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The music of the troubadours Buch, Ingrid Pauline 1971

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by I n g r i d P a u l i n e Buch B. Mus . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 9  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE  OF  MASTER OF MUSIC  i n t h e Department o f Music  We a c c e p t t h i s standard.  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the required  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April,  1971  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  an advanced degree at the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  f u r t h e r agree  in p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  make i t  freely available  that permission  for  the requirements f o r  Columbia,  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  this  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s of  this  written  representatives. thesis  for financial  i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n gain s h a l l  permission.  Department o f  Music  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Date  It  May 5,  1971  Columbia  not  be allowed without my  Abstract THE MUSIC OF THE TROUBADOURS by  Ingrid  P a u l i n e Buch  Chairman o f S u p e r v i s o r y Committee:  This thesis  i s devoted  D r . T e r e n c e W. B a i l e y D e p a r t m e n t of" M u s i c  t o an e x a m i n a t i o n  of the  music o f t h e t r o u b a d o u r s , a group o f p o e t - m u s i c i a n s flourished  i n southern France  thirteenth  centuries.  ducted  i n this  d u r i n g t h e t w e l f t h and  M u s i c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h has been  con-  area only since the t u r n o f the present  century, although p h i l o l o g i c a l The  which  s t u d y b e g a n much  earlier.  m a i n a i m o f t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n i s t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r some  o f t h e most w i d e l y a c c e p t e d  t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g both  literary  and m u s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e movement a n d t o sum up g e n e r a l l y the  state  of troubadour  s c h o l a r s h i p as i t e x i s t s t o d a y .  Introduction also includes a brief h i s t o r i c a l troubadour The  movement, i t s s c o p e ,  not merely  read;  embodies two d i s c i p l i n e s :  poetry  and music.  little  i s known a b o u t t h e c o m p o s e r s o f t h e m e l o d i e s .  troubadour  of the  s i g n i f i c a n c e and i n f l u e n c e .  poems w e r e meant t o be s u n g ,  thus t h e a r t o f t h e Provencaux  survey  Y e t w h i l e much i s known o f t h e p o e t s ,  w r i t e h i s own m u s i c ?  s i m i l a r are the melodies How a r e t h e y r e l a t e d ?  The  D i d he b o r r o w i t ?  set to the texts  very  Did the How  of a single  poet?  Was one c o m p o s e r i n v o l v e d i n s e t t i n g  them, o r s e v e r a l ? these q u e s t i o n s .  Chapter I a t t e m p t s t o answer some o f A t t e n t i o n i s focused  on t h e music  assoc-  i a t e d w i t h t h e t e x t s o f seven t r o u b a d o u r s i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r i n t e r n a l e v i d e n c e which would shed l i g h t on t h i s problem. La D o c t r i n a de compondre d i c t a t z i s t h e s u b j e c t o f Chapter I I .  T h i s s h o r t , l i t t l e - k n o w n t r e a t i s e d a t i n g from  around 1 2 5 0 A.D. d i s c u s s e s t h e p o e t i c genres o f t h e t r o u b a dours and g i v e s s u g g e s t i o n s melodies. chapter  f o r t h e w r i t i n g of' s u i t a b l e  I t i s with the musical  i s p r i m a r i l y concerned.  considerations that How a c c u r a t e a r e L a  Doctrina s  d e s c r i p t i o n s i n the l i g h t of the extant  melodies?  Were any p o e t i c t y p e s  1  p r a c t i c e with s p e c i f i c melodic  this  Provencal  associated i n actual  forms?  The s u b j e c t o f t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r  i s a comparison o f  t r o u b a d o u r m e l o d i e s and t h e c h a n t s o f t h e G r e g o r i a n  rite.  The T r o u b a d o u r  Perdigon  B.N. MS. 12476 f.36  Page LIST OP TABLES  . .  j.  v  LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS  v  INTRODUCTION  2  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Chapter I.  II.  THE COMPOSERS OF THE MELODIES Part 1.  The Melodies o f G u i r a u t R i q u i e r  . . .  40  Part 2.  The M e l o d i e s o f Other Composers . . .  86  EARLY LITERARY SOURCES AND THE TROUBADOUR REPERTORY  III.  APPENDIX  . . . .  TROUBADOUR MELODIES AND THE CHANT  I. II.  MAP OF FRANCE, 1154-1184 MANUSCRIPT  .  . . . . . . .  III.  SOURCES OF THE PROVENCAL REPERTORY  IV.  RANGE AND FINALS OF THE TROUBADOUR  232  233 . .  MELODIES LA DOCTRINA DE COMPONDRE DICTATZ  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  171  SOURCES CONTAINING  PROVENCAL MUSIC  V.  127  235  253 . . .  262  267  Table  Page  1.  Ranges o f t h e R i q u i e r M e l o d i e s  . . . . . . . . . .  78  2.  Finals  . . . . . . . . . .  79  3.  Range o f t h e M i r a v a l M e l o d i e s  . . . .  93  4.  Finals  of the Ventadorn  5.  Finals  of the P e i r o l Melodies  . . . . . . . . . .  6.  Finals  of the F a i d i t Melodies  . . .  7.  F a i d i t I n c i p i t s B a s e d on a R e p e a t e d  o f the R i q u i e r Melodies  Note F i g u r e 8.  Marseilla Note  9.  100  Melodies  104 107  108  . . . . . . . . . . . .  I n c i p i t s Based  on a R e p e a t e d  Figure. .  114  Finals  o f the M a r s e i l l a  Melodies  10.  Finals  o f the V i d a l  11.  Use  12.  Finals  13.  P e n u l t i m a t e and F i n a l N o t e s  Melodies.,  115  . . .•  .121  . . . . . . . . .  of C a d e n t i a l P a t t e r n s In Troubadour Melodies of the Troubadour Melodies  .  . . . . . . . .  180  i n the. 187  Troubadour Repertory 14.  Range o f t h e T r o u b a d o u r M e l o d i e s  15.  Leaps  of a F i f t h  124  , .  i n the Troubadour Corpus  . . . . . .  192 202  Page Frontispiece Plate  I.  Perdigon. MS. F r . 12476 f . 3 6 . . . . . i i Guillaume IX o f A q u i t a i n s . MS. F r . 12476 f . 27 r  Plate  I I . J a u f r e Rudel. MS. F r . 12476 f . 107 v. . .  Plate I I I . Plate  IV.  "Pos vezem que l ' i v e r n s s ' i r a i s " from MS. F r . 844 f . lQOa . . . . . . . "Qui l a ve en d i t z " MS. F r . 844 f . 185b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6 6  7 141  INTRODUCTION  One  of the most v a l u a b l e l e g a c i e s we have i n h e r i t e d  from  the Middle Ages i s a corpus of s e c u l a r l y r i c p o e t r y with m u s i c a l accompaniment w r i t t e n from the e l e v e n t h t o f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s by the troubadours of southern France.  I t was  the c o u r t of Guillaume IX of A q u i t a i n e (1071-1127) t h a t movement r e c e i v e d i t s i n i t i a l impetus, and few fragmentary  at the  and the e l e v e n poems  l i n e s of melody w r i t t e n by the duke him-  s e l f c o n s t i t u t e the e a r l i e s t  extant examples of the new  art.^"  The major theme of Guillaume's works i s l o v e , t r e a t e d In a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l i z e d manner but expressed i n terms of elegance and g e n t i l i t y .  As such, these p i e c e s e s t a b l i s h e d a p r e c e -  2  dent f o r the o t h e r nobles t o f o l l o w , and soon the pastime w r i t i n g v e r s e with music became h i g h l y f a s h i o n a b l e . not t o be supposed, aristocracy. patronage  of  I t Is  however, that a l l troubadours were of the  Many were from the middle  c l a s s under the  of powerful f e u d a l l o r d s w h i l e o t h e r s , such as  Lo Monge de Montaudo (1180 - ca. 1213), were members of the  -"•Guillaume s works are b e l i e v e d to have been w r i t t e n from about IO87 t o h i s death f o r t y years l a t e r . 1  o  N o t a l l Guillaume*s poems d e a l t with the s u b j e c t of love. O r d e r i c u s V i t a l i s r e p o r t s t h a t upon h i s r e t u r n home from a crusade i n 1102, the duke "sang b e f o r e the p r i n c e s and the great assemblies of the C h r i s t i a n s , of the m i s e r i e s of h i s c a p t i v i t i e s among the Saracens, u s i n g rhymed v e r s e j o v i a l l y modulated." Ordericus V i t a l i s , H i s t o r i a e c c l i a s t i c a , e d i t e d by A l e P r e v o s t , V o l . IV, p. 132 c i t e d i n Robert S. B r i f f a u l t , The Troubadours,. (Bloomington, I n d i a n a : Indiana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 54. c  clergy.  Not  a few were from extremely humble  backgrounds:  the g r e a t e s t of a l l the troubadour masters, B e r n a r t de Ventadorn hand.  ( c a . 1150 - ca. 1 1 8 0 ) , was  the son of a k i t c h e n  I t i s t h e r e f o r e important to r e a l i z e t h a t  f a c t o r r u n n i n g through t h i s s e c u l a r a r t was noble rank of the composers  "the common  not so much the  . . . but the r e f i n e d way  in  which the sentiments of the poem . . . were e x p r e s s e d .  ,,J  Prom A q u i t a i n e , the movement spread t o Gascony, Languedoc, P o i t o u , Provence, southern Burgundy.  Auvergne, La Marche, and  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that these r e g i o n s  should be i n f l u e n c e d by the new  creative a c t i v i t y  s i n c e the  e n t i r e area shared numerous s o c i a l customs, s i m i l a r toward  r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s , and most important, a common  v e r n a c u l a r tongue known as langue d'oc was  attitudes  i n t h i s new  Latin—that  language—a  the troubadours  or P r o v e n c a l .  f u s i o n of l o c a l d i a l e c t s  It and  chose t o w r i t e t h e i r p o e t r y .  The very name g i v e n to these p o e t - m u s i c i a n s , d e r i v e d from the French v e r s i o n of the P r o v e n c a l verb t r o b a r , meaning "to i n v e n t , " was ties.  d o u b t l e s s suggested by t h e i r c r e a t i v e  Yet from a l l contemporary  r e p o r t s , the  troubadours  A l e c Harman, Mediaeval and E a r l y Renaissance (London: B a r r i e & R o c k l i f f , 1958), p . 77. J  abili-  Music  4  See Appendix I f o r a map troubadour a r t f l o u r i s h e d .  showing the r e g i o n s where  ^The term "Provence" i n the medieval sense of the word, took i n a l l areas where langue d'oc was spoken.  themselves poetry;  seem t o have e n j o y e d  and  their  ever a source  widespread accounts Perhaps vidas the  and  well  t h e most  known, we  and  their  amatory—were  speculation.  find  and  famous o f t h e s e  razos which  the  glimpses latter  tradition  a number o f  was  so  early  text  of the  the  circumstances  fascinating  the  are  lives  identify  of p a r t i c u l a r  the  of composition."  point  stories" of  which  troubadours.  and  hundred  of  "biographies" offering  "commentaries" which  songs,  troubadours,  often "introduce  c h a r a c t e r s , and Although  6  completely  elucidate  t h e y make  v i d a s and  razos  unreliable  from  a  view.?  Besides these treatises  former  some one  r e a d i n g , the m a j o r i t y of the  only "pretty  scholarly  The  125  are the approximately  i n t r o d u c e t o us  into  are  the  the  and  the P r o v e n c a l l i t e r a r y  Provenc,al p o e t s .  while  political  as  w h i c h d i s c u s s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e movement.  delightful  are  escapades—both  o f keen i n t e r e s t  Because  as much p o p u l a r i t y  accounts,  include Of  however, t h e r e a r e  a discussion  great importance  "Maurice Valency, In P r a i s e M a c m i l l a n & Co., 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 9 0 .  of the genres i n the  o f Love  study  (New  several used of  by  the  York:  7 A c c o r d i n g t o V a l e n c y , " t h e t r o u b a d o u r s were a t s u c h p a i n s t o e m b e l l i s h t h e t r a d i t i o n t h e y were c r e a t i n g t h a t now t h e y b a r e l y emerge f r o m t h e i r l e g e n d s . " Modern r e s e a r c h , t h e r e f o r e , "has made i t n e c e s s a r y t o q u a l i f y as f i c t i o n a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g i n t h e s e s t o r i e s s a v e t h e names and p r o v e n i e n c e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . " I b i d . , p. 9 1 .  p o e t i c and melodic forms of the canco i s Dante A l i g h i e r i ' s ft  e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h century work, De v u l g a r ! e l o q u e n t i a . About f i f t y  years l a t e r , Guillaume M o l i n e r compiled Las o  d'Amors ( 1 3 5 6 ) ,  Leys  a v a l u a b l e compendium of P r o v e n c a l p o e t i c  types as understood by the poets of the s c h o o l of Toulouse. The  only o t h e r main source of i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the a r t  o f the troubadours  i s an anonymous C a t a l a n t r e a t i s e ,  D o c t r i n a de compondre d i c t a t z ^  0  La  dated around the middle  of  the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The works of the f o u r hundred  or so troubadours  whom we have r e c o r d are c o n t a i n e d i n some s i x t y of parchment manuscripts known as chansonniers.  of  collections Many of  these chansonniers are very b e a u t i f u l l y executed, I n c l u d i n g not only the songs of the troubadours but sometimes t h e i r l i k e n e s s i n i l l u m i n a t i o n s as w e l l .  Shown below are  two  De v u l g a r ! e l o q u e n t l a i n The L a t i n Works of Dante, . t r a n s , by A.G. F e r r e r s Howell (London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1904).  ^For a complete e d i t i o n of t h i s voluminous work see Joseph Anglade ed., Las Leys d'Amors ( P a r i s , 1 9 1 9 - 1 9 2 0 ) . l°La D o c t r i n a , e d i t e d by Paul Meyer appears of Romania, pp. 353ff.  i n V o l . VI  miniatures  from the p a r t i c u l a r l y  P l a t e I . Guillaume IX o f A q u i t a i n e f . 27 r . Unfortunately, us,  only  259 P r o v e n c a l  impressive  MS, F r .  Plate I I .  J a u f r e Rudel f . 107 v .  m e l o d i e s h a v e come down t o  i n contrast to the approximately  existence.  Only e l e v e n  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  sources  o f these  the B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e Milan, I t a l y . H  either  2600 poems s t i l l i n  i n c l u d e b o t h words and m u s i c ,  being  three manuscripts  C or F clefs.  housed i n  i n P a r i s a n d one c o n t a i n e d i n  Most o f t h e m e l o d i e s i n t h e s e  are w r i t t e n i n p l a i n s o n g  12473:  n o t a t i o n on f o u r - l i n e  Because each s t a n z a  collections staves  of poetry  using  was  l^These four manuscripts are P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e Nationa l e f r . 22543 ( f o r m e r l y 2 7 0 1 , f o r m e r l y L a V a l l i e r e 1 4 ) , P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e f r . 20050 ( f o r m e r l y S a i n t - G e r m a i n 1 9 8 9 ) , P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e 844 ( f o r m e r l y 7222) a n d M i l a n , A m b r o s i a n a R 71 s u p . F o r a c o m p l e t e l i s t o f t h e s o u r c e s o f P r o v e n c a l m u s i c , see Appendix I I .  usually  sung t o  t h e poem and the  first  the  later  same m e l o d y , write  scribes  In t h e music  would  above  first  the  copy  words  of  stanza:  )tii Jtn-uf AMnwi" non i.umcn -ft aoii u."O u 0"C non butf .\vrf .\ -if Sum«:f \ 1015 t>t«ii f_i<liir^ioi cntcntori*^tanra:giifiiio: .qiuinriionvi« mtnrUuicn- quit nop f r nofhrf rotvf ifiictlinon .*wf • qiun piitj on poi* mat} lotf-fctvcwr i v M f t ctvnutif ^iicy-ifaouf-cr tfr foVoV" w cr >nn .m- crn mem «tifcrttOiOiif ,vftirNHh>f flnltnon CiUftnmctti ntir cr m cl (ictrlc Jw -r=rp jMjtf • r *><«>.• . _ j .fltief cmf vi n u t f ftn fti$nctrr c « u r c r Uif. cvt <) ' •. ' ' * * s" * . non dhn-<niiwf-<uu ro; IcffVnif <rl« Luc. ucr oc cnte 11011 f» uVctvf. poT joScr ni CU> oc \K 5cnr que imcr flmtfWnnintiu l<tn cf cv<t<\,Li x<f.impir.(r At m« tain nion cnfinf. ,.. , „ <r jurrfttoam .mmvf. mu£(Jr  tm  •  1V  ol  CJIK'  • y • • «".""*  *m .uip,ci tiinrf ni mf. .lulH,-  TV 11011 \K Imfir Weill cS* * ' V • S \. > ft^j tinftmrofturo lou m • «r [  pcrffinllotfxr loii fVctr >rt Kun rctnfo ati-tioti laflcrn vti v«rf .irhr- crta .rt  «'i  i, S .  <  . . • •  Oftnf ptr aico non mcfm.u- nine darof  '.",\r: • " " " ^ * \ • v  mift4«ll<-5amoi<iiii tlcw nn tSif-cr quefmon cil.Mir O — v I' one cxturtct crcrnu furamf - tui aguJ' r * ^ * .. jl or oitmrf ivrfodc quiftifmi fnwf- qiijn Lurrc jenf f«ftn.\if - cr rttcUlo: .tb ituu.mtc vcrfli notifliigmcpipf-.wi; V11 . . • " , , ' IA paaauc tl co: latJ • mol -ft»i losoerf.1* 53tur-m«f yc<wf rum fcettf-munf4uf que f^ott-ivr etne tnon dunr non .1^ wpnf pei" Hfnvarjrtiflll nenUif-ftt Cmto.t'onr nnr flit evueouf • cnttif ben 9 • •--rf ' • " ten tni jwif- crfiuctaluf 4«fhvnif. U\f rfV^wc . r cr vermnn. ttufuf fin cvt cktlutt tnutrr ycr m . m? p ntr mi fcitiWcnr Wm . • mi rcnflnc•! non -vol y015n1 .t". yvi mo m v»" " cnOmorr 01\ tanf X* mu mcc annrs cr^at • m«i iwfr ^oJ" M*i ghroi.mt-. - -i->. r< ot- ntcf ctutur cir igtmtftnf-tnc chi cr \*rmcilic-cHicl cr vnrtf Mlcnhf nutc niid5cn««f cr Uyhtf5aif.nunt4 ti^ ^Jfnc qiun vjcnf wf- «T rt not n.trUrmcf cf$lnr cr«»»»" ft™tn«f ewe f-iino: uuttnri •ftneo:iKlbiM" jutm*. — * utwf.cnitu <»it ^t" " w \- vjfhv buftrur-cr pUtfcn mc nur jw: mcftmrnuhuf oftU • ftr and ft^c -<r .mtoi 5CC41 • cjtwnv Pi tofrv ctt hfti M>fhr cun- —• -'•" O "— " r  1T T1  UJnr  1 |AW  1  Plate  III.  "Pos vezem que l ' i v e r n s s ' i r a i s " f r o m MS. P r . 844, f . 190a.  In  many c a s e s , however, the music was never added; and t h e r e  remain pages o f manuscript w i t h t e x t s and empty s t a f f  lines.  Most o f the troubadour melodies are unmeasured and scholars are s t i l l  i n b i t t e r d i s p u t e over t h e i r  t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n t o modern n o t a t i o n .  correct  The most g e n e r a l l y  accepted s o l u t i o n t o the rhythmic problem was suggested by the  independent work o f the h i s t o r i a n s J o h a n n - B a p t i s t Beck  and P i e r r e Aubry,. i n the f i r s t They  decade o f t h i s c e n t u r y .  came t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the f i r s t  1 2  t h r e e o f the s i x  medieval rhythmic modes should be a p p l i e d t o a l l nonmensural .pieces which have rhymed and metered  texts.^3  A c c o r d i n g t o Aubry and Beck, one c o u l d a s c e r t a i n the c o r r e c t mode f o r a p a r t i c u l a r melody by c o u n t i n g the a c c e n t e d s y l l a b l e s i n each l i n e . music would  Thus the s t r o n g .accents i n .the  correspond t o the accents i n the t e x t . * * 1  Although the modal theory i s widely adopted, i t i s f a r from b e i n g completely s a t i s f a c t o r y .  In f a c t , i f we a s s i g n  f i v e s c h o l a r s the t a s k o f t r a n s c r i b i n g a g i v e n p i e c e i n modal n o t a t i o n they w i l l q u i t e l i k e l y produce not one, but f i v e  J.-B. Beck, Die Melodien der Troubadours ( S t r a s s b u r g : K.J. Triibner, 1908)] P~! Aubry, Trouvdres and Troubadours (New York: G. Schirmer, 1914). ^ c a r l P a r r i s h has c o n v e n i e n t l y summarized the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f the Aubry and Beck modal theory i n The N o t a t i o n of M e d i e v a l Music (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 4 9 . 1  • ^ S c h o l a r s g e n e r a l l y agree that O l d P r o v e n c a l had many more s t r e s s e d s y l l a b l e s than has modern French.  different  interpretations.  T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y the  situation  In the case of the a l b a "Reis g l o r i o s , v e r a i s lums e c l a r d a t z " (87,  5_8) which has been t r a n s c r i b e d by  B e s s e l e r , Reese, and G e n n r i c h . ^ 5 exactly Ex.  No  A n g l e s ,  Gerold,  two v e r s i o n s are  alike: 1.  F i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f "Reis g l o r i o s "  - ^ H i g i n i Angles, La Mtlsica a Catalunya f i n s a l s e g l e X I I I i n B i b l i o t e c a de C a t a l u n y a , P u b l i c a c i o n s du Departament de Musica ( B a r c e l o n a , 1935), p. 395; T. G g r o l d , i n Le Jeu de S a i n t e Agn£s e d i t e d by A. Jeanroy ( P a r i s , 1931), p. 61; " H e i n r i c h B e s s e l e r , Die Musik des M i t t e l a l t e r s und der Renaissance In Handbuch der Musikwissenschaft (Potsdam, 1931-35), p. 107; G. Reese, Music i n the Middle Ages (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1940), p. 215; and F. G e n n r i c h , M u s i k a l i s c h e Nachlass der Troubadours, V o l . I l l , 58.  Ex.  1.• (continued)  -0  m —#  7=*-  4-  i 7 rTT  E  * + * wCUs com -  Z2X  *~  •&*—&  panh/  $/  Such a wide d i f f e r e n c e of o p i n i o n i s evidence enough t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n of the modal theory In se.veral i n s t a n c e s question  i s not without problems.  i t would appear that the h i s t o r i a n s i n  were f o r c e d to make r a t h e r a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n s .  A number of m u s i c o l o g i s t s ,  while not  o b j e c t i n g t o modal  n o t a t i o n i n p r i n c i p l e , have h e s i t a t e d to make as widespread use it  of the method as have Beck and i s unnecessary t o i n s i s t  on the  when a duple metre would o b v i o u s l y  Aubry.  standard  division.  some years a f t e r the o r i g i n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n  c e i v a b l e , but  rhythmic modes  c o r r e c t the awkward  rhythmic s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d by t e r n a r y  acknowledged that a b i n a r y  They argue t h a t  1 6  Even Beck,  of h i s t h e o r i e s ,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was  not  i n some cases p r e f e r a b l e ; ^ however,  s c h o l a r s would care to apply  duple meter to the  only few  alarming  extent  advocated by Hugo Riemann i n accordance with h i s  theory  of V i e r h e b i g k e i t .  preposterous.  The  con-  r e s u l t s are, of course,  1 8  See, f o r example, H. f i n s a l segle X I I I .  Angles, La Musica a Catalunya  "^See Beck's e d i t i o n o f Le Chansonnier Cange (Champion: U. of P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1927Ti ' 1  R  Hugo Riemann expounds h i s V i e r h e b i g k e i t theory i n Catechism of M u s i c a l H i s t o r y (London, 1892). His p o s i t i o n i s summarized by Johannes Wolf i n Handbuch der Notationskunde ( L e i p z i g , 1913-19), V o l . I, Ch. 15, Sec. 46, 5a.  The whole problem  o f whether duple I n s t e a d o f t r i p l e  meter should be used In c e r t a i n cases depends on j u s t r e l e v a n t the modal system a c t u a l l y was. that  "no mention  how  P a r r i s h p o i n t s out  i s made o f duple meter i n medieval  t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e s u n t i l the e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y " although he f i n d s i t hard t o b e l i e v e t h a t the rhythmic modes were "so a l l - p e r v a d i n g as t o exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the use o f duple meter.  m 1  9  j _ t h i s c o n n e c t i o n we are reminded n  of the w e l l known q u o t a t i o n from M a g i s t e r Lambert's Aristotle)  (Pseudo-  treatise: . . . i f someone were t o ask whether a mode o r a n a t u r a l song can be formed by i m p e r f e c t longae e x c l u s i v e l y j u s t i n the same way as i t can be formed by p e r f e c t longae, the approved answer i s : no; s i n c e nobody can s i n g a s u c c e s s i o n of pure i m p e r f e c t l o n g a e . 2 0  I t i s important t o remember that the music troubadours was e s s e n t i a l l y a monodic art-  3  i n d i v i d u a l i t y and i n g e n u i t y of the s o l o i s t .  o f the  s u b j e c t t o the Too r i g o r o u s  an a p p l i c a t i o n o f the rhythmic modes would have been to the freedom  C.  ly  fatal  and s p o n t a n e i t y which d o u b t l e s s e x i s t e d i n  P a r r i s h , op. c i t . ,  p. 5 1 f .  ••E. Coussemaker, S c r i p t o r u m de musica m e d i i a e v i nova s e r i e s ( P a r i s , 1 8 6 4 - 7 6 ) , V o l . I, p. 2 7 1 a , c i t e d i n W i l l i A p e l , The N o t a t i o n o f Polyphonic Music (Cambridge, Mass.: The Mediaeval Academy o f America, 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 2 9 2 .  l i v e performance.  For t h i s reason, S i r J.A. Westrup  has  suggested that modal rhythms were only used to p r o v i d e a mensural framework, a m e t r i c f o u n d a t i o n upon which the s i n g e r would impose  h i s own  r h y t h m i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s based on the  " t e x t and the mood o f the poem . . . . "23-  Perhaps t h i s  point  of view comes n e a r e r t o a c t u a l p r a c t i c e than e i t h e r a s t r i c t l y modal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r , as has been the p o s s i b i l i t y  of completely " f r e e or o p t i o n a l  Even so, the whole rhythmic problem i s s t i l l embarrassment who  considered,  to h i s t o r i a n s .  rhythm."  22  somewhat o f an  There i s more than one  scholar  s u s p e c t s t h a t "the s a c c a r i n e r e n d i t i o n s of most o f our  i n t e r p r e t e r s o f medieval music can bear almost no t o the  original  likeness  pieces." 3 2  The o l d e s t P r o v e n c a l l y r i c s we possess ( w r i t t e n , i t w i l l be remembered, by Guillaume of A q i i i t a i n e ) are h i g h l y and s o p h i s t i c a t e d examples its  infant  specimens  stages.  polished  of an a r t form f a r removed from  Yet although no e a r l y ,  "primitive"  of troubadour poetry have been discovered,'we can  Jack A. Westrup, "Medieval Song" i n New Oxford H i s t o r y of Music, I I , e d i t e d by Dom Anselm Hughes (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 227. Curt Sachs, Rhythm and Tempo (New York: W.W. Norton, 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 178. I f , a c c o r d i n g to Sachs, a s c r i b e had r e c o u r s e to both modal and non-mensural n o t a t i o n but chose t o t r a n s c r i b e the p i e c e i n the l a t t e r , then such a melody was understood to be i n f r e e rhythm. -'James J . Wilhelm, Seven Troubadours: The C r e a t o r s of Modern Verse ( U n i v e r s i t y Park & London, 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 200.  h a r d l y assume t h a t the movement was generation.  the r e s u l t  of  spontaneous  In an attempt t o e x p l a i n the o r i g i n s o f the  t r a d i t i o n , a number o f i n t e r e s t i n g t h e o r i e s have been postulated.  One  of the most p e r s i s t e n t of these i s the  r a t h e r e x o t i c n o t i o n t h a t P r o v e n c a l l i t e r a t u r e has i t s r o o t s i n the A r a b i c poetry o f Moorish S p a i n .  D e s p i t e the devoted  e f f o r t s o f i t s defendants ( p r i n c i p a l l y N y k l , B r i f f a u l t , F a r m e r ) , ^ the i d e a s t i l l  lacks conclusive proof:  2  no extant examples of Hispano-Mauresque  t h e r e are  m u s i c ^ nor i s t h e r e 2  any. i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a s i n g l e troubadour o f renown was w i t h the A r a b i c l a n g u a g e . ^ 2  and  familiar  U n t i l more s u b s t a n t i a l evidence  i s brought to l i g h t , the m a j o r i t y o f s c h o l a r s w i l l  likely  remain unconvinced t h a t P r o v e n c a l a r t owed " e v e r y t h i n g t o the world of I s l a m . " ? 2  H.J. Chaytor r e c o r d s a second theory which has been g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n from time to time, the i d e a t h a t troubadour l i t e r a t u r e  " i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of L a t i n p o e t r y i n  See R. B r i f f a u l t , The Troubadours; A.R. N y k l , E l cancionero d e l s e i h , nobilisimo V i s i r , M a r a b i l l a d e l tiempo, Abu Bakr, i b n 'abd-al-Malik Aben Guzman-Ibn Quznan (Madrid, 1 9 3 3 ) , and A Book C o n t a i n i n g the R T s a l a Known as The Dove's Neck-Ring, About Love and L o v e r s , Composed by Abu Muhammed ' A l i i b n Hazm a l - A n d a l u s i ( P a r i s , 1 9 3 1 ) ; J u l i a n R i b e r a y Tarrago, La Musica andaluza medieval en l a s canciones de Trovadores, Troveros y M i n n e s i n g e r . 3 v o l s . , 1 9 2 3 - 2 5 ; and H.G. Farmer, H i s t o r i c a l F a c t s f o r the ' A r a b i a n I n f l u e n c e (London: W. Reeves, 1 9 3 0 ) . dH  2  5 j . A . Westrup, op. c i t . , p.  2 6  2  J.  ?R.  225.  Wilhelm, op. c i t . , no. 2 0 , p. Briffault,  op. c i t . , p. 2 3 .  207.  i t s decadence."  0  The j o n g l e u r s , descendants  o f the  j o c u l a t o r e s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o France a f t e r the Roman had always e x c e l l e d i n music and dancing  conquest,  (as w e l l as a c r o b a -  t i c s and b u r l e s q u e ) but g r a d u a l l y poetry and song w i t h i n a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and a r t i s t i c importance was  framework assumed a g r e a t e r  i n t h e i r productions.  U l t i m a t e l y , the jongleur  transformed i n t o a t r o u b a d o u r — i n v e n t o r o f h i s own songs  and s u b j e c t t o a l l the r u l e s and conventions o f a f o r m a l i z e d a r t medium. Very r e c e n t s t u d i e s have not o v e r l o o k e d the p o s s i b i l i t y that P r o v e n c a l l i t e r a t u r e was i n f l u e n c e d by both s e c u l a r and religious Latin writings.  I n Wilhelm's o p i n i o n , too many  s c h o l a r s i g n o r e "the unmistakeable  i n t e r p l a y o f h o l y and  profane r h e t o r i c " which took p l a c e i n t h e "one thousand pa  years o f C h r i s t i a n i t y " dour a r t .  y  p r i o r t o the f l o u r i s h i n g o f t r o u b a -  He a l s o c o n s i d e r s i t s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t "both Ovid  and S t . Augustine were read i n the s c h o o l s by the w e l l - e d u c a t e d troubadours" and that language  " P r o v e n c a l poets probably knew no  except L a t i n and the nearby  Romance tongues  . . .  ."30  Barbara Smythe, on the o t h e r hand, f i n d s t h e troubadour t r a d i t i o n owing " p r a c t i c a l l y n o t h i n g " t o c l a s s i c a l 2 H.J. Chaytor, The Troubadours P r e s s , 1912), p. 7. 8  2  9j.  Wilhelm,  op. c i t . ,  (Cambridge:  literature. University  p. 15.  SQibid.  31 Barbara Smythe, Trobador Windus, 1911), xv.  Poets  (London:  Chatto &  L i k e Gaston P a r i s , 3 2 she t r a c e s the movement back t o the "songs o f the country p e o p l e , " p a r t i c u l a r l y t o those p i e c e s sung at the s p r i n g c e l e b r a t i o n s h e l d on May-day.33  That  p o p u l a r t r a d i t i o n had some i n f l u e n c e on the troubadour movement i s evidenced by the vogue o f such genres as the a l b a , p a s t o r a and danca. 34 Undoubtedly  t h e r e are c e r t a i n elements  o f t r u t h t o be  found i n almost a l l o f the s u g g e s t i o n s put forward r e g a r d i n g the o r i g i n o f P r o v e n c a l p o e t r y .  Yet whatever p o s i t i o n one  chooses t o adopt, one important f a c t o r should not be overlooked:  the element  o f i n v e n t i v e n e s s i n h e r e n t i n the very  term o f the movement.35 and p o l i t i c a l the s p i r i t  j  na  n  a  g  e  whose s o c i a l ,  cultural,  c l i m a t e was so conducive t o a r t i s t i c  of c r e a t i v i t y  endeavour,  shown by the troubadour poets can  h a r d l y be c o n s i d e r e d a strange phenomenon. The  o r i g i n of the troubadour melodies has been the sub-  j e c t o f somewhat l e s s c o n t r o v e r s y than that o f the poetry o f the movement.  A very c o n v i n c i n g h y p o t h e s i s — a g r e e d upon by  most m u s i c o l o g i s t s — t r a c e s the r o o t s o f the P r o v e n c a l songs  3 2 s ton P a r i s , Medieval French L i t e r a t u r e , t r a n s , by Hannah Lynch (London: J.M. Dent & Co., 1903). G a  33B.  Smythe, op. c i t . , xv.  3**Gustave Reese p o i n t s out that a number o f s c h o l a r s , i n c l u d i n g Aubry (see h i s Trouveres and Troubadours), have found " a t l e a s t one example . . . i n which the melody . . . appears t o have been an a d a p t a t i o n o f a p r e - e x i s t e n t estampida." G. Reese, Music i n the Middle Ages (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1940), p. 217. 35j.  wilhelm, ftp, c i t . , p. 17.  to the music  o f the Church.  Adding weight  i s the f a c t t h a t a v a r i a n t , though  to t h i s argument  r e l a t e d , d e f i n i t i o n of  "troubadour" stems from the L a t i n word t r o p u s — a term which by the n i n t h century had come t o mean an i n t e r p o l a t i o n o f words and music  i n t o some o f the chants o f the l i t u r g y .  A  study of the melodies r e v e a l s t h e i r c l o s e a f f i n i t y t o the G r e g o r i a n t r a d i t i o n , both i n terms o f melodic t o n a l i t y , and i n t e r v a l l i c p r o g r e s s i o n s .  contour,  As f o r f o r m a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two r e p e r t o r i e s , we may  turn to  the work o f the noted German h i s t o r i a n , F r i e d r i c h  Gennrich,  who  has c a t e g o r i z e d the e n t i r e troubadour corpus i n the  light  o f the hymn, sequence,  litany  and r o n d e l . 3 6  Gennrich's theory (based on the premise melodic forms  While  that a l l secular  are d e r i v e d from l i t u r g i c a l p r o t o t y p e s ) i s  d o u b t l e s s d e s e r v i n g o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n , at l e a s t f i n d s f a u l t w i t h h i s attempt  one  scholar  to "'systematize' a s e r i e s of  phenomena through the use o f concepts l a t e r than, and i n some r e s p e c t s f o r e i g n t o , the p e r i o d t o which the phenomena themselves  properly belong."^^  36p. G e n n r i c h , G r u n d r i s s e i n e r Formenlehre des m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n L i e d e s a l s Grundlage e i n e r m u s i k a l i s c h e n Formenlehre des L i e d s ( H a l l e : Max Niemeyer V e r l a g , 1 9 3 2 ) . - R o b e r t Henry P e r r i n , "Some Aspects o f the Poetry Music o f the Troubadours" (Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 161. w  and  I t has been customary  t o d i v i d e the a c t i v i t i e s of the  troubadours i n t o t h r e e main p e r i o d s . 3 8 1080 to 1150  Those working  have been a s s i g n e d to the e a r l y p e r i o d  from  and  i n c l u d e such f i g u r e s as Guillaume o f A q u i t a i n e ; Marcabrun of Gascony ( f l .  1130-1150),  i n v a r i a b l y d e s c r i b e d i n both  medieval and modern c h r o n i c l e s as a woman-hater; and J a u f r e Rudel  ( f l . . 1130-1141), so admired by n i n e t e e n t h  century poets on account of the charming v i d a w r i t t e n about h i s d e a t h . ^  (albeit  fictitious)  y  An important f e a t u r e o f the e a r l y p e r i o d was e v o l u t i o n o f t w o . d i s t i n c t modes o f e x p r e s s i o n :  the  the t r o b a r  c l a r or " c l e a r s t y l e " and the t r o b a r c l u s or " c l o s e d F o l l o w e r s of the f i r s t readily  style."  s c h o o l p r e f e r r e d to w r i t e i n a l u c i d ,  comprehensible manner w h i l e s u p p o r t e r s of the  second  type d e l i g h t e d i n the use o f ambiguous words, o f t e n out of context or. i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l meaning. The  c l o s e d s t y l e was  Arnaut D a n i e l  (1180  particularly  - ca. 1 2 0 0 ) ,  the g r e a t e s t o f a l l troubadours. Daniel's p o e t r y — o b s c u r i t y  characteristic  of  c o n s i d e r e d by Dante t o be The e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f  of meaning, a l l i t e r a t i v e d e v i c e s ,  The troubadour e r a i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l p e r i o d s by such h i s t o r i a n s as Joseph Anglade, Les Troubadours ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n , 1 9 0 9 ) ; H.J. Chaytor, The Troubadours; and A l e c Harman, M e d i e v a l and E a r l y Renaissance Music. 0  ^An E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f Rudel's i n B. Smythe, op. c i t . , p. 11. 3  "biography" appears  word-play, and c o m p l i c a t e d part  been r e t a i n e d  rhyme s c h e m e s — h a v e  i n the following  f o r t h e most  t r a n s l a t i o n by E z r a  Pound Sweet c r i e s a n d c r a c k s a n d l a y s a n d c h a n t s i n f l e c t e d By a u z e l s who, i n t h e i r L a t i n b e l i k e s , C h i r m e a c h t o e a c h , e v e n as y o u a n d I P i p e t o w a r d t h o s e g i r l s on whom o u r t h o u g h t s , a t t r a c t ; A r e b u t more c a u s e t h a t I , whose o v e r w e e n i n g Search i s toward t h e N o b l e s t , s e t i n c l u s t e r L i n e s where no word p u l l s wry, no rhyme b r e a k s gauges. No c u l s de s a c s n o r f a l s e ways me d e f l e c t e d When f i r s t I p i e r c e d h e r f o r t w i t h i n i t s d y k e s — H e r s , f o r whom my h u n g r y i n s i s t e n c y P a s s e s t h e gnaw whereby was V i v i e n w r a c k e d ; Day-long I s t r e t c h , a l l times, l i k e a b i r d preening, And yawn f o r h e r , who h a t h o ' e r o t h e r s t h r u s t h e r As h i g h as t r u e j o y i s o ' e r i r e a n d r a g e s . In  q u a l i t y a n d numbers P r o v e n c a l a r t a t t a i n e d i t ' s  fullest Of  flowering  i n the c l a s s i c a l  the troubadours  and  active i n this  m u s i c have b e e n p r e s e r v e d  merchant and Bishop best  in Die  1150 - 1220. t h o s e whose  Polquet  de M a r s e i l l a ( f l .  o f Toulouse; Bertran  de B o r n  and i m m o r t a l i z e d  Genoese (1159-1196),  i n Dante's  a s a h e a d l e s s wonder c o n s i g n e d t o H e l l f o r h i s  the quarrel  b e t w e e n Henry  texts  the previously  p e r s o n a g e who was by t u r n  known f o r h i s war p o e t r y  Inferno  period,  include  mentioned V e n t a d o r n and D a n i e l ; 1180-1195), a c o l o r f u l  period,  I I and h i s  part  sons;**- - B e a t r i c e de 1  ( c a . 1160), one o f t h e few woman t r o u b a d o u r s  of the  tfOEzra Pound, T r a n s l a t i o n s ( N o r f o l k , Conn.: New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h e r s , 1963), p . 173 c i t e d by Thomas G. B e r g i n i n Dante (New Y o r k : The O r i o n P r e s s , 1965), p. 50. i  * Dante A l i g h i e r i , 1  Inferno,  XXVIII,  11. 118-142.  movementGlraut his  peers  as " M a s t e r  (1150-1200) a singer  de B o r n e i l l  ( c a . 1 1 6 5 - 1 2 0 0 ) , c o n s i d e r e d by  of the Troubadours";^3  who I n h i s own w o r d s , h a d u n m i s t a k a b l e  but wrote f a r t o o obscure  of Toulouse Provence's  poet-musicians.  w i t h poems and m e l o d i e s  d'Alvergne talent  p o e t r y ; ^ and P e i r e  ( c a . 1175-1215), half-mad finest  troubadours  pelre  as  Vidal  w a n d e r e r and one o f  The r e m a i n i n g G o l d e n e x t a n t a r e as  Age  follows  A i m e r i c de P e g u i l l a n ( 1 1 9 5 - 1 2 3 0 ) A l b e r t de S e s t a r o ( 1 2 1 0 - 1 2 2 1 ) A r n a u t de M a r o i l l ( 1 1 7 0 - 1 2 0 0 ) B e r e n g u i e r de P a l a z o l ( c a . 1160) Daude de P r a d a s ( c a . 1190) Gaucelm F a i d i t (1180-1216) G u i d ' U i s e l ( c a . 1200) G u i l l e m Ademar ( c a . 1200) G u i l l e m M a i g r e t ( c a . 1200) G u i l l e m de S a i n t L e i d i e r ( 1 1 6 5 - 1 2 0 0 ) J o r d a n Bonel (1160-1200) Lo Monge de Montaudo (1180 - c a . 1213) P e i r e Raimon de T o l o z a ( 1 1 7 0 - 1 2 1 0 ) P e i r o l (1180-1225) P e r d i g o (1195-1220) P i s t o l e t a (1180-1200) Pons de C a p d o i l l ( 1 1 8 0 - 1 1 9 0 ) Raimbaut d ' A u r e n g a ( 1 1 4 4 - 1 1 7 3 ) Raimbaut de V a q u e i r a s ( 1 1 8 0 - 1 2 0 7 ) Raimon J o r d o n ( 1 1 9 0 - 1 2 0 0 ) Raimon de M i r a v a l ( 1 1 9 0 - 1 2 2 0 ) R i c h a r t de B e r b e z i l l ( 1 2 0 0 - 1 2 1 0 ) Uc B r u n e c ( c a . II85) ^ 2 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e works o f t h e women t r o u b a d o u r s , see O s k a r S c h u l t z - G o r a , D i e p r o v e n z a l i s c h e n D i c h t e r i n n e n ( L e i p z i g , 1888). ^ T h i s a c c o l a d e i s f o u n d i n de B o r n e i l l ' s v i d a . The e n t i r e " b i o g r a p h y " h a s b e e n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h by B. Smythe, op. c i t . , p . 1 2 3 . ^R.T. Troubadours pp. 7 1 - 7 3 .  H i l l & T.G. B e r g i n , A n t h o l o g y o f P r o v e n c a l (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1941),  ^ o a t e s o f b i r t h and d e a t h i f known a r e g i v e n i n p a r e n theses. I f n o t known, t h e n a p p r o x i m a t e d a t e s o f c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y are indicated.  Yet  the  illustrious  era of a r t i s t i c maturity f i g u r e s was  destined  brought about by  to be  short  primary cause o f the  c u l t u r a l d e c l i n e was  Crusade*^ proclaimed  by  movement but the  only the  c i v i l war  ravished  a n n i h i l a t i o n of the  t h r i v e d and  n o b i l i t y which had  r e c o r d of only ments who  Albigensian  the  the  patronized  the  the  country  under which  complete defeat  e i g h t poets with extant  were a c t i v e d u r i n g  In  Catharsist  a l s o the d i s s o l u t i o n of f e u d a l i s m  troubadours had  Provencal  the  The  Pope Innocent I I I . i n 1209.  twenty years which f o l l o w e d , r e s u l t i n g i n not  lived.  