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Study of the influence of educational environment on 'fear of success' in high school and college women Yan, Toby Rose 1973

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I A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT ON 'FEAR OF SUCCESS* IN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE WOMEN by TOBY ROSE YAN B.Sc. University of Toronto, 1971 A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of M.A. in the Department of Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1973 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Psychology The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date October 29, 1973 i ABSTRACT A series of three projective cues, designed to measure fear of success, were administered to f i f t y women with co-educational backgrounds (twenty-eight from grade 11 and twenty-two from f i r s t year university) and fort y - e i g h t women from single-sex schools ( t h i r t y from grade 11 and eighteen from f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y ) . The groups were matched for socio-economic status and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . Following the administration of the verbal cues, subjects were tested i n competitive and non-competitive conditions on two performance tasks, before which they were asked to estimate their perfor-mance. They also completed a Sex-Role D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (SRD) questionnaire and a general information sheet. The r e s u l t s indicated that the l e v e l of fear of success was the same for public and private school women in Grade 11 but increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y for private school women in university. Women evidencing high fear of success gave lower expectancy estimates of t h e i r performance while those low i n fear of success made s i g n i f i c a n t l y more accurate estimates of the i r performance on the tasks. Women with high fear of success also held more t r a d i t i o n a l views of male and female roles as evidence by the i r higher scores on the SRD scales. However, no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between fear of success and performance was revealed. The implications of a private school environment for the future education of women were discussed. *««*««* l i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 METHOD ~ 23 RESULTS 29 DISCUSSION ^3 BIBLIOGRAPHY 59 APPENDIX A. General Information Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . . 63 B. Vocabulary Test from the Wechsler A d u l t I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e 66 C. Thematic Apperception T e s t f o r Pear of Success Imagery 67 D. Scrambled Words T e s t 70 E. Word Generation T e s t 76 F. Sex-Role D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . 78 i l l LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Summary of the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of f e a r of success as r e l a t e d t o women w i t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s c h o o l backgrounds i n grade 11 and u n i v e r s i t y 31 I I . Percentage of s u b j e c t s a t each grade l e v e l and sc h o o l background who performed as expected on the c o m p e t i t i v e and non-competitive t>asks . . 35 I I I . Number of high and low estimates of performance on Scrambled Words and Word Generation t a s k s f o r s u b j e c t s high and low In f e a r o f success . kl IV. Number of hig h and low estimates on Scrambled Words task f o r s u b j e c t s h i g h and low i n f e a r of success kl V. Number of high and low estimates of performance on the Word Generation task f o r s u b j e c t s high and low i n f e a r o f success 41 VI. Number of acc u r a t e and i n a c c u r a t e estimates o f performance made by s u b j e c t s w i t h high and low f e a r o f success kZ V I I . Number of acc u r a t e and i n a c c u r a t e estimates of performance made by s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h and low f e a r of success f o r scores above the mean . . kZ i v LIST OF FIGURES PAGE FIGURE 1. Means of f e a r of success of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s c h o o l groups i n high s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y J2 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS F i r s t , I wish to thank the p r i n c i p a l s , teachers and students of Sentinel Secondary School and Crofton House School for G i r l s f o r the i r cooperation and p a r t i -c i p a t i o n in the study, and the f i r s t year students at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia who volunteered t h e i r time for t h i s research. I would also l i k e to thank Ann Clement for acting as an independent rater and V i r g i n i a Green and Frank Flynn of the S t a t i s t i c s Centre f o r help with analyzing the data. F i n a l l y , I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. Meredith Kimball and Dr. Chris Tragakis for th e i r able assistance and d i r e c t i o n i n helping me to complete this thesis. TOBY ROSE YAN 1 Much research has been carried out to understand the determinants of achievement-oriented behaviour. A t h e o r e t i -c a l l y consistent body of data exists which enables one to predict achievement behaviour as a function of the strength of the achievement motive. According to Atkinson, 1966, The strength of motivation to achieve at a p a r t i c u l a r task i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n must be viewed as Join t l y determined by general d i s p o s i t i o n to achieve (achievement motive) and an expectancy concerning the consequences of the action defined by s i t u a t i o n a l cues.l The tendency to approach a task, then, i s a m u l t i p l i -cative function of the motive to achieve success (Ms), the strength of expectancy (subjective probability) that success w i l l be the consequence of the a c t i v i t y (Ps) and the incentive value of that p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y ( I s ) : Ts=Ms x Ps x Is. S i m i l a r l y , the tendency to avoid f a i l u r e is determined by an Individual's motive to avoid f a i l u r e (Maf), the perceived p r o b a b i l i t y of f a i l u r e ( P f ) , and the peroeived value of the conseuqences of that f a i l u r e ( I f ) : Taf=Maf x Pf x I f . There-fore, the resultant achievement-oriented tendency i s dependent on an individual's tendency to succeed, tendency to avoid f a i l u r e , and on other tendencies aroused by environmental cues (Atkinson, 1966); then Ta=(Ts-Taf)+Text. Studies have shown an increase i h achievement moti-vation in response to experimental achievement conditions iJ.W. Atkinson, A Theory of Achievement Motivation. Atkinson, J.W. and Feather, N.F. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Incorporated, 1966, p. 52. 2 stressing i n t e l l e c t u a l and leadership c a p a b i l i t i e s and have described s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between achievement motivation and r i s k - t a k i n g behaviour, work partner se l e c t i o n , problem-solving effectiveness and academic performance. For example, Litwin ( 1 9 5 8 ) has reported that r i s k -taking behaviour and expectancy of success differsd'••.fggr? students high i n achievement motivation as compared with students low in achievement motivation. Several weeks before the experimental session, Lltwin instructed 78 male college students to write stories to four thematic apper-ception pictures. These pictures were presented as a test of creative imagination. The stories were then scored for need achievement imagery according to the manual by McClelland et a l . ( 1 9 5 3 ) . Subjects were also given the f i r s t section of the Test Anxiety Questionnaire (TAQ). Twenty subjects were selected with need achievement scores above the group median and TAQ scores below the group median. These were considered to be achievement-oriented subjects. Twenty other subjects, who were named f a i l u r e - o r i e n t e d subjects, received need achievement scores below the group median and TAQ scores above the group median. A l l f o r t y Ss played a series of games in which they had to ohoose one from a set of tasks varying i n d i f f i c u l t y . There were two experimental conditions, one i n which _Ss estimated p r o b a b i l i t y of success before playing the games, and the other In which no p r o b a b i l i t y estimate was obtained. Achievement-oriented Ss selected tasks of 3 intermediate d i f f i c u l t y s i g n i f i c a n t l y more often than f a i l u r e - o r i e n t e d Ss who ohose tasks of higher d i f f i c u l t y . Achievement-oriented Ss also gave higher and more accurate p r o b a b i l i t y estimates of success than f a i l u r e - o r i e n t e d Ss, but not i n games where objective cues were present. Although the expectancy-value theory of motivation has been la r g e l y supported by experimental data, i t s pre-d i c t i v e power f a l l s down when achievement motivation i n women i s concerned. R e l a t i v e l y few studies have dealt with the motive to achieve in women and those that have been done show neither consistency with male data, nor any Internal consistency among themselves. Veroff, Wilcox and Atkinson (1953) found that when confronted with an achievement-oriented condition, American high school and college women did not respond with the pre-dicted increase in need achievement (nAch) imagery on the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). In the f i r s t part of the experiment, male and female high school students were divided into two conditions, a Relaxed condition i n which achievement-arousing cues were intended to be minimized, and an Achieve-ment condition where motivation was experimentally increased by increasing achievement-arousing cues. After administration of the thematic stories to both groups, a s i g n i f i c a n t i n -crease i n the mean nAch scores from the Relaxed to the Achievement condition was found for male subjects. No such increase was found for females. Even when effects were made to ensure a relaxed, Informal atmosphere in the second part of the experiment, female Ss (in th i s case, college women) s t i l l did not show an Increase i n nAch over the two condi-tions. The f a i l u r e to demonstrate an increment in nAch imagery did not imply a lack of achievement motivation^beeause under relaxed conditions, the nAch scores for women were higher than f o r the men. During the second part of the study, an anagrams task was used as both a vehicle f o r experimentally increasing achievement motivation p r i o r to administration of the sto r i e s and as a f a i r l y r e l i a b l e performance measure of achievement motivation. Clark and McClelland ( 1 9 5 0 ) reported that for males the number of anagrams correct increased as nAch i n -creased. Veroff . et a l . found that for both male and female pictures, the high nAch group produced more anagrams than the low nAch group. Therefore, despite the f a i l u r e to show an experimentally produced difference in nAch for women over the two conditions, the re l a t i o n s h i p of nAch to performance on an anagrams task i s the same for women as for men. It was also found that pictures containing male and female figures e l i c i t e d d i f f e r e n t responses in terms of need achieve-ment. Male cues produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y more achievement imagery i n both sexes. Angelinl ( 1 9 5 5 ) attempted to r e p l i c a t e Veroff &t a l . ' s findings and discovered that nAch scores of both male and female subjects increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f t e r experimental 5 a r o u s a l . For c e r t a i n female samples, then, experimental i n s t r u c t i o n s which appeal to l e a d e r s h i p and academic a b i l i t y produce an i n c r e a s e i n achievement m o t i v a t i o n s c o r e s . A n g e l i n i was d e a l i n g w i t h a h i g h l y s e l e c t sample of the female p o p u l a t i o n of B r a z i l . Only few B r a z i l i a n women r e c e i v e the o p p o r t u n i t y to atte n d u n i v e r s i t y . The women who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study, then, were h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e persons who p l a c e d high v a l u e on academic accomplishment. L e s s e r , K r a v i t z and Packard ( 1 9 6 3 ) chose a group of American women who, they assumed, were comparable to the B r a z i l i a n sample A n g e l i n i had used. These women attended Hunter High School, a h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e s c h o o l i n New York. The s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups t a c h i e v e r s and underachievers. Both groups were matched f o r IQ. However, women whose grade averages f e l l i n the f i r s t q u a r t i l e of the c l a s s f o r f i v e - s i x t h s o f the pr e c e d i n g semesters were c a l l e d a c h i e v e r s . Underachievers d e s c r i b e d a group of women whose grade averages f e l l i n the f o u r t h q u a r t i l e of the c l a s s f o r the l a s t f i v e - s i x t h semesters. No d i f f e r e n c e s i n response to the experimental a r o u s a l c o n d i -t i o n s were found. N e v e r t h e l e s s , an important second order e f f e c t was d i s c o v e r e d . The achievement m o t i v a t i o n scores of the a c h i e v e r s Increased i n response to female p i c t u r e s but not to male p i c t u r e s . S i m i l a r l y , the underaohievers'scores i n c r e a s e d when they produced s t o r i e s to male versus female 6 figures. Thus, achievement imagery was engaged and attached to figures whom the subjects viewed as proper agents for i t . For the achievers, the female figures' a c t i v i t i e s were d i -r e c t l y related to their own s t r i v i n g s ; the underachievers perceived male figures as more appropriate agents for achievement imagery. Achievement in i n t e l l e c t u a l endeavours for males i s quite consistent with achievement in other areas such as s o c i a l adeptness and a t h l e t i c s . For women, though, s o c i a l adeptness i s considered to be a primary goal (Bardwick, 1970). Under experimental, conditions which aroused concern for s o c i a l acceptance, Feld (1955) found that need achieve-ment imagery increased f o r female subjects. Morrison (1955) reports that women's scores based on material containing male and female figures i n non-achievement situations were related to performance. Need achievement scores based on male pictures i n achievement situations also predicted performance on an anagrams task. However, women's nAch scores which were derived from st o r i e s written to pictures of career women were not related to performance. If the scores were to be v a l i d indicators of performance, the picture cues had to be of men only or of females in non-achievement si t u a t i o n s . Veroff (1959) was interested in the rel a t i o n s h i p of women's attitudes to housework and t h e i r achievement scores on TAT figures that showed women in both career situations and domestic scenes. If attitudes change as women pass 7 through