Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Gwyn Thomas and the emergence of an Anglo- Welsh literary tradition Wilson, Jeanne Mary 1971

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1971_A8 W58.pdf [ 7.41MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0101910.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0101910-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0101910-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0101910-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0101910-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0101910-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0101910-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0101910-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0101910.ris

Full Text

GWYN THOMAS AND THE EMERGENCE OF AN ANGLO-WELSH LITERARY TRADITION by JEANNE MARY WILSON B.A., Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of English We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1971 In p re sent ing t h i s t he s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t ha t permiss ion f o r e x ten s i ve copying o f t h i s t he s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department o r by h i s r ep r e s en t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t he s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n pe rmi s s i on . Department of I S n g l i a t l  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada 0 a t e A p r i l 3 0 , 1971 ABSTRACT Gwyn Thomas, a Welshman from the Rhondda Val l e y i n i n d u s t r i a l South Wales, i s a contemporary writer whose contribution to Anglo-Welsh l i t e r a t u r e bridges the divergence between cultures. The emergence of Anglo-Welsh writers i s r e l a t i v e l y recent; and although these writers have no imposed homogeneity, no. shared defined purpose, they have i n common a generic q u a l i t y that i s recognizably that of the Welshman wr i t i n g i n English. C o l l e c t i v e l y , the Anglo-Welsh demonstrate t h e i r fundamental and r e a l experience of the a l i e n a t i n g e f f e c t s of i n d u s t r i a l i s m and a n g l i c i s -ation. The i n d u s t r i a l wasteland and l i n g u i s t i c schizophrenia are the shameful and inconsolable ce n t r a l wound i n South Wales. Gwyn Thomas demonstrates the e f f e c t s of i n d u s t r i a l i s m i n Merthyr and the Rhondda Va l l e y . In h i s novel, A l l Things Betray Thee, he recog-nizes the destructive and a l i e n a t i n g e f f e c t s of technological progress. In t h i s and other works, he speaks for the victims of economic depression, but transmutes the mean streets of i n d u s t r i a l v i l l a g e s into a world where there i s a r u r a l and green peace within echoing distance of the mountainous t i p s , a world where an a r t i c u l a t e , l y r i c a l , Puckish people, who were indigenous to Wales long before the expansion of Elizabethan England, are the counterpart to t h e i r r u r a l country-men. Gwyn Thomas exemplifies the i n v i n c i b l e s p i r i t of the people among whom he was born and grew to manhood,.arid with whom.he shares lineage t i e s with a l l Welshmen, whichever tongue they speak. In harmony with the precept that laughter ameliorates s u f f e r i n g , the humour of Thomas's characters annihilates t h e i r degradation. His j e s t e r ' s wit entertains and evokes laughter which, by v i r t u e of i t s con-t r a s t with h i s compassion and serious commerit, gives insight into the p i t y and the shame of a people's r e j e c t i o n and a land unmade. His a l l i t e r a t i v e , euphonious language, hi s v i v i d imagery and metaphor, his wit, perception and l y r i c i s m , derive from the people of Wales. He i s a poet of the i n d u s t r i a l v a l l e y s , and h i s voice i s true to Wales. His i s the generation of Anglo-Welsh writers who have established a new l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . TABLE OF CONTENTS' Page INTRODUCTION THE DRAGON'S TONGUES: WALES AND THE ANGLO-WELSH 1 Chapter I. PUDDLERS, PREACHERS AND.POLITICS . 18 I I . THE FEAST OF FOOLS . . . . .. . 3 3 I I I . SHADOWS OF MUTE DREAMS . . 51 IV. THE WHEELS OF THE JOURNEY 84 V. LAUGHTER IS THE COLOUR OF SAYING . 99 CONCLUSION GWYN THOMAS: A WELSH EYE AND AN ANGLO-WELSH TONGUE 105 NOTES I l l BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . • . . . 135 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I am deeply indebted to Professor John R. Doheny for the d i r e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s , and for h i s continued support of my studies i n t h i s f i e l d of l i t e r a t u r e . P r o f e s s o r s - D G . Stephens and I. S. Ross, of the Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, have given me invaluable assistance for which I am profoundly g r a t e f u l . For t h e i r assistance, i n t e r e s t and encouragement; I would thank Mr. Gwyn Thomas; Professor Trevor L. Williams of the Un i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia; Professor Ralph Maud of Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , B r i t i s h Columbia; Mr. Meic Stephens of the Welsh Arts Council; and Professor Gwyn Jones of Univ e r s i t y College, C a r d i f f . Mr. Edwin T. Phelps of L i v e r p o o l , England, has given generously of his time to obtain for me works of Gwyn Thomas no longer r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n North America. He also has given endless encouragement, and I thank him. To my patient, bemused, English-speaking f a m i l y — J u l i e , Alex arid Hugh—: 'Diolch yn fawr.' GWYN THOMAS AND THE EMERGENCE OF AN ANGLO-WELSH LITERARY TRADITION INTRODUCTION THE DRAGON'S TONGUES: WALES AND THE ANGLO-WELSH I am no Celt (or Celts say I am not). I, am no Saxon, that at least I know. -Richard Hughes, "Lament of a Trimmer" The Welshman b i l i n g u a l iri Welsh and English has been evident since f i r s t the a f f a i r s of Wales became affected by English i n f i l t r a t i o n . Expediency motivated the pr a c t i c e of intermarriage with the.English, par-t i c u l a r l y during the reign of Elizabeth I, a period of westward expansion"'" encompassing the p a c i f i c a t i o n of the Sco t t i s h border, the ass i m i l a t i o n of Cornwall and Wales, the b i t t e r and b r u t a l i z i n g conquest of Ireland, the struggle with Spain, and the settlement of the New World. At t h i s time i t was Welsh self-determination which was undermined and Welsh national-consciousness which arose from the threat to Welsh t r a d i -tions and i d e n t i t y . The early p r a c t i c e .of marriage of Welsh daughters with English invaders, however, has led to a weakening of the Welsh language; f o r , since the Act of Union of 1536, the necessity to learn Welsh increasingly has diminished:, peripheral geographical i n f i l t r a t i o n by monoglot English-speakers has caused the language to retreat from those areas; English borrowings—loan-words and idioms—have been introduced to f a c i l i t a t e communication; an increasing number of Welsh-speakers, who, having learned English, disdained to use Welsh, have served to undermine the 2 language. But i t was not u n t i l the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t the s i t u a t i o n became c r i t i c a l . The immediate e f f e c t s of the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n i n Wales were b e n e f i c i a l : t h e r e was an a p p r e c i a b l e improvement .in the s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g ; i n c r e a s e d w e a l t h p r o v i d e d f o r c h a p e l s and c i r c u l a t i n g s c h o o l s ; f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g f o r the e s t a b l i s h e d Welsh P r e s s i n c r e a s e d the p r i n t i n g o f Welsh language books ( i n c l u d i n g two e d i t i o n s of a ten-volume Welsh e n c y c l o p e d i a ) , . t h u s making books a v a i l a b l e t o a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e of the p o p u l a t i o n ; i t was a ready-made market, f o r the Welsh p e o p l e are e d u c a t i o n - l o v i n g , arid d e e p l y c o n s c i o u s of the power of l i t e r a t u r e . Con-s e q u e n t l y , t h i s p e r i o d of the l a s t c e n t u r y was one o f c o n s i d e r a b l e d e v e l o p -ment i n Welsh c u l t u r e and Welsh n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n p r o v i d e d work f o r a p e o p l e who might o t h e r w i s e have em i g r a t e d t o i n d u s -t r i a l E n gland. U n l i k e I r e l a n d ' s emigrants d u r i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l d e p r e s s i o n , the Welsh were p r o v i d e d w i t h r e m u n e r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s a t home: the m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s of Wales p r o v i d e d n a t i v e i n d u s t r i e s and much needed employment. But i f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n brought an i n c r e a s e i n w e a l t h and i t s a t t e n d a n t advantages, i t b r o u g h t , t o o , a v a s t i n c r e a s e i n non-Welsh s p e a k e r s , and an a c c e l e r a t i o n of s u b j u g a t i o n by.the E n g l i s h . With E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g management, E n g l i s h became c r u c i a l f o r those s e e k i n g employment. Monoglot Welsh-speakers now encouraged t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o speak the language which would g i v e them a p u r c h a s i n g power i n a competi-t i v e l a b o u r market.. E a r l y , the c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d the expedience of E n g l i s h usage, and many came t o s c o r n the language of t h e i r , p a r e n t s and t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e i r p a s t . In t h e p r e c e d i n g c e n t u r y J a c G l a n - y - g o r s gave 3 the b i t t e r l y s a t i r i c name of 'Die S i o n Dafydd' ( D i c k John David) to the Welsh c h i l d who d e n i e d h i s h e r i t a g e . In t h e modern age, the Welsh poet S a r r i i c o l (T. J . Thomas, 1873-1945) has e x p r e s s e d i n a b r i e f epigram about D i e S i o n Dafydd the Welsh p u r i s t ' s supreme contempt f o r men.such as D y l a n Thomas, Gwyn Thomas, and o t h e r s of t h e Anglo-Welsh: He s c o r n e d h i s l a n d , h i s tongue d e n i e d ; Nor Welsh n o r E n g l i s h , l i v e d and d i e d A b a s t a r d m u l e — h e made h i s own Each m u l i s h f a u l t , save one a l o n e : D i c k somehow g o t , t h a t p r i n c e of f o o l s , A v a s t , v i l e progeny of mules.? But, th e s p r e a d of E n g l i s h , speeded by the , i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n and i t s concomitant i n f l u x o f E n g l i s h speakers from elsewhere i n the B r i t i s h I s l e s , was i n e v i t a b l e . R e c a l l i n g h i s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d i n M e r t h y r where he was born i n 1884,.author J a c k Jones w r i t e s : The Welsh were i n a m i n o r i t y i n T a i - H a r r y - B l a w d , where they were mixed w i t h E n g l i s h , I r i s h and S c o t c h p e o p l e , whose f a t h e r s and' g r a n d f a t h e r s had been brought i n t o Wales by the o l d I r o n K i n g s . At f i r s t I knew o n l y Welsh from my p a r e n t s and g r a n d p a r e n t s , but as I went on p l a y i n g w i t h the S c o t t , . H a r t l e y , Ward and M c G i l l c h i l d r e n who c o u l d n ' t speak Welsh I became more f l u e n t i n , E n g l i s h than i n my n a t i v e language. Dad was annoyed when I s t a r t e d r e p l y i n g i n E n g l i s h to what he had s a i d i n Welsh, but our mam s a i d , i n Welsh: "Oh, l e t him a l o n e . What odds,.anyway?" " P l e n t y o f odds," dad s a i d . Our dad c o u l d r e a d a l i t t l e Welsh and E n g l i s h , s i n g Welsh and Eng-. l i s h songs, and speak i n b o t h l a n g u a g e s , but i t was Welsh he p r e f e r -r e d t o speak.3 Thus i t i s t h a t , w r i t i n g o f h i s c h i l d h o o d i n the Rhondda v a l l e y s i n the second and t h i r d decades of the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y , Gwyn Thomas s a y s : 4 We were not, i n terms of n a t i o n a l i t y , a homogeneous people. Into the v a l l e y s had poured as many Englishmen as indigenous Welsh. The only binding things were i n d i g n i t y and deprivation. The Welsh language stood i n the way of our f u l l e r union and we made ruthless haste to destroy i t . We nearly d i d . ^ The process of a n g l i c i z a t i o n to which i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n contributed was accelerated, "once more by an i n s t i t u t i o n which conferred, i n i t i a l l y , tremendous b e n e f i t . The Welsh Intermediate Schools Act of 1889 introduced for the f i r s t time state secondary school education. During the most . formative years of creative a b i l i t y , Welsh youth was brought into intimate contact with the l i t e r a t u r e of past and present, and learned the s k i l l s and techniques of syntax, structure and s t y l e . The younger generation, eager f o r knowledge, was soon undeceived. Compulsory school attendance was no hardship f o r children of a people who highly value education, and yet f o r the Welsh-speakers i t came to be so: for the Act required a l l i n s t r u c t i o n to be given i n English. So i t was that the Education>>Act served to alie n a t e the older children from t h e i r Welsh-speaking parents and younger members of the family attending elementary . schools where i n s t r u c t i o n was given i n Welsh. Because the language of adolescence i s most often the language of c r e a t i v i t y , i t i s i n English that many Welsh-men write. Related d i r e c t l y to the Education Act and i t s implementation, i s the emergence i n modern l i t e r a t u r e of Anglo-Welsh authors. And the schools which produced and continue to produce these w r i t e r s , have, too, educated the audience f o r whom t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e has meaning. Deriving from two such disparate parents, and resembling neither, i n i t s e l f the mule i s unique. The Anglo-Welsh write r i s unique; but, 5 unlike the mule, he displays t r a i t s derived from each culture which are recognizable and which can be i s o l a t e d . The Anglo-Welsh author i s w r i t -ing i n the.language of one culture from the experience of both. He,> l i k e the Dragon of Wales, has not one tongue but two: [Anglo-Welsh] writers belong l a r g e l y , by b i r t h and upbringing . . .. to Welsh, rather than to long-anglicized Wales; and t h e i r surnames in d i c a t e that they are not e i t h e r , most of them, the descendants of those immigrant English, S c o t t i s h and I r i s h of whatever class who have s e t t l e d i n t h e i r thousands i n Wales i n the l a s t centuries. They are i n fa c t :the products of a.highly democratic society, one i n which everyone who speaks Welsh tends to regard everyone else who speaks Welsh as a natural equal. This has given them the negative common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of not having the r e s u l t s of class discrimina-t i o n and consciousness among the constituents of t h e i r emotional stock-in trade.5 Anglo-Welsh authors are not a homogeneous body .having a common purpose, a defined philosophy, shared c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and each r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e with others, of a d i s c r e t e group. In "Y Llenorion E i n g l -Gymreig"^ (An Anglo-Welsh Write r ) , a c r i t i c a l . a r t i c l e i n the l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l T a l i e s i n , Glyn Jones describes h i s background and early l i f e as one of a Welsh speaking family. He r e f e r s to the confusion and contro-versy" 7 that have arisen from the term Anglo-Welsh, and defines i t c l e a r l y : very simply :, an Anglor-Welsh writer i s a Welshman w r i t i n g i n Wales, of Wales, through the medium of the English language. He i s Welsh by reason 8 of h i s n a t i v i t y , kindred, and a f f i n i t y with Wales. Almost without exception, the Anglo-Welsh are, the f i r s t generation of Welsh n a t i o n a l i t y to speak English as t h e i r f i r s t tongue. For many Anglo-Welsh the loss 9 of t h e i r language was v i r t u a l l y t o t a l . And whilst there i s no Anglo-Welsh school per se, and no declared aims or purpose to unite Anglo-Welsh 6 authors, t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e i s a dynamic creative movement i n the l i f e of Welsh society and i s an expression of that l i f e . Their atti t u d e to Wales and the Welsh language i s diverse. There are. those who are b i -l i n g u a l , but whose l i t e r a t u r e i s written i n E n g l i s h — L . Wyn G r i f f i t h , Gwyn Jones and R. S. Thomas, f o r instance. There are those whose adop-ti o n of English i n boyhood was a p r a c t i c a l necessity i n the i n d u s t r i a l v a l l e y s — J a c k Jones, Glyn Jones and Gwyn Thomas are three such a u t h o r s — and whose f a c i l i t y i n Welsh took second place as English became the language of t h e i r imagination.' Diverse i n purpose arid point of view, each of these writers has an i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e ; Jack Jones on the one hand, and Gwyn Thomas on the other, exemplify t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . " ^ As a class of writers they have achieved a reputation f o r t h e i r seriousness of purpose, t h e i r industry and p r o l i f i c output."'""'" Nonconformist i n t h e i r r e l i g i o n , r a d i c a l i n t h e i r p o l i t i c s , these writers are nonetheless very d i f f e r e n t from one another. The only forum for the discussion of the problems of being an Anglo-Welsh write r i s provided by t h e i r l i t e r a r y 12 journals. In general, the Welsh-speaking authors, w r i t i n g i n either English or Welsh, come from r u r a l Wales and an a g r i c u l t u r a l environment; the English-speaking writers come from the i n d u s t r i a l and urban Special 13 Area. They emerge from two mutually exclusive cultures: the wr i t i n g of the former derives from "a community which s t i l l bears the marks of a t r a d i t i o n , a continuity of language and function," i n a pasto r a l s e t t i n g and.a parochial atmosphere; the work of the l a t t e r reveals, " i n varying degrees, the break with t h i s t r a d i t i o n and an attempt to come to terms 14 with an a l i e n mode of l i f e — c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r i a l i s m . " 7 I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Anglo-Welsh l i t e r a t u r e holds i t s own i n the English-speaking world."'""' In Is there an Anglo-Welsh Li t e r a t u r e ? (1939), Saunders Lewis i s disturbed that Anglo-Welsh w r i t i n g "enriches the English imagination and l i t e r a r y s e n s i b i l i t y " rather than the Welsh."^ This at once establishes the fact of i t s di f f e r e n c e from English l i t e r a -ture, and i t s a f f i n i t y with Wales; evaluates i t s contribution to English culture, and the loss to Welsh; and recognizes i t s achievement i n a wide arena i n un i v e r s a l terms, and the concomitant erosion of Welsh l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n , denuded from within. However j u s t i f i e d these fears may be, we are concerned here only with the contribution the Anglo-Welsh have made to English l i t e r a t u r e . In the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of The Welsh Review, Gwyn Jones ref e r s to these writers who, though not intent on i n t e r p r e t i n g Wales to the remainder of B r i t a i n , nevertheless give i n s i g h t into and understanding of Wales and her people to the outside w o r l d . ^ The Anglo-Welsh write r i s dismissed by.the Welsh c r i t i c , who scorns the work of one who has betrayed h i s heritage and embraced the language of an a l i e n culture. The Welsh p u r i s t accepts as Welsh only that l i t e r a t u r e which i s written i n Welsh; and thus, f o r him, i t i s axio-matic that a Welshman writes i n Welsh. A Welshman w r i t i n g i n English i s regarded as having gone* over to the English and i t i s assumed that h i s work w i l l embrace English l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n ; a l l that i s d i f f e r e n t from Welsh t r a d i t i o n w i l l be att r i b u t e d to English or American influence. In A History of Welsh L i t e r a t u r e , translated by S i r Harold I d r i s B e l l , Professor Parry's only reference to Anglo-Welsh l i t e r a t u r e i s a case.in point. C r i t i c i s i n g the work of Geraint D y f n a l l t , Parry writes: 8 The author, perhaps taking his cue, with no happy r e s u l t s , from cer-t a i n of the Anglo-Welsh w r i t e r s , seems bent on keeping h i s readers' attention c o n t i n u a l l y on the stretch.. His s t y l e i s tense, s e l f -conscious, and rather precious.. . . .18 When l i s t i n g republications of early prose c l a s s i c s Parry writes: Reference may also be made here to . . . a new t r a n s l a t i o n , with valuable introduction, of the Mabinogian by Gwyn Jones and Thomas Jones ... . which,,though i n English, i s mentioned here because the t r a n s l a t i o n was made from a new c r i t i c a l text. . . .19 It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that Professor Gwyn Jones (of the Un i v e r s i t y of Wales, C a r d i f f ) , an Anglo-Welsh scholar, l i t e r a r y c r i t i c and author, has no other mention i n Parry's History, despite the mastery of h i s f i r s t language, Welsh, as demonstrated i n t r a n s l a t i n g a c r i t i c a l text founded on two of the Four Ancient Books,of Wales. It i s of greater s i g n i f i c a n c e that t h i s t r i b u t e to Professor Jones's scholarship at once establishes his competence and, by inference, deprecates the language i n which t h i s i s displayed. But i f the Anglo-Welsh author i s considered by the Welsh to be 20 " l o s t to the En g l i s h " he i s not recognized as "one of us" by the l i t e r a r y c r i t i c across the border. D i f f e r e n t from the English norm i n expression, s t y l e , idiom, subject matter and treatment, the Anglo-Welsh work frequently confounds the c r i t i c a l f a c u l t i e s of the English reviewer. The Anglo-Welsh author i s a new breed; he f i t s into no one category, belongs to no recognized l i t e r a r y movements, no avant-garde group of wri t e r s , and, as i n the instance of Gwyn Thomas, i s compared v a r i o u s l y to "Chaucer, Dickens, Compton-Burnett, Shaw, Runyan, Swift, Aristophanes, 9 Thomas Love Peacock, Evelyn Waugh, Balzac, Wodehouse, D. H. Lawrence, 21 Rabelais, Hardy, Wells, Arnold Bennett and Dylan Thomas." It i s evident, then, that a Welshman wr i t i n g i n English w i l l be judged as an English w r i t e r , and h i s work w i l l be submitted to t r i e d and tested values, to that "measuring s t i c k f o r excellence . . . that same remorseless and unregional f l a i l which has thrashed and winnowed English 22 l i t e r a t u r e throughout the centuries." The English c r i t i c whose judge-ment may be impaired by the force of Welsh r h e t o r i c and whose eulogy or invective derives from his ignorance of the generic form of expression throughout Anglo-Welsh w r i t i n g , f a i l s to evaluate those,qualities which make a work e s s e n t i a l l y Welsh. No Anglo-Welsh write r can l e t i t be said that he writes English 23 "very w e l l — f o r a foreigner." Yet for many, whose f i r s t language was Welsh, mastery of English, the s t i p u l a t e d language of i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l secondary schools, was a p a i n f u l process. As Richard Llewellyn writes i n How Green Was My Val l e y , English grammar and composition i s d i f f i c u l t even for the English, but worse and worse f o r a.Welsh boy. He speaks, reads, writes, and he thinks i n Welsh, at home, i n the s t r e e t , and i n Chapel, and when he reads English he w i l l understand i t i n Welsh, and when he speaks English he w i l l pronounce the words with pain and using crutches. So stupid are the English, who b u i l d schools f o r the Welsh, and i n s i s t , on pain of punishment, that,English i s to be spoken, and yet,' for a l l t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e , never give one lesson i n the pronouncing and enunciation of the spoken word.^4 The e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between Welsh and Anglo-Welsh l i t e r a t u r e l i e s i n the Welsh use of t h e i r own language of communication f o r l i t e r a r y pur-25 poses; a "Welsh Wales remains . . . and almost untouched," and the 10 Welsh are i n i m i c a l i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards any who would penetrate t h e i r way of l i f e . B. I f o r Evans writes: The l i f e of the Celt i s ultimately a secret l i f e . He wishes to hide himself from the world. He quite often wishes to hide himself from himself. He i s not prepared to share that secret, p a r t i c u l a r l y with anyone from over the border. The great merit of English l i t e r a t u r e has been that i t has been able to absorb i n the sociable way of the English,, elements from the Welsh, the I r i s h and the S c o t t i s h . The Welsh, f or better or for worse, have not got that power. It i s i n part a parochialism, and i t , i s i n part a mysticism. In part i t i s a d i s b e l i e f i n the material world, and along with a d i s b e l i e f i n i t , a d i s t r e s s i n i t s appearance.26 The Welsh do not wish to be interpreted.to the English, f o r i m p l i c i t i n t h i s i s a sense of being disparaged or patronized. The Anglo-Welsh, on the other hand, recognize the a l i e n a t i o n within Wales and know that i t derives from the centuries of i n d u s t r i a l i s m . Their voice has penetrated the C e l t i c f r i n g e , not merely with the t r a g i c power of the p l i g h t of the v a l l e y s , but with "the innate humour.which i s an i n d e s t r u c t i b l e part of 27 the C e l t i c l i f e . " And t h i s i s manifest i n the.work.of Gwyn Thomas, r e a l i z i n g the hopeful a n t i c i p a t i o n of B. I f o r Evans: . . . I should l i k e to see a closer.union of t h i s secret Welsh s p i r i t with England. I should l i k e to. see i t s expression i n English l i t e r -ature. . . . S t i l l , creative writers can overcome these b a r r i e r s , and i t may we l l be that some writer of the Anglo.-Welsh t r a d i t i o n w i l l be able to.capture some of t h i s s p i r i t of Wales and transfer i t into the English language, which, a f t e r a l l , i s the nearest thing to a univers a l language that we possess today.28 But, and never l e t i t be forgotten: These Anglo-Welsh writers are indeed only j u s t Anglo; they are Welsh, and Anglo as i t were, by the skin of t h e i r teeth.29 11 And t h e i r Welsh c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are dependent on Wales r e t a i n i n g h e r language. T h i s i s demonstrated i n the e x p e r i e n c e of G l y n Jones: U n t i l I was t w e n t y - f i v e I had taken no s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t . i n Wales o r Welsh. . . . I l i v e d i n a s o r t o f i s o l a t i o n , so obsessed w i t h my own problems and w i t h the modern E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e I was r e a d i n g t h a t I w a s , q u i t e i n d i f f e r e n t t o the atmosphere and a c t i v i t i e s o f the Welsh • community t o which my p a r e n t s b e l o n g e d . The c o m b i n a t i o n of i g n o r a n c e and a r r o g a n c e i s a guarantee of i n s e n s i t i v e n e s s , but i n time I began t o know some of the young Welshmen and Welshwomen . . . and t h e i r proud Welshness a f f e c t e d me p r o f o u n d l y . . . . I began i n time to f i n d i t i n t o l e r a b l e t h a t I s h o u l d be a Welshman, l i v i n g i n Wales,, and y e t i g n o r a n t of my Welsh h e r i t a g e , the f i r s t i n a seemingly end-l e s s f a m i l y d e s c e n t who was unable t o speak the language of my a n c e s t o r s , and so e x c l u d e d from the Welsh community.30 He r e - l e a r n e d the language he had i g n o r e d f o r twenty y e a r s , and began w r i t i n g l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l i s m i n Welsh. He gave a r a d i o t a l k f o r Welsh-language l i s t e n e r s , and r e g a i n e d competence i n h i s mother-tongue. But h i s attempts to w r i t e c r e a t i v e l y i n Welsh as he had i n E n g l i s h were a b o r t i v e : the language of a d o l e s c e n c e c o n t i n u e d t o be t h a t o f h i s c r e a -t i v e l i t e r a t u r e : . . . e v e r y l i n e o f p o e t r y t h a t has a r i s e n unsought and u n e x p e c t e d l y i n my mind, the words of e v e r y image and d e s c r i p t i o n , almost e v e r y b e a u t i f u l and s t r i k i n g i n d i v i d u a l word; have a l l been E n g l i s h . I , and those Anglo-Welsh w r i t e r s brought up i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s s i m i l a r t o mine, c e r t a i n l y d i d not r e j e c t the Welsh language. On the c o n t r a r y the Welsh language r e j e c t e d us. T h i s i s t r u e even of those who a r e d e e p l y c o n s c i o u s of and l o v e our Welsh h e r i t a g e . 3 1 32 L o s s of one's language means e v e n t u a l . c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n . The f e a r s and f r u s t r a t i o n s o f the Welsh p a r a l l e l t h o s e of F r e n c h Canadians who need the language of t h e i r h e r i t a g e , f o r i t i s f u s e d i n e x t r i c a b l y w i t h t h e i r way o f l i f e , t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s , mores, and e x p r e s s e s t h e i r v e r y 12 soul: "Self-determination i s for major i t i e s ; nationhood drags ethnic min-33 o r i t i e s i n i t s t r a i n . " I t i s my purpose to demonstrate through the work of Gwyn Thomas how s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n i s exemplified i n Anglo-Welsh l i t e r a t u r e . It w i l l be shown that despite the fact of Welsh predominance i n Wales, the English have•alienated the Welsh, a minority group i n a p l u r a l society having a cen t r a l government i n England. • • • • • Professor Gwyn.Jones has stated that Gwyn Thomas writes English as he speaks i t , and has perfected h i s s t y l e , h i s v a r i a t i o n s from the English norm, so that i t i s "one of the most personal idioms possessed 34 by any l i v i n g w r i t e r . . . ." With the exception of The Love Man, a novel whose s e t t i n g i s Spain, and whose theme i s the persecution of Don Juan when he i s past h i s youth but s t i l l possessed of the courage that makes him indomitable, of the s p i r i t that mocks h i s captive body and decl i n i n g years, Gwyn ThomasVs work has as i t s unifying theme the people of the South Wales i n d u s t r i a l v a l l e y s . Gwyn Thomas's spontaneity of wit and metaphor, h i s sense of human freedom, h i s underlying i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the 'voters' whose antics are comic and t r a g i c both, create i n h i s work a s t y l e that i s e n t i r e l y i n d i v i d u a l . His f e l i c i t y of speech and idiom, and h i s f l u i d i t y of na r r a t i v e , give a flavour and a raciness to hi s s t y l e that are unmistakably the voice of the Welshman speaking i n English: speaking the language into which English has been transformed i n the process of i t s adoption. The Welsh have adapted i t to meet the 13 imagery and vibrance, l y r i c i s m and f l u i d rhythm of t h e i r native and more ancient tongue. Gwyn Thomas,.as do Chaucer and Swift, writes of a time-determined, age; and his characters, as t h e i r s , are created from the imagination of one who i s conditioned by h i s nature and philosophy to reveal the irony of t h e i r world. The time and the place are, i n his w r i t i n g , p e c u l i a r to South Wales; but the characters are placed i n si t u a t i o n s which are u n i -ve r s a l , , and i t i s t h i s f actor which extends h i s audience even to those who have no f a m i l i a r i t y with the background to h i s stage; and s u f f i c i e n t h i s t o r i c a l , geographical, s o c i a l , and economic d e t a i l s are contained i n the pages of the autobiographical A Few Selected E x i t s and A Welsh Eye to remedy any confusion a r i s i n g from elements remote i n the distance of time or place or experience; These two works are the touchstone of h i s art . Like any complete work whose.components are inter-dependent and from which a unity evolves to f u l f i l the primary concern and c r i t e r i o n of a r t , the work of Gwyn Thomas has, as i t s reason for being, the people of the v a l l e y , the world into which he was born: The mind, the body move i n shrinking c i r c l e s . My being has.never edged more than a few inscrutable inches from the kitchen of the house where I l i v e d as a boy, a teeming and tempestuous place, cocoon of myths and spinning a b s u r d i t i e s . From i t s seemingly always open door we had a mountain i n view. It was c a l l e d Arthur's Crown. Once long ago we had a sad and noble king c a l l e d Arthur. This mountain had a sad and noble, shape. Se we c a l l e d i t Arthur's Crown.35 And here, where there are places where the " a i r and the grass are a 14 matching v e l v e t 1 ' i s t h e c o r e of h i s b e i n g and the p l a c e of h i s h e a r t : The whole day had been a t h r o n e of sweet s e n s a t i o n s . The walk over the mountain-top had been e x q u i s i t e , the a i r and t h e g r a s s a match- . i n g v e l v e t . We had meat and wine i n the d i n i n g room [of the F o u n t a i n I n n ] . We were i n a f i n e , r a r e mood of a b d i c a t i o n . We t a l k e d of the f u t i l i t y o f power and spoke w i t h r e l i s h o f Edward I I who had been b e t r a y e d , c a p t u r e d i n a d i n g l e nearby and t r u n d l e d t o some E n g l i s h F o r t r e s s , t h e r e t o be abominably e x e c u t e d . So we had been t o l d by our t e a c h e r i n the p r i m a r y s c h o o l whose a u t h o r i t y was t o t a l , and who had compiled a b u l g i n g d o s s i e r on l o c a l t r e a c h e r i e s . The i n n f i l l e d up w i t h a r u s h . I t was a v i s i t by the whole o f . Pendyrus Male Voice, C h o i r , s i n g e r s of m a t c h l e s s p a s s i o n from L i t t l e Rhondda. . . . Then, the midsummer dusk o u t - s t a n d i n g , [the c h o i r ] sang one of the l o v e l i e s t o f , t h e q u i e t c a r o l s . The n i g h t put on a cap of g o l d . I was home, at my e a r t h ' s warm c e n t r e . The s c a r e d monkey was back i n t h e branches of h i s b e s t - l o v e d t r e e . I've n e v e r had any t r u l y p a s s i o n a t e w i s h t o be elsewhere.36 As i s t r u e of a l l h i s w r i t i n g , Gwyn Thomas's language, l i k e t h a t of Anglo-Welsh w r i t e r s as a group,, i s "a language . . . h a v i n g a rhythm 37 of i t s own, e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from the E n g l i s h over the B o r d e r . " H i s c h a r a c t e r s speak w i t h h i s own f l u e n c y of metaphor,.his own a r t i c u l a t e e x p r e s s i o n . In The Dark P h i l o s o p h e r s t h e p h i l o s o p h e r s who meet at Idomeneo's p o s s e s s . t h e i r c r e a t o r ' s l o v e of .opera, and h i s humanist . p h i l -osophy o f l o v e and l o y a l t y t o t h o s e of courage and endurance. The p r a c t i c e o f l o v i n g k i n d n e s s i n t h e s e unemployed i s no mawkish r o m a n t i c i s m . T h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n th e a f f a i r s of o t h e r s r e s u l t s i n g r i e f f o r t h e i r f r i e n d W i l l i e and p r e c i p i t a t e s the death of the Reverend Emmanuel P r e e s . But, as W a l t e r s a y s , "How e l s e would you want i t ? How e l s e c o u l d i t 38 be?" The Reverend P r e e s had s t i l l e d h i s c o n s c i e n c e and s i l e n c e d h i s p r e a c h i n g a g a i n s t the b r u t a l i z i n g c o n d i t i o n s . i n the c o l l i e r i e s 15 and the poor housing and poverty of the people, to become i n the p u l p i t the compliant and gentle echo of h i s benefactor, the managing d i r e c t o r of the c o l l i e r y . Mr. Dalbie, a man who stored h i s p i t y , l i k e h i s coal and h i s wood, for h i s own comfort, received the dividends from h i s investment i n Emmanuel when t h i s erstwhile crusader, who "rang the b e l l 39 i n h i s surveys of s o c i a l conditions," suffered a stroke and was per-suaded to return to the p u l p i t preaching submission. The philosophers, John, the narrator of the story, and h i s f r i e n d s , Walter, Ben and Arthur, know that the "strongest f i b r e i n the people who struggled through the 40 years of the depression has been a sense of p i t y and comradeship." This f i b r e has often been betrayed and strained, "but i t has never been broken."4"'" The irony of W i l l i e ' s expectations of l i f e and t h e i r contrast with the r e a l i t y of the l i v e s of the four philosophers, h i s f r i e n d s , i s made e x p l i c i t when he says, earnestly, "I am looking forward . . . to my 42 future as a voter;" and we l i s t e n to the thoughts of these experienced voters: We cursed within our minds the s t e r i l e cold loneliness we had l i v e d i n f o r many years . . . and we thought sorrowfully of a l l those many voters l y i n g around about us who had been made numb and stupid by poverty, dead even to the di v i n e s t beauty created by man.43 Of these dark philosophers, the Reverend Emmanuel says: You held the post that I abandoned. Your minds are the bridge be-tween myself and the past I wish to return to.44 And the Reverend Emmanuel does redeem himself even as he has wished. How else could i t be? In t h i s novel Gwyn Thomas celebrates "the radiance and 16 goodness,.. . . brightness of tongue and heart, and almost witless 45 idealism of the people of the Rhondda Valley.". In The Alone 16 the  Alone,when love comes to Eurona, once again Walter, Ben and Arthur with t h e i r f r i e n d , through whose persona'the narrative i s t o l d , involve them-selves i n the attempt to, achieve happiness for others. Gwyn Thomas transmutes the world of steep and mean s t r e e t s , the Terraces, into a world of philosophers, s i t t i n g on a hard, stone w a l l , t r y i n g to resolve the i n e x p l i c a b l e and unexplained paradoxes and passions i n man. "Invoking the, mercy of God and the wisdom of Lenin i n a worsen-46 ing world," they go to the aid of those, who, no more than they, are victims of the v a l l e y ' s depression. The author speaks for the i n v i n c i b l e s p i r i t of h i s people, and restores to them the humour and di g n i t y that the Assistance Board, the Means Test, and the c h a r i t y organizations such as the New Age group have tended to degrade. His s a t i r e , when directed against the crass ignorance of governments and s o c i a l workers who treat people as s t a t i s t i c s , . i s as sharp as the swords of Toledo. But he com-p l i e s with the i n j u n c t i o n engraved .on those old weapons, for he draws i t not without cause, and sheathes i t not without honour. He presents the case f o r "the hopeful, the decent and a r t i c u l a t e among the u n d e r p r i v i -leged," for the "casualties of stupid g o v e r n m e n t , a n d does so with a humility that rests on h i s seat on the w a l l with h i s voters, h i s presence i n the cage with the victims. There are times when Gwyn Thomas evokes a response exactly i n accord with h i s C e l t i c monk: "This i s i t . My . . . heart t e l l [ s ] me. 48 . . ." It i s then that Thomas's l i t e r a r y competence i s transmuted and 17 becomes g r e a t . I n A l l T h i n g s B e t r a y Thee i t c r e a t e s a work o f a r t . R i l k e has w r i t t e n t h a t Works o f a r t a r e of an i n f i n i t e l o n e l i n e s s and w i t h n o t h i n g so l i t t l e t o be r e a c h e d as w i t h c r i t i c i s m . O n l y l o v e can g r a s p and h o l d and be j u s t toward them.49 O n l y l o v e o f h i s v a l l e y and i t s p e o p l e c o u l d have g i v e n Gwyn Thomas t h e i n s i g h t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . t h a t c a p t u r e t h e i r e s s e n c e and p l e a d , t h e i r c ause. I n f l u e n c e d by t h e u r g e n c y of t h e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e South Welsh v a l l e y s , he d e m o n s t r a t e s , i n s t o r i e s s u c h as " O s c a r , " i n Where D i d I Put My P i t y ? , t h a t s o c i e t y i s r e p r e s s e d and r e p r e s s i v e , • b u t t h a t man's atte m p t t o a m e l i o r a t e h i s s u f f e r i n g d e r i v e s . f r o m h i s c a p a c i t y t o meet, a d v e r s i t y . L o v e — i n t h e g e n e r a l sense o f s h a r i n g l i f e w i t h o t h e r s , o f f e e l i n g as s e n s i t i v e l y f o r o t h e r s as we do f o r o u r s e l v e s - — i s t h e most dynamic q u a l i t y i n h i s c h a r a c t e r s ; i t n e g a t e s t h e s u f f e r i n g o f t h e s e f o l k and becomes t h e summum bonum o f t h e Rhondda. D e r i v i n g f r o m t h e South Wales i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , h i s t a l e s have l i n e a g e t i e s ^ w i t h , t h e f o l k t a l e s o f p r e - i n d u s t r i a l t r a d i t i o n . Gwyn Thomas i s w r i t i n g o f a p e o p l e who a r e a s y n t h e s i s o f a l l t h a t i s i m p l i c i t i n t h e t e r m Welsh: c u l t u r e , e n v i r o n m e n t , h i s t o r y , t r a d i t i o n , and l a n g u a g e — f o r t h e E n g l i s h spoken by a Welshman i s n o t ; t h e tongue of t h e E n g l i s h . Gwyn Thomas's language i s E n g l i s h , but- i t i s t h e lan g u a g e of a r e f l e c t i n g m i r r o r , n o t o f one t h a t d i s t o r t s . CHAPTER I PUDDLERS, PREACHERS AND POLITICS As Gwyn Thomas has s a i d , the story of the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of , South Wales "has become a loathsome thing."