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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The music of the troubadours Buch, Ingrid Pauline

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by I n g r i d P a u l i n e Buch B. Mus . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 9 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n t h e Department o f Mu s i c We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH A p r i l , 1 9 7 1 COLUMBIA In present ing th i s thes i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lmen t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree that permission for extens ive copying of th i s thes i s fo r s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives . It i s understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on o f th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of Music The Un ivers i ty o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date May 5, 1971 A b s t r a c t THE MUSIC OF THE TROUBADOURS by I n g r i d P a u l i n e Buch Chairman of S u p e r v i s o r y Committee: Dr. Ter e n c e W. B a i l e y Department of" M u s i c T h i s t h e s i s i s d e v o t e d t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e music o f t h e t r o u b a d o u r s , a group o f p o e t - m u s i c i a n s w h i c h f l o u r i s h e d i n s o u t h e r n F r a n c e d u r i n g t h e t w e l f t h and t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . M u s i c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h has been co n -d u c t e d i n t h i s a r e a o n l y s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e p r e s e n t c e n t u r y , a l t h o u g h p h i l o l o g i c a l s t u d y began much e a r l i e r . The main aim o f t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n i s t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r some o f t h e most w i d e l y a c c e p t e d t h e o r i e s r e g a r d i n g b o t h l i t e r a r y and m u s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e movement and t o sum up g e n e r a l l y t h e s t a t e o f t r o u b a d o u r s c h o l a r s h i p as i t e x i s t s t o d a y . The I n t r o d u c t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e s a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y o f t h e t r o u b a d o u r movement, i t s scope, s i g n i f i c a n c e and i n f l u e n c e . The poems were meant t o be sung, not m e r e l y r e a d ; t h u s t h e a r t o f t h e Provencaux embodies two d i s c i p l i n e s : p o e t r y and m u s i c . Yet w h i l e much i s known o f t h e p o e t s , v e r y l i t t l e i s known about t h e composers o f t h e m e l o d i e s . D i d t h e t r o u b a d o u r w r i t e h i s own music? D i d he borrow i t ? How s i m i l a r a r e t h e m e l o d i e s s e t t o t h e t e x t s o f a s i n g l e p o e t ? How are they r e l a t e d ? Was one composer i n v o l v e d i n s e t t i n g them, or s e v e r a l ? Chapter I attempts to answer some of these q u e s t i o n s . A t t e n t i o n i s focused on the music assoc-i a t e d w i t h the t e x t s of seven troubadours i n order to d i s c o v e r i n t e r n a l evidence which would shed l i g h t on t h i s problem. La D o c t r i n a de compondre d i c t a t z i s the subject of Chapter I I . This s h o r t , l i t t l e - k n o w n t r e a t i s e d a t i n g from around 1 2 5 0 A.D. dis c u s s e s the p o e t i c genres of the trouba-dours and gi v e s suggestions f o r the w r i t i n g of' s u i t a b l e melodies. I t i s w i t h the mu s i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t t h i s chapter i s p r i m a r i l y concerned. How accurate are La  D o c t r i n a 1 s d e s c r i p t i o n s i n the l i g h t of the extant Provencal melodies? Were any p o e t i c types a s s o c i a t e d i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e w i t h s p e c i f i c melodic forms? The subject of the f i n a l chapter i s a comparison of troubadour melodies and the chants of the Gregorian r i t e . The Troubadour Perdigon B.N. MS. 12476 f.36 Page LIST OP TABLES . . j . v LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS v INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Chapter I. THE COMPOSERS OF THE MELODIES Part 1. The Melodies of Guiraut Riquier . . . 40 Part 2. The Melodies of Other Composers . . . 86 I I . EARLY LITERARY SOURCES AND THE TROUBADOUR REPERTORY . . . . 127 I I I . TROUBADOUR MELODIES AND THE CHANT . 171 APPENDIX I. MAP OF FRANCE, 1154-1184 . . . . . . . 232 I I . MANUSCRIPT SOURCES CONTAINING PROVENCAL MUSIC 233 I I I . SOURCES OF THE PROVENCAL REPERTORY . . 235 IV. RANGE AND FINALS OF THE TROUBADOUR MELODIES 253 V. LA DOCTRINA DE COMPONDRE DICTATZ . . . 262 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 267 T a b l e Page 1 . Ranges of the R i q u i e r Melodies . . . . . . . . . . 78 2 . F i n a l s o f the R i q u i e r Melodies . . . . . . . . . . 79 3 . Range of the M i r a v a l Melodies . . . . 93 4. F i n a l s of the Ventadorn Melodies 100 5 . F i n a l s o f the P e i r o l Melodies . . . . . . . . . . 104 6 . F i n a l s of the F a i d i t Melodies . . . 107 7. F a i d i t I n c i p i t s Based on a Repeated Note F i g u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 8 . M a r s e i l l a I n c i p i t s Based on a Repeated Note F i g u r e . . 114 9 . F i n a l s o f the M a r s e i l l a Melodies . . . • 115 10. F i n a l s o f the V i d a l Melodies., . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 1 11. Use of C a d e n t i a l P a t t e r n s In Troubadour Melodies . 124 12. F i n a l s of the Troubadour Melodies . . . . . . . . 180 13. Penultimate and F i n a l Notes i n the. Troubadour Repertory 187 14. Range o f the Troubadour Melodies , . . . 192 15. Leaps of a F i f t h i n the Troubadour Corpus . . . . 202 Page Frontispiece Perdigon. MS. Fr. 12476 f. 3 6 . . . . . i i Plate I. Guillaume IX of Aquitains. MS. Fr. 12476 f. 27 r 6 Plate I I . Jaufre Rudel. MS. Fr. 12476 f. 107 v. . . 6 Plate I I I . "Pos vezem que l ' i v e r n s s ' i r a i s " from MS. Fr. 844 f. lQOa . . . . . . . 7 Plate IV. "Qui l a ve en d i t z " MS. Fr. 844 f. 185b. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 I N T R O D U C T I O N One of the most valuable legacies we have i n h e r i t e d from the Middle Ages i s a corpus of secular l y r i c poetry with musical accompaniment written from the eleventh to fourteenth centuries by the troubadours of southern France. It was at the court of Guillaume IX of Aquitaine (1071-1127) that the movement received i t s i n i t i a l impetus, and the eleven poems and few fragmentary l i n e s of melody written by the duke him-s e l f constitute the e a r l i e s t extant examples of the new art.^" The major theme of Guillaume's works i s love, treated In a highly personalized manner but expressed i n terms of elegance and g e n t i l i t y . 2 As such, these pieces established a prece-dent f o r the other nobles to follow, and soon the pastime of writing verse with music became highly fashionable. It Is not to be supposed, however, that a l l troubadours were of the aristo c r a c y . Many were from the middle class under the patronage of powerful feudal lords while others, such as Lo Monge de Montaudo (1180 - ca. 1213), were members of the -"•Guillaume1 s works are believed to have been written from about IO87 to his death forty years l a t e r . o cNot a l l Guillaume*s poems dealt with the subject of love. Ordericus V i t a l i s reports that upon his return home from a crusade i n 1102, the duke "sang before the princes and the great assemblies of the Christians, of the miseries of his c a p t i v i t i e s among the Saracens, using rhymed verse j o v i a l l y modulated." Ordericus V i t a l i s , H i s t o r i a e c c l i a s t i c a , edited by A l e Prevost, Vol. IV, p. 132 c i t e d i n Robert S. B r i f f a u l t , The Troubadours,. (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1965), p. 54. clergy. Not a few were from extremely humble backgrounds: the greatest of a l l the troubadour masters, Bernart de Ventadorn (ca. 1150 - ca. 1180), was the son of a kitchen hand. It i s therefore important to r e a l i z e that "the common factor running through t h i s secular art was not so much the noble rank of the composers . . . but the refined way i n which the sentiments of the poem . . . were expressed. , , J Prom Aquitaine, the movement spread to Gascony, Languedoc, Poitou, Provence, Auvergne, La Marche, and southern Burgundy. It i s not s u r p r i s i n g that these regions should be influenced by the new creative a c t i v i t y since the entire area shared numerous s o c i a l customs, s i m i l a r attitudes toward r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s , and most important, a common vernacular tongue known as langue d'oc or Provencal. It was i n t h i s new language—a fusion of l o c a l d i a l e c t s and L a t i n — t h a t the troubadours chose to write t h e i r poetry. The very name given to these poet-musicians, derived from the French version of the Provencal verb trobar, meaning "to invent," was doubtless suggested by t h e i r creative a b i l i -t i e s . Yet from a l l contemporary reports, the troubadours J A l e c Harman, Mediaeval and Early Renaissance Music (London: Barrie & R o c k l i f f , 1958), p . 77. 4 See Appendix I f o r a map showing the regions where troubadour art f l o u r i s h e d . ^The term "Provence" i n the medieval sense of the word, took i n a l l areas where langue d'oc was spoken. themselves seem to have enjoyed as much p o p u l a r i t y as t h e i r p o e t r y ; and t h e i r e s c a p a d e s — b o t h p o l i t i c a l and amatory—were ever a source of keen i n t e r e s t and s p e c u l a t i o n . Because the P r o v e n c a l l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n was so widespread and w e l l known, we f i n d a number of e a r l y accounts which d i s c u s s v a r i o u s aspects of the movement. Perhaps the most famous of these are the approximately 1 2 5 v i d a s and razos which i n t r o d u c e to us some one hundred of the Provenc,al poets. The former are " b i o g r a p h i e s " o f f e r i n g d e l i g h t f u l glimpses i n t o the l i v e s of p a r t i c u l a r troubadours, w h i l e the l a t t e r are "commentaries" which o f t e n " i n t r o d u c e the t e x t of the songs, i d e n t i f y the c h a r a c t e r s , and e l u c i d a t e the circumstances of c o m p o s i t i o n . " 6 Although they make f a s c i n a t i n g r e a d i n g , the m a j o r i t y of the v i d a s and razos are only " p r e t t y s t o r i e s " and completely u n r e l i a b l e from a s c h o l a r l y p o i n t of view.? Bes i d e s these accounts, however, t h e r e are s e v e r a l t r e a t i s e s which i n c l u d e a d i s c u s s i o n of the genres used by the troubadours. Of great importance i n the study of the "Maurice Valency, In P r a i s e of Love (New York: Macmillan & Co., 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 9 0 . 7 A c c o r d i n g t o Valency, "the troubadours were at such p a i n s to e m b e l l i s h the t r a d i t i o n they were c r e a t i n g t h a t now they b a r e l y emerge from t h e i r legends." Modern r e s e a r c h , t h e r e f o r e , "has made i t necessary to q u a l i f y as f i c t i o n almost e v e r y t h i n g i n these s t o r i e s save the names and provenience of the c h a r a c t e r s . " I b i d . , p. 9 1 . poetic and melodic forms of the canco i s Dante A l i g h i e r i ' s ft early fourteenth century work, De vulgar! eloquentia. About f i f t y years l a t e r , Guillaume Moliner compiled Las Leys o d'Amors (1356), a valuable compendium of Provencal poetic types as understood by the poets of the school of Toulouse. The only other main source of information regarding the art of the troubadours i s an anonymous Catalan t r e a t i s e , La  Doctrina de compondre d i c t a t z ^ 0 dated around the middle of the thirteenth century. The works of the four hundred or so troubadours of whom we have record are contained i n some sixty c o l l e c t i o n s of parchment manuscripts known as chansonniers. Many of these chansonniers are very b e a u t i f u l l y executed, Including not only the songs of the troubadours but sometimes t h e i r likeness i n illuminations as well. Shown below are two De vulgar! eloquentla i n The L a t i n Works of Dante, . trans, by A.G. Ferrers Howell (London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1904). ^For a complete e d i t i o n of t h i s voluminous work see Joseph Anglade ed., Las Leys d'Amors (Paris, 1919-1920). l°La Doctrina, edited by Paul Meyer appears i n Vol. VI of Romania, pp. 353ff. m i n i a t u r e s from the p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p r e s s i v e MS, F r . 12473: P l a t e I . G u i l l a u m e IX P l a t e I I . J a u f r e R u d e l o f A q u i t a i n e f . 27 r . f . 107 v. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , o n l y 259 P r o v e n c a l m e l o d i e s have come down t o us, i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2600 poems s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e . Only e l e v e n s o u r c e s i n c l u d e b o t h words and m u s i c , t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e b e i n g t h r e e m a n u s c r i p t s housed i n th e B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e i n P a r i s and one c o n t a i n e d i n M i l a n , I t a l y . H Most o f the m e l o d i e s i n t h e s e c o l l e c t i o n s a re w r i t t e n i n p l a i n s o n g n o t a t i o n on f o u r - l i n e s t a v e s u s i n g e i t h e r C o r F c l e f s . Because each s t a n z a o f p o e t r y was l^ T h e s e f o u r m a n u s c r i p t s a re P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n -a l e f r . 22543 ( f o r m e r l y 2701, f o r m e r l y La V a l l i e r e 14), P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e f r . 20050 ( f o r m e r l y S a i n t - G e r m a i n 1989), P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e 844 ( f o r m e r l y 7222) and M i l a n , Ambrosiana R 71 sup. F o r a complete l i s t o f t h e s o u r c e s o f P r o v e n c a l m u s i c , see Appendix I I . u s u a l l y sung t o the same melody, s c r i b e s would f i r s t copy the poem and l a t e r w r i t e In the music above the words of the f i r s t s t a n z a : )tii Jtn-uf AMnwi" non i.umcn -ft aoii uu -if Sum«:f \ 1015 t>t«ii f_i<liir^ ioi mtnrUuicn- quit nop ftmr nofhrf rotvf lotf- fctv cwr i v M f t ctvnutif i^icy-if mem «ti fcrtt OiOiif , v ftirNH h>f flnlt jMjtf • r *><«>.• . _ j ' •. ' ' * * s" * . oc \K 5cnr que imcr flmtf-<r jurr ft to am .mmvf. CJIK' • y • • «".""* *m .uip,ci tiinrf ni mf. .lulH,-pcrf finllot fxr loii fVctr >rt Kun rctnfo ati-tioti laflcrn vti v«rf .irhr- crta .rt quefmon cil.Mir O — v I' one cxturtct crcrnu furamf - tui agur jl or oitmrf ivrfodc qui ftif mi fnwf-ituu.mtc vcrfli notifliigmcpipf-.wi; ' IA paaauc tl co: latJ • mol -ft»i losoerf.1*11 53tur-m«f yc<wf rum fcettf-munf-.1^  wpnf pei" Hfnvarjrtiflll nenUif-ftt Cmto.'tonr nnr flit evueouf • cnttif ben 9 ten tni jwif- crfiuctaluf 4«fhvnif. U\f rc ttufuf fin cvt cktlutt tnutrr ycr .mm? non -vol y015n.1t". yvi mo m rv»" 1T"T1 ghroi.mt-. - -i->. -r< ot- ntcf ctutur cir igtmt ftnf- tnc ti^ ^ Jfnc qiun vjcnf wf- «T rtUJnr not n.trUrmcf cf$lnr cr«»»»" ft™ utwf.cnitu <»it t^"1 |AW" w \- vjfhv buftrur-cr pUtfcn mc nur M>fhr cun- —• -'•" 1 O "— " ."O r*^  m u £ ( J r 0"C non butf .\vrf .\ cntcntoi tanra:giifiiio:.qiuinriionvi« ifiictlinon .*wf • qiun piitj on poi* mat} aouf-cr tfr foVoV" w cr >nn .m- crn non CiU ftn mcti ntir cr m cl (ictrlc Jw .fltief cmf • -r=rp vi nutf ftn fti$nctrr c«ur cr Uif. cvt <) non dhn-<niwf-<uu ro; IcffVnif <rl« Luc. ucr oc cnte 11011 f» uVctvf. poT joScr ni CU> Wnnintiu l<tn cf cv<t<\,Li x<f.impir.(r At m« tain nion cnfinf. ,1V.. ,ol„ TV 11011 \K Imfir Weill cS-[ «'i * * ' V • S \. > ft^j tin ftmr ofturo lou m • «r i, S . < . . • • Oftnf ptr aico non mcfm.u- nine darof '.",\r: • " " " ^  * v\ • mift4«ll<-5amoi<iiii tlcw nn tSif-cr J' * ^ * .. qiijn Lurrc jenf f«ftn.\if - cr rttcUlo: .tb V . . • " , , 4uf que f^ ott-ivr etne tnon dunr non fV^w- • •--rf ' • " p ntr mi fcitiWcnr W.mr cr vermnn. cnOmorr 01\ tanf X* m.u • mi rcn flnc •! mc  annrs cr^ at • m«i iwfr ^ oJ" M*i chi cr \*rmcilic-cHicl cr vnrtf Mlcnhf nutc niid5cn««f cr Uyhtf5aif.nunt4 tn«f ewe f-iino: uuttnri • ftneo: iKlbiM" jutm*. — * jw: mc ftmr nuhuf oftU • ftr and ft^c -<r .mtoi 5CC41 • cjtwnv Pi tofrv ctt hfti P l a t e I I I . "Pos vezem que l ' i v e r n s s ' i r a i s " from MS. P r . 844, f . 190a. In many cases, however, the music was never added; and there remain pages of manuscript with texts and empty s t a f f l i n e s . Most of the troubadour melodies are unmeasured and scholars are s t i l l i n b i t t e r dispute over t h e i r correct t r a n s c r i p t i o n into modern notation. The most generally accepted s o l u t i o n to the rhythmic problem was suggested by the independent work of the historians Johann-Baptist Beck and Pierre Aubry,. i n the f i r s t decade of t h i s c e n t u r y . 1 2 They came to the conclusion that the f i r s t three of the six medieval rhythmic modes should be applied to a l l non-mensural .pieces which have rhymed and metered t e x t s . ^ 3 According to Aubry and Beck, one could ascertain the correct mode f o r a p a r t i c u l a r melody by counting the accented s y l l a b l e s i n each l i n e . Thus the strong .accents i n .the music would correspond to the accents i n the text. 1** Although the modal theory i s widely adopted, i t i s f a r from being completely s a t i s f a c t o r y . In f a c t , i f we assign f i v e scholars the task of tr a n s c r i b i n g a given piece i n modal notation they w i l l quite l i k e l y produce not one, but f i v e J.-B. Beck, Die Melodien der Troubadours (Strassburg: K.J. Triibner, 1908)] P~! Aubry, Trouvdres and Troubadours (New York: G. Schirmer, 1914). 1 ^ c a r l Parrish has conveniently summarized the basic p r i n c i p l e s of the Aubry and Beck modal theory i n The Notation  of Medieval Music (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1957) , p. 49. •^Scholars generally agree that Old Provencal had many more stressed s y l l a b l e s than has modern French. d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . This i s p r e c i s e l y the s i t u a t i o n In the case of the alba "Reis g l o r i o s , verais lums e cla r d a t z " (87, 5_8) which has been transcribed by A n g l e s , Gerold, Besseler, Reese, and Gennrich.^5 No two versions are exactly a l i k e : Ex. 1. Five interpretations of "Reis g l o r i o s " - ^ H i g i n i Angles, La Mtlsica a Catalunya f i n s a l segle  XIII i n B i b l i o t e c a de Catalunya, Publicacions du Departament  de Musica (Barcelona, 1935), p. 395; T. Ggrold, i n Le Jeu de  Sainte Agn£s edited by A. Jeanroy (Paris, 1931), p. 61; " Heinrich Besseler, Die Musik des M i t t e l a l t e r s und der  Renaissance In Handbuch der Musikwissenschaft (Potsdam, 1931-35), p. 107; G. Reese, Music i n the Middle Ages (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1940), p. 215; and F. Gennrich, Musikalische Nachlass der Troubadours, Vol. I l l , 58. Ex. 1.• (continued) -0 *~ m 4-—# 7=*- i 7rTT E * + * •&*—& wCUs com - panh/ $/ Z2X Such a wide difference of opinion i s evidence enough that a p p l i c a t i o n of the modal theory i s not without problems. In se.veral instances i t would appear that the h i s t o r i a n s i n question were forced to make rather a r b i t r a r y decisions. A number of musicologists, while not objecting to modal notation i n p r i n c i p l e , have hesitated to make as widespread use of the method as have Beck and Aubry. 1 6 They argue that i t i s unnecessary to i n s i s t on the standard rhythmic modes when a duple metre would obviously correct the awkward rhythmic s i t u a t i o n created by ternary d i v i s i o n . Even Beck, some years a f t e r the o r i g i n a l presentation of his theories, acknowledged that a binary i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was not only con-ceivable, but i n some cases p r e f e r a b l e ; ^ however, few scholars would care to apply duple meter to the alarming extent advocated by Hugo Riemann i n accordance with his theory of Vierhebigkeit. The r e s u l t s are, of course, preposterous. 1 8 See, for example, H. Angles, La Musica a Catalunya  f i n s a l segle XIII. "^See Beck's e d i t i o n of Le Chansonnier Cange (Champion: U. of Pennsylvania Press, 1927Ti ' 1 R Hugo Riemann expounds his Vierhebigkeit theory i n Catechism of Musical History (London, 1892). His p o s i t i o n i s summarized by Johannes Wolf i n Handbuch der Notationskunde (Leipzig, 1913-19), Vol. I, Ch. 15, Sec. 46, 5a. The whole problem of whether duple Instead of t r i p l e meter should be used In ce r t a i n cases depends on just how relevant the modal system actually was. Parrish points out that "no mention i s made of duple meter i n medieval t h e o r e t i c a l t r e a t i s e s u n t i l the early fourteenth century" although he finds i t hard to believe that the rhythmic modes were "so all-pervading as to exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of the use of duple meter. m 1 9 j _ n t h i s connection we are reminded of the well known quotation from Magister Lambert's (Pseudo-A r i s t o t l e ) t r e a t i s e : . . . i f someone were to ask whether a mode or a natural song can be formed by imperfect longae exclusively just i n the same way as i t can be formed by perfect longae, the approved answer i s : no; since nobody can sing a succession of pure imperfect longae. 2 0 It i s important to remember that the music of the troubadours was e s s e n t i a l l y a monodic art- 3 subject to the i n d i v i d u a l i t y and ingenuity of the s o l o i s t . Too rigorous an a p p l i c a t i o n of the rhythmic modes would have been f a t a l to the freedom and spontaneity which doubtless existed i n lyC. Parrish, op. c i t . , p. 5 1 f . ••E. Coussemaker, Scriptorum de musica medii aevi nova -series (Paris, 1 8 6 4 - 7 6 ) , Vol. I, p. 2 7 1 a , c i t e d i n W i l l i Apel, The Notation of Polyphonic Music (Cambridge, Mass.: The Mediaeval Academy of America, 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 2 9 2 . l i v e performance. For th i s reason, S i r J.A. Westrup has suggested that modal rhythms were only used to provide a mensural framework, a metric foundation upon which the singer would impose his own rhythmical interpretations based on the "text and the mood of the poem . . . . "23- Perhaps t h i s point of view comes nearer to actual practice than e i t h e r a s t r i c t l y modal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or, as has been considered, the p o s s i b i l i t y of completely "free or optional rhythm." 2 2 Even so, the whole rhythmic problem i s s t i l l somewhat of an embarrassment to h i s t o r i a n s . There i s more than one scholar who suspects that "the saccarine renditions of most of our interpreters of medieval music can bear almost no likeness to the o r i g i n a l p i e c e s . " 2 3 The oldest Provencal l y r i c s we possess (written, i t w i l l be remembered, by Guillaume of Aqiiitaine) are highly polished and sophisticated examples of an art form far removed from i t s infant stages. Yet although no early, "primitive" specimens of troubadour poetry have been discovered,'we can Jack A. Westrup, "Medieval Song" i n New Oxford History  of Music, I I , edited by Dom Anselm Hughes (London: Oxford University Press, 1954), p. 227. Curt Sachs, Rhythm and Tempo (New York: W.W. Norton, 1953), p. 178. I f , according to Sachs, a scribe had recourse to both modal and non-mensural notation but chose to tran-scribe the piece i n the l a t t e r , then such a melody was understood to be i n free rhythm. -'James J. Wilhelm, Seven Troubadours: The Creators  of Modern Verse (University Park & London, 1970), p. 200. hardly assume that the movement was the r e s u l t of spontaneous generation. In an attempt to explain the o r i g i n s of the t r a d i t i o n , a number of i n t e r e s t i n g theories have been postulated. One of the most persistent of these i s the rather exotic notion that Provencal l i t e r a t u r e has i t s roots i n the Arabic poetry of Moorish Spain. Despite the devoted e f f o r t s of i t s defendants ( p r i n c i p a l l y Nykl, B r i f f a u l t , and Farmer), 2^ the idea s t i l l lacks conclusive proof: there are no extant examples of Hispano-Mauresque music 2^ nor i s there any. i n d i c a t i o n that a single troubadour of renown was f a m i l i a r with the Arabic language. 2^ U n t i l more substantial evidence i s brought to l i g h t , the majority of scholars w i l l l i k e l y remain unconvinced that Provencal art owed "everything to the world of Islam." 2? H.J. Chaytor records a second theory which has been given consideration from time to time, the idea that troubadour l i t e r a t u r e " i s a continuation of L a t i n poetry i n dHSee R. B r i f f a u l t , The Troubadours; A.R. Nykl, E l cancionero del seih, nobilisimo V i s i r , Marabilla del  tiempo, Abu Bakr, ibn 'abd-al-Malik Aben Guzman-Ibn  Quznan (Madrid, 1 9 3 3 ) , and A Book Containing the R T s a l a  Known as The Dove's Neck-Ring, About Love and Lovers,  Composed by Abu Muhammed ' A l i ibn Hazm al-Andalusi (Paris, 1 9 3 1 ) ; J u l i a n Ribera y Tarrago, La Musica andaluza medieval  en las canciones de Trovadores, Troveros y Minnesinger. 3 vols., 1 9 2 3 - 2 5 ; and H.G. Farmer, H i s t o r i c a l Facts for the ' Arabian Influence (London: W. Reeves, 1 9 3 0 ) . 2 5 j.A. Westrup, op. c i t . , p. 2 2 5 . 2 6 J . Wilhelm, op. c i t . , no. 2 0 , p. 2 0 7 . 2?R. B r i f f a u l t , op. c i t . , p. 2 3 . i t s decadence." 0 The jongleurs, descendants of the joculatores introduced into France a f t e r the Roman conquest, had always excelled i n music and dancing (as well as acroba-t i c s and burlesque) but gradually poetry and song within a more sophisticated and a r t i s t i c framework assumed a greater importance i n t h e i r productions. Ultimately, the jongleur was transformed into a troubadour—inventor of his own songs and subject to a l l the rules and conventions of a formalized art medium. Very recent studies have not overlooked the p o s s i b i l i t y that Provencal l i t e r a t u r e was influenced by both secular and re l i g i o u s L a t i n writings. In Wilhelm's opinion, too many scholars ignore "the unmistakeable interplay of holy and profane r h e t o r i c " which took place i n the "one thousand pa years of C h r i s t i a n i t y " y p r i o r to the f l o u r i s h i n g of trouba-dour a r t . He also considers i t s i g n i f i c a n t that "both Ovid and St. Augustine were read i n the schools by the well-educated troubadours" and that "Provencal poets probably knew no language except L a t i n and the nearby Romance tongues . . . ."30 Barbara Smythe, on the other hand, finds the troubadour t r a d i t i o n owing " p r a c t i c a l l y nothing" to c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . 2 8H.J. Chaytor, The Troubadours (Cambridge: University Press, 1912), p. 7. 2 9 j . Wilhelm, op. c i t . , p. 15. S Q i b i d . 31 Barbara Smythe, Trobador Poets (London: Chatto & Windus, 1911), xv. Like Gaston Paris,32 she traces the movement back to the "songs of the country people," p a r t i c u l a r l y to those pieces sung at the spring celebrations held on May-day.33 That popular t r a d i t i o n had some influence on the troubadour movement i s evidenced by the vogue of such genres as the alba, pastora and danca. 34 Undoubtedly there are ce r t a i n elements of truth to be found i n almost a l l of the suggestions put forward regarding the o r i g i n of Provencal poetry. Yet whatever p o s i t i o n one chooses to adopt, one important factor should not be over-looked: the element of inventiveness inherent i n the very term of the movement.35 j n a n a g e whose s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l climate was so conducive to a r t i s t i c endeavour, the s p i r i t of c r e a t i v i t y shown by the troubadour poets can hardly be considered a strange phenomenon. The o r i g i n of the troubadour melodies has been the sub-je c t of somewhat less controversy than that of the poetry of the movement. A very convincing hypothesis—agreed upon by most m u s i c o l o g i s t s — t r a c e s the roots of the Provencal songs 3 2 G a s ton Paris, Medieval French L i t e r a t u r e , trans, by Hannah Lynch (London: J.M. Dent & Co., 1903). 33B. Smythe, op. c i t . , xv. 3**Gustave Reese points out that a number of scholars, including Aubry (see his Trouveres and Troubadours), have found "at least one example . . . i n which the melody . . . appears to have been an adaptation of a pre-existent estampida." G. Reese, Music i n the Middle Ages (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1940), p. 217. 3 5 j . wilhelm, ftp, c i t . , p. 17. to the music of the Church. Adding weight to t h i s argument i s the fact that a variant, though related, d e f i n i t i o n of "troubadour" stems from the L a t i n word t r o p u s — a term which by the ninth century had come to mean an i n t e r p o l a t i o n of words and music into some of the chants of the l i t u r g y . A study of the melodies reveals t h e i r close a f f i n i t y to the Gregorian t r a d i t i o n , both i n terms of melodic contour, t o n a l i t y , and i n t e r v a l l i c progressions. As for formal r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two re p e r t o r i e s , we may turn to the work of the noted German h i s t o r i a n , F r i e d r i c h Gennrich, who has categorized the entire troubadour corpus i n the l i g h t of the hymn, sequence, l i t a n y and rondel.36 While Gennrich's theory (based on the premise that a l l secular melodic forms are derived from l i t u r g i c a l prototypes) i s doubtless deserving of consideration, at least one scholar finds f a u l t with his attempt to "'systematize' a series of phenomena through the use of concepts l a t e r than, and i n some respects foreign to, the period to which the phenomena themselves properly belong."^^ 36p. Gennrich, Grundriss einer Formenlehre des  m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n Liedes als Grundlage einer musikalischen  Formenlehre des Lieds (Halle: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1 9 3 2 ) . - wRobert Henry Perrin, "Some Aspects of the Poetry and Music of the Troubadours" (Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , University of Washington, 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 161. It has been customary to divide the a c t i v i t i e s of the troubadours into three main periods.38 Those working from 1080 to 1150 have been assigned to the early period and include such figures as Guillaume of Aquitaine; Marcabrun of Gascony ( f l . 1 1 3 0 - 1 1 5 0 ) , i n v a r i a b l y described i n both medieval and modern chronicles as a woman-hater; and Jaufre Rudel ( f l . . 1130-1141), so admired by nineteenth century poets on account of the charming ( a l b e i t f i c t i t i o u s ) vida written about his death.^ y An important feature of the early period was the evolution of two.distinct modes of expression: the trobar c l a r or "clear s t y l e " and the trobar clus or "closed s t y l e . " Followers of the f i r s t school preferred to write i n a l u c i d , r e a d i l y comprehensible manner while supporters of the second type delighted i n the use of ambiguous words, often out of context or. i n opposition to t h e i r o r i g i n a l meaning. The closed s t y l e was p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Arnaut Daniel (1180 - ca. 1 2 0 0 ) , considered by Dante to be the greatest of a l l troubadours. The e s s e n t i a l features of Daniel's p o e t r y — o b s c u r i t y of meaning, a l l i t e r a t i v e devices, 0 The troubadour era i s divided into three general periods by such h i s t o r i a n s as Joseph Anglade, Les Troubadours (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Armand Col i n , 1 9 0 9 ) ; H.J. Chaytor, The Troubadours; and Alec Harman, Medieval and Early Renaissance Music. 3^An English t r a n s l a t i o n of Rudel's "biography" appears i n B. Smythe, op. c i t . , p. 11. word-play, and comp l i c a t e d rhyme schemes—have f o r the most p a r t been r e t a i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g t r a n s l a t i o n by E z r a Pound Sweet c r i e s and crac k s and l a y s and chants i n f l e c t e d By a u z e l s who, i n t h e i r L a t i n b e l i k e s , Chirm each t o each, even as you and I Pipe toward those g i r l s on whom our thoughts, a t t r a c t ; Are but more cause t h a t I, whose overweening Search i s toward the N o b l e s t , s et i n c l u s t e r L i n e s where no word p u l l s wry, no rhyme breaks gauges. No c u l s de sacs nor f a l s e ways me d e f l e c t e d When f i r s t I p i e r c e d her f o r t w i t h i n i t s d y k e s — Hers, f o r whom my hungry i n s i s t e n c y Passes the gnaw whereby was V i v i e n wracked; Day-long I s t r e t c h , a l l times, l i k e a b i r d p r e e n i n g , And yawn f o r her, who hath o'er others t h r u s t her As h i g h as t r u e j o y i s o'er i r e and rages. In q u a l i t y and numbers P r o v e n c a l a r t a t t a i n e d it's f u l l e s t f l o w e r i n g i n the c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d , 1150 - 1220. Of the troubadours a c t i v e i n t h i s p e r i o d , those whose t e x t s and music have been p r e s e r v e d i n c l u d e the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned Ventadorn and D a n i e l ; Polquet de M a r s e i l l a ( f l . 1180-1195), a c o l o r f u l personage who was by t u r n Genoese merchant and Bishop o f Toulouse; B e r t r a n de Born (1159-1196), best known f o r h i s war poetry and imm o r t a l i z e d i n Dante's In f e r n o as a headless wonder consigned to H e l l f o r h i s p a r t i n the q u a r r e l between Henry I I and h i s sons;**-1- B e a t r i c e de Die ( c a . 1160), one o f the few woman troubadours o f the tfOEzra Pound, T r a n s l a t i o n s ( N o r f o l k , Conn.: New D i r e c t i o n s P u b l i s h e r s , 1963), p. 173 c i t e d by Thomas G. Be r g i n i n Dante (New York: The Orio n Press, 1965), p. 50. i* 1Dante A l i g h i e r i , I n f e r n o , XXVIII, 11. 118-142. m o v e m e n t G l r a u t de B o r n e i l l ( ca. 1165-1200), c o n s i d e r e d by h i s peers as "Master of the Troubadours";^3 p e l r e d'Alvergne (1150-1200) who In h i s own words, had unmistakable t a l e n t as a s i n g e r but wrote f a r too obscure p o e t r y ; ^ and P e i r e V i d a l o f Toulouse ( c a . 1175-1215), half-mad wanderer and one o f Provence's f i n e s t p o e t - m u s i c i a n s . The remaining Golden Age troubadours with poems and melodies extant are as f o l l o w s A i m e r i c de P e g u i l l a n (1195-1230) A l b e r t de S e s t a r o (1210-1221) Arnaut de M a r o i l l (1170-1200) B e r e n g u i e r de P a l a z o l (ca. 1160) Daude de Pradas (ca. 1190) Gaucelm F a i d i t (1180-1216) Gui d ' U i s e l ( c a . 1200) G u i l l e m Ademar ( c a . 1200) G u i l l e m Maigret (ca. 1200) G u i l l e m de S a i n t L e i d i e r (1165-1200) Jordan Bonel (1160-1200) Lo Monge de Montaudo (1180 - ca. 1213) P e i r e Raimon de T o l o z a (1170-1210) P e i r o l (1180-1225) Perdigo (1195-1220) P i s t o l e t a (1180-1200) Pons de C a p d o i l l (1180-1190) Raimbaut d'Aurenga (1144-1173) Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (1180-1207) Raimon Jordon (1190-1200) Raimon de M i r a v a l (1190-1220) R i c h a r t de B e r b e z i l l (1200-1210) Uc Brunec (ca. II85) ^2For a d i s c u s s i o n o f the works o f the women troubadours, see Oskar S c h u l t z - G o r a , Die p r o v e n z a l i s c h e n D i c h t e r i n n e n ( L e i p z i g , 1888). ^ T h i s accolade i s found i n de B o r n e i l l ' s v i d a . The e n t i r e "biography" has been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h by B. Smythe, op. c i t . , p. 123. ^R.T. H i l l & T.G. B e r g i n , Anthology of P r o v e n c a l  Troubadours (New Haven: Ya l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941) , pp. 71 -73. ^ o a t e s of b i r t h and death i f known are g i v e n i n paren-t h e s e s . I f not known, then approximate dates of c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y are i n d i c a t e d . Yet the era of a r t i s t i c maturity brought about by these i l l u s t r i o u s figures was destined to be short l i v e d . The primary cause of the c u l t u r a l decline was the Albigensian Crusade*^ proclaimed by Pope Innocent I I I . i n 1209. In the twenty years which followed, c i v i l war ravished the country r e s u l t i n g i n not only the a n n i h i l a t i o n of the Catharsist movement but also the d i s s o l u t i o n of feudalism under which the troubadours had thrived and the complete defeat of the Provencal n o b i l i t y which had patronized the a r t s . We have record of only eight poets with extant texts and accompani-ments who were active during t h i s t h i r d or Albigensian period. Aimeric de Belenoi (1210-1241) Cadenet (1208-1239) Guillem Augier (1209-1235) Guiraut Riquier (1254-1282) Matfre Ermengau (1280-1322) Peire Cardenal (1210-1230) Pons d'Ortafas (ca. 1240) Uc de Saint Circ (1217 - ca. 1253) Bolstered by t h e i r p o l i t i c a l successes and the establishment of the I n q u i s i t i o n , the clergy now openly denounced love poetry as the height of worldliness and e v i l and threatened severe punishment f o r a l l those who indulged i n the composing of "vain ditties."