d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s i n t h e i r l i v e s , then more i n f o r -mation can be gathered about the determinants of achievement m o t i v a t i o n i n females. A measure of women's a t t i t u d e s toward housework was obtained by a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which a l l s u b j e c t s f i l l e d out. V e r o f f found t h a t elementary s c h o o l and h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s responded p o s i t i v e l y to a l l TAT f i g u r e s ; t h a t i s , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward housework were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r achievement s c o r e s on the TAT f i g u r e s t hat showed women i n e i t h e r domestic scenes or c a r e e r s i t u a t i o n s . For c o l l e g e women, however, the a t t i t u d e to housework measure was n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r achievement scores on the care e r p i c t u r e s , but p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the scores f o r the domestic TAT scenes. Thus, u n l i k e the c o n s i s t e n t responses of the other two groups, the responses of the c o l l e g e women r e f l e c t e d a c o n f l i c t these women experience w i t h regard to f u l f i l l i n g the ex p e c t a t i o n s of both a f a m i l y and a c a r e e r . For these women, p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward household d u t i e s are not p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y compatible w i t h a c a r e e r . T h i s incom-p a t i b i l i t y between housework and c a r e e r does not develop u n t i l women reach c o l l e g e , or are of an age where the consequence of the choices they make i n l i f e are much more immediate. From the r e s u l t s o f these s t u d i e s , French and Le s s e r (1964) concluded t h a t v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n was an important f a c t o r i n det e r m i n i n g an Increase i n achievement m o t i v a t i o n imagery. They hypothesized t h a t female s u b j e c t s would respond to a r o u s a l cues w i t h i n c r e a s e d achievement m o t i v a t i o n scores 8 and high performance relationships when the cues were related to a goal that was relevant to them. The resu l t s were disappointing; irrespective of motivational p r o f i l e , motivation scores were always higher under i n t e l l e c t u a l arousal when male figures were used, and higher under women's r o l e arousal when female figures were used. It i s evident that r e s u l t s obtained for women i n r e l a t i o n to achievement motivation are c o n f l i c t i n g and unclear. Sampling differences and methodological problems s t i l l account for many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n this area of research. Recently, though, Horner (I968) introduced a concept, Pear of Success, which seems to c l a r i f y some of the contradictions about females in the achievement motivation l i t e r a t u r e . Like the tendency to approach success, and the tendency to avoid f a i l u r e , the tendency to avoid success i s dependent on an individual's motive to avoid success (M-s), the perceived p r o b a b i l i t y of the success (Ps), and the per-ceived value of avoiding the success ( I - s ) , such that T-s=M-s x I-s x Ps. The tendency to avoid success (T-s) can have a po s i t i v e value for many women but takes on a negative value for most men. Therefore, the tendency to achieve is hampered by T-s for some women but not for men. Now T-s can be included in Atkinson's t h e o r e t i c a l formulation; thus, Ta=(Ts - Taf - T-s)+Text. 9 One consistent f i n d i n g for females has been the attainment of higher anxiety measures for females than for males in a testing s i t u a t i o n . Peld and Lewis (I969) stated that g i r l s have, higher scores than boys on the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC), and that these differences become greater with increased time at school or with increased age. This achievement-related anxiety has generally been con-sidered to be a r e s u l t of the motivation to avoid f a i l u r e ; that i s , performance in a task may lead to negative conse-quences. However, women may be just as threatened by the consequences of success as those of f a i l u r e . Successful achievement may be perceived to lead to re j e c t i o n or loss of femininity. On the other hand, males are not l i k e l y to encounter both sources of anxiety. Their anxiety stems from the expectancy or negative consequences, for example, shame, i f they f a i l the task. Achievement motivation in women, however, may be inhibited by the arousal of both the fear of success and the fear of f a i l u r e . For men, academic or i n t e l l e c t u a l success i s consistent with success in other areas such as attractiveness and s o c i a l adeptness, and primarily holds posi t i v e gain. On the other hand, such success has both positive and negative consequences for women. Throughout her education, a g i r l i s faced with a dilemma; she i s told to learn the same things as boys and Is encouraged to do well by her parents. However, when she reaches adolescence, a change in emphasis concerning achievement 10 occurs where competition with males i s ultimately unre-warding (Mead, 1 9 4 9 ) . Success is no longer compatible with femininity. A g i r l can display enough of her a b i l i t i e s to be considered moderately successful, but not too success-f u l . The female r o l e , then, becomes more c l e a r l y defined as non-competitive and achievement i s assigned almost exclusively to the male r o l e (Mead, 1 9 4 9 ) . It i s quite evident, there-fore, to see why g i f t e d g i r l s do not f u l f i l l t h e i r p o t e n t i a l as adults as often as g i f t e d boys (Terman and Oden, 1947). In an attempt to measure fear of success, Horner gave 90 f i r s t - y e a r college women the cue, "At the end of f i r s t -term f i n a l s Ann stood at the top of her medical school class,** and asked them to write a story in response to c e r t a i n question guidelines. While 59 of the 90 women (65 per cent) wrote stories containing fear of success themes, only 8 of the 88 males tested (9 per cent) evidenced any fear of success. (For the men, the name, John, was substituted for Ann in the s t o r y ) . Horner also found that the presence of the motive to avoid success negatively affected the women's performance in a competitive s i t u a t i o n . Women low in fear of success performed in the same way in a competitive s i t u a t i o n as the male subjects, and did better in this condition than in the non-competitive condition. In contrast, 77 per cent of the women, who scored high in the fear of success measure, per-formed better in a-inon-competitive s i t u a t i o n than during a competitive one. 11 It Is quite apparent from the data that, f o r some women, fear of success presents a barr i e r to the achievement of cer t a i n goals. "When highly competent women are faced with a c o n f l i c t between t h e i r feminine image and developing t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , they adjust t h e i r behaviour to th e i r i n t e r -2 nalized sex-role stereotype* (Horner, 19?2). In a study con-cerning women's vocational preferences, Farmer and Bohn (1971) removed fear of success when they told a group of high school women to pretend that men l i k e d i n t e l l i g e n t women and that a woman could successfully combine both career and family r e -s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . After these instructions, career i n t e r e s t , as measured by the Strong Vocational Interest Blank (Women's form), increased for six f i e l d s : a r t i s t , author, lawyer, l i f e -insurance saleswoman, physician and psychologist, and decreased for the following eight: business, education, teacher, secre-tary, o f f i c e worker, elementary school teacher, home-economics teacher, d l e t i t l o n , and housewife. This study suggested that when freed from the fear of s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n women, who are f e a r f u l of entering occupations t r a d i t i o n a l l y viewed as mascu-l i n e , change t h e i r vocational interests i n terms of more demanding careers. If something i s to be done to break the psychological b a r r i e r that fear of success creates, one must determine when the anxieties concerning achievement develop, and what the p r e c i p i t a t i n g factors are surrounding t h i s occurrence. One area of research involves the study of the rel a t i o n s h i p 2 M.S. Horner, Towards an understanding of achievement-related c o n f l i c t s in women, Journal of Social Issues. 1972, 28(2), p. 173. 12 of parents' behaviour to their children's achievement behaviour. Katkovsky et a l . (1964) found sex differences between parents' attitudes toward their own personal achievements and toward the achievement behaviour of th e i r children. The importance parents placed on I n t e l l e c t u a l competence for t h e i r daughters was closely t i e d to the values they held f o r themselves. However, the importance they placed on i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement for t h e i r sons was more independent of the values they held for themselves. The findings were d i f f e r e n t for minimal standards of per-formance. Parents set standards f o r their sons more similar to their own standards for i n t e l l e c t u a l performance than f o r th e i r daughters. Fathers, e s p e c i a l l y , wanted t h e i r sons to perform as well as they would l i k e to themselves. These differences in parents' attitudes towards children's achievement and performance may r e f l e c t a c u l t u r a l stereotype regarding children's achievement a c t i v i t i e s . It i s quite acceptable for young g i r l s to emphasize i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement and to do well in school. Yet, i t i s not as appropriate for boys to do so well as to be l a b e l l e d a book-worm. Therefore, parents may consider i t more important for g i r l s than for boys to do well at this age; but, i n setting s i m i l a r minimal standards of performance for boys as for themselves, parents show that their sons must meet certain standards of achievement. They are w i l l i n g to accept less from g i r l s , but boys must achieve a p a r t i c u l a r standard of 13 performance In order to ensure future vocational success. Katkovsky et a l . show that parents emphasize i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement for g i r l s to a cert a i n extent, but do not follow through or encourage them as much as boys. If g i r l s know that less w i l l be accepted from them and that achievement f o r them i s not that important, they may not put forward the e f f o r t to perform as well as they could. Crandall et a l . (1964) found more s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a -tions between parents* attitudes and behaviour and their daughters' academic achievement than for t h e i r sons' per-formance. For g i r l s , the amount of achievement and amount of approval-seeking behaviour was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d , but for boys, this r e l a t i o n s h i p did not hold. Furthermore, while maternal nurturance and a f f e c t i o n was negatively related to g i r l s ' achievement,the. r e s u l t s for boys were large l y incon-s i s t e n t . Crandall interpreted these findings as evidence for the independent character of achievement In boys. Achieve-ment behaviour in boys i s autonomous of adult or other external influences; boys take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r themselves. On the other hand, g i r l s ' achievement behaviour Is ti e d to the reactions of others and i s dependent on the approval It can win from others. Bardwlck argues that for women, the need to a f f i l i a t e i s often fused with the need to achieve. Women use achieve-ment as a way of securing love and approval, whereas, for men, successful achievement has posi t i v e merit in i t s own r i g h t . 14 Therefore, women value success when i t brings pos i t i v e r e i n -forcement from others; however, i f i t brings negative r e -actions from others, then i t may acquire a negative value. From a study of 42 mother-child p a i r s , Berens ( 1973) concluded that a pattern of experiences exists which i s associated with high achievement motivation i n both boys and g i r l s . These experiences include a strong encouragement of achievement by the mother and expectations f o r achievement and independence from her c h i l d . For boys, the most important single variable that discriminated high achievers from low achievers was a warm supportive rel a t i o n s h i p with the mother. As a l l g i r l s reported warm mother-daughter interactions, this variable did not separate high and low achievers for females. However, maternal demands made for independence were related to the development of achievement motivation in g i r l s . Berens emphasized that "for both boys and g i r l s some elements of parental t r a i n i n g inconsistent with t r a d i t i o n a l sex-role stereotypes seem to contribute to producing high l e v e l s of achievement motivation."^ A warm mother-child r e l a t i o n s h i p i s more t y p i c a l of g i r l s ; but, a l l of the other factors re l a t e d to the development of achievement motivation, such as early demands for independence and high verbal i n t e r -ference, are more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process of boys. The pattern of experiences associated with the development of achievement motivation seems to be incompatible with the sex-role s o c i a l i z a t i o n pattern for g i r l s . It i s , 3ft. Berens, Sex-role stereotypes and the development of achievement motivation, Ontario Psychologist, ^, 1973» P. 3 3 . 15 therefore, more l i k e l y for boys to develop hfligh achievement motivation and to sustain It throughout t h e i r l i v e s . Veroff (I969) put forward the hypothesis that, i n order to have a mature orientation to achievement, one must master the three developmental stages of achievement motiva-t i o n . The three stages are: (1) autonomous competence, (2) s o c i a l comparison about achievement, and (3) autonomous achievement motivation integrated with s o c i a l comparison s t r i v i n g s . For mastery of stage one, demands and opportu-n i t i e s for independence must be appropriately timed and support for autonomous a c t i v i t y must be given. Stage two requires that the c h i l d f e e l adequate in comparison with the s i g n i f i c a n t others i n his peer group. F i n a l l y , stage three demands a sense of independence and effectiveness on the part of the person apart from his or her s o c i a l group. One type of orientation, Veroff discussed, was fear of success. A person high i n fear of success has mastered s o c i a l comparison in spite of e a r l i e r inconsistent ex-periences with successful autonomy s t r i v i n g s . This person i s successful in competition with others, but fears the consequences of success. Boys generally perceive fewer c o n f l i c t s and ambivalent feelings regarding autonomy than g i r l s . If g i r l s are not allowed the early experiences required for the development of autonomous competence, then they w i l l not reach a complete development of achieve-ment motivation. 