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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An examination of selected aspects of julius nyerere's political thought Hawkesworth, Nigel Ross 1971

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AN EXAMINATION OF SELECTED ASPECTS OF JULIUS NYERERE'S POLITICAL THOUGHT by N i g e l Ross Hawkesworth B.A.,  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  A T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l  1966  F u l f i l m e n t of  the Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of A r t s  i n the Department of Political  Science  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1971  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  in partial  advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  the  Library  I further for  shall  agree  scholarly  make i t f r e e l y that permission  p u r p o s e s may  by  h i s representatives.  of  this  written  of B r i t i s h  available  shall  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  20 A p r i l  T  1Q71  Seienco  Columbia  that  that  study. thesis  Department o r  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  permission.  Political  I agree  copying o f t h i s  by t h e Head o f my  I t i s understood gain  Columbia,  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  f o r extensive  be g r a n t e d  thesis f o r financial  Department o f  Date  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  my  The p o l i t i c a l  thought of President  J u l i u s Nyerere of  Tanzania i s examined i n three main c o n t e x t s : and s o c i e t y ,  l e a d e r s h i p , and economic and r u r a l  His p u b l i s h e d w r i t i n g s  are a l s o c o n s u l t e d . thought  It  development.  Tanzania Government  publications  i s seen that much of N y e r e r e ' s  r e s t s on v a l u e s and behaviour  inherent i n A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n a l  society.  C o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t s at  socio-  patterns  Leadership  r e g u l a t i o n s have been devised t o check e l i t i s t and behaviour.  individual  and speeches are the main sources of  i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i l e relevant  political  the  rural  attitudes  development  are  considered to be the only r e a l i s t i c way t o induce  socio-  economic development throughout the whole c o u n t r y .  It  is  found that Nyerere has developed a c o n s i s t e n t and comprehensive body of ideas which deal with numerous aspects of the development of h i s n a t i o n .  His thought i s used as an  emotive i d e o l o g y i n order to m o b i l i z e the people of Tanzania to develop t h e i r  country both s o c i a l l y and economically  through co-operative  l i v i n g and work h a b i t s .  Various  problems i n regard t o the implementation of N y e r e r e ' s  ideas  are c o n s i d e r e d ; the most notable being h i s r e l u c t a n c e  to  take strong c o e r c i v e measures to ensure that h i s p o l i t i c i a n s remain t r u e t o the s p i r i t ideology.  fellow  of the Tanzanian  INTRODUCTION I.  1  TANZANIA AND NYERERE The P h y s i c a l  Setting  Pre-Independence  II.  5 5  History  6  J u l i u s K. N y e r e r e  11  Independent  13  Tanzania  GENERAL OUTLINE OF NYERERE S THOUGHT  19  1  S t y l e of P r e s e n t a t i o n  20  E v o l u t i o n of Ideas  21  L i m i t s of H i s Thought  22  Socialism  23  Tanzanian S o c i a l i s m  26  C o m p e t i n g P r i n c i p l e s and Long-Term O u t l o o k . .  29  Success  30  So F a r  Summary III.  31  THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY  33  Values of T r a d i t i o n a l S o c i e t y C o n c l u s i o n - - T r a n s f e r e n c e of values Social  33 traditional  t o a modern p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m  . . .  Perspectives  C o n c l u s i o n — T h e key v a l u e o f e q u a l i t y R e s p o n s i v e Government  41 46  . . .  59 61  IV. V.  LEADERSHIP  71  ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT  91  A c t i o n s From I n d e p e n d e n c e t o 19&7  92  The V i l l a g e S e t t l e m e n t  96  Program  The A r u s h a D e c l a r a t i o n  100  S t a t e C o n t r o l o f The Means o f P r o d u c t i o n . . .  107  Self-Reliance  110  The Ujamaa V i l l a g e s  113  C o n d u s i on  115  CONCLUSION  121  BIBLIOGRAPHY  128  Julius republic  of  in  for  power  public  Nyerere,  Tanzania, ten  governing. vision at  great  man. in  of  of  ize  this  also  a very  have  has  gone  enamourment  He has  and a t e a c h e r the  country  task  been  and spoken  so f a r  as  about  interest  of to  a  personable  a strong part  who  of  towards  c h a r m i n g and  created  African  t o command m a s s i v e  t o T a n z a n i a on t h e  One o b s e r v e r  intellectual  appears  lead h i s  East  individual.  p r i n c i p l e s to  to  factors  and e v e n commitment  Africanists.  the  w h i c h he has w r i t t e n  He i s  these  of  an i n t e l l e c t u a l  trying  length.  All  an u n u s u a l  b a s i c moral  future  President  and s t i l l  He i s  He i s the  is  years  support.^  seeks to apply  the  Western character-  as  an a f f l i c t i o n  called  rather unusual  s i t u a t i o n for  a  2 "Tanzaphi1ia". politician  This  makes one i n t e r e s t e d  in investigating  what  it  ' I n 1 9 6 2 , I 9 6 5 and 1 9 7 0 he was e l e c t e d P r e s i d e n t w i t h an a v e r a g e o f 9 ° per c e n t o f t h e v o t e e a c h t i m e . In 1962 he was o p p o s e d by a n o t h e r c a n d i d a t e , but under t h e o n e - p a r t y s t a t e mechanism i n t r o d u c e d i n 19°5 he was t h e o n l y c a n d i d a t e i n t h e l a s t two e l e c t i o n s , t h e v o t e r s b e i n g a s k e d t o v o t e ' y e s ' or ' n o ' f o r h i m . Such an a r r a n g e m e n t does not p r o v i d e c o n c l u s i v e p r o o f o f h i s p o p u l a r i t y , but see L i o n e l C l i f f e ( e d . ), One P a r t y D e m o c r a c y : The 1965 Tanzahia General E l e c t i ons ( N a i r o b i : E a s t A f r i c a n P u b l i s h i ng H o u s e , f967) f o r an a n a l y s i s o f h i s p o p u l a r i t y i n b o t h t h e r u r a l and urban a r e a s . "The P r e s i d e n t i s i n f a c t e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y p o p u l a r ; h i s w i d e l y acknowledged p e r s o n a l legitimacy r e i n f o r c e s the l e g i t i m a c y of the whole r e g i m e . " P. 331.  (July,  See All* M a z r u i , " T a n z a p h i 1 i a , " T r a n s i t i o n , p p . 20-26.  1967),  No.  31  is  that  Nyerere  c e n t r e of  h a s c r e a t e d w h i c h makes h i s c o u n t r y  interest.  It  appears that  much o f what  i n T a n z a n i a t a k e s p l a c e as a r e s u l t  of  initiative.  i s an a t t e m p t  his at  This paper,  i d e a s and i d e n t i f y his political  therefore,  Nyerere's  t h e i r main components.  thought  and ( 3 )  e c o n o m i c and r u r a l The s t u d y w i l l  his writings w i l l unity, Thus,  transpires ideas to  and  look  I will  i n t h r e e main c o n t e x t s :  r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y ,  such a  (2)  look  (1)  the  leadership,  development.  be s e l e c t i v e  i n that  not be exami n e d - - t h a t  l i b e r a t i o n s t r u g g l e s , and o t h e r  one l a r g e p a r t  concerning  the i n t e r n a l  n a t u r e and d e v e l o p m e n t  thought w i l l  not  of Tanzania.  affairs.  concerning His  be a n a l y s e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a c o m p a r i s o n  w i t h the thought of other  leaders,  although references  will  be made t o some s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n h i m s e l f other A f r i c a n r u l e r s .  Nor w i l l  the development  Rather,  study w i l l  and e m p h a s i s , and e x a m i n e t h e  ideas i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r try  the  t o see w h i c h i d e a s  function.  reflect  and  the  thinking,  of h i s thought through t i m e , note  changes i n content  shall  be c o n c e r n e d w i t h  i n f l u e n c i n g change i n h i s thought w i l l  mentioned from time t o t i m e .  of h i s  it  and p e r s o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f h i s  although factors  of  African  international  t h e f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y w i 1 1 be on h i s i d e a s  environmental  at  That  be  outline  the consistency is,  I  a profound value  commitment i n r e g a r d s t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new s o c i e t y  and  whether  these are m o d i f i e d or m a i n t a i n e d through t i m e ,  w h i c h o n e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e more i m m e d i a t e n e e d s - - s u c h as t h e c r e a t i o n o f p o p u l a r political  authority  and  political  support f o r  the  or t h e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e  in  o r d e r t o i m p l e m e n t c e r t a i n g o a l s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e  value  commitments.  ideas  will  Also,  the  l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y of h i s  be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n o r d e r t o see how c o m p r e h e n s i v e  how f e a s i b l e  t h e y may be i n r e g a r d s t o t h e i r  implementation. Political  thought  t h e o r y and i d e a l s t h a t d et r e w i t h i n w h i c h 1  towards the f u t u r e .  practical  that level.  leaders d i f f e r s  or i d e o l o g y  i n t h e modern A f r i c a n  on two l e v e l s .  One i s  the  s e e k t o c r e a t e a p h i l o s o p h i c a l r a i son  t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e n a t i o n work The o t h e r  i s the set of  functional  a r e d e s i g n e d t o i m p l e m e n t t h e i d e a l s on a The t h e o r e t i c a l  thought of v a r i o u s  i n the degree of i t s r i g i d i t y .  a p p e a r s t o be w i d e d i f f e r e n c e s theoretical  practical  3  c o n t e x t c a n be s e e n t o e x i s t  directives  and  There  i n the degree t o which  work i s f o l l o w e d by c o n s i s t e n t and  African also the  practical  3 ' P o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t ' and ' i d e o l o g y ' a r e o b v i o u s l y not synonymous. I n t h i s s t u d y I s h a l l u s e t h e word ' t h o u g h t ' i n r e f e r e n c e t o N y e r e r e ' s own i d e a s . 'Ideology' w i l l refer to t h e t o t a l f r a m e w o r k o f i d e a s a d o p t e d by t h e T a n z a n i a n Government and u s e d a s t h e b a s i s f o r p o l i c y . It i s o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s a s s o c i a t e N y e r e r e ' s i d e a s from the content o f t h e T a n z a n i a n i d e o l o g y , but t h e - d i s t i n e t i o n s h o u l d be made b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s t h o u g h t and t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i c y r e s u l t i n g f r o m i t and o t h e r i n p u t s .  applications.  These f a c t o r s  partly  account  f o r the  or f a i l u r e of the i n d i v i d u a l  politician.  shall  f i t s into this picture.  is  try  t o see how N y e r e r e  the core of h i s p o l i t i c a l thought?  b o t h t h e o r y and a p p l i c a t i o n ? time?  What i s  the nature of  In t h i s  success  Does he d e a l  study  What with  Has t h e e m p h a s i s c h a n g e d the t h e o r y ;  a general  t i o n o f h i s t o r y and t h e n a t u r e o f man, or a more concern with i s s u e s r e l a t e d to  I  over  explana-  particular  Tanzania?  Nkrumah, f o r i n s t a n c e , e n u n c i a t e d a f a i r l y r i g i d t h e o r y o f h i s t o r y and s o c i e t y and d i d not t a k e many p r a c t i c a l s t e p s t o have i t i m p l e m e n t e d .  CHAPTER  I  TANZANIA AND NYERER'E The P h y s i c a l  Setting  Tanzania,  the former B r i t i s h c o l o n y of  joined with Zanzibar, i s a moderately population larger It  is  the  the north  sized republic with a  t h a n t h o s e o f most o t h e r A f r i c a n  strategically  I n d i a n Ocean.  Tanganyika  s i t u a t e d i n E a s t A f r i c a on t h e Its  western  states. shores  border t o u c h e s the Congo.  l i e Kenya and U g a n d a , and i n t h e  of To  south Tanzania  s h a r e s a border w i t h the Portuguese c o l o n y of Mozambique. Z a m b i a and Malawi  i n the  southwest  a l s o border T a n z a n i a .  I965 t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f T a n z a n i a was composed o f Africans, The  as t r a d e r s , dence i n  three civil  s e r v a n t s and b u s i n e s s m e n .  The 1957  estimated that  language.  about  lingua franca.  The  s i n c e t h e n , and In  1964  it  was  about t h r e e m i l l i o n people were of Muslim  f a i t h and 2,500,000 were C h r i s t i a n . c o n s t i t u t e d 58 per c e n t hundred twenty  the  has i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y  I967 i t was made t h e o f f i c i a l  has  c e n s u s showed t h a t  the p o p u l a t i o n spoke S w a h i l i ,  areas  Since indepen-  I96I t h e number o f A s i a n s and E u r o p e a n s  use o f S w a h i l i  Europeans.  groups were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the urban  decreased moderately. half  10,500,000  100,000 A s i a n s , 2 0 , 0 0 0 A r a b s and 2 1 , 0 0 0  latter  T h e s e two g r o u p s  of the p o p u l a t i o n .  t r i b e s in Tanzania.  In  There are  None o f them a r e  one  in  dominant i n s i z e ,  the ten  largest  having roughly  equal  m e m b e r s h i p o f 250,000 t o 300,000. Tanzania  is  severely  a fact  r e f l e c t e d i n t h e per  eighty  dollars in  agricultural, sisal. that  1968.  lacking i n natural  capita gross national  Well over  half  i n the  cash f a r m i n g . watered  rural  Ninety  a r e a s engaged i n  Only about  o n e - f i f t h of  enough t o p r o d u c e c o n s i s t e n t cent  per c e n t  agricultural  the p o p u l a t i o n l i v e  These a r e  s c a t t e r e d around the p e r i p h e r y of the  combined w i t h  some r o u g h t e r r a i n ,  overall real First  1969-197^ t h e  g r o w t h r a t e o f 6.5  terms a f t e r F i v e Year  growth r a t e ,  per c e n t ,  allowing for Plan  government  Tanzania^  the  well  surpluses, areas.  country, center. h a v e made  In t h e  Second  i s a i m i n g at  an  w h i c h i s 4 per c e n t  the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e .  1964-1969 a l s o s e t  b u t a c h i e v e d one o f 2.5  Pre-Independence  is  i n those  i n the  c o m m u n i c a t i o n r o u t e s c o s t l y and d i f f i c u l t . F i v e Year P l a n o f  of  s u b s i s t e n c e or  80 per  These f a c t o r s ,  are  resource  the country  populated semi-desert  a 4 per c e n t  per  of  c o t t o n and  and a b o u t  leaving a sparsely  of  product  exports  the only mineral  has been f o u n d and e x p l o i t e d . live  of i t s  the main products being c o f f e e ,  Diamonds a r e v i r t u a l l y  people  resources,  in The  real  cent.  History b e f o r e the advent  i n c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l and  o f c o l o n i a l i s m was  linguistic diversity.  rich  A t no t i m e  V p r i o r t o t h e u n i o n w i t h Z a n z i b a r i n 1964 T a n z a n i a  was named T a n g a n y i k a , but t h r o u g h o u t the p a p e r .  I  s h a l l u s e the  name T a n z a n i a  was t h e r e a s i n g l e p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y part  c o v e r i n g even a  o f what i s now t h e m a i n l a n d o f T a n z a n i a .  who e v e n t u a l l y  s e t t l e d i n the area  west  ( f r o m t h e Congo) and t h e  what  i s now S o u t h A f r i c a ) .  the country Khosian-, The r e s t  is  t h e most  ( f r o m as f a r  away  the n o r t h - c e n t r a l  l i n g u i s t i c a l l y diverse,  s p e a k s one or o t h e r  the  as  part  of  with  C u s h i t i c - , N i l o t i c - , and B a n t u - s p e a k i n g of the country  people  came f r o m t h e n o r t h ,  south  Today  The  large  peoples.  of the  one  2 h u n d r e d or  so B a n t u d i a l e c t s .  language of origin,  the c o u n t r y ,  The p r e s e n t  Swahili,  is essentially  d i a l e c t s of the  s t a r t e d t o become a l i n g u a f r a n c a i n t h e  A r a b s began t o p e n e t r a t e  the i n t e r i o r  spoken w i d e l y  East A f r i c a .  throughout  Previous early  of  Bantu  but h a s been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by A r a b i c and  i n c o r p o r a t e s elements of other It  official  to the  slave  1 8 0 0 ' s when t h e  in force,  the expanding A r a b s . relatively world.  First  traders.  was  the impact  The i n t e r i o r  stable until  it  and i s now  t r a d e and A r a b c a r a v a n s  1 8 0 0 ' s , t h e r e w e r e a number o f c o a s t a l  r o s e and t h e n f e 1 1 u n d e r  interior.  of  the  kingdoms w h i c h  of the Portuguese of the c o u n t r y  and  was  came i n c o n t a c t  with the  outside  the d i s r u p t i v e impact of  the Arab  slave  T h e n , waves o f m i l i t a r y t r i b e s  swept up f r o m  the  l. N. Kimambo and A . J . Temu ( e d s . ) , A H i s t o r y o f T a n z a n i a ( N a i r o b i : East A f r i c a n P u b l i s h i n g House" 1969), p. 1 2 . A  south a f t e r  the breakup of  wars w i t h the B r i t i s h  t h e Ngoni  and t h e  The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  parts  of  change d u r i n g t h i s to military  was m a r k e d by t h e  kingdoms i n the  the c o u n t r y .  The n a t u r e  time c o n s i s t e d of a s h i f t  power a s t h e b a s i s o f  the a r r i v a l  of  the death of  t h e Germans  and i n many c a s e s j u s t  in  their  to  I898,  and  and  them  after power,  pan-tribal  oppressive.  i n many p a r t s  and t h e r e was t h e  toward A f r i c a n independence,  large-scale  Maji  and i s  of the  war o f  country  uprising  in  1905-1907-  s i g n i f i c a n t move  r e v e r e d among  s t r u g g l e on a c o h e r e n t  Tanzanians  basis  against  oppression.  In British  Few o f  declined in  T h i s u p r i s i n g i s now r e g a r d e d a s t h e f i r s t  colonial  The  disintegrated.  southern Tanzania d u r i n g the Maji  as the f i r s t  religious 3  centralization  founder,  they  I885  T h e r e was c o n t i n u e d r e s i s t a n c e  I89I  political  from  kingdoms.  German c o l o n i s a t i o n was v i o l e n t  from  of  south  political authority.  d i f f e r e d m a r k e d l y among t h e v a r i o u s long a f t e r  Cape.  short-lived  methods o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e f o r m s o f  survived  Zulu  D u t c h p u s h i n g up f r o m t h e  e x i s t e n c e o f a number o f m i l i t a r y and c e n t r a l  k i n g d o m and t h e  the  early  1900's,  d u r i n g W o r l d War  of commercial  I,  before their the  Germans  agricu1ture--mainiy  e x p u l s i o n by l a i d the  the  beginnings  c o t t o n and s i s a l - - a n d  w i d e s p r e a d e d u c a t i o n - - a 1 t h o u g h t h i s was their missions. ful.  Its  British  largely  h a n d l e d by  r u l e b e t w e e n t h e w a r s was  m a i n i m p a c t was t h e s p r e a d o f  unevent-  t h e money e c o n o m y ,  t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n , and t h e f u r t h e r a n c e e d u c a t i o n and h e a l t h per cent cent  of  facilities.  By  of  1938 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0  s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n w e r e i n s c h o o l ,  and 16 per  o f t h e m a l e s were e m p l o y e d i n t h e money economy  either  the urban or r u r a l  areas.  f e e l i n g of p o l i t i c a l a p a t h y , m o b i l i z a t i o n was s o w i n g t h e movement  of  the  In  II  slow p r o c e s s of  seeds of the  social  nationalist  changes began t o o c c u r  more  19^7 t h e t e r r i t o r y was p l a c e d u n d e r t h e  Nations T r u s t e e s h i p System. control  the  t h e r e was a  1950's.  A f t e r W o r l d War rapidly.  but  In g e n e r a l  in  This  removed i t  from  United  absolute  by t h e B r i t i s h , e n a b l i n g t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s t o  and s t u d y t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and e n s u r e e v e n t u a l dence.  Other  British  and t h e movements f o r  indepen-  t e r r i t o r i e s began t o e x p e r i e n c e i n d e p e n d e n c e c o u l d not e s c a p e  n o t i c e of the Tanzanian p e o p l e .  The B r i t i s h  watch  unrest  the  government  more a t t e n t i o n t o p r o m o t i n g e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t ,  but  paid  the  r e s o u r c e s w e r e s m a l l and t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t was v e r y  low.  A total  efforts  o f k 2 4 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 was a l l o c a t e d f o r d e v e l o p m e n t  f r o m 19^7 t o L  1956.  5  Hugh S t e v e n s , The P o l i t i c a 1 T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f T a n g a n y i ka 1920-67 (New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1 9 6 b ) , p p . 4B7 5 6 .  African agitation for in  195^  with the  National  f o r m a t i o n o f TANU ( T a n g a n y i k a  Union).  of t r i b a l  Previous  associations  formed between  i n d e p e n d e n c e began i n  to that  Tanganyika  most  the c o u n t r y .  recent  activities  being a presentation  V i s i t i n g Mission in elected  Its  President  In  1951.  1953  the TAA.  from i t s August,  Nations was  about w r i t i n g a w o u l d work  toward  The new c o n s t i t u t i o n  e x p l i c i t demands f o r m a j o r i t y  political  rights,  and the w i d e s p r e a d  started  it  with  r u l e and A f r i c a n c i v i l p u b l i c i t y TANU  on t h e r o a d t o n a t i o n a l  and  received  b r i e f s t o the United Nations V i s i t i n g M i s s i o n 195^  the  On J u l y ~], 195*+ TANU, t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  was f o r m e d and r e p l a c e d its  contact  were s p o r a d i c ,  J u l i u s Nyerere  o f t h e TAA and set  body  Association  but had  to the United  c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r a new o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t independence.  national  African  ( T A A ) - - w h i c h was p r i m a r i l y u r b a n i n n a t u r e throughout  African  t h e r e had been a number  and one s i g n i f i c a n t  the wars--the  earnest  in  prominence.  By 1957 i t had 175,000 members, a y e a r l a t e r 300,000 i n 134 branches,  and by mid-1960 t h e r e  were a p p r o x i m a t e l y  one  6 m i l l i o n members.  Such m a s s i v e  s u p p o r t and u n i t y  t h e c o u n t r y was o b v i o u s l y a s i g n i f i c a n t g r a n t i n g of independence.  In  won o v e r w h e l m i n g v i c t o r i e s  i n the f i r s t  independence  factor  op. c i t . ,  p.  i n the  early  1959 and a g a i n i n i960 TANU elections,  came q u i c k l y a f t e r - - o n December  Stevens,  throughout  146.  9,  and 1961.  J u l i u s K.  Nyerere  TANU emerged a t success.  Much o f i t ,  leadership of  a t i m e when many f a c t o r s however,  Julius  favoured  was due t o t h e t a l e n t s  its  and  Nyerere.  The r a r e c o m b i n a t i o n o f c h a r m , t o l e r a n c e , y e t b u r n i n g d e v o t i o n t o t h e c a u s e o f A f r i c a n d i g n i t y w h i c h he p e r s o n i f i e d s u c c e e d e d i n a t t r a c t i n g maximum s u p p o r t f r o m t h o s e i n c l i n e d t o w a r d t h i s i d e a and minimum o p p o s i t i o n from t h o s e opposed t o i t . 7 His a b i l i t y feelings  t o express the deeply  of the people,  qualifications, powerful  as a  chief  the p r e s t i g e of  undeveloped  h i s high  educational  and h i s s u c c e s s i n c h a l l e n g i n g t h e a l l -  British  and r u t h l e s s  h e l d but  (who,  after  a l l , had d e f e a t e d  the  Germans)  gave r i s e  t o h i s tremendous  He was b o r n i n  1922 n e a r  Lake V i c t o r i a , the  strong authority  leader.  of the Wazanaki.  His early  s c h o o l s , w h e r e he was c o n v e r t e d w h i c h he has h e l d d e e p l y few a t  that  school.  e d u c a t i o n was i n m i s s i o n  to Christianity--a  since.  After  government  school  Makerere  secondary  in  primary  s c h o o l he t o o k a  19^5•  on a government  g r a d u a t e d w i t h an M . A .  very  degree  C o l l e g e and r e t u r n e d t o t e a c h a t  i n Tanzania  Edinburgh U n i v e r s i t y  faith  He was one o f t h e  t i m e who s u c c e e d e d i n g o i n g b e y o n d  i n e d u c a t i o n at secondary  ever  son o f a  In  1949 he went  scholarship  i n e c o n o m i c s and h i s t o r y  to  and in  1952.  a  At that  t i m e he began t h i n k i n g and w r i t i n g a b o u t  in his country. secondary active  colonialism  On h i s r e t u r n t o T a n z a n i a he t a u g h t  s c h o o l near  in politics.  Dar es S a l a a m ,  a year,  a  and s t a r t e d t o become  A f t e r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f TANU i n  continued teaching for  at  1954 he  but t h e n d e v o t e d h i m s e l f  full-time to p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s .  After  the  general  e l e c t i o n i n i960 he was d e s i g n a t e d C h i e f M i n i s t e r and f o r m e d the f i r s t  cabinet.  He became P r i m e M i n i s t e r i n May,  and i n d e p e n d e n c e was a c h i e v e d  i n December.  1961,  S i x weeks  later  he r e s i g n e d a s P r i m e M i n i s t e r i n o r d e r t o r e o r g a n i z e TANU and t u r n i t  i n t o an e f f e c t i v e  development  throughout the c o u n t r y .  t h i s by an o u t b r e a k o f  instrument  for  promoting  He was p r o m p t e d t o do  r a c i a l i s m i n the party  and  u n d i s c i p l i n e d mood o f t h o s e who e x p e c t e d t o r e a p b e n e f i t s from independence. formulate his  During t h i s  i d e a s and f r a m e w o r k  African Socialism in Tanzania.  for  President  the implementation of  Ujamaa  - The B a s i s form at  of  this  o f t h e n e w l y d e c i d e d - u p o n R e p u b l i c and was  per c e n t  w i t h 96  per cent o f  1970.  to  time.  I962 N y e r e r e r a n a s t h e TANU c a n d i d a t e f o r  w i t h 97  in  instant  t i m e he s t a r t e d  A f r i c a n S o c i a 1 i sm a p p e a r e d i n p a m p h l e t In December,  the  of the v o t e .  In  1965  the votes c a s t .  n  e  w  a  s  elected  re-elected  He was a g a i n  re-elected  Independent  Tanzania  Tanzania achieved peacefu1ness that  independence w i t h a r a p i d i t y  was m a t c h e d by few o t h e r c o l o n i e s .  a r e a number o f f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l manoeuvring that  to the actual  p a r t i a l l y accounted for  a United Nations Trusteeship T e r r i t o r y British  wealth  No one t r i b a l  or e d u c a t i o n .  There  political  this.  Tanzania  and t h i s made  government more r e s p o n s i v e t o e x t e r n a l  their administration. in size,  and  the  c r i t i c i s m of  group dominated  The t r i b a l  was  political  others entities  were h i g h l y f r a g m e n t e d p r i o r t o and d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f colonialism. the m a i n l a n d .  There are over This fact  a s a common l a n g u a g e ,  one h u n d r e d t w e n t y  f a c i l i t a t e d the  spread of  and t h u s t h e p o l i t i c a l  a b l e t o s p r e a d t h e i r message w i t h r e l a t i v e son t o o t h e r A f r i c a n s t a t e s . settler  about twenty-two whom a b o u t  were  ease i n c o m p a r i -  T h e r e was no s t r o n g w h i t e colonial  t h e w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n numbered  thousand at  o n e - q u a r t e r were  on  Swahili  leaders  group t h a t might have s t r e n g t h e n e d the  administration's position:  tribes  the time of  independence  'settlers',  the rest  The p a u c i t y  of n a t u r a l  of  being c i v i l  8  servants and t h e meant that  and b u s i n e s s m e n .  l a c k of economic development  that  prior to  independence  t h e r e w e r e no s t r o n g , i n d i g e n o u s v e s t e d  s u p p o r t e d p r i v i l e g e and c o l o n i a l i s m .  resources  interests  T h e s e f a c t o r s and t h e country that  behind Nyerere's  l e a d e r s h i p appeared t o  fact,  served to  and m a s s i v e , one w r i t e r lull  c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s at  contends that  the p o l i t i c a l  the ease of  of  the  indicate  t h e p o s t - i n d e p e n d e n c e f u t u r e was b r i g h t f o r  stability In  seemingly massive u n i t y  political  development. independence  l e a d e r s h i p i n t o a sense  s e c u r i t y w h i c h a l l o w e d them t o o v e r l o o k some o f t h e  of real 9  problems they would f a c e as the e s t a b l i s h e d This  seems an o v e r s t a t e m e n t ,  for while  there c e r t a i n l y  s e r i o u s problems that  even went  very e x i s t e n c e of the  regime i n the f i r s t  independence,  so f a r  authority.  as t o t h r e a t e n three  were the  years of  t h e y w e r e n o t o f an u n c o n t r o l l a b l e or  unusual  s c a l e i n comparison w i t h the experiences of other  African  governments a f t e r  elite  i n d e p e n d e n c e , and t h e p o l i t i c a l  seems t o h a v e h a n d l e d t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h  skill  and  success.  There were c o n s i d e r a b l e problems i n m e e t i n g  the  e x p e c t a t i o n s of the newly m o b i l i z e d p o p u l a c e .  