**'' Faced with such a s i t u a t i o n , troubadours of the ^One of the strongholds of the Catharsist sect was the town of A l b i , hence the name "Albigensians." The movement was yet another i n a series of minor revolts against the tyranny of the Catholic Church p r i o r to the Reformation. ^ J . Anglade, Le Troubadour Guiraut Riquier (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n , 1905)> P- 336. Riquier bewails the fact that "the a u t h o r i t i e s consider our art a s i n " and "judge sternly those who practise i t . " I bid. decadence soon decided that they would l i v e longer i f they introduced a more s p i r i t u a l vein into t h e i r subject matter. They therefore found i t advisable to take over "the formu-lae and conventions of e r o t i c poetry by the simple expedient of s u b s t i t u t i n g the name of Our Lady for that of the object of t h e i r profane passion. " ^ With the exception of Peire Cardenal and Guiraut Riquier, thirteenth century troubadours seem p a i n f u l l y devoid of talent and few of t h e i r works sur-vive which are not debased by unbridled sentimentality, excessive verbiage, and poor c r a f t s m a n s h i p . B y the end of the century the s p i r i t and q u a l i t y of the movement at i t s zenith had completely disappeared. While many questions s t i l l remain unanswered regarding the troubadour repertory as a whole, scholars are i n unanimous agreement on at least one point: the fact that Provencal poetry was always intended to be sung. The melo-dies were probably often performed unaccompanied; however, R. B r i f f a u l t , op. c i t . , p. 157. H.J. Chaytor reports that from the fourteenth century, the only poems to l e r a t e d by the school of Toulouse were ca n t i c l e s to the V i r g i n . "These, however, have l i t t l e i n common with c l a s s i c a l troub-adour poetry except language." See Chaytor, op. c i t . , pp. 92f. tin 7More and more of the l i t e r a t u r e of t h i s period i s no longer " l y r i c " i n the true sense of the term, for the practice of combining poetry with music was gradually being discontinued. both the m i n i a t u r i s t s of the perio and the t h e o r i s t Johannes de Grocheo (ca. lSOO)^ 1 indicate that stringed instruments such as the y i e l l e or lute were employed. In t h i s case, the accompaniment, i t i s supposed, would Include doubling the melodic l i n e and possibly i n s e r t i n g a short coda at the end of the piece. The majority of Provencal songs are treated s y l l a b i c a l l y (although b r i e f mellsmatic passages are not uncommon) and can usually be divided into four-bar phrases. Most have an ambitus of an octave or a n i n t h — a range quite within the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the average s i n g e r — a n d they are frequently cast i n one of the f a m i l i a r Church modes. Yet adherence to these modes was not imperative, and a number of i n t e r e s t i n g examples are undeniably set i n the major t o n a l i t y . There has been some disagreement over exactly what features distinguished the troubadour from the jongleur during the Middle Ages. During the early years of the 5^see the Frontispiece. 51see Johannes Wolf, "Die Musiklehre des Johannes de Grocheo" i n Sammelbande der internationalen Musikgesellschaft, Vol. I ( 1 8 9 9 - 1 9 0 0 ) . m o v e m e n t i t s e e m s t h a t t h e t e r m s c o u l d b e u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e -a b l y ; h o w e v e r , i n l a t e r t i m e s t h e p r o f e s s i o n s b e c a m e m o r e s t r a t i f i e d . T h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e t w o a r e s o m e w h a t c l a r i f i e d b y a d e c l a r a c i o s u p p o s e d l y p r e -s e n t e d t o R i q u i e r b y A l p h o n s o o f C a s t i l e . T h e " d e c l a r a t i o n " a l l u d e s t o f o u r c l a s s e s o f e n t e r t a i n e r s : t h e l o w e s t c l a s s , c a l l e d b u f o s , p e r f o r m e d s o m e m u s i c b u t s p e c i a l i z e d i n c i r c u s e x h i b i t i o n s ; t h e m o r e r e f i n e d j o g l a r s w e r e i n v i t e d t o s i n g i n t h e c o u r t s ; t h e t r o u b a d o u r s , u n l i k e t h e b u f o s o r j o g l a r s , c o m p o s e d t h e i r o w n s o n g s ; t h e f o u r t h c l a s s i n c l u d e d t h e " D o c t o r s o f P o e t r y " ( s o b i r a n t r o b a r ) w h o s e w o r k s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e g r e a t e s t h e i g h t o f p o e t i c e x c e l l e n c e . W h i l e R i q u i e r m a y h a v e w r i t t e n t h e d e c l a r a c i o h i m s e l f , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s i t s e t s o u t a r e q u i t e p o s s i b l y v a l i d . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s a n d o t h e r e v i d e n c e , m o s t s c h o l a r s c o n s i d e r t h e t r o u b a d o u r a s " o n e w h o w r o t e o r i g i n a l s o n g s " i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e j o n g l e u r w h o " m e r e l y p e r f o r m e d t h e w o r k s o f o t h e r s " : ^ 3 L i k e t h e m o d e r n e n t e r t a i n e r , t h e j o n g l e u r i n g e n e r a l , w a s n o t a c r e a t i v e a r t i s t . H i s t a l e n t s w e r e i n t e r p r e t i v e . B e h i n d h i m s t o o d t h e t r o u b a d o u r , t h e p o e t a n d c o m p o s e r w h o p r o v i d e d t h e r-u m a t e r i a l u p o n w h i c h t h e p e r f o r m e r d r e w . 53B. S m y t h e , o p . c i t . , x x . 5^M. V a l e n c y , o p . c i t . , p . 9 6 . Yet the assumption that the "troubadours . . . were i d e a l l y neither instrumentalists nor v o c a l i s t s " but rather, "entrusted t h e i r l y r i c s to jongleurs," i s incompatible with early accounts.55 The vidas i n p a r t i c u l a r , are customarily thorough i n t h e i r assessment of a troubadour's a b i l i t i e s or i n a b i l i t i e s as a singer. Poor Richart de B e r b e z i l l , f o r example, possessed a fine voice but alas, did not fare too well i n front of an audience: . . . He was very f e a r f u l of singing before people, and the more good people he saw the more confused he became and the less he remembered, and he always needed another to lead him on.59 Medieval t r e a t i s e s which discuss the art of the troubadours f r e e l y sanction the practice of borrowing melodies. It i s therefore not su r p r i s i n g to f i n d cases where several texts have been adapted to the same tune. The extent to which the Provencal poets wrote the music for t h e i r poems i s by no means agreed upon by a l l h i s t o r i a n s . A number have been i n c l i n e d to minimize the role of the troubadour as both poet and composer, asserting that "some of the melodies, were probably invented or adapted from e x i s t i n g ones by the more educated jongleurs. " 5 7 Yet 5 5 A r t h u r K. Moore, The. Secular L y r i c i n Middle English (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1 951 ) , p. 15. 5 6 j # Boutiere & A.-H. Schutz, Biographies des  Troubadours (Paris, A.-G. Nizet, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 149 translated by M. Valency, op. c i t . , p. 97 57A. Harman, op. c i t . , p. 77.' r e g a r d l e s s o f who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t he m e l o d i e s , we know f o r c e r t a i n t h a t t e x t and mus i c were a lway s meant t o f o rm an e n t i t y ; and any a t t e m p t t o a s s e s s t h e movement w i t h o u t t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t b o t h a s p e c t s w i l l v e r y o f t e n p roduce m i s l e a d i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . Of a l l t h e p o e t i c t y p e s e v o l v e d by t h e t r o u b a d o u r s , t h e l o v e song o r canco w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f f r om f i v e t o s even s t a n z a s was by f a r t he most p o p u l a r . The c o n v e n t i o n a l o p e n i n g o f t h e canco c o n t a i n e d some r e f e r e n c e t o n a t u r e . Sometimes t h e poe t d e s c r i b e s a w i n t e r s c e n e , Tant a i mo c o r p i e de j o y a , t o t me d e s n a t u r a . F l o r b l a n c h a , v e r h e l h ' e g r o y a me p a r l a f r e j u r a , c ' a b l o ven e t ab l a p l o y a me c r e i s l ' a v e n t u r a , p e r que mos p r e t z mont e poya e mos chans m e l h u r a . Tan a i a l c o r d ' a m o r , de j o i e de d o u s s o r , p e r que • 1 g e l s me. sembla f l o r e l a neus v e r d u r a . My h e a r t i s so f u l l o f j o y t h a t ' e v e r y t h i n g seems changed t o me: t h e f r o s t seems l i k e w h i t e , r e d and y e l l o w f l o w e r s . W i t h t h e w ind and r a i n my good f o r t u n e p r o s p e r s , so t h a t my fame i n c r e a s e s and r i s e s , and my songs i m p r o v e . My h e a r t i s so f u l l o f l o v e , o f j ° y * and o f sweetness t h a t i c e seems l i k e f l o w e r s t o me, and snow l i k e g r e e n e r y . 5 ° a l t h o u g h more o f t e n t h e sea son i s s p r i n g , u s u a l l y A p r i l o r May: J S .G. N i c h o l s , J r . & J . A . Ga lm, The Songs o f B e r n a r t  de V e n t a d o r n ( C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp . l 6 9 f f . Lancan folhon bosc e j a r r i c e'lh f l o r s pareis e.lh verdura pels vergers e pels pratz, e'lh auzel, c'an estat enlc, son gal desotz los fol h a t z , autresi'm chant e m'esbaudei e r e f l o r l s c e reverdei e f o l h segon me natura. When woods and thickets shoot, forth t h e i r leaves, and the flowers and greenery appear throughout the gardens and meadows, and the b i r d s , who have been sulking, are gay beneath the f o l i a g e , then I too sing, r e j o i c e and blossom. I am renewed and put fo r t h leaves according to my nature.59 In the above poem, the reawakening of spring i s the perfect backdrop for the adoration of a b e a u t i f u l lady. Sometimes, however, the lady does not return the poet's ardor, i n which case, the beauty of spring i s treated i n i r o n i c terms. Unrequited love has most unpleasant side e f f e c t s on the troubadour. He suffers countless sleepless nights and his body i s constantly racked with pain: Era'm requier sa costum 1 e son us amors, per cui plaing e sospir e v e i l l . . . Now love claims from me i t s t r i b u t e and i t s dues, and because of love I lament and sigh and wake. . . . The only antidote for t h i s torture i s just one kind look or word from the beloved. Such humility and obeisance to one's lady i s e n t i r e l y i n keeping with the courtly love ethic f o r i n t h i s t r a d i t i o n the knight's allegiance was to 5 9 i D i d . , pp. 107ff. uJoseph L i n s k i l l , The Poems of the Troubadour Raimbaut  de Vaqueiras (The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1964), pp. I46ff. his lover. He was her vassal, her "man." Of course the lady must be a suitable recipient of the knight's f i d e l i t y . That she i s young and b e a u t i f u l and has an impressive catalogue of virtues goes without question: even more important, she must be high born and, i d e a l l y , well endowed. Secrecy was also a standard courtly love convention and often a troubadour would give his lady a pseudonym or senhal i n order not to disclose her i d e n t i t y . For t h i s reason, Bertran de Born addresses many of his poems to a mysterious T r i s t a n while Riquier merely refe r s to a Belh  Deport. According to Dante's De v u l g a r i eloquentia, the music of the canco could either be through-composed or i n any one of the forms aab, abb and aabb. These patterns were not r e s t r i c t i v e . Indeed, one of the greatest delights of the entire Provencal repertory i s the manner i n which a poet-musician would introduce subtle variants into these basic forms. Nor were the troubadours required to make t h e i r melodic pattern conform to the rhyme scheme of the text, f o r one often.encounters "cases i n which a stanza, the poetic structure of which i s l a i d out i n a clear-cut pattern, i s set to a through-composed melody."61 The second most common class of poetry found In troub-adour l i t e r a t u r e i s the sirventes which according to Las  Leys d'Amors could be used to "treat of censure, or of !R. Perrin, op. c i t . , p. 68. rebuke i n general, by chastising the f o o l i s h and the wicked, and may i f one wishes, of the event of any war." 6 2 As such, the sirventes became the accepted l i t e r a r y medium for dealing with the p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s questions of the time. Other poetic types employed by the troubadours included the alba or "dawn song" sung to warn lovers of the approaching day; the tenso which involved a debate on some topic of i n t e r e s t ; the pastora, a pastoral poem centered around the courtship of a young shepherdess; and the d i s c o r t , i n which the poet complains about complications of one sort or another i n his love a f f a i r s . One must not suppose that the poet-musicians of southern France l i v e d i n i s o l a t i o n . As early as the middle of the twelfth century, constant interchange between the south and the north had prompted the trouv&res to write songs i n t h e i r own language of langue d ' o f l . On the whole, the northern poems closely resemble Provencal models, both i n terms of rhyme scheme, stanzaic structure and subject matter.63 The movement flo u r i s h e d throughout the thirteenth century and produced such notable trouv&res as Thibaut of Navarre (1201-53), Colin Muset (early 13th century), and Canon de Bethune (ca.. 1150-1224). "^Las Leys d'Amors c i t e d i n Ibid., p. 87. fi "3 Many troubadour l y r i c s were translated into langue  d * o i l and i t i s not uncommon to f i n d Provencal pieces side by side with trouvere songs i n northern chansonniers. The t r o u v e r e s i n t u r n are l i k e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g the P r o v e n c a l t r a d i t i o n to England, where the i n f l u e n c e of troubadour poetry had a decided e f f e c t on the course of the E n g l i s h l y r i c i n the t h i r t e e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h 64 c e n t u r i e s . H As f o r troubadour i n f l u e n c e i n Spain, some t h i r t y to f o r t y poets of Spanish e x t r a c t i o n wrote Provencal poems.65 Many troubadours v i s i t e d Spain, e s p e c i a l l y under the patronage of such nobles as Alphonso I I of Aragon and Alphonso V I I I of C a s t i l e . Even more i n f l u e n c e d by P r o v e n c a l p o e t r y was the Portuguese l y r i c t r a d i t i o n , which " d e c l a r e s i t s e l f by form and content to be d i r e c t l y borrowed from the troubadours. " 6 6 Prom Prance, the troubadour movement spread northward to Germany, home of the Minnesinger. While one r a r e l y f i n d s Minnesinger poems s l a v i s h l y i m i t a t i n g the P r o v e n c a l corpus, 64 For a d i s c u s s i o n of the P r o v e n c a l i n f l u e n c e on E n g l i s h l y r i c p o e t r y , see H.J. Chaytor, The Troubadours and England (Cambridge: U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1923); Jean Audiau, Les  Troubadours et l ' A n g l e t e r r e ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e P h i l o s o p h i q u e J~. v r i n , 1927); and E l i n o r Rees, "Provencal Elements i n the E n g l i s h V e r n a c u l a r L y r i c s of Manuscript Harley 2253" i n S t a n f o r d S t u d i e s i n Language and L i t e r a t u r e ( S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a l i f o r n i a , 1941) pp. 81-95. Harley MS. 2253 i n the B r i t i s h Museum i n p a r t i c u l a r shows obvious t r a c e s o f the s t y l e , genre, and technique of the P r o v e n c a l masters. Dating from ca. 1315, i t i s the e a r l i e s t extant c o l l e c t i o n of E n g l i s h v e r n a c u l a r l y r i c s . 65H.J. Chaytor, op. c i t . , p. 120. 6 6 I b i d . , p. 125. they do, however, show a reliance on troubadour forms (the canco becomes the Lied; the alba, the Tagelied), and technique. The Germans chose to i d e a l i z e women i n general rather than l a v i s h t h e i r affections on i n d i v i d u a l l a d i e s , and there i s , as a r e s u l t , a moral tone to t h e i r poetry which i s not found i n the troubadour l y r i c s . The Provencal movement spread also south into I t a l y , where i t was f i r s t introduced by such troubadours as Raimbaut de Vaqueiras, Gaucelm P a i d i t , and Aimeric de Peguillan. Throughout the thirteenth century, I t a l i a n poetry was written e n t i r e l y i n langue d'oc U n t i l Dante pointed out i n his Convivio that his colleagues should be writing i n t h e i r own vernacular tongue. As for Dante himself, "the strongest and most e a s i l y detectible current that flows i n his early work i s the l y r i c stream whose fountain head i s the love cult of Provence."67 So great was the impact of the Provencal t r a d i t i o n , that "before sinking into the abyss of o b l i v i o n , the art of the troubadours had l a i d i t s imprint son a l l l y r i c a l l i t e r a -tures of Europe."^S Much has been written on the l i t e r a r y aspects of the troubadour movement. Throughout the nineteenth century, a number of scholars were involved i n the arduous task of c o l l e c t i n g , e d i t i n g and i n some cases t r a n s l a t i n g the 2600 6 7T.G. Bergin, op. c i t . , p. 45 ft Pi R. B r i f f a u l t , op. c i t . , p. 160. l y r i c s s t i l l i n existence. During the twentieth century many valuable monographs on the works of i n d i v i d u a l poets have been published. These have been concerned not only with recreating the l i v e s of the troubadours, tracking down po e t i c a l references, and solving d i a l e c t a l and etymological problems, but also with examining the poetry from an aesthetic point of view. The music of the troubadours has not fared nearly.so well. In f a c t , many musicologists treat the movement along with that of the trouvSres rather than considering i t as a separate and d i s t i n c t phenomena. Such a practice i s often detrimental to our understanding of the Provencaux. For instance, many surveys which investigate the area of musical structure take t h e i r examples from the trouvere repertory. They are therefore mainly concerned with such melodic types as the ballade, v i r e l a i and rondeau, forms of primary i n t e r e s t i n any study of the music of northern France but "of minor importance i n troubadour l i t e r a t u r e . " ^ 9 P r i e d r i c h Gennrich also treats the problems under the broad heading of "medieval song," 7 0 a term which obviously includes f a r more than the Provencal pieces. ^ A l b e r t Seay, Music i n the Medieval World (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1965), p. 64. 7 0 F . Gennrich, Grundrlss einer Formenlehre des m i t t e l -a l t e r l i c h e n Liedes. The study o f troubadour music was begun i n the e a r l y years of the present century by Aubry and Beck. Besides t h e i r work on the rhythmic problem mentioned e a r l i e r , Beck h i m s e l f p u b l i s h e d many of the melodies i n f a c s i m i l e . While the s u b j e c t caught the a t t e n t i o n o f many r e p u t a b l e s c h o l a r s d u r i n g and a f t e r t h a t time, r e s e a r c h has l a r g e l y been c a r r i e d on i n l a t e r years by only one h i s t o r i a n , F r i e d r i c h G e n n rich. Gennrich has performed an i n v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e to-troubadour s c h o l a r s h i p by p u b l i s h i n g the f i r s t , and f o r the most p a r t a very a c c u r a t e , t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the extant P r o v e n c a l pieces.?1 In a d d i t i o n t o t r a n s c r i p t i o n , h i s work i n the troubadour f i e l d has l a r g e l y been concerned with the study of c o n t r a f a c t a ( p i e c e s whose t e x t s are set to p r e -e x i s t i n g melodies) and the Formenlehre problem. Few o t h e r s c h o l a r s are p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the music of the Pr o v e n c a l masters at t h i s time. Fewer s t i l l are p u b l i s h i n g t h e i r f i n d i n g s i n E n g l i s h , although a number of e x c e l l e n t l i t e r a r y c r i t i q u e s have r e c e n t l y been c o n t r i b u t e d by B r i t i s h and North American h i s t o r i a n s . Another o p i n i o n on v a r i o u s aspects o f the troubadour movement, as w e l l as a f r e s h l o o k at the r e p e r t o r y as a whole, i s i n o r d e r . Perhaps the f o l l o w i n g chapters w i l l not only 71 1 F. Gennrich, Der M u s i k a l i s c h e Nachlass der Troubadours: K r i t i s c h e Ausgabe der Melodien, V o l . I l l o f Summa musicae  medii a e v i (Darmstadt, 1958). d i s p e l c e r t a i n misconceptions that have arisen during the years but w i l l also draw attention to several areas of study -which unaccountably have been ignored by musicologists. Chapter I includes a discussion of the troubadour melodies categorized according to poet. The primary purpose of such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s to determine whether-there are any features present to indicate whether one composer wrote the music accompanying the texts of a p a r t i c u l a r poet. To make analyses of t h i s type f e a s i b l e , , discussion i s l i m i t e d to those poets for whom ten or more texts survive with music. Included i n Chapter II i s a study of the three most important early l i t e r a r y sources dealing with the art of the troubadours. Two of these, De v u l g a r i eloquentia and Las Leys d'Amors have been examined by both p h i l o l o g i s t s and musicologists. A l i t e r a r y c r i t i q u e of the former i s con-7 2 tained i n almost.any.discussion of Dante's works; the l a t t e r has been given extensive treatment by Francis Heuffer. 7^ As for the musical aspects of these t r e a t i s e s , we may turn to 7 4 the work of Robert Perrin and others. However, the t h i r d 'A recent study, for example, i s T.G. Bergin's Dante published i n 1965. 7^See Francis Heuffer, The Troubadours (London: Chatto & Windus, 1878). R.H. Pe r r i n , op. c i t . document, La Doctrina de compondre d i c t a t z has received v i r t u a l l y no attention from music h i s t o r i a n s , and i t i s with t h i s t r e a t i s e that the largest portion of Chapter II i s concerned. The f i n a l chapter i s devoted to an examination of the troubadour repertory as a whole, and p a r t i c u l a r l y to i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to Gregorian chant. In t h i s regard, such matters as t o n a l i t y , melodic progressions, general s t y l e , and so on, are given consideration. Five appendices augment the present study. The f i r s t i s a map of France at the time when the Provencal movement was at i t s height. The second, a l i s t and d e s c r i p t i o n of the manuscripts which contain Provencal music. Appendix I I I includes manuscript and secondary sources for each troubadour meiody, while Appendix IV gives the range and f i n a l s for the repertory. The entire text of La Doctrina de compondre  di c t a t z comprises Appendix V. Errors and omissions present i n the Romania e d i t i o n of La Doctrina have kindly been corrected by W.H.W. F i e l d , whose English t r a n s l a t i o n of the work i s soon to be published. The tec h n i c a l apparatus used throughout t h i s study i s as follows. A l l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s of troubadour music have been taken from Gennrich*s Musikalische Nachlass der Troubadours. These have been modified to some extent for our purposes, however. Instead of Gennrich*s modal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the pieces, chant notation i s used. None of the time values of the modal versions are included although a l l rests have been of musica f i c t a . These I have not included, choosing rather to r e t a i n only those accidentals which are actually present i n the manuscripts. After every reference to a troubadour melody, there are parentheses containing two numbers: the f i r s t number refers to my own index (found i n Appendices III and IV) which i s a compilation of the pieces arranged a l p h a b e t i c a l l y by poet. The second number refers to Gennrich's index which, i n most I cases, l i s t s the poets chronologically. I: have used the eighth note as the basic unit of chant and beamed a l l the notes for one s y l l a b l e . The semivocalis i s indicated by a small note head ( h ); the p l i c a , by a diagonal stroke through the stem ( ). A l l pieces appear i n the transposed G c l e f . The following system has been used i n i n d i c a t i n g actual pitches i n the text: r e t a i n e d . ' 3 Gennrich supplied a number of B f l a t s by means 3 5' '^These rests are indicated by a short v e r t i c a l stroke through the highest s t a f f l i n e . An ascending s c a l e passage then, appears as f o l l o w s : 2 . A ^ £ ^ £ £ ^ a b c J _ o ^ e ^ f J _ g _ | _ a j _ b_V and so on. When making g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e t o a note but not r e f e r r i n g t o s p e c i f i c p i t c h e s , upper case l e t t e r s without u n d e r - s c o r i n g have been used. For example, i n Mode C ( g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e ) , the f i n a l may be c_ or c_*_ ( s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s ) . For purposes of comparison, a l l the chants taken from the L i b e r U s u a l l s have been n o t a t e d i n a manner s i m i l a r to t h a t adopted f o r the troubadour p i e c e s . The q u i l i s m a , which does not appear i n the P r o v e n c a l melodies, has been i n d i c a t e d K i n the chants by an "x" and a stem ( * J ). Page numbers from the L i b e r are e n c l o s e d i n b r a c k e t s . F i n a l l y , w i t h r e f e r e n c e to q u o t a t i o n s i n P r o v e n c a l , e l i s i o n s have been n o t a t e d by means of a c e n t e r e d p e r i o d such as found i n the word Be-m. CHAPTER I THE COMPOSERS OP THE MELODIES Part 1. The Melodies of Guiraut Riquier For over a century, s c h o l a r s have devoted more a t t e n t i o n t o the poetry of the troubadour movement than t o i t s music. Such a s i t u a t i o n i s understandable. Not only are t h e r e extant t e n times as many t e x t s as melodies, but i t has been g e n e r a l l y h e l d t h a t the q u a l i t y o f the melodies i s somewhat i n f e r i o r t o t h a t of the po e t r y . B e s i d e s , f a r more i s known about the poets of the P r o v e n c a l songs than about the composers. Of the 259 p i e c e s whose t e x t and music have s u r v i v e d , 233 are a s s o c i a t e d with p a r t i c u l a r p oets; but of the composers, almost n o t h i n g i s known. What l i t t l e evidence p e r t a i n i n g t o the a u t h o r s h i p o f the melodies we do possess, suggests that a number o f the poets q u i t e p o s s i b l y wrote t h e i r own music. One of B e r n a r t de Ventadorn's v i d a s , f o r example, d i s c u s s e s i n glowing terms the poet's "vers e chanssos" (verses and songs) w r i t t e n f o r the Vi s c o u n t o f Ventadorn's wi f e and the Duchess of Normandy.^ Bernar t h i m s e l f r e f e r s to the "tantas bonas chansos e tan bo v e r s " (many good songs and such good v e r s e s ) which he i s capable of w r i t i n g . 2 Yet the " g r e a t e s t of the troubadours" i s not always so c o n f i d e n t o f h i s a b i l i t y : 1S.G. N i c h o l s J r . & J.A. Galm, The Songs of B e r n a r t  de Ventadorn, p. 2 9 f . 2 I b i d . , p. 6 2 f . Ja. mals no ser a i chantaire n i de l ' e s c o l a n'Eblo, que mos chantars no v a l galre n i mas voutas n i mei so. Ni res qu'eu fassa n i d i a no conosc que pros me s i a . n i no«i v e i melhuramen. I w i l l no longer be a singer or of the school of Lord Elbe, fo r neither my singing, my voice, nor my melodies do me any good; and no matter what I do or say, I do not know how i t may p r o f i t me and I see no improvement.3 P e i r o l , a colleague of Bernart, also seems to be a musician, and i n a tenso by the l a t t e r i s chided for giving up his creative a c t i v i t y : P e i r o l , com avetz tan estat que no fezetz vers n i chanso? Respondetz me, per c a l razo reman que non avetz chantat P e i r o l , why have you gone so long without writing poetry or songs? T e l l me, for what reason haven't you sung? 4 Peire V i d a l has l i t t l e doubt of his worth as a poet-musician. He unselfconsciously announces: "I know how to j o i n and unite words and melody so well that no man can equal me i n precious and r i c h s o n g - m a k i n g . i n another poem, he 3 I b i d . , pp. 1 2 9 - 3 1 . 4 I b i d . , pp. 1 3 5 f . ^Peire V i d a l c i t e d i n B. Smythe, "Troubadour Songs," Music and Letters, II ( 1 9 2 1 ) , 267. t a l k s a b o u t t h e " n e w s o n g w i t h t h e n e w m e l o d y " t h a t h e w i s h e s t o p r e s e n t . ^ C o n s i d e r a s w e l l , t h e t o r n a d a o f o n e o f M a r c a b r u n ' s p o e m s : L o v e r s e « l s o n v u e i l l e n v i e r a * n J a u f r e R u d e l o u t r a m a r . T h e w o r d s a n d t u n e I w i s h t o s e n d t o J a u f r e R u d e l b e y o n d t h e s e a . 7 J a u f r e t o o , w a s b o t h p o e t a n d c o m p o s e r a s h i s v i d a s u g g e s t s : . . . e f e s d e l e i s m a i n s v e r s a b b o n s s o n s , a b p a u b r e s m o t z . . . . H e m a d e m a n y s o n g s w i t h g o o d m e l o d i e s , b u t p o o r w o r d s . " S o m e t i m e s a p o e t w o u l d e v e n o f f e r a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s t y l e o f m e l o d y t o w h i c h h e w a s g o i n g t o s e t a p a r t i c u l a r t e x t . R a i m b a u t d e V a q u e i r a s , f o r e x a m p l e , s t a t e s t h a t h e w i l l u s e a " s i m p l e m e l o d y " f o r h i s s i r v e n t e s " E e u s s o n e t z " : L e u s s o n e t z , s i c u m s u o i l l , v u o i l l a d e s e m o n c h a n , c ' u n s i r v e n t e s p r e z a n v u o i l l f a r ; I s e e k f o r t h w i t h i n my s o n g a s i m p l e m e l o d y , a s i s my w o n t , f o r I w i s h t o c o m p o s e a s i r v e n t e s w o r t h y o f p r a i s e . 3 6 I b l d . 7 H . J . C h a y t o r , o p . c i t . , p . 4 4 . 8 j . B o u t i & r e & A . - H . S c h u t z , o p . c i t . , p p . 6 2 - 3 . 9 J . L i n s k i l l , o p . c i t . , p p . 8 9 - 9 3 . References such as the above would seem t o I n d i c a t e t h a t at l e a s t some of the P r o v e n c a l masters d i d , i n f a c t , w r i t e the melodies f o r t h e i r poems. A number of s c h o l a r s , however, have tended to d i s c o u n t such a p o s s i b i l i t y . Reese i m p l i e s t h a t the troubadours were more concerned w i t h w r i t i n g p o e t r y than music and l e f t i t t o j o n g l e u r s t o supply them with " c u r r e n t or new m e l o d i e s . " 1 0 Westrup a l s o q u e s t i o n s whether "the poets always wrote t h e i r own t u n e s . L i k e Reese, he too f a v o u r s the i d e a t h a t j o n g l e u r s were o f t e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e t t i n g troubadour poems t o music. Doubtless, both s i t u a t i o n s e x i s t e d : i n some cases i t was the j o n g l e u r s who wrote melodies f o r t h e i r masters' p o e t r y ; at o t h e r times i t was the troubadours themselves. Of p a r t i c u l a r I n t e r e s t i n t h i s r e g a r d i s a r a z o a l l e g e d l y r e p o r t i n g an i n c i d e n t between Arnaut D a n i e l and a j o n g l e u r which took p l a c e at R i c h a r d of England's c o u r t . The s t o r y i s so i n f o r m a t i v e as e n t e r t a i n i n g t h a t i t deserves to be quoted i n f u l l : E f o n aventura q u ' e l f o n en l a c o r t d e l r e y R i c h a r t d ' E n g l a t e r r a , et e s t a n t en l a c o r t , us a u t r e s j o g l a r s escomes l o com e l t r o b a v a en pus caras rimas que e l . A r n a u t [ z ] tenc so ad esquern e f e r o n messios, c a s c u [ s ] de son p a l a f r e , que no f e r a en poder d e l r e y . E«l r e y [ s ] enclaus cascu en una cambra. E«N A r n a u t [ z ] , de f a s t i que n'ac, non ac poder que l a s s e s un mot ab a u t r e . LQ j o g l a r [ s ] f e s son cantar l e u e t o s t ; e [ t ] e l s non a v i a n mas detz j o r n s d ' e s p a z i , e d e v i a * s j u t g a r per l o rey a cap de c i n e j o r n s . Le j o g l a r [ s ] demandet Reese, op. c i t . , p. 2 1 3 . H j . A . Westrup, op. c i t . , p. 2 2 5 . a»N Arnaut s i a v i a f a g , e«N A r n a u t [ z ] respos que oc, passat a t r e s j o r n s ; e non.n a v i a p e s s a t . E ' l j o g l a r [ s ] cantava t o t a nueg sa canso, per so que be l a saubes. E«N A r n a u t [ z ] pesset c o ' l t r a y s s e s i s q u e r n ; t a n que venc una nueg, e«l j o g l a r [ s ] l a cantava, e-N ArnautCz] l a va t o t a a r r e t e n e r , e»l so. E can f o r o denan l o r e y , N 1 A r n a u t [ z ] d i s que v o l i a r e t r a i r e sa chanso, e comenset mot be l a chanso q u e - l j o g l a r [ s ] a v i a f a c h a . E ' l j o g l a r [ s ] , can l ' a u z i c , gardet l o en l a c a r a , e d i s q u ' e l l ' a v i a f a c h a . E»l reys d i s co-s p o d i a f a r ; e \ l j o g l a r [ s ] preguet a l r e y q u ' e l ne saubes l o v e r ; e-1 r e y [ s ] demandec a-N Arnaut com e r a e s t a t . E«N. A r n a u t [ z ] -comtet l i t o t com era e s t a t , e-1 r e y [ s ] ac ne gran gaug e tenc so t o t a gran esquern; e f o r o a q u i t i a t l i gatge, et a cascu f e s donar b e l s dos.12 I t happened that he was i n the c o u r t of K i n g R i c h a r d of England; and when he was at t h i s c o u r t , another j o n g l e u r d e f i e d him, s a y i n g t h a t he h i m s e l f wrote i n r i c h e r rhymes than he [ i . e . than Arnaut D a n i e l ] . Arnaut took t h i s as a j o k e ; they w a g e r e d — each one h i s h o r s e , with the k i n g h o l d i n g the b e t s , t h a t the o t h e r would not do as much. The k i n g shut up each o f them i n a room. Arnaut, because he was so bored, was i n c a p a b l e of p u t t i n g two words t o g e t h e r . The j o n g l e u r composed h i s song r e a d i l y and q u i c k l y ; they only had t e n days a v a i l a b l e to them, and the d e c i s i o n was a l r e a d y due i n f i v e days. The j o n g l e u r asked Arnaut i f he had a l r e a d y composed h i s song; Arnaut s a i d t h a t he had, t h r e e days a g o — whereas he had not even thought about i t . The j o n g l e u r spent the whole n i g h t s i n g i n g h i s song, i n order t o know i t th o r o u g h l y . Arnaut thought of a way of p l a y -i n g him a t r i c k , u n t i l one n i g h t came: the j o n g l e u r was s i n g i n g ( i . e . h i s song) and Arnaut set t o memorizing the whole t h i n g i n c l u d i n g the melody. When they were b e f o r e the k i n g , Arnaut s a i d t h a t he wished to perform h i s song, and he s t a r t e d w e l l upon the song t h a t the j o n g l e u r had composed. The j o n g l e u r , when he heard i t , looked him i n the face and d e c l a r e d t h a t i t was he who had composed i t . The k i n g asked how. t h i s c o u l d be; the j o n g l e u r asked the k i n g t o B o u t i e r e & Schutz, op. c i t . , p. 60. learn the truth of the matter, and so the king asked Arnaut how t h i s had happened. Arnaut t o l d him every-thing as i t had b e f a l l e n . The king enjoyed t h i s greatly and thought the a f f a i r was a great joke. The bets were released, and the king had g i f t s given to both. , . .13 The whole business of Arnaut Daniel " s t e a l i n g " the jongleur's song i s treated as a joke, the idea presumably being that the troubadour's reputation as a poet and musician was so well established that he could p u l l o f f such a prank without fear of the consequences. But we might i n f e r that-just the opposite s i t u a t i o n was more common: that troubadours normally wrote t h e i r own songs. In any case, It must have been taken for granted that both troubadours and jongleurs were capable of w r i t i n g songs or King Richard would never have supervised the wager i n the f i r s t place. It i s not d i f f i c u l t to imagine the Provencal a r t i s t as both poet and composer; the emphasis placed on text and music as a single unit i s very well known. But only a thorough examination of the melodies w i l l make further speculation possible. I f some of the troubadours wrote the music for t h e i r poems or, at l e a s t , i f a single composer was involved, a close study of the melodies of a given poet might be expected to reveal ce r t a i n s t y l i s t i c features or compositional mannerisms that would seem to v e r i f y t h i s assumption. Such an examination would be l i m i t e d , necessarily, JThe English t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s razo has been prepared by F.R. Hamlin. t o t h o s e p o e t s f o r whom a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f poems and accompan iments have s u r v i v e d . I t i s o b v i o u s l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d e c i d e whethe r a poe t w r o t e h i s own mus i c on t h e b a s i s o f two o r t h r e e e xamp le s . I f we c o n s i d e r , t h e r e f o r e , o n l y t h o s e t r o u b a d o u r s w i t h more t h a n , s a y , t e n poems comp le t e w i t h t h e i r m u s i c , a t l e a s t seven can be c o n s i d e r e d : G u i r a u t R i q u i e r Raimon de M i r a v a l B e r n a r t de V e n t a d o r n P e i r o l Gauce lm F a i d i t F o l q u e t de M a r s e i l l a P e i r e V i d a l (48 p i e c e s e x t a n t ) (22 p i e c e s ) (19 p i e c e s ) (17 p i e c e s ) (14 p i e c e s ) (13 p i e c e s ) (12 p i e c e s ) By f a r t h e l a r g e s t number o f m e l o d i e s a ccompany ing t h e t e x t s o f a s i n g l e poe t i s t h e f o r t y - e i g h t songs o f G u i r a u t R i q u i e r , t r a d i t i o n a l l y known as t h e " l a s t o f t h e t r o u b a d o u r s . " I n s t u d y i n g t h e s e p i e c e s , one i s i m m e d i a t e l y i m p r e s s e d by t h e i r o b v i o u s s i m i l a r i t i e s . Many, f o r i n s t a n c e , a r e r e l a t e d t h r o u g h t h e use o f i d e n t i c a l m e l o d i c p a s s a g e s : E x . 2. (a) " S ' i e u j a t r o b a t non a gue s " (130, 234) (b) " Q u i ' m d i s s e s , non a dos a n s " ( 126 , 230) ( c ) " Y v e r n s no-m t e de c h a n t a r emba r ga t " ( 136 , 240) use 7 dfUe deiy si fu&<-r>ah-> Qu\cu cAan> pan vutlh I n o n e c a s e n o f e w e r t h a n s e v e n p i e c e s h a v e a s e c t i o n i n c o m m o n : E x . 3 . ( a ) " A b l o t e m p s a g r a d i u , g a i " ( 8 9 , 1 9 3 ) ( b ) " A m o r s , p o s a v o s f a i l l p o d e r s " ( 9 5 , 1 9 9 ) ( c ) " P o s s a b e r s n o - r a v a l n i s e n s " ( 1 2 4 , 2 2 8 ) ( d ) " G a u c h a i , c a r e s p e r d ' a m o r " (107, 2 1 1 ) ( e ) " Q u i - m d i s s e s , n o n a d o s a n s " ( 1 2 6 , 2 3 0 ) ( f ) " E n t o t q u a n q u ' e u s a u p e s " ( 1 0 4 , 208_) ( g ) " Q u i - s t b l g u e s " ( 1 2 7 , 2 3 1 ) X ijj — h — 1 — A? J J * — - i— j i — j —j j 4 J ~rJ 1 & -Far Pai de, ct>) •blh, Pu5 6a,-ber£ nOm Mai 5ens i $auch ciij yuar e& -per, --70^-* fl ^  Y ^ ; h 1 - 4 - —=^=4 TJK w j^ -v J 9 \—m. J 1—w ^ — i Quit fol — A n u m b e r o f r e c u r r i n g s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n u p t o f i f t e e n o r s i x t e e n n o t e s , E x . 