1 6 Hoffman ( 1 9 7 ? ) is generally i n agreement with Veroff. Between one and three years of age, timing of independent experiences i s c r i t i c a l ; the c h i l d must not be thrown to the outside world too early. He or she needs a secure base from which to explore; but i f the parent waits too long and does not give adequate encouragement for independent s t r i v i n g s , then autonomy w i l l not be fostered. Kagan and Moss ( 1 9 6 2 ) reported that maternal protectiveness In the f i r s t three years of l i f e was negatively related to achievement behaviour as an adult. Because of d i f f e r e n t i a l parental attitudes and behaviour toward male and female infants, g i r l s are more protected and soon learn that they can depend on mother for comfort and consolation without being rejected. The achieve-ment of male children draws clearcut sanctions from parents, but the ambivalent feelings they have about g i r l s ' achieve-ments are conveyed to the g i r l s and may lead them to doubt th e i r own competence. Since a g i r l has less parental en-couragement for independence, more parental protectiveness, and less pressure for establishing a separate i d e n t i t y from the mother, she i s l i k e l y to engage in less independent exploration of her environment than a boy her age. Hardwick proposes that academic and professional achievement does not present a c o n f l i c t for middle-class g i r l s u n t i l i t begins to threaten s o c i a l achievement during adolescence. Several studies have supported t h i s statement (Horner, 1 9 7 2 ; Kimball, 1 9 7 2 ) . Horner found an Increase i n 17 fear of success imagery i n g i r l s between junior and senior high school and between the f i r s t and l a s t years of college. In a study of grade 8 and grade 12 students at private schools, Kimball found an increase in fear of success imagery f o r g i r l s between grades 8 and 12, but no comparable increment for boys. As boys move through high school, academic values become more important, but f o r g i r l s , they begin to take second seat to s o c i a l leadership. After experiencing reward for achievement, on previous occasions, g i r l s begin to f i n d achievement threatening to th e i r a f f i l i a t i v e needs and to th e i r femininity and, therefore, concentrate less on academic achievement. However, afte r the a f f i l i a t i v e needs have been s a t i s f i e d through marriage and c h i l d rearing, the need to achieve returns. Baruch ( I 9 6 7 ) reported that in a study of R a d c l i f f e alumnae, achievement motivation dropped 5 to 10 years a f t e r college, but increased after 15 years after graduation and remained stable thereafter. Women are supposed to perform well, but are not supposed to p u b l i c l y say they are competent. V i r i g i n i a Crandall (I969) reports that g i r l s give expectancy estimates of their performance that are consistently lower than boys' estimates.jjiMalesiappear r e l a t i v e l y more optimistic about t h e i r performance than females. In an experiment where feed-back about performance given to subjects was either neutral or contradictory, Crandall found that the two sexes resolved 18 the c o n f l i c t s they experienced about the reports in d i f f e r e n t ways. Boys' expectations about t h e i r achieve-ments increased, whereas g i r l s suffered a decrement. Even with a basis for prediction such as past grades in a course, boys overestimated th e i r performance on a test while g i r l s ' estimates were lower than t h e i r grades warranted. Several studies have shown that height of expectancy of success, whether i t be on novel tasks or future grades, does predict performance at approximately equal l e v e l s for both sexes. Battle (1965) and Feather (1963) demonstrated that height of expectancy predicted the amount of goal approach behaviour that occurred. Both male and female junior high school students, who reported high expectation of success in their mathematics courses, spent more time on a d i f f i c u l t mathematics problem than students with low expectation of success,(Battle, 1 9 6 5 ) . S i m i l a r l y , college subjects, who had high i n i t i a l expectations of success on a d i f f i c u l t reasoning problem, persisted longer in an attempt to solve i t than subjects with low i n i t i a l expectancies (Feather, I 9 6 3 ) . In a study where expectancies were experimentally controlled, Tyler (1958) found that subjects, who were given high expectancies of success through encouraging remarks from the examiner during pretest t r i a l s , reached the solution of a novel p a t t e r n — l e a r n i n g problem more frequently than Ss who were given low expectancies through discouraging comments. 19 Furthermore, s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer Ss with low expectancies conceptualized the l o g i c a l steps involved in the solution of the problem. They used rote memorization to give the proper series of responses. Feather (1966) reported that Ss, who were given high expectancies by previous success t r i a l s , performed better on an anagrams task than those who were given low expec-tancies with previous f a i l u r e t r i a l s . F i n a l l y , in a series of experiments with d i f f e r e n t tasks and age groups, Crandall et a l . ( I 9 6 5 ) found that the height of expectancy was a good predictor of academic competence. Correlations of expectancy estimates from the studies averaged . 5 3 with grades and . 5 0 with achievement test scores. Undoubtedly, low expectancies have a deleterious e f f e c t on performance and can prevent one from being too successful. Whether a woman i n t e r n a l l y believes that she w i l l perform poorly on a task, or whether fear of s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n leads her to d e l i b e r a t e l y give an erroneous estimate of performance, low expectancies are not b e n e f i c i a l f o r one's self-esteem or for freedom from anxieties. Since a person high in fear of success i s more anxious about the consequences of success,he or she would tend to play down his/her c a p a b i l i t i e s and would underestimate his/her performance on a task to a greater extent than would a person who did not fear success. Given these low expectancies, low performance and thus a lack of success would almost be guaranteed. 20 In a study of attitudes to sex r o l e s , Lambert ( 1 9 6 7 ) gave a large sample ( 7 5 0 0 ) of ten to sixteen year old boys and g i r l s across Canada, a questionnaire which was designed to measure differences i n attitudes and behaviour toward the sexes with respect to personality t r a i t s , behaviour, Jobs, parental power and d i s c i p l i n e , parental caring, authority r e l a t i o n s and peer r e l a t i o n s . Other items were included in the questionnaire which tapped variables that were hypothesized to be related to the Sex Role Di f f e r e n -t i a t i o n (SRD) measures. Some of these variables were: b i r t h order, number of s i b l i n g s , amount of power the c h i l d has i n determining what the family does, and amount and kind of f e e l i n g expressed in the family. Questionnaires were also d i s t r i b u t e d to parents (a majority of whom were mothers) and teachers. The parent questionnaires attempted to measure trad i t i o n a l i s m and the mother's concept of the female r o l e . The teacher's questionnaire gathered more information about the pupil's behaviour and attitudes towards the opposite sex, personal background and attitudes toward t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u -t i ons. Lambert reported three major findings: 1) a posi t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between parental r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and sex-role d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n existed; 2 ) boys who shared in the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power within t h e i r families tended to sex-type more than boys who had l i t t l e power; the re l a t i o n s h i p was reversed f o r g i r l s , and 3 ) subjects who interacted d i f f e r e n t l y with the sexes thought in segregated ways about the sexes. 21 Lambert also found relationships between sex-role imagery and other behaviours. Children who dated were somewhat more prone to sex-type. In addition, g i r l s who sex-typed were less l i k e l y to do well academically than those who did not sex-type. Wren's study (1972) of the effects which the motive to avoid success have on college women's attitudes to marriage, careers, and vocational choices concluded that those women, high i n fear of success, held negative a t t i t -tudes toward careers, and defined success in terms of marriage and a family. It follows that these preferences of women high i n the motive to avoid success for t r a d i t i o n a l female a c t i v i t i e s would be r e f l e c t e d by Lambert's SRD scales. In contrast, women,low i n fear of success, would be expected to show a less stereotyped view of the female r o l e than women high i n fear of success. Although Lambert studied children from urban and r u r a l schools, he did not take into consideration whether sex-role d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n would be affected by coeducational versus single-sex schools. One of the questions which Horner has raised about the development and arousal of the motive to avoid success deals with the Influence of the educational environment on the arousal of thi s motive. Does attendance at a non-educational school reduce the impact of the motive to avoid success so that women can develop th e i r interests and pot e n t i a l more f u l l y ? If these women are not a f r a i d of success, as evidenced by th e i r choice of career and desire 22 f o r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n , w i l l t h i s I n f l u e n c e and support continue a f t e r they leave t h i s k i n d of academic atmosphere? T h i s t h e s i s i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of these i s s u e s which Homer has r a i s e d . P r i v a t e , non-coeducational schools u s u a l l y have t r a -d i t i o n s of hig h academic standards and encourage t h e i r students to do w e l l . Students are o f t e n f a c e d w i t h v i g o r o u s c o m p e t i t i o n i n order to a t t a i n h i g h academic success, and the d e s i r e f o r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n and i n t e r e s t i n c a r e e r s i s q u i t e s t r o n g . While g i r l s who atte n d c o - e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u -t i o n s may be Just as achievement-oriented as the p r i v a t e s c h o o l g i r l s , i n a p r i v a t e s c h o o l , academic l i f e i s indepen-dent of s o c i a l l i f e simply because of the absence of male stud e n t s . In a c o - e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l , the two cannot be separ a t e d and, consequently, may pr o v i d e a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n f o r the g i r l s who a t t e n d . Those g i r l s who are i n t e l l e c t u a l l y capable of doing a task may not perform w e l l when faced w i t h mixed-sex c o m p e t i t i o n . P r i v a t e s c h o o l g i r l s do not meet t h i s s i t u a t i o n , and are not g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to r e s o l v e any c o n f l i c t t h a t may occur; but when they r e a c h u n i v e r s i t y ^ these women w i l l be confronted w i t h male competitors imme-d i a t e l y . For the co-ed, the experience w i l l not be a new one and, t h e r e f o r e , not as shocking. Then, f o r the p r i v a t e s c h o o l g i r l s , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r an a c a d e m i c - s o c i a l c o n f l i c t t o appear, r e s u l t i n g i n a decrement i n performance because of the a r o u s a l of the motive to a v o i d success. 23 Therefore, on the basis of the above assumptions, the hypotheses of the thesis are as follows t 1) Women from non-coeducational high schools (grade 11) w i l l show fewer fear of success responses to projective stories than women from coeducational high schools (grade 11); 2) Women i n f i r s t year college who spent t h e i r high school years i n non-coeducational i n s t i -tutions w i l l show more fear of success responses to projective stories than t h e i r counterparts from coeducational high schools and than women in attendance at private schools; 3) Women with high motive to avoid success w i l l demonstrate a higher l e v e l of performance i n a non-competitive s i t u a t i o n than i n a competitive one, whereas women with low motive to avoid success w i l l show better performance on a task in a competitive s i t u a t i o n than i n a non-competitive one; 4) Women with high motive to avoid success w i l l underestimate t h e i r test score r e s u l t s ; that i s , their expectation of their performance on the tasks w i l l be lower than the actual l e v e l of performance. However, women with low motive to avoid success w i l l make s i g n i f i c a n t l y more accurate predictions of thei r performance than women high in fear of success; 5) Women high in fear of success w i l l have a more t r a d i t i o n a l view of male and female roles than women low in fear of success, as evidenced by t h e i r high scores on the Sex Role Differen-t i a t i o n measures in the attitude questionnaire. METHOD Subjects Four groups of middle-class females were selected f o r th i s study. One group of 28 g i r l s was chosen from the grade 11 class of Sentinel Secondary School i n West Vancouver, 24 a coeducational high school. A second group of 30 g i r l s was selected from Crofton House School f o r G i r l s , Grade 1 1 , a private non-coeducational school. The t h i r d group con-s i s t e d of 20 f i r s t year university students who attended non-coeducational high schools and the fourth group included 22 freshmen women from coeducational high schools i n West Vancouver. The high school and college groups were matched for socioeconomic status and i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y In order to prevent confounding of the experimental r e s u l t s of these variables. Procedure Socioeconomic status was determined by father's occupation and educational background. A questionnaire concerning family background was dis t r i b u t e d to a l l subjects in order to gather t h i s information (see Appendix A). A measure of i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y was obtained from the Vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (see Appendix B). The Vocabulary subtest of the WAIS has been shown to correlate highly ( . 8 7 ) with the t o t a l IQ score over the entire t e s t (Wechsler, 1 9 5 8 ) . The questionnaire was administered in a group s e t t i n g , but because of the nature of the WAIS, the vocabulary test was given i n d i v i d u a l l y . Once the groups wercr matched, the administration of the fear of success measures began. Each subject was given a booklet containing instructions and four s p e c i f i c s i t u a -tions about which she must write a store (see Appendix C). 