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Food habits and food shopping patterns of greek immigrants in vancouver, b. c. Grant, Keith Frank 1971

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FOOD HABITS AND FOOD SHOPPING PATTERNS OF GREEK IMMIGRANTS IN VANCOUVER, B.C. by Keith Frank Grant B.Sc. U n i v e r s i t y College of Swansea, 1967 A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Geography We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia September 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag ree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f GjLQ&£~M> MY The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date -111 I ABSTRACT North American c i t i e s consist of a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups. Many of these groups are minor-i t y communities who l i v e i n c l e a r l y defined areas of the c i t i e s and maintain many of the habits and t r a d i t i o n s of t h e i r homelands. This leads them to l i v e i n a way which i s often quite d i s t i n c t i v e from the dominant Anglo-American culture prevalent i n most Canadian or American c i t i e s . The present study i s concerned with one such community. More p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h i s study examines the food habits of Greek immigrants i n Vancouver, and attempts to show that the food habits maintained by t h i s group d i f f e r from those of the 'average' Canadian. S p a t i a l l y , such di f f e r e n c e s are manifested i n a d i s t i n c t i v e pattern of food shopping behaviour. CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 II A BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 6 Ethnic Groups i n North American c i t i e s 6 Greeks and the Urban Landscape of Vancouver 12 The S i g n i f i c a n c e of Food Habits 13 Hypotheses of the Study 15 Organisation of the Study 17 The Nature of the Study Area 22 I I I AN EXAMINATION OF GREEK FOOD HABITS IN GREECE AND VANCOUVER 27 Food Habits i n Greece 28 Greek Food Habits i n Vancouver 31 Summary of Food Buying 41 Conservatism i n Greek Food Habits 41 Greek Food Habits and Time 43 Conclusion 45 IV GREEK FOOD SHOPPING PATTERNS IN VANCOUVER 47 Summary 56 The Market Areas of Greek Food Stores 56 V CONCLUSIONS 63 APPENDIX i n pocket LIST OF TABLES I The Canadian consumption of f r u i t and vegetables 34 II The Greek consumption of f r u i t and vegetables 3 5 III The Canadian consumption of f i s h and meat 37 IV The Greek consumption of f i s h and meat 37 V Consumption of drinks (Canadian) 39 VI Consumption of drinks (Greek) 40 VII Conservatism i n Greek food habits 42 VIII Length of journey to grocery store 5 5 LIST OP FIGURES FIGURE PAGE I Greek food habit conservatism measured against length of stay i n North America 44 LIST OF MAPS MAP PAGE One The l o c a t i o n of the Greek study area i n Vancouver 19 Two The K i t s i l a n o study area (References to s t r e e t s and stores named i n the ^ text) 20 Three Known Greek households i n and around the K i t s i l a n o study area 23 Four Origins of the Greek sample who completed the questionnaire 32 Five Food store most frequently v i s i t e d by Canadians r e s i d i n g i n the K i t s i l a n o study area 52 Six Food store most frequently v i s i t e d by Greeks r e s i d i n g i n the K i t s i l a n o study area 53 Seven Market r e l a t i o n s - Canadian super-markets i n the K i t s i l a n o study area 58 Eight Market r e l a t i o n s - Greek supermarket 1. 60 Nine Market r e l a t i o n s - Greek s p e c i a l i t y store 2 . 60 Ten Market r e l a t i o n s - Greek f i s h store 3 . 60 Eleven Market r e l a t i o n s - C a l i f o r n i a Grocery 60 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many people have helped i n the preparation of t h i s study. Above a l l , I wish to thank Professor K. Sandhu and Professor R. Copley of the Department of Geography f o r t h e i r encouragement and advice and Professor R. Leigh f o r h i s constructive c r i t i c i s m s and assistance i n the e a r l y stages of the t h e s i s . I would also l i k e to thank Mrs. Teta Tilbrook f o r her p a t i e n t t r a n s l a t i o n of the questionnaire into Greek, and Professor Malcolm McGregor of the C l a s s i c s Department f o r h i s help i n preparing the typed copy of the question-naire . F i n a l l y I owe gratitude to the many Greeks i n Van-couver who w i l l i n g l y cooperated i n answering the question-naires and without whose help t h i s study could not have been written. K.G. INTRODUCTION One of the most s t r i k i n g aspects of North American c i t i e s i s the c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y of the urban populations. Most manor c i t i e s contain a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t ethnic minority groups, and these groups tend to l i v e i n s p a t i a l l y defined c l u s t e r s or concentrations within the c i t y bound-a r i e s , and pl a y d i s t i n c t i v e r o l e s i n the functioning of the c i t y . The presence of large c u l t u r a l minority groups wit h i n the c i t y often promotes the development of a d i s -t i n c t i v e l o c a l c u l t u r a l landscape through which the l o c a l community i s able to preserve i t s own i d e n t i t y . The present study seeks to analyse ah aspect of the geography of such an ethnic minority group i n a North American c i t y . The aim of the study i s to investigate the extent to which ethnic food habits are preserved among recent immigrants within Vancouver, Canada, and to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between ethnic food stores and the l o c a l ethnic community. Two major questions are discussed:-(a) do c u l t u r a l minority groups preserve the food habits of t h e i r "old country" i n Vancouver, and (b) do these food h a b i t s i n f l u e n c e e t h n i c food shopping p a t t e r n s ? For t h i s purpose, an immigrant community i n Vancouver, the Greeks, i s s u b j e c t e d t o e m p i r i c a l examination. Although geographers have s t u d i e d e t h n i c m i n o r i t y groups i n terms of t h e i r settlement p a t t e r n s (Ward 1968) and changes i n r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the c i t y ( M o r r i l l 1965, Murdie 1968), l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been devoted to the shopping p a t t e r n s d i s p l a y e d by urban e t h n i c commun-i t i e s . I s there any v a r i a t i o n o r d i f f e r e n c e between the shopping p a t t e r n s d i s p l a y e d by d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups i n the c i t y ? Do these groups e x e r c i s e c u l t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e s i n p u r c h a s i n g t h e i r goods? T h i s study attempts t o o f f e r some s o l u t i o n s t o these questions by examining the food h a b i t s and food shopping p a t t e r n s o f the Greek community i n Vancouver. However, be-cause o n l y l i m i t e d data were a v a i l a b l e from the Greek com-munity ( f o r reasons d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ) the i n f o r m a t i o n exam-in e d i n t h i s study does not l e n d i t s e l f f o r ready g e n e r a l -i s a t i o n s concerning Greek c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . Trends i n Greek food h a b i t s and shopping p a t t e r n s are i n d i c a t e d , but f u r t h e r s t u d i e s o f t h i s and other e t h n i c m i n o r i t y commun-i t i e s need t o be made before a s e r i e s of g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s can be e s t a b l i s h e d concerning such e t h n i c a c t i v i t y . As the c e n t r a l theme of t h i s study concerns an immigrant community i n Vancouver, i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o de-f i n e some r e l e v a n t terms p e r t a i n i n g t o immigrant groups which w i l l be used throughout the remainder of t h i s study. Canada i s populated by a v a r i e t y of separate ethnic groups who have migrated to Canada from d i f f e r e n t points of o r i g i n . Ethnic o r i g i n generally implies a b i o l o g i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n and ancestry rather than a necessary belonging to the group. For example, a German l i v i n g i n North America yet born i n Germany may not wish to have any asso c i a t i o n with other Germans l i v i n g i n h i s l o c a l d i s t r i c t . However, an ethnic group implies people's l o y a l t y to the group and i t i s a force which draws i t s strength from i t s members' f e e l i n g of belonging to the group. In t h i s study "ethnic group" i s used to define those Greeks who l i v e and associate with fellow greeks and who a c t i v e l y belong to the Greek community i n Vancouver. E s s e n t i a l l y , ethnic groups may be regarded as c u l t u r a l groups. "Culture i s a way of being, thinking and f e e l i n g . I t i s a d r i v i n g force animating a s i g n i f i c a n t force of i n d i v i d u a l s united by a common tongue, and sharing the same customs, habits and experiences." (Report of the Royal Commission on B i l i n g u a l i s m and B i -c u l t u r a l i s m , General Introduction 1969) In order to function and survive, c u l t u r a l groups such as the Greeks are obliged to integrate i n t o the dom-inant Canadian society. "Integration i n the broad sense does not imply the l o s s of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i d e n t i t y and o r i g i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , or of h i s o r i g i n a l language and cul t u r e . Integration i s not synonymous with a s s i m i l a t i o n . A s s i m i l a t i o n implies almost t o t a l absorption i n t o another l i n g u i s t i c or c u l t u r a l group. An assimilated i n d i v i d u a l gives up h i s c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and may even go as f a r as to change h i s name." (Report of the Royal Commission on Bi l i n g u a l i s m and B i c u l t u r a l i s m , Book IV, 1969) The Greeks i n Vancouver have followed the path of i n t e g r a t i o n . Most Greek men speak some Engl i s h , but i n the home and on s o c i a l occasions Greek i s the language spoken, f o r most Vancouver Greeks are recent immigrants or f i r s t generation Greeks i n Canada. Of the Greek sample used i n the study, 93$ (of those interviewed) were f i r s t generation s e t t l e r s i n Canada. As the Greek population integrates i n t o the dom-inant Anglo-Canadian community of Vancouver so they become acculturated. A c c u l t u r a t i o n i s seen as the process of adapting to the new environment i n which an i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s . By examining Greek food habits, the present study i s concerned with one aspect of t h i s a c c u l t u r a t i o n process. The next chapter acts as a background to the study and examines some of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to urban ethnic groups. This l i t e r a t u r e i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to the present study. The growth of the Greek community i n Vancouver i s then discussed and an examination i s made of the importance of food habits i n the cultures of immi-grant groups l i v i n g i n North American c i t i e s . References M o r r i l l , R. L. "The Negro Ghetto: Problems and A l t e r n -a t i v e s . " Geographical Review 55, 1965, PP. 339-361.' Murdie, R. A. Factorial Ecology of Metropolitan Toronto 1951-1961" University of Chicago, Department of Geography Re-search Papers, no. 116, 1968. Report of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and B i -culturalism, General Introduction, Ottawa 1969. Report of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and B i -culturalism, Book IV, Ottawa 1969. Ward, D. "The emergence of Central Immigrant Ghettoes i n American c i t i e s 1840-1920." Annals of the Association of American  Geographers 58, 1968, pp. 345-559. A BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Ethnic Groups i n North American C i t i e s The foundations of the present study i n Vancouver are derived from the studies of ethnic minority commun-i t i e s which have been made i n large American c i t i e s . In order to appreciate the present importance of minority c u l t u r a l groups i n Canadian metropolitan areas the d i f f e r -ences between the patterns and trends of ethnic settlement i n Canadian and American c i t i e s are b r i e f l y examined. In the United States large numbers of European immigrants s e t t l e d i n the metropolitan areas during the la t e nineteenth and e a r l y twentieth century, but i n con-t r a s t , the i n f l u x of Europeans, e s p e c i a l l y of Southern Europeans, in t o Canadian c i t i e s has only started to gather momentum since 1 9 4 5 . In the U.S.A. the period since the end of the Second World War has been characterised by the i in-migration of Negroes, Puerto Ricans and Southern whites to metropolitan areas of the North. However, i n Vancouver, the Greek population which was 588 i n 1941 had r i s e n slowly to 2233 by 1 9 6 1 . Since 1961 the number of Greeks has r i s e n r a p i d l y and estimates placed the Greek population i n 1 9 7 0 at approximately 6000. In Toronto, Murdie (1968) noticed that the I t a l i a n population expanded from 2 . 