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The demand for modern drybulk terminals on the Canadian west coast and some planning implications Mac Dougall, Donald Joseph 1971

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THE DEMAND FOR MODERN DRYBULK TERMINALS WEST COAST AND SOME PLANNING  ON THE CANADIAN  IMPLICATIONS  by  DONALD JOSEPH MAC DOUGALL B.Sc. B.E.  St. Francis  (Civil)  Xavier  U n i v e r s i t y , 1956  Nova S c o t i a T e c h n i c a l  C o l l e g e , 1959  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  i n the School of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL  PLANNING  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l 1971  LL  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Donald  Department of  Community and R e g i o n a l  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  April  1971  J o s e p h Mac  Planning  Dougall  ABSTRACT  The  increased  industries, of  raw  the  necessitates  materials.  centres  costs. and past  of  I t has  i n the  scale of  input  These are  of very  frequently  processing—resulting been found  scale of  decade,  the  some o p e r a t i o n s ,  lead  that  this  large  quantities  f a r removed  i n high  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  from  transportation  increase  commodity movement h a s ,  to the  in certain  in  trade  during  the  the  super  bulk  of very  large  ships  carrier. The reduces provides large  study  shows t h a t  transport industry  scale  costs with  the a  rate  i n port  of materials  the  ship.  use  of  at the  same t i m e  shipment r e q u i r e d  involve  of  time. the  these  Ship's  rate  handled  s t o c k p i l e on  a t a r a t e which would to  size  and  for  a huge c a p i t a l  q u a n t i t i e s each year  increasing  sufficient  train  the  profitable  a reduction  r e d u c e d by  significantly  bulk vessels  must move l a r g e  a profit—the on  use  operation.  These dry and  the  of  time i n p o r t  loading.  to  to  large vessels  To  i t i s necessary  hand o r  allow  i n order  supply  continuous  turn depends  can  be  increase e i t h e r to  the  loading  outlay  terminal from  the  have  A  transportation  examined; the their that  system u t i l i z i n g  components o r  large  sub-systems are  i n d i v i d u a l requirements determined. the  changes  i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n the  design  transportation  super bulk  of  system.  is  more t h a n o f f s e t by  of  the  terminal The  the  s u p e r c a r r i e r s and  cost  identified  c a r r i e r s has  of  is  as  necessitated  i n the  inland  these changes,  however,  r e s u l t i n g from the  improvements  and  I t i s shown  as w e l l  savings  ships  in  use  inland  transportation. The identifies carriers,  study  investigates world  t h o s e raw and  sufficient  materials  i s o l a t e s the  commodity  which are  trade,  transported  i n bulk  c o m m o d i t i e s w h i c h move i n  q u a n t i t i e s to allow  the  employment o f  super  bulk  carriers. Exports are  examined  could The will  these  concludes  berth  will  that  c a r r i e r s and  coal  required  Utilization components has  of  i s the  the  a f t e r 1975  Canadian  only  there  context.  commodity  which  consistently i n '  destination will  terminal  before the  i n the  ports  a d d i t i o n a l products  Columbia p o r t  that  a d d i t i o n a l bulk be  same o r  large vessels  i s a l s o shown t h a t  ment f o r an  sea  t h r o u g h West C o a s t C a n a d i a n  move t h r o u g h a B r i t i s h  super bulk It  imports  to determine i f the  utilize  study  and  will  berth  be and  a  be  Japan.  require-  that  a  second  19 85.  new  necessitated  technology that  new  f o r the criteria  land be  and  developed  iv for  the s e l e c t i o n  new  facilities  tions  stringent out  importance  requirements  than  than  i n the past.  f o r super bulk  f o r conventional  considera-  ships.  carriers  a r e more  The s t u d y  points  t h a t , i n t h e p r o v i s i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e  conflicts  can a r i s e  due t o  amounts, up t o 1 0 0 a c r e s  (a) t h e r e q u i r e m e n t  per berth,  of l e v e l  (b) m a i n t e n a n c e o f w a t e r d e p t h i n c h a n n e l may  The s c a l e o f  i n t u r n , has•made t h e n o n - t e c h n i c a l  of greater The  o f marine t e r m i n a l s i t e s .  require dredging,  (c) u n i t  noise disturbance  and c o n f l i c t s  and  pollution  (d) t h e d u s t It  are being given  i s recommended considered  with  for large land,  and a t t h e b e r t h  operation  causing  surface transportation,  problem.  t h a t when new m a r i n e  that the non-technical  consideration along with  requirements.  train  facilities,  terminals  effects  be  t h e e c o n o m i c and p h y s i c a l  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  I.  PAGE  INTRODUCTION  1  A.  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  2  1. S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e P r o b l e m . . . . . .  2  2. B a c k g r o u n d t o t h e P r o b l e m . . . . . . .  3  3. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e P r o b l e m  5  B.  PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES  6  C.  HYPOTHESIS . .  7  D.  METHODOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION  8  E.  L I M I T A T I O N S AND SCOPE 1. F a c t o r s  . . .  not Considered  2. A s s u m p t i o n s  11  11  3. S c o p e  12  4. D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  13 .  6. C o n c e r n t o P l a n n i n g THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM A.  x  11  . .  5. C o n s t r a i n t s  II.  . . . .  14 15  .  16  ECONOMIES I N TRANSPORT COSTS  18  1. I n l a n d T r a n s p o r t  20  System  (a) S o l i d s P i p e l i n e s  21  (b) U n i t T r a i n s  29  2. T e r m i n a l  Component  3. O c e a n T r a n s p o r t  System  33 39  vi CHAPTER III.  PAGE . COMMODITY DEMAND AND THE SUPPLY OF SHIPPING  50  A.  THE DEMAND FOR SHIPPING SERVICE  51  1. World Commodity Demand and Supply . . .  53  (a) I r o n Ore  55  (b) C o a l  56  (c) G r a i n  59  (d) Phosphate  61  (e) B a u x i t e and A l u m i n a . . . . . . . .  62  2. Commodity P r o d u c t i o n and Movement Thr-ough West C o a s t P o r t s . . . . . . .  64  (a) I r o n Ore  70  (b) C o a l  70  (c) G r a i n  73  (d) Phosphates  74  (e) B a u x i t e and A l u m i n a  74  (f) P o t a s h  74  (g) S u l p h u r  77  3. Reguirements R e s u l t i n g From t h e B u l k Trade B.  THE SUPPLY OF SHIPPING SERVICE  78 79  1. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e B u l k C a r r i e r Fleet  80  (a) Types o f B u l k C a r r i e r s  80  (b) The Trend t o B i g g e r S h i p s (c) The D e s i g n V e s s e l and i t s Requirements  86 92  vii CHAPTER  IV.  PAGE  COMMODITY MOVEMENT IN RELATION TO WEST COAST TRANSPORTATION  97  . .  A.  HARBOUR LOCATIONS  B.  INLAND TRANSPORT  97  AND  RESOURCE 101  LOCATIONS 1.  Rail  Network  101  . .  (a) W e s t e r n C a n a d a  101  .  107  (b) Lower M a i n l a n d 2. C.  . . .  Pacific  Coast  109 115  THE PORT OF VANCOUVER 1.  V.  Commodity L o c a t i o n s  Bulk Terminals  . . . .  119  2. V a n c o u v e r Wharves L i m i t e d  120  3. N e p t u n e T e r m i n a l s L i m i t e d  121  4. W e s t s h o r e T e r m i n a l s L i m i t e d . . . . .  122  5.  The C o n f l i c t s  125  6.  Potential Locations  127  CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  A.  CONCLUSIONS  B.  RECOMMENDATIONS  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  129  . . . . . .  129 134  .  135  L I S T OF APPENDICES I. III.  British  C o l u m b i a M i n i n g Revenue  S on li itd sT r aP i np se l i n e s U  141 144 147  viii APPENDICES IV.  PAGES C a r g o e s o v e r 200,000 t o n s l o a d e d a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P o r t s t o and f r o m F o r e i g n C o u n t r i e s 1967  150  C o u n t r i e s I m p o r t i n g o v e r 200,000 t o n s o f a S i n g l e Commodity v i a t h e P o r t o f • V a n c o u v e r i n 1967 V. VI.  B r i t i s h Columbia M i n e r a l P r o d u c t i o n Shipments Map  of Port Locations  153  and 154 160  ix  LIST  OF  TABLES  TABLE  1.  2.  3.  .  4.  PAGE  PROPORTIONAL COMMODITY  COMPARATIVE PORTATION  OF 19  C O S T OF  OF  LIFTING  SMALL AND  PIPELINE  •  v  24  TRANS25  ESTIMATED SAVINGS  BULK .  COST  R E P R E S E N T A T I V E SOLIDS TRANSPORTATION COSTS  PLACE 5.  A L L O C A T I O N OF F I N A L  BY U S E OF L A R G E  SHIPS  TRANSPORT  COMMODITIES,  6.  LEADING STEEL  7.  JAPANESE STEEL  SHIPS  IN  . . .  45  PERFORMANCE  OF  MAJOR  1966-1968  PRODUCING  54  REGIONS  PRODUCTION  - 1969  . . . .  F O R E C A S T S TO  1983  56  8.  PRINCIPAL  9'.  WORLD G R A I N  T R A D E , VOLUME AND  PERFORMANCE  1961-1968  C O A L MOVEMENTS  TRANSPORT 59  11.  B A U X I T E AND A L U M I N A , T O T A L S E A B O R N E TRADE 1 9 6 6 SUMMARY OF D E E P S E A T R A D E . B . C . LOWER MAINLAND 19 6 6-19 85 PORT O F VANCOUVER, P R I N C I P A L E X P O R T S FOR S E L E C T E D Y E A R S (RANK BY 19 66 TONNAGE)  14.  15.  OF  58  SIZE  13.  DISTRIBUTION  IN 1969  10.  12.  55.  GRAIN  CARRIERS 1968  BITUMINOUS COAL PRODUCTION, B R I T I S H COLUMBIA 1 9 6 8 - 1 9 6 9 WORLD P O T A S H C O N S U M P T I O N , AND 1 9 7 8 E S T I M A T E D  ALBERTA  . . .  .  60  63 68 69  AND 71  196 8 ACTUAL 77  X TABLE  16.  PAGE  AVERAGE S I Z E OF BULK CARRIERS 19681970  82  17.  VESSELS ON ORDER 1961-1970  83  18.  CARGO MOVEMENTS BY COMBINED CARRIERS 1966-1968 GROWTH OF COMBINED CARRIER FLEET 1966-  84  1970  85  19.  20.  DEVELOPMENT  OF MAIN BULK CARRIER TYPES . . .  21.  DISTRIBUTION OF E X I S T I N G BULK CARRIER F L E E T AS OF DECEMBER  31, 1969  22.  NEWBUILDINGS  23.  DISTRIBUTION OF BULK CARRIERS ON ORDER AS OF JANUARY 1968 and 1970 RANGE OF DIMENSIONS FOR BULK CARRIERS . . .  24.  DELIVERED 1960-1969  88  89 90  91 96  xi  L I S T OF FIGURE  FIGURES .  1.  Transportation  2.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Cost —Coal  PAGE 17  S t a g e s and Components  and M i n e r a l s  i n a Slurry  Pipeline 28  . .  3.  Flow Diagram o f Bulk T e r m i n a l O p e r a t i o n s  4.  Schematic Diagram of T r a i n at  5. 6.  Handling  Systems .  38  . .  40  .  72  Terminal  V e s s e l Type ,British  i n R e l a t i o n t o Shipping Market  C o l u m b i a I r o n O r e and  Copper  Producers 7.  British  8.  T r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l and R e g i o n a l R a i l w a y Systems i n Western Canada R a i l w a y s S e r v i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Western A l b e r t a L o c a t i o n o f B u l k T e r m i n a l s on B u r r a r d  9. 10.  Inlet  Columbia R i v e r Systems  i n Relation  11.  C o a l Mines  12.  British  to Rail  37  . . .  98  . .  Network  104 .  . . . . . .  105 108 110  i n Western Canada  C o l u m b i a C o p p e r P r o d u c e r s and 113  M a r k e t 19 69 13.  P o t a s h and S u l p h u r P r o d u c i n g A r e a s  14.  The P o r t  15.  Port  . . . . . .  of Vancouver, Harbour L i m i t s  o f V a n c o u v e r - R o b e r t s Bank  . . . .  114 118 124  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  The to  the  value  export of  welfare of  raw  British  billion;  of  the  s a l e o f p r i m a r y and  the  value  markets  of  British  f o r the The  interest,  $2.1  C o l u m b i a has to  contributes  of Canadians.  e x p o r t s was  p r i n c i p a l exports  a b o v e $1.8  material  prosperity  material  Government o f the  and  raw  In  billion.  estimated  foreign countries  this  substantially  movement o f  particularly  value  i n 1968  $480 m i l l i o n was  refined minerals.  the The  1  the  to  derived  Appendix  C o l u m b i a mine p r o d u c t s and  period  19 67  of be  from I shows  their  1965-69. these commodities  i s of  considerable  t o d a y when m a r i n e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  is  2 going through a period The persons are in  the  port  rapid  evolution.  Canada-Japan Trade C o u n c i l  future.  i s inadequate to  They c o n t e n d s u s t a i n the  DBS, C a n a d a Y e a r Book 1969, 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 1000.  Printer,  has  predicting a transportation  foreseeable  system  of  stated  crisis that  that  some  i n Canada the  predicted  railroadvolume  ( O t t a w a : Queens  2 R o b e r t F. K l a u s n e r , "The E v a l u a t i o n Marine C a p i t a l , " The E n g i n e e r i n g E c o n o m i s t , No. 4, 1969, p . 188T -  of Risk i n V o l . 14,  2 of  bulk  commodities  t h e most a c u t e bulk  t o be e x p o r t e d .  problem  will  loading f a c i l i t i e s  I t i s suggested  c e n t r e around  and t h e r o a d  t h e West  and r a i l  that  Coast  network  3 which  A.  feeds  them.  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  B e f o r e we p l a n f o r a f a c i l i t y there to  i s a need o r r e q u i r e m e n t .  determine  effects  If  i n fact  terminal—in  The  a requirement system  These  dictates  locational  t o t h e n e e d and t h e system. i s proven,  the design or extent of study,  the " l o c a t i o n a l  requirements  or  i n a l l t h e components o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  requirements  facility  proper  commodity  1.  i n t u r n p r e s e n t a need  criteria system.  f o r land f o r the  and f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t l i n k a g e s w i t h t h e  source.  Significance  o f the Problem  L a n d , w h e t h e r i t be l o c a t e d area,  i t i s necessary  fora facility  the context of t h i s  requirements." arise  rise  on t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n the  To do t h i s  the conditions giving  of this  we must d e t e r m i n e i f  i n a rural  o r an  urban  i s a r e s o u r c e w h i c h must meet t h e f u t u r e n e e d s o f t h e  3 1970,  Canada-Japan Trade p . 2.  Council Newsletter,  December  3 citizens in  of  a country.  o r n e a r an  resource  t o be land  urban area  or resource  allocation  I f the  of  space i n q u e s t i o n  i t i s usually considered  i n short  supply,  the  s p a c e among c o m p e t i n g u s e s  of importance. in a rural  On  area  i s located  the  other  i s regarded  a  question i s then  hand, the  scarce of  optimal  considered  allocation  as much l e s s  of  serious  4 b e c a u s e we Our in  consider concern  taking,  and  2.  suitable  the  requirement  for shipping  q u a n t i t i e s by  study  i s to determine  cargo  i s in fact  implications of  taking  changes  chese  i n bulk  are  changes.  carriers  today  general  t o d a y , and  cargo  is  by  for  small  were e i t h e r  or c a r r i e d  not  consider  have been t r a d e d  T h e y w e r e , h o w e v e r , moved i n  v e s s e l s which s p e c i a l i z e d  place,  marine t e r m i n a l s  c o m m o d i t i e s w h i c h we  comparison w i t h  conjunction with  i f changes  Problem  f o r dry bulk  Indeed the  of years.  resource.  c h a n g e s , what f o r m t h e  what a r e  o l d one.  scores  the  bulk  Background t o the The  in  in this  t h e movement o f d r y  what i s c a u s i n g  an  land a p l e n t i f u l  shipped  small  i n t h e movement o f g r a i n o r  coal  5 or  ore. I t was  the  great  expansion  movements i n t h e m i d - f i f t i e s  of ore,  which brought  c o a l and  grain  into being  the  ^Lowdon Wingo J r . , C i t i e s and S p a c e , The F u t u r e Use o f U r b a n L a n d , ( B a l t i m o r e : The J o h n s H o p k i n s P r e s s ^ 1 9 6 3 ) , p . T~.  4 more e f f i c i e n t  and  the growth i n the of  over  expansion  period  of these tons  of  the  in  rail,  because  existing  become i d l e .  vessels  The  (dwt), i n t h e  s h i p s c a u s i n g the  sixties,  s e a and  which  a relatively  some c a r g o  smaller vessel  was  t h e huge i n v e s t m e n t s  terminal f a c i l i t i e s .  These  introduction required  facilities, to a  extent r a i l ,  have a l o n g l i f e  decisions  reversible.  the i n t r o d u c t i o n existing with  t i o n was  water  study that  and  new  i t was  carrier  this  obsolete.  investment  consultion.  locational  method o f raw  A  expected  Those  system  unilaterally  third  m a t e r i a l s supply. o f new  are  that  were  not  without  important considerafrom  T h i s i s today  steel mills  on  partic-  deep  ports.^ 5  Fearnley 1970,  p.  & E g e r s , World  Canada-Japan Trade 3.  the  concerned  p a t t e r n s would r e s u l t  e v i d e n t i n the l o c a t i o n  lesser  c o u l d make much o f  segment o f t h e t r a n s p o r t  to undertake  extensive  ularly  super  terminal f a c i l i t i e s  prepared  t h e new  In a d d i t i o n ,  of the  a particular  investment  bulk  to  i n t h e c a s e o f t h e t e r m i n a l and and  short  would  particularly  not e a s i l y  carriers  Although  f a c t o r which delayed the  super bulk c a r r i e r  i t was  i m m e d i a t e demand f o r s u p e r  i t w o u l d mean t h a t  second  and  to super bulk  of bulk trade occurred over  first  from  bulk vessels,  f o r modern m a r i n e t e r m i n a l s .  i t d i d n o t c r e a t e an  carriers, shift  size  50,000 d e a d w e i g h t  c r e a t e s t h e need this  sophisticated  Bulk C a r r i e r s  1970.  C o u n c i l N e w s l e t t e r , November  5  3.  Responslbi11ty  Dry-bulk r a i l w a y s , by of the  Problem  t e r m i n a l s a r e owned a n d / o r o p e r a t e d  o c e a n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o m p a n i e s , by  resource,  independent  f o r the  by  the  h a r b o u r a u t h o r i t y , o r by  terminalling  each puts  different  selection  of s i t e  varies  according  profit  p i c t u r e and  company.  e m p h a s i s on  and  the  design  to t h e i r their  As  of the  present  items  facility.  line  estimates  producer  an  i s o f t e n the  different  in  case, their  This  of b u s i n e s s ,  of the  by  long  emphasis their  term  potential. The  federal  Canadian harbours  g o v e r n m e n t has  and  maintains  accommodate s h i p s u s i n g t h e of paying private built  see  by no  particularly t h e r e was  the  the  on  the  federal  indication where t h e r e  shall  case  i n v e s t i g a t e the  with  local  and  interests  on  the  full is  to  recovery  an  present  time stop,  government  as  Bank. problem  where t h e r e the  occasions  participation will  i s pressure  of Roberts  national interest,  conflict  that this  to  l e a s e d them  seen t h a t t h e r e  government a t the  policy  approaches  a number o f  d o l l a r w h a r v e s and  be  to  They a l s o have a  Government has  Thus i t can  i n the  We of  harbour.  f o r most  within ports  i n d u s t r y a t a r e n t a l which would a l l o w  investment.  we  channels  cost of dredging  large multi-million  involvement and  the  facilities.The  private of  one-half  responsibility  from the  standpoint  seems t o be  problem area  shall  a be  6 pointed  out.  Goal  formation  among c o m m u n i t i e s , w i t h i n or  the nation.  PURPOSE AND  The  c a n be o b t a i n e d  Columbia, identify sitive  then  by o p e r a t i n g  i s t o determine  industries  possible  an e f f e c t i v e s y s t e m .  at the lowest  o f Canada."  One  then t o senup  sea transportation. i s to  t o know a c c u r a t e l y  and  i n t e r a c t and  by t h e s u b - s y s t e m s i n  We must k e e p i n m i n d o u r  i.e., efficiency.  T h e 1967  Act s t i p u l a t e s the objective of and a d e q u a t e  transport  u s e o f a l l a v a i l a b l e modes o f t r a n s costs  users of transportation  wellbeing  system;  are established  system making t h e b e s t  of  o f cheaper  an economic, e f f i c i e n t  portation  ships.  or s t a r t  q u a n t i t a t i v e l y how t h e v a r i a b l e s  Transportation  t h e economies  i n the case o f B r i t i s h  w h i c h would expand  measure o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s ,  . . .  large  from a  (including transportation)  the transportation  what r e q u i r e m e n t s  "  very  as b e i n g  secondary purpose, o f t h i s a n a l y s i s ,  understand  National  t o be d e r i v e d  have b e e n s t a t e d  to f r e i g h t costs  A  province  versa.  i f e c o n o m i e s c a n i n f a c t be o b t a i n e d ; those  achieving  a  arise  f o r Regina or A l b e r t a or  advantages  because o f the a v a i l a b i l i t y  if  area,  f o r V a n c o u v e r and v i c e  operational  main o b j e c t i v e  as c o n f l i c t s  OBJECTIVES  "deep-water" t e r m i n a l that  a metropolitan  What i s good  C a n a d a may n o t be good  B.  is difficult  . . .  to protect  and t o m a i n t a i n  the i n t e r e s t s  t h e economic  7 The  dry  bulk marine t e r m i n a l  r e q u i r e m e n t s w h i c h must be operate of dry  efficiently. bulk  of v e s s e l  and  the  o b j e c t i v e w i l l be  a modern  C.  the  duction  transportation During  of  the  the  super  scale  to  movement  increase of  made some t e r m i n a l s  in  size  operations  obsolete.  A  to determine these requirements  reflected large  system but  sixties,  never  this  large vessels,  period  first  the  year,  often  altering  however, t r a d e  During  innovations  i n the  specifically  i t  for  we  saw  straindrastic-  increased  at  the  an  intro-  super tanker  investment per  terminals.  In  this  commensurate i m p r o v e m e n t s This  the has  brought  i n the  hypothesis  is  a requirement then:  size  bulk of  r e s u l t e d i n the  scale  study w i l l attempt  commodities w i t h  increased  s h i p has  for increasing turn,  movement o f d r y  i n the  ship-owners  our  the  is  and  then  carrier.  The  The  i n the  b e e n i n c r e a s i n g y e a r by  above a v e r a g e r a t e .  is  increased  terminal  HYPOTHESIS  ally.  the  innovations  design  terminal.  T r a d e has ing  has  certain  i f the  specifically  resultant  of marine t e r m i n a l s , third  satisfied  Recent  commodities,  has  of operations  commodities vessels.  demand at  a b o u t a demand  marine for  inland transportation to  link  the  demand  system.  for  f o r modern f a c i l i t i e s  by  and  8 I n c r e a s e d t r a d e has promoted t h e use o f super b u l k c a r r i e r s a n d e s t a b l i s h e d a n e e d t o p r o v i d e modern terminal f a c i l i t i e s .  It be  i s recognized  as r e s p o n s i b l e  bulk  carrier.  two;  we s h a l l  as  It i sdifficult  and o f v e s s e l s  a measure o f t h e r e s p o n s e t o t h i s  terminals and  size  t o enter  of ship w i l l  the requirements  information  those  the trade  trade  statistics  Statistics on o r d e r  on t h e s i z e  will  be u s e d  demand.  facilities"  capable of handling  expected  This  the  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e  u s e e x i s t i n g and p r o j e c t e d  "modern t e r m i n a l  among s u p p l i e r s may  demand i n p r o m o t i n g t h e s u p e r  a m e a s u r e o f demand f o r s h i p p i n g .  By  is  competition  as i n c r e a s e d  of t h e e x i s t i n g f l e e t as  that  i s meant m a r i n e  ships  presently  i n the foreseeable  be d e s i g n a t e d  of the design  the "design  v e s s e l together  ina  trade  future.  vessel."  It  with  on t h e i n l a n d l o c a t i o n s o f t h e r e s o u r c e s  and on  i n l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system which determine the  locational  requirements or c r i t e r i a  f o r modern d r y b u l k  terminals.  D.  METHODOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION  The of  first  step  i n our study  commodity movement f r o m p r o d u c e r  identification system. detail,  Each  o f t h e sub-systems  involved  an e x a m i n a t i o n  t o consumer, and  comprising  the transport  s u b - s y s t e m o r component was t h e n e x a m i n e d i n  operational  s t a n d a r d s were i s o l a t e d ,  and p o s s i b l e  9  innovations  identified.  between e x i s t i n g which comprise between t h e possible out  by  with  f u t u r e areas  next  and step  i n the  out  by  the  of  United and  Nations  of  commodities  British  ment, T r a d e and provided import  data.  the  Statistics,  Commerce, and  deleted  because they An  vided trends  data  on  i n bulk  was  carried  interviews  studies  being  to  the and  Harbours  from these  some c o m m o d i t i e s were u n a v a i l a b l e  list or  The  Board,  Industrial  Develop-  Petroleum and  Resources  export  sources c o u l d be  statistics  and  expanded be  region. reports  commodity movements comparing  and  was  i f some s h o u l d  in this  to  non-  world-wide sense.  original  i n transport technology,  for  s u i t a b l e or  o f M i n e s and  f o r e c a s t world  led  and  work  shipping  Canadian production  examination of the which  This  National  Canadian data  of  This  Organization  Columbia Departments of  The  inclusion  as  i n the  examined t o d e t e r m i n e i f the by  and  future trends  shipping  information  identify  through  Development.  classification  Dominion Bureau of  to  shipping, particularly,  the  for bulk  and  comparisons  c o n s i s t e d of a review of  of  the  cost  components  terminalling industry.  identification  and  and  The  for cost reductions.  field  Economic C o o p e r a t i o n  suitable  c o s t s were made  techniques.  technical reports  railroad  literature  of  s u b - s y s t e m s were made i n o r d e r  The  carried  proposed  c o s t were i d e n t i f i e d  studying  the  and  Comparisons  these  with  proand the  material  c o l l e c t e d f o r Canada a l l o w e d  adapted  to  the  Coast.  The  specific  forecast  s h i p w h i c h w o u l d be future  innovations  transfer  standard  study  data  to various  i n the  i n inland  relies  sources,  discussions  sets  used  estimates  heavily  interviews  out  with persons  material the  hypothesis  constraints  discusses  the  innovations identifies  of  and  type  of  cargo,  future  transportation  w h i c h may the  alter  modal  tested  and  discusses  the  West C o a s t .  and  the  system  the  contains the  the  following  i n the  possible The  the  chapter  III  the  criteria the  network,  on  Burrard land  Roberts  terminals.  on  Bank  Inlet;  and  uses.  Chapter  makes r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  bulk  covers  f o r marine terminals  s i t u a t i o n v i s - a - v i s other  l o c a t i o n of dry  and  l o c a t i o n of  also describes  and  chapter  future  inland transportation  locations  conclusions  and  the  possible  Chapter  size,  shows t h e  Chapter  outlines  identifies  e x i s t i n g marine terminals  discusses  and  system,  IV  hand,  chapters.  The  for  describes  first  study.  the  Chapter  at  visits  industry.  factors affecting cost.  optimization.  information,  authorities,  in five  i n ship  commodities,  published  with  i n the  t o be the  on  commodity movements, t r e n d s  garding  the  be  West  s i z e and  facilities  i s presented  s c o p e and  V  of  transport,  to  Canadian  movement o f  l o c a t i o n s to view the  The I  includes  the  general  requirements. This  and  s i t u a t i o n of  the  re-  E.  LIMITATIONS AND  1.  Factors  Not  Industrial are  subjects  not  i n Canada.  following  SCOPE  d e v e l o p m e n t and  with  political  This  four  secondary  overtones  study w i l l  not  processing  in British  address  Columbia  itself  to  the  questions:  (a)  Should our  (b)  I f so,  (c)  Considered  raw  materials  a t what r a t e and  t h e y be  exploited?  