25 The order of the four s t o r i e s were counterbalanced across subjects. One story was taken d i r e c t l y from Hoa?ner: After f i r s t term f i n a l s Ann finds herself at the top of her medical school c l a s s . (Hora©r,1968, p. 59) Certain questions were asked to guide the reader: 1) What has led up to the situation? What has happened In the past? 2) How does Ann f e e l ? What i s she thinking? 3) What w i l l happen i n the future? What w i l l Ann do? The second story involved a d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g : For the past year P h y l l i s has been working on a new t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n . F i n a l l y , CITY-TV i s scheduled to s t a r t broadcasting next month. P h y l l i s i s named as one of the executive pro-ducers. The t h i r d story was conoerned with a supposedly less threa-tening s i t u a t i o n than the others: For a number of months Mary has been chief fund r a i s e r at the university for the Hospital Fund. This year, a new record was set for the amount of money col l e c t e d . As a r e s u l t , the organization has c a l l e d a special meeting of a l l i t s members to honour Mary and to present her with an award. The job of fund r a i s e r i s a more t y p i c a l feminine a c t i v i t y and was included in order to provide some information r e -garding the conditions which arouse the motive to avoid success. The fourth story was designed as a control. The content had no r e l a t i o n s h i p to achievement motivation: 26 Margaret and Ken have been going steady for a few months. Now i t seems as i f they are going to break up. Since the sex of the character does not a f f e c t the content of the stories written (Kimball, 1972), only female names were used In the achievement-oriented s t o r i e s . A l l subjects were given s i x minutes to write as complete a story as possible. The second part of the experiment investigated the e f f e c t of competitive conditions on performance i n various tasks. Under the assumption that the motive to avoid success i s more strongly aroused in competitive conditions than i n non-competitive ones,Hosmer found that women high i n fear of success would perform more poorly in a compe-t i t i v e than i n a non-competitive achievement s i t u a t i o n . In order to compare the performance of each person i n a competitive and non-competitive s i t u a t i o n , a l l subjects were tested in both a group setting and an i n d i v i d u a l s e t t i n g . The competitive performance task was an anagram tes t taken i n a group setting. The instructions were worded i n such a way as to emphasize the competitive nature of the condition. Subjects were t o l d that the test was a measure of "general i n t e l l i g e n c e " and were given ten minutes (two minutes per page) to do the test. The words fo r a l l four groups of subjects were the same as those used by Horner ( 1 9 6 8 ) . The test and instructions are given in Appendix D. 27 The non-competitive task was a word generation test. Subjects were told that the purpose of this part of the study was to f i n d out how many shorter words could be made from a longer word. A l l subjects responded to three words: generation, transclence and degradation, and were given f i v e minutes per word. The non^competltive task condition was structured such that anxiety and competitiveness were mini-mized. (See Appendix E for the instructions and the t e s t ) . Students were c a l l e d out i n d i v i d u a l l y for t h i s test and examined alone. Since the presence of the examiner could have introduced variables that could a l t e r the nature of the condition, she was present Just long enough to greet the subject and present her with the written instructions. The examiner would then turn on a tape recorder which gave more detailed instructions and timed the subject's performance. Included in the instructions for both tests was the question: "How well do you expect to do on thi s t e s t ? " This question attempted to evaluate how accurately subjects assess t h e i r own performance. The subjects were given six choices and were expected to check one of the six. The choices available were: very well, well, f a i r , not too well, poorly, and very poorly. The f i n a l part of the study consisted of an attitude questionnaire for which most of the items were taken from Lambert's Sex Role D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n Questionnaire (see Appendix E). A l l subjects f i l l e d out the questionnaire 28 d u r i n g c l a s s time. The SRD Q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of two major p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t contained three groups of items (out of a t o t a l of f i v e ) which measured how the s u b j e c t p e r c e i v e d sex r o l e s . These groups were jobs, peer r e l a t i o n s , and a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s . The second p a r t con-s i s t e d of f o u r groups of items which measured how the s u b j e c t p e r c e i v e d her p a r e n t s 1 d i v i d i n g of f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s * household a c t i v i t i e s , d i s c i p l i n e , power i n making d e c i s i o n s , and support of the c h i l d r e n . Each SRD item c o n s i s t e d of a v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n , f o r example, "does the shopping," which the s u b j e c t r a t e d on both of two seven p o i n t s c a l e s . One s c a l e was e n t i t l e d " G i r l s Your Age or Mother" and the other was l a b e l l e d "Boys Your Age or F a t h e r . " The sum., of the scores f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l items was the score f o r t h a t group. T h e r e f o r e , i f a s u b j e c t p e r c e i v e d no d i f f e r e n c e s between boys and g i r l s or mother and f a t h e r on these a c t i v i t i e s , the SRD score would approach z e r o . S e v e r a l other items were i n c l u d e d In the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These questions d e a l t w i t h the e d u c a t i o n a l background and work s t a t u s of the s u b j e c t s * mothers and the e d u c a t i o n a l and occu-p a t i o n a l g oals of the s u b j e c t s themselves. Another item was concerned w i t h the importance of a c h i e v i n g these g o a l s to the s u b j e c t . Subjects were a l s o asked which f a c t o r s , they f e l t , were most important i n making a job choice and which a t t r i -butes they c o n s i d e r e d most h e l p f u l i n g e t t i n g along i n the world. A copy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix A. 29 RESULTS The high school and university groups were matched for socioeconomic status and i n t e l l e c t u a l a t t l l i t y . A l l subjects f e l l within S o c i a l Class I and S o c i a l Class II as defined by Holllngshead and Redlich (1958). A X 2 t e s t of differences In s o c i a l class for public and private school subjects was.o not s i g n i f i c a n t ; (X^ -.018, g > . 0 5 f o r the grade 11 group and X 2 = . 0 0 5 , P > . 0 5 for the university group). Application of afeX analysis to the scores obtained from the Vocabulary subtest of the WAIS showed no differences In 2 i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y between the groups (X^ =.004, p > . 0 5 for the grade 11 group and ^-.0^6, p > . 0 5 for the university group). A l l three projective cues were scored 0,1,or 2 according to the degree of fear of success present in the protocols. The fourth story, which had no r e l a t i o n s h i p to achievement motivation, was included as a control and was not scored. A score of 0 was assigned i f fear of success was absent and a score of 1 or 2 was given i f the motive to avoid success (M-s) was present. Following Horner's scoring tech-nique, M-s i n the s t o r i e s were given 2 points If the subjeot expressed concern about the following! a) negative consequences because of the success; b) a n t i c i p a t i o n of negative consequences because of the success; 30 o) Instrumental a c t i v i t y away from present or future success including leaving the f i e l d f o r more t r a d i t i o n a l female work such as teaching, nursing, or s o c i a l work; d) any direot c o n f l i c t about success; e) denial of the s i t u a t i o n described by the cue; f) bizarre, inappropriate, u n r e a l i s t i c or non-adaptive responses to the s i t u a t i o n desorlbed by the oue. A score of 1 was assigned i f the story was lar g e l y p o s i t i v e except for mention of negative e f f e c t , negative s o c i a l consequences because of the success, or some mild form of d e n i a l of e f f o r t . For example, i f the subject expressed some anxiety over disapproval of her a c t i v i t i e s by her f r i e n d s , or stated that she had not worked that hard to aohieve f i r s t - c l a s s standing, then the story was considered mild i n fear of success. On the other hand, i f cheating had been mentioned as the reason for success, then t h i s story was c l a s s i f i e d as strong in fear of success. Each subject, then, received a score f o r each story and a t o t a l fear of success score which was the sum of the three i n d i v i d u a l scores. A l l of the stories were scored by two independent raters with 90 per cent agreement. The other 10 per cent of the stories were included with the other data. In t h i s case, the l e a s t extreme scores were selected f o r analysis. The r e s u l t s were analyzed in a 2x2x3 analysis of variance with type of school background (public and private) and grade l e v e l (high school and university) treated as 31 between-subjects variables, and the projective cues ( P h y l l i s , Ann and Mary stories) treated as a within-subjects variable. Women with private school backgrounds had s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher fear of success scores (based on a l l three cues) than women with a coeducational background, F(i t94)=7.42, p< . 0 0 1 . The main effects f o r grade l e v e l did not reach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i -ficance F(i f94)=.87t P> . 0 5 . TABLE I SUMMARY OP THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF FEAR OF SUCCESS AS RELATED TO WMEN WITH PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOL BACKGROUNDS IN GRADE 11 AND UNIVERSITY SOURCE SS df MS F P Between Subjects 114.8333 School Grade School x Grade 8 .05037 .92841 5 .87894 1 1 1 7.569 . 8 7 3 5 .527 .007* .0198' Subjects within groups 99.97558 94 10.6357 Within Subjects Story School x Story Grade x Story School x Grade x Story Story by Sub;). Within groups 1.81796 .02841 .11427 .74423 71.3^167 2 2 2 2 188 .90898 .014205 .057135 .372115 .379^77 2.395 .037 .151 .999 . 0 9 Within C e l l 171.31725 282 32 Figure 1 shows the s i g n i f i c a n t interaction of type of school x grade l e v e l , F( 1 9 ^ ) =5.^2, p< . 0 1 9 . For public school women, fear of success decreased somewhat from high school to university; on the other hand, for private school women, fear of success Increased greatly from high school to university. Figure 1. Means f o r Fear of,Success of Public and Private School Groups In High School and University. 3.0 • X Fear l • Public Private The withln-subjects f a c t o r , story, f a i l e d to reach the generally accepted s t a t i s t i c a l l e v e l of si g n i f i c a n c e , F(-2,188)=2.391 P<.09. However, comparisons between means show that Ss wrote fewer fear of success stories to story three (Mary) than to the Ann story, p <.08. A Xfc analysis demonstrated that there was no difference In the number of fear of success stories told In high school between public and private school students. Twenty per cent of the public school students told at lea s t one fear of success 33 story compared to 25 per cent of the private school subjects. University women from private schools, however, t o l d s i g n i -f i c a n t l y more fear of success stories than women with public school backgrounds. In t h i s group, 46.6 per cent of the women who attended private schools wrote at lea s t one fear of success story compared with 13.6 per cent of the women with coeducational backgrounds (Xi =16.58, p<.001). S i g n i f i c a n t differences between university students from public schools and university students from private schools were found for two cues i n d i v i d u a l l y . F i f t y - f i v e per cent of the private school university students wrote fear of success stories to the Ann cue compared with 18 per cent of the women from public schools (X]^ =4.52, p< . 0 5 ) . S i m i l a r l y , 40 per cent of the private school Ss wrote fear of success st o r i e s to the Mary cue whereas only 9 per cent of the women from public Institutions responded with fear of success imagery (X 1 2=4 .75 , p< . 0 5 ) . Although the data for the P h y l l i s cue f a i l e d to reach the conventionally accepted l e v e l of 2 s i g n i f i c a n c e , there was evidence for a strong trend (X^ =3.66, p<«06), which supports the hypothesis that university students with non-coeducational backgrounds show more fear of success on projective measures than th e i r counterparts from coeduca-t i o n a l high schools. It was found that in an analysis of the three fear of success cues across a l l subjects, s i g n i f i c a n t l y more fear of success s t o r i e s were to l d to the Ann cue than to the Mary 3k cue (X^ =5.58, p<.05). Out of the t o t a l number of fear of success stories written, 43 per cent were told to the Ann cue while only 25 per cent of them were told to the Mary cue. Yet, there were no differences between responses to the o P h y l l i s and Mary cues (X x =1.15* P>.05). Thirty-three per cent of the fear of success stories were told to the P h y l l i s cue compared with 25 per cent told to the Mary cue. A comparison of fear of success imagery i n high school and university showed that an increase*, occurred f o r private school women between grade 11 and f i r s t year university; 4 6 . 6 per cent of the college students responded with fear of success Imagery as compared with 25.5 per cent of the women 2 in high school (X^ =7.21, p<.01). There was no such incre-ment for public school women over the same period of time ( X j ^ a s l . O l , P>.05). For th i s group 20 per cent of the uni-v e r s i t y women told fear of success s t o r i e s compared with 13*6 per cent of the high school women. It was hypothesized that women high In fear of success would perform better In a non-competitive s i t u a t i o n , whereas those low i n fear of success would show better performance In a competitive s i t u a t i o n . For each subject, the number of Items attempted and the number of items completed co r r e c t l y on both the competitive and non-competitive tasks were changed to standard scores. Then, a comparison between the two tasks was made for both the number of items attempted and the number of items correct. This comparison was made for each subject. 