Tanzania  not h a v e t h e n a t u r a l  induce  or f i n a n c i a l  resources to  i m m e d i a t e and m a s s i v e e c o n o m i c i m p r o v e m e n t , and i t severely  h a n d i c a p p e d by a l a c k o f  teachers  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  c o u l d be r e w a r d e d w i t h better  trained  c o n d i t i o n s took a r a c i a l  jobs.  as w e l l  was  technicians,  V e r y few o f t h e p a r t y  government  did  Agitation as economic  faithful for hue.  Within  the party  t h e r e was s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m o f t h e  ment's  non-racial  p o l i c y and t h e c o n t i n u e d employment  skilled expatriates. Prime M i n i s t e r t o educate  This  in order  the country  as w e l l  of independence.  surmised,  that  of o f f i c e  not  Nyerere  This In  for  higher  about it  for  but  in  attempt  been  reshaping  so w i t h e a s e .  but  virtually  outlawed  of p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s .  they almost  Nyerere  suppress the mutiny--a  of  Africanization.  intending to  strikes.  army Their  w e r e poor pay and t h e c o n t i n u e d p r e s e n c e  the government,  out  them among TANU  pay and f a s t e r  They w e r e n o t  as  the  has  two r e g i m e n t s o f t h e T a n z a n i a n  1964  officers.  t h e young  support  l e g i s l a t i o n that  m u t i n i e d and t o o k c o n t r o l  British  fact,  and  The t r a d e u n i o n s embarked on a s e r i e s  resulted in  grievances  In a c t u a l  i n r e s t r u c t u r i n g the p a r t y ,  1962  January,  party  as the p a r t y  of  to resign  s p e n t most o f t h i s t e n months  h i s own i d e a s and g e t t i n g  strikes in  prompted Nyerere  t o r e o r g a n i z e the  realities  officials.^  govern-  of  overthrow  d i d , and c o u l d have done  was f o r c e d  to c a l l  on t h e B r i t i s h  humiliating experience  for  to  him and  country.  These o u t b r e a k s of over  strife  extend i t s  control  possible.  The Army was v i r t u a l l y  prompted the  government  as many a s p e c t s o f T a n z a n i a n d i s m i s s e d , renamed  Kimambo a n d Temu, o p . c i t . ,  p.  246.  life the  to as  People's  Defence  volunteers Service.  Force,  and o n e - h a l f  of  it  staffed  f r o m t h e TANU Y o u t h League and t h e N a t i o n a l T r a d e u n i o n s w e r e a b o l i s h e d and a l l  U n i o n o f T a n g a n y i k a W o r k e r s (NUTA), w i t h as i t s  General  Secretary.  w e r e more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d  the c r e a t i o n of the Cooperative was  greatly  to reach as w e l l  government  smallest  local  sponsored p r o j e c t s .  as i n t h e p a r t y  •the l o c a l  level  c h a i r e d by t h e  and r e p l a c e d local  consolidated in one-party  state,  o f TANU.  Another  the u n i o n of  thus  TANU l e a d e r .  that  creation  s i g n i f i c a n t development  of  are measures  at  usually were  l e g i t i m i z i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d  as  of T a n z a n i a as a  of t h i s  the mainland Tanganyika w i t h Z a n z i b a r  they  govern-  Assembly.  These measures  The c e n t r a l i z i n g t e n d e n c i e s  true  cells,  policy-making positions  t o form the U n i t e d R e p u b l i c  policies  grievances  administration  by e l e c t e d c o u n c i l s ,  I965 w i t h t h e  TANU  TANU o f f i c i a l s w e r e  and p o s s i b l y t h e N a t i o n a l  C h i e f s were removed f r o m t h e i r  through  ten-house  as a means f o r m o b i l i z i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  given overlapping p o s i t i o n s in d i s t r i c t  1964  policy  Union of T a n g a n y i k a .  from the  of  cooperatives  e x p a n d e d and o r g a n i z e d a s a r o u t e f o r  t h e government  ment and  well  National  the M i n i s t e r  Agricultural  with  Youth  w o r k e r s were  o b l i g e d t o belong t o a s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n , the  Labour  with  role  period in  was  April,  Tanzania. inherent  i n the  i n the c o r r e c t  to ensure  the  above  light.  security  and  It  is unity  o f t h e s t a t e and t h e c o n t i n u e d power o f t h e U n l i k e the r a t i o n a l e similar  of  some o t h e r c o u n t r i e s  p o l i c i e s , however,  Basically  it  there  i s a wider  i s t o make t h e p o l i t i c a l  the needs of the p e o p l e as w e l l c r e a t i o n of a s o c i a l i s t  as t o  t h e government  t i o n of these delicate  factor  development  l e a d them t o  ethics  The commitment  t o the c o n t i n u e d implementa-  i n t h e c o n t i n u e d s t a b i l i t y and  1967  more c o h e r e n t  economic  s t e p s h a v e been t a k e n  ideals.  p o l i c y of " S e I f - R e l i a n c e "  marked t h e b e g i n n i n g s of major Tanzanian s o c i e t y .  The A r u s h a i n February  E m p h a s i s had a l r e a d y  was d r a s t i c a l l y c h a n g e d .  Arusha.  Before,  producing the s k i l l e d e l i t e  of that  year  it  necessary  of  self-help  successful,  The e d u c a t i o n  had c o n c e n t r a t e d t o run the  the average a g r i c u l t u r a l Tanzanian i n the r u r a l  and  policy on  country.  Now, t h e e m p h a s i s i s on n o n - a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g r e l e v a n t  p r i v i l e g e s and l i f e - s t y l e s o f  of  and m a r k e t i n g c o o p e r a -  T h e s e e f f o r t s had not been w h o l l y after  Declaration  been p l a c e d on t h e  i n t h e v i l l a g e s and t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t  they were r e j u v e n a t e d  in  changes i n the s t r u c t u r e  importance of developing a g r i c u l t u r a l  projects.  the  t h e most c r u c i a l and p e r h a p s most  implementing the s o c i a l i s t  tives  to  of T a n z a n i a .  Since  and t h e  purpose.  s t a t e b a s e d on t h e A f r i c a n  and t h e p a r t y  goals i s  following  system r e s p o n s i v e  o f communal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s o l i d a r i t y . of  leadership.  to  areas.  the educated p o l i t i c a l  and  The  economic e l i t e people for  have been c u r t a i l e d .  s e l f - h e l p i n the r u r a l  j e o p a r d i z e d by t h e centres.  In  who d e m o n s t r a t e d  against  A p e r i o d of f i v e months required for a l l government allowed  university  i n the r u r a l  e n t e r i n g the u n i v e r s i t y .  The  service. now  salaries  i n p r o p e r t y or  t o be a s t a b l e  urban  students  areas i s  and no p u b l i c o f f i c i a l  t o have o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s  Today T a n z a n i a a p p e a r s  i n the  b e i n g f o r c e d t o do n a t i o n a l labour  the  obviously  the e l i t e  d i s m i s s e d 39h  o f f i c i a l s were c u t  m a k i n g s l o w but  a r e a s was  l u x u r y - 1 i v i n g of  1966 N y e r e r e  M o b i l i z a t i o n of  political  sure p r o g r e s s i n i t s development  of  was  business. entity efforts.  GENERAL OUTLINE OF NYERERE'S THOUGHT Julius  Nyerere s 1  has been f a i r l y African  substantial  leaders.^  But  i n volume from that Kaunda o f Z a m b i a , of  Guinea,  these  o u t p u t o f w r i t i n g s and  it  speeches  i n comparison to that  is  not  significantly  o f Kwame Nkrumah o f  L e o p o l d Senghor  of  different  Ghana,  Senegal,  Kenneth Sekou  o r p e r h a p s e v e n Tom Mboya o f K e n y a .  l e a d e r s has a t t e m p t e d t o p r e s e n t  framework f o r  the development  d i f f e r e n c e may be t h a t changing process.  o f many  Toure  Each o f  a philosophical  of h i s country.  Nyerere's  h i s o u t p u t h a s been a c o n t i n u i n g and  He h a s e l a b o r a t e d and e x p l a i n e d e a c h  of T a n z a n i a ' s development  a l o n g t h e way.  a l w a y s been t h e p e o p l e o f T a n z a n i a .  His audience  He has not  establish a practical  Basically,  thinker  h i s c o n c e r n has been  i d e o l o g i c a l framework f o r  e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t  has  been  concerned t o e s t a b l i s h h i m s e l f as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l on t h e w o r l d s c e n e .  step  the  of T a n z a n i a which  to social, is  T h e r e a r e two v o l u m e s o f s e l e c t e d w r i t i n g s and s p e e c h e s , Freedom and Uni t y , 19&6, and Freedom and S o c i a 1i sm, I 9 6 8 , b o t h p u b l i s h e d by O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . They c o v e r the p e r i o d 1952-1967T h e r e i s a l s o a s m a l l e r volume c a l l e d U j a m a a , E s s a y s on S o c i a 1 i sm. Dar e s S a l a a m , OUP, 1968 w h i c h d u p l i c a t e d some o f t h e m a t e r i a l f o u n d i n Freedom and S o c i a 1i sm. T h e r e a r e a l s o a l a r g e number o f p a m p h l e t s p r o d u c e d by TANU w h i c h a r e not o b t a i n a b l e o u t s i d e T a n z a n i a . H o w e v e r , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e s e a r e r e p r i n t e d i n t h e two v o l u m e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . The m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s paper has been l a r g e l y t a k e n f r o m Freedom and Uni t y and Freedom and S o c i a 1 i sm, and d e a l s w i t h h i s t h o u g h t u n t i l D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 7 .  understood,  accepted,  and i m p l e m e n t e d by t h e p e o p l e  of  Tanzani a. S t y l e of  Presentation  Nyerere's  concern for  i d e a s has d e t e r m i n e d h i s unofficial tinct  title  variance  the p r a c t i c a l  style  (which i s at  Nkrumah's Osagyefo,  doubt h i s e x p e r i e n c e as a t e a c h e r  s t y l e of  political  and  concepts are expressed with  a s i m p l i c i t y that  easily  any  u n d e r s t o o d by a l m o s t  non-1iterate,  person.  s p e a k i n g or w r i t i n g English. cal  All  This  in his  average Tanzanian  speaking of e q u a l i t y  degree of for  inequality, that  social makes  For  Swahili,  of  point  is or  in  practithe  that  requires  individuals according to it  even  e x a m p l e , when  c o n d i t i o n s but  and he i l l u s t r a t e s  them  he  i l l u s t r a t e d with  areas.  d o e s not mean i d e n t i c a l  example,  language,  in  the  and p o s s i b l y  he makes t h e d i f f i c u l t  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between  Even  l i f e and e n v i r o n m e n t  i n the r u r a l  No  speaking.  seems t o a p p l y w h e t h e r  his explanations are  e x a m p l e s drawn f r o m t h e  equality  literate,  native  dis-  he became a c t i v e  remarkable c l a r i t y .  most c o m p l i c a t e d and t h e o r e t i c a l  his His  or Redeemer).  before  p o l i t i c s has had much i n f l u e n c e on h i s His ideas are expressed with  of  o f w r i t i n g and t a l k i n g .  i s Mwa1imu, or T e a c h e r  with  acceptance  their  thus:  a one-armed o l d man and an a c t i v e  "To  say,  young man  are equal  if t h e y  each have t e n a c r e s o f f e r t i l e  hoe w o u l d be t o make a m o c k e r y o f E v o l u t i o n of  is  2  Ideas  Nyerere's societal  equality."  l a n d and a  concern with e x p l a i n i n g the  development  as they are  steps of  p l a n n e d and i m p l e m e n t e d  i n d i c a t e d by t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e o f t o p i c s  he d e a l s w i t h y e a r by y e a r .  He i s no s t a t i c  thinker,  moves f r o m one t o p i c and p r o b l e m t o t h e n e x t a s t h e y relevant tency  to Tanzania.  He d o e s , h o w e v e r ,  that but become  maintain consis-  by i n t e g r a t i n g h i s new i d e a s i n t o t h e 3  general  frame-  work o f U j a m a a - - s o c i a 1 i sm. The e m p h a s i s o f h i s t h i n k i n g p r i o r was n a t u r a l l y After  on t h e m e t h o d s and i d e a l s o f  i t s achievement  in  I96I  and up u n t i l  e m p h a s i s on t h e c o n c e p t s o f e q u a l i t y their  to  Tanzania's unique one-party  democracy  system.  independence. I 9 6 6 he  state.  and  the  s t r e n g t h e n i n g of n a t i o n a l  appeared the f i r s t  b e g i n n i n g s of h i s  Parallel of  naturally  unity.  In 1962  s o c i a l i s t i c framework  "Ujamaa, The B a s i s o f A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m " . J u l i u s K. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y  and  creation  He was a l s o  concerned with the  2  placed  and human d i g n i t y  i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the s t r u c t u r e of the  w i t h t h i s was t h e c o n c e r n f o r  independence  In  N y e r e r e , Freedom and U n i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 1 4 .  1 9 6 6 and  (Dar  es  I967  Salaam:  ^The l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f Ujamaa i s ' f a m i 1 y h o o d , i n a Western sense i t r e f e r s t o ' s o c i a l i s m ' . 1  but  h i s work  s h i f t e d markedly t o a concern with the  economic development framework, w i t h the r u r a l was t h e  o f an i n t e n s i v e  areas,  It  Nyerere  1966  c o m m e n t i n g on i n t e r n a t i o n a l  economy,  was a l s o t i m e f o r  code of b e h a v i o u r  Until  I967  socialistic  of the i n d u s t r i a l  and e d u c a t i o n .  c r e a t i o n of a s t r i c t  unity.  in  p e r i o d i n w h i c h g u i d e l i n e s and  l a i d down w i t h i n t h e  framework f o r t h e development  educated e l i t e .  socialistic  The A r u s h a D e c l a r a t i o n i n F e b r u a r y ,  b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s were  the rural  and  s p e c i a l c o n c e r n b e i n g given t o change  areas.  start  of Tanzania w i t h i n a  social  for  the p o l i t i c a l  s p e n t much  affairs,  the  effort  and e s p e c i a l l y  Since then h i s concern f o r e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s  African seems  h a v e d i m i n i s h e d , and h i s a t t e n t i o n t o A f r i c a n u n i t y h a s r e p l a c e d by a c o n c e r n f o r white-dominated states L i m i t s of His Nyerere  l i b e r a t i o n of the c o l o n i a l  i n Southern  i s almost  He d o e s n o t ,  i n the f o r e f r o n t  l i k e Nkrumah and of h i s t o r y  e m e r g e n c e o f a new o r d e r  of  imperial-  stages i n  the  i n A f r i c a and t h e w o r l d a s a w h o l e .  not c o n c e r n e d w i t h  L i k e Nkrumah and T o u r e ,  and  o f t h e march  B o t h Nkrumah and T o u r e w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h  is  and  e x c l u s i v e l y concerned with Tanzania  i s m , c o l o n i a l i s m and n e o - c o l o n i a 1 i sm a s  Nyerere  been  Africa.  to create a global theory  p l a c e T a n z a n i a somewhere time.  to  Thought  i n the core of h i s thought. Toure, attempt  and  i n e v i t a b l e t h e o r i e s of  however,  he i s  confident  that  history. Africa  c a n p r o d u c e a new s o c i e t y  b a s e d on i t s  and may even i n f l u e n c e o t h e r but he f e e l s t i o n of  its  that  it  will  o n l y do so t h r o u g h t h e  In t h i s  good,  mobiliza-  not i n r e s p o n s e  sense Nyerere  most p r a g m a t i c o f A f r i c a n p o l i t i c a l t h i n k e r s . attempt  values  p a r t s of the world t o the  own e f f o r t s and r e s o u r c e s ,  movements o f h i s t o r y .  traditional  to  i s one o f  the  He d o e s not  t o speak t o t h e w o r l d and c r e a t e a new p h i l o s o p h y o f  human d e v e l o p m e n t ,  o r e v e n become t h e v a n g u a r d o f  another  i d e o l o g y - - s u c h a s Nkrumah s o u g h t t o do w i t h M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m . He s p e a k s o n l y t o t h e p u r p o s e o f b u i l d i n g a new s o c i e t y  in  Tanzani a. S o c i a 1i sm Nyerere  has c o m m i t t e d h i m s e l f and T a n z a n i a t o  c r e a t i o n of a s o c i a l i s t b u i l d s o c i a l i s m out  society.  of  socialism will  will  h a v e t o be b u i l t  r e a l i s e them i n ways t h a t  Tanzanian environment. to the  He f e e l s  goal of a s o c i a l i s t  starts culturally,  He h a s  i n T a n z a n i a , one  society,  sort  that  socialism  are appropriate to  that  geographically,  o u t l i n i n g h i s thought  to  t o e x p l a i n i n g why a u n i q u e  adhere t o the u n i v e r s a l l y accepted v a l u e s of  but w i l l  us  He i s a l s o c o n c e r n e d  of the Tanzanian environment.  devoted c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t  the  t h e r e a r e many  the paths  d e p e n d i n g on w h e r e one and e c o n o m i c a l l y .  Before  on A f r i c a n o r T a n z a n i a n s o c i a l i s m ,  l o o k a t what he c o n s i d e r s t o be t h e u n i v e r s a l  let  characteristics  of  k  s o c i a 1 i sm.  1. The b a s i c p u r p o s e o f a l l  social activity  i s MAN, and  the  f u r t h e r a n c e o f h i s human d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 . The d e v o t i o n t o MAN i m p l i e s e q u a I i t y . c o r e and e s s e n c e o f a l l a p p l i e s not o n l y acceptance  socialist  to material  T h i s must be  policies.  welfare,  o f human d i f f e r e n c e s .  the  Equality  but i n c l u d e s  A socialist  the  society  cannot a l l o w the e x i s t e n c e of r a c i a l i s m , t r i b a l i s m , religious is  intolerance.  in fact  k.  Equality  a l s o i m p l i e s t h e u p h o l d i n g o f human d i g n i t y . reflected  i n the p o l i t i c a l  m e c h a n i s m whereby  That  •  •  the e x i s t e n c e of  the  t h e r e must be some their  l a w s and t h e i r  i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how t h i s c o u l d be  will leaders.  achieved  some s y s t e m o f f r e e  elections  •  5. The s o c i e t y w i l l be a r i g h t  Salaam:  is,  s p h e r e means  the people can e x e r t  p e a c e f u l l y and c h a n g e t h e i r  without  to  equality."-'  e x i s t e n c e of democracy.  "It  sum " S o c i a l i s m , a s a s y s t e m ,  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of men's i n e q u a l i t i e s  serve t h e i r 3. E q u a l i t y  In  or  c o n s i s t o n l y of w o r k e r s .  as w e l l  as a d u t y .  To work  Only s m a l l c h i l d r e n ,  J u l i u s K. N y e r e r e , Freedom and S o c i a 1i sm (Dar Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), pp. k-9. 51 b i d . ,  p.  k.  will  es  the  o l d and t h e not  sick w i n  necessarily  be e x e m p t .  imply being a wage-earner,  definition is certainly socialist  concept of  6.  It  follows that  not  does  the classical  For  instance,  t i m e c o o k i n g and l o o k i n g a f t e r  be r e g a r d e d as w o r k e r s . there w i l l  o r t h o s e who get  be no p r o f i t e e r s or  r i c h on t h e  labour of  E x p l o i t a t i o n o f one man by a n o t h e r w i l l mitted.  and  r e s t r i c t e d to the  i n d u s t r i a l workers.  women who s p e n d t h e i r children w i l l  Being a worker  There w i l l  be no i d l e m a s t e r s .  exploiters  others. not be  per-  Incomes w i l l  n o t be i d e n t i c a l a s some w o r k e r s r e q u i r e more goods than o t h e r s .  Teachers,  books than most. where one man i s  But  for  instance, w i l l  need more  t h e r e c o u l d n o t be a  situation  p a i d one h u n d r e d t i m e s a s much a s  a n o t h e r man, i m p l y i n g t h a t  his  labours are worth  that  i n e q u a l i t y and e x p l o i t a t i o n i t  will  much m o r e . 7. In o r d e r  t o prevent  be n e c e s s a r y  for  the t o o l s of  p r o d u c t i o n and  the  m e c h a n i s m s o f e x c h a n g e t o be u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f people.  This w i l l  normally involve  t h e key s e c t o r s o f t h e economy. p r i v a t e ownership because cover  those sectors that  The a c t u a l levels  mix of  It  the  p u b l i c ownership w o u l d not  of  preclude  s t a t e c o n t r o l would only affect  the m a j o r i t y  of  p r i v a t e and s t a t e c o n t r o l and  and t y p e o f c o n t r o l , s u c h as  local,  people. the  national,  or c o o p e r a t i v e , to the  Law w i l l  is to enlarge  will  arrest  values.  real  The p u r p o s e o f  f r e e d o m o f man.  or  Laws,  of  therefore,  with  no  The o r g a n i z a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n o f spirit,  or c o m p e t i t i o n .  service  to society,  not  society  personal  The h i g h e s t  be g i v e n t o t h o s e who d e m o n s t r a t e  degree  socialism  persecution.  emphasize the c o o p e r a t i v e  aggressiveness will  the  be u p h e l d .  be made known and a p p l i e d e q u a l l y ,  arbitrary 9. S o c i a l  system  next.  8. The R u l e o f  shall  w o u l d v a r y f r o m one s o c i a l i s t  respect  the  greatest  as opposed t o a c q u i s i -  tiveness. It general this these  c a n be s e e n h e r e t h a t  terms about  paper  I  ideals  shall  societal look at  i n terms of  Nyerere  ideals.  In  is  talking in  Chapters  very  III  t o V of  t h e more s p e c i f i c e n u n c i a t i o n  particular  aspects  of  of  societal  organization i n Tanzania. Tanzanian  Socialism  In t h i s important  introductory  to note N y e r e r e ' s  Tanzanian road t o s o c i a l i s m . look at  the  o u t l i n e of h i s thought reasons  In p a r t  specific traditional  form the b a s i s of h i s model.  for  e m b a r k i n g on  of Chapter  values  it  III  is the I  shall  and c o n d i t i o n s  which  African  Socialism  i s by now a w e l l - u s e d t e r m t h a t  e m p l o y e d by many A f r i c a n  s t a t e s t o e x p l a i n and j u s t i f y  policies.  refers  Generally, i t  t h e r e i s much i n t h e traditional  life  v a l u e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  that  is essentially  c a n be a d a p t e d t o a modern synthesis African that ism  of  society  people.  t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Nyerere  best  subscribes  that  African  t o c r e a t e a new  serve  the  to this  t h e r e i s a u n i v e r s a l i t y a n d yet which allows i t  their  s o c i a l i s t i c and w h i c h  state i n order  that w i l l  is  needs of  v i e w and  a diversity in  t o be a d a p t e d t o a v a r i e t y o f  the  holds Social-  social  envi ronments. The u n i v e r s a l i t y o f s o c i a l i s m o n l y e x i s t s i f i t c a n t a k e a c c o u n t o f m e n ' s d i f f e r e n c e s , and be e q u a l l y v a l i d for a l l of them. And i t c a n . For the u n i v e r s a l i t y of s o c i a l i s m d o e s not i m p l y a s i n g l e , w o r l d - w i d e u n i f o r m i t y of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , s o c i a l h a b i t s , or s o c i a l 1anguage. 7  It  only refers  for.  to the  He b e l i e v e s  that  common i d e a l s Africa  and  work t o w a r d t h o s e g o a l s on t h e social  conditions  that  that  'African  basis  now e x i s t  all  s o c i a l i s t s work  Socialists'  of the  in Africa.  e c o n o m i c and And t h e s e  c o n d i t i o n s are  very d i f f e r e n t  from t h o s e o f other  w h i c h embarked  on t h e  s o c i a l i s m i n the  Therefore, Marx,  road to  w h i l e t h e work o f  Lenin,  Nyerere f e e l s  and Mao w i l l  such s o c i a l i s t  be o f g r e a t  countries  past.  thinkers  help i n general  i t w o u l d be u n r e a l i s t i c t o t r y  will  to apply  as terms, their  thoughts trines  t o T a n z a n i a as t h o u g h t h e y w e r e i n f a l l i b l e  that  were a p p l i c a b l e e v e r y w h e r e .  Q u a r r e l s over  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d o c t r i n e and w o r r i e s actions  conform to the t r u e  t o any o t h e r  -isms are  teachings  therefore  doc-  over whether  the  one's  o f M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m or  f u t i l e and d e s t r u c t i v e  in  Tanzani a. In  the  introduction to his  N y e r e r e makes a s t r o n g a t t a c k and t h o s e who a d h e r e t o a socialism.  8  It  part  against  'theology'  doctrinaire or  writings, socialists  'religion'  g i v e s one t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t  more t h a n a t h e o r e t i c a l least  second volume of  of  '  he i s m a k i n g  p o i n t , and i s p r o b a b l y d i r e c t i n g  of h i s remarks at  his ideological c r i t i c s  at  in  Tanzani a. In mind that  general, takes  he a r g u e s f o r an i n d e p e n d e n t  the  t h o u g h t s and a p p l i e s  best  and most  relevant  them t o t h e r e a l i t y  of  of  frame  of  others'  Tanzania.  We i n T a n z a n i a a r e p a r t o f m a n k i n d . We have t o t a k e our p l a c e i n t h e w o r l d . We w o u l d be s t u p i d t o r e j e c t e v e r y t h i n g c o m i n g o u t o f t h e West b e c a u s e i t i s t h e home o f c a p i t a l i s m ; we w o u l d be s t u p i d t o r e j e c t everything t h e Communists d o . We a r e t r y i n g t o b u i l d u jamaa s o c i a l i s m - which i s n e i t h e r of these t h i n g s . We can l e a r n f r o m b o t h - and f r o m o t h e r p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s w i t h o u t t r y i n g t o copy or s e e k i n g f o r t h e i r a p p r o v a l . Our t a s k i s t o l o o k f i r s t a t o u r own p o s i t i o n and our n e e d s , and t h e n t o c o n s i d e r o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e and o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s i n the l i g h t of our r e q u i r e m e n t s . We s h o u l d not put o u r s e l v e s i n t o b l i n k e r s a s t h o u g h we were a h o r s e w h i c h c o u l d n o t be t r u s t e d t o s e e what i s g o i n g on  elsewhere. We s h o u l d be w i l l i n g t o l e a r n f r o m our f e l l o w men, and we s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e common p o o l o f k n o w l e d g e and e x p e r i e n c e . We c a n do t h i s i f we u s e o u r b r a i n s - t h a t i s , i f we T H I N K . 9 C o m p e t i n g P r i n c i p l e s and Long-Term O u t l o o k Nyerere i d e a l s of feels that  that  is  not  so n a i v e a s t o c l a i m t h a t  s o c i a l i s m c a n be e a s i l y  undoubtedly w i l l  be c l a s h e s  at  the  and q u i c k l y r e a l i z e d .  p r i o r i t i e s must be s e t among v a r i o u s  c a n n o t be u n d e r t a k e n a l l  all  o n c e , and t h a t  between  objectives there  p r i n c i p l e s and  objec-  t i v e s when t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s the  short-run neglect  p r i n c i p l e or i d e a l  of c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s .  s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n must be n e g l e c t e d order health  to devote  Thus  of e q u a l i t y as m a n i f e s t e d i n  scarce  the  universal  t o g a i n more f i n a n c i a l  infra-  the export of commodities i n resources i n the  in  universal  f a c i l i t i e s or i n b u i l d i n g a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  structure to f a c i l i t a t e  demands  i n the s h o r t - r u n  resources to providing  He  long-run.  order  Nyerere  i s concerned here w i t h the problem of the r i s i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s of h i s people. change the  l i f e of  Independence  t h e a v e r a g e man.  t h e e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s h a v e not b e e n a c h i e v e d . tried  Within  was e x p e c t e d t o m a r k e d l y It set  has n o t . before  Many o f  independence  t h i s context Nyerere  to develop a p e r s p e c t i v e that  will  facilitate  has just  and  e q u i t a b l e c h o i c e s b e t w e e n c o m p e t i n g p r i n c i p l e s and ties.  He i n d i c a t e s t h a t  c h o i c e s i n terms of that  it  will  will  result  priori-  he d o e s t h i s by t r y i n g t o j u d g e  their  long-run e f f e c t . ^  be some t h i r t y  years before  He h a s  0  socialist  i n major a p p r e c i a b l e changes i n  all  stated  policies  Tanzanian  11  society.  Therefore,  a modicum o f present  h i s time  limit for  socialist ideals is  twenty  c h o i c e s must be t a k e n t h a t w i l l  h i s s o c i a l i s t framework of i d e a l s justify  his  explicit  present  or novel  does attempt  It  t o the  is hardly  Thus, and  an  makes p r e s e n t  it it  policy  p o p u l a c e t h a n none a t  f o l l o w s from the p r e v i o u s p o i n t s that  Tanzania.  Not e v e n t h e  subsequent  created a s o c i a l i s t  all.  a socialist  state  does  in  n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f key i n d u s t r i e s and  system.  Nyerere,  Nyerere  r e v o l u t i o n a r y A r u s h a D e c l a r a t i on  the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l  , 0  It  and  Far  not c l a i m t o h a v e a l r e a d y  and t h e  this.  t o p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u i t y o f p o l i c i e s , and  c h o i c e s more a c c e p t a b l e So  achieve  years,  f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , but  a l s o f u r n i s h e s a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n that  Success  to t h i r t y  least  i s used t o d e t e r m i n e  policy choices.  perspective  a c h i e v i n g at  p r i o r i t i e s made T a n z a n i a  S o c i a l i s m i s t h e framework of  Freedom and Uni t y ,  op. c i t . . ,  pp.  ideals  6-7.  ^ N e v i l l e L i n t o n , " N y e r e r e ' s Road To S o c i a l i s m , " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a 1 o f A f r i c a n S t u d i e s , V o l . 2 ( S p r i n g , 1968), PTT:  outlined in his universal at  present  fall  out  their  whole  are  only  those  and t h o s e t h a t comparing the  short  of  characteristics, realizing all  these  At p r e s e n t ,  he f e e l s  society.  s o c i e t i e s that are  not.  present  How f a r  does N y e r e r e  1968 he  wrote:  and a l l  are  ideals  there socialism  p r o g r e s s by  of a s o c i e t y w i t h  t h i n k T a n z a n i a has got?  through-  that  trying to create  One c a n o n l y m e a s u r e  reality  societies  the  In  ideal.  