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Perception as process in the poetic theory and "Paterson" of William Carlos Williams Robertson, Andrew Charles J. 1971

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PERCEPTION AS PROCESS IN THE POETIC THEORY AND PATERSON OF WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS by ANDREW CHARLES J . ROBERTSON B,A,, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a , 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1971 In present ing th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b ra ry sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I f u r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s fo r s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives . It is understood that copying or pub l i c a t i on of th i s thes i s f o r f i n anc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of The Un ivers i ty o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s seeks to i d e n t i f y the p h i l o s o p h i c a l arguments b e h i n d W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s ' c o n s t a n t a t t a c k upon a c c e p t e d p a t t e r n s o f thought, b e h a v i o u r and a r t . The f i r s t c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s W i l l i a m s ' b e l i e f i n the n e c e s s i t y o f a c o n t i n u a l p r o c e s s o f renewal i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t r a d i t i o n a l approaches t o e x p e r i e n c e from d e c a y i n g i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n i n t o u n c o n s c i o u s h a b i t s o f p r e -c o n c e p t i o n . The t h e s i s then debates the p o s s i b i l i t y and v a l u e of pure p e r c e p t i o n i n c o n t r a s t to p r e c o n c e p t i o n , of o b j e c t i v i t y i n c o n t r a s t to s u b j e c t i v i t y , o f the need f o r a r t i s t i c i m p a r t i a l i t y to p r e v e n t b i a s s e d p e r c e p t i o n . T h i s l i n e o f i n q u i r y d evelops i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f W i l l i a m s ' d o c t r i n e o f change as e s s e n t i a l t o c l e a r p e r c e p t i o n : W i l l i a m s ' a d v o c a t i o n o f the new, of the p e r c e p t i o n o f p r e s e n t , l o c a l r e a l i t y i s a s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the t r a d i t i o n a l h a b i t u a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon the p a s t , the f o r e i g n and upon f u t u r e a b s t r a c t i o n s . By . - jChapter,Four, the t h e s i s has e v o l v e d i n t o a d e t a i l e d i n s p e c t i o n o f the p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s n e c e s s a r y f o r the c l a r i f y i n g e x p r e s s i o n o f a c o n t i n u a l l y renewed awareness. An attempt i s made to show how p o e t r y must change to keep r e f l e c t i n g a changing r e a l i t y t h a t i s p e r c e i v e d now as a w o r l d of p r o c e s s r a t h e r than as a s t a t i c and d e f i n a b l e q u a n t i t y . U n d e r l y i n g the whole t h e s i s i s the c e n t r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t W i l l i a m s ' o b j e c t i o n to e s t a b l i s h e d d o c t r i n e s i s a r e j e c t i o n o f t h a t t r a d i t i o n o f man's e g o t i s t i c a l i i a l o o f n e s s from the ground and o f h i s urge to c o n t r o l n a t u r e by d e s t r u c t i o n which has a l i e n a t e d him from h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s of h i s environment and from h i s s o u r c e of. s e l f - d i s c o v e r y . The second h a l f o f the t h e s i s t r i e s to r e v e a l the poem P a t e r s o n as the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f W i l l i a m s ' o r g a n i c p h i l o s o p h y i n a p o e t i c form whose c o n s t r u c t i o n r e l e a s e s beauty from i t s a b s t r a c t i o n i n the mind i n t o a l i v i n g s e n t i e n t e x p e r i e n c e . The t h e s i s e v o l v e s towards an attempt to r e v e a l W i l l i a m s ' c a l l f o r man to r e d i s c o v e r a p r i m a l awareness of h i m s e l f through an i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n w i t h n a t u r e , a s y m p a t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n of and y i e l d i n g t o the unopposed o b j e c t s o f h i s environment. The method o f approach used i s a p o c a l y p t i c , r a t h e r than p u r e l y a n a l y t i c a l . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PREFACE i I . PERCEPTION 1 I I . THE PERSPECTIVE FOR CREATION 30 I I I . POETIC VALUE OF CHANGE 43 I V . THE CREATIVE PROCESS OF REVEALING THE PROCESS 55 ;I V. PATERSON: ONE & TWO: DESPAIR 84 V I . PATERSON: THREE: IMAGINATION 114 V I I . PATERSON: FOUR: LOVE 132 V I I I . PATERSON: FIVE: A UNIFYING MYTHOLOGY 149 FOOTNOTES 165 BIBLIOGRAPHY . 180 PREFACE I t i s q u i t e easy to i n t e r p r e t W i l l i a m s ' statement "no i d e a s b u t i n the facts""'' as a d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t W i l l i a m s i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n i d e a s a t a l l . T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , nonsense, f o r W i l l i a m s ' f e a r of a b s t r a c t concepts and a b s t r u s e arguments (as d i s p l a y e d a t the end o f P a t e r s o n , One) a r i s e s from h i s n o t i o n t h a t i n an urban and i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y the i d e a s men have are d i v o r c e d from t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t y . And i t i s the l i v i n g d a i l y r e a l i t y t h a t W i l l i a m s wishes to r e v e a l , not the i d e a s about i t . The problem i n w r i t i n g about W i l l i a m s , t h e n , i s t h a t one i s i n danger of imposing on W i l l i a m s an a b s t r a c t p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r d e s c r i p t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which h i s work deni e s and seeks to undermine. N e v e r t h e l e s s , I do i n t h i s t h e s i s seek to t r a c e the s t e p s of what can be c a l l e d W i l l i a m s ' argument. T h i s l e a d s n e c e s s a r i l y i n t o a c t s o f d e f i n i t i o n , a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w hich taken by themselves can be viewed as e s s e n t i a l l y s t a t i c , a b s t r a c t , l i f e l e s s , i n W i l l i a m s ' terms. I have attempted to a v o i d t h i s p i t f a l l as much as p o s s i b l e by t r y i n g not to p r o c e e d a n a l y t i c a l l y n o r a b s t r a c t l y towards the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a f i n a l p h i l o s o p h y t h a t c o u l d be p i g e o n - h o l e d as " W i l l i a m s i s m . " I n s t e a d , I found i t n e c e s s a r y and h e l p f u l t o p r o c e e d towards a d e v e l o p i n g sense o f i i W i l l i a m s ' r e a l i t y . I t i s a s t a t e o f b e i n g , o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , of i m a g i n a t i o n , o f v i s i o n , w h i c h f i n d s i t s f u l l e s t a p o c a l y p t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the f i n a l Book of P a t e r s o n : i t i s a sense o f u n i t y i n l i v i n g t h a t i s a p r o c e s s , not a f i n a l s t a t e t h a t i s no sooner d e f i n e d than i t ceases to be U t o p i a n . I t i s w i t h r e s p e c t f o r t h i s approach, to b e i n g , and w i t h sympathy f o r W i l l i a m s ' l o v e o f the o r g a n i c harmony which he seeks to r e v e a l and t o r e d i s c o v e r human l i f e w i t h i n , t h a t I have attempted to p r e s e n t W i l l i a m s ' thought and a r t through a c r i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s a p r o c e s s not a p r o d u c t of u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I hope t h a t the E f f e c t of t h i s j o u r n e y i n t o h i s w o r l d i s more r e v e a l i n g than a d i s c u r s i v e a n a l y s i s would have been. The p r o c e s s o f a r r i v i n g a t a sense o f the i n t e r p e n e t r a t e d u n i t y o f man and n a t u r e i s , I hope, a g r a d u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t . I do not p r e t e n d to h i d e e v o l v i n g changes of o p i n i o n , i n e v i t a b l e c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f d e f i n i t i o n s , o r r e p e t i t i o n , i f o n l y to emphasise t h a t the w o r l d I have t r i e d t o r e v e a l i s a w o r l d o f p r o c e s s . To W i l l i a m s , i t i s a p r o c e s s of l i v i n g , o f s e a r c h i n g c o n t i n u a l l y f o r awareness and f o r l o v e a g a i n s t tremendous s o c i a l and i n t e r n a l b l o c k a g e s . CHAPTER I P e r c e p t i o n The p a s t above, the f u t u r e below and the p r e s e n t p o u r i n g down: the r o a r , the r o a r o f the p r e s e n t , a s p e e c h — i s , o f n e c e s s i t y , my s o l e concern . . . . The language cascades i n t o the i n v i s i b l e , beyond and above : the f a l l s of which i t i s the v i s i b l e p a r t — Not u n t i l I have made o f i t a r e p l i c a w i l l my s i n s be f o r g i v e n and my d i s e a s e c u r e d — . ,. . I must f i n d my meaning and l a y i t , w h i t e , b e s i d e the s l i d i n g w a t er: m y s e l f — comb out the l a n g u a g e — o r succumb — w h a t e v e r the complexion. L e t me out! ( W e l l , go!) t h i s r h e t o r i c i s r e a l ! ^ W i l l i a m s ' main concer n i s the p r o c e s s of p e r c e i v i n g p r e s e n t r e a l i t y . H i s aim i s to a c h i e v e i n a r t a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h a t n a t u r a l , c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y w hich i s c o m p l e t e l y a c c u r a t e i n i t s i m i t a t i o n o f the p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l s o f t h a t l o c a l and contemporary w o r l d . He hopes t o c r e a t e i n a r t a m i r r o r i n g s t r u c t u r e w h i c h r e l e a s e s h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f beauty and t r u t h from t h e i r a b s t r a c t i o n i n the mind i n t o a l i v i n g , s e n s u a l r e a l i t y . He wants t o i n s p i r e a v i v i d p e r c e p t i o n o f p r e s e n t r e a l i t y . He c o n t i n u a l l y s t r u g g l e s to un d e r s t a n d and e v a l u a t e t h i s b a s i c human a p p a r a t u s f o r the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f r e a l i t y . N o t h i n g i s more v i t a l to e s p e c i a l l y human l i f e than an a c t i v e l y c o n s c i o u s a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e c l e a r l y the n a t u r e o f one's s u r r o u n d i n g s . No character^-2 i s t i c a l l y human c a p a b i l i t y - ^ - l o v e , r e a s o n , t r u s t , s o c i a l h a r m o n y — i s more than v a g u e l y a t t a i n a b l e u n l e s s p e o p l e p o s s e s s a p r o c e s s o f a c c u r a t e l y v i e w i n g t h e i r whole environment. S m a l l h o r i z o n s , p r o v i n c i a l a t t i t u d e s , . p a r t y p o l i t i c s , e m o t i o n a l n a t i o n a l i s m , r e l i g i o u s p r e j u d i c e , b i g o t e d r a c i s m , i d e o l o g i c a l p r i d e and any o t h e r form o f e g o t i s t i c a l s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s are a l l e x p r e s s i o n s o f the same p a r t i a l and i n c o m p l e t e p e r c e p t i o n . They a r e , t h a t i s to say, f i x e d p r o d u c t s of a narrow p e r c e p t i o n , and not e v i d e n c e o f an a d a p t a b l e , p r o c e s s a l p e r c e p t i o n . Whether the f a l s e v i s i o n i s the r e s u l t of s i m p l e i g n o r a n c e ( i . e . l a c k o f e d u c a t i o n , na'ive l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a r e t a r d e d p e r c e p t u a l c a p a b i l i t y ) o r of compound i g n o r a n c e (the w i l f u l d e n i a l of one's v i s i o n , t h e h y p o c r i t i c a l d i s r e g a r d o f the t r u t h ) i s not the p o i n t . A l t h o u g h the former i s an amoral i n c a p a b i l i t y and the l a t t e r a s e l f i s h d e n i a l , the n e t r e s u l t i s i d e n t i c a l : a p a r t i a l p e r c e p t i o n p r e c l u d e s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c h i e v i n g a f u l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r an a c c u r a t e awareness of the n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y . A l l e v i l — i n j u s t i c e , Inhumanity o r v i o l e n t c r i m i n a l i t y — i s the p r o d u c t of a s e l f i s h l y b i a s s e d and p a r t i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e a l t r u t h . The obverse achievement i s an awareness of r e a l i t y and a l i v i n g a c c o r d i n g to t h a t i m p a r t i a l p e r c e p t i o n . The d i s c o v e r y o f what i s , of r e a l i t y , i s n o t the d i s c o v e r y of goodness. F i n d i n g the r e a l t r u t h does not guarantee T i g h t n e s s i n any s e n s e , but i t does p r o v i d e a b a s i s of a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n from which to c o n c e p t u a l i z e , from which t o c o n c e i v e v a l u e s and on w h i c h to base moral a t t i t u d e s . The v i s i o n o f the i d e a l , what we w i s h were r e a l , cannot be used to measure o r v a l u e r e a l i t y i f i t i s a superimposed c o n c e p t i o n t h a t i s b ased upon a weak, p a r t i a l p e r c e p t i o n . The r e c o g n i t i o n of the 3 real-^--through c o n s c i o u s l y i m p a r t i a l p e r c e p t i o n — m u s t p r e c e d e a b s t r a c t v a l u e judgments f o r a c t i o n i n l i f e to be r i g h t and r e l e v a n t . E v e r y t h i n g t h a t i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h a t a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n and r e s u l t s i n unconscious p e r c e p t i o n , thought o r a c t i o n , e v e r y t h i n g h a b i t u a l l y or b l i n d l y c o n c e i v e d , must be e x t i r p a t e d . A l l i n t e r f e r i n g u n r e l a t e d p r e -c o n c e p t i o n s which b l i n d p e o p l e to an a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y , and which impose an a r t i f i c i a l , b i a s s e d and i d e a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n upon a n y t h i n g , a r e h a r m f u l . They deny the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t t a i n i n g the f u l l humanity o f i m p a r t i a l awareness. W i l l i a m s s t r u g g l e s as a man f o r t h a t h u m a n i t a r i a n i m p a r t i a l i t y which w i l l e n a b l e him to p e r c e i v e the human r e a l i t y from a u n i v e r s a l p e r s p e c t i v e . As an a r t i s t , t h a t c r i t i c a l p e r c e p t i o n must be purged of p r e j u d i c i a l l y impure p r e c o n c e p t i o n s . A l l s e l f i s h n e s s and a l l p o s s i b l e s u b j e c t i v e m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n must be overcome by an o b j e c t i v e i m p a r t i a l i t y i f h i s v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n i s t o r e v e a l the r e a l i t y o f - h i s o b j e c t i v e v i s i o n , and not h i s p a r t i a l v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y . A stu d y of W i l l i a m s ' p h i l o s o p h y and a e s t h e t i c must attempt to e v a l u a t e h i s moral reasons why, and l i t e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s o f how, our p e r c e p t i o n must be s t r i p p e d o f a l l . n o n - e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n c e p t i o n s , 3 and must r e v i t a l i z e a f u l l y human c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f r e a l i t y . W i l l i a m s o b serves man's a t t i t u d e t o h i s environment, and d i s t i n g u i s h e s two m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e k i n d s o f men. One k i n d a c c e p t s h i s environment and a d j u s t s h i m s e l f to i t s p e c u l i a r demands. T h i s i s the a b o r i g i n a l , n a t u r a l man o r the courageous p i o n e e r who a c c e p t s t h e . l a n d on i t s terms, and e i t h e r l e a r n s t o l i v e w i t h i t o r p e r i s h e s . He r e l a t e s t o the n a t u r a l c y c l e , i s open t o i t s l e s s o n s , and p e r c e i v e s the r e a l i t y s u r r o u n d i n g him as i t impresses i t s e l f upon him. The o t h e r d e f i e s the environment and t r i e s t o a d j u s t i t t o h i s p e r s o n a l w i l l . 4 He i s the f r i g h t e n e d and i n s e c u r e f o r e i g n e r who, i g n o r i n g the n a t u r a l consequences, e i t h e r manages t o c o n t r o l t h e l a n d and impose h i s a r t i f i c i a l o r d e r , o r p e r i s h e s . He a l i e n a t e s h i m s e l f from i t s r e a l i t y , and c o n c e i v e s the r e a l w o r l d around him as a h o s t i l e f o r c e which he must dominate: he cannot l i v e i n the r e a l w o r l d . Though i t c l e a r l y c o n s t i t u t e s a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f these terms, i t might be u s e f u l to t h i n k o f the man who r e l a t e s t o the environment i n s p a t i a l and temporal terms as 'romantic' man, and the man who d i v o r c e s h i m s e l f from the e a r t h l y r e a l i t y by ' p e r c e i v i n g ' the w o r l d on his:own terms as ' c l a s s i c a l ' man. The 'romantic' y i e l d s i n .marriage t o an o r d e r l y o r g a n i c harmony g r e a t e r than h i m s e l f , w h i l e the ' c l a s s i c a l ' man's s e l f i s h s e p a r a t i s m s p r i n g s fromi-an e g o t i s t i c a l d e s i r e ' t o s u b j u g a t e the environment and impose h i s a r t i f i c i a l human i d e a l upon the r e a l w o r l d . " L e a r " d e p i c t s t h i s e g o t i s t i c a l s e l f - a l i e n a t i o n : Today the storm, i n e s c a p a b l e , has taken the scene and we r e t u r n our h e a r t s to i t , however made, made wives by i t and though we s e c u r e o u r s e l v e s f o r a dry s k i n from the drench of i t s p a s s i o n a t e approaches we y i e l d and are made q u i e t by i t s f u r y P i t i f u l L e a r , n o t even you c o u l d o u t - s h o u t the s t o r m — t o make a f o o l c r y ! W i f e to i t s power might you n o t b e t t e r have y i e l d e d e a r l i e r ? as on s h i p s f a c i n g the seas were c a r r i e d once the f i g u r e s o f women at repose to ^ s i g n i f y the s t r e n g t h o f the waves' l a s h . W i l l i a m s e v a l u a t e s human b e h a v i o u r i n terms o f 'romantic' i n v o l v e m e n t as I have d e f i n e d i t . He approves the s a c r i f i c e o f the ego to the g r e a t e r p r o c e s s o f l i f e as p r e s e n t e d i n the power o f the storm. He a t t a c k s the a r r o g a n t r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t the n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y . "Time i s a storm i n w h i c h we are a l l l o s t . Only i n s i d e the c o n v o l u t i o n s of the s t o r m i t s e l f s h a l l we f i n d our d i r e c t i o n s . " ^ 5 W i l l i a m s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the d i v i s i o n i n e a r l y American s o c i e t y i s ah awareness of the s i m p l e but p r o f o u n d d i s t i n c t i o n between the New World and O l d Europe. In "The American Background," he r e c o u n t s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l shock of the massive American c o n t i n e n t to the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the f e e b l e h a n d f u l of d e j e c t e d P i l g r i m s e s c a p i n g from c i v i l i z e d Europe. They were a p a t h e t i c a l l y s m a l l group of i s o l a t e d f o r e i g n e r s s t r u g g l i n g i n e v e r y way a g a i n s t the w i l d e r n e s s . H i s a c c e p t a n c e of t h e i r n e c e s s a r y i s o l a t i o n i s m o v e r l i e s a b a s i c sadness at t h e i r b l i n d n e s s to the new r e a l i t y : "they saw b i r d s w i t h r u s t y b r e a s t s and c a l l e d them r o b i n s . Thus, from the s t a r t , an A m e r i c a o f w h i c h they c o u l d have had no i n k l i n g drove the f i r s t s e t t l e r s upon t h e i r p a s t . " ^ From the s t a r t , a f a l s e p r e c o n c e p t i o n b l i n d e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n . W i l l i a m s sympathizes w i t h the e a r l y h a r d s h i p s t h a t were f e l t by the o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s , and he s t r e s s e s the New World's t h r e a t to t h e i r s u r v i v a l : The l a n d was from the f i r s t a n t a g o n i s t i c . The purpose must have been I n major p a r t not to be bound to i t but to push back i t s o b s t r u c t i o n s b e f o r e the i n v a d i n g a m e n i t i e s — to d r i v e them b e f o r e one. To f o r c e them back. That these t r a n s p l a n t e d men were at the same time p u s h i n g back a v e r y n e c e s s a r y immediate knowledge o f the l a n d to be made t h e i r s and t h a t i n d e e d a l l t h a t they p o s s e s s e d and s h o u l d h e n c e f o r t h be a b l e to c a l l t h e i r own was j u s t t h i s c o m p l e x i t y of environment w h i c h k i l l e d them, c o u l d not become at once apparent.7 Y e t , h a v i n g f o r g i v e n the d e s t r u c t i v e d e f e n s i v e n e s s of these s e t t l e r s , W i l l i a m s condemns the same a t t i t u d e when i t becomes the approach to the New World by a new s o c i e t y t h a t i s s t r o n g , v i r i l e , a lmost independent from the r e p r e s s i o n s of the o l d w o r l d a t the time o f the R e v o l u t i o n , and does n o t need any p i t y f o r i t s u n j u s t i f i e d a c t s . In In The American G r a i n , W i l l i a m s v e n t s h i s b i t t e r n e s s and 6 anger i n a s u c c e s s i o n of l o g i c a l and vehement denouncements of the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the new c o n t i n e n t by the now e s t a b l i s h e d P u r i t a n s o c i e t y , of New E n g l a n d t h a t i s as r e p r e s s i v e as the o l d o r d e r i n E n g l a n d which the immigrants sought to escape. W i l l i a m s c r i t i c i z e s P u r i t a n i s m f o r i t s f a i l u r e to b r e a t h e the l i f e o f the.^new c o n t i n e n t , i t s s e l f - r i g h t e o u s a s s e r t i o n of i m p o r t e d European c i v i l i z e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s to the d e n i a l o f the p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y s u r r o u n d i n g i t , i t s mental and s p i r i t u a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n upon s e l f - d e n i a l and d e n i a l of the body i n p r e f e r e n c e f o r an a b s t r a c t e d f u t u r e w o r l d of immortal and non-p h y s i c a l i d e a l i s m . W i l l i a m s ' sympathy f o r the I n d i a n , whose whole b e i n g was a t t u n e d to h i s p h y s i c a l environment, shows h i s d e s i r e to r e - e s t a b l i s h a harmony between man and n a t u r e . W i l l i a m s wants man to become one w i t h the s p i r i t o f the l a n d , to f e e l the n a t u r e of the l i f e o f the c o n t i n e n t , to submit to the a l l - r u l i n g c r e a t i v e f o r c e of She i n "De Soto and the New World;" r a t h e r than to mold the l a n d s c a p e to . ' f i t man's w o r l d , p u r i t a n i c a l l y "mashing I n d i a n , g c h i l d and matron i n t o one s a f e mold," b e n d i n g the c o n t i n e n t to the w i l l o f man. To respond t o the l i f e o f the l a n d and to become p a r t o f i t l i k e Columbus or Boone i s h e a l t h y and creative,, i t i s to a c t i v a t e l i f e , To use the l a n d and a b s t r a c t i t s l i f e i n t o the mental c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the s o c i a l , t r a d i t i o n a l , m o r a l p r e c o n c e p t i o n as the D e v i l ' s l a s t s t r o n g h o l d , i s to s e l f i s h l y d e s t r o y human l i f e by a l i e n a t i n g i t from i t s r o o t s . Meanwhile, the human s e p a r a t i o n from the l a n d makes men c a r e l e s s o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l dependence on the e a r t h . J u s t i f i a b l e h o m i c i d e of the environment f o r s u r v i v a l becomes r u t h l e s s rape f o r p e r s o n a l g a i n . The a g g r e s s i o n had been a g a i n s t the o l d r e s t r i c t i o n s f o r the new freedom, a g a i n s t the o l d European ways.'and i d e a s and f o r 7 t h e new absence of ways o r i d e a s i n a l a n d of untouched t h i n g s . But once the h a b i t s had o v e r r u l e d the i m a g i n a t i o n , the p e o p l e s t i l l p u r i t a n i c a l l y d e n i e d the o r i g i n a l q u a l i t y o f New World l i f e and h y p o c r i t i c a l l y c o n t i n u e d to impose a r i g i d o l d w o r l d r e l i g i o u s c u l t u r e upon i t . The h a b i t c o n t i n u e s to t h i s day w i t h N o r t h American s o c i e t y ' s s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e , a n t i - o r i g i n a l i t y i m p o r t a t i o n o f European c u l t u r e f o r i t s o l d ' c i v i l i z i n g ' power. N o r t h Americans f l o c k to Europe f o r t r a d i t i o n , mystique, a r t , f a s h i o n s and e x c i t e m e n t . The t r a v e l l e r s t h e n r e t u r n to o v e r l a y t h e i r own c o n t i n e n t ' s t r a d i t i o n w i t h s u i c i d a l European i d e a s t h a t they c u l t i v a t e f o r t h e i r s e l f - g l o r i f i c a t i o n by s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and pomposity. W i l l i a m s a t t a c k s "the d e s i r e to have 9 ' c u l t u r e ' f o r America by ' f i n d i n g ' i t , f u l l blown—somewhere:" L o n g f e l l o w was the a p o t h e o s i s of a l l t h a t had p r e c e d e d him i n America, to t h i s e x t e n t , t h a t he brought o v e r the most from "the o t h e r s i d e , " In " L o n g f e l l o w and O t h e r P l a g i a r i s t s , " Poe l o o s e s h i m s e l f to the f u l l upon them. But what had they done? No more s u r e l y t h a n f i v e hundred a r c h i t e c t s a r e c o n s t a n t l y p r a c t i c i n g . L o n g f e l -low d i d i t w i t h o u t g e n i u s , p e r h a p s , but he d i d no more and no l e s s than to b r i n g the tower of the S e v i l l e C a t h e d r a l to Madison Square.10 The r e s u l t o f t h i s g r a f t i n g on of a f o r e i g n c u l t u r e which i s u n r e l a t e d to the "new locality""'""'" i s the d e n i a l of s e l f - d i s c o v e r y p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h knowledge of one's e n v i r o n m e n t a l o r i g i n s : I t i s NOT c u l t u r e to oppress a n o v e l environment w i t h the s t a l e , i f s y m m e t r i c a l , c a s t o f f s of an-o t h e r b a t t l e . . . . Poe c o u l d l o o k a t F r a n c e , S p a i n , Greece, and NOT be i m p e l l e d t o copy. He c o u l d do t h i s BECAUSE he had the sense w i t h i n him o f a l o c a l i t y o f h i s own, c a p a b l e o f c u l -t i v a t i o n . H But, meanwhile, a l l the i m a g i n a t i v e , o r i g i n a l c r e a t i v i t y o f the New World i s d e n e g r a t e d and o f t e n r e p r e s s e d by f r u s t r a t e d c o n f o r m i s t s . 8 T h i s c o n t i n u a l r e p r e s s i o n i n e v i t a b l y arouses a g g r e s s i o n : i t t a u n t s p e o p l e to v i o l e n t r e b e l l i o n . However, "the c o n s t r i c t i o n s o f 13 v i l e h a b i t " have more d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s : they r e p r e s s the d e v e l o p -ment o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n each new g e n e r a t i o n o f any s o c i e t y . I t i s na'ive to exp e c t e a c h new g e n e r a t i o n to revoke a l l t h e i r r o o t s , a l l t h e i r p a s t c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h the c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f y e s t e r d a y and of European c i v i l i z a t i o n . Such a change would r e v o l u t i o n i z e s o c i e t y c o n t i n u a l l y , d i s r u p t i n g any o r d e r . But i t i s a d e n i a l o f the newly e v o l v i n g r e a l i t y to argue t h a t t h e r e i s no way t h a t man can adapt t o , not b e i n g a b l e to adopt, the new environment. I t i s a l s o b l i n d l y d e s t r u c t i v e o f l i v i n g growth and development to c o n t i n u e to impose one's u n r e l a t e d i d e a s upon the changed c o n t i n e n t . The p r i m i t i v e d e s t i n y of the l a n d i s o b s c u r e , b u t i t has been o b s c u r e d f u r t h e r by a f i e l d of u n r e l a t e d c u l t u r e s t u c c o e d upon i t t h a t • has made t h a t d e s t i n y more d i f f i c u l t than e v e r t o determine. To t h i s l a t t e r n e a r l y a l l the a e s t h e t i c a d h e s i o n s o f the p r e s e n t day o c c u r . Through t h a t s t r a t u m o f o b s c u r i t y the acute b u t f r a i l g enius o f the p l a c e must p e n e t r a t e . The seed i s tough b u t the chances are e n t i r e l y a g a i n s t a growth. 14 Man must adapt to h i s c o n t i n u a l l y changing w o r l d , or l o s e c o n s c i o u s c o n t a c t w i t h h i s o r i g i n s . He must keep a c u t e h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s by .. n o t i c i n g and a v o i d i n g the d y i n g s o c i a l p a t t e r n s , t h e deadening l i n g u i s t i c h a b i t s , a l l e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e s which draw him back i n t o an u n r e a l p a s t which has no r e l a t i o n to the new w o r l d . Con-t i n u a l l y a c t i v e attempts must be made to change a t t i t u d e s t o f i t the e v o l v i n g environment, o r t h e de a t h of h i s acuteness w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y d e s t r o y h i s awareness o f r e a l i t y and o f l i f e . The o l d and the new, h a b i t and i m a g i n a t i o n , a r e two v a r i a t i o n s upon a deeper p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u i c i d e t h a t has been 9 c o n t i n u a l l y i n c u l c a t e d i n t o each, new g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e New W o r l d . The c h o i c e f o r e a c h g e n e r a t i o n has always b e e n — f r e s h h o r i z o n s o r i n d o c t r i n a t e d i m i t a t i o n . Encouraged by t h e i r e l d e r s , t h e y f o l l o w e d b l i n d l y a l o n g . W i l l i a m s c a r e f u l l y s e p a r a t e s t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s : The two d i v e r g e n t f o r c e s were s t e a d i l y a t work, one d r a w i n g the i n h a b i t a n t s back t o the accustomed w i t h i t s a p p e a l s t o l o y a l t y and t h e l o v e o f c o m f o r t , the o t h e r p r o d u c -i n g them t o f a c e v e r y o f t e n t h e t o r t u r e s o f t h e damned, w o r k i n g a new way i n t o a d o u b t f u l f u t u r e , c a l l i n g f o r f a i t h , c o u r -age and c a r e l e s s n e s s o f s p i r i t . I t was, be i t n o t e d , an i n n e r t e n s i o n , a c u l t u r a l dilemma, w h i c h was t h e cause o f t h i s . 1 5 Of c o u r s e , h i s words do n o t i n d i c a t e a new d i s c o v e r y about human n a t u r e I f one w i s h e s t o i n t e r p r e t them m e r e l y as e v i d e n c e o f man's l o v e o f s a f e t y and as p r o o f o f h i s l a z i n e s s . The v i t a l t h i n g t h a t W i l l i a m s i s p e r s i s t e n t l y t r y i n g t o communicate i s t h a t s u c h a c t i o n i s s u i c i d a l . The s u i c i d e o f awareness i s the dea d e n i n g h a b i t o f u n c o n s c i o u s a c c e p t a n c e : I f a man d i e i t i s because d e a t h has f i r s t p o s s e s s e d h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . 1 6 We must t a k e n o t i c e and c o n s i d e r t h e f a r - r e a c h i n g m o r a l consequences of a c o n s e r v a t i s m t h a t i n f l i c t s s u c h a heavy l o s s , t h a t s a c r i f i c e s the o r i g i n a l l i f e o f the c o n t i n e n t and t h e awareness and v i s i o n o f i t s p e o p l e t o an u n r e l a t e d and f o r e i g n i d e a o f t r a d i t i o n . "The war o v e r , t h e t r u e s i t u a t i o n , r a i s e d i n t o r e l i e f by p a t r i o t i c f e r v o r , w o u l d f l a t t e n o ut as b e f o r e i n t o t h e p e r s i s t e n t s t r u g g l e between t h e raw new and t h e g r a c i o u s n e s s o f an imposed c u l t u r a l d e s i g n . " " ^ We must c a r e f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e consequences o f the " r e t r e a t t o s a f e t y , n o t j u s t i n t h e P u r i t a n o r Am e r i c a n c o n t e x t , b u t the whole e f f e c t t o the human b e i n g o f h o l d i n g b a c k , o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e s t a t u s quo, o f ,,18 10 h a n g i n g on to the o l d . We must be aware of the consequences t o man's l i f e on e a r t h of i g n o r i n g the changing r e a l i t y . Man l o s e s c o n s c i o u s n e s s of h i s e x i s t e n c e r e l a t i v e to the w o r l d around him. The l o s s o f s e l f - a w a r e n e s s p r e v e n t s the c o n s c i o u s a t t a i n m e n t of u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p l e a s u r e . So, to g a i n f u l l knowledge o f o u r s e l v e s , to a p p r e c i a t e our b e i n g , and n o t j u s t our a n i m a l e x i s t e n c e , we seek a f u l l c o n s c i o u s n e s s at t h i s moment, i n t h i s p l a c e . We r e q u i r e f o r any s uch awareness, a r e a l a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e t h i n g s as they a r e . I t i s the f a c u l t y o f p e r c e p t i o n t h a t we have s a c r i f i c e d i n the s u i c i d a l r e t r e a t to s a f e t y . Ears and eyes c l o s e d , we have s a c r i f i c e d the a r t of p e r c e p t i o n , our c a p a c i t y to see and be c o n s c i o u s of our a c t u a l l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e . We have s u b s t i t u t e d the a r t by h a b i t u a l c o n c e p t i o n s . We have f o r s a k e n our p o s s i b l e p e r c e p t i o n of t h i n g s f o r mental c o n c e p t i o n s , p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a s , accustomed frames o f r e f e r e n c e t h a t a r e t r i e d and s a f e b u t not t r u e , h a b i t u a l ways of l o o k i n g a t t h i n g s and always g e n e r a l i z i n g to the same c o n c l u s i o n : i f i t h u r t s , d i s p l e a s e s o r does not match, i t i s f o r e i g n , t h r e a t e n i n g , r a d i c a l , d i f f e r e n t . I t t h r e a t e n s our s a f e t y and must be d e s t r o y e d r e g a r d l e s s of c o s t , j u s t i c e , l e g a l i t y o r humanity. What has been h a b i t u a l l y a c c e p t e d , what i s the e t h i c a l code,; the moral s t a n d a r d , i s h e l d supreme. S a f e t y of t h i s s o r t i s an abominable c o n s t i p a t i o n of the i m a g i n a t i o n ; a c o m f o r t a b l e , monotonous, but e a s y and h a b i t u a l grave f o r the s p i r i t . When p a s t i d e a s predominate u n c h a l l e n g e d f o r s a f e t y ' s sake, and t h i n g s a r e n o t what they used to be i n 'the good o l d days,' the t r a d i t i o n a l d e s t r o y e r s of the new, i m a g i n a t i v e and r e a l p e r c e p t i o n s use t h e i r o l d i d e a s o f s a f e t y , c omfort, t r a d i t i o n and 'law and o r d e r ' to ease the r e b e l l i o n , p a c i f y the mobs and d e s t r o y the s p i r i t . A g a i n , t h e 11 new i s n o t i n e v i t a b l y b e t t e r than the o l d . But on the b a s i s of r e c o g n i z i n g the changed r e a l i t y , new and r e l e v a n t codes of law and m o r a l i t y must be d e v i s e d . As the s i t u a t i o n a l t e r s , the o l d v a l u e s l o s e t h e i r r e l e v a n c e and cannot be h a b i t u a l l y imposed w i t h o u t u n j u s t l y d e s t r o y i n g the new o r d e r o f s o c i e t y , w i t h o u t t y r a n n y . L i k e the o l d s a f e t y f i r s t p u r i t a n s , the p r e s e n t l e a d e r s o f the young, t h o s e p e o p l e i n power s t r i v i n g t o h o l d on 1 to t h a t power at a l l c o s t , w i l l be j u d g e d : They r e t r e a t e d f o r warmth and r e a s s u r a n c e to something p r e v i o u s l y f a m i l i a r . But a t a c o s t . F o r what they saw were not r o b i n s . They were t h r u s h e s o n l y v a g u e l y r e s e m b l i n g the r o s y , d a i n t i e r E n g l i s h b i r d . 1 9 They c o u l d not see the r e a l and the new. T h e i r p e r c e p t i o n was b l u r r e d by i d e a l c o n c e p t i o n s of o r d e r t h a t d e s t r o y e d and d i s f i g u r e d the r e a l , n a t u r a l f a c e of the w o r l d . They l i e d . They chose not to see. They committed s p i r i t u a l s u i c i d e , g i v i n g up the c h a l l e n g e of the t r u t h , the f i g h t to p r e s e r v e the new r e a l i t y , f o r some c o m f o r t a b l e god of t r a d i t i o n a l apathy and p h y s i c a l ease. We s t a n d ready to be condemned f o r our s e l f i s h and d e s t r u c t i v e b l i n d n e s s to the new and d i f f e r e n t w o r l d ; w h i l e we compound the i g n o r a n c e by i n d o c t r i n a t i n g the young i n a l i k e manner f o r our e g o t i s t i c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , t a k i n g the a r t of p e r c e p t i o n f o r v i s u a l , mental and s p i r i t u a l awareness from t h e i r l i v e s . Y e t a l l we must do to c o r r e c t the i l l i s to f o r s a k e the p e t t y god of s e l f , and l o o k to human n a t u r e , human b e i n g s i n n a t u r e , and to l e a r n to p e r c e i v e w i t h o u t p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a s to become aware of what i s a c t u a l l y , r e a l l y g o i n g o n — t o become a l i v e . How? From the p r e v i o u s argument, we a l r e a d y have a d e f i n i t e d i r e c t i o n f o r our p e r c e p t i o n to p u r s u e . In knowing the o l d h a b i t s t h a t make us 12 b l i n d , we know what to l o o k f o r : "the new and t h e r e a l , h a r d to come 20 a t , a r e synonymous." R e a l i t y o n l y e x i s t s i n the p r e s e n t moment. Our r e l a t e d n e s s to l i f e and r e a l i t y i s our ax^areness of t h a t p r e s e n t moment, and i n t h a t 'here and now' the r e l e v a n t and n e c e s s a r y p r i m a r y c u l t u r e i s determined. The n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e — b a r r e n , w i l d or r u r a l — d e t e r m i n e s the p r i m a r y o r g a n i c c u l t u r e : i t must be t r e a t e d n a t u r a l l y t o be r e a l l y l i v e d i n and not a r t i f i c i a l l y warped j u s t to s u i t human g o a l s . W i l l i a m s c i t e s t h e p r i m i t i v e H opi I n d i a n and those o u t c a s t s , Boone, Houston and C r o c k e t t , as examples o f man b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n an e a r t h - r o o t e d sense o f h i s environment, "They i n themselves had a c h i e v e d a c u l t u r e , an adjustment to the c o n d i t i o n s 1 about them, which was o f the f i r s t o r d e r , and wh i c h , a t the same time, 21 o d d l y c u t them o f f from the o t h e r s . " W i l l i a m s sees the modern c i t y as an i m p o s i t i o n o f a f a l s e and f o r e i g n a b s t r a c t i o n upon the n a t u r a l , o r g a n i c , c o n c r e t e environment. C i t i e s a r e v e r y r e a l and v e r y p r e s e n t , b u t t h e i r r e a l i t y i s o n l y a •.. human c r e a t i o n , the p r e s e n c e o f an a r t i f i c i a l and m e c h a n i c a l o r d e r . One cannot deny c i t i e s , n o r the magnitude o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l achievement t h a t they r e p r e s e n t , b u t one must be concerned about the i n f l u e n c e t h a t they e x e r t to a l i e n a t e the p e o p l e from the l a n d . C o n s i d e r f i r s t W i l l i a m s ' a c c o u n t o f the m a g n i f i c e n c e o f T e n o c h t i t l a n , the n a t i v e c i t y whose temples p r e s e r v e d the p r i m i t i v e mystery o f the w i l d : D e c o r a t e d ' w i t h c u r i o u s imagery i n s t o n e , t h e wood-work c a r v e d i n r e l i e f and p a i n t e d w i t h f i g u r e s o f monsters and o t h e r t h i n g s , unpaved, darkened and b l o o d s t a i n e d , i t was i n t h e s e c h a p e l s t h a t the r e -l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s w h i c h so shocked the C h r i s t i a n were performed. Here i t was t h a t the t r i b e ' s deep f e e l i n g f o r a r e a l i t y t h a t stems back i n t o the permanence o f remote o r i g i n s had i t s f i r m h o l d . I t was the earthward t h r u s t o f t h e i r l o g i c ; b l o o d and e a r t h ; the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r p r i m a l and con t i n u o u s i d e n t i t y w i t h the ground i t s e l f , where e v e r y t h i n g i s f i x e d i n darknes s . 13 The c i t y need not d i v o r c e p e o p l e from t h e i r o r i g i n s : b u t t h i s p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e i s r e j e c t e d by modern man. T e n o c h t i t l a n i s i n v a d e d and d e s t r o y e d : "the i n s t i g a t i o n to i n v a s i o n i s a p p a r e n t : 23 ready p r o f i t . The excuse a l s o i s a p p a r e n t : p r o g r e s s . " Modern c i t i e s , as the i m p o s i t i o n o f an a r t i f i c i a l o r d e r on n a t u r e , f o r c e an u n n a t u r a l s e p a r a t i o n o f man from the e a r t h , from the s o u r c e o f l i f e . The r e s u l t i s a l o s s of awareness o f one's o r i g i n s and b e i n g . I t i s n a i v e to c a l l f o r an u n l i m i t e d r e t u r n to n a t u r e i n a w o r l d o f urban l i v i n g , and p a r t i c u l a r l y na'ive to c l a i m t h i s q u a i n t , m y t h i c a l r u s t i c i t y t o be ' r e a l i t y ' . But man must not a v o i d h i s o r g a n i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s j u s t because h i s mechanized c i t y l i f e i s so many t e c h n o l o g i c a l removes from the e a r t h . Man's con-temporary urban a b s t r a c t i o n from the n a t u r a l encourages a d i s i n t e r -e s t e d a t t i t u d e to h i s environment. To r e g a i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f him-s e l f t hrough h i s p h y s i c a l whereabouts, man must r e a l i z e h i s urban d e n i a l o f n a t u r e . He must r e d i s c o v e r a r e s p e c t f o r the e l e m e n t a l s o u r c e o f h i s s u r v i v a l and o f h i s c i v i l i z a t i o n , e l s e he w i l l l o s e c o n t r o l o f e v e r y t h i n g . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t W i l l i a m s ' P a t e r s o n t r i e s to r e — e s t a b l i s h mythology i n modern l i f e , S t i l l , how? do we p e r c e i v e the t r u t h w i t h o u t any i n t e r -f e r e n c e from o u t s i d e , now a heavy-••word- s i g n i f y i n g n ot s i m p l y p r e -c o n c e i v e d i d e a s and p r e j u d i c e , b u t the extrane o u s imposed c u l t u r a l f a s h i o n and i t s p a t t e r n of c i v i l i z a t i o n t h a t i s masking over t h e n a t i v e r e a l i t y , the t r u t h , the n a t u r a l w o r l d and the eyes o f the p e o p l e . I s i t enough to s t a t e the d e s i r e as the achievement? Is i t s u f f i c i e n t to become aware o f the b l i n d n e s s , t o be f u l l y aware o f how I t i s caused, and to a v o i d i t ? Once one i s tuned i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , 14 i t can be argued, one's d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h a t s e l f - b l i n d i n g way of ' s e e i n g ' w i l l p r e v e n t i n c r e a s i n g o r even c o n t i n u i n g the maiming p r o c e s s . One's a b s o l u t e d i s g u s t w i t h s uch a way o f ' l i f e ' w i l l f o r c e one back to the r o o t s o f p h y s i c a l l i f e , s h y i n g away from any u n r e a l , a l l i d e a l , p r e c o n c e i v e d o r d e r of e v e n t s : back, l i k e Houston, to i n v o l v e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l l i v i n g , away from imposed c o n t r o l l i n g power. And then, one must remain p e r s i s t e n t l y , k e e n l y aware o f s e e i n g c l e a r l y , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g one's method of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as i n d i v i d u a l and n o t as a c l i c h e d i d e a . P e r c e i v i n g c l e a r l y w i t h o u t the i n t e r f e r e n c e o f o u t s i d e , i d e a - d e i f i e d immaculate c o n c e p t i o n s i s a c h i e v e d when, i n r e c o g n i z i n g the problems, one reaches a frame o f mind f o r t i f i e d w i t h anger, d i s t r u s t and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n which e v e r y e f f o r t w i l l n a t u r a l l y be made to p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y w i t h o u t h a b i t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Y e t , even w i t h s uch d e t e r m i n a t i o n , the method of p e r c e p t i o n i s n ot c l e a r . S u r e l y a l l t h a t we p e r c e i v e i s based upon p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . How e l s e do we p e r c e i v e a sycamore t r e e but by r e c o g n i z i n g i t as s i m i l a r t o ( l i k e ) many such t r e e s t h a t we have been accustomed to r e g a r d i n the sycamore t r e e c a t e g o r y ? True and F a l s e : t r u e i n r e g a r d to the s i m p l i s t i c r e c o g n i t i o n of type and name; f a l s e i n r e g a r d to p e r c e i v i n g e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l thing's.own l i f e form, s e p a r a t e b e a u t y , d i f f e r e n t l o o k s , p r i v a t e shape, c o l o u r , t e x t u r e , s m e l l , independent 24 e x i s t e n c e and r e a l i t y . Look a t a "Young Sycamore:" I must t e l l you t h i s young t r e e whose round and f i r m t r u n k between the wet pavement and the g u t t e r (where water i s t r i c k l i n g ) r i s e s b o d i l y 15 i n t o the a i r w i t h one u n d u l a n t t h r u s t h a l f i t s h e i g h t — and"then d i v i d i n g and waning s e n d i n g out young branches on a l l s i d e s -hung w i t h cocoons i t t h i n s t i l l n o t h i n g i s l e f t o f i t but two e c c e n t r i c k n o t t e d twigs b e n d i n g f o r w a r d h o r n l i k e a t the top Only i n t h e most vague and g e n e r a l sense a r e any two t h i n g s s i m i l a r . W i l l i a m s t r i e s c a r e f u l l y t o p r e s e n t an a u t h e n t i c i m i t a t i o n o f the t h i n g i t s e l f . He t r i e s t o d i s p l a y i n the s t r u c t u r a l shape o f h i s poem the shape o f t h i s sycamore t r e e . The t r u n k o c c u p i e s h a l f the t r e e and so i t f i l l s the f i r s t h a l f of the poem. The s p a t i a l e q u i v a l e n c e i s complemented by b o t h a temporal and a t o n a l b a l a n c i n g i n t h e poem: the t r u n k ' s "one un d u l a n t t h r u s t " i s i m i t a t e d i n the language's s t r o n g and unopposed f l o w to the mi d d l e of the poem. "And t h e n / d i v i d i n g and waning," the poem, l i k e the t r e e , spreads out i n s e p a r a t e a s i d e s . The t r e e d e velops i n t o t h i n n e r b r a n c h e s , i n t o cocoons, to the l a s t t w i g s ; w h i l e the poem d i s p e r s e s i n t o i s o l a t e d , d i v i s a b l e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of each p a r t o f the t r e e i n language t h a t i s o n l y weakly j o i n e d t o g e t h e r . W i l l i a m s ' words d e s c r i b i n g the t r e e a r e complemented by a s t r u c t u r e t h a t attempts t o p r e s e n t a v i s u a l and a u r a l sense o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sycamore. H i s a t t e n t i o n to the t r e e ' s i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l , even t o i t s "two e c c e n t r i c k n o t t e d t w i g s , " encourages the p e r c e p t i o n o f the t h i n g ' s r e a l and i r r e p l a c e a b l e i d e n t i t y . One can t h e r e f o r e u n d e r s t a n d W i l l i a m s ' s t r o n g d i s t a s t e f o r 16 s i m i l e s : he o b j e c t s to t h e i r i m p l i e d f o r c i n g o f d i s p a r a t e t h i n g s i n t o u n i f o r m i t y and l i k e n e s s . But i t i s t h i s h a b i t of r e c o g n i z i n g s o l e l y the c a t e g o r y o f a t h i n g by i t s l i k e n e s s to an o t h e r t h i n g t h a t i s the customary e x t e n t of most p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t i o n . Beyond t h i s weak i m i t a t i o n o f a poor camera out o f f o c u s , human p e r c e p t i o n o f the g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s between e v e r y s i n g l e o b j e c t on e a r t h i s m i n i m a l , We have n o t even begun to mention moving t h i n g s , n o r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between a l l s t a t i c and m o b i l e , p a s s i v e and a c t i v e , l i f e forms t h a t make up the r e a l w o r l d — a l l the changing, e x p l o d i n g , i m p l o d i n g consequences o f the t o u c h i n g of t h i n g s a g a i n s t o t h e r t h i n g s . Y e t the p e r c e p t i o n o f most p e o p l e reaches i t s h e i g h t o f v i s i o n , and so the l i m i t o f i t s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , when i t l o o k s a t i t s c o l o u r p o s t c a r d o f the w o r l d — ' a n i c e b i g l a k e , a row of t a l l t r e e s , some brown g r a s s , and a r e n ' t those h i l l s l o v e l y and round and p u r p l e - l i k e . ' That i s t h e i r h i g h n o t i o n o f n a t u r a l beauty, and t h a t i s a l l t h e y want to s e e — w h a t custom and f a s h i o n p r e -dict': i t i s c o m f o r t a b l e , or i t reminds them o f home, o r of Hollywood, o r o f e v e r y t h i n g t h e i r f r i e n d s l i k e a l s o . They too choose not to see a n y t h i n g b u t t h a t which they a r e e x p e c t e d t o see by t h e i r whole mental w o r l d o f p r e c o n c e i v e d , b i a s s e d n o t i o n s o f n a t u r a l b e a u t y . They t r y to a v o i d e v e r y t h i n g d i s a g r e e a b l e o r d i f f e r e n t because i t t h r e a t e n s t h e i r p l e a s a n t s a f e t y . A v e r s i o n and h a t r e d a r e i n e v i t a b l y a r o u s e d when a n y t h i n g o r anybody d i f f e r e n t and uncomforable c h a l l e n g e s the narrow-minded,''nice' s a f e t y of t h e i r p r e c o n c e i v e d s t a t u s quo. T h e i r . g l a z y v i s i o n can o n l y r e p r o d u c e what they want to see, what s u i t s them, what matches t h e i r t a s t e , what i s the same, E v e r y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y a v e r t e d , u n t h i n k i n g l y r e j e c t e d o r automat-i c a l l y a t t a c k e d — p l a c e s , a n i m a l s , p e o p l e , a l l t h i n g s . Y e t i t i s o n l y 17 by i t s d i f f e r