05 A l l Ss were divided into two groups, High and Low Fear of Success, based on the degree of M-s present in the responses to the 3 projective cues. Subjects who received a score of 2 on at least one of the 3 stories were c l a s s i f i e d as High M-s; subijects with scores of 0 on a l l 3 stories were included i n the Low group. Subjects with scores of 1 on any of the 3 stories were eliminated from the comparisons. Performance on the competitive and non-competitive tests was then compared to the degree of fear of success present. The percentages of the Ss i n each grade and school group who per-formed as expected are given i n Table II. Performance In non-competitive and competitive conditions was not related to the degree of fear of success Imagery expressed i n the stories (X-L^.09, P>.05). TABLE II PERCENTAGE OF SUBJECTS AT EACH GRADE LEVEL AND SCHOOL BACKGROUND WHO PERFORMED AS EXPECTED ON THE COMPETITIVE AND NON-COMPETITIVE TASKS Grade Level School Background Grade 11 University Public 61 50 Private 43 47 A comparison of strong and mild fear of success stories was also made. A story was considered strong i f i t had been assigned a score of 2 and mild i f It had received a score of 1. Mild stories were largely p o s i t i v e In tone except f o r some anxiety or concern over the success. 36 No differences in the number of strong and mild fear of suocess stories were present between public and private school women i n grade 11. However, i n the university group, 85 per cent of the private school women, who told fear of sucoess s t o r i e s , t o l d at le a s t one strong story as compared with 37.5 per cent of the women from coeducational schools (X12=9.44, p<.005). In addition, women from public school wrote s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer strong stories i n university than , 2 i n high school (Xi =9.93t P<.005). Twenty-seven per cent of university women, who wrote fear of success s t o r i e s , t o l d at l e a s t one strong story compared with 94 per cent of the high school women. Performance on the competitive and non-competitive tasks was compared to the kind of fear of success st o r i e s t o l d , but no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between performance and the type of story written. No r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between presence or absence of fear of success and the scales of the SRD questionnaire. The correlations between the SRD measures and performance on the competitive and non-competitive tests were also i n s i g n i -f i c a n t . A consistent f i n d i n g , though, was the positive r e l a t i o n s h i p of the expectancy estimates to performance on the Word Generation and Scrambled Words tasks (r^^=.21, p<.05» and r^-j=.25, p<.02, re s p e c t i v e l y ) . Correlations also demon-strated that performance on.the Scrambled Words task was p o s i t i v e l y related with performance on the Word Generation te s t (i?93».69, p<.001), re s u l t s which were reported i n Horner (1968). 37 When correlations were performed on p a r t i c u l a r groups f o r a l l the variables, certain trends emerged from the data. A greater number of s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between SRD measures and expectancy, SRD and performance, and SRD and fear of success was found for 6 o l l e g e Ss than for high school Ss (X^ = 3 . 9 3 , P < . 0 5 ) . Expectancy estimates on the Word Generation task were negatively related to the job and parental power scales of the SRD measure ( ^ 9 = - . 3 6 , P < . 0 5 , and ^ 9 = - . 3 9 » P < . 0 5 , respec-t i v e l y ) . This expectancy estimate was also related to the t o t a l SRD measure fo r university students private school backgrounds (rj_g= - . 5 0 , p < . 0 5 ) . Therefore, university students with low expectations of the i r performance are l i k e l y to score high on the sex-role d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n measure; that i s , these students are more l i k e l y to sex-type than are students with high expectations of performance. Another in t e r e s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p involved fear of success and the SRD scales. I t was hypothesized that women high in fear of success would sex-type to a greater degree than women low i n fear of success as measured by the SRD scales. The hypothesis was supported in part. College women's fear of success scores on the Ann story were s i g -n i f i c a n t l y related to the parental lower scale of the SRD 38 measure (r^ = » 3 5 » P< . 0 5 ) . For college students from co-educational high schools, the t o t a l fear of success score was correlated with the parental authority scale (*21~*5Z* P<«02), and r e f l e c t e d a d e f i n i t e trend towards a re l a t i o n s h i p with the t o t a l SRD measure (r2i=.39» P<»07) . The data from this group also showed a re l a t i o n s h i p between fear of success scores on the Mary cue and parental d i s c i p l i n e scale of the SRD ( r 2 i = » ^ t p< . 0 5 ) . In addition, a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the fear of success scores on the P h y l l i s story and the peer r e l a t i o n s scale was found for college women with private school back-grounds, (rx8=.45, p< . 0 5 ) . Some evidence was provided for a re l a t i o n s h i p between fear of success and expectancy estimates of performance. College students' fear of success stories to the Ann cue for both public and private school university students were nega-t i v e l y related to expectancy estimates on the Scrambled Words test (1*30;= -.37* P< . 0 5 ) . Subjects with low performance estimates t o l d s t o r i e s high in fear of success, while Ss with high estimates told stories with l i t t l e or no fear of success Imagery. F i n a l l y , performance on the Scrambled Words test was associated with the SRD score for university students. Subjects with high scores on the Scrambled Words test obtained a low t o t a l SRD score, whereas SS with low performance scores obtained a high SRD measure (1*39= -.31t P"^«05). Several other items in the questionnaire which dealt with mother's occupation and daughter's vocational goals, and 39 the importance of att a i n i n g these goals to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the subject In l a t e r l i f e were investigated. Since most of the mothers were housewives, i t was d i f f i c u l t to assess whether a re l a t i o n s h i p existed between a woman's desire f o r further education or responsible vocation and the fac t that her mother worked outside the home. Therefore, a comparison was made between the mother's educational l e v e l and her daughter's goals, but no re l a t i o n s h i p was found. Prom the findings of Parmer and Bohn (1970), i t seemed possible that women with high M-s would be less l i k e l y to choose an occupation that was t r a d i t i o n a l l y viewed as male-dominated than i f these women were low M-s. Although the re s u l t s did not reach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , there was a small degree of evidence for some trend in that d i r e c t i o n (X]_2=1.82, p<.15). The re l a t i o n s h i p of fear of success to factors most important i n sele c t i n g a Job and to attributes necessary i n getting along in the world was looked at but no trends emerged. Most Ss, regardless of l e v e l of M-s, indicated that their goals were important, at le a s t , but that they s t i l l could be happy i f they did not reach them. The two primary factors in Job selection were enjoyment i n doing the type of work and f i n a n c i a l security, respectively. Good character was chosen as being the most Important attribute In getting along In the world; the second choice was friends. Subjects high In fear of success were expected to underestimate th e i r scores on the performance tasks, while those ko low In f e a r of success were expected to make s i g n i f i c a n t l y more ac c u r a t e e s t i m a t i o n s o f performance. Since the e s t i -mates of performance tended to c l u s t e r around v a l u e s 3 ancl k ( f a i r and not too w e l l ) of the 6 a v a i l a b l e c a t e g o r i e s , o n l y the d a t a of the Ss who made extreme estimates were i n c l u d e d i n an a n a l y s i s . Data from Ss whose responses clumped i n the middle range had been t e s t e d but d i d not y i e l d any s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s . , Given the extreme estimates, a h i g h estimate was d e f i n e d as choi c e s of 1 or 2 (very w e l l and w e l l ) ; low estimates were d e f i n e d as choices of 5 or 6 (p o o r l y and very p o o r l y ) . ..A. X 2 a n a l y s i s demonstrated t h a t f o r scores above the mean, Sj| h i g h In f e a r of success made a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number of lower expectancy estimates than Ss low In f e a r o f success on both performance tasks combined (Xx2=6.52, p <.05). A p p l i c a t i o n of the F i s h e r Exact T e s t to the estimates f o r each t e s t s e p a r a t e l y showed s i g n i -f i c a n t l y lower expectancy estimates of performance made by Ss hig h In f e a r of success on both the Scrambled Words t e s t and the Word Generation t e s t , p<.003 and p<,026, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Because the r e l a t i o n s h i p of f e a r of success to the expectancy estimates f o r Ss» scores below the means co u l d be confounded by the tendency to make lower estimates f o r lower s c o r e s , o n l y scores above the mean were s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s . 41 TABLE I I I NUMBER OF HIGH AND LOW ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE ON SCRAMBLED WORDS AND WORD GENERATION TASKS FOR SUBJECTS HIGH AND LOW IN FEAR OF SUCCESS Estimates of Performance Fear o f Success Imagery High Low High 2 5 Low 12 1 TABLE IV NUMBER OF HIGH AND LOW ESTIMATES ON SCRAMBLED WORDS TASK FOR SUBJECTS HIGH AND LOW IN FEAR OF SUCCESS Estimates o f Performance Fear o f Success Imagery High Low High 1 3 Low 9 1 TABLE V NUMBER OF HIGH AND LOW ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE ON THE WORD GENERATION TASK FOR SUBJECTS HIGH AND LOW IN FEAR OF SUCCESS Estimates of Performance Fear of Success Imagery High Low High 1 2 Low 3 0 In order t o t e s t the second p a r t of the expectancy-performance h y p o t h e s i s , Ss* performance scores were compared to t h e i r expectancy e s t i m a t e s — h i g h , medium and low, and then d i v i d e d i n t o two groups, a c c u r a t e or i n a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t i o n s of performance. A medium expectancy (3 and 4) was con s i d e r e d 42 an accurate estimate of performance i f the test score f e l l within one standard deviation (SD) above or below the mean score of the group. A high expectancy (1 and 2) was regarded as an accurate performance estimate i f the score f e l l above one SD above the mean. Low expectancies (5 and 6) were con-sidered accurate i f the score f e l l below one SD below the mean. The performance estimates of the groups were then com-pared with fear of success and a.: X analysis performed on the data. Sixty-three per cent of the Ss with low M-s accurately estimated th e i r performance as compared with 44 per cent of Ss 2 with hig.h M-s (X^ = 5 . 1 6 , p < . 0 5 ) . When an analysis was done with scores above the means only, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of fear of success to accuracy of performance estimates held firm (X! 2=10.05, P< . 0 0 5 ) . TABLE VI NUMBER OP ACCURATE AND INACCURATE ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE MADE BY SUBJECTS WITH HIGH AND LOW FEAR OF SUCCESS Type of Performance Estimates Fear of Success Imagery  Accurate Inaccurate Low High 38 37 TABLE VIII NUMBER OF ACCURATE AND INACCURATE ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE MADE BY SUBJECTS WITH* HIGH AND LOW FEAR OF SUCCESS FOR SCORES,ABOVE THE MEAN Type of Performance Estimates Fear of Success Imagery Accurate Inaccurate High Low 13 30 20 14 ^3 DISCUSSION S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between c o l l e g e women w i t h h i g h and low M-s were found i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l background. U n i v e r s i t y women w i t h p r i v a t e (non-coeducational) backgrounds wrote s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f e a r of success s t o r i e s than women w i t h p u b l i c ( c o e d u c a t i o n a l ) backgrounds. Women w i t h h i g h M-s tended to underestimate t h e i r performance on c e r t a i n t a s k s , whereas women w i t h low M-s made s i g n i f i c a n t l y more accurate e s t i m a t i o n s o f t h e i r performance on the same t a s k s . In a d d i t i o n , women of c o l l e g e age w i t h h i g h f e a r of success sex-typed more f r e q u e n t l y than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n hi g h s c h o o l or than women low i n f e a r of success asjevidenced by t h e i r high scores on the Sex-Role D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n measure. F i n a l l y , there was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the degree o f f e a r of success and performance i n co m p e t i t i v e and non-competitive c o n d i t i o n s . The f i v e hypotheses put forward i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be co n s i d e r e d i n order f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of some a d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g s t h a t p e r t a i n to the study. The hypothesis t h a t women from non-coeducational high s c h o o l s (grade 1 1 ) would g i v e fewer f e a r of success responses to p r o j e c t i v e cues than women from c o e d u c a t i o n a l high schools was not confirmed. Both groups t o l d approximately the same number of f e a r of success s t o r i e s to the cues. However, the data s t r o n g l y supported the second hypothesis; women i n f i r s t y ear c o l l e g e w i t h a p r i v a t e s c h o o l background t o l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y 44 more fear of success stories to projective cues than both t h e i r counterparts from coeducational schools and g i r l s i n attendance at private schools. Pear of success also increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y from high school to university for women from single-sex schools. Yet i t remained unchanged over the same period of time for women from public schools. What d i s t i n c t i v e features about the university environ-ment would lead to the arousal of the motive to avoid success in private school women but not In public school women? Women from private schools are not accustomed to competing with males in an academic s i t u a t i o n and have had r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e ex-perience i n interaction with males in an academic atmosphere. In high school, academic l i f e had been independent of s o c i a l l i f e . The fa c t that they cannot be separate now may provide a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n f o r these women. Therefore, women who would o r d i n a r i l y perform very well without any second thoughts may now hesitate to demonstrate t h e i r a b i l i t y