UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Private recreation enterprise and government outdoor recreation policy Anderson, James David 1971

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P R I V A T E R E C R E A T A N G O V E R N M E N T O U T D O O R BY James D a v i d B. E d . , U n i v e r s i t y I O N E N T E R P R I S E D R E C R E A T I O N P O L I C Y A n d e r s o n o f A l b e r t a , \S6k A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i red s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1 9 7 1 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t he r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree a t t he U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r ee t h a t t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rpo se s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l no t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . S choo l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a Vancouve r 8, Canada A B S T R A C T Ou tdoo r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s a r e p r o v i d e d by bo th t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s . The l i t e r a t u r e o f r e c r e a t i o n g e n e r a l l y o v e r e m p h a s i z e s the r o l e p l a y e d by t he p u b l i c s e c t o r . However i t i s no t f a i r t o a s s e r t t h a t t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r has a g r e a t e r r o l e t o p l a y i n m e e t -i n g t he r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f t he p u b l i c . To d a t e , i t can o n l y be s t a t e d t h a t more a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o i t . T h i s s t u d y i s d e s c r i p t i v e i n n a t u r e and e x p l o r e s two g e n e r a l t o p i c s . F i r s t , t h r e e s t u d i e s , two i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and one , among p r i v a t e campground o p e r a t o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , r e v i e w t h e b a s i c manage-ment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r ob l ems o f t h e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r . A b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e o p e r a t e d s o l e l y as a campground w i l l s e l dom e a r n a p r o f i t f o r t he o p e r a t o r . A m u l t i p l e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e , o f f e r i n g boat r e n t a l s , f i s h i n g , g r o c e r i e s , c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y g r o u n d s as w e l l as camping f a c i l i t i e s i s more l i k e l y t o be p r o f i t a b l e . The m a j o r i t y o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s c l u s t e r a r ound p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and a round o t h e r p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s c o m p l e m e n t a r y - c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t he p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r must be u n d e r s t o o d i f p r o p e r l y p l a n n e d and c o o r d i n a t e d r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s a r e t o make e f f e c t i v e use o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . The p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by unused c a p a c i t y and t o a t t r a c t more c u s t o m e r s , p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t r e p r e n e u r s need c a p i t a l t o upg r ade t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . The m o n o p o l i s t i c - c o m p e t i t i o n n a t u r e o f the o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n ma r ke t makes i t n e c e s s a r y f o r p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e f rom t h e i r c o m p e t i t o r s . B u t , g i v e n t h e e c o n o m i c u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s , e x p a n s i o n p l a n s may r e q u i r e p r o v i n c i a l government a s s i s t a n c e , such as l o a n programs and t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e and i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . The second theme r e l a t e s t o t he need t o e s t a b l i s h a r a t i o n a l e f o r a d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s between t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government and between government and p r i v a t e e n t e r -p r i s e . The marke t i s l a r g e enough t h a t no one s e c t o r a l o n e c o u l d e v e r s a t i s f y t he demand. 1 > ! i W i t h i n t h e s c o p e o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , g o v e r n m e n t a s s u m e s t h r e e r o l e s - - p r o m o t i o n a 1 , r e g u l a t o r y a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a l . A l l c a n a f f e c t t h e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y g o v e r n m e n t o f t e n f a i l s t o r e c o g n i z e t h i s a n d p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c i e s a n d p r o g r a m s o f t e n p r o d u c e c o n f l i c t i n g a n d u n a n t i c i p a t e d e f f e c t s o n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . I t i s n e c e s -s a r y f o r t h e s e g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n t o a s s u m e a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l a s p e c t s o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . R e c r e a t i o n p l a n s m u s t be c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d i n c l u d e t h e s u p p l y o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s by t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s o f g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , C a n a d a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e v e a l s t h a t o u t d o o r r e c r e a -t i o n has b e e n g e n e r a 11y a s s i g n e d t o r e s o u r c e management a g e n c i e s s u c h as p a r k s , f o r e s t r y a n d a g r i c u l t u r e . T h e r e s o u r c e management a g e n c i e s l a c k t h e l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y , f i n a n c e s , a n d p e r s o n n e l n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p e t e n t l y u n d e r t a k e a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l a s p e c t s o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . T h e s e a g e n c i e s h a v e c o n f i n e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e i r t r a -d i t i o n a l a r e a s o f c o m p e t e n c y a n d t h e r e f o r e l a r g e g a p s a p p e a r i n g o v e r n -ment p e r f o r m a n c e o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g a n d m anagement. The p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r o f t e n f a l l s w i t h i n t h e s e g a p s . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t a new i n s t i t u t i o n a l v e h i c l e i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t i s n o t f u n c t i o n a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d by p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p o l i c y f o r t h e management o f p u b l i c l a n d s . I t s h o u l d t h e n be p o s s i b l e t o r e a l i z e t h a t o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n has o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s b e y o n d t h e c o n f i n e s o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s a n d r e q u i r e s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f g u i d e l i n e s t o c l a r i f y t h e r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s o f g o v e r n -ment a n d p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s . A s u r v e y o f p r i v a t e c a m p g r o u n d o p e r a t o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n d i c a t e s a r e a d i n e s s t o a c c e p t g o v e r n m e n t l e a d e r s h i p . i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS S p e c i a l t h ank s a r e due t o t he N a t i o n a l P a r k s o f Canada , t he Donner C a n a d i a n F o u n d a t i o n , and t he B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; P r o f e s s o r P. J . D o o l i n g , F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , f o r t he use o f h i s e x t e n s i v e l i b r a r y r e s o u r c e s ; M r s . V/. G e r e c k e f o r he r a s s i s t a n c e i n c o d i n g and k e y p u n c h i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s ; and Mr s . J . Dann o f t he B. C. M o t e l s and R e s o r t s A s s o c i a t i o n f o r he r c o o p e r a t i o n i n o r g a n i z i n g the s u r v e y . The w r i t e r i s h i g h l y a p p r e c i a t i v e o f Dr . C. D a v i s and P r o f e s s o r B. Wiesman o f the S choo l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U. B. C , f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e , encouragement and c o u n s e l i n s e e i n g t h i s p r o j e c t t h r o u g h t o i t s c o n c l u s i o n . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. THE NATURE OF OUTDOOR RECREATION B a s i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ; I s s u e s R e l a t e d t o Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ; The R o l e o f P r i v a t e F a c i l i t i e s ; R e s e a r c h Needs; P u r p o s e o f t h i s Study CHAPTER I I . CHARACTERISTICS OF PRIVATE OUTDOOR RECREATION ENTERPRISES D e f i n i t i o n ; Economics o f P r i v a t e R e c r e a t i o n E n t e r p r i s e s ; C a n a d i a n R e s e a r c h ; Case S t u d i e s ; F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g S u c c e s s f u l R e c r e a t i o n E n t e r p r i s e s ; C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a S u c c e s s f u l P r i v a t e Campground CHAPTER I I I . THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF PRIVATE RECREATION ENTERPRISE AND PUBLIC POLICY Deve l o p m e n t a l R o l e ; The R e g u l a t o r y R o l e ; The P r o m o t i o n a l R o l e ; Suggested Government A s s i s t a n c e P o l i c i e s ; P u b l i c I s s u e s A r i s i n g Out o f the R o l e o f the P r i v a t e S e c t o r ; C o n c l u s i o n CHAPTER IV. GOVERNMENT POLICY AND THE PRIVATE RECREATION SECTOR—THE UNITED STATES EXPERIENCE Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Review Commission Recommenda-t i o n s ; Bureau o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ; Department o f A g r i -c u l t u r e ; O t h e r A g e n c i e s ; E f f e c t o f New Programs; Compre-h e n s i v e R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g CHAPTER V. GOVERNMENT POLICY AND THE PRIVATE RECREATION SECTOR--THE CANADIAN EXPERIENCE Reso u r c e s f o r Tomorrow C o n f e r e n c e ; F e d e r a l R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c i e s ; The ARDA Program and Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n ; I n d u s t r i a l Development Bank; N a t i o n a l P a r k s B r a n c h ; Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s CHAPTER V I . GOVERNMENT POLICY AND THE PRIVATE RECREATION SECTOR--THE BRITISH COLUMBIA EXPERIENCE. . . 103 H i s t o r y ; R e c r e a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and P r i v a t e S e c t o r ; F o r e s t S e r v i c e ; Depar tment o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a -t i o n ; Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y ; The ARDA P r o g r am; I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f J u r i s d i c t i o n a l V o i d s ; Summary o f the P r o b l e m ; A P r o p o s a l CHAPTER V I I . A SURVEY OF PRIVATE CAMPGROUNDS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 128 The S u r v e y ; L o c a t i o n ; Economic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s ; S e r v i c e s O f f e r e d ; Occupancy ; Management F e a t u r e s ; A t t i t u d e s Toward Government P o l i c i e s ; Summary o f C o n c l u s i o n s BIBLIOGRAPHY 146 APPENDIX A. OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES COMMISSION (ORRRC) RECOMMENDATIONS TO CREATE THE BUREAU OF OUTDOOR RECREATION (BOR) APPENDIX B. OUTDOOR RECREATION ACT OF 1963 APPENDIX C. SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PRIVATE CAMPGROUND OPERATOR SURVEY v i L IST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1 P r ob l ems R e p o r t e d by O p e r a t o r s o f 512 R e c r e a t i o n E n t e r p r i s e s 21 2 A v e r a g e I n v e s t m e n t s , C o s t s and R e t u r n s by S t a t e , o f Campground E n t e r p r i s e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s 24 3 P e r c e n t a g e o f S u c c e s s f u l E n t e r p r i s e s , by A ge , o f Campground Deve lopment 33 k P e r c e n t a g e o f S u c c e s s f u l E n t e r p r i s e s , by S i z e , o f Campground Deve lopment 33 5 P e r c e n t a g e o f S u c c e s s f u l E n t e r p r i s e s , by T y p e , o f On-S i t e A t t r a c t i o n 34 6 P e r c e n t a g e o f S u c c e s s f u l E n t e r p r i s e s , by G e o g r a p h i c L o c a t i o n W i t h i n t h e S t a t e 34 7 P r o p o r t i o n o f S u c c e s s f u l and U n s u c c e s s f u l Campgrounds t h a t had I n ve s tmen t s o f More than $10,000 and had 70 o r more Deve l oped F a m i l y U n i t s , A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Number o f Y e a r s i n O p e r a t i o n 35 8 Number o f S u c c e s s f u l and U n s u c c e s s f u l Campgrounds, A c c o r d i n g t o t h e P r e s e n c e o f Ab sence o f a Wate r A t t r a c t i o n , by R e g i o n a l L o c a t i o n 35 9 Summary o f M a j o r U. S. F e d e r a l C r e d i t P rograms A f f e c t i n g Commerc i a l R e c r e a t i o n (1966) 76 10 D i r e c t Loans f o r O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n o f P r i n c i p a l F e d e r a l C r e d i t A g e n c i e s (1962-64) 77 11 Types o f F a c i l i t i e s F i n a n c e d Through P r i n c i p a l F e d e r a l C r e d i t A g e n c i e s (1962-64) . . . . 78 12 F e d e r a l Funds Commi t ted t o R e s e a r c h and Deve lopment o f R e c r e a t i o n and W i l d l i f e R e s o u r c e s under ARDA and FRED f rom A p r i l , 1965, t o J u l y , 1968 91 T a b l e Page 13 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f A s s o c i a t e d F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s O f f e r e d by 215 P r i v a t e Campgrounds 135 \k Number o f O c c u p i e d C a m p s i t e N i g h t s R e p o r t e d by 158 P r i v a t e Campgrounds 136 15 P e r Cent o f C a p a c i t y F i l l e d d u r i n g 1969 O p e r a t i n g Season as R e p o r t e d by 168 P r i v a t e Campgrounds 136 16 A d v e r t i s i n g P r e f e r e n c e s o f 205 P r i v a t e Campground O p e r a t o r s 137 17 Management P rob l ems as R e p o r t e d by 205 P r i v a t e Camp-g round O p e r a t o r s 139 18 Campground O p e r a t o r A t t i t u d e s Toward Government R e c r e a t i o n P o l i c i e s ]k0 19 O p e r a t o r P r e f e r e n c e s i n A l l o c a t i o n o f R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r S e l e c t e d S e r v i c e s 141 vl i I L IST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 U n i t e d S t a t e s F e d e r a l A g e n c i e s w i t h Programs I n v o l v i n g some A s p e c t o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n 69 2 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h a r t - - B u r e a u o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . . . . 71 3 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n — G o v e r n m e n t o f Canada 95 k Canada O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n Demand S tudy 98 5 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n — G o v e r n m e n t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . . , . • .'' 104 6 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A c t i v i t i e s o f P r o v i n c i a l Government Depa r tment s o f F o r e s t r y — W e s t e r n Canada—1968 107 7 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Depar tment o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a -t i o n 108 8 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A c t i v i t i e s o f P r o v i n c i a l Government Depar tment o f P a r k s — W e s t e r n Canada—1968 112 9 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y 113 10 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P r i v a t e Campgrounds i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 131 ix-: 1 CHAPTER I THE NATURE OF OUTDOOR RECREATION The t o p i c o f r e c r e a t i o n a n d , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s one w h i c h has s e v e r a l d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h have been c o n t r o v e r s i a l a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n t i m e . Whether a t t e m p t i n g a d e f i n i t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n , a m o t i v a -t i o n a l s t u d y o f why r e c r e a t i o n i s t s p a r t i c i p a t e , an a s s e s smen t o f t h e demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n , a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and i n v e n t o r y o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , a p rog ram o f f i n a n c i n g p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n o r f o r m u l a t i o n o f a management p r a c t i f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s and f a c i l i t i e s , a v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s a r i s e . B a s i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s o r p o s t u l a t e s abou t t he g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n t h a t can be a s s e r t e d . 1. The demand f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n has grown i n t h e p a s t , i s g r o w i n g r a p i d l y t o d a y , and w i l l grow g r e a t l y i n t he f u t u r e . 2. The ma jo r s o c i o e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g t h i s s h i f t i n demand f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n have been (a) popu -l a t i o n c h a n g e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y g r owth i n t o t a l p o p u l a -t i o n but p e r h a p s a l s o c h a n g i n g age d i s t r i b u t i o n and g r o w i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n ; (b) i n c r e a s e d r e a l income pe r c a p i t a ; ( c ) improved t r a v e l f a c i l i t i e s and i n c r e a s e d t r a v e l ; and (d) i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e , p a r t l y t h r o u g h a r educed work week but a l s o t h r o u g h an i n c r e a s e i n the number o f r e t i r e d p e r s o n s and o t h e r p e r s o n s not i n the l a b o r f o r c e , and g r owth o f t he p a i d v a c a t i o n . 3. Of t he g r o w i n g l e i s u r e , o n l y a p a r t has b e e n , o r w i l l be i n t he f u t u r e , used f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . 2 h. Ou tdoo r r e c r e a t i o n i s a h i g h l y p o p u l a r and w i d e l y a c c e p t e d use o f some n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . 5. O u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n does and s h o u l d i n v o l v e bo th p u b l i c l y and p r i v a t e l y owned r e s o u r c e s and b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e e f f o r t . 6. O u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i n c l u d e s many s p e c i f i c a c t i v i -t i e s , a p p e a l i n g t o p e o p l e o f d i f f e r e n t a g e s , i n comes , and t a s t e s . T h i s i n t u r n r e q u i r e s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s and l o c a t i o n s . ( C l a w s o n , 1964, pp. 3-k) In Canada , p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t h e 1962 R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow Con -f e r e n c e r eached ag reement on a s i m i l a r s e t o f b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t he n a t u r e o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s : (a) T h e r e w i l l be a s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l demand f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s due t o an i n -c r e a s e i n l e i s u r e t i m e comb ined w i t h s u f f i c i e n t d i s p o s a b l e income f o r i t s e n j o y m e n t . F u r t h e r , t h e r e w i l l be a c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g p a t t e r n o f r e c r e a t i o n ; f o r exam-p l e , changes w h i c h wou l d come abou t w i t h t he e s t a b l i s h -ment o f a f o u r - d a y work week. (b) A w i d e range o f f a c i l i t i e s i s r e q u i r e d t o meet v a r i a t i o n s i n i n d i v i d u a l t a s t e s and i n needs f o r c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . (c ) T h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e o f u n i f o r m i t y a c r o s s Canada i n t he c h a r a c t e r o f demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i I i t i e s , (d) F u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f t he r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l t o meet r e c r e a t i o n needs r e q u i r e s deve l opment o f f a c i l i t i e s on bo th a p u b l i c and p r i v a t e b a s i s . (e) Deve lopment o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s i s a r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y s h a r e d by a l l l e v e l s o f government i n c l u d i n g m u n i c i p a l , c o u n t y o r r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l . ( f ) Demand f o r r e g i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n a 50 t o 75 m i l e r a d i u s o f l a r g e u rban c e n t e r s i s and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be i n t e n s i v e . ( R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow  C o n f e r e n c e , 1962, V o l . I l l , PP. 17W5) 3 Note bo th s e t s o f s t a t e m e n t s a g r e e t h a t both publ i c and p r i v a t e r e s o u r c e s w i l l be needed to meet the i n c r e a s e d demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n . I s sues R e l a t e d to Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n From the se b a s i c a s sumpt i on s on the n a t u r e o f r e c r e a t i o n , s e v e r a l i s s u e s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y a r i s e . 1. How can we e s t i m a t e f u t u r e demand f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and a c c u r a t e l y ? 2. How can we m a i n t a i n , and i f p o s s i b l e improve , the q u a l i t y o f the r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e ? 3. How can we manage n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s used f o r m u l t i p l e - u s e p u r p o s e s , so as to i n c l u d e and h o p e f u l l y max imize the r e c r e a t i o n v a l u e s ? 4. How can c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n s to meet f u t u r e demands f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n be d e v e l o p e d b e s t ? 5. How much o f o u r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d we a l l o c a t e to o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n ? 6. How can we bes t encou rage the p u b l i c use o f p r i v a t e l y owned a r e a s f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n ? 7. L a s t , how a r e we g o i n g to pay f o r the p u b l i c r e c r e -a t i o n a r e a s t h a t w i l l be needed in the f u t u r e ? (C l awson , 1964, pp. 4-6) T u r n i n g f rom i s s u e s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y , how a r e t h e s e r e l a t e d to p l a n n i n g ? A s i m i l a r s e t o f i s s u e s a r i s e . 1. For what forms o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n have a r e a s and f a c i l i t i e s to be p r o v i d e d ? 2. Where to p r o v i d e a r e a s f o r d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ? 3. To e s t a b l i s h s t a n d a r d s f o r d i f f e r e n t o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e s , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p e c i f i c l o c a l m o d i f y i n g f a c t o r s , such as e x i s t i n g n a t u r a l a s s e t s . k h. To c o o r d i n a t e t he r e c r e a t i o n a r e a p l a n n i n g w i t h p l a n n i n g f o r o t h e r u s e s . 5. To f i n d l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e measures t o a c q u i r e , e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n o u t d o o r r e c r e a -t i o n a l a r e a s , and s e c u r e the r e c r e a t i o n a l f u n c -t i o n o f " m u l t i p l e u s e " a r e a s . 6. E s t a b l i s h a g u i d i n g p o l i c y f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u ses t o be p r o v i d e d by t he v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g o v e r n -ment and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s . ( M a t t y a s o v s z k y , 1963, p. 126) An a t t e m p t t o examine the e n t i r e range o f i s s u e s p r e s e n t e d i s beyond t he s c ope o f t h i s p a p e r . I t i s i n t e n d e d t o f o c u s on one p a r t i c u -l a r a s p e c t — t h a t r e l a t i n g t o p u b l i c use o f p r i v a t e l y owned r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . A l l f o u r p r e v i o u s q u o t a t i o n s have i n d i c a t e d ag reement t h a t t h i s t o p i c i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms o f p r o v i d i n g e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e r e c r e a -t i o n s pace t o meet p r e d i c t e d f u t u r e demands. The R o l e o f P r i v a t e F a c i l i t i e s The i n c l u s i o n o f p r i v a t e l y owned r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s i n s t a t e -ments o f i s s u e s a r i s i n g f r o m o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n w o u l d seem t o i m p l y t h a t the p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a -t i o n i s not s u f f i c i e n t now, o r i n t he f u t u r e , t o meet t h e demand. T h i s p r e m i s e can be e a s i l y r e i n f o r c e d . In my own v a l u e s y s t e m , I f e e l t h a t m a j o r e x p a n s i o n s o f p u b l i c l y owned o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s a r e n e e d e d , and I have s a i d so e l s e w h e r e ; but i t i s h i g h l y d o u b t -f u l i f p u b l i c a r e a s e i t h e r can o r s h o u l d s u p p l y the w h o l e demand. T h e r e a r e v a s t a r e a s o f p r i v a t e l y owned f a r m , f o r e s t , and range l and s w h i c h can p r o v i d e o u t -doo r r e c r e a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r m a j o r u s e . ( C l a w s o n , 1964, p. 6) In Canada , s i m i l a r o p i n i o n s have been s t a t e d . 5 The i n d i c a t i o n s f r om s t u d i e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l demand a r e t h a t t h e r e i s an a l m o s t i n s a t i a b l e ma r ke t f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . . . . The re i s a l a r g e enough marke t t h a t no one l e v e l o f Government o r any g r oup o f p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s w i l l e v e r be a b l e t o s a t i s f y the p r e s s u r e . ( T a y l o r , 1965, p. 10) R e s e a r c h Needs To t h i s p o i n t , i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t r e c r e a t i o n on p r i v a t e l and s i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . S t i l l t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i s what k i n d o f r e s e a r c h i n t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n on p r i v a t e l a nd i s needed . The r o l e o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n has been g e n e r a l l y i g n o r e d by r e s e a r c h e r s i n t h e f i e l d o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . M a j o r a t t e n t i o n f o c u s e s on p u b l i c o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , p a r t l y becau se so much b e t t e r d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r i t , and p a r t l y becau se i s s u e s o f p u b l i c p o l i c y a r e r a i s e d w h i c h c a n n o t be a v o i d e d . But p u b l i c use o f p r i v a t e l y owned r e s o u r c e s i s h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t i n t he o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f i e l d and s h o u l d not be n e g l e c t e d . ( C l a w s o n , 1964, p. 4) G e n e r a l l y t h e s e i s s u e s a r i s i n g f r o m p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r -p r i s e s can be c o n s i d e r e d i n two c o n t e x t s . a . In t he f i r s t p l a c e , t h e r e needs t o be a r a t i o n a l e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t he deve l opment o f a h i e r a r c h y o f p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . I t seems o n l y l o g i c a l t o l o o k i n t o t he p o s s i b i l i t y o f some measure o f d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r i n t he p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s between t he v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f Government t h e m s e l v e s and between Government and p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s . I t w i l l have t o be a d m i t t e d f r o m the s t a r t t h a t no c l e a r c u t d i v i s i o n w i l l be p o s s i b l e no r wou l d one be d e s i r a b l e . I t i s v e r y l i k e l y , howeve r , t h a t some g u i d e l i n e s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d t o c l a r i f y the r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s o f G o v e r n -ment and p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s . Any such g u i d e l i n e s t h a t were g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e wou l d e n a b l e much more e f -f e c t i v e p a r k s y s tems p l a n n i n g t o be c a r r i e d o u t . 6 b. A second c o n t e x t i s t o be f ound i n t he o p e r a t i o n o f a r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s on p r i v a t e l and s by p r i v a t e c a p i t a l . T h e r e i s a number o f p r ob l ems t h a t a r i s e i m m e d i a t e l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h such use o f p r i v a t e l a n d s . R e s e a r c h on a v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s i s needed t o s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n t o be used i n t he s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s . F i r s t o f a l l , we need t o know t h e e x t e n t o f r e c r e a -t i o n a l use on t h e s e l a nd s now. . . . A s econd a r e a o f s t u d y s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l e g a l p o s i t i o n o f the p r i v a t e l a ndowne r . . . . A t h i r d a r e a o f i n t e r e s t t o t he l and owner i s t he m a t t e r o f e c o n o m i c s . . . . A f o u r t h a r e a o f s t u d y s h o u l d be t h a t o f t he e f f e c t o f l o c a t i o n . . . . A f i n a l a r e a o f r e q u i r e d s t u d y i n t he f i e l d o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s i s t h a t o f t he r o l e o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . What a r e t he a t t r i b u t e s o f a s u c c e s s -f u l o p e r a t o r , what s p e c i a l t a l e n t s o r s k i l l s , i f a n y , s h o u l d he p o s s e s s ? ( T a y l o r , 1965, pp. 10-12) The 1962 R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow C o n f e r e n c e recommended: To meet o p e r a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , t he p r i m a r y need i s f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c r i t e r i a and s t a n d a r d s ; . . . . . . (d) C r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the r e l a t i v e r o l e s o f p r i v a t e , c o m m e r c i a l , v o l u n t a r y and government a g e n c i e s i n r e c r e a t i o n . ( R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow  C o n f e r e n c e , V o l . I l l , p. 186) The need f o r r e s e a r c h i n t h e s e a r e a s i s f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d . C o n c e r n i n g t h e p r i v a t e p r o v i s i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n on f o r e s t l a n d s , we need an swer s t o s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s . What o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s can t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r b e s t p r o v i d e ? H a v i n g a s s e s s e d t h i s , what a r e t he f i n a n c i a l , l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s o f p r i v a t e s e c t o r p r o v i s i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n ? These t h i n g s a r e p o o r l y u n d e r s t o o d i n W e s t e r n Canada . ( D o o l i n g , I969, p. 11) 6 b. A second c o n t e x t i s t o be f ound i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s on p r i v a t e l ands by p r i v a t e c a p i t a l . T h e r e i s a number o f p r ob l ems t h a t a r i s e i m m e d i a t e l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h such use o f p r i v a t e l a n d s . R e s e a r c h on a v a r i e t y o f t o p i c s i s needed t o s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n t o be used i n the s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s . F i r s t o f a l l , we need t o know t h e e x t e n t o f r e c r e a -t i o n a l use on t h e s e l a nd s now. . . . A second a r e a o f s t u d y s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l e g a l p o s i t i o n o f t he p r i v a t e l a ndowne r . . . . A t h i r d a r e a o f i n t e r e s t t o t he l and owner i s t he m a t t e r o f e c o n o m i c s . . . . A f o u r t h a r e a o f s t u d y s h o u l d be t h a t o f t h e e f f e c t o f l o c a t i o n . . . . A f i n a l a r e a o f r e q u i r e d s t u d y i n the f i e l d o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s i s t h a t o f the r o l e o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p . What a r e t he a t t r i b u t e s o f a s u c c e s s -f u l o p e r a t o r , what s p e c i a l t a l e n t s o r s k i l l s , i f a n y , s h o u l d he p o s s e s s ? ( T a y l o r , 1965, pp. 10-12) The 1962 R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow C o n f e r e n c e recommended: To meet o p e r a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , the p r i m a r y need i s f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c r i t e r i a and s t a n d a r d s ; (d) C r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t he r e l a t i v e r o l e s o f p r i v a t e , c o m m e r c i a l , v o l u n t a r y and government a g e n c i e s i n r e c r e a t i o n . ( R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow  C o n f e r e n c e , V o l . I l l , p. 186) The need f o r r e s e a r c h i n t h e s e a r e a s i s f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d . C o n c e r n i n g t h e p r i v a t e p r o v i s i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n on f o r e s t l a n d s , we need an swer s t o s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s . What o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s can t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r b e s t p r o v i d e ? Hav i n g a s s e s s e d t h i s , what a r e t he f i n a n c i a l , l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s o f p r i v a t e s e c t o r p r o v i s i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n ? These t h i n g s a r e p o o r l y u n d e r s t o o d i n Wes te rn Canada . ( D o o l i n g , I969, p. 11) 7 P u r p o s e o f t h i s S t udy The f o r e g o i n g has been a b r i e f o v e r v i e w o f t he r e s e a r c h needs r e l a t e d t o p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n by t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . T h i s s t u d y i n t e n d s t o t a k e a b r oad p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h i s i s s u e and as such i s i n t r o -d u c t o r y i n n a t u r e . No one s p e c i f i c i s s u e r e l a t i n g t o p r i v a t e p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t o be p u r s u e d . R e s e a r c h may be t h o u g h t o f as an o r g a n i z e d s e a r c h f o r k now ledge . T h i s s e a r c h f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g can be done i n two way s : f i r s t , a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t comes f r o m a r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f o l d f a c t s and i d e a s ; and s e c o n d , an o r g a n i z e d s e a r c h f o r new k n o w l e d g e . In te rms o f a r e a r r a n g e m e n t o f o l d f a c t s and i d e a s , t h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o c a t a l o g u e government p o l i c i e s t h a t a f f e c t p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n was t o s t u d y o n l y c o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s , t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and management p r o b l e m s r a t h e r t han i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n s o f p u b l i c management and o w n e r s h i p . T h i s a s p e c t i s c o v e r e d i n C h a p t e r I I . I t becomes e v i d e n t however t h a t government p o l i c y t owa rd s p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n c a n n o t be s t u d i e d i n i s o l a t i o n f r om government p o l i c y t oward s o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . A government d e c i s i o n t o e s t a b l i s h a p r o v i n c i a l p a r k p r o b a b l y i n c l u d e s no d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t by p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n o p e r a t o r s bu t i t w o u l d have f a r r a n g i n g a f f e c t s on p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e new p a r k . A d e c i s i o n t o i n t r o d u c e u s e r f e e s i n p r o v i n c i a l campgrounds w o u l d have t remendous s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r p r i v a t e campgrounds . In t h i s r e s p e c t , p o l i c i e s and p r o -grams toward s p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s must be v i e w e d w i t h i n t he t o t a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f a l l government p o l i c i e s t oward s o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . The se i m p o r t a n t c omp lemen ta r y and c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between 8 p u b l i c and p r i v a t e uses o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d w i l l be s t u d i e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . Government p o l i c i e s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r i v a t e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r a r e o f two g e n e r a l t y p e s - - r e g u l a t o r y and p r o m o t i o n a l . R e g u l a t o r y p o l i c i e s i n c l u d e such s t a t u t e s as the H e a l t h A c t , I nnkeepe r s A c t , H ighways A c t , e t c . , w h i c h s t a t e c e r t a i n r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s must comply i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a l i c e n c e t o o p e r a t e t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . The second c a t e g o r y o f government p o l i c y r e l a t e s t o t h o s e t y p e s o f p rograms d e s i g n e d t o e n c o u r a g e the deve l opmen t and u p g r a d i n g o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . I n c l u d e d a r e p rograms o f a d v e r t i s i n g and t o u r i s t p r o m o t i o n , f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e , t e c h n i c a l , and management a d v i c e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s no t m e r e l y t o l i s t r e l e v a n t p o l i c i e s and programs but t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r o r no t t hey have been f o r m u l a t e d i n a manner t h a t c o n s i d e r s : the needs and d e s i r e s o f t he p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s . Government p o l i c i e s by U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d i a n f e d e r a l gove rnment s w i l l be compared i n C h a p t e r s IV and V a n d , i n a d d i t i o n , t he p o l i c i e s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o v i n c i a l government w i l l be a s s e s s e d i n C h a p t e r V I . In terms o f r e s e a r c h f o r new k n o w l e d g e , C h a p t e r V l l w i l l go beyond the a s s e s smen t o f c u r r e n t government p o l i c i e s and w i l l i n c l u d e t he s u r v e y r e s u l t s o f p r i v a t e campground o p e r a t o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s s u r v e y w i l l i n c l u d e t a b u l a t i o n s o f the s i z e o f the e n t e r p r i s e , n a t u r e o f the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d , vo lume o f b u s i n e s s , t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s and management p r a c t i c e s . A l s o i n c l u d e d w i l l be an e v a l u a t i o n by p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s o f p r e s e n t government p o l i c i e s t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . 3 CHAPTER I I CHARACTERISTICS OF PRIVATE OUTDOOR RECREATION ENTERPRISES Def i n ? t i o n The use o f p r i v a t e l a nd f o r r e c r e a t i o n can be c a t e g o r i z e d i n two way s . F i r s t , t he p r i v a t e l and may be used e x c l u s i v e l y f o r t h e e n -j o y m e n t o f t he o w n e r s . T h i s may range f r o m a summer c o t t a g e , a c h u r c h o r y o u t h camp, a y a c h t o r g o l f c l u b f o r members o n l y , t o an i n d u s t r i a l r e c r e a t i o n a r e a a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o emp loyees and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . S e cond , t he p r i v a t e l a n d may be used by t he p u b l i c s u b j e c t t o an e n t r a n c e f e e o r u s e r c h a r g e . In t h i s c a s e , t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f t he n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and f a c i l i t i e s as a c o m m e r c i a l v e n t u r e i s t h e p r i m e use o f t he l a n d a l t h o u g h not n e c e s s a r i l y t he s o l e s o u r c e o f income o f t he owner . I t i s t h i s s econd c a t e g o r y o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t w i l l be t he m a j o r f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y and t he main emphas i s w i l l be on t h o s e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t depend on an o u t d o o r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e ba se . B o w l i n g a l l e y s , p r i v a t e l y o p e r a t e d z o o s , sw im-ming p o o l s , e t c . , w i l l not be c o n s i d e r e d . A l s o e x c l u d e d f r o m the s t u d y w i l l be t he m u l t i p l e use o f p r i v a t e l and s f o r h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g where t h o s e l a nd s a r e p r i m a r i l y used f o r f o r e s t r y o r a g r i c u l t u r e and t he p r i v a t e o p e r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s on p u b l i c l a nd s v i a a " c o n -c e s s i o n " a r r a n g e m e n t . 10 The p r i m e c o n c e r n o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f p r i v a t e campgrounds and a l l r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s (boa t r e n t a l s , s h o w e r s , g r o c e r i e s , l a u n d r y rooms, a u t o m o b i l e and m a r i n e s u p p l i e s , p r o p a n e - t a n k f i l l i n g , e t c . ) t h a t a r e s u p p l i e d a t t h e c a m p s i t e . Many o t h e r p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s however s uch as h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g r e s o r t s , dude r a n c h e s , v a c a t i o n f a r m s , w a t e r f r o n t r e s o r t s , h u n t i n g p r e s e r v e s , s k i r e -s o r t s and f i s h ponds e x h i b i t s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r o b l e m s as campgrounds . The s t u d y t hen w i l l d e a l w i t h p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r -p r i s e s i n g e n e r a l and l i m i t i t s e l f t o p r i v a t e campgrounds o n l y when a p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t i s s u e makes a more s p e c i f i c d i s c u s s i o n n e c e s s a r y . C h a p t e r V l l w i l l r e s t r i c t i t s e l f t o t h e a s s e s smen t o f campground o p e r a t o r q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s and w i l l o m i t o t h e r t y p e s o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . Economic s o f P r i v a t e R e c r e a t i o n E n t e r p r i s e s G e n e r a l l y t h e e conom i c v a l u a t i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s a s u b j e c t w h i c h e c o n o m i s t s f i n d c o n c e p t u a l l y d i f f i c u l t . T h i s i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y t r u e w i t h r e g a r d t o t he p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n s i n c e r e c r e a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d a non -ma r ke t good and l i k e e d u c a t i o n i s f i n a n c e d m a i n l y v i a g e n e r a l t a x a t i o n , no t u s e r c h a r g e s . Because o f i t s n on -ma r ke t c h a r a c t e r , the t r a d i t i o n a l e conom i c t o o l s o f p r i c e t h e o r y a r e no t g e n e r a l l y a p p l i c a b l e . (C l awson and K n e t s c h , 1969; D a v i s , 1968; H i n e s , 1968; P e a r s e , 1968) The c o n c e p t u a l and p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f p l a c i n g a v a l u e on p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a r e most o b v i o u s when c h o o s i n g between r e c r e a t i o n and some o t h e r a l t e r n a t e use o f l a nd ( i . e . f o r e s t r y , m i n i n g , h y d r o ) . I t wou l d appea r t h a t t h e s e c o n c e p t u a l e conom i c i s s u e s t h a t 11 p l a g u e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a r e no t as p r e v a l e n t when one c o n s i d e r s t he f i e l d o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n . Fo r t he p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r , t h e i s s u e o f a l -t e r n a t e uses o f l a nd i s a s i m p l e one . H i s r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e must p r o duce a p r o f i t o r he w i l l t r y a l t e r n a t i v e uses o f t he l a n d u n t i l he f a c e s b a n k r u p t c y and must s e l l t he p r o p e r t y and b u s i n e s s . Becau se o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s , as opposed t o p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o use s t a n d a r d t e r m i n o l o g y f r o m the f i e l d o f e conom i c s t o d e s c r i b e some o f t h e m a j o r f e a t u r e s o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . In the c o n t e x t o f m i c r o - e c o n o m i c t h e o r y , t h e p r i v a t e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e o p e r a t e s i n a m a r k e t w h i c h t he e c o n o m i s t s c a l l " m o n o p o l i s t i c - c o m p e t i t i o n " . ( Bower s , 1969; L i p s e y and S t e i n e r , 1969) In t he p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n i n d u s t r y , p r o d u c t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n e x i s t s s i n c e t h e r e a r e s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o c a t i o n , t y p e o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n s , and p r e s t i g e o f r e s o r t s . V a r i a t i o n s a r e f ound i n the p r o d u c t and i n the a d v e r t i s i n g but c o m p e t i t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y n o n - p r i c e c o m p e t i t i o n . . . .a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p r o d u c t i s o f f e r e d by many s e l l e r s , each w i t h h i s own v a r i e t y o f t h e p r o d u c t . These b u s i n e s s e s r e q u i r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l i n v e s t -ment and l i t t l e e x p e r i e n c e o r k n o w l e d g e . . . . T h e r e i s f r e e e n t r y and e x i t i n t he i n d u s t r y and no i n d i v i d u a l f i r m can e f f e c t i v e l y a l t e r t h e t o t a l amount o f t h e p r o d u c t on t he m a r k e t . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i s a c h i e v e d by v a r i -a t i o n i n the q u a l i t y o f c a b i n s and f u r n i s h i n g s , b o a t s , e n t e r t a i n m e n t f a c i l i t i e s a t t he r e s o r t . . . . The p r e s t i g e o f t he r e s o r t . . . . The h o s p i t a l i t y o f t he h o s t v a r i e s f r o m r e s o r t t o r e s o r t . ( A n d e r s o n , 1959, pp . 67-68) 12 W h i l e each r e s o r t i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m a n o t h e r , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a consumer t o s u b s t i t u t e one f o r a n o t h e r . One campground can p r o b a b l y be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r a n o t h e r even though i t i s not i d e n t i c a l t o any o t h e r campground. In p e r f e c t c o m p e t i t i o n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r a f i r m t o r a i s e i t s p r i c e s . I f i t d o e s , t h e consumer w i l l s w i t c h t o o t h e r f i r m s s e l l i n g a t t he l o w e r p r i c e . T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e f o r m o n o p o l i s t i c c o m p e t i t i o n e x c e p t t h a t a f i r m can d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t s p r o d u c t . I f a f i s h i n g l o d ge has a p a r t i c u l a r l y m a g n i f i c e n t s e t t i n g , i t c o u l d p o s s i b l y c h a r g e a h i g h e r r a t e t han a c o m p e t i t o r who i s not as w e l l l o c a t e d . Q u a l i t y v a r i a t i o n s i n l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s a t r e s o r t s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o s a t i s f y t he d i f f e r e n c e s i n t a s t e s and p r e f e r e n c e s o f c on sumer s . A d v e r t i s i n g i s d e s i g n e d t o some e x t e n t t o l u r e c u s t o m e r s i n t o a p a r t i c u l a r r e s o r t r a t h e r than a n o t h e r but i t can draw new c u s t o m e r s . These g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f t he m o n o p o l i s t i c - c o m p e t i t i o n n a t u r e o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n m a r k e t can be more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d i f t h e c o n c e p t s o f t i m e and d i s t a n c e a r e i n c l u d e d . I f a p e r s o n i s s h o p p i n g i n a s u p e r -marke t and f e e l s t h e p r i c e s o f o r ange s a r e t o o h i g h , he has t he o p p o r t u n i t y o f s u b s t i t u t i n g bananas o r a p p l e s . T ime and d i s t a n c e w i l l p r o b a b l y no t p r e v e n t h i s s h o p p i n g a t a n o t h e r s t o r e . On t he o t h e r hand , i f a f a m i l y i s camp ing i n t h e Okanagan and f i n d s c o n d i t i o n s c r o w d e d , u n s a n i t a r y a n d / o r e x p e n s i v e , t h e s e f a c t o r s o f t i m e and d i s t a n c e w i l l p r o b a b l y r e s t r i c t t he p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u b s t i t u t i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e h o l i d a y s i t e . An a l t e r n a t e c h o i c e such as a r e s o r t i n t h e G u l f I s l a n d s w o u l d p r o b a b l y r e q u i r e r e s e r v a t i o n s and a d d i t i o n a l e conom i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Becau se each c a m p e r ' s d e c i s i o n t o b y - p a s s t he Okanagan i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f e v e r y o t h e r camper , i t may t a k e s e v e r a l s ea son s b e f o r e a n o t i c e a b l e d e c r e a s e o f 13 c u s t o m e r s i s f e l t i n t h a t a r e a and the ma r ke t i s f o r c e d t o a d a p t t o pub 1i c demands. From t h i s r a t h e r g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f m o n o p o l i s t i c - c o m p e t i t i o n as t y p i f i e d by t h e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n m a r k e t , s e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s can be d rawn. ( A n d e r s o n , 1959) 1. No i n d i v i d u a l f i r m can s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r t h e t o t a l amount o f t h e p r o d u c t on t he m a r k e t . 2. T h e r e i s f r e e e n t r y and e x i t t o t h e m a r k e t . 3. S i n c e t h e r e i s l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o d u c t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , p r o f i t s a r e d e p r e s s e d b e c a u s e consumers can s w i t c h f r o m one r e s o r t t o a n o t h e r i f p r i c e s a r e r a i s e d . k. S i g n i f i c a n t p r o d u c t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n can g e n e r a l l y be a c h i e v e d o n l y w i t h i n c r e a s e d c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s . 5. P r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s r e s o r t t o n o n - p r i c e c o m p e t i t i o n t o o b t a i n a l a r g e r s h a r e o f t he ma r ke t ( a d v e r t i s i n g , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s ) . 6. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f p r o d u c t s r e s u l t s f r o m a t t e m p t s t o improve t he q u a l i t y o f t h e p r o d u c t ( h o s p i t a l i t y , c l e a n l i n e s s , p r e s t i g e ) , no t i n c r e a t i n g new p r o d u c t s . 7. T h e r e a r e t oo many f i r m s i n the m a r k e t as e v i d e n c e d by o p e r a -t i o n a t l e s s than f u l l c a p a c i t y . The p r e s e n c e o f e x c e s s c a p a c i t y and t h e need f o r l a r g e r c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s m i gh t a t f i r s t a p p e a r c o n t r a d i c t o r y . However , e n t e r p r i s e s a d e q u a t e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and o f f e r i n g q u a l i t y f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e l a r g e r o u t l a y s o f c a p i t a l . E x c e s s c a p a c i t y i s , i n p a r t , a r e s u l t o f t o o many s m a l l , u n d e r f i n a n c e d e n t e r p r i s e s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and o f f e r i n g a s e r v i c e f o r w h i c h demand i s not p r e s e n t o r a d e q u a t e . ( Bower s , 1969, p. 92) 14 Any d i s c u s s i o n o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n i s c o m p l i c a t e d by c o m p e t i -t i o n f r o m the p u b l i c p a r k s s y s t e m . A p r i v a t e f e e c h a r g i n g t r o u t pond competes w i t h hundreds o f l a k e s w i t h f r e e p u b l i c a c c e s s . P r i v a t e camp-g round and p i c n i c s i t e s compete w i t h m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l p a r k s . In a d d i t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n s by n o n - r e c r e a t i o n o r i e n t e d government d e p a r t m e n t s (H ighways and/o r H e a l t h ) can a f f e c t t h e o p e r a t i o n o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . In t h i s c h a p t e r , an e f f o r t w i l l be made t o d e a l w i t h p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m p u b l i c p o l i c i e s . C h a p t e r I I I w i l l f u r t h e r e x p l o r e t he r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t he p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r s . C a n a d i a n R e s e a r c h In Canada , i t a p p e a r s t h a t no f i e l d r e s e a r c h has been u n d e r t a k e n and hence l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s . The o n l y two r e f e r e n c e s d i s c o v e r e d were r e l a t e d t o r u r a l de ve l opmen t p r o j e c t s . A s t u d y by Bake r unde r t he A g r i c u l t u r a l and R u r a l Deve lopment A c t l e g i s l a t i o n was a g e n e r a l i n v e s t i -g a t i o n i n t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n as a means o f o v e r -coming r u r a l p o v e r t y . ( B a k e r , I966) The o t h e r r e f e r e n c e was a c a s e s t u d y o f t he a p p l i c a t i o n o f ARDA f und s t o d e v e l o p r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s on I n d i a n r e s e r v e s . ( E n g l a n d , 1968) N e i t h e r s t u d y was c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n d e a l i n g w i t h the i s s u e o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n . The B a k e r r e p o r t was w r i t t e n s o l e l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a f o r r u r a l a s s i s t a n c e p rograms by a government a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n c y . The Eng l and r e p o r t a s s e s s e d t h e l o c a t i o n and s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s e v e r a l I n d i a n r e s e r v e s i n O n t a r i o t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h s i t e s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d as a u t o m o b i l e campgrounds . In b o t h c a s e s , p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n was t o be t h e means o f 15 a c h i e v i n g a g o a l . An improvement i n t he l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s o f a p a r t i c u -l a r g roup i n s o c i e t y was t he end p o i n t o f t he s t u d i e s ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , n e i t h e r s t u d y c o v e r e d r e c r e a t i o n i n d e p t h . The p u r p o s e o f C h a p t e r II i s t o d e a l w i t h t h e g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s , t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e conom i c v i a b i l i t y , and p r o b l e m s o f o p e r a t i o n . Fo r t h i s p u r p o s e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t u r n t o r e s e a r c h f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . C a n a d i a n r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be d e a l t : w i t h more f u l l y i n C h a p t e r V. Case S t u d i e s The f i r s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e a t t e m p t t o s u r v e y t h e f i e l d o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s was by t h e O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Rev i ew C o m m i s s i o n . (ORRRC, S tudy R e p o r t No. I I , 1962) T h i s s t u d y was hampered by t h e f a c t t h a t no c e n t r a l l i s t i n g o f a l l p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r -p r i s e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s e x i s t e d . As a r e s u l t , t he s amp le o f a p p r o x i -m a t e l y 1,110 o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s u sed by t he s t u d y was no t a f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l r e g i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r o f a l l t y p e s o f e n t e r p r i s e s . The s t u d y summar i zed the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l l t y p e s o f b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s c o m p r i s i n g t he p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n i n d u s t r y . 1. A m a j o r i t y o f t he r a n c h , campground , s h o o t i n g p r e -s e r v e , and h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g camp e n t e r p r i s e s , as w e l l as n a t i o n a l p a r k i n h o l d i n g s , and p r o b a b l y t he fa rms o f f e r i n g v a c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , a r e owned by i n d i v i d u a l s o r f a m i l i e s . Companies o r c o r p o r a t i o n s own most r e -s o r t s and r e s o r t h o t e l s , b e a c h e s , s k i a r e a f a c i l i t i e s , and i n d u s t r i a l emp loyee r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . 2. G e n e r a l l y , t he campgrounds , b e a c h e s , y a c h t and boa t c l u b s , n a t i o n a l p a r k i n h o l d i n g s , i n d u s t r i a l r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s , I z aak W a l t o n League f a c i l i t i e s , and Ma i ne h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g camps t end t owa rd s m a l l h o l d i n g s and more i n t e n s i v e l a n d u s e s . C o n v e r s e l y , dude r a n c h e s , s h o o t i n g p r e s e r v e s , and s k i a r e a s t end toward l a r g e h o l d i n g s and e x t e n s i v e t y p e s o f l a n d u s e s . Of t he 1,114 r e p l i e s ( e x c l u d i n g v a c a t i o n f a r m s ) t o t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e , o p e r a t o r s r e p o r t e d 23 p e r c e n t o f t h e s i t e s a r e 9 .9 a c r e s o r l e s s , 18 p e r c e n t have between 10 and 49 a c r e s , 8 p e r c e n t have s i t e s o f 50 t o 99 a c r e s , 10 p e r c e n t have between 100 and 199 a c r e s , 18 p e r c e n t have be tween 200 and 499 a c r e s , and 23 p e r c e n t have 500 a c r e s o r more . 3. In r e c r e a t i o n c a t e g o r i e s i n w h i c h t h e r a t i o o f improvement v a l u e s t o l a n d v a l u e s i s h i g h , t h e l a n d i s u s u a l l y o p e r a t o r - o w n e d . In t h o s e c a t e g o r i e s i n w h i c h t h e r a t i o o f l a n d v a l u e s t o improvement v a l u e s i s h i g h , g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n s o f l a n d a r e l e a s e d . E x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s g e n e r a l r u l e appea r t o be y a c h t and boa t c l u b s , where l e a s i n g p r e d o m i n a t e s , y e t t h e r a t i o o f improvement v a l u e s t o l a n d v a l u e s i s h i g h . 4. R e c r e a t i o n i s t he p r i m a r y l a n d use a t most o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n v e n t o r i e d . Where r e c r e a t i o n i s no t the p r i m a r y u s e , r a n c h i n g , f a r m i n g , o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e two we re most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d as t h e p r i m a r y l a nd u se . Of t he o t h e r p r i m a r y u s e s , f o r e s t r y was t h e n e x t most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d . 5. Swimming i s t h e f a c i l i t y most f r e q u e n t l y o f f e r e d a t t h e s e r e c r e a t i o n u n i t s . F i s h i n g f a c i l i t i e s a r e n e x t f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by b o a t i n g . Of more t han 20 t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d as f i r s t , s e c o n d , o r t h i r d i n p o p u l a r i t y , w a t e r s p o r t s a c c o u n t f o r 48 p e r c e n t o f the 2 ,570 t o t a l l i s t -i n g s . A c t i v i t i e s mak ing e x t e n s i v e use o f l a n d , s uch as h u n t i n g , s k i i n g , and p i c n i c k i n g , a c c o u n t f o r 41 p e r -c e n t o f t he l i s t i n g s . I n t e n s i v e s p o r t s a c c o u n t f o r 6 p e r c e n t , and m i s c e l l a n e o u s a c t i v i t i e s , such as s i g h t -s e e i n g and d a n c i n g , a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g 5- p e r c e n t . 6. Of t he i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s and a c t i v i t i e s , swimming i s most p o p u l a r , f i s h i n g i s s e c o n d , and b o a t i n g and h u n t -i ng t i e f o r t h i r d most p o p u l a r . These a r e f o l l o w e d by s k i i n g , r i d i n g , p i c n i c k i n g , c a m p i n g , and g o l f . O t h e r a c t i v i t i e s f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d a r e s a i l i n g and r a c -i n g , w a t e r s k i i n g , h i k i n g and m o u n t a i n c l i m b i n g , and t e n n i s . M i s c e l l a n e o u s w i n t e r s p o r t s , r i f l e s h o o t i n g , s i g h t s e e i n g , p h o t o g r a p h y , p a r t i e s and e n t e r t a i n m e n t , d a n c i n g ( i n c l u d i n g s q u a r e d a n c i n g ) , and b a s e b a l l were m e n t i o n e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . 7. Fees o f some t y p e a r e c h a r g e d by most o f t he r e c r e a -t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s i n v e n t o r i e d . These v a r y f r om a l l -i n c l u s i v e f e e s a t many r e s o r t s and r anche s t o e n t r a n c e f e e s a t c o m m e r c i a l beaches and t e n t - s i t e c h a r g e s a t campgrounds . 8. About 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e o p e r a t o r s r e p l y i n g and many o f t h e v a c a t i o n fa rms a r e nea r p u b l i c l and s and w a t e r s used f o r r e c r e a t i o n . N e a r l y h a l f o f them a r e a l s o nea r o t h e r p r i v a t e l y owned r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . 9. No p r o b l e m s were r e p o r t e d by 51 p e r c e n t o f t he o p e r a -t o r s who r e sponded t o t he q u e s t i o n . Of t he p r o b l e m s r e p o r t e d by t he o t h e r k3 p e r c e n t , 72 p e r c e n t a r e g u e s t -c r e a t e d ; 19 p e r c e n t a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e b u s i n e s s o p e r a -t i o n s ; 5 p e r c e n t a r e r e l a t e d t o p o l i c y a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g o ve rnmen t ; and human r e l a t i o n s , a c t s o f God, and l e g a l p r o b l e m s a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g -i p e r c e n t . 10. I n t e n s i v e o p e r a t i o n s have a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f g u e s t - c r e a t e d p r o b l e m s than e x t e n s i v e ones becau se a g r e a t e r number o f p e o p l e must be w a t c h e d . C o n v e r s e l y , i t i s o f t e n e a s i e r t o p o l i c e c rowds t han i t i s t o c a t c h t he v a n d a l s and o t h e r t r o u b l e m a k e r s on e x t e n s i v e h o l d i n g s , such as s h o o t i n g p r e s e r v e s and i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t l a n d s . 11. Most o f t he p r o b l e m s a r e c a u s e d by a n t i s o c i a l a c t i o n s o f t h e g u e s t s - - t h e most f r e q u e n t l y b e i n g v a n -d a l i s m , t r a s h and l i t t e r i n g , and c a r e l e s s n e s s w i t h f i r e . 12. G o v e r n m e n t - c r e a t e d p r o b l e m s o f two t y p e s a l s o o c c u r -t h o s e cau sed by c o n f l i c t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i n a d j o i n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s and t h o s e c a u s e d by i n a d e q u a t e u n d e r -s t a n d i n g . 13- Many r e s p o n d e n t s p l a n t o expand t h e i r p r e s e n t f a c i -l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e n e x t few y e a r s . E x t e n s i v e s p o r t s ( r i d i n g , h u n t i n g , and so f o r t h ) a c c o u n t f o r 5^ p e r c e n t o f a l l new f a c i l i t i e s p l a n n e d , w a t e r s p o r t s f o r 3** p e r c e n t , i n t e n s i v e s p o r t s f o r 4 p e r c e n t , and m i s c e l l a -neous s p o r t s and a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g 8 p e r c e n t . ]k. Of a l l r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s p l a n n e d , w i n t e r s p o r t s a r e m e n t i o n e d most f r e q u e n t l y ; t hey a c c o u n t f o r 22 p e r -c e n t o f t he t o t a l . B o a t i n g , sw imming , c a m p i n g , p i c -n i c k i n g and f i s h i n g a r e a l s o h i g h on t he l i s t o f f a c i l i t i e s p l a n n e d . H u n t i n g , h i k i n g , and g o l f a l s o were m e n t i o n e d by a t l e a s t a dozen r e s p o n d e n t s as on t h e i r l i s t o f f u t u r e f a c i l i t i e s . O t h e r p l a n n e d r e c r e a -t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e s t h o s e f o r p u t t i n g g r e e n s and m i n i a t u r e g o l f ; v o l l e y b a l l , s o f t b a l l , b a s e b a l l , and f o o t b a l l ; s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , amusements, and a d d i t i o n a l l o d g i n g . 15- A p p a r e n t l y , t h e r e i s no s i n g l e opt imum s i z e o f b u s i n e s s i n any o f t h e v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s s t u d i e d . The opt imum s i z e v a r i e s w i t h t he age and a b i l i o f t he o p e r a t o r s , t h e l a b o r f o r c e ' s d e p e n d a b i l i t y , t he l o c a t i o n o f t he b u s i n e s s , the s e a s o n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s , t he d e g r e e and q u a l i t y o f c o m p e t i t i o n , and o t h e r f a c -t o r s . E n t e r p r i s e s c a t e r i n g t o s p e c t a t o r s r a t h e r t han p a r t i c i p a n t s g e n e r a l l y seem t o be o p e r a t i n g a t l e s s than c a p a c i t y . T h e i r g rounds c o u l d s e r v e l a r g e r numbers o f v i s i t o r s and t h e i r s t a f f s c o u l d be expanded e a s i l y and q u i c k l y . S m a l l and r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e changes i n f a c i l i t i e s m i gh t be r e q u i r e d i n some i n s t a n c e s t o manage l a r g e r c rowds and t o p r o t e c t f a c i l i t i e s f r o m damage r e l a t e d t o g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n u s e . 16. H i g h , r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d c o s t s t h a t v a r y l i t t l e i n r e l a t i o n t o number o f g u e s t s a r e a bu rden on some t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s - - t h o s e i n v o l v i n g l i v e s t o c k f e e d i n g , a d v e r t i s i n g , and c a r e t a k i n g expen se s a r e e x a m p l e s . L i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e i s a l m o s t p r o h i b i t i v e l y e x p e n s i v e f o r beach and s k i e n t e r p r i s e s and t h o s e i n -v o l v i n g use o f h o r s e s o r w i l d a n i m a l s . In s e v e r a l S t a t e s , t h e bu rden o f l i c e n s e s , p e r m i t s , f e e s , t a x e s , and m i s c e l l a n e a b e a r s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n t o s i z e o f b u s i n e s s , n e t r e t u r n s , o r a b i l i t y t o pay . 17. P r i v a t e b a n k e r s and g o v e r n m e n t a l l e n d i n g a g e n c i e s , a l i k e , a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a r i s k y e n t e r p r i s e f o r l o a n s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f s m a l l o p e r a t i o n s , new a c t i v i t i e s , and u n t r i e d o p e r a -t o r s . P r i v a t e s o u r c e s o f c a p i t a l f r e q u e n t l y can be u t i l i z e d t o s u p p o r t needed d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r ams . 18. The o p e r a t o r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y p r e t t y w e l l s e t s t he t one f o r h i s o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e . He must know t h e mechan i c s o f good b u s i n e s s management, be a b l e t o h a n d l e p e o p l e , and be w i l l i n g t o p r o v i d e h i s g u e s t s w i t h s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e so they w i l l f e e l t hey have r e c e i v e d t h e i r money ' s w o r t h . . . . Many p e o p l e t r y i n g t o manage r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s a r e not a d a p t e d t o t h e wo r k . P e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s a r e i m p o r t a n t . 19. Owners o f l a r g e h o l d i n g s r e c o g n i z e t he g r o w i n g demands f o r m u l t i p l e - p u r p o s e use o f t h e i r l a n d s . A l t h o u g h many o f them make l a r g e p o r t i o n s o f t h e i r l a nd s a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n u s e , o t h e r s h e s i t a t e t o do so becau se o f t he dange r o f f i r e and o t h e r damage t o p r o p e r t y , r i s k o f l i a b i l i t y c l a i m s , and t he f e a r t h a t p u b l i c demand f o r a d d i t i o n a l p r i v i l e g e s w i l l hamper t h e b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c needs m e n t i o n e d i n -c l u d e p r o p e r s a f e g u a r d s f o r p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , s t a n d a r d i z e d r a t e s t o be c h a r g e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d and p h y s i c a l c o n t r o l o f t he mass o f r e c r e a t i o n s e e k e r s who a r e a n t i c i p a t e d t o d e s c e n d on t he h o l d i n g s . 20. Owners o f l and s a l r e a d y u t i l i z e d f o r h u n t i n g , f i s h -i n g , h i k i n g , p i c n i c k i n g , and so f o r t h , a n t i c i p a t e i n -c r e a s i n g demands f o r more p r i v i l e g e s . Many o f t he h o l d e r s o f l a r g e t r a c t s whose l and s and w a t e r s a r e s t i l l c l o s e d r e c o g n i z e t h a t s o o n e r o r l a t e r t h e y w i l l be o b l i g e d t o a l l o w r e c r e a t i o n where i t can be p r a c t i c e d s a f e l y . Many wou ld welcome sound s t a n d a r d s , f a i r t r e a t -ment r e l a t i v e t o t he g o v e r n m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , p r o p e r c o m p e n s a t i o n , and a l o g i c a l b a l a n c e between p u b l i c l y owned and d e v e l o p e d r e s o u r c e s and p r i v a t e l y owned r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . 2 1 . Numerous p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s a r e made a v a i l a b l e f o r p u b l i c en j o ymen t a t l e s s than a c t u a l c o s t . These i n -c l u d e f o r m a l g a r d e n s , s p e c i a l c o l l e c t i o n s , and u n i q u e r e s o u r c e s . In e f f e c t , t he owners a r e s u b s i d i z i n g p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n . 22 . The remnants o f o u r n a t i o n a l a n t i p a t h y t owa rd p l a y need t o be o v e r c o m e , and many p r ob l ems t y p i c a l o f t h e g r o w i n g p a i n s o f new t y p e s o f e n t e r p r i s e need t o be a l l e v i a t e d . The v a r i e t y o f m a s s - p r o d u c e d , economy-packaged r e c r e a t i o n demanded t oday by v a c a t i o n e r s was a l m o s t unknown a g e n e r a t i o n ago. Even g o v e r n m e n t - -N a t i o n a l , S t a t e , and l o c a l — o f t e n l o o k s a s k a n c e a t t h i s r a p i d l y g r o w i n g b u s i n e s s . 23 . Many p e o p l e want a v a r i e t y o f r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . Many o f t h e e x p r e s s e d d e s i r e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s a r e o u t s i d e the t r a d i t i o n a l r e a l m o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e . F o r maximum d e v e l o p m e n t , p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n programs s h o u l d complement r a t h e r than compete w i t h p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e ; s h o u l d be c o m p a t i b l e r a t h e r t han c o m b a t a n t ; and each s h o u l d o p e r a t e i n i t s own a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . (ORRRC, S tudy R e p o r t No. 11, 1962, p. \k5'**7) 20 T a b l e 1 summar i zes o p e r a t o r p r o b l e m s as r e p o r t e d t o the O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Rev iew Commi s s i on s t u d y g roup on p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . In t he f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f the r e p o r t o f t he ORRRC, t he U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tment o f A g r i c u l t u r e t h r o u g h i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s t a t i o n s u n d e r t o o k more l o c a l i z e d s t u d i e s o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s ( e i t h e r on a s t a t e w i d e o r a r e g i o n a l s c a l e ) . S e v e r a l dozen c a s e s t u d i e s on t h e income p o t e n t i a l i n r u r a l a r e a s f r o m o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n were c o m p l e t e d . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d r e l a t e d t o the vo lume o f b u s i n e s s , p r o f i t a b i l i t y , amount o f c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , s o u r c e s o f f i n a n c i n g , range o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d , e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k i l l s o f t he o p e r a t o r s , and common management p r o b l e m s . A p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s e v e r a l o f t h e s e s t u d i e s showed s i m i l a r r e s u l t s t o t he ORRRC f i n d -i n g s . ( B i r d , 1963; C a l l a h a n and Knudson , 1966; Ho lmes , 1964; Moo re , 1964; Owens, 1964; Schmedemann, Wooten and F r a n k l i n , 1964) Ve ry r e c e n t l y some t h i r t e e n o f t h e s e s e p a r a t e s t u d i e s were c o l l e c t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d . ( Bower s , 1969) T h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y p l a c e d p a r t i c u l a r emphas i s on t h e s e f o u r t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s : p i c n i c g r o u n d s , campgrounds , f e e f i s h i n g l a k e s , and m u l t i p l e r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s ( r e s o r t s , sw imming , boa t r e n t a l s , s nack b a r s , c a m p i n g , e t c . ) . The m a j o r emphas i s o f the s t u d y by Bowers (1969) i s p l a c e d on t he income p o t e n t i a l o f the c o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n i n d u s t r y . L i t t l e r e g a r d was g i v e n t o t he r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r t o t h e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r and l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e f a c t o r s o f l o c a t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The p r i m e c o n c e r n was w h e t h e r o r not e ach r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e was e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e on i t s own m e r i t s unde r t he p r e s e n t ma rke t c o n d i t i o n s w i t h l i t t l e c o o r d i n a t i o n by p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s . TABLE 1 PROBLEMS REPORTED BY OPERATORS OF 512 RECREATION ENTERPRISES P rob lems Number P r ob l ems Number P r i v a t e s e c t o r o f t h e economy G u e s t - c r e a t e d : V a n d a l i s m 192 T r a s h 180 F i r e 132 Poach i ng 11 Rowdines s 3 L e a v i n g g a t e s open 1 " P e o p l e " 1_ T o t a l 520 Human r e l a t i o n s : S t a f f i n g 8 S e a s o n a l h e l p 4 T o t a l "IT B u s i n e s s - r e l a t e d : Crowded c o n d i t i o n s 98 F i n a n c i n g 14 Lack o f g u e s t s 6 I n s e c t s A P a r k i n g space h M a i n t e n a n c e h P u b l i c i t y 3 H i gh c o s t s I O t h e r 2 T o t a l TIF S u b - t o t a l 668 A c t s o f God Lack o f w a t e r o r snow Bad w e a t h e r T o t a l Government s e c t o r o f t h e economy P o l i c y : P o l i c i e s and r u l e s P r e d a t o r c o n t r o l Poo r roads Zon i ng Sewage d i s p o s a l F i s h management Beach e r o s i o n D i r t y l a k e C o m p e t i t i o n f r o m p u b l i c campgrounds T o t a l , Laws: H i gh t a x e s Minimum wage T o t a l S u b - t o t a 1 T o t a l 12 3 T 5 8 9 8 3 2 1 k i_ 5 39 722 S o u r c e : ORRRC, S tudy R e p o r t No. 11, 1962, p. 140 22 No a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o the i s s u e o f what r o l e t he p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s s h o u l d p l a y i n m e e t i n g t he o v e r a l l demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r -v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n o f the s t u d i e s must be k e p t i n m i n d . In p a r t i c u l a r , Bowers (1969) e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e were 2,970 o u t -doo r r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1965 t h a t o p e r a t e d p r i m a r i l y as campgrounds . Over 22,037 o f t h e s e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s i n c l u d e d camp ing . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t t he r a t i o o f p u b l i c t o p r i v a t e campgrounds i n the N o r t h e a s t e r n s t a t e s was 3:1 based on the number o f campgrounds , not on t h e t o t a l number o f s i t e s . The a v e r a g e a r e a d e d i c a t e d t o p r i v a t e campground f a c i l i t i e s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 a c r e s w i t h abou t 43 s i t e s pe r campground. On a n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e o n l y 28.5 p e r c e n t o f campgrounds o f f e r e d a p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f income t o t he owner w h i l e 60 p e r c e n t o f f e r e d a s u p p l e m e n t a r y s o u r c e . In New H a m p s h i r e , o n l y s i x o u t o f 108 o p e r a t i o n s p r o v i d e d t he owner w i t h f u l l - t i m e employment . Most campground o p e r a t i o n s o f f e r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s b e s i d e s t he p h y s i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a m p s i t e s . Campgrounds c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y comb ined f a c i l i t i e s w i t h d a y - u s e a c t i v i t i e s such as sw imming, b o a t i n g , p i c n i c k i n g , f i s h i n g and t e n n i s . ( Bower s , 1969, pp . 46-47) Bowers f e l t t h a t an e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o d i s t i n g u i s h between v a c a t i o n t y p e campgrounds and t r a n s i e n t campgrounds a l t h o u g h none o f t he s t u d i e s had done s o . The t r a n s i e n t campground must be l o c a t e d nea r main h i g h w a y s . The t r a v e l e r s u s i n g i t w i l l i n s i s t on we l 1-e q u i p p e d c a m p s i t e s and c l e a n s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s . , These campers a r e no t t o o c o n c e r n e d about h a v i n g t h i n g s t o do near t he c a m p s i t e . E i g h t o r more 23 c a m p s i t e s can u s u a l l y be d e v e l o p e d p e r a c r e , s i n c e f a c i l i t i e s and accommodat i on s t end t o be s i m p l y and c o m p a c t l y a r r a n g e d . V a c a t i o n campgrounds , u n l i k e t r a n s i e n t campgrounds , do not need t o be n e a r m a j o r h i g h w a y s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f nea r u n i q u e n a t u r a l a t t r a c -t i o n s such as l a k e s , s t r e a m s , and f o r e s t a r e a s . More t h i n g s - t o - d o a c t i v i t i e s , such as sw imming, b o a t i n g , f i s h i n g , h i k i n g , game f i e l d s , h o r s e b a c k r i d i n g a r e r e q u i r e d . Fewer c a m p s i t e s p e r u n i t o f l a n d , pe rhap s no more than f o u r s i t e s pe r a c r e , s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . ( Bower s , 1 9 6 9, p. 48) S t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h e m a j o r i t y o f p r i v a t e campgrounds a r e used as v a c a t i o n campgrounds . A l l t he s t u d i e s seem t o have had d i f f i c u l t y i n s t a n d a r d i z i n g some means o f a n a l y z i n g t he c o s t and r e t u r n f i g u r e s used i n d e t e r m i n i n g t he r e l a t i v e p r o f i t and l o s s s t a t e m e n t f o r campground e n t e r p r i s e s . P r o -f i t i s a measure o f s u c c e s s and i n d i c a t e s the f i r m ' s a b i l i t y t o e a r n enough r e s e r v e t o pay annua l d e p r e c i a t i o n , c a p i t a l c h a r g e s , and wages f o r u n p a i d f a m i l y and management l a b o r . The d i f f i c u l t y l i e s w i t h p l a c i n g a v a l u e on t he l a b o r c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t he o w n e r - o p e r a t o r and h i s f a m i l y . Many o p e r a t o r s c o n s i d e r o n l y e x p l i c i t c o s t s and d i s r e g a r d e i t h e r income f o r t h e i r own l a b o r o r i m p l i c i t c o s t s such as d e p r e c i a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s and the o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s o f t h e i r c a p i t a l . T a b l e 2 summar i zes c o s t s and r e t u r n s f r o m a samp le o f 124 r e c r e a -t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t o f f e r e d camping o n l y and d i d not o f f e r r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s . From the t a b l e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t he campground i n d u s t r y i s not g e n e r a l l y an e conom ic s u c c e s s . N e a r l y a l l s t u d i e s c o n c l u d e t h a t income f r om camping f e e s a l o n e d i d not c o v e r o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and d e p r e c i -a t i o n . TABLE 2 Average investments, costs and returns, by state, of campground enterprises Schedule 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Missouri Ohio (S.E.) Indiana Oregon (W) Arkansas Maine Vermont Bird Owens Knudson Holmes Jorden Delphendahl Bivins (1963) (1964) (1965) (1964) (1963) (1966) (1967) Ave. Ave. Ave. Ave. Ave. Ave. Ave. Total Enterprises 123 18 ' — 28 52 148 55 Sample Size : 4 4 5 3 . 3 66 39 Acres (ave.) ; l l 10 : • — 15 — 23 — Capital Invest. . . Land = - 550 8,100 — " . — ' — . Non-land 15,075 . 2,911 — Total . 15,625 11,011 25,720 26,140 10,046 34,900 25,492 Cash Income 3,375 1,408 2,487 5,075 1,547 5,125 1,085 Explicit Costs . • - ' " . . " - ' -Advertising . 38 9 — . — - — 161 Utilities 95 , * ,; 37 -•; — " — 197 Repairs/Upkeep — : — — — 209 Taxes/License " 66 40 *. •' — • — — 183 Insurance 66 39 — " " — . 120 Labor (Hired) 25 . — ' — — ' 254 Supplies/Equipment 228 80 — — 79 Miscellaneous 100 37 — • — — 627 Total 678 269 1,540 1,288 402 2,890 1,429 Net Cash Income 2,697 1,139 947 3,787 1,145 2,235 (-)334 Implicit Costs Depreciation 620 181 2,060 — — — 380 Capital Charge 703(4i%) 495(4i%) 1,286(5%) 1,649(6%) 502(5%) 1,745(5%) 1,274(5%) Return to Labor/Capital 2,077 958 ( -).1,U3 3,787 1,145 2,235 (-)724 Labor Earnings3 1,374 463 . ( -)2,3V9 2,038 643 490 <-) 1.998 Capital Earnings'5 ~ — — — — — — Labor (Family & Mgmt.) -- — 1,344 hrs. — 2,473 hrs. — — 3Labor earnings refer to returns to unpaid family labor and management. ''Capital, earnings could not be computed since there was no opportunity cost for labor given. Only two studies gave the hours of management and family labor expended. ( S o u r c e : Bowers , T969) 25 Fees f o r camping a l o n e u s u a l l y do no t p r o v i d e s u f f i -c i e n t revenue t o make a camping a r e a pay . The most " s u c c e s s f u l " o p e r a t o r s have p r o v i d e d a d d i t i o n a l s e r -v i c e s no t u s u a l l y f ound i n p u b l i c p a r k s . ( B i r d , 1963, p. 16) S u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r o v i d i n g f a c i l i t i e s such as s h o w e r s , e l e c t r i c i t y , l a u n d r i e s , i c e d i s p e n s e r s , f o o d c o n c e s s i o n s and camping s u p p l i e s . Bowers (1969) i n a n a t i o n a l s t u d y s t a t e d t h a t 62 pe r c e n t o f t he t o t a l number o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s r e p o r t e d u n d e r u s e o f f a c i l i t i e s on t y p i c a l weekends . In most s t u d i e s , a common f i n d i n g was d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e managers w i t h t h e low amount o f p a t r o n a g e . A l t h o u g h o v e r c a p a c i t y can be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o t he l a r g e number o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s f i n d i n g e n t r y i n t o t he i n d u s t r y r e l a t i v e l y e a s y , a m a j o r c o n t r i b u t o r has t o be the p o o r l y p l a n n e d i n v e s t m e n t s g u i d e d by g r o s s o v e r e s t i m a t i o n s o f demand. ( Bower s , 1969, p. 2) A s t u d y i n New Hampsh i re by Hancock , a l t h o u g h c a u t i o n i n g a g a i n s t r e g a r d i n g campground o p e r a t i o n s such as a g o l f mine d i d s t a t e : Even though t he p r i v a t e campground ma r ke t a p p e a r s t o be s a t u r a t e d i n some r e g i o n s , t h e r e i s a l w a y s room f o r t he i n n o v a t o r and the man who t a k e s an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n h i s c l i e n t e l e and i s a l e r t t o t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s and need s . By t he same t o k e n , owners not so i n c l i n e d s h o u l d be aware o f t he f a c t the campers a r e becoming more and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n the i r demands. ( Bower s , 1969, p. 57) D e s p i t e t h i s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d demands o f campers none o f t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d by Bowers i n d i c a t e d any c o n c e r n f o r t h e t r e n d away f r o m t e n t s t oward s r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s ( t e n t t r a i l e r s , 26 t r a i l e r s , camper t r u c k s , e t c . ) . These new modes o f camp ing g e n e r a l l y demand w a t e r , sewer and e l e c t r i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s and such s e r v i c e s as s e p t i c t ank dumping and p r o p a n e - t a n k f i l l i n g . The s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d by Bowers made l i t t l e e f f o r t t o i n d i c a t e the opt imum s i z e o f o p e r a t i o n f o r a p r o f i t a b l e e n t e r p r i s e . A Ma ine s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t he h i g h e s t r a t i o s o f g r o s s income to t o t a l i n v e s t m e n t f o r campgrounds were f o r t h o s e f a c i l i t i e s w i t h 40 t o 59 s i t e s and t h o s e w i t h 100 t o 199 s i t e s . The r a t i o o f o p e r a t i n g c o s t s t o t o t a l i n v e s t m e n t was f a i r l y c o n s t a n t o v e r t h e range o f c a m p s i t e s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t he l e n g t h o f v i s i t by campers was a l s o r e l a t e d t o t he s i z e o f i n v e s t m e n t . Those camp-g rounds w i t h l a r g e r c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s ( o v e r $15 ,000) were g e n e r a l l y a b l e t o keep t h e i r c u s t o m e r s t w i c e as l ong as t h o s e who had s m a l l e r i n -v e s t m e n t s . The s m a l l e r t u r n o v e r o f c u s t o m e r s can i n c r e a s e p r o f i t a b i l i t y as t h e c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g t he s i t e s can be r e d u c e d . S t i l l , t he key t o mak ing a campground an e conom i c s u c c e s s i s q u a l i t y , and l a r g e r campgrounds w i t h h i g h e r i n v e s t m e n t s o f f e r e d b e t t e r q u a l i t y f a c i l i t i e s so t h e y were more a t t r a c t i v e t o camper s . Bowers (1969) c o n c l u d e d t h a t a r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e t h a t l i m i t s i t s e l f o n l y t o t he p r o v i s i o n o f c a m p s i t e s i s not l i k e l y t o be an e c o n o m i c s u c c e s s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e m e a n i n g f u l t o c o n s i d e r what he l e a r n e d abou t m u l t i p l e a c t i v i t y r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s where a d i v e r s i f i e d s e l e c t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s ( f i s h i n g , b o a t i n g , p i c n i c k i n g , g o l f i n g and camp ing ) i s o f f e r e d . F o r t h e s e e n t e r p r i s e s , t h e p u r p o s e i s t o i n c r e a s e r e venue s by vo lume demand. C a p i t a l and l a b o r do no t s i t i d l e becau se o f v a r y i n g demand f o r one t y p e o f r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . Because o f t h e e x t e n s i v e n a t u r e o f t he a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d , the t o t a l a r e a was l a r g e r t han f o r campgrounds . 