Can  raw  the  Columbia  materials  or  be  exported?  t o what e x t e n t  be  utilized  i n C a n a d a , now  or  in  i n the  should  British short  term  future? (d)  Will  the  future, future The  reader  will  raw  material  thus a l l o w i n g  i n short  a higher  supply  price  at  in  the  some  time? find  interesting  questions  i n the  Resources  Conferences.  2.  be  proceedings  discussions  of the  British  on  these  Columbia  Assumptions  Some A s s u m p t i o n s  are  basic  to the  study.  These  are: (a)  The will  export not  be  o f raw  materials  restricted  by  from Western  government.  Canada  12 (b)  Production and  shall  the marketing  the m i n e r a l (c)  be g o v e r n e d by m a r k e t  forces  strategy of the holders of  r i g h t s , and  The n e c e s s a r y construction  permission w i l l  be g r a n t e d  f o r the  of the required t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  facilities.  3.  Scope  Although is  presented  same d e t a i l for  this  vary  statistics  i n this  r e p o r t , i t i s not considered  as a r e t h e o t h e r b u l k  i s that grain  from  one y e a r  can f i n d  commodities. Canadian  t o the next,  worthy  i s important  of attention.  set o f problems  this,  from  admirably  Economics o f the U n i v e r s i t y  a study  Issues on g r a i n  was c o m p l e t e d  bulk  and i t s p a r t i c u l a r  by P r o f e s s o r  Agricultural  Critical  the other  t o o u r economy and a p r o b l e m  a n d O.P. T a n g r i , b o t h  1968 p a p e r  port  the transport of  Tyrchniewicz  their  reason  In a d d i t i o n ,  T h e movement o f g r a i n  i s handled  The  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s o n l y  separate  Notwithstanding  grain  i n the  a particular  complex o p e r a t i o n .  i t s solution  grain  commodities.  shipments through  a small part of a very grain  and i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g  E.W.  o f t h e Department o f of Manitoba, i n  " G r a i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n C a n a d a : Some and I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r R e s e a r c h . " handling  by K a t e s ,  facilities  Peat,  In a d d i t i o n ,  o n t h e West C o a s t  M a r w i c k and Company  which  i n September  13 1967,  would p r o v i d e In  are  the  affinity  Identification not,  i n super bulk  of  the  industrial  question  and/or breaking-up  of  the  and  of  report  that  indirectly  industries  a deep water  port.  development o p p o r t u n i t i e s  the  study nor  trans-shipment  ship  reader.  commodities  processing  t o a l o c a t i o n on  however, a purpose o f  consider  interested  c a r r i e r s the  those manufacturing  w h i c h h a v e an  t o the  course of determining  transported  identifies  information  loads  does the and  the  (the C e n t r a l  is  report  consolidation  Terminal  7 Station  4.  o r CTS  system).  D e f i n i t i o n of  Bulk  carrier:  Terms a s i n g l e decked v e s s e l of 10,000 d e a d - w e i g h t  over  tons.  Deadweight  tonnage  (dwt):  the  amount a v e s s e l  "lift"  Harbour:  expressed  can  carry  i n long  or  tons:  practical  purposes equal to  weight of  the  for  the  cargo.  either a built-up port o f f e r i n g services area  to  shipping  o f f e r i n g safe  or  a  sheltered  anchorage.  The c o n c e p t o f t h e C e n t r a l T e r m i n a l o r CT system i n v o l v e s the shipment of a product i n super t a n k e r s or dry bulk c a r r i e r s to a c e n t r a l point for trans-shipment i n s m a l l e r v e s s e l s to the user. Such a t e r m i n a l i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d by t h e P r o v i n c e o f Nova S c o t i a f o r t h e S t r a i t of Cansp.  Hinterland:  the  inland  port  by  area  means o f  which r e c e i v e handled Port:  Super  by  transport  or  the  supply  the  links  the  and  goods  port.  a harbour or  that  having docks  and  part  of  a  harbour  piers.  bulk  carrier:  Super  connected with  dry  a bulk  carrier  weight  tons  of  over  50,000  dead-  (dwt).  bulk  terminal:  a terminal  capable of  super bulk  carriers.  accommodating  Transport  performance:  5.  to  1969. since  port,  i s not  Since  the  that  reports  before changed  export  t i m e , we  although  1969,  there  appreciably  present.  on  and  the to  q u a l i t y and  of  c o a l has  must r e l y  relating  statistics are and  to  are  come i n t c  a large to  data  As  restricted  can  be  the  transporting  period  after  prominence  extent  coal.  i n d i c a t i o n s that the  quantity,  a l e s s e r extent  r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r the  for information  minerals,  the  information  of mining, producing  the  carried  Constraints  Written cost  i s a m e a s u r e o f w e i g h t (ton) over a d i s t a n c e (mile).  on  for to  press the  the  production  other  period has  interpolated  to  not  15  6.  Concern  The among p l a n n e r s planning of  growing  interest  i n bringing  i n t o harmony w i t h  people  transport and  to Planning  i s reflected system  and s e n s e  e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t and r e g i o n a l t h e a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s and a t t i t u d e s  i n this  study.  reducing A study will  harbour  will  allow while  authorities  and p o s s i b l e  areas  of conflict  or planning o f f i c i a l s  i n making  on f u t u r e t e r m i n a l s . At which  the l o c a l  l e v e l the study w i l l  i d e n t i f y the  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when new b u l k  a r e c o n s i d e r e d on B u r r a r d I n l e t  existing  commodities,  and p r o m o t e e f f i c i e n c y  o f t e r m i n a l requirements  decisions  ities  o f t h e system,  themselves  of the  t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n f l i c t i n l a n d use p l a n n i n g .  assist  criteria  An u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i n v o l v e d i n t h e movement o f b u l k  a knowledge o f t h e commodities  rationalization  of responsibility  facilities  i s considered.  terminal  o r when e x p a n s i o n o f  facil-  CHAPTER I I  THE TRANSPORTATION  A of  total  functions  objective adapted  systems concept  that  being  SYSTEM  i s concerned with  are p h y s i c a l l y interlinked,  to discover  to contribute  how e a c h  link  to the e f f i c i e n c y  the  c a n be  "efficiency"  resources  i n t h e w h o l e economy i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g  use o f scarce the  task. We  the  best  o f t h e whole.  Basically  given  means t h e l e a s t  a series  shall  look  a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as a system,  sub-systems, d e s c r i b e  criteria  how e a c h c a n be o p t i m i z e d ,  a r e g e n e r a t e d by t h i s  optimization  and  process  of production stages, used. high and  system.  o f t r a n s p o r t i n g goods from t h e i r  to place  o f consumption  involves  what  finally  d e t e r m i n e what c o n s t i t u t e s an e f f i c i e n t t r a n s p o r t The  identify  place  several  t h e number d e p e n d i n g on t h e means o f t r a n s p o r t Where t h e g o o d s o r c o m m o d i t i e s  bulk,  one o f t h e s t a g e s  i t i s i n this  relevant—there simplest  case t h a t  i s u s u a l l y a maritime a consideration  are s i x stages.  possible  a r e o f low v a l u e  one—  of ports i s  The d i a g r a m p r e s e n t s  case o f the flow  or  of a product  the  from the  production  source i n t h e h i n t e r l a n d t o a source o r export  p o r t and i t s t r a n s p o r t t o t h e d e s t i n a t i o n i n t h e f o r e l a n d .  Qh—0—*r—©-^1  1  1 •  1  - 1 —  "15  1  L L  i  1  Producer  FIGURE 1  1  1  tl  r  j—  i  i i  1 i  Export Port  Transportation  r—0—,  >r—<T)  ®  i i 2  r i  Import Port  Consumer  Stages and Components  The s i x s t a g e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e Diagram a r e : (a)  S t o c k p i l i n g a t production  s o u r c e and l o a d i n g on  i n l a n d mode. (b)  I n l a n d movement t o t h e s o u r c e p o r t ; t h i s may i n v o l v e c a r r i a g e by r a i l , b a r g e , o r c o a s t a l ship.  (c)  U n l o a d i n g i n l a n d mode, s t o c k p i l i n g and l o a d i n g vessel.  (d)  The s e a voyage o r s e a component.  (e)  U n l o a d i n g v e s s e l and s t o c k p i l i n g o f commodity and l o a d i n g i n l a n d mode.  (f)  The c a r r i a g e o f t h e commodity i n l a n d t o customer.  I t i s becoming more common f o r t h i s l a s t s t a g e t o be e l i m i n a t e d as p l a n t s r e q u i r i n g l a r g e i n p u t s o f b u l k commodities  A.  commonly l o c a t e a t t h e p o r t .  ECONOMIES IN TRANSPORT COSTS W i t h t h e movement o f commodities o v e r l o n g e r  distances  the c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c c o u n t s f o r an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e d e l i v e r e d c o s t o f raw m a t e r i a l s . c o s t s i n c u r r e d during the s i x stages  A l l of the  i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 1  enter i n t o the f i n a l p r i c e o f the product  i n t h e market o r  reduce t h e n e t r e c e i p t s o f producers. I n many i n s t a n c e s s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n e x p o r t tonnage c a n be a c h i e v e d by a r e d u c t i o n i n f r e i g h t r a t e . S a l e s , however, a r e c o n t i n g e n t on t h e c o s t t o t h e consumer being competitive with other world Lower p r i c e c a n be a c h i e v e d or the other, or a combination or the cost of d i s t r i b u t i o n .  sources. e i t h e r by l o w e r i n g one  of, the cost of production An a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o s t s o f  p r o d u c t i o n i s beyond t h e scope o f t h i s r e p o r t and we w i l l c o n f i n e our d i s c u s s i o n t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s — i t u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e lower t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c t  being  a t source the  g r e a t e r t h e q u a n t i t y w h i c h w i l l be s o l d and t h e r e f o r e  T h i s i s proven t o be t h e case i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n .  19  transported or the l a r g e r percentage of the s e l l i n g p r i c e a v a i l a b l e t o cover t r a n s p o r t c o s t s . Although i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o s p e c i f y e x a c t l y what s h a r e i s a c c o u n t e d f o r by each component, Swan Wooster have b r o k e n down t h e c o s t t o a consumer i n Japan f o r c e r t a i n products,  assuming a p o i n t o f o r i g i n i n i n l a n d Canada and  movement t o Japan v i a t h e p o r t o f Vancouver.  The r e l a t i v e  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t r a n s p o r t cost f o r bulk cargoes using c o n v e n t i o n a l r a i l and a v e s s e l i n t h e 15,000-25,000 t o n range i s as f o l l o w s :  TABLE 1 PROPORTIONAL ALLOCATION OF FINAL COST OF COMMODITY Commodity Wheat Sulphur Potash Coal Source:  Inland Cost  Cost a t O r i g i n 75% 75% 70% 35%  Ocean F r e i g h t  10% 15% 20% 40%  15% 10% 10% 25%  Swan Wooster E n g i n e e r i n g Co. L t d . , P l a n n i n g Study f o r Outer P o r t Development a t Vancouver, B.C., JuTy  1967.  Includes cost o f t e r m i n a l l i n g . I t i s o b v i o u s from T a b l e 1 t h a t f o r low v a l u e i t i e s even s m a l l r e d u c t i o n s  commod-  i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n cost are h i g h l y  s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e end p r i c e . The c o s t s o f moving m a t e r i a l s depends on a number o f elements among w h i c h t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e a r e t h e most important:  (a)  N a t u r e o f t h e goods c a r r i e d .  (b)  Type and s i z e o f t h e v e h i c l e o f conveyance.  (c)  E f f i c i e n c y of loading/unloading  (d)  Organization of the transportation service (s).  (f)  Organization of the trading s e r v i c e s . item should  a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d  vehicle.  A sixth  as i t r e l a t e s t o  t h e f u t u r e c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n o f one mode i n r e l a t i o n t o another. (g)  C o m p a r a t i v e conveyance  utilization.  F o r t h e purpose o f d e t e r m i n i n g  the influence of the  c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t on t h e p r i c e o f goods s t a g e s be r e g r o u p e d . transport. ing  Two s t a g e s  a t o f can  can be r e d e f i n e d as i n l a n d  The two p o r t s t a g e s  involve unloading  and l o a d -  o f t h e l a n d and sea modes o f t r a n s p o r t and can be  c a l l e d t h e t e r m i n a l component.  The t h i r d s t a g e i s t h e  m a r i t i m e o r s e a component. We s h a l l e x p l o r e each o f t h e s e t h r e e components t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e y c o n t a i n any p r a c t i c a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r reducing  1.  the costs of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  Inland Transport  System  I n l a n d t r a n s p o r t may i n v o l v e a l a n d o r w a t e r movement depending on t h e geography o f t h e a r e a and t h e economics o f t r a n s p o r t .  To conform w i t h t h e o v e r a l l  21  d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s paper and assume a one  to s i m p l i f y discussion,  p o r t s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t any  barge movements and  w i t h o u t any  large  coastal  scale  we s h a l l  ships o r  commodity  movement t o the p o r t by t r u c k .  The  p r i n c i p l e s , however,  a p p l y t o t h e s e o t h e r modes, and  i n p a r t i c u l a r circumstances  t h e s e o t h e r modes may be o f major i m p o r t a n c e . The  costs o f inland transport  are i n f l u e n c e d  by the  s i t i n g o f p o r t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the p l a c e o f p r o d u c t i o n , and by The  the a c c e s s f a c i l i t i e s between the r e s o u r c e s and s u b j e c t of p o r t l o c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l and  r e g a r d s the In our  c o n t e x t two  p r a c t i c a l opportunities  a l t e r n a t i v e land transport  new  (b) i m p r o v i n g the  s p e c i f i c a l l y as  available:  for reducing  IV.  the  (a) development o f  systems such as s o l i d s  e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t y and/or  pipelines, introducing  c o n c e p t s such a s u n i t t r a i n s .  (a)  Solids  Over the  Pipelines  l a s t twenty y e a r s p i p e l i n e s have q u i e t l y  taken over t r a n s p o r t a t i o n Canada's f r e i g h t .  The  o f more t h a n twenty per  i s not  cent o f  r a i l r o a d s b e s t o f f e r f o r moving  b u l k i s t w i c e what the o i l companies pay  out  port.  l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  c o s t s o f i n l a n d component are  and  the  liquid  the p i p e l i n e s . I t  t h e n s u r p r i s i n g t h a t much r e s e a r c h has  been c a r r i e d  on the movement o f s o l i d s by p i p e l i n e w i t h i n  Canada.  22  I n J a n u a r y 1970,  Cascade P i p e L i n e L i m i t e d  served  n o t i c e o f i n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e y would make a p p l i c a t i o n t o the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o c o n s t r u c t a s o l i d s p i p e l i n e from Sparwood t o R o b e r t s Bank f o r t h e purpose o f t r a n s p o r t i n g coal.  As o f t h e end o f 1970  t o the P r o v i n c e .  The  a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l culminate  c a r r i e d out by S h e l P a c , by  no a p p l i c a t i o n had been made work  t h e A l b e r t a R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , and  others. The A l b e r t a R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l i s i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f  s o l i d s p i p e l i n e r e s e a r c h , t h e i r work s u g g e s t s t h a t even m o d e r a t e l y s u c c e s s f u l c o a l p i p e l i n i n g c o u l d r e d u c e c o s t s by 2  20 per c e n t .  At the present time the C o u n c i l i s working  on a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p i l o t p l a n t w h i c h s e p a r a t e s c o k i n g c o a l from i t s i m p u r i t i e s and w a t e r .  slurry  In a d d i t i o n  r e s e a r c h i s b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t i n o t h e r c e n t r e s ; i n March o f 1971  t h e Saskatchewan R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l was  awarded a $400,000  t h r e e y e a r c o n t r a c t f o r t e c h n i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t o the movement o f b u l k commodities by t h e C a n a d i a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Commission. The  development o f p i p e l i n e s i s g e n e r a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o  t h r e e phases. through a pipe.  F i r s t g e n e r a t i o n means pumping a By "second g e n e r a t i o n "  i s meant m i x i n g  f i n e s o l i d w i t h a l i q u i d t o form a m i x t u r e 2  liquid  or s l u r r y  and  John K e t t l e , " P i p e l i n e s : I f O i l and Gas Can be P i p e d , Why Not P o t a s h , C o a l , Wheat, O r e s , C h e m i c a l s ? " Monetary Times, V o l . 136, No. 8, 1968, p. 32.  a  23  pumping t h e m i x t u r e  through  the p i p e l i n e .  By " t h i r d  genera-  t i o n " i s meant pumping c a p s u l e s o f s o l i d lumps w i t h o r i n a  liquid. Second g e n e r a t i o n p i p e l i n e s have been i n e x i s t e n c e  f o r some y e a r s .  I n t h e l a t e 1950's t h e C o n s o l i d a t e d  Company p u t i n a 1 0 - i n c h , 1 0 8 - m i l e C a d i z Ohio mine  Coal  l o n g p i p e between t h e i r  and a C l e v e l a n d power p l a n t ; t h e t h r o u g h -  put was o v e r one m i l l i o n t o n s o f c o a l a y e a r f o r s i x y e a r s . The  o p e r a t i o n was h a l t e d when t h e r a i l w a y i n t r o d u c e d u n i t  t r a i n s and lowered The  t h e f r e i g h t r a t e t o an a c c e p t a b l e  level.  longest pipeline presently i n operation, carries coal  273 m i l e s t h r o u g h  an 1 8 - i n c h l i n e and has an a n n u a l  o f 4.8 m i l l i o n t o n s .  A n o t h e r example i s i n F l o r i d a where  IMC move 30,000 t o n s o f phosphate a day t h r o u g h two-mile long pipe.  capacity  a 16-inch,  S o l i d s p i p e l i n e s are presently being  used t o t r a n s p o r t w o o d c h i p s , i r o n o r e , and c o a l , a p a r t i a l l i s t i n g o f m a t e r i a l s amenable  to pipeline transportation i s  shown i n A p p e n d i x I I , t h e A p p e n d i x a l s o i n c l u d e s a summary o f s e l e c t e d Commercial s l u r r y p i p e l i n e s .  I t i s these  second  g e n e r a t i o n o r s l u r r y p i p e l i n e s t h a t we a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h . Evaluation.  Dr. P e t e r J . Manno o f t h e S t a n f o r d  R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e has i n d i c a t e d t h e i r g r o w i n g  importance:  24 S o l i d s p i p e l i n e s may be t r a n s p o r t i n g e i g h t b i l l i o n t o n - m i l e s o f b u l k commodities i n Canada and t h e U.S. by 19 80, compared w i t h the c u r r e n t volume o f about 100 m i l l i o n t o n miles. 3  TABLE 2 REPRESENTATIVE SOLIDS TRANSPORTATION COSTS (2-6 M i l l i o n  Tons/Year)  Transportation Cost Range C a n a d i a n /Ton-Mile  Mode Slurry Pipeline  0. 3-0 .7  Rail  0. 4-0 .9  Truck  5. 0-8 .0  Conveyor Source:  Belt  2. 0-6 .0  Conditions Over 50 m i l e s , No S l u r r y Preparation U n i t T r a i n Over 400 M i l e s One Way H a u l W i t h Empty Return L e s s Than 15 M i l e s  E . J . Wasp and W.L.J. F a l l o w .  Representative  costs f o r transporting s o l i d s  utilizing  v a r i o u s modes a r e shown i n T a b l e 2, t h e same s o u r c e s t a t e s that i t costs l e s s per ton-mile  t o move between 2 and 6  m i l l i o n t o n s p e r y e a r by p i p e l i n e t h a n by u n i t t r a i n .  It  must be remembered, however, t h a t a r a i l l i n e c a n h a n d l e many t i m e s t h e c a p a c i t y o f a p i p e l i n e and t h a t t h e r a i l w a y provides  e x t r a b e n e f i t s i n o p e n i n g up a f r o n t i e r a r e a . 3 I b i d . , p. 34.  The  pipeline  i s particularly  appealing  i n t h e 1-5 m i l l i o n t o n  range, which i s w e l l below t h e o r d i n a r y c a p a c i t y o f a railroad and  line.  This  J.D. Weldon  fact  h a s b e e n shown by J.H.D.  o f t h e C.N.R. who compared  d e v e l o p m e n t a n d o p e r a t i o n o f new p i p e l i n e s  Sturgess  figures  f o r the  vs. r a i l  lines.  TABLE  3  COMPARATIVE COST OF P I P E L I N E TRANSPORTATION To move A n n u a l l y : 500,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 5,000,000 10,000,000  Source:  tons tons tons tons tons  A t any Beyond Beyond Beyond Beyond  distance about 70 m i l e s about 170 m i l e s abour 250 m i l e s about 400 m i l e s  Pipelines: " I f o i l a n d g a s c a n be p i p e d , why n o t p o t a s h , c o a l , wheat, o r e s , c h e m i c a l s ? " Monetary T i m e s , V o l . 1 3 6 , No. 8 , 1 9 6 8 , p . 3 5 .  Slurry over  P i p e l i n e s a r e Cheaper:  pipelines  are w e l l suited  moderate t o l o n g h a u l s ,  unit  trains  f o r transportation can be v e r y  petitive  f o r the longer h a u l s — p a r t i c u l a r l y  trackage  c a n b e e m p l o y e d , o r where  c o s t s must often  be b o r n e b y a p i p e l i n e .  t h e most  efficient  c o m m o d i t i e s where  high  high  where  slurry  com-  existing  preparation  Conveyor b e l t s a r e  a n d e c o n o m i c way t o move  tonnages and s h o r t h a u l s  bulk  are involved.  4 E.J. Wasp, and W.L.J. F a l l o w , "Some A s p e c t s c.u S l u r r y P i p e l i n e E c o n o m i c s and A p p l i c a t i o n , " (paper p r e s e n t e d at the f i f t h Annual meeting Canadian T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Research Forum, T o r o n t o , may 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 1 4 .  26 Economies of C o a l transporting  coal  Pipelines.  s l u r r y by  pipeline is a  tonnage t r a n s p o r t e d ,  distance,  the  of  coal, conditions  charges of  the  significant. Corporation, solids  by  by the  utilization  very  train  saving  plant  2 shows two  two  of  function  of  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  t e r r a i n , and first  cost  the  being  annual c a p i t a l the  most  g r a p h s , d e v e l o p e d by cost  of  Bechtel  transportating  pipeline.  are  unit  physical  which i n d i c a t e the  The plant  the  p i p e l i n e ; the Figure  The  close to  the  e m e r g e n c y wet  of  coal  to those of  dry  power p l a n t .  i n handling  o f f s e t s the  costs  costs  higher  of  costs  s t o r a g e and  the  slurry in a coal  This  the due  thermal  as w o u l d be i s the  case  slurry within to providing  thermal penalty  delivered because  the  thermal  long-term  of  using  wet  5  material.  This  o v e n s where low Forest production  does not  hold  moisture content Industry.  and  true  The  transportation  is  f o r c o a l used  in  coke  important.  savings  from the  l i e i n the forests, a  area  of  phase g  that A  accounts  chip  for  40  to  65  per  pipeline i s presently  indicating Columbia  that  and  6  one  this is a  cent of  in service  field  having  the  total  p.  17.  Ibid.,  p.  22.  value.  i n Newfoundland, importance  t h a t w a r r a n t s a d d i t i o n a l work.  Ibid.,  pulp  to  British  Coal Industry.  The Cascade p i p e l i n e , e s t i m a t e d t o  c o s t $207 m i l l i o n , would be t h e l o n g e s t i n t h e w o r l d a t 500 7  miles m  length.  connected  Mr. L.F. B o l g e r o f S h e l P a c , a f i r m  w i t h Cascade, i s quoted as s a y i n g :  T i l l now, many have l o o k e d on s o l i d s p i p e l i n i n g as j u s t a r a t h e r v i s i o n a r y mode o f moving m a t e r i a l s t h a t , under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , might r e p l a c e o t h e r e x i s t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods. B u t we a r e u s i n g an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t systems approach i n w h i c h t h e whole i n t e g r a t e d mine-to-customer p r o c e s s i s b e i n g d e s i g n e d f o r maximum o v e r a l l economic advantages. 8 T h i s means t h a t by d e s i g n i n g t h e whole t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system f o r s l u r r y , t h e r e would be a s a v i n g i n p r o d u c t i o n , i n i n l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and i n l o a d i n g and u n l o a d i n g t h e ship.  However, as noted above, s t u d i e s a r e g o i n g on r e g a r d -  i n g removal o f the water.  P r e s s r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e samples  o f coke made from t h e s l u r r i e d c o a l have been s e n t t o Japan and t h a t i n O c t o b e r 1970 Japanese o f f i c i a l s v i s i t e d t h e proposed r o u t e o f t h e p i p e l i n e and t h e c o k i n g ovens o f S t e e l Co. o f Canada i n H a m i l t o n , where t e s t i n g has been c a r r i e d out. Steel Industry.  I n 1968 t h e w o r l d ' s  f i r s t ocean  shipment o f i r o n o r e s l u r r y a r r i v e d i n J a p a n , t h i s shipment was  e x p e r i m e n t a l b u t today Oregon S t e e l M i l l s a t P o r t l a n d  i s s u p p l i e d e x p l u s i v e l y i n t h i s manner. 7  B.C."  The o r e i s pumped  CP P r o p o s e s World's L a r g e s t S o l i d s P i p e l i n e F i n a n c i a l P o s t , J u l y 25, 1970, p. 1. g  I b i d . , p. 2.  Across  29 aboard  ship  as a s l u r r y  (75% s o l i d s b y w e i g h t ) a n d t h e n t h e  hold  i s d e c a n t e d , and a f t e r s e t t l i n g ,  t h e cargo has l e s s  than  a 10 p e r c e n t  Upon a r r i v a l  steel and  plant,  pumped  elaborated  t h e c a r g o i s c u t by h i g h  ashore t o storage on i n S e c t i o n  Unit  (b) There which there  moisture content.  ponds.  3 of this  pressure This  are four basic  discussion i s  areas  i n railway  operation i n  have been e f f o r t s t o r e d u c e c o s t s ;  ing  t o a minimum, (d) r e d u c i n g  jets  Trains  i n c r e a s i n g t h e s i z e o f t h e shipment,  concept  water  chapter.  (a)  and  at the  (c) r e d u c i n g loading  i s a bringing  (b) r e d u c i n g  switch-  t e r m i n a l l i n g t o a minimum,  t i m e t o a minimum.  together,  these a r e :  The u n i t  train  a t one t i m e , a l l o f t h e s e  ideas. The  unit train  practice  i n that  together  and o p e r a t e d  may b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d  i t i s a specialized train as a s h u t t l e movement  from  conventional  prercanently  coupled  from p o i n t  of origin  9 to point  o f d e s t i n a t i o n on a f i x e d and d i s c i p l i n e d We s h a l l  d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e u n i t  the  integral train,  can  be b r o k e n  i n the case o f t h e former,  i n t o segments  f o rloading  basis.  