i n the new academic s i t u a t i o n . Some private schools foster a rather t r a d i t i o n a l view of male and female r o l e s and although academic success i s en-couraged, these schools may simultaneously impress society's expectations upon their students and reinforce a t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e model. University l i f e involves change for both private and public school women. However, the t r a n s i t i o n from a private school to college probably demands a greater adjustment from a student than does a public school. Much more emphasis i s placed upon d i s c i p l i n e and rules i n private schools; some rules must be followed in coeducational Institutions as w e l l , but the atmosphere i s generally more relaxed. Given the more s t r i c t environment of a private school, women Who are outspoken may be discouraged and negatively r e i n -forced f o r displaying t h i s kind of behaviour t r a i t . Frankness, e s p e c i a l l y with regard to academics, i s accepted i n college but these women may not be prepared for i t once they reach university. In thi s study, the public and private schools were quite d i f f e r e n t from each other. The private school was more structured and d i s c i p l i n e d ; students wore uniforms and were encouraged to show respect to t h e i r teachers. On the other hand, a wider range of behaviours was accepted for public school students and a more lenient approach taken toward these students. The arousal of the motive to avoid success i n private school women may be a r e s u l t of several factors, only one of which i s the introduction of mixed-sex competition to academic l i f e . I t would be most interesting to compare a private co-educational i n s t i t u t i o n as well as other private schools with various philosophies of education to the schools i n this study with regard to fear of success. Women in coeducational high schools did not t e l l s i g n i -f i c a n t l y more fear of success stories than women i n private high schools. The fac t that these women have been confronted 46 with male competitors since elementary, school may have given them an opportunity to accept this and to resolve any c o n f l i c t that may have developed as a r e s u l t of mixed-sex competition so that i t is no longer a contributing factor to the arousal of M-s. Furthermore, almost a l l of the women from th i s secondary school go on to university as a matter of course; thus, very few would face the decision to marry or choose a career In the near future. Therefore, i t may be that for these grade 11 g i r l s , c o n f l i c t i n g decisions are far enough i n the future that anxiety about success and M-s are not yet aroused. Certainly, some of these women are already aware of and may have experienced the c o n f l i c t s which e x i s t between academic success and popularity. However, as the negative consequences of these c o n f l i c t s are not immediate, M-s i s not yet strongly aroused. Another factor that may account for the low incidence in fear of success among the public school women i s the nature of the cue i t s e l f . Whereas most of the private school women appeared to take the cue seriously, some of the grade 11 public school g i r l s asked i f this were a project for women's l i b e r a -t i o n . It i s quite easy f o r a subject to give a s o c i a l l y acceptable response to any of the cues even i f anxiety about the s i t u a t i o n i s aroused. In order to ensure the v a l i d i t y of the data, a measure of fear of success and a scoring system must be developed so that subject could not ea s i l y predict the purpose of the measure. 47 The inclusion of a projective cue (Mary) which de-scribed a more t y p i c a l feminine a c t i v i t y (fund-raising f o r charity) was an attempt at obtaining some further information regarding the conditions which arouse M-s. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , more fear of success s t o r i e s were told to the Ann cue than to the Mary cue, but no differences were found in a comparison of Mary and P h y l l i s s t o r i e s . A greater number of fear of success stories vrere told to the Ann cue than to the P h y l l i s cue, though the differences were small. Presumably^: a a f und-raising position i s accepted as a feminine undertaking and should evoke less fear of success than a s i t u a t i o n Involving a male-dominated occupation l i k e a physician. This presumption was supported with regard to the Ann cue but not to the P h y l l i s cue. At the same time, the f a c t that the fund-raising s i t u a t i o n included public recogni-t i o n of the achievement could be s u f f i c i e n t cause for M-s to have been aroused as much as i t was. Scoring the Mary stories for fear of success was somewhat complicated by the nature of the cue. In a s i t u a t i o n describing charitable work, the. Idea of accepting help from others i s implied in the story i t s e l f . The f a c t that Ss wrote st o r i e s in which sucoess was achieved with the help of others could not be taken as evidence f o r fear of success. These st o r i e s were not scored as showing fear of success. Therefore, in this case, fear of success was confounded by the nature of the s i t u a t i o n , described i n the oue. 48 Cl e a r l y , the Ann cue evoked the greatest number of fear of success s t o r i e s . High school and especially university students can e a s i l y i d e n t i f y with or imagine a character such as Ann and thus f i n d It simple to write a story about her. These students are probably acquainted with doctors, either through friends of the family or through t h e i r own contacts. S i m i l a r l y , many of t h e i r mothers have most l i k e l y engaged In fund-raising a c t i v i t i e s . Some of the students have raised money themselves such that Mary as well Is the f a m i l i a r type of person to them. On the other hand, P h y l l i s , a t e l e v i s i o n producer, i s a more distant , less accessible figure who i s probably not as f a m i l i a r to the S i as Ann and Mary are. Therefore, It i s easier for Ss to r a i s e P h y l l i s up on a pedestal and to think of her occupation as an i d e a l or as a dream i n which many Ss would l i k e to share, but have not thought about i t r e a l i s t i c a l l y . The motive to avoid success would not be aroused in someone who regarded P h y l l i s i n t h i s way. In an examination of the kind of stories written by Ss, some of the r e s u l t s were si m i l a r to Kimball's findings ( 1 9 7 2 ) . No.differences in the number of strong and mild stories were found between public and private school groups, although private university women to l d a greater number of strong s t o r i e s than college women from public schools. This pattern followed the number of fear of success stories told altogether. The mild-strong d i s t i n c t i o n seems to share many of the charac-t e r i s t i c s of Luce's (1973) r e a l i s t i c - u n r e a l i s t i c categories. 49 From grade 11 to college, there was an increase in the number of a c t i v i t y away stories f o r public school Ss (60 per cent to 95 per cent) and an increase in the number of denial s t o r i e s for private school women over the same period of time (12 per cent to 26 per cent). A c t i v i t y away stories described women who engaged in certain kinds of a c t i v i t i e s other than those pertaining to t h e i r f i e l d . However, as Kimball found, very few a c t i v i t y away sto r i e s f e l l into a m i l d - r e a l i s t i c category, where the successful woman does not leave the f i e l d but makes time for other a c t i v i t i e s and does not work as hard at her Job or at school. Most a c t i v i t y away stories involved leaving the e n t i r e l y . The absenoe of any rel a t i o n s h i p between fear of success and performance in competitive and non-competitive situations represents a f a i l u r e to r e p l i c a t e Horner's ( 1968) findings with college women. The findings of thi s present study are si m i l a r to Kimball's (1972) r e s u l t s which also f a i l e d to f i n d that fear of success related to performance. One of the factors, which Kimball attributed to the f a i l u r e to r e p l i c a t e Horner's r e s u l t s , was the necessary d i v i s i o n of subjects on the basis of presence or absence of fear of success instead of more extreme scores. Even though extreme scores were used in the present study (subjects with scores of 2 on at le a s t one story and 0 on a l l three s t o r i e s ) , no fear of success-performance r e l a t i o n s h i p was found. 50 Perhaps, the competitive condition was not perceived as being very d i f f e r e n t from the non-competitive condition. In the high school groups, the Scrambled Words tes t was administered i n cl a s s , with at l e a s t 12 students i n each group. Because of the d i f f i c u l t y in obtaining subjects at a certai n time s l o t , the groups at the university l e v e l tended to be much smaller. An average number of students who wrote the Scrambled Words test was 3 compared to 12 in high school. The instructions for the Scrambled Words tes t also appeared to create a greater impact on the subjects than the Instruc-tions for the Word Generation task. Upon hearing that the f i r s t task was a test of general i n t e l l i g e n c e , many subjects reacted with "oh" and "ah." Their attitudes toward this test could have been transferred to the Word Generation t e s t , e s p e c i a l l y since the exercise was d i f f i c u l t and timed. Although none of the subjects expressed any negative reaction i n the non-competitive condition, many of them Inquired whether t h e i r responses to the Word Generation test needed to be given o r a l l y and recorded on tape. The presence of the tape recorder may have created some anxiety which countered the non-competitive nature of the task. The hypothesis which purported that women high In fear of success would make a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of lower expectancy estimates than women low In fear of success was confirmed such that 71 per cent of women with high M-s made low estimates of performance compared with 8 per cent of women 51 with low M-s. In addition, women low i n fear of success gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y more accurate estimations of performance than Ss high in fear of success. As expectancy estimates are good predictors of performance (Tyler, 1958; Battle, 1965; Crandall, 1965)» those persons who report low expectancies tend to per-form more poorly than persons who give high estimates. Because a person i s a f r a i d of success, he or she i s concerned about the consequences of success and i s l i k e l y to assume a strategy of behaviour that w i l l ensure a secure position for t h i s person. By playing his or her a b i l i t i e s down and by expecting l i t t l e , a lack of success i s almost guaranteed. It appears that women with low M-^ s base t h e i r expectancy estimates on int e r n a l cues on the i r own knowledge of the i r a b i l i t y , as evidenced by t h e i r accurate performance estimates. On the other hand, Ss high in fear of success are more l i k e l y to u t i l i z e external cues, to depend on the reactions of others or on the environmental s i t u a t i o n rather than trusting t h e i r own Judgment of their a b i l i t i e s i n order to evaluate t h e i r performance. As Verofif ( 1 9 6 9 ) hypothesized, people high i n fear of success have mastered s o c i a l comparison but not auto-nomous competence and are l i k e l y to doubt th e i r own competence in achievement situations.Therefore, their estimates tend to be inconsistent, as they are based on more flu c t u a t i n g stan-dards. This often leads to a discrepancy between actual per-formance and expectancy estimates. In this study, the perfor-mance scores of Ss high in fear of success were above the mean 52 f o r a l l groups. Yet, t h e i r expectancy estimates d i d under-estimate t h e i r performance and d i d not a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e i r s c o r e s . Although the expectancy-performance hypothesis was supported by the d a t a , some c a u t i o n must be taken i n i n t e r -p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s . The power of the expectancy measure was s e r i o u s l y l i m i t e d by some me t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s present i n the study. F i r s t , s i n c e the responses of an unusually l a r g e percentage of the Ss tended t o clump i n the middle range (3 and 4) w i t h expectancy estimates o f f a i r performance mostly, these responses c o u l d not be Included i n an a n a l y s i s . There-f o r e , o n l y the estimate r e p o r t s of Ss who f e l l i n t o the two extreme c a t e g o r i e s were used ( 1 and 2; 5 and 6 ) . These Ss. however, re p r e s e n t e d merely 22 per cent of the t o t a l sample. The expectancy estimate c a t e g o r i e s were i n i t i a l l y designed to meet the requirements of an o r d i n a l s c a l e . Yet, i n order to be a b l e to t e s t the second p a r t of the expectancy-performance h y p o t h e s i s , these c a t e g o r i e s had to be c o n s i d e r e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g a rough i n t e r v a l s c a l e . C e r t a i n l y , the develop-ment of a more p r e c i s e expectancy measure which has taken these and other problems i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n would be a v a l u a b l e a i d to f u t u r e r e s e a r c h of t h i s k i n d . The high c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r u n i v e r s i t y s u b j e c t s between some o f the SRD s c a l e s and performance, SRD and f e a r of success and SRD and expectancy estimates supports the i d e a t h a t these women are a t a stage of l i f e where s e x - r o l e demands concern 53 them. They are beginning a period in their l i v e s where they w i l l be expected to make decisions about such Important events as marriage, career and graduate school, which w i l l c e r t a i n l y have greater bearing upon t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s i n the long run than any decisions they had made beforehand. They are concerned about what society expects from them and how they should meet these expectations. Of a l l the SRD scales, high scores on the parental power, parental authority, and parental d i s c i p l i n e scales were more often related to low expectancy estimates on the Word Generation t e s t , high fear of success scores on a l l cues, s p e c i f i c a l l y the Ann cue, and low performance on the Scrambled Words te s t . It appears that Ss who perceived differences i n the roles of t h e i r parents, e s p e c i a l l y with respect to power, are most l i k e l y to give low expectancy estimates and to score high on the fear of success cues. The posi t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p of expectancy estimates to performance on both Scrambled Words and Word Generation tests provided add i t i o n a l evidence for the predictive power of expec-tancy estimates. As in Battle's (1965), Feather's (1963) and Tyler's (1958) experiments, the height of expectancy of success was related to performance i n this study. Therefore, those who report low expectancies would tend to perform more poorly than Ss who give high estimates of success. Lambert found that g i r l s who sex-typed were less l i k e l y to do well academically than g i r l s who did not. Given the rel a t i o n s h i p 54 of high SRD to low expectancy estimates, and the expectancy-performance r e l a t i o n s h i p , his conclusions are supported In th i s study. An association that was found f o r private school women between the peer r e l a t i o n s SRD scale and the fear of success score on the P h y l l i s cue suggests that women mho have d i f f e r e n t attitudes toward t h e i r male and female peers may wish to avoid success i f they f i n d themselves in competition with male peers. It i s interesting that this r e l a t i o n s h i p involved university subjects with private school backgrounds who, not having been given a chance to interact with men In academic situations i n the past, have had comparatively l i t t l e opportunity to learn how they behave In such situations and, consequently, perceive them as being d i f f e r e n t . Although the SRD-performance and SRD-fear of success correlations were more frequent among university women than high school women, the g e n e r a l l z a b i l i t y of these r e s u l t s to other populations must be c a r e f u l l y considered. Thirty-two ( 1 9 . 