^ Emerging from the cauldron of i n d u s t r i a l ferment, c i v i l i z a t i o n — L i n terms of nineteenth-century B r i t i s h expansionist policy—was the death-blow to a r u r a l society whose f o l k i n d u s t r i e s were contained within the s o c i a l pattern of a close com-munity of widely scattered neighbourly f a m i l i e s . T r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l i n c r e a t i v i t y , and enjoyment of the music of words, of s t o r y - t e l l i n g , songs and singing, i n s p i r e d i n every son a c h a u v i n i s t i c attachment to the land of h i s Fathers, h i s language, and h i s l e i s u r e d way.of l i f e . Increasing encroachment around t h e i r .borders had pushed the Welsh further into t h e i r mountain v a l l e y s , and had been the cause of continued suspicion of the English: Ever since the great b a t t l e s i n the North, and Midlands of England that sent us haring towards Cardigan Bay, we have f e l t that east of Chepstow, Ross, Shrewsbury, stood 1 a b a l e f u l and v i o l e n t moron, as ready to clobber us with penury i n t h i s century as he was to do i t with battle-axes i n the time of the Welsh princes..2 Here, i n the Glamorgan h i l l s , was one of the l a s t strongholds of the Welsh way of l i f e . I t was i n these mountains that Caratacus, the legendary Caradoc, took refuge with the S i l u r e s during h i s nine-year rampage against 3 the Romans. In country so i d e a l for g u e r i l l a t a c t i c s , . h e was a constant thorn i n the invading side. Long were the Welsh t r i b e s to remain 19 unconquered, even a f t e r Caradoc's b e t r a y a l , capture and eventual release with a free pardon. In A Welsh Eye, Gwyn Thomas notes that "the f a r , bloody past has 4 taken on a second wind with the r i s e of the N a t i o n a l i s t s . " In h i s remi-niscences he writes with a sympathetic understanding underlying h i s c r i t i c i s m of Welsh Nationalism: A large part of my childhood was dominated by as rip e a specimen of Welsh chauvinist as ever I met. His surname had a s l i g h t l y English overtone and he preferred to be known by h i s given name, Caradoc. He wore a heavy moustache which we thought he had modelled on that of Lloyd George,'but he told,us that i t was i d e n t i c a l with that he had seen worn by Welsh nobles i n a painting of the court of Howel Dda. He was a.short man with a stoop. The stoop came from having spent many years walking up the Rhondda h i l l s brooding about the English.^ And i t i s through the eyes of tolerant childhood that we see Caradoc un-f o l d h i s namesake's l a s t b a t t l e : At l e a s t once a week, for as long as he was our teacher i n the prim-ary school, Caradoc would desert the simpler d i s c i p l i n e s of the class-room and give us a summary of Wale's bloody past and threaten-ing present. . . . When Caradoc came to the Romans his s t y l e became slower and more coherent. He made a production of the l a s t b a t t l e of Caratacus. He did not give the great S i l u r i a n chief h i s B r i t i s h name, Caradoc, because he could see that since he bore that name himself we would be b a f f l e d . He explained to us about the testudo, the advance of the Romans beneath a v i r t u a l carapace of upraised s h i e l d s . He got ten of us to fashion b i j o u shields of papiermache. He himself would stand on a chair with a wooden sword, impersonating Caratacus and h i s be-leaguered force. He did good work with h i s sword. He would shatter the shields and the lesson would end with f i r s t - a i d being given to four or f i v e stunned l e g i o n a r i e s , while Caradoc intoned, 'I have shown you what i t should have been l i k e , had j u s t i c e been done to the f i r e of S i l u r i a n pride. But i n r e a l l i f e i t was not l i k e that. The testudo did i t s f e l l work. Roman blood flowed i n r i v e r s but the testudo did not break. Caratacus was betrayed by Cartismandua, wife 20 of the king of the Brigantes, a woman of infamous record.' Caradoc was a b i t t e r bachelor and i f there was a woman of infamous record anywhere i n the annals he would manage to bring her i n . Caratacus was taken captive i n chains to Rome. And Caradoc would stand erect, stroking h i s moustache, f a i n t l y smiling.. Then he looked the Roman Emperor r i g h t i n the eye and made the speech that moved the Roman Senate to clemency. I think Caradoc made a bigger thing of h i s speech than did Caratacus. If the ancient Briton had c a r r i e d on for as long as Caradoc the Senators would have had him thrown to the l i o n s j u s t to get back to t h e i r debauchery. Very often the headmaster of the school, a d i s t r a c t e d and s i l e n t man, would look through a small window at these performances. But he did not i n t e r f e r e . There was a teacher shortage at the time and he had no wish to probe.6 If "History glowed through Caradoc to a point where he ceased to be a teaching man i n a b r i c k school i n a broken town and one saw only a skeleton of remembrance,"^ i t l i v e s i n the words of h i s one-time p u p i l , who, though aware that the p a t r i o t i c fervour of N a t i o n a l i s t s embraces a dream of,a Wales that never was, nonetheless treats of the past which led to that dream with a l o y a l , i f i r o n i c , Welsh eye: . . . time and again the h i l l s i d e s seem to s t i r once more with the hosts of f i e r c e , dark-faced men on t h e i r way to. j o i n t h e i r leader for a l a s t r a i s i n g of the f i s t s against the i n c l o s i n g trap of English brain and muscle. The English trained on us. 1 By the time they had us r e e l i n g wall-eyed around Snowdon and asking for the sponge i n both languages, they were ready for Scotland, Ireland and P a t r i c k Henry.8 The Danes, who "stormed up the beach at Llantwit i n the eighth century" disturbed the peace that had s e t t l e d oh the place that i n the fourth and f i f t h centuries, before the coming of the Anglo-Saxons, "was one of the world's most eminent centres of l e a r n i n g . " It was a place to which "Princes came from every corner of Europe to s i t at the feet of the 9 early schoolmen.'1 21 The Norman conquerors b u i l t c a s t l e townswhich established i n Wales the f i r s t urban centres. Some.prospered; some declined, when too fa r removed from scattered hamlets to provide the services required by a r u r a l community. Some of these moribund towns, by v i r t u e of t h e i r a c c e s s i b i l i t y , were to draw re v i v i n g sustenance from the very d i s i n t e -gration of the South Wales v a l l e y s : The Normans came i n from the sea and coal came down from the h i l l s . The coal made more money than the Normansy and a gaggle of cottages around a c a s t l e became a c i t y which has at l a s t managed to get i t s e l f recognized as the c a p i t a l of Wales.10 As with the monastic C e l t i c Church, the Norman c a s t l e was b u i l t before a settlement developed i n close proximity. Only when church or c a s t l e was s i t e d favourably, on r i c h s o i l or at the junction of much t r a v e l l e d routes, did e i t h e r a t t r a c t s e t t l e r s . The Welsh landscape.is dotted with i s o l a t e d churches, miles from the nearest cottage, farm or v i l l a g e ; and i t f a i r l y abounds i n c a s t l e ruins: These Welsh castle s never f a i l to give the h i s t o r i c a l fancy a kick. Most of them are a low,-defensive mutter i n an a l i e n hating land. Time and r u i n have brought them a pathos of peace.H We have a l o t of them and most of them merit a long look. The Normans, put a great stone rump down on us, for we were a r e s t l e s s l o t , always ready to come storming out of the h i l l s to break our teeth and hearts against the nearest English bastion.- I t only took someone with a strong, buzzing Norman name l i k e Fitzhugh or Fitzherbert to b u i l d a protective wall and i n le s s time than i t takes to shout 'Ymlaen' (forward) that w a l l was e i t h e r warped or was being warmed by.our bodies. But some of the stone stuck, and the cast l e s rose i n a land of scurry-ing, whispering, frowning f o l k who led v e s t i g i a l l i v e s i n the distant h i l l s u n t i l an Owen Glyndwr or a Prince Llewellyn or.some other Welsh leader, sang out once more and raised the banners for yet another bloody fling.12 • 22 C a s t e l l Coch,,Red C a s t l e , on the banks o f the T a f f r i v e r , was b u i l t on the s i t e of t h e f o r t r e s s o f I f o r Bach ( L i t t l e I v o r ) , "a bow-legged b a t t l e r , a master o f ambush who kept the n e r v e s o f the Normans s c a l l o p e d . " Gwyn Thomas c o n t i n u e s w i t h the s t o r y o f I f o r and h i s men t u n n e l l i n g t h e i r way from C a s t e l l C o c h . i n t o C a r d i f f C a s t l e , "a long,enough j o u r n e y even on a m u n i c i p a l bus," to r e s c u e h i s abducted b r i d e ; and o f the Norman o v e r -l o r d ' s c o u n t e r - a t t a c k which sent I f o r t o cover i n the Rhondda h i l l s . I f o r ' s beacons had burned f o r f i f t y m i l e s around t o summon h i s f r i e n d s ; , and when the " c a v a l c a d e o f v i n d i c t i v e w a r r i o r s c l a n k e d up i n t o the moun-• t a i n s a f t e r him" t h e y were ambushed. "The arrows of the h i l l m e n poured down. The f a c t o f death was g r e a t i n the v a l l e y and the t e a r s of the Norman women were deep." But, "more Normans came more r u t h l e s s and wary. I f o r p e r i s h e d . . H i s f o r t r e s s was destroyed.""'' 4 In B r i t a i n f o r many y e a r s a t o o t h p a s t e m a n u f a c t u r e r has used an a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n which a c a s t l e i s d e p i c t e d g u a r d i n g a g a i n s t decay. Gwyn Thomas sees t h e i r o n y o f C a s t e l l Coch i n t h i s a n alogy: . . . C a s t e l l Coch . . . r i s e s s u d denly from the t r e e s . I t s sugges-t i o n o f a t o o t h p a s t e ad chimes o d d l y w i t h the f a c t - t h a t i t stands on the t h r e s h o l d o f v a l l e y s made c a r i o u s w i t h i n d u s t r i a l r e f u s e . 1 5 T h i s i s the l a n d s c a p e . o f M e r t h y r , Rhondda and the V a l l e y s , a drama i n c o n t r a s t s . I t i s a t M e r t h y r t h a t the i n d u s t r i a l saga b e g i n s ; b u t , s i n c e the r e g i o n ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n were the r e a s o n f o r i t s i n d u s t r i a l development, i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o b e g i n a t t h e c o a s t w i t h C a r d i f f . 23 But C a r d i f f , to a l l but a few Welshmen, i s the c i t y . • The whole sweep of the south-east Glamorgan landscape around i t has a magic pattern. Northward from C a r d i f f , l i k e the fingers of a bruised hand, shoot the great v a l l e y s that would have produced, given a l i t t l e more atten-t i o n and a l o t l e s s r a i n , a culture of b r i l l i a n t v i t a l i t y . One h a l f of C a r d i f f i s the l i f e that streams into i t from the northern h i l l s . For m i l l i o n s of children from the Rhondda C a r d i f f has been the nerve-end of a l l d e l i g h t , the glare at the end-of the tunnel, t h e i r f i r s t contact with a w e l l - l i t urbanity, the f i r s t v i s i b l e evidence of wealth and. ease. 16 The t r i b u t a r i e s Rhondda Fach and Rhondda Fawr and the Cynon flow into the T a f f , which has i n the open basin at i t s valley-head the town-ship of Merthyr T y d f i l . This region of the c o a l f i e l d — t h e Valleys,, as i t i s known—is an area whose natural boundaries, c u l t u r a l heritage, and economic development make i t an organic unity. 'The Rhondda' i s an a l l -embracing term for the v a l l e y s of the t r i b u t a r i e s of that name. From C a r d i f f to Merthyr, through Rhondda. and.the V a l l e y s , i n d u s t r i a l i s m was to change the face of the r i c h cprnland and mountain scenery with " a i r aromatic with wild flowers and mountain p l a n t s . F o r now, . Come up towards the Rhondda f rom L l a n t r i s a n t . The h i l l s grow less gentle. The f i e l d s lose grace and lushness. The f i r s t coal t i p s s i t f l a t l y on torn slopes. Black pyramids set up. by nimble-witted Pharpahs who had the t h e a t r i c a l g u i l e not to get themselves enclosed within. The housing takes on a sombre, barrack-like monotony.18 Before the f i r s t c o l l i e r i e s came, these v a l l e y s of the Rhondda (the 'Good Patch' would be i t s l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n — h e n c e t h i s t i t l e ; f o r H. W. J . 19 Edwards's book on the Rhondda) were famed for t h e i r groves of f i n e s t oaks; for t h e i r wooded v a l l e y sides and magnificent mountain slopes, tree-feathered and exquisite; and for the stark headlands and rocky, alpine c l i f f s with t h e i r stubborn l i t t l e bush-like oaks c l i n g i n g to, t h e i r native 24 s o i l with a l l the tenacity of I f o r Bach. Some of t h e i r beauty remains: But I have a South Wales view of mountains. I want them of a s i z e I can l i v e on and walk on. One a f t e r another, small smooth ranges of a c l a s s i c l i n e , s h o rtish and u t t e r l y a c c e s s i b l e , l i k e the dark, exuberant Celts who f i d d l e at t h e i r feet. And across,the broad, serene plateau of each run paths of springy grass, f e r n - l i n e d avenues of profound t r a n q u i l l i t y . To me t h i s i s the most precious part of -Wales. 2 0 ' [Arthur's Crown] was very b e a u t i f u l . It was bare except for a fri n g e of stunted trees across i t s top, bent and crouched by the winds that blew from the sea. I- f e l t sorry f or these trees and I was r e l i e v e d when I climbed the slope f o r the f i r s t time, touched them and found them stronger and happier-looking than they had ever looked from the v a l l e y bed. That mountain became the centre of my heart and imagination.21 The e f f e c t s of i n d u s t r i a l i s m ori society i n Wales were more revolu-tionary than those experienced i n England. The reason f o r t h i s was the lack of i n d u s t r i a l t r a d i t i o n i n a predominantly pastoral society, which was i l l - p r e p a r e d to meet the demands of advanced i n d u s t r i a l technology, and which could assimilate neither the values a l i e n to i t s own culture nor the i n f l u x of non-Welsh speakers who swarmed to the South Wales c o a l -f i e l d . The philosophy of the French Revolution embraced a p r i n c i p l e of s o c i a l e q u a lity whose purpose was-to abolish a l l vestiges of feudalism. But the i d e a l of i n d i v i d u a l d i g n i t y and freedom was already old i n the Welsh way of l i f e . S e r v i l i t y was not i n the experience of the Welsh workers who had a long f i e r c e h i s t o r y , o f resistance to any threat to t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y as a nation. The Saxons, followed by. the Normans, t r i e d repressive measures on 25 the Welsh; but the process of conquest,.occupation, e x p l o i t a t i o n and d i s -i n t e g r a t i o n of an indigenous people did not succeed u n t i l the coming of the ironmasters. The economic enterprises of the i n d u s t r i a l i s t s were not seen as a nat i o n a l threat.' The early ironmasters were not recognized as aggressors; t h e i r small number did not represent an invasion. The Normans i n t h e i r clanking armour proclaimed t h e i r aggressive intent unequivocally. With them, the Welsh knew where they stood. And when Norman m i l i t a r y strategy proved superior the Welsh took to the h i l l s . L e f t to t h e i r feudal prac-t i c e s and t h e i r brooding c a s t l e s , the Normans knew that somewhere 'out there' the,Welsh were ' l i v i n g i t up,' unconquered, unrepressed, and inde-22 pendently f r e e — a state characterized .in the Laws of Hywel Dda. The advantage of hindsight makes clear that the i r o n - c l a d Normans were, i n effeet,,an e a r l y version of the ironmasters; for the ironmasters forged a feudal, system i n t h e i r i n d u s t r i e s that was cast i n the mediaeval_mould. The people who came out from t h e i r pastoral seclusion to j o i n the enthusiasts at the old i r o n workings l i t t l e knew that they were leaping o f f a c l i f f carrying t h e i r own safety net; It was the most successful 23 Norman conquest yet. The ironmasters puddled t h e i r way to fame, arid the age of affluence was begun with child-labour i n the mines and women as beasts of burden: From the moment man began to f i d d l e with h i s f i r s t furnace, he was, l i k e the sparks he created, on h i s way upwards. To re-create the heat of the sun from which he sprang, that was the task. When he learned to blow the impurities out of•iron'bubbling away at i n f e r n a l temperatures, he had takeri Nature f i r m l y by the hand and the time : was r i p e for the vast, pounding hammers that were to beat out the tools and weapons of the modern age. 26 To the ch i l d r e n of South Wales, who grew up f a m i l i a r with the. sights of open furnaces making the night sky crimson, such works as these were the eyes of the world. 2^ I n d u s t r i a l man i n Wales, c a l l e d into being from the comparative i s o l a t i o n of a r u r a l community, was to become alienated from and by that Welsh-speaking r u r a l community as in c r e a s i n g l y he was required to use the English tongue. He turned to the nonconformist chapel which was, and remains, a guardian of the ancient'language of Wales; and sought comfort i n r e v i v a l i s m when his economic condition, the consequence of i n d u s t r i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n , was insupportable. When mountains of i n d u s t r i a l waste of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries grew to r i v a l the si z e of Glamorgan's green h i l l s , and burning t i p s and coal t i p s reached upwards and spread outwards, a ghastly accre-t i o n of discarded refuse, the South Wales i n d u s t r i a l i s t s were not hampered by a tax such as that l e v i e d by the Romans on a l l "Mining Dumps and Rock 25 P i l e s . " These t i p s have caused tragedy i n recent years, shocking the world when r a i n made the mountain.a moving mass that engulfed a school f i l l e d with ch i l d r e n who long had played i n i t s towering shadow., Underlying the humour of the s i t u a t i o n i n t h i s excerpt from one of . Gwyn Thomas's short stores, i s a grave warning: "Damned amazing, damned amazing," J u s t i n kept on saying., "You know .the house where Marcus l i v e d . B u i l t on an old t i p with a l o t of coal dust i n i t . Seems there's been a slow combustion going on i n a t i n y part of i t for years. Marcus and O l l i e were going back there tonight for a copy of some song. Do you know what the song was?". "Keep the Home F i r e s Burning," I said sombrely. J u s t i n began to laugh on an absurdly high key but I cautioned him back to a u s t e r i t y . "They open the front room door. O l l i e i s going to step i n 27 wondering what the h e l l the,smoke i s a l l about. There i s no front room. The whole damn l o t has gone into the hole caused by that slow combustion. I had a bad time with Marcus, I can t e l l you. You t r y explaining about slow combustion and the action of pressure on mater-i a l s l i k e small coal to a bloke whose front room has j u s t gone from sight. He kept saying that h i s wife L o t t i e had complained about f e e l i n g too warm, but he had put that down to the flushes which are often f e l t by loud contraltos and to the way.she no doubt f e l t about Edgar Devonwald. And O l l i e ! He was i n a state. He swore that t h i s was a l l your work. He says i t was you who had sent him for the sheet music, and you would never have thought of that p a r t i c u l a r t i t l e i f you hadn't known what was afoot., He used that very word, afoot. He claims he's seen you poking and blowing at the base of the t i p on which the house was b u i l t . It was not the houses crowded into long terraces one behind the other on the v a l l e y slopes; nor the blockage of overhanging t i p s that shut out the sun from the over-crowded and insan i t a r y homes; nor yet was i t the f l u c t u a t i o n of wages i n competitive labour and i n d u s t r i a l markets, that p r e c i p i t a t e d the disturbances which erupted i n 1800 with the violence of long suppressed despair. It was the Company shops which 27 proved to be the focus of grievance, and which continued t o be the cat a l y s t responsible f or the recurrence of r i o t i n g i n Merthyr between 1800 and 1832. The workers believed these truck shops to be responsible for much of t h e i r economic d i s t r e s s ; but the sudden nature of the r i o t s was that of men already l i v i n g on the hunger-line, and trapped i n a cycle of debt and dependency. It would be impossible to say how deeply anger and r e b e l l i o n were rooted i n desolation f or the beauty that was l a i d waste and the l i f e that was devoured to feed the "writhing need for coal and [ i r o n ] , " f o r environment i s fundamental to man's human s i t u a t i o n : For the men of the v a l l e y s l i v e i n two worlds. They know on the one hand, the noise, the disfigurements, the f a i l u r e of i n d u s t r i a l man, 28 and j u s t up the h i l l s i d e over the ridge, a pastoral calm that has never s e r i o u s l y been breached. . •.. . when a man has a paradise of trees and f i e l d s h a l f an hour's walking distance from h i s own street he i s going to f i n d i t harder to accept that .street sunk too far below the l e v e l of di g n i t y and delight he expects for h i s neighbours and himself. Once you have heard the l a r k , known the swish of feet through h i l l - t o p grass and smelt the earth made ready for the seed, you are never again going to be f u l l y happy about.the c i t i e s arid towns that man c a r r i e s l i k e a c r i p p l i n g weight upon h i s back.28 Nonconformity f l o u r i s h e d i n the region, f i l l i n g needs that were s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l . The chapel services were conducted i n 29 the Welsh language; Welsh l i t e r a t u r e and t r a d i t i o n a l , c r a f t s featured prominently i n t h e i r s o c i a l gatherings. the emphasis on moral respon-s i b i l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l g u i l t made a v i r t u e of deprivation; and a neces-30 sary catharsis was achieved through sermons which dwelt on the extreme anguish of Chri s t ' s passion, of the s u f f e r i n g he endured for them, of the g r i e f he f e l t f o r t h e i r s i n s . They, the people of Wales, of Merthyr, were the sinners for whom Christ had accepted the burden of punishment; and t h e i r s u f f e r i n g was as nothing compared to that which had paid, the pr i c e of t h e i r future reward: an e t e r n i t y i n a s p i r i t u a l paradise. The 3.1 g r i e f of the congregation, v i s i b l y and audibly manifested, engendered feeli n g s of profound g u i l t , an overwhelming burden to be atoned. It was reasoned that t h e i r present pr i v a t i o n s were a j u s t punishment, the accep-tance of which enriobled and made them worthy of heavenly reward. For the desecration of beauty and human defilement they were made culpable; t h e i r s was the g u i l t , and theirs the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to atone-—by being honest, abstemious, industrious, and sexually restrained. Purged and re-newed to take the s t r a i n i n the c o n f l i c t between the harsh demands of 29 of industry and the needs of human.life, a subdued, submissive people was sustained by the v i r t u e and the j u s t i c e of i t s l o t , and given strength for s i x days more of deprivation. Thus the habit of acceptance was f o s -tered, and fed and f o r t i f i e d at weekly i n t e r v a l s by those who scorched a t r a i l f o r : "a brigade of austere nay-sayers who stood by to purge us of gaiety, to s i l e n c e our laughter and hamstring our host of leaping l o v e r s . " This "wind of wrath" was to lash the Merthyr and Rhondda peoples as Daniel Rowlands had never done. When Rowlands preached he s t i r r e d the mass emotion of the thousands who had come to hear him. It was then that jumping or leaping for joy occurred, "the excited emotions breaking fo r t h at.one and the same time, not only for jumping, but also i n ejaculations 33 s i g n i f y i n g glory or h a l l e l u l l j a h . " The s p i r i t of the early r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l s was a joyous and splendid experience. Baptists, U nitarians, Independents and C a l y i n i s t i c Methodists were 34 united i n t h e i r condemnation of working-men's unions. Their unfriendly eye saw blasphemy i n the secret oaths taken, and depravity i n the union clubs because they met i n beerhouses. A curious anomaly i s seen i n the chapel's a l l i a n c e with the ironmasters who, as a prophylactic against union clubs, started paying wages i n beerhouses. Gwyn Thomas writes: I do not know who invented beer but I can say righ t o ff who have made the most fuss about i t : the,Welsh. No nation can ever have bred such a covey of drought-fanciers, people who can i d e n t i f y a glass of beer with the l a s t emblem of e v i l . . . looming out of the strange, dark s o c i a l t e r r o r s which i n s p i r e d the most f a n a t i c a l temperance associa-t i o n s . The most r a f f i s h Celt i s bound to have i n h i s bones a kind of r e -spect for these people. They permeated every cranny of our c h i l d -hood .35 30 The C a l v i n i s t i c M e t h o d i s t s assumed .a tremendous r e s p o n s i b i l i t y when they found and p u n i s h e d g u i l t i n the workers of M e r t h y r . As H. J . L a s k i has s a i d : "Men do n o t move t o v i o l e n c e u n t i l they have been d r i v e n 36 t o d e s p a i r ; " and the n a t u r e of the o u t b u r s t s of b e h a v i o u r savage i n manner j or e m o t i o n a l l y extreme from men whom Thomas C a r l y l e was t o d e s -c r i b e as "poor c r e a t u r e s t o i l i n g a l l i n sweat and d i r t , amid t h e i r f u r -37 n a c e s , p i t s and r o l l i n g m i l l s , " was t h a t of a p e o p l e ' s d e s p a i r . The B a r l e y m e a l R i o t s o f 1800, w i t h r a i d i n g , l o o t i n g and w i t h women i n the vanguard of c l a s h e s w i t h a u t h o r i t y , p r o g r e s s e d t o the marching r i o t e r s o f 1816, w i t h gangs of men armed w i t h p i c k s and o t h e r t o o l s o f t h e i r work, s i n g i n g and s h o u t i n g as they ranged the c o a l f i e l d , " c a l l i n g out the men, f i g h t i n g p i t c h e d b a t t l e s on the way w i t h the constables,, s o l d i e r s , some-38 times w i t h the e n t i r e p e r s o n n e l of r e c a l c i t r a n t works." By 1822, the r i o t i n g gangs had become an army, s t i l l n ot o r g a n i z e d , but p r e s e n t i n g a f o r m i d a b l e f r o n t . The outbreak i n M e r t h y r , i n June, 1831, was the c l i m a c t i c p o i n t t h a t marked the ending of d i s o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r . Wales has 39 always been " s t a u n c h e r t o p r e s e r v e than ready t o a s s i m i l a t e , " and r a d i c a l i d e a s were slow t o g a i n s u p p o r t . I t took a m a r t y r f o r t h e p o l i -t i c a l i d e a l t o take h o l d and u n i t e the workers. In h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h y , J a c k Jones w r i t e s : We M e r t h y r boys had l o n g c h e r i s h e d the memory o f . . . D i e Penderyn whose name and.innocence had been handed down t o us by our f a t h e r s and g r a n d f a t h e r s . Taken t o C a r d i f f t o be hung at the age of twenty-t h r e e f o r t h e wounding of one Donald Black.40 And h e r e i s h i s memory o f h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s account of what had happened more than h a l f a c e n t u r y b e f o r e : 31 My grandfather re l a t e d to me what his father had t o l d him about the coming to Merthyr of the Dragoons i n 1800. Drawn swords, with which they s l i c e d dogs i n h a l f , and the crowns o f f old men's high hats. They had come to cow those who i n t h e i r f i e r c e hunger had looted the company shop by the Angel. Two of the hungriest of ;the men were taken to C a r d i f f to be hung. . . . " A l l that was before my time,>Johnny," he would remind me. "But" — e a c h time he neared the Castle Hotel he would stop to point and say—"what happened there i n '31 I seen' with these two eyes. Heard the shots which the, Scotch highlanders f i r e d i n there, Johnny, and seen the people f a l l . Nobody knows how many was k i l l e d by here where we're standing that time, Johnny, for people was a f r a i d -to say about them that was c a r r i e d to t h e i r homes to die. But i t ' s safe to say that the s o l d i e r s k i l l e d twenty, Johnny. No s o l d i e r s k i l l e d . But they hung Die Penderyn down C a r d i f f before he was twenty-three because, so they s a i d , he had wounded one of the Scotch highlanders." A f t e r he had sighed and shaken his head he would say: "No, the poor boy was as innocent as you, Johnny; But they hung him a l l . t h e same."41 This was the background to Gwyn Thomas's novel A l l Things Betray  Thee, and h i s play, Jackie the Jumper:, In B r i t a i n we have had e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y few r i o t s . A deep stream of ale to d i l u t e most rages and free outlets of disputation among the plebs, and a f u l l seam of s e l f - p r o t e c t i v e cunning among the p a t r i c i a n s have kept our s o c i a l body jogging along without too many.civil commo-ti o n s . So we tend to cherish the. ones we've had. . . .42 In A l l Things Betray Thee,the r i s i n g mountains of waste, the stench of burning refuse, the din of giant machines,,and the fermenting anger of Wales welcome the wandering harpist to the v a l l e y s of the South and herald the dawn of the age of progress. Published i n the same year as Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, the novel demonstrates that i n d u s t r i a l society i s corrupt and forces man to be ruthless. Gwyn Thomas appeals to humanity to recognize the destructive forces of i n d u s t r i a l i s m and to know i t s own capacity to hate, instead of love, and to use power for power's sake. The language of the characters i s no i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r place within the 32 s o c i a l structure, since i n Wales there were ho class d i s t i n c t i o n s i n the sense of those operating across the Border. The harpist speaks to Helen and Richard Penbury with engaging ease; the gaoler speaks i n imagery that derives from a t r a d i t i o n a l o r a l l i t e r a t u r e , as, does Benny Cornish's 43 a b i l i t y to memorize the messages he d e l i v e r s , "just l i k e verses." The harpist i s drawn into the i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t . He has no choice but to stay. As Jeremy Longridge says: Men l i k e John Simon Adams and myself, we are.not much more than the leaves i n the wind, b i t s of p a i n f u l f e e l i n g that gripe the guts of the masses. From the cottages, the hovels, the drink-shops and sweat-m i l l s , anger r i s e s and we are moved. No choice, Mr. Connor, save perhaps the last-minute p r i v i l e g e of adjusting the key of the scream we utter.44 In us,.too, anger r i s e s and we are moved, for "a death that draws the tears of many people you never even knew has a s p e c i a l taste and never 45 vanishes from the earth." CHAPTER II THE FEAST OF FOOLS* God hath chosen the f o o l i s h things of the world to confound the wise . . . I Corinthians.I;27 When the curt a i n r i s e s on the f i r s t act of Jackie the Jumper, the w i s t f u l mood of the workers i s r e f l e c t e d i n the music to which they dance: "A sad, sweet dirge. . . . Two musical themes commingle here. One a lament of great plangency, the other a serenade. The two mounting each other could give a good picture of g r i e f knocking i t s stupid old head against h o p e . A g a i n s t a back-cloth of the r e f l e c t e d glare of the furnaces, the yearning of the people f o r the return of the one who was 2 leading them "to a place of calm, clean peace," i s the verbal echo of the music and movement that coordinate the scene. Throughout the play, music and choral passages are i n t e r - r e l a t e d with the dialogue and action; the c o r r e l a t i o n of music, singing and dancing to the changing moods of characters and events, i s contrived so well that they are i n t e g r a l parts of the drama. As the people's hope affirms "The Jumper, Jackie the Jumperj" the music makes a leap, soaring to meet Jackie as he appears 3 "at the top of a mound, radiant, smiling." He appears i n sharp r e l i e f , In the Middle Ages the Feast of Fools was u n i v e r s a l l y celebrated throughout Christendom,,frequently on Innocents' Day, though on d i f f e r e n t days of the year i n d i f f e r e n t places. D i r e c t l y traceable to the pagan Saturnalia of ancient Rome, i t was a qu a s i - r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l , the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l counterpart of the secular r e v e l r i e s of the Lord of Mis-r u l e . 