4 . ( a ) " A i s s i c o m e e l q u e f r a n c a m e n e s t a i " ( 9 1 , 195) ( b ) " A n c n o n a i g u i n u l t e m p s d e f a r c h a n s o " ( 9 7 , 201) it b h J> h a n a S 4 0. rV eu* be/r, flues -t&> - Va/ -fran- cha* - m&n £ £>/ ttrao maf per don en — Jr&Cj J'OJ- mOC^ b u t t h e u s u a l l e n g t h o f s u c h p a s s a g e s i s s o m e w h a t s h o r t e r : E x . 5 . ( a ) " B e - m v o l g r a d ' a m o r p a r t i r " ( 9 9 , 203) ( b ) " C r e i r e m ' a n f a g m e i d e z i r " ( 1 0 0 , 2 04) (A) n & Qj.ef p u s com pi'.r en S i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n b e f o u n d b e t w e e n a. n u m b e r o f o t h p i e c e s : Ex. 6. (a) " A i s s i pert poder Amors" (92, 196) (b) "De far chanso sui marritz" (101, 205) de •— vers, (b) 3 3 ni tptais Ex. 7. (a) "Jhesus C r i s t z , f i l l s de Deu v i u " (111, 215) (b) "S'ieu j a trobat non agues" (130, 234) (a) (to 6 ban fa/-Ex. 8. (a) "Quar dregz n i f e s " (125, 229) (b) "Tan v e i qu'es ab j o i pretz mermatz" (133, 237) ~iW-~9 font son po -0 der Ex. 9. (a) "Mout me tenc be per pagatz" (116, 220) (b) "No cugei mais d'esta razo chantar" (117, 221) 6^6 ai -ians d'aco-trtS 1> ^ r. ry J ) No den-ten-detj $i Ex. 10. (a) "Creire m'an fag mei de z i r " (100, 204) (b) "Tan v e i qu'es ab j o i pretz mermatz" (133, 237) m i i- K h i? i\ rm n A •** y * V 1 1  h 3 — ^ — Ex. 11. (a) "Grans afans es ad ome vergoignos" (103, 212) (b) "Humils, forfagz, repres e penedens" (109, 213) GO r < f ~7V Jitzj fhf *aa.le> bes T — r •±2 R e l a t e d passages such as those j u s t examined are f a r too s t r i k i n g t o pass u n n o t i c e d . The very f a c t t h a t they occur at a l l , l e t alone i n such q u a n t i t y , i s s u f f i c i e n t t o s e t the R i q u i e r p i e c e s a p a r t from a l l other songs i n the troubadour r e p e r t o r y : no o t h e r c o l l e c t i o n of melodies set to the t e x t s o f a s i n g l e poet e x h i b i t such an e x t e n s i v e use of common melodic m a t e r i a l . Perhaps even more s t r i k i n g are the f r e q u e n t r e c u r r e n c e s of the s m a l l e r u n i t s of melody upon which l o n g e r s e c t i o n s are themselves based. These c o m p o s i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g b l o c k s ( u s u a l l y s h o r t melismas) occur so o f t e n t h a t they can be s a i d t o comprise almost the e n t i r e r e p e r t o r y of R i q u i e r p i e c e s . Such segments, or "molecular u n i t s " as we w i l l c a l l them, i n v o l v e between f o u r and e i g h t notes, e i t h e r e x a c t l y r e p e a t e d or s l i g h t l y v a r i e d . They appear i n n e a r l y every melody. The most f r e q u e n t l y employed m o l e c u l a r u n i t i s the f o u r -note f i g u r e shown below: Ex. 12. Formula l a ' ' ' „ T h i s note group (which i s the u n i t reduced to i t s b a s i c shape) o f t e n occurs without e l a b o r a t i o n ; but i t i s more o f t e n extended i n v a r i o u s ways: Ex. 13. (a) " A i s s i quon es sobronrada" (.93, 197) (b) "Crelre m'an fag mel d e z l r " (100, 204) • (c) "Ab pauc er decazutz" (90, 19_4) (d) "Be-m meraveill co non es envejos" ( 9 ° , 202) (e) "Ab lo temps agradiu, g a l " (89, 193) (f) "Anc mals per a l t a l razo" (96, 2007 air £ 4£2_ Although the f i r s t note of Formula l a i s frequently an a, the unit can be found s t a r t i n g on every other scale degree as well: Ex. 14. (a) " S i ja-m deu mos chans valer" (131, 2 3 5 ) (b) "Ab pauc er decazutz" (90, 194) (c) "Mout me tenc be per pagatz" (116, 220) (d) " A i s s i pert poder Amors" ( 9 2 , 19_6_) (e) "Ab pauc er decazutz" (90, 194) (f) "Pies de t r i s t o r , marritz" T l 2 2 , 226) -r—f-f. U--T > V -fa,u> - AO*~^ act 3 I if " ' The inversion of Formula l a produces a variant also often used i n the Riquier melodies: Ex. 15. Formula lb Formula l b , l i k e l a , appears on any note of the scale and undergoes s i m i l a r elaborations: Ex. 16. (a) "En tot quan qu'eu saupes" (104, 208) (b) "Razos m'adul voler qu'eu chan soven" (128, 232) (c) " A l s s i quon es sobronrada" ( 9 3 , 197) (d) "Mentaugutz" (115, 219) (e) "Grans afans ad ome vergoignos" ( 1 0 8 , 212) (f) " S i ja«m deu mos chans valer" (131, 235) (g) "Creire m'an fag mei de z i r " (100, 204) 60 ZZL. ft - mors n r i \V 1 * f—K 0 A J -j \ 1—* * + * = 1 ^ J J *b -<tu ners S21. w—/ < ^  The Formulas H a and l i b begin with a short scale passage instead of revolving around one note as does Formula I. Formula I l a , which always commences with the following f i g u r e , Ex. 17. Formula I l a 0 4* * + appears on a l l scale degrees except c_ and i s elongated i n the manner of Formula '1:15 Ex. 19. (a) "Pies de t r i s t o r , marritz e d o l o i r o s " ( 1 2 2 , 226) (b) " A i s s i quon es sobronrada" ( 9 3 , 197) (c) "Humils, forfagz, repres e penedens" ( 1 0 9 , 213) (d) "De f a r chanso s u i marritz" ( 1 0 1 , 205) (e) "Mentaugutz" (115, 219) 5 JtiL -r*t- ZZtl VI (<£) 771 >i h 5ui - /*>ar~rib2j A * * w f w f 1 5 w h i l e there i s not an exact model of Formula I l a s t a r t i n g on c_, a note group i n "Pos astres no m'es donatz" ( 1 2 3 , 227) c l o s e l y approximates i t : Ex. 18. Formula l i b which begins with a descending s c a l e , Ex. 2 0 . Formula l i b commences on any s c a l e degree and appears i n I t s b a s i c shape or wi t h e x t e n s i o n s : Ex. 21 . (a) "Anc mais per a i t a l r a z o " ( 9 6 , 2 0 0 ) (b) "Ogan no cugei chantar" (119, 223) (c) "Mout me tenc be per pagatz" (116, 220) (d) "Pos sabers no-m v a l n i sens" (124, 228 I) (e) " S i ja-m deu mos chans v a l e r " ( 1 3 1 , 235) ( f ) "Quar dregz n i f e s " ( 1 2 5 , 229) (g) "Qui-s t o l g u e s " (127, 231) A leap Is the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of Formula I I I . Like l i b , Formula.Ilia begins with a descending s c a l e 1 6 (usually sung on one s y l l a b l e ) and i s followed by an upward l e a p : 1 7 Ex. 23. (a) "Ops m1 agra que mos volers" (120, 224) . (b) "No cugei mais d'esta razo chantar" (117, 221) (c) "Lo mons par enchantatz" (113, 217) (d) "Anc mais per a i t a l razo" ( 9 6 , 200) (e) "No-m s a i d'amor s i m'es mala o bona" ( 1 1 8 , 222) (f) "Amors, pos a vos f a i l l poders" ( 9 5 , 199) l^An ascending scale under one s y l l a b l e followed by a leap does not occur i n the Riquier songs. 1 7 A n i s o l a t e d example of a downward leap can be found i n "Razos m'adui voler qu'eu chan soven" ( 1 2 8 , 2 3 2 ) : Ex. 22." Unlike Formulas I and I I , Formula I l i a i s seldom elaborated. The two examples shown below are exceptional: Ex. 24. (a) "Be.m volgra d'amor p a r t i r " ( 9 9 , 203) (b) "Pos sabers no-m v a l n i sens" (124, 228 II) ' Formula I l l b substitutes the following figure for the scale passage of I l i a : Ex. 25. Formula I l l b In t h i s case, the leap can be ascending or descending: 1 0 g and b_ as s t a r t i n g notes f o r Formula I l l b do not appear i n the Riquier corpus. The inversion of t h i s mole-cular unit i s extremely rare, one of the few being found i n "SI chans me pogues valensa" ( 1 2 9 , 233.): Ex. 26. Ex. 2 7 . (a) "Be^m meraveill co non es envejos" ( 9 8 , 202) < (b) "Anc non aigui nul temps de far chanso" (97, 201) (c) "Pos astres no m'es donatz" (123, 227_) (d) "No cugei mais d'esta razo chantar" (117 , 221) (e) "Mout me tenc be per pagatz" (116, 220) (f) "Qui-m disses, non a dos ans" (126, 230) (g) "Qui-s tolgues" ( 1 2 7 , 231) (h) "En re no-s mei l l u r a " T T 0 3 , 207) (1) "Be-m meraveill co non es envejos" ( 9 8 , 202) ses Ssh nalh J e - cors as'—£r«s CdO — I f e ' V J 1 —r*- 1*"* pre+x v e - r a i n o n -Formula I l l b s t a r t i n g on d and ending on f occurs so o f t e n t h a t i t and i t s f r e q u e n t v a r i a n t s r e q u i r e s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a -t i o n : Ex. 2 8 . (a) " A i s s i quon es sobronrada" ( 9 3 , 197) (b) "A mon dan s u i e s f o r c i u s " ( 9 4 , 198) (c) "Per p r o a r s i pro p r i v a t z " (121 , 225) (d) "No c u g e i mais d ' e s t a razo chantar" (117, 221) Generally speaking, the above three formulas comprise those segments of the Riquier pieces with several notes per s y l l a b l e . Because the melodies contain so many short melismas, these formulas are also correspondingly frequent. Yet the t y p i c a l Riquier song i s not e n t i r e l y melismatic. In between the melismas are s y l l a b i c sections usually consisting of three to f i v e notes. Here too, we f i n d numerous s i m i l a r i -t i e s and duplications. Often one of these sections includes the leap of a t h i r d ( i n t e r v a l s of a fourth or larger are f a r less frequent): Ex. 2 9 . Ca) " X r l s t i a s v e i p e r i l l a r " ( 1 3 5 , 239) (b) "Be-in meravelll co non es envejos" ( 9 8 , 202) (c) "No.m s a i d'amor s i m'es mala o bona" ( 1 1 8 , 222) (d) " A i s s i pert poder Amors" ( 9 2 , 196) (e) "Anc mais per a i t a l razo" ( 9 6 , 200) (f) "Mout me tenc be per pegatz" ( 1167 220) (g) "En re no«s meillura" ( 1 0 3 , 207) (a.) 7X£ mi it cTtis-sen-lurs ft*- & yen die b«« «p~ » ^ c n ~ W « t ; 8 ftr owe Kwn non fer e ho/  non 2: 3 * i r.«n -fen p r o The most prominent arrangement, however, i s an ascending scale from f to a,19 i n ^Such sections occur i n twenty-three of the Riquier melodies. Ex. 30. (a) "Qui-s tolgues" (127, 231) (b) "Pos sabers no-m v a l n l sens" (124, 228 I) (6? -fit: $3-hers mm although s i m i l a r step-wise progressions s t a r t i n g on c, d, e, and g_ are not uncommon: Ex. 31. (a) "Yverns no-m te do chantar embargat" (136, 240) (b) "Karitatz et Amors e fes" (112, 216) (c) "Per proar s i pro p r i v a t z " (121, 225) (d) "No cugei mais d'esta razo chantar" (117, 221) «§6n at pane del 1 o crei Chan-*0* de rio It w i l l be noticed that most of the passages i n Examples 29 to 31 move i n ascending progression. Only a very small number of the s y l l a b i c sections i n the Riquier melodies begin with a descending scale or leap. A few of these are shown below: Ex. 32. (a) "Amors, pos a vos f a i l l poders" ( 9 5 , 199) (b) "Mentaugutz" ( 115 , 219) (c) "Anc non aigui nul temps de f a r chanso" (97 , 201) b h h -FT* * — kre> bo -U>7 Son (C3 -nf-Que> - MS a,i> Another group of s y l l a b i c sections begins with a pattern which revolves around one note: Ex. 3 3 . (a) "Anc non aigui temps de f a r chanso" ( 9 7 , 201) (b) "Tan m'es plazens l o mais d'amor" ( 1 3 2 , 236) (c) " S i chans me pogues valensa" ( 1 2 9 , 233) (d) " A i s s i com eel que francamen e s t a i " ( 9 8 , 195) (e) "S'ieu j a trobat non agues" ( 1 3 0 , 234) .(f) "Ab pauc er decazutz". (9 0 , 194) (4> , . a Cb? . , fine non si - qui rtulh Quar ial e s , quieu perj-rtf/ Trie po - ^ w e S w ^? a € > fran-cha-men es 5'iea Ja. i r o - tat fib paucer ole -ca-Zutz . 'As we have seen, most of the s y l l a b i c portions i n the Riquier.pieces generally progress from low to high. The melismatic sections, on the other hand, tend to move from high to low. Some of these melismas, such as those i n the following example, have very dramatic descents: Ex. 3 4 . (a) " A i s s i quon es sobronrada" ( 9 3 , 197) (b) "Anc mais per a i t a l razo" ( 9 7 , 2 0 l T (c) "Karitatz et Amors e fes" (112, 216) We have now considered the melismatic and s y l l a b i c sections of the Riquier pieces. In both cases (and i n p a r t i c u l a r the former), a small number of patterns used over and over again re s u l t s i n a group of songs whose melodic l i n e s are very clo s e l y r e l a t e d to one another. Cadentlal patterns also serve to unify the Riquier. repertory. In general, a l l f i n a l cadences (to which we -s h a l l l i m i t our study) have step-wise motion and several notes per syllable. 2 0 g y f a r the most usual cadential type Is the following f i g u r e : Ex. 3 5 . Cadence Pattern I •3 n While stanzas I and II of "Pos sabers no-m v a l n i sens" (124, 228) are set to the same music, the second stanza arranges i t s melodic phrases i n a d i f f e r e n t order; namely, defabc. Because of th i s arrangement, the stanzas have d i s s i m i l a r endings. We w i l l therefore discuss 49 f i n a l cadences even though there are ac t u a l l y only 48 melodies. Some twenty cadences are based on thi s pattern: Ex. 36. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) ( i ) " S i ja*m deu mos chans valer" (131,235) " A i s s i com eel que francamen e s t a i " (91, 195) "Karitatz et Amors e fes" (112, 216) . The f i n a l cadences of Nos. 97, 201; 99, 203; 102, 206; 109, 213; 118, 222; 119, 223; 127, 231; and 130, 23_4 are i d e n t i c a l to that of 112, 216. "Lo mons par enchantatz" (113,.217)• See also "Ops m'agra que mos volers" (120, 224) "Pos astres no m'es donatz" (123, 227) "Razos m'adui voler qu'eu chan soven" (128, 232) "Be^m meraveill co non es envejos" (98, 202). See also "De fa r chanso s u i marritz 1*" (101, 205) " A i s s i quon es sobronrada" (93, 197)• See also "Mout me tenc be per pagatz" (116, 220) "Pies de t r i s t o r , (122, 226) marritz e d o l o i r o s " (aO h m b "7 * • W fe - yuan — ha, (d) -mt-ni 0 gran I r t — n t wt—M5* [ t — \ 11/U W J r 1 \ i £ *Ur -4—„ J Transpositions of Cadence Pattern I ending on e, f, g_ and a (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) ( i ) " S i chans me pogues valensa" (129, 233) "Jamais non er horn en est mon g r a z i t z " (110, 214) " X r i s t i a s v e i p e r i l l a r " (135, 239) "Pos sabers no-m val n i sens" TT24, 228 II) "Yverns ncm te de chantar embargat" (136, 240) "Ab pauc er decazutz" (90, 194) "Grans afans es ad ome vergoignos" (108, 212) "Ab l o temps agradiu, g a i " (89, 193). See also "Fortz guerra f a i tot lo mon guerre-j a r " (106, 210) "Quar dregz n i fes" (125, 229) fdl-leri—• S3, v - Sen* i>&> joined with those ending on d, comprise a family of cadences to which t h i r t y of the forty-eight Riquier melodies belong. Cadence Pattern II always ends with a three or four note descending scale sung on the l a s t one or two s y l l a b l e s of the piece: Ex. 3 8 . Cadence Pattern II A l l cadences i n t h i s category have d as t h e i r f i n a l except i n two cases where the pattern ends on g_: Ex. 3 9 . (a) "En tot quan qu'eu saupes" (104, 2 0 8 ) . See also- "Los bes qu'eu trop en Amor" (114, 218) (b) "Tan m'es plazens l o mals d'amor" ( 1 3 2 , 236) (c) "Tan v e i qu'es ab j o i pretz mermatz" (122, 237) (d) "No cugei mais d'esta razo chantar" . (117, 221) (e) "Jhesus C r i s t z , f i l l s de Deu v i u " (111, 215) (f) "Creire m'an fag mei d e z i r " ( 1 0 0 , 204) (g) "Per proar s i pro p r i v a t z " (121 , 225) (h) "Qui-m disses, non a dos ans" (126~7~230) ( i ) "Mentaugutz" (115, 219) ft -raf pros al S>er - sir m m 1? do - /or •Jut + * ? fork peer N o f e w e r t h a n f o r t y o f t h e R i q u i e r c a d e n c e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e a b o v e t w o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . B u t e v e n i n t h e n i n e c a d e n c e s t h a t r e m a i n , c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e a p p a r e n t . C o n s i d e r t h e e x a m p l e s s h o w n b e l o w w h o s e l a s t t h r e e n o t e s c o n s i s t o f a r e p e a t e d n o t e f o l l o w e d b y a d e s c e n d i n g m a j o r s e c o n d , E x . 4 0 . C a d e n c e P a t t e r n III ( a ) " A m o n d a n s u i e s f o r c i u s " ( 9 4 , 198) ( b ) " P i s e v e r a i s e p l u s f e r m s q u e n o s o i l l " ( 1 0 5 , 209) ( c ) " A n c m a i s p e r a i t a l r a z o " ( 9 6 , 200) ( d ) " E n r e n o - s m e i l l u r a " ( 1 0 3 , 2 0 7 1 (a) mas - 2 . 1 - raj Cb) (c) CoLO -3 66 — <£>CV o r t h o s e w h i c h e n d w i t h a t h r e e n o t e a s c e n d i n g s c a l e : E x . 4 1 . C a d e n c e P a t t e r n IV ( a ) " P o s s a b e r s n o - m v a l n i s e n s " ( 1 2 4 , 228 I) ( b ) " A m o r s , p o s a v o s f a i l l p o d e r s " ( 9 5 , 199T ( c ) " V o l o n t i e r s f a r i a " ( 1 3 4 , 2 3 8 ) P*4J - dos fans - ne, - rate gerS In f a c t , only two melodies have f i n a l cadences which do not conform to one of the four patterns mentioned above: Ex. 42. (a) " A i s s i pert poder Amors" (92, 19_6) (b) "Gaug a i , car esper d'amor" (107, 211) (a) tin SO m c e S Let us now summarize our study of the forty-nine f i n a l cadences i n the Riquier corpus. A l l except two can be c l a s s i f i e d i n one of four r e l a t e d types. Of these four types, over h a l f belong to Cadence Pattern I and the rest are apportioned as follows: Cadence Pattern I - 30 cadences Cadence Pattern II - 10 cadences Cadence Pattern III - 4 cadences Cadence Pattern I V - 3 cadences With t h i s evidence i n mind, l e t us return to the subject of molecular units. The extent that these compositional devices are used can be appreciated f u l l y only within the context of an entire song. At the same time, we s h a l l also notice the treatment of s y l l a b i c passages, and i d e n t i f y the cadential type to which the f i n a l cadence belongs. "Anc non aigui temps de f a r chanso" (97, 201) i s t y p i c a l of most of the melodies set to Riquier's poems: Ex. 43. (a) Rising s y l l a b i c passage (step-wise motion) (b) Formula l a (c) Descending s y l l a b i c passage (by l e a p — uncharacteristic) (d) Formula I l l b (e) Formula l b (f) Formula l i b (g) Rising s y l l a b i c passage (by leap) (h) Formula I l a ( i ) Descending passage with two or more notes per s y l l a b l e (j) Cadence Pattern I (71) 1 rsr 1 rrt) : 1 1735 flvo n p r 7 a / ' - j u ' 7 j « / A i&nps de Jar charj — So /V[e|-jor ra.— ~\ 1 i U7 1 j > UZ1 I I (/>_ -So Qu'-ro* aiy per que i <Jecj QeT7 a- ven-'r} si tot me "rjen \(e? ~ I I. I <t>9 I rjJJ.Uj]j)JO.Tj.f>l des •— tree} 5 T J r h.ouieu pus am, one no-m 5a. nu/d i 1-7^ 5 ; 1 n»? 1 5e- corsfyoat- hon 3en — h o r SJ cfe no-velh t\ro-—ba~h> H I s-*7 (by 4-1 TUT) \ \ ix) 'u.e ma ber -b(i£s mos e- -tjpet 's f> •tats 7 n a  -rans am — pa at £" -s'" "^acTnaf per ) Hp m don ; e n — c/re^  c/'a — 7 n o r , D'ate-si" e ran-T au- rai ben o e * . s e n — hor The importance of molecular units i n t h i s example cannot be overlooked; however, one must not suppose that they are the r e s u l t of any novel compositional pract i c e . In f a c t , just the opposite i s the case: formulaic technique was widely used i n the Middle Ages as both the music and l i t e r a -ture of the period indicate. Variously c a l l e d "standard phrases"2-1- or "migrant melismas," 2 2 these devices are p r e s e n t — t o name three examples—in the Tracts of the Mass, the respond, and the Cento. A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and often observed feature of the Tract, l i k e that of the Riquier songs, i s the use of a " l i m i t e d number of standard melodies (actually standard phrases) which are used, with minor modi-f i c a t i o n s , f o r a large number of t e x t s . " 2 3 The procedure displayed i n the Tract segments shown below i s evidently i n the same t r a d i t i o n as the molecular units found In Riquier's music: ^See W i l l i Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington, Indiana, 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 2 7 3 f . o p This term has been used by Peter Wagner. 2 3 w i l l i Apel, ed., Harvard Dictionary of Music ( 2 n d ed.; Cambridge, Mass., 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 5 8 9 . Ex. 44 (a) "Nunc d i m i t t i s " [1363] (b) "De profundis clamavi ad te" [499] (c) "Jubilate Domino" [513] I I U l< l< i £ & i/i -a/e.- runt o I' (b) 5 tnb au, - res (a Is) - tr#, - te, i<n c,on - ~ bw tu, - CL£, £5 * '——+~ e. - JuS A s i m i l a r practice occurs i n responsorial composition, which has been described as "the art of adapting the d i f f e r -ent clauses of a l i t u r g i c a l text to d i f f e r e n t well-defined but p l a s t i c and adaptable musical phrases": 2 4 24W.H. Frere, Introduction to facsimile e d i t i o n of Antlphonale Sarisburiense (London, 1901-24; republished by Gregg Press, 1966), p. 5 T Page numbers i n Ex. 45 r e f e r to the Frere e d i t i o n . Ex . 45. (a) " I n t e j a c t a t u s sum" (p . 194) (p) "De o r e l e o n l s " (p . 197) ( c ) " O p p r o b r i u m f a c t u s sum" (p . 208) V fh te ' « * V i 11 ITTTT * J )—T \t f r - e - 0 • " — r j r—i r-- ff/i ^ J J L: Op - pr-o_ bh) urn jao-^us sum in w/s • The same i d e a i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n works w r i t t e n i n t h e Cento f o r m . Coming f r om t h e L a t i n mean ing " p a t c h e d c l o t h , " t h e t e r m d e s i g n a t e s t h o s e p i e c e s w h i c h a r e c o m p r i s e d o f l i t e r a r y o r m u s i c a l q u o t a t i o n s , o r b o t h , f r om o t h e r s o u r c e s . B o r r o w i n g s c o n s t i t u t e most o f t h e t e x t and mus i c o f t h e l i t u r g i c a l drama, The F l e u r y P l a y o f H e r o d . "The p rophecy f ound by H e r o d ' s s c r i b e s , " f o r e xamp le , " i s an a n t i p h o h f o r t h e second Sunday o f A d v e n t " a n d " t h e M a g i ' s r e c e s s i o n a l i s an a n t i p h o n f o r t h e C h r i s t m a s o c t a v e . " 2 5 j _ n one c a s e , s e v e r a l l i n e s a r e t a k e n f rom as f a r a f i e l d as V i r g i l ' s A e n i d . 2 ^ ^ T e r e n c e B a i l e y , e d . , The F l e u r y P l a y o f Herod ( T o r o n t o : P o n t i f i c a l I n s t i t u t e o f M e d i a e v a l S t u d i e s , 1965 ) , I n t r o d u c t i o n , p. 10. 2 6 I b i d . Another Cento form was the thirteenth century French motet type known as the motet ente. Here, the triplum was "constructed by i n s e r t i n g a new text (and melody) between portions of pre-existing text (and melody). " 2 7 often the pre-existing material was derived from r e f r a i n s . In f a c t , these borrowed r e f r a i n s constitute the entire text i n several cases. 2 f i L i t e r a t u r e i s not without examples of t h i s same pro-cedure. In t h i s respect, we can f i n d passages from some of the most ancient poetry of Western Europe which share s t r u c t u r a l features of the Riquier melodies. In a monologue on the epic poem Beowulf, Francis P. Magoun, J r . discusses the scop's (singer-poet) "word-hoard" i n terms of a "ready made language, . . . a vast reservoir of formulas f i l l i n g j ust measures of v e r s e . " 2 9 The whole process of kenning,^0 says Magoun, was formulaic i n character, and "must have 2 7 w i l l i Apel, ed., The Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed., p. 2 9 5 . 2 8 I b l d . , p , 721. ^ F r a n c i s P. Magoun, J r . , "The Oral-Formulaic Character of Anglo-Saxon Narrative Poetry" i n An Anthology of "Beowulf"  C r i t i c i s m edited by Lewis E. Nicholson (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 189. A study of o r a l formulas as applied to the A l l i t e r a t i v e Morte Arthure (ca. 1360) has been conducted by R.A. Waldron. See his "Oral-Formulaic Technique and Middle English A l l i t e r a t i v e Poetry" i n Speculum, XXXII ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 7 9 2 - 8 0 4 . -'Kenning was the scop's practice of using compound words instead of the normal one-word term. The term for "body," f o r instance, would be "soul-house." developed over a long period of time."3l Prom Anglo-Saxon times to the end of the Middle Ages, the a r t i s t was not considered an orig i n a t o r or creator, but a "maker," or "wordsmith," a craftsman who wove words. Such a context might explain the derivation of the term "text" from the Lat i n texere meaning "to weave." Much of the ba l l a d t r a d i t i o n of medieval England, for example, was based on a reserve of stock formulas from which the a r t i s t could select c e r t a i n patterns and weave them into a poem. The i d e n t i c a l procedure i s at work i n the Riquier songs; only here, the molecular unit i s a melodic figure rather than a word-group. The question of course a r i s e s : how did these formulas originate i n the f i r s t place? It i s quite obvious that Riquier did not invent them himself, for they are standard compositional devices i n troubadour music written long before his time. Riquier i s merely the l a s t i n an i l l u s t r i o u s l i n e of Provencal poets whose texts are set to a music which makes use of a repertory of melodic patterns. Viewed i n t h i s l i g h t , none of the melodies of a given poet could possibly be f u l l y ^ F r a n c i s P. Magoun, J r . , op. c i t . , p. 189. "created" by a single composer.32 A l l are to some extent, a compilation of borrowings from several sources. To be sure, the troubadour repertory i n general shows c e r t a i n s u p e r f i c i a l connections to Gregorian Chant i n the areas of melodic f i g u r a t i o n and cadential patterns but t h i s i s not the only influence. The corpus i s not e n t i r e l y chant-like and was doubtless also influenced by other music, perhaps, one may suppose, by a long established f o l k t r a d i t i o n , the numerous variants and reworkings of standard material being the natural outcome of o r a l transmission. The existence of such a t r a d i t i o n would help to explain the number of poems which share the same music and the several melodies which have been preserved i n more than one version. Yet we must not suppose that the extensive use of borrowed material precludes the p o s s i b i l i t y of demonstrating a single authorship. It i s true that many of the molecular units found i n Riquier's music are found i n numerous troubadour melodies; however, the music for no other poet uses them i n such a consistent and extensive manner. In t h i s respect the Riquier corpus i s unique. •* According to a "Romantic notion of absolute creation, . . . only that which i s e n t i r e l y new and o r i g i n a l and a.single act can be c a l l e d creation. . . . It i s i n f a c t , doubtful i f such a miraculous event can ever take place," since " a l l art i s a c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the l i v i n g and the dead." See M.J.C. Hodgart, The Ballads (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1962), p. 161. To complete our s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s of the R i q u i e r melodies, i t i s necessary to c o n s i d e r such aspects as g e n e r a l s t y l e , ambitus, mode, melodic contour, and so on. In the matter of ambitus, no fewer than t h i r t y - n i n e of the f o r t y -e i g h t p i e c e s have a range of an octave or n i n t h : Table 1. — Ranges of the R i q u i e r Melodies n i n t h range - 29 "pieces (Nos. 8 9 , 1 9 3 ; 9 0 , 19_4; 9 2 , 1 9 6 ; 9 3 , 197; 9 8 , 202; 100, 204; 101, 2 0 5 ; 102, 20o7~104, 2 0 8 ; 1 0 5 , 2 0 9 ; 1 0 7 , 211; T o F , 212; 1 0 9 , 2 1 3 ; 112-122, 216^226; 1 2 5 , 2 2 9 ; 1 2 7 , 2 3 1 ; 1 2 8 , 2 3 2 ; 1 3 2 , 2 3 6 ; 1 3 5 , 239) octave range - 10 p i e c e s (Nos. 9 1 , 1 9 5 ; 1 0 3 , 2 0 7 ; 1 0 6 , 210; 110, 214; 111 , 215; T2¥, 2 2 8 ; 1 3 0 , 2 3 4 ; 131 , 235.; 1 3 3 , 2 3 7 ; I 3 T , 238) t e n t h range - 3 p i e c e s (Nos. 9 9 , 2 0 3 ; 1 2 6 , 2 3 0 ; 1 3 6 , 240) s i x t h range. - 2 p i e c e s (Nos. 9 5 , 199; 1 2 3 , 227) seventh range - 2 p i e c e s (Nos. 9 4 , 19_8_; 9 7 , 201) e l e v e n t h range - 2 p i e c e s (Nos. 9 6 , 200; 1 2 9 , 233) The lowest and h i g h e s t p i t c h e s to be found i n the r e p e r t o r y are c_ and a', although the m a j o r i t y of songs l i e between the notes £ and d'. Only f i v e of the R i q u i e r melodies are through-composed; a l l the r e s t c o n t a i n repeated s e c t i o n s . Sometimes t h i s , r e p e t i t i o n i s e x t e n s i v e . One song, f o r example, r e p e a t s i t s f i r s t and second s e c t i o n s t h r e e times,. - ababcab while a few repeat only one phrase: " A i s s i pert poder Amors" (92, 196) - abc-^dec^fg A frequently used form i s aab: "Grans afans es ad ome vergoignos"' (108, 212) - ababode The choice of mode i s also consistent. Only seven pieces end on notes other than d or A complete breakdown of the melodies appears as follows: Table 2. — F i n a l s of the Riquier Melodies Mode D - 29 pieces (Nos. 91, 195; 93, 197; 94, 198; 97-102, 201-206; 104, 208; 109, 213; 111-114, 215-218; 116-123, 220-227; 127, 231; 128, 232; 130-133, 234- 247) Mode G - 12 pieces (Nos. 89, 193; 90, 194; 96, 200; 103, 207; 106-1087 210-212; 115, 219; 126, 230; 134-136, 238-240) Mode F - 4 pieces (Nos. 92, 196.; 95, 199; 105, 209; 124, 228) Mode E - 2 pieces (Nos. 110, 214; 129, 233) Mode A - 1 piece (125, 229) I f i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Mode C, which claims the t h i r d largest number of melodies i n the entire troubadour corpus, does not appear at a l l i n the Riquier pieces. As we have seen, the melodic s t y l e of the Riquier corpus i s a combination of melismatic and s y l l a b i c sections. Most of the troubadour pieces also make use of th i s combination but for the most part, they contain fewer melismatic passages than do the Riquier pieces. Since the l a t t e r employ so many more short melismas (these melismas almost always being one of the three formulas discussed previously) than the remaining troubadour songs, they can be distinguished from the repertory as a whole without much d i f f i c u l t y . The melodic s t y l e of "Pus sabers no-m v a l n i sens (124, 228 I) i s t y p i c a l of the majority of Riquier pieces: Ex. 46. GfrtYeu, *. -n' - as rv>a^ - ~ nans < f e ^ Two s t r i k i n g exceptions show a predominantly d i f f e r e n t s t y l e . The f i r s t example i s mainly s y l l a b i c , Ex. 4 7 . " A i s s i com e e l que francemen e s t a i " ( 9 1 , 195) 1 • -- — -W j> ji .h j, j J> Ji p p ^ = ^ • W . ,. 1 » ^ ^ - ' -).// / • _ _ j „ On c « j mo-rir>^u)lhriomoal mm de-fen • w h i l e the second i s almost e n t i r e l y m e l i s m a t i c : Ex. 4 8 . "Jhesus C r i s t z , f i l l s de Deu v i u " (111, 215) $he-su% Cn's-fz mm Jfie-sus SUh y < ? r — • nas — cpes > While the melodic contour o f the R i q u i e r songs i s gener-a l l y one of smooth step-wise motion, leaps do occur occasion-a l l y . "Ogan no cu g e i chantar" (119, 223) and "Ab l o temps a g r a d i u , g a i " ( 8 9 , 19_3) c o n t a i n downward leaps o f an octave, Ex. 4 9 . hi pue*c a \/c—nir^ <? Hb +«r | 0 mot o mom and "Be'in v o l g r a d'amor p a r t i r " (99, 203) and "Tan v e i qu'e ab j o i p r e t z mermatz" (133, 237) i n c l u d e a descending s i x t h Ex. 50. (a) "Be-m v o l g r a d'amor p a r t i r " (99, 203) (b) "Tan v e i qu'es ab j o i " (133, 237) WW -be - TST) — S«S es-p sa. de b e 2Z± Son po e r but such wide s k i p s are not as u s u a l as those of a t h i r d , r i s i n g fourth,33 a n d f i f t h : Ex. 51. (a) "Ops m'agra que mos v o l e r s " (120, 224) (b) "Tan m'es pl a z e n s l o mais d'amor" (132, 236) 1 (c) " P i e s de t r i s t o r , m a r r i t z e d o l o i r o s " (122, 226) (d) "Per p r o a r s i pro p r i v a t z " (121, 225) (e) "Los bes qu'eu t r o p en Amor" (114, 218) 33"Tan v e i qu'es ab j o i p r e t z mermatz" (133, 237) and "En t o t quan qu'eu saupes" (104, 208) c o n t a i n the only examples of a f a l l i n g f o u r t h i n the R i q u i e r corpus. In a few cases, consecutive leaps produce the outline of a chord. Ascending tr i a d s s t a r t i n g on f and c_ are most common, one of the more i n t e r e s t i n g exceptions being the minor seventh formed by a f i f t h followed by a t h i r d i n "Qui-s tolgues" ( 127 , 2 3 1 ) : Ex. 52. j v -gen, QUA bon One further observation concerns the penultimate and f i n a l notes of the Riquier melodies. A l l f i n a l s are approached by step; t h i r t y - f o u r from below and f i f t e e n from above. In t h i r t y pieces the sub- f i n a l i s a tone below the l a s t note and i n four i t i s a semi-tone.3^ F i n a l l y , l e t us review the re s u l t s of our analysis of the music set to Riquier's texts. To begin with, we found a s i g n i f i c a n t number of melodies with extensive passages i n common. Upon closer examination of these passages, and indeed almost the entire Riquier corpus, we discovered that they were comprised of a small group of formulas or molecular units which were used i n a consistent and uniform manner. We then examined the f i n a l cadences of the corpus and found that here too, there was consistent use of a li m i t e d number -'The four pieces i n question a l l end on f and sound, at least i n t h e i r l a s t phrase, very much l i k e F major. of p a t t e r n s : one formula only b e i n g used f o r the m a j o r i t y o f p i e c e s . As f o r other s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s , even though w e l l w i t h i n the common p r a c t i c e , the ev i d e n t u n i f o r m i t y o f c h o i c e would l e a d us t o b e l i e v e t h a t p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s — a n d not mere haphazard—were d i c t a t i n g the s e l e c t i o n and usage o f a v a i l a b l e m u s i c a l r e s o u r c e s . See as a whole, the R i q u i e r melodies c o n s t i t u t e a corpus i n which r e l a t i o n s h i p s are so p e r v a s i v e , so c o n s i s t e n t , and proceed so f a r beyond the u s u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s found between the troubadour p i e c e s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o imagine t h a t more than one person was i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r composition. To be sure, t h i s r e p e r t o r y ' s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n with a l l P r o v e n c a l songs i s undeniable, but at the same time i t shows evidences of a s i n g l e composer at work, one who i s w r i t i n g w i t h i n a common p r a c t i c e yet s t i l l r e v e a l i n g the stamp of h i s i n d i v i d u a l p r e d i l e c t i o n s . Whether R i q u i e r h i m s e l f i s t h i s composer, or some j o n g l e u r with whom he c o l l a b o r a t e d , i s unimportant. The r o l e of the composer and the Greek i d e a l of the poet - m u s i c i a n i s embodied. CHAPTER I THE COMPOSERS OF THE MELODIES P a r t 2. The M e l o d i e s o f o t h e r Composers Having now d i s c u s s e d i n some d e t a i l the c o m p o s i t i o n a l technique employed i n the R i q u i e r melodies, l e t us t u r n t o the o t h e r s i x poets mentioned i n Part I of t h i s chapter (namely, Raimon de M i r a v a l , B e r n a r t de Ventadorn, P e i r o l , P a i d i t , F o l q u e t de M a r s e i l l a , and P e i r e V i d a l ) who, i t w i l l be remembered, have each ten or more poems which s u r v i v e w i t h m u s i c a l accompaniments. Of course we must not expect t h a t i n these cases, the same c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n our study of the R i q u i e r corpus w i l l be p o s s i b l e . Indeed they w i l l not, simply because of the l a c k of extant m u s i c a l s e t t i n g s f o r the poems of these s i x troubadours: the second l a r g e s t group of melodies i n the P r o v e n c a l r e p e r t o r y accompanying the t e x t s of a s i n g l e poet ( i . e . Raimon de M i r a v a l ) c o n t a i n s l e s s than h a l f the number of melodies . a v a i l a b l e f o r R i q u i e r ' s poems. In the examination to f o l l o w , t h e r e f o r e , we must always bear i n mind t h a t the p i e c e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l poets which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d , l i k e l y r e p r e -sent but a f r a c t i o n o f t h a t poet's t o t a l c r e a t i v e output. Yet a comparison of the music set to the t e x t s o f the s i x troubadours i n q u e s t i o n i s not without v a l u e . Few as t h e r e are, s u f f i c i e n t examples have been p r e s e r v e d t o demonstrate t h a t c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t y l e i s , i n p a r t , the r e s u l t of the p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s of t h e i r composers. Twenty-two melodies are associated with the texts of Raimon de Miraval. Most of these pieces feature some repeated material; only f i v e (211, 145; 214, 148; 217, 151 219, 153; 220, 154) are through-composed. The form aab i s common, but repeated sections often occur i n a v a r i e t y of other ways. A few of these are shown below: "Tals vai mon chant enqueren" (222, 156) - abcadecf "Tot quan fatz de be n i die" (223, 157) - a-^a^a^bedef "Be m'agrada«l bels temps d'estiu" (208, 142) - ababedele 2 "Ara m'agr* ops que m' a i z i s " (206, 140) - albc^dea^c^f ^: No one melodic st y l e can be said to characterize the Miraval pieces. Many are predominantly s y l l a b i c , such as "Chans, quan es qui l'entenda" (214, 148) of which a few l i n e s appear as follows: i V J J * J J <ns #uan non eS ^ui Pen - ken - ^6t/ /W? f-re$ va, - ler^ £ pus luec- ai e> — G}u€, mon be I £>0 - lat-Zj des -pen -Several, however, are quite melismatic. "Ara m'agr' ops que m'aizis (206, 140) i s of t h i s l a t t e r type: Ex. 54. ti is JJ ; it pe, - nae &n co " not>C- dos cal -fhri'J " /<?/?5 — 5^ S t i l l other melodies begin i n a s y l l a b i c s t y l e but tend to become more f l o r i d towards t h e i r conclusion. Note, for example, the opening and clos i n g phrases of "Cel cui j o i s taing n i chantar sap" (211, 145): i ~ 7 V 7= Ce.1 ctt'i Joi6 taing ni chzn — inr 3&>p> 5 Si -i/£7/£ e/^  - <ffuier en luo&> - hi U s u a l l y rnelismas occur at cadence p o i n t s ; r a r e l y at the b eginnings of phrases. These f l o r i d s e c t i o n s o f t e n i n v o l v e two t o f o u r notes per s y l l a b l e , Ex. 56. "Ar ab l a f o r s a d e l s f r e i s " ( 205, 139) tyuel terns ^uan •klh' e f/or ncr/S although at times they can take i n as many as f i v e or s i x notes: Ex. 57. "Res c o n t r ' Amor non es g u i r e n s " ( 219 , 153) mm 4-Quai - £<#Is et> soS Sen - ho — r/U£> ? In the f i n a l cadences of the M i r a v a l r e p e r t o r y , j u s t as i n the case o f R i q u i e r , c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be seen. Those cadence types which were designated as Patterns I and II i n the Riquier corpus, are used i n f i f t e e n of the melodies. Six pieces employ Cadence Pattern I, Ex. 58. (a) "Ben aja-1 cortes esciens" (209, 143) (b) "Chansoneta f a r a i vencutz" (213, l4T) (c) "Res contr' Amor non es guirens" (219, 153) (d) "Un sonet m'es b e l qu' espanda" (224, 158T (e) "Ara m'agr' ops que m'aizis" (206, 140) (f) "Chans, quan non es qui l'entenda" (214, 148) and ten use Cadence Pattern I I . In t h i s l a t t e r category, three variants are noted: (1) i n f i v e cadences the descending scale has three notes, Ex . 