27 As a c o n s e q u e n c e , l and c o m p r i s e d t he g r e a t e s t p o r t i o n o f t he c a p i t a l i n -v e s t m e n t . A l l s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d by Bowers (1969) seem unanimous i n t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f t he i m p o r t a n c e o f w a t e r as a r e c r e a t i o n a l f o c a l p o i n t and s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h a t s i t e . The d i v e r s e a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d and t he l a r g e r s c a l e o f o p e r a t i o n s c a l l f o r d i f f e r e n t management t han t h o s e e n t e r p r i s e s w h i c h o p e r a t e s o l e l y as a campground. In a l a r g e f u l l t i m e o p e r a t i o n , u n p a i d f a m i l y l a b o r c anno t p r o v i d e f o r a l l l a b o r i n p u t . In two s t u d i e s , o p e r a t o r s r a t e d h i g h l a b o r c o s t s as t h e i r m a j o r p r o b l e m s . The s t u d i e s seem t o show t h a t a m u l t i p l e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more s u c c e s s f u l t han t he s i n g l e p u r p o s e a r e a s (a p i c n i c g r o u n d , f e e - f i s h i n g p o n d ) . D e s p i t e t h e a p p a r e n t p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p r o f i t , t h i s i s s u b j e c t t o r e s t r i c t i o n s . A l a r g e r amount o f c a p i t a l i s : n e e d e d b e f o r e t h e e n t e r p r i s e can even b e g i n t o o p e r a t e and a l s o , t h e d i v e r s e n a t u r e o f t he a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d o f t e n r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l i z e d management t e c h n i q u e s ( i . e . g o l f c o u r s e s , f i s h pond s , r e s t a u r a n t s ) w h i c h t he o p e r a t o r may not i n i t i a l l y r e c o g n i z e as b e i n g n e c e s s a r y . The s t u d i e s f ound t h a t c o v e r a g e o f l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e was an i s s u e . Ve r y few e n t e r p r i s e s were c o v e r e d by p o l i c i e s d e s p i t e t he owners c o n c e r n o v e r t he p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c c i d e n t s . The p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t o f premiums was t h e u s u a l e x p l a n a t i o n . r F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g S u c c e s s f R e c r e a t i o n E n t e r p r i s e s The f o r e g o i n g has been a r e v i e w o f t he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f camp-g rounds and m u l t i p l e r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s as c o m p i l e d by Bowers (1969) f r om s e v e r a l r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s . In a d d i t i o n , Bowers a t t e m p t e d t o summar i ze t he 28 f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t he s u c c e s s o f r e a c t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . In h i s d i s c u s -s i o n o f t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h a p p e a r t o have an i n f l u e n c e on t he s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s , Bowers r e l i e d on f o u r s t u d i e s . In each c a s e , m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was used t o s u g g e s t t h e n a t u r e o f t he s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s . The dependent v a r i a b l e was ne t c a s h income o r t h a t income r e m a i n i n g a f t e r e x p l i c i t c o s t s have been d e -d u c t e d . T h i s was done t o overcome t he d i f f i c u l t y o f d e t e r m i n i n g i m p l i c i t c o s t s a c c u r a t e l y ( p a r t i c u l a r l y c o s t o f l a b o r by o w n e r - o p e r a t o r s ) . One s t u d y f o r f e e f i s h i n g l a k e s i n P e n n s y l v a n i a showed t h a t t o t a l r e c e i p t s were h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t he e x i s t e n c e o f a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . Those l a k e s w h i c h a l s o o p e r a t e d a c o n c e s s i o n ( f o o d , b a i t , e t c . ) were l i a b l e t o e a r n t w i c e as much as t h o s e f i s h i n g l a k e s and ponds w i t h o u t a c o n c e s s i o n . A n o t h e r s t u d y i n S o u t h e r n I n d i a n a a t t e m p t e d t o a n a l y z e b o t h i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h can a f f e c t i ncome. I n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d s i z e and c a p a c i t y o f t he f a c i l i t y , c a p i t a l i n p u t s , l a b o r i n p u t s , f e e s , age o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e , p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he o p e r a t o r . E x t e r n a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d l o c a t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y , d i s t a n c e f r om m a j o r p o p u l a -t i o n c e n t r e s . The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t f o r 7k p e r c e n t o f t he v a r i a t i o n i n income w h i l e e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y kO p e r c e n t ( a t .01 l e v e l ) . T h u s , t h e manner i n w h i c h an e n t e r -p r i s e i s d e v e l o p e d and the way i n w h i c h i t a p p e a l s t o t h e c u s t o m e r i s more i m p o r t a n t t han i t s l o c a t i o n . The i n c l u s i o n o f two o t h e r v a r i a b l e s w o u l d f u r t h e r v a l i d a t e the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t he q u a l i t y o f t he r e s o r t i s more i m p o r t a n t than i t s l o c a t i o n . An i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e , t he amount s pen t on a d v e r t i s i n g , s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e , l o c a t i o n , s h o u l d be 29 c o n s i d e r e d as d e t e r m i n e d . b y n e a r n e s s t o e i t h e r a m a j o r p u b l i c a t t r a c t i o n ( p a r k , r e s e r v o i r , e t c . ) o r t o a m a j o r r e c r e a t i o n and h o l i d a y a r e a . The se two a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s m i gh t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n . The two o t h e r s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d by Bowers (1969) t h o s e o f McCurdy and Knudson, d e r i v e d p r e d i c t i v e mode l s t o e v a l u a t e t h e f i n a n c i a l f e a s i b i l i t y o f a r e c r e a t i o n a r e a . B o t h i n c l u d e d a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a c c o u n t e d f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70 pe r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y i n ne t e n t e r p r i s e income. Bo th mode l s showed two v a r i a b l e s most s i g n i f i c a n t i n a f f e c t i n g t h e s u c c e s s o f an e n t e r p r i s e - - a v a i l a b i 1 i t y o f w a t e r f o r swimming and b o a t i n g , and t he e x i s t e n c e o f a d i v e r s i t y o f f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . P r o b a b l y t h e two p r e d i c t i v e mode l s used w o u l d not be a p p l i c a b l e i n Canada due t o t h e s t a t i c n a t u r e o f t h e d a t a . The a p p r o a c h however has m e r i t and s h o u l d be a t t e m p t e d . T h i s w o u l d e n t a i l a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t t han t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n C h a p t e r V l l . Bowers (1969) has p r e s e n t e d a summary o f t h o s e f a c t o r s f ound t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n i n f l u e n c i n g ne t e n t e r p r i s e i ncome. 1. P e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t he e n t e r p r i s e manager , i n c l u d i n g h i s v e r b a l f a c i l i t y , i m a g i n a t i o n , p r o m o t i o n a l a b i l i t y , o r g a n i z a t i o n and b u s i n e s s a b i l i t y , and r e c r e a -t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . 2. Q u a l i t y , t y p e , and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s e r v i c e s and r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . 3. L o c a t i o n and a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f e n t e r p r i s e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s and c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o u t -doo r r e c r e a t i o n p a t r o n s . k. A v a i l a b i l i t y o f w a t e r a c r e a g e and/o r swimming f a c i -l i t i e s . 5. T o t a l p e r s o n a l incomes o f c o u n t y i n w h i c h e n t e r p r i s e i s l o c a t e d . ( T h i s wou l d a p p l y p r i m a r i l y t o day use a c t i v i t i e s . ) 30 6. S i z e and c a p a c i t y o f f a c i l i t y . 7. T o t a l c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t . 8. Amount s p e n t on a d v e r t i s i n g . (Bower s , 1969, p. 83-84) To some e x t e n t , t h e f i r s t f a c t o r i s r e l a t e d t o a l l o t h e r s . B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n o f when and where t o i n v e s t , management i s t h e c r u c i a l f a c t o r . The manager must r e c o g n i z e and p r o v i d e f o r c u r r e n t d e -mands. He must be a b l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e h i s p r o d u c t f r o m t h a t o f f e r e d by e i t h e r p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s o r t h a t e a s i l y o b t a i n a b l e a t o t h e r p r i v a t e o p e r a t i o n s . T h i s i n v o l v e s o b t a i n i n g a c c e s s t o c a p i t a l t o i n i t i a t e o r e x -pand h i s e n t e r p r i s e a t the a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e s . In a d d i t i o n , he must be a b l e t o meet and manage w i t h t a c t and c o u r t e s y t h o s e p e o p l e s e e k i n g r e c r e a -t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Most s t u d i e s o f m a r g i n a l and s u b - m a r g i n a l e n t e r p r i s e s showed t h e y were t he r e s u l t o f poo r i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s . The i n adequacy o f f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s f ound i n n e a r l y a l l s t u d i e s was a g e n e r a l i n d i c a t i o n o f p oo r management. Bowe r s ' c o n c l u s i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o t o t a l c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t a r e a l s o v e r y p e r t i n e n t . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t many o p e r a t o r s e n t e r t a i n e d t h e f a l s e a s p i r a t i o n t h a t a s m a l l i n v e s t m e n t f o r l a n d , imp rovemen t s , f a c i l i -t i e s , , and o p e r a t i n g equ ipment c o u l d r e a l i z e a l a r g e income and h i g h r a t e o f r e t u r n . The e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s how wrong t h e s e a s p i r a t i o n s can be . Fo r t h o s e e n t e r p r i s e s w h i c h p r o v i d e d a m a j o r s o u r c e o f income to t he e n t r e p r e n e u r , t he a v e r a g e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t was o v e r $50 ,000 w i t h s u b -s t a n t i a l amounts a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n t i n u a l m a i n t e n a n c e and u p d a t i n g o f f a c i l i t i e s as consumer demands change . 31 S m a l l , s i d e l i n e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s where i n v e s t m e n t i s s m a l l and management i s p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h o t h e r m a j o r e n t e r p r i s e s a r e l i k e l y t o have d i s a p p o i n t r e s u l t s . ( Bower s , 1969, p. 90) In summary, Bowers c o n c l u d e d t h a t p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s do no t g e n e r a l l y r e t u r n p u r e o r normal p r o f i t s a f t e r o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s f o r c a p i t a l and l a b o r a r e d e d u c t e d . I t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t a m o n o p o l i s t i c , c o m p e t i t i v e m a r k e t s t r u c t u r e was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t he c o m m e r c i a l o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i n d u s t r y . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e i s a t l e a s t some b a s i s f o r t h i s . A l a r g e number o f s e l l e r s i s p r e s e n t w i t h a p p a r e n t f r e e e n t r y p o s s i b l e . P r o d u c t d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y f o r any s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n . In a d d i -t i o n , t he p r e s e n c e o f low r e t u r n s a r e e v i d e n t . Com-b i n i n g t h i s w i t h a g e n e r a l l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e , p o o r l y a d v i s e d i n v e s t m e n t d e c i s i o n s , and a n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l a p p r o a c h t o e n t e r p r i s e d e v e l o p m e n t , t he r e s u l t i s a l a r g e number o f s m a l l m a r g i n a l and s u b m a r g i n a l e n t e r -p r i s e s c o n t r i b u t i n g l i t t l e t o , and g a i n i n g l i t t l e f r o m a g r o w i n g o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n m a r k e t . . . .The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s u c c e s s f u l i n v e s t m e n t i n com-m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n i s p r e s e n t , bu t must r e l y on f u r t h e r deve l opmen t o f t e c h n i c a l and management i n f o r m a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o b e t t e r t r a i n e d o p e r a t o r s . P r o j e c t s must be d e v e l o p e d o n l y a f t e r e x t e n s i v e s t u d y has i n d i c a t e d t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f such an i n v e s t m e n t . E n t e r p r i s e s s h o u l d be o f h i g h q u a l i t y , o f f e r a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s and s e r v i c e s and be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , i n a p o s i t i v e r e s p e c t , w i t h i n t h e ma r ke t a r e a . ( Bower s , 1969, 104-105) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a S u c c e s s f u l P r i v a t e Campground To t h i s p o i n t , t he O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Rev i ew Commi s s i on S tudy R e p o r t No. 11 (1962) and Bowers (1969) c o v e r p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s i n g e n e r a l . I t i s u s e f u l t o t a k e t h e s e g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s and c o n s i d e r t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a p l a n n i n g . How can t h i s know ledge be a p p l i e d t o a i d i n t he management o f a s u c c e s s f u l c o m m e r c i a l campground? P r e v i o u s l y a v a r i e t y 32 o f s t u d i e s have been used but i n t h i s s e c t i o n i t i s more u s e f u l t o ' t a k e one s t u d y and c o n s i d e r i t i n d e p t h . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e v i e w w i l l be: 1. t o e x e m p l i f y i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n t h e s t u d i e s a l r e a d y ment i o ned . 2. t o a i d o p e r a t o r s i n p l a n n i n g p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . 3. t o p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h o s e o f f e r i n g t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . h. t o s e r v e as a model f o r a s i m i l a r s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n i n C h a p t e r V I I . The s t u d i e s by W i l b u r La Page o f t he N o r t h e a s t e r n F o r e s t E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n , Upper D a r b y , P e n n s y l v a n i a , w i l l be u sed s i n c e t hey a r e comprehen -s i v e and i n c l u d e not o n l y t he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r -p r i s e s , bu t b e h a v i o u r a l s t u d i e s o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e u s e r s . As s u c h , La Page has c o n c e r n e d h i m s e l f no t o n l y w i t h d e s c r i b i n g t h e econom ic and management c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s but has a t t e m p t e d to e x p l a i n how t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e r e l a t e d t o t he t ype o f c u s -tomer who uses p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s and how they i n f l u e n c e t he c u s t o m e r ' s b e h a v i o u r . The i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s i s t a k e n f r o m t h r e e p a p e r s p r e s e n t e d by La Page. (1966, 1967, 1968) The c o n c e r n i s f i n d i n g o u t the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f s u c c e s s f u l campgrounds and campground management. A samp le o f 85 campgrounds was u s e d . A " s u c c e s s f u l c ampg round " was a r b i t r a r i l y d e -f i n e d as one t h a t had been used t o more t han 50 pe r c e n t o f i t s c a p a c i t y d u r i n g t he p r e c e d i n g y e a r . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , 37 were s u c c e s s -f u l and k8 were u n s u c c e s s f u l . The s amp le campgrounds were t hen a n a l y z e d t o 33 u n d e r s t a n d t he f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g s u c c e s s . C a r e must be t a k e n no t t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s f r om one p a i r o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( i . e . s u c c e s s t o s i z e o f d e v e l o p m e n t ) bu t t o r e l a t e the f u l l s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . TABLE 3 PERCENTAGE OF SUCCESSFUL ENTERPR ISES , 3 BY AGE OF CAMPGROUND DEVELOPMENT Y e a r s i n Bus i nes s No. P e r c e n t a g e S u c c e s s f u l 1-3 3* 2k 4-6 30 *»3 Over 6 21 76 Campgrounds t h a t a v e r a g e more t han 50 per c e n t o f c a p a c i t y use t h r o u g h o u t t h e 1963 camping s e a s o n . ( S o u r c e : La Page , I966, p. 2) TABLE 4 PERCENTAGE OF SUCCESSFUL ENTERPRISES BY S IZE OF CAMPGROUND DEVELOPMENT S i z e o f P e r c e n t a g e E n t e r p r i s e 9 No. S u c c e s s f u l S m a l l 53 31 L a r g e 22 78 a Campgrounds c o n t a i n i n g 70 f a m i l y u n i t s o r more were c l a s s e d as l a r g e ; t h o s e c o n t a i n i n g f e w e r than 70 u n i t s were c l a s s e d as sma11. ( S o u r c e : La Page , 1966, p. 2) 34 TABLE 5 PERCENTAGE OF SUCCESSFUL ENTERPRISES, BY TYPE OF ON-SITE ATTRACTION P e r c e n t a g e A t t r a c t i o n No. S ucce s s f u1 Lake 35 60 R i v e r 32 44 N o n - w a t e r 18 28 A l l b o d i e s o f w a t e r i r r e s p e c t i v e o f s i z e , i n c l u d i n g f a rm pond s , were c l a s s e d as l a k e s . S i m i l a r l y t he c a t e g o r y o f r i v e r s i n c l u d e s s m a l l s t r e a m s . ( S o u r c e : La Page , 1966, p. 3) TABLE 6 PERCENTAGE OF SUCCESSFUL ENTERPRISES, BY GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION WITHIN THE STATE P e r c e n t a g e Reg i o n No. S u c c e s s f u 1 N o r t h e r n 29 20 C e n t r a 1 43 53 S o u t h e r n 13 62 ( S o u r c e : La Page , 1966, p. 3) 35 TABLE 7 PROPORTION OFSUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL CAMPGROUNDS THAT HAD INVESTMENT OF MORE THAN $10,000, AND HAD 70 OR MORE DEVELOPED FAMILY UNITS ACCORDING TO THE NUMBER OF YEARS IN OPERATION Campground Age ( Y e a r s ) 1-3 4-6 Over 6 P r o p o r t i o n t h a t had I n ve s tmen t o f $10,000 o r more S u c c e s s f u l 4 o u t o f 8 9 o u t o f 13 10 o u t o f 15 U n s u c c e s s f u l 8 o u t o f 22 5 o u t o f 17 1 o u t o f 5 P r o p o r t i o n t h a t had 70 o r more D e v e l o p e d F a m i l y Uni t s i n 1963 S u c ce s s f u1 3 o u t o f 7 7 o u t o f 12 9 o u t o f 15 U n s u c c e s s f u l 2 o u t o f 22 2 o u t o f 14 1 o u t o f 5 ( S o u r c e : La Page , Ig66, p. 4) TABLE 8 NUMBER OF SUCCESSFUL AND UNSUCCESSFUL CAMPGROUNDS, ACCORDING TO THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF A WATER ATTRACTION, BY REGIONAL LOCATION R e g i o n N o r t h e r n Type o f A t t r a c t i o n W a t e r - o r i e n t e d N o n - w a t e r - b a s e d Number S u c c e s s f u l Number U n s u c c e s s f u l 14 10 C e n t r a 1 W a t e r - o r i e n t e d N o n - w a t e r - b a s e d 20 3 16 3 S o u t h e r n W a t e r - o r i e n t e d N o n - w a t e r - b a s e d 6 2 T o t a l W a t e r - o r i e n t e d N o n - w a t e r - b a s e d 32 5 35 13 ( S o u r c e : La Page , 1966, p. 5) 36 From t h e s e t a b l e s , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t he s i z e o f campground deve l opment and t he p r e s e n c e o f w a t e r have s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l u e n c e on camp-g round s u c c e s s . ( T a b l e s h and 5) F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s shows t h a t t h e s e two f a c t o r s a l o n e a r e not s u f f i c i e n t . From T a b l e 7, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t he e f f e c t s o f campground s i z e can be tempered by t he age o f i t s d e v e l o p m e n t . T a b l e 8 shows t h a t even w a t e r - b a s e d campgrounds a r e u n s u c c e s s f u l i n some r e g i o n s . T a b l e s 6 and 8 " s u g g e s t t h a t v i s i t p a t t e r n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e g i o n a l m a r k e t , and a r e t h e r e f o r e no t a l w a y s s u b j e c t t o m a n i p u -l a t i o n by campground o w n e r s " . (La Page , 1966, p. 3) I f t h i s i s t r u e , t hen i t i s p r o b a b l y n e c e s s a r y t o s t u d y t he a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f v i s i t f o r campers i n one r e g i o n compared t o a n o t h e r . I t m i gh t be t h a t r e g i o n s t h a t a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a demand f o r t r a n s i e n t c a m p s i t e s , as opposed t o t h o s e where campers s t a y f o r a l o n g e r d u r a t i o n , may not be s u i t a b l e f o r l a r g e , e x p e n s i v e l y e q u i p p e d , f a m i l y - v a c a t i o n t y p e campgrounds . Two o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s e t s u c c e s s f u l campgrounds a p a r t f r o m t h e i r l e s s s u c c e s s f u l c o m p e t i t o r s . F i r s t , camper v i s i t s a v e r a g e d more t han t w i c e as l ong a t t he more s u c c e s s f u l e n t e r p r i s e s (4? day s ) and s e c o n d , a m a j o r i t y o f s u c c e s s f u l e n t e r p r i s e s had a p r e d o m i n a n t l y advance r e s e r v a t i o n c l i e n t e l e . La Page c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t u s i n g r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n i t i a l s u r v e y t o p r e d i c t e n t e r p r i s e s u c c e s s . H i s d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e g i o n a l s u c c e s s r a t e s can r e f l e c t no t o n l y v a r i a b l e ma rke t s i z e s and c o m p e t i t i v e c o n d i t i o n s , but a l s o d i f f e r e n c e s i n p u b l i c p o l i c y . The f e e o r ab s ence o f a f e e a t a p u b l i c campground and t he g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p u b l i c camping a r e a s , can u n d o u b t e d l y have even more s i g n i f i c a n t a f f e c t s upon p r i v a t e campground 37 s u c c e s s t han any o f t he f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d i n h i s a n a l y s i s . T h i s c a u t i o n i n g r e i n f o r c e s a f u n d a m e n t a l p r e m i s e o f t h i s t h e s i s - - t h e r o l e o f p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n p r o v i d i n g f o r t he r e c r e a t i o n demands o f the p u b l i c c anno t be s t u d i e d i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m the p o l i c i e s o f t he p u b l i c s e c t o r . To f u r t h e r r e v i e w the r e s e a r c h o f La Page (1966) wou l d t a k e us i n t o t he r e a l m o f camper m o t i v a -t i o n and the t e c h n i q u e s o f s u c c e s s f u l campground management and bo th t h e s e a r e beyond the s cope o f t h i s s t u d y . To c o n c l u d e t h i s c h a p t e r , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o summar i ze the p e r t i -nent f i n d i n g s f r o m r e s e a r c h i n t o p r i v a t e campground e n t e r p r i s e s . The v a l i d o f t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s i s tempered by s t a t i n g t h a t t he r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e c o r r e l a t i v e and no t c a u s a t i v e . T h i s i s f u r t h e r empha s i z ed by La Page i n t i t l i n g h i s f i n d i n g s , "What we t h i n k we know" . D i r e c t i n c r e a s e s i n campground s i z e (number o f camp-s i t e s ) , campground age ( i n y e a r s ) , and i n v e s t m e n t ( i n d o l l a r s ) , a r e a c compan i ed by d i r e c t i n c r e a s e s i n v i s i t l e n g t h , v i s i t f r e q u e n c y and p e r c e n t a g e o f v i s i t o r s who p l a n t o r e t u r n i n t he f u t u r e . The p r e s e n c e o f a swimming and b o a t i n g a t t r a c t i o n a t o r nea r t he campground i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o n g e r and more f r e q u e n t v i s i t s , and more numerous p l a n s t o r e t u r n . An i n c r e a s e i n t he number o f a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n a t t he campground i s a c compan i ed by a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n camper s a t i s f a c t i o n . An i n c r e a s e i n campground c r o w d i n g r e s u l t s i n a d r op i n s a t i s f a c t i o n t o t he l e v e l where campers s t a y o n l y as l ong as p l a n n e d . The l o c a t i o n o f a campground i s i m p o r t a n t t o s u c c e s s . In a r e g i o n a l c o m p a r i s o n , t he l e s s s u c c e s s f u l v e n t u r e s were m o s t l y i n a r e g i o n remote f rom m a j o r m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r s , where l a k e s were s c a r c e , c o m p e t i t i o n ( b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e ) was k e e n , and the camp ing s ea son was s h o r t e r . An i n c r e a s e i n t he v a r i e t y o f p a s t camp ing e x p e r i e n c e a ccompan i e s an i n c r e a s e i n camp ing s a t i s f a c t i o n , but i t a l s o a ccompan i e s a more c r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n t o camp-g round c r o w d i n g . A p r e f e r e n c e f o r p r i v a t e campgrounds , as w e l l as a l a c k o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r p u b l i c campgrounds , a c compan i e s l o n g e r and more f r e q u e n t v i s i t s , and a g r e a t e r i n c i d e n c e o f i n t e n t i o n s t o r e t u r n . H i g h l y m o b i l e camping equ ipment was g e n e r a l l y a c -compan ied by s h o r t e r but more f r e q u e n t v i s i t s ; and the i n c i d e n c e o f m o b i l e equ ipment was 100 p e r c e n t h i g h e r a t p r i v a t e campgrounds t han a t p u b l i c o n e s . T r i p p l a n s a r e a p p a r e n t l y f a i r l y f l e x i b l e , j u d g i n g f r o m the i n c r e a s e i n a c t u a l o v e r p l a n n e d v i s i t l e n g t h s . A s u r p r i s i n g number o f campers i n d i c a t e d t h a t t hey had p l a n n e d a 2- o r 3~day v i s i t and ended up s t a y i n g a week o r more. I t i s a p p a r e n t l y i m p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y " p r i m a r y r e a s on s f o r c a m p i n g " such as economy, en joyment o f n a t u r e , o r s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . Camping i s a m ixed bag o f i n t e r e s t s , i n c l u d i n g some a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y ones l i k e " p e a c e and q u i e t " a l o n g w i t h t he " o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet and v i s i t w i t h o t h e r c a m p e r s " . The i n c i d e n c e o f p a s t v i s i t s was a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o n g e r c u r r e n t v i s i t s , and w i t h a v e r y h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f i n t e n t i o n s t o r e t u r n . P a s t v i s i t s were a l s o more common among p r i v a t e campground p a t r o n s . Campers who b e l o n g e d t o camp ing o r g a n i z a t i o n s were f ound t o be t w i c e as p r e v a l e n t a t p r i v a t e campgrounds as a t p u b l i c a r e a s . The m a j o r i t y o f s u c c e s s f u l campgrounds had w e l l -d e v e l o p e d a d v a n c e - r e s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m s . And v i s i t s were l o n g e r a t campgrounds w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s y s t e m s . t h a n a t t h o s e w i t h o u t them. The g e n e r a l f i n d i n g t h a t campground s i z e a c compan i e s s u c c e s s may i n d i c a t e p a r t - t i m e management as w e l l as f e w e r a t t r a c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s a t many o f t he s m a l l e r e n t e r p r i s e s . S u c c e s s f u l campground owners were more than t w i c e as l i k e l y t o b e l o n g t o a campground o w n e r ' s a s s o c i a t i o n . (La Page , 1968, pp . 7-8) 39 C h a p t e r VII w i l l r e l a t e i f s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn f r om the o p e r a t i o n s o f p r i v a t e campground e n t e r p r i s e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 40 CHAPTER I I I THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF PRIVATE RECREATION ENTERPRISE AND PUBLIC POLICY C h a p t e r s I and II have f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d t h a t t he p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s t o a f e e p a y i n g p u b l i c by p r i v a t e e n t e r -p r i s e c anno t be s t u d i e d i n i s o l a t i o n f r om p u b l i c p o l i c y . T h i s p u b l i c p o l i c y may be i n the fo rm o f l e g i s l a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o r e g u l a t e p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s o r i t may be i n t he fo rm o f a p rog ram o f c o n s t r u c t i n g p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . In e i t h e r c a s e , t he econom i c v i a b i l i t y o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s i s l i k e l y t o be a f f e c t e d . The p u r p o s e 0 o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be t o e x p l o r e t h i s comp lex c o m p l e m e n t a r y - c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n . I t must be n o t e d t h a t t h i s c h a p t e r , l i k e t he s t u d y as a w h o l e , i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e . No a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o s t a t e what r o l e e i t h e r the p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r s h o u l d p l a y . I t i s m e r e l y i n t e n d e d to o u t l i n e how t h e s e two s e c t o r s a r e r e l a t e d . Bake r (1964) o u t l i n e d t h r e e r o l e s t h a t government s e r v e s when i t a t t e m p t s t o meet t h e r e c r e a t i o n demands o f t h e p u b l i c . These r o l e s a r e termed as r e g u l a t o r y , promptiona1 and d e v e l o p m e n t a l . T h i s f r amework w i l l be used t o e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t he p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r s . The p r o m o t i o n a l r o l e o f government c e n t r e s a r o u n d the p u b l i c i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l s ; t h e f i n a n c i a l i n -ducements f o r p r i v a t e deve l opment and t he l e a s i n g o f 41 c rown owned r e s o u r c e s t o p r i v a t e e n t r e p r e n e u r s . . . . The r e g u l a t o r y r o l e . . . i n v o l v e s the m a i n t e n a n c e o f the q u a l i t y o f the r e s o u r c e s and the e n f o r c e m e n t o f a d e q u a t e s t a n d a r d s o f s a f e t y , h e a l t h , e t c . , i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e d e v e l o p m e n t s . . . . P u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he deve l opment r o l e o f government i n r e s p e c t t o t he e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t o u r i s t and o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e p o t e n t i a l s can be g rouped i n t o two. m a j o r c l a s s e s One m a j o r c l a s s o f i n v e s t m e n t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t he p r o v i s i o n o f an e s s e n t i a l range o f s e r v i c e s . . . . A second g roup o f p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he deve l opment f u n c t i o n a r e c e n t r e d upon t he e s t a b l i s h -ment and o p e r a t i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . . . . ( B a k e r , 1964, pp . 134-137) D e v e l o p m e n t a l R o l e As B a k e r (1964) s t a t e d , t h i s r o l e has two a s p e c t s - - t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s , and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t y p i f i e d by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h i ghways and t he e x t e n s i o n o f h y d r o s e r v i c e s . The second r e l a t e s t o t h e c r e a t i o n and deve l opmen t o f n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . Each a s p e c t w i l l be d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y . I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t h ighway and road c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e have l ong been among t he most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s o f income and g e n e r a l e conom ic s t i m u l a t i o n i n m a r g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where a l t e r n a -t i v e i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e o f t e n weak. O c c a s i o n a l l y , r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s m have been an i m p o r t a n t , o r even p r i m a r y b a s i s f o r h i ghway d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d i n p rograms s p o n s o r e d by t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . In t he l a t e 1930's, t he f e d e r a l government p a i d up t o 50 p e r c e n t o f t he c o s t o f t o u r i s t h i ghways and a p p r o a c h roads t o N a t i o n a l P a r k s . ( B a k e r , 1964, p. 137) kl In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , many s i m i l a r examp le s can be f o u n d . C o n -s i d e r the r e l o c a t i o n and p a v i n g o f the A l b e r n i - T o f i n o h i ghway . T h i s road was no t needed t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o any l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s o r new n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t s such as m i n e r a l s . As l o ng as t he road was needed o n l y t o p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o t he f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s , t he d e s i g n s t a n d a r d s o f a l o g g i n g road were a d e q u a t e . But p u b l i c use o f t h e r e s t r i c t e d t r a v e l road became an i s s u e as more and more p e o p l e used t he road t o r e a ch the p r e v i o u s l y remote beaches o f t he wes t c o a s t o f Vancouve r I s l a n d . An improved h ighway was deemed n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e p u b l i c a c c e s s t o W i c k a n i n n i s h P r o v i n c i a l P a r k (now Long Beach N a t i o n a l P a r k ) . A n o t h e r examp le o f t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l a s p e c t o f t h e government r e c r e a t i o n r o l e can a g a i n be r e l a t e d t o V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d i f one c o n s i d e r s t he f e r r y s e r -v i c e t o i t f r o m the m a i n l a n d . I f f e r r y s e r v i c e i s no t i n c r e a s e d , t h e r e i s a l i m i t on the number o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s who can v i s i t t he I s l a n d and e n j o y i t s many r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The d e v e l o p m e n t and improvement o f t r a v e l w a y f a c i l i t i e s by p u b l i c e x p e n d i t u r e s can p l a y a c r u c i a l r o l e i n c r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r -p r i s e s . Few o f t h e s e i n v o l v e s u f f i c i e n t i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l t o w a r r a n t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f more than a m i l e o r two o f road o r t h e p u r c h a s e o f a f e r r y f l e e t . The s econd a s p e c t o f t he d e v e l o p m e n t a l r o l e o f g o v e r n m e n t , p r o -v i s i o n o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ( campgrounds , h i k i n g t r a i l s , b e a c h e s , h i s t o r i c s i t e s , b o t a n i c a l g a r d e n s , boa t l a u n c h i n g ramps, p i c n i c s i t e s , n a t u r e h o u s e , e t c . ) , can a l s o be c r u c i a l t o p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n . These f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e new r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t he g e n e r a l 43 p u b l i c . The new p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s may compete w i t h o r complement t h e s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r . In C h a p t e r I I , i t was s t a t e d t h a t campgrounds can be o f two t y p e s . One t y p e s e r v e s t he t r a n s i e n t camper e n r o u t e t o a l o c a t i o n e l s e w h e r e a l o n g t he h i ghway . The o t h e r t y p e i s a r e s o r t t y p e o f campground w h i c h s e r v e s t he camper f o r a p e r i o d o f f r o m t h r e e days t o two week s . T h i s t y p o l o g y can p r o b a b l y be used f o r a l l t y p e s o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , no t j u s t campgrounds . The d i s t i n c t i o n then i s between f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h a r e used by a p e r s o n f o r o n l y a p o r t i o n o f t he day and t h o s e w h i c h a r e used f o r a number o f s u c c e s s i v e d a y s . The d i c h o t o m y o f " t r a v e l w a y " and U d e s t i -n a t i o n " c o u l d a l s o a p p l y t o f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r e d by e i t h e r t he p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e s e c t o r s . In te rms o f campgrounds o n l y , i t i s i n t he p r o v i s i o n o f " t r a n s i e n t " t y p e campgrounds t h a t t he p u b l i c s e c t o r competes d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . Few campgrounds l o c a t e d i n a p r o v i n c i a l p a r k and h a v i n g p o p u l a r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e f e a t u r e s s uch as a b e a c h , a r e l a r g e enough t o meet p u b l i c demand. The e x c e s s number o f p a r k v i s i t o r s t h e r e f o r e w i s h i n g t o use p a r k f a c i l i t i e s b e s i d e s t h e campground p r o v i d e a ready ma r ke t f o r nea rby p r i v a t e campgrounds . A t r a v e l w a y o r r o a d s i d e p u b l i c campground however does no t p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n s and s i n c e t h e r e a r e no day use f a c i l i t i e s , t h o s e campers u n s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g a c a m p s i t e w i l l d r i v e f a r t h e r a l o n g t he h ighway f o r a c a m p s i t e . The p r o v i s i o n o f " d e s t i n a t i o n " t y p e campgrounds by t he p u b l i c s e c t o r can e n c o u r a g e t he deve l opmen t o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i f w i t h i n the p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , t he campground kk i s o n l y one segment o f t he t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d t o t he p u b l i c . I t i s i m p o r t a n t now t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f t he s m a l l r u r a l l andowner v e r s u s t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r and t he l a r g e r e s o r t o p e r a t o r v e r s u s t he p u b l i c s e c t o r . T h e r e seems t o be a p a r a d o x h e r e i n t h a t t he 1 a r g e - i n v e s t m e n t r e s o r t owner , who i s g e n e r a l l y i n a b e t t e r r e s o u r c e , manage-ment and f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n t o w i t h s t a n d c o m p e t i t i o n f r om t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r , has l i t t l e c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m the p u b l i c t a x d o l l a r . On t h e o t h e r hand , t h e s m a l l r e c r e a t i o n e n t r e p r e n e u r , who can l e a s t a f f o r d c o m p e t i -t i o n f r om anybody , i s t he one who i s d i r e c t l y c o n f r o n t e d by c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r e s t s . ( T w a r d z i k , 1965, p. 95) S t i l l t he c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s can o f t e n be an a s s e t t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The " d e s t i n a t i o n " t y p e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e a c o n s t r u c t e d by p u b l i c f unds w h i c h i n c l u d e s b e a c h e s , p i c n i c s i t e s , h i k i n g t r a i l s , n a t u r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o g r a m s , e t c . , can be t he " m a g n e t " t o a t t r a c t p o t e n -t i a l c u s t o m e r s f o r p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . T h i s m u t u a l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p r e s u l t s f r o m the p u b l i c o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n management o b j e c t i v e o f a v o i d i n g c o m m e r c i a l i s m , w h i l e t he p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s have a t t e m p t e d t o f u r n i s h e x p e r i e n c e s not a v a i l a b l e on t he pub l i e s i t e s . ( C o r n w e l 1 , I963, p. 5*0 P u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e a u n i f o r m s t a n d a r d o f f a c i l i t i e s t h a t w i l l a p p e a l t o a l l g roups o f p e o p l e . Tha t p o r t i o n o f t he p u b l i c w h i c h i s more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g o f t e n l o o k s t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o p r o v i d e t h e s e s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s . Because p r i v a t e a r e a s a r e not f u l l y c o m p a r a b l e w i t h p u b l i c o n e s , u s e r s a r e w i l l i n g t o pay f e e s o r c h a r g e s . Whether o r no t the p r i v a t e campground has b e t t e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , b e t t e r imp rovemen t s , b e t t e r management, l e s s c r o w d i n g , more c o n v e n i e n c e , b e t t e r s e r v i c e s , s o m e t h i n g i nduce s p e o p l e t o p a t r o n i z e t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r even when s i m i l a r o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f r om the p u b l i c s e c t o r . The second a s p e c t o f the g o v e r n m e n t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l r o l e , p r o -v i s i o n o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , has o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s not f u l l y e x p l o r e d by B a k e r . The se o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s c o n s i d e r the r o l e o f t he p u b l i c s e c t o r no t m e r e l y by p l a c i n g t he v a r i o u s government a c t i v i t i e s i n c a t e -g o r i e s bu t by a t t e m p t i n g t o see how t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e t o t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r . Put s i m p l y , b o t h t he p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s and t h e i r e f f o r t s may compete w i t h and/o r c o m p l e -ment each o t h e r . I t w o u l d be e n l i g h t e n i n g t o enumera te how many o f e a ch t y p e o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y w h e t h e r a campground , zoo o r swimming p o o l , a r e p r o -v i d e d by each s e c t o r . T h i s w o u l d e s t a b l i s h i f e i t h e r p l a y s a d i s t i n c t r o l e i n m e e t i n g p u b l i c demand. To d a t e , no such s t u d y has been done t o d e t e r m i n e the t o t a l r o l e o f e i t h e r s e c t o r , and t o do so f o r a l l o f Canada o r even B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d be a m a j o r t a s k w e l l beyond t he s cope o f t h i s s t u d y . To c o m p l e t e such an i n v e n t o r y f o r even a s m a l l a r e a such as Vancouve r I s l a n d w o u l d r e q u i r e c a r e f u l p r e p a r a t i o n and t i m e - c o n s u m i n g c o l l e c t i o n and c o m p i l a t i o n o f d a t a . H o p e f u l l y t h e Canada Ou tdoo r R e c r e a -t i o n a l Demand S tudy p r e s e n t l y b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n w i l l p r o v i d e some d a t a on t h i s i s s u e . O b v i o u s l y , t h e r e a r e some d i f f e r e n c e s bo th i n t h e t y p e and q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e each s e c t o r p r o v i d e s , bu t t o p u r s u e t he i s s u e any f u r t h e r w o u l d be o f l i t t l e v a l u e . I t i s enough t o s t a t e t h a t b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s a r e o f t e n i n c o m p e t i t i o n as t h e y t r y t o p r o v i d e the same t y p e o f p r o d u c t . 46 The m o t i v a t i o n i n o f f e r i n g t he p r o d u c t i s p r o b a b l y more e v i d e n t than any d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r o d u c t b e i n g o f f e r e d . The p r i v a t e s e c t o r o f f e r s f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s as a b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e a t t e m p t i n g t o e a r n a p r o f i t . The p u b l i c s e c t o r p r o v i d e s s i m i l a r f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s but as a s e r v i c e t o t h e p u b l i c . A l t h o u g h f e e s may be a s s e s s e d i n p u b l i c campgrounds , t hey have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o l l e c t e d t o c o v e r c o s t s and no t t o e a r n p r o f i t s . In c o n c l u s i o n , the d e v e l o p m e n t a l r o l e o f t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r and t he e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l r o l e o f t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r a r e r e l a t e d s i n c e t hey b o t h p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s t o meet t he l e i s u r e needs o f t he p u b l i c . The R e g u l a t o r y R o l e A second ma jo r way i n w h i c h t he p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c -t o r s a r e r e l a t e d r e s u l t s f r o m t h e r e g u l a t o r y power o f g o ve rnmen t . Regu-l a t i o n s a r e made r e g a r d i n g s a n i t a r y s t a n d a r d s , h ighway a c c e s s , d i r e c t i o n a l s i g n s , l a n d - u s e z o n i n g and s u b - d i v i s i o n . A l l t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s can a f f e c t t h e e conom i c v i a b i l i t y o f a p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f c o m p u l s o r y sewage t r e a t m e n t as opposed t o t h e u se o f s e p t i c t a nk s can f o r c e a p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r i n t o l a r g e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s a r e q u i t e o f t e n a p p l i e d i n an u n c o o r d i -n a t e d manner w h i c h r e s u l t s f r o m t h r e e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The f i r s t c i r c u m s t a n c e i s t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s can a r i s e f r om any o f t he t h r e e l e v e l s o f g o ve rnmen t . The m u n i c i p a l government may s e t up z o n i n g b y - l a w s ; t he p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t , a c c e s s r e s t r i c t i o n s t o p u b l i c h i g h w a y s ; and t he f e d e r a l g o ve rnmen t , w h a r f r e q u i r e m e n t on n a v i g a b l e w a t e r s . G i v e n t h e s e s e p a r a t e a r e a s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n 47 e n t e r p r i s e may f i n d h i m s e l f i n a b a t t l e f i e l d o f o v e r l a p p i n g and c o n f l i c t -i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s o r even w o r s e , i n a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l v o i d . The second c i r c u m s t a n c e i s t he r e g u l a t i o n o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s done by government a g e n c i e s and d e p a r t m e n t s w h i c h may be n o n - r e c r e a t i o n o r i e n t e d . A l t h o u g h the r e s u l t may be u n i n t e n t i o n a l , t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e s e n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s may c o n f l i c t w i t h each o t h e r and w i t h t h o s e d e p a r t m e n t s whose p r i m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s r e c r e a t i o n . T h i s m i gh t o c c u r when a Depar tment o f T o u r i s m i s s p e n d i n g t hou sand s o f d o l l a r s on t o u r i s t p r o m o t i o n and t he Depar tment o f H ighways b e g i n s t o t i g h t e n r e g u l a t i o n s on r o a d s i d e a d v e r t i s i n g and d i r e c t i o n a l s i g n s . A n o t h e r examp le r e l a t e s t o t he l a nd t a x a t i o n p o l i c i e s o f g o ve rnmen t . Too o f t e n t he p r o p e r t y t a x e s a s s e s s e d on l a n d u sed p r i m a r i l y as a p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e may be p r o h i b i t i v e . Owners u s u a l l y must pay a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d t a x e s , a l t h o u g h l i k e s m a l l w o o d l o t s ; t h e l a nd s do no t p r o d u c e t he u s u a l c r o p r e v e n u e s . I f t hey own l a k e -s h o r e f r o n t a g e , a f o o t a g e t a x may be c h a r g e d . They may have t o pay t a x e s on t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g p i c n i c t a b l e s , f i r e p l a c e s , e t c . . . . t h e t a x e s i n c r e a s e and may become p r o h i b i t i v e . T h u s , an i m p o r t a n t open s pace and r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a becomes a new h o u s i n g . . . d e v e l o p m e n t . ( C o r n w e l 1 , 1963, p. 52) Here i s c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f a n o n - r e c r e a t i o n government agency a d m i n i s t e r i n g p o l i c i e s t h a t c an be have w i d e s p r e a d a l t h o u g h u n i n t e n t i o n a l a f f e c t s on t h e s u p p l y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The r e g u l a t i o n s o f n o n - r e c r e a t i o n p u b l i c a g e n c i e s may not have t o be a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y a g a i n s t p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s t o a f f e c t t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . C o n s i d e r t h a t many p e o p l e m e r e l y s e t up t h e i r t e n t s , t r a i l e r s and c a m p e r - t r a i l e r s o u t s i d e a p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e campground. 