e n c e a l o n e t h a t e a c h t h i n g i n l i f e has i t s own i d e n t i t y , i t s p r i v a c y , i t s own r e a l i t y , i t s b e a u t y , i t s v a l u e . W i l l i a m s w r i t e s , Much more keen [than] . . . the c o i n i n g o f s i m i l e s [which] p l a c e t o g e t h e r those t h i n g s w hich have a common r e l a t i o n s h i p . . . i s t h a t power which d i s c o v e r s i n t h i n g s those i n i m i t a b l e p a r t i c l e s o f d i s s i m i l a r i t y to a l l o t h e r t h i n g s w h i c h are the p e c u l i a r p e r f e c t i o n s o f the t h i n g i n q u e s t i o n . J To c o n s c i o u s l y s t r i v e to p e r c e i v e each o b j e c t ' s i n d i v i d u a l uniqueness from a l l o t h e r t h i n g s i s t o b r e a k the p a t t e r n o f c u l t u r a l h a b i t — t o f o r g e t p r i o r mental c o n c e p t i o n s of t h i n g s : ( b r e a t h i n g the books i n ) to a c r i d fumes, f o r what they c o u l d d e c i p h e r w a r p i n g the sense to d e t e c t the norm, t o bre a k through the s k u l l o f c u s t o m ^ I t i s t h e way to d i s c o v e r - — f r e s h , new, r e a l and a l i v e — t h e moving p r o -cess o f l i f e between a l l t h i n g s . There may be no name f o r i t , and g i v i n g i t one o n l y encourages everyone to c a l l i t t h a t u n t h i n k i n g l y , but i t i s t h e r e , and you may see i t , a p p r e c i a t e - i t , u n d e r s t a n d and enjoy i t , f o r i t s unique beauty. The e v e r - c o n s c i o u s s e a r c h f o r newness, uniqueness and d i f f e r e n c e must be the way, the method o f a t r u e p e r c e p t i o n t h a t o p e r a t e s w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e from t h e h a b i t u a l i d e a s o f p r i o r c o n c e p t i o n s . I t i s v i t a l t o q u e s t i o n e v e r y -t h i n g , i n o r d e r to be a b l e to p e r c e i v e the r e a l w o r l d from the ac c e p t e d , s o - c a l l e d r e a l , w o r l d : To be an a r t i s t , as to be a good a r t i s a n , a man must know h i s mate r i a l s . But i n a d d i t i o n he must p o s s e s s t h a t r e a l l y g l a n d u l a r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r uniqueness which r e a l i z e s i n them an end i n i t s e l f , e ach p i e c e i r r e p l a c e a b l e by a s u b s t i t u t e , n o t to be broken down to o t h e r meaning. Not to p u l l o u t , t r a n s u b s t a n t i a t e , b o i l , u nglue, hammer, m e l t , d i g e s t and p s y c h o a n a l y z e , not even t o d i s t i l l b u t to see and 18 keep what the u n d e r s t a n d touches i n t a c t — a s grapes are round and come i n bunches. To d i s c o v e r and s e p a r a t e these t h i n g s from the amorphous, the conglomerate n o r m a l i t y w i t h which they are s u r r o u n d e d and o f which b e f o r e the a c t of " c r e a t i o n " e a c h i s a p a r t , c a l l s f o r an eye to draw out t h a t d e t a i l w h i c h i s i n i t s e l f the t h i n g , t o c l i n c h our i n s i g h t , t h a t i s , our u n d e r s t a n d i n g , o f i t . ^ 7 R e a l i t y , or the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h i n g s , i s found not by d i s s e c t i o n i n t o broken p a r t s d i v o r c e d o f and from l i f e l i k e the G r a d g r i n d h o r s e , b u t by s e l e c t i o n o f t h a t unique p a r t i c u l a r i t y t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s a h o r s e , e a c h s i n g l e h o r s e , from e v e r y o t h e r t h i n g . One r e a l l o c a l h o r s e , a c u t e l y p e r c e i v e d i n i t s environment, g i v e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g 2 8 of the g e n e r i c q u a l i t y of h o r s e s : "the l o c a l i s the u n i v e r s a l . " Both t h e p a r t i c u l a r and the g e n e r a l r e a l i z a t i o n a r e p r e v e n t e d by d e s t r u c t i v e l y a b s t r a c t i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . W i l l i a m s always seeks i l l u m i n a t i o n from the haze. He s e p a r a t e s t h i n g s t o r e s t a t e t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r e a l i t y , b u t as each t h i n g i s r e a l o n l y a t the p r e s e n t moment, the t h i n g i s a l s o an event i n time. W i l l i a m s ' e x p r e s s i o n of the r e a l t h i n g r e q u i r e s t h a t the event o f the t h i n g be h e l d and d i s c o v e r e d , b u t not i s o l a t e d from e v e r y t h i n g e l s e a t t h a t moment w h i c h pervades the r e a l i t y of each t h i n g : Such i s the meaning o f h i s poem, " B i r d - - " B i r d w i t h o u t s t r e t c h e d wings p o i s e d i n v i o l a t e u n r e a c h i n g y e t r e a c h i n g y o u r image t h i s November p l a n e s to a st o p m i r a c u l o u s l y f i x e d i n my a r r e s t i n g eyes 30 W i l l i a m s ' "Lands cape w i t h t h e F a l l o f I c a r u s " ' r e a l i z e s ' I c a r u s by p r e s e n t i n g him as j u s t a p a r t o f h i s l o c a l and s p a c i a l 19 environment, and as j u s t a p a r t o f h i s t e m p o r a l , contemporary and s p r i n g moment: A c c o r d i n g to B r u e g h e l when I c a r u s f e l l i t was s p r i n g a farmer was p l o u g h i n g h i s f i e l d t he whole p a g e a n t r y of the y e a r was awake t i n g l i n g n e a r the edge of the s e a concerned w i t h i t s e l f s w e a t i n g i n the sun t h a t ^melted the wings' wax u n s i g n i f i c a n t l y o f f the c o a s t t h e r e was a s p l a s h q u i t e u n n o t i c e d t h i s was I c a r u s drowning W i l l i a m s attempts to r e v e a l r e a l i t y by r e c r e a t i n g the event o f the t h i n g . Compare Auden's d e s c r i p t i o n o f I c a r u s ' f a l l i n "Musee des ..31 Beaux A r t s ; In B r u e g h e l ' s I c a r u s , f o r i n s t a n c e : how e v e r y t h i n g t u r n s away Q u i t e l e i s u r e l y from the d i s a s t e r ; the ploughman may Have h e a r d the s p l a s h , the f o r s a k e n c r y , But f o r him i t was not an i m p o r t a n t f a i l u r e : . . . Auden a n a l y z e s p e o p l e ' s r e a c t i o n s : he t a l k s about the event r a t h e r than r e c r e a t e s i t . Auden p r o v i d e s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the e v e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g I c a r u s ' f a l l as a c t i v i t y aimed i n t e n t i o n a l l y a t i g n o r i n g or b e i n g i n d i f f e r e n t to I c a r u s ' p r e d i c a m e n t . He d e p i c t s the whole scene's a c t i v i t y from I c a r u s ' ego, as i f the w o r l d i s s u b o r d i n a t e d to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i m portance. Thus, i t i s t o t a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y 20 f o r Auden to c l a i m , as he does, t h a t o t h e r b e i n g s and t h i n g s a r e t r u l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o each o t h e r , t h a t t h e i r n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n i s uncon s c i o u s i n d i f f e r e n c e , i f t h e i r a v e r t i n g from i n v o l v e m e n t i s a c o n s c i o u s r e a c t i o n . T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s perhaps most apparent i n Auden's ' sub - ^ - t i t l e ' " In B r u e g h e l ' s I c a r u s : " the human s u f f e r e r predom-i n a t e s . W i l l i a m s , t r y i n g t o p r e s e n t — n o t d i s c u s s — t h e i n d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the o b j e c t s i n the scene, w r i t e s a "Landscape w i t h the F a l l of I c a r u s : " I c a r u s i s j u s t one o b j e c t i n n a t u r e . The i n d i f f e r e n c e t h a t W i l l i a m s d e s c r i b e s i s c a r e l e s s , n o n - r a t i o n a l and a r b i t r a r y : i t i s n a t u r a l . The i n d i f f e r e n c e thatAuden i n t e r p r e t s from the scene i s d e l i b e r a t e , u nsympathetic, c r u e l o r c a l l o u s ; a human d e s i g n . The same c o n t r a s t appears i n the poems' s t r u c t u r e s . Auden d e f i n e s the scene. C a r e f u l l y and m e t h o d i c a l l y , h i s poem r e o r d e r s the e v e n t s t h a t happen i n t h e scene, c a p t u r e s them and t w i s t s them i n t o an a b s t r a c t e d , u n n a t u r a l , r a t i o n a l and s u b j e c t i v e o p i n i o n o f t h e i r meaning. Auden grasps the events i n n a t u r e and sub-^ j e c t s them t o a preformed, f i x e d i d e a about the p o r t r a y a l o f s u f f e r i n g . I n e v i t a b l y , h i s e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t i d e a i s through a c l e a r l y m e t h o d i c a l , f i x e d s t r u c t u r e o f r a t i o n a l and a b s t r a c t p r o s e . The a c t u a l sense o f the scene, the c a r e l e s s , u n i n t e n d e d and unplanned i n d i f f e r e n c e o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i s d i s t o r t e d beyond r e c o g n i t i o n , W i l l i a m s , s e e k i n g an u n i n t e r r u p t e d i m i t a t i o n of the happening, r e c r e a t e s i t i n the s t r u c t u r e o f the poem. He f e e l s t h a t t h e r e i s no r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n of the i n d i f f e r e n c e , and so he a l l o w s no s i n g l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to predominate. There a r e a number o f p o s s i b l e meanings l e f t u n d e c i d e d by the p o e t : the r e f e r e n t s o f "near" and o f " u n s i g n i f i c a n t l y ; ' a r e v a g u e l y i n d e f i n i t e , e i t h e r word h a v i n g p o s s i b l e t i e s w i t h b o t h the 21 p r e c e d i n g and the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s . H elped by the unpunctuated f l o w o f the d e s c r i p t i o n , the c l o s e i n v o l v e m e n t of the farmer, h i s f i e l d , the s e a and the sun i s thus p r e s e n t e d . And the n a t u r a l absence o f a f i x e d system i s i n d i c a t e d i n the u n f i x a b l e s t r u c t u r a l meaning of " u n s i g n i f i c a n t l y " (=meaningless)! T h i s i n d e c i p h e r a b i l i t y i s f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d by the c o n t i n u i t y o f the poem. E v e r y t h i n g i s c o n t i n u a l l y happening as the s u c c e s s i v e a c t i v e endings o f the ve r b s show. There i s o n l y the c o n t i n u i n g c l a s h i n g f r i c t i o n between t h i n g s i n n a t u r e , not a m e a n i n g f u l o r d e r o r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . W i l l i a m s ' t e c h n i q u e c a t c h e s one up w i t h the event o f the t h i n g — i n s t e a d o f a b s t r a c t i n g i t f o r r a t i o n a l c o n t e m p l a t i o n i n the mind. The n a t u r a l o r d e r — , a. chaos t o human s y m m e t r y — i s thus a p p r e c i a b l e i n W i l l i a m s ' poem, and one i s brought down t o e a r t h l i k e I c a r u s , f a l l i n g , moving w i t h the movement of the poem, w i t h each s t a n z a ' s v i s u a l l y and a u r a l l y d e c r e a s i n g l i n e s i m i t a t i n g the sensuous f e e l i n g o f the f a l l i t s e l f . Auden i n t e r p r e t s t o a b s t r a c t i o n : W i l l i a m s i m i t a t e s f o r r e v e l a t i o n . L o o k i n g back at these pages, so a r g u m e n t a t i v e o r h y p e r -c r i t i c a l a p o i n t of view, a harangue i f you l i k e , i s i n d i c a t i v e o f two d e s i r e s . F i r s t , i t i m i t a t e s the u r g e n t , i n s i s t e n t tone t h a t matches W i l l i a m s ' p e r s p e c t i v e , a v e r y d i f f u s e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e fundamental c o r r u p t i o n o f the modern man's a t t i t u d e to h i s whole 32 environment. Second, i t i s t h e r e s u l t o f a w i s h f o r an ' a p o c a l y p t i c ' c r i t i c i s m w h i c h r e v e a l s the s u b s t a n c e o f the work s t u d i e d by i t s i m i t a t i v e tone, w h i l e s t i l l b e i n g c r i t i c a l , and w h i l e a v o i d i n g the h i t h e r t o e s t a b l i s h e d , and l e s s e f f e c t i v e , mode o f a n a l y t i c a l c r i t i c i s m . 22 J u s t as Auden ts p o e t i c way of a n a l y z i n g B r u e g h e l ' s p a i n t i n g d e s t r o y s the n a t u r a l movement w i t h i n the l a n d s c a p e , so the d e t a i l e d a b s t r a c t a n a l y s i s o f p o e t r y d e s t r o y s the poem's v i t a l r e f l e c t i o n o f t h a t n a t u r a l rhythm. An a p o c a l y p t i c c r i t i c i s m , as W i l l i a m s s a y s , i s " t he r e v e a l i n g , perhaps what R a n d a l l J a r r e l l c a l l s the 'romantic' as a g a i n s t the c l a s s i c a l approach, the l e a p . t o the answer as 33 a g a i n s t l a p i d a r y work." A p p l i e d now to s t y l e and the p r o c e s s of w r i t i n g i s W i l l i a m s ' i d e a o f 'romantic' as an immediate i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e environment. The o b j e c t of the somewhat p o l e m i c a l tone i s n o t to annoy and a n t a g o n i z e , u s e l e s s l y . H o p e f u l l y , the angry r e a c t i o n t h a t i s l i k e l y to be g e n e r a t e d w i l l s e r v e the e s s e n t i a l p urpose o f a t l e a s t d i s p l a c i n g c o n c r e t i z e d p r e c o n c e p t i o n s . However, I am wary of g e n e r a t i n g t h a t u n t h i n k i n g e m o t i o n a l e n t h u s i a s m which can e q u a l l y b l i n d one's mental c o n s c i o u s n e s s to new d i r e c t i o n s . At any r a t e , h a v i n g o v e r t l y and perhaps o v e r - z e a l o u s l y p r e s e n t e d W i l l i a m s ' r e p e a t e d l y a s s e r t e d d e s i r e f o r d i r e c t p e r c e p t i o n w i t h o u t the use of any p r i o r knowledge, t h a t d e s i r e can now be o b j e c t i v e l y re-examined and f u l l y c r i t i c i z e d . Meanwhile, a l l p r e c o n c e p t i o n s about p e r c e p t i o n must be f u l l y re-examined i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of the v a l u e s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f pure o b j e c t i v i t y . However W i l l i a m s t r i e s to o v e r l o o k the f a c t , he does n o t e x p l a i n the p a r t i c u l a r s o u r c e of d i r e c t , immediate o r pure p e r c e p t i o n . W i l l i a m s t r i e s the i m p o s s i b l e when he argues t h a t such a s t a t e can be reached. He p r a i s e s the a r t i s t who r e p o r t s r e a l i t y i m p a r t i a l l y : "he, the p o e t , saw a s p e c i f i c a c t i o n , he e x p e r i e n c e d and he r e c o r d e d , 34 as a man o f sense, d i r e c t l y a f t e r the deed w i t h o u t p r e c o n c e p t i o n . " He admires h i s mother f o r " s e e i n g the t h i n g i t s e l f w i t h o u t f o r e t h o u g h t o r a f t e r t h o u g h t b u t w i t h g r e a t i n t e n s i t y of p e r c e p t i o n . " But W i l l i a m s r e v e a l s an awkward p s y c h o - l i n g u i s t i c n a i v e t e * about the mental o r i g i n o f the words themselves. He i s s u g g e s t i n g the p e r -f e c t i o n o f a s t a t e o f a u t o m a t i c w r i t i n g , o r he i s f a i l i n g t o remember t h a t however i m p a r t i a l l y the words may be used, they are themselves v e r b a l symbols o f mental p r e c o n c e p t i o n s . That i s , however o b j e c t i v e and u n p r e j u d i c e d the p e r c e p t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n o f the p o e t , b o t h the mental i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the e x p e r i e n c e and i t s t r a n s f e r e n c e i n t o words r e q u i r e an i n i t i a l mental p r o c e s s o f a b s t r a c t c a t e g o r i z a t i o n Without p r e v i o u s c o n c e p t i o n s about e x p e r i e n c e and meanings, the poet would ressemble an i g n o r a n t c h i l d as he saw an a c t i o n , and would n e i t h e r be a b l e to u n d e r s t a n d i t n o r g i v e i t e x p r e s s i o n . Without h a v i n g the b a s i c t o o l s to i d e n t i f y a t h i n g , i t would be b e w i l d e r i n g . Some i n i t i a l p r e c o n c e p t i o n s are e s s e n t i a l t o p r o v i d e the most b a s i c a n a l y t i c a l methods o f e x p e r i e n c i n g r e a l i t y , r a t h e r than b e i n g m y s t i f i e d and of e x p r e s s i n g the r e a l i t y e x p e r i e n c e d i n words w i t h o u t c a l l i n g a c h a i r a t r e e s i m p l y because i t i s made o f wood. The i m p o s s i b l y pure p e r c e p t i o n o f a man might be t h a t o f an o b j e c t w i t h d i f f e r e n t s i z e d e x t e n s i o n s s t i c k i n g out w h i c h f r a y e d a t the ends! o r i t might be o f a space i n t e r r u p t e d : i . e . the 'pure' i s s h e e r anarchy o f p e r c e p t i o n . The b a s i c p e r c e p t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n o f a man r e q u i r e s the i n i t i a l c a t e g o r y 'human b e i n g , ' a p r e c o n c e p t i o n o f man as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a n i m a l and v e g e t a b l e . I t a l s o r e q u i r e s the p r e -c o n c e p t i o n o f male r a t h e r than female c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i f what he sees i s to be a t a l l a c c u r a t e . One might say t h a t t h i s i s a l l 36 t r i t e and o b v i o u s , "the s i m p l i s t i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f type and name," the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the v e r y b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h i n g s which, 24 as we saw i n "Young Sycamore," has l i t t l e to do w i t h the p e r c e p t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r r e a l i z a b l e t h i n g . However, i t e s t a b l i s h e s a p r e c e d e n t t h a t d e n i e s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f any d i r e c t p e r c e p t i o n . We must acknowledge t h a t our u n d e r s t a n d i n g and v e r b a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f a t h i n g r e l i e s upon our p r i o r knowledge o f the b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s i n t o which we c l a s s i f y the t h i n g b e f o r e we can c o n c e i v e , o r be aware o f our p e r c e p t i o n o f , a p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g . To p e r c e i v e a c h a i r , one must f i r s t have a c o n c e p t i o n o f c h a i r n e s s . At the l e a s t , one must r e a l i z e t h a t a c h a i r i s something t h a t one can s i t upon, h a v i n g thus a shape t h a t i s dependent upon the shape o f the human body, and h a v i n g something o f a s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y . These p r e c o n c e p t i o n s must e x i s t b e f o r e a c h a i r , o r any f r e s h l y p e r c e i v e d o b j e c t , can be even r e m o t e l y r e a l i z e d as a n y t h i n g c o n c r e t e l y knowable as a p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g . The c h a i r becomes r e c o g n i z a b l e , c o n c e i v a b l e , e x p r e s s i b l e and p e r c e i v a b l e as a p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g as i t r e s e m b l e s , t h a t i s , i s found s i m i l a r t o , an e s t a b l i s h e d g e n e r i c c a t e g o r y . In t h i s c o n t e x t then, W i l l i a m s 1 c a l l f o r the p e r c e p t i o n o n l y o f a t h i n g ' s p a r t i c u l a r i t y or uniqueness i s a r e q u e s t f o r a l i t e r a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y . Man's n a t u r a l tendency i s to c a t e g o r i z e a newly p e r c e i v e d o b j e c t i n t o s i m i l a r g r o u p i n g s . H i s n a t i v e need i s f o r p r e c o n c e p t i o n s t o e x i s t b e f o r e p e r c e p t i o n can be m e a n i n g f u l o r communicable. One must i n e v i t a b l y q u e s t i o n the a c c u r a c y and thus the v a l u e o f any p e r c e p t i o n and i t s e x p r e s s i o n t h a t d i s r e g a r d s o r p u r p o r t s to i g n o r e t h i s fundamental mental s o r t i n g system w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l f o r mental c o n s c i o u s n e s s . An e l e m e n t a r y p r e c o n c e p t i o n i s v i t a l l y n e c e s s a r y . Some knowledge must e x i s t i n the mind p r i o r t o p e r c e p t i o n . Some e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n must e x i s t f o r making the c r u d e s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a t h i n g 2 5 i n t o an approximate genre so t h a t i t s p r o p e r t i e s may then be s c r u t i n -i z e d i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the s i m i l a r and d i v e r g e n t o b j e c t s o f t h a t genre i n o r d e r to b r i n g out the p a r t i c u l a r uniqueness o f the t h i n g . A l l t h i s may seem too e l e m e n t a r y , but i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o r e a l i z e t h a t a u t o m a t i c s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n o f an unknown q u a n t i t y w i t h -out any method of knowledge i s i m p o s s i b l e . P r e c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t c a r r y out the b a s i c i d e n t i f y i n g p r o c e s s n e c e s s a r y f o r a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n , c o n s c i o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t r u e e x p r e s s i o n of t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a r e v i t a l , u n a v o i d a b l e and h e a l t h y . H aving e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s , we can l o o k a t the p a r t i c u l a r motives t h a t u n d e r l i e the o b j e c t i v i s t temper o f p o e t s l i k e W i l l i a m s , O l s o n , and ,t° some e x t e n t , the e a r l y i m a g i s t s . In h i s w r i t i n g , W i l l i a m s has n o t amply d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e s e u n a v o i d a b l e n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n c e p t i o n s i n man's t h i n k i n g from the i n t e r f e r i n g , b i a s s e d p r e c o n c e p t i o n s o f man's r e f u s a l t o t h i n k a g a i n . I t i s t h i s l a t t e r k i n d o f p r e c o n c e p t i o n t h a t p o e ts and p h i l o s o p h e r s have a t t a c k e d f o r i t s i g n o r a n c e o f r e a l i t y . The o b j e c t i v i s t i d e a l b e i n g j u s t t h a t , an u n a t t a i n a b l e g o a l , the o b j e c t i v i s t r e a l i t y has been to oppose the h a r m f u l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f b i a s s e d t h i n k i n g i n a l l i t s forms. I n C h a r l e s O l s o n ' s w r i t i n g s , " o b j e c t i s m i s the g e t t i n g r i d o f the l y r i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e o f the i n d i v i d u a l as ego, of the ' s u b j e c t ' 37 and h i s s o u l , " i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e a l i t y . D.H. Lawrence's 38 a t t a c k upon " i d e a , concept, the a b s t r a c t e d r e a l i t y , the ego" i s aimed a t the s u b j e c t i v e m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f o b j e c t s as much as i t i s a n t a g o n i s t i c to mental r a t h e r than s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n . W i l l i a m s ' d e s i r e f o r i m p a r t i a l i t y i s c l o s e t o the c e n t r e o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y . He a t t a c k s the s e l f i s h i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p a r t i a l o r 26 p a r t y p o l i t i c s : he r e j e c t s the s e c t a r i a n s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s of p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e i r p a r t i a l view of mankind: he condemns the a r r o g a n t p a r t i a l i t y o f b i g o t e d r a c i s m : he undermines the b i a s s e d s e l f - p r i d e o f men who l o r d themselves o v e r the e a r t h and the animal w o r l d w i t h unfounded s n o b b i s h s u p e r i o r i t y . I t i s e x t r e m e l y v a l i d t o quote O l s o n ' s whole statement a t t h i s p o i n t : O b j e c t i s m i s the g e t t i n g r i d of the l y r i c a l i n t e r -f e r e n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l as ego, of the ' s u b j e c t ' and h i s s o u l , t h a t p e c u l i a r presumption by which w e s t e r n man has i n t e r p o s e d h i m s e l f between what he i s as a c r e a t u r e of n a t u r e ( w i t h c e r t a i n i n s t r u c t i o n s to c a r r y out) and t h o s e o t h e r c r e a t u r e s w h i c h we may, w i t h no d e r o g a t i o n , c a l l o b j e c t s . F o r a man i s h i m s e l f an o b j e c t , what-e v e r he may take to be h i s advantages, the more l i k e l y to r e c o g n i z e h i m s e l f as s u c h the g r e a t e r h i s advantages, p a r t i c u l a r l y at t h a t moment t h a t he a c h i e v e s an h u m i l i t a s s u f f i c i e n t to make him of use. I t comes t o t h i s : the use o f man, by h i m s e l f and thus by o t h e r s , l i e s i n how he c o n c e i v e s h i s r e l a t i o n t o n a t u r e t h a t f o r c e t o which he owes h i s somewhat s m a l l • *. 39 e x i s t e n c e . ~ > y Olson's u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e i s remarkably s i m i l a r t o W i l l i a m s ' though h i s sarcasm i s not s h a r e d by W i l l i a m s . Both w r i t e r s c a l l f o r man to curb h i s e g o t i s t i c a l , proud s u p e r i o r i t y , t h a t p r e c o n c e p t i o n of v a i n s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e t h a t a l i e n a t e s man from n a t u r e and from o t h e r t h i n g s , and w h i c h v a i n l y attempts to c i r c u m v e n t man's dependence upon the e a r t h . Both Ol s o n and W i l l i a m s view and v a l u e man's e x i s t e n c e from a p e r s p e c t i v e dependent upon our p r i m a r y a c c e p t a n c e o f the whole e a r t h i n w h i c h man p l a y s a l e a d i n g but s u b s e r v i e n t r o l e . W i t h i n t h i s f u l l p e r s p e c t i v e , W i l l i a m s s t r u g g l e s to a c h i e v e and encourage the a r t i s t ' s a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g of humanity as a whole; l i f e on e a r t h as a complete, not a p a r t i a l , c y c l e . The attempt to a c q u i r e t h i s u n i v e r s a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s the attempt t o get beyond p a r t i a l , s e l f i s h a t t i t u d e s . The quest f o r a l o s s of s e l f must 27 not be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d as an e m o t i o n a l l o n g i n g to l o s e c o n t r o l f o r cowardly, e s c a p i s t s a t i s f a c t i o n , n o r as an a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l f r u s t r a t i o n . I t i s a h e r o i c attempt to y i e l d the p e t t y , p a r t i a l ego t h a t b l i n d s man to h i s w i d e r h o r i z o n s . I t i s a f u l l y c o n s c i o u s a c t committed w i t h e m o t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l which i s d e s i g n e d to h e l p man approach a complete o r i m p a r t i a l p e r c e p t i o n o f the whole e a r t h l y r e a l i t y i n i t s f u l l p e r s p e c t i v e . As a p r e r e q u i s i t e to t h i s o b j e c t i v e , W i l l i a m s i n s i s t s upon the s t r i p p i n g away of a l l p a r t i a l p r e c o n c e p t i o n s . U s i n g Marianne Moore's p o e t r y as an example of the b e s t modern work (1931), W i l l i a m s argues t h a t i t s v a l u e l i e s i n i t s s h a t t e r i n g e f f e c t on the r e a d e r ' s p r e c o n c e p t i o n s : He w i l l p e r c e i v e a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g e x c e p t t h a t h i s whole p r e c o n c e i v e d scheme o f v a l u e s has been r u i n e d . And t h i s i s e x a c t l y what he s h o u l d see, a b r e a k t h r o u g h a l l p r e c o n c e p t i o n o f p o e t i c form and mood and pace, a f l a w , a c r a c k i n the bowl. I t i s t h i s t h a t one means when he says d e s t r u c t i o n and c r e a t i o n are s i m u l t a n e o u s . But t h i s i s n o t easy to a c c e p t . ^ 0 W i l l i a m s s t r e s s e s the need n o t to l e t the methods of c l a s s i f y i n g a p e r c e i v e d o b j e c t impinge upon the o b j e c t ' s e s s e n t i a l u n iqueness. The n e c e s s a r y p r o c e s s e s o f i d e n t i f y i n g a t h i n g by c l a s s i f y i n g i t a c c o r d i n g to i t s s i m i l a r i t i e s t o an e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n must not c r u s h the t h i n g ' s unique b e a u t y o r p r i v a t e e n t i t y i n t o a r e s t r i c t i v e mold of b e l i e f . One must p e r c e i v e as i m p a r t i a l l y as p o s s i b l e a f t e r h a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d the b a r e s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r c o n s c i o u s i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n . Only those p r e c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t h e l p to o r i e n t a t e the s i m p l e s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the o b j e c t a r e v a l i d ; j u s t those c a t e g o r i z i n g r o o t s o f awareness, the b a s i c t o o l s o f r e c o g n i t i o n . The damaging i n f l u e n c e of e s t a b l i s h e d i d e a s i s f e l t the moment t h a t e x t r a n e o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e added as a n a l y t i c a l t o o l s . S u p e r f i c i a l l y added 28 and unnecessary c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s b e g i n to d i s s e c t the t h i n g to be p e r c e i v e d i n t o p i e c e s and to d e s t r o y any c o n s c i o u s n e s s of i t s whole i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Even the i n i t i a l and b a r e s t e s s e n t i a l d e s i g n a t i o n of the j a g g e d o b j e c t f r a y i n g a t the ends as 'human b e i n g ' can c a r r y w i t h i t the p a r t i a l p r e j u d i c e of s n o b b i s h s u p e r i o r i t y over the a n i m a l w o r l d : i t o f t e n arouses an e g o t i s t i c a l p r i d e i n the human c a p a b i l i t y to r e a s o n , and i t l e a d s to an u n j u s t i f i e d e x e r t i o n o f power and v a n i t y i n the d e s t r u c t i v e d o m i n a t i o n of the a n i m a l and o r g a n i c w o r l d s . The s i m p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f 'male' almost always c a r r i e s w i t h i t a b i a s s e d o p i n i o n f o r o r a g a i n s t t h a t r o l e depending upon the sex and/or p e r s o n a l i t y o f the v i e w e r . Only the a p p e a l to a g r e a t e r power, to a f u l l e r p e r s p e c t i v e , can cure the b l i n d i n g power of p r e c o n c e p t i o n . The p r e j u d i c e d p e r c e i v e r extends h i s r e s t r i c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o n o n - e s s e n t i a l s , damaging the uniqueness of the t h i n g and h i s own p o s s i b l e p e r c e p t i o n o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l beauty and r e a l i t y . A b l u e p e r s p e x cube topped w i t h a t a l l i n f l a t e d p l a s t i c c r e s c e n t would remain u n r e c o g n i z a b l e as a c h a i r to a p e r s o n whose p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s o f c h a i r n e s s had been extended t o r e q u i r e something made i n t r i n s i c a l l y o f wood, h a v i n g a number of l e g s and a s o l i d back. The damaging e f f e c t o f i n t e r f e r i n g p r e c o n c e p t i o n s i s r e a ched when the a d d i t i o n of n o n - e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i a f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b l i n d s the p e r c e i v e r from a c c u r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n , from g a i n i n g a r e a l i s t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the w o r l d , and from b e i n g a b l e to e x p r e s s h i s awareness o f r e a l i t y i n communicable, u n b i a s s e d language. Even though one must s t r e s s the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f W i l l i a m s ' a b s o l u t i s t d o c t r i n e s o f p e r c e p t i o n and a n t i - p r e c o n c e p t i o n , as one must a l s o admit the i n e v i t a b l e f a i l u r e o f a t t a i n i n g a b s o l u t e l y f u l l c o n s c i o u s -29 ness of r e a l i t y , W i l l i a m s ' p l e a s f o r i n c r e a s e d i m p a r t i a l i t y , c l a r i f i e d p e r c e p t i o n , and a b r o a d e r p e r s p e c t i v e must be viewed b o t h as s i n c e r e and as r e l a t i v e l y p o s s i b l e s t e p s towards a c l e a r e r ax^areness of r e a l i t y . W i l l i a m s ' aim i s to r e v e a l the r e a l i t y masqued by the b l i n d p r e c o n c e p t i o n , and t o encourage p e o p l e to d i s c a r d a l l o p i n i o n a t e d , p r e j u d i c i a l and p a r t i a l c r i t e r i a t h a t they have a l l o w e d to accumulate u n t i l t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n has been d i s t o r t e d , u n t i l they a r e i n c a p a b l e of r e a l i z i n g the n a t u r e o f t h e i r environment. I t i s r e v o l u t i o n from w i t h i n . CHAPTER I I The P e r s p e c t i v e f o r C r e a t i o n W i l l i a m s can be seen, t h e n , as p r o c e e d i n g towards the req u i r e m e n t s f o r f u l l y c o n s c i o u s human 'be i n g . ' The q u a l i t y o f human n a t u r e t h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s t o t a l l y dependent upon an u n b r i d l e d p e r c e p t i o n o f the w i d e s t p o s s i b l e h o r i z o n s . A narrow p e r s p e c t i v e , one bound by r e l i g i o u s , r a c i a l , n a t i o n a l o r i d e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f , can o n l y p r e v e n t the p e r c e p t i o n o f the l a r g e r r e a l i t y o f human l i f e . Any f a c t i o n a l b e l i e f i n e v i t a b l y c r e a t e s a p a r t i a l i d e a about something, and b e i n g o n l y p a r t o f the t r u t h , p a r t o f the whole r e a l i t y , i t i s not the whole t r u t h nor i s i t f u l l y r e a l i s t i c . Any p a r t y ' s c l a i m to b e i n g r i g h t i s f a l s e : i t i s a p a r t i s a n , s e l f - r i g h t e o u s b i a s t h a t c h a l l e n g e s the t o t a l t r u t h of t h e ; ' u n i v e r s a l ' r e a l i t y . A c q u i r i n g the t r u t h , which e q u a l s f u l l awareness o f the whole r e a l i t y a t t h a t moment, r e q u i r e s complete and c o n t i n u a l openness to a l l e x p e r i e n c e , to a l l o p i n i o n s : i t r e q u i r e s the u n b i a s s e d , u n s e l f i s h o b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f e v e r y -t h i n g . As such, ' t o t a l ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t o t a l i m p a r t i a l wisdom, i s an i m p o s s i b i l i t y i n one human's l i f e . Y e t what i s a t t a i n a b l e i s a r e l a t i v e l y w h o l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e o f the e a r t h and o f humanity. The whole t r u t h , and a n y t h i n g l e s s i s a l i e , i s o n l y a t t a i n a b l e through a u n i v e r s a l p e r s p e c t i v e to w h i c h a l l p a r t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e s u b o r d i n a t e d . To get to the t r u t h , to observe the r e a l i t y , to have the t r u e knowledge and awareness n e c e s s a r y 31 to r e a s o n with, c o r r e c t i m p a r t i a l i t y , and by t h a t a b i l i t y a r e we d i s t i n c t i v e l y human, we r e q u i r e the w i d e s t p o s s i b l e p e r s p e c t i v e of the g l o b a l a f f a i r . O therwise, our c r i t e r i a f o r the r e a s o n i n g c a p a b i l i t y by w h i c h we a r e human I s p a r t i a l and f a l s e : o ur judgment and our a c t i o n i s i n no way w h o l l y r i g h t o r wrong, t r u e o r f a l s e , Human c i v i l i z a t i o n seeks j u s t i c e ^ h u m a n i t y and f a i r n e s s t o s a t i s f y i t s moral a s p i r a t i o n s . None o f these b a l a n c e d s t a t e s i s p o s s i b l e i f the b a s i c mechanisms f o r d e t e r m i n i n g c o r r e c t human a c t i o n have been f a b r i c a t e d i n a p a r t i a l and narrow mold, The r i g h t and the t r u e a c t or judgment comes from an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the whole r e a l i t y , e a c h p a r t seen i n t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e . S i m i l a r l y , c o n s c i o u s human 'be i n g ' i s a r r i v e d a t when man's e t h i c a l d e t a c h -ment can observe the whole r e a l i t y , e v a l u a t e i t from t h a t u n i v e r s a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and a c t upon i t a c c o r d i n g t o the needs o f the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y , the w e l f a r e o f man as a whole. I t i s t h i s u n i v e r s a l , h u m a n i t a r i a n p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t W i l l i a m s i s f o r w a r d i n g as the way to the t r u e human r e a l i t y f o r man and f o r the a r t i s t . I t i s v i t a l a t t h i s s t a g e to re-emphasize the f a c t t h a t no i d e a may be a l l o w e d to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the attempt to g a i n a u n i v e r s a l l y b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e . The a c q u i s i t i o n of a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e r e q u i r e s t h a t the p e r c e p t i o n be f r e e o f a l l i d e a l p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t o f f e r a m e n t a l l y s i m p l i f i e d b u t f a l s e v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y . The awareness o f the whole r e a l i t y can be a c h i e v e d i f man's a t t i t u d e s t o h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s i s s t r i p p e d o f a l l narrow, u n c o n s c i o u s and p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s o f r e a l i t y and m o r a l i t y . But the p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g t h i s a t t i t u d e t o l i f e depends upon the c o n t i n u a l r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f one's o p i n i o n s and p h i l o s o p h y 32 i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e whole human e x p e r i e n c e , i t s a c t u a l i t y , i t s needs and i t s p r i o r i t y o v e r a l l p r i v a t e o r p a r t i a l o b j e c t i v e s . N o t h i n g must i n t e r f e r e w i t h the h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y o f humanity, and even t h a t must n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h the h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t y : the s u r v i v a l of l i f e on e a r t h . As we have seen, t h i s g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f one's s u b o r d i n a t i o n to t h e whole p r o c e s s of n a t u r e , r a t h e r than a p o l i t i c a l i d e a l o f u n i t e d n a t i o n s . A man's r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s o r g a n i c r a t h e r than man-made h i e r a r c h y o f v a l u e s i n l i f e , and h i s s a c r i f i c e o f i n t e r f e r i n g e g o - g o a l s w h i c h makes p o s s i b l e h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f h i s i n s i g n i f i c a n c e as an o b j e c t i n l i f e , are dependent upon an i n t e l l i g e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c h a n g i n g r e a l i t y . T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s i n t u r n dependent upon an a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n o f what i s r e a l . But the t r u e q u a l i t y o f t h a t p e r c e p t i o n i s determined by the i m p a r t i a l i t y of the p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t i s used t o i n t e r p r e t r e a l i t y . The i m p a r t i a l i t y of a man's p e r s p e c t i v e i s , t h e r e f o r e , f o r W i l l i a m s , the measure o f h i s a r t i s t i c v i s i o n . The c l a r i t y of h i s p e r c e p t i o n o r v i s i o n o f the w o r l d , and the v a l u e o f h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g to mankind, r e s t upon the e x t e n t o f a man's a r t i s t i c i m p a r t i a l i t y , The optimum p e r s p e c t i v e r e q u i r e s t o t a l s e l f - d e n i a l and t o t a l e t h i c a l detachment. Y e t to e x p e r i e n c e r e a l i t y , a man must be i n v o l v e d i n i t s changing c i r c u m s t a n c e s ? he must not l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h the p r e s e n t . A r t i s t i c i m p a r t i a l i t y must s u b o r d i n a t e the n e c e s s a r y p e r c e p t i o n of and i n v o l v e m e n t i n a p a r t i c u l a r environment, or judgment w i l l be c o l o u r e d . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s o n l y r e ached by a n e c e s s a r y detachment from the norm a l , narrow happenings o f s o c i e t y . The f u l l man, t h e a r t i s t , must be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to 33 s o c i e t y to e n a b l e h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f I t , b u t be d i s s o c i a t e d e t h i c a l l y from i t t o p r e s e r v e h i s i m p a r t i a l judgment. H i s s t a t e must be a n e c e s s a r y a l i e n a t i o n f o r o b j e c t i v i t y : [The a r t i s t ] must m a i n t a i n h i s independence Which amounts t o a d i v o r c e from s o c i e t y . ' — i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o p e r c e i v e t h e i r needs and to a c t upon t h e i m p e r a t i v e n e c e s s i t i e s o f h i s p e r c e p t i o n s . Independent and dependent! you make me l a u g h . Independent o f o p i n i o n , dependent of body. The a r t i s t had b e t t e r be a poor man. W i l l i a m s r e p e a t s the n e c e s s i t y o f s u f f e r i n g t o the p o e t : Some exposure to the sharp edge o f the mechanics of l i v i n g — s u c h as b l i n d n e s s , p o l i t i c a l e x i l e , a commercial t h e a t r e to sup p o r t and be s u p p o r t e d by, a p r o f e s s i o n out of n e c e s s i t y , d i r e p o v e r t y , d e f i a n c e o f the law, i n s a n i t y — i s n e c e s s a r y t o the po e t . I t doesn't m a t t e r what the form i s , t h e s e a r e a l l o f a c l a s s , t o g i v e the po e t h i s sense o f p r e c i s i o n i n the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f v a l u e s , what i s commonly spoken o f as " r e a l i t y . " 4 2 W i l l i a m s ' p r e r e q u i s i t e o f p o v e r t y and s u f f e r i n g t o be an a r t i s t has l i m i t a t i o n s . The common e f f e c t o f t h i s i d e a i s to encourage s u f f e r i n g as an i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f b e i n g c r e a t i v e . I f not p a t h e t i c a l l y m a s o c h i s t i c , t h i s f a l l a c y f r e q u e n t l y causes an ego^-t i s t i c a l martyrdom. The m a r t y r ' s d e s i r e f o r i n c e s s a n t n o n c o n f o r m i s t a n t i c s t h a t a r e the a n t i p a t h e t i c vogue to s o c i e t y ' s norm o f t e n d i s p l a c e s the c r e a t i v e a c t w i t h s e l f i s h e g o - t r i p s t h a t , even i f g e n u i n e l y c r i t i c a l o f s o c i e t y , a r e d e s t r u c t i v e o f the a r t i s t ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . W i l l i a m s r e c o g n i z e s t h i s danger. The f u g i t i v e s t a t e of the a r t i s t p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c l e a r p e r c e p t i o n . I t s e p a r a t e s him from s o c i e t y ' s c o e r s i v e p r e s s u r e to u n i f o r m i t y , t o f a s h i o n , to h a b i t u a l l i v i n g . But, the a l i e n a t i o n may a l s o d e s t r o y the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n : 34 I f [ p o ets] p e r m i t themselves to be caught i n the s n a r e o f t h e i r own l i v e s and l e t t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o u c h i n g t h e i r workmanship i n the f a i n t e s t p o s s i b l e m a n n e r — t h e y a r e l o s t . I t i s a b a l a n c e as to the push of r e a l i t y ' s e i t h e r s t i m u -l a t i n g them to e x c e l l e n c e o r k i l l i n g them o u t r i g h t , 4 3 N e v e r t h e l e s s , W i l l i a m s s t i l l i n s i s t s on s u f f e r i n g as n e c e s s a r y t o the p o e t . He cannot s i m p l y mean t h a t something i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n v o l v e the po e t w i t h r e a l i t y : t h a t much i s t r u i s t i c . He must mean t h a t some k i n d o f r e s t r i c t i n g encumbrance i s n e c e s s a r y t o t i e the p o e t to r e a l i t y . A d m i t t e d l y , the freedom g a i n e d by f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y may w e l l d i s t r a c t the a r t i s t from h i s t a s k , b u t many a r t i s t s who have been d e d i c a t e d to humanity have a l s o been r i c h and have not had to need d i s t r e s s to remind them o f r e a l i t y , A f u l l y s a t i s f i e d man i s a f a i l u r e : he ceases t o s t r i v e . But economic s e c u r i t y does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y p r e v e n t the a r t i s t from b e i n g p o o r l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h l i f e , n o r w i t h the s t a t e o f humanity. H i s s a t i s f a c t i o n must be dependent upon s a t i s f y i n g the needs o f the p e o p l e . H i s n e c e s s a r y p o v e r t y must be h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a t the p e o p l e ' s l a c k : t h i s i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e m o t i o n a l s u f f e r i n g enough. Any o t h e r need f o r p a i n i s h i g h l y s u s p e c t f o r i t s t h r e a t to the p e r s p e c t i v e needed f o r a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y . In an a r t i s t i t [the need] must come from a sense o f t o t a l i t y ; the whole; humanity as a whole. How can a man be s a t i s f i e d when he sees another man l a c k i n g But he doesn't l a c k i f he doesn't need a t h i n g o r want i t . He doesn't know he l a c k s and needs i t but I know he needs i t . I know what he needs b e t t e r than he and I cannot i g n o r e i t . That i s pure a r r o g a n c e . That i s the s o u r c e o f a s p i r a t i o n , a need which t h e poe t sees and devotes to h i s s m a l l l i f e to f i n d and to d e l i n e a t e . You know, He watches the sparrow f a l l . 