August,  So f a r a l l t h a t we have r e a l l y a c h i e v e d i s some success i n showing people that t h e r e i s another goal t o work f o r now t h a t our i n d e p e n d e n c e e x i s t s . For t h e r e s t we h a v e t r i e d t o p r e v e n t t h e g r o w t h o f new a n d s t r o n g e r groups w i t h a vested i n t e r e s t i n c a p i t a l i s m ; we h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d some o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e p e o p l e c a n s p e a k ; and we have j u s t b e g u n t o s e a r c h out and h e l p t h e l o c a l e x p e r i m e n t s i n modern socialism. We have d e f i n e d our p o l i c i e s i n e d u c a t i o n , i n r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , and h a v e l i s t e d our e x p e c t a t i o n s of l e a d e r s h i p . But we a r e NOT a s o c i a l i s t s o c i e t y . Our work has o n l y j u s t b e g u n . J 2 Summary It realistic and d i r e c t himself which  appears personal  that  Nyerere has developed a  f r a m e w o r k w i t h i n w h i c h he s e e k s t o  the development  to the  of T a n z a n i a .  He h a s  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a c o n s i s t e n t  he has d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e  His e x p l a n a t i o n of  fairly  these concepts  local  committed  set  context  little  of  of  i s designed for  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the average Tanzanian of  chart  ideals  Tanzania. the  formal  e d u c a t i o n who l i v e s e x p e c t a t i o n about of  the i d e a l s  is  i n the r u r a l  areas.  t h e e a s e and r a p i d i t y realistically  Finally, of the  conservative.  his  achievement  THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY This chapter  will  t h r e e main h e a d i n g s : social is  state,  the  t h e w h i t e man.  of  t h e modern  traditional  society;  i n the  authority,  w i t h i n which the  Much o f N y e r e r e ' s  in African  of  it  modern and  the  individual  and  socio-political he c l a i m s w e r e  society before  He s e e k s t o make t h e s e t h e  the coming ethical  basis  state.  V a l u e s of T r a d i t i o n a l S o c i e t y The S w a h i l i  name t h a t  philosophy of A f r i c a n translation i s often  of t h i s  referred  Nyerere's  word i s  t o as  family  fami 1 yhood ,  meaning.  the values  extended  the  t h a t were  relatives  and m a t e r i a l l y s u p p o r t e d  literal  of mutual  it  deliberately  For a t  family.  i n a set  The  his  and a l t h o u g h  1  even d i s t a n t  and bound them t o g e t h e r socially  1  'family'  African  encompassed  given to  ' s o c i a l i s m ' i t was  philosophy are  traditional  N y e r e r e has  s o c i a l i s m i s Ujamaa.  chosen because of i t s  the  political  under  In g e n e r a l  individual  r e s t s upon v a l u e s and a s s u m p t i o n s  inherent  of  government.  r o l e of the  environment  state interact.  thought  (a)  responsive  h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the  socio-political the  the v a l u e s of t r a d i t i o n a l  perspectives;  concerned w i t h  examine N y e r e r e ' s thought  The  basis  found i n  extended  of a family obligations  a l l members.  unit that  Nyerere's  concern i s  t o widen the  t h e t o t a l modern s t a t e , t h e r o o t s of t h e o l d . the t r a d i t i o n a l of  therefore,  cultural  and t h u s b u i l d a new s o c i e t y Nyerere  t r i b e except  being a focus of  He,  scope of these o b l i g a t i o n s t o  loyalty  feels  that  to attack  its  present  opposed t o that  of the  the t r i b e - - t h e wider  values.  It  i s the family  and i t  is  t h e modern  What w e r e t h e s e v a l u e s of a l l , the  general  Nyerere.  political  that  it  s o c i a l i s m that  that  i s careful  variations  and  little  tradi-  look t o  for  state.  Nyerere  regards  conformed t o the  so  highly?  was a s o c i a l i s t  t o p o i n t out t h a t  society  the  universal  h a v e been e n u n c i a t e d  The e x t e n d e d f a m i l y was a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d  and s o c i a l u n i t Nyerere  state.  f r a m e w o r k and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  f a m i l y was s o c i a l i s t i c i n t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  one must  of  t h e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e and o p e r a t i o n  must be t h e b a s i s o f  First  that  of  tendency  u n i t c o n t a i n i n g many e x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s — had  inspiration, that  out  never mentions the r o l e  o r no i n f l u e n c e i n t h e c r e a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f tional  cover  by  economic  in miniature.  t h e r e were d i s t i n c t  i n o r g a n i z a t i o n among t h e p e o p l e s e t t l e d i n what  i s now T a n z a n i a , but  the general  p r i n c i p l e s held  true.  D e s p i t e a l l t h e v a r i a t i o n s , and some e x c e p t i o n s w h e r e the i n s t i t u t i o n of domestic s l a v e r y e x i s t e d , A f r i c a n f a m i l y l i f e was e v e r y w h e r e b a s e d on c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s w h i c h t o g e t h e r meant b a s i c e q u a l i t y , f r e e d o m and u n i t y . 1  T h a t was w r i t t e n  in  which i n general  deals with  1966  i n t e r e s t i n g to note that S o c i a 1i sm N y e r e r e  i n t h e v o l u m e Freedom and Uni t y the t o p i c s of i t s  two y e a r s  says the  later  title.  It  is  i n Freedom and  same t h i n g i n t h e  but c h a n g e s t h e p h r a s e o l o g y t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  Introduction, the  key 2  p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s t o g e t h e r It  may be s u r m i s e d t h a t  tional  African l i f e  concerns.  sizes is  general  1  it  his  of  tradi-  present  i s a l s o true that  his  g r o w t h and c o n s i s t e n c y .  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which Nyerere  empha-  the absence of c l a s s s t r u c t u r e or a r i s t o c r a c y  traditional concept  t o s u p p o r t and j u s t i f y  show a l o g i c a l  Another  'socialism .  he i s u s i n g t h e c o n c e p t  T h a t may be s o , but  arguments  constituted  African society.  In f a c t  he a s s e r t s t h a t  o f c l a s s was c o m p l e t e l y unknown and t h a t  equivalent  of the word  'class'  d o e s not e x i s t  in the  the  i n any  3 indigneous A f r i c a n  language.  While t h e r e were kingdoms  i n p r e - c o l o n i a l T a n z a n i a , t h e y w e r e not o r g a n i z e d i n form of a r i s t o c r a c i e s .  He c l a i m s t h a t  t h e r e were o n l y  t r i b e s i n Tanzania with a d i s t i n c t a r i s t o c r a c y , and t h e B a k a ,  and came f r o m t h e Nyerere,  same s t o c k .  Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , o p . c i t . ,  p.  103.  op. c i t . ,  p.  two  Bahaya  foreigners  The a b s e n c e o f c l a s s e s  3Nyerere, Freedom and U n i t y , ^Ibid.,  the  and b o t h o f t h e s e w e r e h i s t o r i c a l l y if  the  p. 170.  is 16.  crucial  t o the  • African-ness'  fact distinguishes it of  of A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m , f o r  f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g s and j u s t i f i c a t i o n s  t h e more e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l i s m i n Traditional  fundamental among a l l joint  c  and u n c h a l l e n g e d p r i n c i p l e s :  members,  (2)  munal o w n e r s h i p o f  (1)  the o b l i g a t i o n of a l l  All  land,  of  1.  of  members  c o l l e c t i v e work h a b i t s , t h e  of to  lack  universal  t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s can  found i n N y e r e r e ' s c o n c e p t i o n of the u n i v e r s a l tics  respect  i n and b o l s t e r e d by t h e c o m -  a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s by members, and  hospitality.  mutual  s h a r i n g o f w e a l t h and t h e f r u i t s  These were r e f l e c t e d  of c a p i t a l  Europe.  A f r i c a n s o c i e t y was b a s e d on t h r e e  p r o d u c t i o n , and (3)  work.  this  be  characteris-  socialism.^  Mutual  respect  involvement  i m p l i e d the r e c o g n i t i o n of the of a l l  members w i t h one a n o t h e r .  member was a c c o r d e d a common l e v e l w h i l e the degree of r e s p e c t somewhat w i t h a g e , behaviour  s e x , and a b i l i t y .  rights This  varied of  all  society.  go h u n g r y o r w i t h o u t  shelter while  No one c o u l d  o t h e r s hoarded food  Freedom and S o c i a 1i sm, o p . c i t . ,  °See Chapter  dignity,  standard  s e c u r i t y of  2. S h a r i n g i m p l i e d a b a s i c economic e q u a l i t y .  ^Nyerere,  Each  of personal  and s o c i a l  ensured the i n d i v i d u a l  members o f t h e  mutual  II,  pp.  24-26.  p.  340  or o c c u p i e d unnecessary to hoard wealth knows t h a t tions.  if  one f e e l s  society w i l l  That,  space.  There  secure  look a f t e r  maintains Nyerere,  s h o u l d be no need  in society you i n a l l  and situa-  was t h e c a s e  in  traditional  African society.  7  traditional  African society  p r o d u c e d no mi 1 1 i o n a i r e s  or the e q u i v a l e n t wealth  of  that  s u c h , e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e was  i n some a r e a s t o c r e a t e  d i s t r i b u t i o n and t h e s o c i a l room f o r  He a l s o a s s e r t s  them.  enough  The method o f  norms o f s h a r i n g  left  no  pari s i t ism.  I n e q u a l i t i e s e x i s t e d , but t h e y were t e m p e r e d by c o m p a r a b l e f a m i l y or s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and t h e y c o u l d n e v e r become g r o s s or o f f e n s i v e t o t h e s o c i a l e q u a l i t y w h i c h was a t t h e b a s i s of communal life. 8 Private  p r o p e r t y o f most o b j e c t s  Indeed,  l a n d was a b o u t  But  existed.  t r u l y communal  property.  t h e use o f p r i v a t e  e x p e c t a t i o n of 3.  the only  certainly  p r o p e r t y was g o v e r n e d by 9 s h a r i n g i n time of need.  the  Work by a l l . E v e r y member o f t h e f a m i l y , and e v e r y g u e s t who s h a r e d i n t h e r i g h t t o e a t and have s h e l t e r , t o o k i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t he had t o j o i n i n w h a t e v e r work had t o be d o n e . O n l y by t h e u n i v e r s a l a c c e p t a n c e  Nyerere,  Freedom and U n i t y ,  op. c i t . ,  Nyerere,  Freedom and S o c i a l i s m ,  Nyerere,  Freedom and U n i t y ,  p.  op. c i t . ,  op. c i t . ,  pp.  164. p.  338.  9-10.  o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e was t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f o t h e r two p r i n c i p l e s made p o s s i b l e . 1 0 Nyerere m a i n t a i n s that  these three  are,  individual  the f o u n d a t i o n of  human e q u a l i t y ,  social  r u n n i n g of  procedures which  the t r a d i t i o n a l  about  f o r c e s which dominated everyday  He  the  of  i n unanimous agreement. f a m i l y was t h e h e r e d i t a r y  'authority'  land that  t h e f a m i l y was not a c t u a l l y  by h i m a s t r u s t e e f o r  What he it  was  w i t h i n the  head of the f a m i l y .  he a p p e a r e d t o p o s s e s s and t h e  t o members o f  and  l o n g open d i s c u s s i o n s w h i c h The  the f a m i l y .  Respect  The he  his, that  the  restricts  behaviour.  p o l i t i c a l decision-making i s that  i n the Athenian s t y l e  society.  governed  system.  and  practical  t o a g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the v a l u e s  d o e s say a b o u t  that  security,  go i n t o g r e a t d e t a i l  i n s t i t u t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l  himself  p r i n c i p l e s were,  and p e a c e b e t w e e n members o f a  N y e r e r e does not  day-to-day  the  done  ended extended  wealth  allocated  but was  held  was g i v e n  to  the 'headman' or 'elder' was not based on his wealth or p o w e r , b u t on h i s a g e , w i s d o m , and l o n g s e r v i c e 12  community.  Nyerere  among e q u a l s '  and t h a t  claims that  11 I b i d . ,  p.  'first balanced  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o m p r o m i s e  Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , o p . c i t . , 340  the  he was b a s i c a l l y a  h i s power and a u t h o r i t y w e r e  by e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s o c i a l 10 N y e r e r e ,  to  in  p. 3 3 9 .  the i n t e r e s t social  of  group harmony.  The m a i n t e n a n c e o f  the  v a l u e s was u n d e r t a k e n by t h e a 1 1 - e n c o m p a s s i n g s y s t e m  of e d u c a t i o n , w h i c h ,  i n e s s e n c e , was t h e f a m i l y  environment,.  C h i l d r e n w e r e n o u r i s h e d on t r a d i t i o n and b e h a v i o u r by t h e i r  p a r e n t s and t h e i r  activities  elder  o f t h e s o c i e t y as a w h o l e .  a symbolic a f f i r m a t i o n of these Nyerere's not a l l more  relatives  Tribal  a s by  principles.  He d o e s say t h a t  t h a n any o t h e r  life  human b e i n g s , t h a t  the c o n d i t i o n s i n which the  from i d y l l i c . quently  They w e r e " . . . 13  fear-ridden."  In  p r i n c i p l e s under w h i c h i t  the  f a c t o r s w h i c h made t h e Nyerere  in i t s  total  social  socially  o f women.  context.  fre-  dominant  system as a w h o l e .  e x p l o i t e d w i t h i n the  to  One was t h e a c c e p t a n c e  The f a c t  far  t h e r e w e r e two m a j o r  They w e r e g e n e r a l l y  f i e l d s and i n t h e home.  means t h a t  l i v e d were  s p i t e of the t h r e e  i n f e r i o r , and b o r e t h e b r u n t o f  viciously  elsewhere,  system b a s i c a l l y u n a t t r a c t i v e  b a s i c i n e q u a l i t y w i t h i n the inequality  society  p o o r , i n s e c u r e and  operated,  is  t h e members w e r e no  p r i n c i p l e s w e r e a s much a b u s e d a s o t h e r p r i n c i p l e s and t h a t  the  i n i t i a t i o n was  d e s c r i p t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n  complimentary.  'noble'  as w e l l  patterns  that  T h i s was  r e g a r d e d as  the  being  labour both i n  the  t h e y c o u l d be  legitimate social  t h e s y s t e m was not i n f a c t  of a  milieu  theoretically  socialist.  ko Inequality  and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f man by man, a s N y e r e r e  p o i n t s o u t , cannot other  factor  exist within a socialist  was p o v e r t y .  e x i s t e d was one o f was t h e r e s u l t  The e c o n o m i c e q u a l i t y  subsistence  living.  o f i g n o r a n c e and t h e  agricultural  The  that  He c l a i m s t h a t  small  e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n . different  system.  s c a l e of  Without  it  social  knowledge  t e c h n i q u e s and w i t h o u t w i d e r  t i o n t h a n among t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y f o r  often  and of  coopera-  p r o d u c t i o n and  e x c h a n g e o f g o o d s , t h e s y s t e m was doomed t o  perpetual  poverty. It  i s perhaps i r o n i c t o note that  i s o l a t i o n was doomed t o p o v e r t y  note that tive.  Nyerere  competition, status  Nyerere  This w i l l  destruc-  accompanying  of i n d i v i d u a l i s m , a c q u i s i t i v e n e s s ,  and t h e g r o w i n g a c c e p t a n c e  i n the wider  society  was  be  c l a i m s t h a t money i t s e l f was n o t  patterns  in  At t h e moment we s h o u l d  The s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s w e r e t h e  behaviour  system  i n severe jeopardy  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e money economy. later.  the  the f a c t o r which  claims placed the t r a d i t i o n a l values  d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l  while  of the f a c t  depended upon o n e ' s  and  that  possessions.  By i n t r o d u c i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of h o a r d i n g w e a l t h t h r o u g h money and by e n c o u r a g i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i v e i n s t i n c t i n man, and by b a s i n g s o c i a l s t a t u s on m a t e r i a l w e a l t h , the very b a s i s of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y i s undermi n e d . ^  T h e s e f a c t o r s have c r e a t e d structure,  severe s t r a i n w i t h i n  f o r when t h e i n d i v i d u a l  o b l i g a t i o n s t o the f a m i l y being outside the family  d e p e n d upon h i m k e e p i n g t h a t i s that  wealth  Nyerere's  system.  p o l i t i c a l thought  economy)  to himself.  The  result  i s broken.  t r a d i t i o n a l values  The c r u c i a l  to a  q u e s t i o n about  i s whether  it  is  p o s s i b l e to  b u i l d a modern n a t i o n s t a t e b a s e d upon t h e  behaviour  p a t t e r n s and s o c i a l v a l u e s  traditional  society.  The t r a d i t i o n a l  that  k i n s h i p t i e s and a s e n s e o f behaviour  local  o f t h e p a s t w e r e b a s e d on identification.  The  p a t t e r n s w e r e e n a c t e d among p e o p l e who had known  each other bility  existed in  values  from b i r t h ,  was no d o u b t  acquaintance. traditional  Is  largely  it  values  and t h e i r  f e e l i n g of mutual  b a s e d upon k i n s h i p and  reasonable t o expect  that  responsipersonal  these  c a n be e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e e l e v e n  p e o p l e i n a l a r g e money economy n a t i o n ? -  local, million  Nyerere admits  the t r a d i t i o n a l  s y s t e m was doomed t o e c o n o m i c p o v e r t y ,  that  v a l u e s were i n t h e end s e v e r e l y  its  social  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of q u e s t i o n whether  t h e money economy.  the e q u a l i t y  s y s t e m was n o t i n f a c t that  the  his  s t a t u s and w e l l -  of the f a m i l y  Conclusion—Transference of modern p o l i t i c a l  but h i s  t h e u r b a n money  t h e u n i t y and e q u a l i t y  family  p o s s e s s e s more w e a l t h  increase, (i.e.  the  really  and u n i t y  This  and  damaged by  l e a d s me t o  of the  d e t e r m i ned by i t s  i n t r o d u c t i o n of g r e a t e r  that  traditional poverty,  so  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of m o b i l i t y  and wealth doomed the old values and behaviour p a t t e r n s  to  certain extinction. Nyerere  strongly rejects  he does so more by an act experience. that i t  As f a r  both of these arguments, but  of f a i t h than by the l o g i c of past  as wealth i s concerned, he merely  can be harnessed to be used for  growth of the three t r a d i t i o n a l s h a r i n g of j o i n t  the maintenance and  p r i n c i p l e s of mutual  p r o d u c t i o n , and work by a l l . ^  the t r a n s f e r e n c e of values t o the larger cerned,  respect,  As far  society  is  as  con-  he claims that the idea of the s o c i a l f a m i l y can be  logically world.  states  extended to i n c l u d e the whole n a t i o n and even the  In f a c t ,  the A f r i c a n s o c i a l i s t  regards a l l  men as  h i s brothers--as members of h i s ever extending f a m i l y .  e x p r e s s i o n of f a i t h  16  i s best summed up t h u s :  His  The p r i n c i p l e s which worked i n t h i s one case (the t r a d i t i o n a l extended f a m i l y ) are e q u a l l y v a l i d for larger s o c i e t i e s because, however large i t i s , men are always the purpose and j u s t i f i c a t i o n of s o c i e t y . There are very great problems i n v o l v e d i n adapting the p r i n c i p l e s t o r e a l l y large u n i t s w h e r e i n d i v i d u a l brotherhood and interdependence i s not immediately obvious as i n the family u n i t . But they are s t i l l the only b a s i s on which a s o c i e t y can hope to operate harmoniously and i n accordance with i t s purpose . . . . S o c i a l p r i n c i p l e s a r e , by d e f i n i t i o n , i d e a l s at which t o s t r i v e and by which t o e x e r c i s e s e l f - c r i t i c i s m . The q u e s t i o n to ask i s not whether they are capable of achievement, which i s absurd, but whether a s o c i e t y of f r e e men can do without t h e m . 1 7 ^Nyerere,  Freedom and Soci a! i sm, op. c i t . ,  p.  16 Nyerere, 1 7  1bid.,  Freedom and U n i t y ,  pp.  12-13.  op. ci t . ,  p. 170.  3h0.  Despite his contrary,  lucid theoretical  the p r a c t i c a l  problem of t r a n s f e r r i n g  v a l u e s which were r o o t e d i n the the day-to-day a c t i v i t i e s that  cannot  small,  of a modern,  be o v e r r a t e d .  s o c i e t y cannot  arguments t o  It  the  traditional  l o c a l environment large nation i s  i s obvious that  a  large  and where i n t i m a t e  social  pressures  The s h e e r  hopes these v a l u e s w i l l  o p e r a t e may be t o o g r e a t .  His  g e n e r a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n s o f hope q u o t e d on page h2  must  Nyerere  be b a c k e d by some p r a c t i c a l m e t h o d s o f i m p l e m e n N y e r e r e d o e s t h i s by a t t e m p t i n g t o  traditional First,  s c a l e on w h i c h  serve  to regulate behaviour.  tation.  values  t o every aspect  of  through the period of  they  link  t h e modern  he s e e k s t o c o n v i n c e h i s p e o p l e t h a t  i n e v e r y one o f t h e m , t h a t  have been  the state.  the values  they  c a n now s e t  s o c i a l c o n f u s i o n r e s u l t i n g from  about  Assembly i n  and t h e r e a r e expound t h a t He f e e l s  that  1962 he s a i d ,  no e x p e r t s b e t t e r way o f  life.  the s p i r i t  and  b r i n g i n g them t o t h e f o r e i n  new A f r i c a n and s o c i a l i s t T a n z a n i a . National  exist  l y i n g dormant  c o l o n i a l i s m and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e money economy, that  one  be r u n l i k e a s m a l l g r o u p w h e r e e v e r y o n e  knows e a c h o t h e r  obviously  to  Speaking to "Ujamaa  the  i s a way o f  life,  q u a l i f i e d than yourselves  We a r e a l l of mutual  the  o f us Ujamaa  to  experts."  responsibility is  best  reflected  i n the  Cooperative  production cooperatives in  1 9 6 2 a major  fields is  of  best  existed  d r i v e was  Agricultural  before  launched  to  independence, expand  p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n .  reflected  stressed  movement.  cooperative  them i n t o  spirit,  and  Nyerere  that  cooperation  i n p r o d u c t i o n was a  traditional  value  that  is  applicable  development  of  most  to the  three  private  the  society  principles. of  services  which  the  The  Nyerere is  consistency Nyerere's  is  rationalizes  a common p o l i t i c a l  one o t h e r  question  i n the  in preserving  In t h e modern s e t t i n g ,  the the  be  central traditional of  theoreti-  centralization  of  in  o f most  regard  of  new  It  values the  to  its  logical  implementation a r i s i n g  transferability  t o a modern s o c i e t y .  authority  cannot  distribution  feature  the  according  Within this  the  is  today.  and f e a s i b i l i t y  belief  people.  from  obligatory  society  hand i n p r e s e r v i n g  among t h e  Apart  develops  socially  untechnical  the  government  i n a modern s t a t e u n l e s s  i n the w o r l d There  values  i n ensuring that  i n such ways a s e n s u r i n g an e q u a l  framework  nations  national  takes a strong  goods and  power,  the  basic  role  in  economy.  of  to operate  authority values  the  socialism  expected  cal  a modern a g r i c u l t u r a l  cooperatives, crucial  t h e most  all  Ujamaa--fami l y h o o d - -  fact  the  the  i n the  and  concerns  of  traditional  the  and b e h a v i o u r  centra!  from  government  role  of  patterns. attempts  to  be t h e f o c u s o f  loyalty  and s e e k s t o e n f o r c e  t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l traditional this  values.  of t r a d i t i o n a l  life  extended f a m i l y .  that  If  that  values  both through the of  Nyerere  chief.  he c o u l d be s u c c e s s f u l  rightly  in preserving  to the s t a t e .  i s understandable  the t r a d i t i o n a l  power. values  because  so, can they  the c h i e f  h a v e been d e s t r o y e d ?  unresolvable  q u e s t i o n because  does,  however,  have g r e a t  g o i n g t o be s u c c e s s f u l pri nci pi es--the  institu-  the t r i b e  loyalty  preserved  and t h e t r i b e ,  really  no i n d e p e n d e n t  an  work has  specific  b e a r i n g on w h e t h e r  political  leader  the f u t u r e  can attempt  and  symbols  been  concerns. Nyerere  p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h a r e t h e key t o  p h i l o s o p h y about  of  whether  i n b u i l d i n g t h e new T a n z a n i a on  political  and  he h a s f o r t h -  from p o s i t i o n s  This i s  done i n T a n z a n i a w h i c h e x a m i n e s t h e s e  three  is  be m a i n t a i n e d when t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  of a u t h o r i t y  It  One  he w i s h e s t o m a i n t a i n w e r e of  the  the  The q u e s t i o n t h e n r e m a i n s  i n any way by t h e a u t h o r i t y if  all  and h a s removed t h e c h i e f s  political  analysis  these  a t t a c k e d any c o n t i n u i n g s i g n s o f p o l i t i c a l  t o the t r i b e direct  his  f a m i l y t o d a y and t h r o u g h  p o l i t i c a l authority  This  discusses  t h e c a s e we m i g h t  t i o n whose r o l e he d o e s n o t m e n t i o n a t its  the  i n s t i t u t i o n was i n f a c t  t h i s was r e a l l y  expect  transfer  role?  He i m p l i e s t h r o u g h o u t this  preserva-  Which i n s t i t u t i o n i n  s e t t i n g played t h i s  point very b r i e f l y .  the  of the c o u n t r y .  t o b u i l d a n a t i o n on any  is the  his A  p r i n c i p l e s he chooses. hopes w i l l  be e a s i l y  acceptance.  If  implemented because of t h e i r  his analysis  the s o c i e t y i s c o r r e c t not, t h e i r  of t h e i r  past  past r e l a t i o n s h i p with  h i s task may be q u i t e easy.  If  implementation w i l l be doubly d i f f i c u l t  of the t h e o r e t i c a l  c o n f u s i o n concerning the  between t r a d i t i o n a l (b)  Nyerere has chosen three which he  Social  it  is  because  relationship  and modern values and i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Perspectives  The l a s t  s e c t i o n has shown N y e r e r e ' s  three b a s i c t r a d i t i o n a l  v a l u e s which he wishes to see  preserved i n the modern s t a t e , c r e a t e a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l Tanzania.  In t h i s  concern with  and which he hopes w i l l m i l i e u uniquely s u i t e d t o  section I will  these three p r i n c i p l e s from the commitment t o the p r a c t i c a l  look at how Nyerere moves  level  of  theoretical  plane of s p e c i f i c  policies  regarding the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s t a t e and society.  It  w i l l be seen that the concern f o r mutual  respect among a l l on s o c i a l  members becomes r e f i n e d to a strong stand  equa l i ty--especi a 11 y i n regard to race  The sharing of the wealth produced by j o i n t only p a r t l y  covered i n t h i s  concern f o r the j u s t  s e c t i o n by h i s  The aspect  be d e a l t with in greater  detail  traditional  production  p r i n c i p l e of  is  generalized  d i s t r i b u t i o n of wealth and the  of a c l a s s l e s s s o c i e t y .  other  relations.  of j o i n t  creation  production w i l l  i n Chapter V, as w i l l 'work by a l l . 1  the  At t h i s of u n i v e r s a l  point  it  w o u l d be w i s e  p e r s p e c t i v e Nyerere  build a society.  approaches to s o c i a l that  all  harmoniously w i t h i n a just o f p e r f e c t i o n , but is  somewhat  that  is unattainable  the world i n terms of  society are  development,  to and  new he a p p r e -  s o l v i n g the problem of  living  bound t o f a l l  short  d o e s n o t s t o p one f r o m t r y i n g .  s t r u g g l e s toward a goal  on t h e t e m p o r a l  forward i n the dark, the r e a l  Africa  l i k e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s p i r i t u a l j o u r n e y  l i f e a s he c o n t i n u a l l y  societal  that  r e l a t i o n s , and on t h e o t h e r  e f f o r t s at  sort  p l a c e s on h i s e f f o r t s  On t h e one hand he f e e l s  T a n z a n i a h a v e much t o o f f e r  ciates  to i n d i c a t e the  Nyerere  level.  t a l k s of  towards a goal  understanding of i t  In 11  .  that  through he knows  speaking of .  .  It  man's  groping  so d i s t a n t  that  i s beyond u s - - t o w a r d s ,  even in  other  19 words,  the best  t h a t man c a n b e c o m e . "  such a p e r s p e c t i v e ,  Nyerere  Obviously,  strongly rejects  any  t h e o r i e s or i d e o l o g i e s which c l a i m t o have t h e for  a perfect  society,  but  with  social  blueprint  he l e a v e s open t h e hope t h a t  the  T a n z a n i a n e x p e r i m e n t may l e a d t o : . . . a new s y n t h e s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y and t h e n e e d s o f man i n s o c i e t y ; f r e e d o m f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l t o d e v e l o p t h e s p a r k o f d i v i n i t y w i t h i n h i m s e l f a t t h e same t i m e a s he c o n t r i b u t e s and b e n e f i t s f r o m h i s m e m b e r s h i p i n a community.20  ^ibid.,  p.  120.  Ibid.,  p.  121.  2 0  In about  1961, at  the time of  independence, Nyerere  the importance of having a " N a t i o n a l  Ethic"  w o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d and a c c e p t e d by t h e p e o p l e .  