t r a i n and the t r a i n  or unloading;  the  L e w i s K. S i l l c o x , "The C h a l l e n g e o f t h e U n i t T r a i n , " Unit Train Operations, ( C h i c a g o : R a i l w a y Systems and Management A s s o c i a t i o n , J a n u a r y 19 67) , p . 5.  second g e n e r a t i o n u n i t t r a i n i s t h e i n t e g r a l t r a i n c o n s i s t i n g of permanently coupled the c a r s d e s i g n e d  s e t s o f c a r s and l o c o m o t i v e s  f o r the p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e .  the term u n i t t r a i n s h a l l i n c l u d e i n t e g r a l The to  with  I n t h i s work  train.  u n i t t r a i n was f i r s t d e v i s e d i n t h e l a t e  fifties  h a u l c o a l and now moves o v e r o n e - h a l f t h e c o a l i n t h e  U n i t e d S t a t e s i n a d d i t i o n t o o t h e r b u l k commodities such as i r o n o r e , aluminum, g r a i n , s t e e l and s u g a r . o f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l e c o s t savings through  The u n i t t r a i n  g r e a t l y improved  u t i l i z a t i o n o f equipment, v a s t r e d u c t i o n i n t e r m i n a l t i m e , e l i m i n a t i o n of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of cars w i t h the attendant y a r d c o s t s , t h e e f f i c i e n t use o f crew l a b o u r , and t h e r e d u c t i o n o f s u p e r v i s o r y , c l e r i c a l and o p e r a t i n g p e r s o n n e l . In  o r d i n a r y s e r v i c e a c a r i s u t i l i z e d f o r 20 t o 30 l o a d e d  t r i p s a y e a r , i n s h u t t l e s e r v i c e , 180-200 t r i p s a r e n o t uncommon.  In the broadest  sense t h e u n i t t r a i n p e r m i t s a  rate reduction of approximately  f i f t y per c e n t . ^  Trains o f ore, c o a l , or other bulk products vary  from  30 t o 200 c a r s depending on t h e s i z e o f t h e c a r and t h e application.  The s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d  c a r s used i n most o f  t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s have a c a p a c i t y o f between 100 and 110 t o n s . In  t h e case o f c o a l t h e t r a i n s u s u a l l y range between 5,000  R o b e r t N. M o r r i s , "The S t a t e o f t h e U n i t T r a i n Art," Unit T r a i n Operations, (Chicago: R a i l w a y Systems and Management A s s o c i a t i o n , J a n u a r y 1967), p. 13.  and  10,000 net  storage the  tons i n s i z e .  loading  rates of  I n some a p p l i c a t i o n s w i t h  3,000 t o n s per  K a i s e r Resources loading  hour are  silo  achieved;  f a c i l i t y a t S p a r w o o d and  1 1  their  c a r dumper a t W e s t s h o r e T e r m i n a l s i s shown i n A p p e n d i x I I I . There are hour of  instances  (tph)  utilizing  3,000 t p h  are  the  r o t a r y dumper and  is  savings  an o p t i m u m t r a i n  offset with and  trains  average unloading  G r e a t L a k e s has  can  i n a t r a i n only  long  feeders;  a two  has  rates Presque  capacity  d e l i v e r c o a l a t a r a t e up  to  the  r e s u l t i n g from i n c r e a s i n g the a p p l i e s up  6,000  s i z e , above w h i c h the  The  enter  i n t o the  s p e e d , and  range of  passing  drawbars,  optimum s i z e .  shown t h a t t h i s o p t i m u m i s i n t h e  There  exceedingly  problem of  i n s i n g l e t r a c k t e r r i t o r y , p u l l i n g out  handling  of  a d v a n t a g e s become  r i s i n g c o s t e f f e c t s of h a n d l i n g  e x t r e m e l y heavy t r a i n s .  and  number  to a c e r t a i n l e v e l .  r a i l w a y grade c r o s s i n g s , reduced t r a i n alling  car  (the  per  ships). The  cars  three  common f o r a r o t a r y c a r dumper  I s l e t e r m i n a l on  tph to  where c o a l i s l o a d e d a t 3,600 t o n s  terminBailey  15,000  net  12  tons.  1 1  Ibid.,  p.  12.  12  A.G. B a i l e y , "The E c o n o m i c s o f U n i t T r a i n s , " Unit Train Operations, ( C h i c a g o : R a i l w a y S y s t e m s and Management A s s o c i a t i o n , J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 2 6 .  Unit trains w h i c h must be  met  have a v e r y demanding s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s  i f they  These c o n d i t i o n s a r e : and of  having  Rail  48 h o u r s  o f s u p p l y known i n a d v a n c e  v o l u m e t o make t h e  carrier,  1971  Unit Train.  The  first  30, CP  1970;  Rail  additional  added  the  Each t r a i n  tons,  each  car i s s p e c i a l l y  gondola  and  train  route.  venture  The  three days,  i s capable o f 50  operate  h a v e an  on  Roberts  104  car  designed, 105  of  Bank  o p e r a t e d by CP  carrying  88  until  integral  with  10,500  rotatable  Rail  on  A this  of s l i g h t l y  c a p a c i t y of  over  about  13 4.4  million The  tons. o p e r a t i o n i s not  a non-stop  w e s t - b o u n d movement t h e t r a i n addition  of a four u n i t  multi-unit  pusher  head-end  locomotive  V a n c o u v e r Sun,  operation.  stops at Golden locomotive  On  10,  1971.  the  f o r the  g r o u p and  i s introduced; a l l units  March  cars  arriving  tons of c o a l .  a turnaround  annual  train  a c a p a c i t y of over  of c a r r y i n g  cars i s also  trains and  has  unit  t r a i n s were a d d e d  fourth  t o the run.  fifth  timing  (d) a c c e p t a b l e l o a d i n g /  train  coupling  (b) p r e d i c t a b l e  t o go b e t w e e n Sparwood and  t h e r e on A p r i l March  successfully.  rates.  CP  in  (c) s u f f i c i e n t  f o r s h i p p e r and  unloading  took  (a) s o u r c e s  operated  acceptable loading rates,  consumption,  economic  a r e t o be  a are  remotely  controlled.  Creek and  The  pushers are dropped o f f a t Stoney  go back w i t h the empty t r a i n .  s t o p t o change crews and  s l o w t o t e n mph  The  trains also  while crossing  two  bridges.  2.  Terminal  Component  I t has been s t a t e d " P r o b a b l y  the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e  f a c t o r making f o r r e d u c e d c o s t s i n t h e m a r i t i m e t r a n s p o r t 14 s t a g e i s t h e s h o r t e n i n g of t h e t u r n r o u n d The of:  t i m e of s h i p s .  c o s t of ship's time spent i n p o r t i s a f u n c t i o n  f i r s t , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s ;  second, p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s  a t the t e r m i n a l .  o f p o r t s can p l a y an i m p o r t a n t of m a r i t i m e t r a n s p o r t and  and  Improvement  p a r t i n reducing the  costs  f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e f l o w of goods.  T h i s can be done by improvement (b) o f t h e t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t y ,  (a) i n p o r t o p e r a t i o n ,  and  inland transportation f a c i l i t i e s .  (c) o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n  with  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s can be s t r e a m l i n e d and made more efficient.  T h i s , however, w i l l not be d e a l t w i t h  n e i t h e r w i l l t h e r a i l system as i t i s c o n s i d e r e d The  here; elsewhere.  t e r m i n a l s i n the p o r t o f Vancouver a r e c o n s i d e r e d  C h a p t e r IV, i n t h i s  s e c t i o n we  in  s h a l l discuss terminals i n  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , C o n f e r e n c e on Trade and Development, Development o f P o r t s ; P r o g r e s s R e p o r t t o the S e c r e t a r i a t , (TD/B/C.4/2 377 J a n u a r y 1967, p.IT  general.  This  efficiency, other  and o f a s c e r t a i n i n g  of cargo handling,  transport  storage  The  efficiency  by s h i p s  capacity  facility  of the terminal  with the lowest capacity.  facilities  between  t o vary  that  the o v e r a l l  the requisite  of the d i f f e r e n t be i m p o s s i b l e  i n b i g steps.  of the  sub-system however, terminal  sub-systems a r e t o ensure t h a t a l l  The r e a s o n  i s that  e q u i p m e n t h a v e t o be i n s t a l l e d  p o r t which i s operating  most u n l i k e l y  t h e same  capacity  of the necessary  complete u n i t s which a r e i n d i v i s i b l e , increases  that  and s e a c o m p o n e n t s .  We must be p r a c t i c a l ,  and i t w i l l  most i t e m s o f c a p i t a l  land  must be s u c h t h a t a t  s u b - s y s t e m s h a v e a n optimum c a p a c i t y .  "the  lies  and s e a t r a n s p o r t .  of the inland  i n providing  the capacity  the  any c o n s t r a i n t on t h e c a p a c i t y o r  system i s equal t o the c a p a c i t y  capacity  as r e g a r d s  and i n t h e f u t u r e .  a s o f f e r e d by l a n d  of the operation  k e e p i n mind t h a t  In  and r e d u c i n g  component h a v e a t l e a s t  i s t h e same a s s a y i n g  likely  requirements.  of the terminal  both today  of this  time does i t p r o v i d e  and  of improving  and t h e s e a component a n d i t i s i m p o r t a n t  organization  This  i n port  and h a n d l i n g  degree of e f f i c i e n c y  no  future  the function  the time spent  The  the  be done f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t  words t o s t u d y  reducing cost  will  as  and a s a c o n s e q u e n c e  The c o n c l u s i o n  i s , that  i n t h e optimum f a s h i o n i s  t o be o p e r a t i n g  a t an optimum w i t h i n  each o f  15  the  sub-systems o f t h e p o r t  system."  15  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , C o n f e r e n c e on T r a d e and D e v e l o p m e n t , D e v e l o p m e n t o f P o r t s ; Improvement o f P o r t O p e r a t i o n s a n d C o n n e c t e d F a c i l i t i e s , (TD/B/C.4/42JT J a n u a r y 1 9 6 9 , p . 1 4 .  ^ The cerned of  D y n a m i c Optimum.  with  cargo  35  a situation  on  i n which  a o n c e and  flow.  concerned  with  the  commodity  flow  i n time  ideal this  is unlikely  predict  the p o r t . ing  t o be  achieve  classified  study  o f West C o a s t  type  of  facility  being  to secure growth  an  of  the o t h e r hand, i s growth i n  of the p o r t .  The  at each p o i n t i n time.  However,  realized.  and  forecast  of the  shipping.  expected speaking,  system, as  necessary flows by  through  classify-  suitable  More p a r t i c u l a r l y  this  or  is  "Commodity Demand" where c o m m o d i t i e s  from world  trade s t a t i s t i c s  commodity  and  t h e n by  i n a d d i t i o n , must i n c l u d e e s t i m a t e s ships i n which t h a t cargo  200,000  tons  are a  movements.  makes a g r e a t d e a l o f d i f f e r e n c e  p o r t whether  are  and  facilities  been done, b r o a d l y  for bulk  first  "It  the  cargo w i t h i n the context  and  flow  a d y n a m i c optimum i t i s f i r s t  done i n t h e c h a p t e r  size  and  the commodities  Forecasts  or constant  facilities  d y n a m i c optimum, on  efficiency  T h i s has  unsuitable  con-  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  i s to achieve  To to  The  optimum i s  for a l l basis,  optimum r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e commodity  static  i n which a s t a b l e  i s assumed, and  changed o r b u i l t  The  of cargo  will  be  of  the  moved.  to the planning of  a month i s l i f t e d  a  i n 20 16  c o n v e n t i o n a l tramp  ^ I b i d . , p.  ships or  21.  i n four large bulk  carriers."  36 The  terminal  of minimizing considering the  total  total  both the  investment  d e p e n d e n t on  1.  the  The  five  should  be  cost  cost  designed with  of handling  of d e l a y s  in terminal  the  to ships  the  objective  materials and  facilities.  trains  while and  Efficiency is  principal factors:  variability  modes a t t h e  of  the  arrival  of  land  sea  terminal.  2.  The  payload  capacity  of  the  land  3.  The  cost  idleness  of  the  carriers.  4.  The  f i x e d and  of  and  variable costs  of  and  sea  carriers.  providing  terminal  facilities. 5.  The  l e v e l s of  a n n u a l t h r o u g h p u t and  the  market  17 value It is one  rail kind  the or  has  of  the  already  bulk  material.  b e e n shown t h a t when t h e  i n l a n d system w i l l  c o n s i s t of  i n l a n d mode  a unit train  of  another.  F.G. C u l b e r t and F.C. L e i g h t o n , " A p p l i c a t i o n o f a D i g i t a l S i m u l a t i o n M o d e l t o t h e P l a n n i n g o f a B u l k Commodity Deepsea Marine T e r m i n a l , " (paper p r e s e n t e d t o C a n a d i a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e s e a r c h Forum, V a n c o u v e r , May 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 3.  37  FULL  TRAIN.  .EMPTY  UNLOADING  TRAIN  3  RAT £  S T O C K P I LE  RECLAIM  VESSEL  FIGURE 3  RATES  LOADING  Flow Diagram o f Bulk Terminal  Operation  F i g u r e 3 shows a u n i t t r a i n u n l o a d i n g s t o c k p i l e o r surge c a p a c i t y permits  the t r a i n  station, the and s h i p t o  operate  o n i t s own s c h e d u l e  other.  T h i s i s o n l y t r u e , h o w e v e r , w h e r e t h e r e h a s b e e n an  o v e r a l l design or conscious Over-design r e s u l t s  a n d b e i n d e p e n d e n t one o f t h e  e f f o r t t o o p t i m i z e t h e system.  i n a more c o s t l y movement o f t h e  commodity and a waste o f r e s o u r c e s . s a v i n g s a r e p o s s i b l e by p r o p e r t r a i n of t h e s t o c k p i l e , reclaiming, e t c .  Considerable  cost  s c h e d u l i n g and s i z i n g  methods and r a t e s o f u n l o a d i n g and  38  MAIN  FULL  TRK  LINE  ^  EMPTY  TRK  (2)  FIGURE  4  Schematic Diagram of T r a i n Handling at Terminal  The variety stances. of  layout  of unit  of configurations The F i g u r e  from the m a i n l i n e  System 2 terminal  schematic  representations  S y s t e m 1 shows a common  i n the terminal.  24 t o 48 h o u r s .  c a n t a k e on a  d e p e n d i n g on i n d i v i d u a l c i r c u m -  some c o n f i g u r a t i o n s .  handling  terminals  shows s e v e r a l  i n which the u n i t t r a i n of  train  Systems  Terminal  an u n l o a d i n g  and s u f f i c i e n t  to  accommodate an empty t r a i n .  f o r ease  times are g e n e r a l l y  shows a u n i t t r a i n  of  c o n v e n i e n c e and e f f i c i e n c y  is split  layout,  track  on one  side  on t h e r i g h t  System 3 p r o v i d e s  t h e same  as S y s t e m 2 b u t on a l o o p  which  allows the t r a i n switching  locomotives.  possible with train  2 and  times  a h i g h speed,  land and  Very  3,  s c h e d u l i n g and  Turnaround is  to proceed  i n the proper d i r e c t i o n short turnaround  turnaround  i s limited  times  without are  o n l y by  proper  the economics o f the p a r t i c u l a r  o f 1/2  to 4 hours  high capacity  i s very r e s t r i c t e d .  are recorded.  system,  Although  useful  movement.  Systems 4  i n cases  t h e c a r s must be  r e c o u p l e d , t h e o p e r a t i o n s have b e e n p l a n n e d  where  uncoupled  f o r minimum  operating labour. ** 1  3.  Ocean T r a n s p o r t System Broadly  three  speaking, ocean  separate types o f markets:  cargo market, cargo  liner The  freight  (general cargo)  delineation This point  Figure  Each  best  satisfies  has  down  (a) t h e l i q u i d  (b) t h e d r y b u l k c a r g o m a r k e t ,  distinct. 5.  shipping breaks  market.  for  spawned a p a r t i c u l a r  the requirements  bulk  (c) t h e d r y  of these markets i s not  is illustrated  into  of the  (a) and vessel  clear  and  (b) i n type  which  market.  18'  R.E. W h i p e h a r t , " T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change and t h e Unit Train," Unit Train Operations, (Chicago: Pailway S y s t e m s and Management A s s o c i a t i o n , J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 118.  40  DEEP-SEA TRADE COMPONENTS  AND  WORLD FLEET COMPONENTS  CRUDE OIL  TANKERS  OIL PRODUCTS  COMBINED CARRIERS  MAIN DRY BULK  BULK CARRIERS  COMMODITIES  TRAMPS  OTHER DRY BULK  _T  LINER TONNAGE  COMMODITIES  FIGURE 5  SPECIALIZED TONNAGE  V e s s e l Type i n R e l a t i o n t o S h i p p i n g M a r k e t  The  l i q u i d b u l k market i s s e r v e d by t a n k e r s and t o  a l e s s e r e x t e n t by t h e combined c a r r i e r s . market i s b r o k e n down i n t o two p a r t s .  The d r y cargo  The f i r s t i s t h e  g e n e r a l c a r g o market s e r v e d by c o n t a i n e r v e s s e l s , by f r e i g h t l i n e r s and by t h e tramps. market—that  I t i s the other part of t h i s  s e r v e d by t h e b u l k c a r r i e r f l e e t w h i c h i s o f  i n t e r e s t t o us h e r e . The v e s s e l i t s e l f w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n S e c t i o n B of the f o l l o w i n g chapter.  We s h a l l l i m i t o u r s e l v e s , a t t h i s  t i m e , t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c o s t o f ocean t r a n s p o r t and t h e segments c o m p r i s i n g t h e c o s t as w e l l as i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h o s e a r e a s i n w h i c h economies can be r e a l i z e d . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r , s i x i t e m s were l i s t e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  Not  41 only the  do  they  apply  to the  maritime  stage  in particular.  a b o v e , we the  cost  are  two  one, of  of  these  as  shall  of  facilities  cost  at  while  Terminal  t o be  and  of  and the  the  two  welding  built  t o be  at  sea,  and  time  (c)  stated  affect  is a  dynamic  ship's  time i n p o r t  operational  complex  component are  spent  three in  port,  amortization  terminal.  is a  procedures  Both of  of  function  and  the  these w i l l  i s considered  remaining costs  and less  this, driven  There  rates  ship's  latter  than i s necessary  ships.  of  as  utilization  stage there  For had  are  of  physical  be  treated  above under  a result  i t s method o f p r o p u l s i o n .  Paralleling ship  at  stage  a very the  and  to  The  Component. The  design,  (a)  section,  size  maritime  Within  costs:  this  f a c t o r s which  Ship  shown l a t e r ,  time spent  administrative  vessel  In  they apply  cost. The  later,  The  system.  types of  ship's  capital  be  case but  concerned with  factors.  transport  different (b)  chiefly  of maritime transport.  and  the  are  general  cost  per  ton  than  in  for small  methods o f p r o p u l s i o n a smaller  i s a very  UN  b e e n b r o u g h t down t o  of  hull larger  ships  ships.  ton  the  super  ratio  vessels.  considerable  a 1970  size  enables  horsepower per  for conventional  instance  Advances  the  p r e - f a b r i c a t i o n have e n a b l e d  new by  of  report  freight  saving  observing  $0.50 p e r  in  that  thousand  large  freight  ton-miles  stated: the  "The  patterns  lower r a t e s have g r e a t l y broadened of  international  trade  and  these  and  extended  h a v e had  a 19  marked  i n f l u e n c e on This  freight  the  e v a l u a t i o n of  i r o n ore  reduction i s attributed  resources."  t o the  use  of  20 super bulk super  carrier  In order loaded ports  carriers.  then  and are  and  per  as  costs  75  per  used e f f i c i e n t l y  hour,  the m a j o r i t y ,  size  of those  of the  of  I would  say,  between  six.  30  per  is a direct  and  the  be  3,000 t o  cent  t r a n s p o r t o f g o o d s by  carrier  sea.  Modern  shown t h a t p o r t  f o r about  shown t h a t t h e r e  at  s u c h v e s s e l s must  over  work has  expenses account  c o s t i n v o l v e d i n the  between t h e  cent  loading capability  Baudelaire's  Oram has  i n p o r t o f a modern  a t t h e maximum p o s s i b l e s p e e d .  s i x thousand r a t h e r than  handling  total  t o be  as h i g h  equipped with 21  J.G. and  be  unloaded  8,000 t o n s three  may  Operating  charges of the 22  sea.  relation  c o s t per  ton.  As  the  s h i p s i z e i n c r e a s e s , t h e c o s t a t s e a f a l l s more r a p i d l y 19 U n i t e d N a t i o n s , D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , S u r v e y o f W o r l d I r o n Ore R e s o u r c e s : O c c u r r e n c e and A p p r a i s a l (ST/ECA7113) , 19~7l5T p . 20 U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Economic Commission f o r Europe, The W o r l d M a r k e t f o r I r o n Ore 19 68, ( U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 5. 2 1  Ibid.,  p.  95.  22 J.G. B a u d e l a i r e , P o r t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , ( D e l f t Netherlands: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Course i n H y d r a u l i c Engineering, 1966), V o l . I, 3rd e d i t i o n , p. 101.  43 23  than the cost i n port r i s e s . T h i s does n o t , however, continue i n d e f i n i t e l y . Ross has s t a t e d t h a t f o r l o n g voyages the cost curve  f l a t t e n s out a f t e r  200,000  tons  i s reached 24  while  f o r s h o r t voyages t h e c o s t a c t u a l l y The  by  increases.  c o s t s o f ocean t r a n s p o r t can then be d e c r e a s e d  employing these  i n Table 4.  super c a r r i e r s ,  The lower  this  fact i s illustrated  c o s t i s due t o a lower  deadweight ton) c a p i t a l  c o s t and t o lower  u n i t (per  unit  operating  t h e same t i m e a u t o m a t i o n h a s e n a b l e d  the very  c o s t s a t s e a and i n p o r t . At  large ships t ooperate  w i t h t h e same number o f p e r s o n n e l a s  does t h e o l d e r s m a l l e r s h i p s . all by  This  economy i s n o t o p e n t o  new v e s s e l s a s t h e c o s t o f a u t o m a t i o n c a n n o t b e j u s t i f i e d the payload  o f smaller vessels.  Other Factors  Influencing Ship Size.  There a r e  a s s o c i a t e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s e r v i c i n g f a c t o r s which  govern  selection o f ship size i n addition t othe desire o f the s h i p - o w n e r t o t r a n s p o r t a s much a s p o s s i b l e o n e a c h v o y a g e . The by  growth o f t h e super tanker  f l e e t was r e s t r i c t e d  the lack o f r e p a i r yards f o r dry docking  This  s i t u a t i o n has been a m e l i o r a t e d  super  tankers.  t o a l a r g e e x t e n t and  23  R.B. Oram, C a r g o H a n d l i n g Germamon P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p .  (Oxford:  and t h e Modern P o r t , 121.  I . S . R o s s , "Trends i n B u l k Ocean F a i r p l a y No. 4 5 2 0 , A p r i l 9 , 1 9 7 0 , p . 4 7 . 2 4  Transport,"  44 poses no problem t o b u l k c a r r i e r s w h i c h have tended t o remain s m a l l e r t h a n t a n k e r s b o t h i n l e n g t h and d r a f t . the  By  same t o k e n y a r d s c a p a b l e o f b u i l d i n g t a n k e r s have t h e  n e c e s s a r y c a p a c i t y and t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h p e r m i t s t h e construction of bulk c a r r i e r s . The l a c k o f s u i t a b l e l o a d i n g and u n l o a d i n g f a c i l i t i e s at  s o u r c e and r e c e i v i n g p o r t s have r e t a r d e d t h e growth o f  super d r y b u l k c a r r i e r s .  S u i t a b l e marine f a c i l i t i e s a r e  major i n v e s t m e n t s w h i c h can o n l y be j u s t i f i e d where one o r more v e r y l a r g e t r a d e f l o w s a r e i n v o l v e d .  These f l o w s may  be o f s i n g l e commodities o r a m i x t u r e o f commodities i n c a s e s where t h e t h r o u g h p u t  o f each i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o  j u s t i f y the investment i n h a n d l i n g f a c i l i t i e s .  In addition  t h e ' a v a i l a b i l i t y o f b a c k h a u l c a r g o e s a l l i n f l u e n c e t h e use of  large bulk c a r r i e r s .  T h i s w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d on i n t h e  following chapter. Another f a c t o r which a f f e c t s s i z e i s the r e s t r i c t i o n imposed by major waterways such as t h e Suez C a n a l (beam 128 f e e t , d r a f t  38 f e e t ) ;  Panama C a n a l (beam 104 f e e t ,  d r a f t 36 f e e t t o 38.5 f e e t , l e n g t h 835 f e e t ) ; E n g l i s h C h a n n e l , 25 and S t r a i t s o f M a l a c c a (60.5 f e e t ) .  T r e v o r D. Heaver, The Economics o f V e s s e l S i z e , (Ottawa: N a t i o n a l Harbours BoardT 1968) , pT 2W.  TABLE 4 ESTIMATED SAVINGS BY USE OF LARGE SHIPS IN PLACE OF SMALL SHIPS  c e n t s p e r t o n o f cargo Large Ship  Small Ship  •000 d.w.t.  '000 d.w.t.  3000  4000  5000  6000  8000  1000  12000  50  30  18  29  39  49  73  93  115  Q fl  50 30  36 55  47 78  57 96  70 120  91 164  109 203  133 247  90 50 30  7 44 65  10 57 88  13 73 112  15 86 135  21 112 185  29 135 232  34 167 281  120 90 50 30  7 15 52 73  7 21 67 96  10 23 83 122  13 29 99 148  18 39 130 200  21 49 159 252  23 57 190 304  150 120 90 50 30  5 10 21 57 75  5 15 29 73 101  7 18 31 88 127  7 21 36 107 156  10 29 49 138 210  13 34 62 172 275  16 39 73 206 320  120  I J U  210  Source:  Interport Distances Miles  M e t r a C o n s u l t i n g Group L i m i t e d , Deep Water Harbour Study,  1969.  46 Scale of Operations.  The  lower u n i t c a p i t a l  and  o p e r a t i n g c o s t s f o r super c a r r i e r s compared w i t h tramp s h i p s or even s m a l l e r b u l k c a r r i e r s can o n l y be r e a l i z e d i f the ship i s c a r r y i n g a payload l o a d i n g a t t h e source  and the r a t e o f l o a d i n g and  un-  and r e c e i v i n g p o r t s keeps the p e r c e n t a g e 26  of time s p e n t i n p o r t w i t h i n p r a c t i c a l The  limits.  s c a l e o f o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h j u s t i f i e s a modern  m a r i n e t e r m i n a l i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the t y p e o f i n d u s t r y and t h e s i z e of the m a r k e t s .  Because of the n a t u r e o f  raw m a t e r i a l s and the l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s i n v o l v e d , u s e r s l a r g e ships are confined to primary ing  industries.  t o 1969,  manufacturing  or  the of  process-  M e t r a , i n commenting on the s i t u a t i o n  up  s t a t e d t h a t t h e t r e n d towards t h e use o f s h i p s i n  e x c e s s of 50,000 dwt has been a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y c o n f i n e d p e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g and s t e e l p r o d u c t i o n .  I t i s t h e i r con-  t e n t i o n t h a t f i v e ^ t o seven m i l l i o n tons o f end p r o d u c t necessary  is  t o j u s t i f y the i n c r e a s e d c o s t o f s t o c k p i l e a t  the t e r m i n a l  facility.  Shipment by S l u r r y .  Some s o l i d c o m m o d i t i e s , n o t a b l y  wood c h i p s and i r o n o r e , a r e b e i n g l o a d e d means o f pumps. although  to  aboard s h i p s  by  A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e b o t h are s m a l l i n s c a l e ,  g r e a t promise i s h e l d f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t o f i r o n  26 Canada-Japan Trade C o u n c i l , N e w s l e t t e r , November 7, 1970, p. 2.  ore  as a s l u r r y by Marcona C o r p o r a t i o n ,  the process.  Marcona have been s u p p l y i n g Oregon S t e e l M i l l s  o f P o r t l a n d s i n c e J u l y 1969 u t i l i z i n g carrier is  capable  a very  the originators of  simple  a converted  o f t r a n s p o r t i n g 50,000 t o n s .  ore/oil  The p r o c e d u r e  one i n t h a t t h e i r o n o r e c o n c e n t r a t e s a r e  pumped a b o a r d s h i p i n a s l u r r y , cent w a t e r by w e i g h t .  the s l u r r y being  The m i x t u r e  t h i r t y per  s e t t l e s and t h e w a t e r i s  d e c a n t e d , l e a v i n g 8 t o 10 p e r c e n t w a t e r c o n t e n t . d e s t i n a t i o n high pressure c u t i n t o and l i q u i f y a h o l d i n g pond.  jets  i n the bottom o f t h e h o l d  t h e c a r g o ready f o r pumping ashore t o  The s y s t e m r e d u c e s l o a d i n g a n d  costs considerably—Marcona  unloading  c l a i m by n i n e t y p e r c e n t .  