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A study of the ornate antiphons in MS. Vat. lat. 5319 Colk, Alma Lorraine 1971

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A STUDY OF THE ORNATE ANTIPHONS IN MS. VAT. LAT. 5319 by ' ALMA LORRAINE COLK B. Mus., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC i n the Department of MUSIC We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1971 In presenting th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f ree l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes is fo r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of M u s i c  The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 2 7 , 1 9 7 1 . ABSTRACT To date, there has been no d e t a i l e d or comparative analysis of the repertory known as the Old-Roman Chant. Although the h i s t o r i c a l and l i t u r g i c a l problems created by the recent discovery of t h i s repertory may be found i n scattered writings, no one has published a d e t a i l e d study of the music i t s e l f . Those that have written on the Old-Roman melodies have confined t h e i r attention to i s o l a t e d examples. This study i s concerned with the I n t r o i t s , Offer-t o r i e s , and Communions of MS Vat. l a t . 5 3 1 9 , an Old-Roman Graduale which dates from the l a t e eleventh century. When-ever possible, a comparison has been made with t h e i r Gregorian counterparts. The introduction summarizes the basic, h i s t o r i c a l study of the Old-Roman repertory; the three main chapters t r e a t each antiphon cycle i n turn; and the f i n a l chapter places the work of t h i s t h e s i s i n an o v e r a l l context. That we are dealing with an early repertory i s indicated by such features as the close r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Communion antiphons and t h e i r verses and the s t r i k i n g uniformity i n cadential patterns. Although the Old-Roman version bear a close musical r e l a t i o n s h i p to the G r e g o r i a n , c e r t a i n e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y are e a r l i e r . The b a s i c form o f a l l t h e Old-Roman Mass a n t i -phons i s c l e a r l y a r e c u r r i n g psalm-tone f o r m u l a which u s u a l l y appears i n an ornamented form t h r o u g h o u t t h e c h a n t . T h i s f e a t u r e i s not as e v i d e n t i n t h e G r e g o r i a n m e l o d i e s and may w e l l be a l i n k t o an e a r l i e r o r a l t r a d i t i o n . An example i s o f f e r e d f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n m e l o d i c s t y l e between t h e Old-Roman I n t r o i t s , O f f e r t o r i e s , and Communions. The O f f e r t o r i e s and Communions can be seen as e l a b o r a t i o n s of e a r l i e r s i m p l e r forms s t i l l r e p r e s e n t e d by the I n t r o i t s . I n s h o r t , the o r n a t e a n t i p h o n s o f MS V a t , l a t . 53^9 are shown t o be, b a s i c a l l y , r e d a c t i o n s p r i o r t o t h e i r G r e g o r i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . Page LIST OF TABLES i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS i v INTRODUCTION 1 ' CHAPTER I. THE INTROITS 37 II. THE COMMUNIONS 70 I I I . THE OFFERTORIES. .' 97 IV. THE AGE OF THE OLD-ROMAN REPERTORY... 131 APPENDIX I. AN INDEX OF THE INTROITS CONTAINED IN VAT. LAT. 5319 1^ 2 APPENDIX II. AN INDEX OF THE COMMUNIONS CONTAINED IN VAT. LAT. 5319 1^ 6 APPENDIX I I I . AN INDEX OF THE OFFERTORIES CONTAINED IN VAT. LAT. 5319 150 APPENDIX IV. A THEMATIC INDEX OF THE INTROITS.. 153 APPENDIX V. A THEMATIC INDEX OF THE COMMUNIONS 161 APPENDIX VI. A THEMATIC INDEX OF THE OFFERTORIES. 173 BIBLIOGRAPHY 180 Table ' Page 1 . The Finals of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s 38 2 . The Maneria. of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s . . . 39 3 . The Range of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s 53 4. A Comparison of the Finals of the Old-Roman and Gregorian Communions 71 5- The Maneria. of the Old-Roman Communions.. .. 72 6 . The Ambitus of the Old-Roman Communions 87 7. The Finals of the Old-Roman Off e r t o r i e s 98 8 . - The Maneria of the Old-Roman Offe r t o r i e s 98 9 . The Ranges of the Old-Roman Offe r t o r i e s . . 116 LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. The Old-Roman I n t r o i t Puer natus from Rome Ms. Vat, l a t . 53^9 ( f o l i o 14v) v 2. A map i l l u s t r a t i n g the d i s p e r s a l of the sources of the Old-Roman chant i n I t a l y 22 3. A map showing the locations i n Carolingian Empire where traces of the Old-Roman , • , prac t i c e have been found 23 F i g u r e 1 . —The Old-Roman I n t r o i t Puer natus from Rome Ms. Vat, l a t . 5319 ( f o l i o 1 4 V ) . F es:»: mo> | M 5 err M«s'..-V. 1 fiitus-vxnss rii- no his cuius IJTL no can nonu tj<v ^ / N^ 9* « / n f^P?'^OIXUTUIS INTRODUCTION Among the great re p e r t o r i e s of melody produced by the r e l i g i o u s musical culture of the Middle Ages i s the so-called Old-Roman chant. U n t i l quite recently, musicologists, attracted by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the more prominent chant c o l l e c t i o n s , and the i n t r i g u e of the more spectacular c o l l e c t i o n s of polyphony and secular monody, have tended to overlook t h i s repertory. Speculation over the Old-Roman chant was f i r s t begun by Dom Mocquereau, who, i n the preface of Volume II of the Paleographie Musicale, 1891, described three manu-sc r i p t s (two graduals and an antiphoner) which d i f f e r e d melodically from the Gregorian models which he knew. To him, t h i s feature implied a new repertory which he c a l l e d "Vatican" chant. He suggested that i t was a l a t e deforma-t i o n of Gregorian chant saying that i n the melodies i f "stripped of the melismatic f i g u r a t i o n that characterizes them, one can recognize the basic Gregorian design." It was not u n t i l 1912 that the manuscripts came to the attention of another scholar, Dom Andoyer, who was Dom Mocquereau, "Les Principaux Manuscripts•de Chant," PaleoRraphie Musicale, I I , 1891* p. 5-struck by "many features of an apparently archaic l i t u r g i c a l 2 o t r a d i t i o n . " He asserted that the l i t u r g i c a l p r actice was as old, i f not older than the Gregorian and r e c l a s s i f i e d the / / 3 manuscripts as "antegregorian."^ Neither monk regarded the matter worthy of further study, nor d i d anyone else, f o r the next s i g n i f i c a n t opinion was not ventured u n t i l 1950. I t was then that Bruno Stablein suggested that these same three manuscripts were intimately connected with the or i g i n s of Gregorian chant. To them, he designated the name "Old-Roman," while he r e f e r r e d to the Gregorian as "New-Roman.With t h i s assertion, the long established t r a d i t i o n a l theory of the o r i g i n and development of Gregorian c h a n t — i n h e r i t e d from the Middle Ages—came under attack. In general, the entire "Gregorian legend" which features Gregory I (590-604) as ei t h e r the p r o l i f i c composer of the entire chant repertory named a f t e r him, or, i n turn, the d o c i l e scribe who transcribed tunes whistled to him by the Holy G h o s t — l a c k s conclusive evidence. There are numerous medieval p i c t o r i a l representations of Gregory with Dom Andoyer quoted by Paul Cutter, "The Question of the Old-Roman Chant: A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 3 . 5 I b i d . LL T E Bruno St a b l e i n quoted by Paul Cutter,"A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 3 . a dove singing into h i s ear, which cannot be overlooked, and these do confirm, at lea s t by t h e i r persistence, that Gregory had performed, or was believed to have performed ' an important musical r o l e . ^ But even the more believable theory that the Gregorian practice originated i n Rome at the time of Gregory the Great, and was disseminated from there i n the course of the seventh, eighth, and ninth 7 centuries, lacks concrete evidence. The chief document which supports t h i s i s John of Deacon's biography of Gregory I, but as i t dates from c. 890—almost three centuries a f t e r Gregory's d e a t h — i t cannot be regarded as 8 i n f a l l i b l e . Although a v a r i e t y of sources, both p i c t o r i a l and l i t e r a r y , have attested to the importance of Gregory I, the exact nature of the rol e which he performed i n the development of church music cannot as yet be ascertained. The evidence of the chant manuscripts which have survived to our time present two astounding f a c t s which thoroughly contradict the entire t r a d i t i o n a l theory: 1. "Of the hundreds of graduals and antiphoners of Gregorian chant that have come down to us, not a single one i s known to have been written or used i n Rome before the middle of the thi r t e e n t h century. ^Gustave Reese, Music i n the Middle Ages (New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1968), p. 121. 7 'Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 3. Gustave Reese, Music i n the Middle Ages, p. 121. 2. There i s a small group of manuscripts which are d e f i n i t e l y known to have been written and used i n Rome before the middle of the thi r t e e n t h century, manuscripts whose repertory i s s t r i k -i n g l y d i f f e r e n t from the Gregorian chant."9 From these premises, many demanding questions have been posed. I f Rome was the centre of Christendom, Mother Church of Europe, and the source f o r the d i f f u s i o n of the l i t u r g y , why does Rome have a chant repertory which d i f f e r s from 10 that known throughout Europe? Did Gregorxan chant originate i n Rome or somewhere else? Why, since "Rome has always been an outstanding centre f o r the preservation of 11 l i t u r g i c a l materials and documents of the Church," are there so few extant sources of the Old-Roman chant? Almost a l l of the scholars interested i n Old-Roman chant have i n e v i t a b l y touched upon some, i f not a l l , of the above questions. Nevertheless, the basic musical problem of the Old-Roman chant, inherent i n the two opposing views f i r s t expressed by the Solesme monks, Mocquereau and Andoyer, has yet to be c l a r i f i e d . Musicologists are s t i l l debating whether the Old-Roman was the melodic model f o r q ^Paul Cutter quoting Michel Huglo, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 3-10 Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 3. ^ P a u l Cutter, "The Old-Roman Chant T r a d i t i o n : Oral or Written?", Journal of the American Musicological Society, XX, 1967, p. 150". i the Gregorian and thus considered "antegregorian" or, i f i t i s i n fac t a l a t e r development. Recently, owing to the close musical r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Gregorian and Old-Roman melodies, another question has been posed. Was there a t h i r d common sourse from which these two t r a d i t i o n s 12 diverged? Scholars have attempted to f i n d solutions to these and the other problems which have arisen by consider-ing the l i t u r g i c a l , h i s t o r i c a l , and musical aspects of the issue. In 1954, Michel Huglo compiled an inventory of the sources of the Old-Roman practice and located twenty-one witnesses to the t r a d i t i o n . Of these, there are six main musical manuscripts and f i f t e e n other sources of varying degrees of importance which span the eighth to thirteenth centuries. Unfortunately, none of them have as yet been published, and, as a r e s u l t , these manuscripts "have been studied by only a few s p e c i a l i s t s whose opinions as to the o r i g i n and date of t h i s t r a d i t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to 1-5 the Gregorian repertory are i n disagreement." >-Perhaps the e a r l i e s t and most disputed theory i s that which maintains that both the Old-Roman and Gregorian chants originated i n Rome and were used simultaneously by two d i f f e r e n t congregations of the Catholic church u n t i l Robert J . Snow, "The Old Roman Chant," i n Gregorian  Chant, ed. by W i l l i Apel (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 5 0 3 . 1 5 I b i d . the t h i r t e e n t h century. This premise i s upheld by such scholars as Bruno Stablei n and Joseph Smits van Waesberghe, who attempt to strengthen t h e i r musical observations by c i t i n g h i s t o r i c a l and l i t u r g i c a l evidence. Stablein's examination of Old-Roman chant was l i m i t e d to the two g r a d u a l s — B i b l i o t e c a Vaticana 5319 and Archivio d i San Fetro F. 22. He noted many apparently archaic features, such as: 1. "The consistent use of communion verses and, i n the i n t r o i t s , of the versus ad repetendum even i n the 13th-century Old Roman gradual, a custom which disappeared e n t i r e l y from the Gregorian manuscripts £ . 1 1 0 0 . 2. The very l i m i t e d number of a l l e l u i a melodies, only 18 f o r about 75 a l l e l u i a s while the oldest Gregorian graduals with music contain over 50, e.g. 56 melodies f o r the 97 a l l e l u i a s i n St. G a l l 359, c. 900. 3 . The use of secundae melodiae, the usually extended j u b i l a t i o n connected to the r e p e t i t i o n of an a l l e l u i a a f t e r i t s verse, a retention, according to Stablein, of an ancient l i t u r g i c a l p ractice evident also i n the Milanese chant, and 4. traces of a psalmodic construction f o r some of f e r t o r y verses while no such p a r a l l e l i s to be found among Gregorian o f f e r t o r i e s . " ' ^ Like Andoyer, he believed the Old-Roman to be "antegregorian" and that the Gregorian i s a s t y l i s t i c r e v i s i o n of the e a r l i e r chant. I t was Stablei n who named the repertory i n question Bruno Stablei n quoted by Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 4. "Old-Roman," and although most scholars have accepted t h i s designation, Dom Gajard disputed t h i s a t t r i b u t i o n . He preferred to c a l l the "Old-Roman" chant "Special" and the "Gregorian," "Standard," since the words conjecture the antegregorian theory with which he disagreed. ^ Stablein's search f o r h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s to support h i s theory l e d him to consult the numerous ordines Romani that have survived from the Middle Ages. (These ordos give p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r some l i t u r g i c a l function or ceremony supposedly according to the Roman usage.) He located one, perhaps written by John the Archcantor of St. Peter's, i n which there i s a " l i s t of eight popes from Damascus (366-384) to Martin (649-653) who are supposed to have contribu-ted to the e d i t i n g or compiling of an annual l i t u r g i c a l 16 cycle." S t a b l e i n then generously credited these popes with the formation of the texts and chants of the Roman l i t u r g y . "The ordo goes on to mention three abbots of St. Peter's i n Rome who were thought to -have made great c o n t r i -butions to the yearly c y c l e . F r o m t h i s Stablein jumped 1 S ' , yDom J . Gajard, " 1Vieux-Romain' et 'Gregorian,'" Etudes Gregoriennes, I I I , 1959, p. 10. He used c a p i t a l l e t t e r s f o r both "Special" and "Standard." 16 Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 5 . l 7 I b i d . to the conclusion that they were involved i n a musical reform—" f o r only popes could l e g i s l a t e l i t u r g i c a l AO matters." The argument posed i s that "the Old-Roman chant must be the repertory connected with the work of the eight popes, that i t existed e s s e n t i a l l y i n i t s present form by the year 653, and that i n a year or shortly thereafter, three abbots of St. Peter's under-took a reformation of the "old" Roman chant, leading to 19 the creation of the Gregorian chant." y As well, S t a b l e i n concluded that t h i s reform was completed by c. 680, f o r John—the supposed author of the ordo—was sent to England to teach the new chant. Since Gregorian chant became known there, i t must have been the chant brought by J o h n . 2 0 The importance of V i t a l i a n , the p o n t i f f from 657-672, i s stressed by Stablein, f o r he c i t e s Ekkehard V (c. 1220) as reporting "that i n Rome during the p o n t i f i c a t e of V i t a l i a n , the chant of the papal service was performed by 21 singers c a l l e d ' V i t a l i a n i . ' " Prom t h i s , S t a b l e i n assumed 1ft Bruno Stable i n quoted by Paul Cutter op. c i t . , p. 5-19 ^Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 5-2 Q I b i d . , p. 6. 21 * I b i d . that a special papal chant was sung, and from t h i s reasoning was tempted even further by i d e n t i f y i n g " t h i s chant with j 22 the reform of the three abbots." In attempting to f i n d solutions to the problems regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Old-Roman and Gregorian r e p e r t o r i e s , S t a b l e i n has not shirked from the ine v i t a b l e question of why the Old-Roman was s t i l l i n use i n the 1 1 t h - l 3 t h centuries a f t e r the presumed reform i n the 7 t h century. He suggested "two uses at Rome: that of the b a s i l i c a n monasteries of the Late r a n — t h e ' o r i g i n a l , ' Old-Roman chant, and that of the papal palace i n the L a t e r a n — 23 the reformed, Gregorian chant." "Most subsequent writers have not been too c h a r i t -able towards Stablein's view of the Old-Roman-Gregorian problem; i n p a r t i c u l a r , they have looked more c r i t i c a l l y 24 at h i s h i s t o r i c a l witnesses." The l i t u r g i s t Michel Andrieu has attacked S t a b l e i n f o r h i s heavy dependence on the "John" ordo, and has introduced considerable doubt into those very issues upon whose accuracy Stablein's theory depends. Andrieu argues convincingly that "the ordo 22 ^ I b i d . 2 5 r b i d . 24 Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 6 . i s t o t a l l y unauthentic, a forgery created to enhance the prestige of the Roman chant i n France. I t was not written^ by John; i t was not written i n Rome; i t was not written by 25 the 7th century." ^ He believes i t was the work of an 8th century French monk. With even l e s s evidence than Stablein, Rev. Richard J . Schuler favours the idea of the three abbots—Catalenus, Maruianus, and Virbonus—doing the work of composing the chant melodies f o r Pope 27 Gregory! ' Aside from the date and aut h e n t i c i t y of the document, one must also question i t s content. In e f f e c t , the ordo t e l l s "nothing about the work of the eight popes p o or the abbots," and S t a b l e i n 1 s "proof" and Schuler 1s theory are but f a n c i f u l embellishments of a'few f a c t s based on a questionable medieval source. Jacques Handschin acknowledges the importance of V i t a l i a n by r e f e r r i n g to the chronicle of Martinus Polon-sus. In t h i s , V i t a l i a n i s credited not only with compos-ing "Roman" chant but also writing organum on i t ! With the mention of organum i n the San Pietro B. 79, f• 67—"Hanc ^ M i c h e l Andrieu quoted by Paul Cutter op. c i t . , p. 6. 2 6 I b i d . 2^Rev. Richard J . Schuler, "The Roman Chant," C a e c i l i a , A. Review of Catholic Church Music, 86, #4, (1959), p. 129. Jacques Handschin, "Sur quelques tropaires grecs t r a d u i t en L a t i n , Appendix: La Question du Chant 'vieux-romain'," Annales Musicologiques, II (195^), p. 56. antiphonam cantamus simul tantum et sine organo"—a l i n k i s established between the " V i t a l i a n chant (which must be Old-" 29 • Roman) and polyphony." J Evidence a t t e s t i n g to t h i s i s found i n a statement of Adhemar, who recorded "the Roman singers, which were sent to France, instructed t h e i r French colleagues 'in Organandi.'"