence o f a l l s o c i a l i s t p o l i c i e s . E q u a l i t y a p p l i e s not o n l y t o m a t e r i a l w e l f a r e , but i n c l u d e s the a c c e p t a n c e o f human d i f f e r e n c e s . A s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y cannot a l l o w the e x i s t e n c e o f r a c i a l i s m , t r i b a l i s m , or r e l i g i o u s i n t o l e r a n c e . In sum " S o c i a l i s m , as a s y s t em, i s i n f a c t the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f men ' s i n e q u a l i t i e s t o s e r v e t h e i r e q u a l i t y . " - ' 3. E q u a l i t y a l s o i m p l i e s the u p h o l d i n g o f human d i g n i t y . k. E q u a l i t y r e f l e c t e d i n the p o l i t i c a l sphe re means the e x i s t e n c e o f democracy . That i s , t h e r e must be some mechanism whereby the peop l e can e x e r t t h e i r w i l l p e a c e f u l l y and change t h e i r laws and t h e i r l e a d e r s . " I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how t h i s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t t he e x i s t e n c e o f some sys tem of f r e e e l e c t i o n s • • • 5. The s o c i e t y w i l l c o n s i s t o n l y of w o r k e r s . To work w i l l be a r i g h t a s w e l l as a d u t y . Only sma l l c h i l d r e n , t he J u l i u s K. N y e r e r e , Freedom and Soc i a 1i sm (Dar es S a l a am: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968 ) , pp . k-9. 51 b i d . , p. k. o l d and the s i c k w i n be exempt . B e i n g a worker does not n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y b e i n g a wage-ea rne r , and the d e f i n i t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y not r e s t r i c t e d t o the c l a s s i c a l s o c i a l i s t concep t o f i n d u s t r i a l w o r k e r s . For i n s t a n c e , women who spend t h e i r t i m e c o o k i n g and l o o k i n g a f t e r c h i l d r e n w i l l be r e g a r d e d as w o r k e r s . 6. I t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no p r o f i t e e r s or e x p l o i t e r s or t h o s e who get r i c h on the l a b o u r o f o t h e r s . E x p l o i t a t i o n o f one man by ano the r w i l l not be p e r -m i t t e d . The re w i l l be no i d l e m a s t e r s . Incomes w i l l not be i d e n t i c a l as some w o r k e r s r e q u i r e more goods than o t h e r s . T e a c h e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e , w i l l need more books than mos t . But t h e r e c o u l d not be a s i t u a t i o n where one man i s p a i d one hundred t i m e s as much as ano the r man, i m p l y i n g t h a t h i s l a b o u r s a r e wor th t h a t much more . 7. In o r d e r t o p reven t i n e q u a l i t y and e x p l o i t a t i o n i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r the t o o l s o f p r o d u c t i o n and the mechanisms of exchange t o be under the c o n t r o l o f t he p e o p l e . T h i s w i l l n o r m a l l y i n v o l v e p u b l i c owne r sh ip o f the key s e c t o r s o f t he economy. I t wou ld not p r e c l u d e p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p because s t a t e c o n t r o l wou ld o n l y cove r t h o s e s e c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t the m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e . The a c t u a l mix o f p r i v a t e and s t a t e c o n t r o l and the l e v e l s and t ype o f c o n t r o l , such as l o c a l , n a t i o n a l , or c o o p e r a t i v e , wou ld v a r y f rom one s o c i a l i s t sys tem t o the n e x t . 8. The R u l e o f Law w i l l be u p h e l d . The purpose o f s o c i a l i s m i s t o e n l a r g e the r e a l f reedom o f man. Laws, t h e r e f o r e , s h a l l be made known and a p p l i e d e q u a l l y , w i t h no a r b i t r a r y a r r e s t o r p e r s e c u t i o n . 9. S o c i a l v a l u e s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n o f s o c i e t y w i l l emphas ize the c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t , not p e r s o n a l a g g r e s s i v e n e s s or c o m p e t i t i o n . The h i g h e s t r e s p e c t w i l l be g i v e n t o t h o s e who demons t r a t e t he g r e a t e s t degree o f s e r v i c e t o s o c i e t y , as opposed t o a c q u i s i -t i v e n e s s . I t can be seen here t h a t Nye re re i s t a l k i n g i n v e r y g e n e r a l t e rms about s o c i e t a l i d e a l s . In Chap te r s I I I t o V o f t h i s paper I s h a l l look a t the more s p e c i f i c e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e s e i d e a l s i n t e rms o f p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f s o c i e t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n T a n z a n i a . T a n z a n i a n S o c i a l i s m In t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y o u t l i n e o f h i s thought i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o no te N y e r e r e ' s r easons f o r embark ing on the T a n z a n i a n road t o s o c i a l i s m . In p a r t o f Chapter I I I I s h a l l l ook a t the s p e c i f i c t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and c o n d i t i o n s wh i ch fo rm the b a s i s o f h i s m o d e l . A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m i s by now a w e l l - u s e d term t h a t i s employed by many A f r i c a n s t a t e s t o e x p l a i n and j u s t i f y t h e i r p o l i c i e s . G e n e r a l l y , i t r e f e r s t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e r e i s much i n the v a l u e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l l y s o c i a l i s t i c and w h i c h can be adap ted t o a modern s t a t e i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e a new s y n t h e s i s o f s o c i e t y t h a t w i l l bes t s e r v e the needs o f t h e A f r i c a n p e o p l e . N y e r e r e s u b s c r i b e s t o t h i s v i e w and h o l d s t h a t t h e r e i s a u n i v e r s a l i t y and yet a d i v e r s i t y i n S o c i a l -i sm w h i c h a l l o w s i t t o be adap ted t o a v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l env i ronments . The u n i v e r s a l i t y o f s o c i a l i s m o n l y e x i s t s i f i t can t a k e accoun t o f men ' s d i f f e r e n c e s , and be e q u a l l y v a l i d f o r a l l o f them. And i t c a n . For the u n i v e r s a l i t y o f s o c i a l i s m does not i m p l y a s i n g l e , w o r l d - w i d e u n i f o r m i t y o f s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , s o c i a l h a b i t s , o r s o c i a l 1 a n g u a g e . 7 I t o n l y r e f e r s t o t h e common i d e a l s t h a t a l l s o c i a l i s t s work f o r . He b e l i e v e s t h a t A f r i c a and ' A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s t s ' w i l l work toward t h o s e g o a l s on the b a s i s o f t h e economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t now e x i s t i n A f r i c a . And t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f o the r c o u n t r i e s w h i c h embarked on the road t o s o c i a l i s m i n the p a s t . T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e the work o f such s o c i a l i s t t h i n k e r s as M a r x , L e n i n , and Mao w i l l be o f g rea t h e l p i n g e n e r a l t e r m s , Nye re re f e e l s i t w o u l d be u n r e a l i s t i c t o t r y t o a p p l y t h e i r t h o u g h t s t o T a n z a n i a as though they were i n f a l l i b l e d o c -t r i n e s t h a t were a p p l i c a b l e e v e r y w h e r e . Q u a r r e l s over the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d o c t r i n e and w o r r i e s over whether o n e ' s a c t i o n s conform t o t he t r u e t e a c h i n g s o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m or t o any o t h e r - isms a r e t h e r e f o r e f u t i l e and d e s t r u c t i v e i n Tanzan i a . In the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s second volume of w r i t i n g s , N y e r e r e makes a s t r o n g a t t a c k a g a i n s t d o c t r i n a i r e s o c i a l i s t s and t h o s e who a d h e r e t o a ' t h e o l o g y ' or ' r e l i g i o n ' o f 8 ' s o c i a l i s m . I t g i v e s one the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t he i s mak ing more than a t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t , and i s p r o b a b l y d i r e c t i n g at l e a s t pa r t of h i s remarks a t h i s i d e o l o g i c a l c r i t i c s i n Tanzan i a . In g e n e r a l , he a r g u e s f o r an independen t f rame o f mind t ha t t a k e s the bes t and most r e l e v a n t o f o t h e r s ' t h o u g h t s and a p p l i e s them t o t h e r e a l i t y o f T a n z a n i a . We i n T a n z a n i a a r e pa r t o f m a n k i n d . We have t o t a k e our p l a c e i n the w o r l d . We wou ld be s t u p i d t o r e j e c t e v e r y t h i n g coming out o f t he West because i t i s t he home o f c a p i t a l i s m ; we wou ld be s t u p i d t o r e j e c t e v e r y t h i n g t he Communists d o . We a r e t r y i n g t o b u i l d u jamaa -s o c i a l i s m - wh i ch i s n e i t h e r o f t h e s e t h i n g s . We can l e a r n f rom bo th - and f rom o t h e r p o l i t i c a l sys tems -w i t h o u t t r y i n g t o copy or s e e k i n g f o r t h e i r a p p r o v a l . Our t a s k i s t o l ook f i r s t at our own p o s i t i o n and our needs , and then t o c o n s i d e r o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e and o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s i n the l i g h t of our r e q u i r e m e n t s . We s h o u l d not put o u r s e l v e s i n t o b l i n k e r s as though we were a ho r se wh i ch c o u l d not be t r u s t e d t o see what i s go ing on e l s e w h e r e . We shou ld be w i l l i n g t o l e a r n f rom our f e l l o w men, and we s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e common poo l o f knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e . We can do t h i s i f we use our b r a i n s - t h a t i s , i f we THINK.9 Compet ing P r i n c i p l e s and Long-Term O u t l o o k Nye re re i s not so n a i v e as t o c l a i m t h a t a l l t he i d e a l s o f s o c i a l i s m can be e a s i l y and q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d . He f e e l s t ha t p r i o r i t i e s must be se t among v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s t h a t cannot be u n d e r t a k e n a l l a t o n c e , and t h a t t h e r e u n d o u b t e d l y w i l l be c l a s h e s between p r i n c i p l e s and o b j e c -t i v e s when the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s demands the s h o r t - r u n n e g l e c t o f c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s . Thus t he p r i n c i p l e or i d e a l o f e q u a l i t y as m a n i f e s t e d i n u n i v e r s a l s e conda r y e d u c a t i o n must be n e g l e c t e d i n the s h o r t - r u n i n o r d e r t o devo t e s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s t o p r o v i d i n g u n i v e r s a l h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s or i n b u i l d i n g a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a -s t r u c t u r e t o f a c i l i t a t e the e x p o r t o f commod i t i e s i n o r d e r t o g a i n more f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s i n t he l o n g - r u n . Nye re re i s conce rned he re w i t h t h e p rob lem o f the r i s i n g e x p e c t a -t i o n s o f h i s p e o p l e . Independence was e x p e c t e d t o ma rked l y change the l i f e o f the ave rage man. I t has n o t . Many o f the economic and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s set b e f o r e i ndependence have not been a c h i e v e d . W i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t Nye re re has t r i e d t o d e v e l o p a p e r s p e c t i v e t ha t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e j u s t and e q u i t a b l e c h o i c e s between compe t ing p r i n c i p l e s and p r i o r i -t i e s . He i n d i c a t e s t h a t he does t h i s by t r y i n g t o j udge a l l c h o i c e s i n t e rms o f t h e i r l o n g - r u n e f f e c t . ^ 0 He has s t a t e d t h a t i t w i l l be some t h i r t y y e a r s b e f o r e s o c i a l i s t p o l i c i e s w i l l r e s u l t i n major a p p r e c i a b l e changes i n T a n z a n i a n 11 s o c i e t y . T h e r e f o r e , h i s t ime l i m i t f o r a c h i e v i n g at l e a s t a modicum of s o c i a l i s t i d e a l s i s twenty t o t h i r t y y e a r s , and p r e s e n t c h o i c e s must be t a k e n t h a t w i l l a c h i e v e t h i s . Thus , h i s s o c i a l i s t f ramework o f i d e a l s i s used t o d e t e r m i n e and j u s t i f y h i s p r e sen t p o l i c y c h o i c e s . I t i s h a r d l y an e x p l i c i t or nove l p e r s p e c t i v e f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , but i t does a t t empt t o p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u i t y o f p o l i c i e s , and i t a l s o f u r n i s h e s a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n tha t makes p resen t p o l i c y c h o i c e s more a c c e p t a b l e t o the popu l a ce than none a t a l l . Success So Far I t f o l l o w s f rom the p r e v i o u s p o i n t s t ha t Nye re re does not c l a i m t o have a l r e a d y c r e a t e d a s o c i a l i s t s t a t e i n T a n z a n i a . Not even the r e v o l u t i o n a r y A rusha D e c l a r a t i on and the subsequent n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of key i n d u s t r i e s and the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s made T a n z a n i a a s o c i a l i s t s y s t e m . S o c i a l i s m i s t h e framework o f i d e a l s , 0 N y e r e r e , Freedom and Uni t y , op . c i t . . , pp. 6-7. ^ N e v i l l e L i n t o n , " N y e r e r e ' s Road To S o c i a l i s m , " Canad ian Journa1 o f A f r i can S t u d i e s , V o l . 2 ( S p r i n g , 1968), P T T : o u t l i n e d i n h i s u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and a l l s o c i e t i e s a t p r e s e n t f a l l s ho r t o f r e a l i z i n g a l l t h e s e i d e a l s t h r o u g h -out t h e i r who le s o c i e t y . At p r e s e n t , he f e e l s t h a t t h e r e a r e o n l y t hose s o c i e t i e s t h a t a re t r y i n g t o c r e a t e s o c i a l i s m and t h o s e t h a t a r e n o t . One can o n l y measure p r o g r e s s by compar ing the p r e sen t r e a l i t y o f a s o c i e t y w i t h t h e i d e a l . How f a r does N y e r e r e t h i n k T a n z a n i a has got ? In A u g u s t , 1968 he w r o t e : So f a r a l l t h a t we have r e a l l y a c h i e v e d i s some s u c c e s s i n showing p e o p l e t ha t t h e r e i s ano the r goa l t o work f o r now t h a t our independence e x i s t s . For t h e r e s t we have t r i e d t o p revent the growth o f new and s t r o n g e r groups w i t h a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n c a p i t a l i s m ; we have e s t a b l i s h e d some of the i n s t i t u t i o n s t h r o u g h wh i ch the p e o p l e can speak ; and we have j u s t begun t o s e a r c h out and h e l p the l o c a l e x p e r i m e n t s i n modern s o c i a l i s m . We have d e f i n e d our p o l i c i e s i n e d u c a t i o n , i n r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , and have l i s t e d our e x p e c t a t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p . But we a r e NOT a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . Our work has o n l y j u s t begun . J 2 Summary I t appea r s t h a t N y e r e r e has d e v e l o p e d a f a i r l y r e a l i s t i c p e r s o n a l f ramework w i t h i n wh i ch he seeks t o c h a r t and d i r e c t t he deve lopment o f T a n z a n i a . He has commi t ted h i m s e l f t o the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a c o n s i s t e n t set o f i d e a l s wh ich he has d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n the l o c a l c o n t e x t o f T a n z a n i a . H i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s i s d e s i g n e d f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a ve r age T a n z a n i a n o f l i t t l e f o rma l e d u c a t i o n who l i v e s i n t he r u r a l a r e a s . F i n a l l y , h i s e x p e c t a t i o n about t h e ease and r a p i d i t y o f the ach ievement o f the i d e a l s i s r e a l i s t i c a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e . THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l examine N y e r e r e ' s thought under t h r e e main h e a d i n g s : t he v a l u e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y ; s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e s ; r e s p o n s i v e government . In g e n e r a l i t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the r o l e o f t he i n d i v i d u a l i n the modern s t a t e , h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y , and t h e s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l env i ronmen t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e s t a t e i n t e r a c t . Much of N y e r e r e ' s s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l thought r e s t s upon v a l u e s and a s s u m p t i o n s he c l a i m s were i n h e r e n t i n A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y b e f o r e the coming o f the w h i t e man. He s eeks t o make t h e s e t h e e t h i c a l b a s i s o f t he modern s t a t e . ( a ) V a l u e s o f T r a d i t i o n a l S o c i e t y The S w a h i l i name t h a t N y e r e r e has g i v e n t o h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f A f r i c a n s o c i a l i s m i s Ujamaa. The l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s word i s 1 fami 1 yhood 1 , and a l t h o u g h i t i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as ' s o c i a l i s m ' i t was d e l i b e r a t e l y chosen because o f i t s ' f a m i l y ' m e a n i n g . For at t h e b a s i s o f N y e r e r e ' s p h i l o s o p h y a r e t h e v a l u e s t h a t were found i n the t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n ex tended f a m i l y . The e x t e n d e d f a m i l y encompassed even d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e s o f a f a m i l y u n i t and bound them t o g e t h e r i n a set o f mutua l o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t s o c i a l l y and m a t e r i a l l y s u p p o r t e d a l l members. N y e r e r e ' s c o n c e r n i s t o w iden the scope of t h e s e o b l i g a t i o n s t o cove r the t o t a l modern s t a t e , and t h u s b u i l d a new s o c i e t y out of the r o o t s of the o l d . Nye re re never m e n t i o n s the r o l e o f t he t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b e except t o a t t a c k i t s p r e sen t tendency o f b e i n g a f o c u s o f l o y a l t y opposed t o t ha t of the s t a t e . He, t h e r e f o r e , f e e l s t ha t the t r i b e - - t h e w i d e r p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l u n i t c o n t a i n i n g many ex tended f a m i l i e s — had l i t t l e or no i n f l u e n c e i n the c r e a t i o n and ma in t enance o f t r a d i -t i o n a l v a l u e s . I t i s t h e f a m i l y t ha t one must look t o f o r i n s p i r a t i o n , and i t i s t he f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e and o p e r a t i o n t h a t must be t he b a s i s o f the modern s t a t e . What were t h e s e v a l u e s t h a t Nye re re r e g a r d s so h i g h l y ? F i r s t o f a l l , t he g e n e r a l f ramework and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y was s o c i a l i s t i c i n t h a t i t conformed t o the u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s o c i a l i s m tha t have been e n u n c i a t e d by N y e r e r e . The ex t ended f a m i l y was a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d economic and s o c i a l u n i t t h a t was a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y i n m i n i a t u r e . N y e r e r e i s c a r e f u l t o p o i n t out t h a t t h e r e were d i s t i n c t v a r i a t i o n s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n among the peop l e s e t t l e d i n what i s now T a n z a n i a , but the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s h e l d t r u e . D e s p i t e a l l the v a r i a t i o n s , and some e x c e p t i o n s where the i n s t i t u t i o n o f d o m e s t i c s l a v e r y e x i s t e d , A f r i c a n f a m i l y l i f e was everywhere based on c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s w h i c h t o g e t h e r meant b a s i c e q u a l i t y , f reedom and u n i t y . 1 That was w r i t t e n i n 1966 i n the volume Freedom and Uni t y w h i c h i n gene ra l d e a l s w i t h the t o p i c s of i t s t i t l e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t two y e a r s l a t e r i n Freedom and  Soc i a 1i sm Nye re re says the same t h i n g i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , but changes the p h r a s e o l o g y t o i n d i c a t e t ha t the key 2 p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s t o g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e d ' s o c i a l i s m 1 . I t may be su rm i sed t h a t he i s u s i n g t h e concep t o f t r a d i -t i o n a l A f r i c a n l i f e t o suppo r t and j u s t i f y h i s p r e sen t c o n c e r n s . That may be s o , but i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t h i s arguments show a l o g i c a l growth and c o n s i s t e n c y . Anothe r gene ra l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c wh i ch Nye re re empha-s i z e s i s the absence o f c l a s s s t r u c t u r e or a r i s t o c r a c y i n t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n s o c i e t y . In f a c t he a s s e r t s t ha t t he concep t of c l a s s was c o m p l e t e l y unknown and t h a t the e q u i v a l e n t o f the word ' c l a s s ' does not e x i s t i n any 3 i n d i g n e o u s A f r i c a n l anguage . Wh i l e t h e r e were k ingdoms i n p r e - c o l o n i a l T a n z a n i a , they were not o r g a n i z e d i n t he form o f a r i s t o c r a c i e s . He c l a i m s t h a t t h e r e were o n l y two t r i b e s i n T a n z a n i a w i t h a d i s t i n c t a r i s t o c r a c y , t he Bahaya and the Baka , and bo th o f t h e s e were h i s t o r i c a l l y f o r e i g n e r s if and came f rom the same s t o c k . The absence o f c l a s s e s i s N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , op . c i t . , p. 16. 3Nyerere, Freedom and U n i t y , op . c i t . , p. 170. ^ I b i d . , p. 103. c r u c i a l t o the • A f r i c a n - n e s s ' o f A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m , f o r t h i s f a c t d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t f rom the b e g i n n i n g s and j u s t i f i c a t i o n s o f the more e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l i s m i n Europe . T r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n s o c i e t y was based on t h r e e fundamenta l and u n c h a l l e n g e d p r i n c i p l e s : ( 1 ) mutua l r e s p e c t among a l l members, (2 ) s h a r i n g o f w e a l t h and the f r u i t s o f j o i n t p r o d u c t i o n , and (3) t he o b l i g a t i o n o f a l l members t o c work . These were r e f l e c t e d i n and b o l s t e r e d by the com-munal owne rsh ip o f l a n d , c o l l e c t i v e work h a b i t s , t he l a c k o f c a p i t a l a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s by members, and u n i v e r s a l h o s p i t a l i t y . A l l o f t hese p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s can be found i n N y e r e r e ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f the u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f s o c i a l i s m . ^ 1. Mutua l r e s p e c t i m p l i e d the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the mutual i n v o l v e m e n t o f a l l members w i t h one a n o t h e r . Each member was a c c o r d e d a common l e v e l o f p e r s o n a l d i g n i t y , w h i l e t he degree of r e s p e c t and s o c i a l r i g h t s v a r i e d somewhat w i t h age , s e x , and a b i l i t y . T h i s s t a n d a r d o f b e h a v i o u r ensu red the i n d i v i d u a l s e c u r i t y o f a l l members o f the s o c i e t y . 2 . S h a r i n g i m p l i e d a b a s i c economic e q u a l i t y . No one c o u l d go hungry or w i t h o u t s h e l t e r w h i l e o t h e r s hoarded f o o d ^Nye r e r e , Freedom and Soci a 1 i sm, op . c i t . , p. 340 ° S ee Chapte r I I , pp . 24-26 . or o c c u p i e d u n n e c e s s a r y s p a c e . There s h o u l d be no need t o hoard w e a l t h i f one f e e l s s e c u r e i n s o c i e t y and knows tha t s o c i e t y w i l l l ook a f t e r you i n a l l s i t u a -t i o n s . T h a t , m a i n t a i n s N y e r e r e , was t he c a s e i n t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n s o c i e t y . 7 He a l s o a s s e r t s t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n s o c i e t y p roduced no mi 1 1 i o n a i r e s or the e q u i v a l e n t o f s u c h , even though t h e r e was enough w e a l t h i n some a r e a s t o c r e a t e them. The method of d i s t r i b u t i o n and t he s o c i a l norms of s h a r i n g l e f t no room f o r p a r i s i t i s m . I n e q u a l i t i e s e x i s t e d , but they were tempered by comparab le f a m i l y or s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and they c o u l d never become g r o s s or o f f e n s i v e t o t he s o c i a l e q u a l i t y w h i c h was a t the b a s i s of communal l i f e . 8 P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y o f most o b j e c t s c e r t a i n l y e x i s t e d . I ndeed , l and was about the o n l y t r u l y communal p r o p e r t y . But t h e use o f p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y was governed by the 9 e x p e c t a t i o n of s h a r i n g i n t ime of need . 3. Work by a l l . Every member o f the f a m i l y , and every guest who sha red i n the r i g h t t o eat and have s h e l t e r , t ook i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t he had t o j o i n i n whatever work had t o be done . Only by t he u n i v e r s a l a c c e p t a n c e N y e r e r e , Freedom and U n i t y , op . c i t . , p. 164. N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , op . c i t . , p. 338. N y e r e r e , Freedom and U n i t y , op . c i t . , pp . 