35 E v e r y t h i n g Lapp ens w i t h i n e v e r y t h i n g e l s e , There can he no s a t i s f a c t i o n t o the poet ^ o t h e r w i s e . What can he be w i t h o u t the mob? The a r t i s t must be i n v o l v e d i n the t o t a l o r g a n i c p r o c e s s as a p a r t o f h i s l i f e . H i s i n v o l v e m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r h i s h e a l t h y v i s i o n . The a l t e r n a t i v e o f a l i e n a t i o n i s not p r a c t i c a l when i t 45 o n l y l e a d s to the i n s a n i t y o f a " L e a r : " P i t i f u l L e a r , not even you c o u l d o u t - s h o u t the s t o r m - — t o make a f o o l c r y ! Wife to i t s power might y o u not b e t t e r have y i e l d e d e a r l i e r ? The sane s u b m i s s i o n t o the power of the n a t u r a l p o r c e s s i s the means whereby the a r t i s t a l s o f i n d s h i s p l a c e and h i s o r i g i n i n the environment, and so g a i n s s t r e n g t h , H i s f u l f i l m e n t depends not o n l y upon s a t i s f y i n g the wants but upon c l a r i f y i n g the needs of o t h e r p e o p l e and o t h e r c r e a t u r e s . Y e t h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s r e q u i r i n g i m p a r t i a l o b j e c t i v i t y , the a r t i s t must a l s o be i n d e p e n d e n t l y a p a r t from s o c i e t y , u n l e s s h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f one f a c t i o n p r e v e n t h i s concern f o r the whole. The a r t i s t ' s c l e a r e r p e r s p e c t i v e g i v e s him a g r e a t e r under-s t a n d i n g o f the needs of the p e o p l e to f u l f i l l t h e m s e l v e s . While t h e i r l a c k o f p e r c e p t i o n and thus of awareness i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of r e a l i t y , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be p a r t i a l and s e l f i s h . Such a t t i t u d e s p r e v a i l i n g as a s o c i a l norm d e t e r m i n i n g a c t i o n can o n l y worsen the c o n d i t i o n s of e a c h man i n t h i s v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f b l i n d i n g p r e c o n c e p t i o n , and d e c r e a s e even f u r t h e r the p o s s i b l i t y of a c q u i r i n g a b e t t e r q u a l i t y o f c o n s c i o u s l i v i n g . The a r t i s t ' s i m p a r t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s d i r e c t e d towards h e l p i n g p e o p l e become c o n s c i o u s of t h e i r s h o r t c o m i n g s , towards i m p r o v i n g t h e i r l i v e s w i t h o u t any b i a s s e d motive. H u m a n i t a r i a n 36 a c t i o n i s s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , b u t i t I s not n e c e s s a r i l y e g o t i s t i c a l o r v a i n . I t i s not even a r r o g a n t i f i t i s the a r t i s t ' s u n s e l f i s h l y r e a l i s t i c a c c e p t a n c e o f h i s s m a l l c a p a b i l i t i e s , and a use o f them to b e n e f i t o t h e r s w i t h o u t t h a t e g o t i s t i c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n whose p a r t i a l n a t u r e w i l l d e s t r o y h i s c l e a r p e r s p e c t i v e . I am d i s t i n g u i s h i n g h e r e between the. s e l f - a s s u r a n c e t h a t an a r t i s t w o r k i n g a l o n e must have to do c r e a t i v e work, and the e g o t i s t i c a l p r i d e t h a t some p e o p l e masquerading as a r t i s t s p r o j e c t from t h e i r a l o o f n e s s , a s e l f - i m p o r t a n t o p i n i o n a t e d s u b j e c t i v i t y w h i c h d e s t r o y s the i m p a r t i a l p e r c e p t i o n r e q u i r e d to produce a r e a l i s t i c a l l y whole u n d e r s t a n d i n g . E v e r y a r t i s t must b e l i e v e i n h i m s e l f . I t i s a r e a l i s t i c and n a t u r a l b e l i e f i f h i s c o n c e r n i s f o r i m p r o v i n g the human c a p a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d and e n j o y l i f e . I t i s a f a l s e and d i s h o n e s t b e l i e f i f h i s d e s i r e i s o n l y to c r e a t e p u b l i c a d m i r a t i o n f o r h i s o s t e n t a t i o u s s e l f . L i v i n g f u l l y as a man, h a v i n g a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what i s r e a l l y g o i n g on o u t s i d e one's s e l f , a r e e s s e n t i a l to the a r t i s t ' s b e i n g , b u t they do n o t s p e c i f y how he must e x p r e s s h i s v i s i o n . I f the a r t i s t ' s f u n c t i o n i s to c l a r i f y the w o r l d to o t h e r men l e s s p e r c e p t i v e and i m p a r t i a l than h i m s e l f , then he must do so t h r o u g h e x p r e s s i v e channels t h a t w i l l e n l i g h t e n o t h e r men. He must s t i m u l a t e t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n s , s u r p r i s e t h e i r e s t a b l i s h e d m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , shock t h e i r i n g r a i n e d b i a s s e s , s h a t t e r t h e i r decayed h a b i t u a l i d e a l s . W i l l i a m s c l a i m s The r o s e i s o b s o l e t e but e a c h p e t a l ends i n an edge, the double f a c e t cementing the grooved 37 columns of a i r — T h e edge cuts w i t h o u t c u t t i n g m e e t s — n o t h i n g — r e n e w s i t s e l f i n m e t a l or p r o c e l a i n — 46 w h i t h e r ? I t e n d s — In "The r o s e i s obsolete,"/ W i l l i a m s attempts to t r a n s p l a n t 'the r o s e ' i n t o modern e a r t h . He t r i e s t o g i v e new r o o t s t o an o l d t r a d i t i o n a l f l o w e r which has become almost t o t a l l y a b s t r a c t e d i n t o a c u l t u r a l symbol o f l o v e ; u n t i l the r o s e i s b e r e f t o f i t s t a n g i b l e r e a l i t y and i s o n l y a mental c o u n t e r about an emotion. The symbol has become a meaningless h a b i t ; the r o s e i s u n n o t i c e d : and the l o v e s y m b o l i z e d i n the g i v i n g o f a r o s e i s a s e n t i m e n t a l i z e d r e p e t i t i o n o f duty. To ; d i s r u p t the h a b i t u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t a r e a t t a c h e d to t h e r o s e , W i l l i a m s p u l l s the r o s e down from i t s p e d e s t a l and d e s c r i b e s i t on the b r o ken c r o c k e r y of a r e a l , modern junkheap. He g i v e s i t new r o o t s i n a modern l a n d s c a p e , s t r u g g l i n g v i s i b l y and a u r a l l y w i t h h i s language as the language s t r u g g l e s w i t h the i d e a of a r o s e b e i n g r e p l a n t e d i n r e a l i t y , w h i l e our f r e s h glimpse o f the r o s e i s c l o s e r to the a c t u a l i t y o f the f l o w e r i t s e l f . The man s e e k i n g new l i f e out o f o l d u n c o n s c i o u s h a b i t s i s an a r t i s t s.ucking f r e s h e x p r e s s i o n out of o l d m a t e r i a l s . The a r t i s t ' s c l e a r , f r e s h i n s i g h t must be conveyed i n a f r e s h and u n f e t t e r e d medium: new s t r u c t u r e ; new language; new images. The e x p r e s s i o n o f the new p e r c e p t i o n of new l i f e needs new words. H i s . a b i l i t y w i t h language, or c o l o u r s o r forms, must not be damaged by a superimposed s o c i a l i n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n t o b e l i e v i n g the supreme e f f i c a c y (and u l t i m a t e monopoly) o f normal h a b i t u a l s t y l e . When t h a t i s the case, h i s v i s i o n i s b l u r r e d i n customary form and i n h a b i t u a l l y d u l l i n g r a t h e r than awakening language. H a b i t i s the w e i g h t o f the d e s i r e 38 f o r o b l i v i o n : The r o s e c a r r i e d weight o f l o v e b u t l o v e i s a t an e n d — o f r o s e s I t i s a t the edge of £he p e t a l t h a t l o v e w a i t s ' ^ The p r e s s u r e upon the r o s e of c a r r y i n g the symbol of l o v e has deadened the l o v e f o r and the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the r o s e i t s e l f . The p r e s s u r e o f h a b i t towards the i n s e n s i t i v e r e p e t i t i o n o f o l d i d e a s i s what quashes one's p o s s i b l e c l o s e n e s s w i t h the l i v i n g t h i n g . Language must b r e a k t h r o u g h t h i s i n s e n s i t i v i t y by a v o i d i n g h a b i t s . Of a n o t h e r man whose a r t i s t i c i n n o v a t i o n s were always d e s i g n e d to r e k i n d l e the i m a g i n a t i o n i n the mind d u l l e d by h a b i t , W i l l i a m s w r i t e s : cummings i s the l i v i n g p r e s e n c e of the d r i v e to make a l l our c o n v i c t i o n s e v i d e n t by p e n e t -r a t i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r costumes to the l i v i n g f l e s h o f the m a t t e r . He a v o i d s the c l i c h e f i r s t by a v o i d i n g the whole a c c e p t e d modus of e n g l i s h . He does i t . . . to l a y b a r e the a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e . . . . He does i t to r e v e a l , to d i s c l o s e , . to f r e e a man from h a b i t . H a b i t i s our c o n t i n u a l enemy as a r t -i s t s and as men. P r a c t i c e i s not a h a b i t though i t must be watched l e s t i t become so. The a r t i s t ' s purpose and v a l u e i s e n l i g h t e n m e n t . H i s method i s the i m a g i n a t i v e use of h i s m a t e r i a l s to s u r p r i s e the r e a d e r and awaken a f r e s h r e a l i z a t i o n : The r e a l purpose [ i s ] to l i f t the w o r l d of the senses t o t h e l e v e l o f the i m a g i n a t i o n and so g i v e i t new c u r r e n c y . . . . The i m a g i n a t i o n i s the t r a n s m u t e r . I t i s the changer. Without i m a g i n a t i ° n . l i f e cannot go on, f o r we a r e l e f t s t a r i n g a t the empty c a s i n g s where t r u t h l i v e d y e s t e r d a y w h i l e the c r e a t u r e i t s e l f has escaped b e h i n d us. I t i s the power of m u t a t i o n which the mind p o s s e s s e s to r e d i s c o v e r t h e t r u t h . So t h a t the a r t i s t i s d e a l i n g w i t h a c t u a l -i t i e s not w i t h dreams. 39 The a r t i s t i s t r y i n g to r e a l i z e , to reawaken the drugged w o r l d of the senses from the r e s t r i c t i n g h a b i t s imposed by a p a s t o r d e r . " I t i s the a r t i s t ' s b u s i n e s s to c a l l a t t e n t i o n to the i m b e c i l i t i e s , the i m p e r f e c t i o n s , the p a r t i a l i t i e s as w e l l as the e x c e l l e n c e o f h i s t i m e . " " ^ The a r t i s t ' s purpose i s to keep p e o p l e c o n s c i o u s of r e a l i t y . A t the same time, he must use h i s own mind's power of changing to keep h i m s e l f c o n s c i o u s . I n " A g a i n s t the Weather," W i l l i a m s i n s i s t s t h a t t h i s i s a c h i e v e d by working a g a i n s t the g r a i n of a l l customary approaches to p e r c e p t i o n t h a t have become uncon-s c i o u s . He goes on to a t t a c k a l l i i n s t i t u t i o n a l i m p o s i t i o n s , a l l r e s t r i c t i o n s to l i b e r t y t h a t e n s l a v e the mind to t h e i r codes o f b e h a v i o u r and the body to t h e i r r e g i m e n t a t i o n of a c t i o n , scope, f e e l i n g and sense. A l l p r e s s u r e to c o n f o r m i t y t h r e a t e n s the s a f e t y of m a n — t h e c a p i t a l i s t ' s greedy economic c o n t r o l ; the' s t a t e ' s f e a r f u l b u r e a u c r a t i c impingements on i m a g i n a t i v e movement away from the d e s i r e d norm of a s t a t i c u n i f o r m i t y ; the c h u r c h e s ' i n d o c t r i n a l s l a v e r y o f s o u l s and of t h e i r monies; the p o l i t i c i a n s ' i d e o l o g i c a l 'isms' used to c o e r c e p e o p l e i n t o agreement by e x a g g e r a t i n f o r e i g n t h r e a t and i n s t i l l i n g s u s p i c i o n . The t r u t h and r e a l i t y a r e always f a l s i f i e d by any i n s t i t u t i o n bound p r a g m a t i c a l l y by i t s ' n e c e s s a r y ' s e l f - s u r v i v a l . Any n a r r o w l y i n s t i t u t i o n a l b e l i e f — r e l i g i o u s , n a t i o n a l o r i d e o l o g i c a l — i s a l i e . I t i s l e s s than the whole n a t u r e of man, the whole w o r l d view; i t must compete by a t t a c k i n g i t s ' f o r e i g n ' c o u n t e r p a r t s , be . i t m i l i t a r i l y o r i d e o l o g i c a l l y . I t does so t o appear r i g h t e o u s i n i t s s e l f - j u s t i f y i n g p a r t i a l i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s i n t r i n s i c p a r t i a l i t y n e c e s s i t a t e s f a l s e h o o d . The whole man .'wants the t r u t h , the r e a l i t y o f a l l mankind, the a c t u a l t r u t h o f humanity, the d i s c o v e r y o f h i s own n a t u r e 40 no l e s s e r p a r t i a l ' t r u t h ' o r ' m o r a l i t y ' m a n i p u l a t e d i n t o power. He must seek beyond the i n s t i t u t i o n a l method o f c l a i m i n g t r u t h o r m o r a l i t y as i t s p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y . To be a whole man, he must a c q u i r e the p r i n c i p l e d e t h i c s o f the a r t i s t and l e t go a l l p r a g m a t i c p o l i t i c k i n g of n a t i o n a l i s m , c h u r c h s c h i s m or e g o t i s m : W i l l i a m s i n s i s t s t h a t "no m a t t e r what the propaganda and no matter 51 how i t touches him, i t can be of no c o n c e r n to the p o e t . " He must see f o r h i m s e l f , w i t h o u t mental p r e c o n c e p t i o n s based upon a f a l s e and l i m i t i n g o r d e r . F r e e from any b i a s or i n t e r f e r i n g narrowness, he can see the w o r l d f o r what i t i s , man f o r what he i s . O b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n i s the v i s i o n o f t h i n g s f o c u s e d t h r o u g h the f u l l r e a l i t y o f the u n i v e r s a l p e r s p e c t i v e : l o o k i n g a t t h i n g s from o u t s i d e the whole e a r t h . The a r t i s t must escape from s o - c a l l e d r e a l i t y , h e r e a f t e r d e s i g n a t e d ' s o c i a l n o r m a l i t y , ' b e i n g n e c e s s a r i l y i ndependent i n h i s e t h i c a l detachment, o b s e r v i n g the whole r e a l i t y , p e r c e i v i n g the l a r g e r , a c t u a l t r u t h . P a r t i a l i t y makes a man o n l y p a r t an a r t i s t , and t h e r e f o r e not an a r t i s t . He i s p a r t i a l l y an i n d o c t r i n a t e d machine programmed by h i s narrow r e l i g i o u s , n a t i o n a l or i d e o l o g i c a l p r e c o n c e p t i o n s . And i f so, he i s so s t r u c t u r e d from beyond h i s c o n t r o l as to be unable to e x p r e s s h i s v i s i o n c l e a r l y . But once a whole man w i t h c l a r i f i e d v i s i o n , h i s a b i l i t y to e x p r e s s h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s i s f r e e d from any i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n t r o l , any t r a d i t i o n a l and p a r t i a l r u l e s o f s t r u c t u r e , any b l i n d u n c o n s c i o u s agreement w i t h a p a s t , deceased and h a b i t u a l form. He can s e t the pace and the shape of h i s v e r s e , s c u l p t u r e i t to the measure demanded by what he s e e s , never h a v i n g t o bend the a c t u a l t r u t h to the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a 41 f a l s e imposed o r d e r . W i l l i a m s a r g u e s : How then can a man s e r i o u s l y speak o f o r d e r when the most t h a t he i s do i n g i s t o impose a s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r taken o v e r from the h a b i t s of the p a s t upon h i s c o n t e n t ? T h i s i s s h e e r b a s t a r d y . ^ 2 I f he sees a n y t h i n g r e a l , i t i s new: no o l d s t r u c t u r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a p a s t r e a l i t y can c a r r y the p r e s e n t t r u t h . H i s f i n i s h e d work, the a r t form t h a t c a r r i e s the f r e s h r e a l i t y o f h i s o b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , i s the poem, the s c u l p t i n g o f words i n t o a t e n s i l i t y t h a t s u g g e s t s the o b j e c t , the p a i n t i n g o f words i n t o the l i n e s and c o l o u r s t h a t r e - p r e s e n t the t h i n g he s e e s , the composing o f words i n t o a measure t h a t c a r r i e s the p u l s i n g rhythm o f the a c t u a l t h i n g . The poem i s the f i n a l r e c r e a t i o n o f the t r u t h ; i t must be f r e s h t o be c r e a t e d and r e a l , and not a cheap copy o f a dead t h i n g remembered from the p a s t . The poem's s t r u c t u r e i s the f i n i s h e d work of the a r t i s t and the f i r s t t h i n g t h a t the vi e w e r s e e s . Any t r a d i t i o n a l l y imposed o r d e r c o n s t i t u t e s a l i e . And so the l i e h i t s the r e a d e r i m m e d i a t e l y i f the s t r u c t u r e i s bound by p r e c o n c e i v e d , p a r t i a l i d e a s t h a t were o p e r a t i n g a t the moment o f p e r c e p t i o n and d u r i n g the a r t i s t i c r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the o b j e c t seen. Only f r e s h s t r u c t u r e , new form, new a r t , o r i g i n a l work, c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g , p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t i n g , composing i s o f v a l u e — i s t r u e to t h e r e a l i t y of l i f e , i s b a s i c a l l y t i e d to l i v e t h i n g s , and n o t bound and f a l s i f i e d t o dead i d e a s . The whole p r o c e s s o f p e r c e p t i o n , t h r o u g h c o n c e p t i o n , i m a g i n a t i o n , t o e x p r e s s i o n r e q u i r e s an a b s o l u t e d i s c i p l i n e o f c o n s c i o u s l i b e r t y from p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a s about l i f e . A n y t h i n g e l s e 42 j u s t i s n o t t h e r e a l t r u t h . Two s t a t e m e n t s now i l l u m i n a t e the whole c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s : The r e a l p u r p o s e [ i s ] t o l i f t t he w o r l d o f the se n s e s t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n and so g i v e i t new c u r r e n c y . and, A work o f a r t i s i m p o r t a n t o n l y as e v i d -e nce, i n i t s s t r u c t u r e , o f a new w o r l d w h i c h i t has been c r e a t e d t o a f f i r m , 5 4 CHAPTER I I I P o e t i c V a l u e o f Change The a r t i s t ' s concern i s to b r i n g new l i f e to the d u l l e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the p e o p l e . That statement must be a b l e to s t a n d on i t s own. The a r t i s t must i n t e n s i f y p e o p l e ' s awareness o f r e a l i t y by awakening t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n s . The m a t e r i a l s he uses must be r e v i v e d from h a b i t u a l use so as to have the n e c e s s a r y s t a r t l i n g e f f e c t . The p o e t must c o n t i n u a l l y r e v i v e the language and the s t r u c t u r e of h i s work to t h i s p urpose. But the need f o r change s h o u l d not be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d , as i t so o f t e n i s , as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r e x t r e m i s t o v e r - r e a c t i o n . I t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t a new e r a w i l l t r y to j u s t i f y i t s p o s i t i o n — i t s o p i n i o n as t o the Tightness o f i t s form and c o n t e n t — b y r e a c t i n g a g a i n s t the o p p o s i t e v a l u e s h e l d by the p r e c e d i n g o r d e r . But what i s d e s t r u c t i v e l y f a l l a c i o u s i s n o t the a b s o l u t i s t s t a tements of the r a d i c a l s , u s u a l i n the p r o c e s s of change, b u t the m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and the m i s t a k e n t e a c h i n g t h a t f o l l o w s — t h e a b s o l u t i s t o p i n i o n s as t o the e t e r n a l v e r i t y o f p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l s , and, therefore,of-'klnds^ of p o e t r y , So much time, so much argument has been spent j u s t i f y i n g the a b s o l u t e s u p e r i o r i t y o f C l a s s i c a l or Romantic p o e t r y , the Tightness o f r e a s o n o r of emotion. The i s s u e i s more s p e c i f i c a l l y one o f o p p o s i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l o u t l o o k s , on l i f e , o r o f d i f f e r i n g approaches to e x p e r i e n c e . The damaging e f f e c t o f the t o t a l c o n f u s i o n of a r t w i t h these c o n t r a d i c t o r y l i f e -44 s t y l e s has been the r e p e a t e d s e l f - r i g h t e o u s and s e l f - j u s t i f y i n g o v e r - r e a c t i o n o f each s c h o o l to the p r e c e d i n g e r a . The a n t i -r o m a n t i c s e x a g g e r a t e d t h e i r d e s i r e f o r change i n t o a d e n i a l o f itfhat was v a l i d i n the p r e v i o u s e r a . As a r e s u l t , they and, to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t , the f o l l o w e r s who w o r s h i p p e d them and who were taught by them, became too enamoured by r e a s o n , too r e s t r i c t i v e i n t h e i r f i e l d o f p o e t i c e x p e r i e n c e , too d e n o t a t i v e i n t h e i r language, and prone, t o o , to too i d e a l i z e d n o t i o n s of o r d e r , s c i e n t i f i c mechanism, t r a d i t i o n and " c i v i l i s a t i o n " i n S i r Kenneth C l a r k ' s narrowed use of the word: the g r o s s l y e l e v a t e d r e g a r d of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , a e s t h e t i c s , c o n s e r v a t i s m and the mind, t o the disparagement of o r g a n i c s e n s i b i l i t y , t r u t h , r a d i c a l i s m and sense-awareness. The a n t i - r a t i o n a l i s t s r e b e l l e d i n the n e x t e r a , a g a i n d i s r e g a r d i n g the p o s s i b l e v a l u e of any e x i s t i n g p o e t i c , and they became too s e n t i m e n t a l , too vague and e t h e r e a l i n t h e i r c o n t e n t , u n s p e c i f i c i n t h e i r language, enamoured by s e n s a t i o n , i d e a l i s m , the p r i m i t i v e and the ego. W a l l a c e Stevens argues a g a i n s t the extremism of b o t h s c h o o l s . The b a s i c f a u l t of b o t h i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c u n r e a l i t y t h a t deadens the v i t a l i t y o f the i m a g i n a t i o n . The extreme l i m i t a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l d e n o t a t i o n i s a r i g i d a s c e t i c i s m - t h a t c o n f i n e s meaning and d e n i e s s u g g e s t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s . "The n e c e s s a r y a n g e l " " ^ i s the power of the i m a g i n a t i o n to p r o v i d e an e s c a p e , a p o w e r f u l human need to s u r v i v e the p r e s s u r e s of r e a l i t y . R a t i o n a l i t y must n o t overpower t h i s freedom by imposing a r t i f i c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s on the i m a g i n a t i o n . C o n v e r s e l y , the extreme l i c e n s e o f r o m a n t i c c o n n o t a t i o n i s a vague m y s t i c i s m t h a t g i v e s so much freedom to a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t meaning 45 i s l o s t . "The a n g e l i c i m a g i n a t i o n " must not overpower i t s human r o o t s and become d i s s o l v e d i n the w o r s h i p o f i n t e l l e c t u a l power. ' S e n s a t i o n a l i t y ' must not be p e r m i t t e d to deny freedom by a b s t r a c t i n g language and dehumanizing i t beyond the base of human e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and beyond i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . N e i t h e r c o n s e r v a t i v e n o r a n a r c h i c v a l u e s w i l l do. The " c o n s c i o u s r e s t r i c t i o n to p r e s c r i b e d form,""^ the i d e a l , r e t r e a t i s t , c l a s s i c a l , o r d e r i n g , t r a d i t i o n a l p r e j u d i c e d e s t r o y s l i f e — b y i m p osing i t s h a b i t u a l , f i x e d code upon the l i v i n g and the young. We are s t o p p e d by the a r c h a i c l i n g e r i n g i n our l a b o r i n g forms of p r o c e d u r e — w h i c h i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s , p a r t s , h a v i n g o r g e t t i n g the power w i l l defend w i t h e x p l o s i v e s — ^ s e e k i n g to p r e v e n t the new l i f e from g e n e r a t i n g i n the decay o f the o l d . . , . Those who see i t one way c a l l i t the defense o f t r a d i t i o n . Others see t r a d i t i o n b e l i e d i n t h a t ,-g t r a d i t i o n once was new—now o n l y a w a l l . These o t h e r s b e l i e v e i n what W i l l i a m s c a l l s the " u n c o n f i n e d 5 9 a c c e p t a n c e o f e x p e r i e n c e . " They c l a i m , a l o n g w i t h B e r n a r d Leach, t h a t "we l i v e i n d i r e need of a u n i f y i n g c u l t u r e out o f w h i c h f r e s h t r a d i t i o n s can g r o w . " ^ They would agree w i t h W i l l i a m s t h a t Formal p a t t e r n s o f a l l s o r t s r e p r e s e n t a r r e s t s o f the t r u t h i n some p a r t i c u l a r phase of i t s m u t a t i o n s , and i m m e d i a t e l y t h e r e a f t e r , u n l e s s they change, become m u t i l a t i o n s , 6 1 The p r o c e s s of change i s an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t to b r i n g new l i f e t h a t w i l l p r e v e n t the s t a t i c decay of a r i g i d i d e a l o r d e r , a human mental o r d e r imposed on changing r e a l i t y . But t o t a l change d e s t r o y s a base from w h i c h to grow: n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n i s not c o n s t r u c t i v e 46 change. The o l d must not be c o m p l e t e l y d i s i n t e g r a t e d , l e s t the new, f r e s h and young s h a l l n o t have a chance to be b o r n out o f the o l d . N e i t h e r extreme w i l l s u f f i c e : o n l y c o n s t r u c t i v e change w i l l do. The method, the s t y l e , the s t r u c t u r e , the t r a d i t i o n a l mode (o r mold) o f e x p r e s s i o n must change: I t must change, i t must r e a p p e a r i n a n o t h e r form, t o remain permanent. I t i s the image o f the Phoenix. To stop:, the,* flames t h a t d e s t r o y the o l d n e s t p r e v e n t s the r e b i r t h o f the b i r d i t s e l f . . . . T h i s i s the e s s e n c e o f what a r t i s e x p e c t e d to do and cannot l i v e w i t h o u t doing.^2 W i l l i a m s i s much more a n t a g o n i s t i c to the r e p r e s s i v e extreme o f c o n s e r v a t i s m than to the e f f e c t o f a n a r c h i s t i c extremes: We l i v e under a t t a c k by v a r i o u s p a r t i e s a g a i n s t the whole. And a l l i n the name of o r d e r ! But n e v e r an o r d e r d i s c o v e r e d i n i t s l i v i n g c h a r a c t e r of today, always an o r d e r imposed i n the s e n s e l e s s image of y e s t e r d a y — f o r a purpose of d e n i a l . 6 3 The poet must be concerned w i t h the p r e s e n t . There i s no e t e r n a l l y a b s o l u t e r i g h t o r wrong k i n d of p o e t r y : the n a t u r e of p o e t r y , as of t r u t h and v a l u e , changes as man and the u n i v e r s e change. E a c h extreme i s as bad as the o t h e r i n i t s p r e s c r i p t i v e v a l u e judgments, i t s s e l f - i n f l i c t e d narrow scope of p e r c e p t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n , and i t s l a c k of the i m a g i n a t i v e means of r e l a t i n g c l o s e l y w i t h r e a l i t y and o f e x p r e s s i n g t h a t communion. What i s r i g h t i s what i s r i g h t f o r now, t h a t p o e t r y w h i c h w i l l be most e f f e c t i v e i n awakening the i m a g i n a t i o n of the p e o p l e o f the age, i n r e v e a l i n g the r e a l i t y o f the time. Each age needs t h a t p o e t r y w h i c h w i l l make the most sense to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and c a r r y emotion most e f f e c t i v e l y to the f e e l i n g s o f the r e a d e r . No 47 permanent system o f e x p r e s s i o n can a c h i e v e t h i s , f o r the minds and emotions o f t h e r e a d e r s w i l l become d u l l e d by h a b i t , t h e i r r e a c t i o n s s u b c o n s c i o u s , t h e i r minds and t h e i r emotions a u t o m a t i c . P o e t r y cannot, t h e r e f o r e , have permanent r u l e s ; y e t i n any p a r t i c u l a r e r a , p o e t r y i s something d e f i n i t e r a t h e r than a n y t h i n g f r e e . I t s n a t u r e changes to f i t the p r e s e n t n e c e s s i t i e s o f the p o e t to ex p r e s s h i m s e l f anew i n the changing s o c i a l c l i m a t e . Change s h o u l d come as a p r o c e s s o f c o n t i n u a l r e c r e a t i o n , r a t h e r than as a p r o d u c t o f d e s t r u c t i v e r e a c t i o n . But the f a i l u r e o f p o e t s to c o n t i n u e t h i s change causes p o e t r y to slump i n t o c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y and to e l i c i t s t e r e o t y p e d r e s p o n s e s . When p e o p l e are reduced t o d u l n e s s , and s t u p i d i t y , the c o u r s e o f e v o l u t i o n a r y change I s b a r r e d . New p o e t s must i n e v i t a b l y r e - e n l i v e n the a r t and b a t t l e h a b i t : r e v o l u t i o n w i l l d e s t r o y to r e c r e a t e . One can j u s t i f y r e v o l u t i o n when the p r o c e s s o f p e a c e f u l e v o l u t i o n a r y change has been b a r r e d : b i o l o g i c a l l y , p o l i t i c a l l y o r a r t i s t i c a l l y , t h i s stoppage poses a t h r e a t t o s u r v i v a l and n e c e s s i t a t e s v i o l e n t o u t b r e a k , But a r t i s t i c a l l y , t h i s o u t b r e a k takes the form o f a n t a g o n i s t i c 'pop c u l t u r e ' w h i c h t h r i v e s on .the w o r s h i p o f a n y t h i n g r a d i c a l l y new. I t i s an i n s e n s i b l e e x t r e m i s t r e v o l u t i o n t h a t i s as p a r t i a l as the p r e c e d i n g c o n s e r v a t i v e o r s u c c e e d i n g r e a c t i o n a r y t r e n d s . A l l extremes are d e l u s i o n s i n t h e i r e s c a p i s t h y p e r e m o t i o h a l i s m which b l i n d s t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s to the r e a l i s t i c s o l u t i o n . What i s r e q u i r e d i s a c o n t i n u i n g e v o l u t i o n i n a r t , and o f t e n a r a d i c a l l y f a s t e v o l u t i o n v e r g i n g on r e v o l u t i o n a r y change t h r o u g h the i m a g i n a t i o n not the p r e j u d i c e s : i t i s an i n n e r r e v o l u t i o n — ^ the shock of suddenly 48 waking up! W i l l i a m s w r i t e s : We s h o u l d have a r e v o l u t i o n o f some s o r t i n America e v e r y ten y e a r s . The t r u t h has to be r e d r e s s e d , re-examined, r e a f f i r m e d i n a new mode. There has to be new p o e t r y . Only the c o n t i n u a l r e - e v a l u t i n g r e v e l a t i o n of r e a l i t y and of the t r u t h can p r e s e r v e i m p a r t i a l a r t i s t i c i n t e g r i t y . And o n l y the o b j e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s r e a l i t y i n new ways determined by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the whole seen from a detached p e r s p e c t i v e can f o s t e r a l o c a l l y o r i e n t a t e d and t r u l y v a l i d a r t i s t i c environment f r e e o f f a c t i o n a l i s m . I t i s t h e p o e t ' s "duty to r e n d e r the image of man as he i s i n h i s t i m e , " " t o make known and c o n s c i o u s what i s s u b c o n s c i o u s to a l l , " ^ t o use the i m a g i n a t i o n ' s ''power to p o s s e s s the moment i t p e r c e i v e s , t h e p r e s e n t r e a l moment t h a t a poem s n a t c h e s b e f o r e i t can be d i s s o l v e d i n time and space. E v e r y t h i n g a l i v e i s "here 6 8 and now." W i l l i a m s c o n t i n u a l l y c l a i m s the e x a c t p r e s e n t to be o f the h i g h e s t c o n s c i o u s v a l u e . I t i s the o n l y p h y s i c a l , a c t u a l r e a l i t y , and i t i s e t e r n a l i n i t s e v e r p r e s e n t r e a l i t y . "A l i f e t h a t i s h e r e and now i s t i m e l e s s . That i s the u n i v e r s a l I am s e e k i n g : to embody t h a t i n a work of a r t , a new w o r l d t h a t i s always ' r e a l . t : " I t i s t h i s p r e s e n t , a c t i v e r e a l i t y t h a t the v a l i d poem r e c a p t u r e s i n a r t , movement moving at one remove from the t a n g i b l e — t i m e and space f i x e d — t h a t the poem i n t e n s i f i e s i n t o an awareness t h a t the s e n s e s f l e e t i n g l y miss as they a r e d i s t r a c t e d on i n t h e i r c o n t i n u a l r e a c t i o n to t e m p o r a l and s p a c i a l e x p e r i e n c e . " I t i s because of the element of t i m e l e s s n e s s i n i t , i t s s e n s u a l i t y . The 49 o n l y w o r l d t h a t e x i s t s i s t h e w o r l d of the s e n s e s . The w o r l d of the a r t i s t . The importance of the p o e t ' s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the p r e s e n t i s paramount. He i s an a r t i s t ; he i s to d e s c r i b e l i f e , l i f e t h a t changes and i s a c t i v e ; and t h a t a c t i v i t y i s what he a c t u a l l y f e e l s and t h i n k s i n the p r e s e n t , not memories of what has been. The " w o r l d of the s e n s e s " means the p r e s e n t r e a l i t y o f 'the p h y s i c a l s e n s e s . W i l l i a m s p r a i s e s L o r c a f o r h a v i n g a c o n s c i o u s n e s s of b a s i c e a r t h l y r e a l i t y , f o r b e i n g a " r e a l i s t o f the s e n s e s " ^ , f o r b e i n g i n s t i n c t i v e r a t h e r than i n t e l l e c t u a l . But, a g a i n , a n t i -i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y must n o t be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d , as i t so o f t e n i s , as h y p e r e m o t i o n a l i s m or a n t i - r a t i o n a l i t y . W i l l i a m s a l s o compliments L o r c a ' s b a l a n c e d i m p a r t i a l i t y : "[he d i s p l a y s ] the same e t h i c a l 72 detachment and the same freedom from e t h i c a l p r e j u d i c e . " The a r t i s t ' s a udience i s p r e s e n t too. So he d e s c r i b e s the p r e s e n t p a r t i c u l a r s t h a t he f e e l s and knows, t h a t he and h i s audience can r e l a t e t o , and the u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s a r t takes c a r e o f i t s e l f , f o r the emotions and thoughts o f human b e i n g s do not change so s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h a t they become u n r e c o g n i z a b l e . The p o e t w i l l t h e r e f o r e be r o o t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t p l a c e and time o f h i s e x i s t e n c e , and h i s poems w i l l r e f l e c t t h a t r e a l i t y , and they must change too i f they a r e to r e f l e c t changing r e a l i t y , and i f they a r e to awaken the r e a d e r ' s sense o f t h a t r e a l i t y , P o e t r y must s u r p r i s e . I t must s u r p r i s e i m m e d i a t e l y , e i t h e r f o r the r e a d e r t o b o t h e r w i t h c l o s e s c r u t i n y , o r f o r the p o e t r y t o be worthy o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l thought needed to s o l v e the d i f f i c u l t y . S u f f i c i e n t s t i m u l u s of p l e a s u r e o r o f t r u t h , emotion or r e a s o n , must e x i s t on the s u r f a c e to awake the r e a d e r ' s 50 d e s i r e and h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . An immediate sense o f the f e e l i n g o f the poem (even i f p a r t i a l ) must be a v a i l a b l e , o r the e x p e r i e n c e i s o n l y h a r d l a b o u r , " { P o e t r y ] must a p p e a l to emotions w i t h the charm of d i r e c t i m p r e s s i o n , f l a s h i n g t h r o u g h r e g i o n s where the 73 i n t e l l e c t can o n l y grope," To s u c c e e d i n t h i s , the poet'". must s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t c o n v e n t i o n a l h a b i t s of p e r c e p t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n , so t h a t he can d e s c r i b e h i s e x p e r i e n c e s , p h y s i c a l and 74 m e n t a l , w i t h c l a r i t y and i n h i s own words, and w i t h an a p o c a l y p t i c sense of t h e i r r e a l i t y . I f a p o e t use., the e s t a b l i s h e d form and f i t s t a n d a r d d i c t i o n to i t , he s h a l l f i n d i t almost i m p o s s i b l e to say a n y t h i n g e s p e c i a l l y v a l u a b l e ( t h a t i s , o f worth to th e r e a d e r ' s sense o f t r u t h o r b e a u t y , w i t h t h e c o n n o t a t i o n — o f s i n g u l a r i m p o r t a n c e ) , and he s h a l l f i n d i t e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d i f f i c u l t to say a n y t h i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r y b u t he be too ' d i f f i c u l t . ' The beauty o r t r u t h o f h i s poem w i l l be u n r e c o g n i z a b l e i n t i r e d d o g g e r e l and cliche'd d i c t i o n . H a b i t u a l use must deaden a l l c r e a t i v i t y and a l l a c t i v e r e s p o n s e . Language t h a t i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y h a b i t u a l and commonplace must e l i c i t the same t r a d i t i o n a l l y h a b i t u a l and commonplace f e e l i n g s and thoughts i n the r e a d e r as i t always has done. No f e e l i n g o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i l l o c c u r : a l l r e a c t i o n w i l l be s u b c o n s c i o u s . No p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l e x i s t between the p o e t ' s emotion (which i s q u e s t i o n a b l e ) and the r e a d e r ' s awareness of t h a t emotion (which i s n o n - e x i s t e n t ) . To t r a n s f e r the emotion, the p o e t must awake the r e a d e r ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e , he must s t i m u l a t e the r e a d e r ' s i n t e l l e c t - i n t o a c t i v e l y s e e k i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the poem, n o t j u s t c a s t i n g i t i n t o a p r e - e x i s t i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l c a t e g o r y o f r e s p o n s e . And to make the r e a d e r f e e l the 51 emotion, the p o e t must sharpen the r e a d e r ' s ' s e n s i b i l i t y , ' ( h i s " e x c e p t i o n a l openness to e m o t i o n a l impressions"' 7"'). He must use l a n g u a g e s - f o r m a t , meter, d i c t i o n and i m a g e — t h a t w i l l s t r i k e the r e a d e r ' s f e e l i n g s as s u r p r i s i n g l y r e a l to h i s e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s does not n e c e s s i t a t e l i m i t i n g p o e t r y to contemporary c o n t e n t . There i s no more sense i n r e s t r i c t i n g c o n t e n t to con-temporary e x p e r i e n c e than t h e r e i s i n a r g u i n g f o r the a d o p t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r p o e t i c d i c t i o n - a r y . But t h e r e i s much sense i n i n s i s t i n g t h a t p o e t i c c o n t e n t today must r e l a t e t o t h e c o n t e x t o f contemporary e x p e r i e n c e f o r i t to be u n d e r s t o o d and f e l t by the modern a u d i e n c e . P o e t r y must r e f l e c t the age: t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y p o e t r y must r e f l e c t t h i s age o f r e v o l u t i o n i n s o c i e t y and i n a r t , of mass and massive v i o l e n c e , of i n d u s t r i a l i s m , amazing m a t e r i a l l u x u r y and v a s t p o v e r t y , of m o b i l i t y , o f the c o l l a p s e o f t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y , of the dominance of the middle c l a s s , o f p o l l u t i o n , o f a n x i e t y and a l i e n a t i o n . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e — t h e h o r s e - a n d - c a r t and the k n i g h t - i n - a r m o u r — i s meaningless e x c e p t i n r e l a t i o n to t h e p r e s e n t r e a l i t y . T h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s i n g - s o n g l y r i c and a l l i t e r a t i v e b a l l a d forms are meaningless and u n f e l t o u t s i d e t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . The p o e t who r e c o r d s the age he i n h a b i t s , l i v e s i n the p r e s e n t : he t r i e s to awake p e o p l e ' s minds and emotions to h i s v i s i o n o f the p r e s e n t r e a l i t y . The p o e t who d e s c r i b e s the p a s t , l i v e s ' i n the p a s t i n p r e f e r e n c e to the p r e s e n t ; h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s o f t e n a l i e n and u n r e l a t e d to p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s . The p a s t determines h i s form and endangers h i s e x p r e s s i o n to b e i n g h a b i t u a l and h i s r e a d e r ' s r e a c t i o n t o b e i n g a u t o m a t i c . The p o e t r y i s c u s t o m a r i l y an a p p e a l to an o l d o r d e r , to a s t a b i l i t y t h a t i s not p r e s e n t . At 52 the same time, i t r e f l e c t s an i d e a l i s t i c escapism. The p o e t r y thus t e l l s us much about the p o e t , the s e n t i m e n t a l i s t who p r e f e r s an a b s t r a c t dream o f the dead p a s t to h i s p r e s e n t , p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e . I t cannot even be argued i n the p o e t ' s f a v o u r t h a t he i s an ' i n h a b i t a n t ' o f t h a t p a s t e r a he r e c a l l s , f o r the s e n t i m e n t a l tone and e s c a p i s t a t t i t u d e r e v e a l a fundamental b i t t e r n e s s which i s a l i e n to the g l o r y and s e c u r i t y of the p a s t age he bemoans, and w h i c h the po e t of t h a t time would not have had. T h i s p o e t ' s w o r l d i s a l i e n t o a l l — a n a b s t r a c t e d dream^ a s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , The p o e t r y i s l o s t i n the r e a d e r ' s r e j e c t i o n o f the p o e t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , and the p o e t r y ' s u n r e a l i t y makes i t s images meaning-l e s s and u n f e e l a b l e . I n "The Poem as a F i e l d o f A c t i o n , " W i l l i a m s has r e a c h e d t h a t s t a g e I n h i s a d v o c a t i o n of the 'new' where he need no l o n g e r be so vehement a g a i n s t the b l i n d i n g e f f e c t s o f s t a t u s quo m e n t a l i t y -m o r a l i t y . Much haa a l r e a d y been s a i d c r i t i c i z i n g the a r r o g a n t s e l f i s h n e s s of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l r e a c t i o n a r y w i l l t o c o n t r o l the advance o f any new ( r e v o l u t i o n a r y ) t r e n d s t h a t do n ot add t o t h e i r p r i v a t e w e l l - b e i n g . I n "The Poem as a F i e l d o f A c t i o n , " the c r i t i c i s m s of s e c u l a r , r e l i g i o u s , m o r a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , i d e o l o g i c a l and p e r c e p t u a l systems t h a t a t t a c k a l l d o c t r i n e s o f the new a r e l e f t u n s a i d , almost as i f a l r e a d y u n d e r s t o o d by h i s a u d i e n c e . W i l l i a m s does n o t even b o t h e r t o ' d i g r e s s ' i n t o the i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s d o c t r i n e to the c l o s e l y t i e d w o r l d o f the a r t i s t g e n e r a l l y , the p a i n t e r and the s c u l p t o r . H i s f o c u s i s f i x e d on the problems o f the poe t i n p a r t i c u l a r and the poems by th e m s e l v e s . But the d i s c u s s i o n 53 i s not j u s t a t e c h n i c a l o r a e s t h e t i c a n a l y s i s o f the course n e c e s s a r y f o r the c r e a t i o n of c o n t i n u a l l y modern p o e t r y ; t h a t i s , o f the way to f i n d a l l f r e s h n e s s o r modernism f o r any poem i n the f u t u r e . A l l the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the b a t t l e between the r e v o l u t i o n and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t a r e p r e s e n t , but a p p l i e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o p o e t r y : "the c o n t i n u e d n e c e s s i t y f o r r e a p p r a i s a l s 76 i n the a r t s " v e r s u s the b l i n d n e s s t h a t attempts to p r o l o n g a s t a t i c i d e a l . The f r u s t r a t i o n and d i s g u s t has d i s s i p a t e d i n t o a c o o l a s s e r t i o n o f the new as the o n l y p o s s i b l e means o f p o e t i c growth. Thus, a l l examples of t r a d i t i o n a l , e s t a b l i s h e d p o e t r y b e i n g p r e s e n t l y w r i t t e n become copy by d e f a u l t , and a r e almost a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s m i s s e d as i r r e l e v a n t and u s e l e s s . The p o i n t of W i l l i a m s ' argument may be s i m p l y s t a t e d . We have e v o l v e d beyond t h a t w o r l d w h i c h has been s t r i c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d by Europeans w i t h i n an o r d e r e d , man-centred, C h r i s t i a n and c l a s s i c a l c o n t e x t . And though extended onto the New World t h r o u g h E n g l i s h and European s e t t l e r s , the O l d World c i v i l i z a t i o n i s not r e l e v a n t to the N o r t h American e x p e r i e n c e o f l i f e . T h i s i r r e l e v a n t i m p o s i t i o n s t i f l e d p o e t i c and p e r c e p t u a l e v o l u t i o n , p r e v e n t e d change and a d a p t a t i o n , and drugged the i m a g i n a t i o n and l i v e l i n e s s o f the p e o p l e . W i l l i a m s p l e a d s f o r the b e d e v i l e d s p i r i t o f man, b e d e v i l e d by the d e a d l y , l y i n g r e p e t i t i o u s n e s s of d o c t r i n -a i r e f o r m u l a w o r s h i p w h i c h i s the s t a n d a r d work of the day. I n my young days i t was " E n g l i s h . " In your young days i t was "Greece," "Rome." But the mind i s merely e n s l a v e d by t h e s e i d e a l s , t h e s e i d e a s , u n l e s s we can r e l a t e them, h e r e , now, i n our environment, to o u r s e l v e s and our day. T h i s r e q u i r e i n v e n t i o n . ^ 7 54 W i l l i a m s uses Auden's ' d e f e c t i o n ' to America as an example of "a 78 d i s t i n g u i s h e d p o e t ' s " a c c e p t a n c e of the New World's a c t i v e changing language and r e j e c t i o n o f the t i r e d , r i g i d l y r e s t r i c t i v e language of E n g l a n d today. So the a c c e n t i s c o n t i n u a l l y upon a c t i o n and America. The O l d World's r i g i d h o l d upon the l i v e s and minds of the new c o n t i n e n t has f i n a l l y c o l l a p s e d . And i n the language of the new i n h e r i t o r s o f E n g l i s h on the new c o n t i n e n t i s t h e l i v i n g p r o o f o f a d a p t a t i o n to the American environment. I t i s t h i s t o t a l and i r r e v e r s i b l e change i n the American language, w i t h l i t t l e E n g l i s h about i t , t h a t must l i b e r a t e the New World and i t s p o e t s from the e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' s t r a d i t i o n a l code o f p o e t i c s . P o e t r y has changed; i t s s u b j e c t m a tter has changed, as W i l l i a m s a r g u e s , from dreams of a r i s t o c r a t i c w i s h - f u l f i l m e n t t o o b s e r v a t i o n s about l i f e i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l age; and now the f i n a l b a r r i e r must be b r o k e n — o r t h o d o x y i n form and language. There are new t h i n g s t o see, and to be seen a f r e s h w i t h o u t the i n t e r f e r e n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l p r e j u d i c e s (= pre-judgments, p r e -c o n c e p t i o n s ) . So these t h i n g s must be e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h a f r e s h medium—and i n p o e t r y , t h i s f r e s h medium i s the l o c a l and p r e s e n t language as i t r e l a t e s t o I t s usage "here and now." The need f o r p r e s e n t usage r e f e r s t o b o t h the contemporary, l o c a l s p e e c h and the a c t i v e r a t h e r than p a s s i v e tense of the language. CHAPTER IV The C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s of R e v e a l i n g the P r o c e s s The p a r t i c u l a r s o f the p o e m s — t h e w o r d s — m u s t be c a r e f u l l y p r e v e n t e d from b e i n g used h a b i t u a l l y . C l i c h e s must be a v o i d e d , or used i n a s t r i k i n g c o n t e x t to p r e v e n t the r e a d e r ' s s i n k i n g i n t o a s u b c o n s c i o u s response to a p r e - c o n d i t i o n e d meaning. Words t h a t have become i m p r e c i s e o r shoddy th r o u g h too f r e q u e n t use must be purged or used i n such a way t h a t they p r e s e r v e t h e i r i n t r i n s i c meaning and impact. L e t "the snake w a i t under h i s weed and the w r i t i n g be o f words, slow and q u i c k , sharp to s t r i k e , q u i e t to w a i t , sleepless.^° T i r e d , common words must be r e f i n e d t o e x a c t use to have f r e s h and 80 d e f i n i t e meaning: x^ords must be used " c a r e f u l l y " ' — As t h e c a t cl i m b e d over the top o f the j a m c l o s e t f i r s t t h e r i g h t f o r e f o o t c a r e f u l l y then the h i n d s t e p p e d down i n t o the p i t o f the empty f l o w e r p o t 56 W i l l i a m s i s one of a d i s t i n c t group o f modern poets who have demanded t h a t the d i c t i o n must r e f l e c t the a c t i v e , changing n a t u r e of r e a l i t y ; the t r a n s i t i v e must be used t o c a r r y the t r a n s i t o r y f l u x o f l i f e , "The one n e c e s s i t y , even i n our own p o e t r y , i s to keep 82 words as f l e x i b l e as p o s s i b l e , as f u l l o f the sap o f n a t u r e . " The verb must be p r i m a r y t o s t r e s s motion, C h a r l e s O l s o n p i c k s up F e n e l l o s a ' s cue, and i n c o r p o r a t e s i t i n t o h i s p o e t i c of p r o c e s s — o f immediacy and a c t i o n : n o t h i n g may be a l l o w e d to "sap the go i n g 83 energy o f the c o n t e n t to i t s form." And Pound s u g g e s t s the same i d e a , d i s l i k i n g " p a i n t e d a d j e c t i v e s impeding the shock 84 and s t r o k e o f i t . " He ad v o c a t e s a purge o f t i r e d d i c t i o n , W i l l i a m s i n s i s t s t h a t the re-awakened v i s i o n can o n l y be e x p r e s s e d through language w h i c h awakens i m a g i n a t i v e thought and wh i c h , t h r o u g h i t s o r i g i n a l i t y , p r e v e n t s the r e a d e r from s l i d i n g i n t o ' t h o u g h t l e s s , p r e - c o n s t r u c t e d l i n g u i s t i c h a b i t s . "Unbound t h i n k i n g has to be done w i t h s t r a i g h t , sharp,..words. . ... I t ' s the words, the words we 85 need t o get back t o , words washed clean,,'.': Of Pound's words i n the f i r s t XXX Cantos, W i l l i a m s w r i t e s : " l i n g u i s t i c use has e n t i r e l y p a s s e d out o f them, t h e r e i s almost no use o f s i m i l e , no a l l e g o r y — the word has been used i n i t s p l a i n sense t o r e p r e s e n t a t h i n g ' — r e m a i n i n g thus l o o s e i n i t s c o n t e x t — n o t gummy—(when a t i t s b e s t ) — an' o b j e c t i v e u n i t i n the d e s i g n — b u t a l i v e . Book Three o f P a t e r s o n ends w i t h the f l o o d t h a t washes the words c l e a n o f t h e i r encumbering burden of t r a d i t i o n a l meanings, p r e - c b n c e i v e d meanings w h i c h p r o v i d e h a b i t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w i t h o u t c o n s c i o u s p r e c i s i o n o f thought. F r e s h u n d e r s t a n d i n g and "a fundamental r e g e n e r a t i o n o f 87 thought i n our language" n e c e s s i t a t e a p u r i f i c a t i o n o f the word from the c l i c h e s o f h a b i t . the r o a r of the p r e s e n t , a s p e e c h — i s , o f n e c e s s i t y , my s o l e c o n c e r n . . . . Not u n t i l I have made o f i t a r e p l i c a w i l l my s i n s be f o r g i v e n and my d i s e a s e c u r e d — I must f i n d my meaning and l a y i t , w h i t e , b e s i d e the s l i d i n g w a t e r : m y s e l f - ^ g comb out the language-— o r succumb Co n s c i o u s n e s s o f r e a l i t y , of the p r o c e s s o f l i f e , o f the song o f the water f a l l i n g , can o n l y be e x p r e s s e d by words t h a t a r e themselves p u r i f i e d o f d e b r i s i n i m i t a t i o n of t h a t r e a l i t y ; the words, l i k e the s t o n e s under the f a l l s , a r e s c o u r e d o f decayed thought and convey f r e s h and p r e c i s e meaning. But p r e c i s i o n must not s t e r i l i z e language o f c o n n o t a t i o n s , s u g g e s t i v e n e s s and f l i g h t s of the i m a g i n a t i o n . C l e a r language must expand i m a g i n a t i v e thought, n ot mechanize i t . The p u r g i n g o f h a b i t u a l methods o f t h o u g h t l e s s l y s t r i n g i n g words t o g e t h e r a l l o w s the po e t to c o n s t r u c t images t h a t s t a r t l e the p e r c e p t i o n i n t o a sudden awareness. I t i s t h e new images w h i c h must renew the i m a g i n a t i o n of the r e a d e r . The s e a r c h f o r an image t h a t e x a c t l y d e s c r i b e s a t h i n g i s the s e a r c h " t o make you c o n t i n u a l l y see a p h y s i c a l t h i n g , t o p r e v e n t 89 you g l i d i n g t h r o u g h an a b s t r a c t p r o c e s s . " Even a b s t r a c t i o n s must be r e a l i z e d i n the i m a g i n a t i o n by some c o n c r e t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The image must be m e t i c u l o u s l y e x a c t t o i n s i s t upon i t s own r e a l i t y , i t s p h y s i c a l e x i s t e n c e . I t s f r e s h n e s s must s u r p r i s e the r e a d e r , so t h a t he does not t h i n k the po e t i s mechanized i n t o an a u t o m a t i c r e a c t i o n to h i s e x p e r i e n c e . Any image that^the p o e t makes i s o n l y g o i n g to be r e c o g n i z a b l e i f i t i s r e l a t e d t o the p r e s e n t c o n t e x t o f 58 r e a l i t y . W i l l i a m s p r a i s e s L o r c a ' s work f o r r e v e a l i n g "the v e r y essence o f today. R e a l i t y , immediacy: by the v i v i d n e s s o f the 90 image I n v o k i n g the mind t o s t a r t awake." W i l l i a m s c r e a t e s images combining the i d e a l and the base, the myth and the f a c t , — t h e v i r g i n and t h e whore, an i d e n t i t y , b o t h f o r s a l e to the h i g h e s t b i d d e r ! 