5 $ of the t o t a l population i n 1 9 5 1 to 8.3$ of the t o t a l population i n 1961 and constituted the l a r g e s t group of n o n - B r i t i s h o r i g i n i n metropolitan Toronto. Murdie concluded that "measured i n numbers, the large scale European migration to Toronto p a r a l l e l s the recent rural-urban migration of the American negro." In Canada, a popular recognition of the existence of ethnic d i v e r s i t y within the c i t y has always p e r s i s t e d due to the two nation o r i g i n of the country that f o r example divides Montreal i n t o two d i s t i n c t i v e E n g l i s h and French speaking areas. The i n f l u x of ethnic immigrants in t o Canada since the conclusion of World War I I has consequently added new groups and residents to ethnic areas which had already been f i r m l y established. Simmons (1969) states: "Most Canadian metropolitan areas now have three or more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e ethnic areas i n d i c a t i n g a concentration of over 10,000 or so persons of a given background within the c i t y . " The f a c t that i n Vancouver these communities are r a p i d l y making an impact on the c u l t u r a l landscape of the c i t y may be p a r t l y a t t r i b u t e d to the d i f f e r e n c e s between Canadian and American a t t i t u d e s towards ethnic minority Estimated by the Secretary of the Greek Orthodox Church, Vancouver. groups. Such a t t i t u d e s have been studied by Marion McKenna (1969). She examines the Canadian concept of t h e i r society as a "Mosaic" i n which ethnic groups are encouraged to maintain t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y , against the American concept of t h e i r society as a "melting pot" where people of a l l o r i g i n s lose t h e i r c u l t u r a l d i f ferences with the passage of time and become absorbed in t o a d i s t i n c t l y American c u l t u r e . McKenna noted that the importance of ethnic minor-i t i e s tends to decline a f t e r the t h i r d generation. From such a t t i t u d e s and the f a c t that emigration of Southern European groups in t o Canada has been a recent phenomenon, i t i s apparent why a v a r i e d c u l t u r a l landscape of I t a l i a n and Greek stores, churches and housetypes has r e c e n t l y emerged i n Vancouver almost a h a l f century a f t e r such phenomena f i r s t appeared i n l a r g e r American c i t i e s . The development of s p e c i a l c u l t u r a l stores and churches within an urban area i n d i c a t e s the presence and importance of a l o c a l ethnic community. In h i s study of the Negro Ghetto i n Chicago, Pred (1963) showed that the concentration of ethnic groups i n c e r t a i n urban areas man-i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n the appearance of the l o c a l urban environ-ment. Pred compared the land use patterns i n the negro area of Chicago with two surrounding white areas i n order to examine the extent to which the presence of a c u l t u r a l minority group (negroes) influenced the surrounding urban landscape. Pred faced d i f f i c u l t i e s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g those land uses which were t y p i c a l of a negro area and i t s culture from those which were t y p i c a l of a low socio-economic area, but on close examination he noticed that bars, dry cleaners and food stores displayed conspicuous features of the negro c u l t u r e . The food stores i n the negro area displayed neckbones or chicken necks, turnip greens and other l e a f y and yellow vegetables, whereas i n the white areas adjoining the negro sector^ b e t t e r cuts of meats and a wider d i s p l a y of vegetables were conspicuous i n the food stores. Pred concluded that c u l t u r a l as well as economic fa c t o r s contributed towards these d i f f e r e n c e s . Fortunately i n the present study of Vancouver Greeks, the problems faced by Pred did not m a t e r i a l i s e due mainly to the obvious Greek signs which distinguished Greek food stores from non-Greek shops. From h i s study of the negro community i n Chicago, Pred concluded that "the presence of p r i n c i p a l business thoroughfares and i t s landuse patterns provides a t e l e -scoped expression of the material features of c u l t u r e . The presence of c u l t u r a l shopping f a c i l i t i e s i s i n d i c a t i v e of where the l o c a l population i s not completely acculturated nor t o t a l l y assimilated i n t o the p r e v a i l i n g urban way of l i f e . " Pred's research provides a basic, and valuable con-t r i b u t i o n to the l i t e r a t u r e concerning urban ethnic groups. Although non-analytical and e s s e n t i a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e the study showed how the culture prevalent i n the negro ghetto of Chicago found some expression i n the patterns of con-sumer behaviour and, therefore, was r e f l e c t e d i n the land use structure of the slum's p r i n c i p a l business thorough-f a r e . Some i n d i c a t i o n of the way minority groups behave i n t h e i r food shopping habits i s av a i l a b l e from studies by Murdie and Ray i n Ontario, Canada. Murdie (1965) examined two groups of consumers, the "Old Order Mennonites" and "Modern Canadians", re-s i d i n g i n the same area of Ontario, and inve s t i g a t e d the fa c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the distances each of these groups was prepared to t r a v e l to purchase t h e i r goods. In contrast to the "Modern Canadians" the "Old Order Mennonites" are e a s i l y recognised by t h e i r dress, t h e i r means of trans-p o r t a t i o n , occupation and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Murdie noticed that the "Old Order Mennonite" demand f o r food was not s p e c i a l i s e d enough to j u s t i f y frequent t r i p s to a large supermarket ( i n a large town). Murdie's conclusions concerning t h i s r u r a l minority group do, however, contrast with the hypotheses of the present study (see below) i n which i t i s predicted that an urban minority group (the Greeks), maintains a spe c i a l food shopping pattern i n the c i t y compared with the majority of Canadian shoppers. In h i s study of market centres and func t i o n a l regions i n Eastern Ontario, Ray (1968) noticed that the patterns displayed f o r food shopping by a " s p a t i a l l y s t r a t i f i e d sample of consumers" in d i c a t e d that food services are a hamlet l e v e l f unction offered by a l l c e n t r a l places. By using "desire l i n e s " to map h i s data, Ray noticed that a symmetry i n the food service pattern emerged from con-s i s t e n t consumer t r a v e l to t h e i r nearest centre. The few exceptional cases where consumers f a i l e d to purchase t h e i r food at the nearest shopping centre i s explained e i t h e r by multipurpose shopping or by c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s ... "with some French Canadian farmers p r e f e r r i n g a French Canadian ce n t r a l place to a c l o s e r E n g l i s h centre". From these writings we are reminded that:- (a) the presence of minority c u l t u r a l food stores i n the c i t y i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d with the maintenance of d i s t i n c t i v e c u l -t u r a l food habits, (b) i n "central place" terminology, food i s a low order good f o r which people are not generally prepared to t r a v e l great distances to purchase, except p o s s i b l y where c u l t u r a l preference i s being exercised. The next section of t h i s chapter examines the growth of Greek food stores i n Vancouver during the l a s t decade, and i n v e s t i g a t e s the importance of food habits i n the culture of immigrant communities i n North American c i t i e s . From t h i s discussion, hypotheses are developed concerning the maintenance of Greek food t r a d i t i o n s i n Vancouver and the consequent shopping patterns we would ex-pect such t r a d i t i o n s to encourage. This chapter i s con-cluded by comments on the organisation and strategy em-ployed i n the study. Greeks and the Urban Landscape o f Vancouver The present survey of the Greek community i n Van-couver has been prompted by the steady growth of the Greek p o p u l a t i o n over the. p a s t t e n years and the impact t h a t t h i s growth has had on Vancouver's urban landscape. The l a r g e s t area of Greek settlement i s i n the K i t s i l a n o d i s -t r i c t of the c i t y , where 21$ o f the Greeks i n Vancouver r e s i d e d i n 1961 ( a c c o r d i n g to D.B.S. data obtained from ennumeration a r e a s ) . I n 1966 the "Parthenon" grocery was opened on West Broadway as the f i r s t s t o r e o f f e r i n g s p e c i a l i t y Greek foods i n K i t s i l a n o , thus r i v a l l i n g the o n l y p r e v i o u s Greek s p e c i a l i t y s t o r e , the " C a l i f o r n i a " grocery, which had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the West End on Seymour S t r e e t some 40 years e a r l i e r . The opening o f the "Parthenon" p r o v i d e d an impetus f o r o t h e r such s t o r e s to open under Greek management a l -though without d i s t i n c t i v e Greek names such as the "Univers-i t y S t o r e s " , the "Seven Seas F i s h Market" and the "Broadway Bakery". I n l i n e w i t h these developments a Greek r e s t a u r -ant "the A c r o p o l " was a l s o opened. Thus w i t h i n three years the Greek community i n K i t s i l a n o had become l a r g e enough to support s e v e r a l l o c a l s t o r e s and r e s t a u r a n t s . I n 1970 two more s t o r e s were opened i n a s i m i l a r l o c a t i o n on West Broadway, the "Olympia Bakery" and "John's Meat Market", and i n January 1971 a new' Greek supermarket was opened ad-j o i n i n g t h i s meat s t o r e , c a l l e d the "West Broadway Groce-t e r i a " . "Jotm's Meat Market" has since closed down and has been replaced by "Buy Low Meats", another Greek owned store. Further comment on t h i s changeover w i l l be made i n a l a t e r chapter. Thus Greeks now have a f u l l range of food stores to shop at i f they so desire. The S i g n i f i c a n c e of Food Habits Food habits are an e s s e n t i a l part of culture and are u s u a l l y quite deeply imbedded i n the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of people r a i s e d i n a given c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n . One evidence of t h i s i s the symbolism frequently associated with food, f o r a l l r e l i g i o n s of the world have c e r t a i n r i t u a l s i n -v o l v i n g s p e c i a l foods. The sharing of food u n i v e r s a l l y symbolises a high degree of s o c i a l intimacy and acceptance. To Mead (1943) "food habits are seen as the c u l t u r a l l y standardised set of behaviours i n regard to food manifested by i n d i v i d u a l s who have been reared w i t h i n a given c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n . " The c u l t u r a l aspects of food do not merely involve d e f i n i t i o n as such. Mead (1953) has said: " i n most s o c i e t i e s food i s the focus of emotional associations, a channel f o r interpersonal r e l a t i o n s , f o r the communic-ati o n of love or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n or disapproval; i t u s u a l l y has a symbolic reference." I t may be i n f e r r e d , therefore, that the maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l food habits i s important to ethnic groups migrating to North America. To many such communities c l u s t e r i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h i n the c i t y , the c e l e b r a t i o n of an o l d c ountry food f e s t i v a l or the p r e p a r a t i o n of a t r a d i -t i o n a l type of meal i s