34 arms both raised " i n a fervent gesture of greeting." It i s an extra-o r d i n a r i l y impressive moment, for i t holds the echo of these words: Such men have a way of creating a whole new sky of promise. A sky that makes the earth and us look d i f f e r e n t . Then they vanish.4 For a timeless moment the vibrant yearning surges and i s held; and then the music quickens i n harmony with the joy that h i s coming brings. The rhythm i s one with the blood-beats quickening, as "Jackie takes g i r l a f t e r g i r l i n h i s arms"^ i n a dance that banishes the void of longing. A l t e r n a t e l y serious and l i g h t , the drama i s subtly devised: the elements of comedy or light-hearted overtone heighten the t r a g i c . s i g n i f i -cance; and the characters, presented i n actions successively comic, serious, or profoundly moving, achieve a depth of emotional response that i s immediate. The comic e f f e c t enriches the t r a g i c element, b r i n g -ing into sharp r e l i e f the irony of the fate of Jackie Rees, who i s an amalgam of Die Penderyn and Lewis the Huntsman—a " l i b e r t a r i a n vagabond." The action advances s w i f t l y ; for the intensive treatment of the drama causes the issues involved to follow c l o s e l y upon one another. Increas-i n g l y , the tension heightens as the complexity of r o l e s assigned to Jackie the Jumper unfolds with moment-to-moment immediacy: "to the mad rhythm of a mad time."'' It i s t h i s complexity that gives unity to the drama of "the early struggles of a society tormented and besmirched by the eruption of the great i r o n furnaces and the descent of the great g C a l v i n i s t i c vetoes." Trapped, i n the vortex of t h i s violence, Jackie i s 9 at the heart of the "narrowing and v i c i o u s c i r c l e s " that are c l o s i n g i n around him. And i n the vanguard o f , t h e hounds who hunt him down i s h i s u n c l e , the Reverend R i t c h i e ' R e s u r r e c t i o n ' Rees, "a t h u n d e r i n g 11 12 d i v i n e , " who sees "the d e v i l w i t h a u n i o n c a r d , " and h i s nephew as the embodiment of a l l the c a r n a l i t y and f o r n i c a t i o n o f which he i s an a v i d voyeur: (A t h o u g h t f u l q u i e t n e s s h i t s the group. They s t a r e a t the l e a p i n g f u r n a c e l i g h t s . The m e n . s t a r t w h i s t l i n g a s o f t counter-melody t o -some such f o l k tune as 'Aderyn Pur' and t h e y l e a d t h e i r g i r l s on t o a k i n d o f . g r a s s y bank. They l i e down i n p o s t u r e s of f r a n k p a s s i o n . . . . T h e i r b o d i e s s i n k more c o s i l y i n t o the e a r t h and t h e i r crooned song touches s i l e n c e . Then t h e r e i s a b l a c k , d i s c o r d a n t c r a s h of wind and b r a s s . In comes RITCHIE RESURRECTION REES, f o l l o w e d by two a t t e n d a n t s , s m a l l men w i t h a l l the s t i g m a t a o f t i m i d p i e t y upon them. R e g a r d l e s s of con-t e x t t h e y have t h e i r hands h a l f - r a i s e d t o e x p r e s s h o r r o r . RITCHIE REES i s a b i g , handsome, p a s s i o n a t e man, w i t h a v o i c e f u l l o f O l d Testament b u g l e s , and l o n g f i n g e r s n a i l e d w i t h anathemas and ready at a l l times t o p r o j e c t , a c c u s a t i o n s . He p o i n t s a t t h e s i l e n t clumps of l o v e r s . He s t a r e s a t them i n c r e d u l o u s l y and t u r n s to h i s compan-i o n s . They h i d e t h e i r f a c e s and t h e i r whole e x p r e s s i o n i s t h a t of men who have now seen humanity c o v e r the l a s t y a r d of i t s depraved c o u r s e and a r e now g i v i n g up the ghost) RITCHIE REES: No! (His companions shake t h e i r heads to back him up but do not t r y to compete w i t h h i s v o i c e ) RITCHIE REES: No! No! (There i s no s t i r r i n g from the l o v e r s ) RITCHIE REES: Locked i n c a r n a l i t y i n f u l l view of the w o r l d . Deaf w i t h i t ! COMPANIONS: T h e i r e a r s a r e stopped w i t h i t . RITCHIE REES: L e c h e r y i s d e a t h ! GEORGE CHISLETT: I t i s n ' t , you know.' RITCHIE REES: L u s t i s r u i n . JIM JAMES: L u s t i s a l l r i g h t . RITCHIE REES: Stand and be named. Stand and be shamed, p h y s i c a l l y wanton, m o r a l l y lamed. Stand and be named. (The c o u p l e s a r e i n t i m i d a t e d and one by one they descend the h i l l o c k t o s t a n d b e f o r e t h e e v a n g e l i s t . Only JACKIE and JANET remain u n d i s -t u r b e d . They g i v e an enormous groan,of p l e a s u r e t h a t makes RESURRECTION REES c l e n c h and r a i s e h i s f i s t s ) (JANET peeps from beneath JACKIE) JANET: I t ' s your u n c l e , Mr. R e s u r r e c t i o n Rees. 36 (JACKIE r i s e s slowly and faces h i s uncle) JACKIE REES: I thought so. S t i l l keeping the urges on the hop, uncle? How are you, s i r ? RITCHIE REES: I shall.be a l o t better when I see a set or i r o n bars around you,.you d i s g r a c e f u l vagrant. . . .13 Jackie, who loves f r e e l y and l i v e s i n harmony with the c l e a r streams, deep v a l l e y s , arid fern-clad h i l l t o p s of the land he roams beyond the "furnace-stink . . . [and] the k i l l i n g glare of the f i r e s o f F e r n c l e f t , embodies the hope and yearning of a l l the down-trodden. They assign to him the emblematic r o l e of.a l i b e r t i n e , of a freedom-fighter who.will lead them, as he has promised, "out of t h i s place, out of t h i s pain, away from t h i s degradation.""'""' I t i s t h e i r dream, .and h i s ; but i t i s only a dream, as Jackie knows: JACKIE REES: A man w i l l say, when awake, the things he hears i n sleep. People hear, people believe.16 The people dream of .freedom, but they are tethered to the g u i l t of t h e i r betrayal. Presenting a mixture of wisdom, naivete, wit and grace, Jackie i s l i k e the Harlequin of the timeless world of the I t a l i a n Commedianti d e l l ' Arte: He i s l i k e a mere sketch of a man, a great c h i l d v i s i t e d by flashes of reason and i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n a l l of whose capers . . . there i s something sharp and i n t e r e s t i n g . The model Harlequin i s a l l supple-ness and a g i l i t y , with the grace of a young cat.; . . . the r o l e i s that of [one who serves], patient, f a i t h f u l , credulous, . . . always i n love, always . . . a f f l i c t i n g himself and consoling himself again with the readiness of a c h i l d , one whose sorrows are as amusing as his joys. Such a part demands a great deal of naturalness and wit, and a great deal of p h y s i c a l grace and suppleness.17 37 J a c k i e t h e Jumper i s a l l of t h i s . In t h e u n c e r t a i n t y a l l around, he i s o u t s t a n d i n g f o r h i s s u r e , u n f e t t e r e d movement from each welcoming door and e v e r y moment of f u l f i l m e n t J He l e a p s i n t o the c y c l e of e v e n t s , v i b r a n t , v i r i l e , v o l u b l e ; now t o u c h i n g w i t h wry humour on the cause of 18 h i s rheumatism; now mocking h i s u n c l e ' s wrath:. In the l a s t y e a r they've blamed f o u r s t r i k e s , one c a t t l e pox, t e n deaths and n i n e rapes on me. I'd need t o be a man-sized grasshopper and a s h i r e s t a l l i o n t o get around ,the way they say I do.19 To a u t h o r i t y , J a c k i e r e p r e s e n t s a d e f i a n c e of the m o r a l code which 20 embraces; " t h e g o o d , , c o o l b a s t i o n s of m a r r i a g e , money and dogma," Lux t o n , the i r o n m a s t e r , of a u t h o r i t y and y e t s t a n d i n g a p a r t , sees the Jumper as he i s : They c a l l him J a c k i e t h e Jumper because he doesn't s e t t l e i n any one p l a c e , because he a c c e p t s no o r g a n i z e d work. He s t i r s p e o p l e ' s dreams i n t o a hot b r o t h w i t h h i s g o s p e l of a l o v e and j o y a c h i e v a b l e h e r e on t h i s e a r t h . S e x u a l l y he has prowled l i k e a t i r e l e s s torn o v e r the r o o f o f a n a t i o n ' s d e s i r e . He has me, w i t h my f o u n d r i e s , and you Rev. Rees, w i t h y o u r .condemned-cell e t h i c , t i c k e t e d as a p a i r o f t r i c k y and u n d e s i r a b l e monkeys.21 To which the, clergyman r e p l i e s : "Which i s why he must be t h r u s t away." For him, J a c k i e i s a w a l k i n g t e x t f o r e v e r y f i e r y sermon on s i n ; he r e p r e s e n t s J a c k i e as a l i b e r t a r i a n , "a d e f i l e r o f h o l y matrimony and a 22 s u b v e r s i v e a n a r c h , " an-emblem o f s i n and r o u s e r of r a b b l e p o l i t i c s . But t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r r o l e a s s i g n e d to J a c k i e Rees: the m a r t y r ' s : (The f u r n a c e . f l a r e s a r e c r a z i l y e n l a r g e d and i n t e n s i f i e d . They a l l t u r n round and l o o k i n t e r r o r , a t the new b r i l l i a n c e ) JACKIE REES: What's t h i s now? ALL ( q u i t e h a p p i l y ) : A p o c a l y p s e ! 38 JACKIE REES: No. A p o c a l y p s e w i l l be dark and o r d i n a r y . Tax-c o l l e c t o r s , s e r g e a n t s , p r e a c h e r s and l a w y e r s ; an u n l i g h t e d l o t . (Three men, i n p o s t u r e s o f r e v e l a t i o n , appear a t t h e top of the h i l l o c k ) 1ST MAN: Luxton i s r a k i n g out the f u r n a c e s . E v e r y f o u n d r y f o r f o u r v a l l e y s around w i l l be s t o n e c o l d by morning, and w i l l s t a y c o l d u n t i l we meet Luxton's terms. 2ND MAN: They've brought, t h e army i n t o B i r c h t o w n . There was a c l a s h on B i r c h t o w n square an hour back.. JACKIE REES: Clash? What about? 2ND MAN;: Human r i g h t s arid the a l l o c a t i o n of Birchtown's f o u r f u l l -time h a r l o t s . The mayor r e a d the R i o t A c t . GEORGE CHISLETT: He knows i t by h e a r t . I t ' s the o n l y s t e a d y r e a d i n g the man's ever done. 2ND MAN: The s o l d i e r s f i r e d t h e i r guns. Two of ours a r e dead. JACKIE REES: As l o n g as d e a t h i s about somebody'11 use i t . GEORGE CHISLETT: There was no o t h e r way f o r you but' t h i s , J a c k i e . JACKIE REES: What do you mean? No o t h e r way? GEORGE CHISLETT: The c o b b l e s of t h e r o a d were l a i d down f o r you a l o n g , l o n g time ago. OLD MAN ( h o l d i n g up h i s hands p r o p h e t i c a l l y ) : God be w i t h you, . J a c k i e boy. Go f o r w a r d , boy. I see through the days t o come. Y o u ' l l be a m a r t y r , J a c k i e . They want t o hang somebody s p e c i a l . L e t i t be y o u , , J a c k i e . You are m a r t y r meat. Your c o r p s e w i l l s h i n e l i k e s t a r s f o r us. The t e a r s w e ' l l shed f o r you w i l l make us c l e a n and s t r o n g . . . .23 A m a r t y r i s awaited; a m a r t y r i s appointed:, RITCHIE REES: You ar e the s a c r a m e n t a l v i c t i m , the expendable pagan. You have no r o o t h e r e . Your p a s s i n g would provoke t e a r s but no f i s t s . 2 4 T e a r s a r e the e m o t i o n a l r e l e a s e o f f e r e d by a t r a g i c s a c r i f i c e : a s a c r i -f i c e t o j u s t i f y t h e i r c o n t i n u e d s e l f ^-betrayal i n a l l o w i n g themselves t o be i n t i m i d a t e d : RITCHIE REES: Go,.you o t h e r s . . . . JACKIE REES: Stay where you a r e . He's j u s t one o f a whole l e g i o n p e d d l i n g brands o f d e a t h . He d r a i n s your h e a r t s of heat t o make a t r u e g i f t o f i t t o t h a t i r o n m o n g e r i n g scamp on t h a t h i l l s i d e yonder. You a r e making a hobby of b e i n g cowed and d i s p e r s e d e v e r y time t h e s e 39 dervishes s t a r t to howl t h e i r case for submission and t o i l . Let us break the t h e o l o g i c a l teeth of t h i s chipmunk, then l e t ' s r e s t a r t our r e v e l s . (The lovers resume t h e i r crooning tune.and turn once more.to t h e i r l i t t l e Venusberg on the h i l l o c k ) RITCHIE REES: Consider, you people. This man i s a phantom. He was not here yesterday; he w i l l not be here tomorrow.. H e ' l l be on h i s way shattering fresh maidens, subverting honest a r t i s a n s . But y o u ' l l be here, And I ' l l be here. Mr. Luxton,the ironmaster, w i l l be here, and.the furnaces i n which you work w i l l be here. His sort, of laughter and h i s sort,of freedom are death. (In the Top Right of the stage a darkness forms, arid into i t JACKIE's friends back. JACKIE turns to them and t r i e s to beckon to them to come back). JACKIE REES: You've got them, uncle. You and Luxtori have found the w o r d s t h e mood,,that put the snuffer on t h e i r dreams.25. Tied to t h e i r struggle for existence, the workers see i n Jackie the free-dom they dare not take: for they are a f r a i d to be fre e . They want a death to release them from t h i s g u i l t . His death. GEORGE CHISLETT: Aaron, you're a l l r i g h t . You've been through the m i l l and most of -us have.done the t r i p with you. You've only got one f a u l t and most of our.people share i t with you. You want your, martyrs too cheaply. You want your heroes cut-rate. I want Jackie to l i v e to be a hundred. And I want him to celebrate h i s hundredth birthday by.chopping down a gibbet.26 Aaron Mead, whose eyes were consumed by the furnace f i r e s , burns with a v i s i o n of a martyr t o . i d e a l i z e man's struggle against oppression: Ever since my eyes went i n that furnace-blast I have had a . v i s i o n . The v i s i o n of one of our own, k i l l e d f o r love of us. Somebody i n whom the dousing of l i g h t would have darkened the whole earth. Jackie, i n a word.27 But the Reverend R i t c h i e Rees wants a hanging as an exemplary punishment of a l l who rebel against authority: 40 REV. REES: The p e o p l e a r e c o n f u s e d and f u l l o f d e v i l i s h i m p u l s e s . A good,,sudden, d r a m a t i c death w i l l show them more c l e a r l y than any sermon o f mine t h e need f o r a new g e n t l e n e s s . COUNTY SHERIFF: N o t h i n g r e s t o r e s s o c i a l s a n i t y more s w i f t l y than a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r p s e dropped j u d i c i o u s l y on heads made hot by dreaming.28 In a l l o f t h e s e , t h e r e i s a r u t h l e s s s i n g l e n e s s of purpose. What d i s -t i n g u i s h e s the S h e r i f f and t h e C o l o n e l , i s t h e i r c o l d detachment. N e i t h e r r e g a r d s J a c k i e , o r f o r t h a t m a t t e r t h e r e s t of the l a b o u r i n g poor,.as a human b e i n g ; and i n t h i s they a r e j o i n e d by the Reverend: JACKIE REES: Here a r e t h r e e men who.cast a b i g shadow. They peeped a t us o v e r a w a l l . G e n u i n e l y . t a l e n t e d and b r a v e meri who have made of t h e i r c l e v e r n e s s and courage the t o o l s of a d i s i n f e c t a n t a l o o f -n e s s . The sermon,,the e v i c t i o n , t h e s a b r e and s o m e , d i f f e r e n c e s of d r e s s have worked marvels f o r them 29 The C o l o n e l who has hunted p e o p l e down,like vermin b e l i e v e s t h a t 30 'Enemies o f the K i n g ' s peace are not p e o p l e . " M i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g and m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g y a r e used i n a c i v i l i a n c o n f l i c t . Here, k i l l i n g can be done w i t h detachment o n l y i f t h e v i c t i m s a r e dehumanized. M i l i t a r y c o u r t s - m a r t i a l r e q u i r e e x e c u t i o n f o r the s o l d i e r who r e b e l s ; but i n a c i v i l i a n s i t u a t i o n , m i l i t a r y ' e t h i c s a r e h e r e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h i r o n m a s t e r Luxton's h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m . The C o l o n e l ' s a c t i o n s a r e d i c t a t e d by duty t o t h e K i n g ; L u x t o n ' s j by h i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards h i s workers and by the awareness t h a t he i s c u l p a b l e not t h e y : I want.to speak out l o u d t h e t h i n g s my mind has been m u t t e r i n g i n between the market booms and.hunger r i o t s . I don't want t o go f l o a t i n g i n t o time as the man who i n i t i a t e d t h r e e new t y p e s o f . d e -f o r m i t y i n u n d e r - n o u r i s h e d c h i l d r e n . 41 I w i l l write one great apology across the earth. Sorry! Sorry! This i s the coke and c l i n k e r boy coming to heel. I w i l l o f f e r my own p e l t as a g i r d l e to mute the r a t t l e of o l d . i r o n i n the body of our kind.31 Luxton empathizes with the Jumper and.sees r e f l e c t e d in.him the dreams and desires he once has known. He knows that Jackie follows "the i d e a l of an unconditional freedom," an i d e a l he, Luxton,,holds i n h i s heart. The influences that forced him into an ironmaster's mould have not.taken the strength from his b e l i e f that "everyone must be heard. Heard and 32 respected." He believes that: "whatever the Colonel and h i s troop might say to the contrary, the only sweet and worthy death i s to die i n 33 an e f f o r t to communicate." He has no i l l u s i o n s , l e a s t of a l l about himself. He has looked into himself and seen there the betrayal of h i s own human needs. The workers have cast him i n the r o l e of a t y r a n n i c a l 'Ironhead'; and the i n f l e x i b l e w i l l of the Establishment ensures that he does not change.his image. Luxton i s aware that he has a choice not to play the r o l e ; but by doing so, he knows that he would be replaced by another more malleable than he i n the hands of "the law-jugglers, the mountebank int e r p r e t e r s of God to man, the warriors who want a b i t of 34 cut-rate glory i n between the vast n a t i o n a l butcheries." A marionette, 35 twitching at the end of a rope, he i s a t r a g i c f i g u r e , s u f f e r i n g deeply 36 for Jackie the Jumper with a compassion that i s i t s e l f a punishment. The Reverend Rees i s ignorant of the motives of h i s choice: h i s s p i r i t u a l orgasms give the l i e to h i s professed b e l i e f i n h i s own moral-, i t y . His r e s t r a i n t i s not s e l f - r e s t r a i n t but society's r e s t r a i n i n g influence: h i s behaviour accords with the voice of the moral code. He, 42 too,,has a passion, and although he i s vehement i n h i s assertion that for good h i s i s the voice that cannot be silenced, he transmutes h i s p h y s i c a l yearning into a r e l i g i o u s ecstasy that has a kinship with the experience of physical f u l f i l m e n t that he has said i s death: (The door i s flung open. The whole,crowd of workers flood i n led by RITCHIE REES. His eyes are b l a z i n g . His clothes are disarrayed. . . . LUXTON's f i r s t daughter i s at h i s side, radiant) REV. REES: What made them jump? I did. I was tremendous. The sun and the moon swung from my every word. I was r i d i n g love to hounds. Then some heat, some intimation of climax flowed out to me from the l i s t e n i n g people. I stopped t a l k i n g ; I held my.hands out to the congregation.' I started to cry. Then I s a i d , 'I w i l l speak no more. I w i l l stand here weeping u n t i l the core pf f l i n t i n every human heart has been melted away.' JACKIE REES: A f a i r t a c t i c - Save on the words. REV. REES: Oh! the shuddering of miracles. The walls of p e t r i f i e d r e s t r a i n t that are tumbling to nothing i n my heart. Before t h i s I was seeing only the heel of humanity, the f l e e t i n g heel of humanity. I.am being l i b e r a t e d . i n t o the l i g h t as you are being lowered into the dark, Jackie. The l i g h t . And the f i r s t shaft had to be t h i s , To ravish your l i t t l e kingdom of.confident l i c e n c e , to i n h e r i t some part of your bold and.laughing confidence. There i s only one mis-take, to operate on only one.level. By the minute I am growing. See me now,.my votaries around me i n a t i g h t c l u s t e r of caressive z e a l . I timed t h i s whole thing better than you d i d , Jackie. Shrink now and be s t i l l . Now,.children, down into the v a l l e y , to the new freedom.37 As the wild and passionate r e l i g i o u s experience reverberates around him, he i s at the core of a l l that pulsing fervour of sublimated desire. For him, i t i s a moral imperative that Jackie be found g u i l t y f o r submitting to that desire; be condemned for succumbing to.a human response which finds echoes i n himself: COUNTY SHERIFF: . . . Your daughters are jewels,.:... . COLONEL: E i r l y s ! COUNTY SHERIFF: Arianwen! REV. REES: Mona! 43 (Their eyes are a l i g h t with enthusiasm and desire. LUXTON watches them cautiously and as i f with a bud of new understanding i n h i s mind) LUXTON: . . . I ' l l bring them i n to meet you for a few minutes. (LUXTON leaves) (REES, the COLONEL and the COUNTY SHERIFFmove'restlessly, watch each other cunningly as i f , i n t h i s new situation,,they are changing moment by-moment, and they are t r y i n g to determine what the changes consist of.' LUXTON returns with h i s three daughters. They have a demure rad-iance. ; Their dresses are white and have.a theme of lace. REES, the COLONEL and COUNTY SHERIFF are magnetised by them. The l a s t two make a great whooping fuss of them,.but RESURRECTION REES, i n t r i b u t e to h i s own standing at God's side, hangs back, h i s eyes none the less lucent with desire)38 The shame he would f e e l i f he recognized l u s t i n himself i s kept at bay by.investing h i s excesses i n Jackie. The punishment he demands i s at once the p r i c e he exacts from one who undermines the chapel's coda to morality and an act of c a s t r a t i o n on a symbol of v i r i l i t y . Jackie has the reputation of being an " i n t e r - s h i r e s t a l l i o n , " a seducer of women; the Reverend finds sublimation i n revivalism; i n the ecstasy of mass manipulation. The people jump for Resurrection Rees, jump.in response 39 to the f e e l i n g s of excitement he has stimulated. As Luxton observes i n h i s defence • of Jackie: These reputations can be very spurious, Colonel. There i s so much torpor i n the f i e l d of sex that a s t i r r i n g of a'finger can sometimes look l i k e a major assault. In the kingdom of the castrate the one-eyed man or whatever you'd c a l l him i s king.40 Bl i n d to h i s own f o l l y , R i t c h i e Rees takes refuge i n hounding a l i b e r -t a r i a n , a huntsman.; He advocates a pagan, r i t u a l k i l l i n g , w h ilst pro-fessing himself on the side of the C h r i s t i a n brotherhood of men. The 44 self-appointed Master-of-the-Hunt to God, he i s a s i n i s t e r f o o l i n a secular r e v e l r y : JACKIE REES: . . . What kind of clowning i s this? COUNTY SHERIFF: No clowning. We are c a n c e l l i n g your l i c e n c e to be a pest, Rees. We've l e t you roam for too many years on a tether of loose-lipped dissension. Now we are p u l l i n g i n the rope for more p r a c t i c a l use. JACKIE REES: You wouldn't be such f o o l s . COUNTY SHERIFF: We are what we are because we are such f o o l s . I f by f o l l y you mean the daring to choose our s o l u t i o n and the r i g h t ground from which to h u r l i t , you, Jackie the Jumper, are going to be hurled. When your neck i s broken, l u s t , . l a z i n e s s and a l l doubts about the s o c i a l contract w i l l be dislocated as w e l l . There w i l l be no resistance, no h i t c h . Your friends might mutter something into t h e i r grimy mufflers, then s h u f f l e back into t h e i r slum. COLONEL: We s h a l l stand guard around the gallows to give you plenty of breathing space,. REV. REES: I s h a l l read the lesson from a specially-made, resonant p u l p i t . What I s h a l l have to say i n the immediate wake at your death w i l l make you a r i c h e r being dead than ever you were i n l i f e . ^ l The Reverend Rees cl i n g s to the s o c i a l structure he has aided i n erecting.• Were h i s C h r i s t i a n conscience capable of combating i n j u s t i c e and oppression, he would be forced to alienate himself from the protec-t i o n the system o f f e r s . S o c i a l values o f f e r l i t t l e protection and no perspective to the professed C h r i s t i a n who would p r a c t i s e as passionately as he preaches. His desire f o r a hanging, for a moral v i c t o r y to be gained and a moral law to be shown to.triumph i s a travesty of the p r i n -c i p l e s of secular law whereby the ends of j u s t i c e at l e a s t must appear to be served. As the Colonel makes c l e a r , before Jackie i s brought 42 before them, he has been condemned out-of-hand. And.although Luxton .43 points to the f a l l a c y of these charges against Jackie, and exposes Rees's hypocrisy: 45-LUXTON: . . . Now t e l l me, what have you got a g a i n s t t h a t nephew of y o u r s . .•. Why make him so s p e c i a l a t a r g e t ? REV. REES: He i s a man of moral c h a r a c t e r , so l o o s e t h a t he has to t u r n back e v e r y f i v e minutes t o p i c k i t up. He i s a tramp^ a d e f i l e r of h o l y matrimony and a s u b v e r s i v e a n a r c h . . . . LUXTON: I know e x a c t l y how he f e e l s . And I see the p o i n t o f a l o t of i t . I t a s t e d some of i t m y s e l f once and the f l a v o u r was f i n e . Where i s he now? REV. REES: Here. He had t h e i n s o l e n c e to r e t u r n . LUXTON: And you want him d e s t r o y e d . REV. REES: Destroyed? My Dear Mr. L uxton, my whole l i f e speaks f o r the G o s p e l of Peace, f o r the unguent of l o v e . LUXTON: Mr. Rees, we are b o t h mature men. I f we a r e to make f o o l s of words and i d e a s l e t us, a t l e a s t , shake our clowns' caps at each o t h e r as we do so. REV. REES: I want my nephew warned. H i s l i f e i s a s t y e . I want i t c l e a n e d . But w i t h o u t v i o l e n c e . I want him t o appear b e f o r e the m a g i s t r a t e s and to be t o l d t o d e s i s t from h i s m i s c h i e f . I t ' s an e t h i c a l l y d i r e c t e d b i t of h o u s e - c l e a n i n g , no more. LUXTON: The f i r s t broom I h e a r d of w i t h a rope on i t . I h e a r d e v e r y word you s a i d l a s t n i g h t ' t o , t h e County S h e r i f f and the C o l o n e l of the M i l i t i a . You thought I was d o z i n g over my wine. I wasn't. You t h r e e had g i v e n me a p a i n i n my head-bones. I was r e s t i n g . You were s t r i k i n g blows f o r decency r i g h t , l e f t and c e n t r e . You con-v i n c e d them without, any d i f f i c u l t y a t a l l t h a t your nephew s h o u l d be hounded down and hung up. T h i s f a s c i n a t e s me, Mr. Rees. You want a p a r t of what he i s , has been. You want to i n h e r i t p a r t of the vacuum t h a t w i l l be l e f t when he dies.44 45 the f a r c e i s a c t e d o u t ; and the f a b r i c a t e d charges are u p h e l d . The h e a r i n g a t Luxton's home i s but the p r e l u d e t o J a c k i e ' s a r r a i g n -ment b e f o r e a c o u r t of law; i t i s a t r i a l - r u n f o r what w i l l pass f o r j u s t i c e i n the l e g a l r i t u a l which w i l l g i v e J a c k i e the Jumper no l e s s r i g o r o u s d i s p a t c h than h e r e p l a n n e d . A g a i n s t a s i n i s t e r b a c k c l o t h of o u t r a g e d m o r a l s e n s i b i l i t i e s and v i n d i c t i v e v e r b a l r e c t i t u d e , t h i s i n n o c e n t clown w i l l be shewn t h a t even at the C a r d i f f A s s i z e s , "The new m o r a l i t y c r e a t e s new d e f i n i t i o n s o f crime, each one e l a s t i c , each one a noose. Rees, the S h e r i f f and the C o l o n e l demonstrate the measure of t h e i r 4 6 c a p a c i t y f o r c r u e l t y . They m a n i f e s t q u a l i t i e s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to the p r i n c i p l e s of C h r i s t i a n l o v e , human j u s t i c e and c i v i l p r o t e c t i o n . When they assume the a r b i t r a r y r i g h t t o judge J a c k i e they do so from the i n v i o l a t e s e c u r i t y of t h e i r power i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . They a s s e r t the r i g h t t o judge; and y e t the a m b i g u i t y o f r i g h t - a n d wrong p e r m i t s of no such a s s e r t i o n ; f o r J u s t i c e , i n s h o r t [ i s ] an empty husk, a s t o c k - i n - t r a d e of b o u r g e o i s r h e t o r i c . . . one [has] always to know which one [ i s ] d e a l i n g w i t h : the one which [ w i l l ] g i v e a man h i s own, o r the one which [ w i l l ] g i v e everybody a l i k e . 4 7 But i t i s Rees who i s b l i n d t o h i s e v i l . He i s exposed as a h y p o c r i t e and a l i a r ; and h i s response i s t o accuse Luxton of n o t , b e i n g h i m s e l f , of b e i n g i n need of a d o c t o r o r a r e s t . He dare not admit t o h i m s e l f the t r u t h t h a t he has l i e d t o Luxton; he must b e l i e v e i n the mask he p r e s e n t s t o s o c i e t y , f o r w i t h o u t i t he has no i d e n t i t y : A clown, whose main e f f e c t i s h i s m o b i l e f a c e , must keep h i s f a c e v e r y m o b i l e . I used ; to always s t i c k out my tongue a t m y s e l f b e f o r e I began my e x e r c i s e s , so as to get q u i t e c l o s e to m y s e l f b e f o r e I c o u l d withdraw from m y s e l f a g a i n . L a t e r on I stopped d o i n g t h a t , and w i t h o u t any t r i c k s whatever j u s t s t a r e d at m y s e l f , e v e r y day f o r h a l f an hour, u n t i l f i n a l l y I wasn't t h e r e a t a l l . . . I o f t e n came c l o s e . t o g o i n g mad. I s i m p l y f o r g o t i t was me whose f a c e I was l o o k i n g a t i n the m i r r o r , t u r n e d the m i r r o r around when I had f i n i s h e d my e x e r c i s e s , and i f I happened to g l a n c e i n a m i r r o r l a t e r on i n the day I got a shock: t h a t was some s t r a n g e f e l l o w i n my bathroom, . . . I d i d n ' t know whether he was s e r i o u s or comic, a l o n g - n o s e d , pale, g h o s t — a n d I would run as f a s t as I c o u l d to M a r i e t o see m y s e l f i n h e r f a c e . S i n c e she has l e f t .1 c a n ' t do my f a c i a l e x e r c i s e s any more; I am a f r a i d o f g o i n g mad. I always went up, a f t e r . d o i n g my . e x e r c i s e s , q u i t e c l o s e t o M a r i e , t i l l I saw m y s e l f i n h e r eyes: t i n y , a b i t d i s t o r t e d , y e t r e c o g n i z a b l e : t h a t was me and y e t i t was the'same p e r s o n I had been a f r a i d o f i n the m i r r o r . 4 8 L i k e H e i n r i c h B o l l ' s clown, Rees would f i n d i t t e r r i f y i n g t o see h i m s e l f 47 as he r e a l l y i s . He does not recognize himself i n others. He evaluates according to h i s own moral precepts; but h i s senses are g r a t i f i e d by the probing c u r i o s i t y of h i s l i b i d i n o u s eye. He sees l u s t i n others, but r e c o i l s i n horror from Jackie's words of t r u t h : JACKIE REES: . . . T e l l me, u n c l e , what have you most enjo y e d doing? REV. REES: P r e a c h i n g . JACKIE REES:. To what end? REV. REES: To persuade and c o n v e r t . JACKIE REES: Or t o b e w i t c h and seduce. You know you've based a l o t of y our l i f e on the b e l i e f t h a t you a r e so d i f f e r e n t a man from me. You've made y o u r s e l f a f i n e , . h i g h p l a t f o r m , i n t r o d u c i n g God t o h i s g u e s t s as r o t u n d l y as a good b u t l e r . Me you've d e p i c t e d as a rampant and d i s g r a c e f u l s t a l l i o n t r a m p l i n g the h i l l s , v a l e s and v i r g i n i t i e s of t h i s l a n d . But we're the same man working from d i f f e r e n t ends. I am the c a r n a l boy w i t h a p o s t - c o i t a l urge t o sermonise. You a r e the p r e a c h e r who c r e a t e s b e f o r e him a vague c l o u d o f g e n e r a l i s e d l u s t . REV. REES: A l i e . JACKIE REES: I've watched the f a c e s of women a f t e r you have been p e l t i n g them w i t h hot words. Had i t not b e e n . f o r two hours on a h a r d bench and s i x l a y e r s o f t h i c k c l o t h i n g they would have put t h e i r c o o l p i e t y i n pawn f o r you,.any p l a c e , any t i m e . I envy you, u n c l e . You've had t h e r e a l e x c i t e m e n t , t h e r e a l m e l t i n g u n i o n . And always w i t h p r i d e and e x a l t a t i o n . No shame, no b e t r a y i n g weakness. ^ REV. REES: You dare t o say t h a t we a r e but shadows o f each o t h e r . So used i s he t o s e e i n g h i s p r o j e c t e d image of a c e l i b a t e , r e s t r a i n e d s e l f , he does not r e c o g n i z e t h a t the r e f l e c t i o n s he sees o f J a c k i e a r e , i n r e a l i t y , h i s own. But J a c k i e does from the b e g i n n i n g , i n t h i s s o l i l o q u y : We a r e r a r e l y more than a l i g h t f l i c k e r i n g between two i d e n t i t i e s . I c o u l d have spoken a l l the words he [Rev. Rees] spoke. And he, I suppose c o u l d have doubled f o r me. We i n h a b i t a p r o c e s s i o n o f wombs t h a t grow darker,, and we a v o i d t h e one a u t h e n t i c b i r t h by a c t s o f c l o w n i s h mischance.50 Jackie i s i n harmony with nature. His kinship with humanity, his c h i l d - l i k e capacity for l i v i n g r i c h l y , and h i s in s i g h t and humour move 48 a c r o s s the sombre scene w i t h f a n t a s t i c e f f e c t . Comic and s e r i o u s by t u r n , he i s a merry and d e l i g h t f u l clown i n t h e i n f e r n o o f South Wales. L i k e Dante's d e v i l s , t h e f o o l s who a r e "the d i s p e l l e r s o f doubt""'"'" a r e c r u e l i n t h e i r a n t i c s ; and they are the l o s t s o u l s : the t h u n d e r i n g d i v i n e , the C o l o n e l and t h e S h e r i f f , h u n t i n g men a l l , each a c c o r d i n g t o 52 h i s p e c u l i a r l u s t o r s p o r t , i n d u l g e d t o h i s i n d i v i d u a l l i m i t s o f i n d i f -f e r e n c e , i n t o l e r a n c e , o r i n t o l e r a b l e d i s d a i n f o r c r e a t u r e s o f a lower 53 s p e c i e s . These, the l o r d s o f m i s r u l e , a r e the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f E n g l i s h government, E n g l i s h law, and God's kingdom; and o f a system o f l a i s s e z f a i r e which has e x p l o i t e d men l i k e L uxton and t u r n e d them i n t o b u i l d e r s o f an i r o n empire whose key - s t o n e i s s e t t l e d on the h o s t o f broken dreams. These are the f o o l s whose r e v e l r i e s have bound an i r o n b e l t of c h a s t i t y on the l o v e and l a n d t h a t were f r e e : GEORGE CHISLETT: H i s f a n c y ' s l a n d . God made the e a r t h i n seven days and t h i s j o k e r c o l l a r e d i t i n e i g h t . COUNTY SHERIFF: Land goes t o him who t r e a t s i t b e s t . JACKIE REES: And you saw no wrong i n t h e death from hunger o f the pe o p l e you e v i c t e d . COUNTY SHERIFF: P e o p l e who a r e c a p a b l e of d y i n g from hunger i n any. co n t e x t a r e a g r o s s n u i s a n c e . Nature f l i c k s them o f f l i k e midges.54 Luxton's achievement i s t h a t he exposes the t r a g i c - c o m i c p r e t e n -s i o n s o f t h i s " F e a s t o f F o o l s , " t h i s H a r l e q u i n a d e o f h u n t e r s .in which we see the s e c u l a r r e v e l r i e s o f the E s t a b l i s h m e n t i n a hunt t h a t d e r i v e s from the s p o r t of k i n g s . And i t i s Luxton's sense of a f f i n i t y w i t h J a c k i e t h a t g i v e s b a l a n c e t o the p l a y , f o r he b r i d g e s the i n c r e d i b l e gap between t h e l i f e f o r c e and i t s n e g a t i o n . He i s t h e t r u l y complex c h a r a c t e r i n the drama; the one i n whom the m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e i d e a l i s m 49 of Jackie and dehumanized pragmatism of the S h e r i f f and the Colonel meet i n anguish. Through Luxton,,we see Jackie's power to i n s p i r e men to act and think with b e l i e f i n the i d e a l of human freedom, and the power of the Establishment to force men to conform. In Jackie, he sees what had been denied him so many years before; but he knows that that freedom i s betrayed even as he passes h i s mantle to Jackie; as Jackie knows i t , . . 