9-10. of t h i s p r i n c i p l e was t he c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the o t h e r two p r i n c i p l e s made p o s s i b l e . 1 0 Nye re re m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e s e t h r e e p r i n c i p l e s were , and a r e , the f o u n d a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s e c u r i t y , p r a c t i c a l human e q u a l i t y , and peace between members of a s o c i e t y . Nye re re does not go i n t o g r ea t d e t a i l about t he i n s t i t u t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s wh i ch governed the day- to-day r u n n i n g of the t r a d i t i o n a l s y s t em . He r e s t r i c t s h i m s e l f t o a g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t he v a l u e s and s o c i a l f o r c e s w h i c h domina ted e ve r yday b e h a v i o u r . What he does say about p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s t h a t i t was done i n t he A t h e n i a n s t y l e o f l ong open d i s c u s s i o n s wh i ch ended i n unanimous agreement . The ' a u t h o r i t y ' w i t h i n the ex t ended f a m i l y was the h e r e d i t a r y head of the f a m i l y . The w e a l t h t h a t he appea red t o p o s s e s s and the l and t ha t he a l l o c a t e d t o members o f the f a m i l y was not a c t u a l l y h i s , but was h e l d by h im as t r u s t e e f o r t he f a m i l y . Respect t h a t was g i v e n t o the 'headman' or 'elder' was not based on his wealth or power, but on h i s a g e , w i sdom, and l ong s e r v i c e t o the 12 communi ty . Nye re re c l a i m s t h a t he was b a s i c a l l y a ' f i r s t among e q u a l s ' and t h a t h i s power and a u t h o r i t y were b a l a n c e d by e x p e c t a t i o n s of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and compromise i n 10 N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , op . c i t . , p. 339 . I b i d . , p. 340 11 the i n t e r e s t o f group harmony. The ma in tenance o f the s o c i a l v a l u e s was u n d e r t a k e n by the a 11-encompass ing sys tem o f e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h , i n e s s e n c e , was t he f a m i l y env i ronment , . C h i l d r e n were n o u r i s h e d on t r a d i t i o n and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s by t h e i r p a r e n t s and t h e i r e l d e r r e l a t i v e s as w e l l as by the a c t i v i t i e s o f t he s o c i e t y as a w h o l e . T r i b a l i n i t i a t i o n was a s y m b o l i c a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s . N y e r e r e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n l i f e i s not a l l c o m p l i m e n t a r y . He does say t h a t the members were no more ' n o b l e ' t han any o t h e r human b e i n g s , t h a t the s o c i a l p r i n c i p l e s were as much abused as o t h e r p r i n c i p l e s e l s e w h e r e , and t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s i n wh i ch t he s o c i e t y l i v e d were f a r f rom i d y l l i c . They were " . . . p o o r , i n s e c u r e and f r e -13 q u e n t l y f e a r - r i d d e n . " In s p i t e o f t he t h r e e dominant p r i n c i p l e s under wh i ch i t o p e r a t e d , t h e r e were two major f a c t o r s wh i ch made t he sys tem b a s i c a l l y u n a t t r a c t i v e t o Nye re re i n i t s t o t a l c o n t e x t . One was the a c c e p t a n c e o f a b a s i c i n e q u a l i t y w i t h i n the system as a w h o l e . T h i s was t h e i n e q u a l i t y of women. They were g e n e r a l l y r ega rded as b e i n g s o c i a l l y i n f e r i o r , and bore t h e b r u n t o f l abour both i n the f i e l d s and i n t he home. The f a c t t h a t they c o u l d be v i c i o u s l y e x p l o i t e d w i t h i n the l e g i t i m a t e s o c i a l m i l i e u means t h a t t h e sys tem was not i n f a c t t h e o r e t i c a l l y s o c i a l i s t . ko I n e q u a l i t y and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f man by man, as Nye re re o f t e n p o i n t s o u t , cannot e x i s t w i t h i n a s o c i a l i s t s y s t em . The o t h e r f a c t o r was p o v e r t y . The economic e q u a l i t y t ha t e x i s t e d was one o f s u b s i s t e n c e l i v i n g . He c l a i m s t h a t i t was the r e s u l t o f i g n o r a n c e and the sma l l s c a l e of s o c i a l and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n . Wi thout knowledge of d i f f e r e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s and w i t h o u t w i d e r c o o p e r a -t i o n t h a n among the e x t e n d e d f a m i l y f o r p r o d u c t i o n and exchange of goods , the sys tem was doomed t o p e r p e t u a l p o v e r t y . I t i s pe rhaps i r o n i c t o note t h a t w h i l e the system i n i s o l a t i o n was doomed t o p o v e r t y the f a c t o r wh i ch N y e r e r e c l a i m s p l a c e d t he t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s i n s e ve r e j e o p a r d y was the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the money economy. T h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l l a t e r . At the moment we s h o u l d no te t h a t Nye re re c l a i m s t h a t money i t s e l f was not d e s t r u c -t i v e . The s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s were the accompany ing b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m , a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s , and c o m p e t i t i o n , and the g r o w i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f the f a c t t h a t s t a t u s i n t he w i d e r s o c i e t y depended upon o n e ' s p o s s e s s i o n s . By i n t r o d u c i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of h o a r d i n g w e a l t h t h rough money and by e n c o u r a g i n g the a c q u i s i t i v e i n -s t i n c t i n man, and by b a s i n g s o c i a l s t a t u s on m a t e r i a l w e a l t h , the v e r y b a s i s o f t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y i s undermi n e d . ^ These f a c t o r s have c r e a t e d s e ve r e s t r a i n w i t h i n the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e , f o r when the i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s e s more w e a l t h h i s o b l i g a t i o n s t o t he f a m i l y i n c r e a s e , but h i s s t a t u s and w e l l -b e i n g o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y ( i . e . the u rban money economy) depend upon him k e e p i n g t h a t w e a l t h t o h i m s e l f . The r e s u l t i s t h a t t he u n i t y and e q u a l i t y o f the f a m i l y i s b r o k e n . C o n c l u s i o n — T r a n s f e r e n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s t o a  modern p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . The c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n about N y e r e r e ' s p o l i t i c a l thought i s whether i t i s p o s s i b l e t o b u i l d a modern n a t i o n s t a t e based upon t he b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s and s o c i a l v a l u e s t h a t e x i s t e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y . The t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s o f the pas t were based on k i n s h i p t i e s and a sense o f l o c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s were e n a c t e d among peop l e who had known each o the r f rom b i r t h , and t h e i r f e e l i n g of mutua l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y was no doubt l a r g e l y based upon k i n s h i p and p e r s o n a l a c q u a i n t a n c e . I s i t r e a s o n a b l e t o expec t t h a t t h e s e l o c a l , t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s can be e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e e l e v e n m i l l i o n p e o p l e i n a l a r g e money economy na t ion - ? Nye re re a d m i t s t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l sys tem was doomed t o economic p o v e r t y , and t h a t i t s s o c i a l v a l u e s were i n the end s e v e r e l y damaged by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the money economy. T h i s l e a d s me t o q u e s t i o n whether the e q u a l i t y and u n i t y o f the t r a d i t i o n a l system was not i n f a c t r e a l l y de te rmi ned by i t s p o v e r t y , so t ha t the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f g r e a t e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f m o b i l i t y and wealth doomed the old values and behaviour patterns to cer ta in ex t inc t i on . Nyerere strongly re jects both of these arguments, but he does so more by an act of f a i th than by the logic of past experience. As far as wealth i s concerned, he merely states that i t can be harnessed to be used for the maintenance and growth of the three t r ad i t i ona l p r inc ip l es of mutual respect, sharing of jo in t production, and work by a l l . ^ As far as the transference of values to the larger society i s con-cerned, he claims that the idea of the socia l family can be l og i ca l l y extended to include the whole nation and even the world. In f ac t , the Af r i can s o c i a l i s t regards a l l men as 16 his brothers--as members of his ever extending fami ly . His expression of f a i t h is best summed up thus: The p r inc ip l e s which worked in th i s one case (the t r ad i t i ona l extended family) are equal ly va l id for larger soc ie t i es because, however large i t i s , men are always the purpose and j u s t i f i c a t i o n of soc iety . There are very great problems involved in adapting the p r inc ip les to rea l l y large uni ts w h e r e ind iv idua l brotherhood and interdependence i s not immediately obvious as in the family un i t . But they are s t i l l the only basis on which a society can hope to operate harmoniously and in accordance with i t s purpose . . . . Social p r inc ip l es are, by d e f i n i t i o n , ideals at which to s t r i ve and by which to exercise s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . The question to ask i s not whether they are capable of achievement, which i s absurd, but whether a society of free men can do without them.17 ^Nyerere , Freedom and Soci a! i sm, op. ci t . , p. 3h0. 16 Nyerere, Freedom and Unity, op. ci t . , p. 170. 1 7 1 b i d . , pp. 12-13. D e s p i t e h i s l u c i d t h e o r e t i c a l a rguments t o the c o n t r a r y , t he p r a c t i c a l p rob lem o f t r a n s f e r r i n g t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s wh i ch were r o o t e d i n the s m a l l , l o c a l env i ronment t o the day- to-day a c t i v i t i e s o f a modern , l a r g e n a t i o n i s one t h a t cannot be o v e r r a t e d . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t a l a r g e s o c i e t y cannot be run l i k e a sma l l group where eve ryone knows each o t h e r and where i n t i m a t e s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s s e r v e t o r e g u l a t e b e h a v i o u r . The sheer s c a l e on wh i ch Nyere re hopes t h e s e v a l u e s w i l l o p e r a t e may be t o o g r e a t . H i s g e n e r a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n s o f hope quo ted on page h2 must o b v i o u s l y be backed by some p r a c t i c a l methods o f imp l emen -t a t i o n . Nye re r e does t h i s by a t t e m p t i n g t o l i n k the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s t o e v e r y a s p e c t o f the modern s t a t e . F i r s t , he seeks t o c o n v i n c e h i s p e o p l e t h a t the v a l u e s e x i s t i n e v e r y one o f them, tha t they have been l y i n g dormant t h rough the p e r i o d o f s o c i a l c o n f u s i o n r e s u l t i n g f rom c o l o n i a l i s m and the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the money economy, and t h a t they can now se t about b r i n g i n g them t o the f o r e i n t h e new A f r i c a n and s o c i a l i s t T a n z a n i a . Speak ing t o the N a t i o n a l Assembly i n 1962 he s a i d , "Ujamaa i s a way o f l i f e , and t h e r e a r e no e x p e r t s b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d than y o u r s e l v e s t o expound t h a t way o f l i f e . We a r e a l l o f us Ujamaa e x p e r t s . " He f e e l s t ha t t h e s p i r i t o f mutua l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s bes t r e f l e c t e d i n the C o o p e r a t i v e movement. A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n c o o p e r a t i v e s e x i s t e d b e f o r e i n d e p e n d e n c e , and i n 1962 a major d r i v e was launched t o expand them i n t o a l l f i e l d s o f p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Ujamaa--fami l y h o o d - -i s best r e f l e c t e d i n the c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t , and Nyerere s t r e s s e d the f a c t t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t i o n was a t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e t h a t i s t h e most a p p l i c a b l e i n the development o f a modern a g r i c u l t u r a l economy. Apart from t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s , t h e r o l e o f the n a t i o n a l government i s t h e most c r u c i a l i n e n s u r i n g t h a t the s o c i e t y d e v e l o p s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t h r e e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s . The s o c i a l l y o b l i g a t o r y p r i v a t e s o c i a l i s m o f the u n t e c h n i c a l s o c i e t y cannot be e x p e c t e d t o o p e r a t e i n a modern s t a t e u n l e s s t h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y t a k e s a s t r o n g hand i n p r e s e r v i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s i n such ways as e n s u r i n g an equal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f goods and s e r v i c e s among t h e p e o p l e . W i t h i n t h i s t h e o r e t i -c a l framework N y e r e r e r a t i o n a l i z e s t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f power, which i s a common p o l i t i c a l f e a t u r e of most new n a t i o n s i n the w o r l d t o d a y . T h e r e i s one o t h e r q u e s t i o n i n r e g a r d t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y and f e a s i b i l i t y of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r i s i n g from N y e r e r e ' s b e l i e f i n the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s t o a modern s o c i e t y . It c o n c e r n s the r o l e of a u t h o r i t y i n p r e s e r v i n g v a l u e s and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s . In the modern s e t t i n g , t h e c e n t r a ! government a t t e m p t s t o be the f o c u s o f l o y a l t y and seeks t o e n f o r c e the p r e s e r v a -t i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . Which i n s t i t u t i o n i n the t r a d i t i o n a l s e t t i n g p l a y e d t h i s r o l e ? Nye re re d i s c u s s e s t h i s p o i n t v e r y b r i e f l y . He i m p l i e s t h roughou t h i s a n a l y s i s o f t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e t h a t t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n was i n f a c t t he ex t ended f a m i l y . I f t h i s was r e a l l y the c a se we migh t expec t t h a t he c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l i n p r e s e r v i n g t h e s e v a l u e s bo th t h r o u g h t he f a m i l y today and t h rough the t r a n s f e r o f p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y t o the s t a t e . One i n s t i t u -t i o n whose r o l e he does not m e n t i o n a t a l l i s the t r i b e and i t s c h i e f . T h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e because he has f o r t h -r i g h t l y a t t a c k e d any c o n t i n u i n g s i g n s o f p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t y t o t he t r i b e and has removed the c h i e f s f rom p o s i t i o n s o f d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l power. The q u e s t i o n then rema ins whether the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s he w i s h e s t o m a i n t a i n were p r e s e r v e d i n any way by the a u t h o r i t y o f the c h i e f and the t r i b e , and i f s o , can they be m a i n t a i n e d when the t r a d i t i o n a l symbols o f a u t h o r i t y have been d e s t r o y e d ? T h i s i s r e a l l y an u n r e s o l v a b l e q u e s t i o n because no independent work has been done i n T a n z a n i a wh i ch examines t h e s e s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n s . I t d o e s , however , have g rea t b e a r i n g on whether Nye re re i s go ing t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n b u i l d i n g t he new T a n z a n i a on t he t h r e e p r i n c i p i e s - - t h e p r i n c i p l e s wh i ch a r e the key t o h i s p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y about the f u t u r e o f the c o u n t r y . A p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r can a t t empt t o b u i l d a n a t i o n on any pr inc ip l es he chooses. Nyerere has chosen three which he hopes w i l l be eas i l y implemented because of the i r past acceptance. If his analys is of the i r past re la t ionsh ip with the society i s correct his task may be quite easy. If i t i s not, their implementation w i l l be doubly d i f f i c u l t because of the theoret ica l confusion concerning the re la t ionsh ip between t r ad i t i ona l and modern values and i n s t i t u t i o n s . (b) Social Perspectives The last sect ion has shown Nyerere's concern with three basic t r ad i t i ona l values which he wishes to see preserved in the modern state , and which he hopes w i l l create a soc ia l and p o l i t i c a l mi l ieu uniquely suited to Tanzania. In th is sect ion I w i l l look at how Nyerere moves these three p r inc ip l es from the level of theoret ica l commitment to the prac t i ca l plane of s p e c i f i c po l i c i e s regarding the i n d i v i d u a l ' s re la t ionsh ip to the state and soc ie ty . It w i l l be seen that the concern for mutual respect among a l l members becomes ref ined to a strong stand on social equa l i ty--especi a 11 y in regard to race r e l a t i ons . The sharing of the wealth produced by jo in t production i s only part ly covered in th i s sect ion by his general ized concern for the just d i s t r i bu t i on of wealth and the creat ion of a c l a s s l e ss soc iety . The aspect of jo in t production w i l l be dealt with in greater de ta i l in Chapter V, as w i l l the other t r ad i t i ona l p r i nc ip l e of 'work by a l l 1 . At t h i s p o i n t i t wou ld be w i s e t o i n d i c a t e the s o r t of u n i v e r s a l p e r s p e c t i v e N y e r e r e p l a c e s on h i s e f f o r t s t o b u i l d a s o c i e t y . On the one hand he f e e l s t ha t A f r i c a and T a n z a n i a have much t o o f f e r the w o r l d i n te rms o f new a p p r o a c h e s t o s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , and on the o the r he a p p r e -c i a t e s t h a t a l l e f f o r t s a t s o l v i n g t he p rob lem o f l i v i n g h a r m o n i o u s l y w i t h i n a j u s t s o c i e t y a r e bound t o f a l l s h o r t o f p e r f e c t i o n , but t ha t does not s t o p one f rom t r y i n g . I t i s somewhat l i k e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s p i r i t u a l j o u r n e y t h r o u g h l i f e as he c o n t i n u a l l y s t r u g g l e s toward a goa l t ha t he knows i s u n a t t a i n a b l e on the t empora l l e v e l . In s p e a k i n g o f man 's s o c i e t a l d e ve l opmen t , Nye re re t a l k s o f 1 1 . . . g r o p i n g f o r w a r d i n t he d a r k , towards a goa l so d i s t a n t t h a t even the r e a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t i s beyond u s - - t o w a r d s , i n o t h e r 19 w o r d s , the bes t t h a t man can become. " O b v i o u s l y , w i t h such a p e r s p e c t i v e , Nye re re s t r o n g l y r e j e c t s any s o c i a l t h e o r i e s or i d e o l o g i e s wh i ch c l a i m t o have t he b l u e p r i n t f o r a p e r f e c t s o c i e t y , but he l e a v e s open t he hope t h a t the T a n z a n i a n expe r imen t may l e a d t o : . . . a new s y n t h e s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y and t he needs o f man i n s o c i e t y ; f reedom f o r each i n d i v i d u a l t o d e v e l o p the s p a r k o f d i v i n i t y w i t h i n h i m s e l f a t the same t ime as he c o n t r i b u t e s and b e n e f i t s f rom h i s membership i n a c o m m u n i t y . 2 0 ^ i b i d . , p. 1 2 0 . 2 0 I b i d . , p. 1 2 1 . In 1961, a t the t ime o f i n d e p e n d e n c e , N y e r e r e t a l k e d about the i m p o r t a n c e o f h a v i n g a " N a t i o n a l E t h i c " w h i c h wou ld be u n d e r s t o o d and a c c e p t e d by the p e o p l e . I t wou ld s e r v e t o c r e a t e a mora l c l i m a t e w i t h i n the n a t i o n t h a t would e n s u r e t h a t the c o u n t r y p r o g r e s s e d a c c o r d i n g t o the a c c e p t e d p r i n c i p l e s , and t h a t any t e n d e n c i e s t o i g n o r e them by the l e a d e r s h i p or any o t h e r segment o f s o c i e t y wou ld be checked by the mora l awareness o f the n a t i o n as a w h o l e . T h i s was c e r t a i n l y an i d e a l i s t i c and even n a i v e c o n c e p t i o n , but i t was i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l t one o f N y e r e r e ' s thought s i n c e he had e n t e r e d p o l i t i c s . In 1964 the N a t i o n a l E t h i c was set down as a s ta tement of p r i n c i p l e s tha t the g o v e r n -ment wou ld f o l l o w . I t has s i n c e been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t he p h i l o s o p h y o f the r u l i n g p a r t y — e n t i t l e d the "TANU C r e e d " . The N a t i o n a l E t h i c i s a se t o f e i g h t p r i n c i p l e s f o l l o w e d by e i g h t p o l i c i e s t h a t the government w i l l c a r r y out t o ensu r e the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e s . They a r e not u n l i k e the g e n e r a l i d e a l s f ound i n many n a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t i o n s , but 2 1 t h e r e a r e a few u n i q u e p o i n t s t ha t bear m e n t i o n i n g . The f i r s t f i v e p r i n c i p l e s cove r e q u a l i t y , t he r i g h t t o t a k e pa r t i n government , f reedom o f e x p r e s s i o n , p r o t e c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o law, and j u s t r e t u r n f o r l a b o u r . The s i x t h c l a i m s a l l t he n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f T a n z a n i a as the p r o p e r t y o f a l l i t s 'Found i n N y e r e r e , Freedom and U n i t y , o p . c i t . , p p . . 2 6 2 - 2 6 4 . c i t i z e n s t o be h e l d i n t r u s t f o r t h e i r d e s c e n d e n t s . The r e s o u r c e s cannot be s u r r e n d e r e d i n p e r p e t u i t y t o anyone . In e f f e c t t h i s means t h a t owne r sh ip o f a l l l and and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s i s v e s t e d i n t he s t a t e . The seven th p r i n c i p l e e n t r u s t s the s t a t e t o i n t e r v e n e i n the economy t o ensu re the w e l l - b e i n g o f a l l and guard a g a i n s t e x p l o i t a t i o n o r the a c c u m u l a t i o n o f w e a l t h t o the e x t e n t t ha t i t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y . The p o l i c i e s i n c l u d e the e s t a -b l i s h m e n t o f e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y , o u t l a w i n g of d i s c r i m i -n a t i o n and p r o p a g a t i o n o f group h a t r e d , and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an i m p a r t i a l j u d i c i a r y . The N a t i o n a l E t h i c i s r e a l l y q u i t e a l a c k l u s t r e document , a l t h o u g h i t does l a y down i n s h o r t h a n d the s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y o f the government . The i d e a o f a ' n a t i o n a l e t h i c 1 i t s e l f i s not men t i oned a f t e r 1964, and Nye re re seems t o have r e v e r t e d t o e m p h a s i z i n g t h r e e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s . H i s e x p r e s s i o n o f t he t h r e e t r a d i t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s has rema ined f a i r l y c o n s t a n t over t i m e , but a few v a r i a t i o n s have c r e p t i n . In Ma r ch , I 9 6 7 he p roduced the pamphlet " E d u c a t i o n f o r S e l f - R e 1 i a n c e " as a f o l l o w - u p t o t he A rusha D e c l a r a t i o n . In i t he l a y s down the t h r e e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s as f o l l o w s : 1. E q u a l i t y and r e s p e c t f o r human d i g n i t y . 2. S h a r i n g of r e s o u r c e s p roduced by our e f f o r t s . 