6 per cent) of a t o t a l of a possible I 6 3 correlations were s i g n i f i c a n t . The interpretation of these relationships && somewhat limited by the f a c t that 5 per cent of the correlations can be s i g n i f i c a n t by chance. However, the c o r r e l a t i o n a l patterns do indicate that relationships exist which are not determined by chance alone; but without r e p l i c a t i o n of these r e s u l t s in a further study, one cannot generalize from the outcome of these correlations to other populations. 55 One other factor which may have prevented a more d e f i n i t e SRD^fear of success r e l a t i o n s h i p from emerging was the nature of the questionnaire i t s e l f . Since Lambert's SRD measure was i n i t i a l l y constructed for and administered to children 1 0 to 1 6 years of age, many of the items on the questionnaire were inappropriate for Ss who participated in the present study, e s p e c i a l l y the college women. Several of the items were also ambiguous and led to d i f f e r i n g interpre-tations on the part of the subjects. Because they did not r e l a t e to the items, some Ss did not treat the questionnaire seriously, e s p e c i a l l y in the grade 1 1 public school group. Other Ss found i t d i f f i c u l t to respond accurately to items that were designed for younger age groups. The development of an appropriate questionnaire that d i r e c t l y measures the attitudes of Ss of these age groups would be a useful tool for any future research in the area of attitudes toward sex-r o l e . The other items in the questionnaire did not reveal any r e l a t i o n s h i p between mother's occupation and daughter's vocational goals, or between fear of success and factors i n Job selection. However, the responses to these items proved quite in t e r e s t i n g . Because of the very small number of reported working mothers i n the sample, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a daughter's desire for further education and the fact that her mother worked outside the home was impossible to assess. Since 56 most high school and university S£ in the study stated that they wished to go on to university or to complete t h e i r degree, i t was also d i f f i c u l t to determine whether t h e i r mothers* educational l e v e l was related to the i r goals. Furthermore, most of the mothers were reported to have com-pleted high school or, at l e a s t , some years of college. The mothers in this sample are a comparatively well-educated group. The fa c t that most of the women i n the study indicated that they would go to university or pursue a degree i s i n f l u -enced by more than their mothers' educational status. These women have grown up i n an upper-middle class environment where education i s highly valued and children are encouraged and expected to continue their schooling. Regardless of the l e v e l of M-s, most women f e l t that t h e i r goals were quite important, but that they could be reasonably happy i f they did not reach them. Most women chose enjoyment i n the type of work and f i n a n c i a l security as most important factors in job sele c t i o n , and good character and friends as the two most es s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s in getting along In the world. The responses of women with high and low M-s were f i r s t analyzed with regard to the nature of the factors they selected as most important i n Job choice or in l i v i n g , whether these factors r e f l e c t e d i n t e r n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s or external sources of reinforcement. Certain categories i n both items were designated as external factors, such as encouragement of parents and friends, people your family 5 ? knows, money, in contrast to int e r n a l factors such as type of a b i l i t i e s or aptitudes, brains, hard work and education. I n i t i a l l y , i t was presumed that women high in fear of success would choose a Job because of the external influences from parents or friends rather than because she had the a b i l i t y for I t and that external rewards, such as money and friend s , were more Important for getting along i n the world than her own talents and achievements through hard work. No such r e l a t i o n s h i p emerged. Yet, the fa c t that most women f e l t good character, friends and security more important than brains and education, and that the f a i l u r e to reach t h e i r goals would not a f f e c t t h e i r happiness, Is consistent with the stereotype of a woman as being concerned with s o c i a l adeptness rather than with achievement. I t would be i n -teresting to compare the responses of men on the same ques-tions to the answers of the women i n this sample. In the present study, the motive to avoid success was aroused in f i r s t year university women who had been educated at private, non-coeducational i n s t i t u t i o n s during th e i r high school years. M-s was not related to performance in competitive and non-competitive conditions, but i t did show d e f i n i t e association with expectancy estimates of performance and with scores on several of the SRD scales. As M-s was not aroused i n college women who had attended public high schools, one of the factors that may account for the difference i n M-s i s the educational environment and educational philosophy of the 58 p r i v a t e s c h o o l . M-s Is most l i k e l y aroused when a woman i s co n f r o n t e d by c o n f l i c t i n g d e c i s i o n s , e.g., marriage and c a r e e r . For f i r s t year c o l l e g e students these d e c i s i o n s are not immediate. I f the p r i v a t e s c h o o l environment acce-l e r a t e s the a r o u s a l of M-s i n women who have attended them such t h a t a n x i e t y about the consequences of success Is a concern to them b e f o r e i t i s to other women, then t h i s f i n d i n g w i l l have broad I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e education of women. #*«**«* 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY Angelini, A.L. Um novo metedo para aval l a r a motlvacao humano (A new method of evaluating human motivation). Bol. Fac. F l l o s . Clenc. S. Paulo,1955, No. 2 0 ? , c i t e d by Erench, E. and Lesser, G.S., Some charac-t e r i s t i c s of the achievement motive in women. Journal  of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 1964, 6 8 , 119-128. Atkinson, J.W. An Introduction to Motivation. New York, D. Van Nostrand and Co., Inc., 1964. Atkinson, J.W. Motives In Fantasy. Action and Society. Princeton, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1 9 5 8 . Atkinson, J.W. and Feather, N.T. A Theory of Achievement Motivation. 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"Femininity and successful achievement: A basic inconsistency." In Bardwick, J. et a l . , Feminine  Personality and C o n f l i c t . Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a , Wadsworth, 1970. Horner, M.S. Toward an understanding of achievement-related c o n f l i c t s i n women. Journal of Social Issues. 1972, 28(2), 157-176 . Kagan, J. and Moss, H.A. B i r t h to Maturity. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962. Katkovsky, W., Preston, A. and Crandall, V.J. Parents' attitudes toward t h e i r personal achievements and toward the achievement behaviours of their children. Journal  of Genetic Psychology. 1964, 104, 67-82. Kimball, M.M. S o c i a l i z a t i o n of women: A study in c o n f l i c t . Unpublished paper, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972. Kimball, M.M. and Harrison, L.F. A study of sex differences In fear of success, attitudes toward sex-roles, and performance i n competitive and non-competltlve tasks. A paper presented at the Canadian Psychological Association meetings, V i c t o r i a , B.C., June, 1973. Lambert, R.D. Sex-role imagery i n children: Social origins of mind. Studies of the Royal Commission on the Status of  Women In Canada. No. 6. Information Canada. 1969. Lesser, G.S., Kravitz, R.N. and Packard R. Experimental arousal of achievement motivation in adolescent g i r l s . Journal of Abnormal and.Social Psychology. 1963, 66, 59-66. Litwin, G.H. "Achievement motivation, expectancy of success, and r i s k - t a k i n g behaviour." In Atkinson, J.W. and Feather, N.T., A Theory of Achievement Motivation. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1966. Luce, S.R. Motive to avoid success: A Canadian sample. Paper presented at the Canadian Psychological Association meetings, V i c t o r i a , B.C., June, 1973» 62 McClelland, D.C. (ed.). Studies In Motivation. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1 9 5 5 . McClelland, D.C., Atkinson, J.W., Clark, R.A. and Lowell, E.L. The Achievement Motive. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1953 . McNemar, Q. Psychological S t a t i s t i c s . New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1 9 5 5 . Mead, Margaret. Male and Female. New York, William Morrow and Co., 1949. Morrison, H.W. V a l i d i t y and behavioural correlates of female need f o r achievement. Unpublished Master's thesis, Wesleyan-University, 1 9 5 4 , cited by McClelland, D.C. (ed.), Studies i n Motivation. New York, Appleton-Century-Crof t s , 1955. Smith, C P . (ed.). Achievement-Related Motives in Children. New York, Russell Sage, I969. Terman, L.M. and Oden, M.H. The Gifted Child Grows Up. Stanford, C a l i f . , Stanford University Press, 1 9 4 7 . T y l e r , B.B. Expectancy for eventual success as a factor i n problem-solving behaviour. Journal of Educational  Psychology. 1 9 5 8 , 42, 1 6 6 - 1 7 2 . Veroff, J. "Social comparison and the development of achieve-ment motivation." In Smith, C P . (ed.) Achievement-Related Motives In Children. New York, Russell Sage, Veroff, J. Thematic apperception i n a nationwide sample survey. Paper presented at the Apperceptive Techniques Rational and Psychological Significance Symposium, Fels Research Institutute, June, 1959* c i t e d by French, E.G. and Lesser, G.S., Some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the achieve-ment motive In women. Journal of Abnormal and Social  Psychology. 1 9 6 4 , 6 8 , 119-128. Veroff, J., Wilcox, S. and Atkinson, J.W. The achievement motive in high school and college-age women. Journal  of Abnormal and Soc i a l Psychology. 1 9 5 3 , 48, 1 0 9 - 1 1 9 . Wechsler, D. The Measurement and Appraisal of Adult I n t e l l i -gence. Baltimore, The Williams and Wllklns Co., 1 9 5 8 . Wren, D. The eff e c t s of fear of success on women's attitudes toward marriage and careers. Unpublished paper, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 7 3 . **«**«« APPENDIX A GENERAL INFORMATION QUESTIONNAIRE *«««««* 63a. QUESTIONNAIRE INSTRUCTIONS: Please answer the following questions to the best of your knowledge. 1. Name 1. Age 3. B i r t h date 4. Sex: M F 5. How many children are there i n your family? Brothers S i s t e r s How many children are older than you? Brothers Sisters How many children are younger than you? . Brothers Sisters 6. Are you l i v i n g at home with your family? Yes No Are you boarding at school? Yes No —Other (please specify) 7. Marital Status: Single __Unattached Going Steady — O t h e r (please specify) 8. What i s your father's occupation? (If your father i s r e t i r e d or deceased, what was his most recent f u l l - t i m e occupation?) -9. What was the highest l e v e l of schooling that your father attained? (Indicate degrees or diplomas earned i f appropriate) 10. What i s your mother's occupation? 11. Is she paid f o r her work? 12. If she is employed, what percentage of her time does she devote to i t ? F u l l time Part-time Irregular 13. What was the highest l e v e l of schooling that your mother attained? (Indicate degrees or diplomas i f appropriate) • 14. What was your grade average l a s t term? ____________________ 15. What i s your major Interest in school? (What subject interests you most?J ; 16. Do you enjoy school? 64 17. What are your present educational goals? How f a r do you intend to continue your education? How long have you had th i s desire? 18. What would you l i k e to do (e.g., job) a f t e r f i n i s h i n g your education? 1 9 . How certa i n are you now that you w i l l be able to a t t a i n t h i s goal i f you are s t i l l interested in i t ? 2 0 . How many times i n the past two years have you changed your mind about your job choice? 2 1 . How important do you think the attainment of your job goals w i l l be to your s a t i s f a c t i o n in l a t e r l i f e ? (Check the one that f i t s best). (1) the most important thing (2) next in Important only to my family ( 3 ) pretty important, but I s t i l l could be reasonably happy If I did not reach them (4) my goals are secondary to other Interests i n l i f e ._ (5) not important at a l l (6) other . _ 2 2 . Which two of the following factors were most important i n your choice of a Job goal? (Place a w l " beside the most important and a n 2 M beside the second). (1) f i n a n c i a l security (2) enjoyment in doing the type of work ( 3 ) s p e c i a l aptitudes for the Job (4) encouragement of friends (5) encouragement of parents (6) other (specify) 65 I n d i c a t e which two of the f o l l o w i n g t h i n g s you t h i n k are most important i n g e t t i n g along i n the world. (Place a M 1 H b e s i d e the most important and a w2" beside the second). (1) good c h a r a c t e r (2) people your f a m i l y knows (3) b r a i n s ( 4 ) money (5) hard work (6) good l u c k (7) appearance (8) f r i e n d s ( 9 ) e d u c a t i o n (10) not being a f r a i d (11) other ( s p e c i f y ) . 