one way i n which they can m a i n t a i n a g r e a t e r k i n d of i n t i m a c y w i t h one another as they c e l e -b r a t e f o r a moment the o l d way of l i f e they knew so w e l l , i f i n f a c t they so d e s i r e . Evidence suggests t h a t f o r a m a j o r i t y of such immigrants t h i s i s the case. Among the New Haven I t a l i a n s w r i t e s C h i l d (1943), "one o f the most p e r s i s t e n t t r a i t s o f I t a l i a n c u l t u r e , r e -ga r d l e s s of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s type of r e a c t i o n , i s the c u i s i n e . " Gordon (1949) n o t i c e d t h a t among the Minne a p o l i s Jews "there i s a r e t e n t i o n of s p e c i a l Jewish d e l i c a c i e s and d i s h e s t h a t were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the pa r e n t s ' home, even among those who no l o n g e r observe the kosher food taboos." V a l a s s i (1962) r e v e a l s how Greek-Americans p r e -serve many of t h e i r Greek dishes i n the new North American environment, and s t a t e s t h a t "many Greek-Americans i n the U.S.A. continue t o buy imported Greek o l i v e o i l s although some of the domestic v a r i e t i e s are as good." Of the spec-i a l i t y food s t o r e s found i n the ghetto, Wirth (1928) s t a t e s : "among them are the kosher butcher shops, where f r e s h meats and a v a r i e t y of sausages are a s p e c i a l i t y , and where, be-s i d e s the butcher, there i s to be found a s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n -ary, the sochet who k i l l s f r e s h p o u l t r y t o ord e r , mumbling a p r a y e r as he c u t s the t h r o a t of each c h i c k e n , duck or gooSe w i t h h i s c h a l e f , a " r i t u a l l y approved butcher k n i f e . " Hypotheses of the Study I t i s apparent that food habits are a f a i r l y con-servative aspect of c u l t u r e . In order to examine the food habits of the Greeks i n Vancouver, c e r t a i n hypotheses are developed and tested f o r t h i s group i n the Vancouver Metropolitan area. Hypothesis One F i r s t generation Greek immigrants preserve t h e i r  own food habits i n the Canadian urban environment. Do f i r s t generation Greeks i n Vancouver r e g u l a r l y eat food which i s d i s t i n c t l y Greek, and preserve t h e i r own Greek food customs and feast days? I f the findings are p o s i t i v e i t w i l l i n -dicate that (a) immigrant Greeks maintain a marked inde-pendence from Canadian culture so f a r as t h e i r food habits are concerned, (b) Greeks are able to obtain most of the s p e c i a l food items they require. C l e a r l y many fa c t o r s i n -fluence the reasons why Greeks preserve such food habits i f i n f a c t they do so. However, an examination of such v a r i a b l e s as income and s o c i a l class are beyond the scope of t h i s study. An important f a c t o r which must be considered i s the temporal f a c t o r , f o r i t i s an t i c i p a t e d that a Greek, resident i n Vancouver f o r ten years, w i l l have integrated i n t o the dominant Canadian culture s u f f i c i e n t l y to have acquired d i f f e r e n t food habits from a newly a r r i v e d Greek immigrant, even i f these habits are only modified to i n -clude several Canadian type dishes. In order to assess the importance of the temporal f a c t o r , I s h a l l make frequent use of the term "length of stay", which i n t h i s paper w i l l r e f e r to residence anywhere i n Canada or the U.S.A. f o r Greeks who have t r a v e l l e d to Vancouver d i r e c t l y from Greece and those who have t r a v e l l e d to North America d i r e c t l y from Greece, but then l i v e d elsewhere i n Canada or the U.S.A. p r i o r to s e t t l i n g i n Vancouver. Hypothesis Two The maintenance of t r a d i t i o n a l food habits by an  immigrant community leads to a d i s t i n c t i v e set of food  shopping patterns which are c u l t u r a l l y defined. This hypo-th e s i s i s dependent on the v e r i f i c a t i o n of Hypothesis One. In t h i s hypothesis, the s p a t i a l consequences of the preservation of s p e c i a l immigrant food habits are examined. I t has already been shown that i n h i s study of Chicago, Pred noticed a close r e l a t i o n s h i p between the negro com-munity and negro food stores. In the present study i t i s hypothesised that a close r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the Greeks and the Greek food stores. I hope to demonstrate that i n Vancouver, Greek immigrants shop frequently at t h e i r own food stores, and therefore, provide a s p a t i a l pattern of shopping behaviour that i s d i s t i n c t i v e from the pattern displayed by an average Canadian shopper. I f the r e s u l t s show a d i s t i n c t i v e s p a t i a l pattern i t may be i n f e r r e d that "culture" i s an important f a c t o r governing such behaviour. The Organisation of the Study In the absence of accurate census data since 1961, the actual number of Greek inhabitants i n Vancouver i s open to some degree of guesswork. Walhouse (I960) estim-ated the Vancouver Greek population to be approximately 3500 i n 1959. However, an examination of the census figures f o r 1961 shows that Walhouse overestimated the Greek pop-u l a t i o n by 1200. The problem of estimating population f i g u r e s i s considerable and estimates o f f e r e d by w e l l -meaning leaders of l o c a l ethnic communities should be treated with caution. The estimated Greek population i n Vancouver i n 1970 was i n the neighbourhood of 6000, but t h i s f i g u r e w i l l i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , be shown to be i n -accurate when census data f o r 1971 becomes a v a i l a b l e . As a r e s u l t of these numerical discrepancies several problems a r i s e i n the organisation of the study: (a) where do the Greeks i n Vancouver reside? (b) how can a study area be accurately defined without recent s t a t i s t i c a l data of the Greek population? and (c) how representative i s the sample used i n the study? From these d i f f i c u l t i e s i t i s apparent that the sample (see below) used i n the study does not provide conclusive r e s u l t s but rather shows patterns and trends i n Greek food habits and shopping patterns. I t may be assumed that such patterns are representative of the l a r g e r Greek community as a whole. An examination of the 1961 census f i g u r e s f o r Van-couver i n d i c a t e d that 21$ of the Greeks resided i n the K i t s i l a n o area of the c i t y , c l o s e l y followed by the area surrounding the "west end" of the c i t y . With the develop-ment of Greek food stores along the main business thorough-fare of K i t s i l a n o on West Broadway, i t i s apparent that the main centre f o r the expanding Greek community has focused on t h i s part of the c i t y . This study i s based on fieldwork c a r r i e d out i n the K i t s i l a n o area of Vancouver (Map One) between November-' 1969 and J u l y 1 9 7 0 , and consists of several d i s t i n c t i v e stages once the hypotheses had been developed:-1 . For t h i s study, the K i t s i l a n o region i s defined as that part of Vancouver west of Arbutus Street to Alma Street and West 16th Avenue northwards to Point Grey Road. The "telephone d i r e c t o r y " and the "ci t y d i r e c t o r y " were examined f o r Greek residents of s t r e e t s f a l l i n g within these a r b i t -r a r i l y appointed boundaries. The study area was then de-l i m i t e d (Map Two), the boundary being drawn along s t r e e t s which had e i t h e r no or only a few Greek residences on the block. This was i n contrast to the density of the "core area" where there were nine Greek residences i n a block (see below). 2. Once the Greek study area had been established i n K i t s i l a n o , a questionnaire survey was applied to a sample of Greek households within t h i s study region. The question-naire was structured i n four p a r t s : - (a) to obtain general information about the food Greeks were eating; (b) to i n -vestigate some t r a d i t i o n a l aspects of Greek food habits; I 21 W E S T S E C O N D AVE . WEST EIGHTH AVc W E S T FOURTH A V E . 98 W E S T B R O A D W A Y WEST SEVINTH ^ 1 5 4 7 W E S T E L E V E N T H A V E . MAP TWO. THE KITSILANO STUDY AREA.(REFERENCE TO STREETS AND STORES NAMED IN THE TEXT) S C A L E i_ •4 ST GEORGE'S C H U R C H 4 mile . W E S T FOU_RTE_ENTH_ _AVE_. j - GREEK F O O D STORES A N D RESTAURANTS Parthenon supermarket Broadway bakery Seven Seas fish market University stores Acropol restaurant Columbia restaurant Olympia bakery Broadwoy West Groceteria Buy Low meats (c) to examine Greek food shopping patterns; and (d) to extract personal information such as country of b i r t h , length of stay i n North America and age. The question-naires were provided i n both the Greek and E n g l i s h lang-uages and were completed through personal interviews and through postal r e p l i e s . 3. Merchants of Greek food stores i n the study area were interviewed and asked to issue address s l i p s to Greek customers entering t h e i r stores. Prom these r e s u l t s a h i n t e r l a n d f o r these Greek stores was established. 4-. Grocery d e l i v e r y l i s t s were obtained from the l e a d -in g supermarket stores i n the study area and mapped. Thus the hinterlands of both the supermarkets and Greek food stores i n the study area could be readily-compared. 5. A "Canadian" sample of f i f t y people l i v i n g within the study area was questioned about t h e i r food shopping h a b i t s . These people acted as a control group f o r ready comparison with the Greeks, and were chosen by random sample from the " c i t y d i r e c t o r y " . 6. Questionnaires were also mailed to Greeks l i v i n g up to eight miles from the study area, and r e p l i e s from t h i s group provided a u s e f u l comparison with the Greeks r e -s i d i n g i n the study area. An i n t e r e s t i n g feature of the r e s u l t s of these questionnaires i s the way they i l l u s t r a t e how these dispersed Greeks a c t u a l l y maintain c e r t a i n " c u l t u r a l " r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the main centre of the Greek settlement i n K i t s i l a n o . The Nature of the Study Area The information obtained from the " c i t y d i r e c t o r y " enabled a study area to be defined within the K i t s i l a n o region. The study area i s bounded on the east by Arbutus Street, on the north by West 2nd Avenue, on the west by Alma Street and on the south by West 14th Avenue. The area i s , however, not rectangular i n shape (Maps Two and Three). The study area f a l l s generally i n t o a "lower Middle Class" category, the average household earnings i n 1961 ranging between $4500 and $5500 per year. (D.B.S. 1961 census report.) The region may be divided i n t o several d i s t i n c t i v e "housetype" zones according to the age and appearance of houses found i n the area. The eastern area has seen many of the older sing l e dwelling houses replaced by modern apartment b u i l d i n g s es-p e c i a l l y i n the zone between Balsam Street and Arbutus Street. Most Greeks r e s i d i n g i n the study area l i v e i n o l d single dwelling detached houses; those Greeks who dwell i n the new apartments tend to be i n the 20-30 age group and are u s u a l l y unmarried men. The Greek Orthodox Church i s located on Vine Street and West 7th Avenue, and a large number of Greek f a m i l i e s l i v e i n the remaining single de-tached houses which surround the church. Eastwards to Macdonald Street and north of West Broadway apartments are l e s s numerous, and many old , single dwelling detached houses dominate the area. I t i s t h i s OU I W E S T S E C O N D AVE. < "WEST ELEVENTH AVE. S C A L E MAP THREE . KNOWN GREEK HOUSEHOLDS IN AND AROUND THE STUDY AREA. — O N E G R E E K H O U S E H O L D • — GREEK FOODSTORES A N D RESTAURANTS It — ST. GEORGE'S GREEK O R T H O D O X C H U R C H WEST THIRD AVE WEST FOURTH AVE. •• • t WEST FOURTEENTH A V E " WEST BROADWAY region centered along Stephens Street that appears to be the zone of densest Greek settlement within the study region. Several house frontages have been r e b u i l t with towering white p i l l a r s , reminiscent of the "grandeur that was Greece". West of Macdonald Street apartment b u i l d i n g s are v i r t u a l l y absent from the skyline apart from those along the major thoroughfares of West 4th Avenue, West Broadway and Alma S t r e e t . The q u a l i t y of housing generally improves