^ Nevertheless, Handschin admits h i s ideas are questionable, since the San Pi e t r o f o l i o i s an i s o l a t e d case, and since the Polonsus document cannot be regarded as f a c t — d a t i n g as i t does 500 years a f t e r V i t a l i a n ' s death. He too c r i t i c i z e s Stfablein's scholarship, and agrees with the majority of writers that there i s no reason to believe V i t a l i a n ' s choir sang a reformed chant, since there are no contemporary reports to confirm i t . Stablein's idea of the co-existence of two chants i n Rome used by two groups representing d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s has been entertained by numerous scholars. Joseph Smits van Waesberghe adopted t h i s theory and attemp-ted to exploit i t by examining medieval l i t e r a t u r e . He examined the Liber p o n t i f i c a l i s , the so-called "Book of the Popes," an anonymously compiled c o l l e c t i o n of papal biographies. "The Liber p o n t i f i c a l i s contains references to the e f f e c t that c e r t a i n e a r l y ItYi century popes gave ^Tbid. ^Adhemar quoted by Jacques Handschin, op. c i t . , p. 56. special support to the monks of the b a s i l i c a n monasteries attached to the great cathedrals of Rome, and that others 31 ! favoured the c l e r i c s of the churches of the C i t y . " ^ "To van Waesberghe, these v e i l e d references indicate that a continuous struggle must have existed between the monks and c l e r i c s of Rome over l i t u r g i c a l matters, and that i n t h i s c o n f l i c t c e r t a i n popes favoured the monks, e.g. .Gregory I, who had made h i s house into a monastery, and others favoured the c l e r i c s , e.g. Sabinian, Gregory's successor, 32 who had f i l l e d h i s church with c l e r i c s . " ^ Waesberghe then assumed that each group had t h e i r own chant. Being a staunch supporter of the Gregorian legend, he believes "that the ' o r i g i n a l ' chant of Pope Gregory must have been reformed twice i n the course of the 7"th century, f i r s t by the monks and l a t e r by the c l e r i c s . T h e r e s u l t of the f i r s t reform was the Gregorian chant, the second, the Old-Roman. As f o r the claim that the Gregorian was the chant of the monks and the Old-Roman that of the c l e r i c s , he says: The Old-Roman manuscripts omit references to monks but give many d e t a i l s of performance and other information s p e c i f i c a l l y mantioning c l e r i c s , canons, deacons, and the schola cantorum, and, a l l the Old-Roman graduals and antiphoners with music come from churches, not monas-t e r i e s . 34 31 y Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, xxxix, 1967, p. 9. ' J Paul Cutter c i t i n g Joseph Smits van Waesberghe, op. c i t . , p. 9' ^ I b i d . ^ I b i d . p. 10. 13^. : Paul Cutter considers both these statements erroneous. He has located two references i n the Old-Roman sources to monks, one of which d i r e c t l y s t a t e s — " t h e monks 35 of the church read three l e s s o n s . n > > As f o r the second point, "a note at the end of t h i s same antiphoner CSt. Peter'sj t e l l s us i n the year 1266 i t was owned by the monks of the monastery of St. Saba i n Rome"—disproves 36 Waesberghe's de c l a r a t i o n . Besides, the testimony of the Liber p o n t i f i c a l i s i s doubted by many l i t u r g i s t s . In reference to i t , the New Catholic Encyclopedia describes the biographies £. 700 as entered by various authors at d i f f e r e n t times—each writer t r e a t i n g a group of papal l i v e s . '^ 7 Moreover, Helmut Hucke suggest that "Waesberghe '-^Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 10. ^ e t er Peacock agrees with both S t a b l e i n and Waes-berghe ' s opinions then states " i t becomes c l e a r that there existed two main bodies: St. Peter's with i t s attendant monasteries and the Sedes Apostolica with i t s c l e r i c i . the former using the Old-Roman chant, and the l a t t e r , the Gregorian." This must be a mistake i n word order, f o r l a t e r on i n h i s a r t i c l e he claims "although the Schola Cantorum performed Gregorian chant as the normal l i t u r g i c a l music, there were occasions when the monachi and not the c l e r i c i celebrated, and on those occasions—and there were many of them—the Old-Roman r i t e would be used, at the Lateran, the Vatican, and the other b a s i l i c a s . " See h i s a r t i c l e — " The Problem of Old-Roman Chant," i n Essays presented to Egon  Wellesz, ed. by Jack Westrup (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966), p. 44. J ' " L i b e r P o n t i f i c a l i s , " The New Catholic Encyclopedia, 1967, VIII, p. 695. indiscriminate use of the terms monachi and c l e r i c i , and 1 he produces some evidence to show, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , that no d i s t i n c t i o n at a l l was intended and that the terms were 38 used synonymously." I t seems that t h i s document l i k e the "John" ordo must be considered of l i t t l e , i f any value, i n es t a b l i s h i n g h i s t o r i c a l t r u t h s . I t appears that the h i s t o r i c a l approach to the problem of the Old Roman chant i s inadequate i n i t s e l f . The work of these scholars shows that too heavy a r e l i a n c e on the contemporary l i t e r a t u r e has "followed a path to 39 f a i l u r e . " Bruno Stablein's i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the music i t s e l f was l i m i t e d , f o r at that time, only three manuscript were known and available f o r study. As f o r Waesberghe, he ignored the findings of Michel Huglo who, with h i s inven-tory, has made the greatest contribution to the Old-Roman controversy to date. A resume of the evidence of the Old-Roman practice as compiled by Huglo i s found on the following pages. ^ Helmut Hucke quoted by Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal, Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 1 1 . 5 9 P a u l Cutter XXXIX, 1967, p. 1 2 . 3  -^Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, Roman p r a c t i c e . MASS: WITH NOTATION GRADUAL St. C e c i l i a i n Trastevere. 1071 Copied by a p r i e s t named John f o r use i n the B a s i l i c a i n Rome. I t i s p r i v a t e l y owned by Martin Bodmer of Le Grand Colony, Colony Geneve, Switzerland. The text was published by Domenico G i o r g i , i n Vol. 4 of De l i t u r g a  Romani P o n t i f i c i s . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the MS o u t l i n i n g decoration, writing, analysis^of the contents, etc. i s found i n the Revue Gregori-enne XXXI, Jan.-Peb. 1952, e n t i t l e d "Un important temoin du chant vieux-romain: Le Gradual de Sainte Cecile du Transtevere," by J . Hourlier and M. Huglo, pp. 26-37- This MS i s not ava i l a b l e f o r study, but three f a c s i m i -l e s occur i n Catalogue No. 85 of Rare Books  and Manuscripts offered f o r sale by William  Robinson, Ltd. (London, 1955), pp. 59-62. It. o r i g i n a l l y contained a l l the chants of the l i t u r g i c a l year according to the Old-Roman t r a d i t i o n . Unfortunately, the l a s t 30 f o l i o s are now l o s t . T h i r t y Gregorian A l l e l u i a s have been added, and many of the p r i n c i p a l feasts are provided with a troped Kyrie and G l o r i a and a sequence. GRADUAL Rome, Vat, l a t . 5319 c. 1100 Por use i n a Roman B a s i l i c a , probably the Lateran. I t contains chants f o r the Easter Week Vespers, and the feast of the Dedication of the Lateran, as well as several votive Masses, 30 processional Antiphons some troped Kyries, sequences and Gregorian A l l e l u i a s . The notation and decoration are s i m i l a r to the St. C e c i l i a MS. Huglo's decision whether a non-musical source was evidence of the Old-Roman or of the Gregorian t r a d i t i o n was based on those p e c u l i a r i t i e s of l i t u r g i c a l ordering and text v a r i a t i o n of the notated Old-Roman and Gregorian books which are found i n the non-notated sources. These descrip-tions are drawn d i r e c t l y from Huglo's a r t i c l e — " L e chant 'vieux-romain,'" i n the Sacris E u r i d i VI (1954), pp. 96-124. GRADUAL ' Rome, Vat, b a s i l i c . F. 2 2 . XIII Has no trace of the Gregorian A l l e l u i a s , tropes, or sequences. The Offertory verses have a l l disappeared and the temporal and Sanctoral cycles are separate. I t seems to be i n the t r a d i t i o n of the B a s i l i c a of St. Peter's. GRADUAL Rome, B i b l . v a l l i c e l . C. 5 2 . XII This i s a Gregorian MS. which was written and noted at St. E u t i z i o , V a l c a s t o r i a n a — ( N o r c i a ) north of Rome, i n which the c a n t i c l e f o r Holy Saturday, Vinea mea, i s set to an Old-Roman melody, while even at Rome t h i s had been replaced by a Gregorian melody. ORATORIAL Rome, Vat. B a s i l i c . P. 11. ea r l y XII This i s from St. Peter's and contains the Canon of the Mass and other extracts from the Missal, and, at the end, the Masses f o r b u r i a l and f o r marriage and the Mass of the Major L i t a n i e s are found i n the Old-Roman version. SACRAMENTARY Florence, R i c c a r d i 2 9 9 . l a t e XI For the use of the Carnalduesian monks of St. P h i l i p and St. James i n the Diocese of Siena. Here the Old-Roman version of the nup t i a l Mass was borrowed by the Gregorian. ( I t i s only i n the 12th century that a melody of the Gregorian type f o r the texts of the nu p t i a l Mass i s found.) MISSAL Florence, R i c c a r d i 300. la t e XI This- Missal fragment contains two Old-Roman masses—Masses pro congregatione and ad sponsas benedicendas. MISSAL Rome, Vat. D a s c i l i c . F. 18, XII-XIII This missal was f o r use i n St. Peter's i n Rome. Some notes have been added i n another hand f o r the Holy Saturday A l l e l u i a , the melody being the Old-Roman version. ORDO P o n t i f i c a l of the Roman Curia. early XIII Three antiphons are always given i n the Old-Roman version. GRADUAL Kassel, Landesbibl. Theol. F o l . 36 MISSAL MISSAL This i s a fragment of a Gradual copied i n the 9 t h century, at Fulda, from a model that may have come from England or from Rome. The wr i t i n g a t t e s t s to an Anglo-Saxon influence, while the order of the pieces a t t e s t s that the fragment i s part of a group of Old-Roman manuscripts. Rome, B i b l . v a l l i c e l . B 8. X-XI A mixed Old-Roman and Gregorian missal of St. E u t i z i o de Norcia. The antiphons of the mass are attached to the Old-Roman t r a d i t i o n . I t has preserved the ancient c a n t i c l e s of the Easter v i g i l : Vinea and Cantemus. Rome, Vat. Barberini 560 l a t e X A Gregorian MS. used i n Central I t a l y which contains A l l e l u i a s f o r Easter week and f o r the greater part of the Sunday of Paschal time i d e n t i c a l with that of the Old-Roman t r a d i t i o n . GRADUAL Brussels, B i b l . royale 10127-10144. la t e VIII Used at Mt. Blandin. I t i s a Gregorian MS. which contains features of the Old-Roman t r a d i t i o n . OFFICE: WITH NOTATION ANTIPHONER London B. M. Add. 29988. mid XII The notation indicates that i t was written i n the area l y i n g between Central I t a l y and Bene-ventum. I t lacks the Gospel antiphons f o r the Benedictus and Magnificat f o r the Sundays a f t e r Pentecost. I t includes the Paschal Vespers, double o f f i c e of Matins on Christmas, and a series of I n v i t a t o r i e s and the O f f i c e f o r the Dead. ANTIPHONER Rome, Vat, b a s i l i c . B. 7 9 . l a t e XII Written f o r use at St. Peter's and important from a l i t u r g i c a l point of view. I t contains copious rubies which reveal d e t a i l s concerning the celebration of the Old-Roman O f f i c e . The l i t u r g i c a l texts and rubies have been published by Tomasi i n the Responsorialia et antiphonaria Romanae Ecclesiae (1686). OFFICE: WITHOUT NOTATION ORDO Liber p o l i t i c u s of Canon Benedict. 1140, 1143 The l i t u r g i c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n of the Ordo coin-cide exactly with those of St. Peter's showing the Old-Roman chant was i n use i n the Roman Curia i t s e l f i n the middle of the 12th c , not only i n the Roman b a s i l i c a s . ORDO Ordo Antiphonarum. This ordo has been preserved i n seven MS.—the oldest of which dates from the 9th century. I t s i n t e r e s t l i e s i n i t s testimony of the Old-Roman pra c t i c e of the V i g i l of great feasts, a practice of which no trace can be found i n the Gregorian Antiphonale. These MS. l i s t at le a s t two: Christmas and the Feast of St. Peter. ORDO Ordo of the Easter Vespers. This gives the ceremonies and chants as cele-brated by the pope at the Lateran during the Easter octave. Papal Vespers cannot be found i n any MS. of the Gregorian t r a d i t i o n . ANTIPHONER The Antiphonale of Corbie, which Amalar i n h i s De Ordine Antiphonarii (written a f t e r 844) compares with the Gregorian t r a d i t i o n at Metz. The chief difference between the Corbie MS. and Gregorian MSS. are these: 1. the double o f f i c e of Christmas i n the Corbie MS.: one f o r the v i g i l and one f o r the feast i t s e l f . 2. the antiphons of Matins of Easter. 3. Easter Vespers. 4. a double o f f i c e of Matins f o r St. Peter and the other saints i n the Corbie MS. 5. absence of proper responses f o r the feast of the Dedication of St. Michael i n the Corbie MS. 6. absence of a series of antiphons from the Gospel text f o r the Sundays a f t e r Pentecost, which figure i n a l l the Gregorian antiphon-a l s . With the findings of M. Huglo, another theory was developed which suggest that the Old-Roman chant was a l o c a l repertory with o r i g i n s and use p a r t i c u l a r l y at Rome—! much l i k e the Ambrosian at M i l a n — a n d that the Gregorian chant received i t s f i n a l form elsewhere. That the Old-Roman repertory i s p e c u l i a r to Rome has been concluded by Huglo on the basis of the d i f f u s i o n of the chant as seen from the remaining sources. From the evidence of the Corbie antiphoner, we know that i n the early ninth century, the Old-Roman usage was known at Corbie, near Aachen, the c a p i t a l of the Carolingian Empire. Unlike the witnesses of Stablein and Waesberghe, the t e s t i -mony i s assured because " c e r t a i n p e c u l i a r i t i e s noted by Amalar are found l a t e r i n Old-Roman but never i n Gregorian 41 manuscripts." In 831 or 832, Amalar of Metz was r e f e r r e d by Pope Gregory IV to Corbie i n order to obtain an authentic 42 Antiphonary, since the pope himself had none to spare. To Amalar's great amazement, he found the Corbie usage d i f -ferent from the Metz—"I compared the above mentioned volumes of Corbie with our antiphonaries and I found them d i f f e r e n t not only i n t h e i r [ l i t u r g i c a l ] order but also i n the great number of responsories and antiphons which we do 41 ^ Ibid . , p. 8 42 / W i l l i Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington: Indiana Univ e r s i t y Press, 1958), p. 79. not sing." Amalar's despair over the omissions m the Metz version appears i n the following passage: God knows whether the Romans are i n error; or whether our masters have erred, who boast of having learned the Gospel Antiphons from the masters of the Roman church; or whether the Romans have omitted them be-cause of carelessness and negligence; or whether they have never sung them.^ Huglo proved the Corbie usage was Old-Roman, and the Metz, Gregorian, and therefore, believes the Old-Roman was the o f f i c i a l usage of Rome i n the mid-8th century. The repertory i s again encountered i n c e r t a i n 10th century manuscripts from Central Italy—where i n some areas a mix-ture of Old-Roman and Gregorian t r a d i t i o n s are found i n l i t u r g i c a l books without musical notation. The l i t u r g i c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n of the ordo of the Liber p o l i t i c u s of Canon Benedict, coincides almost exactly with those of St. Peter's, as seen i n the antiphoner, Rome, Vat, b a s i l i c . B. 79. This i s proof that the Old-Roman chant was the o f f i c i a l chant of Rome c. 114-0. The t r a d i t i o n had not died even i n the 11th and 12th centuries, f o r the areas around Rome (Norcia and Siena) s t i l l showed traces of the Old-Roman usage through d i r e c t borrowings, where needed, from the Old-^ I b i d . ^ I b i d . , p. 80. ^ P a u l Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta' Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 8. Roman repertory. F i n a l l y , the l a t e s t Old-Roman manu-script—Rome Vat, b a s i l i c F. 22—was used i n St. Peter's i n Rome i n the 1Jth century. On the basis of t h i s evidence i t s e l f , Huglo concludes that the Old-Roman chant "must have been the only chant known to the Roman Curia, 47 the clergy, and the churches of the C i t y . " On the follow-ing two pages, two maps are g i v e n — f i g u r e 2 i l l u s t r a t e s the di s p e r s a l of the sources of the Old-Roman chant i n I t a l y , and f i g u r e 3, the locations i n the Carolingian Empire where traces of the pra c t i c e have been found. Huglo has no doubt about the o r i g i n s and use of the Old-Roman chant, but on the o r i g i n s of Gregorian chant, he i s s i l e n t : "he goes no further than to recognize i t s spread 48 from imperial decree." Since the early sources of the Gregorian repertory were not written i n Rome, or f o r that 49 matter, i n I t a l y , but instead come from places y i n the Franco-German empire of Western Europe; a v i t a l l i n k between the Gregorian chant and the Carolingian Empire i s established. This leads to the conclusion that the Gregorian repertory i s ^ I b i d . 47 'M. Huglo quoted by Paul Cutter, op. c i t . , p. 12. 48 Paul Cutter, op. c i t . , p. 12. 49 ^Manuscripts have been located at St. G a l l , Metz, Ein s i e d e l n , Chartres, Laon, and Montpellier. Figure 2.—The Dispersal of the Sources of the Old-Roman Chant i n I t a l y . F i g u r e 3-—The L o c a t i o n s i n the C a r o l i n g i a n Empire where t r a c e s of the Old-Roman p r a c t i c e have been found. "of Frankish o r i g i n , or, at le a s t that i t received i t s f i n a l form—the only one known to u s — i n places of the j West."''0 There i s a great deal of h i s t o r i c a l evidence to support the theory that the Gregorian chant represents an 8th-9th century fusion of Roman-Frankish elements. The impetus came from the Carolingian court and i t s idea of a p o l i t i c a l l y u n i f i e d empire strengthened by l i t u r g i c a l unity i n the Western world. In order to strength-en t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the church of Rome, the Frankish r u l e r s adopted the Roman l i t u r g y and propagated i t s use, 51 and i t s use only, m the Empire. I t probably began i n 752-3, when Stephen II v i s i t e d Gaul, accompanied by Roman clergy who celebrated the Mass according to the 52 ' Roman usage. I t was then that Pepin gained the support of the Pope by introducing the Roman r i t e s i n place of the e a r l i e r G a l l i c a n t r a d i t i o n which was prevalent at that time. We know Pope Paul I sent l i t u r g i c a l books to Pepin i n 760, and i n 825, the abbot Wala of Corbie went to Rome and received a copy of a Roman Antiphonale revised by Pope Hadrian ( 7 2 2 - 9 5 ) .^ Naturally the e f f o r t s to introduce the Roman usage met with the resistence of the Prankish clergy. SO J W i l l i Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958), p. 79. 51 ^ Helmut Hucke quoted by Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 13-^ 2 W i l l i Apel, op. c i t . , p. 79. Charlemagne wanted to suppress a l l l o c a l r i t e s and customs, and at Easter i n the year 787 (when he was i n Rome) spoke the famous words—"Revertimini vos ad fontem sancti G r e g o r i i , quia manifeste c o r r u p i s t i s cantilenam e c c l e s i a s t i -cam."-^" The Roman r i t e d i d emerge v i c t o r i o u s , but not with-out a l t e r a t i o n . As Jungmann says (with regard only to the l i t u r g i c a l aspects): "The exotic seedling, when planted i n the new s o i l and i n a new climate, was s t i l l p l i a n t 55 enough to be reshaped and modified by these i n f l u e n c e s . " ^ y I t would be f o o l i s h to assume that during t h i s process of al t e r a t i o n s i n the l i t u r g y , that the melodies remained un-changed.-^ Indeed, W i l l i Apel quotes an anonymous monk of St. G a l l , who, about 885 speaks of the "exceedingly large difference between our chant and that of Rome" and t e l l s us that, through the endeavours of a singer whom Charle-magne had sent to Rome f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and l a t e r assigned 57 to the cathedral of Metz, the chant spread over a l l Prance/' This theory of the Gregorian chant being a fusion of Roman-Prankish elements agrees with Stablein's i n one 54 ^ Charlemagne quoted by Egon Wellesz, Eastern Elements  i n Western Chant (Copenhagen: V i l l a d s e n og Christensen, 1947), p. 168. 