9 1 While o b s e r v i n g the two extremes d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y , and r e v e r s i n g the r o l e s o f good and e v i l , W i l l i a m s r e v e a l s t h e h y p o c r i s y o f "the 92 93 age o f shoddy" where " l o v e i s begrimed;" where the n a t u r a l d e s i r e s of man a r e de v a l u e d by the p u b l i c f a c a d e of h i g h l y m o r a l s e x l e s s n e s s , and debased by an i n d u l g e n c e i n p r i v a t e e r o t i c i s m to r e l e a s e f r u s t r a t i o n . The image i s e f f e c t i v e because i t shocks b o t h the r e a d e r ' s i n t e n t i o n a l l y b l i n d m o r a l e v a s i o n s and h i s 94 drowsy s e n s i b i l i t y . I t awakens h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . "A Negro Woman" i s another ' b r i l l i a n t ' poem because i t s s t a r t l i n g image j a r s our p r e c o n c e p t i o n s . In the c h a r a c t e r s k e t c h o f a common, contemporary s i g h t , the poem u n i f i e s t h e i d e a l o f l i b e r t y and t h e r e a l i t y o f i g n o r a n t s e r v i t u d e . A Negro Woman c a r r y i n g a bunch o f m a r i g o l d s wrapped i n an o l d newspaper: She c a r r i e s them u p r i g h t , bareheaded, the b u l k of h e r t h i g h s c a u s i n g h e r to waddle as she walks l o o k i n g i n t o t h e s t o r e window w h i c h she passes on h e r way. What i s she bu t an ambassador from a n o t h e r w o r l d 59 a w o r l d o f p r e t t y m a r i g o l d s o f two shades which she announces not know what she does o t h e r than walk the s t r e e t s h o l d i n g the f l o w e r s u p r i g h t as a t o r c h so e a r l y i n the morning. An image i s a c o n c e n t r a t e d f l a s h o f i n s i g h t . Here, i n the image o f one p e r s o n , two ambassadors meld: one p u b l i c , the pro m i s e d dream of w h i t e freedom, the generous f o r e i g n and u n r e l a t e d g i f t o f e n t h u s i a s t i c hope,:and i l l u s i o n ; the o t h e r p r i v a t e , the b l e a k r e a l i t y o f b l a c k i n e q u a l i t y . The image h e i g h t e n s - o u r sense o f r e a l i t y by augmenting our scope of f e e l i n g towards and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , the s t a t e o f man. I t i s t h i s i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f r e a l i t y t h a t the image g i v e s , t h a t the image must g i v e to be e f f e c t i v e , . and t h a t the image w i l l g i v e i f the words, images, form and rhythm a r e a l l w o r k i n g i n o r i g i n a l and changed ways to s t a r t l e the r e a d e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n and h i s s e n s i b i l i t y . Does t h i s i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f r e a l i t y i n the r e a d e r r e q u i r e the poet to use images i n a p a r t i c u l a r way? I f i t i s the r e a l we seek i n p o e t r y , we must a g a i n d i s t i n g u i s h between a c t u a l i z i n g o b j e c t i v i t y and a b s t r a c t i n g s u b j e c t i v i t y . T.S. E l i o t ' s " o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e " t h e o r y uses o u t s i d e r e a l i t y to ex p r e s s emotion. E l i o t d i s c o v e r s what mood he i s i n , and then s e a r c h e s f o r images t o e l a b o r a t e and d e s c r i b e h i s e m o t i o n a l s t a t e ; w hich i s , 95 i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a n z a from "Rhapsody on a Windy N i g h t , " an empty b i t t e r n e s s upon o b s e r v i n g the " a u t o m a t i c " n a t u r e o f human a c t i o n : 60 H a l f - p a s t two, The s t r e e t - l a m p s a i d , 'Remark the c a t which f l a t t e n s i t s e l f i n t h e g u t t e r , S l i p s out i t s tongue And devours a m o r s e l o f r a n c i d b u t t e r . ' So the hand of the c h i l d , a u t o m a t i c , S l i p p e d out and p o c k e t e d a toy t h a t was r u n n i n g a l o n g the quay. I c o u l d see n o t h i n g b e h i n d t h a t c h i l d ' s eye. I have seen eyes i n the s t r e e t T r y i n g to p e e r through l i g h t e d s h u t t e r s , And a crab one a f t e r n o o n i n a p o o l , An o l d crab w i t h b a r n a c l e s on h i s back, G r i p p e d t h e end o f a s t i c k x^hich I h e l d him. E l i o t ' s images remain o u t s i d e o b j e c t s to be i n t e r p r e t e d by and used i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s u b j e c t i v e ego. And so C h a r l e s O l s o n makes t h e charge t h a t " E l i o t ' s r o o t i s the mind a l o n e , . . , and t h a t , i n h i s l i s t e n i n g s he has .stayed t h e r e where the e a r and the 96 mind a r e , has o n l y gone from h i s f i n e e a r outward." E l i o t h i m s e l f s t a t e s t h a t he uses the o u t s i d e r e a l i t y a s "the fo r m u l a o f 97 t h a t p a r t i c u l a r emotion" t h a t he wishes t o e x p r e s s i n a poem, W a l l a c e Stevens b e l i e v e s i n the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the c o n s c i o u s r e a l i z a t i o n of a t h i n g through t h e i m a g i n a t i v e r e c r e a t i o n o f s e n s o r y i m p r e s s i o n s . D e s p i t e S t e v e n s ' attempt to t r a n s c e n d h i s p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n and r i s e i n t o u n i o n w i t h o t h e r t h i n g s , i t i s a mental s t r u g g l e : i n "The Snow Man" he seeks to expand h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p h y s i c a l n a t u r e . H i s achievement i s a reasoned r e v e l a t i o n of e m o t i o n a l and s e n s u a l r e a l i t i e s , o f i n t u i t i v e rhythms between man and n a t u r e . I t remains a harmony o f the m i n d ~ a n a b s t r a c t i o n . S t e v e n s ' i m a g i n a t i v e escape from the p r e s s u r e s o f r e a l i t y i s a c h i e v e d by the tra n s c e n d e n c e o f h i s mental a b s t r a c t i o n s . Stevens l o o k s a t r e a l i t y , n ot to make us more aware o f i t , b u t to h e l p us escape from i t . 61 The opposing approach to e x p e r i e n c e may be w i t n e s s e d i n the p o e t r y of Pound and W i l l i a m s . Both p o e t s seeks the " d i r e c t ,98 treatment o f the t h i n g , " a v o i d i n g as much as p o s s i b l e any i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n about the t h i n g . They l o o k at o u t s i d e r e a l i t y f i r s t : the emotion i t c r e a t e s i s secondary. W i l l i a m s ' e x a c t d e s c r i p t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e and s u b s t a n c e of the t h i n g t r i e s to t o u c h "the t h i n g i t s e l f . " Without a b s t r a c t i n g n a t u r e i n t o a mental c o n s t r u c t , w i t h o u t commenting upon the t h i n g , W i l l i a m s r e - p r e s e n t s j u s t the t o t a l t h i n g . I f he s u c c e e d s , h i s words convey e v e r y t h i n g t h a t can be s a i d about the t h i n g w i t h o u t s a y i n g i t . The t h i n g i s e v e r y t h i n g i t s e l f : the o n l y i d e a s a r e i n "the t h i n g i t s e l f . " I n b r i n g i n g man to as c l o s e a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the i n t e n s e r e a l i t y of n a t u r a l o b j e c t s as he can, i n r e t u r n i n g to the n a t u r e of the o b j e c t , W i l l i a m s t r i e s " — t h r o u g h metaphor to r e c o n c i l e / 99 the p e o p l e and the s t o n e s . " But even the i n t e n s e d e s c r i p t i o n of r e a l t h i n g s i s s h a l l o w w i t h o u t i m a g i n a t i v e as w e l l as e x a c t p o r t r a y a l : The i n s t a n t t r i v i a l as i t i s i s a l l we have u n l e s s — u n l e s s t h i n g s the i m a g i n a t i o n feeds upon, the s c e n t o f the r o s e , s t a r t l e us anew, The prime importance o f the image i s to make r e a l i t y u m o r e v i v i d . Any l a r g e l y s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h i s r e v e l a t i o n i s o p i n i o n a t e d p a r t i a l i t y . Even "the r o s e , " here s y m b o l i z i n g t r a d i t i o n i t s e l f , must be renewed to be more than t r i v i a l . The e x p r e s s i o n of r e a l i t y " r e q u i r e s i n v e n t i o n . " A l l r e l e v a n t c r e a t i v e work of the i m a g i n a t i o n must be f r e s h , new, 62 contemporary and i n v e n t i v e . A l l the m a t e r i a l s at the p o e t ' s d i s p o s a l must change d r a m a t i c a l l y t o r e f l e c t the p o e t ' s p r e s e n t a w a r e n e s s — t o i n c a n d e s c e r e a l i t y . New v i s i o n r e q u i r e s new e x p r e s s i o n through a new form: Without i n v e n t i o n n o t h i n g i s w e l l spaced, u n l e s s the mind change, u n l e s s the s t a r s a r e new measured, a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s , the l i n e w i l l not change, the n e c e s s i t y w i l l not m a t r i c u l a t e : u n l e s s t h e r e i s a new mind t h e r e cannot be a new l i n e , the o l d w i l l go on r e p e a t i n g i t s e l f w i t h r e c u r r i n g d e a d l i n e s s : . . . w i t h o u t i n v e n t i o n the l i n e w i l l n e v e r a g a i n take on i t s a n c i e n t d i v i s i o n s when the word, a s u p p l e word, l i v e d I n i t , crumbled now to c h a l k . One p o e t ' s form i s more than an independent and i d i o s y n c r a t i c system of p u n c t u a t i o n . H a b i t has reduced the r e a d e r ' s r e a c t i o n to t r a d i t i o n a l p u n c t u a t i o n s i g n s to a p r e - c o n d i t i o n e d response t h a t i s s u b r a t i o n a l . P u n c t u a t i o n i s f o r pause and emphasis. I t p r o -v i d e s the means of i n d i c a t i n g when a thought o r word group s h o u l d be emphasised by i s o l a t i n g i t o r by r e f l e c t i n g t o n a l d e v i a t i o n s from the norm. But when t r a d i t i o n a l s i g n s a r e g l o s s e d o v e r , the p o e t has r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r the r e a d e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the p o e t ' s pause and emphasis. Modern p o e t i c a l t e r a t i o n s i n the method o f v i s u a l l a y o u t thus have a number of e f f e c t s . The n o v e l t y o f the v a r i a t i o n from the norm shocks the r e a d e r from h i s l a z i n e s s o r complacency, and f o r c e s a t t e n t i o n ( t h r o u g h the p o e t ' s p a r t i c u l a r ' d i f f i c u l t y ' ) onto the new format. Broken from h a b i t , the c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the r e a d e r i s d i r e c t e d onto the s p e c i a l emphasis r e q u i r e d by t h e p o e t : 63 L i s t e n ! — the p o u r i n g water! The dogs and t r e e s c o n s p i r e to i n v e n t a world—-gone! The p l a c i n g f o r c e s the r e a d e r ' s c o n c e n t r a t i o n onto the c o n t e n t ' s e c c e n t r i c i t y : the p a r s i n g s e p a r a t e s the meaning df the images t o s t r e s s the r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t a r e s i n g u l a r to t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . The poem takes the form demanded by the c o n t e n t — t h i n g , c o n c e p t , f e e l i n g : t h e r e i s the danger, though, t h a t the i m i t a t i v e v i s u a l form may be over-emphasised a t the n e g l e c t o f r h y t h m i c o r t o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Contemporary g r a p h i c and c o n c r e t e p o e t r y o f t e n s u f f e r s from t h i s narrowness. I f the removal of s t a n d a r d forms emphasises the use o f d e v i a n t — n e w , o r i g i n a l — f o r m s o f e x p r e s s i o n , then the s p a r e but p o i n t e d use o f s t a n d a r d p u n c t u a t i o n ( c a p i t a l s , i t a l i c s , s i g n s , u n d e r l i n i n g , e t c . ) r e i n v i g o r a t e s t h e i r v a l u e and a t t r a c t s a t t e n t i o n : I f t h i s were rhyme, Sweetheart s u c h rhyme as might be made jaws would hang open But the measure of i t i s the t h i n g , None can w i s h f o r an embellishment and keep h i s mind l e a n , f i t f o r a c t i o n s u ch a c t i o n as I p l a n l 0 3 V a r i e t y shocks i n t o a c t i v i t y the mind which h a b i t had d u l l e d . The need f o r change and m o d e r n i t y has had i t s e f f e c t on the p o e t i c form of e a c h e r a . The sonnet was o r i g i n a l l y a new form t h a t had i t s awakening e f f e c t on t h e r e a d e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n as i t d e p a r t e d from the o l d a l l i t e r a t i v e b a l l a d form. The sonnet r e f l e c t e d the renewed sense o f o r d e r and:.unity of the R e n a i s s a n c e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the P t o l e m a i c c h a i n o f b e i n g . So t h e form r e f l e c t e d the t i g h t com-64 p a r i s o n b e i n g drawn by the p o e t - - t h e o c t e t ' s g e n e r a l theme, the s e s t e t ' s p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n of t h a t theme, w i t h the c l o s i n g c o u p l e t ' s u n i f i c a t i o n o f the g e n e r a l l y n a t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n and the p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r s o n a l a n alogy. Rhyme schemes and s y l l a b i c c o u n t i n g , were t h o r o u g h l y o r i g i n a l and s t a r t l i n g . They r e q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l of i n t r i c a t e work to p e r f e c t i f they were not to b r e a k the backs of the words. N e v e r t h e l e s s , many words were used e x p r e s s l y f o r the f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , and the p o e t ' s r i g i d m e t r i c a l form, though i t t w i s t e d words, was s t i l l p a r a d o x i c a l l y t r u e to h i s g e o m e t r i c a l meaning of the o r d e r of the u n i v e r s e . However, one i s n e v e r s u r e . whether the word used was the s o n n e t e e r ' s e x a c t meaning or the n e a r e s t rhyming synonym a v a i l a b l e — a n d as s u c h , a p r o s t i t u t i o n o f the c o n t e n t to t h e a r t i f i c i a l i t y o f the s t r u c t u r e . Such judgments are made on a l l forms, but w i t h l e s s j u s t i f i c a t i o n on those t h a t a r e not bound by the n e c e s s i t i e s of rhyming and s y l l a b i c meter, such forms t h a t are thus c l o s e r to r e c o r d i n g the o b j e c t ' s a c t u a l i t y , t h a t r e f l e c t l i f e more f r e e l y than they show a r t i f i c e . W i l l i a m s w r i t e s of E z r a Pound: He has n o t " m o d i f i e d " i t [ t h e meaning] to f i t h i s p r e c o n c e i v e d — o r any p r e c o n c e i v e d m e t r i c a l p l a n . He has kept h i s own p l a n f l u i d enough to meet h i s o p p o r t u n i t i e s . He has t a k e n , l a u d a b l y , the speech o f the men he t r e a t s of and, by c l i p p i n g to e s -s e n t i a l s , r e v e a l e d i t s c l o s e s t n a t u r e — i t s pace, i t s "meaning." . . . The l i n e must be measured to be i n m e a s u r e — b u t t h i s does not mean d i s f i g u r e -ment to f i t an imposed meter.1^4 No form can l a s t i n d e f i n i t e l y w i t h o u t d e s t r o y i n g i t s e l f , s i n c e i t must become a h a b i t i n the poet and i n the r e a d e r , and the meaning l o s t In the scheme of p r e s e n t a t i o n . No form i s b e s t . To 65 communicate s o m e t h i n g , new ways must c o n t i n u a l l y be found t o keep t h e - I m a g i n a t i o n a c t i v e : t h e i r m e r i t does n o t l i e i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e o r n o v e l t y p e r s e , b u t i n the e f f e c t i v e s hock v a l u e o f t h e i r s t r a n g e n e s s o f d i f f i c u l t y t o the p a s s i v e r e a d e r . C r e a t i v i t y must e x t e n d t o t h e mode o f e x p r e s s i o n as t o t h e mode o f p e r c e p t i o n , e l s e the v a l u e o f t h e i n s i g h t i s l o s t i n a t i r e d m u s i c a l scheme, where a l l t h e words mean the same o l d t h i n g — n o t h i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r — when sung t o a worn-out t u n e : The s e a runs b a c k a g a i n s t i t s e l f W i t h s c a r c e l y t i m e f o r b r e a k i n g wave To cannonade a s l a t e y s h e l f And t h u n d e r under i n a cave B e f o r e t h e n e x t can f u l l y b u r s t . The h e a d w i n d , b l o w i n g h a r d e r s t i l l , Smooths I t to what i s was a t f i r s t — A s l o w l y r o l l i n g w a t e r - h i l l . . . , Here where t h e c l i f f s a l o n e p r e v a i l I s t a n d e x u l t a n t , n e u t r a l , f r e e , And f r o m the c u s h i o n o f the g a l e B e h o l d a huge c o n s o l i n g s e a . The poem's fo r m f i t s t h e c o n t e n t t o an imposed m e t e r ? rhyme scheme and u n i f o r m s t a n z a i c p a t t e r n : i t i s a r i g i d , s y m m e t r i c a l , c l i c h e ' d mold. But the c o n t e n t i s a l s o a c l i c h e ' : the s e l f - p i t i f u l , s u b j e c t i v e use of o u t s i d e r e a l i t y t o d e s c r i b e the p o e t ' s e m o t i o n a l ego. I t i s an e s c a p i s t p e r c e p t i o n t h a t r e t r e a t s from p r e s e n t r e a l i t y . " W i n t e r S e ascape" was w r i t t e n by John Betjeman f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1966. W i l l i a m s i n s i s t s t h a t c o n t i n u a l c o n t r o l i s n e c e s s a r y f o r one t o be aware o f the u n c o n s c i o u s use o f e s t a b l i s h e d 106 s t r u c t u r e s , so t h a t one can a v o i d "good s a f e s t e r e o t y p e " t h a t d u l l s t h e e f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e w ords, j u s t as good s a f e p r e -c o n c e p t i o n s d u l l i m a g i n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n . He condemns 66 the f r a c t u r e o f s t u p i d i t i e s bound i n our t h o u g h t l e s s p h r a s e s , i n our c a l c i f i e d g r ammatical c o n s t r u c t i o n s and i n t h e x s u b -t l e b r a i n l e s s n e s s of our meter and f a v o r i t e , p r o s e r h y t h m s — w h i c h compel words to f o l l o w c e r t a i n o t h e r s w i t h o u t p r e c i s i o n o f thought.107 To p r e v e n t h a b i t u a l p e r c e p t i o n and customary r e s p o n s e , the c o n t e n t must not be r e s t r i c t e d by t h e form. Does t h i s n e c e s s i t a t e t h a t e a c h o b j e c t (as the s u b j e c t of a poem) determines the f o r m a l e x p r e s s i o n ? The f e e l i n g or t h i n g d e s c r i b e d a f f e c t s the form, as does the p o e t ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to e x p r e s s a c c u r a t e l y h i s mood o r thought. The p o e t might f i n d one form which w i l l s u i t a l l h i s p o e t r y , and s t i l l have the o r i g i n a l — s t a r t l i n g — q u a l i t i e s needed to shock the r e a d e r from h i s normal s u b c o n s c i o u s response to language. But i t might be a c o n t r a d i c t o r y l i m i t a t i o n of the c o n t e n t to a l l o w the p o e t h i s own, but the same, form f o r a l l h i s p o e t r y , however o r i g i n a l the form may be. Can the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l q u a n t i t y o f one p o e t ' s work exhaust a form? What amount o f use i s c o n s i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t t o r e n d e r the form common and thus o v e r -worked? T h i s might the form's a d o p t i o n i n t o t h e everyday,:,mode of e x p r e s s i o n , and thus of the s u b - r a t i o n a l use of language, y e t many p o e t s (Wordsworth, Whitman, W i l l i a m s ) have argued f o r the p o e t i c use o f the common i d i o m , W i l l i a m s c l a i m s t h a t "the d i a l e c t i s the 108 m o b i l e phase, the changing phase, the p r o d u c t i v e phase," L i s t e n i n g t o the f r e s h growth of language u n i n h i b i t e d by t r a d i t i o n , he f i n d s 109 " h i n t s towards c o m p o s i t i o n . " I t i s t h e r e , i n the mouths of the l i v i n g , t h a t the language i s changing and g i v i n g new means f o r expanded p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n and, I add, b a s i c ^ Q ' s t r u c t u r e — t h e most i m p o r t a n t of a l l . 67 The speed, tone, s t r e s s , p i t c h , emphasis, rhythm and l i l t of the common language spoken today p r o v i d e s the i d i o m a t i c r e l a t i o n which modern p o e t r y must approximate f o r r e a l i s m and r e l e v a n c e . These v a r i a b l e s must be l i s t e n e d t o and r e s o n a t i n g w i t h i n the mind of the poet to e n a b l e him to g i v e the r e l e v a n t i d i o m a t i c form to t h i s p o e t r y . They c o n s t i t u t e a m e a n i n g f u l modern s t r u c t u r e t h a t the p o e t must c r e a t e so t h a t h i s p e r c e p t i o n i s not d i s f i g u r e d by r e s t r i c t i v e r u l e s o f outmoded p o e t i c form. Thus, the p o e t can have the means o f e x p r e s s i n g h i s o b j e c t s i n the a c t u a l , a c c u r a t e r e a l i t y o f the p r e s e n t d i a l e c t , which i s . a n a t u r a l consequence o f b o t h the contemporary and the l o c a l e x p e r i e n c e . The language w i l l be f r e s h . I t s music w i l l r i n g w i t h i t s l o c a l and p r e s e n t sound of a c t i o n . In "The G o s s i p s , " W i l l i a m s ' p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e i m i t a t e s the l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e o f g o s s i p i n g : -B l o c k i n g the s i d e w a l k so we had to go round 3 c a r e f u l l y c o i f f u r e d and perfumed o l d men f r e s h from the b a r b e r s a c a r t o o n by Daumier r e f l e c t i n g the times were d i s c u s s i n g w i t h a f o r e i g n a c c e n t one c u p p i n g h i s e a r s not to miss a s y l l a b l e the news from R u s s i a on a view of the r e v e r s e s u r f a c e o f the mooni--'--'-Through the s t r u c t u r e o f the poem, W i l l i a m s has c a p t u r e d the n a t u r e of g o s s i p i n g : the a i r of h u r r i e d n e s s , o f t h r i l l , o f e x a g g e r a t i o n , of p r i d e i n the t e l l i n g , and o f the unimportance o f the t a l e . The r u s h i n g e x c i t e m e n t i s d e p i c t e d by the l a c k of p u n c t u a t i o n , and by the way t h a t the r e a d e r i s c o n t i n u a l l y r e a c h i n g i n t o the n e x t l i n e t o grasp the meaning. T h i s p r o v i d e s a sense of s e c r e c y and 68 e x p e c t a n c y t o o . The poem i s a mass o f many q u i c k d i g r e s s i o n s used to p u f f up the e x a g g e r a t e d t h r i l l o f the g o s s i p i n g . But the most i m p o r t a n t s t r u c t u r a l d e v i a t i o n from the norm i s the d i s p l a c e m e n t of the l a s t word o f s e m a n t i c phrase groups t o the b e g i n n i n g of the n e x t l i n e : . , . were d i s c u s s i n g / w i t h a f o r e i g n a c c e n t / one cupping h i s e a r s / not to miss a s y l l a b l e / the news from R u s s i a By t h i s u n u s u a l d e v i c e , W i l l i a m s a c t u a l l y g i v e s a c l o s e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the p h r a s e d i v i s i o n of common g o s s i p i n g . These g o s s i p s pause s l i g h t l y b e f o r e the key word; then , h u r l i t out f o l l o w e d r a p i d l y by the n e c e s s a r y s y n t a c t i c words. W i l l i a m s i m i t a t e s t h i s common speech rhythm by b r e a k i n g the l i n e b e f o r e the key word, l e t t i n g the l i n e t r a i l o f f so t h a t the b e g i n n i n g of the new l i n e r e c e i v e s the emphasis r e q u i r e d to f i t the rhythms of g o s s i p i n g . Only by r e s p o n d i n g a t t e n t i v e l y t o contemporary speech rhythms can the s t r u c t u r e i m i t a t e a c c u r a t e l y t h e p h r a s e o l o g y , emphasis and uniqueness of the l o c a l i t y . The s t r u c t u r e must be r e l e v a n t l y modern and a l i v e , r e l a t e d t o the l i v e s o f the p e o p l e i t r e c o r d s (and who r e a d i t ) , and who r e c o g n i z e the t r u e n a t u r e o f the l o c a l i t y t h r o u g h the s t r u c t u r e . I t must g a i n f r e s h l i f e , s h o c k i n g the p r e j u d i c e d p r e c o n c e p t i o n s from t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f n o r m a l i t y , s h o c k i n g the r e a d e r to awareness and to an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n "the poem as a f i e l d o f a c t i o n ; " l i v e words f o r l i v e t h i n g s i n l i v e forms. 69 The w o r l d has changed, the language has changed: outmoded p o e t i c forms of e x p r e s s i o n must change. There i s an i n s e p a r a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l and p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e ; "our l i v e s a l s o have l o s t a l l t h a t i n the p a s t we had to measure them by, e x c e p t o u t -112 moded s t a n d a r d s t h a t a r e meaningless to us." The v e r y grounds f o r our b e l i e f s have a l t e r e d . We do n o t l i v e t h a t way any more; n o t h i n g i n our l i v e s , a t bottom, i s o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g to t h a t measure; our s o c i a l c o n c e p t s , our s c h o o l s , our v e r y r e l i g i o u s i d e a s , c e r t a i n l y our under^ s t a n d i n g o f mathematics are g r e a t l y a l t e r e d . Were we c a l l e d upon to go back t o what we b e l i e v e d i n the p a s t we s h o u l d be l o s t . Only the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f our p o e m s — a n d a t b e s t the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a poem must engage the t i p s our i n t e l l e c t u a l a w a r e n e s s — i s l e f t shame-f u l l y to the p a s t . ! - ^ W i l l i a m s a t t a c k s the c o n s e r v a t i v e r i g i d i t y o f p o e t i c c o n v e n t i o n s o f measure: " t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n t e r e s t i n g i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f our poems, n o t h i n g t h a t can j o b the e a r out o f i t s 114 boredom." But he a l s o i n s i s t s t h a t p r o g r e s s towards a r e l e v a n t l y modern s t r u c t u r e cannot be a c h i e v e d by d e s e r t i n g the n o t i o n o f o r d e r . W h i l e the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f modern r e a l i t y r e q u i r e s a p r o f u s i o n of d e s c r i p t i o n — " i l l - a s s o r t e d — q u i t e b r e a t h l e s s -g r a s p i n g a t a l l k i n d s o f things""'""'""'—it a l s o r e q u i r e s a c o n t r o l l i n g d e v i c e to p r e s e r v e i t from the a n a r c h i s t i c n o n - s e n s i c a l i t y o f ' f r e e v e r s e ; ' "The a b s t r a c t i d e a o f freedom, [ i s ] an i d e a l e t h a l t o a l l o r d e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h a t o r d e r which has to do w i t h the 116 poem." The poem i s a c o n s t r u c t i o n , words welded i n t o a l i v i n g machine, d i s c i p l i n e d i n t o i m i t a t i n g n a t u r e , n e i t h e r r i g i d l y s t r u c t u r e d n o r c r a s h i n g f r e e l y . E i t h e r extreme d e s t r o y s the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . The a r t o f l i v i n g i s a d i s c i p l i n e to c r e a t e s a t i s f a c t i o n , 70 awareness, h a p p i n e s s , p o s s i b i l i t y out o f the same two e x t r e m e s — c h a o s and s l a v e r y . I n c r e a t i n g , a r t i s t s must a v o i d the f e a r f u l " r e t r e a t to s a f e t y : " the " r e t u r n . . . to the c l a s s i c s f o r t h e i r models"^"^ p r e v e n t s any new mode of p o e t i c c r e a t i o n . The w i l d w i s h t o escape from o r d e r a l s o f a i l s because the a r t form succumbs t o l i c e n s e , anarchy and u n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y : S a t y r s dance! a l l the d e f o r m i t i e s take wing c e n t a u r s l e a d i n g to the r o u t o f the v o c a b l e s i n the w r i t i n g s o f G e r t r u d e S t e i n — b u t you cannot be an a r t i s t by mere i n e p t i t u d e The e x p r e s s i o n of the c h a o t i c nightmare may not be a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h a b s u r d d i s o r d e r . The c r e a t i o n o f unusual images e x p r e s s i v e o f torment or s c h i z o p h r e n i c f r u s t r a t i o n r e q u i r e s a d i s c i p l i n i n g c o n t r o l o v e r the chaos o f the mind. Through a r t , but through a measured a r t form o f c a p t u r i n g the r e f l e c t i o n s o f l i f e , the f r i g h t e n i n g d e s t r u c t i v e o b s e s s i o n s are themselves d e s t r o y e d : and t h e r e came to me j u s t now the knowledge o f the t y r a n n y o f the image and how men i n t h e i r d e s i g n s have l e a r n e d t o s h a t t e r i t whatever i t may be, t h a t the t r o u b l e i n t h e i r minds s h a l l be q u i e t e d , put to bed a g a i n . 71 Between the extremesr.of chaos and en s l a v e m e n t l i e s t he t r u e l i b e r t y o f p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . D i s c i p l i n i n g laws p r o t e c t i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t y f r o m v i o l e n t a n a r c h y , w h i l e t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f a p o e t i c measure e n s u r e s t h a t t h e poem i s b o t h r e a d a b l e and i n t e l l i g i b l e . . T ^ i l l i a m s s e e ks "a new measure by w h i c h 120 may be o r d e r e d our poems as w e l l as o u r l i v e s . " No v e r s e can be f r e e , i t must be governed by some measure, b u t n o t by the o l d measure, . . . We have t o r e t u r n t o some measure b u t a measure consonant w i t h o u r ti m e and n o t a mode so r o t t e n t h a t i t s t i n k s . 1 2 1 The n a t u r e o f "our t i m e " d e t e r m i n e s the measure. The p r e s e n t r e a l i t y , t he p r e s e n t r e l a t i v e o r d e r o f s o c i e t y , t h e p r e s e n t measure i n t h e s p e e c h d i a l e c t s o f the p e o p l e , and t h e p r e s e n t m u s i c a l rhythm o f 122 s p e e c h a l l o f f e r " h i n t s towards c o m p o s i t i o n " f o r p o e t i c c o n -s t r u c t i o n s t o be m e a n i n g f u l l y r e l e v a n t . They r e q u i r e a new measure of a new way o f m e a s u r i n g t h a t w i l l be commensurate w i t h t h e s o c i a l , economic w o r l d i n w h i c h we a r e l i v i n g as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the p a s t . I t i s i n many ways a d i f f e r e n t w o r l d from the p a s t c a l l -i n g f o r a d i f f e r e n t measure.123 The r e l a t i v e l i b e r t y and r e l a t i v e s e c u r i t y o f our w o r l d i s a l i e n t o b o t h a b s o l u t e l i b e r t y and a b s o l u t e s l a v e r y . To r e l a t e t o t h i s w o r l d , p o e t r y must abandon i d e a l o r a b s o l u t e extremes o f r i g i d i t y and chaos. "We have t o d a y t o do w i t h t h e p o e t i c , as a l w a y s , b u t a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e f o o t , n o t a r i g i d one. That i s a l l t h e 124 d i f f e r e n c e , " W i l l i a m s ' o b j e c t , as a l w a y s , i s t o re-awaken t h e d u l l e d i m a g i n a t i o n ; so he i s t r y i n g t o r e s t o r e t h e m e a s u r i n g o f p o e t r y t o t h e c o n s c i o u s mind. 72 The f o o t has to be expanded or c o n t r a c t e d i n terms of a c t u a l speech. The key to modern p o e t r y i s measure, which must r e f l e c t the f l u x o f modern l i f e . You s h o u l d f i n d a v a i r a b l e measure f o r the f i x e d measure; f o r man and the p o e t must keep pace w i t h t h i s w o r l d . I 2 5 W i l l i a m s ' s e a r c h f o r a " r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e f o o t " i s an attempt to s i m u l a t e the rhythm of American speech. He i s t r y i n g t o r e v i t a l i z e the u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s of e i t h e r h a b i t o r chaos, s y l l a b i c c o u n t i n g o r c h a o t i c v e r s e , by a p p e a l i n g to the modern measure o f American speech. He t r i e s t o approximate the rhythm o f t h a t speech i n the music of h i s poems. The rhythm of the music must s u r p r i s e , i t must 126 " j o g the e a r out of i t s boredom." I t must s t i m u l a t e the e a r ' s s e n s i b i l i t y t o the a c t i v i t y i t c a r r i e s . L i n e s must bounce onto and o f f e a c h o t h e r i n a growing sense r e c r e a t i o n o f "the f l u x o f modern l i f e . " The rhythm must c a p t u r e some essence of the c o n s t a n t a c t i v e p u l s e o f changing r e a l i t y . I n e a r l i e r poems, W i l l i a m s ' rhythm changed i n tempo as the s e m a n t i c w e i g h t of the l i n e v a r i e d . The f o r m a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the words was equated w i t h t h e i r s e m a n t i c importance. A word i m p o r t a n t t c t h e theme s t o o d a l o n e — e m p h a t i c — w i t h a pause f o r d i g e s t i o n and emphasis. A jumble of r a p i d images was g i v e n q u i c k r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by a c l o s e and packed l i n e : Anthony, ^ t r e e s and g r a s s and c l o u d s . The m u s i c a l measure was thus i n tune w i t h the n a t u r a l a c t i v i t y of r e a l i t y , w i t h the weight of the c o n t e n t , the g r a v i t y o f the meaning, y e t the measure p r o v i d e d a r h y t h m i c a l base w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i n g c o n t e n t . However, a f t e r the complete a d o p t i o n of the t r i a d i c s t a n z a , W i l l i a m s ' l i n e measuring takes a new d i r e c t i o n . The measuring o f 73 a l i n e i n l e n g t h o f time i s no l o n g e r determined by the s e m a n t i c importance of the c o n t e n t : W i l l i a m s does not t r y t o e q u a l i z e the weight o f s i g n i f i c a n t meaning i n the words of each l i n e . To e x p r e s s h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t r u t h , W i l l i a m s t r i e s t o r e v e a l how something i s s a i d . He needs to s t r u c t u r e h i s l i n e s i n s y n t a c t i c a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f the American i d i o m . The s t r u c t u r e i s now measured i n h i s poems a c c o r d i n g to t h e s t r e s s and i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n s o f the spoken d e s c r i p t i o n . Any words, those i n d i c a t i n g the s e m a n t i c a l l y prime s u b j e c t o r those 'merely' a c t i n g as s y n t a c t i c c o n n e c t o r s can h o l d an e n t i r e l i n e : The n e a t f i g u r e s o f P a u l K l e e f i l l t h e canvas b u t t h a t i s not t h e work g o f a c h i l d What i s i m p o r t a n t to W i l l i a m s i s to c r e a t e an i m p r e s s i o n o f the rhythm of the spoken language, of the i n t o n a t i o n and mood, and t h e r e f o r e the p e r s p e c t i v e , of the s p e a k e r . Without h a v i n g an i m p r e s s i o n of t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e , the t r u e meaning of a statement i s u n c e r t a i n . The way something i s spoken i s more i m p o r t a n t to r e v e a l the n a t u r e o f the p e r s o n s p e a k i n g than j u s t what i s s a i d . The words c o u l d mean a n y t h i n g : the i n t o n a t i o n and emphasis of the speech determines and i s o l a t e s w h i c h o f many p o s s i b l e meanings i s r e a i n t e n d e d . So, i n i m i t a t i n g the speech rhythms t h r o u g h t h e s t r u c t u r e , W i l l i a m s can r e v e a l how a statement i s r e a l l y meant, how the e x a c t meaning i s o b t a i n a b l e , or how meanings may be p o s s i b l e . He can i n d i c a t e , i n a r e l e v a n t l y i d e n t i f i a b l e rhythm, the i n f e r e n c e and tone of the spoken language, and so m i n i m i z e the danger df 74 a m b i g u i t y and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a r i s e s w i t h b o t h r i g i d and u n c o n t r o l l e d v e r s e . W i l l i a m s ' ' l i n e measure of emphatic i n t o n a t i o n ' does not p e r v e r t meaning by the s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n of an a r t i f i c i a l rhythm, n o r does i t f a i l to grasp meaning by a l a c k o f c o n t r o l , n o r c r u s h the rhythm under s e m a n t i c n e c e s s i t i e s . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the v a r i a b l e f o o t i n the t r i a d i c s t a n z a marks the s i g n i f i c a n t achievement of W i l l i a m s ' d e s i r e to b r i n g a l l the contemporary elements o f p o e t i c c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t o one s t a n z a i c u n i t whose mode o f e x p r e s s i o n is_ the s u b j e c t of the poem. The b a s i c r e a l i t y t h a t i s r e v e a l e d i n the t r i a d i c s t a n z a i s b o t h the r e a l meaning o f the c o n t e n t , and the e x p r e s s i o n ' s i m i t a t i o n of r e a l i t y , o f "the f l u x of modern l i f e . " R e g a r d l e s s of the s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t , the rhythm of the t r i a d i c s t a n z a i s a l s o i t s e l f , a e s t h e t i c a l l y , W i l l i a m s ' i m i t a t i o n of the p u l s e o f changing r e a l i t y , o f the speech rhythms of contemporary r e a l i t y . Why does W i l l i a m s choose a t h r e e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e to r e f l e c t l i f e ? Why a r e t h e , l i n e s , which a r e newly measured §0 c a r e f u l l y to a l l o w e x a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of any modern c o n t e n t , c o l l e c t e d i n t o groups o f t h r e e s ? In " A g a i n s t the Weather," s u b t i t l e d 'A Study of the A r t i s t , ' W i l l i a m s compares Dante's The D i v i n e Comedy to H i t a ' s Book o f Love. He goes back to them t o e x e m p l i f y the o r i g i n s of the two mainstreams o f a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n , now l o o s e l y c a l l e d ' c l a s s i c a l ' and ' r o m a n t i c ' . The two me.n a r e p h i l o s o p h i c a l o p p o s i t e s . Dante's a c c e p t a n c e of C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e l e a d s him to espouse the church's f o r m a l b e l i e f i n h e a v e n l y l o v e , and t o condemn a l l u n c o n s e c r a t e d l o v e as e v i l . H i t a c e l e b r a t e s e a r t h l y and p h y s i c a l l o v e as a l i v i n g u l t i m a t e t h a t s upercedes C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e . They are a e s t h e t i c 75 o p p o s i t e s too. H i t a , p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y the r o m a n t i c , uses a s y m m e t r i c a l " f l a t - f o o t e d q u a d r u p l e rhyme scheme: . . . i n the Book of Love f o u r rhymes are c o n t i n u o u s , one p i l e d upon the next f o u r i n the 129 manner of masonry." In o t h e r words, H i t a uses a r h y t h m i c a l l y even, humanly s y m m e t r i c a l , and m e c h a n i c a l l y d e s i g n e d s t r u c t u r e . But even i f h i s meaning i s to p r a i s e human l o v e and to a t t a c k the r i g i d d o c t r i n e of C h r i s t i a n e t h e r e a l i t y , H i t a ' s p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e has no i n t r i n s i c r e l a t i o n to t h e n o n c o n f o r m i s t b e l i e f s t h a t he h o l d s : h i s orthodox form i s a b l a t a n t anachronism i n h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l a t t a c k upon orthodox b e l i e f . H i s theme, the a c c e p t a n c e of a more human, e m o t i o n a l , r o m a n t i c and f r e e r k i n d o f l o v e than h i s s o c i e t y condoned, i s f a l s i f i e d i n the r i g i d s t r u c t u r e t h a t c a r r i e s i t . The moral good and bad approach the good and bad of the a r t s . Formal p a t t e r n s o f a l l s o r t s r e p r e s e n t a r r e s t s o f the t r u t h i n some p a r t i c u l a r phase o f i t s m u t a t i o n s , and i m m e d i a t e l y t h e r e a f t e r , u n l e s s they change, become, m u t i l a t i o n s , 1 3 0 Dante's moral f o r m a l i s m , h i s p h i l o s o p h y o f l o v e i n l i f e , m u t i l a t e s , w h i l e H i t a ' s c e l e b r a t e s , human b e i n g . Y e t H i t a ' s aesihe.:tic f o r m a l i s m m u t i l a t e s the t r u t h , w h i l e Dante's r e v e a l s the t r u t h about l o v e . H i t a ' s attempt to r e v e a l l o v e i s m u t i l a t e d by h i s l i f e l e s s , r i g i d form: the medium d e s t r o y s h i s a b i l i t y t o convey the f e e l i n g o f l o v e t h r o u g h h i s p o e t r y . Dante's orthodox u n d e r s t a n d i n g of l i f e d e n i e s the n a t u r a l human l o v e i n c o n s e c r a t e d p a s s i o n , b u t h i s s e n s u a l s t r u c t u r e enhances the i m p r e s s i o n o f l o v e o b t a i n a b l e through the poem. As the a r t i s t , Dante's b e l i e f s were s u p p r e s s e d : " i t i s o n l y as the artist.;:has c l u n g f a s t t o h i s g r e a t n e s s i n s e n s u a l 76 p o r t r a y a l , w i t h o u t i n f l u e n c e from the c o n t e n t of h i s work, t h a t he has been a b l e to g i v e the c o n t e n t whatever secondary v a l u e i t 131 p o s s e s s e s . " W i l l i a m s p r a i s e s Dante's a e s t h e t i c independence from h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l b e l i e f s . Dante's a r t i s t i c detachment l e t s him b r e a k away from th e s y m m e t r i c a l " c o n s c i o u s r e s t r i c t i o n to 132 p r e s c r i b e d form." H i s a b i l i t y to c r e a t e o u t s i d e the s t r i c t f o r m u l a s f o r a r t a l l o w s a f r e e d s t r u c t u r e to p o r t r a y the s e n s u a l f e e l i n g of l o v e : Dante was a c r a f t s m a n of superb s k i l l , h i s emphasis upon a t r i p l e u n i t y i s an emphasis upon s t r u c t u r e . A l l h i s elements a r e i n t h r e e s . In the s o l i d s t r u c t u r e o f t h e S p a n i a r d , f a r l e s s s k i l l f u l l y made, i t i s i m p o r t a n t to n o t e the f l a t - f o o t e d q u a d r u p l e rhyme scheme as opposed to the u n f i n i s h e d t h r e e o f the I t a l i a n d o g m a t i s t . The emphasis i s upon s t r u c t u r e , the s e n s u a l s t r u c t u r e o f the verse.133 The e s s e n t i a l v a l u e of the t e r z a rima i n The D i v i n e Comedy, and o f the t r i a d i c s t a n z a i n W i l l i a m s ' p o e t r y , i s "the u n f i n i s h e d t h r e e " o f the s t r u c t u r e . The t h r e e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e p r e v e n t s the p o e t r y b e i n g r e a d i n an u n c o n s c i o u s , ' s i n g — s o n g ' , h a b i t u a l rhythm, j u s t as the v a r i a b l e f o o t a v o i d s m e c h a n i c a l s y l l a b i c c o u n t i n g . Even i f v a r i a b l e i n l e n g t h and unrhyming, c o u p l e t o r q u a t r a i n s t r u c t u r e can produce an u n n a t u r a l and m e t h o d i c a l rhythm. The t h r e e - p a r t s t r u c t u r e i s the o n l y r e m a i n i n g c h o i c e f o r W i l l i a m s as he attempts to d e p a r t from man-made symmetry. The t r i a d i c s t a n z a , l i k e the v a r i a b l e f o o t , i s b o t h r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e and f i t t i n g l y l o o s e ; b o t h c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s i m i t a t e an a s s y m m e t r i c a l l y o r d e r e d and u n m u t i l a t e d n a t u r a l rhythm. Whether W i l l i a m s wishes to r e c o r d the f l o w of a c o n t i n u a l l y changing n a t u r a l scene o r to " r e f l e c t the f l u x o f modern l i f e " 's " i n c e s s a n t new b e g i n n i n g s , " t h e u n f i n i s h e d rhythm o f the 77 t r i a d i c s t r u c t u r e c a r e f u l l y I m i t a t e s the e v o l v i n g n a t u r e of r e a l i t y . That r e a l i t y i s changing, a l i v e , and s e n s u a l , m y s t e r i o u s l y u n f i x a b l e , a s s y m m e t r i c a l and unmathematical. W i l l i a m s ' s t r u c t u r e can i l l u m i n a t e r e a l i t y from e v e r y a n g l e . I t a l l o w s the u n c o n f i n e d d e s c r i p t i o n of r e a l i t y i n i t s c o n t e n t : i t s own m u s i c a l p h r a s e i s an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c r e c r e a t i o n o f the p r o c e s s o f r e a l i t y : and i t p e r m i t s an i d i o m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p r e s e n t speech rhythm. Not o n l y does: the v a r i a b l e f o o t i m i t a t e the pause and emphasis of the everyday language, the t r i a d i c s t r u c t u r e r e f l e c t s the p h r a s a l c o n s t r u c t i o n rhythm of the spoken language. The s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t we speak i n groups of t h r e e s . There are hundreds of e x c e p t i o n s , b u t t h e r e i s a l s o a f r e q u e n t use of the t r i a d i c s t a n z a t o r e f l e c t whole se m a n t i c and s y n t a c t i c un i t s : -And I am n o t a young man. My l o v e encumbers me, I t i s a l o v e l e s s than a young man's l o v e b u t , l i k e t h i s box odor more p e n e t r a n t , i n f i n i t e l y more p e n e t r a n t ,.^5 i n t h a t sense not to be r e s i s t e d . I n t h i s , b u t more p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f o l l o w i n g , the t r i a d a l s o i n d i c a t e s whole b r e a t h groups, and I s thus a n o t h e r method of r e p r e s e n t i n g r e a l i s t i c a l l y the rhythms of the spoken c o n v e r s a t i o n : A l l about them on the lawns the young c o u p l e s embrace as i n a t a l e ., by B o c c a c c i o . Perhaps "The Lady Speaks" i s the c l e a r e s t example o f the t r i a d i c s t a n z a ' s s t r u c t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n - o f r e a l i t y and o f speech: 78 A s t o r m r a g e d among the l i v e oaks w h i l e my husband and I s a t i n t h e s e m i - d a r k l i s t e n i n g ! We w atched from t h e windows, the l i g h t s o f f , saw t h e moss whipped u p r i g h t by t h e w i n d ' s f o r c e . Two c a n d l e s we had l i t s i d e by s i d e b e f o r e us so s o l i d l y had our house been b u i l d k e p t t h e i r t a l l f l a m e s unmoved.137 H e r e , t h e t r i a d i c s t r u c t u r e a c c u r a t e l y conveys t h e p a u s e , emphasis, p h r a s a l p a t t e r n and s e m a n t i c independence of e a c h t h o u g h t . The l o o s e f a b r i c o f t h e s t r u c t u r e can r e f l e c t w i t h p r e c i s i o n the i n t o n a t i o n s o f the spoken i d i o m . I t can a l s o c a r r y t h e c o n t e n t o f the poem, as i t moves to a d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t . p e r c e i v e d i n each s t a n z a , w i t h o u t m u t i l a t i n g the n a t u r e o f the t h i n g o b s e r v e d and w h i l e r e v e a l i n g t h e a c t u a l rhythm o f t h e moss o r the c a n d l e s . The summarize, t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o e t ' s f o r m must i t s e l f be v a r i a b l e o r l o o s e enough t o p e r m i t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l l t h i n g s w i t h o u t i n h i b i t i n g t h e i r meaning: t o a l l o w f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n theme: t o a l l o w f o r changes i n the p o e t ' s mood and mind: t o make p o s s i b l e the e q u i v a l e n c e o f form and c o n t e n t , modern s t r u c t u r e and p r e s e n t r e a l i t y . But how l o o s e can a form become w i t h o u t l o s i n g i t s c o n t r o l — w h e n does the music s t o p and t h e d i s c o r d b e g i n ? F r e e form, l i c e n s e and p u r e s e n s a t i o n a r e d i f f e r e n t modes o f the same i r r a t i o n a l u n i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y : r i g i d form, a u t o c r a t i c a u t h o r i t y and extreme r e a s o n w i l l d e s t r o y i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t i v i t y . As freedom r e q u i r e s l a w , form r e q u i r e s a m u s i c a l rhythm t o h o l d t h e sway. " P o e t r y a t r o p h i e s 138 when i t g e t s too f a r f r o m m u s i c . " What the m u s i c must a c t i v e l y 79 r e f l e c t i s the a c t i v i t y o f r e a l l i f e p e r c e i v e d by t h e p o e t . To s t a y c o n s c i o u s o f r e a l i t y , i t i s the a c t i v e , changing n a t u r e o f l i f e t h a t must c o n t i n u a l l y be obse r v e d . And i t i s the f u n c t i o n o f form to p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r t h i s v a r i a t i o n , n o t to impose a yoke. The v a l u e o f t h i s f u n c t i o n i s the measure o f i n t e n s i t y o f the e x p e r i e n t i a l p r o c e s s a v a i l a b l e i n the e x p r e s s e d p r o d u c t . The b e s t p o e t r y i s the most i n t e n s e a r t i s t i c r e - p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l i f e , The m o s t ~ e f f e c t i v e p o e t r y i s t h a t w h i c h f i r s t s u r p r i s e s the r e a d e r i n t o a c t i v i t y , and which, t h r o u g h the b r i l l i a n c e o f i t s images, o f the i m a g i n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f the p o e t , e n l i g h t e n s the i n s i g h t and e n l i v e n s the emotions o f the r e a d e r i n t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f e e l i n g the i n t e n s e r e a l i t y , the r e a l n a t u r e , o f the o b j e c t . The p r i m a r y e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the poem depends upon the a b i l i t y o f the language to s u r p r i s e . To be c o n t i n u a l l y ( t h a t i s , u n i v e r s a l l y ) e f f e c t i v e and v a l u a b l e , the e x p r e s s i o n must be c o n t i n u a l l y s u r p r i s i n g , the language must be e x t r a o r d i n a r y : some i n t e l l i g i b l e d i f f i c u l t y and s t r a n g e n e s s from h a b i t u a l speech i s e s s e n t i a l . The secondary ( s e q u e n t i a l , n o t l e s s i m p o r t a n t ) e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e poem r e q u i r e s the shock v a l u e of the images to h y p e r - s e n s i t i z e the r e a d e r ' s a w a r e n e s s — t o c l a r i f y and expand the r e a d e r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s and sense o f a t h i n g . To t r a n s f e r h i s i n t e n s e awareness of a t h i n g , the p o e t ' s language must have d e n o t a t i v e c l a r i t y . He must attempt to r e c o r d the o b j e c t w i t h p r e c i s e s i n c e r i t y — a s Pound i n s i s t s , 139 w i t h " a c c u r a c y and v i v i d n e s s . " The word must be used w i t h s p e c i f i c i n t e n t i o n , w h i l e the images may ext e n d awareness by e l a b o r a t i n g meaning and f e e l i n g , 80 Good C h r i s t what i s a p o e t — i f any e x i s t s ? a man whose words w i l l b i t e t h e i r way home--being a c t u a l h a v i n g the form of motion At e a c h t w i g t i p new upon the t o r t u r e d body of thought g r i p p i n g t h e ground a way 1 4 Q to the l a s t l e a f t i p O b j e c t i v i t y , howsofar i t can be a c h i e v e d , becomes e s s e n t i a l , i f the s u b j e c t i v e approach, a b s t r a c t i o n and p a r t i a l i t y o f the poet are n o t to g i v e a f a l s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e a l i t y . The p o e t can l o o k and r e c o r d and i n s t i l l h i s emotion w i t h o u t i n t e r p r e t i n g o r a b s t r a c t i n g the t h i n g . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of r e a l i t y , n o t o f the p o e t ' s emotion which w i l l show anyway, depends upon the f u l l n e s s o f the d e s c r i p t i o n . I t depends upon the p o e t ' s mimetic i n t e g r i t y , h i s f a i t h f u l n e s s to the e x a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e a l i t y he e x p e r i e n c e s , h i s s i n c e r e r e p r o d u c t i o n of the c o n c r e t e o b j e c t : i m i t a t i o n , n o t a b l a n d copy. And h i s i n t e n s i t y depends upon h i s s k i l l i n c r e a t i n g p o e t r y i n w h i c h the sound ( d i c t i o n , measure) and s i g h t ( f o r m a t , image) c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the o b j e c t , and so e x t e n d the means o f i n t e n s i f y i n g the p r o c e s s of r e a l i z a t i o n . The t e s t o f the poem's e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n r e c r e a t i n g the e m o t i o n a l 81 i n t e n s i t y of t h e p o e t as he o b s e r v e d t h e o b j e c t w i l l be the poem's awakening e f f e c t on t h e r e a d e r ; t h e poem's power t o r e v e a l r e a l i t y , a c t i v e l i f e , and t o s t i m u l a t e t h e r e a d e r ' s t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s by t h a t r e v e l a t i o n . Good p o e t r y does more t h a n t r a n s m i t s o m e t h i n g , i t t r a n s f e r s the p o e t ' s communion w i t h s o m e t h i n g " i n a new and i l l u m i n a t i n g 141 i n t e n s i t y o f awareness." P o e t r y p r o v i d e s l i b e r a t i o n f rom d u l l n e s s and i n g r a i n e d h a b i t s of p e r c e p t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n , and a freedom i n s h a r i n g t h e p o e t ' s i n t e n s e e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e freedom o f d i s c o v e r i n g a new awareness. T h i s i s n o t a n e g a t i v e and e s c a p i s t " r e t r e a t t o s a f e t y " f o r man, b u t an escape tc_ r e a l i t y f rom t h e p r e s s u r e s 142 o f " t h e commonplace u n r e a l i t y w h i c h w a n t [ s ] t o absorb him," ' from t h e s o c i a l n o r m a l i t y o f u n r e a l d e l u s i o n and i l l u s i o n . The i n t e n s e s a t u r a t i o n o f t h e s e l f i n an o b j e c t and i n a n o t h e r ' s emotions i s a deep i n v o l v e m e n t i n o u t s i d e l i f e , a f u l l e x p e r i e n c e beyond the s e l f . I n v o l v e m e n t n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e s u b j u g a t i o n o f a measure o f the s e l f , t h a t measure w h i c h i n t e r p r e t s e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h t h e a b s t r a c t i n g , e g o t i s t i c a l mind. Any p o e t r y i s good w h i c h f o r c e s t h i s t o t a l i n t e l l e c t u a l and e m o t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n o u t s i d e r e a l i t y . Only t h e c o n t i n u a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f h a b i t s o f p e r c e p t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n can p r o d u c e a f r e s h awareness o f r e a l i t y t o i n t e n s i f y t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t . W i l l i a m s w r i t e s The o b j e c t i v e i n w r i t i n g i s , t o r e v e a l , I t i s n o t t o t e a c h , n o t t o a d v e r t i s e , n o t t o s e l l , n o t even t o communicate Cfor t h a t needs two) b u t t o r e v e a l , w h i c h needs no o t h e r t h a n the man h i m s e l f . !43 82 The r e v e l a t i o n of r e a l i t y has t h e m o r a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l p u r p o s e o f awakening p e o p l e f r o m t h e b l i n d n e s s o f t h o s e i d e a l i z e d p r e c o n c e p t i o n s w h i c h warp the f a c u l t y o f o b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , t h o s e a b s t r a c t p a r a s i t e s w h i c h d e s t r o y c o n s c i o u s n e s s and p r e v e n t the n a t u r a l g r o w i n g changes o f s o c i e t y . W i l l i a m s a s s e r t s , " I am s p e a k i n g o f the 144 n e c e s s i t y f o r r e v e l a t i o n t h a t we may a c h i e v e m o r a l i t y . " The m o r a l i t y he s e e ks i s b o t h g l o b a l and s o c i a l . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , i t i s t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e , a e s t h e t i c and m o r a l , of t h e r e a l i t y o f humanity on e a r t h t h a t i s t o t a l , n o t a s e l f i s h l y p a r t i a l v i s i o n . S o c i a l l y , i t i s a l s o an a c c e p t a n c e o f p r i o r i t i e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e s e l f . I t i s an h o n e s t a c c e p t a n c e o f r e a l i t y i n c o n t r a s t to t h e r u i n o u s r o l e - p l a y i n g c aused by i n a d e q u a c i e s b o l s t e r e d by f e a r and p r i d e . The a r t i s t must r e v e a l the r e a l i t y o f man b e n e a t h the f a c a d e ; h i s r e a l f e e l i n g s — l o v e , l u s t , h a t r e d — b e l o w the p o l i t e , e m o t i o n l e s s t o l e r a t i o n t a u g h t by s o c i a l decorum t h a t h i d e s t h e e s s e n t i a l l y i n t o l e r a n t and s e l f i s h a p a t h y. He must r e v e a l t h e d e s i r e t o escape t h a t e v e r y b o d y f e e l s , b u t h i d e s ; and t h e p a r a d o x i c a l , f r u s t r a t e d r e a c t i o n o f the ego t o t r y and c o n t r o l e v e r ybody e l s e . A l l . ; the c o n f o r m i n g r e a c t i o n a r i e s who oppose r e v e l a t i o n , r e v o l u t i o n , e v o l u t i o n , change o f a l l s o r t s , do so f o r f e a r of d i s c o v e r y — e s p e c i a l l y s e l f - d i s c o v e r y — w h i c h i s a f e a r o f 145 l o s i n g c o n t r o l . To them, the c r y f o r freedom f r o m r e s t r i c t i o n , f o r the r e v e l a t i o n of r e a l i t y , i s a t h r e a t t o t h e i r s e l f i s h e x i s t e n c e s . The v i c i o u s c i r c l e of s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n h a s , as t h e revenge f o r b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d , t h e power t o r e s t r i c t o t h e r s . Such a p e r v e r t e d f a b r i c o f s o c i e t y o n l y i n c r e a s e s s e l f i s h n e s s , a l i e n a t i o n and t h e e g o t i s t i c a l c r a v i n g f o r t h e M a l v o l i o n power o f revenge. I n P a t e r s o n , more than 83 i n any o t h e r of h i s works, W i l l i a m s i s i n t e n t on r e v e a l i n g the d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s o f a l l the e g o t i s t i c a l v a r i a t i o n s o f p r e -c o n c e i v e d b l i n d n e s s to the b r o a d e r r e a l i t y , the s o c i a l c a l a m i t y of the l u s t f o r power. In P a t e r s o n , W i l l i a m s r e v e a l s t h a t the fundamental f a u l t w i t h p e o p l e ' s p e r c e p t i o n , w i t h t h e i r language, w i t h s o c i e t y and i t s m o r a l i t y i s the p e r v e r t e d worship o f the ego. The e s s e n t i a l c o r r e c t i o n o f the f a u l t l i e s i n man's e f f o r t s t o a c h i e v e a u n i v e r s a l p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h the h i g h e r p r i o r i t y o f a h u m a n i t a r i a n m o r a l i t y . P a t e r s o n seeks t o r e v e a l the r e a l i t y o f n a t u r e . W i l l i a m s r e v e a l s our r o o t s i n n a t u r e t h r o u g h P a t e r s o n ' s r e -c r e a t i o n o f a l i v i n g mythology t i e d t o contemporary r e a l i t y . He seeks to p r o v i d e a dynamic b e l i e f i n the e a r t h t h a t can r e p l a c e the i d o l a t r y of a d e s t r u c t i v e e g o t i s m and r e s t o r e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , c r e a t i v i t y , humanity, and an e l e m e n t a l harmony between man and the e a r t h . F e a r deformed us and. we r e v e a l to you the depths o f our d e f o r m i t y . We do not l i ^ e our d e f o r m i t y . Look what might have been!-*-^ CHAPTER V PATERSON, One & Two: D e s p a i r An a n a l y s i s ; ; o f P a t e r s o n i s e s s e n t i a l i n the c o n t e x t o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . F i r s t , P a t e r s o n i s W i l l i a m s ' grand d e s i g n , and i t seems i m p o s s i b l e to d i s c u s s h i s p h i l o s o p h y w i t h o u t g i v i n g c l o s e a t t e n t i o n to the a p o t h e o s i s o f h i s p o e t r y . Second, P a t e r s o n i s a l a t e r work w h i c h o c c u p i e d W i l l i a m s u n t i l h i s dea t h , and i s t h e r e f o r e a s u i t a b l e poem t h r o u g h w h i c h to t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the p o e t i c and p h i l o s o p h i c t h e o r i e s w h i c h were l a r g e l y d e v e l o p e d e a r l i e r i n l i f e . T h i r d , i t r e v e a l s W i l l i a m s ' p e r s p e c t i v e through h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f the contemporary s t a t e o f c i v i l i z a t i o n : the a c c u r a c y o f t h a t v i s i o n o f humanity p r o v i d e s a t e s t o f the a r t i s t and o f the man. F o u r t h , P a t e r s o n not o n l y d i s c u s s e s i n depth the p r e s e n t s t a t e o f s o c i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and of the language, i t c o n t a i n s a b r o a d range o f l i n g u i s t i c usages w h i c h an adequate s t u d y o f W i l l i a m s ' p o e t i c cannot a f f o r d to by-pass, p a t e r s o n i s b o t h the l a t e r e v o l u t i o n and the t e s t case o f W i l l i a m s ' p o e t i c p h i l o s o p h y . The P r e f a c e to Book One redargues W i l l i a m s ' c e n t r a l message to man and the a r t i s t : f r e s h n e s s . " R i g o r o f b e a u t y i s the q u e s t . But how w i l l you e v e r f i n d b e a u t y when i t i s l o c k e d i n the mind 147 p a s t a l l remonstrance?" How w i l l you e v e r f i n d beauty when i t 85 i s a f i x e d , e s t a b l i s h e d q u a n t i t y ? How w i l l you l i v e a l i v e when your l i f e i s molded to a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l p a t t e r n o f u n i f o r m mimicry? I t i s the i g n o r a n t sun r i s i n g i n the s l o t o f h o l l o w suns r i s e n , so t h a t n e v e r i n t h i s w o r l d w i l l a man l i f e w e l l i n h i s body save d y i n g — a n d not know h i m s e l f d y i n g , ^ 8 I t i s mere e x i s t e n c e to f o l l o w the t r e n d u n c o n s c i o u s l y , a c c e p t i n g s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , human and a r t i s t i c f o r m s — f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e s — of b e l i e f , and c a l l i n g t h a t l i f e . That does not p r o v i d e s e p a r a t e c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l over one's d e s t i n y : " l o s t i n t h e f l u x and 149 the mind, / d i s t r a c t e d , f l o a t s o f f i n the same / scum," unaware. The mind becomes reduced to d u l l e d , ' h a b i t u a l r e p e t i t i o n , and i t s e n e r g i e s a r e wasted: and the c r a f t , s u b v e r t e d by thought, r o l l i n g up, l e t him beware l e s t he t u r n to no more t h a n the w r i t i n g o f s t a l e poems . . . Minds l i k e beds always made up, (more s t o n y than a shore) u n w i l l i n g or unable. -^O The a r t i s t , the c r e a t i v e and i m a g i n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n e v e r y man, has a c h o i c e : l i v e by h i s own ever-^renewed p e r c e p t i o n s or e x i s t a c c o r d i n g to e s t a b l i s h e d p r e c o n c e p t i o n s . At the b e g i n n i n g of P a t e r s o n then, W i l l i a m s ' has o u t l i n e d h i s d e s i r e to b r e a k the t e m p t a t i o n s of h a b i t — t h e ' easy r o u t e o f e s t a b l i s h e d n o r m a l i t y w h i c h does not r e q u i r e any thought, courage, e f f o r t or danger, j u s t a f o l l o w i n g o f e s t a b l i s h e d p r e c o n c e i v e d p a t t e r n s w i t h o u t v i t a l i t y l i k e the h o l l o w men: "the i g n o r a n t sun r i s i n g i n the s l o t o f h o l l o w suns r i s e n . " W i l l i a m s wants to 86 b u r s t out anew, to a c t u a l l y and f r e s h l y see what i s t h e r e now and new, n o t what the mind's eye g l a z e d o v e r by e s t a b l i s h e d c o n c e p t i o n s ( = f a l s e l y t r a d i t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n s ) o f beauty and t r u t h e n s l a v e s one to ' t h i n k ' i s t h e r e , ' t i r e d and t r u e ' . He wants to l o o k a g a i n w i t h f r e s h v i s i o n from a new a n g l e w i t h o u t p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d i d e a s — a t the t h i n g i t s e l f . Any a b s o l u t e v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y i s i m p o s s i b l e . But W i l l i a m s i s s e e k i n g to encourage an awareness o f what i s g o i n g on around one, of the l e g e n d a r y i l l u s i o n s b e i n g i n d o c t r i n a t e d e v e r y day i n t o the minds o f the p e o p l e . He wants p e o p l e to l e a r n how t o l i v e more f u l l y aware l i v e s by b r e a k i n g through the s t a n d a r d f o r m u l a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e no i m a g i n a t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of one's s u r r o u n d i n g s , o n l y a m e c h a n i c a l p a r r o t r y o f u n c o n s c i o u s response to r e p e a t e d s t i m u l a e . W i l l i a m s cannot p r e s e n t us w i t h a knowable package c a l l e d ' r e a l i t y ' , b u t he can p r o v i d e i m a g i n a t i v e and i n t e n s i f y i n g v e r s i o n s of the w o r l d of P a t e r s o n t h a t w i l l i n c r e a s e our awareness of our p e r c e p t i o n s , our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of our e x p e r i e n c e , and t h e r e b y make more v i t a l the p r o c e s s of l i v i n g . H i s o b j e c t * i s n o t o n l y to p r e s e n t the most v i v i d r e v e l a t i o n o f r e a l i t y . W i l l i a m s wants to a c t i v a t e the means of d i s c o v e r i n g r e a l i t y , t o i n c u l c a t e an e n l i v e n i n g p r o c e s s of r e a l i z a t i o n as a b e t t e r way of l i f e . The P r e f a c e to P a t e r s o n makes i t c l e a r t h a t W i l l i a m s has s e t h i m s e l f the t a s k of reawakening a f r e s h awareness i n man. He wishes to e x p l a i n the n a t u r e o f the s i c k n e s s t h a t b l o c k s man's p e r c e p t i o n of h i s environment, and he wishes to propose a c u r e . How he t r a n s l a t e s t h i s t a s k i n t o a r t i s a n o t h e r problem. 87 P a t e r s o n i s an a e s t h e t i c t a s k , as w e l l as a ' p h i l o s o p h i c a l ' one, t h e attempt to c r e a t e an a r t work whose s e p a r a t e form r e l e a s e s beauty from the m i n d — b o t h i n t h e o r y and i n p r a c t i c e . A g a i n , " R i g o r of b e a u t y i s the q u e s t . But how w i l l y o u f i n d beauty when i t i s l o c k e d i n the mind p a s t a l l remonstrance?" W i l l i a m s ' q u est i s n o t j u s t to f e e l b e a u t y , but to d i s c o v e r how to b r i n g t h a t b eauty o f the n a t u r a l , p h y s i c a l w o r l d t h a t i s a p p r e c i a t e d i n the mind, out of t h a t mind and i n t o an a r t form w i t h o u t d i m i n i s h i n g the b e a u t y ' s q u a l i t y . W i l l i a m s i s f a c e d w i t h the t e c h n i c a l a r t i s t i c p r o blem of how To make a s t a r t , out of p a r t i c u l a r s and make them g e n e r a l , r o l l i n g up the sum, by d e f e c t i v e means^-How can one r e v e a l the whole be a u t y t h r o u g h the p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l s examined i f the means o f t h a t r e v e l a t i o n a r e i n a d e q u a t e f o r a p e r f e c t i m i t a t i o n ? A r t i s n o t l i f e , b u t i t i s the c l o s e s t i m a g i n a t i v e r e c r e a t i o n of l i f e , an i m i t a t i o n , a s u b s t i t u t e f o r the o r i g i n a l , b u t not f o r the r e a l , because the a r t i f i c e i s as r e a l i n c o n c r e t e i f l e s s n a t u r a l terms. The poet i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h (What common language to u n r a v e l ? combed i n t o s t r a i g h t l i n e s from t h a t r a f t e r o f a r o c k ' s l i p . ) 1 5 2 As the w a t e r f a l l combs out the n a t u r a l chaos o f the r i v e r , the p o e t ' s a r t t r i e s to t r a n s l a t e c l e a r l y the d i s o r d e r o f l i f e . But t h a t removal of the t h i n g from i t s n a t u r a l p l a c e i n l i f e i n t o i t s a r t i f i c i a l l y o r d e r e d p l a c e i n a r t must be c a r e f u l and d e l i c a t e , or 88 t h e t h i n g w i l l be d i s t o r t e d beyond r e c o g n i t i o n and i t s b e a u t y remain l o c k e d i n the mind. The method t h a t W i l l i a m s o u t l i n e s i n the P r e f a c e , a s o l u t i o n a l r e a d y examined i n t h e o r y , i s t h e p r e c i s e p e r c e p t i o n o f the w o r l d o f t h e sen s e s u n t i l t h e mind has a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g w h i c h i s t h e n i m i t a t e d t h r o u g h t h e use of the n a t i v e l a n g u a g e , l o c a l d i a l e c t s , l o c a l images, p r e s e n t m u s i c , a l l t e c h n i q u e s f r e s h l y p e r c e i v e d . W i l l i a m s i s S n i f f i n g t h e t r e e s j u s t a n o t h e r dog among a l o t o f dogs. What e l s e i s t h e r e ? And t o do? The r e s t have run o u t — a f t e r t h e r a b b i t s . O n ly t h e lame s t a n d s — o n t h r e e l e g s . 1 5 3 W i l l i a m s i s " j u s t a n o t h e r dog," a s i n g l e p o e t , a s m a l l maker V:(a s m a l l g o d ? ) , n o t c r e a t i n g l i f e , b u t r e c r e a t i n g an i m i t a t i o n o f l i f e i n a r t . And i t i s t h e b e a u t y o f l i f e f e l t i n t h e mind t h a t m^gt be r e l e a s e d , n o t a f a l s e copy s u f f e r i n g from a t r a n s l a t i o n t h a t a b s t r a c t e d i t , o r s o p h i s t i c a t e d i t beyond i t s n a t u r a l c o u n t e r -p a r t . Such f o r e i g n and u n r e l a t e d a r t p r o d u c e s f a l s e c o p i e s o f l i f e by " t h e r e s t " who have " r u n o u t . " W i l l i a m s a t t a c k s t h e Am e r i c a n p o e t s who have d e s e r t e d t h e i r n a t i v e h a b i t a t : Pound and E l i o t had r u n o u t , r u n away t o E u r o p e , t o f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s . W i l l i a m s c r i t i c i z e s t he h y p o c r i s y o f the e x - p a t r i a t e p o e t : t h a t the p o e t , i n d i s g r a c e , s h o u l d b o r r o w f r o m e r u d i t i o n ( t o u n s l a v e the m i n d ) : r a i l i n g a t t h e v o c a b u l a r y ( b o r r o w i n g from t h o s e he h a t e s , t o h i s own d i s f r a n c h i s e m e n t ) .154 I n P a t e r s o n , W i l l i a m s moulds "a r e p l y t o Greek and L a t i n w i t h t h e b a r e hands. ""'"^ ^ They had r u n o u t a f t e r t h e r a b b i t s , an image o f a 90 pack t h a t i s o n l y s t r o n g t o g e t h e r , r u n n i n g out to more e s t a b l i s h e d and t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r a l forms: and so W i l l i a m s warns, and th e c r a f t , s u b v e r t e d by thought, r o l l i n g up, l e t him beware l e s t he t u r n t o no more than the w r i t i n g o f s t a l e poems . . . Minds l i k e beds always made up, (more s t o n y than a shore) u n w i l l i n g o r unable. Perhaps from t h i s l a s t statement one can i n t e r p r e t "run o u t " as run out o f steam, exhausted, "Only t h e lame s t a n d s " a g a i n s t the f o r e i g n i n f i l t r a t i o n , the lame b e i n g unable to run away, b u t h a v i n g t o s t a n d a l o n e a g a i n s t the d e n i a l of the n a t i v e , a g a i n s t the exodus: The dogs and t r e e s c o n s p i r e to i n v e n t a w o r l d — g o n e ! Bow, wow! A d e p a r t i n g c a r s c a t t e r s g r a v e l as i t p i c k s up speed! Outworn! l e pauvre p e t i t m i n i s t r e d i d h i s b e s t , they c r y , but though he sweat f o r a l l h i s w o r t h 1 56 no poet has come The i n d i g e n o u s p o e t c o n t i n u e s amidst the f l i g h t o f t hose who c o u l d have r e v e a l e d b e a u t y i n t h e i r a r t . W i l l i a m s thus p r e f a c e s P a t e r s o n w i t h a d e t e r m i n e d w i l l t o r e v e a l n a t u r a l beauty t h r o u g h n a t i v e means, l o c a l l i f e t h r o u g h l o c a l a r t . By such an a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s of p r e s e r v i n g n a t u r a l f r e s h n e s s , W i l l i a m s t r i e s t o e n s u r e the s u r v i v a l o f "the m u l t i p l e s e e d , / packed t i g h t w i t h d e t a i l , s o u r e d . " " ^ ^ Beauty, e x t r a c t e d from p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g s i n l i f e , i s s o u r e d by i t s confinement i n the mind, i n a b s t r a c t symbols, and must be r e l e a s e d i n f r e s h a r t , r a d i a t i n g b e a u t y and v i t a l i t y . 91 Book One of P a t e r s o n , "the e l e m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r of the p l a c e , " r e l a t e s the h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l p a s t , b u t n o t j u s t to p r o v i d e a h i s t o r y . I t i s i n t e n d e d , r a t h e r , t o r e f i x the n a t u r e of the p r e s e n t by r e d i s c o v e r i n g and r e v e a l i n g the p a s t r o o t s o f the p r e s e n t . The r e - e s t a b l i s h e d f a c t s , b r o k e n f r e e and d u s t e d o f f , c l i n i c a l l y examined w i t h an a r c h e o l o g i s t ' s p a t i e n c e and m e t i c u l o u s ca r e f o r the r e v e a l i n g p a r t i c u l a r s , are c l e a r l y c h a r t e d and r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l shape, W i l l i a m s a g a i n and a g a i n expounds h i s d o c t r i n e of the new—-for what? but the awakening e f f e c t of new s t y l e s on o l d f a s h i o n s , the r e s u r r e c t i o n of l i f e out o f a f i x e d s t a s i s , the r e v i t a l i z i n g o f awareness by new e x p r e s s i o n o f and approaches to o l d c l i c h e s and h a b i t s . But, he i s a l s o i n l o v e w i t h the r e a l t r a d i t i o n , the p r o p e r p a s t ! , the men who then c h a l l e n g e d the e s t a b l i s h e d back-w a r d - g l a n c i n g customs, i d e a s and s t a t u s quo of t h e i r t i m e s . He p r a i s e s the courageous and i m a g i n a t i v e new t h i n k e r s of any age: t h e i r antagonism to r i g i d , a r c h a i c s t r u c t u r e s u n i t e s them i n a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f e x p l o r e r s (Columbus, E r i c the Red, D a n i e l Boone); p i o n e e r s (Bonne, C r o c k e t t and t h e f r o n t i e r s m e n ) ; o r i g i n - a t o r s (Whitman, Poe and the l o c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ) ; r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s ( J e f f e r s o n , Washington), W i l l i a m s v a l u e s t h e . o l d t h a t ' i s p a s s e d f o r i t s h i s t o r y o f p e o p l e who have s t r u g g l e d t h r o u g h the r e p r e s s i v e c o n s e r v a t i s m o f a h e s i t a n t and e a s i l y s a t i s f i e d p o p u l a c e . He v a l u e s the l o n g l i n e o f c r e a t i v e , n o v e l , r e v o l u t i o n a r y and i m a g i n a t i v e t h i n k e r s . He a t t a c k s the f a l s e a u r a or mask of s t a b l e , c o n s e r v a t i v e , r i g i d t r a d i t i o n s t h a t has been a f f i x e d t o t h e i r legends i n o r d e r to l e n d 92 a u t h o r i t y to those l i v i n g r e p r e s s i v e s t a t u s quo c o n s e r v a t i v e s whom they would have denounced. The c o n f l i c t i s not r e a l l y between the new and the o l d , f o r the r e a l l y new and the b e s t men o f the o l d a c t u a l l y agree i n many r e s p e c t s . W i l l i a m s ' l i f e t i m e b a t t l e , and P a t e r s o n i s c e n t r a l t o h i s s t r u g g l e , i s between the c r e a t i v e (new and o l d ) and t h e d e s t r u c t i v e c o p i e r s . T h i s dichotomy a g a i n means r e c o g n i z i n g the i m a g i n a t i v e from the d u l l , r e v o l u t i o n a r y and e v o l u t i o n a r y change from t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and s t a t i c r e s t , genuine o r i g i n a l a r t i s t s from t h e l o n g s t r e a m o f m i m i c k i n g f o l l o w e r s , the i n d i v i d u a l s t r u g g l e to r e a l i z e one's p o s s i b l e c a p a b i l i t y i n l i f e from t h e mass e t h i c o f u n i f o r m m a j o r i t y t r e n d s , p e r s o n a l awareness from automaton i g n o r a n c e . And the most i m p o r t a n t s t r u g g l e , because i t i s the p r e r e q u i s i t e to any s u c c e s s , i s the s t r u g g l e between a man's f r e s h and new p e r c e p t i o n and s o c i e t y ' s w i t h e r e d and h a b i t u a l p r e c o n c e p t i o n s . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t , the e s t a b l i s h e d code o f e t h i c s and l e v e l o f m o r a l i t y , i s what p r e s e n t l y s t a n d s f o r 'good' and ' r i g h t ' - — t h e t e c h n i q u e f o r so c o n v i n c i n g us i s t h a t a l l change i s wrong and dangerous, t h a t a l l exponents of the new want to d e s t r o y the o l d . T h i s i s h y p o c r i t i c a l and f a l l a c i o u s . W i l l i a m s wants to r e n o v a t e the o l d , t o r e a l i z e i t anew, s t r i p p i n g o f f from i t the h y p n o t i c a l l y g l o r i f y i n g a u r a o f p a g e a n t r y , p a t r i o t i s m , and r e v e r e n c e t h a t rubs o f f from the g r e a t men o f the p a s t onto the p r e s e n t p r o f i t c o n t r o l l e r s . The o l d l e a d e r s were g r e a t - ^ r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s i n America: they opposed the i m p o s i t i o n of a f o r e i g n c u l t u r e upon t h e i r new l a n d : they wanted new growth, modern laws, a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n t o the new l a n d , n o t confinement to 93 o l d customs. The g r e a t o l d men of h i s t o r y wanted change because i t was j u s t , and because l i f e i s deadened w i t h o u t c o n t i n u a l r e b i r t h . S° P a t e r s o n , One b e g i n s to r e - e s t a b l i s h the p a s t i n a p r o p e r , e t e r n a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the e v e r - p r e s e n t s t r u g g l e between the t r u l y new and the f a l s e f a c a d e o f p l a s t i c i m i t a t i o n , and between the t r u e , o r i g i n a l o l d and the sham, h i s t o r i c a l hoax p e r p e t r a t e d by v o t e - e n t i c i n g p o l i t i c i a n s . What W i l l i a m s seeks to e s t a b l i s h i s t h e v i t a l i t y and i n t e n s i t y of r e a l l y l i v i n g , t o renew l i f e i n a d u l l e d , mediocre p e o p l e , The new e s t a b l i s h m e n t i s a r e n a i s s a n c e of man, a r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t of l o v e and i m a g i n a t i o n , e m o t i o n a l and m ental c a p a b i l i t y repowered to i n s p i r e humanity, W i l l i a m s ' a p p e a l to the new i s the a p p e a l to t h a t r e a l t r a d i t i o n o f a r t i s t s ' d e s i r i n g t o b e t t e r man's s t a t e , t h e l o n g h i s t o r y of r e v o l u t i o n a r y c r i t i c s o f t h e d u l l i n g system of the s t a t u s quo m e n t a l i t y . One t h i n k s (as W i l l i a m s has done i n P a t e r s o n ) of B l a k e ' s condemnation of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t Church, and o f M i l t o n ' s v i o l e n t a t t a c k upon a r u l i n g and e n s l a v i n g p o w e r f u l m i n o r i t y , W i l l i a m s wants to r e v e a l the harm done by the i g n o r a n t i n d o c t r i n a t i o n of p e o p l e i n t o a f a l s e and h y p o c r i t i c a l v i s i o n t h a t i s a g g r e s s i v e l y s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e as i t condemns by u n c o n s c i o u s b i g o t r y those who t h i n k d i f f e r e n t l y . Any s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s t h a t becomes an a c t i v e p o l i c y t h r e a t e n s l i f e w h i l e i t d e s t r o y s the i n d i v i d u a l human p o t e n t i a l f o r awareness, s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , l o v e , harmony. Something l i k e t h i s f r u s t r a t i o n was p r e s e n t i n W i l l i a m s ' mind as he come to w r i t e P a t e r s o n . He came to p o r t r a y the w i l f u l l y e v i l enslavement o f the.minds and f e e l i n g s o f the p e o p l e i n t o d u l l n e s s . He wanted to i n s p i r e man's c a p a b i l i t y f o r l o v e and awareness, h i s c a p a c i t y f o r r e a l " l i v i n g . 94 W i l l i a m s ' aim i n P a t e r s o n i s to e n l i v e n man's e x i s t e n c e by making him aware o f the p r e s e n t and o f the r e a l , b u t i n t e n t i o n a l l y d i s g u i s e d , n a t u r e o f the p a s t . He i s always s e e k i n g to r e v e a l what i s b l i n d i n g p e o p l e ' s v i s i o n , t o show up the i n d o c t r i n a t e d p r e c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t p r e v e n t p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y — b u i l t - i n d e l u s i o n s and i l l u s i o n s . At the same tim e , he i s t r y i n g to ex p r e s s i n a s t u n n i n g and s t a r t l i n g way the t h i n g s t h a t are t h e r e o f beauty and o f t r u t h to see f o r o n e s e l f , so t h a t one can come to one's own u n d e r s t a n d i n g r a t h e r than merely m i r r o r i n g e s t a b l i s h e d views. In the f i r s t l i n e s , we f i n d : a thousand automatons. Who because they n e i t h e r know t h e i r s o u r c e s n o r the s i l l s o f t h e i r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t s walk o u t s i d e t h e i r b o d i e s a i m l e s s l y f o r the most p a r t , l o c k e d and f o r g o t i n t h e i r d e s i r e s — u n r o u s e d . The p e o p l e are d u l l e d . They have no v i s i o n , no u n d e r s t a n d i n g , no language: They do not know the words o r have not the courage t o use them — g i r l s from f a m i l i e s t h a t have decayed and taken t o the h i l l s : no words. They may l o o k a t the t o r r e n t i n . t h e i r minds and i t i s f o r e i g n to them. They t u r n t h e i r backs and grow f a i n t s - b u t r e c o v e r ! L i f e i s sweet they s a y : the language! --'the language i s d i v o r c e d from t h e i r minds, the language , . t h e language! They have no a b i l i t y t o p e r c e i v e n o r to communicate, They a r e , and i t i s the c e n t r a l WORD of the poem, " d i v o r c e d " from e v e r y t h i n g s -l i f e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a c t i o n , impetus. Awareness i s dead. 95 A f a l s e l a n g u a g e . A t r u e . A f a l s e l anguage p o u r i n g — a l a n g u a g e ( m i s u n d e r s t o o d ) p o u r i n g ( m i s i n t e r p r e t e d ) w i t h o u t d i g n i t y , w i t h o u t m i n i s t e r , c r a s h i n g upon a s t o n e e a r . . . . 16 2 The word had been d r a i n e d o f i t s meaning. The p e o p l e a r e o b l i v i o u s t o t h e meaning o f t h e l a n d s c a p e , unaware o f t h e i r n a t u r a l r o o t s and o r i g i n s , . u n a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e l anguage o f the F a l l s — d i v o r c e d , and c u t o f f from i n v o l v e m e n t . There i s p o t e n t i a l , b u t no g e r m i n a t i o n : a bud f o r e v e r g r e e n , t i g h t - c u r l e d , upon t h e pavement, p e r f e c t i n -juice and s u b s t a n c e b u t d i v o r c e d , d i v o r c e d from i t s f e l l o w s , f a l l e n l o w — - L O J They a r e u n r e l a t e d t o t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t , The g i a n t i n whose a p e r t u r e s we c o h a b i t , unaware o f what a i r s u p p o r t s u s - — t h e vague, t h e p a r t i c u l a r no l e s s v a g u e l 6 4 Nobody knows what th e y a r e n o r where th e y have come from: " l o s t i n the f l u x and t h e mind, / d i s t r a c t e d , f l o a t s o f f i n t h e same / 165 scum." Y e t , "Everybody has r o o t s , " and may r e t a i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e i r development i n l i f e . W i l l i a m s d e s c r i b e s t h e A f r i c a n c h i e f ' s awareness o f t h e n a t u r a l c o n t i n u i t y o f h i s l i f e , h i s n i n e w i v e s , n i n e l i v e s , a l l i n a row, new b a c k i n g o n t o o l d , g r o w i n g out o f t h e o l d — and t h e n t h e l a s t , the f i r s t w i f e , p r e s e n t ! s u p p o r t i n g a l l t h e r e s t g r o w i n g up f r o m h e r — 1 6 6 th e w i t h e r e d o r i g i n a l w i f e the r o o t of t h e f r e s h and new w i f e , 16 7 s i g n i f y i n g c o n t i n u a l change and t h e " r e k i n d l i n g " of v i t a l i t y . There i s no d i v o r c e , l i t e r a l o r m e t a p h o r i c a l . There i s no s e p a r a t i o n from t h e p a s t . By c o n t r a s t , modern man i s d i v o r c e d f r o m 96 l i f e and c o n s c i o u s n e s s , d i v o r c e d from h i s n a t u r a l environment, d i v o r c e d and a l i e n a t e d from h i s f e l l o w men and women: " D i v o r c e 168 i s / the s i g n o f knowledge i n our t i m e . " The many l o n g passages of h i s t o r i c a l e x t r a c t s s e r v e to r e u n i t e man w i t h h i s p a s t , to r e v e a l the o r i g i n s o f the s o c i e t y and so g i v e man r o o t s to grow from. Meanwhile, the m a r r i e d u n i f i c a t i o n o f n a t u r a l men i n p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s s t a n d s t o remind men o f t h e i r d i v o r c e and d i s s o c i a t i o n . W i l l i a m s i s always s e a r c n i n g f o r the p a r t i c u l a r f a c t s to r e v e a l l i f e , p r e s e n t and p a s t , to the p e o p l e , to make them aware of t h e i r o r i g i n s and o f t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t e : "No i d e a s b u t / i n the f a c t s . " Nobody knows what i s , f o r they cannot see t h i n g s c l e a r l y and they do n o t r e a c h to the p a r t i c u l a r r e a l i t y : He des c r i e d i n t h e l i n o l e u m a t h i s f e e t a woman's f a c e , s m e l l e d h i s hands, s t r o n g of a l o t i o n he had used not l o n g s i n c e , l a v e n d e r , r o l l e d h i s thumb about the t i p o f h i s l e f t Index f i n g e r and watched i t d i p e a c h time, l i k e the head of a c a t l i c k i n g i t s paw, h e a r d the f a i n t f i l i n g sound i t made: o f e a r t h h i s e a r s a r e f u l l , t h e r e i s no sound Through c a r e f u l p e r c e p t i o n , t h r o u g h a m i n u t e l y , m e t i c u l o u s l y examined and d e t a i l e d p e r c e p t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t s , anybody c o u l d see. Those who cannot see a r e those who b e l i e v e ( t a k e f o r granted). the words o f those who t e a c h them not to s e e , t h o s e who d i v o r c e knowledge o f t h i n g s from t h e i r s e n s u a l r e a l i t y i n t o a b s t r a c t t h e o r i z i n g : 97 t h e u n i v e r s i t y , a g r e e n bud f a l l e n upon t h e pavement i t s sweet b r e a t h s u p p r e s s e d : D i v o r c e ( t h e l a n g u a g e s t u t t e r s ) 1 7 0 t h o s e " c l e r k s . . . s p i t t e d on f i x e d c o n c e p t s l i k e / r o a s t i n g h o g s , s p u t t e r i n g , t h e i r d r i p s i z z l i n g / i n t h e f i r e . " " ' ' ^ W i l l i a m s condemns t h e b l i n d e r s i n d e t a i l : Who r e s t r i c t s knowledge? Some say i t i s t h e decay o f the m i d d l e c l a s s making an i m p o s s i b l e moat between t h e h i g h and the low where the l i f e once f l o u r i s h e d ,« . knowledge o f t h e avenues o f i n f o r m a t i o n - ^ — So t h a t we do n o t know ( i n t i m e ) where the s t a s i s l o d g e s . And i f i t i s n o t t h e k n o w l e d g e a b l e i d i o t s , t h e u n i v e r s i t y , t h e y a t l e a s t a r e the n o n - p u r v e y o r s s h o u l d be d e v i s i n g means to l e a p t h e gap. I n l e t s ? The o u tward masks o f the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s t h a t p e r p e t u a t e t h e s t a s i s and make i t p r o f i t a b l e . They b l o c k t h e r e l e a s e t h a t s h o u l d c l e a n s e and assume p r e r o g a t i v e s as a p r i v a t e recompense, O t h e r s a r e a l s o a t f a u l t b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t h i n g . 1 7 2 The o b l i v i o u s n e s s o f the d u l l e d p e o p l e i s caused by the f a c a d e o f knowledge. T h e i r e m p t i n e s s , u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i n d i r e c t i o n , s u s p e n s i o n i n f r u s t r a t i n g nada i s t h e d i r e c t consequence o f a s t i f l i n g o f n a t u r a l development and change, an u n n a t u r a l h o l d i n g back o r b l o c k a g e t h a t f i n a l l y d u l l s the mind, t h e f e e l i n g s and the s p i r i t o f t h e p e o p l e . That r e s i s t a n c e t o an awareness o f l i f e comes f r o m a w i s h t o h o l d t i m e and m o t i o n s t i l l w h i l e i t i s p r o f i t a b l e t o t h e p o w e r f u l . T h e i r u n n a t u r a l c o n t r o l o v e r l i f e t a k e s t h e f o r m o f f i x e d and r i g i d p r e c o n c e p t i o n s , i d e a s d e s i g n e d t o s t a b i l i z e s o c i e t y i n i t s p r o f i t a b l e p a t t e r n , i d e a s w h i c h i n f a c t k i l l s o c i e t y and d e s t r o y 98 t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r f u l l human b e i n g by h o l d i n g t h i n g s s t a t i o n a r y — k nowledge, w e a l t h and power. The r e s u l t i s "a t h o u s a n d automatons," s l a v e s who ' t h i n k ' t h e m s e l v e s f r e e and r i g h t . M e a n w h i l e , t h e i r e f f o r t s p r o d u c e t h e i n e v i t a b l e modern t r a s h , " p l a s t e r s a i n t s , 173 g l a s s j e w e l s , " mass-produced goods l a c k i n g o r i g i n ^ a l i t y and v a l u e . I n s e n s i t i v e t o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i r e f f o r t s , a l o n g s i d e the 174 j u n k t h e y p r o d u c e l i e s " t h e r a v i s h e d p a r k , " H a l f t h e r i v e r r e d , h a l f s t e a m i n g p u r p l e from the f a c t o r y v e n t s , spewed out h o t , s w i r l i n g , b u b b l i n g . The dead bank, s h i n i n g mud . 1 The d e l i b e r a t e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a t e m e n t s o f d i s g u s t i n Book One emphasise the s e a r c h f o r t r u t h . The vehemence o f t h e r e a s o n i n g i s o n l y m i l d l y tempered by b e a u t i f u l p a s s a g es o f n a t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n . W i l l i a m s ' a n g r y p o l e m i c i s caused by d e s p a i r caused by sadness a t s e e i n g t h e s t u p i d i t y caused by i g n o r a n c e caused by t h e b l o c k a g e o f e d u c a t i o n by a s e l f i s h m i n o r i t y o f a r i s t o c r a t i c l e a d e r s — c h u r c h m e n , p o l i t i c i a n s , t e a c h e r s . T h i s a n t a g o n i s t i c vehemence, t h e c o n t r a s t i n g p a t h o s o f t h e p o e t ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a b e a u t i f u l p l a c e and h i s o c c a s i o n a l e s c a p i s t s u b l i m a t i o n i n t o moments o f a e s t h e t i c j o y i n n a t u r e a r e a l l t h a t r e a l l y m a t t e r . The i m a g i n a t i o n o f a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c q u a l i t i e s i n t h e s p i r i t o f t h e p l a c e — t h e F a l l s , i t s " v o i c e , " t h e human d e s c r i p t i o n o f P a t e r s o n — p r o v i d e s an a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e , b u t does n o t c o n t r i b u t e p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y t o t h e argument a t t a c k i n g d u l l n e s s . The s o c i o l o g i c a l d i d a c t i c i s m i s so i n s i s t e n t t h a t the few b e a u t i f u l images o f t h e p l a c e a r e t e n u o u s l y t h i n : t he t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f h i s t o r y i n t o a r t i s n o t c o m p l e t e . Thus, awakening t o a r e a l i z a t i o n o f one's t e r r i b l e s i t u a t i o n i s n o t enough. There 99 must be a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t t o sudden awareness, and, f o r W i l l i a m s , t h e b e a u t y o f t h e l a n d can g i v e r e a s o n f o r b e i n g . The l o v e o f the o r g a n i c a l l y i n t e r p e n e t r a t e d w o r l d of man and n a t u r e i s a l l t h e more a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h W i l l i a m s ' c r e a t i o n of a new mythology s u r r o u n d i n g t h e l o c a l s c e n e r y . The modern, l o c a l m y t h o l o g y u n i t e s s e n s u a l and s p i r i t u a l hopes o f harmony w i t h a r e v e r e n c e f o r awareness of t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e a l i t y . A b e l i e f i n a myth t h a t has d e v e l o p e d out o f t h e p r e s e n t p l a c e i s t h e s t r e n g t h needed to o f f s e t t h e d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t o f d i v o r c e , P a t e r s o n and t h e F a l l s , male and f e m a l e , c i t y and r i v e r , man and n a t u r e , a r e m a r r i e d i n communion w i t h e a c h o t h e r , n o t d i v o r c e d and a l i e n a t e d i n m u t u a l a n t a g o n i s m . I t i s the r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e r e a s o n f o r n e e d i n g t h e m y t h o l o g y t h a t i s v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t , n o t the d i f f e r e n t d e t a i l s o f i t s o c c u r e n c e and w o r k i n g s . Awareness o f the p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e , o f o n e s e l f t h r o u g h t h e p l a c e , o f o n e s e l f t h r o u g h t h e h i s t o r y o f the p e o p l e o f t h e p l a c e , o f n a t u r e and o n e s e l f t h r o u g h o n e s e l f and n a t u r e 176 i n t e r p e n e t r a t e d and "by m u l t i p l i c a t i o n a r e d u c t i o n t o one," u n i t e d ; r e s u l t s i n a m a r r i a g e i n sense and mind t o a l o v i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f one's l i v i n g r o o t s . So t h e p e o p l e a r e n o t j u s t d u l l , b u t d u l l e d by b e i n g b l o c k e d out of e x p e r i e n c e , r e s t r i c t e d i n k n owledge, and thus i n c r e a t i v i t y , e n e r g y , hope. They a r e — r o o t s , f o r t h e most p a r t , w r i t h i n g upon th e s u r f a c e (so c l o s e a r e we t o r u i n e v e r y day!) y 1 177 s e a r c h i n g t h e punk-dry r o t The t r e e s b a r e l y s u s t a i n t h e m s e l v e s on t h e b a r r e n r o c k : t h e p e o p l e 100 j u s t s u c c e e d i n s u r v i v i n g i n a s o c i a l w o r l d t h a t i s as b a r e as the r o c k , as u n - n o u r i s h i n g to the s p i r i t which i s r e p r e s s e d i n t o i g n o r a n c e , b l o c k e d i n t o apathy. The c r e a t i v e p e r s o n who wants to e x p r e s s h i m s e l f i s a l s o thwarted. T r u s t i n g i n o t h e r s , r e l y i n g upon o t h e r s f o r h e l p i n s e l f - d i s c o v e r y , f o r growth i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g , he f i n d s h i m s e l f n e g l e c t e d , r e f u s e d and i g n o r e d . The l a c k o f mutual c o - e x i s t e n c e o r even o f the b e g i n n i n g s o f deep r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e s t r o y s the t r u s t , b l o c k s the o u t - g o i n g , g i v i n g g e n e r o s i t y o f t h e s e e k e r by the r e b u t t a l and p a i n f u l d e s t r u c t i o n of t h a t p a r t of one t h a t i s g i v e n : "That k i n d o f b l o c k a g e , e x i l i n g one's s e l f from one's ,.178 s e l f . 179 Book Two's "modern r e p l i c a s " i s an o b j e c t i v e r e c o r d o f the a c t u a l modern c o u n t e r p a r t s to the d i s e a s e d i a g n o s e d i n Book One: t h e r e i s more f a c t u a l o b s e r v a t i o n of p r e s e n t l i f e than t h e o r e t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s about the p a s t . The d e f o r m i t y caused by the d e s t r u c t i v e b l o c k a g e of p e o p l e ' s l i v e s i s p a r t i c u l a r i z e d i n a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the mass t r y i n g to e n j o y themselves on 180 "Sunday i n the P a r k . " W i l l i a m s p r e s e n t s the p e o p l e en masse, the g r o s s , c o a r s e , rough, b o i s t e r o u s , o c c a s i o n a l l y spontaneous, i n e v i t a b l e w o r k i n g - c l a s s . The d e t a i l ressembles B r u e g h e l ' s massive p a i n t i n g s o f the p e o p l e , o n l y l e s s happy. They a r e d u l l and b o r e d ; e x h a u s t e d i n s p i r i t , so m e s m e r i c a l l y e n s l a v e d to the r o u t i n e of t h e i r c i t y l i v e s ; h a v i n g j u s t enough time to l a z e and doze, s l e e p , dream, t r y to f o r g e t e v e r y t h i n g about t h e i r monotonous l i v e s b e f o r e the h o l i d a y ends. They are a i m l e s s , e s c a p i n g , w i s h i n g o b l i v i o n as t h e y a r e so 101 ,183 b e w i l d e r e d , t h o u g h t l e s s , c a r e l e s s , dangerous. I t i s a l l f o r p l e a s u r e . t h e i r f e e t . a i m l e s s l y 181 wandering They a r e h o p e l e s s l y l o s t , e s c a p i n g t h e i r i g n o r a n c e and i n s e c u r i t y by r u n n i n g away, h o p i n g f o r i g n o r a n c e even of t h a t , a s u i c i d a l f l i g h t i n t o f i n a l n o t h i n g n e s s . And the l a n d s c a p e , whose beau t y P a t e r s o n a p p r e c i a t e s , i s missed o r misused by most. The m a s s — 182 "the g r e a t b e a s t " — saddens P a t e r s o n as he walks t h r o u g h the p a r k . T h e i r a p a t h e t i c i n d i f f e r e n c e to t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s and to each o t h e r s i g n a l s the c o l l a p s e o f t h e i r l i v e s — " a f l ame, / spent.' In t h e i r e s c a p i s t mass i n e r t i a , " w a l k i n g i n d i f f e r e n t through / each o t h e r ' s p r i v a c y t " ^ ^ t h e i r l i v e s a r e b o t h p i t i f u l and r e v o l t i n g . The c a r e l e s s s e x u a l i t y o f the w h i t e g i r l i n the b i k i n i i s obscene 185 to W i l l i a m s — " f r a n k v u l g a r i t y . " H i s r a t h e r b i a s s e d antagonism 186 i s c h e c k e d — " L e t us be r e a s o n a b l e ! " W i t h the p o r t r a i t s of the e n e r g e t i c dance of Mary thr o u g h " t h e i n e r t b o d i e s and of t h e E i s e n s t e i n peon,the b i t t e r n e s s f e l t a t the i g n o r a n t i n d i f f e r e n c e exuded by the p e a s a n t s i s tempered by the r a u c o u s , j o v i a l s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e i r p l e a s u r e s . T h e i r hedonism i s e a s i e r f o r W i l l i a m s to a c c e p t as 18 7 u n i n h i b i t e d l a u g h t e r than as " f l a g r a n t " v u l g a r i t y . A n o t h e r f l a g r a n t and c a r e l e s s c o u r t s h i p i s w i t n e s s e d , but now P a t e r s o n can a c c e p t i t as an o v e r t f a c t , b e i n g s y m p a t h e t i c to t h e i r e s c a p i s m because of t h e i r c r u s h i n g burden o f boredom. T h i s d u l l n e s s does n o t change: "Minds b e a t e n t h i n / by waste—among / the w o r k i n g 188 c l a s s e s : SOME, sort / o f breakdown / has o c c u r r e d : " W i l l i a m s c o n c e n t r a t e s on the c r i p p l i n g b l o c k a g e of the p e o p l e : 102 B l o c k e d . (Make a song out o f t h a t : c o n c r e t e l y ) By whom? In i t s m i d s t r o s e a massive c h u r c h . . . And i t a l l came to me t h e n — - t h a t those poor s o u l s had n o t h i n g e l s e i n the w o r l d , save t h a t c h u r c h , between them a n d t t h e -.eternal s t o n y , u n g r a t e f u l and u n p r o m i s i n g d i r t they l i v e d by Cash i s mulct o f them t h a t o t h e r may l i v e s e c u r e , . and knowledge r e s t r i c t e d . An o r c h e s t r a l d u l l n e s s o v e r l a y s t h e i r w o r l d I see t h e y s ^ t h e Senate, i s t r y i n g to b l o c k L i l i e n t h a l and d e l i v e r "the bomb" over to a few i n d u s t r i a l i s t s . I don't t h i n k they w i l l s u c c e e d b u t . , t h a t i s what I mean when I r e f u s e t o get e x c i t e d over the c r y , Communist! they use to b l i n d us. I t ' s t e r r i f y i n g to t h i n k how e a s i l y we can be d e s t r o y e d , a few v o t e s . Even though Communism i s a t h r e a t , a r e Communists any worse than t h e ~ g u i l t y .bastards t r y i n g i n t h a t way to undermine us? We l e a p awake and what we see f e l l s us 189 L e t t e r r o r t w i s t the w o r l d ! The l o n g passage opening the second p a r t of Book Two p r o v i d e s an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f and a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e s e n t i n g "the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . " The b l o c k a g e of the p e o p l e i s caused by c e r t a i n g u i l t y p a r t i e s . W i l l i a m s ' sympathy goes out to the weak and e n s l a v e d p e o p l e : h i s anger s e t t l e s on those who use t h e i r power t o c o n t r o l and m a n i p u l a t e t h e p e o p l e . The church dominates and f i n a l l y usurps t h e l i v e s o f the p e o p l e . The "massive c h u r c h " i s a huge c o n t r o l l i n g s t r u c t u r e which t a k e s o v e r f u t u r e l i f e by t h r e a t e n i n g death and damnation, and o v e r -takes p r e s e n t l i f e by ' s i m p l i f y i n g ' the l i v e s o f t h e p e o p l e , removing the dangers t o t h e i r ' s a l v a t i o n ' ^ - w e a l t h , p r o p e r t y , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . I t c o n t r o l s t h e i r s o u l s - ^ f o r whatever good r e a s o n o r excuse^-by 103 e n f o r c i n g an i n d o c t r i n a t e d enslavement to an i d e a , by f o r c i n g p o v e r t y and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e t o the c h u r c h , by demanding a b s o l u t e obedience and s u b s e r v i e n c e . The method used i s . one o f f o r c e . 