westwards as does the apparent affluence of the Greek pop-u l a t i o n . Another important c l u s t e r of Greek f a m i l i e s i s that found i n the proximity of Waterloo Street and West 8th Avenue. The Greeks known to be residents of the study area probably do not f u l l y represent the t o t a l number of Greek f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n t h i s region. Approximately 200 Greek households are p l o t t e d on Map Three, but because there i s a f a i r l y consistent flow of new Greek a r r i v a l s i n t o the area i t i s known that there are more Greek f a m i l i e s l i v i n g w i thin the study area. However there i s no reason to sus-pect that t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern i s any d i f f e r e n t from that displayed by those Greeks who are known residents of the study area. The questionnaire survey was di r e c t e d at Greeks who were married, mainly because single Greek men stated i n interviews that they preserved very few Greek food customs, yet i n f a c t suggested that i f they only had somebody to cook r e g u l a r l y f o r them they would be delighted to continue eating s p e c i a l Greek meals. Such f e e l i n g s could not be included i n the study. The Greek population within the study area was sampled by random number se l e c t i o n s from the l i s t of known Greek addresses, and those chosen were asked to complete the questionnaire. Where the choice i n -volved an unmarried Greek male, the s e l e c t i o n was rejected. However, some d i f f i c u l t i e s arose p r i m a r i l y because many Greeks were suspicious of answering any.questions about themselves. I t appears that research conducted i n t o minor-i t y c u l t u r a l groups can frequently run i n t o s i m i l a r problems unless the researcher can e s t a b l i s h a good r e l a t i o n s h i p with the group i n question through f a m i l i a r i t y with the group's language. A t o t a l of forty-two questionnaires were completed from personal interviews with Greek residents i n the study area, and these represented a 65$ return from people interviewed. Ninety-three per cent of the question-naires were completed by f i r s t generation Greeks i n Canada. References C h i l d , Irvine L. I t a l i a n v American, New Haven Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press 1943. Glazer N. and Moynihan D. Beyond the Melting Pot, M.I.T. Press and Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, Cam-bridge, Mass., 1963. Gordon, A.I. Jews i n T r a n s i t i o n , Minneapolis U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Press, 1949. Mead, M. Mead, M. McKenna, M. Murdie, R. A. Murdie, R. A. Pred, A. Ray, D. Michael Simmons, J . and Simmons, R. V a l a s s i , K. W. Walhouse, F. Wirth, L, "The problem of changing food hab i t s " . B u l l e t i n of the National  Research Council, 108, October "1^3. Cu l t u r a l Patterns and Technical  Change. ed. UNESCO World Federation f o r Mental Health 1953. "The Melting Pot: Comparative Ob-servations i n the United States and Canada". S o c i o l o g i c a l and S o c i a l  Research, 53, J u l y 1969, no. W. " C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n Consumer Tra v e l " . Economic Geography 41, 1965, PP. 2 1 1 - 2 3 3 . F a c t o r i a l Ecology of Metropolitan  Toronto 1951-1961*1 U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago, Department of Geography Research Papers, no. 116, 1968. "Business Thoroughfares as Expres-sions of Urban Negro Culture". Economic Geography 39, 1963, pp.  2 1 7 - 2 3 3 . Urban Growth and the Concept of  Functional Region. Urban Studies: A Canadian Perspective, Chapter 3, Ed. Lithwick N.H. and Paquet G. Methuen 1968. Urban Canada. Toronto, Copp Clark Pub; Co. 1969. "Food Habits of Greek Americans". American Journal of C l i n i c a l N u t r i t i o n , 11, September 1962. Minority Ethnic Groups of Vancouver. Unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , Department of Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, i960. The Ghetto. U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1928. AN EXAMINATION OF GREEK FOOD HABITS IN  GREECE AND VANCOUVER In order to understand the food habits and food shopping patterns of the Greek community i n Vancouver, i t i s necessary to obtain information about the behaviour of t h i s group i n t h e i r "old country". The fo l l o w i n g b r i e f d i scussion examines some aspects of the geography of Greece and shows how regional differences have produced a v a r i e t y of Greek food patterns. Greece i s a mountainous country, and barren lime-stone rock and thorny bush constitute 55$ of the land sur-face. However, despite the rough nature of the t e r r a i n , some 60$ of the Greek population p r a c t i c e s a g r i c u l t u r e . In the mild, moderately moist winters and hot dry summers which characterise much of Greece, o l i v e s and vineyards are important, and orchards of c i t r u s , f i g s and almonds f l o u r i s h along the Aegean coast. In summer, the dazz l i n g white limestone makes a s t r i k i n g contrast to the deep azure of the Mediterranean sea. Everywhere, the proximity of the sea i s always f e l t i n some subtle way, f o r distance from the sea means i s o l a t i o n , backwardness and poverty f o r many inl a n d Greek v i l l a g e s . People of d i f f e r e n t regions i n Greece have d i f f e r e n t ways of l i f e , f o r example, the mountain people who have l i t t l e communication with the re s t of the country have d i s t i n c t i v e d i a l e c t s , customs and food h a b i t s . "Although i n the United States a man may be recognised as a Greek, to other Greeks he i s a Macedonian, an Arcadian or an Epirot"»(Valassi 1962). Pood Habits i n Greece Within t h i s environment of barren mountains and blue sea, of poor communications and i s o l a t e d v i l l a g e s , can be f e l t the o v e r a l l impact of the Greek past. The home of one of man's e a r l i e s t c i v i l i s a t i o n s , Greece has since been subjected to the whims of many subsequent invading groups. The most important of these, the Turks, drove many Greek f a m i l i e s i n t o the comparative s h e l t e r of mountain v i l l a g e s i t e s , and the long Turkish occupation of Greece has had a considerable influence on the Greek c u l t u r a l landscape and the Greek way of l i f e e s p e c i a l l y i n the north eastern part of Greece. Mosques and Turkish type houses character-i s e the small towns of t h i s region and several Greek foods reveal a marked Turkish influence both i n t h e i r content and preparation. Often Turkish names are applied to c e r t a i n dishes such as "dolma" i n "dolmathes" (minced meat st u f f e d i n r o l l e d cabbage l e a f or vine leaves) and " p i l a f " (a r i c e d i s h ) . The consumption of Turkish coffee i s popular i n many Greek households, and s p e c i a l coffee houses and inns are popular throughout Greece and are frequented mainly by the men. Because of the ph y s i c a l environment, sheep and goats roam f r e e l y around the Greek countryside. Lamb i s the most popular meat i n Greece and i s often eaten on Sundays or on sp e c i a l occasions. The consumption of roast lamb each day i s considered to be a sign of affluence i n * Greece. Chicken i s eaten occasi o n a l l y , but the consumption of beef i s not very popular, because^in Greece, c a t t l e are not r a i s e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r beef, hence the meat i s f a i r l y tough. Goats' milk helps to produce the white " f e t a " or soft cheese which i s so popular i n Greece. Most milk i s consumed i n the form of cheese or as cultured milk (yoghurt), f o r Greeks drink very l i t t l e ordinary milk. The presence of o l i v e trees has encouraged the use of o l i v e o i l f o r the preparation and cooking of most meals, and o l i v e s , with other "mediterranean" f r u i t s are us u a l l y considered to be e s s e n t i a l features of any meal. Greek food habits are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . Many Greeks f a s t p r i o r to Christmas, and i n Lent p r i o r to Easter, but t h i s f a s t i n g does not bring about a r a d i c a l change i n the Greek d i e t . For example, f i s h i s * The information on food habits i n Greece i n t h i s chapter was obtained through personal interviews with Greeks i n Vancouver and from the Human Relations Area P i l e s , located i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Main L i b r a r y . not allowed whereas f i s h roe i s . Fasting i s more r i g i d l y adhered to i n the r u r a l areas than i n the c i t i e s , f o r i n the l a t t e r , many people f a s t only on a few important days i n Lent. This rural-urban difference may probably be a t t r i b u t e d to the p a r t i a l breakdown of f o l k and family customs which occurs i n the more dynamic atmosphere of the c i t y . Greek r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l s have t h e i r appropriate food. Throughout much of Greece i t i s customary to k i l l a p i g at Christmas, and at Easter time f a m i l i e s j o i n with r e l a t i v e s and neighbours to eat a spit - r o a s t e d lamb. Other r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l s such as Baptism are u s u a l l y associated with s p e c i a l l y prepared dishes. Greek meals are t r a d i t i o n a l l y simple, and there^ i s always bread at the t a b l e . The family meal i s u s u a l l y the evening meal, and meal times, e s p e c i a l l y the Sunday meal, are considered the medium f o r h o s p i t a l i t y . To take a f r i e n d out to dinner i s considered an i n s u l t , f o r re s -taurants are f o r foreigners who ape Greek ways. In Greece, however, there are informal eating places known as "kitchens" where men who work too f a r from home may obtain a home-type meal. An obvious difference i n eating habits e x i s t s be-tween r u r a l and urban Greeks. In the v i l l a g e , the bread i s brown and home baked, and may form the whole meal with o l i v e o i l f o r dipping. Vegetables such as beans, peas and tomatoes supplement the starch food, f o r eggs and p o u l t r y are considered l u x u r i e s , chickens being k i l l e d only f o r very s p e c i a l occasions. Pish i s eaten fresh along the coasts and i s consumed i n the i n t e r i o r v i l l a g e s when i t i s a v a i l a b l e , u s u a l l y i n a s a l t e d and dried form. Salted roe when made into a salad i s gre a t l y enjoyed and forms a regular food item during Lent. The c i t y Greeks consider themselves to be very d i f f e r e n t from the peasants — there i s a vogue f o r peasant handicrafts but not f o r peasant a t t i t u d e s . Urban Greeks imitate some ways of foreign v i s i t o r s , and c e r t a i n "North Western" trends i n t h e i r food habits are represented by increased milk and meat consumption. Greek Food Habits i n Vancouver The Greeks questioned i n the study area did not show as va r i e d an o r i g i n as might have been expected, f o r of the 42 Greeks who completed the questionnaire over 50$ came from Athens. The f u l l count was:-Athens 22 Salonika 2 Piraeus 4- Corinth 1 Mytilene 3 Sparta 1 Levadhia 2 Chios 1 O x i l i t h o s 2 Pirgos 1 E l e v s i s 2 Spetsai 1 From Map Four i t can be observed that 65$ of these Greeks come from within 30 miles of Athens, and that a l l of these towns are located on the coast apart from Levadhia MAP FOUR. ORIGINS OF THE GREEK SAMPLE. and Sparta. I t i s also apparent that these town dwellers are probably not as t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e i r views as Greeks l i v i n g i n the r u r a l areas of Greece. The following analysis of Greek food habits i n Vancouver i s divided i n t o several d i s t i n c t i v e sections. The questionnaire set out to e s t a b l i s h (1) the general foods that Vancouver Greeks consume and (2) the extent to which these Greeks preserve the t r a d i t i o n a l food habits of t h e i r home country. Prom these r e s u l t s , the degree of c u l t u r a l conservatism may be measured against length of stay i n North America. The c e n t r a l theme f o r the remainder of t h i s chapter i s , therefore, to examine Hypothesis One, i . e . that Greeks preserve t h e i r own food habits i n the Canadian urban environment. In order to t e s t Hypothesis One, a section on "general foods" was included i n the f i r s t part of the questionnaire. Within t h i s section, questions were asked about vegetables, f r u i t s , f i s h , : meat and drink, and the Greeks were asked to l i s t i n order the three foods i n these groupings that they consumed most frequently. For anal-y t i c a l purposes each food item was then given a weighted score — three points f o r a f i r s t choice, two points f o r a second choice and one point f o r a t h i r d choice. Once scores f o r i n d i v i d u a l food items had been evaluated, they were then converted i n t o a percentage of the t o t a l o v e r a l l points score p o s s i b l e . Since 42 Greeks answered the questionnaire i t follows that the o v e r a l l points f o r the group would t o t a l : 42 x (3+2+1) = 42 x 6 = 2 5 2 . The best score f o r any one food item would be 42 x 3 = 126. In order to obtain a ready comparison between the types of food eaten by Greeks and Canadians, the Canadian con t r o l group was also asked to complete the section of the questionnaire r e l a t i n g to the consumption of "general foods". Forty two of these completed questionnaires were then randomly selected to provide a comparison with the Greek responses. The r e s u l t s of the survey are shown i n the following t a b l e s . Table I The Canadian Consumption of F r u i t and Vegetables Food Item ( F r u i t ) Apples Oranges Bananas Grapefruit Peaches Grapes Food Item  Vegetables Carrots Peas Potatoes B r o c c o l i Lettuce Green Beans Corn Tomatoes Points Scored (Max. 126) 90 59 42 14 11 10 48 44 3 0 2 9 28 18 14 12 % points score  r e l a t i v e to max. possible 7 1 . 