talked  which It  would  s e r v e to c r e a t e a moral  c l i m a t e w i t h i n the n a t i o n that  ensure that  the c o u n t r y  progressed a c c o r d i n g t o the  principles,  and t h a t  any t e n d e n c i e s  l e a d e r s h i p o r any o t h e r by t h e m o r a l a w a r e n e s s certainly  segment o f  would  accepted  t o i g n o r e them by  the  s o c i e t y w o u l d be c h e c k e d  o f the n a t i o n as a w h o l e .  This  was  an i d e a l i s t i c and even n a i v e c o n c e p t i o n , b u t  it  was i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l  tone of N y e r e r e ' s  thought  s i n c e he had e n t e r e d  1964 t h e N a t i o n a l  Ethic  was s e t  politics.  down a s a s t a t e m e n t  ment w o u l d f o l l o w .  It  In  of p r i n c i p l e s that  the  govern-  h a s s i n c e been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o  the  p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e r u l i n g p a r t y — e n t i t l e d t h e "TANU C r e e d " . The N a t i o n a l eight  Ethic  p o l i c i e s that  i s a set  the p r i n c i p l e s .  five  law,  p r i n c i p l e s cover  They a r e  not  ensure unlike but  bear m e n t i o n i n g .  equality,  the  right  The  to take  part  freedom of e x p r e s s i o n , p r o t e c t i o n a c c o r d i n g  and j u s t  the n a t u r a l  out t o  21  i n government, to  carry  i d e a l s f o u n d i n many n a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t i o n s ,  t h e r e a r e a few u n i q u e p o i n t s t h a t first  p r i n c i p l e s f o l l o w e d by  t h e government w i l l  the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the general  of eight  return for  labour.  The s i x t h c l a i m s  all  r e s o u r c e s of T a n z a n i a as the p r o p e r t y of a l l  'Found i n N y e r e r e , pp..262-264.  Freedom and U n i t y ,  op.  cit.,  its  citizens  t o be h e l d i n t r u s t  r e s o u r c e s cannot In e f f e c t  t h i s means t h a t  the  their  descendents.  be s u r r e n d e r e d i n p e r p e t u i t y ownership of a l l  resources i s vested i n the entrusts  for  state  w e l l - b e i n g of a l l  to intervene  principle  i n t h e economy t o e n s u r e e x p l o i t a t i o n or  to the extent  society.  anyone.  l a n d and o t h e r  The s e v e n t h  and g u a r d a g a i n s t  accumulation of wealth with a classless  state.  to  that  it  is  Ethic  document, a l t h o u g h i t philosophy of the is  does  in.  In March,  over  I967  quite a  The i d e a o f a 1964,  to emphasizing three  constant  discrimi-  establishment  lacklustre  l a y down i n s h o r t h a n d t h e  government.  e x p r e s s i o n of the three fairly  is really  not m e n t i o n e d a f t e r  have r e v e r t e d  esta-  judiciary.  The N a t i o n a l  itself  the  The p o l i c i e s i n c l u d e t h e  n a t i o n and p r o p a g a t i o n o f g r o u p h a t r e d , and t h e  the  inconsistent  b l i s h m e n t of e q u a l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t y , o u t l a w i n g of  o f an i m p a r t i a l  The  traditional  social  'national  and N y e r e r e  seems  basic principles. p r i n c i p l e s has  t i m e , b u t a few v a r i a t i o n s  ethic to His  remained  have  crept  he p r o d u c e d t h e p a m p h l e t " E d u c a t i o n  for  Self-Re 1iance" as a f o l l o w - u p t o the Arusha D e c l a r a t i on. In  it 1.  he l a y s down t h e t h r e e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s as Equality  and r e s p e c t  for  human d i g n i t y .  2. S h a r i n g o f r e s o u r c e s p r o d u c e d by o u r 3. Work by e v e r y o n e ,  follows:  e x p l o i t a t i o n by  efforts.  none.22  1  Also in  I967,  he n o t e d t h e need t o r e a c t i v a t e  the  policies  o f c o o p e r a t i o n i n p r o d u c t i o n and s h a r i n g i n d i s t r i b u t i o n , w h i c h seems t o i n d i c a t e  that  unsatisfactory  been made i n t h e s e a r e a s s i n c e he f i r s t  progress  had  t a l k e d about  them  in 1961. Nyerere's  concern with e q u a l i t y  to his p o l i t i c a l thought. shall  examine i t s  shall  look at  At t h e end o f t h i s  importance i n greater  of  equality.  that  The f a c t  that  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and period  H i s p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y r e s t s f i r m l y on e q u a l i t y .  on any o t h e r  a r e not e q u a l opportunity  by  I  t o a s t r o n g commitment t o s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c  He d o e s not b e l i e v e  that  in respect,  the  It  any  society  principle.  was a f t e r  t h e members o f t h e standard of  hope f o r  society  living,  s t a b i l i t y or  be  and  harmony.  independence  i n d e p e n d e n c e , when t h e p e o p l e w e r e s t r u g g l e , that  the real  test  ideal.  As m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r racism w i t h i n the party  o f human w o r t h c a n  accepted d u r i n g the  l o o k i n g f o r the f r u i t s of t h e i r came i n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e  If  dignity,  s o c i e t y cannot  T h e s e i d e a s were r e a d i l y struggle.  racial  I  Here,  o p p r e s s i o n were h a l l m a r k s of the c o l o n i a l  led Nyerere  built  detail.  race r e l a t i o n s .  T a n z a n i a was a c o l o n y and t h a t  basic  section  how t h e s e c o n c e p t s h a v e been a f f e c t e d  strong social undercurrent  cultural  and d i g n i t y i s  II,  t h e r e was an  shortly after  has c o n t i n u e d p e r i o d i c a l l y e v e r  since.  outbreak  i n d e p e n d e n c e , and Consequently,  it  Nyerere  h a s had t o spend c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t  equality  and human r i g h t s  i n t e r m s of  in  explaining  non-racialism.  In  he t o o k a s t r o n g s t a n d on T a n z a n i a n c i t i z e n s h i p ,  1962  r e s i d e n c e and rather  than  Even i n  loyalty  t o the country  criteria,  g i v i n g i n t o t h o s e who a r g u e d on r a c i a l  I967, a f t e r  A r u s h a and i t s  w h i c h s p a r k e d some r a c i a l Reliance,  the only  Nyerere  actions  making  nationalization i n t h e name o f  grounds. measures  Self-  had t o i s s u e a s t r o n g s t a t e m e n t  called  23 "Socialism  i s not R a c i a l i s m "  because of the  socialist  --the  commitment  two b e i n g to  incompatible  equality.  One o f t h e r e a s o n s why t h e r e h a s p e r s i s t e d attitude of  that  race i s  years after  o p p o r t u n i t i e s s h o u l d be w e i g h t e d i n  that  this  is  precisely  independence.  concerning the  an  necessity  grounds of r a c e ,  favour  what happened f o r a  The c l a u s e  i n the National  few Ethic  o f p r e v e n t i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on  sex, t r i b e ,  colour,  creed  or r e l i g i o n  the  also  went on t o s a y : T e m p o r a r i l y t h i s s h a l l not p r e c l u d e t h e government or any o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t y f r o m t a k i n g s t e p s t o c o r r e c t any i m b a l a n c e w h i c h r e s u l t s f r o m p a s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on any o f t h e s e g r o u n d s . 2 4 Thus,  until  January,  1964 p r e f e r e n c e  c i t i z e n s of Tanzania i n appointments The f i n e  l i n e between  this  reasonable  was g i v e n t o  African  t o government attempt  to  service. correct  ° F o u n d i n Freedom and S o c i a 1 i sm, o p . c i t . ,  pp.  257  employment Nyerere  i m b a l a n c e s and o u t r i g h t  r a c i s m i s one  that  has had d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g , and t h a t  is  why  he h a s p l a c e d so much s t r e s s on n o n - r a c i a l i s m i n r e g a r d equality. the f a c t until it  H i s d i f f i c u l t y h a s been somewhat compounded by t h a t TANU, f r o m t h e t i m e o f i t s f o r m a t i o n i n  1962,  accepted  r e s t r i c t e d i t s membership t o A f r i c a n s , the h e l p of people of other  was u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r and s e l f - r e s p e c t  to bolster  races.  the f e e l i n g of  by p r o v i n g t h a t  policy  dignity  among t h e A f r i c a n s - - t o g i v e them back  they  c o u l d work t o g e t h e r  independence through t h e i r  c a n t h u s be seen t h a t  thorough manner.  Its  the p r a c t i c a l  and  the  period--  achieve  own e f f o r t s .  h a s been t h r o u g h t h e f i r e s o f  affected  1956  although  This  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e t h e y had l o s t d u r i n g t h e c o l o n i a l  It  to  the p r i n c i p l e of  equality  implementation in a  pretty  d e f e n c e and r e f i n e m e n t  has  i m p l i c a t i o n s of mutual  also  respect  and  d i gni t y . Another aspect worth a c l o s e r  of the general  look i s the s o c i a l  Nyerere m a i n t a i n s  that wealth  the c r e a t i o n of w e a l t h  for  wealth  distribution,  wealth.  g o o d , and  The p r o b l e m s g e n e r a t e d not i t s  c o l o n i a l i s m brought w i t h  new t e c h n i q u e s f o r  is  is  that  i t s c i t i z e n s s h o u l d be one o f  society.  claims that  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  in itself  the g o a l s of every concern i t s  p r i n c i p l e s which  creating wealth,  it  by  production. t h e money  and t h e  He  economy,  individual  attitudes ist  and b e h a v i o u r  patterns  approach to w e a l t h .  associated with a c a p i t a l -  Desire for wealth  i n order to  others,  h a v e power and d o m i n a t i o n o r e v e n p r e s t i g e  others,  a n d t o amass w e a l t h  worth are a l l society.  attitudes  Nyerere's  stratified,  goal  society.  on t h e h i e r a r c h i a l  that  a s a symbol o f o n e ' s are unacceptable  over  personal  in a  socialist  i s a c l a s s l e s s , or m i n i m a l l y  H i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c l a s s e s i s  s t r u c t u r i n g of  society  according  w e a l t h - - f r o m w h i c h power and p r i v i l e g e f l o w . that  outdo  t h e s o c i a l i s m w h i c h emerged i n  based  to  He m a i n t a i n s  Europe e a r l i e r  in  this  c e n t u r y was a r e a c t i o n t o t h e c a p i t a l i s m w h i c h had been e s t a b l i s h e d since the The r i s e o f  Industrial  s o c i a l i s m was a c l a s s  and A g r a r i a n  s t r u g g l e , and i t  on t h e n o t i o n o f c o n f l i c t i n g c l a s s e s . p a t t e r n of s o c i a l i s t development  For  in classes.  capitalist  attitudes  Therefore,  a s more w e a l t h  will  Nyerere  holds that  the  inappropriate never  i s created  era.  i n Tanzania, the  d i s t r i b u t i o n and g u a r d  state  against  t e n d e n c i e s among t h e p o l i t i c a l and  regard t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l  share of the t o t a l wealth sarily  based  reason,  s o c i e t y was  generated i n the c o l o n i a l  the growth of c a p i t a l i s t In  was  The o n l y d a n g e r i s t h e s p r e a d o f  have t o e n s u r e i t s j u s t  educated e l i t e .  this  i n Europe i s  t o Tanzania because A f r i c a n t r a d i t i o n a l stratified  Revolutions.  should receive  wealth, a  p r o d u c e d , and s h o u l d not  be e n t i t l e d t o r e a p a l l  that  he s o w s .  For  fair necesinstance,  some g r o u p s o f i n d i v i d u a l s , s u c h as m i n e - w o r k e r s , greater market dity  p r o p o r t i o n of the n a t i o n a l wealth terms that  is.  But  others--in  t h e i n t r i n s i c v a l u e o f a commo-  such as f o o d s t u f f s i s  w e a l t h as f a r  than  produce a  greater  than that  of  mineral  as t h e b a s i c w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e n a t i o n  is  c o n c e r n e d - - a l t h o u g h f o o d s t u f f s may not e q u a l m i n e r a l s market v a l u e . professional just  The same t h i n g a p p l i e s t o p e r s o n a l skills.  The s t a t e ,  in  and  t h e r e f o r e , must e n s u r e a  d i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l need,  not  relative  thought c o n c e r n i n g the  relation  production. ^ 2  The a r e a o f between the interesting, other  Nyerere's  i n d i v i d u a l and t h e and w h i c h most  leaders',  lends i t s e l f  most  to comparison with  i s h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the c o n f l i c t  f r e e d o m and a u t h o r i t y ,  between  t h e common good o f t h e  state.  Nyerere's conflict  s o c i e t y which i s  between  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e s i r e s  r e c o g n i t i o n that  there  i s an  inherent  b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e  state  right  p l a c e s h i m on a d i f f e r e n t  theoretical  perspective  away  than  l e a d e r s a s Sekou T o u r e o f G u i n e a and Kwame Nkrumah. all  three  such  While  leaders tend t o d e f i n e p o l i t i c s i n c o l l e c t i v e  not i n d i v i d u a l  terms,  they  5ibid.,  pp.  and  also maintain a humanistic  outlook--man i s t h e e n d , not t h e means.  2  and  168-169.  The d i f f e r e n c e s  in  a p p r o a c h come f r o m t h e e m p h a s i s Toure,  for  example,  the i n d i v i d u a l reality  of  p l a c e d on t h e  individual.  s e e k s t o a r g u e away any c o n f l i c t  and t h e  state  between  and e m p h a s i z e s a m o n i s t i c  society.  I t i s . . . u s e l e s s t o a s k i f man must p r e v a i l o v e r s o c i e t y or v i c e v e r s a . F o r u s , t h e two t e r m s a r e not d i s s o c i a b l e , t h e y a r e d i a l e c t i c a l 1 y m e r g e d , t h e one e x i s t s through the o t h e r . 2 6 In  effect,  he h o l d s t h a t  individuals, except act  in  that  the i n d i v i d u a l  t h e common i n t e r e s t ,  i n harmony w i t h  despite their  hand,  between  e x i s t e n c e of  that  State i s s t a n c e . ?6  eternal  r e l a t i o n between 28  the  27  sum o f  People",  act  " F r e e d o m means  to  B o t h T o u r e and Nkrumah,  of b e l i e f  places  its  and must not  in traditional  greater  of  African society.  e m p h a s i s on  theoretically  resolve  t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e  more r e a l i s t i c  the  and t h a t  least  is certainly  about  cannot  people."  and s e e k s t o a t  conflict  i s not the  t o r e g a r d man a s an i n s t r u m e n t  on t h e o t h e r  individual inherent  other  protestations  humanism, a p p e a r Nyerere,  society  the the  state.  He  than Toure i n acknowledging  the  conflict. t h e two i s  His only the  pat  statement  which i s a r e l a t i v e l y  answer "The  open s o r t  of  Q u o t e d i n W. A . E. S k u r n i k ( e d . ), A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l T h o u g h t : Lumumba, Nkrumah, and T o u r e ( D e n v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f D e n v e r , 1 9 6 b ) , p. 3. 27 ' C h a r l e s A n d r a i n , " T h e P o l i t i c a l T h o u g h t o f Sekou T o u r e , " A f r i c a n P o l i t i ca1 T h o u g h t : Lumumba, Nkrumah, and T o u r e . W. A . E. S k u r n i k , e d i t o r ( D e n v e r : U n i v e r s i t y oT D e n v e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 117-  On t h e  theoretical  level  n a t u r e o f s o c i e t y demands between  the  desires  and t h e  freedom o f the  guarantee h i s individual  that  necessity  security  Nyerere believes that  t h e r e be i n e v i t a b l e c o n f l i c t  individual that  and w e l l - b e i n g .  society  in  survival, the  he must  hence  of a l l .  rewards  he g e t s f r o m i t ,  a l s o becomes  that  i n d i v i d u a l ' s re1ationship with  down o r become  the  and  necessary  freedom o f society,  but  the  one and the  potential  g r e a t e r b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e more  of  chances  society w i l l  break  Nyerere holds that  there  unsatisfactory.  On a more p r a c t i c a l  level,  cannot  be an e a s y  answer  to the  of  individual  or the  g r o u p s h o u l d be s e r v e d  the  the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n to i t ,  conflict the  to  individual  Cooperation is  The more c o m p l e x t h e  t h e more c o m p l e x t h e  more p o t e n t i a l  In e f f e c t ,  s a c r i f i c e some  and c o o p e r a t i o n r e s t r i c t s  interest  h i s own  to belong to s o c i e t y ,  freedom f o r c o l l e c t i v e b e n e f i t s . for  to pursue  he j o i n a c o l l e c t i v e  has no c h o i c e e x c e p t  a s a member o f  the  b e c a u s e b o t h have t o be s e r v e d .  q u e s t i o n of whether  the  good  first,  And y e t ,  . . . u n d e r l y i n g e v e r y t h i n g must be a c o n s c i o u s n e s s that the very purpose of s o c i e t y - i t s reason for e x i s t e n c e - i s a n d must be t h e i n d i v i d u a l man, h i s growth, h i s h e a l t h , h i s s e c u r i t y , h i s d i g n i t y and, therefore, his happiness. 9 2  I n r e g a r d s t o s t a b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y t h e o b v i o u s , but he d o e s so w i t h  he, i n e f f e c t ,  such c l a r i t y  that  states  it  is  worth q u o t i n g . Thus t h e r e i s , and must b e , i n e v e r y s o c i e t y a b a l a n c e between t h a t v o l u n t a r y agreement w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e s t a b i l i t y , and t h a t e l e m e n t o f f o r c e w h i c h e n s u r e s t h a t p e o p l e a b i d e by t h e i r own d e c i s i o n t o pay t h e p r i c e o f s o c i a l l i v i n g . 3 0 U n d e r l y i n g much o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f s o c i a l i s m i s f e e l i n g that  t h e i n d i v i d u a l has a s t r o n g p o t e n t i a l  e x p l o i t i n g h i s f e l l o w men. n a t u r e o f man i n t h i s  respect,  but m e r e l y  recognizes  t h e r e f o r e , must be t h e d e l i b e r a t e  of  to prevent  desires.  that  instinct.  Socialism,  the cost of o t h e r s ,  for  He d o e s not e l a b o r a t e on t h e  each i n d i v i d u a l h a s a s e l f i s h and a s o c i a l  society  the  organization  i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e s b e i n g pursued at  but not  s o much a s t o s t i f l e  The s t a t e must e n s u r e t h a t  individuals  individual are  31 prevented  f r o m e x p l o i t i n g one a n o t h e r .  d o e s not  have t h e r i g h t  strictly  p e r s o n a 1 - - s u c h a s r e l i g i o u s and a r t i s t i c  In f a c t ,  s o c i a l i s m i s the attempt  personal  f r e e d o m s o f man w h i l e e n s u r i n g h i s  w e l l - b e i n g w i t h i n the Nyerere's f r e e d o m at 3 0  very p.  things which  to enlarge  the  however,  are beliefs. real  security  and  collective. liberal  the time of  Ibid.,  to regulate  The s t a t e ,  269.  a t t i t u d e toward  personal  independence a l s o extended t o  the  political  sphere.  He p l e d g e d t h a t  the r i g h t  of  political  sense because  the i n d i v i d u a l  the  s t a t e would  protect  t o t h i n k and be d i f f e r e n t  i t would thus f o r c e the  in a  constant  32 r e - e v a l u a t i o n and a d j u s t m e n t By  1964,  however,  tougher a t t i t u d e  e v e n t s had t r a n s p i r e d w h i c h i n regard to personal  t h e s e was t h e Army m u t i n y o f start  of  the F i v e Year  Both of these  nation,  January,  Development  led to a  liberties. 19&4.  One o f  A n o t h e r was  P l a n i n t h e same  individual  rights.  was e s t a b l i s h e d a s t h e p h y s i c a l and t h e s e c o n d was t h e  ment o f t h e n a t i o n a s a w h o l e .  The  security  the  year.  s e r v e d t o c r e a t e new p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e  which took precedence over priority  o f p r i o r i t i e s and p o l i c i e s .  nation  first of  the  s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p If  necessary,  individual  f r e e d o m was t o be s a c r i f i c e d t o t h e p u r s u i t o f  these  33 objectives. of  Thus, w h i l e the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of  s p e e c h , movement,  recognized that great  for  and a s s o c i a t i o n w e r e r e s p e c t e d ,  As a  pleasure.  ing these measures, Nyerere, Ibid.,  was  result,  d e t e n t i o n measures were i n s t i t u t e d which  an i n d i v i d u a l t o be h e l d i n c u s t o d y w i t h o u t  President's  it  a h a n d f u l o f d e t e r m i n e d p e o p l e c o u l d do  damage t o t h e new and f r a g i l e n a t i o n .  preventive  freedom  p.  Nyerere  Freedom and U n i t y , 314.  trial  s p e n t much e f f o r t  and a d m i t t e d t h a t  in  they were i n op. c i t . ,  allowed  p.  at  the  explainconflict 122.  w i t h b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s he had e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l i e r .  fact,  apart  f r o m Z a n z i b a r w h i c h has a d i f f e r e n t  these  powers h a v e been u s e d s p a r i n g l y - - i n s o f a r as i n f o r m a -  tion  is available  to judge.  a r e a common f e a t u r e that  they  Nyerere  exist  i n Tanzania i n d i c a t e s that attitude  necessary--no matter government m i g h t  f i n d s that  r u l e are  sometimes the  be.  of N y e r e r e ' s the greatest  especially  social emphasis It  in fact,  human e q u a l i t y  t o the  If  one  and p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t  takes one  i s p l a c e d on t h e v a l u e or  a p p e a r s a g a i n and a g a i n i n  in relation  "Socialism is,  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  freedom  how r e a s o n a b l e and r e s p o n s i v e  p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y . writings,  fact  discussion,  C o n c l u s i o n - - T h e key v a l u e o f e q u a l i t y . an o v e r v i e w  The  toward i n d i v i d u a l  c o e r c i v e measures of  measures  even though  i n g o v e r n i n g t h r o u g h r e a s o n and  he r e a l i z e s t h a t  system,  Preventive detention  o f modern A f r i c a n s t a t e s .  has a t o l e r a n t  and b e l i e v e s  legal  In  to s o c i a l i s m .  For  his  instance,  the a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of  social,  society,"  34  e c o n o m i c , and p o l i t i c a l  and:  The R u l e o f Law and E q u a l i t y b e f o r e t h e Law a r e one e s s e n t i a l means o f p r e v e n t i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n . But t h e y a r e o n l y p r a c t i c a l when t h e s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e i s b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y - w h e n , i n o t h e r w o r d s , a s o c i a l i s t p o l i c y i s b e i n g f o i l owed. 35 ^Nyerere, 3  Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , o p . c i t . ,  5 i b i d . , . 304. p  p.  303-  Socialism is equality never that  really  and e q u a l i t y  defines equality  he a s s u m e s t h a t  i t s meaning i s  respect  i s used.  In  and d i g n i t y among a l l  i n regard  to race r e l a t i o n s .  approximate e q u a l i t y Politically all  it  government  theory  contexts  sense i t  of h i s t o r y ,  of  thought  fact,  is  i t means  in his  t h e commitment It  i s here  that  it  i s up t o t h e  s o c i a l i s m i s an  s u c c e s s of  that  is  really  of  His  p r i n c i p l e s which  he  H i s b a s i c method o f ideas.  It  i s b a s e d on  come t o a c c e p t  daily  individual.  ' a t t i t u d e of m i n d ' ,  socialism will  to  He d o e s not h a v e a  lives.  c a n o n l y do so much i n a r r a n g i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e that  living.  o f t h e n a t u r e o f man o r  the people of Tanzania w i l l  p r i n c i p l e s and a p p l y them i n t h e i r  After  the  progress through time.  to implement.  inherent  equal  especially  h i s thought  simply expressed.  t h o u g h t c o n s i s t s o f a few b a s i c m o r a l  hope t h a t  to  society.  in actual  h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l  implementation i s  refers  and f r e e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f  o r an a n a l y s i s  promises t o attempt  the  society,  Economically  Nyerere's  see t h a t ,  s i m p l e , and i s  seems  l o o k i n g at  d e f i n e d p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l i t y .  one c a n b e s t  It  One can  members o f  t o the f u l l  The e s s e n c e o f a vaguely  sense.  self-evident.  by  social  Nyerere  o f o p p o r t u n i t y and s t a n d a r d s o f  refers  people i n the  quite  the  socialism.  in a strict  b e s t d i s c e r n what he means by i t i n which i t  is  The  the state  structures.  He has o f t e n and t h a t  the  stated  the  depend on t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a  ,  national  or s o c i a l  t i o n s and t h e belief  e t h i c which w i l l  leaders remain t r u e t o t h e i r  will  become o b v i o u s t h a t ,  t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s t h a n he had hoped was  Responsive  c o r e v a l u e of e q u a l i t y by t h e f r e e d o m o f  stronger  essentials:  last  they  equality,  'democracy'  in  for a l l  evolved after  arena  their  revolves  around  f r e e d o m , and d i s c u s s i o n . setting  or headman g o v e r n e d w i t h a c o u n c i l  a consensus, after  major  decisions.  The in  whose  Decisions  and m i n o r i t y  long d i s c u s s i o n s r e s u l t e d  w h i c h t h e r e was c o l l e c t i v e  the consequences of the d e c i s i o n .  process cannot  Nyerere's  i s manifested i n the p o l i t i c a l ,  i n v o l v e d an e x p r e s s i o n o f m a j o r i t y  opinions;  to  necessary.  section,  i s d e r i v e d from the t r a d i t i o n a l v i l l a g e  rarely  steps  the i n d i v i d u a l s t o p a r t i c i p a t e  c o n s e n t was n e c e s s a r y  for  i n the  His conception of  which the c h i e f  fact,  Government  As m e n t i o n e d b r i e f l y  government.  In  is  a s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e Army  enforce  last  His  t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new s o c i e t y .  e v e n t s h a v e f o r c e d him t o t a k e  three  institu-  purpose.  mutiny,  (c)  the  i n the i n d i v i d u a l , i n c l u d i n g those i n a u t h o r i t y ,  a f r a g i l e basis for it  ensure that  responsibility  Obviously  be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n a t i o n a l  in  this  system,  but  N y e r e r e m a i n t a i n s a commitment t o f r e e and open d i s c u s s i o n within  the c o n t e x t of  consensus of  t h e one p a r t y — w h i c h  the n a t i o n .  besides freedom, e q u a l i t y  represents  The o t h e r e s s e n t i a l and d i s c u s s i o n ,  is  of the  the  democracy, regular  opportunity  for  the people t o j o i n together  in  reinstating 36  or r e p l a c i n g the Democracy but  it  government  i s one e s s e n t i a l  must e x i s t  by means o f t h e b a l l o t part  of  the  socialist  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the  box.  society,  socialist  organi-  z a t i o n of the r e s t of the s o c i e t y . The f r e e d o m o f t h e p e o p l e t o c h o o s e t h e i r own r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i s i m p o r t a n t , but i t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r tant that the p e o p l e ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s should possess t h e f r e e d o m and power t o e x e r t e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o v e r those s e c t o r s of the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n for which t h e y h a v e been g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . And none o f t h e s e t h i n g s i s p o s s i b l e unless every other aspect of s o c i e t y - i t s e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and l e g a l o r g a n i z a t i o n - i s s u c h a s t o e m p h a s i z e and s e r v e m a n ' s e q u a l i t y . A political democracy w h i c h e x i s t s i n a s o c i e t y of gross economic i n e q u a l i t i e s , or of s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y , i s at best i m p e r f e c t , and a t w o r s t a h o l l o w s h a m . 3 7 In  r e g a r d s t o democracy  he d i s p l a y s t o w a r d It  is  necessary  Nyerere  the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of  to create  n a t i o n as a whole t o t r u l y against  tyranny.  expresses the  an e t h i c  social  in  s a f e g u a r d d e m o c r a c y and statement  attitude  principles.  of behaviour  A c o n s t i t u t i o n or  by t h e m s e l v e s c a n n o t  same  of  the guard  principles  do t h i s .  . . . d e m o c r a c y i s a d e c l a r a t i o n o f f a i t h i n human n a t u r e , t h e v e r y t h i n g we a r e s t r u g g l i n g t o s a f e g u a r d h e r e , the v e r y i d e a of democracy i s a d e c l a r a t i o n o f f a i t h i n m a n k i n d . And e v e r y enemy o f d e m o c r a c y i s some p e r s o n who somewhere h a s no f a i t h i n human b e i n g s . 3 8  Nyerere,  Freedom and Uni t y ,  op. c i t . ,  Nyerere,  F r e e d o m and S o c i a 1 i sm, o p . c i t . ,  Nyerere,  Freedom and Uni t y ,  op. ci t . ,  p. 1 0 3 . p.  p. 1 7 5 .  5*  He d i s p l a y s is  shrewd p o l i t i c a l sense i n t h i s  in effect  statement,  t e l l i n g the p e o p l e of T a n z a n i a ( i n  for that  1962)  a n y o n e who o p p o s e s h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f d e m o c r a c y d o e s not the i n t e r e s t s of the people at  1963  it  state.  and p r e p a r a t i o n b e f o r e i t  became a r e a l i t y .  