190 The c h i l d r e n a r e h e l d "under d u r e s s , " "prodded," f o r c e d to s i t s t i l l and be mesmerized by the p r e a c h e r : — w i t h monotonous i n s i s t e n c e the f a l l s of h i s harangue hung f e a t u r e l e s s upon the e a r , y e t w i t h a c e r t a i n s t r a n g e n e s s as i f a r r e s t e d i n s p a c e - ^ l The f a l l s o f h i s harangue usurp the F a l l s ' n a t u r a l v o i c e . The church's motive i s to p r e p a r e men f o r an a f t e r l i f e . I t s e f f e c t i s to d e s t r o y t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the p r e s e n t , and to deny t h e i r p r e s e n t l i v e s i n n a t u r e . The p o l i t i c i a n s dominate the p h y s i c a l l i f e o f the p e o p l e , c o m p e l l i n g them to agreement by weak but s u f f i c i e n t r h e t o r i c t h a t e a s i l y c o n v i n c e s a p o o r l y e d u c a t e d mass, and g a i n i n g p o p u l a r s u p p o r t by f i n d i n g s c a p e g o a t s f o r s o c i a l i l l s . They s k i l l f u l l y m a n i p u l a t e the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , anger and s u f f e r i n g of the p e o p l e i n t o a h a t r e d of e v e r y t h i n g f o r e i g n , unseen, unknown and dangerous. The motive i s the r e t e n t i o n o f power, and the w e a l t h t h a t can be g a i n e d t h e r e b y . The r e s u l t i s i n j u s t i c e , i n e q u a l i t y , u s u r y , and h y p o c r i s y , a l l o f w h i c h W i l l i a m s keeps r e t u r n i n g t o , and a l l of w h i c h are made easy by an a u t o m a t i c s u b s e r v i e n c e . The f u l l r e s u l t i s t h e use of t e r r o r t o c o n t r o l the w o r l d . T e r r o r can o n l y a r i s e from the unknown. Knowledge conquers i t ; a knowledgeable p e o p l e would be f r e e from f e a r , b u t then f r e e from c o n t r o l . The power of the masters i s guaranteed by f e a r : the l i o n -tamer's c o n t r o l i s e n s u r e d by t h e l i o n ' s f e a r of the whip; the 104 c hurch's c o n t r o l i s p r e s e r v e d by man's f e a r o f d e a t h ; the p o l i t i c i a n ' s c o n t r o l i s g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d by the p e o p l e ' s f e a r o f f o r e i g n e r s . In f a c t , i t i s by f r i g h t e n i n g the p e o p l e that""the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n power p r e s e r v e c o n t r o l and guarantee p o p u l a r s u p p o r t and o b e d i e n c e . I n s e c u r i t y makes s l a v e s o f everyone. T e r r o r t w i s t s human freedom, d i s t o r t s , c o n t r o l s and f o r c e s an u n n a t u r a l l i f e o f f r u s t r a t e d s l a v e r y to guarantee the p r o f i t s o f the p o w e r f u l . And the t e r r o r o n l y i n c r e a s e s a l i e n a t i o n : s e c r e t g u i l t and d e s p a i r p u l l s p e o p l e back i n t o s h e l l s of s i l e n c e , f r u s t r a t i o n and i l l u s i o n . W i l l i a m s r e c o r d s more p a r t i c u l a r l y the t e c h n i q u e o f mass-m a n i p u l a t i o n . The p o l i t i c i a n , H a m i l t o n , had n a t i o n a l i s t i c d e s i r e s f o r independence t h r o u g h the development of i n d u s t r y i n P a t e r s o n . H a m i l t o n wanted American s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and freedom from the power o f an imposed B r i t i s h - r u l e d economy. H i s s e p a r a t i s t d e s i r e s hope f o r and seek a h a p p i e r s t a t e , f r e e d from i m p e r i a l England w i t h h e r c o l o n i a l s l a v e - m a r k e t and f o r c e d t a x p o l i c i e s . But a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n , the power t h a t had e n s l a v e d the p e o p l e o n l y p a s s e d i n t o the hands of a few m o n o p o l i s t i c businessmen who gave money to the government which was p a i d f o r by a h i g h i n t e r e s t r a t e — t h e 192 p e o p l e ' s t a x e s . T h i s i s t h e " L e g a l i z e d F e d e r a l Usury System." The n e t r e s u l t i s not o n l y g r e a t e r d i v i s i o n i n the w o r l d t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s of s p l i n t e r i n g s e p a r a t i s m , b u t the l o s s o f hope and b e n e f i t . The same power e n s l a v e s the p e o p l e : the same i g n o r a n c e , apathy, d u l l n e s s and a l i e n a t i o n remains. Meanwhile, the harangue of the E v a n g e l i s t , c a l l i n g f o r p u r i t y and p o v e r t y , wants o n l y to c o n t r o l the human f e a r of death. 105 While f a n a t i c a l l y t r y i n g to b r i n g God's kingdom o f peace, he advocates a d e n i a l o f l i f e on E a r t h . H i s d e s i r e f o r s e p a r a t i s m and independence can o n l y cause more d i v i s i o n on E a r t h . W i l l i a m s ' l o n g i n g f o r u n i t y i s t h r e a t e n e d from a n o t h e r q u a r t e r : "And i s t h i s . 193 b e a u t y — / t o r n to s h r e d s by the / l u r k i n g s c h i s m a t i s t s ? " The e v a n g e l i s t , t h e c o e r c i n g con-man, t r i e s to b o o s t h i s f o l l o w i n g by the t h r e a t of d eath and damnation. Each p r i v a t e f a c t i o n t h i n k i n g i t s e l f a l m i g h t y succeeds i n i n c r e a s i n g the s e p a r a t i o n s t h a t a l i e n a t e p e o p l e . T h e i r a c t i o n can o n l y cause more a l i e n a t i o n of men from the whole body and thought and language of the p e o p l e , making more p e o p l e unaware and u n r e l a t e d to t h e i r l a r g e r environment as the p r i v a t e formulas f o r p e r f e c t conduct i n c r e a s e and c o n f l i c t . D i v i s i o n s p r e a d s i n ..the c i t y , i n the n a t i o n , i n t o w o r l d c o n f l i c t , d e s t r o y i n g d e s i r e s f o r a w o r l d community, f o r a u n i v e r s a l p e r s p e c t i v e , f o r any harmony. The hope i s a g a i n l o s t i n the s l a v e r y o f the p e o p l e to an i n d o c t r i n a t e d u n c o n s c i o u s b e l i e f t h a t d i c t a t e s t h e i r a c t i o n s . Knowledge r e s t r i c t e d , f e a r maximized, s l a v i s h l y subdued i n t o a r e a l m o f d i v o r c e d e t h e r e a l i t y , a b s t r a c t i o n and d e n i a l o f l i f e , the p e o p l e a r e b l i n d e d and b l o c k e d . W i l l i a m s p e r c e i v e s the d u l l e d , u t t e r l y c r u s h e d s p i r i t o f the p e o p l e . The f i n a l sequence to Book Two b e g i n s d e s p a i r i n g l y i n a mood of s u i c i d a l p e s s i m ism: "Look f o r the n u l / d e f e a t s i t a l l . . . Look f o r t h a t n u l t h a t ' s p a s t a l l s e e i n g the d e a t h o f a l l t h a t ' s p a s t a l l b e i n g . 106 Y e t w i t h , "But S p r i n g s h a l l come and f l o w e r s w i l l bloom / and 195 man must c h a t t e r o f h i s doom," r e l i e f comes. Perhaps W i l l i a m s s e r i o u s l y t h i n k s f o r a moment t h a t we worry too much: l i f e w i l l go on, t h a t ' s a l l t h a t m a t t e r s , e t c e t e r a . But I am d i s t i n c t l y reminded o f the songs o f the clowns i n Shakespeare's p l a y s , where the c a r e f r e e n o n s e n s i c a l mood of the c h i l d i s h l y i n s a n e i s b l e n d e d w i t h unbroken hope f o r r e c o v e r y . The h i n t o f r e b i r t h i s p r e s e n t even a t the lo w e s t d e p t h of d e s p a i r and f i n a l d e g r a d a t i o n , even i f hope takes the form o f h y s t e r i c a l l a u g h t e r a t man's a b s u r d i t y . The d e f e a t , d e s p a i r , d e s c e n t i s ' f i n a l , T h i s i s the age of 196 "the slow c o m p l a i n i n g o f a door l o o s e on i t s h i n g e s , " u n f i x e d , u n r e l a t e d , out o f p l a c e , n e i t h e r open n o r s h u t , "without a c c o m p l i s h -197 ment," vacuous, c h a o t i c , t h e s p i r i t o f the p e o p l e sunk to an a i m l e s s b a s e n o t e o f b o r e d h o p e l e s s n e s s : a c c o m p l i s h the i n e v i t a b l e p oor, the i n v i s i b l e , t h r a s h i n g , b r e e d i n g debased c i t y . . . r e v e r s e d i n the m i r r o r o f i t s own s q u a l o r , debased by the d i v o r c e from l e a r n i n g , i t s garbage on the c u r b s , i t s l e g i s l a t o r s under the garbage, u n i n s t r u c t e d , i n c a p a b l e of s e l f i n s t r u c t i o n ,198 The s t i f l i n g o f knowledge has f i n a l l y c o r r u p t e d the system, and the f i x e d e d i c t s o f the s c h o o l s p r e v e n t the e v o l u t i o n o f new u n d e r s t a n d i n g . U n d e r s t a n d i n g has been degraded t o a c l i c h e d 199 u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and the r e s u l t i s "a t h w a r t i n g , " s u i c i d e , drowning. I t i s not j u s t the r e l i g i o u s and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t are g u i l t y o f t h i s f a i l u r e . The s o c i e t y ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l growth 107 has been s t a g n a t e d : And I f i t i s n o t the k n o w l e g e a b l e i d i o t s , t h e u n i v e r s i t y , t hey a t l e a s t a r e t h e n o n - p u r v e y o r s s h o u l d be d e v i s i n g means t o l e a p t h e gap You might as w e l l t a k e a l l y o u r own l i t e r a t u r e and e v e r y o n e e l s e ' s and t o s s i t i n t o one o f t h o s e b i g garbage t r u c k s o f t h e S a n i t a t i o n Department, so l o n g as t h e p e o p l e w i t h t h e top-cream minds and t h e " f i n e r " s e n s i b i l i t i e s use t h o s e minds and s e n s i b i l i t i e s n o t t o make t h e m s e l v e s more humane human b e i n g s than the average p e r s o n , b u t m e r e l y as means o f d u c k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o w a r d a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r f e l l o w men, e x c e p t t h e o r e t i c a l l y — w h i c h d o e s n ' t mean a God damned t h i n g . ^ 0 0 E v e r y t h i n g i s c h a o t i c : t h e r e i s no c o n t r o l , and F a i t o u t e 201 ( P a t e r s o n ) " d i s c o v e r s , s t i l l , no s y l l a b l e i n the c o n f u s e d / u p r o a r . " L i f e has been d u l l e d and s u p p r e s s e d . The o l d s l a v e r y has d e s t r o y e d t h e new, e v o l v i n g , g r o w i n g , l i v i n g t h i n g s : C l e a r l y , i t i s t h e new, u n i n t e r p r e t e d , t h a t remoulds the o l d , p o u r i n g down . . . . 202 I t has not been e n a c t e d i n our day! The n a t u r a l c o u r s e o f e v o l u t i o n a r y change has been t h w a r t e d by a f i x e d and r o t t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r t h a t has d e s t r o y e d i t . The p e o p l e have been d r a i n e d o f e n t h u s i a s m , o f e n e r g y , o f l i f e , — d i v o r c e d from t h e i n s i s t e n c e o f p l a c e — f r o m knowledge, from l e a r n i n g — - t h e terms f o r e i g n , c o n v e y i n g no immediacy, p o u r i n g down. The f o r e i g n n a t u r e o f t h e l a n g u a g e e m b i t t e r s W i l l i a m s . He i s d e p r e s s e d by the u s u r p a t i o n o f a r t by c o m m e r c i a l i s m , b u t he i s i n c e n s e d by the s n o b b i s h e s c a p i s m o f Am e r i c a n p o e t s towards 2 0 A f o r e i g n i m p o r t a t i o n s and " e r u d i t i o n . " Once a g a i n , W i l l i a m s i s 108 v o i c i n g h i s b a s i c b e l i e f i n a n a t i v e a r t form and a n a t i v e c u l t u r e as he a t t a c k s t h e f o r e i g n a b s t r a c t i o n f r o m immediate r e a l i t y . W i l l i a m s opposes f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s and,, s o p h i s t i c a t e d e r u d i t i o n i n modern p o e t r y as p a r t o f a l a r g e r f a i l u r e t o communicate t h a t b e a u t y w h i c h i s " l o c k e d i n t h e mind." I n d e e d , t r y i n g t o c a p t u r e 'and r e v e a l a sense o f the l o c a l r e a l i t y , he i s drawn c l o s e r t o t h e A m e r i c a n a c t u a l i t y i n h i s form, and so he d e s i r e s a l l t h e more t o employ t h e n a t i v e m a t e r i a l s , "out o f i t s e l f / t o form t h e 205 c o l o r s , I n t h e terms o f some / ba c k s t r e e t . " I t i s t h e l o c a l r o o t s t h a t he w a n t s : "he sees s q u i r m i n g r o o t s t r a m p l e d / under the f o l i a g e o f h i s mind by t h e h o l i d a y / crowds as by 206 t h e f e e t o f the s t r a i n i n g / m i n i s t e r . " The p e o p l e a r e c a r e l e s s and i g n o r e t h e i r r o o t s . The e v a n g e l i s t — l o o k i n g up--i g n o r e s t h e s o u r c e w h i c h he d e s t r o y s , the p h y s i c a l b ase o f h i s c l i m b . And W i l l i a m s i s i n c e n s e d a t the d i s r e g a r d o f t h e n a t u r a l dwarf who i s t i e d o r g a n i c a l l y t o h i s r o o t , h a l f f o l i a g e , i n v o l v e d x d t h n a t u r e . The r o o t s o f t h e t r e e s a r e c r u s h e d by t h e i g n o r a n t l y c l a m b e r i n g crowds, by t h e a g g r e s s i v e l y i g n o r a n t p r e a c h e r , as t h e memory ( r o o t ) o f t h e mind (knowledge) i s stamped under. A tremendous sense o f ur g e n c y r i s e s t o a c l i m a x a t the end of Book 207 Two: " N o t h i n g c l e a r , " a l l vague, d u l l e d , " t h e l a n g u a g e worn 208 o u t , " murky, p o u r i n g down i n t u m b l i n g cadences out o f c o n t r o l , h e l p l e s s . The s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h e f i l t h and i n s a n i t y 209 d e p i c t e d as s o c i a l n o r m a l i t y i n t h e poem "To E l s i e , " w h i c h b e g i n s "The p u r e p r o d u c t s o f A m e r i c a / go c r a z y ^ - , " and w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e d u l l e d 109 i m a g i n a t i o n s w h i c h have no p e a s a n t t r a d i t i o n s t o g i v e them c h a r a c t e r b u t f l u t t e r and f l a u n t 210 s h e e r r a g s — Y e t t h e h i n t o f r e b i r t h i s s t i l l t h e r e . The F a l l s s t i l l o f f e r a new c o u r s e back t o t h e r o o t s : "Marry us! Ma r r y us! / 211 Or! be dragged down, dragged / under and l o s t . " The q u e s t f o r and the hope of an i n d i g e n o u s c o n s c i o u s n e s s c o n t i n u e s . There i s "no immediacy," no r e l a t i o n t o t h e l o c a l , p r e s e n t , n a t u r a l l i f e , b u t i t must come. Even a t t h e moment o f d e s p a i r , new hope b e g i n s . I n the d i s c a r d i n g o f dreams t h a t have f a i l e d , hopes t h a t have n o t m a t e r i a l i z e d , the r e a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f what one i s l e f t w i t h i n s i s t on t h e i r p r e s e n c e , the a c t u a l i t y o ut of w h i c h t h e new can be formed: No d e f e a t i s made up e n t i r e l y o f d e f e a t — s i n c e t h e w o r l d i t opens i s al w a y s a p l a c e f o r m e r l y u n s u s p e c t e d . A w o r l d l o s t , a w o r l d u n s u s p e c t e d beckons t o new p l a c e s and no w h i t e n e s s ( l o s t ) i s so w h i t e as the memory of w h i t e n e s s ,212 The r e t u r n i n t o t h e p a s t mind i s a t r i p i n t o a new w o r l d : t h e memory can r e j u v e n a t e hope. The l o s s o f aupresent t h i n g , o r o f a s t a t e o f b e i n g t h a t was hoped f o r , causes d e s p a i r ; b u t W i l l i a m s argues a g a i n s t t h e d e s p a i r becoming d e a t h - i n - l i f e — " I f a man d i e / i t 213 i s b e c a u s e d e a t h / has f i r s t / p o s s e s s e d h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . " The i m a g i n a t i o n can r e s u r r e c t p a s t l i f e out. o f the memory and f l u s h i t i n t o b r i g h t s i g n i f i c a n c e . "The D e s c e n t " a c t s as an a f f i r m a t i o n o f the r e j u v e n a t i n g v a l u e o f a c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f p a s t r o o t s upon a 110 p r e s e n t l y d i s i l l u s i o n e d and d e s p a i r i n g s p i r i t o r p e o p l e . The s t r u c t u r e o f P a t e r s o n h e l p s to r e v e a l the poem's f u l l meaning. The s t r u c t u r e o f P a t e r s o n , One f o l l o w s the r i v e r above the F a l l s . I t d e s c r i b e s the e a r l y l i f e o f the .area. I t i s a young r i v e r , g a t h e r i n g speed and s i z e ; a young community which l i t e r a l l y g a t h e r s steam and power i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ; a young man l o o k i n g w i t h e n t h u s i a s m a t the h i s t o r y o f d a r e - d e v i l pranks and e x c i t i n g t a l e s . The s m a l l r i v e r , q u i c k and f r e s h l i k e the e a r l y s e t t l e r s , slows down i n t o a s t e a d i e r , calmer, more s e t t l e d r i v e r town, a mood t h a t matches the more t h o u g h t f u l o b s e r v a t i o n s . But t h i s i s the calm b e f o r e the thunder, the w e l l i n g , r i p p l i n g , w eighty s t i l l n e s s b e f o r e the f a l l , Book One i s r e f l e c t i v e o f the p a s t , m e d i t a t i v e o v e r h i s t o r y , d a r k l y deep l i k e a f u l l r i v e r , w i t h d a n g e r o u s l y s w i f t u n d e r c u r r e n t s , unseen and u n f e l t , b u t ominous. Book Two i s the a r r i v a l o f the c a t a s t r o p h e , the sudden l e a p o v e r the b r i n k i n t o the empty a i r . "The modern r e p l i c a s " b u r s t i n t o the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y w i t h o u t the l e a s t knowledge of what w i l l happen n e x t . The r i v e r c r a s h e s down, b r o k e n and d i f f u s e : s o c i e t y f a l l s a p a r t . The descent of the F a l l s i s i n tune w i t h the d i v i s i o n and descent o f the s o c i e t y . Only s h a t t e r e d remnants o f the smooth r i v e r remain, b r o k e n fragments of the working s o c i e t y t h a t has gone over the b r i n k and c o l l a p s e d , d e s t r o y i n g i t s human p o t e n t i a l i n o r d e r to make a p r o f i t , d e s p o i l i n g i t human p r o c e s s e s f o r inhuman p r o d u c t s , l e a v i n g the p e o p l e e n s l a v e d and a i m l e s s l y f a l l i n g . The a c t i v i t y and n o i s e of the F a l l s and of the p e o p l e a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . The mass i n the p a r k r e s t on the b r i n k of the f a l l s . They are b o i s t e r o u s : they s h o u t , l a u g h , I l l dance, s i n g : c a r s are h o n k i n g t h e i r h o r n s , c h i l d r e n s h o u t i n g , dogs b a r k i n g , cops o r d e r i n g , e v a n g e l i s t s h a r a n g u i n g , music b l a r i n g , g i r l s c a j o l i n g . C o n v e r s a t i o n , monologue, speech, sermon, c h o r u s , a maze o f words f a l l a i m l e s s l y . Words f a i l . At the b r i n k , the c o n t r o l l i n g , b l o c k i n g f o r c e s of s e p a r a t i s m t h a t a l i e n a t e and d i v i d e t h e p e o p l e l e a d t h e community t o i t s d o w n f a l l . At the f i n a l c r a s h , knowledge b l o c k e d , the word descends t o m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s , the p e o p l e to i g n o r a n c e , impotence, f u t i l i t y , and the r i v e r to the r u p t u r e d , c h a o t i c maze at the base of the f a l l s . E v e r y t h i n g i s c o n f u s e d , and t h e c i t y descends to a p a t t e r n o f ^ e n d l e s s , u s e l e s s r e p e t i t i o n , the p e o p l e to d e s p a i r , l o n e l i n e s s , apathy and th e n u l . The w ater f a l l s o n l y so f a r down b e f o r e i t i s f o r c e d back up by the w ater f o l l o w i n g a f t e r w a r d s : d e s p a i r can o n l y become so r e a l and r e a l i z e d b e f o r e the knowlege o f i t s i g n a l s v i c t o r y o v e r i t . "The d e s c e n t f o l l o w s the a s c e n t — t o wisdom'/ as to 214 d e s p a i r . " There i s r e b i r t h i n the f a l l . Beyond the s y m b o l i c s t r u c t u r e of the n a t u r a l e l e m e n t s , "The D e s c e n t " p r o v i d e s a s t r u c t u r a l key. The l e t t e r i s i n c l u d e d as an added example i n i t s c o n t e n t o f the t o r r e n t i o u s c o l l a p s e of j u s t i c e and e q u a l i t y ; and i n i t s s t r u c t u r e as a n o t h e r descent i n t o h e l l f o r r e j u v e n a t i o n . The whole Book's d e l i n e a t i o n of the breakdown o f the w o r k i n g c l a s s e s , of the w e a r i n g out o f the language, the d e s t r u c t i o n of knowledge and i n s t r u c t i o n , the c o r r u p t i o n of democracy, the f a l s e promises and h y p o c r i s y of r e l i g i o n , and the p r i v a t e d e s p a i r of "The D e s c e n t , " c u l m i n a t e s i n the f i n a l l e t t e r o f almost s u i c i d a l f u t i l i t y . Y e t the p a t t e r n i s c l e a r — o u t of b i t t e r n e s s comes knowledge, out o f d e s p a i r comes 112 a new awakening : 2 ^ which i s a r e v e r s a l of d e s p a i r . The s t r u g g l e to overcome the torment b r i n g s new growth, s t r e n g t h and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n to o v e r r i d e the a n g u i s h . The l e t t e r i s i n c l u d e d , not as an example o f h a t r e d , b u t to r e v e a l s u f f e r i n g , b i t t e r n e s s , unequal economic o p p o r t u n i t y , the c o n f l i c t between s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s and the i n d i v i d u a l ' s n e c e s s a r y course o f a c t i o n , unequal r i g h t s between the s e x e s , the c o n f l i c t between the a r t i s t and the man, and the p e r s o n a l f e u d s , l o v e s and l o a t h i n g s . Most prominent i s the argument ov e r the woman's s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . Her female body i s an advantage to advancement i n a male-dominated w o r l d : i t i s an i n e q u a l i t y over men. But h e r f e m i n i n i t y becomes a d i s a d v a n t a g e when the woman's mind i s her a t t r i b u t e and h e r sex a p p e a l i s d e c l i n i n g . Beyond the l e t t e r ' s c o n t e n t , i t r e v e a l s the b e n e f i t to; be had by p o u r i n g out, w r i t i n g out, e x p l a i n i n g , c l a r i f y i n g and d e s t r o y i n g the t e r r o r s , the m i s e r y and f r u s t r a t i o n f a c i n g i n d i v i d u a l s . As i n the " T r i b u t e to the P a i n t e r s , " the a r t i s t ' s genius i s h i s a b i l i t y t o c a p t u r e h i s d e v i l s , t o d e l i n e a t e t h e i r t e r r i f y i n g a s p e c t s , and so to q u e l l t h e i r a t t a c k upon the unsure mind, now s e c u r e d by t h e i r d i s c o v e r y . Out of the awareness, t h e honest a c c e p t a n c e and e x p r e s s i o n o f the t e r r o r s , comes the s e l f - c o m p l e t i n g v i c t o r y , the r e b i r t h o f s p i r i t , and an a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n as testament o f the p u r g a t i v e p r o c e s s . The i r o n y of t h i s l o n g l e t t e r ' s e x p r e s s i o n of d e s p a i r i s t h a t the w r i t e r was unaware o f h e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h i s p r o c e s s o f c a t h a r t i c c r e a t i o n . She complained of h e r l i v i n g , 113 and was b i t t e r a g a i n s t a r t : she asked f o r h o n e s t y to l i f e , e l s e a r t i s h y p o c r i t i c a l and a g a i n "doesn't mean a God damned t h i n g . " Y e t , by t h i n k i n g out h e r torment, i f not a r t , then a t l e a s t the h o n e s t l y e x p r e s s e d f r e e thought t h a t goes i n t o the a r t i s t ' s u n f e t t e r e d p e r c e p t i o n , i s r e l e a s e d . By e l e v a t i n g the t e r r o r o f l i v i n g to a r t , the danger o f d e s p a i r i s p a s s e d . Out o f the f i n a l l e t t e r o f f r u s t r a t i o n and l o s t p r i d e a r i s e s an anger t h a t g i v e s s t r e n g t h and energy. The descent t o b i t t e r d e j e c t i o n and f a i l u r e causes anger and a g g r e s s i o n , the energy of w h i c h r e j u v e n a t e s c r e a t i v i t y as i t r e p l a c e s the t e r r o r w i t h wisdom and v i t a l i t y : G e n t l y ! G e n t l y ! as i n a l l t h i n g s an o p p o s i t e t h a t awakes the f u r y , c o n c e i v i n g knowledge by way o f d e s p a i r t h a t has no p l a c e 2 1 g to l a y i t s g l o s s y h e a d — CHAPTER VI PATERSON, Three: I m a g i n a t i o n Book Three b e g i n s w i t h c o n c r e t e p r o p o s a l s l e a r n e d from n a t u r e to remove the chaos, to b r i g h t e n the i g n o r a n c e , t o e n l i v e n the d u l l n e s s . But f i r s t , t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s of m a r r y i n g the elements r e q u i r e s the e l e v a t i o n o f the mind from the torment of i t s f r u s t r a t e d d e l u s i o n and d i s i l l u s i o n . The mind goes to t h e l i b r a r y f o r i n s p i r a t i o n . There i s no escape from r e a l i t y i n v o l v e d , f o r the w o r l d o f the c i t y has i t s e l f l o s t i t s g r i p on r e a l i t y , i t s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f s e n s u a l a c t i v i t y . The d u l l e d p e o p l e o f the c i t y l i v e on i l l u s i o n s f o i s t e d upon them by c h u r c h , s t a t e and b u s i n e s s , and on t h e i r own d e l u s i o n s d e s i g n e d to escape r e a l i t y , to deny the f a c t o f t h e i r m i s e r y . But once d e s p a i r i s r e a l i z e d , and a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t e v a s i o n , new l i f e can b e g i n . The L i b r a r y i s the p l a c e i n which the mind can escape back _t£ r e a l i t y . Books " l e a d the mind away" from emptiness and i l l u s i o n and the s o c i a l f a c a d e , l e a d the mind to s e l f - d i s c o v e r y , and on to r e c o v e r y : Drawn from the s t r e e t s we b r e a k o f f our mind's s e c u l s i o n and a r e taken up by the books' winds, s e e k i n g , s e e k i n g down the wind u n t i l we a r e unaware which i s the wind and w h i c h the wind's power over us . to l e a d the mind away 115 to r e c o v e r a v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y from the customary b l u r of n o r m a l i t y : Spent from wandering the u s e l e s s s t r e e t s t h e se months, f a c e s f o l d e d a g a i n s t him l i k e c l o v e r a t n i g h t f a l l , something has b r o u g h t him back to h i s own mind There, i n the l i b r a r y , i n h i s debased mind, a r o a r o f books from the wadded l i b r a r y o p presses him u n t i l h i s mind b e g i n s to d r i f t 218 B e a u t i f u l t h i n g : - — a dark flame, 219 a wind, a f l o o d — - c o u n t e r to a l l s t a l e n e s s . Out of the t u m b l i n g r o t , the d e s p a r a t e man seeks a b e a u t i f u l t h i n g , an i m a g i n a t i v e mind f r e e d from the monotonous, b i n d i n g c o r r u p t i o n of c i t y l i f e . The l i b r a r y s t i m u l a t e s t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , i n f l a t i n g the mind w i t h v i v i d images o f c o n s c i o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , r e f r e s h i n g the normal, d u l l and b l i n d p r e c o n c e p t i o n s of the ego: 220 "not I , n o t I , but the wind t h a t blows through me!" The b e a u t i f u l t h i n g i s the d e s i g n of the whole B o o k — " a dark flame, / a wind, a f l o o d — c o u n t e r to a l l s t a l e n e s s . " Wind, F i r e , F l o o d a r e the t h r e e n a t u r a l agents o f sudden c h a n g e — o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y , r a t h e r than e v o l u t i o n a r y , a l t e r a t i o n — o f h i g h speed r e c o v e r y , n o t of slow regrowth. V i o l e n t s u r g e r y i s needed to c o r r e c t the s i c k n e s s of a d i s e a s e d , d e f l a t e d and d e s t r o y e d mind. Each element p l a y s a s h o c k i n g p a r t i n the t h r e e sequences o f Book Three as a " c o u n t e r to a l l s t a l e n e s s . " . Each i s a sudden e r u p t i o n t h a t t r a n s -forms the e s t a b l i s h e d n a t u r e of t h i n g s , t h a t consumes—by w h i p p i n g away, b u r n i n g away, washing away-—the e x i s t i n g , s t a l e s t a t e of things 1; 116 221 " A l l changed, changed u t t e r l y : / A t e r r i b l e b e a u t y i s b o r n . " The r e v o l u t i o n d e s t r o y s t h e o l d c o r r u p t i o n , t h e u s e l e s s c o n f i n i n g s t r u c t u r e s , t h e o l d h a b i t s and customs; i t o b l i t e r a t e s t h e f a c a d e ; i t a l l o w s a r e n e w a l . The s t r u c t u r e o f Book Three i s o f t h e r i v e r a t t h e base o f t h e f a l l s , o f r e s h a p i n g and r e n e w i n g , t h e t u r m o i l o f c r e a t i o n ; and i n the r i v e r ' s b u b b l i n g maze o f r e c o n s t i t u t i o n i s the a nalogous s u g g e s t i o n f o r t h e v i o l e n t r e g e n e r a t i o n o f l i f e by the whip o f t h e w i n d , w h i c h then s t i r s up t h e f i r e , w h i c h i s o n l y quenched by t h e r o a r o f the f i n a l f l o o d , the r i v e r f l o w i n g on. The 222 w i n d has t h e power t o "break t h r o u g h / t h e d r y a i r o f t h e p l a c e , " o f t h e s t a l e s t r u c t u r e s . The t o r n a d o p o u r s o v e r t h e r o o f s o f P a t e r s o n , r i p p i n g , t w i s t i n g , t o r t u o u s : a wooden s h i n g l e d r i v e n h a l f i t s l e n g t h i n t o an oak ( t h e w i n d must have s t e e l e d i t , h e l d i t h a r d on b o t h s i d e s ) 2 2 3 The f i r e can d e s t r o y e v e r y t h i n g : — t h e whole c i t y doomed! And the f l a m e s t o w e r i n g . . . . Ah! r o t t e n beams tum~-b l i n g , 2 2 4 The f l o o d s c r a p e s t h i n g s c l e a n : A b r o k e n c a r i s f o u n d by t h e s e a r c h i n g w a t e r s . Loosened i t b e g i n s t o move. So be i t . O l d t i m b e r s s i g h — a n d y i e l d , . , .225 — - t h e w a t e r a t t h i s s t a g e no l u l l a b y b u t a p i s t o n , c o h a b i t o u s , s c o u r i n g t h e s t o n e s ^ 2 6 117 I t washes away e v e r y s i n g l e l o o s e t h i n g on e a r t h . Such a r e the l i t e r a l e f f e c t s on the l a n d of the n a t u r a l a g e n t s , but t h e r e a r e i n t r i n s i c c o u n t e r p a r t s of a c t i o n I n the mind and on the language. The f o r c e of the elements s t i r s up l i f e anew, i t r e v i t a l i z e s t h e mind and renews the language, a l l the time b r e a k i n g through b a r r i e r s to r e g e n e r a t e a new c y c l e o f growth. Wind, f i r e , f l o o d , and the e a r t h on which they o p e r a t e , comprise the range of v a r i a b l e s t h a t make up the environment. The degree o f e a c h determines the s t a t e o f n a t u r e . W i t h each one s u c c e s s i v e l y d o m i n a t i n g the e a r t h , t h e r e i s a p u r i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s by e x c e s s i v e e r o s i o n . The wind removes a l l l o o s e d e b r i s o r i n a d e q u a t e l y r o o t e d m a t t e r : the f i r e burns e v e r y t h i n g c o m b u s t i b l e i n t o i t s e l e m e n t a l r o o t - — g l a s s b o t t l e s to molten s i l i c a , wood to c a r b o n : the f l o o d washes the l a n d c l e a n to the s o l i d r o c k , t o the r o o t o f v e g e t a t i o n . O r i g i n s are r e d i s c o v e r e d . The same p u r i f y i n g p r o c e s s i s f i g u r a t i v e l y e n a c t e d upon the mind's mental environment. There, the f o u r elements, l i k e the m e d i e v a l humours, determine the p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t o r l a n d s c a p e of a c h a r a c t e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . From the b e g i n n i n g to end of the l o n g d e c r e e n e a r the s t a r t o f Book T h r e e , the p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t o f the elements i s f e l t : Blow! So be i t . B r i n g down! So be i t . Consume and submerge! So be i t . C y c l o n e , f i r e and f l o o d . So be i t . H e l l , New J e r s e y , . , . S h i e l d us from l o n e l i n e s s . So be i t . The mind r e e l s , s t a r t s back amazed from the r e a d i n g So be i t . 2 2 7 The p u r i f i c a t i o n i s a m i n d - s h a t t e r i n g , m i n d - r e d u c i n g e x t e r m i n a t i o n of s t a t i c thought p a t t e r n s , and i s thus a mind-expanding r e l e a s e of 118 the i m a g i n a t i o n . Taken l i t e r a l l y , the e l e m e n t a l d e v a s t a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g , e s t a b l i s h e d mind p a t t e r n i s extreme and b e w i l d e r i n g ; and so i t must be. The extreme mental exposure to the utmost power o f f i r e and water, a i r and e a r t h , o f f e r s the mind the n e c e s s a r y o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a P h o e n i x t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t o new, i m a g i n a t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h i s e n a b l e s new p e r c e p t i o n , and c o n s e q u e n t l y changed c o n c e p t i o n s and i d e a s about r e a l i t y and m o r a l i t y ; new p e r s p e c t i v e s dependent upon an u n c l u t t e r e d r e a l i z a t i o n o f the new w o r l d . Aware-ness i s renewed. At the same time, the p u r i f i c a t i o n o f the language i s t a k i n g p l a c e : u n l e s s t h e r e i s a new mind t h e r e cannot be a new l i n e , the o l d w i l l go on r e p e a t i n g i t s e l f w i t h r e c u r r i n g d e a d l i n e s s : w i t h o u t i n v e n t i o n . . . The elements remove, r e f r e s h and recompose the m a t e r i a l s of communication. The e x c e s s i v e p u r i f i c a t i o n a n n i h i l a t e s the c l u t t e r e d t h o u g h t l e s s uncommunicating h a b i t s of e x p r e s s i o n — t h e c l i c h e s , the h a b i t u a l thought and grammatical p a t t e r n s , the t r a d i t i o n a l u n c o n s c i o u s l y used sentence models, the r e p e t i t i o u s formulas o f m e aningless j a r g o n and meaningless t r i v i a l f o r m a l i t i e s l i k e emp t y 'thankyou's.' The t o t a l e f f e c t o f Book Three i s to l e a v e the l a n d -s c a p e — a n d t h e r e b y , the mind and th e l a n g u a g e — c l e a r , l e a n , c o n s c i o u s and a c t i v e , s i m p l y and u n c o n f u s e d l y r e p a i r e d to e f f e c t i v e w o r k i n g o r d e r f o r the b e t t e r r e a l i z a t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n of l i f e . The mind o f P a t e r s o n i s r e - e n v i g o r a t e d by the winds and f i r e s and f l o o d s t h a t s t i r f i c t i o n a l l y and m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n the books o f the 119 l i b r a r y . But once t h e i r e l e m e n t a l s t r e n g t h i s drawn i n t o mind, " h i s mind b e g i n s t o d r i f t . " The awakening, r e f r e s h i n g i n f l u e n c e l a s t s i n the mind beyond t h e r e a d i n g , so t h a t the w i n d , and f i r e , and f l o o d keep s t i r r i n g up f r e e i m a g i n a t i v e t h o u g h t s and s u g g e s t i o n s from one's own l i f e and e x p e r i e n c e , t h e mind's c a p a c i t y f o r u n d e r s t a n d -i n g and v i s i o n expanded o u t s i d e t h e v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f b o o k s . Wind, f i r e and f l o o d a r e metaphors f o r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f a dead c y c l e and t h e i n s e m i n a t i o n o f l i v i n g new g r o wth i n t h e mind of P a t e r s o n . T h e i r power, t a k e n i n t o t h e mind, d e v a s t a t e s t h e o l d m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s o f h a b i t s and customs, o f u n c o n s c i o u s p r e c o n c e i v e d r e s p o n s e . The c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e w i n d ' s movement o f t h i n g s on e a r t h i s t h e mind's movement b o t h away from t h e f i x e d body and away from i t s own f i x e d i d e a s . The w i n d blows the mind i n t o new i m a g i n a t i v e r e a l m s . The mind e n t e r s the l a n d o f dreams, where i n l i b r a r y b o o k s , "dead men's dreams, c o n f i n e d by t h e s e w a l l s , r i s e n , / 229 seek an o u t l e t . " W i l l i a m s wants t o ( e x p a n d h i s m e n t a l p o t e n t i a l b y t h e use o f dreams. — - t h e c o s t o f dreams, i n w h i c h we s e a r c h , a f t e r a s u r g e r y of t h e w i t s and must t r a n s l a t e , q u i c k l y s t e p by s t e p o r be d e s t r o y e d — s u n d e r a s p e l l t o r e m a i n a c a s t r a t e C a s l o w l y d e s c e n d i n g v e i l c l o s i n g about t h e mind c u t t i n g the mind away SILENCE! , . . And as h i s mind f a d e s , j o i n i n g the o t h e r s , he seeks t o b r i n g i t b a c k — b u t i t e l u d e s him, f l u t t e r s a g a i n and f l i e s o f f and a g a i n away , " u 120 The waking from the m e a n i n g f u l h y p e r ^ r e a l i t y o f dreams i s the d e s t r u c t i v e r e t u r n and r e l a p s e i n t o d u l l , i g n o r a n t n o r m a l i t y , d u l l i n g i l l u s i o n and d e l u s i o n , d i v o r c e d d e s p a i r — n o r m a l l y c a l l e d , r e a l i t y ! To escape back to l i f e , t o f l y f o r one's l i f e , the wind s t i r s the i m a g i n a t i o n . Escape from i t — b u t not by r u n n i n g away. Not by " c o m p o s i t i o n . " Embrace the f o u l n e s s — t h e b e i n g t a u t , b a l a n c e d between e t e r n i t i e s . . . And as r e v e r i e g a i n s and y o u r j o i n t s l o o s e n the t r i c k ' s d o n e ! ^ ! The mind must be l e t l o o s e to t r a v e l a t the same speed as the d r e a m - a s s o c i a t i o n s . The attempt to f o r c e a n a l y t i c a l c o n t r o l i s d i s a s t r o u s . By t h e same token, the e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s s t a t e o f mind must r e f l e c t the a c t i v i t y , "embracing the f o u l n e s s " by an i m i t a t i v e l o o s e n e s s o f form t h a t does not d i v o r c e the n a t u r a l dream from I t s s o u r c e by t r y i n g to s t r u c t u r e i t i n t o a n a l y t i c a l " c o m p o s i t i o n . " The i m a g i n a t i o n does not p r o v i d e j u s t a temporary r e l i e f from the ' r e a l ' w o r l d — t h a t i s , the normal w o r l d — o f i l l u s i o n and s e l f - d e l u s i o n from monotony. I t i s an escape to a c o n d i t i o n o f c o n t i n u a l change, of s u c c e s s i v e r e b i r t h s , o f c o n t i n u o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , of a permanently r e f r e s h i n g wind i n the mind, o f changing l i f e . I t i s an 'escape' TO f a c e the r e a l i t y by a c c e p t i n g and thus overcoming the d e s p a i r and torment of l i v i n g . To s t a r t l i v i n g and r e l i v i n g f r e s h l y , the wind i s the i m a g i n a t i o n i n the mind. I t i s t h e power of the a r t i s t ' s i m a g i n a t i o n t h a t e n a b l e s t h e v i v i d p e r c e p t i o n o f a c l a r i f i e d r e a l i t y . "By v i r t u e o f works 121 o f a r t t h e b e a u t y o f woman i s r e l e a s e d t o f l o w w h i t h e r i t w i l l up 232 and down the y e a r s . The i m a g i n a t i o n t r a n s c e n d s the t h i n g i t s e l f . " C a u t i o n must be t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i m a g i n a t i o n a i d s man's mind t o awareness n o t i n t o p e r m a n e n t l y dreamy e s c a p a d e s . The i m a g i n a t i o n can c r a c k t h r o u g h t h e d e c e p t i v e f a c a d e , t h e w i n d can b l o w away th e c l u t t e r e d mind s t r u c t u r e s . The i m a g i n a t i o n can be used to u n i t e a n y t h i n g , the w i n d to d u s t o f f e v e r y t h i n g , and b o t h must be. • 233 "A m a r r i a g e r i d d l e " s u g g e s t e d by W i l l i a m s may be i n t e r p r e t e d , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t o c l a r i f y t h e meaning o f the w i n d . The n o r m a l s t a t e o f s o c i a l man r e c o r d e d i n P a t e r s o n i s d u l l n e s s — a p a t h y , u n c o n s c i o u s i g n o r a n c e , w i l f u l b l i n d n e s s . W i l l i a m s f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e s t h i s s t a t e o f u n r e l a t e d n e s s from knowledge of one's s e l f and one's e n v i r o n m e n t as " d i v o r c e . " I n t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e n , m a r r i a g e i s a k i n t o a u n i o n o f man and n a t u r e , man and man (and woman), and man's body and h i s mind. The mind, whipped i n t o a c t i v i t y and c o n s c i o u s u n d e r s t a n d i n g by t h e w i n d o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , r e t u r n s t o r e a l l i f e . B e f o r e , i n h i s d i v o r c e d s t a t e , man f e a r e d b e a u t y : But i t i s t r u e , t h e y f e a r i t more tha n d e a t h , b e a u t y i s f e a r e d more t h a n d e a t h , more tha n t h e y f e a r d e a t h B e a u t i f u l t h i n g — a n d marry o n l y t o d e s t r o y , i n p r i v a t e , i n t h e i r p r i v a c y o n l y t o d e s t r o y , t o h i d e ( i n m a r r i a g e ) t h a t t h e y may d e s t r o y and n o t be p e r c e i v e d i n i t — t h e d e s t r o y i n g Death w i l l be too l a t e t o b r i n g us a i d What end b u t l o v e , t h a t s t a r e s d e a t h i n t h e eye? A c i t y , a m a r r i a g e — t h a t s t a r e s d e a t h i n t h e eye234 The r i d d l e i s s o l v e d By W i l l i a m s ' b r o a d meaning o f ' d i v o r c e d . ' Beauty i s f e a r e d : f e a r r e s u l t s from the unknown, from i g n o r a n c e , from a mind d i v o r c e d of knowledge and the power to h e l p i t s e l f . But the attempt t o g a i n t h a t knowledge, t o 'know' a t h i n g , as t o know s e x u a l l y i s to be one w i t h i t , t o marry i t , i s u s u a l l y a f e a r f u l and greedy r e a c t i o n . The attempt i s p o s s e s s i v e , not s a c r i f i c i a l ; i t i s d e s t r u c t i v e , not c r e a t i v e . M a r r i a g e i s attempted, b u t to g r a s p , dominate and k i l l i n the k n o w l e d g e — to d e s t r o y by p o s s e s s i o n . The c r e a t i o n o f a f u l l m a r r i a g e , o f f u l l knowledge, r e q u i r e s the c a r e f u l h o l d i n g o f the t h i n g i n the mind u n t i l i t i s a c q u i r e d p e a c e f u l l y . The c l u e i s l o v e : "What end b u t l o v e , t h a t s t a r e s death i n "•.'the e y e ? " Only by l o v i n g the t h i n g w i l l i t become known. Only by b e i n g g e n t l e and a l l o w i n g the t h i n g ( t h e p a r t n e r , the e q u a l o b j e c t o f one's d e s i r e to know) an e q u a l freedom t o be i t s e l f , can t h a t t h i n g become known as i t s e l f . To hate the t h i n g , to f e a r i t and attempt to grasp i t u n l o v i n g l y , i s to d e s t r o y i t and t r a n s f o r m i t b e f o r e i t can become known. Knowledge, a c c o r d i n g t o W i l l i a m s , comes by way o f l o v e . F o r what i s t h e r e b u t l o v e , t h a t s t a r e s d e a t h i n the eye, l o v e , b e g e t t i n g m a r r i a g e — not infamy, not d e a t h 2 3 5 Love i s t h a t b e h a v i o u r w h i c h a l l o w s the d i s c o v e r y o f knowledge. Only t h r o u g h l o v e can the ma r r i a g e o f man and n a t u r e , man and h i s environment, man and h i s awareness o f h i m s e l f through known space t h a t i s not a meaningless vacuum, come about. Y i e l d i n g to the i m a g i n a t i o n of the wind o f f e r s a l o v i n g m a r r i a g e p r o s p e c t : a r e u n i o n w i t h r e a l i t y a f t e r t h e i g n o r a n c e and d i v o r c e o f normal e x i s t e n c e . Had L e a r i n W i l l i a m s ' poem y i e l d e d i n m a r r i a g e to t h e storm, he 123 might have known the n a t u r e of h i s environment and of h i m s e l f . I n s t e a d , h i s a g g r e s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e l e f t him f i g h t i n g the wind, e x i l e d from power and f a m i l y , and f i n a l l y , i n s a n e l y , from knowledge o f h i m s e l f . Y i e l d i n g t o the i m a g i n a t i o n r e l e a s e s the mind from i t s ego's d e s t r u c t i v e urges to p o s s e s s . F o r W i l l i a m s , the i m a g i n a t i o n i s the s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g p a t h t o l o v e , f o r i t r e l e a s e s the mind's p o t e n t i a l to p e r c e i v e w i t h o u t p r e c o n c e i v e d d e s i r e s to d e s t r o y . A f r e e d i m a g i n a t i o n a l l o w s the mind to un d e r s t a n d and know a t h i n g o b j e c t i v e l y , i n s t e a d o f i t b e i n g d e s t r o y e d as i t i s s u b j u g a t e d i n t o c o n t r o l . There i s no enslavement. The ; ' i m a g i n a t i v e , l o v i n g mind can 'marry' a t h i n g w i t h a b s o l u t e r e s p e c t f o r i t s i n d i v i d u a l i t y , and thus g a i n f u l l knowledge o f i t s i n t r i n s i c b e a u t y , i t s i n d i v i d u a l worth. C l o s e knowledge o f a t h i n g w i t h o u t i t s d e s t r u c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . I t i s a l s o W i l l i a m s ' o b j e c t i v e . The wind whips up the i m a g i n a t i o n whips up the mind whips up the u n d e r s t a n d i n g : ( i n the u p - d r a f t ) and t h e poor c o t t o n -s p i n n e r , over the r o o f s , p r e p a r i n g to d i v e l o o k s down S e a r c h i n g among books; the mind elsewhere l o o k i n g down Se e k i n g . The i m a g i n a t i o n , upland away, can g i v e a c l e a r e r , f r e s h e r f o c u s to an e l e v a t e d , e n l i g h t e n e d mind, whose d e s t r u c t i v e l y d o m i n a t i n g methods o f a c q u i r i n g knowledge have been y i e l d e d i n f a v o u r of an u n s e l f i s h r e c e p t i v i t y . The p r o c e s s e d p u r g a t i o n r e q u i r e s the t e s t o f f i r e . The f i r e i n the mind i s not o f the i m a g i n a t i o n , b u t as f i r e reduces m a t t e r , 124 the f i e r y mind burns up the waste m a t e r i a l o f thought, the r o t t e n p i l e s of c o n f i n i n g thought s t r u c t u r e . The f i r e reduces the mind to i t s b a r e , p u r i f i e d e s s e n t i a l s , s c o r c h e s away the s u p e r f i c i a l e x c r e t i a , the dead l a y e r s o f c r u s t y , a c c e p t e d and e s t a b l i s h e d i d e a s t h a t p r o h i b i t f r e s h p e r c e p t i o n . The mind i s on f i r e ( b r e a t h i n g the books i n ) the a c r i d fumes, f o r what t h e y c o u l d d e c i p h e r w a r p i n g the sense to d e t e c t the norm, to b r e a k t h r o u g h the s k u l l o f custom 237 A l l the o l d , worn-out s t r u c t u r e s a r e consumed; the o b j e c t s , the f i x e d i d e a s , the dead l e t t e r s Ah! r o t t e n beams tum-b l i n g , an o l d b o t t l e mauled The n i g h t was made day by the f l a m e s , flames on w h i c h he f e d — g r u b b i n g the page (the b u r n i n g page) l i k e a w o r m — f o r e n l i g h t e n m e n t 2 3 8 The image i s c l e a r e r . The darkness of the mind, dimmed by the u n c o n s c i o u s i g n o r a n c e o f h a b i t u a l t h i n k i n g , i s l i t up, burned, purged, p u r i f i e d ; the r o t t e n , p r e - s e t thoughts tumble as they a r e d i s c o v e r e d , 239 g i v i n g way to new p e r c e p t i o n : "a c h a s t i t y o f a n n i h i l a t i o n . " The essence i s r e c o v e r e d i n the ashes, P h o e n i x - l i k e , the mind c l e a n s e d and l e f t o n l y w i t h i t s c a p a c i t y t o see and u n d e r s t a n d , a l l the d i s -g u i s e s and e v a s i v e t e c h n i q u e s s i n g e d o f f . The mind's v i s i o n i s a g a i n awoken to dreams, r e a l i z a t i o n s . m o r e v i v i d than n o r m a l : 125 As though i t were w h o l l y out o f our dreams, as i n d e e d i t i s , u n p a r a l l e l e d i n our most sanguine dreams The p e r s o n submerged^^ i n wonder, the f i r e become the p e r s o n The dream i s the p u r i f i e d mental essence o f r e a l i t y . I t i s v i v i d and b r i g h t . The dream a l l o w s q u i c k , u n c l u t t e r e d a s s o c i a t i o n s of thought w i t h o u t g u i l t , w i t h o u t the f e a r f u l h a b i t o f h i d i n g one's s e l f f^om o t h e r s by a s o c i a l l y m oral p u b l i c f a c a d e , w i t h o u t " e x i l i n g one's s e l f from one's s e l f . " The darkness o f the mind i s e n l i g h t e n e d . The knowledge of t h e r e a l i t y r e v e a l e d i n the dream i s n o t i g n o r e d . The mind i s r e c e p t i v e to the e x p e r i e n c e o f the f i r e , i s a t t e n t i v e to t h e o b j e c t as i t i s , n o t a a s i t can be p o s s e s s e d . The f i r e becomes i n t e r n a l . But i t i s the dream i t s e l f t h a t one must e x p e r i e n c e , f e e l f i e r i l y i n the i m a g i n a t i o n , n o t i n the m e t h o d i c a l l y i n t e r p r e t i n g and a b s t r a c t i n g mind. There i s a f u r t h e r i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n of man and the el e m e n t s . The f l o o d and the man and the mind a r e r f u s e d . " A g a i n i s the magic 241 word , / t u r n i n g the i n out :" says W i l l i a m s w i t h a pun, b u t more s e r i o u s l y meaning t h a t t h e r e i s no end p r o d u c t o f t h i s p u r i f i c a t i o n , j u s t a c o n t i n u a l p r o c e s s of r e c r e a t i o n , o f a v o i d i n g h a b i t , d u l l n e s s , u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s and the s a f e t y o f s t a t i c r e s t . The f l o o d drowns the e a r t h , e x t i n g u i s h e s the f i r e , and washes away the l o o s e m a t e r i a l : And t h e r e r i s e s a c o u n t e r p a r t , o f r e a d i n g , s l o w l y , overwhelming the mind; . . . The s t r e a m grows l e a d e n w i t h i n him, h i s l i l i e s d r a g , 2 ^ H i s r e s i s t a n c e to change h o l d s him back; he hangs on t o h i s e s t a b l i s h e d 126 n a t u r e . The f l o o d c o n t i n u e s the p u r i f i c a t i o n o f the mind by t h e e l e m e n t s . The f i r e had b u r n t o f f the e x c e s s , r e d u c i n g - ; t h e mind t o i t s e s s e n t i a l u n c l u t t e r e d mass: t h e b o t t l e was t r a n s f o r m e d , b u t ' e s s e n t i a l l y ' t h e same. The f l o o d now removes t h e scum, the impure r e s i d u e . The f l o o d washes away the damaging i n f l u e n c e s , c a r v i n g out a l l t h e l o o s e m a t e r i a l , l e a v i n g h o p e f u l l y " — f e r t i l e (?) 243 mud." I t c l e a n s e s t h e mind, w a s h i n g out the r o t : Heavy p l a i t s t u m b l i n g m a s s i v e , y e l l o w i n t o t h e c l e f t , b e l l o w i n g — g i v i n g way t o t h e s p r e a d o f the f l o o d as i t l i f t s t o r e c o g n i t i o n i n a r a c h i t i c b r a i n 2 ^ The b r a i n , r i c k e t t y , s o f t - c e n t r e d , i s drowned; the p o i s o n o u s e x c e s s , t h e b l i n d i n g , b l o c k i n g , d e f o r m i n g pus i s d r a i n e d o f f . The f l o o d i s p a i n f u l , b u t i t must be y i e l d e d t o and a l l o w e d i n . From ".the f l o o d , "an a c r i d , a r e v o l t i n g s t e n c h . . . f o u l s t h e mind . How t o b e g i n t o f i n d a s h a p e — t o begin.