4 46.8 3 3 . 3 1 1 . 1 8 . 7 7 . 9 38.1 3 4 . 9 2 3 . 8 2 3 . 0 2 2 . 2 1 4 . 3 11.1 9 . 5 From Table I and Table I I i t i s ev i d e n t t h a t the Greek ch o i c e s o f f r u i t and vegetables are s i m i l a r t o the food p r e f e r e n c e s o f the average Canadian consumer. Table I I . The Greek consumption of F r u i t and Vegetables Food Item P o i n t s scored % p o i n t s score Index of r e l a t i v e to max. Greek d i f f e r - p o s s i b l e ence from Can-adian sample Grange s 83 6 5 . 9 +24-Apples 55 4-3.6 -35 Grapes 4-4- 34-.9 +34-Pears 1 9 15.1 + 1 9 Bananas 16 12.7 -26 Watermelons 16 12.7 +16 Food Item Vegetables Spinach 38 30.1 +38 Lettuce. 37 2 9 . 3 + 9 Green beans 36 28.5 +18 Tomatoes 3 2 2 5 . 4 - +20 Cabbage 30 2 3 . 8 +30 Carrots... 18 14-.3 -30 C a u l i f l o w e r 17 13.5 + 1 7 B r o c c o l i 11 8.7 -18 Peas 11 8.7 -33 The f a c t t h a t oranges and grapes c o n s t i t u t e f i f t y p ercent of the f r u i t l i s t e d by the Greeks o b v i o u s l y has some c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , because both may be considered to be "Mediterranean" f r u i t s . However, Greeks do not have d i f f i c u l t y o b t a i n i n g these f r u i t s , mainly because f r u i t i s cheap and because oranges and grapes are generally supplied from f r u i t growing areas i n C a l i f o r n i a , and are, therefore r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n Vancouver food stores. Greeks p r e f e r fresh f r u i t and vegetables to the frozen or canned v a r i e t i e s , and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a wide s e l e c t i o n of fresh vegetables i n both Greek and Canadian food stores has enabled the Greeks to maintain t h i s p r e f e r -ence i n Vancouver. In Greece, vegetables u s u a l l y con-s t i t u t e the main dish, and as such are eaten i n a large quantity at a meal, often with l i t t l e e l s e . Salads are very popular i n Greece, and t h e i r continued p o p u l a r i t y i n Canada i s emphasized by the high scores of both l e t t u c e and tom-atoes i n Table I I . Certain l e a f y vegetables such as cabbage and spinach are Greek favourites and they are used to pre-pare "national" dishes such as "dolmathes" and "spanocopetta" (spinach p i e ) . Peas are not very popular among Vancouver Greeks mainly because fresh peas are not r e g u l a r l y a v a i l a b l e and Greeks do not generally l i k e purchasing canned or frozen vegetables. Celery, c a u l i f l o w e r and carrot s are new vegetables which are widely accepted, and eggplant and imported r i p e o l i v e s are s t i l l popular among many Greeks. Tables I I I and IV summarise the findings of the questionnaire concerning Canadian and Greek f i s h and meat consumption. Food Item (Fish) Salmon Cod S h e l l f i s h Sole Halibut Tuna Food Item (Meat) Beef Poultry Pork F i s h Lamb Ham Points scored (Max. 126) 81 38 3 4 3 2 21 20 107 63 40 18 14 7 % points score  r e l a t i v e to max, possible 64.3 30.1 2 7 . 0 2 5 . 4 1 6 . 7 1 5 . 9 84.9 50.0 31.7 14.3 11.1 5.5 Table IV. The Greek consumption of F i s h and Meat Food Item Points Scored (Fish) (Max. 126) % points score Index of Greek r e l a t i v e to max. difference from possible Canadian Salmon 67 53.2 -14 Smelts 47 37.3 +47 Cod 38 30.1 Even Halibut 28 22.2 + 7 S h e l l f i s h 1 5 1 1 . 9 - 1 9 Sole 12 9 . 5 -20 Sardines 10 7 . 9 +10 Squid 7 5.5 + 7 Food Item (Meat) Points Scored (Max. 126) % points score  r e l a t i v e to max. possible Index of Greek  dif f e r e n c e from  Canadian sample Lamb Pork Poultry Fish Beef 85 82 52 19 14 67.5 65.1 41.2 15.1 11.1 +71 - 2 5 -11 + 1 -26 F i s h i s well l i k e d i n Greece and i t i s r e g u l a r l y eaten i n coastal areas, u s u a l l y as soon as i t i s caught. This overcomes the problem of inadequate r e f r i g e r a t i o n f a c i l -i t i e s and poor transportation methods. As a r e s u l t , the Greeks i n Vancouver have a marked preference f o r f r e s h f i s h . Salmon i s c l e a r l y the most popular f i s h despite i t s cost, but Greeks also purchase, a l o t of cheaper f i s h types, t o -gether with s h e l l f i s h of a l l descriptions and the more exotic choices of squid and anchoves. expected and o f f e r s a good example of the strong conserv-ative a ttitude Greeks have towards c e r t a i n aspects of t h e i r food h a b i t s . 47.6 per cent of the Greeks interviewed placed lamb as t h e i r f i r s t choice meat purchase, but beef was well placed i n second p o s i t i o n , with 45.2 per cent s t a t i n g that beef was t h e i r f i r s t choice. The high p l a c i n g of beef i n the Greek food habits (Table IV) can be explained by several f a c t o r s : -(a) Beef i s the favourite Canadian meat and i s always well displayed i n the food stores. The Greek choice of lamb above any other meat was (b) Greeks use a l o t o f ground beef and hamburger meat f o r many of t h e i r d i s h e s , e.g. f o r "mousaka" and "dolmathes". (c) Fresh lamb i s v e r y expensive i n Vancouver and many Greeks f e e l t h a t i t does not compare i n q u a l i t y w i t h the lamb eaten i n Greece. Vancouver Greeks eat l i t t l e f r o z e n lamb because they do not t h i n k i t t a s t e s as good as f r e s h lamb. Consequently, the h i g h p r e f e r e n c e f o r lamb shown i n Table IV r e p r e s e n t s a good example of the Greek d e s i r e to preserve a v i t a l p a r t of t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e at a h i g h c o s t . Four of the Greeks i n t e r v i e w e d s t a t e d t h a t they u s u a l l y c e l e b r a t e d E a s t e r w i t h a whole lamb s p i t - r o a s t e d i n t h e i r own back garden. Many f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s were i n v i t e d t o t h i s important o c c a s i o n . The l i s t s of d r i n k s consumed most f r e q u e n t l y by Canadians and Greeks are shown i n Tables V and V I . Table V. Consumption of d r i n k s (Canadian) Drink P o i n t s Scored % p o i n t s score (Max. 126) r e l a t i v e to max. p o s s i b l e Tea 83 6 5 . 9 I n s t a n t c o f f e e * 7 1 56.3 M i l k 58 4 6 . 0 Wine 2 3 18.3 Coca Cola 1 3 1 0 . 3 T u r k i s h c o f f e e *When completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l a r g e number of Can-adians expressed the f a c t t h a t they drank more p e r c o l a t e d , d r i p c o f f e e , e t c . than the i n s t a n t v a r i e t y . The h i g h r a t i n g f o r t e a , t h e r e f o r e , has to be seen i n t h i s l i g h t . Drink Points scored % points score Index of Greek (max. 126) r e l a t i v e to max. d i f f e r e n c e s from possible Canadian sample Turkish coffee 80 63.5 63.5 31.7 1 9 .8 15.9 4-.8 +80 + 9 +17 -33 -63 - 7 Instant coffee* 80 Milk Tea Wine 4-0 25 20 Coca Cola 6 *See footnote f o r Table V above. The strong Greek preference f o r Turkish coffee i n -dicated i n Table VI above i s matched by an equal desire to drink the much more convenient instant coffee. Many Greeks r e s i d i n g i n Vancouver have brought t h e i r f a m i l i e s with them from Greece. The presence of "grandmother" dressed i n her t r a d i t i o n a l black costume was a regular sight i n the houses of those Greeks who answered the questionnaire, and where such a notable lady was present, Turkish coffee was often the most favoured drink. Many Greeks, however, do not a l -ways have time to prepare Turkish coffee and where t h i s i s so, the more convenient i n s t a n t coffee i s consumed. Other Greeks enjoy instant coffee f a r more, thus an accurate gauge of which drink i s more popular depends on circumstances and i s , therefore, d i f f i c u l t to assess. From t h i s b r i e f analysis of the main foods eaten by Vancouver Greeks, i t i s apparent that t h i s group i s f a i r l y t r a d i t i o n a l i n t h e i r choice of food. As 9 3 per cent of the Greeks interviewed were f i r s t generation s e t t l e r s i n Canada, such a conservative trend i s to be expected. The Greeks have been helped to preserve t h e i r o ld food habits by the q u a l i t y and v a r i e t y of the food stores i n the study area, most of which o f f e r foods with which the Greeks are f a m i l i a r . Greeks have accepted several r e l a t i v e l y new food types in t o t h e i r d i e t such as salmon, instant coffee, beef and c a r r o t s , but they have maintained many of the older much-favoured Greek foods with which they are most f a m i l i a r such as lamb, spinach, oranges and Turkish coffee. A good example of t r a d i t i o n i n Greek food prepar-a t i o n i s well i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t that 68$ of the Greeks interviewed r e g u l a r l y used o l i v e o i l to prepare t h e i r food dishes. Conservatism i n Greek food habits In order to t e s t f u r t h e r the extent of c u l t u r a l conservatism i n Greek food habits, a section of the question-naire was s p e c i a l l y designed to examine t h i s aspect i n greater d e t a i l . Table VII i l l u s t r a t e s the questions\which were asked. I t i n d i c a t e s the expected Greek "conservative" r e p l y to these questions and shows the percentage of those Greeks interviewed who responded i n a t r a d i t i o n a l fashion to these questions. Table VII. Conservatism i n Greek food habits Question 2. 4 ; 5. 6. 7. 8. Do you eat break-f a s t cereals? Greek Conserv-ative Reply Rarely Do you eat more t r a d i t i o n a l cheese (feta) than Canadian cheese? Yes Do you eat canned f r u i t and veget-ables? Do you eat frozen f r u i t and veget-ables? Do you eat more lamb than beef? I f a l b . of lamb and a l b . of beef was"the same p r i c e , which one would you choose? How often do you cook your own nat i o n a l dishes? Do you observe your own r e l i g i o u s / c u l t u r a l feast days? Rarely Rarely Yes % of Conserv-ative Reply 47 86 57 57 50 Lamb Frequently (at l e a s t once a week) Yes ( s p e c i a l Greek holidays or r e l i g -ious f e s t i v a l s ) Do you have a sp e c i a l meal on such feast days? Yes 50 88 9 3 Question 10. 11. How often do you v i s i t Greek res -taurants i n Vancouver? Greek Conserv-a t i v e Reply Do you eat any of the s p e c i a l l y pre-pared dishes such as Yiachni, Mousaka, P a s t i t s i o , Dolmathes, Kreas Pournour? Yes Rarely ( l e s s than once a month) % of Conserv-ative Reply 91 67 Prom Table VII i t i s evident that those Greeks who were interviewed responded i n a t r a d i t i o n a l fashion to most of the questions. C l e a r l y , these r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that Greeks l i k e food and food ceremonies which remind them of t h e i r homeland, and that as a group they are f a i r l y t r a d -i t i o n a l i n t h e i r food h a b i t s . Greek Pood Habits and Time The longer minority immigrant communities stay i n North America, the more integrated they become int o the dominant North American way of l i f e . In order to inves-t i g a t e the extent to which Greek food habits might change i n Vancouver over time, the Greek responses to the questions i n Table VII were p l o t t e d against the time that each Greek has stayed i n North America. Where a conservative response was made to a question one mark was awarded, thus a Greek who i s very t r a d i t i o n a l i n h i s food habits could score a t o t a l of eleven points. The points acquired by each Greek O OO OO o 60 O O O O O O o '•P 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 Y E A R S O F S T A Y I N N . A M E R I C A FIGURE ONE. GREEK FOOD HABIT CONSERVATISM MEASURED AGAINST YEARS OF STAY IN N. AMERICA were p l o t t e d on a graph against h i s or her length of stay-i n North America, and the r e s u l t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n i s shown i n F i g . 