3. Work by e v e r y o n e , e x p l o i t a t i o n by none.22 A l s o i n I 9 6 7 , he no ted the need t o r e a c t i v a t e the p o l i c i e s o f c o o p e r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t i o n and s h a r i n g i n d i s t r i b u t i o n , wh i ch seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s had been made i n t h e s e a r e a s s i n c e he f i r s t t a l k e d about them i n 1 9 6 1 . N y e r e r e ' s c o n c e r n w i t h e q u a l i t y and d i g n i t y i s b a s i c t o h i s p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t . At the end o f t h i s s e c t i o n I s h a l l examine i t s i m p o r t a n c e i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . He re , I s h a l l l ook a t how t h e s e c o n c e p t s have been a f f e c t e d by t h a t s t r o n g s o c i a l u n d e r c u r r e n t o f r a c e r e l a t i o n s . The f a c t t h a t T a n z a n i a was a c o l o n y and t h a t r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and c u l t u r a l o p p r e s s i o n were h a l l m a r k s o f t he c o l o n i a l p e r i o d l e d Nye re r e t o a s t r o n g commitment t o s o c i a l and economic e q u a l i t y . H i s p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y r e s t s f i r m l y on e q u a l i t y . He does not b e l i e v e t h a t any s o c i e t y o f human wor th can be b u i l t on any o t h e r p r i n c i p l e . I f t h e members of the s o c i e t y a r e not equa l i n r e s p e c t , d i g n i t y , s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g , and o p p o r t u n i t y the s o c i e t y cannot hope f o r s t a b i l i t y or harmony. These i d e a s were r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d d u r i n g the independence s t r u g g l e . I t was a f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e , when the peop l e were l o o k i n g f o r the f r u i t s o f t h e i r s t r u g g l e , t h a t the r e a l t e s t came i n i m p l e m e n t i n g the i d e a l . As men t ioned i n Chapte r I I , t h e r e was an ou tb r eak r a c i s m w i t h i n t he p a r t y s h o r t l y a f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e , and i t has c o n t i n u e d p e r i o d i c a l l y ever s i n c e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , Nyere re has had t o spend c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t i n e x p l a i n i n g e q u a l i t y and human r i g h t s i n terms of n o n - r a c i a l i s m . In 1962 he took a s t r o n g s t a n d on T a n z a n i a n c i t i z e n s h i p , mak ing r e s i d e n c e and l o y a l t y t o the c o u n t r y the o n l y c r i t e r i a , r a t h e r than g i v i n g i n t o t h o s e who a rgued on r a c i a l g r o u n d s . Even i n I967, a f t e r A rusha and i t s n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n measures wh i ch spa rked some r a c i a l a c t i o n s i n the name o f S e l f -R e l i a n c e , Nye re re had t o i s s u e a s t r o n g s ta tement c a l l e d 2 3 " S o c i a l i s m i s not R a c i a l i s m " --the two b e i n g i n c o m p a t i b l e because o f the s o c i a l i s t commitment t o e q u a l i t y . One of the r e a s o n s why t h e r e has p e r s i s t e d an a t t i t u d e t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d be w e i g h t e d i n f a v o u r o f r a c e i s t ha t t h i s i s p r e c i s e l y what happened f o r a few y e a r s a f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e . The c l a u s e i n the N a t i o n a l E t h i c c o n c e r n i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r e v e n t i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on the grounds o f r a c e , s e x , t r i b e , c o l o u r , c r e e d or r e l i g i o n a l s o went on t o s a y : T e m p o r a r i l y t h i s s h a l l not p r e c l u d e the government or any o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t y f rom t a k i n g s t e p s t o c o r r e c t any i m b a l a n c e w h i c h r e s u l t s f rom past d i s c r i m i -n a t i o n on any o f t h e s e g rounds .24 Thus , u n t i l J anua r y , 1964 p r e f e r e n c e was g i v e n t o A f r i c a n c i t i z e n s o f T a n z a n i a i n a p p o i n t m e n t s t o government s e r v i c e . The f i n e l i n e between t h i s r e a s o n a b l e a t tempt t o c o r r e c t ° F o u n d i n Freedom and Soc i a 1 i sm, op . c i t . , pp . 257 employment i m b a l a n c e s and o u t r i g h t r a c i s m i s one t h a t Nye re re has had d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g , and t h a t i s why he has p l a c e d so much s t r e s s on n o n - r a c i a l i s m i n r ega rd t o e q u a l i t y . H i s d i f f i c u l t y has been somewhat compounded by t he f a c t t h a t TANU, f rom t h e t ime of i t s f o r m a t i o n i n 1956 u n t i l 1962, r e s t r i c t e d i t s membership t o A f r i c a n s , a l t h o u g h i t a c c e p t e d the h e l p o f p e o p l e o f o t h e r r a c e s . T h i s p o l i c y was u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o b o l s t e r t h e f e e l i n g o f d i g n i t y and s e l f - r e s p e c t among t h e A f r i c a n s - - t o g i v e them back the s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e they had l o s t d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d - -by p r o v i n g t h a t they c o u l d work t o g e t h e r and a c h i e v e independence t h rough t h e i r own e f f o r t s . I t can thus be seen t h a t the p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y has been t h r o u g h the f i r e s o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n a p r e t t y t ho rough manner . I t s d e f e n c e and r e f i n e m e n t has a l s o a f f e c t e d the p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f mutua l r e s p e c t and d i gni t y . Ano the r a s p e c t o f the gene r a l p r i n c i p l e s wh i ch i s wor th a c l o s e r look i s t h e s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f w e a l t h . Nye re re m a i n t a i n s t h a t w e a l t h i n i t s e l f i s good, and t h a t the c r e a t i o n o f w e a l t h f o r i t s c i t i z e n s s h o u l d be one o f the g o a l s o f e ve ry s o c i e t y . The p rob lems gene ra t ed by w e a l t h c o n c e r n i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n , not i t s p r o d u c t i o n . He c l a i m s t h a t c o l o n i a l i s m brought w i t h i t t he money economy, new t e c h n i q u e s f o r c r e a t i n g w e a l t h , and the i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c a p i t a l -i s t app roach t o w e a l t h . D e s i r e f o r w e a l t h i n o r d e r t o ou tdo o t h e r s , have power and d o m i n a t i o n o r even p r e s t i g e ove r o t h e r s , and t o amass w e a l t h as a symbol o f o n e ' s p e r s o n a l wo r th a r e a l l a t t i t u d e s t ha t a r e u n a c c e p t a b l e i n a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . N y e r e r e ' s goa l i s a c l a s s l e s s , or m i n i m a l l y s t r a t i f i e d , s o c i e t y . H i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s i s based on the h i e r a r c h i a l s t r u c t u r i n g o f s o c i e t y a c c o r d i n g t o w e a l t h - - f r o m wh i ch power and p r i v i l e g e f l o w . He m a i n t a i n s t ha t the s o c i a l i s m wh i ch emerged i n Europe e a r l i e r i n t h i s c e n t u r y was a r e a c t i o n t o t h e c a p i t a l i s m wh i ch had been e s t a b l i s h e d s i n c e the I n d u s t r i a l and A g r a r i a n R e v o l u t i o n s . The r i s e o f s o c i a l i s m was a c l a s s s t r u g g l e , and i t was based on t h e n o t i o n o f c o n f l i c t i n g c l a s s e s . For t h i s r e a s o n , the p a t t e r n of s o c i a l i s t deve lopment i n Europe i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o T a n z a n i a because A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y was never s t r a t i f i e d i n c l a s s e s . The o n l y danger i s the sp read o f c a p i t a l i s t a t t i t u d e s gene r a t ed i n t h e c o l o n i a l e r a . T h e r e f o r e , as more w e a l t h i s c r e a t e d i n T a n z a n i a , t he s t a t e w i l l have t o ensu re i t s j u s t d i s t r i b u t i o n and guard a g a i n s t the growth o f c a p i t a l i s t t e n d e n c i e s among the p o l i t i c a l and educa t ed e l i t e . In r e g a r d t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h , Nye re re h o l d s t h a t t he i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d r e c e i v e a f a i r sha re o f the t o t a l w e a l t h p r o d u c e d , and s h o u l d not n e c e s -s a r i l y be e n t i t l e d t o r eap a l l t h a t he sows. For i n s t a n c e , some groups o f i n d i v i d u a l s , such as m i n e - w o r k e r s , p roduce a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l w e a l t h t han o t h e r s - - i n market te rms tha t i s . But the i n t r i n s i c v a l u e o f a commo-d i t y such as f o o d s t u f f s i s g r e a t e r t han t h a t of m i n e r a l w e a l t h as f a r as t he b a s i c w e l l - b e i n g of the n a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d - - a l t h o u g h f o o d s t u f f s may not equa l m i n e r a l s i n market v a l u e . The same t h i n g a p p l i e s t o p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s . The s t a t e , t h e r e f o r e , must ensu re a j u s t d i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l need , not r e l a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n . 2 ^ The a r ea o f N y e r e r e ' s thought c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and the s o c i e t y wh i ch i s most i n t e r e s t i n g , and wh ich most l e n d s i t s e l f t o compa r i son w i t h o t h e r l e a d e r s ' , i s h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the c o n f l i c t between f reedom and a u t h o r i t y , between the i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e s i r e s and t he common good o f the s t a t e . N y e r e r e ' s r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s an i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t between t h e i n d i v i d u a l and the s t a t e r i g h t away p l a c e s h im on a d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e than such l e a d e r s as Sekou Toure o f Gu inea and Kwame Nkrumah. W h i l e a l l t h r e e l e a d e r s t end t o d e f i n e p o l i t i c s i n c o l l e c t i v e and not i n d i v i d u a l t e r m s , they a l s o m a i n t a i n a h u m a n i s t i c ou t look--man i s the e n d , not t he means. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n 2 5 i b i d . , pp. 168-169 . approach come f rom the emphas is p l a c e d on the i n d i v i d u a l . T o u r e , f o r example , seeks t o a rgue away any c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and t he s t a t e and emphas izes a m o n i s t i c r e a l i t y o f s o c i e t y . I t i s . . . u s e l e s s t o ask i f man must p r e v a i l ove r s o c i e t y or v i c e v e r s a . For u s , the two terms a r e not d i s s o c i a b l e , they a r e d i a l e c t i c a l 1 y merged , the one e x i s t s t h r o u g h the o t h e r . 2 6 In e f f e c t , he h o l d s t ha t s o c i e t y i s not the sum o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l s , t h a t t he i n d i v i d u a l cannot and must not a c t excep t i n the common i n t e r e s t , and t h a t "F reedom means t o 27 a c t i n harmony w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . " Both Toure and Nkrumah, d e s p i t e t h e i r p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f b e l i e f i n t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n humanism, appear t o r e g a r d man as an i n s t r u m e n t o f s o c i e t y . N y e r e r e , on the o t h e r hand , p l a c e s g r e a t e r emphas is on the i n d i v i d u a l and seeks t o a t l e a s t t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e s o l v e the i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t between the i n d i v i d u a l and the s t a t e . He i s c e r t a i n l y more r e a l i s t i c t han Toure i n a c k n o w l e d g i n g the e x i s t e n c e of t h a t e t e r n a l c o n f l i c t . H i s o n l y pat answer about the r e l a t i o n between t h e two i s the s ta tement "The 28 S t a t e i s the P e o p l e " , wh i ch i s a r e l a t i v e l y open s o r t o f s t a n c e . ?6 Quoted i n W. A . E. S k u r n i k ( e d . ), A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l  T h o u g h t : Lumumba, Nkrumah, and Toure (Denve r : U n i v e r s i t y o f Denve r , 196b ) , p. 3. 2 7 ' C h a r l e s A n d r a i n , "The P o l i t i c a l Thought o f Sekou T o u r e , " A f r i can P o l i t i ca1 T h o u g h t : Lumumba, Nkrumah, and  T o u r e . W. A . E. S k u r n i k , e d i t o r (Denve r : U n i v e r s i t y oT Denver , 1968) , p. 117-On the t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l N y e r e r e b e l i e v e s t h a t the n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y demands t h a t t h e r e be i n e v i t a b l e c o n f l i c t between t h e freedom o f the i n d i v i d u a l t o pursue h i s own d e s i r e s and t h e n e c e s s i t y tha t he j o i n a c o l l e c t i v e t o gua ran t ee h i s s e c u r i t y and w e l l - b e i n g . In e f f e c t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l has no c h o i c e except t o b e l o n g t o s o c i e t y , and as a member o f s o c i e t y he must s a c r i f i c e some i n d i v i d u a l f reedom f o r c o l l e c t i v e b e n e f i t s . C o o p e r a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r s u r v i v a l , and c o o p e r a t i o n r e s t r i c t s t h e freedom o f one i n the i n t e r e s t o f a l l . The more complex the s o c i e t y , and hence the more complex the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n t o i t , the more p o t e n t i a l r ewards he ge t s from i t , but the p o t e n t i a l o f c o n f l i c t a l s o becomes g r e a t e r because t h e r e a r e more chances t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e 1 a t i o n s h i p w i t h s o c i e t y w i l l b reak down or become u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . On a more p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , N y e r e r e h o l d s t h a t t h e r e cannot be an easy answer t o the q u e s t i o n o f whether the good o f the i n d i v i d u a l o r t he group s h o u l d be s e rved f i r s t , because bo th have t o be s e r v e d . And y e t , . . . u n d e r l y i n g e v e r y t h i n g must be a c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t t he v e r y pu rpose o f s o c i e t y - i t s r e a s o n f o r e x i s t e n c e - i s and must be the i n d i v i d u a l man, h i s g r o w t h , h i s h e a l t h , h i s s e c u r i t y , h i s d i g n i t y and , t h e r e f o r e , h i s h a p p i n e s s . 29 In r e g a r d s t o s t a b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y he , i n e f f e c t , s t a t e s the o b v i o u s , but he does so w i t h such c l a r i t y t h a t i t i s wo r th q u o t i n g . Thus t h e r e i s , and must be , i n every s o c i e t y a b a l a n c e between t ha t v o l u n t a r y agreement wh i ch i s n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e s t a b i l i t y , and t ha t e lement of f o r c e wh i ch e n s u r e s t ha t p e o p l e a b i d e by t h e i r own d e c i s i o n t o pay the p r i c e o f s o c i a l l i v i n g . 3 0 U n d e r l y i n g much o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f s o c i a l i s m i s t he f e e l i n g t ha t t h e i n d i v i d u a l has a s t r o n g p o t e n t i a l f o r e x p l o i t i n g h i s f e l l o w men. He does not e l a b o r a t e on the n a t u r e o f man i n t h i s r e s p e c t , but m e r e l y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l has a s e l f i s h and a s o c i a l i n s t i n c t . S o c i a l i s m , t h e r e f o r e , must be the d e l i b e r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y t o p reven t i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s b e i n g pursued at the c o s t o f o t h e r s , but not so much as t o s t i f l e i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s . The s t a t e must ensu re t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a r e 3 1 p r e v e n t e d f rom e x p l o i t i n g one a n o t h e r . The s t a t e , however , does not have t he r i g h t t o r e g u l a t e t h i n g s wh i ch a r e s t r i c t l y pe rsona 1 - - s u c h as r e l i g i o u s and a r t i s t i c b e l i e f s . In f a c t , s o c i a l i s m i s the a t t empt t o e n l a r g e t he r e a l p e r s o n a l f reedoms o f man w h i l e e n s u r i n g h i s s e c u r i t y and w e l l - b e i n g w i t h i n the c o l l e c t i v e . N y e r e r e ' s v e r y l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e toward p e r s o n a l f reedom at the t ime of independence a l s o ex tended t o the 3 0 I b i d . , p. 2 6 9 . p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e . He p l e d g e d t h a t the s t a t e would p r o t e c t the r i g h t o f the i n d i v i d u a l t o t h i n k and be d i f f e r e n t i n a p o l i t i c a l sense because i t wou ld t h u s f o r c e the c o n s t a n t 32 r e - e v a l u a t i o n and ad jus tmen t o f p r i o r i t i e s and p o l i c i e s . By 1964, however , e v e n t s had t r a n s p i r e d w h i c h l e d t o a tougher a t t i t u d e i n r e g a r d t o p e r s o n a l l i b e r t i e s . One o f t h e s e was the Army mu t i n y o f J anua ry , 19&4. Ano the r was the s t a r t o f the F i v e Year Development P l a n i n t he same y e a r . Bo th o f t h e s e s e r ved t o c r e a t e new p r i o r i t i e s of t he n a t i o n w h i c h took p recedence ove r i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s . The f i r s t p r i o r i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d as the p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y of the n a t i o n , and t he second was the s o c i a l and economic d e v e l o p -ment o f the n a t i o n as a w h o l e . I f n e c e s s a r y , i n d i v i d u a l f reedom was t o be s a c r i f i c e d t o the p u r s u i t o f t h e s e 33 o b j e c t i v e s . Thus , w h i l e the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f f reedom of s p e e c h , movement, and a s s o c i a t i o n were r e s p e c t e d , i t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a h a n d f u l of d e t e r m i n e d peop l e c o u l d do g rea t damage t o the new and f r a g i l e n a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , p r e v e n t i v e d e t e n t i o n measures were i n s t i t u t e d wh i ch a l l o w e d f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o be h e l d i n c u s t o d y w i t h o u t t r i a l a t t he P r e s i d e n t ' s p l e a s u r e . Nye re re spent much e f f o r t i n e x p l a i n -i n g t h e s e measu re s , and a d m i t t e d t h a t they were i n c o n f l i c t N y e r e r e , Freedom and U n i t y , op . c i t . , p. 122. I b i d . , p. 314. w i t h b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s he had e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l i e r . In f a c t , a p a r t f rom Z a n z i b a r w h i c h has a d i f f e r e n t l e g a l s y s t e m , t h e s e powers have been used s p a r i n g l y - - i n s o f a r as i n f o r m a -t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e t o j u d g e . P r e v e n t i v e d e t e n t i o n measures a r e a common f e a t u r e o f modern A f r i c a n s t a t e s . The f a c t t h a t they e x i s t i n T a n z a n i a i n d i c a t e s t h a t even though Nye re re has a t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e toward i n d i v i d u a l f reedom and b e l i e v e s i n g o v e r n i n g t h r o u g h r e a s o n and d i s c u s s i o n , he r e a l i z e s t h a t c o e r c i v e measures o f r u l e a r e sometimes n e c e s s a r y - - n o m a t t e r how r e a s o n a b l e and r e s p o n s i v e the government might be . C o n c l u s i o n - - T h e key v a l u e o f e q u a l i t y . I f one t a k e s an o v e r v i e w of N y e r e r e ' s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l thought one f i n d s t h a t the g r e a t e s t emphas is i s p l a c e d on the v a l u e or p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y . I t appea r s a g a i n and a g a i n i n h i s w r i t i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o s o c i a l i s m . For i n s t a n c e , " S o c i a l i s m i s , i n f a c t , t he a p p l i c a t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e o f human e q u a l i t y t o t he s o c i a l , e conomic , and p o l i t i c a l 34 o r g a n i z a t i o n of s o c i e t y , " a n d : The R u l e o f Law and E q u a l i t y b e f o r e the Law a re one e s s e n t i a l means o f p r e v e n t i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n . But they a r e o n l y p r a c t i c a l when the s o c i e t y as a who le i s based on t he p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y - when, i n o t h e r wo rds , a s o c i a l i s t p o l i c y i s b e i n g f o i l owed. 35 ^ N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , o p . c i t . , p. 303-35ibid., p. 304. S o c i a l i s m i s e q u a l i t y and e q u a l i t y i s s o c i a l i s m . Nye re re never r e a l l y d e f i n e s e q u a l i t y i n a s t r i c t s e n s e . I t seems t h a t he assumes t h a t i t s meaning i s s e l f - e v i d e n t . One can best d i s c e r n what he means by i t by l o o k i n g at t h e c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h i t i s u s e d . In t he s o c i a l sense i t r e f e r s t o equa l r e s p e c t and d i g n i t y among a l l members o f s o c i e t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d t o r a c e r e l a t i o n s . E c o n o m i c a l l y i t means the a p p r o x i m a t e e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y and s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g . P o l i t i c a l l y i t r e f e r s t o the f u l l and f r e e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l p e o p l e i n the government of s o c i e t y . The e s s e n c e o f N y e r e r e ' s thought i s the commitment t o a v a g u e l y d e f i n e d p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y . I t i s here t h a t one can bes t see t h a t , i n a c t u a l f a c t , h i s thought i s r e a l l y q u i t e s i m p l e , and i s s i m p l y e x p r e s s e d . He does not have a t h e o r y o f h i s t o r y , or an a n a l y s i s o f t he n a t u r e o f man or o f h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s t h rough t i m e . H i s thought c o n s i s t s o f a few b a s i c mora l p r i n c i p l e s wh i ch he p r o m i s e s t o a t t empt t o imp l emen t . H i s b a s i c method o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s i n h e r e n t i n h i s i d e a s . I t i s based on t he hope t h a t the p e o p l e o f T a n z a n i a w i l l come t o a c cep t t he p r i n c i p l e s and a p p l y them i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . The s t a t e can o n l y do so much i n a r r a n g i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e s t r u c t u r e s . A f t e r t h a t i t i s up t o the i n d i v i d u a l . He has o f t e n s t a t e d t h a t s o c i a l i s m i s an ' a t t i t u d e o f m i n d ' , and t h a t the s u c c e s s of s o c i a l i s m w i l l depend on the e x i s t e n c e o f a , n a t i o n a l or s o c i a l e t h i c w h i c h w i l l ensu re t h a t the i n s t i t u -t i o n s and the l e a d e r s r ema in t r u e t o t h e i r p u r p o s e . H i s b e l i e f i n the i n d i v i d u a l , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e i n a u t h o r i t y , i s a f r a g i l e b a s i s f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a new s o c i e t y . In f a c t , i t w i l l become o b v i o u s t h a t , as i n the c a se of the Army m u t i n y , e v e n t s have f o r c e d him t o t a k e s t r o n g e r s t e p s t o e n f o r c e t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s than he had hoped was n e c e s s a r y . ( c ) R e s p o n s i v e Government As men t i oned b r i e f l y i n t he l a s t s e c t i o n , N y e r e r e ' s c o r e v a l u e o f e q u a l i t y i s m a n i f e s t e d i n t he p o l i t i c a l , a rena by t he f reedom of the i n d i v i d u a l s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r government . H i s c o n c e p t i o n o f ' democ racy ' r e v o l v e s a round t h r e e e s s e n t i a l s : e q u a l i t y , f r e e d o m , and d i s c u s s i o n . The l a s t i s d e r i v e d f r om the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e s e t t i n g i n wh i ch t he c h i e f or headman governed w i t h a c o u n c i l whose consen t was n e c e s s a r y f o r a l l major d e c i s i o n s . D e c i s i o n s r a r e l y i n v o l v e d an e x p r e s s i o n o f m a j o r i t y and m i n o r i t y o p i n i o n s ; they e v o l v e d a f t e r l ong d i s c u s s i o n s r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s e n s u s , a f t e r wh i ch t h e r e was c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t he consequences o f the d e c i s i o n . O b v i o u s l y t h i s p r o c e s s cannot be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n a t i o n a l s y s t em , but Nye re r e m a i n t a i n s a commitment t o f r e e and open d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the one p a r t y — w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s the consensus o f the n a t i o n . The o t h e r e s s e n t i a l o f democracy , b e s i d e s f r e e d o m , e q u a l i t y and d i s c u s s i o n , i s the r e g u l a r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the p e o p l e t o j o i n t o g e t h e r i n r e i n s t a t i n g 36 or r e p l a c i n g the government by means o f t he b a l l o t box . Democracy i s one e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y , but i t must e x i s t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t he s o c i a l i s t o r g a n i -z a t i o n o f the r e s t o f t h e s o c i e t y . The f reedom o f the p e o p l e t o choose t h e i r own r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i s i m p o r t a n t , but i t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r -t an t t h a t the p e o p l e ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s h o u l d p o s s e s s t he f reedom and power t o e x e r t e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l ove r t h o s e s e c t o r s o f the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r wh i ch they have been g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . And none of t h e s e t h i n g s i s p o s s i b l e u n l e s s e ve r y o t h e r a spec t o f s o c i e t y - i t s e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and l e g a l o r g a n i z a t i o n - i s such as t o emphas ize and s e r v e man 's e q u a l i t y . A p o l i t i c a l democracy w h i c h e x i s t s i n a s o c i e t y o f g ros s economic i n e q u a l i t i e s , o r o f s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y , i s a t bes t i m p e r f e c t , and at wo r s t a h o l l o w sham.37 In r e g a r d s t o democracy Nye re r e e x p r e s s e s the same a t t i t u d e he d i s p l a y s toward the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f s o c i a l p r i n c i p l e s . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e an e t h i c o f b e h a v i o u r i n t he n a t i o n as a who l e t o t r u l y s a f e g u a r d democracy and guard a g a i n s t t y r a n n y . A c o n s t i t u t i o n or s ta tement o f p r i n c i p l e s by t h e m s e l v e s cannot do t h i s . . . . democracy i s a d e c l a r a t i o n o f f a i t h i n human n a t u r e , the v e r y t h i n g we a re s t r u g g l i n g t o s a f e g u a r d h e r e , t he v e r y i d e a o f democracy i s a d e c l a r a t i o n o f f a i t h i n m a n k i n d . And eve ry enemy o f democracy i s some pe r son who somewhere has no f a i t h i n human b e i n g s . 