48 I f p o l i c e o r Depar tment o f H ighways o f f i c i a l s do not d i s c o u r a g e t h i s " o v e r n i g h t i n g " i n empty f i e l d s , on s i d e roads o r i n p i c n i c a r e a s , t hen p o t e n t i a l c u s t ome r s a r e not f o r c e d t o use p r i v a t e p u b l i c campgrounds . N o t h i n g wou ld be more d i s c o u r a g i n g t o p r i v a t e campground o p e r a t o r s than t o have f o u r o r f i v e p o t e n t i a l c u s t o m e r s s p e n d i n g t he n i g h t a l o n g the s h o u l d e r s o f a nea rby r o a d . The t h i r d c i r c u m s t a n c e i n w h i c h t he r e g u l a t o r y r o l e o f government and the p r i v a t e s e c t o r a r e r e l a t e d i s d i f f i c u l t t o l a b e l . H e r e , the c o n c e r n i s t he i n d i r e c t a f f e c t t h a t t he p o l i c y o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s can have on p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . R a t h e r than r e g u l a t i o n s t o g o v e r n t he o p e r a t i o n o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , a t t e n t i o n i s p l a c e d on t he management p o l i c i e s o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s as t hey r e g u l a t e t h e i r own f a c i l i t i e s . A d e c i s i o n t o d e l a y t he i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f u s e r - f e e s i n p u b l i c campgrounds can o f t e n p l a c e the p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r i n a n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n . A d e c i s i o n t o c r e a t e a s y s t e m o f p u b l i c campgrounds can r e s t r i c t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . A n o t h e r examp le r e f e r s t o t he l e v e l o f s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n p u b l i c campgrounds . I f a p o l i c y d e c i s i o n i s made t o r e f r a i n f r o m the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f e l e c t r i c i t y , hot w a t e r , l a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s , boat r e n t a l s , e t c . , t hen t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r has an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o v i d e a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l o f s e r v i c e t o t he p u b l i c . Impo r t an t as t h e s e i s s u e s a r e t o r e s o l v e , t he c o n c e r n a t t h i s p o i n t , i s t o make c l e a r how t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r i n i t s r e g u l a t o r y c a p a c i t y i s r e -l a t e d to t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r , not to o f f e r s o l u t i o n s f o r new l e g i s l a t i o n . 4 9 The P r o m o t i o n a l R o l e In the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s c h a p t e r , B a k e r ( 1 9 6 4 ) s t a t e d t h a t t he p r o m o t i o n a l r o l e o f government has two a s p e c t s . The f i r s t d e a l s w i t h t he p u b l i c i z i n g o f t he r e c r e a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l and t h e o t h e r w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n o f i nducement s t o e n c o u r a g e t he deve l opmen t o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s by p r i v a t e e n t r e p r e n e u r s . Each a s p e c t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y . The p u b l i c i z i n g o f the r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f a c o u n t r y , p r o v i n c e o r r e g i o n g e n e r a l l y has two component s . F i r s t , t h e r e i s a d v e r t i s i n g d e s i g n e d t o a t t r a c t p e o p l e ' s a t t e n t i o n t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l a s s e t s o f the a r e a w h e t h e r a n a t i o n , p r o v i n c e o r r e g i o n . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s t h e i n f o r m a -t i o n s e r v i c e s needed t o answer t he p a r t i c u l a r i n q u i r i e s o n c e p e o p l e have r e sponded t o t h e i n i t i a l a d v e r t i s i n g p r o g r a m . O b v i o u s l y , t h o s e i n c h a r g e o f a d v e r t i s i n g p rograms w i s h t o p r e s e n t t h e i r r e g i o n i n t he b e s t p o s s i b l e l i g h t and w i l l s t r e s s t h e p r i m e a t t r a c -t i o n s w h i c h c a t e r t o l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e i s a p a r a d o x h e r e s i n c e many o f t h e s e a t t r a c t i o n s a r e c a p a b l e o f t h e i r own a d v e r t i s i n g p r o g r ams . The sma1 1 r e c r e a t i o n a t t r a c t i o n w h i c h can l e a s t a f f o r d i t s own p r o m o t i o n i s o f t e n i g n o r e d by the g o v e r n m e n t - s p o n s o r e d a d v e r t i s i n g a g e n c i e s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l where i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g f e a t u r e d i n b r o c h u r e s , maps, e t c . , t he l a r g e r e c r e a -t i o n a t t r a c t i o n s a r e o f t e n g i v e n f u r t h e r a d v a n t a g e s by t he e r e c t i o n o f d i r e c t i o n a l s i g n s . Even i f p o t e n t i a l c u s t o m e r s overcome t h e b a r r a g e o f " b i g - t i m e " a d v e r t i s i n g and l e a r n abou t some s m a l l e r a t t r a c t i o n t h e y m i g h t w i s h t o p a t r o n i z e , t hey a r e o f t e n f r u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o l o c a t e t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n . 50 S t i l l , i t can be s t a t e d t h a t i n t h i s a d v e r t i s i n g a s p e c t o f the p r o m o t i o n a l r o l e , government has r e c o g n i z e d the c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r o f f e r s i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e p r o v i n c i a l government s t a t e s as a m a t t e r o f p u b l i c r e c o r d t h a t the " t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y " r ank s t h i r d amongst a l l i n d u s t r y . In t h i s r e g a r d , p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n has i n many c a s e s b y - p a s s e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l emphas i s on the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n based on i n t r i n s i c , p e r s o n a l v a l u e s o f a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t d e f y o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n . The t a s k o f p l a c i n g a v a l u e on a s o l i t a r y w a l k i n the w i l d e r n e s s o r a v i e w o f Lake L o u i s e has numerous p i t f a l l s . Now, . . . when t r y i n g t o make an o b j e c t i v e c l a i m f o r d e -s i r e d and u s u a l l y much h i g h e r , a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r g o v e r n -men ta l a g e n c i e s . . . The p e r f a m i l y e x p e n d i t u r e s made e n r o u t e t o and on t he way home f r o m p a r k s now a r e c i t e d f r e q u e n t l y . . . .The e x p e n d i t u r e s f r o m an annua l a v e r a g e o f two dozen t o u r i s t s p e r day i n a community i s a t a x - b a s e e q u i v a l e n t o f a one hund red t hou sand d o l -l a r a y e a r i n d u s t r y p a y r o l l . . . . R e c r e a t i o n b e n e f i t s now a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t e c o n o m i c f a c t o r and a r e more e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e and more a c c u r a t e l y m e a s u r a b l e than t h e f o r m e r e l u s i v e , a e s t h e t i c f a c t o r . ( T w a r d z i k , I965, p. 97) T h i s f u n d a m e n t a l change i n e f f o r t s t o p l a c e v a l u e s on r e c r e a t i o n w i l l do much t o f o r c e government t o i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e t he r o l e t h a t t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r has t o o f f e r . Y e t g o ve rnmen t , d e s p i t e r e a d i l y a c c e p t i n g i t s r o l e i n p r o m o t i n g t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r v i a a d v e r t i s i n g , has been somewhat s l o w e r i n a c c e p t i n g o r even r e c o g n i z i n g i t s r o l e i n e n c o u r a g i n g t he d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t government has j u s t s a t back and w a i t e d f o r p r i v a t e e n t r e p r e n e u r s t o r e spond t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h o u t h a v i n g any u n i f o r m p o l i c y as t o t he k i n d o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e s e w i l l be o r s h o u l d be . 51 S u gge s t ed Government A s s i s t a n c e P o l i c i e s A t t h i s p o i n t , i t s h o u l d be o b v i o u s t h a t p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s and t he p u b l i c s e c t o r i n i t s r o l e as a r e g u l a t o r o r an a l t e r -n a t i v e s u p p l i e r o f f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , a r e r e l a t e d . L e t us then a s -sume two t h i n g s . F i r s t , t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s n e c e s s a r y becau se t he p u b l i c s e c t o r a l o n e c anno t meet t he e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g demands o f t he p u b l i c f o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . G i v e n t h e f r e e e n t e r p r i s e n a t u r e o f o u r economy, t he p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s by t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s t o be e x p e c t e d . Tha t gove rnment s a d m i t t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r has a r o l e t o p l a y i n m e e t i n g t he r e c r e a t i o n a l demands o f t he p u b l i c s h o u l d be e v i d e n t f r om the l a r g e sums o f money s p e n t on t o u r i s t p r o m o t i o n o f a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , w h e t h e r p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e . Tha t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n has i n f a c t been a c c e p t e d by p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n C h a p t e r s IV, V, and V I . S e c o n d , t h e e conom i c v i a b i l i t y o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y campgrounds i s s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e c a r i o u s t o w a r r a n t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p u b l i c p o l i c i e s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e some s o r t o f " s u b s i d y " f o r p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s . T h a t t h e economic v i a b i l i t y o f many p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s i s m a r g i n a l i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n C h a p t e r I I . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s an a c c e p t a n c e t h a t a s m a l l s u b s i d y t oward s m a r g i n a l p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s i s p r e f e r a b l e and p r o b a b l y c h e a p e r t h a n a f u l l - s c a l e e x p a n s i o n o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s t o r e p l a c e s u b s t a n d a r d p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s . . . . a judgment w i l l be made on how t he t o t a l amount o f p u b l i c money a l l o c a t e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d . T h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n may w e l l be ba sed on c o s t - b e n e f i t a n a l y s e s d e s i g n e d t o answer t he q u e s t i o n , W i l l the p u b l i c w e l f a r e b e n e f i t more f r o m i n v e s t m e n t o f p u b l i c f unds i n a d d i t i o n a l s u b s i d i z a t i o n 52 o f p r i v a t e development o f the s i m p l e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i -v i t i e s o r from c o n t i n u i n g t o a l m o s t w h o l l y s u b s i d i z e p u b l i c development o f the same ty p e o f r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ? ( T w a r d z i k , 1965, p. 97) P r o b a b l y t h i s p o s i t i o n and the r e l a t e d i s s u e o f u s e r - f e e s a t p u b l i c camp-grounds s h o u l d i n f a c t be s u b s t a n t i a t e d but a g a i n t h i s i s a p r o j e c t o f a s c a l e beyond the scope o f t h i s paper. G i v e n the two p r e v i o u s a s s u m p t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e s how p u b l i c p o l i c i e s c o u l d a s s i s t p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . These g o v e r n -ment p o l i c i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d as open-ended o p t i o n s o f what c o u l d be done and not as what s h o u l d be done. F u r t h e r , any program o f a s s i s t i n g p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s w i l l v a r y from a r e a t o a r e a d e p e n d i n g on the l e v e l o f government, h i s t o r i c a l p o l i c y p r e c e d e n t s , r e g i o n a l r e s i d e n t and t o u r i s t u s e r demands, e t c . i n i t i a l l y , the l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e b ranches e i t h e r a t f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s must e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e t h a t i t i s t h e i r p o l i c y t o a s s i s t p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . For the M i n i s t e r o f R e c r e a t i o n and T o u r i s m to e s t a b l i s h a p o l i c y o f a i d i n g p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e o p e r a t o r s i s f u t i l e i f such an o v e r a l l g o a l i s not a l s o b e i n g i n i t i a t e d by the D e p a r t -ments o f H e a l t h , Highways, F i n a n c e , e t c . A l l government dep a r t m e n t s must have the same g o a l s i f the numerous a r e a s o f o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s a r e not g o i n g t o be the f o c u s of c o n f l i c t i n g p o l i c i e s . P r o b a b l y one government department s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d the t a s k o f d i r e c t i n g and co-o r d i n a t i n g t h i s new p o l i c y o f a s s i s t a n c e t o the p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r . A l l d e p a r t m e n t s would have to acknowledge t h i s g o a l however. As a second s t e p , i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o c o o r d i n a t e the r o l e s o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w i t h t h o s e o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . T h i s might 53 i n v o l v e a s t a t e m e n t o f what f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s a r e t o be p r o v i d e d and by whom. Fo r e x a m p l e , i t m i gh t be t h a t p u b l i c campgrounds w i l l not p r o v i d e l a u n d r a m a t s , g r o c e r y s t o r e s , boat r e n t a l s , showers no r w i l l w a t e r , sewer and e l e c t r i c i t y be a v a i l a b l e a t each i n d i v i d u a l c a m p s i t e . T h i s t ype o f s t a t e m e n t w o u l d h e l p t o d e l i n e a t e what s e r v i c e s a p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r c o u l d p r o v i d e w i t h o u t e n t e r i n g i n t o d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c s e c t o r . A n o t h e r examp le p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s c a t e g o r y w o u l d be a p o l i c y o f p r o -h i b i t i n g r o a d s i d e camping o u t s i d e d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s . T h i s p o l i c y w o u l d s e r v e t o c r e a t e more c u s t o m e r s f o r bo th p r i v a t e and p u b l i c campgrounds . A s i m i l a r i s s u e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y i s t he d e f i n i t e c o l l e c t i o n o f u s e r f e e s a t p u b l i c campgrounds . Here a g a i n i s a means o f p l a c i n g t h e p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r i n a more c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n . The l o c a t i o n and s i z e o f f u t u r e p u b l i c s e c t o r campgrounds w o u l d be p l a n n e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o m i n i m i z i n g c o n f l i c t s w i t h p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s . In remote l o c a t i o n s where s ea son s a r e s h o r t and b u s i n e s s p r o s p e c t s s l i m , t he p u b l i c s e c t o r m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o c o n s t r u c t needed f a c i l i t i e s . In some m a j o r t o u r i s t a r e a s however ( i . e . Okanagan , Vancouve r I s l a n d ) where demand i s h i g h , t he c l i m a t e p r o v i d e s f o r a l o n g e r s ea son and h e r e t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r s h o u l d be e n -c o u r a g e d t o b u i l d c a m p s i t e s w h i l e the p u b l i c s e c t o r c o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on d a y - u s e f a c i 1 i t i e s . A t h i r d t y p e o f government a s s i s t a n c e t o p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i c o u l d be f o r p u b l i c a g e n c i e s t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l m a j o r a d -v e r t i s i n g . T h i s c o u l d be on a p r o v i n c i a l s c a l e as w e l l as on a r e g i o n a l and l o c a l s c a l e . A p rog ram o f r o a d s i d e d i r e c t i o n a l s i g n b o a r d s c o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d . 5k A f o u r t h t y p e o f government a s s i s t a n c e t o p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s c o u l d be a l o a n p rog ram t o a s s i s t i n t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g , u p - g r a d i n g o r e x p a n d i n g o f f a c i l i t i e s . Too o f t e n government l o a n programs such as the I n d u s t r i a l Deve lopment Bank a r e s e t up t o s u p p l y s e v e r a l hundred thou sand d o l l a r s t o b u i l d a mo te l o r r e s o r t , bu t t hey w i l l i g n o r e a p r i v a t e campground o p e r a -t o r who needs o n l y a few hundred d o l l a r s f o r b u i l d i n g ho t showers and a l a u n d r y room. A f i f t h t y p e o f a s s i s t a n c e c o u l d be a p r og r am o f t e c h n i c a l and management s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d t o t he p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n o p e r a t o r . T h i s i n -f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e w o u l d be i n i t i a t e d by the government d e p a r t m e n t a s s i g n e d p r i m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t he a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r am. From t h i s d e p a r t m e n t , t h e p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r c o u l d o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n t o a s s i s t h im i n c o n s t r u c t i n g campground s i t e s , washrooms, p l a y g r o u n d s , m a r i n a s , b r e a k w a t e r s , p i c n i c s h e l t e r s , w a t e r and sewer s y s t e m s , e t c . I n c l u d e d c o u l d be samp le l a y o u t s and d e s i g n s , c o s t e s t i m a t e s , e t c . A s i d e f r o m t h i s t e c h n i c a l d a t a , t h e o p e r a t o r c o u l d a l s o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on management p r o b l e m s , i n s u r a n c e , i b o o k k e e p i n g , a d v e r t i s i n g , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , e t c . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e k i n d s o f i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s , f u l l i m p l e m e n t a -t i o n o f t h e p rog ram w o u l d p r o b a b l y r e q u i r e f i e l d p e r s o n n e l . These f i e l d o f f i c e r s c o u l d v i s i t t he p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s a t t he l o c a t i o n o f the p r o p o s e d o r e x i s t i n g e n t e r p r i s e and o f f e r s u g g e s t i o n s on t he d e v e l o p m e n t o f the s i t e o r t he management o f the e n t e r p r i s e . The government depa r tmen t v i a i t s f i e l d o f f i c e r s c o u l d o f f e r a s i x t h f o r m o f a s s i s t a n c e by c o n d u c t i n g a p rog ram o f r e s e a r c h d e s i g n e d t o c o l l e c t t h e d a t a n e c e s s a r y t o improve t he p r e s e n t management o f p r i v a t e 55 p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s and p l a n f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n by t he p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s . A s e v e n t h f o r m o f a s s i s t a n c e by government a g e n c i e s t o a s s i s t t h e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r c o u l d be i n the f i e l d o f i n s u r a n c e c o v e r a g e . The premiums o f l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e t o p r o t e c t t h e o p e r a t o r a g a i n s t c l a i m s a r i s i n g f r o m a c c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g p a i d g u e s t s can be p r o h i b i t i v e . To pay i n s u r a n c e premiums can s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e t he o p e r a t i n g e xpen se s f o r a b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e and i n f a c t be t he d i f f e r e n c e between a p r o f i t and b r e a k i n g e v e n . Ye t t o o p e r a t e w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e p r o t e c t i o n m i g h t r e s u l t i n d e v a s t a t i n g f i n a n c i a l l o s s e s . An e i g h t h p o i n t i n t h e government p rog ram wou ld be a r e v i e w o f t a x a t i o n p o l i c i e s as t hey r e l a t e t o p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . T r a -d i t i o n a l t a x a t i o n methods where r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s a r e a s s e s s e d as a g r i c u l t u r a l o r c o m m e r c i a l uses o f l a n d have p r o v e n i n a d e q u a t e and o f t e n f o r c e the o p e r a t o r t o c o n v e r t h i s l a n d t o o t h e r u s e s . I f r e t a i n i n g r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e a d j a c e n t t o u r b a n i z e d a r e a s , i s deemed t o be i n t he b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f s o c i e t y , a l t e r n a t i v e s y s tems o f t a x a t i o n w i l l be t o be d e v i s e d . In r e v i e w , i t a p p e a r s t h a t no s i n g l e one o f t h e s e a s s i s t a n c e p r o -grams o f f e r s a s i g n i f i c a n t boo s t t o a p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e . We do know however t h a t p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s a r e o f t e n m a r g i n a l e c o n o m i c o p e r a t i o n s and t h a t some s o r t o f a s s i s t a n c e i s n e c e s s a r y i f t hey a r e t o s u r v i v e . C o l l e c t i v e l y t h e t ype s o f a s s i s t a n c e o u t l i n e d a b o v e , i f j o i n t l y i m p l e m e n t e d , m i gh t r educe t he c o s t s , a t t r a c t c u s t o m e r s and e n a b l e more e n t e r p r i s e s t o p r o s p e r . 56 P u b l i c I s s ue s A r i s i n g Out o f t he R o l e o f the P r i v a t e S e c t o r The f o r e g o i n g a t t e m p t e d t o show how t h e p u b l i c a nd/o r p r i v a t e p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s a r e r e l a t e d . P r o b a b l y e v i d e n t i n t h a t a n a l y s i s was an i m p l i c i t a s s e r t i o n t h a t the p u b l i c s e c t o r s h o u l d c o o r d i n a t e and e n c o u r a g e the r o l e o f the p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r i n m e e t i n g t he e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g demands o f r e c r e a t i o n i s t s . T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s ba sed on a f e e l i n g t h a t many a c t i o n s by p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e managers have i m p l i c a t i o n s beyond t h e p r o f i t o r l o s s s t a t e m e n t o f h i s b u s i n e s s . The f o l l o w i n g w i l l a t t e m p t t o r e l a t e s e v e r a l o f t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g o u t o f t he r o l e o f t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r when c o n s i d e r i n g t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c we 1 f a r e . The f i r s t i n s t a n c e o c c u r s under t he h e a d i n g o f o b s o l e s c e n c e . In modern s o c i e t y , t e c h n o l o g y , i n c r e a s e d l e i s u r e , and more d i s p o s a b l e income have c r e a t e d new demands f o r r e c r e a t i o n t h a t were u n a n t i c i p a t e d s e v e r a l y e a r s ago . What does t h e f u t u r e h o l d ? The o n l y s a f e p r e d i c t i o n i s t h a t t h i n g s w i l l c hange . E v e r i n c r e a s i n g l y , government i s f o r c e d t o h e l p some i n d u s t r i a l c o n c e r n , l a b o r g roup o r i n d i v i d u a l s whose r e s o u r c e s and s k i l l s have become outmoded. O b v i o u s l y i n t he a r e a o f r e c r e a t i o n a p h y s i c a l l y a t t r a c t i v e a r e a . w i t h f o r e s t and w a t e r may r e t a i n i t s u s e f u l n e s s under c h a n g -i n g c o n d i t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , f a c i l i t i e s become o b s o l e t e b e f o r e t h e i r i n -v e s t m e n t can be r e p a i d . As an e x a m p l e , t oday most m o t e l s a r e c o m p a r a b l e t o h o t e l s i n c l a s s o f s e r v i c e and t he roadways a r e d o t t e d w i t h d e r e l i c t " m o t o r c o u r t s " w h i c h were i n vogue d u r i n g the 1950 1s. G i v e n t h i s f a c t o r , government must beware o f a p o l i c y o f f o r m a l l y e n c o u r a g i n g c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t by t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t m i gh t soon 57 be pa s sed by becau se o f new t a s t e s a c q u i r e d by s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e c r e a t i o n -i s t s . P r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s can o f t e n make poo r i n v e s t m e n t c h o i c e s v i a t h e i r own management d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t t he added p i t f a l l o f s h o r t s i g h t e d a d v i c e f r om w e l l - m e a n i n g p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s . A s econd a r e a o f p u b l i c c o n c e r n i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y . T h i s i s s u e i s one t h a t s h o u l d c o n c e r n t h e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r as much as t h e o p e r a t o r s o f p u l p m i l l s and the p r o d u c e r s o f i n s e c t i c i d e s . In many i n s t a n c e s t he u s e r demand f o r a p a r t i c u l a r r e c r e a t i o n s i t e i s i n e x c e s s o f t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h a t s i t e . Examples o f t h i s i n c l u d e a s u r p l u s o f h u n t e r s and f i s h e r m e n w i t h i n a l i m i t e d a r e a , e r o s i o n o f a l p i n e meadow t r a i l s , o r a p o t p o u r r i o f f i s h e r m e n , c a n o e i s t s , sw immers , and w a t e r s k i i e r s a l l t r y i n g t o u se the same s m a l l l a k e . P r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s w h i c h p r o v i d e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n t o members o f t he p u b l i c on a p r i c e o r payment b a s i s , i n t he e x p e c t a t i o n o f a p r o f i t , a r e under c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e t o i n c r e a s e t he i n t e n s i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n use d f t h e i r a r e a . Such b u s i n e s s e s o f t e n have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f i x e d c o s t s ; a l i t t l e more use may mean a much h i g h e r n e t i ncome, i n t he s h o r t r u n . But a " l i t t l e mo re " use may w e l l mean a l o n g - r u n d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t he a r e a , p h y s i -c a l l y o r i n te rms o f s a t i s f a c t i o n s p e r u n i t o f use o r b o t h . . . . . . . I n each c a s e , t he s i t u a t i o n i s somewhat l i k e t h a t o f a f a r m e r c o n s i d e r i n g s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . A d o p t i o n o f t h e s e l a t t e r may mean r e d u c e d income i n t he immed ia te f u t u r e , o r i n c r e a s e d e x p e n s e s , o r p o s s i b l y b o t h ; but n e g l e c t i s l i k e l y t o mean l o n g - r u n l o s s e s i n p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f t he l a n d . P r e s e n t and f u t u r e c o s t s and b e n e f i t s must be b a l a n c e d , as w e l l as a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f i n t e n s i v e as compared w i t h e x t e n -s i v e use o f t he r e s o u r c e s . In the c a s e o f p r i v a t e o u t -doo r r e c r e a t i o n , t he p r o b l e m i s made more d i f f i c u l t by t h e f a c t t h a t l o s s e s i n q u a l i t y may be s m a l l and g r a d u a l , y e t c u m u l a t i v e o v e r p e r i o d s o f y e a r s u n t i l t hey can be o v e r w h e l m i n g and n e a r l y i r r e v e r s i b l e . (C l awson and K n e t s c h , ,1969, pp . 178-79) 58 A n o t h e r i s s u e w h i c h p l a c e s t he r o l e o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n l i m b o , i s u s e r f e e s . S h o u l d u s e r s o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s be e x p e c t e d t o pay o r i s r e c r e a t i o n a s o c i a l good w h i c h s h o u l d be s u p p o r t e d by s o c i e t y a t l a r g e ? C l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n by t h e government w i l l be a m a j o r s t e p t owa rd s d e f i n i n g t he r o l e o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The i s s u e o f " o p e n s p a c e " and a d e q u a t e r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t he p u b l i c w i l l be one o f i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n . I f t he t o t a l number o f a c r e s o f p u b l i c l a nd s a r e deemed i n a d e q u a t e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t some p r i v a t e l and s be m a i n t a i n e d " g r e e n " and a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e p u b l i c , even i f o n l y upon payment o f f e e s . I n c e n t i v e s must be g i v e n t o e n c o u r a g e some p r i v a t e l and s t o be k e p t f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use and no t c o n v e r t e d t o h i g h -d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l o r i n d u s t r i a l u s e , o r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s i n g l e - f a m i l y c o t t a g e l o t s . The i s s u e h e r e i s t o c r e a t e t he f i n a n c i a l mechanisms t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r t he p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n o p e r a t o r t o s t a y i n b u s i n e s s ; o t h e r w i s e a t some t i m e i n the f u t u r e , t he p u b l i c p u r s e w i l l be f a c e d w i t h t he e x p e n s i v e t a s k o f b u y i n g back t h e s e p r i v a t e l a nd s t o c r e a t e open s p a c e . Cone 1 us i o n I t i s c l e a r t h a t a p u b l i c p o l i c y d e s i g n e d t o e n c o u r a g e d e v e l o p -ment o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s w i l l have numerous and f a r - r e a c h i n g e f f e c t s on f u t u r e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y . The most o b v i o u s e f f e c t o f t he i n c r e a s e i n p r i v a t e f o r m r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s i s an i n c r e a s e i n c o m p e t i t i o n between t h e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r and t h e p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r . ( T w a r d z i k , I965, p. 95) 59 T r a d i t i o n a l l y , p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n i n v e s t m e n t s we re made i n h i g h -c o s t f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s o r t s . P u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s were r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t e n t camping and t he a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s o f p i c n i c k i n g , sw imming, h i k i n g and f i s h i n g . Today , the d i v i d -i n g l i n e t h a t keeps s e p a r a t e t he e f f o r t s o f t he p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n p r o v i d i n g the s i m p l e t y p e o f r e c r e a t i o n has d i s a p p e a r e d . Now t he p r i -v a t e s e c t o r i s s t i l l p r o v i d i n g m o t e l s , h o t e l s , r e s o r t s , e t c . , but i t i s a l s o p r o v i d i n g s m a l l r o a d s i d e campgrounds . Becau se o f t he emerg i n g t h r e a t o f u n f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h p r i v a t e l a n d o w n e r s , t h e p u b l i c s e c t o r may be f o r c e d t o p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p and i n s t i t u t e a new e r a o f c o o p e r a t i o n between bo th s e c t o r s . ( T w a r d z i k , 1965, p. 95) D e s p i t e t he f a c t t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s t he t o t a l r o l e s p l a y e d by e i t h e r s e c t o r , i t i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t the l i t e r a -t u r e g e n e r a l l y o v e r e m p h a s i z e s t he r o l e p l a y e d by t he p u b l i c s e c t o r . T h i s a s s e r t i o n h o l d s t r u e when c o n s i d e r i n g e i t h e r t he d e v e l o p m e n t a l , r e g u l a t o r y , o r p r o m o t i o n a l r o l e s o f t he p u b l i c s e c t o r . Data on t he p u b l i c s e c t o r i s e a s i e r t o o b t a i n , p r i m a r i l y becau se o f t he c e n t r a l i z e d n a t u r e o f t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . One c e n t r a l o f f i c e w h e t h e r f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l o r m u n i c i p a l , can g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e u s e r d a t a on a l a r g e r number o f f a c i l i -t i e s and s i t e s . Becau se t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s segmented i n t o t hou sand s o f i n d e p e n d e n t b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s , d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s o b v i o u s l y more d i f f i c u l t . The same p r o b l e m i s e v i d e n t when c o l l e c t i n g d a t a on i n v e s t m e n t p a t t e r n s by p r i v a t e e n t r e p r e n e u r s as opposed t o p u b l i c a g e n c i e s . Becau se o f t h i s c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p a t t e r n , i t i s much e a s i e r f o r t he p u b l i c s e c t o r t o i n i t i a t e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . A l t h o u g h 60 s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s o f p r i v a t e l y owned r e s o u r c e s u sed f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n have added t o o u r know ledge . . . w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , t h e s e have been o n e - s h o t s t u d i e s , no t ones t h a t l e a d t o c o n t i n u o u s d a t a s e r i e s . They have m o s t l y f o c u s e d on numbers and a c r e a g e o f a r e a s . Some o f them have i n c l u d e d a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on i n v e s t -ment , emp loyment , and u s e r s . But what has been most n o t a b l y l a c k i n g i s i n f o r m a t i o n on numbers o f v i s i t o r s , t h e i r o r i g i n , c o s t s o f v i s i t s , and s i m i l a r d a t a . (C l awson and K n e t s c h , 1969, p. 206) So d e s p i t e t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g p r edom inance o f i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p u b l i c s e c -t o r , i t i s not f a i r t o a s s e r t t h a t t h i s s e c t o r has a g r e a t e r r o l e t o p l a y i n m e e t i n g t h e r e c r e a t i o n needs o f t h e p u b l i c . To d a t e , i t can o n l y be s t a t e d t h a t more a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o i t . I f i t i s no t p o s s i b l e , m a i n l y becau se o f i n c o m p l e t e d a t a , t o s t a t e t h a t one s e c t o r has a q u a n t i t a t i v e l y l a r g e r r o l e t o p l a y , we m i gh t a s k w h e t h e r each o f f e r s a q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s q u e s t i o n i s no t meant i n t h e s e n s e o f a s k i n g w h e t h e r o r no t one s e c t o r i s b e t t e r s u i t e d t o p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . R a t h e r i t i s i n t e n d e d t o a sk w h e t h e r o r no t one s e c t o r p r o v i d e s a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f f a c i l i t y o r s e r v i c e . To answer t he f i r s t q u e s t i o n i s t o open a w h o l e s e r i e s o f i s s u e s beyond t he s c ope o f t h i s c h a p t e r . The i s s u e o f t he r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f p u b l i c v e r s u s p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n t h e f i e l d o f r e c r e a -t i o n i s a s t u d y i n i t s e l f . In any c a s e , t h i s c h a p t e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h how t h e two s e c t o r s a r e r e l a t e d bu t w i l l no t a d v o c a t e e i t h e r s i d e . The s econd q u e s t i o n a s k s w h e t h e r one s e c t o r p r o v i d e s a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f s e r v i c e o r f a c i l i t y . T h i s i s no t t o a s k w h e t h e r one p r o v i d e s zoos and the o t h e r , a f i s h i n g r e s o r t . R a t h e r i t i s more s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s we a r e l o o k i n g 61 f o i — a s a zoo compared t o a game f a r m . More p a r t i c u l a r l y t h i s q u e s t i o n a s k s : i s camping a t a p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d campground d i f f e r e n t f r om a p u b l i c campground? T h i s i s a s ked no t i n t he s en se o f one b e i n g c l e a n e r , c h e a p e r , l a r g e r o r s m a l l e r . I n s t e a d t h e q u e s t i o n m i g h t w e l l be s t a t e d : does t he campground o p e r a t e d by one s e c t o r o f f e r a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e c r e a -t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e than one o f f e r e d by t he o t h e r s e c t o r ? To d a t e , t he r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d has f a i l e d t o an swer t h i s q u e s t i o n . A c o - a u t h o r o f t he ORRRC S tudy R e p o r t on P r i v a t e Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i -t i e s s t a t e d : . . . we used a c o m b i n a t i o n o f m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s . We a s k e d t he p e o p l e c o m p l e t i n g t he fo rms o r b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d t o l i s t t he f i r s t t h r e e r e c r e a -t i o n a c t i v i t i e s p o p u l a r a t t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . . . . But t h e p o i n t i s , we a s k e d t h e managers o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s , no t t h e u s e r s , t o answer a q u e s t i o n t h a t o n l y u s e r s s h o u l d be a s k e d t o a n s w e r . ( J o h n s o n , 1962, p. 5) Where u s e r - s t u d i e s have been u n d e r t a k e n , t hey have been ba sed on q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s c o m p l e t e d by u s e r s a t s t a t e o r f e d e r a l p a r k o r f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s . ORRRC S tudy R e p o r t No. 5, The Q u a l i t y o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n : As  E v i d e n c e d by U se r S a t i s f a c t i o n , was based on q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o m p l e t e d by u s e r s w h i l e a t t w e n t y - f o u r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . Tha t p o r t i o n o f t he Canada Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n Demand S tudy c o n d u c t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t he summer o f 1970 was based on s amp le s a t t h r e e s i t e s , a l l o f w h i c h were p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . . . . i t becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t u s e r s a m p l i n g s made a t p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s r e f l e c t a d i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s e o f o u t -door r e c r e a t i o n i n t e r e s t s f r o m t h a t s e r v e d by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and e v i d e n t l y a r e no t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s e . I f t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s v a l i d , p r i -v a t e l y owned o r o p e r a t e d f a c i l i t i e s a l s o can be s a i d t o 62 meet a need t h a t p u b l i c ones c a n n o t o r do no t meet . The n e x t a n a l y t i c a l s t e p i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a r e a s o f i n t e r c h a n g e a b i 1 1 t y , c o m p e t i t i o n , c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y , and o b v i o u s s u p e r i o r i t y o f one k i n d o f owner sh ip -management o v e r t he o t h e r . ( J o h n s o n , 1962, p. 6) In r e v i e w o f the c h a p t e r , i t can be s t a t e d t h a t becau se o f t he c o m p l e x i t i e s o f r e c r e a t i o n , t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s a r e e n t w i n e d by a comp lex s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . To s o r t o u t t h e i s s u e , two t h i n g s a r e needed . One i s more r e s e a r c h as i n d i c a t e d i n t he p r e v i o u s p a r a g r a p h s . The second i s government a c c e p t a n c e o f the c h a l l e n g e o f l e a d e r s h i p i n t he p r o v i s i o n o f t he e n t i r e range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and no t j u s t t he management o f i t s own f a c i l i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t w h i l e made t o p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n o f f i c i a l s f r o m m u n i c i p a l a g e n c i e s can s t i l l a p p l y t o r e c r e a t i o n l e a d e r s a t t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . One s p e c i f i c way t h e a t l o c a l p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s can expand t h e i r r o l e s i n t h i s r e g a r d i s t o assume a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l r e c r e a t i o n e f f o r t s i n t he commun i ty . . . .The p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n e x e c u t i v e and s t a f f and b o a r d s h o u l d be w o r k i n g a t e x p a n d i n g t h e c o m m e r c i a l and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r s w i t h t he same v i g o r and e n t h u s i a s m as t hey do i n g a i n i n g p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r t he a c q u i s i t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l p a r k - l a n d s . . . . E n v i s i o n , i f you w i l l , a community p a r k and r e c r e a -t i o n m a s t e r p l a n t h a t e x t e n d s beyond ou r p r e s e n t s i m p l i s t i c s y s t e m o f g r e e n space s and communi ty c e n t r e s and p l a y g r o u n d programs t o a t r u l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n t h a t i n c l u d e s c o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n p r og r ams . Once we b e g i n t o p l a n f o r t h e commun i t y , i n s t e a d o f f o r ou r t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a s o f c o m p e t e n c y , t hen we a r e w e l l on t h e way t o p r o v i d i n g a p u b l i c s e r v i c e t r u l y r e l e v a n t t o o u r c l i e n t e l e . ( T w a r d z i k , 1969, p. 9) 63 CHAPTER IV GOVERNMENT POLICY AND THE PRIVATE RECREATION SECTOR--THE UNITED STATES EXPERIENCE t The m a j o r r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r a l l o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s t h e O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Rev i ew C o m m i s s i o n . T h i s monumental f a c t s f i n d i n g c o m m i s s i o n was i n i t i a t e d by an a c t o f t h e U. S. C o n g r e s s , J une 28, 1958. The f i f t e e n member Commi s s i on c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r members f r o m each o f the S e n a t e and t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p l u s seven c i t i z e n s r e p r e s e n t i n g r e c r e a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n g r o u p s . The Commi s s i on was a s s i g n e d t h e t a s k o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g a l l a s p e c t s o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . As d e f i n e d i n t h e e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s meant l a n d and w a t e r a r e a s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f o w n e r s h i p , w h i c h p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . Not i n c l u d e d were r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and p rograms u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u rban d e v e l o p -ment ( i . e . p l a y g r o u n d s , s t a d i a , g o l f c o u r s e s , z o o s , e t c . ) . The Commi s s i on was a i d e d by an a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l o f t w e n t y - f i v e c i t i z e n s p l u s l i a i s o n members f r o m t h o s e f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s w i t h d i r e c t i n t e r e s t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any phase o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . The l e g i s -l a t i o n e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r om p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n o r g a n i -z a t i o n s , b o t h v o l u n t a r y and c o m m e r c i a l , were t o be i n c l u d e d on t h e a d v i s o r y c o u n c i 1 . eh In a d d i t i o n , t he l e g i s l a t i o n made s p e c i f i c m e n t i o n t h a t t h e r o l e o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n must be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t he s cope o f t h e s t u d y . S e c t i o n 6 (a) The Commi s s i on s h a l l p r o c e e d as soon as p r a c t i c a b l e t o s e t i n m o t i o n a n a t i o n w i d e i n v e n t o r y and e v a l u a t i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s and o p p o r t u n i -t i e s , d i r e c t l y and t h r o u g h the F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , t he S t a t e s , and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and g r o u p s , . . . (b) The Commi s s i on s h a l l c o m p i l e such d a t a and i n the l i g h t o f the d a t a so c o m p i l e d and o f i n f o r m a -t i o n a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g t r e n d s i n p o p u l a t i o n , l e i s u r e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and o t h e r f a c t o r s s h a l l d e t e r m i n e t h e amount, k i n d , q u a l i t y , and l o c a t i o n o f s uch o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s as w i l l be r e q u i r e d by t he y e a r 1976 and t h e y e a r 2000 , and s h a l l recommend what p o l i c i e s s h o u l d be b e s t a d o p t e d and what p rog rams be i n i t i a t e d , a t each l e v e l o f government and by p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and o t h e r c i t i z e n g roup s and i n t e r e s t s , t o meet such f u t u r e r e q u i r e m e n t s . S e c t i o n 7 The C o m m i s s i o n , i n i t s i n q u i r i e s , f i n d i n g s , and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , s h a l l r e c o g n i z e t h a t p r e s e n t and f u t u r e s o l u t i o n s t o p r ob l ems o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a t a l l l e v e l s o f g o ve rnmen t , f r o m l o c a l t o F e d e r a l , arid o f i n d i v i d u a l s and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l . . . . ( U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n g r e s s , P u b l i c Law 8 5 - 4 7 0 , App ro ved June 28, 1958) Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Rev i ew Commi s s i on Recommendat ions The Commi s s i on s e t up s e v e r a l s u b - c o m m i t t e e s t o i n v e s t i g a t e s p e c i a l t o p i c s such as h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g , w a t e r r e s o u r c e s , u s e r - d e m a n d , u s e r - s a t i s f a c -t i o n , f i n a n c e s , o p e n - s p a c e , w i l d e r n e s s , e t c . Of 27 s t u d y r e p o r t s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n , Volume 11 was e n t i t l e d " P r i v a t e R e c r e a t i o n E n t e r p r i s e s " . Many o f the c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h a t r e p o r t were used i n C h a p t e r II when o u t l i n i n g t he m a j o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r o b l e m s o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . The recommendat i on s o f t h e s t u d y g roup w e r e : 1 . G r e a t e r emphas i s s h o u l d be p l a c e d by a l l e v e l s o f government on the l a r g e r r o l e t h a t p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e can and needs t o have, i n p r o v i d i n g t h e f a c i l i t i e s and s e r -v i c e s r e q u i r e d f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . P rograms f o r p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n abou t t h e r o l e o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n need to be e m p h a s i z e d and s t r e n g t h e n e d . 