that  t i m e by N y e r e r e  c r e a t i o n of the one-party c o n c e p t i o n of N y e r e r e ' s Basically,  ruling  was d e c i d e d i n p r i n c i p l e t h a t  s h o u l d become a o n e - p a r t y  a d v a n c e d at  state  It  party)  Tanzania  t o o k two y e a r s o f The  and t h e p a r t y  for  g i v e us the best  a t t i t u d e s towards  the  possible  democracy.  t h e r e a r e two s t r a n d s o f a r g u m e n t .  One i s  as b e i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o T a n z a n i a , and t h e  c o n c e r n s t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g p o p u l a r i t y o f TANU. t h e A n g l o - S a x o n model t h a t is  i s c o n s i d e r e d most  l i f e d i d not h a v e s u c h .  different  tives  Differences  g r o u p o f p e o p l e do n o t h a v e  One p a r t y  society.  A national  at  any  one  representa-  needless d i v i s i o n s  party would ensure that  of  represent  i n Tanzania would r e p r e s e n t  w h o l e n a t i o n and w o u l d p r e v e n t  of  final  groups w i t h i n the n a t i o n , meaning t h a t  i n power.  other  Traditional  The two or more p a r t i e s i n t h e West  time a s i g n i f i c a n t  demo-  inappropriate  o p i n i o n w e r e s p o n t a n e o u s and f r e e and l e d t o a consensus.  the  The f a c e t  t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an o r g a n i z e d o p p o s i t i o n .  African political  study  arguments  r e j e c t i o n o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n model o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y cracy  have  heart.  At t h e A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e o f TANU ( t h e in January,  he  the  within  no d i s c o n t e n t e d  groups were l e f t  out,  c r i t i c i s m and f r e e  and w o u l d h a v e n o t h i n g t o f e a r  e x p r e s s i o n w i t h i n the  from  party.  The e x i s t e n c e o f t w o or more s t a b l e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i m p l i e s a c l a s s s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y , and we a i m a t a v o i d i n g t h e g r o w t h o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s i n our c o u n t r y . 3 9 Nyerere there  feels  that  two p a r t i e s w o u l d o n l y be j u s t i f i e d when  i s a fundamental  d i f f e r e n c e over  n a t i o n — not m e t h o d s — a n d t h a t  the  goals of  d i f f e r e n c e w o u l d be  the  so hO  fundamental Otherwise, little  that  it  would probably warrant  two p a r t i e s  play a needless  a civil  p o l i t i c a l game w i t h  t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e m , and t h e y  prevent  a p o o l i n g of t a l e n t  i n the n a t i o n ' s  k e e p i n g many good p e o p l e o u t o f one t i m e . necessity interest  Nyerere's  war.  serve  to  service  by  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n at  c o n c e p t i o n of democracy  rejects  o f b a r g a i n i n g and c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n  Instead,  the  different  g r o u p s — w h i c h has e v o l v e d as the c r u x o f  d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c s i n the West.  any  pragmatic  he b e l i e v e s  that  a p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m a n d p r o c e s s c a n be b a s e d on c o n s e n s u s , while  still Apart  dissent,  t a k i n g i n t o account from the  theoretical  t h e r e was a v e r y  t o be f a c e d .  d i f f e r i n g viewpoints.  real  practical  T a n z a n i a was a l r e a d y  39ibid.,  p.  134.  ^°Ibid.,  p. 1 9 6 .  arguments about  unity  r e a l i t y which  a one-party  state.  and had Since  1958 only one Member of Parliament not belong t o TANU.  had been e l e c t e d who d i d  The people had i n d i c a t e d that  accepted the p r i n c i p l e s and p o l i c i e s of TANU. the system at that  state,  the  because the people saw no  p l a t f o r m and d i d not have a c h o i c e as t o methods  or i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the TANU s t r u c t u r e .  They j u s t  stamped any TANU candidate that was put forward. independence movement u n i t e d v i r t u a l l y behind Nyerere and TANU. attacks  effect,  stage was l e s s democratic than a f t e r  c r e a t i o n of the one-party alternative  In  they  rubber-  The  the whole of Tanzania  With somewhat wry humour he  the p e t t i n e s s of those Westerners who i n s i s t e d that  a strong organized o p p o s i t i o n was e s s e n t i a l  t o democracy.  . . . i t c o u l d hardly be expected that a u n i t e d country should h a l t i n mid-stream and v o l u n t a r i l y d i v i d e i t s e l f i n t o opposing p o l i t i c a l groups j u s t for the sake of conforming t o what I have c a l l e d the 'Anglo-Saxon form of democracy at the moment of independence.41 1  At the time of independence Tanzania was an unusually united country, it  and, i n comparison with most other  enjoys a remarkable  rivalries.  It  one-party  state.  low l e v e l  of t r i b a l  only seemed l o g i c a l But  it  that i t  states,  and geographic would become a  would be dangerous to  generalize  from the Tanzanian experience t o the r e s t of A f r i c a . determining f a c t o r  i n Tanzanian u n i t y was not  The  traditional  political  behaviour,  so that  cannot be used t o suggest  one-party r u l e i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o a l l There are many p o t e n t i a l system which Nyerere  recognizes.  that  of A f r i c a .  dangers i n a one-party He has s t r e s s e d that TANU  must remain open and undogmatic, and be a channel  for  grievances and o p i n i o n s t o reach the l e a d e r s h i p .  Even  before independence he w r o t e : We b e l i e v e i n f a c t that a second party w i l l not need t o grow provided that a broad two-way channel of ideas and i n f o r m a t i o n i s maintained through TANU between the people and the Government. It i s the establishment and maintenance of t h i s channel of communications which i s the real problem of democracy i n Tanganyika, not the establishment of an a r t i f i c i a l opposi t i on. 42 The c r u c i a l ability  aspect of the one-party  system i s  of the party to encompass and s a t i s f y  all  the  interest  groups and d i f f e r i n g p o i n t s of view, and t o ensure that all  have access t o decision-makers.  quered h i s t o r y  in achieving this  Nyerere r e s i g n e d i n meaningful. the one-party  In  1961 to t r y  which r e v e a l e d that  TANU has had a c h e -  goal.  As noted p r e v i o u s l y ,  to make the party more  1966, one year a f t e r  state,  they  the establishment  of  a study of the party was undertaken i t was severely  suited to serving i t s  l a c k i n g in o r g a n i z a t i o n  purpose of being a b r i d g e between  the  43 people and the government. Ibvd.,  h2  p.  The most obvious f a u l t s  seem  134.  ^3see Harry Bienen, Tanzani a ; Party T r a n s f o r m a t i o n and Economic Development ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967).  t o have  been  in  when t h e  1967  people  party  A recent  by N y e r e r e  tions,  after  given  that  significant  he w o u l d not time  to  The p r a c t i c a l one-party  elections.  the  state  to  two o f  the  those  The c a n d i d a t e s  were  the  seek the  Arusha D e c l a r a t i o n  task  the  of m o b i l i z i n g  new  o r g a n i z a t i o n of of  the  National  Executive  presented not  to  allowed  the  the  run i n each to  elec-  question  would  party. a demo-  question  sent  of  announce-  1 9 7 5 but  o p e r a t i o n of  e l e c t i o n were  the  general  in  r e v o l v e d around the for  was  the  re-election  the  socialist  development  1970, after  details  Candidates  constituency choose  was  i n October,  then devote h i s  cratic  somewhat  t o u n d e r s t a n d and implement  measures. ment  rectified  from  of each  party.  They  constituency. the  basic  kk philosophy the in  of  foreign  the  policy  1965 c e n t e r e d  d a t e s and  local  no c h o i c e  for  Zanzibar  the  concerns  government.  familiar  to  Thus,  selected  another  'yes'  against  him t h e  candidate Assembly Identical  or  individual  the  people.  Nyerere,  'no'  for  parties  to  was d e c i d e d the  or issues  candi-  There  was  Afro-Shirazi Party  and s u b m i t t e d  it  election  the  TANU and t h e  to vote  had v o t e d  Almost  down i n t h e TANU C r e e d  on a common c a n d i d a t e ,  asked  National  laid  around the worth of  majority  In t h e  of  as  President.  agreed  p e o p l e were  party  him. would  him t o that  National  and  the  If  the  have the  public.  t h e r e would  Ethic.  of  be  no party Whips e n s u r i n g the c o r r e c t v o t i n g of members. d i s c u s s i o n and v o t i n g was to be f r e e and open.  All  Another  i n n o v a t i o n was the opening of party membership to a l l  civil  servants and government employees, even members of the armed forces. civil  The absence of more than one party meant that  servants need not keep t h e i r  impartiality,  there would be no changes of government. that a l l  members of s o c i e t y  t h e i r views and p a r t i c i p a t e  It  the  because  was a l s o  felt  should be allowed t o express i n the p o l i t i c a l  process.  At  the same time as the one-party proposals were implemented, a Permanent  Commission on the Abuse of Power was  which reported d i r e c t l y t o have d i r e c t officials,  to the P r e s i d e n t .  access to i t ,  All  people were  not through TANU or  and i t would r e c e i v e and i n v e s t i g a t e  and make recommendations to the P r e s i d e n t .  established  local complaints  The e x i s t e n c e of  such a body i s a frank admission by a government that administrative  system and i t s  personnel are i m p e r f e c t .  an admission i s unusual i n new nations--where  and e f f i c i e n c y  The e l e c t i o n s of practicality  than i n a d m i t t i n g t h e i r 1965 were the f i r s t  of the new measures, and they  succeeded with honour.  Such  governments  are o f t e n more concerned with defending the images of integrity  its  test  their  weaknesses. of  the  seemed t o have  Racism seemed t o have been overcome  when Indians and Europeans were e l e c t e d over A f r i c a n i n predominantly A f r i c a n c o n s t i t u e n c i e s .  rivals  A European and an  I n d i a n c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r were a l s o r e - e l e c t e d was a l a r g e  turnover  of p o l i t i c i a n s .  in  There  1970.  Twenty-two  out  of  t h i r t y - o n e TANU o f f i c e h o l d e r s w e r e d e f e a t e d ,  as were  of t h i r t y - o n e  i n c l u d i n g two  s i t t i n g Members o f P a r l i a m e n t ,  Cabinet m i n i s t e r s .  T h i s seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  n o t been enough p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c i a n s and t h e i r election  and p e r s o n a l  there  had  between  the  c o n s t i t u e n t s i n the p a s t ,  served t o shock the  i n v o l v e d at  contact  the grass-roots  In h i s t h e o r e t i c a l  sixteen  and  the  s u r v i v o r s i n t o becoming level.  w r i t i n g s Nyerere  has never  really  examined the q u e s t i o n of the degree o f a u t h o r i t y which s t a t e must e x e r c i s e i n o r d e r its  g o a l s and i d e a l s .  individual society  liberty  to ensure the implementation of  H i s f e e l i n g s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f  and h i s c o n c e r n f o r a  seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  authority  Man-centered  he w i s h e s t o  a s much a s p o s s i b l e .  Ideally,  decentralize  he w o u l d  s e e d e c i s i o n s and p r i o r i t i e s e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e  like  of  for  the party  is  t o have i t  Experiences  efforts  i n the r e a l i t y  power and t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n people around i d e a l s , acquiesce i n the authority  however,  His  a s s i s t i n g i n the e x p r e s s i o n  p e o p l e ' s w a n t s and c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e i r  have them r e a l i s e d .  to  local  s e t t i n g and b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d by t h o s e most c o n c e r n e d . ideal  the  i n order of  exercising  mobilizing  seem t o h a v e l e d h i m t o  seemingly i n e v i t a b l e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  i n a modern s t a t e .  to  He h a s a l s o been hampered by  the f a c t  that  h i s d e d i c a t i o n and commitment t o t h e  i d e a l s o f t h e n a t i o n have n o t been e q u a l e d by t h a t of h i s f e l l o w  l e a d e r s and p a r t y e x e c u t i v e s .  l e d him t o s t r e n g t h e n h i s p e r s o n a l question,  This  leadership.  and h i s t h o u g h t s on l e a d e r s h i p , w i l l  i n the next  chapter.  stated of  some  t o o has  This be e x a m i n e d  CHAPTER  IV  LEADERSHIP Leadership, commands g r e a t e r  as a s o c i a l  than i n older ones.  t i e s and e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o u r 1  concept  a t t e n t i o n and i s more o f t e n a s u b j e c t  d e b a t e i n new s t a t e s  'developed  and p o l i t i c a l  patterns  The  responsibili-  of p o l i t i c a l  leaders  granted.  L i t t l e controversy  p u b l i c debate develops around l e a d e r s h i p behaviour g o e s beyond w e l l  established social  their that  however,  leaders.  are  Their  the p o l i t i c a l  a colonial against.  set  still  of  evolving  pattern  s t r u g g l e and w i n , or m a i n t a i n ,  of the p e o p l e .  I n many new s t a t e s  there  more e m p h a s i s p l a c e d on e s t a b l i s h i n g b e h a v i o u r which would ensure the  ensure the e f f i c i e n t state.  of  were which  the  has  been  patterns  l e g i t i m a c y and c o n t i n u a t i o n o f  l e a d e r s h i p t h a n on d e v e l o p i n g b e h a v i o u r  fact  struggled  the o l d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n they  o b l i g e d to e s t a b l i s h a d i s t i n c t i v e behaviour  loyalty  for  taken the p l a c e  r u l e r s whose a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e y  their  Newer  norms o f b e h a v i o u r  l e a d e r s have r e c e n t l y  it  norms--such  s i t u a t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e  Having a t t a c k e d  would j u s t i f y  or  unless  a s i n t h e c a s e o f c o r r u p t i o n or c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y . nations,  in  n a t i o n s h a v e e v o l v e d t h r o u g h t i m e t o become  e s t a b l i s h e d and t a k e n f o r  explicitly  for  the  p a t t e r n s which would  s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c p r o g r e s s o f  T h u s , what W e s t e r n o b s e r v e r s w o u l d c a l l  the  corruption,  i s o f t e n t o l e r a t e d a s a u s e f u l means o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e political  loyalty  President  o f some s e g m e n t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . Nyerere's  c o n c e p t i o n of l e a d e r s h i p  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by two g e n e r a l  precepts.  t o keep  firmly within  leadership behaviour  i d e a l s of the s o c i e t y .  is  One i s t h a t the  he  seeks  socialist  I n t h i s way he d o e s n o t c r e a t e a  d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n m a i n t a i n i n g l e g i t i m a c y and f u r t h e r i n g societal  p r o g r e s s , but a t t e m p t s t o m a i n t a i n t h e l o y a l t y  t h e p e o p l e by d e v e l o p i n g l e a d e r s h i p b e h a v i o u r serve s o c i a l that  and e c o n o m i c p r o g r e s s .  The s e c o n d p o i n t  that is  h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p i s not r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e  political  sphere but e x t e n d s t o c o v e r  what may be c a l l e d  the ' e l i t e ' .  defined in educational cal  patterns  of  leaders,  university  down t o t h e d i s t r i c t p a r t y  chief,  educational  peop1e--such a s d o c t o r s ,  staff,  the few b u s i n e s s  leaders.  small,  and e a c h i s  able  social  influence i f  that  all  they  All  politi-  c a n be  servants,  all  engineers-  s e n i o r m i l i t a r y and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , and  very  of these  be  qualifications.  lawyers,  I n any d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y  number o f p e o p l e i n c l u d e d i n a l l  whether  can best  terms.  a l s o i n c l u d e s the s e n i o r c i v i l  professional  total  The e l i t e  and o c c u p a t i o n a l  included regardless of their The e l i t e  the whole spectrum of  these categories  is  i n a p o s i t i o n t o command c o n s i d e r he s o d e s i r e s .  Nyerere  people are i n p o s i t i o n s of  like it  the  considers  leadership  or n o t , and c o n s e q u e n t l y they  must  conform t o the  social  norms o f  w o r k e d out by t h e new The b e h a v i o u r encourage  i n the  t h e emergence o f o f an E l i t e - - a t o the  respect.  patterns  that  selfish,  elitist  i n the  and o c c u p a t i o n a l  scarce  e l i m i n a t i o n of behaviour  the  therefore,  this  cannot living,  h a v e t o command g r e a t e r  respect  society  is  rewards  first,  privilege will  be e l i m i n a t e d .  are i n d i c a t i o n s that In  the  This,  Nyerere  xv-xvi.  all  certain  r e m a i n , but  elitist  again,  seems t o be a  of a f f a i r s ,  but  h a s had some s u c c e s s  "Preface,"  p  treat  Thus, a  1968 he c l a i m e d t h a t  Nyerere,  pp.  that w i l l  and d i g n i t y .  v i s i o n o f q u i t e an i d e a l i s t i c s t a t e  Ibid.,  of  i n income and s t a n d a r d s o f  s t r a t a of  a c c e p t a b l e degree of  ^See  directly  g r o s s d i s p a r i t i e s , and s e c o n d , norms o f  people w i t h equal  achieving i t .  idea  t h e common man a s  What he i s w o r k i n g f o r  among a l l  attitudes will  s t r a t a must,  does r e c o g n i z e t h a t  skills will  t h a n common o n e s .  The  and m u t u a l  patterns  themselves with  Nyerere  mean c o m p l e t e e q u a l i t y  upper  prevent  society.  i d e a l s of e q u a l i t y  to  themselves  e x p l o i t a t i v e s e n s e and  attitudes  socialist  much a s p o s s i b l e .  and t h a t  is trying  p r i v i l e g e d , powerful m i n o r i t y - - i s  be s u c h a s t o i d e n t i f y  ci t.  Nyerere  The a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r  educational  being  stated  i n the e l i t e are designed t o destroy  a s an e l i t e  contrary  leadership behaviour  there  in  t h i s was t h e  case.  2  Freedom and S o c i a 1i sm, o p .  Part of the reason f o r  success i s that Nyerere  gone i n t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i n d e t a i l . I  shall  look at  Later  in t h i s  chapter  some s p e c i f i c measures he has taken  create a s o c i a l i s t i c  l e a d e r s h i p behaviour  has  to  pattern.  Some of  these stem from h i s examination of the r o l e played by education i n producing e l i t e s  and e l i t i s t  attitudes.  He  f e e l s that the education system, s t a r t e d i n the c o l o n i a l era,  tended to equate s t a t u s with education and bred  subservient  attitudes  i n those without  served to d e n i g r a t e manual social it  It  also  labour and place the highest  esteem on w h i t e - c o l l a r  f o s t e r e d the s p i r i t  education.  jobs.  of i n d i v i d u a l  to destroy the t r a d i t i o n a l  Apart from a l l achievement  communal v a l u e s .  not change markedly u n t i 1 a f t e r "Education for S e l f - R e l i a n c e "  J  and helped  The system d i d  Arusha and the appearance of i n March, 1967.  meantime, the school leavers and u n i v e r s i t y f o s t e r e d on the n o t i o n that  this,  In  the  graduates were  graduation was a t i c k e t  wages, comfortable employment i n c i t i e s ,  t o high  and personal  status.  h Until  the s t r u c t u r a l  changes s t a r t e d i n  on e x h o r t a t i o n to destroy e l i t i s t I96I  pp.  1 9 6 7 Nyerere  attitudes.  As e a r l y  relied as  he t a l k e d about the dangers of an E l i t e when a d d r e s s i n g  Found i n Nyerere,  267-290.  Freedom and Socia 1i sm, op.  ^To be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V.  cit.,  the f i r s t  students at  o u t s k i r t s of Dar Es  the TANU a d u l t  education c e n t r e on the  Salaam.  You are not being t r a i n e d as ' l e a d e r s ' who do a l l the t h i n k i n g f o r o t h e r s to f o l l o w b l i n d l y ; i f any student leaves b e l i e v i n g t h a t , the C o l l e g e w i l l have f a i l e d in i t s task. Kivukoni C o l l e g e i s not intended to be a c o l l e g e f o r an E 1 i t e . 5 What seems t o be one of N y e r e r e ' s is  intellectual  uneducated.  arrogance--the  This in i t s e l f  strongest  dislikes  educated d e s p i s i n g the  serves t o i l l u s t r a t e  Nyerere's  moral s t r e n g t h , f o r he i s one of the most educated and intellectual to his  of T a n z a n i a n s .  socialist  ideals  In a way N y e r e r e ' s  serves t o i n d i c a t e  commitment  that  the c o l o n i a l  education system could not have been as bad as he sometimes makes i t  out t o be--for i t  produced him.  At the time he  r e c e i v e d h i s M.A. from Edinburgh he was the most educated of any T a n z a n i a n . Nyerere  A reportedly  gave t o some v i l l a g e r s  Western  impromptu speech  on Mafia Island i n  February,  I966 i s a good example of h i s s i m p l e , earthy communication with people as well as h i s view of e d u c a t i o n . " L e a d e r s Must Not Be M a s t e r s " . ^ the f a c t authority  that  the c o l o n i a l  and assume that  He expressed h i s  sorrow at  there was no point i n the  Freedom and U n i t y ,  Found i n Nyerere, 136-142.  titled  leaders and educated men know  people t a l k i n g to leaders about t h e i r  pp.  is  system had l e d the people t o f e a r  e v e r y t h i n g , which meant that  ^Nyerere,  It  problems and i d e a s .  op. ci t . ,  p.  122.  Freedom and Soci a! i sm, op.  cit.,  T h i s i s a bad h a b i t . . . . What i s t h e m e a n i n g o f leadership? When you a r e s e l e c t e d t o l e a d your f e l l o w men, i t d o e s not mean t h a t you know e v e r y t h i n g b e t t e r than they do. I t d o e s not e v e n mean t h a t you a r e more i n t e l l i g e n t than they are - e s p e c i a l l y the e l d e r s . ( H e r e he m e n t i o n s t h a t h i s u n e d u c a t e d m o t h e r i s n o t a f r a i d of g i v i n g him a d v i c e . ) Does i t mean t h a t a - p e r s o n who d o e s not h a v e f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i s a f o o l ? What d o e s e d u c a t i o n mean? An u n e d u c a t e d man has a b r a i n g i v e n t o him by G o d . Does a man become a goat b e c a u s e he i s u n e d u c a t e d ? . . . I t may be t r u e t h a t I am e d u c a t e d ; but how c a n t h i s mean t h a t I am more i n t e l l i g e n t t h a n my m o t h e r ? 7 In  regards to leadership, Nyerere's  i s w i t h the p o l i t i c i a n s .  He has s p e n t  primary  concern  some t i m e i n  i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e y e n c o u n t e r when m a k i n g t h e t i o n from a g i t a t o r s f o r  independence  strators  During the independence  in authority.  explaintransi-  to responsible administruggle  i d e n t i f i e d i n t i m a t e l y w i t h t h e p e o p l e ; t h e y a t e and w i t h them. prestige,  Then, suddenly,  they were t h r u s t  pomp and p r i v i l e g e .  It  they  lived  i n t o power  and  is extremely d i f f i c u l t  for  any i n d i v i d u a l t o make t h i s t r a n s i t i o n and not be  overwhelmed  by h i s new e n v i r o n m e n t  empathy  and q u i c k l y  l o s e t o u c h and  w i t h t h e p e o p l e f r o m whom he h a s come. q u e s t i o n of the m o t i v a t i o n of the a g i t a t i o n for asked, Nyerere  all  independence.  is also  in  At t h e t i m e no q u e s t i o n s were identified  some o f them d i d not  goal.  have  c o n v i c t i o n s , but were m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e  Nyerere,  the  l e a d e r s who t o o k p a r t  w e r e w o r k i n g t o w a r d s an e a s i l y  has suggested t h a t  socialist  There  Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , o p . c i t . ,  p.  to  140.  place  themselves  at  the  apex of wealth  and p r e s t i g e  gene-  o rated of  by  the  white  capitalism.  general  population,  men a f t e r  education  much at  the  campaign  political  which would o r i e n t  road  rather started  of  "Ujamaa,  absence  thought  The B a s i s is  into  When one t a l k s usually  thinks  decisiveness, these are Police think the  of  College  Members o f  express of  p.  Nyerere,  of  on t h e  and h i s  Nyerere  writing his of  the  little  of  the  necessity  agrees  of  at  that the  ability  and  He has a l s o  to  understand  spoken  having  to  the  30. op. ci t . ,  one  competence,  students  clearly,  F r e e d o m and U n i t y ,  as  independence.  honesty,  to  as  elitist  i n Western c o u n t r i e s  talked  yourself 9  decisions.  Parliament  Ibid.,  before  a  large,  His resignation  h i s awareness  and c h a r m .  he a l s o  and  suggests that  leadership  that  socialist  Socialism" during  When s p e a k i n g  .in I96I  implications  also  t h i s matter  eloquence,  logically,  It  such q u a l i t i e s  necessary.  era.  like  directed  building a  capitalist  i n d i c a t i o n of  of  living  parts  p o p u l a t i o n at  independence  of A f r i c a n  large  soon r e a l i s e d  the  toward  colonial  a new a p p r o a c h . had gone  at  on t h e  s i x weeks a f t e r  from o f f i c e  need f o r  as  country  d u r i n g the  for  had t o be u n d e r t a k e n ,  than c o n t i n u i n g  Prime M i n i s t e r  Nyerere  leaders  the  be t r u e  who saw t h e m s e l v e s  independence.  massive  state  T h i s may a l s o  p. 1 2 4 .  courage  to follow their may r e s u l t  consciences  i n personal  of the personal ent  unpopularity.  qualities  leader  perspectives  a different  p l a t i t u d e s about  i s s u e s , even though 10  of the i d e a l  f r o m t h a t o f most o t h e r  few d i f f e r e n t  on b a s i c  people.  Thus, leader  He d o e s ,  w h i c h may make t h e  kind of i n d i v i d u a l .  Apart  his  leaders  and w o r k i n g w i t h  really  conception  i s no d i f f e r however, add a Tanzanian from the  s e r v i n g and g u i d i n g t h e m a s s e s ,  e m p h a s i s on t h e  it  i d e n t i f y i n g with  usual  he  places  the  people  them.  They must l i s t e n t o t h e p e o p l e , and t a l k w i t h t h e m . T h i s i s not j u s t a q u e s t i o n o f h o l d i n g p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , and g i v i n g m a g n i f i c e n t s p e e c h e s . I t means w o r k i n g w i t h t h e p e o p l e on t h e s e l f - h e l p p r o j e c t s , t a k i n g p a r t i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , c o n s t a n t l y t r a v e l l i n g , and d i s c u s s i n g t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e n a t i o n , t h e r e g i o n , and the v i i l a g e . 1 1 A r u s h a and i t s attitude  aftermath  toward  produced a change  leadership,  as i t  it  intensified  c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon t h e i d e a l s o f e q u a l i t y following quotation serves to i n d i c a t e sovereignity  of  the i n d i v i d u a l  official  d i d w i t h many o t h e r  A l t h o u g h t h e c h a n g e was not d r a s t i c ,  the  i n the  the  and d i g n i t y .  that his b e l i e f  was,  if  topics.  The in  anything,  hei ghtened. L e a d e r s c a n n o t do a n y t h i n g FOR t h e p e o p l e . We c a n o n l y p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n , g u i d a n c e and o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e p e o p l e t o b u i l d t h e i r own c o u n t r y for themselves. L e a d e r s o f T a n z a n i a s h o u l d not be  10 N y e r e r e , Ibid  p.  Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , 92.  op. c i t . ,  p.  95-  m a k i n g p r o m i s e s ; we c a n n o t f u l f i l them f o r o t h e r s . We s h o u l d not be c o m p l a i n i n g ( a b o u t e x t e r n a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f p o l i c i e s ) ; c o m p l a i n t s h e l p no o n e . We s h o u l d know t h e f a c t s o f T a n z a n i a ' s s i t u a t i o n , u n d e r s t a n d them, and g i v e g u i d a n c e t o t h e p e o p l e i n the l i g h t of them.12 T h i s i s a much more open a t t i t u d e leaders  and t h e  people than  c o u n t r i e s - - e s p e c i a 11y t h o s e 'socialist'.  to the  i s f o u n d i n most that  consider  A more u s u a l a t t i t u d e  l e a d e r s h i p as the vanguard o f c o m m i t m e n t , whose d u t y ignorance to the There are  new  it  part  media,  on t h e o t h e r  lead the  opinion that  p e o p l e out  tend  hand,  Western  to progressive  of  Africa.  African  governments  tend t o downplay the  the Western observers  It  Ibid.,  observers,  and  It  they  i s my these  provide  problem of a n a l y s i n g the c u r r e n t  394-395-  news  importance of  over-emphasize  c a n a l s o be s u r m i s e d t h a t  pp.  states  development  and e v e n i g n o r e them c o m p l e t e l y .  to the  their  t o emphasize t h e s e problems and  p r o b l e m s and p r o b a b l y f o c u s on them b e c a u s e easy answers  of  a curious public  p a r t s of the w o r l d .  of these s t a t e s .  these factors  the  p r o b l e m s i n new A f r i c a n  the main h i n d r a n c e s  on t h e  themselves  s o c i a l i s t t h i n k i n g and  i s to  two c u r r e n t  in different  them as  African  Utopia.  