these  arts.  t e x t s and  of We  the have  accompani-  t h i s t h i r d or A l b i g e n s i a n  period.  Aimeric de B e l e n o i (1210-1241) Cadenet ( 1 2 0 8 - 1 2 3 9 ) Guillem Augier (1209-1235) Guiraut R i q u i e r (1254-1282) M a t f r e Ermengau ( 1 2 8 0 - 1 3 2 2 ) P e i r e Cardenal ( 1 2 1 0 - 1 2 3 0 ) Pons d'Ortafas ( c a . 1240) Uc de S a i n t C i r c (1217 - ca. 1253) B o l s t e r e d by  their political  o f the  I n q u i s i t i o n , the  as the  height  c l e r g y now  of worldliness  punishment f o r a l l those who ditties."**''  successes and  and  the  establishment  openly denounced love  e v i l and  indulged  threatened  i n the  poetry  severe  composing of  Faced with such a s i t u a t i o n , troubadours o f  "vain the  ^One of the s t r o n g h o l d s of the C a t h a r s i s t sect was the town of A l b i , hence the name " A l b i g e n s i a n s . " The movement was yet another i n a s e r i e s of minor r e v o l t s a g a i n s t the tyranny of the C a t h o l i c Church p r i o r to the Reformation. ^ J . Anglade, Le Troubadour G u i r a u t R i q u i e r ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n , 1905)> P- 336. R i q u i e r b e w a i l s the f a c t t h a t "the a u t h o r i t i e s c o n s i d e r our a r t a s i n " and "judge s t e r n l y those who p r a c t i s e i t . " Ibid.  decadence soon d e c i d e d t h a t they would l i v e l o n g e r i f they i n t r o d u c e d a more s p i r i t u a l v e i n i n t o t h e i r s u b j e c t matter. They t h e r e f o r e found i t a d v i s a b l e t o take over "the formul a e and  conventions  of e r o t i c poetry by the simple  expedient  of s u b s t i t u t i n g the name of Our Lady f o r t h a t of the o b j e c t of t h e i r profane p a s s i o n . " ^  With the e x c e p t i o n of P e i r e  Cardenal and G u i r a u t R i q u i e r , t h i r t e e n t h century  troubadours  seem p a i n f u l l y devoid o f t a l e n t and few of t h e i r works s u r v i v e which are not debased by u n b r i d l e d s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , e x c e s s i v e v e r b i a g e , and poor c r a f t s m a n s h i p . B y  the  end  of the century the s p i r i t  and q u a l i t y of the movement at  its  disappeared.  z e n i t h had While  completely  many q u e s t i o n s s t i l l  the troubadour  remain unanswered r e g a r d i n g  r e p e r t o r y as a whole, s c h o l a r s are i n  unanimous agreement on at l e a s t one p o i n t : P r o v e n c a l poetry was  the f a c t t h a t  always i n t e n d e d t o be sung.  d i e s were probably o f t e n performed  The  melo-  unaccompanied; however,  R. B r i f f a u l t , op. c i t . , p. 157. H.J. Chaytor r e p o r t s t h a t from the f o u r t e e n t h century, the only poems t o l e r a t e d by the s c h o o l of Toulouse were c a n t i c l e s t o the V i r g i n . "These, however, have l i t t l e i n common with c l a s s i c a l t r o u b adour poetry except language." See Chaytor, op. c i t . , pp. 92f. tin  More and more o f the l i t e r a t u r e of t h i s p e r i o d i s no l o n g e r " l y r i c " i n the t r u e sense of the term, f o r the p r a c t i c e o f combining poetry w i t h music was g r a d u a l l y b e i n g discontinued. 7  both the m i n i a t u r i s t s o f the p e r i o Johannes de Grocheo (ca. l S O O ) ^  1  and  the t h e o r i s t  i n d i c a t e that  stringed  instruments such as the y i e l l e or l u t e were employed. In t h i s case, the accompaniment, i t i s supposed, would Include d o u b l i n g a short  the melodic l i n e and  coda at the end  of the p i e c e .  possibly inserting The  P r o v e n c a l songs are t r e a t e d  syllabically  m e l l s m a t i c passages are not  uncommon) and  divided i n t o four-bar  phrases.  an octave or a n i n t h — a  o f the  f a m i l i a r Church modes. imperative,  and  (although b r i e f can u s u a l l y  be  range q u i t e w i t h i n the c a p a b i l i t i e s  average s i n g e r — a n d they are  not  of  Most have an ambitus o f  of the  was  majority  Yet  frequently  cast  in  one  adherence to these modes  a number of i n t e r e s t i n g examples  are undeniably set i n the major t o n a l i t y . There has features during  been some disagreement over e x a c t l y what  d i s t i n g u i s h e d the  the Middle Ages.  5^see the  troubadour from the  During the  jongleur  e a r l y years of  the  Frontispiece.  51see Johannes Wolf, "Die M u s i k l e h r e des Johannes de Grocheo" i n Sammelbande der i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n M u s i k g e s e l l s c h a f t ,  Vol. I (1899-1900).  movement a b l y ;  i t  seems  however,  s t r a t i f i e d . two  a r e  s e n t e d a l l u d e s c a l l e d  The  t o  f o u r  b u f o s ,  t h e  t h e i r  " D o c t o r s  o f  g r e a t e s t  may  h a v e  i t and as who  s e t s  c l a r i f i e d  o u t  by  more  " m e r e l y  r e f i n e d  a r e  t h e  ( s o b i r a n o f  t r o b a r )  d e c l a r a c i o  q u i t e  p o s s i b l y  p e r f o r m e d  L i k e  t h e  t h e  j o n g l e u r  i n  a r t i s t .  H i s  B e h i n d  h i m  a n d  m a t e r i a l  53B.  Smythe,  5^M.  V a l e n c y ,  works  modern  upon  op. op.  c i t . ,  o f  works W h i l e  I n  t h e  a  who  t h e  xx.  c i t . , p.  96.  j o g l a r s , t h e  o f  t h i s  t r o u b a d o u r t o  t h e  t h e  c r e a t i v e t h e r-u  t h e  p e r f o r m e r  s i n g  R i q u i e r  i n t e r p r e t i v e .  p r o v i d e d  t o  l i g h t  t h e  t r o u b a d o u r ,  c i r c u s  d i s t i n c t i o n s  c o n t r a s t  n o t  c l a s s ,  r e p r e s e n t e d  o t h e r s " : ^ 3  were  t h e  w h i c h  i n  was  t a l e n t s  c o m p o s e r  whose  t h e  p r e -  i n  o r  i n c l u d e d  e n t e r t a i n e r ,  g e n e r a l , s t o o d  b u f o s  c o n s i d e r  s o n g s "  l o w e s t  i n v i t e d  t h e  t h e  " d e c l a r a t i o n "  c l a s s  v a l i d .  more  b e t w e e n  s p e c i a l i z e d  h i m s e l f ,  s c h o l a r s  o r i g i n a l  t h e  e x c e l l e n c e .  t h e  w r o t e  The  were  u n l i k e  f o u r t h  p o e t i c  most  b u t  j o g l a r s  s o n g s ;  became  s u p p o s e d l y  C a s t i l e .  m u s i c  own  h e i g h t  p o e t  some  i n t e r c h a n g e -  d i s t i n c t i o n s  e n t e r t a i n e r s :  t r o u b a d o u r s ,  P o e t r y "  u s e d  d e c l a r a c i o  o f  t h e  e v i d e n c e ,  who  a  be  p r o f e s s i o n s  c e n t u r y by  o f  c o u l d  t h e  A l p h o n s o  c l a s s e s  w r i t t e n  o t h e r "one  t h i r t e e n t h  t h e  composed  terms  t i m e s  p e r f o r m e d  c o u r t s ;  the  t h e  l a t e r  R i q u i e r  e x h i b i t i o n s ; i n  i n  somewhat t o  t h a t  drew.  j o n g l e u r  Yet the assumption  t h a t the "troubadours  . . . were i d e a l l y  n e i t h e r i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s nor v o c a l i s t s " but "entrusted t h e i r l y r i c s e a r l y accounts.55 thorough  to j o n g l e u r s , " i s incompatible with  The v i d a s i n p a r t i c u l a r , are c u s t o m a r i l y  i n t h e i r assessment  inabilities  rather,  as a s i n g e r .  o f a troubadour's  abilities  or  Poor R i c h a r t de B e r b e z i l l , f o r  example, possessed a f i n e v o i c e but a l a s , d i d not f a r e too well i n front  of an  audience:  . . . He was very f e a r f u l o f s i n g i n g b e f o r e people, and the more good people he saw the more confused he became and the l e s s he remembered, and he always needed another t o l e a d him on.59 M e d i e v a l t r e a t i s e s which troubadours melodies.  freely  d i s c u s s the a r t of the  s a n c t i o n the p r a c t i c e o f borrowing  I t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d  cases  where s e v e r a l t e x t s have been adapted to the same tune. The  extent to which the P r o v e n c a l poets wrote the music f o r  t h e i r poems i s by no means agreed upon by a l l h i s t o r i a n s . A number have been i n c l i n e d to minimize  the r o l e o f the  troubadour as both poet and composer, a s s e r t i n g t h a t "some of the melodies, were probably i n v e n t e d or adapted  from  e x i s t i n g ones by the more educated j o n g l e u r s . " 5 7  Yet  5 5 A r t h u r K. Moore, The. S e c u l a r L y r i c i n Middle E n g l i s h (Lexington: U n i v e r s i t y o f Kentucky P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 ) , p. 15. 56j B o u t i e r e & A.-H. Schutz, B i o g r a p h i e s des Troubadours ( P a r i s , A.-G. N i z e t , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 149 t r a n s l a t e d by M. Valency, op. c i t . , p. 97 #  57A.  Harman, op. c i t . ,  p.  77.'  regardless for  o f who was r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r t h e m e l o d i e s , we know  c e r t a i n t h a t t e x t and m u s i c were a l w a y s  meant t o  an e n t i t y ; a n d any a t t e m p t t o a s s e s s t h e movement t a k i n g i n t o account both aspects misleading  love  seven  song or  stanzas  often  produce  e v o l v e d by t h e  troubadours,  canco which c o n s i s t e d o f from f i v e  was by f a r t h e most p o p u l a r .  opening o f the canco Sometimes  very  without  conclusions.  Of a l l t h e p o e t i c t y p e s the  will  form  The  conventional  c o n t a i n e d some r e f e r e n c e t o  the poet d e s c r i b e s  a winter  to  nature.  scene,  T a n t a i mo c o r p i e de j o y a , t o t me d e s n a t u r a . F l o r blancha, v e r h e l h ' e groya me p a r l a f r e j u r a , c ' a b l o v e n e t ab l a p l o y a me c r e i s l ' a v e n t u r a , p e r que mos p r e t z mont e p o y a e mos c h a n s m e l h u r a . Tan a i a l c o r d ' a m o r , de j o i e de d o u s s o r , p e r que • 1 g e l s me. s e m b l a f l o r e l a neus v e r d u r a . My h e a r t i s so f u l l o f j o y t h a t ' e v e r y t h i n g seems c h a n g e d t o me: the f r o s t seems l i k e w h i t e , r e d a n d y e l l o w flowers. W i t h t h e w i n d a n d r a i n my g o o d f o r t u n e p r o s p e r s , so t h a t my fame i n c r e a s e s and r i s e s , and my s o n g s improve. My h e a r t i s so f u l l o f l o v e , o f j ° y * and o f s w e e t n e s s t h a t i c e seems l i k e f l o w e r s t o me, and snow l i k e g r e e n e r y . 5 ° a l t h o u g h more o f t e n t h e s e a s o n i s  spring,  usually  April  or  S . G . N i c h o l s , J r . & J . A . G a l m , The S o n g s o f B e r n a r t de V e n t a d o r n ( C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1962), pp. l 6 9 f f . J  May:  Lancan f o l h o n bosc e j a r r i c e'lh f l o r s pareis e.lh verdura p e l s vergers e p e l s p r a t z , e ' l h a u z e l , c'an e s t a t e n l c , son g a l desotz l o s f o l h a t z , a u t r e s i ' m chant e m'esbaudei e r e f l o r l s c e reverdei e f o l h segon me n a t u r a . When woods and t h i c k e t s shoot, f o r t h t h e i r l e a v e s , and the flowers and greenery appear throughout the gardens and meadows, and the b i r d s , who have been s u l k i n g , are gay beneath the f o l i a g e , then I t o o s i n g , r e j o i c e and blossom. I am renewed and put f o r t h leaves a c c o r d i n g t o my n a t u r e . 5 9 In the above poem, the reawakening o f s p r i n g i s t h e p e r f e c t backdrop f o r the a d o r a t i o n however, the lady  of a b e a u t i f u l lady.  Sometimes,  does not r e t u r n t h e poet's ardor, i n  which case, the beauty o f s p r i n g i s t r e a t e d i n i r o n i c terms.  U n r e q u i t e d love has most unpleasant s i d e e f f e c t s  on the troubadour. and  He s u f f e r s c o u n t l e s s  h i s body i s c o n s t a n t l y  racked w i t h  sleepless  nights  pain:  Era'm r e q u i e r s a costum e son us amors, p e r c u i p l a i n g e s o s p i r e v e i l l . 1  . .  Now l o v e claims from me i t s t r i b u t e and i t s dues, and because o f l o v e I lament and s i g h and wake. . . . The  only  antidote  f o r t h i s t o r t u r e i s j u s t one k i n d  or word from the b e l o v e d . one's lady  Such h u m i l i t y  59i id., D  and obeisance t o  i s e n t i r e l y i n keeping with the c o u r t l y  e t h i c f o r i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n the k n i g h t ' s  look  love  a l l e g i a n c e was t o  pp. 107ff.  J o s e p h L i n s k i l l , The Poems o f the Troubadour Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1964), pp. I 4 6 f f . u  his  lover.  He was  her v a s s a l , her "man."  lady must be a s u i t a b l e r e c i p i e n t That  of the k n i g h t ' s  she i s young and b e a u t i f u l and has  catalogue o f v i r t u e s goes without important,  a l s o a standard  o f t e n a troubadour  an  fidelity.  even more  i d e a l l y , w e l l endowed.  c o u r t l y l o v e convention  and  would g i v e h i s lady a pseudonym or  senhal i n o r d e r not to d i s c l o s e her i d e n t i t y . reason, B e r t r a n de Born addresses mysterious  the  impressive  question:  she must be h i g h born and,  Secrecy was  Of course  For  this  many of h i s poems t o a  T r i s t a n while R i q u i e r merely r e f e r s t o a Belh  Deport. A c c o r d i n g to Dante's De v u l g a r i e l o q u e n t i a , the music of  the canco c o u l d e i t h e r be through-composed or i n any  of  the forms aab,  restrictive.  abb  and aabb.  Indeed, one  one  These p a t t e r n s were not  of the g r e a t e s t d e l i g h t s of the  e n t i r e P r o v e n c a l r e p e r t o r y i s the manner i n which a poetm u s i c i a n would i n t r o d u c e s u b t l e v a r i a n t s i n t o these b a s i c forms.  Nor were the troubadours  melodic  p a t t e r n conform to the rhyme scheme of the t e x t , f o r  one  often.encounters  r e q u i r e d to make t h e i r  "cases i n which a s t a n z a , the p o e t i c  s t r u c t u r e of which i s l a i d out i n a c l e a r - c u t p a t t e r n , i s  set to a through-composed The  melody."61  second most common c l a s s of poetry found  adour l i t e r a t u r e  i s the s i r v e n t e s which a c c o r d i n g to Las  Leys d'Amors c o u l d be used t o " t r e a t of censure,  !R.  In t r o u b -  P e r r i n , op.  c i t . , p.  68.  or o f  rebuke  i n g e n e r a l , by c h a s t i s i n g the f o o l i s h and  wicked,  and may  the  i f one wishes, of the event of any  war."  62  As such, the s i r v e n t e s became the accepted l i t e r a r y medium f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s q u e s t i o n s of the time.  Other p o e t i c types employed by the  troubadours  i n c l u d e d the a l b a or "dawn song" sung to warn l o v e r s of the approaching day; the tenso which i n v o l v e d a debate  on some  t o p i c of i n t e r e s t ; the p a s t o r a , a p a s t o r a l poem c e n t e r e d around the c o u r t s h i p of a young shepherdess; i n which the poet complains  and the  discort,  about c o m p l i c a t i o n s of one  sort  or another i n h i s love a f f a i r s . One  must not suppose that the poet-musicians o f southern  France l i v e d i n i s o l a t i o n .  As e a r l y as the middle o f the  t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , constant i n t e r c h a n g e between the south and the n o r t h had prompted the trouv&res t o w r i t e songs i n t h e i r own  language  of langue d ' o f l .  n o r t h e r n poems c l o s e l y resemble  On the whole, the  P r o v e n c a l models, both i n  terms of rhyme scheme, s t a n z a i c s t r u c t u r e and s u b j e c t matter.63  The movement f l o u r i s h e d throughout  century and produced Navarre  (1201-53),  the  thirteenth  such n o t a b l e trouv&res as Thibaut of  C o l i n Muset  ( e a r l y 13th c e n t u r y ) , and  Canon de Bethune (ca.. 1150-1224).  "^Las Leys d'Amors c i t e d i n I b i d . , p.  87.  fi "3 Many troubadour l y r i c s were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o langue d * o i l and i t i s not uncommon t o f i n d P r o v e n c a l p i e c e s s i d e by s i d e with t r o u v e r e songs i n n o r t h e r n c h a n s o n n i e r s .  The  t r o u v e r e s i n t u r n are l i k e l y  transmitting influence course  the P r o v e n c a l t r a d i t i o n  of troubadour  of the E n g l i s h  p o e t r y had  lyric  responsible for to England,  where  a decided e f f e c t  i n the t h i r t e e n t h  on  the the  and f o u r t e e n t h  64 centuries. As forty  H  f o r troubadour  poets  of Spanish  Many t r o u b a d o u r s patronage Alphonso  by  nobles  Spain,  under  to  lyric  content  tradition,  t o be  the  I I o f Aragon  E v e n more i n f l u e n c e d  the Portuguese and  especially  as A l p h o n s o  V I I I of C a s t i l e .  form  i n S p a i n , some t h i r t y  e x t r a c t i o n w r o t e P r o v e n c a l poems.65  visited  o f such  p o e t r y was itself  influence  directly  and  by  Provencal  which " d e c l a r e s borrowed from  the  troubadours."66 Prom P r a n c e , to  t h e t r o u b a d o u r movement s p r e a d  Germany, home o f t h e M i n n e s i n g e r .  Minnesinger  poems s l a v i s h l y  imitating  While  one  northward rarely  the Provencal  finds  corpus,  64 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e P r o v e n c a l i n f l u e n c e on E n g l i s h l y r i c p o e t r y , see H.J. C h a y t o r , The T r o u b a d o u r s and E n g l a n d (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1923); J e a n A u d i a u , L e s Troubadours et l ' A n g l e t e r r e ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Philosophique J~. v r i n , 1927); and E l i n o r Rees, " P r o v e n c a l E l e m e n t s i n t h e E n g l i s h V e r n a c u l a r L y r i c s o f M a n u s c r i p t H a r l e y 2253" i n S t a n f o r d S t u d i e s i n Language and L i t e r a t u r e ( S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a l i f o r n i a , 1941) pp. 81-95. H a r l e y MS. 2253 i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum i n p a r t i c u l a r shows o b v i o u s t r a c e s o f t h e s t y l e , g e n r e , and t e c h n i q u e o f t h e P r o v e n c a l m a s t e r s . Dating f r o m c a . 1315, i t i s the e a r l i e s t extant c o l l e c t i o n of English vernacular l y r i c s . 6  5H.J. Chaytor,  6 6  Ibid.,  p.  125.  op.  cit.,  p.  120.  they do, however, show a r e l i a n c e on troubadour  forms  (the  canco becomes the L i e d ; the a l b a , the T a g e l i e d ) , and technique.  The  Germans chose to i d e a l i z e women i n g e n e r a l  r a t h e r than l a v i s h t h e i r a f f e c t i o n s on i n d i v i d u a l and t h e r e i s , as a r e s u l t , a moral tone to t h e i r which i s not found The  i n the troubadour  ladies, poetry  lyrics.  P r o v e n c a l movement spread a l s o south i n t o  where i t was  first  i n t r o d u c e d by such troubadours  Italy, as Raimbaut  de V a q u e i r a s , Gaucelm P a i d i t , and Aimeric de P e g u i l l a n . Throughout the t h i r t e e n t h century, I t a l i a n poetry written entirely  i n langue  d'oc  was  U n t i l Dante p o i n t e d out i n  his  C o n v i v i o t h a t h i s c o l l e a g u e s should be w r i t i n g i n t h e i r  own  v e r n a c u l a r tongue.  As f o r Dante h i m s e l f , "the s t r o n g e s t  and most e a s i l y d e t e c t i b l e c u r r e n t t h a t flows i n h i s e a r l y work i s the l y r i c  stream whose f o u n t a i n head i s the l o v e  c u l t of Provence."67 So great was  the impact  of the P r o v e n c a l  tradition,  t h a t "before s i n k i n g i n t o the abyss of o b l i v i o n , the a r t o f the troubadours  had  laid  i t s imprint on a l l l y r i c a l s  litera-  t u r e s of Europe."^S Much has been w r i t t e n on the l i t e r a r y aspects of the troubadour  movement.  Throughout the n i n e t e e n t h century, a  number of s c h o l a r s were i n v o l v e d i n the arduous t a s k of c o l l e c t i n g , e d i t i n g and  i n some cases t r a n s l a t i n g the 2600  67  T . G . B e r g i n , op. c i t . , p.  ft  Pi  R. B r i f f a u l t , op. c i t . , p.  45 160.  lyrics  still  i n existence.  During the t w e n t i e t h century  many v a l u a b l e monographs on the works o f i n d i v i d u a l have been p u b l i s h e d .  poets  These have been concerned not only  with r e c r e a t i n g the l i v e s of the troubadours, t r a c k i n g down p o e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e s , and s o l v i n g d i a l e c t a l and e t y m o l o g i c a l problems,  but a l s o w i t h examining  the poetry from  an  a e s t h e t i c p o i n t of view. The music of the troubadours has not f a r e d n e a r l y . s o well.  In f a c t , many m u s i c o l o g i s t s t r e a t the movement a l o n g  w i t h t h a t of the t r o u v S r e s r a t h e r than c o n s i d e r i n g i t as a separate and d i s t i n c t phenomena.  Such a p r a c t i c e i s o f t e n  d e t r i m e n t a l t o our understanding of the Provencaux.  For  i n s t a n c e , many surveys which i n v e s t i g a t e the a r e a of m u s i c a l s t r u c t u r e take t h e i r examples from the t r o u v e r e r e p e r t o r y . They are t h e r e f o r e mainly concerned with such melodic as the b a l l a d e , v i r e l a i and rondeau,  types  forms of primary  i n t e r e s t i n any study of the music of n o r t h e r n France but "of  minor importance  i n troubadour  literature."^9  Priedrich  Gennrich a l s o t r e a t s the problems under the broad heading of "medieval s o n g , "  7 0  a term which o b v i o u s l y i n c l u d e s f a r more  than the P r o v e n c a l p i e c e s .  ^ A l b e r t Seay, Music i n the Medieval World (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1965), p. 64. F . Gennrich, G r u n d r l s s e i n e r Formenlehre a l t e r l i c h e n Liedes. 7 0  des  mittel-  The  study  o f troubadour  years  of the present  their  work on t h e r h y t h m i c  himself the  by Aubry and B e c k .  and a f t e r  carried  the a t t e n t i o n  that time,  on i n l a t e r y e a r s  troubadour  s c h o l a r s h i p by p u b l i s h i n g t h e f i r s t ,  in  the troubadour  study  scholars  of the extant  In addition to transcription,  field  has l a r g e l y  been concerned  their  findings  literary North  and t h e Formenlehre problem.  are primarily  Provencal masters  interested  at this  i n English,  critiques American  time.  i n the music Fewer s t i l l  although  h i s work with the  have r e c e n t l y  other  of the  are publishing  b e e n c o n t r i b u t e d by  British  historians.  movement, as w e l l a s a f r e s h i n order.  Few  a number o f e x c e l l e n t  A n o t h e r o p i n i o n on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s  is  and f o r t h e  o f c o n t r a f a c t a ( p i e c e s whose t e x t s a r e s e t t o p r e -  e x i s t i n g melodies)  and  Friedrich  an i n v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e t o -  accurate, transcription  pieces.?1  been  by o n l y one h i s t o r i a n ,  Gennrich  Provencal  While  o f many r e p u t a b l e s c h o l a r s  r e s e a r c h has l a r g e l y  has performed  Beck  i n facsimile.  Gennrich.  most p a r t a v e r y  Besides  problem mentioned e a r l i e r ,  p u b l i s h e d many o f t h e m e l o d i e s  s u b j e c t caught  during  century  m u s i c was begun i n t h e e a r l y  o f the troubadour  l o o k a t t h e r e p e r t o r y as a w h o l e ,  Perhaps t h e f o l l o w i n g chapters  will  not only  71 F. G e n n r i c h , Der M u s i k a l i s c h e N a c h l a s s d e r T r o u b a d o u r s : K r i t i s c h e Ausgabe d e r M e l o d i e n , V o l . I l l o f Summa m u s i c a e m e d i i a e v i ( D a r m s t a d t , 1958). 1  d i s p e l c e r t a i n m i s c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t have a r i s e n d u r i n g the years but w i l l a l s o draw a t t e n t i o n t o s e v e r a l areas o f study which unaccountably have been i g n o r e d by m u s i c o l o g i s t s . Chapter I i n c l u d e s a d i s c u s s i o n of the melodies purpose  c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o poet.  The  troubadour primary  o f such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t o determine whether-  t h e r e are any f e a t u r e s present t o i n d i c a t e whether one composer wrote the music p a r t i c u l a r poet.  accompanying the t e x t s o f a  To make a n a l y s e s of t h i s type  feasible,,  d i s c u s s i o n i s l i m i t e d t o those poets f o r whom t e n o r more texts survive with  music.  I n c l u d e d i n Chapter I I i s a study o f the t h r e e most important e a r l y l i t e r a r y troubadours.  Two  sources d e a l i n g w i t h the a r t of the  of t h e s e , De v u l g a r i e l o q u e n t i a and  Leys d'Amors have been examined by both p h i l o l o g i s t s musicologists.  A literary  Las and  c r i t i q u e of the former i s con72  t a i n e d i n a l m o s t . a n y . d i s c u s s i o n of Dante's works;  the  latter  has been g i v e n e x t e n s i v e treatment by F r a n c i s H e u f f e r . ^ 7  As f o r the m u s i c a l a s p e c t s of these t r e a t i s e s , we may  turn to  74  the work of Robert P e r r i n and o t h e r s .  However, the  third  ' A r e c e n t study, f o r example, i s T.G. p u b l i s h e d i n 1965.  B e r g i n ' s Dante  ^ S e e F r a n c i s H e u f f e r , The Troubadours & Windus, 1878).  (London:  7  R.H.  P e r r i n , op. c i t .  Chatto  document, La D o c t r i n a de compondre d i c t a t z has  received  v i r t u a l l y no a t t e n t i o n from music h i s t o r i a n s , and i t i s w i t h t h i s t r e a t i s e t h a t the l a r g e s t p o r t i o n o f Chapter I I i s concerned. The  f i n a l chapter i s devoted t o an examination of the  troubadour r e p e r t o r y as a whole, and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o G r e g o r i a n chant.  In t h i s r e g a r d , such  matters as t o n a l i t y , melodic p r o g r e s s i o n s , g e n e r a l s t y l e , and so on, are g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F i v e appendices augment the present study. i s a map was  The  first  o f France at the time when the P r o v e n c a l movement  at i t s h e i g h t .  The  the manuscripts which  second, a l i s t  and d e s c r i p t i o n o f  c o n t a i n P r o v e n c a l music.  Appendix I I I  i n c l u d e s manuscript and secondary sources f o r each meiody, w h i l e Appendix repertory.  troubadour  IV g i v e s the range and f i n a l s f o r the  The e n t i r e t e x t o f La D o c t r i n a de compondre  d i c t a t z comprises Appendix  V.  E r r o r s and omissions p r e s e n t  i n the Romania e d i t i o n o f La D o c t r i n a have k i n d l y been c o r r e c t e d by W.H.W. F i e l d , whose E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of the work i s soon t o be p u b l i s h e d .  The t e c h n i c a l apparatus used throughout t h i s study i s as f o l l o w s .  A l l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of troubadour music have been  taken from Gennrich*s M u s i k a l i s c h e Nachlass der  Troubadours.  These have been m o d i f i e d t o some extent f o r our purposes, however.  I n s t e a d o f Gennrich*s modal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  p i e c e s , chant n o t a t i o n i s used.  None o f the time v a l u e s o f  the modal v e r s i o n s are i n c l u d e d although a l l r e s t s have been retained.' of musica  3  Gennrich s u p p l i e d a number o f B f l a t s by means  ficta.  These I have not i n c l u d e d , choosing r a t h e r  to r e t a i n only those a c c i d e n t a l s which are a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t i n the m a n u s c r i p t s . A f t e r every r e f e r e n c e t o a troubadour melody, t h e r e are parentheses c o n t a i n i n g two numbers:  the f i r s t  to my own index  I I I and IV) which i s a  (found i n Appendices  number r e f e r s  c o m p i l a t i o n o f the p i e c e s arranged a l p h a b e t i c a l l y by poet. The  second number r e f e r s t o Gennrich's index which,  i n most  I  cases, l i s t s the poets  chronologically.  I: have used the e i g h t h note as the b a s i c u n i t o f chant and beamed a l l the notes f o r one s y l l a b l e .  The s e m i v o c a l i s  i s i n d i c a t e d by a s m a l l note head ( h ); the p l i c a , by a d i a g o n a l s t r o k e through the stem (  ).  A l l p i e c e s appear  i n the t r a n s p o s e d G c l e f . The  f o l l o w i n g system has been used i n i n d i c a t i n g  actual  p i t c h e s i n the t e x t :  3  5'  '^These r e s t s are i n d i c a t e d by a s h o r t v e r t i c a l s t r o k e through the h i g h e s t s t a f f l i n e .  An  ascending scale  passage  then, appears  as  2.A^£^££^abcJ_o^e^fJ_g_|_aj_ When m a k i n g g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e specific  pitches,  upper  case  letters  F o r example,  the  c_ o r c_*_ ( s p e c i f i c  For the  may  purposes  Liber  adopted  does  not  the  t h e c h a n t s by Liber  s u c h as  reference),  references).  a l l the chants taken  from  The  quilisma,  i n t h e P r o v e n c a l m e l o d i e s , has  K  an  " x " and  a stem  ( *  J  ).  been  to which  indicated  Page numbers  are enclosed i n b r a c k e t s .  Finally, elisions  (general  f o r the troubadour p i e c e s .  appear  with reference  to quotations i n Provencal,  h a v e b e e n n o t a t e d by means o f a c e n t e r e d p e r i o d found  i n t h e word  Be-m.  to  without under-scoring  i n Mode C  of comparison,  referring  U s u a l l s h a v e b e e n n o t a t e d i n a manner s i m i l a r  that  in  be  b_V and so o n .  t o a note but not  have b e e n u s e d . final  follows:  from  CHAPTER I  THE COMPOSERS OP THE MELODIES  P a r t 1.  The Melodies o f Guiraut  Riquier  For  over  attention  a century,  t o the poetry  s c h o l a r s have d e v o t e d of the troubadour  its  music.  are  there  has  been g e n e r a l l y h e l d t h a t the q u a l i t y  somewhat is the  extant  t e n times  inferior  known a b o u t  233  melodies quite  i s understandable.  of the Provencal  nothing  evidence  we do p o s s e s s ,  possibly  Besides,  f a r more  songs t h a n  suggests  "vers e chanssos"  Viscount Bernart  poets;  bo  vers"  capable is  not always  but of  to the authorship  of the  One o f B e r n a r t  de terms t h e  ( v e r s e s and s o n g s ) w r i t t e n f o r t h e and t h e D u c h e s s o f Normandy.^  t o t h e " t a n t a s bonas c h a n s o s e t a n  (many good s o n g s a n d s u c h of w r i t i n g . 2  have  t h a t a number o f t h e p o e t s  own m u s i c .  o f Ventadorn's wife himself refers  about  and music  V e n t a d o r n ' s v i d a s , f o r example, d i s c u s s e s i n g l o w i n g poet's  but i t  i s known.  pertaining  wrote t h e i r  Not o n l y  o f the melodies i s  are associated with p a r t i c u l a r  little  than t o  as many t e x t s a s m e l o d i e s ,  Of t h e 259 p i e c e s whose t e x t  composers, almost What  movement  t o that of the poetry.  the poets  composers.  survived, the  Such a s i t u a t i o n  more  good v e r s e s ) w h i c h he i s  Yet the "greatest o f the  troubadours"  so c o n f i d e n t o f h i s a b i l i t y :  S . G . N i c h o l s J r . & J . A . Galm, The Songs o f B e r n a r t de V e n t a d o r n , p . 2 9 f . 1  2  Ibid.,  p.  62f.  Ja. ni que ni Ni no ni  mals no s e r a i c h a n t a i r e de l ' e s c o l a n'Eblo, mos chantars no v a l g a l r e mas voutas n i mei so. r e s qu'eu f a s s a n i d i a conosc que pros me s i a . no«i v e i melhuramen.  I w i l l no l o n g e r be a s i n g e r or o f the s c h o o l o f Lord E l b e , f o r n e i t h e r my s i n g i n g , my v o i c e , nor my melodies do me any good; and no matter what I do o r say, I do not know how i t may p r o f i t me and I see no improvement.3 Peirol, and  a colleague  of B e r n a r t ,  a l s o seems t o be a m u s i c i a n ,  i n a tenso by the l a t t e r i s chided  creative  f o r g i v i n g up h i s  activity: P e i r o l , com avetz t a n e s t a t que no f e z e t z vers n i chanso? Respondetz me, p e r c a l razo reman que non avetz chantat P e i r o l , why have you gone so l o n g without w r i t i n g poetry or songs? T e l l me, f o r what reason haven't you s u n g ? 4  P e i r e V i d a l has l i t t l e  doubt o f h i s worth as a poet-  musician. He u n s e l f c o n s c i o u s l y  announces:  " I know how t o  j o i n and u n i t e words and melody so w e l l t h a t no man can equal me i n p r e c i o u s  and r i c h s o n g - m a k i n g . i n  3  I b i d . , pp. 1 2 9 - 3 1 .  4  I b i d . , pp. 1 3 5 f .  another poem, he  ^ P e i r e V i d a l c i t e d i n B. Smythe, "Troubadour Songs," Music and L e t t e r s , I I ( 1 9 2 1 ) , 267.  t a l k s  about  w i s h e s  t o  t h e  "new  song  w i t h  t h e new  m e l o d y "  t h a t  he  p r e s e n t . ^  C o n s i d e r  as  w e l l ,  t h e  t o r n a d a  o f  one  o f  M a r c a b r u n ' s  poems: Lo  v e r s  J a u f r e  The  words  send  the J a u f r e  t o  .  .  .  .  w i l l  e  I  .  .  poet  a n d  sons,  He  l e i s ab  made  a  poet  songs  b u t  w o u l d  poor e v e n  Raimbaut  de  V a q u e i r a s ,  " s i m p l e Leus  composer m a i n s  many  m e l o d i e s ,  w h i c h  s i  t o  b e y o n d  p a u b r e s  t o  a  mar.  w i s h  R u d e l  melody  u s e  e n v i e r  o u t r a  tune  f e s de  bons  Sometimes  t e x t .  a n d  J a u f r e  b o t h  good  o f  s o n v u e i l l Rudel  sea.7  t o o , was  ab  s t y l e  e « l  a*n  he  m e l o d y "  was  as  h i s v i d a  s u g g e s t s :  v e r s motz. w i t h  w o r d s . " o f f e r  g o i n g  a n t o  i n d i c a t i o n s e t a  f o r example,  "Eeus  t h a t  cum  s u o i l l ,  c'un  ades  e  mon  s i r v e n t e s  chan,  p r e z a n  v u o i l l f a r ; I  seek  i n  my  f o r t h w i t h song  m e l o d y , f o r a  I  a  a s  s i m p l e  i s my  w i s h  t o  s i r v e n t e s  wont,  compose  w o r t h y  o f  p r a i s e . 3  6  7  I b l d . H . J .  8 j . 9  J .  C h a y t o r , B o u t i & r e L i n s k i l l ,  &  op.  c i t . , p.  A.-H. o p .  S c h u t z ,  c i t . , pp.  44. o p .  c i t . , pp.  89-93.  he  s o n e t z " :  s o n e t z ,  v u o i l l  t h e  p a r t i c u l a r  s t a t e s  f o r h i s s i r v e n t e s  o f  62-3.  References that  at  write  least  the  s u c h as  the  some o f t h e  melodies  above w o u l d  Provencal  for their  implies poetry with  that  than music  "current  whether  "the  R e e s e , he  who  and  left  did, in  A number o f  i t to jongleurs  the  in  this  the  for setting  troubadours  regard  between Arnaut Richard  Reese  idea that  own  themselves.  Daniel  of England's  and  Of  them  t u n e s . L i k e  jongleurs  i n some c a s e s  writing  questions  were  often  t r o u b a d o u r poems t o m u s i c .  i s a razo  entertaining that  scholars,  supply  Westrup a l s o  poets always wrote t h e i r favours  to  i t was  wrote melodies f o r t h e i r masters' p o e t r y ; was  fact,  such a p o s s i b i l i t y .  melodies."10  situations existed:  it  Indicate  t r o u b a d o u r s were more c o n c e r n e d w i t h  o r new  too  responsible both  the  masters  poems.  h o w e v e r , have t e n d e d t o d i s c o u n t  seem t o  Doubtless,  the at  other  particular  a l l e g e d l y r e p o r t i n g an  jongleurs  Interest  incident  a j o n g l e u r which took p l a c e  court.  The  story  i t d e s e r v e s t o be  i s so  quoted  in  times  at  informative  as  full:  E f o n a v e n t u r a q u ' e l f o n en l a c o r t d e l r e y R i c h a r t d ' E n g l a t e r r a , e t e s t a n t en l a c o r t , us a u t r e s j o g l a r s escomes l o com e l t r o b a v a en pus c a r a s r i m a s que e l . A r n a u t [ z ] t e n c so ad e s q u e r n e f e r o n m e s s i o s , c a s c u [ s ] de son p a l a f r e , que no f e r a en p o d e r d e l r e y . E«l r e y [ s ] e n c l a u s cascu en una cambra. E«N A r n a u t [ z ] , de f a s t i que n'ac, non ac p o d e r que l a s s e s un mot ab a u t r e . LQ j o g l a r [ s ] f e s son c a n t a r l e u e t o s t ; e [ t ] e l s non a v i a n mas d e t z j o r n s d ' e s p a z i , e d e v i a * s j u t g a r p e r l o r e y a cap de c i n e j o r n s . Le j o g l a r [ s ] demandet  R e e s e , op. Hj.A.  c i t . , p. 2 1 3 .  W e s t r u p , op.  c i t . , p. 2 2 5 .  a»N A r n a u t s i a v i a f a g , e«N A r n a u t [ z ] r e s p o s que o c , p a s s a t a t r e s j o r n s ; e non.n a v i a p e s s a t . E ' l j o g l a r [ s ] c a n t a v a t o t a nueg s a c a n s o , p e r so que be l a s a u b e s . E«N A r n a u t [ z ] p e s s e t c o ' l t r a y s s e s i s q u e r n ; t a n que v e n c una n u e g , e«l j o g l a r [ s ] l a c a n t a v a , e-N A r n a u t C z ] l a v a t o t a a r r e t e n e r , e»l s o . E can f o r o denan l o r e y , N A r n a u t [ z ] d i s que v o l i a r e t r a i r e s a c h a n s o , e comenset mot be l a c h a n s o q u e - l j o g l a r [ s ] avia facha. E ' l j o g l a r [ s ] , can l ' a u z i c , g a r d e t l o en l a c a r a , e d i s q u ' e l l ' a v i a f a c h a . E»l r e y s d i s co-s p o d i a f a r ; e \ l j o g l a r [ s ] p r e g u e t a l r e y q u ' e l ne s a u b e s l o v e r ; e-1 r e y [ s ] demandec a-N A r n a u t com e r a e s t a t . E«N. Arnaut[z] c o m t e t l i t o t com e r a e s t a t , e-1 r e y [ s ] ac ne g r a n g a u g e t e n c so t o t a g r a n e s q u e r n ; e f o r o a q u i t i a t l i gatge, et a cascu fes d o n a r b e l s dos.12 1  I t h a p p e n e d t h a t he was i n t h e c o u r t o f K i n g R i c h a r d o f E n g l a n d ; and when he was a t t h i s c o u r t , a n o t h e r j o n g l e u r d e f i e d him, s a y i n g t h a t he h i m s e l f w r o t e i n r i c h e r rhymes t h a n he [ i . e . t h a n A r n a u t Daniel]. A r n a u t t o o k t h i s as a j o k e ; t h e y w a g e r e d — e a c h one h i s h o r s e , w i t h t h e k i n g h o l d i n g t h e b e t s , t h a t t h e o t h e r w o u l d n o t do as much. The k i n g s h u t up e a c h o f them i n a room. A r n a u t , b e c a u s e he was so b o r e d , was i n c a p a b l e o f p u t t i n g two words together. The j o n g l e u r composed h i s s o n g r e a d i l y and q u i c k l y ; t h e y o n l y had t e n d a y s a v a i l a b l e t o them, and t h e d e c i s i o n was a l r e a d y due i n f i v e d a y s . The j o n g l e u r a s k e d A r n a u t i f he had a l r e a d y composed h i s s o n g ; A r n a u t s a i d t h a t he h a d , t h r e e d a y s a g o — whereas he had n o t e v e n t h o u g h t a b o u t i t . The j o n g l e u r s p e n t t h e whole n i g h t s i n g i n g h i s s o n g , i n o r d e r t o know i t t h o r o u g h l y . A r n a u t t h o u g h t o f a way o f p l a y i n g him a t r i c k , u n t i l one n i g h t came: the j o n g l e u r was s i n g i n g ( i . e . h i s s o n g ) and A r n a u t s e t t o m e m o r i z i n g t h e whole t h i n g i n c l u d i n g t h e m e l o d y . When t h e y were b e f o r e t h e k i n g , A r n a u t s a i d t h a t he w i s h e d t o p e r f o r m h i s s o n g , and he s t a r t e d w e l l upon t h e s o n g t h a t t h e j o n g l e u r had composed. The j o n g l e u r , when he h e a r d i t , l o o k e d him i n t h e f a c e and d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was he who had composed i t . The k i n g a s k e d how. t h i s c o u l d be; t h e j o n g l e u r a s k e d t h e k i n g t o  Boutiere  & Schutz,  op.  c i t . , p.  60.  l e a r n the t r u t h of the matter, and so the k i n g asked Arnaut how t h i s had happened. Arnaut t o l d him e v e r y t h i n g as i t had b e f a l l e n . The k i n g enjoyed t h i s g r e a t l y and thought the a f f a i r was a great j o k e . The bets were r e l e a s e d , and the k i n g had g i f t s g i v e n t o both. , . .13 The whole b u s i n e s s of Arnaut D a n i e l " s t e a l i n g " the j o n g l e u r ' s song i s t r e a t e d as a j o k e , the i d e a presumably  b e i n g t h a t the  troubadour's r e p u t a t i o n as a poet and m u s i c i a n was  so w e l l  e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t he c o u l d p u l l o f f such a prank without o f the consequences. o p p o s i t e s i t u a t i o n was wrote t h e i r own  But we might more common:  songs.  infer that-just  fear  the  that troubadours  normally  In any case, I t must have been taken  f o r granted t h a t both troubadours and j o n g l e u r s were capable of w r i t i n g songs or King R i c h a r d would never have s u p e r v i s e d the wager i n the f i r s t p l a c e . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t  t o imagine the P r o v e n c a l a r t i s t  both poet and composer; the emphasis p l a c e d on t e x t music  as a s i n g l e u n i t i s very w e l l known.  as  and  But only a  thorough examination of the melodies w i l l make f u r t h e r speculation possible. music was  I f some of the troubadours wrote the  f o r t h e i r poems o r , at l e a s t , i f a s i n g l e  i n v o l v e d , a c l o s e study of the melodies  might  composer  of a g i v e n poet  be expected t o r e v e a l c e r t a i n s t y l i s t i c  f e a t u r e s or  c o m p o s i t i o n a l mannerisms t h a t would seem to v e r i f y  this  assumption.  necessarily,  J  by F.R.  Such an examination would be l i m i t e d ,  T h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s r a z o has been prepared Hamlin.  to those poets  f o r whom a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f poems  accompaniments have s u r v i v e d .  