3 8 N y e r e r e , Freedom and Uni t y , op . c i t . , p. 1 0 3 . N y e r e r e , Freedom and Soci a 1 i sm, o p . c i t . , p. 5* N y e r e r e , Freedom and Uni t y , op . c i t . , p. 1 7 5 . He d i s p l a y s shrewd p o l i t i c a l sense i n t h i s s t a t e m e n t , f o r he i s i n e f f e c t t e l l i n g the p e o p l e o f T a n z a n i a ( i n 1962) t h a t anyone who opposes h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f democracy does not have the i n t e r e s t s o f t he p e o p l e a t h e a r t . At the Annua l C o n f e r e n c e o f TANU ( the r u l i n g p a r t y ) i n J a n u a r y , 1963 i t was d e c i d e d i n p r i n c i p l e t h a t T a n z a n i a s h o u l d become a o n e - p a r t y s t a t e . I t took two y e a r s o f s tudy and p r e p a r a t i o n b e f o r e i t became a r e a l i t y . The arguments advanced at t h a t t i m e by N y e r e r e and the p a r t y f o r t he c r e a t i o n o f t h e one-pa r t y s t a t e g i v e us the bes t p o s s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n o f N y e r e r e ' s a t t i t u d e s towards democracy . B a s i c a l l y , t h e r e a r e two s t r a n d s o f a rgument . One i s the r e j e c t i o n o f t h e Ang lo-Saxon model of p a r l i a m e n t a r y demo-c r a c y as b e i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o T a n z a n i a , and t he o t h e r c o n c e r n s t he ove rwhe lm ing p o p u l a r i t y o f TANU. The f a c e t o f the Ang lo-Saxon model t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d most i n a p p r o p r i a t e i s the e x i s t e n c e of an o r g a n i z e d o p p o s i t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n p o l i t i c a l l i f e d i d not have s u c h . D i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n were spontaneous and f r e e and l e d t o a f i n a l c o n s e n s u s . The two or more p a r t i e s i n the West r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h i n t he n a t i o n , meaning t h a t at any one t ime a s i g n i f i c a n t group o f p e o p l e do not have r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s i n power . One p a r t y i n T a n z a n i a would r e p r e s e n t the who le n a t i o n and wou ld p reven t n e e d l e s s d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n s o c i e t y . A n a t i o n a l p a r t y wou ld e n s u r e t h a t no d i s c o n t e n t e d groups were l e f t o u t , and wou ld have n o t h i n g t o f e a r f rom c r i t i c i s m and f r e e e x p r e s s i o n w i t h i n t he p a r t y . The e x i s t e n c e o f two or more s t a b l e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i m p l i e s a c l a s s s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y , and we a im at a v o i d i n g t he growth o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and economic c l a s s e s i n our c o u n t r y . 3 9 Nyere re f e e l s t h a t two p a r t i e s wou ld o n l y be j u s t i f i e d when t h e r e i s a fundamenta l d i f f e r e n c e ove r t he g o a l s o f t he n a t i o n — not me thods—and t h a t d i f f e r e n c e wou ld be so hO fundamenta l t h a t i t wou ld p r o b a b l y wa r r an t a c i v i l wa r . O t h e r w i s e , two p a r t i e s p l a y a n e e d l e s s p o l i t i c a l game w i t h l i t t l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between them, and they s e r v e t o p reven t a p o o l i n g o f t a l e n t i n the n a t i o n ' s s e r v i c e by k e e p i n g many good p e o p l e out o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t any one t i m e . N y e r e r e ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f democracy r e j e c t s the n e c e s s i t y o f b a r g a i n i n g and c o m p e t i t i o n between d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t g r o u p s — w h i c h has e v o l v e d as the c r u x o f p r a g m a t i c d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c s i n the West . I n s t e a d , he b e l i e v e s t ha t a p o l i t i c a l sys tem and p r o c e s s can be based on c o n s e n s u s , w h i l e s t i l l t a k i n g i n t o accoun t d i f f e r i n g v i e w p o i n t s . Apa r t f rom the t h e o r e t i c a l a rguments about u n i t y and d i s s e n t , t h e r e was a v e r y r e a l p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t y wh i ch had t o be f a c e d . T a n z a n i a was a l r e a d y a one-pa r t y s t a t e . S i n c e 3 9 i b i d . , p. 1 3 4 . ^ ° I b i d . , p. 1 9 6 . 1958 only one Member of Parliament had been elected who did not belong to TANU. The people had indicated that they accepted the p r inc ip l e s and po l i c i e s of TANU. In e f f e c t , the system at that stage was less democratic than after the creat ion of the one-party state, because the people saw no a l te rna t i ve platform and did not have a choice as to methods or ind i v idua l s within the TANU st ructure . They just rubber-stamped any TANU candidate that was put forward. The independence movement united v i r t u a l l y the whole of Tanzania behind Nyerere and TANU. With somewhat wry humour he attacks the pett iness of those Westerners who ins i s t ed that a strong organized opposit ion was essent ia l to democracy. . . . i t could hardly be expected that a united country should halt in mid-stream and vo lun ta r i l y d iv ide i t s e l f in to opposing p o l i t i c a l groups just for the sake of conforming to what I have ca l l ed the 'Anglo-Saxon form of democracy1 at the moment of independence.41 At the time of independence Tanzania was an unusually united country, and, in comparison with most other s tates , i t enjoys a remarkable low level of t r i ba l and geographic r i v a l r i e s . It only seemed log ica l that i t would become a one-party s tate . But i t would be dangerous to general ize from the Tanzanian experience to the rest of A f r i c a . The determining factor in Tanzanian unity was not t r ad i t i ona l p o l i t i c a l behaviour, so that cannot be used to suggest that one-party ru le i s appropriate to a l l of A f r i c a . There are many potent ia l dangers in a one-party system which Nyerere recognizes. He has stressed that TANU must remain open and undogmatic, and be a channel for grievances and opinions to reach the leadership. Even before independence he wrote: We bel ieve in fact that a second party w i l l not need to grow provided that a broad two-way channel of ideas and information i s maintained through TANU between the people and the Government. It is the establishment and maintenance of th i s channel of communications which is the real problem of democracy in Tanganyika, not the establishment of an a r t i f i c i a l opposi t i on. 42 The c ruc ia l aspect of the one-party system i s the a b i l i t y of the party to encompass and sa t i s f y a l l in terest groups and d i f f e r i n g points of view, and to ensure that they a l l have access to decision-makers. TANU has had a che-quered h istory in achieving th i s goal . As noted prev iously , Nyerere resigned in 1961 to try to make the party more meaningful. In 1966, one year a f ter the establishment of the one-party s tate , a study of the party was undertaken which revealed that i t was severely lacking in organizat ion suited to serving i t s purpose of being a bridge between the 43 people and the government. The most obvious f au l t s seem h2Ibvd., p. 134. ^3see Harry Bienen, Tanzani a ; Party Transformation  and Economic Development (Pr inceton: Princeton Universi ty Press, 1967). t o have been r e c t i f i e d somewhat a f t e r t h e A r u s h a D e c l a r a t i o n i n 1967 when the p a r t y was g i v e n the t a s k o f m o b i l i z i n g t h e p e o p l e t o u n d e r s t a n d and implement the new s o c i a l i s t m e a s u r e s . A r e c e n t s i g n i f i c a n t development was t h e announce-ment by N y e r e r e i n O c t o b e r , 1 9 7 0 , a f t e r the g e n e r a l e l e c -t i o n s , t h a t he would not seek r e - e l e c t i o n i n 1975 but would t h e n d e v o t e h i s t i m e t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the p a r t y . The p r a c t i c a l d e t a i l s o f the o p e r a t i o n of a demo-c r a t i c o n e - p a r t y s t a t e r e v o l v e d a r o u n d the q u e s t i o n o f e l e c t i o n s . C a n d i d a t e s f o r e l e c t i o n were sent from each c o n s t i t u e n c y t o the N a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e o f the p a r t y . They choose two o f t h o s e p r e s e n t e d t o run i n each c o n s t i t u e n c y . The c a n d i d a t e s were not a l l o w e d t o q u e s t i o n the b a s i c kk p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e p a r t y as l a i d down i n t h e TANU Creed or the f o r e i g n p o l i c y o f the government. T h u s , e l e c t i o n i s s u e s i n 1965 c e n t e r e d around the worth of the i n d i v i d u a l c a n d i -d a t e s and l o c a l c o n c e r n s f a m i l i a r t o the p e o p l e . T h e r e was no c h o i c e f o r P r e s i d e n t . TANU and t h e A f r o - S h i r a z i P a r t y of Z a n z i b a r a g r e e d on a common c a n d i d a t e , N y e r e r e , and t h e p e o p l e were asked t o v o t e ' y e s ' or ' n o ' f o r him. I f the m a j o r i t y had v o t e d a g a i n s t him the p a r t i e s would have s e l e c t e d a n o t h e r c a n d i d a t e and s u b m i t t e d him t o the p u b l i c . In the N a t i o n a l Assembly i t was d e c i d e d that t h e r e would be Almost I d e n t i c a l t o the N a t i o n a l E t h i c . no party Whips ensuring the correct vot ing of members. A l l d iscuss ion and vot ing was to be free and open. Another innovation was the opening of party membership to a l l c i v i l servants and government employees, even members of the armed fo rces . The absence of more than one party meant that the c i v i l servants need not keep their impa r t i a l i t y , because there would be no changes of government. It was a l so f e l t that a l l members of society should be allowed to express the i r views and par t i c ipa te in the p o l i t i c a l process. At the same time as the one-party proposals were implemented, a Permanent Commission on the Abuse of Power was establ ished which reported d i r e c t l y to the President. A l l people were to have d i rec t access to i t , not through TANU or local o f f i c i a l s , and i t would receive and invest igate complaints and make recommendations to the President. The existence of such a body i s a frank admission by a government that i t s administrat ive system and i t s personnel are imperfect. Such an admission is unusual in new nations--where governments are often more concerned with defending the images of the i r i n tegr i t y and e f f i c i ency than in admitting the i r weaknesses. The e lec t ions of 1965 were the f i r s t test of the p r a c t i c a l i t y of the new measures, and they seemed to have succeeded with honour. Racism seemed to have been overcome when Indians and Europeans were elected over Af r i can r i v a l s in predominantly Af r i can const i tuenc ies . A European and an I n d i a n c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r were a l s o r e - e l e c t e d i n 1970. There was a l a r g e t u r n o v e r o f p o l i t i c i a n s . Twenty-two out of t h i r t y - o n e TANU o f f i c e h o l d e r s were d e f e a t e d , as were s i x t e e n of t h i r t y - o n e s i t t i n g Members of P a r l i a m e n t , i n c l u d i n g two C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s . T h i s seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e had not been enough p r a c t i c a l and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t between the p o l i t i c i a n s and t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s i n the p a s t , and t h e e l e c t i o n se r ved t o shock the s u r v i v o r s i n t o becoming i n v o l v e d a t t he g r a s s - r o o t s l e v e l . In h i s t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s Nye re r e has never r e a l l y examined the q u e s t i o n of the degree o f a u t h o r i t y wh i ch t he s t a t e must e x e r c i s e i n o r d e r t o ensure the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i t s g o a l s and i d e a l s . H i s f e e l i n g s on the i m p o r t a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y and h i s c o n c e r n f o r a Man-cente red s o c i e t y seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he w i s h e s t o d e c e n t r a l i z e a u t h o r i t y as much as p o s s i b l e . I d e a l l y , he wou ld l i k e t o see d e c i s i o n s and p r i o r i t i e s emanat ing f rom the l o c a l s e t t i n g and b e i n g implemented by t h o s e most c o n c e r n e d . H i s i d e a l f o r the p a r t y i s t o have i t a s s i s t i n g i n the e x p r e s s i o n of p e o p l e ' s wants and c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s i n o rde r t o have them r e a l i s e d . E x p e r i e n c e s i n the r e a l i t y o f e x e r c i s i n g power and the r e a l i z a t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n m o b i l i z i n g p e o p l e a round i d e a l s , however , seem t o have l e d h im t o a c q u i e s c e i n the s eem ing l y i n e v i t a b l e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y i n a modern s t a t e . He has a l s o been hampered by t he f a c t t h a t h i s d e d i c a t i o n and commitment t o t he s t a t e d i d e a l s of the n a t i o n have not been e q u a l e d by t h a t of some o f h i s f e l l o w l e a d e r s and p a r t y e x e c u t i v e s . T h i s t o o has l e d him t o s t r e n g t h e n h i s p e r s o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . T h i s q u e s t i o n , and h i s t h o u g h t s on l e a d e r s h i p , w i l l be examined i n the next c h a p t e r . CHAPTER IV LEADERSHIP L e a d e r s h i p , as a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l concep t commands g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n and i s more o f t e n a s u b j e c t f o r deba t e i n new s t a t e s than i n o l d e r o n e s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i -t i e s and e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s o f p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s i n ' d e v e l o p e d 1 n a t i o n s have e v o l v e d t h rough t i m e t o become e s t a b l i s h e d and t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . L i t t l e c o n t r o v e r s y or p u b l i c deba te d e v e l o p s a round l e a d e r s h i p behav i ou r u n l e s s i t e x p l i c i t l y goes beyond w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l norms--such as i n the case o f c o r r u p t i o n or c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y . Newer n a t i o n s , however , a r e s t i l l e v o l v i n g norms o f b e h a v i o u r f o r t h e i r l e a d e r s . T h e i r s i t u a t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the f a c t t h a t the p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s have r e c e n t l y t aken the p l a c e o f a c o l o n i a l set of r u l e r s whose a d m i n i s t r a t i o n they s t r u g g l e d a g a i n s t . Hav ing a t t a c k e d the o l d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n they were o b l i g e d t o e s t a b l i s h a d i s t i n c t i v e b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n wh i ch wou ld j u s t i f y t h e i r s t r u g g l e and w i n , or m a i n t a i n , t he l o y a l t y o f t he p e o p l e . In many new s t a t e s t h e r e has been more emphas is p l a c e d on e s t a b l i s h i n g b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s wh i ch would ensu re the l e g i t i m a c y and c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t he l e a d e r s h i p t han on d e v e l o p i n g b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s wh i ch wou ld ensure the e f f i c i e n t s o c i a l and economic p r o g r e s s of the s t a t e . Thus , what Western o b s e r v e r s wou ld c a l l c o r r u p t i o n , i s o f t e n t o l e r a t e d as a u s e f u l means o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t y o f some segments o f the p o p u l a t i o n . P r e s i d e n t N y e r e r e ' s c o n c e p t i o n of l e a d e r s h i p i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by two gene r a l p r e c e p t s . One i s t h a t he seeks t o keep l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o u r f i r m l y w i t h i n the s o c i a l i s t i d e a l s o f the s o c i e t y . In t h i s way he does not c r e a t e a d i s t i n c t i o n between m a i n t a i n i n g l e g i t i m a c y and f u r t h e r i n g s o c i e t a l p r o g r e s s , but a t t e m p t s t o m a i n t a i n t h e l o y a l t y o f the p e o p l e by d e v e l o p i n g l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s t h a t s e r v e s o c i a l and economic p r o g r e s s . The second p o i n t i s t h a t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p i s not r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e p o l i t i c a l sphe re but e x t e n d s t o cove r the who le spec t rum of what may be c a l l e d the ' e l i t e ' . The e l i t e can bes t be d e f i n e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l t e r m s . A l l p o l i t i -c a l l e a d e r s , down t o t h e d i s t r i c t p a r t y c h i e f , can be i n c l u d e d r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The e l i t e a l s o i n c l u d e s the s e n i o r c i v i l s e r v a n t s , a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l peop1e--such as d o c t o r s , l a w y e r s , e n g i n e e r s -u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f , s e n i o r m i l i t a r y and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , and the few b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s . In any d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y t he t o t a l number o f p e o p l e i n c l u d e d i n a l l t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s i s v e r y s m a l l , and each i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o command c o n s i d e r -a b l e s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e i f he so d e s i r e s . Nye re re c o n s i d e r s t h a t a l l o f t h e s e p e o p l e a re i n p o s i t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p whether they l i k e i t or n o t , and c o n s e q u e n t l y they must con fo rm t o the s o c i a l norms of l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o u r b e i n g worked out by t he new s t a t e d The b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s t ha t Nye re re i s t r y i n g t o encourage i n the e l i t e a r e d e s i g n e d t o d e s t r o y t h e m s e l v e s as an e l i t e i n the s e l f i s h , e x p l o i t a t i v e sense and p reven t the emergence o f e l i t i s t a t t i t u d e s i n the s o c i e t y . The i d e a o f an E l i t e - - a p r i v i l e g e d , p o w e r f u l m i n o r i t y - - i s d i r e c t l y c o n t r a r y t o the s o c i a l i s t i d e a l s o f e q u a l i t y and mutual r e s p e c t . The a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s o f the e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l upper s t r a t a mus t , t h e r e f o r e , be such as t o i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h the common man as much as p o s s i b l e . Nye re re does r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h i s cannot mean comp l e t e e q u a l i t y i n income and s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g , and t h a t s c a r c e s k i l l s w i l l have t o command g r e a t e r rewards t han common ones . What he i s w o r k i n g f o r i s f i r s t , t he e l i m i n a t i o n o f g r o s s d i s p a r i t i e s , and s e c o n d , norms o f b e h a v i o u r among a l l s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y t h a t w i l l t r e a t a l l p eop l e w i t h equa l r e s p e c t and d i g n i t y . T h u s , a c e r t a i n a c c e p t a b l e degree o f p r i v i l e g e w i l l r e m a i n , but e l i t i s t a t t i t u d e s w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d . T h i s , a g a i n , seems t o be a v i s i o n o f q u i t e an i d e a l i s t i c s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , but t h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t Nye re r e has had some s u c c e s s i n 2 a c h i e v i n g i t . In 1968 he c l a i m e d t h a t t h i s was the c a s e . ^See N y e r e r e , " P r e f a c e , " Freedom and Soc i a 1i sm, o p . c i t . p I b i d . , pp . x v - x v i . Part of the reason for success is that Nyerere has gone in to th is question in d e t a i l . Later in th i s chapter I shal l look at some spec i f i c measures he has taken to create a s o c i a l i s t i c leadership behaviour pattern. Some of these stem from his examination of the ro le played by education in producing e l i t e s and e l i t i s t a t t i tudes . He f ee l s that the education system, started in the co lon ia l era , tended to equate status with education and bred subservient a t t i tudes in those without education. It a l so served to denigrate manual labour and place the highest soc ia l esteem on white-col lar jobs. Apart from a l l t h i s , i t fostered the s p i r i t of ind iv idua l achievement and helped to destroy the t r ad i t i ona l communal va lues. The system did not change markedly unti1 a f ter Arusha and the appearance of "Education for Se l f -Re l i ance " J in March, 1967. In the meantime, the school leavers and univers i ty graduates were fostered on the notion that graduation was a t i cket to high wages, comfortable employment in c i t i e s , and personal s tatus. h Unt i l the s t ructura l changes started in 1967 Nyerere r e l i ed on exhortat ion to destroy e l i t i s t a t t i tudes . As ear ly as I 96 I he talked about the dangers of an E l i t e when addressing Found in Nyerere, Freedom and Socia 1i sm, op. c i t . , pp. 2 6 7 - 2 9 0 . ^To be discussed in Chapter V. the f i r s t students at the TANU adult education centre on the outsk i r t s of Dar Es Salaam. You are not being t ra ined as ' l eaders ' who do a l l the th inking for others to fol low b l i n d l y ; i f any student leaves be l iev ing that , the College w i l l have f a i l e d in i t s task. Kivukoni Col lege i s not intended to be a col lege for an E1 i te .5 What seems to be one of Nyerere's strongest d i s l i k e s i s i n t e l l e c tua l arrogance--the educated despis ing the uneducated. This in i t s e l f serves to i l l u s t r a t e Nyerere's moral strength, for he is one of the most educated and i n t e l l e c tua l of Tanzanians. In a way Nyerere's commitment to his s o c i a l i s t ideals serves to indicate that the co lon ia l education system could not have been as bad as he sometimes makes i t out to be--for i t produced him. At the time he received his M.A. from Edinburgh he was the most Western educated of any Tanzanian. A reportedly impromptu speech Nyerere gave to some v i l l a g e r s on Mafia Island in February, I966 i s a good example of h is simple, earthy communication with people as well as his view of education. It is t i t l e d "Leaders Must Not Be Masters".