a d d i t i o n t h e s h i p c a n be l o a d e d from shore o f f e r i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e  In  and u n l o a d e d a t a d i s t a n c e p o t e n t i a l f o r an o f f - s h o r e  mooring where h a r b o u r s a r e s h a l l o w . process  At the  A t t h e moment t h e  i s only used f o r p e l l e t i z i n g p l a n t s producing  almost 27  pure i r o n oxide Although  f o r d i r e c t use i n e l e c t r i c  s t e e l making.  t h e f u t u r e c a n n o t be p r e d i c t e d w i t h a n y c e r t a i n t y  the process  has been p r o v e n f e a s i b l e and o f f e r s  considerable  scope. Summary.  The movement o f b u l k m a t e r i a l s i s t h e n  a s y s t e m w h i c h r e q u i r e s t h a t a l l c o m p o n e n t s be  considered  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Marcona C o r p o r a t i o n , A p r i l  30, 1970.  48 when d e c i s i o n s a r e made r e g a r d i n g  any i n d i v i d u a l sub-system.  T h i s has been, and remains d i f f i c u l t as each o f t h e subsystems i s c o n t r o l l e d by d i f f e r e n t f i r m s each h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t p r i o r i t i e s and o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s s e c t i o n has shown t h a t ocean t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s d e c r e a s e as a r e s u l t o f i n c r e a s e s The  i n the s i z e of ships.  r e d u c e d c o s t , however, can o n l y come about i f t h e amount  of t i m e s p e n t i n p o r t i s r e d u c e d .  As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e  c a p a c i t y o f t h e system i s dependent on t h e c a p a c i t y o f the t e r m i n a l or i t s throughput c a p a b i l i t y .  Inherent i n  t h i s i d e a i s t h a t s u f f i c i e n t s t o c k p i l e o r s u r g e c a p a c i t y be provided  a t t h e t e r m i n a l and t h a t t h e i n l a n d t r a n s p o r t  system  i s c a p a b l e o f d e l i v e r i n g t h e d e s i r e d tonnage t o r e p l e n i s h the s t o c k p i l e . There appear t o be two a l t e r n a t i v e s open f o r ing terminals—the  supply-  u n i t t r a i n and t h e s o l i d s p i p e l i n e .  The  use o f p i p e l i n e s on a l a r g e s c a l e i s imminent; however, u n t i l t h e y a r e p r o v e n under v a r i o u s o p e r a t i n g  situations to  be more e c o n o m i c a l t h a n r a i l , u n i t t r a i n s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be used and any d e s i g n must t a k e t h i s i n l a n d mode i n t o account. layout  To r e c e i v e an i n t e g r a l t r a i n , a s p e c i a l i z e d t r a c k  (System 3 o f F i g u r e  4) i s n e c e s s a r y .  Depending on  the l e n g t h o f t h e t r a i n , up t o two m i l e s o f c o n t i n u o u s t r a c k 28 is required. Some a u t h o r i t i e s have s a i d t h a t up t o 100 28 Swan Wooster N e w s l e t t e r , no d a t e .  acres  should It  would  be p r o v i d e d  has been  per terminal.  inferred that,  i n future, bulk  i n c r e a s i n g l y be c a r r i e d i n l a r g e  advantage c h a p t e r we advantage  of the savings shall and how  i n transport  show what p r o d u c t s this  demand  ships cost.  commodities  i n order  t o take  In the next  are i n fact  i s a f f e c t i n g ship  securing  this  size.  B.D.L. J o h n s o n , " P o r t Management and D e v e l o p m e n t , " i n Symposium on t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r , e d . b y R.W. Collier (Department o f E x t e n s i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 31.  CHAPTER I I I COMMODITY DEMAND AND THE SUPPLY OF SHIPPING  S h i p p i n g c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  from two p o i n t s o f v i e w ,  t h e demand f o r , and t h e s u p p l y o f s h i p p i n g s e r v i c e s . examination  o f t h e s e g i v e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  An  of future trade  p a t t e r n s and p e r m i t s us t o p r e d i c t f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s as to  s h i p s i z e , and f l e e t t y p e and volume.  I n o t h e r words,  by b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r and a n a l y z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s o u r c e and markets f o r raw m a t e r i a l s , t r a d e f l o w s , s h i p p i n g ' operations, t e c h n o l o g i c a l requirements,  t h e use so f a r  d e v e l o p e d o f b i g s h i p s , we c a n d e t e r m i n e ; f i r s t ,  those  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h i n d i c a t e a need f o r modern m a r i n e t e r m i n a l s , and s e c o n d , t h o s e w h i c h govern t h e l o c a t i o n o f terminals.  I n s h o r t we w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e t r a f f i c and  c a r g o f l o w c o n d i t i o n s under which an e f f i c i e n t system would operate.  The c h a p t e r  i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s , S e c t i o n  A a n a l y z e s w o r l d commodity s u p p l y and demand and t h e n l o o k s a t C a n a d i a n raw m a t e r i a l s p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h a f f e c t s commodity f l o w t h r o u g h West C o a s t p o r t s . the e x i s t i n g w o r l d  S e c t i o n B then looks a t  f l e e t , a n a l y z i n g r e c e n t d e l i v e r i e s and  o r d e r s and p r e d i c t i n g t r e n d s i n t h e b u l k c a r r i e r f l e e t i n g e n e r a l and s i z e t r e n d s i n s h i p s movement o f t h e commodities  51  i d e n t i f i e d i n A.  Bulk t e r m i n a l requirements are e s t a b l i s h e d  and c o n c l u s i o n s s t a t e d i n s u b - s e c t i o n ( c ) .  A.  THE  DEMAND FOR  SHIPPING SERVICE  S h i p p i n g demand i s d e t e r m i n e d c h i e f l y by two f a c t o r s . These a r e c a r g o volume (supply) and t r a n s p o r t d i s t a n c e s . Transport  d i s t a n c e w i l l be t r e a t e d under B,  although  the average f o r a commodity w i l l be g i v e n i n t h i s s e c t i o n . Looking  a t c a r g o s u p p l y , we  can s u r m i s e t h a t i t i s the  world  demand f o r commodities and t h e w o r l d s u p p l y o f t h e s e same commodities w h i c h c r e a t e the demand f o r s h i p p i n g s e r v i c e . The  a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t s of three steps.  First,  since  we have p o s t u l a t e d t h a t b u l k c a r r i e r s w i l l be used i n t h e t r a d e s we have under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , we  s h a l l determine  commodities w h i c h move i n b u l k i n a w o r l d - w i d e s e n s e . l i s t w i l l be r e f i n e d t o e x c l u d e p o r t e d by super b u l k c a r r i e r .  those This  t h o s e u n l i k e l y t o be t r a n s Second, we  shall isolate  those  commodities w h i c h move i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s from t h e West C o a s t of Canada t o e n a b l e a b u l k s h i p p i n g o p e r a t i o n t o be c o n s i d e r e d . may  Our  s e a r c h does not s t o p t h e r e , as  there  be a commodity p r e s e n t l y produced o r s o l d i n l i m i t e d  q u a n t i t i e s which could support  a v i a b l e bulk operation  given  a change i n a f a c t o r o f p r o d u c t i o n o r market c o n d i t i o n s . o t h e r words i t i s not enough t h a t we  investigate existing  c o n d i t i o n s as lower t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s c o u l d open up  new  In  52  s o u r c e s o f raw m a t e r i a l s .  I t i s t h i s very f a c t that i s the  r a i s o n d'etre f o r t h e study.  A n o t h e r s o u r c e w h i c h must n o t  be o v e r l o o k e d i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f U n i t e d S t a t e s moving t h r o u g h a Canadian p o r t .  T h i r d , we s h a l l  1  products determine  i f t r a d e i n t h e commodities p l a c e s l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e s i z e o f s h i p w h i c h w i l l be used f o r t h e movement o f b u l k commodities. These l i m i t a t i o n s a r e :  t h e depth o f w a t e r a t s o u r c e and  r e c e i v i n g p o r t s , t h e i n t e r p o r t d i s t a n c e on major r o u t e s , and t h e volume o f commodities on each r o u t e . S i n c e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a commodity does n o t e n s u r e t h a t t h e commodity w i l l be s o l d and t r a n s p o r t e d , i t i s necessary  t h a t we l o o k b r i e f l y a t t h e r e c e i v i n g  and d e t e r m i n e  locations,  t h e consequences o f p r i c e .  As s t a t e d e a r l i e r commodity f l o w s e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g .  In order to a s c e r t a i n t h i s  i n f l u e n c e we s h a l l examine p a s t and p r e s e n t commodity f l o w movements; f i r s t on a w o r l d w i d e s c a l e and t h e n h a v i n g to West C o a s t Canada.  regards  S t a t i s t i c a l data covering the various  commodities w i l l be p r e s e n t e d and c e r t a i n a s p e c t s n o t e d f o r the b e n e f i t o f t h e r e a d e r .  No attempt w i l l be made t o make  p r o j e c t i o n s based on p a s t t r e n d s .  However, s i n c e f u t u r e  t r e n d s a r e v i t a l t o o u r s t u d y , f o r e c a s t s made by v a r i o u s b o d i e s : government a g e n c i e s , i n d u s t r y , and c o n s u l t a n t s a r e tabulated.  53  1.  World Commodity Demand and S u p p l y D u r i n g t h e s i x t i e s d r y c a r g o movements have been  i n c r e a s i n g a t an a n n u a l r a t e o f about 7 t o 8 p e r c e n t .  To  meet t h i s r a t e o f growth t h e d r y c a r g o f l e e t has expanded  at  some 5 t o 6 p e r cent."'" I n 1969  (1968 p e r c e n t a g e i s g i v e n i n b r a c k e t s )  g r a i n i n d r y c a r g o v e s s e l s a c c o u n t e d f o r 44 a l l tonnage f i x e d , o r e s f o r 18 cent, f e r t i l i z e r s  (44) p e r c e n t o f  (17) , and c o a l f o r 16  ( i n c l u d i n g common s a l t ) i r o n and  s c r a p , and sugar made up between them 13  (13) per  steel  (15) p e r c e n t .  F e a r n l e y & Egers C h a r t e r i n g Co. L t d . have been c a r r y i n g o u t a n n u a l s u r v e y s o f b u l k commodity movements based on o f f i c i a l i m p o r t / e x p o r t s t a t i s t i c s p l u s t h e i r own r e s e a r c h e s . E x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e 5 shows t h a t t h e same e i g h t commodities t o p t h e l i s t i n terms o f tonnage and t r a n s p o r t performance each y e a r s i n c e 1966.  The t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t , w i t h t h e  e x c e p t i o n o f g r a i n p e r f o r m a n c e , b o t h tonnage s h i p p e d and t o n m i l e s have i n c r e a s e d each y e a r from 1966  t h r o u g h 1968 f o r  the f i r s t f i v e c o m m o d i t i e s . We can i m m e d i a t e l y e l i m i n a t e softwoods from c o n s i d e r a t i o n as i t i s n o t a b u l k commodity i n t h e sense a c c e p t e d for t h i s study.  T h i s e x c l u s i o n i s n o t r i g i d , however,  and  " F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g t h e S i z e o f World F l e e t s , " S h i p p i n g World and S h i p b u i l d e r , November 19 69, p. 1544.  TABLE 5 L I F T I N G S AND TRANSPORT  PERFORMANCE OF  MAJOR BULK  1966  COMMODITIES 1966-68  1967  1968  Tonnage  Transport Performance  Tonnage  Transport Performance  Tonnage  Transport Performance  153  575  164  651  188  775  Grain  76  408  68  380  65  340  Coal  61  226  67  269  73  310  Phosphates  28  98  30  107  32  119  Bauxite  23  55  25  62  26  70  34  7  32  Iron ore  and a l u m i n a  Sugar  21  Manganese o r e Softwoods  Source: Note:  8 22  Fearnley  and E g e r ' s C h a r t e r i n g Company L i m i t e d .  T r a n s p o r t p e r f o r m a n c e i s a measure o f w e i g h t ( t o n ) c a r r i e d o v e r a d i s t a n c e ( m i l e ) . L i f t i n g s i n m i l l i o n metric tons. T r a n s p o r t p e r f o r m a n c e i n 1,000 m i l l i o n t o n miles .  55 t h i s p o s i t i o n would a l t e r i f the wood were reduced t o woodchips  (see d i s c u s s i o n on s o l i d s p i p e l i n e ) .  We  shall  e l a b o r a t e on t h e f i r s t f i v e as t h e y c o n s t i t u t e , by f a r , t h e l a r g e s t p o r t i o n of t h e t o t a l and a l l f i g u r e i n some way i n a p o s s i b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p i c t u r e f o r t h e West C o a s t .  The  s i x t h c o m m o d i t y — s u g a r , c o n s t i t u t e s a s p e c i a l case as i t i s an i m p o r t and a food and must be h a n d l e d i n a s e p a r a t e manner from o t h e r b u l k commodities.  Manganese c o n s t i t u t e s t h e  s m a l l e s t volume on a w o r l d s c a l e and s i n c e i t i s not s h i p p e d via  t h e west c o a s t i t w i l l not be c o n s i d e r e d .  l e f t with  (a) i r o n o r e ,  (e) b a u x i t e and  (a)  (b) c o a l ,  We  (c) g r a i n ,  are then (d)  phosphate,  alumina.  Iron  Ore  World p r o d u c t i o n o f s t e e l amounted t o 573.8 m i l l i o n m e t r i c t o n s i n 1969, a r i s e o f 8.1 p e r c e n t o v e r 1968.  The  l e a d i n g s t e e l p r o d u c e r s i n 1969 a r e g i v e n below i n T a b l e 6 TABLE 6 LEADING STEEL PRODUCING REGIONS Country or Region USA USSR EEC Japan Source:  1969  M i l l i o n s o f M e t r i c Tons  Growth Rate 1968-69  128.0 110.0 107.3 82.2  7.3% 3.3% 8.8% 22. 8%  Canada-Japan Trade C o u n c i l , Canadian M i n e r a l s and t h e Japanese M a r k e t , May 1 9 7 0 , p. I T .  The Japanese s t e e l i n d u s t r y grew a t a much f a s t e r r a t e between 1968 and 1969 t h a n d i d t h e i n d u s t r y i n o t h e r p a r t s of the w o r l d .  T h i s r a p i d e x p a n s i o n has n o t been p e c u l i a r  t o t h i s one y e a r p e r i o d .  Because o f t h e l o c a t i o n a l  advantage o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s  market  a s h o r t t e r m f o r e c a s t of Japanese s t e e l p r o d u c t i o n , c o k i n g c o a l and i r o n o r e r e q u i r e m e n t s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 7.  TABLE 7 JAPANESE STEEL PRODUCTION FORECASTS TO  1983  m i l l i o n s of m e t r i c t o n s Year  S t e e l Output  Requirements Coking Coal  1969 1970 1973 1978 1983  82.2 96.5 111.6 143.0 191.0  Source;  I r o n Ore  na na 71.0 100.0 115.0  na 110.0 144.0 231.0 309.0  Canada-Japan Trade C o u n c i l , C a n a d i a n M i n e r a l s and t h e Japanese M a r k e t , May 1970, p. 15, and C a n a d i a n C o a l f o r J a p a n , September 1969.  (b)  Coal  T a b l e 8 shows t h e p r i n c i p a l c o a l movements i n 1969 and t h e q u a n t i t i e s i m p o r t e d by t h e major consumers 69.  f o r 1967-  I t can be r e a d i l y seen t h a t t h e tonnage moved has  increased s u b s t a n t i a l l y during t h i s three year period.  Some  b r i e f comments on s e l e c t e d c o u n t r i e s w i l l be made because  of for  t h e e f f e c t s on t h e Canadian c o a l i n d u s t r y .  Japan  accounted  95 p e r c e n t o f t h e i n c r e a s e d consumption w h i c h took p l a c e  between 1967 and 1969.  I n 1968 t o t a l i m p o r t s were 32.4  m i l l i o n m e t r i c t o n s , and p r e l i m i n a r y f i g u r e s f o r 1969 i n d i c a t e t h a t 3 8.3 m i l l i o n m e t r i c tons were i m p o r t e d . of  A forecast  f u t u r e Japanese c o k i n g c o a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i s g i v e n i n  T a b l e 7 above.  S i n c e 1957, Canada has s u p p l i e d a s m a l l b u t  s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f t h e Japanese  requirements; t h i s  figure  d e c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y t o 1.21 m i l l i o n t o n s i n 1969. The U n i t e d S t a t e s ' share o f t h i s market i s r o u g h l y 40 p e r c e n t .  T h e i r s h a r e has d e c r e a s e d from 80 p e r c e n t i n  t h e l a t e f i f t i e s and i s e x p e c t e d t o d e c l i n e even f u r t h e r . A u s t r a l i a has become t h e s i g n i f i c a n t s u p p l i e r ,  a l l t h i s has  t a k e n p l a c e o v e r t h e p a s t decade and A u s t r a l i a n c o a l now a c c o u n t s f o r 40 p e r c e n t o f i m p o r t s .  The Canada-Japan Trade  C o u n c i l has s t a t e d t h a t A u s t r a l i a w i l l be t h e major 2 of  source  supplies i n the seventies. A u s t r a l i a possesses l a r g e reserves o f c o a l ; m e t a l l u r -  g i c a l c o a l i s m a i n l y c o n f i n e d t o two a r e a s , t h e Sydney B a s i n of  New South Wales and Bowen B a s i n o f Queensland.  The low  c o s t c o a l l i e s on o r c l o s e t o t h e e a s t e r n seaboard and has become a major c o m p e t i t o r on t h e w o r l d ' s m a r k e t s .  I n 1968  K.A.J. Hay, Canadian C o a l f o r J a p a n , (Ottawa: The Canada-Japan Trade C o u n c i l ) , September 1969).  TABLE 8 PRINCIPAL COAL MOVEMENTS I N 1969 Preliminary  ^ - ^ ^ From  To  Italy  Other EEC  South America  Japan  Total 1969  Total 1968  Total 1967  2,637  19,313  32,430  27,674  28,257  2,933  2,180  1,375  15,248  15,248  11,917  8,963  382  617  540  507  2,214  5,891  5,873  5,553  5,018  3,758  States  3,032  3,394  4,054  United  Kingdom  1,336  298  1,299  South  Africa  -  USSR  15 32  Poland  540  -  190  -  30  -  -  1,893  1,752  2,139  1,832  250  1,136  5,897 63,016  Total  1969  4,955  7,914  8,967  2,887  38,293  Total  1968  4,691  7,789  7,702  2,609  30,411  Total  1967  5,024  8,560  8,786  2,588  23,455  Source:  tons  Germany (F.R.)  United  Australia  f i g u r e s - i n thousand metric  Fearnley  and E g e r ' s C h a r t e r i n g Company  53,202 48,413  Limited.  Ul CO  production reached  40.2 m i l l i o n  w e r e a b o u t 12.3 m i l l i o n The  United  long tons w h i l e  t o n s w i t h 12 m i l l i o n  States i s the world's  bulk of thecoking of t h ecountry.  The  part  f o r e i g n markets f o r U n i t e d Canada i s t h e  consumer. Grain  (c) In  t o Japan.  a r ei nthe eastern  S t a t e s c o a l a r e Europe, Canada and Japan. largest single  going  largest coal exporter.  coal resources  The p r i n c i p a l  exports  1968 t o t a l movements o f 65 m i l l i o n  s l i g h t l y b e l o w t h e 68 m i l l i o n  tons  tons  were  i n 1967 w h i c h i n t u r n w e r e  somewhat b e l o w t h e 1966 v o l u m e o f 76 m i l l i o n  tons.  The  c h a n g i n g t r a d e p a t t e r n s d o n o t show a n y c l e a r t r e n d ; f a c t i s evidenced  by t h e examination  this  of the fluctuations i n  t o t a l volumes and average t r a n s p o r t d i s t a n c e o f w o r l d movements i n t h e p e r i o d  grain  1961-1968.  TABLE 9 WORLD GRAIN TRADE, VOLUME AND TRANSPORT PERFORMANCE 1961-1968 1960-100  GRAIN Tonnage  1961  1962  1963  1964  1965  1966  1967  1968  shipped  124  115  128  154  152  165  148  141  Transport performance  114  110  123  152  156  165  153  137  Source:  OECD, M a r i t i m e  T r a n s p o r t 1969  60  U n t x l 1969 t h e h i g h average t r a d i n g d i s t a n c e  3  made  g r a i n second i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaborne t r a d e , a f t e r i r o n o r e . This  s i t u a t i o n has now changed and c o a l i s i n second  place.  One i m p o r t a n t t h i n g w h i c h whould be r e a l i z e d by anyone u n d e r t a k i n g a s t u d y o f g r a i n i s t h a t t h e movement o f g r a i n i n b u l k c a r r i e r s i s i n c r e a s i n g and has been s i n c e 1965.  For  i n s t a n c e , shipments i n b u l k c a r r i e r r o s e by 10 m i l l i o n t o n s from 1967 t o 1968.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v e s s e l s used i n 1968  i n the g r a i n trades  according  t o t y p e s and s i z e s i s g i v e n  i n T a b l e 10. TABLE 10 SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF GRAIN CARRIERS, 1968 I n p e r c e n t o f t o t a l g r a i n shipments Type and S i z e o f V e s s e l Bulk c a r r i e r s of which  Other  Total  over 60,000 t o 40,000 t o 25,000 t o 18,000 t o  80,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 25,000  1968  dwt dwt dwt dwt dwt  vessels  Total  S o u r c e:  61  10-  30 21 39 100  Fearnley  & Egers C h a r t e r i n g  Company L i m i t e d .  G r a i n moved an average o f 5,200 m i l e s i n 1968 w h i l e a l l f i v e b u l k commodities had an average t r a d i n g d i s t a n c e o f 4,200 m i l e s .  61  Phosphates  (d)  In  1 9 6 7 , w o r l d p r o d u c t i o n o f phosphate r o c k was 7 6  m i l l i o n t o n s , an i n c r e a s e o f two m i l l i o n tons o v e r 1 9 6 6 and 12 m i l l i o n tons over t h e previous year. to  Of more  importance  u s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l seaborne t r a d e a l s o i n c r e a s e d by about  two m i l l i o n t o n s t o n e a r l y 3 0 m i l l i o n t o n s .  The U n i t e d  S t a t e s i s t h e p r i n c i p a l e x p o r t i n g c o u n t r y a l t h o u g h about h a l f t h e w o r l d phosphate shipments a r e from A f r i c a . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n performance  (Measured i n t o n - m i l e s ) o f s h i p -  ments from U n i t e d S t a t e s accounted  f o r 4 9 p e r c e n t and from 4  Morocco f o r 2 4 p e r c e n t o f w o r l d t r a d e . Phosphate r o c k i s a major raw m a t e r i a l f o r t h e f e r t i l i z e r i n d u s t r y , p r o d u c t i o n o f one t o n o f p h o s p h o r i c requires approximately phosphate r o c k .  acid  one t o n o f s u l p h u r and t h r e e t o n s o f  A t p r e s e n t t h e main phosphate p o r t s — T a m p a ,  F l o r i d a ; S a f i , Morocco; and S f a x , T u n i s i a ; a r e unable t o t a k e ships o f over  40,000  dwt. M e t r a have s t a t e d , however, t h a t  t h e p o r t s w i l l p r o b a b l y be c a p a b l e o f accommodating dwt  s h i p s by  1980.  80,000  5  A c c o r d i n g t o OECD, b u l k c a r r i e r s were l e s s p r o m i n e n t i n phosphate shipments t h a n i n o t h e r major b u l k t r a d e s . OECD, M a r i t i m e T r a n s p o r t 1 9 6 9 , p. 3 6 . Study,  ^Metra C o n s u l t i n g Group L i m i t e d , Deep Water Harbour (London: M e t r a C o n s u l t i n g Group L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 5~6~.  62  However, t h e s h a r e h a s i n c r e a s e d from  30 p e r c e n t i n 1966 t o  39 p e r c e n t i n 1967 when m e a s u r e d i n t o n - m i l e s .  Sixty-seven  p e r c e n t o f t h e t o n n a g e s h i p p e d i s i n v e s s e l s b e l o w 14,000 dwt,  22 p e r c e n t b y b u l k c a r r i e r s  cent by v e s s e l s over (e) The process alumina,  Bauxite  b e t w e e n 14-25 a n d 11 p e r  25,000 d w t . ^ and  alumina  p r o d u c t i o n o f aluminum m e t a l  involving  first  the calcining  followed by e l e c t r o l y s i s  i s a two s t a g e  o f the ore Bauxite t o  o f alumina t o the metal.  There i s a r e d u c t i o n i n volume i n t h e p r o c e s s — a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2:1 i n e a c h  stage.  The e x p o r t s o f b a u x i t e and a l u m i n a  from  m a j o r s u p p l y a r e a s t o m a j o r u s e r a r e a s a r e shown f o r 1966 i n Table  11. A l c a n e s t i m a t e s t h e usage o f b a u x i t e i n t h e  n o n - c o m m u n i s t w o r l d i n 1970 a t b e t w e e n 40 a n d 45 m i l l i o n tons. In alumina  19 67,  68 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l s e a b o r n e  t r a d e was t r a n s p o r t e d b y b u l k c a r r i e r  p e r c e n t i n 1966 a n d t h e same p e r c e n t a g e of  t h e r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t average  trade  b a u x i t e and a s a g a i n s t 65  i n 1965.  transport distances i n this  (2,500 m i l e s ) 45 p e r c e n t o f t h e s h i p m e n t s  i n v e s s e l s over  25,000 d w t .  In spite  The r e p o r t M a r i t i m e  OECD, M a r i t i m e T r a n s p o r t  1 9 6 9 , p . 36.  w e r e made Transport  TABLE 11 BAUXITE AND ALUMINA, TOTAL SEABORNE TRADE U.S.A.  Canada  Jamaica  7,923  534  -  5  -  Surinam  3,791  843  18  135  524  1,842  29  1,223  223  Africa  60  39  Asia  59  375  -  Mediterranean  53  Australia  17  -  ^ ^ ^ ^  To  From  ^^-^^^  Guyana Other  Japan  America  ' io.  U.K/ Continent  , ^ '000 t o n s n  Norway  n  n  Others  World  166  48  8,676  4  106  31  4,928  121  16  77  84  2,693  10  2  115  65  1,638  534  193  117  145  1,088  1,242  89  52  10  379  2,206  -  602  295  32  190  1,172  630  332  1  -  -  990  8  3  1  15  Other  1  -  -  2  World  13,651  3,866  1,919  1,830  Source:  Italy  1966  571  626  943  23,406  M e t r a C o n s u l t i n g G r o u p L i m i t e d , Deep W a t e r H a r b o u r S t u d y , 1969.  LO  64  1968  states:  " I t i s not y e t p o s s i b l e t o d i s c e r n a clear  t r e n d i n t h e use o f l a r g e v e s s e l s g e n e r a l l y i n t h i s t r a d e . Most o f t h e v e s s e l s above 25,000 dwt were used i n t h e t r a d e from t h e C a r i b b e a n  t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a and  i n t h e t r a d e from A u s t r a l i a t o Europe."  2.  Commodity P r o d u c t i o n and Movement Through West Coast P o r t s An e x a m i n a t i o n  o f w o r l d t r a d e p a t t e r n s i n b u l k mater-  i a l s s i n g l e d o u t f i v e commodities f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y .  I t now  remains f o r us t o examine t h e s e commodities i n r e l a t i o n t o Western Canada and t o d e t e r m i n e  i f t h e r e a r e any a d d i t i o n a l  commodities w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e C a n a d i a n West C o a s t . V i r t u a l l y any commodity can and w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be c a r r i e d i n f u l l s h i p l o a d s i f such t r a n s p o r t i s cheaper t h a n as g e n e r a l cargo and i f t h e q u a n t i t i e s a v a i l a b l e and t h e demand on a g i v e n r o u t e a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e .  OECD, f o r  t h e i r s t u d y , assumed t h a t h y p o t h e t i c a l q u a n t i t i e s o f 300,000 o r 500,000 t o n s p e r annum, t h e l a t t e r f o r i r o n and s t e e l and f e r t i l i z e r , on s i n g l e i n t e r - r e g i o n a l r o u t e s c o u l d be the base above w h i c h b u l k t r a n s p o r t o f c e r t a i n commodities 7 would seem p o s s i b l e .  F o r o u r purpose 200,000 has a r b i t r a r i l y  7 OECD, M a r i t i m e T r a n s p o r t 1968,  p. 67.  65 been t a k e n f o r a s i n g l e p o r t , t h e i d e a b e i n g t h a t t r a n s shipment t h r o u g h a l a r g e t e r m i n a l to  (the CTS system r e f e r r e d  e a r l i e r ) i s p o s s i b l e and t h e t o t a l West C o a s t e x p o r t s  exceeded t h e OECD base. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f 1967 p o r t s t a t i s t i c s was made t o d e t e r m i n e t h o s e p r o d u c t s w h i c h pass t h r o u g h West C o a s t p o r t s i n q u a n t i t i e s i n e x c e s s o f 200,000 t o n s .  The c a r g o and  tonnage by p o r t i s c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x IV a l o n g w i t h a l i s t i n g o f c o u n t r i e s i m p o r t i n g o v e r 200,000 t o n s from Vancouver. our  The l i s t shows f o u r i m p o r t p r o d u c t s e x c e e d i n g  base o f 200,000 t o n s .  