5 5 too. Jackie i s the tragi-comic clown, the mediaeval f o o l , who uses his j e s t e r ' s wisdom to speak t r u t h . His passionate acclaim of l i f e i s the a n t i t h e s i s of the S h e r i f f ' s dispassionate disgust. His bright eyes con-56 t r a s t with the S h e r i f f ' s which have "a g l a c i e r i n each." As F. R. Leavis writes of the contrast between Sissy Jupe and B l i t z e r i n Dickens' Hard Times, such a.contrast renders the opposition between "the l i f e that i s l i v e d f r e e l y and r i c h l y from the deep i n s t i n c t i v e and emotional springs" and "the thin-blooded, quasi-mechanical product" of the system. Death i s the penalty Jackie must pay for "Having t r i e d to i n t e r p r e t the 58 dreams of a people who did not even.know they were asleep;" for a 59 people "[whose] ignorance i s the deepest grave o f . a l l . " When h i s friends have l e f t him, Jackie demonstrates an understanding of t h e i r betrayal that might be compared to that of B i l l y Budd. It says much for Gwyn Thomas's use of humour that t h i s scene ends on a note of hope and sadness rather than one of mawkish romanticism. It would seem that,, to some extent, the S h e r i f f , the Colonel and the Reverend R i t c h i e Rees each embodies and exemplifies extremist char-a c t e r i s t i c s ; they are s a t i r i c a l caricatures, p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of the •50 i n s t i t u t i o n s they represent. They are symptomatic of the dehumanizing 60 influences that turn men into empire-builders. They, l i k e J u s t i c e , have been b l i n d f o l d e d : they are b l i n d to the cent r a l t r u t h of the human universe: that man's nature i s good and bad, dark and l i g h t , and that truth i t s e l f i s r e l a t i v e . They a l l r e i n f o r c e the. b l i n d code of t r a d i t i o n ; but the choice between r i g h t and wrong i s never c l e a r , f o r a state of fl u x and a changing environment are subtle and obscure influences. Rees i s b l i n d to the fac t that he who i s looked to to in t e r p r e t l i f e ' s mysterious pain and God's i n e f f a b l e love stumbles i n the abysmal darkness 61 i n which he "guides the wind of God's wrath." The S h e r i f f and the 62 Colonel, the "anti^communication squad," alienate a people whose tongue 63 and language they do not speak. Luxton has seen the blindness of i l l u s i o n and the betrayal of h i s i d e a l s ; and his horror i s the knowledge of man's hand i n control of the primal heart, the l i f e - f o r c e . Jesters and clowns mock the makers of the tragedy of t h i s "Feast of Fools." It i s men who are found culpable, not an anonymous 'they,' an ambiguous society, an abstract Authority. CHAPTER III SHADOWS OF MUTE DREAMS On a j o u r n e y . i l l , And over f i e l d s a l l withered, dreams Go wandering s t i l l . —Matsuo Basho As the i r o n furnaces " a l t e r n a t e l y darkened and reddened, the sky" over the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l upheavals of the nine v a l l e y s , a wandering harpist was moving s w i f t l y , purposefully, toward Moonlea and the only being with whom he would share h i s sweet s o l i t u d e : John.Simon Adams. Alan Hugh Leigh i s the ha r p i s t ; h i s f r i e n d , the singer: We wandered a l l the mountains of the North and the plains of the Middle Country together. We always said that when our feet grew t i r e d we would f i n d some sweet solitude j u s t r i g h t f o r the j o i n t root of us to rest i n . He heard h i s father was at Moonlea, feeble, r i c k e t y and playing the f o o l around the puddling yards of Penbury, your [Helen's] father. He l e f t me, came down here, watched h i s father of the earth and stayed. It puzzled me. That was two years ago. Now I'm going to fetch him.2 A l l Things Betray Thee presents the harpist struggling to regain hi s l o s t freedom i n a world that has betrayed him. It i s not the same world he has known: for the present i s opposed to the a l l e g o r i c a l past. Alan Hugh Leigh seeks to return to the shared l i f e he has known with h i s 3 f r i e n d , to f i n d "the sweet solitude [they] dreamed of." He has inh e r i t e d from h i s grandfather, " i n the north-west corner of the land . . . two h i l l s and a v a l l e y that are so l o v e l y they make paradise pout." 52 Here, he dreams, they w i l l r e c o n s t r u c t the peace o f t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , of the p a s t o r a l l i f e o f t h e i r y o u t h . But a l r e a d y t h e r e i s a shadow over h i s dream, and h i s harmony i s broke n , even as the d r o v e r d e s t r o y s the t r a n q u i l l i t y o f h i s mood b e s i d e the l a k e a t Lindum:-Then a d r o v e r a r r i v e d , a prosperous,yeoman i n charge o f h i s own h e r d , and a g i a n t . He s t o o d a t l e a s t two f e e t and a f o r t i f i e d stomach above average p e a s a n t - l e v e l . He was s o l i d and br o a d as a h i l l o c k and as dense. I watched' the food and d r i n k go down,him as down a p i t s h a f t . He was on h i s way t o a market c e n t r e i n one of the b o r d e r c o u n t i e s where the new i n d u s t r i a l towns had c r e a t e d a l e g i o n o f l e a n b o d i e s b e g g i n g f o r h i s s t o c k . I drank my a l e and watched t h i s man, the s i g h t of whom took up and sp a t upon the whole wonderland of q u i e t f o r g i v e n e s s i n t o which I had been l e d by my hour a t the l a k e s h o r e . I spoke t o him o f t h e p l a c e s I had been, .of the f a r hamlets where s i n g i n g , c l u s t e r e d groups had dipped t h e i r s l a b o f s q u a l i d wants f o r a s h o r t . f o r g e t t i n g i n t o the l i q u i d of my music. I t o l d him o f the i r o n m a s t e r s whose dark l i t t l e towns I had g l a n c e d . a t and f l e d from i n my wanderings, who l a i d t h e i r b l a c k f i n g e r s on the heads o f the f i e l d - f o l k , t e n s i n g t h e i r neck muscles f o r the l a y i n g o f a clumsy k n i f e . I w h i s p e r e d t o him as the a l e - p o o l grew deeper and the c r a z y m a l i c e of my r u i n e d mood sp r e a d wing and g a i n e d . f a s t i n f u r y and power, I wh i s p e r e d t b him a l l . I knew o f hunger on e a r t h , i t s f r u i t i o n and f l o w , , f o r a l l the w o r l d as i f hunger were my s i s t e r , a d e a r l y f a m i l i a r s l u t . ' Then a h u r l e d pot came w i t h i n an i n c h o f t a k i n g o f f .my e a r and I saw t h a t t h i s d r o v e r t o whom l i f e was c l e a r l y good and wi d e n i n g i t s g r i n , was v i e w i n g me as he would a t o a d , a mad, purpose-f u l t o a d . 5 The a r t i s t , p o e t , wandering m i n s t r e l , i s an o u t c a s t . H i s v i s i o n makes him an o u t s i d e r , f o r i t i s not d i s t o r t e d by the s i n g l e n e s s o f p u r -pose of t h e E s t a b l i s h m e n t or the R e v o l u t i o n a r y . The a r t i s t sees the human l o n g i n g s and d e s o l a t i o n i n those who have been c a s t i n the r o l e o f v i l l a i n ; and h i s v o i c e transmutes a l l g r i e f s and d e s i r e s i n t o "the shadowed o r b i t of h i s own t h o u g h t f u l n e s s , t o t e m p t • t h e i r v o i c e s i n t o a d u s k - s o f t n e s s o f me l a n c h o l y sound.' 1 H i s v i s i o n i s dangerous t o the cause of t h e r e b e l , f o r i t sees the good i n the s o u l . o f c o n s e r v a t i s m 5 3 even whilst i t exposes the wrongs. The harpist's voice speaks of the peace and harmony of a fa r and distant time,, and l i n k s the dreams.of f o l k whose l i v e s are " b r i e f and black" with the "image of beauty" i n the farthest distance of "some c e r t a i n paradise,"^ of some earthly Eden: The story of Eden i s a greater allegory than man has ever,guessed. For i t was t r u l y man who, walking memoryless through bars of sunlight and shade i n the morning of the world, sat down and passed a wonder-ing hand across h i s heavy forehead. Time and darkness, knowledge of good and e v i l have walked with him ever since. It i s the destiny struck by the clock i n the body i n that b r i e f space between the be-ginning of the f i r s t i c e and that of the second. In just that i n t e r v a l a new world of t e r r o r and loneliness appears to have been created i n the .soul of man.& The harpist sees the.effect of i n d u s t r i a l i s m on the l i v e s of the people; and understands the s u f f e r i n g of the women, who can not f i n d f o r g e t t i n g i n work and ale. It i s for the women that h i s compassion flows; f o r , " I t ' s only t h e i r souls that have the q u a l i t y of s i l k that allows them to 9 be s t u f f e d into the smallest and furthest folds of h e l l . " Such thoughts are not tolerated by established authority, i n which the d u a l i t y of idealism and materialism i s reconciled i n the cause of progress. There i s no place for Alan Hugh Leigh i n the c o n f l i c t that sears the region; . but he i s caught i n the violence of .events by the fact of his own nature, : and because of his bond with John.Simon Adams. It i s the drover who foreshadows the violence to come, and who demonstrates the e f f e c t of the harpist on men whose conscience has been muffled or i s mute: My p r a t t l e of unease among mankind had fished deep down into the great bulk of that drover, had brought up on a hook his l a s t f e e l i n g nerve and had scoured h e l l out of the thing. When he recovered from h i s giddiness he went into the corner where 54 my harp stood and he kicked i t , as d e l i b e r a t e l y as I w i l l ever see anything done, i n t o s p l i n t e r s . He turned around to stare at me, gasping and malevolent, seeming to ask what my next move would be. There was no next move. I and l i f e were a l l f u l l up and not a-muscle of eit h e r moved. I had f e l t , i n the quiescence of w i l l that had marked my mood on a r r i v i n g at that spot, that some profound transformative a n t i c might be i n the course of execution, and I f e l t no strangeness as.I witnessed my harp's death and my own wondering s u r v i v a l . My meekness impressed.the drover. He paid me for the damage and I l e f t at dawn the next morning.1° And when Alan Hugh Leigh i s released from prison,,and again when he takes leave of Helen Penbury, he i s recompensed f o r the pain he has suffered. But nothing w i l l ever.compensate for the deep, v i b r a t i n g loneliness that had held the harmony of h i s being and the dream of a solitude outside the s o c i a l system; the system which has f a i l e d to reach outside i t s e l f for a humanistic code of values. Just as harmony.is the shadow language of the music of melody, so the harpist gives depth of emotion to John Simon's words of-reason, and John Simon gives meaning to the harpist's i n f i n i t e , inexpressible need f o r f u l f i l m e n t . John Simon's death, f o r e -shadowed symbolically by the harp's death, leaves the harpist alone; alone i n a society which has alienated him because he i s not dedicated to a cause, or committed to the code. The harp and.his f r i e n d are l e f t behind him when he leaves Moonlea, " f e e l i n g i n [his] fingers the promise 12 of a new enormous music." A music that w i l l speak the bitt e r n e s s of his l o s s , "so perfect and simple and sounding a soul to me, . . . mangled 13 and dumb l i k e earth." In h i s wanderings, the har p i s t has always f l e d from the change which i n d u s t r i a l i s m has brought into Welsh l i f e . Now, i n the early years of the 1830's, he has come to Moonlea, an i n d u s t r i a l v i l l a g e , which, l i k e 55 Merthyr T y d f i l , i s at the head of one of the f i v e Western Valleys of the South Wales c o a l f i e l d . Moonlea, a f i c t i o n a l name for what might be Merthyr i n 1831, i s a man-made place that the ironmasters have grafted onto a l o v e l y v a l l e y . Here, at the foot of the slopes of Arthur's Crown, l i k e the harp l e f t behind him at the lake inn, the hopes and dreams of Moonlea's "dark pool.of men and women"^ are "mangled i n the midst of 15 16 that l o v e l i n e s s , " of "the j o y f u l beauty of the h i l l s around." There i s t r a g i c irony i n the harpist's s e l f - c o n s o l a t i o n f or the harp's l o s s : his journey to Moonlea indeed w i l l "mark the induction of a brand new type of tomorrow into [his] days;" but not,.as he a n t i c i p a t e s , "a tomorrow r e s t i n g on a d i l i g e n t s e c u r i t y and assurance.""^ The destruction of the harp i s symbolic of the end of innocence: the harpist i s beginning a new l i f e of awareness; h i s erstwhile harmony with nature i s no protec-t i o n i n the " c i v i l i z a t i o n " that has replaced the old Welsh past o r a l peace, and his journey of enlightenment i s a confrontation with the v i c t i m of an a l i e n culture: s o c i a l man; and of the i n d u s t r i a l revolution: i n d u s t r i a l man. The harpist journeys from the place of h i s natural being, from an Eden i n r u r a l Wales. And i t i s as i f he were walking from the morning of the world, where, i n h i s pure r e l a t i o n to nature, he has known the i n f i n i t e power of his own rhythm: "the i n f i n i t e ground of [his] deep v i b r a t i o n . " " ^ The h a r p i s t i s both a character within the novel, and hence sub-j e c t to the author's development of events, and an observer outside the s i t u a t i o n , f u l f i l i n g a choric function by reporting and i n t e r p r e t i n g the events. Through the eyes of innocence,,Gwyn Thomas draws attention to a 56 morally corroded society. The harpist's assertion of human freedom i s i n c o n f l i c t with h i s distressed v i s i o n of a population trapped between the power of authority and the aspirations of the employed. A stranger to labour i n f i e l d or foundry, Alan Hugh Leigh reveals, with disturbing i n s i g h t s , the f a i l u r e of any s o c i a l values i n a society which i s i n a state of f l u x . Placed within the struggle against the repressive mach-inations of ambitious, power-driven men, the harpist experiences the loneliness and i s o l a t i o n that come to every.individual who confronts society with i t s shams. Through the harpist's eyes, understanding and response, and from h i s experiences and t h e i r contrast with h i s Edenic 19 background, man's dualism i s made manifest: he i s both betrayer and betrayed; good and e v i l ; and these d u a l i t i e s , d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed and mutually exclusive,•are the measure of man's capacity f o r conscious error or v i r t u e , and the opposition to these of man's subconscious urges and desires. The ambivalence of good f a i t h and bad i n the man whose i n s t i n c t f o r se l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n i s not submerged by his dedication to a cause—as exemplified i n W i l f i e Bannion and Katherine B r i e r , f o r i n s t a n c e — i s made e x p l i c i t i n the words of Bartholomew Clark, the t r a g i c clown: 'Bartholomew,' [John Simon] s a i d . . . . 'Deep down i n your heart you believe as we do. . . . Help us to get out of here' . . . 'It's no good,' [Bartholomew] said q u i e t l y ^ h i s face upturned to-wards the g r i l l e where John Simon was s t i l l l i s t e n i n g . 'You s a i d — deep down i n your heart. There i s no deep down, honest to God, Adams, there i s no deep down. It ' s a t h i n s l i c e of a thing, gone dark with age, dampness, cold, not f i t even for my own teeth. I'd agree to get you out because I believe you stand f o r some things that are r i g h t , that you are good,,that you are better at least than the people who put you here. I'd agree to go to that tavern and 57 t e l l your f r i e n d s . ' I'd wish them w e l l . But I'd betray them too. Every day I must have my b i t of betrayal or the night would be too strange to be borne. The only r e a l l y thorough and constant ones, Adams, are the corrupt ones. That's why people l i k e you w i l l always manage to get yourselves hanged whenever you crop up and t r y to make men blush. I'm glad l i t t l e Jacob [his assistant], came. I wouidn't2 | l i k e you boys to see to the very furthest corners of my sty. ... .' Caretaker of Tudbury Castle and gaoler to the harpist and h i s fr i e n d , Bartholomew, i n h i s drunken escape from consciousness, i n h i s delirium of anguish, looks into himself and mirrors the agony of h i s 21 v i s i o n of the betrayal of h i s own " b i t t e r burning protest" against oppression, h i s s e l f - b e t r a y a l of h i s youthful dreams of human freedom. Together, the harpist's l i f e - c e l e b r a t i n g v i t a l i t y and the gaoler's l i f e -escaping i n t r o s p e c t i o n mirror the c o n f l i c t i n s o c i a l man; they embody, the agony,of the human w i l l , of man's a l i e n a t i o n from h i s human bond: I t o l d Bartholomew he should.be ashamed of himself for having lent his l i f e to such a piece of fraud. When I said that he would look at me with a . t e r r i b l e sadness i n his eyes as i f I had dug my finger into some aching patch of corruption within him. Then he would, drink a l i t t l e more, peer outside the c e l l door to make sure that there were no spies i n the corridor; then he would bring h i s head close to mine and whisper those rusty, antiquated songs of rev o l t that lay strewn along the gutter of his f i n e , abandoned s e l f , and af t e r a night or two I got to know them as we l l as he and we made an impressive sight crooning t h i s rhyming l i t a n y of defiance and reverige against the walls i n which I,was imprisoned, against the men who paid Bartholomew to keep.guard over us, while the tears ran fa s t down h i s face into h i s nearly black cravat of greasy immemorial l i n e n while I smiled up at the oblong of sky I could see through the grating, pleased by the r i c h gravy of absurdity t h i s scene seemed to pour ^ over the black dollop of what appeared to be our forthcoming doom. As narrator of the events; the harpist reveals the profound e f f e c t upon him as a character i n the action; and as f r e e l y as he moves from narrator to protagonist, so does-the na r r a t i v e move from the 5 8 d i a l e c t i c of philosophic thought and human confrontation to passages of v i v i d imagery that capture the taste and touch,,sound and smell of the beauty that i s the Wales of moorland,.wooded glen, and fern-topped moun-t a i n slopes, and the shape and look of fear, hate, greed and power. When he descends the mountain path to the "bald, huddled cottages i n the township below with i t s r a v e l l i n g cap of smoke and i t s a i r of s u l l e n 23 detachment from the j o y f u l beauty of the h i l l s around," h i s meeting with Helen Penbury has cast the f i r s t shadow over h i s dream, for i t antici p a t e s the c o n f l i c t he i s entering and h i s r e l a t i o n to i t s p a r t i c i -pants. Their encounter.in the c l e a r i n g , a natural hortus conclusis, with the curve of a stream enclosing i t at one.side and the dingle trees and bushes t h i c k l y protecting the glade, anticipates their.meetings i n the walled garden of the ironmaster's house. The h a r p i s t , the dreamer, enters the glade,.even as the ce n t r a l f i g u r e of Guillaume de L o r r i s ' Roman de l a Rose enters the enclosed garden, with the p o r t r a i t of the goddess Idleness matched by Helen Penbury. Here, the h a r p i s t encounters 24 i n t h i s woman, who is."emblematic of many things [he knows] l i t t l e of," the forbidding aspect of power, p r i v i l e g e , and b l i n d prejudice, and the counterpart of Guillaume's a l l e g o r i c a l , f i g u r e s — : D a n g e r , Fear, E v i l 25 Tongue,,and Shame: 'Who' s. your friend? '. 'John Simon Adams.' From the g i r l ' s face I could.see that she had heard of John Simonj and her expression affected me l i k e a thrust i c i c l e . It was strange to be sharing any common t e r r i t o r y of knowledge with t h i s woman. 'Why?' I asked. 'What about him?' 'That man i s a deadly nuisance.- Wherever he i s there i s no peace.' r 59 'John Simon Adams was never a deadly nuisance i n a l l h i s days, never. 1 'When did you see him l a s t ? ' 'Two years ago.' ! "Since then he has been learning, h a r p i s t . He i s now a graduate, . Moonlea's leading thorn.' 'A thorn to whom?' 'My father arid almost a l l others.' 'How? What makes him p r i c k l e ? He was always as soft as a p e t a l . . . , How i s he a thorn?' 'Go down there and f i n d out. He's an e v i l man.' 'Do you know him?' 'No. I don't need t o . ' 1 I threw my bread.lump a n g r i l y into the stream. 'For God's sake, woman, what i s the r e l a t i o n between you and human-it y ? Oh, that's a big wild question and I don't need an answer. But there's a cold s e l f i s h n e s s i n your eyes and your heart that's new to me, that makes me . . .' I rose quickly to my feet.. She grew paler and I was glad to see that, although I meant her no harm. When I spoke to her again, i t was s o f t l y , almost humbly, sorry that I had sent my, voice into that f l i g h t of fuss. 'In a l l the being of John Simon Adams, and .compared with that of you and your father, i t i s a great l i g h t e d dome of being, there i s no shadow of e v i l . I don't know what you've done to him i n that smoky sty of a place down there i n the v a l l e y , but whatever i t i s i t can be cleaned away and he can become what he was i n the days when Moonlea was a name to him and no more. You see, lady, I've found the sweet solitude.we dreamed of. There i s no r e s o l u t i o n t o . t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s . H e l e n i s r e p e l l e d by h i s contempt f o r i n d u s t r y and i n d u s t r i a l man: 'What's wrong w i t h them?' 'What's wrong w i t h c h a i n i n g a b e a r and p a y i n g him a few pence per hobble? That f o u n d r y work's a pen f o r the i d i o t and the l i f e - s i c k . Some men put on a coat of d i r t and s e r v i l i t y too s w i f t l y f o r my t a s t e . ' When a man a c c e p t s a master's hand o r . a r e n t e d h o v e l he's f i t f o r t h e boneyard.' 'You're a savage or .a r a d i c a l . You ought to say those t h i n g s t o m y . f a t h e r . He'd have you s i t t i n g over a f u r n a c e l e a r n i n g elementary l o g i c i n l e s s than a minute.'26 She i s contemptuous of h i s allegiance to John Simon Adams, and h i s wan-27 dering l i f e : "[Moonlea] has no place f o r drones," she t e l l s him. And 60 y e t she i s a t t r a c t e d t o t h i s pagan man, who speaks to her w i t h the f r e e -dom o f an e q u a l and whose h a r p i s t ' s f i n g e r s have "ah e x p e c t a n t s o r t of 2 8 curve as i f they a r e a l r e a d y l i s t e n i n g t o the n o t e . " He, t o o , i s b o t h r e p e l l e d by and a t t r a c t e d t o t h i s daughter of the ' g e n t i l i t y . ' He i s r e p e l l e d by what he senses' i n h e r : "Her own impulse to c r e a t e and mould 29 and become the dominant m o t i v e of h e r u n i v e r s e , " i n the town of Moonlea, the " l i f e - t r a p " f o r a l l t h e s m a l l f i e l d - f o l k . d r i v e n o f f t h e i r ' l a n d by the new and p o w e r f u l l a n d o w n e r s — f o r l a n d e n c l o s u r e s e r v e d to f e e d the i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s w i t h much, needed l a b o u r ; i t might be s a i d t h a t i t was d i r e c t e d , t o t h i s end. As the h a r p i s t l o o k s a t her,, H e l e n Penbury has caught "a h a n d f u l of [ h i s ] f i b r e , w i t h one a c c u r a t e movement of her s p i r i t , p r e s s e d i t , taught i t t o ache w i t h a s h r i l l , e m b a r r a s s i n g p l a i n -30 t i v e n e s s ; " and d e s p i t e h e r a r r o g a n c e and p r i d e he can not " e r a s e t h e . i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h i s woman, he r words, the c o l o u r and sound of h e r , [have] made upon [ h i s ] t h o u g h t s . " An analogue of I d l e n e s s , she i s an i r o n i c goddess of N a t u r e , the a n t i t h e s i s o f the g u i l e l e s s h a r p i s t , a n t i -p a t h e t i c t o h i s roaming s p i r i t and the freedom"of h i s dreams. The t h e s i s and a n t i - t h e s i s o f d i f f e r i n g c oncepts of freedom, j u s t i c e , mercy p r e s e n t e d i n the n o v e l are a n t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s d i a l e c t i c a l e n c o u n t e r . And as the h a r p i s t i s drawn toward Hele n Penbury a g a i n s t h i s w i l l , so he becomes drawn i n t o the c o n f l i c t between the workers and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t . The d e v e l o p i n g human c o n f l i c t and the emergences of a p r i m i t i v e w orkers' movement i s the c e n t r a l s i t u a t i o n of the n o v e l ; but' as the h a r -p i s t becomes i n v o l v e d i n the s t r u g g l e and committed to keep f a i t h w i t h 61 John Simon, who i s an o r g a n i z e r o f the workers' r e v o l t and l e a d e r o f the N o r t h - E a s t e r n V a l l e y men, he becomes the c e n t r a l f i g u r e , the r a i s o n d e t r e o f t h e n o v e l . The e f f e c t of t h e a l i e n a t i o n of the p e o p l e from t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l land,, arid the c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e s on man,in s o c i e t y , a r e h e i g h t e n e d when seen t h r o u g h t h e eyes of i n n o c e n c e , when seen a g a i n s t the h a r p i s t ' s i d y l l i c background, and when the h a r p i s t e x p e r i e n c e s f o r the f i r s t time the f e a r t h a t comes when someone has him by the l e g : 'Have you a c h o i c e , h a r p i s t ? ' Jeremy asked me. 'I don't know. I've n e v e r seen l i f e as you boys seem to see i t , a d i s t i r i c t , s e p a r a t e t h i n g l i k e a d e t a c h a b l e shadow,,to be examined and k i c k e d o r . k i s s e d . I t ' s j u s t f l own around me, not h u r t i n g too much and I've n e v e r give r i a c o n s c i o u s damn. No, I've never thought about t h i s b u s i n e s s of c h o o s i n g . I w i s h I were away from h e r e . I w i s h John Simon Adams were f a r away from h e r e . I w i s h he were s t i l l f u l l of the j o y f u l s i n g i n g , t h a t w as-in him once arid which, has now died.. But-l!m h e r e , and so i s he. And h i s j o y may s t i l l be i n him, but i t i s s i n g i n g i n a key t h a t my e a r s a r e deaf t o h e a r . I f e e l the h a t e and f r e t t h a t f i l l s t h e ground between you and t h e mighty. The mighty have me by the l e g too,,and my l e g k i c k s t o be f r e e , but hour a f t e r hour I s t a y h e r e , l i k e the r a b b i t s t a y s by the w e a s e l . That p u z z l e s me.!'31 Fo r John Simon, the c h o i c e has been made; He has seen the hunger i n t h e p e o p l e who were drawn t o Moonlea by the f a s c i n a t i o n of i r o n ; has been bound t h e r e by the same s p e l l : '. . . Why do you hang around such a p l a c e as t h i s , making i r o n and power f o r Penbury and m i s e r y f o r y o u r s e l f . You have the exper-i e n c e of an u n d e r t a k e r a t a cheaper f u n e r a l . You a r e up t o t h e brow i n shadow. Why d i d you s t a y here? 'Keep your eyes and mind open, A l a n , and y o u ' l l soon f i n d the r e a s o n . My f a t h e r took a l o n g time d y i n g when I came down here to b e a r him company through the l a s t s t r e t c h o f . t h e r o a d . Most of th e time he t a l k e d about i r o n and the wonder of a l l molten arid m a l l e a b l e . t h i n g s . He t o l d me a l l the s e c r e t s o f h i s c r a f t . The o n l y t h i n g i n a l l h i s l i f e s i n c e t h e day he walked away from my mother up i n t h e 62 N o r t h t o r u n i n t o the shape he wanted was t h a t l i q u i d - i r o n . He was mad f o r i t . When he d i e d you were no l o n g e r h e r e t o t a k e my mind o f f i t . So I found t h e moulding y a r d s d r a g g i n g me l i k e a magnet. Deep down I p r o b a b l y had something o f the o l d man's e l a b o r a t e m i s e r y , and i t might have been c a l l i n g f o r the.same c u r e . So I d i n ' t r e s i s t . Penbury l i k e d t h e s k i l l o f my hands, and -I l i k e d .the j o b . My f a t h e r was r i g h t . Under the d i r t t h e r e ' s a l o t o f b e a u t y P 2 And he has seen the s u f f e r i n g of the p e o p l e who were d r i v e n t o Moonlea by the p r o p u l s i o n of economic n e c e s s i t y and from whom was to be e x a c t e d t h e l o s s when t h e r e came a l u l l i n the w r i t h i n g need f o r c o a l and i r o n . De-p r i v e d o f t h e i r s m a l l farms and t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l community, a l i e n a t e d from "a dozen c o u n t i e s [ t h e s e p e o p l e ] have no common u n d e r s t a n d -33 i n g , no common language." The dream o f freedom t h a t i s mute,in men 34 "made dumb by the s t r a n g e n e s s o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n t y e s t e r d a y s , " i s t h e "swamp, the s u c k i n g swamp o f o t h e r p e o p l e ' s h e l p l e s s n e s s , and [John 35 Simon's] own compassion." He has seen the s u b j u g a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e by men who have used t h e i r a u t h o r i t a t i v e power t o i n s t i l f e a r , and who r e p r e s s c r i t i c i s m and d i s s e n t by l a b e l l i n g them ' J a c o b i n i s m ' and ' t r e a s o n ' — a c t i v i t i e s which d i s t u r b the Ki n g ' s Peace, and which a r e p e n a l i z e d by - 3 6 d e a t h , . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n or imprisonment. Men such as Plimmon, J a r v i s , R a d c l i f f e , W i l s o n and Bowen, use the a u t h o r i t y o f God and t h e S t a t e f o r what Dr. L i o n e l R u b i n o f f d e f i n e s as 37 "the p o r n o g r a p h i c enjoyment of power f o r i t s own sak e . " They b r e e d f o l l o w e r s l i k e Spencer and B l e d g e l y . They c u l t i v a t e c o n f o r m i s t s l i k e 38 Lemuel Stev e n s , who w i l l " p e r j u r e w i t h p a s s i o n and s k i l l " f o r them; and ma n i p u l a t e o r c o e r c e men l i k e R i c h a r d Penbury. I s a b e l l a S t e v e n s , no l e s s 39 than F l o s s B e n n e t t , i s "one s o l i d b l o c k o f i n t e r l o c k i n g b e t r a y a l s ; " b o t h a r e v i c t i m s o f t h e p s e u d o - m o r a l i t y o f t h e new i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . 63 For the people who have taken "the f u l l weight of the boot" 4^ there w i l l always be one who sees the " l o s t bewildered stare that comes from t h e i r eyes when the world-storm dies down.for a moment and l e t s the f u l l horror 41 of knowing themselves s l i p back into the old p o s i t i o n , " and becomes committed to achieving t h e i r inward dream of freedom. As Abel J e f f e r i e s says to Alan Hugh Leigh: In some men the winds of joy drop quickly and i n t h e i r s i l e n c e a l l the grieving of earth seems to f i n d an echo. Such ,a man, I think, i s John Simon.42 Here, i n the h i l l - s i d e tavern, 'The Leaves A f t e r the Rain,' the meeting of men takes on s i g n i f i c a n c e . It i s here that John Simon speaks of h i s commitment to humanity, and.Abelof h i s allegiance to John Simon. Af t e r the f a i l u r e of the peaceful demonstration and the hunting down of i t s leaders, the tavern i s a place of refuge f o r John Simon and the h a r p i s t , where they can meet with Jeremy Lohgridge, leader,of the Western Valley men, an erstwhile p a c i f i s t who converted John Simon to h i s b e l i e f i n the power of persuasion by peaceful means, by appealing to authority with words of reason. The irony of t h e i r opposing convictions i s that when Longridge became convinced that moral persuasion and non-violence would always f a i l i n an appeal for humanitarian treatment for the workers, John Simon was as strongly persuaded that even the least enlightened of 43 the masters could be changed: "His s p i r i t had flown or crawled, depend-ing on the way you look at i t , on to p r e c i s e l y the same h i l l o c k of 44 patient p a s s i v i t y which had j u s t been l e f t by Jeremy." Believing that a.peaceful demonstration would be met with the same brand of treachery 64 45 as he had experienced, Longridge and h i s thousands of supporters f a i l e d to j o i n the march. Now, John Simon's g r i e f for the men who have died i s hard with b i t t e r n e s s f or the men who have betrayed h i s f a i t h i n them and made him betray the workers who had trusted him. Only now does he know that he has sought to change the thinking of men whose power derives from t h e i r capacity f or enjoyment of power: he has sought to change t h e i r human nature. For, as Freud has pointed out: "Men are not gentle, f r i e n d l y . creatures wishing for love, who simply defend themselves i f they are attacked . . . . a powerful measure of desire for aggression has to be 46 reckoned as part of t h e i r i n t r i n s i c i n s t i n c t u a l endowment." John Simon has a b e l i e f i n man, i n man's nature being fundamentally good. His whole.philosophy has been based on thinking that ante-dates Thomas Paine and the Age of Reason. Jeremy Longridge i s "a clear seer" 47 who knows that Mass man i s a slave who has betrayed l i f e , betrayed h i s humanity. Rubinoff draws attention to the pressures i n modern i n d u s t r i a l society which have produced conformity. He c i t e s p s y c h i a t r i s t Robert Linder's d e f i n i t i o n of Mass man: The Mass man . . . i s the psychopath i n e x c e l s l s . A mechanized robot-ized caricature of humanity, i t i s he who f i n a l l y tears down around his own head the house of h i s culture. A slave i n mind and body, , whose l i f e s i g n i f i e s no more than the instrument of h i s masters' power, a l o s t creature without separate i d e n t i t y i n the spreading c o l -l e c t i v i t y , a mindless integer of the pack who wakens from h i s torpor only when prodded by the whip from outside or the stab,of brute appe-t i t e from within, i t i s he who f i n a l l y i n h e r i t s the earth and runs i t to r u i n . Mass man, the u n i v e r s a l psychopath, i s born when the i n d i v i d u a l ego. i s weakened to the point at which i t loses separate i d e n t i t y and i s forced, f or s e c u r i t y , to merge with the mass. This becomes possible however, only when what I believe to be a fundamental i n s t i n c t of the human animal i s outraged or betrayed. There i s that within us that 65 cannot be. denied without destroying the essence of humanity. It i s a drive to master, to overcome, to express p o s i t i v e protest against whatever stands i n the way of the f a r - o f f unknown goals of evolution. When t h i s b u i l t - i n urge i s impeded or suppressed, the q u a l i t i e s that make up the humanity of man disappear, and i n the place of man stands a goose-stepping automaton driven by animal lusts;48 Lindner, here, i s s t a t i n g i m p l i c i t l y the p o s i t i o n of John Simon Adams: that man i s fundamentally good.: But Longridge, the clear seer, takes Rubinoff's view of man: Now I f u l l y agree with Lindner, but with some serious reservations. In addition to t h i s Apollonian or virtuous.capacity for goodness and c r e a t i v i t y , and for r e b e l l i n g against i n j u s t i c e and a r b i t r a r y use of power, there i s also i n man a Dionysian or demonic capacity for aggression and f o r enjoying power, the expression of which i s j u s t as important as the expression of c r e a t i v i t y . This leaves us with the problem, as Freud w e l l knew, of f i n d i n g healthy, creative ways of expressing t h i s aggression. In more concrete terms: the problem for man i s to b u i l d a world that i s as much a home for h i s body as for h i s mind.49 Longridge recognizes that i n d u s t r i a l society has allowed these demonic q u a l i t i e s to develop; that i t has encouraged i n men i n authority a ruth-less enjoyment of t h e i r capacity for aggression. I n d u s t r i a l society, he believes, has produced i n d u s t r i a l Mass man who has betrayed h i s l i f e by suppression of h i s i n s t i n c t for self-expression, by submission to the a r b i t r a r y w i l l of the masters: 'Jeremy doesn't believe i n persuasion by peaceful example any more. He says i t ' s l i k e putting your head i n the l i o n ' s mouth before p u l -l i n g the heart out of the l i o n or the teeth from i t s head. He says the r i c h are a small army which keeps the whole nation of the poor besieged within thick f i l t h y walls by g u i l e and. t e r r o r . He says that for men to l i v e i n t h e i r thousands simply to enrich the Penburys and Plimmons i s to betray l i f e . Therefore, he says, l e t the nation of the poor be r i d of i t s besiegers and make.its l i f e a serene and clear and f r u i t f u l thing. He says i t i s good that those who forge the i r o n should be the masters of the foundries i n which i t i s forged. He says i t i s likewise good that the f i e l d s should belong to those who wish to t i l l them, as once they must have done.. He says that i f the workers are to be slaves i n the new towns, a prey to hunger and diseases they didn't know before, then i t i s better that the foundries and mines be destroyed now and we with them and the v a l l e y s made empty and quiet once again:'50 Longridge sees that i n d u s t r i a l towns have bred greed and deprivation; competitive aggression and subjugation. The only hope for man i s a r e -turn to the conditions of the past: to d e - i n d u s t r i a l i z e South Wales. In t h i s , Gwyn Thomas's:character i s expressing the idealism of Saunders Lewis;"'"'" and he sees, as do John Simon, the h a r p i s t , Eddie Parr, Abel J e f f e r i e s , the gaoler, Jameson, ironmaster Penbury, and a l l the charac-ters whose i n d i v i d u a l i t y has not died i n them, the condition of a people enslaved. He sees i n the towns the same misery that the modern Welsh poet T. H. Parry Williams has observed i n the c i t y : the whole nation of the poor, huddled i n slums, Where man Begins to die ere he begins to l i v e , and where the mass of people 52 Die without dying and without l i v i n g l i v e . Fear of punishment and the need to p r o p i t i a t e authority lead to betra y a l . And thus i t i s that Alan and John Simon are betrayed by Abel's 53 wife; and the tavern, once more, i s the place of b r u t a l aggression. As Bartholomew knows, l o y a l t y to one's fellows and compassion no longer ex i s t when one i s confronted with oppression: 67 'He's a good l a d , ' he would croak into my ear, j e r k i n g h i s finger towards John Simon's c e l l , 'with a heart bigger than t h i s , ' patting the magnificent outswell of h i s stomach, 'but a f o o l , a great f o o l . You can't beat these, nobody can beat these.' He banged h i s f i s t on the immense stones of the wall behind us.