59. (a) " Lone temps a i a v u t z c o n s l r l e r s " (218, 152) (b) " S i ' i n f o s de mon c h a n t a r p a r v e n " (220, 154) ( c ) " C e l que no v o l a u z i r c h a n s o s " (212, 146) (d) " D ' amo r es t o t z mos c o n s i r i e r s " (216, 150) (e) " Ben a j a - l m e s s a t g i e r s " (210, 144) oap being. es *—0—* ho - nor (2) i n two cadences t h e d e s c e n d i n g s c a l e c o n t a i n s f o u r n o t e s , E x . 60. (a) "Be m ' a g r a d a - l b e l s temps d ' e s t i u " (208, 142) (b) " C o n t r ' Amor vauc dur s e t e n b r o n c s " (215, 149) JL& - ziV pre>n — (3) and i n t h r e e ca se s t h e f o l l o w i n g a m p l i f i c a t i o n » * * o c c u r s i n t h e cadences shown b e l o w : Ex. 6 l . (a) "Cel cul j o i taing n i chantar sap" (211, 145) (b) "Bel m'es qu'eu chant e coindei" (207, l 4 l ) (c) "Tals vai mon chant enqueren" (222, 156") A t h i r d type (which occurs only once i n the Riquier repertory) accounts for another four cadences. Its character-i s t i c feature i s the leap of a t h i r d : Ex. 6 2 . (a) "Ar ab l a forsa dels f r e i s " (205, 139) (b) "Entre dos volers sui pensius" (217, 151) (c) "Tot quan fatz de be n i die" (223, 157T~ (d) "A penas s a i don m'apreing" (204, 13») (CO ct>-) £ 3 OJ - cm — sur* e> sens. -w-•Pal - hi -men. 1 u-&> 5o&- benhs. Of the two cadences that remain, one belongs to Cadence Pattern I I I , Ex. 6 3 . "Sis tot s'es ma domn' esquiva" (221, 155) 2-V mm and the other concludes with the r e v o l v i n g note f i g u r e shown as f o l l o w s : Ex. 64. '.'Aissi cum es genser p a s c o r s " (203, 137) -r*f-mm <3uf — fans The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f mode i s r a t h e r even i n the M i r a v a l corpus i n c o n t r a s t t o the R i q u i e r p i e c e s which most o f t e n end on d. The number of melodies b e l o n g i n g t o each mode i s gi v e n below: Tabl e 3. — Range of the M i r a v a l Melodies Mode C - 5 p i e c e s (those w i t h c_ as f i n a l : 203, 137; 210, 144; 221, 155.; those ending on c: 217, 151; 218, 152) Mode D - 3 p i e c e s (214, 148; 212, 146; 207, l 4 l ) Mode F - 5 p i e c e s (205, 139; 213, 147; 216, 150; 219, 153; 223, 157) Mode G - 7 p i e c e s (222, 156; 206, 140, 208, 142; 209, 143; 211, T4"5; 216, 150; 220, T5~4~) Mode A - 2 p i e c e s (204, 138; 215, 149) None of the M i r a v a l songs have l a r g e passages i n common as was the case i n the R i q u i e r corpus. N e i t h e r i s as much use made of m o l e c u l a r u n i t s . As might be expected, some of the mainly s y l l a b i c p i e c e s are almost devoid of them a l -t o g e t h e r . The s y l l a b i c "Be m'agrada-1 b e l s temps d ' e s t i u " (208, l4_2), f o r i n s t a n c e , c o n t a i n s only one c l e a r example of a formula: U s u a l l y the p i e c e s with the most melismas a l s o c o n t a i n the most formulas. I t must be emphasized, however, t h a t w h i l e these m o l e c u l a r u n i t s do.occur, they are i n no way employed to the same extent as i n R i q u i e r ' s music. In a d d i t i o n , one f i n d s melismas i n the M i r a v a l r e p e r t o r y which cannot be . i d e n t i f i e d as b e l o n g i n g t o any of our formulas, nor do they occur i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers t o be c o n s i d e r e d a " p a t t e r n . " A " f r e e m o t i v e " 1 o f t h i s type i s found i n "Ar ab l a f o r s a d e l s f r e i s " ( 205 , 139): Melismas f e a t u r i n g a l e a p , e s p e c i a l l y the leap o f a t h i r d the M i r a v a l p i e c e s but are q u i t e u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the R i q u i e r melodies. Ex. 66. such as the one i n the above example, occur s e v e r a l times i n By " f r e e motive" we mean a melisma- which i s not used o f t e n enough t o be c a l l e d a formula. N i n e t e e n o f t he f o r t y - o n e t e x t s a t t r i b u t e d t o B e r n a r t de V e n t a d o r n a r e p r e s e r v e d w i t h m u s i c . O u r . d i s c u s s i o n n e c e s s a r i l y w i l l be l i m i t e d t o e i g h t e e n o f t h e s e s i n c e o v e r t w o - t h i r d s o f t he melody f o r " T u i t c i l qu-m p regon q u ' e u c h a n " (44, 3_4_) has been m u t i l a t e d . . On l y f o u r songs a r e t h r ough - compo sed . The o t h e r t o u r -t e e n a l l have r e p e a t e d s e c t i o n s , o f t e n I n t h e fo rm aab . Some have many r e p e a t e d s e c t i o n s : " A r a * m c o n s e i l l a t z , s e i g n o r " ( 38 , 28) - a^bca-^-bca^d " Lanquan v e i l a f o i l l a " ( 37 , 27) - a b l a b 2 a b 1 c b 2 c b 1 d b 2 O t h e r s , o n l y one : "Quan v e i l a f l o r , l ' e r b a v e r t e l a f o i l l a " ( 42 , 32.) 1 2 - abed e f d The m a j o r i t y o f t h e V e n t a d o r n p i e c e s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y s y l l a b i c ; t he r e s t a r e a m i x t u r e o f f l o r i d and s y l l a b i c s e c t i o n s . The l a t t e r s t y l e can be seen i n a p o r t i o n o f " E s t a t a i com horn e s p e r d u t z " (34, 2 4 ) , f p P err -P t i l / ± UP in m - r& de, 3<*>t " Mb " 3* and the s y l l a b i c type i s shown i n a few l i n e s from "Non es meravilla s'eu chan" ( 3 8 , 2 8 ) : Ex. 6 8 . . -* * + ,—, /ii// AU • tr& chjn - ta- Que piu$ me, Ira/-/ Cor6 M5 to mor Cadence Pattern I, so important i n the Riquier corpus, accounts for only two of the Ventadorn f i n a l cadences: Ex. 6 9 . (a) "Be m'an perdut l a i enves Ventadorn" ( 3 1 , 21) (b) "Lanquan f o i l l o n bosc e g a r i c " ( 3 6 , 26) clfr -Par more often employed Is Pattern II to which seven cadences belong: Ex. 70. (a) "Quan l'erba f r e s c ' e - 1 f o i l l a par" (40, 30_) (b) ' "Quan vei l a lauzeta "mover" ( 4 3 , 33) (c) "Ab j o i mou lo vers e * l comans" (25", 16) (d) "Quan par l a f l o r s j o s t a - l vert f o i l l 1 (41, 31) (e) "En c o n s i r i e r et en esmai" ( 3 3 , 2_3_) (f) "La doussa votz a i auzida" ( 3 5 , 25) (g) "Amors, e! que-us es v e j a i r e " ( 2 7 , 17) (t>) m •brc£> Jo/5 ver?5 mm I . de, r&n al 1*J a.r " efi ' me/1-9W 1 r trai 5 Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t are the three cadences which conform to Pattern I I I . A l l have an i d e n t i c a l i n t e r v a l l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e i r l a s t f i v e notes: Ex. 71. (a) "Estat a i com horn esperdutz" (34, 24_) (b) "Quan v e i l a f l o r , l'erba vert e . l a f o i l l a " (42, 32) (c) "Ara no vei l u z i r s o l e i l l " ( 2 9 , 19) (bo -iri- J31 CO f£0 de, Cadences featuring a leap are also prevalent. Of these, three employ a descending major second sung on one s y l l a b l e preceded by a r i s i n g major t h i r d , Ex. 72. (a) "Ara-m c o n s e i l l a t z , seignor" ( 2 8 , 18) (b) "Lanquan vei l a f o i l l a " ( 3 7 , 27.) (c) "Pos mi pregatz, seignor" ( 3 9 , 29) IreotS. no-no One contains a downward leap of a t h i r d between i t s penulti-mate and f i n a l notes, Ex. 7 3 . "Conortz, ara a i eu be" ( 3 2 , 22) 'bu. - ra* and one other, a descending t h i r d followed by an ascending second: E x . 74. "Non es m e r a v i l l a s 1 e u c h a n " (38 , 28) * a, -ken T F i n a l l y , as i n t h e M i r a v a l c o r p u s , we f i n d one example o f t h e r e v o l v i n g n o t e f i g u r e shown b e l o w : E x . 75 . "A ! t a n t a s bonas c h a n s o s " ( 30 , 20) Fo rmu la s p l a y a p a r t i n t h e V e n t a d o r n m e l o d i e s bu t h e r e a g a i n no t t o t h e same e x t e n t as i n R i q u i e r ' s . W h i l e t h e m u s i c o f t h e l a t t e r c o n t a i n s a t l e a s t one o r two f o r m u l a s f o r e v e r y v e r s e o f p o e t r y , t h e m a j o r i t y o f V e n t a d o r n songs have o n l y about f o u r p e r me lody . M o l e c u l a r u n i t s most o f t e n used a r e Fo rmu la s I and I I . As f a r as mode i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e V e n t a d o r n p i e c e s a r e w i l l w i t h i n t h e common p r a c t i c e . The two most f r e q u e n t l y employed t o n a l i t i e s i n t h e t r o u b a d o u r r e p e r t o r y as a w h o l e — Modes D and G — a l s o c l a i m t h e l a r g e s t number o f m e l o d i e s i n t h e V e n t a d o r n c o r p u s : Table 4. Finals of the Ventadorn Melodies Mode D 6 pieces (35, 25; 36, 26; 38, 28; 40, 30; 41, 31; 43, 33) Mode G 6 pieces (28, 18; 3 0 , 20; 3 1 , 21 ; 32, 22; 37, 2J_; 42, 32) Mode C 2 pieces (27, 17; 34, 24) Mode A 2 pieces ( 2 9 , 19; 3 9 , 29). Mode E 1 piece (33, 23) Mode F 1 piece ( 2 6 , 16) P e i r o l Melodies for seventeen of P e i r o l ' s poems have come down to us. Like the Ventadorn pieces, these songs are ei t h e r s y l l a b i c or a combination of s y l l a b i c and semi-syllabic sections. Another feature common to both repertories i s the predominance of melodies i n which one or more phrases are repeated. Of the P e i r o l songs, fourteen have repeated material and only three are through-composed. Special notice should be taken of the i n c i p i t s of "D'un sonet vau pensan (174, 124), "En j o i que'in demora" (175, 125) and "Per dan que d'amor m'aveigna" ( 1 8 0 , 1 3 0 ) . Each of these pieces begins with a perfect f i f t h : -m #-D'un 60- ne-t> vauc pert — tan ftb Joi <^ue m 4-*' mo " ^as Per dan ^u/ d^cu't^or ^ >aj vein -has Such an opening i s not o f t e n found among the P r o v e n c a l melodies. In f a c t , only t h r e e other p i e c e s i n the whole troubadour corpus b e g i n with t h i s i n t e r v a l . 2 -Over h a l f o f the P e i r o l f i n a l cadences c o n t a i n a repeated note, a f e a t u r e which we have found occupies a much s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n of the R i q u i e r , M i r a v a l and Ventadorn cadences. In f i v e cases, t h i s r e p e t i t i o n - . occurs i n the manner of Cadence P a t t e r n I I I , The p i e c e s i n q u e s t i o n are "Reis g l o r i o s " ( 8 7 , 58) "En s u i t a n c o r t e z a g a i t a " ( 46 , 183) and "Amors m ' a r t — confuoc am flama ( 2 3 6 , 2 5 7 ) . Ex. 77. (a) "Be d e l chantar, pos Amors m'o enseigna" ( 1 6 8 , 118) (b) "Mout m'entremis de chantar v o l o n t i e r s " (178, 128) (c) " S i be>m s u i l o i n g et entre gent e s t r a i g n a " ( 1 8 2 , 132) (d) "D'un bo vers vau pensan som l o f e z e s " • (173, 123) (e) "D*un sonet vau pensan" (174, 124) s/en 'er) — c*r&. ((0 7** - * J -m f* f r* + - -. m (do " ~ * # 1^ re- — p rtn —• das. i V I I A » 1 m r while i n th r e e cases, the note b e f o r e the s u b - f i n a l i s repeated: Ex. 7 8 . (a) "Tot mon engeing e mon saber" ( 1 8 3 , 133) (b) "Del seu t o r t f a r a i esmenda" ( 1 7 2 , 122T (c) "Quant Amors t r o b e t p a r t - i t " ( l 8 l , 13TT ser -vi - re n ^  " ten —- otAs ml - retz> vc&1 In the n i n t h cadence of t h i s group, the f i n a l i s the rep e a t e d note. I t i s preceded by a descending t h i r d : Ex. 79- "Nuls horn no s'aucl tan gen" (179, 129) 0 ' ^' rv>al pret?. Two other cadences feature the Interval of a t h i r d — i n these cases, an ascending t h i r d : Ex. 8 0 . (a) "Per dan que d'amor m'aveigna" ( 1 8 0 , 130) (b) "At r e s s i co - 1 cignes f a i " (167 , 117) (ar> Cb-) &*> -mie.i re-. The remaining cadences employ Cadence Patterns I and II f o r three pieces each: Ex. 8 1 . Cadence Pattern I (a) "Camjat m'a mon c o n s i r i e r " ( 1 6 9 , 119) (b) "Cora que-m fezes doler" (170, 12uT~ (c) "Mainta gens me malrazona" (176, 126) OP) CO /a, - di - sen. -ifli - yu'S Ex. 82. Cadence Pattern II (a) "D'eissa l a razo qu'eu s o i l l " (171 , 121) (b) ."M'entension a i to t ' en vers meza" (177, 127) (c) "En j o i que-m demora" (175, 125) don Mi duelh The P e i r o l pieces are evenly d i s t r i b u t e d among four of the modes. Five end on d, f i v e on g_, four on c_ and three on a: Table 5. — Finals of the P e i r o l Melodies Mode D - 5 pieces (167, 117; 1 6 9 , 119; 170, 120; 1 8 3 , 133; 177, 127) Mode G - 5 pieces (171, 121; 173, 123; 176, 126";- 182, 132'; l & o . 130) Mode C - 4 pieces ( 1 6 8 , 118; 175, 125; 178, 12F; 179, 129) Mode A - 3 pieces (172, 122; 174, 124; 131, I B T ) Formulas I and II are the molecular units most often employed i n the P e i r o l repertory. Here again, i n contrast to the Riquier melodies, these units are used but sparingly. Fourteen o f the poems a t t r i b u t e d t o F a i d i t are complete w i t h music. The s t y l e o f the p i e c e s , l i k e R i q u i e r ' s m e lodies, tends t o be an amalgamation of s y l l a b i c and m e l i s m a t i c passages. The f o l l o w i n g phrases from "Lo gens cors o n r a t z " ( 6 7 , 109) are t y p i c a l o f the p i e c e s b e l o n g i n g to t h i s type: Ex. 8 3 . \l J J) Pi 1 K h J * 4 1 K * rri > = Oo ^ nf 7~*~ -9 ^ 1 pla f*— * -' \> v --in 46, picu - <aens - h 1 ..,= / w mi - J V S e v e r a l , however, show a predominantly m e l i s m a t i c t e x t u r e : Ex. 84. " S i anc n u l s horn per aver f i c o r a t g e " ( 7 1 , 113) l l -w r r J"3 r , P i •fr p P J CJ J J Dts -Per kot- ^ uan r>w —*L* 1 J—J-J n ' 1| In only two or three cases are F a i d i t melodies as s y l l a b i c as the example given below: Ex. 8 5 . "Ja-mais nul temps no'm pot re f a r Amors" ( 6 6 , 108) k tyuem yeu6, ni mat krailb ni & ~ &r>Sy A number of singular c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be noted i n the F a i d i t corpus. Consider, for example, the matter of form. As we have seen, the majority of Riquier, Miraval, Ventadorn and P e i r o l songs are written i n a form which involves the r e p e t i t i o n of melodic material. The F a i d i t repertory, on the other hand, shows a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r the through-composed form, as i t s use i n eight of the pieces indicates. In two further songs, the through-composed form has been modified to include just one repeated phrase: "Lo rossignolet salvatage" ( 6 8 , 110) - a b c d e f g 1 h i g 2 j k l "Cora que-m des benanansa" ( 6 3 3 105) - abacdefghi Of the f i v e remaining pieces, four have the form aab, "Gen fora contra l'afan" ( 6 5 , 107) - ab 1ab 2cdefghijk "Lo gens cors onratz" ( 6 7 , 109) - a 1 b 1 c 1 d 1 a 2 b 2 c 2 d 2 e f g h i j k l "Mon cor e mi e mas bonas chanson" ( 6 9 , 111) - ababcdef "S i tot m'ai tarzat mon chan" ( 7 2 , 114) - ababcdefg and one, "Jamais nul temps no-m pot re f a r Amors" ( 6 6 , 108) has the form a b 1 a b 2 c 1 d c 2 e f . Another singular aspect of the F a i d i t melodies i s the exceptionally frequent use of Mode D. Eleven out of fourteen pieces end on the f i n a l d as opposed to only 39% i n the t o t a l troubadour repertory. The only other modes represented are C and G: Table 6 . — F i n a l s of the F a i d i t Melodies Mode D - 11 pieces ( 6 2 , 104; 6 3 , 105; 6 5 , 107; 6 6 , 108; 6 8 , 110; 6 9 , 111; 7 0 , 112; 71 , 113; 7 2 , I T ? ; 7 3 , 115; 74, TIF) Mode C - 2 pieces ( 6 1 , 103_; 64, 106) Mode G - 1 piece ( 6 7 , 109) An even more s t r i k i n g feature i s the s i m i l a r i t y of i n c i p i t s . A l l but two pieces begin with a repeated note f i g u r e . 3 Eight of these open with a repeated c_' motive while r e p e t i t i o n s of d 1 and a occur i n two songs each. The extent to which these repeated notes are used i s shown i n the following table: Table 7. — F a i d i t i n c i p i t s based on a repeated note f i g u r e . ( 6 1 , 103) c» c' c' a ( 7 0 , 112) c' c» d » d« c» ( 6 7 , 109) C 'c» b1 'a g' c' d» ( 7 2 , 114) c' c» 'd1 c' b' ( 6 8 , 110) c' c' c' 'd' c'' c' b a' ( 7 3 , 115) c 1 c' d' a fb^ ' ( 6 9 , 111) C c f c' d' c' ( 7 4 , 116) c' c T d''c' b 1 (63, 105) d' d' c' d' (62, 104) a a a g f e (66, 108) d f d''b g ' (64, 106) a a a'b b a ' A l l F a i d i t f i n a l cadences can be c l a s s i f i e d according to the f i r s t three of the Riquier cadential types. They are not, however, d i s t r i b u t e d among these patterns i n the same proportions as are the Riquier cadences. While Cadence Pattern I includes over 60% of the Riquier melodies, i t i s used only three times i n the F a i d i t repertory: 3The exceptions are "G;en fora contra l'afan" ( 6 5 , 107) and " S i anc nuls horn per aver f l cortage" ( 7 1 , 113) 4A11 l e t t e r s underneath square brackets are notes sung on one s y l l a b l e . Ex. 86. (a) "Chant e deport, j o i , domnei e s o l a t z " (62, 104) (b) "Lo rosslgnolet salvatage" (68, 110) (c) "Ja«mais nul temps no-m pot re f a r Amors" (66, 108) fag so-trtr" Of far greater Importance i s Cadence Pattern I I , used i n eight melodies: Ex. 87, (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) "Cora que'in des benanansa" (63, 105) "Gen fora contra l'afan" (65, 107T~ "No-m alegra chans n i c r i t z " (70, 112) " S i tot m'ai tarzat mon chan" (72, Il4 "Al semblan del r e i t i e s " ( 6 l , 103) "Tant a i sofert longamen grant afan" (74, 116) "Lo gens onratz" (67, 109) "Mon cor e mi e mas bonas chansos" (69, H I ) ZMTL m (bi * +1 + fd) fail - lib* bai — 2A n> g 5 de- mon Chary Jaco - men di - re. P a t t e r n I I I accounts f o r a f u r t h e r t hree cadences: Ex. 88. (a) "Portz causa es que t o t l o major dan" (64, 106) (b) " S i anc nuls horn per aver f i c o r a t g e " (71, 113) (c) "S'om pogues p a r t i r son v o l e r " (73, 115) pot 5uf~ -pn'r. mo noil pla&u Formulas are present i n the P a i d i t corpus but as we have come t o expect, t h e i r use i n comparison to the R i q u i e r p i e c e s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s . In a d d i t i o n t o formulas, the F a i d i t melodies seem t o favour a group of th r e e notes sung on one s y l l a b l e i n which the f i r s t two notes are the same and the t h i r d Is a second above or below:5 Ex. 89. (a) "No-rn a l e g r a chans n i c r i t z " (70, 112) (b) "S'om pogues p a r t i r son v o l e r " (73, 115) ^ ' J ' U>1 B 5 fou, -T h i s f i g u r e i s not a common one i n the troubadour corpus as a whole: i n a l l , i t occurs i n only f o r t y - t w o o f the 259 'Often t h i s t h i r d note i s a o l i c a . I l l m e l o d i e s . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e f i g u r e i n t h o s e r e p e r t o r i e s w h i c h employ i t most f r e q u e n t l y .6 F a i d i t V e n t a d o r n R i q u i e r 5 out o f 14 p i e c e s o r 36% o f t h e r e p e r t o r y 5 out o f 18 p i e c e s o r 28% 4 out o f 48 p i e c e s o r 8% F o l q u e t de M a r s e i l l a M e l o d i e s a r e e x t a n t f o r t h i r t e e n o f t h e poems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h M a r s e i l l a . Here a g a i n , t h e s t y l e o f t h e p i e c e s i s marked by an a l t e r n a t i o n o f s y l l a b i c pa s sages and s h o r t m e l i s m a s . O f t e n t h e s e me l i smas a r e s l i g h t l y more numerous t h a n t h e s y l l a b i c p o r t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g p h r a s e s f rom "Mout i f e t z g r a n p e c c a t Amors " (54 , 83) s e r v e as e x a m p l e s : E x . 90. ' b J j J « — * a Quant li p/a.c flues -2e£ en v-me,, <$uar Mer- ce, noi a,- ah-"4s #,b ^e, T h i s f i g u r e appea r s i n t e n o f t h e t w e n t y - s e v e n m e l o d i e s s e t t o anonymous t e x t s . S i n c e we a r e a t p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y t h o s e p i e c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r p o e t s , t h e appea rance o f t h e f i g u r e i n t he anonymous m e l o d i e s i s no t o f immed ia te c o n c e r n . L i k e the F a i d i t corpus, the M a r s e i l l a p i e c e s d i s p l a y a marked p r e f e r e n c e f o r the through-composed form, a t o t a l o f e i g h t melodies b e i n g of t h i s type. Of the f i v e songs t h a t remain, only "Us v o l e r s o u t r a c u i d a t z " ( 6 0 , 89) employs repeated m a t e r i a l e x t e n s i v e l y . I t has the form abcdecdfeg. Two of the p i e c e s have two phrases repeated, "Greu f e i r a n u l s horn f a i l l e n s a " ( 5 2 , 8 l ) - ab^b^cdefg!g 2 "Tan m'abelis l'amoros pensamens" ( 5 8 , 87) - a b c 1 d e f c 2 d . and the l a s t two melodies have j u s t one phrase r e p e a t e d : "Mout i f e t z gran peccat Amors" ( 5 4 , 83) - a^ba^cdefghi " S i t o t me s u i a t a r t aperceubutz" ( 5 9 , 86) - a b c d e f 1 g f 2 Another noteworthy aspect of the M a r s e i l l a r e p e r t o r y i s the use of a B b i n the key s i g n a t u r e of nine of the p i e c e s . Only e i g h t e e n such melodies e x i s t i n the e n t i r e P r o v e n c a l r e p e r t o r y : Polquet de M a r s e i l l a : Anonymous ( A l b e r t de S e s t a r o ? ) : Anonymous ( B l a n c a s s e t ? ) P e i r e V i d a l : Raimbaut de Vaqueiras A i m e r i c de P e g u i l l a n : Raimon Jordan: G u i r a u t R i q u i e r : P e i r e d'Alvergne: (1) "Amors, merce! no moira t a n soven" ( 48 , 77) (2) "A! quan gen vens et ab quan pauc d'afan" ( 49 , 7_8) (3) " J a no- c u l t horn qu'eu camge mas chanson" ( 5 3 , §_2) (4) "Mout i f e t z gran peccat Amors" (54, 83) (5) "Per Deu, Amors, be sabetz veramen" ( 55 , 84) (6) " S i t o t me s u i a t a r t aperceubutz" ( 57 , 86) (7) " S ' a l c o r plagues, be f o r ' oimais sazos" ( 56 , 85) (8) "Tan m'abelis l'amoros pensamens" ( 58 , 87) (9) "Us v o l e r s o u t r a c u i d a t z " ( 60 , 89) (10) "Ha mi no f a i chantar f o i l l a " n i f l o r s " ( 245 , 189) (11) "Mos coratges m'es camjatz" ( 253 , 1 9 D (12) "Be v o l g r a que venques merces" (239, 192) (13) "Anc no mori per amor n i per a l " ( 155 , 60) (14) "Calenda maja" ( 196 , 98) (15) "Qui l a v i , en d i t z " (7, 182) (16) "Lo c l a r temps v e i b r u n e z i r " ( 2 0 1 , 135) (17) "Anc mais per a i t a l r a z o " ( 96 , 200) (18) " D e j o s t a * l s breus e - l s l o n c s s e r v " ( 149 , 35) The i n c i p i t s o f t he M a r s e i l l a songs a r e even more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t h a n t h o s e o f t h e F a i d i t c o r p u s . No f e w e r t h a n n i n e o f t h e t h i r t e e n m e l o d i e s b e g i n w i t h a f i g u r e ba sed on r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e no te a , w h i l e two f e a t u r e a r e p e a t e d c ' and one , a r e p e a t e d g_. On ly one p i e c e t h e n , "Tan moj de c o r t e z a r a z o " ( 5 9 , 88) does no t open w i t h a r e p e a t e d n o t e f i g u r e . The i n c i p i t s o f t h e t w e l v e p i e c e s w h i c h do b e g i n w i t h r e p e a t e d n o t e s a r e g i v e n b e l o w : T a b l e 8 . — M a r s e i l l a i n c i p i t s b a sed on r e p e a t e d n o t e f i g u r e . ( 4 8 , 77) a a a f ( 4 9 , 78) f ' g a' a a a ' a b b " a g ' f ( 5 2 , 81) a 1 h 1 a a b u a g a ( 5 3 , 82) a a ' a b b c * ' b b a ( 5 4 , 83) a a ' a b b a g ' 'a b b 1 ( 5 5 , 84_) a a b b ' a g 1 ( 5 6 , 85) a a a b D g ( 5 7 , 86) a a a 'a g 1 g g ( 5 8 , 87) a a a b D a ( 5 0 , 79) c ' c 1 d ' c ' ( 6 0 , 89) c • c ' b b ' a g ' f d f ( 5 1 , 80) e g g ' a b ' g The F a i d i t and M a r s e i l l a m e l o d i e s a r e t h e o n l y songs i n t h e t r o u b a d o u r r e p e r t o r y w h i c h make use o f a s i n g l e o p e n i n g m o t i v e so f r e q u e n t l y . Seven o f t h e M a r s e i l l a p i e c e s have d as t h e i r f i n a l and t h e r e s t a r e d i s t r i b u t e d among Modes C, F, A and G. The p redominance o f m e l o d i e s e n d i n g on d i s no t u n u s u a l s i n c e Mode D a l s o c l a i m s t h e l a r g e s t number o f a l l P r o v e n c a l p i e c e s : T a b l e 9- — F i n a l s o f t h e M a r s e i l l a M e l o d i e s Mode D - 7 p i e c e s ( 4 9 , 7_8; 5 2 , 8 l ; 5 3 , 8 2 ; 5 4 , 8 3 ; 5 6 , 8_5; 5 7 , 8 6 ; 5 8 , 8 7 J * " Mode C - 3 p i e c e s (48 , 77; 5 5 , .84, 6 0 , 8_£) Mode F - 1 p i e c e ( 5 0 , 79) Mode G - 1 p i e c e ( 5 9 , 88) Mode A - l p i e c e ( 5 1 , 80_) F i v e o f t h e M a r s e i l l a cadences employ Cadence P a t t e r n I I ; E x . 9 1 . (a ) "Amor s , merce ! no m o i r a t a n s o v e n " ( 4 8 , 77) (b) " P e r Deu, Amors, be s a b e t z ve ramen " ( 5 5 , 8_4) ( c ) "Mout i f e t z g r a n p e c c a t Amors " ( 5 4 , 83) (d) " Ben an mort m i e l o r " ( 5 0 ; 79) (e) " S ' a l c o r p l a g u e s , be f o r ' o i m a i s s a z o s " ( 5 6 , 85) 1=E=I fez S i CCA — m 1*f (el m Mer - ce*>. a,5 - sir. CO - 5l - ro6 Pattern I i s used for two cadences: Ex. 92. (a) "En chantan m'aven a membrar" ( 5 1 , 8_0_) (b) "Us volers out racuidatz" ( 60 , 8_9) The f i n a l cadence of "A! quan gen vers et ab quan pauc d'afan" (49 , 7_8) includes a revolving note pattern which occurs i n the Miraval and Ventadorn repertories but i s not present i n the Riquier cadences: Ex. 93 . The f i v e remaining cadences also have l i t t l e i n common with those of the Riquier corpus. While the l a t t e r are character-ized by step-wise progressions, these f i v e have a disjunct motion brought about by the use of a t h i r d . In two cadences the f i n a l i s preceded by a descending t h i r d . This type, we w i l l r e c a l l , accounted for one of the two unrelated cadences i n the Riquier pieces: Ex. 94. (a) "Greu f e i r a n uls horn f a i l l e n s a " ( 52 , 8_1) (b) " S i t o t me s u i a t a r t aperceubutz" ( 57 , 86) (a) (to •0 0 0 w 0 0 J 0 pa* - ga> - fi-fe _ ^0 6a,. In one case, the t h i r d i s ascending: Ex. 95 . "Ja no>s c u i t horn qu'eu camge mas chansos" ( 5 3 , - 8 2 ) - cir. A t h i r d i s the l a s t i n t e r v a l i n two ot h e r p i e c e s . 7 In "Tan m'abelis l'amoros pensamens" ( 58 , 8_7) the t h i r d i s descending, Ex. 96. 1 r T - r ^ — (\-\ " AV r W _ — * J 1 4 < — * .—I Ion - go,- nn&n 'Cadences ending with t h i r d s are very r a r e i n the troubadour corpus. They w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter I I I . and In "Tan mou de corteza razo" ( 5 9 , 8_8) i t i s ascending: Ex. 97. •f 1 — ~ n 1 1(W J> j J J — J 1-fan- ha/. No singular features regarding formulas can be seen i n the M a r s e i l l a corpus. For the most part, melismas generally follow the patterns set out i n Riquier's music although not as frequently or consistently. Peire V i d a l Melodies have been preserved for twelve of Vidal's poems. Almost a l l are predominantly s y l l a b i c i n s t y l e : "Ges pel temps fer e brau (158, 6_3) i s t y p i c a l : Ex. 9 8 . fins es MOS pen - SO, — mens &o Joi &t 1 -fti-f es? Chan — tar The most notable exception i s "Be«m pac d'ivern e d'estiu" (157, 62) which contains a number of melismatic sections such as the following: Ex. 9 9 . h b fl h £ de, Jrebzt e de, Co, - / o ^ , Only two pieces make extensive use of repeated material, "Baro, de mon dan c o v i t " ( 1 5 6 , 61) - a 1 a 2 b 1 b 2 c^-c2 d "Tart mi veiran mei amic en Tolza" ( 1 6 6 , 71) - abcdefcd while just one phrase i s repeated i n three of the melodies: "Gel pel temps f e r e brau" ( 1 5 8 , 6_3) - abcde 1e 2fghi "Nuls horn no pot d'amor gandir ( 1 6 0 , 65) - a 1ba 2cdefg "Plus que-1 paubres, quan j a i e l r i c o s t a l " ( 1 6 1 , 66) - a-*-a2bcdefg The seven remaining pieces are i n the through-composed form. Several features of the V i d a l corpus are not common to the troubadour repertory as a whole. Five of the pieces, for example, begin i n a high r e g i s t e r and end i n a low: T i t l e 1st note F i n a l "Gel pel temps f e r a brau" ( 1 5 8 , 63.) g' g "Pos tornatz sui en Proensa" ( 1 6 2 , 67) c* c "Quant horn es en autrui poder" ( 1 6 3 , 68) e' g "Quant horn ontratz torna en gran paubreira" ( 1 6 4 , 69) C c "Tart mi veiran mei amic en Tolza" , ( 1 6 6 , 71) C c Such a practice i s not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the majority of Provencal melodies. In general, the t y p i c a l troubadour song begins i n a low or middle range, progresses to a high point somewhere i n the middle sections of the piece and then i n the clo s i n g phrase, descends once again to a lower r e g i s t e r . 8 Since the f i v e V i d a l pieces i n question move from high to low, they display a melodic contour quite d i f f e r e n t from those songs whose melodic outline i s i n the shape of a curve. Another singular aspect of the V i d a l melodies i s t h e i r preference for wide ranges. While some troubadour pieces have an ambitus as narrow as a f i f t h or s i x t h , none of the V i d a l songs have a range smaller than a ninth. "Be«m pac d'ivern e d'estiu" (157, 62) encompasses an ambitus of an octave plus a seventh, the widest range i n the entire Provencal repertory. See, f o r example, "Anc nom a i g u i temps de f a r chanso" ( 2 0 1 , 97) I t I s i n t e r e s t i n g t o no te t h a t Mode D—by f a r t h e most f r e q u e n t l y u sed mode i n t he t r o u b a d o u r r e p e r t o r y as a w h o l e — does no t appea r a t a l l i n t h e V i d a l c o r p u s . Pou r p i e c e s each a r e s e t i n Modes C and G and t h e r e s t have e i t h e r e , f , o r a as t h e i r f i n a l : T a b l e 10. — F i n a l s o f t h e V i d a l M e l o d i e s Mode C - 4 p i e c e s (157, 6 2 ; 1 6 2 , 67.; 164, 6 9 ; • 1 6 6 , 71) Mode G - 4 p i e c e s ( 1 5 8 , 6_3; 1 6 0 , 6 5 ; 1 6 3 , 6 8 ; 1 6 5 , 70) Mode P - 2 p i e c e s ( 1 5 5 , 6_0; 1 5 6 , 6 l ) Mode E - 1 p i e c e ( 1 5 9 , 64_) Mode A - l p i e c e ( l 6 l , 66) F o u r o f t h e f i n a l cadences i n t h e V i d a l c o rpu s employ Cadence P a t t e r n I I , E x . 100. (a ) " P l u s que - 1 p a u b r e s , quan j a i e l r i c o s t a l " ( 1 6 1 , 66) (b) " Po s t o r n a t z s u i en P r o e n s a " ( 1 6 2 , 67) ( c ) " T a r t mi v e i r a n me i amic en T o l z a " TT66, 71) (d) " S ' e u f o s en c o r t on horn tengues d r e c h u r a " ( 1 6 5 , 70) P a t t e r n I I I i s u sed i n t h r e e c a s e s , Ex. 101. (a) "Baro, de mon dan c o v i t " ( 1 5 6 , 6 l ) (b) "Be-m pac d'ivern e d'estiu" (157, 62) (c) "Ges pel temps f e r e brau" ( 1 5 8 , § 3 T ~ \lJbfn n - 4 - ] m —1 A .. /—. - J ^/ - y-fcc- 7 ~ ^ ^ / <r<s./. plan — while only two cadences conform to Pattern I: Ex. 102. (a) "Anc no mori per amor n i per a l " ( 1 5 5 , 60) (b) "Quant horn es en autrui poder" ( 1 6 3 , 68Y~ Of the three remaining f i n a l cadences, one ends with a descending t h i r d followed by an ascending second, Ex. 103. "Nuls horn no pot d'amor gandir" ( 1 6 0 , 6_5_) I s V A \ ) 1 Way _< ' 0 1 -^ V 6 t ^ -Po -lor. and two feature the revolving note pattern which we observed i n a number of the Miraval, Ventadorn, and M a r s e i l l a cadences: Ex. 104. (a) "Neus n i gels n i p l o j a n i fai n g " ( 1 5 9 , 64) (b) "Quant horn onratz torna en gran paubreira" ( 1 6 4 , 69) Because the V i d a l pieces contain so few melismas, the use of formulas i s also rare.? Even when melismas do occur, they frequently are free motives which do not belong to any af our formulas. To i l l u s t r a t e , a phrase from "Pos Tornatz sui en Proensa" (162, 6_7) i s given below. The t h i r d bracketed note group i s a free motive, and the fourth i s Formula l a . Two descending melismas also occur and the f i n a l cadence i s Pattern I I . Ex. 1 0 5 . ^Formulas are most often found at the ends of phrases only. With the works of Peire V i d a l , we come to the end of those poets for whom a substantial body of music i s preserved. The cumulative r e s u l t s of our examination are of considerable i n t e r e s t . To begin with, l e t us summarize our study of f i n a l cadences. The following table shows the number of cadences, which conform to the four Riquier cadential types as well as those cadences which are not found i n the Riquier melodies. Table 11. — Use of cadential patterns i n troubadour melodies. No. of Pattern Pieces I II III IV U n c l a s s i f i e d Riquier 48 20 10 4 3 2 Miraval 22 6 10 1 - 5 Ventadorn 18 2 7 3 — 6 P e i r o l 17 3 3 5 - 6 F a i d i t 14 3 8 3 - — M a r s e i l l a 13 2 5 — — 6 V i d a l 12 2 4 3 — 3 m be seen that Pattern I which accounts for nearly h a l f of the Riquier pieces i s of far less importance i n the melodies of the other six troubadours. 1^ It seems they prefer the second type. In addition, Cadence Pattern IV which accounts for three Riquier melodies does not appear at a l l i n the cadences of these other poets. Note, however, the pre-dominance i n some of these l a t t e r cadences of patterns other than the four cadential types. Over half of the P e i r o l Is, therefore, the large number of Riquier melodies featuring Cadence Pattern I the r e s u l t of personal preference? cadences, for example, make use of a repeated note figure (four of these i n a d i f f e r e n t manner than that used i n Pattern III) and f i v e of the M a r s e i l l a cadences are characterized by the leap of a third.-Other preferences seem to be apparent i n these melodies as well. Notice the s i m i l a r i t y of i n c i p i t s i n both the F a i d i t and M a r s e i l l a repertories, the wide ranges of the V i d a l pieces, the B f l a t s i n the M a r s e i l l a melodies, and so on. Whether i t i s i n fact possible to consider any of these other pieces as belonging to a single composer Is perhaps open to question. In any case, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s i m i l a r i t i e s , and seeming preferences which we have encountered e s t a b l i s h without doubt the v a l i d i t y of c l a s s i -f y i n g melodies according to poet: such analyses are a most valuable means of coming to terms with the music of the seven poets discussed i n t h i s chapter, and also of under-standing the e s s e n t i a l features of the troubadour melodies as a whole. CHAPTER II EARLY LITERARY SOURCES AND THE TROUBADOUR REPERTORY A number of early t r e a t i s e s are concerned with troubadour a r t . One of the most important of these i s the mid-fourteenth century work Las Leys d'Amors. Along with numerous other pieces of information, the Leys include a discussion of various poetic types used by the troubadours. 1 The work was commissioned by the "Seven Poets of Toulouse," a society of scholars and patrons of the arts formed i n 1323. By t h i s time, the c l a s s i c a l troubadour s t y l e was no longer current. Even the very language of the troubadours, langue d'oc, "was yielding-more and more to the influence of the southern patois p and the northern langue d ' o l l . " The chief aim of the society, therefore, was to encourage greater p r o f i c i e n c y i n the use of langue d'oc and promote higher standards of quality i n Provencal poetry. To t h i s end, the society produced the Leys i n 1356 under the d i r e c t i o n of Its president, Guillaume Molliner. Another project of the "Seven Poets" was the sponsorship of a poetry contest held once a year i n Toulouse, and i t has been conjectured that the Leys served as a manual for the "reference and !Such subjects as "grammar and r h e t o r i c , prosody and d i a l e c t i c s , the trivium and quadrivium" are a l l treated i n the Leys. Francis Heuffer c a l l s the t r e a t i s e "undoubtedly one of the most valuable exponents of medieval scholarship" and "the aggregate expression of the l i t e r a r y ideas" of fourteenth century Prance. See Heuffer, op. c i t • , p. 413. r i n s t r u c t i o n of i n t e n d i n g competitors."- 1 The d e s c r i p t i o n s of p o e t i c types c o n t a i n e d i n the t r e a t i s e , w h i le o f t e n d i g r e s s i v e or obscure, have c o n t r i b u t e d much to our under-s t a n d i n g of troubadour a r t . I t must be remembered, however, t h a t the Leys were w r i t t e n over f i f t y years a f t e r the death of G u i r a u t R i q u i e r , " l a s t " o f the great t r o u b a -dours. Because the document was compiled so l a t e , t h e r e f o r e , i t may not be a completely a c c u r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the way p o e t i c types were used when the troubadour movement was at i t s z e n i t h . Dante's De_ v u l g a r i e l o q u e n t i a of 1303-04 was w r i t t e n , p r i m a r i l y , t o s a n c t i o n the use of the " v e r n a c u l a r tongue" as a language f o r l i t e r a t u r e . The work i s i n L a t i n prose and i t s approximately 12,000 words are c o n t a i n e d i n two volumes, the second of which i s incomplete. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t f o r our purposes i s the d i s c u s s i o n of the I t a l i a n canzone, which form, we w i l l remember, was d i r e c t l y modelled on the P r o v e n c a l canco. Dante f r e e l y admits h i s debt to the P r o v e n c a l t r a d i t i o n of l y r i c p oetry and to add a u t h o r i t y t o h i s arguments, o f t e n c i t e s the works of such w e l l known troubadours as Arnaut D a n i e l , F o l q u e t de M a r s e i l l a , and G i r a u t de B o r n e i l l . For Dante, the stanza of the canzone was "a s t r u c t u r e of l i n e s and s y l l a b l e s ^H.J. Chaytor, op. c i t . , p. 139-l i m i t e d by reference to a ce r t a i n musical s e t t i n g and harmonious arrangement." This musical s e t t i n g could either be oda continua ( i n which the melody or ode v. continues to the end without any melodic r e p e t i t i o n ) or any one of three other types: 1. pedes cum cauda (2 pedes with a cauda") 2. frons cum versibus (a fronte followed by 2 versus) 3. pedes cum versibus (2 pedes and 2 versus") I f we substitute l e t t e r s f or Dante's terms, then these patterns appear as follows: 1. aab (pedes cum cauda) 2. abb (frons cum versibus) 3. aabb (pedes cum versibus) While Dante sheds l i g h t on various aspects of the canzone he does not treat any of the many other poetic types popularized by the troubadours. That he recognized such types i s evident i n the following quotation: Those who have written poetry i n the vernacular have uttered t h e i r poems i n many d i f f e r e n t forms, some i n that of canzoni, some i n that of b a l l a t e , some i n that of sonnets, some i n other i l l e g i t i m a t e and i r r e g u l a r forms.5 Thomas G. Bergin, Dante, pp. 170f. A.G. Ferrers Howell, ed., The Latin Works of Dante, p. 74. It Is regrettable that De vulgar! eloquehtla was never f i n i s h e d for Dante might well have been planning to include a discussion of these forms i n a l a t e r section of the t r e a t i s e . A t h i r d document which has been mentioned from time to time as a source of information on troubadour poetic genre i s Las Razos de Trobar^ written by the Catalan poet, Raimon Vi d a l around the middle of the thirteenth century. The purpose of the work, says V i d a l , i s to i n s t r u c t men i n the art of w r i t i n g poetry for . . . a l l C h r i s t i a n people, Jews, Saracens, emperors, princes, kings, dukes, counts, viscounts, vavassors and a l l other nobles with clergy, c i t i z e n s and v i l l e i n s , small and great, d a i l y give t h e i r minds to composing and s i n g i n g . 