55 "Joseph A. Jungmann, The Mass of the Roman Rite (London: Burns and Oates, 1959), p. 76. 56 W i l l i Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington: Indiana Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1958), p. 81. respect: the standard repertory i s not Gregorian i n the h i s t o r i c a l sense of the word. As well, the conclusion i j that the Gregorian i s a subsequent r e v i s i o n of the e a r l i e r chant i s held by both the Stablein and Hucke schools, how-ever, the difference l i e s i n where t h i s r e v i s i o n took place. As we have seen, there i s no evidence to support Stablein's claim of a r e v i s i o n of the repertory i n Rome. Hucke's argument of a Frankish arrangement of the imported Roman chant i n the 9th century can however, be proved i n part. From a comparison of the gradual chants of both repertories, Hucke concludes that "the Gregorian melodies are generally speaking, subsequent arrangements of the Old-Roman melodies, whereby the structure of the o r i g i n a l i s preserved though the melodic l i n e may be considerably a l t e r e d i n matters of d e t a i l . " ^ He believes the s p l i t of the Roman chant into two branches occurred sometime a f t e r 731 (the death date of Gregory II)—"who i s thought to have 5 9 added to the l i t u r g y , Masses f o r the Thursdays i n Lent."^ Therefore, since these Masses are common to both t r a d i t i o n s , Hucke assumes they must have belonged to the model sent into France at the time of the s p l i t . ^ 5 8 v Helmut Hucke quoted by Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 13. 5 9 I b i d . 6 0 I b i d . influences from the parent repertory, and by 1071, "the e a r l i e s t time that both musical t r a d i t i o n s can be compared, 61 they are quite d i f f e r e n t . " I t i s thought that the Franco-German t h e o r i s t s exercised considerable influence on Roman chant. As Paul Cutter points out, "the early tonaries show that a great deal of confusion often occurred where Frankish modal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was imposed upon Roman chant; and there were undoubtedly other native influences on the foreign repertory, perhaps from the old G a l l i c a n chant, the Frankish manner of singing, or other l o c a l elements, though 63 t h e i r extent cannot be measured." ^ "Because the degree to which the melodies i n the two repe r t o r i e s agree even a f t e r t h e i r separate existence f o r two or three centuries, Hucke believes the Old-Roman chant must have been l a r g e l y f i x e d and the t r a d i t i o n already s c r i p t u r a l at the time of i t s 64 export to France." Reasonable as t h i s assumption may seem, i t cannot be j u s t i f i e d , f o r as Paul Cutter asserts, "there i s no musical evidence to the existence of any chant repertory before about the middle of the 9th century, yet such an assumption would presume the use of neumatic nota-6 1 I b i d . 6 2 P a u l Cutter, "The Old-Roman Chant T r a d i t i o n : Oral or Written?", Journal of the American Musicological Society, XX, 1967, p. 168. 6 3 I b i d . 64 Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 13. t i o n back f a r into the 8th." ' Nevertheless, Hucke's ideas have received the support of W i l l i Apel and Robert J . Snow, who c i t e many musical reasons why the Old-Roman was e a r l i e r than the Gregorian, and that i t was the model f o r the Gregorian. Snow states that " i t i s hardly conceivable that the much more highly d i v e r s i f i e d Gregorian repertory could have been followed by the thematically more l i m i t e d Old-Roman unless a p r a c t i c a l consideration, such as a notational one, made such d i v e r s i t y impractical and a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n n e c e s s a r y . T h i s brings into consideration, the t h i r d and most recent theory of the Old-Roman problem. The p o s i t i o n taken by Walther Lipphardt i s that the Gregorian i s a Frankish redaction of a Roman o r i g i n a l , but the Gregorian i s not an arrangement i n France made of the imported Roman chant. Instead, he postulates that the melodic repertory exported from Rome was accepted i n France e s s e n t i a l l y without a l t e r a t i o n , and f i x e d there almost 67 immediately. ' Therefore, the chant we c a l l Gregorian i s the Roman chant of the 9th century. The evidence of cer t a i n 9th century reporters who claim that the Romans sang t h e i r 6 5 I b i d . , pp. ^Robert J . Snow, "The Old Roman Chant," i n Gregorian  Chant, ed. by W i l l i Apel (Bloomington: Indiana Uni v e r s i t y Press, 1958), p. 503-'Walther Lipphardt quoted by Paul Cutter, "A Reap-p r a i s a l , " Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 14. chant d i f f e r e n t l y every time, as well as the lack of e a r l i e r manuscripts, leads Lipphardt to assume the Old-Roman chant was transmitted o r a l l y u n t i l quite l a t e , that the or a l t r a d i -t i o n was highly improvisatory, and that the difference between Roman and Prankish chants were caused by the continu-a l l y changing Roman p r a c t i c e . ^ With regard to the Old-Roman melodies, Paul Cutter has noticed the lack of melodic i d e n t i t y among the extant sources. From a comparative study of the t h i r t y - f i v e Commu-nions i n four sources, Cutter has come to the conclusion that "no one source shows the basic version from which the others d e v i a t e — a l l four are equally involved i n the process 69 of free adaptation and ornamentation of the melodic l i n e . " y He maintains"the Old-Roman chant d i d not possess anything l i k e the degree of f i x i t y shown by Gregorian chant: a l t e r a -t i o n , v a r i a t i o n , and free a d a p t a t i o n — i n independent ways i n 70 d i f f e r e n t churches—characterized the practice of Rome."' Therefore, owing to t h i s lack of standardization, he con-cludes that the Old-Roman chant was not dependent on a ^W. Lipphardt quoted by Paul Cutter, "A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, p. 14. 5 9 P a u l Cutter, op. c i t . , p. 173. written model, " i n short, written model never existed."' This statement focuses on yet another aspect of the Old-Roman chant—the sources. Peter Peacock has offered some comment on the disap-pearance of the manuscripts. He believes the testimony of Radulph de Rivo (writing c. 1400) that Pope Nicholas III ordered the suppresion of a l l the "old" Roman chant manu-s c r i p t s i n favour of the Gregorian. S t i l l maintaining h i s view on the c l e r i c s versus the monks, he states with regard to the suppression—"only the monasteries were exempt, and t h i s i s the reason why one or two of the Old-Roman books 72 have been preserved f o r us."' As well, he suggests that with the introduction of square notation into I t a l y , the Old-Roman manuscripts, written i n Beneventan notation became 73 l e s s and l e s s easy to read. ^ Since the e a r l i e s t source dates from 1071, Paul Cutter surmises that the chant remained unwritten i n Rome before t h i s time, because "the centuries-old o r a l t r a d i t i o n f i r m l y 74 r e s i s t e d outside influences."' Cutter believes the o r a l t r a d i t i o n t h r i v e d u n t i l the 1 3 t h century and there i s no ? 1 I b i d . ? 2Peter Peacock, "The Problem of the Old-Roman Chant/' i n Essays Presented to Egon Wellesz, ed. by Jack Westrup (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 4 5 . 7 5 I b i d . ' P a u l Cutter, "Oral or Written?", Journal of the  American Musicological Society, XX, 1967, p. 179-reason to "believe, since the manuscripts cover a period of 200 years, that there was a sudden change from an or a l t r a d i t i o n to a written t r a d i t i o n , ' ' but "the sole remains of Roman repository manuscripts before the Gregorian t r a d i t i o n became f i r m l y established i n Rome, during the course of the 76 1 3 t h century."' They r e f l e c t the i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s taken by a few Roman churches at d i f f e r e n t times to record t h e i r 77 repertory. Paul Cutter does not believe the Gregorian meiodies to be an arrangement and r e v i s i o n of the Old-Roman, but rather, he claims that'the Old-Roman melodies show a more advanced stage of evolution; accordingly, they are l a t e r than the Gregorian."'' 7 8 He explains a theory of progressive evolution i n the or a l t r a d i t i o n whereby the Old-Roman practice i s represented i n two d i f f e r e n t stages: " i n the 9 t h century, i n the branch of the Roman chant that was s c r i p t u r a l l y recorded i n France, and, beginning around the middle of the 11th century, i n the Old-Roman manuscripts 79 themselves."'-^ I t would be unwise to accept the differences 7 5 I b i d . 7 6 I b i d . , p. 80. 7 7 I b i d . 7 8 I b i d . , p. 181. 7 9 I b i d . of melodic d e t a i l — p e r h a p s owing to an o r a l t r a d i t i o n — a s a simple explanation to the Old-Roman-Gregorian problem. The question of the Old-Roman chant has been d i s -cussed by numerous musicologists, however, l i t t l e progress has been made toward i t s s o l u t i o n . "There has been f a r too much speculation on too few sources, with r e l i a n c e on inaccurate or erroneously interpreted medieval l i t e r a r y reports," and above a l l , a lack of comparative studies of 8 0 the Old-Roman-Gregorian r e p e r t o r i e s . This study focuses on one of the three Old-Roman Graduals—MS. Vat. l a t . 5319- Preserved now i n the Vatican l i b r a r y , the manuscript dates from the l a t e eleventh century. I t was intended f o r use at one of the b a s i l i c a s , probably the Lateran, since the chants f o r the Easter Week Vespers proper to the b a s i l i c a n l i t u r g y and the feast of the Dedication of the Lateran (Dedicatio S. Salvatorio, R 1 Nov. 9) are included. The manuscript begins, as one would expect, with the F i r s t Sunday of Advent, however, the f i r s t f o l i o which included the opening I n t r o i t i s missing. Excluded from the cycle are the C o l l e c t s (except f o r the Easter season), the E p i s t l e s and the Gospels. The remaining chants of the l i t u r g i c a l year according to the Old-Roman t r a d i t i o n are i n t a c t . A supplement includes o u I b i d . , p. 16?. R 1 Michel Huglo, "Le Chant 'vieux-romain,'" Sacris  E u r i d i r i , VI, p. 99. votive Masses, processional antiphons, troped Kyries, and sequences. This i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Vat, l a t . 53^9 i s concerned with the a n t i p h o n s — I n t r o i t s , O f f e r t o r i e s , and Communions. These parts of the mass accompany the three main actions of the service: the entrance of the o f f i c i a t i n g p r i e s t to the a l t a r ; the placing of elements (bread and wine) on the a l t a r ; and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Host. The present study of these melodies has been confined mainly to such aspects as the t o n a l i t y , f i n a l cadences, melodic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and melodic structure. The texts of the Old-Roman antiphons are, f o r the most part, i d e n t i c a l with those of the Gregorian t r a d i t i o n . Some-times, however, there are s l i g h t differences r e s u l t i n g from the addition of a phrase i n the Old-Roman, or the use of a d i f f e r e n t word order i n an otherwise i d e n t i c a l t e x t . Two examples follow. Ex. 2. (a) Honora Dominum (124-r). (G. R. 34-9). Honora Dominum de tua substantia, et de p r i m i t i i s frugum tuarum [da pauperibus], ut impleantur horrea tua s a t u r i t a t e , et vino t o r c u l a r i a redundabunt. (The words i n square brackets indicate the Old-Roman addition.) (b) Simile est...homini (4-r), (G. R. 14-1**). Simile est regum caelorum homini n e g o t i a t o r i , quaerenti bonas margaritas: inventa autem una p r e t i o s a margarita, G. R. a b i i t , et vendidit omnia quae' habuit, et emit earn. Vat, lat.. .dedit omnia sua et comparavit earn. 5319 Gregorian Offertory texts i s the occasional r e p e t i t i o n of c e r t a i n phrases during the chant. When t h i s r e p e t i t i o n occurs, the text i s eithe r repeated d i r e c t l y a f t e r the i n i t i a l presentation, or, at the close of the piece. Two examples follow. Benedictus es Domine, doce me j u s t i f i c a t i o n e s tuas: Benedictus es Domine, doce me j u s t i f i c a t i o n e s tuas: i n l a b i i s meis pronuntiavi omnia j u d i c i a o r i s t u i . (MS. 39v, Ott 28). Domine, i n auxilium meum respice: confundantur et revereantur qui quaerunt animam meam, ut auferant earn: Domine, i n auxilium meum respice. (MS. 53v, Ott 106). The melodic and formal implications of these textual repeats w i l l be considered. The order of c h a p t e r s — I n t r o i t s , Communions, and O f f e r t o r i e s — i s not i n keeping with the order of the Mass. This arrangement was done d e l i b e r a t e l y to f a c i l i t a t e comparisons between the d i f f e r e n t bodies of chant. The same basic format has been retained f o r each chapter on the antiphons, and whenever possible, a comparison i s made with the Gregorian counterparts of these pieces. The books used f o r comparative purposes were the Graduale 82 Romanum, f o r the I n t r o i t s and Communions; and the Graduale Romanum, ed. by the Monks of Solesme (Tournai" Desclee and Co., 1961). Of f e r t o n a l e edited by Carolus Ott, f o r the O f f e r t o r i e s . In the musical examples, the eighth note has been employed as the basic unit of the chant. An x i n place of P the note-head (x) represents the quilisma, and a short h o r i z o n t a l stroke through the stem (/) the semivocalis. A t i e i s used to indicate the pressus and oriscus . A l l note beamed together belong to the same s y l l a b l e . Ex. 1. The transposed g_-clef i n d i c a t i n g an octave lower than written, has been employed, and to indicate pitches i n the text, the following system: c' middle c c indicates the one an octave below c_' . <i' 5 £'i etc. indicate notes above middle c, and d' ' , e_* ' , f' 1 etc., the second octave. £ A B C d e f g_ a b c" d 1 e' f 1 a' b' c' 1 d' 1 e' 1 etc. The numbers which appear i n brackets a f t e r the i n c i p i t of an antiphon, indicate the f o l i o i n the Old-Roman manuscript. Those figures with G> R. preceding O f f e r t o r i a l e , ed. by Carolus Ott (Tournai: Descle and Co., 1935-them r e f e r to the page i n the Graduale Romanum; those with "Ott" r e f e r to the corresponding page of the Offer-t o r i a l e . There are some orthographic p e c u l i a r i t i e s apparent i n the L a t i n of the manuscript: the added h_ (as i n Israhel) and c_ (as i n michi) ; i_ i s used i n place of j j and, for the most part, e_ i s retained f o r the dipthong ae_ (although the l a t t e r does appear i n a few Communions). Often i f a word ends with a consonant, f o r example an m, and the following word begins with an m, only one m i s w r i t t e n — a s i n the antiphon Que me dignatus ( 3 2 r )—"mamil-lam [m] ea." The most frequently found abbreviations are dni for Domine, and AEUA fo r A l l e l u i a . A general index of the manuscript and a correspond-ing thematic index for each antiphon c y c l e - - I n t r o i t s , Communions, and O f f e r t o r i e s - - i s contained i n the Appendix. The thematic index has been organized according to the opening pitches of the antiphons; melodies with s i m i l a r opening figures are l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y . Each i n c i p i t i n the alphabetical indes has been assigned a number to f a c i l i t a t e i t s location i n the catalogue of opening-themes . A l l the I n t r o i t s , O f f e r t o r i e s , and Communions of Vat. l a t . 5319 were transcribed from a microfilm of the o r i g i n a l manuscript for this study. These tra n s c r i p t i o n s are available i n the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Music Library. CHAPTER I THE INTROITS Af t e r taking account of duplications (those chants which employ the same text and music f o r more than one occasion), there remain 154 Old-Roman I n t r o i t s . A l l but 1 ten appear i n the Graduale Romanum, and of these, seven can be found i n c e r t a i n early Gregorian manuscripts with notation from various centres i n Europe. Benedicit te hodie B i b l . Angelica of Rome, Codex 123, f o l . 147v. 11th century. E l e g i t te Dominus B i b l . Angelica of Rome, Codex 1 2 3 , f o l . 146v. G l o r i a et honore B i b l . Angelica of Rome, Codex 1 2 3 , f o l . I 3 7 r . Justus non conturbabitur B i b l . Capit. of Beneven-to, Ms. VI 34, f o l . 162v. B i b l . Angelica of Rome, Codex 123, f o l . 134v. Populus Syon B i b l . Angelica of Rome, Codex 1 2 3 , f o l . 1 9 r . Probasti Domine B i b l . Capit. of Bene-vento, MS. VI 34, f o l . 217v. B i b l . Angelica of Rome, Codex 123, f o l . I 3 0 r . Rogamus te Domine B i b l . Angelica of Rome, Codex 123, f o l . 151V. Appendix I contains an index of the I n t r o i t s of Vat. l a t . 5319 and the l o c a t i o n of the Gregorian versions i n the Graduale Romanum. The text only of Ecce populus custodens i s contained i n the Gregorian manuscript—Paris, B. N. l a t . 12050. The remaining two Introits—Domine qui e l e g i t , and Sicut modo  g e n i t i — d o not appear i n any of the ear l y Gregorian sources a v a i l a b l e . The T o n a l i t y Usually the maneria can be determined according to whether the f i n a l of a chant i s d, e_, f , or g; however, i n the following table, which c l a s s i f i e s the f i n a l of each Old-Roman I n t r o i t melody, i t w i l l be seen that unusual f i n a l s have been employed i n a number of cases. TABLE I THE FINALS OF THE OLD-ROMAN INTROITS F i n a l Number Percent F i n a l Number Percent a 2 1 b 4 3 c 11 7 d 34 22 e • 52 34 f 28 18 S 23 15 I f we consider only the four standard maneria, i . e . d, e_, f, and g, the f i n a l s of the Gregorian and Old-Roman agree only 60$ of the time. Those melodies which employ higher notes f o r t h e i r f i n a l s — t h e so-called a f f i n a l e s a, b, and c — a r e usually considered transpositions "the surmise being that o r i g i n a l l y such chants d i d close on one [ o f ] the four basic chants." 2 Evidence w i l l be presented l a t e r to support t h i s statement and the con-sequent c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of those chants terminating on a, b, and _c, to the protus, deuterus, and t r i t u s t o n a l i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the f i n a l s i s given i n the following t a b l e . TABLE 2 THE MANERIA OF THE OLD-ROMAN INTROITS F i n a l Number d 3 6 e 5 6 f 39 g 23 "The d i s t i n c t i o n between the authentic and plagal mode of the same f i n a l (maneria) i s based on the ambitus."-There i s , however, disagreement about the range which d i f f e r e n t i a t e s the two. Melodies with a r e s t r i c t e d ambitus were considered plagal by early t h e o r i s t s . In the early eleventh century, Berno of Reichenau wrote: " I f a chant does not reach up to the f i f t h nor include the lower fourth, i t i s customary to consider i t as W i l l i Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington: Indiana Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 157. ^Ibid. , p. 144. plagal because of i t s shortness and imperfection." For the most part, the established c r i t e r i a f o r determining the modal assignment of a melody by a consideration of the f i n a l and range prove successful. There are some cases, however, where chants have been assigned to modes on the basis of the Gregorian intona-t i o n f i g u r e s . These melodic figures—common to the Old-Roman I n t r o i t antiphons of the corresponding modal 5 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s — a r e given below. Ex. 2. The Gregorian Intonation Formulas. Berno of Reichenau, Scriptores E c c l e s i a s t i c i de  Musica Sacra Potissimum, Vol. I I , edited by Martin Gerbert (Ste. B l a i s e , 1 7 8 4 ; , p. 72 (b). 5 ^Example 2 i s drawn from page 219 of W i l l i Apel's Gregorian Chant. Using the established c r i t e r i a , and, when necessary, the a i d of intonation fig u r e s , the Old-Roman I n t r o i t melodies can be c l a s s i f i e d as follows: protus: twenty-three authentic and t h i r t e e n p l a g a l ; deuterus: t h i r t y -s i x authentic, twenty p l a g a l ; t r i t u s : twenty-three authen-t i c , sixteen p l a g a l ; and tetrardus: eight authentic, f i f -teen p l a g a l . The Gregorian I n t r o i t s agree with the above modal assignments 12°/o of the time. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s seem to favour higher assignments than the Gregorian when discrepancies occur. F i n a l Cadences "In any s t y l i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r body of music, caden-t i a l formulae i l l u s t r a t e fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the musical structure."^ The Old-Roman I n t r o i t s have recognizable cadential patterns which are used over and over again, and which can be c l a s s i f i e d f o r each f i n a l . Some are i n d i v i d u a l i n character, but even these very frequently resemble the standard patterns. Although the Gregorian f i n a l cadences are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of mode, t h i s i s not the case f o r the Old-Roman which are c l e a r l y associated with c e r t a i n n o t e s — d , e_, f, or g_. F i n a l Cadences on D Those Old-Roman I n t r o i t s ending on d have a Frederic Warren Homan, " F i n a l and Internal Caden-t i a l Patterns i n Gregorian Chant," Journal of the American  Musicological Society, XVII (Spring, 1964), p. 66. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c neume grouping p e c u l i a r only to t h i s f i n a l . This d i s t i n c t neume arrangement notates the following cadential formula which concludes three-quarters of those Old-Roman melodies which terminate on d, Ex. 3. The e s s e n t i a l melodic movement i n t h i s pattern i s from the f i n a l to g and back. In c e r t a i n Old-Roman I n t r o i t s , a few exceptions to the t y p i c a l d pattern can be found. Excluding Example 4 (a), whose formula closes four I n t r o i t s , these cadences are found only once i n the whole I n t r o i t c y c l e . Ex. 4. (a) Etenim sederunt (15). (b) Ex ore infantium (18r). (c) Michi autem nimis (1l5r) (d) Staduit (26r). (e) Sacerdo'tes eius (20v). fl / 0 <f z ¥ y 0 - i f— • -iL-.q jrj"pr-\" * a * 9 j IT'S Both the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s which end on a use the cadential pattern given as Example 5; which i s that of 3 (a)—transposed up a f i f t h — a n d t h i s f a c t supports t h e i r assignment to the protus t o n a l i t y . (This i s the evidence spoken about e a r l i e r with regard to the use of a f f i n a l e s . ) Ex. 5. (a) Adorate deum (25r). (b) Exspecta Dominum (69v). The Gregorian I n t r o i t s which terminate on d, use a va r i e t y of cadential formulae. Some hear a resemblance to the Old-Roman patterns and are given below i n Example 6. Of these formulas, 6 (a) i s representative of mode 1, 6 (b), of mode 2, and the l a s t , 6 (c) i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both d modes. Ex. 6. (a) Da pacem (G. R. 372). (b) Dominus f o r t i t u d o (G. R. 334). (c) D i c i t Dominus (GT R. 656). I A/ 0 * In the Gregorian cadences, the e s s e n t i a l melodic movement i s , i n most cases, from d to f and hack. F i n a l Cadences on E Those Old-Roman I n t r o i t s which terminate on e have more v a r i e t y i n construction and usage than those c l o s i n g on d. Nevertheless, more than h a l f of the antiphons employ eit h e r the f i r s t or second patterns of Example 7. Ex. 7- ( a) Aqua sapientiae ( 8 9 v ) . (b) Intret i n conspectu ( 1 0 9 V ) . a/ I rrfl f r " - ? - f f J L ^ q ^ " --^^  tq? J *** t**J — i — — * v — Five other patterns account f o r the remainder, Ex. 8. (a) Benedicte Dominum (128r). (b) Clamaverunt (1Q4r). (c) Deus dum ( 1 0 9 r ) . (d) Dum clamarem (40r). (e) Ego clamavi (56v). It.should be said at t h i s point that a l l the Old-Roman chants which cadence on b are re l a t e d to the deuterus mode, since a l l use the (a) formula of Example 7 , transposed up a perfect f i f t h . Ex. 9 . Cantate Domino (100v). cr cr t i n g cr There are six cadential patterns employed by the Gregorian I n t r o i t s of the deuterus mode. A l l are given i n Example 1 0 . The most frequently used pattern of mode 3 i s shown as Example 10 (a), while the formula l a b e l l e d 10 (b) i s that preferred by the I n t r o i t melodies of mode 4. Ex. 1 0 . (a) Confessio (G. R. 5 7 8 ) . (b) A c c i p i t e (G. R. 2 9 9 ) . (c) Factum est (G. R. 5 0 5 ) . (d) Humiliavit (G. R. 106). (e) Nunc scio~(G. R. 5 3 2 ) . ( f ) Deus Israel ~ T G ~ R. [122] ) . j ff - tr j—# -0-a1 i , T r r i p 1 PV-u? 0*** *—* 1 1 MD ff * a * * J 1—+ J * § * M J: A_ The cadential pattern of Example 6 (b) of the Old-Roman and 10 (d) of the Gregorian are (with the exception of one note) i d e n t i c a l ; as well, there are marked s i m i l a r i t i e s between Examples 8 (d) and 10 (b) and (e). In the Gregorian cadences, the movement i s from e_ to g_ and back to the f i n a l , not f to a and back as we have seen i n the Old-Roman I n t r o i t cadences. F i n a l Cadences on F More than h a l f of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s whose f i n a l i s f_ use the following formula. Ex. 11 Another pattern, which closes ten of the twenty-eight melo-dies which terminate on f_, presents a feature not encoun-tered i n any of the Old-Roman melodies previously discussed. The movement to the f i n a l i s approached by step from below; whereas, i n every other pattern we have seen, the f i n a l has 7 been approached by step from above. An example follows. Ex. 12 A r T T i /v. M M 1 One should not overlook the s i m i l a r i t y between this example and the most frequently used e_ cadential formula found i n Example 6 (b) . Other patterns, a l l of which bear a close resemblance to Example 12, are given i n the following example. Ex. 1 3 . (a) Venite adoremus (128V ) . (b) Laudate pueri ( 1 1 9 r ) . (c) Judicame Deus (66r). (Trrn711 / f""1"*T""1 ft—1 1—1 a -• - -1 • —"—0—' * r 1 Those chants which employ the a f f i n a l e c use one of the two cadential patterns given below i n Example 14. These formulae are r e l a t e d to the two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f mode cadences which we have seen i n Examples 11 and 1 2 — t r a n s -posed up a perfect f i f t h . Ex. 14. (a) Ne derelinquas ( 5 l v - r ) . (b) C i b a v i t (I08r). A. * & #-9~ -^259 . *—*-LLLf G ' L=U=J b=td There are three cadential patterns employed by the Gretorian I n t r o i t s of mode 5. The most frequently used formula i s given as Example 15 (a). Note the resemblance between the Old-Roman and Gregorian patterns i n Examples 11 and 15 (a). Ex. 15. (a) Cantemus Domino (G. R. 43**) (b) Loquebar (G. R. 591). (c) Deus i n loco f G . R. 347). rrrm #' / r 0 J * * „ Among the Gregorian I n t r o i t s of mode 6, only three out.of seventeen employ a s i m i l a r cadential pattern. The three which are i d e n t i c a l use the mode 5 formula given as Example 15 (a). A l l the other cadences f o r t h i s mode have i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , however, there i s no example of the e to f approach to the f i n a l . This pattern i s pecu l i a r only to the Old-Roman I n t r o i t antiphons. . F i n a l Cadences on G There i s almost perfect uniformity i n cadential patterns of those Old-Roman I n t r o i t s that terminate on A l l but two chants use the following formula. Ex. 16. The two exceptions are nothing more than elaborations of the above pattern. •Ex. 17. (a) Domine ne longe (74v). (b) Nos autem (105v). The melodic movement i s from g to c and back i n a l l but one formula. In contrast, there i s a great v a r i e t y i n the caden-t i a l patterns of the Gregorian I n t r o i t s which conclude on g_. Of the two examples given below, the f i r s t i s repre-sentative of mode 7, and the second, mode 8 . As well, these bear the closest r e l a t i o n s h i p to the t y p i c a l Old-Roman g_ formula. Ex. 18. (a) Ad,jutor (G. R. 89). (b) Lux f u l g e b i t (G. R. 30). * * * The Old-Roman cadences appear to be governed by the f i n a l , not the mode, f o r they can be found i n t e r n a l l y i n pieces of d i f f e r e n t assignment. There i s one t y p i c a l cadence formula f o r each f i n a l — d , e_, f, and g — a n d although complete uniformity does not p r e v a i l o v e r a l l , the modifications to the common patterns are s l i g h t . By placing these t y p i c a l formulae together, one can make some rather s t r i k i n g observations. Ex. 19. The t y p i c a l Old-Roman cadential patterns. 0^  I r r f i =f '-|— : 1 f T T - r H r=*» -tf I nTH i KM a ff * * *f-j j. H r n | 7 rrTTT 11 * * V-0 dP.. Excluding the f patterns, the melodic movement i n the t y p i c a l f i n a l cadences of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s begins b^ ascending to the fourth, then, descends to the f i n a l . Although some of the Old-Roman formulae are repre-sented i n the Gregorian I n t r o i t s , they do not exhibit t h i s tendency toward uniformity i n t h e i r construction. Melodic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The Old-Roman I n t r o i t s may be considered chants of moderate length and, compared to other Old-Roman antiphons, of a moderately ornate s t y l e . In the manuscript, they range from four to six l i n e s — r o u g h l y the same as they would appear i f printed i n the format of the Graduale  Romanum. The Old-Roman chants are s i m i l a r i n outline to the Gregorian, but are much more ornate. Whereas the Gregorian s y l l a b l e s "carry a group of notes numbering from two to f i v e , " the Old-Roman support normally from two to ten, and i n sp e c i a l c a s e s — a s i n the a l l e l u i a s during Eastertide—more. Interspersed between these groups are single notes i n succession numbering from three to eight on d i f f e r e n t pitches. This feature i s common to the I n t r o i t s of both r e p e r t o r i e s . Most of the melodic progressions are stepwise, and scale passages of four notes ascending or descending occur W i l l i Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 5 8 ) , P- 306. i n two-thirds of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s . Only three chants employ sequences of f i v e notes ascending, and there i s one instance of s i x notes descending. The remaining chants use scale passages of f i v e notes descend-ing. Leaps are not rare. Successive t h i r d s , up and down, are frequent as i s the outline of a t r i a d . Also, i t i s not uncommon to f i n d leaps of a fourth or f i f t h , and three examples occur of six t h s . Thirds-plus-fourths occur only t w i c e — b o t h times ascending, however, t h i r d s - p l u s - f i f t h s are not present. O v e r a l l , the melodic progresssions of the Gregorian I n t r o i t s are very s i m i l a r . t o those of the Old-Roman. Like the Gregorian I n t r o i t s , the Old-Roman contain many examples of s t r o p h i c i . Ex. 20. Ego autem. There i s an unusual melodic feature present i n one Old-Roman I n t r o i t — t h e melodic progression of a diminished f i f t h followed by a perfect fourth. T I I 3* This oddity cannot be found i n the Gregorian I n t r o i t s . From an examination of the ranges of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t melodies, from which the following table was devised, i t i s apparent that the octave i s the most frequently used range, followed by the minor seventh, then, major si x t h and major seventh. TABLE 3 THE RANGE OF THE OLD-ROMAN INTROITS Interva l Number Percent Interval Number Percent P4 2 1 P5 10 6 m6 6 4 M6 26 17 m7 30 20 M7 25 16 P8 4-3 28 M9 8 5 mlO 3 2 P11 1 These same proportions are approximately correct f o r the Gregorian I n t r o i t s . In general, i n the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s , narrower ranges predominate i n the shorter chants, and wider i n the longer melodies. The following two I n t r o i t s — L e t e t u r  cor and Etenim sederunt are representative. Ex. 22. Letetur cor (64v). n P n HTi> h ft P pTH HTi rrfl n in n fl irtrm a r> t?^  — I # ' 0 0 — 1 3 r~ a w 0 a 0 *i—T 1—•—• a —I 1— •0—0—lt-0 % ' c*> -eve e ~ rm'T| ,-rTl J 00 * fS^Z Sew - per. rtmrrn ^ n .m JTLT3 JJ iffiffrFSQ ^X-" Stt^ cfe~' rw/f£ pnl/t""cl^ptS s i 1 ^  AdLwSus Mi, U •£ui ~ baa ~ VjUi>pViJiArCiO" tl ' St/rtt org, AjL~ J{i/*S&, f»C fa* p.f fr/THl r T W T l P P r<3 j r a J ' > * fcf>* ***** J a *<? IS*>* /fib'/ie dtt'O-S /ne,** i/s J£/*~ vug 6 US UrS This r e l a t i o n s h i p between the range and length of a melody does not occur i n the Gregorian I n t r o i t antiphons. The extreme notes of the compass are reached many times during the course of each Old-Roman I n t r o i t . This t r a i t i s not apparent i n the Gregorian I n t r o i t s , which usually employ the extremities of t h e i r ambitus once or twice only during the chant. Many of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s contain short passages of r e c i t a t i o n on one p i t c h , and when t h i s happens i t i s much more pronounced than i n the Gregorian I n t r o i t s . Ex. 24. (a) Omnia ( 7 0 r ) . (b) Judica Domino ( 7 6 v ) . eu f I c c i (rt f f P r r | ° s g & Sii, ~ d"i " C<Zs Pa * rrti-~rt£. n6 In many cases, the Old-Roman melodies have a successive r e i t e r a t i o n of two notes. An example follows. ri r i n T -hi ~ 'tar* ne w _t This i s not a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Gregorian I n t r o i t antiphons. The Old-Roman I n t r o i t antiphons of Ea s t e r t i d e , which close with an a l l e l u i a reveal an i n t e r e s t i n g feature-a deceptive cadence i s employed at the end of the a n t i -phon, however, the penultimate and f i n a l are not reached u n t i l the f i r s t s y l l a b l e ( a l ) of the a l l e l u i a . Ex. 26. Exc1amaverunt (I03r). 4,1 ~ If In i s o l a t e d cases where the f i n a l i s reached at the con-cl u s i o n of the antiphon proper, t h i s same cadential formula i s repeated at the end of the a l l e l u i a . — r f *r<$r 0 *f J» f jC LilA I w — OS The' Gregorian a l l e l u i a s , which have been added to the I n t r o i t s sung during Eastertide, do not exhibit t h i s tendency towards uniformity between t h e i r cadential patterns and those of the antiphons which precede them. There i s a divergence i n musical st y l e noticeable within the Old-Roman I n t r o i t chants, not found i n the more homogeneous Gregorian I n t r o i t c y c l e . The neumatic or group style p r e v a i l s i n both the Gregorian and Old-Roman I n t r o i t cycles, however, i n the l a t t e r , there are examples of melismatic and s y l l a b i c chants. An Old-Roman chant tending towards the melismatic i s found on page .9, while a representative example of a s y l l a b i c melody follows. In general, the s y l l a b i c chants have a l i m i t e d range and are almost i n the nature of r e c i t a t i v e s . v .1/ if v I V » if Q l/EEB _/^» J&ini'/ws pf pw/v/tt, $u^v#t- /n°e* 'uC-JL at c~ /* f if f tj—w ft cur cr t _ f tt m t f * f <? f-f-. IV ? ? y Melodic Structure Internal r e p e t i t i o n i s an important feature of the I n t r o i t melodies of the Old-Roman chant. We need only to glance at the above example to see how the working out of the opening figure accounts f o r nearly a l l of the piece, and i t s a l l e l u i a patterns. The recurrence of motives and longer phrases i s a basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s . A further example i s offered where there i s more opportunity to see the extent of the i n t e r n a l r e p e t i t i o n . Ex. 29. Populus Syon ( 2 r ) . 3 6 I f * 3 . BB * d at 1 « i * \ I f'ff f \ v LLLU >• "IDS Sy" ° i i i L i m p ' " 11 * MS Vi o + A - * s\. t * -'^Lli.U—(_| [ LL»l t /ni ~* * & a * \\ —•> - A - — n n — A f f f  f-i at i 0 if" "6a.S 1 f r f \ f f ( f f ( ' " r 11/ m M j frit* •> •fits'- gjf? rr^—" • r t ' f t f " da * - 7 - / T r r c f "(ft 0 nag UJJ—UL a/a ~ a * •i l l LUU1U c M I / u i i i i V /e-- 6£ — as The corresponding l i n e s and l e t t e r s indicate the r e p e t i -t i o n of motives and phrases. The Gregorian version of t h i s antiphon does not employ recurring motives nearly to t h i s extent. Ex. 30. Populus Sion (G. R. 4). it w uu ? nisi m Ciir 1 [ f i r ; j Hi P •0 * * ** ** o r r, 1 \li 11 u us Wj i f J fa^t, d'Ct Pa ~ TLC.<-~ /x^s U LlU If LU i <zms fa** CsS '//t> fee* & ~ IS •**—0-C*i~~ r e p e t i t i o n s present m the Gregorian chant repertory, t h i s feature i s encountered r e l a t i v e l y infrequently i n the Gregorian I n t r o i t s . This i s a fundamental difference between the Gregorian and Old-Roman I n t r o i t s . We have seen the r e p e t i t i o n of phrases i n Example 29, however, i n the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s the nature of the i n t e r n a l r e p e t i -t i o n does not stop there. In the following example, an entire thirty-two note passage i s repeated a f t e r a con-t r a s t i n g u n i t . This does not occur i n the Gregorian version. Ex. 31. Ego autem sicut (16r). W i l l i Apel, Gregorian Chant, p. 238. In the next example, the f i r s t l i n e i s repeated immediately a f t e r being stated i n the Old-Roman I n t r o i t , This i s not a feature of the Gregorian version. Ex. 3 2 . Meditatio (64-r). " r l I T J i - v if if a—er, * 4 j — ± - m — j ' " fi—r ' 4 i v- A ' ft X 3B£ TO ... The nature of t h i s r e p e t i t i o n extends from i n t e r n a l r e p e t i t i o n to melodic r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the I n t r o i t s . From the thematic index found i n Appendix IV, we see that a large number of I n t r o i t s have i d e n t i c a l openings. The Gregorian are not so r e l a t e d , even where i t might be expected. To give an example, the Old-Roman repertory has a series of successive I n t r o i t s whose i n i t i a l f igures are the same, but whose texts are not i d e n t i c a l . These I n t r o i t s f o r the week following Passion Sunday are l i s t e d below. Liberator meus ( 6 9 r ) . F e r i a Quarta. Omnia que ( 7 0 r ) . F e r i a Quinta. Miserere michi ( 7 2 v ) . F e r i a Sexta. The Gregorian cycle uses these same texts, but the melodies are not r e l a t e d . resemblance does not extend past the head-motives given i n the thematic index. In other melodies, many of these motives occur i n i n t e r i o r phrases. Sometimes entire passages can be found i n another chant whose i n i t i a l f igure i s quite d i f f e r e n t . In the following example 10 there i s p a r t i a l textual correspondence. Ex. 33. (a) Eduxit eos (94v). Cb) Sicut modo (97v). A Jt1 M f f frrt 9fffff ' f n.t ft?* f»j . — V AC~ / t ' Tfftt /A * ff f\ m = ^ i f f f r - ta a //ft' £• cas e— *~ f i f f i f . f t ru/rp, Uf 'ff T m &C~ /& ~s /fas' d-/r<Vb£'/e$ A'-/fC d o - /a I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the resemblance of the two I n t r o i t s considering that the l a t t e r i s one of the two pieces which d i d not remain i n the repertory. Textual correspondence can be found i n the following example, where the second i s obviously a tr a n s p o s i t i o n of the f i r s t . Ex. 3 4 . (a) Miserere...conculcavit ( 6 8 v ) (b) M i s e r e r e . . . t r i b u l o r ( 7 2 v ) . \ •• * - * » M 1 i ' A* ' * - M - M 4 V / 0 A * -4-* ' s .... ••• In another instance, a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y occurs between two entire I n t r o i t melodies. Ex. 3 5 . (a) Cibavit eos (I08r). (b) Eduxit Dominus ( 9 5 r ) . \J V \J tin c Cl>" ha* ~ v! t &> "tf <2/C" at-eft "fit w c/u/ ' C C (, C f f f f f 7*+ 14* &t i /as » CU U Oil lu U Iii] L B S b a* ltc~&f fw~as fn* I** ~ &~ ~ ItU J*> j)L ~ it ' m Us /As flffff'flf ffffs f fff f f t9 s f* f *T f f f f ff/ f ftt\ m mm CO '<v AC" le. Ice <~ /cu 67 -These two r e l a t e d melodies are representative of the many Old-Roman I n t r o i t s where s i m i l a r i t i e s i n melodic design can be' found to t h i s extent. The Old-Roman and Gregorian I n t r o i t s d i f f e r from each other i n another respect. A comparison of the open-ing figures of the two repertories reveals that the corresponding I n t r o i t s of the Gregorian and Old-Roman r i t e s r a r e l y begin on the same n o t e — i t i s only a f t e r the second or t h i r d that there i s agreement between them. Ex. 3 6 . (a) Lux f u l g e b i t ( 1 2 r ) . (b) Lux f u l g e b i t (G. R. 3 0 ) . Robert J . Snow has suggested that many of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t antiphons have features which indicate that 11 they were derxved from psalmodic formulae. Although he noticed that those chants of the deuterus t o n a l i t y make use of psalmodic phrases, he did not suspect the extensive-Robert J . Snow, "The Old-Roman Chant," i n Gregorian Chant, ed. by W i l l i Apel (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana Un i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 4 8 7 . ness of t h i s feature. In f a c t , i f we include transposi-t i o n s , s i x t y percent of the i n i t i a l figures- found i n the thematic index begin with one of the psalmodic formulas given below: Ex. 37. Psalmodic Formulas. c 0 0 a—m 0 § B A & 00 Even i n the more ornate chants, a basic psalmodic formula can be found. The one which occurs most frequently i s given below. Ex. 38. p rt • ,TH The reminiscence of psalmodic formulae are not confined only to the opening f i g u r e s , but also, they can be recognized as the s k e l e t a l structure of the melismas. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the above example i s also the t y p i c a l g cadential pattern. On the following page i s a good example of the working out of such a formula i n an Old-Roman I n t r o i t antiphon. fV - f > tec tun r ft r p p fTTTT __; ~ i » /  me-, B a s i c a l l y , the form of an Old-Roman I n t r o i t appears to be the recurrence of a psalm-tone formula, which i s frequently ornamented i n many d i f f e r e n t ways throughout the chant. This formula governs the opening figur e s , the structure of the melismas, and, i n general, i s the basis of the piece. CHAPTER II THE COMMUNIONS There are one hundred and forty-nine Old-Roman Communions contained i n MS. Vat. l a t . 5319. Although nine have not remained i n the present Gregorian repertory, four of these can be found i n early Gregorian sources with notation. Ego sum v i t i s B i b l . Angelica of Rome, Codex 123, f o l . 120v. 11th century. Messis quidem multe B i b l . Angelica of Rome, Codex 123, f o l . 148r. Sint lumbi B i b l . Capit. of Bene-vento, MS. VI 34, f . 234. Voce mea B i b l . Angelica of Rome, Codex 123, f o l . 66r. The remaining f i v e appear to be pe c u l i a r to the Old-Roman repertory, and cannot be located i n any of the early Gregorian- sources a v a i l a b l e . Domine Hiesu Vat. l a t . 5319, f . 140r. Domine s i tues Vat. l a t . 5319, f . 118v. Pro p i t i u s esto. Vat. l a t . 5319, f . 34v. T r i s t i t i a vestra Vat. l a t . 5319, f . I06r. Xpistus qui natus Vat. l a t . 5319, f . 141v. Appendix II contains an index of the Old-Roman Communions of Vat. l a t . 5J19 with the l o c a t i o n of the Gregorian versions i n the Graduale Romanum. The T o n a l i t y The modal assignment of the Old-Roman Communions, can be determined by a consideration of the f i n a l and range of each melody, and by c h a r a c t e r i s t i c intonation f i g u r e s . In the following table which c l a s s i f i e s the f i n a l s of both the Old-Roman and Gregorian Communions, i t w i l l be seen that the a f f i n a l e s — a , b, and £,—are used i n a number of cases. TABLE 4 A COMPARISON OP THE FINALS OF THE OLD-ROMAN AND GREGORIAN COMMUNIONS F i n a l 0-R. Greg. F i n a l 0-R. Greg d 30 39 e 24 21 f 23 31 S 39 40 a 8 4 b 4 2 c 12 3 The f i n a l s of the Old-Roman and Gregorian Communions agree i n 122 instances, or 87$ of the time. Those melo-dies concluding on a, b, or c_, can be considered trans-p o s i t i o n s , and evidence to support t h i s statement w i l l be presented l a t e r when cadential formulas are discussed. These chants belong to the protus-, deuterus, and t r i t u s t o n a l i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , and are r e c l a s s i f i e d i n the following t a b l e . THE MANERIA OF THE OLD-ROMAN COMMUNIONS F i n a l Number d 38 e 28 f 35 g 39 With these r e s u l t s , l e t us now turn our attention to the modal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the Old-Roman Communions. Of the t h i r t y - e i g h t melodies which belong to the protus t o n a l i t y , twenty-four are authentic and thirteen plagal. There i s one s p e c i a l case where the melody i s an obvious transposition of mode 7—employing the "dominant" as the f i n a l . Of the twenty-eight melodies of the deuterus t o n a l i t y ; seventeen are plagal and eleven, authentic. This preference f o r the plagal mode i s also evident i n those chants of thr t r i t u s t o n a l i t y , where twenty-two f a l l into the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of mode 6, and thirteen, mode 5» The remaining £ maneria has thi r t y - n i n e chants divided--nineteen i n mode 7» and twenty i n mode 8. The Gregorian Communions agree with the Old-Roman modal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Q0% of the time. When discrepancies occur, the Old-Roman Communions favour higher assignments. F i n a l Cadences The same t y p i c a l cadential patterns for each f i n a l d, e_, f, and g, found i n the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s , and given as Example 19 of the preceding chapter, are prominent i n the Communions. Although there i s not complete uniformity as to t h e i r usage i n the Communion cycle, deviations from these formulas are s l i g h t . F i n a l Cadences on d There i s almost perfect uniformity i n cadential patterns of those Old-Roman Communions that conclude on d. A l l but one melody use the t y p i c a l d formula given i n the following example. Ex. 40. The one exception i s merely an elaboration of the above pattern. Ex. 41. Panis quern ego. (47r). | — m *fl a f = Those Old-Roman Communions terminating on a can be re l a t e d to the protus t o n a l i t y , since f i v e of the eight melodies use the t y p i c a l d cadential formula transposed up a perfect f i f t h . Ex. 42. Amen dico vobis (I34r). The remaining three antiphons use s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n s of t h i s transposed d formula. Ex. 43. .(a) Gaudete ,justi (101V). (b) Quis dabit ( 5 6 v ) . (c) Tu Domine ( 5 3 r ) . ZZ5L m ft ft ft trf if * The uniformity i n cadential structure found i n the Old-Roman Communions does not occur i n the Gregorian Communion antiphons which terminate on d. While there i s a great v a r i e t y of formulae, those which appear most frequently are given i n the following example. Of these, 44 (a) and (b) are representative of mode 1 , 44 (c), of mode 2 , and 44 (d) i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both d_ modes. Ex. 4 4 . (a) Data est mihi- (G. R. 2 5 8 ) . (b) Descendit- Jesus ( G . R. 63) • (c) Ego vos e l e g i ( G . R. 5 1 3 ) . (d) Florete f l o r e s TG7~R. 6 2 2 ) . * a 0 J * J J * * * r *-jf m P n a & * g a> * J In the Gregorian cadences, the e s s e n t i a l melodic movement i s from d to f and back to the f i n a l , not d to g and back as we have seen i n the Old-Roman Communion cadences. F i n a l Cadences on e Two-thirds of the Old-Roman Communions which conclude on e_ use the following formula. Ex. 4 5 . Acceptabis ( 4 l v ) . Roman This pattern seems to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Old-Communions; i t i s used by only one Old-Roman I n t r o i t cadencing on e_. An Old-Roman I n t r o i t formula (given as Example 7 (b) i n the preceding chapter) i s employed by four of the Old-Roman Communions. Ex. 46. Exulta f i l i a ( I 3 r ) . Pour i n d i v i d u a l patterns account f o r the remainder, Ex. 4-7. (a) Beati mundo corde (117v) (b) Lutum f e c i t (64v7. (c) Pater cum essem (1OOr). •(d) Principes (124v). eel f * £f~7 AO Of the four Old-Roman Communions which end on b, three employ the t y p i c a l e_ formula transposed up a perfe f i f t h . r v r i i The remaining antiphon uses another cadential formula which i s given below. Ex. 49. Narrabo omnia (51v). Only one f i n a l cadence pattern i s used f o r the Gregorian Communion chants of mode 3, and i s given below. Ex. 50. Tu Domine (G. R. 121). r f l p i As well, t h i s formula i s employed by two-thirds of the Gregorian Communions of mode 4. Two other patterns appear which bear a resemblance to the Old-Roman formulas given as Examples 45 and 46. These Gregorian patterns are given below. Ex. 5 1 . (a) Erubescant (G. R. 106) (b) I n c l i n a (G. R. 538) . F i n a l Cadences on f Three quarters of the Old-Roman Communions which conclude on f use one of the two formulas given below. Ex. 52. (a) Ecce Dominus (7v). (b) I n t e l l i g e clamorem (46r) a. TTTTTTI rn —• —^ —• —!r -• I * _ » > I rjm tfr * a> * * 0 *— j 0 e ft « 0 j 0 f I t w i l l be remembered that the formula given as Example 5"2 (a) also occurs as the most frequently used f cadential pattern i n the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s . There are only two instances where the f i n a l i s approached by step from below i n the Old-Roman Communions. Ex. 53 . (a) Ab o c c u l t i s (61r). (b) Servite Domino (42v). In the four remaining chants, i n d i v i d u a l patterns appear, Ex. 54. (a) E x u l t a v i t (10r). (b) Justus Dominus ( 5 l r ) . (c) Letabitur Justus ( l O l r ) . (d) Scapulis (44v). § ft 0 . f& t±±=±=2. Those Old-Roman Communions which cadence on £ belong to the t r i t u s t o n a l i t y , since four employ the pattern given as Example 53 (a), and another four use the (b) formula—both of which are transpositions up a perfect f i f t h of the t y p i c a l f formulas. Compare these to those of Example 52. Ex. 5 5 . (a) Lux eterna ( W v ) . (b) Ego clamavi (114-r). itrrf 4 = 3 r f ff*\ i — r — f =>—i 4 — — t I— The remaining four chants use i n d i v i d u a l patterns; however, they bear some r e l a t i o n s h i p to the above examples i n that the e s s e n t i a l melodic movement i s from £ to £ and then to the f i n a l . Both the Gregorian Communions of mode 5 and 6 prefer the following cadence pattern. Ex. 56. Beatam me (G. R. 584). The Gregorian formula given above i s i d e n t i c a l to the Old-Roman pattern of Example 52 ( a ) . F i n a l Cadences on g Over h a l f of the Old-Roman Communions which terminate on g use the following formula. This i s also the most frequently used pattern of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s . Ex. 5 7 . Signa eos ( 1 2 1 r ) . 3=n Another t h i r d of the melodies use the above formula with a s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n . Ex. 58. Circuibo (118r), There are f i v e Communions which employ i n d i v i d u a l patterns. Ex. 59. (a) D i c i t Andreas ( I 3 5 r ) . (b) Dicete pusillanimes ( 5 r ) . (c) Lux eterna (141v77~ (d) Qui b i b e r i t (59v). (e) Qui meditabitur (4-Or). There i s one Old-Roman Communion cadencing on d' which belongs to the tetrardus authentic mode. The cadence formula of t h i s antiphon i s given below. * Ex. 60. Pacem meam (109r) . There i s a great v a r i e t y of cadential formulas employed by the Gregorian Communions which conclude on g. The pattern most frequently used by the mode 7 melodies follows. Ex. 6 1 . Factus est repente (G. R. 2 9 6 ) . rfl r r i p •*—*-The mode 8 pattern which appears most often i s given below. Ex. 6 2 . Domine quinque (G. R. 3 9 7 ) . rrrn n n I** * j * * j •fc *fc The f i n a l cadences of the Old-Roman Communions are, fo r the most part, the same as those used by the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s . There i s one t y p i c a l pattern f o r each f i n a l — d , e, f, and g , — and modifications to these common formulas are s l i g h t . In contrast, the cadential patterns of the Gregorian Communions are grea t l y varied, and are, with the s t r i k i n g exception of the t r i t u s t o n a l i t y , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of mode rather than f i n a l . Melodic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s W i l l i Apel's remark that the Gregorian "chants sung during the cl o s i n g ceremony of the Mass are e s s e n t i a l l y 2 s i m i l a r to those that accompany i t s beginning," cannot r e a l l y be applied to the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s and Communions. With regard to length, the Old-Roman Communions extend from four to ten l i n e s — c o n s i d e r a b l y longer than the I n t r o i t s . Although the Old-Roman chants are s i m i l a r i n outline to the Gregorian, they are much more ornate. The s y l l a b l e s of the Old-Roman Communions support from two to twelve n o t e s — c o n s i d e r a b l y more than t h e i r Gregorian counterparts. S y l l a b i c passages on d i f f e r e n t pitches numbering from three to eight notes are interspersed throughout the melodies. This feature i s common to the Communions of both the Old-Roman and Gregorian r e p e r t o r i e s . An example follows. Ex. 63. Sint lumbi (120v). W i l l i Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958), p. y n . Most of the melodic progressions are stepwise, and scale passages of four notes ascending and descending occur i n most of the Old-Roman Communions. As well, five-note passages ascending and descending, and six-note patterns descending appear frequently. Ex. 64. (a) D i c i t e : pusillanimes (5r). (b) Beatus servus (20r). Although four and f i v e note passages r i s i n g and f a l l i n g appear i n the Gregorian Communions, there i s no example of a melodic progression encompassing a s i x t h . Among the disjunct progressions ascending and descending, major or minor t h i r d s occur very frequently i n the Old-Roman Communion antiphons. Leaps of a fourth and f i f t h are almost as common as successive t h i r d s and infrequently a leap of a.sixth i s encountered. A l l these progressions can be found i n the following s t r i k i n g example Ex. 65. Panis quern ego (47r). J \ * * * * J } ' r-r Leaps of a fourth and f i f t h do occur i n the Gregorian Communions, but not to the extent found i n the Old-Roman melodies. Both the Old-Roman and Gregorian Communions contain many examples of s t r o p h i c i . Ex. 66. Virtutum (56v). 6 fi m jf w Combinations of large i n t e r v a l s , which are rare i n the Gregorian Communion melodies, are present i n many of the Old-Roman. Melodic progressions of a t h i r d plus a fourth appear i n seven Old-Roman Communions, and a fourth-p l u s - t h i r d , i n nine melodies. Examples are given below. Ex. 67. (a) T o l l i t e (132V). (b) Domihe Deus meus (4-9v). No l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g i s another combination—a fourth-plus fourth. This progression occurs i n three Old-Roman Communions. Ex. 68. Tanto tempore (104-v). The progression of a f i f t h plus a t h i r d can be found i n three Old-Roman Communions, and there i s an example of a six t h plus a t h i r d . Ex. 69. (a) Unam p e t i i (118r). (b) Panis quern ego (47r). Although sevenths are outlined i n the Gregorian Communions, combinations of a t h i r d and a fourth and fourth-plus-fourth do not occur. Examples of a f i f t h plus a t h i r d are more frequent i n the Gregorian Communions than i n the Old-Roman. The ambitus of the Old-Roman Communions i s given i n the following t a b l e . Interval Number Interva 1 Number P4 m6 m7 P8 M9 M10 1 2 20 45 22 3 P5 M6 M7 m9 mlO 3 13 26 4 1 The ranges of the Old-Roman Communions are much wider than those of the Old-Roman Introits--84# of the melodies employ an ambitus extending from a minor seventh to a major ninth. The Gregorian Communions and t h e i r Old-Roman counterparts both prefer the octave as the most frequent-ly used range. In the Old-Roman Communions, a wider range i s u t i l i z e d i n the longer melodies while narrower ranges predominate i n the shorter chants. The following two Communions--Beati mundo corde and S p i r i t u s sanctus--are representative examples. nrrrn m On fiflx. pfJ rrnTTI rrr? Bg, ~ & ~ "6t> /nun "da Cfif" d&> £no "/)£*' A Ms !p<"S&> rjT7 HTn n riTnTrrrn nrrHfl 33= uc "/to a/<~ 6c <£nL peruse, "tu^ti^c "/fe/K/fOfiu' "iur pr_ _. r.r, p rjJTTTTT] nrn prep "tiejw ft£~ fa'*" a/»v ^Pfnc-*' A\/HS tp** ft /V^ Z- Aft 0 a 0 0 w Ex. 7 1 - S p i r i t u s sanctus (I08r). p p rn fi iT"H"H n Sfu-et~ tt/j sate** ofes* C v e j fl- f£~' n p p rm . Qr-p—V 17— IZ This r e l a t i o n s h i p between the range and length of a melody does not occur i n the Gregorian Communions. The extreme notes of the range occur once or twice only during the Old-Roman and Gregorian Communion antiphons. Short passages of r e c i t a t i o n on one p i t c h are not encountered i n the Old-Roman Communions, except i n the s y l l a b i c chants. More often, a successive r e i t e r a t i o n of two notes can be found. Ex. 72. Honora (124-r). s>* 9 * e* 5E ~ ~ ijf J^ra <~ jut*/ This feature i s not present i n the Gregorian Communions where passages s i m i l a r to the one given i n the following example often occur. Ex. 73. Omnes gentes (G. R. 55) . i ' ii P p n r P ?>M II f .0* 0 -j a* 0 0 0 ^ II There i s a great v a r i e t y of sty l e noticeable with-i n both the Old-Roman and Gregorian Communions; however, f o r the most part, the Gregorian c l e a r l y prefer the neumatic s t y l e , while the Old-Roman tend towards the melismatic. An example of a melismatic Communion follows, 92 :v I t should be said however, that when a s y l l a b i c chant occurs, i t i s very r e c i t a t i v e - l i k e , and much more barren than those found i n the Gregorian Communion cyc l e . .. Ex. 7 5 - Mitte manum ( 9 7 v ) . Z3Z t i t HI t ^ m m no ~ CI Set J>i> <* cre.y~du> sed, jfe* -f—/> a _ L ft a — I — i - r - f - — i C-3 f 1 -fir AJ U J V V //'s &l~ U~ /A>. Melodic Structure As we have seen, i n t e r n a l r e p e t i t i o n of phrases and even entire l i n e s i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s . In the Communions of t h i s repertory, only a few examples can be found. Two examples of r e p e t i t i o n of entire phrases immediately a f t e r being stated follow. In one Old-Roman Communion, a passage i s repeated l a t e r on i n the chant. Instead of r e p e t i t i o n of segments, the Old-Roman Communions contain r e p e t i t i o n s of short melodic motives. The following example i s representative. Ex. 77. E d i i t sermo (18r). •f—f—T ft >f ^ at d'S-airpaf/i/* /£~/c r-* 7 > "tan sedf'c £~a#v> fr*/* ~ /tc re. z mm Some motives can be found i n many of the Old-Roman Communions, and the most frequently encountered are given below. Ex. ? 8 . (a) Simile est ( 4 r ) . (b) P e t i t e ( 1 0 ~ 3 r ) . (c) Spiritum ( I 0 5 v-r) Although motivic r e p e t i t i o n i s found i n the Gregorian Communions, i t i s not found to the great extent as i n the Old-Roman Communion melodies. Melismas are much more ornate i n the Old-Roman Communions than i n the Gregorian versions. Two are given below the second of which demonstrates the sequential nature of many of these passages. Ex. 7 9 . (a) Panis quern ego ( 4 7 r ) . (b) T r i s t i t i ( 1 Q 6 r ) . fa/As, I t i s a s t r i k i n g f a c t that the corresponding Communions of the Old-Roman and Gregorian repertories r a r e l y begin on the same note. Agreement between them usually occurs a f t e r the second or t h i r d note. Ex. 80. Circuibo (118r). (G. R. 336) as The reason f o r t h i s divergency i s that the Old-Roman opening f i g u r e s adhere to psalmodic formulas. Over h a l f the Old-Roman melodies commence with one of the psalm-tone formulas given below. Ex. 81. Psalmodic formulas. # 9 Indeed, these formulas very often provide the basis f o r many of the Old-Roman Communions. An example of the work-ing out of such a theme i s given i n the next example. Ex. 82. Multitudo (29v). rt ri rH JXH I* \ J 40 B * *J A * * \ 01+ Km0 0 3*3 0 + * Owing to the r e l a t i v e ornateness of many of the Old-Roman Communions, these formulas are not as obvious as those found i n the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s . Nevertheless, they can be distinguished and govern many of the opening figures and provide the basis f o r the o v e r a l l form f o r a large number of pieces. CHAPTER I I I THE OFFERTORIES There are 95 Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s contained i n MS Vat, l a t . 5319, of which a l l but three can be found 1 i n the O f f e r t o r i a l e edited by Carolus Ott. Of these three, one was located i n an early Gregorian source without notation: In conspectu (129v) Antiphonaire du Mont-Blandin. Bruxelles: B i b l . Royale, 10127-10144. 