- 'And there are worse things than the stones and the men who p i l e them one on another for t h e i r own power's sake. I t ' s those swine down there.' He pointed, with s t i f f arm down i n the d i r e c t i o n of Tudbury. 'Poor f o l k a l l , but they'd as l i e f hang you both as look at you i f Plimmori threw them a penny from h i s saddle bags and t o l d them to get on with the job. There's too much autumn, h a r p i s t , too much autumn for anybody's l i k i n g . And the f a l l i n g r o t t i n g ones, among us are never trodden properly into the ground.' At that, point he would make a long pause and stare as i f i n wondering worship at the wall that separated us from John Simon. 'Someone's always paying, harpist . . . for radiant boys l i k e you who are s e t t i n g your faces towards the.dawn and keeping fresh the parts of l i f e that we d e f i l e , breaking the sile n c e i n our acre of degradation, the paying's never done.'54 The axiom 'Might i s r i g h t ' i s vindicated when John Simon Adams and Alan Hugh Leigh are found g u i l t y of charges which carry the death penalty. Vindicated, too, are the men who murdered two men and a boy i n 55 t h e i r ruthless q u e l l i n g of what they termed a r i o t . Had i t been impos-s i b l e to f i n d witnesses w i l l i n g to give perjured evidence, authority, would have had d i f f i c u l t y i n repudiating the charges of i t s own g u i l t . As i t i s , honour and truth have been d i s c r e d i t e d , and the o f f i c i a l rep-resentatives of j u s t i c e , moral law and s o c i a l order have been upheld; for t h e i r r e s p e c t a b i l i t y i s vouched for by t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , and so long as they appear to adhere to p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e and humanitarian i d e a l s , they can use t h e i r power to destroy those i n whom these ideals l i v e and demonstrably challenge t h e i r corruption. Lord Plimmon's speech against c h i l d labour has established h i s image as a humanitarian—-a r a d i c a l , e v e n — ; h i s a c q u i s i t i v e seizure of land has been seen as conservation, and h i s plans to increase the land's p r o d u c t i v i t y and wealth as purely 68 56 philanthropic. The truth, as the harpist's p a i n f u l experience demon-str a t e s , i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to t h i s image.^ In such a society as t h i s , there i s no place f o r the a r t i s t or for the s e n s i t i v e humanist. The essence of the harpist i s the a b i l i t y to express h i s own humanity, to.express c r e a t i v e l y the harmony that has been h i s i n s o l i t u d e . He, no less than the leaders of the r e v o l t , i s a rebel against i n j u s t i c e ; and i t i s through him that Penbury can reveal hi s true being. Manipulated by the p o l i c i e s of Plimmon, R a d c i i f f e , J a r v i s , Richard Penbury i s not the man of i n f l e x i b l e iron the leaders of the r e -58 v o l t have depicted. An a r t i s t forced into the r61e of an i n d u s t r i a l i s t , Penbury.is trapped i n a world a l i e n to h i s nature. His sympathy for the workers i s repressed by Plimmon and R a d c i i f f e : f o r i t i s against t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , as i t i s against the i n t e r e s t s of the i n s u r r e c t i o n i s t s , f o r him to reveal h i s humanitarian face by taking o f f the mask moulded f or him f o r the ro l e that the men and the age have cast him. His sleepless 59 nights and "philosophic migraine" evidence the predicament of one who f a l l s v i c t i m to h i s own'surrender of dreams, and who i s vic t i m i z e d by those veiry ambitions i n which he had seen the consolation for h i s loss of freedom: . . . we've f a i l e d , you [Alan Hugh Leigh] and.I. And the rack-makers probably think they have as much ri g h t to make a l i v i n g and ply t h e i r curious c r a f t as we. I, too pensively, undecided; you, too errant and i d l e , both u n f i t f o r c o n f l i c t . There was something about the ambitions of my father that had a vague rough poetry and I consoled myself with that for a time. But there i s no beauty.in the sound of f i s t on face or whip on back. There i s a mixture of pride and clever-ness and ut t e r c l a r i t y i n these R a d c l i f f e s and Plimmons that w i l i make of them some superlative and h o r r i f y i n g animal before t h e i r days on earth are done. T h e y ' l l be deaf as stones and they won't hear 69 the dreadful drying r u s t l e of other people's l i v e s . a t a l l . I t 's cost me a lot,-not being l i k e them, but I'm glad I .wasn't. Tender-ness i s the whole of l i f e , tenderness i s the only science worthy of pursuit. I'm glad I've been s t r i c k e n into s i l e n c e and uselessness. It would be bad for the earth i f a l l dissenters were as you and I, harp i s t , soft-cored, courteous, haunted by a sense of l o s t and re-coverable beauty. Fortunately or unfortunately, there w i l l always be John Simon Adams, changing h i s name, his precise longing and h i s mode of agony i n each generation, making his poetry from mad r e s i s -tance, almost numb with confidence i n his own courage and Tightness, chanting the unspoiled promise of our kind, dying with good cheer to shame the plunderers, the ungentle and the bad. I say fortunately because t h i s f a n a t i c a l i d e n t i t y with the multitude may wreak some miracle of decency among the great herd and i t s scoundrelly drovers. I say unfortunately, because a l l t h i s endurance and greatness may be doing no more than prolonging a f r u i t l e s s p a i n . ^ u Penbury's mental anguish for John Simon i s a matter for amusement to the men to whom he has surrendered r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or the workers he morally 61 and l e g a l l y i s obligated to protect. He has saved the h a r p i s t , but can do nothing to save John Simon: R a d c l i f f e and Plimmon need a scape-goat to subdue the r e b e l l i o u s and deter any further demonstrations against t h e i r authority; and the people are only too w i l l i n g to l e t John 62 Simon pay the penalty and avert the wrath of . r e p r i s a l . The t e r r i b l e irony i s that a martyr w i l l give strength to the revolutionary cause, for i t w i l l r a l l y the survivors and give new purpose to t h e i r movement. The f i n a l irony i s that the people for whom he has given h i s l i f e , of whom he, once sa i d : "People get - s k i l l i n s u f f e r i n g and we want to break them of 63 the habit," r e j o i c e that he i s dead: This i s a day of feast for Tudbury. Slavishness goes deeper than the sewers i n t h i s l i t t l e town. The High S h e r i f f and h i s friends have declared a state of chronic holiday to celebrate the overthrow of the d i s l o y a l and the d i s a f f e c t e d . I ' l l be s e l l i n g ale and wine far i nto the night. This place w i l l have a s p e c i a l appeal to the r e v e l l e r s . The Flag [Inn]. The f l a g [the Union Jack] i s waving 70 p r o u d l y o v e r the c a s t l e . The t h o u g h t l e s s and the r e p l e t e w i l l have t h r e e o r f o u r days i n which t o s w i l l and vomit over t h e i r vows of a l l e g i a n c e . On Sunday they w i l l f o r e g a t h e r and the v i c a r , the dean, the b i s h o p w i l l e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f y John Simon Adams w i t h the d e v i l and the p i o u s w i l l moan w i t h j o y a t h a v i n g been r e l i e v e d from the p e r i l t h a t overhung them.64 ' E v i l and bad f a i t h , have been s a n c t i f i e d by the b l i n d p r e j u d i c e of r e l i g -i o u s a u t h o r i t y . Wandering, i n s o l i t u d e , A l a n Hugh L e i g h has been detached from human s u f f e r i n g and p r o t e c t e d from the i n f l u e n c e s t h a t emerge i n i n d u s -t r i a l s o c i e t y and cause men t o behave i n a way t h a t i s a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r b e n e f i c i a l s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and c r e a t i v i t y . In Moonlea, ex p e d i e n c y i s the c r i t e r i o n of power and c o n f o r m i t y , and men such as C a p t a i n Spencer a s s e r t t h e i r power w i t h the same v i o l e n c e and i n d e c e n c y they have l e a r n e d from the example of the Plimmons and R a d c l i f f e s — i t i s no c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t Spencer's a t t i t u d e towards the workers i s analogous to t h a t of the f o x - h u n t i n g Plimmon: 'In a way,' s a i d Spencer i n what f o r him must have been a thought-, f u i t o n e , ' i n a way, i t ' s a p i t y . ' 'A p i t y ? F o r t h e s e f e l l o w s [John Simon and A l a n ] , you mean?' 'Good God, no. A p i t y i f . t h e whole a f f a i r i s g o i n g t o f i z z l e out l i k e , t h i s , h a u l i n g a few o f t h e s e s c o u n d r e l s b e f o r e a m a g i s t r a t e f o r a round of q u i e t b o r i n g hangings. I t h i n k they c o u l d have ar r a n g e d a more s a t i s f y i n g b i t o f h u n t i n g a f t e r p u t t i n g us t o t h e t r o u b l e of g e t t i n g our u n i f o r m s on once more. L i f e ' s g e t t i n g h e l l i s h l y d u l l , Banbury, h e l l i s h . ... , ' 6 5 Spencer's f u n c t i o n i s t o - d e f e n d the K i n g ' s Peace. The m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t y has encouraged i n him the development of those l a t e n t t r a i t s of c r u e l t y and a g g r e s s i o n which., perhaps, f i r s t i n f l u e n c e d h i s c h o i c e of c a r e e r . R u b i n o f f g i v e s an i n s i g h t i n t o the i n t e n s i t y o f t h i s w i s h t o 71 d e s t r o y and t h e l a c k o f f e e l i n g f o r those who a r e t e r r o r i z e d and t o r t u r e d : In t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n s o c i e t y the i n d i v i d u a l l o s e s h i s humanity. I n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e r e a l m of sub-j e c t i v i t y , t o t h e r e a l m o f o b j e c t i v i t y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between one pe r s o n and another i s mediated by r u l e s . The pe r s o n i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f h i s f u n c t i o n and i s encouraged t o i d e n t i f y c o m p l e t e l y w i t h h i s r o l e s . In such a s o c i e t y t h e r e i s no l o n g e r any need f o r f e e l -i n g s l i k e t r u s t , compassion, and co n c e r n . The " r i s k " o f e x i s t e n c e , which i s the s o u r c e of an e x i s t e n t i a l v o i d , i s now r e p l a c e d by-massive s t r u c t u r e s , which f i l l i n the v o i d and make the w o r l d a s a f e r , more s e c u r e , and more permanent p l a c e t o l i v e i n . But w i t h o u t compassion, w i t h o u t the a n g u i s h t h a t comes from l i v i n g i n t r u s t , the i n d i v i d u a l i s emptied o f a l l human c o n t e n t . He becomes what T. S. E l i o t has so a p t l y c a l l e d a "hollow man,"66 Emblematic of the h o l l o w men i s Tudbury c a s t l e , " t h a t had been the h e a v i e s t k n u c k l e i n t h e l o o t i n g b a r o n i a l f i s t through many c e n t u r i e s o f 6 7 border-war." L i k e Plimmon, the Hig h S h e r i f f o f t h e county, the c a s t l e dominates the county town. I t i s where John Simon and the h a r p i s t a r e lod g e d f o r t r i a l , , i n "a lodgement t h a t [Plimmon] c o n s i d e r e d m o r e , f i t t i n g [than the new p r i s o n at Chungfprd] f o r men who were t r a i t o r s t o the w • t T> 116 8 K i n g s Peace. In s o l i t u d e , John Simon t r a n s c e n d s the p r i s o n w a l l s and a c h i e v e s a s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s which, i n overcoming a n g u i s h and a g i t a t i o n , p r e c l u d e s t h e torment of f a l s e hope. > He a c c e p t s h i s f a t e : t o be r e s c u e d , or t o d i e : one o r - t h e o t h e r w i l l t ake p l a c e ; a g i t a t i o n w i l l n ot change i t . He i s " r e c o n c i l e d and at peace" i n a way t h a t the Reverend Claude 69 Mayhew would f i n d beyond h i s e x p e r i e n c e t o u n d e r s t a n d . As the h a r p i s t r e f l e c t s : R e c o n c i l e d and at peace. There's a l o v e l y magic i n those words. I t ' s a p i t y t h e i r meaning i s so dim.70 72 Faced w i t h the consequences of h i s i n v o l v e m e n t , John Simon a c c e p t s them 71 f o r h i m s e l f , but not f o r h i s f r i e n d . There i s a p r o p i n q u i t y i n John Simon's a c c e p t a n c e of martyrdom and Penbury's a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s : 'When men s e t up as symbols, h a r p i s t , they must be p r e p a r e d . f o r treatment 72 which w i l l be r a t h e r l e s s or r a t h e r more than human.' John Simon does not s u f f e r f o r h i m s e l f . But he does not l o s e hope f o r A l a n , who.barely has s t i f l e d f e a r s such as Shakespeare's C l a u d i o v o i c e s w h i l s t w a i t i n g 73 f o r d e a t h . Having a c h i e v e d a . s t a t e where he has almost b a n i s h e d hope to l i v e , he has not a c h i e v e d John Simon's s t a t e o f b e i n g p r e p a r e d t o d i e : L e t ' s l o o k on t h e b l a c k s i d e . I t ' s smooth, cosy, and.doesn't s t r a i n the eyes. I'm t r y i n g t o be serene and I'm f i n d i n g t h e . r o a d s t e e p . You're not making t h i n g s any e a s i e r by t h e s e doubts, and p r o p h e s i e s [ t h a t t h e h a r p i s t w i l l be e x o n e r a t e d and s e t f r e e ] . . . .I'm t r y i n g my b e s t to, smother hope and you go pumping a i r i n t o t h e damned t h i n g . I had i t w i t h i n an i n c h o f the l a s t t w i t c h and h e r e i t i s a g a i n mewing l i k e a c a t and k e e p i n g me awake. For th e f i r s t time i n my l i f e I c a n ' t even r a i s e enough wind to t e l l ..people to go t o h e l l . Once. I c o u l d see men as a t r i b e o f q u a i n t and f o r g i v a b l e comedians, but I am b e g i n n i n g to, u n c o v e r , a seam of dull and h o r r i b l e e a r n e s t -ness i n t h e i r a n t i c s . They r e a l l y l i k e t o be f o u l , don't they? I t ' s an a c t i v i t y , they put a r t i n t o i t . 7 4 The h a r p i s t knows when he a c c e p t s t h e freedom o f f e r e d him t h a t h i s f r i e n d w i l l u n d e r s t a n d and not mind b e i n g l e f t a l o n e . ^ But when he asks 7 6 Mayhew,,"You don't t h i n k h e ' l l imagine I'm b e t r a y i n g o r d e s e r t i n g him?" he has found h i m s e l f g u i l t y o f b e t r a y a l . He has s a i d "I. want t o l i v e , " but when John Simon i s dead and he r e t u r n s , f o r t h e l a s t t i m e , t o the h i l l r s i d e t a v e r n , t h e shadows of a l l t h e i r b e t r a y e d dreams g i v e l i f e a d i f f e r e n t shape: "Nobody's lucky, to be a l i v e , " he t e l l s A b e l . ^ And h i s words speak the g r i e f he has f e l t on h i s way back t o Moonlea: 73 I took.the same road back as I had t r a v e l l e d on.the way i n with Eddie Parr. As I walked through the. l a t e autumn wood the sound of my footsteps i n the leaves had an eloquent c l a r i t y . I heard Eddie's voice, f a i t h f u l l y echoed to the l a s t whimsical s y l l a b l e i n the hollow v e s s e l of my gr i e v i n g . I heard the voice of John Simon, l i k e the doomed and l o v e l y leaves, I trod i n i t s r i c h remembered r i s e arid f a l l . I stopped abruptly.,, leaned against the bark of a l a r c h and wept with a soft obscene abandon in t o i t s wise grey roughness.78 Despite t h i s , or,- rather, because of i t , the harpist i s able to.give com-f o r t , when he comes upon Lemuel Stevens: At the f i r s t sight of me h i s face showed t e r r o r of the least answer-able kind and the wish to f l e e . Then the t e r r o r i t s e l f f l e d as i f convinced that there could be no more f l i g h t f o r i t s v i c t i m that could lead to anywhere, but the very same spot on the c i r c l e ' s edge. . . . and i n the chinks of my loathing there s t i r r e d a bowelful of compassion for the man and h i s intensely wasted patch of goodness and d e l i g h t . I stood by him. His hands grasped my legs and h i s whole body shook with sobs. I l i f t e d him to h i s f e e t , uncurious about the cause of h i s condition, impressed only by the spectacle of such a complete, p e r f e c t l y laboured g r i e f , so s i m i l a r i n texture to that which, had overtaken me i n the wood. I led him forward, gently and without.a word.79 There i s that i n the h a r p i s t , an immense s e n s i t i v i t y to people, that expresses the good of human nature i n very human terms. He i s an aff i r m a t i o n of John Simon's dream; and with one unforgettable moment such as t h i s , he a n n i h i l a t e s the nightmare of an Orwellian world, of "a boot, 80 stamping on a.human f a c e — f o r e v e r . " But John Simon, who came too soon, i s dead; and so i s I s a b e l l a , who never l i v e d . Exemplified i n Jackie the Jumper and A l l Things Betray Thee i s Gwyn Thomas's condemnation of what society has done to the experience of phys i c a l love. The harpist i s bewildered by Helen Penbury's engagement 74 81 to L o r d Plimmonj a man whom she does not l o v e ; and by her a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l h e r p a s s i o n a t e r e sponse to h e r b e i n g , a response t h a t has met h i s own: The gate y i e l d e d b e h i n d h e r . We e n t e r e d the garden. A few yards from t h e g a t e . t h e r e was a g e n t l y s l o p i n g t u r f e d bank. We l a y upon i t . Our hunger f o r each o t h e r f i l l e d t h e n i g h t . Our p a s s i o n swung i n t o t h e d e l i b e r a t e beat o f th e t e a r - e c s t a s y of the hymn s i n g e r s who were s t i l l at i t below. We s c o r c h e d e v e r y shadow beneath the t r e e s . 8 2 He i s p u z z l e d t h a t John Simon and K a t h e r i n e have r e s t r a i n e d t h e i r l o v e f o r the sake o f - h e r husband, who l o v e s her as would.a c h i l d , f o r he has 83 remained a . c h i l d " l o n g a f t e r t h e y e a r s of manhood have come." To I s a b e l l a , K a t h e r i n e i s a woman "without shame": "They say t h e r e i s some k i n d o f magic about h e r , but I was never a b l e t o see i t , b e i n g s h i e l d e d 84 by decent t h o u g h t s . " To Mr.. Bowen, the m i n i s t e r of the new c h a p e l , John,Simon i s g u i l t y not o n l y of t u r n i n g the workers a g a i n s t the m a s t e r s , but a l s o o f t u r n i n g K a t h e r i n e i n t o a n , a d u l t e r e s s : "Mr. Bowen says t h a t even i f John Simon had n o t been g u i l t y o f p o i s o n i n g t h e h e a r t s of t h e foundry,hands and s e t t i n g man a g a i n s t master, that,what he has done t o poor Davy B r i e r would have been enough t o s e t .the brand of C a i n upon 85 him." The t r u t h i s f a r o t h e r w i s e . Had K a t h e r i n e . b e e n the " b i t c h " she i s c a l l e d , she and John Simon would have done what the h a r p i s t b e l i e v e s they s h o u l d do: gone away t o g e t h e r . L o y a l t y t o Davy has t e t h e r e d t h e i r i m p u l s e s . In A Few S e l e c t e d E x i t s and A Welsh Eye, Gwyn Thomas w r i t e s of h i s own p a r a d o x i c a l s t a t e of mind: one i n which the e a r l y i n f l u e n c e of the 75 c h a p e l ' s s t e r n a t t i t u d e towards sex has an i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t upon an 86 exuberant, v i b r a n t p e r s o n a l i t y and a keen, p e r c e p t i v e mind. In r e l a t -i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l and l e g e n d a r y background t o A l l T h i n g s B e t r a y Thee, and the c i r c u m s t a n c e s l e a d i n g t o J a c k i e the J u m p e r — w i t h which he was " g l a d t o g i v e t h e M e r t h y r R i o t s another run f o r t h e i r s k e l e t a l money, and t o project:, through the Jumper h i m s e l f , a brand o f s e x i n e s s t h a t would have, [ h i s ] e l d e r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , p u r i t a n s t o a man, l e a v i n g 87 the t h e a t r e f l a n k e d by u s h e r s " — h e w r i t e s : . . . my mind came back t o where i t a b i d i n g l y b e l o n g s : South Wales. I wanted.a p l a y t h a t would p a i n t the t r u e f a c e of s e n s u a l i t y , r e b e l l i o n and r e l i g i o u s r e v i v a l i s m . . . . I wanted a theme t h a t would i l l u s t r a t e t h e c u r i o u s seesaw of p a s s i v i t y and d e f i a n c e i n human l i f e . . . The urge t o e x u l t and l o v e at odds w i t h the compulsive w i s h t o g e l d a n d . p a r t . . . . Time and a g a i n one would have the f e e l -i n g t h a t d i s g u s t and l o v e had r e ached a . c l i m a c t i c tumescence. . . . P r e a c h e r s o f an o p e r a t i c f o r c e and b r i l l i a n c e : harmonized hymns of a p l a n g e n c y t o wash away a l l the r o c k s of g r i e f and the grimaces of thought. . . . O f t e n l e a v i n g the c h a p e l a f t e r an i n t e r m i n a b l e sermon and s i x r o u s i n g hymns . . . one, would have an ache f o r s e n s u a l r e l i e f i n some,shape, or form t h a t would have b l e a c h e d our e l d e r s ' bowlers i f t h e y had t r u l y known how p e r v e r s e are the t i d e s of p i e t y i n t h e minds of the younger s e c t a r i e s . But they had us f i r m l y h e l d i n t h e i r l o v e d and heavy c h a i n s . We must never f a l l below the l e v e l of t h e i r r e v e l a t i o n s , s u n l i t by t h e word of God and kept s p i n n i n g by t h e i r own a t h l e t i c t e r r o r s . Our n i g h t was f u l l o f t h e i r , h u r t , , b e w i l d e r e d eyes. A l l d e l i g h t s o f s i g h t o r , t o u c h were t o be shunned as p a r t of the w o r l d ' s f a l l i b l e and f i s s i l e t r u s s of f l e s h l y c o m f o r t s . We had had the golden a s s u r -ance o f . a n e v e r l a s t i n g non-human l o v e . . . . Then, i n answer t o e v e r y wave of l i b e r t a r i a n f u m b l i n g , would come a wind of e v a n g e l i s m . . . . And I , magnetized by b o t h f a c t i o n s , jumped l i k e a g r a s s h o p p e r , back and f o r e between the charms o f s i n and t h a t of: redemption. Whether t h e cause was e a r t h l y i n s u r r e c t i o n o r h e a v e n l y s a l v a t i o n , I was always one of the l e a d i n g b a n n e r - b e a r e r s . . . . My b a r d i c name was ambivalence.88 Beneath the s e l f - m o c k e r y , the gusto,,and the s p e l l of words t h a t c a p t u r e s the u n c u r i o u s a c c e p t a n c e and the i n s a t i a b l e i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s , the undaunted V 76 effrontery and the immaculate innocence of .childhood, i s the trenchant comment on the predicament of generation upon generation of chapel-going V a l l e y people. Through the opposition of Jackie the Jumper and h i s uncle, and through the d e l i n e a t i o n of I s a b e l l a and the wasted .consumma-t i o n of her Bowen-bound ch a s t i t y , Gwyn Thomas demonstrates with intense s e n s i t i v i t y the a l i e n a t i o n of man,from his own sex. And the emotional discomfort evoked by the r i b a l d mirth for the wicker drawers I s a b e l l a fashions f o r Lemuel i s for the harsh truth i t has exposed. Gwyn Thomas's profound concern i s that of the poet Rainier Maria R i l k e : Why are we not set i n the midst of what i s most mysteriously ours? How we have to creep round about i t and get into i t i n the end; l i k e burglars and thieves, we get into our own b e a u t i f u l sex, i n which we lose our way and knock ourselves and stumble and f i n a l l y rush out of i t again, l i k e men caught transgressing, into the t w i l i g h t of C h r i s t i a n i t y . Why, i f g u i l t or s i n had to be invented because of the inner tension of the s p i r i t , why did.they not attach i t to some other part of our body, .why did they l e t i t f a l l on that part,, waiting t i l l i t dissolved i n our pure source and poisoned and mud-died i t ? Why have they made our sex homeless, instead of making i t the place f o r the f e s t i v a l of our competency? . . . A churchman would point out to me that there i s marriage, although he i s not unaware of the state of a f f a i r s i n respect of that i n s t i t u t i o n . It does not help either to put the w i l l to propa-gation within the sphere of grace—my sex i s not directed only towards p o s t e r i t y , i t i s the secret of my own l i f e — a n d i t only, i t seems, because i t may not occupy the c e n t r a l place there, that so many people have thrust i t to the edge, and thereby l o s t t h e i r b a l -ance. What good i s i t a l l ? The t e r r i b l e untruthfulness and uncertainty of our age has i t s roots i n the r e f u s a l to acknowledge the happiness of sex, i n t h i s p e c u l i a r l y mistaken g u i l t , which con-s t a n t l y increases ,. separating us from the rest of Nature, even from the c h i l d , although h i s , the c h i l d ' s innocence . . . does not consist at a l l i n the f a c t that he does not know sex, so to say—"but . . . that incomprehensible happiness, which awakens for us at one place deep within.the pulp of a close embrace, i s s t i l l present anonymously i n every part of h i s body." In order to describe the sensual appe-t i t e we should have to say: Once we were chi l d r e n i n every part, now we are that i n one part only.. But i f there were only one among us for whom t h i s was a c e r t a i n t y and who was capable of providing proof of it,-why do we allow i t to happen that generation a f t e r generation awakens to consciousness beneath the rubble of ..Christian prejudices and moves l i k e the seemingly dead i n the darkness,.in a most narrow space between sheer abnegations!?8.9 Penbury and.Luxton have repressed t h e i r sensual responses; Lemuel's mistaken sense of g u i l t i s rooted i n Isabella's sense of s i n , i n a deceptive moral, cloak f o r the perverted sublimation of the l i f e - f o r c e that i s i t s e l f stimulated by r e l i g i o u s fervour and negated by s p i r i t u a l 90 ecstasy; I s a b e l l a i s awakened by Bowen; but her • desires move i n the 91 darkness of an i l l u s o r y v i r t u e that i s a t o t a l abnegation. It i s her husband she buries beneath the weight of Bowen's prejudices, and i t i s he who moves i n the darkness of .her sublimated passion, " i n the most narrow space between, sheer abnegations." At the tavern, Lemuel's submerged grievance and h i s abused sex swell and break the i c e i n which I s a b e l l a has contained them. Floss provides the "incomprehensible happiness of a. close embrace;" but i t i s f u l f i l m e n t fraught with f u r t i v e embarrassment: she i s an outcast of society, which ensures that, through her; sex i s made homeless. Even the w i l l to propagate i s negated i n Isabella:, sex i s not suffered even within the et h i c of the marriage vow of duty and the e x p l i c i t permission to propogate i n f u l f i l m e n t of God's purpose, and i t s i m p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n that the function of holy wedlock i s to bless the procreation of c h i l d r e n , thereby making sex sublime and placing i t within "the sphere of grace." When I s a b e l l a c a l l e d Lemuel an animal and "dedi-92 cated .herself to the chaste l i f e , " she underlined the f a l l a c y of human puritanism. For Lemuel, the m a r i t a l bed would have been a "sphere of grace," but for I s a b e l l a i t could not be so since she regarded h i s need 78 as an animal urge. She has."poisoned arid muddied hi s pure source,',1 and has c h i l l e d i t . i n a b e l t of her own dead force. In the darkness of her ignorance, Lemuel's deprivation, i n terms of sexual f u l f i l m e n t , was to cause him to lose h i s way: there was a very powerful human imperative to seek an ou t l e t f o r h i s misery; and to turn that misery into p r o f i t . Such men become the tools of those whose moral deviation i s f o r t i f i e d by t h e i r power over t h e i r victims, and Lemuel i s used by Plimmon and R a d c i i f f e . Victim of the power p o l i t i c s which harnessed h i s f r u s t r a t i o n s with the promise of advancement to compensate for h i s defeated passion, Lemuel i s manipulated by men i n whom burns the f r o s t - c h i l l e d passion of Isabella's f r i g i d soul: 'Penbury and R a d c i i f f e w i l l help you. T h e y ' l l be g r a t e f u l to you, Lemuel. You've helped them a l o t i n a l l t h i s p r o f i t a b l e butchery that they've j u s t completed.' 'I don't want t h e i r help. . . . I was never much at home with them, h a r p i s t , honest to God. Often I f e l t s i c k , grasped i n t h e i r warm strong hands, used, used,, used, s i c k as I often f e l t with I s a b e l l a i n the night, cold,cold, getting kicked and slapped for them to l i n e t h e i r b i t of dark with gold.'93 When the h a r p i s t meets him for the l a s t time, Lemuel i s i n that state of emptiness that i s receptive to a new force. He has been forced to deny his own sexual needs, and has gravitated towards another source of f u l f i l m e n t . In r e s i s t i n g the l a t t e r , he i s drawn back to the centre of h i s being, to rescue h i s sex from the.edge of the c i r c l e and l e t i t "occupy the c e n t r a l place" i t once held, when "the days locked together 94 and made a kind of daisy chain." As Ri l k e says: "He who r e s i s t s with-draws himself f o r c i b l y from the a t t r a c t i o n of one centre of power^. and. 79 he may,.perhaps, succeed i n l e a v i n g , t h e f i e l d o f i t s a c t i v i t y , but beyond i t he f i n d s h i m s e l f i n emptiness and has t o l o o k round f o r a n o t h e r f o r c e 95 of g r a v i t a t i o n t o a t t r a c t him." H elen's c o o l s e l f - c o n t r o l and I s a b e l l a ' s p r a c t i s i n g c h a s t i t y con-c e a l oh t h e one hand a p a s s i o n t h a t i s s t i m u l a t e d by the thought of 96 v i o l e n t d eath and on t h e o t h e r an a v i d d e s i r e to. e x p e r i e n c e the "immor-a l i t y " o f sex by i m a g i n i n g i t i n o t h e r s . H e l e n demonstrates the e r o t i c a r o u s a l sought by the Roman l a d i e s t h r o u g h the s p e c t a c l e o f the g l a d i a t o r s : I s a b e l l a t h a t of t h e v o y e u r : '. . . but as f a r as [John Simon i s ] concerned any p l a c e out of Moonlea i s a good p l a c e f o r him.' 'But not f o r t h a t b i t c h K a t h e r i n e . S h e ' l l miss the g r e a t h o t body of him.' 'That's a pagan s t a t e m e n t , Mrs. S t e v e n s . You shock me.' 'Oh, I d i d n ' t mean a n y t h i n g wicked by i t , h a r p i s t . You ask Lemuel.. I've got a,mind l i k e snow. He's s a i d so many t i m e s . Y o u ' l l n ever f i n d t h e d e v i l ' s mark between t h e s e f o u r w a l l s . ' 'Keep t r y i n g . I t ' s n o t • s o bad.' I l o o k e d a t , h e r . Her f a c e was moving t o a morbid rhythm. Some elemental, s h o o t s were b r e a k i n g t h r o u g h the s t o ne h a r d s u r f a c e t h a t she and Lemuel had l a i d down upon t h e i r l i v e s , upon t h e i r a l l o t m e n t of d i l i g e n t d e s o l a t i o n . 'Tell.me, h a r p i s t , ' she s a i d , d r a g g i n g her words o u t , ' i s i t t r u e what they say, t h a t Davy has n o t h i n g o f the man about him a t a l l , t h a t she s i c k e n e d of h a v i n g always a s l e e p i n g man a t h e r s i d e and t h a t i s why she rushed i n an a d u l t e r o u s f a s h i o n t o the arms o f John Simon Adams?' 'I'm o n l y t h e r e f o r a s h o r t space. I o n l y t a l k to Davy. I don't l o o k him o v e r f o r f l a w s . I'm i g n o r a n t about t h e s e t h i n g s . Men and women c o u l d be a f t e r each o t h e r i n the open manner of c a t s and dogs, and I have an i n k l i n g t h a t ..they would be no worse o f f . than they are now. I don't l i k e the l o o k of you when you speak about t h e s e t h i n g s . What k i n d of w e l l have you and Lemuel, been c r o u c h i n g i n to g i v e you such thoughts as those.. How would you l i k e i t i f I asked you what k i n d of a.performer Lemuel i s . I t ' s a l l r i g h t . I won't p r e s s f o r an answer and t h e r e ' s no need f o r you t o t o t t e r i n t o a f a i n t . ' 'You're d i s g u s t i n g , h a r p i s t , d i s g u s t i n g . Lemuel Stevens and I have l e d t h e c l e a n e s t l i v e s i n Moonlea. 80 I s a b e l l a ' s dream i s to r e t u r n t o Tudbury w i t h a s u c c e s s f u l hus-band. Lemuel's advancement w i l l r e s t o r e h e r i n t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f those l i k e h e r mother who b e l i e v e t h a t i n m a r r y i n g a man "poorer than a church mouse, w i t h n o t h i n g but h i s character,'-' she, the daughter o f the " r i c h e s t 98 b u t c h e r i n a l l Tudbury," has " m a r r i e d beneath [ h e r ] . " ' And Lemuel, p r o f i t e e r i n g from t h e n a t i o n a l wheat c r i s i s and t h e d e s p e r a t e p l i g h t o f the workers who can not a f f o r d the p r i c e o f h i s bread, . s e e s t h a t advance-ment w i t h i n h i s r e a c h as repayment f o r h i s w i l l i n g s e r v i c e s as an i n f o r m e r . I t i s , as John Simon has s a i d : Lemuel i s adept a t b e t r a y i n g , but i s b l i n d t o t h e b e t r a y a l o f h i m s e l f . I t i s not u n t i l he sees t h a t t h e dream o f p r o s p e r i t y was a . s e l f - b e t r a y a l t h a t he r e c o g n i z e s the t r u t h of what he has done t o o t h e r s , and the f u l l e x t e n t o f what has been done to him. There, i s a l i g h t of awareness i n h i s d a r k n e s s — a s p a i n f u l as t h a t he has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g t o o t h e r s : 'You t h i n k p e o p l e make a c h o i c e . There i s no c h o i c e . Your r o o f i s s t r i p p e d o f f ; you've got t o get out of the r a i n . Your food i s torn,away; you ca n ' t h i r e out your stomach. . . . I t e l l you, h a r -p i s t , t h e r e i s no c h o i c e . There i s t h e i n n o c e n t r e a r o f the p e o p l e as they n i b b l e t h e i r f e r t i l i z e d meadow and t h e r e i s the shod f o o t . o f the smart ones who k i c k them i n t o a more meagre p a s t u r e . . . .' '. . . t h e r e must be ways o f making meadows e t e r n a l l y s e c u r e and c o n t r i v i n g freedom f o r the body and sust e n a n c e f o r t h e g u t s . But her e you a r e more h e l p l e s s . t h a n e v e r . ' 'You're wrong, A l a n , ' s a i d John Simon. 