especially journalists, see  between  i s to regard  - - t r i b a l i s m and c o r r u p t i o n - - w h i c h e n j o y exposure  relation  African  reality  leaders  d o w n p l a y t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t h e hope t h a t  by m i n i m i z i n g  p u b l i c e x p o s u r e t h e s e p r o b l e m s may v e r y w e l l many A f r i c a n s t a t e s unpleasant  tribalism is  III,  Nyerere  concerned.  is  realistically  follows this  It  is  take a  possible for  tribal  from o t h e r A f r i c a n  t o admit that  he f e e l s  loyalties  it.  Other  i d e a l s may f e e l  fundamental  to  the  willingness  embarrassment which  perspective  i s best  denied.  In  of  public trust  i960,  the t h e f t  enemies of  and i g n o r a n c e . a nation.  He f e l t  by t h o s e  this  of p u b l i c f u n d s ,  e v e n b e f o r e he came t o  a s one o f  c o r r u p t i o n would  P e o p l e w o u l d h a v e no c o n f i d e n c e i n  for  power,  soci ety--a long with p o v e r t y , that  of  in  or the use of i n f l u e n c e  N y e r e r e d e n o u n c e d c o r r u p t i o n i n government fundamental  part  on l e a d e r s h i p , f o r c o r r u p t i o n i n  t h r o u g h such a c t i o n s as  gain.  to  i t s very existence i s a  s e l l i n g of p u b l i c f a v o u r s ,  personal  other  statesmen espousing s o c i a l i s t  that  c o n t e x t means t h e b e t r a y a l authority  die  Nyerere  The c o n c e r n w i t h c o r r u p t i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l Nyerere's  that  C o r r u p t i o n , on t h e  leaders i n his  as  c o r r u p t i o n e x i s t s and i n h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n  do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t or other  As was  different  p r o b a b l y f l o u r i s h e s i n s u c h an a t m o s p h e r e .  stands apart  In  p a t t e r n as f a r  probable that  away t h r o u g h t i m e and i n a t t e n t i o n . hand,  ignored.  He d o e s , h o w e v e r ,  approach to c o r r u p t i o n . it  f a d e away.  t r i b a l i s m and c o r r u p t i o n seem t o be  bogymen whose e x i s t e n c e i s b e s t  seen i n C h a p t e r  their  the disease  destroy the  government  and no b e l i e f  is corruption . . . .  I  that  j u s t i c e could p r e v a i l .  believe myself  that  "There  corruption 13  s h o u l d be t r e a t e d  i n almost  t h e same way a s t r e a s o n . "  s t r o n g s t a n d h a s been m a i n t a i n e d e v e r spoke t o the newly e l e c t e d p o l i t i c i a n s against friends, gifts  or  that  National  finding jobs for  l e n d i n g them government w o u l d put them u n d e r  since.  His  In  I965 he  A s s e m b l y and  advised  their  family  f u n d s , or  social  and  accepting  obligations to  other  people.  Members o f t h i s H o u s e , and o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t , w i l l be w e l l a d v i s e d not o n l y t o r e s i s t c o r r u p t i o n , but a l s o t o c o n d u c t t h e m s e l v e s i n s u c h a manner t h a t i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e y a r e not c o r r u p t e d . 1*+  This  i s an a m a z i n g s t a t e m e n t  parliament, party  especially  right  o r government w i l l  image o f t h e i r members, behaviour  on t h e p a r t  unique personal  try  t o be h e a r d i n any after  an e l e c t i o n .  Normally a  to maintain a perfect  not q u e s t i o n t h e i r  of Nyerere  public  honesty.  This  i s a n o t h e r example of  s t y l e as a p o l i t i c i a n .  q u a l i t i e s o f c o u r a g e and f r a n k n e s s . again i n that  country's  It  his  It  certainly  shows  is  demonstrated  i m p r o m p t u s p e e c h he gave on M a f i a I s l a n d  in  1966. I f we do not remove f e a r f r o m our p e o p l e , and i f we do not a b o l i s h t h e two c l a s s e s o f m a s t e r s and s e r v a n t s  Nyerere,  Freedom and Uni t y ,  op. ci t . ,  p.  Nyerere,  Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , o p . c i t . ,  82. p.  95«  82  from our s o c i e t y , c l e v e r people w i l l emerge from among us to take the place of the Europeans, Indians and Arabs. These c l e v e r people w i l l continue t o e x p l o i t our f e a r f o r t h e i r own b e n e f i t . And we leaders can become the c l e v e r p e o p l e . 1 5 Nyerere has taken a number of p r a c t i c a l t o ensure that the  In  Not a l l  1961, after  of these are mentioned TANU came t o power,  s a l a r i e s of Government M i n i s t e r s were c u t . reduced again i n servants.  has not been m a i n t a i n e d .  In  that  In  trend  ministerial  There was a l s o o p p o s i t i o n t o the new c o n s t r a i n t s  placed upon the l e a d e r s h i p a f t e r  not.  this  Some of them had  been v i g o u r o u s l y denouncing a plan t o i n c r e a s e  all  civil  1 9 6 8 seven M.'P.'s were s u s -  pended from TANU by the party e x e c u t i v e .  whether  the  They were  1 9 6 7 , as were those of senior  There are i n d i c a t i o n s , however,  pensions.^  try  l e a d e r s h i p remains uncorrupted and  committed to the p e o p l e . in his writings.  steps t o  \>  Arusha.  It  i s not  those who opposed the measures l e f t  clear  p o l i t i c s or  I 9 6 6 Nyerere i n d i c a t e d i n a speech that TANU  officials  had been barred from owning f a r m s . ^  In  I 9 6 5 he  admitted that the government had made a mistake i n purchasing  b i g c a r s for the use of Regional  were withdrawn.  l 5  Ibid.,  16 1969),  These were the c e l e b r a t e d Mercedes Benzes  p. 1 4 1 .  See Clyde Sanger,  p. 6 9  Commissioners, and they  ^Nyerere,  H a l f A Loaf  ( T o r o n t o : Ryerson,  Freedom and S o c i a l i s m ,  loc.  cit.  w h i c h h a v e become a symbol o f  t h e new e l i t e  i n East  In Kenya a new w o r d has e n t e r e d t h e S w a h i l i W a b e n z i - - t h o s e who d r i v e  i n Mercedes  a l s o undertaken a s e r i e s of identify  himself with  t i on was p u b l i s h e d i n walked t o t h e i r  Benzes.  After  J a n u a r y , 1967  many g r o u p s o f  r e g i o n a l TANU h e a d q u a r t e r s support.  In  t i t l e d "Pomposity".  pomposity.  In  or e v e n t o Dar  October Nyerere  it  he a t t a c k e d t h e  officials,  growing  including  roads i n f r o n t  He a t t a c k e d h i s own b e h a v i o u r  calling it  In  government  even a minor o f f i c i a l appeared i n  ling o f f i c i a l s .  walked  d i g n i t y was b e i n g c o n f u s e d w i t h  and u s i n g p o l i c e e s c o r t s t o c l e a r  regard,  people  He m e n t i o n e d s u c h t h i n g s a s s i n g i n g t h e  Anthem w h e r e v e r  Declara-  C o n f e r e n c e i n Mwanza.  p u b l i c o s t e n t a t i o n o f government saying that  has  to  the A r u s h a  1963 he c i r c u l a t e d an a m a z i n g memo t o a l l  himself,  Nyerere  symbolic acts designed  134 m i l e s t o t h e TANU N a t i o n a l  officials  language,  the p e o p l e .  Es S a l a a m t o show t h e i r  Africa.  "Presidential  in  sheer National  public, of  travel-  this  Pomp".  . . . a s a r e s u l t o f g r o w i n g i n s i s t e n c e on p o m p o s i t y and o s t e n t a t i o n , t h e P r e s i d e n t o f T a n g a n y i k a i s f a s t b e c o m i n g t h e w o r s t p u b l i c n u i s a n c e t h e c i t y o f Dar Es S a l a a m h a s e v e r had t o put up w i t h i ^ ° He f e l t  that  this  s e r v e d t o annoy  sort  o f b e h a v i o u r was not  democratic,  p e o p l e , and c r e a t e d a r t i f i c i a l  Nyerere,  Freedom and U n i t y ,  op. c i t . ,  barriers  p.  225  between the  leaders and the people.  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d a f t e r  Behaviour  was s a i d to  the c i r c u l a t i o n of t h i s memo.  His concern with the s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l  gap between  the educated and the uneducated has led him to take harsh measures with students who demonstrated e l i t i s t He has i n d i c a t e d that  it  takes the incomes of f i f t y  people to keep one student has demanded that  attitudes.  in university  f o r one year,  the s t u d e n t s ' main ambition be i n  the masses who have allowed them the p r i v i l e g e of university.  In  serving  attending  i n the newly-created  National  Here was the new e l i t e  p r i v i l e g e s for  granted.  s o c i a l and e l i t i s t  Service.  already  taking  He l e c t u r e d them on t h e i r  Most were re-admitted a year  later.  episode a five-month work camp was i n s t i t u t e d f o r  r e q u i r e d for a l l  This  and two years of National  their  anti-  a t t i t u d e s and d i s m i s s e d them a l l  entering university,  from the  After  Service  "The gap between the  that  all  persons completing secondary s c h o o l .  I969 an observer wrote that  of  being r e q u i r e d t o  was too much.  university.  and  1966 394 students demonstrated i n f r o n t  h i s r e s i d e n c e , State House, against participate  ordinary  was In  privileged  19  and the poor has c l o s e d  noticeably."  The Arusha D e c ! a r a t i on was mainly devoted t o t o p i c s of s o c i a l i s t  economic development and the p r i n c i p l e of S e l f -  Sanger,  op. c i t . ,  p.  66.  Reliance.  But a s m a l l , s i g n i f i c a n t  leadership.  It  first  promised that a l e a d e r s h i p  program would be i n s t i t u t e d at a l l that a l l  section dealt  levels  with training  i n order to ensure  leaders understood the economic and p o l i t i c a l  p o l i c i e s of the p a r t y . of d i r e c t i v e s for  It  then l a i d out a r i g o u r o u s set  l e a d e r s h i p behaviour as  follows?  The Arusha R e s o l u t i o n a)  Leadershi p 1. Every TANU and Government leader must be e i t h e r a peasant or a worker, and should i n no way be a s s o c i a t e d with the p r a c t i c e s of c a p i t a l i s m and f e u d a l i sm. 2.  No TANU or Government i n any company.  leader  should hold shares  3. No TANU or Government leader should hold d i r e c t o r ships i n any p r i v a t e l y owned company. h.  No TANU or Government more sa 1 a r i es.  leader  5.  No TANU or Government leader which he r e n t s t o o t h e r s .  should r e c e i v e two or should own houses  6. For the purposes of t h i s r e s o l u t i o n the term ' l e a d e r ' should comprise the f o l l o w i n g : Members of the TANU National E x e c u t i v e ; M i n i s t e r s ; Members of P a r l i a m e n t ; senior o f f i c i a l s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s a f f i l i a t e d t o TANU; senior o f f i c i a l s of p a r a - s t a t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a l l those appointed or e l e c t e d under any c l a u s e of the TANU c o n s t i t u t i o n ; c o u n c i l l o r s ; and c i v i l servants i n the high and middle c a d r e s . (In t h i s context ' l e a d e r ' means a man, or a man and h i s w i f e ; a woman, or a woman and her husband.  20  p. 249.  F o u n d i n Nyerere,  Freedom and Soci a l i sm, op.  cit.,  These the party,  stringent  but  they  demands w e r e a c c e p t e d u n a n i m o u s l y  d i d not  go u n o p p o s e d i n p r i v a t e .  number o f M . P . ' s and TANU o f f i c i a l s w e r e f o r c e d t o t h e m s e l v e s o f e x t r a h o u s e s , but them m e r e l y their  s i g n e d them o v e r  spouse.  it  A  rid  i s probable that  t o a more d i s t a n t  some o f  relative  Two p r o m i n e n t members o f t h e p a r t y  by  than  resigned,  and t h e r e may h a v e b e e n many more m i n o r o f f i c i a l s .  The  two  w e r e O s c a r Kambona, a f o u n d i n g member, S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l  of  the p a r t y ,  and a C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r , and B i b i  a l s o a f o u n d i n g member and P r e s i d e n t TANU.  B o t h o f them c l a i m e d t h e y  personal  reasons.  Bibi  Titi  h o u s e s and was a d i r e c t o r  Mohamed,  o f t h e women's arm o f  had r e s i g n e d f o r  health  Mohamed owned a number  of at  least  i n power  was  his  Kambona and  but h i s i n f l u e n c e had d e c l i n e d s i n c e he had  demonstrated incompetence i n a s t r i n g of d i f f e r e n t After  r e s i g n a t i o n he l e f t  the country  Ministries.  for England.  s a i d t o h a v e handed o u t many j o b s t o i n c o m p e t e n t  (who w e r e removed a f t e r houses,  his departure),  owned a t  He  friends  least  five  and d u r i n g one n i n e t e e n - m o n t h p e r i o d d e p o s i t e d  t 4 5 , 0 0 0 i n one bank a c c o u n t - - w h i c h was e i g h t as h i s  or  of  one company.  was t h o u g h t t o be s e c o n d o n l y t o N y e r e r e popularity,  Titi  salary  for  the  t i m e s a s much  period. ^ 2  See B u s i n e s s and Economy o f C e n t r a 1 and East S e p t e m b e r , I967 and M a r c h , 1 9 6 8 .  Africa.  I n f a c t M r . Kambona was b a d l y o u t o f s t e p w i t h present-day Tanzania. H i s power was c r e a t e d i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e s t r u g g l e , but a s t h e e m p h a s i s s h i f t e d f r o m s o a p - b o x o r a t o r y t o p r a c t i c a l p l a n n i n g he became a demagogue.22 Kambona seems t o h a v e been a n e x a m p l e o f t h e p o l i t i c i a n who c o u l d not make t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m t h e t o p r o g r e s s i v e government w i t h o u t for  personal  gain.  independence  exploiting his  He i s one o f t h o s e N y e r e r e  a s h a v i n g had a c a p i t a l i s t m o t i v a t i o n f o r dence.  Public  seen w h e t h e r  African states.  It  referred  to  t h e r e a r e many  r e m a i n s t o be  T a n z a n i a has got r i d o f them a l l  them t o c h a n g e t h e i r  position  seeking indepen-  r e p o r t s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  more Kambonas i n o t h e r  struggle  or  persuaded  minds.  C o n c l u s i on Nyerere's fundamental  i d e a s about  l e a d e r s h i p a r e not  s o much  v a l u e c o m m i t m e n t s a s means o f e n s u r i n g  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of h i s  socialist beliefs.  his  i n regards to  i d e a s and a c t i o n s  the  The e v o l u t i o n  leadership  behaviour  shows c o n s i s t e n c y and a c o n t i n u i n g commitment t o t h e of e q u a l i t y , It  d i g n i t y , w o r k by a l l , e x p l o i t a t i o n by  a l s o demonstrates that  expect  even h i s c l o s e s t  as a whole,  t o accept  it  and  let  alone the  ideals  none.  has n o t been r e a l i s t i c  colleagues,  of  to  country  l i v e by t h e i d e a l s o f t h e  nation  " " W h y Kambona S k i p p e d , " B u s i n e s s and Economy o f C e n t r a l and E a s t A f r i c a . V o l . I ( S e p t e m b e r , 1967), p p . 1 5 - 1 6 .  without  the e x i s t e n c e of  t o ensure t h e i r personal  s p e c i f i c c o e r c i v e measures  compliance.  The u n i q u e n a t u r e o f  designed Nyerere's  l e a d e r s h i p has been h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o s t i c k  to  h i s i d e a l s and m a i n t a i n a c o n t i n u a l , e v o l v i n g s t r u g g l e  for  their  realization.  leave  their  i d e a l s on p a p e r and succumb t o t h e h a r s h ,  Other  serving r e a l i t i e s of  l e a d e r s h a v e been c o n t e n t  government.  Nyerere  d e m o n s t r a t e d shrewd p o l i t i c a l j u d g e m e n t policies. t o admit  I know o f no o t h e r  government.  way a s t o add t o h i s  interest-  h a s t i m e and  Nyerere  of  living is  Among t h e p o p u l a t i o n at so low,  much o f t h e i r It  l e a d e r and a l i e n a t e  but n o t b e y o n d t h e  Nyerere  has used the  and g o v e r n m e n t ,  a b l e p o s i t i o n as the  their  behaviour  for  i s s u e of  virtuous the  authority  he w o u l d h a v e an u n a s s a i l -  i n i t i a t o r and d e f e n d e r  of  t h e o f f i c i a l s w o u l d be s u b j e c t q u e s t i o n e d by h i m .  of  realm of p o s s i b i l i t y ,  T h i s i n t u r n would strengthen h i s  s h i p norms w h i l e  of  popular.  l e a d e r s h i p norms t o m a i n t a i n h i s own p o p u l a r i t y among  over the p a r t y  his  t h e p u b l i c moves t o d e p r i v e t h e e l i t e  may be c y n i c a l ,  population.  only  l a r g e , whose s t a n d a r d  o s t e n t a t i o u s w e a l t h were e x t r e m e l y  t o suggest that  courage  i n such a  t h o s e s e g m e n t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n who w e r e o p p o s e d t o ideals.  his  so much c o r r u p -  has d o n e t h i s  s t a t u r e as a  again  i n c a r r y i n g out  l e a d e r who h a s had t h e  t o the p o s s i b i l i t y or p o t e n t i a l  tion in his  to  the to  leaderhaving  The  key q u e s t i o n o f c o u r s e i s w h e t h e r he c a n make h i s  l e a d e r s h i p norms b i n d i n g . but  the  outcome w i l l  t o make them s t i c k . use o f at cal  least  is  It  appears  at  t h r e e methods:  i n regard  still  too e a r l y t o  tell,  be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e m e t h o d s he  i m p e r a t i v e , and m i l d  behaviour  It  present  personal  coercion.  that  and  there are  no doubt many i n t h e  who  have a h i g h  try  t o emulate h i s behaviour.  respect  he i s m a k i n g  example,  His personal  t o t h e s e norms i s o f t h e  ideologistandard  highest  p a r t y and c i v i l  f o r h i m as a  leader  The f a c t  and  that  chooses  of  order,  service  obviously  strict  leader-  s h i p r u l e s a r e w r i t t e n i n t o t h e A r u s h a D e c 1 a r a t i on makes them p a r t  of the  s o c i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y , so no p u b l i c  having a sincere desire consider  b r e a k i n g them.  t o be an A f r i c a n  s o c i a l i s t can  P e r s o n a l example and  ideological  i m p e r a t i v e probably take care of the m a j o r i t y of officials who  involved,  are w i l l i n g  u n l e s s they are  but  to take  there are always those personal  rules are  laid  do not a g r e e w i t h their  government  advantage  have not  down i n a p a r t y them must  o f any  positions.  document,  leave the  over  situation  strict.  and t h o s e who  p a r t y and r e s i g n  Whether or not a c o n t i n u a l  Close s c r u t i n y , physical  extra-legal  left  been o v e r l y  p e r i o d i c c h e c k i s made on i n d i v i d u a l s ' ported.  the  r e s o l u t e l y p r e v e n t e d from d o i n g s o .  N y e r e r e ' s c o e r c i v e measures The  figure  behaviour i s  intimidation,  p u n i s h m e n t s w o u l d n o t be c o n s i s t e n t  from or  unre-  and h a r s h with  Nyerere's is  possible that  tion If not  respect  for  the  he i s not  freedom  of the  being harsh  individual,  enough.  d o e s not  it  w i 1 1 be b e c a u s e h i s  been s u f f i c i e n t l y  strong.  it  The c o m b i n a -  o f t h e s e t h r e e t a c t i c s may p r o d u c e t h e d e s i r e d  it  but  effect.  c o e r c i v e measures  have  ECONOMIC AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT If  economic development  g r o w t h o f per c a p i t a  i s d e f i n e d i n terms of  i n c o m e and t h e  Gross N a t i o n a l  Product,  and t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f a m o d e r n i z i n g s o c i e t y , concern of t h i s c h a p t e r development.  i s w i t h f a r more t h a n  Economic d e v e l o p m e n t raising  wealth,  i s only concerned with t h i s i f  basic  social  equality goal  but  it  and c o o p e r a t i o n . it  certainly  it  serves  respect,  Increasing wealth  i d e a l s w h i c h a r e most r e l e v a n t  last  is a  primary social  two c h a p t e r s .  i n t h i s context are  p r o d u c t i o n , work by a l l  none.  increase  w e a l t h a r e u s e d a s means o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e s o c i e t a l the  societal  i d e a l s are used to  t h e m e t h o d s by w h i c h w e a l t h w i l l ideal  theoretical  in  be i n c r e a s e d .  its activities  This is  raising  standards of  e x p e c t a t i o n of t h e i r  living.  the  Nyerere  c o n c e r n i n g what i s  p r i m a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the governments of a l l - - s a t i s f y i n g the m a t e r i a l  goals.  determine  framework which T a n z a n i a under  attempts t o u t i l i z e  The  sharing  and e x p l o i t a t i o n by  The m e t h o d s and p r o g r a m s u n d e r t a k e n i n o r d e r t o  Or, c o n v e r s e l y ,  the  dignity,  occurs i n conformity with the  and p o l i t i c a l i d e a l s e x a m i n e d i n t h e  of j o i n t  the  l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s and c r e a t i n g more  goals of the nation--mutua1  of Tanzania i f  then  economic  in Tanzania i s  concerned with  the  As we s h a l l  new  nations  p e o p l e s by  see i n  the  this  chapter,  the attempts  in their  intensity  to u t i l i z e  through  A c t i o n s From I n d e p e n d e n c e  the framework have  time. to  1967  Even p r i o r t o i n d e p e n d e n c e N y e r e r e major  r e a l i s e d that  t a s k o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d be t o i m p r o v e  standards,  the  living  t h i s w o u l d not be e a s y .  At the time of  i n d e p e n d e n c e he a t t e m p t e d t o p o p u l a r i z e t h e  s l o g a n Uhuru na  Kazi,  and t h a t  varied  " F r e e d o m and W o r k " ,  people that  Uhuru d i d not  of U t o p i a .  In the area  the f i r s t  i n order signal  t o i m p r e s s upon  the automatic  o f e c o n o m i c and r u r a l  the  attainment development  s i x y e a r s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e a r e m a r k e d by e x h o r t a -  t i o n s to b u i l d a s o c i a l i s t  s o c i e t y and by a s e r i e s  of  actions that  seem more o r i e n t a t e d t o w a r d n u r t u r i n g  productivity  o f t h e s e m i - c a p i t a 1 i s t economy i n h e r i t e d  the c o l o n i a l  regime.  equality, society,  talks a lot  d i g n i t y , h a r d work and c r e a t i n g a but t h e s e a p p e a r  remain at August,  Thus, Nyerere  the  level  of  t o be g e n e r a l  rhetoric.  the from  about  classless  p r i n c i p l e s which  A typical  example  in  1964:  The p e o p l e and t h e Government o f t h e U n i t e d a r e a i m i n g t o b u i l d a j u s t s o c i e t y o f f r e e and c i t i z e n s , who l i v e i n h e a l t h y c o n d i t i o n s , who t h e i r own d e s t i n y , and who c o - o p e r a t e t o g e t h e r o t h e r p e o p l e i n a s p i r i t o f human b r o t h e r h o o d mutual b e n e f i t . 1  Nyerere,  Freedom and U n i t y ,  op. ci t•,  Republic equal control and w i t h for  p. 3 1 1 .  He a l s o e l o q u e n t l y  d i s c u s s e d t h e r e l a t i o n between  wealth,  p r o d u c t i o n and human h a p p i n e s s . . . . production i s important. It i s important to t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t s e r v e s man, and h i s i n t e r e s t s a s he c u r r e n t l y sees them. But p r o d u c t i o n i s not t h e p u r p o s e o f s o c i e t y ; h u m a n i t y ' s p r o g r e s s must be m e a s u r e d by t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h man i s f r e e d f r o m t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e need t o p r o d u c e . When t h e demands o f ' e f f i c i e n c y ' and ' p r o d u c t i o n ' o v e r r i d e m a n ' s need f o r a f u l l and good l i f e t h e n s o c i e t y i s no l o n g e r s e r v i n g man, i t i s u s i n g him. 2 F o r a new and v e r y  poor c o u n t r y t h i s  is certainly  an  i d e a l i s t i c v i e w p o i n t which would f i n d d i f f i c u l t y i n u n d e r s t o o d by t h e mass o f  t h e p e o p l e who a r e  s e e k i n g some new m a t e r i a l  comforts.  difficult  to convince those i n poverty  a means and not an e n d .  p o p u l a t i o n , who c o m p r i s e on p r o d u c t i o n r a t h e r  at  their  must be v e r y that  production  than  'society ?  If  1  'society , 1  social  wish to place  ideals it  the expense of the f o r m e r .  Nyerere  problem d u r i n g t h i s  makes i t  Thus,  in  T a n z a n i a he f l a t l y  2  1bid.,  pp.  1966  at  latter  possibly  seems t o h a v e been  it  to his  to itself  social  t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Bank o f  stated that  15-16.  the  difficult  p e r i o d , and a p p e a r s  s e a r c h i n g f o r a means t o r e l a t e  ideals.  using  emphasis  have a c q u i e s c e d t o p l a c i n g e m p h a s i s on p r o d u c t i o n by while  is  the bulk of  c o o p e r a t i o n i n implementing the  aware o f t h i s  desperately  When he s p e a k s o f " s o c i e t y  m a n " , who d o e s he r e g a r d a s  t o get  It  being  " O u r p e o p l e know t h a t  it  is their  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to increase  country,  and t h a t  the wealth  of  our  t h i s c a n o n l y be done by p r o d u c i n g more  goods. Significant  a c t i o n s which occurred d u r i n g the  I 9 6 I - I 9 6 7 i n c l u d e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t ment  C o r p o r a t i o n (NDC)  which  invests mostly  p r o f i t s for  future  in I965,  a para-statal  in industrial  expansions.  of the N a t i o n a l  projects  and r e t a i n s  The NDC m a i n t a i n e d a  of o p e r a t i o n u n t i l  I967,  and o p e r a t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p o l i c y  of  the  state.  practice, rejected  In  but  i n favour  of  s m a l l amount  stic  nature  flected prestige  private  under t h e  that  all  of  land.  The a c t u a l  land  takeover  belonged t o use  i n penny-pinching gestures.  frugality  He s p o k e  s e l f - d i s c i p i i n e and f r u g a l  development  efforts.  Nyerere,  nature  re-  and  of the  I965 a l c o h o l i c beverages  Freedom and S o c i a l i s m ,  as  morali-  against  p r o j e c t s designed to impress f o r e i g n e r s ,  p r a i s e d the  it  involved a  Now and a g a i n N y e r e r e ' s  surfaced with a desire for  In  ownership  l a n d was  and i n d i v i d u a l s had t h e r i g h t it.  Soon  traditional  ownership of  of the a t t i t u d e  n o t own and m a r k e t  very  l a n d was b r o u g h t  of  of  as p o s s i b l e .  conformity with African  the concept  t o the community,  investment  all  small  the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n measures  e n c o u r a g i n g a s much p r i v a t e independence a l l  Develop-  organization  level  after  period  op. ci t . ,  Chinese  were  p. 1 7 6 .  b a r r e d f r o m government  r e c e p t i o n s and t h e g u e s t s had t o make  do w i t h c o f f e e ,  soft  government  service  purchased that frequency were cut period, I968. ity,  except  drinks.  four-wheel  c o s t more t h a n k 9 0 0 .  Also,  no c a r s  for  d r i v e s w e r e t o be In  1966  the  s i z e and  o f d e l e g a t i o n s t o f o r e i g n c o n f e r e n c e s and m e e t i n g s down.  Two D e v e l o p m e n t  one f r o m I 9 6 I  t o 1963  P l a n s were i n i t i a t e d i n  and t h e o t h e r  from I964  They a c k n o w l e d g e d a g r i c u l t u r e a s t h e h i g h e s t  this  to  prior-  but more r e s o u r c e s w e r e put i n t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a n d  industrial in  t e a or  infrastructure.  1964 s t a t e d  necessary Plan. rural  that  i n order  In  1962  social  the o b j e c t i v e s  larger v i l l a g e s  mention of the term  occupy a prominent country after Nyerere  place  1  1964.  June,  Self-Reliance ,  1966  rely  In  itself  p.  58 o f  this  paper.  the  to the  1966  national  t h e c o u n t r y w o u l d h a v e t o do more  i n t h e way o f s e l f - h e l p and communal  See  came  on o u t s i d e  h e l p w h i c h was t o o l i t t l e and t o o c o m p r o m i s i n g t o i n d e p e n d e n c e , and t h a t  Settle-  language of  I967.  t h e c o u n t r y c o u l d not  the  increase  w h i c h was  1  i n the development  t h e A r u s h a Dec l a r a t i on i n  stated that  to  the V i l l a g e In  if  of grouping the  i n order  As a r e s u l t ,  ment P r o g r a m was i n s t i t u t e d i n first  Nyerere  l a i d down i n  he t a l k e d o f t h e n e c e s s i t y  production.  III,  f r e e d o m s w e r e t o be s a c r i f i c e d  t o meet  population in  agricultural  As n o t e d i n C h a p t e r  projects.  for  In  general,  development other  the p e r i o d p r i o r  p o l i c i e s that  rural in  were v e r y  new n a t i o n s - - c a p i t a 1  and u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t , areas.  with  The s o c i a l  the e l e c t o r a l  policy.  however, the  and N y e r e r e  social  ideals  concern,  method o f  if  t o t h o s e o f many infrastructure  not a c t i o n , f o r  present,  socialist  but he had y e t  One c a n n o t  t o work o u t a  s e e i n g them i n t r o d u c e d .  by a l l  leaders  in fault  b e l i e f s , even i n  His creative  imagination pressure  o f new n a t i o n s — t h e m a t e r i a l  expecta-  t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e must be s a t i s f i e d t o some d e g r e e a s as p o s s i b l e , or tened.  The f a c t  the very e x i s t e n c e of the regime that  his efforts  I 9 6 7 no d o u b t  i n f l u e n c e d him t o t r y  approach.  The o n l y  attempt  ideals  prior  and t h a t  was a  The V i l l a g e In the  to  t o implement  I 9 6 7 was t h e V i l l a g e  threa-  a new the  Settlement  social  Program,  failure.  