It  decide whether a poet wrote h i s two o r t h r e e e x a m p l e s . troubadours  If  at l e a s t  obviously  impossible  own m u s i c on t h e b a s i s  considered:  (48 p i e c e s e x t a n t ) (22 p i e c e s ) (19 p i e c e s ) (17 p i e c e s ) (14 p i e c e s ) (13 p i e c e s ) (12 p i e c e s )  By f a r t h e l a r g e s t number o f m e l o d i e s a c c o m p a n y i n g texts  of a single  Riquier, In  poet i s  the f o r t y - e i g h t songs o f  t r a d i t i o n a l l y known as t h e " l a s t  s t u d y i n g t h e s e p i e c e s , one i s  their  obvious  similarities.  t h r o u g h t h e use Ex.  2.  (a) (b) (c)  those  t e n poems c o m p l e t e w i t h  s e v e n c a n be  Guiraut Riquier R a i m o n de M i r a v a l B e r n a r t de V e n t a d o r n Peirol Gaucelm F a i d i t F o l q u e t de M a r s e i l l a Peire Vidal  of the  the  Guiraut  troubadours."  i m m e d i a t e l y i m p r e s s e d by  Many, f o r i n s t a n c e , a r e r e l a t e d  of i d e n t i c a l melodic passages: " S ' i e u j a t r o b a t n o n a g u e s " ( 1 3 0 , 234) " Q u i ' m d i s s e s , n o n a dos a n s " ( 1 2 6 , 230) " Y v e r n s no-m t e de c h a n t a r e m b a r g a t " (136, 240)  use  7 dfUe deiy si fu&<-  r>ah->  Qu\cu  to  of  we c o n s i d e r , t h e r e f o r e , o n l y  w i t h more t h a n , s a y ,  t h e i r music,  is  and  cAan>  pan  vutlh  I n  one  c a s e  no  f e w e r  t h a n  s e v e n  p i e c e s  have  a  s e c t i o n  i n  common: Ex.  3.  X ijj  A?  — J &  (a)  "Ab  (b)  "Amors,  l o temps  (c)  "Pos  (d)  "Gauch  a i , c a r e s p e r  d'amor"  (e)  "Qui-m  d i s s e s ,  d o s  ( f )  " E n  (g)  " Q u i - s  J -Far  a  s a b e r s  * Pai  v o s  no-ra  t o t quan  —  v a l n i a  qu'eu  p o d e r s " s e n s "  (107,  a n s "  s a u p e s "  ( 9 5 , 199)  ( 1 2 4 , 228) 211)  ( 1 2 6 , 230)  ( 1 0 4 , 208_)  ( 1 2 7 , 231)  i — j i — j —j  -  g a i " ( 8 9 , 193)  f a i l l  n o n  t b l g u e s "  —1 —  h  a g r a d i u ,  p o s  j  J  4  de,  ~rJ  1  ct>)  •blh,  Pu5  $auch  6a,-ber£  nOm  ciij yuar  Mai  5ens  e& -per,  i  -  * fl ^  ^ TJK  w  ;  Y h  j^-v  Quit  1  fol  J  —  -4-  9  —=^=4 —  \—m. J —w 1  -70^-  ^  —  i  A  number  s i x t e e n Ex.  o f  t h e Ex.  s e c t i o n s  c o n t a i n  4.  " A i s s i  (b)  "Anc  (91,  com  e e l que  f r a n c a m e n  195)  n o n  a i g u i  (97,  201)  f i f t e e n  o r  n u l  temps  de  e s t a i "  f a r  c h a n s o "  0.  S 4 rV eu* be/r, flues -t&> - Va/ -fran- cha* - m&n  £  £>/ ttrao maf per  l e n g t h  o f  don  en — Jr&Cj J'OJ- mOC^  s u c h  p a s s a g e s  v o l g r a  d'amor  ( a )  "Be-m  (b)  " C r e i r e  m'an  f a g m e i  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  i s  somewhat  p a r t i r " d e z i r "  s h o r t e r :  (99, (100,  203) 204)  n &  Qj.ef p u s com  p i e c e s :  t o  b h J> h a n a  u s u a l 5.  ( a )  (A)  S i m i l a r  up  n o t e s ,  it  but  r e c u r r i n g  c a n  be  pi'.r en  f o u n d  b e t w e e n  a. n u m b e r  o f  o t h  Ex. 6.  (a) " A i s s i p e r t poder Amors" (92, 196) (b) "De f a r chanso s u i m a r r i t z " (101, 205)  de •— vers, (b)  33 ni Ex. 7.  tptais  (a) "Jhesus C r i s t z , f i l l s de Deu v i u " (111, 215) (b) " S ' i e u j a t r o b a t non agues" (130, 234)  (a)  (to  6  ban  Ex. 8.  fa/-  (a) "Quar dregz n i f e s " (125, 229) (b) "Tan v e i qu'es ab j o i p r e t z mermatz" (133, 237)  ~iW~9  font  son  po  -  0  der  Ex.  9.  (a) "Mout me tenc be per pagatz" (116, 220) (b) "No c u g e i mais d ' e s t a razo chantar" (117, 221)  6^6  1> No  Ex.  10.  ai -ians  d'aco-trtS  r. r y  ^  den-ten-detj  $i  (a) " C r e i r e m'an f a g mei d e z i r " (100, 204) (b) "Tan v e i qu'es ab j o i p r e t z mermatz" (133, 237) m  i  A  11.  •**  y *  V  K h  i-  i? i\ rm n Ex.  J)  1  1  h  3  (a) "Grans afans es ad ome (103, 212)  —  ^  —  vergoignos"  (b) "Humils, f o r f a g z , r e p r e s e penedens" (109,  213)  GO  r Jitzj  fhf  *aa.le>  T—r  < f  ~7V  bes  •±2  Related  passages  striking all,  no  other  collection  exhibit  the  that  extensive  to  set use  too  they  songs i n the  of melodies  s u c h an  far  occur  set  at  the  troubadour to  the  of  texts  common  material.  smaller  units  themselves based. (usually said  fact  is sufficient  from a l l o t h e r  P e r h a p s e v e n more s t r i k i n g of  very  apart  a s i n g l e poet  melodic  The  i n such q u a n t i t y ,  pieces  repertory: of  t h o s e j u s t examined are  to pass unnoticed.  l e t alone  Riquier  s u c h as  to  pieces.  short  repeated  These c o m p o s i t i o n a l  almost  the  Such segments, o r  or  the  between f o u r  slightly  frequent  recurrences  o f m e l o d y upon w h i c h l o n g e r  m e l i s m a s ) o c c u r so  comprise  them, i n v o l v e  are  building  often  that  of  " m o l e c u l a r u n i t s " as  varied.  eight  notes,  are  blocks  they  entire repertory  and  sections  can  be  Riquier we  will  either  They a p p e a r i n n e a r l y  call  exactly every  melody. The  most  note f i g u r e Ex.  12.  frequently  employed m o l e c u l a r u n i t  i s the  four-  shown b e l o w : Formula l a  ' ' ' „ This often  note group  (which i s the  occurs without  extended  i n various  unit  elaboration; ways:  reduced to but  i t s basic  i t i s more  often  shape)  Ex. 13.  (a) (b) • (c) (d) (e) (f)  " A i s s i quon es sobronrada" (.93, 197) " C r e l r e m'an f a g mel d e z l r " ( 1 0 0 , 204) "Ab pauc er decazutz" (90, 19_4) "Be-m m e r a v e i l l co non es envejos" ( 9 ° , "Ab l o temps a g r a d i u , g a l " ( 8 9 , 193) "Anc mals per a l t a l r a z o " ( 9 6 , 2007  202)  air  £  4£2_  Although the f i r s t  note of Formula  l a i s frequently  the u n i t can be found s t a r t i n g on every other s c a l e as w e l l :  an a, degree  Ex. 14.  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  " S i ja-m deu mos chans v a l e r " (131, 2 3 5 ) "Ab pauc e r d e c a z u t z " (90, 194) "Mout me tenc be per pagatz" (116, 220) " A i s s i p e r t poder Amors" ( 9 2 , 19_6_) "Ab pauc e r d e c a z u t z " (90, 194) "Pies de t r i s t o r , m a r r i t z " T l 2 2 , 226)  -r—f-  -T>V-  fa,u> - AO*~^  f. U-  act  3  I if " '  The i n v e r s i o n o f Formula l a produces a v a r i a n t a l s o  often  used i n the R i q u i e r m e l o d i e s : Ex. 15.  Formula l b  Formula l b , l i k e l a , appears on any note o f the s c a l e and undergoes  similar  elaborations:  Ex. 16.  (a) "En t o t quan qu'eu saupes" (104, 208) (b) "Razos m'adul v o l e r qu'eu chan soven" (128, 232) (c) " A l s s i quon es sobronrada" ( 9 3 , 197) (d) "Mentaugutz" (115, 219) (e) "Grans afans ad ome v e r g o i g n o s " ( 1 0 8 , 212) ( f ) " S i ja«m deu mos chans v a l e r " (131, 235) (g) " C r e i r e m'an f a g mei d e z i r " (100, 204)  60  ft -  ZZL.  n r Ji *  ^  \V \  -j  A  +  *  1—*  =  1  *  f—K  mors 0  1  J J *b  -<tu  ners S21. w—/  The Formulas H a  < ^  and l i b b e g i n with a s h o r t  scale  passage i n s t e a d of r e v o l v i n g around one note as does Formula I .  Formula I l a , which always commences w i t h the  following figure,  Ex. 17.  Formula I l a  0  4*  *  +  appears on a l l s c a l e degrees except c_ and i s e l o n g a t e d i n the  manner of Formula Ex. 19.  '1:15  (a) "Pies de t r i s t o r , m a r r i t z e d o l o i r o s "  (122,  226)  (109,  213)  (b) " A i s s i quon es sobronrada" ( 9 3 , 197) (c) "Humils, f o r f a g z , r e p r e s e penedens" (d) "De f a r chanso s u i m a r r i t z " (e) "Mentaugutz" (115, 219)  (101,  205)  JtiL  5  ZZtl  -r*t-  VI (<£)  771 5ui  A  * w  *  w  f  -  >i h /*>ar~rib2j  f  5 w h i l e t h e r e i s not an exact model o f Formula I l a s t a r t i n g on c_, a note group i n "Pos a s t r e s no m'es donatz" (123, 227) c l o s e l y approximates i t : 1  Ex.  18.  Formula  l i b which  Ex.  commences  20.  begins with a descending  scale,  Formula l i b  on any s c a l e  degree  and a p p e a r s  i n I t s basic  shape o r w i t h e x t e n s i o n s : Ex.  21.  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)  "Anc m a i s p e r a i t a l r a z o " ( 9 6 , 2 0 0 ) "Ogan no c u g e i c h a n t a r " (119, 223) "Mout me t e n c be p e r p a g a t z " (116, 220) "Pos s a b e r s no-m v a l n i s e n s " (124, 228 I ) " S i j a - m d e u mos chans v a l e r " ( 1 3 1 , 235) "Quar d r e g z n i f e s " (125, 229) " Q u i - s t o l g u e s " (127, 231)  A leap Is the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f Formula I I I . Like l i b ,  F o r m u l a . I l i a begins with a descending  ( u s u a l l y sung on one leap:  scale  1 6  s y l l a b l e ) and i s f o l l o w e d by an upward  1 7  Ex.  23.  (a) "Ops m agra que mos v o l e r s " (120, 224) . (b) "No c u g e i mais d ' e s t a razo c h a n t a r " (117, 221) (c) "Lo mons par enchantatz" (113, 217) (d) "Anc mais per a i t a l r a z o " ( 9 6 , 200) (e) "No-m s a i d'amor s i m'es mala o bona" (118, 222) ( f ) "Amors, pos a vos f a i l l poders" ( 9 5 , 199) 1  l^An ascending s c a l e under one s y l l a b l e f o l l o w e d by a l e a p does not occur i n the R i q u i e r songs. A n i s o l a t e d example of a downward l e a p can be found i n "Razos m'adui v o l e r qu'eu chan soven" ( 1 2 8 , 232): 1 7  Ex.  22."  U n l i k e Formulas  I and I I , Formula  I l i a i s seldom e l a b o r a t e d .  The two examples shown below are e x c e p t i o n a l : Ex.  24.  (a) "Be.m v o l g r a d'amor p a r t i r " ( 9 9 , (b) "Pos sabers no-m v a l n i sens" (124, 228 I I ) '  Formula  Illb  passage  of I l i a :  Ex. 25.  In  203)  s u b s t i t u t e s the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e f o r the s c a l e  Formula  Illb  t h i s case, the l e a p can be ascending o r descending:  g and b_ as s t a r t i n g notes f o r Formula I l l b do not appear i n the R i q u i e r corpus. The i n v e r s i o n o f t h i s molec u l a r u n i t i s extremely r a r e , one o f the few b e i n g found i n "SI chans me pogues v a l e n s a " ( 1 2 9 , 233.): 1 0  Ex. 26.  Ex.  27.  (a) "Be^m m e r a v e i l l co non es envejos"  ( 9 8 , 202)  <  (b) "Anc non a i g u i n u l temps de f a r chanso" (97, 201) (c) "Pos a s t r e s no m'es donatz" (123, 227_) (d) "No cugei mais d'esta r a z o chantar"  (117, 221)  (e) (f) (g) (h) (1)  ses CdO  "Mout me tenc be per pagatz" (116, 220) "Qui-m d i s s e s , non a dos ans" (126, 230) "Qui-s t o l g u e s " ( 1 2 7 , 231) "En r e no-s m e i l l u r a " T T 0 3 , 207) "Be-m m e r a v e i l l co non es envejos"  Ssh  ( 9 8 , 202)  nalh  J e - cors  —Ife'V J pre+x  1  as'—£r«s —r*-  ve-rai  1*"*  non-  Formula that  Illb  i t and  starting  on  i t s frequent  d and  ending  on  f occurs  variants require special  so  often  considera-  tion: Ex.  28.  (a) (b) (c) (d)  " A i s s i quon es s o b r o n r a d a " (93, 197) "A mon dan s u i e s f o r c i u s " (94, 198) " P e r p r o a r s i p r o p r i v a t z " (121, 225) "No c u g e i m a i s d ' e s t a r a z o c h a n t a r "  (117,  G e n e r a l l y speaking, those  221)  the above t h r e e formulas  comprise  segments of the R i q u i e r p i e c e s with s e v e r a l notes  syllable.  Because the melodies c o n t a i n so many s h o r t  melismas, these  formulas  are a l s o c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y  frequent.  Yet the t y p i c a l R i q u i e r song i s not e n t i r e l y m e l i s m a t i c . between the melismas are s y l l a b i c of t h r e e to f i v e notes. t i e s and  per  duplications.  the l e a p of a t h i r d less frequent):  sections usually consisting  Here t o o , we Often one  In  f i n d numerous  o f these  similari-  sections includes  ( i n t e r v a l s of a f o u r t h or l a r g e r are f a r  Ca) (b)  Ex. 2 9 .  (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)  " X r l s t i a s v e i p e r i l l a r " ( 1 3 5 , 239) "Be-in m e r a v e l l l co non es e n v e j o s " (98, 202) "No.m s a i d'amor s i m'es mala o bona" ( 1 1 8 , 222) " A i s s i p e r t poder Amors" ( 9 2 , 196) "Anc mais per a i t a l r a z o " ( 9 6 , 2 0 0 ) "Mout me tenc be per p e g a t z " ( 1 1 6 7 2 2 0 ) "En re no«s m e i l l u r a " ( 1 0 3 , 207)  (a.)  mi  7X£  cTtis-sen-lurs  »  ^  c n  ~W«t  ft*-  ;  &  it  yen die b«« « p ~  fer owe owe Kwn ho/n non non 8 ftr  2:  3 * i  r.«n -fen p r o  The most prominent arrangement, however,  i s an a s c e n d i n g  s c a l e from f t o a,19  i n  ^Such s e c t i o n s occur i n twenty-three o f the R i q u i e r melodies.  Ex.  30.  (a) "Qui-s t o l g u e s " (127, 231) (b) "Pos sabers no-m v a l n l sens"  (124, 228 I )  (6? -fit: $3-hers  although  s i m i l a r step-wise  mm  p r o g r e s s i o n s s t a r t i n g on c, d,  e, and g_ are not uncommon: Ex.  31.  (a) "Yverns no-m t e do chantar embargat" (136, 240) (b) " K a r i t a t z e t Amors e f e s " (112, 216) (c) "Per p r o a r s i pro p r i v a t z " (121, 225) (d) "No cugei mais d ' e s t a razo c h a n t a r " (117, 221)  «§6n at pane del  o  crei  1  Chan-*0* de rio  I t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t most o f the passages i n Examples 29 to 31 move i n ascending  progression.  Only  a very  small  number o f the s y l l a b i c s e c t i o n s i n the R i q u i e r melodies  begin  w i t h a descending s c a l e or l e a p .  A few of these are shown  below: Ex.  32.  (a) "Amors, pos a vos f a i l l poders" ( 9 5 , 199) (b) "Mentaugutz" ( 1 1 5 , 219) (c) "Anc non a i g u i n u l temps de f a r chanso" (97, 201)  b  h  — kre>  bo -  -FT*  *  h  U>7  Son  (C3 -nf-  Que> - MS  Another group which r e v o l v e s  of s y l l a b i c around one  a,i>  s e c t i o n s begins w i t h a p a t t e r n note:  Ex. 3 3 .  (a) "Anc non a i g u i temps de f a r chanso" ( 9 7 , 201) (b) "Tan m'es p l a z e n s l o mais d'amor" ( 1 3 2 , 236) (c) " S i chans me pogues v a l e n s a " ( 1 2 9 , 2 3 3 ) (d) " A i s s i com e e l que francamen e s t a i " ( 9 8 , 195) (e) " S ' i e u j a t r o b a t non agues" ( 1 3 0 , 2 3 4 ) .(f) "Ab pauc e r decazutz". ( 9 0 , 1 9 4 )  ,  (4>  fine  Trie  non  .  si - qui  po - ^  w  e  S  a  Quar  rtulh  w  5'iea Ja. i r o - tat  ^?  Cb?  a€>  fran-cha-men  fib paucer  .  ial  e s , quieu  ,  perj-rtf/  es  ole - c a - Z u t z .  'As we have seen, most o f the s y l l a b i c  p o r t i o n s i n the  R i q u i e r . p i e c e s g e n e r a l l y p r o g r e s s from low t o h i g h .  The  m e l i s m a t i c s e c t i o n s , on the o t h e r hand, tend t o move from h i g h t o low.  Some o f these melismas, such as those i n the  f o l l o w i n g example, have very dramatic  descents:  Ex. 3 4 .  (a) " A i s s i quon es sobronrada" ( 9 3 , 197) (b) "Anc mais p e r a i t a l r a z o " ( 9 7 , 20lT (c) " K a r i t a t z et Amors e f e s " (112, 216)  We have now c o n s i d e r e d the m e l i s m a t i c and s y l l a b i c s e c t i o n s o f the R i q u i e r p i e c e s .  In both cases  (and i n  p a r t i c u l a r the f o r m e r ) , a s m a l l number o f p a t t e r n s used over and over a g a i n r e s u l t s i n a group o f songs whose melodic l i n e s are very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o one another. C a d e n t l a l p a t t e r n s a l s o serve t o u n i f y the R i q u i e r . repertory.  In g e n e r a l , a l l f i n a l cadences  shall limit  our study) have step-wise motion and s e v e r a l  notes per s y l l a b l e . 2 0 Is the f o l l o w i n g Ex. 3 5 .  •3  g  y  f  a  r  ( t o which we -  the most u s u a l c a d e n t i a l type  figure:  Cadence P a t t e r n I  n  While stanzas I and I I o f "Pos sabers no-m v a l n i sens" (124, 228) are s e t t o the same music, the second s t a n z a arranges i t s melodic phrases i n a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r ; namely, defabc. Because o f t h i s arrangement, the stanzas have d i s s i m i l a r endings. We w i l l t h e r e f o r e d i s c u s s 49 f i n a l cadences even though t h e r e a r e a c t u a l l y only 48 melodies.  Some twenty cadences are based on t h i s Ex. 36.  pattern:  (a) " S i ja*m deu mos chans v a l e r " (131,235) (b) " A i s s i com e e l que francamen e s t a i " (91, 195) (c) " K a r i t a t z et Amors e f e s " (112, 2 1 6 ) . The f i n a l cadences of Nos. 97, 201; 99, 203; 102, 206; 109, 213; 1 1 8 , 222; 119, 223; 127, 231; and 130, 23_4 are i d e n t i c a l t o that o f 112, 2 1 6 . (d) "Lo mons p a r e n c h a n t a t z " (113,.217)• See a l s o "Ops m'agra que mos v o l e r s " (120, 224) (e) "Pos a s t r e s no m'es donatz" ( 1 2 3 , 227) ( f ) "Razos m'adui v o l e r qu'eu chan soven" (128, 232) "Be^m m e r a v e i l l co non es e n v e j o s " (g) (98, 202). See a l s o "De f a r chanso s u i marritz *" (101, 205) (h) " A i s s i quon es sobronrada" (93, 197)• See a l s o "Mout me tenc be p e r pagatz" ( 1 1 6 , 220) ( i ) "Pies de t r i s t o r , m a r r i t z e d o l o i r o s " (122, 226) 1  (aO  h  "7  m  *•  b W  fe - yuan  —  ha,  (d) -mt-  0 gran  ni  I i £  Transpositions  rt—n  *Ur  t\  [ wt—M W J *  11/U  o f Cadence P a t t e r n  5  r  1  t\—  -4—„ J  I ending on e, f , g_ and a  (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i)  fdl-leri—•  " S i chans me pogues v a l e n s a " (129, 233) "Jamais non e r horn en e s t mon g r a z i t z " (110, 214) " X r i s t i a s v e i p e r i l l a r " (135, 239) "Pos sabers no-m v a l n i sens" TT24, 228 I I ) "Yverns n c m t e de chantar embargat" (136, 240) "Ab pauc e r decazutz" (90, 194) "Grans afans es ad ome v e r g o i g n o s " (108, 212) "Ab l o temps a g r a d i u , g a i " (89, 193). See a l s o " F o r t z guerra f a i t o t l o mon g u e r r e j a r " (106, 210) "Quar dregz n i f e s " (125, 229)  S3,  v -  Sen* i>&>  j o i n e d with those ending on d, comprise to which t h i r t y  a f a m i l y o f cadences  o f the f o r t y - e i g h t R i q u i e r melodies  belong.  Cadence P a t t e r n I I always ends with a t h r e e or f o u r note descending the p i e c e :  s c a l e sung on the l a s t one or two s y l l a b l e s o f  Ex. 3 8 .  All  Cadence P a t t e r n I I  cadences i n t h i s category have d as t h e i r f i n a l  except  i n two cases where the p a t t e r n ends on g_: Ex. 39.  (a) "En t o t quan qu'eu saupes" (104, 2 0 8 ) . See also- "Los bes qu'eu t r o p en Amor" (114, 218) (b) "Tan m'es plazens l o mals d'amor"  (132,  236)  (c) "Tan v e i qu'es ab j o i p r e t z mermatz"  (122,  237)  (d) "No c u g e i mais d'esta razo  . (117,  221)  (e) "Jhesus C r i s t z , f i l l s  (111,  (f) (g) (h) (i)  215)  chantar"  de Deu v i u "  " C r e i r e m'an f a g mei d e z i r " (100, 204) "Per p r o a r s i pro p r i v a t z " (121, 225) "Qui-m d i s s e s , non a dos ans" (126~7~230) "Mentaugutz" (115, 219)  ft  pros  -raf  m m  do  -  /or  al  S>er - sir  1? •Jut  + *? fork  peer  No i n  t h e  f e w e r a b o v e  two  c a d e n c e s  t h a t  C o n s i d e r  t h e  c o n s i s t  t h a n  f o r t y  o f  R i q u i e r  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  r e m a i n ,  c e r t a i n  e x a m p l e s  shown  a  r e p e a t e d  n o t e  40.  Cadence  o f  t h e  But  c a d e n c e s even  r e l a t i o n s h i p s  b e l o w  whose  f o l l o w e d  by  l a s t a  i n  a r e  t h e  a r e  i n c l u d e d  n i n e  a p p a r e n t .  t h r e e  n o t e s  d e s c e n d i n g  m a j o r  s e c o n d ,  Ex.  P a t t e r n  (a)  "A  (b)  " P i s e  mon  (c)  "Anc  (d)  "En  dan  III s u i  v e r a i s  (105,  209)  mais r e  p e r  no-s  e s f o r c i u s " e  p l u s  a i t a l  ferms  r a z o "  m e i l l u r a "  (a)  198)  (94, que  no  (96,  (103,  s o i l l "  200) 2071  Cb)  mas  -2.1-  raj  (c)  CoLO  — <£>CV -3 66  o r  t h o s e Ex.  w h i c h 41.  end  w i t h  Cadence  a  t h r e e  P a t t e r n  (a)  "Pos  (b) (c)  "Amors, pos " V o l o n t i e r s  P*4J  - dos  s a b e r s  fans  n o t e  a s c e n d i n g  s c a l e :  IV no-m  v a l  n i  s e n s "  (124,  a vos f a i l l p o d e r s " f a r i a " (134, 238)  - ne, -  rate gerS  (95,  228  I) 199T  In f a c t , only two conform t o one Ex.  melodies have f i n a l  (a) " A i s s i p e r t poder Amors" (92, 19_6) (b) "Gaug a i , car esper d'amor" (107, 211)  m  tin  (a)  ceS  SO  Let us now  summarize our study  cadences i n the R i q u i e r corpus. c l a s s i f i e d i n one over h a l f belong  of the f o r t y - n i n e f i n a l  A l l except two  be  o f f o u r r e l a t e d types.  Of these  four  t o Cadence P a t t e r n I and  the r e s t  are  Pattern Pattern Pattern Pattern  With t h i s evidence units.  The  I II III I V  - 30 - 10 - 4 - 3  types,  cadences cadences cadences cadences  i n mind, l e t us r e t u r n to the extent  t h a t these  d e v i c e s are used can be a p p r e c i a t e d f u l l y context  can  as f o l l o w s :  Cadence Cadence Cadence Cadence  of m o l e c u l a r  not  of the f o u r p a t t e r n s mentioned above:  42.  apportioned  cadences which do  of an e n t i r e song.  compositional only w i t h i n  At the same time, we  n o t i c e the treatment of s y l l a b i c passages, and c a d e n t i a l type  to which the f i n a l  the melodies set to R i q u i e r ' s poems:  the  shall also  identify  cadence belongs.  a i g u i temps de f a r chanso" (97, 201)  subject  "Anc  the non  i s t y p i c a l of most o f  Ex. 43.  (a) R i s i n g s y l l a b i c passage (step-wise motion) (b) Formula l a (c) Descending s y l l a b i c passage (by l e a p — uncharacteristic) (d) Formula I l l b (e) Formula l b ( f ) Formula l i b (g) R i s i n g s y l l a b i c passage (by l e a p ) (h) Formula I l a ( i ) Descending passage w i t h two o r more notes per s y l l a b l e ( j ) Cadence P a t t e r n I  1 rsr  (71)  fl  vo  a/'-ju'7j«/A  n p r 7  ~\ 1 i U7  -So  Qu'-ro*  de  :  J a r charj  1  aiy per que i <Jecj QeT7 I.  1735  — So /V[ |-jor ra.— e  j > UZ1  1  ~ I  \(e?  i&nps  rrt)  1  I I (/>_  a-  ven-'  r  I <t>9  si  }  tot  I  rjJJ.Uj]j)JO.Tj.f>l  des •— tree}  T  J  5  h.ouieu pus am, one no-m 5a.  r  i 1-7^5 ;  1  1 TUT)  S  H I s-*7 (by  \ \ ix)  at  £" -s'" "^acTnaf per  )  e n — c/re^ c/'a —  ben o e  *  . s e n —  1  J cfe no-velh t\ro-—ba~h>  tjpete m's f>er n a s ee-rans a m — pa 'u.e ma ber •tats -b(i£s 7mos -  ;  nu/d  n»?  4-  5e- corsfyoat- hon 3en — h o r  don  me "rjen  hor  7nor,  D'ate-si" e  Hp  m  ran-T au- rai  The  importance  of m o l e c u l a r u n i t s i n t h i s example  cannot  be overlooked; however, one must not suppose that they are the r e s u l t just  of any n o v e l c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e .  the o p p o s i t e i s the case:  In  f o r m u l a i c technique  fact, was  widely used i n the Middle Ages as both the music and t u r e of the p e r i o d i n d i c a t e .  Variously called  phrases" - - or "migrant m e l i s m a s , " 2  1  22  p r e s e n t — t o name t h r e e e x a m p l e s — i n the respond, and the Cento.  litera-  "standard  these d e v i c e s are the T r a c t s of the Mass,  A characteristic  and o f t e n  observed f e a t u r e of the T r a c t , l i k e that of the R i q u i e r songs, i s the use of a " l i m i t e d number o f standard (actually  melodies  s t a n d a r d phrases) which are used, with minor modi-  f i c a t i o n s , f o r a l a r g e number of t e x t s . " 3 2  The  procedure  d i s p l a y e d i n the T r a c t segments shown below i s e v i d e n t l y i n the same t r a d i t i o n as the m o l e c u l a r u n i t s found In Riquier's  music:  ^ S e e W i l l i A p e l , G r e g o r i a n Chant 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 2 7 3 f .  (Bloomington,  Indiana,  op  T h i s term has been used by P e t e r Wagner. 3 w i l l i A p e l , ed., Harvard D i c t i o n a r y of Music Cambridge, Mass., 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 5 8 9 . 2  (2nd  ed.;  Ex.  (a) "Nunc d i m i t t i s " [1363] (b) "De p r o f u n d i s clamavi ad t e " [ 4 9 9 ] (c) " J u b i l a t e Domino" [513]  44  I I U l< l< i £  &  i/i -a/e.-  (b)  runt  o  I'  5 tnb au, -  (a Is)  res  - tr#, - te, i<n c,on -  CL£,  tu, *  e.  '——+~  £5 JuS  -  A s i m i l a r p r a c t i c e occurs which has been d e s c r i b e d  ~ bw  i n responsorial  composition,  as "the a r t of adapting  ent  c l a u s e s of a l i t u r g i c a l t e x t t o d i f f e r e n t  but  plastic  and adaptable m u s i c a l  phrases":  the d i f f e r -  well-defined  2 4  W.H. F r e r e , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o f a c s i m i l e e d i t i o n o f Antlphonale S a r i s b u r i e n s e (London, 1901-24; r e p u b l i s h e d by Gregg P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 5 T Page numbers i n Ex. 4 5 r e f e r t o the F r e r e e d i t i o n . 24  Ex.  45.  (a) (p) (c)  " I n t e j a c t a t u s sum" ( p . 194) "De o r e l e o n l s " ( p . 197) " O p p r o b r i u m f a c t u s sum" ( p . 208)  ' fh  V  « *  V  te  * J  )—T i 11 ITTTT -  \t  e  f r" — r  Op  -  bh)  pr-o_  The same i d e a i s Cento form.  urn  jr—i  r-  jao-^us  sum  ^ J J L: in  w/s  a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n works  Coming f r o m t h e L a t i n m e a n i n g  the term designates literary  •- ff/i  - 0  written in  "patched  those pieces which are comprised  or musical q u o t a t i o n s ,  or b o t h , from o t h e r  Borrowings  c o n s t i t u t e most  liturgical  d r a m a , The F l e u r y P l a y o f H e r o d .  f o u n d by H e r o d ' s  •  scribes,"  o f t h e t e x t and music o f  f o r example,  t h e s e c o n d Sunday o f A d v e n t " a n d an a n t i p h o n f o r t h e C h r i s t m a s l i n e s a r e t a k e n f r o m as  "is  "The  Ibid.  of sources. the  prophecy  an a n t i p h o h  2  j _ one c a s e ,  for  f a r a f i e l d as V i r g i l ' s  is  several  n  Aenid. ^  ^ T e r e n c e B a i l e y , e d . , The F l e u r y P l a y o f H e r o d P o n t i f i c a l I n s t i t u t e of Mediaeval S t u d i e s , 1965), I n t r o d u c t i o n , p. 1 0 . 2 6  cloth,"  "the Magi's recessional  octave. " 5  the  2  (Toronto:  Another  Cento  form was  the t h i r t e e n t h century French  motet type known as the motet ente.  Here, the t r i p l u m  " c o n s t r u c t e d by i n s e r t i n g a new  (and melody) between  p o r t i o n s of p r e - e x i s t i n g t e x t p r e - e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l was  text  (and m e l o d y ) . " 7  was  o f t e n the  2  d e r i v e d from r e f r a i n s .  In f a c t ,  these borrowed r e f r a i n s c o n s t i t u t e the e n t i r e t e x t i n several cases.  2 f i  L i t e r a t u r e i s not without examples of t h i s same p r o cedure.  In t h i s r e s p e c t , we  can f i n d passages  from some o f  the most a n c i e n t poetry of Western Europe which share s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s of the R i q u i e r melodies.  In a monologue  on the e p i c poem Beowulf, F r a n c i s P. Magoun, J r . d i s c u s s e s the scop's  ( s i n g e r - p o e t ) "word-hoard" i n terms of a "ready  made language,  ...  a vast r e s e r v o i r o f formulas  j u s t measures of v e r s e . " 2 9 says Magoun, was  2  7willi  2nd ed., p. 2 8  The whole process of  f o r m u l a i c i n c h a r a c t e r , and  filling kenning,^0  "must have  A p e l , ed., The Harvard D i c t i o n a r y of Music,  295.  Ibld., p,  721.  ^ F r a n c i s P. Magoun, J r . , "The O r a l - F o r m u l a i c C h a r a c t e r o f Anglo-Saxon N a r r a t i v e P o e t r y " i n An Anthology of "Beowulf" C r i t i c i s m e d i t e d by Lewis E. N i c h o l s o n (Notre Dame, I n d i a n a : U n i v e r s i t y of Notre Dame P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 189. A study of o r a l formulas as a p p l i e d t o the A l l i t e r a t i v e Morte Arthure (ca. 1360) has been conducted by R.A. Waldron. See h i s " O r a l F o r m u l a i c Technique and Middle E n g l i s h A l l i t e r a t i v e P o e t r y " i n Speculum, XXXII ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 7 9 2 - 8 0 4 . -'Kenning was the scop's p r a c t i c e of u s i n g compound words i n s t e a d of the normal one-word term. The term f o r "body," f o r i n s t a n c e , would be "soul-house."  developed over a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e . " 3 l  Prom Anglo-Saxon  times t o the end of the Middle Ages, the a r t i s t was not c o n s i d e r e d an o r i g i n a t o r or c r e a t o r , but a "maker," o r "wordsmith," a craftsman who wove words. might  Such a context  e x p l a i n the d e r i v a t i o n of the term " t e x t " from the  L a t i n t e x e r e meaning " t o weave."  Much o f the b a l l a d  t r a d i t i o n of medieval England, f o r example, was based on a r e s e r v e o f s t o c k formulas from which the a r t i s t c o u l d select  c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s and weave them i n t o a poem.  The  i d e n t i c a l procedure i s at work i n the R i q u i e r songs; only here, the m o l e c u l a r u n i t i s a melodic f i g u r e r a t h e r than a word-group. The q u e s t i o n o f course a r i s e s : o r i g i n a t e i n the f i r s t  place?  how d i d these formulas  I t i s q u i t e obvious t h a t  R i q u i e r d i d not i n v e n t them h i m s e l f , f o r they a r e standard c o m p o s i t i o n a l d e v i c e s i n troubadour music his  time.  R i q u i e r i s merely the l a s t  written long before  i n an i l l u s t r i o u s  of P r o v e n c a l poets whose t e x t s are s e t t o a music use o f a r e p e r t o r y o f melodic p a t t e r n s .  line  which makes  Viewed i n t h i s  light,  none o f the melodies o f a g i v e n poet c o u l d p o s s i b l y be f u l l y  ^ F r a n c i s P. Magoun, J r . , op. c i t . , p. 189.  "created"  by a s i n g l e composer.32  compilation  A l l are to some e x t e n t ,  of borrowings from s e v e r a l  To be  sure,  sources.  the troubadour r e p e r t o r y  shows c e r t a i n s u p e r f i c i a l  t h i s i s not  entirely  the  only  c h a n t - l i k e and  influence. was  other music, perhaps, one  oral transmission. help  patterns  also influenced  and  the n a t u r a l outcome of  of such a t r a d i t i o n would  to e x p l a i n the number o f poems which share the  music and  the  s e v e r a l melodies which have been  i n more than one Yet  we  must not  a s i n g l e authorship.  suppose t h a t the  preserved  extensive  the p o s s i b i l i t y  of  molecular  found i n numerous  troubadour m e l o d i e s ; however, the music f o r no uses them i n such a c o n s i s t e n t and  use  of demonstrating  I t i s t r u e t h a t many of the  u n i t s found i n R i q u i e r ' s music are  the  same  version.  borrowed m a t e r i a l p r e c l u d e s  t h i s respect  by  long  the numerous v a r i a n t s  existence  Chant  corpus i s not  suppose, by a  m a t e r i a l being  The  general  cadential  The  doubtless  may  established folk tradition, reworkings o f standard  in  connections to Gregorian  i n the areas of melodic f i g u r a t i o n and but  a  extensive  other  manner.  poet In  R i q u i e r corpus i s unique.  •* A c c o r d i n g to a "Romantic n o t i o n of a b s o l u t e c r e a t i o n , . . . only t h a t which i s e n t i r e l y new and o r i g i n a l and a . s i n g l e a c t can be c a l l e d c r e a t i o n . . . . It i s i n fact, doubtful i f such a m i r a c u l o u s event can ever take p l a c e , " s i n c e " a l l a r t i s a c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the l i v i n g and the dead." See M.J.C. Hodgart, The B a l l a d s (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1962),  p.  161.  To  complete  melodies, style,  our  stylistic  i t i s necessary  pieces  Table  1.  —  Ranges o f t h e  range  octave  range  The  lowest  are  c_ and  £ and Only  all  the  and  Riquier (Nos.  - 10  (Nos.  the  of the  forty-  ninth:  Melodies 89,  193;  90,  91,  195;  103,  19_4;  9 2 , 1 9 6 ; 9 3 , 1 9 7 ; 9 8 , 202; 100, 204; 101, 2 0 5 ; 102, 20o7~104, 2 0 8 ; 1 0 5 , 2 0 9 ; 1 0 7 , 211; T o F , 212; 109, 2 1 3 ; 112-122, 2 1 6 ^ 2 2 6 ; 1 2 5 , 229; 127, 231; 128, 232; 132, 236; 135, 239) pieces  106, 228; I3T,  210; 110, 130, 234; 238)  - 3 pieces  111, 235.;  214; 131,  215; 133,  207;  T2¥, 237;  126,  230;  - 2 pieces  (Nos.  95,  199;  123,  227)  - 2 pieces  (Nos.  94,  19_8_; 9 7 ,  range - 2 p i e c e s  (Nos.  96,  200;  highest although  240)  p i t c h e s t o be the  majority  found  129,  i n the  o f songs  201) 233)  repertory  l i e between  the  d'.  five  rest  repetition first  a',  or  In  203;  range  and  octave  on.  general  99,  range.  eleventh  so  thirty-nine  - 29 " p i e c e s  136,  seventh  and  as  (Nos.  t e n t h range sixth  an  Riquier  such aspects  contour,  fewer than  have a r a n g e o f  ninth  notes  consider  a m b i t u s , mode, m e l o d i c  m a t t e r o f a m b i t u s , no eight  to  a n a l y s i s o f the  of the  R i q u i e r melodies  contain repeated  i s extensive. second  One  sections.  are  through-composed;  Sometimes  this,  s o n g , f o r example, r e p e a t s i t s  sections three  times,.  - ababcab while a few repeat o n l y one phrase: " A i s s i p e r t poder Amors"  ( 9 2 , 196)  - abc-^dec^fg A f r e q u e n t l y used form i s aab: "Grans  afans es ad ome v e r g o i g n o s " ' ( 1 0 8 , 212) - ababode  The c h o i c e o f mode i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t . end on notes o t h e r than d o r the  Only seven p i e c e s  A complete breakdown o f  melodies appears as f o l l o w s : T a b l e 2. —  F i n a l s o f the R i q u i e r Melodies  Mode D - 29 p i e c e s (Nos. 9 1 , 195; 93, 197; 94, 198; 97-102, 201-206; 104, 2 0 8 ; 109, 213; 111-114, 215-218; 1 1 6 - 1 2 3 , 220-227; 127, 231; 128, 232; 130-133, 234- 247) Mode G - 12 p i e c e s (Nos. 89, 193; 90, 194; 96, 200; 103, 207; 1 0 6 - 1 0 8 7 210-212; 115, 219; 1 2 6 , 230; 134-136, 238-240) Mode F - 4 p i e c e s (Nos. 92, 196.; 95, 1 9 9 ; 105, 209; 124, 228) Mode E - 2 p i e c e s (Nos. 110, 214; 129, 233) Mode A - 1 p i e c e (125, 229) I f i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t Mode C, which  claims the t h i r d  l a r g e s t number of melodies i n the e n t i r e troubadour corpus, does not appear at a l l i n the R i q u i e r p i e c e s .  As we have seen, the melodic s t y l e o f the R i q u i e r i s a combination of m e l i s m a t i c and s y l l a b i c s e c t i o n s . the  troubadour p i e c e s a l s o make use of t h i s  corpus Most of  combination but  f o r the most p a r t , they c o n t a i n fewer m e l i s m a t i c passages do the R i q u i e r p i e c e s .  than  S i n c e the l a t t e r employ so many more  short melismas (these melismas almost always b e i n g one o f the t h r e e formulas d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y ) than the remaining troubadour songs, they can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the r e p e r t o r y as a whole without much d i f f i c u l t y . "Pus  sabers no-m  v a l n i sens  The melodic s t y l e  of  (124, 228 I) i s t y p i c a l o f the  majority of R i q u i e r pieces: Ex.  46.  GfrtYeu,  *. -n' - as  rv>a^ -  ~ nans  Two  s t r i k i n g e x c e p t i o n s show a predominantly d i f f e r e n t  The  first  example i s mainly  syllabic,  < f e ^  style.  Ex.  47.  "Aissi  1  • --  =  W ^  •  com e e l que f r a n c e m e n e s t a i " —  (91,  195)  -  j> ji .h j, j J> Ji p p ^ W  . ,.  ).//  1  »  ^  ^  -  ' -  / •_ _ j „  On c « j mo-rir>^u)lhriomoal mm de-fen • while  t h e second Ex.  i s almost  4 8 . "Jhesus  entirely  Cristz,  fills  melismatic: de Deu v i u " (111,  $he-su% Jfie-sus Cn's-fz  SUh  mm nas —  y<?r—•  While ally ally.  the melodic  contour  one o f smooth s t e p - w i s e  agradiu, Ex.  g a i " (89,  19_3)  cp  es  >  o f t h e R i q u i e r s o n g s i s gener-  motion,  "Ogan no c u g e i c h a n t a r "  (119,  l e a p s do o c c u r 223)  c o n t a i n downward  pue*c a  \/c—nir^  occasion-  a n d "Ab l o temps leaps  o f an o c t a v e ,  49.  hi  215)  <? Hb +«r  |o  0  mot mom  and  "Be'in v o l g r a  ab j o i p r e t z mermatz" E x . 50.  (99,  d'amor p a r t i r " (133,  237)  203)  include  and "Tan v e i qu'e a descending  ( a ) "Be-m v o l g r a d'amor p a r t i r " (b) "Tan v e i q u ' e s ab j o i " (133,  S«S  WW  sa.  es-p  -be  -  TST)  de  (99, 237)  sixth  203)  be  —  2Z± Son but  such wide s k i p s  rising  fourth,33  E x . 51.  a  n  d  po  er  a r e n o t as u s u a l  as t h o s e  of a  third,  fifth:  ( a ) "Ops m'agra que mos v o l e r s " (120, (b) "Tan m'es p l a z e n s l o m a i s d'amor"  (132, 236) " P i e s de t r i s t o r , (122, 226)  224)  1  (c) (d) (e)  marritz  e doloiros"  " P e r p r o a r s i p r o p r i v a t z " (121, 225) "Los b e s qu'eu t r o p en Amor" (114, 218)  (133,  33"Tan v e i q u ' e s ab j o i p r e t z mermatz" 237) and "En t o t quan qu'eu s a u p e s " (104, 208) c o n t a i n t h e o n l y examples o f a f a l l i n g f o u r t h i n t h e R i q u i e r c o r p u s .  In a few c a s e s , c o n s e c u t i v e leaps produce the o u t l i n e o f a chord.  Ascending t r i a d s s t a r t i n g on f and c_ are most  common, one o f the more i n t e r e s t i n g exceptions b e i n g the minor  seventh formed by a f i f t h  "Qui-s t o l g u e s "  f o l l o w e d by a t h i r d i n  (127, 231):  Ex. 5 2 .  j  v -gen, QUA bon  One f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n concerns the p e n u l t i m a t e and f i n a l notes o f the R i q u i e r melodies. approached above.  A l l f i n a l s are  by s t e p ; t h i r t y - f o u r from below and f i f t e e n  from  In t h i r t y p i e c e s the s u b - f i n a l i s a tone below the  l a s t note and i n f o u r i t i s a semi-tone.3^ Finally, the music  l e t us review the r e s u l t s of our a n a l y s i s o f  set to Riquier's texts.  To begin w i t h , we found a  s i g n i f i c a n t number o f melodies with e x t e n s i v e passages i n common.  Upon c l o s e r examination o f these passages, and  indeed almost the e n t i r e R i q u i e r corpus, we d i s c o v e r e d that they were comprised o f a s m a l l group o f formulas or m o l e c u l a r u n i t s which were used i n a c o n s i s t e n t and uniform manner. We then examined the f i n a l  cadences  o f the corpus and found  t h a t here t o o , t h e r e was c o n s i s t e n t use of a l i m i t e d  number  -'The f o u r p i e c e s i n q u e s t i o n a l l end on f and sound, at l e a s t i n t h e i r l a s t phrase, very much l i k e F major.  of  patterns:  pieces. within would  one f o r m u l a o n l y  As f o r o t h e r  us t o b e l i e v e  mere h a p h a z a r d — w e r e available See  and  stylistic  musical  that  personal  f o rthe majority even though  uniformity  of choice  resources.  so f a r beyond t h e u s u a l  constitute a  that  repertory's  close  so c o n s i s t e n t ,  similarities  found  i tis difficult  more t h a n one p e r s o n was i n v o l v e d this  well  p r e f e r e n c e s — a n d not  i n which r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e so p e r v a s i v e ,  be s u r e ,  i n their  t o imagine  composition.  a s s o c i a t i o n with a l l  Provencal  s o n g s i s u n d e n i a b l e , b u t a t t h e same t i m e  evidences  o f a s i n g l e composer a t work, one who i s w r i t i n g  within his  a common p r a c t i c e y e t s t i l l  individual predilections.  this  of  d i c t a t i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n and u s a g e o f  between t h e t r o u b a d o u r p i e c e s  To  features,  as a w h o l e , t h e R i q u i e r m e l o d i e s  proceed  that  used  t h e common p r a c t i c e , t h e e v i d e n t lead  corpus  being  c o m p o s e r , o r some j o n g l e u r  is  unimportant.  of  the poet-musician  i t shows  r e v e a l i n g t h e stamp o f  Whether R i q u i e r w i t h whom he  himself i s  collaborated,  The r o l e o f t h e composer and t h e G r e e k i s embodied.  ideal  CHAPTER  I  THE COMPOSERS OF THE MELODIES  Part  2.  The M e l o d i e s  of other  Composers  H a v i n g now  d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l  technique  employed  the  s i x poets  other  i n the  the  Riquier melodies,  mentioned  i n Part  compositional l e t us  I of t h i s  Miraval, Bernart  Paidit,  Folquet  Marseilla,  will  remembered, have e a c h t e n o r more poems w h i c h  be  with musical that in  i n these  our  they  study  will  settings second  of the  f o r the  we  half  which w i l l  Yet  a comparison of the music  are,  sufficient  demonstrate that the  personal  must n o t  i s not  preferences  musical  repertory  ( i . e . Raimon  de  number o f m e l o d i e s . examination  total  without  to follow,  pieces  likely  creative  set to the  of t h e i r  Indeed  the  Provencal  discussed,  style  expect  obtained  value.  output.  Few  the as  to  i s , i n p a r t , the composers.  of  repre-  texts of  e x a m p l e s have b e e n p r e s e r v e d  compositional  survive  possible.  i n mind t h a t the be  i t  lack of extant  In the  of that poet's  i n question  be  poet  the  a fraction  troubadours  will  i n the  but  there  of  than  always bear  poets  we  s i x troubadours:  texts of a s i n g l e  must  individual  course  because of the  less  Peirol,  P e i r e V i d a l ) who,  R i q u i e r corpus  group o f m e l o d i e s  the  Ventadorn,  same c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s  f o r R i q u i e r ' s poems.  therefore,  sent  Of  poems o f t h e s e  contains  available  the  simply  largest  Miraval)  six  cases,  not,  accompanying  the  accompaniments.  and  to  chapter  ( n a m e l y , Raimon de de  de  turn  result  Twenty-two melodies are a s s o c i a t e d with the t e x t s Raimon de M i r a v a l .  Most of these p i e c e s  r e p e a t e d m a t e r i a l ; only f i v e 219,  153;  220,  common, but other ways.  154)  (211,  145;  f e a t u r e some 214,  are through-composed.  148;  The  217,  of these are  " T a l s v a i mon  151  form aab  repeated s e c t i o n s o f t e n occur i n a v a r i e t y A few  of  is of  shown below:  chant enqueren" (222,  156)  - abcadecf "Tot  quan f a t z de be n i d i e " (223,  157)  - a-^a^a^bedef "Be  m'agrada«l b e l s temps d ' e s t i u " (208, -  ababedele  "Ara m'agr* ops ^:  No  one  que  m'  2  aizis"  140)  s a i d to c h a r a c t e r i z e  the  Many are predominantly s y l l a b i c , such as  "Chans, quan es q u i l ' e n t e n d a " (214, l i n e s appear as  (206,  albc^dea^c^f  melodic s t y l e can be  Miraval pieces.  