66 APPENDIX B VOCABULARY TEST PROM THE WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE 66<v INSTRUCTIONSJ Examiner says, "I want you to t e l l me the meaning of some words. Let us s t a r t with "winter;" what does "winter" mean? This same method of presentation i s used for a l l words. The examiner always begins with the word "winter" unless the subject appears to be much below in verbal a b i l i t y . After f i v e consecutive f a i l u r e s the test i s discontinued. WORD LIST 1. Bed 21. Terminate 2. Ship 22. Obstruct 3. Penny 23. Remorse 4. Winter 24. Sanctuary 5. Repair 25. Matchless 6. Breakfast 26. Reluctant 7. Fabric 27. Calamity 8. S l i c e 28. Fortitude 9. Assemble 29. Tranquil 10. Conceal 30. E d i f i c e 11. Enormous 31. Compassion 12. Hasten 32. Tangible 13. Sentence 33. Perimeter 14. Regulate 3^. Audacious Commence 35. Ominous 16. Ponder 36. Tirade 17. Cavern 37. Encumber 18, Designate 38. Pl a g i a r i z e 19. Domestic 39. Impale 20. Consume 40. Travesty APPENDIX C THEMATIC APPERCEPTIVE TEST FOR FEAR OF SUCCESS IMAGERY 67a, INSTRUCTIONS ; You are going to see a series of sentences and your task i s to t e l l a story that i s suggested to you by each sentence. Try to imagine what i s going on i n each s i t u a t i o n . Then t e l l what the s i t u a t i o n i s , what,led up to the s i t u a t i o n , what the people are thinking and f e e l i n g and what they w i l l do. Write as complete a story as you c a n — a story with plot and characters. You w i l l have twenty seconds to look at a sentence and then s i x minutes to write your story about i t . From experience with other students, we know that this i s plenty of time to write your story. Write your f i r s t impressions and work quickly. I w i l l keep time and t e l l you when to f i n i s h your story and to get ready for the next sentence. There are no r i g h t or wrong stories or kinds of s t o r i e s , so you may f e e l free to write whatever story i s suggested to you when you look at a sentence. Spe l l i n g , punctuation and grammar are not important. What i s important i s to write out as f u l l y and as quickly as possible what i s going on In each s i t u a t i o n . Notice that there w i l l be one page for writing each story which follows the page on which the sentence i s written. I w i l l t e l l you when to turn again to s t a r t writing. After s i x minutes, I w i l l t e l l you turn to the next sentence. I w i l l use this pro-cedure for a l l of the sentences. If you need more space for wri t i n g any story, use the reverse side of the previous page— the one on which the sentence was written. Do not turn to the next page u n t i l I t e l l you to do so. 68 CUES 1) After f i r s t term f i n a l s , Anne finds herself at the top of her medical school c l a s s . 2) For the past year, P h y l l i s has been working on a new t e l e v i s i o n s t ation. F i n a l l y , CITY-TV i s scheduled to s t a r t broadcasting next month. P h y l l i s i s named as one of the executive producers of the station. 3) For a number of months, Mary has been chief fund r a i s e r at the University for the Hospital Fund. This year, a new record was set f o r the amount of money co l l e c t e d . As a r e s u l t , the organization has ca l l e d a sp e c i a l meeting of a l l i t s members to honor Mary and to present her with an award. 4) Margaret and Ken have been goind steady for a few months. Now i t seems as i f they are going to break up. Each cue was presented separately during the actual experiment and the order of presentation was counterbalanced across subjects. 69 A page l i k e t h i s followed each of the three cues. 1. What has led up to the situation? What happened in the past? 2. How does f e e l ? What i s she thinking? 3. What w i l l happen in the future? What w i l l do? NOTE: This page was 14" in length for the experiment. APPENDIX D SCRAMBLED WORDS TEST 70a, INSTRUCTIONS Your performance on the following task w i l l be a measure of general i n t e l l i g e n c e . This p a r t i c u l a r task i s a test of your f a c i l i t y with words. We have an idea of how well people at your school l e v e l should do on t h i s kind of test and would l i k e to see how you do in comparison with them. On the following pages are a number of common words with the l e t t e r s scrambled. Try to make words (no plu r a l s or proper nouns) and write them in the blanks. For example: YOB bo_ ESY yes We are also Interested in how you think you w i l l do. Before beginning the test, answer the question: How weld do you think you w i l l do on this test? very a) very well b) well c) f a i r d)not too well e)poorly f)poorly You w i l l have two minutes for each page. If you f i n d some words d i f f i c u l t , go on to the next. You are not expected to complete a l l the words, but do the very best you can. Do  not s t a r t u n t i l given the s i g n a l to do tso, and go on to the next page when and only when you are t o l d to do so. LP APE NUDRIG _____ RYEDA UORY • COTA NEGRE . - — -PYPHA OLOSCH ___ — DIBR THIGS _ DRNUO EKMA _ — - — — TERTEB RONHT TBOSH LP HE — HLIDG THEN — • RESTIS SACEU __ DPIN PNUO KROC LODG -SYWALA . EGALR OBWK ORLFO RELCA LAMLS BOLW UATOB TBHO ANHD SOLCE NOSSEA NMAY AMWR YLERA LEASEP JNIO TCHWA RATFEH RAHE CAPEL NIDM NAWT NUDSO AMYLIF WHS I TAGEB HADTE OVEM IEKL RAMTET HROU BIGNR OCNE REDO LITLS ROPWE GNYUO NAEOL WOLFER KCQUI CAR HE WITA EVRY TORFN TKEA UJTS TWESE KMLI KEPSA MOWNA NORGST HINTK NIPLA TIWH ETERST RIREV HECA EHVA NOMAG NOWDIW EHTN IYCT DARPI FRAI IRHC YRCRA NADST ENOP RIVDE NIDHEB VOEL ADLG _ REVSE _ TASE HPIS . LIVSER . SEHUO , YHTE FENTO HWNE BYT SO NUDARO REFSR LGNO SIRTF WEHER NIGAA ADKR RIGNSP LOYN GILTH NWOKN ROME WGRO TRELTE APPENDIX E WORD GENERATION TEST 76& PROCEDURE The experimenter greeted the subject, t o l d her to have a seat and to turn to the f i r s t page of the booklet on the desk, and follow the instructions given. The experimenter then l e f t the room and returned about twenty-five minutes l a t e r . The f i r s t page of the booklet instructed the subject to turn on the tape recorder in front of her. On the tape recorder were the following instructions J Read along s i l e n t l y as the instructions are read aloud. We are interested i n how longer words are associated with shorter words that are con-tained in them and would l i k e to f i n d out to what extent t h i s phenomenon occurs. Three words w i l l be presented one at a time. Try to make as many words using the master word. For example: If the master word were WASHINGTON, possible smaller words would be WING, TIN, AS, WASH. The word, NOON, i s not acceptable because there i s only one "o" in the master word. Any words except proper nouns are acceptable. We are also interested i n how you think you w i l l do. Before beginning, please answer the following question: "How well do you think you w i l l do on the following words: a)very well b)well c ) f a i r d)not too well e)poorly f)very poorly Please leave the tape recorder running. Now turn to the f i r s t page and begin. Do not turn to the second page u n t i l the recorder t e l l s you to do so. At the end of f i v e minutes the voice on the tape recorder Interrupted and said, "Stop; please turn to the next page and begin." After f i v e more minutes the tape recorder again instructed the subject to turn to the next word. After another f i v e minutes the recorder instructed the subject to stop and leave the booklet on the desk. MASTER WORDS 1. GENERATION (+ 22 more spaces) 2 . TRANSIENCE ( + 2 2 more spaces) 3. DEGRADATION (+ 22 more spaces) Each master word appeared on a separate page during the actual experiment. APPENDIX P SEX-ROLE DIFFERENTIATION QUESTIONNAIRE PART II We would l i k e to know how suitable certain jobs are for boys and g i r l s when they become adults. C i r c l e ' 7 ' i f you think the Job i s quite suitable, c i r c l e »1* i f i t i s not suitable, and a number between ' 1* and ' 7 * i f i t i s only p a r t l y suitable. The higher the number you c i r c l e the more suitable the job seems to you. Do this for boys and g i r l s without missing any scales. BOYS WHEN THEY GIRLS WHEN THEY JOBS ARE ADULTS ARE ADULTS 1. medical doctor 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 2 . cashier i n a restaurant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 . bus driv e r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 . l i b r a r i a n 1 2 3 ^ 6 ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 . elementary school teacher 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 . cook 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. clerk in a store 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . s c i e n t i s t 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 . prime minister of Canada 1 2 3 ^ 6 ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 0 . usher i n a movie theatre 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 . p r i n c i p a l of a school 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 . a judge 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 79 PART III This part of the questionnaire deals with the kinds of things your mother and father do around the house. If your father often does the shopping, for example,then c i r c l e ' 7 ' on the father's scale. If he never does the shopping, then c i r c l e ' 1 ' . If he shops some of the time, c i r c l e a number between ' 1 ' and ' 7 ' depending on how often he shops. Then t e l l us about your mother for t h i s item. Do not miss any items or scales. FATHER MOTHER 1. does the shopping 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? 1 2 3 5 6 7 2. gets father's breakfast on work days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. repairs things around the house 1 2 3 M 6 7 1 2 3 ^ 5 ^ 7 4 . cleans up the house af t e r v i s i t o r s leave 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 . does the evening dishes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 . moves heavy furniture 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. looks a f t e r the children in the evening and on weekends 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 1 2 3 M 6 7 8 . does the family laundry 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 9 . drives the family car 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10. helps the children with their school work 1 2 3 l> 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11. writes excuse notes when children are absent from school 1 2 3 ^ 6 ? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12. v i s i t s r e l a t i v e s 1 2 3 ^ 6 7 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 13. talks with the neighbors 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 80 FATHER MOTHER 14. goes to meetings and clubs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15. goes out with his or her friends 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16. answers the telephone when both are at home 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17. scolds and punishes the children when they do not behave 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18. threatens or warns the children 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19. sees to i t that the children do t h e i r homework 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20. t e l l s the children what they can and cannot do 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21. explains to the children what i s expected of them and why 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 22. finds out when you do something you should not have done 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 23 . sees to i t that the children do t h e i r errands 1 2 3 It 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 24. makes you f e e l g u i l t y or bad when you do something you should not have done 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25. whose punishment or d i s -approval you d i s l i k e or fear the most 1 2 3 ^ 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 26. takes the children places 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 27. enjoys and takes time to talk with the children 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 28. notices when the children are unhappy and t r i e s to cheer them up 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 ^ 5 ^ 7 29. does things with the children 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 30. makes you f e e l t h a t what you do i s important 31. helps you w i t h t h i n g s when you are having t r o u b l e w i t h i t 32. has the most to say about how the c h i l d r e n are to be punished 33. has the most to say about where to go on f a m i l y o u t i n g s 34. has the most to say about what jobs are to be done around the house and who i s to do them 35« has the most to say about how much allowance the c h i l d r e n w i l l get 36. has the most to say about whom to have Into the house 37. has the most to say about what you w i l l wear FATHER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 81 MOTHER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 82 PART IV We are Interested in how boys and g i r l s your age behave with other people. C i r c l e one number on each scale. Number '7* means often. ' I ' means never. and numbers between ' 1 ' and*?' mean sometimes. The higher the number your c i r c l e , the more often boys or g i r l s do what you are describing. BOYS YOUR AGE GIRLS YOUR AGE 1. do what t h e i r parents say 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 ? 2. try hard to please the teacher 1 2 3 l| 5 6 7 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 3. help parents with household chores 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 7 4 . t e l l parents where they are going 1 2 3 M 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 55. come home when they are supposed to I 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. ask th e i r parents for money 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. wear what they want to school 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. t e l l t h e i r parents when they think the parents are wrong 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 . Pick their own friends 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10. decide f o r themselves what they want to be when they become adults 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11. s t i c k up f o r their brothers and s i s t e r s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12. obey older s i s t e r s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6?7 13. help younger brothers and s i s t e r s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 it 5 6 7 14. keep secrets which the i r friends t e l l them 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 83 15. share things with boys and g i r l s t h e i r age 16. t e l l younger brothers and s i s t e r s what to do 17. t e l l o ff g i r l s your age 18. swear in front of boys 19. t e l l g i r l s your age what to do 20. t e l l boys your age what to do BOYS YOUR AGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 GIRLS YOUR AGE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 

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