g r a v e l , f u e l o i l , and s a l t .  They a r e : a l u m i n a , sand and Phosphate i s i n c l u d e d , a l t h o u g h  below 200,000 t o n s , as i t i s one o f t h e major  commodities  i n w o r l d t r a d e and because i m p o r t s s i n c e 19 68 v a s t l y exceeded t h e b a s e .  I t i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t from an examin-  a t i o n o f t h e l i s t t h a t e x p o r t s o f b u l k m a t e r i a l s a r e , by f a r , of  more i m p o r t a n c e t h a n i m p o r t s and t h a t b u l k e x p o r t s  c o n s t i t u t e the greatest percentage o f t o t a l  tonnage.  Many o f t h e commodities l i s t e d can be r e a d i l y e l i m i n a t e d from f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . fuel o i l  Among t h e i m p o r t s —  i s dropped as we a r e n o t c o n s i d e r i n g l i q u i d b u l k ,  and sand and g r a v e l c a n be e l i m i n a t e d as t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a barged c a r g o w i t h a s h o r t h a u l from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . E x p o r t s — w e have p r e v i o u s l y e l i m i n a t e d l o g s , lumber and t i m b e r , pulpwood, p u l p and n e w s p r i n t paper as n o t b e i n g a  66  " b u l k " commodity a c c o r d i n g t o our d e f i n i t i o n .  Although  l i m e s t o n e moves i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s i t i s u n l i k e l y t o move by super b u l k c a r r i e r because i t s h a u l i s s h o r t , for  ( i t i s used  l i m e p r o d u c t i o n and cement manufacture i n S e a t t l e ) and  because i t i s a h i g h - b u l k l o w - c o s t commodity. The commodities w h i c h remain f o r more d e t a i l e d s t u d y are  then:  seed, (h)  (a) i r o n o r e ,  (b) wheat,  (c) b a r l e y ,  (e) copper o r e and c o n c e n t r a t e ,  (f) c o a l ,  (d) r a p e (g) s u l p h u r ,  fertilizers. The p o r t s w h i c h h a n d l e d t h e s e commodities i n 1967  are:  Jedway—  Texada I s l a n d — (g),  (a); Prince R u p e r t — (a); Vancouver—  (b); T a s u — (a);  (b), ( c ) , (d), (e),  (f),  (h). A p p e n d i x V i n c l u d e s a t a b l e t a k e n from a r e p o r t p r e -  p a r e d f o r t h e M i n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The t a b l e shows tonnages o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a produced m i n e r a l s s h i p p e d by commodity and by p o r t f o r t h e p e r i o d c o a l shipments f o r t h e y e a r 1969  1966-1969,  only are included.  p r o d u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1968  and 1969  Mineral  i s shown  i n a s e p a r a t e t a b l e i n Appendix V. I t i s a l s o of i n t e r e s t t o determine those cargoes w h i c h exceed  200,000  t o n s and t h e c o u n t r i e s w h i c h i m p o r t  commodities i n t h i s magnitude. c o u n t r i e s importing over the  200,000  p o r t o f Vancouver i n 1 9 6 7 .  Appendix I V t h e n l i s t s t h o s e t o n s o f a commodity t h r o u g h U s i n g Appendix IV we a r e a b l e  to  identify  super  bulk  t r a d e s i n which  IV a l s o  V a n c o u v e r as a b u l k almost  shows t h e r e l a t i v e  a l l bulk  cargo.  of B r i t i s h Columbia  deep sea  (i.e.,  3.67  9.36  and  was  p o r t s of the 13.9  handled  excluding coastal  million 0.91  The  million  cargo)  tons  export  and  import  tons  Research  Council forecasts  f o r 1975  and  1985.  the bulk  commodities  i t i s apparent  imately  80  commodities for in  over  80  per  coal exports  grown t o 87  cent of the  (i.e., per  per  that  i n 1966  and  then  totalling  comparing  e x p o r t t o n n a g e and  cent of t h i s i n 1970  By  Columbia  the  Vancouver handled  e x c l u d i n g l u m b e r and  that  timber)  export cargo.  bulk  accounted  With the i n c r e a s e  shipments g Vancouver.  C a l c u l a t e d f r o m d a t a i n News f r o m V a n c o u v e r , V o l . 1, No. 5, M a r c h 1971.  two  approx-  t o 4,334,162 t o n s b u l k  cent of exports through  Of  respectively.  the B r i t i s h  13  of  constituted  and  i n Table  that  i n 1966.  cargo  general cargo while bulk  million  gives the  of  Lower  f o r 1966  tables  utilize  importance  figures  Table  12  to  p o r t e v e n when compared w i t h p a r t s  Mainland  this  possible  carriers.  Appendix  handled  i t w o u l d be  the P o r t  of  have  68 TABLE 12 SUMMARY OF DEEPSEA TRADE, B. C. LOWER MAINLAND millions Category  Bulk  of shipping  1966 (NHB & FRHC d a t a )  1966-1985 tons  1975  1985  (BCRC est.)  (BCRC est.)  a  Cargo  out:  grain potash sulphur coal other t o t a l bulk out  6.18 1.13 0.61 1.10 0.34  in:  0.18  0. 6  1.0  0.29 0.44  0. 6 0. 6  1.0 0.8  salt phosphate & ore other t o t a l bulk i n  Total  Bulk  General  9.36  13.0 10.0 3.5 10.0 2.0 25.1  0.91  38. 5  1.8 10.27  Cargo  2. 8 41. 3  26. 9  Cargo  out:  lumber pulp & paper other t o t a l general out t o t a l general in  Total  9. 5 6. 0 2. 5 6. 0 1. 1  2. 7  3.1  0.13 0.86  1. 0 1. 2  1.5 1.7  2.54  4.9  6. 3  1.13  1.8  2. 9  Cargo  3.67  6. 7  9. 2  T o t a l Deepsea  Cargo  13.94  33. 6  50. 5  Total  Cargo  13.18  20. 5  32. 0  27.12  54. 1  82. 5  Total,  General  1.55  Coastal  Lower M a i n l a i d  Source: B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l , F o r e i g n Trade StudyLower M a i n l a n d P o r t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , (Vancouver: B.C. R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , December, 1 9 6 7 ) . a  I n P r a c t i c e s h o r t tons dominate except f o r inbound g e n e r a l c a r g o , where t h e e q u i v a l e n t ; one t o n = 40 c u . f t . i s u s e d .  69  TABLE 13 PORT OF VANCOUVER, P R I N C I P A L EXPORTS, FOR SELECTED YEARS (RANK BY 1966 TONNAGE) tons Product 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.  Group  1966  Wheat Lumber and t i m b e r Potash Coal Sulphur Barley Rapeseed Flaxseed Copper o r e & concentrates Logs Fodder & feed Oats Rye Woodpulp Wheat f l o u r Fertilizer Waste & s c r a p ( m o s t l y hogged f u e l ) Pulpwood and c h i p s Petroleum products Asbestos Milled cereal Veneer and plywood Fish & fish products Newsprint & paper Tallow Nonferr.metal & prod. (Al,Cu,Ni,Zn) Mustardseed Metal ores & concent, (exc. copper) Total,  28 i t e m s  Total port exports Source: Note:  N.H.B.  Annual  Traffic  1969  4 ,688,212 1 ,270,980a 1 ,128,159 1 ,098,285 613,584 374,695 317,832 179,891  3 ,530,458 949,833a 1 ,684,265 1 ,234,000 1 ,344,039 488,184 312,335 195,335  150,850 141,966a 127,464 125,580 120,682 107,726 104,880 91,147  200,045 78,844a 135,708 4,006 40,196 529,059 13,282 177,543  82,212 68,230a 59,722a 57,547 27,625 25,614  8,723 32,739 339,998 105,820 47,825 37,145  22,373 21,724 21,327  22,018 105,556 25,707  19,114 17,121  26,035 16,471  14,621  28,934  11 ,079,163  11 ,366,103  11 ,154,975  11 ,783,135  a  a a  Reports.  T h e s e 28 i t e m s (no o t h e r s o v e r 10,000 t o n s ) t h a n 99% o f t o t a l e x p o r t t o n n a g e i n 1966.  includes  a  some f o r e i g n c o a s t a l  shipments.  comprise  more  70 Iron  (a)  Ore  Canada i s a major States  and  four per to  to Great  cent  supplier of  Britain.  iron  British  Columbia with  tons.  the  A l l the  exception  of  to the  Columbia  of Canadian p r o d u c t i o n which  49.373 m i l l i o n  ore  iron  ore  produces  i n 1968  amounted  produced  t h a t produced  at  Exports  have been d e c r e a s i n g  1960' s w i t h  closing  o f t h e m i n e s a t Jedway and  The  remaining  from t h e i r Figure  ores.  The an  location  mid-  Zeballos.  concentrate  o f m i n e s i s shown  C a n a d i a n c o a l i n d u s t r y has i n t h e w e s t and  on  of our  purposes  restrict  our  study  to the  Appendix V provides W e s t e r n C a n a d a by  i s to determine  on  supply  is  lignitic  be  considered  two  of the  and  contracts signed with and  not  suitable  on  i f there  as  need  we  shall  provinces.  coal resources  classification Japan.  east.  is a  t h e West C o a s t  w e s t e r n most  estimates  province  r e c e n t l y b e e n marked  a c o n t r a c t i o n i n the  increased terminal f a c i l i t i e s  and  of  information  Saskatchewan c o a l  a coking  c o a l so w i l l  not  further.  Six producers steel  s i n c e the  Coal  expansion  S i n c e one for  The  a l s o produce a copper  British  6.  (b)  by  producers  in  Kimberley  goes t o J a p a n . the  United  industry with  have c o n t r a c t e d t o s u p p l y  180  million  long tons  the  o f c o a l by  Japanese 1990  from mines obtained with These will  i n Alberta  British  e s t i m a t e s p r e p a r e d by indicate be  Columbia.  f r o m numerous n e w s p a p e r c l i p p i n g s  that,  i s expected that  in  Europe w i l l  from B r i t i s h  American  companies.  American  sales  and  demand  i n an  i s more a c c e s s i b l e  increase  should  Columbia.  million  Columbia  and  long  i n price  add t o t h e m a r k e t  coal  in this  higher p r o f i t s  result  in a shift  potential  tons  Alberta.  for metallurgical  and y i e l d s  This  agreement  the Province of B r i t i s h  rising  result  This estimate is in  i n 1972,between 10-15  g o i n g t o Japan  It  which  and  market  to the in  f o r Canadian  9  coal in  i n Japan.  short  T a b l e 14  tons i n A l b e r t a  quantities  shows 1968-1969 c o a l  and B r i t i s h  exported to the United  Columbia  States  production  and  the  and J a p a n i n  1969. TABLE  14  BITUMINOUS COAL PRODUCTION ALBERTA B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  AND  1968-1969 short  Production 1968  1969  1969 to  USA  tons  Exports to  Japan  Alberta  950,564  1,231,108  10,651  891,769  British Columbia  889,564  902,432  34,080  326,184  Source:  Department i n Canada,  o f E n e r g y M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s , C o a l J a n u a r y 1970, p . 7.  Mines  S u p p l e m e n t a r y R e p o r t on t h e C a n a d i a n C o k i n g C o a l I n d u s t r y , D.W. B e t t s W i s e n e r and P a r t n e r s , T o r o n t o , J a n u a r y 1971, p . 1, (mimeographed). 19  72  73  Grain  (c)  Canadian ports. all  These  grain  ports  in total  grain  commonly  shipments.  could  restricted The that  9.4  and New  Westminster.  part  B r i t i s h Columbia  million  increase  ports Over  of t h i s  (325 m i l l i o n  60 p e r c e n t o f so t h a t  ships  cargo without being  R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l has  forecast  b u s h e l s ) and 13 m i l l i o n  through the port  of Vancouver  (see T a b l e 1 2 ) .  tons of  i n 1975 and  T h e y do n o t a t t r i b u t e  as much t o an i n c r e a s e  85 p e r c e n t o f P r a i r i e  maintain that  i n Canadian  production  o f Vancouver  to  production.  In a d d i t i o n  they  the evidence suggests that  the Far East  will  i n i m p o r t a n c e as a c o n s u m e r .  the  Council  new  Saskatchewan  would  was  are Prince  rim countries  as t o an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e g r a i n h i n t e r l a n d  increase  Vancouver  by t h e Panama C a n a l .  1985 r e s p e c t i v e l y  about  from  f o r t h e West C o a s t  The o t h e r g r a i n  the greater  g r a i n w i l l pass  this  total  shipped i s f o r P a c i f i c  carry  shipments  a c c o u n t f o r 85 t o 90 p e r c e n t o f P a c i f i c  198,541,000 b u s h e l s .  grain  Grain  I n 1968 t h i s  Rupert, V i c t o r i a  of P a c i f i c  a c c o u n t e d f o r 45 p e r c e n t o f  Canadian overseas exports.  elevators  the  i s e x p o r t e d t h r o u g h a number  expressed the opinion  be s o r e l y  Wheat  report,  that notwithstanding the  Pool elevator  t a x e d by e v e n  I n t h e same  their  t h a t West C o a s t 1975  ports  forecast.^  B r i t i s h Columbia Research C o u n c i l , Vancouver Harbour, T r a f f i c T r e n d s and F a c i l i t y A n a l y s i s , ( V a n c o u v e r : B r i t i s h " C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 11.  74 (d)  Phosphates  No phosphates  a r e produced  i n Canada.  Large  quantities  a r e i m p o r t e d from F l o r i d a i n t o Canada v i a t h e p o r t o f Vancouver d e s t i n e d f o r a f e r t i l i z e r p l a n t near Edmonton; t h e r o c k moves i n l a n d under an arrangement u s i n g p o t a s h c a r s .  Imports i n  1968, and 1969 were 381,578, and 477,470 r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n 1970  i m p o r t s t o t a l e d 366,169 t o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y . (e)  Bauxite  and A turning  No b a u x i t e i s mined i n Canada. i n Canada i s l o c a t e d a t A r v i d a , Quebec.  The o n l y a l u m i n a p l a n t A l c a n imports alumina  from J a m a i c a t o t h e i r K i t i m a t s m e l t e r w h i c h has a r a t e d c a p a c i t y o f 300,000 t o n s a y e a r .  T h i s means t h a t t h e r e i s a  p o t e n t i a l i m p o r t tonnage o f 150,0 00 tons o f a l u m i n a , f u l l production.  assuming  The e l e c t r i c power p o t e n t i a l i s a v a i l a b l e  for increased smelting capacity.  The t r e n d , however, i n  t h e p a s t few y e a r s i s t o b u i l d t h e s m e l t e r s i n t h e c o u n t r i e s r e q u i r i n g t h e aluminum m e t a l . (f)  Potash  The p o t a s h b e l t sweeps i n a b r o a d a r c t h r o u g h s o u t h e a s t Saskatchewan i n t o M a n i t o b a .  Canada i s b e l i e v e d t o have  t h e l a r g e s t r e s e r v e s on e a r t h and a t t h e 1968 l e v e l o f consumption  c o u l d s u p p l y t h e w o r l d ' s needs f o r 1,000 y e a r s .  Saskatchewan's p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y i n 19 68 amounted t o 3.6  75 m i l l i o n tons  ( a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n from f o u r mines e q u a l l e d  2.971) and has now r e a c h e d 18.3 m i l l i o n t o n s w i t h s i x new mines i n p r o d u c t i o n .  The 1971 s a l e s c u r r e n t l y a r e e s t i m a t e d  t o r e a c h 3.7 m i l l i o n t o n s .  Canada e x p o r t e d 90 p e r c e n t o f  h e r 1968 o u t p u t w i t h 68 p e r c e n t g o i n g t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Japan and G r e a t B r i t a i n .  The B r i t i s h Columbia  Research  C o u n c i l i n t h e i r f o r e c a s t s e s t i m a t e t h a t 60 p e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n w i l l be o f f - s h o r e e x p o r t s .  They p r o j e c t e d 1975  p r o d u c t i o n a t 15 m i l l i o n t o n s r i s i n g t o 20 m i l l i o n by t h e early 1980's.  1 1  Three t e r m i n a l s i n Vancouver have a t o t a l  s t o r a g e o f 350,000 t o n s and h a n d l e d 1.66 m i l l i o n t o n s i n 12 1968.  * The  f o l l o w i n g paragraphs  a l t h o u g h o u t d a t e d by t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n above a r e o f i n t e r e s t .  They a r e t a k e n  from  t h e Cawley r e p o r t , a s t u d y c a r r i e d o u t by a Saskatchewan l e g i s l a t i v e committee: I n terms o f p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t by 1969 Saskatchewan w i l l l e a d t h e w o r l d w i t h an a n n u a l c a p a c i t y o f 5.4 m i l l i o n t o n s o f K2O as compared t o t h e USSR i n second p l a c e w i t h 4.4 m i l l i o n t o n s . Saskatchewan's p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y w i l l r e a c h a peak of 8 m i l l i o n t o n s p e r y e a r by 1976 w i t h no f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e p r o j e c t e d t h r o u g h t o 1978. L i k e w i s e w o r l d p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y w i l l i n c r e a s e t o a maximum o f 28.9 m i l l i o n t o n s p e r y e a r i n 1978. The w o r l d a n n u a l consumption o f p o t a s h w i l l i n c r e a s e from about 16 m i l l i o n t o n s i n 1968 t o an e s t i m a t e d 31.8 m i l l i o n t o n s i n 1978. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s an average growth r a t e o f 7 p e r c e n t p e r y e a r . I b i d . , p. 8.  Ibid.  C o m p a r i s o n o f p r o j e c t e d p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y and consumption r e v e a l s t h a t t h e potash s u r p l u s p r o b l e m w i l l be most s e r i o u s i n 1970 and 1971 when p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y w i l l e x c e e d demands by 33 p e r c e n t . T h e s u r p l u s o f s u p p l y o v e r demand w i l l g r a d u a l l y d e c r e a s e u n t i l sometime i n 1977 when t h e two w i l l become e q u a l . A f t e r t h a t time t h e r e s h o u l d be a w o r l d - w i d e s h o r t a g e o f p o t a s h w i t h demand o v e r t a k i n g t h e f o r e c a s t s u p p l y . 13  The industry has  committee  enjoys  one s e r i o u s  found  several  that  although  advantages over  handicap—the  costly  The Monetary Times have s t a t e d  accepted  estimate o f the bare cost  of  administration,  ducing  sales  and p l a n t  Australia  and New  of the product t o  that  (i.e.,  $7.50 i s t h e  not taking  amortization)  one t o n o f m u r i a t e o f p o t a s h ,  product t o Vancouver  i t s competition, i t  haul  market.  Saskatchewan's  of pro-  and $9 a t o n t o move t h e  f o r shipment t o d e s t i n a t i o n s  Zealand.  account  like  The c o s t o f o c e a n t r a n s p o r t i s  14 given  a s $29 a t o n . The  ducing (b)  Cawley r e p o r t  the inland  finding  consumptive m a r k e t , and  transportation  back h a u l points  identifies  cargoes,  p o s s i b l e means o f r e -  cost:  (a) u n i t  (c) p r o v i d i n g  to permit a steadier  flow  trains,  storage  at  f r o m mine t o  (d) s h i p m e n t by p i p e l i n e s ; t h e f i r s t  two h a v e  been p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e .  1968,  Vol.  " P o t a s h G a l o r e , B u t Who 136, No. 11, p . 26.  Ibid.  Can B u y ? "  Monetary  Times,  77  T a b l e 15 shows a c t u a l and e s t i m a t e d p o t a s h  consumption  f o r 1968 and 1978 r e s p e c t i v e l y :  TABLE 15 WORLD POTASH CONSUMPTION, 1968 ACTUAL 1978 ESTIMATED '000 t o n s K 0 2  1968  United States Canada L a t i n America Europe USSR Africa Near E a s t Japan India Pakistan K o r e a , Taiwan, Philippines China Australia New Z e a l a n d Miscellaneous Total S o u r c e : Monetary  (g)  1978  Projected Growth Rate  4,410 210 405 6,665 2,300 240 25 725 175 20  9,080 430 1,035 10,225 5,965 615 55 965 1,075 160  7.5% 7.5% 10 5 10 10 10 3 20 25  245 250 90 115 100  585 .715 350 290 240  10 10 15 10  15,975  31,785  10  Times, V o l . 136, November, 1968.  Sulphur  Canada was t h e w o r l d ' s l a r g e s t p r o d u c e r i n 1967. A l m o s t two m i l l i o n t o n s o u t o f a t o t a l Canadian p r o d u c t i o n o f 2,991,000 t o n s was o b t a i n e d from n a t u r a l g a s , s o i t i s r e a d i l y apparent t h a t i t i s a "western" product.  The e s t i -  mated Canadian p r o d u c t i o n i n 19 68 was 3.31 m i l l i o n t o n s w i t h  78  B r i t i s h Columbia  (321,000  d u c i n g 80 p e r c e n t .  t o n s ) and A l b e r t a t o g e t h e r p r o -  Over 1,675,0 00 t o n s o f s u l p h u r was  s h i p p e d t h r o u g h B r i t i s h Columbia p o r t s i n 1968. t h e Vancouver  According t o  P r o v i n c e the l a r g e s t s i n g l e l o a d was 49,000  t o n s and l e f t Vancouver  i n August  1970 f o r Rotterdam.  F o r e i g n Trade Study f i g u r e s p r e d i c t e d t h a t one h a l f of  1970 p r o d u c t i o n , o r two m i l l i o n t o n s , would be e x p o r t e d  through Vancouver. ^ 1  The a c t u a l f i g u r e was 1,747,864 t o n s ;  t h e R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l f o r e c a s t s 1975 tonnage w i l l be i n t h e order o f three m i l l i o n tons.  3.  Reguirements  R e s u l t i n g From t h e B u l k Trade  i  I t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t i r o n o r e , wheat, c o a l , s u l p h u r and f e r t i l i z e r s i n c l u d i n g p o t a s h move i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s from t h e Canadian West C o a s t t o j u s t i f y t h e employment o f super b u l k c a r r i e r s . I t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t i f wheat i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d — only A u s t r a l i a Japan  ( s u l p h u r ) , the Netherlands  ( p o t a s h ) , and  ( c o a l and f e r t i l i z e r s ) i m p o r t o v e r 200,000 t o n s o f a  s i n g l e product.  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , F o r e i g n Trade Study Lower M a i n l a n d P o r t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia^ (Vancouver: B r i t i s h Columbia R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , 1~9~67) , p~. 8~.  79 The  s i z e of ships  c o n t r o l l e d by  the  t r a d i n g to the Netherlands i s  size restrictions  of the  Panama C a n a l .  a d d i t i o n shipments of sulphur  and  fertilizer  c a r r i e r on  are  u n l i k e l y without  a consistent basis  by  super  In  bulk  shipment  16 t o a C e n t r a l T e r m i n a l S t a t i o n o r CTS. remaining is-coal-and  a l l the  The  coal i s destined  Japan imports c o a l from the United and  A u s t r a l i a — i t f o l l o w s t h a t the  trade w i l l three  be  d e t e r m i n e d by  countries  and  THE  SUPPLY OF The  marine  response of ports  Canada  in  the  these  steel  ships.  (a)  carrier  future trends  trade  route,  and  fleet  i n ship  s i z e o f s h i p have a r e l a t i o n s h i p  commodity or the  Japan.  s i z e of s h i p used i n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the bulk  i f t y p e and  to  S H I P P I N G SERVICES  examined t o determine: (b)  the  commodity  States,  Japan to the d e s i r e of the  companies t o employ l a r g e r B.  only  (c) t h e  is  size, with  requirements  for  terminals. A l t h o u g h goods were c a r r i e d i n b u l k  1950's, i t h a s  o n l y been s i n c e  emergence o f the  bulk  carrier  1955  t h a t we  p r i o r t o the have seen  mid  the  f l e e t to i t s present p o s i t i o n  of predominance. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t  eighty-four  I a n S. R o s s , "Trends i n B u l k Ocean T r a n s p o r t , " M i n i n g C o n g r e s s J o u r n a l , December 1969, p. 70.  80 per  cent o f the bulk  built  carrier  during the s i x t i e s .  tonnage as o f J a n u a r y  Prior  to this  tramp o f 9,000 t o 9,500 dwt w i t h was f a v o u r e d .  t h e moderate  an a v e r a g e  speed  size  o f 12  knots  T h e s e t r a m p s were b u i l t d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d  W o r l d War and were o f t h e " L i b e r t y "  1.  1970 was  Characteristics  o r "Empire"  o f the Bulk  By t h e e n d o f t h e f i f t i e s  Carrier  class.  Fleet  the f l e e t of dry bulk  17 carriers  totalled  6.6 m i l l i o n  per  c e n t were o r e - c a r r i e r s ,  per  cent other bulk  18.5 p e r c e n t of  1970 o r e c a r r i e r s  combined  Fearnley  Bulk  & Egers  t h r e e major d i v i s i o n s i n this  ore/oil  and 39  work.  constituted  only  had f a l l e n s l i g h t l y t o  carriers  had s u r p a s s e d  (a) Types of  ymously  carriers  and o t h e r b u l k  a f l e e t that  followed  20 p e r c e n t  o f w h i c h 41  carriers.  As o f J a n u a r y 12.5 p e r c e n t ,  deadweight tons  made up 69 p e r c e n t  66 m i l l i o n  tons.  Carriers divide  or types  the bulk and t h i s  carrier  fleet  into  nomenclature w i l l  be  The t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s a r e :  Dry b u l k c a r r i e r i n this section.  and b u l k  carrier  a r e used  synon-  81 (i)  Bulk v e s s e l s able t o carry  Combined-Carriers:  oil;  such as o r e / o i l c a r r i e r s and b u l k / o i l o r  "obo" (ii)  Ore  carriers. ^ 1  Pure ore c a r r i e r s  Carriers:  designed  to carry ore), bauxite c a r r i e r s ,  t a n k e r s c o n v e r t e d i n t o such (iii)  Other  ( i . e . ships  Bulk  types.  Pure b u l k c a r r i e r s  Carriers:  and  s p e c i a l i z e d bulk c a r r i e r s other than  and  specified  19 under 1 and Tables  2.  16 and 17 i l l u s t r a t e the r e m a r k a b l e  increase  i n b o t h number and s i z e of the e x i s t i n g f l e e t and o f v e s s e l s on o r d e r f o r each o f t h e s e (i)  The  types.  average s i z e o f a l l combined c a r r i e r s was  a t t h e end o f 1969.  The  o r d e r a r e o f 270,000 dwt.  largest  63,000 dwt  s h i p s o f t h i s t y p e now  F e a r n l e y & E g e r s have  on  surveyed 20  t h e development o f cargo movements by combined c a r r i e r s between 1966 the d e s i g n i s because age f a c t o r between 30 19  and 1968,  t h e i r r e s u l t s a r e summarized i n  A l t h o u g h o r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be b u l k c o m m o d i t i e s , o f s h i p s used t o c a r r y o r e i s s p e c i a l i z e d . This o f the d e n s i t y , f o r example o r e would have a s t o r o f 15-25 w h i l e o t h e r b u l k commodities would range t o 55 c u b i c f e e t per t o n .  F e a r n l e y & E g e r s C h a r t e r i n g Co. L t d . , World B u l k 1970, p. 4. 20 The d e f i n i t i o n o f combined c a r r i e r used i n t h i s one t a b l e i s 18,000 dwt, t h e d e f i n i t i o n used e l s e w h e r e i n the s t u d y i s 10,000 dwt.  Carriers  82 T a b l e 18.  The  t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r a p i d development o f  combined c a r r i e r s ; i n a d d i t i o n t h e s w i t c h - o v e r from d r y cargo  ( m a i n l y i r o n ore) t r a n s p o r t t o t h e o i l t r a d e , f o l l o w -  i n g c l o s u r e o f t h e Suez C a n a l can be  seen.  The o r e / o i l c a r r i e r has t h e advantage o f g r e a t e r 21 v e r s a t i l i t y as compared w i t h pure o i l c a r r i e r s .  Generally  s p e a k i n g i t c a r r i e s t h e o r e and o i l i n s e p a r a t e h o l d s  and  t a n k s and does not c a r r y b o t h p r o d u c t s a t t h e same t i m e . TABLE 16 AVERAGE SIZE OF CARRIER TYPES -• 1968-1970 •000 dwt E x i s t i n g F l e e t As  Of  V e s s e l s on Order As A t  1,1,68  1,1,69  1/1/70  1,1,68  1,1,69  1/1 ,70  28.3  28.5  30.3  46.9  70.4  79 .6  Combined Carriers  50.3  58.3  62.6  82.5  107.9  131 .3  Other Bulk Carriers  25.3  26.6  27.2  31.8  32.7  36 .4  28.1  29.7  30.8  38.7  44.7  59 .1  34.4  38. 3  41.8  136.4  152.8  146 .9  Ore  All  Carriers  Bulk Carriers  Tankers Source:  F e a r n l e y & Egers C h a r t e r i n g Co. L t d . ( b u l k c a r r i e r s ) J . I . J a c o b s and Co. L t d . ( t a n k e r s ) .  J . Bes, B u l k C a r r i e r s , P r a c t i c a l Guide t o t h e S u b j e c t f o r a l l Concerned w i t h t h e S h i p p i n g B u s i n e s s , ^London: W.S. Heinman, I"9~65) , p~ Tl.  TABLE 17 VESSELS ON ORDER 1961-1970  1.1.1961  Ore Carriers No. *000 dwt 38 838  Combined Carriers No. '000 dwt  Other Bulk Carriers No. '000 dwt  Total No.  '000 dwt  5  218  190  3924  233  4980  1.1.1962  35  958  11  662  227  5398  273  7018  1.1.1963  23  701  19  1185  152  3803  194  5694  1.1.1964  11  460  22  1221  148  4176  181  5857  1.1.1965  16  825  21  1199  246  7386  283  9410  1.1.1966  26  1371  48  3445  351  12144  425  16960  1.1.1967  21  863  57  4237  421  14719  499  19819  1.1.1968  12  563  54  4453  360  11451  426  16467  1.1.1969  10  704  64  6907  358  11709  432  19320  1.1.1970  9  716  111  14575  361  13136  481  28427  Source:  Fearnley 1970).  :  & Egers Chartering  Co. L t d . , W o r l d B u l k C a r r i e r s ,  (Oslo:  January,  84 TABLE 18 CARGO MOVEMENTS BY COMBINED CARRIERS 19 66'-1968  1966  1967  1968  Million Metric Tons  Million Metric Tons  Million Metric Tons  Million Ton-Miles  Oil  10.8  28.7  54.3  263  I r o n Ore  24.4  17.5  8.8  58  Coal  0.9  1.6  3.1  Grain  0.3  0.2  0.2 >  Others  1.5  0.6  0.6  37.9  48.6  67.0  Total  Source:  OECD, M a r i t i m e T r a n s p o r t  The number o f t h e s e  1969,  w i t h t h e number o f t a n k e r s i n o p e r a t i o n .  fleet  (including i n this  34  355  p. 43.  ships i s comparatively  c a r r i e r s have r o u g h l y p a r a l l e d  »000  s m a l l when c o m p a r e d Since  1960  ore/oil  the growth o f t h e t o t a l ore  instance ore/oil)  accounting f o r  30 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o n n a g e ; d u r i n g 1966 a n d 1967 t h e d e v e l o p m e n t was more r a p i d a c c o u n t i n g Bulk/oil carriers loaded w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y w i t h l i q u i d cargo  such  f o r a b o u t 40 p e r c e n t .  can c a r r y f u l l  a l l d r y cargoes as crude  oil.  d e a d w e i g h t when i n b u l k and a l s o  Bes s t a t e s t h a t  v e s s e l s c a n p r o b a b l y make more v o y a g e s w i t h f u l l fewer i n b a l l a s t thus  achieving a greater earning  such  l o a d s and power  85 than other bulk c a r r i e r s .  22  a b i l i t y t o perform c e r t a i n  The main advantage i s t h e i r 23 triangular  i n c l u d e s o i l and b u l k c a r r i a g e .  trades  which  T a b l e 19 shows t h a t t h e  g r e a t e s t emphasis has been p l a c e d on t h e obo v e s s e l and summarizes t h e growth o f t h e combined c a r r i e r f l e e t between 1966  and 1970.  (See a l s o p r e c e d i n g T a b l e s 16 and 1 7 ) . TABLE 19  GROWTH OF COMBINED CARRIER FLEET 1966-1970  Ore/oil Bulk/oil Total  (ii)  dwt Jan. 1970  Jan. 1967  Jan. 1968  3,072  3,239  4,784  5,899  7,047  289  1,092  2,912  4,295  5,151  4,331  7,696  10,194  12,198  3,361  Source:  '000 Jan. 1969  Jan. 1966  OECD, M a r i t i m e T r a n s p o r t 1969.  The o r e c a r r i e r s  w i t h maximum e f f i c i e n c y  are s p e c i a l l y designed  t o carry ore  a t minimum c o s t , t h e y a r e o f t e n  designed  fora particular  t r a d e and a r e b u i l t w i t h t h e  security  o f a l o n g term c h a r t e r ; d e p e n d i n g on t h e t r a d e , t h e y  may be d e s i g n e d w i t h s h i p b o a r d o r e h a n d l i n g equipment o r r e l y on shore based u n l o a d i n g equipment. Bes has s t a t e d t h a t t h e o r e c a r r i e r s  are mainly  c o n s t r u c t e d f o r s p e c i f i c t r a d e s on l o n g term c o n t r a c t s , t h i s I b i d . , p. 27. 23 T r i a n g u l a r t r a d e s means t h e s h i p r e g u l a r l y c a l l s a t t h r e e p o r t s c a r r y i n g a p a y l o a d on two and sometimes t h r e e l e g s o f t h e t r i a n g l e ; i n t h i s way t h e d i s t a n c e c o v e r e d i n b a l l a s t i s reduced. 2 2  86 is  i n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e a l l purpose bulk c a r r i e r s  for  which f l e x i b i l i t y  ation.  Inaddition,  maximum d e a d w e i g h t  o f employment i s an i m p o r t a n t i n t h e case  consider-  o f the ore carrier, the  capacity i smainly  in which the ship w i l l  governed by t h e t r a d e  be employed; i n o t h e r words t h e  d r a f t , beam a n d l e n g t h a r e d e t e r m i n e d  by t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f  24 and r e c e i v i n g p o r t s .  the source (iii)  (iii-below)  This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n — o t h e r bulk  specialities  such  carriers—includes  as t h e bulk c a r r i e r s which a r e f i t t e d  racks t o handle  automobiles.  type  are of less  than  size  (for bulk carriers)  Many o f t h e new s h i p s o f t h i s  30,000 t o n s , t h i s  smaller than  average  being d i c t a t e d by t h e other use t o  which the ship i s put. A l s o included i n t h i s the pure bulk c a r r i e r s ;  with  category are  i n 1970 t h e l a r g e s t s h i p i n s e r v i c e  was 160,000 d w t .  (b)  The Trend to Bigger  Development o f t h e b u l k by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s t a t i s t i c a l remarkable decade.  Ships fleet  c a n b e s t be understood  tables.  growth o f t h e d r y bulk c a r r i e r  The average annual  Table  f l e e t i n the past  growth i n f l e e t tonnage d u r i n g  t h i s p e r i o d was 2 6 p e r c e n t , t h e g r o w t h r e a c h e d  Bess,  op. c i t . ,  20 shows t h e  p . 38.  a peak i n  87  1967 to  (the year  t h e Suez was c l o s e d )  15 p e r c e n t  t h e average  major groups and o f t h e e x i s t i n g the  averages  can  be s e e n  t h a t t h e average  any r e c e n t Table  of  weight  t o be compared  t h e average  with  f o r t h e same y e a r s ; i t  of the e x i s t i n g  fleet  f o r s h i p s coming  i s low  into  service  year. 21 shows t h e s i z e  1 , 19 68 and 1 9 7 0 .  January  deadweight o f t h e t h r e e  fleet  f o r v e s s e l s on o r d e r  when compared w i t h in  decreased  i n 1969. 16 a l l o w s  Table  and h a s s i n c e  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f l e e t as  F o r i n s t a n c e t h e average  capacity f o r ore c a r r i e r s  i n 1964  delivered  dead-  was  25  47,700  tons  while  the average  b e t w e e n 22 and 23 t h o u s a n d of  the ore c a r r i e r  size  fleet  dwt.  delivered  t h e average  was 2 6 , 7 0 0 t o n s  size this  class  By 1 9 6 7 , t h e a v e r a g e  segment was 3 2 , 6 0 0  of ore carriers  same y e a r ,  f o r the e x i s t i n g  tons while  was 6 4 , 5 0 0  tons.  of the remaining  was size  t h e average In the  part of the  i s contrasted with  t h e average  26  delivered  o f 38,700  size  stituted  more t h a n  and  half  over  dwt.  Combined  one-third the d e l i v e r i e s  the expected  tonnage  carriers expected  coni n 1970  f o r 1971.  Ibid. T r e v o r D. H e a v e r , The E c o n o m i e s o f V e s s e l (Vancouver: N a t i o n a l Harbours B o a r d , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 8.  Size,  TABLE 20 DEVELOPMENT OF MAIN BULK CARRIER TYPES  Ore C a r r i e r s No. '000 dwt  Combined C a r r i e r s Ore/Oil Bulk/Oil No. '000 No. •000 dwt dwt  1.1.1960  131  2727  55  1317  -  -  1.1.1961  168  3480  62  1514  1  1.1.1962  201  4131  66  1675  1.1.1963  218  4674  68  1.1.1964  233  5227  1.1.1965  229  1.1.1966  Other Bulk C a r r i e r s No. • 000 dwt  Total No.  1  000 dwt  179  2563  365  6607  28  240  3689  471  8711  1  28  343  5731  611  11565  1824  1  28  469  8488  756  15014  74  2250  3  144  610  11893  920  19514  5315  80  2662  3  144  688  13960  1000  22081  238  5950  89  3072  6  289  835  18241  1168  27552  1.1.1967  260  7192  92  3239  17  1092  1011  23263  1380  34786  1.1.1968  269  7606  111  4784  42  2912  1229  31055  1651  46357  1.1.1969  269  7660  116  5899  59  4295  1492  39734  1936  57588  1.1.1970  273  8265  126  7047  69  5151  1691  45968  2159  66431  Source:  Fearnley  &  Egers Chartering  Co. L t d . ,  World  Bulk C a r r i e r s ,  (Oslo:  January  1970) .  CO CO  TABLE 21 DISTRIBUTION OF EXISTING BULK CARRIER F L E E T AS OF DECEMBER  31, 1969  i  S i z e Group Ore '000 dwt Carriers  Combined O t h e r B u l k Carriers  Totals Ciiiu.  UJ.  % of Total  Tonnage  a  1967  1969  1967  1966  1965  521  28.0  16.3  20.5  23.2  10-18  89  14  502  1969 605  18-25  64  19  470  553  460  25.5  21.3  26.3  30.7  25-30  25  7  227  259  155  12.0  9.0  9.4  9.9  30-40  32  10  207  249  220  11.5  16.3  18.5  17.1  40-50  8  14  134  156  91  7.3  8.8  6.8  6.0  50-60  33  22  92  147  105  6.8  12.3  10.3  9.2  60-80  17  57  52  126  78  5.9  11.8  7.1  3.3  80-100  2  37  4  43  21  2.0  4.2  1.1  0.6  100-  3  15  3  21  -  1.0  -  -  -  Total  273  195  1,691  2,159  1,651  100  100  100  100  Source: a  F e a r n l e y & E g e r s C h a r t e r i n g Co. L t d . , World cent  p  =  Bulk C a r r i e r s  The d e a d w e i g h t i n e a c h c a t e g o r y ( i . e . , s i z e T o t a l deadweight o f b u l k c a r r i e r f l e e t  (Oslo: January  1970).  grouping)  CO  vo  TABLE 22 NEWBUILDINGS DELIVERED Ore C a r r i e r s No. '000 t.dw.  1960-1969  Combined C a r r i e r s No. '000 t.dw  Other Bulk C a r r i e r s No. '000 t.dw.  Total No. ' 000 t.dw.  1960  . .  25  739  6  178  47  848  88  1765  1961  . .  22  468  4  144  69  1463  95  2075  1962  . .  20  607  2  141  94  2068  116  2816  1963  . .  15  459  7  411  112  2819  134  3689  1964  . .  7  245  9  523  63  1645  79  2413  1965  . .  13  638  12  631  146  4282  171  5551  1966  . .  27  1266  15  978  152  4615  194  6859  1967  . .  14  621  41  3073  222  7545  277  11239  1968  . .  3  209  32  2720  246  7688  281  10617  1969  . .  13  759  23  2028  187  5240  223  8027  Source:  Fearnley  & Egers Chartering  Co. L t d . ,W o r l d  Bulk C a r r i e r s ,  (Oslo: January  1970).  vo o  91 A much b e t t e r stitute Table bulk  t h e "new"  23 i n turn  p i c t u r e o f the s i z e o f s h i p which  fleet  con-  i s h a d f r o m e x a m i n i n g T a b l e 22.  shows t h e t r e n d s  c a r r i e r s which are p r e s e n t l y  i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of being  d e l i v e r e d and  ordered.  TABLE 23 DISTRIBUTION OF BULK CARRIERS ON ORDER AS OF JANUARY S i z e Group 000 dwt 1  No.of Ore Carriers 1  68  '70  1968 AND  1970 Total  N o . o f Combined and O t h e r B u l k Carriers 1  68  •70  ' 68  •70  % of Total Tonnage i n S i z e Group '70  • 68  '67  10-18  -  -  50  17  50  17  18-25  8  1  110  107  118  108  25-30  -  -  60  76  60  76  7.1  30-40  -  -  57  69  57  69  7.9 12.4  35  18  35  18  2.8  1  31  36  31  37  7.1 10.2  12.3  4  2  32  25  36  27  6.6 15.5  22.2  20*  3  19*  30  39*  33  10.7  40-50 50-60 60-80 80-100  1.0  8.0 15.6  100-150  2  50  52  22.2  150-  -  44  44  26.6  Total  Source:  32  9  394  472  426  481  4.6 9.4  vessels  i n t h e two l a r g e r  13.1 5.5 15.4  9.3 15.3  23.0  12.4  1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 100.0  F e a r n l e y & E g e r s C h a r t e r i n g Co. L t d . , World Bulk C a r r i e r s , ( O s l o : F e b r u a r y 1968 a n d J a n u a r y 1 9 7 0 ) .  * N o t e : May i n c l u d e  3.8  categories.  The the to  four  toward  tables.  38,700  larger vessels  Heaver p o i n t s  tons i n the average  i s illustrated in  out that  size  the minor  of vessels  decrease  on o r d e r a s  19 68 as compared w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r was due t o  of January the  trend  l a r g e number o f v e s s e l s  less  25,000  than  tons then  under  27 construction.  In 1969 the average  size  increased  to 59,100  tons  i n the average  t o n s and a f u r t h e r size  of vessels  significant terms This  fact  on o r d e r i s shown f o r J a n u a r y  t o note  of t o t a l  increase  that  tonnage  i s easily  the largest  were v e s s e l s  lost  sight  group of over  1970.  Itis  of vessels i n 80,000  tons.  o f , s i n c e no t o n n a g e  figure i s  given  i n T a b l e s 2 1 and 2 3 .  I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d  there  i s a marked c l u s t e r i n g  about  ( s e e T a b l e 4). ship  sizes  Heaver a t t r i b u t e s  b e i n g used  particular this  f o r t h e movement  to 44,700  size  that  groupings  as a r e f l e c t i o n o f of particular  28 commodities. (c)  It  The  Design  Vessel  and  has been demonstrated  has  been i n c r e a s i n g  i n size  any  g i v e n year the average  size  the  average  which  of deliveries,  2 7  Ibid.  2 8  Ibid.  its  that  Requirements  the average  bulk  carrier  y e a r by y e a r , i n a d d i t i o n f o r o f new  orders i s higher than  i n turn  i s h i g h e r than the  average  of the f l e e t  of t h i s  chapter  utilized  t h e maximum  that with  or design  In t h i s  size  the largest  orders are being from  capability  limit  of constructing a vessel;  were s i x y a r d s dwt.  One p r a c t i c a l  capable  on o r d e r  unload  being  tied  of t h e i r  i s 376,000 t o n s  and l o a d v e r y  unloading  acknowledged proportions  rapidly  capability  that  a t 100,0 00  that dry bulk of liquid  i t i s t h e speed  apparent  to ship size  i s the  a t t h e e n d o f 1969 t h e r e  bulk  when t h e l a r g e s t  and draws 80 f e e t . through from  pipelines shore.  i s t h a t the super  w h a r f a t P o i n t T u p p e r Nova S c o t i a ships  f o r which  s o we must r e s o r t t o  be r e a c h e d  up many t h o u s a n d s o f f e e t  unloading  t h e term  o f c o n s t r u c t i n g v e s s e l s o f 700,000  One w o n d e r s when t h i s w i l l  tanker  t o be i n s e r v i c e  i s not r e a d i l y  data  irrespec-  We want t o accommo-  over  This size  a perusal of the available  expert opinion.  can  placed.  runs,  t h e maximum  consider  t h a t i s expected  highly specific  o r e and c o a l ,  determine  t o be s h i p p e d .  carrier  commodities, i t  a r e i n s h i p s o f under  o f v e s s e l t h a t one s h o u l d  date  than  forcertain  s e c t i o n we s h a l l  o f t h e commodities  In P a r t A  o f c a r r i e r which a r e  commodities  tive  other  year.  the exception of i r o n  movement o f b u l k  60,000 dwt.  on  size  i n a t r a d e was g i v e n  was f o u n d world  f o r that particular  barrels  can handle an h o u r .  ships w i l l carriers.  Tankers while A n example  tanker  326,000 dwt I t i s generally  not reach  the size  The UN h a s s t a t e d  and t h e c o s t o f u n l o a d i n g w h i c h  limits  94 the s i z e of d r y b u l k c a r r i e r s . 1966  29  Work by D.G.  Nijman i n  t o d e t e r m i n e the optimum s i z e o f s h i p t o s e r v e  Hoogovens s t e e l complex took the c o s t s o f p o r t  the  facilities,  of s h i p p i n g and of i n v e n t o r y i n t o a c c o u n t and c o n c l u d e d 85,000 dwt was  the optimum s i z e .  The  s t u d y f o r the  that  Port  T a l b o t h a r b o u r f o r t h e S t e e l Company o f Wales c o n c l u d e d  that  s h i p s d r a w i n g 42 f e e t (at t h a t t i m e t h o u g h t t o be t h e d r a f t o f 75,000 t o n n e r s but i s i n f a c t s u i t a b l e f o r most 85,000 dwt  s h i p s ) were o p t i m a l .  i n J a n u a r y 1970 and  was  The  t e r m i n a l , w h i c h was  a c t u a l l y designed  completed  f o r 100,000 dwt  can be deepened t o accommodate 150,000 dwt  ships  i f required.  A number o f p r e s s r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e t h a t b o t h r e c e i v i n g and s h i p p i n g p o r t s c o n s i d e r i t p o s s i b l e t h a t 300,000  dwt  d r y b u l k c a r r i e r s w i l l some day be i n s e r v i c e and must e n t e r i n t o any p o r t p l a n n i n g .  I.S. Ross has  stated a " l i m i t to  the s i z e o f d r y b u l k c a r g o s h i p s around 200,000 t o 250,000 tons d.w." 3 0 ,  II  The  Japan-Canada Trade C o u n c i l i n O c t o b e r 1970  more c o n s e r v a t i v e a t l e a s t f o r the s h o r t t e r m , "The to  is  trend i s  s h i p s i n e x c e s s o f 100,000 deadweight t o n c a p a c i t y t o  c a r r y imported 29  raw m a t e r i a l s such as c o a l , o r e and o i l . "  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , C o n f e r e n c e on Trade and Development, Review of M a r i t i m e T r a n s p o r t , 1969, (TD/B/C.4/66), 1969, p~. 22. 30 I a n S. Ross, "Trends i n B u l k Ocean T r a n s p o r t , " Fairplay, No. 4520, 9 A p r i l 1970, p. 42.  95 The  article  will  goes on  a c q u i r e twelve  t o s t a t e t h a t Nippon S t e e l ships  f o r o p e r a t i o n i n 1972,  which are dry bulk  carriers  thousand  other  tons;  the  b e t w e e n 220,000 and The 150,000 dwt "the  1969 was  indicated  of  o f f e r e d by  opinions  My  own  assumed t o be A  in  the  an  expressed  transfer. be  i s of  The  1967  130,000  course  no way  experts  address  160  ranging  that ships  employed the  in  executive  i n d u s t r y were p l a n n i n g  t o average between  of the  i n the  20 0,000 d e a d w e i g h t  range of dimensions  by  of  Heavy I n d u s t r i e s  statistics  f i e l d of  o p i n i o n i s t h a t the  following Table:  to  for  dwt.  examination by  of  dwt.  Japanese s t e e l and  nine  f r o m 130  o i l carriers  Isihikawjima-Harima  s h i p s b e t w e e n 100  facts  are  range  by M e t r a c o n s i d e r e d  future."  t h a t the  There  three  will  t h e maximum s i z e w h i c h w o u l d be  foreseeable  vice-president  and  270,000  study  Corporation  the  and  the  commodity  "design" v e s s e l  should  tons.  f o r dry bulk  carriers  is  given  96  TABLE 24 RANGE OF DIMENSIONS FOR BULK CARRIERS feet Tonnage  Length  Beam  Draft  15,000  480-510  61-67  27.5-30  20,000  535-560  70-76  30-32  30,000  610-640  82-88  33-36  40,000  665-695  91-97  36-38  50,000  710-740  98-104  38-40  60,000  710-775  104-110  39-44  70,000  740-805  104-121  41-44  80,000  765-830  105-130  42-50  100,000  820-850  134  45-49  144,000  940  142  54  205,000  a  1060  163  56-58  276,000  a  1134  175  72  Source:  a  Adapted  These  f r o m Swan W o o s t e r a n d F e a r n l e y  are a c t u a l dimensions o f tankers.  & Egers.  CHAPTER IV COMMODITY MOVEMENT IN RELATION TO WEST COAST TRANSPORTATION  T h i s c h a p t e r examines some h a r b o u r s w h i c h meet t h e n a v i g a t i o n requirements  o f super d r y bulk c a r r i e r s , d e s c r i b e s  t h e i n l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network o f Western  Canada—pointing  out t h e p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s p l a c e d on t h e r a i l r o a d s and the p a t t e r n o f t r a c k a g e t h a t has e v o l v e d .  I t then gives t h e  l o c a t i o n o f t h o s e commodities i d e n t i f i e d i n C h a p t e r I I as b e i n g amenable The  t o b u l k movement by super c a r r i e r .  t h i r d s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p o r t  o f Vancouver i n g e n e r a l and t h e e x i s t i n g d r y b u l k t e r m i n a l s in  A.  particular.  HARBOUR LOCATIONS The C o a s t M o u n t a i n s form a b e l t a v e r a g i n g 200 m i l e s  wide and e x t e n d i n g parallel.  1,000 m i l e s from t h e 49th t o t h e 60th  Numerous i n l e t s p e n e t r a t e t h e mountainous c o a s t  f o r d i s t a n c e s o f f i f t y t o seventy m i l e s .  They a r e u s u a l l y  a m i l e o r two i n w i d t h and o f c o n s i d e r a b l e d e p t h , s t e e p canyon l i k e s i d e s .  with  The c o a s t i s a l s o b r o k e n by r i v e r  v a l l e y s such as t h o s e o f t h e F r a s e r , Skeena and S t i k i n e (see F i g u r e 7 ) .  An  examination of hydrographic  of the B r i t i s h requirements  s e t out e a r l i e r  identified. are: and  Maps o f t h e s e The  f o r super bulk satisfying  a facility  i s very  railway  the requirements  There  i n Appendix VI.. and i s n o t  confines  A  by CBA E n g i n e e r i n g  as a b u l k  is  no q u e s t i o n  terminal  that the area  a w h a r f c a n be b u i l t  extensive  Inlet.  This  easier  access  at Ridley  close t o shore.  use o f n a v i g a t i o n  A more  h a s shown t h a t a s i t e c a n  can take  would r e q u i r e e i t h e r d r e d g i n g  favourable  Rupert.  Rupert i s t h a t the  e x i s t s and i s u n d e r - u t i l i z e d .  developed  to develop  of Prince  already  be  briefly  i s no o p p o r t u n i t y  advantage o f f e r e d by P r i n c e  study  Vancouver,  f o r m e d b y r e c l a i m i n g t h e mud  between t h e i s l a n d s .  great  shallow  t o be  w o u l d h a v e t o be l o c a t e d o f f one o f  a s u i t a b l e area within, the present The  carriers  Squamish,  locations are given  Skeena i t s e l f  maps  harbours meeting the  locations are discussed  i s l a n d s o r on l a n d f i l l  flats  and t o p o g r a p h i c  Rupert, K i t i m a t ,  Roberts B a n k — t h e s e  navigable,  enables  Among t h e h a r b o u r s  N a s s Bay, P r i n c e  below.  the  Columbia coast  charts  Island.^"  super  There  ships  and t h a t  Easy e n t r y ,  however,  o f a number o f h i g h  spots  or  aids.  entrance  c a n be h a d t o P o r t l a n d  l o c a t i o n i s much b e t t e r s h e l t e r e d and h a s f r o m t h e s e a t h a n h a s t h e mouth o f t h e S k e e n a .  ^"CBA E n g i n e e r i n g , R i d l e y I s l a n d B u l k T e r m i n a l , ( P r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C.: C i t y o f P r i n c e R u p e r t , P o r t D e v e l o p ment C o m m i s s i o n , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 9 ) .  100 The  s h o r e , h o w e v e r , i s c a n y o n - l i k e and  e n t e r as land  f a r as  c a n be  quickly  t h e mouth o f t h e Nass' R i v e r b e f o r e  found.  and  I n N a s s Bay  Douglas Channel large  and  straight  ships through  banks o f the difficult (the  as  f a r as  channel  also  flats  and  rise  b u t has  up  a l l o w s good a c c e s s  from  Caamano Sound, t h e c h a n n e l  advantageous s i t e Shallow Island ships  and thus  stricting Georgia Fuca.  At Kitimat i t s e l f  depth  i n Johnstone prevent use  Gardner  depth  a much  and  less  i s open t o t h e This Strait  south  itself  through  Haro S t r a i t  inside,  Georgia  and  Strait  Strait  use  between Vancouver  of this  p a s s a g e by  of p a r t of the mainland  entry to the S t r a i t  of Georgia. through  the  p r e s e n t s no  The  problem  and  Strait  Strait  large reof  of Juan  although  de passage  Boundary Passage r e q u i r e s c a r e ; i s d e e p , w i d e and  sheltered  once  as f a r  Island.  Howe Sound from  i s w i d e and the waters  Squamish R i v e r i s r e a c h e d . f l a t s which  flats  than K i t i m a t f o r a marine t e r m i n a l .  disallowing  steeply  The  too  The  sufficient  sea  i s deep  t h e r e a r e mud  c l i f f s w h i c h make t h i s  the Mainland  n o r t h as Q u a d r a  the  t h e mouth o f t h e K i t i m a t R i v e r .  the channel, o f f e r s  steep  as  bars.  b o t t o m i s g r a v e l ) w h i c h c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d .  width  mud  l a n d does not  to  suitable  are s t e e p but would n o t p r e s e n t  a problem.  C a n a l , p a r t way  rise  the  there are extensive t i d a l  for  i t i s necessary  can be  deep, i t s shores,  edge u n t i l At t h i s  r e c l a i m e d by  however,  t h e mouth o f  p o i n t the r i v e r dredging  the has  to provide  formed up  101 t o 120 a c r e s o f back up l a n d .  The F e d e r a l Department  of  P u b l i c Works i s d r e d g i n g t o a d e p t h o f f o r t y - f i v e f e e t and r e c l a i m i n g l a n d j u s t o u t s i d e t h e h a r b o u r f o r t h e PGE.  In  the d e s i g n o f t h e new  site  f a c i l i t y , t h e f u t u r e use o f t h i s  f o r a super bulk c a r r i e r t e r m i n a l i s b e i n g taken i n t o 2 account.  B.  INLAND TRANSPORT AND 1.  Rail (a)  RESOURCE LOCATIONS  Network Western  Canada  I n Canada t h e a x i s o f t h e R o c k i e s i s c o n t i n u o u s f o r o v e r 1,000  m i l e s , t h e r e a r e o n l y f o u r major p a s s e s t h r o u g h  the Canadian R o c k i e s .  The southernmost  t h e Crow's N e s t and  t h e K i c k i n g Horse a r e u t i l i z e d by CP R a i l , t h e n o r t h e r n or Y e l l o w h e a d by t h e C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s (CNR). f o u r t h , V e r m i l l i o n i s p r e s e n t l y u t i l i z e d by B.C.  The  highway  93.  Use o f t h e s o u t h e r n p a s s e s p r e s e n t s a second b a r r i e r i n t h e form o f t h e S e l k i r k M o u n t a i n s and need t o u t i l i z e Pass.  Rogers  Once t h r o u g h t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s t h e P a c i f i c Ocean i s  b l o c k e d by t h e C o a s t r a n g e ; t h e e a s i e s t r o u t e t o t h e sea i n the e a r l y  days was  t h e r i v e r system.  When t h e r a i l w a y  Swan Wooster E n g i n e e r i n g Co. L t d . , Squamish D e l t a — P o r t and Land Use S t u d y , (Vancouver: Swan Wooster E n g i n e e r i n g  Co.  Lt"dT, June~T9~70) , p.  16.  102 reached for  t o the  their  Pacific  routes.  three r i v e r s  As  and  these  a l l are  do  province  and  the  through  four of  Columbia.  to  of the  but  does  Peace, F o r t corner  a route  i s d r a i n e d by  of  of the  Peace,  not Nelson  British thus  flow  to the P a c i f i c . the  although  The  The  Skeena, Nass  the  latter  and  passes  major or t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l  lesser  importance which serve and  ( i i ) Northern  (GSLR).  of r a i l r o a d  Grand P r a i r i e  Rail  and  Eastern  A l b e r t a Railway (PGE),  i n Northern t h e NAR  i s owned by  mainlines  operate British  (iv) Great  (NAR), Slave  completed  A l b e r t a f r o m B r u l e on  i n 1969.  the  (i) A l b e r t a Resources  A l b e r t a Resources Railway  on  have  i n S a s k a t c h e w a n , A l b e r t a and  r e g i o n a l railways are  P a c i f i c Great  CP  three Western P r o v i n c e s ,  lines  (ARR),  $9 6 m i l l i o n  two  B o t h t h e CNR  the  numerous b r a n c h  miles  only  l o c a t e d i n terms  o f t h e M a c k e n z i e and  offer  8 shows t h e  Western P r o v i n c e s .  Railway  are  Alaska.  railroads  (iii)  valleys  7 there  a tributary  The  a l l flow t o the P a c i f i c  Figure  Railway  not  river  F r a s e r , Thompson and  north-east  tributaries  and  northwest of the Stikine,  Figure  the Rockies  to the P a c i f i c .  the A r c t i c  running  on  are the  R i v e r s d r a i n the  Columbia,  through  indicated  to a pass through  a route  Liard  into  sought the  Further north the Pine,  gives r i s e present  too  w i t h i n Canada c o n v e n i e n t l y  the mountain passes, Skeena.  they  The  Lake 2 34 the  line, costing  the A l b e r t a government b u t  was  CNR  103 constructed  and  i s operated  designed  with  weighing  i n excess  railroad  was  Further 100  Rail The  the  and  the  branch  Lynton.  The  capable  a gas  out  north  and  Grand P r a i r i e  mainline  Pacific  has  Great  lines  westerly  jointly  85  to  100  Lac La  pound r a i l  and  Columbia  862  extending  t o Dawson C r e e k and  from  F o r t St. John. extending  other  extension  from T a k l a Lake t o Dease Lake i s p l a n n e d ,  P r i n c e G e o r g e and  remote n o r t h - w e s t  i s a connection with  work p r o g r a m c o m p l e t e d  (see F i g u r e  t h e NAR the  corner  between the  laying  of  100  of  PGE  a t Dawson C r e e k .  of  80 m i l e s  9).  There  thus  In a d d i t i o n  f o r completion  Columbia.  is  to  North  scheduled  t o the  Biche  miles  the  i n 1971  A  train.  a r e u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n one  access  CP  t o Dawson C r e e k , B.C.  from F o r t S t . John t o F o r t N e l s o n j  provide  1  Alberta.  f r o m F o r t S t . James t o T a k l a L a k e , t h e  north  110.  owned by  northwestern  Eastern operates  track i n British  Vancouver north  the  p l a n t which produces  from Carbondale through  main l i n e  trains  o f Edmonton w i t h i t s m a i n l i n e  of carrying a short unit The  car unit  was  A major o b j e c t i v e o f  A l b e r t a Railways,  goes  railroad  day.  serves  through  The  o f Smoky R i v e r n e a r m i l e  serves  per  railway operates  northern  250  line  Northern  100  13,000 t o n s .  