7 After such a promising beginning, Las Razos i s rather disappointing and, i n f a c t , i s of l i t t l e help i n c l a s s i f y i n g troubadour poetry. Like Gaucelm F a i d i t ' s Donatz proensals, i t i s not p r i n c i p a l l y a p o e t i c a l t r e a t i s e but a grammar. We turn now to the anonymous La Doctrina de Compondre Dictatz, a short Catalan work written i n Provencal and dating from around 1250 A.D. The manuscript i n which i t i s contained i s , of course, of much l a t e r provenance. °Las Razos de Trobar edited by Carl Appel, Provenzallsche  Chrestomathie (Leipzig, 1907), pp. 193-7. 7Raimon V i d a l c i t e d i n H.J. Chaytor, op. c i t . , p. 122. It can be dated i n the late fourteenth century, not only by i t s watermarks ( i t i s written on paper rather than parchment) but by i t s reference to the year 1378. The manuscript (copied i n a single hand) i s numbered 239 and housed i n the B i b l i o t e c a Central at Barcelona. That troubadour poetic types should be described i n a t r e a t i s e which originated i n Catalonia Is hardly remarkable, since " a l l except r e l i g i o u s genres of Catalan poetry" were, at t h i s time, "wholly subject to Provence." 8 Nor should the fact that the work i s written i n Provencal be sur p r i s i n g , f o r the Catalan poets wrote almost exclusively i n the d i a l e c t throughout the thirteenth century. Indeed, they considered i t to be "the poetic tongue par excellence" as late as the beginning of the f i f t e e n t h century.9 Barcelona i t s e l f was noted f o r i t s F l o r a l Games established i n 1 3 9 3 , a competition d i r e c t l y patterned along the l i n e s of the poetry contest sponsored by the "Seven Poets of Toulouse." Although La Doctrina de compondre d i c t a t z has been available i n p r i n t f o r nearly a century, i t has been given very l i t t l e attention by p h i l o l o g i s t s and v i r t u a l l y none by musicologists. The only publication of the "Joan Triadu, Anthology of Catalan Poetry (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1 9 5 3 ) , Introduction, P. xix. 9 I b i d . t r e a t i s e (edited by Paul Meyer i n the Romance studies journal, Romania i n 1877) contains a few minor errors and, curiously enough, omits several l i n e s . Corrections have been made by W.H.W. F i e l d and i t i s his amended version to which we w i l l r e f e r . The Doctrina i s comprised of two sections: the f i r s t gives a d e t a i l e d description of some seventeen poetic types together with suggestions on the writing of appropriate melodies. The second part, much shorter than the f i r s t , makes one f i n a l comment on each of the d e f i n i t i o n s given previously. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the t r e a t i s e can hardly be over-estimated: i t i s , by about f i f t y years, the e a r l i e s t document on the art of the troubadours which has come down to us. In f a c t , i t predates the only other early source which examines poetic forms other than the canco ( i . e . Las Leys d'Amors) by a century/ The following study of the Doctrina i s mainly concerned with discovering and appraising any musical' implications that may be present i n the t r e a t i s e ' s descriptions of poetic genre. It i s therefore l i m i t e d i n scope to an examination of only those forms for which examples can be found with both text and music. The entire amended version appears i n Appendix V. Canco 3 The purpose of the Doctrina, states i t s author, i s to enable a s p i r i n g poets to "reach perfection i n wri t i n g them [ i . e . the seventeen poetic types] without error and without reproach, as you w i l l . " As might be expected, the f i r s t genre he mentions i s the canco, most important of a l l troubadour forms: E primerament deus saber que cango deu parl a r d'amor plazenment, e potz metre en ton parl a r eximpli d ' a l t r a rayso, e ses maldir e ses lauzor de re, sino d'amor. Encara mes, deus saber que canco ha obs e deu haver cinch cobles; eyxamen n ' i potz f a r , per abeylimen e per complimen de raho, s i s o set o vuit o nou, d'aquell compte que mes te p l a c i a . E potz h i far una tornada, o dues, qual te v u l l e s . E garda be que en axi com comencaras l a raho en amor, que en aquella manera matexa l a f i n s be e l a sequesques; e dona l i so noveyl co pus b e l l poras. The author of the Doctrina, unlike Dante, does not specify any p a r t i c u l a r musical form which must be followed f o r the writing of a canco melody. The "new melody" he discusses could, presumably, be written i n any one of the forms i n vogue at the time. Not a l l troubadours, however, observed t h i s freedom. Peire Cardenal's cango "Ar mi pose eu lauzar d'amor" (151, 185) and Giraut de B o r n e i l l ' s "No pose s o f r i r qu'a l a dolor" (86, 57) are set to the same music: t. 106 (a) "No pose s o f r l r " (b) "Ar mi pose" } } i - f i } No posclo-$rif c'3 13 do-lor De / a e/e* la / e ^ a no v/'< f\r mi pose eu. Ida-tar fa-mof, "%.m \0\ rv&\-\ar *'' dof-tntr - 4 — h * + ~ - M i - J " - n — * £-1 a v v y v \ ?r a la no'\ ie la fl J - * ) m a ) or1 Lan-can Vei IPS ra- mels -) - ) F/o-r/'r —: r r t"—r ' f -. ; v ^ — ^ A//-/J sentfreldtf-ra n> ca- for, Ni non bd-daih ni n p . n e>o$-pir 1 i h h i i i Ni-nVautde noik a rzrfc - cje ft/;.n s^i con-auesnin Su'ca-chd^, E Wi-n $ui'do-fens nin >—rate, M non '/» -qui ntee>< sak^^e* Pi Can vei eton,* \J&r-^efa e pratz^ £ u r « - r t < w e l e - s o - labz, The cango enjoyed great popularity throughout the era of the troubadours as i s indicated by Its presence i n large numbers i n the chansonniers and the many references to the form i n contemporary l i t e r a t u r e . The author of the Doctrina also alludes to thi s widespread appeal: . . . que cango es appellada cango per 90 con es causa naturalment pauzada en manera de cantar; e per homens autz e bays, go es saber que a totz aquells pl a t z pretz, amors e c o r t e s i a e solac, ensenyamentz, e tot go que e l l a p a r l a . Vers The next item i n the catalogue i s the vers. P r i o r to the middle of the thirteenth century, no d i s t i n c t i o n was made between the terms cango and vers. Gradually, however, i t appears that the cango form became the standard love l y r i c while the vers form became the vehicle for moral and di d a c t i c d i a t r i b e s . The Doctrina's d e f i n i t i o n of the vers r e f l e c t s i t s new etymology: S i vols far vers, deus parlar de v e r i t a t z , de exemples e de proverbis o de lauror', no pas en semblant d'amor; e que en axi com comengaras, ho proseguesques eu f i n s , ab so novel l tota vegada. E aquesta es l a dl f e r e n c i a que es entre cango e vers, e que l a una rayso no es semblant de l ' a l t r a . E cert aytantes cobles se cove de far a l vers, com a l a canco, e aytantes tornades. There has been some disagreement over the d i f f e r e n c e , i f any, between the m u s i c a l forms of the vers and canco. Gennrich's c l a i m t h a t a canco was w r i t t e n i n aab form and 'that a vers was through-composedH has been c o n v i n c i n g l y disputed,12 and i t i s now b e l i e v e d t h a t no d e f i n i t e d i s t i n c t i o n s were made i n p r a c t i c e between the terms. The D o c t r i n a does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the music of the two types: the requirement f o r both i s the same: "a new melody." D i s c o r t A poet who wishes t o " t a l k of love as a man who i s abandoned by i t , and as a man who can have no joy of h i s l a d y , and who l i v e s i n torment" should w r i t e a d i s c o r t , the D o c t r i n a a d v i s e s . The su b j e c t matter of the most famous d i s c o r t i n e x i s t e n c e , Raimbaut de Va q u e i r a s ' s "Eras quan vey verdeyar,"- 1-^ i s c e r t a i n l y U p r i e d r i c h Gennrich, G r u n d r i s s e i n e r Formenlehre  des m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n L i e d e s . l 2 F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the d i s p u t e see W. Apel, "Rondeaux, V i r e l a i s , and B a l l a d e s i n French 13th Century Song" i n J o u r n a l o f the American M u s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , V I I , 124; see a l s o P e r r i n , "Some Notes on Troubadour Mel o d i c Types" i n I b i d . , IX, 14-16. ^ T h e complete t e x t of t h i s poem with E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n appears i n The Poems of the Troubadour  Raimbaut de Vaqueiras by Joseph L i n s k i l l , pp. 192-94. i n keeping with the Doctrina* s d e f i n i t i o n . The poet's lady i s both " c r u e l " and "treacherous" and the cause of many a sleepless night: Por vos e i pen' maltreito e meo corpo lazerado: l a n o i t , can j a t z en meu l e i t o , so mochas vetz resperado; For your sake I endure pain and to r t u r e , and my body i s racked. At night, as I l i e i n my bed, I wake again and again; Raimbaut's misery over his lover's inconstancy i s too great to be expressed i n only one language. Consequently, just the f i r s t stanza i s written i n Provencal while . stanzas two to f i v e are written i n I t a l i a n , French, Gascon, and Galician-Portuguese respectively. A l l f i v e languages and d i a l e c t s are used i n the sixth and f i n a l stanza, two l i n e s being devoted to each. Multilingualism i s not the only "discordance" i n the poem, however. The f i r s t stanza mentions that rhyme and music were also to disagree: q'una dona-m s o l amar, mas camjatz l'es sos coratges, per qu'ieu fauc dezacordar los motz e-ls sos e«ls e«ls lenguatges. For a cert a i n lady was wont to love me, but her heart has changed, and so I produce discordance i n the rhymes, melodies, and languages. Unfortunately, the melody for Raimbaut's discort has not survived. Yet from the above textual reference, i t quite possibly may have followed the musical requirements of the form as set down by the Doctrina: . . . e que en lo cantar 11a hon lo so deuria muntar, q u ' i l baxes. E fe l o co n t r a r i de tot l ' a l t r e cantar. E deu haver tres cobles, e una o dues tornades e responedor. E potz metre un o dos motz mes en una cobla que en a l t r a , per co que mils s i a discordant. I f a disc o r t must "do the opposite of any other song," then the three examples that are complete with music, Aimeric de Peguillan's "Qui l a v i , en d i t z " (7, 182.), Guillem Augier's "Ses alegratge" ( 8 l , 184) and the anonymous "B e l l a domna cara" (237> 282) c e r t a i n l y s a t i s f y the require-ments. Each of these three pieces has a disjunct motion and a sparseness of style quite d i f f e r e n t from the t y p i c a l Provencal melody. While most troubadour songs are a combination of s y l l a b i c and short melismatic sections, the dis c o r t s .are almost e n t i r e l y s y l l a b i c . "Qui l a v i " i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s free of melismas: two notes per s y l l a b l e very seldom occur: Ex. 107 h i n K' i } }> h ' ^ m J U J1 mi m) Que. 'm i/al -ri - cu S '''ecu pir-df-as S l i g h t l y more ornate i s "B e l l a domna cara." Yet even here, three notes per s y l l a b l e are a r a r i t y : Ex. 108 -+ C - mors rWa/ mii> fa bal port, Most of the melodies i n the troubadour corpus proceed by smooth step-wise progressions. The d i s c o r t s , on the other hand, feature sudden l e a p s — a t times as large as a n i n t h — a n d frequent i n t e r r u p t i o n by r e s t s . Note the s t r i k i n g l y angular and sporadic character of the excerpts shown below: Ex. 109. "Ses alegrage" Don wi* arr? mar-1> - re, Que, Jaco-bras gas - . k 1 h i - = ' — E Ex. 110. "Qui l a v i " Ex. 111. " B e l l a domna cara" te 3^- /*>2S /^/" £" - i i»^5 play ^ senst Grenbz. can Tan Car tins  e n ' - denbz, O&nbzj i } 1 ,- : There are a number of other ways that set the dlscorts completely apart from the rest of the Provencal-repertory. A l l the troubadour melodies are set st r o p h i -c a l l y but the disc o r t s have d i f f e r e n t music for each stanza. As a r e s u l t , we not only have "discordance" within the stanzas, but between them' as well. Perhaps the reference to "discordant melodies" i n Raimbaut's poem suggests that here too, d i f f e r e n t music was used for each stanza and that such a practice was a char-a c t e r i s t i c feature of a l l discorts-. Because s t a f f l i n e s are needed for every stanza and not just the f i r s t , the discorts occupy f a r more manuscript space than do surrounding strophic pieces. Compare the space allotment of "Qui l a v i " with that the canco reproduced i n Chapter I: Plate IV. Facsimile of "Qui l a v i , en d i t z " 17(1 ticrf <r aworfle. -\niarf „•(> w W ! t ^ . 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The f i r s t eight stanzas of "Ses alegrage" end on d as does the tornada but the l a s t two stanzas cadence on g_ and a respectively. As for "Qui l a v i , " only two of i t s four stanzas end on the same note (which i n t h i s case i s g while the remainder cadence on d and f . 1 4 Yet i t i s not to be supposed that the music of these discorts i s just a conglomeration of unrelated stanzas strung together i n haphazard fashion. On the contrary, c a r e f u l consideration has been given to the balancing of disparate and cohesive elements. P a r t i -c u l a r l y subtle organization i s shown i n "Ses alegrage" where the music seems to r e f l e c t the growing d i s t r a c t i o n of a tortured lover. The f i r s t eight stanzas of t h i s piece have a number of features i n common: they are a l l approximately equal i n length, they have the same melodic structure and f i n a l , and they each conclude with a descending scale passage: 1 4 I n the second stanza of "Qui l a v i , " an e f l a t i s sung on the word Patz. I have found only two other occurrences of the f l a t t e d E among the troubadour pieces, both on high e'. Ex. 112. A/on h mtlx. ~£»!> f>res 9 'J* *>' «* M> M* -Uri Sew truth won cor la,i 'Lgne-uS trials, don en-dijrl j \\ } h Ji mj T 7 o Quart la, f>re&j de> ~mi X7/'- Qa'orn vcn-cuOZj^u-frenZ/ Qui Iot> s/eu5 d'ee-mai Two a-'fiue&cOsir Vir. By contrast, the l a s t two stanzas are short, through-composed, and return to the d f i n a l only i n the tornada. Gradually the descending scale of the previous eight stanzas gives place to a l i n e which becomes progressively more disjunct. This disjunct motion culminates i n the tornada with a leap of a f i f t h between the penultimate and f i n a l notes, an event which occurs i n no other melody i n the troubadour corpus: Ex. 113. j l i ' > > h ' .h Glu&> ctaus -traj jaj - sainh ftyti'ih ,*d- 1* J» ) J' i ' J> c$or? $ai cors plfr-2en (?en. i f"&- j& -fate Mab Although "Qui l a v i " i s e n t i r e l y through-composed, i t i s u n i f i e d by the use of si m i l a r melodic material. Some of these short melodic fragments are repeated within a single stanza only, Ex. 114. (Stanza 3? Mr 1 M r— r> — > r 1 N 1 ~ -f _JJ w Pe,-afoat non -Pes ^ M'agr'wns oiouz bai-sars Pars 0 1 ^ ^ —1 -re/-^ = 1= '1 b I f \ — 1 1 1 • — , / r. r rr r 1 r r i 1 _ r * « : W. AtU-—U 1/ 1/ u D 1/1/ 1 M> Va.1 ri as Car tSun di-as ^ie-n mo-ri -as while others, occurring at various points throughout the piece, act as l i n k s between the stanzas. The most common of the l a t t e r group i s a segment which begins with a repeated c': Ex. 115. _l - 1 w ^ ¥ E E 1 Quito, plrt-ri -As fincde, noil-ha, g&n I E i ; P E f/ f/ g /U&i6> $il mo-nu- men/ " B e l l a domna cara" i s also u n i f i e d by s i m i l a r melodic material. In t h i s case, the music for the l a s t verse of each stanza i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same, thus providing cohesion among a l l four stanzas: Ex. 116. 1 o m s ni o pot far Que-te ai-ynanS a.-pa,^as ft b b > J) * Z>? prczj won tX'j-an gran. It Is unfortunate that more discorts have not survived, for i f the three examples we possess are t y p i c a l , then there was d e f i n i t e l y an intimate connection between the poetry and music of the genre. Indeed, a melody characterized by sudden wide leaps, abrupt changes i n d i r e c t i o n , and short h a l t i n g phrases, i s the perfect counterpart for a lament on unrequited love. Pastora While the troubadour movement was primarily a courtly one, c e r t a i n vestiges of popular tradtlons are i n evidence. The pastora form i s one of these. Usually the pastora i s presented as a dialogue i n which a knight t r i e s to woo a shepherdess—often, however, without success. The Doctrina describes the poetic requirements of the genre as follows, S i vols f a r pastora, deus p a r l a r d'amor en aytal semblan com eu te ensenyaray, co es a saber, s i t' acostes a pastora e l a vols saludar, o enquerer o manar o c o r t e i a r , o de qual razo demanar o dar o p a r l a r l i v u l l e s . E potz l i metre a l t r e nom de pastora, segons lo b e s t i a r que guardara. and then adds a further statement about i t s music: E aquesta manera es c l a r a assatz d'entendre, e potz l i f e r s i s o vuit cobles, e so n o v e l l o so estrayn ya pas sat. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to speculate on what the author of the Doctrina had i n mind by the adjective estrayn or "strange." C e r t a i n l y t h e r e i s n o t h i n g out of the o r d i n a r y about the anonymous " L ' a l t r i ' e r m'iere l e v a t z " (249, 252) or Marcabrun's " L ' a u t r ' i e r j o s t ' una s e b i s s a " (144, 10), the only two pa s t o r a s with m u s i c a l accompaniment i n e x i s t e n c e . N e i t h e r have any unusual i n t e r v a l l i c p r o g r e s s i o n s , nor i s t h e r e a n y t h i n g a t y p i c a l about the melodic s t r u c t u r e ( g i v e n below) of the two p i e c e s : " L ' a l t r i ' e r m'iere" aabc-'-aabc^deabc 2 " L ' a u t r i ' i e r j o s t ' " abcabcd The D o c t r i n a a l s o c o n s i d e r s a "strange melody" a c c e p t a b l e f o r the g e l o z e s c a , a form which u n f o r t u n a t e l y has no extant m u s i c a l s e t t i n g s : S i v o l s f a r g e l o z e s c a , deus p a r l a r de g e l o z i a , reprenden o con-t r a s t a n de f a y t d'amor; e deu haver responedor, e quatre c o b l e s , e una o dues tornades, e so n o v e y l l o e s t r a y n ya f e y t . I t i s c e r t a i n l y s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i n both the p a s t o r a and g e l o z e s c a d e f i n i t i o n s , the "strange melody" i s "one t h a t has been used b e f o r e . " Such a statement suggests t h a t a tune was " s t r a n g e " only i n the sense t h a t i t was o r i g i n -a l l y i n t e n d e d f o r another t e x t . For c o n f i r m a t i o n o f our -^Both " L ' a u t r ' i e r j o s t ' una s e b i s s a " and " L ' a l t r i ' e r m'iere l e v a z " begin with."the o t h e r day" formula; the c o n v e n t i o n a l opening f o r a l l poems i n the p a s t o r a form. speculations, we may turn to the d e f i n i t i o n of estrayn as i t was understood i n both the Catalan and Provencal d i a l e c t s . In each case there i s i m p l i c i t the idea of something belonging to another. The suggestion that a "strange melody" i s none other than a borrowed melody, therefore, has l i n g u i s t i c s u p p o r t . ^ We have no way of knowing whether "L'autr'ier j o s t ' una sebissa" and " L ' a l t r i ' e r m'iere levaz" were set to new or "strange" ( i . e . borrowed) music. The fact that the melodies of these songs have never been found i n combination with any other poems i s not s i g n i f i c a n t since such a small portion of the repertory survives. Estampida The c o d i c i l of the Doctrina describes the estampida as a form which "requires more vigor i n i t s singing and t e l l i n g than any other poem." A more complete d e f i n i t i o n i s included i n an e a r l i e r passage: S i vols f a r estampida, potz parlar de qualque fayt v u l l e s , blasman o lauzan o merceyan, quit v u l l e s ; e deu haver quatre cobles e responedor, e una o dues tornades, e so n o v e l l . ^For a Provencal d e f i n i t i o n , see Lexique Roman ou  Dictionnaire de l a Langue des Troubadours edited by W. Raynouard (Heidelberg: Carl Winters Universitatsbuchhandlun o r i g i n a l e d i t i o n : 1 836 - 1845 ) , section D.-K., p. 2 22 - 3 . A Catalan d e f i n i t i o n can be obtained i n D i c c i o n a r i Catala- Valencia-Balear edited by Antoni M. Alcover (Palma de Mallorca, 1 9 53 ) , Vol. 5 (edited by Prances de B. Moll), p. 584 The only extent estampida preserved with text as well as melody i s the celebrated "Calenda maja" ( 1 9 6 , 9 8 ) , both the f i n e s t and e a r l i e s t specimen of the form written by a troubadour. The poem, attributed to Raimbaut de Vaqueiras, was supposedly written f o r a melody the poet heard performed on v i e l l e s by'two French jongleurs. It i s therefore e n t i r e l y possible that the music for "Calenda maja" i s not Provencal, but French. The estampida, as the Doctrina in d i c a t e s , was to be sung with "vigor," perhaps reminiscent of i t s o r i g i n s i n a popular "stamping" dance. I f so, the s t r i c t l y s y l l a b i c , rhythmical s t y l e of "Calenda maja" i s completely i n keeping with i t s ancestry: Ex. 117. "Calenda maja" i t K&, -/en-oCcu /M*,~Lpu JUi -fue/hs ale, fa^d* /Ui ctona/ d'aw-fl/or* e$ fite-m p/a, r°ro^> e/ory> -r?a->  7 t o jf^ ^ $ ~ h 4 > b p n b 1 J ) P /' > - h Ztlh /I/,' f/oKS de, a/a, - ua, n~~ rsr beJ MX, - ire, b&IJv Co/s, + h h h -+ * auesn re - tra, - CJ#J tra, - $A> O/nors twos - £ JA> -ijiZ' Jem 3 -V A o ' * While the estampida o r i g i n a l l y contained both words and music, i t l a t e r became a purely instrumental form and as such, was one of the most important non-vocal genres of the l a t e Middle Ages. 1 7 Dang a According to the Doctrina, instruments were also important i n the danca form: Dansa es d i t a perco com naturalment l a d l t z horn danca[n] o bayllan, car deu[aver] so plazent; e l a d i t z horn ab esturment, e plau a cascus que l a diga e l a escout. The danca i s further defined as follows: S i vols f a r danca, deus pa r l a r d'amor be e plasentment en qualque estament ne s i e s . E deus l i f e r de deutz n i cobles e no pus, e respost, una o dues tornades, qual te v u l l e s ; totes vegades so no v e l l . E potz f e r , s i t vols, totes les f i n s de les cobles en refrayn semblan. E aquella raho de que la' comengaras deu continuar, e be servar a l comencament, a l mig e a l a f i . The only extant examples of the danga with music are "Amors m'art con fuoc am flama" (236, 257) > "Dona, pos vos ay chausida" (242, 2_6_0), and "Tant es g a l ' es avinentz" 'For a complete discussion of the "Calenda maja" see Lloyd Hibberd, "Estampie and Stantipes" i n Speculum, XIX, #2 ( A p r i l , 1944), 222-249; see also Joseph L i n s k i l l , op. c i t . , p. 189. (258, 262). The melodies of each of these three pieces show notable s i m i l a r i t i e s . Consider, for example, t h e i r melodic structures: "Amors m'art" - abcdef^ef 2abcdabcd "Dona, pos vos" - abacde-^-de^abacabac "Tant es g a i 1 " - ab 1ab 2cdcdab 1ab 2ab 1ab 2 This s i m i l a r i t y extends even to the style of the danca pieces. Each has a rhythmic propulsion and predominantly s y l l a b i c s t y l e which i s admirably suited for the dance. In addition, these songs contain extensive passages i n the major key. Although "Dona, pos vos ay chausida" and "Tant es gai' es avinentz" are set i n Mode D, they both feature sections reminiscent of the t o n a l i t y of C major: Ex. 118. "Dona, pos vos ay chausida" J> > 1> J\ h J .!• J> Tgrrit a Sres -c<a co- lot c<9- rd £ A 4olz Lorrs com - pli - menJz Ex. 119. "Tant es gai' es avinentz" Do- rta, pos vos a» chau- si -A major qua l i t y i s especially obvious i n "Amors m'art con fuoc am flama" for with f as the f i n a l , a l l B's f l a t t e d , and a semi-tone between the la s t two notes, the piece sounds more l i k e P major than any one of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l modes: Ex. 120. "Amors m'art con fuoc am flama" W n n m j , [ j j , j > ) J ) j j : ft- mors m'att con Sooc aw Slcx-ma. £ noeo^e ^orn pjus m^^pren qo'ieu hen ve- ra - men Q/e cfe l jue/jj co-vdis out ' ^ _JL * * <* . . nos -ire quer- rter m'en >/t-a.ca xo+z iprns plus mens-lia t'ft - nto<S g f* - worc^vtort! <x>^ ?ua& Am fliS com su Ss~te si-A pre * i?n £ j<9 woWro-ha d o r - werj c'dm t/oS nort 5"/*e j o S fd—WW-Q u ^ c/flj <wer^ io-no\£> QUI a, - MJ. . The b a l l a d e I s a p o e t i c t y p e v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e d a n c a , and may, i n f a c t , m e r e l y have been an i n t e r --i o changeab l e t e r m . I t i s p r o b a b l y s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e D o c t r i n a g i v e s no s e p a r a t e d e f i n i t i o n f o r t he b a l l a d e s i n c e i t wou l d l i k e l y have i n v o l v e d u n n e c e s s a r y r e p e t i t i o n The o n l y example o f t h i s f o rm w h i c h c o n t a i n s b o t h words and melody i s t h e anonymous "A l ' e n t r a d a d e l t e n s c l a r " (234, 2 4 4 ) . The p i e c e , l i k e t h e t h r e e danca m e l o d i e s m e n t i o n e d , i s s e t s y l l a b i c a l l y , makes e x t e n s i v e use o f r e p e a t e d m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l , and c o n t a i n s a number o f pa s s age s s e t i n t he m a j o r ( i n t h i s c a s e , C m a j o r ) t o n a l i t y I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e f i r s t t h r e e v e r s e s o f "A l ' e n t r a d a d e l t e n s c l a r " ( w h i c h , i n c i d e n t a l l y , have t h e same me lody ) each c o n c l u d e w i t h t h e o u t c r y " E y a ! " The use o f e x p l e t i v e s o f t h i s t y p e i s c e r t a i n l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h p o p u l a r dance p i e c e s . C o b l e s E s p a r s e s C o b l e s e s p a r s e s a r e d e f i n e d by t h e D o c t r i n a as f o l l o w s : S i v o l s f e r c o b l e s e s p a r s e s p o t z l e s f a r en q u a l so t e v u l l e s ; e deus s e g u i r l a s r i m e s d e l can t de que t r a y r a s • l o s o . E a t r e s s i l e s p o t z f a r en a l t r e s r i m e s ; e deven e s s e r dues o t r e s c o b l e s , e una o dues t o r n a d e s . 1 0 F r a n c i s H e u f f e r , f o r e xamp le , c o n s i d e r s t h e forms t be more o r l e s s t h e same, See H e u f f e r , op . c i t . , p. 9 9 . A l l e x t a n t c o b l e s e s p a r s e s poems w i t h mus i c a r e anonymous. I n r e s p e c t t o m e l o d i c s t r u c t u r e , t w o — " A i s s i cum eu sab t r i a r " ( 233 , 243) and " L o premer j o r que v i " ( 252 , 2 5 4 ) — a r e t h rough - composed and t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e u t i l i z e , r e p e a t e d m a t e r i a l i n t h e manner shown b e l o w : " L o dous chans que l ' a u z e l s c r i d a " ( 2 51 , 253) - a b a b c d e f "Pos q u i ' i e u vey l a f u e l l a " ( 256 , 2 6 l ) - a b c d e f ^ - d e f 2 a b c a b c "Be v o l g r a , s ' e s s e r p o g e s " ( 240 , 259) - a b c d e f g - ^ e f g 2 a b c d a b c d The a u t h o r o f t h e D o c t r i n a c o n s i d e r s i t no t o n l y a p p r o -p r i a t e t o choose a p r e - e x i s t i n g melody f o r c o b l e s e s p a r s e s , but s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e " themes f rom w h i c h you t a k e t h e m e l o d y " may a l s o be u s e d . Whether t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s were put i n t o p r a c t i c e i s unknown: t h e r e a r e no e x t a n t c a se s where t he melody o r rhyme scheme has been bo r r owed f r om a n o t h e r song f o r c o b l e s e s p a r s e s . The c o d i c i l o f t h e D o c t r i n a men t i on s t h a t a poem o f t h i s t y p e can be s e t t o " w h a t e v e r melody you p l e a s e ; however , i t i s s u i t a b l e t h a t one s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e s t y l e o f t h e c a n c o . " But h e r e a g a i n , no examples o f such a p r a c t i c e have come down t o u s . S i r v e n t e s The u s u a l medium f o r e x p r e s s i n g o p i n i o n was t h e sirventes form, second only to the canco i n popularity during the troubadour e r a . ^ Sometimes the attack was directed against s p e c i f i c persons or situations although the form could also be used i n a more universal way to lament the e v i l s of society and world conditions i n general. The subject matter of the sirventes i s discussed at some length i n the Doctrina: Si volz f a r sirve n t z , deus parla r de fayt d'armes e senyalladament', o de lausor de senyor, o de mal d i t o de qualsque feyts qui novellament se tracten; e comencaras ton cantar segons que usaran aquells dels quals ton serventez comencaras; e per proverbis e per exemples poretz hi-portar lez naturaleses que fan, o co de que fan a rependre o a lausar aquells dels quals ton serventez comencaras. Twenty sirventes poems have been preserved with music. Of these, eleven are associated with Guiraut Riquier and the rest are d i s t r i b u t e d among Lo Monge de Montaudo, P i s t o l e t a , Peire V i d a l , Giraut de. B o r n e i l l , Maigret, Uc Brunec, Marcabrun, and Cardenal. As might be expected, the Riquier pieces are closely r e l a t e d i n terms of structure, s t y l e , and se l e c t i o n of mode. It i s hardly l i k e l y , however, that the s i m i l a r i t i e s between these songs are the r e s u l t of adherance to the musical requirements of a p a r t i c u l a r genre. Rather, 19»As the troubadours were employed more and more as the propogandists of princes, they developed the sirventes quite f u l l y and i t i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c form of the second h a l f of the troubadour period." See Valency, op. c i t . , pp. 105f• The sirventes held a p o s i t i o n i n the Middle Ages not unlike that of our news media of today. one suspects that they are related by Riquier's own composi-t i o n a l mannerisms. The remaining sirventes melodies have l i t t l e i n common eithe r among themselves or the Riquier pieces. Certainly there i s nothing to d i s t i n g u i s h any of them from the rest of the troubadour repertory: i n no way can they be singled out as a "family" of songs. Two other forms associated with the sirventes but not mentioned s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the Doctrina are the sirventes-canco and the chanson de l a croisade. The former i s a hybrid form "generally beginning with a s a t i r i c a l discussion of personal or public a f f a i r s and winding up with the praise of a lady." 2 (^ There are ten such poems with music i n the troubadour corpus. The chanson de l a croisade, of which three are preserved with text and melody, i s a sirventes dealing p a r t i c u l a r l y with the thirteenth century Albigensian crusades. One of the most famous songs of t h i s type i s Marcabrun's "Pax! i n nomine Domini" (145, 11). According to the Doctrina, the sirventes i s so named because " i t i s subordinate to that poem from which i t derives i t s melody and rhymes." The implication i s , of course, that a sirventes could be set to a tune already i n existence. It i s not therefore s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d that Lo Monge de Montaudo's sirventes "Port m'enoja, so auzes d i r e " (148, 93.) and Bertran de Born's sirventes-canco "Rassa, tan cr e i s e mont' e poja" (45, 39) share melodic material: Heuffer, op. c i t . , p. 141. E x . 121. (a) "Fort m'enoja" (b) "Rassa, tan c r e i s " p P P P P P fork rrie- noi-a,i &o au-zes di -r~C) @*r - Hers auafiCeS (.by £ £ P P | fh5-Scz> ban creis e> mont''e poi Ce -Jo, eue£> de, i J> J> ft k } Ji J> =E=E ' Kc?/5 t>er~ Yi horn <^ue brop vol ecutr a.ia-{, p > * >frJ> J . i ^ i J> i &>£z, <J>7 - /o/-^ prebzi a. /a5 au-tra$ Que I v& 2ers d-e fa, 6eu -en tat J ue •/ v& 2ers d-e, /<su bcto - at 2 / '-re. fif'e, ~ noi -a, e, ca. - Val$ ^ue, bi~ re; £t e- noi-<?/ ^A-, Quu-nasno-ias c?ue rem i noi-a,^ Que In*plci5£o-loi - a,, Lo6> pros a, ^os %j76,eui0uo aoi -a; f t f p y JJi bm&§ amf si bieus m'a,-Ji/t7 So-i/cz> ho^^uan brop portet> cub s •Iii me/ / v , r C M*n-t>c-non a, -des 'bOj Uu- 2or Ih, mei-for V e l a , u -non Per /aj no/5 sen e gen-2or Ex. 121. (continued) < Que ne •'Jc/n colp no-iO' a,- vut t pel-Ian -e> Mon-c^ 1 h j> ,h ^ J- J. i> H Quilh 5a,p far tan en kjeir o -nor9 bar-t>ut> £ lau-ten-jierbec e5-n>o-tut h N Js > J ! > > - f l vt?/ /w«6 u n &>l pre* -dor S i m i l a r i l y , two of Riquier's sirventes-cango melodies, "Be.m volgra d'amor p a r t i r " (99, 203) and "Creire m'an fag mal d e z i r " (100, 204), have a section i n common: Ex. 122. (a) "Be-in volgra d'amor p a r t i r " (b) "Creire m'an fag mei d e z i r " -0-*-el beS si - as ta-l& ZH1 -fate, de. jtuiew no-m cla-The preceding examples show melodic borrowing only; however, i t was acceptable, we may r e c a l l , to borrow rhyme schemes as well. The Doctrina elaborates on t h i s idea as follows: . . . E deus lo f a r d'aytantes cobles com sera l o cantar de que pendras l o so; e potz segulr las rlmaz contra semblantz del cantar de que pendras l o so; a t r e s i lo potz f a r en a l t r e s rimes. That such a procedure was actually c a r r i e d out i s confirmed by the existence of Cardenal's sirventes "Rics horn que greu d i t z vertat e leu men" (152, 186). Both the melody and rhyme scheme are d i r e c t l y borrowed from Raimon Jordan's cango "Vas vos s o p l e i , domna, premeiramen" ( 2 0 2 , 1 3 6 ) : Ex. 123. (a) "Vas vos s o p l e i " (Jordan) (b) "Rics horn que greu" (Cardenal) \ W ; ~ *4 ' J VaS \ioS 6o- pleifdom- n<a>j pre-mei- rov men fkr Cui e,u, chant e.co-1 mens ftier horn aue, jreto olitzi ver bab e> leu, mer>> £ greu, volpa,bz, e leu, mtu chan^son £p o'ai> vo& pia,tz^n-ten-Jez fa-zon,§ues~ tiers UH-}^ h . A M J' MOV o-chai-ao, £ do-nan greu, e, lew vol tUOry} lido, £ nous au6 d&Z>-ce>.b>r/r mon ba,-len Qu'a.i6~siven auan v&i ar^Lo 4ai be, e, l&oo des brut l&> gen £ grecues f>rc£ e leou Ex. 1 2 3 . (continued) \ioz> -bras tai-so^ la> len^garv talhe-l tor da! b* -r*o-f°*) f. \J J 1 i i i J , A M J] e^> mais aJs bo6>/ £ g r e v u e£> $rM)6)t e leu* e*> or-gu.-ko$, A i j i | , j T J J J , ; , U ^ I 0 ' p a p p Carnon bem hon a,-ma> Co-ml — men, fbc^ileu, berth/ &4r lo V06-£ artoo z$ lafty e Uuu bo) e a few ran, Deu/ ca-z&r leoo cJ >au£ ~ 7 lueCs J1J>J>JJJJ> tre Sen - ho - rab - go e.n ba6 <et> ~ ta.fr-Yet i t must not be supposed that a l l sirventes texts were to be set to pre-existing melodies. In fa c t , the author of the Doctrina states quite the opposite: . . . en qualque so te v u l l e s , e specialment se fa en so n o v e l l , e maiormeht en co de canco. Gustave Reese i s therefore misleading when he i n s i s t s that the sirventes "was intended to be sung to a melody already known."£ G. Reese, op. c i t . , p. 215f< A b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n i s included i n the Doctrina on the retronxa form: Si vols far retronxa, sapies que deus parlar d'amor, segons l'estament en quen seras, s i a plazen o cosiros; e no y deus mesclar a l t r a raho. E deus saber que deu haver quatre cobles, e so novell tota vegada. E deus saber que per 90 ha nom retronxa car lo refray de«cadauna de les cobles deu esser totz us. Musical accompaniments for only three retronxa texts have come down to us. They are set to poems by Riquier and are very s i m i l a r . Here again, the melodies are probably r e l a t e d by the composer's s t y l e rather than the require-ments of the retronxa type. E a r l i e r i n the present century, Gennrich decided that the retronxa was a d i s t i n c t musical form as well as poetic pp genre. Later scholarship has tended to deny such a p o s s i -b i l i t y and the term i s now considered to have a l i t e r a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e only. The change i n attitude i s evident i n the 1944 and 1969 editions of the Harvard Dictionary of Music. The f i r s t e d i t i o n c i t e s Gennrich's findings as proof of the retronxa's musical form. The second ed i t i o n , however, d¥. Gennrich, Die altfranzosische Rotrouenge (Halle, d i s c r e d i t s G e n n r i c h ' s t h e o r y and e m p h a t i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t "a m u s i c a l form ' r o t r o u e n g e ' does not e x i s t . " ^ ^ Tenso B o r n e i l l ' s " S ' i e - u s q u i e r c o n s e i l l , b e l ' amig' Alamanda" ( 8 8 , 59), d ' A l v e r g n e ' s "Amies B e r n a r t z de V e n t a d o r n " (149, 35) and "Quant Amors t r o b e t p a r t i t " ( l 8 l , 131) by P e i r o l a r e the o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e t e n s o t y p e w h i c h s u r v i v e w i t h m u s i c . The t e n s o was used as t h e l i t e r a r y forum f o r d e b a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e . O f t e n t h i s d i s p u t e would i n v o l v e some a s p e c t o f l o v e a l t h o u g h "the d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e most v a r i e d t o p i c s o f l i f e and m a n n e r s " ^ was a l s o i n o r d e r . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e D o c t r i n a t h e t e n s o i s so named, . . . p e r co com se d i u c o n t r a s t a n e d i s p u t a n s u b t i l m e n l o un ab l ' a l t r e de qualque r a h o horn v u l l a c a n t a r . Perhaps t h e t e n s o l i k e t h e s i r v e n t e s , c o u l d be s e t t o a p r e -e x i s t i n g melody: S i v o l s f a r t e n s o , deus l a pendre en a l g u n so que b a i a h e l l a n o t a , e p o t z s e g u i r l e s r i m e s d e l c a n t a r o no. E p o t z f e r q u a t r e o s i s c o b l e s o v u i t , s i t v o l s . •^See t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f t h e H a r v a r d D i c t i o n a r y , p. 6 5 3 , and t h e 2nd e d i t i o n , p. 741. See a l s o W. A p e l , "Rondeaux, V i r e l a i s , and B a l l a d e s . . . " 129 - 3 0 and R. P e r r i n , "Some Notes on Troubadour M e l o d i c Types/' 16. 2 4 H e u f f e r , op. c i t . , p. 112. I f s o , t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s between t he i n c i p i t s o f "Amies B e r n a r t z de V e n t a d o r n " and t h e cango "Pos t a l s s abe r s mi s o r s e.m c r e i s " ( 1 9 3 , 37.) may be t h e r e s u l t o f c o n s c i o u s b o r r o w i n g : Ex . 