2 The remaining two chants—Beatus es Symon Petre (117V) and Posuerunt (11r)—were not found i n any of the early Gregorian sources a v a i l a b l e . The T o n a l i t y In the following table which c l a s s i f i e s the f i n a l of each Old-Roman Offertory melody, i t w i l l be seen that the a f f i n a l e s — a , b, and c_, are used i n a considerable number of cases. Appendix I I I contains an index of the O f f e r t o r i e s of Vat. l a t . 5319 and the l o c a t i o n of the Gregorian versions i n O f f e r t o r i a l e . 2Dom Rene'-Jean Hesbert. Antiphonale Missarum Sextu-plex (Rome: Herder Fribourg en Brisgau, .1967), p. 157• TABLE 7 THE FINALS OF THE OLD-ROMAN OFFERTORIES F i n a l Number F i n a l Number d 20 e 20 f 19 S 24 a 5 ' b 4 c 3 The Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s agree with t h e i r Gregorian counterparts i n f i f t y - s i x instances, or only 60$ of the time. Those Old-Roman chants whose melodies terminate on a, b, or £, can be considered transpositions and belong to the d, e_, and f maneriae r e s p e c t i v e l y . The evidence which supports t h i s statement w i l l be presented l a t e r when cadential formulas are discussed. The f i n a l s are r e c l a s s i f i e d i n the following t a b l e . TABLE 8 THE MANERIA OF THE OLD-ROMAN OFFERTORIES F i n a l Number 25 24 22 24 d e f S Using the c r i t e r i a set out i n the chapter on the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s , the Old-Roman Introits-, .the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s can be assigned to the following modal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : protus: eleven authentic and fourteen p l a g a l ; deuterus: eleven authentic, t h i r t e e n p l a g a l ; t r i t u s : twelve authentic, ten plagal;' tetrardus: three authentic, twenty-one p l a g a l . (These figures may be understood roughly as percentages.) The Gregorian Offer-t o r i e s agree with the above modal assignments IQP/o of the time. When discrepancies o c c u r — r a t h e r more often than the comparison of f i n a l s alone would i n d i c a t e — t h e Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s are most often i n a higher mode than the Gregorian. F i n a l Cadences The same t y p i c a l cadential patterns f o r each f i n a l A N ( 1 ELI found i n both the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s and Communions, are also present i n the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s . In the l a t t e r , however, there are more elaborations of the basic formulas than found i n the other Mass chants. F i n a l Cadences on d More than h a l f of the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s conclud-ing on d use the t y p i c a l & cadential formula, Ex. 83. Dextera Domine (25r). A melismatic elaboration of the above formula i s given i n the following example. Ex. 84. Super flumina ( 7 1 V). —U — 5 ^ « f - — t -•• i i m r r l \ #t — - — 9 * 0 * v ' w f , s Two other patterns account f o r the remaining chants, the second being an elaboration of the f i r s t . Ex. 85. (a) Meditabor (46r). (b) Anima nostra 0 9 v ) . We w i l l now turn our attention to those Old-Roman melodies which terminate on a. I f we examine the caden-t i a l formulas of these chants, we can see they are obviously transpositions up a perfect f i f t h of those given as Examples 83 and 85 (b), and therefore belong to the protus t o n a l i t y . Ex. 86. (a) Exspectans (62v). (b) Exaltabo te (40r). (c) F i l i a e regum (28v). (d) Letamini (28r). In contrast, there i s a great v a r i e t y of cadential formulae employed by the Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s which conclude on d. Some bear a resemblance to the Old-Roman patterns and are given i n the following example. Of these formulas, 87 (a) i s representative of mode 1, 87 (b), of mode 2, and 87 (c) i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both d modes. Ex. 87. (a} Ad te Domine l e v a v i (Ott 5 ) . (b) Laudete Dominum (Ott 40). (c) Anima nostra (Ott 145). These examples are r e l a t e d to the Old-Roman patterns given i n Example 85 (a) and (b), the e s s e n t i a l melodic movement i n both being from d to f and back. A Gregorian formula comparable to the t y p i c a l Old-Roman d cadential pattern cannot be found. F i n a l Cadences on e Nine of the twenty melodies terminating on e_ use the following formula. Ex. 88. Deus tu convertens (5v) . t ... 1 _> ' ^ p - tr e * - "00 0. & ... This pattern i s p e c u l i a r to the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s ; i t does not occur i n the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s or Communions. Seven of the remaining Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s cadenc-ing on e_ do use a pattern which i s employed by the I n t r o i t s and Communions. Ex. 89. Ben e d i x i s t i Domine (5)• l*'* * 0 There are two other patterns- which do occur, and these are given below. Ex. 90. (a) Scapulis .suis ( 4^r). (b) Exsulta s a t i s (10v). Those Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s whose melodies terminat on b, c l e a r l y belong to the deuterus t o n a l i t y . The caden t i a l patterns are a l l t y p i c a l of the e maneria—although transposed up a perfect f i f t h . Compare the cadences of Example 91 with those of Examples 89, 90 (b), and 88 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Ex. 91 (a) Confortamini ( 6 v ) . Domine fac mecum ( 5 7 v-r). (b) Eripe me (76v)T~ (c) Lauda anima (99v). tils tr.i ' t o l l r cr» * w •4-The Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s of modes" 3 and 4- use mostly the same cadences, and therefore they w i l l be considered together. Example 92 contains the patterns most frequently used. Ex. 9 2 . (a) B e n e d i x i s t i Domine (Ott 8 ) . (b) Exsulta s a t i s (Ott 11). (c) Laetentur c a e l i (Ott 1 5 ) . iff ; * * ' *j ; ii These formulas bear some r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Old-Roman patterns, i n that the e s s e n t i a l melodic movement i s eithe r from e to g and back; or, a descending pattern from a to e. F i n a l Cadences on f There are many i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c patterns occurring on those Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s concluding on f . However, seven of the nineteen melodies use the formula given below, one which we have encountered i n both the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s and Communions. (A) J 0 0 e * a 0 f—* * 0 Another pattern f a m i l i a r from the I n t r o i t s and Communions occurs i n three Old-Roman Offertory chants. Ex. 94. De profundis 034v) . 0 « ffi jf 0 J fi * + Two s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n s of the above formula appear i n the following two chants. Ex. 95- (a) Inveni David (20v). (b) In conspectu (129v). -0 TNTTTI m ' The remaining seven chants are very i n d i v i d u a l i n character. They are given below. Ex. 9 6 . (a) Benedictus es Domine ( 7 2 v-r). (b) Confitebunter (IQIvj. (c) Constitues eos (116v). (d) Domine convertere (68r). (e) In v i r t u t e tua r^6v). ( f ) Recordare mei (I34r). (g) S a n c t i f i c a v i t 0 3 1 r ) . The Old-Roman melodies which cadence on c , ( belong to the t r i t u s t o n a l i t y . The following patterns given i n Example 97, are but transpositions up a perfect f i f t h of the f cadential patterns given as Examples 96 (e) and 93. . Ex. 97. (a) Ascendit Deus (98v). (b) Desiderium animae (123v). (c) Domine Deus ( 1 3 7V). The Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s that conclude on f are si m i l a r to the Old-Roman i n the respect that they also use a great v a r i e t y of cadential patterns. Two of them, the f i r s t representative of mode 3, and the second, mode 6, bear a close r e l a t i o n to the Old-Roman formulas and are given below. Ex. 98. (a) Jubilate Deo (Ott 23) . (b) E r i t v o b i s T O t t 63) . .P'Tm f - r H riff iTTH H li The melodic movement i n both the Old-Roman and Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s i n these examples i s eith e r from g or a to c_' j and descending to the f i n a l ; or, from f to a and back. F i n a l Cadences on g There are two patterns, one s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from the other, which are used most frequently by the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s which conclude on g. Ten of the twenty-four melodies use the following formula: Ex. 99. Domine Deus (49v). while seven other antiphons'use t h i s s i m i l a r pattern. Ex. 100. Populum humilem (65v). f r f f l H — 3 ' i y / J Two other melodies use a formula resembling the pattern above. Ex. 101. (a) Eripe me (70v). (b) Oratio mea (122v). Another pattern i s employed by three Old-Roman Offertory antiphons, which features an ascending major t r i a d . An example follows. Ex. 102. Deus enim (13v). 2 The remaining two chants, Domine exaudi, and Offerentur, use i n d i v i d u a l formulas. Ex. 103. (a) Domine exaudi (79v). (b) Off erentur (4v). In this" case as well, a number of cadential formulas employed by those Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s terminat ing on g, are s i m i l a r to the Old-Roman g cadences. These are c i t e d below. Ex. 104. Ca) Miserere mihi (Ott 35) . (b) Gressus meos (Ott 39) . (c) D i f f u s a est (Ott 156). Example 104 (a) i s representative of mode 7, and (b) and (c) of mode 8. These can be compared to the Old-Roman examples l a b e l l e d 103 (b), and 100. For the most part, the e s s e n t i a l melodic movement i n both the Old-Roman and Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s which terminate on g, i s from g to c_' and back. In the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s there appears to be one t y p i c a l cadence formula f o r each f i n a l , and although there i s not complete uniformity, the modifications to these patterns are s l i g h t . The Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s , although t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the Old-Roman pieces i s unmistakable, use a much greater v a r i e t y of cadential formulas than t h e i r Old-Roman counterparts. Most of the patterns u t i l i z e d by both the Old-Roman and Gregorian Of f e r t o r y antiphons, are employed by the other Mass antiphons as w e l l . Melodic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s are chants of varying length, ranging from three to eighteen l i n e s , i n p r i m a r i l y a melismatic s t y l e . The Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s can be considered melismatic i n s t y l e , however, t h e i r length extends only to eleven l i n e s . Both the Old-Roman and Gregorian s y l l a b l e s support from two to as many as t h i r t y notes. ^See page 51 of Chapter I f o r an explanation of t h i s measurement. Most of the melodic progressions are stepwise i n both the Old-Roman and Gregorian Offertory c y c l e s . Scale-passages of four notes ascending or descending can be found i n almost a l l of the O f f e r t o r i e s of both reper-t o r i e s . However, many examples of descending f i f t h s and sixths can be found i n the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s , of which two are given below. Ex. 105. (a) T o l l i t e portas (11v), (b) Offerentur Q v ) . T r ~~\ \t * _ f r r f a _V " * 0 * J W -1 A r f _7* These features can be found i n the Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s , but not to the same extent as present i n the Old-Roman Offertory melodies. Leaps of a fourth and f i f t h , a r e as common as succes-sive, t h i r d s , and t r i a d o u t l i n i n g occurs frequently i n the O f f e r t o r i e s of both r e p e r t o r i e s . Leaps of a si x t h are not present i n the Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s , but appear often i n the Old-Roman chants. In the following example, a major sixth appears i n the opening of the antiphon Bene-dicam Domi'num. Ex. 106. Benedicam Dominum (50r) rrn P a * » j__t example i s given below. Ex. 107. Offerentur (4v). 1—m-Many examples of thirds-plus-fourths appear i n the Old-Roman Offertory melodies, and even a t h i r d plus a f i f t h can be found. Ex. 108. Jubilate Deo (23v). These features are not present i n the Gregorian Offer-t o r i e s . Ascending seventh chords are p e c u l i a r to both the Old-Roman and Gregorian Offertory antiphons. Succes-sive leaps over a t h i r d are very uncommon i n the Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s , however, the Old-Roman melodies feature fourths-plus-thirds, and even fourths-plus-thirds-plus t h i r d s ! Ex. 109. Precatus est Moyses (52v). There i s one example each of "'a fourth plus a f i f t h , and a f i f t h plus a t h i r d . Both are given below. Ex. 110. (a) Ave Maria (34-r). (b) Emitte spiritum ( 1 0 7 V ) . -W*r 3$ Both the Old-Roman and Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s contain many examples of s t r o p h i c i . Ex. 111. Benedicam Dominum ( 5 0 r ) . The examples of melodic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are by no •means pe c u l i a r to the melodies c i t e d . In f a c t , there i s one Old-Roman Offertory, Jubilate Deo ( 2 3 v ) , i n which most of these features can be found. (Continued...) The octave i s the most frequently used range m the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s , however, over h a l f of the melodies employ ranges of an octave or more. A table of the ranges i s given below. TABLE 9 THE RANGES OF THE OLD-ROMAN OFFERTORIES Interva l Number Interv a l Number P5 2 M6 13 m7 14- M7 11 P8 28 m9 2 M9 15 mlO 2 M10 5 P11 3 The O f f e r t o r i e s of the Gregorian repertory have a prefer-ence f o r wider ranges; there, three-quarters of the melodies use an ambitus of an octave or more. In contrast to the Old-Roman I n t r o i t and Communion antiphons, where a small range i s usually an i n d i c a t i o n of a short melody, even the shortest of the Old-Roman uses a range of an octave. &l ~ le, -> /w I t must be said, however, that those Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s with an extended ambitus do seem much more, melismatic i n design than those whose range i s under an octave. The following chant i s representative. 4 ^ vol* w~ £A,~ te, a ~ runo y f - f i r ~ #a/tc (/g, "/x/mfd'Cfe/n/pfC't£~ a ~ (Continued...) Sff afe'S&sa/er ~ ru** (//rt/ &/~> /t^"* /r?&. The extremities of the ambitus of the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s are reached only once or twice during the course of the.chant. This i s also the case i n the Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s . In some.cases i n the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s , as i n the other Mass antiphons, short passages of r e c i t a t i o n occur on one p i t c h , as seen i n the following example. Ex. 115. Oratio mea ( 1 2 2 v ) . G i [ I I L£i ut etc- iu/* /a ~ 32 6VS W CU, As well, s y l l a b i c passages on d i f f e r e n t pitches occur frequently. An example follows. Ex. 116. V i r erat (I32r). Although t h i s feature can be found i n the Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s , i t i s much more pronounced i n the Old-Roman. A successive r e i t e r a t i o n of two notes, a feature encountered i n both the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s and Communion antiphons, i s also present i n the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s . Ex. 117. Populum humilem (65v). This feature does not occur i n the Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s . However, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c present i n the Old-Roman Offer-t o r i e s , not found i n any of the other Mass antiphons of t h i s repertory, i s a r e i t e r a t e d torculus, given i n Example 118, which can be regarded as an extended version of the two-note r e i t e r a t i o n shown i n Example 117. 1 j ; ; * =* 2*t ycfr iir ft ttr [ p ^ This feature i s of course not to be found i n the Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s . The melismas of the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s tend to be very elaborate. In some of the longer melismas, f i f t y to s i x t y notes are employed, with an ambitus of an octave ( i n one antiphon a n i n t h ) . The Gregorian melismas are on the whole, much s h o r t e r — c o n t a i n i n g up to t h i r t y notes, and normally u t i l i z e the range of a major seventh or octave. In the Old-Roman melismas, an ascending or descending t r i a d i s usually found, and sequential patterns are promin-ent. This i s also the case f o r the melismas i n the Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s . An example from an Old-Roman melody follows. Ex. 119- Beatus es Symon Petre ( 117v) . We have seen i n the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s the nature and extent of i n t e r n a l r e p e t i t i o n , however, t h i s feature i s even more pronounced i n the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s . The r e p e t i t i o n of melodic segments often occur success-i v e l y , as i n the following s t r i k i n g example. Ex. 120. Constitues eos (116v). I n rnrn mrn rrrm rjrrn rrn n -(km J J l'')')J*'i'J j*'*** J W ' 1 * S ± * M || utin,rart, me, ~ MPI* ~ c rait Sometimes these segments are displaced throughout the antiphon. Perhaps the best i l l u s t r a t i o n of the extent of the melodic r e p e t i t i o n i s given i n the next example. (The corresponding l i n e s and l e t t e r s indicate the motivic r e p e t i t i o n . ) >r<% v ^ ; r > The r e p e t i t i o n i s not confined to short segments; many of the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s whole phrases are repeated. In the next two examples, we see phrases re-appearing towards the end of each Offertory melody. Ex. 122. Domine convertere (140r). 1 r=t rr r i r i n r r m (ft W i, t, j w 4 fh-fl-T * > * * ^ ^  , -1 r i n f > * 0 " jr"*— e~0—ir 4*4 w ' * j ™ Jd ~ Ex. 123. S i ambulavero (58v). CA/-* 4 §• * fff fy 0 f 0 fAHV In the Old-Roman Offertory, Angelus Domine, a phrase recurs three times i n the course of the chant. l^tm'—*-— Kit 1 Other patterns recur with s l i g h t a l t e r a t i o n s as i n the example below. Ex. 125. Desiderium ( 1 2 3 v ) . A.M * J-— *~ St i r r — 1 lJ • 1 1 „_ IT" e~ ' Yf—« _LLT" »»* 0 0 ^  11 i j / i — "ff ^ ]/ 9 f u +-y * * J " n V — ' J Jt f itAA • — -V--4/----a i l l II JrAU'/a/' S& C ~' Quite long r e p e t i t i o n s are sometimes involved. Ex. 126. Rep l e t i Sumus (1C4r). j 3-E-E: "1 -^ff m—-—as (& M'l j J —j w— #± 2 J +-r+ r-'-~ "' • ~9 * 7 a/a ~ /ec* 6A, ~ rfl rfl rfl rg >; j*j The r e p e t i t i o n of melodic segments and longer phrases i s encountered i n the Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s , where textual repeats are involved. In most cases, when the, text i s repeated, the same melody occurs; often, however, the f i n a l melisma i s extended. There are three Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s — B e n e d i c t u s es Domine ( 3 9 v ) , Benedictus es Domine ( 7 2 v-r), and Precatus est Moyses (52v)—where the opening phrase i s repeated immediately. The o v e r a l l form of these antiphons i s , therefore, AAB. One of these chants i s presented i n the following example. Ex. 1 2 7 . Precatus est Moyses ( 5 2 v ) . rrn nrTrnrri (Tin nm rfk m iv? tot Jtiij'Sff AU"~ fit, ei <Ju ~ A/6 Pre* ea/" e<r£ Me^se^ i f ecu ^ fpgg, *"ius da<*^ /ru,/s~' itl de~' *r SU,^ C £•£ ot/K~' fa 4 1-8 :^i~.s In another chant, the i n i t i a l phrase of the text i s repeated with s u b s t a n t i a l l y the same music at the end of the antiphon, giv i n g the piece an ABA form. Ex. 128. Domine i n auxilium ( 5 3 v ) . -ft In "the Gregorian versions, chants with textual repeats always involve v i r t u a l l y the same music. This i s the case f o r the Old-Roman except f o r one exception which i s given below. Ex. 1 2 9 . Desiderium ( 1 2 3 v ) . §* t n 0 ffffff ffff f » « f * * mii!» ami _t_ rj iff u i M B ' 0 _> Pg em 1 • •';.-rj'Pty.';-.'--Vv:' -•• Repetition of motives, segments, phrases, and sections do appear i n the Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s , but not nearly to the extent found i n the Old-Roman Off e r t o r y c y c l e . Prom the thematic index contained i n Appendix VI, we can see that a large number of Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s have i d e n t i c a l openings and that these, f o r the most part, are recognizable as psalm-tone formulae. Although the O f f e r t o r i e s of the Old-Roman repertory are highly melis-matic, many of these psalmodic formulae recur i n i n t e r i o r phrases. The following two examples w i l l show the working out of such themes. Ex. 1 3 0 . Domine exaudi ( 7 9 v ) . L £ * *  0 03 >f J J 8 Id * no" /fix, jfii.