142)  follows:  148)  o f which a  few  i  V <ns #uan non eS  J * J Pen - ken - ^6t/  J ^ui  J /W?  fre$ va, - ler^  G}u€, mon  £  be I  pus  luec- ai  e>  —  £>0 - lat-Zj des -pen -  S e v e r a l , however, are q u i t e m e l i s m a t i c .  "Ara m'agr' ops  que m ' a i z i s (206, 140) i s o f t h i s l a t t e r type: Ex. 54.  &n  ti cois" not>C-  cal  -fhri'J  JJ  it pe, - nae  Still  o t h e r melodies  ;  " /<?/?5 — 5 ^  b e g i n i n a s y l l a b i c s t y l e but tend t o  become more f l o r i d towards t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n . example, the opening  dos  and c l o s i n g phrases  t a i n g n i chantar sap" (211, 145):  Note, f o r  of " C e l c u i j o i s  ~7V  i  7=  ctt'i Joi6 taing ni chzn — inr 3&>p>  Ce.1  5 Si Usually  rnelismas  beginnings two  to  occur at  of phrases.  f o u r notes per  Ex.  56.  "Ar  tyuel  -  hi  cadence p o i n t s ; r a r e l y  at  e/^ - <ffuier en  -i/£7/£  ab  luo&>  These f l o r i d  sections  the  often  involve  syllable, l a forsa dels  terns ^uan  although at times they  can  •klh' e take  freis"  f/or  (205,  139)  ncr/S  i n as many as  five  or  six  notes: Ex.  57.  "Res  contr'  mm  Amor non  as  i n the  final  Sen - ho  cadences of the  case o f R i q u i e r ,  guirens"  (219,  153)  4-  Quai - £<#Is et> soS In the  es  Miraval  —  r/U£>  ?  repertory,  c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s can  just be  seen.  Those cadence types which were designated i n the R i q u i e r corpus, Six  are used i n f i f t e e n  of the  II  melodies.  p i e c e s employ Cadence P a t t e r n I , Ex.  and  as P a t t e r n s I and  58.  t e n use  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  "Ben aja-1 c o r t e s e s c i e n s " (209, 143) "Chansoneta f a r a i vencutz" (213, l4T) "Res c o n t r ' Amor non es g u i r e n s " (219, 153) "Un sonet m'es b e l qu' espanda" (224, 158T "Ara m'agr' ops que m ' a i z i s " (206, 140) "Chans, quan non es q u i l ' e n t e n d a " (214, 148)  Cadence P a t t e r n I I .  t h r e e v a r i a n t s are (1) i n f i v e  In t h i s l a t t e r  category,  noted:  cadences the descending  s c a l e has  three  notes,  Ex.  59.  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)  " L o n e temps a i a v u t z c o n s l r l e r s " (218, 152) " S i ' i n f o s de mon c h a n t a r p a r v e n " ( 2 2 0 , 154) " C e l que no v o l a u z i r c h a n s o s " (212, 146) " D ' a m o r es t o t z mos c o n s i r i e r s " (216, 150) " B e n a j a - l m e s s a t g i e r s " (210, 144)  oap  being.  es *—0—*  -  ho  (2)  i n two c a d e n c e s  nor  the descending  scale  contains  four  notes, Ex.  60.  (a) (b)  JL& (3)  " B e m ' a g r a d a - l b e l s temps d ' e s t i u " ( 2 0 8 , " C o n t r ' Amor v a u c d u r s e t e n b r o n c s " (215, 149)  -  ziV  pre>n  and i n t h r e e cases  the f o l l o w i n g a m p l i f i c a t i o n  » occurs  i n the cadences  —  *  *  shown b e l o w :  142)  Ex.  6l.  (a) " C e l c u l j o i t a i n g n i chantar sap" (211, 145) (b) " B e l m'es qu'eu chant e c o i n d e i " (207, l 4 l ) (c) " T a l s v a i mon chant enqueren" (222, 156")  A t h i r d type  (which occurs  only once i n the  r e p e r t o r y ) accounts f o r another f o u r cadences. istic  Riquier I t s character-  f e a t u r e i s the leap o f a t h i r d : Ex.  62.  (a) (b) (c) (d)  "Ar ab l a f o r s a d e l s f r e i s " (205, 139) "Entre dos v o l e r s s u i p e n s i u s " (217, 151) "Tot quan f a t z de be n i d i e " (223, 157T~ "A penas s a i don m'apreing" (204, 13»)  (CO  ct>-)  £3 OJ  - cm  — sur* e>  sens.  -w-  •Pal -  Of the two  hi -men.  1 u-&> 5o&- benhs.  cadences t h a t remain, one  belongs to Cadence P a t t e r n  III, Ex.  63.  " S i s t o t s'es ma  2-V  domn' e s q u i v a "  mm  (221,  155)  and  the other  concludes  with  the r e v o l v i n g note  figure  shown as f o l l o w s : Ex.  64.  '.'Aissi cum es g e n s e r p a s c o r s "  -r*f-  mm <3uf —  The  distribution  o f mode i s r a t h e r e v e n i n t h e M i r a v a l  i n contrast  on  The number o f m e l o d i e s b e l o n g i n g  given  to the Riquier pieces  w h i c h most  t o e a c h mode i s  3. —  Range o f t h e M i r a v a l  Melodies  Mode C - 5 p i e c e s ( t h o s e w i t h c_ as f i n a l : 210, 144; 2 2 1 , 155.; t h o s e e n d i n g 217, 1 5 1 ; 218, 1 5 2 )  (214, 148; 2 1 2 , 146; 207, l 4 l )  Mode F - 5 p i e c e s  (205, 139; 213, 147; 2 1 6 , 150;  153; 2 2 3 , 1 5 7 )  Mode G - 7 p i e c e s 209,  ( 2 2 2 , 156; 206, 140, 208, 142;  143; 211, T4"5; 216, 150; 220, T5~4~)  Mode A - 2 p i e c e s None o f t h e M i r a v a l was t h e c a s e  made o f m o l e c u l a r  the  mainly  together.  s o n g s have  syllabic  units.  pieces  The s y l l a b i c  l a r g e passages  corpus.  Neither  As m i g h t  a r e almost  contains  i n common  i s as much  be e x p e c t e d , devoid  "Be m'agrada-1 b e l s  l4_2), f o r i n s t a n c e ,  formula:  (204, 138; 215, 149)  i n the Riquier  use  a  203, 137; on c :  Mode D - 3 p i e c e s  219,  (208,  o f t e n end  below: Table  as  137)  fans  corpus d.  (203,  only  some o f  o f them a l temps d ' e s t i u "  one c l e a r  example o f  Usually most  the pieces  formulas.  with  t h e same e x t e n t  f i n d s melismas identified  i n the Miraval  as b e l o n g i n g  "free motive"  dels  freis" Ex.  Melismas  do.occur, they  as i n R i q u i e r ' s  occur i n s u f f i c i e n t A  1  often  which  c a n n o t be .  t o any o f o u r f o r m u l a s ,  type i s found  employed  I n a d d i t i o n , one  numbers t o be c o n s i d e r e d  of this  (205,  repertory  while  a  n o r do t h e y "pattern."  i n " A r ab l a f o r s a  139):  66.  featuring a leap,  Miraval  Riquier  contain the  a r e i n no way  music.  e s p e c i a l l y the leap  s u c h as t h e one i n t h e above e x a m p l e , the  also  I t must be e m p h a s i z e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t  these molecular u n i t s to  t h e most m e l i s m a s  pieces  but are quite  occur  of a  third  s e v e r a l times i n  u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the  melodies.  By " f r e e m o t i v e " we mean a m e l i s m a - w h i c h i s n o t u s e d enough t o be c a l l e d a f o r m u l a .  Nineteen of the f o r t y - o n e t e x t s a t t r i b u t e d to de V e n t a d o r n a r e p r e s e r v e d w i t h m u s i c . necessarily  will  o f the melody f o r " T u i t  chan"  3_4_) h a s  (44, Only  c i l qu-m p r e g o n  f o u r songs a r e through-composed.  h a v e many r e p e a t e d  only  the form aab.  (38,  28)  (37,  27)  ablab ab cb cb db 2  1  2  1  2  one:  -  abed  1  l'erba vert e l a f o i l l a "  efd  "Estat  the r e s t  are a mixture of f l o r i d  The l a t t e r  (42,  32.)  2  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e V e n t a d o r n p i e c e s a r e  sections.  Some  a^bca-^-bca^d  "Quan v e i l a f l o r ,  syllabic;  tour-  sections:  "Lanquan v e i l a f o i l l a " -  over  qu'eu  The o t h e r  o f t e n In  "Ara*m c o n s e i l l a t z , seignor" -  since  been m u t i l a t e d . .  t e e n a l l have r e p e a t e d s e c t i o n s ,  Others,  Our.discussion  be l i m i t e d t o e i g h t e e n o f t h e s e  two-thirds  Bernart  and  predominantly syllabic  s t y l e c a n be s e e n i n a p o r t i o n  a i com horn e s p e r d u t z "  (34,  24),  of  f p P err -P t i l /  UP -  in m  r&  de,  3<*>t "  ± Mb  "  3*  and the s y l l a b i c type i s shown i n a few l i n e s from "Non (38,  m e r a v i l l a s'eu chan" Ex.  es  28):  68..  -*  *  +  ,—, /ii// AU • tr& chjn  Cor6  M5  to  - ta-  Que pi $ me, Ira/-/ u  mor  Cadence P a t t e r n I , so important i n the R i q u i e r accounts  f o r only two  of the Ventadorn  final  corpus,  cadences:  Ex. 6 9 .  (a) "Be m'an perdut l a i enves Ventadorn" ( 3 1 , (b) "Lanquan f o i l l o n bosc e g a r i c " ( 3 6 , 26)  21)  clfr Par more o f t e n employed  Is P a t t e r n I I to which seven  cadences  belong: Ex.  70.  (a) "Quan l ' e r b a f r e s c ' e - 1 f o i l l a p a r " (40, 30_) (b) ' "Quan v e i l a l a u z e t a "mover" ( 4 3 , 33) (c) "Ab j o i mou l o vers e * l comans" (25", 16) (d) "Quan par l a f l o r s j o s t a - l v e r t f o i l l (41, 31) (e) "En c o n s i r i e r et en esmai" ( 3 3 , 2_3_) ( f ) "La doussa votz a i a u z i d a " ( 3 5 , 25) (g) "Amors, e! que-us es v e j a i r e " (27, 17) 1  m  (t>)  •brc£> Jo/5 ver?5  mm I  .  de, r&n  al  1*J  a.r  " efi '  me/1-  W  9  r  1  trai  5  Of p a r t i c u l a r  interest  Pattern I I I .  A l l have an i d e n t i c a l i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p  their last five  notes:  are the t h r e e cadences which conform t o in  Ex.  71.  (a) " E s t a t a i com horn e s p e r d u t z " (34, 24_) (b) "Quan v e i l a f l o r , l ' e r b a v e r t e . l a f o i l l a " (42, 32) (c) "Ara no v e i l u z i r s o l e i l l " (29, 19)  (bo -iri-  J31 f£0  CO  de, Cadences f e a t u r i n g a l e a p are a l s o p r e v a l e n t . t h r e e employ a descending  major second sung on one  preceded by a r i s i n g major Ex.  72.  IreotS.  One  these, syllable  third,  (a) "Ara-m c o n s e i l l a t z , s e i g n o r " (28, 18) (b) "Lanquan v e i l a f o i l l a " (37, 27.) (c) "Pos mi p r e g a t z , s e i g n o r " (39, 29)  no-no  c o n t a i n s a downward leap of a t h i r d between i t s p e n u l t i -  mate and Ex.  final 73.  notes, "Conortz,  a r a a i eu be"  'bu. and  Of  one  second:  o t h e r , a descending  -  (32,  22)  ra*  t h i r d f o l l o w e d by an  ascending  Ex.  " N o n es m e r a v i l l a s e u  74.  1  * a,  Finally,  as  Ex.  75.  Formulas  "A!  we f i n d one e x a m p l e  of the l a t t e r  (30,  20)  i n the Ventadorn melodies but  contains  in Riquier's.  at l e a s t  While  one o r two  of poetry, the m a j o r i t y of Ventadorn  have o n l y  f o u r per melody.  used are Formulas As will  I  and  f a r as mode i s  concerned, the Ventadorn pieces The two most  c l a i m the l a r g e s t  corpus:  songs  M o l e c u l a r u n i t s most  often  are  frequently  e m p l o y e d t o n a l i t i e s i n t h e t r o u b a d o u r r e p e r t o r y as  the Ventadorn  the  II.  w i t h i n t h e common p r a c t i c e .  Modes D a n d G — a l s o  here  formulas  f o r every verse about  of  shown b e l o w :  a g a i n n o t t o t h e same e x t e n t as music  28)  -ken  t a n t a s bonas c h a n s o s "  play a part  (38,  T  i n the M i r a v a l corpus,  the r e v o l v i n g note f i g u r e  chan"  a whole—  number o f m e l o d i e s  in  T a b l e 4.  F i n a l s of the Ventadorn  Melodies  Mode D  6 pieces  (35, 25; 36, 26; 38, 28; 40, 30; 41, 31; 43, 33)  Mode G  6 pieces  (28, 18; 3 0 , 20; 3 1 , 21; 32, 22; 37, 2J_; 42, 32)  Mode C  2 pieces  (27, 17; 34, 24)  Mode A  2 pieces  (29,  Mode E  1 piece  (33, 23)  Mode F  1 piece  (26,  19;  3 9 , 29).  16)  Peirol M e l o d i e s f o r seventeen o f P e i r o l ' s poems have come down to us.  L i k e the Ventadorn  p i e c e s , these songs a r e e i t h e r  s y l l a b i c o r a combination o f s y l l a b i c and s e m i - s y l l a b i c sections.  Another f e a t u r e common t o both r e p e r t o r i e s i s t h e  predominance of melodies i n which one or more phrases a r e repeated.  Of the P e i r o l songs,  f o u r t e e n have r e p e a t e d  m a t e r i a l and only t h r e e are through-composed. S p e c i a l n o t i c e should be taken o f the i n c i p i t s o f "D'un  sonet vau pensan (174,  (175,  125)  124), "En j o i que'in demora"  and "Per dan que d'amor m'aveigna" ( 1 8 0 ,  Each o f these p i e c e s begins w i t h a p e r f e c t  fifth:  130).  D'un  60-  ftb Joi  ne-t>  vauc  <^ue m  pert  4-*'  -m  #-  —  tan  mo " ^as  Per dan ^u/ d^cu't^or ^ >aj  S u c h an  opening  i s not  melodies.  In f a c t ,  troubadour  corpus  Over h a l f repeated  note,  o f t e n found  only three  begin with  o f the  Peirol  Ventadorn  final  a f e a t u r e w h i c h we  occurs  cadences.  In f i v e  among t h e  Provencal  other p i e c e s i n the  this  much s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e  vein -has  whole  interval. 2  cadences  contain a  have found  occupies  Riquier, Miraval  cases, t h i s  a  and  repetition  - .  i n t h e manner o f Cadence P a t t e r n I I I ,  The p i e c e s i n q u e s t i o n a r e " R e i s g l o r i o s " "En s u i t a n c o r t e z a g a i t a " ( 4 6 , 183) and "Amors c o n f u o c am f l a m a (236, 257).  (87, 58) m'art—  Ex.  77.  ( a ) "Be d e l c h a n t a r ,  (168,  (b)  118)  pos Amors m'o  "Mout m ' e n t r e m i s de c h a n t a r  (178,  volontiers"  128)  ( c ) " S i be>m s u i l o i n g  (182,  (d)  enseigna"  132)  "D'un bo v e r s  • (173,  123)  ( e ) "D*un s o n e t  e t e n t r e gent  estraigna"  v a u p e n s a n som l o f e z e s " (174,  vau pensan"  124)  ((0  s/en 'er)  7**  f  re--m— f*rtnp - *  J  c*r&.  —  m  (do "  #  ^1  r* —• + - das. -. i V  A m  while  ~ *  i n three cases,  » r  t h e note  1  before  I  I  the s u b - f i n a l i s  repeated: Ex.  78.  ( a ) " T o t mon e n g e i n g e mon s a b e r " ( 1 8 3 , 133) (b) " D e l s e u t o r t f a r a i esmenda" ( 1 7 2 , 122T ( c ) "Quant Amors t r o b e t p a r t - i t " ( l 8 l , 1 3 T T  ser -vi - re In the n i n t h note.  cadence of t h i s  I t i s preceded  n ^ " ten —- otAs  ml - retz> vc&1  group, the f i n a l  i s the repeated  by a d e s c e n d i n g  third:  Ex. 79-  "Nuls horn no s ' a u c l t a n gen" (179,  0 '  129)  ^'  rv>al  pret?.  Two o t h e r cadences f e a t u r e the I n t e r v a l o f a t h i r d — i n  these  cases, an a s c e n d i n g t h i r d : Ex. 8 0 .  (a) "Per dan que d'amor m'aveigna" ( 1 8 0 , (b) " A t r e s s i c o - 1 c i g n e s f a i " (167, 117)  (ar>  130)  Cb-)  &*> -mie.i  re-.  The remaining cadences employ Cadence P a t t e r n s I and I I f o r three p i e c e s each: Ex. 8 1 .  Cadence P a t t e r n I (a) "Camjat  m'a mon c o n s i r i e r "  (169,  119)  (b) "Cora que-m f e z e s d o l e r " (170, 12uT~ (c) "Mainta gens me malrazona" (176, 126) CO  OP)  /a, - di -  sen. -ifli  -  yu'S  Ex.  82.  Cadence P a t t e r n I I (a) " D ' e i s s a l a razo qu'eu s o i l l " (171, (b) ."M'entension a i t o t ' en vers meza"  (177,  127)  (c) "En j o i que-m demora" (175,  don  The  Mi  125)  duelh  P e i r o l p i e c e s are evenly  the modes.  121)  d i s t r i b u t e d among f o u r o f  F i v e end on d, f i v e on g_, f o u r on c_ and t h r e e  on a: Table  5. —  F i n a l s o f the P e i r o l  Mode D - 5 p i e c e s  (167,  170,  117;  Melodies  169,  119;  120; 1 8 3 , 133; 177,  Mode G - 5 p i e c e s  (171,  Mode C - 4 p i e c e s  (168,  118;  175,  125;  178,  12F;  179,  129)  Mode A - 3 p i e c e s  (172,  122;  174,  124;  176,  121;  173,  123;  126";- 182, 132'; l & o . 130)  131, I B T )  Formulas I and I I are the m o l e c u l a r employed i n the P e i r o l r e p e r t o r y . to the R i q u i e r melodies,  127)  u n i t s most o f t e n  Here again, i n c o n t r a s t  these u n i t s are used but s p a r i n g l y .  Fourteen with music.  o f t h e poems a t t r i b u t e d The s t y l e  melodies, tends melismatic cors to  (67,  onratz"  this  of the pieces,  t o be an a m a l g a m a t i o n  passages.  to Faidit like  Riquier's  of syllabic  The f o l l o w i n g p h r a s e s  109)  are t y p i c a l  are complete  from  and "Lo gens  o f the pieces belonging  type:  Ex.  83.  \l J J)  Oo  K h  Pi1  ^  -9  ^ 1f * —  /  Ex.  ll •fr  rri > =  in  picu - <aens  '  \>  46,  -  w  mi  Several,  K *  4  pla  7~*~  nf  J * * -1  -  J  v  h  --  ..,=  1  V  however, show a p r e d o m i n a n t l y m e l i s m a t i c t e x t u r e : " S i anc n u l s horn p e r a v e r f i c o r a t g e " ( 7 1 ,  84.  -w  r  p  r P  Dts  -Per  J"3  J  r ,  CJ  PJ Ji—*L*  J—J-J  kot- ^uan r>w 1  113)  n  ' 1|  In only  two  or three  as the example g i v e n Ex.  85.  cases are F a i d i t melodies as below:  "Ja-mais n u l temps no'm  (66,  syllabic  108)  pot  re f a r Amors"  k tyuem  yeu6, ni mat  krailb  ni & ~ &r>Sy  A number of s i n g u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be noted i n the F a i d i t form.  corpus.  As we  Consider, f o r example, the matter o f  have seen, the m a j o r i t y  Ventadorn and  of R i q u i e r ,  P e i r o l songs are w r i t t e n i n a form which  i n v o l v e s the r e p e t i t i o n of melodic m a t e r i a l . repertory,  has  The  Faidit  on the other hand, shows a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the  through-composed form, as i t s use indicates.  Miraval,  In two  been m o d i f i e d "Lo  i n e i g h t of the  f u r t h e r songs, the through-composed form to i n c l u d e j u s t one  repeated phrase: (68,  110)  benanansa" (63 3  105)  rossignolet salvatage" -  pieces  abcdefg hig jkl  "Cora que-m des  1  - abacdefghi  2  Of the f i v e remaining "Gen  p i e c e s , f o u r have the form aab,  fora contra l'afan" (65, -  107)  ab ab cdefghijk 1  2  "Lo gens cors o n r a t z " -  (67,  109)  a b c d a b c d efghijkl 1  1  1  1  2  2  2  2  "Mon c o r e mi e mas bonas chanson" ( 6 9 ,  111)  - ababcdef " S i t o t m'ai t a r z a t mon chan" ( 7 2 ,  114)  - ababcdefg and  one, " J a m a i s n u l temps no-m pot re f a r Amors" ( 6 6 ,  has  the form  108)  ab ab c dc ef. 1  2  1  2  Another s i n g u l a r aspect  of the F a i d i t melodies i s t h e  e x c e p t i o n a l l y frequent use o f Mode D.  E l e v e n out o f f o u r t e e n  p i e c e s end on the f i n a l d as opposed t o only 39% i n the t o t a l troubadour r e p e r t o r y .  The only o t h e r modes r e p r e s e n t e d a r e  C and G: Table  6.  —  F i n a l s o f the F a i d i t  Mode D - 11  66, 71,  (62,  pieces  104; 6 3 , 105;  108; 6 8 , 110; 6 9 , 111; 113; 7 2 , I T ? ; 7 3 , 115;  Mode C - 2 p i e c e s Mode G - 1 p i e c e  (61, (67,  An even more s t r i k i n g incipits.  Melodies 65,  70, 74,  107;  112; TIF)  103_; 64, 106) 109)  f e a t u r e i s the s i m i l a r i t y o f  A l l but two p i e c e s b e g i n with a repeated  note  figure. 3  E i g h t o f these open w i t h a r e p e a t e d c_' motive  w h i l e r e p e t i t i o n s of d The  1  and a occur i n two songs each.  extent t o which these r e p e a t e d notes are used i s shown  i n the f o l l o w i n g Table 7.  —  table: F a i d i t i n c i p i t s based on a r e p e a t e d note f i g u r e .  (61,  103) c» c' c' a  (70,  112)  (67,  109) C  (72,  114) c' c» 'd  (68,  110)  c' c' c' 'd' c'' c' b a' ( 7 3 ,  115)  c  (69,  111)  C  (74,  116)  c' c  'c» b 'a g' c' d» 1  c  f  c' d' c'  c' c»  1  d« c»  d» 1  c' b'  c' d' a b ^ T  d''c' b  (63, 105) d' d' c' d'  (62, 104) a a a g f e  (66, 108) d  (64, 106) a a a ' b  f  d''b g '  A l l F a i d i t f i n a l cadences first  b  a'  can be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the  t h r e e o f the R i q u i e r c a d e n t i a l t y p e s .  They are n o t ,  however, d i s t r i b u t e d among these p a t t e r n s i n the same p r o p o r t i o n s as are the R i q u i e r cadences.  While  Cadence  P a t t e r n I i n c l u d e s over 60% o f the R i q u i e r melodies, i t i s used only t h r e e times i n the F a i d i t r e p e r t o r y :  and  3The e x c e p t i o n s are "G;en f o r a c o n t r a l ' a f a n " ( 6 5 , " S i anc n u l s horn per aver f l c o r t a g e " ( 7 1 , 113)  A11 l e t t e r s underneath on one s y l l a b l e . 4  '  f  square b r a c k e t s are notes  107) sung  1  Ex. 86.  (a) "Chant e deport, j o i , domnei e s o l a t z " ( 6 2 , 104) (b) "Lo r o s s l g n o l e t s a l v a t a g e " (68, 110) (c) "Ja«mais n u l temps no-m pot re f a r Amors"  (66,  108)  fag  so-trtr"  Of f a r g r e a t e r Importance i s Cadence P a t t e r n I I , used i n eight melodies: Ex.  87,  "Cora que'in des benanansa" (63, 105) "Gen f o r a c o n t r a l ' a f a n " (65, 107T~ "No-m a l e g r a chans n i c r i t z " (70, 112) " S i t o t m'ai t a r z a t mon chan" (72, I l 4 " A l semblan d e l r e i t i e s " ( 6 l , 103) "Tant a i s o f e r t longamen grant a f a n "  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  (74,  116)  (69,  H I )  109) (g) "Lo gens o n r a t z " (67, (h) "Mon cor e mi e mas bonas chansos"  ZMTL  * +1  +  fail -  m  (bi  fd) bai  lib*  —  2A n>  g de-  Jaco  -  men  5 mon  di - re.  Chary  Pattern  I I I accounts  Ex.  88.  f o r a further  5uf~  Formulas  are present i n the P a i d i t  considerably  use i n comparison  less.  In addition  melodies  seem t o f a v o u r a g r o u p  syllable  i n which  I s a second Ex.  89.  noil  mo  -pn'r.  come t o e x p e c t , t h e i r  third  cadences:  ( a ) " P o r t z c a u s a e s que t o t l o m a j o r d a n " (64, 106) (b) " S i anc n u l s horn p e r a v e r f i c o r a t g e " (71, 113) ( c ) "S'om pogues p a r t i r s o n v o l e r " ( 7 3 , 1 1 5 )  pot  is  three  the f i r s t  pla&u  c o r p u s b u t as we  have  to the Riquier pieces  to formulas, the F a i d i t  of three notes  two n o t e s  sung  on one  a r e t h e same a n d t h e  above o r b e l o w : 5  ( a ) "No-rn a l e g r a c h a n s n i c r i t z " ( 7 0 , 1 1 2 ) (b) "S'om pogues p a r t i r s o n v o l e r " ( 7 3 , 1 1 5 )  U>1  ^  '  J '  B 5 fou, -  This  figure  a whole:  i s n o t a common one i n t h e t r o u b a d o u r  i n a l l , i t occurs  'Often t h i s  third  note  c o r p u s as  i n o n l y f o r t y - t w o o f t h e 259  i s a olica.  Ill  melodies.  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e  of the f i g u r e frequently  i n those  r e p e r t o r i e s w h i c h employ i t  most  .6  5 o u t o f 14 p i e c e s o r 36% o f t h e 5 o u t o f 18 p i e c e s o r 28% 4 o u t o f 48 p i e c e s o r 8%  Faidit Ventadorn Riquier  F o l q u e t de Melodies  Marseilla  a r e e x t a n t f o r t h i r t e e n o f t h e poems  with Marseilla.  Here a g a i n ,  repertory  associated  the s t y l e of the pieces  is  m a r k e d by a n a l t e r n a t i o n o f s y l l a b i c p a s s a g e s a n d  short  melismas.  numerous  O f t e n these melismas  than the s y l l a b i c p o r t i o n s . "Mout i Ex.  fetz  b  The f o l l o w i n g p h r a s e s  g r a n p e c c a t Amors"  90.  a r e s l i g h t l y more  (54,  83)  serve  as  from examples:  '  a  «j— *J  J  Quant li  me,,  p/a.c  flues  -2e£ en  v-  <$uar  Mer- ce, noi a,-  ah-"4s  #,b  ^e,  This f i g u r e appears i n ten of the twenty-seven melodies s e t t o anonymous t e x t s . S i n c e we a r e a t p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r i n g only those pieces a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r poets, the a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e f i g u r e i n t h e anonymous m e l o d i e s i s n o t of immediate concern.  Like  the F a i d i t  corpus, the M a r s e i l l a  pieces display  marked p r e f e r e n c e f o r the through-composed  form,  eight  five  melodies  remain,  being of t h i s  o n l y "Us  volers  repeated material Two  extensively.  feira -  "Tan  Of  outracuidatz"  o f t h e p i e c e s have two  "Greu  type.  the (60,  I t has  phrases  the  m'abelis  l'amoros  songs  of  that  employs  form  abcdecdfeg.  repeated,  n u l s horn f a i l l e n s a " ab^b^cdefg!g  89)  a total  a  (52,  8l)  2  pensamens"  (58,  87)  - abc defc d . 1  and  the  last  two  melodies  "Mout i f e t z "Si  t o t me -  Another t h e use Only  b  have j u s t  phrase  g r a n p e c c a t Amors"  sui a tart abcdef gf 1  repeated:  (54,  83)  aperceubutz"  (59,  i n t h e key  86)  2  aspect of the M a r s e i l l a  e i g h t e e n such m e l o d i e s  repertory:  one  a^ba^cdefghi  noteworthy  of a B  2  repertory i s  s i g n a t u r e o f nine of the exist  i n the e n t i r e  pieces.  Provencal  Polquet  de  Marseilla:  (1)  "Amors, m e r c e ! no m o i r a  (2)  "A! quan gen v e n s e t ab quan p a u c d'afan" (49, 7_8) " J a no- c u l t horn qu'eu camge mas chanson" (53, §_2) "Mout i f e t z g r a n p e c c a t Amors"  (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)  (48,  (54,  83)  86)  (57,  (8)  " S ' a l c o r p l a g u e s , be f o r ' o i m a i s s a z o s " (56, 85) "Tan m ' a b e l i s l ' a m o r o s pensamens"  (9)  "Us  (10) (11)  87)  volers  (12) (13)  Vidal:  "Be  volgra  "Anc  Aimeric Raimon  de de  Vaqueiras Peguillan:  Jordan:  Peire  Riquier:  d'Alvergne:  venques  p e r amor n i p e r a l "  60)  "Calenda  (15)  "Qui  (16)  "Lo  maja"  (196,  l a v i , en d i t z " clar  98) (7,  182)  temps v e i b r u n e z i r "  135)  (17)  "Anc  (18)  "Dejosta*ls  mais per a i t a l  (149,  merces"  192)  (14)  (201, Guiraut  que  no m o r i  (155, Raimbaut  89)  19D  (239, Peire  o u t r a c u i d a t z " (60,  "Ha mi no f a i c h a n t a r f o i l l a " n i f l o r s " (245, 189) "Mos c o r a t g e s m'es camjatz"  (253, Anonymous (Blancasset?)  soven"  " P e r Deu, Amors, be s a b e t z veramen" ( 5 5 , 84) " S i t o t me s u i a t a r t a p e r c e u b u t z "  (58,  Anonymous ( A l b e r t de S e s t a r o ? ) :  tan  77)  35)  breus  razo"  (96,  200)  e-ls loncs serv"  The i n c i p i t s o f t h e M a r s e i l l a s o n g s a r e e v e n closely  r e l a t e d than those  than nine  of the t h i r t e e n melodies  on r e p e t i t i o n s c'  of the F a i d i t corpus.  figure.  (59,  88)  begin with a figure  Only  one p i e c e t h e n ,  Table  8.  d o e s n o t open w i t h a r e p e a t e d  —  are given  note begin  below:  M a r s e i l l a i n c i p i t s b a s e d on r e p e a t e d note f i g u r e .  ( 4 8 , 77)  a a a f  ( 4 9 , 78)  f ' g a' a a a ' a b " a  ( 5 2 , 81)  a  b  1  h  (53, (54,  83) a a ' a b  (55,  84_) a a b ' a  g  (56,  85) a a a b  g  (57,  86)  a a a 'a g g g  (58,  87)  a a a b  (50,  79)  c'  (60,  89)  c • c' b  (51,  80) e g g ' a b ' g  b  b  b  D  g'f  1  a a b 82) a a ' a b  u  a g a c*'b a b  a g' 'a b  b  1  1  1  c  1  D  d' b  a c' 'a g ' f  The F a i d i t a n d M a r s e i l l a m e l o d i e s troubadour  based  " T a n moj de  The i n c i p i t s o f t h e t w e l v e p i e c e s w h i c h do  with repeated notes  m o t i v e so  No f e w e r  o f t h e n o t e a , w h i l e two f e a t u r e a r e p e a t e d  a n d o n e , a r e p e a t e d g_.  corteza razo"  more  d f  are the only  r e p e r t o r y w h i c h make u s e o f a s i n g l e frequently.  songs i n t h e opening  Seven o f t h e M a r s e i l l a p i e c e s have the r e s t  a r e d i s t r i b u t e d among Modes C, F,  predominance Mode D a l s o  of melodies claims  9-  Table  —  ending  the l a r g e s t  Finals  83;  56,  Mode C - 3 p i e c e s  since  8_5;  57,  (50,  79)  Mode G - 1 p i e c e  (59,  88)  Mode A - l  (51,  80_)  piece  cadences  52,  77;  (48,  employ  pieces:  Melodies  7_8;  Mode F - 1 p i e c e  of the M a r s e i l l a 91.  (49,  and  The  not unusual  of the M a r s e i l l a  54,  Ex.  on d i s  A a n d G.  number o f a l l P r o v e n c a l  7 pieces  Mode D -  Five  d as t h e i r f i n a l  8l;  86;  53,  58,  5 5 , .84,  82; 87J*"  60,  8_£)  Cadence P a t t e r n  m e r c e ! no m o i r a t a n  II;  (a)  "Amors,  (b)  " P e r Deu,  (c) (d) (e)  "Mout i f e t z g r a n p e c c a t Amors" (54, 83) "Ben an mort mi e l o r " (50; 79) " S ' a l c o r p l a g u e s , be f o r ' o i m a i s s a z o s "  (48,  77)  (55,  8_4)  (56,  85)  Amors,  be s a b e t z  Si  1=E=I  soven" veramen"  fez  m  Mer - ce*>.  CCA  —  (el 1*f  a,5  -  sir.  m  CO - 5l - ro6  P a t t e r n I i s used f o r two cadences: Ex. 9 2 .  (a) "En chantan m'aven a membrar" ( 5 1 , 8_0_) (b) "Us v o l e r s out r a c u i d a t z " ( 6 0 , 8_9)  The f i n a l cadence o f "A! quan gen vers et ab quan pauc d'afan" (49,  7_8) i n c l u d e s a r e v o l v i n g note p a t t e r n which occurs i n the  M i r a v a l and Ventadorn r e p e r t o r i e s but i s not p r e s e n t i n the R i q u i e r cadences: Ex. 9 3 .  The f i v e remaining cadences a l s o have l i t t l e those o f the R i q u i e r corpus.  i n common with  While the l a t t e r are c h a r a c t e r -  i z e d by step-wise p r o g r e s s i o n s , these f i v e have a d i s j u n c t motion brought about by the use o f a t h i r d . the  f i n a l i s preceded by a descending t h i r d .  In two cadences T h i s t y p e , we  w i l l r e c a l l , accounted f o r one o f the two u n r e l a t e d i n the R i q u i e r  pieces:  cadences  Ex.  94.  ( a ) "Greu f e i r a n u l s horn f a i l l e n s a " ( 5 2 , 8_1) (b) " S i t o t me s u i a t a r t a p e r c e u b u t z " ( 5 7 , 86)  (to  (a)  •0 0  fe _  In  95.  w  6a,.  one c a s e , t h e t h i r d Ex.  0 0 0J 0 pa* - ga> fi-  ^0  i s ascending:  " J a no>s c u i t  horn qu'eu camge mas  (53,-82)  chansos"  - cir. A third m'abelis Ex.  i s the l a s t l'amoros  interval  i n two o t h e r p i e c e s .  pensamens"  (58,  8_7) t h e t h i r d  7  I n "Tan  i s descending,  96.  (\-\  "  AV  W _ — *  1  rrT - r ^ J  1  4< — *  —  .—I  Ion - go,- nn&n  'Cadences e n d i n g w i t h t h i r d s a r e v e r y r a r e i n t h e troubadour corpus. They w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter I I I .  de c o r t e z a r a z o " ( 5 9 ,  and In "Tan mou  i t i s ascending:  97.  Ex.  No  8_8)  •f 1(W J>  1 — ~ n  fan-  ha/.  j  JJ — J  1 1-  s i n g u l a r f e a t u r e s r e g a r d i n g formulas can be seen i n  the M a r s e i l l a corpus.  For the most p a r t , melismas  f o l l o w the p a t t e r n s set out i n R i q u i e r ' s music  generally  although not  as f r e q u e n t l y or c o n s i s t e n t l y .  Peire Vidal Melodies have been p r e s e r v e d f o r twelve of V i d a l ' s poems. Almost  a l l are predominantly  temps f e r e brau  (158,  6_3)  syllabic  in style:  "Ges p e l  is typical:  98.  Ex.  fins es  MOS  &o Joi  &t  -fti-  1  f  pen - SO, — mens  es?  Chan  —  tar  The most n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i s "Be«m pac d ' i v e r n e d ' e s t i u " (157,  62) which c o n t a i n s a number of m e l i s m a t i c s e c t i o n s  such  as the f o l l o w i n g : Ex.  99.  h b fl h £ de, Jrebzt e  Co, -  de,  / o ^ ,  Only two p i e c e s make e x t e n s i v e use o f r e p e a t e d m a t e r i a l , "Baro, de mon  (156,  dan c o v i t "  - a a b b 1  2  1  2  c^-c  2  61)  d  " T a r t mi v e i r a n mei amic en T o l z a "  (166,  71)  - abcdefcd w h i l e j u s t one phrase i s r e p e a t e d i n t h r e e o f the melodies: "Gel  p e l temps f e r e brau" (158,  6_3)  - abcde e fghi 1  2  "Nuls horn no pot d'amor g a n d i r (160, "Plus que-1  65)  a ba cdefg 1  2  paubres, quan j a i e l r i c o s t a l "  (161,  - a-*-a bcdefg 2  The  seven remaining p i e c e s are i n the through-composed  form.  66)  S e v e r a l f e a t u r e s o f the V i d a l corpus are not common t o the troubadour r e p e r t o r y as a whole.  F i v e o f the p i e c e s ,  f o r example, b e g i n i n a high r e g i s t e r and end i n a low: 1st  Title "Gel p e l temps f e r a brau" (158, 63.) "Pos t o r n a t z s u i en Proensa" (162, 67) "Quant horn es en a u t r u i poder" (163, 68) "Quant horn o n t r a t z t o r n a en gran p a u b r e i r a " (164, 69) "Tart mi v e i r a n mei amic en T o l z a "  , (166,  71)  note  Final  g' c* e'  g c g  C  c C  c  Such a p r a c t i c e i s not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the m a j o r i t y o f Provencal melodies.  In g e n e r a l , the t y p i c a l troubadour  song  begins i n a low o r middle range, p r o g r e s s e s t o a h i g h p o i n t somewhere i n the middle s e c t i o n s o f the p i e c e and then i n the c l o s i n g phrase, descends  once a g a i n t o a lower  register.8  S i n c e the f i v e V i d a l p i e c e s i n q u e s t i o n move from h i g h t o low, they d i s p l a y a melodic contour q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  from those  songs whose melodic o u t l i n e i s i n the shape o f a curve. Another s i n g u l a r aspect of the V i d a l melodies i s t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r wide ranges. have an ambitus  While some troubadour p i e c e s  as narrow as a f i f t h  or s i x t h , none o f the  V i d a l songs have a range s m a l l e r than a n i n t h . d'ivern e d'estiu"  (157,  62)  "Be«m pac  encompasses an ambitus  o f an  octave p l u s a seventh, the widest range i n the e n t i r e Provencal repertory.  (201,  See, f o r example, "Anc nom  97)  a i g u i temps de f a r chanso"  It  Is  i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t Mode D — b y  f a r the  f r e q u e n t l y u s e d mode i n t h e t r o u b a d o u r r e p e r t o r y as does  not  are set as t h e i r  appear at a l l i n the V i d a l corpus. i n Modes C a n d G and t h e r e s t  a whole—  Pour p i e c e s  have e i t h e r e,  f,  each or  a  final:  Table  10.  —  Finals  Melodies  (157,  62;  162,  67.;  164,  69;  4 pieces  (158,  6_3;  160,  65;  163,  68;  Mode P - 2 p i e c e s  (155,  6_0;  156,  6l)  Mode G -  71)  165,  70)  Mode E - 1 p i e c e  (159,  64_)  Mode A - l  (l6l,  66)  piece  Four of the f i n a l Cadence P a t t e r n 100.  Pattern III  of the V i d a l  Mode C - 4 p i e c e s  • 166,  Ex.  most  is  cadences  i n the V i d a l corpus  employ  II, que-1  (a)  "Plus  (b) (c) (d)  " P o s t o r n a t z s u i e n P r o e n s a " (162, 67) " T a r t m i v e i r a n m e i a m i c en T o l z a " TT66, 71) " S ' e u f o s en c o r t on horn t e n g u e s d r e c h u r a "  (161,  66)  (165,  70)  used i n t h r e e  paubres,  cases,  quan j a i e l r i c  ostal"  Ex. 101.  (a) "Baro, de mon dan c o v i t " ( 1 5 6 , 6l) (b) "Be-m pac d ' i v e r n e d ' e s t i u " (157, 62) (c) "Ges p e l temps f e r e brau" (158, §3T~  \lJbfn  n  ^/ -  -4-]  -J y-fcc-  m  ~^^/  7  —1  A  <r<s./.  .. /—. plan  —  w h i l e only two cadences conform t o P a t t e r n I : Ex. 102.  (a) "Anc no mori per amor n i p e r a l " ( 1 5 5 , 60) (b) "Quant horn es en a u t r u i poder" ( 1 6 3 , 68Y~  Of the t h r e e remaining f i n a l cadences, one ends w i t h a descending t h i r d f o l l o w e d by an ascending second, Ex. 103.  "Nuls horn no pot d'amor g a n d i r " ( 1 6 0 ,  Way _< ^ V 1  s  I  V  A  '  0  \ t  6  6_5_)  1  -^  )  -Po -lor.  and two f e a t u r e the r e v o l v i n g note p a t t e r n which we observed i n a number o f the M i r a v a l , Ventadorn, and M a r s e i l l a  cadences:  (a) "Neus n i g e l s n i p l o j a n i f a i n g " (159, 64) (b) "Quant horn o n r a t z t o r n a en gran p a u b r e i r a "  Ex. 104.  (164,  69)  Because the V i d a l p i e c e s c o n t a i n so few melismas, use o f formulas i s a l s o r a r e . ?  the  Even when melismas do o c c u r ,  they f r e q u e n t l y are f r e e motives which do not b e l o n g t o any af sui  our f o r m u l a s .  To i l l u s t r a t e , (162,  en Proensa"  6_7)  a phrase from "Pos T o r n a t z  i s g i v e n below.  The  third  b r a c k e t e d note group i s a f r e e motive, and the f o u r t h i s Formula l a .  Two  f i n a l cadence Ex.  i s Pattern I I .  105.  ^Formulas only.  descending melismas a l s o occur and the  are most o f t e n found at the ends of phrases  With the works of P e i r e V i d a l , we  come t o the end of  those poets f o r whom a s u b s t a n t i a l body of music The  i s preserved.  cumulative r e s u l t s of our examination are of c o n s i d e r a b l e  interest.  To b e g i n w i t h , l e t us summarize our study of  cadences.  The  which conform  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the number o f  which are not found i n the R i q u i e r m e l o d i e s .  Table 11. —  Use of c a d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s i n troubadour melodies.  No. of Pieces  Pattern I  II  III  48 22 18 17 14 13 12  20 6 2 3 3 2 2  10 10 7 3 8 5 4  4 1 3 5 3  Riquier Miraval Ventadorn Peirol Faidit Marseilla Vidal be  cadences,  t o the f o u r R i q u i e r c a d e n t i a l types as w e l l as  those cadences  m  final  IV 3  —  -  -  —  —  3  —  Unclassified 2 5 6 6 —  6 3  seen t h a t P a t t e r n I which accounts f o r n e a r l y  h a l f of the R i q u i e r p i e c e s i s of f a r l e s s importance melodies of the o t h e r s i x t r o u b a d o u r s . ^ 1  the second type.  i n the  I t seems they  prefer  In a d d i t i o n , Cadence P a t t e r n IV which  accounts f o r t h r e e R i q u i e r melodies does not appear at a l l i n the cadences  of these other p o e t s .  Note, however, the p r e -  dominance i n some o f these l a t t e r cadences than the f o u r c a d e n t i a l t y p e s .  of p a t t e r n s other  Over h a l f of the P e i r o l  I s , t h e r e f o r e , the l a r g e number of R i q u i e r melodies f e a t u r i n g Cadence P a t t e r n I the r e s u l t of p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e ?  cadences, f o r example, make use of a repeated note  figure  ( f o u r o f these i n a d i f f e r e n t manner than that used i n P a t t e r n I I I ) and f i v e of the M a r s e i l l a cadences  are  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the leap o f a t h i r d . Other p r e f e r e n c e s seem t o be apparent i n these melodies as w e l l . Faidit  N o t i c e the s i m i l a r i t y  and M a r s e i l l a r e p e r t o r i e s , the wide ranges o f the  V i d a l p i e c e s , the B f l a t s on.  o f i n c i p i t s i n both the  i n the M a r s e i l l a m e l o d i e s , and  Whether i t i s i n f a c t p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r any  so  of  these o t h e r p i e c e s as b e l o n g i n g t o a s i n g l e composer Is perhaps  open t o q u e s t i o n .  s i m i l a r i t i e s , and seeming  In any case, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p r e f e r e n c e s which we have  encountered e s t a b l i s h without doubt f y i n g melodies a c c o r d i n g to poet:  the v a l i d i t y  of c l a s s i -  such a n a l y s e s are a most  v a l u a b l e means o f coming to terms w i t h the music  o f the  seven poets d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , and a l s o o f unders t a n d i n g the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of the troubadour melodies as a whole.  CHAPTER I I  EARLY LITERARY SOURCES AND THE TROUBADOUR REPERTORY  A number of e a r l y t r e a t i s e s are concerned w i t h troubadour a r t .  One  of the most important of these i s  the m i d - f o u r t e e n t h century work Las Leys d'Amors.  Along  w i t h numerous o t h e r p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n , the Leys i n c l u d e a d i s c u s s i o n of v a r i o u s p o e t i c types used by the troubadours.  1  The work was  commissioned  by the "Seven  Poets of Toulouse," a s o c i e t y of s c h o l a r s and patrons of the a r t s formed  i n 1323.  troubadour s t y l e was language  By t h i s time, the  no l o n g e r c u r r e n t .  of the troubadours, langue d'oc,  classical  Even the very "was  yielding-  more and more t o the i n f l u e n c e of the southern p a t o i s p  and the n o r t h e r n langue d ' o l l . " s o c i e t y , t h e r e f o r e , was  t o encourage  i n the use of langue d'oc of q u a l i t y produced  the Leys i n 1356  c h i e f aim of the greater proficiency  and promote h i g h e r standards  i n Provencal poetry.  To t h i s end, the  society  under the d i r e c t i o n of I t s  p r e s i d e n t , Guillaume M o l l i n e r . "Seven P o e t s " was  The  Another p r o j e c t o f the  the s p o n s o r s h i p of a poetry c o n t e s t  h e l d once a year i n Toulouse, and i t has been c o n j e c t u r e d that the Leys served as a manual f o r the " r e f e r e n c e and !Such s u b j e c t s as "grammar and r h e t o r i c , prosody and d i a l e c t i c s , the t r i v i u m and quadrivium" are a l l t r e a t e d i n the Leys. F r a n c i s H e u f f e r c a l l s the t r e a t i s e "undoubtedly one of the most v a l u a b l e exponents of medieval s c h o l a r s h i p " and "the aggregate e x p r e s s i o n of the l i t e r a r y i d e a s " o f f o u r t e e n t h century Prance. See H e u f f e r , op. c i t • , p. 413.  r  instruction of p o e t i c  types  digressive standing  of i n t e n d i n g competitors."-  it  may  way at  art.  the Leys  were w r i t t e n  poetic  a completely  often  fifty  under-  years  of the great  compiled  so  late,  when t h e t r o u b a d o u r  after  troubatherefore,  accurate presentation of  t y p e s were u s e d  the  movement  was  i t s zenith.  primarily,  e l o q u e n t i a o f 1303-04 was  t o s a n c t i o n t h e use  a language  and  second  The  canzone,  which form,  modelled  on  we  will  remember, was  to the P r o v e n c a l t r a d i t i o n  such w e l l Marseilla, of the  and  Giraut  c a n z o n e was  ^H.J.  Chaytor,  de  of l y r i c  as  Arnaut  Borneill.  "a s t r u c t u r e  op.  Of  cit.,  p.  Italian  admits  p o e t r y and  cites  and  his  to  t h e works  Daniel,  of l i n e s  two  directly  Folquet  For Dante, the  139-  prose  particular  of the  Dante f r e e l y  t o h i s arguments, o f t e n  known t r o u b a d o u r s  tongue"  contained i n  i s the d i s c u s s i o n  the P r o v e n c a l canco.  authority  "vernacular  of which i s incomplete.  f o r our purposes  written,  work i s i n L a t i n  12,000 words a r e  interest  debt  o f the  for literature.  i t s approximately  volumes, the  add  while  remembered,  over  "last"  B e c a u s e t h e document was  D a n t e ' s De_ v u l g a r i  as  I t must be  of Guiraut Riquier,  n o t be  descriptions  have c o n t r i b u t e d much t o o u r  of troubadour  the death dours.  