1. From the diagram i t i s apparent that most of the f o r t y two Greeks interviewed have migrated to North America within the l a s t f i f t e e n years, and the f i g u r e s i n the diagram show that the most recent immigrants have the high-est scores, hence the greatest f a m i l i a r i t y with Greek food and the desire to maintain Greek food h a b i t s . In the diagram, the l i n e of average " c u l t u r a l " scores even up a f t e r s i x to seven years, and t h i s suggests that the Greeks are prepared to accept only a l i m i t e d number of Canadian food habits, and that the desire to maintain food habits which are t r a d i t i o n a l l y Greek i s very strong. Conclusion (a) Greek food habits The r e s u l t s of t h i s survey of Greek food habits i n Vancouver c l o s e l y support Hypothesis One. The following points may be noted:-( i ) Greeks preserve foods which remind them of home such as oranges, lamb, Turkish coffee, f e t a cheese and spinach. ( i i ) Greeks accept some new foods espec-i a l l y those that they can adapt to t h e i r t r a d -i t i o n a l methods of food preparation and cooking, e.g. hamburger and ground beef. ( i i i ) Greeks are conservative i n t h e i r food habits and often pay higher p r i c e s to obtain the sp e c i a l foods they require, e.g. o l i v e o i l and lamb, (b) Food changes with time Two fact o r s may be noted with respect to food changes with time:- ( i ) The wide range of products displayed i n Vancouver food stores has enabled a l l Greeks to maintain c e r t a i n aspects of t h e i r food habits with l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y , ( i i ) Most of the Greeks i n Vancouver are f i r s t generation s e t t l e r s , and are, therefore, keen to preserve as many of t h e i r o l d c u l t u r a l habits as p o s s i b l e . Possible changes i n Greek food habits may be experienced among second and t h i r d generation Greeks, but t h i s group w i l l c e r t a i n l y not become very apparent i n Vancouver f o r some time to come. Reference V a l a s s i , K. V. "Food habits of Greek Americans". American Journal of C l i n i c a l N u t r i t i o n 11, S e p t . 1962. GREEK FOOD SHOPPING PATTERNS IN VANCOUVER In t h i s chapter, the s p a t i a l a c t i v i t i e s of Greek residents i n Vancouver are examined, the aim being to show how the c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s of the Greeks influence the s p a t i a l movement of members of t h i s group within the c i t y with regard to t h e i r food shopping h a b i t s . In order to t e s t Hypothesis Two i t w i l l be shown that Greeks reveal food shopping patterns which are separate and d i s t i n c t i v e from the "average Canadian" shopper, and that Greeks are prepared to t r a v e l some distance across the c i t y to purchase t h e i r s p e c i a l food requirements. C e r t a i n l y , the presence of d i s t i n c t i v e Greek food stores i n the K i t s i l a n o d i s t r i c t of Vancouver suggests that there i s a close r e l a t i o n s h i p between these stores and the l o c a l K i t s i l a n o Greek population. Most of the Greek food stores are located between Macdonald and Trutch Street on West Broadway, the main business thoroughfare of the study region, but an important f i s h store and a Greek owned restaurant are found on West Fourth Avenue between Balsam Street and Arbutus S t r e e t . The f i r s t Greek food store, the "Parthenon" was opened i n 1966 and between then and February 1 9 7 1 no fewer than s i x Greek food s c o r e s and three Greek-owned restaurants have opened f o r business. The development of such food stores may be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the rapid growth of the Greek community i n the K i t s i l a n o region of Vancouver between 1 9 6 1 and 1 9 7 1 . In t h i s study, three such food stores are examined i n d e t a i l , the Parthenon Supermarket, the U n i v e r s i t y Stores and the Seven Seas Pish Market. Since f i e l d work was com-pleted, a new Canadian and Greek supermarket have been opened i n the study region. A new Safeway store was opened at Macdonald Street and Broadway towards the end of 1 9 7 0 , and the Broadway West Groceteria was opened i n January 1 9 7 1 . However, because they have only r e c e n t l y opened f o r business, data are not av a i l a b l e f o r these stores. The presence of three Greek supermarkets and two Greek bakeries suggests that there i s a healthy Greek market f o r such stores. However, i n the case of the Greek-owned meat store, "John's Ranch Meats", t h i s was not the case, f o r i t l a s t e d l e s s than a year, before being closed down and replaced by another Greek owned meat store, "Buy Low Meats". Prom t h i s occurence i t appears that such Greek stores s e l l -i n g gust the one product w i l l f i n d i t very d i f f i c u l t to compete with cut-price Canadian butchers such as "Rob Roy Meats" and "Roannes Meats", both of which are located i n the study region on West Broadway. Most of the Greek stores are characterised by cans of imported Greek o l i v e o i l displayed i n t h e i r windows and by Greek names. Inside the Parthenon, the non-Greek v i s i t o r i s impressed by the d i s p l a y of fresh f r u i t and vegetables, and by the numerous sacks o f f e r i n g s p e c i a l i t y beans and imported o l i v e s . Huge f e t a cheeses dominate the cheese counter and the dominant meat on d i s p l a y i s lamb, not beef. A happy atmosphere e x i s t s i n s i d e the store, and Greeks converse c h e e r f u l l y with t h e i r f r i e n d s and the Greeks who work there. The Parthenon s e l l s over 15,000 gallons of imported Greek o l i v e o i l a year, a good i n d i c a t i o n of the sizeable business i t operates. The U n i v e r s i t y stores i s much smaller than the Parthenon and concentrates more on s p e c i a l i t y Greek imported foods. Greek o l i v e o i l cans and s p e c i a l Greek food brands dominate the window of t h i s store. The Seven Seas F i s h Market i s operated by Greeks who l i v e i n Ladner, and i s perhaps the best f i s h store i n the v i c i n i t y of the K i t s i l a n o study region. The f i s h i s always fresh; salmon, h a l i b u t , smelts and cod are the most important types of fresh f i s h s o l d. The Greek customer i s also able to purchase o i l and s p e c i a l cheese, and a s e l e c t i o n of dried, imported Mediter-ranean f i s h i s also a v a i l a b l e , together with Greek newspapers and magazines. The Parthenon and the U n i v e r s i t y stores appeal mainly to Greeks, but the Seven Seas F i s h Market i s also frequented by many non-Greeks, due to the q u a l i t y of i t s merchandise and the lack of competition i n the area. In order to examine the food shopping patterns and habits of the Greeks r e s i d i n g i n the study area, the Canadian c o n t r o l group of 50 people was questioned about t h e i r food shopping h a b i t s . By mapping the i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from these people, a comparison of the shopping p a t t e r n s d i s p l a y e d by t h i s group and the Greeks i s r e a d i l y a v a i l -a b l e . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h i s p a t t e r n may be conside r e d as " c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s " , f o r major socio-economic d i f f e r -ences are dimi n i s h e d by s e l e c t i n g the c o n t r o l group from the study area. Food s t o r e s w i t h i n the c i t y g e n e r a l l y serve a l o c a l neighbourhood market area, f o r " C e n t r a l P l a c e " s t u d i e s have r e v e a l e d t h a t food i s e s s e n t i a l l y a "low order" good which consumers are not u s u a l l y prepared to t r a v e l a great d i s t a n c e to purchase. C a r o l (1962) n o t i c e d t h a t 80 per cent of the r e s i d e n t s of a Z u r i c h suburb purchased t h e i r g r o c e r i e s w i t h i n the l o c a l neighborhood, and B e r r y (1967) showed t h a t food s e r v i c e s supply a very l o c a l trade o r s e r v i c e area i n which consumers are u n w i l l i n g t o t r a v e l f a r e i t h e r because of frequency of demand or the b u l k of the commodity t o be purchased. Despite the f a c t t h a t food s t o r e s mostly s e l l t h e i r goods to a l o c a l market, there are cases where consumers are prepared t o t r a v e l some d i s t a n c e to purchase t h e i r food requirements. Ray (1968) found i n h i s study of food s e r v i c e s i n E a s t e r n O n t a r i o t h a t "the few e x c e p t i o n a l cases where consumers ignore an i n t e r v e n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y are e x p l a i n e d by multipurpose t r a v e l behaviour o r by c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s " . Maps Five and Six show the food shopping patterns displayed by "Canadians" and "Greeks" who are residents within the study area. The mapping device used i s the " d e s i r e - l i n e " , a s t r a i g h t l i n e drawn between home and food store to indicate Canadian and Greek shopping h a b i t s . Map  Five shows the food shopping pattern of the Canadian shoppers r e s i d i n g i n the study area. C l e a r l y , the l o c a l i s e d nature of t h e i r food habits i s most apparent, f o r everybody who was interviewed stated that they shopped f o r groceries most frequently at Canadian supermarkets within, or i n close proximity, to the study area. Only one person of the 50 questioned stated that he v i s i t e d the Greek supermarket at a l l frequently, ( i . e . , once a week) and t h i s v i s i t was only because these stores were l o c a l and remained open f o r Sunday shopping. In contrast, Map Six, which shows the food shopping habits of the Greek sample, i l l u s t r a t e s a complicated pat-tern of s p a t i a l a c t i v i t y both i n and outside the study area. From t h i s map, several observations may be made. Sixty nine per cent of the Greeks interviewed do most of t h e i r grocery shopping at Canadian supermarkets within the study area, and a further 4.8 per cent t r a v e l across the c i t y to shop at the l a r g e r Canadian supermarkets downtown. The explanation behind t h i s pattern i s that Canadian super-markets o f f e r fresh q u a l i t y products with which the Greeks are f a m i l i a r at f a i r l y cheap p r i c e s . Thus, Greeks who shop at these Canadian stores save money on t h e i r food purchase. I CM i E N G L I S H BAY S C A L E " ' i m i l e J W E S T E N D D O W N T O W N MAP FIVE. FOOD STORE MOST FREQUENTLY VISITED BY CANADIANS RESIDING IN THE STUDY AREA. • i 2 3 4 5 6 C A N A D I A N SUPERMARKETS Sofeway, 4 * n and A l m a . Superva lu, Broadway and Blenheim Safeway, Bay'swater 4 t h and Vine Broadway and Arbutus Buy Low 16^ and Arbutus D O W N T O W N W E S T E N D 10 F A L S E C R E E K MAP SIX. FOOD STORE MOST FREQUENTLY VISITED BY GREEKS RESIDING IN THE STUDY AREA. • i 2 3 4 5 6 7 C A N A D I A N SUPERMARKETS Safeway , Supervalu, Safeway, Buy Low. Woodwards 4 t h and Alma Broadway and Blenheim Bayswater and Vine Broadway and s Arbutus 1 6 t h and Arbutus Hastings St. 0 GREEK F O O D STORES 8 Parthenon, Broadway 9 University .Delicatessen, Broadway 10 California Grocery, Seymour & Nelson The f a c t that 4.8 per cent of t h i s group t r a v e l s downtown to do t h e i r grocery shopping implies that t h i s may be one of the hardships that minority ethnic groups i n the c i t y have to endure i n order to preserve a d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r a l way of l i f e . Twelve per cent of the Greeks t r a v e l out of the study area to the C a l i f o r n i a Grocery, a noted Greek food store, located at Seymour Street and Nelson Street, thus from the r e s u l t s of the questionnaire, a t o t a l of 26.2 per cent of the Greeks a c t u a l l y v i s i t Greek food stores to purchase most of t h e i r food supplies. This i s quite a high percentage when i t i s considered that Greek stores are generally more expensive than t h e i r "Canadian" competitors. In contrast to t h i s f i g u r e s , however, 82.5 per cent of the Greeks stated that they v i s i t Greek food stores at l e a s t once a week. Thus i t appears that although approx-imately one quarter of the Greeks interviewed stated that they completed most of t h e i r grocery shopping at Greek supermarkets, a vast majority v i s i t these stores each week fo r some of t h e i r shopping. The reason f o r t h i s shopping pattern i s that many Greeks wish to frequent Greek stores to purchase s p e c i a l i t y Greek foods, but are not prepared to commit themselves to heavy spending on food i n these stores, f o r they r e a l i s e that goods are cheaper i n the Can-adian supermarkets and there i s l i t t l e , i f any, difference i n the q u a l i t y of the food offered. Of the Greeks i n t e r -viewed 81 per cent stated that they v i s i t e d Greek stores mainly because these stores o f f e r s p e c i a l i t y imported Greek food, and of the remainder, only 7 . 