Settlement  order  is  soon  had not met w i t h much  s u c c e s s by  real  the  practical  seems t o have been b l u n t e d by t h e e v e r - p r e s e n t faced  develop-  maintained consistency  he was c o n c e r n e d a b o u t . to his  patterns  e c o n o m i c and r u r a l  r h e t o r i c was a l w a y s  the  implemented  leadership behaviour  certainly  h i m f o r h i s commitment economic sphere,  similar  i d e a l s which were b e i n g  s y s t e m and  The s o c i a l  1 9 6 7 saw e c o n o m i c  e x p e n d i t u r e s on  w e r e not m o u l d e d i n t o a c o h e r e n t ment  to  Program  to preserve  same t i m e i n c r e a s e  the t r a d i t i o n a l  agricultural  values  productivity  and  at  Nyerere  e s t a b l i s h e d the V i l l a g e cultural It  Agency  in  to earn  to increase  agricultural  p l o t s of in  larger  agricultural tively  technical  land.  advice  the ownership of surplus.  methods on  their  output.  and s o c i a l if  services  necessary.  them modern  and t h u s  The government  farmers  small,  c o u l d share  such as t r a c t o r s ,  to  the  The s o l u t i o n was t o g r o u p  v i l l a g e s where they  and e v e n e l e c t r i c i t y  their  agricultural  equipment,  increase  for  the p o p u l a t i o n were s u b s i s t e n c e  w o r k i n g by t r a d i t i o n a l  together  in  f o r e i g n e x c h a n g e w i t h w h i c h t o buy goods  The b u l k o f  scattered  exports.  output  m o d e r n i z e t h e economy and p r o v i d e more s e r v i c e s people.  Agri-  1964.  products comprised the bulk of T a n z a n i a ' s  was t h u s n e c e s s a r y  order  Settlement  collec-  would  such a s r o a d s , The p e o p l e w o u l d  t h e modern e q u i p m e n t  and pay f o r  The V i l l a g e S e t t l e m e n t  Program:  it  provide water, share from  . . . was o r i g i n a l l y a i m e d a t t r a n s f o r m i n g c o m p l e t e l y a s e l e c t e d few a r e a s o f t h e T a n z a n i a n c o u n t r y s i d e i n t o coherent quasi-modern communities p o s s e s s i n g r a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s and i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . 5 The f i r s t  development  settlements,  plan provided for  each w i t h  t h e r e were t w e n t y - t h r e e  two h u n d r e d f i f t y  sixty-eight families.  functioning settlements  village By  I965  containing  3,300 p e o p l e .  J o h n N e l l i s , "The P l a n n i n g of P u b l i c Support f o r T a n z a n i a n R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t , " The J o u r n a 1 o f D e v e l o p i ng A r e a s , V o l . I ( J u l y , I 9 6 7 ) , p. 4 7 9 . D  In A p n ' 1 ,  1966 t h e p r o g r a m was d r a s t i c a l l y c u t b a c k  t o an e x p e r i m e n t a l  level.  The government  revealed that  had become f a r t o o e x p e n s i v e f o r t h e m , t h a t of  s k i l l e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and t h a t  v i t y was d i s a p p o i n t i n g l y 1ow.^  It  t h e r e was a  the s e t t l e r s ' appears that  it lack  producti-  the promises  o f f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s w e r e o f t e n not f u l f i l l e d , and that  t h e s e t t l e r s , who had been a t t r a c t e d by t h e h i g h  e x p e c t a t i o n s of q u i c k r e s u l t s and d r a m a t i c a l l y standards of l i v i n g ,  h a d become q u i c k l y  N y e r e r e a d m i t t e d a s much i n  increased  disillusioned.  1968.  When we t r i e d t o p r o m o t e r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e p a s t , we s o m e t i m e s s p e n t huge sums o f money on e s t a b l i s h i n g a S e t t l e m e n t , a n d s u p p l y i n g i t w i t h modern e q u i p m e n t , and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . . . we a c t e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e was a s h o r t c u t t o d e v e l o p m e n t in the rural areas. A l l t o o o f t e n , t h e r e f o r e , we p e r s u a d e d p e o p l e t o go t o new s e t t l e m e n t s by p r o m i s i n g them t h a t t h e y c o u l d q u i c k l y grow r i c h t h e r e , o r t h a t t h e Government w o u l d g i v e them s e r v i c e s and e q u i p m e n t . 7 John N e l l i s a l s o c l a i m s t h a t  the settlement  p r o g r a m was u s e d  as a ' c a t c h - a l l ' f o r t h e " b a c k t o t h e l a n d " e n t h u s i a s m which was b e i n g e n c o u r a g e d a t t h e t i m e .  I n f a c t , many o f t h e  u r b a n u n e m p l o y e d who had been f o r c i b l y removed f r o m t h e cities  seemed t o h a v e t u r n e d up i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t s ,  Ibid.,  along  p. 4 8 0 .  ' J . K. N y e r e r e , " F r e e d o m and D e v e l o p m e n t , " paper d e l i v e r e d t o t h e N a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e o f TANU ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) ; d i s t r i b u t e d i n mimeograph f o r m by T a n z a n i a H i g h C o m m i s s i o n , O t t a w a , p. 8 . C i t e d i n John R. N e l l i s , An E c o n o m i c T h e o r y o f D e v e l o p m e n t a l I d e o l o g y ; The T a n z a n i a n E x a m p l e , S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y , u n p u b l i s h e d  Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n ,  I969, p. 356.  with other  troublesome groups that Q  k e e p out o f harms way.  Obviously,  t o ensure the success of the  that  such r e c r u i t s d i d  to  little  scheme.  One o f t h e r e a s o n s t h a t was t h a t  t h e government w i s h e d  t h e r e was no c o h e r e n t  the Settlement  Program  and e m o t i v e i d e o l o g y  failed  provided  w o u l d h a v e s e c u r e d t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e m o t i o n a l  commitment o f  the  settlers.  Promises of m a t e r i a l  were used t o i n d u c e the people t o take p a r t , not f u l f i l l e d .  At the t i m e the s e t t l e m e n t s  1964 t h e c o u n t r y was w o e f u l l y  administrators.  Many c o l o n i a l p e r s o n n e l  e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m had not i n t r a i n e d manpower. careful  yet  short of  were  skilled  had l e f t ,  and  produced a s i g n i f i c a n t  Each o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t s  the  increase  required  The p e o p l e q u a l i f i e d t o c a r r y  r o l e s w e r e not a v a i l a b l e . r e c r u i t s and t h e  spelled failure. of these  were  o r g a n i z a t i o n and p l a n n i n g and a s t u t e h a n d l i n g o f  t h e new s e t t l e r s .  doubtful  and t h e s e  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s were a l s o a  p r i m e c a u s e of f a i l u r e . started in  rewards  It  S o , mismanagement  these  combined w i t h  l a c k o f an i n s p i r i n g i d e o l o g y  w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e  f a c t o r s was t h e most c r u c i a l , but  c o u l d be made t h a t  out  the  which  argument  t h e i d e o l o g y w o u l d not be n e e d e d i f  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e s e t t l e r s w e r e o f a h i g h c a l i b r e . T h i s w o u l d o n l y be t r u e i f  p.  479.  N e l 1 i s,  The  T a n z a n i a had t h e r e s o u r c e s  Journa1 o f Q e v e l o p i n g A r e a s ,  op.  to cit.,  make the settlements a success with government machinery, is,  technical  however,  training, f e r t i l i z e r s ,  inputs--with  etc.  these resources were not a v a i l a b l e ;  The f a c t the  s e t t l e r s would have had to provide f o r themselves and, at least  initially,  fices.  It  be prepared f o r very  i s probable that only an emotive ideology  g e n e r a t i n g high morale and c o o p e r a t i v e attracted  the people to p a r t i c i p a t e  his f i r s t  attempt  provide the necessary would give i t  s p i r i t would have  i n such a v e n t u r e .  t o implement h i s s o c i a l  comprehensive and s p e c i f i c  however,  hard work and s a c r i -  level  social  i d e a l s on a very  Nyerere had f a i l e d  to  impetus and m o t i v a t i o n which  a chance of s u c c e s s .  He d i d not give up,  and by 1967 a new attempt was i n the making.  The Arusha  Declaration  The Arusha D e d a r a t i on i s by now a widely and famous document. the f i r s t  In  Its  fame r e s t s on the f a c t  circulated that i t  frank admission by a new n a t i o n that i t s  ment e f f o r t was f a i l i n g , and that a r a d i c a l t o be undertaken.  It  for  re-appraisal  had  some time, and what i s now  accepted as a r e a l i s t i c  development:--that  develop-  said i n p u b l i c and o f f i c i a l l y what had  been murmured i n p r i v a t e f a i r l y widely  was  a i d i s inadequate,  sometimes damaging, and that  p e r s p e c t i v e on restrictive  significant  and  improvement i n a  c o u n t r y ' s wealth and standard of l i v i n g can only come about through the massive u t i l i z a t i o n of i t s b a s i c human r e s o u r c e s ,  a s o p p o s e d t o r e l y i n g on c a p i t a l - i n t e n s i v e high  level  of t e c h n o l o g i c a l  i t s main s i g n i f i c a n c e realities  skill.  years.  The D e c l a r a t i o n was t h e s t a r t  t o change t h i s  on h i g h l y people. vity  Nyerere  the s o c i a l  i n t h e past  of a concerted  six  attempt  situation.  Nyerere development  of the  but f o r  an a d m i s s i o n t h a t  o f t h e n a t i o n h a d not been r e a l i s e d  and a  observers  appraisal  a i d and f i n a n c e ,  and T a n z a n i a i t was p r i m a r i l y ideals  For o u t s i d e  lay i n i t s frank  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  projects  a d m i t t e d i n September,  plans prior  t o I967  n a c  19&7 t h a t  * concentrated  c a p i t a l i z e d p r o j e c t s which b e n e f i t e d The a t t e m p t s  economic t o o much  t o o few  at i n c r e a s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l  had s u c c e e d e d i n i n t r o d u c i n g c a s h - c r o p  producti-  farming:  But i n t h e p r o c e s s t h e o l d t r a d i t i o n s o f l i v i n g t o g e t h e r , w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r , and s h a r i n g t h e p r o c e e d s , h a v e o f t e n been a b a n d o n e d . F a r m e r s t e n d t o work a s i n d i v i d u a l s i n c o m p e t i t i o n and not i n c o - o p e r a t i o n with t h e i r neighbours.9 A number o f s u c c e s s f u l  farmers  had emerged whose  l a b o u r e r s d i d not r e c e i v e  a fair  w e r e p a i d minimum w a g e s .  The s p i r i t  and a c l a s s areas.^° rural  share o f the p r o f i t s , but of e q u a l i t y  s y s t e m was b e g i n n i n g t o emerge i n t h e  was b r o k e n , rural  Added t o t h i s was t h e o l d p r o b l e m o f t h e u r b a n /  split.  T h e r e was w i d e s p r e a d  ^Nyerere, 1 0  hired  Ibid.,  acceptance  Freedom a n d S o c i a l i s m , p.  343.  of the  op. ci t . ,  p.  342.  colonial  norms o f  s e l f i s h n e s s and i n d i v i d u a l  w h i c h was r e f l e c t e d  i n the b e l i e f  o n l y be f o u n d i n wage employment a real  that  advancement  t h e good l i f e  i n the towns. ^  danger of the n a t i o n b e i n g d i v i d e d  could  There  dramatically  between  t h e c o u n t r y and t h e t o w n s .  capital  u s e d t o m o d e r n i z e t h e t o w n s came f r o m o u t s i d e  w h i c h had t o be r e p a i d by c u r r e n c y and t h e v a s t  bulk of  d o e s t h i s mean? directly  of the urban. i n the r u r a l and t h a t  means t h a t  part of  which i s brought about repay  the wealth  of  a r e a s where 90 per c e n t  the  to the values  12  loans."  of e q u a l i t y  and  there  of hard work,  exploitation,  grass  borrowed  favour generated  of the p o p u l a t i o n  i s t o be any  lives,  the  adherence  justice.  r o o t s democracy,  and s h a r i n g o f j o i n t  z a t i o n o f t h e s e v a l u e s meant  "What  In  the n a t i o n i s  The A r u s h a D e c l a r a t i on r e - e m p h a s i z e d t h e values  by  i s w h e r e t h e e n e r g i e s and t h e r e s o u r c e s o f  n a t i o n must be c o n c e n t r a t e d i f  loans  benefit  p o p u l a t i o n was b e i n g e x p l o i t e d i n  Most o f  the  obtained through e x p o r t s ,  t h e p e o p l e who  not t h e o n e s who w i l l  the r u r a l  The g r e a t e r  the e x p o r t s were a g r i c u l t u r a l .  from development  money a r e effect,  It  was  that  no l o n g e r c o n t i n u e t o work f o r  absence  production. the r u r a l  individual  social  The  of reali-  population could  profit,  creating a  social  s y s t e m o f m a s t e r s and s e r v a n t s  on e q u a l i t y .  The t e r m i n o l o g y o f  significant.  The  possible  (or  permissable)  and most  s p e c i f i c part  analysis  of  i s necessary  i g n o r a n c e and d i s e a s e , But  It  i n order to  d e v o t e s much o f i t s  i s an a p p r o a c h t h a t  social  idea1s--as well  strict  noted  for  standard its  of a consumer-orientated  totally  contradicts  as b e i n g e c o n o m i c a l l y  of  own  society  luxury  Tanzania's  ruinous for a  The A r u s h a D e d a r a t i on i s e s s e n t i a l l y  commitment t o t h e q u a l i t y  that  eradicate  resources to non-durable  items,  was  stringent  and e n s u r e a d e c e n t  the c r e a t i o n of wealth  s a k e , and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  poor c o u n t r y .  'peasants  individual  The most  in society.  based  was  o f t h e D e c l a r a t i o n was t h e  the c r e a t i o n of w e a l t h  that  t y p e of  in Tanzania.  the p l a c e of w e a l t h  l i v i n g for a l l .  the D e c l a r a t i o n  no o t h e r  1  of  t h a n one  ' p e o p l e ' w e r e now r e f e r r e d t o a s  and w o r k e r s - - i m p l y i n g t h a t  poverty,  rather  a  life.  I t i s a commitment t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e a r e more important t h i n g s i n l i f e than the amassing of r i c h e s , and t h a t i f t h e p u r s u i t o f w e a l t h d a s h e s w i t h t h i n g s l i k e human d i g n i t y and s o c i a l e q u a l i t y , t h e n t h e l a t t e r w i l l be g i v e n p r i o r i t y . 13 T h e r e i s much e m p h a s i s p l a c e d on t h e p o i n t o f v i e w i s a myth t h a t money, site  for development.  had been a f f e c t e d  or c a p i t a l ,  that  it  i s the essenti a 1 prerequi -  The D e c l a r a t i o n c h a r g e d t h a t  by a m a l a i s e b r o u g h t a b o u t  by t h e  Tanzania belief  that  development  projects  they  were  by v a s t  to  backed  come from a b r o a d i n  was a v a i l a b l e . Dec!aration aid.  T h e r e was  not  amounts  the  Nyerere  realised  c o u l d not  that  of  form o f  and t h e it  enough,  be u n d e r t a k e n capital. loans,  futile  and t h e  Capital  and v e r y  co-authors  was  unless  of  to  the  rely  conditions  had  little Arusha  on it  outside was  14 offered  under u s u a l l y  Tanzania offered  possessed was  1  endangered  little  t o b r i n g about  labour  and c o o p e r a t i o n .  of  wells,  capital  wealth basis  it of  its  independence.  own c a p i t a l .  The  solution  S e l f - R e 1 i a n c e ' and mass m o b i l i z a t i o n o f  people  clinics,  of  Tanzania's  improvement  could a l l  through  Bridges,  roads,  be b u i l t  with  and much human p a r t i c i p a t i o n . represents,  development  can only efforts.^  be t h e The  their  own  schools, very  result  physical  medical  small  Money,  the  amounts  and  the  and not  the  Declaration  contained  a r i n g i n g c a l l t o a c t i o n on t h i s b a s i s . I n d u s t r i e s w i l l come and money w i l l come but t h e i r f o u n d a t i o n i s THE PEOPLE and t h e i r HARD WORK, e s p e c i a l l y i n AGRICULTURE. T h i s i s t h e meaning o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e . Our e m p h a s i s s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be o n : a ) The Land and A g r i c u l t u r e b ) The P e o p l e c ) The P o l i c y o f S o c i a l i s m and S e l f - R e l i a n c e , d ) Good Leader s h i p J °  Ibid.,  p.  239-  1 5  Ibid.,  p.  243.  1 6  Ibid.,  p.  246.  I H  and  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e a n a l y s i s  and e m o t i v e  rhetoric,  the  Declaration also contained proposals for extending  the  policy  and  of  s o c i a l i s m and s e l f - r e l i a n c e t o t h e towns  industries.  It  was r e g a r d e d a s e s s e n t i a l  that  all  the  means o f p r o d u c t i o n and e x c h a n g e be u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l p e a s a n t s and w o r k e r s ,  either  through cooperatives  or  major of  the  state. The A r u s h a D e c l a r a t i on i s not President  Nyerere,  but  however,  that  e x t e n s i o n of h i s  time.  political  It  is  for  his previous  Committee.  putting his  not  really  a  but  i s the  It  p a m p h l e t s and s p e e c h e s f i l l  These i n c l u d e : for  of  the  refines  e x t e n t and s k e t c h e s o u t  d i r e c t i o n s t h a t must be t a k e n i n o r d e r t o see them Subsequent  It  operational  ideas i n t o p r a c t i c e .  ideas to a greater  trends  that  further  p h i l o s o p h y examined i n  c h a p t e r s of t h i s paper,  blueprint  Executive  of  of a d r a f t  be r e g a r d e d a s r e f l e c t i n g t h e m a j o r  h i s thought at  earlier  t h e work  i s t h e amended r e s u l t  he s u b m i t t e d t o t h e TANU N a t i o n a l can,  solely  i n the  the  realized.  details.  17  " S o c i a l i s m i s not R a c i a l i s m " , ' " E d u c a t i o n 18 19 Self-Reliance", "The Purpose i s Man", " S o c i a l i s m and  17  18  Ibid.,  pp.  257-261.  Ibid.,  pp.  267-290.  Ibid.,  pp.  315-326.  Rural all  Development",  and " A f t e r  of which appeared i n  Frameworks f o r  I967.  t a t i o n of h i s i d e a l s are r e a l l y political  l e a d e r ' s thought.  political  thinker  the Arusha D e c l a r a t i o n " ,  the c r u c i a l  Nyerere's  rests heavily  p a r t s of any  p o s i t i o n as a  on the f a c t  produced a comprehensive set of d i r e c t i v e s Further  the implemen-  that  he has  of t h i s  nature.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of h i s thought would c o n s i s t of an  examination of the degree t o which h i s i d e a l s are now being enacted i n the day-to-day  life  o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s  paper.  of the that  it  social  last  section,  the real  attempted to r e c t i f y impetuses which  Settlement  Program.  to the U n i v e r s i t y - o f  of T a n z a n i a , but that As mentioned at  is  the end  s i g n i f i c a n c e of Arusha was the omission of s u c c e s s f u l  led t o the f a i l u r e  Nyerere i l l u s t r a t e d Cairo in A p r i l ,  of the this  Village  in a  I967 e n t i t l e d  lecture "The  V a r i e d Paths t o S o c i a l i s m " . . . . i t i s not good enough j u s t to d e p r i v e people of the i n c e n t i v e s of s e l f i s h n e s s . Development r e q u i r e s that these should be r e p l a c e d by e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l incentives. While these do not e x i s t , or t o the extent that they do not e x i s t , we have s e r i o u s l y to consider whether, and how f a r , we can dispense with the i n c e n t i v e s of p r i v a t e p r o f i t at that time.22  Ibid.,  pp. 337-366.  2 1  Ibid.,  pp. 389-409.  2 2  Ibid.,  2 0  p. 307.  State C o n t r o l of The Means of  Production  Nyerere enunciates very  clearly  be the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c o n t r o l The f a c t  over  what he c o n s i d e r s  the means of p r o d u c t i o n .  that a country wants to have c o n t r o l  economy has got nothing to do with i d e o l o g y ; nationalism. become l o c a l l y cance.  to  over it  its  i s economic  So, e n s u r i n g that f o r e i g n owned companies c o n t r o l l e d i s of l i t t l e i d e o l o g i c a l  "The r e a l  ideological  c h o i c e i s between  the economy through domestic p r i v a t e  enterprise  signifi-  controlling or doing so 23  through some s t a t e or other c o l l e c t i v e in  light  capital act.  of the f a c t in A f r i c a , i t  This in i t s e l f  that there  institution."  i s very  becomes necessary  little  p a r t s of i t s  p u b l i c ownership,  i s not s o c i a l i s m , f o r even a  industry.  "If  and cannot  control  over  fascist signifi-  people are not i n v o l v e d the p o l i c i e s  then p u b l i c ownership can lead t o f a s c i s m , not S o c i a l i s m r e q u i r e s that the rest policies,  private  f o r the s t a t e t o  s t a t e such as Nazi Germany could have c o n t r o l cant  leaders,  followed,  its  economic governing  norms--be designed t o serve the people and ensure that the c o n t r o l  in  socialism."  of the s t a t e - - i t s  i t s method of choosing i t s  have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o a f f e c t  But  J  they  of the economy.  Within two weeks of the Arusha D e c l a r a t i on the government had announced i t s  takeover  of key s e c t o r s of  the  economy,  and had c l e a r l y  government left  investors with a d e a r  w o u l d be welcome  (i.e.  the  forests,  minerals,  cations,  banks,  trade,  cement, other  to  which  and e l e c t r i c i t y ,  insurance,  i r o n and s t e e l , m a c h i n e - t o o l s ,  industry  large  of  trade,  plantations,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t i n g the  Some o f t h e s e w e r e a l r e a d y  c o n t r o l l e d by M i n i s t r i e s ,  C o r p o r a t i o n , or c o o p e r a t i v e s .  processing, wholesale fifty  o r more per  companies,  cent  trade,  whole-  economy,  t h e a b o v e goods and  n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n measures a f f e c t e d  communi-  a n d any  for  Development  the banks,  services.' the The  insurance,  and i m p o r t / e x p o r t t r a d e ;  control  shoe m a n u f a c t u r e r s ,  of the b r e w e r i e s , metal  land,  motor-cars,  plus those p r o v i d i n g parts  National  that  the  news m e d i a ,  i m p o r t and e x p o r t  they  partnership  pledged  s t a t e ) would have c o n t r o l  fertilizers, textiles,  large  or i n  The A r u s h a D e c l a r a t i o n  oil  This  i n d i c a t i o n of where  i n p o s i t i o n s of c o n t r o l  government.  the people  sale  extent  c o n t r o l w o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n t h e f u t u r e .  private  w i t h the  s p e l l e d out t h e  dealers,  food  and  tobacco  cement,  and  26  the  sisal  future  industry.  All  t h e s e were t o be p a i d f o r  p r o f i t s under terms which were a c c e p t a b l e  companies concerned except company  of  affected.  Bata Shoe--the o n l y  to a l l  Canadian  from the  N a t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s a common p o l i c y o f governments t o d a y . satisfy  in p o l i t i c a l decisions.  j u s t i f i c a t i o n of  is  I  appears that  are  they  the  i n order to carry  agreed upon at A r u s h a . purely  purpose.  overt  Tanzania's  of a d i f f e r e n t  nature.  It  Nyerere's  The n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s were out t h e  socialist  policies  They may have s e r v e d t o  nationalistic feelings,  primary  an e x a m p l e b e i n g  l o g i c a l outgrowth of  ideas.  Pride,  significant  sometimes used o n l y as the  f e e l , are  and p o l i t i c a l  necessary  Ideology,  n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n measures.  nationalizations,  to  considerations.  i n r a c e or t h e n a t i o n , c a n be a  African Socialism,  social  i s often undertaken i n order  n a t i o n a l i s t i c or even r a c i a l  as r e f l e c t e d factor  It  African  but t h a t  Given the f a c t  that  was not  the  satisfy their  nationalizations  w e r e a s o c i a l i s t m e a s u r e d e s i g n e d t o s e r v e new s o c i a l economic g o a l s ,  it  may be e x p e c t e d t h a t  the  acquired  e n t e r p r i s e s w o u l d be o r g a n i z e d and r u n i n a manner tent  w i t h t h e new p r i n c i p l e s .  d o e s not  As f a r  seem t o h a v e h a p p e n e d t o any  organizational  to a l l  p a r t s of  e n t e r p r i s e s appear  t o be u n c h a n g e d .  all  p r o f i t s are  the  p r i n c i p l e s of  They a r e  o p e r a t e e f f i c i e n t l y and make p r o f i t s , t h e o n l y now b e i n g t h a t  spread  t h e n a t i o n , but  s t r u c t u r e s and management  this  extent.  A t t e m p t s h a v e been made t o k e e p p r i c e s down and service a c t i v i t i e s  consis-  as I can t e l l , great  and  required  the to  difference  re-invested rather  than  going  i n t o t h e p o c k e t s o f a few f o r e i g n o w n e r s . of the  state  e n t e r p r i s e s a p p e a r s t o be l a c k o f  administrators.  Many e x p a t r i a t e w o r k e r s  o f n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , and a t t e m p t s a r e attract  The m a i n p r o b l e m  other  left  still  foreign s k i l l e d personnel.  skilled at  the  b e i n g made This  is  i n response to the departure of the o l d workers, due t o t h e  fact  that  the state  time to  not but  h a s e x p a n d e d many o f  only is  also  the  a c t i v i t i e s of  t h e e n t e r p r i s e s - - s u c h as w h o l e s a l e  distribu-  tion services  i n new a r e a s - - a s w e l l  the  government  bureaucracy.  I d o not h a v e t h e d a t a t h a t  i n d i c a t e the comparative  p r o d u c t i v i t y of the  e n t e r p r i s e s b e f o r e and a f t e r be s a f e  t o assume t h a t  least  would  affected  n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , but  t h e commitment t o a  p r o d u c t i o n p o l i c y h a s had a t of  as e n l a r g i n g  it  would  socialist  short-run costs in  terms  productivity.  S e l f - R e l i ance 'Self-Reliance Arusha,  1  was a t e r m i n t r o d u c e d a t  and now o c c u p i e s a p r o m i n e n t p l a c e i n t h e  vocabulary  of the n a t i o n .  poverty  the c o u n t r y ,  of  It  and t h e a c c e p t a n c e  It  of the f a c t e f f o r t s of  s h a t t e r e d t h e d a y d r e a m s w h i c h saw l a r g e  i n d u s t r i e s and m e c h a n i z e d f a r m s j u s t  of  political  i m p l i e s the r e c o g n i t i o n of  p r o g r e s s d e p e n d s s o l e l y on t h e c o l l e c t i v e people.  the time  the  that the  modern  around the c o r n e r .  p e o p l e w e r e now e x p e c t e d t o become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n  The  such  b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s as f o o d ,  serviceable  c l o t h e s , and h o u s -  27 ing.  A g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t was p l a c e d on a more  realistic  level  i n that  f a r m e r s were e x p e c t e d t o  progress  f r o m t h e hoe t o t h e o x - p l o u g h b e f o r e a s s u m i n g t h e for  expensive t r a c t o r s ,  necessity  and b a s i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was t o  rely 28  on o x e n - c a r t s b e f o r e e x p e c t i n g t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r u c k s . I t - i s p r o b a b l e t h a t N y e r e r e was much i n f l u e n c e d t o w a r d t h e s e 29 ideas  by t h e work and a d v i c e  o f Rene Dumont.  The p o l i c y o f S e 1 f - R e 1 i a n c e was a l s o an a t t e m p t i m p r e s s upon t h e p e o p l e t h e f a c t c o n t i n u e t o r e g a r d t h e Government  that  development  effort  c o u l d not  as the i n i t i a t o r  r e s o u r c e s u p p l i e r f o r a 11 d e v e l o p m e n t d i d not h a v e enough r e s o u r c e s ,  they  projects.  and t h e r e a l  must n e c e s s a r i l y  fall  to  It  and simply  burden o f  on t h e r u r a l  the people  themselves. F o r a c o m m u n i t y , s e l f - r e l i a n c e means t h a t t h e y w i l l u s e t h e r e s o u r c e s and t h e s k i l l s t h e y j o i n t l y p o s s e s s f o r t h e i r own w e l f a r e and t h e i r own d e v e l o p m e n t . They w i l l not t a k e t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t , o r t h e L o c a l C o u n c i l , or a n y o n e e l s e , must come and do t h i s o r t h a t f o r them b e f o r e t h e y c a n make any p r o g r e s s . 3 0 2 7  Ibid.,  p.  247.  2 8  Ibid.,  p.  318.  9 $ e e e s p e c i a l l y h i s L ' A f r i q u e Noi r e e s t Ma 1 P a r t i e , ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1962 ). E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n by P. N. O t t , F a l s e S t a r t i n A f r i c a ( L o n d o n : A n d r e D e u t s c h , 1966). 2  3 0  Nyerere,  Freedom and S o c i a l i s m , o p . c i t . ,  p. 3 9 0 .  The c o n c e p t  of  s e l f - r e l i a n c e represented a  change i n the use t h a t  was made o f t h e m o r a l and  p r i n c i p l e s of Ujamaa.  Before  i d e a l s that the  p e o p l e and j u s t i f i e d government  part  a demand f o r  of t h e r u r a l  practical  people.  social  19&7 t h e y w e r e u t i l i s e d a s  gave a s e n s e o f i d e n t i t y  used t o j u s t i f y  shrewd  and s e l f - r e s p e c t policies.  to  Now t h e y  were  s a c r i f i c e and h a r d work on  It  i s here that  merging of N y e r e r e ' s  social  the  one c a n see  the  and e c o n o m i c t h o u g h t .  The i d e o l o g y o f Ujamaa was t o be u s e d as a m o b i l i z a t i o n tactic  to achieve  w o u l d be v e r y a higher  e c o n o m i c a s wel 1 a s  d i f f i c u l t t o determine whether  p r i o r i t y on a c h i e v i n g h i s  e c o n o m i c g o a l s , and w h e t h e r conflict. security  and t h e e c o n o m i c t a r g e t s  to take highest  priority.  appropriate to consider  ideals,  these  He d i d o f c o u r s e s t a t e  totality.  