contained i n the t r e a t i s e ,  or obscure,  however, t h a t  The  1  of de  stanza  syllables  l i m i t e d by r e f e r e n c e t o a c e r t a i n m u s i c a l harmonious arrangement." e i t h e r be oda c o n t i n u a  This musical  s e t t i n g and  setting  could  ( i n which the melody or ode  v.  continues any  t o the end without  one o f three other  any melodic r e p e t i t i o n ) o r  types:  1. pedes cum cauda (2 pedes with a cauda") 2. f r o n s cum v e r s i b u s (a f r o n t e f o l l o w e d by 2 v e r s u s ) 3. pedes cum v e r s i b u s (2 pedes and 2 versus") I f we s u b s t i t u t e l e t t e r s  f o r Dante's terms, then  these  p a t t e r n s appear as f o l l o w s : 1. aab (pedes cum cauda) 2. abb ( f r o n s cum v e r s i b u s ) 3. aabb (pedes cum v e r s i b u s ) While Dante sheds l i g h t  on v a r i o u s aspects  o f the  canzone he does not t r e a t any o f the many other p o e t i c types  p o p u l a r i z e d by the troubadours.  such types  i s evident  That he r e c o g n i z e d  i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n :  Those who have w r i t t e n poetry i n the v e r n a c u l a r have u t t e r e d t h e i r poems i n many d i f f e r e n t forms, some i n t h a t o f c a n z o n i , some i n t h a t o f b a l l a t e , some i n t h a t o f sonnets, some i n o t h e r i l l e g i t i m a t e and i r r e g u l a r forms.5  Thomas G. B e r g i n , Dante, pp. 170f. A.G. F e r r e r s Howell, ed., The L a t i n Works o f Dante, p. 74.  I t Is r e g r e t t a b l e that De  v u l g a r ! e l o q u e h t l a was  f i n i s h e d f o r Dante might w e l l have been p l a n n i n g  never to  a d i s c u s s i o n of these forms i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n o f  include  the  treatise. A t h i r d document which has time as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n i s Las  been mentioned from time to on troubadour p o e t i c genre  Razos de T r o b a r ^ w r i t t e n by the C a t a l a n  poet, Raimon  V i d a l around the middle of the t h i r t e e n t h century.  The  purpose of the work, says V i d a l , i s to i n s t r u c t men  i n the  a r t o f w r i t i n g poetry  for  . . . a l l C h r i s t i a n p e o p l e , Jews, Saracens, emperors, p r i n c e s , k i n g s , dukes, counts, v i s c o u n t s , vavassors and a l l other nobles w i t h c l e r g y , c i t i z e n s and v i l l e i n s , s m a l l and g r e a t , d a i l y give t h e i r minds t o composing and s i n g i n g . 7  A f t e r such a p r o m i s i n g b e g i n n i n g , Las d i s a p p o i n t i n g and, troubadour p o e t r y . it  i s not We  Razos i s r a t h e r  i n f a c t , i s of l i t t l e  help  L i k e Gaucelm F a i d i t ' s Donatz  p r i n c i p a l l y a p o e t i c a l t r e a t i s e but  t u r n now  D i c t a t z , a short  Catalan  Compondre  work w r i t t e n i n P r o v e n c a l A.D.  The  and  manuscript i n which i t  i s , of c o u r s e , of much l a t e r provenance.  °Las Razos de Trobar e d i t e d by C a r l Appel, Chrestomathie ( L e i p z i g , 1907), pp. 193-7. 7  proensals,  a grammar.  to the anonymous La D o c t r i n a de  d a t i n g from around 1250 i s contained  in classifying  Raimon V i d a l c i t e d i n H.J.  Chaytor, op.  Provenzallsche  c i t . , p.  122.  I t can be dated  i n the l a t e f o u r t e e n t h century, not only  by i t s watermarks ( i t i s w r i t t e n on paper r a t h e r  than  parchment) but by i t s r e f e r e n c e t o the year 1378.  The  ( c o p i e d i n a s i n g l e hand) i s numbered 239 and  manuscript  housed i n the B i b l i o t e c a C e n t r a l at B a r c e l o n a . That troubadour p o e t i c types  should be d e s c r i b e d  i n a t r e a t i s e which o r i g i n a t e d i n C a t a l o n i a I s h a r d l y remarkable, s i n c e " a l l except p o e t r y " were, at t h i s time, Provence."  r e l i g i o u s genres o f C a t a l a n  "wholly  subject t o  Nor should the f a c t t h a t the work i s w r i t t e n  8  i n P r o v e n c a l be s u r p r i s i n g , f o r the C a t a l a n poets  wrote  almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n the d i a l e c t throughout t h e t h i r t e e n t h century.  Indeed, they  c o n s i d e r e d i t t o be  "the p o e t i c tongue p a r e x c e l l e n c e " as l a t e as t h e beginning  o f the f i f t e e n t h century.9  was  f o r i t s F l o r a l Games e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 3 9 3 , a  noted  competition poetry  Barcelona  itself  d i r e c t l y p a t t e r n e d a l o n g the l i n e s o f t h e  c o n t e s t sponsored by the "Seven Poets o f Toulouse."  Although  La D o c t r i n a de compondre d i c t a t z has been  a v a i l a b l e i n p r i n t f o r n e a r l y a century, g i v e n very  little  i t has been  a t t e n t i o n by p h i l o l o g i s t s and v i r t u a l l y  none by m u s i c o l o g i s t s .  The only p u b l i c a t i o n o f the  "Joan T r i a d u , Anthology o f C a t a l a n Poetry (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1953), I n t r o d u c t i o n , P. x i x . 9  Ibid.  treatise  ( e d i t e d by Paul Meyer i n the Romance s t u d i e s  j o u r n a l , Romania i n 1877) and,  c o n t a i n s a few minor e r r o r s  c u r i o u s l y enough, omits s e v e r a l l i n e s .  Corrections  have been made by W.H.W. F i e l d and i t i s h i s amended v e r s i o n t o which we w i l l  refer.  The D o c t r i n a i s comprised first  of two  s e c t i o n s : the  g i v e s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f some seventeen  p o e t i c types t o g e t h e r with s u g g e s t i o n s on the w r i t i n g of  a p p r o p r i a t e melodies.  The  second p a r t , much s h o r t e r  than the f i r s t , makes one f i n a l  comment on each o f the  d e f i n i t i o n s given previously. The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the t r e a t i s e can h a r d l y be  o v e r - e s t i m a t e d : i t i s , by about earliest  fifty  y e a r s , the  document on the a r t of the troubadours  has come down to us.  which  In f a c t , i t predates the o n l y  o t h e r e a r l y source which examines p o e t i c forms other than the canco The  ( i . e . Las Leys d'Amors) by a c e n t u r y /  f o l l o w i n g study of the D o c t r i n a i s mainly  concerned w i t h d i s c o v e r i n g and a p p r a i s i n g any m u s i c a l ' i m p l i c a t i o n s that may  be present i n the  d e s c r i p t i o n s of p o e t i c genre. in  treatise's  It i s therefore limited  scope to an examination of only those forms f o r  which examples can be found with both t e x t and  The e n t i r e amended v e r s i o n appears  music.  i n Appendix V.  Canco 3  The  purpose  of the D o c t r i n a , s t a t e s i t s author,  i s t o enable a s p i r i n g poets t o "reach p e r f e c t i o n i n w r i t i n g them [ i . e . the seventeen p o e t i c t y p e s ] without e r r o r and without r e p r o a c h , as you w i l l . " be expected, the f i r s t  As  might  genre he mentions i s the  most important of a l l troubadour  canco,  forms:  E primerament deus saber que cango deu p a r l a r d'amor plazenment, e potz metre en t o n p a r l a r e x i m p l i d ' a l t r a r a y s o , e ses m a l d i r e ses l a u z o r de r e , s i n o d'amor. Encara mes, deus saber que canco ha obs e deu haver c i n c h c o b l e s ; eyxamen n ' i potz f a r , per abeylimen e per complimen de raho, s i s o set o v u i t o nou, d ' a q u e l l compte que mes te p l a c i a . E potz h i f a r una t o r n a d a , o dues, q u a l t e v u l l e s . E garda be que en a x i com comencaras l a raho en amor, que en a q u e l l a manera matexa l a f i n s be e l a sequesques; e dona l i so n o v e y l co pus b e l l poras. The  author of the D o c t r i n a , u n l i k e Dante, does not  s p e c i f y any p a r t i c u l a r m u s i c a l form which must be f o l l o w e d f o r the w r i t i n g of a canco melody. melody" he d i s c u s s e s c o u l d , presumably, any  The  "new  be w r i t t e n i n  one of the forms i n vogue at the time.  Not a l l  t r o u b a d o u r s , however, observed t h i s freedom.  Peire  Cardenal's cango "Ar mi pose eu l a u z a r d'amor" ( 1 5 1 , 185) and G i r a u t de B o r n e i l l ' s l a dolor"  "No  pose s o f r i r  ( 8 6 , 57) are set t o the same music:  qu'a  t.  106 (a) "No pose s o f r l r " (b) "Ar mi pose"  } } c'3 13 do-lor De /  No posclo-$rif  f\r  - 4 — h *  A//-/J  r  a la  r  M  -  v v y v \ la  £-1 a?r  —:  ~  ie no'\  t"—r  sentfreldtf-ra  '  f  J  noik  0  -)  *  J " a- n) — m  fl or Lan-can Vei IPS ra- mels )- - ) F/o-r/'r 1  -.  ;  v  ^  n> ca-for,Ni non bd-daih  1  Ni-nVautde  i  -  a  Wi-n $ui'do-fens nin  rzrfc -  }  \ \ rv&\-\ar *'' dof-tntr  m  +  f i  e/e* la / e ^ a no v/'<  a  mi pose eu. Ida-tar fa-mof, "%.  *  i-  i  cje ft/;.  n  >—rate,  h i  h  ni  n  i  — ^ p  .  n  e>o$-pir  i  s^i con-auesnin  Su'ca-chd^,  E  M non '/» -qui ntee>< sak^^e*  Pi Can vei eton,* \J&r-^efa  e  pratz^  £  u  r « - r t < w e l  e  -  s o -  labz,  The  cango enjoyed great p o p u l a r i t y throughout the e r a  of the troubadours as i s i n d i c a t e d by I t s presence i n l a r g e numbers i n the chansonniers and the many r e f e r e n c e s t o the form i n contemporary  literature.  The author o f the  D o c t r i n a a l s o a l l u d e s t o t h i s widespread a p p e a l : . . . que cango es a p p e l l a d a cango p e r 90 con es causa naturalment pauzada en manera de c a n t a r ; e per homens autz e bays, go es saber que a t o t z a q u e l l s p l a t z p r e t z , amors e c o r t e s i a e s o l a c , ensenyamentz, e t o t go que e l l a p a r l a .  Vers The next item i n the c a t a l o g u e i s the v e r s .  Prior to  the middle o f the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , no d i s t i n c t i o n was made between the terms it  cango and v e r s .  G r a d u a l l y , however,  appears t h a t the cango form became the s t a n d a r d l o v e  l y r i c w h i l e the vers form became the v e h i c l e f o r moral and didactic diatribes. r e f l e c t s i t s new  The D o c t r i n a ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f the vers  etymology:  S i v o l s f a r v e r s , deus p a r l a r de v e r i t a t z , de exemples e de p r o v e r b i s o de l a u r o r ' , no pas en semblant d'amor; e que en a x i com comengaras, ho proseguesques eu f i n s , ab so n o v e l l t o t a vegada. E aquesta es l a d l f e r e n c i a que es e n t r e cango e v e r s , e que l a una rayso no es semblant de l ' a l t r a . E c e r t a y t a n t e s c o b l e s se cove de f a r a l v e r s , com a l a canco, e a y t a n t e s t o r n a d e s .  There has been difference, vers  over the  i f a n y , b e t w e e n t h e m u s i c a l forms  and c a n c o .  written  some d i s a g r e e m e n t  Gennrich's claim  that  of the  a canco  was  i n aab f o r m and 'that a v e r s was t h r o u g h -  composedH  has been  is  now b e l i e v e d  in  practice  that  d i s p u t e d , 1 2 and i t  no d e f i n i t e  between t h e terms.  differentiate requirement  convincingly  between t h e music  distinctions The D o c t r i n a  were made does n o t  o f t h e two t y p e s :  f o r b o t h i s t h e same:  the  " a new m e l o d y . "  Discort A p o e t who w i s h e s is  a b a n d o n e d by i t ,  of h i s lady, discort,  to "talk  of love  a n d as a man who  a n d who  the Doctrina  lives  who  c a n have no j o y  i n torment" should w r i t e a  advises.  t h e most famous d i s c o r t  a s a man  The s u b j e c t  i n existence,  matter of  Raimbaut  de  V a q u e i r a s ' s " E r a s quan v e y verdeyar,"- -^ i s c e r t a i n l y 1  U p r i e d r i c h Gennrich, Grundriss einer des m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n L i e d e s .  Formenlehre  l F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d i s p u t e s e e W. A p e l , "Rondeaux, V i r e l a i s , a n d B a l l a d e s i n F r e n c h 1 3 t h C e n t u r y Song" i n J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , V I I , 124; s e e a l s o P e r r i n , "Some N o t e s on T r o u b a d o u r M e l o d i c T y p e s " i n I b i d . , I X , 14-16. 2  ^ T h e c o m p l e t e t e x t o f t h i s poem w i t h E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n a p p e a r s i n The Poems o f t h e T r o u b a d o u r Raimbaut de V a q u e i r a s by J o s e p h L i n s k i l l , p p . 192-94.  i n keeping w i t h the D o c t r i n a * s d e f i n i t i o n . lady i s both  " c r u e l " and  The  poet's  " t r e a c h e r o u s " and the cause  of many a s l e e p l e s s n i g h t : Por vos e i pen' m a l t r e i t o e meo corpo l a z e r a d o : l a n o i t , can j a t z en meu l e i t o , so mochas v e t z resperado; For your sake I endure p a i n and t o r t u r e , and my body i s r a c k e d . At n i g h t , as I l i e i n my bed, I wake a g a i n and a g a i n ; Raimbaut's misery  over h i s l o v e r ' s i n c o n s t a n c y i s too  g r e a t t o be expressed j u s t the f i r s t stanzas two  i n only one  language.  Consequently,  s t a n z a i s w r i t t e n i n P r o v e n c a l while .  t o f i v e are w r i t t e n i n I t a l i a n ,  French,  Gascon, and G a l i c i a n - P o r t u g u e s e r e s p e c t i v e l y . languages  and d i a l e c t s are used  s t a n z a , two  l i n e s b e i n g devoted  A l l five  i n the s i x t h and t o each.  final  Multilingualism  i s not the o n l y " d i s c o r d a n c e " i n the poem, however. first  The  s t a n z a mentions t h a t rhyme and music were a l s o t o  disagree: q'una dona-m s o l amar, mas camjatz l ' e s sos c o r a t g e s , per qu'ieu fauc dezacordar l o s motz e-ls sos e«ls e«ls lenguatges. For me, and the  a c e r t a i n lady was wont t o l o v e but her h e a r t has changed, so I produce d i s c o r d a n c e i n rhymes, m e l o d i e s , and languages.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the melody f o r Raimbaut's d i s c o r t has  not  survived.  Yet from the above t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e , i t  q u i t e p o s s i b l y may have f o l l o w e d the m u s i c a l  requirements  of the form as s e t down by the D o c t r i n a : . . . e que en l o c a n t a r 11a hon l o so d e u r i a muntar, q u ' i l baxes. E f e l o c o n t r a r i de t o t l ' a l t r e cantar. E deu haver t r e s c o b l e s , e una o dues tornades e responedor. E potz metre un o dos motz mes en una c o b l a que en a l t r a , per co que mils s i a discordant. I f a d i s c o r t must "do the o p p o s i t e then the t h r e e  o f any other  examples t h a t are complete with  Aimeric  de P e g u i l l a n ' s "Qui l a v i , en d i t z "  Guillem  Augier's  "Ses a l e g r a t g e "  " B e l l a domna c a r a " ments. and  (7, 182.),  ( 8 l , 184) and the anonymous  (237> 282) c e r t a i n l y s a t i s f y the r e q u i r e -  a sparseness o f s t y l e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t melody.  from the t y p i c a l  While most troubadour songs a r e a  combination of s y l l a b i c and short m e l i s m a t i c d i s c o r t s .are almost e n t i r e l y  syllabic.  p a r t i c u l a r , i s f r e e o f melismas:  Ex.  music,  Each o f these three p i e c e s has a d i s j u n c t motion  Provencal  very  song,"  seldom  "Qui l a v i " i n  two notes per s y l l a b l e  occur:  107  h  i n m J  K' U  Que. 'm i/al -ri - cu  i J  1  s e c t i o n s , the  } mi  S '''ecu  }>  h ' ^ m)  pir-df-as  S l i g h t l y more ornate i s " B e l l a domna c a r a . "  Yet even  here, t h r e e notes per s y l l a b l e are a r a r i t y : Ex. 108  C  -+ - mors rWa/ mii>  Most o f the melodies by smooth step-wise  fa  bal  i n the troubadour progressions.  port,  corpus  proceed  The d i s c o r t s , on  the other hand, f e a t u r e sudden l e a p s — a t times as a n i n t h — a n d  frequent i n t e r r u p t i o n by r e s t s .  as l a r g e Note  the s t r i k i n g l y angular and s p o r a d i c c h a r a c t e r o f the e x c e r p t s shown below: Ex. 1 0 9 . "Ses a l e g r a g e "  Don wi* k  1  arr? mar-1> - re,  h i '  Ex. 110.  "Qui l a v i "  Que, Jaco-bras  —  gas -  .  = E  Ex. 111. " B e l l a domna c a r a "  te  - i i » ^ 5 play ^ sens  £"  t  can  Tan  }  1  Car  Grenbz.  tins  e n  '  3^- /*>2S /^/"  - denbz,  O&nbzj  ,-  i  :  There a r e a number o f o t h e r ways that s e t the d l s c o r t s completely apart from the r e s t of the Provencalrepertory.  A l l the troubadour melodies are s e t s t r o p h i -  c a l l y but the d i s c o r t s have d i f f e r e n t music stanza.  f o r each  As a r e s u l t , we not only have " d i s c o r d a n c e "  w i t h i n the s t a n z a s , but between them' as w e l l .  Perhaps  the r e f e r e n c e t o " d i s c o r d a n t melodies" i n Raimbaut's poem suggests t h a t here t o o , d i f f e r e n t music was used f o r each s t a n z a and that such a p r a c t i c e was a c h a r acteristic  f e a t u r e o f a l l discorts-.  Because and not j u s t  s t a f f l i n e s are needed the f i r s t ,  f o r every s t a n z a  the d i s c o r t s occupy f a r more  manuscript space than do s u r r o u n d i n g s t r o p h i c  pieces.  Compare the space a l l o t m e n t of "Qui l a v i " with t h a t the canco reproduced i n Chapter I : P l a t e IV.  F a c s i m i l e o f "Qui l a v i , en d i t z "  17(1  ticrf <r aworfle. -\niarf „•(> ^. ItnLttflk? cfctutxT.pjj <tx>Or cnic nuT - far Arniif-" C~' — w  >  s  »  W ! t  f  i *  *  \  :s  '  >e clrouci • Awn- inn" nt.x 1  nuc - y» a .wmr fok moiiMic • cotiqurf "C «Kttrq«tm-^~<B--^M^'-*^ . 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TJI-  m  • wc4 moiwmCt  fen a r r f n i d U W - p t f - U t i c U i i i n r r c i i n ) -  ZJT. iWlnr'UifTaiifwf- p t e f • i n c f aw] pifftrf.  c u t . n o n (Up ft Vi wiotf• am ntion 1 i » tni  iwlvw Circu>M . i t i M n - n n . « f t r v » a ™ *  •  t miVtttcnm pucvf .mienItinc. mr  toliw1wjw-lifm. ,  >!m wfllll  •I  01.1 'iiMn»ui.t^uii it^. oi'iicl tvm i l l .  Minmlni .Kit toufi |vn-i ;mr  Wn.ttott cilrt.t furtt 1110:1.1 pucvftM  ni.il iion iliinr- 2>tr. fn» ft imti.i  5=t  t flltl  _:I«I. non mcihvn.i-'o>!i IOMI .linicijir  CIMlt • Ml)  pour  j>ir. !•> ijvtt nm ituittott cit»  11., Cir-ar- iititeu 11011 .tv mint in c 1.  : 1.  u  K -.MiEn-.rn.ir.uci f ffl moiitim'ti-  ituiriiinQrtn nob.ir mctw  t  «  M»r  -Sr . 1  «  J.VT Ulnf ne- pif • ItLnic ti'eiM mdtvctu  midf uoihvf  •I, pict iif-trie.  . (, * ^ ; fllM n>ltMl'-CT|-'-fcU.I tin' iVfrll. u  -  a i — ~  1  -  i  iV purr non .1 IM!*'- cw •  cuiifm  •L-  U1u.1t> • I M V - (OitiM col cvflr-'iiir-  -"  .  i t .  -  .1111 Icvftnty •pti.it*> 11 i-iV' .tin ycr r. .,: -[ y  1 _ ,  DrCu inoiir-mmrtii tvti •"'itbtr  i  '.  -  •  jprtW "fcjf cm H ni fvfwfin.lfiiun  cUmfii  £11 liter unci pl.tv.-CO. t£^|.!»Y<iiiceir|cr 11  I:  7  _I~  m iwljta fcflcr }t^v» ^cn mtef ft  " ^ i S g  pWcr ottKti evefu •»  1111ftfcKtuiif  ttof .lucf tontbt uof  .)ino3T\)ii  .11111 rijvr  inn  A l l the stanzas of " B e l l a domna c a r a " and  "Qui  l a v i , en d i t z " are completely through-composed w h i l e "Ses  a l e g r a g e " combines e i g h t stanzas of aab  (stanzas numbered one through-composed two of  e i g h t ) with two  (stanzas nine and t e n ) .  final  f o r each s t a n z a .  In the  latter  The  f i r s t e i g h t stanzas of  a l e g r a g e " end on d as does the tornada but the stanzas cadence on g_ and a r e s p e c t i v e l y .  "Qui l a v i , " only two same note  (which  1  last  As f o r  of i t s f o u r stanzas end on the  i n t h i s case i s g w h i l e the  cadence on d and f .  4  remainder  Yet i t i s not t o be supposed t h a t  the music of these d i s c o r t s i s j u s t of  t h a t are  p i e c e s t h e r e i s not even agreement i n the c h o i c e  "Ses two  through  form  a  conglomeration  u n r e l a t e d stanzas s t r u n g t o g e t h e r i n haphazard f a s h i o n .  On the c o n t r a r y , c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been g i v e n t o the b a l a n c i n g of d i s p a r a t e and cularly  cohesive elements.  s u b t l e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s shown i n "Ses  where the music seems t o r e f l e c t of  a tortured lover.  The  Parti-  alegrage"  the growing d i s t r a c t i o n  f i r s t e i g h t stanzas of t h i s  p i e c e have a number of f e a t u r e s i n common: they are a l l approximately  equal i n l e n g t h , they have the same melodic  s t r u c t u r e and f i n a l , descending  and they each conclude with a  s c a l e passage:  In the second s t a n z a of "Qui l a v i , " an e f l a t i s sung on the word P a t z . I have found only two o t h e r o c c u r r e n c e s of the f l a t t e d E among the troubadour p i e c e s , both on h i g h e'. 1 4  Ex. 112.  A/on  h  mtlx. ~£»!> f>res  9  'J* *>' «*  M>  'Lgne-uS trials, don  Sew truth won cor la,i  j \\ } T 7 oQuart la, f>re&j de> ~mi X/'7  Qui Iot> s/eu5 d'ee-mai  By  c o n t r a s t , the l a s t  -Uri  M*  Two  Qa'orn  en-dijrl  h Ji m j  vcn-cuOZj^u-frenZ/  Vir.  a-'fiue&cOsir  two stanzas a r e s h o r t , through-  composed, and r e t u r n t o the d f i n a l only i n the t o r n a d a . G r a d u a l l y the descending  s c a l e o f the p r e v i o u s e i g h t  stanzas g i v e s p l a c e t o a l i n e more d i s j u n c t .  which becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y  T h i s d i s j u n c t motion culminates  i n the  tornada with a leap o f a f i f t h between the p e n u l t i m a t e and f i n a l notes, an event which occurs i n no o t h e r melody i n the troubadour  corpus:  Ex. 113.  jl  i'> >  h ' .h  Glu&> ctaus -traj jaj - sainh ftyti'ih ,*d-  1* J» ) J' i ' J>  c$or? $ai cors plfr-2en (?en.  f"&- j&  i  -fate Mab  Although  "Qui l a v i " i s e n t i r e l y through-composed, i t  is unified  by the use of s i m i l a r melodic m a t e r i a l .  Some o f these s h o r t melodic within a single  fragments are repeated  stanza only,  Ex. 114.  (Stanza 3? Mr  1  r— r>  M  ^=  non -Pes  oiouz  f \ — 1  Pars  1 ^  ^ b  '1  •  —,  1  W.  M>  ^  bai-sars  0  1=  1  -f  Pe,-afoat  M'agr'wns  N ~w _JJ  1  — >r  Va.1 ri —Uas  I  —1  -re/-  r. r rr r r r 1/ 1/ u D 1/1/ 1  1 /  AtU-  1  Car tSun di-as  i  ^ie-n mo-ri  r*  1 _ «  :  -as  w h i l e o t h e r s , o c c u r r i n g a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s throughout the p i e c e , a c t as l i n k s between the s t a n z a s .  The most common  of the l a t t e r group i s a segment which begins w i t h a repeated c':  Ex.  115. _l  Quito, plrt-ri  -As  -  ¥  EE  fincde,  I  E  1  1 ^  w  noil-ha,  i  ;  g&n  P  E f/ f/ g /U&i6> $il mo-nu-  " B e l l a domna c a r a " i s a l s o u n i f i e d by s i m i l a r material.  men/  melodic  In t h i s case, the music f o r the l a s t verse o f  each s t a n z a i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same, thus p r o v i d i n g c o h e s i o n among a l l f o u r s t a n z a s : Ex.  116.  1  ni  o m s ft  b b>  Z>? prczj  o  pot far J)  Que-te ai-ynanS  a.-pa,^as  *  won tX'j-an  gran.  I t Is u n f o r t u n a t e that more d i s c o r t s have not s u r v i v e d , f o r i f the t h r e e examples we possess are t y p i c a l , then t h e r e was d e f i n i t e l y  an i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n  between the poetry and music of the genre.  Indeed, a  melody c h a r a c t e r i z e d by sudden wide l e a p s , abrupt changes i n d i r e c t i o n , and the p e r f e c t c o u n t e r p a r t  short h a l t i n g phrases, i s  f o r a lament on  unrequited  love. Pastora While the troubadour c o u r t l y one, i n evidence.  success. of  The  primarily a  c e r t a i n v e s t i g e s of popular t r a d t l o n s are The  p a s t o r a form i s one  the p a s t o r a i s p r e s e n t e d t r i e s to woo  movement was  of these.  Usually  as a d i a l o g u e i n which a knight  a shepherdess—often,  however, without  D o c t r i n a d e s c r i b e s the p o e t i c  requirements  the genre as f o l l o w s , S i v o l s f a r p a s t o r a , deus p a r l a r d'amor en a y t a l semblan com eu t e ensenyaray, co es a saber, s i t ' a c o s t e s a p a s t o r a e l a v o l s s a l u d a r , o enquerer o manar o c o r t e i a r , o de q u a l razo demanar o dar o p a r l a r l i v u l l e s . E potz l i metre a l t r e nom de p a s t o r a , segons l o b e s t i a r que guardara.  and  then adds a f u r t h e r statement  about i t s music:  E aquesta manera es c l a r a a s s a t z d'entendre, e potz l i f e r s i s o v u i t c o b l e s , e so n o v e l l o so e s t r a y n ya pas s a t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to s p e c u l a t e on what the author of the D o c t r i n a had  i n mind by the a d j e c t i v e e s t r a y n or  "strange."  Certainly the  there  i s nothing  anonymous " L ' a l t r i ' e r  Marcabrun's the  only  "L'autr'ier  two p a s t o r a s  out o f the o r d i n a r y m'iere  jost'  levatz"  with musical  accompaniment i n  N e i t h e r have any u n u s u a l  progressions,  nor i s there  anything  intervallic  atypical  about t h e  s t r u c t u r e ( g i v e n b e l o w ) o f t h e two p i e c e s :  " L ' a l t r i ' e r m'iere" "L'autri'ier jost'" The  Doctrina also considers  for  the gelozesca,  extant  ( 2 4 9 , 252) o r  una s e b i s s a " (144, 1 0 ) ,  existence.  melodic  about  musical  aabc-'-aabc^deabc abcabcd  a "strange  2  melody"  acceptable  a f o r m w h i c h u n f o r t u n a t e l y h a s no  settings:  S i v o l s f a r g e l o z e s c a , deus p a r l a r de g e l o z i a , r e p r e n d e n o c o n t r a s t a n de f a y t d'amor; e deu h a v e r r e s p o n e d o r , e q u a t r e c o b l e s , e una o dues t o r n a d e s , e so n o v e y l l o estrayn ya f e y t . It  i s certainly  significant  gelozesca d e f i n i t i o n s , has  been used b e f o r e . "  t u n e was ally  "strange"  intended  only  that  i n both  the "strange  t h e p a s t o r a and  m e l o d y " i s "one t h a t  Such a s t a t e m e n t  suggests  i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t was  f o r another  text.  that a origin-  For confirmation o f our  - ^ B o t h " L ' a u t r ' i e r j o s t ' u n a s e b i s s a " and " L ' a l t r i ' e r m ' i e r e l e v a z " b e g i n w i t h . " t h e o t h e r day" f o r m u l a ; t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l o p e n i n g f o r a l l poems i n t h e p a s t o r a f o r m .  s p e c u l a t i o n s , we may  t u r n t o the d e f i n i t i o n of e s t r a y n  as i t was  i n both the C a t a l a n and  understood  dialects.  In each case t h e r e i s i m p l i c i t  something b e l o n g i n g to another.  The  Provencal  the i d e a o f  s u g g e s t i o n that a  "strange melody" i s none o t h e r than a borrowed melody, t h e r e f o r e , has We  linguistic  have no way  j o s t ' una  of knowing whether  s e b i s s a " and  set t o new  support.^ "L'autr'ier  " L ' a l t r i ' e r m'iere  l e v a z " were  or " s t r a n g e " ( i . e . borrowed) music.  t h a t the melodies i n combination  The  of these songs have never been  with any  other poems i s not  fact  found  significant  s i n c e such a s m a l l p o r t i o n of the r e p e r t o r y s u r v i v e s . Estampida The  c o d i c i l of the D o c t r i n a d e s c r i b e s the  estampida  as a form which " r e q u i r e s more v i g o r i n i t s s i n g i n g and t e l l i n g than any  o t h e r poem."  i s i n c l u d e d i n an e a r l i e r  A more complete  definition  passage:  S i v o l s f a r estampida, potz p a r l a r de qualque f a y t v u l l e s , blasman o lauzan o merceyan, q u i t v u l l e s ; e deu haver quatre c o b l e s e responedor, e una o dues tornades, e so n o v e l l .  ^For a P r o v e n c a l d e f i n i t i o n , see Lexique Roman ou D i c t i o n n a i r e de l a Langue des Troubadours e d i t e d by W. Raynouard ( H e i d e l b e r g : C a r l Winters U n i v e r s i t a t s b u c h h a n d l u n o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n : 1 8 3 6 - 1 8 4 5 ) , s e c t i o n D.-K., p. 2 2 2 - 3 . A C a t a l a n d e f i n i t i o n can be o b t a i n e d i n D i c c i o n a r i C a t a l a V a l e n c i a - B a l e a r e d i t e d by Antoni M. A l c o v e r (Palma de M a l l o r c a , 1 9 5 3 ) , V o l . 5 ( e d i t e d by Prances de B. M o l l ) , p. 584  The  only extent estampida  p r e s e r v e d with t e x t as w e l l "Calenda maja" ( 1 9 6 , 9 8 ) ,  as melody i s the c e l e b r a t e d both t h e f i n e s t  and e a r l i e s t  w r i t t e n by a troubadour.  specimen  o f the form  The poem, a t t r i b u t e d t o  Raimbaut de V a q u e i r a s , was supposedly w r i t t e n f o r a melody the poet heard performed French j o n g l e u r s . t h a t the music but French. was  on v i e l l e s by'two  I t i s therefore entirely  f o r "Calenda maja" i s not P r o v e n c a l ,  The estampida,  as the D o c t r i n a i n d i c a t e s ,  t o be sung w i t h " v i g o r , " perhaps  i t s o r i g i n s i n a p o p u l a r "stamping" strictly is Ex.  possible  reminiscent of dance.  I f so, t h e  s y l l a b i c , r h y t h m i c a l s t y l e o f "Calenda maja"  completely i n keeping with i t s a n c e s t r y : 117.  "Calenda maja"  it K&,  -/en-oCcu  fl/or*  h  /M*,~Lpu  e$ fite-m  4>  Ztlh  /I/,'  JUi  p/a,  f/oKS  bp de,  a/a,  n~~  auesn O/nors  3  re - tra, twos -  -V  -fue/hs  r°ro^>  ale,  ua,  beJ  A  tra,  MX, - ire,  + -  $A>  t  o  d'aw-  jf^ ^  J )P  b  -  /Ui ctona/ 7  n 1  rsr  - CJ#J  fa^d*  e/ory> -r?a->  /' > - h  b&IJv  h  h  -+  *  £  JA>  o '  Co/s,  h -ijiZ'  *  $ ~  Jem  While the estampida o r i g i n a l l y c o n t a i n e d both words and music,  i t l a t e r became a p u r e l y i n s t r u m e n t a l form and as  such, was the  one of the most important non-vocal genres o f  l a t e Middle  Ages.  1 7  Dang a A c c o r d i n g t o the D o c t r i n a , instruments were a l s o important  i n the danca  form:  Dansa es d i t a perco com naturalment l a d l t z horn danca[n] o b a y l l a n , c a r deu[aver] so p l a z e n t ; e l a d i t z horn ab esturment, e p l a u a cascus que l a d i g a e l a escout. The danca i s f u r t h e r d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : S i v o l s f a r danca, deus p a r l a r d'amor be e plasentment en qualque estament ne s i e s . E deus l i f e r de deutz n i c o b l e s e no pus, e r e s p o s t , una o dues t o r n a d e s , q u a l t e v u l l e s ; t o t e s vegades so novell. E potz f e r , s i t v o l s , t o t e s l e s f i n s de l e s c o b l e s en r e f r a y n semblan. E a q u e l l a raho de que l a ' comengaras deu c o n t i n u a r , e be s e r v a r a l comencament, a l mig e a l a f i . The only extant examples of the danga w i t h music "Amors m'art  are  con fuoc am flama" (236, 257) > "Dona, pos  vos  ay c h a u s i d a " (242, 2_6_0), and "Tant es g a l ' es a v i n e n t z "  'For a complete d i s c u s s i o n of the "Calenda maja" see L l o y d H i b b e r d , "Estampie and S t a n t i p e s " i n Speculum, XIX, #2 ( A p r i l , 1944), 222-249; see a l s o Joseph L i n s k i l l , op. c i t . , p. 189.  (258,  262).  The melodies o f each o f these t h r e e  p i e c e s show n o t a b l e s i m i l a r i t i e s . example, t h e i r melodic  Consider, f o r  structures:  "Amors m'art"  - abcdef^ef abcdabcd 2  "Dona, pos vos" - abacde-^-de^abacabac "Tant es g a i " - a b a b c d c d a b a b a b a b 1  T h i s s i m i l a r i t y extends  1  2  1  2  1  2  even t o the s t y l e o f the danca  pieces.  Each has a rhythmic p r o p u l s i o n and predominantly  syllabic  s t y l e which i s admirably s u i t e d f o r the dance.  In a d d i t i o n , these songs c o n t a i n e x t e n s i v e passages i n the major key.  Although "Dona, pos vos ay c h a u s i d a " and  "Tant es g a i ' es a v i n e n t z " are s e t i n Mode D, they both f e a t u r e s e c t i o n s r e m i n i s c e n t o f the t o n a l i t y Ex. 118.  "Dona, pos vos ay c h a u s i d a "  J> > 1> J\ h J .!• J>  Tgrrit a  £  Ex. 119.  A  Sres  -c<a co- lot  c<9- r d  4olz Lorrs com - pli -  "Tant es g a i ' es a v i n e n t z "  Do- rta, pos  vos a» chau-  si -  menJz  o f C major:  A major q u a l i t y i s e s p e c i a l l y obvious  i n "Amors m'art  con fuoc am flama" f o r with f as t h e f i n a l , a l l B's flatted,  and a semi-tone between the l a s t  two notes,  the p i e c e sounds more l i k e P major than any one o f t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l modes: Ex.  1 2 0 . "Amors m'art con fuoc am flama"  W  n n  mj,[jj, >)J)jj: j  ft- mors m'att con Sooc aw Slcx-ma. £ noeo^e ^orn pjus m^^pren  qo'ieu  hen ve- ra - men Q / e c f e l j u e / j j co-vdis out  ' nos -ire quer- rter t'ft - nto<S g  fliS com suSs~te  c'dm  t/oS nort  Qu^  c/flj  si-A  ^ _JL * * <* . . m'en >/t-a.ca xo+z iprns plus mens-lia f* - worc^vtort! <x>^ ?ua& Am  pre * i ? n £  5"/*e j o S io-no\£>  <wer^  QUI  j<9 woWro-ha d o r - werj  fd—WWa, - MJ.  . The b a l l a d e I s t h e d a n c a , a n d may, -i  changeable  a p o e t i c type very  closely related to  i n f a c t , m e r e l y h a v e b e e n an i n t e r -  o  term.  It  is  probably  significant  that  the  D o c t r i n a g i v e s no s e p a r a t e  d e f i n i t i o n f o r the b a l l a d e  since  i n v o l v e d unnecessary  i t would l i k e l y  The o n l y  example of t h i s  and m e l o d y (234,  have  is  244).  form which c o n t a i n s both  words  t h e anonymous " A l ' e n t r a d a d e l t e n s  clar"  The p i e c e , l i k e  mentioned, i s  set  the t h r e e danca  s y l l a b i c a l l y , makes  It  is  set  i n the major  (in this  melodies  e x t e n s i v e use  r e p e a t e d m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l , and c o n t a i n s passages  repetition  case,  a number  of  of  C major)  tonality  i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the f i r s t three verses  "A l ' e n t r a d a d e l tens t h e same m e l o d y ) The u s e  clar"  ( w h i c h , i n c i d e n t a l l y , have  each conclude w i t h the o u t c r y  of e x p l e t i v e s of t h i s  w i t h p o p u l a r dance  type i s  "Eya!"  certainly in  keeping  pieces. Cobles  Cobles  of  Esparses  e s p a r s e s a r e d e f i n e d by t h e D o c t r i n a  as  follows: Si vols f e r cobles esparses potz l e s f a r en q u a l so t e v u l l e s ; e d e u s s e g u i r l a s r i m e s d e l c a n t de que t r a y r a s • l o so. E a t r e s s i l e s p o t z f a r en a l t r e s r i m e s ; e deven e s s e r dues o t r e s c o b l e s , e una o dues t o r n a d e s .  F r a n c i s H e u f f e r , f o r example, c o n s i d e r s the forms t be more o r l e s s t h e same, See H e u f f e r , o p . c i t . , p. 9 9 . 1 0  All In  extant  cobles  respect  triar"  esparses  poems  w i t h music  are  to melodic structure, t w o — " A i s s i  (233,  243)  cum eu  and " L o p r e m e r j o r que v i "  are through-composed  anonymous.  and t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e  (252,  sab 254)—  utilize,  r e p e a t e d m a t e r i a l i n t h e manner shown b e l o w : " L o dous c h a n s "Pos  que l ' a u z e l s  "Be v o l g r a , -  la fuella"  t o choose  s ' e s s e r poges"  i t not only  a p r e - e x i s t i n g melody  into practice is  259)  2  for cobles  Whether these  unknown:  a n o t h e r song f o r c o b l e s  it  is  of the canco." p r a c t i c e have  esparses, the  suggestions  t h e r e a r e no e x t a n t been borrowed  were  cases from  esparses.  of the D o c t r i n a mentions  t h a t a poem  t y p e c a n be s e t t o " w h a t e v e r m e l o d y y o u  however,  appro-  from which you take  where t h e m e l o d y o r rhyme scheme has  this  (240,  abcdefg-^efg abcdabcd  m e l o d y " may a l s o be u s e d .  The c o d i c i l  26l)  2  but suggests t h a t the "themes  put  (256,  253)  abcdef^-def abcabc  The a u t h o r o f t h e D o c t r i n a c o n s i d e r s priate  (251,  ababcdef  q u i ' i e u vey -  crida"  s u i t a b l e t h a t one s h o u l d But h e r e a g a i n , come down t o  please;  f o l l o w the  no e x a m p l e s  style  o f such  us.  Sirventes The u s u a l medium f o r e x p r e s s i n g  of  o p i n i o n was  the  a  s i r v e n t e s form, second only t o the canco i n p o p u l a r i t y the  troubadour e r a . ^  against  during  Sometimes the a t t a c k was d i r e c t e d  s p e c i f i c persons or s i t u a t i o n s although the form  c o u l d a l s o be used i n a more u n i v e r s a l way t o lament the e v i l s of s o c i e t y and world c o n d i t i o n s  i n general.  matter o f the s i r v e n t e s i s d i s c u s s e d  The s u b j e c t  at some l e n g t h  i n the  Doctrina: S i v o l z f a r s i r v e n t z , deus p a r l a r de f a y t d'armes e senyalladament', o de l a u s o r de senyor, o de mal d i t o de qualsque f e y t s q u i novellament se t r a c t e n ; e comencaras t o n c a n t a r segons que usaran a q u e l l s d e l s quals t o n serventez comencaras; e per p r o v e r b i s e per exemples p o r e t z h i - p o r t a r l e z n a t u r a l e s e s que f a n , o co de que f a n a rependre o a l a u s a r a q u e l l s d e l s quals t o n serventez comencaras. Twenty s i r v e n t e s poems have been p r e s e r v e d Of these,  eleven  are a s s o c i a t e d with Guiraut  w i t h music.  R i q u i e r and the  r e s t are d i s t r i b u t e d among Lo Monge de Montaudo, P i s t o l e t a , P e i r e V i d a l , G i r a u t de. B o r n e i l l , M a i g r e t , Uc Brunec, Marcabrun, and C a r d e n a l . pieces  As might be expected, the R i q u i e r  are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n terms o f s t r u c t u r e , s t y l e , and  s e l e c t i o n of mode.  I t i s hardly  l i k e l y , however, t h a t the  s i m i l a r i t i e s between these songs are the r e s u l t o f adherance to the m u s i c a l  requirements o f a p a r t i c u l a r genre.  Rather,  19»As the troubadours were employed more and more as the p r o p o g a n d i s t s o f p r i n c e s , they developed the s i r v e n t e s q u i t e f u l l y and i t i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c form of the second h a l f o f the troubadour p e r i o d . " See Valency, op. c i t . , pp. 105f• The s i r v e n t e s h e l d a p o s i t i o n i n the Middle Ages not u n l i k e that of our news media o f today.  one  suspects t h a t they are r e l a t e d by R i q u i e r ' s  t i o n a l mannerisms. little pieces.  own composi-  The remaining s i r v e n t e s melodies have  i n common e i t h e r among themselves o r the R i q u i e r C e r t a i n l y there  i s nothing  t o d i s t i n g u i s h any o f  them from the r e s t of the troubadour r e p e r t o r y :  i n no way  can they be s i n g l e d out as a " f a m i l y " of songs. Two other  forms a s s o c i a t e d with the s i r v e n t e s but not  mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y and  i n the D o c t r i n a  the chanson de l a c r o i s a d e .  a r e the  sirventes-canco  The former i s a h y b r i d  form  " g e n e r a l l y b e g i n n i n g with a s a t i r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of p e r s o n a l or p u b l i c a f f a i r s  and winding up with the p r a i s e o f a l a d y . " ^ 2(  There a r e t e n such poems with music i n the troubadour corpus. The  chanson de l a c r o i s a d e ,  o f which three  are preserved  t e x t and melody, i s a s i r v e n t e s d e a l i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y the t h i r t e e n t h century  Albigensian  crusades.  with  with  One o f the most  famous songs of t h i s type i s Marcabrun's "Pax! i n nomine Domini" (145, 11). According  t o the D o c t r i n a ,  the s i r v e n t e s i s so named  because " i t i s s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h a t poem from which i t d e r i v e s i t s melody and rhymes."  The i m p l i c a t i o n i s , o f course, t h a t  a s i r v e n t e s c o u l d be s e t t o a tune a l r e a d y i s not t h e r e f o r e  de Born's s i r v e n t e s - c a n c o  (148, 93.) and B e r t r a n  "Rassa, t a n c r e i s e mont' e p o j a "  39) share melodic m a t e r i a l :  Heuffer,  It  s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d that Lo Monge de Montaudo's  s i r v e n t e s "Port m'enoja, so auzes d i r e "  (45,  i n existence.  op. c i t . , p. 141.  Ex.  121.  (a) " F o r t m'enoja" (b) "Rassa, t a n c r e i s "  p P PP P P  fork  rrie-  noi-a,i  &o  au-zes  P  |  di  -r~C)  @*r -  Hers  auafiCeS  (.by  £  £ P  fh5-Scz>  ban creis  e> mont''e  poi  Ce -Jo,  eue£>  de,  i J> J>ftk } Ji J> =E=E t>er~ Yi  ' Kc?/5  {, p &>£z,  <J>7  2 / '-re.  <?/ ^A-, loi - a,,  >  <^ue brop  * >frJ> J . i ^  -  fif'e,  horn  /o/-^  vol  i  si  J> i  J  ~ noi  -a,  Quu-nasno-ias Lo6> pros a,  bieus  a.ia-  prebzi a. /a5 au-tra$ en ue •/ 2ers d-e, fa, /<su 6eu bcto -- tattat Que I v& v& 2ers d-e  e,  ca. - Val$  c?ue rem ^os %j76,eui0uo  ^ue,  i  bi~ re;  m'a,-Ji/t7  So-i/cz>  £t  e-  noi-  noi-a,^ Que aoi -a;  f t f p y JJi amf  ecutr  In*plci5£o-  bm&§ ho^^uan  brop  portet>  cub  s no/5  sen  me/ / v , r e •Iii Ih, mei-for  C M*n-t>c-non a, -des V e la, u -non Per  'bOj Uu/aj  2or  gen-2or  Ex. 121. (continued)  Que ne •'Jc/n colp no-iO' a,- vut <  h j> ,h ^ J- J. i> H  pel-Ian -e> Mon-c^  t  1  Quilh 5a,p far tan en kjeir o -nor  9  bar-t>ut> £ lau-ten-jierbec e5-n>o-tut  h  N Js > J ! vt?/ /w«6  Similarily, "Be.m  &>l pre*  u n  two o f R i q u i e r ' s  v o l g r a d'amor p a r t i r "  > >  - f l -dor  sirventes-cango  melodies,  (99, 203) and " C r e i r e m'an f a g  mal d e z i r " (100, 204), have a s e c t i o n i n common: Ex. 122.  (a) "Be-in v o l g r a d'amor p a r t i r " (b) " C r e i r e m'an f a g mei d e z i r "  -0-*-  el  beS  si -  as ta-l& ZH1  -fate, de. jtuiew no-m claThe p r e c e d i n g it  examples show melodic borrowing o n l y ;  was a c c e p t a b l e ,  well.  The D o c t r i n a  we may  however,  r e c a l l , t o borrow rhyme schemes as  elaborates  on t h i s  i d e a as f o l l o w s :  . . . E deus l o f a r d'aytantes c o b l e s com s e r a l o c a n t a r de que pendras l o so; e potz s e g u l r l a s rlmaz c o n t r a semblantz d e l c a n t a r de que pendras l o so; a t r e s i l o potz f a r en a l t r e s rimes. That such a procedure was a c t u a l l y  carried  out i s confirmed  by the e x i s t e n c e of Cardenal's s i r v e n t e s " R i c s horn que greu (152,  d i t z v e r t a t e l e u men" scheme are d i r e c t l y vos  186).  