^ He expressed his sorrow at the fact that the co lon ia l system had led the people to fear authori ty and assume that leaders and educated men know everything, which meant that there was no point in the people t a lk ing to leaders about the i r problems and ideas. ^Nyerere, Freedom and Unity, op. ci t . , p. 122. Found in Nyerere, Freedom and Soci a! i sm, op. c i t . , pp. 136-142. T h i s i s a bad h a b i t . . . . What i s t he meaning of l e a d e r s h i p ? When you a r e s e l e c t e d t o l ead your f e l l o w men, i t does not mean t h a t you know e v e r y t h i n g b e t t e r t han they do . I t does not even mean t h a t you a r e more i n t e l l i g e n t t h a n they a r e - e s p e c i a l l y the e l d e r s . (Here he m e n t i o n s t h a t h i s uneduca ted mother i s not a f r a i d o f g i v i n g h im a d v i c e . ) Does i t mean t h a t a - pe r son who does not have f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i s a f o o l ? What does e d u c a t i o n mean? An uneduca ted man has a b r a i n g i v e n t o him by God. Does a man become a goat because he i s uneduca ted? . . . I t may be t r u e t h a t I am e d u c a t e d ; but how can t h i s mean t h a t I am more i n t e l l i g e n t t han my mother?7 In r e g a r d s t o l e a d e r s h i p , N y e r e r e ' s p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i s w i t h the p o l i t i c i a n s . He has spent some t ime i n e x p l a i n -i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s they e n c o u n t e r when mak ing t he t r a n s i -t i o n f rom a g i t a t o r s f o r i ndependence t o r e s p o n s i b l e a d m i n i -s t r a t o r s i n a u t h o r i t y . D u r i n g the independence s t r u g g l e they i d e n t i f i e d i n t i m a t e l y w i t h the p e o p l e ; they a t e and l i v e d w i t h them. Then , s u d d e n l y , they were t h r u s t i n t o power and p r e s t i g e , pomp and p r i v i l e g e . I t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t f o r any i n d i v i d u a l t o make t h i s t r a n s i t i o n and not be overwhelmed by h i s new env i ronment and q u i c k l y l o s e t o u c h and empathy w i t h t h e p e o p l e f rom whom he has come. There i s a l s o the q u e s t i o n o f the m o t i v a t i o n o f the l e a d e r s who took p a r t i n a g i t a t i o n f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e . At the t ime no q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d , a l l were w o r k i n g towards an e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d g o a l . Nye r e r e has sugges t ed t h a t some of them d i d not have s o c i a l i s t c o n v i c t i o n s , but were m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e t o N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , op . c i t . , p. 140. p l a c e t h e m s e l v e s at the apex o f w e a l t h and p r e s t i g e gene-o r a t e d by c a p i t a l i s m . T h i s may a l s o be t r u e f o r l a r g e p a r t s o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , who saw t h e m s e l v e s l i v i n g l i k e w h i t e men a f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e . N y e r e r e soon r e a l i s e d t h a t a m a s s i v e e d u c a t i o n campaign had t o be u n d e r t a k e n , d i r e c t e d as much at t h e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s as at the p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e , which would o r i e n t t h e c o u n t r y toward b u i l d i n g a s o c i a l i s t s t a t e r a t h e r than c o n t i n u i n g on the c a p i t a l i s t and e l i t i s t r o a d s t a r t e d d u r i n g t h e c o l o n i a l e r a . H i s r e s i g n a t i o n as Prime M i n i s t e r s i x weeks a f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e and h i s w r i t i n g of "Ujamaa, The B a s i s of A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m " d u r i n g h i s absence from o f f i c e i s i n d i c a t i o n of h i s awareness o f the need f o r a new a p p r o a c h . It a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t l i t t l e thought had gone i n t o t h i s m a t t e r b e f o r e i n d e p e n d e n c e . When one t a l k s o f l e a d e r s h i p i n Western c o u n t r i e s one u s u a l l y t h i n k s o f such q u a l i t i e s of h o n e s t y , competence, d e c i s i v e n e s s , e l o q u e n c e , and charm. Nyerere a g r e e s t h a t t h e s e a r e n e c e s s a r y . When s p e a k i n g t o s t u d e n t s at t h e P o l i c e C o l l e g e .in I96I he a l s o t a l k e d of the a b i l i t y t o t h i n k l o g i c a l l y , e x p r e s s y o u r s e l f c l e a r l y , and u n d e r s t a n d 9 t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of d e c i s i o n s . He has a l s o spoken t o Members o f P a r l i a m e n t on the n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g t h e c o u r a g e I b i d . , p. 30. N y e r e r e , Freedom and U n i t y , o p . c i t . , p. 124. t o f o l l o w t h e i r c o n s c i e n c e s on b a s i c i s s u e s , even though i t o f t h e p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s o f t he i d e a l l e ade r i s no d i f f e r -ent f rom t h a t o f most o t h e r p e o p l e . He does , however , add a few d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h may make the T a n z a n i a n l e a d e r a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f i n d i v i d u a l . A p a r t f rom the u s u a l p l a t i t u d e s about s e r v i n g and g u i d i n g the masses , he p l a c e s emphas i s on t he l e a d e r s r e a l l y i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h the p e o p l e and w o r k i n g w i t h them. They must l i s t e n t o the p e o p l e , and t a l k w i t h them. T h i s i s not j u s t a q u e s t i o n o f h o l d i n g p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , and g i v i n g m a g n i f i c e n t s p e e c h e s . I t means w o r k i n g w i t h t h e peop l e on the s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s , t a k i n g p a r t i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , c o n s t a n t l y t r a v e l l i n g , and d i s c u s s i n g the a f f a i r s o f t he n a t i o n , the r e g i o n , and the v i i l a g e . 1 1 A rusha and i t s a f t e r m a t h p roduced a change i n the o f f i c i a l a t t i t u d e toward l e a d e r s h i p , as i t d i d w i t h many o t h e r t o p i c s . A l t h o u g h the change was not d r a s t i c , i t i n t e n s i f i e d t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon the i d e a l s o f e q u a l i t y and d i g n i t y . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s e r v e s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t h i s b e l i e f i n the s o v e r e i g n i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l was , i f a n y t h i n g , he i g h t e n e d . Leade rs cannot do a n y t h i n g FOR the p e o p l e . We can o n l y p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n , g u i d a n c e and o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the peop l e t o b u i l d t h e i r own c o u n t r y f o r t h e m s e l v e s . Leaders o f T a n z a n i a shou ld not be may r e s u l t i n p e r s o n a l u n p o p u l a r i t y . 10 Thus , h i s c o n c e p t i o n 10 N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , op . c i t . , p. 95-I b i d p. 92. making p r o m i s e s ; we cannot f u l f i l them f o r o t h e r s . We s h o u l d not be c o m p l a i n i n g (about e x t e r n a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f p o l i c i e s ) ; c o m p l a i n t s h e l p no one . We s h o u l d know t h e f a c t s o f T a n z a n i a ' s s i t u a t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d them, and g i v e g u i d a n c e t o the peop le i n the l i g h t o f them.12 T h i s i s a much more open a t t i t u d e t o t h e r e l a t i o n between l e a d e r s and the p e o p l e than i s found i n most A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s - - e s p e c i a 11y t h o s e t h a t c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s ' s o c i a l i s t ' . A more u s u a l a t t i t u d e i s t o r e g a r d the l e a d e r s h i p as the vanguard o f s o c i a l i s t t h i n k i n g and commitment , whose d u t y i t i s t o l e a d the p e o p l e out o f t h e i r i g n o r a n c e t o the new U t o p i a . T h e r e a r e two c u r r e n t p rob lems i n new A f r i c a n s t a t e s - - t r i b a l i s m and c o r r u p t i o n - - w h i c h enjoy a c u r i o u s p u b l i c exposu re i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d . Wes te rn o b s e r v e r s , e s p e c i a l l y j o u r n a l i s t s , t e n d t o emphas ize t h e s e p rob lems and see them as the main h i n d r a n c e s t o p r o g r e s s i v e development on the p a r t o f t h e s e s t a t e s . A f r i c a n governments and news m e d i a , on the o t h e r hand , t e n d t o downplay t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s and even i g n o r e them c o m p l e t e l y . I t i s my o p i n i o n t h a t t he W e s t e r n o b s e r v e r s o v e r - e m p h a s i z e t h e s e p rob l ems and p r o b a b l y f o c u s on them because they p r o v i d e easy answers t o the p rob lem o f a n a l y s i n g the c u r r e n t r e a l i t y o f A f r i c a . I t can a l s o be s u r m i s e d t h a t A f r i c a n l e a d e r s I b i d . , pp . 3 9 4 - 3 9 5 -downplay t h e s e f a c t o r s i n the hope t h a t by m i n i m i z i n g t h e i r p u b l i c e x p o s u r e t h e s e p rob l ems may v e r y w e l l f ade away. In many A f r i c a n s t a t e s t r i b a l i s m and c o r r u p t i o n seem t o be u n p l e a s a n t bogymen whose e x i s t e n c e i s bes t i g n o r e d . As was seen i n Chap t e r I I I , Nye re re f o l l o w s t h i s p a t t e r n a s f a r as t r i b a l i s m i s c o n c e r n e d . He d o e s , however , t a ke a d i f f e r e n t app roach t o c o r r u p t i o n . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t he f e e l s t h a t i t i s r e a l i s t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e f o r t r i b a l l o y a l t i e s t o d i e away t h rough t i m e and i n a t t e n t i o n . C o r r u p t i o n , on t he o t h e r hand , p r o b a b l y f l o u r i s h e s i n such an a tmosphe re . Nye re re s t a n d s a p a r t f rom o t h e r A f r i c a n l e a d e r s i n h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o admit t h a t c o r r u p t i o n e x i s t s and i n h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o do someth ing about i t . Other s ta tesmen e s p o u s i n g s o c i a l i s t or o t h e r i d e a l s may f e e l t h a t i t s v e r y e x i s t e n c e i s a fundamenta l embarrassment wh i ch i s b e s t d e n i e d . The c o n c e r n w i t h c o r r u p t i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f N y e r e r e ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on l e a d e r s h i p , f o r c o r r u p t i o n i n t h i s c o n t e x t means the b e t r a y a l o f p u b l i c t r u s t by t h o s e i n a u t h o r i t y t h r o u g h such a c t i o n s as the t h e f t o f p u b l i c f u n d s , t he s e l l i n g o f p u b l i c f a v o u r s , or the use of i n f l u e n c e f o r p e r s o n a l g a i n . In i 9 6 0 , even b e f o r e he came t o power, Nye re r e denounced c o r r u p t i o n i n government as one of t he fundamenta l enemies o f s o c i e t y--a l ong w i t h p o v e r t y , d i s e a s e and i g n o r a n c e . He f e l t t h a t c o r r u p t i o n wou ld d e s t r o y a n a t i o n . Peop le wou ld have no c o n f i d e n c e i n the government and no b e l i e f t h a t j u s t i c e c o u l d p r e v a i l . " T h e r e i s c o r r u p t i o n . . . . I b e l i e v e m y s e l f t h a t c o r r u p t i o n 1 3 s h o u l d be t r e a t e d i n a lmos t the same way as t r e a s o n . " H i s s t r o n g s t a n d has been m a i n t a i n e d eve r s i n c e . In I965 he spoke t o the newly e l e c t e d N a t i o n a l Assembly and a d v i s e d p o l i t i c i a n s a g a i n s t f i n d i n g j o b s f o r t h e i r f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , or l e n d i n g them government f u n d s , or a c c e p t i n g g i f t s t h a t would put them under s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s t o o t h e r p e o p l e . Members o f t h i s House , and o f t h e Government , w i l l be w e l l a d v i s e d not o n l y t o r e s i s t c o r r u p t i o n , but a l s o t o conduc t t h e m s e l v e s i n such a manner t h a t i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t they a r e not c o r r u p t e d . 1*+ T h i s i s an amaz ing s t a t ement t o be hea rd i n any c o u n t r y ' s p a r l i a m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y r i g h t a f t e r an e l e c t i o n . N o r m a l l y a p a r t y or government w i l l t r y t o m a i n t a i n a p e r f e c t p u b l i c image o f t h e i r members, not q u e s t i o n t h e i r h o n e s t y . T h i s b e h a v i o u r on the pa r t o f Nye re re i s a n o t h e r example o f h i s u n i q u e p e r s o n a l s t y l e as a p o l i t i c i a n . I t c e r t a i n l y shows q u a l i t i e s o f c o u r a g e and f r a n k n e s s . I t i s d e m o n s t r a t e d a g a i n i n t h a t impromptu speech he gave on M a f i a I s l a n d i n 1966. I f we do not remove f e a r f rom our p e o p l e , and i f we do not a b o l i s h t he two c l a s s e s o f m a s t e r s and s e r v a n t s N y e r e r e , Freedom and Uni t y , op . c i t . , p. 82. N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , o p . c i t . , p. 95« 82 \> from our soc ie ty , clever people w i l l emerge from among us to take the place of the Europeans, Indians and Arabs. These c lever people w i l l continue to explo i t our fear for the i r own benef i t . And we leaders can become the clever people .15 Nyerere has taken a number of prac t i ca l steps to try to ensure that the leadership remains uncorrupted and committed to the people. Not a l l of these are mentioned in his wr i t ings . In 1961, a f ter TANU came to power, the sa l a r i es of Government Ministers were cut . They were reduced again in 1 9 6 7 , as were those of senior c i v i l servants. There are ind i ca t ions , however, that th i s trend has not been maintained. In 1968 seven M.'P.'s were sus-pended from TANU by the party execut ive. Some of them had been vigourously denouncing a plan to increase m in i s te r i a l p e n s i o n s . ^ There was a lso opposit ion to the new constra ints placed upon the leadership a f ter Arusha. It i s not c lear whether a l l those who opposed the measures le f t p o l i t i c s or not. In I 966 Nyerere indicated in a speech that TANU o f f i c i a l s had been barred from owning f a r m s . ^ In I 9 6 5 he admitted that the government had made a mistake in purchas-ing b ig cars for the use of Regional Commissioners, and they were withdrawn. These were the celebrated Mercedes Benzes l 5 I b i d . , p. 141 . 16 See Clyde Sanger, Half A Loaf (Toronto: Ryerson, 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 69 ^Nyerere , Freedom and Socia l ism, loc . c i t . which have become a symbol o f the new e l i t e i n Eas t A f r i c a . In Kenya a new word has e n t e r e d t he S w a h i l i l anguage , Wabenz i-- those who d r i v e i n Mercedes Benzes . N y e r e r e has a l s o u n d e r t a k e n a s e r i e s o f s y m b o l i c a c t s d e s i g n e d t o i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h the p e o p l e . A f t e r the A rusha D e c l a r a -t i on was p u b l i s h e d i n January , 1967 many groups o f p e o p l e wa l ked t o t h e i r r e g i o n a l TANU h e a d q u a r t e r s or even t o Dar Es Salaam t o show t h e i r s u p p o r t . In Oc tober N y e r e r e w a l k e d 134 m i l e s t o the TANU N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e i n Mwanza. In 1963 he c i r c u l a t e d an amaz ing memo t o a l l government o f f i c i a l s t i t l e d " P o m p o s i t y " . In i t he a t t a c k e d t he g row ing p u b l i c o s t e n t a t i o n o f government o f f i c i a l s , i n c l u d i n g h i m s e l f , s a y i n g t h a t d i g n i t y was b e i n g c o n f u s e d w i t h sheer p o m p o s i t y . He men t i oned such t h i n g s as s i n g i n g the N a t i o n a l Anthem wherever even a minor o f f i c i a l appeared i n p u b l i c , and u s i n g p o l i c e e s c o r t s t o c l e a r roads i n f r o n t o f t r a v e l -l i n g o f f i c i a l s . He a t t a c k e d h i s own b e h a v i o u r i n t h i s r e g a r d , c a l l i n g i t " P r e s i d e n t i a l Pomp". . . . as a r e s u l t of g row ing i n s i s t e n c e on pompos i t y and o s t e n t a t i o n , the P r e s i d e n t o f Tangany i ka i s f a s t becoming t he wors t p u b l i c n u i s a n c e the c i t y o f Dar Es Sa laam has ever had t o put up w i t h i ^ ° He f e l t t h a t t h i s s o r t of behav i ou r was not d e m o c r a t i c , s e r v e d t o annoy p e o p l e , and c r e a t e d a r t i f i c i a l b a r r i e r s N y e r e r e , Freedom and U n i t y , o p . c i t . , p. 225 between the leaders and the people. Behaviour was said to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l tered af ter the c i r c u l a t i o n of th i s memo. His concern with the socia l and material gap between the educated and the uneducated has led him to take harsh measures with students who demonstrated e l i t i s t a t t i t udes . He has indicated that i t takes the incomes of f i f t y ordinary people to keep one student in un ivers i ty for one year, and has demanded that the students' main ambition be in serving the masses who have allowed them the p r i v i l ege of attending un i ve rs i t y . In 1966 394 students demonstrated in front of his residence, State House, against being required to par t i c ipa te in the newly-created National Serv ice. This was too much. Here was the new e l i t e already taking the i r p r i v i l eges for granted. He lectured them on the i r a n t i -social and e l i t i s t a t t i tudes and dismissed them a l l from the un i ve rs i t y . Most were re-admitted a year l a te r . After that episode a five-month work camp was i n s t i t u t ed for a l l enter ing un i ve rs i t y , and two years of National Service was required for a l l persons completing secondary school . In I969 an observer wrote that "The gap between the pr i v i l eged 19 and the poor has closed not i ceab ly . " The Arusha Dec!arati on was mainly devoted to topics of s o c i a l i s t economic development and the p r inc ip l e of Self-Sanger, op. c i t . , p. 66. Rel iance. But a smal l , s ign i f i can t sect ion dealt with leadership. It f i r s t promised that a leadership t ra in ing program would be i n s t i t u t ed at a l l levels in order to ensure that a l l leaders understood the economic and p o l i t i c a l po l i c i e s of the party. It then la id out a rigourous set of d i r e c t i v e s for leadership behaviour as follows? The Arusha Resolut ion a) Leadershi p 1. Every TANU and Government leader must be either a peasant or a worker, and should in no way be associated with the pract ices of cap i ta l i sm and feudal i sm. 2. No TANU or Government leader should hold shares in any company. 3. No TANU or Government leader should hold d i r e c to r -ships in any pr i va te ly owned company. h. No TANU or Government leader should receive two or more sa 1 ari es. 5. No TANU or Government leader should own houses which he rents to others. 6. For the purposes of th is reso lut ion the term ' l eader ' should comprise the fo l low ing : Members of the TANU National Executive; M in i s te r s ; Members of Parl iament; senior o f f i c i a l s of organizat ions a f f i l i a t e d to TANU; senior o f f i c i a l s of para-statal organizat ions ; a l l those appointed or e lected under any clause of the TANU cons t i t u t i on ; c o u n c i l l o r s ; and c i v i l servants in the high and middle cadres. (In th is context ' l eader ' means a man, or a man and his w i fe ; a woman, or a woman and her husband. 2 0 Found in Nyerere, Freedom and Soci a l i sm, op. c i t . , p. 249. These s t r i n g e n t demands were a c c e p t e d unan imous l y by t he p a r t y , but they d i d not go unopposed i n p r i v a t e . A number o f M . P . ' s and TANU o f f i c i a l s were f o r c e d t o r i d t h e m s e l v e s o f e x t r a h o u s e s , but i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t some o f them m e r e l y s i g n e d them over t o a more d i s t a n t r e l a t i v e than t h e i r spouse . Two prominent members o f t h e p a r t y r e s i g n e d , and t h e r e may have been many more minor o f f i c i a l s . The two were Oscar Kambona, a f o u n d i n g member, S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l o f the p a r t y , and a C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r , and B i b i T i t i Mohamed, a l s o a f o u n d i n g member and P r e s i d e n t o f the women's arm o f TANU. Both o f them c l a i m e d they had r e s i g n e d f o r h e a l t h or p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s . B i b i T i t i Mohamed owned a number o f houses and was a d i r e c t o r o f at l e a s t one company. Kambona was thought t o be second o n l y t o N y e r e r e i n power and p o p u l a r i t y , but h i s i n f l u e n c e had d e c l i n e d s i n c e he had d e m o n s t r a t e d i n compe tence i n a s t r i n g o f d i f f e r e n t M i n i s t r i e s . A f t e r h i s r e s i g n a t i o n he l e f t t h e c o u n t r y f o r E n g l a n d . He was s a i d t o have handed out many j o b s t o i n compe ten t f r i e n d s (who were removed a f t e r h i s d e p a r t u r e ) , owned at l e a s t f i v e h o u s e s , and d u r i n g one n ine teen-month p e r i o d d e p o s i t e d t 4 5 , 0 0 0 i n one bank a c c o u n t - - w h i c h was e i g h t t i m e s as much as h i s s a l a r y f o r the p e r i o d . 2 ^ See B u s i n e s s and Economy o f C e n t r a 1 and East A f r i c a . September , I967 and M a r ch , 1968. In f a c t M r . Kambona was b a d l y out of s t e p w i t h p r e s e n t - d a y T a n z a n i a . H i s power was c r e a t e d i n the i ndependence s t r u g g l e , but as the emphas i s s h i f t e d f rom soap-box o r a t o r y t o p r a c t i c a l p l a n n i n g he became a demagogue.22 Kambona seems t o have been an example o f the p o l i t i c i a n who c o u l d not make the t r a n s i t i o n f rom the independence s t r u g g l e t o p r o g r e s s i v e government w i t h o u t e x p l o i t i n g h i s p o s i t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l g a i n . He i s one o f t hose N y e r e r e r e f e r r e d t o as h a v i n g had a c a p i t a l i s t m o t i v a t i o n f o r s e e k i n g i n d e p e n -dence . P u b l i c r e p o r t s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e many more Kambonas i n o t h e r A f r i c a n s t a t e s . I t r ema ins t o be seen whether T a n z a n i a has got r i d o f them a l l or pe rsuaded them t o change t h e i r m i n d s . C o n c l u s i on N y e r e r e ' s i d e a s about l e a d e r s h i p a r e not so much fundamenta l v a l u e commitments as means o f e n s u r i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f h i s s o c i a l i s t b e l i e f s . The e v o l u t i o n o f h i s i d e a s and a c t i o n s i n r e g a r d s t o l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o u r shows c o n s i s t e n c y and a c o n t i n u i n g commitment t o the i d e a l s of e q u a l i t y , d i g n i t y , work by a l l , e x p l o i t a t i o n by none. I t a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t i t has not been r e a l i s t i c t o expec t even h i s c l o s e s t c o l l e a g u e s , l e t a l o n e the c o u n t r y as a w h o l e , t o a c cep t and l i v e by t he i d e a l s o f the n a t i o n " " W h y Kambona S k i p p e d , " Bus i ness and Economy of C e n t r a l and East A f r i c a . V o l . I ( September , 1967), pp . 1 5 - 1 6 . w i t h o u t t he e x i s t e n c e o f s p e c i f i c c o e r c i v e measures d e s i g n e d t o ensu re t h e i r c o m p l i a n c e . The un ique n a t u r e o f N y e r e r e ' s p e r s o n a l l e a d e r s h i p has been h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o s t i c k t o h i s i d e a l s and m a i n t a i n a c o n t i n u a l , e v o l v i n g s t r u g g l e f o r t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n . Other l e a d e r s have been c o n t e n t t o l e a v e t h e i r i d e a l s on paper and succumb t o the h a r s h , i n t e r e s t -s e r v i n g r e a l i t i e s o f gove rnment . Nye re r e has t i m e and a g a i n d e m o n s t r a t e d shrewd p o l i t i c a l judgement i n c a r r y i n g out h i s p o l i c i e s . I know o f no o t h e r l e a d e r who has had the cou rage t o admit t o the p o s s i b i l i t y or p o t e n t i a l of so much c o r r u p -t i o n i n h i s government . Nye re re has done t h i s i n such a way as t o add t o h i s s t a t u r e as a l e a d e r and a l i e n a t e o n l y t h o s e segments o f the p o p u l a t i o n who were opposed t o h i s i d e a l s . Among the p o p u l a t i o n at l a r g e , whose s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g i s so low , the p u b l i c moves t o d e p r i v e t h e e l i t e o f much of t h e i r o s t e n t a t i o u s w e a l t h were e x t r e m e l y p o p u l a r . I t may be c y n i c a l , but not beyond t he rea lm of p o s s i b i l i t y , t o sugges t t h a t N y e r e r e has used the i s s u e o f v i r t u o u s l e a d e r s h i p norms t o m a i n t a i n h i s own p o p u l a r i t y among the p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s i n t u r n wou ld s t r e n g t h e n h i s a u t h o r i t y over t h e p a r t y and government , f o r he wou ld have an u n a s s a i l -a b l e p o s i t i o n as t he i n i t i a t o r and d e f e n d e r o f the l e a d e r -s h i p norms w h i l e the o f f i c i a l s would be s u b j e c t t o h a v i n g t h e i r b e h a v i o u r q u e s t i o n e d by h i m . The key q u e s t i o n o f c o u r s e i s whe the r he can make h i s l e a d e r s h i p norms b i n d i n g . I t i s s t i l l t oo e a r l y t o t e l l , but t he outcome w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by the methods he chooses t o make them s t i c k . I t appea r s a t p r e sen t t h a t he i s mak ing use o f at l e a s t t h r e e me thods : p e r s o n a l example , i d e o l o g i -c a l i m p e r a t i v e , and m i l d c o e r c i o n . H i s p e r s o n a l s t a n d a r d o f b e h a v i o u r i n r e g a r d t o t h e s e norms i s o f t he h i g h e s t o r d e r , and t h e r e a r e no doubt many i n the p a r t y and c i v i l s e r v i c e who have a h i g h r e s p e c t f o r h im as a l e a d e r and o b v i o u s l y t r y t o e m u l a t e h i s b e h a v i o u r . The f a c t t h a t s t r i c t l e a d e r -s h i p r u l e s a r e w r i t t e n i n t o the A r u s h a D e c 1 a r a t i on makes them p a r t o f the s o c i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y , so no p u b l i c f i g u r e h a v i n g a s i n c e r e d e s i r e t o be an A f r i c a n s o c i a l i s t c an c o n s i d e r b r e a k i n g them. P e r s o n a l example and i d e o l o g i c a l i m p e r a t i v e p r o b a b l y t a k e c a r e o f t he m a j o r i t y o f the o f f i c i a l s i n v o l v e d , but t h e r e a r e a l w a y s t h o s e l e f t o v e r who a r e w i l l i n g t o t a k e p e r s o n a l advan tage o f any s i t u a t i o n u n l e s s they a r e r e s o l u t e l y p r e v e n t e d from d o i n g s o . N y e r e r e ' s c o e r c i v e measures have not been o v e r l y s t r i c t . The r u l e s a r e l a i d down i n a p a r t y document , and t h o s e who do not a g r e e w i t h them must l e a v e the p a r t y and r e s i g n from t h e i r government p o s i t i o n s . Whether or not a c o n t i n u a l or p e r i o d i c check i s made on i n d i v i d u a l s ' b e h a v i o u r i s u n r e -p o r t e d . C l o s e s c r u t i n y , p h y s i c a l i n t i m i d a t i o n , and h a r s h e x t r a - l e g a l pun i shmen t s w o u l d not be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h N y e r e r e ' s r e s p e c t f o r t he freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l , but i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t he i s not b e i n g h a r s h enough . The c o m b i n a -t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e t a c t i c s may p roduce t h e d e s i r e d e f f e c t . I f i t does not i t wi11 be because h i s c o e r c i v e measures have not been s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g . ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT I f economic deve lopment i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f the growth o f per c a p i t a income and the Gross N a t i o n a l P r o d u c t , and t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f a m o d e r n i z i n g s o c i e t y , t hen the c o n c e r n o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s w i t h f a r more t h a n economic deve l opmen t . Economic deve lopment i n T a n z a n i a i s c e r t a i n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h r a i s i n g l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s and c r e a t i n g more w e a l t h , but i t i s o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h i s i f i t s e r v e s the b a s i c s o c i a l g o a l s o f the nat ion--mutua1 r e s p e c t , d i g n i t y , e q u a l i t y and c o o p e r a t i o n . I n c r e a s i n g w e a l t h i s a p r i m a r y goal o f T a n z a n i a i f i t o c c u r s i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t he s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i d e a l s examined i n the l a s t two c h a p t e r s . The i d e a l s wh i ch a r e most r e l e v a n t i n t h i s c o n t e x t a re s h a r i n g o f j o i n t p r o d u c t i o n , work by a l l and e x p l o i t a t i o n by none. The methods and programs u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e w e a l t h a r e used as means o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t he s o c i e t a l g o a l s . Or , c o n v e r s e l y , t he s o c i e t a l i d e a l s a r e used t o d e t e r m i n e the methods by w h i c h w e a l t h w i l l be i n c r e a s e d . T h i s i s the i d e a l t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework wh i ch T a n z a n i a under Nye re r e a t t e m p t s t o u t i l i z e i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s c o n c e r n i n g what i s the p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t he governments of a l l new n a t i o n s - - s a t i s f y i n g t he m a t e r i a l e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e i r p e o p l e s by r a i s i n g s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g . As we s h a l l see i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t he a t t e m p t s t o u t i l i z e the f ramework have v a r i e d i n t h e i r i n t e n s i t y t h rough t i m e . A c t i o n s From Independence t o 1967 Even p r i o r t o i ndependence Nye re re r e a l i s e d t h a t the major t a s k o f the government wou ld be t o improve l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s , and t h a t t h i s wou ld not be e a s y . At the t ime of i ndependence he a t t e m p t e d t o p o p u l a r i z e t he s l o g a n Uhuru na K a z i , " F reedom and Work" , i n o r d e r t o impres s upon the peop l e t h a t Uhuru d i d not s i g n a l the a u t o m a t i c a t t a i n m e n t o f U t o p i a . In t he a r e a o f economic and r u r a l deve lopment t h e f i r s t s i x y e a r s o f i ndependence a re marked by e x h o r t a -t i o n s t o b u i l d a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y and by a s e r i e s o f a c t i o n s t h a t seem more o r i e n t a t e d toward n u r t u r i n g t he p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the s e m i - c a p i t a 1 i s t economy i n h e r i t e d f rom the c o l o n i a l r e g i m e . T h u s , N y e r e r e t a l k s a l o t about e q u a l i t y , d i g n i t y , h a r d work and c r e a t i n g a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y , but t h e s e appear t o be g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h r ema in at t h e l e v e l o f r h e t o r i c . A t y p i c a l example i n A u g u s t , 1964: The p e o p l e and t he Government o f the U n i t e d R e p u b l i c a r e a i m i n g t o b u i l d a j u s t s o c i e t y o f f r e e and equa l c i t i z e n s , who l i v e i n h e a l t h y c o n d i t i o n s , who c o n t r o l t h e i r own d e s t i n y , and who c o - o p e r a t e t o g e t h e r and w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e i n a s p i r i t o f human b r o t h e r h o o d f o r mutua l b e n e f i t . 1 N y e r e r e , Freedom and U n i t y , op . c i t • , p. 3 1 1 . He a l s o e l o q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d t he r e l a t i o n between w e a l t h , p r o d u c t i o n and human h a p p i n e s s . . . . p r o d u c t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t s e r v e s man, and h i s i n t e r e s t s as he c u r r e n t l y sees them. But p r o d u c t i o n i s not t he purpose of s o c i e t y ; h u m a n i t y ' s p r o g r e s s must be measured by t he e x t e n t t o wh i ch man i s f r e e d f rom the d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e need t o p r o d u c e . When the demands o f ' e f f i c i e n c y ' and ' p r o d u c t i o n ' o v e r r i d e man ' s need f o r a f u l l and good l i f e then s o c i e t y i s no l onge r s e r v i n g man, i t i s u s i n g h im . 2 For a new and v e r y poor c o u n t r y t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y an i d e a l i s t i c v i e w p o i n t w h i c h wou ld f i n d d i f f i c u l t y i n b e i n g u n d e r s t o o d by t he mass o f the p e o p l e who a r e d e s p e r a t e l y s e e k i n g some new m a t e r i a l c o m f o r t s . I t must be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o c o n v i n c e t h o s e i n p o v e r t y t h a t p r o d u c t i o n i s a means and not an e n d . When he speaks o f " s o c i e t y u s i n g man " , who does he r e g a r d as ' s o c i e t y 1 ? I f the b u l k o f the p o p u l a t i o n , who c o m p r i s e ' s o c i e t y 1 , w i sh t o p l a c e emphas i s on p r o d u c t i o n r a t h e r than s o c i a l i d e a l s i t makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o get t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n i n i m p l e m e n t i n g the l a t t e r p o s s i b l y at t he expense o f the f o r m e r . Nye re r e seems t o have been aware o f t h i s p rob lem d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and appea rs t o have a c q u i e s c e d t o p l a c i n g emphas i s on p r o d u c t i o n by i t s e l f w h i l e s e a r c h i n g f o r a means t o r e l a t e i t t o h i s s o c i a l i d e a l s . T h u s , i n 1966 at t he o p e n i n g o f t he Bank of T a n z a n i a he f l a t l y s t a t e d t h a t "Our p e o p l e know t h a t i t 2 1 b i d . , pp. 1 5 - 1 6 . i s t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o i n c r e a s e the w e a l t h o f our c o u n t r y , and t h a t t h i s can o n l y be done by p r o d u c i n g more goods . S i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n s wh i ch o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t he p e r i o d I 9 6 I - I 9 6 7 i n c l u d e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t he N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p -ment C o r p o r a t i o n (NDC) i n I 9 6 5 , a p a r a - s t a t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n wh i ch i n v e s t s m o s t l y i n i n d u s t r i a l p r o j e c t s and r e t a i n s a l l p r o f i t s f o r f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n s . The NDC m a i n t a i n e d a sma l l l e v e l o f o p e r a t i o n u n t i l t he n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n measures o f I 9 6 7 , and o p e r a t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t he p o l i c y o f e n c o u r a g i n g as much p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t as p o s s i b l e . Soon a f t e r i ndependence a l l l and was b rought under t h e o w n e r s h i p o f the s t a t e . In c o n f o r m i t y w i t h A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , t he concep t o f p r i v a t e owne r sh ip o f l a n d was r e j e c t e d i n f a v o u r o f t he a t t i t u d e t h a t a l l l and be l onged t o the communi ty , and i n d i v i d u a l s had t he r i g h t t o use i t but not own and market i t . The a c t u a l t a k e o v e r i n v o l v e d a v e r y s m a l l amount o f l a n d . Now and a g a i n N y e r e r e ' s m o r a l i -s t i c n a t u r e s u r f a c e d w i t h a d e s i r e f o r f r u g a l i t y as r e -f l e c t e d i n p e n n y - p i n c h i n g g e s t u r e s . He spoke a g a i n s t p r e s t i g e p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d t o i m p r e s s f o r e i g n e r s , and p r a i s e d t he s e l f - d i s c i p i i n e and f r u g a l n a t u r e o f t he Ch inese deve lopment e f f o r t s . In I 965 a l c o h o l i c beve rages were N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , o p . c i t . , p. 1 7 6 . b a r r e d f rom government r e c e p t i o n s and the g u e s t s had t o make do w i t h c o f f e e , t e a or s o f t d r i n k s . A l s o , no c a r s f o r government s e r v i c e excep t f o u r - w h e e l d r i v e s were t o be pu r chased t h a t c o s t more t han k 9 0 0 . In 1966 t h e s i z e and f r e q u e n c y o f d e l e g a t i o n s t o f o r e i g n c o n f e r e n c e s and m e e t i n g s were cu t down. Two Development P l a n s were i n i t i a t e d i n t h i s p e r i o d , one f r o m I96 I t o 1963 and the o t h e r f rom I964 t o I 9 6 8 . They acknowledged a g r i c u l t u r e as t he h i g h e s t p r i o r -i t y , but more r e s o u r c e s were put i n t o commun i ca t i ons and i n d u s t r i a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . As no ted i n Chap te r I I I , Nye re re i n 1964 s t a t e d t h a t s o c i a l f reedoms were t o be s a c r i f i c e d i f n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o meet the o b j e c t i v e s l a i d down i n the P l a n . In 1962 he t a l k e d o f the n e c e s s i t y o f g r o u p i n g the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n l a r g e r v i l l a g e s i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . As a r e s u l t , the V i l l a g e S e t t l e -ment Program was i n s t i t u t e d i n 1 9 6 4 . In June , 1966 came the f i r s t m e n t i o n o f t he t e rm 1 S e l f - R e l i a n c e 1 , wh i ch was t o occupy a p rominent p l a c e i n the deve lopment language o f t he c o u n t r y a f t e r the A rusha Dec l a r a t i on i n I 9 6 7 . In 1966 Nyere re s t a t e d t h a t the c o u n t r y c o u l d not r e l y on o u t s i d e h e l p w h i c h was t o o l i t t l e and t o o compromi s i ng t o n a t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e , and t h a t the c o u n t r y wou ld have t o do more f o r i t s e l f i n the way o f s e l f - h e l p and communal p r o j e c t s . See p. 58 o f t h i s p a p e r . In g e n e r a l , t he p e r i o d p r i o r t o 1967 saw economic deve lopment p o l i c i e s t h a t were v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e of many o t h e r new n a t i o n s - - c a p i t a 1 e x p e n d i t u r e s on i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and u rban d e v e l o p m e n t , w i t h c o n c e r n , i f not a c t i o n , f o r the r u r a l a r e a s . The s o c i a l i d e a l s wh i ch were b e i n g implemented i n the e l e c t o r a l system and l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s were not moulded i n t o a cohe ren t economic and r u r a l d e v e l o p -ment p o l i c y . The s o c i a l r h e t o r i c was a lways p r e s e n t , however , and Nye re re c e r t a i n l y m a i n t a i n e d c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e s o c i a l i d e a l s he was conce rned a b o u t . One cannot f a u l t him f o r h i s commitment t o h i s s o c i a l i s t b e l i e f s , even i n the economic s p h e r e , but he had yet t o work out a p r a c t i c a l method of s e e i n g them i n t r o d u c e d . H i s c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n seems t o have been b l u n t e d by the e v e r - p r e s e n t p r e s s u r e f a c e d by a l l l e a d e r s o f new n a t i o n s — t h e m a t e r i a l e x p e c t a -t i o n s o f the p e o p l e must be s a t i s f i e d t o some degree as soon as p o s s i b l e , o r the v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f the reg ime i s t h r e a -t e n e d . The f a c t t h a t h i s e f f o r t s had not met w i t h much s u c c e s s by I 967 no doubt i n f l u e n c e d him t o t r y a new a p p r o a c h . The o n l y r e a l a t t empt t o implement t he s o c i a l i d e a l s p r i o r t o I 9 6 7 was the V i l l a g e S e t t l e m e n t P rog ram, and t h a t was a f a i l u r e . The V i l l a g e S e t t l e m e n t Program In o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and a t t he same t i m e i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y Nye re r e e s t a b l i s h e d the V i l l a g e S e t t l e m e n t Agency i n 1964 . A g r i -c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s c o m p r i s e d t he b u l k o f T a n z a n i a ' s e x p o r t s . I t was t h u s n e c e s s a r y t o i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l ou tpu t i n o r d e r t o e a rn f o r e i g n exchange w i t h wh i ch t o buy goods t o m o d e r n i z e the economy and p r o v i d e more s e r v i c e s f o r t he p e o p l e . The b u l k o f the p o p u l a t i o n were s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m e r s w o r k i n g by t r a d i t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l methods on s m a l l , s c a t t e r e d p l o t s o f l a n d . The s o l u t i o n was t o group them t o g e t h e r i n l a r g e r v i l l a g e s where they c o u l d sha re modern a g r i c u l t u r a l equ ipmen t , such as t r a c t o r s , and t h u s c o l l e c -t i v e l y i n c r e a s e t h e i r o u t p u t . The government wou ld p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s such as r o a d s , w a t e r , and even e l e c t r i c i t y i f n e c e s s a r y . The p e o p l e would sha re the o w n e r s h i p o f t he modern equipment and pay f o r i t f rom t h e i r s u r p l u s . The V i l l a g e S e t t l e m e n t P r o g r a m : . . . was o r i g i n a l l y a imed at t r a n s f o r m i n g c o m p l e t e l y a s e l e c t e d few a r e a s o f the T a n z a n i a n c o u n t r y s i d e i n t o cohe r en t quas i-modern commun i t i e s p o s s e s s i n g r a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l sys tems and i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 5 The f i r s t deve lopment p l a n p r o v i d e d f o r s i x t y - e i g h t v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t s , each w i t h two hundred f i f t y f a m i l i e s . By I 9 6 5 t h e r e were t w e n t y - t h r e e f u n c t i o n i n g s e t t l e m e n t s c o n t a i n i n g 3,300 p e o p l e . D J o h n N e l l i s , "The P l a n n i n g o f P u b l i c Support f o r T a n z a n i a n R u r a l Deve l opmen t , " The Journa1 of D e v e l o p i ng  A r e a s , V o l . I ( J u l y , I 9 6 7 ) , p. 4 7 9 . In A p n ' 1 , 1966 t he program was d r a s t i c a l l y cu t back t o an e x p e r i m e n t a l l e v e l . The government r e v e a l e d t h a t i t had become f a r t o o e x p e n s i v e f o r them, t h a t t h e r e was a l a c k o f s k i l l e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and t h a t the s e t t l e r s ' p r o d u c t i -v i t y was d i s a p p o i n t i n g l y 1ow.^ I t appea r s t ha t t he p rom i ses o f f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s were o f t e n not f u l f i l l e d , and t h a t t he s e t t l e r s , who had been a t t r a c t e d by t he h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s o f q u i c k r e s u l t s and d r a m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g , had become q u i c k l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d . N y e r e r e a d m i t t e d as much i n 1968. When we t r i e d t o promote r u r a l deve lopment i n t he p a s t , we sometimes spent huge sums of money on e s t a -b l i s h i n g a S e t t l e m e n t , and s u p p l y i n g i t w i t h modern equ ipmen t , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . . . we a c t e d on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e was a s h o r t c u t t o deve lopment i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s . A l l t o o o f t e n , t h e r e f o r e , we pe rsuaded p e o p l e t o go t o new s e t t l e m e n t s by p r o m i s i n g them t h a t they c o u l d q u i c k l y grow r i c h t h e r e , or t h a t the Government would g i v e them s e r v i c e s and equipment .7 John N e l l i s a l s o c l a i m s t h a t t he s e t t l e m e n t program was used as a ' c a t c h - a l l ' f o r the " b a c k t o the l a n d " e n t h u s i a s m wh i ch was b e i n g encouraged a t the t i m e . In f a c t , many o f the u rban unemployed who had been f o r c i b l y removed f rom t h e c i t i e s seemed t o have t u r n e d up i n the s e t t l e m e n t s , a l o n g I b i d . , p. 480. ' J . K. N y e r e r e , " F reedom and D e v e l o p m e n t , " paper d e l i v e r e d t o the N a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e Commit tee o f TANU ( Sep tember , 1 9 6 8 ) ; d i s t r i b u t e d i n mimeograph form by T a n z a n i a H igh Commiss ion , O t tawa , p. 8 . C i t e d i n John R. N e l l i s , An Economic Theory o f Deve lopmenta l I d e o l o g y ; The T a n z a n i a n Example , S y r a cuse U n i v e r s i t y , u n p u b l i s h e d Ph .D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , I969, p. 356. w i t h o t h e r t r o u b l e s o m e groups t h a t the government w i s h e d t o Q keep out o f harms way. O b v i o u s l y , such r e c r u i t s d i d l i t t l e t o ensure the s u c c e s s o f t he scheme. One o f t he r e a s o n s t ha t the S e t t l e m e n t Program f a i l e d was t h a t t h e r e was no c o h e r e n t and emot i ve i d e o l o g y p r o v i d e d t h a t wou ld have s e c u r e d the u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e m o t i o n a l commitment o f the s e t t l e r s . P rom i ses o f m a t e r i a l rewards were used t o i n d u c e the p e o p l e t o t ake p a r t , and t h e s e were not f u l f i l l e d . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s were a l s o a p r ime cause of f a i l u r e . At the t i m e the s e t t l e m e n t s were s t a r t e d i n 1964 the c o u n t r y was w o e f u l l y s h o r t o f s k i l l e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Many c o l o n i a l p e r s o n n e l had l e f t , and t h e e d u c a t i o n sys tem had not yet p roduced a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t r a i n e d manpower. Each of the s e t t l e m e n t s r e q u i r e d c a r e f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n and p l a n n i n g and a s t u t e h a n d l i n g of t he new s e t t l e r s . The peop l e q u a l i f i e d t o c a r r y out t h e s e r o l e s were not a v a i l a b l e . So , mismanagement combined w i t h d o u b t f u l r e c r u i t s and the l a c k of an i n s p i r i n g i d e o l o g y s p e l l e d f a i l u r e . I t wou ld be d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e wh i ch o f t h e s e f a c t o r s was the most c r u c i a l , but the argument c o u l d be made t h a t t h e i d e o l o g y wou ld not be needed i f t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t he s e t t l e r s were o f a h i g h c a l i b r e . T h i s wou ld o n l y be t r u e i f T a n z a n i a had t he r e s o u r c e s t o N e l 1 i s, The Journa1 o f Q e v e l o p i n g A r e a s , o p . c i t . , p. 4 7 9 . make the settlements a success with government inputs--with machinery, technical t r a i n i ng , f e r t i l i z e r s , e tc . The fact i s , however, these resources were not a va i l ab l e ; the se t t l e r s would have had to provide for themselves and, at least i n i t i a l l y , be prepared for very hard work and s a c r i -f i c e s . It i s probable that only an emotive ideology generating high morale and cooperative s p i r i t would have at t racted the people to par t i c ipa te in such a venture. In his f i r s t attempt to implement his socia l idea ls on a very comprehensive and spec i f i c level Nyerere had f a i l e d to provide the necessary socia l impetus and motivat ion which would give i t a chance of success. He did not give up, however, and by 1967 a new attempt was in the making. The Arusha Declarat ion The Arusha Dedara t i on i s by now a widely c i r cu l a ted and famous document. Its fame rests on the fact that i t was the f i r s t frank admission by a new nation that i t s develop-ment e f fo r t was f a i l i n g , and that a radica l re-appraisal had to be undertaken. It said in publ ic and o f f i c i a l l y what had been murmured in pr ivate for some time, and what i s now f a i r l y widely accepted as a r e a l i s t i c perspective on development:--that a id i s inadequate, r e s t r i c t i v e and sometimes damaging, and that s ign i f i can t improvement in a country 's wealth and standard of l i v i ng can only come about through the massive u t i l i z a t i o n of i t s bas ic human resources, as opposed t o r e l y i n g on c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e p r o j e c t s and a h i g h l e v e l of t e c h n o l o g i c a l s k i l l . For o u t s i d e o b s e r v e r s i t s main s i g n i f i c a n c e l a y i n i t s f r a n k a p p r a i s a l o f the r e a l i t i e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i d and f i n a n c e , but f o r Nye re re and T a n z a n i a i t was p r i m a r i l y an a d m i s s i o n t h a t t he s o c i a l i d e a l s o f the n a t i o n had not been r e a l i s e d i n t he past s i x y e a r s . The D e c l a r a t i o n was t he s t a r t o f a c o n c e r t e d a t tempt t o change t h i s s i t u a t i o n . Nye re re a d m i t t e d i n September , 19&7 t h a t economic deve lopment p l a n s p r i o r t o I 9 6 7 n a c * c o n c e n t r a t e d t o o much on h i g h l y c a p i t a l i z e d p r o j e c t s wh i ch b e n e f i t e d t o o few p e o p l e . The a t t e m p t s at i n c r e a s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i -v i t y had succeeded i n i n t r o d u c i n g c a s h - c r o p f a r m i n g : But i n t h e p r o c e s s the o l d t r a d i t i o n s o f l i v i n g t o g e t h e r , w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r , and s h a r i n g the p r o c e e d s , have o f t e n been abandoned. Farmers t end t o work as i n d i v i d u a l s i n c o m p e t i t i o n and not i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s .9 A number o f s u c c e s s f u l f a r m e r s had emerged whose h i r e d l a b o u r e r s d i d not r e c e i v e a f a i r sha re o f the p r o f i t s , but were p a i d minimum wages. The s p i r i t o f e q u a l i t y was b r o k e n , and a c l a s s sys tem was b e g i n n i n g t o emerge i n the r u r a l a r e a s . ^ ° Added t o t h i s was t he o l d p rob lem o f the u r b a n / r u r a l s p l i t . There was w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e o f the ^ N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , o p . c i t . , p. 342. 1 0 I b i d . , p. 343. c o l o n i a l norms o f s e l f i s h n e s s and i n d i v i d u a l advancement wh i ch was r e f l e c t e d i n the b e l i e f t h a t the good l i f e c o u l d o n l y be f ound i n wage employment i n the towns. ^ There was a r e a l danger o f t he n a t i o n b e i n g d i v i d e d d r a m a t i c a l l y between the c o u n t r y and the towns . The g r e a t e r p a r t o f the c a p i t a l used t o m o d e r n i z e t he towns came f rom o u t s i d e l oans wh i ch had t o be r e p a i d by c u r r e n c y o b t a i n e d th rough e x p o r t s , and t he v a s t b u l k o f the e x p o r t s were a g r i c u l t u r a l . "What does t h i s mean? I t means t h a t the p e o p l e who b e n e f i t d i r e c t l y f rom deve lopment wh i ch i s b rought about by borrowed 12 money a re not t he ones who w i l l repay the l o a n s . " In e f f e c t , the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n was b e i n g e x p l o i t e d i n f a v o u r o f the u r b a n . Most o f the w e a l t h o f the n a t i o n i s g e n e r a t e d i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s where 90 per c en t o f t he p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s , and t h a t i s where the e n e r g i e s and the r e s o u r c e s o f t he n a t i o n must be c o n c e n t r a t e d i f t h e r e i s t o be any adhe rence t o t he v a l u e s o f e q u a l i t y and j u s t i c e . The A rusha D e c l a r a t i on r e-emphas i zed t he s o c i a l v a l u e s o f h a r d work , g r a s s r o o t s democracy , absence o f e x p l o i t a t i o n , and s h a r i n g o f j o i n t p r o d u c t i o n . The r e a l i -z a t i o n o f t h e s e v a l u e s meant t h a t t he r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d no l o n g e r c o n t i n u e t o work f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i t , c r e a t i n g a s o c i a l sys tem o f m a s t e r s and s e r v a n t s r a t h e r than one based on e q u a l i t y . The t e r m i n o l o g y o f the D e c l a r a t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t . The ' p e o p l e ' were now r e f e r r e d t o as ' p e a s a n t s and w o r k e r s 1 - - i m p l y i n g t h a t no o t h e r t ype of i n d i v i d u a l was p o s s i b l e (or p e r m i s s a b l e ) i n T a n z a n i a . The most s t r i n g e n t and most s p e c i f i c p a r t o f t h e D e c l a r a t i o n was the s t r i c t a n a l y s i s o f the p l a c e o f w e a l t h i n s o c i e t y . I t no t ed t h a t the c r e a t i o n of w e a l t h i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o e r a d i c a t e p o v e r t y , i g n o r a n c e and d i s e a s e , and ensu re a decen t s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g f o r a l l . But the c r e a t i o n o f w e a l t h f o r i t s own s a k e , and t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c o n s u m e r - o r i e n t a t e d s o c i e t y t h a t d e v o t e s much o f i t s r e s o u r c e s t o n o n - d u r a b l e l u x u r y i t e m s , i s an app roach t h a t t o t a l l y c o n t r a d i c t s T a n z a n i a ' s s o c i a l i d e a 1 s - - a s w e l l as b e i n g e c o n o m i c a l l y r u i n o u s f o r a poor c o u n t r y . The A rusha D e d a r a t i on i s e s s e n t i a l l y a commitment t o the q u a l i t y o f l i f e . I t i s a commitment t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h i n g s i n l i f e than t h e amass ing o f r i c h e s , and t h a t i f t he p u r s u i t o f w e a l t h d a s h e s w i t h t h i n g s l i k e human d i g n i t y and s o c i a l e q u a l i t y , t hen the l a t t e r w i l l be g i v e n p r i o r i t y . 