But,  social  in  It  Nyerere  i d e a l s or  two t a r g e t s  ever  1964 t h a t  places his  come  and t h e i n t e n t i o n a p p e a r s  Arusha, i t  P l a n were  seems more  i d e a l s and p l a n s i n  Such a p l a n w i l l  pace of development. social  their  if  and t h e  r e v e r s e may a l s o be t r u e ,  obviously affect  Nyerere c o n s i d e r s that  social  it  is  likely  i d e a l s c a n n o t be  of economic development  be the  achieved  i d e a l s o f e q u a l i t y and d i g n i t y a r e but  social  they w i l l  E c o n o m i c t a r g e t s may be  quicker  some s o r t  t o be t h a t  into  national  o f the F i v e Year  after  Nyerere's  goals.  The e c o n o m i c g o a l s h a v e been wedded t o t h e  realized together.  without  social  ignored,  that  realised  and t h a t  economic  development w i l l  n o t be p o s s i b l e i n t h i s p o o r c o u n t r y  the people are o r g a n i z e d around the s o c i a l likely  threat  to t h i s approach i s  that  ideals.  The  one or o t h e r o f  components--most p r o b a b l y the economic--wi11 achieve  undue p r o m i n e n c e , and t h u s p r o d u c e  too  look at  increased  With these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n mind,  the  i n order  second attempt  to r e a l i s e  t o o r g a n i z e the  these  easily  b e n e f i t s f o r a few and f r u s t r a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r majority.  unless  the  I will  rural  now  communities  Ujamaa•  The Ujamaa Vi 1 l a g e s The t h e o r e t i c a l  idea of  P r o g r a m was a good o n e .  It  the V i l l a g e  had f a i l e d b e c a u s e t h e i m p l e m e n -  t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s were i n a p p r o p r i a t e . intact  The i d e a  i n t h e Ujamaa V i l l a g e s p l a n s .  traditional  life  Settlement  It  remained  was t o r e c r e a t e  s t y l e s and p r o d u c t i o n p a t t e r n s  that  the  existed  b e f o r e c o l o n i a l i s m and c o m b i n e t h e s e w i t h as many modern agricultural  t e c h n i q u e s as p o s s i b l e .  l i f e was i n t e n d e d t o be " . communities where people  .  . rural  The b a s i s o f e c o n o m i c and  live together  Tanzanian social  and w o r k t o g e t h e r  for  31 the  good o f a l l . "  The t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s w h i c h h a v e  the c o n t i n u i n g f o u n d a t i o n of N y e r e r e ' s respect,  sharing of j o i n t  been  thought--mutua1  p r o d u c t i o n , and work by a l l —  t o g e t h e r w i t h a g r a s s r o o t s v i l l a g e democracy were t o  be  realised  i n new v i l l a g e c o m m u n i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t  Tanzania.  The n a t i o n w o u l d not  base i t s  ment on i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n t h e cash c r o p f a r m i n g i n the by many new  rural  participate--that  emotive appeal  language, the  its  to the  These through  of the  the  policy  ties,  level.  Government  but  i n the  on t h e  Government with in  led to  the  life.  Its  and i t s  and  earthy  attacks people  enthusiasm  The a c c e p t a n c e o f  upon t h e at  Government the  the  cent of  to rouse the  energies  to  A r u s h a was  9 0 per  the  areas,  served  I t was made c l e a r  them  o f S e 1 f - R e l i a n c e and  rural  their  new r u r a l  outset  self-  on a more that  about  c o u l d p r o v i d e w o u l d be a d v i c e a n d h e l p  l i n k s for  "Government  the  importance."  cooperation  of d i f f e r e n t  a d v i c e and h e l p c a n o n l y be o f 32  marginal  taken  wrong  t o get  o l d ideology of S o c i a l i s m .  reliance placed expectations  establishing  individual  because t h i s  problems were d e a l t  and d i r e c t  toward b u i l d i n g the  the  i n order  overwhelming concern for  t o a new e f f o r t  all  because the  rewards—and  e l i t e and u r b a n d w e l l e r s  realistic  develop-  route being  of the whole Arusha D e c ! a r a t i on.  p o p u l a t i o n who l i v e  on t h e  failed  people  of material  results.  new model  u r b a n a r e a s and  a t t i t u d e s of dependency  Ujamaa V i l l a g e s  the  and  nations.  i n c e n t i v e was o f f e r e d  produce  future  areas--the  The V i l l a g e S e t t l e m e n t s  to increased  rural  in  communi-  It  is  V i l l a g e s at they are  i m p o s s i b l e t o assess the this  still  established numbered  stage.  active  About a l l  i n September,  that  in  that  and e x p a n d i n g .  stages  of  The f i r s t  in  that  ones were they  progress.  self-help projects  Ujamaa  c a n be s a i d i s  It  1969/70 the people completed  s h i l l i n g s worth of  the  1 9 & 7 , and by m i d - 1 9 7 0  1,200 in various  estimated  success of  was  19,300,000  the form of  schools,  33  dispensaries,  bridges, wells,  The key q u e s t i o n i s , maintain their  roads,  how l o n g w i l l  enthusiasm for  t h e Ujamaa V i l l a g e s w h i l e  •develop?  And w i l l  it  re-organizations  regular  basis i n order  adherence answers  benefits  (cultural  to ensure  t o the n a t i o n ' s  basic  to these questions  people  lie  Will  slowly  the urban c e n t r e s  be n e c e s s a r y  massive  the  t h e new m e a s u r e s ?  be s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l in  etc.  accumulating continue  for Tanzania to revolutions?)  the p e o p l e ' s social  i n the  they  to  undertake  on a  continued  principles?  The  future.  Conclusion The e c o n o m i c and r u r a l  development  philosophy  p o l i c i e s a d o p t e d by T a n z a n i a h a v e many u n i q u e t i c s when c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e most n o t e w o r t h y and r e a l i s m .  those of  factors  Idealism  is  other  characteris-  new n a t i o n s .  the unique b l e n d of  i s apparent  in all  of  3 3 R I c h a r d Juma, " U j a m a a i n P r a c t i c e , " D e v e l o p m e n t ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 2 1 .  and  One o f idealism  Nyerere's A f r i can  public statements. manifested cautious  i n two w a y s .  estimates  r e a l i z a t i o n of frank For  the  appraisals  instance,  thought  of  Realism,  of  It  less overtly is  the r a p i d i t y  socialist  in  is  Nyerere's  and d e g r e e  ideals,  of  possible  and i s a p p a r e n t  o f T a n z a n i a ' s e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l  the e d i t o r  o f a v o l u m e on t h e  Lumumba, Nkrumah, and T o u r e has  "Concerning domestic a f f a i r s , extent  reflected  evident,  that d i v e r s i t y ,  reality  poverty,  in  reality.  political commented  i s f a l s i f i e d to  inequality  the  and  the  exploitation  34 are  attributed  before  exclusively  independence  independence. contains  and t o n e o - c o l o n i a l  much more r e a d y  intrigues  Nyerere,  indicated  .  .  ."  after it  in contrast,  is  own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n the Arusha  for  Declaration,  m e n t i o n s c o l o n i a l i s m or n e o - c o l o n i a l i s m .  and S a u l  have a n a l y s e d  S o c i a l i s m throughout most  of t r u t h .  t o admit T a n z a n i a ' s  t h e s e p r o b l e m s , as was  Arrighi  powers  W h i l e t h i s may be an e x a g g e r a t i o n ,  some e l e m e n t s  and he r a r e l y  t o the c o l o n i a l  the c o n c e p t i o n s of  the continent  African  and have c o n c l u d e d  that  t h i n k e r s do not h a v e an a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  the  e c o n o m i c p r o c e s s and t h e e m e r g i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r a t i f i c a 35  t i o n b e t w e e n t h e u r b a n and r u r a l  dwellers.  They a l s o  feel  34 . A . E. S k u r n i k , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l T h o u g h t : Lumumba, Nkrumah, and T o u r e ( D e n v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f D e n v e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 1 0 . W  ^ G i o v a n n i A r r i g h i and J o h n S a u l , " S o c i a l i s m and E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t i n T r o p i c a l A f r i c a , " J o u r n a 1 o f Modern A f r i c a n Studi e s . 6:2 (August, 1968), 1 5 8 .  that  t h e commitment  the  l a c k of  has  resulted in  t o s o c i a l i s m i s often merely  ideological clarity little  and r i g o u r o u s  being accomplished in  verbal,  and  organization implementing  36  socialist Kenya,  ideals.  and t o a l e s s e r  conclude that are  They  extent,  Guinea i n t h i s  Senegal,  regard.  They  things  different. Tanzania i s , perhaps, the country i n contemporary A f r i c a w h e r e s o c i a l i s t a s p i r a t i o n s f i g u r e most p r o m i n e n t l y and i n t e r e s t i n g l y i n t h e development e q u a t i o n , and most p o w e r f u l l y a f f e c t t h e k i n d s o f p o l i c i e s w h i c h are being pursued.37  rural/urban s p l i t ,  and t h e elite  necessity  Nyerere's the danger  of having oo  compliance.  telling sity  Ghana,  T a n z a n i a may be t h e one c o u n t r y w h e r e  They m e n t i o n e s p e c i a l l y the  specifically cite  In  s o p h i s t i c a t e d awareness of  rural  stratification,  some c o e r c i v e m e a s u r e s  regards to realism,  comment was g i v e n by N y e r e r e  of  himself  perhaps at  the  to  ensure  t h e most Univer-  C o l l e g e , Dar Es S a l a a m i n A u g u s t , 1 9 ^ 7 . The A r u s h a D e c l a r a t i o n i s a d e c l a r a t i o n o f i n t e n t : no more t h a n t h a t . . . . N e i t h e r on 5 t h F e b r u a r y , n o r on any day s i n c e , has T a n z a n i a s u d d e n l y become a s o c i a l i s t s t a t e , a s e l f - r e l i a n t s t a t e , or a d e v e l o p e d state . . . . The D e c l a r a t i o n i s t h e b e g i n n i n g , not t h e e n d , o f a v e r y l o n g and p r o b a b l y e x t r e m e l y h a r d struggle. I t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t we s h o u l d be v e r y c l e a r a b o u t t h e s e t h i n g s , f o r o t h e r w i s e we s h a l l f a i l t o r e a c h t h e g o a l s t a t e d and s h a l l be l i a b l e t o do g r e a t harm t o o u r n a t i o n . 3 9 3 ibid. 6  • 3 8  3 /  Ibid.,  Ibid.,  p. 1 6 5 . p.  39fv]yerere,  166. Freedom and S o c i a l i s m ,  op. ci t . ,  p. 3 1 5 -  John N e l l i s a l s o a g r e e s  that  realism is  played i n the Arusha D e c l a r a t i o n . Government  c o u l d not f u l f i l  which a r o s e at  prominently  dis-  Recognizing that  t h e grand m a t e r i a l  the  expectations  independence:  . . . t h e new p o l i c y ( A r u s h a ) a t t e m p t e d t o l a y t h e g r o u n d w o r k f o r a more v i a b l e and l e s s c o s t l y a l t e r n a t i v e . The new p o l i c y was t o be p a i d f o r not w i t h money, b u t with b e l i e f . I d e o l o g y h a d become t h e c u r r e n c y o f Tanzanian rural development.40 T h i s i s a shrewd a n d , how w o r k a b l e development or  set  is  I  feel,  accurate  comment.  i d e o l o g y a s an i m p e t u s f o r  activities?  It  But  just  large-scale  s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e f o r an  of b e l i e f s t o i n s p i r e a c t i v i t i e s .  idea  The p a r a l l e l  has  been made b e t w e e n A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m and t h e P r o t e s t a n t  Ethic  41 i n s o f a r as they  relate  i d e a s have c e r t a i n l y Soviet  to generate  relevant  question i s :  the form of i n d i v i d u a l here i s  ideology.  ko  The p o s s i b i l i t y i s  rural  impetus f o r development  answer  Marxist  inspired productive a c t i v i t i e s  U n i o n and C h i n a .  ideology  to productive functions.  simple.  will  development.  there  say,  the  for  P e r h a p s a more  i d e o l o g y be a more  than,  in  material  successful  incentives  f a r m s and c a s h m a r k e t s ?  I  in  think  the  T a n z a n i a has no c h o i c e but t o  try  The c o u n t r y d o e s n o t h a v e t h e r e s o u r c e s o r  the  John R. N e l l i s , An Economi c T h e o r y o f D e v e l o p m e n t a l I d e o l o g y : The T a n z a n i a n E x a m p l e , u n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a tion tSyracuse~rjmversit~, i y 6 y ) , p. 2 4 6 . 41 See C h a r l e s F. A n d r a i n , " D e m o c r a c y and S o c i a l i s m : I d e o l o g i e s o f A f r i c a n L e a d e r s , " I d e o l o g y and D i s c o n t e n t . D a v i d E. A p t e r , e d i t o r (New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 1 7 2 .  t r a i n e d manpower market sary  t o c r e a t e the necessary  transportation  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e over wide areas that  t o make i n d i v i d u a l f a r m s f e a s i b l e .  w o u l d be  It  numerous and w i d e l y ficant  scattered  improvements i n r u r a l  l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s can  t h e r e a r e two a l t e r n a t i v e  the people i n t o t a k i n g part legal  and p h y s i c a l m e a n s ,  life-styles.  alternative  through h i s  individual  rights,  Given  Nyerere social  their  has r e j e c t e d  the  p h i l o s o p h y and i t s  rural  development  under t h e s e  It  individual  as w e l l  desires for  advancement  must  commitment t o a more r e m o t e and g e n e r a l  this  and  first respect  left  f i g u r e s a r e any i n d i c a t i o n , i t The  and  will  enough  to  their  as a r o u s e  goal of  for  open.  terms  satisfy  s t a g e h a s been c o m p l e t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y .  villages  through  so i d e o l o g y - - t h e Arusha D e c l a r a t i o n  induce the people to p a r t i c i p a t e .  If  coerce  individual  depend p r i m a r i l y on t h e i d e o l o g y b e i n g a t t r a c t i v e  development.  this  enterprises  t h e Ujamaa V i 1 l a g e s - - s e e m s t h e o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e Successful  probably  o r p e r s u a d e them t o do so t h r o u g h  an i d e o l o g y w h i c h p r o m i s e s t o b e t t e r collective  Signi-  courses of a c t i o n :  in collective  cannot  for  individual holdings.  o n l y be b r o u g h t a b o u t by c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t s . fact,  neces-  certainly  a f f o r d t o f i n a n c e t h e p u r c h a s e o f modern m a c h i n e r y  and  their  national appears  that  1,200  e s t a b l i s h e d by m i d - 1 9 7 0 shows some i n d i c a t i o n o f  success. i s whether  The most  s i g n i f i c a n t measure of  the v i l l a g e s  actually  work.  Is  s u c c e s s , of  course,  agricultural  productivity  increasing?  more m a t e r i a l  benefits  Are the people s l o w l y  in their  have t h e d a t a t o answer  rural  success or f a i l u r e  of  r u r a l development.  p e o p l e who a d v i s e and a d m i n i s t e r  Ideology the  is  s e l f - s e r v i n g , or j u s t have l i t t l e  If  the  Not o n l y must  the  chance of  administrators  can only  Every  no m a t t e r who o r what i n s p i r e s i t ,  capital,  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and e x p e r t i s e .  needs  plans,  L i t t l e mention  is  subse-  documents. It  the  set  development  made o f t h e s e f a c t o r s i n t h e A r u s h a D e c l a r a t i on o r  is  the  success.  It  principles.  in  competent,  p l a i n incompetent  project,  quent  one  is  the  not enough f o r d e v e l o p m e n t .  g u i d e l i n e s and g e n e r a l  That  t h e v i l l a g e s be  t h e y must a l s o be h i g h l y c o m m i t t e d .  Ujamaa V i l l a g e s w i l l  is  be a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e  o l d problem of s k i l l e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  are corrupt,  I do n o t  t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , but t h e r e  f a c t o r worth mentioning which w i l l the  setting?  enjoying  really  is  probably too early  to t e l l  taking place i n Tanzania.  theoretical  It  rural  development  i s my o p i n i o n  that  b l u e p r i n t p r o v i d e d i n t h e A r u s h a Dec l a r a t i on  i s a good and r e a l i s t i c o n e , but i s by no means a s s u r e d . made o f t h e p r a c t i c a l l e a v e s one  if  The f a c t  successful that  implementation  l i t t l e mention  problems of day-to-day  l e s s a b l e t o judge i t s f u t u r e  is  administration  effectiveness.  CONC LUSION T h i s s t u d y h a s p r o v i d e d some a n s w e r s raised i n the Introduction. i d e a s cannot  be d o u b t e d .  t o the questions  The c o n s i s t e n c y  of  Nyerere's  Over a p e r i o d o f t h i r t e e n  years^  he h a s s t u c k t o a f e w b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h h a v e p r o g r e s sively It  been a p p l i e d t o numerous a s p e c t s o f T a n z a n i a n  i s a l s o apparent  that  he h a s been c o n c e r n e d w i t h  t h e o r y and a p p l i c a t i o n i n h i s t h i n k i n g .  h a v e emerged i n new n a t i o n s  A number o f g e n e r a l  both  T h e body o f i d e a s  e x p r e s s e d by N y e r e r e i s o n l y o n e o f many n a t i o n a l that  society.  since their  ideologies  independence.  s t u d i e s o f emerging i d e o l o g i e s p r o v i d e a  2 good p i c t u r e  of t h e i r  common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  The c o n c e p t  o f i d e o l o g y seems t o be d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y by i t s f u n c t i o n . It  i s a body o f i d e a s e x p l a i n i n g t h e r e a l i t y  of a nation i n  t e r m s u n d e r s t o o d by t h e p o p u l a c e a n d w h i c h c o n t a i n s a v i s i o n of  the future  the people.  r e f l e c t i n g the a s p i r a t i o n s of the majority of It  i s intended t o m o b i l i z e and u n i t e t h e  The s t u d y e s s e n t i a l l y c o v e r s h i s t h o u g h t f r o m t h e f o r m a t i o n o f TANU i n 1954 t o t h e end o f 1967. 2 See e s p e c i a l l y a r t i c l e s by D a v i d A p t e r a n d C l i f f o r d G e e r t z i n I d e o l o g y a n d D i s c o n t e n t , D a v i d E. A p t e r , e d i t o r (New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1964); P a u l S i g m u n d , T h e I d e o l o q i es o f t h e D e v e l o p i ng N a t i ons (New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1963); A l i A . M a z u r i , T o w a r d s A P a x A f r i c a n a , A S t u d y o f I d e o l o g y a n d A m b i t i o n ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f TJhicago P T e s s , 1966); a n d Mary M a t o s s i a n , " I d e o l o g i e s o f D e l a y e d I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n : Some T e n s i o n s a n d A m b i g u i t i e s , " E c o n o m i c Deve l o p ment a n d C u l t u r a l C h a n g e , V o l . 6 ( A p r i 1 , 1958), p p . 217-228.  citizens usually  i n supporting the portrayed  creation  ideas  functions. necessity  the  s o l i d a r i t y and p e r s o n a l  paying attention  in social  It  appears,  the  a s an a l t e r n a t i v e less useful  profound  the  however,  that  fr om i t s v  leader.  take  Ideology  and has  been  chosen  and  citizenry it  i n h o l d i n g the  people to  Lacking the wealth to purchase will has  to coerce  some c a s e s i t  tool  may be t h e  new n a t i o n t o g e t h e r ,  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among t h e  the  t o r e l y on  an i m p o r t a n t  people.  to  t h e m a i n use o f  and  and m e n t a l  In  the  struggle  efforts.  government,  two  c o n s i d e r e d more c o s t l y  c a n t h u s be seen a s  political element  t o what a r e  methods.  resources  Ideology  and ( 2 ) 3  above  constant  and e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t  i n Tanzania i s a t o o l of the  behaviour  the  identity.  to f u l f i l  t o the  have and  F o r one t h i n g he i s c e r t a i n l y aware o f for  are  vision.  ideology  elite,  Tanzanian i d e o l o g y i s t o m o b i l i z e the  physical  the  promotion of a u t h o r i t y  do seem d e s i g n e d  remain i n power.  part  (1)  with  o f t h e u s e o f power by t h e  of s o c i a l  Nyerere's  the  commonly a s s o c i a t e d  i d e n t i f i e d as:  justification  programs--which  as b e i n g d e s i g n e d t o r e a l i s e  The f u n c t i o n s most been  government's  the  desired  persuasion. for  the  crucial  or i n  preventing  T h i s may e x p l a i n  -'See D a v i d E . A p t e r , " I d e o l o g y and D i s c o n t e n t , " I d e o l o q y and P i s c o n t e n t (New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1964), pp. 18-22.  why i d e o l o g i e s are and why t h e i r  so prevalent  political  c r e a t i n g frameworks  among developing  leaders  countries,^  spend so much energy on  of ideas w i t h i n which t h e i r  policies  are  legi t i mi z e d . In great  general,  i d e o l o g i e s do not seem to have been a  success i n new n a t i o n s .  record as f a r  the f a c t  national  their  consciousness and commitment  to  goals--one can see that many have f a i l e d j u s t  that they  have not  survived.  the most w i d e l y - p u b l i c i z e d i d e o l o g i c a l Nkrumah's Ghana and Sukarno's rather  examining  as n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g e f f o r t s are concerned--!' n  terms of c r e a t i n g development  Even without  i n g l o r i o u s ends.  Tanzanian ideology i s or w i l l realizing its  objectives,  experiments,  Indonesia,  How, then,  about Nyerere and Tanzania?  For i n s t a n c e ,  two of in  came t o abrupt  and  can we be o p t i m i s t i c  While not  suggesting that  be an u n q u a l i f i e d success  I feel  by  that t h i s  paper  the in  has  Three of T a n z a n i a ' s neighbours have produced some sort of i d e o l o g y . Kenya has made a h a l f - h e a r t e d attempt with i t s S e s s i o n a l Paper No. 1 0 on " A f r i c a n S o c i a l i s m " . Uganda, b e f o r e Obote's overthrow, had r e c e n t l y s t a r t e d a "Move to the L e f t " and produced a Common Man s Charter modelled a f t e r the Arusha Dec 1 a r a t i o n . Zambia under Kaunda has been working out i t s "Zambian Humanism" s i n c e 1967In West A f r i c a there have been i d e o l o g i c a l c r e a t i o n s i n Ghana, Guinea, M a l i , and Senegal. The f a c t that the i d e o l o g i c a l governments of Ghana, M a l i , and Uganda have been overthrown and Guinea i s under severe pressure may i n d i c a t e that t h i s t o o l i s not that s u c c e s s f u l . But I t h i n k that i t can be surmised that the leaders themselves p e r c e i v e d i t t o be a u s e f u l t o o l when they were f o r m u l a t i n g their ideologies. 1  demonstrated that  there are  certain  f o r m u l a t i o n and e x e c u t i o n o f it  a better  in  the  t h i s ideology that  may  give  it  is a  chance of success than most.  s i m p l e body o f i d e a s ideology  simply expressed.  First,  The c o r e o f  by t h e a v e r a g e T a n z a n i a n . behaviour  patterns  confidence i n the  Second,  leadership.  leadership values  Finally, of  the  paper  Nyerere  has d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t  people's  ideology  the present  as the  ideas themselves. he i s  economic  their  suggested that  usefulness in mobilizing his the poverty  of  the  for  it  distinguish i t ,  nature of from other  the n a t i o n a l  individual  goals.  that  I  to  and what makes i t  ideologies.  he  have the  rights  for  has  mobili-  The  primar-  the T a n z a n i a n i d e o l o g y does national  has  same t i m e  people.  i d e o l o g y as t h e o n l y p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e  z i n g the people to achieve  I feel  the c o u n t r y combined w i t h  l e a d e r s h i p ' s commitment t o r e s p e c t  exhortative  success.  s i n c e r e l y committed  t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s he a d v o c a t e s w h i l e a t  distinguish  the  has examined t h e uses t o which N y e r e r e  i d e a s as w e l l  ily  should avoid  t o w a r d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f q u i c k and e a s y  put h i s  left  and  c o n d i t i o n s o f T a n z a n i a and d e m o n s t r a t e s a c a u -  tious attitude This  Nyerere  understood  and t h e r e b y m a i n t a i n t h e  c o n t a i n s a r e a l i s t i c assessment and s o c i a l  makes them e a s i l y  h a v e been d e v i s e d w h i c h  excesses of e l i t i s m ,  realises  the  c o n t a i n s a few b a s i c m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h  has p u b l i c i z e d i n a manner t h a t  worst  elements  What  not does  i n t e r e s t i n g to study,  is  its  c o m p r e h e n s i v e n a t u r e and t h e c o n s i s t e n c y and d e t e r m i n a -  t i o n with which i t  i s b e i n g made t o w o r k .  It  contains  far  more t h a n t h e b a r e b o n e s o f a j u s t i f y i n g i d e o l o g y t h a t l i t t l e more t h a n  l e g i t i m i z e government  actions.  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of mutual sharing,  and work by a 11 a r e  a r e a s of  national  that  life.  respect,  r i g o u r o u s l y pursued i n  all  Another d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r  original  s u c c e s s o f an i d e o l o g y i s will  The  t h e T a n z a n i a n i d e o l o g i c a l e x p e r i m e n t has by and  remained t r u e t o i t s  w i l l i n g l y work f o r  necessary  p e o p l e — and i t justify  it.  Once p h y s i c a l  or not N y e r e r e ' s  i n T a n z a n i a , " * but i t yet  It  the  becomes  has  of m o b i l i z i n g  is certainly  failed  the  tenuously too early  i d e a s h a v e been w i d e l y  i s p l a i n that  large  people  coercion  c a n t h e n do l i t t l e more t h a n actions.  is  One m e a s u r e o f  the degree t o which the  primary purposes — that  government  say w h e t h e r  h a s not  ideals.  t o enforce the goals of the i d e o l o g y i t  i n one o f i t s  does  the element  to  accepted  of compulsion  been i n t r o d u c e d .  The most i n t e r e s t i n g s u b j e c t person of Nyerere  himself.  a unique p o l i t i c i a n .  in this  study i s  H i s p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s make him  He c o m b i n e s s h r e w d p o l i t i c a l  with a p h i l o s o p h i c mind.  the  H i s w r i t i n g s and s p e e c h e s  skill demonstrate  ^One s t u d y , c o m p l e t e d j u s t b e f o r e t h e A r u s h a D e c ! a r a t i o n . f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e . See H e n r y B i e n e n , T a n z a n i a : P a r t y T r a n s f o r m a t i on and E c o n o mic Development ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967).  a high degree of  intellectual  an a c a d e m i c e n v i r o n m e n t as a t h e o r e t i c a l a f f o r d the to work,  p r e c i s i o n and c r e a t i v i t y .  he w o u l d no d o u b t be a g r e a t  thinker.  luxury of pure  In  the p o l i t i c a l arena  speculation.  and he h a s shown t h a t  thinking with  practical  success  he c a n n o t  What he p r o p o s e s  he c a n c o m b i n e  application.  In  theoretical  Nyerere  fills  two  r o l e s a s a s t a t e s m a n and a t h i n k e r , and s e e k s t o a p p l y own i n t e l l e c t u a l development  concepts t o the a r t  of h i s  nation.  It  c i a n who i s a l s o a c r e a t i v e uncommon s t i l l  is  o f g o v e r n i n g and  i s unusual  intellectual  to f i n d a thinker.  t o f i n d an i n t e l l e c t u a l  Senghor  of  m e n t s , but  level.  One c a n  look at  is  a man l i k e  d i f f i c u l t t o s e e how t h e y  a c t i o n s as a p o l i t i c a l intellectual  efforts,  leader. however,  aspects of Tanzanian s o c i e t y  politi-  ideas  Leopold achieve-  have a f f e c t e d  The r e s u l t s o f c a n be seen i n  today.  the  p o l i t i c i a n who  S e n e g a l and a c k n o w l e d g e h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l it  his  More  i s h a v i n g some s u c c e s s i n i m p l e m e n t i n g h i s c r e a t i v e on a p r a c t i c a l  has  his  Nyerere's numerous  He a l s o p o s s e s s e s  great  l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y w h i c h has e n a b l e d him t o s p r e a d h i s  ideas  among t h e p o p u l a c e and m a i n t a i n h i s p r e - e m i n e n t among h i s f e l l o w p o l i t i c i a n s .  Nyerere's  skill  c a t i n g w i t h t h e p e o p l e t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s own l i f e - s t y l e and p e r s o n a l leader,  position i n communi-  unostentatious  h u m i l i t y h a v e made him a p o p u l a r  and t h e c h a r i s m a t i c h o l d he h a s on t h e p e o p l e  to ensure that  the rest  of  the p o l i t i c a l  leadership  helps  follow  his direction.  I have i n d i c a t e d , h o w e v e r ,  r e l y i n g t o o much on h i s p o l i t i c i a n s and not to ensure in his  their  intellectual  thought,  but at  the  t h e most  been v e r y c a r e f u l his ideas w i l l  in effect society  apparent scope  of  great  intellectual have  e x a m p l e b e i n g Nkrumah.  He has  also  success  that  i n a s s e s s i n g the chances  have i n b e i n g r e a l i s e d .  he e n v i s a g e s  by a s e t  is also  leaders  of  He does not  On t h e o t h e r  hand,  are ambitious to the  He i s a s k i n g h i s c o u n t r y m e n and l i v e  designed  African  t o change T a n z a n i a o v e r n i g h t . changes that  measures  indulged in  be  fellow  While possessing  he has not  notable  he may  same t i m e t h e  p o s t u r i n g on t h e w o r l d s c e n e a s o t h e r done,  to his  His h u m i l i t y  is very ambitious. ability  appeal  enough on c o e r c i v e  compliance.  political  h i s thought  personal  that  t o c h a n g e many o f  of e s s e n t i a l l y  trying to b u i l d a j u s t ,  by a s k i n g T a n z a n i a n s  moral  the  extreme. their  principles.  e q u a l , and  expect  habits He  prosperous  t o be new and b e t t e r  men.  is  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BIBLIOGRAPHY A.  WRITINGS AND SPEECHES OF JULIUS K.  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