2. P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s programs need t o be d e v e l o p e d by p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e t o e x p l a i n i t s p o s i t i o n , i t s f u n c t i o n s , and i t s p r ob l ems t o t he p u b l i c - - i t s p o t e n t i a l cus t ome r s . 3. Bo th r e s e a r c h and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programs need t o be d e v e l o p e d t o h e l p new r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s g e t s t a r t e d and t o h e l p e s t a b l i s h e d e n t e r p r i s e s improve t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . R e s e a r c h on p o s s i b l e new f i e l d s o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s needed . The a s s i s t a n c e p rograms c o u l d w e l l f o s t e r deve l opmen t o f new f i e l d s o f e n d e a v o r by p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e i n c l u d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l ' and i n f o r m a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r o w n e r s , o p e r a t o r s , and emp loyees i n t h i s f i e l d i s needed a l s o . 4. F i n a n c i a l a s s i t a n c e , t h r o u g h s i m p l i f i e d b o r r o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s , g u a r a n t e e d l o a n s , p u b l i c l o a n p r o g r a m s , o r o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e means, needs t o be made a v a i l a b l e t o competen t p e r s o n s d e v e l o p i n g p r i v a t e l y owned r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s o f a c c e p t a b l e q u a l i t y f o r p u b l i c u s e . 5. R e s e a r c h i s needed t o d e t e r m i n e t h e impac t o f l a w s , c o d e s , r e g u l a t i o n s , p o l i c i e s , t a x e s , l i c e n s e s , i n s p e c t i o n s , r e q u i r e d r e p o r t s , and o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government t o l e a r n where t hey impose undue h a r d s h i p o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . The r e s u l t s f r o m t h i s r e s e a r c h ( bo th p o s i t i v e and; n e g a t i v e ) c o u l d be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o n e c e s s a r y r e f o r m s t o a l l e v i a t e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n s and t o f a c i l i t a t e f a v o r a b l e o n e s . 6. A g e n c i e s a t a l l l e v e l s o f government m i g h t w e l l i n i t i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l p rograms t o h e l p improve t he b e h a v i o r o f p e r s o n s u s i n g r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . P r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n , as an i n d u s t r y , c o u l d c o o p e r a t e i n t h i s a c t i v i t y . 7. L a w - e n f o r c e m e n t p rograms need t o be s t r e n g t h e n e d o r e x t e n d e d t o h e l p p r i v a t e (and p u b l i c ) r e c r e a t i o n - r e s o u r c e managers combat t h e v a n d a l , t h e t h i e f , t he l i t t e r e r , and o t h e r s who c a r e l e s s l y o r m a l i c i o u s l y c a u s e damage t o r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . I f t h e s e g u i d e s a r e f o l l o w e d — i f p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s , p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , and t he p e o p l e u s i n g r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s work t o g e t h e r t oward t he common g o a l — t h e t o t a l s u p p l y o f 66 o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s a v a i l b l e f o r use w i l l be i n c r e a s e d and t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n s t h e p u b l i c g a i n f r om use o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s w i l l be m u l t i p l i e d . (ORRRC S tudy R e p o r t No. 11, 1962, p. xv i i ) The Commi s s i on used t h e s t u d y r e p o r t s and t h e i r r ecommendat i on s t o c o m p i l e t h e i r r e p o r t t o t he P r e s i d e n t . T h i s R e p o r t e n t i t l e d , " O u t -d o o r R e c r e a t i o n f o r A m e r i c a " , c o n t a i n e d a summary o f a l l f a c t s l e a r n e d by t h e s t u d y g roup s and a l i s t o f r ecommendat i on s o f what government a c t i o n was needed t o meet t h e f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n needs o f A m e r i c a . The s e c t i o n o f t he R e p o r t d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r i v a t e r o l e began : Becau se o f t he n a t u r e o f t he p r o b l e m s , much o f t h i s r e p o r t has been d e v o t e d t o r ecommendat i on s f o r g o v e r n -ment a c t i o n . T h i s i s n e c e s s a r y becau se so many f a c e t s o f t he s u b j e c t must be c o n s i d e r e d i n te rms o f t h e r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s and p rograms o f government a t a l l l e v e l s . The a c t i v i t i e s o f p r i v a t e l andowne r s and s u p p l i e r s o f f o o d and s e r v i c e s i n m e e t i n g p u b l i c needs f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n w i l l be g o v e r n e d c h i e f l y by t he p r o s p e c t f o r b r o a d s c ope and c o v e r such a w i d e v a r i e t y o f s i t u a -t i o n s as t o make i m p r a c t i c a b l e t h e f r a m i n g o f s p e c i f i c r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . Even t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e r e f o r e , w h i c h i s d e v o t e d t o t h e p r i v a t e r o l e , must d e a l l a r g e l y i n te rms o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f government t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . O u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , u n l i k e s uch a s e r v i c e as p o l i c e p r o t e c t i o n , c a n n o t be t he r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f government a l o n e . G e n e r a l a c c e s s t o t he o u t - o f - d o o r s and s i m p l e f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y o n e , bu t t he more s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i v i t i e s a r e among t he good t h i n g s o f l i f e t h a t must be p a i d f o r by t h e i n d i v i d u a l who w i s h e s them. Government can h e l p make o p p o r t u n i -t i e s a v a i l a b l e and can c a r r y o u t p r o j e c t s i n t he p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t h a t c a n n o t be done p r i v a t e l y , but i t does n o t , c a n n o t , and s h o u l d no t p r o v i d e f o r a l l t h e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n needs o f e v e r y c i t i z e n . T h i s i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t u r n c r e a t e s a m a r k e t f o r p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s , a n d , as p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r , o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s b i g b u s i n e s s . The d e s i r e f o r 67 e x p e r i e n c e i n the o u t d o o r s p r o v i d e s c u s t o m e r s f o r a u t o -m o b i l e s and t r a i l e r s , p a t r o n s f o r r e s o r t s , p a s s e n g e r s f o r common c a r r i e r s , and an i m p o r t a n t ma r ke t f o r h u n -d red s o f goods and s e r v i c e s , r a n g i n g f r o m c l i m b i n g b o o t s t o y a c h t s , and f rom f i l m d e v e l o p i n g t o o v e r n i g h t a c commoda t i on s . W i t h t h i s i n m i n d , the R e p o r t made t h e f o l l o w i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s : Recommendat ion 1 1 - 1 : Government a g e n c i e s s h o u l d s t i m u -l a t e d i v e r s i f i e d c o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n i n v e s t m e n t s on p r i v a t e l ands and w a t e r s . E x p a n s i o n p l a n s a p p e a r t o be l i m i t e d by t he a v a i l a -b i l i t y o f cap i ta1 . . . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m i s t he h i g h c o s t o f p e r s o n a l l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e , . . . t a x e s , s p e c i a l government l i c e n s e s , t a x e s , f e e s , and r e g u l a t o r y measures i n c r e a s e o v e r -head c o s t s and make o p e r a t i o n s d i f f i c u l t . T e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . . . w o u l d , . . . be u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g new e n t e r p r i s e s t o s t a r t and e s t a b l i s h e d ones t o improve t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . Recommendat ion 11 -2 : Government a g e n c i e s s h o u l d p r o -mote g r e a t e r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n use o f p r i v a t e l a n d s and w a t e r s . G r e a t e r p u b l i c use o f p r i v a t e l and s and w a t e r s w o u l d p r o v i d e s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s o f a d d i t i o n a l r e c r e a -t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y where p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i s h i g h and p u b l i c r e s o u r c e s a r e l i m i t e d . T h e r e w i l l be a g r o w i n g need i n t he f u t u r e t o make g r e a t e r use o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l . P u b l i c r i g h t s t o use p r i v a t e l and s and w a t e r s — a s oppo sed t o o u t r i g h t o w n e r s h i p - - c a n be a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h v o l u n t a r y ag reement s r e a c h e d w i t h l a n d o w n e r s , as w e l l as t h r o u g h p u b l i c l e a s i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s , t a x c o n c e s s i o n s , and e a s e m e n t s . . . . (ORRRC, R e p o r t t o t h e P r e s i d e n t , 1962, pp . 158-59) In a d d i t i o n t o t he s p e c i f i c s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r i v a t e r o l e , a n o t h e r p o r t i o n o f t he R e p o r t i s p e r t i n e n t t o o u r p u r p o s e s . Note t h a t under Recommendat ion 1 1 : 1 , t h e R e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t " E v e n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e r e f o r e , 68 w h i c h i s d e v o t e d t o t he p r i v a t e r o l e , must d e a l l a r g e l y i n te rms o f t he r e l a t i o n s h i p o f government t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . " But as was s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , few government a g e n c i e s a r e s e t up t o c o o r d i n a t e a l l a s -p e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n i n c l u d i n g l i a i s o n w i t h the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The R e p o r t r e c o g n i z e d t h i s f a c t i n a s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " O r g a n i z i n g f o r t he T a s k . " I t recommended t h a t a new agency be c r e a t e d w i t h i n t he Depa r tment o f t h e I n t e r i o r . The Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n was t o be a s s i g n e d a c o o r d i n a -t i v e r a t h e r than a management r o l e . I t was t o have no l a n d s o r f a c i l i -t i e s t o a d m i n i s t e r . The t e x t o f t he Commi s s i on R e p o r t e x p l a i n i n g why a new b u r e a u was needed i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x A. F i g u r e 1 shows where t h e new bu reau w o u l d f i t i n t o the e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r amework . Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n A r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n i n t h e P r a e g e r L i b r a r y o f U n i t e d S t a t e s Government Depa r tmen t s and A g e n c i e s g i v e s s e v e r a l i n s i g h t s i n t o how t he R e p o r t o f t h e ORRRC was r e c e i v e d . ( F i t c h and S h a n k l i n , 1970, pp . 79~88) The R e p o r t was f a v o u r a b l y r e c e i v e d by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t he n e w l y -e l e c t e d P r e s i d e n t , J . F. Kennedy. Led by t h e e f f o r t s o f S t e w a r t K. U d a l l , S e c r e t a r y o f t he I n t e r i o r , many o f t h e recommendat i on s o f t h e R e p o r t became a c c e p t e d p o l i c i e s o f t h e government and s e v e r a l r e s u l t e d i n new 1 eg i s1 a t i o n . F i g u r e ) FEDERAL AGENCIES WITH PROGRAMS INVOLVING SOME ASPECT OF OUTDOOR RECREATION 1962 THE PRESIDENT AGENCIES WITH MAJOR %&W% LAND MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES ORGANIZATIONAL PROPOSALS STATE GOVERNMENT GOVERNOR FISH AND SAME COMMERCE DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COAST GUARD 6 9 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE U. S. AIR FORCE U. S. ARMY JiT'! CORPS OF [ ;^EN6INEERS„ U. S. NAVY OHTDO:OR?RECRE; t BUREAU OF I^^RECLAMATI > , • O N . - J F"*' NATIONAL PARK*^1 j ^ ^ . SERVICE JfiUREAU OF SPORT FISH fcERIES AND WILDLIFE 'BUREAU OF LAND i| MANAGEMENT J p DEPARTMENT OF '']_ AGRICULTURE U. S. FOREST SERVICE COMMODITY STABIL-IZATION SERVICE SOIL CONSER-VATION SERVICE AGRICULTURE RESEARCH SERVICE AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION PROGRAM SERVICE EXTENSION SERVICE ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE DEPARTMENT OF . COMMERCE 1— BUREAU OF PUBLIC ROADS BUREAU OF THE CENSUS AREA REDEVELOP-MENT ADMINISTRATION U. S. TRAVEL SERVICE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION AND WELFARE - 0 PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE OFFICE OF EDUCATION INDEPENDENT AGENCIES FEDERAL POWER COMMISSION ST. LAWRENCE SEA-WAY DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION 1 •TENNESSEE VALLEY i AUTHORITY HOUSING AND HOME FINANCE ADMIN-ISTRATION GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FUNCTIONS) WATERS HIGHWAYS LANDS FORESTS PARKS mm OJUJiDOO.RSREGRE'AMQ mm ( S o u r c e : ORRRC, 1 9 6 2 ) 70 W i t h i n two months a f t e r L a u r a n c e R o c k e f e l l e r had s u b -m i t t e d h i s c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t and w i t h i n one month a f t e r P r e s i d e n t Kennedy had g i v e n i t h i s b l e s s i n g , S e c r e t a r y U d a l l . . . on A p r i l 2, 1962, s i g n e d S e c r e -t a r i a l O rde r 497, w h i c h c r e a t e d the Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . . . . The BOR began i t s p r e s t a t u a t o r y l i f e w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o c o n d u c t o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s u r v e y s , t o i n i t i a t e and p romote r e s e a r c h on a c o o r d i n a t e d b a s i s , t o a c t as an i n f o r m a t i o n c e n t r e f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c t s , and t o b e g i n work on a n a t i o n -w i d e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . ( F i t c h and S h a n k l i n , 1970, p. 82) On May 28, 1963, Cong re s s pa s sed t he Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n A c t ; w h i c h , a l t h o u g h i t d i d no t g i v e s t a t u a t o r y r e c o g n i t i o n t o t h e B u r e a u o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n , made t he o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a u t h o r i t y and f u n c t i o n s enumera ted t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r . The f u l l t e x t o f t h i s A c t i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x B. An o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t o f t he Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n i s shown i n F i g u r e 2. In a d d i t i o n t o t he Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n A c t o f 1963, a s e cond p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n was v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . The Land and Wate r C o n s e r v a t i o n Fund A c t became e f f e c t i v e J a n u a r y 1, 1965, and . . . a u t h o r i z e d t he S e c r e t a r y o f t he I n t e r i o r t o g r a n t m a t c h i n g f und s t o t h e s t a t e s f o r t he p l a n n i n g , a c q u i s i t i o n , and deve l opmen t o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n l a nd s and f a c i l i t i e s . . . . The S e c r e t a r y . . . , as a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h e s e g r a n t p r o g r a m s , d e l e g a t e d h i s a u t h o r i t y t o t he Bu reau . . . w h i c h . . . a c q u i r e d a p o w e r f u l t o o l f o r t he p r o m o t i o n o f i t s o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . . . . ( F i t c h and S h a n k l i n , 1970, p. 89) In a d d i t i o n , c e r t a i n f unds were t r a n s f e r r e d t o t he BOR f r o m a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e . The f o r e g o i n g has shown how t he ORRRC l e d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n and f u n d i n g o f a new Bureau whose p r i m e f u n c t i o n was t o c o o r d i n a t e gove rnment ORGANIZATION C H A R T — 3 U R E A U OF OUTDOOR RECREATION Division of Legislative Review DIRECTOR Associate Director Division of Information Special Assistants ) Division of Personnel j Management & Organization Assistant Director for Administration r Division of Accounting Operations A Division of Program Development & Management y • Operation* Division of Budget Administration Assistant Director for Environmental Quality St Technical Assistance Division of Council Staff Services Division of Technical Assistance Division of Environmental Conservation Assistant Director for Recreation Planning Division of Nationwide Planning Assistant Director for State Grants & Resource Studies Division of Land & Water Conservation Fund (State) Division of State Plans Division of Water Resources Division of Resource Area Studies 3-Division of Research & Education Assistant Director for Federal Programs & Statistics Division of Land & Water Conservation Fund (Federal) Division of Federal Coordination Division of Statistics & Data Processing ! I 1 Region 1 Pacific Northwest Region *2 Pacific Southwest Region 3 Mid-Continent Region 4 Lake Central Region 5 Southeast Region 6 Northeast (Source: Fitch and Shanklin, 1970) 72 a c t i o n t owa rd s o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . L e t us now examine how t h e s e new o f f i -c i a l p o l i c i e s a f f e c t e d p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n . To d a t e , o p i n i o n i s s t i l l m i xed w i t h r e g a r d s t o the p l a c i n g o f t he Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n w i t h i n t he Depa r tment o f the I n t e r i o r . Some p e r s o n s a d v o c a t e d t h a t t he BOR s h o u l d have been an a d v i s o r y agency r e p o r t i n g d i r e c t l y t o t he P r e s i d e n t . S t i l l g i v e n t h a t t h e r e a r e some t h i r t y f e d e r a l government d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s , a d m i n i s t e r i n g p rograms r e l a t e d t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , i t i s u n -l i k e l y t h a t t h e BOR, no m a t t e r where i t was p l a c e d i n the h i e r a r c h y , c o u l d e v e r a c h i e v e o v e r a l l c o n t r o l o f a l l a s p e c t s o f f e d e r a l p o l i c y m a k i n g . The BOR, by i t s v e r y e x i s t e n c e , has f u r t h e r e d t he c a u s e o f c o o r d i n a t i o n by s e r v i n g no t as a command p o s t , bu t as , a f o c a l p o i n t f o r f e d e r a l o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . ( F i t c h and S h a n k l i n , 1970, p. 119) One a s p e c t o f t h e r o l e assumed by t h e BOR has r e c e i v e d n e a r l y unanimous a p p r o v a l . F o r t he f i r s t t i m e , t h e r e e x i s t s a c e n t r a l government s o u r c e o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t c o v e r s f e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s , s t a t e and l o c a l g o v e r n -m e n t s , and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f b o t h t h e p r o f i t and n o n - p r o f i t v a r i e t y . The c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a begun by t he ORRRC i s thu s k e p t up t o d a t e . ( F i t c h and S h a n k l i n , 1970, p. 119) Depar tment o f A g r i c u l t u r e One e f f e c t o f e f f o r t o f t he BOR t o c o o r d i n a t e f e d e r a l p rog rams was t h a t o t h e r government d e p a r t m e n t s b e s i d e s t he Depar tment o f the I n t e r i o r became c o m m i t t e d t o e x p a n d i n g t h e i r p rograms i n t he f i e l d o f o u t -doo r r e c r e a t i o n . A s i d e f r om r e s e a r c h p rograms and i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s s p o n s o r e d by t h e BOR, the m a j o r impetus f o r government o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n o p e r a t o r s has come f r om t h e Depar tment 73 o f A g r i c u l t u r e . C o n s i d e r t he f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t by 0. L. F reeman, S e c r e -t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e (I96I-69). L e t me b e g i n w i t h t h i s p r e d i c t i o n : The o u t d o o r r e c r e a -t i o n needs o f t he A m e r i c a n p e o p l e c anno t now be met . . . n o r w i l l t hey e v e r be met . . . by t he comb ined e f f o r t s o f l o c a l , s t a t e , and f e d e r a l gove rnment s a l o n e . The se needs . . . t he u n s a t i s f i e d a p p e t i t e f o r open s pace s and g r een a r e a s w h i c h grows more r a p i d l y than o u r p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s . . . w i l l be met o n l y as we t u r n t o t he t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f o u r l a n d a r e a w h i c h i s i n p r i -v a t e hands . ( C o r n w e l l , 1963, p. 36) The S e c r e t a r y f u r t h e r s t a t e d the b e l i e f " t h a t i n r e s o l v i n g the c r i s i s o f abundance i n a g r i c u l t u r e , we w i l l a l s o r e s o l v e the c r i s i s o f s c a r c i t y i n r e c r e a t i o n . " The i d e a was t o d i v e r t l a n d f r om s u r p l u s c r o p p r o d u c t i o n t o r e c r e a -t i o n a l uses r a t h e r t han l e t i t r ema in i d l e . T h i s was no t o n l y t hough t t o be a means f o r o r d e r l y l a n d use a d j u s t m e n t , bu t a l s o a method o f c r e a t i n g new j o b s , i n c r e a s i n g f a r m and r u r a l i n come, and c o n s e r v i n g n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . Such an a d j u s t m e n t c o u l d h e l p s t a b i l i z e l o c a l e conomie s and s t r e n g t h e n s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h o u t r emov ing l a n d f r om p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p o r r e d u c i n g t h e t a x b a s e . ( Ke rn and D r i s c o l l , I966) G i v e n t h i s a t t i t u d e as t h e b a s i s f o r d e p a r t m e n t p o l i c y , s e v e r a l p r o -grams d e s i g n e d t o a i d t he p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r were d e v e l o p e d . The ma in f e a t u r e s were t o i n c l u d e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , e d u c a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , and r u r a l a r e a s d e v e l o p m e n t . To imp lement t h i s p r o g r a m , a l l b r a n c h e s o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tment o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n c l u d i n g t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e , C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a b i l i z a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n S e r v i c e , F a r m e r s ' Home A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the O f f i c e o f R u r a l A r e a s Deve l opmen t , were u t i l i z e d . 7^  O t h e r A g e n c i e s In a d d i t i o n t o the USDA, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Depa r tment o f Commerce v i a i t s A r e a Redeve lopment A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o v i d e s F e d e r a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s -t a n c e i n t he fo rm o f l o a n p r o g r ams . A s p e c i a l i z e d i n d e p e n d e n t f e d e r a l a g e n c y , the Sma l l B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , makes l o a n s t o i n d i v i d u a l s m a l l -b u s i n e s s f i r m s when they a r e u n a b l e t o p r o c u r e f i n a n c i n g f r om p r i v a t e s o u r c e s on r e a s o n a b l e t e r m s . The F i s h and W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e o f t he Depar tment o f t h e I n t e r i o r c o n d u c t s r e s e a r c h i n t o f o r e s t - w i l d l i f e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P r i v a t e owners can r e q u e s t the c o n s u l t i n g s e r v i c e s o f f i e l d o f f i c e r s w i t h r e g a r d t o wood l and and w i l d l i f e management. E f f e c t o f New Prog rams The r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f f e d e r a l government s e r v i c e s and t he i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f new programs had t h r e e a s p e c t s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r . One o b v i o u s r e s u l t was a f l o o d o f l i t e r a t u r e on t he s u b j e c t o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . N e a r l y e v e r y s t a t e i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s c a r r i e d o u t r e s e a r c h on t h e income p o t e n t i a l f r o m o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . The c o n t e n t s o f many o f t h e s e s t u d i e s were r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r I I . The s t u d i e s s e r v e - d - t o d e v e l o p an e x p e r t i s e among f i e l d s t a f f o f t he USDA. Not o n l y was l i t e r a t u r e made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e government s t a f f who s e r v e d as t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r s but i n f o r m a t i o n b r o c h u r e s were p r i n t e d i n q u a n t i t i e s f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s . The t o p i c s r anged f r om " P r i v a t e Campgrounds as an A l t e r n a t e Use o f L a n d " t o " M a n a g i n g Farm F i s h Ponds f o r Bass and T r o u t . " More, p r a c t i c a l t o p i c s i n c l u d e d Manua l s o f S e p t i c Tank P r a c t i c e s , Wate r S u p p l y S y s t ems , B o o k k e e p i n g P r a c t i c e s f o r Campground O p e r a t o r s , and T y p i c a l D e s i g n L a y o u t s f o r Campgrounds. 75 A second r e s u l t was t h a t USDA f i e l d s t a f f , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f t he C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e a t A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n s were a s s i g n e d t he t a s k o f g i v i n g o n - s i t e a d v i c e t o i n d i v i d u a l s who c o n t e m -p l a t e d d e v e l o p i n g o r e n l a r g i n g p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . T r a i n i n g s e m i n a r s were h e l d f o r p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r 1 a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i r d l y , a c o m p l e x o f t e n o v e r - l a p p i n g p rog ram o f l o a n a s s i s t a n c e was d e v e l o p e d . ( T a b l e 9) M i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s o f l o a n s were made under t h e s e p r o g r ams . ( T a b l e s 10 and 11) O b j e c t i v e l y , t h e s e were t h r e e t a n g i b l e i n d i c a t i o n s o f an i n c r e a s e d government emphas i s on a s s i s t i n g p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . S u b j e c t i v e l y t h e r e were many m i s g i v i n g s abou t t h e p r o g r ams . As e a r l y as 1963, some o b -s e r v e r s we re a l r e a d y i s s u i n g words o f c a u t i o n . F a i l u r e o f t h e s e f i r s t government s p o n s o r e d and e n c o u r a g e d e n d e a v o r s w o u l d be i n j u r i o u s t o f u t u r e . a s s i s t a n c e p r o -grams. C a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n i s r e q u i r e d on t h e b a s i s o f nea rby r e c r e a t i o n a l demand, q u a l i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e s , c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e owner t o manage a r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y and i t s c l i e n t e l e , and t he a v a i l a b i l i t y o f e x p e r t c o n s u l t i v e s e r v i c e s f o r p l a n n i n g and management. The f i r s t two c r i t e r i a f o r s u c c e s s can be r e a d i l y e v a l u -a t e d , bu t t h e p r ob l ems o f management and p l a n n i n g a r e no t as e a s i l y s o l v e d . F i r s t , o p e r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r o f i t depends . . . on t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e owner -manager t o meet and work w i t h p e o p l e . Such t r a i t s a r e no t p a r t i c u l a r l y common among r u r a l l a n d o w n e r s . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e a r e v e r y few t e c h n i c i a n s t r a i n e d i n t he p l a n n i n g and o p e r a t i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r o f i t . Most o f o u r e x p e r i e n c e i s d e r i v e d f r o m p u b l i c p r o j e c t s where o p e r a t i o n i n t he " r e d " i s a c c e p t e d as one o f t he f a c t s o f l i f e , y e t w i t h t h i s t r a i n i n g , and o f t e n v e r y l i t t l e o f i t , we must h e l p an i n d i v i d u a l p l a n a p r o j e c t t h a t w i l l no t o n l y e a r n h i s l i v e l i h o o d , bu t a l s o r e t i r e a s i z a b l e l o a n , meet t h e TABLE 9 Summary of Ma jor Federal Credit Programs Affect ing Commerc ia l Recreation, 1966 Federal Agency Types of Credit Aid Use of Loan Proceeds Eligible Borrowers Maximum Interest Rate Maximum Maturity Maximum Loan Size Maximum Loan to Value Ratio 1. Small Business Administration (SBA) Direct loans, participa-tion loans, and loan guarantee To finance construction, expansion, and other business needs Small businesses 5%% (4% in distressed areas) 10 yrs. $350,000 Not Appli-cable 2. Economic Development Administration (EDA), Dept. of Commerce, formerly Area Redevelopment Administration (ARA). Direct loans To finance the purchase or development of land and facilities Industrial or commer-cial firms located i n designated areas Depends on current U.S. Treasury rate 25 yrs. No limita-tion 65% of project cost, 90% for loan guarantee 3. Farmers Home Administration (FHA) Department of Agriculture — Farm Ownership Loan Program Direct loans or loan insurance To buy or improve farms; produce fish; to finance recreational fa-cilities Farmers or ranchers operating not larger than family farms 5% 40 yrs. $60,000 100% FHA—Farm Operating Loan Program Direct loans or loan insurance Short-term loans includ-ing financing recreation-al enterprises Farmers 5% 5 yrs. to 7 yrs. $35,000 No limita-tion FHA—Soil and Water Conservation Loan Program Direct loans or loan insurance Acquire or improve water supply systems; shifts in land use for development of recrea-tional facilities, grazing, and forestry Non-profit rural organi-zations, farmowners 4%%-5% 40 yrs.; 20 yrs.; with no real estate security Individ-uals $60,000 Associa-tions— $500,000; Direct Loans— $1,000,000 100% 4. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Department of Interior Direct loans To finance projects pro-moting . economic devel-opment among Indians Indians and their or-ganizations 2-5%, but no restric-tion 30 yrs. No limita-tion No l imita-tion 5. Rural Electrification Administration (REA) Direct loans to coopera-tives To finance tne construc-tion and operation of operating and electrical facilities and equipment Corporations, including cooperatives, States, & other public bodies 2% 10 yrs. Equip-ment 35 yrs. facilities No limita-tion 90% Equip-ment, 100% fa-cilities Compiled from information supplied by Federal agencies. ( S o u r c e : Bureau o f Ou tdoo r ' ~ ~ R e c r e a t i o n , 1967) TABLE 10 D I R E C T LOANS FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION OF P R I N C I P A L FEDERAL CREDIT A G E N C I E S , 1 9 6 2 - 6 4 ( V a l u e , i n t h o u s a n d s o f d o l l a r s ) REGIONS ^SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AREA REDEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION (now EDA) TOTAL N o . V a l u e N o . V a l u e N o . V a l u e TOTAL 535 100% $ 3 0 , 2 2 1 100% 25 100% $ 1 2 , 3 3 0 100% 5 6 0 100% $ 4 2 , 5 5 1 100% New E n g l a n d 0 76 15 3 , 0 9 6 10 4 16 . 1 ,044 8 80 14 4 , 1 4 0 10 M i d - A t l a n t i c 96 17 8 , 2 5 6 28 2 8 568 5 - 98 18 8 , 8 2 4 21 E a s t N o r t h C e n t r a l 48 10 2 , 4 5 3 8 4 16 2 , 7 9 7 2 3 52 9 5 , 2 5 0 12 Wes t N o r t h C e n t r a l 73 14 2 , 2 0 2 8 5 20 2 , 0 7 1 17 78 13 4 , 2 7 3 10 S o u t h A t l a n t i c 58 10 4 , 1 2 8 14 3 12 1 ,515 12 61 11 5 , 6 4 3 13 E a s t S o u t h C e n t r a l 13 2 337 1 3 12 267 2 16 3 604 1 West S o u t h C e n t r a l 20 4 660 2 1 4 1 ,014 8 21 4 1 ,674 4 M o u n t a i n 85 15 5 , 5 1 1 18 3 12 2 , 7 7 8 23 88 16 8 , 2 8 9 20 P a c i f i c , A l a s k a , a n d H a w a i i 57 11 3 , 1 6 5 9 0 0 276 2 57 10 3 , 4 4 1 8 P u e r t o R i c o & V i r g i n I s l a n d s 9 2 413 2 0 0 0 0 9 2 413 1 C o m p i l e d f r o m d a t a s u p p l i e d by t h e F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s . * A l s o i n c l u d e s S B A ' s s h a r e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n l o a n s . ( S o u r c e : Bureau o f Ou tdoo r — R e c r e a t i o n , 1967) ^ • ; 'I. 1^ i TABLE 11 TYPES OF FACILITIES FINANCED THROUGH PRINCIPAL FEDERAL CREPTT Ar.RNmF.^ 1069.f,/t ( I n t h o u s a n d s o f d o l l a r s ) RECREATION F A C I L I T Y FEDERAL CREDIT AGENCIES EDA (ARA) S B A ! / F H A I / I N D I V I D . A S S O C . V a l u e % V a l u e % V a l u e % V a l u e 1 TOTAL $12,334 100 $30,221 . 100 $857 100 $6,427 l o b S k i A r e a 5,271 43 1,876 6 0 0 26 0 G o l f C o u r s e 0 0 3,869 13 84 10 5,710 89 M a r i n a 1,015 8 2,362 8 3 0 283 4 T o u r i s t A t t r a c t i o n 524 4 n a n a 0 0 0 0 R e s o r t ( H o t e l - M o t e l ) 4,702 38 11,032 36 0 0 0 0 Campground p i c n i c k i n g 0 0 n a n a 293 34 66 1 Dude R a n c h o r V a c a t i o n F a r m 0 0 n a n a 82 10 0 0 F i s h i n g A r e a & H u n t i n g A r e a 0 0 n a n a 113 13 0 0 C a b i n o r C o t t a g e 0 0 0 n a 193 23 0 0 H o r s e S t a b l e 0 0 65 -- 61 7 0 0 O t h e r 822 7 0 n a 28 3 344 5 S o u r c e : C o m p i l e d f r o m d a t a s u p p l i e d by t h e F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s . 1/ D e t a i l e d FHA r e c r e a t i o n r e p o r t s w e r e a v a i l a b l e f o r a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e t o t a l o u t s t a n d i n g r e c r e a t i o n l o a n s , m a i n l y i n s u r e d l o a n s . 2/ 377o o f S B A ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l l o c a t i o n s c o u l d n o t b e d e s c r i b e d u n d e r t h e s e f a c i l i t y d e s c r i p t i o n s s i n c e SBA u s e s t h e B u r e a u o f t h e B u d g e t ' s S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r i a l C o d e s ; a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m t o o b r o a d f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s . SBA and EDA d a t a a r e f o r d i r e c t l o a n s . ( S o u r c e : Bureau o f Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n ) 79 i n t e r e s t on the c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t , and o f f s e t c o s t l y o p e r a t i n g e x p e n s e s . The p r u d e n t c o u r s e , i n e n c o u r a g i n g new e n t e r p r i s e s , i s c a u t i o u s p r o g r e s s , a c q u i r i n g the needed know-how a l o n g t h e way. ( C o r n w e l l , I963, p. 38) H o p e f u l l y f i e l d s t a f f w o u l d no t i n t e r p r e t l i t e r a l l y t he p o l i c i e s o f S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e 0. L. Freeman w h i c h m i g h t be p a r a p h r a s e d " . . . a g r i c u l t u r e once was e x p e c t e d t o a b s o r b the u rban unemployed d u r i n g d e p r e s s i o n , o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a p p a r e n t l y i s b e i n g p r e s c r i b e d as a panacea f o r m a l a d j u s t m e n t s i n l and u s e s . " ( J ohn son and T h a r p , 1963, p. 31*0 The p r o b l e m a r i s e s when t h e use o f r e s o u r c e s was s h i f t e d f r o m a g r i -c u l t u r e t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . The new s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d e n t e r p r i s e s r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t management t e c h n i q u e s and o p e r a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . U n d e r l y i n g t h i s was a f e e l i n g t h a t r e c r e a t i o n was d i f f e r e n t i n n a t u r e and d i d no t r e q u i r e t h e same econom i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as t h e p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t o f e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t i e s i n o t h e r s e c t o r s . Ou tdoo r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f a c e a v a r i e t y o f c o m p e t i t i v e demands f o r consumer e x p e n d i t u r e s . Whethe r a p r i v a t e owner can c a p t u r e a p o r t i o n o f t h e s e e x p e n d i t u r e s depends on w h e t h e r he can s u p p l y t h e s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h p o s s e s s t h e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s t h e c u s t o m e r d e s i r e s . A m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f g r o s s demand f i g u r e s and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e f i g u r e s t o s p e c i f i c l o c a l i t i e s may l e a d t o e v e n t u a l low r e v e n u e s . Not a l l government r e c r e a t i o n c o n s u l t a n t s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t e v e r y r u r a l s e t t i n g i s not a p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n b o n a n z a . S t i l l o v e r a l l t he f i e l d o f f i c e r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n d u c t i n g r e -s e a r c h , p r o d u c i n g i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s and a d v i s i n g f a r m e r s were v e r y c a u t i o u s . From the o u t s e t , t hey r e c o g n i z e d t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t he manage-ment p o t e n t i a l o f r u r a l a r e a r e s i d e n t s . 8o R e c r e a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n r u r a l a r e a s , has l ong been c o n -s i d e r e d a nonmarket good , and a change i n v a l u e s y s tems o f i n d i v i d u a l s may be r e q u i r e d i f m a r k e t i n g o f t h e s e r -v i c e s i s t o be p r o f i t a b l y a c c o m p l i s h e d . ( Ke rn and D r i s c o l l , 1966, p. H2) Many o f t he s t a t e - w i d e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s on income p o t e n t i a l s f r om o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n c o n c l u d e d t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d e q u a t e e c o n o m i c r e t u r n s f r om i n v e s t m e n t i n r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s were l i m i t e d . (Ho lmes , 1963; Owens, 1964; B i r d , 1965) D e s p i t e t he e f f o r t s o f t h e Bu reau o f Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n and t he P r e s i d e n t ' s A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , t h e p o l i c i e s o f some government a g e n c i e s were bound t o c o n f l i c t . One examp le o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e USDA where the g r e a t e s t e f f o r t s were expended t o e n c o u r a g e f a r m e r s t o c o n v e r t p o r t i o n s o f t h e i r l a n d t o c o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . A t t h e same t i m e , t he C r o p l a n d A d j u s t m e n t P r og r am c o n t a i n e d p r o v i s i o n s f o r i n c r e a s i n g f a r m r a t e s o f payment i f a f a r m e r a g r e e d t o make p o r t i o n s o f l a n d a v a i l a b l e w i t h o u t c h a r g e f o r h u n t i n g , f i s h i n g and h i k i n g . ( Ke rn and D r i s c o l l , 1966, p. 142) In f a c t , t h e e n t i r e p rog ram c r e a t e d some i n t e r - a g e n c y c o m p e t i t i o n . On the one hand we re government a g e n c i e s l o b b y i n g t o o b t a i n f und s f r o m a l i m i t e d p u b l i c p u r s e t o e n c o u r a g e t he deve l opmen t o f p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s . On t h e o t h e r hand we re t h o s e government a g e n c i e s demand ing f unds t o d e v e l o p i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . A r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f g o a l s i s i n o r d e r . To s ummar i z e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , government o f f i c i a l s have made an e f f o r t t o e n c o u r a g e t he p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n o p e r a t o r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s p rog ram has o n l y been d i r e c t e d t o one segment o f t he d i v e r s e p o p u l a t i o n t h a t owns l a n d i n r u r a l a r e a s . O b v i o u s l y p r i v a t e l a n d w i t h p o t e n t i a l f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s b e i n g used f o r p u r p o s e s o t h e r than s u b - m a r g i n a l f a r m i n g . These l and s have been i g n o r e d . 