~a/ da* 0 "0+ 0 u ejf vig-u, 0M"~ - 9 — — ' a " 0 1 J^JJW^ j7 JV1 -0- z€z±t tie? £~ - 7 / -± t t k t k TZX± K * A Cut f..ini | , I T ' "tit ,0 0* Sm* * 0 £ur~ AS. This feature i s not nearly so evident i n the Gregorian O f f e r t o r i e s . B a s i c a l l y , the form of an Old-Roman Offertory appears to be the recurrence of one psalm-tone formula, which i s ornamented i n many d i f f e r e n t ways during the course of the piece. CHAPTER IV THE AGE OP THE OLD-ROMAN REPERTORY In the Introduction, we saw how the attempts to es t a b l i s h a chronology "on the basis of l i t u r g i c a l or other non-musical data" were inadequate i n themselves. In t h i s study of the Old-Roman antiphons of Vat. l a t . 5319, some i n t e r e s t i n g features have emerged which have a bearing on the question of the age of the repertory. That we are dealing with an early repertory, i s indicated by the close r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Old-Roman Commuillon antiphons and t h e i r v e r s e s — t h e psalm-tone which forms the basis of the Antiphon i s the same as that used i n the verse. In the following example, an Old-Roman Communion and i t s complete verse se t t i n g are given. W i l l i Apel, Gregorian Chant (Bloomington: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, "1958), p. 95• V 1*1 l , — _ ft— # * a * 0 * 0 f l ,9 * 0, 0* m \f*s SL%~ U~ I 4T' CC Communion verse. •0- 0. f—*• * 0 f •• f-b 1/ v U V—V—V l j 11 c 1 c uW^ <rrf fl nar~ g$t si /raspjpgr*d/v ii as C/£~U/K> cfc^ 0 l/Cr~" A 0i i s the s t r i k i n g uniformity of the cadences. W. H. p Frere has remarked " f i x i t y means antiquity" and t h i s can well be applied to the Old-Roman f i n a l cadence patterns. In the discussions of the f i n a l cadential formulae of the Old-Roman antiphons, we saw that stan-dard patterns appeared again and again i n the various chants. These patterns, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the f i n a l s §LI L-> an& £» a r e present i n each Old-Roman I n t r o i t , Offertory, and Communion cyc l e . One pattern f o r each f i n a l predominates, and although inhere i s not complete uniformity i n t h e i r usage, deviations are s l i g h t and generally i n the nature of elaborations of these set formulas. Of a l l the Old-Roman antiphons which terminate on d, 80$ use the pattern given below. Ex. 133. W. H. Frere, Graduale Sarisburiense (London: Gregg Press Ltd., 1966), p. x. Over h a l f of the ninety-six Old-Roman antiphons concluding on e_ use e i t h e r of the patterns given i n Example 3. Ex. 134. 1 P*1 — 1 - ara I — 1 — „ —^ H / " * *—e. 0 0 Three c l o s e l y r e l a t e d cadential patterns are used by two-t h i r d s of the antiphons which close on f . These formulas are given i n the following example. Ex. 135. • A l l (L.—(—I ' * * J 0 *\ + J F i n a l l y , seventy-two of the eighty-six Old-Roman antiphons with g_ as the f i n a l employ one of the two i n t e r r e l a t e d patterns given below. Ex. 136. I t should he noted that the cadence patterns are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f i n a l — n o t of mode, the impl i c a t i o n being that t h i s feature of the melodies dates from before the introduction of. the eight mode system i n Carolingian times. The frequent occurrences of the f i n a l s a, b, and c would tend also to support t h i s statement. The a n t i q u i t y of the Old-Roman repertory i s further supported by the r e s t r i c t e d - and i r r e g u l a r appearance of b - f l a t s . The b - f l a t appears i n six Old-Roman Communions, where i t i s used apparently to avoid the f-b t r i t o n e , or i t s i m p l i c a t i o n . Ex. 137. (a) Ex u l t a v i t ( l O r ) . (b) Dominus dabit ( 2 v ) . (c) Hoc corpus ( 6 8 v ) . (d) Modicum f99r). (e) Pater cum essem (lOOr). (f) Quinque prudentes (30v) CO f f 3 -MI ; /"/> —f- 3_ The b - f l a t i s not encountered at a l l i n the Old-Roman I n t r o i t cycle, and i s found only once i n the entire Offertory m e l o d i e s — i n the antiphon, Factus est Dominus (66v)--where i t i s used apparently to avoid the implica-t i o n of the f-b tr i t o n e . Ex. 138. Factus est Dominus ( 6 6 v ) . § B . The appearance of b_-flats i s increasingly frequent in manuscripts of l a t e r centuries. The Old-Roman version^ contain f a r fewer than one would expect from the age of the manuscript. From t h i s study of the Old-Roman antiphons of MS Vat. l a t . 5 3 1 9 , i t i s apparent that there i s a. close musical r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between them and t h e i r Gregorian counterparts. An examination of the Old-Roman melodies revea.ls that there are many features which indicate that the Old-Roman chants are i n f a c t the e a r l i e r of the two. . Paul Cutter and Wa.lther Lipphardt believe that p r i o r to the evidence of the remaining notated Old-Roman sources, the repertory was transmitted by an e a r l i e r o r a l t r a d i t i o n . Many features of the Old-Roman antiphons of Vat. l a t . 5319. e s p e c i a l l y the I n t r o i t melodies, would suggest that they are the r e s u l t of such a t r a d i t i o n . With regard to the formative process of Gregorian chant, W i l l i Apel quite r i g h t l y states that "the e a r l i e s t layer of the Gregorian repertory i s represented by the psalmodic r e c i t a t i o n s . " He then mentions a few t i t l e s "Taul Cutter, "The Old-Roman Chant T r a d i t i o n : Oral or Written?", Journal of the American Musicological Society, XX, p. 179. h. W i l l i Apel, Gregorian Chant, p. 5 0 9 . of chants whose melodies "consist e s s e n t i a l l y of simple r e c i t a t i o n formulae that could e a s i l y be memorized and I which were indeed o r a l l y preserved but with minor modifi-cations."-' That the Old-Roman antiphons were derived from psalmodic formulae i s indicated by such features as: s t r i c t l y s y l l a b i c chants^that are almost i n the nature of r e c i t a t i v e s ; short passages of r e c i t a t i o n on one p i t c h which also appear i n ornamental versions i n v o l v i n g the r e i t e r a t i o n of two or three notes; and opening figures recognizable as r e c i t a t i o n patterns which are present i n almost a l l of the Old-Roman antiphons. As well, i n our investi g a t i o n s , we have seen that the basic form of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s , Communions, and Off e r t o r i e s i s c l e a r l y a recurring psalmodic formula, which appears (usually ornamen-ted) , throughout the chant. This form would surely suggest a l i n k to an e a r l i e r o ral t r a d i t i o n . The Gregorian A n t i -phons are not nearly as s t r i c t l y organized. This generating p r i n c i p l e which p r e v a i l s i n a l l the Old-Roman Antiphons of Vat, l a t . 5319i would indicate i n i t s e l f , the p r i o r i t y of the Old-Roman repertory. Although Paul Cutter believes the Old-Roman melodies show a more advanced stage of evolution than the Gregorian, his surmise was not based on a systematic comparison of the two repert o r i e s . In f a c t , the findings of th i s study support the antegregorian theory. In his study of the Gregorian I n t r o i t s , W i l l i Apel noticed that a number of melodies were suggestive of • r e c i t a t i v e . He then posed the question, "Can we assume that o r i g i n a l l y they a c t u a l l y were simple r e c i t a t i v e s . . . which i n the course of time became considerably more f l o r i d , without l o s i n g t h e i r p r i s t i n e character?".^ In the discussion of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s , we saw examples of barren chants which approach the nature' of recita.tives--melodies unlike those of even the most s y l l a b i c Gregorian I n t r o i t . As well, the basic s k e l e t a l form of a. psalm-tone pattern i s more obvious i n the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s than any of the other Mass Antiphons. This primitive structure would indicate that the I n t r o i t s at lea s t of the Old-Roman repertory are the e a r l i e s t versions to have survived. The role of Gregory the Great i n the development of the chant repertory named a f t e r him cannot be ascertained. It would have been impossible obviously f o r one man to have composed a l l the chant melodies; there i s however, a p o s s i b i l i t y ...that Gregory took an active and decisive part, e i t h e r personally or through d i r e c t i v e s given to his subordinates, i n the f i n a l organization and c o d i f i c a -t i o n of the chant, continuing and bringing to a. ce r t a i n conclusion the work to which a number of -e a r l i e r popes had already made some contribution." Considering t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , l e t us now turn our attention 6 I b i d . , p. 3 0 9 . 7 I b i d . , p. 4 9 - 5 0 . to the Old-Roman Communions and O f f e r t o r i e s . A remark made by Oddo and contained i n a t r e a t i s e e n t i t l e d De musica states: In the Of f e r t o r i e s and t h e i r verses, and e s p e c i a l l y i n the Communions did he [Gregory] show what he could accomplish i n th i s a r t . For i n these there are the most varied kinds of ascent, descent, repeat...and an admirable organization that d i f f e r s widely from the other chants: they are not so much made according to the rules of music, but rather evince the authority and v a l i d i t y of music. With regard to th i s assertion, W i l l i Apel has offered the suggestion that there could have existed " i n the tenth 9 century, a repertory of highly elaborate Communions."^ In our examination of the Old-Roman Communions and Offer-t o r i e s , we noticed that these melodies were much more elaborate than t h e i r Gregorian counterparts. I t i s surely the Old-Roman versions that Oddo had i n mind, f o r t h e i r varied melodic progressions and r e p e t i t i o n of melodic fragments are i n keeping with his description. In p a r t i c u -l a r , the O f f e r t o r i e s displayed an organizational p r i n c i p l e i n which melodic fragments, whole phrases, and i n the cases where textual repeats occur, entire sections are repeated. In spite of the elaborate nature of the Offer-t o r i e s and Communions, t h e i r s k e l e t a l psalmodic construc-tion (just as for the I n t r o i t s ) i s unmistakable. o Oddo quoted by W i l l i Apel, op. c i t . , p. 312, footnote 2. ^ W i l l i Apel, Gregorian Chant, p; 312. I t w i l l be remembered that i n the Old-Roman, antiphons there are eight basic opening themes. As Robert J. Snow suggests, " i t i s hardly conceivable that the much more highly d i v e r s i f i e d Gregorian repertory could have been followed by the thema.tically l i m i t e d Old-Roman. .. Helmut Hucke has concluded that "the Gregorian melodies are generally speaking, subsequent arrangements of the Old-Roman melodies, whereby the structure of the o r i g i n a l i s preserved though the melodic l i n e may be • 11 considerably a l t e r e d i n matters of d e t a i l . " With regard to the difference i n s t y l e i n the Old-Roman antiphons, the Of f e r t o r i e s and Communions can themselves be seen a.s an elaboration of an e a r l i e r primitive form represented by the I n t r o i t s . Whatever may be the exact r e l a t i o n s h i p of the two re p e r t o r i e s , i t seems: safe to say that the ornate antiphons of Vat . • l a t . 5319 are, b a s i c a l l y , redactions p r i o r to t h e i r Gregorian counterparts. Robert J. Snow, 'The Old-Roman Chant," i n Gregorian Chant, ed. by W i l l i Apel (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 5 0 3 . Helmut Hucke quoted by Paul Cutter, "The Question of the Old-Roman Chant: A Reappraisal," Acta Musicologica., x x x i x , 1967, p. 13. Index of the Old-Roman I n t r o i t s contained i n Vat. l a t . 5 3 1 9 , and the l o c a t i o n of the Gregorian versions as found i n the Graduale Romanum. The numbers i n the t h i r d column l a b e l l e d T. I. correspond with those found i n the Thematic Index of Appendix IV. I n c i p i t • Vat. l a t . G. R. T. I . 5319 A c c i p i t e 109V 298 107 Adorate Deum 2 5 r 70 98 Aqua Sapientiae 89v 247 42 •Audivit Dominus 41 v 91 146 Benedicet te 128r 109 Benedicite Dominum 139V 607 99 Cantate Domino 100V 268 23 Caritas Dei 11 Ov 304 134 C i b a v i t I08r 297 24 Circumdederunt me 35v 73 128 Clamaverunt j u s t i I04r 455 45 Confessio 47v 578 110 Cognovi 30v 68 148 Da pacem I 3 l r 372 129 De necessitatibus 47r 104-5 54 Deus dum egredereris I09r 300 82 Deus i n adjutorium 5 l r 350 111 Deus i n loco sancto I24r 347 70 Deus i n nomine tuo 61 r 141 84 Deus Israhel I39r 121 83 De ventre matris 112v 523 9 D i c i t Dominus: Ego 134V 386 149 D i c i t Dominus: Petro 115v 530 27 D i c i t Dominus: Sermones 1 3 5 V 656 30 D i l e x i s t i -. 3 r 60 141 D i s p e r s i t •* •121r 576 89 Domine i n tua misericordia 1 1 3 r 311 72 Domine ne longe 74v 178 73 Domine refugium 45v 101 62 Dominus d i x i t 11r 27 28 Dominus f o r t i t u d o 118r 334 6 Dominus illuminato 49r 330 7 Dominus qui e l e g i t I 3 7 r 112 Dominus secus mare 1 3 5 V 390 11 Dum clamarem 40r 344 46 Dum medium silentium 21 v 44 113 Dum s a n c t i f i c a t u s 63v 145 114 Ecce advenit 21r 57 8 Ecce Deus 119v 342 12 Ecce o c u l i I 0 5 r 494 47 Ecce populus I 3 5 r 85 I n c i p i t Vat. l a t . G. R. T. I. 53^9 Eduxit Dominus 9 5 r 258 25 Eduxit eos 94v 255 26 Ego autem in...speravi 56r 132 10 Ego autem sicut I6r . 1 91 Ego clamavi 56v 130 92 E l e g i t te Dominus 138v 150 Esto mini 38v 80 13 Etenim sederunt I 5 r 36 108 Exaudi Deus 62r 14-3 31 Exaudi Domine...adjutor 118v 332 69 Exaudi Domine...tibi 106r 288 68 Exaudi nos Domine 3 9 r 84 151 Exaudivit 102r 282 86 Exc1amaverunt 103r 492-3 32 Exore infantium I8r 40 59 Exspecta Dominum 69v 158 147 Exsultate Deo 1 2 7 r 368 115 Exsurge 36r 77 60 Pac mecum Domine 38r 134 43 Factus est Dominus 114v 320 130 Gaudeamus...Agathe 32v 436 19 Gaudeamus...Sanctorum omnium 1 2 9 r 64-7 20 Gaudete 4r 6 61 G l o r i a et honore 111v 74 Hodie s c i e t i s lOr 24 139 I n c l i n a Domine 126v 360 142 In Deo laudabo • 5 5 r 127 116 In excelso throno 24v 64 143 In medio 1?r 38 14 In nomine Domini 78v 190 128 Intret i n conspectu 120r 21 75 I n t r e t . o r a t i o 48r 106 15 Introduxit vos 87v 244 117 In vertute tua 33v 10 118 Invocabit me 42v 93 119 In voluntate ' I32r 380 76 Jubil a t e Deo 99v 265 48 Judica Domine 76v 185 55 Judica me 66r 151 51 Judicant sancti 11?v 645 135 J u s t i epulentur 123v 412 65 Justus es Domine I30r 365 131 Justus nonconturbabitur 124v 66 Justus ut palma 122r 45 67 Lauate pueri 1 1 9 r 550 140 Letabitur Justus 30v 12 120 Letare Hierusalem 60v 138 71 Letetur cor 64v 146 33 Lex Domini Liberator meus Loquebar Loquetur Dominus Lux f u l g e b i t Me exspectaverunt Meditatio Michi autem nimis Miserere...ad te Miserere...conculcavit M i s e r e r e . . . t r i b u l o r M i s e r e r i s omnium Mis e r i c o r d i a Domini Multe t r i b u l a t i o n e s Ne derelinquas me Ne timeas Nos autem Nos autem Nunc scio vere Oc u l i mei Omnia que f e c i s t i Omnis t e r r a Os j u s t i Populus Sion Populus Syon Probas-ti Domine Prope es tu Protector noster P r o t e x i s t i me Puer natus est Redime me Reminiscere Repleatur os Respice Domine Respice i n me Resurrexi Rogamus te Rorate c e l i Sacerdotes Dei Sacerdotes eius Sacerdotes t u i Salus autem Salus populi Sancti t u i Sapientiam sanctorum Scio c u i c r e d i d i Sicut modo g e n i t i Vat. l a t . G. R. T. I. 5319 5 3 r 122 140 6 9 r 159 100 27r 51 63 111r 516 94 12r 30 105 30v 55 77 64r 148 2 1 l 5 r 392 34 126 363 3 68v 156 101 72v 163 4 40v 87 78 9 8 r 263 16 113V 515 35 5 1V 118 121 112v 521 122 77v 201 79 105v 488 123 1 l 7 r 532 106 54v 123 36 7 0 r 377 102 2 2 r 67 44 26v 42 56 1 0 l r 136 2 r 4 17 122v 37 6 r 11 57 125r 357 80 101v 15 49 14v 33 137 50v 115 38 4 5 r 111 87 I 0 9 r 302 95 125v 354 132 114r 327 138 84v 240 81 140v 103 5 r 21 21 29v 7 39 20v 29 120v 35 32 28r 28 152 57r 375 124 100r 18 50 H O r 25 133 116r 417 153 97v 154 I n c i p i t Vat. l a t . 5519 G. R. T. I Sicut o c u l i 44v 99 88 S i i n i q u i t a t e s I33r 383 58 S i t i e n t e s 65r 149 96 S p i r i t u s Domine 107v 292 125 S t a t u i t 26r 3 144 Suscepimus 3*1 v 339 22 T e r r i b i l i s est 136V 71 40 T i b i d i x i t 50r 117 5 Timite Dominum 121V 574 104 Veni et ostende 7 r 13 41 Venite adoremus 128v 371 126 Venite Benedicti 91v 250 145 Verba mea 59v 136 64 Victricem manum 93r 252 97 V i r i G a l i l e i I05r 285 127 Vocem j u n d i t a t i s 9 9 r 270 53 Vultum tuum 34v 64 18 Index of the Old-Roman Communions contained i n Vat, l a t . ••• 5 3 1 9 , and the l o c a t i o n of the Gregorian versions as found i n the Graduale Romanum. In one case, the Gregorian counter part was found i n the Liber Usualis and i s abbreviated L.U. The numbers i n the t h i r d column which i s l a b e l l e d T. I. Correspond with those i n the Thematic Index of Appendix V. I n c i p i t Vat. l a t . G. R. T. I 5319 Ab o c c u l t i s meis 61 r 142 1 Acceptabis 41v 347 64 Adversum me 7 7 r 189 28 Amen dico vobis quidquid 134-r 389 2 Amen dico vobis quod uni 111v 101 3 Amen dico vobis quod vos 1 1 7 r . 47 51 Aufer a me 128v 370 77 Beati mundo corde 117v 650 96 Beatus servus 20r 45 74 Benedicite omnes Angeli 129v 611 92 Cantabo Domino 114V 323 52 Circuibo 1 1 9 r 336 108 Comedite pinguia 1 2 7 r 370 134 Confundantur I 3 4 r 54 46 Cum invocarem te 45r 102 43 Data est michi 94r 258 78 De f r u c t u 125v 353 53 D i c i t e : Pusillanimes 5 r • 9 89 D i c i t Andreas I 3 5 r 392 24 D i c i t Dominus 25v 70 25 Dico autem vobis 123v 28 94 Dico vobis 134V 330 129 Domine Deus meus 49 V 111 79 Domine Dominus noster 5 0 r 117 80 Domine Hiesu 140r 141 Domine memorabo 64r 365 115 Domine quinque talenta 2 7 r 396 . 100 Domine quis h a b i t a b i t 56r 131 75 Domine s i tues 118v 142 Dominus dabit 2v 3 66 Dominus firmamentam 50v 332 81 Dominus Jesus 7 9 r 210 49 Dominus r e g i t me 66r 151 82 Dominus virtutum 68r 157 73 Domus mea I 3 7 r 74 125 Dum venerit P a r a c l i t u s 100v 270 12 Ecce Dominus veniet 7 v 12 62 Ecce s i c beneticetur I 3 9 r 125 22 Ecce virgo 6r • 23 36 I n c i p i t Vat. l a t . G. R. T. I 5319 Ego clamavi 114r 386 4 Ego sum pastor 9 9 v 263 16 Ego sum v i t i s I03r 143 Ego vos e l e g i 111v 513 130 Erubescant et conturbentur 48r 106 5 Erubescant et revereantur 76r 187 11 Et s i corsam H 5 r 25 44 E x i i t sermo 18r 40 13 Exulta f i l i a I 3 r 32 76 E x u l t a v i t ut 10r 20 8 Factus est I08r 296 136 F e c i judicum et 28v 59 138 F i l i quid f e c i s t i 24v 66 67 F i d e l i s servus 3 3 r 34 . 126 Gaudete j u s t i 1 0 1 V 20 131 Gustate 119v 341 111 Honora Dominum 124v 349 29 Hierusalem que 61 v 141 40 Hierusalem surge 3v 6 37 Hoc corpus 68v 155 88 Illumina faciem 36r 76-77 83 In s a l u t a r i I 2 3 r 383 31 In splendoribus 12v 30 101 I n t e l l i g e clamorem 46r 114 109 Introibo 38v 80 110 Justorum anima 1 0 5 V 504 (d) 54 Justus Dominus 5 1 r 120 18 Lavabo i n t e r 7 0 r 162 33 Letabimur 62r 144 532 Letabitur Justus l O l r 18 65 Lutum f e c i t 64v 146 7 0 Lux eterna 141 v 102* 102 Lux eterna 141V 102* 119 Magna est 17v 2 85 Manducaverunt 3 9 r 84 42 Memento verbi t u i 7 1 r 379 127 Mense septimo 128v 372 120 Messes quidem 1 3 9 V 144 Mirabantur omnes 25v 73 98 Mitte manum 97v 263 26 Modicum 9 9 r 268 57 M u l t i t u d e . .ad eum 29v 416 9 Narrabo omnia 51v 118 135 Nemo te condempnavit 60v 138 112 Ne t r a d i d e r i s me 7 2 r 165 133 Non vos relinquam 110V 303 20 Notas mini f e c i s t i 37r • 134 6 Omnes qui 96 261 41 Oportet te f i l i Pacem meam Panem de caelo Panis quern ego Pascha nostrum Passer invenit Pater cum essem Pater s i non potest P e t i t e Populus a c q u i s i t i o n i s P o s u i s t i Domine Potum meum Primum querite Principes P r o p i t i u s esto Domine P s a l l i t e Domino Puer Jesus Qui b i b e r i t Quicumque f e c e r i t Qui manducat Qui me dignatus Qui meditabitur Qui michi ministrat Quinque prudentes Quis dabit Qui v u l t venire Quod dico vobis Redime me Responsum Revelabitur Scapulis suis Semel j u r a v i Servite Domino S i c o n s u r r e x i s t i s Signa eos Simile est...homini Simon Joannis Sint lumbi S p i r i t u s qui S p i r i t u s Sanctus S p i r i t u s ubi Surrexit Dominus Tanto tempore T o l l e puerum T o l l i t e hostias T r i s t i t i a vestra Tu Domine servabis Vat. l a t . G. R. T. I . 