'Here i n Moonlea and p l a c e s l i k e i t t h e p e o p l e f o r t h e f i r s t time a r e not q u i t e h e l p l e s s . . . . T h e i r c o l l e c t i v e hand i s b i g enough t o p o i n t a t what i s b l a c k and damnable i n the p r e s e n t , at what i s to be wished i n t h e f u t u r e , t -' T h e r e ' l l be no,change.in them. They w i l l endure dumbly, h e r e as the y d i d el s e w h e r e , a k i n d of w a l k i n g dung t h a t doesn't even i n s i s t on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p r i v i l e g e o f b e i n g c a r r i e d t o . t h e f u r r o w . ' 'The l i g h t g e t s s t r o n g e r , . A l a n . . . . When t h e g u t t e d v i l l a g e s f i r s t spewed t h e i r p e o p l e out i n t o t h e i r o n t o w n s , , e i t h e r they were numb w i t h m i s e r y o r e x c i t e d by the j i n g l e of the i r o n m a s t e r ' s 81 s h i l l i n g s and they had l i t t l e chance t o m a r v e l at the a n g u i s h of t h e i r s l a s h e d r o o t . ' Now t h e numbness has worn o f f ; the excitement i s w e a r i n g away. They a r e l o o k i n g around. They know from the f e e l o f t h e i r e v e r y day t h a t they are w e l l w i t h i n the doorway of a changed world.'99 Lemuel's e f f o r t s t o advance.Penbury's p a t r o n a g e , h i s hope t h a t the i r o n m a s t e r would c o n v e r t h i s shop i n t o a t r u c k shop, h i s d e s i r e f o r w e a l t h , have been f a l s e dreams; and he wants no f u r t h e r p a r t i n the b l e a k l a n d s c a p e h i s eyes, see on o pening. I s a b e l l a ' s dream i s founded on the i l l u s i o n t h a t a l i f e o f s e l f - r e s t r a i n t , " c h r o n i c and w i t h o u t end or p a l p a b l e s o l a c e , - n l O O ^ g a guarantee of d i r e c t a c c e s s to the a l m i g h t y and a bonus i n Tudbury en r o u t e . The glimmer of awareness t h a t comes t o Lemuel on the n i g h t t h e h a r p i s t accompanies him to a t t e n d Plimmon's c e l e -b r a t i o n of h i s engagement t o H e l e n Penbury i s the f i r s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g he has o f h i s b e t r a y a l : They've b l i n d e d me. Penbury, Bowen, I s a b e l l a , they've b l i n d e d me. The b l o o d y Samson of Moonlea. T h a t ' s me, h a r p i s t . A b l i n d , deluded b l o o d y Samson.101 The shadow of B l e d g e l y t h a t dwarfs the puny Lemuel i s the h a r p i s t ' s 102 nightmare ghost who walks w i t h them i n the woods. But Lemuel's envy o f B l e d g e l y ' s m u s c l e s , w h i l s t i t a l l o w s him t o see how I s a b e l l a i s mastered, does not r e v e a l t o him t h a t i n B l e d g e l y ' s s h a r k - l i k e l o o k , h i s s t e e l - s h a r p m u t i l a t e d hand, h i s savage s t r e n g t h , h i s p r e d a t o r y c r u e l t y , I s a b e l l a , a f r a i d y e t f a s c i n a t e d , i s f a c e to. f a c e w i t h t h e r e f l e c t i o n of h e r own m u t i l a t e d s o u l . In Plimmon's engagement t o H e l e n , the daughter of an i n d u s t r i a l i s t , t h e r e a r e i n t i m a t i o n s t h a t t h i s i s a m i s a l l i a n c e — h e , too,,has chosen, a 82 mate who i s beneath h i m — a n d t h a t he has had hopes of a.marriage t h a t 103 would have "brought him near the t h r o n e . " But, as w i t h I s a b e l l a , Helen's response t o a man whose s t r e n g t h matches h e r own, w i l l g i v e b o t h the f u l f i l m e n t they d e s i r e f o r senses t h a t are s t i m u l a t e d by the s m e l l of human b l o o d . She has b e t r a y e d her c a p a c i t y to l i v e i n harmony w i t h the n a t u r a l w o r l d i n which the h a r p i s t f i r s t found h e r . The h a r p i s t has been made aware o f the c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e of i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . With d e s o l a t i o n has he r e l i n q u i s h e d h i s dream of h a p p i n e s s , the dream he had h e l d on t o even when i t was r e p e a t e d l y . b e t r a y e d . As H e l e n Penbury t e l l s him, he n e v e r w i l l be a b l e t o escape the remembrance of h i s e x p e r i e n c e , nor w i l l t h i s a l l o w him t o r e t u r n to 104 h i s e r s t w h i l e sanctuary, of harmony. As he c l i m b s away from Moonlea, a s c e n d i n g the same p a t h t h a t had l e d him t h e r e , he l o o k s back and sees "the house of Penbury, b i g , s m i l i n g and l i v i n g w i t h l i g h t , " and; i n 105 answer to the thought t h a t had foreshadowed h i s e x p e r i e n c e s , he walks away from Moonlea, w i t h the memory of b e t r a y e d dreams b r i n g i n g him back, even as he had l i n g e r e d on the l a s t h i l l t o l o o k down i n t o the v a l l e y of a l l h i s awakening: " I t u r n e d , w a l k i n g away from Moonlea, y e t e t e r n a l l y towards Moonlea, f u l l o f a s t r o n g , r i p e n i n g , unanswerable b i t t e r n e s s , f e e l i n g i n my f i n g e r s the promise of a new enormous music. I r r e s p e c t i v e of genre, A l l T h i n g s B e t r a y Thee i s a s i g n i f i c a n t n o v e l . I t i s a l s o a b e a u t i f u l work. The h a r p i s t , whose u n d e r s t a n d i n g of human s u f f e r i n g i s t h a t of the w ise f o o l , t h e t r a g i c clown, who f i n d s an answering a n g u i s h i n th e g a o l e r , who p e r c e i v e s the p a i n o f t h o s e , l i k e Penbury, who have crumpled l i k e dead l e a v e s i n the wind, i s 83 delineated with a mastery that makes him unforgettable. His clown's humour, l i k e Gwyn Thomas's de s c r i p t i o n of Floss Bennett, reveals h i s i n -nate p i t y f or the human predicament. In Alan Hugh Leigh, the author has captured and made permanent the shadows of a l l our broken dreams, and has affirmed man's capacity to f u l f i l the i n f i n i t e experience of l i v i n g true tO; h i s being.' He i s what Rilke says of Richard Dehmel; and h i s a r t i s t ' s response, as Rilke says of Dehmel's, i s "great, strong as a p r i m i t i v e i n s t i n c t ; i t has i t s own unyielding rhythms i n i t s e l f and breaks out of him as out' of mountains. V"*"^  And j u s t as, for Alan Leigh, the mountains are the best thing that we have, so he i s the best that we have i n mankind. Soon, his music w i l l speak the mute dreams of a l l who have died and l i v e . CHAPTER IV THE WHEELS OF THE JOURNEY The tramway c l i m b s up from M e r t h y r t o D o w l a i s , L i k e the s l i m e of a s n a i l over a s l a g heap; Here of a time was Wales, and now The r u i n s o f cinemas and r a i n on t i p s t h a t grow no more; . . . the s o r r y waste Of the r e f u s e of chimneys and v a i n c h i l d - b e a r i n g Have drowned the s t a r s beneath the s l i m e of the d o l e . — S a u n d e r s Lewis The t h r e a d s of Rhondda's t u r b u l e n t p a s t run through the l i t e r a t u r e of.Gwyn Thomas; L i k e the c a n a l and t h e T a f f V a l e r a i l w a y which run the l e n g t h o f the v a l l e y from M e r t h y r t o C a r d i f f docks, l i n k i n g the m i n i n g towns and v i l l a g e s a l o n g the v a l l e y and on the h i l l s , the t h r e a d s a r e i n t e r w o v e n , l i n k i n g t h i s , the p l a c e of h i s c h i l d h o o d , w i t h the whole of human e x p e r i e n c e : Those Rhondda days a r e , f o r me, f o r e v e r bathed i n b r i l l i a n t l i g h t ; the tumult of p o l i t i c a l e n t husiasms, the w h i t e - h o t o r a t o r y of t h e p e o p l e ' s p a l a d i n s , t h e f e s t i v a l s o f f o l k s i n g i n g and hymn s i n g -i n g i n the v a s t c h a p e l s , moving groups, on the h i l l s i d e s at n i g h t . . . t h e i r echoes can s t i l l f i l l my mind w i t h an i n t e n s e c r e a t i v e e x c i t e m e n t . Then the h i l l - w a l k s a c r o s s t o Llanwonno, o r over to the Dimbath, the Beacons t o th e n o r t h , p u l l i n g us towards an even w i l d e r s o l i t u d e than we had e v e r known; and the V a l e of Glamorgan t o the s o u t h , t e m p t i n g us to an o r d e r e d p l a c i d i t y which i t would b e n e f i t our s o u l s t o c u l t i v a t e . And between t h e s e two p o l e s of a t t r a c t i o n t h e f e r m e n t i n g d i s q u i e t o f t h e V a l l e y s t r e e t s , r i n g i n g w i t h e v e r y n o t e of p a i n and l a u g h t e r c o n t r i v e d s i n c e man's b e g i n n i n g . In t h a t s m a l l t e r r i t o r y o f l a n d and f e e l i n g l a y the whole wo r l d ' s e x p e r i e n c e . The y e a r s of s t u d y and experiment have d r i v e n c o n v e n i e n t ' l i n e s of communication through i t ; t hey have n o t e n l a r g e d i t s f r o n t i e r s , nor e n r i c h e d t h e t e x t u r e of i t s e a r t h . ! 85 With the opening of the Rhondda.coal mines and increased migration into the v a l l e y s , - t h e population climbed from 3,000 i n 1861 to 17,000 i n 2 the next census. V i l l a g e s l i k e Pantywaun came into being with the haste 3 given to putting up the Ty-un-nos of long t r a d i t i o n ; mining towns l i k e 4 Pontypridd and Aberdare were "grafted on to an ancient market place;" and i n a l l these v i l l a g e s and towns,.from Ebbw Vale ,at the head of the v a l l e y to Aberbeeg and Cwm to the south, winding terraces " l i k e p e t r i f i e d meringue,,twirled out of plumb by the twists and. turns of the h i l l s i d e s , " " ' led steeply down,to the p i t s . Despite the Trade Union Act (1871) and the Eight Hours Act'(1909), working conditions i n the deep mines continued to be dangerous and the miners were not protected against the d r a s t i c reduction of wages. Indus-t r i a l unrest continued. During the s t r i k e of 1910, r i o t i n g i n Tonypandy, with s o l d i e r s and Metropolitan policemen q u e l l i n g the mob, heralded a . winter of fermenting discontent. In 1913, The Miners' Next Step estab-l i s h e d the h o s t i l i t y of miners for employers.by advocating the adoption of a l l methods that would. reduce out-put and thereby r u i n the coal-owners.. The d i s a s t e r at Senghenydd p i t t when 439 l i v e s were l o s t added a searing b i t t e r n e s s to the seething unrest. It was the eve of the Great War; i t was the year of Gwyn Thomas's b i r t h . During the war and f o r a number of postTwar years, i n d u s t r i a l production was accelerated i n the c o a l f i e l d . But the r e l i a n c e upon the demand for Welsh coal and the "entire dependency of south Wales on the basic i n d u s t r i e s of c o a l , i r o n , s t e e l and t i n - p l a t e " ^ were to be the t cause of unrelieved hardship i n the years of the post-war slump. In 86 i n d u s t r i a l Wales, p a r t i c u l a r l y the mining v a l l e y s , the contemporary Anglo-Welsh authors were growing up; i n Swansea Dylan Thomas was l e a r n -ing to obscure h i s Welsh accent, at the insistence'of h i s father, who i n t h i s resembles Gwyn Thomas's character, the teacher, Mr. Rawlins: Mr. Rawlins i t i s who s e l e c t s the pieces to be read and the boys to read them. Spencer and I were chosen for t h i s job at the beginning of the year but Mr. Rawlins took one l i s t e n to our d e l i v e r y , turned pale at the.thought of paganism being spread into every corner and raved about the uncouthness of our intonation. He snatched the B i b l e from us; . . . The trouble with Mr. Rawlins i s that he has been against the Welsh accent ever since he. attended a seri e s of week-end schools with the Drama League . . . and p a r t i c u l a r l y he does n o t ' l i k e the accent of the fr i n g e i n connection with Bible readings, on which he puts, great stock, being a lay preacher and.an out-board motor on such bodies as the Y.M.C.A. He thinks that to get the f u l l flavour,of holiness from these readings the voice of the reader should be d e l i c a t e , refined and Churchy. So he started a great campaign against the C e l t i c l i l t and broad vowels. The vowels of Spence and myself are so broad that we have to be tapped l i g h t l y on the back of the neck to get them past our l i p s . We love broad, uncunning, accepting sounds and when we get started we f i l l up with vowel and, i f sound were gas, we would be .afloat i n no time at a l l . And our l i l t i s so f i e r c e that when Mr; Rawlins put us through a t r i a l t r i p with a passage from Isaiah running down adul-terers that ,gave us every chance of l e t t i n g i t r i p without meaning to cause the adulterers any unease he stopped us i n disgust and t o l d us that he could not decide whether the mess we were making of i t was j u s t l i l t or pure oratorio.8 In Gwyn Thomas the l i l t has never been obscured. But t h e i r s i s one tongue of the Dragon;.and t h e i r s are two voices of Wales. The youngest of a family of twelve, a l l Welsh speaking, Gwyn Thomas was born into a world dominated by the c o l l i e r y , with i t s smoking stack and two great shaft wheels spinning endlessly as they worked the s t e e l cage that c a r r i e d the coal.trucks and c o l l i e r s to and from the sun-less streets a h a l f mile or more.into the womb of the earth. The wheels 87 9 of the journey were turning, hauling coal from the coal-face to the p i t bottom to, feed the demands of war* and to aid European post-war recovery. But the years of hunger had begun for many Rhondda f a m i l i e s : accelerated mechanization i n industry and a g r i c u l t u r e acutely increased unemployment and kept wages at a minimum. This was the.time of Gwyn Thomas's early childhood. It was a time when the whole region seemed to be teetering oh the edge of violence. The swift decline of economic power after.the F i r s t World War had given a spearhead of f a n a t i c a l decision to.the vague, evangelical s o c i a l i s m and syndicalism that had formed the South Welsh p o l i t i c a l idiom since the beginning of the century. Even around my cradle I seemed to detect angry f i s t s and raised voices. The miners and t h e i r masters had elected to tear the e n t r a i l s out of each other. About t h i s there was nothing new. For a hundred years the v a l l e y s had been given over to i n d u s t r i e s that were b r u t a l l y dangerous and d i r t y , with repression and r e v o l t , g l a r -ing at each other l i k e imbecile twins. My gripe-water was flavoured with chopped pamphlets. As a pre-sleep t a c t i c , my father would l e t me stroke a s l i g h t lump on the back of ,his head. This, he claimed, had been caused by some r u f f i a n l y cossack of a constable who had broken h i s truncheon on my father's pate during the Tonypandy R i o t s . 1 0 In 1921, a three-month stoppage i n the mines aggravated the bar-gaining p o s i t i o n of South Wales i n the highly competitive arena of world-trade: "Markets shrank as c o n f l i c t i n the c o a l f i e l d .grew. As i f to d i s p e l "the-great sense of wonder a n d . s t i l l n e s s that f e l l upon [the 12 Rhondda people]," and i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of r i o t s , some Whitehall Napoleon, dispatched a force of i n f a n t r y , the Yorks and Lanes, to nip. i n s u r r e c t i o n i n the bud and protect the r e n t i e r s and v i r g i n s of.the land from s p o l i a t i o n . The s o l d i e r s were small, u n s o l d i e r l y and amorous fellows. Copulation throve and i n bur boy-i s h games among the ferns, t r i p p i n g over lovers and the attendant troupe of telescope-toting voyeurs became a f i x e d hazard. Often one would see a passionate Lancastrian being harangued by one of the 88 miners appealing to him not to exhaust u t t e r l y the l o c a l supplies of warmth and to revert, for p i t y ' s sake, to the r o l e of running dog of -imperialism.13 Throughout the 1921 S t r i k e , the younger children were.fed i n soup-14 kitchens. Five years l a t e r , Gwyn Thomas was at the County,School and, l i k e Eurona i n The Alone to-the A l o n e , ^ was,not e l i g i b l e f o r the charity dispensed to ch i l d r e n at the l o c a l school:-Our e a r l i e s t sexual s t i r r i n g s were shadowed by so consistent a hunger that f o r years to come the.zone's l i b i d o had a stammering tongue. The s t r i k e , begun i n l a t e spring, did not end u n t i l the autumn. The weather was flawless. Every day opened arid closed l i k e a great flower. The v a l l e y slipped back to i t s primal calm. The h i l l s i d e s were murmurous.with groups t a l k i n g , singing, gambling with buttons or pins.1^ And then came the street processions of bandsmen dressed for c a r n i v a l and playing their,instruments, gazookas, an instrument hardly known out-side Rhondda and South Wales, and drums. 1? Gazooka—a short novel based on the author's radio play of that t i t l e — i s p o ssibly the most represen-t a t i v e of" Thomas's w r i t i n g , d i s p l a y i n g , as i t does, h i s humour.and i n s i g h t , - h i s sensual, l y r i c a l word-music, and the delin e a t i o n of charac-ters who speak with h i s own engaging l i l t and ease, and who belong to the Rhondda, even as does he.. Emerging from the story i s the range .of his humour. Gazooka reveals h i s .ab i l i t y to see the pathos of h i s comic characters and the absurd aspect of a p a i n f u l s i t u a t i o n . The ingenuity of the story, with s i t u a t i o n s as r i d i c u l o u s as a farce, has yet an underlying sadness that comes to the fore as the people walk homewards across the fern-topped h i l l . The surface comedy moves toward the harmony 89 of a s h a r e d e x p e r i e n c e , a deeper i n s i g h t . He p r e s e n t s a comic v i s i o n of t h e Welsh unemployed t h a t evokes a s m i l e f o r t h e i r c l o w n i s h a n t i c s and p i t y f o r t h e i r p r e c a r i o u s p l i g h t . The c h a r a c t e r s d e r i v e c o l o u r , . v i t a l i t y from t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t p o v e r t y . But there, i s no s e l f - p i t y i n the a u t h o r ' s s o c i a l p r o t e s t : My eyes are f u l l of t h e wonder they knew i n the months of t h a t l o n g , i d l e , b e a u t i f u l l y l i t summer of 1926. . . . No smoke, r o s e from the g r e a t chimneys t o w r i t e messages on the s k y . t h a t p u z z l e d and saddened the minds of the young. The end-l e s s j o u r n e y s o f c o a l trams on t h e i n c l i n e , l o a d e d on the upward r u n , empty and t e r r i f y i h g l y f a s t on the down, ceased t o r a t t l e t hrough the n i g h t and mark our dreams. The parade of n a i l e d b o o t s on the pavements a t dawn f e l l s i l e n t . Day a f t e r g l o r i o u s day came up over the h i l l s t h a t had been r e s t o r e d by a q u i r k of s o c i a l c o n f l i c t t o the calm they l o s t a.hundred y e a r s b e f o r e . When the s c h o o l h o l i d a y s came we took to the mountain t o p s , j o i n i n g the l i b e r a t e d p i t - p o n i e s among the f e r n s on t h e broad p l a t e a u x . That was,the p i c t u r e f o r us who were young. F o r our f a t h e r s , and mothers t h e r e was the i n c l o s i n g f e n c e of h i n t e d . f e a r s , f e a r o f hunger, f e a r o f d e f e a t . And t h e n , out of the q u i e t n e s s and the g o l d e n l i g h t , p a r t l y t o ease t h e i r f r e t , a new excitement was b o r n . The c a r n i v a l s and j a z z bands. Rapture can s p r o u t i n the oddest p l a c e s and i t c e r t a i n l y s p r o u t e d then and there.. We formed bands by the dozen, g r e a t lumps of beauty and p r e c i s i o n , a hundred men and more i n each, b l o w i n g out' t h e i r songs as they marched up and down the v a l l e y s , amazing and d e a f e n i n g us a l l . T h e i r i n s t r u m e n t s were gazookas, w i t h a thunderous b r i n g i n g up of drums i n the r e a r . .Gazookas: s m a l l t i n z e p p e l i n s through which you hummed the tune as l o u d l y as p o s s i b l e . Each band was done up i n t h e u n i f o r m o f some r e m o t e . c h a r a c t e r never b e f o r e seen i n Meadow P r o s p e c t . l ^ Here, i n Meadow Prospect,, we see the s p i r i t o f Rhondda: the humour s p i c e d w i t h p a i n t h a t overcomes, d e f e a t . I t i s a s a t i r i c humour, d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l o r d e r ; and i t i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e motion debated by the p h i l o s o p h e r s of Meadow P r o s p e c t i n t h e D i s c u s s i o n Group at the L i b r a r y . a n d I n s t i t u t e : "The shadow of the Boy S c o u t , . w i t h a l l the 90 attendant ambiguities of h i s pole l i e s too heavily on B r i t i s h society 19 and p o l i t i c s . 1 The shadow over Rhondda i s the element of pain that heightens the comedy: the humour of Cynlais's e f f o r t s to win the race i s an emotional m i t i g a t i o n of the v a l l e y ' s deprivation. Gwyn Thomas des-.. cribes the agony of the English-speaking i n d u s t r i a l man who has been alienated . from h i s Welsh heritage, dispossessed by h i s Welsh-speaking countrymen, and now i s betrayed by.the i n d u s t r i a l world which c a l l e d him into being, claimed him, and rejected him. In Gazooka'we see demonstrated the kinship t i e s amongst the people; t i e s that r e l a t e to the integrated family community that.once obtained. Beneath the comedy of the c a r n i v a l , and the r i v a l r y amongst the competing bands,,lies the need for i n d i v i d u a l i t y , and f or the expression of'that i n d i v i d u a l i t y . In Meadow Prospect, i n d u s t r i a l recruitment, 1 as elsewhere, has been a l i e n to i n d i v i d u a l i t y : for i n d i v i d u a l i t y leads to migratory habits which are i n i m i c a l to the assembly-line continuity of i n d u s t r i a l progress. Out of the fervour and shared experiences of the c a r n i v a l a new experience unites the people: i t i s a l i n k with the past; i t i s the product of human experience: At the carnival's end Gomer and Cynlais said we would go back over the mountain path. . . . Some kind of sadness-seemed :.to have come down on us. It was not a miserable sadness, for we could a l l f e e l some.kind of contentment enriching i t s dark root. . . . As we watched the weird disguises, the strange, yet u t t e r l y f a m i l i a r faces,.of Britannias, Matadors and A f r i c a n s , . . . we knew that the bubble o f . f r i v o l i t y , blown with such pathetic care, had burst for ever and,that new and colder winds of danger would come from a l l the world's corners to f i n d us on the morrow. But for that moment we were touched by the moon and the magic of longing. We sensed, some f r i e n d l i n e s s and forgiveness i n the loved and loving earth we walked on. For minutes the s i l e n c e must have gone on. Just the 91 sound of many feet swishing through the summer grass. Then somebody started playing a gazooka.. The tune he played was one of those sweet,. deep things that form as simply as dew on a mood l i k e ours. It must have been ' A l l Through the Night' scored for a m i l l i o n t a l k -ing tears and a basic d i s b e l i e f i n the dawn. It had a l l the golden softness of an age-long hunger to be at r e s t . The player, distant from us now,,at the head of the long and formless procession, playing i t very q u i e t l y , as i f he were thinking rather than playing. Think-ing about the night, c o n f l i c t , beauty,.the i n t r i c a t e labour of l i v -ing and the dark l i t t l e dish of thinking s e l f i n which they were a l l compounded. Then the others joined i n and the children began to sing .,20 The c a r n i v a l has achieved a re-adjustment; the shared experience has led to harmony; and the p r i n c i p l e of laughter has overcome defeat. The people are at one with the past and secure i n t h e i r kinship with one another. And i f the serenity i s evanescent and the element of s e l f -mockery a discordant note, i t i s because the years had grown dark and sardonic, and moments, such as t h i s , must be protected. The human-heart protects i t s e l f from renewed pain and disappointment by s a t i r i c humour; by humour direc t e d against i t s e l f : The s t r i k e s l e f t South Wales gutted and s t r i c k e n . It i s s t i l l d i f f i c u l t to assess the mind of Wales without reference to these outrageous collapses of the s o c i a l framework. We saw lunacy estab-l i s h e d among us as an apparently normal stable companion. We saw, but we didn't quite b e l i e v e . The experience l e f t our imagination with a perpetual t i l t towards the sardonic. Even i n the current effervescence of new industry, the l a s t product to be d e f i n i t e l y marketed w i l l be confidence. The geology of remembrance i s damnably deep and w i l l need to wait overlong for i t s f i n a l textbook. It w i l l prove to be.more-insolent and unyielding than the rocks and des-t r u c t i v e bubbling f i l t h of t h i s eroded and ambulant c l i n k e r . And legend has made our p a r t i c u l a r case more.than usually complicated. Ever since the great b a t t l e s i n the .North and Midlands of England that sent us haring towards Cardigan Bay, we have f e l t that east of Chepstow,,Ross, Shrewsbury, stood a b a l e f u l and v i o l e n t moron as ready.to clobber us with penury i n t h i s century as-he was to do i t with battle-axes i n the time of the Welsh princes.21 92 S o c i a l man i s defined by his r o l e . i n society, i n d u s t r i a l man by the job that he does. In Wales a man's name,.nickname, i s derived from his c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or h i s work, his idiosyncrasies or the place of h i s b i r t h . In the Rhondda, the influence of a n g l i c i z a t i o n on the Rhondda Welsh d i a l e c t has led to c o l o u r f u l and humorous nicknames; and Gwyn Thomas has demonstrated t h i s p r a c t i c e with t y p i c a l l y Welsh s k i l l . In Gazooka we meet, the auctioneer, Erasmus John the Going Gone; "that cantankerous and aged i m p e r i a l i s t , " Georgie Young,the Further Flung; T e i l o Dew the Doom,,who "early had come.under the influence of C a r l y l e and t i g h t velveteen trousers;" W i l l i e S i l c o x the Psyche, "the greatest tracker i n the v a l l e y of those nameless beasts that roam our inward jungles;" Mathew Sewell the.Sotto, "that s p e c i a l i s t i n the head v o i c e ; " and, amongst others, Gomer Gough, "known for h i s addiction to chairman-22 ship as Gough the Gavel." It was t h i s f a c i l i t y that gave Lewis Lewis, a h a u l i e r by trade and l i b e r t a r i a n by reputation, the nickname Lewis yr Heliwr, which, has the meaning of ,his nickname i n English, Lewis the Huntsman. It i s as i f the loss of i d e n t i t y i n i n d u s t r i a l man i s f i n d i n g compensation i n an ancient .custom. These voters who people Gwyn Thomas's Rhondda possess i n d i v i d u a l i t y , an i n d i v i d u a l i t y that makes each of them a 'character' i n the s o c i a l sense. He invests them with i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , each with h i s own i d e n t i t y , many to become f a m i l i a r acquaintances i n subsequent t a l e s . Through them he mirrors the a s p i r a -t i o n s , struggles and endurance of an alienated people. Like Uncle Edwin, Edwin Pugh the Pang, "who operate[s] as an exposed compassionate nerve 23 on behalf of the whole species," Gwyn Thomas does not ask compassion 93 for himself; rather does he, l i k e Pugh the Pang, demonstrate "an asser-24 t i v e hope i n man." That h i s characters are a r t i c u l a t e , that they voice t h e i r thoughts, emotions, philosophy,and passion with the v i t a l i t y of t h e i r author is.no accident.' The Rhondda miner's i n t e l l e c t u a l 25 i n t e r e s t s have been noted by strangers to the region,, as has h i s a b i l i t y i n self-expression., As Gwyn Thomas said i n a radio interview with Glyn Jones: The people among whom I grew up spoke with a boisterous a r t i s t r y . On c e r t a i n l e v e l s of deprivation, l i f e and speech cease to be cau-tious and hedged-in. L i f e i n the v a l l e y s when I was a boy was a precarious and d i s q u i e t i n g thing which encouraged an amazing v i t a l i t y on people's tongues. We talked endlessly. That was one way of keep-ing up our s p i r i t s i n a universe that did not seem very encouraging. A cracked world and a love of the poets gave us a l l the s p i r i t u a l incentive we needed. If we lacked sixpence for the pictures we could always f l o a t on a sea of metaphor i n a session of high Socratic de-bate under a lamp-post i n Porth Square or outside the Tonypandy Empire. Our imaginations had a ferocious q u a l i t y . They roamed through our cosmos l i k e hungry wolves, free to feed on whatever they fancied, f i n d i n g nothing to make them f a l l back into a reverent" hush. 2 6 And i t i s from Wales and the Welsh sermon that t h i s power of philosophic, discussion and verbal v i t a l i t y stems: The great dynast of preachers shaped our soul.and established the rules of our not inconsiderable r h e t o r i c . And behind the preacher has always stood the image of the powerfully l i t e r a t e ploughman and miner who have given to our.working people an impressive and a r t i c u -l a t e d i g n i t y . That i s why.the Eisteddfod cuts so deep into our s o c i a l earth. There i s not a s i n g l e a r t i s t i n Wales today who, i n his e a r l i e s t years, was not made more aware and communicative by the c u l t . o f self-expression developed by the teeming v e s t r i e s of our v a l l e y s . 2 7 28 Gwyn Thomas's unemployed voters, these 'Johnnys on the Dole,' seek s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n i n a world which denies t h e i r existence. The 94 wheels of the hauling cable at the pit-head have stopped turning] the wheels of the journey have f a l l e n into s i l e n c e : . Long before the great depression of 1930, Rhondda was a v a l l e y where men were starvi n g . . . . The e v i l of unemployment reached i t s climax that year [1926] and the next when i t was estimated that i n Mid-Rhondda some eighty per cent of the people were l i v i n g on unemployT-ment insurance, public assistance, or the old age pension.^9 In the early t h i r t i e s , when the men of Rhondda marched i n protest to London, the v a l l e y s held t h e i r pain, a l i v i n g , pulsating thing that made the s i l e n c e hurt. And >out of the pain of u n f u l f i l l e d yearning grew 30 a dedication to the dream of "a new dimension of d i g n i t y and freedom" 31 for the chi l d r e n born."at the hub of darkness and l a c e r a t i o n s . " Even as the poet, who " c a r r i e s the load of a l l our s t r i c k e n and mutilated l i v e s , and seeks, through i n t e n s i t y of expression, to bring r e s t i t u t i o n to those who have been too c r u e l l y denied the g i f t s of beauty, wisdom 32 and d i g n i t y , " the chi l d r e n were to be burdened with t h e i r parents' dream of academic achievement as the escapes-route from i n d u s t r i a l entrap-ment : The whole of my boyhood.saw a vast c u l t of hatred.directed against such b r u t a l i z i n g antics as pi t - l a b o u r . The Grammar Schools were seen as escape shafts out of the tunnels of the p r o l e t a r i a t , and high l i t e r a c y was the North Star that was to guide us f i n a l l y out.of the night. Contempt and kicks awaited the boy who f a i l e d to make the 11-plus grade or who f a l t e r e d i n h i s march to the u n i v e r s i t y . The mark of Cain was on the boy who, through mental slowness or indolence, slipped into the penumbra of shop work or the authentic shadow of the mine. Book-learning was to-be the key to.the New Jerusalem, and the average .earnest miner saw heaven not so much i n terms of.release f o r himself from scars, hazards and petty pay, but a t i d y c o l l a r and clean hands f o r h i s sons. My father c a r r i e d t h i s kind- of f a i t h so f a r that he forbade us to engage i n any us e f u l manual a c t i v i t y that might have l e d us into the ranks.of the artisans.33 95 In the v a l l e y s , the people knew, as did Shakespeare's F l u e l l e n , that, 34 " i t i s not so good to come to the mines." They knew that "there [was] 35 always a l i t t l e blood bn the moon i n the economic l i f e of t h i s zone." 36 But the chi l d r e n , who wore themselves "wild and bandy-legged" on the h i l l s , f o r whom the black t i p s and patches of.subsidence held no.horror, and for whom the promise of a p i t . s t r i k e held the promise of excitement, 37 as did the floods a f t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy r a i n , came to r e a l i z e that t h e i r parents' stress on passing the scholarship examination to the Grammar School was,.as Gwyn Thomas says of the stress on coal , "a deadly, 38 paralysing t r u s s . " In A Hatf u l of Humours he writes: There were.10 of us i n my v i l l a g e f o r whom he [the teacher of the scholarship class] had the highest hopes. We were l i k e brothers i n our rhythm of mood, movement, desire. For a l l the years we spent i n the primary school we assembled at the same spot i n the back lane and walked together to school.. Mr. Napier was convinced that nothing would ever disturb our unity. He was ce r t a i n that not one of us would f a i l . He scraped our l i v e s down to a bare bone of academic dedication. . . . On a morning of black-rimmed majesty.the headmaster read out the examination r e s u l t s . Five of us f a i l e d . Five of us passed. On our f i r s t morning i n the county school the f i v e of us who had been chosen met,our rejected companions at the same spot i n the back lane. Our brand-new satchels glowed l i k e a new repe l l e n t dimension. We walked down through the town. We reached the bridge beyond, which lay the county school.. We raised our,satchels i n farewell and our,five companions turned and made t h e i r way upward to the primary school.. Mr. Napier, f e l l i n behind them i n mournful d i g n i t y . At that moment I f e l t the whole f a b r i c of l i f e tear from top to bottom, and through a l l the years i t has not been t r u l y or f i n a l l y healed.39 In the short story, "Not Even Then," Gwyn Thomas captures the essence of the dream and the anguish i n the heart of every c h i l d on whom is.place d the burden of o b l i g a t i o n to r e a l i z e the dream. The boy i s the 96 v i c t i m of a c o n s p i r a c y , ^ f i r s t to succeed, and next, h a v i n g , f a i l e d , of b i t t e r reproach. "Seeking . . . some refuge further and more assuring," he finds the source of h i s f i r s t known sec u r i t y ; but even i n fantasy he i s rejected. She, h i s dead mother, would have shared h i s brother's dreams f o r him; on her face, too, he sees "the dumb, pale hurt and out-r a g e " ^ of b i t t e r disappointment. The r e a l i t y of her love' for him i s the measure of what her dreams would have. been. Subconsciously, the boy knows t h i s and experiences the bewilderment and misery of the out-cast, the panic that,surges into the void of i s o l a t i o n that comes with the ultimate r e j e c t i o n : Her face grew further from mine. I threw out my arms to hold her, asking for mercy and patience, crying "Mam, mam, mam," i n a breath of anguish that must have made a wind a l l around the world. Feature by feature, grace by grace,.she vanished and with her went the dwel-l i n g and the l i g h t . The warmth and s e c u r i t y had again gone out of l i f e , and I was alone.with the pointed, menacing whisper of leaf and water. I was.alone i n the wood, my wet, s t r i c k e n face pressed into the bark of an ancient oak.41 It i s , as the boy knew: "The people who take academic achievement most' earnestly" are the Welsh. "With them even the dead get v i n d i c t i v e about i t . " 4 2 But the dream and i t s f u l f i l m e n t widened the gulf between Welsh-speaking Wales and the b i l i n g u a l people of the i n d u s t r i a l v a l l e y s ; between the Rhondda parents and t h e i r . a n g l i c i z e d c h i l d r e n . That Gwyn Thomas recognizes the tragedy of t h i s loss of the Welsh tongue i s evidenced by his short story " L i t t l e Fury." Miss I l f r a Desmond has learned Welsh " i n 43 order to express her emotional kinship with the people who speak i t , " and teaches Welsh to a s p e c i a l c l a s s : 97 We were the ch i l d r e n of Welsh-speaking parents from whose tongues the language had for some reason vanished. The echoes of the ancient speech" s t i r r e d i n the back of our minds but our l i p s knew i t not. Miss Desmond approached us with a mixture of sympathy and an apos-t o l i c urge to repair a great wrong. She had found what we had l o s t and she was anxious to restore i t to us.44 The sons and daughters who made the journey away from the indus-t r i a l past.see the a l i e n a t i o n and i t s roots; but the s o c i a l and economic, influences that produced the Anglo-Welsh are i r r e v e r s i b l e . S o c i a l advance-ment through academic achievement w i l l not erase the fa c t of human ex p l o i t a t i o n and deprivation. It i s an i l l u s o r y c i t a d e l : f o r the stones of the keep, the i l l u s i o n s , crumble, i n the r e a l i t y of wasted opportunity i n l i v i n g out the dreams of others: In a l l the sages of my South Welsh generation I detect an a i r of something fungoid, a suggestion that the serenity and gaiety,which should be the f i r s t f r u i t s of prolonged education have been completely l e f t i n our contemporary miscarriage of s o c i a l intentions. . . . The themes of waste and voluntary s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n obsess the great bulk of verbal a r t . In every.human situation,.however passion-ate the mouth's dedication to freedom and compassion, somebody i s being put upon, sp o i l e d , wasted.45 C u l t u r a l l y and s o c i a l l y alienated, the Anglo-Welsh have no place i n t r a d i t i o n a l Welsh culture, nor i n the v a l l e y s of t h e i r childhood. For: "Unless a man's whole environment changes, h i s own e f f o r t s at d r a s t i c 46 a l t e r a t i o n s w i l l make him a c r i p p l e . " Son of a c o l l i e r , Gwyn Thomas experienced to the f u l l the e f f e c t s of a l i e n a t i o n . He was pushed up "a l i f t shaft of academic grace, from a ghastly underworld to a light e d 47 surface." , But "[his] terms at Oxford were from beginning to end a 48 s e r i e s of spinning a l i e n a t i o n s ; " and h i s return to Rhondda brought no reassurance. 