124. (a) "Amies B e r n a r t z de V e n t a d o r n " (b) " Pos t a l s s a b e r s mi s o r s e«m c r e i s " \k ; ; \> [> [> ' ] cr '<> -fl -wets Ber^nartz, Je, l/en - haw dorn>t £b$ lath sa.'b&rs mi 5or~t2j em creis P l a n t The p l a n t c o u l d be w r i t t e n " t o w h a t e v e r melody you l i k e , e x c e p t t h a t o f t h e d a n g a . " As f o r t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e p l a n t , t h e D o c t r i n a g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : P l a n t es d i t p e r 90 p l a n t c a r es c a u s a q u i p a r l a ma r r i damen t e p l a n y e n de a q u e l l a cau sa q u i es p e r d u d a , o que horn p l a y n . The p l a n t was t h e f u n e r a l d i r g e o f t h e t r o u b a d o u r s , u sed on such o c c a s i o n s as t h e p a s s i n g o f a p a t r o n o r l o v e r . On l y two p l a n t s a r e comp le t e w i t h m u s i c : Gaucelm F a i d i t ' s " F o r t z . . c a u s a es que t o t l o m a j o r dan". ( 64 , 106) and R i q u i e r ' s " P i e s de t r i s t o r , m a r r i t z e d o l o i r o s " ( 1 2 2 , 2 2 6). The l a t t e r commemorates t h e d e a t h o f Amaur i c IV o f Narbonne w h i l e F a i d i t ' s elegy mourns the loss of "Richartz, rey dels Engles." F a i d i t i s , of course, r e f e r r i n g to Richard I (Coeur de Lion) who himself i s said to have written l y r i c poetry. The song features a predominantly descending melodic l i n e which i s well suited to the subject of the poetry. Note e s p e c i a l l y the music set to the l i n e s "The great, glorious Richard, King of the English i s dead: Oh God! what g r i e f , what l o s s ! " The melodic l i n e of t h i s section r a r e l y extends beyond a, includes the lowest notes i n the entire piece, and progresses f o r the most part i n descending motion. P a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i s the descending melisma on the cry "Oh God!": Ex. 125. 1 ; T>=r — » - I. * \ : > rics - ? — * - * - y lens #i - charts , recjS 1 X -f ^ , ' *—= \ r r - ? ^ ?fe=^  ^ 1 * - — * t £5 mortz,; ai Di-euS / 4 k V — -1-- ^=4± n - — fiuats perd' e ^ua/S dans es! A l b a The a l b a o r " d awn - s ong " i s y e t a n o t h e r p o e t i c t y p e w h i c h has i t s r o o t s i n p o p u l a r t r a d i t i o n . The fo rm i s so c a l l e d becau se t h e word a l b a a lway s appear s i n t h e l a s t v e r s e . The s p e a k e r i n t h e poem i s o f t e n a watchman who warns t h e c l a n d e s t i n e l o v e r s o f a p p r o a c h i n g day o r t h e c l o s e p r o s i m i t y o f j e a l o u s hu sbands . I n Ra imbaut de V a q u e i r a s ' s a l b a " G a i t a be , g a i t e t a d e l c h a s t e l , " t h e k n i g h t i n s t r u c t s h i s g a i t e t a t o " k eep gua rd and c r y out and s i n g " i f he h e a r s o f any danger ' : G a i t a z v o s , g a i t e t a de l a t o r , d e l g e l o s , v o s t r e ma l vay s s e y n o r , e n u j o s p l u s que l ' a l b a , que za j o s p a r l a m d ' a m o r . Mas p a o r nos f a i l ' a l b a , l ' a l b a , o i l ' a l b a ! Be on y o u r g u a r d , l i t t l e watchman o f t h e t o w e r , a g a i n s t t h e j e a l o u s one , y o u r w r e t c h e d m a s t e r , more t i r e s o m e t h a n t h e dawn, f o r he re be low we a r e d i s c o u r s i n g o f l o v e . But we f e a r t h e dawn, t h e dawn, a l a s t h e dawn . ' 2 5 M e l o d i e s f o r o n l y two a l b a t e x t s a r e e x t a n t : t h e famous " R e i s g l o r i o s , v e r a i s lums e c l a r d a t z " (87 , 5_8) by B o r n e i l l and "En s u i t a n c o r t e z a g a i t a " ( 46 , 183) by Cadene t . C u r o u s l y enough, a t h i r d a l b a " G a i t e de l a t o r " has been ^ L i n s k i l l , op. c i t . , • p p . 2 6 l f . suggested from time to time as being of troubadour o r i g i n but i t s text i s obviously written i n French not Provencal. 2 The author of the Doctrina i s quite e x p l i c i t about the subject matter of the alba: S i vols f a r alba, parla d'amor plazent-ment; e a t r e s s i lauzar l a dona on vas o de que l a f a r a s ; e bendi l ' a l b a s i acabes lo plaze'r per l o qual ames' a ta dona. E s i no 1'acabes, fes l ' a l b a blasman l a dona e l ' a l b a on anaves. The only musical requirement of the genre i s "a new melody. We may r e c a l l that the canco was also to have a new melody. Notice, however, the s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between the i n c i p i t s of the alba "Reis g l o r i o s " and the canco "D'un sonet vau pensan" (174, 124): Ex. 126. (a) "Reis g l o r i o s " (b) "D'un sonet vau pensan" Rei6 J/° " ri -as, ve, - mis Ium5 e, clar - fat^ Dun  ne-t  v a u C pen " &r so-latz- e per,-r&, Here then, i s yet another confirmation of what we have suspected a l l along: i n actual practice no musical d i s -t i n c t i o n s were made between poetic forms. Terms such as canco, vers, alba, and so on, were used to denote l i t e r a r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s only. To t h i s general rule there i s one clear exception, the d i s c o r t . The melodies of the d i s c o r t s are so far removed i n s t y l e and structure from a l l the rest of the troubadour pieces that they could e a s i l y be singled out even i f t h e i r texts were not a v a i l a b l e . D e f i n i t i o n s of the lay, gayta, and sompni are also included i n the Doctrina but no Provencal examples of these forms with t h e i r musical accompaniments are i n existence. 2°Willi Apel considers t h i s alba to be of Provencal o r i g i n (Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed., p. 26) as does Gustave Reese, op. cit"~~> p. 214. CHAPTER III TROUBADOUR MELODIES AND THE CHANT Prom the s c u l l i o n to the courtier, every member of society i n the Middle Ages was completely dominated by the Church. It i s not surprising, therefore, that the troubadours should be affected by the l i t u r g i c a l music to which they were continually exposed. The Gregorian t r a d i t i o n constitutes the most important single source of i n s p i r a t i o n for the writers of medieval secular songs and i t s influence on the troubadour repertory i n p a r t i c u l a r i s immediately apparent. Yet the contribu-tions of chant can be over-estimated, for i n most aspects the Provencal melodies evidence a greater freedom than do the l i t u r g i c a l pieces. The following discussion attempts to assess the extent to which these l i b e r t i e s are taken as well as to acknowledge the contribution of the Gregorian r i t e to troubadour music i n general. Tonality The majority of troubadour melodies, l i k e Gregorian Chant, are set i n the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l modes. "Mout eron dous mei consir" (15, 53), for example, shares the same scale structure as the f i r s t mode or primus authenticus: 3= 5 1 -»--A=b= IP trias - /-/ - men, Quar? Ia> belh ' 0>b ft * ft 5 ^ c ^ " //tv "Mlh$, franc e> de, °on ai " rc , E=T 4 5 5 ^//js Jo;-mor bra/ - re} pon >ev no-no 3= J T n m m pt/eso par-btfy £ fluar ilh mo-pv he, \l n 1 b n ^ •a fs—1 ^ — • • However, not a l l troubadour songs conform to modal require-ments i n the manner of the above piece. Indeed, the whole question of mode i n the Provencal repertory has long puzzled musicologists and i n the opinion of one scholar, i s "one of t h e most d i f f i c u l t and c o m p l i c a t e d p rob lems o f m e d i e v a l n o n -G r e g o r i a n monody. "-*-The f i r s t p r o b l e m t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s t h a t o f d i s -t i n g u i s h i n g between p l a g a l and a u t h e n t i c mode. I n t h e chan t p i e c e s , t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s made on t he b a s i s o f a m b i t u s , s i n c e b o t h p l a g a l and a u t h e n t i c v e r s i o n s o f a p a r t i c u l a r m a n e r i a have t h e same f i n a l . S i n c e t h e O f f e r t o r y , " I m p r o p e r i u m e x p e c t a v i t " [ 974 ] shown be low I s f o r t h e most p a r t c o n f i n e d t o t h e upper f i f t h o f i t s range and s i n c e i t t o u c h e s t h e f o u r t h ( i n d e e d t he f i f t h ) be l ow t h e f i n a l , t h e n a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s i c a l G r e g o r i a n t h e o r y i t i s p l a g a l : 2 i H i g i n i A n g l e s , " G r e g o r i a n C h a n t " i n New O x f o r d H i s t o r y  o f M u s i c , V o l . I I , p. 111. 2 S e e Quomodo de A r i t h m e t i c a P r o c e d i t M u s i c a c i t e d i n G e r b e r t M a r t i n , S c r i p t o r e s e c c l e s i a s t i c i de m u s i c a ( S t . B l a s l e n , 1784; f a c s . e d . , M i l a n , 1 9 3 D , V o l . I I , pp . 55ff. 1m ro^- pe.— n pro/- pi ton ex—^pec -•fa •— J> J ^ * ' ^ J J ] P J J J i j i i j i ^ P i * "  m t •»  m O J & - J — j ^ « i/i-t Cor me um er /KIT .0 J 3 . P i J f l 0 0 + 1 ai si — rrtuf M& " — * U ^ y con—^r»*s — ^ 3 - /"if— non ~5u con.— 5o urn mmjnunji & — Ian/— {em rre ouae si Ml 0 0 0 0 von 3 0 * *•—0-in oi Authentic mode chants, on the other hand, w i l l more often exploit t h e i r entire r e g i s t e r : Ex. 129. ,"Unam p e t i i a Domino" [471] Let us now turn to the troubadour corpus and see whether here too, t e s s i t u r a i s an important factor i n determining mode. Consider, for example, "Voluntiers f a r i a " ( 1 3 4 , 238) by Guiraut Riquier. The f i n a l being £, and i t s range, c to c', we might naturally assume the piece to be i n the eighth mode or tetrardus plagius.' Yet the melody, as f a r as te s -s i t u r a i s concerned, i s quite d i f f e r e n t from the t y p i c a l plagal mode chant. I f any r e g i s t e r i s emphasized at a l l , i t Is the lower r e g i s t e r . r a t h e r than the upper f i f t h range: Ex. 130. "Voluntiers f a r i a " (134, 238) I j H—« I—* -J * • 0 f, J 5i =5= far /Os a// - . Alan ra-zoS cap-yd - leo del - /a,) Que -Po5 " 3fOj - di -Mon chant; e- /'a* - bri -V0J i Per •7U'ieu bmrrb auant vi - v<a^ m Vc/e/h 5er- v/V las Se>& fa/bz>,genk ai m if' la^ lite-/nils .ef eS - Qui va. VA, PIA, -3en5 et is - n&l - has. In respect to range and f i n a l , "D'eissa l a razo qu'eu s o i l l " (171 , 121) by P e i r o l , appears to be i n the seventh mode or tetrardus authenticus, although i t uses a quite r e s t r i c t e d range i n comparison with authentic mode chants of comparable length. The piece r a r e l y proceeds more than a fourth or f i f t h above i t s f i n a l : Ex. 131. h h 1> b b b , 1 1 b Ji j) />'eis - IA, ra -2on flu'iev su^lh M'er' aschan-far t i r j n b b b bb b j i per u - Sab - ge> > r°u$ nom den-ha, ni nn'ac-F <y<<//? damn' el sieu -~ - rat -+ f- m-p {) \) \i Sem bra,-hi - ron &ei beih huelh Corn -ftr/s mes-F F = <f man ntcs ins el 60 ~ rat-jab -is b \\ b $6 S'a, - mor (dan rvii due//v. From examples such as the above (of which t h e r e are many i n the troubadour r e p e r t o r y ) we may conclude t h a t i t i s c l e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e to d i v i d e the Pro v e n c a l melodies based on "the extent t o which they u t i l i z e the degrees of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e ranges."3 Since ambitus i s so important i n d e c i d i n g whether a p i e c e i s a u t h e n t i c or p l a g a l , melodies with a l i m i t e d or e x c e s s i v e range are d i f f i c u l t t o c l a s s i f y . In the case o f narrow range p i e c e s , Berno of Reichenau s t a t e s : " i f a chant does not reach up t o the f i f t h nor i n c l u d e the lower f o u r t h , i t i s customary t o c o n s i d e r i t p l a g a l because o f i t s s h o r t -ness and i m p e r f e c t i o n . " ^ In o t h e r words, i f a melody ends on d but only goes as h i g h as g and as low as B then a c c o r d i n g t o Berno, i t i s p l a g a l . While Berno's statement may he l p i n c l a s s i f y i n g c e r t a i n s m a l l range chants i n the G r e g o r i a n r e p e r t o r y , i t i s of l i t t l e v a l u e i n deter m i n i n g the mode of troubadour p i e c e s . Only one melody, i n f a c t , "Amors, pos a vos f a i l l poders" (95, 199) has t h i s p r e c i s e ambitus: ^ W i l l i A p e l , G r e g o r i a n Chant (Bloomington, In d i a n a : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), p. 142. li Berno o f Reichenau c i t e d i n Gerbert M a r t i n , op. c i t . , V o l . I I , p. 6 0 a . ft - Mors f pus to was -fot/h po - ders, h n n bin n ^ N ^ Jois a>b prelz,, aueus e -ran cap-berth) Que* w j> J> j) si} m m m— Co - be. - babz, Vei fiue.l$ des - trenh t De worb * g J  m d ± d • Pot s&r tooS  &S - pers, Jeu ° p/anC, 4 «• 5E ?aa r &S mos ctan$ t Alas la* VOS - ire, plane mm do$ ians, Quar el mieu dan \ ft i n n i so - la, - Mens, Et & 1 vo$ m brc bo — fas $c — ne> rats gene. S i m i l a r l y , melodies with excessive ranges make modal assignment according to the Gregorian method d i f f i c u l t . I f we define the "minimal range" of such pieces "as that of an octave s t a r t i n g two degrees below the f i n a l and going up to the sixth above i t , " 5 we f i n d no less than one quarter of the troubadour songs which q u a l i f y as excessive range pieces. In these cases, plagal and authentic d i s t i n c t i o n s are impossible since they cover the range of both. Rather than attempt to force the Provencal melodies into plagal or authentic modes, l e t us c l a s s i f y them by maneria only. Considering then the f i n a l as the sole basis for determining mode, we may c l a s s i f y the 259 troubadour melodies as follows: Table 12. — Finals of the troubadour melodies. It w i l l be noticed that modes D and G—the most frequently used maneriae i n Gregorian chant^—are also most common i n the troubadour, repertory. Of the D Mode pieces, "Ar agues Mode D Mode E Mode F Mode G Mode A Mode B Mode C 98 pieces, or 39% of the t o t a l corpus 9 H 26 1035 56 22$ 23 9% 2 less than 1% 44 161 5w. Apel, op. c i t . , p. 148. 6 I b i d . , pp. 137-38. eu mil marcs de f i n argen" (187, 95) i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g since i t ends on high d' rather than the usual lower d. 7 Such occurrences are quite outside the l i t u r g i c a l practice:, a l l Gregorian melodies, without exception, use only the lower octave species. In addition to the four f i n a l e s D, E, P, and G, our table shows a large number of pieces ending on the three a f f i n a l e s A, B, and C. Melodies ending on c o - f i n a l s are found i n the Gregorian corpus as well (although by no means as frequently as i n the troubadour repertory) and i t i s generally thought that such chants were o r i g i n a l l y written i n the four basic maneriae and l a t e r transposed up a fourth or f i f t h . While a i s the most common a f f i n a l i s i n the chant corpus, the troubadour pieces prefer the C Mode. Of these Mode C melodies, only eight end on high c_' while the remaining t h i r t y - s i x cadence on low c_. 8 Occurrences of the l a t t e r are extremely rare i n the Gregorian r i t e and are l i k e l y of much l a t e r date than the main body of chant. As for the troubadour pieces i n C Mode, many are not properly "modal" at a l l ( i . e . i n the sense of the standard Gregorian 7 I n addition, one E Mode piece, "Totz temoros e doptans" ( 2 5 , 47'), ends on a high e' . o • _ Two other pieces, "S'ie-us quier c o n s e i l l , b e l ' amig 1 Alamanda" ( 8 8 , 59.) and "En greu pantais m'a tengut longamen" ( 5 , 180), end on low A and B respectively. modes), but are set i n the major key. A p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g example i s Peire Vidal's "Quant horn onratz torna en gran paubreira" (164, 6_9) . The song ends with a semi-tone cadence, and i t s i n t e r n a l cadences f a l l on c_, f, and g_: Ex. 133. h y\\ J> j> F Quamt hom hon - fa,bz bor - na> cn gran pau,' V—i I— f r ~ h IS p J- m j—± — — l\ 1 h J) } gran be — na. nan V - S<z>, De Ver ~ gon - hay k—n—i \ k r — 1—| -1 — s J — « - i i non sap re con -Si auei — fa,, fins au-/HA /Mwi £ a - £^/>* s& MA-la.- nan - sa,> /hf -I ^6/^5 rYifr-Jer toer - e /?/<ys francs a/oSj, Quant horn -Pai ben co pau - br& Vef-~ 1-fc ^o/7 - hos, Qu&> warns a°a,u,- breS fuan cn yuer - r& J a J » ^ //  _ an - sat. S i m i l a r l y , with the in c l u s i o n of B f l a t s , many of the F Mode melodies are also i n the major key. "Be volgra que venques merces" (239, 192) i s t y p i c a l of thi s type: Ex. 134. j ; h i> }> n 8e - vol ^gfa\> %ue- ven' ater -— ces ^ i J> i n R = r > /few -naif g6io - 2cr de /as get? - 2or£>, Yo$7 t» •> > j ) > .H ;.n 1 j> S) s\'\ > Com vo6- -UOJ grans va- - fate To - 6as eel 'Ms au'ieco jo-ras r/\ ftf& i/a. - far eui venj} flu i  ria$ ab ai tan; Car pt/ois no $ei — r#v fail — len - 2a> Co E P u p p . " J " de-j.ir ab be. - tn&n ~ sojj Sai$-$i ft? - ju*S b J'' J i i j> > r\ /w<s/'/ - />cr te — ni'r. B f l a t s occur i n the signatures of eighteen troubadour pieces and are used as accidentals i n numerous others. L i k e l y musica f i c t a was also employed frequently. Anonymous II mentions trouvdre songs as cases where B's should be f l a t t e d for aesthetic reasons (causa p u l c h r i t u d i n i s ) rather than just by necessity (causa n e c e s s i t a t i s ) . 9 Although Anonymous I I s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions the trouv^re melodies as examples of the former consideration, the practice was ery p o s s i b i l y common to the troubadour corpus as well. The fact that so many Provencal pieces are set i n the major t o n a l i t y places the repertory, as a whole, s t r i k i n g l y apart from the modal melodies of l i t u r g i c a l chant. Perhpas Johannes de Grocheo was r e f e r r i n g to t h i s s i t u a t i o n when he stated that secular music (musica. vulgaris) cannot r e a l l y be considered modal at a l l , even though certain pieces are set i n one of the modes. ^  A number of scholars have att r i b u t e d t h i s emphasis on t o n a l i t i e s other than the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l modes to the influence of popular t r a d i t i o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r , to t r a d i t i o n a l dance songs.^ More l i k e l y , i t was simply a case of the troubadours f e e l i n g j u s t i f i e d i n using the major t o n a l i t y since they were writing secular rather than ^Anonymous II c i t e d i n C.E.H. de Coussemaker, H i s t o i r e  de l'harmonie du moyen age (Paris, 1 8 5 2 ) , Vol. I, p. 312. lOjohannes de Grocheo c i t e d i n Johannes Wolf, Sammelbande  der Internationalen Musikgesellschaft ( 1 8 9 9 - 1 9 0 0 ) , Vol. I, p. 115. •^•^ See, for example, J . Westrup, op. c i t . , p. 232. l i t u r g i c a l music and therefore, were not obliged to observe the modal r e s t r i c t i o n s of Gregorian chant. Since the notion has been given so much prominence by modern scholars, l e t us b r i e f l y consider the so-called "dominant"—characteristic feature of some l i t u r g i c a l pieces, Usually these dominants, when they occur, are a f i f t h above the f i n a l i n the authentic modes and a t h i r d above the f i n a l i n the plagal modes. A number of troubadour melodies also feature secondary tonal centers such as "Cel que no v o l auzir chansos" (212, 146) which i s set i n Mode D and revolves around a: Ex. 135. CeJ ave, no vol *u - sir chans - sos Ee, fiu'ieu "ahan per /non cars a, - /& ~ yrar £ \ J> J> b b r,i j j >1 ll h nos - bra. Conn - pat- ani - a-i$ , tL per so . ta.tZt de./* ^corn - pai — ^noS, per so . i mm •'gnos, i b JJJi p/u5 per *o - c/e> - ten - gaes &n chans-Son ••'as nti - Jom p/a>~ aueSj C'auo-ira, vo-/on-iatzv h b b r i nom dcz> bre/'ng He So - /aJsz ni' de> bej 1— I F l —1 r = 4 = p • | Cap - beta.a. Yet the anonymous "Lo premer j o r que v i " (252, 254) has no secondary tonal center at a l l : Ex. 136. F /.at* pre - mer jor > Mb* ~ be, 7-If A/' vo5 - brc6 biac/S cors J**05, -QouZ; + pla/ - sent) , Cor - ie/'s et de- - bo - /7<37 -te 0 a'/'eu, sap s/i'r -fiat - re. /Uu - le ren Que, uo5 ten - %ue$ a, bert, A-mm MAS doa -Ce chere a, - rvti - ge, fll corS \ 4 -m pl#i — jer) et a/a/^ <a, -chaz, auey 5V«t^ jpT/ rey? tui voi> si e.. In general, we may conclude t h a t the dominant cannot be used as a c r i t e r i o n for determining mode i n the troubadour corpus. In many cases there eith e r i s no dominant, or. the note which has prominence as a secondary tonal center i s one other than the f i f t h o r . t h i r d above the f i n a l . F i n a l Cadences We s h a l l now turn our attention to the penultimate and f i n a l notes of the Gregorian pieces. As f o r the Provencal corpus, f i n a l s are approached i n the following ways: Table 13. — Penultimate and f i n a l notes i n the troubadour repertory. 1. Fi n a l s approached by step (a) descending second - 145 melodies (b) ascending second - 98 2. Finals approached by leap (a) descending t h i r d - 7 melodies (b) .ascending t h i r d - 4 (c) descending fourth - 1 (d) descending f i f t h - 1 While the troubadour songs, l i k e the Gregorian melodies, show a strong p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r cadences ending with a descending second, they also often employ ascending second cadences, over one t h i r d of the pieces being of t h i s type. The chants, on the other hand, make only infrequent use of r i s i n g seconds, choosing more often the descending t h i r d , ah i n t e r v a l found very rarely i n the f i n a l cadences of the troubadour corpus. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note, however, that hymns and sequences, i n addition to descending t h i r d • cadences, make frequent use of the ascending second. Hymns i n p a r t i c u l a r were doubtless an influence on 12 Provencal music, e s p e c i a l l y i n matters of form, and i t i s probably not coincidental that t h e i r f i n a l cadences also show s i m i l a r i t i e s . Of the ninety-eight troubadour pieces which end with a r i s i n g second, no less than twenty-two feature a semi-tone rather than a tone between. t h e i r penultimate and f i n a l pitches. This large number of semi-tone cadences i s i n complete contrast to the Gregorian repertory, where a minor second as the l a s t i n t e r v a l of a chant i s extremely rare. Pour troubadour melodies have f i n a l cadences ending with an ascending t h i r d . The i n t e r v a l i s also rare i n the l i t u r g i c a l pieces and when i t does occur, i s usually 13 l i m i t e d to the f i n a l cadences of the sequences. J S i m i l a r l y , melodies ending with a leap of a fourth are extremely rare i n the Gregorian and Provencal repertories both. None of the troubadour pieces cadence with an ascending fourth, while only one melody features the i n t e r v a l i n descending motion. "^ T^he hymn i s the only poetic genre i n the standard body of Gregorian, chant. W. Apel, op. c i t . , p. 266. The descending f i f t h also occurs i n only one melody, and not su r p r i s i n g l y i s found i n a d i s c o r t , where as much "discordance" as possible was i n order. The leap of a f i f t h then, i s highly exceptional i n the troubadour f i n a l cadences and, as might be expected, never occurs i n the Gregorian r i t e . Ambitus Both the troubadour and Gregorian pieces seldom go below A or above g_' . In respect to the upper extreme of ambitus, twenty-three Provencal songs have g_' as t h e i r highest p i t c h while i n l i t u r g i c a l music t h i s number i s enlarged to include many of the chants i n the tetrardus  authenticus mode. Comparatively few pieces extend t h e i r range to a' i n either r e p e r t o r i e s — a t o t a l of only t h i r t e e n occurrences of the pit c h being found among the troubadour melodies. The highest note i n the entire Provencal corpus i s the b' contained i n Gui d'Uisel's. "Be f e i r a chansos plus soven"(75, l6_3) : Ex. 137. A IA/ J.——^—I /'feu/ vot - jrco  ,n> } iotz> t nous and Guillem Maigret's "Aiga poja contra mon" (82, 168) Ex. 138. £ dc - ^rai^i e$- Sof en vei - o$ h ' Also worthy of mention i s the tr_ which occurs i n Peire d'Alvergne's "Dejosta'ls breus jorns e«ls loncs sers" (150, 36) : Ex. 139. it MJ Per aue-t fe ' traf en - br&> 14 The Responsory "Gaude Maria" however, extends t h i s l i m i t one degree higher to include a c_". As f o r the lower extreme of ambitus, only f i v e of the Provencal pieces extend to A, although the p i t c h i s quite Processionale monasticum (Solesmes, 1893), p. 146. common i n chants belonging to the primus plagius mode. G i s the lowest note reached i n the troubadour corpus, and may be found i n Peire Vidal's "Be«m pac d'ivern e d'estiu" (157, § 2 ) Ex. 140. Qu'&o - a/5 - r S / ' / n ten e-5 - for — $/u> and Giraut de B o r n e i l l ' s "S'ie«us quier c o n s e i l l , bel'amig' Alamanda" (88, 59) : Ex. 141. cbs* co - chabzj tyto-ei so • ^uem d&b - brai A number of chants also contain low G's and at least two pieces, the Offertory " T o l l i t e portas"-^ and the Processional antiphon "Sicut pastor p o r t a t " 1 ^ include an F. J-JC Ott, O f f e r t o r i a l e sive versus offertoriorum Tournai, 1935), p. 15-•^Terence Bailey, The Processions of Sarum and the Western Church (Toronto: P o n t i f i c a l I n s t i t u t e of Medieval Studies, 197D, p. 137-More than two-thirds of the troubadour melodies have an ambitus of an octave or ninth. A breakdown of the corpus according to range i s as follows: Table 14. — Range of the troubadour melodies. Range Number of melodies f i f t h 1 s i x t h 12 seventh 11 octave 77 ninth 106 tenth 36 eleventh 19 twelfth . 4 thirteenth 3 fourteenth 1 From the above table we w i l l observe that well over h a l f of the pieces have an ambitus of a ninth or above. Albert Seay's contention then, that "range i s usually l i m i t e d , 17 seldom going to the octave" ' i s completely erroneous. S i m i l a r l y , J.A. Westrup i s also incorrect i n asserting that "melodies with a range of more than an octave occur . . . 18 but they are not frequent." Even more misleading i s the following remark by Gustave Reese: The melodies themselves normally remain within the compass of an octave; a range of a _„ si x t h i s not unusual; that of an eleventh i s rare. y 17 18 19 Albert Seay, op. c i t . , p. 6 5 . J.A. Westrup, op. c i t . , p. 2 3 3 . G. Reese, op. c i t . , p. 216. A c t u a l l y t h e number o f p i e c e s f e a t u r i n g r ange s o f a s i x t h o r e l e v e n t h i s p r a c t i c a l l y t he same ( t w e l v e have t h e f o r m e r r a n g e ; n i n e , t h e l a t t e r ) , no t t o m e n t i o n t h e f a c t t h a t t r o u b a d o u r songs as a who le do no t " n o r m a l l y r e m a i n w i t h i n t h e compass o f an o c t a v e . " I t can o n l y be assumed by such s t a t e m e n t s , t h a t none o f t h e s e t h r e e s c h o l a r s had r e c o u r s e t o t h e c o m p l e t e r e p e r t o r y a t t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g . The w i d e s t range i n t h e t r o u b a d o u r c o r p u s — t h a t o f an o c t a v e p l u s a s e v e n t h ! — i s f o u n d i n P e i r e V i d a l ' s "Be«m pac d ' i v e r n e d ' e s t i u " ( 157 , 6 2 ) : 3* ftf- p^c '•5- 3 g 1) h & h • d' ; tfe-rn & d'-e£ - &bo : ± E t de> freko & d& — for*, 5b J3j i j j <*>ri /7<?#3 — ian corn -£-/ors £ pro m ' /TV ten es - for* - Sico £ Jo - uenS dZ SI 1 1 k i > mors. £ % u a r AfV> dor?) -/7C> — ve, i SO -br'&s ' vi - AW? & p/uS b& — /v, fk>-roirv ro - zas en- bre. gd £ darS temps ab tre, - i?o/ cd. Such e x c e s s i v e r ange s a r e a l s o h i g h l y e x c e p t i o n a l i n t h e l i t u r g i c a l p i e c e s , a l t h o u g h t h e b e f o r e - m e n t i o n e d " T o l l i t e p o r t a s " has a compass o f two o c t a v e s . The range o f a f i f t h — n a r r o w e s t amb i tu s i n t h e t r o u b a d o u r r e p e r t o r y — i s q u i t e o f t e n f ound among t h e chan t p i ece s , bu t i s u sed i n o n l y one P r o v e n c a l s ong , "Pos me p r e g a t z , s e i g n o r " ( 45 , 2_9) by B e r n a r t de V e n t a d o r n : E x . 143 . Po %>/5 pre. - uatZj mdl s e n o r j Qu'eu char), eu than £ can  ucuit chan -ter} p/or ft Po - ra, C'o K -J: i J> m to* - rai 6reu* vei - rebz, than - - <dor/ 3&> es - $a/ Vai donee ™aJ a, - rnor- p fir>$ te b 1 > ohan} Si mal li ~ —FY-y/aj £ doncS) per aa& 'eS — /yjai ? I n l i t u r g i c a l m u s i c , an o c t a v e i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o n -s i d e r e d t h e amb i tu s o f any g i v e n mode. Most, c h a n t s , e spec a l l y t h o s e i n t he a u t h e n t i c modes, e x t e n d t h e i r range t o a n i n t h by i n c l u d i n g one degree be low t h e i r o c t a v e a m b i t u s . Usually t h i s lowest note, known as the subtonlum modi-, i s employed sparingly, appearing at cadence points but i n f r e -quently throughout the rest of the piece.\ The subtonlum modi also occurs i n many Provencal melodies, but i t i s usually treated more f r e e l y than i n the l i t u r g i c a l pieces. Consider, f o r example, Riquier's "No«m s a i d'amor, s i m'es mala o bona" ( 1 8 , 2 2 2 ). In addition to being used 'in both the f i n a l cadence and f i v e of the seven i n t e r n a l cadences, the subtonium modi also occurs nine times i n places other than cadences. As we l l , i t has the d i s t i n c t i o n of being the f i r s t note of the piece: - ' Y — « » — > — « P — ' 7t6^ 3 * / <s/k/ -wor) $j w'eS ma-ia; o bo — X//' c7^'' tffe/ ni del ten, " /7<sv COA^ <?/r7 notZj, o m mart-tew ° bra., /Vi  n o e? — r>oi l^ si w'as - ie, — i/iaj was " 5=5 0 J> j 3r — 2,' /I// «?>7 - tW? di. si d/o VCir o me€>-car - , Son - jx> j fiji £i vau, dre.q & bend, vi - OJ i/te/" - '• tyv'esfr pe& - £>a - n*&rts /Y>& das -trevh; mi te ^•**v7 zfef - & v - / 7 ^ y brat brop>pfeifr-zj fiu& Selh -u'otn vi co e6 - <^c~ — Besides, to contrast s t i l l further the Gregorian and Provencal r e p e r t o r i e s , a number of troubadour melodies with an ambitus of a ninth do not include the subtonium modi but rather extend t h e i r range upwards. This practice r e s u l t s i n pieces such as "No sap chantar qui - 1 so no d i " (138, 13.) which has a compass of c to d' but whose f i n a l i s not d but c_. The t e s s i t u r a of l i t u r g i c a l music depends f o r the most part on the mode of the piece: chants i n Mode Seven w i l l obviously have a higher t e s s i t u r a than those i n Mode Two. As for the troubadour corpus, the majority of songs l i e s between c_ and e' or f'•. A number of melodies, however, feature a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t t e s s i t u r a . That of "Entre dos volers sui pensius" (217, 151) i s exceptionally high, Ex. 145. ft—ft—f-0 2 £n-bre/ do^vo-lers 6ui pan— -sius> Quel cors t> ti P P I' " me, d/'bz> ^ u'/eu, non chant rna/6 £b A - mors too vol Que/ f t 0 i * — * -tr>'&n la/5 » Men-bre/ ^ue-l ^gl1 es _ bau - ra/ la/3 - 6ar a.gr'' ;eu ra,- zo Que mat's — 1 — 0 • i 0 f P — i j - t~T r  i f — * » * J V 1 / \s non -fie- chans - so; p/af> per Jo chant>Jcar' ft—0 * 0 *—0- 0 W 0 0 a fl-mors & jo - ven€> Ree> - tact-so; tot f—m err p u an bol M& - dun' e, 3en$ while the t e s s i t u r a of "Si*us quer c o n s e i l l , b e l ' amig' Alamanda" ( 88 , 59) i s generally from G to g: Ex . 146. $/U5 <fiucr Con-Sc/h,, bel' t*> - fi — la, - yuan-r •€» ) 40 m da, IUo-1 /we, V&~ detz>, c-'om co-cha-kzj Lous de tig, Que /orih $u, fens /6 - $(£z, ^& /AJ &O -yuan - aftVj Quo so &uem det, ru'es-brai er' <s-tm SMOtSl - ^ b J> ^  ^ SJx j> j - toan - da>. tfua-no ton ^s&l^hivtz.? ± lo te di™s d}i - ra> no w'co "bran -dou, Tan $orfc ed 6Ui I — ra£-z. Melodic Features The troubadour repertory closely p a r a l l e l s the Gregorian i n i t s use of such i n t e r v a l s as the second, t h i r d , and fourth. As for i n t e r v a l s of a f i f t h or larger, we f i n d f a r fewer s i m i l a r i t i e s , wide leaps being much more common i n the troubadour pieces than i n the chants. The most o f t e n employed p r o g r e s s i o n In both troubadour and G r e g o r i a n music i s of course, the major or minor second, The P r o v e n c a l melody "Ara-m c o s s e l a t z S e i g n o r " (28, 18), moves almost e n t i r e l y by step-wise motion: Ex. .147. /?- ra yyj Sel - hat>Z. 6erj -hor Vos, -Ct - no* do**? - nam ^^k- &'as-mor Cai <** " Ma6 e. - ras &ai r-^i—1 h-T f r r ^-1 ^ r -1 p 1 — 1 i ho Conn-pan- ha. ban ^rcu6> nomJo. The next most f r e q u e n t l y used i n t e r v a l i n the two r e p e r t o r i e s i s the ascending or descending t h i r d , both major and minor. Note the l a r g e number of t h i r d s i n Arnaut D a n i e l ' s "Lo ferm v o l e r q u ' e l cor m ' i n t r a " (10, 91): fer*r> vo - ler fltt'el cor no in -braj AJfiwi pet? 3 l\ 1) J- J) ' J> laco-Se-n -gier <^ui pzrfc pev una? dir j'ar - I-H^) b i\ b i J» j> i ^ M i ^ ba.tr*ab ram ver-5/ fraco, /ai an non OM> - i*a/ ft ^  J) J) i ^ ± On - ole, t gato-A-i -ra/ joi y en vef-^ieir & dinZs ea,m - i?/-<^ . Much less common i s the i n t e r v a l of a fourth, e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of the chants, which for the most part favour seconds and t h i r d s . An augmented fourth as well as ascending, and descending perfect fourths can be found i n the Provencal melody, "Guerras n i plag no son bo" ( 1 9 8 , 100). As for the G r e g o r i a n p i e c e s , c o n s i d e r the O f f e r t o r y "Laetamini i n Domino" [1151] which c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l r i s i n g f o u r t h s s t a r t i n g on g and two f a l l i n g f o u r t h s s t a r t i n g on c_ and f . The i n t e r v a l of a f i f t h on a l l p i t c h e s , both ascending and descending, o f t e n occurs i n the troubadour corpus: Table 15. — Leaps of a f i f t h i n the •., troubadour corpus. Ascending f i f t h Descending f i f t h c t o g - (175, 125) f to b b - (7 , 182) • - d to a - (207, TTO e 1 t o a - (232, 176) e to b - (220, I5T) d 1 t o g - ( 11 , WT f t o c' - (25, 47T~ c* to f. - (216,1150) g to d' - (3 , 171) b t o e " ( 8 o> a tto e' - (204, 138) a t o di - (12, 50T b t o f - (82, l6~B7 g to e - (36, 26") b b t o f ' - (48, TT) f to B - (230, 174) L i t u r g i c a l music, on the other hand, (except f o r r e c i t i n g tone formulas) uses the descending f i f t h but s p a r i n g l y . A l s o i n f r e q u e n t i s the ascending f i f t h , although a number of c h a n t s - - i n p a r t i c u l a r , a group of Mode One a n t i p h o n s — employ t h i s i n t e r v a l ( u s u a l l y s t a r t i n g on d or g_) as t h e i r i n i t i a l p r o g r e s s i o n : Ex. 149. "Adam ad montem myrrhae"[l422] " Y ' S e v e r a l troubadour melodies a l s o begin with an ascending f i f t h . Note the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the i n c i p l t ; ; o f f G i r a u t de B o r n e i l l ' s a l b a "Reis g l o r i o s , v e r a i s lums e c l a r d a t " (87, 58) , and that of the Hymn "Sacris solemniis" [ 9 2 0 ] : Ex. 151. A passage from de B o r n e i l l ' s "Leu chansonet' e v i i " ( 8 5 , 56) also betrays the influence of Gregorian chant, Ex. 152. I F h \\ h J) h = £ 5 $g/h pal - ra> -cz/ man - a'ar as does a section of Riquier's "Los bes qu'eu trop en Amor" (114, 2 1 8 ) : Ex. 153. h K n . m rm.. J V J V > r* 4 j J ; ** J Tot Jorn de- won "Be/h De- port^ The leap of a s i x t h , while extremely rare i n l i t u r g i c a l music, occurs quite often i n the Provencal melodies. The following l i n e s from "Ges de chantar no-m f a i l l cors n i razos" (177, 165) feature a descending sixth s t a r t i n g on a and an ascending s i x t h from e to c_': Ex. 154. Although the i n t e r v a l of a seventh i s v i r t u a l l y unknown i n the chant pieces, i t o c c u r s — a t least i n ascending p r o g r e s s i o n — s e v e r a l times i n the troubadour songs. "Amies Bernartz de Ventadorn" (149, 35.) for example, contains a leap from c_ to b_b, while a seventh from g to f' appears i n " A t r e s s i cum l a candela" (154, 55). The leap of an octave i s s u r p r i s i n g l y frequent i n the troubadour repertory i n view of the fact that the i n t e r v a l i n l i t u r g i c a l music i s non-existent within phrases and very rare even as a dead i n t e r v a l . For examples of both the ascending and descending octave, we may turn to Gaucelm F a i d i t ' s "No«m alegra chans n i c r i t z " ( 7 0 , 112): a* Que-wi V&I — gv&<s -9 W fib mi - olonb preCS h ri -W-ni /ver- te$. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t are the leaps of a ninth i n several troubadour melodies. As might be expected, t h i s i n t e r v a l : i s completely without precedent i n the chant corpus. An example of the ninth i n ascending motion ( i f discorts may be admitted) i s found i n the discort "Qui l a v i en d i t z " ( 7 , 1 8 2 ) , Ex. 156. ll J) ' h ' \> fr P P Vow poO -far So-core, Sors M tyr^c/r>s dous b#''-sors while a descending ninth leap appears i n F a i d i t ' s "Ja«mais nul temps no-m pot re far Amors" ( 6 6 , 1 0 8 ) : -tfj-preoy. cu - CO/I-hir &on m'c&- r*ef)- da; Up t o t h i s p o i n t we have compared the G r e g o r i a n and troubadour r e p e r t o r i e s only i n terms of s i n g l e i n t e r v a l s , and i n t h i s r e s p e c t our r e s u l t s show t h a t the chant p i e c e s are f a r more c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h e i r use of wide leaps than i s the P r o v e n c a l corpus. The boldness of the troubadour songs i s even more apparent when we c o n s i d e r two or more i n t e r v a l s moving i n the same d i r e c t i o n . The o u t l i n e o f a t r i a d formed by two c o n s e c u t i v e t h i r d s i s very common i n the troubadour melodies and i s q u i t e frequent i n l i t u r g i c a l music, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the o f f e r t o r i e s . Major and minor t r i a d s are u s u a l , but o c c a s i o n a l l y a d i m i n i s h e d t r i a d occurs such as the f'-d'-b p r o g r e s s i o n found i n the P r o v e n c a l melody "Ab l a f r e s c a c l a r d a t " ( 1 8 , 40). Although the Gr e g o r i a n p i e c e s o f t e n use s i n g l e t r i a d s , they seldom use arrangements of t h i r d s such as are found i n the f o l l o w i n g troubadour songs. " A t r e s s i cum Persevaus" (227, 172) f e a t u r e s two major t r i a d s moving i n the same d i r e c t i o n , Ex. 158. K h h J) ^  que s e s - ba- i cf'ea -juar- daf w h i l e i n " S i be*m p a r t e t z , m a l a domna, de v o s " ( 78 , 166) we f i n d an a s c e n d i n g m a j o r t r i a d f o l l o w e d by a d e s c e n d i n g d i m i n i s h e d t r i a d : E x . 