5319 54v 122 106 I09r 301 50 125r 356 128 4?r 362-3 97 85v 243 69 55v 126-7 7 100r 289 72 76v 184 17 I03r 284 58 93r 255 63 26r 10 56 79v 194-5 123 119r 359 68 124v 68 93 34v 145 106r 287 38 26v L.U • 437 121 59v 136 107 120v 456 55 53v 344 19 32r 437 30 40r 90 99 122r 15 137 . 30v ' 64 59 56v 129 14 30r 12 35 124r 31 32 69r 159 47 32v 435 34 11v 26 84 44v 99 104 29r 6 139 42v 93 105 90v 249 91 121r 575-6 124 4r * * 116 116v-r 531 95 120v 146 109V 299 61 I08r 298 113 105v-r 307 45 87 246 114 104V 493 39 21r 46 103 132V 374 60 I06r 147 53r 121 27 Tu es Petrus Tu mandasti Tu puer Ultimo f e s t i v i t a t i s Unam p e t i i Venite post me Videns Dominus Video celos Viderunt omnes Vidimus stellam Voce mea Vovete Vox i n Rama Xpistus qui natus Xpictus resurgens Vat. l a t . G. R. T. I . 5319 534 71 58r 377 21 112r 525 140 I 0 7 r 291 122 118r 334 48 . I35r 395 117 . 65r 148 • 15 16r 38 86 I 5 r 35 118 22r 59 23 44r 148 13CX 368 87 1 9 r 44 90 141V 149 9 1 r 252 10 Index of the Old-Roman O f f e r t o r i e s contained i n MS Vat. l a t . 5319 and the Gregorian versions as found i n the O f f e r t o r i a l e . The numbers i n the t h i r d column which i s l a b e l l e d T.I. correspond with those, i n the Thematic Index of Appendix VI. I n c i p i t 1 Vat. l a t . G. R. T. I 5319 Ad te Domine l e v a v i 2v 5 7 Angelus Domini 87r 57 70 Anima nostra 19v 145 1 Ascendit Deus 9 8 v 75 54 Ascendit Deus 106V 75 74 Ave Maria 34r 13 89 Beatus es Symon 117v 25 Benedic...et renovabitur 48v 110 8 Benedicam Dominum 5 0 r 88 19 Benedicte gentes 63r 71 53 Benedictus es...tradas 7 2 v 48 72 Benedictus e s . . . i n l a b i i s 3 9 v 28 73 Benedictus qui venit 96v 64 75 B e n e d i x i s t i Domine 5 8 51 Bonum est c o n f i t e r i 3 5 r 26 4 Confessio 122r 166 57 Confirma hoc 108V 79 22 Confitebor Domino 103V 74 17 Confitebor t i b i Domine 67r 44 18 Confitebunter c e l i 101V 138 88 Confortamini 6v 9 9 Constitues eos 116V 131 84 Custodi me 7 7 r 52 20 De profundis 1 3 4 V 126 76 Desiderium animae 123v 153 80 Deus, Deus meus 98r 66 30 Deum enim 13V- 16 94 Deus tu convertens 3v 6 67 Dextera Domine 2 5 r 25 5 D i f f u s a est 3 1 r 156 61 Domine convertere 68r 84 35 Domine convertere , 140r 84 41 Domine, Deus i n s i m p l i c i t a t e 137v 159 87 Domine, Deus s a l u t i s 49v 112 83 Domine exaudi 7 9 v 53 8 5 . Domine fac mecum 57v 37 14 Domine i n auxilium 53v 106 36 Domine, v i v i f i c a me Emitte spiritum 41r 31 15' 107v ' 7 7 78 Eripe me...Deus meus 7 0 v 46 71 Eripe me...Domine 7 6 v 51 33 E r i t nobis Exaltabo te Exaudi Deus Exspectans Exsulta s a t i s Factus est Dominus F i l i e regum Gloriabunter G l o r i a et honore Gressus meos Illumina Immittet Angelus Improperium In conspectu In die solemnitatis Intende vo c i In te speravi Intonuit de celo Inveni David In v i r t u t e tua J u b i l a t e Deo omnis Jubilate Deo universa J u s t i t a i e Domini Justus ut palma Lauda anima Laudate Dominum Letamini Letentur c e l i Levabo Meditabor Michi autem M i r a b i l i s Deus Miserere michi Offerentur Oratio mea Oravi Deum Pe r f i c e Populum humilem Portas c e l i Posuerunt Prectarus est Recordare mei Reges Tharsis Replenti sumus S a n c t i f i c a v i t Scapulis suis S i ambulavero Sperent Vat. l a t . G. R. T. I 5319 9 4 r 63 95 40r 96 10 55r 36 9 0 62v 104 77 1 0V 11 12 66v 42 47 28v ' 157 86 113v 135 21 17 133 46 59r 39 79 50v 87 37 47v . 102 43 75r 49 38 129v 44 93r 61 58 59v 83 81 45v 101 26 8 9 r 58 92 20v 147 34 16v 152 39 24r 23 62 23v 69 82 55v 94 91 18v 150 42 99v 67 11 60r 40 93 28r 140 13 12v 15 31 44v 34 28 46r 109 27 1 1 5 V 128 29 105v 141 63 5 1 V 35 68 4v 155 52 122v 164 64 I30r 107 6 37v 9 0 49 65v 93 48 9 1 r 60 55 111r 50 52v 97 65 I 3 4 r 125 59 22v 21 16 104v 23 I 3 l r 114 40 4 3 r 32 69 58v 118 66 69v 85 60 I n c i p i t Vat. l a t . G. R. T. I. 5319 Super flumina 7 1 V 119 45 Terra tremuit 84r 55 56 T o l l i t e portas 11v 14 2 Tui sunt c e l i 14r 18 32 Veritas mea 2 7 v 148 3 V i r erat I32r 122 24 APPENDIX IV THEMATIC INDEX OF THE OLD-ROMAN INTROITS In nomini Domini. Meditatio. Miserere...ad t e . Mis e r e r e . . . t r i b u l o r . T i b i d i x i t . 1 2 3 4 5 h n n n 9 0 0 0 0 0~ sen Dominus fortitu&o. Dominus i l l u m i n a t i o . Ecce advenit. 6 7 8 De ventre matris. 9 Ego autem i n . . . s p e r a v i . 10 4> p ITTJ 71 Dominus secus mare. 11 Ecce Deus, 12 Esto michi. 13 In medio. 14 rrn r n n n Intret o r a t i o . 15 M i s e r i c o r d i a Domini. 16 c c C C11 222 Populus Syon. 17 Vultum tuum. 18 r» P P Gaudeamus...Agathae. 19 Gaudeamus...Sanctorum omnium. Rorate c e l i . Suscepimus Deus. 20 21 22 I T m r i I Cantate Domino. C i b a v i t . Eduxit Dominus. Eduxit eos. 23 24 25 26 D i c i t Dominus Petro, Dominus D i x i t . Sacerdotes eius. 27 28 29 a i t pr> I'H _ _ _ _ _ w — _ _ , D i c i t Dominus: Sermones. 30 Exaudi Deus. 31 ft: Exclamaverunt. 32 Letetur cor. 33 _ : / ' * Michi autem. 34 Multe t r i b u l a t i o n e s . 35 -9—w Oculi mei. 36 Probasti Domine, 37 Redime me I 155-38 D P P P P P r 7 T e r r i b i l i s est. • 40 > # # » Aqua sapientie. 42 Omnis t e r r a . 44 — 1 ^ — P r n r - n -iT7 • '/J Veni et ostende. 41 p m p i 5 E _ Fac mecum. 43 Clamaverunt. Dum clamarem. . Ecce o c u l i Domini. Jubilate Deo. Protexistime Deus. Sancti t u i . 45 46 47 48 49 50 m Judicame Deus 51 ( s i m i l a r to the above). i — ? _ — a — T " ___2__Z=Z v_-Sacerdotes t u i . 52 Vocem jucun&itatis. 55 vr f\ A ^ ' J ' \w) * t * * De necessitatibus. Judica Domine. Os j u s t i . Prope estu. S i i n i q u i t a t e s . 54 55 56 57 58 Ex ore infantium. Exsurge quare. Gau&ete i n Domino. 59 60 61 Domine refugium. 62 Loquebar de testmoniis. 63 Verba mea. 64 J u s t i epulentur. 65 Justus non conturbabitur .66 Justus ut palma. 67 (k I *JTJ J~/=£j= Exaudi Domine...tibi. 68 Exaudi Domine...adjutor. 69 Deus i n loco. Letare Hierusalem. 70 71 55 Domine i n tua. 72 ft;/ t * 4 G l o r i a et honore. 74 Domine ne longe. 73 Intret i n conspectu. 75 p P p p P * I j J 4 / / / 76 A n p ^ ^ _ : 1 - f T - g : ffc-i ' - r 1 — M Iff - ' >- ' * * * tl -/—/-Misereris omnium Domine. 78 a n PP n n g * 3 * > * * a Protector noster. 1 n r f l r f l iTTTT b i i - t - j i l t * ' r ' '-fDeus dum egredereris. Deus I s r a e l . Deus i n nomine. Ecce populus custodens, Exaudivit. Reminiscere. Sicut o c u l i servorum. 80 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Nos autem. rnjTTl P 79 i 4 i * t , i * , * * Resurrexi, 81 m E E _____ D i s p e r s i t dedit 89 Ego autem cum j u s t i t i a 9 0 Ego autem s i c u t . _ 91 Ego clamavi. " 92 Laudate pueri Dominum. 93 Loquetur Dominus. 9 4 Repleatur. 95 S i t i e n t e s venite. 96 Victricem manum. 97 a. : _ _ L -0—4-Adorate Deum 98 ( s i m i l a r to the above). •3—* « ' 0 * *• Benedicte Domirrum. Liberator meus. Miserere mini Domine, Omnia que. Rogamus te Domine. Timete Dominum. Lux f u l g e b i t hodie Nunc sciovere. A c c i p i t e . Etenim sederunt. Benedicet t e . 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 Deus i n adjutorium. 111 Dum medium. 113 / P r r m m \jm Exsulate Deo. 115 • p . ? i r f l P J ^ ^ E — _ * —~r-Confessio e t. 110 Dominus qui e l e g i t . 112 Dum s a n t i f i c a t u s . 114 j I 4 4 4 J 4 *-In Deo laudabo. 116 m Introduxit vos Dominus. 117 In v i r t u t e tua Domine. 118 r t p r r T l Invocabis me. 159 119 Ne derelinquas me. 4 ^JIJH Nos autem. S p i r i t u s Domine. n n P r n V i r i G a l i l a e i . 127 1 H Letabitur Justus i n Domine 120 -p rrrrrn t' c* * ' ' 2 121 Ne timeas Zacharia. 122 p i i n rm nrn 123 Salus populi ego sum.124 ; p m p p re 125 Venite adoremus. 126 P ,r rf] j l ^ *• 0 e p\ f — CIrcum&ederunt me. 128 Da pacem Domine. 129 Pactus est Dominus. 130 Justus es Domine. 131 Re spice Domine. 132 Sapientiam sanctorum. 133 n n n P §' 9* §* * ft) > yj. l 6 0 Caritas Dei. I 134 * ; Judicant s a n c t i . Populus Syon. 136 • Puer natus. 137 Respice i n me. 138 Hodie s c i e t i s . 139 -Lex Domini. 140 • D i l e x i s t i . . . j u s t i t i a m . 141 I n c l i n a Domine. 142 In excelso. 143 Staduit e i Dominus. 144 Venite b e n e d i c t i . 145 * j < * 0—S-4 9 m Audivit Dominus. Exspecta Dominum. 146 147 Cognovi Domine. i Jl 4 E l e g i t te Dominus. 148 Salus autem. a 0 fr 0 « 4 s 0-D i c i t Dominus. 149 •0-150 Exaudi nos Domine. 151 D i 152 Scio c u i . 153 0  r 4 4 Sicut modo. 154 Ab o c c u l t i s meis. i Amen dico vobis quidquid. 2 Amen dico vobis quod. 3 Ego clamavi. 4 Erubescant et conturbentur. 5 Notas mini f e c i s t i . 5 Passer i n v e n i t . 7 E x u l t a v i t ut gigas. Multitudo...ad eum. 8 9 Xpictus resurgens. 10 Erubescant et revereantur. 11 Dum venerit P a r a c l i t u s . 12 A }.. 0, 0 ff 9 ff J — 0 _ * E x i i t sermo. Quis dabit. Ego sum pastor. 13 14 Videns Dominus, 15 Hi-WW 15 Pater s i non potest. 17 rrrrrfrrrtrm Justus Dominus. Qui manducat. 18 19 Non vos relinquam. 20 Tu mandasti. I ft cr g fir-Vidimus stellam. ^ * — D i c i t Dominus. ~ 7 k ~ 1 9 "* " f I ' LO 21 Ecce s i c benedictur. 22 23 D i c i t Andreas. 24 e c u Mr 25 Mitte manum, 26 Tu Domine servabis, Mill l till V * j —f-27 Adversum me •45 28 Honora Dominum. Qui me dignatus, Lavabo » 0? 0 & # r # Qui v u l t venire. ft rrn & 4 4 2 1 P s a l l i t e Domino. Tanto tempore. — a 4 * 4 Manducaverunt, Et s i corsam. • 4= TT > 1 0 r L ^  29 30 In s a l u t a r i . Quod dico vobis, 33 Responsum. 35 Ecce v i r g o . Hierusalem. .3.1. 32 34 36 37 38 Hierusalem quae. 40 39 Omnes qui. 41 42 Cum invocarem t e . 43 4 4 0 1 4 4-^-4-~9 w/ ' S p i r i t u s u b i . 45 Cantabo Domino. 52 De f r u c t u . Justorum anima. Quicumque f e c e r i t . B-BES fa J'ife Modicum. Quinque prudentes. 3 S p i r i t u s quia. pprff PP.P 4 4 * a 4 " Acceptabis. Pjll 11J 111 53 54 55 P o s u i s t i Domine. 56 59 57 P e t i t e . 58 r f f l fTTTp 14*} ' L*v*=/= T o l l i t e o s t i a s . 60 Ecce Dominus veniet. 62 61 Populus a c q u i s i t i o n i s . 63 64 Letabitur Justus. 65 f. i' it! ^ P Dominus dabit. P i l i quid f e c i s t i . 67 66 Primum querite. 68 Pascha nostrum. 69 Lutum f e c i t . 1 9 J \* i Tu es Petrus. Dominus virtutum. i f J Domine quis habitabit, 71 Pater cum essem. 73 Beatus servus. t & 6 a 1 J \* 9 0 0 73 Exulta f i l i a . Aufer a me. Data est michi. Domine Deus meus. Domine Dominus noster. 77 78 79 80 Dominus firmamentam. Dominus r e g i t me. 00 —1 3 1 Kt—. F " a7 ' U * , E ^0  w Illumina faciem. Revelabitur. 83 84 Magna e s t . Video celos, Vovete. # 85 Hoc corpus. 88 86 Dicete: Pusillanimes.89 87 Vox i n Rama. 90 , ' * 4 & •0-S i c o n s u r r e x i s t i s . 91 Benedicite omnes Angeli. 92 P r i n c i p e s . 9 * fl Symon Joannis. Mirabantur omnes. & 0 p i 93 Dico autem vobis. 94 95 Beati mundo corde. 96 Panis quern ego. 97 3C 98 Que meditabitur. 99 Domine quinque t a l e n t a . 100 In splendoribus. 101 Lux externa. 9 ' 9 mm Scapulis s u i s . 0 Hi* -9-Oportet te f i l i m m C i r c u i b o . Introibo. 4 a * 102 T o l l e puerumv • ••...•-•"Sjet3i,-.-^ :-'.:t • 103 r. 104 Servite Domino. 105 106 Qui b i b e r i t . 107 r 108 I n t e l l i g e clamorem. 109 110 Gustate. 111 Nemo te condempnavit. 112 S p i r i t u s sanctus. 115 (/'j Surrexit Dominus. 114 Venite post me 117 r - - f — i . A a M Kf » I, * " Domine memorabor. 115 Simile est. 116 _ u — Y - r 3 1 -4— H— J W " 1 $ 4 * Viderunt omnes. 118 V JT rfl P .rum Puer Hiesus. * * e s 119 Mense septimo. 120 121 Ultimo f e s t i v i t a t i s . 1 2 2 Potum meum. 123 Signa eos. 124 Domus mea. F i d e l i s servus. Memento ver b i t u i , Panem de caelo. 125 126 12? 128 P H it j j i j Ego vos e l e g i . 130 Ne t r a d i d e r i s . - E g Narrabo omnia. Gaudete j u s t i , Letabimur. 131 132 133 Comedite pinguia. 134 ^ — 2 — j ^ i i i ' 135 Factus est repente. ^36 Qui michi m i n i s t r a t . /—^—# 1/ u 1/ P P i F e c i judicum et. 137 Semel j u r a v i . Tu puer. 138 139 140 Domine Hiesu n p p fFL 141 Domini s i tues 142 £ 3 ^ Ego siim u l t i s 14$ Messes quidem 144 Pr o p i t i u s esto BE r i P P P 0 g e & fz 145 Siht lumbi 146 J m 0 0 * I f -~9~9 T r i s t i t i a vestra 147 Voce mea 148 f * 9* IfT'lr Xpistus qui natus 149 APPENDIX VI THEMATIC INDEX OF THE OLD-ROMAN OFFERTORIES Anima nostra. T o l l i t e portas. Veritas mea. Dextera Domine. Oravi Deum. 1 2 3 Bonum est c o n f i t e r i . 4-6 Ad te Domine l e v a v i . 7 Benedic...et renovabitus. 8 Confortamini. Exaltabo t e . m m 10 Lauda anima, 11 A a a * 9 IfT) 71 v * * zz Exsulta s a t i s . 12 Letamini. 13 Domine fac mecum. Domine v i v i f i c a me. m 0 * * * y 14 15 1 1 PI H — * i f, * 1 i : r • J 1/ / Confitebor Domino. 17 Confitebor t i b i Domine. 18 Custodi me. Gloriabunter. 20 21 Benedicam Dominum. 19 P Confirma hoc 22 r> m m , 4 * 0 ff 0 -R e p l e t i sumus. 9-I S V m 25 J * 1 S * ' ±J * S V i r erat. 24 9 3 J . ^ ' ' ii Beatus es Symon Petre. 25 In te speravi, 26 PH-M4-J — 3 r zr-js -M 1 m -0-Meditabor. 175 27 Levabo. 28 \ } \ J l 1 i_s 0~ \ § a 0 J 9 ' 0*-0 Michi autem. 29 Deus Deus meus. Letentur c e l i . Tui*sunt c e l i . 30 31 32 Eripe me...Domine. 33 *'* 0 * i p p P \ 0**01 * t-f-+ 9-Inveni David. 34 n r f l fl P * " * Domine convertere. Domine i n auxilium. 35 36 Improperium. In v i r t u t e tua. S a h c t i f i c a v i t . H ri" f # 0 » 0 ' * Immittet Angelus. In conspectu. 38 39 40 43 44 ti fl iTTTfl {Tff= Domine convertere. 41 Justus ut palma. 42 Super flumina. 45 a a * 0 v^-*-G l o r i a et honore. '# 0 0' 1/ * 0* * Posuerunt. 46 50 Pactus est Dominus. 47 Populum humilem. 48 P e r f i c e . 49 Ben e d i x i s t i Domine. 51 y 0; 04 90 ay 0 * 0 ± Offerentur. 3 0~&~ 52 Benedicte gentes. 53 Ascendit Deus. Portas c a e l i . Terra tremuit. 54 55 56 Gonfessio. In die solemnitatis, 58 Recordare mei. 59 Sperent. D i f f u s a est. Jubilate Deus. M i r a b i l i s Deus. Oratio mea. Precatus est Moyses, ; a r 4 0*4 44 J, * 0 0* r ' 60 61 62 63 64 65 SX ambulavero. 66 Deus tu convertens, Miserere michi. 67 68 Scapulis s u i s . 69 fa* 1 Angelus Domini. 0 9 0 Ascendit Deus. Benedictus qui .venit, De produndis. Exspectans. mm Gressus meos, n n m 70 Eripe me, Benedictus es...tradas. 72 74 75 76 77 79 '^1 IT n n ^00 -ii Benedictus e s . . . i n l a b i i s , 75 Emitte spiritum. 78 I fT7 J7I7 .TP g — S E W „ — Desiderium animae. 80 Intende v o c i . 81 Jubilate Deo. Constitutes eos. Domine exaudi. F i l i e regum. 82 Domine Deus. 83 j * } , * * — to * 0 * , g ^ ^ T T = = = = z 84 85 86 Domine Deus i n simplicit-ate. 87 Ave Maria g r a t i a . 89. Confitebunter. 88 Exaudi Deus. 90 m 9 rV/ f J u s t i t i e . Laudate Dominum. 91 Intonuit de celo. 92 TEL 93 Deus enim. 94 E r i t nobis. 95 BIBLIOGRAPHY Andrews, Frederick Sturges. "Medieval Modal Theory." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l University, 1 9 3 5 . Angles, H i g i n i . "Gregorian Chant." "Early Medieval Music up to 1 3 0 0 . " V o l . 11 of New Oxford History of Music. Edited by Dom Anselm Hughes. London: Oxford Univer-s i t y Press, 1954. Antiphonale Missarum Sextuplex. Edited by Rene-Jean Hesbert. P a r i s , 1 9 3 5 . Apel, W i l l i . Gregorian Chant. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana Uni v e r s i t y Press, 1958. ' . "The Central Problem of Gregorian Chant." Journal of the American Musicological Society, IX "(#1), 118-T2T. : : Avenary, Hanoch. "Formal Structure of Psalms and Canticles i n E a r l y Jewish and C h r i s t i a n Chant." Musica  D i s c i p l i n a , VII, 1 9 5 3 , 1 - 1 3 . Bailey, Terence William. The Processions of Sarum and the ' Western Church. Toronto: P o n t i f i c a l I n s t i t u t e of Mediaeval Studies, 1971. Bannister, H. M. Monumenti Vaticani d i Paleografia Musicale  L a t i n a . L i p s i a : Ottone Harrassowitz, 1913. B e r t a r e l l i , L. V. The Blue Guides—Northern I t a l y from the  Alps to Rome. Edited by Findlay Muirhead. London: MacMillan and Co., Ltd., 1924. B i b l i a Sacra. Rome: Desclee et S o c i i , 1947. Cutter, Paul F. "The Old-Roman Chant T r a d i t i o n : Oral or Written." Journal of the American Musicological  Society, XX (#2), 1967. 167-181. . "The Question of the Old-Roman Chant: A Reap-p r a i s a l . " Acta Musicologica, XXXIX, 1967, 2-20. Dijk, S. J . P. van. "Medieval Terminology and Methods of Psalm Singing." Musica D i s c i p l i n a , VI, 1952, 1-26. . "The Urban and Papal Rites i n Seventh and Eighth-Century Rome." Sacris E r u d i r i , XII, 1961, 411-487. Feininger, Laurence. "The Musical Manuscripts i n the Vatican." Music L i b r a r y Association Notes, I I I , 1946, 3 9 2 - 4 . Gajard, Dom J . " 1Vieux-Romain 1 et 'Gregorien'." Etudes  Gregoriennes, I I I , 1959, 7-26. Gevaert, Francois A. La Melopee' antique dans l e chant de  l ' e g l i s e l a t i n e " Osnabruck: 0 . Z e l l e r , 1967. Graduale Romanum. Edited by the Monks of Solesmes. Tournai: Desclee & Co., 1961. Graduale Sarisburiense. Edited with an introduction by Walter H. Frere. London, 18<W. Handschin, Jacques. "Sur quelques tropaires grecs t r a d u i t en L a t i n , Appendix: La Question du Chant 'vieux-romain' ." Annales Musicologiques, I I , 1954, 49-60. Herzo, S i s t e r Anthony Marie. "Five Aquitanian Graduals: Their Mass Propers and A l l e l u i a Cycles." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1967. •• Holtaus, S i s t e r Mary Joachim. "Beneventan Notation i n the Vatican Manuscripts." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1961. Homan, Frederic Warren. "Cadence i n Gregorian Chant." Un-published Ph.D d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Indiana, 1961. . " F i n a l and Internal Cadential Patterns i n Gregorian Chant." Journal of the American Musicolo-g i c a l Society, XVII (Spring)., 1964, 66-77 . Hood, Mantle. "The R e l i a b i l i t y of Oral T r a d i t i o n . " Journal  of the American Musicological Society, XII, 1959, 201-9 Hourlier, J . and Huglo, M. "Un important temoin du chant vieux-romain: Le Graduel de Sainte Cecile du Transtevere." Revue Gregorienne, XXXI (January-, • 1952), 26-37. Huglo, Dom Michel. "Le chant 'Vieux-Romain.' L i s t e des manuscrits et temoins i n d i r e c t . " Sacris E r u d i r i , VI, 1 9 5 4 , 96-124. . "Les antiennes de l a Procession des Reliques: Vestiges du chant 'Vieux-Romain' dans l e P o n t i f i c a l . " Revue Gregorienne XXXI ( # 4 ) , 1 9 5 2 , 1 3 6 - 1 3 9 -. Jungmann, J . A. The Mass of the Roman R i t e . Translated by F. A. Brunner. London: Burns and Oates, 1959-Lang, Paul Henry. Music i n Western C i v i l i z a t i o n . New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1 9 4 1 . "Liber P o n t i f i c a l i s . " New Catholic Encyclopedia. 1 9 6 7 . V o l . VIII. Liber U s u a l i s . Edited by the Monks of Solesmes. Tournai: Desclee and Co., 1 9 6 3 . O f f e r t o r i a l e . Edited by Carolus Ott. Tournai: Desclee' and Co., 1935-Paleographie Musicale. Edited by the Solesme Monks. Rome 1 8 8 9 -P a r r i s h , C a r l . The Notation of Medieval Music. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1957-Peacock, Peter. "The Problem of Old Roman Chant." Essays  Presented to Egon Wellesz. Edited by Jack Westrup. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1 9 6 6 , 4 3 - 7 . Reese, Gustave. Music i n the Middle Ages. New York: W. W. Norton and Co.,.1968. Rossiter, Stuart., ed. The Blue Guides—Rome and Central  I t a l y . London: Ernest Benn Ltd., 1 9 6 4 . Schuler, Rev. Richard J . "The Roman Chant." C a e c i l i a : A  Review of Catholic Church Music, 86 ( # 4 ) , 1 9 5 9 , 1 2 9 - 1 3 7 . Scriptores E c c l e s i a s t i c i de Musica Sacra Potissimum. Edited by Martin Gerbert i n 3 v o l s . Ste B l a i s e , 1 7 8 4 . Shepherd, William R. H i s t o r i c a l A t l a s . 9 t h E d i t i o n . London: George P h i l i p and Son Ltd., 1 9 6 7 . Snow, Robert J . "The Old Roman Chant." Gregorian Chant. Edited by W i l l i Apel. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 5 8 . T r e i t l e r , Leo. "The Aquitanian Repertories of Sacred Monody i n the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Princeton, 1967-Turabian, Kate L. A Manual f o r Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Di s s e r t a t i o n s . 3 r d ed. Chicago: The Univ e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1 9 6 9 . V a l e r i , Nino. ed. S t o r i a d ' I t a l i a . Torino: T i p o g r a f i a Sociale Torinese, 1 9 5 9 . C^ap opposite p. 16.) Wellesz, Egon. Eastern Elements i n Western Chant. Copen-hagen : V i l l a d s e n og Christensen, 1947. 

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