13 There i s much emphas i s p l a c e d on the p o i n t o f v i ew t h a t i t i s a myth t h a t money, or c a p i t a l , i s t h e e s s e n t i a 1 p r e r e q u i -s i t e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . The D e c l a r a t i o n c h a r g e d t h a t T a n z a n i a had been a f f e c t e d by a m a l a i s e brought about by t h e b e l i e f t h a t development p r o j e c t s c o u l d not be u n d e r t a k e n u n l e s s they were backed by v a s t amounts o f c a p i t a l . C a p i t a l had t o come from a b r o a d i n the form of l o a n s , and v e r y l i t t l e was a v a i l a b l e . N y e r e r e and the c o - a u t h o r s of the A r u s h a  D e c ! a r a t i o n r e a l i s e d that i t was f u t i l e t o r e l y on o u t s i d e a i d . T h e r e was not enough, and the c o n d i t i o n s i t was 14 o f f e r e d under u s u a l l y endangered T a n z a n i a ' s i n d e p e n d e n c e . T a n z a n i a p o s s e s s e d l i t t l e of i t s own c a p i t a l . The s o l u t i o n o f f e r e d was 1 S e l f - R e 1 i a n c e ' and mass m o b i l i z a t i o n of the p e o p l e t o b r i n g about improvement through t h e i r own p h y s i c a l l a b o u r and c o o p e r a t i o n . B r i d g e s , r o a d s , s c h o o l s , m e d i c a l c l i n i c s , w e l l s , c o u l d a l l be b u i l t w i t h v e r y small amounts o f c a p i t a l and much human p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Money, and t h e w e a l t h i t r e p r e s e n t s , can o n l y be the r e s u l t and not t h e b a s i s o f development e f f o r t s . ^ The D e c l a r a t i o n c o n t a i n e d a r i n g i n g c a l l t o a c t i o n on t h i s b a s i s . I n d u s t r i e s w i l l come and money w i l l come but t h e i r f o u n d a t i o n i s THE PEOPLE and t h e i r HARD WORK, e s p e c i a l l y i n AGRICULTURE. T h i s i s the meaning of s e l f - r e l i a n c e . Our emphasis s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be o n : a) The Land and A g r i c u l t u r e b) The P e o p l e c ) The P o l i c y o f S o c i a l i s m and S e l f - R e l i a n c e , and d ) Good Leader s h i p J ° I H I b i d . , p . 239-1 5 I b i d . , p . 243. 1 6 I b i d . , p . 246. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e a n a l y s i s and emot i ve r h e t o r i c , the D e c l a r a t i o n a l s o c o n t a i n e d p r o p o s a l s f o r e x t e n d i n g t h e p o l i c y o f s o c i a l i s m and s e l f - r e l i a n c e t o the towns and i n d u s t r i e s . I t was r e g a r d e d as e s s e n t i a l t h a t a l l t h e major means of p r o d u c t i o n and exchange be under t he c o n t r o l of p e a s a n t s and w o r k e r s , e i t h e r t h rough c o o p e r a t i v e s or the s t a t e . The A rusha D e c l a r a t i on i s not s o l e l y the work o f P r e s i d e n t N y e r e r e , but i s t h e amended r e s u l t o f a d r a f t t h a t he s u b m i t t e d t o the TANU N a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e Commi t tee . I t c a n , however , be r e g a r d e d as r e f l e c t i n g t h e major t r e n d s o f h i s thought a t t h a t t i m e . I t i s not r e a l l y a f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n o f h i s p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y examined i n t h e e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s o f t h i s p a p e r , but i s t he o p e r a t i o n a l b l u e p r i n t f o r p u t t i n g h i s i d e a s i n t o p r a c t i c e . I t r e f i n e s h i s p r e v i o u s i d e a s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t and s k e t c h e s out t he d i r e c t i o n s t h a t must be t a k e n i n o r d e r t o see them r e a l i z e d . Subsequent pamph le t s and speeches f i l l i n the d e t a i l s . 17 These i n c l u d e : " S o c i a l i s m i s not R a c i a l i s m " , ' " E d u c a t i o n 18 19 f o r S e l f - R e l i a n c e " , "The Purpose i s Man" , " S o c i a l i s m and 17 18 I b i d . , pp. 2 5 7 - 2 6 1 . I b i d . , pp . 2 6 7 - 2 9 0 . I b i d . , pp . 3 1 5 - 3 2 6 . Rural Development", and "Af ter the Arusha Dec la ra t ion" , a l l of which appeared in I967. Frameworks for the implemen-ta t ion of his idea ls are rea l l y the c ruc ia l parts of any p o l i t i c a l l eader ' s thought. Nyerere's pos i t ion as a p o l i t i c a l thinker rests heavi ly on the fact that he has produced a comprehensive set of d i rec t i ves of th i s nature. Further inves t iga t ion of h is thought would consist of an examination of the degree to which h is ideals are now being enacted in the day-to-day l i f e of Tanzania, but that i s outside the scope of th i s paper. As mentioned at the end of the last sec t ion , the real s ign i f i cance of Arusha was that i t attempted to r e c t i f y the omission of successful soc ia l impetuses which led to the f a i l u r e of the V i l l age Settlement Program. Nyerere i l l u s t r a t e d th is in a lecture to the Univers i ty-of Cairo in A p r i l , I967 en t i t l ed "The Varied Paths to Soc i a l i sm" . . . . i t i s not good enough just to deprive people of the incent ives of se l f i shness . Development requires that these should be replaced by e f fec t i ve soc ia l incent ives . While these do not ex i s t , or to the extent that they do not ex i s t , we have ser iously to consider whether, and how fa r , we can dispense with the incen-t i ves of pr ivate p ro f i t at that time.22 2 0 I b i d . , pp. 337-366. 2 1 I b i d . , pp. 389-409. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 307. State Control of The Means of Production Nyerere enunciates very c l e a r l y what he considers to be the s ign i f i cance of control over the means of production. The fact that a country wants to have control over i t s economy has got nothing to do with ideology; i t i s economic nat ional ism. So, ensuring that fore ign owned companies become loca l l y cont ro l l ed i s of l i t t l e ideo log ica l s i g n i f i -cance. "The real ideo log ica l choice i s between con t ro l l i ng the economy through domestic pr ivate enterpr ise or doing so 2 3 through some state or other co l l e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n . " J But in l ight of the fact that there is very l i t t l e pr ivate cap i ta l in A f r i c a , i t becomes necessary for the state to ac t . This in i t s e l f i s not soc ia l i sm, for even a f asc i s t state such as Nazi Germany could have control over s i g n i f i -cant parts of i t s industry . " I f people are not involved in publ ic ownership, and cannot control the po l i c i e s fol lowed, then publ ic ownership can lead to fasc ism, not soc i a l i sm. " Socia l ism requires that the rest of the state--i ts economic p o l i c i e s , i t s method of choosing i t s leaders, i t s governing norms--be designed to serve the people and ensure that they have the opportunity to af fect the control of the economy. Within two weeks of the Arusha Declarati on the government had announced i t s takeover of key sectors of the economy, and had c l e a r l y s p e l l e d out t he e x t e n t t o wh i ch government c o n t r o l wou ld be i n v o l v e d i n t he f u t u r e . T h i s l e f t p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s w i t h a d e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f where they wou ld be welcome i n p o s i t i o n s o f c o n t r o l or i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h the government . The A rusha D e c l a r a t i o n p l edged t h a t the p e o p l e ( i . e . t he s t a t e ) wou ld have c o n t r o l o f the l a n d , f o r e s t s , m i n e r a l s , o i l and e l e c t r i c i t y , news m e d i a , communi-c a t i o n s , b a n k s , i n s u r a n c e , impor t and e x p o r t t r a d e , w h o l e -s a l e t r a d e , i r o n and s t e e l , m a c h i n e - t o o l s , m o t o r - c a r s , cement , f e r t i l i z e r s , t e x t i l e s , l a r g e p l a n t a t i o n s , and any o t h e r l a r g e i n d u s t r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t i n g the economy, p l u s t h o s e p r o v i d i n g p a r t s f o r the above goods and s e r v i c e s . ' Some o f t h e s e were a l r e a d y c o n t r o l l e d by M i n i s t r i e s , the N a t i o n a l Development C o r p o r a t i o n , or c o o p e r a t i v e s . The n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n measures a f f e c t e d the b a n k s , i n s u r a n c e , f ood p r o c e s s i n g , w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , and i m p o r t / e x p o r t t r a d e ; and f i f t y or more per cent c o n t r o l o f the b r e w e r i e s , t o b a c c o compan i e s , shoe m a n u f a c t u r e r s , meta l d e a l e r s , cement , and 26 t he s i s a l i n d u s t r y . A l l of t h e s e were t o be p a i d f o r f r om f u t u r e p r o f i t s under te rms w h i c h were a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l t h e compan ies c o n c e r n e d excep t Ba ta Shoe--the o n l y Canad i an company a f f e c t e d . N a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s a common p o l i c y o f A f r i c a n governments t o d a y . I t i s o f t e n u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y n a t i o n a l i s t i c or even r a c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . P r i d e , as r e f l e c t e d i n r a c e or t he n a t i o n , can be a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s . I d e o l o g y , an example b e i n g A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m , i s somet imes used o n l y as t he o v e r t j u s t i f i c a t i o n of n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n measu re s . T a n z a n i a ' s n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s , I f e e l , a r e of a d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e . I t appea r s t h a t they a r e the l o g i c a l ou tg rowth o f N y e r e r e ' s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i d e a s . The n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s were n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o c a r r y out the s o c i a l i s t p o l i c i e s ag reed upon at A r u s h a . They may have s e r v e d t o s a t i s f y p u r e l y n a t i o n a l i s t i c f e e l i n g s , but t h a t was not t h e i r p r i m a r y p u r p o s e . G i v en the f a c t t h a t the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s were a s o c i a l i s t measure d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e new s o c i a l and economic g o a l s , i t may be e x p e c t e d t h a t t he a c q u i r e d e n t e r p r i s e s wou ld be o r g a n i z e d and run i n a manner c o n s i s -t e n t w i t h t he new p r i n c i p l e s . As f a r as I can t e l l , t h i s does not seem t o have happened t o any grea t e x t e n t . A t t e m p t s have been made t o keep p r i c e s down and sp read s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s t o a l l p a r t s o f the n a t i o n , but t he o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and management p r i n c i p l e s o f the e n t e r p r i s e s appear t o be unchanged . They a re r e q u i r e d t o o p e r a t e e f f i c i e n t l y and make p r o f i t s , t he o n l y d i f f e r e n c e now b e i n g t h a t a l l p r o f i t s a r e r e - i n v e s t e d r a t h e r than g o i n g i n t o the p o c k e t s o f a few f o r e i g n owners . The main p rob lem o f the s t a t e e n t e r p r i s e s appea r s t o be l a c k o f s k i l l e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Many e x p a t r i a t e w o r k e r s l e f t a t t he t ime o f n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , and a t t e m p t s a r e s t i l l b e i n g made t o a t t r a c t o t h e r f o r e i g n s k i l l e d p e r s o n n e l . T h i s i s not o n l y i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e d e p a r t u r e o f t he o l d w o r k e r s , but i s a l s o due t o t he f a c t t h a t t he s t a t e has expanded many of the a c t i v i t i e s o f the e n t e r p r i s e s - - s u c h as w h o l e s a l e d i s t r i b u -t i o n s e r v i c e s i n new a r e a s - - a s w e l l as e n l a r g i n g t he government b u r e a u c r a c y . I do not have the da t a t h a t wou ld i n d i c a t e t he c o m p a r a t i v e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the a f f e c t e d e n t e r p r i s e s b e f o r e and a f t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , but i t wou ld be s a f e t o assume t h a t t h e commitment t o a s o c i a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n p o l i c y has had a t l e a s t s h o r t - r u n c o s t s i n te rms o f p r o d u c t i v i t y . S e l f - R e l i ance ' S e l f - R e l i a n c e 1 was a te rm i n t r o d u c e d a t the t i m e of A r u s h a , and now o c c u p i e s a p rominen t p l a c e i n t he p o l i t i c a l v o c a b u l a r y o f t h e n a t i o n . I t i m p l i e s the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t he p o v e r t y o f the c o u n t r y , and the a c c e p t a n c e o f t he f a c t t h a t p r o g r e s s depends s o l e l y on t he c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t s o f t he p e o p l e . I t s h a t t e r e d t h e daydreams w h i c h saw l a r g e modern i n d u s t r i e s and mechan ized f a rms j u s t a round t he c o r n e r . The p e o p l e were now e x p e c t e d t o become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n such b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s as f o o d , s e r v i c e a b l e c l o t h e s , and hous-27 i n g . A g r i c u l t u r a l deve lopment was p l a c e d on a more r e a l i s t i c l e v e l i n t h a t f a r m e r s were e x p e c t e d t o p r o g r e s s f rom the hoe t o t he o x - p l o u g h b e f o r e assuming t he n e c e s s i t y f o r e x p e n s i v e t r a c t o r s , and b a s i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was t o r e l y 28 on o x e n - c a r t s b e f o r e e x p e c t i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r u c k s . I t - i s p r o b a b l e t h a t N y e r e r e was much i n f l u e n c e d toward t h e s e 29 i d e a s by the work and a d v i c e of Rene Dumont. The p o l i c y o f Se1f-Re 1 i ance was a l s o an a t t empt t o i m p r e s s upon the p e o p l e the f a c t t h a t they c o u l d not c o n t i n u e t o r e g a r d t he Government as t he i n i t i a t o r and r e s o u r c e s u p p l i e r f o r a 11 deve lopment p r o j e c t s . I t s i m p l y d i d not have enough r e s o u r c e s , and the r e a l burden o f the deve lopment e f f o r t must n e c e s s a r i l y f a l l on t h e r u r a l peop l e t h e m s e l v e s . For a communi ty , s e l f - r e l i a n c e means t h a t they w i l l use the r e s o u r c e s and the s k i l l s they j o i n t l y p o s s e s s f o r t h e i r own w e l f a r e and t h e i r own d e v e l o p m e n t . They w i l l not t a k e t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t the Government , or the L o c a l C o u n c i l , or anyone e l s e , must come and do t h i s or t h a t f o r them b e f o r e they can make any p r o g r e s s .30 2 7 I b i d . , p. 247 . 2 8 I b i d . , p. 3 1 8 . 2 9 $ e e e s p e c i a l l y h i s L ' A f r i q u e Noi r e e s t Ma 1 P a r t i e , ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1962 ). E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n by P. N. O t t , F a l s e S t a r t i n A f r i c a ( London : Andre D e u t s c h , 1966). 3 0 N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , op . c i t . , p. 3 9 0 . The concep t o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e r e p r e s e n t e d a shrewd change i n t he use t h a t was made of the mora l and s o c i a l p r i n c i p l e s o f Ujamaa. B e f o r e 19&7 they were u t i l i s e d as i d e a l s t h a t gave a sense o f i d e n t i t y and s e l f - r e s p e c t t o t he peop l e and j u s t i f i e d government p o l i c i e s . Now they were used t o j u s t i f y a demand f o r s a c r i f i c e and hard work on t h e p a r t of the r u r a l p e o p l e . I t i s he re t h a t one can see t he p r a c t i c a l me rg ing o f N y e r e r e ' s s o c i a l and economic t h o u g h t . The i d e o l o g y o f Ujamaa was t o be used as a m o b i l i z a t i o n t a c t i c t o a c h i e v e economic as wel 1 as s o c i a l g o a l s . I t wou ld be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e whether Nye re re p l a c e s a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y on a c h i e v i n g h i s s o c i a l i d e a l s or h i s economic g o a l s , and whether t h e s e two t a r g e t s ever come i n t o c o n f l i c t . He d i d o f c o u r s e s t a t e i n 1964 t h a t n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and t he economic t a r g e t s o f the F i v e Year P l a n were t o t a k e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y . B u t , a f t e r A r u s h a , i t seems more a p p r o p r i a t e t o c o n s i d e r N y e r e r e ' s i d e a l s and p l a n s i n t h e i r t o t a l i t y . The economic g o a l s have been wedded t o the s o c i a l i d e a l s , and the i n t e n t i o n appea r s t o be t h a t they w i l l be r e a l i z e d t o g e t h e r . Such a p l a n w i l l o b v i o u s l y a f f e c t the pace o f deve l opmen t . Economic t a r g e t s may be a c h i e v e d q u i c k e r i f s o c i a l i d e a l s o f e q u a l i t y and d i g n i t y a r e i g n o r e d , and the r e v e r s e may a l s o be t r u e , but i t i s l i k e l y t h a t Nye re re c o n s i d e r s t h a t s o c i a l i d e a l s cannot be r e a l i s e d w i t h o u t some s o r t o f economic deve lopment and t h a t economic deve lopment w i l l not be p o s s i b l e i n t h i s poor c o u n t r y u n l e s s t he peop l e a r e o r g a n i z e d a round the s o c i a l i d e a l s . The l i k e l y t h r e a t t o t h i s app roach i s t h a t one or o t h e r o f t h e s e components--most p r o b a b l y t he economic--wi11 t o o e a s i l y a c h i e v e undue p r o m i n e n c e , and thus p roduce i n c r e a s e d b e n e f i t s f o r a few and f r u s t r a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t he m a j o r i t y . W i th t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n m i n d , I w i l l now l ook a t t he second a t tempt t o o r g a n i z e the r u r a l commun i t i e s i n o r d e r t o r e a l i s e Ujamaa• The Ujamaa Vi 1 l a g e s The t h e o r e t i c a l i d e a o f the V i l l a g e S e t t l e m e n t Program was a good one . I t had f a i l e d because the imp lemen -t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s were i n a p p r o p r i a t e . The i d e a rema ined i n t a c t i n t he Ujamaa V i l l a g e s p l a n s . I t was t o r e c r e a t e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e s t y l e s and p r o d u c t i o n p a t t e r n s t h a t e x i s t e d b e f o r e c o l o n i a l i s m and combine t h e s e w i t h as many modern a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s as p o s s i b l e . The b a s i s o f T a n z a n i a n l i f e was i n t e n d e d t o be " . . . r u r a l economic and s o c i a l commun i t i e s where peop l e l i v e t o g e t h e r and work t o g e t h e r f o r 31 the good o f a l l . " The t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s wh i ch have been t h e c o n t i n u i n g f o u n d a t i o n o f N y e r e r e ' s thought--mutua1 r e s p e c t , s h a r i n g o f j o i n t p r o d u c t i o n , and work by a l l — t o g e t h e r w i t h a g r a s s r o o t s v i l l a g e democracy were t o be r e a l i s e d i n new v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t r u r a l T a n z a n i a . The n a t i o n w o u l d not base i t s f u t u r e and d e v e l o p -ment on i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n the u rban a r e a s and i n d i v i d u a l c a s h c r o p f a r m i n g i n the r u r a l a r e a s - - t h e r o u t e b e i n g t a k e n by many new n a t i o n s . The V i l l a g e S e t t l e m e n t s f a i l e d because t h e wrong i n c e n t i v e was o f f e r e d t o t h e p e o p l e i n o r d e r t o get them t o p a r t i c i p a t e - - t h a t o f m a t e r i a l r ewards—and because t h i s l e d t o i n c r e a s e d a t t i t u d e s o f dependency on t h e Government t o p roduce r e s u l t s . These prob lems were d e a l t w i t h i n t h e Ujamaa V i l l a g e s t h r o u g h t h e p o l i c y o f S e 1 f - R e l i a n c e and t h e e m o t i v e appea l o f t h e who le A r u s h a D e c ! a r a t i o n . Arusha was t h e new model of the o l d i d e o l o g y o f S o c i a l i s m . I t s e a r t h y l a n g u a g e , i t s o v e r w h e l m i n g c o n c e r n f o r t h e 9 0 per cen t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n who l i v e i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s , and i t s a t t a c k s on the e l i t e and u rban d w e l l e r s s e r v e d t o rouse t h e p e o p l e t o a new e f f o r t and d i r e c t t h e i r e n e r g i e s and e n t h u s i a s m t o w a r d b u i l d i n g t h e new r u r a l l i f e . The a c c e p t a n c e o f s e l f -r e l i a n c e p l a c e d e x p e c t a t i o n s upon t h e Government on a more r e a l i s t i c l e v e l . I t was made c l e a r a t the o u t s e t t h a t about a l l t h e Government c o u l d p r o v i d e w o u l d be a d v i c e and h e l p i n e s t a b l i s h i n g l i n k s f o r t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t communi-t i e s , but "Government a d v i c e and h e l p can o n l y be o f 32 m a r g i n a l i m p o r t a n c e . " I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s the s u c c e s s o f the Ujamaa V i l l a g e s a t t h i s s t a g e . About a l l t h a t can be s a i d i s t h a t t hey a r e s t i l l a c t i v e and e x p a n d i n g . The f i r s t ones were e s t a b l i s h e d i n Sep tember , 1 9 & 7 , and by m i d - 1 9 7 0 they numbered 1 , 2 0 0 i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f p r o g r e s s . I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n 1 9 6 9 / 7 0 the peop l e comp le t ed 1 9 , 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 s h i l l i n g s wor th o f s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s i n the fo rm o f s c h o o l s , 33 d i s p e n s a r i e s , b r i d g e s , w e l l s , r o a d s , e t c . The key q u e s t i o n i s , how l o n g w i l l the p e o p l e m a i n t a i n t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e new measures? W i l l they be s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s s l o w l y a c c u m u l a t i n g i n the Ujamaa V i l l a g e s w h i l e the u rban c e n t r e s c o n t i n u e t o •deve lop? And w i l l i t be n e c e s s a r y f o r T a n z a n i a t o u n d e r t a k e mass i v e r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( c u l t u r a l r e v o l u t i o n s ? ) on a r e g u l a r b a s i s i n o r d e r t o ensu re the p e o p l e ' s c o n t i n u e d adherence t o the n a t i o n ' s b a s i c s o c i a l p r i n c i p l e s ? The answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s l i e i n the f u t u r e . C o n c l u s i o n The economic and r u r a l deve lopment p h i l o s o p h y and p o l i c i e s adop ted by T a n z a n i a have many u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s when compared w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r new n a t i o n s . One of t he most no t ewo r thy f a c t o r s i s the u n i q u e b l e n d of i d e a l i s m and r e a l i s m . I d e a l i s m i s appa ren t i n a l l o f N y e r e r e ' s 33RIchard Juma, "Ujamaa i n P r a c t i c e , " A f r i can  Development (December, 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 2 1 . p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t s . R e a l i s m , l e s s o v e r t l y e v i d e n t , i s m a n i f e s t e d i n two ways . I t i s r e f l e c t e d i n N y e r e r e ' s c a u t i o u s e s t i m a t e s o f t he r a p i d i t y and degree of p o s s i b l e r e a l i z a t i o n o f the s o c i a l i s t i d e a l s , and i s appa ren t i n t he f r a n k a p p r a i s a l s o f T a n z a n i a ' s economic and s o c i a l r e a l i t y . For i n s t a n c e , t he e d i t o r o f a volume on the p o l i t i c a l thought o f Lumumba, Nkrumah, and Toure has commented " C o n c e r n i n g d o m e s t i c a f f a i r s , r e a l i t y i s f a l s i f i e d t o the e x t e n t t h a t d i v e r s i t y , p o v e r t y , i n e q u a l i t y and e x p l o i t a t i o n 34 a r e a t t r i b u t e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o the c o l o n i a l powers . . . " b e f o r e i ndependence and t o n e o - c o l o n i a l i n t r i g u e s a f t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e . W h i l e t h i s may be an e x a g g e r a t i o n , i t c o n t a i n s some e l e m e n t s o f t r u t h . N y e r e r e , i n c o n t r a s t , i s much more ready t o admit T a n z a n i a ' s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e s e p r o b l e m s , as was i n d i c a t e d i n t he A rusha D e c l a r a t i o n , and he r a r e l y m e n t i o n s c o l o n i a l i s m or n e o - c o l o n i a l i s m . A r r i g h i and Saul have a n a l y s e d the c o n c e p t i o n s o f A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o n t i n e n t and have c o n c l u d e d t h a t most t h i n k e r s do not have an adequate u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the economic p r o c e s s and t he emerg ing s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r a t i f i c a -35 t i o n between the u rban and r u r a l d w e l l e r s . They a l s o f e e l 34 W. A . E. S k u r n i k , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l  T h o u g h t : Lumumba, Nkrumah, and Toure (Denve r : U n i v e r s i t y of Denve r , 1968 ) , p. 10 . ^ G i o v a n n i A r r i g h i and John S a u l , " S o c i a l i s m and Economic Development i n T r o p i c a l A f r i c a , " Journa1 o f Modern  A f r i c a n S tud i e s . 