159. • tatZjj car" -pA> - fl' * Jem- J>faiy I t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e t h i r d s f o r m i n g t h e o u t l i n e o f a s e v e n t h i n b o t h t h e G r e g o r i a n and t r o u b -adou r p i e c e s ' , a l t h o u g h t h e y i e l d i s somewhat g r e a t e r i n t h e l a t t e r c o r p u s . " A r a m ' a g r ' ops que m ' a i z i s ( 2 0 6 , 140) and " Po s t a n mi f o r s ' Amors ' que mi f a i e n t r e m e t r e " ( 84 , 94) f e a t u r e a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g m a j o r s e ven th s r e s p e c t i v e l y . As f o r examples o f t h e a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g m i n o r s e v e n t h we may t u r n t o " P l u s que•1 p a u b r e s , quan j a i e l r i c o s t a l " and " C o r a que-m des benanan sa " ( 6 3 , 105). A number o f i n t e r e s t i n g examples wh i ch employ c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e t r i a d and s e v e n t h o u t l i n e s o c c u r i n t h e t r o u b a d o u r r e p e r t o r y but a r e f o r t h e most p a r t o u t s i d e t he G r e g o r i a n p r a c t i c e . F o l q u e t de M a r s e i l l a ' s " Amor s , merce ! no m o i r a t a n s o v e n " ( 48 , 77) f e a t u r e s a d e s c e n d i n g s e v e n t h f o l l o w e d by a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g ma jo r t r i a d s : -"5/ ^ ^ blaJ^Zj MO war - ti — fe, j while i n "Ja-mais nul temps no-m pot re f a r Amors" ( 6 6 , 108) the major t r i a d precedes the seventh ou t l i n e : Ex. 161. Que-6/' - a, gr&u*, ni twai - bra/'3-ni &-Jar7S>) Also i n t e r e s t i n g i s the occurrence i n "Ja no-is cug horn qu'iem" ( 5 3 , 8 2 ) , of four consecutive thi r d s o u t l i n i n g a ninth: . Ex. 162. Per Jo jruevr? pites- c&s We now come to combinations of thirds and fourths. These for the most part are rare i n the chant corpus i n t h e i r bare s k e l e t a l structures; normally chord.outlines of t h i s type are f i l l e d i n with intervening notes. In contrast, the troubadour pieces often r e t a i n the s k e l e t a l form without involving such elaborations. The most s t r i k i n g Provencal example of a t h i r d preceded by a fourth i s found i n "Lou premer j o r que v i " (252,254). Here, the combination i s used to open the piece. As for the descending version, consider the £'-£-£_ of "Quant hom honratz" ( 1 6 4 , 6_9) or the d'-a-f of "Tot l'an mi ten Amors" ( 1 8 5 , l 6_l). In the case of the Gregorian melodies, the descending four-plus-three combination i s seldom used outside a few O f f e r t o r i e s and Graduals. Yet the ascending four-plus-three e s p e c i a l l y on the pitches c_-f-a i s s u r p r i s i n g l y frequent, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a number of antiphons where i t assumes the importance of a recurring motive. The leap of a t h i r d followed by a fourth i s p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent i n both the troubadour and Gregorian r e p e r t o r i e s . No examples of the i n t e r v a l s i n ascending order have been found i n the chant pieces while one of the few instances i n the Provencal songs Is the e-g-gj-c/ which occurs i n "Guerras n i p l a i c h " ( 1 9 8 , 100). As for.the i n t e r v a l s i n descending combination, I have been unable to f i n d a single example i n the troubadour corpus, although a few examples appear i n the l i t u r g i c a l repertory. Various combinations of the third.and f i f t h are also common to both repertories. While the ascending f i f t h - p l u s -t h i r d occurs i n such troubadour melodies as "Ja non t i quier" (246, 271) and "A l'entrada del tans f l o r i t " ( 2 3 5 , 245), i t i s even more frequent i n a number of antiphons from the chant corpus. The t h i r d followed by a f i f t h can also be found i n the troubadour melodies although as with the chant pieces, the combination i s not as frequent as the ascending five-plus-three. As for the t h i r d and f i f t h i n descending order, we may turn to "Ab j o i mou l o vers e«l comens" ( 2 6 , 1 6 ) ; for the i n t e r v a l s i n ascending order, to "Molt m'abellist l'amoros pensamen" ( 2 8 6 , 2 5 4 ) . The combination d-g_-c_' appears not infrequently i n the chant repertory, e s p e c i a l l y i n a f a i r l y large group of Tracts and Offertory verses. As for the troubadour pieces, the four-plus-four combination i s unknown; i t i s not even featured i n the d i s c o r t s . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the octave comprised of two or more successive leaps occurs less often i n the troub-adour repertory than do octaves involving a single i n t e r v a l . A rare example i s the c-e_-g-c_' formation found i n "Pos tornatz sui en Proensa" ( 1 6 2 , 6 7 ) : Ex. 163. Even more unusual i s the sixth followed by a fourth found i n "Ja no-is cult horn qu'eu camge mas chansos" (53, 82): Ex. 164. In l i t u r g i c a l music, the only example of an octave formed by two or more successive leaps i s the c-g_-g-c' combination appears to be no instance where successive leaps produce the outline of a ninth. A number of wide i n t e r v a l s are formed by the succession of three or more intermediate pitches i n the same d i r e c t i o n . The chant repertory contains many occurrences of sevenths formed i n t h i s manner but has s u r p r i s i n g l y few examples of the octave o u t l i n e . The troubadour corpus, on the other hand,, makes extensive use of both i n t e r v a l s . Numerous examples of the seventh ou t l i n e , of which the following are but a few, occur i n nearly every possible combination, both ascending and descending: which occurs i n the Offertory "Constituetes. n20 There C. Ott, op. c i t p. 132 Ex. 165. (a) "Lo gens cors onratz" ( 6 7 , 109) (b) "Bel m'es qu'eu chant e coindei" ( 2 0 7 , 141) (c) " A i s s i cum es genser pascors" ( 2 0 3 , 137) (d) "Atressi.m pren com f a i a l jogador" ( 2 , 177) (e) "Entre dos volers sui pensius" (217, 15l"T (f) "Quan lo rossignols e l f o i l l o s " (140, 15) No less frequent i s the octave outline comprised of three or more ascending or descending i n t e r v a l s : Ex. 166. (a) "Amors, merce! no moira tan soven" ( 48 , 7_7) (b) "En chantan m'aven a membrar" ( 5 1 , 8p_) (c) "Ja-mais nul temps no<m pot re f a r Amors" ( 6 6 , 108) (d) "Trop a i estat mon Bon Esper no v i " ( 1 8 6 , 162) (e) "Ja-mais nul temps no-m pot re far Amors" ( 6 6 , 108) (f) "Nuls nom no s'auci tan gen" (179, 129) (g) " A i s s i quon es sobronrada" ( 9 3 , 197) (h) "Anc non ai g u i nul temps de f a r chanso" ( 9 7 , 201) MAS per so chant-ado -£>/; (d) mo$ pred)£ a. - coil - hir ier) vi - yak liei's n o <x%>-MI' -fetz> fr>ar- rir <4> Cain &cl acien a, -mor s'cn-ten •s'e-6 - £>rs mon sa,~b€CS ben Sem- hor The troubadour melodies.even include a few examples of the ninth consisting of three or more intermediate pitches, -a formation quite unknown to Gregorian chant. "Savis e f o l s , humils et o r g o i l l o s " ( 2 0 0 , 102) contains an ascending progression of the ninth, to- nO$o malS while an example of the descending ninth occurs i n "Lou premer j o r que v i " (252, 254). Ex. 168. Having examined the troubadour pieces i n respect to melodic progressions moving i n the same d i r e c t i o n , l e t us now b r i e f l y consider a few of the more dramatic formations • that include leaps i n both d i r e c t i o n s . "Tot 1'an mi ten Amors d ' a i t a l f a i s s o " (185, 161) features an ascending major t r i a d followed by the outline of a descending "six-three" chord: Ex. 169. Included i n "Amors m'art con fuoc am flama" (236, 257) i s a combination consisting of r i s i n g thirds and ascending and descending perfect f i f t h s : Ex. 170. j p.) • r i — ± ) — 4 ? = cu - tMfr> £ luena \/ot> $ui, efpvss 7 Another combination of thirds and f i f t h s i s contained i n "S'om pogues p a r t i r son voler" (73, 115): Ex. 171. 4— * e I V - T f>n ^ vatZj^ Si/ hes e/ Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the discorts contain the most s t r i k i n g examples of disjunct motion. Here, i t i s not at a l l unusual to f i n d passages such as the following from " B e l l a domna cara" (237, 282): i 7St dwiz ftm e, Sens en-jar? B/an, B guar If-F blan gats - zent-Z' The m e l o d i c p r o g r e s s i o n s o f t he d i s c o r t , however , a r e h a r d l y t y p i c a l o f t h e r e p e r t o r y as a w h o l e . L i k e c h a n t , t h e t r o u b a d o u r songs g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r c o n j u n c t m o t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e y t e n d t o be more d a r i n g i n t h e i r use o f w ide l e a p s t h a n a r e t h e G r e g o r i a n p i e c e s . M e l o d i c Con tou r I t has been s t a t e d t h a t " t h e b a s i c d e s i g n o f a G r e g o r i a n melody i s t h a t o f an a r c h whose apex i s r e a c h e d and l e f t i n wavy l i n e s fo rmed m o s t l y by a s c e n d i n g and d e s c e n d i n g s e c o n d s , but o f t e n a l s o i n c l u d i n g l a r g e r i n t e r v a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h i r d s . " ^ l A l a r g e number o f P r o v e n c a l m e l o d i e s a l s o p r o c e e d i n a s e r i e s o f u n d u l a t i n g c u r v e s . Hence, we f i n d songs such as " En t o t quant q u ' e u s aupe s " (104, 208) w h i c h , i n r e s p e c t t o m e l o d i c c o n t o u r , a r e o b v i o u s l y s i m i l a r t o t y p i c a l c han t p i e c e s such as t h e O f f e r t o r y " I n t o n u i t de c a e l o " [ 7 9 1 ] : 2 1 W i l l i A p e l , G r e g o r i a n Chan t , p. 249 Ex. 173. ' "En tot quant qu'eu saupes" (104, 208) £r> -tot auant flu'ieu/ £au, —• pee, far & — sar fife, deu, — ri «3p 3 -<9-^—«J e dreS - £ar Que, pla,- zer cau,-6n 3^ «8> <BLJ 1 ~ i t ter/j de, bon b% - le" j Pv£ seS lieis €} J ^ • *P ^  ^ <^ ^ ^ uZ O „ jjf 0 i « > - por-b"; £ <fiuar vol bant n»oi> pro^ Qu'ab JO vo> Se, - rai pros. Ex. 1-74. "Intonuit de caelo" [791] A large number of chants begin with an inverted arch h as that found i n the Antiphon "Iste Sanctus" [ 1 1 2 3 ] : 7 ¥ I - ste- Sane - kus prc> j& ^ ge, pe. -5U — * » -/ f 1*1 * 1** cv \Jer bis i'm-pi - n rum non bi-p i mm * + * ± *—0-- it • fun -da> bct6 en - inn rat Su - pra> fir - nna^ p& - tram. "Quant Amors trobet p a r t i t " ( 1 8 1 , 131) i s an example of a troubadour melody which also features the inverted arch: ¥-9pant> ftinorS bro -bet par - bib Plon ccr d& son 5 = >H—-6> »'* *>—„ ) mJ V « J * , €> ffi 1 » «9 •> £ f O - d€.t>2, ~ air* CO - wen: -rn/CX- P&i -ro/£} AT =^ hi ' 0 *T> 4© S F^" -» ^ men Vos a^ - nad^o dc- nit lun - hanl £• _*a tm—A ,<PV « pu5 e, mi ni en Chan /Uon er Jo6br' en-ben-— — — - =F=Ntl fcb * J J 1 ^ ^J-—— v *^ \ ' ^/ - oSj J)i - tjuatz-pueis^ue, val-rebib voe': U s u a l l y t h e t r o u b a d o u r m e l o d i e s end i n t h e same r e g i s t e r i n w h i c h they b e g i n . A number o f p i e c e s , however, b e g i n i n a h i g h r e g i s t e r and end i n a low. A t y p i c a l example o f t h i s t y p e i s ' " M e i l l s qu'om no pot d i r n i p e n s a r " ( 1 8 9 , 7J0 : /\ «> — tf> •» — = r r 4 — i \ — 1— 7^  ^ L - • «s 4— no pofc d/r /),' pen - far S^/ Tan /yjj platZ' /a, jpi — ( ^ - . 5 0 5 / UUeLO ± le A, qres e jo/ - OS, Pe- ro yes no-m don & - le/ ^^ri&r Chant>^'<:'(J't>eJs v — 4 J m ' m 1 A?/' T ^ ^ S de> ro -sier, Nat, \/os,dom -nay, ru'co mm ves bcm d/g de • be = tyae£> -Ser cw'g re/e de, • « — ^ j ' * ? / , jjuan mem 50 — 1^. As f o r t h e l i t u r g i c a l m u s i c , I have been u n a b l e t o l o c a t e any examples which b e g i n and f i n i s h i n h i g h and low r e g i s t e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Nor does t h e r e v e r s e p r o c e d u r e o c c u r , e i t h e r i n chant o r t r o u b a d o u r p i e c e s . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o c l a s s i f y the G r e g o r i a n r e p e r t o r y i n terms o f one s t y l e o n l y , s i n c e the m e l o d i e s range from the o n e - n o t e - p e r - s y l l a b l e s e t t i n g s o f the O f f i c e A n t i p h o n s t o t h e h i g h l y f l o r i d s t y l e o f the G r a d u a l s . The P r o v e n c a l p i e c e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, do not e v i d e n c e such a wide v a r i e t y o f s t y l e s , but r a t h e r can be g e n e r a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as a m i x t u r e o f s e m i - s y l l a b i c — e m p l o y i n g two t o f i v e n o t e s per s y l l a b l e - - a n d s y l l a b i c . Daude de Pradas's " B e l a m'es l a v o t z a u t a n a " ( 4 7 , 159_) i s t y p i c a l : Ex. 178. 5 fie/ - hco m'es. Icu VOLZJ O.LL - ba, — no/ De,l rOS-P- 1*-i t sth -hoi e,m< pa 6 - cor? fyuas? fuzlh es V&rkz, °- g * r ' r — 9 | B r -) i V-—v /. Y 1 — — u p - — b -fen*—n— • y 1 ^ f r r, "7 L W " K — r — J 1 t==±d——< ^ — _12 I—ts— it tier Que, bot mi r& ~ v~c e.yrV So,- AoV. A large group of troubadour songs are predominantly semi-s y l l a b i c and correspond to such neumatic sections of the l i t u r g y as the Communion. Richart de B e r b e z i l l ' s " A t r e s s i cum l o leos" ( 2 2 5 , 170) , f o r example, Ex. 179-te p p • P P E P /? - #T?S - 5 / euro lo le - os , Que, es ktnt if n h f\ - r 0 0 fo— / H *> J SO-—a-^-5 Mortzj Oes a/ - ^ Ses i—W -—1 0-^ = — P~H 0 « i[ 0 ' j H - " - I 0 1 0— m EC. — r K2 ,0k A=>— J I rl r -W— I / / — a ± en — etas j U> £*i re> - [/fur' r—1 • " t * — ^ — 1 • -0 * r * = 9 ••I P ! / — 1 - fB 0 Mors 0w ga. - rir je, was do - /ors. i s w r i t t e n i n the same s t y l e as the Communion " F i l l , quid f e c i s t i " [481]:-Ex. 180. w * w * ** * \2* T. T. *^—*5 * _ - CUV jo et' palter tu us do- ten f> J J J T J j J ] J> j \ ^ i avae~r*-~ bd >—' -THUS be • Et au»d est auod y^ae ~re~ba ' ' ^ i * > fjes~ci-e-^ba — H i ~ui-3 *r *> ^ ZZJ. •49—49-in his ou2e yd~tris me- ( Surd-) rs J + d The m a j o r i t y of troubadour songs f o l l o w the s t y l e of the Daude de Pradas and B e r b e z i l l pieces mentioned above. Only a few are as s t r i c t l y s y l l a b i c as "Fort m'enoja, s'o auzes d i r e " (148, 93.) given i n Chapter I I . An even smaller number are f a i r l y melismatic. By f a r the most "ornate example i n the repertory i s Riquier's. "Jhesus C r i s t z f i l l s de Deu v i u " (111, 215): Ex. 181. Jht - 5U6 Crista den - her for •ft/A, fani2, ) y r r ^ ^ X J XHi i\ r r n X D/ea vtoe>, Que re, -pres, Vt?S preo, ffae-rr> det^-j  u 6aJ nas -+ * + 3 2 ? » * fiues, Qu'ieu, $df> -cha^ be$ a-ata, - nntzr £ j?x/ - hi merts ai - rar V06 -p/c 'a. Yet i n comparison w i t h some o f the f l o r i d s e c t i o n s o f c h a n t , none o f t h e t r o u b a d o u r p i e c e s can p r o p e r l y be termed m e l i s -m a t i c . C o n s i d e r the G r a d u a l "Clamaverunt" [ 1 1 7 0 ] which f e a t u r e s a melisma c o m p r i s e d of no fewer t h a n s i x t y - s i x n o t e s : Ex. 1 8 2 . r~~f 0— 0 0— 0 f-f-1 f-M 0 1 0-a 4 = J -0—, 0—1 w - bn r 0- r 0 —0 C o r J 0 0 i f 1 f 0 fn 0 * M P JS f ' f\f * 1 f—, 0— 0 — ^ J J I J 11 1 1—= A 0— r - j - 0 - * J ^ 1 /w -1— L J _ :  Form F i n a l l y , we t u r n our a t t e n t i o n b r i e f l y t o s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e G r e g o r i a n and t r o u b a d o u r r e p e r -t o r i e s . W h i l e the l a t t e r c orpus may i n f a c t owe something t o t h e Chant i n terms o f m e l o d i c s t r u c t u r e , G e n n r i c h ' s t h e o r y t h a t a l l t r o u b a d o u r forms d e v e l o p e d from l i t u r g i c a l p r o t o t y p e s i s s u r e l y i n a d m i s s a b l e . F o r one t h i n g , t h e t y p i c a l themes o f a n t i p h o n s and Responds p l a y no p a r t i n the troubadour pieces. Yet c e r t a i n p a r a l l e l s cannot be over-looked; the most obvious of these being the s i m i l a r i t i e s between many Provencal melodies and l i t u r g i c a l hymns. The hymns, of course, were set i n verse rather than prose, and often involved melodic r e p e t i t i o n within a single stanza i n various ways, the aab form being one of the most popular. However, i t i s a vast o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n to suggest as does Gennrich, that the wealth of s t r u c t u r a l variants found i n the troubadour pieces can a l l be traced d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y back to the hymn, sequence, l i t a n y , and rondel. For example, the fact that ce r t a i n hymns employ the through-composed form i s not s u f f i c i e n t evidence to prove that a l l through-composed troubadour songs used these p a r t i c u l a r hymns as t h e i r models. Actually there i s greater formal variety than Gennrich would have us believe i n the troubadour corpus. "Mout m'entremis de chantar v o l o n t i e r s " (178, 128) has the form abcldabc 2, See Francois Auguste Gevaert, La Melopee Antique  dans l e Chant de l ' e g l i s e Latine ( o r i g i n a l ed., 1895; r e p r i n t : Osnabrvick, Otto Z e l l e r , 1 9 6 7 ) : and W.H. Frere, op. c i t . , Introduction, passim. !F= \ h . , . = 1 • H ; 0 v A 5 — * r — * • 1 -) *,—* 0 r— ; r, ^ Nout men -fcre ^  ] ' - / X J / P—K—1 5 de- Char V : 1 •>-{zir vo-lun-tier v—-V 'dlu-le,-'rxz—f 0 * f f: ¥ ' € de jo 1 man - be, • nert fli — tant fFl «• [F= — - J -f 1 0 1 0 1 $ 4 J 0 t 4-j£> -cors non A " ten ~Ta/s deb- co-nork-z, eta/s e$ nnaiS m*£n - V&> Que, per un pL 4 *-0-+ un n&uc ~9 JOI nom re, — are,. while "En Amor trop alques en que-m r e f r a i n g " (4, 179) has the form ab xab c-'dec": ± p & — & ^ _ j — : — £n A - mor trob °)'- #i/e3 <w flue-m re- - f r a n ^ /§^j AJl ieu, per rv>a.l nom Jun,nh d^-^or n/'m fimn^ Q0 d \J 4 4 d d] J 1 d * d> 4 J, z$ fzT 5 a -9-tntnhs d]£) - trior mal6> o beS np-m $o-Pranh plus \/eS plo/5 no'tiu, — ci 4 --@ — v —tr 4? - - "^"3F~ ft - /vior rn'a-' - franh-- /Ua£> i7o Oo - noSC r f— i \ — Pr s—^—I — J d n n 1 • 3 ai d1 R -rvor f>°' der ^uc m -fran — has. tfeS [> V V p V U noi/yi irainhs^olffu^fl -triors horr> f>o - -Pra<n nO 5>4i en m ^ote-m re. - -Pran - ha,. A few o f t h e numerous o t h e r f o r m a l v a r i a n t s a re shown below: "A penas s a i don m'apreing" (204, 138) - a l a ^ a l a ^ b c a l b c a ^ "Ar mi pose eu l a u z a r d'amor" ( 1 5 1 5 185) - a-*-b-*-ca 2b 2dca 2ef " V o l o n t i e r s f a r i a " (134, 238) - abeabededefg APPENDICES APPENDIX I F r a n c e , 1154 - 1184 + B longtl^cst 2 Of Greenwich C » D Xom;il.K.-tst of Greenwich E ±_ Iftistinjf. j » V "5 Ca":a,l IJSn-fftjs, t"" ai>..Ai' xou i-ilpiU-'-T)'! 0_ . I 1 Kti^lixh. ? E/rynl Domain i. I dominion* CZ3 Other j lei* lh,-Uiorth« L_jEntfli.sk possess ions (TrrnrhCrown ii.- u i s i iun i iC; c-COURTS ' ; i>.- DL'CUV-K.-KIHGnOM; M.- MAKQUISATK; S.-SKICNIOIIY; V-VISCOUNTY. AIU-L- COirTTV OF ARMAWAC F E Z . - - - r E Z K S S A C G, - - GAUTLK GA. - MSCOUSTYOTGARARDA?* LOM.- - - 1.0MAC5E TP. - couvnr or PARDIAC F.-Toaanrtnrs;LlL-C0U>TTr07 LAR0C11E. Ljrchbishapric, iBuhopric,- MonASitrj; * Can tie Scale i:75oqooo _ 9^L ^ - - ^ ^ Dij<> ; " i s O M S L E O y A » D \ C A S T I L E 0 ' / v OF ^ J '^J4*%yJ»»'*& 4 . . / K. o r | A R A r , 0 \ - , / - ' ' ^ > ^ - ^ ' - u T ^ \EX> I TEnnAy AS si: A from W i l l i a m R. Shepherd, H i s t o r i c a l A t l a s (New York: Barnes & N o b l e , 1964), 9 t h ed., p. 69. Manuscript Sources Containing Provencal Music Milan, Ambrosiana R 71 sup. Eighty-one melodies and t h e i r texts are preserved i n t h i s fourteenth century c o l l e c t i o n . Paris, Bibliothe-que Nationale f r . 22543 (formerly 2701, formerly La V a l l i e r e 14). Of the more than 900 poems contained i n t h i s early fourteenth century chansonnier. 160 are provided with musical settings. P a r i s , Bibliotheque Nationale f r . 20050 (formerly Saint-Germain 1989). This c o l l e c t i o n dates from the second h a l f of the thirteenth century and contains the melodies for twenty-four pieces. Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 844 (formerly 7222). This late t h i r t e e n t h century chansonnier (also known as Le Manuscrit  du Roi), contains f i f t y - o n e pieces complete with text and music. Eight pieces are found i n a manuscript retained at the Chigi Library i n Rome containing a Provencal t r a n s l a t i o n of the French work Jeu de Sainte Agnes. E s c o r i a l , B i b l i o t e c a del Monasterio S.I.3 and Leningrad, Offentliche Bibliothek, Franc. F.v. XV, No. 7 (formerly Eremitage 5 .3 .66; olim Saint-Germain-des-Pre"s 757). Both these manuscripts contain Matfre Ermengau's "Dregz de natura comanda" from B r e v i a r i d'Amor. Montpellier, Bibliotheque de l ' ^ c o l e de Medecine H 196. The two Troubadour pieces i n t h i s thirteenth' century c o l l e c t i o n have been preserved i n a polyphonic s e t t i n g . Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 846. This manuscript contains only one example of Troubadour music: a thirteenth century piece at t r i b u t e d to Perdigo (1195-1220). Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale f r . 24406 and Paris, B i b l i o -theque Nationale f r . 25532. These manuscripts each contain one piece complete with text and music. Both songs are anonymous. Vienna Nationalbibliothek 2563 and Vienna Nationalbibliothek 2582. Music has been provided for a small section of Matfre Ermengau's lengthy late thirteenth century poem Breviari- d'A'mor which i s contained i n these manuscripts. Wolfenbuttel, Herzog August Bibllothek, Helmst. 1099. This manuscript contains text and music for-the anonymous l y r i c " L ' a l t r ' i e r cuidai aber druda." Sources of the Troubadour Repertory The following information i s given i n the Sources of the Troubadour Repertory. 1. L i s t of a l l extant troubadour melodies arranged i n alphabetical order by poet. 2. The dates of a l l poets associated with texts which have extant music. Dates of b i r t h and death are given i f known. If unknown, then approximate dates of creative a c t i v i t y are given. 3. A l i s t of a l l anonymous poems with extant music. In a few cases, a troubadour (whose name appears i n paren-theses) has been suggested as the possible author of a p a r t i c u l a r text. 4. The manuscript sources for each melody. 5. The corresponding P i l l e t number for each melody. These numbers r e f e r to the Bibliographie der Troubadours by Alf r e d P i l l e t and Henry Carstens (Halle: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1 9 3 3 ) ; a standard reference work which gives manuscript and secondary sources for a l l extant troubadour poems. 6. The corresponding Gennrich number for each melody. See Der Musikalische Nachlass der Troubadours by F r i e d r i c h Gennrich (Darmstadt, 1958) which contains tr a n s c r i p t i o n s of a l l the troubadour pieces. 7. A secondary source i n which the complete text of a given melody may be found. Abbreviations 1. Manuscript abbreviations G Milan, Ambrosian'a R 71 sup. R Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 22543 W Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 844 X Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale 20050 Chigi Rome, B i b l i o t e c a Vaticana Chigi, C.V. 151 (Jeu de Salnte Agn&s) Escor E s c o r i a l , B i b l i o t e c a del Monasterio S.I. 3 Len Leningrad, Offentliche Bibliothek Franc. F.v. XV, No. 7 Mo Montpellier, Bibliotheque de l'Ecole de Medecine H 196 PBN 846 P a r i s , Bibliothdque Nationale franc. 846 (Chansonnier Cange*) PBN 12615 Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale franc. 12615 (Chansonnier de Noailles) PBN 24406 Pa r i s , Bibliotheque Nationale franc. 24406 PBN 25532 Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale franc. 25532 RBV 1659 Rome B i b l i o t e c a Vaticana Regina Christ.. 1659 VN 2563 Vienna, Nationalbibliothek 2563 VN 2583 Vienna, Nationalbibliothek 2583 W Wolfenbiittel, Herzog August Bibliothek, d Helmst. 1099 • Aim AngRB AnS ApBorn ApCad ApChr Abbreviations of Sources for complete texts Almquist, K. Poesies du Troubadour Guillem  Ademar. Uppsala, 1951-Anglade,J. "Les Chansons du Troubadour Rigaut de Berbezieux" i n Revue des Langues Romanes, Vol. 60 (1920). ' Archiv filr das Studium der neueren Sprachen Appel, C. Leben und Werke Bertrans von Born. Halle, 1931. Der Trobador Cadenet. Halle, 1920. Provenzalische Chrestomathie. 6th e d i t i o n . L e i p z i g , 1932. ApUcB . "Der Trobador Uc Brunec oder Brunenc" i n Abhandlungen Herrn Prof. Dr.  Adolf Tobler dargebracht. Halle, 1895. Ast Aston, S.C. P e i r o l , Troubadour of Auvergne. Cambridge, 1953. Aud'U Audiau, J . , Les Poesies des quatre troubadours d'Ussel. Paris, 1922. BaAg Bartsch, K. Sancta Agnes: Provenzalisch.es Schauspiel. B e r l i n , 1869. BaChr . Chrestomathie provencale. 6th e d i t i o n . Marburg, 1904. BaPV . Peire Vidals Lieder. B e r l i n , 1857-BaR&B . Romanzen und Pastourellen L e i p z i g , 1870. BarDen . "Denkmaler der pr.ovenzalische L i t e r a t u r " i n Bibliographie d. l i t . Vereins. Vol. 30. Stuttgart, 1856. Can Canello, U.A. La v i t a e le opere del trovadore Arnaldo Daniello. Halle, 1883. ChabRlr Chabaneau, C , i n Revue des Langues Romanes, Vol. 32 (1888). : ChayP Chaytor, H.J. "Les Chansons de Perdigo" i n Les Classiques Francais du Moyen Age, Vol. 53. Paris, 1926. FrBol Frank, I., i n Boletino, Vol. 23. GauR Gauchat, L., i n Romania, Vol. 22 (1893). H i l l H i l l , R.T., and Bergin, T.G. Anthology of Provencal Troubadours i n Yale Romanic Studies No. 17' New Haven: Yale University Press, 1941. J-Adm Jeanroy, A., i n Annales du Midi, Vol. 12. JMar Jeanroy, A. Dejeanne, and Aubry, P. Quatre Poesies de Marcabru. Paris, 1904. J-S Jeanroy, A. and Salverda de Grave, J . "Poesies de Uc de Saint C i r c " i n Bibliotheque  mgridionale, Vol. 15. Toulouse, 1913. Jean Jeanroy, A. and Aubry, P. "Huit Chansons de B§renger de P a l a z o l " i n Anuari I n s t l t u t d ' E s t u d i s C a t a l a n s , V o l . 1 (190b). John Johnston, R.C. Les Pogsies l y r i q u e s du Troubadour Arnaut de M a r o i l l . P a r i s , 1935. KGB Ko l s e n , A. Samtliche L i e d e r des Troubadours G i r a u t de B o r n e i l l . 2 v o l s . H a l l e , 1910 & 1935. K j e l K j e l l m a n , H. Le Troubadour Raimon Jordan, vicomte de S a i n t - A n t o n i n . P a r i s , 1922. K l e i n K l e i n , 0. "Der Troubadour B l a c a s s e t " i n J a h r e s b e r i c h t der S t a d t . R e a l s c h u l e zu Wiesbaden, 1886-87. KolD K o l s e n , A. Dictungen der Trobadors. H a l l e , 1916-1919. KolT . "Trobadorgedichte" i n Sammlung romanischer Ubungstexte. V o l . 6. H a l l e , 1925. K o l B e i . " B e i t r a g e zur a l t p r o v e n z a l i s c h e n L y r i k " i n B i b l i o t e c a d e l l ' Archivum romanicum, V o l . 27. F l o r e n c e , 1939-KolGau ., i n Romanische Forschungen, V o l . 47. KolRM K o l s e n , A., i n Archivum romanicum, V o l . 21 . KolStm ., i n S t u d i m e d i e v a l i . L i n L i n s k i l l , J . The Poems of Raimbaut de Va g u e i r a s . The Hague: Mouton & Co., 1964. MGed Mahn, C.A.F. Gedichte der Troubadours i n p r o v e n z a l i s c h e r Sprache. 4 v o l s . B e r l i n , 1846-1853. ' MW -, Die Werke der Troubadours i n p r o v e n z a l i s c h e r Sprache. 4 v o l s . B e r l i n , 1846 -1886. MeyRom Meyer, P., i n Romania, V o l . 75 (1954). M a n Nap Nau Nie M a i l e r , J . "Die Gedichte des G u i l l e m Augier N o v e l l a " i n Z e i t s c h r i f t far romanische  P h i l o l o g i e , V o l . 23 (1899). N a p o l s k i , M. Leben und Werke des Trobadors  Pons de C a p d o i i " H a l l e , 1879. Naudieth, F. "Der Trobador G u i l l e m Magret" i n B e i h e f t e zur Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r romanische  P h i l o l o g i e . V o l . 5 2 . H a l l e , 1914. N i e s t r o y , E. "Der Trobador P i s t o l e t a " i n Z e i t s c h r i f t far romanische P h i l o l o g i e , V o l . 52 ( H a l l e , 1914). Nich Pat P h i l Ray S-C S-G N i c h o l s , S.G. J r . , & Galm, J.A. The Songs o f  B e r n a r t de Ventadorn. Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 . P a t t i s o n , W.T. The L i f e and Works o f the  Troubadour Raimbaut of Orange. M i n n e a p o l i s , 1 9 5 2 . P h i l i p p s o n , E. Der M5nch von Montaudo. H a l l e , 1 8 7 3 -Raynaud, G. R e c u e i l de Motets f r a n c a i s . P a r i s , 1 8 8 1 . ' Shepherd, W.P., and Chambers, F.M. The Poems  of Aimeric de P e g u i l l a n . Evanston, I l l i n o i s , 1 9 5 0 . S c h u l t z - G o r a , 0 . Die p r o y e n z a l i s c h e  D i c h t e r i n n e n . L e i p z i g , 1 8 8 8 . Stim S t r o n Such Zen Stimmung, A. Der Troubadour J a f r e Rudel, s e i n Leben und s e i n e Werke! K i e l , 1 8 7 3 . S t r o n s k i , S. Le Troubadour F o l q u e t de  M a r s e i l l e . Krakau, 1 9 1 0 . S u c h i e r , H. Denkmaler der p r o v e n z a l i s c h e n  L i t e r a t u r und Sprache""! H a l l e , 1 883• Zenker, R. Die L i e d e r P e i r e s von Augergne. E r l a n g e n , 1 9 0 0 . 1 N u i l l s horn en re no f a i l l Aimeric de Peguillan (1195 - ca. 123 2 Atressi-m pren com f a i a l jogador 3 Cel que s ' i r a i s n i guerrej' ab amor 4 En Amor trop alques en que-m re f r a i n g 5 En greu pantais m'a tengut longamen 6 Per solatz d'autrui chan soven 7 Que l a v i , en d i t z Albert de Sestaro (1210 - 1221) 8 En mon cor a i un' a i t a l encobida Arnaut Daniel (1180 - ca. 1200) 9 Chanso d o - i l l mot son plan e prim 10 Lo ferm voler qu'el cor m'intra Arnaut.de M a r o i l l (1170 - 1200) 11 A i s s i com eel qu'am' e non es amatz 12 La franca captenensa 13 La grans beutatz e . l f i s enseignamens 14 L'enseignamens e>l pretz e l a valors 15 Mout eron dous mei consir 16 Si«m destreignetz, domna, vos et Amors Beatritz de Dia (ca. 1160) 17 A chantar m'er de so qu'eu no v o l r i a R 89a 9.13a 188 KolD 5 6 G 38b 10.12 177 S-C 89 G 36c 10.15 178 S-C 101 G 37b; R 4 8 d 10.25 179 S-C 141 G 35c 10.27 180 S-C 150 G 37a 10.41 181 S-C 197 R 49a; W 185b 10.45 182 S-C 212 W 203a 16.14 190 KolD 97 G 73d 29.6 90 Can 95 G 73b 29.14 91 Can 118 G 31b 30.3 ' 49 John 52 R 79c 30.15 50 John 17 R 52b • 30.16 51 John 2 R 8la 30.17 52 John 71 G 33a 30.19 53 John 147 G 79b 30.23 54 John 134 W 204b 46.2 38 S-G 18 18 Ab l a fresca clardat 19 A i t a l domna com eu sai 20 Bona domna, cui r i c s pretz f a i valer 21 De l a gensor qu'om vej' a l meu semblan 22 Domna, l a gensor qu'om veja 23 Domna, s i totz temps v i v i a 24 Tan m'abelis j o i s et Amors e chans 25 Totz temoros e doptans Bernart de Ventadorn (ca. 1150 - ca. 26 Ab j o i mou lo vers e«l comans 27 Amors, e! que.us es vejaire 28 Ara.m c o n s e i l l a t z , seignor 29 Ara no vei l u z i r s o l e i l l 30 A! tantas bonas chansos 31 Be m'an perdut l a i enves Ventadorn 32 Conortz, ara sai eu be 33 En c o n s i r i e r et en esmai 34 Estat a i com horn esperdutz 35 La doussa votz a i auzida 36 Lanquan f o i l l o n bosc e garic 37 Lanquan vei l a f o i l l a 38 Non es meravilla s'eu chan 39 Pos mi pregatz, seignor 40 Quan l'erba f r e s c ' e-1 f o i l l a par 41 Quan par l a f l o r s j o s t a . l vert f o i l l R 37b R 37c R 36d R 37a R 37c R 37b R 37d R 37b 1180) G 9c; R 57b; W 202a R 56c G 13c; R 57c G 17a; R 57a; W 190b R 58a G 14a; R 57a; W 5a G 20a; R 57d G 19a W 195a R 57c; X 86r W 202c R 58b G 9a; W 191a G 20c; R 57d R 57d G 60c; R 56d; W 188b 47.1 40 Jean 526 47.3 41 Jean 536 47.4 42 Jean 522 47.5 43 Jean 539 47.6 44 Jean 534 47.7 45 Jean 532 47.11 46 Jean 528 47.12 47 J ean 530 70.1 16 Nich 1 70.4 17 Nich 4 70.6 18 Nich 6 70.7 19 Nich 7 70.8 20 Nich 8 70.12 21 Nich 12 70.16 22 Nich 16 70.17 23 Nich 17 70.19 24 Nich 19 70.23 2 5 Nich 23 70.24 26 Nich 24 70.25 27 Nich 25 70.31 28 Nich 31 70.36 29 Nich 36 70.39 30 Nich 39 70.41 31 Nich 41 No. T i t l e MS. Source P i l l e t Gennrich Text Bernart de Ventadorn (cont.) 42 Quan vei l a f l o r , l'erba vert e l a f o i l l a X 85r 70.42 32 . Nich 42 43 Quan vei l a lauzeta mover G 10a; R 56d; 70.43 33 Nich 43 W 190d 44 .Tuit c i l que«m pregon qu'eu chan w 191a 70.45 34 Nich 45 Bertran de Born (1159 - 1196) 45 Rassa, tan creis e mont' e poja . R 6d 80.37 39 ApBorn 4 Cadenet (1208 - 1239) 46 Eu sui tan corteza gaita R 52a 106.14 183 ApCad 80 Daude de Pradas (ca. 1190) 47 Bela m'es l a votz autana W196a 124.5 159 Aplned 87 Folquet de M a r s e i l l a (1180 - 1195; d. 1231) 48 Amors, merce! no moira tan soven G l c ; R 42c 155.1 77 Stron 44 49 A! quan gen vens et ab quan pauc d'afan G 4b; R 43b 155.3 78 Stron 47 50 Ben an mort mi e l o r G 4d; R 43c 155.5 79 Stron 11 51 En chantan m'aven a membrar G 5b 155.8 80 Stron 27 52 Greu f e i r a nuls horn f a i l l e n s a G 8c; R 42a; 155.10 81 Stron 60 W 200d 53 Ja no«s cult horn qu'eu camge mas chansos G 6c 155.11 82 Stron 63 54 Mout i fetz gran peccat Amors G 3d; R 42c; 155.14 83 Stron 40 55 Per Deu, Amors, be sabetz veramen G l a ; R 51c 155.16 84 Stron 55 56 S'al cor plagues, be f o r ' oimais sazos G 2a; R 43a 155.18 85 Stron 35 57 S i tot me sui a t a r t aperceubutz G 3a; W 188a 155.21 86 Stron 51 ro ro Folquet de M a r s e i l l a (cont.) 58 Tan m'abelis I'amoros pensamens 59 Tan mou de corteza razo 60 Us volers out racuidatz Gaucelm F a i d i t (1180 - 1216) 61 A l semblan del r e i t i e s 62 Chant e deport, j o i , domnei e solatz 63 Cora que ' i n des benanansa 64 Fortz causa es que tot lo major dan 65 Gen fora contra l'afan 66 Jamais nul temps no-m pot re f a r Amors 67 Lo gens cors onratz 68 Lo rossignolet salvatage 69 Mon cor e mi e mas bonas chansos 70 No-m alegra chans n i c r i t z 71 S i anc nuls horn per aver f i coratge 72 S i tot m'ai tarzat mon chan 73 S'om pogues p a r t i r son voler 74 Tant a i sofert longamen grant afan G 2c; R 42d; 155.22 87 Stron 15 W 188c G 5d; R 42d; 155.23 88 Stron 19 W l88d G 7a; R 43a 155.27 89 Stron 23 R 44d 167. 4 103 BaChr 160 G 28d; R 44b; 167. 15 104 MW 2,103 X 82r G 27d 167. 17 105 KolT 18 G 29c; W 191d; 167. 22 106 ApChr 120 X 84r; RBV 1659 - 89d G 26c 167. 27 107 KolGau 152 G 28b; R 4ld; 167. 30 108 KolBei 123 W 200a G 23b; R 44a; 167. 32 109 KolBei 20 X 87r G 26a 167. 34 110 BaChr 155 R 44b; X 8lr 167. 37 111 KolStM 16,256 G 30a; R 43d; 167. 43 112 MW 2,109 W 202b G 27a; R 45c; 167. 52 113 MW 2,88 X 83v R 44d; X 83r' ' 167. 53 114 MW 2,90 G 22d; X 86v 167. 56 115 KolBei 131 G 30c; R 46b 167. 59 116 MW 2,83 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Be f e i r a chansos plus soven G 59a En tanta guiza-m men' Amors G 59d Gen de chantar no«m f a i l l cors n i razos W 196c Si be-m partetz, mala domna, de vos G 58a Guillem IX d'Aquitaine Pos de chantar m'es pres talens Guillem Ademar (ca. 1200) Lanquan v e i f l o r i r l'espiga Guillem Augier (1209 - 1235) Ses alegratge Guillem Maigret (ca. 1200) Aiga poja contra mon Enaissi-m pren com f a i a l pescador Guillem de Saint L e i d i e r (1165 - 1200) Pos tan-mi fors' Amors que mi f a i entremetre Giraut de B o r n e i l l (1165 ca. 1200) Leu chansonet' e v i i No pose s o f r i r qu'a l a dolor Reis g l o r i o s , verais lums e clardatz S'ie.us quier c o n s e i l l , b e l ' amig' Alamanda Chigi 8 l r R 63b W l 8 6 d W 201c W 192b R 9c R 48a R 8d R 8b 194.3 194.6 194.8 194.19 183.10 2 0 2 . 8 2 0 5 . 5 G 7 5 a ; R 4lc 234.16 242.45 242.51 242.64 242.69 163 Aud'U 27 164 Aud'U 34 165 Aud'U 47 166 Aud'U 30 H i l l 10 167 Aim 118 184 Mull 66 2 2 3 . 1 168 Nau 126 2 2 3 . 3 169 Nau 110 94 56 57 58 59 MW 2,41 KGB 1,300 KGB 1,228 KGB 1,342 KGB 1,366 ro 89 Ab lo temps agradiu, gai R 105c 90 Ab pauc er decazutz R 106a 91 A i s s i com eel que francamen est a i R 105as. 92 A i s s i pert poder Amors R 104c 93 A i s s i quon es sobronrada R 105d 94 A mon dan sui esforcius R 105b 95 Amors, pos a vos f a i l l poders R 105a 96 Anc mais per a i t a l razo R 109a 97 Anc non ai g u i nul temps de far chanso R 106a 98 Be«m meraveill co non es envejos R 105c 99 Be.m volgra d'amor p a r t i r R 105d 100 Creire m'an fag mei dezir R 108b 101 De f a r chanso sui marritz R 106b 102 De midons e d'amor R 106c 103 En re no-s meillura R 104d 104 En tot quan qu'eu saupes R 108d 105 F i s e verais e plus ferms que no s o i l l R 107a 106 Fortz guerra f a i tot lo mon guerrejar R 109b 107 Gaug a i , car esper d'amor R 109b 108 Grans afans es ad ome vergoignos R 107a 109 Humils, forfagz, repres e penedens R 106d 110 Jamais non er horn en est mon grazitz R 109c 111 Jhesus C r i s t z , f i l l s de Deu viu R 107b 112 Karitatz et Amors e fes R 107c 113 Lo mons par enchantatz R 109a 114 Los bes qu'eu trop en Amor R 107d 115 Mentaugutz R 108d 116 Mout me tenc be per pagatz R 106d 117 No cugei mais d'esta razo chantar R 111c 118 NO'm sai d'amor s i m'es mala o bona R 105b 119 Ogan no cugei chantar R 107b 120 Ops m'agra que mos volers R 109c 248.1 248.2 248.5 248.6 248.7 248.8 248.10 248.12 248.13 248.18 248.19 248.21 248.23 248.24 248.26 248.27 248.29 248.30 248.31 248.33 248.44 248.45 248.46 248.48 248.52 248.53 248.55 248.56 248.57 248.58 248.60 248.61 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 MW 4 MW- 4 MW MW MW MW MW 4 MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW MW 4 MW 4 MW 4 MW 4 MW 4 MW 4 MW 4 12 19 8 19 15 11 7 61 21 14 17 49 22 28 4 58 34 63 64 32 31 67 35 38 60 43 54 30 82 10 37 66 121 Per proar s i pro privatz 122 Pies de t r i s t o r , marritz e doloiros 123 Pos astres no m'es donatz 124 Pos sabers no-m val n i sens 125 Quar. dregz n i fes 126 Qui-m disses, non a dos ans 127 Qui'S tolgues 128 Razos m'adui voler qu'eu chan soven 129 S i chans me pogues valensa 130 S'ieu j a trobat non agues 131 S i ja-m deu mos chans valer 132 Tan m'es plazens lo mais d'amor 133 Tan vei qu'es ab j o i pretz mermatz 134 Volontiers f a r i a 135 X r i s t i a s v e i p e r i l l a r 136 Yverns no#m te de chantar embargat Jaufre Rudel (1130 - 1147) 137 Lanquan l i jorn son lone en mai 138 No sap chantar q u i . l so no di-139 Quan l a r i u s de l a fontana 140 Quan lo rossignols e l f o i l l o s Jordan Bonel (1160 - 1200) 141 S ' i r a d'amor tengues amic jauzen Marcabrun (1129 - 1150) 142 Bel m'es quan son l i frug madur 143 D i r a i vos senes doptansa 144 L'autr'ier j o s t ' una sebissa 145 Pax! i n nomine Domini R 108c 248.62 225 MW 43 53 R 106c 248.63 226 MW 4 ,27 R 111c 248.65 227 MW 4; 80 R 108c 248.66 228 MW 4 .51 R 106b 248.67 229 MW 4; 25 R 108a 248.68 230 MW 4 ,46 R 108d 248.69 231 MW 4; 56 R 107d 248.71 MW 43 42 R 111c 248.78 233 MW 4 81 R 108b 248.79 234 MW 4' ,50 R 106b 248.80 235 MW 4' ,24 R 104c 248.82 236 MW 4; 1 R 104d 248.83 237 MW 4; 6 R 107c 248.85 238 MW 4 ,40 R 108a 248.87 239 MW 4' ,44 R 108a 248.89 240 MW 4; 47 R 63b; W l89d; 262.2 12 H i l l 27 X 78v R 63b 262.3 13 H i l l 28 R 63c 262.5 14 H i l l 24 R 63c 262.6 15 Stim 41 W 201b 273.1 48 MW 3,311 W 203d 293.13 8 JMar 5 R 5c 293.18 9 JMar 3 R 5a 293.30 10 JMar 10 W 194c 293.35 11 JMar 8 No. T i t l e MS . Source P i l l e t Gennrich Text Matfre Ermengau (1280 - 1322) 146 Dregz de natura comanda Escor 3; Len l ; 297 .4 242 BarDen 79 VN ' 2563—4; • VN • 2583—1 Lo Monge de Montaudo (1180 - ca. 1213) 147 Ara pot ma domna saber R 39d 305. 