coal fields  t h e CNR,  extending  two  of  of sulphur The  t h e CNR.  the view of h a n d l i n g  along,  tons  by  running  latter A  north-  is  third i t would  British and The  pound r a i l  CNR 1970 or  at  o  106 better  a l o n g the e n t i r e m a i n l i n e from North Vancouver  P r i n c e George. unit  trains The  NAR  f o r 430  T h i s would  on  this  enable the operation  of  to  light  route.  G r e a t S l a v e Lake  Railway runs  f r o m Roma on  miles through northern A l b e r t a  and  the North-  west T e r r i t o r i e s  t o t h e P i n e P o i n t mine on G r e a t S l a v e  I t was  i n 1965  completed  and  National Railways.  Automatic  partial  line  use  on t h i s  The  Canadian  Saskatoon  since  Canadian  o p e r a t i o n has  line  extends Pass,  i n 1955  been i n  line  Rupert.  passes  from the l i n e  p r o c e e d i n g s o u t h t o P o r t Mann and  George e n r o u t e t o P r i n c e  Lake.  1968.  N a t i o n a l main  Northern transcontinental  completed  train  t h r o u g h Edmonton t o Y e l l o w h e a d  branches—one the  i s o p e r a t e d by  the  then  Vancouver,  through  Prince  A branch of the  latter  connects Kitimat with the mainline at  Terrace. The via  Regina  Passes line  and  CP  Rail  m a i n l i n e runs  and Moose Jaw finally  from Winnipeg  then through K i c k i n g Horse  follows  the Fraser  from C a l g a r y through Crowsnest  not  o f the s t a n d a r d o f the K i c k i n g Horse trains  through Invermere  A spur l i n e  B r i d g e and  Pass  other l i n e  north  a t Spences  t o Vancouver.  the  reason the u n i t  to Calgary  and N e l s o n  Hope.  The  Pass  and A  second  joins  latter  line,  Rogers  is  for  this  o p e r a t i n g o u t o f Sparwood a r e r o u t e d and meet t h e f i r s t  c o n n e c t s C a l g a r y w i t h Edmonton.  line  at  Golden.  107  Lower  (b)  Mainland  Burrard P e n i n s u l a .  The Vancouver side of Burrard  I n l e t was f i r s t served by CP R a i l , t h e i r l i n e follows  the  southern s h o r e l i n e from the head of the I n l e t at Port Moody to downtown Vancouver.  The Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways (CNR)  and the B u r l i n g t o n Northern (BN) serve some of the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board (NHB) docks and most of the g r a i n e l e v a t o r s but must r e l y on CP R a i l for s w i t c h i n g for some waterfront customers.  Both the CN and BN l i n e s cross from south-east  to north-west;  t h e i r yards are located away from the water-  f r o n t , east of F a l s e Creek. Authority  B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power  (BCH & PA) have one l i n e and operate a CP R a i l owned  l i n e , but no port f a c i l i t i e s are served by e i t h e r North Shore Burrard I n l e t .  line.  Both CN and P a c i f i c  Great Eastern (PGE) serve the North Shore, the former the eastern p o r t i o n and the l a t t e r running west from the i n t e r change p o i n t west of Lonsdale Avenue.  In March 1969 the CNR  completed a two mile long r a i l w a y tunnel and new r a i l w a y bridge which provided a d i r e c t route to the North Shore from Burnaby.  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s bridge l i n k , a r a i l  ferry  i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n across the I n l e t i s maintained w i t h CP R a i l by the PGE. The l o c a t i o n of the mainlines on the peninsula and North Shore i s shown on Figure 1 0 .  LOCATION OF BULK TERMINALS ON BURRARD INLET IN RELATION TO RAIL NETWORK •  :  —  —  """"  M  o  CO  109 2.  Commodity L o c a t i o n The b u l k commodities w h i c h w i l l be s h i p p e d  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p o r t s were i d e n t i f i e d  i n Chapter  through I I I as  i r o n o r e , c o a l , copper ore and c o n c e n t r a t e s , s u l p h u r , fertilizers  (including potash).  commodities i s c h i e f l y  The  sources of  and  these  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and A l b e r t a ; t h e  one e x c e p t i o n b e i n g p o t a s h — w i t h  a l l the p r o d u c t i o n  o r i g i n a t i n g i n Saskatchewan. A r e v i e w o f the accompanying maps, shows t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n even w i t h i n a p r o v i n c e . I t can be seen t h a t b i t u m i n o u s  coal production i s  c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e mountain and f o o t h i l l b e l t s . d u c i n g c o a l mines are s e r v e d by r a i l , was  b u i l t t o c o n n e c t a c o a l mine was  A l l pro-  t h e o n l y new t h e ARR;  L u s c a r i s o f f t h e main l i n e b u t connected  line that  in addition  by a s p u r .  For  the  n e x t few y e a r s t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f the c o a l w i l l be produced i n a r e a s s e r v e d by CP R a i l .  However, when M c l n t y r e  reach  f u l l p r o d u c t i o n about an e q u a l amount s h o u l d move over lines.  CN  F i g u r e 11 shows t h e mine l o c a t i o n s and the t r a n s p o r -  t a t i o n r o u t i n g s ; d e t a i l s o f l o n g term c o n t r a c t s w i t h Japanese f i r m s a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x V. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ranks second i n r e s e r v e s , h a v i n g about 30 per c e n t o f the c o a l i n Canada.  Coal i s widely  d i s t r i b u t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the E a s t Kootenay b e i n g largest f i e l d .  the  I n t h e p a s t , o t h e r areas i n c l u d i n g Vancouver  110  Y U K O N  P G  PRINCE RUPERTC  KITIMAT«^V,  ALBERTA PRINCE - r GEORGE f  x-f»  *1 PACIFIC  OCEAN  USA  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Mclntyre Canmore Coleman Kaiser Fording River Luscar  COAL MINES IN WESTERN CANADA  Ill Island  produced  indicated River  large q u a n t i t i e s of coal.  q u i t e l a r g e areas  R e c e n t work  of coal-bearing rocks  a r e a w e s t o f F o r t S t . J o h n and  has  i n the  i n a d d i t i o n , the  Peace  Dawson  3 Creek area producing has  a p p e a r s t o be  region in B r i t i s h  large reserves  excellent  coking  p r o d u c t i o n has K o o t e n a y now completed handle  properties.  been  under  in Alberta.  30  A  per  tons  area,  with  nearly a l l coal i n the Kaiser  East has  cent  of the Canadian c o a l  i n four separate and  Smoky R i v e r .  r e g i o n a r e Coleman C o l l i e r i e s Two  o t h e r mines are  bituminous  Limited)  a s t r i p mine a b o u t  Coalspur  area.  Mclntyre  reserves  coal in  quality.  This  the coal  areas:  Crowsnest  Pass,  The  producing  mines  two  L i m i t e d and  The  l o c a t e d i n the  region.  operates  Luscar  to  annually.  Alberta Foothills  the  coal  K a i s e r Resources L i m i t e d .  large part of the  produced  Mines L i m i t e d .  in  bituminous  region i s of e x c e l l e n t coking  largely  the  coal  the E a s t Kootenay  1968  Since  principal  from the M i c h e l - N a t a l c o l l i e r y  to 7 m i l l i o n  Cascade, Coalspur, in  Columbia,  o f medium v o l a t i l e  owned by  f r o m 6.5  Foothills is  The  a c o a l p r e p a r a t i o n p l a n t n e a r Sparwood d e s i g n e d  Just are  promising.  (Cardinal River 25  miles  south  Canmore  northern Coals of  C o a l Mines L i m i t e d have  Hinton an  3 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s and Petroleum R e s o u r c e s , G e o l o g y , E x p l o r a t i o n and M i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1969, ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 9 ) .  112 operation  i n the  Edmonton. which  The  joins The  in  not  mine i s s e r v e d by  t h e CNR  main l i n e  Columbia.  north  by  rail  and  the  copper  while  of producing  market.  The  ore mines a r e  of  shipping directly  from  t h e m i n e s i s shown on Sulphur,  between C a l g a r y  13  along with  Potash within south  a belt by  Figure  mining  the  running  g o e s by  m i n e s and  site  Rail.  CN  lines  are  Prince served  Figure  12  export  the c o a s t The  and location  6.  The  in a belt  p l a n t s are  s e r v e d by  Plant locations  locations  of potash  t h e n o r t h by  running  are  either  shown  on  mines. Saskatchewan  Saskatoon  and  i n the  Regina.  lines,  leading  their  i s e x c l u s i v e to southern  b o u n d e d on  central  mines  from  by w a t e r .  In the main the b u l k m a t e r i a l s are and  south  road.  l o c a t e d on  i s produced  Edmonton.  C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l o r CP Figure  line  their  i n the main, and  i n the  a f o u r t h i s l o c a t e d i n the  concentrate  location  are  Railway  are l o c a t e d  Many o f t h e m i n e s a r e n o t  shows t h e  iron  concentrates  district  o f t h e CN  George t o P r i n c e Rupert.  of  the A l b e r t a Resources  Three of the producing  l o c a t e d i n the mainland interior  miles northwest  at Brule.  Valley-Merritt  of B r i t i s h  central  240  mines e x p o r t i n g copper  the Highland  part  Smokey R i v e r a r e a  both  of these  railroads  t o the P o r t of Vancouver.  to the north-west  i t will  tap  As  l o c a t e d on CP  have t h e i r t h e PGE  additional  Rail  mainlines  extends sources  its of  raw  113  \ T0> U . S . A .  FIG.  BRITISH COLUMBIA COPPER PRODUCERS AND MARKET . 1969  12  materials their  and i t s s h a r e  line  of bulk  a l s o extends  south  tonnage s h o u l d  increase;  t o S q u a m i s h and t h e P o r t o f  Vancouver. It location  c a n be s e e n  o f the bulk  from t h e above d i s c u s s i o n t h a t t h e  materials  enhance t h e lower m a i n l a n d loading. the  The p o s s i b i l i t y  CN n o r t h e r n  and t h e e x i s t i n g  rail  network  as a l o c a t i o n f o r m a r i n e o f m o v i n g Smokey R i v e r  transcontinental line  and t h e  bulk  coal  over  establishment  4 of a bulk be  terminal  an e x c e p t i o n  at Prince  t o the r u l e .  R u p e r t a p p e a r s good  and would  A t t h e same t i m e t h e m o u n t a i n s  impose b a r r i e r s t o b u i l d i n g r a i l - l i n e s  t o new h a r b o u r  locations. C.  THE PORT OF VANCOUVER This  general Inlet  and t h e e x i s t i n g  bulk  the Port  o f Vancouver i n  terminal operations  and t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g  i n Burrard  plants w i l l  also  discussed. Metropolitan  municipalities by  describe  a n d a t R o b e r t s Bank, p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s f o r new  terminals be  section w i l l  Vancouver comprises  and s e v e r a l u n o r g a n i z e d  the p r o v i n c i a l  Vancouver  fifteen  different  territories  government.  There are three  Sun, A p r i l  22, 1971, p . 39.  administered  separate  bodies  governing  the harbours  north  arm  of the F r a s e r R i v e r i s under the  North  F r a s e r Harbour Commissioners,  River  a r e a by  of Vancouver  w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n  control  t h e New  by  the  of  the  Westminster-Pitt  the F r a s e r R i v e r Harbour Board i s administered  area:  and  the N a t i o n a l  the  Port  Harbours  Board. The defined Point was  original  by A c t  of Parliament  G r e y and  Atkinson  expanded t o cover  to the United Figure English  14. Bay  maintained exposed  and  h o w e v e r , as harbour with  on  lowest  boundaries i n 1913  Point.  The  original  and  Burrard  has an  Burrard  Inlet  square  No  be  i s a n a t u r a l and of water  depth  t o P o r t Moody where t h e  been j u s t  i s then channel  50  shown  has  south  on into  facilities  are  i s more  i t is utilized, The  inner  s h e l t e r e d harbour  area. 39  inside feet  port  extending  subdivided  f o r wharfage;  were between  the  E n g l i s h Bay  c o n t r o l l i n g water depth of  main channel  running  f o r deep sea v e s s e l s .  miles  normal t i d e s ) has  are  latter  1967  miles  deep sea  Inlet.  not been used  a line  limits  harbour can Inlet.  anchorage  as  square  The  o u t s i d e of Burrard  f o r the  I n September  n e a r l y 200  States border.  some f i f t y The  The  harbours  as  feet  (i.e.,  the F i r s t f a r as  been dredged  Narrows.  the to  below  entrance 40  feet. The $2.9  First  million.  Narrows i s now.being dredged  The  removal of t h i s  at a cost  heavy g r a v e l from  the  of  bottom w i l l  p r o v i d e a 50  There  silting  i s no  t h e work will  50  Port sea c r a f t .  The to  the  p o r t i s s e r v e d by railway.  has  a grain  The  national,  first  23,  Coast  and  the  The  rail  link  i n 1914  1970  t o be  They b r o u g h t  away 21.8  million  5  exported  t h e p o r t saw  calling.  dry bulk  York  offered  E u r o p e and  From a s i n g l e  5.3  from  thus  Vancouver  Sun,  days.  to  but  operate  opened  Vancouver Vancouver  i s the b i g g e s t 700  million  bushels  i n 19 71.^  million  tons  the P a c i f i c  3,  i n 29  e l e v a t o r i n 1914  over  permitted  the e a s t  17,276 d e e p - s e a and  April  east  competition  of cargo  coastal and  t o n s o f e x p o r t s , making Vancouver p o r t on  are  international  from  t o t h e p o i n t where g r a i n  wheat e x p e c t e d  busiest  one  train  1887.  item i n port business with  In  f o r deep  Inlet.  for regular shipping t r a f f i c  port.  progressed  single of  eighty berths  t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l movement o f goods  between t h e P a c i f i c as  two  o f t h e Panama C a n a l  made i t f e a s i b l e  up  of  r e q u i r e d ; depth  t h e O r i e n t t o r e a c h L o n d o n v i a New  opening  completion  these, nine are dry bulk b e r t h s which  i n V a n c o u v e r on May  from  be  Inlet.  feet.  regional  arrived  into Burrard  t h u s , on  a t three t e r m i n a l s w i t h i n the  one  cargo  i n the harbour,  f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e over Of  The and  deep c h a n n e l  no m a i n t e n a n c e d r e d g i n g w i l l  t h e n be  located  foot  Coast  1971,  p.  of North  20.  ships  carried the and  South  0 12  3 4  119  America.  Using  expenditure over  t h e f i g u r e o f $10 a s t h e a v e r a g e p e r t o n  resulting  from cargo,  $270 m i l l i o n t o t h e l o c a l  means t h e p o r t c o n t r i b u t e d  economy.^  F i g u r e 10 shows t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e  bulk  t e r m i n a l s on B u r r a r d I n l e t w h i c h s h a l l now b e d e s c r i b e d .  1.  P a c i f i c Coast Bulk Terminals This  facility  reaches of Burrard  Limited  i s l o c a t e d i n t h e upper o r e a s t e r n  I n l e t i n P o r t Moody.  I t was t h e f i r s t  bulk  t e r m i n a l i n t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r and i s l o c a t e d on 105 acres of reclaimed  l a n d owned b y t h e N a t i o n a l H a r b o u r s  The t e r m i n a l h a n d l e s of f e r t i l i z e r . for  potash;  p o t a s h , s u l p h u r , c o a l and s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s  Covered storage  o f 80,000 t o n s  s u l p h u r w i t h a 70,000  (110,000) a r e n o t s t o r e d u n d e r Terminal  Board.  Design.  i s provided  t o n s t o c k p i l e and c o a l  cover.  Terminal  trackage  p a r a l l e l s the  CP R a i l m a i n l i n e a n d c a n accommodate 37 0 l o a d e d  and 110 empty  cars.  U n i t t r a i n s m u s t be b r o k e n - u p i n t o s t r i n g s t o e n t e r  either  o f t h e two r o t a r y d u m p e r s .  Two d e e p s e a b e r t h s a r e  s e r v e d b y two l o a d e r s t h e d e e p e r b e r t h c a n accommodate w i t h a d r a f t o f 45 f e e t a l t h o u g h  6  Ibid.  channel  d e p t h i s 40  ships  feet.  120 2.  V a n c o u v e r Wharves  Limited  The a r e a s s e c o n d o l d e s t t e r m i n a l i s l o c a t e d on t h e north  shore of Burrard  Vancouver.  Its first  I n l e t i n the D i s t r i c t of North s h i p was l o a d e d  f a c i l i t y was u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n . operation sulphur, acres  i n May 1960 w h i l e t h e  I t i sa diversified  and h a n d l e s m e t a l c o n c e n t r a t e s , pulp,  paper and lumber.  o f a 159 a c r e  i n the appendix.  site,  The l a n d  potash,  The t e r m i n a l u t i l i z e s 130  the d e t a i l s of the berths itself  Sulphur - This  t o Vancouver  i n s t r i n g s i n t h e i r yard.  i s o f t y p e 1 a s shown i n F i g u r e  train,  the railway's  a r e removed and e n g i n e s b e l o n g i n g  Wharves s p o t t h e c a r s  are given  i s owned b y t h e NHB.  When u n i t t r a i n s a r r i v e a t t h e s i t e , locomotives  phosphate,  The t e r m i n a l  4 o f Chapter I I .  p r o d u c t a r r i v e s a t t h e t e r m i n a l by u n i t  t h e g o n d o l a c a r s a r e e m p t i e d b y r o t a r y c a r dumper a n d  t h e m a t e r i a l s t o r e d i n a 70,000 t o n s t o c k p i l e . Potash -  P o t a s h i s d e l i v e r e d by u n i t t r a i n ,  the t r a i n  i s t h e n b r o k e n i n t o s e c t i o n s , e a c h c o n s i s t i n g o f a f e w 100 t o n c o v e r e d h o p p e r c a r s , t h e s e a r e dumped i n t o a b o t t o m dump h o p p e r p i t a n d c o n v e y e d t o a 170,000 t o n s t o r a g e . Phosphate - t h e p r o d u c t i s r e c e i v e d by s h i p and c a n be s t o r e d o n t h e s i t e  i n a 47,500 t o n s i l o p r i o r t o m o v i n g  t o A l b e r t a i n t h e same c o v e r e d h o p p e r s u s e d t o t r a n s p o r t  potash.  7 I n t e r v i e w w i t h R.N. L a n d a h l , A s s i s t a n t t o t h e S a l e s Manager, V a n c o u v e r Wharves L i m i t e d , March 25, 1971.  121  Concentrate  - i s received i n polyethylene  covered  g o n d o l a c a r s , by c o n t a i n e r and by highway s e m i - t r a i l e r . and is  paper a r e r e c e i v e d by r a i l and by b a r g e . transported  t o t h e s i t e b y r a i l a n d by t r u c k .  Neptune T e r m i n a l s The  facility  Limited  i s located i n the City of North  l a n d owned b y t h e NHB. C o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e 75 a c r e  b e g a n i n 1967 a n d was c o m p l e t e d i n s t a g e s for  the handling  fall  providing  Vancouver facility berths  o f p o t a s h i n 1967, p h o s p h a t e a n d s a l t i n t h e  o f 1968 a n d c o a l i n F e b r u a r y o f 1970. T h i s was t h e t h i r d  and  lumber  g  3.  on  While  Pulp  the f i r s t  trains. permit  terminal b u i l t  t o be d e s i g n e d  Two c o n t i n u o u s the mainline  train tracks encircle  t h e s i t e and  e n g i n e s t o d e l i v e r two s e p a r a t e  A third  Inlet  t o make e f f e c t i v e u s e o f u n i t  o f up t o 125 c a r s a n d a l l o w t h e d i s c h a r g e simultaneously.  i n Burrard  trains  o f c o a l and p o t a s h  l o o p t r a c k g o e s p a r t way a r o u n d t h e  site. Mclntyre-Porcupine the  and L u s c a r  export  coal  through  t e r m i n a l ; c o a l a r r i v e s i n 85 c a r u n i t t r a i n s o p e r a t e d  by  C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l a n d p a s s t h r o u g h t h e r o t a r y c a r dump, t h e c o a l goes e i t h e r d i r e c t l y s i t e provides  t o the ship or t o stockpile; the  f o r two s t o c k p i l e s e a c h o f 200,000 t o n s .  g  I n t e r v i e w w i t h H.M. M c L e n n a n , A u g u s t 4, 1970.  122 This controlled, within  t e r m i n a l proves  that the dust  personal observation  the c a r unloading  At  the time  o f my v i s i t ,  from the t r a i n no d u s t was area  4.  observed  being  the loading operation.  t h e c o a l was b e i n g  blowing  loaded  with  from the s t o c k p i l e .  high pressure  directly  Westshore Terminals Roberts  surge  i s blowing.  Limited  Bank s u p e r p o r t  V a n c o u v e r saw t h e o p e n i n g  The  n o z z l e s which allow the  t o be w a t e r e d down when t h e w i n d  The of  t h e t r a i n was  of dust  t o t h e s h i p ; w i n d v e l o c i t y was m o d e r a t e and  i s equipped  stockpiles  c a n be  showed no e v i d e n c e  shed w h i l e  unloaded, or a t ship side during  problem  l o c a t e d twenty m i l e s  of i t s f i r s t  south  terminal early i n  1970. Up t o t h a t t i m e filled  with  continuous  the h i s t o r y controversy.  a deep water t e r m i n a l t o p r o v i d e then of  after  t h i s was  the r a i l  to  assess  port. tidal be  banks—Boundary  concluded  commissioned  Inlet's  They recommended  developed.  f o r super  grew t o e v e n l a r g e r  i n 19 66 NHB  Burrard  First,  settled, the controversy  connection  Late  of Roberts  over bulk over  t h e need f o r carriers; the s i t i n g  proportions.  Swan W o o s t e r  Engineering  f u t u r e a d e q u a c y as a d e e p - s e a  t h a t one o f t h e t h r e e F r a s e r  Bay, R o b e r t s  A more d e t a i l e d  t h a t Roberts  Bank h a d b e e n  Bank o r S t u r g e o n  study  was  Bank be d e v e l o p e d  carried  bulk  River Bank—  o u t and  as t h e " o u t e r p o r t . "  123  The  first  July  stage  was u n d e r t a k e n b y t h e H a r b o u r s B o a r d i n  1 9 6 8 ; . a t a c o s t o f $5 m i l l i o n  having  a depth o f s i x t y - f i v e  capable  a c h a n n e l and b e r t h —  f e e t below low water ( i . e .  o f t a k i n g s h i p s o f 150,000 dwt) was d r e d g e d .  d r e d g e d m a t e r i a l was t h e n u s e d t o b u i l d island  The  up a f i f t y - f i v e  acre  and a t h r e e m i l e causeway t o t h e s h o r e . Kaiser  coal handling  s p e n t an a d d i t i o n a l n i n e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s on e q u i p m e n t and a f u r t h e r e x p e n d i t u r e  o f two  m i l l i o n was made f o r s e r v i c e s . The the  first  first  c o a l a r r i v e d by u n i t t r a i n  ship departed  week o f May.  with  25,000 t o n s  Up t o t h e p r e s e n t  on A p r i l  during  30, 1970;  the f i r s t  time the l a r g e s t s h i p t o c a l l  has  b e e n t h e C h e k u g o M a r u w h i c h made h e r m a i d e n v o y a g e c a r r y -  ing  110,000 t o n s  1970.  This  capable  o f c o a l f r o m R o b e r t s Bank i n m i d O c t o b e r  t e r m i n a l as w e l l a s N e p t u n e a r e t h e two t e r m i n a l s  of handling  integral  trains.  R o b e r t s Bank h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d Figure superport  The u n i t t r a i n  i n Chapter I I .  15 shows t h e " m a s t e r p l a n "  as e n v i s a g e d  b y Swan W o o s t e r .  f o r R o b e r t s Bank T h e r e i s room f o r  fifty  d e e p - s e a b e r t h s , b a c k e d up b y 1,360 a c r e s , p l u s  acres  c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e by r e c l a i m i n g t h e t i d a l  In a d d i t i o n the Province 3,000 a c r e s  along  between t h e r a i l r o a d to  provide  of British  the r a i l  serving  3,630 flats.  Columbia has e x p r o p r i a t e d  c o r r i d o r t o prevent a  conflict  and p o s s i b l e r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t and  an i n d u s t r i a l  land  bank.  Dteosigancac tedmmodOapteen BC.hCa.nnel Hydro oH .V.O.C. cables.  MASTER PLAN - ROBERTS BANK DEVELOPMENT % SWAN  WOOSTER  ENGINEERING CO. LTD.  PORT OF VANCOUVER  ROBERTS BANK  • CAL* IN »• BT  F I G .  15 to  125  5.  The C o n f l i c t s The  bulk  terminals within Burrard  c o n f l i c t with the surrounding and  some e n v i r o n m e n t a l  evident The  i n regards  f i r s t product  groups.  enclosed  emission.  T h i s has been  i n covered  there  is little  The s e c o n d p r o d u c t  no  e f f o r t being opportunity  The are  f o r dust  and l o a d e d  i n hopper  there  occurred  air pollution. t h i r d product  t o b e h a n d l e d was one m o s t p e o p l e  familiar with—coal—the  Vancouver C i t y handling  made t o k e e p  t o be h a n d l e d was p h o s p h a t e  t h r o u g h o p e n i n g i n t h e t o p , once a g a i n  visible  since  hopper c a r s and i s s t o r e d  which i s a l s o stored i n closed s i l o s cars  particularly  h a n d l e d b y t h i s t e r m i n a l was p o t a s h ,  b u i l d i n g s w i t h every  the m a t e r i a l dry,  neighbourhoods  t o Neptune, t h e newest o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s .  t h i s commodity a r r i v e s in  residential  I n l e t have been i n  submission  of plans  t o North  C o u n c i l i n 1969 f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e c o a l  facility  c a u s e d s o much c o n t r o v e r s y  t h a t Mr. Duncan  t h e A c t i n g P o r t M a n a g e r p r e d i c t e d t h a t NHB w o u l d n o t a l l o w any  future f a c i l i t i e s  t o be c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h o u t  c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h the communities a f f e c t e d . was c o n c u r r e d  prior  This  policy  t o by t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r Development  C o m m i t t e e who p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n t h a t NHB d i s c u s s a n y application  f o rbulk  loading plant with the municipality 9  concerned before  approval  i s given.  9  V a n c o u v e r S u n , O c t o b e r 20, 1969.  126 As loading,  stated  train  conclusion problem and  I.witnessed  u n l o a d i n g o r from  to the Nepture V a n c o u v e r Sun  earlier  site; since  n o r h a v e any  from  stockpile  ship  on my  r e p o r t s appeared  the t e r m i n a l s t a r t e d  I h a v e drawn i s t h a t  visit  i n the  handling coal.  t h e d u s t n e e d n o t be  i f the proper d u s t c o n t r o l equipment i s  The  a  installed  properly maintained. One  year  after  Vancouver a l t e r e d Neptune recently size  surpress nor  from  the episode with c o a l  their  entering  s u l p h u r was  varied  product  by-law e f f e c t i v e l y  into  gave r i s e  the d u s t because  i s sulphur stored  a i r pollution.  rain surge  "A"  of  North  preventing  form  and  Until  quite  particle  handling of  the  Water i s n o t used  because  added t o t h e  to  product,  of the danger of  an  the h a n d l i n g of sulphur i n crushed Sulphur  i s generally  frame r o o f e d b u i l d i n g s which o f f e r  but does not p r e v e n t wind  from b l o w i n g  stored  protection  dust, f r o m  from  the  piles. Recent  slate  to dust.  in silos,  form  caused  grain;  of the weight  Undoubtedly  beneath  i n crushed  f r o m powder t o a f i n e  invariably  the c i t y  the sulphur b u s i n e s s .  handled  explosion.  p r e s s r e p o r t s would i n d i c a t e  sulphur w i l l  expected in  the  no d u s t  the v i s i b l e  t h a t V a n c o u v e r Wharves w i l l  i t s new  sulphur  decrease  form  reduces  in April  19 71.  The  Sun,  the use  pollution,  start  November 24,  i t is  slate  over n i n e t y per 1970,  of  handling sulphur  company c l a i m s  t h e amount o f d u s t by  ^Vancouver  that  p.  18.  cent. ^ 1  127  According sulphur,  t o B. C. R e s e a r c h  phosphate rock  quantative  observations  worst offender.  and p o t a s h  the bulk show  visible  handling of dust  plumes,  by them show p h o s p h a t e t o be t h e  In t h e i r  report they.stated:  The p o t a s h and s u l p h u r d u s t s were f o u n d t o be l i m i t e d t o an a r e a w i t h i n 1/2 t o 3/4 o f a m i l e o f t h e b u l k t e r m i n a l s i t e ; beyond t h i s d i s t a n c e the c o n t r i b u t i o n t o d u s t f a l l l e v e l from t h e b u l k t e r m i n a l o p e r a t i o n s i s z e r o . 