1 per cent suggested that the reasoning behind such v i s i t s was because the goods offered i n Greek stores were fresh and of high q u a l i t y . The items l i s t e d as being the goods most frequently pur-chased i n Greek stores were " s p e c i a l i t i e s " such as fresh o l i v e s , l e n t i l beans, f e t a cheese, o l i v e o i l and some lamb. A good comparison of the Greek and Canadian food shopping patterns may be obtained by measuring the t r i p lengths from home to the grocery store f o r each group. Using the data presented on Maps Five and Six the journeys from home to store f o r a l l Greeks and Canadians were meas-ured, and the average t r i p length i n street blocks was derived f o r each group. The r e s u l t s are shown i n Table VIII, Table VIII. Length of Journey to Grocery Store Group Total Distance t r a v e l l e d to Grocery Stpre Under 3 3 - 5 6 - 1 0 Over 1 0 Average dis-blocks blocks blocks blocks tance t r a v -e l l e d Greeks 42 1 0 2 0 4 8 7 . 6 blocks Canadians 5 0 1 9 2 7 4 - 3 . 1 blocks As the size of each group sample i s very small i t i s d i f f i c u l t to generalise about the respective shopping patterns displayed by each group. However, the figures i n Table VIII suggest that Greeks t r a v e l f u r t h e r to purchase t h e i r food requirements than do Canadians, and that the Greek food shopping pattern i s d i f f e r e n t from that displayed by Canadians. Summary Of the Greeks interviewed, 73.8 per cent did most of t h e i r grocery shopping at Canadian food stores mainly because, at a competitive p r i c e , these stores o f f e r a v a r i e t y of fresh , good q u a l i t y products with which the Greeks are f a m i l i a r . Despite t h i s , however, a high per-centage of a l l the Greeks interviewed (82.5 per cent) stated that they v i s i t e d Greek food stores at l e a s t once a week mainly to buy s p e c i a l i t y imported Greek foods which are not ava i l a b l e i n the Canadian supermarkets. Twenty-six per cent of the Greeks i n f a c t v i s i t e d the Greek stores to do most of t h e i r grocery shopping, and many of these suggested that they did so because the Greek stores have a f r i e n d l y Greek atmosphere i n s i d e and o f f e r fresh and high q u a l i t y products. However, even i f only one quarter of a l l the Greek f a m i l i e s r e s i d i n g i n the study area r e g u l a r l y v i s i t the Greek supermarkets to purchase most of t h e i r food r e-quirements, these stores are kept busy throughout the year. The Market Areas of Greek Food Stores In a d d i t i o n to the regular Greek grocery shoppers and those Greeks who shop only f o r s p e c i a l i t y Greek foods, the Greek food stores do important trade with non-Greek shoppers from the study area, and also with Greeks who l i v e i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the c i t y away from the K i t s i l a n o area. Business with t h i s l a t t e r group forms an important part of the trade of Greek food stores. Thus these stores not only-have the function of serving the l o c a l Greek population, but also numerous Greeks who are located i n many d i f f e r e n t areas of the c i t y . I t i s to be assumed that such Greeks are motivated by strong c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s and f e e l i n g s to t r a v e l large distances across town to purchase the d i s -t i n c t i v e Greek foods of t h e i r choice. The remaining section of t h i s study examines the market areas of the Greek food stores i n K i t s i l a n o , and shows that, i n contrast to Canadian food stores, they reveal patterns which are s i m i l a r to those generally displayed by s p e c i a l i t y stores i n urban areas. In order to show the r o l e which "culture" plays i n the shopping habits of the Greek community within Van-couver, both i n and out of the Greek study area, "desire-l i n e " maps are constructed f o r several Greek and Canadian supermarkets located within the study area. These are based on data derived from the stores themselves. Map Seven i l l u s t r a t e s the market areas of Canadian supermarkets and Map Eight the market area f o r the Parthenon Greek supermarket. I t i s important to notice the obvious di f f e r e n c e i n scale between the two maps. A f a i r l y con-s i s t e n t "neighbourhood" r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Canadian supermarket and i t s customers i s indicated i n Map Seven, and t h i s supports the findings of Carol and Berry mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter. Map Eight reveals that the Greek supermarket draws i t s customers from a wider region than D CANADIAN SUPERMARKETS 1 Safeway, 4 * n and Alma 2 Supervalu, Broadway & Blenheim 3 Safeway ( Bayswater and Vine I S C A L E Q L 2mile MAP SEVEN . MARKET RELATIONS - CANADIAN SUPERMARKETS (IN THE STUDY AREA) the Canadian stores, a pattern which i n d i c a t e s the s p e c i a l i t y nature of the Greek store. These fin d i n g s are further emphasized by Map Nine and Map Ten. The data f o r these maps were obtained from question s l i p s placed i n the U n i v e r s i t y Stores (Map Nine) and the Seven Seas F i s h Market (Map Ten), which Greek cus-tomers were asked to complete by w r i t i n g down t h e i r home address. The r e s u l t s are i n t e r e s t i n g f o r they show that Greeks are prepared to t r a v e l many blocks across town to purchase s p e c i a l i t y Greek foods such as f e t a cheese and o l i v e s from the U n i v e r s i t y Stores, and fresh f i s h and pos-s i b l y some s p e c i a l i t y foods at the Seven Seas F i s h Market. Such c u l t u r a l preferences create a c u l t u r a l l y d i s t i n c t i v e s p a t i a l shopping pattern between Greek stores and Canadian supermarkets within the c i t y . I t i s evident that the Greek food stores of K i t s i l a n o play a c e n t r a l r o l e i n the c u l t u r a l l i f e of the Greeks scattered throughout Vancouver. However, during the f i e l d -work stage of t h i s study i t was learned that many Greeks v i s i t e d the C a l i f o r n i a Grocery, a Greek food store located on the perimeter of down-town. This store serves both the small Greek community r e s i d i n g near the West End, and the Greeks from throughout the c i t y . I t was decided to obtain data from t h i s store (the same method as f o r the other stores) to a s c e r t a i n the importance of i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the Greeks l i v i n g i n K i t s i l a n o and elsewhere i n the c i t y . The data obtained from t h i s store are shown on Map Eleven. The store serves a large market area encompassing most of the c i t y , and t h i s pattern re-emphasises the c u l t u r a l conservatism of the Vancouver Greek community. I t i s also noticed that the C a l i f o r n i a Grocery trades with many Greek residents from the K i t s i l a n o study area. A comparison of Maps Eight, Nine and Eleven suggests that the K i t s i l a n o Greek stores do not a t t r a c t a sizeable trade from Greek residents i n the West End region, but that the C a l i f o r n i a Grocery does s t i l l a t t r a c t a large number of Greeks from the K i t s i l a n o area. This pattern i s explained by the f a c t that the C a l i f o r n i a Grocery was the f i r s t a l l Greek food store to be opened i n Vancouver, whereas the Greek food stores i n K i t s i l a n o are of recent o r i g i n (see pages twelve and t h i r t e e n ) . C l e a r l y , many Greeks l i v i n g i n K i t s i l a n o began v i s i t i n g the C a l i f o r n i a Grocery well before the recent development of Greek food stores on West Broadway. Thus the "established" store s t i l l remains very much i n business although i t i s perhaps now being challenged by the r a p i d l y developing Greek commercial d i s t r i c t of K i t s i l a n o . The f a c t that such s p e c i a l i t y food stores i n d i f f e r e n t areas of the c i t y can compete with one another, a t t e s t s to the high de-gree of c u l t u r a l conservatism which a small minority ethnic group such as the Greeks must possess i n order to make the existence of a wide v a r i e t y of spe c i a l food stores p o s s i b l e . Summary The extent of c u l t u r a l conservatism displayed i n Greek food habits i s r e f l e c t e d also i n t h e i r food shopping habits, f o r the Greeks do display a food shopping pattern which i s quite d i s t i n c t from the pattern of Canadian shoppers. In order to purchase the s p e c i a l i t y foods of t h e i r choice Greeks i n Vancouver t r a v e l some distance across the c i t y , thus i n d i c a t i n g that when c u l t u r a l preference i s being exercised the concept that food shoppers e x c l u s i v e l y v i s i t a "neighbourhood" food store i s not r e a d i l y applicable, References Berry, Brian J . L. Geography of Market centres and r e - t a i l d i s t r i b u t i o n . Chapter 1 Prentice H a l l , Inc. 1967. Carol, Hans "The Hierarchy of Central Functions within the c i t y " . Annals of the Association of American Geographers  bO, I960, pp. 419-458": Ray, D. Michael Urban Growth and the Concept of l u n c t i o n a l Region. Urban Studies: A Canadian Perspective. Chapter 3, Ed. Lithwick N. H. and Paquet G. Methuen 1968. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS The aim of t h i s study has been to investigate some aspects of the culture of a minority ethnic group i n order to show how ethnic minority communities function within the c i t y . For t h i s purpose, an ethnic minority group i n Vancouver, the Greeks, was studied i n order to e s t a b l i s h the extent to which t h i s group maintained i t s own c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y within the "strange" environment of the C i t y . Re-search concentrated on the food habits and r e s u l t i n g food shopping patterns of t h i s group, and the study revealed that:-(a) The Greeks i n Vancouver, most of whom are f i r s t generation s e t t l e r s i n Canada, tend to preserve the food habits which remind them of t h e i r homeland. (b) Members of t h i s group f i n d i t quite easy to preserve t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l food habits i n Vancouver and to purchase t h e i r favourite foods, due to the presence of Canadian supermarkets (which o f f e r a wide v a r i e t y of fre s h q u a l i t y goods with which the Greeks are f a m i l i a r ) and of Greek food stores, which o f f e r s p e c i a l i t y imported Greek foods, not usually available i n Canadian stores. (c) Greeks d i s p l a y a considerable degree of c u l t u r a l conservatism i n t h e i r choice of food even a f t e r a long residence i n Canada. (d) Greek food shopping habits d i f f e r from the "Canadian" patterns. Some Greeks frequent t h e i r own food stores to purchase much of t h e i r general requirements and even more so f o r s p e c i a l i t y food requirements. This means that i n order to preserve t h e i r own c u l t u r a l habits, members of t h i s ethnic group have to t r a v e l f a r t h e r i n the c i t y to purchase the goods they require. (e) The maintenance of sp e c i a l food habits has caused Vancouver Greeks to disp l a y a d i s t i n c t i v e food shopping pattern within the c i t y . This contrasts with the food shopping pattern displayed by Old Order Mennonites i n r u r a l Ontario who not only have the space, but also a fam-i l i a r climate (compared with the Greeks i n Vancouver) i n which they are able to grow many of t h e i r own special food requirements. The importance of recognizing ethnic minority groups i n a c i t y cannot be overstated f o r from such knowledge comes a greater understanding and awareness of the t o t a l urban c u l t u r a l landscape and a greater i n s i g h t into popul-ation movements within the c i t y . Only when such d i s t i n c t i v e ethnic minority groups are understood can t h e o r e t i c a l work concerning consumer behaviour patterns become more relevant and meaningful i n geographical studies. GREEK FOOD QUESTIONNAIRE GENERAL l ) L i s t the three vegetables that you eat most frequently. 