-to b e g i n a g a i n , ,245 t u r n i n g the i n s i d e o u t . A f i n a l c l e a n s i n g p r o c e s s i s e s s e n t i a l t o p u t out the f i r e and t o wash away th e d e b r i s . Y e t , p u r i f i e d w i t h i n , the mind must now use i t s r e f r e s h m e n t and r e v e a l i t s e l f , t u r n i n g i t s i n s i d e o u t , e t e r n a l l y o p e n i n g t o t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s ; c o n t i n u a l l y s e e k i n g new ways to b r i n g b e a u t y o u t o f the mind: Does t h e p u l p need f u r t h e r m a c e r a t i o n ? t a k e down th e w a l l s , I n v i t e the t r e s p a s s . A f t e r a l l , the slums u n l e s s t h e y a r e ( l i v i n g ) w i p e d out t h e y cannot be r e -c o n s t i t u t e d ,246 127 T h i s i s t h e f i n a l c l e a n s i n g p r o c e s s , t h e o p e n i n g and r e v e a l i n g o f the mind. A l l the o l d i d e a s have been drowned w i t h t h e i r r o o t s , and t h e new growth o f the f r e s h and i m a g i n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n can take p l a c e . The f o r c e o f t h e e l e m e n t s renews t h e l a n g u a g e — t h e e x p r e s s i o n , as i t does t h e m i n d — t h e p e r c e p t i o n , by b l o w i n g , b u r n i n g and c l e a n s i n g t h e language t o r e v e a l t h e words c l e a r l y . Book 247 "Three w i l l seek a language t o make them v o c a l . " The w o r l d o f P a t e r s o n , f r e s h l y d i s c o v e r e d and p e r c e i v e d , must be f r e s h l y e x p r e s s e d . The new language t h a t w i l l g i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o t h i s w o r l d i s f o u n d by l i s t e n i n g t o t h e F a l l s , by l i s t e n i n g t o the speech o f t h e w o r l d around W i l l i a m s , t h e speech o f the w i n d and t h e f i r e and the f l o o d — u n t i l t h e language t a k e s on the sound o f t h e el e m e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . And t h e l a n g u a g e a c t u a l l y comes to p o s s e s s the ' e s s e n t i a l ' q u a l i t y o f t h e ag e n t s f o r t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n . W i t h o u t r e p e a t i n g t h e whole t r i p a r t i t e p r o c e s s o f cause and e f f e c t , t h e el e m e n t s r e f r e s h t h e la n g u a g e . The words have l o s t t h e i r meaning, have been d r i v e n down i n t o r i g i d p a t t e r n s o f s e n t e n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n t o u n c o n s c i o u s c h a n n e l s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The words have been mixed by h a b i t i n t o u n i m a g i n a t i v e , s e n s e l e s s c l i c h e s ; " t h e terms / f o r e i g n , c o n v e y i n g no immediacy, p o u r i n g down. / - - d i v o r c e d . . . w i t h o u t a / l a n g u a g e , t o n g u e - t i e d / the language ..248 „ . . . . worn o u t . But t h e r e xs a new xma g x n a t i v e l a n g u a g e l e a r n e d from the e l e m e n t s : What language c o u l d a l l a y o u r t h i r s t s , what w i n d s l i f t u s , what f l o o d s b e a r us p a s t d e f e a t s b u t . s o n g b u t d e a t h l e s s song ? 128 The song o f the w i n d comes: — t h e v o i c e r i s e s , n e g l e c t e d ( w i t h i t s new) t h e u n f a l t e r i n g l a n g u a g e , I s t h e r e no r e l e a s e ? Can nobody h e a r t h e message, h e a r t h e l a n g u a g e of the wind? "So 251 much t a l k o f the l a n g u a g e — w h e n t h e r e a r e no e a r s . " The song o f t h e w i n d i s a r e p r o a c h , a d e s p a i r i n g v o i c e , a p i t i l e s s savage w h i p p i n g r e m i n d e r o f freedom and c o r r u p t i o n . B r e a t h l e s s and i n h a s t e t h e v a r i o u s n i g h t ( o f b o o k s ) awakes! awakes and b e g i n s (a second t i m e ) i t s song,252 The song o f t h e f i r e i s a l a u g h t e r , a f l a m e t o b u r n up the w a s t e d u l l c l a y words and f i r e them anew: V o i c e l e s s , h i s a c t i o n g r a c i n g a f l a m e — b u t l o s t , l o s t b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no way t o l i n k t h e s y l l a b l e s anew t o i m p r i s o n him No t w i s t of t h e flame i n h i s own image : he goes nameless u n t i l a N i k e s h a l l l i v e i n h i s h o n o r — And f o r t h a t , i n v e n t i o n i s l a c k i n g , t h e words a r e l a c k i n g t h a t w o u l d c a p t u r e the p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e man and t h e f i r e f u s e d i n l a n g u a g e t h a t i s a l s o f u s e d t o and by the f i r e . But t h e f u s i o n o f f i e r y language m e l t s t h i n g s t o g e t h e r , c a p t u r i n g t h e p e r c e p t i o n i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the e x p r e s s i o n , "cohabit° us:" R i s i n g , w i t h t h e w h i r l i n g m o t i o n , the p e r s o n p a s s e d i n t o the f l a m e , becomes th e f l a m e — t h e f l a m e t a k i n g o v e r the p e r s o n . , 254 — w i t h a r o a r , an o u t c r y The meaning o f i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n i s c a p t u r e d by an i m i t a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h the p h r a s e s a r e r e p e a t e d u n t i l t h e y f o l d m u s i c a l l y i n t o e a c h o t h e r , and t h e n b u r s t i n t o f l a m e s . More g r a p h i c a l l y 129 f l i c k e r i n g , t h e l a n g u a g e can p i c t o r i a l i z e the p e r c e p t i o n and/or the l a n g u a g e be formed t o emphasise the a c t u a l p e r c e p t i o n ' s sound, s i g h t , s e n s e . The f i r e suggesfe a more s e n s u a l language t o l o o s e n i t from i t s n o r m a l l i n e a r u n r e l a t e d n e s s to a n o n - l i n e a r n a t u r a l w o r l d : the b e a u t y i s f r e e d from t h e s t r i c t l i n e a r mind: I c a n ' t be h a l f g e n t l e enough, h a l f t e n d e r enough t o w a r d y o u , t o w a r d y o u , i n a r t i c u l a t e , n o t h a l f l o v i n g enough BRIGHTen th e co r n e r where you a r e ! — a f l a m e . b l a c k p l u s h , a d a r k flame.255 The i n a r t i c u l a t i o n has become i n t r i n s i c t o t h e s t r u c t u r e — a r t i c u l a t e d i n a r t i c u l a t i o n ! The flame, b u r n s the l a n g u a g e , w h i c h now f l i c k e r s v i s u a l l y and a u r a l l y t o p o r t r a y t o t h e i m a g i n a t i o n the s e n s u a l q u a l i t y o f t h e f l a m e i n t h e mind s h u d d e r i n g i n i n a r t i c u l a t e t e n d e r n e s s , t o o l o v i n g l y h e s i t a n t t o t o u c h f i r m l y . The song o f t h e f l o o d e n t e r s t h e mind and i s r e l e a s e d i n a form i m i t a t i n g f l o o d i n w h i c h t h e words t h e m s e l v e s o c c a s i o n a l l y gush f o r t h . T e x t s mount and c o m p l i c a t e them-s e l v e s , l e a d t o f u r t h e r t e x t s and t h o s e t o s y n o p s e s , d i g e s t s and emendations. So be i t . U n t i l t h e words b r e a k l o o s e o r — s a d l y h o l d , unshaken.256 The language i s c l u t t e r e d and s t o d g y , s t u c k i n t h e mud, and w i l l r emain so u n t i l the words b r e a k l o o s e u t t e r l y from t h e i r s t i f f l i n e a r r e g u l a r i t y t h a t i s n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e f l o o d ; u n t i l t h e words c a p t u r e g r a p h i c a l l y and r h y t h m i c a l l y t h e form o f the f l o o d j 130 u n t i l the f l o o d e f f e c t s a new f l o o d i n g language-- a r e d - b u t t e d r e v e r s i b l e m i n u t e - g l a s s l o a d e d w i t h s a l t - l i k e w h i t e c r y s t a l s f l o w i n g f o r t i m i n g e g g s 2 5 7 W i l l i a m s s e l e c t s from anywhere, h a p h a z a r d l y , o f t e n mean-ingles sly . but the d e s c r i p t i o n s are s t r u c t u r a l l y i m p o r t a n t as c o n t r a s t i n g f o r m a l examples. N o n s e n s i c a l d a t a , r i g i d v e r s e s o f s e m i - p h o n e t i c c o n v e r s a t i o n , a d e t a i l e d s c i e n t i f i c r e p o r t of a w e l l - d r i l l i n g v e r t i c a l l y s p aced, a l l combine awkwardly, c r a s h t o g e t h e r c a r e -l e s s l y , l i k e d e b r i s i n a ^ j f l o o d . But what i s much more m e a n i n g f u l than the mere v i s u a l g r a p h i c s of a w r i t t e n language i s a new language o f speech f u s e d w i t h the o b j e c t p e r c e i v e d , w i t h i t s song and sound. Remembering t h a t W i l l i a m s ' o b j e c t i v e i s to r e v e r s e the p a t t e r n of d e s p a i r and d i v o r c e , How to beg-f_n. to f i n d a s h a p e — t o b e g i n t o b e g i n a g a i n , t u r n i n g the i n s i d e out : to f i n d one p h r a s e t h a t w i l l l i e m a r r i e d b e s i d e another f o r d e l i g h t . ? — s e e m s beyond a t t a i n m e n t . . . . L e t the words f a l l any way at a l l — t h a t they may h i t l o v e a s l a n t . I t w i l l be a r a r e v i s i t a t i o n . They want to r e s c u e too much, the f l o o d has done i t s wo r k 2 5 8 The f l o o d i n v o k e s a language of f l o o d : "the r o a r o f the p r e s e n t , " once h e a r d , e n t e r s the form o f the language. The p a s t above, the f u t u r e below and the p r e s e n t r o a r i n g down: the r o a r , the r o a r o f the p r e s e n t , a s p e e c h -i s , o f n e c e s s i t y , my s o l e c o n c e r n . . . . The language cascades i n t o the i n v i s i b l e , beyond and above : the f a l l s o f w h i c h i t i s the v i s i b l e p a r t — 131 Not u n t i l I have made of i t a r e p l i c a w i l l my s i n s be f o r g i v e n and my d i s e a s e c u r e d — i n wax:259 W i l l i a m s ' " s o l e c o n c e r n " i s to f i n d a new language t h a t w i l l e x a c t l y r e p r e s e n t - — " a r e p l i c a " o f "the modern r e p l i c a s " o f "the e l e m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r of the p l a c e " — t h e i n t r i n s i c r e a l i t y o f a p l a c e as i t r e v e a l s i t s e l f to the e n l i g h t e n e d mind i n i t s own v o i c e . No g h o s t l y p a s t , n o r e t h e r e a l f u t u r e , e x p r e s s i o n w i l l work: I must f i n d my meaning and l a y i t , w h i t e , b e s i d e the s l i d i n g w a t e r : m y s e l f — comb out the l a n g u a g e — o r succumb — w h a t e v e r the complexion. ^ ® W i l l i a m s must p u r i f y the language by wind, f i r e and f l o o d . He must f i n d the e x a c t words t o p r e s e n t a r e p l i c a o f the p r e s e n t , e s s e n t i a l , e l e m e n t a l r e a l i t y c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d — o r be drowned i n i n a r t i c u l a t e , i g n o r a n t s i l e n c e . There must be the p e r f e c t e d e x p r e s s i o n o f a language m a r r i e d to the r e a l p e r c e p t i o n — o r d i v o r c e d , w o r d l e s s torment. W i l l i a m s t r i e s t o r e f o r m the language to marry a r e n a s c e n t p e r c e p t i o n of a changing r e a l i t y . The 'dream' w o r l d o f the i m a g i n a t i o n must p e n e t r a t e the mind's p e r c e p t i o n and i t s e x p r e s s i o n o f i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g . CHAPTER V I I PATERSON, Four: Love P a r t I i s an i d y l o f Corydon and P h y l l i s , a s u p p o s e d l y charming s t o r y o f p a s t o r a l warmth and r u s t i c s i m p l i c i t y . In r e a l i t y , i t i s a d i s t r e s s i n g account o f urban a l i e n a t i o n and the complex d i s o r d e r s o f c i t y l i v i n g : m ental c o n f u s i o n and p h y s i c a l p e r v e r s i o n . On the s u r f a c e , t h e s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s a young c o u n t r y g i r l ' s a r r i v a l i n the b i g c i t y i n s e a r c h of e x c i t e m e n t and a d v e n t u r e . Underneath, h e r e x p e r i e n c e s r e v e a l t h a t everybody i s s e a r c h i n g f o r an escape, an i l l u s i o n , an i d y l , and though she i s sometimes unaware o f i t , sometimes i n d i f f e r e n t to i t , she i s b e i n g used by the p e o p l e she meets to s a t i s f y t h e i r d e s i r e s . P a t e r s o n has expanded t o the c i t y : i t i s a b r o a d e n i n g o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t o a l a r g e r and more modern s o c i a l environment. At the same time, the mind o f P a t e r s o n encompasses l a r g e r , i f o n l y e q u a l l y v a l i d , i n t e l l e c t u a l concerns w h i c h are the e f f e c t of a g r e a t e r s o c i a l c o n t a c t — t h e torment of a l i e n a t i o n , s c h i z o p h r e n i a , the q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l u e o f v i r t u e , the d e g e n e r a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t , o f s e n s i t i v i t y and of l o v e . As the p r e v i o u s Book had r e c o r d e d the d e c l i n e o f the i m a g i n a t i o n and t h e r e b y c a l l e d f o r i t s r e c o v e r y , Book Four r e c o r d s the d e c l i n e and debasement of l o v e . W i l l i a m s c a l l s f o r the r e b i r t h o f l o v e and t r i e s to undermine l o v e ' s enemies. 133 C i t y l i f e i s u n n a t u r a l . The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a p a i r o f t r a d i t i o n a l l y r u r a l l o v e r s i n a c i t y e n v i r o n m e n t i n v i t e s a l l k i n d s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s about t h e ' d i s p l a c e d ' n a t u r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s . Corydon and P h y l l i s a r e , as s h e p h e r d s , a l o n e and a l i e n a t e d i n t h e c i t y : y e t w h i l e s hepherds a r e a l o n e b u t a p a r t o f the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e s e two r u s t i c s a r e a l o n e and u t t e r l y d i v o r c e d f r o m t h e s o u r c e o f t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d . The c i t y has d i s p l a c e d t h e l a n d s c a p e and l e f t the p a i r r o o t l e s s : P h y l l i s has l e f t h e r home and i s 261 reminded by Corydon "never { t o ] be ashamed o f y o u r o r i g i n s : " C orydon, p a s t o r a l l y r o m a n t i c i s i n g the remnants of t h e n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e , bemoans " a l l t h a t ' s l e f t o f t h e e l e m e n t a l , t h e p r i m i t i v e / 262 i n t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . I c a l l them my sheep," Her sheep r e p r e s e n t an i m a g i n a t i v e i d y l l i c escape from what a r e r e a l l y i s l a n d s c o v e r e d i n w h i t e c r a p . The u n n a t u r a l n e s s o f the b i g c i t y l i s f u r t h e r shown by the c o n t r a s t between t h e appearance o f i d y l l i c l o v e and t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e u n p r o d u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P h y l l i s i s s e p a r a t e d from h e r drunk f a t h e r : t h e r e i s no l o v e l o s t and no t r u s t . Corydon i s n o t a y o u t h f u l s h e p h e r d who i s enamoured by a comely m i l k maid: she i s a l o v e l e s s o l d maid. She p u r c h a s e s P h y l l i s ' company w i t h money and t h e t e m p t a t i o n o f l u x u r y , and h e r s e n s u a l a p p r e c i a t i o n o f P h y l l i s ' m a s s a g ing v e r g e s on h o m o s e x u a l i t y . P h y l l i s ' r e a l 1 o v e n i s a f r u s t r a t e d m a r r i e d man whose e r o t i c d e s i r e s P h y l l i s r e f u s e s t o s a t i s f y , and f o r whom she has no l o v e . M e a n w h i l e , a s u i c i d e o f P h y l l i s ' age and s e x h i n t s at t h e f r u i t l e s s f u t i l i t y o f l i f e , l o v e and communication i n the b i g c i t y . The 'problem' i s n o t so much a q u e s t i o n o f p e r v e r s i o n , o f u n n a t u r a l a l l i a n c e s , as t h e s e a r e e v i d e n c e o f the f a i l u r e o f any 134 k i n d o f s u c c e s s f u l communion between p e o p l e i n t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . The e n v i r o n m e n t i s the c i t y where everyone seeks an escape from t h e r e a l i t y o f houses p l a c a r d e d : U n f i t f o r human h a b i t a t i o n e t c e t c Oh yes Condemned N e c e s s i t y g r i p p i n g t h e words . s c o u t i n g e v a s i o n , t h a t l o v e i s b e g r i m e d , b e f o u l e d . . . . b e g r i m e d 2 6 3 y e t l i f t s i t s head, h a v i n g s u f f e r e d a sea-change! As t h e poem has moved s t r u c t u r a l l y f r o m t h e r i v e r t o t h e s e a ; as P h y l l i s , t h e c o u n t r y g i r l , has r u n t o t h e b i g c i t y a t the mouth o f t h e r i v e r ; l o v e — s i m p l e , r u r a l , p a s t o r a l — h a s become u r b a n i z e d i n t o e r o t i c , m a s t u r b a t o r y dreams. The sea-change o f l o v e i s towards i m p o t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a l o v e l e s s , e m o t i o n l e s s - c i t y . W i l l i a m s ' d e p i c t i o n o f the e l e v a t o r i n h a b i t a n t s i s a b i t t e r v i s i o n o f human a n i m a l s r i d i n g a c o n t i n u a l l y moving c o m m e r c i a l machine t h a t d r a i n s them o f l i f e . E x i s t e n c e i n the p h a l l i c h i g h r i s e s i s an i n c e s s a n t r e p e t i t i o n o f a u t o m a t i c m e n t a l , p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l m a s t u r b a t i o n u n t i l t he c i t y d w e l l e r s r e m a i n " w i t h o u t r e c o g n i z a b l e / o u t l i n e , f i x e d i n r o g o r s , a d i p o s e o r s c l e r o s i s / e x p r e s s i o n l e s s , f a c i n g : , one a n o t h e r , a mould / f o r a l l f a c e d (canned f i s h ) t h i s .' They s t a n d t o r p i d i n c a g e s , i n v i o l e n t m o t i o n unmoved b u t a l e r t ! p r e d a t o r y m i n d s , un-a f f e c t e d UNINCONVENIENCED unsexed, up and down ( w i t h o u t w i n g m o t i o n ) T h i s i s how t h e money's made . u s i n g s u c h p l u g s . 2 6 5 ,264 135 T h e i r minds, t h e i r b o d i e s , t h e i r f e e l i n g s , t h e i r whole l i v e s have become a s t r i n g of n e g a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , o f the s e l f -n e g a t i o n of c a p a b i l i t y , w h i l e they a r e s t i l l s e l f i s h l y a l i e n a t e d 266 i n t o f u t i l e e m p t i n e s s - — " I f e e l so a l o n e . " The s e l f i s h n e s s , l u s t and f r u s t r a t i o n i s e q u a l l y c l e a r i n P h y l l i s ' d u a l r o l e s . She and h e r l o v e a r e a l s o condemned: I f I am v i r t u o u s condemn me I f my l i f e i s f e l i c i t o u s condemn me The w o r l d i s i n i q u i t o u s 7 There i s a tone of e x h a u s t e d f i n a l i t y i n t h e s e l i n e s , a s u g g e s t i o n of the p o s t - h y s t e r i a o f the f a i l u r e , as i f o n l y l a u g h t e r would c o v e r over the d e s p a i r . T h i s i s Corydon s p e a k i n g , y e t P h y l l i s ' b l a t a n t c o n f e s s i o n s to P a t e r s o n r e v e a l the same m a s o c h i s t i c s c h i z o p h r e n i a . She c h a s t i s e s h e r s e l f i n h i s mind by s l a n d e r i n g h e r own r e p u t a t i o n , w h i c h excuses h e r r e f u s a l t o make l o v e by p r e t e n d i n g r e s p e c t f o r him. Then she c h a s t i s e s h e r s e l f f o r not g r a t i f y i n g him enough, a g a i n t r y i n g t o g a i n h i s sympathy. By h e r s e l f - a c c u s a t i o n , P h y l l i s ensures h e r l o v e r ' s entrapment: she takes a l l the blame f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e and he p i t i e s h e r . She r e f u s e s to g r a t i f y h i s d e s i r e because she says t h a t she i s too w h o r i s h . Then she c l a i m s to have been shocked by a s e x u a l p r o p o s a l , and t h a t because she c a r e s f o r him so much, she cannot s a t i s f y h i s d e s i r e s . Her c h a s t i t y now b l o c k s h i s g r a t i f i c a t i o n . E i t h e r way, n o t h i n g happens; y e t P h y l l i s a p p e a l s to b o t h h i s e r o t i c dreams f o r a whore and h i s i d e a l i s t i c w o r s h i p of the v i r g i n . 136 "Love i s begrimed" as the r i v e r flows i n t o the l a r g e r s o c i a l s p h e r e . Love and sex become i n e f f e c t u a l c a s t r a t e s i n an automated e x i s t e n c e . A l l v a l u e s are upended. A l l goodness i s undermined, as good and e v i l become i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e i n a s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f s c h i z o p h r e n i c p e r v e r s i o n , i n e f f e c t u a l communication and u n c o n s c i o u s a m o r a l i t y . V i r t u e , the moral v a l u e o f v i r g i n i t y , has become a whore, a s a l e a b l e commodity to a t t r a c t a j e a l o u s o l d maid. V i r g i n i t y remains a u s e l e s s b i r t h r i g h t to be d i s p l a y e d f o r s a l e to t h e market o f e l i g i b l e b a c h e l o r s . W hile whoredom becomes a v i r t u e to g r a t i f y the f r u s t r a t i o n s of a m a r r i e d man. The mind b o g g l e s . Love i s i m p o s s i b l e . The i d y l i s a f a i r l y p e a c e f u l framework t h a t compliments the message o f impotence. P a r t I I T s framework i s a l e c t u r e on atomic f i s s i o n , a v i o l e n t e r u p t i o n t h a t a c t s as an image of power. The l o s s o f power i n the c i t y d w e l l e r s i s a s i g n o f t h e i r s t e r i l i t y and o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to l o v e . But W i l l i a m s i n s i s t s t h a t the g r e a t mental power o f some i n d i v i d u a l s i s a l s o d i s a b l i n g : i t i s the power of mind t h a t has grown l i k e a c a n c e r t o the d e n i a l o f o t h e r human p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . F o r these p e o p l e , 26 8 "knowledge, the contaminant" has been a l l o w e d t o become the o v e r r i d i n g l y i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e i n l i f e . I t o v e r r i d e s t h e n a t u r a l s i d e o f man, the s e n s u a l , s e x u a l , f a m i l i a l , e m o t i o n a l , n o n - r a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f l i f e . I t d e s t r o y s the p h y s i c a l s i d e o f man, the n a t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , f o r t h e e x p e r i e n c e s of l o v e . The mind becomes a d i s e a s e i n the body, a machine to dominate the f l e s h , a Moloch to a n n i h i l a t e the h e a r t . The mind a t t a c k s l o v e . Whether, through l o n e l i n e s s and p a i n , the mind becomes 137 s c h i z o p h r e n i c and weak, o r , t h r o u g h determined power, the mind b l o a t s i n t o f a n a t i c a l s t r e n g t h , the c r u s h i n g d e f e a t of l o v e i s the r e s u l t . The mind i s c r u s h e d by the v a s t commercial machine, and becomes a s k e l e t a l home f o r e r o t i c dreams and p e r v e r s i o n . Or the mind i s i n f l a t e d by the power of knowledge t h a t reduces the body to an u n p r o d u c t i v e s t e r i l e s h e l l . In b o t h c a s e s , a d i s e a s e has i n c a p a c i t a t e d man's a b i l i t y to l o v e , h i s a b i l i t y to form h e a l t h y i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and i t has s e r i o u s l y p r e v e n t e d h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m o r a l i t y i n t h e s o c i a l system. The framework of the l e c t u r e p r o v i d e s the s t r u c t u r a l c l u e about the s u b j e c t of s t u d y — k n o w l e d g e . A roan's knowledge determines h i s s o c i a l o c c u p a t i o n . H i s s o c i a l f u n c t i o n d e c i d e s h i s power. However, i n d i s c u s s i n g the more p o w e r f u l p e o p l e i n s o c i e t y — t h e s c i e n t i s t , the banker, the m a n u f a c t u r e r — W i l l i a m s c o n s i s t e n t l y uses images o f d i s e a s e , d i v i s i o n and s e p a r a t i o n . The knowledge h e l d by t h o se p e o p l e i n p o w e r f u l p o s i t i o n s i s the knowledge of the means o f d e s t r u c t i o n , d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , and the ' d i v o r c e ' of the i n d i v i d u a l . W i l l i a m s uses the metaphor o f a t o m i c f i s s i o n to u n i t e a v a r i e t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l power s t r u c t u r e s . Whether the power h e l d i s s c i e n t i f i c , economic o r p o l i t i c a l , the g o a l i s the same-—progress, advancement, s u c c e s s . The means o f a t t a i n i n g t h a t g o a l i n the new t e c h n o l o g i c a l age of s c i e n t i s t s and t h e i r b a n k i n g b a c k e r s i s d e s t r u c t i v e a c c o r d i n g to W i l l i a m s . They a l l s p l i t the atom. They a l l i n c r e a s e — r e p r o d u c e c e l l s o r money—by d i v i d i n g c e l l s i n t o new c e l l s , Madame C u r i e b r e a k s down uranium and r e l e a s e s p o w e r f u l energy by the spontaneous d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f r a d i o a c t i v e e lements. 138 The e v a n g e l i s t B i l l y Sunday d i v i d e s the s t r i k i n g workers from t h e i r cause and conquers them f o r th e f a c t o r y owners. The banker o p e r a t e s a system of usury to s e p a r a t e money from v a l u e , the p e o p l e from owning t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s , The power i s thus s o c i a l l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e . What W i l l i a m s i s t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h i s t h a t the p e o p l e become s e p a r a t e d from power, from the l e v e l s o f p l a n n i n g , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and b e n e f i t t h a t determine t h e i r d e s t i n y . T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s an a d a p t i o n of W i l l i a m s n o t i o n o f ' d i v o r c e ' to the p a r t i c u l a r l y c r u c i a l a r e a o f each p e r s o n ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y o r i mportance i n s o c i e t y . We have seen W i l l i a m s ' d e s i r e to r e d i s -c o v e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f o n e s e l f , and of o n e s e l f t h r o u g h an awareness o f the l o c a l r e a l i t y : G i n s b e r g ' s l e t t e r c o n t a i n s the p h r a s e , " h i s 269 s t r u g g l e to l o v e and know h i s own w o r l d - c i t y . " We have a l s o m o n i t o r e d the attempt to p e r c e i v e w i t h a c c u r a c y what i s r e a l l y g o i n g on. Now, W i l l i a m s i s c a l l i n g f o r man to g a i n mental and p h y s i c a l c o n t r o l of the system from the f o r e i g n o r o u t s i d e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s t h a t attempt to dominate the p e o p l e — i . e . LOCAL c o n t r o l o f l o c a l p u r c h a s i n g ' P ° w e r ?' ?270 The C u r i e metaphor a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t the power i s h e l d by those who use i t d e s t r u c t i v e l y . I t i s e x e r c i s e d by s e l f -d e s t r u c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s who harm the p e o p l e at the same time. T h i s i s an i n t e r n a l d e s t r u c t i o n , a s e p a r a t i o n of the mind from the body. Madame C u r i e ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n to s u c c e e d i n h e r r e s e a r c h i s l a u d e d as a l i t e r a l s e l f - s a c r i f i c e f o r the d i s c o v e r y of r a d i a t i o n . At the time, i t was no more than an o b s e s s i o n a l s e a r c h f o r knowledge at the d e n i a l o f h e r l i f e . She d e n i e d h e r husband, h e r unborn c h i l d , 139 t h e i r s e a r c h f o r l o v e . I t i s l o v e t h a t W i l l i a m s r e c o g n i z e s as the 271 h i g h e s t power i n l i f e . "Love, the s l e d g e t h a t smashes the atom?" i s f r a g i l e and must be c a r e f u l l y s e a r c h e d f o r and then c a r e d f o r and p r o t e c t e d . Love i s W i l l i a m s ' o n l y defense a g a i n s t the d i s -i n t e g r a t i n g , d i s s o l v i n g , m y t h - d e s t r o y i n g power o f mind on the o f f e n s i v e . I t i s e i t h e r i r o n i c a l l y c o i n c i d e n t a l o r i n t e n t i o n a l l y i m i t a t i v e t h a t the most d i f f i c u l t p assage i n P a t e r s o n f o r me to g r a s p , the most i l l u s i v e and d i s j o i n t e d , the most p e d a n t i c a l l y i n t e l l e c t u a l , o c c u r s i n the m i d d l e o f t h i s whole ' l e c t u r e ' upon the i n t e n t i o n a l overdevelopment of the powers o f the mind. The few pages f o l l o w i n g "knowledge,the contaminant" a r e d e c i d e d l y ' d i f f i c u l t . ' They su g g e s t much about the p o l a r i t i e s o f mind and l o v e , b u t I o f f e r the f o l l o w i n g o n l y by way o f escape from ex h a u s t e d i n d e c i s i o n . W i t h i n the framework of a s e n s e - p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t i s n a t u r a l l y s u s p i c i o u s of any e x t r e m e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l awareness, the p r e f e r e n c e f o r l o v e makes l o g i c a l l y c l e a r sense of the m a t e r i a l . Meanwhile, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t the c o n f u s e d and c o n f u s i n g n a t u r e o f t h i s p o r t i o n i s i n t e n d e d by W i l l i a m s to s e r v e as an example of the d o u b t f u l v a l i d i t y o f a b s t r u s e and s c a t t e r e d i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o f u n d i t y . 272 The mind, as the "most p o w e r f u l c o n n e c t i v e , " can m a n i p u l a t e the w i l d assortment of d i s c o r d a n t d a t a t h a t bombards i t u n t i l t h e r e grows an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t u n i f i e s r e a s o n and emotion i n one o r d e r e d 273 r e a l i t y . "But t h e r e may i s s u e , a contaminant" t h a t w i l l i n f e c t the r e a s o n i n g and p o l l u t e the u n d e r s t a n d i n g i f the a c q u i s i t i o n o f knowledge, l i k e the a c q u i s i t i o n o f r a d i a t i o n , b r e a k s down the b a l a n c e d n a t u r e of the r e c e i v e r and i n c u l c a t e s o n l y i n t e l l e c t u a l v a l u e s : 140 And l o v e , b i t t e r l y c o n t e s t i n g , w a i t s t h a t the mind s h a l l d e c l a r e i t s e l f not al o n e i n dreams 274 A man l i k e you s h o u l d have e v e r y t h i n g he wants T h i s l a s t s tatement had been P h y l l i s ' apology f o r not g i v i n g (or f o r n o t b e i n g a b l e to g i v e ) s a t i s f a c t i o n to P a t e r s o n : i t i s p e n i t e n t l y s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g , y e t i t g a i n s s y m p a t h e t i c f o r g i v e n e s s i n the p r o c e s s . I t a c t s h e r e as a reminder o f a per s o n ' s h i g h e r o b l i g a t i o n t o l o v e and human r e l a t i o n s h i p s than t o knowledge as the enslavement to a c a r e e r . The mind, as t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f o c c u p a t i o n a l knowledge, must not be p e r m i t t e d to d i s t r a c t a p e r s o n from h i s l o y a l t y t o human l o v e — s e n s u a l , m a r i t a l , b r o t h e r l y . C a r e e r knowledge must not contaminate the human bonds o f f e e l i n g and f r i e n d s h i p . When the quest f o r knowledge becomes the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y , the mind's power d e s t r o y s the b a l a n c e w i t h i n a human b e i n g , d i s r e g a r d s the n o n - r a t i o n a l elements. T h i s l e a d s to a d e n i a l o f l o v e , of the body, o f f e e l i n g f o r o t h e r human b e i n g s . And t h i s l e a d s W i l l i a m s t o a s u c c e s s i o n o f images o f l o v e b e i n g d e n i e d by the c a l l o u s minds of those o b s e s s e d w i t h power. C a r r i e N a t i o n , d i v i n e l y o b s e s s e d w i t h h e r p u r i t a n i c a l m i s s i o n o f a b s t e n t i o n from d r i n k , became v i o l e n t and d e s t r u c t i v e a t the expense o f A r t e m i s , goddess o f the w i l d , the n a t u r a l , and by e x t e n s i o n , o f n a t u r a l human f u n c t i o n s l i k e s ex and c h i l d b e a r i n g . The mind o f Madame C u r i e k i l l e d h e r body. I t i s at t h i s p o i n t t h a t knowledge becomes a d e s t r u c t i v e o b s e s s i o n t h a t i n f e s t s v i t a l m o r a l judgments w i t h a b s t r a c t i d e a l s , t h a t causes a m o r a l i s t i c c r a v i n g f o r the s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e s t r i c t i o n and d e n i a l of n a t u r a l b e h a v i o r i n man. The mind then seeks o n l y to d i s c o v e r more knowledge, more t o o l s f o r d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , 141 more power t h a t i s then d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t human 'b e i n g . ' W i l l i a m s i s c r i t i c a l o f the whole atomic c h a i n r e a c t i o n w i t h i n the mind: i n s p i r a t i o n — k n o w l e d g e — m i n d p o w e r — c o n t r o l — d o m i n a t i o n — u s u r p a t i o n of the r i g h t s and minds o f o t h e r s , and u s u r p a t i o n o f the o t h e r senses by the mind. I t i s a mental d i s e a s e t h a t obsesses the i n d i v i d u a l u n t i l the mind has d i s i n t e g r a t e d a l l d i s t i n c t i v e l y h u m a n i s t i c q u a l i t i e s ; u n t i l a v a r i e t y o f s c i e n t i f i c , economic and p o l i t i c a l power s t r u c t u r e s have succeeded i n d e s t r o y i n g the j o y o f l i v i n g , " 1 275 " ' t h e r a d i a n t g i s t ' a g a i n s t a l l t h a t / s c a n t s our l i v e s : " u n t i l the mind has d e s t r o y e d l o v e . W i l l i a m s i s b i t t e r b ecause the mere t o o l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and communion-—the m i n d — h a s become a machine so d e a d l y and p o w e r f u l t h a t " l o v e i s begrimed" by "knowledge, the contaminant," As C a r r i e N a t i o n t o A r t e m i s 275 so i s our l i f e today Or, as Kenneth Patchen p o r t r a y s i t , I4Z (WHICH I N -CLUDES ETRY) : \ 1 S T 0 S C I E N C E V A T C H I N G S / ' Of A CHI L H i ARE TO THE VILE! r , gUNRETURNlN6 1 # THROES OF. * THE HANGMAKl 143 The t h i r d s e c t i o n i s b o t h another p a r t o f Book Four and the c o n c l u s i o n , i f o n l y temporary, o f P a t e r s o n . I t s d u a l n a t u r e does nOt c o n f l i c t , however, f o r the f i n a l images of " a l l t h a t any 278 one man may a c h i e v e i n a l i f e t i m e " — h i s t o r i c a l images j u x t a p o s i n g the b i r t h and growth o f the c i t y w i t h the c o n t i n u a l v i o l e n t deaths of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s — h a v e a fundamental c o n n e c t i o n w i t h " t h i s dream 279 of / the whole poem's " b i t t e r c r i t i c i s m o f the p o v e r t y o f mind t h a t p e r p e t u a t e s s u c h a system. S t r u c t u r a l l y , W i l l i a m s d e p i c t s the f i n a l a r r i v a l of the r i v e r a t the s e a . The .mood i s o f re p o s e , a d e a t h l y hush: Shh! the o l d man's a s l e e p — a l l b u t f o r the t i d e s , t h e r e i s no r i v e r , s i l e n t now, t w i s t s and t u r n s i n h i s dreams The ocean yawns! I t i s almost the hour — a n d d i d you e v e r know o f a s i x t y y e a r woman w i t h c h i l d . ?280 P a t e r s o n i s now a q u i e t o l d r i v e r d r i f t i n g out to s e a , an o l d man l a p s i n g i n t o death. But r i g h t a t the b e g i n n i n g , t h e r e i s t h i s h i n t of a phenomenal, even a m i r a c u l o u s , r e b i r t h o f man: an o l d woman w i t h c h i l d . The sea-change metaphor a l r e a d y h i n t s a t r e b i r t h , t h r o u g h the p h y s i c a l c y c l e , o f r i v e r , s e a , e v a p o r a t i o n i n t o c l o u d , r a i n and r i v e r a l l o v e r a g a i n . The u n i t y o f the o r g a n i c c y c l e , as a reminder o f n a t u r a l r e b i r t h , i s c e n t r a l t o the poem. In the P r e f a c e , W i l l i a m s has o u t l i n e d h i s d e s i r e to r e c r e a t e i n a r t the r e v o l v i n g u n i t y o f the o r g a n i c c y c l e o f l i f e : 144 R o l l i n g i n , top up, under, t h r u s t and r e c o i l , a g r e a t c l a t t e r : l i f t e d as a i r , b o a t e d , m u l t i c o l o r e d , a wash o f seas — from mathematics to p a r t i c u l a r s — d i v i d e d as the dew, f l o a t i n g m i s t s , to be r a i n e d down and r e g a t h e r e d i n t o a r i v e r t h a t flows and e n c i r c l e s : 2 8 1 The s t r u c t u r e o f the poem, as w e l l as the s u b j e c t , i s f a s h i o n e d t o r e v e a l the o r g a n i c c y c l e i n a r t . T h i s c y c l i c a l sense o f r e b i r t h permeates the whole s e c t i o n , and impregnates each a s p e c t o f W i l l i a m s ' thought: a r t i s t i c and p o e t i c r e c r e a t i o n , the reawakening of i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the r e b i r t h o f s o c i a l u n i t y and humanity. R e b i r t h and r e g e n e r a t i o n i s the o b j e c t i v e , the r e -a c t i v a t i o n o f a b a l a n c e d , h e a l t h y and a c t i v e l i f e . The t e c h n i q u e t h a t W i l l i a m s u s e s , t r u e to h i s p o e t i c o f change, i s shock t r e a t m e n t . 282 "The b r a i n i s weak," we a r e reminded. I t i s weak because i t has been c r u s h e d and tormented and b l i n d e d by f a l s e I l l u s i o n s and d e l u s i o n s . I t i s weak because the o l d man's c o n s c i o u s n e s s , man's awareness o f h i s s t a t e , i s s u b s i d i n g . I t i s weak because i t i s s p l i t a p a r t from l o v e , l a c k i n g the s t r e n g t h of the s p i r i t . Weakness, weakness dogs him, f u l f i l l m e n t o n l y a dream o r i n a dream. No one mind can do i t a l l , 2 8 3 And i t i s weak because s e n s u a l and s e x u a l knowledge, the a r r i v a l a t a u n i f i e d sense o f communion w i t h a n o t h e r b e i n g , has been d i v i d e d from i n t e l l e c t u a l knowledge, the p o s s e s s i v e l y d e s t r u c t i v e a c q u i s i t i o n of a b s t r a c t f a c t s d i v o r c e d from r e a l i t y . 145 The mind must be expanded, t h e i m a g i n a t i o n r e f i r e d . A s u c c e s s i o n of b r u t a l murders i s r e c o r d e d : t h e y a r e a n i m a l i s t i c , s e n s e l e s s , t o t a l l y n e g a t i v e a c t i o n s . They a r e v a r i o u s l y m o t i v a t e d — by r e v e n g e , l u s t , f o r p o l i t i c a l power, u n c o n t r o l l a b l e a n g e r , economic g r e e d — b u t t h e y a r e a l l extreme e g o t i s t i c a l d e s i r e s a t t h e expense o f o t h e r s . The q u a n t i t a t i v e e x t e n t o f t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l murders i s e x a g g e r a t e d by the i n t e r s p e r s i n g o f s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f P a t e r s o n ' s development from a raw, u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d backwards s e t t l e m e n t o f 1700, when l i f e c o n s i s t e d o f no more t h a n the p r i m i t i v e l a b o u r o f t h e l a n d , t o a s m a l l r e s o r t i n 1791, t o an e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l town i n 1824, t o a c t i v i t y i n t h e Second W o r l d War, The e f f e c t i s t o e s t a b l i s h murder as a f r i g h t f u l b r u t a l i t y t h a t c o n t i n u e s i n any form o f s o c i e t y , d e s p i t e any p r o g r e s s , t h r o u g h o u t a l l t i m e . The q u a l i t a t i v e meaning o f t h e murders i s p u t i n t o r e l i e f by the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e V i r t u e , t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s r e v e a l i n g c r a s s , t a s t e l e s s i g n o r a n c e , " v i r t u e " used as an ornament t o be i n s c r i b e d c a r e l e s s l y on an a s h - t r a y . W i l l i a m s ' o b j e c t i v e i n p o r t r a y i n g the murders i s b o t h e x p l i c i t l y and e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e d : You came today to see k i l l e d k i l l e d , k i l l e d as i f i t were a c o n c l u s i o n — a c o n c l u s i o n ! a c o n v i n c i n g s t r e w i n g o f c o r p s e s — t o move the mind as t h o ' the mind can be moved, th e mind, I s a i d by an a r r a y o f h a c k e d c o r p s e s The b r u t a l murders a r e p o r t r a y e d t o shock the weak b r a i n , t o s t i m u l a t e a d y i n g man ( k i n d ? b u t , what f o r ? 146 — t o c o n v i n c e whom? the s e a worm? They a r e used to death and j u b i l a t e a t i t Murder. W i l l i a m s r e c o g n i z e s t h a t the p e o p l e a r e l i v i n g w i t h murder and v i o l e n c e ; they c r a v e the macabre. He i s t r y i n g to make them s i c k o f murder, to waken them from a way of l i f e t h a t l o v e s k i l l i n g , t h a t i s k i l l i n g i t s e l f l i k e the s h a r k . He wants murder to r e v o l t t h e m — t o c o n v i n c e them o f the waste and i n s a n i t y o f k i l l i n g . He r e a l i z e s t h a t the o l d m a n / r i v e r ' s c r a v i n g f o r the s e a as a home, a f i n a l end, a c o n c l u s i o n ! i s s u i c i d a l , t h a t the s o c i e t y s i m i l a r l y 2 86 i s d y i n g to get to the s e a , to drown i n "a sea o f b l o o d . " I say to you, Put wax r a t h e r i n y o u r e a r s a g a i n s t the hungry sea i t i s not our home! draws us i n to drown, o f l o s s e s and r e g r e t s . °' The a t t r a c t i o n o f the sea i s a s u i c i d a l l o v e , a d e s i r e on the ,one hand t o escape from the p a i n o f l i v i n g a normal d u l l e x i s t e n c e , and a l u s t on the o t h e r hand f o r k i l l i n g and murder which c o r r u p t s 288 the whole s o c i e t y . W i l l i a m s p l e a d s f o r "some modern magic" o f s t r e n g t h s u f f i c i e n t to v i t a l i z e a s u i c i d a l , drowning p e o p l e . At the same time, W i l l i a m s a c c e p t s the drowning as o n l y a p r o c e s s o f r e b i r t h , one t h a t p r o v i d e s a sea-change f o r new l i f e . The drowning i n the sea i s an image t h a t combines e s s e n t i a l c o n t r a r i e s — d e a t h and l i f e ; l o v e and h a t e . The a r r i v a l a t the sea i s the death o f the r i v e r , y e t Oceanus i s a l s o the m y t h i c a l 289 s o u r c e ;of r i v e r s . The sea i s "not our home," b u t the sea-dog 290 t h a t jumps up out o f the s u r f i s a " h e l l - d i v e r , " r e t u r n e d a l i v e from the dead. The image p u l l s t o g e t h e r the same paradox p r o p o s e d 147 by B l a k e i n The M a r r i a g e of Heaven and H e l l . There, the H e l l e n v i s i o n e d by the A n g e l , o b s e s s e d w i t h t h e f e a r o f death and e n s l a v e d by a d o g m a t i c a l l y f i x e d mind, i s "a s e a o f b l o o d . " But B l a k e sees o n l y a v i s i o n o f human j o y and unabashed p l e a s u r e i n the form o f a p l e a s a n t stream i n a p a s t o r a l l a n d s c a p e . Here i n P a t e r s o n , W i l l i a m s p r e s e n t s one p e r c e p t i o n of the s e a as a sea o f b l o o d , o f death and murder, e v i l and H e l l , and a n o t h e r of the s e a as a p u r i f y i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o pass through to be r e b o r n . B l a k e argues f o r the a r r i v a l a t v i r t u e t h r o u g h the p u r g i n g by e x c e s s . W i l l i a m s o f f e r s the s h o c k i n g murders as an excess to b u r n out the d i s e a s e d p e r v e r s i o n of the mind. W i l l i a m s seems to agree w i t h B l a k e ' s e s s e n t i a l a c c e p t a n c e of b o t h the good and e v i l p r i n c i p l e s i n l i v i n g . B l a k e w r i t e s , "Without C o n t r a r i e s i s no p r o g r e s s i o n . A t t r a c t i o n and R e p u l s i o n , 2 Reason and Energy, Love and Hate, a r e n e c e s s a r y t o Human e x i s t e n c e . " W i l l i a m s a t t a c k s the dogmas o f c o n v e n t i o n a l goodness, B l a k e ' s U r i z e n , the a n g e l i c v i r t u e o f v i r g i n i t y , the e x c e s s i v e m e c h a n i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y . L i k e B l a k e , he uses the i m a g i n a t i o n to f r e e the mind to i t s e n e r g e t i c and i n s t i n c t i v e d e s i r e s . L i k e B l a k e , W i l l i a m s r e c o g n i z e s the whoredom of v i r g i n i t y as a market v a l u e : "nor p a l e r e l i g i o u s l e t c h e r y c a l l t h a t v i r g i n i t y t h a t wishes 292 but a c t s n o t ! " V i r g i n i t y i s e v i l i f i t i s o n l y a p h y s i c a l 293 d e p r i v a t i o n o f "unacted d e s i r e s " masking e r o t i c t h o u g h t s . They b o t h c a l l f o r a n t a g o n i s t i c new jgrowths o f new s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o u r to e n l i v e n a r e s t r i c t e d e t h i c a l code, Both W i l l i a m s and Blake a c c e p t the r e a l i t y of a w o r l d o f h a t e and o f l o v e . N e i t h e r i s 148 s a t i s f i e d w i t h a s t a t i c dream o f heaven, w i t h r i g i d codes o f m o r a l i t y , n o r w i t h the h y p o c r i t i c a l s t a t i c d e ath of a s u i c i d a l h e l l , w i t h b l i n d i m m o r a l i t y . But P a t e r s o n o r i g i n a l l y endedishere w i t h t h i s v i s i o n o f renewal, o f r e b i r t h i n death, o f the swimmer w a l k i n g w i t h d i f f i c u l t y out o f the s e a as a metaphor o f l i f e and anim a l c r e a t i o n out o f the ocean, o f hope through d e s p a i r , o f renewed energy t h r o u g h s e n s i b l e d i s i l l u s i o n , of the d e s i r e f o r l o v e out o f the d e s i r e to h a t e . T h i s r e b i r t h i n d e a t h i s a m a r r i a g e o f c o n t r a r i e s , the a c c e p t a n c e o f whi c h c o n f l i c t as r e a l i t y b r i n g s harmony. Book F i v e ' s a p o c a l y p t i c m a r r i a g e o f c o n t r a r i e s , o f the v i r g i n and the whore, i s an even g r e a t e r r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t towards u n i t y . There i s a c o n t i n u e d reassessment o f s o c i e t y ' s r i g i d n o t i o n s o f v i r t u e and m o r a l i t y as they a r e seen to deny l o v e by s e l f - a l i e n a t i o n o r t o d e s t r o y l o v e by debasement and s e l f - a b u s e . Good and e v i l c o n t i n u e to be r e v e r s i b l e a b s t r a c t s o f h y p o c r i t i c a l p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s when i t i s c l e a r t h a t b o t h ' v a l u e s ' i g n o r e the v i t a l and s u p e r i o r importance o f l o v e as the c r e a t i v e v a l u e t h a t enhances l i f e and b r i n g s u n i t y to man and woman, t h a t draws man c l o s e r t o a r e s p e c t f o r h i s s m a l l environment and h i s human s i g n i f i c a n c e , and t h a t , b l e n d e d w i t h c o n s c i o u s n e s s , u n i t s mind and body i n one s o u l , ego and i d s u b o r d i n a t e d t o anima. CHAPTER V I I I PATERSON, F i v e : A U n i f y i n g Mythology The l a s t Book o f P a t e r s o n t r i e s to do two main t h i n g s . I t s d e s i g n i s c a l c u l a t e d t o c r e a t e a s e n t i e n t e x p e r i e n c e o f the m u l t i f a r i o u s shape o f r e a l i t y : as such, i t r e v e a l s the a r t o f the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n t r a n s c e n d i n g the c o n f i n i n g d u l l n e s s of s o c i a l n o r m a l i t y . But t h i s a p o c a l y p t i c r e d i s c o v e r y of a s e n s e -awareness i s b a l a n c e d by a p a r a l l e l growth o f c o n s c i o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g as W i l l i a m s expands the n o t i o n o f r e b i r t h t o the c r e a t i o n of a whole new m y t h o l o g i c a l w o r l d , W i l l i a m s t r i e s to r e l o c a t e the r e a l w o r l d o f P a t e r s o n i n a s u r r e a l w o r l d o f w i s h - f u l f i l l i n g dreams of u n i t y between man and n a t u r e , between the r e a l and the i m a g i n a r y , between p u r i t y and s e x — a l l i n c o n t r a s t to the d i v i d e d d e s i r e s and d i v o r c e d n a t u r e o f the normal s o c i a l w o r l d . The s u r r e a l i d e a l i s the w o r l d o f the u n i c o r n where l o v e i s p e r f e c t e d . But, the i n t e l l e c t u a l purpose o f t h i s r e c r e a t i o n o f mythology i s to r e - e s t a b l i s h man's f a i t h w i t h i n an o r g a n i c s e n s i b i l i t y . Thus, i n a d e s i g n o f i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c b e a u t y and i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l framework o f the r e t u r n to p r i m o r d i a l r e a l i t y t h r o u g h mythology, W i l l i a m s t r i e s to d i r e c t man towards a c o n t i n u a l p r o c e s s o f reawakening awareness and r e c r e a t i n g l o v e . By i t s mythology, Book" F i v e augments our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e b i r t h i n P a t e r s o n . The poem has a l r e a d y d e l i n e a t e d the s u c c e s s i v e 150 r e b i r t h s of me n t a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n the d u l l e d p e o p l e , o f an awareness of one's r o o t s i n time and the p l a c e , o f the language from c l i c h e ' d abuse, o f the r i v e r i t s e l f i n i t s sea-change. Now, the sense o f reawakening i s s t r o n g a g a i n : "—remember . . . w i t h a s m i l e o f r e c o g n i t i o n reawakening the w o r l d / o f 294 P a t e r s o n . . . from t h e i r l o n g w i n t e r s l e e p . " The t e x t i s c l u t t e r e d w i t h the i n s i s t e n t r e p e t i t i o n o f renewal, W i l l i a m s a s s i m i l a t e s our new knowledge.of the p r e s e n t s t a t e o f P a t e r s o n , a knowledge advanced by a sense o f the r o o t s o f the p l a c e , w i t h an e l e m e n t a l m y t h o l o g i z i n g o f the p a r t i c u l a r environment i n t o a b e l i e f . Somewhat p a g a n i s t i c a l l y , W i l l i a m s i s r e t u r n i n g t h r o u g h the i m a g i n a t i o n to the p r i m o r d i a l r e a l i t y of t h i s w o r l d : he i s s e e k i n g to r e d i s c o v e r the l o s t s o u r c e o f the s p i r i t o f the p l a c e — t h e e s s e n t i a l , e l e m e n t a l o r i g i n o f P a t e r s o n . One motive f o r t h i s q u e s t i s perhaps a d e s i r e to ' e l e v a t e ' h i s r e a l i z a t i o n o f the importance o f the n a t u r a l s o u r c e to the l e v e l o f f a i t h or b e l i e f . He i s d e l v i n g t o a b a s i c s p i r i t u a l l e v e l o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g to p r o v i d e a b o n d i n g f o r c e to h i s argument f o r reawakening t h e w o r l d w h i c h has so f a r been p r o p o s e d by s e c u l a r d i d a c t i c i s m r a t h e r than f a i t h . The mythology he c r e a t e s t o enhance the a t t r a c t i o n o f y i e l d i n g one's s e l f to the s p i r i t of the p l a c e and to the v i t a l s u p p l i c a t i n g r e v e r e n c e o f the e a r t h i s the b e l i e f i n the U n i c o r n , W i l l i a m s has been s e a r c h i n g throughout f o r ways of i n c r e a s i n g human awareness. He b e l i e v e s t h a t a man can d i s c o v e r h i m s e l f by knowing h i s p a r t i n the environment i n the p r e s e n t time and p l a c e , and the course of the p a s t t h a t has determined the 151 p r e s e n t r e a l i t y . To ensure a c o n t i n u a l p a t h f o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s , he must d e v i s e a myth t h a t w i l l l i n k the modern r e a l i t y w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l s o u r c e . Modern l i f e i s the c i t y w o r l d o f Book Four. I t i s the w o r l d where " l o v e i s begrimed" amongst impotent ' l o v e r s ; ' where power c o r r u p t s u n t i l t h e mind c o n f i n e s l o v e : where v i r t u e i s cheapened u n t i l normal m o r a l i t y i s no more than a h y p o c r i t i c a l f a c a d e . In such a w o r l d , the v i r g i n and the whore are j o i n t p r o s t i t u t e s , 295 " b o t h f o r s a l e / to the h i g h e s t b i d d e r , " w h i l e moral i n h i b i t i o n e n f o r c e s t h e d i v i s i o n o f mind and body, sex and l o v e , c i v i l i z e d m o r a l i t y and a n i m a l s e x u a l i t y . In h i s d e s i r e f o r