borrowed from Raimon Jordan's cango "Vas  domna, premeiramen" ( 2 0 2 ,  soplei, Ex. 123.  136):  (a) "Vas vos s o p l e i " (Jordan) (b) "Rics horn que greu" (Cardenal)  \ W J 1  Both the melody and rhyme  ; ~ VaS  ftier  mtu  \ioS  6o-  horn  pleifdom-  aue, jreto  chan^son  £p  n<a>j pre-mei-  olitzi  o'ai>  UH-}^ MOV  ar^Lo  au6  4ai  be,  ver  vo&  bab  e>  rov  men  leu,  £  do-nan  d&Z>-ce>.b>r/r  e,  l&oo  des  greu,  mon  brut  fkr  Cui  mer>> £ greu,  '  e,u,  chant  volpa,bz,  pia,tz^n-ten-Jez  ba,-len  l&> gen  vol  tUOry}  grecues  J'  lido,  Qu'a.i6~siven  £  e leu,  tiers  AM e, lew  e.comens  fa-zon,§ues~  h .  o-chai-ao,  nous  *4  £  auan  f>rc£  e  v&i  leou  Ex. 1 2 3 .  (continued)  \ioz> -bras  tai-so^  f. \J J e^>  mais  aJs  la> len^garv  talhe-l  tor  iiiJ,  1  bo6>/ £ g r e v u  da!  b*  A M  e£> $rM)6)t  e leu*  -r*o-f°*)  J]  e*>  or-gu.-ko$,  j i | , j T J J , A; , U ^ I 0 ' p a p p  i  J  Carnon  £  bem  artoo ~7  z$  hon  a,-ma>  lafty  e Uuu  Co-ml  — men,  bo) e a few  fbc^ileu,  ran,  Deu/  berth/ &4r  ca-z&r  lo  leoo  V06-  cJ >au£ lueCs  J1J>J>JJJJ> tre  e.n  Yet  Sen - ho - rab  ba6  <et> ~  -  go  ta.fr-  i t must not be supposed t h a t a l l s i r v e n t e s t e x t s were t o  be set t o p r e - e x i s t i n g melodies. Doctrina  s t a t e s q u i t e the  In f a c t , the author o f the  opposite:  . . . en qualque so t e v u l l e s , e specialment se fa en so n o v e l l , e maiormeht en co de canco. Gustave Reese i s t h e r e f o r e m i s l e a d i n g s i r v e n t e s "was  intended  when he i n s i s t s t h a t the  t o be sung t o a melody a l r e a d y  G. Reese, op. c i t . , p. 2 1 5 f <  known."  £  A b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n the D o c t r i n a on the r e t r o n x a form: S i v o l s f a r r e t r o n x a , sapies que deus p a r l a r d'amor, segons l'estament en quen s e r a s , s i a p l a z e n o c o s i r o s ; e no y deus mesclar a l t r a raho. E deus saber que deu haver quatre c o b l e s , e so n o v e l l t o t a vegada. E deus saber que per 90 ha nom r e t r o n x a c a r l o r e f r a y de«cadauna de l e s cobles deu e s s e r t o t z us. M u s i c a l accompaniments f o r only t h r e e r e t r o n x a t e x t s have come down t o us. very s i m i l a r .  They a r e s e t t o poems by R i q u i e r and are  Here again, the melodies are probably  r e l a t e d by the composer's s t y l e r a t h e r than the r e q u i r e ments o f the r e t r o n x a  type.  E a r l i e r i n the present  century, Gennrich  the r e t r o n x a was a d i s t i n c t m u s i c a l pp genre. bility  decided  that  form as w e l l as p o e t i c  L a t e r s c h o l a r s h i p has tended t o deny such a p o s s i and the term i s now c o n s i d e r e d t o have a l i t e r a r y  s i g n i f i c a n c e only.  The change i n a t t i t u d e i s e v i d e n t i n the  1944 and 1969 e d i t i o n s o f the Harvard The f i r s t  e d i t i o n c i t e s Gennrich's  retronxa's musical d  ¥.  form.  Gennrich,  D i c t i o n a r y o f Music.  f i n d i n g s as proof of the  The second e d i t i o n ,  however,  Die a l t f r a n z o s i s c h e Rotrouenge ( H a l l e ,  d i s c r e d i t s Gennrich's "a m u s i c a l f o r m  t h e o r y and e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t  'rotrouenge'  does n o t e x i s t . " ^ ^  Tenso Borneill's (88, 35)  " S ' i e - u s q u i e r c o n s e i l l , b e l ' amig' Alamanda"  59), d ' A l v e r g n e ' s  "Amies B e r n a r t z de V e n t a d o r n "  a n d "Quant Amors t r o b e t p a r t i t "  (149,  ( l 8 l , 131) by P e i r o l a r e  the only r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the tenso type which s u r v i v e w i t h music.  The t e n s o was u s e d as t h e l i t e r a r y  a particular aspect  issue.  Often t h i s  of love although  topics of l i f e  forum f o r d e b a t i n g  d i s p u t e w o u l d i n v o l v e some  " t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e most v a r i e d  a n d m a n n e r s " ^ was a l s o i n o r d e r .  According  t o t h e D o c t r i n a t h e t e n s o i s s o named, . . . p e r c o com s e d i u c o n t r a s t a n e d i s p u t a n s u b t i l m e n l o un ab l ' a l t r e de q u a l q u e r a h o horn v u l l a cantar. Perhaps t h e tenso existing  like  the sirventes,  c o u l d be s e t t o a p r e -  melody: S i v o l s f a r t e n s o , deus l a p e n d r e e n a l g u n s o que b a i a h e l l a n o t a , e p o t z s e g u i r l e s rimes d e l c a n t a r o no. E potz f e r quatre o s i s cobles o v u i t , sit vols.  •^See t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f t h e H a r v a r d D i c t i o n a r y , p. and t h e 2nd e d i t i o n , p. 7 4 1 . See a l s o W. A p e l , " R o n d e a u x , V i r e l a i s , a n d B a l l a d e s . . . " 1 2 9 - 3 0 a n d R. P e r r i n , "Some N o t e s on T r o u b a d o u r M e l o d i c Types/' 16. 2 4  H e u f f e r , op. c i t . ,  p. 1 1 2 .  653,  If  s o , t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e i n c i p i t s  Bernartz sors  de V e n t a d o r n "  and t h e cango " P o s t a l s  ( 1 9 3 , 37.) may be t h e r e s u l t  e.m c r e i s "  o f "Amies sabers mi  of  conscious  borrowing: Ex.  1 2 4 . ( a ) " A m i e s B e r n a r t z de V e n t a d o r n " ( b ) " P o s t a l s s a b e r s m i s o r s e«m c r e i s "  \k  ;  ;  \> [>  [> '  cr '<> -  ]  fl -wets Ber^nartz, Je, l/en - haw dorn>  t  £b$ lath sa.'b&rs mi 5or~t2j em creis Plant The p l a n t  c o u l d be w r i t t e n " t o w h a t e v e r m e l o d y  except  that o f t h e danga."  plant,  the Doctrina  you l i k e ,  As f o r t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e  gives the following  information:  P l a n t e s d i t p e r 90 p l a n t c a r e s causa q u i p a r l a marridament e planyen de a q u e l l a c a u s a q u i e s p e r d u d a , o que horn p l a y n . The p l a n t  was t h e f u n e r a l d i r g e  such occasions plants  of the troubadours,  as t h e p a s s i n g o f a patron o r l o v e r .  a r e complete w i t h music:  Gaucelm F a i d i t ' s  es q u e t o t l o m a j o r dan". ( 6 4 , 106) a n d R i q u i e r ' s tristor,  marritz e doloiros"  commemorates  used on  (122,  t h e death o f Amauric  226).  Only two "Fortz..causa  " P i e s de  The l a t t e r  I V o f Narbonne  while  Faidit's Faidit  elegy mourns the l o s s o f " R i c h a r t z , r e y d e l s E n g l e s . "  i s , o f course, r e f e r r i n g t o R i c h a r d I (Coeur de L i o n )  who h i m s e l f i s s a i d t o have w r i t t e n l y r i c f e a t u r e s a predominantly  descending  poetry.  melodic  w e l l s u i t e d t o the s u b j e c t o f the p o e t r y . the music s e t t o the l i n e s  Note  especially  Oh God! what g r i e f , what  l i n e o f t h i s s e c t i o n r a r e l y extends  i n c l u d e s the lowest notes  e f f e c t i v e i s the descending  beyond a,  Particularly  melisma on the c r y "Oh God!":  125.  1  —»-  >  I.  rics  -  ;  *  ^  ?fe=^  ,  ^  * -  T>=r  :  ? \— * - * - y  lens  #i  1  -f  '  - charts  , X  *—=  —  £5  mortz,;  ai  recjS  \ rr-?^  * t  Di-euS  /  1  4  k  fiuats  V —  perd'  -1-e  loss!"  i n the e n t i r e p i e c e , and p r o g r e s s e s  f o r the most p a r t i n descending motion.  Ex.  l i n e which i s  "The g r e a t , g l o r i o u s R i c h a r d ,  K i n g o f the E n g l i s h i s dead: The melodic  The song  ^=4± ^ua/S  dans  n es!  - —  Alba The a l b a o r " d a w n - s o n g " w h i c h has  its  roots  is  yet another p o e t i c type  i n popular t r a d i t i o n .  c a l l e d because t h e word a l b a always verse.  The s p e a k e r i n t h e poem i s  warns t h e c l a n d e s t i n e l o v e r s  appears  knight sing"  i n the  so  last  o f t e n a watchman who  o f a p p r o a c h i n g day o r  c l o s e p r o s i m i t y of j e a l o u s husbands. Vaqueiras's  The f o r m i s  In  Raimbaut  the de  a l b a " G a i t a be, g a i t e t a d e l c h a s t e l , " the  instructs his i f he h e a r s  g a i t e t a t o " k e e p g u a r d and c r y o u t  o f any  and  danger':  G a i t a z v o s , g a i t e t a de l a t o r , d e l g e l o s , v o s t r e malvays seynor, e n u j o s p l u s que l ' a l b a , que z a j o s p a r l a m d ' a m o r . Mas p a o r nos f a i l ' a l b a , l'alba, oi l'alba! Be on y o u r g u a r d , l i t t l e watchman of the tower, against the jealous o n e , y o u r w r e t c h e d m a s t e r , more t i r e s o m e t h a n t h e dawn, f o r h e r e b e l o w we a r e d i s c o u r s i n g o f l o v e . B u t we f e a r t h e dawn, t h e dawn, a l a s the dawn.'25 Melodies "Reis  f o r o n l y two a l b a t e x t s a r e e x t a n t :  glorios,  verais  lums e c l a r d a t z " (87,  and "En s u i t a n c o r t e z a g a i t a " Curously  enough,  ^Linskill,  (46,  183)  by  the 5_8)  famous  by B o r n e i l l  Cadenet.  a t h i r d a l b a " G a i t e de l a t o r " has  op. c i t . , • p p .  26lf.  been  suggested from time to time as b e i n g but  i t s text i s obviously The  w r i t t e n i n French not  author of the D o c t r i n a  s u b j e c t matter of the  of troubadour  origin  Provencal.  i s quite e x p l i c i t  about  2  the  alba:  S i v o l s f a r a l b a , p a r l a d'amor p l a z e n t ment; e a t r e s s i l a u z a r l a dona on vas o de que l a f a r a s ; e bendi l ' a l b a s i acabes l o plaze'r per l o q u a l ames' a t a dona. E s i no 1'acabes, f e s l ' a l b a blasman l a dona e l ' a l b a on anaves. The We  only m u s i c a l may  requirement of the genre i s "a new  r e c a l l t h a t the  Notice,  however, the  canco was  Ex.  pensan" (174, 126.  g l o r i o s " and  Rei6 J/° " ri -as,  ve, - mis  Dun  v  -t  a  u  C  "D'un  Ium5  pen  "  e,  pensan"  clar  -  fat^  &r so-latz-  Here then, i s yet another c o n f i r m a t i o n suspected a l l along:  the canco  124):  (a) "Reis g l o r i o s " (b) "D'un sonet vau  ne  melody.  s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between the  i n c i p i t s o f the a l b a "Reis sonet vau  a l s o to have a new  melody.  e  per,-r&,  of what we  have  i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e no m u s i c a l  t i n c t i o n s were made between p o e t i c forms.  dis-  Terms such as  canco, v e r s , a l b a , and  so on, were used to denote  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s only.  To t h i s g e n e r a l r u l e t h e r e i s one  c l e a r e x c e p t i o n , the d i s c o r t .  The  are so f a r removed i n s t y l e and  rest  c o u l d e a s i l y be s i n g l e d  available.  D e f i n i t i o n s of the l a y , gayta, and  sompni are a l s o  i n c l u d e d i n the D o c t r i n a but no P r o v e n c a l forms with t h e i r m u s i c a l  discorts  s t r u c t u r e from a l l the  of the troubadour p i e c e s t h a t they out even i f t h e i r t e x t s were not  melodies of the  literary  examples of  these  accompaniments are i n e x i s t e n c e .  ° W i l li Apel c o n s i d e r s t h i s a l b a to be of P r o v e n c a l o r i g i n (Harvard D i c t i o n a r y of Music, 2nd ed., p. 26) as does Gustave Reese, op. cit"~~> p. 214. 2  CHAPTER I I I  TROUBADOUR MELODIES AND THE CHANT  Prom the s c u l l i o n to the c o u r t i e r , every member o f s o c i e t y i n the Middle Ages was the Church. troubadours  completely dominated  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t  by the  should be a f f e c t e d by the l i t u r g i c a l music  which they were c o n t i n u a l l y  to  exposed.  The G r e g o r i a n t r a d i t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s the most important s i n g l e source of i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the w r i t e r s of medieval s e c u l a r songs and i t s i n f l u e n c e on the troubadour r e p e r t o r y i n p a r t i c u l a r i s immediately  apparent.  Yet the  contribu-  t i o n s of chant can be o v e r - e s t i m a t e d , f o r i n most a s p e c t s the P r o v e n c a l melodies evidence a g r e a t e r freedom the l i t u r g i c a l p i e c e s .  The  following discussion  to assess the extent t o which these l i b e r t i e s  than do attempts  are taken as  w e l l as t o acknowledge the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the G r e g o r i a n r i t e t o troubadour music  i n general.  Tonality The m a j o r i t y of troubadour melodies, l i k e G r e g o r i a n Chant, are set i n the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l modes. dous mei  consir"  (15,  53),  "Mout eron  f o r example, shares the same  s c a l e s t r u c t u r e as the f i r s t  mode or primus a u t h e n t i c u s :  3= 5 1  trias - /-/ - men,  -»--A=b= IP Quar?  5 ^c^"  ft  //tv "Mlh$,  E=T4  Ia>  franc  * ft  e> de,  bra/  3= pt/eso  \l n  par-btfy  1  b  °on  ai  "  r  c ,  5  5 Jo;-mor  ^//js  belh ' 0>b  £  n  ^  fluar  -  re  }  JTn  pon  ilh  •a  •  >ev  m  mo-pv  fs—1  no-no  m  he, ^  —•  However, not a l l troubadour songs conform to modal r e q u i r e ments i n the manner of the above p i e c e . question  Indeed, the whole  of mode i n the P r o v e n c a l r e p e r t o r y has l o n g  musicologists  puzzled  and i n the o p i n i o n o f one s c h o l a r , i s "one of  t h e most  difficult  and c o m p l i c a t e d p r o b l e m s  of medieval  non-  G r e g o r i a n monody. "-*The f i r s t p r o b l e m t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s tinguishing  b e t w e e n p l a g a l a n d a u t h e n t i c mode.  chant p i e c e s , t h i s ambitus,  distinction is  e x p e c t a v i t " [974]  c o n f i n e d t o the upper  touches  In  s i n c e b o t h p l a g a l and a u t h e n t i c v e r s i o n s  "Improperium  the f o u r t h  Since  shown b e l o w I s  fifth  disthe  made on t h e b a s i s  p a r t i c u l a r m a n e r i a h a v e t h e same f i n a l .  part  that of  of i t s  range  of  of  a  the O f f e r t o r y , f o r the  most  and s i n c e  (indeed the f i f t h ) below the f i n a l ,  according to c l a s s i c a l Gregorian theory i t  i H i g i n i Angles, "Gregorian o f M u s i c , V o l . I I , p. 111.  Chant"  is  plagal:  i n New O x f o r d  it then  2  History  S e e Quomodo de A r i t h m e t i c a P r o c e d i t M u s i c a c i t e d i n G e r b e r t M a r t i n , S c r i p t o r e s e c c l e s i a s t i c i de m u s i c a ( S t . B l a s l e n , 1784; f a c s . e d . , M i l a n , 1 9 3 D , V o l . I I , p p . 55ff. 2  pro/-ro^- pi pe.—  1m J>  J ^ * ' ^ J J ] *  "  i/i-t Cor  P J J J t •»  m  ex—^pec -•fa •—  ton  n  O  m  me  J  ijii ji^Pi &  um  -  J — j  ^  «  er  /KIT  .0 J 3 . P i  0 0  1  ai  si —  rrtuf  M&  +  * U ^ y con—^r»*s — ^ 3 -  " —  non  urn 0  0 0  3  von  rre  ouae si  0  *  /"if—  c o n . — 5o  mmjnunji  — Ian/— {em 0  ~5u  J f l  & Ml  *•—0-  in  oi  A u t h e n t i c mode chants, on the other hand, w i l l more o f t e n exploit  their entire  register:  Ex. 129. ,"Unam p e t i i a Domino" [471]  Let us now t u r n t o the troubadour corpus and see whether here t o o , t e s s i t u r a i s an important f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g mode.  C o n s i d e r , f o r example, " V o l u n t i e r s  by G u i r a u t  Riquier.  c', we might  (134,  faria"  238)  The f i n a l b e i n g £, and i t s range, c t o  n a t u r a l l y assume the p i e c e t o be i n the e i g h t h  mode or t e t r a r d u s  plagius.'  Yet the melody, as f a r as t e s -  s i t u r a i s concerned, i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the t y p i c a l p l a g a l mode chant.  I f any r e g i s t e r i s emphasized  Is the lower r e g i s t e r . r a t h e r than the upper f i f t h Ex. 130.  "Voluntiers f a r i a "  H—« I—* 5i  far  j  -J I  (134,  range:  238)  0  *•  a// -  /Os  at a l l , i t  .  Alan  f,  ra-zoS  J  cap-  =5=  yd - leo del - /a,)  Que Mon  -Po5  chant;  e-  " 3fOj - di /'a* - bri  -  Per  V0J  i •7U'ieu  bmrrb  auant  m if'  VA,  PIA,  -3en5  vi  -  Vc/e/h 5er- v/V las Se>& fa/bz>,genk ai  v<a^  m la^ va.  et  lite-/nils .ef  is  -  n&l  -  eS - Qui  has.  In r e s p e c t t o range and f i n a l , (171,  121)  " D ' e i s s a l a r a z o qu'eu  soill"  by P e i r o l , appears t o be i n the seventh mode o r  t e t r a r d u s a u t h e n t i c u s , a l t h o u g h i t uses a q u i t e  restricted  range i n comparison with a u t h e n t i c mode chants o f comparable length.  The p i e c e r a r e l y  proceeds more than a f o u r t h o r  f i f t h above i t s f i n a l :  131.  Ex.  h h 1> b b b />'eis  t  -  IA,  i  r  per  j  u  -  Sab  is $6  +  {)  flu'iev  b  b  b  r°u$  nom  ge> >  el  m-  - ron  &ei  \i  F  -  <f  beih  man  - mor  (dan  rvii  aschan-far  bb  b  den-ha,  -~  huelh  ntcs  Ji j )  M'er'  ins  - rat  due//v.  el  ji  ni  nn'ac-  -  Corn  b \\ b S'a,  b  1  1  su^lh  sieu  f-  \)  bra,-hi  jab  -  damn'  p  -2on  n  <y<<//?  Sem  ra  ,  F  -ftr/s  60  ~  mes-  F =  rat-  From e x a m p l e s the  s u c h as t h e above  ( o f which there  t r o u b a d o u r r e p e r t o r y ) we may  impossible extent  conclude  to d i v i d e the Provencal  t o which they  utilize  that  a r e many i n i t i s clearly  m e l o d i e s b a s e d on " t h e  the degrees o f t h e i r  respective  ranges."3 Since piece  ambitus  i s so important  i s authentic  excessive  or plagal,  range a r e d i f f i c u l t  i n d e c i d i n g whether a  melodies with  a limited or  to classify.  I n t h e case o f  narrow range p i e c e s , Berno o f Reichenau does n o t r e a c h it  i s customary  to  Berno,  to consider  g o e s as h i g h i t i s plagal.  classifying repertory,  certain  faill  poders"  i tplagal  In other  While  Only  chants  value  fourth,  words, i f a melody  Berno's  s m a l l range  ( 9 5 , 1 9 9 ) has t h i s  ends on  according  s t a t e m e n t may h e l p i n i n the Gregorian  i n determining  one m e l o d y ,  chant  because o f i t s s h o r t -  as g and as low as B t h e n  i t i s of l i t t l e  troubadour pieces. vos  " i fa  up t o t h e f i f t h n o r i n c l u d e t h e l o w e r  n e s s and i m p e r f e c t i o n . " ^ d but only  states:  i n fact, precise  t h e mode o f  "Amors, pos a ambitus:  ^ W i l l i A p e l , G r e g o r i a n Chant ( B l o o m i n g t o n , I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 142.  Indiana:  li  Vol.  Berno o f Reichenau I I , p. 60a.  cited  i n Gerbert  Martin,  op.  cit.,  ft  - Mors  f  to  n  h n Jois  pus  a>b  was  bin  prelz,,  -  be.  * Pot  -  babz,  g  J  s&r  po  -  e  -ran  cap-berth)  j> J> j)  Vei  fiue.l$  d  m  tooS  ders,  n^N^  aueus  w Co  -fot/h  des  ±  d  S  -  &  - trenh  Que*  si} De m  t  worb m—  •  pers,  Jeu  °  p/anC,  4 «•  ?aa r  mos  &S  ctan$  5E  Alas  t  la*  VOS - ire,  plane  mm do$  ians,  el  mieu  bo  —  so  -  fas  $c  la, -  —  dan  \  i n n i  ft  brc  Quar  Mens,  m  ne>  Et  rats  &1  vo$  gene.  m  S i m i l a r l y , melodies with e x c e s s i v e ranges make modal assignment  a c c o r d i n g t o the G r e g o r i a n method d i f f i c u l t .  If  we d e f i n e the "minimal range" o f such p i e c e s "as t h a t o f an octave s t a r t i n g two degrees below the f i n a l and going up t o the s i x t h above i t , " 5 we f i n d no l e s s than one q u a r t e r o f the troubadour songs which q u a l i f y as e x c e s s i v e range p i e c e s .  In  these c a s e s , p l a g a l and a u t h e n t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s are i m p o s s i b l e s i n c e they cover the range o f both. Rather than attempt  t o f o r c e the P r o v e n c a l melodies  i n t o p l a g a l o r a u t h e n t i c modes, l e t us c l a s s i f y them by maneria  only.  C o n s i d e r i n g then the f i n a l as the s o l e b a s i s  f o r d e t e r m i n i n g mode, we may c l a s s i f y the 259 troubadour melodies as f o l l o w s : Table 12. — Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode Mode  D E F G A B C  F i n a l s o f the troubadour m e l o d i e s . 98 p i e c e s , or 39% o f the t o t a l 9 H 26 1035 56 22$ 23 9% 2 l e s s than 1% 44 161  I t w i l l be n o t i c e d that modes D and G — t h e most  corpus  frequently  used maneriae i n G r e g o r i a n c h a n t ^ — a r e a l s o most common i n the troubadour, r e p e r t o r y .  5w. 6  A p e l , op. c i t . ,  I b i d . , pp. 137-38.  Of the D Mode p i e c e s , "Ar agues  p. 148.  eu m i l marcs de f i n argen" interesting lower d .  7  practice:,  (187,  95)  i s particularly  s i n c e i t ends on h i g h d' r a t h e r than the u s u a l Such occurrences are q u i t e o u t s i d e the l i t u r g i c a l a l l G r e g o r i a n melodies, without e x c e p t i o n , use  only the lower octave  species.  In a d d i t i o n t o the f o u r f i n a l e s  D, E, P, and G, our  t a b l e shows a l a r g e number o f p i e c e s ending on the t h r e e affinales  A, B, and C.  Melodies ending on c o - f i n a l s a r e  found i n the G r e g o r i a n corpus as w e l l  (although by no means  as f r e q u e n t l y as i n the troubadour r e p e r t o r y ) and i t i s g e n e r a l l y thought  t h a t such chants were o r i g i n a l l y  written  i n the f o u r b a s i c maneriae and l a t e r t r a n s p o s e d up a f o u r t h or  fifth.  While a i s the most common a f f i n a l i s i n the chant  corpus, the troubadour p i e c e s p r e f e r the C Mode.  Of these  Mode C m e l o d i e s , only e i g h t end on h i g h c_' w h i l e the remaining t h i r t y - s i x cadence on low c_. 8  Occurrences  o f the  l a t t e r are extremely r a r e i n the G r e g o r i a n r i t e and a r e likely  o f much l a t e r date than the main body o f chant.  As  f o r the troubadour p i e c e s i n C Mode, many are not p r o p e r l y "modal" at a l l ( i . e . i n t h e sense o f the standard G r e g o r i a n  I n a d d i t i o n , one E Mode p i e c e , "Totz temoros e doptans" 47'), ends on a h i g h e' .  7  (25,  o  • _  Two o t h e r p i e c e s , "S'ie-us q u i e r c o n s e i l l , b e l ' amig Alamanda" ( 8 8 , 59.) and "En greu p a n t a i s m'a tengut longamen" ( 5 , 180), end on low A and B r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1  modes), but are set i n the major key.  A particularly  striking  example i s P e i r e V i d a l ' s "Quant horn o n r a t z t o r n a en gran p a u b r e i r a " (164, 6_9) .  The song ends with a semi-tone  cadence, and i t s i n t e r n a l  cadences f a l l  on c_, f , and g_:  Ex. 133.  J> j>  h y\\ Quamt  hom  h IS  hon - fa,bz  p  J  cn  j—±  m  -  F  bor - na>  be — na.  k—n—i non  /HA  sap  re  /Mwi  £a-  - S<z>,  nan  -  con  £^/>*  V—i  —  De  r— 1 —sJ—«\  auei —  s&  I—fr~ —  V Ver ~ gon - hay  1—|  k  -Si  pau,'  h J) }  l\ 1 gran  gran  MA-la.-  i  i fa,,  fins  au-  nan  - sa,>  /hf  -I ^6/^5  rYifr-Jer  Quant  horn 1-  ^o/7 - hos,  //  _  an  -Pai  -  e  ben  J -  co  /?/<ys  francs  pau - br&  a/oSj,  Vef-~  fc  Qu&> warns  a  J  toer  sat.  »  a°a,u,- breS fuan  cn yuer - r&  ^  S i m i l a r l y , with the i n c l u s i o n  o f B f l a t s , many o f the F  Mode melodies are a l s o i n the major key. venques merces"  "Be v o l g r a que  (239, 192) i s t y p i c a l o f t h i s  type:  Ex. 134.  h i>  j; 8e  }> n  - vol ^gfa\>  %ue- ven'  ^ i J> i /few -naif  g io - 2cr 6  de  /as  j)  vo6- -UOJ  ftf& i/a. - far  tan;  E  grans  eui  Car pt/ois no  -— ces  R = r >  n  •> > > . H ;.n Com  ater  get? - 2or£>,  1  va- -  Yo$  7  t»  j> S) s\'\ > fate  To - 6as  eel  'Ms  au'ieco venj flu ieco jo-ras r/\ ria$ ab ai }  $ei — r#v  P u  p p . "  de-j.ir  ab  J  fail  — len - 2a>  Co  "  be. - tn&n ~ sojj  b J'' J i i j> > /w<s/'/ - />cr  Sai$-$i  ft?  r\ te —  ni'r.  -  ju*S  B flats and  occur i n the s i g n a t u r e s  o f eighteen  troubadour  are used as a c c i d e n t a l s i n numerous others.  musica f i c t a was a l s o employed f r e q u e n t l y . mentions t r o u v d r e  pieces  Likely  Anonymous I I  songs as cases where B's should  be f l a t t e d  f o r a e s t h e t i c reasons (causa p u l c h r i t u d i n i s ) r a t h e r than j u s t by n e c e s s i t y  (causa n e c e s s i t a t i s ) . 9  s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions the t r o u v ^ r e the  Although Anonymous I I  melodies as examples o f  former c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the p r a c t i c e was ery p o s s i b i l y  common t o the troubadour corpus as w e l l . The  f a c t t h a t so many P r o v e n c a l  major t o n a l i t y p l a c e s apart  the r e p e r t o r y ,  pieces  are s e t i n the  as a whole,  strikingly  from the modal melodies o f l i t u r g i c a l chant.  Perhpas  Johannes de Grocheo was r e f e r r i n g t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n when he stated that considered  s e c u l a r music  (musica. v u l g a r i s ) cannot r e a l l y be  modal at a l l , even though c e r t a i n p i e c e s  i n one o f the modes. ^  are s e t  A number o f s c h o l a r s have a t t r i b u t e d  t h i s emphasis on t o n a l i t i e s other  than the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  modes t o the i n f l u e n c e o f p o p u l a r t r a d i t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o t r a d i t i o n a l dance s o n g s . ^  More l i k e l y ,  i t was simply  a  case o f the troubadours f e e l i n g j u s t i f i e d i n u s i n g the major t o n a l i t y s i n c e they were w r i t i n g s e c u l a r r a t h e r  de  than  ^Anonymous I I c i t e d i n C.E.H. de Coussemaker, H i s t o i r e l'harmonie du moyen age ( P a r i s , 1 8 5 2 ) , V o l . I , p. 312.  lOjohannes de Grocheo c i t e d i n Johannes Wolf, Sammelbande der I n t e r n a t i o n a l e n M u s i k g e s e l l s c h a f t ( 1 8 9 9 - 1 9 0 0 ) , V o l . I , p. 115. ^••^See, f o r example, J . Westrup, op. c i t . , p. 232.  l i t u r g i c a l music and t h e r e f o r e , were not o b l i g e d t o observe the modal r e s t r i c t i o n s o f G r e g o r i a n chant. Since the n o t i o n has been g i v e n so much prominence by modern  s c h o l a r s , l e t us b r i e f l y  "dominant"—characteristic  c o n s i d e r the s o - c a l l e d  f e a t u r e o f some l i t u r g i c a l  U s u a l l y these dominants, when they occur, are a f i f t h the f i n a l  i n the a u t h e n t i c modes and a t h i r d  i n the p l a g a l modes.  pieces, above  above the f i n a l  A number o f troubadour melodies a l s o  f e a t u r e secondary t o n a l c e n t e r s  such as " C e l que no v o l  a u z i r chansos" (212, 146) which i s s e t i n Mode D and revolves  around a:  Ex. 135.  CeJ fiu'ieu  ave, "ahan  no per  vol /non  *u - sir cars a,  -  chans /& ~  - sos yrar  Ee, £  \ J> J> b b r,i j j > ll mm i b JJJi nos per per  p/u5  ••'as  -  bra. so so  per  nti  Conn  - patde./*  .. ita.tZt  *o  ani ^corn  - c/e> -  - Jom  p/a>~  -  a-i$ - pai  ten  aueSj  1  ,  —  ^noS, •'gnos,  - gaes  &n  C'auo-ira,  1—  dcz>  bre/'ng  I  Fl  -  beta.a.  —1  = 4 = p• |  Cap  He  r  So  -  /aJsz  chans-Son  vo-/on-iatzv  h b b nom  tL  ni'  de>  r i bej  h  Yet the anonymous "Lo premer j o r que v i " (252, 254) has no secondary t o n a l c e n t e r at a l l : Ex. 136.  /.at*  pre  F  -  mer  jor  Mb*  >  ~  be,  7If  A/'  vo5  -  brc6  biac/S  cors  J** 05,  -QouZ;  +  pla/  - sent)  Cor  ,  - ie/'s  et  de-  - bo  -  /7<37  -  te 0  /Uu  a'/'eu,  - le  ren  sap  -fiat  s/i'r  Que,  uo5  ten  -  -  %ue$  a,  re.  bert,  A-  mm MAS  doa  -Ce  chere  a,  -  rvti  -  <a,  -chaz,  ge,  fll  corS  4-  pl#i  —  jer)  et  a/a/^  5V«t^  tui  voi>  si  e..  m  auey  jpT/  rey?  \  In g e n e r a l , we may conclude t h a t the dominant cannot be used as a c r i t e r i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g mode i n the troubadour corpus.  I n many cases t h e r e e i t h e r i s no dominant, o r .  the note which has prominence as a secondary t o n a l c e n t e r i s one other than the f i f t h  o r . t h i r d above the f i n a l .  Final  Cadences  We s h a l l now t u r n our a t t e n t i o n t o the penultimate and f i n a l notes o f the G r e g o r i a n p i e c e s . corpus, f i n a l s are approached Table 13. — 1.  As f o r the P r o v e n c a l  i n the f o l l o w i n g ways:  Penultimate and f i n a l notes i n the troubadour r e p e r t o r y .  F i n a l s approached  by step  (a) descending second - 145 melodies (b) ascending second 2.  F i n a l s approached (a) (b) (c) (d)  by l e a p  descending t h i r d .ascending t h i r d descending f o u r t h descending f i f t h  While the troubadour songs,  98  -  -  7 melodies 4 1 1  l i k e the G r e g o r i a n m e l o d i e s ,  show a s t r o n g p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r cadences  ending with a  descending second, they a l s o o f t e n employ ascending cadences, The  over one t h i r d o f the p i e c e s b e i n g o f t h i s  second type.  chants, on the other hand, make only i n f r e q u e n t use o f  r i s i n g seconds,  choosing more o f t e n the descending t h i r d , ah  i n t e r v a l found very r a r e l y  i n the f i n a l  cadences  o f the  troubadour  corpus.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note, however,  t h a t hymns and sequences,  i n a d d i t i o n t o descending t h i r d •  cadences, make f r e q u e n t use of the a s c e n d i n g  second.  Hymns i n p a r t i c u l a r were d o u b t l e s s an i n f l u e n c e  on  12  P r o v e n c a l music,  e s p e c i a l l y i n matters of form, and i t  i s probably not c o i n c i d e n t a l that t h e i r f i n a l a l s o show s i m i l a r i t i e s .  Of the n i n e t y - e i g h t  cadences troubadour  p i e c e s which end with a r i s i n g second, no l e s s twenty-two f e a t u r e a semi-tone  r a t h e r than a tone between.  t h e i r p e n u l t i m a t e and f i n a l p i t c h e s . semi-tone  cadences  i s i n complete  T h i s l a r g e number o f  c o n t r a s t t o the G r e g o r i a n  r e p e r t o r y , where a minor second as the l a s t chant i s extremely  than  i n t e r v a l of a  rare.  Pour troubadour melodies have f i n a l cadences ending w i t h an ascending t h i r d . The i n t e r v a l i s a l s o r a r e i n the l i t u r g i c a l p i e c e s and when i t does occur, i s u s u a l l y 13  l i m i t e d t o the f i n a l cadences  of the sequences.  J  S i m i l a r l y , melodies ending w i t h a leap of a f o u r t h are extremely r a r e i n the G r e g o r i a n and P r o v e n c a l r e p e r t o r i e s both.  None of the troubadour p i e c e s cadence  w i t h an  ascending f o u r t h , w h i l e only one melody f e a t u r e s the i n descending  interval  motion.  "^^The hymn i s the only p o e t i c genre i n the s t a n d a r d body of Gregorian, chant. W.  A p e l , op. c i t . , p.  266.  The descending f i f t h and not s u r p r i s i n g l y  a l s o occurs i n only one melody,  i s found i n a d i s c o r t , where as much  " d i s c o r d a n c e " as p o s s i b l e was i n o r d e r . fifth  The leap o f a  then, i s h i g h l y e x c e p t i o n a l i n the troubadour  cadences  final  and, as might be expected, never occurs i n the  Gregorian  rite.  Ambitus Both the troubadour and G r e g o r i a n p i e c e s seldom go below A or above g_' . ambitus,  I n r e s p e c t t o the upper extreme o f  twenty-three P r o v e n c a l songs have g_' as t h e i r  h i g h e s t p i t c h while i n l i t u r g i c a l music t h i s number i s e n l a r g e d t o i n c l u d e many o f the chants i n the t e t r a r d u s a u t h e n t i c u s mode.  Comparatively few p i e c e s extend  their  range t o a' i n e i t h e r r e p e r t o r i e s — a t o t a l of only t h i r t e e n occurrences o f the p i t c h b e i n g found among the troubadour melodies.  The h i g h e s t note i n the e n t i r e  P r o v e n c a l corpus i s the b' c o n t a i n e d i n Gui d'Uisel's. "Be feira  chansos p l u s soven"(75,  l6_3) :  Ex. 137.  A  IA/  J.——^—I /'feu/  vot  } - jrco  ,n>  iotz>  t  nous  and  G u i l l e m Maigret's Ex.  "Aiga poja c o n t r a mon"  (82,  168)  138.  £  dc  - ^rai^i  e$- Sof  en  vei  -  o$  h '  A l s o worthy of mention i s the tr_ which occurs  i n Peire  d'Alvergne's " D e j o s t a ' l s breus j o r n s e«ls l o n c s s e r s " (150,  36):  Ex.  139.  it Per  aue-t  MJ fe  '  traf  en  - br&>  14 The  Responsory "Gaude Maria"  however, extends t h i s  one  degree h i g h e r to i n c l u d e a c_".  limit  As f o r the lower extreme of ambitus, only f i v e of Provencal  p i e c e s extend to A, although  the  the p i t c h i s q u i t e  P r o c e s s i o n a l e monasticum (Solesmes, 1 8 9 3 ) , p.  146.  common i n chants b e l o n g i n g the  t o the primus p l a g i u s mode.  Gis  lowest note reached i n the troubadour corpus, and may be  found i n P e i r e V i d a l ' s "Be«m pac d ' i v e r n e d ' e s t i u " (157, § 2 ) Ex. 140.  Qu'&o - a/5 - r S / ' / n  and  Giraut  ten  e-5 -  for  —  $/u>  de B o r n e i l l ' s "S'ie«us q u i e r c o n s e i l l ,  bel'amig'  Alamanda" (88, 59) : Ex. 141.  cbs*  co - chabzj  tyto-ei  so • ^uem d&b  - brai  A number o f chants a l s o c o n t a i n low G's and at l e a s t two p i e c e s , the O f f e r t o r y " T o l l i t e p o r t a s " - ^  and the P r o c e s s i o n a l  antiphon " S i c u t p a s t o r p o r t a t " ^ i n c l u d e an F. 1  - C O t t , O f f e r t o r i a l e s i v e versus T o u r n a i , 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 15J  J  offertoriorum  •^Terence B a i l e y , The P r o c e s s i o n s o f Sarum and the Western Church (Toronto: P o n t i f i c a l I n s t i t u t e of M e d i e v a l S t u d i e s , 1 9 7 D , p. 137-  More than t w o - t h i r d s of the troubadour melodies ambitus of an octave or n i n t h . a c c o r d i n g to range Table 14.  —  i s as  A breakdown of the  corpus  follows:  Range of the troubadour  Range  have an  melodies.  Number of melodies 1 12 11 77 106 36 19 . 4 3 1  fifth sixth seventh octave ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth  From the above t a b l e we w i l l observe t h a t w e l l  over  h a l f o f the p i e c e s have an ambitus of a n i n t h or above. A l b e r t Seay's c o n t e n t i o n then, t h a t "range  i s usually  limited,  17  seldom going t o the o c t a v e "  ' i s completely  S i m i l a r l y , J.A. Westrup i s a l s o i n c o r r e c t "melodies with a range  erroneous.  i n a s s e r t i n g that  of more than an octave occur  . . .  18  but they are not f r e q u e n t . "  Even more m i s l e a d i n g i s the  f o l l o w i n g remark by Gustave Reese: The melodies themselves normally remain w i t h i n the compass of an octave; a range of a _„ s i x t h i s not unusual; t h a t o f an e l e v e n t h i s r a r e . y  17 A l b e r t Seay, op. c i t . , p. 18 J.A.  Westrup, op. c i t . ,  19 G. Reese, op. c i t . ,  p.  65.  p. 216.  233.  Actually  t h e number o f p i e c e s  eleventh is range;  p r a c t i c a l l y the  nine,  troubadour  the l a t t e r ) ,  s o n g s as  t h a t none  octave plus d'ivern  range  It  "normally  three scholars  (157,  that  remain  had  or  former  within  c a n o n l y be a s s u m e d by  such  recourse  at the time of w r i t i n g .  i n the troubadour  a seventh!—is  e d'estiu"  not t o mention the f a c t  of these  to the complete r e p e r t o r y The w i d e s t  same ( t w e l v e h a v e t h e  a w h o l e do n o t  t h e compass o f an o c t a v e . " statements,  f e a t u r i n g ranges of a s i x t h  corpus—that  found i n P e i r e V i d a l ' s 62):  of  "Be«m  an pac  3g  '•53* ftf-  p^c  1) h t  tfe-rn  & h •  de>  freko  J3j i <*>ri  d'  ;  &  :  d&  d'-e£  &  - &bo  ±  E  —  for*,  5b  jj  /7<?#3  — ian  corn  -£-/ors  £  pro  /TV  m ten  es  - for*  - Sico  ' £  SI 1  Jo 1  mors.  /7C>  /v,  darS  — ve, i  fk>-roirv  temps  S O -br'&s  ro - zas  ab  k £  -  uenS  dZ  i> %  u  a  ' vi - AW?  en-  tre, -  r  AfV> dor?) -  p/uS  &  bre.  gd  i?o/  b& —  £  cd.  Such e x c e s s i v e liturgical  ranges  are also h i g h l y  exceptional in  p i e c e s , although the before-mentioned  p o r t a s " has  a compass  The r a n g e  o f two  the  "Tollite  octaves.  of a f i f t h — n a r r o w e s t ambitus  in  the  t r o u b a d o u r r e p e r t o r y — i s q u i t e o f t e n f o u n d among t h e pieces, but i s pregatz,  u s e d i n o n l y one P r o v e n c a l s o n g ,  seignor"  Ex.  (45,  pre. can  £  K to*  -  es  2_9) by B e r n a r t de V e n t a d o r n :  - uatZj u cuit  mdl chan  6reu*  rai  Vai  vei  ohan}  Si  ~  mal  li  - rebz, donee  than ™aJ  b  y/aj  £  -  a,  than C'o  -  -  <dor/  rnor- p  1 > doncS)  per  3&> fir>$  aa&  —FY-  'eS  — /yjai  ?  l i t u r g i c a l music,  s i d e r e d the ambitus those  eu  m  i J>  -J:  - $a/  s e n o r j Qu'eu char), -ter} p/or ft Po - ra,  te  ally  me  143.  Po %>/5  In  "Pos  chant  an o c t a v e i s  o f any g i v e n mode.  i n t h e a u t h e n t i c modes,  t h e o r e t i c a l l y conMost, c h a n t s ,  extend t h e i r range  n i n t h by i n c l u d i n g one d e g r e e b e l o w t h e i r o c t a v e  espec to  ambitus.  a  Usually this  lowest note, known as the subtonlum  employed s p a r i n g l y , a p p e a r i n g at cadence quently throughout  the r e s t  modi-, i s  p o i n t s but i n f r e -  o f the piece.\  The subtonlum  modi  a l s o occurs i n many P r o v e n c a l m e l o d i e s , but i t i s u s u a l l y t r e a t e d more f r e e l y  than i n the l i t u r g i c a l p i e c e s .  f o r example, R i q u i e r ' s bona" ( 1 8 , 2 2 2 ) . final  cadence  subtonium cadences. first  Consider,  "No«m s a i d'amor, s i m'es mala o  I n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g used 'in both the  and f i v e o f the seven i n t e r n a l  cadences, the  modi a l s o occurs n i n e times i n p l a c e s o t h e r than As w e l l , i t has the d i s t i n c t i o n o f b e i n g the  note o f the p i e c e :  - '  3 * / <s/k/ -wor)  7t6^ X//'  c7^''  COA^  /7<sv  bra.,  $j  /Vi  n  del  — r>oi^ si  /I//  ,  Son  -  jx>  i/te/" -  j  fiji  '•  >  ma-ia;  «?>7 - tW?  di.  £i  dre.q  vau,  tyv'esfr  J> si  &  pe& - £>a - n*&rts  zfef - & v -  -u'otn vi co Besides,  to contrast  /7^  still  —  '  "  was  "  VCir o  bend,  vi  /Y>& das  me€>-  - OJ  -trevh;  te  brat brop>pfeifr-zj fiu& Selh  y  e6  P  j  — d/o  «  bo —  °  mi ^•**v7  —  o  ten,  0  3r -  —  w'as - ie, — i/iaj  l  5=5 2,' car  »  notZj, o m mart-tew  <?/r7  e?  o  «  w'eS  ni  tffe/  —  Y  -  <^c~ — f u r t h e r the G r e g o r i a n and  Provencal  r e p e r t o r i e s , a number of troubadour melodies with an ambitus of a n i n t h do not i n c l u d e the subtonium modi but r a t h e r extend t h e i r range upwards.  This p r a c t i c e r e s u l t s i n pieces  such as "No sap chantar q u i - 1 so no d i " (138,  13.)  which has  a compass of c t o d' but whose f i n a l i s not d but c_.  The t e s s i t u r a o f l i t u r g i c a l music depends f o r the most p a r t on the mode o f the p i e c e :  chants i n Mode Seven w i l l  o b v i o u s l y have a h i g h e r t e s s i t u r a than those i n Mode Two. As f o r the troubadour corpus, the m a j o r i t y o f songs l i e s between c_ and e' o r f'•.  A number o f m e l o d i e s , however,  feature a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t dos  volers  s u i pensius"  tessitura.  That of " E n t r e  (217, 151) i s e x c e p t i o n a l l y  high,  Ex. 145.  ft—ft—f-0 £n-bre/  2  do^vo-lers  pan—  6ui  -sius>  Quel  t> ti me, d/'bz> ^u'/eu, non chant f t  P P I' "  rna/6  £b A - mors  0 i*—*-  Men-bre/ ^ue-l ^gl 1  la/5  tr>'&n  »  la/3  - 6ar  a.gr''  ;eu  ra,-  non -fieft—0  i f — * » *  0 J  V  P — i j  1  mat's  r -/t~T\s  a  &  *—0-  0 W0  jo - ven€>  f—m bol  f  • i  Que  chans - so; p/ f> per Jo chant> car'  * 0  fl-mors  0  es _ bau - ra/  zo  —1—  an  cors  M& -  0 a Ree> -  err e,p 3en$ u  dun'  J  tact-so;  tot  too  vo  w h i l e the t e s s i t u r a o f "Si*us quer c o n s e i l l , b e l ' amig' Alamanda" ( 8 8 , Ex.  59)  i s generally  from G to g:  146.  $/U5  <fiucr  Con-Sc/h,,  bel'  t*>  -  fi  —  la,  -  yuan-  r •€» )  IUo-1 Que  da, tig,  yuan  - aftVj  SMOtSl  -  40  m  /we, /orih  V&~ $u,  Quo  detz>, fens  c-'om co-cha-kzj /6 - $(£z, ^&  &uem  so  det,  ru'es-brai  er'  de &O -  <s-tm  ^  b J> ^ ^ - toan - da>.  SJx j> j  tfua-no  ton  di™s  6Ui  lo  ^s&l^hivtz.?  ± ed  Lous /AJ  te  d i - ra> }  no  w'co "bran -dou, Tan  $orfc  ra£-z.  I —  Melodic F e a t u r e s The troubadour r e p e r t o r y c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the G r e g o r i a n i n i t s use o f such i n t e r v a l s fourth.  As f o r i n t e r v a l s  as the second, t h i r d , and  of a f i f t h  or l a r g e r ,  we  find far  fewer s i m i l a r i t i e s , wide leaps b e i n g much more common i n the troubadour p i e c e s than i n the chants.  The  most o f t e n  employed  and  G r e g o r i a n music  The  P r o v e n c a l melody  moves a l m o s t  p r o g r e s s i o n In both  troubadour  i s o f c o u r s e , the major o r minor  entirely  "Ara-m c o s s e l a t z by s t e p - w i s e  Seignor"  second,  (28, 1 8 ) ,  motion:  Ex. .147.  /?- ra yyj Sel - hat>Z. 6erj -hor Vos, Ct - no* do**? - nam ^^k- &'as-mor Cai <** "  Ma6  r-^i—1  &ai  h-T  fr  ^-1  e. - ras  ^r-  r  p —1  1  1  i ho  The is  n e x t most  Conn-pan- ha. ban ^rcu6> nomJo.  frequently  used  interval  the ascending o r descending  Note t h e l a r g e voler  number o f t h i r d s  third,  i n t h e two  b o t h m a j o r and  i n Arnaut  q u ' e l c o r m ' i n t r a " (10, 9 1 ) :  repertories minor.  D a n i e l ' s "Lo f e r m  vo - ler fltt'el cor no in -braj AJfiwi pet?  fer*r>  3 laco-Se-n -gier <^ i pzrfc pev u  b i\ b i ^  5/  1) J-  l\  una? dir j'ar - I-H^)  J» j>  i ^ M i  ba.tr*ab  ram  fraco, /ai  an  ver-  non OM> - i*a/  ft ^ J) J) i On - ole,  t  dinZs  gato-A-i  -ra/  J>  J) '  joi  y  en  ±  vef-^ieir  ^  &  ea,m - i?/-<^.  