81 Even wo r s e i s t he a t t e m p t t o i n c l u d e the r u r a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o -grams o u t s i d e the c o n t e x t o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n f o r r e c r e a t i o n . I t may not be t h a t the s h o r t c o m i n g s o f any p rog ram to a s s i s t p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s by means o f f i n a n c i a l a i d , t e c h n i c a l and management a d v i s o r s , - e t c . , a r e c o n t a i n e d e i t h e r w i t h i n t h a t p rog ram o r even w i t h t he c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f the p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n i n d u s t r y . The f a i l u r e may s t i l l l i e w i t h t he t o t a l i n a b i l i t y o f p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s t o r e c o g n i z e t he r o l e o f p r i v a t e s e c t o r w i t h i n t he t o t a l s cope o f r e c r e a t i o n . D e s p i t e recommendat ion s o f t he ORRRC, c r e a t i o n o f the BOR and h i g h l e v e l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s t o t he e f f e c t o f a c k n o w l e d g i n g t he r o l e o f t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r , t h i s c o n c e p t has not been i n c l u d e d i n t he i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p o l i c y . Comprehen s i v e R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g One o t h e r f u n c t i o n o f the Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s r o l e s o f c o o r d i n a t i o n , r e s e a r c h and i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s , i s t h a t o f p l a n n i n g w h i c h has not y e t been r e v i e w e d . W i t h i n t h i s a d d i t i o n a l f u n c -t i o n a c t i v i t i e s o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tment o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o p romote p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s s h o u l d have been i n t e g r a t e d . S i n c e they were n o t , t he e f f o r t s o f t he USDA a r e v e r y f r a g m e n t e d w i t h i n t he t o t a l range o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . A r e v i e w o f the p rograms i n s t i t u t e d by t he USDA i s somewhat i n c o n c l u s i v e g i v e n t he p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e l a r g e r i s s u e s . To t h e i r c r e d i t , i t must be a c know ledged t h a t t he b u l k o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e on t h e t o p i c o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s i s t he r e s u l t o f t he USDA and i t s v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s , not t he BOR. To t h i s e n d , t he USDA must be commended. 82 I t i s w i t h i n the p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e BOR t h a t any e v a l u a t i o n o f f e d e r a l p rograms t o u t i l i z e the r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s o f t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r must o c c u r . One o f t he main r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t he BOR was t o c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n a n a t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . A l t h o u g h t he O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n A c t o f 1963 s t a t e d t h a t t h i s p l a n was t o be c o m p l e t e d by 1968, t he N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n P l a n i s not y e t a v a i l a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , t he Land and Wate r C o n s e r v a t i o n Fund A c t o f 1963 a u t h o r i z e d t h e Depar tment o f t he I n t e r i o r t h r o u g h t h e BOR t o g r a n t funds t o t he s t a t e f o r t he p l a n n i n g , a c q u i s i t i o n , and deve l opment o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n l a nd s and f a c i l i t i e s . The se g r a n t s were c o n t i n g e n t on each s t a t e c o m p l e t i n g i t s own s t a t e w i d e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . Each o f t h o s e p l a n s i s supposed t o i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a -t i o n o f t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r as a s u p p l i e r o f r e c r e a t i o n . To my k n o w l e d g e , t h i s has no t been f o l l o w e d by t he Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n i n t h e i r v a r i o u s s t u d i e s no r i s i t p a r t o f t h e p r o p o s e d N a t i o n a l O u t d o o r R e c r e a -t i o n P l a n and p r o b a b l y v e r y few s t a t e s , i f a n y , have i t i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e i r s t a t e p l a n s . I t s t i l l r ema in s i n c o n c e i v a b l e t o me t h a t w i t h i n t h i s v a s t c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f b u r e a u c r a c i e s t hey c o u l d J s e r i o u s l y d i s c u s s t h e s e v a r i o u s m a s t e r p l a n s , o r com-p r e h e n s i v e p l a n s , as t hey a r e c a l l e d , w i t h o u t t a k i n g i n t o s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . But n e v e r t h e l e s s , t hey d o , and c o n t i n u e t o do s o . . . . I w o u l d t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t t h a t t he above l a c k o f c o n c e r n f o r t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r s p e c i f i c a l l y c a l l s f o r an i n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t t o accommodate t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The f r a m e -wo rk , however , i s not d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h . I t ' s t he m a t t e r o f g e t t i n g the b u r e a u c r a c y t o a c c e p t p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n as a most s i g n i f i c a n t component i n c o m p r e -h e n s i v e p l a n n i n g . 83 Remember t h a t i n most i n s t a n c e s , t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a -t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r s a r e e d u c a t e d i n t he n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and they a r e r e l a t e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y t o p u b l i c p o l i c y . ( T w a r d z i k , 1970) I t w o u l d appea r then t h a t d e s p i t e the impetus o f the ORRRC, c r e a t i o n o f t he BOR, a f l o o d o f l i t e r a t u r e and e x t e n s i v e l o a n p r o g r a m s , t he r o l e o f t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n has s t i l l t o be d e f i n e d . 84 CHAPTER V GOVERNMENT POLICY AND THE PRIVATE RECREATION SECTOR--THE CANADIAN EXPERIENCE In Canada t he f o c u s o f n a t i o n a l a t t e n t i o n on o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n d i d no t come about v i a a s i n g l e - p u r p o s e s t u d y g roup as was t he e x p e r i e n c e i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . In f a c t Canada , t o d a t e , has had no c o u n t e r p a r t t o t he O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Rev i ew Commi s s i on (ORRRC) where t he f i n d i n g s o f t h a t Commi s s i on and i t s r e p o r t t o t h e P r e s i d e n t was a p u b l i c document d e s i g n e d t o d i r e c t government a c t i o n t o meet t h e g r o w i n g demands f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow C o n f e r e n c e In Canada r e c r e a t i o n has not been t h e s u b j e c t o f a s i n g l e p u r p o s e s t u d y g r o u p . I n s t e a d , r e c r e a t i o n was o n l y one component o f a n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e c o - s p o n s o r e d by t h e f e d e r a l government and the t e n p r o v i n c e s d e a l i n g w i t h C a n a d a ' s r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s . The t o p i c s o f a g r i c u l t u r e , f i s h e r i e s , f o r e s t r y , w a t e r , w i l d l i f e , r e c r e a t i o n and r e g i o n a l deve l opment were d i s c u s s e d by government a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , u n i v e r s i t y s c h o l a r s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y . T h i s n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e , h e l d i n M o n t r e a l , O c t o b e r 23-28, 1961, was c a l l e d t he " R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow C o n f e r e n c e " . 85 The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s o f the C o n f e r e n c e were ( l ) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the m a j o r p r ob l ems r e q u i r i n g a t t e n t i o n i n t he r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s f i e l d ; (2) e x a m i n a t i o n o f what i s b e i n g done t o s o l v e t h e s e p r o b l e m s : and (3) c l a r i -f i c a t i o n o f t he imped iments t o f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s and p o s s i b l e c o u r s e s t o a c h i e v i n g s o l u t i o n s t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s . ( Re s ou r ce s f o r Tomorrow, I96I, Volume I I , Fo reword ) A s e r i e s o f e i g h t y p a p e r s , n i n e d e a l i n g w i t h r e c r e a t i o n , were p u b l i s h e d i n two v o l u m e s . A t h i r d vo lume c o n t a i n e d t he p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e p l e n a r y and wo rk shop s e s s i o n s o f t he c o n f e r e n c e . W h i l e o t h e r r e s o u r c e t o p i c s s uch as f o r e s t r y , f i s h e r i e s , and a g r i c u l t u r e were d e a l t w i t h a s sum-i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t he p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s , r e c r e a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d m a i n l y i n t h e l i g h t o f i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s . The i s s u e o f what r o l e p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e w o u l d p l a y i n h e l p i n g t o meet the i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e c e i v e d some a t t e n -t i o n but was n e v e r g i v e n a m a j o r e m p h a s i s . A r e v i e w o f p o r t i o n s o f t he c o n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t by W. M. B a k e r , R e s e a r c h C o o r d i n a t o r o f t he R e c r e a t i o n Work shop , shows some c o n c e r n f o r the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . G u i d e l i n e s : A c o m p r e h e n s i v e b a l a n c e d r e s e a r c h and i n v e n -t o r i a l p rog ram t o i n c l u d e many o t h e r t h i n g s . . . . 1. I n v e n t o r i e s o f s u p p l y and demand f a c t o r s , t a k -i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , p rograms and f a c i l i t i e s w i t h due c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r c o m m e r c i a l and n o n - c o m m e r c i a l a s p e c t s . T h i s i n v e n t o r i a l p rog ram s h o u l d i n c l u d e : (a) P r e s e n t l a n d use i n v e n t o r y d e s i g n e d t o r e v e a l t he e x t e n t , l o c a t i o n and a c c e s s a b i 1 i t y o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e forms o f deve l opmen t f o r r e c r e a t i o n p u r p o s e s on b o t h p r i v a t e and Crown l a n d s . Such a s u r v e y w o u l d i n c l u d e : 8 6 ( i ) In t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r such i t ems as c o t t a g e s , summer camps, g o l f c o u r s e s , t o u r i s t a c c o m m o d a t i o n , com-m e r c i a l p a r k s and p i c n i c a r e a s ; . . . 3» O p e r a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h d i r e c t e d t oward t he e s t a -b l i s h m e n t o f c r i t e r i a and s t a n d a r d s f o r the p l a n n i n g , deve l opment and management o f n a t u r a l r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n t o i n c l u d e among o t h e r t h i n g s : (a) C r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the r e l a t i v e r o l e s o f p r i v a t e , c o m m e r c i a l , v o l u n t a r y and government a g e n c i e s i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . . . . ( R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow, 1 9 6 1 , V o l . I l l , pp. 4 8 9 - 9 0 ) Fo r r e c r e a t i o n , t he C o n f e r e n c e p r o d u c e d some t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s . Most n o t a b l e was t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f t he F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s C o n f e r e n c e s , t he f i r s t o f w h i c h was h e l d i n 1 9 6 2 . T h e i r ma in f u n c t i o n now i s t o e x p l o r e p o s s i b l e a r e a s f o r i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n . A t e c h -n i c a l m e e t i n g i s h e l d a n n u a l l y , and s u b c o m m i t t e e s on p a r k c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n t e r m i n o l o g y , e d u c a t i o n , r e s e a r c h , l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y h o l d p r o m i s e f o r e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n . A s e cond r e s u l t o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e was t he c r e a t i o n o f The C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o f R e s o u r c e M i n i s t e r s , w h i c h i n c l u d e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r om each o f t h e e l e v e n s e n i o r g o ve rnmen t s . A permanent S e c r e t a r i a t was e s t a b l i s h e d . D u r i n g i t s e a r l y y e a r s o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n was l a r g e l y i g n o r e d bu t r e c e n t l y t h i s t o p i c has been r e c o g n i z e d . Now, m o n t h l y b u l l e t i n s f r om the C o u n c i l a r e i s s u e d c o n t a i n i n g r e f e r e n c e t o a l l c u r r e n t deve l opment c o n c e r n i n g n a t u r a l r e -s o u r c e s and a c o n s i d e r a b l e emphas i s on i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t he e n v i r o n m e n t has o c c u r r e d . One m a j o r work o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t has been t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f a c a t a l o g u e show ing how t he f e d e r a l government and each p r o v i n c e o r g a n i z e t h e i r d e p a r t m e n t s and a g e n c i e s t o a d m i n i s t e r t he d i v e r s e a s p e c t s o f 87 o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . T h i s document shows how i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o o p e r a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l i f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s a r e t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d e f f e c t i v e l y . A t h i r d r e s u l t o f the C o n f e r e n c e was the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f f e d e r a l p rograms d e s i g n e d t o p romote econom ic g rowth i n t h o s e r u r a l r e g i o n s o f Canada c h a r a c t e r i z e d by unemployment and low pe r c a p i t a i ncomes . O r i g i n a l l y , t h e s e programs were a d m i n i s t e r e d by t he R u r a l P rograms B ranch o f t he D e p a r t -ment o f F o r e s t r y and R u r a l Deve l opment . ( i n 1969, a new f e d e r a l a g e n c y , t he Depar tment o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n a b s o r b e d t h e s e p r o g r a m s . ) E l s e w h e r e i n t h i s c h a p t e r , a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e s e programs w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o unde r t he e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Deve lopment A c t (ARDA). A l t h o u g h u n i n t e n d e d , t h e s e ARDA programs g r a d u a l l y become v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e f i e l d o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . A f o u r t h outcome o f the C o n f e r e n c e was t he r e c o g n i t i o n o f a need t o t a k e s t o c k o f C a n a d a ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . The Canada Land I n v e n t o r y has p r o b a b l y had more impac t on e n c o u r a g i n g i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t and i n t e r s e c t o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n t han any o t h e r f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a 1 u n d e r t a k i n g . The Canada Land I n v e n t o r y was c o n c e i v e d t o map " t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l y s e t t l e d p a r t s o f Canada , and a d j o i n i n g a r e a s w h i c h a f f e c t t he income and employment o p p o r -t u n i t i e s o f r u r a l r e s i d e n t s , and c l a s s i f y them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t y f o r use i n a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , r e c r e a t i o n and w i l d l i f e manage-ment and t h e i r p r e s e n t u s e . " (B rown, 1968, p. 6) The CLI i s a d m i n i s t e r e d as p a r t o f the ARDA p rog r am. P a r t i c i p a n t s o f the C o n f e r e n c e came t o one g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n . One f a c t w h i c h emerged c l e a r l y f r o m t h e C o n f e r e n c e was t h a t t h e o v e r r i d i n g gap i n r e s o u r c e d e v e l o p m e n t , 88 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and management has been t he l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n between g o v e r n m e n t s , and between g o v e r n -ment d e p a r t m e n t s w i t h i n g o v e r n m e n t s . . . . I t has r e s u l t e d f rom i n a d e q u a t e l y d e f i n e d g o a l s c o u p l e d w i t h i l l - d e f i n e d means t o r e a ch such g o a l s as may have been e n u n c i a t e d . ( R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow, 1961, Volume I I I , I n t r o d u c t i o n ) F e d e r a l R e c r e a t i o n A g e n c i e s In te rms o f l e a d e r s h i p i n t he a r e a o f f e d e r a l o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e p r o g r a m s , two a g e n c i e s - - t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s B r a n c h o f t h e D e p a r t -ment o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n Deve lopment and t he R u r a l D e v e l o p -ment B r anch o f t h e Depar tment o f F o r e s t r y and R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t — m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d . When r e l a t i n g how t h e s e p rograms r e l a t e t o the p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r one o t h e r a g e n c y , the I n d u s t r i a l Deve lopment Bank must be added . The r o l e o f t h e R u r a l Deve lopment B r anch and t he I n d u s t r i a l Deve lopment Bank w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t and then t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s B r a n c h l a t e r . The ARDA P rog ram and Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n F o l l o w i n g t h e R e s o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow C o n f e r e n c e , t he A g r i c u l t u r a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Deve lopment A c t (1961) was imp lemented t o r e l i e v e r u r a l e conom i c p r ob l ems a c r o s s Canada . F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r f e d e r a l c o s t - s h a r i n g i n a v a r i e t y - o f r u r a l de ve l opmen t programs a g r e e d upon a f t e r f e d e r a 1 - p r o v i n c i a 1 c o n s u l t a t i o n . E a r l y i n t h i s p r o g r am, t he i n adequacy o f l a n d r e s o u r c e i n f o r m a t i o n became a p p a r e n t and t he Canada Land I n v e n t o r y was c o n c e i v e d . In 1963, mapp ing o f s o i l c a p a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e was begun and by 1965, r e c r e a t i o n and w i l d l i f e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were i n c l u d e d . 89 A t i n c e p t i o n , t he ARDA prog ram (now known as t he A g r i c u l t u r a l and R u r a l Deve lopment A c t ) was d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . I t was soon b roadened however t o a p p l y t o any r u r a l a r e a d e f i n e d as d i s a d v a n t a g e d a c c o r d i n g t o such c r i t e r i a as a v e r a g e annua l f a m i l y i n -come and l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . The ARDA agreement was t o p r o v i d e f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e w i t h p r o v i n c i a l p rograms d i r e c t e d toward s r u r a l s o c i a l and e conom i c deve l opmen t and c o n s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . (B rown, 1968, p. 3) In a d d i t i o n t o the normal f u n d i n g under ARDA l e g i s l a t i o n , t he f e d e r a l government p r o v i d e d s u p p l e m e n t a r y f unds under a p rog ram known as FRED (Fund f o r R u r a l Economic D e v e l o p m e n t ) . The FRED prog ram was d e s i g n e d t o f i n a n c e m a j o r deve l opment p r o j e c t s t h a t w o u l d s e r v e t o a s s i s t i n s t i m u -l a t i n g r u r a l economie s but m i gh t be beyond t he s cope o f o r d i n a r y e x p e n d i -t u r e s o f ARDA. Much l i k e t h e p o l i c y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tment o f A g r i c u l -t u r e , o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o p o v e r t y among r u r a l l a n d o w n e r s . The ARDA p rog ram funded a s t u d y by W. M. Bake r e n t i t l e d , The ARDA Prog ram i n R e l a t i o n t o R e c r e a t i o n and T o u r i s m . T h i s r e p o r t , i s s u e d i n l a t e 1965, d i d much t o d i r e c t how ARDA funds w o u l d be u s e d . The ARDA prog ram has had more d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on t h e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r t han any o t h e r f e d e r a l government a c t i o n . The r e p o r t by B a k e r was t he f i r s t and i s s t i l l t he o n l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y on p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s e v e r c o m p l e t e d i n Canada . A l t h o u g h h i s f rame o f r e f e r e n c e i s v e r y l i m i t e d , many o f h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e p e r t i n e n t . I t w o u l d be t r a g i c , and i n d e e d i n e x c u s a b l e , i f t he h i s t o r i c examp le o f the s u b m a r g i n a l f a r m s i t u a t i o n , w h i c h i s i n p a r t t h e r e s u l t o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s e t t l e m e n t schemes f o r m u l a t e d upon e r r o n e o u s c o n c l u -s i o n s drawn f r o m f r a g m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e , s h o u l d be r e p e a t e d and t h e s u b - m a r g i n a l f a r m e r be r e p l a c e d by t h e s u b -m a r g i n a l r e c r e a t i o n a l e n t r e p r e n e u r . . . . P r o b a b l y a v e r y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f s u b - m a r g i n a l f a r m e r s p o s s e s s the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r the s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . . . . . . . The g r a d u a l b u i l d - u p o f c a p i t a l a s s e t s o f an e n t e r -p r i s e w i t h t h e use o f p e r s o n a l l a b o r f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f much o f t he e a r l i e r c o m m e r c i a l p a r k and h ighway accommodat ion o f t he 1 9 3 0 ' s , i s becoming an i n c r e a s i n g l y remote p o s s i b l i t y . L a r g e b l o c k s o f c a p i t a l a r e now r e q u i r e d t o compete i n t he accommodat i on i n d u s -t r y . . . . . . . R e c r e a t i o n i s t s and p u b l i c p a r k s u p p o r t e r s do no t d e s i r e t o see t he deve l opment o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s by p u b l i c a g e n c i e s impeded o r abandoned i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f s u b m a r g i n a l f a r m e r s . As l o n g as t h e g r owth o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s was no t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h u n d u l y , and government programs c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y a s e c o n d a r y l o w - k e y a p p r o a c h t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f p u b l i c n e e d s , no p r o b l e m w o u l d l i k e l y emerge. However , i t w o u l d be a n a t i o n a l d i s a s t e r i f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t he p u b l i c p a r k s y s tems o f Canada were unde rm ined o r s e r i o u s l y i m -p a i r e d i n the i n t e r e s t o f s u b m a r g i n a l f a r m e r s . P a s t e x -p e r i e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t p r i v a t e d e v e l o p m e n t c a n n o t p r o -v i d e t h a t d e g r e e o f permanency and s t a b i l i t y t h a t t h e p u b l i c r e q u i r e s i n the deve l opment o f p a r k s and o u t -doo r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . . . . . . . In f a c t , t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t b e f o r e t he t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , a p rog ram s i m i l a r t o ARDA c o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o r e s c u e s u b m a r g i n a l r e g i o n s and t o u r i s t de ve l opmen t e n t r e p r e n e u r s i n some p a r t s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , i f c a r e i s not e x e r c i s e d i n deve l opment p r o c e d u r e s . . . . . . . The u l t i m a t e range o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p -ments and t he f a c i l i t i e s w i t h w h i c h t h e ARDA p rog ram t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o u l d become i n v o l v e d i s g r ouped i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : ( 1 ) T r a v e l w a y f a c i l i t i e s such as s c e n i c d r i v e s , r o a d s i d e p i c n i c and c a m p s i t e s , and ( 2 ) D e s t i n a -t i o n a r e a f a c i l i t i e s c o m p r i s i n g p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l 91 p a r k s , p u b l i c h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g , n a t u r e r e s e r v e s and p r e s e r v e s , h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s , e t c . The l a t t e r c a t e g o r y i s p r o b a b l y most a p p r o p r i a t e f r om t he s t a n d p o i n t o f the o b j e c t i v e s o f the ARDA p rog r am. . . . ( B a k e r , I96.6, p. 2 , 3, 7, 9 , 19, 21) A r e v i e w o f ARDA funds c o m m i t t e d t o r e s e a r c h and deve l opmen t o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s up t o J u l y , 19°8 , g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f how some o f B a k e r ' s r ecommendat ion s were i m p l e m e n t e d . TABLE 12 FEDERAL FUNDS COMMITTED TO RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF RECREATION AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES UNDER ARDA AND FRED FROM APRIL 1, 1965, TO JULY 1, 1968 ARDA FRED P r o v . Ag reement Agreement T o t a l N f l d . 258 ,000 258 ,000 PEI 315 ,000 315,000 NS 226 ,000 226,000 NB 233 ,000 6 , 300 , 000 6 , 533 , 000 Que. 742 ,000 9 , 225 , 000 •9.967,000 O n t . 1 , 838 ,000 1 , 838 ,000 Man. 1 ,067,000 1,770,000 2 , 837 , 000 Sa sk . 1,008,000 1,008,000 A l t a . 293,000 293,000 BC 190,000 190,000 TOTALS 6 , 170 , 000 17,295,000 23,465,000 ( S o u r c e : B rown, I968, p. 4) 92 I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t l a r g e sums o f money were a l l o c a t e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n . New B r u n s w i c k , M a n i t o b a and Quebec r e c e i v e d the b u l k o f t he f unds becau se t h e s e p r o v i n c e s c o n t a i n e d r e g i o n s d e s i g n a t e d as S p e c i a l A r e a s t o r e c e i v e the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y unde r t he r u r a l deve l opmen t p r o g r a m . In g e n e r a l , few f und s were d i r e c t e d t o e s t a b l i s h o r expand p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . I t was f e l t t h a t r u r a l r e s i d e n t s g e n e r a l l y d i d not have t h e management s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o o p e r a t e t h e i r own b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s . I n s t e a d , t h e b u l k o f the funds were used t o c o n s t r u c t m a j o r p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s ( i . e . n a t i o n a l p a r k i n t he Gaspe Bay r e g i o n and a new p r o v i n c i a l p a r k i n New B r u n s w i c k ) Bo th were i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e FRED p rog r am. T h i s a c t w a s . t o s e r v e two p u r p o s e s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n and l a t e r t he management o f t h e s e p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s was t o p r o v i d e j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r u r a l r e s i d e n t s . S e c o n d l y , i t was hoped t h a t t h e s e l a r g e p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s w o u l d s e r v e as a magnet t o draw l a r g e numbers o f v i s i t o r s t o t he a r e a s . H o p e f u l l y , t h i s p o t e n t i a l ma rke t w o u l d e n c o u r a g e p r i v a t e c a p i t a l t o i n v e s t i n c o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s d e s i g n e d t o s upp l emen t t he pub 1 i c o f f e r i n g s . The ARDA p rog ram t o use r e c r e a t i o n p r o j e c t s t o s t i m u l a t e r u r a l e conomie s can o n l y have l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n . Not a l l r e g i o n s o f Canada have s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t r a c t i v e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s s u i t a b l e f o r i n t e n s i v e use r e c r e a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s somet imes d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d l a r g e b l o c k s o f l a n d s t i l l i n Crown o w n e r s h i p . The expen se o f a s s e m b l i n g l a n d p a r c e l s l a r g e enough t o w a r r a n t p u b l i c i n v e s t m e n t i s o f t e n t oo e x h o r b i t a n t i n p l a c e s where p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d i s w i d e s p r e a d . Becau se o f t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s t he e x i s t i n g ARDA p rog ram a l o n e i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o s t i m u l a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s 93 i n t he p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r . O t h e r t y p e s o f f e d e r a l government programs a r e s t i l l needed . Whether t he p r e s e n t ARDA programs were s u c c e s s f u l i n m e e t i n g t h e i r g o a l s i s y e t t o be d e t e r m i n e d as t he i n v e s t m e n t under t h e s e programs have no t been i n e f f e c t l o n g enough f o r p r o p e r e v a l u a t i o n . I n d u s t r i a l Deve lopment Bank The I n d u s t r i a l Deve lopment Bank was e s t a b l i s h e d by P a r l i a m e n t i n 1944. I t s f u n c t i o n i s t o s upp l emen t t h e s e r v i c e s o f o t h e r l e n d i n g s e r -v i c e s such as c h a r t e r e d banks and f i n a n c e c o m p a n i e s . The IDB can p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o a l m o s t e v e r y t y p e o f b u s i n e s s , i n c l u d i n g m a n u f a c t u r -i n g and c o m m e r c i a l b u s i n e s s , w h o l e s a l e and r e t a i l t r a d e c o n s t r u c t i o n t r a d e s , a g r i c u l t u r e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s , s e c o n d a r y i n d u s t r y , e t c . Funds may be o b t a i n e d t o e s t a b l i s h new e n t e r p r i s e s o r t o expand e x i s t i n g o n e s . S i n c e i n c e p t i o n , t h e IDB has l o a n e d $1,400 m i l l i o n t o some 20,800 b u s i n e s s e s n e e d i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . In t he 1970 f i s c a l y e a r , l o a n s o u t s t a n d i n g and c o m m i t t e d t o 12,283 b u s i n e s s e s t o t a l l e d o v e r $555 m i l l i o n . Most l o a n s a r e f o r l e s s than $100,000. In 1961, t h e I n d u s t r i a l Deve lopment Bank was a u t h o r i z e d t o i n c l u d e t o u r i s t and r e c r e a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e s as q u a l i f y i n g f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . In t he I969 f i s c a l y e a r , t he IDB had a u t h o r i z e d some 300 l o a n s t o h o t e l s and m o t e l s , and 175 l o an s t o r e s t a u r a n t s f o r an a g g r e g a t e t o t a l o f o v e r $25 m i l l i o n . Near t he end o f 1970, o v e r 400 l o a n s t o t a l l i n g o v e r $20 m i l l i o n had been g r a n t e d t o m o t e l s and r e s t a u r a n t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In 1969 and 1970, l o a n s t o t he t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y a c c o u n t e d f o r 18% o f a l l l o a n s by t he IDB. ( I . D. B., 1970) 94 Due t o t he n a t u r e o f t he c a t e g o r i e s i n t o w h i c h b u s i n e s s x e n t e r p r i s e s a r e a s s i g n e d , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e what t ype s o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s a r e a p p l y i n g f o r and r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f r om the IDB. S t i l l i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t o u r i s t f a c i l i t i e s , m o t e l s and r e s t a u r a n t s a r e r e c e i v i n g t he b u l k o f t h e f und s and t h a t o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ( campgrounds , m a r i n a s , s k i l i f t s , e t c . ) a r e g e n e r a l l y no t i n c l u d e d . In any c a s e , t h e r e a r e t h r e e f a u l t s i n t he management o f t he IDB as i t r e l a t e s t o the p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r . F i r s t , i t assumes a p a s s i v e s t a n c e and does not p romote i t s r o l e as a l e n d i n g agency t o t h o s e e n t e r -p r i s e s t h a t o p e r a t e o u t s i d e o f t h e normal b u s i n e s s commun i t y . The name " I n d u s t r i a l " Deve lopment Bank a l o n e w o u l d d i s c o u r a g e s m a l l e r e n t e r p r i s e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s t s e c t o r i s no t a l l o t t e d a c e r t a i n p o r t i o n o f t h e f und s but t he t o t a l l o an s depend on how many b u s i n e s s e s i n a l l s e c t o r s a p p l y . S e c o n d l y , t h e IDB does no t o f f e r f i e l d s e r v i c e s t o p r o v i d e t he bu s i ne s smen w i t h t h e t e c h n i c a l and management a d v i c e o f t e n n e c e s s a r y t o make t he e n t e r p r i s e a f i n a n c i a l s u c c e s s . T h i r d l y , t h e IDB p r o b a b l y a c t s more i n i s o l a t i o n f r om o t h e r government d e p a r t m e n t s i n v o l v e d i n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n than any o t h e r f e d e r a l a g e n c y . No te t h a t F i g u r e 3 does no t even i n c l u d e t he IDB, a l t h o u g h t h i s may be becau se the IDB i s c o n -s i d e r e d as a c rown c o r p o r a t i o n r a t h e r t han a government d e p a r t m e n t . N a t i o n a l P a r k s B r a n c h In terms o f t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i n Canada a t t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l , no one d e p a r t m e n t o r agency has c o m p l e t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Some s e v e n t e e n f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s and d e p a r t m e n t s p l a y a r o l e i n t h e f i e l d o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . A s a m p l i n g o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s shows a range f r o m F i g u r e 3 95 ( S o u r c e : Canad i an C o u n c i l o f Re sou r ce M i n i s t e r s , V o l . 1, 1968) i 96 t r a v e l p r o m o t i o n by t he Depar tment o f T r a d e and Commerce, the b u i l d i n g o f m a r i n a s and p u b l i c wharve s by t he Depar tment o f P u b l i c Wo rk s , m i g r a t o r y w a t e r f o w l management by t he C a n a d i a n W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e t o t he c o l l e c t i o n o f u s e r s u r v e y s by t h e Domin ion Bu reau o f S t a t i s t i c s . F i g u r e 3 g i v e s an o v e r v i e w o f a l l f e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t s and l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t e d t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . Each o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s i s mak ing a u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g , deve l opment o r use o f C a n a d a ' s r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e b a s e , and i s i n c r e a s i n g i t s s c a l e o f o p e r a t i o n t o keep pace w i t h t he g r o w i n g demand. However, t he s cope o f each i s n e c e s s a r i l y n a r r o w . P r i o r t o 1965, no s i n g l e f e d e r a l agency o t h e r t han N a t i o n a l P a r k s was i n v o l v e d i n a b r oad way i n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r a m -m ing . (B rown, I968, p. 2) The s i t u a t i o n i n Canada i s much l i k e t he one i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s p r i o r t o the ORRRC. T h e r e , t he N a t i o n a l P a r k s S e r v i c e was t h e f e d e r a l agency most c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o o r d i n a t i n g f e d e r a l o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p r o -g rams. T h i s r o l e o f c o o r d i n a t o r between f e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t s and between f e d e r a l and s t a t e a g e n c i e s was i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s r e g u l a r t a s k o f a d m i n i s t e r -i n g t he l a nd s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t he N a t i o n a l P a r k s . As a con sequence o f t he ORRRC, the Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n was c r e a t e d w h i c h t ook o v e r t he r o l e as c o o r d i n a t o r , e d u c a t o r and r e s e a r c h e r f r om the N a t i o n a l P a r k s S e r v i c e . The BOR c o u l d g i v e s o l e a t t e n t i o n t o c o o r d i n a t i n g , e t c . , s i n c e i t had no l a nd s o r f a c i l i t i e s t o a d m i n i s t e r . In Canada , t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k s B r a n c h o f the Depar tment o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s has been t he f e d e r a l agency most c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o o r d i n a t i n g the r o l e o f t he f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l gove rnment s i n t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t he o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e base c o n t r o l l e d by t h e p u b l i c . In g e n e r a l , i t has i g n o r e d 97 t he i s s u e o f what r o l e t he p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r w i l l p l a y . E v i d e n c e o f t h i s can be found i n t he r e c e n t l y imp lemented Canada O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n Demand S t u d y . T h i s s t u d y as a u t h o r e d by w e l l - k n o w n A m e r i c a n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h e r , J . K n e t s c h , was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t he N a t i o n a l P a r k s B r anch i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s b r a n c h e s . As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e . s t u d y d e s i g n ( F i g u r e 4 ) , s t e p s 6 and 7 we re t o be an i n -v e n t o r y o f t he s u p p l y o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . A l t h o u g h some a t t e m p t was made t o i n c l u d e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s , the c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s v a r i e d g r e a t l y f r om p r o v i n c e t o p r o v i n c e and t h e r e s u l t s w i l l be i n c o n c l u -s i v e . Most emphas i s w i l l be p l a c e d on t o t a l a c r e a g e o f f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l p a r k s and t he f a c i l i t i e s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n them. More d i s t u r b i n g i s t h e t o t a l d i s r e g a r d f o r t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n t h e u s e r - s u r v e y ( s t e p s 10, 11, 12) whe re q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were handed o u t t o a s amp le o f p e r s o n s i n a t t e n d a n c e a t p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . The i s s u e o f w h e t h e r o r no t u s e r s o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and t h o s e a t p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s t oward s t h e i r own r e c r e a -t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s i s i g n o r e d i n the Canada O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n Demand S tudy (CORD). In one r e s p e c t , t h i s n o n - i n c l u s i o n o f t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n t h e CORD s t u d y i s a p u z z l e . J . K n e t s c h , a u t h o r o f the s t u d y d e s i g n , can be f ound e l s e w h e r e i n t he l i t e r a t u r e o f r e c r e a t i o n e x p o u n d i n g t h e v i e w t h a t t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r has a v i t a l r o l e t o p l a y i n m e e t i n g t he demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s and must no t be i g n o r e d i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . ( C l awson and K n e t s c h , 1967) S t i l l t he CORD S tudy d e s p i t e i t s o m i s s i o n o f t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r w i l l be a m i l e s t o n e i n r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h i n Canada and w i l l p r o v i d e much needed d a t a f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s . PARTICIPATION SCREENING MOTIVATION FACTORS 6 PARTICIPATION NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY NATIONAL AREA INVENTORY CANADIAN OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND STUDY PROVINCIAL ARE A INVENTORY t OCAL AREA INVENTORY A.R.O.A. CANADA LANO INVENTORY PARTICIPATION AND SUPPLY AN ALY5IS REVIEW OF USER OAT A AND STUDIES 9 N AT IO NA L PARK USER SURVEY PROVINCIAL PARK USER SURVEY LOCAL PARK USERSURVEY USE PREDICTIONS ASSESSMENT OF RELATIVE OEMANDSAND NEEDS l< IMPLICATIONS FOR PROGRAMS, PLANNING AND POLICY 17 U P O A T I N G PRIMARILY DATA COLLECTION P R I M A R I L Y A N A L Y S I S F i g u r e k ( S o u r c e : K n e t s c h , 1 9 6 7 ) CO BORDER SURVEY 99 It s h o u l d be no ted t h a t c o n c u r r e n t w i t h the CORD s t u d y , s e v e r a l f e d e r a l depa r tment s have been r e o r g a n i z e d to f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on tho se a s p e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n t h a t a r e r e l a t e d to t h e i r b a s i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The most n o t a b l e examples can be seen w i t h i n the Department o f I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and Commerce where in 1968, the O f f i c e o f T o u r i s m was e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s o f f i c e c o n t a i n s two b r a n c h e s : The T r a v e l I n d u s t r y B r a n c h , whose f u n c t i o n i s to s tudy and a n a l y z e the t r a v e l i n d u s t r y in Canada ; and the C a n a d i a n Government T r a v e l B u r e a u , whose f u n c t i o n i s t o promote f o r e i g n t r a v e l to Canada. I n f o r m a t i o n f rom both t h e s e b ranches i s needed in v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the CORD S tudy . In a d d i t i o n the Domminion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Department o f T r a d e and Commerce under the S t a t i s t i c s A c t , has been r e v i s i n g i t s i n f o r m a t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s and c a t e g o r i e s t o p l a c e more emphas i s on f a c t s r e l a t i n g to C a n a d i a n r e c r e a t i o n h a b i t s . (Wo l fe and E l l i s , 1968) Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s It can be s t a t e d t h a t in i t s r o l e as c o o r d i n a t o r o f i n t e r g o v e r n -ment o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p rograms , t he N a t i o n a l Pa rk s B ranch in Canada v i a the F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o n f e r e n c e s and the CORD S t u d y , has done c r e d i t a b l e s e r v i c e . However, t o acknowledge t h i s f a c t i s not to sugges t t h a t the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i s a d e q u a t e . At b e s t , t h i s i s o n l y a p a r t o f what needs to be done. Even i f we a c c e p t the p r e s e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f the f e d e r a l r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s , one p rob lem i s e v i d e n t . If the CORD s tudy d i d f o r c e v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s t o c o o r d i n a t e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , t h i s c o o p e r a t i o n 100 i s no t y e t e v i d e n t on t o p i c s o u t s i d e the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t he CORD S t u d y . R e s e a r c h e r s have t o p r o b e t he b u r e a u c r a t i c j u n g l e not j u s t t r y i n g t o o b -t a i n s p e c i f i c t i t l e s bu t t o f i n d i f r e l e v a n t p u b l i c a t i o n s e x i s t . I f no e f f o r t i s made t o c o o r d i n a t e a l l a s p e c t s o f f e d e r a l government r e c r e a t i o n p rograms beyond t he r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s a t l e a s t a c o o r d i -n a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t em w o u l d be a s u b s t a n t i a l improvement . One agency c o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o c o l l e c t and d i s s e m i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n and m a i n t a i n a c u r r e n t l i s t i n g o f what l i t e r a t u r e i s a v a i l a b l e f r o m a 11 s o u r c e s . Two o t h e r i s s u e s s t i l l r e m a i n — o n e , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n t he f ramework o f a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h to r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s ; and two, t he c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l r e c r e a t i o n - o r i e n t e d p rograms imp lemented by t h e v a r i o u s f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s . In te rms o f t h e s econd i s s u e , t h e CORD S t udy has done much t o c o r r e l a t e t h e e f f o r t s o f t he T r a v e l S t udy and Promo-t i o n S e r v i c e o f t he Depar tment o f T r a d e and Commerce, t he Domin i on Bu reau o f S t a t i s t i c s , and the ARDA d i v i s i o n o f t h e Depar tment o f R e g i o n a l Economic E x p a n s i o n . T h i s c o o r d i n a t i o n however has been a s i n g l e p u r p o s e e f f o r t and w h e t h e r i t w i l l c o n t i n u e on t o p i c s o f a b r o a d e r s c ope o r o v e r a l o ng p e r i o d o f t i m e i s y e t t o be d e t e r m i n e d . In the CORD S t u d y , each agency was a s k e d o n l y t o s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n , a c o n t r i b u t i o n where t h e r e was l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d f o r c o n t r o v e r s y . On l y when each s e p a r a t e agency i s r e q u i r e d t o a d j u s t t h e i r own management p r o g r a m s , f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , e t c . , i n r e s p o n s e t o a c a l l f o r g r e a t e r u n i f o r m i t y i n d i r e c t i n g f e d e r a l government p o l i c i e s r e l a t i n g t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , w i l l t he p r e s e n t c o o r d i n a t i n g mechanisms be a d e q u a t e l y t e s t e d . 