1 And yet, t h i s i s the place to which he belongs. Always, i t i s where he returns. Like the h a r p i s t , turning to look back on Moonlea, h i s journey has come,full cycle. The wheels of the journey begin, and end, here, i n the Good Patch. CHAPTER V LAUGHTER IS THE COLOUR OF SAYING 'Tis no small thing to argue down one minded l i k e a mule, Talk wisdom with the wise and yet make je s t i n g s with a f o o l , And s t i l l not show one's s e l f a clown with a l l one's r i d i c u l e — My tambourine has s i l l y b e l l s , yet ' t i s my earning t o o l . — J u a n Ruiz Throughout h i s work Gwyn Thomas demonstrates the truth that i n the face of di s a s t e r and defeat human beings are capable of an endurance that i s heroic. The heroism of the voters i s not epic i n scope, c l a s s i c i n structure, nor exalted to a point infinitely.removed from the world of p i t and chapel. Thomas reveals the loneliness of be t r a y a l , and the tragic-absurdity of man's e f f o r t s to ameliorate h i s s u f f e r i n g , to over-come h i s defeat. And i f the humour of h i s . w r i t i n g seems to mock h i s characters' comic a n t i c s , i t i s because the Welsh "have some curious ways of expressing compassion.""'" The value placed on brotherhood and kinship i n Welsh society i s one that stems from a f a m i l i a l society; and i n the Rhondda, the world of the slump developed t i e s of shared endurance that make Gwyn Thomas one with h i s voters. Throughout h i s work i s seen "that half-impish, half-angry irony.that ran through the thought and 2 speeches of [Aneurin] Bevan." He demonstrates that the p r i n c i p l e of laughter and the philosophy of Sancho Panza are e s s e n t i a l to combat human defeat, for they allow of an emotional mitigation of deprivation,. 3 a re-adjustment to present circumstances.. Man comes to terms with h i s human fa i l u r e ; , he does not s e l f - d e s t r u c t i n the agony of i t s r e a l i t y . 100 Thomas's voters, these thinkers and philosophers who s i t on the w a l l d i s -cussing l i f e , these clowns who p a r t i c i p a t e i n races, c a r n i v a l s , p r i m i t i v e mining, operas and pageants, these humanitarians whose d e s t i t u t i o n i s no less than that of those whom t h e i r e f f o r t s attempt to redeem, have an a f f i n i t y with t h e i r • c r e a t o r - t h a t binds him to them. His laughter, how-ever wry, combats t h e i r human los s ; for he knows and shares t h e i r pain, and challenges i t with self-mockery. Comedy must be founded on truth and on an understanding of the r e a l value of a,character before i t can pick out the h i g h - l i g h t s . It i s only when one thoroughly understands a person that one can afford to laugh at him. And here I would s t i p u l a t e another q u a l i t y that I f i n d indisperi-. sable to the comic s p i r i t — t h a t of good nature . . . comedy i s i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up with k i n d l i n e s s . . . . For comedy i s bound up with lack of proportion. It. i s t e c h n i c a l l y dependent on accents of emphasis. It i s not concerned with presenting a balanced whole: i t consists i n sharpening the. angles of the complete character.4 Gwyn Thomas at once stands outside a character and i s at one with him. His v i s i o n g r a p h i c a l l y d e t a i l s every shade, subtlety, s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Rhondda microcosm whilst at the same time i t looks further and deeper than the l i t t l e world of the v a l l e y . He sees the truth not the comic d i s t o r t i o n of the image he presents. He, too, beneath the clown's mask reveals a face of bewilderment. The v i v i d consciousness that man i s neither heroic i n the c h i v a l r i c sense, nor base i n the puritan concept i s revealed i n h i s awareness of man's f i r s t i n s t i n c t to make the best of misfortune. Sometimes h i s anger breaks through the comic ;mask. In s t o r i e s -such as "Oscar," and "Where My Dark Lover L i e s , " and through, the tragi-comic s u f f e r i n g of Omri Hemlock i n The World Cartnot Hear You, the 101 compassionate laughter he evokes barely conceals h i s anger that men can be so betrayed. The clown's mask cracks and h i s humorous exaggeration of people l i k e himself, l i k e Onllwyn i n "Thy Need," the family i n The Keep, l i k e Omri Hemlock and Floss Bennett, becomes a serious comment on the r e a l i t y of human b e t r a y a l . 1 When the clown's antics to escape the cage of r e a l i t y reveal h i s i n a b i l i t y to function within the cage, laughter becomes p a i n f u l ; and the clown's fears and the hopelessness of h i s predicament cause laughter to give way before fee l i n g s of p i t y and g r i e f for the p l i g h t of the clown. A paradox: f o o l i s h , yet v a l i a n t ; pathetic, yet possessed of that indom-i t a b l e w i l l to overcome the loss to h i s humanness, he i s motivated by the desire for a future based on a mythical dream and i s betrayed by an i r r e v e r s i b l e i n d u s t r i a l past'and a present materialism. The harpist's dreams are betrayed by the machinations and manipulation of the people, and by the s a c r i f i c e of freedom for technological advance. In Point, of  Order the c o u n c i l l o r ' s e f f o r t s for the people of h i s ward are betrayed; by "a league of corrupt craftmanship""' as ruthless as the moving, moun-6 tainous t i p , that "symbol of the . . . mutilated past." Always there must be a scapegoat for those whose f r u s t r a t i o n s f i n d expression i n "the r i c h actionable pastures of spoken malignancy."^ Rarely does Gwyn Thomas allow h i s innate compassion and charitable good humour to be overcome i n the d e l i n e a t i o n of character. Sylvester Strang evokes sympathy even though he exemplifies the arrogance of s o c i a l investigators who-went to the Rhondda between 1926 and 1939 to observe the people i n t h e i r poverty. As. Thomas states i n A Hatful of Humours, 102 "There i s something d i s q u i e t i n g i n any s o c i e t y where one s e t o f human b e i n g s can be i n t r o d u c e d t o another s e t w i t h e i t h e r c u r i o s i t y or repug-8 nance." Thomas takes the image o f the p l a c e where he was born and the pe o p l e who a r e h i s own and p r e s e n t s i t w i t h h u m i l i t y , f o r he i s imaged t h e r e . And i f h i s a r t s u c c e e d s , . i t i s because the p e o p l e , w i t h a l l t h e i r i m p e r f e c t i o n s , , a r e i n v i n c i b l e ; and i t i s l a u g h t e r t h a t makes them so: Pe o p l e t e l l me t h e r e a r e comic undertones i n even my most sombre imagery. I can e a s i l y b e l i e v e i t . Humour i s a sense o f t h e i n c o n -gruous o r ab s u r d , an agg r a v a t e d sense o f the c o n t r a s t between man's d i v i n e promise and h i s shambling, shabby r e a l i t y . There was enough i n c o n g r u i t y between the way my p e o p l e l i v e d i n the Rhondda of my e a r l y manhood, and the way i n which they would have wanted t o . l i v e , t o have n o u r i s h e d a t l e a s t t e n thousand h u m o r i s t s o f the f i r s t rank. But of c o u r s e about the humour produced from such a s i t u a t i o n t h e r e w i l l be h i n t s o f the most'extreme savagery; and the a r t i s t i n t o whose s p i r i t i t may have e n t e r e d too d e e p l y w i l l f i n d h i s main t a s k t o be the r e n d e r i n g o f h i s anger b e a r a b l e t o h i m s e l f and a c c e p t a b l e t o o t h e r s . 9 In " O s c a r " t h e r e i s a h i n t :of extreme and savage anger. There i s a l s o an e x t r a o r d i n a r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human nature., In the t r a g i c -a b s u r d i t y o f the s i t u a t i o n we see t h a t h er s e x u a l need i s s t r o n g e r than the widow's d e s i r e f o r revenge. S e x u a l l y aroused by the man r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her husband's death, the widow's p a s s i o n o f g r i e f and h a t e i s t r a n s -muted i n t o an e c s t a s y o f f u l f i l m e n t t h a t had been d e n i e d her f o r so l o n g . Here i n the m i n i n g v a l l e y s t h e r e were many such women "who were s h o r t o f foo d and reasons f o r l i v i n g . " " ' " ^ There were g i r l s l i k e one. o f the Macnaffy g i r l s from B rimstone T e r r a c e : Her f a c e was t i r e d , t h i n and savage. . . . She was the s o r t of e l e -ment who has been preached a g a i n s t e v e r s i n c e p r e a c h i n g s t a r t e d . . . . Her v o i c e was s o f t and dark, which was a g r e a t f e a t u r e o f .most , women i n t h e v a l l e y , even women who l o o k e d as i f they were g o i n g t o 103 r i p you open l i k e t h i s M a c n a f f y . V o i c e s l i k e c a t s ' backs., t h e v e l v e t o f s k i n and p u r r . 1 1 L i k e F l o s s B e n n e t t , t h i s M a c n a f f y i s an o u t c a s t ; and w h i l s t b o t h a r e d e s -c r i b e d w i t h h u m o u r t h e i r a l i e n a t i o n i s no l e s s r e a l t h a n t h a t o f t h e w a n d e r i n g h a r p i s t o r gypsy. A n t i p a t h e t i c t o t h e P u r i t a n E t h i c , t h e wanderer i s d e f i n e d as a p a r a s i t e , a r e b e l . . H i s r e f u s a l t o r e l i n q u i s h h i s i d e n t i t y g i v e s s o c i e t y j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s p e r s e c u t i o n : he i s a s o c i a l d e v i a n t who w i l l s ub-v e r t t h e s t a n d a r d s o f m o r a l s o c i e t y ; a r a d i c a l l i b e r t a r i a n who w i l l s t i r men t o r e b e l . I n h i s d e p i c t i o n o f F l o s s B e n n e t t , of P e r e d u r and I o l o , o f A l a n Hugh L e i g h , Gwyn Thomas i s n o t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e must be u n d e r s t o o d as s o c i a l v i c t i m s , . r a t h e r i s he p o i n t i n g t o t h e l a c k o f s e n s i t i v i t y on t h e p a r t o f s o c i e t y t h a t s u b s c r i b e s t o s u c h " r e d u c t i v e 12 m o r a l i t y . " I t i s n o t men's f r a i l t i e s t h a t he p a r o d i e s i n h i s human comedy; i t i s t h e c r u e l t y o f s o c i e t y ' s a t t i t u d e towards them t h a t he s a t i r i z e s . The W o r l d Cannot Hear You and The A l o n e . t o t h e A l o n e a r e no l e s s a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e government's i n d i f f e r e n c e t o and s o c i e t y ' s 13 contempt f o r t h e p e o p l e o f t h e Rhondda t h a n was S w i f t ' s A Modest P r o p o s a l f o r t h e p e o p l e o f I r e l a n d . B u t , such i s Thomas's w i s h f o r appeasement and h i s r e l u c t a n c e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o " t h e s e b u n d l e s of c o n -14 tempt and h a t r e d handed about l i k e unwashed l a u n d r y , " t h a t when Nemesis comes t o c h a r a c t e r s l i k e O s c a r arid P i c t o n t h e i r end i s f e l t w i t h r e g r e t . They evoke anger f o r t h e i r t r e a t m e n t of o t h e r s , l a u g h t e r f o r t h e i r comic d i s p l a y ; . b u t Thomas does n o t a n n i h i l a t e t h e i r h u m a n i t y , n o r t h e i r r i g h t t o a c c e p t a n c e and l i f e . They, t o o , dream o f a p l a c e i n t h e sun. 104 Thomas's humour, l i k e the poetry of h i s prose, i s passionately i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c . Morris, i n The Alone to the Alone, i s drawn with a warmth of delight that does not deny the pathos of h i s l i f e . It i s not the humour of Morris's purple s u i t and bowler hat that impresses—even though t h i s , i t i s my b e l i e f , i s a masterpiece of comic d e s c r i p t i o n . It i s the sad contrast between Morris's colourless existence, i t s shabby r e a l i t y , arid the d e l i g h t i t should have been." It took so l i t t l e to give him pleasure. His dreams, l i k e the clown's, shape, his pain; and laughter i s the colour of i t s saying. CONCLUSION GWYN THOMAS: A WELSH EYE AND AN ANGLO-WELSH TONGUE The v i s i t o r can judge for himself when he meets these small, dark-haired, somewhat Puck-i s h people with t h e i r quick p h y s i c a l and mental reactions, t h e i r musical speech, and t h e i r ready.wit. He w i l l f i n d them almost anywhere i n Glamorgan and Monmouthshire . . . but more es p e c i a l l y i n the mining v a l l e y s of the Welsh uplands. They themselves are conscious of their, separateness, as anyone can understand who i s p r i v i l e g e d to hear a South Wales miner discourse on the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the 'Northmen.' —W. J . Gruffydd, South Wales and the Marches There i s a saying i n Wales, "Cenedl heb i a i t h , cenedl heb galon": A Nation without language, a nation without heart. The threat to the Welsh tongue which n a t i o n a l i s t s see i n the Anglo-Welsh i s understandable i f f a l l a c i o u s . Wales, i s a nation with two languages, both expressing the perceptions of a Welsh v i s i o n and the l o y a l t y of a Welsh heart. No one who has heard a Welshman's spoken English can doubt i t s i n d i v i d u a l i t y or i t s kinship with Welsh idiom and structure. It i s Anglo-Welsh that i s spoken, not English; and, as Glyn Jones has established by the t i t l e of h i s work, the dragon of Wales has two tongues, both rooted i n the heart of Wales. The Anglo-Welsh writers who emerged from.the i n d u s t r i a l regions, are d i s t i n c t from t h e i r contemporaries across the border. It i s to Wales that they owe their, outlook,.their use of language, t h e i r motivation. And i f fluency.or competence i n Welsh have been taken from them, attendance 106 at chapel and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l Eisteddfodau would have developed i n them an early response to the Welsh l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n : a response that manifested i t s e l f i n l i t e r a t u r e dipped i n the colour of Welsh saying. The language that they use may have come from the English, but they have made of i t a Welsh tongue. In "Llenyddiaeth Eingl-Gymreig" . (Anglo-Welsh L i t e r a t u r e ) , R. S. ; Thomas appeals to the Anglo-Welsh writers to create l i t e r a t u r e congenial to the Welsh t r a d i t i o n ; to be aware of the beauty and charm of Welsh l i t -erature, and to study the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Welsh Muse—-of cynghanedd, 1 for example. He refe r s to the tendency of the Anglo-Welsh to give a p i c t u r e of Wales that creates an impression of a land of coal pits.. That these writers have emerged from the pain of an oppressive i n d u s t r i a l i s m , from an experience that i s undeniably of Wales, should not prevent them looking back to the r u r a l t r a d i t i o n s of a century ago, to what i s e s s e n t i a l l y Welsh i n a land that i s , for R. S. Thomas, green. He believes that a l l Welsh writers have, a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the next genera-t i o n to preserve these t r a d i t i o n s and not l e t them languish, for they 2 belong to the future, that a c h i l d may know his country. The land of pastoral peace i s never far from Gwyn Thomas's Welsh eye. He sees "the two faces of South Wales, the man-made face of mighty ind u s t r i e s and b r u t a l l y inadequate townships, and the face of the moor-land, wood and f i e l d that has changed l i t t l e except i n rateable value 3 since time began."' He has a deep love of Wales, but h i s p a c i f i s t p h i l -4 osophy has led to anti-chauvinist attitudes that embrace a r e f u s a l to support m i l i t a n t Welsh nationalism and the demand that Welsh be recognized 107 as the o f f i c i a l language. His plea i s for an end to the " f a c t i o n f i g h t between the Welsh-speaking f o l k of Wales and those from whom the language has been t a k e n . H e salutes "the r e s t l e s s , wagging tongue of Cymfu, i n f i n i t e i n i t s gu i l e to survive the calamities of shame and time," but urges "a more tolerant assessment by the Gorsedd C i r c l e of.the need to keep the non-Welsh speaking Celts within the r a c i a l f o l d . " ^ And i f he rebukes the chauvinism of Welsh speakers, he i s no less scathing of English v i s i t o r s who " t a l k loudly because they are convinced that we can-g not understand." 9 Like the Spanish poet Ruiz, with whom he has an a f f i n i t y , ' Gwyn Thomas's work i s insp i r e d with the passionate beauty and l y r i c i s m of his land. As Glyn Jones.has so r i g h t l y s a i d : . . . Gwyn Thomas's values are very l a r g e l y C h r i s t i a n , he has invar-r i a b l y the good word for human brotherhood, for love, for compassion, for s i m p l i c i t y as against cynicism, for tenderness as against c r u e l t y , for warm-hearted reasonableness as against violence. And he has a mind to.go along with t h i s that uses metaphor as n a t u r a l l y , as abundantly and as p e r s i s t e n t l y as do most of us the c l i c h e , a mind that enlarges and enlivens and decorates, which shoots up a l l i t s material as i t were into massive and spectacular fountains, and plays upon them always the dazzling i l l u m i n a t i o n of his wit. To me, he i s the supreme poet of the i n d u s t r i a l v a l l e y s , the cyfarwydd of the working c l a s s , comic, compassionate, of inexhaustible invention, and of an utterance unequalled among the Anglo-Welsh for i t s richness, i t s consistency and i t s vigour.-LO In Jackie the Jumper and A l l Things Betray Thee the symbiotic r e -l a t i o n s h i p between revivalism, the rigorous enforcement of moral law and s o c i a l order, and the e x p l o i t a t i o n of human resources calmed the queru-lous and quieted the conscience, of authority, whilst the people jumped i n unsuspecting ecstasy. The i n d i v i d u a l who refused to. be confined by. 108 i n s t i t u t i o n s and who evaded enmeshment i n p r o d u c t i v e i n d u s t r y , saw, be-cause of h i s deeper a w a r e n e s s , . s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s s t r u c k a t t h e i r v e r y root.-Today, as t h e n , the wanderer i s a n , o u t c a s t . He i s a gypsy, l e a d -i n g a Bohemian l i f e , and " i n a l l the wide w o r l d t h e r e [ i s ] no l o n g e r any p l a c e f o r g y p s i e s , f o r p e o p l e who [ a r e ] not w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t an o r d e r e d s t a b l e l i f e , t o s e t t l e down t o the s q u a l i d r o u t i n e of o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r and d e m o c r a t i c d i s c i p l i n e . 1 , 1 1 The gypsy dreams of "a w o r l d i n which c o o l n e s s , slowness and s a f e t y [ w i l l ] t ake over from t h e d e t o n a t i n g madhouse t h a t we have c o n t r i v e d f o r our f a s t e r l i q u i d a t i o n , a w o r l d i n v e n t e d by g e n i u s f o r 12 the f r e e s p o r t of i d i o t s . " The t e c h n o l o g i c a l age has regimented s o c i e t y and a l i e n a t e d man from h i s human bond; but the gypsy, the wan-d e r e r , the o u t s i d e r , f o r whom t h e r e i s o n l y contempt >and i n t o l e r a n c e , have a s e l f - d e f i n i n g . i n t e g r i t y thaty, l i k e t h a t o f the m i n s t r e l of o l d , u n d e r l i n e s the t r a g e d y of t h i s age of p r o g r e s s " t h a t . h a s made one human 13 b e i n g l e a p i n t e r r o r from the p a t h of a n o t h e r . " L i k e A l a n Hugh L e i g h , the gypsy i s a l i e n a t e d because of h i s " r e f u s a l t o conform w i t h d e c i s i o n s t h a t d e s t r o y what a man a l o n e , , i n t h e wisdom of h i s own s k i n , demands of l i f e . " 1 4 In w r i t i n g of h i s f a v o u r i t e books, Gwyn Thomas s a y s : Thomas Wolfe's Look Homeward A n g e l I would choose as th e g r e a t e s t a c t of p o e t r y i n the modern n o v e l . I t c a r r i e s t o t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t of e x p r e s s i o n two themes t h a t I c o n s i d e r the most f a s c i n a t i n g i n the whole range of a r t : The huge poignancy t h a t a t t e n d s the undoing and death of a l a r g e f a m i l y , and the t a s k of d e s c r i b i n g the e x t e n t t o which we ar e e x p l o r e r s . o f a l l the dead hours i n which we have l e f t some l i v i n g p a r t of o u r s e l v e s . 1 5 109 Throughout h i s work Gwyn Thomas expresses these themes: he explores " a l l the dead hours i n which [he has] l e f t some l i v i n g part' of [himself]," and through them traces the undoing of the Welsh family and the a l i e n a t -ing e f f e c t s of industrialism, and i t s concomitant; the i n f l u x of an English-speaking working c l a s s . . In the South Wales c o a l f i e l d , the people saw the loss of t h e i r land, t h e i r language, t h e i r t i e s of kinship with pastoral Wales, and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y . In t h i s century, Wales has seen the emergence of a new generation: the Anglo-Welsh, and of a passionate, r e b e l l i o u s , humorous,generation of Anglo-Welsh w r i t e r s , whose voice speaks for an alienated people: We have been mutilated, rubbed to a shabby stump against the rock [of endurance] you mention. Deplore i t but don't waste rapture or pathos on i t . I t ' s j u s t ugly.and w i l l become les s so as our grieved and s i l e n t legion makes way for a les s tolerant and more assertive generation. There i s a poignant irony i n Gwyn Thomas s term voters, for these unem-ployed workers, these 'Johnnys pn the Dole,' are powerless to change t h e i r economic condition; t h e i r enfranchisement has not given them contro of p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r basic human needs. The voters of Meadow Prospect and F e r n c l e f t have grown wise to the ways of a universe i n which the stress on coal has been a millstone around t h e i r necks, and i n which man, armed with a machine and an a c q u i s i t i v e urge, has reduced the South Wales v a l l e y s of i n c r e d i b l e greens to a Special Area of uniform depriva-t i o n . The wheels of the journey of i n d u s t r i a l progress have t r a v e l l e d into the l a t t e r h a l f of the twentieth century leaving i n t h e i r wake a realm of ..ugliness and destruction: 11.0 The Nineteenth Century did not attack beauty. It simply trampled, i t underfoot,-with the r e s u l t that our modern democracy, i s born atro-phied, and has p a i n f u l l y to recover that love of s i g n i f i c a n t form which has been one of the marks of c i v i l i z e d man from the Bronze Age u n t i l the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution temporarily destroyed it.17 • The land that was t h e i r s , as Alan Hugh Leigh says of the newly enclosed land .of Lord Plimmon's estate, has been appropriated with a r u t h l e s s , r e l e n t l e s s disregard for i t s time-honoured possessors: So t h i s i s Lord Plimmon's land. If he bought i t , no part of the , money was paid to me nor would I have w i l l e d the sale. I f he fought f o r i t I was not here to see the f i g h t i n g . Count me out of the agreement.18 Their land and t h e i r language and t h e i r Welsh i d e n t i t y have been taken from them, and they "stand confessed the l a s t j l o s t nonconformists of an 19 Age." But they are Welsh i n the soft consonants of t h e i r Welsh-sprung spoken English; and i n the l o y a l t y they give to Wales, the Anglo-Welsh have rejected t h e i r a l i e n a t i o n and established t h e i r t i e s with the a s p i r -ations of a l l t h e i r countrymen. As Gwyn Thomas has shewn, i n some l i v i n g part of every Rhondda man there i s that sense of kinship, that need to share the pain of others, that give him strength to r i s e above the .betrayal-.and the r u i n of h i s human . d i g n i t y . NOTES' NOTES INTRODUCTION Vide A. L. Rowse, The Expansion of Eli z a b e t h a n England (New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc., 1955), pp. 2 et seq. Rowse i n s i s t s on the e s s e n t i a l reasonableness of the movement to impose the ordered society of the new, Renaissance nation-state on the old C e l t i c chaos; He argues that although almost always opposed and often s u f f e r i n g set-backs, western expansion was an i n e v i t a b l e " h i s t o r i c " process which resulted i n the ultimate betterment of l i f e f o r the subjugated peoples. Rowse draws such a conclusion from a p o s i t i o n of acceptance of the values of western c i v i l i z a t i o n ; he does not.question the morality of the imposition of an a l i e n culture on an unwilling populace. 2 Translated by S i r Harold I d r i s B e l l , i n h i s The Development of  Welsh. Poetry (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1936), p. 181. B e l l notes that Die Sion Dafydd " i s the prototype of the an g l i c i z e d Welshman, who makes i t a point of honour,to deride everything Welsh." 3 Jack Jones, Unfinished Journey (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1938), p. 22. 4 Gwyn Thomas, A Welsh Eye (Brattlebro, Vermont: The Stephen Greene Press,.1965), p. 103. ^Glyn Jones, The Dragon Has Two Tongues (London: J . M. Dent'and Sons Ltd., 1968),.p. 53. Glyn Jones, "Y Llenorion Eingl-Gymreig," T a l i e s i n , V o l . IX (Llandybie, s.d.), pp. 50-63. ^ I b i d . , pp. 50 and 58; The Dragon Has Two Tongues, p. 53; vide the adverse c r i t i c i s m of the Anglo-Welsh i n Bobi Jones, "The Anglo-Welsh," Dock Leaves, I I I , No. 10 (1953), pp. 23-28, i n which the author states: ". . . the Anglo-Welsh had to import and adapt t h e i r culture from an uninteresting and impoverished England during a period of unhealthy f l u x . . . ." and."The Anglo-Welsh movement must be prepared to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y and consciously i n the whole s o c i a l l i f e of the nation, instead of f i l c h i n g material [from Wales?] and giving nothing i n i t s place' 1.(p. 26); to which Noel A. Jones r e p l i e d . i n V o l. IV, No. 11 (1953), r e f u t i n g the arguments of the former by.i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r f a u l t y logic.. An attempt to denigrate Anglo-Welsh a c t i v i t y by the Welsh dramatist and scholar i n the f i e l d of foreign l i t e r a t u r e s , John Gwilym Jones, i n "No Man's Land," Lookout (publication of the Univ e r s i t y College of North Wales, Bangor), 113 (November 21, 1961), p. 4, was.rebutted by Meic Stephens i n "Crumbs from the Black Swans," Lookout (December 5, 1961), p. 4, who takes the former to task for attitudes incompatible with h i s scholarship, and who finds the conclusions Jones makes to be'untenable; he c a l l s for a l l men and writers to " r e s i s t any. attempt to s p l i t further the people of our home-land,. . . . and not waste time and energy i n q u a r r e l l i n g f o r crumbs." L. Wyn G r i f f i t h r e j e c t s , unequivocally, the term applied to Welshmen wr i t i n g i n English: "I have been described as an 'Anglo-Welsh' w r i t e r . I am nothing of the kind. I am a Welsh-speakirig Welshman (need I say so? who writes i n En g l i s h , " i n "A Note on Anglo-Welsh," Wales, New Series, I (1943), pp. 15-16. g Glyn Jones, "Y Llenorion Eingl-Gymreig," p. 58. 9 Ibid., p. 60. 1 0 I b l d . , . p . 58. In "The New Anglo-Welsh," Yr Einion ('The Welsh A n v i l ' ) , No. 1 (1949), pp. 56-62, Professor Gwyn Jones summarizes h i s review of the work of Roland Mathias,. R. S. Thomas, Gwyn Thomas, Cledwyn Hughes and George Ewart Evans with the statement: "Here are f i v e new authors of promise. Each i s sharply d i s t i n c t from h i s fellows; no one follows tamely, i n the track of the e a r l i e r Anglo-rWelsh" (p. 62). "'"''"Glyn Jones, "Y Llenorion Eingl-Gymreig," p. 58. 12 Ibid.; vide D. C.. Jenkins, Writing i n Twentieth Century Wales: A Defense of the Anglo-Welsh. Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , State U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1956, pp. 151-170. 13 David Williams, A History of Modern Wales (London: John Murray, 1950), pp. 292-294. After.the General S t r i k e (1926) and during the de-pression, part of the South Wales c o a l f i e l d was designated a 'Special Area.' Merthyr and the Rhondda were part of that s p e c i a l area for which new ind u s t r i e s were introduced, and from which miners and t h e i r f a m i l i e s were encouraged to move and.settle i n the r u r a l Vale of Glamorgan. These attempts to counteract unemployment met .with only q u a l i f i e d success. The re-armament programme at the onset of World War II gave work to many who had been unemployed on the dole for f i f t e e n years; vide Jack Jones, Unfinished Journey, p. 291; also H. W. J ; Edwards, The Good Patch (London Jonathan Cape, 1938), pp. 78-87. 1 4 W i l l i a m Moelwyn Merchant, "The Relevance of the Anglo-Welsh," Wales, New Series, I (1943), p. 17. "'""'Richard Llewellyn, Richard Hughes, Alun Lewis, Dylan Thomas, and Henry Treece are s u f f i c i e n t l y well-known to,preclude a m p l i f i c a t i o n ; Gwyn Thomas's books are published and reviewed i n North America; vide Glyn Jones, "Y Llenorion. Eingl-Gymreig," p. 60, and Saunders Lewis's t r i b u t e t Anglo-Welsh poets noted by Keidrych Rhys, i n "Contemporary Welsh. 114 L i t e r a t u r e " ( i i ) , The B r i t i s h Annual of L i t e r a t u r e , 3 (1946), p. 17. 16 Vide Merchant, - l o c . , c i t . 1 7 I b i d . 18 Thomas Parry, A History of Welsh L i t e r a t u r e , trans. H. I. B e l l (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1955), p. 455. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 380. 20 Gwyn Jones, "Language, Style and Anglo-Welsh," Essays and Studies (1953), ed. Geoffrey Bullough (London: John Murray, 1953) , p. 103. 2 1 P a t r i c k Skene C a t l i n g , "Funny Men," Punch (May 4, 1960), p. 632. 22 Gwyn Jones, "Language, Style and Anglo-Welsh," p. 106. 23 Ibid . 24 Richard Llewellyn, How Green Was My Vall e y (London: World Books, 1941), p. 319. 25 B. If o r Evans, "The C o l l e c t i v e Genius of English L i t e r a t u r e , " I. "Wales," The Author, Vol, LX, No. 1 (Autumn 1949), p. 7. Ibid. 27 I b i d . , p, 8; Glyn Jones, i n "Three Anglo-Welsh Prose Writers," Rann, No. 19 (1953), pp. 1-5, reviews the early prose of Gwyn Thomas, whose " s c i n t i l l a t i n g comicality [of si t u a t i o n ] . . . unending crackle of metaphors . . . unstanched [ s i c ] torrent of comic imagery" (p. 2) make him a humorous w r i t e r , but who i s a wr i t e r , " i n s p i t e [of t h i s ] , . . . to whom the sorrows of the world are sorrows and w i l l not l e t him r e s t . He i s a wr i t e r who takes sides, and his side i s that of the poor, the browbeaten, the dispossessed, the underprivileged" .-(p, 3). 28 B. I f o r Evans, p. 9. 29 Glyn Jones, "Y Llenoripn Eingl-Gymreig," p. 60. 30 The Dragon Has Two.. Tongues , p . 36. 31 ' Ibi d . , p. 38. Vide also "Y Llenorion Eingl-Gymreig," pp. 60-61. Glyn Jones describes the e f f e c t of .English i n s t r u c t i o n on children of Welsh-speaking f a m i l i e s ; of an educational system against which Raymond Ga r l i c k writes i n "Teaching English i n the schools of Wales," The Teacher in.Wales (May, 1962), pp. 19-22. Ga r l i c k advocates the teaching of 115 English as a language of Wales, and the teaching of the l i t e r a t u r e of Wales. Glyn Jones r e c a l l s the glorious r e v e l a t i o n of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e when, after he had started w r i t i n g and publishing i n English, he came to i t s charm and the unfamiliar music of i t s poetry with an understanding of Welsh that was ragged and uncertain: "Nid oeddwyn i yn eu d e a l l i gyd, wrth gwrs; yr oedd miwsig anghyfarwydd y cywddau mor swynol . . ." (p. 61). Gwyn Thomas writes i n A Welsh Eye, pp. 13-14: "I was one of the Rhondda generation whose language, with an almost malignant ease, had changed from Welsh to English.. But the chapel's teaching had remained i n Welsh." 32 John Gwilym Jones, ."No Man's Land," l o c . c i t . 33 Guy. Hunter, South-East Asia—Race, Culture and Nation (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966), p. 76. 34 Gwyn Jones, "Language, Style and Anglo-Welsh," p. 107; Raymond Garl i c k , op_. c i t . states: "Anglo-Welsh w r i t i n g may be of. Wales i n several senses. It was written by people who were—by.birth, or family, or c i r -cumstances—of Wales, and sometimes i t s f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l be r e a d i l y apparent only to readers who are of Wales themselves. What i t communi-cates, however l i t t l e connection with Wales i t may,at f i r s t appear to have, w i l l also be of.Wales i n the sense that i t . i s being presented by a s e n s i b i l i t y which (by reason.of heredity or environment, or both) i s not 'of England,' though i t shapes the English language to i t s own purpose. The reader or c r i t i c i n London or New York tends n a t u r a l l y to be more conscious of t h i s than h i s counterpart i n Wales—who, p r e c i s e l y because he i s 'of Wales,' i s much less aware of i t " (p. 21). 35 Gwyn Thomas,.A Few Selected E x i t s (London: Hutchinson and.Co. (Publishers) Ltd.,.1968), p. 208. 3 ^ I b i d . , pp. 211-212. 37 A n e i r i n Talfan Davies, "A Question of Language," Yr Ein i o n, Vol. V, 1953, p. 20. 38 Gwyn Thomas, The Dark Philosophers . (Boston: L i t t l e , Brownand , 1947), P- 178. 39 Ib i d . , P- 7. Ibid., P- 46. 4 1 I b i d . Ibid., P- 29. 43T,.., Ibid., PP . 29-116 44 Ibid.-, p. 133. 45 • A Few Selected E x i t s , pp. 138-139. 4 6 I b i d . , p. 139. 47 T,., .. Ibi d . 48 A Welsh Eye, p. 161. 49 Rainer Maria R i l k e , Letters to a Young Poet,, trans. M. D. Herter Norton (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1954), p. 29. CHAPTER I "'"Gwyn Thomas, A Welsh Eye, p. 103 . 2 I b i d . , p. 18. 3 Leonard C o t t r e l l , . Seeing Roman B r i t a i n (London: Evan- Brothers Ltd., 1956), pp. 102-104. 4 A Welsh Eye, p. 103. 5 I b i d . , p. 105. . 6 I b i d . , pp. 106-107. 7 I b i d . , p. 107. 8 Ibid ., p. 167. 9 Ib i d . , p. 173. "'"'"'ibid., p. 135. ^ I b i d . , p. 140. 12 Ib i d . , p. 167. 13 Ibid ., p. 173. 1 4 I b i d . , pp. 173-174. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 173. "^Ibid.., p. 135-. 17 In H. W. J . Edwards, The Good Patch, p. 38. I Q A Welsh Eye, p. 9. 