Much l e s s common i s the i n t e r v a l o f a f o u r t h , e s p e c i a l l y i n the case o f the chants, which f o r the most p a r t f a v o u r seconds and t h i r d s .  An augmented f o u r t h as w e l l as ascending,  and descending p e r f e c t f o u r t h s can be found i n the P r o v e n c a l melody, "Guerras n i p l a g no son bo" (198,  100).  As f o r the  Gregorian  pieces,  [1151] w h i c h c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l r i s i n g f o u r t h s  Domino" starting  on  The and  c o n s i d e r the O f f e r t o r y "Laetamini i n  g and  two  interval  descending,  e  to g to a to b  -  g a  t o d' tto e'  -  • -d  f  t o c' -  b  b  to f  Liturgical  -  a l l pitches,  i n the  music,  (175, 125) (207, TTO (220, I5T) (25, 47T~ ( 3 , 171) (204, 138) (82, l6~B7  f e  on t h e  uses  a group  (usually  o  e  to B  o t h e r hand,  i n f r e q u e n t i s the ascending  interval  t  f  Also  this  1  b  the descending  chants--in particular,  to b to a to g  1  b  ascending  fifth  (11, WT (216,1150) ( > ( 1 2 , 50T (36, 26") - (230, 174) 8o  (except f o r r e c i t i n g  f i f t h but  fifth,  sparingly.  a l t h o u g h a number  o f Mode One  starting  antiphons—  on d o r g_) as  their  i n i t i a l progression: Ex.  149.  "Adam a d montem  myrrhae"[l422] "Y  Several  troubadour  fifth.  Note t h e  Giraut  de  clardat"  melodies  also  b e g i n w i t h an  '  ascending  s i m i l a r i t i e s between the i n c i p l t ; ; o f f  Borneill's (87,  f.  - (7, 182) - (232, 176)  d c* t o f . " a t o di g to e -  formulas)  employ  c_ and  corpus:  Descending  tone  of  both  troubadour  fifth  (48, TT)  to f' -  b  occurs  on  on  L e a p s o f a f i f t h i n the •., troubadour corpus.  —  Ascending c  fourths starting  of a f i f t h  often  15.  Table  falling  58),  alba  "Reis g l o r i o s ,  verais  lums  e  and  [920]:  that o f the Hymn " S a c r i s s o l e m n i i s " Ex.  151.  A passage from de B o r n e i l l ' s "Leu chansonet' e v i i "  (85,  56)  a l s o b e t r a y s the i n f l u e n c e o f G r e g o r i a n chant, Ex.  152.  h  I F  $g/h  \\ h J) h = £ 5 pal - ra> -cz/  as does a s e c t i o n o f R i q u i e r ' s (114,  man  - a'ar  "Los bes qu'eu t r o p en Amor"  218): Ex.  153.  h J  Tot  Jorn  K n .  VJ de-  V > won  r*  "Be/h  m rm.. j J  4  J De-  ; ** port^  The music,  l e a p of a s i x t h , w h i l e extremely r a r e i n l i t u r g i c a l  occurs q u i t e o f t e n i n the P r o v e n c a l melodies.  f o l l o w i n g l i n e s from "Ges (177,  165)  faill  f e a t u r e a descending s i x t h s t a r t i n g  ascending s i x t h Ex.  de chantar no-m  The  cors n i r a z o s " on a and  an  from e t o c_':  154.  Although the i n t e r v a l of a seventh i s v i r t u a l l y unknown i n the chant p i e c e s , i t o c c u r s — a t l e a s t  i n ascending  p r o g r e s s i o n — s e v e r a l times i n the troubadour songs. B e r n a r t z de Ventadorn"  "Amies  (149, 35.) f o r example, c o n t a i n s a  leap from c_ t o b_ , w h i l e a seventh from g t o f ' appears i n b  "Atressi The  cum  l a c a n d e l a " (154,  55).  leap o f an octave i s s u r p r i s i n g l y  f r e q u e n t i n the  troubadour r e p e r t o r y i n view of the f a c t t h a t the i n l i t u r g i c a l music  i s n o n - e x i s t e n t w i t h i n phrases and very  r a r e even as a dead i n t e r v a l .  For examples of both the  ascending and descending octave, we may Faidit's  interval  "No«m a l e g r a chans n i c r i t z "  t u r n t o Gaucelm  (70,  112):  a*  h  ni  Of p a r t i c u l a r  Que-wi V&I — gv&<s  ri  /ver-  interest  troubadour m e l o d i e s . is  -9  W  fib  mi  are the leaps o f a n i n t h i n s e v e r a l As might  be expected, t h i s  interval  i n the chant corpus.  i s found i n the d i s c o r t  ( i f discorts  "Qui l a v i en  :  An may  ditz"  182), Ex.  156.  ll J) Vow  poO  -far So-core,  '  h ' Sors  while a descending n i n t h leap appears nul  preCS  te$.  example o f the n i n t h i n ascending motion  (7,  olonb  -W-  completely without precedent  be admitted)  -  temps no-m  pot re f a r Amors" ( 6 6 ,  \>  fr P P  Mtyr^c/r>sdous b#''-sors  in Faidit's 108):  "Ja«mais  -tfj-  preoy.  Up t o t h i s troubadour  point  i n this  respect  are  f a r more  triad the  moving  formed  triads  are usual,  such  pieces often  arrangements troubadour  of thirds  songs.  major t r i a d s  such  "Atressi moving  of the troubadour  The o u t l i n e  Major  que  ses-  ba-  i  minor occurs  Although the  triads,  as a r e f o u n d  they  (227, 172)  direction,  J) ^  cf'ea -juar-  seldom  use  i n the f o l l o w i n g  cum P e r s e v a u s "  h  and  i n the Provencal  40).  i n t h e same  h  of a  i s v e r y common i n  Ex. 158.  K  than  a diminished t r i a d  (18,  use s i n g l e  leaps  frequent i n l i t u r g i c a l  p r o g r e s s i o n found clardat"  pieces  c o n s i d e r two o r more  and i s q u i t e  but o c c a s i o n a l l y  "Ab l a f r e s c a  Gregorian  when we  intervals,  the chant  use o f wide  i n the o f f e r t o r i e s .  as t h e f ' - d ' - b  melody  show t h a t  by two c o n s e c u t i v e t h i r d s  particularly  da;  of single  i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n .  troubadour melodies  r*ef)-  t h e G r e g o r i a n and  The b o l d n e s s  more a p p a r e n t  music,  two  our r e s u l t s  conservative i n their  i s even  intervals  compared  o n l y i n terms  the Provencal corpus.  songs  m'c&-  &on  we h a v e  repertories  and  is  CO/I-hir  cu -  daf  features  while i n "Si  be*m p a r t e t z , m a l a domna, de v o s "  f i n d an a s c e n d i n g m a j o r t r i a d f o l l o w e d by a diminished  we  descending  triad:  159.  Ex.  • tatZjj car" -pA> It  166)  (78,  is  possible  fl' *  Jem- J>faiy  to f i n d three consecutive thirds  forming  t h e o u t l i n e o f a s e v e n t h i n b o t h t h e G r e g o r i a n and t r o u b adour pieces', although the y i e l d i s latter "Pos  corpus.  "Ara m'agr'  t a n mi f o r s '  Amors'  ops  somewhat g r e a t e r i n  que m ' a i z i s  (206,  140)  que m i f a i e n t r e m e t r e " ( 8 4 ,  the and  94)  f e a t u r e a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g m a j o r s e v e n t h s  respectively.  As  minor  f o r examples o f t h e a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g  s e v e n t h we may t u r n t o " P l u s ostal"  que•1 p a u b r e s ,  a n d " C o r a que-m d e s b e n a n a n s a "  (63,  quan j a i e l 105).  o f i n t e r e s t i n g examples w h i c h employ c o m b i n a t i o n s t r i a d and s e v e n t h o u t l i n e s o c c u r i n t h e t r o u b a d o u r  ric  A number of  the  repertory  b u t a r e f o r t h e most p a r t o u t s i d e t h e G r e g o r i a n p r a c t i c e . F o l q u e t de M a r s e i l l a ' s (48,  77)  "Amors,  m e r c e ! no m o i r a t a n  f e a t u r e s a d e s c e n d i n g s e v e n t h f o l l o w e d by  and d e s c e n d i n g m a j o r  triads:  soven" ascending  -"5/  ^  ^ blaJ^Zj  w h i l e i n "Ja-mais n u l temps no-m the  MO  -  ti  —  pot r e f a r Amors"  major t r i a d precedes the seventh Ex.  war  fe, j  (66,  108)  outline:  161.  Que-6/'  - a,  gr&u*,  ni  twai - bra/' -ni 3  &-Jar7S>)  A l s o i n t e r e s t i n g i s the occurrence i n "Ja n o - i s cug horn qu'iem" (53,  82), . Ex.  of four consecutive t h i r d s o u t l i n i n g a ninth:  162.  Per  Jo  jruevr? pites-  c&s  We  now  come to combinations  of t h i r d s and  fourths.  These f o r the most p a r t are r a r e i n the chant corpus i n t h e i r bare s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e s ; normally c h o r d . o u t l i n e s of t h i s type are f i l l e d  i n with i n t e r v e n i n g notes.  In c o n t r a s t ,  the troubadour p i e c e s o f t e n r e t a i n the s k e l e t a l form without i n v o l v i n g such e l a b o r a t i o n s .  The most s t r i k i n g P r o v e n c a l  example of a t h i r d preceded by a f o u r t h i s found i n "Lou premer j o r que v i " (252,254). used t o open the p i e c e .  Here, the combination i s  As f o r the descending  c o n s i d e r the £'-£-£_ o f "Quant hom  h o n r a t z " (164,  d'-a-f of "Tot l ' a n mi t e n Amors" (185,  l6_l).  version, 6_9)  or the  In the case  of the G r e g o r i a n melodies, the descending f o u r - p l u s - t h r e e combination i s seldom Graduals.  used o u t s i d e a few O f f e r t o r i e s  and  Yet the ascending f o u r - p l u s - t h r e e e s p e c i a l l y  on  the p i t c h e s c_-f-a i s s u r p r i s i n g l y f r e q u e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a number of antiphons where i t assumes the importance a recurring The  of  motive.  l e a p o f a t h i r d f o l l o w e d by a f o u r t h i s p r a c t i c a l l y  n o n - e x i s t e n t i n both the troubadour and G r e g o r i a n r e p e r t o r i e s . No examples of the i n t e r v a l s i n ascending o r d e r have been found i n the chant p i e c e s w h i l e one of the few i n s t a n c e s i n the P r o v e n c a l songs Is the e-g-gj-c/ which occurs i n "Guerras ni plaich"  (198,  100).  As f o r . t h e i n t e r v a l s i n descending  combination, I have been unable t o f i n d a s i n g l e example i n the troubadour corpus, although a few examples appear l i t u r g i c a l repertory.  i n the  V a r i o u s combinations  o f the t h i r d . a n d f i f t h  common t o both r e p e r t o r i e s .  are a l s o  While the ascending  fifth-plus-  t h i r d occurs i n such troubadour melodies as "Ja non t i q u i e r " (246,  271)  and "A l ' e n t r a d a d e l tans f l o r i t "  (235,  245), i t  i s even more f r e q u e n t i n a number o f antiphons from the chant corpus.  The t h i r d f o l l o w e d by a f i f t h  can a l s o be  found i n the troubadour melodies although as with the chant p i e c e s , the combination i s not as frequent as the ascending five-plus-three.  As f o r the t h i r d and f i f t h  i n descending  o r d e r , we may t u r n t o "Ab j o i mou l o vers e«l comens" (26,  16);  f o r the i n t e r v a l s i n ascending o r d e r , t o "Molt  m'abellist The  l'amoros pensamen" ( 2 8 6 ,  254).  combination d-g_-c_' appears not i n f r e q u e n t l y i n the  chant r e p e r t o r y , e s p e c i a l l y i n a f a i r l y and O f f e r t o r y v e r s e s .  l a r g e group o f T r a c t s  As f o r the troubadour p i e c e s , the  f o u r - p l u s - f o u r combination i s unknown; i t i s not even f e a t u r e d i n the d i s c o r t s . It two  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that the octave comprised o f  or more s u c c e s s i v e leaps occurs l e s s o f t e n i n the t r o u b -  adour r e p e r t o r y than do octaves i n v o l v i n g a s i n g l e  interval.  A r a r e example i s the c-e_-g-c_' f o r m a t i o n found i n "Pos t o r n a t z s u i en Proensa" Ex.  163.  (162,  67):  Even more unusual i s the s i x t h f o l l o w e d by a f o u r t h i n " J a n o - i s c u l t horn qu'eu camge mas chansos"  found  (53, 82):  Ex. 164.  In l i t u r g i c a l music, the only example o f an octave formed by two or more s u c c e s s i v e leaps i s the c-g_-g-c'  combination  which occurs i n the O f f e r t o r y " C o n s t i t u e t e s . n20  There  appears t o be no i n s t a n c e where s u c c e s s i v e leaps produce the o u t l i n e of a n i n t h . A number o f wide i n t e r v a l s a r e formed by the s u c c e s s i o n of t h r e e o r more i n t e r m e d i a t e p i t c h e s i n the same d i r e c t i o n . The  chant r e p e r t o r y c o n t a i n s many occurrences o f sevenths  formed  i n t h i s manner but has s u r p r i s i n g l y  the octave o u t l i n e .  few examples o f  The troubadour corpus, on the o t h e r hand,,  makes e x t e n s i v e use o f both i n t e r v a l s . the seventh o u t l i n e , o f which  Numerous examples o f  the f o l l o w i n g are but a few,  occur i n n e a r l y every p o s s i b l e combination, both ascending and  descending:  C. O t t , op. c i t  p. 132  Ex. 165.  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  "Lo gens cors o n r a t z " ( 6 7 , 109) " B e l m'es qu'eu chant e c o i n d e i " (207, 141) " A i s s i cum es genser p a s c o r s " ( 2 0 3 , 137) " A t r e s s i . m pren com f a i a l j o g a d o r " ( 2 , 177) "Entre dos v o l e r s s u i p e n s i u s " (217, 15l"T "Quan l o r o s s i g n o l s e l f o i l l o s " (140, 15)  No l e s s frequent i s the octave o u t l i n e comprised or more ascending  o r descending  intervals:  of three  Ex. 166.  (a) "Amors, merce! no moira t a n soven" ( 4 8 , 7_7) (b) "En chantan m'aven a membrar" ( 5 1 , 8p_) (c) "Ja-mais n u l temps no<m pot r e f a r Amors"  (66,  108)  (d) "Trop a i e s t a t mon Bon Esper no v i "  (186,  162)  (e) "Ja-mais n u l temps no-m pot r e f a r Amors"  (66,  108)  (97,  201)  ( f ) "Nuls nom no s ' a u c i tan gen" (179, 129) (g) " A i s s i quon es sobronrada" ( 9 3 , 197) (h) "Anc non a i g u i n u l temps de f a r chanso"  MAS  per so chant-ado -£>/;  (d)  mo$ pred)£ a. - coil - hir ier)  vi - yak  liei's  Cain &cl acien  MI' -fetz> fr>ar- rir  n  o  <x%>-  a, -mor  s'cn-ten  <4>  •s'e-6 - £>rs  mon  sa,~b€CS  ben  Sem-  hor  The troubadour melodies.even i n c l u d e a few examples o f the n i n t h c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e o r more i n t e r m e d i a t e formation  q u i t e unknown t o G r e g o r i a n  humils et o r g o i l l o s "  (200,  p r o g r e s s i o n o f the n i n t h ,  102)  chant.  p i t c h e s , -a  "Savis e f o l s ,  c o n t a i n s an ascending  to-  nO$o  malS  w h i l e an example of the descending n i n t h occurs i n "Lou premer j o r que v i " (252, 254). Ex. 168.  Having examined the troubadour p i e c e s i n r e s p e c t t o melodic p r o g r e s s i o n s moving i n the same d i r e c t i o n , l e t us now b r i e f l y  c o n s i d e r a few o f the more dramatic formations •  t h a t i n c l u d e leaps i n both d i r e c t i o n s . Amors d ' a i t a l f a i s s o "  "Tot 1'an mi t e n  (185, 161) f e a t u r e s an ascending major  t r i a d f o l l o w e d by the o u t l i n e o f a descending chord: Ex. 169.  "six-three"  I n c l u d e d i n "Amors m'art  con fuoc am  flama" (236,  257)  is a  combination c o n s i s t i n g of r i s i n g t h i r d s and ascending and descending p e r f e c t Ex.  fifths:  170.  j cu - tMfr>  p.) £  •  r  i  luena  —  \/ot>  ±  )  —  $ui,  4 ? = efpvss 7  Another combination o f t h i r d s and f i f t h s i s c o n t a i n e d i n "S'om  pogues p a r t i r son v o l e r " Ex.  (73,  115):  171.  4—  *  f>n ^ vatZj^ Si/  e  IV-T  hes  e/  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the d i s c o r t s c o n t a i n examples  of d i s j u n c t motion.  Here, i t i s not at a l l unusual  to f i n d passages such as the f o l l o w i n g  (237, 282):  the most s t r i k i n g  from " B e l l a domna  cara"  i  7St  dwiz  ftm  e,  gats -  typical  the troubadour although leaps  but  of the repertory songs g e n e r a l l y  as a w h o l e . favour  t h e y t e n d t o be more d a r i n g pieces.  Melodic  Contour  melody wavy  o f the d i s c o r t , however, a r e  than are the Gregorian  It  has been s t a t e d t h a t  i s that  lines  thirds."^l  by a s c e n d i n g  A large  number  design  Willi  of a  pieces  and d e s c e n d i n g  Gregorian  qu'eu  curves. saupes"  also  ( 1 0 4 , 208)  are obviously  Chant,  seconds,  H e n c e , we f i n d  such as t h e O f f e r t o r y  Apel, Gregorian  in  particularly  caelo"[791]:  2 1  motion,  of Provencal melodies  to melodic contour,  chant  chant,  i n t h e i r use o f wide  intervals,  of u n d u l a t i n g  s o n g s s u c h as " E n t o t q u a n t  typical  conjunct  "the basic  including larger  proceed i n a s e r i e s  in respect  Like  o f a n a r c h whose a p e x i s r e a c h e d a n d l e f t  formed mostly  often also  guar  zent-Z'  The m e l o d i c p r o g r e s s i o n s hardly  B/an, B  en-jar?  If-  F blan  Sens  p. 249  which,  similar to  "Intonuit  de  Ex. 173. ' "En t o t quant qu'eu saupes" (104, 208)  £r>  -tot auant flu'ieu/ £au, —• pee,  —  dreS  6n  «3p  -  £ar  sar  fife,  far  deu,  &  — ri  -<9-^—«J e  Que,  pla,-  3^  «8> <BLJ  zer  3  1~  cau,it  ter/j  de,  €}  J  ^  O „  jjf  bon  •  *P ^  £  vo>  -  le"  <^  0  - por-b";  Qu'ab JO  ^  b%  j  Pv£  ^  i «>  seS  lieis  ^  uZ  <fiuar vol bant n»oi> pro^  Se, -  rai  pros.  Ex. 1-74.  "Intonuit  de c a e l o "  [791]  A l a r g e number of chants begin with an i n v e r t e d arch h as that found i n the Antiphon " I s t e Sanctus"  [1123]:  7  ¥  I - ste- Sane - kus prc>  j& ^ge, pe. 5U —*»-  / cv  mm - it •  Su - pra>  "Quant Amors t r o b e t  \Jer  f  1*  i'm-pi  bis  ± fun -da>  1**  -  rum  n  pi  non  bi-  * +*  bct6 en - inn  fir - nna^  partit"  *  1  *—0-  rat  p& - tram.  (181,  131)  troubadour melody which a l s o f e a t u r e s  i s an example o f a the i n v e r t e d  arch:  ¥-  9pant> ftinorS bro -bet par - bib  6> »'*  Plon ccr d&  >H—-  5 =  *>—„)  mJ  son  « J * , €> »  V  ffi  1  «9 •>  £  AT  d€.t>2,  fO-  ~ air*  =^ 4©  *T>  -rn/CX- P&i  - wen:  S  F^"  -»  Vos a^ - nad^o dc- nit  men _*a  pu5  CO  lun  «  mi  ni  en  /Uon  Chan  er  ^/  -  oSj  1  i n which they  begin.  a high register type  ^  ^J-——  J)i - tjuatz-pueis^ue,  Usually the troubadour  '  hanl  £•  ^  Jo6br'  — — — -  J  0  hi  ,<PV  tm—A  e,  fcb * J  -  -ro/£}  melodies  en-ben-  t =F=N l' v *^ \  val-rebib voe':  e n d i n t h e same  register  A number o f p i e c e s , h o w e v e r , b e g i n i n  and end i n a l o w .  A typical  i s ' " M e i l l s qu'om no p o t d i r n i p e n s a r "  example o f t h i s ( 1 8 9 , 7J0 :  /\  «>  •»  tf>  —  —  7^  1—  r r  =  ^  L  4  — i  - •  no pofc d/r /),' pen - far  Tan  /yjj platZ'  /a, jpi  —  (  ^  - .505 /  \  —  4—  «s  S^/ UUeLO  ± le  qres  A,  Pe- ro yes  v—  A?/'  4  e  jo/  no-m don  J  m  '  &  m  ves bcm d/g  •  j'*?/,  «  —  de •  le/ ^^ri&r Chant>^'< '( 't>eJs :  J  1  T ^ ^ S de> ro -sier,  mm  -  - OS,  Nat, \/os,dom  -nay, ru'co  be = tyae£> -Ser cw'g re/e de,  ^  jjuan  mem  50  —  1^.  As f o r t h e l i t u r g i c a l m u s i c , I have b e e n u n a b l e t o l o c a t e any e x a m p l e s w h i c h b e g i n a n d f i n i s h respectively.  i n h i g h and low r e g i s t e r s  N o r does t h e r e v e r s e p r o c e d u r e o c c u r ,  i n chant o r troubadour  pieces.  either  It  i s impossible  to classify  i n t e r m s o f one s t y l e the to  only,  one-note-per-syllable the highly f l o r i d  variety as per la  of styles,  a mixture  s i n c e the melodies range  of the Graduals.  The  b u t r a t h e r c a n be g e n e r a l l y  of semi-syllabic—employing  autana"  (47,  from  Provencal  h a n d , do n o t e v i d e n c e s u c h a w i d e  syllable--and syllabic. votz  repertory  s e t t i n g s of the O f f i c e Antiphons  style  p i e c e s , on t h e o t h e r  the Gregorian  159_)  classified  two t o f i v e  Daude de P r a d a s ' s  "Bela  notes m'es  i s typical:  178.  Ex.  5 fie/ - hco  m'es.  Icu  VOLZJ O.LL - ba, — no/  De,l  P-  r  OS-  1*-  it sth  -hoi  e,m<  pa 6  °V-—v  fen*—n—  •  fyuas?  fuzlh  ' r —  *r  p  —u  L  g  - cor?  9  |B  -) /.  i Y  1  r  —  1  r,  "7 ^ —  .yrV  So,-  AoV.  t==±d——<  1  W " K — r — J  V&rkz,  ^ f r  - — b -  y  es  I—ts— _12  it  tier  Que,  bot  mi  r&  ~  v~c  e  A l a r g e group o f troubadour songs are predominantly semisyllabic  and correspond t o such neumatic s e c t i o n s  l i t u r g y as the Communion. cum l o l e o s " Ex.  Richart  o f the  de B e r b e z i l l ' s " A t r e s s i  ( 2 2 5 , 1 7 0 ) , f o r example,  179-  P PE P  te /? -  f\  euro  #T?S - 5 /  if n  h  fo—  lo  p  p •  le -  os ,  Que,  5 0'  0-^= H— -1 "-I  j  A=>— -W—  I / /  0  Mortzj — m  0—  1  P~0  «  —r I  J  0  0  SO-—a-^-  Oes H  EC.  ktnt  - r  H  /  *> J  i—W i[  es  a/ -  ^  K2  rl  Ses ,0k  r  —  a en 9  0  Mors  etas j  —  r—1•  0w  £*i  re> - [/fur'  •-0 " t * — ^ —  ••I  1  U>  ±  -  1  P!  / —  *  r * =  fB  ga. - rir je, was  do - /ors.  i s w r i t t e n i n t h e same s t y l e as t h e Communion " F i l l , fecisti"  quid  [481]:-  Ex. 180.  w  - CUV  jo  et'  palter  *  *  w  T.  \2*  T.  us  tu  ** * *^—*5  *_  do- ten  f> J J J T J j J ] J> j \ ^ i  avae~r*-~ bd >—'  -THUS  be • Et au»d est auod  ^yae ~re~ba ' ' ^ i * > fjes~ci-e-^ba — H i ~ui-3 *r  •49—49-  in  his  ou2e  yd~tris  rs  me-  (  *> ^  ZZJ.  Surd-)  J +d  The m a j o r i t y o f t r o u b a d o u r songs f o l l o w t h e s t y l e o f the Daude de Pradas and B e r b e z i l l p i e c e s mentioned above. Only a few a r e as s t r i c t l y s y l l a b i c as " F o r t m'enoja, s'o auzes d i r e "  (148, 93.) g i v e n i n Chapter I I .  An  even s m a l l e r  number are f a i r l y m e l i s m a t i c .  most "ornate example i n the r e p e r t o r y Cristz f i l l s  By f a r the  i s R i q u i e r ' s . "Jhesus  de Deu v i u " (111, 215):  Ex. 181.  Jht - 5U6 den - her  Crista for  •ft/A,  fani2,  ) y r r ^ ^ X J XHi i\ r r n X D/ea vtoe>, Q re, -pres, Vt?S  preo, ffae-rr> det^-j  ue  + * +  a-  merts  nas  -  ata,  -  32  u  6aJ  ? » *  fiues, Qu'ieu, $df> -cha^ be$  nntzr  £  j?x/ -  ai  -  hi  rar  V06 -  p/c  'a.  Y e t i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h some o f t h e f l o r i d  sections  of chant,  none o f t h e t r o u b a d o u r p i e c e s c a n p r o p e r l y be t e r m e d matic.  [1170]  Consider the Gradual "Clamaverunt"  f e a t u r e s a melisma Ex.  c o m p r i s e d o f no f e w e r t h a n s i x t y - s i x  0  0—  0—1  4 = J Cor  A  which notes:  182.  r~~f-0—,  fn  melis-  0  J  0  *  1  0  0 -  0—  w  *  P  M  f\f  f—, 0—0 0—  r  — ^-  -1—  LJ  j  JS  f-f-1  bn  i f 1 f' f  0  f-M  r  0-a  1  0-  r  0 —0  0  J J 0 I J- * 11 1 1—= J ^ 1 /w _  -  :  Form Finally,  we t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n b r i e f l y  to structural  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e G r e g o r i a n and t r o u b a d o u r tories. to  While the l a t t e r  t h e Chant i n terms  c o r p u s may i n f a c t  of melodic structure,  t h e o r y t h a t a l l t r o u b a d o u r forms prototypes i s surely typical  owe  something  Gennrich's  developed from  inadmissable.  reper-  liturgical  F o r one t h i n g , t h e  t h e m e s o f a n t i p h o n s a n d R e s p o n d s p l a y no p a r t i n  the troubadour p i e c e s .  Yet c e r t a i n p a r a l l e l s cannot  o v e r - l o o k e d ; the most obvious of these being the  be  similarities  between many P r o v e n c a l melodies and l i t u r g i c a l hymns.  The  hymns, of course, were set i n v e r s e r a t h e r than prose,  and  o f t e n i n v o l v e d melodic r e p e t i t i o n w i t h i n a s i n g l e s t a n z a i n v a r i o u s ways, the aab form b e i n g one o f the most p o p u l a r . However, i t i s a v a s t o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n t o suggest as does Gennrich, t h a t the wealth of s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a n t s found i n the troubadour p i e c e s can a l l be t r a c e d d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y back t o the hymn, sequence, the f a c t t h a t  l i t a n y , and r o n d e l .  For example,  c e r t a i n hymns employ the through-composed  i s not s u f f i c i e n t  form  evidence t o prove t h a t a l l through-composed  troubadour songs used these p a r t i c u l a r hymns as t h e i r models. A c t u a l l y t h e r e i s g r e a t e r formal v a r i e t y than Gennrich would have us b e l i e v e i n the troubadour corpus. m'entremis de chantar v o l o n t i e r s "  (178,  128)  "Mout  has the  form  abcldabc , 2  See F r a n c o i s Auguste Gevaert, La Melopee Antique dans l e Chant de l ' e g l i s e L a t i n e ( o r i g i n a l ed., 1895; reprint: Osnabrvick, Otto Z e l l e r , 1 9 6 7 ) : and W.H. Frere, op. c i t . , I n t r o d u c t i o n , passim.  !F= r\— * • h .  vA5—*  ^  Nout  'rxz—f  ¥  0  men  *  -fcre '  f  '  0  *,—*  -)  ^  . = 1  ,  1  P — K — 1V 5  Char •>-{zir  de-  r— 1  :  ] -/XJ/  •H  ; r,  ;0  v—-V  'dlu-le,-  vo-lun-tier  f:  €  de  jo  man  1  - be, • ner  t  fFl0  f  —-J-  1  0  1  fli  «•  J  $ 4  1  tant  —  [F=  0t  4-  j£> -cors  nnaiS  m*£n  non  - V&>  A  " ten  Que,  per  ~Ta/s deb- co-nork-z,  un un  eta/s  e$  *-0-+ pn&uc L  4 ~9  nom  JOI  re,  —  are,.  while "En Amor t r o p alques en que-m r e f r a i n g " the form a b a b x  c-'dec":  ( 4 , 179) has  ^ _ p  ±  &  A - mor ieu, per  £n AJl  j  —  \J  trob °)'- #i/e3 <w flue-m rv>a.l nom Jun,nh d^-^or  4 4  —  — &  re- - f r a n ^ /§^j n/'m fimn^ Q 0  fzT  d  :  d d J1  d  ]  tntnhs d £) - trior plo/5 no'tiu, — ci ]  mal6>  *  d> 4  J,  z$  o beS np-m $o-Pranh  5 -9-a  plus  \/eS  4ft  -  -@  —  4?  —tr  v  - -  rn'a-' - franh--  /vior  /Ua£>  rf—i  \ —  d  — J  i7o  Oo -  noSC  "^"3F~  Prs—^—I  n  n  1  •  3  ai  d R 1  -rvor  f>°'  der  [> V V p V  noi/yi  ^ote-m  irainhs^olffu^fl  re.  - -Pran  -  ^uc m  U  -triors  -fran  —  has. tfeS  horr> f>o - -Pra<n  m  nO  5>4i  en  ha,.  A f e w o f t h e numerous o t h e r f o r m a l v a r i a n t s a r e shown b e l o w :  "A p e n a s s a i don m ' a p r e i n g " "Ar  ala^ala^bcalbca^  m i p o s e eu l a u z a r d'amor" ( 1 5 1 - a-*-b-*-ca b dca ef 2  "Volontiers -  138)  (204,  faria"  2  (134,  abeabededefg  2  238)  5  185)  APPENDICES  APPENDIX I  F r a n c e , 1154 - 1184  +  B  longtl^cst 2 Of Greenwich  C  »  D  Xom;il.K.-tst  of Greenwich  E  0_E/rynl Domain.  ±_  ?  Iftistinjf.  F.-Toaanrtnrs;LlL-C0U>TTr07 LAR0C11E. Ljrchbishapric, iBuhopric,MonASitrj; * Can tie  9^L » V "5  Ca":a,l  1 Kti^lixh. I dominion*  TP. - couvnr or PARDIAC  i-ilpiU-'-T)'!  j  I i.  CZ3 Other j l e i * lh,-Uiorth« L_jEntfli.sk p o s s e s s i o n s (TrrnrhCrown ii.- u i s i i u n i i C ; c - C O U R T S ' ; i>.- DL'CUVK.-KIHGnOM; M.- MAKQUISATK; S.-SKICNIOIIY; V - V I S C O U N T Y . AIU-L- COirTTV OF A R M A W A C FEZ.- rEZKSSAC G, - GAUTLK GA. - MSCOUSTYOTGARARDA?* LOM.- 1.0MAC5E  ^  Scale i:75oqooo  _  IJSn-fftjs,  t"" ai>..Ai' x o u  -  -  ^  ^  Dij<>  ;" i s  '  O M S  / v OF ^  J  '^ 4*%yJ»»'*& J  L E O y A»D\ CASTILE  \EX> I  0  4  ../  TEnnAy  AS  si: A  K. o r | A R A r , 0 \ - - ' ' ^ > ^ - ^ ' - T ^ , /  u  f r o m W i l l i a m R. S h e p h e r d , H i s t o r i c a l A t l a s (New Y o r k : B a r n e s & N o b l e , 1 9 6 4 ) , 9 t h e d . , p. 6 9 .  Manuscript  Sources  Containing Provencal  Music  M i l a n , Ambrosiana R 71 sup. Eighty-one melodies and t h e i r t e x t s are p r e s e r v e d i n t h i s f o u r t e e n t h century c o l l e c t i o n .  P a r i s , Bibliothe-que N a t i o n a l e f r . 22543 ( f o r m e r l y 2 7 0 1 , f o r m e r l y La V a l l i e r e 14). Of the more than 900 poems c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h century chansonnier. 160 a r e p r o v i d e d with m u s i c a l s e t t i n g s .  P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e f r . 20050 ( f o r m e r l y S a i n t Germain 1 9 8 9 ) . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n dates from the second h a l f o f the t h i r t e e n t h century and c o n t a i n s the melodies f o r twenty-four p i e c e s .  P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e 844 ( f o r m e r l y 7 2 2 2 ) . This late t h i r t e e n t h century chansonnier ( a l s o known as Le Manuscrit du R o i ) , c o n t a i n s f i f t y - o n e p i e c e s complete with t e x t and music.  E i g h t p i e c e s are found i n a manuscript r e t a i n e d at the C h i g i L i b r a r y i n Rome c o n t a i n i n g a P r o v e n c a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f the French work Jeu de S a i n t e Agnes.  E s c o r i a l , B i b l i o t e c a d e l Monasterio S.I.3 and L e n i n g r a d , O f f e n t l i c h e B i b l i o t h e k , Franc. F.v. XV, No. 7 ( f o r m e r l y Eremitage 5 . 3 . 6 6 ; o l i m Saint-Germain-desPre"s 7 5 7 ) . Both these manuscripts c o n t a i n Matfre Ermengau's "Dregz de n a t u r a comanda" from B r e v i a r i d'Amor.  M o n t p e l l i e r , B i b l i o t h e q u e de l ' ^ c o l e de Medecine H 196. The two Troubadour p i e c e s i n t h i s t h i r t e e n t h ' c e n t u r y c o l l e c t i o n have been p r e s e r v e d i n a p o l y p h o n i c s e t t i n g .  P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e 8 4 6 . T h i s manuscript c o n t a i n s only one example o f Troubadour music: a thirteenth century p i e c e a t t r i b u t e d t o Perdigo (1195-1220).  P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e f r . 24406 and P a r i s , B i b l i o theque N a t i o n a l e f r . 25532. These manuscripts each c o n t a i n one p i e c e complete w i t h t e x t and music. Both songs a r e anonymous.  Vienna N a t i o n a l b i b l i o t h e k 2563 and Vienna N a t i o n a l b i b l i o t h e k 2582. Music has been p r o v i d e d f o r a s m a l l s e c t i o n o f Matfre Ermengau's lengthy l a t e t h i r t e e n t h century poem B r e v i a r i - d'A'mor which i s c o n t a i n e d i n these m a n u s c r i p t s .  W o l f e n b u t t e l , Herzog August B i b l l o t h e k , Helmst. 1099. T h i s manuscript c o n t a i n s t e x t and music f o r - t h e anonymous l y r i c " L ' a l t r ' i e r c u i d a i aber druda."  Sources of the Troubadour  the  Repertory  The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n i n the Sources of Troubadour Repertory.  1. L i s t o f a l l extant troubadour melodies arranged i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r by poet. 2. The dates of a l l poets a s s o c i a t e d with t e x t s which have extant music. Dates of b i r t h and death are g i v e n i f known. I f unknown, then approximate dates of c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y are g i v e n . 3. A l i s t of a l l anonymous poems with extant music. In a few cases, a troubadour (whose name appears i n parent h e s e s ) has been suggested as the p o s s i b l e author of a particular text. 4.  The manuscript sources f o r each melody.  5. The c o r r e s p o n d i n g P i l l e t number f o r each melody. These numbers r e f e r to the B i b l i o g r a p h i e der Troubadours by A l f r e d P i l l e t and Henry Carstens ( H a l l e : Max Niemeyer V e r l a g , 1 9 3 3 ) ; a s t a n d a r d r e f e r e n c e work which g i v e s manuscript and secondary sources f o r a l l extant troubadour poems. 6. The c o r r e s p o n d i n g Gennrich number f o r each melody. See Der M u s i k a l i s c h e Nachlass der Troubadours by F r i e d r i c h Gennrich (Darmstadt, 1958) which c o n t a i n s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of a l l the troubadour p i e c e s . 7. A secondary source i n which the complete g i v e n melody may be found. Abbreviations 1.  Manuscript a b b r e v i a t i o n s R 71  G  M i l a n , Ambrosian'a  R  P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e 22543  W  P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e 844  X  P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e 20050  sup.  text of a  Chigi  Rome, B i b l i o t e c a V a t i c a n a (Jeu de S a l n t e Agn&s)  C h i g i , C.V. 151  Escor  E s c o r i a l , B i b l i o t e c a d e l Monasterio S.I. 3  Len  L e n i n g r a d , O f f e n t l i c h e B i b l i o t h e k Franc. F.v. XV, No. 7  Mo  M o n t p e l l i e r , B i b l i o t h e q u e de l ' E c o l e de Medecine H 196  PBN  846  P a r i s , Bibliothdque Nationale (Chansonnier Cange*)  f r a n c . 846  PBN  12615  P a r i s , Bibliotheque Nationale (Chansonnier de N o a i l l e s )  f r a n c . 12615  PBN  24406  P a r i s , Bibliotheque Nationale  f r a n c . 24406  PBN  25532  P a r i s , Bibliotheque Nationale  f r a n c . 25532  RBV  1659  Rome B i b l i o t e c a V a t i c a n a Regina Christ.. 1659  VN  2563  Vienna, N a t i o n a l b i b l i o t h e k 2563  VN  2583  Vienna, N a t i o n a l b i b l i o t h e k 2583  W d  W o l f e n b i i t t e l , Herzog August B i b l i o t h e k , Helmst. 1099 • Abbreviations  of Sources f o r complete t e x t s  Aim  Almquist, K. Poesies du Troubadour Ademar. Uppsala, 1951-  AngRB  Anglade,J. "Les Chansons du Troubadour Rigaut de Berbezieux" i n Revue des Langues Romanes,  Guillem  V o l . 60 (1920). AnS ApBorn ApCad ApChr  ' A r c h i v f i l r das Studium der neueren Sprachen Appel, C. Leben und Werke B e r t r a n s von Born. H a l l e , 1931. Der Trobador Cadenet.  H a l l e , 1920.  P r o v e n z a l i s c h e Chrestomathie. 6th e d i t i o n . L e i p z i g , 1932.  ApUcB  . "Der Trobador Uc Brunec oder Brunenc" i n Abhandlungen Herrn P r o f . Dr. A d o l f T o b l e r dargebracht. H a l l e , 1895.  Ast  Aston, S.C. Cambridge,  Aud'U  Audiau, J . , Les Poesies des quatre d'Ussel. P a r i s , 1922.  BaAg  B a r t s c h , K. Schauspiel.  BaChr  . edition.  BaPV  .  P e i r o l , Troubadour 1953.  Sancta Agnes: B e r l i n , 1869.  of Auvergne.  Provenzalisch.es  Chrestomathie p r o v e n c a l e . Marburg, 1904. Peire Vidals Lieder.  6th  Berlin,  1857-  BaR&B  . Leipzig,  BarDen  . "Denkmaler der pr.ovenzalische L i t e r a t u r " i n B i b l i o g r a p h i e d. l i t . V e r e i n s . Vol. 30. S t u t t g a r t , 1856.  Can  C a n e l l o , U.A. La v i t a e l e opere d e l t r o v a d o r e Arnaldo D a n i e l l o . H a l l e , 1883.  ChabRlr  Romanzen und 1870.  troubadours  Chabaneau, C ,  Vol.  32 (1888).  Pastourellen  i n Revue des Langues Romanes,  :  ChayP  Chaytor, H.J. "Les Chansons de P e r d i g o " i n Les C l a s s i q u e s F r a n c a i s du Moyen Age, V o l . 53. P a r i s , 1926.  FrBol  Frank, I . , i n B o l e t i n o , V o l . 23.  GauR  Gauchat, L., i n Romania, V o l . 22  Hill  H i l l , R.T., and B e r g i n , T.G. Anthology of P r o v e n c a l Troubadours i n Yale Romanic S t u d i e s No. 17' New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941.  J-Adm  Jeanroy, A.,  JMar  Jeanroy, A. Dejeanne, and Aubry, P. Quatre Poesies de Marcabru. Paris, 1904.  J-S  Jeanroy, A. and S a l v e r d a de Grave, J . "Poesies de Uc de S a i n t C i r c " i n B i b l i o t h e q u e m g r i d i o n a l e , V o l . 15. Toulouse, 1913.  (1893).  i n Annales du M i d i , V o l . 12.  Jean  J e a n r o y , A. and A u b r y , P. " H u i t C h a n s o n s de B § r e n g e r de P a l a z o l " i n A n u a r i I n s t l t u t d ' E s t u d i s C a t a l a n s , V o l . 1 (190b).  John  J o h n s t o n , R.C. L e s P o g s i e s l y r i q u e s du T r o u b a d o u r A r n a u t de M a r o i l l . Paris, 1935.  KGB  K o l s e n , A. Samtliche Lieder G i r a u t de B o r n e i l l . 2 vols. 1935.  Kjel  K j e l l m a n , H. Le T r o u b a d o u r Raimon J o r d a n , v i c o m t e de S a i n t - A n t o n i n . P a r i s , 1922.  Klein  K l e i n , 0. "Der T r o u b a d o u r B l a c a s s e t " i n Jahresbericht der Stadt. R e a l s c h u l e zu W i e s b a d e n , 1886-87.  KolD  K o l s e n , A. Dictungen H a l l e , 1916-1919.  KolT  . " T r o b a d o r g e d i c h t e " i n Sammlung romanischer Ubungstexte. V o l . 6. Halle,  KolBei  KolGau KolRM KolStm  des T r o u b a d o u r s H a l l e , 1910 &  der Trobadors.  1925.  . "Beitrage zur altprovenzalischen L y r i k " i n B i b l i o t e c a d e l l ' Archivum romanicum, Vol. 27. F l o r e n c e , 1939., i n R o m a n i s c h e F o r s c h u n g e n , K o l s e n , A.,  i n Archivum  V o l . 47.  romanicum, V o l . 2 1 .  ., i n S t u d i m e d i e v a l i .  Lin  L i n s k i l l , J . The Poems o f Raimbaut de Vagueiras. The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1964.  MGed  Mahn, C.A.F. Gedichte der Troubadours i n p r o v e n z a l i s c h e r Sprache. 4 vols. Berlin, 1846-1853. '  MW  -, D i e Werke d e r T r o u b a d o u r s p r o v e n z a l i s c h e r Sprache. 4 vols. 1846-1886.  MeyRom  M e y e r , P.,  i n Romania, V o l . 75  in Berlin,  (1954).  Man  Mailer, J. " D i e G e d i c h t e des G u i l l e m A u g i e r N o v e l l a " i n Z e i t s c h r i f t far r o m a n i s c h e P h i l o l o g i e , V o l . 23 (1899).  Nap  N a p o l s k i , M. L e b e n und Werke des Pons de C a p d o i i " Halle, 1879.  Nau  N a u d i e t h , F. "Der T r o b a d o r G u i l l e m M a g r e t " i n B e i h e f t e zur Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r romanische Philologie. V o l . 52. Halle, 1914.  Nie  N i e s t r o y , E. "Der T r o b a d o r P i s t o l e t a " i n Z e i t s c h r i f t far r o m a n i s c h e P h i l o l o g i e , V o l . 52 ( H a l l e , 1914).  Nich  N i c h o l s , S.G. J r . , & Galm, J.A. The B e r n a r t de V e n t a d o r n . Chapel H i l l : of North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 .  Pat  P a t t i s o n , W.T. The T r o u b a d o u r Raimbaut 1952.  Phil  P h i l i p p s o n , E. H a l l e , 1873-  Ray  R a y n a u d , G. Paris, 1881.  S-C  S h e p h e r d , W.P., and Chambers, F.M. The Poems o f A i m e r i c de P e g u i l l a n . E v a n s t o n , I l l i n o i s , 1950.  S-G  Schultz-Gora, Dichterinnen.  Stim  Stimmung, A. Der T r o u b a d o u r s e i n L e b e n und s e i n e Werke!  Stron  S t r o n s k i , S. Le T r o u b a d o u r Marseille. Krakau, 1910.  Such  S u c h i e r , H. Denkmaler d e r p r o v e n z a l i s c h e n L i t e r a t u r und Sprache""! H a l l e , 1883•  Zen  Z e n k e r , R. D i e L i e d e r P e i r e s von Erlangen, 1900.  Trobadors  Songs o f University  L i f e and Works o f t h e o f Orange. Minneapolis,  Der M5nch v o n  Montaudo.  R e c u e i l de M o t e t s  francais. '  0. Die p r o y e n z a l i s c h e Leipzig, 1888. J a f r e Rudel, Kiel, 1873. Folquet  de  Augergne.  1  N u i l l s horn en re no  Aimeric de P e g u i l l a n 2 3 4 5 6 7  (1195  En mon  cor a i un' a i t a l  Arnaut D a n i e l (1180 9 10  - ca.  Chanso d o - i l l mot  -  son p l a n e prim  Maroill  (1170  -  1200)  11 12 13 14 15 16  A i s s i com e e l qu'am' e non es amatz La f r a n c a captenensa La grans beutatz e . l f i s enseignamens L'enseignamens e>l p r e t z e l a v a l o r s Mout eron dous mei c o n s i r Si«m d e s t r e i g n e t z , domna, vos et Amors B e a t r i t z de Dia (ca. 1160)  17  A chantar m'er  de so qu'eu no  177  10.45  182  S-C S-C S-C S-C S-C S-C  W 203a  16.14  190  KolD 97  G 73d G 73b  29.6 29.14  90 91  Can Can  49 50 51 52 54  John 52 John 17 John 2 John 71 John 147 John 134  38  S-G  G G G G G R  38b 36c 37b; R 35c 37a  10.12 10.15 48d  178 179 180  10.25  10.27 10.41  49a; W 185b  181  89  101 141 150  197 212  1200)  Lo ferm v o l e r q u ' e l cor m ' i n t r a Arnaut.de  KolD 5 6  1221)  encobida  - ca.  188  9.13a  123  A t r e s s i - m pren com f a i a l jogador C e l que s ' i r a i s n i g u e r r e j ' ab amor En Amor t r o p alques en que-m r e f r a i n g En greu p a n t a i s m'a tengut longamen Per s o l a t z d ' a u t r u i chan soven Que l a v i , en d i t z A l b e r t de Sestaro (1210  8  R 89a  faill  volria  G R R R G G  31b 79c 52b  8la  33a 79b  W 204b  •  30.3 30.15 30.16 30.17 30.19 30.23  46.2  '  53  95  118  18  18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  Ab l a f r e s c a c l a r d a t A i t a l domna com eu s a i Bona domna, c u i r i c s p r e t z f a i v a l e r De l a gensor qu'om v e j ' a l meu semblan Domna, l a gensor qu'om v e j a Domna, s i t o t z temps v i v i a Tan m'abelis j o i s et Amors e chans T o t z temoros e doptans Bernart de Ventadorn  (ca. 1150  R R R R R R R R  37b 37c 36d 37a 37c 37b 37d 37b  47.1 47.3 47.4 47.5 47.6 47.7 47.11 47.12  40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47  Jean Jean Jean Jean Jean Jean Jean J ean  526 536 522 539 534 532 528 530  70.1  16  Nich 1  70.4 70.6 70.7  17 18 19  Nich 4 Nich 6 Nich 7  70.8 70.12  20 21  Nich 8 Nich 12  70.16 70.17 70.19  22  Nich Nich Nich Nich Nich Nich Nich Nich Nich Nich  - ca. 1180)  26  Ab j o i mou  l o vers e«l comans  27 28 29  Amors, e! que.us es v e j a i r e Ara.m c o n s e i l l a t z , seignor Ara no v e i l u z i r s o l e i l l  30 31  A! tantas bonas chansos Be m'an perdut l a i enves  32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41  Conortz, a r a s a i eu be En c o n s i r i e r et en esmai E s t a t a i com horn esperdutz La doussa votz a i auzida Lanquan f o i l l o n bosc e g a r i c Lanquan v e i l a f o i l l a Non es m e r a v i l l a s'eu chan Pos mi p r e g a t z , s e i g n o r Quan l ' e r b a f r e s c ' e-1 f o i l l a par Quan par l a f l o r s j o s t a . l v e r t f o i l l  Ventadorn  G 9c; R 57b; W 202a R 56c G 13c; R 57c G 17a; R 57a; W 190b R 58a G 14a; R 57a; W 5a G 20a; R 57d G 19a W 195a R 57c; X 86r W 202c R 58b G 9a; W 191a G 20c; R 57d R 57d G 60c; R 56d; W 188b  70.23  70.24 70.25 70.31 70.36 70.39 70.41  23  24 25 26  27 28 29 30  31  16 17  19 23 24  25 31 36 39 41  No.  MS.  Title  Source  Pillet  Gennrich  Text  Bernart de Ventadorn (cont.) 42  43 44  Quan v e i l a f l o r , l ' e r b a v e r t e l a foilla Quan v e i l a l a u z e t a mover .Tuit c i l que«m pregon qu'eu chan B e r t r a n de Born (1159 -  45  46  (1208  -  47  B e l a m'es Folquet  48  49 50 51 52  53 54 55 56 57  42 43  70.45  34  Nich  45  R 6d  80.37  39  ApBorn 4  R 52a  106.14  183  ApCad 80  32  .  1239)  Eu s u i tan c o r t e z a g a i t a Daude de Pradas  33  Nich Nich  70.42  70.43  1196)  Rassa, tan c r e i s e mont' e p o j a . Cadenet  X 85r G 10a; R 56d; W 190d w 191a  ro  (ca. 1190)  ro  l a v o t z autana de M a r s e i l l a  (1180  W196a - 1195;  124.5  159  Aplned  87  155.1  77 78 79 80 81  Stron Stron Stron Stron Stron  155.11 155.14 155.16 155.18 155.21  82  S t r o n 63 S t r o n 40 S t r o n 55 S t r o n 35 S t r o n 51  d. 1231)  G lc; R Amors, merce! no moira tan soven A! quan gen vens et ab quan pauc d'afan G 4b; R G 4d; R Ben an mort mi e l o r G 5b En chantan m'aven a membrar G 8c; R Greu f e i r a nuls horn f a i l l e n s a W 200d J a no«s c u l t horn qu'eu camge mas chansos G 6c Mout i f e t z gran peccat Amors G 3d; R Per Deu, Amors, be sabetz veramen G la; R S'al cor plagues, be f o r ' oimais sazos G 2a; R S i t o t me s u i a t a r t aperceubutz G 3a; W  42c  43b  43c 42a;  42c; 51c  43a  188a  155.3 155.5 155.8 155.10  83 84  85 86  44 47 11 27 60  Folquet  de M a r s e i l l a (cont.)  58  Tan m'abelis I'amoros pensamens  59  Tan mou  60  Us v o l e r s out  de c o r t e z a  G W G W G  razo  racuidatz  Gaucelm F a i d i t  (1180  -  155.22  87  Stron  15  5d; R 42d; l88d 7a; R 43a  155.23  88  Stron  19  155.27  89  Stron  23  44b;  167. 