6 :2 ( A u g u s t , 1968 ) , 1 5 8 . t h a t t he commitment t o s o c i a l i s m i s o f t e n me re l y v e r b a l , and the l a c k o f i d e o l o g i c a l c l a r i t y and r i g o u r o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n l i t t l e b e i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g 36 s o c i a l i s t i d e a l s . They s p e c i f i c a l l y c i t e Ghana, S e n e g a l , Kenya , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , Gu inea i n t h i s r e g a r d . They c o n c l u d e t h a t T a n z a n i a may be t h e one c o u n t r y where t h i n g s a r e d i f f e r e n t . T a n z a n i a i s , p e r h a p s , t h e c o u n t r y i n con tempora r y A f r i c a where s o c i a l i s t a s p i r a t i o n s f i g u r e most p r o m i -n e n t l y and i n t e r e s t i n g l y i n the deve lopment e q u a t i o n , and most p o w e r f u l l y a f f e c t t h e k i n d s o f p o l i c i e s w h i c h a r e b e i n g p u r s u e d . 3 7 They m e n t i o n e s p e c i a l l y N y e r e r e ' s s o p h i s t i c a t e d awareness o f t he r u r a l / u r b a n s p l i t , the danger o f r u r a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , and the n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g some c o e r c i v e measures t o ensu r e o o e l i t e c o m p l i a n c e . In r e g a r d s t o r e a l i s m , perhaps the most t e l l i n g comment was g i v e n by Nye re re h i m s e l f at t he U n i v e r -s i t y C o l l e g e , Dar Es Sa laam i n A u g u s t , 1 9 ^ 7 . The A rusha D e c l a r a t i o n i s a d e c l a r a t i o n o f i n t e n t : no more t han t h a t . . . . N e i t h e r on 5 t h F e b r u a r y , nor on any day s i n c e , has T a n z a n i a sudden l y become a s o c i a l i s t s t a t e , a s e l f - r e l i a n t s t a t e , or a d e v e l o p e d s t a t e . . . . The D e c l a r a t i o n i s the b e g i n n i n g , not t h e e n d , o f a v e r y l ong and p r o b a b l y e x t r e m e l y ha rd s t r u g g l e . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t we s h o u l d be v e r y c l e a r about t h e s e t h i n g s , f o r o t h e r w i s e we s h a l l f a i l t o r each t he goa l s t a t e d and s h a l l be l i a b l e t o do g rea t harm t o our n a t i o n . 3 9 3 6 i b i d . • 3 / I b i d . , p. 1 6 5 . 3 8 I b i d . , p. 1 6 6 . 39fv]yerere, Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , o p . c i t . , p. 3 1 5 -John N e l l i s a l s o a g r e e s t h a t r e a l i s m i s p r o m i n e n t l y d i s -p l a y e d i n t he A rusha D e c l a r a t i o n . R e c o g n i z i n g t h a t the Government c o u l d not f u l f i l t h e grand m a t e r i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s wh i ch a r o s e at i n d e p e n d e n c e : . . . t h e new p o l i c y ( A r u s h a ) a t t empted t o l a y the groundwork f o r a more v i a b l e and l e s s c o s t l y a l t e r n a t i v e . The new p o l i c y was t o be p a i d f o r not w i t h money, but w i t h b e l i e f . I d e o l o g y had become the c u r r e n c y o f T a n z a n i a n r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 4 0 T h i s i s a shrewd a n d , I f e e l , a c c u r a t e comment. But j u s t how w o r k a b l e i s i d e o l o g y as an impe tus f o r l a r g e - s c a l e deve lopment a c t i v i t i e s ? I t shou ld be p o s s i b l e f o r an i d e a or set o f b e l i e f s t o i n s p i r e a c t i v i t i e s . The p a r a l l e l has been made between A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m and t he P r o t e s t a n t E t h i c 41 i n s o f a r as they r e l a t e t o p r o d u c t i v e f u n c t i o n s . M a r x i s t i d e a s have c e r t a i n l y i n s p i r e d p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n t he S o v i e t Un ion and C h i n a . The p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h e r e f o r i d e o l o g y t o g e n e r a t e r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . Pe rhaps a more r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n i s : w i l l i d e o l o g y be a more s u c c e s s f u l impetus f o r deve lopment t h a n , s ay , m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e s i n t h e form of i n d i v i d u a l farms and cash m a r k e t s ? I t h i n k t he answer here i s s i m p l e . T a n z a n i a has no c h o i c e but t o t r y i d e o l o g y . The c o u n t r y does not have the r e s o u r c e s or the ko John R. N e l l i s , An Economi c Theory o f Deve lopmenta l  I d e o l o g y : The T a n z a n i a n Example , u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a -t i o n t S y r a c u s e ~ r j m v e r s i t ~ , i y 6 y ) , p. 246 . 41 See C h a r l e s F. A n d r a i n , "Democracy and S o c i a l i s m : I d e o l o g i e s o f A f r i c a n L e a d e r s , " I d e o l o g y and D i s c o n t e n t . D a v i d E. A p t e r , e d i t o r (New Y o r k : F r ee P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1964 ) , p. 1 7 2 . t r a i n e d manpower t o c r e a t e the n e c e s s a r y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and market i n f r a s t r u c t u r e ove r w ide a r e a s t h a t wou ld be n e c e s -s a r y t o make i n d i v i d u a l f a rms f e a s i b l e . I t c e r t a i n l y cannot a f f o r d t o f i n a n c e the pu r chase o f modern mach ine r y f o r numerous and w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l h o l d i n g s . S i g n i -f i c a n t improvements i n r u r a l l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s can p r o b a b l y o n l y be b rought about by c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t s . G i v e n t h i s f a c t , t h e r e a r e two a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n : c o e r c e the p e o p l e i n t o t a k i n g p a r t i n c o l l e c t i v e e n t e r p r i s e s t h rough l e g a l and p h y s i c a l means, or pe r suade them t o do so t h r o u g h an i d e o l o g y wh i ch p r o m i s e s t o b e t t e r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e l i f e - s t y l e s . Nye re re has r e j e c t e d the f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e t h r o u g h h i s s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y and i t s r e s p e c t for i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s , so i d e o l o g y - - t h e A rusha D e c l a r a t i o n and t he Ujamaa V i1 l a g e s - - s e e m s the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e l e f t o p e n . S u c c e s s f u l r u r a l deve lopment under t h e s e te rms w i l l depend p r i m a r i l y on the i d e o l o g y b e i n g a t t r a c t i v e enough t o i n d u c e the p e o p l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e . I t must s a t i s f y t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s f o r advancement as w e l l as a r o u s e t h e i r commitment t o a more remote and g e n e r a l goa l of n a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . I f f i g u r e s a r e any i n d i c a t i o n , i t appea r s t h a t t h i s s t age has been comp le t ed s u c c e s s f u l l y . The 1,200 v i l l a g e s e s t a b l i s h e d by mid-1970 shows some i n d i c a t i o n o f s u c c e s s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t measure o f s u c c e s s , o f c o u r s e , i s whether t he v i l l a g e s a c t u a l l y wo rk . I s a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y i n c r e a s i n g ? Are the p e o p l e s l o w l y e n j o y i n g more m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s i n t h e i r r u r a l s e t t i n g ? I do not have t he d a t a t o answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , but t h e r e i s one f a c t o r w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g wh i ch w i l l be a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e i n t he s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . That i s t h e o l d p rob lem o f s k i l l e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . Not o n l y must the p e o p l e who a d v i s e and a d m i n i s t e r t he v i l l a g e s be compe ten t , t hey must a l s o be h i g h l y c o m m i t t e d . I f t he a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e c o r r u p t , s e l f - s e r v i n g , o r j u s t p l a i n i ncompeten t the Ujamaa V i l l a g e s w i l l have l i t t l e chance o f s u c c e s s . I d e o l o g y i s not enough f o r deve l opmen t . I t can o n l y set t he g u i d e l i n e s and gene r a l p r i n c i p l e s . Every deve lopment p r o j e c t , no m a t t e r who or what i n s p i r e s i t , needs p l a n s , c a p i t a l , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and e x p e r t i s e . L i t t l e m e n t i o n i s made of t h e s e f a c t o r s i n the A r u s h a D e c l a r a t i on o r s u b s e -quent documents . I t i s p r o b a b l y t o o e a r l y t o t e l l i f r u r a l deve lopment i s r e a l l y t a k i n g p l a c e i n T a n z a n i a . I t i s my o p i n i o n t h a t t he t h e o r e t i c a l b l u e p r i n t p r o v i d e d i n the A rusha Dec l a r a t i on i s a good and r e a l i s t i c one , but s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s by no means a s s u r e d . The f a c t t h a t l i t t l e m e n t i o n i s made of t h e p r a c t i c a l p rob lems of day- to-day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l e a v e s one l e s s a b l e t o j udge i t s f u t u r e e f f e c t i v e n e s s . CONC LUSION T h i s s tudy has p r o v i d e d some answers t o t he q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n t he I n t r o d u c t i o n . The c o n s i s t e n c y o f N y e r e r e ' s i d e a s cannot be d o u b t e d . Over a p e r i o d o f t h i r t e e n years^ he has s t u c k t o a few b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h have p r o g r e s -s i v e l y been a p p l i e d t o numerous a s p e c t s o f T a n z a n i a n s o c i e t y . I t i s a l s o appa ren t t h a t he has been c o n c e r n e d w i t h both t h e o r y and a p p l i c a t i o n i n h i s t h i n k i n g . The body o f i d e a s e x p r e s s e d by N y e r e r e i s o n l y one o f many n a t i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s t h a t have emerged i n new n a t i o n s s i n c e t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e . A number o f g e n e r a l s t u d i e s o f emerg ing i d e o l o g i e s p r o v i d e a 2 good p i c t u r e of t h e i r common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The concep t o f i d e o l o g y seems t o be d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y by i t s f u n c t i o n . I t i s a body o f i d e a s e x p l a i n i n g t h e r e a l i t y o f a n a t i o n i n te rms u n d e r s t o o d by the p o p u l a c e and wh i ch c o n t a i n s a v i s i o n o f t he f u t u r e r e f l e c t i n g the a s p i r a t i o n s o f t he m a j o r i t y of the p e o p l e . I t i s i n t e n d e d t o m o b i l i z e and u n i t e t h e The s tudy e s s e n t i a l l y c o v e r s h i s thought f rom the f o r m a t i o n o f TANU i n 1954 t o t he end of 1967. 2 See e s p e c i a l l y a r t i c l e s by Dav id A p t e r and C l i f f o r d G e e r t z i n I d e o l o g y and D i s c o n t e n t , Dav id E. A p t e r , e d i t o r (New Y o r k : F ree P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1964); P au l S igmund, The  I d e o l o q i es o f t he D e v e l o p i ng Na t i ons (New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1963); A l i A . M a z u r i , Towards A Pax A f r i c a n a , A Study o f I d e o l o g y and A m b i t i o n ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of TJhicago PTess , 1966); and Mary M a t o s s i a n , " I d e o l o g i e s o f De layed I n d u s t r i a l -i z a t i o n : Some T e n s i o n s and A m b i g u i t i e s , " Economic Deve l o p -ment and C u l t u r a l Change, V o l . 6 ( A p r i 1 , 1958), pp . 217-228. c i t i z e n s i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s p r o g r a m s - - w h i c h a r e u s u a l l y p o r t r a y e d as b e i n g d e s i g n e d t o r e a l i s e the v i s i o n . The f u n c t i o n s most commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i d e o l o g y have been i d e n t i f i e d a s : ( 1 ) the p r o m o t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y and the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h e use o f power by t h e e l i t e , and (2 ) t h e 3 c r e a t i o n o f s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y and p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . N y e r e r e ' s i d e a s do seem d e s i g n e d t o f u l f i l the above two f u n c t i o n s . For one t h i n g he i s c e r t a i n l y aware o f t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the c o n s t a n t s t r u g g l e t o r emain i n power . I t a p p e a r s , however , t h a t t he main use o f the T a n z a n i a n i d e o l o g y i s t o m o b i l i z e the p e o p l e t o t a k e p a r t i n s o c i a l and economic development e f f o r t s . I d e o l o g y i n T a n z a n i a i s a t o o l o f the government , and has been chosen as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o what a r e c o n s i d e r e d more c o s t l y and l e s s u s e f u l methods . L a c k i n g t h e w e a l t h t o pu rchase and the p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s and menta l w i l l t o c o e r c e the d e s i r e d b e h a v i o u r frvom i t s c i t i z e n r y i t has t o r e l y on p e r s u a s i o n . I d e o l o g y can t h u s be seen as an i m p o r t a n t t o o l f o r t he p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r . I n some c a s e s i t may be the c r u c i a l e lement i n h o l d i n g the new n a t i o n t o g e t h e r , or i n p r e v e n t i n g p ro found d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among the p e o p l e . T h i s may e x p l a i n -'See D a v i d E . A p t e r , " I d e o l o g y and D i s c o n t e n t , " I d e o l o q y and P i s c o n t e n t (New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1964) , pp . 1 8 - 2 2 . why ideologies are so prevalent among developing countr ies ,^ and why the i r p o l i t i c a l leaders spend so much energy on creat ing frameworks of ideas within which the i r po l i c i e s are legi t i mi zed. In general , ideo logies do not seem to have been a great success in new nat ions. Even without examining the i r record as far as nat ion-bui ld ing e f f o r t s are concerned--!' n terms of creat ing national consciousness and commitment to development goals--one can see that many have f a i l e d just by the fact that they have not survived. For instance, two of the most widely-publ ic ized ideo log ica l experiments, in Nkrumah's Ghana and Sukarno's Indonesia, came to abrupt and rather ing lor ious ends. How, then, can we be op t im is t i c about Nyerere and Tanzania? While not suggesting that the Tanzanian ideology i s or w i l l be an unqua l i f i ed success in r e a l i z i n g i t s object ives , I fee l that th i s paper has Three of Tanzania 's neighbours have produced some sort of ideology. Kenya has made a half-hearted attempt with i t s Sessional Paper No. 10 on "A f r i can Soc ia l i sm" . Uganda, before Obote's overthrow, had recently started a "Move to the Left " and produced a Common Man1s Charter modelled af ter the Arusha Dec 1arat ion. Zambia under Kaunda has been working out i t s "Zambian Humanism" since 1967- In West A f r i c a there have been ideo log ica l creat ions in Ghana, Guinea, Ma l i , and Senegal. The fact that the ideo log ica l governments of Ghana, Ma l i , and Uganda have been overthrown and Guinea i s under severe pressure may ind icate that th is tool is not that success fu l . But I think that i t can be surmised that the leaders themselves perceived i t to be a useful tool when they were formulating the i r ideo log ies . d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e r e a re c e r t a i n e l emen t s i n the f o r m u l a t i o n and e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s i d e o l o g y t h a t may g i v e i t a b e t t e r chance o f s u c c e s s than mos t . F i r s t , i t i s a s i m p l e body o f i d e a s s i m p l y e x p r e s s e d . The c o r e o f the i d e o l o g y c o n t a i n s a few b a s i c mora l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h Nye re re has p u b l i c i z e d i n a manner t h a t makes them e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d by the ave rage T a n z a n i a n . Second , l e a d e r s h i p v a l u e s and b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s have been d e v i s e d wh i ch s h o u l d a v o i d the wors t e x c e s s e s o f e l i t i s m , and t h e r e b y m a i n t a i n the p e o p l e ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n t he l e a d e r s h i p . F i n a l l y , t he i d e o l o g y c o n t a i n s a r e a l i s t i c assessment o f the p r e s e n t economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f T a n z a n i a and d e m o n s t r a t e s a c a u -t i o u s a t t i t u d e toward e x p e c t a t i o n s of q u i c k and easy s u c c e s s . T h i s paper has examined t he uses t o wh ich N y e r e r e has put h i s i d e a s as w e l l as the i d e a s t h e m s e l v e s . I f e e l t h a t N y e r e r e has d e m o n s t r a t e d t ha t he i s s i n c e r e l y commi t t ed t o t he b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s he a d v o c a t e s w h i l e a t the same t ime he r e a l i s e s t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s i n m o b i l i z i n g h i s p e o p l e . I have sugges t ed t h a t t he p o v e r t y o f the c o u n t r y combined w i t h t h e l e a d e r s h i p ' s commitment t o r e s p e c t f o r i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t s has l e f t i d e o l o g y as t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m o b i l i -z i n g the p e o p l e t o a c h i e v e t he n a t i o n a l g o a l s . The p r i m a r -i l y e x h o r t a t i v e n a t u r e o f the T a n z a n i a n i d e o l o g y does not d i s t i n g u i s h i t f rom o t h e r n a t i o n a l i d e o l o g i e s . What does d i s t i n g u i s h i t , and what makes i t i n t e r e s t i n g t o s t u d y , i s i t s comprehens i ve n a t u r e and the c o n s i s t e n c y and d e t e r m i n a -t i o n w i t h w h i c h i t i s b e i n g made t o work . I t c o n t a i n s f a r more than the ba re bones o f a j u s t i f y i n g i d e o l o g y t h a t does l i t t l e more than l e g i t i m i z e government a c t i o n s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t he b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f mutua l r e s p e c t , s h a r i n g , and work by a 11 a r e r i g o u r o u s l y pu r sued i n a l l a r e a s o f n a t i o n a l l i f e . A n o t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r i s t h a t the T a n z a n i a n i d e o l o g i c a l expe r imen t has by and l a r g e remained t r u e t o i t s o r i g i n a l i d e a l s . One measure o f the s u c c e s s o f an i d e o l o g y i s the degree t o wh ich the p e o p l e w i l l w i l l i n g l y work f o r i t . Once p h y s i c a l c o e r c i o n becomes n e c e s s a r y t o e n f o r c e the g o a l s o f t h e i d e o l o g y i t has f a i l e d i n one o f i t s p r i m a r y p u r p o s e s — t h a t o f m o b i l i z i n g the peop l e — and i t can then do l i t t l e more than t e n u o u s l y j u s t i f y government a c t i o n s . I t i s c e r t a i n l y t o o e a r l y t o say whether o r not N y e r e r e ' s i d e a s have been w i d e l y a c c e p t e d i n T a n z a n i a , " * but i t i s p l a i n t ha t the e lement o f c o m p u l s i o n has not yet been i n t r o d u c e d . The most i n t e r e s t i n g s u b j e c t i n t h i s s tudy i s the p e r s o n o f Nye re r e h i m s e l f . H i s p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s make him a u n i q u e p o l i t i c i a n . He combines shrewd p o l i t i c a l s k i l l w i t h a p h i l o s o p h i c m i n d . H i s w r i t i n g s and speeches d e m o n s t r a t e ^One s t u d y , comp le t ed j u s t b e f o r e t h e A rusha D e c ! a r a -t i o n . found t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e . See Henry B i e n e n , Tanzan i a : P a r t y T r a n s f o r m a t i on and Econo-mic Development ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967 ) . a h i g h degree o f i n t e l l e c t u a l p r e c i s i o n and c r e a t i v i t y . In an academic env i ronment he wou ld no doubt be a g r e a t s u c c e s s as a t h e o r e t i c a l t h i n k e r . In the p o l i t i c a l a r ena he cannot a f f o r d the l u x u r y o f pure s p e c u l a t i o n . What he p roposes has t o wo rk , and he has shown t h a t he can combine t h e o r e t i c a l t h i n k i n g w i t h p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . Nye re r e f i l l s two r o l e s as a s t a t esman and a t h i n k e r , and seeks t o a p p l y h i s own i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n c e p t s t o the a r t o f g o v e r n i n g and the deve lopment o f h i s n a t i o n . I t i s unusua l t o f i n d a p o l i t i -c i a n who i s a l s o a c r e a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l t h i n k e r . More uncommon s t i l l i s t o f i n d an i n t e l l e c t u a l p o l i t i c i a n who i s h a v i n g some s u c c e s s i n i m p l e m e n t i n g h i s c r e a t i v e i d e a s on a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l . One can look a t a man l i k e L e o p o l d Senghor o f Senegal and acknowledge h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l a c h i e v e -men t s , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how they have a f f e c t e d h i s a c t i o n s as a p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r . The r e s u l t s o f N y e r e r e ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t s , however , c an be seen i n numerous a s p e c t s o f T a n z a n i a n s o c i e t y t o d a y . He a l s o p o s s e s s e s g rea t l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y wh i ch has e n a b l e d him t o sp read h i s i d e a s among the p o p u l a c e and m a i n t a i n h i s p re-eminent p o s i t i o n among h i s f e l l o w p o l i t i c i a n s . N y e r e r e ' s s k i l l i n communi -c a t i n g w i t h the p e o p l e t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s own u n o s t e n t a t i o u s l i f e - s t y l e and p e r s o n a l h u m i l i t y have made him a p o p u l a r l e a d e r , and the c h a r i s m a t i c h o l d he has on the p e o p l e h e l p s t o e n s u r e t h a t t he r e s t of the p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p f o l l o w h i s d i r e c t i o n . I have i n d i c a t e d , however , t h a t he may be r e l y i n g t o o much on h i s p e r s o n a l appea l t o h i s f e l l o w p o l i t i c i a n s and not enough on c o e r c i v e measures d e s i g n e d t o ensu re t h e i r c o m p l i a n c e . H i s h u m i l i t y i s a l s o appa ren t i n h i s p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t , but a t t he same t ime t he scope of h i s t hough t i s v e r y a m b i t i o u s . Wh i l e p o s s e s s i n g g rea t i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y he has not i n d u l g e d i n i n t e l l e c t u a l p o s t u r i n g on t h e w o r l d scene as o t h e r A f r i c a n l e a d e r s have done , the most n o t a b l e example b e i n g Nkrumah. He has a l s o been v e r y c a r e f u l i n a s s e s s i n g the chances o f s u c c e s s t h a t h i s i d e a s w i l l have i n b e i n g r e a l i s e d . He does not expec t t o change T a n z a n i a o v e r n i g h t . On t he o t h e r hand , t h e changes t h a t he e n v i s a g e s a r e a m b i t i o u s t o t he e x t r e m e . He i s a s k i n g h i s count rymen t o change many of t h e i r h a b i t s and l i v e by a set o f e s s e n t i a l l y mora l p r i n c i p l e s . He i s i n e f f e c t t r y i n g t o b u i l d a j u s t , e q u a l , and p r o s p e r o u s s o c i e t y by a s k i n g T a n z a n i a n s t o be new and b e t t e r men. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY A . WRITINGS AND SPEECHES OF JULIUS K. NYERERE N y e r e r e , J u l i u s K. A rusha P e e l a r a t i on - Answers t o Ques -t i o n s . Dar es S a l a am : Government P r i n t e r , 19&7. . E s s a y s on S o c i a l i sm. Dar es Sa laam, Ox fo rd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ' 1 9 6 8 . . " F reedom and D e v e l o p m e n t . " Paper d e l i v e r e d t o the N a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e Committee o f TANU. Dar es S a l a a m : September , 1 9 6 8 . Mimeograph from T a n z a n i a H igh Commis-s i o n , O t tawa . . Freedom and S o c i a 1 i s m . Dar es Sa l aam: Ox fo rd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 . . Freedom and Uni t y . Dar es Sa l aam: Ox fo rd U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 . . "Our Economy 1 9 6 5 - 6 7 , 1 1 Speech t o t h e N a t i o n a 1 A s s e m b l y , June JJ5, 1 9 6 6 . Dar es S a l a am : Government P r i n t e r , 1966 . . The P r e s i dent E x p l a i ns t he A r u s h a D e c l a r a t i o n . Dar es S a l a a m : M i n i s t r y o f I n f o r m a t i o n , 1967-. S t a b i 1 i t y and Change i n A f r j c a . A d d r e s s at the U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , October"] I 9 6 9 . B. TANZANIA GOVERNMENT AND TANU PAMPHLETS K l e r r u u , W. A . One P a r t y System of Government . Dar es Sa l aam: T a n g a n y i k a A f r i c a n N a t i o n a l U n i o n , 1964 . Notes on t he C o - o p e r a t i ve Movement i n Tanzan i a . Dar es Sa l aam: M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Food and C o - o p e r a t i v e s 1 9 6 9 . The P e o p l e ' s P l a n f o r P r o g r e s s . Dar es S a l a am: M i n i s t r y o f Economic A f f a i r s and Development P l a n n i n g , 1969• C. BOOKS A p t e r , D a v i d E. ( e d . ) . I d e o l o g y and D i s c o n t e n t . New Y o r k : F r ee P r e s s o f G l encoe ] 1964. B i e n e n , H e n r y . T a n z a n i a : P a r t y T r a n s f o r m a t i o n and Economic  Deve 1 opment. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. B u r k e , F r ed G. and S t a n l e y Diamond ( e d s . ) . The T r a n s f o r m a -t i on o f East A f r i c a : S t u d i e s i n P o l i t i ca1 A n t h r o p o l o g y . New Y o r k : B a s i c Books'] 1 9 6 6 . C l i f f e , L i o n e l ( e d . ) . One P a r t y Democracy : The 1965 Tanzan i an Genera 1 E l e c t i o n s . 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