19 Vide Thomas P h i l l i p s , Wales: A Ph y s i c a l , H i s t o r i c a l and Regional  Geography, ed. E. G. Bowen (London:.Methuen and Co. Ltd., 1957), p. 360; H. W. J . Edwards, pp. 41-43; A. Trystan Edwards, Merthyr, Rhondda and "The V a l l e y s " (London: Robert Hale L t d . , 1958), p. 24; Br i n l e y Thomas, "The Growth of I n d u s t r i a l Towns," Vol. I, "Modern Wales" Wales Through  the Ages, ed. A. J . Roderick (Llandybie: Christopher Davies (Publishers) Ltd., 1960) , p. 60. 118 20 A Welsh Eye, p. 160. 2 1 A Few Selected E x i t s , pp. 208-209.. 22 In Thomas P h i l l i p s , Wales: The Language, S o c i a l Condition, Moral Character, and Religious Opinions of the People, considered, i n Relation  to Education . . . (London: John W. Parker, 1849), pp. 577-578. Hywel Dda succeeded to the government of South Wales at the beginning of the tenth century and i n h e r i t e d Powis Land, a large part of North Wales. He caused a l l laws and customs of the country to be reviewed by.a convoca-t i o n of twelve learned men who convened at "Y Ty Gwyn ar Daf" (The White House on the Taf;.now known as Whitland). By command of William IV of England the ancient laws and i n s t i t u t e s of Wales, of which the laws of Hywel Dda were the chief content, were printed under the d i r e c t i o n of the Commissioners on the Public Records of the Kingdom. The Preface to t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n contains observations on the accurate d e f i n i t i o n which characterized Welsh laws, and on the enlightened c i v i l i z a t i o n from which they emerge: a c i v i l i z a t i o n which esteemed the a r t s , sciences and r e l i g i o n , and which achieved a degree of refinement i n it s . "acquaintance with p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . concern for the i n t e r e s t s of commerce . . . and the accurate d e f i n i t i o n pf crimes and.offences, and the j u s t adaptation of penalties and punishment, . . . " See also Eiluned and Peter Lewis, The Land of Wales, 3rd ed. (London: B. T. Batsford Ltd., 1949), pp. 11-15. The authors give a picture of ancient Wales derived from the laws of Hywel Dda and i t i s clear from hi s depiction that the countryside of Wales has retained i t s i s o l a t e d communities and semi-nomadic way of l i f e . It i s i r o n i c that the r i v e r s that encouraged the settlement of C e l t i c monasteries were to be equally necessary to the i r o n -masters and that i n the l a t e eighteenth century i r o n men puddled where the monks had paddled and prayed. 23 David Williams records that i n 1783 and 1784, Henry Cort at Fontley i n Hampshire and Peter Onions at Cyfartha, simultaneously invented a method of s t i r r i n g molten i r o n to remove i t s carbon impurities "and then passing i t through r o l l e r s at welding heat."- This method of making wrought i r o n , c a l l e d 'puddling,' came into widespread use i n the c o a l f i e l d , and for t h i s reason was known as 'the Welsh method' (p. 187); It follows that the workers engaged i n puddling were c a l l e d 'puddlers.' In 1856, Bessemer's invention of converting i r o n into s t e e l rendered puddling out of date and puddlers redundant. 24 A Welsh Eye, pp. 144-145. 25 Leonard C o t t r e l l , Seeing. Roman B r i t a i n , p. 132. 2 6 Gwyn Thomas, "By That Same Door," Ring Gazooka and Other Stories (London: V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd., 1957), p. 23. Gwyn A. Williams describes the ironmasters' c o n t r o l as one which 119 "enmeshed t h e i r employees i n a truck system which reproduced, even i n d e t a i l , the i n d u s t r i a l serfdom of thirteenth-century Flanders;" i n "The Emergence of a Working-Class Movement," Wales Through the Ages, Vol. I I , ed. A. J . Roderick (Llandybie: Christopher Davies (Publishers) Ltd., 1960), p. 141. 28 A Welsh Eye, pp. 145-146. 29 Vide David Williams, A History of Modern Wales, p. 146; H. V. J . Edwards, The Good Patch, p. 131. 30 I b i d . , p. 4. For an understanding of the powerful r h e t o r i c of the Welsh Nonconformist sermon and i t s debt to the Calvinistic-Methodists see B. I f o r Evans, p. 7, and H. W. J . Edwards,,pp. 136-138. 31 Thomas P h i l l i p s , Wales . . ., p. 108; pp. 144-145. 3 2 A Welsh Eye, p. 174. 33 P h i l l i p s , Wales . . ., pp. 144-145. 3 A* Vide Benjamin D i s r a e l i , S y b i l , V o l . I (London: M. Walter Dunne, 1904). The novel depicts the i d l e f u t i l i t y of•the l i v e s of many of the a r i s t o c r a c y , and the harsh f u t i l i t y of that of the working poor. D i s -r a e l i ' s upper-class loungers exemplify the attitudes discerned i n reports i n the Times of the 1830's and demonstrate the ambiguous p o s i t i o n of-the labouring poor who were regarded by the upper class as being some form of creature rather between those of the human and the animal. It -is of i n t e r e s t to note D i s r a e l i ' s advocacy of a cooperative movement f o r the benefit of the workers, and h i s enlightened attitu d e toward them compared to that of the a r i s t o c r a t s he caricatures so s a t i r i c a l l y . The secret, r i t u a l of the Union meeting with i t s attendant solemnity and awe i s an ordeal for the i n i t i a t e . The denunciations (p. 315-316) are of i n t e r e s t when considered i n the l i g h t of the fear i n s t i l l e d by the Scotch C a t t l e who ranged the South Wales c o a l f i e l d intimidating a l l workers who suc-cumbed to the masters' e f f o r t s to suppress Trades' Unions. The secret oath administered to Michael Radley (Dandy Mick) gives an i n s i g h t into the binding nature of such oaths (pp. 317^-318). Mrs. Gaskell considers the i n j u s t i c e s suffered by,the workers i n Mary Barton (London: B l i s s Sands and Co., 1898). Mrs. Gaskell's indictment against conditions which reduced the able-bodied workers to worn and l i s t l e s s and diseased crea-tures who would have d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g employment i f they were assoc-iated with Chartism or a Trades' Union (p. 99), indicates c l e a r l y the cycle of cause and e f f e c t : the appalling working conditions (p. .74) and phenomenal food costs, (p. 75) leading to human s u f f e r i n g which found expression and r e l i e f i n rabid p o l i t i c s (pp. 75-76), which i n turn led to increased v i c t i m i z a t i o n . This i s the theme of-Charles Dickens, Hard  Times (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1955). This work was f i r s t pub-li s h e d i n 1854. Bounderby and Gradgrind represent the reactionary forces, 120 intimidating the workers, whilst Slackbridge, a representative of the r a d i c a l element, embodies an attitud e equally i n i m i c a l to the independent thinker. In Dickens' p o r t r a y a l of i n d u s t r i a l society, Stephen Blackpool i s v i c t i m of both powers i n the i n d u s t r i a l dispute. Vide I I . i v ; I I . v. For a d e s c r i p t i o n of Coketo.wn, a mining town, vide I. v. As i n Mrs. Gaskell's Mary Barton, the characters postulate attitudes that demonstrate the author's point of view toward the extreme positions they represent. And i t i s not the purpose, here, to add to the body of commentary—san-guine or polemical-—that these i n d u s t r i a l novels have attracted. 35 A Welsh Eye, p. 33. 36 H. J . La s k i , "The Decline of L i b e r a l i s m , " The Quest f or a P r i n - c i p l e of Authority i n Europe 1715—Present, ed. Thomas C. Mendenhall, et a l . (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964), pp. 369-370. 37 In Eilund.and Peter Lewis, The Land of Wales, p. 54. 38 Gwyn A. Williams, "The Emergence of a Working-Class Movement," p. 143. 39 The Land of Wales, p. 6. 40 Jack Jones, Unfinished Journey, p. 51. 41 The account of the t r i a l as reported i n the Times, London, Aug-ust 9, 1831, p. 4, reveals that the Quaker ironmaster, P r i c e , convinced of Die Penderyn's innocence of the charge of wounding Donald Black, sec-ured corroborating evidence at Merthyr and s u f f i c i e n t l y persuaded Melbourne of the p o s s i b i l i t y of a miscarriage of j u s t i c e for the l a t t e r to grant a stay of execution of-one week u n t i l August 13th. The Times expressed the hope .that there would be a reprieve; and the b e l i e f that the ends of j u s t i c e already had been secured. 42 A Few Selected E x i t s , pp. 147-148. Further information concern-ing the Merthyr Riots and the martyrdom of Die Penderyn, vide the Times (London), June 6, 1831, p. 2; June 9, p. 5; June 11, p. 3; August 9, p. 4. A. Trystan Edwards gives an account of the events i n Merthyr, Rhondda and "The V a l l e y s , " pp. 90 et seq. 43 A l l Things Betray Thee, p. 194. 44 Ib i d . , p. 205. 45 A,Few Selected E x i t s , p. 147. CHAPTER II "'"Gwyn Thomas, Jackie the Jumper; i n Plays of the Year, ed. J . C. Trewin, V ol. 26 1962-1963 (London: Elek Books Ltd., 1963), p. 217. 2 I b i d . 3 I b i d . , p. 218. 4 Ibid., p. 217. 5 I b i d . , p. 218. Gwyn• Thomas,- A.Few Selected E x i t s , p. 146. 7 I b i d . , p. 148. 8 I b i d . 9 Jackie the Jumper, p. 225. "^Ib i d . , p. 221. 1 : L I b i d . , p. 216; Gwyn Thomas, A Few Selected E x i t s , p. 148. 12 Jackie the Jumper, p. 234. 1 3 I b i d . , pp. 222-224. 14 Ibid.,.p. 233. 15 T, .. Ibid . "^Ibid.,, p. 234. 1 7Marmontel; quoted i n Maurice Sand, The History of Harlequinade; Vol. I (New York; London: Benjamin Blom, Inc., s.d.), p. 64. 18 Jackie the Jumper, pp. 235-236. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 219. 20 Ibi d . , p. 267. 2 1 I b i d . , pp. 254-255. 122 22 Ibid., pp. 250-251. 23 Ib i d . , p. 239 and p. 241. Ibid., p. 230. 2 5 I b i d . , pp. 224-225. Ibi d . , p. 279. 27 T,., Ib i d . , p. 278. Ib i d . , p. 273. 29 Ibi d . , pp. 283-284. Ibid., p. 290. Ibi d . , p. 252 and p. 253. 32 Ibid., p. 255. 33 Ibid. 3 4 I b i d . , p. 252. Ib i d . , p. 272. 36 T. I b i d . , ,p. 285. 37 T,., Ibi d . , pp. '295-296. 38T, ., Ibid., p. 259 and p. 261. 39 Vide P h i l l i p s , Wales 4 ^ J a c k i e the Jumpery p, . 260. 4 1 I b i d . , . p. 272 and p. 274. Ibi d . , p. 260. 4 3 I b i d . 44 Ibid. , pp. '250-251. 4 5Ibid.„ pp. 271-272. Ibid., p. 227. , pp. 144-145. 123 47 Thomas Mann, The Magic Mountain,, trans. H. T. Lowe-Porter (New York: Knopf, c. 1927), p. 691. 48 Heinrich B o l l , The Clown, trans. L. Vennewitz (New York: McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1965), pp. 138-139. 49 Jackie the Jumper, pp. 285-286. "^ I b i d . , p. 231. 5 1 I b i d . , . p p . 258-259. 5 2 I b i d . , p. 262; p. 255. 5 3 I b i d . , p. 269; p. 285. 54 Ibid ., p. 289; also p. 264; vide The Land of Wales., p. 28. In-creased poverty resulted from the removal of grazing rights, when hundreds of thousands of acres of common land were enclosed by Act of Parliament; And new ownership of properties led to the enclosure of land and r i v e r s that had been shared f r e e l y with the people by the Welsh landowners. 55 Jackie the Jumper, p. 297. 5 6 I b i d . , p. 272. ~^F, R. Leavis, The Great T r a d i t i o n : George E l i o t , Henry James, Joseph Conrad (London: Chatto and Windus', 1948), p. 231. 5 8 Jackie the Jumper, p. 294. 5 9 I b i d . , p. 244; vide pp. 294-295. 60 folded, George Frederic Watt represented " J u s t i c e " and "Hope" b l i n d -61 Jackie the Jumper, p. 272. 62 Ib l d . , p. 293 et seq. 63 It i s u n l i k e l y that e i t h e r the S h e r i f f or the Colonel would have been able to speak Welsh; and c e r t a i n l y , not s u f f i c i e n t l y to communicate abstractions. Luxton must have had more than a smattering of Welsh; and one i s reminded of John Guest, who learned Welsh to communicate with his workers, and Charlotte Guest, who translated the Mabinogion i n t o English. The sons of S i r John Guest were given Welsh names, as were the daughters of Luxton. A r t i c u l a t e and passionate i n the expression of t h e i r fervour, Jackie and h i s uncle speak the tongue of the people and communicate i n the language of emotional appeal. Gwyn Thomas has demonstrated the power-f u l appeal of Non-conformity for a people who have been alienated from the land, t r a d i t i o n a l order, and peaceful coexistence. CHAPTER I I I "*"A Welsh Eye, p. 146. 2 Gwyn Thomas, A l l Things Betray Thee (London: Michael Joseph Ltd., 1949), p. 14. 3 Ibi d . , p. 15. 4 I b i d . "'ibid., p. 8. ^I b i d . , p. 7. 7 I b i d . , p. 123. The C e l t i c name Alan .means harmony; Hugh, Danish i n o r i g i n , means mind, s p i r i t , soul; and, by taking a l i b e r t y with the s p e l l i n g of the har p i s t ' s surname, lee i n Welsh i s cysgod gwynt, which translated means wind s h e l t e r — s i n c e Plimmon and R a d c l i f f e are the wind (p. 241), and the people are as helpless.as leaves i n the wind (p. 205), i t i s of i n t e r e s t to see the s i g n i f i c a n c e , i n t e n t i o n a l or not, of the characters' given.names. I would, here, draw attention to the appropriate ness of the,following: John Simon; Katherine; Floss (Florence); David; Lewis; Lennie (Leonard); Agnes; I s a b e l l a ; Claude; Benny (Benjamin); Jacob — i n the l i g h t of Bartholomew's fear that Jacob might supplant him; Eddie (whether an abbreviation of Edward, Edmund, or Edwin). Wi l f , who i s resolute f o r war; Bartholomew, who once was but no longer i s 'a war-l i k e son'; Helen, who i s emblematic of the ambivalence of l i g h t and dark-ness, of the paradox of darkness i n l i g h t , l i g h t i n darkness, and symbolic of the i n f i n i t e cycle of night and day, and who remains an enigma, l i k e the design i n her room of v e i l e d women (p. 281): Is she i n harmony with l i f e ? (p. 283). By adapting to the new age, i s she bringing l i g h t into darkness? By making an expedient marriage, i s she motivated by a wish to put a brake on Plimmon's hate and carry l i g h t into h i s dark-ness?; and Richard, who i s the a n t i t h e s i s of h i s name:,an i r o n king he might be, but he i s not strong and powerful i n the sense that Crawshay was; on the contrary, he i s the p o l a r i t y of h i s projected image, are names that reveal the d u a l i t y of human nature and the irony of the develop ment of one t r a i t when forces are i n i m i c a l to the other. The Welsh word Pen means head,; chief; end;, summit; supreme. The English meanings of an enclosure, or to enclose, or tb be enclosed are also s i g n i f i c a n t . g Loren E i s e l e y , The Immense Journey (New York: Random House Inc., 1946), p. 125. g A l l Things Betray Thee, p. 123. 125 Ib i d . , pp. 8-9; i t i s relevant to note that R a d c i i f f e and Plimmon are compared to drovers (p. 278), an anology of b i t t e r s i g n i f i -cance to the speaker,. Penbury. ^ V i d e Edward A. Macdowell, "Folk Song and Harmony," from C r i t i c a l  and H i s t o r i c a l Essays; i n Composers on Music, ed. S. Morgenstern (U.S.A.: Bonanza Books,. 1956), p. 315. Note the following: When our playing began, I l i s t e n e d a t t e n t i v e l y to F e l i x . I i n i t -iated nothing, thickening h i s melodies and bordering h i s climaxes with a p e r i o d i c a l harmony. He played-well, and as I grew to sense his moments of greatest stress and urgency i n h i s progress through a tune, I made my support'more overt, edging him on with a touch here and there i n t o a passionate excitement over the considerable beauty we were making with our s t r i n g s . . . .We played for ten minutes, the playing of my companion becoming more assured and eloquent with every bar. . . . '. . . Like the music?' 'Lovely. You make a good shadow for F e l i x ' s l i g h t . My father |Richard Penbury] l i k e s i t too. He says i t ' s made him f e e l better than he's done for months. He's taken quite a fancy to you' (pp. 85-87). 1 2 A l l Things Betray Thee, p. 318. 13 Ib i d . , p. 9. 14 Ib i d . , p. 16. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 9. " ^ I b i d . , p. 16. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 9. 18 Rainer Maria R i l k e , "Sonnet 13," Sonnets to Orpheus, trans. M; D. Hertef Norton (New York: W. W. Norton and Co. Inc., 1942), p. 95. This composition, i n the Second Part of the Sonnets, was written i n March, 1922. 1 9A11 Things Betray Thee, pp. 243; 245; 247; 248; 256. 2°Ibid., pp. 247-250. 21 Ib i d . , p. 224. 22 Ibid., p. 225. 23 Ibid., p. 16. Vide Geoffrey Chaucer, "The RomaUnt of the Rose," Works, ed. 126 F. N. Robinson, 2nd e d i t i o n (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1957), l i n e s 4479-4498.• 25 A l l T h i n g s B e t r a y Thee, pp. 14-15. 2 ^ I b i d . , p. 13. 2 7 I b i d . , • p. 14 . 2 ^ I b i d . , , p . 12. 29 I b i d . , p. 11. I b i d . 3 1 I b i d . , p. 205; v i d e pp. 227; 237. 3 2 I b i d . , . p p . 43-44. 3 3 I b i d . , p. 39. 34 T. ., Ib i d . 35 I b i d . , p. 45. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 191; pp. 141-142;-pp. 224-225. 37 L i o n e l R u b i n o f f , Human Nature and the Pornography o f Power, Seven Radio T a l k s on CBC FM Network.Program,.March 20-May 1, 1967, P r o -gram 1, p. 9. 3 8 A 1 1 T h i n g s B e t r a y Thee, p. 211; v i d e pp. 215; 223. 3 9 I b i d . , p. 43. 4 0 I b i d . , p. 39. 4 1 I b i d . , p. 38. 4 2 I b i d . , p. 41. 4 3 I b i d . , pp. 189-192. 4 4 I b i d . , pp. 191-192. 4 5 I b l d . , p. 191. 46 Sigmund F r e u d , C i v i l i z a t i o n and i t s D i s c o n t e n t s , t r a n s . Joan R i v i e r e . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l P s y c h o - A n a l y t i c a l L i b r a r y , ed. E r n e s t Jones ;, 127 No. 17 (London: The Hogarth Press L t d . , 1930), p. 85. Note the character-i s t i c s of Captain Spencer i n A l l Things Betray Thee. 4 7A11 Things Betray Thee, p. 189. 4 8 R u b i n o f f , Program 2, p. 6. 49 Ibi d . , pp. 6-7. 5°A11 Things Betray Thee, p. 189. ^ I n A History of>Welsh L i t e r a t u r e , pp. 408-413. 5 2 I b i d . , p. 401. 5 3A11 Things Betray Thee, pp. 141-142. ~* 4Ibid., pp. 226-227. 5 5 I b i d . , pp. 221-223; 231-233; 252-253; 257; 271-272; 279; 208-209. " ^ I b i d . , p. 163. 5 7 I b i d . , pp. 66-72; 77; 113. 5 8 I b i d . , pp. 143-145. 59 Ibid.,,p. 165. 6 0 I b i d . , pp. 277-278. 6 1 I b i d . , p. 305. 6 2 I b i d . , pp. 312-313. ^ 3 I b i d . , p. 45. 64 Ibid.,,p. 312 i 6 5 I b i d . , p. 218. 66 Rubinoff, Program 6, p. 1. 6 7A11 Things Betray Thee, p. 223. 6 8 I b l d . , p. 224. ^ 9 I b i d . , p. 236. 128 7°Ibid., p. 237. 7 1 I b i d . , p. 222. 7 2 I b i d . , p. 279. 73 Measure f o r Measure, III.i.116-132. 74 A l l Things Betray Thee,, pp. 233-234. 7"*Ibid. , p. 255 . 7 6 I b i d . , pp. 255-256. 7 7 I b i d . , p. 315. 7 8 I b i d . , p. 313. 7 9 I b i d . , p. 314. 80 George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four (London:,Seeker and Warburg, 1949), p. 215. A use f u l comparison niay be made between .0 'Brieri's d i s -course on the nature of power, (pp. 210-216) and the discussion c a r r i e d on by the representatives of the establishment at Richard Penbury's home (pp. 90-93). It should be noted that both novels were published f i r s t i n 1949. 81 All-Things Betray Thee, p. 162. Ibi d . , p. 125. 8 3 I b i d . , p. 75. 84 Ib i d . , p. 23. The name Is a b e l l a , which means 'consecrated to God,' i s p a r t i c u l a r l y apt for the two women, the one i n Shakespeare's Measure for Measure, the other i n t h i s novel: for both are dedicated to an i d e a l of rectitude and ch a s t i t y , and both are fervent i n t h e i r r e l i g -ious persuasion. Both see v i r g i n i t y as the gateway to the Lord. Shake-speare's c l o i s t e r e d I s a b e l l a i s about to renounce the world and become "a thing ensky'd and sainted;" Gwyn Thomas's has renounced the f l e s h and i s c a l l e d by the harpist "a s a i n t . " 85 A l l Things Betray Thee, p. 24. 8 6 A Welsh Eye, pp. 174; 35. 87 ti> A ;Few Selected E x i t s , p. 147. oo I b i d . , pp. 143-145. 129 89 Rainer Maria R i l k e , "The Young Workman's L e t t e r , " Vol. I Selected Works,, trans. G. Craig Houston (Norfolk, Connecticut: New D i r -ections Books, I960),.pp. 75-77. 90 A l l Things Betray Thee, pp. 138-139. 9 1 I b i d . , pp. 147; 154. 9 2 I b i d . , pp. 138-139. 93 Ibid.,.p. 316. 94 Ibid., p. 317. 95 Ri l k e , "The Young Workman's L e t t e r , " p. 74. 96 A l l Things Betray Thee, pp. 130-131. 9 7 I b i d . , pp. 124-125. 9 8 I b i d . , pp. 131-132. 99 Ibi d . , pp. 31-32. 100 T, Ibi d . , p. 132. 1 0 1 I b i d . , p. 140. 102 Ibid., p. 153. 1 0 3 I b i d . , p. 160. 1 0 4 I b i d . , , p p . 272; 276; 284. 105T, ,, Ibid., p. 16 . 1 0 6 I b i d . , p. 318. CHAPTER IV "*"Gwyn Thomas; quoted i n Welsh Short S t o r i e s , ed. Gwyn Jones (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1956), p. x i i . Gwyn Thomas, A Welsh Eye, p. 159. 3 L i t e r a l l y , the 'one-night house.' A t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e based on the b e l i e f that freehold ownership of unenclosed land could be claimed by erecting overnight a roof and a chimney smoking from a f i r e on the hearth. The boundaries of the squatter's property were established by the distance i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s from the doorway of h i s house that the squatter could throw a hammer. Vide Glyn Jones, "Price-Parry," Welsh  Short S t o r i e s , ed. Gwyn Jones, i n which Mati Ty-unnos takes her name from the t i n y cottage which i s her home—this, too, being t r a d i t i o n a l i n pr a c t i c e . Notice the descriptions of Mati's cottage (pp. 109-127). 4A Welsh Eye, p. 154. ^I b i d . , p. 145. -^ • -I b i d . , p. 154; Gwyn Thomas, The Stranger At My Side (London: , V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd.; 1954), p. 5. ^David Williams,, A.History of Modern. Wales, p. 287. g Gwyn Thomas, A Frost On My F r o l i c (London: V i c t o r Gollancz, 1953), pp. 10-11. 9 Coal taken from the coal-face i s loaded on to a tram which i s hauled by pit-horse to.the junction of the tramway where i t i s , l i n k e d to others to make a 'journey': twentyrfive trams coupled together. From t h i s can be understood the dual s i g n i f i c a n c e of Jack Jones's autobiography, Unfinished JoUrney. 1 0 A Welsh Eye, p. 15. 1 1 I b i d . , pp. 139-140. 12 The Stranger At My Side, p. 6. 13 A Welsh Eye, pp. 15-16. 14 Ibid., p. 16. "^Gwyn Thomas, The Alone To The Alone i s published i n America under 131 the t i t l e Venus and the Voters (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1948). 16 A Welsh Eye, p. 16. 1 7 T h e Good Patch, pp. 160-161. 18 Gwyn Thomas, Gazooka and other Stories (London: V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd., 1957), pp. 64-65. 19 Ibi d . , p. 123. 2 0 I b i d . , pp. 127-128. 2 1 A Welsh Eye,.p. 18. 22 Gazooka, p. 65. 23 Ibi d . , p. 61. 24 The Stranger At My Side, p. 7. 25 In Search.of Wales, pp. 247-249. 26 Quoted i n The Dragon Has Two Tongues, p. 109. 2 7 A Welsh Eye, p. 27; vide The Good Patch, pp. 135-138; B. Ifo r Evans, p_p. c i t . , p. 7 . The Good Patch, pp. 84-87. 29 Ibi d . , p. 80. 3 ^ I b i d . , p. 96. 31 T. ., Ibid. 3 2 I b i d . , p. 94. 33 Gwyn Thomas,."The Keep," Plays of the Year, V o l . 24, ed. J . C. Trewin (London: Elek Books, 1961), pp. 124-125; 3 4Henry V, I I I . i i . 61. 3 5 A Welsh Eye, p. 139. 3 ^ I b i d . , p. 11. 37 A Few Selected E x i t s , pp. 29-31; Gwyn Thomas, The World Cannot  Hear You (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1952),' pp. 198-205. 132 3 8 A Welsh Eye, p. 139. 39 Gwyn Thomas, A Hat f u l of Humours (Letchworth, Herts: The School-master Publishing Company, Limited, s.d. [1965]), pp. 15-16. 4^Gwyn Thomas,,"Not Even Then," Gazooka, p. 62. 4 L , ., Ibid. 4 2 I b i d . , . p . 58. 4 3 " L i t t l e Fury," Gazooka, p. 132. 4 4 I b i d . , pp. 133-134. 4 5 T h e Keep, pp. 125-126. 4^A Hatful of Humours, p. 68. 4 7 A Few Selected E x i t s , p. 55. 4 8 I b i d . , p. 81., 49 Ib i d . , p. 99. 1937) CHAPTER V "*"Gwyn Jones, ed. Welsh Short S t o r i e s , p. x i i i . 2 A Welsh Eye, p. 144. 3 Vide Max Eastman, Enjoyment of Laughter (London: Hamish Hamilton, ^Athene Seyler and Stephen Haggard, The Craft of Comedy (London: Frederick Mul.ler Ltd. , 1943), pp. 10-11. ^Gwyn Thomas, A Point of Order (London: V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd., 1956), p. 139. 6Ibid.., p. 206. 7A H a t f u l of Humours, p. 136. Q I b i d . , p. 67; vide The Good Patch, pp. 173-174. 9 Gwyn Thomas, c i t e d i n The Dragon Has Two Tongues, pp. 109-110. 1 0Gwyn Thomas, "Oscar," Where Did I Put My Pity? Folk Tales from  the Modern Welsh (London: Progress Publishing Company, Ltd., 1946), p. 16. "^ I b i d . , p. 17. 12 Vide Kingsley Widmer, The L i t e r a r y Rebel, (Carbondale and Edwards-v i l l e : Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965), p. 83. 13 A Few Selected Exits-, pp. 53-54. 14 A Point of Order, p. 204. CONCLUSION Cynghanedd means "harmony," and patterns a l i n e by the echoing of both consonantal and vowel sounds. In cynghanedd sain there i s a l l i t e r a t i o n and rhyme within the l i n e ; i n cynghanedd. lusg there i s i n -t e r n a l rhyme only; and i n the t h i r d d i v i s i o n , cynghanedd gytsain, there i s multiple a l l i t e r a t i o n . In simple terms, i t may be defined as 'word m u s i c ' 2 R. S. Thomas, "Llenyddiaeth Eingl-Gymreig," Y Fflam (Bala) No. 11 (Awst [August] 1952), pp. 7-9. 3 A Welsh Eye, p. 147. 4 A Few Selected E x i t s , pp. 53-54; A Point of Order, pp. 98-99. 5A Welsh Eye, p. 32. Ibi d . , p. 67. 7 I b i d . , pp. 32-33. g Ibid., p. 67. 9 A Few Selected E x i t s , pp. 58-59. 1 (^The Dragon Has Two Tongues, pp. 122-123. ^ A Hat f u l of Humours, p. 158. 12 Ibid.,.p. 162. 13 T, ., Ibid. 14 Ibid.,.p. 163. 1 5 I b i d . , pp. 82-83. 16 Gwyn Thomas, The World Cannot Hear You, p. 22. 1 7From The Times L i t e r a r y Supplement, London, A p r i l 25, 1924, i n G. M. Trevelyan, History of Englandy p. 683. 18 Gwyn Thomas, A l l Things Betray Thee, p. 69. 19 Gwyn Jones, ed. Welsh Short S t o r i e s , p. x i i i . BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY H i s t o r i c , Geographic,, S o c i a l and Economic Background Borrow, George. Wild Wales, Its People, Language and Scenery, i n t r o . C e c i l P r i c e , ed. J . B. Foreman. London: C o l l i n s , 1955. F i r s t pub-l i s h e d London, 18,62. C o t t r e l l , Leonard. Seeing Roman B r i t a i n . London: Evan Brothers, L t d . , 1956. Edwards, A. Trystan. Merthyr, Rhondda and "The V a l l e y s . " London: Robert Hale L t d . , 1958. Edwards, H. W. J . The Good Patch, i n t r o . Arthur Bryant. London: Jona-than Cape Ltd., 1938. Ga r l i c k , Raymond. "Teaching English i n the Schools of Wales," The  Teacher i n Wales, May, 1962. G r i f f i t h , [Llewelyn] Wyn. The Welsh, 2nd ed. C a r d i f f : U n i v e r s i t y of-Wales Press, 1964. Jones,.Jack. Unfinished Journey. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1938. Lewis, Peter and Eiluned. The Land of Wales, 3rd ed. London: B. T. Batsford Ltd.;, 1964. Lindsey, Jack. Arthur and h i s Times: B r i t a i n i n the Dark Ages. London: Frederick Muller Ltd.,,1959. • Morgan, Gerald. The Dragon's Tongue, The fortunes of the Welsh language. Narberth: The T r i s k e l Press, 1966. Morton, H. V. In Search of Wales. London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1932. P h i l l i p s , S i r Thomas. Wales: The Language, S o c i a l Condition, Moral Char- acter, and Religious Opinions of the People, Considered i n t h e i r  Relation to Education: with some Account of the Provision made for  Education i n other parts of the Kingdom. London: John W. Parker, 1849. Rees, [Sir] J[ames] F f r e d e r i c k ] . The Problem of Wales and other Essays, i n t r o . David Williams. C a r d i f f : U n i v e r s i t y of Wales Press, s.d. [1963]. 137 Rees, [Sir] J[ames] F [ r e d e r i c k ] . Studies i n Welsh-History, Collected Papers, Lectures,-and Reviews, 2nd ed. C a r d i f f : U n i v e r s i t y of Wales Press, 1965. Rowse, A. L. The Expansion of Elizabethan England. ; New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc., 1955. Trevelyan, George Macaulay. History of England. London: Longman's, Green and Co., 1945. Wales: A P h y s i c a l , H i s t o r i c a l and Regional Geography, ed. E. G. Bowen. London: Methuen.and Co. Ltd., 1957. Wales Through the Ages, ed. A. J . Roderick, V ol. I I . Llandybie: Ch r i s -topher Davies (Publishers) Ltd., 1960. Williams, David. A History of Modern Wales. London:,John Murray, 1950. . The Rebecca Riots, A Study i n Agrarian Discontent. C a r d i f f : U n i v e r s i t y of Wales Press, 1955. Newspapers Times, London, June 6, June 7, June 9, June 11, June 23, August 9, 1831. Welsh L i t e r a r y Background B e l l , S i r Harold I d r i s . The Development of Welsh Poetry. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1936. . The Nature of Poetry as Conceived by the Welsh Bards, "The Taylorian Lecture, 1955." Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955. • . "The Welsh L i t e r a r y Renascence of the Twentieth Century," S i r John Rhys Memorial Lecture, Proceedings of the B r i t i s h Academy 1953. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1953. Evans, B. I f o r . "Wales," i n the series "The C o l l e c t i v e Genius of English L i t e r a t u r e , " The Author, V o l . L*X, No. 1. London, Autumn, 1949. Jones, Gwyn. Welsh Legends and Folk-Tales. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1955. Llewellyn, Richard. How Green was my Va l l e y . London: World Books, 1941. Parry, Thomas. A History of Welsh L i t e r a t u r e , trans. S i r Harold I d r i s B e l l . Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1955. 138 Rhys, Keldrych. "Contemporary Welsh L i t e r a t u r e , " ( l i ) , The B r i t i s h  Annual of L i t e r a t u r e , V o l. 3, 1946. Welsh Voices, An Anthology of New Poetry from Wales, ed. Bryn G r i f f i t h s . London: J . M. Dent and Sons Ltd.,,1967. Williams,,Gwyn. An Introduction to Welsh Poetry. London: Faber and Faber Ltd. , 1953. . The Burning Tree. London: Faber and Faber L t d . , 1956. . The Rent That's Due to Love. London: Editions Poetry London, 1950. C r i t i c i s m and Background of Anglo-Welsh Writers and Writing Davies, A n e i r i n Talfan. "A Question of Language," Yr Einion ('The Welsh A n v i l ' ) , V o l . V, 1953. Evans, George Ewart, ed. Welsh Short S t o r i e s . London: Faber and Faber, 1959. G r i f f i t h , L[lewelyn] Wyn. "A Note on the 'Anglo-Welsh'," Wales, New Ser-ie s 1, 1943. Jenkins, D. C. Writing i n Twentieth Century :Wales: A Defense of the Anglo-Welsh. Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , State U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1956. Jones, Bobi. "The Anglo-Welsh," Dock Leaves, Vol. 3, No. 10, 1953. Jones, Brynmor. A.Bibliography of Anglo-Welsh L i t e r a t u r e , 1900-1965. Thesis submitted f or Fellowship of the L i b r a r y Association, London, 1966. Jones, Glyn. The Dragon Has Two Tongues, Essays on Anglo-Welsh Writers  and Writing. London: J . M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1968. . "Three Anglo-Welsh Prose Writers," Rann, No. 19, 1953. . "Y Llenorion Eingl-Gymreig," T a l i e s i n , V o l . 9, s.d. Jones, Gwyn. "Language, Style and Anglo-Welsh," Essays and Studies (1953), ed. Geoffrey Bullough. London: John Murray, 1953. - . "The New Anglo-Welsh," Yr Ein i o n, V o l . I, 1949. , ed. Welsh Short Stories.- London: Oxford Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1956. 139 Jones, John Gwilym. "No Man's Land," Lookout (U.C.N.W., Bangor), Novem-ber 21, 1961. Jones,.Noel A. "The Anglo-Welsh," Dock Leaves, Vol. 4, No. 11, 1953. Lewis, Saunders. Is There an Anglo-Welsh Literature ? C a r d i f f : Univer-s i t y of Wales Guild of Graduates, 1939. Lloyd, D. Tecwyn. " D a i l Y Pren Pwdr," Barn, Rhagfyr [December], 1962. Merchant, William Moelwyn. "The Relevance Of the Anglo-Welsh," Wales, New Series 1, 1943. Some Contemporary Anglo-Welsh Writers. C a r d i f f : C i t y of C a r d i f f Public L i b r a r i e s , s.d. Stephens, Meic. "Crumbs.from the Black Swans," Lookout (U.C.N.W., Bangor), December, 1961. Thomas,R. S. "Llenyddiaeth Eingl-Gymreig," Y Fflam, No. ll,Awst [Aug-u s t ] , 1952. Works of Gwyn Thomas A l l Things Betray Thee. London: Michael Joseph Ltd., 1949. [American t i t l e Leaves i i i the Wind] . The Alone to the Alone. London: Nicholson and Watson, 1948. [American t i t l e Venus and the Voters j . The Dark Philosophers. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1947. A Few Selected E x i t s . London: Hutchinson and Co. (Publishers) Ltd., 1968. A Frost on my F r o l i c . London: V i c t o r Gollancz, 1953. Gazooka and Other S t o r i e s . London: V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd., 1957. A Hatful of Humours. Letchworth, Herts: The Schoolmaster Publishing Co. Ltd., s.d. [1965]. "Jackie the Jumper," i n J . C. Trewin, ed., Plays of the Year, Vol. 26 [1962-1963]. London: Elek Books Ltd., 1963. "The Keep," Plays of the Year, ed. J . C. Trewin, Vol. 24. London: Elek Books, 1961. 140 The Love Man. London: V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd., 1958. [American t i t l e The  Wolf at Dusk]. A Point of Order. London: V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd., 1956. Ring Delirium 123. London: V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd., 1960. ' The Stranger , at my,Side. London: V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd., 1954. Venus and the Voters. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1948. [English t i t l e The Alone to the Alone]. A Welsh Eye. Brattlebro, Vermont:. The Stephen Greene Press, 1965. [ F i r s t published i n London, 1964]. Where Did I_ Put My Pity? Folk Tales from the Modern Welsh. London: Progress Publishing Co. Ltd., 1946. A Wolf at Dusk. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1959. [English t i t l e The Love Man]. The.World Cannot Hear You, A Comedy of Ancient Desires. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1952. [ F i r s t published i n 1951]. In addition to the above, Gwyn Thomas was a regular contributor to Punch, 1952-1968. Most of the short s t o r i e s published under the t i t l e Ring  Delirium 123 f i r s t appeared i n t h i s p e r i o d i c a l . During the 1960's, Thomas wrote a serie s of 5,000 word essays f or the American pu b l i c a t i o n Holiday. Much of h i s work.has been f o r t e l e v i s i o n and radio. Other Sources  Non-fiction C a t l i n g , P a t r i c k Skene. "Funny Men," Punch, May 4, 19.60. Contains a re-view of Gwyn Thomas, Ring Delirium 123. Composers on Music, An Anthology of Composers' Writings from P a l e s t r i n a  to Copland, ed. Sam Morgenstern. U.S.A.: Bonanza Books, 1956. Douglas, Wallace. The Character of Prose. Boston: Houghton, M i f f l i n Company,.1959. Eastman, Max. Enjoyment of Laughter. London: Hamish. Hamilton, 1937. Ei s e l e y , Loreri. The Immense Journey. New York: Random House, Inc., 1946. 141 Freud, Sigmund. C i v i l i z a t i o n and I t s Discontents, trans. Joan R i v i e r e . The International Psycho-Analytical L i b r a r y , ed. Ernest Jones, No. 17. London: The Hogarth. Press Ltd., 1930. Hunter, Guy. South-East Asia—Race, Culture and Nation. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966. Published f or the I n s t i t u t e of Race Rela-tion s , London. Leavis, Frank Raymond. The Great T r a d i t i o n : George E l i o t , Henry James, Joseph Conrad. London: Chatto and Windus, 1948. Progoff, I r a . Depth Psychology and Modern Man. New York: J u l i a n Press Inc., 1959. R i l k e , Rainer Maria. Letters to a Young Poet, trans. M. D. Herter Norton. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., 1954. Rubinoff, L i o n e l . , Human Nature and the Pornography of Power. Seven Radio Talks on C.B.C. F.M. Network, March 20-May 1, 1967. Sand, Maurice. The History of Harlequinade. 2 Vols. , New York; London: Benjamin Blom Inc., s.d. Seyler, Athene, and Stephen Haggard. . The Craft of Comedy. London: Frederick Muller Ltd.,,1943. T i n d a l l , William York., Forces i n Modern B r i t i s h L i t e r a t u r e . New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1947. Widmer, Kingsley. The L i t e r a r y Rebel.. Carbondale and Edwardsyille: Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965. F i c t i o n B o l l , Heinrich. The Clown,.trans. L. Vennewitz. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965. Chaucer, Geoffrey.. Works, ed. F. N. Robinson, 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1957. Dickens, Charles. Hard Times. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1955. D i s r a e l i , Benjamin. S y b i l : or the Two Nations. 2 Vols. London: M. Walter Dunne,,1904. Gaskell, Mrs. Mary Barton. London: B l i s s Sands and Co., 1898., Mann, Thomas. The Magic Mountain, trans. H. T. Lowe-Porter. New York: Knopf [1927]. 142 Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. London: Seeker and Warburg, 1949. R i l k e , Rainer Maria. Sonnets to Orpheus, trans..M. D. Herter Norton. New York: W. W. Norton and Co. Inc., 1942. . Selected Works, V o l . l , trans. G. Craig Houston. Norfolk, Conn.: New Directions Books, 1960. Ruiz, Juan. The Book of Good Love, trans. E l i s h a Kent Kane; i n t r p . John Esten K e l l e r . Chapel H i l l : The Un i v e r s i t y of North Carolina Press, 1968. Shakespeare, William. Complete Works. 2 Vols. New York: Nelson and Doubleday, Inc., s.d. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0101910/manifest

Comment

Related Items