4 167. 15  103 104  BaChr 160 MW 2,103  191d;  167. 17 167. 22  105 106  KolT 18 ApChr 120  4ld;  167. 27 167. 30  107 108  KolGau KolBei  152 123  44a;  167. 32  109  KolBei  20  8lr  167. 34 167. 37  110 111  BaChr 155 KolStM  R 43d;  167. 43  112  MW  R 45c;  167. 52  113  MW  X 83r' ' 167. 53 X 86v 167. 56 R 46b 167. 59  114  MW 2,90 K o l B e i 131 MW 2,83  188c  1216)  61 62  A l semblan d e l r e i t i e s Chant e deport, j o i , domnei e s o l a t z  63 64  Cora que'in des benanansa F o r t z causa es que t o t l o major  65  Gen  66  Jamais n u l temps no-m  67  Lo gens cors  68  Lo r o s s i g n o l e t salvatage  69  Mon  70  No-m  71  S i anc nuls horn per aver f i coratge  72 73 74  S i t o t m'ai t a r z a t mon chan S'om pogues p a r t i r son v o l e r Tant a i s o f e r t longamen grant  dan  fora contra l'afan pot re f a r Amors  onratz  cor e mi e mas  2c; R 42d;  bonas chansos  a l e g r a chans n i c r i t z  afan  R 44d G 28d; R X 82r G 27d G 29c; W X 84r; RBV 1659 G 26c G 28b; R W 200a G 23b; R X 87r G 26a R 44b; X G W G X R G G  30a; 202b 27a; 83v 44d; 22d; 30c;  -  89d  115 116  16,256 2,109 2,88  75 76 77 78  Be f e i r a chansos plus soven En t a n t a guiza-m men' Amors Gen de chantar no«m f a i l l cors n i razos S i be-m p a r t e t z , mala domna, de vos  G G W G  59a 59d 196c 58a  194.3 194.6 194.8 194.19  163 164 165 166  Aud'U Aud'U Aud'U Aud'U  27 34 47 30  G u i l l e m IX d'Aquitaine  79  Pos  Chigi  de chantar m'es pres t a l e n s  8lr  183.10  H i l l 10  G u i l l e m Ademar (ca. 1200)  80  Lanquan v e i f l o r i r G u i l l e m Augier  81  Ses  -  (1165  -  W l86d  205.5  184  M u l l 66  W 201c W 192b  223.1 223.3  168 169  Nau 126 Nau 110  234.16  94  MW  R 9c R 48a R 8d  242.45 242.51 242.64  56 57 58  KGB 1,300 KGB 1,228 KGB 1,342  R 8b  242.69  59  KGB 1,366  1200)  tan-mi f o r s ' Amors que mi f a i entremetre  G i r a u t de B o r n e i l l  85 86 87 88  ro  A i g a poja c o n t r a mon E n a i s s i - m pren com f a i a l pescador  Pos  Aim 118  ( c a . 1200)  G u i l l e m de S a i n t L e i d i e r 84  167  1235)  alegratge  G u i l l e m Maigret  82 83  (1209  202.8  R 63b  l'espiga  (1165  G 75a;  R 4lc  2,41  ca. 1200)  Leu chansonet' e v i i No pose s o f r i r qu'a l a d o l o r Reis g l o r i o s , v e r a i s lums e c l a r d a t z S'ie.us q u i e r c o n s e i l l , b e l ' amig' Alamanda  89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120  Ab l o temps a g r a d i u , g a i Ab pauc er decazutz A i s s i com e e l que francamen e s t a i A i s s i pert poder Amors A i s s i quon es sobronrada A mon dan s u i e s f o r c i u s Amors, pos a vos f a i l l poders Anc mais per a i t a l razo Anc non a i g u i n u l temps de f a r chanso Be«m m e r a v e i l l co non es envejos Be.m v o l g r a d'amor p a r t i r C r e i r e m'an f a g mei d e z i r De f a r chanso s u i m a r r i t z De midons e d'amor En re no-s m e i l l u r a En t o t quan qu'eu saupes F i s e v e r a i s e p l u s ferms que no s o i l l F o r t z guerra f a i t o t l o mon g u e r r e j a r Gaug a i , c a r esper d'amor Grans afans es ad ome vergoignos Humils, f o r f a g z , repres e penedens Jamais non er horn en est mon g r a z i t z Jhesus C r i s t z , f i l l s de Deu v i u K a r i t a t z et Amors e f e s Lo mons par enchantatz Los bes qu'eu t r o p en Amor Mentaugutz Mout me tenc be per pagatz No cugei mais d'esta razo chantar NO'm s a i d'amor s i m'es mala o bona Ogan no cugei chantar Ops m'agra que mos v o l e r s  R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R  105c 106a 105as. 104c 105d 105b 105a 109a 106a 105c 105d 108b 106b 106c 104d 108d 107a 109b 109b 107a 106d 109c 107b 107c 109a 107d 108d 106d 111c 105b 107b 109c  248.1 248.2 248.5 248.6 248.7 248.8 248.10 248.12 248.13 248.18 248.19 248.21 248.23 248.24 248.26 248.27 248.29 248.30 248.31 248.33 248.44 248.45 248.46 248.48 248.52 248.53 248.55 248.56 248.57 248.58 248.60 248.61  193 194  195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204  205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214  215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224  MW MWMW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW  4 12 4 19  8 19 15 11 4 7 61 21 14  17 49 22 28 4 58 34 63 64  4 4 4 4 4 4 4  32 31 67 35 38 60 43 54 30 82 10 37 66  121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136  Per proar s i pro p r i v a t z P i e s de t r i s t o r , m a r r i t z e d o l o i r o s Pos a s t r e s no m'es donatz Pos sabers no-m v a l n i sens Quar. dregz n i f e s Qui-m d i s s e s , non a dos ans Qui'S tolgues Razos m'adui v o l e r qu'eu chan soven S i chans me pogues v a l e n s a S ' i e u j a t r o b a t non agues S i ja-m deu mos chans v a l e r Tan m'es plazens l o mais d'amor Tan v e i qu'es ab j o i p r e t z mermatz Volontiers f a r i a Xristias vei perillar Yverns no m t e de chantar embargat #  248.62 248.63 248.65 248.66 248.67 248.68 248.69 248.71 248.78 248.79 248.80 248.82 248.83 248.85 248.87 248.89  R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R  108c 106c 111c 108c 106b 108a 108d 107d 111c 108b 106b 104c 104d 107c 108a 108a  R X R R R  63b; W l89d; 262.2 78v 63b 262.3 63c 262.5 63c 262.6  4 53 4 ,27 4; 80 4 .51 4; 25 4 ,46 4; 56 4 42 4 81 4',50 4',24 4; 1 4; 6 4 ,40 4',44 4; 47  233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240  MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW  12  H i l l 27  13 14 15  H i l l 28 H i l l 24 Stim 41  225 226 227 228 229 230 231  3  3  J a u f r e Rudel (1130 - 1147) 137  Lanquan l i j o r n son lone en mai  138 139 140  No sap chantar q u i . l so no d i Quan l a r i u s de l a fontana Quan l o r o s s i g n o l s e l f o i l l o s Jordan Bonel (1160 - 1200)  141  S ' i r a d'amor tengues amic jauzen  W 201b  273.1  48  MW 3,311  W R R W  293.13 293.18 293.30 293.35  8 9 10 11  JMar JMar JMar JMar  Marcabrun (1129 - 1150) 142 143 144 145  B e l m'es quan son l i f r u g madur D i r a i vos senes doptansa L ' a u t r ' i e r j o s t ' una s e b i s s a Pax! i n nomine Domini  203d 5c 5a 194c  5 3 10 8  No.  MS . Source  Title  Pillet  Gennrich  Text  Matfre Ermengau (1280 - 1322) 146  Dregz de n a t u r a comanda  E s c o r 3; Len l ; VN' 2563—4; • VN• 2 5 8 3 — 1  297 .4  242  BarDen 79  305. 6 305. 10  92 93  P h i l 18 P h i l 51  323. 4 323. 15  35 36  Zen Zen  Lo Monge de Montaudo (1180 - c a . 1213) 147 148  Ara pot ma domna saber F o r t m'enoja, so auzes d i r e  R 39d R 40a  P e i r e d'Alvergne (1150 - 1200) 149 150  W 190c Amies Bernartz de Ventadorn D e j o s t a - l s breus j o r n s e - l s loncs sers • R 6a; X 83r  139  94  ro  P e i r e Cardenal (1210 - 1230)  151  152 153  R 72d Ar mi pose eu l a u z a r d'amor R i c s horn que greu d i t z v e r t a t e l e u men R 72b R 69d Un s i r v e n t e s novel v o i l l comensar P e i r e Raimon de T o l o z a  154  —J  335. 7 335. 49 335. 67  185 186 187  BaChr 191 MW 2,197 H i l l 170  355. 5  55  BaChr 95  364. 4 364. 7 364. 11.  60 61  62  BaPV 67 BaPV 83 BaPV 30  364. 24 364. 30 364. 31  6364 65  BaPV 16 BaPV 52 BaPV 47  (1170 - 1210)  A t r e s s i com l a candela  G 52b  P e i r e V i d a l (1175 - 1215) 155 156 . 157  Anc no mori per amor n i per a l Baro, de mon dan c o v i t Be«m pac d ' i v e r n e d ' e s t i u  158 159  Ges p e l temps f e r e brau Neus n i g e l s n i p l o j a n i f a i n g Nuls horn no pot d'amor gandir  160  G R G X R R R  4lc 65a  40c;  84v 64c 64c 64a  R 48a;  P e i r e V i d a l (cont.) l6l 162 163 164 165  166  Plus que.l paubres, quan j a i - e l r i c ostal Pos t o r n a t z s u i en Proensa Quant horn es en a u t r u i poder  Peirol  66 67 68  BaPV 70 BaPV 28 BaPV 45  3 6 4 . 40 3 6 4 . 42 3 6 4 . 49  70 71  69  BaPV 63 BaPV 78 BaPV 69  117 118 119 120 121 122 123  46a 48d  366. 2 366. 3 366. 6 366. 9 366. 11 366. 12 366. 13 366. 14 366. 15 366. 19 366. 20 366. 21 366. 22 366. 26 366. 29  125 126 127 128 129 130 131  Ast Ast Ast Ast Ast Ast Ast Ast Ast Ast Ast Ast Ast Ast Ast  G 50b G 47c  366. 31 366. 33  132 133  Ast 121 Ast 47  (1180 - c a . 1225)  A t r e s s i co«l cignes f a i 167 Be d e i chantar, pos Amors m'o enseigna 168 Camjat m'a mon c o n s i r i e r 169 Cora que-m f e z e s d o l e r 170 D ' e i s s a l a razo qu'eu s o i l l 171 172 Del seu t o r t f a r a i esmenda D'un bo vers vau pensan com l o f e z e s 173 D'un sonet vau pensan 174 En j o i que-m demora 175 Mainta gens me malrazona 176 M'entension a i t o t ' en unvvers meze 177 Mout m'entremis de chantar v o l o n t i e r s 178 Nuls horn no s ' a u c i t a n gen 179 180 ' Per dan que d'amor m'aveigna 181 Quant Amors t r o b e t p a r t i t S i be-m s u i l o i n g et entre gent 182  183  3 6 4 . 36 3 6 4 . 37 3 6 4 . 39  R 64a G 42d G 42b; R 63c; W 204c Quant horn onratz t o r n a en gran p a u b r e i r a G' .4la S'eu fos en c o r t on horn tengues drechura R 64d T a r t mi v e i r a n mei amic en T o l z a W 197a  estraigna Tot mon engeing e mon saber  R G G G G G G G G R R G G G G  89b  48c 46c  45c 44b 49c; X 85v 43b 43d  48a  47a '89c 45a 49d  124  35 39 126 131 69 81 73 65 51 105 113 93 43 97 157  Perdigo (1195 184 185 186  Los mais d'amor a i eu be t o t z apres . Tot l ' a n mi ten Amors d ' a i t a l f a i s s o Trop a i e s t a t mon Bon Esper no v i Pistoleta  187  1220)  (1180 -  G 64b G 65b G 64d; X 86r  370. 9  370. 13 370. 14  160  161 162  ChayP ChayP ChayP  X 79r; PBN 846-125a  372. 3  95  Nie 59  W G G R  375. 14 375. 16 375. 19 375. 27  73 74 75  76 -  Nap Nap Nap Nap  R 30c  379. 2  241  MW  X 85r •  389. 36  37  Pat 19:  6 lb 6ld  392. 2 392.. 3 392. 9 392. 13  96 97 98 99  Lin Lin Lin Lin Lin Lin Lin  1200)  Ar agues eu m i l marcs de f i n argen Pons de C a p d o i l l (1180 - 1190)  188 189 190 191  L e j a l s amies c u i Amors t e t o j o s M e i l l s qu'om no pot d i r n i pensar S!eu f i s n i d i s n u i l l a sazo Us g a i s conortz me f a i gajamen f a r  202d  79b 79b 55d; X 87v  69 61 59 77  Pons d'Ortafas ( c a . 1240) 192  S i a i perdut mon  saber  3,3.  Raimbaut d'Aurenga (1144 - 1173) 193  Pos t a l s sabers mi sors e-m Raimbaut de Vaqueiras  194 195 .196 197 198 199 200  creis  (1180 - 1207)  Ara-m r e q u i e r sa costum' e son us Ara pot horn c o n o i s s e r e proar Calenda maja Eissament a i g u e r r e j a t ab Amor Guerras n i p l a g no son bo No-in agrad' i v e r n s n i pascors S a v i s e f o l s , humils et o r g o i l l o s  R R R R R R R  62b  6lc 48c 6lc 6 lb  392. 18 392. 24 392. 28  100 101 102  10 19 15 12 13 22 11  201  Lo c l a r temps v e i b r u n e z i r  202  Vas vos s o p l e i ,  domna, premeiramen  Raimon de M i r a v a l (1190  -  W 192c 194a W  1220)  404. 4 4 0 4 . 11  135 136  Kjel Kjel  MGed #12, 1091 & 1 3 5 1 MW 2 , 1 2 1 MW 2 , 1 2 4 K o l B e i 143 MW 2 , 1 2 8 BaChr 167 . KolRM 299 MW 2 , 1 2 6 K o l B e i 155 MW 2 , 1 2 3 KolStM 13,144 KolStM  6Sa;  R 85d  406. 2  137  69a;  R 88a  85c 67c;  R 85d  406. 406. 406. 406. 406. 406. 406. 406. 406. 406.  20 21  138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147  87c  4 0 6 . 22  148  Contr' Amor vauc durs et enbroncs  R 87a  4 0 6 . 23  149  216 217 218 219 220  D'amor es t o t z mos c o n s i r i e r s E n t r e dos v o l e r s s u i pensius Lone temps a i avutz c o n s i r i e r s Res c o n t r ' Amor non es g u i r e n s Si«m fos de mon chantar parven  R R R R R  87a  85b 88a 86d 88d  406. 406. 406. 406. 406.  24 28 31 36 39  150 151 152 153 154  221 222 223 224  S i t o t s'es ma domn' esquiva T a l s v a i mon chant enqueren Tot quan f a t z de be n i d i e Un sonet m'es b e l qu' espanda  R R R R  85d 86a 86c 87c  406. 406. 406. 406.  40 42 44 47  155 156 157 158  203  A i s s i cum es genser pascors  G  204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214  A penas s a i don m'apreing Ar ab l a f o r s a d e l s f r e i s Ara m'agr' ops que m ' a i z i s B e l m'es qu'eu chant'e c o i n d e i Be m'agrada-1 b e l s temps d ' e s t i u Ben a j a - 1 c o r t e s esciens Ben a j a * l messatgiers C e l c u i j o i s t a i n g n i chantar sap C e l que no v o l a u z i r chansos Chansoneta f a r a i vencutz Chans, quan non es q u i l'entenda  G R R R G R R R G R R  215  88c 86d 88c  85c  86b 68c; 88b  R 86a  7 8 9 12 13 14 15  18  111 72  2,151  MGed #49,1107 MW 2,118 MW 2 , 1 2 8 K o l B e i 173 KolBei-181 KolStM 11,155 BaChr 165 K o l B e i 193 AnS 36,392 MGed #1124  & #1125  .  225 226  A t r e s s i cum l o l e o s A t r e s s i cum l ' o r i f a n s  227  A t r e s s i cum  228  Tuit  Persavaus  demandon qu'es devengud' Amors  G 60c; W 195c 421. 1 G 63a; W 195d; 421. 2 X 8lr 421. 3 X 82r 421. 10 W. 200b  170 171  AngRB 256 AngRB 259  172 173  AngRB 262 AngRB 283  R 66b  450. 3  134  ApUcB 67  457. 3  174  J-S 1  457. 26 457. 40  175 176  J-S 35 J-S 11  243 244 245  W 117r  461. 9 461. 12 461. 13 461. 20a 461. 37  Aplned 316 H i l l 216 Aplned 316 FrBol 23,78 ChabRlr 32,575  C h i g i 74r W 78d  461. 20b 461. 50  247 192  BaAg 23 Klein 4  W 186b C h i g i 84v W lv W 199d  461. 51a 461. 73a 461. 92 461. 102  259 248 260 249  Such 1,299 BaAg 51 Aplned 322 BaChr 252  Uc Brunec ( c a . 1185) 229  Coindas razos e novelas plazens  230 231  Uc de S a i n t C i r c (1217 - ca. 1253) G 84b Anc enemies qu'eu agues Nuls hom no sap d'amic, t r o l ' a G 83d perdut G 82d Tres enemies e dos mais seignors a i  232  Anonymous 233 234 235 236 237  A i s s i cum eu sab t r i a r A l ' e n t r a d a d e l tens c l a r A l ' e n t r a d a d e l tans f l o r i t Amors m'art con fuoc am flama B e l l a domna cara  238  B e l p a i r e s c a r s , non vos v e i r e i s an mi Be v o l g r a que venques merces (Blacasset?) Be v o l g r a , s'esser poges De pe de l a montaina Dona, pos vos ay chausida Eissamen com l a pantera  239 240 241 242 243  W 196b X 79v W 191b  W l87d  257  282  No.  Title  MS. Source  Pillet  Gennrich  Text  Anonymous (cont.) 244 245 246  247  248 249 250  251 252 253  254 255  256 257 258 259  E l bosc d'ardena j u s t a - l p a l a i s C h i g i 72v 461.102a Amfos 461.138 Ha mi no f a i chantar f o i l l a n i f l o r s W 204a (Albert de Sestaro?) J a non t i q u i e r que mi fasas perdo C h i g i 79v 46l.l4la L a s s a , en can g r i e n pena 461.144a C h i g i 84v L ' a l t r ' i e r c u i d a i aber druda 461.146 W 199r 461.148 L ' a u t r l i e r m'iere l e v a t z X^88v (a) L i j a l o u s p a r tout sunt f u s t a t Mo 2l8v 461.148a (b) T u i t c i l q u i sunt enemorat - (b) only - PBN 25532-334 Lo dous chans que l ' a u z e l s c r i d a 461.150 W 203c Lo premer j o r que v i 461.152 W 201a ' Mos coratges m'es camjatz 461.167 X 88r ( A l b e r t de Sestaro?) Molt m ' a b e l l i s t l'amoros pensamen PBN 1 2 6 l 5 - l 8 l r 461.170a Par vous m'esjau PBN 24406-151c 461.192a 461.196 Pos qu'ieu vey l a f u e l l a W lv Pos vezem que l ' i v e r n s s ' i r a i s W 190a 461.197 (Peire Vidal?) 461.230 Tant es g a i ' es a v i n e n t z W 78c V e i n , aura douza, que vens d'outra 461.247a l a mar C h i g i 80r 0  250  BaAg 19 Aplned 325  271 251 284  BaAg 37 BaAg 51 GauR 22,401 BaR&P 121 MeyRom 1,404  189  252  285  253 254  Aplned 326 Aplned 326 Aplned 327  286 264 261  72  Ray 1 , 8 9 J-Adm 1 2 , 6 7 Aplned 322 Aplned 329  262  Aplned  256  BaAg 39  191  331  Range and F i n a l s of the Troubadour  No.  Title A i m e r i c de B e l e n o i (1210 -  1  N u i l l s horn en re no  4  5 6 7  (1195  8  En mon  cor a i un' a i t a l  Arnaut D a n i e l 9 10  14 15 16  -  -  e - f»  g  d c c B f c  - a'  e d d B f g  g - g'  g  d d' B - b  a c  f g c - d« c c' c - d' c d' c - g'  g c d a d g  c  d  _  e'  - f*  - e' - c' —  f'  1221)  1200)  Chanso d o - i l l mot son p l a n e prim Lo ferm v o l e r q u ' e l cor m ' i n t r a (1170  Final  1230)  encobida  (11.80 - ca.  Arnaut de M a r o i l l 11 12 13  - ca.  Atressi«m pren com f a i a l jogador C e l que s ' i r a i s n i g u e r r e j ' ab amor En Amor t r o p alques en que-m r e f r a i n g En greu p a n t a i s m'a tengut longamen Per s o l a t z d ' a u t r u i chan soven Que l a v i , en d i t z A l b e r t de S e s t a r o (1210  Range 1241)  faill  A i m e r i c de P e g u i l l a n 2 3  Melodies  1200)  A i s s i com c e l qu'am'e non es amatz La f r a n c a captenensa La grans b e u t a t z e-1 f i s enseignamens L'enseignamens e>l p r e t z e l a v a l o r s Mout eron dous mei c o n s i r Si-m d e s t r e i g n e t z , domna, vos et Amors  —  —  B e a t r i t z de D i a (ca. 1160) 17  A chantar m'er  de so qu'eu no  volria  —  c'  Berenguier  18 19 20 21 22 23  24  25  de P a l a z o l ( c a . 1160)  Ab l a f r e s c a c l a r d a t A i t a l domna com eu s a i Bona domna, c u i r i c s p r e t z f a i v a l e r De l a gensor qu'om v e j ' a l meu semblan Domna, l a gensor qu'om v e j a Domna, s i t o t z temps v i v i a Tan m'abelis j o i s et Amors e chans Totz temoros e doptans Bernart de Ventadorn  26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42  43 44  d c d c c d f S  —  -  g' d» f' g' g' d' g' g'  f d • g g c g a e  c'  f c g a g g g e c d d g d a d d g d  ( c a . 1150 - c a . 1180)  Ab j o i mou l o vers e-1 comans Amors, e! que-us es v e j a i r e Ara-m c o n s e i l l a t z , s e i g n o r Ara no v e i l u z i r s o l e i l l A! t a n t a s bonas chansos Be m'an perdut l a i enves Ventadorn Conortz, a r a s a i eu be En c o n s i r i e r et en esmai E s t a t a i com horn esperdutz La doussa votz a i a u z i d a Lanquan f o i l l o n bosc e g a r i c Lanquan v e i l a f o i l l a Non es m e r a v i l l a s'eu chan Pos mi p r e g a t z , s e i g n o r Quan l ' e r b a f r e s c * e«l f o i l l a par Quan par l a f l o r s j o s t a - 1 v e r t f o i l l Quan v e i l a f l o r , l ' e r b a v e r t e l a f o i l l a Quan v e i l a l a u z e t a mover T u i t c i l que-m pregon' qu'eu chan  c B c f d f f B g d c d c f c d g c f  —  - g —  c'  - d» —  d'  - f' - d' - c' —  -  g* c' c* d' c' c' c' d' a' c' f'  -  B e r t r a n de Born (1159 - 1196)  45  Rassa, t a n c r e i s e mont' e p o j a Cadenet  46  g  (1208 - 1239)  Eu s u i t a n c o r t e z a g a i t a Daude de Pradas  47  d - d»  c  _  f  -  d'  d  f  a  ( c a . 1190)  B e l a m'es l a votz autana  F o l q u e t de M a r s e i l l a 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60  64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74  1231)  Amors, merce! no moira tan soven B A.' quan gen vens et. ab quan pauc d'afan c Ben an mort mi e l o r c En chantan m'aven a membrar c Greu f e i r a n u l s horn f a i l l e n s a c J a no•s c u i t horn qu'eu camge mas chansos B Mout i f e t z gran peccat Amors - c Per Deu, Amors, be sabetz veramen c S ' a l c o r plagues, be f o r ' oimais sazos c S i t o t me s u i a t a r t aperceubutz c Tan m'abelis l'amoros pensamens c Tan mou de c o r t e z a r a z o c Us v o l e r s out r a c u i d a t z B -  c' c' d' f' d' d' d' c' d' d' c' c' c»  c d f a d d d c d d d g c  e'  f' d' - d' - d' - d'  c d d c d d g d d d d d d d  g _ b' c c' c - d' g - a'  c c c a  d  —  —  —  —  — — —  —  —  —  — —  Gaucelm F a i d i t 61 62 63  (1180 - 1195; d.  (1180 - 1216)  A l semblan d e l r e i t i e s Chant e deport, j o i , domnei e s o l a t z Cora que«m des benanansa F o r t z causa es que t o t l o major dan Gen f o r a c o n t r a l ' a f a n Jamais n u l temps no-m pot re f a r Amors Lo gens cors o n r a t z Lo r o s s i g n o l e t s a l v a t g e Mon cor e mi e mas bonas chansos No-m a l e g r a chans n i c r i t z S i anc n u l s horn per aver f i coratge S i t o t m'ai t a r z a t mon chan S'om pogues p a r t i r son v o l e r Tant a i s o f e r t longamen grant a f a n  c c c B c c c c c A c c c c  - d' —  e'  - c' - f' - e» —  g'  - d' - d' — —  Gui d ' U i s e l (ca. 1 2 0 0 ) 75 76 77 78  Be f e i r a chansos p l u s soven En t a n t a guiza-m men' Amors Ges de chantar no-m f a i l l cors n i razos S i be'in p a r t e t z , mala domna, de vos Guillaume  79  IX  —  d'Aquitaine  Pos de chantar m'es  pres t a l e n s  —  b  G u i l l e m Ademar (ca. 1200) 80  Lanquan v e i f l o r i r  l'espiga  c - d'  d  Guillem  81  Ses  Aiga poja Enaissi-m Guillem  84  90  91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104  105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112  1235)  (ca.  contra mon p r e n com f a i a l de  Saint  de  1  pescador  L e i d i e r (1165  Amors que  Borneill  c  -  d'  d  g B  _  -  b' d'  c c  B  -  c'  c  c _ c' c - d' c - c'  d d d  G  1200)  mi  (II65  -  1200)  fai  - ca.  1200)  Leu c h a n s o n e t e v i i No p o s e s o f r i r qu'a l a d o l o r R e i s g l o r i o s , v e r a i s lums e c l a r d a t z S'ie-us quier c o n s e i l l , b e l amig' Alamanda 1  1  Guiraut  89  Maigret  Pos t a n mi f o r s entremetre Giraut  85 86 87 88  -  alegratge Guillem  82 83  (1209  Augier  Riquier  (1254  -  —  b  g  —  d'  g g d f d d f g d d d d d d g d f g g g d e d d  1282)  Ab l o temps a g r a d i u , g a i Ab pauc e r d e c a z u t z A i s s i com e e l que f r a n c a m e n e s t a i A i s s i p e r t p o d e r Amors A i s s i quon es s o b r o n r a d a A mon dan s u i e s f o r c i u s Amors, pos a vos f a i l l p o d e r s Anc m a i s p e r a i t a l r a z o Anc non a i g u i n u l temps de f a r c h a n s o Be'in m e r a v e i l l co non es e n v e j o s Be-in v o l g r a d'amor p a r t i r C r e i r e m'an f a g mei d e z i r De f a r c h a n s o s u i m a r r i t z De m i d o n s e d'amor En r e no-s meillura En t o t quan q u ' e u s a u p e s Fis e v e r a i s e p l u s f e r m s que no soill F o r t z g u e r r a f a i t o t l o mon guerrejar Gaug a i , c a r e s p e r d'amor G r a n s a f a n s es ad ome vergoignos H u m i l s , f o r f a g z , r e p r e s e penedens J a m a i s non e r horn en e s t mon g r a z i t z J h e s u s C r i s t z , f i l l s de Deu v i u K a r i t a t z e t Amors e f e s  c f c c c c d c c c c c c c g c e c c c c c c c  - g'  -  -  -  -  -  -  c' d' d' b b f' c' d' c' d' d' d' g' d' f' c' d' d' d' c' c' d'  No.  Range  Title  Fine  G u i r a u t R i q u i e r (cont.)  113  114  115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123  124  125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136  Lo mons par enchantatz Los bes qu'eu t r o p en Amor Mentaugutz Mout me tenc be per pagatz No c u g e i mais d ' e s t a razo chantar no-m s a i d'amor s i m'es mala o bona Ogan no c u g e i chantar. Ops m'agra que mos v o l e r s Per p r o a r s i pro p r i v a t z P i e s de t r i s t o r , m a r r i t z e d o l o i r o s Pos a s t r e s no m'es donatz Pos sabers no«m v a l n i sens Quar dregz n i f e s Qui'in d i s s e s , non a dos ans Qui«s t o l g u e s Razos m'adui v o l e r qu'eu chan soven S i chans me pogues v a l e n s a S ' i e u j a t r o b a t non agues S i ja-m deu mos chans v a l e r Tan m'es p l a z e n s l o mais d'amor Tan v e i qu'es ab j o i p r e t z mermatz Volontiers f a r i a Xristias vei perillar Yverns no-m t e de chantar embargat J a u f r e Rudel  137 138 139  140  (1160  -  -  d d g d d d d d d d d f a g d d e d d d d g g g.  c c A d -  -  -  c' d' a f•  c c c f  -  d'  d  e' c c - a g g' d f•  d d a a  _  -  —  -  ---  -  ---  -—  1  f  1200) c  1150)  B e l m'es quan son l i f r u g madur D i r a i vos senes doptansa L ' a u t r ' i e r j o s t ' una s e b i s s a Pax! i n nomine Domini Matfre Ermengau (1280  146  d d' a' d* d» d» d» d' d' d a c' d' e' d' d» a c' c' d' c» c' d' e»  1147)  S ' i r a d'amor tengues amic jauzen Marcabrun (1129  142 143 144 145  -  Lanquan l i j o r n son lone en mai No sap chantar q u i - 1 so no d i Quan l a r i u s de l a f o n t a n a Quan l o r o s s i g n o l s e l f o i l l o s Jordan Bonel  141  (1130  c c g c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c  Dregz de n a t u r a comanda  -  —  --  1322) c  —  b  b  d  Range  Title  No.  Lo Monge de Montaudo (1180 147 148  150  (1150  152  153  -  -  (1170  -  men  -  (1180  - ca.  c g  —  d»  —  bD  ?  g g  c _ d» c - d' c d'  d c d  -  g'  g  —  1210) f  1215)  Anc no mori per amor n i per a l Baro, de mon dan c o v i t Be«m pac d ' i v e r n e d ' e s t i u Ges p e l temps f e r e brau Neus n i g e l s n i p l o j a n i f a i n g Nuls horn no pot d'amor gandir Plus que-1 paubres, quan j a i e l r i c o s t a l Pos t o r n a t z s u i en Proensa Quant horn es en a u t r u i poder Quant horn onratz t o r n a en gran p a u b r e i r a S'eu fos en c o r t on horn tengues drechura T a r t mi v e i r a n mei amic en T o l z a Peirol  167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175  sers  l a candela :  P e i r e V i d a l (1175  155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166  1200)  Ar mi pose eu l a u z a r d'amor R i c s horn que greu d i t z v e r t a t e l e u Un s i r v e n t e s n o v e l v o i l l comensar  A t r e s s i com  g f  1230)  P e i r e Raimon de T o l o z a  154  c c' ' c - d»  Amies B e r n a r t z de Ventadorn D e j o s t a - l s breus j o r n s e«ls l o n c s P e i r e Cardenal (1210  151  1213)  Ara pot ma domna saber F o r t m'enoja, so auzes d i r e P e i r e d'Alvergne  149  - ca.  Fins  e c G g g d g c f B c B  -  g* d» f« a' d' e' a' e' g» d' e» d  f f c g e g a c g c g c  c c c c f d B d B  _ -  c' c' d' bb e' e' c' d* b  d c d d g a g a c  _  1  1225)  A t r e s s i c o * l cignes f a i Be d e i chantar, pos Amors m'o enseigna Camjat m'a mon c o n s i r i e r Cora que«m f e z e s d o l e r . D ' e i s s a l a razo qu'eu s o i l l Del seu t o r t f a r a i esmenda D'un bo vers vau pensan com l o f e z e s D'un sonet vau pensan En j o i que-m demora  Peirol  176 177 178 179 180  181 182 183  Mainta gen me malrazona M'entension a i t o t ' en un vers meza Mout m'entremis de chantar v o l o n t i e r s Nuls horn no s ' a u c i t a n gen Per dan que d'amor m'aveigna Quant Amors t r o b e t p a r t i t S i be TII s u i l o i n g et entre gent e s t r a i g n a Tot mon engeing e mon saber Perdigo  184 185  186  (cont.)  Los mais d'amor a i eu be t o t z apres Tot l ' a n mi t e n Amors d ' a i t a l f a i s s o Trop a i e s t a t mon Bon Esper no v i . (ll80  190  191  g d c c g a g d  f» c d» c c - e'  f d c  e - g'  d  f f' c - d' f - g' B - d»  f c g c  d - d'  a  f - f»  g  d' d'  g d c b d g g  —  —  - 1200)  Ar agues eu m i l marcs de f i n argen Pons de C a p d o i l l  188 189  d' d' d' c' c' d' d' c'  —  (1195 - 1220)  Pistoleta 187  c d c c c d f c  (1180 -  1190)  L e j a l s amies c u i Amors t e t o j o s M e i l l s qu'om no pot d i r n i pensar S'eu f i s n i d i s n u i l l a sazo Us g a i s c o n o r t z me f a i gajamen f a r Pons d'Ortafas ( c a . 1240)  192  S i a i perdut mon saber Raimbaut d'Aurenga (1144 - 1173)  193  Pos t a l s sabers mi sors e«m c r e i s Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (1180  194 195 • 196 197 198 199 200  - 1207)  Ara*m r e q u i e r sa costum' e son us Ara pot horn c o n o i s s e r e p r o a r Calenda maja . Eissament a i g u e r r e j a t ab Amor Guerras n i p l a g no son bo No-m agrad' i v e r n s n i pascors S a v i s e f o l s , humils et o r g o i l l o s  c c c c c g A  _  -  a»  d' f» a' f'  Raimon J o r d a n  201 202  (1190  204  205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214  215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224  de B e r b e z i l l  Coindas  (ca.  razos  Uc de S a i n t  230 231 232  -  f' d'  g d  c _ d' g - f' c — d' f - a' A — b f — g' c — c' c - c' c - e' c - c' c - c' c - c' ' g — a' e - c' g - a' g — a' f - g' e - e' c - d' c - b c - c' c' c  c a f g d g c c g d f d a f c c f g c g f d  —  -  (1200  -  -  1210)  Amors  f c c f  - •g'  c c g c  -  d'  d  e' e' e'  d d e  g'  - c' —  c'  1185)  e novelas Circ  f c  1220)  A t r e s s i cum l o l e o s A t r e s s i cum l ' o r i f a n s A t r e s s i cum P e r s a v a u s T u i t demandon qu'es d e v e n g u d ' Uc B r u n e c  229  (1190  A i s s i cum es g e n s e r p a s c o r s A penas s a i don m ' a p r e i n g A r ab l a f o r s a d e l s f r e i s A r a m'agr' ops que m ' a i z i s B e l m'es qu'eu c h a n t e c o i n d e i Be m ' a g r a d a ' l b e l s temps d ' e s t i u Ben a j a - 1 c o r t e s e s c i e n s Ben a j a « l m e s s a t g i e r s C e l c u i j o i s t a i n g n i c h a n t a r sap C e l que no v o l a u z i r c h a n s o s Chansoneta f a r a i vencutz Chans, quan non es q u i l ' e n t e n d a C o n t r ' Amor v a u c c u r s e t e n b r o n c s D'amor es t o t z mos c o n s i r i e r s E n t r e dos v o l e r s s u i p e n s i u s Lone temps a i a v u t z c o n s i r i e r s Res c o n t r ' Amor non es g u i r e n s S i - m f o s de mon c h a n t a r p a r v e n S i t o t s ' e s ma domn' e s q u i v a T a l s v a i mon c h a n t e n q u e r e n T o t quan f a t z de be n i d i e Un s o n e t m'es b e l qu' e s p a n d a Richart  225 226 . 227 228  1200)  Lo c l a r temps v e i b r u n e z i r Vas v o s s o p l e i , domna, p r e m e i r a m e n Raimon de M i r a v a l  203  -  (1217  plazens - ca  c 1253)  Anc e n e m i e s qu'eu agues N u l s horn no sap d ' a m i c , t r o l ' a p e r d u t T r e s e n e m i e s e dos m a i s s e i g n o r s a i  B c c  —  -  -  Anonymous  233 234  235 236  237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250  251 252 253 254  255 256 257 258 259  A i s s i cum eu sab t r i a r A l ' e n t r a d a d e l tens c l a r A l ' e n t r a d a d e l tans f l o r i t Amors m'art con fuoc am flama B e l l a domna c a r a Bel p a i r e s c a r s , non vos v e i r e i s an mi Be v o l g r a que venques merces (Blacasset?) Be v o l g r a , s ' e s s e r poges Da pe de l a montaina Dona, pos vos ay chausida Eissamen com l a pantera E l bosc d'Ardena j u s t a - 1 p a l a i s Amfos Ha mi no f a i chantar f o i l l a n i f l o r s ( A l b e r t de S e s t a r o ? ) Ja non t i q u i e r que mi fasas perdo L a s s a , en can g r i e u pena L ' a l t r ' i e r c u i d a i aber druda L ' a u t r ' i e r m'iere l e v a t z (a) L i j a l o u s par t o u t sunt f u s t a t (b) T u i t c i l q u i sunt enamorat Lo dous chans que l ' a u z e l s c r i d a Lo premer j o r que v i Mos coratges m'es camjatz ( A l b e r t de S e s t a r o ? ) Molt m ' a b e l l i s t l'amoros pensamen Par vous m'esjau Pos q u ' i e u vey l a f u e l l a Pos vezem que l ' i v e r n s s ' i r a i s ( V i d a l ? ) Tant es g a i ' es a v i n e n t z V e i n , aura douza, que vens d'outra l a mar  f B A f c f — —  —  — —  a' d' c' e' c' f'  c' c d g d a  c - c' c c« d f' c - c' c d» d' g  f f a d d a  e' g c - c' c - d' c c' d' f g g* f' g b d» e - f'  g d d f f g* c' d f  f a» c d' c - d' d c' g g' c - d'  a d c d a d  c  e  —  —  —  —  —  — — — —  —  — —  — —  —  e'  APPENDIX V  La D o c t r i n a De Compondre D i c t a t z A 9 0 es manera de d o c t r i n a , per l a q u a l poras saber e conexer que es canco, v e r s , l a y s , s e r v e n t e s c h , r e t r o n x a , p a s t o r a , danca, p l a n t , a l b a , gayta, estampida, sompni, g e l o z e s c a , d i s c o r t , cobles e s p a r s e s , tenso; per l a q u a l raho, per l e s rahons dessus d i t e s quez eu t'ay mostrades, poras v e n i r a p e r f e c t i o de f e r aquestes sens e r r a d a , ses reprendimen, com f e r ne v o l r r a s . Canco E primerament deus saber que canco deu p a r l a r d'amor plazenment, e potz metre en ton p a r l a r e x i m p l i d ' a l t r a r a y s o , e ses m a l d i r e ses l a u z o r de r e , s i n o d'amor. Encara mes, deus saber que canco ha obs e deu haver c i n c h c o b l e s ; eyxamen n ' i potz f a r , per abeylimen e per complimen de raho, s i s o s e t o v u i t o nou, d ' a q u e l l compte que mes t e placia. E potz h i f a r una tornada, o dues, q u a l t e v u l l e s . E garda be que en a x i com comencaras l a raho en amor, que en a q u e l l a manera matexa l a f i n s be e l a seguesques; e dona l i so n o v e y l co pus b e l l poras. Vers S i v o l s f a r v e r s , deus p a r l a r de v e r i t a t z , de exemples e de p r o v e r b i s o de l a u r o r , no pas en semblant d' amor; e que en a x i com comencaras, ho proseguesques eu f i n s , ab so n o v e l l t o t a vegada. E aquesta es l a d i f e r e n c i a que es e n t r e canco e v e r s , e que l a una rayso no es semblant de l'altra. E c e r t aytantes c o b l e s se cove de f a r a l v e r s , com a l a canco, e aytantes tornades. Lays S i v o l s f e r l a y s , deus p a r l a r de Deu e de s e g l e , o de e x i m p l i o de p r o v e r b i s de l a u r o r s ses feyment d'amor, q u i s i a a x i p l a z e n t a Deu co a l s e g l e ; e deus saber ques deu f a r e d i r ab c o n t r i c c i o t o t a v i a , e ab so n o v e l l e p l a z e n , o de e s g l e y a o d ' a u t r a manera. E s a p i e s que y ha mester aytantes c o b l e s com en l a canco, e a y t a n t e s tornades; e segueix l a raho e l a manera a x i com eu t'ay d i t .  Sirventes S i v o l z f a r s i r v e n t z , deus p a r l a r de f a y t d'armes e senyalladament, o de l a u s o r de senyor, o de' mal d i t o de qualsque f e y t s q u i novellament se t r a c t e n ; e comencaras t o n c a n t a r segons que usaran a q u e l l s d e l s quals t o n serventez comencaras; e per p r o v e r b i s e per exemples p o r e t z h i p o r t a r l e z n a t u r a l e s e s que f a n , o 90 de que f a n a rependre o a l a u s a r a q u e l l s d e l s quals t o n serventez comen9aras. E s a p i e s q u e l potz f e r d'aytantes cobles co laiin d'aquetz cantars que t ' he mostratz, e potz l o f a r en qualque so t e v u l l e s , e specialment se f a en so n o v e l l , e maiorment en co de can90. E deus l o f a r d'aytantes cobles com s e r a l e c a n t a r de que pendras l o so; e potz s e g u i r l a s rimaz c o n t r a semb l a n t z d e l c a n t a r de que pendras l o so; a t r e s i l o potz f a r en a l t r e s rimes. Retronxa S i v o l s f a r r e t r o n x a , s a p i e s que deus p a r l a r d'amor, segons l'estament en quen s e r a s , s i a p l a z e n o c o s i r o s ; e no y deus mesclar a l t r a raho. E deus saber que deu haver quatre c o b l e s , e so n o v e l l t o t a vegada. E deus saber que per 90 ha nom r e t r o n x a c a r l o r e f r a y de cadauna de l e s cobles deu e s s e r t o t z us. Pastora S i v o l s f a r p a s t o r a , deus p a r l a r d'amor en a y t a l semblan com eu t e ensenyaray, 90 es a saber, s i t ' a c o s t e s a p a s t o r a e l a v o l s s a l u d a r , o enquerer o manar o c o r t e i a r , o de q u a l razo demanar o dar o p a r l a r l i v u l l e s . E potz l i metre a l t r e nom de p a s t o r a , segons l o b e s t i a r que guardara. E aquesta manera es c l a r a a s s a t z d'entendre, e potz l i f e r s i s o v'uit c o b l e s , e so n o v e l l o so e s t r a y n ya passat. DanQa S i v o l s f a r danpa, deus p a r l a r d'amor be e p l a s e n t ment en qualque estament ne s i e s . E deus l i f e r de deutz n i cobles e no pus, e r e s p o s t , una o dues tornades, q u a l t e v u l l e s ; t o t e s vegades so n o v e l l . E potz f e r , s i t v o l s , t o t e s l e s f i n s de l e s cobles en r e f r a y n semblan. E a q u e l l a raho de que l a comen9aras deu c o n t i n u a r , e be s e r v a r a l comen9ament, a l mig e a l a f i . Plant S i v o l s f a r p l a n t d'amor o de t r i s t o r , deus l a raho c o n t i n u a r ; e pot l o f e r en qual so t e v u l l e s , s a l v a n t de dan9a. E a t r e s s i potz l o f e r d'aytantes cobles con l a [ s ] d e l s damunt d i t s c a n t a r s , e encontra sembles o en dessemblants; e no y deus mesclar a l t r a raho s i no p l a h i e n , s i p e r compacio no y ho podies p o r t a r .  Alba S i v o l s f a r a l b a , p a r i a d'amor plazentment; e a t r e s s i l a u z a r l a dona on vas o de que l a f a r a s ; e bendi l ' a l b a s i acabes l o p l a z e r per l o q u a l ames a t a dona. E s i no 1' acabes, f e s l ' a l b a blasman l a dona e l ' a l b a on anaves. E potz h i f e r a y t a n t e s c o b l e s com t e v u l l e s , e deus h i f e r so n o v e l l . Gayta S i v o l s f e r gayta, deus p a r l a r d'amor o de t a dona, d e s i g a n e semblan que l a gayta t e pusca noure o v a l e r ab t a dona, e ab l o d i a q u i s e r a a v e n i r , e deus l a f a r on pus avinentment pugues, preyan t o t a v i a l a gayta ab t a dona que t ' a j u t ; e potz h i f a r a y t a n t e s c o b l e s com t e v u l l e s ; e deu haver so n o v e l l . Estampida S i v o l s f a r estampida, potz p a r l a r de qualque f a y t v u l l e s , blasman o l a u z a n o merceyan, q u i t v u l l e s ; e deu haver quatre cobles e responedor, e una o dues t o r n a d e s , e so n o v e l l . Sompni S i v o l s f a r sompni, deus p a r l a r d ' a q u e l l e s coses q u i t seran v i j a r e s que h a l e s somiades, v i s t e s o p a r l a d e s en durmen; e potz h i f a r c i n c h o s i s c o b l e s , e so n o v e l l . Gelozesca S i v o l s f a r g e l o z e s c a , deus p a r l a r de g e l o z i a , reprenden o c o n t r a s t a n de f a y t d'amor; e deu haver responedor, e quatre c o b l e s , e una o dues t o r n a d e s , e so n o v e y l l o e s t r a y n ya f e y t . Discort S i v o l s f a r d i s c o r t , deus p a r l a r d'amor coma horn que n' es desemparat; e coma horn que no pot haver p l a s e r de sa dona e v i u turmentatz; e que en l o c a n t a r 11a hon l o so d e u r i a muntar, q u ' i l baxes. E f e l o c o n t r a r i de t o t l ' a l t r e cantar. E deu haver t r e s c o b l e s , e una o dues tornades e responedor. E potz metre un o dos motz mes en una c o b l a que en a l t r a , p e r 90 que m i l s s i a d i s c o r d a n t . Cobles esparses S i v o l s f e r cobles esparses potz l e s f a r en q u a l so te . v u l l e s ; e deus s e g u i r l a s rimes d e l cant de que t r a y r a s l o so. E a t r e s s i l e s potz f a r en a l g r e s rimes; e deven e s s e r dues o t r e s c o b l e s , e una o dues tornades.  Tenso S i v o l s f a r tenso, deus l a pendre en a l g u n so que h a i a b e l l a nota, e potz s e g u i r l e s rimes d e l c a n t a r o no. E potz f e r quatre o s i s c o b l e s o v u i t , s i t v o l s . Cango Encara mays te v u l l mostrar, per 90 que s i e s pus entendens en ton t r o b a r , que c a n 9 o es a p p e l l a d a c a n 9 o per 90 con es causa naturalment pauzada en manera de c a n t a r ; e per homens autz e bays, 90 es saber que a t o t z a q u e l l s p l a t z p r e t z , amors e c o r t e s i a e s o l a 9 , ensenyamentz, e t o t 90 que e l l a parla. Vers Vers es a p p e l l a t z per 90 vers cor p a r l a de p r o v e r b i s , e de razonz n a t u r a l s , de e x i m p l i s de v e r i t a t s , de p r e s e n t z temps, de p a s s a t e de esdevenidor. Lays Lays es a p p e l l a t per 90 l a y s q u i s deu f a r ab gran c o n t r i c c i o , e ab gran moviment de cor vers Deu o v e r s a y c e l l a s causas de que v o l r r a s p a r l a r . Sirventes S e r v e n t e t z es d i t per 90 s e r v e n t e t z per 90 com se s e r v e i x e es sotsmes a a q u e l l c a n t a r de q u i pren l o so e l e s rimes; e per 90 cor deu p a r l a r de senyors o de v a s a l l s , blasman o c a s t i g a n o l a u z a n o mostran, o de f a y t z d'armes o de g u e r r a o de Deu o de ordenances o de n o v e l l e tatz. Retronxa Retronxa es d i t a per 90 r e t r o n x a per 90 c o r t o t e s l e s c o b l e s deven e s s e r e s t r o n 9 a d e s a l a f i ; e per 90 l o r e f r a y n de l a primeyra c o b l a s e r v e i x a t o t e s l e s a l t r e s cobles. Pastora P a s t o r a es d i t a per 90 p a s t o r a cor pren horn l o c a n t a r de a q u e l l a persona de que horn l o f a ; e pot e s s e r d i t a p a s t o r a s i l a persona garda o v e y l l e s o pques o porchs o d'altres diverses bestiars. Dansa Dansa es d i t a p e r 9 0 com naturalment l a d i t z horn d a n 9 a [ n ] o b a y l l a n , c a r deu [ a v e r ] so p l a z e n t ; e l a d i t z horn ab esturment, e p l a u a cascus que l a d i g a e l a escout.  Plant P l a n t es d i t per co p l a n t c a r es causa q u i p a r l a marridament e planyen de a q u e l l a causa q u i es perduda, o que horn p l a y n . Alba A l b a es d i t a per cb a l b a car pren nom l o c a n t a r de . l a o r a a que horn l o f a , e per 90 c o r se deu pus d i r en l ' a l b a que de d i a . Gayta Gayta es d i t a per 90 gayta cor es pus c o v i n e n t a f e r de nuyt que de d i a , per que pren nom de l a hora que horn la f a . Estampida Stampida es d i t a per co stampida cor pren v i g o r i a en contan o en xantan pus que n u l l a u t r e c a n t a r . Sompni Sompni es a p p e l l a t per 90 sompni cor l o c a n t a r p a r l a de 90 que l i par que h a v i a v i s t de nuyt, o ha a u z i t en sompnian. Gelozesca Gelouzesca es d i t a per 90 g e l o u z e s c a per 90 cor gelozamen p a r l a de 9 0 que d i r v o l , c o n t r a s t a [ n ] ab alguna persona en son c a n t a r . Discort D i s c o r t es d i t per 90 d i s c o r t c o r p a r l a d i s c o r dament e r e v e r s a , e es c o n t r a r i a t o t z a l t r e s c a n t a r s , c o r g i t a de manera 90 que d i u . Cobles esparses Cobles esparses son d i t e s per 90 c o b l e s esparses c o r se f a n espressament en q u a l so t e v u l l e s . Empero convesc que l i seguesques horn manera a x i coma c a n 9 0 . Tenso Tenso es d i t a tenso per 90 com se d i u c o n t r a s t a n e d i s p u t a n s u b t i l m e n l o un ab 1 ' a l t r e de qualque raho horn v u l l a cantar. E a x i son complides l e s d i t e s r e g i e s ordenades per d o c t r i n a en t r o b a r , per l a q u a l d o c t r i n a cascus q u i be l e s gart e l e s v e j a , s i es s u b t i l s d ' e n t e n c i o , pora leugerament v e n i r a p e r f e c c i o de l a a r t de t r o b a r .  A n a l e c t a Hymnica M e d i i A e v i . E d i t e d by G.M. Dreves, C. Blume and H. B a n n i s t e r i n 55 v o l s . Leipzig: Riesland,  1886  -  1922.  2nd  Anglade, Joseph. A n t h o l o g i e des Troubadours. Paris: E. de Boccard, 1953. Le Troubadour G u i r a u t R i q u i e r . Armand C o l i n , 1905-  1908.  Les Troubadours.  Paris:  Paris:  ed. Librairie  L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n ,  Angles, H i g i n i . 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