6 92 P h i l 18 148 Fort m'enoja, so auzes dire R 40a 305. 10 93 P h i l 51 Peire d'Alvergne (1150 - 1200) 149 Amies Bernartz de Ventadorn W 190c 323. 4 35 Zen 139 150 Dejosta-ls breus jorns e-ls loncs sers • R 6a; X 83r 323. 15 36 Zen 94 Peire Cardenal (1210 - 1230) 151 Ar mi pose eu lauzar d'amor R 72d 335. 7 185 BaChr 191 152 Rics horn que greu d i t z vertat e leu men R 72b 335. 49 186 MW 2,197 153 Un sirventes novel v o i l l comensar R 69d 335. 67 187 H i l l 170 Peire Raimon de Toloza (1170 - 1210) 154 A t r e s s i com l a candela G 52b 355. 5 55 BaChr 95 Peire V i d a l (1175 - 1215) 155 Anc no mori per amor n i per a l G 4lc 364. 4 60 BaPV 67 156 . Baro, de mon dan covit R 65a 364. 7 61 BaPV 83 157 Be«m pac d'ivern e d'estiu G 40c; R 48a; 364. 11. 62 BaPV 30 X 84v 158 Ges pel temps fer e brau R 64c 364. 24 63- BaPV 16 159 Neus n i gels n i pl o j a n i faing R 64c 364. 30 64 BaPV 52 160 Nuls horn no pot d'amor gandir R 64a 364. 31 65 BaPV 47 ro —J Peire V i d a l (cont.) l 6 l Plus que.l paubres, quan j a i - e l r i c ostal R 64a 364 . 36 66 BaPV 70 162 Pos tornatz sui en Proensa G 42d 364 . 37 67 BaPV 28 163 Quant horn es en autrui poder G 42b; R 63c; W 204c 364 . 39 68 BaPV 45 164 Quant horn onratz torna en gran paubreira G' .4la 364 . 40 69 BaPV 63 165 S'eu fos en cort on horn tengues drechura R 64d 364 . 42 70 BaPV 78 166 Tart mi veiran mei amic en Tolza W 197a 364 . 49 71 BaPV 69 P e i r o l (1180 - ca. 1225) 167 A t r e s s i co«l cignes f a i R 89b 366. 2 117 Ast 35 168 Be dei chantar, pos Amors m'o enseigna G 48c 366. 3 118 Ast 39 169 Camjat m 'a mon c o n s i r i e r G 46c 366. 6 119 Ast 126 170 Cora que-m fezes doler G 45c 366. 9 120 Ast 131 171 D'eissa l a razo qu'eu s o i l l G 44b 366. 11 121 Ast 69 172 Del seu t o r t f a r a i esmenda G 49c; X 85v 43b 366. 12 122 Ast 81 173 D'un bo vers vau pensan com lo fezes G 366. 13 123 Ast 73 174 D'un sonet vau pensan G 43d 366. 14 124 Ast 65 175 En j o i que-m demora G 48a 366. 15 125 Ast 51 176 Mainta gens me malrazona R 47a 366. 19 126 Ast 105 177 M'entension a i t o t ' en unvvers meze R '89c 366. 20 127 Ast 113 178 Mout m'entremis de chantar volontiers G 45a 366. 21 128 Ast 93 179 Nuls horn no s'auci tan gen G 49d 366. 22 129 Ast 43 180 ' Per dan que d'amor m'aveigna G 46a 366. 26 130 Ast 97 181 Quant Amors trobet p a r t i t G 48d 366. 29 131 Ast 157 182 S i be-m s u i loi n g et entre gent estraigna G 50b 366. 31 132 Ast 121 183 Tot mon engeing e mon saber G 47c 366. 33 133 Ast 47 Perdigo (1195 - 1220) 184 Los mais d'amor a i eu be totz apres . 185 Tot l'an mi ten Amors d ' a i t a l faisso 186 Trop a i estat mon Bon Esper no v i P i s t o l e t a (1180 - 1200) 187 Ar agues eu mil marcs de f i n argen Pons de Capdoill (1180 - 1190) 188 Le j a l s amies cui Amors te tojos 189 M e i l l s qu'om no pot d i r ni pensar 190 S!eu f i s n i dis n u i l l a sazo 191 Us gais conortz me f a i gajamen far Pons d'Ortafas (ca. 1240) 192 S i a i perdut mon saber Raimbaut d'Aurenga (1144 - 1173) 193 Pos t a l s sabers mi sors e-m creis Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (1180 - 1207) 194 Ara-m requier sa costum' e son us 195 Ara pot horn conoisser e proar .196 Calenda maja 197 Eissament a i guerrejat ab Amor 198 Guerras n i plag no son bo 199 No-in agrad' iverns n i pascors 200 Savis e f o l s , humils et o r g o i l l o s G 64b 370. 9 160 ChayP G 65b 370. 13 161 ChayP G 64d; X 86r 370. 14 162 ChayP X 79r; 372. 3 95 Nie 59 PBN 846-125a W 202d 375. 14 73 Nap 69 G 79b 375. 16 74 Nap 61 G 79b 375. 19 75 Nap 59 R 55d; X 87v 375. 27 76 - Nap 77 R 30c 379. 2 241 MW 3,3. X 85r • 389. 36 37 Pat 19: R 6 lb 392. 2 96 L i n 10 R 6ld 392.. 3 97 Lin 19 R 62b 392. 9 98 L i n 15 R 6lc 392. 13 99 Lin 12 R 48c 392. 18 100 Lin 13 R 6lc 392. 24 101 L i n 22 R 6 lb 392. 28 102 Lin 11 201 Lo c l a r temps v e i brunezir W 202 Vas vos so p l e i , domna, premeiramen W Raimon de Miraval (1190 - 1220) 203 A i s s i cum es genser pascors G 204 A penas sai don m'apreing G 205 Ar ab l a forsa dels f r e i s R 206 Ara m'agr' ops que m'aizis R 207 Bel m'es qu'eu chant'e coindei R 208 Be m'agrada-1 bels temps d'estiu G 209 Ben aja - 1 cortes esciens R 210 Ben a j a * l messatgiers R 211 Cel cui j o i s taing n i chantar sap R 212 Cel que no vol auzir chansos G 213 Chansoneta f a r a i vencutz R 214 Chans, quan non es qui l'entenda R 215 Contr' Amor vauc durs et enbroncs R 216 D'amor es totz mos consiriers R 217 Entre dos volers sui pensius R 218 Lone temps a i avutz consiriers R 219 Res contr' Amor non es guirens R 220 Si«m fos de mon chantar parven R 221 S i tot s'es ma domn' esquiva R 222 Tals vai mon chant enqueren R 223 Tot quan fatz de be n i die R 224 Un sonet m'es bel qu' espanda R 192c 404. 4 135 K j e l 111 . 194a 404. 11 136 K j e l 72 6Sa; R 85d 406. 2 137 MGed #12, 1091 & 1351 6 9 a ; R 88a 406. 7 138 MW 2,121 88c 406. 8 139 MW 2,124 86d 406. 9 140 KolBei 143 85c 406. 12 141 MW 2,128 67c; R 85d 406. 13 142 BaChr 167 . 88c 406. 14 143 KolRM 299 85c 406. 15 144 MW 2,126 86b 406. 18 145 KolBei 155 68c ; R 86a 406. 20 146 MW 2,123 88b 406. 21 147 KolStM 13,144 87c 406. 22 148 KolStM 2 , 1 5 1 87a 406. 23 149 MGed #49,1107 87a 406. 24 150 MW 2 , 118 85b 406. 28 151 MW 2,128 88a 406. 31 152 KolBei 173 86d 406. 36 153 KolBei-1 8 1 88d 406. 39 154 KolStM 11 , 1 5 5 85d 406. 40 155 BaChr 165 86a 406. 42 156 KolBei 193 86c 406. 44 157 AnS 3 6,392 87c 406. 47 158 MGed #1124 & #1125 225 A t r e s s i cum lo leos 226 A t r e s s i cum l ' o r i f a n s 227 A t r e s s i cum Persavaus 228 Tuit demandon qu'es devengud' Amors Uc Brunec (ca. 1185) 229 Coindas razos e novelas plazens Uc de Saint Circ (1217 - ca. 1253) 230 Anc enemies qu'eu agues 231 Nuls hom no sap d'amic, tro l ' a perdut 232 Tres enemies e dos mais seignors a i Anonymous 233 A i s s i cum eu sab t r i a r 234 A l'entrada del tens c l a r 235 A l'entrada del tans f l o r i t 236 Amors m'art con fuoc am flama 237 B e l l a domna cara 238 Bel paires cars, non vos v e i r e i s an mi 239 Be volgra que venques merces (Blacasset?) 240 Be volgra, s'esser poges 241 De pe de l a montaina 242 Dona, pos vos ay chausida 243 Eissamen com l a pantera G 60c; W 195c 421. 1 170 AngRB 256 G 63a; W 195d; 421. 2 171 AngRB 259 X 8lr X 82r 421. 3 172 AngRB 262 W. 200b 421. 10 173 AngRB 283 R 66b 450. 3 134 ApUcB 67 G 84b 457. 3 174 J-S 1 G 83d 457. 26 175 J-S 35 G 82d 457. 40 176 J-S 11 W 196b 461. 9 243 Aplned 316 X 79v 461. 12 244 H i l l 216 W 191b 461. 13 245 Aplned 316 W l87d 461. 20a 257 FrBol 23 ,78 W 117r 461. 37 282 ChabRlr 32,575 Chigi 74r 461. 20b 247 BaAg 23 W 78d 461. 50 192 Klei n 4 W 186b 461. 51a 259 Such 1,299 Chigi 84v 461. 73a 248 BaAg 51 W l v 461. 92 260 Aplned 322 W 199d 461. 102 249 BaChr 252 No. T i t l e MS. Source P i l l e t Gennrich Text Anonymous (cont.) 244 E l bosc d'ardena j u s t a - l palais Amfos Chigi 72v 461.102a 250 BaAg 19 245 Ha mi no f a i chantar f o i l l a n i f l o r s W 204a 461.138 189 Aplned 325 (Albert de Sestaro?) 246 Ja non t i quier que mi fasas perdo Chigi 79v 4 6 l . l 4 l a 271 BaAg 37 247 Lassa, en can grien pena Chigi 84v 461.144a 251 BaAg 51 248 L ' a l t r ' i e r cuidai aber druda W0 199r 461.146 284 GauR 22,401 249 L ' a u t r l i e r m'iere levatz X^88v 461.148 252 BaR&P 121 250 (a) L i jalous par tout sunt fustat Mo 2l8v 461.148a 285 MeyRom 1,404 (b) Tuit c i l qui sunt enemorat - (b) only - PBN 25532-334 251 Lo dous chans que l'auzels crida W 203c 461.150 253 Aplned 326 252 Lo premer j o r que v i W 201a 461.152 254 Aplned 326 253 ' Mos coratges m'es camjatz X 88r 461.167 191 Aplned 327 (Albert de Sestaro?) 254 Molt m'abellist l'amoros pensamen PBN 1 2 6 l 5 - l 8 l r 461.170a 286 Ray 1 , 8 9 255 Par vous m'esjau PBN 24406-151c 461.192a 264 J-Adm 1 2 , 6 7 256 Pos qu'ieu vey l a f u e l l a W l v 461.196 261 Aplned 322 257 Pos vezem que l'iverns s ' i r a i s W 190a 461 .197 72 Aplned 329 (Peire Vidal?) 258 Tant es gai' es avinentz W 78c 461.230 262 Aplned 331 259 Vein, aura douza, que vens d'outra l a mar Chigi 80r 461.247a 256 BaAg 39 Range and Finals of the Troubadour Melodies No. T i t l e Range F i n a l Aimeric de Belenoi (1210 - 1241) 1 N u i l l s horn en re no f a i l l e - f» g Aimeric de Peguillan (1195 - ca. 1230) 2 Atressi«m pren com f a i a l jogador d _ e' e 3 Cel que s ' i r a i s n i guerrej' ab amor c - f * d 4 En Amor trop alques en que-m r e f r a i n g c - e' d 5 En greu pantais m'a tengut longamen B - c' B 6 Per solatz d'autrui chan soven f — f ' f 7 Que l a v i , en d i t z c - a' g Albert de Sestaro (1210 - 1221) 8 En mon cor a i un' a i t a l encobida g - g' g Arnaut Daniel (11.80 - ca. 1200) 9 Chanso d o - i l l mot son plan e prim d d' a 10 Lo ferm vol e r qu'el cor m'intra B - b c Arnaut de M a r o i l l (1170 - 1200) 11 A i s s i com c e l qu'am'e non es amatz f g g 12 La franca captenensa c - d« c 13 La grans beutatz e-1 f i s enseignamens c — c' d 14 L'enseignamens e>l pretz e l a valors c - d' a 15 Mout eron dous mei consir c — d' d 16 Si-m destreignetz, domna, vos et Amors c - g' g Bea t r i t z de Dia (ca. 1160) 17 A chantar m'er de so qu'eu no v o l r i a c — c' d Berenguier de Palazol (ca. 1160) 18 Ab l a fre s c a clardat d — g' f 19 A i t a l domna com eu s a i c - d» d 20 Bona domna, cui r i c s pretz f a i valer d - f' • g 21 De l a gensor qu'om vej' a l meu semblan c - g' g 22 Domna, l a gensor qu'om veja c - g' c 23 Domna, s i totz temps v i v i a d - d' g 24 Tan m'abelis j o i s et Amors e chans f - g' a 25 Totz temoros e doptans S - g' e Bernart de Ventadorn (ca. 1150 - ca. 1180) 26 Ab j o i mou l o vers e-1 comans c — c' f 27 Amors, e! que-us es veja i r e B - g c 28 Ara-m c o n s e i l l a t z , seignor c — c' g 29 Ara no v e i l u z i r s o l e i l l f - d» a 30 A! tantas bonas chansos d — d' g 31 Be m'an perdut l a i enves Ventadorn f - f' g 32 Conortz, ara s a i eu be f - d' g 33 En c o n s i r i e r et en esmai B - c' e 34 Estat a i com horn esperdutz g — g* c 35 La doussa votz a i auzida d - c' d 36 Lanquan f o i l l o n bosc e garic c - c* d 37 Lanquan v e i l a f o i l l a d - d' g 38 Non es meravilla s'eu chan c - c' d 39 Pos mi pregatz, seignor f - c' a 40 Quan l'erba fresc* e«l f o i l l a par c - c' d 41 Quan par l a f l o r s josta-1 vert f o i l l d - d' d 42 Quan v e i l a f l o r , l'erba vert e l a f o i l l a g - a' g 43 Quan v e i l a lauzeta mover c - c' d 44 Tuit c i l que-m pregon' qu'eu chan f - f' -Bertran de Born (1159 - 1196) 45 Rassa, tan creis e mont' e poja d - d» g Cadenet (1208 - 1239) 46 Eu sui tan corteza gaita c _ d' d Daude de Pradas (ca. 1190) 47 Bela m'es l a votz autana f - f a Folquet de M a r s e i l l a (1180 - 1195; d. 1231) 48 Amors, merce! no moira tan soven B — c' c 49 A.' quan gen vens et. ab quan pauc d'afan c - c' d 50 Ben an mort mi e l o r c — d' f 51 En chantan m'aven a membrar c — f' a 52 Greu f e i r a nuls horn f a i l l e n s a c — d' d 53 Ja no•s cuit horn qu'eu camge mas chansos B — d' d 54 Mout i fetz gran peccat Amors - c — d' d 55 Per Deu, Amors, be sabetz veramen c — c ' c 56 S'al cor plagues, be f o r ' oimais sazos c — d' d 57 S i tot me sui a t a r t aperceubutz c — d' d 58 Tan m'abelis l'amoros pensamens c — c' d 59 Tan mou de corteza razo c — c' g 60 Us volers out racuidatz B - c» c Gaucelm F a i d i t (1180 - 1216) 61 Al semblan del r e i t i e s c e' c 62 Chant e deport, j o i , domnei e solatz c - d' d 63 Cora que«m des benanansa c — e' d 64 Fortz causa es que tot lo major dan B - c' c 65 Gen fora contra l'afan c - f' d 66 Jamais nul temps no-m pot re far Amors c - e » d 67 Lo gens cors onratz c — g' g 68 Lo rossignolet salvatge c - d' d 69 Mon cor e mi e mas bonas chansos c - d' d 70 No-m alegra chans n i c r i t z A — f' d 71 S i anc nuls horn per aver f i coratge c — d' d 72 S i tot m'ai tarzat mon chan c - d' d 73 S'om pogues p a r t i r son voler c - d' d 74 Tant a i sofert longamen grant afan c - d' d Gui d'Uisel (ca. 1200) 75 Be f e i r a chansos plus soven g _ b' c 76 En tanta guiza-m men' Amors c — c ' c 77 Ges de chantar no-m f a i l l cors n i razos c - d' c 78 S i be'in partetz, mala domna, de vos g - a' a Guillaume IX d'Aquitaine 79 Pos de chantar m'es pres talens d — b — Guillem Ademar (ca. 1200) 80 Lanquan vei f l o r i r l'espiga c - d' d G u i l l e m Augier (1209 - 1235) 81 Ses a l e g r a t g e c - d' d G u i l l e m Maigret (ca. 1200) 82 A i g a p o j a c o n t r a mon g _ b ' c 83 E n a i s s i - m pren com f a i a l pescador B - d' c G u i l l e m de S a i n t L e i d i e r (1165 - 1200) 84 Pos tan mi f o r s 1 Amors que mi f a i entremetre B - c' c G i r a u t de B o r n e i l l ( I I 6 5 - ca. 1200) 85 Leu chansonet 1 e v i i c _ c' d 86 No pose s o f r i r qu'a l a d o l o r c - d' d 87 Reis g l o r i o s , v e r a i s lums e c l a r d a t z c - c' d 88 S'ie-us q u i e r c o n s e i l l , b e l 1 amig' Alamanda G — b g G u i r a u t R i q u i e r (1254 - 1282) 89 Ab l o temps a g r a d i u , g a i c — d' g 90 Ab pauc er decazutz f - g' g 91 A i s s i com e e l que francamen e s t a i c - c' d 92 A i s s i p e r t poder Amors c - d' f 93 A i s s i quon es sobronrada c - d' d 94 A mon dan s u i e s f o r c i u s c - b d 95 Amors, pos a vos f a i l l poders d - b f 96 Anc mais per a i t a l razo c - f ' g 97 Anc non a i g u i n u l temps de f a r chanso c - c' d 98 Be'in m e r a v e i l l co non es envejos c - d' d 99 Be-in v o l g r a d'amor p a r t i r c - c' d 100 C r e i r e m'an f a g mei d e z i r c - d' d 101 De f a r chanso s u i m a r r i t z c - d' d 102 De midons e d'amor c - d' d 103 En re no-s m e i l l u r a g - g' g 104 En t o t quan qu'eu saupes c - d' d 105 F i s e v e r a i s e p l u s ferms que no s o i l l e - f ' f 106 F o r t z g u e r r a f a i t o t l o mon g u e r r e j a r c - c' g 107 Gaug a i , c a r esper d'amor c - d' g 108 Grans afans es ad ome vergoignos c - d' g 109 Humils, f o r f a g z , r e p r e s e penedens c - d' d 110 Jamais non er horn en est mon g r a z i t z c - c' e 111 Jhesus C r i s t z , f i l l s de Deu v i u c - c' d 112 K a r i t a t z et Amors e f e s c - d' d No. T i t l e Range Fine Guiraut Riquier (cont.) 113 Lo mons par enchantatz c _ d 1 d 114 Los bes qu'eu trop en Amor c - d' d 115 Mentaugutz g - a' g 116 Mout me tenc be per pagatz c d* d 117 No cugei mais d'esta razo chantar c - d» d 118 no-m s a i d'amor s i m'es mala o bona c — d» d 119 Ogan no cugei chantar. c - d» d 120 Ops m'agra que mos volers c - d' d 121 Per proar s i pro privatz c - d' d 122 Pies de t r i s t o r , marritz e doloiros c - d f d 123 Pos astres no m'es donatz c - a d 124 Pos sabers no«m v a l n i sens c c' f 125 Quar dregz n i fes c - d' a 126 Qui'in disses, non a dos ans c - e' g 127 Qui«s tolgues c - d' d 128 Razos m'adui voler qu'eu chan soven c - d» d 129 S i chans me pogues valensa c - a e 130 S'ieu j a trobat non agues c - c' d 131 S i ja-m deu mos chans valer c - c' d 132 Tan m'es plazens lo mais d'amor c - d' d 133 Tan v e i qu'es ab j o i pretz mermatz c - c» d 134 Volontiers f a r i a c - c' g 135 X r i s t i a s v e i p e r i l l a r c d' g 136 Yverns no-m te de chantar embargat c - e» g. Jaufre Rudel (1130 - 1147) 137 Lanquan l i jorn son lone en mai c — c' c 138 No sap chantar qui - 1 so no d i c - d' c 139 Quan l a r i u s de l a fontana A - a c 140 Quan l o rossignols e l f o i l l o s d f • f Jordan Bonel (1160 - 1200) 141 S' i r a d'amor tengues amic jauzen c - d' d Marcabrun (1129 - 1150) 142 Bel m'es quan son l i frug madur c — e' d 143 D i r a i vos senes doptansa c - a d 144 L ' a u t r ' i e r j o s t ' una sebissa g - g' a 145 Pax! i n nomine Domini d - f • a Matfre Ermengau (1280 - 1322) 146 Dregz de natura comanda c — b b d No. T i t l e Range Fins Lo Monge de Montaudo (1180 - ca. 1213) 147 Ara pot ma domna saber c c' g 148 Fort m'enoja, so auzes dire ' c - d» f Peire d'Alvergne (1150 - 1200) 149 Amies Bernartz de Ventadorn c — d» g 150 Dejosta-ls breus jorns e«ls loncs sers g — b D ? g Peire Cardenal (1210 - 1230) 151 Ar mi pose eu lauzar d'amor c _ d» d 152 Rics horn que greu d i t z vertat e leu men c - d' c 153 Un sirventes novel v o i l l comensar c — d' d Peire Raimon de Toloza (1170 - 1210) 154 A t r e s s i com l a candela : f - g' g Peire V i d a l (1175 - 1215) 155 Anc no mori per amor n i per a l e _ g* f 156 Baro, de mon dan covit c - d» f 157 Be«m pac d'ivern e d'estiu G - f« c 158 Ges pel temps f e r e brau g - a' g 159 Neus n i gels n i p l o j a n i faing g - d' e 160 Nuls horn no pot d'amor gandir d - e' g 161 Plus que-1 paubres, quan j a i e l r i c o s t a l g - a' a 162 Pos tornatz sui en Proensa c - e' c 163 Quant horn es en autrui poder f - g» g 164 Quant horn onratz torna en gran paubreira B - d' c 165 S'eu fos en cort on horn tengues drechura c - e» g 166 Tart mi veiran mei amic en Tolza B - d 1 c P e i r o l (1180 - ca. 1225) 167 A t r e s s i c o * l cignes f a i c _ c' d 168 Be dei chantar, pos Amors m'o enseigna c - c' c 169 Camjat m'a mon c o n s i r i e r c - d' d 170 Cora que«m fezes doler . c - bb d 171 D'eissa l a razo qu'eu s o i l l f - e' g 172 Del seu t o r t f a r a i esmenda d - e' a 173 D'un bo vers vau pensan com lo fezes B - c' g 174 D'un sonet vau pensan d - d* a 175 En j o i que-m demora B - b c P e i r o l (cont.) 176 Mainta gen me malrazona c — d' g 177 M'entension a i t o t ' en un vers meza d — d' d 178 Mout m'entremis de chantar volontiers c - d' c 179 Nuls horn no s'auci tan gen c - c' c 180 Per dan que d'amor m'aveigna c - c' g 181 Quant Amors trobet p a r t i t d - d' a 182 S i be TII s u i l o i n g et entre gent estraigna f - d' g 183 Tot mon engeing e mon saber c — c' d Perdigo (1195 - 1220) 184 Los mais d'amor a i eu be totz apres c f» f 185 Tot l'an mi ten Amors d ' a i t a l f a i s s o c d» d 186 Trop a i estat mon Bon Esper no v i . c - e' c P i s t o l e t a ( l l 8 0 - 1200) 187 Ar agues eu mil marcs de f i n argen e - g' d Pons de Capdoill (1180 - 1190) 188 L e j a l s amies cui Amors te tojos f f ' f 189 M e i l l s qu'om no pot d i r n i pensar c - d' c 190 S'eu f i s n i dis n u i l l a sazo f - g ' g 191 Us gais conortz me f a i gajamen f a r B - d» c Pons d'Ortafas (ca. 1240) 192 Si a i perdut mon saber d - d' a Raimbaut d'Aurenga (1144 - 1173) 193 Pos t a l s sabers mi sors e«m cr e i s f - f» g Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (1180 - 1207) 194 Ara*m requier sa costum' e son us c _ d' g 195 • Ara pot horn conoisser e proar c - d' d 196 Calenda maja . c - a » c 197 Eissament a i guerrejat ab Amor c - d' b 198 Guerras n i plag no son bo c - f» d 199 No-m agrad' iverns n i pascors g - a' g 200 Savis e f o l s , humils et o r g o i l l o s A - f' g Raimon Jordan (1190 - 1200) 201 Lo c l a r temps v e i b r u n e z i r f — f ' g 202 Vas vos s o p l e i , domna, premeiramen c - d' d Raimon de M i r a v a l (1190 - 1220) 203 A i s s i cum es genser pascors c _ d' c 204 A penas s a i don m'apreing g - f ' a 205 Ar ab l a f o r s a d e l s f r e i s c — d' f 206 Ara m'agr' ops que m ' a i z i s f - a' g 207 B e l m'es qu'eu chant e c o i n d e i A — b d 208 Be m'agrada'l b e l s temps d ' e s t i u f — g' g 209 Ben aja-1 c o r t e s e s c i e n s c — c' c 210 Ben aja«l messatgiers c - c' c 211 C e l c u i j o i s t a i n g n i chantar sap c - e' g 212 C e l que no v o l a u z i r chansos c - c' d 213 Chansoneta f a r a i vencutz c - c' f 214 Chans, quan non es q u i l'entenda c - c' d 215 Contr' Amor vauc curs et enbroncs ' g — a' a 216 D'amor es t o t z mos c o n s i r i e r s e - c' f 217 E n t r e dos v o l e r s s u i pensius g - a' c 218 Lone temps a i avutz c o n s i r i e r s g — a' c 219 Res c o n t r ' Amor non es g u i r e n s f - g' f 220 Si-m f o s de mon chantar parven e - e' g 221 S i t o t s'es ma domn' e s q u i v a c - d' c 222 T a l s v a i mon chant enqueren c - b g 223 Tot quan f a t z de be n i d i e c - c' f 224 Un sonet m'es b e l qu' espanda c - c' d R i c h a r t de B e r b e z i l l (1200 - 1210) 225 A t r e s s i cum l o l e o s f g' c 226 . A t r e s s i cum l ' o r i f a n s c - c' c 227 A t r e s s i cum Persavaus c — c' g 228 T u i t demandon qu'es devengud' Amors f - •g' c Uc Brunec (ca. 1185) 229 Coindas razos e novelas plazens c - d' d Uc de S a i n t C i r c (1217 - ca 1253) 230 Anc enemies qu'eu agues B — e' d 231 Nuls horn no sap d'amic, t r o l ' a perdut c - e' d 232 Tres enemies e dos mais s e i g n o r s a i c - e' e Anonymous 233 A i s s i cum eu sab t r i a r f — a' c' 234 A l'entrada del tens c l a r B — d' c 235 A l'entrada del tans f l o r i t A — c' d 236 Amors m'art con fuoc am flama f — e' g 237 B e l l a domna cara c — c ' d 238 Bel paires cars, non vos v e i r e i s an mi f - f' a 239 Be volgra que venques merces (Blacasset?) c - c' f 240 Be volgra, s'esser poges c — c« f 241 Da pe de l a montaina d — f' a 242 Dona, pos vos ay chausida c - c' d 243 Eissamen com l a pantera c — d» d 244 E l bosc d'Ardena j u s t a - 1 palais Amfos g — d' a 245 Ha mi no f a i chantar f o i l l a n i f l o r s (Albert de Sestaro?) g — e' g 246 Ja non t i quier que mi fasas perdo c - c' d 247 Lassa, en can grieu pena c - d' d 248 L ' a l t r ' i e r cuidai aber druda c — c' f 249 L'autr ' i e r m'iere levatz f — d' f 250 (a) L i jalous par tout sunt fustat g — g* g* (b) Tuit c i l qui sunt enamorat g — f' c' 251 Lo dous chans que l'auzels c r i d a b — d» d 252 Lo premer j o r que v i e - f' f 253 Mos coratges m'es camjatz (Albert de Sestaro?) f — a» a 254 Molt m'abellist l'amoros pensamen c — d' d 255 Par vous m'esjau c - d' c 256 Pos qu'ieu vey l a f u e l l a d — c' d 257 Pos vezem que l'iverns s ' i r a i s (Vidal?) g — g' a 258 Tant es g a i ' es avinentz c - d' d 259 Vein, aura douza, que vens d'outra l a mar c — e' e APPENDIX V La Doctrina De Compondre Dictatz A 9 0 es manera de doctrina, per l a qual poras saber e conexer que es canco, vers, lays, serventesch, retronxa, pastora, danca, plant, alba, gayta, estampida, sompni, gelozesca, d i s c o r t , cobles esparses, tenso; per l a qual raho, per les rahons dessus dites quez eu t'ay mostrades, poras venir a p e r f e c t i o de fer aquestes sens errada, ses reprendimen, com f e r ne v o l r r a s . Canco E primerament deus saber que canco deu p a r l a r d'amor plazenment, e potz metre en ton parl a r eximpli d ' a l t r a rayso, e ses maldir e ses lauzor de re, sino d'amor. Encara mes, deus saber que canco ha obs e deu haver cinch cobles; eyxamen n ' i potz f a r , per abeylimen e per complimen de raho, s i s o set o vuit o nou, d'aquell compte que mes te p l a c i a . E potz h i far una tornada, o dues, qual te v u l l e s . E garda be que en axi com comencaras l a raho en amor, que en aquella manera matexa l a f i n s be e l a seguesques; e dona l i so noveyl co pus b e l l poras. Vers S i vols f a r vers, deus parla r de v e r i t a t z , de exemples e de proverbis o de lauror, no pas en semblant d' amor; e que en axi com comencaras, ho proseguesques eu f i n s , ab so no v e l l tota vegada. E aquesta es l a d i f e r e n c i a que es entre canco e vers, e que l a una rayso no es semblant de l ' a l t r a . E cert aytantes cobles se cove de f a r a l vers, com a l a canco, e aytantes tornades. Lays S i vols fer lays, deus parlar de Deu e de segle, o de eximpli o de proverbis de laurors ses feyment d'amor, qui s i a axi plazent a Deu co a l segle; e deus saber ques deu f a r e d i r ab c o n t r i c c i o tota v i a , e ab so no v e l l e plazen, o de esgleya o d'autra manera. E sapies que y ha mester aytantes cobles com en l a canco, e aytantes tornades; e segueix l a raho e l a manera axi com eu t'ay d i t . Sirventes S i volz far si r v e n t z , deus parlar de fayt d'armes e senyalladament, o de lausor de senyor, o de' mal d i t o de qualsque feyts qui novellament se tracten; e comen-caras ton cantar segons que usaran aquells dels quals ton serventez comencaras; e per proverbis e per exemples poretz h i portar lez naturaleses que fan, o 90 de que fan a rependre o a lausar aquells dels quals ton serventez comen9aras. E sapies quel potz f er d'aytantes cobles co laiin d'aquetz cantars que t' he mostratz, e potz lo far en qualque so te v u l l e s , e specialment se f a en so novell, e maiorment en co de can90. E deus lo far d'aytantes cobles com sera l e cantar de que pendras lo so; e potz seguir las rimaz contra sem-blantz del cantar de que pendras lo so; a t r e s i l o potz f a r en a l t r e s rimes. Retronxa S i vols f a r retronxa, sapies que deus parlar d'amor, segons l'estament en quen seras, s i a plazen o cosiros; e no y deus mesclar a l t r a raho. E deus saber que deu haver quatre cobles, e so novell tota vegada. E deus saber que per 90 ha nom retronxa car lo refray de cadauna de les cobles deu esser totz us. Pastora S i vols f a r pastora, deus parl a r d'amor en ayt a l semblan com eu te ensenyaray, 90 es a saber, s i t' acostes a pastora e l a vols saludar, o enquerer o manar o c o r t e i a r , o de qual razo demanar o dar o parlar l i v u l l e s . E potz l i metre a l t r e nom de pastora, segons lo b e s t i a r que guardara. E aquesta manera es c l a r a assatz d'entendre, e potz l i f e r s i s o v'uit cobles, e so novell o so estrayn ya passat. DanQa S i vols far danpa, deus parlar d'amor be e plasent-ment en qualque estament ne s i e s . E deus l i f e r de deutz n i cobles e no pus, e respost, una o dues tornades, qual te v u l l e s ; totes vegades so n o v e l l . E potz f e r , s i t vols, totes les f i n s de les cobles en refrayn semblan. E aquella raho de que l a comen9aras deu continuar, e be servar a l comen9ament, a l mig e a l a f i . Plant S i vols far plant d'amor o de t r i s t o r , deus l a raho continuar; e pot lo fer en qual so te v u l l e s , salvant de dan9a. E a t r e s s i potz lo f e r d'aytantes cobles con l a [ s ] dels damunt d i t s cantars, e encontra sembles o en dessemblants; e no y deus mesclar a l t r a raho s i no plahien, s i per compacio no y ho podies portar. Alba S i vols far alba, paria d'amor plazentment; e a t r e s s i lauzar l a dona on vas o de que l a faras; e bendi l ' a l b a s i acabes lo plazer per lo qual ames a ta dona. E s i no 1' acabes, fes l ' a l b a blasman l a dona e l ' a l b a on anaves. E potz h i f e r aytantes cobles com te v u l l e s , e deus h i f e r so n o v e l l . Gayta S i vols f e r gayta, deus parla r d'amor o de ta dona, desigan e semblan que l a gayta te pusca noure o valer ab ta dona, e ab lo dia qui sera avenir, e deus l a f a r on pus avinentment pugues, preyan t o t a v i a l a gayta ab ta dona que t ' ajut; e potz h i far aytantes cobles com te v u l l e s ; e deu haver so n o v e l l . Estampida S i vols f a r estampida, potz parlar de qualque fayt v u l l e s , blasman o lauzan o merceyan, quit v u l l e s ; e deu haver quatre cobles e responedor, e una o dues tornades, e so n o v e l l . Sompni S i vols far sompni, deus parla r d'aquelles coses quit seran v i j a r e s que hales somiades, v i s t e s o parlades en durmen; e potz h i far cinch o s i s cobles, e so n o v e l l . Gelozesca S i vols far gelozesca, deus p a r l a r de gelozia, reprenden o contrastan de fayt d'amor; e deu haver responedor, e quatre cobles, e una o dues tornades, e so noveyll o estrayn ya feyt. Discort S i vols f a r d i s c o r t , deus parlar d'amor coma horn que n' es desemparat; e coma horn que no pot haver plaser de sa dona e v i u turmentatz; e que en lo cantar 11a hon lo so deuria muntar, q u ' i l baxes. E fe lo cont r a r i de tot l ' a l t r e cantar. E deu haver tres cobles, e una o dues tornades e responedor. E potz metre un o dos motz mes en una cobla que en a l t r a , per 90 que mils s i a discordant. Cobles esparses S i vols f er cobles esparses potz les far en qual so te .vulles; e deus seguir las rimes del cant de que trayras lo so. E a t r e s s i les potz f a r en algres rimes; e deven esser dues o tres cobles, e una o dues tornades. Tenso S i vols f a r tenso, deus l a pendre en algun so que haia b e l l a nota, e potz seguir les rimes del cantar o no. E potz f e r quatre o s i s cobles o v u i t , s i t vols. Cango Encara mays te v u l l mostrar, per 90 que sies pus entendens en ton trobar, que can9o es appellada c a n 9 o per 90 con es causa naturalment pauzada en manera de cantar; e per homens autz e bays, 90 es saber que a totz aquells p l a t z pretz, amors e c o r t e s i a e s o l a 9 , ensenyamentz, e tot 90 que e l l a p a r l a . Vers Vers es appellatz per 90 vers cor parla de proverbis, e de razonz naturals, de eximplis de v e r i t a t s , de presentz temps, de passat e de esdevenidor. Lays Lays es appellat per 90 lays quis deu f a r ab gran c o n t r i c c i o , e ab gran moviment de cor vers Deu o vers aycellas causas de que volrras p a r l a r . Sirventes Serventetz es d i t per 90 serventetz per 90 com se serveix e es sotsmes a aquell cantar de qui pren l o so e les rimes; e per 90 cor deu parlar de senyors o de v a s a l l s , blasman o castigan o lauzan o mostran, o de faytz d'armes o de guerra o de Deu o de ordenances o de novelle-t a t z . Retronxa Retronxa es d i t a per 90 retronxa per 90 cor totes les cobles deven esser e s t r o n 9 a d e s a l a f i ; e per 90 lo refrayn de l a primeyra cobla serveix a totes les a l t r e s cobles. Pastora Pastora es d i t a per 90 pastora cor pren horn l o cantar de aquella persona de que horn lo fa; e pot esser d i t a pastora s i l a persona garda oveylles o pques o porchs o d'altres diverses b e s t i a r s . Dansa Dansa es d i t a p e r 9 0 com naturalment l a d i t z horn dan9a[n] o bayllan, car deu [aver] so plazent; e l a d i t z horn ab esturment, e plau a cascus que l a diga e l a escout. Plant Plant es d i t per co plant car es causa qui parla marridament e planyen de aquella causa qui es perduda, o que horn playn. Alba Alba es d i t a per cb alba car pren nom lo cantar de . l a ora a que horn lo fa, e per 90 cor se deu pus d i r en l' a l b a que de dia. Gayta Gayta es d i t a per 90 gayta cor es pus covinent a fer de nuyt que de dia, per que pren nom de l a hora que horn l a f a . Estampida Stampida es d i t a per co stampida cor pren v i g o r i a en contan o en xantan pus que n u l l autre cantar. Sompni Sompni es appellat per 90 sompni cor lo cantar parla de 90 que l i par que havia v i s t de nuyt, o ha auzit en sompnian. Gelozesca Gelouzesca es d i t a per 90 gelouzesca per 90 cor gelozamen parla de 90 que d i r v o l , contrasta[n] ab alguna persona en son cantar. Discort Discort es d i t per 90 discort cor parla d i s c o r -dament e reversa, e es c o n t r a r i a totz a l t r e s cantars, cor g i t a de manera 90 que diu. Cobles esparses Cobles esparses son dites per 90 cobles esparses cor se fan espressament en qual so te v u l l e s . Empero convesc que l i seguesques horn manera axi coma c a n 9 0 . Tenso Tenso es d i t a tenso per 90 com se diu contrastan e disputan subtilmen lo un ab 1'altre de qualque raho horn v u l l a cantar. E axi son complides les dites regies ordenades per doctrina en trobar, per l a qual doctrina cascus qui be les gart e les veja, s i es s u b t i l s d'entencio, pora leugerament venir a perfeccio de l a art de trobar. Analecta Hymnica Medii Aevi. Edited by G.M. Dreves, C. Blume and H. Bannister i n 55 vols. L e i p z i g : Riesland, 1886 - 1922. Anglade, Joseph. Anthologie des Troubadours. 2nd ed. Paris: E. de Boccard, 1953. Le Troubadour Guiraut Riquier. Paris: L i b r a i r i e Armand Col i n , 1905-Les Troubadours. Paris: L i b r a i r i e Armand Colin, 1908. Angles, H i g i n i . La musica a Catalunya fi n s a l segle XIII i n B i b l i o t e c a de Catalunya, Publicacions del Departament  de Musica. Barcelona, 1935. Apel, W i l l i . Gregorian Chant. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1958. ed. The Harvard Dictionary of Music. 2nd ed. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1969. Appel, C a r l . Provenzalische Chrestomathie. L e i p z i g : O.R. Riesland, 1907. Die Singweisen Bernart de Ventadorn. Halle: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1934• Aston, S.C. P e i r o l , Troubadour of Auvergne. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953. Aubry, P. Trouv^res and Troubadours. Translated from the 2nd French, e d i t i o n of 1910 by C. Aveling. New York: G. Schirmer, 1914. . Les plus anciens monuments de l a musique francaise. Paris: • H. Welter, 1905-La Rhythmique musicale des Troubadours et des  Trouveres. Paris: H. Champion, 1907. Audiau, Jean. L i b r a i r i e Les Troubadours et 1'Angleterre. Philosophique J. Vrin, 1927. Paris: Bailey, Terence, ed. The Fleury Play of Herod. Toronto: P o n t i f i c a l I n s t i t u t e of Medieval Studies, 1 9 6 5 . Processions of Sarum and the Western Church. Toronto: P o n t i f i c a l I n s t i t u t e of Medieval Studies, 1971. Bartsch, K. Chrestomathie provencale. 6th ed. Marburg: N.G. Elwert, 1903-04. 9 ' . Grundriss zur Geschichte der provenzalische L i t e r a t u r . E l b e r f e l d : R.L. F r i d e r i c h s , 1872. Beck, J.B. Le Chansonnier Cangg. Facsimile ed. i n 2 vols. Champion: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1927. Les chansonniers des Troubadours. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1927. Le Manuscrit du Roy. Facsimile ed. i n 2 vols. Champion: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1938. Die Melodien der Troubadours. Strassburg: K.J. Trubner, 1908. La Musique des Troubadours i n Les Musiciens  ce~l(lbres. Paris: H. Laurens, 1910. Bergin, Thomas G. Dante. New York: The Orion Press, 1 9 6 5 . Besseler, Heinrich. Die Musik des M i t t e l a l t e r s und der Renaissance i n Handbuch der Musikwissehschaft.• Potsdam: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Athenaion, 1931-34. Blom, E r i c . ed. Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 5th ed. London: MacMillan and Co., 1954. Boutidre, Jean & A.-H. Schutz. Biographies des Troubadours. Paris: A.-G. Nizet, 1 9 6 4 . ' B r i f f a u l t , Robert S. The Troubadours. Translated from the French and edited by Lawrence F. Koons. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1 9 6 5 . Cabeen, D.C, ed. C r i t i c a l Bibliography of French L i t e r -ature. Vol. I: The Medieval Period. Edited by Urban T. Holmes, J r . Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1947. Englarged e d i t i o n , 1952. Chaytor, H.J., ed. Les chansons de Perdigon. P a r i s : H. Champion, 1926. The Troubadours. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1912. Troubadours o f Dante. Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1902. . The Troubadours and England. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1923. Croft-Cooke, Rupert. Troubadour. London: Chapman and H a l l , 1930. Dante A l i g h i e r i . De v u l g a r ! e l o q u e n t i a i n The L a t i n Works of  Dante. T r a n s l a t e d by A.G. F e r r e r s Howell. London: J.M. Dent and Sons, 1904. Denomy, Alexander J . The Heresy of C o u r t l y Love. New York: Declan X. McMullen Co., 1947. " The L i v e s of S a i n t Agnes. V o l . X I I I o f Harvard  S t u d i e s i n Romance Languages. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. Di e z , F r i e d r i c h . Leben und Werke der Troubadours. R e p r i n t of 2nd ed., 1882. H i l d e s h e i m : Georg 01ms V e r l a g s b u c h -handlung, 1965. Farmer, H.G. H i s t o r i c a l F a c t s f o r the Ara b i a n I n f l u e n c e . London: W. Reeves, 1930. F a r n e l l , Ida. L i v e s of the Troubadours. London: Nutt, 1896. Fleming, John A r n o l d . The Troubadours of Provence. Glasgow: W. M a c L e l l a n , 1952. . Frank, 1stvan. R e p e r t o i r e metgique de l a poesie des t r o u b a -dours . 2 v o l s . P a r i s : Edouard•Champion, 1953. F r e r e , W.H. Antiphonale s a r i s b u r e n s e . Farnborough, England: Gregg P r e s s , 1966. Gennrich, F r i e d r i c h . Die a l t f r a n z S s i c h e Rotrouenge i n L i t e r a r h i s t o r i s c h - m u s i k w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e S t u d i e I I . H a l l e : Max Niemeyer V e r l a g , 1925. B i b l i o g r a p h i s c h e s V e r z e i c h n i s der f r a n z g s i s c h e n  R e f r a i n s des 12. und 13. Jah r h u n d e r t s. Langen b e i F r a n k f u r t : n.p., 1964. . G r u n d r i s s e i n e r Formenlehre des m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n L i e d e s a l s Grundlage e i n e r m u s l k a l i s c h e n Formenlehre des  L i e d e s . H a l l e : Max Niemeyer V e r l a g , 1932. Die K o n t r a f a c t u r im L i e d s c h a f f e n des M i t t e l a l t e r s . Langen b e i F r a n k f u r t , n.p., 1965. Der M u s l k a l i s c h e Naohlass der Troubadours. Part I: K r i t l s c h e Ausgabe der Melodien. V o l . I l l of Summa musicae  m e d i i a e v i . Darmstadt: n.p., 1958. Der M u s l k a l i s c h e Nachlass der Troubadours. Part I I : .Kommentar (of Part I : K r i t l s c h e Ausgabe). V o l . IV of Summa musicae medii a e v i . Darmstadt: n.p., i960. Rondeaux, V i r e l a i s und B a l l a d e n . 2 v o l s . H a l l e : Max Niemeyer V e r l a g , 1921 & 1927. .. Troubadours, Trouveres, Minnesingers and M e i s t e r -s i n g e r s . T r a n s l a t e d from the German by Rodney Dennis. Cologne: Arno Volk V e r l a g , i960. U b e r t r a g u n g s m a t e r i a l zur Rhythmik der Ars a n t i q u a . Darmstadt: n.pT, 1954. Graduale Sacrosanctae. E d i t e d by the Monks of Solesmes. T o u r n a i : Desclge & Co., 1950. Grandgent, C.H. O u t l i n e o f the Phonology and Morphology o f  o l d P r o v e n c a l . Boston: D.C. Heath & Co., 1905. Harman, A l e c . Medieval and E a r l y Renaissance Music. London: B a r r i e & R o c k l i f f , 1950. Hibberd, L l o y d . "Estampie and S t a n t i p e s , " Speculum, XIX ( A p r i l , 1944), 222-249. H i l l , Raymond T., and Thomas G. B e r g i n . Anthology o f the Pr o v e n c a l Troubadours. V o l . XVII o f Yale Romanic S t u d i e s . New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941. Hoepffner, E. Les Troubadours dans l e u r v i e et dans l e u r s  o evres. P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n , 1955. H e u f f e r , F r a n c i s . The Troubadours. London: Chatto & Windus, I878. J a h i e l , E. "French and Pr o v e n c a l Poet-Musicians o f the Middle Ages: A B i b l i o - D i s c o g r a p h y , " Romance P h i l o l o g y , XIV (1961), pp. 200ff. Jeanroy, A. Le Jeu de S a i n t e Agnes. P a r i s : Edouard Champion, 1 9 3 1 . K e l l y , Amy. 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V o l . I o f K l e i n e Handbucher der M u s i k g e s c h i c h t e nach Gattungen. L e i p z i g : n.p., 1913-1919-Wright, L.M. "Misconceptions concerning the Troubadours, Tro u v e r e s , and M i n s t r e l s , " Music and L e t t e r s , XLVIII (January, 1967), 35-39. 

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