11 The  r e p o r t went on t o recommend: A i r p o l l u t i o n from the bulk t r a n s p o r t i n d u s t r y , with the exception of g r a i n handling, i s a t present r a t h e r minor. However we recommend t h a t l o c a t i o n o f b u l k h a n d l i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n a r e a s s u c h as R o b e r t s Bank be e n c o u r a g e d . I n a d d i t i o n , s i n c e d u s t from u n c o v e r e d h o p p e r r a i l w a y c a r s has c a u s e d local p r o b l e m s , t h e r o u t i n g o f r a i l w a y l i n e s and z o n i n g f o r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r to minimize t h i s nuisance. 12  6.  Potential  In t h e i r super-port as  Locations  study  at Roberts  t h e demands  w h i c h recommended  the b u i l d i n g  of a  Bank, Swan W o o s t e r s t a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g  f u t u r e t r a d e w o u l d make on a V a n c o u v e r  terminal:  (i)  V e r y l a r g e a c e r a g e o f l e v e l l a n d , p o s s i b l y up t o 100 a c r e s p e r b e r t h , i m m e d i a t e l y adjacent to the berth area.  B.C. R e s e a r c h , E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l l u t i o n S t u d i e s , A i r Q u a l i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( V a n c o u v e r : B.C. R e s e a r c h , December 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 4 9 . 1 2  Ibid.  1 ->  S w a n W o o s t e r E n g i n e e r i n g Co. L t d . , P l a n n i n g S t u d y F o r O u t e r P o r t D e v e l o p m e n t a t V a n c o u v e r B.C., ( V a n c o u v e r : Swan W o o s t e r E n g i n e e r i n g Co. L t d ~ J u l y 1967)"^ p T 3 4 . J  128 (ii)  W a t e r d e p t h s up t o s i x t y more i n t h e f u t u r e .  (iii)  D i r e c t railway access, b u i l t - u p areas.  (iv)  D i r e c t v e s s e l access i n - p o r t time.  (v)  clear  o f congested  from deep water t o m i n i m i z e  Very h i g h l o a d i n g r a t e s i n t e r m i n a l equipment, w i t h a s s o c i a t e d l a r g e s t o c k p i l e . 13  Their Port  f e e t and p o s s i b l y  study  o f Vancouver,  w h i c h was r e s t r i c t e d found  that  these  to the enlarged  conditions could  be met  14 only  to a limited The  concur rail  with  access  facility  extent  information this  i n Burrard i n this  finding;  chapter  i n my  would be t h e d e c i d i n g  be l o c a t e d o u t s i d e  Inlet.  opinion  would  l e a d me t o  t h e problems o f  factor i n advising that a  Burrard  Inlet.  Swan W o o s t e r E n g i n e e r i n g Co. L t d . , P l a n n i n g S t u d y f o r O u t e r P o r t D e v e l o p m e n t a t V a n c o u v e r B.C., ( V a n c o u v e r : Swan W o o s t e r E n g i n e e r i n g C o T L t d . , J u l y 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 34. -  1 4  Ibid.  CHAPTER V  CONCLUSIONS AND  A.  CONCLUSIONS  It  i s shown i n C h a p t e r I I t h a t  segment o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by  up t o a b o u t  I t was a l s o  reduced.  In order  necessary  t o load  can in  At  c a r r i e r s and t h a t  that  the saving  i f the turnaround  in  the present  i s also  i s j u s t around  This  time i n l a n d t r a n s p o r t  supply  i t is  requirement improvements  Use o f t h e u n i t  train  o f t h e s t o c k p i l e and a t t h e of inland  the corner  transport.  and t h a t  this w i l l  i n inland transport  such time as p i p e l i n e s a r e p r o v e n be d e s i g n e d  improvements  shown t h a t movement o f s o l i d s by  a further decrease  should  accrue  transportation.  same t i m e r e d u c e s t h e c o s t  line  only  a s u i t a b l e s t o c k p i l e and/or  i n a uniform  It  could  time o f t h e s h i p i s  t h e s h i p more q u i c k l y .  t a k e t h e form o f t h e u n i t t r a i n . results  reduced  the saving  t o reduce t h e time spent i n p o r t  be met b y h a v i n g inland  o f t h e ocean  200,000 dwt.  found  t h e s e a component  the cost  s y s t e m c a n be g r e a t l y  t h e employment o f s u p e r b u l k  continues  to  RECOMMENDATIONS  result  costs.  i n operation,  pipe-  Until terminals  t o accommodate i n t e g r a l t r a i n s .  130 Increased for of  a share super  trade  in this  bulk  i n b u l k m a t e r i a l s and  t r a d e , has  carriers  both  i n a world  t h e movement o f c e r t a i n b u l k Columbia  provided  to enable  This  to provide The  study  s h i p s up  of  the  rail  found  a single  employed  as  t h e number h a v i n g  in to  these still  rail  commodities.  British accommodate  suitable  a marine t e r m i n a l are  existing  system i n  movement o f b u l k  t h a t many h a r b o u r s  existing  inland  sites  considerably with  more—to  connections  areas  rail  four or being  of the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network,  resources  for a terminal; with  is five;  the  most  favours  a location  a lower  at Prince  coupled mainland Rupert  second. If  the  facilities  these.  location  location  sea—as  efficient  t h e number i s r e d u c e d  The  ranking  British  l a r g e v e s s e l s t o be  c o s t of s e r v i c i n g  l o c a t i o n s having  favoured  with  through  p h y s i c a l features necessary  developed  When t h e  considered the  has  t o 200,000 dwt;  c a n be  these  t e r m i n a l and  f o r the  Columbia have the  less.  commodities  for  involves consideration of a l l three  components — i n l a n d ,  that  w i d e s e n s e and  f u r t h e r c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t modern t e r m i n a l  economically.  order  i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n  ports. A  must be  resulted  competition  lower  a l l t h e b u l k m a t e r i a l s were t o be mainland  there  network c o u l d handle  i s some q u e s t i o n  handled  t h a t the  through existing  predicted increases i n bulk  131 volumes. can to  The movement o f b u l k m a t e r i a l s t o t h e t e r m i n a l  tax the r a i l people  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m and p r o v e  living  along  the route  inconvenient  and t r a v e r s i n g t h e r a i l -  line' a t grade c r o s s i n g s . The terminal  handling  of dry bulk  commodities  cause minor a i r p o l l u t i o n  a t a marine  problems w i t h  e f f e c t s within three quarters of a mile  measurable  of the loading  point. A marine t e r m i n a l capable super the  dry bulk  carriers  i s self  s e r v i c e s o f an u r b a n c e n t r e  diversified  bulk  of efficiently  sufficient  handling  and do n o t r e q u i r e  t o t h e same e x t e n t  t e r m i n a l or a port area devoted  as a  to general  cargo. Utilizing first  t h e BCRC  b e r t h as b e i n g  1  estimate  2.2 m i l l i o n  tons  o f the throughput (based  on s i x t y - p e r  cent  o c c u p a n c y ) and o f t h e s e c o n d  four  t e r m i n a l s i n t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r h a v e an e x p o r t  capacity  o f 22 m i l l i o n  forecasts tons)  (coal  tons.  of the  as 4.4 m i l l i o n  tons, the  Comparing t h i s w i t h  t h e BCRC  i s , however, i n c r e a s e d f r o m 10 t o 12 m i l l i o n  f o r a 1985 t h r o u g h p u t  there w i l l  be a r e q u i r e m e n t ,  additional  berths.  In f a c t  o f 27.5 m i l l i o n a t t h a t time, the present  tons  we  find  f o r two  capacity w i l l  be  reached  i n 1975.  Traffic  "'"British Columbia R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , Vancouver Harbour: T r e n d s and F a c i l i t y A n a l y s i s , V a n c o u v e r : B r i t i s h " C o l u m b i a R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , 1967.  132 We h a v e s e e n five  commodities  are exported remaining  i n Chapter  (iron ore, coal  from  of port  sufficient  potash  trade  o f C a n a d a and t h a t t h e  and b a u x i t e and a l u m i n a  statistics  these b u l k commodities  three of the top  and g r a i n ) i n w o r l d  t h e West C o a s t  two—phosphate  Examination  I I I that  showed t h a t  are imported.  i n addition to  and s u l p h u r a r e e x p o r t e d i n  q u a n t i t y t o warrant  inclusion  i n the i n v e s t i -  gation . I t was  also  found  that,  a t the present time,  iron  o r e and c o a l  a r e b e i n g moved  over  60,000 dwt.  I t was  used  to the g r e a t e s t extent i n the supply of these  commodities shipped  also  t o any e x t e n t i n s h i p s o f  found  i n t r a d e s w i t h Japan,  t o a number  o f European  Examination  of imports  only  that  the large  although i r o n  steel  plants  by  ships are two  ore i s also super  carrier.  West C o a s t  p o r t s showed t h a t  are r e s t r i c t e d  ships carrying  i n s i z e by t h e l i m i t a t i o n s  and /that t h e movement i s t i e d t h e U.S. E a s t  tonnage from eighty  and a l u m i n a these  through  products  o f t h e Panama C a n a l  i n w i t h p o t a s h movements  to  Coast.  Turning commodities  o f phosphate  next  t o e x p o r t s i t was  make up o v e r  sixty  t h e West C o a s t  per cent of t h i s .  found  that dry bulk  per cent o f the export  and t h a t V a n c o u v e r  handled  133 One ore.  The  product not  i r o n mines are  ments a r e  made d i r e c t l y  t o n n a g e has largest study,  shipped  that  facilities  grain  t h i n k i n g behind  could  small  ships  can  large  ships)  transport  and and  the  find  idea  relatively  facilities  since  other  is  (there and  of  the  In  addition  bulk that  are  few the  export  The  i t s need  in  the  for  commodities.  The  grain  i s moving  in  import  terminals  which  investment  surrounding  grain w i l l  ship-  concluded, early  (a)  (b)  and  mid-sixties.  i t was  institutions  selling  site.  a s o l u t i o n to  from the  this  next to tidewater  from the  i s grain,  separate  handle  located  been d r o p p i n g  s i n g l e item  through Vancouver i s i r o n  be  in existing  the  growing,  difficult  to  alter. I t was sufficient  two  unless  super bulk c a r r i e r ,  would  a Central The  only  only  of  utilize  Recent orders  by  the  points  super bulk  to Japan w i l l  within  the  one  to  that by  to  Japanese  steel  move i n s h i p s two  years.  consider  movement o f ship  over  the  50,000  industry to  dwt  in Asia.  consistent that  100,000 dwt  up  the  sufficient  c a r r i e r s i s c o a l ; and i n the  or  c o a l move i n  established  justify  vessels  coal w i l l  next  but  p r o d u c t t h e n t h a t moves i n  employment  and  West C o a s t  T e r m i n a l S t a t i o n was  b e t w e e n two  ore  p o t a s h and  o c c a s i o n a l l y be  quantities  iron  sulphur,  q u a n t i t i e s through the  movement by first  found t h a t  shipments  range.  indicate  130,000  dwt  that  134 B.  RECOMMENDATIONS  The  movement o f raw m a t e r i a l s  C a n a d a c a n impose  severe  tation  and c a n a f f e c t  It  facilities  i s recommended  t h r o u g h West  p r o b l e m s on t h e e x i s t i n g  that before  the a s s o c i a t e d  any d i r e c t  or  a r e made by g o v e r n m e n t s on m a r i n e  that  should  ing  rail  the  communities  be made o f t h e c a p a b i l i t y  network t o handle along  Increasingly facilities basis;  the route  terminals of the e x i s t -  governments a r e b e i n g large ships, albeit  for further  asked t o provide  on a c o s t  recovery  that the four  in this  study,  basic  should  research:  S h o u l d o u r raw m a t e r i a l s  (b)  I f s o , a t what r a t e and t o what e x t e n t t h e y be e x p l o i t e d ?  (c)  Can t h e raw m a t e r i a l s be u t i l i z e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o r i n C a n a d a , now o r i n t h e s h o r t term f u t u r e ?  (d)  W i l l t h e raw m a t e r i a l be i n s h o r t s u p p l y i n t h e f u t u r e , t h u s a l l o w i n g a h i g h e r p r i c e a t some f u t u r e time?  new d r y b u l k  Burrard -Inlet.  I would  congestion  considered  be  t h e recommendations  curred w i t h — n o  traffic  before  exported?  terminals  and t h e w i s h e s  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new  should  o f B.C. R e s e a r c h should  add t h a t t h e e f f e c t s  allowing  on  traffic.  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" J o u r n a l o f t h e Waterway and Harbour D i v i s i o n , American S o c i e t y o f C i v i l E n g i n e e r s , V o l . 91, No. WW2, P r o c e e d i n g s paper 4310, May' 1965, pp.  17-25.  Oram, R.B. Cargo H a n d l i n g and t h e Modern P o r t . O x f o r d : Pergamon P r e s s Ltd."^ 1965. O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic C o - o p e r a t i o n and Development. M a r i t i m e T r a n s p o r t . P a r i s : OECD, 1968. 1969  139 Peters,  Joerg Ernst. "Commodity T r a d e F l o w s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1961-1964." Unpublished Master of A r t s Theses, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969.  P l u m l e e , C a r l H. "Optimum S i z e Sea P o r t . " Journal 'Waterways and H a r b o u r s D i v i s i o n , ASCE, V o l . No. WW1, November 1967, pp. 107-132.  of the 9~3,  P r o c e e d i n g s o f the 5th C o n f e r e n c e . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f P o r t s and H a r b o r s , T o k y o , May 8-13, 1967. P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Symposium O r g a n i z e d by and H e l d a t t h e I n s t i t u t i o n of C i v i l Engineers. Modern T r e n d s i n Bulk Grain I n s t a l l a t i o n s i n P o r t s . M a r c h 17, 1966, London. Proctor,  Ray,  I r v i n g Leroy. "A S t a t i s t i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Ocean C h a r t e r M a r k e t . " U n p u b l i s h e d MBA Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970.  the  W i l l i a m W. S e l e c t i o n s of S i g n i f i c a n c e to the Urban and R e g i o n a l P l a n n e r o f P o r t s and HinterlancH Monticello I l l i n o i s . C o u n c i l of Planning L i b r a r i a n s 1970, e x c h a n g e b i b l i o g r a p h y No. 131.  R e p o r t on I n t e r n a t i o n a l Symposium on M i d d l e t e r m and L o n g t e r m F o r c a s t i n g f o r S h i p b u i l d i n g and Shipping. The Hague: S t i c h t i n g M a r i t i e m e R e s e a r c h , 1970. R u p p e n t h a l , K a r l M. California: University,  ed. Transportation F r o n t i e r s . Stanford Graduate School of Business, Stanford 1962.  Shenker, E r i c . E c o n o m i c Impact o f a p o r t 6th Annual Meeting T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 1965.  on U r b a n Community. R e s e a r c h Forum  T a n n e r , M.F.; and W i l l i a m s A.F. "Port Development.and National Planning Strategy." Journal of Transp o r t E c o n o m i c s and P o l i c y . V o l . 1, No. 3, September T9~6T, pp. 3 1 5 - 3 2 T T T h a s h e r , James P. " U n i t C o s t : t h e R e a l B a s i s f o r C o m p a r i n g Transportation Technologies." Fairplay, Vol. 225, no. 4393, (November 2, 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 71-74.  140  Unit Train Operations. C h i c a g o : R a i l w a y Systems Management A s s o c i a t i o n , J a n u a r y 1967.  and  United Nations. C o n f e r e n c e on T r a d e and D e v e l o p m e n t . R e v i e w o f M a r i t i m e T r a n s p o r t , 1969. (TD/B/C.4/66) 1969.  . C o n f e r e n c e on T r a d e and D e v e l o p m e n t . Development o f P o r t s I m p r o v e m e n t o f P o r t O p e r a t i o n s and C o n n e c t e d F a c i l i t i e s P a r t One: Tne P r o b l e m o f P o r t D e v e l o p m e n t " (TD/B/C. 4 / 4 2 T 7 ~ J a n u a r y 3, 1969. . Department o f Economics Trade Annual.  and S o c i a l A f f a i r s .  World  . D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c s and S o c i a l A f f a i r s . The T u r n a r o u n d T i m e of. S h i p s i n P o r t . New Y o r k : U . N. , 1967.  . Secretariat. The D e v e l o p m e n t o f P o r t s ; A P r o g r e s s R e p o r t o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t , New Y o r k : U.N., 1967 (TD/C.4/23). . Department of Economics T r a d e A n n u a l . 1968.  and S o c i a l A f f a i r s ,  World  W a r r e n , H a r r y V. and W i l k s , E.F. World Resource P r o d u c t i o n 50 Y e a r s o f C h a n g e . B.C. G e o g r a p h i c a l S e r i e s , No. 5, V a n c o u v e r : T a n t a l u s R e s e a r c h L i m i t e d , 1966. Wilsher, Peter. XXXVIII  " P o r t s and Ore C a r r i e r s . " ( A p r i l , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 16-19.  Steel  Review,  APPENDICES  A P P E N D I X  1.  British  Columbia Mining  I  Revenue by M a r k e t ,  1965-1969. 2.  British  Columbia Mining  1965-1969.  Revenue by M a j o r  Product,  142  90  eo 70  60  50  40  30  20  < _i _i o  10  Q  o  1965  1 9 6 6 1967  Copper  1968  1969  1965 1966 1967 I96B 1969  1965 I960 1907 1968 1 9 6 9  Zinc 8 Zinc  Lead 8 Lead Concentrates  Concentrotes  17)  Concentrate*  z o  1965 1966 1967  1966  1969  Molybdenum  30  20  10  1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Iron ore ond Concentrator  1365 1966 1967 1966 1969 Atbettos Fibro  m 1723  M\ IM  L*J L_5LI L*J L*  1965 1966 (967 1968 1969 Silver I 1 Gold Bullion E23  1965 1966 1967 1966 1969 Coal  • Mining  Aitociohon  of  BRITISH  Br'loh  Ova,table  Columbia  COLUMBIA BY  Not  MAJOR  MIMING PRODUCT  1965-1969  REVENUE  APPENDIX  130  143  110  100  90  80  (/> CC  70  < _l 60  rs  Z  o —  40  20  10  0  1965 66* 6 7 68  69  1963 6 6 6 7  CANADA  Mining  A n o c l a t l o n of B r l t l t h  BRITISH  68  69  U.S.A.  1963 6 6 6 7  68 69  JAPAN  I96S 6 6 6 7 6 8 U. K  69  I9P5 6 6 6 7  68  69  OTHER  Columbia  COLUMBIA MINING REVENUE BY  MARKET  1965-1969  APPENDIX  A P P E N D I X  I I  SOLIDS P I P E L I N E S  1.  List  o f some p i p e l i n a b l e  2.  Summary o f s e l e c t e d  minerals.  commercial, s l u r r y  pipelines.  L I S T OF  SOME P I P E L I N A B L E MINERALS  BEING P I P E L I N E D • L i m e s t o n e and e Iron •  o t h e r cement raw m a t e r i a l s  concentrate  Gilsonite  • Salt  i n brine  • Phosphate  rock  • Various mineral  tailings  '• K a o l i n • Copper  concentrate  TECHNICAL F E A S I B I L I T Y ESTABLISHED °  Potash  • Lead-zinc •  concentrates  Sulphur  • Laterite  (nickle  ore)  © Pyrite ® Coke Source:  E . J . Wasp and W.L.J. F a l l o w .  146  SUMMARY OF SELECTED COMMERCIAL  Material  Location  SLURRY  PIPELINES  Length Miles  Dia. Inches  Million Tons/Year  108  10  1.30  Gilsonite  72  6  0.38  England  Limestone  57  10  1.70  Colombia  Limestone  9  5  0.35  Trinidad  Limestone  6  8  0.57  California*  Limestone  17  7  2.0  South  Gold  22  6&9  1.05  53  9  2.25  273  18  4.8  40  8  1.0  12-16  -  Ohio  Coal  Utah  Africa  Tailings  Tasmania  Iron Concentrates  Arizona**  Coal  Japan  Copper  Canada***  Sulphur/Hydrocarbon  *In  Tailings  d e s i g n phase  **Under  Construction  * * * I n p l a n n i n g phase  Source:  E . J . Wasp and W.L.J. F a l l o w .  800  A P P E N D I X  UNIT  Loading Sparwood  I I I  TRAINS  Integral Train  at Kaiser'  Facility.  R o t a r y C a r Dumper Terminals.  a t Westshore  A P P E N D I X  1.  Cargoes Ports  over  I V  200,000 t o n s  l o a d e d a t B.C.  t o and f r o m F o r e i g n C o u n t r i e s  1967. 2.  Countries Importing  over  200,000 t o n s  Commodity v i a t h e P o r t o f V a n c o u v e r  of a  Single  i n 1967.  APPENDIX  151  Cargoes over 200,000 tons Loaded at B r i t i s h Columbia Ports t o and from Foreign Countries 1967. Port and Commodity  Loaded 1967  Blubber Bay limestone  654,365  Campbell R i v e r newsprint paper  200,181  Chemainus lumber and timber  451,539  J edway i r o n ore and cone  441,399  Kitimat alumuna  431,829  Marble Bay limestone  410,050  Nanaimo lumber and timber pulp  542,528 245,274  New Westminster lumber and timber  611,530  Port A l b e r n i lumber and timber  473,632  Powell R i v e r newsprint paper  273,496  P r i n c e Rupert wheat fuel o i l  Unloaded 1967  201,594  256,533  Tasu i r o n ore and concentrate Texada i r o n ore and concentrate Vananda . limestone  240,055 688,928 216,255 continued  Port and Commodity  Loaded 1967  Unloaded 1967  Vancouver barley wheat rapeseed logs pulpwood copper ore and concentrate coal bituminous phosphate rock sulphur i n ore salt sand and gravel lumber and timber pulp . f e r t i l i z ers  528,391 3,495,612 202,434 313,307 490,080 228,590 1,159,432 890,362 1,211,769 343,313 1,184,605  Victoria wheat pulpwood lumber and timber  278,754 236,810 480,518  Zeballos iron ore and concentrate  Source;  229,734  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s  54-203.  171,307 226,810 412,688  153  Countries Importing Over 200,000 Tons of a Single Commodity v i a the Port of Vancouver i n 1967  Region  Commodity  Tonnage  USSR P a c i f i c  wheat  430,598  Australia  sulphur  205,631  Bellingham, Washington  pulpwood  294,100  India  wheat  359,957  asbestos  223,121  China (Communist)  wheat  978,707  Netherlands  fertilizers  326,150  Japan  barley  296,933  wheat logs  291,796  copper ore & concentrate  227,090  c o a l bituminous fertilizer  Source:  1,242,304  1,159,427 399,094  Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Ottawa, Canada.  A P P E N D I X  V  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA MINERAL PRODUCTION AND  1.  B.C. M i n e r a l s — T o n s Commodity  2.  Production and  3.  Shipped  SHIPMENTS  b y P o r t and  1966-1969. Selected Minerals  o f .B.C., 1968  1969.  Coal Resources of A l b e r t a  and B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a by Rank and P r o v i n c e . 4.  List to  5.  o f Coal Operators  with  Export  Contracts  J a p a n a s o f A p r i l 1971.  Shipments o f Canadian C o a l Pacific  Coast  Terminals  t o Japan  i n 1972.  from  B. C. -MINERALS - TONS SHIPPED BY PORT AND COMMODITY I966-I969  1966  1968  1969  127,000 36,000 768,000 3,000 456,000  184,000 66,000 616,000  261,000 73,000 677,000  213,000 136,000 36,000  172,000 87,000 33,000  229,000 378,000 242,000  844,000 297,000 149,000  1967  Port Britannia Beach Campbell River G i l l i e s Bay-  576,000  Hatch Point Jedway  512,000  New Westciinster Port McNeill Prince Rupert Tasu Vancouver Zeballos  83,000  -  -  138,000 66,000  -  234,000 318,000  -  1,927,000 2,624,000 2,448,000  -  -  80,000 98,000 36,000 1,080,000 630,000  -  2,935,000  Commodity Copper Zinc Lead Molybdenum Iron Asbestos Coal Nickel Other metals  276,000 289,000 376,000 138,000 86,000 160,000 159,000 119,000 86,000 30,000 65,000 81,000 10,000 14,000 . 20,000 10,000 . 1,460,000' 1,889,000 1,680,000 1,792,000 92,000 64,000 77,000 94,000 N.A. N.A. N.A. 326,000 23,000 18,000 18,000 18,000 88,000 143,000 56,000 177,000 1,927,000 2,624,000 2,448,000  Source;  2,935,000  Price Vfaterhouse & Co., The B r i t i s h Columbia Mining Industry i n 1969 Table 32.  N.A. Not available.  156 APPENDIX V PRODUCTION SELECTED MINERALS OF B. f  1968 Quantity  als Antimony Bismuth Cadmium Copper Iron, concentrates Lead Molybdenum Nickel Tin Zinc  lb. lb. lb. lb. tons lb. lb. lb. lb. lb.  1,159,960 207,783 1,341,437 160,993,338 2,094,745  231,627,618 19,799,793 3,317,160  1 9 6 8 and 1 9 6 9  1969  1  Quantity 820,122 62,488 1,141,133 167,421,925 2,074,854 210,072,565 25,512,001 2,979,130  358,191  288,427  299,396,264  301,163,774  Total  Value $  508,476  288,070 4,016,788 111,596,758 19,787,845 33,693,539 46,533,644  3,396,208 470,136 47,345,957 $ 267,637,421  I n d u s t r i a l minerals Asbestos Barite Fluxes Granules Gypsum & gypsite Sulphur Others  tons tons tons tons tons tons —  74,667 21,968 40,259 30,237 246,374 320,521  ——  79,600 $ 15,659,000 26,949 22,342 34,746  280,894 349,122  190,620  81,917  654,701 764,032  3,824,593 4,913 $ 21,179,776  Total Fuels Coal tons bbl. Crude o i l bbl. F i e l d condensate bbl. Plant condensate Natural gas to pipeline m s. c f . bbl. Butane bbl. Propane Total Grand  Source:  959,214 22,151,353 54,163 960,252 224,233,203 527,546  400,800  852,340 25,309,036 78,147 944,111  6,817,155 58,176,213 180,520 263,278  256,223,244 417,540 327,501  27,897,585 133,613 104.800 $ 93,573,164  total  $ 382,390,361  Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development Trade and Commerce, Bureau o f Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , The P a c i f i c Rim: An Evaluation of B r i t i s h Columbia Trade Opportunities, (Victoria: Queen's P r i n t e r , July 1 9 7 0 ) .  157  COAL RESOURCES.OF ALBERTA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA BY RANK AND PROVINCE (Thousands of Short Tons)  Province  Measured  Indicated  Inferred  Total  Low and Medium V o l a t i l e Bituminous Alberta Inner Foothills Luscar Formation Inner Foothills  542,000  7,426,500  3,535,400  11,503,900  Kootenay Formation  440.100  12.193.700  3.831.100  16.464.900  982,100  19,620,200  7,366,500  27,968,800  6,943,000  10,775,000  40,480,100  58,198,100  7,925,100  30,395,200  47,846,600  86,166,900  6,278,600  3,043,700  9,322,300  45,600  100,400  " 172,900  318,900  45,600  6,379,000  3,216,600  9,641,200  42,971,500  53,593,200  105,757,200  Alberta Total  B r i t i s h Columbia Rank Total  High V o l a t i l e Bituminous Alberta Outer F o o t h i l l s B r i t i s h Columbia Rank Total Grand Total Source:  B. A. Latour,"Coal Deposits of Western and Northern Canada," . (paper given at the 22nd Canadian Conference on Coal, Vancouver, September 2 9 - 0 c t o b e r 2, 1970).  Computed tonnage i s within 20$ of true tonnage Computed from projections of v i s i b l e data Estimates based on assumed continuity i n areas remote from outcrops.  a  D  c  9,192,500  158  L i s t of € o a l Operators with Export Contracts to Japan as of April  Company and Location  1971.  Remarks  Alberta Coleman C o l l i e r s Limited, Coleman, A l b e r t a .  Contracts f o r 13.3 m i l l i o n long tons over 15 years beginning i n 1970.  The Canmore Mines Ltd., Canmore.  In 1968 Canmore obtained a 10-year contract to supply 3.8 m i l l i o n long tons.  C a r d i n a l River Mines Ltd., Luscar.  Luscar operators of Cardinal have a contract t o supply 1 m i l l i o n tons f o r 15 years.  Mclntyre Coal Mines Limited, Grand Cache.  To supply 29.5 m i l l i o n long tons over 15 years; shipments commenced i n August, 1970. Further contracts have apparently been negotiated which would increase t h i s to 45.75 m i l l i o n tons.  B r i t i s h Columbia Kaiser Resources Ltd., Michel-Natal.  Contracted to supply 75 m i l l i o n tons over 15 years beginning i n 1970.  Fording Coal Limited, Fording River.  Delivery to start spring of 1972 to supply 3 m i l l i o n tons per year for 15 years.  Sourcet  Department of Energy Mines and Resources, September 1970, updated to A p r i l 1971 using various newspaper a r t i c l e s .  1  159  Shipments of Canadian Goal To Japan From P a c i f i c Coast Terminals i n 1972. Thousands of Long Tons  Loading Port  Railway  Alberta Coleman C o l l i e r s Ltd.  1,000  Port Moody  CP.  Luscar Limited  1,000  Neptune Terminal  CN.R.  Port Moody  CP. Rail  Neptune Terminal  CN.R.  Canmore Mines  380  Mclntyre Porcupine Mines Limited a  Sub-Total  2,000  Rail  4,380  B r i t i s h Columbia Kaiser Resources Ltd.  5,150  Roberts Bank C P . R a i l  Fording Coal Co. Ltd.  3,000  Roberts Bank C P . R a i l  Sub-Total Grand Total  Source;  C150 12,530  Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, "1970 Summary of Economic A c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia," Department of Industrial Development, Trade and Commerce, Economics and S t a t i s t i c s Branch. a  This tonnage could be higher, with the increase i n tonnage probably being through Prince Rupert.  A P P E N D I X  Possible  Super P o r t  British  Columbia.  Georgia  Strait  and  Squamish.  V I  Locations, North Coast  Showing  Entrance  t o Vancouver  

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