h i s own m a r r i a g e of heaven and h e l l , f o r a u n i f y i n g b e l i e f t h a t w i l l r e p a i r t h e d i v o r c e d : modern man, W i l l i a m s s e l e c t e d the u n i c o r n . The u n i c o r n i s t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l c r e a t u r e by whom W i l l i a m s r e t u r n s man's mind to h i s body. Man's s o c i a l l y m oral d e n i a l of h i s a n i m a l n a t u r e i s r e f u t e d . R e l e a s e d form h i s i n h i b i t e d f r u s t r a t i o n s , h i s mind a c c e p t s the body's i m p u l s e s : l o v e becomes p o s s i b l e when the mind and body are f r e e to g i v e . The u n i c o r n i s n a t u r a l l y f e r o c i o u s , b u t i s made g e n t l e by the s i g h t o f a v i r g i n . Upon s e e i n g a v i r g i n , he w i l l come and l a y h i s head i n h e r l a p , and o n l y t h u s , i s caught. The u n i c o r n i s a symbol o f m a s c u l i n e f i e r c e n e s s . H i s savage s t r e n g t h i s an e x a g g e r a t e d compliment to the p r o u d a n i m a l f e r o c i t y o f the male. But he becomes g e n t l e a t mating time, no doubt to ensure h i s s e x u a l g r a t i f i c a t i o n — a n o b v i o u s l y human i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , s i n c e animals become more v i o l e n t . The a l l e g o r y to the male i s c l e a r , and, I would argue, the a l l u s i o n s t o m a s c u l i n e v i r i l i t y are a l s o 152 i n t e n t i o n a l . Borges r e c o u n t s the U n i c o r n ' s c a p t u r e : "How i t i s c a p t u r e d . A v i r g i n i s p l a c e d b e f o r e i t and i t s p r i n g s i n t o the v i r g i n ' s l a p and she warms i t w i t h l o v e and c a r r i e s i t o f f to the 296 p a l a c e o f k i n g s . " On the one s i d e i s a f i e r c e l u s t f u l u n i c o r n ; on the o t h e r , a v i r g i n w i t h open arms. But by u s i n g h e r v i r g i n i t y t o advantage, she p r o f i t s by the c a p t u r e of the u n i c o r n , the s u b m i s s i o n of the male. Without h a v i n g to commit any o v e r t s e x u a l a c t , the v i r g i n has p r o s t i t u t e d h e r body to g a i n reward: "the 297 whore and the v i r g i n , an i d e n t i t y . " The moral p r o c l a i m e d by the whorehouse c o u l d not be b e t t e r p r o c l a i m e d by the v i r g i n , a p r i c e on h e r head, h e r maidenhead.! sharp p r a c t i c e to h o l d on to t h a t cheapening i t : Throw i t away! (as she d i d ) The U n i c o r n the w h i t e one-horned b e a s t t h r a s h e s about r o o t t o o t a toot!298 The u n i c o r n thus erodes the d i s t i n c t i o n between the v i r g i n and the whore, between good and e v i l , between s o c i a l m o r a l i t y and unabashed s e x u a l i t y . The u n i c o r n u n i t e s heaven and h e l l . The two a r e c o n t r a s t e d a g a i n and a g a i n . The mexican whore d e s c r i b e d i n the l e t t e r from G i l b e r t S o r r e n t i n o s e l l s h e r body o p e n l y . She i s amoral; and she p r a c t i s e s unashamedly honest s e x u a l i t y f a c e d w i t h the r e a l s q u a l o r of p o v e r t y . Y e t she g i v e s h e r s e l f i n p a s s i o n : h e r man o f the moment 299 s a t i a t e s h i s p a s s i o n "deeper t h a t d e a t h . " In c o n t r a s t , the m e d i e v a l 153 v i r g i n i n the t a p e s t r y s e l l s h e r p u r i t y o p e n l y . She i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y c h a s t e and can r e f u s e a l l i m m o r a l i t y amongst the i d y l l i c p a s t o r a l l u x u r y of h e r r i c h , i d e a l w o r l d . We ar e e x p e c t e d to condemn the whore as e v i l and to p r a i s e the v i r g i n f o r h e r v i r t u e . But W i l l i a m s has g r a d u a l l y r e v e r s e d the whole m o r a l system. A l r e a d y we have seen t h a t the v i r g i n has p r o s t i t u t e d h e r body f o r a reward, even i f i t i s a n o n - s e x u a l reward, though t h a t a l s o i s d o u b t f u l i n the case of the t h r a s h i n g u n i c o r n . In e i t h e r c a s e , the l u s t o f the u n i c o r n i s s a t i a t e d : one i s s e x u a l , the o t h e r a b s t r a c t ( o n l y to become s e x u a l ! ) . The s o c i a l l y m oral v i e w p o i n t i s i r r e l e v a n t and h y p o c r i t i c a l . However, the i d e a l i z e d worship o f the v i r g i n p e r s i s t s , and W i l l i a m s undermines i t . He q u e s t i o n s the v i r t u e of the V i r g i n Mary. T h i s i s an extreme c h a l l e n g e to s o c i e t y ' s f e a r f u l l y m o r a l i s t i c w o r s h i p o f v i r g i n i t y as a symbol o f h e a v e n l y p u r i t y — the d e n i a l of the f l e s h . W i l l i a m s c o n s i d e r s v i r g i n i t y a s i n i f i t i s h e l d a t the d e n i a l of l o v e : no woman I s v i r t u o u s who does not g i v e h e r s e l f to her l o v e r — f o r t h w i V i r t u e i s i n g i v i n g l o v e , not i n h o l d i n g o f f f o r some f r i g h t e n e d , p r o u d r e v e r e n c e of s t e r i l e un-use, o t h e r w i s e c a l l e d i n n o c e n c e , which becomes a f a l s e v i r t u e when i t i s a s e l f i s h a l i e n a t i o n from the n a t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n of l o v e and d e s i r e by s e x u a l communion. In e f f e c t , W i l l i a m s i s c l a i m i n g t h a t the v i r g i n ' s v a l u e , even h e r v i r t u e , Is i n c r e a s e d by d e f l o w e r i n g , as the b l o s s o m i s s a c r i f i c e d o p e n l y as a g i f t o f l o v e , 154 As i f i t were n o t enough t o condemn t h e p r o l o n g a t i o n o f v i r g i n i t y as a s e l f i s h , a l i e n a t i n g r e f u s a l t o l o v e , W i l l i a m s q u e s t i o n s t h e v i r t u e o f the m o t i v e s f o r w o r s h i p p i n g v i r g i n i t y . He c l a i m s t h a t t he p r a i s e o f p u r i t y i s o n l y a s o c i a l f a c a d e . The •worship o f p u r i t y i s s t i l l a d e s i r e , and as a d e s i r e , i t i s a w i s h f o r p o s s e s s i o n : — e v e r y m a r r i e d , man c a r r i e s i n h i s head the b e l o v e d and s a c r e d image o f a v i r g i n whom he has whored ,301 Remember t h e i m p o t e n t s c h i z o p h r e n i a o f P h y l l i s and P a t e r s o n : "she r e f u s e s t o g r a t i f y h i s d e s i r e because she sa y s t h a t she i s too w h o r i s h . Then she c l a i m s t o have been s h o c k e d by a s e x u a l p r o p o s a l , and t h a t b ecause she c a r e s f o r h i m t o o much, she cannot s a t i s f y h i s d e s i r e s . Her c h a s t i t y now b l o c k s h i s g r a t i f i c a t i o n . E i t h e r way, n o t h i n g happens; y e t P h y l l i s a p p e a l s t o b o t h h i s e r o t i c dreams f o r a whore 302 and h i s i d e a l i s t i c w o r s h i p o f the v i r g i n . " The whole i d e a l o f v i r g i n i t y as m o r a l goodness i s p e r v e r t e d , w h i l e the s o c i a l repugnance o f whoredom i s a f a c a d e . The v i r g i n and t h e whore a r e b o t h d e s i r a b l e , b o t h l u s t e d a f t e r , b o t h w o r s h i p p e d , b u t n e v e r more so t h a n when t h e two d e s i r e s s e t t l e on one o b j e c t — t h e d e s i r e f o r i d e a l b e a u t y c o u p l e d w i t h t h e d e s i r e f o r r e a l l y f r e e s e x u a l e x p r e s s i o n . The u l t i m a t e mate f o r a man's l o v e t o be s a t i s f i e d i s t h i s one woman who can p o l a r i z e a l l h i s c r a v i n g f o r s p i r i t u a l s u b l i m i t y — p u r i t y , b e a u t y , p e r f e c t i o n , i n n o c e n s e ; and a l l h i s l u s t f o r s e n s u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n — u n i n h i b i t e d , p a s s i o n a t e consummation by e x p e r i e n c e . The l o n g i n g i s f o r mind and body t o be j o i n t l y s a t i s f i e d , and the u n i c o r n can make t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n m u t u a l : "The U n i c o r n roams 155 t h e f o r e s t o f a l l t r u e l o v e r s ' m i nds" u n t i l they f i n a l l y d i s c o v e r h e r . The e x p r e s s i o n o f h e r f a c e , where she s t a n d s removed from the o t h e r s — t h e v i r g i n and t h e whore, an i d e n t i t y , b o t h f o r s a l e t o t he h i g h e s t b i d d e r ! and who b i d s h i g h e r t h a n a l o v e r ? Come out o f i t i f y o u c a l l y o u r s e l f a woman. 3^4 W i l l i a m s a l s o t r i e s t o make the poem s t a n d as an e q u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r mind and body. The t a s k he s e t h i m s e l f i n t h e P r e f a c e was t o make o u r i n t e l l e c t u a l awareness b l o s s o m t h r o u g h an i m a g i n a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i n t o a s e n s u a l l y a p p r e c i a b l e b e a u t y . The mythology o f the u n i c o r n i s a t r i c k t o u n i t e t h e b e s t o f b o t h w o r l d s , t h e two o p p o s i t e h i g h e s t v a l u e s o r d e s i r e s — o n e s e l l i n g h e r s p i r i t u a l p u r i t y , t h e o t h e r h e r p h y s i c a l p a s s i o n . B o t h a r e v i r t u e s f o r man, b o t h a r e a v a i l a b l e whores, b o t h a r e d e s i r e d by man. The t r i c k i s i n u n i t i n g t h e d i v o r c e d d e s i r e s o f man, and i n r e t u r n i n g man t o t h a t harmony w i t h n a t u r e w h i c h was g e r m i n a t e d i n t h e P r e f a c e : r o l l i n g up o u t o f c h a o s , a n i n e month's wonder, t h e c i t y t h e man, an i d e n t i t y — i t c a n ' t be o t h e r w i s e — a n i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n , b o t h ways. R o l l i n g up! o b v e r s e , r e v e r s e ; t h e drunk t h e s o b e r ; the i l l u s t r i o u s t h e g r o s s ; one.305 W i l l i a m s has f i l l e d t h e f i n a l pages o f P a t e r s o n w i t h images o f u n i t y . The f l i g h t o f b i r d s , and the whole f a m i l y w o r k i n g on t h e i r t a p e s t r y — 306 " a l l t o g e t h e r , w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r — / a l l t h e b i r d s t o g e t h e r " — a r e metaphors f o r a community w i t h a u n i t e d d i r e c t i o n . And t h e c y c l i c a l 156 image o f death, and r e b i r t h p o i n t s t o an u n d e r l y i n g u n i t y i n the c o n t i n u a l rhythm of n a t u r e : f o r the t h i r d t i m e , W i l l i a m s d e s c r i b e s the s t r u c t u r a l u n i t y o f the o r g a n i c c y c l e , The ( s e l f ) d i r e c t i o n : h a s been changed the s e r p e n t i t s t a i l i n i t s mouth "the r i v e r has r e t u r n e d t o i t s b e g i n n i n g s " and backward- ^07 (and forward) N o t h i n g i s f i n a l , y e t e v e r y t h i n g d i e s . Man and ma t t e r a r e r e u n i t e d w i t h n a t u r e upon t h e i r death, and are r e b o r n . There i s a m i r a c u l o u s r e b i r t h o f l o v e , the u n i t y o f two b e i n g s ; a l o n g w i t h the reawakening of p r i m o r d i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the u n i t y o f man's and n a t u r e ' s s o u l s . B o t h u n i f y i n g r e b i r t h s are made p o s s i b l e by the u n i c o r n , the u n i f y i n g myth t h a t i s sought, — t h e hunt o f the U n i c o r n and n o the god o f l o v e of v i r g i n b i r t h The supreme o b j e c t i s the r e c r e a t i o n o f l o v e , n ot as an i d e a l i z e d n o t i o n t o escape from r e a l i t y , b u t as a m y t h o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f how man can l e a r n to l i v e w i t h the w a r r i n g f a c t i o n s i n s i d e h i s own b e i n g . Love can o n l y be f u l l y r e a l i z e d , W i l l i a m s a r g u e s , when man a c c e p t s the d e s i r e s o f h i s body and u n i t e s them w i t h the i d e a s o f h i s mind. W i l l i a m s ' o b j e c t i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y s i m i l a r to the s p i r i t u a l - s e n s u a l n o t i o n o f u n i t y and m a r r i a g e sought by D.H. Lawrence i n The Rainbow: "the Sons o f God saw the daughters 309 of men t h a t they were f a i r . " The s e a r c h f o r a s e n s u a l awareness u n i t e d w i t h a s p i r i t u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s P a t e r s o n , F i v e ' s quest too. Both employ f u l l c i r c l e symbolism o f u n i t y as man f i n d s a p a g a n i s t i c 157 a p p r e c i a t i o n of h i s environment and, i n t h a t s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a p r i m a l awareness o f h i m s e l f . There i s , however, a drawback to t h e growth o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g about the n a t u r e o f one's s u r r o u n d i n g s . Becoming aware o f the o b l i v i o u s n e s s o f normality,<.the normal r e p e t i t i o u s impotence and i g n o r a n c e o f "the g r e a t b e a s t , " the normal b r u t a l dominance o f those i n power, i s a p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e . S o c i a l n o r m a l i t y i s made b e a r a b l e by the s o p o r i f i c d u l l n e s s t h a t i s i t s worst a s p e c t . But i t i s too d e p r e s s i n g t o remain impotent, e n s l a v e d by t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i t y and s o c i a l h e i r a r c h i e s , and, to be c o n s c i o u s o f one's s t a t e . One has to escape from the d e p r e s s i n g ; S t a t e o f an 310 u n i m a g i n a t i v e w o r l d where " h a b i t i s a g r e a t deadener;" where, s i n c e W i l l i a m s d i r e c t s us to "Sunflower S u t r a , " m e c h a n i c a l c o r r u p t i o n deadens the f l o w e r o f n a t u r e and the s p i r i t o f man. The most common escape r o u t e i s p l a n n e d f a i l u r e ; i n v i t i n g s e l f - d e l u s i o n by a c c e p t i n g the customary i l l u s i o n s . But, • e v e n t u a l l y , t h i s o n l y i n c r e a s e s the m i s e r y , f o r i t makes h y p o c r i t i c a l the v a l u e s one upholds a g a i n s t the d u l l i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r whom i l l u s i o n i s the common t o o l . I l l u s i o n i s an esca p e , b u t i t cannot be a v i a b l e r o u t e f o r anybody who s e r i o u s l y does n o t V7ant to h i d e from r e a l i t y . S u i c i d e i s a more p o s i t i v e and d e c i s i v e a c t i o n t h a t p r o t e s t s one's d e p r e s s i o n , b u t i t i s h a r d l y a c u r e . A r t remains as the o n l y l i v i n g escape from d e s p a i r w h i c h i s not an escape from the knowledge;;of r e a l i t y . The i m a g i n a t i v e w o r l d o f a r t i s the key to s u r v i v a l . " I t i s thr o u g h t h i s h o l e / we escape . / . . .So t h r o u g h a r t a l o n e , . . . 158 Through t h i s h o l e a t the bottom o f the c a v e r n of death, the i m a g i n a t i o n escapes i n t a c t . I t i s the second t a s k o f P a t e r s o n , F i v e to im p r e s s , by example more than by d i s c u s s i o n , the v a l u e o f a r t as a me n t a l d e s i g n . t h a t can a t t a c k and o v e r t a k e the p a i n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . As a s u r r e a l v i s i o n o f the i m a g i n a r y w o r l d o f the u n i c o r n , the d e s i g n o f Book F i v e i s an attempt to t r a n s c e n d the c o n f i n e s o f d e a t h and r i s e i n t o the c r e a t i o n o f an a e s t h e t i c s t r u c t u r e which c a p t u r e s the torment o f n o r m a l i t y and so v a n q u i s h e s the d e p r e s s i o n . Thus, the key p o i n t i n t h i s p l a n i s the poem " T r i b u t e to the P a i n t e r s " i n P a r t I I , the f i n a l l i n e s o f which have been o m i t t e d because they e x p l a i n the v i s i o n , because they a b s t r a c t the torment i n t o an a n a l y s i s r a t h e r than p r e s e n t a s y n t h e s i s o f the r e a l i t y o f the s t r u g g l e i t s e l f . One must be aware o f the u n f o r t u n a t e , but n e c e s s a r y , awkwardness i n w r i t i n g about W i l l i a m s ' a v o i d a n c e o f w r i t i n g about the purpose o f the d e s i g n . He has chosen i n s t e a d t o p r e s e n t i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a l l y the r e a l i t y o f a mind s e a r c h i n g f o r peace and u n i t y out o f b i t t e r n e s s and d i v i s i o n , a mind which we can r e a d i l y see i s d i s t r a c t e d from a l l s i d e s and l i a b l e to any number o f d i g r e s s i o n s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i s i s the a s s o c i a t i v e approach i n P a t e r s o n , F i v e to the p o r t r a y a l o f a v i t a l , m ental r e a l i t y . W i l l i a m s omits the " T r i b u t e " ' s d r e a m - i n t e r p r e t a t i v e con-c l u s i o n : and t h e r e came to me j u s t now the knowledge o f 159 the t y r a n n y of the image and how-men i n t h e i r d e s i g n s have l e a r n e d to s h a t t e r i t whatever i t may be, t h a t the t r o u b l e i n t h e i r minds s h a l l be q u i e t e d , p u t to bed a g a i n . In the reawakening of the minds of the d u l l e d t o c o n s c i o u s n e s s comes the p a i n f u l knowledge o f r e a l i t y : the p r e s s u r e s o f r e a l i t y , the p r e s s u r e s to c o n f o r m i t y and u n i f o r m i t y imposed by m o r a l and e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d s w h i c h deaden the s p i r i t , the p r e s s u r e s t h a t f r u s t r a t e an e n s l a v e d mind i n t o neuroses and h y p o c r i s y . These are the s o c i a l f o r c e s t h a t i n d o c t r i n a t e s l a v e r y to i d e a s which a r e f a r from the r e a l o r the t r u e : to the i d e a l t r a d i t i o n a l w o r s h i p o f the v i r g i n as the symbol o f p e r f e c t i o n , however f a r from the t r u e d e s i r e s ; to "the t y r a n n y of the image," b o t h i n moral p h i l o s o p h y and i n a e s t h e t i c p r a c t i c e , the s t i f l i n g e f f e c t of m e t i c u l o u s o r d e r i n p o l i t e b e h a v i o u r and i n m a t h e m a t i c a l l y e x a c t a r t c o p i e s , however f a r from the i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y , the i n n a t e d e s i r e to escape from the c l a u s t r o p h o b i a to the dream-producing a c t i v i t y o f the i m a g i n a t i o n t h a t c o n s t r u c t s new w o r l d s out of d u l l e d ones. The a r t i s t , W i l l i a m s s a y s , can surmount the t y r a n n y of the 313 p r e s s u r e s and f e a r s t h a t t r o u b l e him. "The dream / i s i n p u r s u i t : " the dreams o f improvement, of l o v e , u n i t y , r e b i r t h and f a i t h , haunt the t o r t u r e d mind of the c o n s c i o u s man. The dreams o f the r e c r e a t i o n of l o v e f i l l the whole of Book F i v e . The r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the i m a g i n a t i o n ' s a c t u a l dreams i n t o a r t i s the s u r r e a l i s t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of P a t e r s o n , F i v e t h a t conquers the torment. A r t conquers the agony 1 6 0 of b e i n g c o n s c i o u s o f a m i s e r a b l e n o r m a l i t y by t h e c r e a t i o n o f the i m a g i n a t i o n ' s d e s i g n s i n t o s t r u c t u r e s whose beauty appeases w h i l e i t r e v e a l s the nightmare o f normal e x i s t e n c e . The nightmare r e a l i t y cannot be i g n o r e d : "WALK i n the w o r l d / (you can't see a n y t h i n g / from a c a r window, s t i l l l e s s / from a p l a n e , o r from the moon!? 314 Come / o f f o f i t . ) " W i l l i a m s i n s i s t s on f a c i n g the n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y , however b l e a k , r a t h e r than s l i d i n g i n t o an i l l u s o r y escape. The a c c e p t a n c e o f r e a l i t y i s a descent i n t o h e l l f o r W i l l i a m s , i n s p i t e o f G i n s b e r g ' s c r i t i c i s m s : " P a t e r s o n i s not a t a s k l i k e M i l t o n 315 g o i n g down t o h e l l , i t ' s a f l o w e r t o the mind t o o . " P a t e r s o n i s a t a s k l i k e B l a ke g o i n g down to h e l l w i t h the a n g e l . What i s seen i s a b l e a k r e a l i t y , a modern, d u s t y , d y i n g , degenerated s o c i e t y . But what i s a l s o seen i s v i t a l l i f e s t i l l r e m a i n i n g i n the l i v i n g , g i v i n g , g r a s p i n g f o r r e b i r t h : A r e e l house, a r e a l house? Casa r e a l ? Casa de pu t a s ? and then the walk through the dark s t r e e t s , j o y o f l i v i n g , i n b e i n g drunk and w a l k i n g w i t h o t h e r drunks, w a l k i n g the s t r e e t s o f dust i n a dusty y e a r i n a dusty c e n t u r y where e v e r y t h i n g i s dust b u t you a r e young and you a r e drunk and t h e r e are women ready to l o v e f o r some paper i n you r p o c k e t . - > i D The f l o w e r to the mind i s t h e r e c r e a t i o n by the i m a g i n a t i o n o f the immediate e x p e r i e n c e of the r e a l w o r l d . The i m a g i n a t i o n t r a n s l a t e s the d e p r e s s i o n and the d e g e n e r a t i o n i n t o an a r t i s t i c s t r u c t u r e whose i n t r i n s i c beauty blossoms f o r t h to r e g e n e r a t e v i t a l i t y . F i n a l l y , t hen, W i l l i a m s has succeeded i n h i s q u e s t ; he has p e r f e c t e d a: way of b r i n g i n g beauty out o f the mind i n t o a v i v i d , a r t i s t i c r e a l i t y . But t h i s s u r r e a l i s m I s more than a form c o n t a i n i n g beauty and t r u t h , music and meaning. There i s an i n t r i n s i c v a l u e to the d e s i g n i t s e l f , to the music o f the form, the m u s i c a l p h r a s e i t s e l f 161 t h a t p r o v i d e s a f e e l i n g of the t h i n g s a l o n g w i t h the i n t e l l e c t u a l sense about i t . The d e s i g n of the poem i s i t s e l f the t h i n g r e c r e a t e d , i m i t a t i n g i t s form, expanding a b s t r a c t i n t e l l e c t u a l i z a t i o n to a s e n t i e n t awareness o f t h e ^ s e n c e of the r e a l i t y . I t i s because of t h i s d e s i r e f o r an a p o c a l y p t i c i n s i g h t i n t o and p r e s e n t a t i o n of r e a l i t y t h a t W i l l i a m s ' Book F i v e i s s t r u c t u r e d l o o s e l y , g r a s p i n g at a l l k i n d s o f d e t a i l , to g i v e an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c r e v e l a t i o n of 31 r e a l i t y . But the whole t e c h n i q u e o f "an e l u c i d a t i o n by m u l t i p l i c i t y " has been w e l l exercised by the Whitman-Ginsberg l i n e of 'profuse' p o e t s , those a l l - i n c l u s i v e w r i t e r s s e e k i n g thus to c a p t u r e the t o t a l r e a l i t y of a scene. Book F i v e does have more s p o n t a n e i t y and immediacy than the e a r l i e r p a r t s o f P a t e r s o n . I t does have more i r r a t i o n a l i n c l u s i o n s and d i g r e s s i o n s , more c a r e l e s s abandon and a u t o m a t i c t e n d e n c i e s . But t h i s c a r e l e s s p r o f u s i o n i s i n t e n d e d to be a r e v e l a t i o n of the f r e e mind as i t grasps o r i s g r a s p e d by what a t t r a c t s i t . Book F i v e ' s form i s i n d i c a t i v e of i t s meaning: the mind s e a r c h i n g f o r s a t i e t y i n f u l l f l i g h t . W h ile the e a r l i e r Books u s u a l l y t a l k d i s c u r s i v e l y about r e a l i t y , about the language, about the mind, Book F i v e i s a s u s t a i n e d moment o f a p o c a l y p t i c r e v e l a t i o n , The s t r u c t u r e ' s l o o s e n e s s i n d i c a t e s the h i g h l y u n s t a b l e , b u t h i g h l y i m a g i n a t i v e and u n c o n f i n e d mind. A d m i r i n g Joyce's s t y l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n 0 f the workings of the human mind, W i l l i a m s wrote, "much t h a t he must say and cannot get s a i d 318 w i t h o u t h i s brokenness he gets down f i n a l l y w i t h i t . " In W i l l i a m s ' own s t r u c t u r a l i m i t a t i o n of the mind, t h e r e a r e the same ja g g e d f l a s h e s of p e r c e p t i o n , streams o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and i n e x p l i c a b l e d i g r e s s i o n s . S u r r e a l i s m i s the t e c h n i q u e needed to f r e e 162 language from the m i n d - b l i n d i n g common formulas, f o r e x p r e s s i o n , to impregnate the language w i t h new i n t e n s i t y and cause a r e b i r t h of meaning and s t y l i s t i c v i t a l i t y . In Book Four, W i l l i a m s had asked: " K i l l the e x p l i c i t s e n t e n c e , don't yo u t h i n g ? and expand 319 our m e a n i n g — b y v e r b a l sequences." The dream a s s o c i a t i o n s of the m y t h i c w o r l d a r e o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y approached i n Books One and F o u r : t h e f i n a l Book i s the s u r r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l o f the whole dream-—the r e l a x a t i o n of laws opening the mind to a c o n s c i o u s v i s i o n of u n a v e r t e d r e a l i t y b l e n d e d w i t h a s p i r a t i o n and l o v e . D e s p i t e a l l t h i s ' c a r e l e s s n e s s ' and p o e t i c l i c e n s e , W i l l i a m s n e v e r r e l e a s e s c o n t r o l of P a t e r s o n . Book F i v e i s a m e d i t a t i o n which t r i e s t o modernize W i l l i a m s ' v i s i o n of r e a l i t y . I t t r i e s to r e f r e s h t h e i m a g i n a t i o n w i t h more c u r r e n t examples. I t i s a w e l l - p l a n n e d s e l e c t i o n o f images t h a t have been chosen f o r a c o n s c i o u s and i n t e n t i o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r p o s e — W i l l i a m s ' v i s i o n of l o v e and u n i t y . One must t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t the arguments t h a t P a t e r s o n , F i v e i s an attempt n o t at m i m icking but b e i n g unthought o f : i t i s not a u t o m a t i c w r i t i n g . S u r r e a l i s m remains f o r W i l l i a m s a method of r e v e a l i n g the dream l o n g i n g s of the i m a g i n a t i o n : i t does not become s t r i c t s u r r e a l i s m , a r t almost i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the r e a l i t y o f a dream, a f u l l - b l o w n , u n c o n t r o l l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the dreams of the sub-c o n s c i o u s . There a r e too many c a r e f u l l y chosen and i n t e r w o v e n a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t f i t the i n t e l l e c t u a l d e s i g n , however s p o n t a n e o u s l y the work o f a r t appears t o have been c r e a t e d . The c o n t r o l and measure w i t h i n the poem's s t r u c t u r e i s always c o n s c i o u s l y d e s i g n e d t o r e f l e c t the s u r r o u n d i n g r e a l i t y , and to b r i n g us i n t o c l o s e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i t : i t i s always an a r t i f i c e . "The measured dance' 163 a t the end i s an image o f c o n t r o l and o r d e r , w h i l e i t i s an o r d e r l a r g e r than o u r s e l v e s , an o r d e r i n n a t u r e to w h i c h man must submit o r go mad l i k e L e a r . We know n o t h i n g and can know n o t h i n g but the dance, to dance to a measure contrapun t a l l y , 22]_ S a t y r i c a l l y , the t r a g i c f o o t . The " b u t " i s a l l we need t o know, t o dance as a f i n a l a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n u n i t y , l i v e minds i n f r e s h l o v e , r e c r e a t i n g l o v e . R i g h t to the end, W i l l i a m s i n s i s t s on e x p l o d i n g r e s t r i c t i n g p r e c o n c e p t i o n s : " u n l e s s the s c e n t o f a r o s e / s t a r t l e us anew," then i t i s u s e l e s s . W i l l i a m s t r i e s to reawake the p e r c e p t i o n s from d u l l n e s s toe-consciousness, r e f r e s h i n g i d e a l s i n t o l i v e myths t h a t a r e r e f o u n d and r e l a t e d to contemporary r e a l i t y . One dances " c o n t r a p u n t a l l y , " i n i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t to s o c i a l movement, i n d i f f e r e n t to c r a s s h a b i t s and i d e a l s , b u t not a n t i - s o c i a l , j u s t a c t i v e l y " a g a i n s t the weather" o f the s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s whose p r e s s u r e s harm the s t a t e o f humanity. " S a t y r i c a l l y , the t r a g i c f o o t : " The pun i s too r e l e v a n t to m i s s , the pagan sympathy i s c l e a r l y a r e v e r e n c e f o r the wood nymph who has t h o r o u g h l y adapted t o h i s environment, a symbol of harmony l i k e the u n i c o r n . "The t r a g i c f o o t " r e v e a l s W i l l i a m s ' f i n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o s t r u g g l e on: the measure o f the v e r s e , l i k e the measure of the a r t i s t ' s v i s i o n , i s a b i t t e r knowledge, b u t the a c t i v e , i m a g i n a t i v e , h e r o i c and t h e r e f o r e t r a g i c , r e a c t i o n to the p a i n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s to dance i n d e f i a n c e o f d e s p a i r - — When the snow f a l l s the f l a k e s s p i n upon the l o n g a x i s t h a t concerns them most i n t i m a t e l y two and two t o make a dance the mind dances w i t h i t s e l f , t a k i n g y o u by the hand, y o u r l o v e r f o l l o w s t h e r e a r e always two, y o u r s e l f and the o t h e r , the p o i n t o f y o u r shoe s e t t i n g the pace, i f y o u break away and run the dance i s o v e r B r e a t h l e s s l y you w i l l take another p a r t n e r b e t t e r or worse who w i l l keep a t y o u r s i d e , a t y o u r s t o p s w h i r l s and g l i d e s u n t i l he too l e a v e s o f f on h i s way down as i f t h e r e were another d i r e c t i o n gayer, more c a r e f r e e s p i n n i n g f a c e to f a c e , b u t always down w i t h each o t h e r s e c u r e o n l y i n each o t h e r ' s arms But o n l y the dance i s s u r e ! make i t y o u r own. Who can t e l l what i s t o come o f i t ? i n the woods of y o u r own n a t u r e whatever t w i g i n t e r p o s e s , and b a r e twigs have an a c t u a l i t y o f t h e i r own t h i s f l u r r y o f the storm t h a t h o l d s us, p l a y s w i t h us and d i s c a r d s us d a n c i n g , d a n c i n g as may be c r e d i b l e . FOOTNOTES "''William C a r l o s W i l l i a m s , P a t e r s o n (New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 39. 2 P a t e r s o n , pp. 172, 173. 3 One must admit f r o m the s t a r t t h a t t h e s e g o a l s — f u l l c o n -s c i o u s n e s s , p u r e p e r c e p t i o n , i m p a r t i a l i t y , r e a l i t y — a r e human and n o t i d e a l , r e l a t i v e n o t a b s o l u t e : W i l l i a m s ' s e a r c h i s f o r the k e e n e s t p e r c e p t i o n and most v i t a l r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y p o s s i b l e . 4 W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s , " L e a r , " S e l e c t e d Poems (New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 126. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Poems.) ^ W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s , " P r e f a c e , " S e l e c t e d E s s a y s (New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. x i i . As we s h a l l see l a t e r , when W i l l i a m s ' r o m a n t i c man views the o b j e c t s i n n a t u r e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i m and t h e o b j e c t d e f i n e s h i m , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f h i s b e i n g w i t h i n the e n v i r o n m e n t d e f i n e s him. ^ W i l l i a m s , "The A m e r i c a n B a c k g r o u n d , " ( 1 9 3 4 ) , E s s a y s , p. 134. 7 I b i d . , p. 137. g W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s , "Pe r e S a b a s t i a n R a s l e s , " I n The  A m e r i c a n G r a i n (New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s , (1925) 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 112. 9 W i l l i a m s , "Edgar A l l a n Poe," I n The A m e r i c a n G r a i n , p. 224. "*"^Ibid. , p. 224. "'""'"Ibid. , p . 216. 12 I b i d . , p. 225. 1 3 W i l l i a m s , "The B a s i s o f F a i t h i n A r t , " ( 1 9 3 7 ? ) , E s s a y s , p. 181. 14 W i l l i a m s , " D e s c e n t , " I n The Am e r i c a n G r a i n , p. 212. "'"^Williams, "The A m e r i c a n B a c k g r o u n d , " E s s a y s , p. 138. 16 W i l l i a m s , " A s p h o d e l , That Greeny F l o w e r ( C o d a ) , " Poems, p. 152. 166 " ^ W i l l i a m s , "The American Background," E s s a y s , p. 138. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 134. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 134. 20 I b i d , , p, 143. 2 1 I b i d . , p. 141. 22 W i l l i a m s , "The D e s t r u c t i o n o f T e n o c h t i t l a n , " I n The American  G r a i n , pp. 33-34. 23 W i l l i a m s , "Descent," In The American G r a i n , p. 214. 24 W i l l i a m s , "Young Sycamore," Poems, p. 39. 25 W i l l i a m s , " P r o l o g u e t o Kora i n H e l l , " (1920), E s s a y s , p. 16. 26 P a t e r s o n , p. 139. 27 W i l l i a m s , " I n t r o d u c t i o n to C h a r l e s S h e e l e r — P a i n t i n g s — D r a w i n g s — P h o t o g r a p h s , " (1939), E s s a y s , p. 233. 2 8 I b i d . 29 W i l l i a m s , " B i r d , ' ' P i c t u r e s from B r u e g h e l (New Yo r k : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1962), p. 41. 30 W i l l i a m s , "Landscape w i t h the F a l l o f I c a r u s , " P i c t u r e s from  B r u e g h e l , p. 4. 31 W.H. Auden, "Muse'e des Beaux A r t s , " A Pocket Book o f Modern  V e r s e , ed. Oscar W i l l i a m s , (New York: Washington Square P r e s s , 1960), p. 473. 32 I am c o n v i n c e d t h a t c r i t i c i s m s h o u l d i l l u m i n a t e as much as i t a n a l y z e s . See Ihab Hassan, "The L i t e r a t u r e o f S i l e n c e , " E n c o u n t e r , v o l . 28 (1967), 74-82. On page 79, Hassan w r i t e s : I s u s p e c t t h a t l u c i d i t y may no l o n g e r be w h o l l y adequate to the amb i t i o n s o f c r i t i c i s m . We i n -c r e a s i n g l y f e e l t h a t c r i t i c i s m s h o u l d do more than c l a r i f y ; i t s h o u l d a l s o p o s s e s s the wisdom o f the senses and o f the s p i r i t . We want i t to endanger i t s e l f , as l i t e r a t u r e does, and to t e s t i f y to our c o n d i t i o n . We even hope t h a t i t can s u s t a i n the burden o f r e v e l a t i o n . T h i s hope has l e d me to suggest t h a t c r i t i c i s m may have t o be-come a p o c a l y p t i c b e f o r e i t can compel our sense o f r e l e v a n c e . 167 3 3 W i l l i a m s , " R e v e l a t i o n , " 0-947), E s s a y s , p. 269. 34-W i l l i a m s , " A g a i n s t the Weather: A Study o f the A r t i s t , " (1939), E s s a y s , p. 200. 35 W i l l i a m s , " P r o l o g u e to Kora i n H e l l , " E s s a y s , p. 5. 36 , . . above, p. 14. 37 C h a r l e s O l s o n , " P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e , " S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s (New Y o rk: New D i r e c t i o n s , (1950) 1966), p. 24. 38 D.H. Lawrence, quoted by Wayne Burns i n The P a n z a i c  P r i n c i p l e ( V a n c o u v e r ) , p. 4. 39 C h a r l e s O l s o n , " P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e , " S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s , pp. 24-40 W i l l i a m s , "Marianne Moore," (1931), E s s a y s , p. 121. CHAPTER I I 41 W i l l i a m s , "The B a s i s of F a i t h i n A r t , " E s s a y s , p. 186. 42 W i l l i a m s , "A L e t t e r , " (1940), E s s a y s , p. 238. 4 3 I b i d . , p. 239. 4 4 W i l l i a m s , "The B a s i s of F a i t h i n A r t , " E s s a y s , pp. 192-93. 45 W i l l i a m s , " L e a r , " Poems, p. 126. 46 W i l l i a m s , "The Rose i s O b s o l e t e , " I m a g i n a t i o n s (New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s , (1923) 1970), p. 107. 47 I b i d . , p. 108. 48 W i l l i a m s , "Lower Case Cummings," (1946), E s s a y s , pp. 265-66. 49 W i l l i a m s , " A g a i n s t the Weather," E s s a y s , p. 213. I b i d . 5"'"Williams, "A L e t t e r , " E s s a y s , p. 239. 52 W i l l i a m s , " A g a i n s t the Weather," E s s a y s , p. 217. 53 I b i d . , p. 213, 5 4 I b i d . , p. 196. 168 CHAPTER I I I S5 W a l l a c e S t e v e n s , The N e c e s s a r y A n g e l (New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books, 1951), pp. 21-23. 56 A l l a n T a t e , The Man o f L e t t e r s i n the Modern W o r l d , S e l e c t e d  E s s a y s : 1928-1955 (New Y o r k : M e r i d i a n Books, 1955), p. 97. " ^ W i l l i a m s , " A g a i n s t t h e Weather," E s s a y s , p. 203. 5 8 I b i d . , p. 204. 5 9 I b i d . , p. 203. 60 B e r n a r d L e a c h , A P o t t e r ' s Book (London: F a b e r and F a b e r , (1940) 1967), p. 10. 61 W i l l i a m s , " A g a i n s t t h e Weather," E s s a y s , pp, 205-6. I b i d . , p. 208. 6 3 I b i d . , p. 210. 6 4 I b i d . , p. 217. 65 A l l a n T a t e , Man o f L e t t e r s , p. 15. 66 W a l l a c e S t e v e n s , The N e c e s s a r y A n g e l , p. 35. ^ 7 I b i d . , p. 61 6 8 W i l l i a m s , " A g a i n s t r t h e Weather," E s s a y s , p. 196. I b i d , I b i d . 7 1 W i l l i a m s , " F e d e r i c o G a r c i a L o r c a , " (1939), E s s a y s , p. 228. 72 I b i d . , p. 227. 73 E r n e s t F e n Q l l o s a , "The C h i n e s e W r i t t e n C h a r a c t e r as a Medium f o r P o e t r y , " P r o s e Keys t o Modern P o e t r y , ed. K a r l S h a p i r o , (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1962), p. 147. 7^T.E. Hulme, " R o m a n t i c i s m and C l a s s i c i s m , " P r o s e K e y s , p. 100. ^ C o n c i s e O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y . 76 W i l l i a m s , "Lower Case Cummings," 'Essays, p. 267. 169 p. 288. 7 7 W i l l i a m s , "The B a s i s o f F a i t h i n A r t , " E s s a y s , p. 179. 78 W i l l i a m s , "The Poem as a F i e l d o f A c t i o n , " ( 1 9 4 8 ) , E s s a y s , CHAPTER I V 79 W i l l i a m s , "A S o r t o f a Song," Poems, p. 108. 80 By ' c a r e f u l l y , ' I t a k e W i l l i a m s t o mean t h a t w r i t i n g must n o t become a h a b i t t h a t i s c a r e l e s s l y r i g i d and s t a l e . To c o n s c i o u s l y keep h i s words l o o s e and a l i v e , he i s c a r e f u l l y c a r e l e s s o f h a b i t u a l s t y l e s ; f o r i t i s w i t h an i r o n i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d c a r e t h a t W i l l i a m s s a y s i n P a t e r s o n , p. 155, "Only one answer: w r i t e c a r e l e s s l y so t h a t n o t h i n g t h a t i s n o t green w i l l s u r v i v e . " 81 W i l l i a m s , "Poem," Poems, p. 54. 82 E r n e s t F e n e l l o s a , "The C h i n e s e W r i t t e n C h a r a c t e r , " P r o s e  K e y s , p. 145. 83 C h a r l e s O l s o n , S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s , p. 20. 84 E z r a Pound, "A R e t r o s p e c t , " P r o s e K e y s , p. I l l , W i l l i a m s , "A 1 Pound S t e i n , " ( 1 9 3 5 ) , E s s a y s , pp. 163-64, 163. 86 W i l l i a m s , " E x c e r p t s f r o m a C r i t i c a l S k e t c h : A D r a f t o f XXX Cantos by E z r a Pound," ( 1 9 3 1 ) , E s s a y s , p. 111. 87 W i l l i a m s , "A 1 Pound S t e i n , " E s s a y s , p. 162. 88 P a t e r s o n , pp. 172-73. 89 T.E. Hulme, " R o m a n t i c i s m and C l a s s i c i s m , " P r o s e K e y s , p. 101. 90 / W i l l i a m s , " F e d e r i c o G a r c r a L o r c a , " E s s a y s , p. 226. 91 P a t e r s o n , p. 2 76. 92 I b i d . , p. 266. 9 3 I b i d . , p. 194. 94 W i l l i a m s , "A Negro Woman," P i c t u r e s from B r u e g h e l , p. 123. 95 T.S. E l i o t , "Rhapsody on a Windy N i g h t , " C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909- 1935 (London: Faber and F a b e r , (1936) 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 25. 170 9 ^ C h a r l e s O l s o n , S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s , p. 26. 97 T.S. E l i o t , "Hamlet and h i s Problems," The S a c r e d Wood (London: Methuen, 1960), p. 100. 98 E z r a Pound, "A R e t r o s p e c t , " P r o s e Keys, p. 104. " W i l l i a m s , "A S o r t of a .Song'% Poems, p. 109. "'"^Williams, "Shadows," P i c t u r e s from B r u e g h e l , p. 152. l O l r , * c  P a t e r s o n , p. 65. 1 0 2 I b i d . , p. 97. 103 T.., 1 Q 1 I b i d . , p. 191. 1 0 \ r i l l i a m s , "Pound's E l e v e n New 'Cantos,'" (1935), E s s a y s , p. 169, "'"^John Betjeman, s t a n z a s 1, 2 and l a s t o f "Winter Seascape," H i g h and Low (London: John Murray, 1966), p. 9. 106 W i l l i a m s , "The B a s i s of F a i t h i n A r t , " E s s a y s , p. 177. ^ 7 W i l l i a m s , "A 1 Pound S t e i n , " E s s a y s , p. 165. 108 W i l l i a m s , "The Poem as a F i e l d o f A c t i o n , " E s s a y s , p. 291. 109 I b i d . p. 290. 1 1 0 I b i d . , p. 291. "Stfilliams, "The G o s s i p s , " P i c t u r e s from B r u e g h e l , p. 41. 112 W i l l i a m s , "On M e a s u r e — S t a t e m e n t f o r C i d Corman," (1954), E s s a y s , p. 337. 113 I b i d . , p. 337. 1 1 4 I b i d . , p. 338. "''"'"^Williams, "The Poem as a F i e l d o f A c t i o n , " E s s a y s , p. 284. 116 W i l l i a m s , "On M e a s u r e — , " Essays , p. -339. " ^ ^ I b i d . , p. 338. 118 W i l l i a m s , " T r i b u t e to the P a i n t e r s , " P i c t u r e s from B r u e g h e l , p. 135. 119 I b i d . , p. 137. 120 W i l l i a m s , "On M e a s u r e — , " E s s a y s , p. 340. 171 1 21 I b i d . , p. 339. W i l l i a m s , "The Poem as a F i e l d o f A c t i o n , " E s s a y s , p. 290. 123 I b i d . , p. 283. 124-W i l l i a m s , "On M e a s u r e — , " E s s a y s , p. 340. 125 W i l l i a m s , q u o t e d i n "Ten Y e a r s o f a New Rhythm," ( 1 9 5 3 ) , a f t e r w o r d by John C. T h i r l w a l l t o P i c t u r e s from B r u e g h e l , p. 183. 126 W i l l i a m s , "On M e a s u r e — , " E s s a y s , p. 338. 127 W i l l i a m s , "To Mark Anthony i n Heaven," Poems, p. 51. 128 W i l l i a m s , " T r i b u t e t o t h e P a i n t e r s , " P i c t u r e s from B r u e g h e l , p. 135. 129 W i l l i a m s , " A g a i n s t t h e Weather," E s s a y s , p. 207. 130 I b i d . , pp. 205-6. 131 I b i d . , p. 206. 132 I b i d . , p. 203. 1 3 3 I b i d . , p. 206. 13 A W a l l a c e S t e v e n s , c r i t i c i z i n g W i l l i a m s , and q u o t e d by W i l l i a m s i n " P r o l o g u e t o K o r a i n H e l l , " E s s a y s , p. 12. 135 W i l l i a m s , "To Daphne and V i r g i n i a , " . P i c t u r e s from B r u e g h e l , p. 77. 136 W i l l i a m s , "The M e n t a l H o s p i t a l Garden," P i c t u r e s from B r u e g h e l , p. 98. 137 W i l l i a m s , "The Lady Speaks," P i c t u r e s from B r u e g h e l , p. 134. 138 E z r a Pound, ABC o f R e a d i n g (New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 3 4 ) , p. 61. 139 I b i d . , p. 66. " ^ ^ W i l l i a m s , "The Wind I n c r e a s e s , " Poems, pp. 69-70. 141 A l l a n T a t e , Man o f L e t t e r s , p. 19. 142 D.H. Lawrence, The Rainbow (Harmondsworth, E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books, 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 26. 172 1 4 3 W i l l i a m s , " R e v e l a t i o n , " ( 1 9 4 7 ) , E s s a y s , p. 268. 144 I b i d . , p. 271. 145 T h i s i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e P u r i t a n s f e a r o f l o s i n g c o n t r o l w h i c h W i l l i a m s r e c o r d s i n I n The A m e r i c a n G r a i n . 146 W i l l i a m s , " R e v e l a t i o n , " E s s a y s , p. 271. CHAPTER V 14 7„ 148 12, P-149 12. P-150 13, P-151 11. P-152 15. P-153 11. P-154 99. P-155 10. P-156 . 97-98 PP 157 12. P-158 3. P-159 14. P-160 20-21. PP 161 24. P-162 27. P-163 28. P-164 34. P-165 44. P-166 23. P-167 P. 23 168 P- 28. 169 pp. 41-42. 170 P- 32. 171 P- 44. 172 P- 46, 173 P- 51. 174 P- 49. 175 PP 48-49, 176 P. 10 177 P. 59-. 178 P- 59., 179-P. 3, 180 P. 57, 181 P. 70. 182 PP . 61, 70, 183 P- 61 184 P- 72. 185 P- 66, 186 P. 70. 187 P- 67. 188 PP . 66-67. 189. PP . 78-79, 19.0 PP . 81, 81. 19-1 PP 87, 19.2 P. 91, 174 193 p. 88. p. 95 1 9 5 p . 95. 1 9 6 P . 98. 1 9 - 7 P . 97. 1 9 8 P . 99. 1 9 9P . 100. 2 0 ° p . 101. 2 0 1P . 100. 202 . p. 101. 2 0 3 p . 102. 2 0 4P . 99. 2 0 5 P . 99. 206 ... , pp, 101-2, p. 103, 2 0 8 i n , p. 103, 2 0 ° W i l l i a m s , "To E l s i e , " Poems, p. 28. 210 I b i d , , p. 28. 211 P a t e r s o n , p. 102. 2 1 2 OS p. 9.6, 213 W i l l i a m s , " A s p h o d e l , That Greeny F l o w e r , " P i c t u r e s f r o m B r u e g h e l , p. 179. 214 P a t e r s o n , p. 104. p. 97. 216 1 9 1 p, 121. 175 CHAPTER VI 2 1 7 p . 118. 2 1 8 p p . 118-19, ' 219 p. 123. 99 0 D.H. Lawrence, "Song of a man who has come t h r o u g h , " S e l e c t e d  Poems (New Y o r k : The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 74. 9 9 1 W.B. Y e a t s , " E a s t e r 1916," S e l e c t e d P o e t r y (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 62), p. 93. 222^ ... P a t e r s o n , p. 134. 223 p. 135. 224 1 A 1 p. 141. 2 2 5 i « p. 156. 226 p. 163. 227 p. 120. 228 p. 65. 229 1 9 , p. 123. 230 1 0 . p. 124. 2 3 1 p p . 126-27. 232 W i l l i a m s , K o r a i n H e l l (San F r a n c i s c o : C i t y L i g h t s Books, 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 24. 233 P a t e r s o n , p. 129. 234 pp. 129-30. 235 p. 130. 2 3 6 i « p. 136. 237 p. 139. 2 3 8 T A I p. 141, 239 p. 142. 240 P- 147. 241 P- 162. 242 P- 156. 243 P- 167. 244 PP . 161-^ 62. 245 P- 167. 246 P- 170. 247 P. 3. 248 PP . 102--3. 249 P« 131. 250 P- 131. 251 P- 129. 252 P- 140. 253 . ';' " . pp, . 145--146 254 P- 146-255 : -• P • 154. 256 P- 156. 257 P- 164. 258 P- 169. 259 P- 172. 260 P- 173. 261 P- 186. 262 P- 180. CHAPTER V I I 177 2 6 3P P . 194, 195. 2 6 4P . 196. 2 6 5P . 195. 2 6 6 p . 196. 2 6 7 p . 189 268 I 269 2 6 8 p . 209. p. 205. 2 7 0 p . 218. 271 / X p . 208. 2 7 2 9 i n p. 210. 273 ' p. 210. 2 7 4 p p . 209-10. 2 7 5 p . 218. 2 7 6 p . 211. 2 7 7 K e n n e t h P a t c h e n , H a l l e l u j a h Anyway (New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s 1 9 6 7 ) , c o v e r p i c t u r e - p o e m . 2 7 8T, P a t e r s o n , p. 3. 2 7 9 p . 234. 2 8 0P . 219. 281 p. 13. 282 „ 9„ p. 223. 283 p. 224. 2 8 4 9-^ p. 233. p, 234, 2 8 6 p. 234. 2 8 7 o « p. 235, p. 235. 178 289 o r > , p . 2 36 . p. 236. 2 9 1 W i l l i a m B l a k e , The M a r r i a g e o f Heaven and H e l l . I b i d . 2 9 3 T , . , I b i d . CHAPTER V I I I 294 P a t e r s o n , p. 241. 2 9 5 9 7* p. 276. 2 9 6 J o r g e L u i s Borges, The Book of Imaginary Beings (New Y o r k : Avon Books, 1970), pp. 229-30. 297 P a t e r s o n , p. 245. 2 9 8 o/o / o pp. 242-43. 299 p. 250. p. 266. 301 p, 272. 3 0 2 U T « above, p. 135. 303 9 7 . p. 272. 3 0 4 9 7* p. 276. 305 p . 12. 3 % . 270. 3 0 7 p . 271. 3 0 8 9 7 9 p. 272, 3 <^D.H. Lawrence, The Rainbow (Penguin B o o k s ) , p. 276. 31 0 Samuel B e c k e t t , W a i t i n g f o r Godot (New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s 1954), p. 58r, 179 311 P a t e r s o n , p. 247. 312 W i l l i a m s , " T r i b u t e t o t h e P a i n t e r s , " P i c t u r e s f r o m B r u e g h e l , p. 137. 313 P a t e r s o n , p. 259. 3 1 4P . 249. 3 1 5 P . 248. p. 249. 317 7 7 p. 77. 318 W i l l i a m s , "A Note on the Recent Work o f James J o y c e , " ( 1 9 2 7 ) , E s s a y s , p. 76. 319 P a t e r s o n , p. 222. 3 2 0 p . 278. 321 p. 278. 322 W i l l i a m s , "The Dance," Poems, pp. 166-67. BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES W i l l i a m s , W i l l i a m C a r l o s . I Wanted t o W r i t e a Poem. B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1958. . I m a g i n a t i o n s , ed. Webster S c h o t t . New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1970 ( T h i s c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e s S p r i n g and A l l , f i r s t p u b l i s h e d P a r i s , C o n t a c t P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1923). . I n The A m e r i c a n G r a i n . New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1956 ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d 1 9 2 5 ) . . K o r a i n H e l l : I m p r o v i s a t i o n s . San F r a n c i s c o : C i t y L i g h t s Books, 1957 ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d B o s t o n , The F o u r Seas Company, 1920). . P a t e r s o n . New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1963. . P i c t u r e s from B r u e g h e l . New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1962. . S e l e c t e d Poems. New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1968. . S e l e c t e d E s s a y s . New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1969 ( F i r s t p u b l i s h e d New Y o r k , Random House, 1954) . SECONDARY SOURCES Betjeman, John. H i g h and Low. London: John M u r r a y , 1966. B o r g e s , J o r g e L u i s . The Book o f I m a g i n a r y B e i n g s . New Y o r k : Avon Books, 1970. B u r n s , Wayne. The P a n z a i c P r i n c i p l e . Vancouver: ( p r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d ) . E l i o t , T.S. C o l l e c t e d Poems 1909-1935. London: Faber and F a b e r , 1961 ( 1 9 3 6 ) . 181 E l i o t , T.S. The S a c r e d Wood. London: Methuen P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1960. F e n e l l o s a , E r n e s t . "The C h i n e s e W r i t t e n . C h a r a c t e r as a Medium f o r P o e t r y , " P r o s e Keys to Modern P o e t r y , ed. K a r l S h a p i r o . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1962. Hassan, Ihab. "The L i t e r a t u r e o f S i l e n c e , " E n c o u n t e r , 28, J a n . 1967, 74-82. Hulme, T.E. " R o m a n t i c i s m and C l a s s i c i s m , " P r o s e Keys t o Modern P o e t r y , ed. K a r l S h a p i r o . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1962. Lawrence, D.H. S e l e c t e d Poems. New Y o r k : The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1959. _. The Rainbow. Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, 1969. L e a c h , B e r n a r d . A P o t t e r ' s Book. London: F a b e r and F a b e r , 1967 (1940). O l s o n , C h a r l e s . " P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e , " S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s . New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1966. P a t c h e n , K e n n e t h . H a l l e l u j a h Anyway. New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1967. Pound, E z r a . "A R e t r o s p e c t , " P r o s e Keys t o Modern P o e t r y , ed. K a r l S h a p i r o . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1962. . ABC o f R e a d i n g . New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1934. S t e v e n s , W a l l a c e . The N e c e s s a r y A n g e l . New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books, 1951. • T a t e , A l l a n . The Man o f L e t t e r s i n the Modern W o r l d , S e l e c t e d  E s s a y s : 1928-1955. New Y o r k : M e r i d i a n Books, 1955. W i l l i a m s , O s c a r , ed. A P o c k e t Book o f Modern V e r s e . New Y o r k : Washington Square P r e s s , 1960. 

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