1) 2) 3) 2) L i s t the three fr u i t s , that you eat most frequently. 1) 2) 3) 3) L i s t the three kinds of f i s h that you eat most.frequently. 1) 2) ; 3) 4) L i s t i n order' (1-6) the following meats which.you eat- most frequently. If you don't.eat.any of the following, mark 0 beside them. Beef Lamb Pork ' Ham Poultry Fish 5) L i s t in order f l - M the following drinks which you drink most, freouent-l y . I f you don't drink any of the following, mark 0 beside them. Tea Instant Coffee ^ Turkish Coffee Milk Wine Coca Cola 6) Name the cooking fat or o i l that you use most frequently i n your cooking. i 7) Are you able to obtain most of the t y p i c a l l y ''Greek" foods that you require? Yes No TRADITIONAL FOODS 8) Do you eat Breakfast cereals? Usually (Everyday)- ( ) Sometimes (Less than once a week) ( ) Frequently (Once a week) (. ) Rarely (Less than once a month) ( ) 9) Do you eat more t r a d i t i o n a l cheese (Feta) than Canadian cheese? Yes No -. 10) Do you eat Canned f r u i t and vegetables? Usually (Everyday) (. ). Sometimes ..(Less, than once, a week) '( ) Frequently (Once a week) ( ) Rarely (Less..than once a month) ( ) 11) Do you eat Frozen f r u i t and vegetables? Usually - (Everyday.)- ( ) / Sometimes (Less than once a vreek) ( ) Frequently f nnce a week"1 ( ) Rarely (Less than once a month) ( ) 12) Do you eat more Lamb than Beef? ' Yes _ ^ No_ EPOTHMATOAOTION T I A TO E A A H N I K O OATHTO r e v t xg 1. 'Avacpe'pare r p t ' a x 0 P r a p i x a H X a x a v i x a 7tou r p c o r e a u x v a . 1. 2. 3. 2. 'Avacpe'pare r p t ' a c p p o u r a TXOV r p c o r e a u x v a . 1 . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ • • 3. • Avacpe'pare r p i ' a e"6f| \Jrapiou r r o u r p a r r e a u x v a . -1 . 2. 3. 4. ' A v a c p e p a r s u-e' rr\ q e i p a ^ ( l - 6 ) r a axo.\.ou©a x p e ' a r a TTOU r p a r r e a u x v a . " A v 6E'V r p c o r e xave'va B a X r e 0 a r r i v y p a p p r i . ^ Bcu61 vo A p v t' ^ X o i p t vo Xap,(Zay,7tov) - - : R o u A e pt x a . • • Y a p t a : 5. 'Avacpe^pare u-e' r r f ^ a e t poo (,1-6) r a a x a X o u O a 7 t o r a 7tou x i ' v e r e a u x v a . "•Ay- 6e'v T C I ' V E T E rtVtore B a A r e 0 a r t ] ypau-u-T].. T a a i N Ee'cxacpe T o u p x t x o xacpe' rd\a_ K p a o t K o n a x o A a 6. r ^ a t y a r e n ' u - e r a x ^ i p t ' ^ e a r e y i c c v a p a y s t pe'tyere ( B o u r u p o , A o t S t , O T T O -p eka t o, A I T T O C , H A T T . ) ' ' 7. M7tb9_ T T E v a Ttpou-Ti.GeuQrjre r a a 7 t a p a i r r i r a y i a v a p a y s i peuere ' E A A r p / i -x a c p a y r i r a ; Nat- • • • "Ox.t , E-uvnQn c p g y n r a 8. Tpcore y t a rrpcotvo OTiptaAc, (6r)u.Tprptax-a'); 2uvTieco<, .(KaGe u-e'pa) ( ) Mepixe'c^ cpope'c. ^ A i y c o r e p o euro u-ta cpopa r r j v eB&op-afia) . . y ( ^) £uxva ( M i a cpopa r r [ v e p S o p a b a ) •(•-•)• £ 7 t a v{a)c,^(Ai y^repo arco p , i a cpo-pa r o u.?]va) i ( ) 9. Tpcore r q v 7 tarpo7rapa6orr i "cpe'ra" r t e p i a a o T E p o aito r a K a v a S t x a r u p i a ; Nat" " O x t 10. Tpcors c p p o u r a r\ A a x a v i x a c e x o v a e p B e c , ; SuvTi'ecoq ( ) Meptxe'c, cpope'c; '' ( ) S u x v a ( ) Znav t cue y. ( ) 11. Tpcore x a T E^uyu - E'va eppura fi A a x a v t x a ( f i x o p r a p t x a ) ; SuvTieax; ( ) MsptHs'c, cpope'c, ( ) £uxva ( ) Znaviwc, ( ) 12. Tpoore a u x v o r e p a a p v i ' napa B c o S i v o ; N a t " O x i 13. "Av r o a p / t fi r o B c o 6 i v o excuv r i p y i 6 i a r i p / i i r i ' 6 a a y o p a c e r e , apvi' fj B c o 6 i v o ; ' ,  14. Tpcore e v r o a O i a (£T I X C D T I, veeppa, x a p S t s c , ) ; £uxva_ Me p i HE'C; cpope'c, S7ravi'coc, --1 4 a . Tpcore x i p a ; Nat' " O x i 15. Tpcore B o u r u p o , uapu-eAa6.a 'fi r ^ e X l u .oro' tycou-i'. a a c ; Nat' " O x t 16. K a 0 e Trore p , a y e t p e u e r e r a E O v t x a Ca<^ ( s A X i i v t H a ) cpaYTl rci; Suvrfecoc, ( ) Me p i HE*, cpope't. ( ) £uxva ( ) 27ravt'ax_ ( ) 13) I f a l b . of .Iamb, and a l b . of Beef was the same D r i c e , which one would vou choose 9 _ 14) Do you eat Organ Meats ( l i v e r , Kidneys, Hearts)? Frequently (Once a week) ( ) Sometimes (less than once a week).. .( ) Rarely (Less than once a month) ( ) 15) Do you eat Butter, Jag or J e l l y on your bread? Yes No 16) How often do you cook your own National dishes? • •  Usually (Everyday) ( ) Sometimes (Less than once a'week) ( ) Frequently (Once a week) ( ) Rarely (Less than once a- month) ( ) 17) Do..you observe your own r e l i g i o u s / c u l t u r a l feast days? Yes No 18) Do you have a special meal on such feast days? Yes No 19) Do you eat any of the s p e c i a l l y prepared dishes such a s i -Yiachni ( ) 'Dolmathes ( ) Mousaka ( ) Pa s t i t s i o ( ) Kreas Fournour ( ) 20) Which of the following do you eat at least once a week? Hamburgers. ( ) Hot Dogs ( ) F r u i t Pies ( ) Donuts•( ) 21) How many-times~a year. do. you. samrle exotic National dishes from other countries? ( i . e . neither Canadian nor Greek f o o d ) _ _ _ SHOPPING HABITS . : 22) Name the three food stores that you shop at most frequently. Name. \ ; Address . • Name. Address Name. Address 23) Name the three Greek food stores that you shop at most frequently. Name. Address Name. Address •_ Name. : [ Address • 24-) How often do you shop at Greek food stores? Usually "(Everyday) ' ( ) Sometimes (Less than once a week) ( ) Frequently (Once a week) ( ) Rarely (Less than once a month) ( ) 1 7 . T r i p e T r e xiq e G v i x e ' c , nai G p n o x e u r i n i q craq e o p r e ' q ; N a T " O x t . 1 8 . Tpcore e G v i H a o a q c p a y i l T c t , avaXoyooc , rr5<; e o p r i i q j N a t ' " O x i 1 9 . Tpcore ncxe-itoxe ano r a n a r core peu e X X r i v i x a c p a y t i r a ; riaxvi' ( ) N r o X u a S e ^ ( ) M o u a a x a ( ) U a a n ' r o i o ( ) K p e ' a q O o u p v o u ( ) 2 0 . H o i ' o arro r a a x o X o u G a r p c o r e r o u X a x i a r o v p , i a cpopa r r f v l p 6 o p , a 6 a ; Xap,7toupYH£p ( ) X o r N r o y x c , ( ) O p u r H a t e , ( ) N r o v a r c ( ) 2 1 . i l o c f e^ ^op^e'e, r o xP° v o, r p c o r e e i ^ i x a e O v i x a cpayHTa aXXoov x^P^v e x r o q anro e X X r j v i x a T] x a v a S i x a ; ; :  J Jou tycovt'.E.eTe 2 2 . ' O y o p a a a r e r p ' a arco r a x a r a o r - r n i a r a rpocpi'p,cov 7tou auvqGcoc; fyayvt'^ere. " O v o p a • • A i e u G u v o i c , ; - •• "Ovou-a A i e u © u v a i q "Ovou-a A i e u G u v a i c; • • 2 3 . ' u v o i i a a a r e r p t a e X X r i v i x a x a r a a r n y , a r a rpocpi'p,cov r r ou ^covi'l^ere OUVTIGCDC;, " O v o p a A i e u G u v a i c ; "Ovou-a , ; A i e u6 u v a i c, " O v p p , a _ _ _ _ \ A i e u G u v a i c, 2 4 . Ka©e 7 ?ore tycovTimers ere' e X X r i v i x a x a r a a r r n i a r a rpocpi 'u-cov; LuvrjGcoc, ( ) M e p i x e ' q cpopeq ( . ) £ u x v a ( ) S r r a v i c o q ( ) 2 5 . ' A v a c p e ' p a r e x a r a a e i ^ p a v T r p o r i p / r i a e c o q (^curo 1 eebe; 4 ) r o v X o y o y t a r o v o r r o T o v \]/covi£ere ae e X X r j v i x a x a r a a r r i u - a r a r p o c p i p x u v . a . T a ^ S X X T I V I n a n a r a a r n p a r a . 7rcuXouv e i S i x o o c ; s i a a - x Q e v r a e X X r i v i x a r p o c p i p , a ' " , , , , ( ) p . ' Y 7 r a p x E i y c p i X i H ^ e X X T i v i M T i / a r p o c f c p a i ( p a a r o x a r a a r r j u - a . ( ) y . -To x a r a c r r i u - a e i v a i x o v r a a r q a 7 t i r i a a q . . ^ . ( ) 6 . T a r p o c p i p a nod T t c o X o u v r a i a r o x a r a a r r n a a e i v a i e p p e a x a x a i n a X r i q Ttotorr i roq. ( ) 26. EEoTa c i v a i. r a ,xu .p i cure p a ^eXX r i v i n a 7rpoVov .ra-nou ^oovi'^eTe e r a e X -X r j v i x a x a r a a r r i u - a r a r p o c p i y i c o v ; ( K a r a a e i p a v 7rpor ip , r |aecoc ; ) . a . p. Y« 27« Ycovi^ere e i61na ^eXXrivi xa 7tpoVovra 7rpo rcov e xxXriaiaar i xcov q r aW eGvixeoy eXXr]vixcov eoprtov; Nai _ _ . " O x * . • : 2 8 . Tt' anptPajq t'^ere npic, kno re'rpx eq iopre.q; • vi* • ___________________ P • — ... /y:. - -2 9 . Ka6e 7 t o r e TrriYat 'vere c e sXXrjvt na i o r i a r o p t a ; • • l u x v a ( ) , M e p i H E ? cpope'q .( ) , ..&rav.ia>$ ( ) ., 3 0 . 'Oyopaaare r a 6uo eXXrjvixq ! e o r l a r o Q i a o r a cmota 7rfiYa.{vere' ouxvo-r e p a . " i v 6e 7rriYaivere oe eXXrivixa e a r i a r o p i a , orjpetaxrare • e6co ( a . "Ovou-a A i e u G u v a i q p. "Ovopa A i e u 0 u v a i q n p o o a o T T i yteg (aropixec;) 7rXriPoyopi eg 3 1 . To7toq (xoopa) yevvr\ae(x>c; 3 2 . ' E G v t x o r r i ^ 25) L i s t i n order (1-4) the reasons why you shop at Greek food stores." a) Greek stores o f f e r s p e c i a l l y imported Greek food. - ( ) b) There is. a f r i e n d I v "^reek atmosphere" i n the s t o r e . " ' ( ) c) The store i s near where you l i v e . ( ) d) The goods sold i n the st o r e are f r e s h and of high q u a l i t y . ' ( ) 26) What are the main food items that you' purchase at Greek food stores? L i s t i n order (1-3). 1) (2) ( 3 ) _ _ _ 27) Do you make s p e c i a l food purchases at Greek food stores before Greek r e l i g i o u s / c u l t u r a l f e a s t days? Yes__ No 28) What special.food, items do you purchase at Greek stores before such f e a s t days? IV " ' . (2) (3) ' 29) How. of t e n do you v i s i t Greek restaurants? Frequently (Once a week) ( ) Rarely(Less than once a Sometimes (Less than once a week) ( ) month ( ) 30) Name the two Greek restaurants that you v i s i t most f r e q u e n t l y . ( I f you do not v i s i t Greek r e s t a u r a n t s , check here ( ). 1) Name Address 2) Name Address PERSONAL INFORMATION 31) Country of b i r t h 32) N a t i o n a l i t y 33) How long have you l i v e d i n Vancouver? 34) Have you l i v e d elsewhere i n Canada? ( I f so, where and f o r how long?) 35) Country l i v e d / s t a y e d i n before coming to Canada? 36) Area or town of longest stay i n Greece? 37) Age (Check ) a) Under 25 ( ) (c) 35-50 years ( ) b) 25-35 years ( ) (d) Over 50 years ( ) 38) What i s your present address? No. Street Town 3 3 . Hocov naipo £rjre aro Bavxoupep; 3 4 . " E x e T £ £no'£t. aXXou arov K a v a 6 a ; . "Av vat', rrou H a t ' kixt ixoaov x a i po; 3 5 . Xaopa .OTTJV. OTTOICX £ouaare T\ pevare 7 t p i v epQere arov K a v a 6 a . 3 6 . U e p i o x T i , r c o X i q fj x^Pt-P ^.oy. £x?T.£. i n f e s t Tteptaaorepo n a i p o o r r i v '*EXXa6a. [ "  3 7 . ' ' H X i . - x i ' a ( c r i p e i cocfaT.e l i e e v a v ) a . Ka roo arco* 25 ( ) p. 25} - 3 5 , e r a > v } _ ( ) Y- 35 - 5 0 e rcov ( ) 6 . . JJavco OTTO 5 0 e rcov ( ) 3 8 . U o t a e i v a i f\ r c o p i v t ] a a q S i E u G u v a i q j A p . o 6 o q 7 t o X i q 3 9 . A u r r j ' - . e i . v a t r\ 7tpcori") n a i ' ~r\ u o v r j ^6 ) a i q 7T0U' e Y x a r e a r o ^ B a v n o u p e p ; N a i ' __"Oxt ___• v A v o x i , • a r j i a e i c o a a r e rr\ S i s u G u v a i arr\v o r r o i a v 7tpa>-: r o p e i v a r e a r q B a v n o u p e p . • . . ' . : * .  a p . o 6 o q V C . U o i q q Y .e.veaq e , i a G e e v ^ a x e o ' e i r r p q q rr\v a c p i c ] i a a ^ a r o v K a v q & a ; n p c o r r i q , S E u r & p a q , r p i ' r r j q f i r s r a p r r i ^ ; A r jXa6 r i --eav o•• 7Tpo7ta7C7toq a a q r\KQe 7cpeoroq, E I O G E r s r a p r r i q ^ a v ' j t a T t r c o q a a q , r p i r r j q , a v o i Y ° ~ v £ T q a a q , , S s u r E p a q , n a i ' q v . e a e T q - f j X G a r e Ttpcoroq (f| 7tpeoroi), r o r e e T a G e 7rpcorriq yeveac,. A o i 7 t o v a 7 r a v r r j a a r e , TcapanaXco . npc i j r r iq • ( ),. A e u r e p a q ( ) , T p i ' r r i q ( ),' T e r a p r q q ( ) . 39) Is t h i s your f i r s t and only address that you have l i v e d at i n Vancouyer? Yes No .. . If not, state the address that you stayed at when you f i r s t came to Vancouver. ' _ No. Street 40) What generation are you i n Canada? F i r s t ( ) Second ( ) Third ( ) Fourth ( ) 

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