101 I t r ema in s t o be seen w h e t h e r t he N a t i o n a l P a r k s w i l l c o n t i n u e t h e i r p r e s e n t l e a d e r s h i p r o l e once t h e CORD S tudy i s c o m p l e t e d . As e a r l y as 1968, f e d e r a l government a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r d o u b t s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e f a c t o r s i t w o u l d seem u n t h i n k a b l e t h a t t h e f e d e r a l government w o u l d no t e v e n t u a l l y expand i t s r o l e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e f i e l d s o f r e s e a r c h , r e s o u r c e s u r v e y s , t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and p o s s i b l e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o p a r a l l e l i n k i n d and s c a l e i t s r o l e s i n t h e management o f t h e o t h e r g r e a t n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f Canada . The i n i t i a t i v e f o r g r e a t e r f e d e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n mu s t , I b e l i e v e , come f r om the p r o v i n c e s , f o r t h e s i m p l e r ea son t h a t management o f t he r e s o u r c e s i s a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A l s o , t he p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i -t i e s a r e much c l o s e r t o t he s i t u a t i o n and can more c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s r e q u i r i n g f e d e r a l a t t e n t i o n . Most o f us h e r e I am s u r e have w a t c h e d w i t h some f a s c i n a t i o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t he o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f i e l d i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s o v e r t he l a s t few y e a r s . Here we see a m a s s i v e s e r i e s o f programmes, m a i n l y f e d e r a l i n n a t u r e , a imed a t c o n s e r v i n g o u t d o o r r e c r e a -t i o n s pace w h i l e t h e r e i s s t i l l t i m e . A l t h o u g h h i s -t o r i c a l l y U n i t e d S t a t e s f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s have had a f a r more d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n a c t u a l r e s o u r c e manage-ment t han have t h e i r C a n a d i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s , t h e i r newest agency i n t he b u s i n e s s , t h e Bu r eau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n , has a p r i m a r i l y r e s e a r c h and c o - o r d i n a t i n g r o l e w i t h no l a nd s unde r i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . I t s e r v e s v e r y much as a c a t a l y t i c a g e n t , s t i m u l a t i n g b r o a d r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g , a c q u i s i t i o n and deve l opmen t p r o -grammes a t s t a t e and f e d e r a l l e v e l s . The c o n s i d e r -a b l e funds i t d i s p e n s e s a r e c o n t i n g e n t on t he a c c e p t a -b i l i t y o f c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t a t e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n s . T h i s i s a v e r y v i t a l f a c t o r . The funds b e i n g a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h i s new bu reau i n the U.S. s i m p l y a r e no t a v a i l -a b l e u n l e s s a s t a t e i s p r e p a r e d t o draw up a compre -h e n s i v e p l a n f o r i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . T h i s i s d i f f e r e n t f r om the C a n a d i a n s i t u a t i o n , where t he f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s r o l e t o d a t e has been m a i n l y a s o r t o f " s h o t i n t he a rm " a s s i s t a n c e , as f a r as t he o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d . . . . 102 . . . We have no p a r a l l e l t o t h e Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . I t c o u l d be a r g u e d we have now r e a c h e d t h i s l e v e l o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f o u r n a t i o n w i d e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . ( B r o o k s , 1967, p. 19-20) . . . t h e r e i s y e t no one agency w i t h a mandate t o p r o v i d e n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . The r e c o g n i t i o n g i v e n o t h e r r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e s a t t he f e d e r a l l e v e l , s uch as a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , w a t e r , f i s h e r i e s and w i l d l i f e , i s s l o w coming t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . However , t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t he Bu reau o f Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s has s e t an examp le w h i c h Canada must i n e v i t a b l y e x a m i n e . (B rown, 1968, p. 11) The f e d e r a l government has a r o l e t o p l a y i n c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e use o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s a c r o s s Canada , as i t i s p r e s e n t l y d o i n g w i t h i n t h e j o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l P a r k s C o n f e r e n c e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ment i s a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e a n a t i o n a l p a r k s s y s t e m , a t a s k t h a t s h o u l d no t be c a r r i e d o u t i n i s o l a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s . T h i r d l y , t h e f e d e r a l government have g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s " v i s - a - v i s " i t s w i d e r t a x a t i o n powers t han do t h e p r o v i n c e s . P r o p e r p l a c e m e n t o f t h e s e f und s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s w i l l r e q u i r e c a r e f u l i n t e g r a t e d p l a n n i n g by a l l d e p a r t m e n t s . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , one f e d e r a l a g e n c y , needs t o be c h a r g e d w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g a l l f e d e r a l and i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r ams . I t may be t h a t no h a v i n g d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e ma jo r s h a r e o f C a n a d a ' s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i s an a s s e t r a t h e r t han a l i a b i l i t y i n t he f o r m u l a t i o n o f C a n a d a ' s r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e p o l i c i e s . 103 CHAPTER VI GOVERNMENT POLICY AND THE PRIVATE RECREATION SECTOR--THE BRITISH COLUMBIA EXPERIENCE In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as i s t he c a s e w i t h t he f e d e r a l government and most o t h e r C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s , t he p a t t e r n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r o u t -doo r r e c r e a t i o n i s n o n - i n t e g r a t e d . No s i n g l e government d e p a r t m e n t has been a s s i g n e d t h e t a s k o f c o o r d i n a t i n g a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r og r am t o p r o v i d e a f u l l range o f r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o meet t he demands o f t he p u b l i c . ( F i g u r e 5) Hi s t o r y F i r s t , a b r i e f c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e v i e w o f changes i n t he o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t he m a j o r government d e p a r t m e n t s c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n . P r i o r t o 1957, t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s was t he r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n o f t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e . The Depar tment o f R e c r e a t i o n A c t (1957) c r e a t e d a new government d e p a r t m e n t and t h e a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h i s new d e p a r t m e n t . A t t h i s t i m e , t he T r a v e l Bu reau was t r a n s f e r r e d f rom t h e Depa r tment o f T r a d e and I n d u s t r y t o t he new d e p a r t m e n t . However , i n 1967, the T r a v e l Bu reau was e n l a r g e d and a new Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y was c r e a t e d . In 1970, t h e Community P rograms B r anch o f t h e Depar tment o f E d u c a t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d t o the Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y t o become t h e Community R e c r e a t i o n B r a n c h . A l s o , i n 1970, t he F o r e s t S e r v i c e o f t he Depa r tment o f Lands and o > c o o z O s> o z! 33 o =O -n CD H -X o o i— C cn > £ O 1 0 5 F o r e s t s r e - e n t e r e d the f i e l d o f r e c r e a t i o n w i t h t he c r e a t i o n o f t he F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n . T h i s d i v i s i o n i s t o be c h a r g e d w i t h t he r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n t h a t o c c u r s o u t s i d e p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s but w i t h i n t he v a s t a r e a s o f l a n d p r e s e n t l y a d m i n i s t e r e d as p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t s . R e c r e a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t he P r i v a t e S e c t o r The e n t i r e f ramework o f t he B. C. p r o v i n c i a l government f o r a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n can be seen i n F i g u r e 5- R e v i e w i n g t h i s F i g u r e , i t can be seen t h a t s e v e r a l d e p a r t m e n t s have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g u l a t i n g t h e p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p e r . The W i l d l i f e A c t , Wate r A c t , P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , L o c a l S e r v i c e s A c t , and H e a l t h A c t c o n t a i n s e c t i o n s " s p e c i f i c " t o p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t . Ye t not one o f t h i s s e r i e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n , e x c e p t the W i l d l i f e A c t , i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a d e p a r t m e n t t h a t c o u l d even r e m o t e l y be c o n s i d e r e d as h a v i n g o u t d o o r r e c r e a -t i o n as a p r i m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f i t s r e g u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s o n l y when c o n s i d e r i n g l e g i s l a t i o n where p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n i s an " a n c i l l i a r y " c o n c e r n do t h e two government d e p a r t m e n t s most c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s m become i n v o l v e d . From t h i s , i t i s a p p r e n t t h a t p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r i s no t an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t he p r o v i n c i a l government p rog ram o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . The p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s r e c o g n i z e d o n l y i n t he p r o m o t i o n a l r o l e o f government i n v o l v e m e n t i n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . To u n d e r s t a n d why t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s not f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d i n c o m p r e h e n s i v e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g , t h e two government d e p a r t m e n t s most c o n c e r n e d — R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , and T r a v e l I n d u s t r y - -w i t h r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s m w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . But f i r s t , a b r i e f r e v i e w w i l l be made o f the new o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n s f o r the F o r e s t S e r v i c e . 106 F o r e s t S e r v i c e In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , o v e r 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l a r e a o f the p r o v i n c e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e . Fo r t h e f i r s t s e v e r a l y e a r s , the emphas i s o f the new F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n w i l l be on p l a n -n i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f t h e s e l a n d s . ( M a r s h a l l , 1971) Funds f o r d e v e l o p -ment and o p e r a t i o n s w i l l not be a l l o t t e d f o r a t l e a s t two y e a r s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n p l u s t h e f a c t t h a t a f o r m a l r e s e a r c h p rog ram i s no t a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e t o t a l i n adequacy o f the p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n on l a r g e a r e a s o f t h e p r o v i n c e as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 6 i s s t i l l e v i d e n t . A l s o u n d e c i d e d i s t he i s s u e o f how t he F o r e s t S e r v i c e w i l l c o o r d i n a t e t he deve l opmen t o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s on t h o s e f o r e s t l and s b e i n g l o gged by p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y . Depar tment o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n The i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t he Depar tment o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n i s shown i n F i g u r e 7. E v i d e n t i s t he f a c t t h a t the f o u r b r a n c h e s a r e c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n a p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s e t t i n g . In s i m p l e t e r m s , t h i s d e p a r t m e n t d e a l s o n l y w i t h r e c r e a -t i o n on p u b l i c l a n d s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t he Depar tment o f R e c r e a -t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n a r e d e f i n e d by p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e : The Depar tment o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n has c h a r g e o f a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h i s A c t and t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t he W i l d l i f e A c t , t he B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Government T r a v e l Bu reau A c t , the • F i s h e r i e s A c t , t h e P a r k A c t , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum A c t , and t h e R e g i o n a l P a r k s A c t . (B. C. P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e s , C h a p t e r 110, Depa r tment o f R e c r e a -t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t , 1967, S e c t i o n 5) ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIVITIES OF PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENTS OF "FORESTRY-WESTERN CANADA-1968 Figure 6 ADMIN ISTRAT IVE r \ A C T I V I T I E S 1/ OWNERSH IP R E S E A R C H P L A N N I N G OPERAT IONS BUDGET M A N i i s A S K A L T' A B C M A N s A S K A L T A B C M A N s A S K A L T A B C X S N I K • A l L ! B T^i C • A ; M ! S I A ' M i A L B A : S ' T . r . K . A w PUBLIC R E C R E A T I O N S E T T I N G S O Recreation Areas 1 11 M n ^ ^* • T 1 • ! • • Campgrounds H . -T • 1 1 El I » i Picnic Grounds M H ! 11 i f f-1 Beaches S i IBS B: ; ft • • 1_ ... Sports Areas i i "T ~~1— i i j j Wayside Stops H I fJ^P_j...—, Li £J Scenic Roadways ! M t • | I 10! 1 T _j 4 4 Historic Sites 1 ! 1 | j • \ Nature Preserves m t • t , i i una i U3 ; Wildlife Preserves i i ! T T i ; fl 1 Hunting Areas H H B H i " t i. _. B • ! 1 f • ••• • - J > IU-4 : -4— -4——, •— Fishing Areas 11 M 0 H 1 i ! i 0 ! i n Outdoor Troils El H • Ml I j H! ; pa j 1 ^ : Outdoor Waterways IEH H H! o i i i ; . ; i i ! j ; Undeveloped Public Land 0 H H D! •r^-r— Buffer Zones • H H Oi ,B j Cottage Sites i i 0 • Oj Resort Areas O R — O , ] : i i f jT —i Navigable Streoms.Riv 8 Lakes O • "r" 7 , i . L , — i 4 ^ ; i i i I ! ± 1 L . I Non-Navig Streams.-Riv 8 Lakes t 4, Ocean r — 1 — — — • • -j ( i j_ — Marshes • i 1^ jr* ' Shorelines 0 n • Source Canadian Council of Resource Ministers. THE ADMINISTRATION OF Figure 7 109 The Depar tment i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n o n l y as s p e c i f i e d i n o t h e r s t a t u t e s . E x c l u d i n g t he management o f f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e s o u r c e s , t h e Depar tment i s r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y f o r r e c r e a t i o n t h a t o c c u r s w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . More c o r r e c t l y , t h e member o f t he c a b i n e t h e a d i n g the Depar tment s h o u l d be t i t l e d M i n i s t e r o f F i s h , W i l d l i f e and P a r k s . He i s M i n i s t e r o f R e c r e a t i o n i n t i t l e o n l y and no t by t he n a t u r e o f h i s t a s k s as enumera ted i n t he s t a t u t e s . The 1971 s e s s i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e was t he s cene o f d e b a t e on t h i s i s s u e . Member o f t he L e g i s l a t u r e , H. C a p o z z i , p r o v o k e d b o t h t h e l e g i s l a t i v e c h a i r m a n and t he M i n i s t e r o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a -t i o n , K. K i e r n a n , when he w i s h e d t o a sk q u e s t i o n s abou t " r e c r e a t i o n " i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . To C a p o z z i , " r e c r e a t i o n " was not j u s t h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g , o r h i k i n g and camp ing i n p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . H i s c o n c e r n was f o r sw imming, p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and community r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . On s e v e r a l o c c a -s i o n s , t he c h a i r m a n a t t e m p t e d t o r u l e Mr. C a p o z z i " o u t o f o r d e r " becau se h i s q u e s t i o n s d i d no t r e l a t e . t o t he e x i s t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t he M i n i s t e r . ( V a n c o u v e r Sun, A p r i l 1, 1971, p. 16) S i n c e C a p o z z i was r e f e r r i n g more t o community r e c r e a t i o n than t o o u t d o o r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e ba sed r e c r e a t i o n , h i s comments may appea r i n a p -p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s s t u d y . But i t does add e v i d e n c e t o t he c l a i m t h a t under t h e p r e s e n t f r a m e w o r k , t he M i n i s . s r o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n i s " M i n i s t e r o f R e c r e a t i o n " i n t i t l e o n l y . P r o b a b l y i f C a p o z z i had a s k e d q u e s t i o n s abou t h i k i n g o u t s i d e o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s , he wou l d a g a i n have been r u l e d o u t o f o r d e r . However t he p u b l i c demands t h a t t he government, and thus t he M i n i s t e r and h i s d e p a r t m e n t , be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l a s p e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n , no t j u s t 1 10 t h o s e d e f i n e d by t he l e g i s l a t i o n . I n c r e a s i n g l y , t he M i n i s t e r i s a s k e d by h i s c o l l e a g u e s o r the p u b l i c t o d e a l w i t h p r ob l ems and p r o j e c t s t h a t may o n l y i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e t o p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s . A t such t i m e , the M i n i s t e r c a n n o t p l e a d he o p e r a t e s i n a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l v o i d bu t must t u r n t o t h a t s e c t i o n o f t he c i v i l s e r v i c e w h i c h can p r o v i d e h im w i t h answers t o h i s q u e r i e s o r a s k i l l e d work f o r c e f o r t he t a s k s he r e q u i r e s t o be accom-p l i s h e d . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t he M i n i s t e r o f R e c r e a t i o n t u r n s t o t he P a r k s B r a n c h . G e n e r a l l y , t h r e e k i n d s o f n o n - p a r k i s s u e s a r e r e f e r r e d t o t he P a r k s B r a n c h . F i r s t a r e t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w i l l r e q u i r e r e g u l a t i o n s . Examples h e r e i n c l u d e the use o f moto r b o a t s , snow-m o b i l e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l t r a i l e r s , e t c . In g e n e r a l , t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s w o u l d no t be a d m i n i s t e r e d by the P a r k s B r a n c h but by t he Depar tment o f H i ghway s , V e h i c l e s o r H e a l t h . Second a r e t h o s e t a s k s c a r r i e d o u t by o t h e r government d e p a r t m e n t s bu t h a v i n g a r e c r e a t i o n c o n t e x t . Examples h e r e i n c l u d e r e c r e a t i o n deve l opment o f I n d i a n l a nd s and ARDA p r o j e c t s , such as t h e Canada Land I n v e n t o r y and t h e Canada O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n Demand S t u d y . A n o t h e r s i m i l a r t a s k t h a t w i l l have i n c r e a s i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e w i l l be t he r e v i e w o f R e g i o n a l P l a n s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Depar tment o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s f o r a p p r o v a l . These p l a n s a r e s u r e t o make p r o v i s i o n f o r r e c r e a -t i o n a l u ses o f l a n d and t h e P a r k s B r anch w i l l be a s ked f o r comment. A t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f i s s u e w o u l d i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made by p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s . T h i s may be a r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g h i k i n g o r c a n o e i n g on l and s o u t s i d e o f p a r k s o r i t c o u l d be p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s o f campgrounds , m a r i n a s , s k i r e s o r t s s e e k i n g t e c h n i c a l and management a d v i c e . 111 W h i l e i t may be t r u e t h a t P a r k s B r anch p e r s o n n e l have some " e x p e r t i s e " i n t he f i e l d o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , few o f t h e s e t a s k s a r e d e f i n e d w i t h i n the P a r k A c t . T h i s p r o b l e m o c c u r s i n n e a r l y e v e r y p r o -v i n c e and has been r e c o g n i z e d by t h e C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o f R e s o u r c e M i n i s t e r s when c o m p i l i n g t h e i r c a t a l o g u e o f t he A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n i n Canada . P a r k s a r e now r e c o g n i z e d as o n l y a p a r t o f t he w h o l e s y s t e m o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . . . . In many i n s t a n c e s , howeve r , t h e P a r k s agency i s t h e o n l y agency c u r r e n t l y d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e any r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i -t i e s , and t h e r e f o r e has become bu rdened w i t h the r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y o f d e v e l o p i n g i n o t h e r a r e a s . T h i s a g e n c y , howeve r , i s most o f t e n l a c k i n g t he l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y , f i n a n c e s and p e r s o n n e l r e q u i r e d t o c o m p e t e n t l y u n d e r t a k e t h i s r e spon s i b i 1 i t y . ( C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o f R e s o u r c e M i n i s t e r s , 1968, V o l . 1 , p. 2) So t he B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s B r a n c h , by d e f a u l t , not be d e s i g n , and i n o b v i o u s c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h e i r d u t i e s as d e f i n e d by l e g i s l a t i o n has become " t h e " r e c r e a t i o n agency f o r t he p r o v i n c e . The c r i t i c i s m t h a t t h e Depa r tment o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n i s not s e t up t o a d m i n i s t e r t o t h e needs o f r e c r e a t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e o u t s i d e p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s i s g e n e r a l l y v a l i d . More damning however i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Depa r tment does no t even a t t e m p t t o f i n d o u t what t h e s e needs a r e — w h e t h e r i n s i d e o r o u t s i d e the p a r k . F i g u r e 8 shows t h a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P a r k s B r a n c h w h i c h as s t a t e d i s " t h e " r e c r e a t i o n agency o f the p r o v i n c e does no t c o n d u c t r e s e a r c h o f any t y p e . F i g u r e 7 showed a R e s e a r c h S e c t i o n w i t h i n t he P a r k s B r anch but t h i s has been v a c a n t f o r a number o f y e a r s . In p a s s i n g , i t m i gh t be n o t e d t h a t o n l y M a n i t o b a has r e c o g n i z e d t h i s i s s u e and f o r m a l l y r e o r g a n i z e d i t s d e p a r t m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e . ^ / A D M H I s f i s T R A T i V l T ^ S C T r V n T E s OF PRO^INCI'ALl^PARTME^TS * OF PARK-S:t---W£-S-T-ERN-eANADA-l968 F \ <j \x v «. ^ O W N E R S H I P R E S E A R C H P L A N N 1 N G O P E R A T I O N S B U D G E T A C T ; \ I T i t s w M A N s A B C M A N s A M A N s A M A N s A M A N s A B C P U B L I C R E C R E A T I O N S E T T I N G S <3> A S K L T A A S K L T A B C A S K L T A B C A s K L T A B C A S K L T A d e c r e e t ' o n Areos Q 0 0 D 7.1 • • o • Q 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 C a m p g r o u n d s H B 0 0 0 0 a B m H 0 • m 0 0 — tc<~-;c G round s 0 IB 0 0 CJ m a • m m 0 - • i l 0 o m 0 Beache s H 0 _ El m \ m s m E3 m m 0 m O m m a m Sports A r e a s ' B m m m m a m m m sVayside S t o p s H m H m 11 H m D m m m Ml H M i i S c e n e R o a d w a y s i a m B m m ! Q m n Histor ic S i t e s S El m m m m m m m 1 m m i m Nature P r e s e r v e s 1 H E - o a m m m B m m 0 m m m 101 * W i l d l i f e P r e s e r v e s ' " - - . ' • B a m m m m Hunt i ng A r e a s H m a m m m m m i s F i s f img A r e a s 1 m m i i B m m a i Outdoor T r a i l s B i B a m m a i a H Outdoo r W a t e r w a y s 1 a m m m H i m S U n d e v e l o p e d Pub l i c Land B IS m m m m • H H H H a i B u f f e r Zones a o a H m Cot tage S i t e s H m m ti m El m H Reso r t A rea s m a m m H m o • B m m Navigable St reams,R iv 6 Lakes m m 1 1 o 13 n 0 Non-Navig.Streams,Riv.8 Lakes i m H E i 0 m 13 O c e a n • Q o • M a r s h e s a 13 m B m 0 m E l S h o r e l i n e s i 11 m m m m E m • m 0 Sou r ce . C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l of R e s o u r c e M i n i s t e r s , THE ADMINISTRATION * No Reg i ona l Pa r k s PJ.D. OF OUTDOOR RECREATION IN CANADA, Vol. I I , 1 968 . Cons idered -F i g u r e 9 ORGANIZATION CHART EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR FILM AND PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH ts. B. wortr) OMPT ROLER «; Lr>Tl W INQUIRIES ilAlL INQUIRIES CIVIL AV1A1 ACCOMMODATION "BEA UTIFUL BRITISH COLUMBIA" Foldn DcilfM IB. Aula) 1 1 1 1 mas MOVIES <G. Wbiufccr) (N. Kincrt) <M. Btxrtly) <W.Wilcr) (P. TU*H| SPECIAL PROJECT ADMINISTRATION - MOVIES (S.HHBH) (P. W. E. Row*) DARKROOMS <H. Klrctuwr) (M. Pt»r> RAN FRANCISCO ( S o u r c e : Department o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y , Annual Report 1970) 114 In the P r o v i n c e o f M a n i t o b a , the Department o f T o u r i s m and R e c r e a t i o n , c o n s i s t s o f the P a r k s , Community R e c r e a -t i o n , and T o u r i s m Branches and has r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s p a n n i n g the f u l l range o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the Department p r o v i d e s a d v i s o r y and c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s t o m u n i c i p a l and l o c a l g overnments, and t o p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s i n r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s m . ( C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o f R e s o u r c e M i n i s t e r s , 1968, V o l . I, p. 5) Department o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the Department o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y i s shown i n F i g u r e 9- I t can be seen t h a t t h e major emphasis o f t h i s Department i s on' a d v e r t i s i n g and p r o m o t i o n . Note t h a t r e s e a r c h i s not i n c l u d e d among the a s s i g n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In terms o f the development and o p e r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , t h e Department has no r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Only i n d i r e c t l y does the Department have c o n t a c t 7wi t h p r i v a t e ' r e c r e a -t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s f o r p u r p o s e s o t h e r than c o o r d i n a t i n g the a d v e r t i s i n g p r o -gram. In the c o m p i l a t i o n o f the "Approved T o u r i s t Accommodation" D i r e c t o r y o r the "Green Book", i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n s p e c t a l l p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s and l i s t t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . Over 750,000 c o p i e s o f t h i s book a r e p u b l i s h e d an-n u a l l y f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t o u r i s t s . No e f f o r t i s made t o o f f e r management o r t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e even i f s o l i c i t e d by t h e o p e r a t o r s . A team o f s i x t o u r i s t accommodation c o u n s e l l o r s w o r k i n g f o r t h r e e and o n e - h a l f months i s h a rd p r e s s e d t o v i s i t some 2,173 s e p a r a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h o u t t a k i n g t i m e t o o f f e r s u g g e s t i o n s on how t o b e t t e r o p e r a t e the e n t e r p r i s e . In a d d i t i o n , w h i l e one c o u n s e l l o r may be competent t o a d v i s e on motel and h o t e l management, a campground i s a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r . Each i s a s p e c i a l i z e d o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r management a p p r o a c h . 115 I t must be n o t e d t h a t t he p u r p o s e o f the v i s i t by t he " c o u n s e l l o r " i s no t t o s e t s t a n d a r d s o r s u p e r v i s e o p e r a t i o n s but m e r e l y t o see i f t he f a c i l i t i e s meet r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e " G r e e n B o o k " . Many e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t h a t a r e v i s i t e d d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f the i n s p e c t i o n p e r i o d , o f A p r i l 13 t o J u l y 31, a r e n e v e r seen w h i l e c u s t ome r s a r e p r e s e n t . D u r i n g t he i n s p e c t i o n , i t may a p p e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e s pace s f o r t h i r t y camp-s i t e s but on a busy weekend i n Augu s t o v e r f o r t y t r a i l e r s may be u s i n g t he f a c i l i t i e s . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , w o u l d t h e o p e r a t i o n s t i l l be app roved ? The same c r i t i c i s m m i gh t be s a i d o f h e a l t h r e g u l a t i o n s . When e x a m i n i n g p r i v a t e c a m p s i t e s , t he i n s p e c t o r s a s s e s s t he w a t e r and sewer s y s t e m a c c o r d i n g t o t he r e g u l a t i o n s o f t he Depa r tment o f H e a l t h . These r e g u l a t i o n s i n c l u d e s t a n d a r d s f o r w a t e r s y s t e m s , s e p t i c t a n k s , washrooms, s h o w e r s , road w i d t h s and open s p a c e . I t i s one t h i n g t o a p p r o v e t h e s e s e r v i c e s a t t h e t i m e o f i n s t a l l a t i o n and y e t a n o t h e r t o a p p r o v e t h e i r use unde r peak c a p a c i t y . Fo r t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e p r e s e n t " a p p r o v e d t o u r i s t a c c o m m o d a t i o n " d e s i g n a t i o n o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e f a c i l i t i e s l e a v e s much t o be d e s i r e d . A n o t h e r o b v i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g o f t h e Depa r tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y i s e v i d e n t f r om s e v e r a l p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h a t d e p a r t m e n t . C o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t i s made t o show how much t he p r o v i n c e b e n e f i t s f r o m t o u r i s m . In 1968, an e s t i m a t e d $3^5 m i l l i o n was s p e n t by v i s i t o r s and i t i s p r o u d l y f o r e c a s t t h a t by 1984, t h i s w i l l amount t o $1.5 b i l l i o n . No e f f o r t however has been made t o f o r e c a s t what f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be needed t o p r o v i d e t he s e r v i c e s demanded by t h e e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g i n f l u x o f v i s i t o r s . I t wou l d a p p e a r t h a t no f o r m a l p rog ram f o r e x p a n d i n g f a c i l i t i e s has been c o m p l e t e d o r e v e r f e l t needed and 116 the Depar tment j u s t assumes bo th t he p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r w i l l have expanded t o meet t h e demand w i t h o u t any l e a d e r s h i p o r encou r agemen t . The annua l r e p o r t o f t he Depar tment of'1970 under A d v e r t i s i n g and R e s e a r c h g i v e s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n o f any change i n e m p h a s i s . The o n l y r e f e r e n c e t o r e s e a r c h was T h i s y e a r t he Domin ion Bu reau o f S t a t i s t i c s b r oadened i t s f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h i n t he t r a v e l i n d u s t r y , and t he r e s u l t i n g d a t a e n a b l e d us t o p r e p a r e a more d e t a i l e d and a c c u r a t e r e p o r t on t he v a l u e o f t he i n d u s t r y t o o u r P r o v i nee . (Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y , 1970, p. 16) The p r e s e n t $550,000 s p e n t on t o u r i s t p r o m o t i o n i s e f f e c t i v e . An e s t i m a t e d 7,515,550 t o u r i s t s i n c l u d i n g 4.3 m i l l i o n A m e r i c a n s v i s i t e d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1970. Y e t t he Depar tment s h o u l d no t c o n t i n u e i t s a d v e r t i s i n g i n t o t a l i s o l a t i o n f r o m p l a n n i n g and p r o d u c t i o n o f t he s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s needed t o s a t i s f y t h e demands o f the t o u r i s t s . No room a t t he p a r k - i n i s a common c o m p l a i n t i n peak months o f t he I s l a n d ' s t o u r i s t t r a v e l . T r a v e l l e r s have r ea son t o be u p s e t when t hey c a n ' t f i n d a c a m p s i t e i n a p r o v i n c e c o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y o f f o r e s t — p a r t i c u l a r l y when many o f t h e s e t o u r i s t s have been l u r e d by l a v i s h a d v e r t i s i n g o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ; a d v e r t i s i n g s u p p o r t e d by . . . g ove rnment . ( K e n t , 1970) The Depar tment does no t o p e r a t e i n i s o l a t i o n f r om t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r howeve r . T h e r e i s i n f a c t c o n s i d e r a b l e c o o p e r a t i o n between t he p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s v i a two p r o g r a m s . The P r o v i n c i a l T o u r i s t A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l i s a c o o r d i n a t i n g body c o n s i s t i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s f r om e i g h t r e g i o n s o f t he p r o v i n c e who meet w i t h Depar tment o f f i c i a l s t o d i s c u s s mutua l p r o b l e m s . In a d d i t i o n , t he Depar tment g r a n t s 117 funds on t he b a s i s o f $60 f o r e v e r y $40 r a i s e d l o c a l l y i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t r e g i o n a l t o u r i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Government t o u r i s t c o u n s e l l o r s a r e b e i n g a s s i g n e d t o a s s i s t t h e s e r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e two programs a r e d e s i g n e d f o r o n l y one p u r p o s e - - t o h e l p r e g i o n a l t o u r i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t t r a c t s v i s i t o r s t o t h e i r own r e g i o n . P l a n n i n g , r e s e a r c h , t e c h n i c a l , and management a d v i c e a r e not i n c l u d e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e members o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l T o u r i s t A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l a r e no t cho sen by members o f t h e t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y but a p p o i n t e d f r om t h e i r numbers by t h e gove rnment . The ARDA P rog ram In C h a p t e r V, i t was s t a t e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c i e s most a f f e c t i n g t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r were t h o s e o f t he ARDA p r o g r am. I t w o u l d appea r t h a t t h i s i s no t t he c a s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In v i e w o f t h e o v e r a l l g o a l o f t h e ARDA p r o g r a m , t h a t o f s t i m u l a t i n g t h e economy o f d e p r e s s e d r u r a l a r e a s , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has no t r e c e i v e d a l a r g e s h a r e o f f e d e r a l f u n d s . T h i s p r o v i n c e r ank s s econd t o O n t a r i o (as measured by p e r c a p i t a incomes) and has r e c e i v e d l e s s f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e than Quebec and the M a r i t i m e p r o v i n c e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t he s c a l e o f ARDA p r o j e c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s s m a l l e r t han i n most o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . L a c k 6 f f e d e r a l f unds i s no t t he o n l y r e a s o n why t he ARDA p rog ram i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has g i v e n l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o r e c r e a t i o n . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has not u n d e r t a k e n such m a j o r r e c r e a t i o n p r o j e c t s as the " I n t e r l a k e " i n M a n i t o b a , " M a c t o q u o c " i n New B r u n s w i c k and " G a s p e P e n i n s u l a " i n Quebec w h i c h q u a l i f i e d f o r a d d i -t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e under the FRED p r o g r am. 118 Under ARDA l e g i s l a t i o n , t he i n i t i a t i v e f o r f e d e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n must come f rom the p r o v i n c i a l government who d e t e r m i n e what t y p e o f p r o -j e c t s w i l l be u n d e r t a k e n . In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ARDA programs have g e n e r a l l y been c o o r d i n a t e d by t he Depar tment o f A g r i c u l t u r e and t he emphas i s has been on t he r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n and w a t e r s u p p l y s y s tems p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n t he Okanagan r e g i o n . T o o , t he p r o v i n c e has p a r t i c i -p a t e d i n t he n a t i o n w i d e programs o f t he Canada Land I n v e n t o r y and t he r e l a t e d Canada O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n Demand S t u d y . On l y t he " K s a n " p r o j e c t has been r e l a t e d t o r e c r e a t i o n as i t i n v o l v e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a museum, c r a f t -c e n t r e , and campground on an I n d i a n r e s e r v e n e a r H a z e l t o n . A l t h o u g h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has p a r t i c i p a t e d w i t h i n t he ARDA p r o g r a m , t h e r e has not been a l a r g e i n v e s t m e n t o f f e d e r a l f u n d s . In p a r t i c u l a r r e c r e a t i o n and more i m p o r t a n t t o t h i s s t u d y , p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n , has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , l i t t l e o r no r e s e a r c h i n t o r e c r e a t i o n has been c o n d u c t e d unde r t he ARDA prog ram i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e emphas i s i t has r e a c h e d e l s e w h e r e . G i v e n the t o t a l l a c k o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h c o n -d u c t e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s , t h e ARDA p rog ram c o u l d have p a r t i a l l y f i l l e d t he v o i d i f t he p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s had cho sen t o d i r e c t t h e p r o -gram t o d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s . A t p r e s e n t , a r e s e a r c h s t u d y i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d t o examine t h e p o t e n t i a l r o l e o f r e c r e a t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r e f o r i m p r o v i n g employment and income l e v e l s i n t h e c e n t r a l Koo tenay r e g i o n . (B. C. Depar tment o f A g r i -c u l t u r e , 1970) H o p e f u l l y , t h i s p r o j e c t i n d i c a t e s a new d i r e c t i o n i n p r o -v i n c i a l government p o l i c y and a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t he need f o r c o o r d i n a t e d p l a n n i n g and deve l opment o f r e c r e a t i o n as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e p r e s e n t o v e r e m p h a s i s on p r o m o t i o n . 119 I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f J u r i s d i c t i o n a l V o i d s The f o r e g o i n g has a t t e m p t e d to show how the Depar tments o f R e c r e a -t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n and the T r a v e l I n d u s t r y a r e o r g a n i z e d to cope w i t h i s s u e s r e l a t e d to o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , i t can be s t a t e d t h a t the p r e s e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework i s not d e s i g n e d to cope w i t h o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n in a c o m p r e h e n s i v e manner. The f o l l o w i n g f o u r examples a r e p r e s e n t e d to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s c l a i m . F i r s t , c o n s i d e r an i n d i v i d u a l who w i shes to r e g u l a r l y p a r t i c i p a t e in " b a c k - c o u n t r y h i k i n g . " Some o f the t r a i l s he wa lk s w i l l t r a v e r s e l ands under a v a r i e t y o f j u r i s d i c t i o n s . P o r t i o n s o f some t r a i l s w i l l be w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t s , p r o v i n c i a l pa rks o r v a c a n t crown l a n d s . O t h e r t r a i l s w i l l pass th rough p r i v a t e l and o r t h rough f o r e s t lands managed by p r i v a t e compan ie s . Who i s t o b u i l d the t r a i l s , m a i n t a i n them, p l a c e d i r e c t i o n a l s i g n s , and c o n s t r u c t a c c e s s roads and p a r k i n g l o t s ? Who i s t o r e c o r d and map t h e s e t r a i l s and p u b l i s h t r a i l g u i d e s to encourage p u b l i c use o f the t r a i l s ? At p r e s e n t , no government agency has the mandate to even b e g i n c o o r d i n a t i n g the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f the t a s k . Second , c o n s i d e r the p rob lem o f a p p r o v i n g new s k i r e s o r t s . R e c e n t l y , B r i t i s h Co lumb ia has seen the u n s u c c e s s f u l e f f o r t s o f a s e r i e s o f p o o r l y p l a n n e d and f i n a n c e d s k i a r e a s . Examples i n c l u d e Powder Moun-t a i n near G a r i b a l d i , Brohm R idge nea r Squamish , and C y p r e s s Bow in West V a n c o u v e r . A l r e a d y a p r o p o s a l f o r B ren t Mounta in near P e n t i c t o n has caused p u b l i c p r o t e s t s . In each c a s e , a p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r a p p l i e d to the D e p a r t -ment o f Lands f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o b u i l d a s k i r e s o r t . The government p o s i t i o n 120 seems t o be i f a p r i v a t e company w i s h e s t o c o n s t r u c t s k i l i f t s and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n c o m p l i e s w i t h s p e c i f i e d p r o c e d u r e s , t h e company s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o a t t e m p t t h e i r b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e . L i t t l e e f f o r t i s made t o examine i f t h e s e p r o p o s e d v e n t u r e s a r e p r o p e r l y l o c a t e d and e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e . On l y a f t e r t he p r o p o s a l meets d i f f i c u l t i e s does the government become f o r c e d i n t o more c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y o f the s i t u a t i o n . P a r t o f the p r o b l e m i s t h a t t h e government has no s t a f f o f r e c r e a t i o n and s k i i n g e x p e r t s who can i n -s p e c t t h e s i t e and t hen d e t e r m i n e t he v i a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o p o s a l s by t h e d e v e l o p e r b e f o r e g i v i n g a p p r o v a l t o b e g i n d e v e l o p m e n t . R e q u i r e d f i n a n c -i n g , l a n d t e n u r e , s l o p e and snow c o n d i t i o n s , ma rke t s t u d i e s , f o r e s t v a l u e s , and a c c e s s roads w o u l d a l l be c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e g i v i n g a p p r o v a l . Hope-f u l l y v a l u a b l e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s w o u l d no l o n g e r be s u b j e c t t o t h e p r e s e n t t r i a l and e r r o r deve l opmen t a p p r o a c h . T h i r d , c o n s i d e r a p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r who w i s h e s t o d e v e l o p a camp-g r o u n d , s k i h i l l , m a r i n a , e t c . Who can he c o n t a c t t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on d e s i g n , c o n s t r u c t i o n e s t i m a t e s , p o s s i b l e e conom i c r e t u r n s , r e l e v a n t government r e g u l a t i o n s ? A t p r e s e n t , no one government agency has been a s s i g n e d t h i s f u n c t i o n . Y e t i f t he p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s were t o be an i n d u s t r i a l o r c o m m e r c i a l e n t e r p r i s e t he p r o v i n c i a l Depar tment o f T r a d e and I n d u s t r y c o u l d p r o v i d e a w e l a t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n and s p e c i a l c o n s u l t a n t s t o e n c o u r a g e p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t . I f , as t h e Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y c l a i m s , r e c r e a t i o n and t o u r i s m i s t he t h i r d m a j o r i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t i s s t r a n g e t h a t no government d e p a r t m e n t i s c h a r g e d w i t h t he r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e n c o u r a g i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . F o u r t h , c o n s i d e r t he i s s u e s o f o v e r a l l r e s e a r c h , p l a n n i n g , and deve l opmen t o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s t a s k r e q u i r e s t he 121 c o m p i l a t i o n o f an O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n P l a n f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a compre -h e n s i v e document w h i c h w o u l d r e q u i r e t he c o l l e c t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c s o f p r e s e n t use and p r o j e c t e d f u t u r e demands. An i n v e n t o r y o f a l l r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , w h e t h e r o p e r a t e d by p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , v o l u n t a r y g roup s o r p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s wou l d be needed . A f t e r a l l t he f a c t s had been c o l l e c t e d , i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s and o u t l i n e t he s t e p s by w h i c h t h e s e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s c o u l d be a c h i e v e d . The r o l e s o f t he m u n i c i p a l , r e g i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s a u t h o r i t i e s , v o l u n t a r y c i t i z e n s g roups and p r i v a t e e n t e r -p r i s e w o u l d be o u t l i n e d . A t p r e s e n t , no government agency i s e q u i p p e d ! e i t h e r by f unds and manpower o r l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y t o p e r f o r m such an a s s i gnment. Summary o f t he P r o b l e m In summary, the d i v i s i o n o f t he B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a government i n t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n can be t r a c e d t o f o u r g e n e r a l c a u s e s : F i r s t , t h e r e does not seem t o be a r e c o g n i t i o n o f any d i f f e r e n c e between t he two t a s k s o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e management and r e c r e a t i o n p r o -gram p l a n n i n g . F a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e t h i s i s t h e u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e f o r t he l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l government r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c i e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e management has been a t a s k a s s i g n e d t o a d e p a r t m e n t w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p u b l i c l a n d s . Thu s , t h e management o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s i s c a r r i e d o u t by the F o r e s t S e r v i c e and the P a r k s B r a n c h , Un -f o r t u n a t e l y , when c o n s i d e r i n g t he second t a s k , r e c r e a t i o n p rog ram p l a n n i n g , t h e s e r e s o u r c e managers n e g l e c t t he r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s not s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i g n e d t o them. C o n s e q u e n t l y , t he r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , 122 v o l u n t a r y c i t i z e n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e a r e n e g l e c t e d . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n p rog ram p l a n n i n g must be a s s i g n e d t o some b r a n c h o r agency o f the government w i t h w i d e r c o n c e r n s than t he p r e s e n t n a r r o w l y f o c u s e d r e s o u r c e ; management a g e n c i e s . A second cau se i s a g e n e r a l m i s c o n c e p t i o n o f what i s meant by r e c r e a t i o n r e s e a r c h . A s u r v e i l l a n c e o f t he annua l r e p o r t o f t he Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y g i v e s i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t r e s e a r c h i s m e r e l y t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f f a c t s and f i g u r e s on t o u r i s t a t t e n d a n c e and e x p e n d i t u r e s . Some e f f o r t i s made t o p r o j e c t p r e s e n t t o t a l s i n t o f u t u r e e s t i m a t e s bu t l i t t l e e l s e i s done. T h e r e i s no r e c o g n i t i o n o f r e s e a r c h as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o p l a n n i n g . W i t h o u t r e s e a r c h , p l a n n i n g can n e v e r be more t han s h o r t t e rm t o meet i s s u e s o f the day . A t h i r d c a u s e i s t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n and p l a n n i n g f r o m p r o m o t i o n and a d v e r t i s i n g . W h i l e the Depa r tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y p r o u d l y p r o j e c t s e x p e c t e d i n c r e a s e s i n t o u r i s t s ' s p e n d i n g no a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o d e t e r m i n e how many more p e o p l e t h i s w i l l i n v o l v e and how many c a m p s i t e s , mo te l rooms, e t c . , w i l l be needed t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e i n c r e a s e i n v i s i t o r s . L a r g e s c a l e t o u r i s t p r o m o t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y d i r e c t e d t owa rd s r e s i d e n t s o f w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s , e n c o u r a g e v i s i t o r s on a "come o n e , come a l l " b a s i s . Q u i t e p o s s i b l y t o u r i s t p r o m o t i o n s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d w i t h more s p e c i f i c a ims i n m i n d . I t m i g h t be t h a t p r o v i n c i a l t o u r i s t p r o -m o t i o n s h o u l d not s t r e s s t he " w i l d e r n e s s " t r a i t s o f i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i n hopes o f a t t r a c t i n g more u rban o r i e n t e d v i s i t o r s who w o u l d p o s s i b l y demand h o t e l and m o t e l accommmodat ions i n s t e a d o f a c a m p s i t e w i t h i n a p r o -v i n c i a l p a r k . 123 A f o u r t h c a u s e i s a l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The P a r k s B r anch when p l a n n i n g new d e v e l o p m e n t s does no t c o n s u l t w i t h p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r a s s o c i a t i o n s t o a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h what f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d by e i t h e r s e c t o r . Fo r e x a m p l e , i t wou ld a p p e a r t h a t i n t h e Okanagan, t he p u b l i c s e c t o r (whe the r p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l o r m u n i c i p a l ) i n t e n d s t o p r o v i d e d a y - u s e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s t o a t t r a c t v i s i t o r s bu t i t w i l l p r o v i d e o n l y a minimum o f t he needed campground f a c i -l i t i e s . Y e t , i f t h i s i s i n f a c t t h e p o l i c y , t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r has n e v e r been i n f o r m e d . I f t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r f i l l s t he gaps i n t he f a c i l i t i e s no p r o v i d e d by t he p u b l i c s e c t o r , i t i s by d e f a u l t , no t by d e s i g n . A P r o p o s a l A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e m a t e r i a l o f t he p r e v i o u s f i v e c h a p t e r s w o u l d be w a s t e d i f no e f f o r t was made t o use t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o r e s o l v e t he d i f f i c u l t i e s f ound w i t h i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r amework f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a -t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The f o l l o w i n g i s s u g g e s t e d no t as a d e f i n i t i v e s o l u t i o n bu t " . . . as i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w h o l e p r o b l e m a r e a . . . f o r r e a s o n o f o v e r a l l i n t e r e s t . " ( C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o f R e s o u r c e M i n i s t e r s , 1968, V o l . I, p. 5) B a s i c a l l y , t h e r e a r e two p r ob l ems t o d e a l w i t h . F i r s t i s t h e p r e s e n t o v e r e m p h a s i s on p r o m o t i o n i n s t e a d o f r e s e a r c h , p l a n n i n g , and d e v e l o p m e n t . Second i s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f o v e r c o m i n g t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f ramework t h a t does no t t a k e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e o v e r v i e w o f a l l a s p e c t s o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . The f i r s t p r o b l e m ean be overcome by s c a l i n g down t he p r e s e n t promo-t i o n and a d v e r t i s i n g budget o f t h e Depa r tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y . An 124 emphas i s must be p l a c e d on p r o p e r r e s e a r c h t o p r oduce ma r ke t s t u d i e s , f a c i l i t y i n v e n t o r i e s , and u l t i m a t e l y , a p r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n P l a n where g u i d e l i n e s f o r the r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s c o u l d be s e t o u t . T h e n , k e e p i n g the g o a l s o f t h i s R e c r e a t i o n P l a n i n m i n d , t he p r o m o t i o n a l campa ign c o u l d be r e s t o r e d bu t w i t h more d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e s . The s econd p r o b l e m c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a l l e v i a t e d by one o f two d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s . The f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e wou l d be t o m a i n t a i n t he p r e s e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r amework . The Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y c o u l d b roaden i t s a c t i v i t i e s beyond p r o m o t i o n t o i n c l u d e r e s e a r c h , and management, and t e c h n i c a l c o n s u l t a n t s e r v i c e s f o r t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The P a r k s B r anch c o u l d be a s s i g n e d a d d i t i o n a l f und s and p e r s o n n e l t o more a d e q u a t e l y p e r -f o rm t he " n o n - p a r k " t a s k s now a s s i g n e d t o i t . The F o r e s t S e r v i c e c o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t he new F o r e s t R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n and speed up i t s i n t e n d e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s on f o r e s t l a n d s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e l e a v e s many p r ob l ems u n r e s o l v e d . T h e r e wou l d be no c o m p r e h e n s i v e f ramework t o e n c o u r a g e t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f e f f o r t s by t h e v a r i o u s d e p a r t m e n t s . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n on c rown l a n d o u t s i d e p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t s and p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s i s l e f t i n l i m b o . The P a r k s B r a n c h wou l d s t i l l p l a y a p a s s i v e r o l e i n r e v i e w i n g p l a n s o f r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , I n d i a n band s , and p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g a l e a d e r . Most d i s c o u r a g i n g wou l d be t he f a c t t h a t the m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the l e a d e r s h i p , c o o r d i n a t i o n , and i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s n e c e s s a r y f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n p rog ram w o u l d be l e f t w i t h t h o s e d e p a r t m e n t s t h a t , no m a t t e r what o t h e r d u t i e s a r e a s s i g n e d t o them, s t i l l have a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e management ( i . e . f o r e s t s and p a r k s ) . 125 The s econd a l t e r n a t i v e to the d i lemma wou ld be t o c r e a t e a new " i n s t i t u t i o n a l v e h i c l e " r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t he b r o a d e r a s p e c t s o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . P r o b a b l y a " R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e " o r " S e c r e t a r i a t " o r " B u r e a u " w o u l d be s e t up w i t h i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t c o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . T h i s new " R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e " w o u l d have no r e s o u r c e s t o a d m i n i s t e r . I t s r o l e w o u l d be r e s e a r c h , i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s , c o o r d i n a t o r o f government r e c r e a -t i o n programs and p r o v i d e t he t a s k f o r c e t o p r o d u c e a P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n P l a n . The P a r k s B r a n c h wou l d c o n f i n e i t s e l f t o i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as d e f i n e d i n the P a r k A c t . The Community R e c r e a t i o n P rog ram s e c t i o n w o u l d be removed f r om the Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y and p l a c e d w i t h i n t he Depar tment o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . H o p e f u l l y , t h i s w o u l d change t he emphas i s o f s uch e v e n t s as t h e B. C. F e s t i v a l o f S p o r t s f r o m p r o m o t i o n o f the e v e n t t o deve l opment o f t h e communi ty r e c r e a t i o n p r o g r am. P r o b a b l y t he Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y wou l d be r educed t o B r a n c h s t a t u s . W i t h i n t h e Depar tment o f R e c r e a t i o n w o u l d be t h r e e D e p u t y - M i n i s t e r s , much l i k e t h e p r e s e n t f ramework w i t h i n t h e Depa r tment o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s and Wate r R e s o u r c e s . One Deputy M i n i s t e r w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r C o n -s e r v a t i o n and Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n i n c l u d i n g t he p r e s e n t F i s h and W i l d l i f e , and P a r k s B r a n c h e s . A s e cond Deputy M i n i s t e r w o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a g r e a t l y expanded Community and M u n i c i p a l R e c r e a t i o n P rograms B ranch t o i n -c l u d e t h o s e a s p e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n o f a more u rban c h a r a c t e r and no t d e -pendent on an o u t d o o r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e b a s e . The t h i r d Deputy M i n i s t e r w o u l d be t h e one h e a d i n g the f o r m e r Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y . T h i s T r a v e l B r a n c h wou l d a l s o be c h a r g e d w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e 126 t o the p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t o r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h g u i d e l i n e s f o r m u l a t e d f rom a P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n P l a n . The M i n i s t e r w o u l d now be known as t he M i n i s t e r o f R e c r e a t i o n , C o n s e r v a t i o n and T r a v e l I n d u s t r y . No te t h a t none o f t he t h r e e Deputy M i n i s t e r s w o u l d have j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t he p r o p o s e d R e c r e a t i o n S e c r e t a r i a t . T h i s S e c r e t a r i a t wou l d no t be p l a c e d i n the b u r e a u c r a t i c h i e r a r c h y a t t h e same l e v e l as t h e P a r k s , T r a v e l , F i s h and W i l d l i f e , and Community P rograms B r a n c h e s , bu t w o u l d r e p o r t d i r e c t l y t o t h e M i n i s t e r . The S e c r e t a r i a t wou l d o p e r a t e as a c l e a r i n g h o u s e t o c o o r d i n a t e t he a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e t h r e e b r a n c h e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e S e c r e t a r i a t w o u l d s e r v e as t he c o o r d i n a t o r between t he Depa r tment and o t h e r Depa r tment s such as L a n d s , F o r e s t s , Wate r R e s o u r c e s , H i g h w a y s , and H e a l t h who a l s o have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l i m i t e d a s p e c t s o f r e c r e a t i o n . The new S e c r e t a r i a t c o u l d t a k e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e v i e w o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n s i n c e i t i s no t c h a r g e d w i t h manag ing s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e s o r p r o m o t i n g t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . The u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the S e c r e t a r i a t w o u l d be t o p r o d u c e a P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n P l a n . I t s h o u l d t hen be p o s -s i b l e t o more f u l l y r e a l i z e t h a t o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n e x i s t beyond t h e c o n f i n e s o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . The p r i v a t e s e c t o r m i g h t be g i v e n more r e c o g n i t i o n and t h e i r p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d when p l a n n i n g f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s . In C h a p t e r I I I , T w a r d z i k i s s u e d a c h a l l e n g e t o p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . . . . E n v i s i o n i f you w i l l , a community p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n m a s t e r p l a n t h a t e x t e n d s beyond o u r p r e s e n t s i m p l i s t i c s y s t e m o f g r e e n space s and community c e n t r e s and p l a y -g round programs t o a t r u l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e p l a n t h a t i n c l u d e s c o m m e r c i a l r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s and p r i v a t e 127 r e c r e a t i o n p r og r ams . Once we b e g i n t o p l a n f o r t he commun i t y , i n s t e a d o f f o r o u r t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a s o f com-p e t e n c y , then we a r e w e l l on t he way t o p r o v i d i n g a p u b l i c s e r v i c e t r u l y r e l e v a n t t o o u r c l i e n t e l e . ( T w a r d z i k , 1969, p. 9) H i s i s p r o b a b l y a f a i n t hope u n l e s s t he r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g i s t a k e n away f r o m t h o s e government a g e n c i e s w i t h s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( i . e . p a r k s and f o r e s t s ) and p l a c e d w i t h an agency c h a r g e d w i t h b r o a d e r c o n c e r n s . 128 CHAPTER VI I A SURVEY OF PRIVATE CAMPGROUNDS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t t he r e s u l t s o f a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o p r i v a t e campground o p e r a t o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r t he p r o v i n c e w i l l be s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b t a i n e d by r e s e a r c h e r s i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . ( Bower s , 1969; La Page , 1966, 1967, 1968) F i r s t , some backg round f a c t s c o n c e r n i n g campgrounds i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a must be r e v i e w e d . D e s p i t e t he government d i s r e g a r d f o r p r i v a t e campgrounds, when p l a n n i n g p u b l i c o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t p u b l i c campgrounds s e r v e o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e demand. Fo r t he y e a r 1970, t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3,000 c a m p s i t e s p r o v i d e d by t he p r o v i n c i a l p a r k s s y s t e m . (B. C. P a r k s B r a n c h , 1970) A 1970 Canada O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t y I n v e n t o r y by ARDA p e r s o n n e l as p a r t o f t he Canada O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n Demand S tudy l i s t e d 544 p r i v a t e campgrounds p r o -v i d i n g 12,456 c a m p s i t e s . In 1970, t he Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y l i s t e d 234 p r i v a t e campgrounds p r o v i d i n g 13,469 c a m p s i t e s . I f f o r no o t h e r r ea son than t h e f a c t t h a t p r i v a t e c a m p s i t e s outnumber p u b l i c camp-s i t e s by b e t t e r t h a n a f o u r t o one m a r g i n , p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g s h o u l d no t be i g n o r i n g the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . From the f o r e g o i n g , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e u n i v e r s e o f p r i v a t e campground e n t e r p r i s e s i s p r o b a b l y somewhere between 200 and 600. The 129 ARDA i n v e n t o r y l i s t e d e v e r y e n t e r p r i s e t h a t o f f e r e d camp ing f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r t h e i r t o t a l o f 544 campgrounds . The Depar tment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y l i s t s an e s t a b l i s h m e n t under t he c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f r o m w h i c h i t a p p e a r s t o d e r i v e i t s g r e a t e r r e v e n u e . Many e n t e r p r i s e s o f f e r i n g c a m p s i t e s a r e c a t e g o r i z e d under m o t e l s and r e s o r t s w h i c h p r o b a b l y a c c o u n t s f o r t h e i r l owe r t o t a l o f 234 p r i v a t e campgrounds . Y e t , even t h e D e p a r t -ment o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y e x h i b i t s l i t t l e c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s as t h e i r I969 r e p o r t l i s t e d 494 campgrounds o f f e r i n g 13,847 c a m p s i t e s . The d e c r e a s e o f 260 campgrounds and 378 c a m p s i t e s f r o m I969 t o 1970 w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n i f i t , i n f a c t , r e p r e s e n t s an a c t u a l d e c r e a s e i n t h e number o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . R a t h e r , t h e d e c r e a s e p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s some change i n t a b u l a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . The S u r v e y Two p r ob l ems emerged when o r g a n i z i n g t he m a i l e d o p e r a t o r s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . F i r s t , t he l i s t i n g o f e n t e r p r i s e s was i n c o m p l e t e as t h e o n l y a d d r e s s e s o b t a i n a b l e were f o r t h o s e t he P r o v i n c i a l T o u r i s t Accom-m o d a t i o n D i r e c t o r y o r " G r e e n B o o k " . Over 750,000 c o p i e s o f t h i s book a r e p u b l i s h e d a n n u a l l y f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t o u r i s t s . Not a l l campgrounds i n t h e p r o v i n c e a r e c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h i s book so t h e r e were an unknown number o f p r i v a t e campgrounds no t i n c l u d e d on t he m a i l i n g l i s t f o r t h e s u r v e y . A s econd p r o b l e m emerged when d e f i n i n g a p r i v a t e campground. Many p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s l i s t e d i n t h e " G r e e n Book " a r e p r i m a r i l y a f i s h i n g r e s o r t o r mo te l o r f a r m , and p r o v i d e c a m p s i t e s o n l y as an a s s o c i -a t e d s e r v i c e ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t t o some 560 e n t e r p r i s e s 130 whose l i s t i n g i n t he d i r e c t o r y i n d i c a t e d t hey p r o v i d e d c a m p s i t e s w h e t h e r o r no t c a m p s i t e s was t he m a j o r s e r v i c e o f t h a t e n t e r p r i s e . Of the 560 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s m a i l e d , ZkO were r e t u r n e d . F o r r ea son s o f i n c o m p l e t e an swer s and " c r a n k " r e t u r n s , o n l y 217 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were t a b u l a t e d . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l o n l y summar i ze some b a s i c f a c t s as r e v e a l e d by t h e s u r v e y abou t p r i v a t e campgrounds i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h o u t a t t e m p t -i n g t o g e n e r a l i z e abou t t he p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n i n d u s t r y as a w h o l e . No e f f o r t w i l l be made t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . s i z e , l o c a t i o n , s e r v i c e s , e t c . ) o r t o use t h e s e t o p r e d i c t t h e econom ic s u c c e s s o f an e n t e r p r i s e . The f o l l o w i n g i s s i m p l y a p r o f i l e o f campground c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u s i n g u n i v a r i a t e t a b l e s . L o c a t i o n The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 216 r e s p o n d e n t s i s shown on F i g u r e 10. T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u r v e y r e t u r n s wou l d a p p e a r t o a p p r o x i m a t e t he a c t u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r i v a t e campgrounds i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e ARDA F a c i l i t y I n v e n t o r y w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t he t o t a l s f o r Reg i on C, t h e Okanagan, and R e g i o n B, t he Lower M a i n l a n d , s h o u l d be s l i g h t l y h i g h e r . S u r vey r e s u l t s show t h a t p r i v a t e campgrounds c l u s t e r a r ound p u b l i c campgrounds and o t h e r p r i v a t e c o m p e t i t o r s . Of 208 r e s p o n d e n t s , 61 pe r c e n t were l e s s t han t e n m i l e s f r om a p u b l i c campground and o f 205 r e s ponden t s , . 74 p e r c e n t were w i t h i n f i v e m i l e s o f p r i v a t e c o m p e t i t o r s . T h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t were w i t h i n o n e - h a l f m i l e o f a p r i v a t e c o m p e t i t o r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s u r v e y o n l y a s k e d f o r p r o x i m i t y t o a n o t h e r campground, and w h e t h e r p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e . An a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s h o u l d have a s ked how c l o s e t he LEGEND 11 - No. of campgrounds [ARDA Inventory) FIGURE 10 Distibution of Private Campgrounds in British Columbia 132 e n t e r p r i s e s were t o p u b l i c d a y - u s e a t t r a c t i o n s . P r o b a b l y t h i s q u e s t i o n w o u l d have r e v e a l e d a much h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f p r i v a t e campgrounds c l u s t e r -i n g a round p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s t han t h e 61 per c e n t w h i c h a r e w i t h i n t en m i l e s o f a p u b l i c campground. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e s i n c e most m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s do not p r o v i d e campgrounds but o f t e n p r o v i d e p o p u l a r d a y - u s e r e c r e a t i o n f e a t u r e s . The p u b l i c beaches a t Q u a l i c u m and P e n t i c t o n a r e good examp le s o f m u n i c i p a l f a c i l i t i e s t h a t p r o v i d e m a j o r a t t r a c t i o n s t h a t c r e a t e a ma r ke t f o r p r i v a t e campground o p e r a t o r s . Of 2 0 8 r e s p o n d e n t s , 70 p e r c e n t we re l o c a t e d on s i t e s where w a t e r , w h e t h e r a l a k e , s t r e a m o r o c e a n , was a f e a t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , o f 62 e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t d i d no t have w a t e r as a f e a t u r e o f t h e i r s i t e , 38 were w i t h i n a f i v e - m i n u t e w a l k f r o m where t h e i r g u e s t s c o u l d have a c c e s s t o w a t e r f r o n t a g e . . T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n s t r o n g ag reement w i t h b o t h La Page (1967, 1968) and Bowers (1969) who s t r e s s e d t h e need f o r w a t e r - b a s e d a t t r a c -t i o n s as a m a j o r c r i t e r i a when l o c a t i n g a p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e . P r o b a b l y t h o s e 38 e n t e r p r i s e s l o c a t e d w i t h i n a f i v e - m i n u t e w a l k f r om a c c e s s i b l e w a t e r f r o n t a r e a d j a c e n t t o e i t h e r a p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l o r m u n i -c i p a l p a r k but t h i s was no t d e t e r m i n e d by t he s u r v e y . Economic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s As s t a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h e c h a p t e r , t h e r e i s a p r o b l e m i n d e f i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f each r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e . Is t h e b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n p r i m a r i l y a m o t e l o r farm? and when i s i t a " r e s o r t " and no t j u s t a campground? Of 212 r e s p o n d e n t s , o n l y 88 o r kl p e r c e n t o p e r a t e d s o l e l y as campgrounds . The r e m a i n i n g 5 8 p e r c e n t o f f e r e d camp ing f a c i l i t i e s i n 133 c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e . Of 126 a s s o c i a t e d b u s i n e s s e s , 66 were m o t e l s , 18 were m o b i l e t r a i l e r c o u r t s , 7 were fa rms and o r c h a r d s , 4 were s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s , 2 were r e s t a u r a n t s , and 1 was a s t o r e . O b v i o u s l y f o r t h e s e o w n e r s , o p e r a t i o n o f t he campground p r o v i d e d o n l y a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r i ncome. On l y 48 o f 210 o p e r a t o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the campground was a m a j o r s o u r c e o f t h e i r income. The campground p r o v i d e d l e s s than 50 pe r c e n t o f t h e income f o r 146 o f 155 o p e r a t o r s . However , 116 o f 177 o p e r a -t o r s i n d i c a t e d t hey e a r n e d t h e i r l i v i n g f r o m a n o t h e r b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e l o c a t e d on t he same p r o p e r t y as t h e campground. T h i s f i n d i n g r e i n f o r c e s t h o s e o f Bowers (1969) who c o n c l u d e d t h a t few e n t r e p r e n e u r s c o u l d e a r n a l i v i n g f r o m an e n t e r p r i s e o p e r a t e d s o l e l y as a campground. D u r i n g 1969, 101 o f 205 o p e r a t o r s s u r v e y e d e a r n e d a p r o f i t , 51 " b r o k e - e v e n " and 53 s u f f e r e d a l o s s f r o m o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e i r campgrounds . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e does not a d e q u a t e l y d e f i n e " p r o f i t " . I f t h e t e rm were l i m i t e d t o mean ing p r o f i t a f t e r o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s o f l a b o r and c a p i t a l were d e d u c t e d , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t f e w e r o p e r a t i o n s wou ld be a b l e t o r e p o r t a p r o f i t . On l y 94 o f 173 o p e r a t o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t hey c o u l d " b r e a k - e v e n " by o p e r a t i n g a t l e s s t h a n 50 pe r c e n t o f o c c u p a n c y . A n o t h e r 35 needed 50-60 p e r c e n t o c c u p a n c y , 43 needed 61-75 p e r c e n t o c c u p a n c y and 21 needed o v e r 76 pe r c e n t o c c u p a n c y . The s u r v e y r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t he m a j o r i t y o f p r i v a t e campgrounds t end t o be s m a l l . Of 206 r e s p o n d e n t s , 47 p e r c e n t p r o v i d e d l e s s than t h i r t y c a m p s i t e s and 67 p e r c e n t l e s s t han f i f t y s i t e s . On l y 16 pe r c e n t r e p o r t e d h a v i n g o v e r s e v e n t y - f i v e c a m p s i t e s . T h i s t endency toward s s m a l l o p e r a t i o n s can p r o b a b l y be a c c o u n t e d f o r by t he f i n d i n g t h a t few campgrounds a r e t he 134 f u l l - t i m e c o n c e r n o f t he o p e r a t o r and most a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y a nd/o r s e r v i c e . However , t h i s t r e n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t oward s s m a l l e r campgrounds i s i n c o n t r a s t t o f i n d i n g s i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s where La Page (1968) f ound t h e minimum s i z e f o r an e conom i c r e t u r n was s e v e n t y c a m p s i t e s . One hund red f i f t y - s e v e n o f 198 e n t e r p r i s e s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r number o f c u s t o m e r s had i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o v e r t he p a s t t h r e e y e a r s and 140 o f 192 r e p o r t e d t h a t r evenues had i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o v e r t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s . These t e n d e n c i e s a r e o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d t o t h e l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n t h e numbers o f r e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c l e s b e i n g used by t h e t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c . P r o v i n c i a l government campgrounds a l s o e x h i b i t s i m i l a r i n c r e a s e s i n u sage o v e r t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t l e s s t han h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t e d a p r o f i t , 166 o f 210 o p e r a t o r s p l a n t o expand t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s t o meet t h e i n c r e a s e d demand f o r c a m p s i t e s . S e r v i c e s O f f e r e d As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , few o f t he r e s p o n d e n t s o p e r a t e d t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e s s o l e l y as a campground. Most e n t e r p r i s e s a r e e i t h e r a campground i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e o r a r e a campground as p a r t o f a m u l t i p l e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e . T a b l e 13 shows what f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s were a v a i l a b l e t o t h o s e campers who p a t r o n i z e d t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r . 135 TABLE 13 DISTRIBUTION OF ASSOCIATED FAC I L IT I E S AND SERVICES OFFERED BY 215 PRIVATE CAMPGROUNDS F a c i l i t i e s and S e r v i c e s Number P e r Cent Boat R e n t a l s 115 53 Boat L a u n c h i n g 123 57 Swimming Beach 135 62 Ho r s e R e n t a l s 23 11 C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y g r o u n d 134 62 Laund r y 97 45 Hot Showers 177 79 S a n i - S t a t i o n 38 17 F i s h i n g Gu i de 54 25 H u n t i n g G u i d e 17 7 S a l e o f E s s e n t i a l s ( M i l k , I c e , B r e a d , B u t t e r , S o f t D r i n k s , e t c . ) 112 52 G r o c e r i e s 82 38 F i s h i n g S u p p l i e s 99 46 Gas and 0 i1 57 26 Snack C o u n t e r 49 23 F u l l Mea l s 31 14 Occupancy T a b l e s 14 and 15 p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t i n t o t he p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g t h a t o n l y 48 o f 210 p r i v a t e campgrounds p r o v i d e d t he m a j o r s o u r c e o f income f o r t he o p e r a t o r . T a b l e 14 shows t h a t 136 campgrounds p r o v i d e d l e s s than 2000 c a m p s i t e n i g h t s p e r s e a s o n . U s i n g an a v e r a g e r a t e o f $3 p e r s i t e p e r n i g h t , t h i s w o u l d mean: a g r o s s income l e s s t han $6,000--a f i g u r e t h a t l e a v e s l i t t l e m a r g i n f o r a p r o f i t . G i v e n t he f a c t t h a t T a b l e 15 shows 110 o f 168 campgrounds o p e r a t i n g a t l e s s than 60 p e r c e n t o f c a p a c i t y , t he i n t e n t i o n s o f many o p e r a t o r s t o expand a r e d i f f i c u l t t o r a t i o n a l i z e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u -l a r l y t r u e when t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n on econom ic c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s a r e r e v i e w e d . 136 TABLE 14 NUMBER OF OCCUPIED CAMPSITE NIGHTS REPORTED BY 158 PRIVATE CAMPGROUNDS Camps i t e N i g h t s No. o f Campgrounds 0 - -499 60 500 - 999 44 1000 - 1499 25 1500 - 1999 7 2000 - 2499 7 2500 - 4999 10 5000+ 5 One c a m p s i t e n i g h t = one c a m p s i t e o c c u p i e d by one p a r t y f o r one e v e n i n g . ( T h i s i s no t t h e t o t a l number o f g u e s t s i n each p a r t y ) . TABLE 15 PER CENT OF CAPACITY F ILLED DURING 1969 OPERATING SEASON AS REPORTED BY 168 PRIVATE CAMPGROUNDS P e r Cent C a p a c i t y No. o f Campgrounds 0-19 21 20 - 39 38 40 - 59 51 60 - 79 34 80+ 24 On l y 48 o f 172 campgrounds r e p o r t e d t h a t weekend and s t a t u a t o r y h o l i d a y c u s t o m e r s amounted t o more than 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r t o t a l . G i v e n t h e t remendous i n c r e a s e s i n h i ghway and f e r r y t r a f f i c o v e r weekend s , i t w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t more campgrounds w o u l d r e p o r t a g r e a t e r dependency on week-end b u s i n e s s . T h i s f i n d i n g m i gh t i n d i c a t e t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f weekend 137 r e c r e a t i o n i s t s a r e " d a y - u s e r s " r a t h e r than c ampe r s . On l y 16 pe r c e n t o f 214 campgrounds r e p o r t e d a ma jo r i n c r e a s e i n weekend o c c u p a n c y r a t e s o v e r mid -week t o t a l s . F o r t y - f i v e pe r c e n t r e p o r t e d no change i n o c c u p a n c y r a t e s f r o m weekday t o weekend . Management F e a t u r e s The s u r v e y r e s u l t s on t he a d v e r t i s i n g methods used by p r i v a t e camp-g rounds have a b u i l t - i n b i a s becau se a l l campgrounds w h i c h r e c e i v e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e l i s t e d i n t he " G r e e n B o o k " . S u r vey r e s u l t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 16. TABLE 16 ADVERTISING PREFERENCES OF 205 PRIVATE CAMPGROUND OPERATORS P e r Cgnt P e r Cent b Pe r Cent Second Method Used Most E f f e c t i v e Most E f f e c t i v e R a d i o 12 2 1 T e l e v i s i o n 1 5 5 Newspapers 41 6 7 Magaz i ne s 45 4 6 B r o c h u r e s and f o l d e r s 58 11 15 L o c a l T o u r i s t A s s o c i a t i o n 72 9 17 B. C. M o t e l s and R e s o r t s A s s o c i a t i o n 15 1 2 " G r e e n Book " 88 31 24 F o l l o w - u p s i n M a i l t o P r e v i o u s Cu s tomer s 38 5 4 W o r d - o f - M o u t h f r o m S a t i s f i e d Cu s tomer s 24 13 7 a C o l u m n i n d i c a t e s pe r c e n t o f o p e r a t o r s who use t h a t method . ^Column i n d i c a t e s pe r c e n t o f o p e r a t o r s who f e e l t h a t method i s t he most e f f e e t i v e . c Column i n d i c a t e s pe r c e n t o f o p e r a t o r s who f e e l t h a t method i s t he s econd most e f f e c t i v e . 138 One n o t a b l e f i n d i n g i s t h a t few p r i v a t e campground o p e r a t o r s make use o f t he B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M o t e l s , R e s o r t s and T r a i l e r C o u r t A s s o c i a t i o n . Most o p e r a t o r s p r e f e r t o work t h r o u g h t h e i r r e g i o n a l t o u r i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y t he means by w h i c h t he b u l k o f t h e b r o c h u r e s and f o l d e r s p r i n t e d by each campground a r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o t he p u b l i c . T a b l e 17 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the ma jo r p r o b l e m s f a c i n g the o p e r a t i o n o f p r i v a t e campgrounds a r e two o v e r w h i c h t hey have no c o n t r o l — t h e s h o r t s e a son and t he w e a t h e r . The s u r v e y f i n d i n g s show two m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s f r om r e s u l t s o f s i m i l a r s u r v e y s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Bo th Bowers (1969) and t h e ORRRC R e p o r t r e v e a l e d t h a t p e o p l e p r ob l ems ( i . e . v a n d a l i s m , t h e f t , e t c . ) and l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e were m a j o r c o n c e r n s o f p r i v a t e campground o p e r a t o r s . N e i t h e r p r o b l e m a p p e a r s t o be o f g r e a t c o n c e r n t o o p e r a t o r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . No s i n g l e a s p e c t o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y and r e g u l a t i o n i s s i n g l e d o u t as a m a j o r p r o b l e m a r e a o f campground o p e r a t o r s . However c o l l e c t ? v e l y 48 p e r c e n t o f a l l m a j o r p r ob l ems can be t r a c e d t o p u b l i c p o l i c y and r e g u l a t i o n . P o l l u t i o n , l a c k o f s e r v i c e s ( i . e . h y d r o , w a t e r , s e w e r ) , t a x a t i o n , z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s , m e d i c a l h e a l t h r e g u l a t i o n s , h ighway r e g u l a t i o n s and c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s a r e a l l i s s u e s s u b j e c t t o m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l government c o n t r o l . 139 TABLE 17 MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS AS REPORTED BY 205 PRIVATE CAMPGROUND OPERATORS P r o b l e m P e r Cen t a R e p o r t i n g P e r Cent ^ Ma in P r o b l e m P e r Cent Second P r o b l e m 0 V a n d a l i s m and T h e f t 13 4 3 L i ab i 1 i t y 5 4 1 S h o r t Season 71 31 18 Weather 63 14 17 F a c i 1 i t y t o o Smal1 21 4 6 P o l 1 u t i o n 9 5 — Poo r L o c a t i o n 4 2 1 Lack o f S e r v i c e s 23 13 3 C o m p e t i t i o n f r o m P u b l i c Campgrounds 33 • 14 9 C o m p e t i t i o n f r o m P r i v a t e Campgrounds 10 -- 3 T a x a t i o n 38 3 8 Z o n i n g R e g u l a t i o n s 9 1 1 M e d i c a l R e g u l a t i o n s 10 8 3 Highway R e g u l a t i o n s 6 4 1 Column i n d i c a t e s pe r c e n t management. o f o p e r a t o r s who r e p o r t e d t h i s p r o b l e m a f f e c t s ^Column i n d i c a t e s p e r c e n t p r o b l e m . o f o p e r a t o r s who r e p o r t e d t h i s was t h e i r ma in °Column i n d i c a t e s pe r c e n t most m a j o r p r o b l e m . o f o p e r a t o r s who r e p o r t e d t h i s was t h e i r s econd A t t i t ude s Toward Government : P o l i c i e s In C h a p t e r I I , none o f t h e s t u d i e s o f La Page (1966, 1967, 1968) o r t h o s e r e v i e w e d by Bowers (1969) were c o n c e r n e d w i t h o p e r a t o r a t t i t u d e s t owa rd government p e r f o r m a n c e i n t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , 140 p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s t o t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the f o l l o w -i n g f i n d i n g s c anno t be e v a l u a t e d i n c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r s t u d i e s . The s u r v e y r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t government p e r f o r m a n c e i n f i n a n -c i a l a s s i s t a n c e programs and t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r y s e r v i c e s i s i n a d e q u a t e . ( T a b l e 18) The o p e r a t o r s a l s o e x h i b i t some c o n c e r n o v e r the p r o v i s i o n o f e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s such as h y d r o , w a t e r , s e w e r , r o a d s , t e l e p h o n e , and g a r -bage c o l l e c t i o n . Over 73 p e r c e n t o f 202 o p e r a t o r s s t a t e d t h a t s u p e r v i s i o n o f p r i v a t e campgrounds s h o u l d be a p r o v i n c i a l r a t h e r t han a m u n i c i p a l o r f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t f r om T a b l e 19- Note t h a t t h e p r e s e n t r o l e o f t he p r o v i n c e i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f h e a l t h s t a n d a r d s and o v e r c r o w d i n g i s a c c e p t a b l e t o a m a j o r i t y o f p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s . TABLE 18 CAMPGROUND OPERATOR ATTITUDES TOWARD GOVERNMENT RECREATION POLIC IES No. o f A t t i t u d e R e c r e a t i o n P o l i c y Re spondent s Poo r A d e q u a t e Ve r y Good T o u r i s t A d v e r t i s i n g and P r o m o t i o n 197 36 103 58 H e a l t h I n s p e c t i o n 195 20 123 49 F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e 168 154 13 1 S e r v i c e s ( H y d r o , W a t e r , T e l e p h o n e , Roads , Garbage) 181 73 83 25 T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e 177 124 46 7 Hi. TABLE 19 OPERATOR PREFERENCE IN ALLOCATION OF RESPONSIBIL ITY FOR SELECTED SERVICES Agency  P r o v i n c i a l P r i v a t e O p e r a t o r Serv? ce Government A s s o c i a t i o n N e i t h e r E n f o r c i n g H e a l t h S t a n d a r d s 177 16 12 E n f o r c i n g Maximum C a p a c i t y S t a n d a r d s 112 hh h3 S u p e r v i s i n g Fee Ra te s 19 65 121 Loan P rog ram 177 15 h T e c h n i c a l A d v i c e 153 33 H Management A d v i c e hi 119 hi (Sample s i z e v a r i e d f r om 196 t o 209) The s u r v e y r e v e a l e d t h a t p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g i n t h e i r d e s i r e f o r p r o v i n c i a l government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e t a s k s o f l o a n p rograms and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . However , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r s i n d i c a t e d a r e s i s t a n c e t o p r o v i n c i a l government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n management a d v i c e and i n s t e a d t u r n e d t o t h e i r own o p e r a t o r a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r t h a t s e r v i c e . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a p r e f e r e n c e t h a t c o n t r o l o v e r f e e s t r u c t u r e s o f p r i v a t e campgrounds s h o u l d be l e f t t o t he i n d i v i d u a l o p e r a t o r . Summary o f C o n c l u s i o n s In t h e f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n , t h e r e s u l t s o f t he s u r v e y were p r e s e n t e d w i t h l i t t l e comment. S i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s were h i g h l i g h t e d and i n some c a s e s , a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n was o f f e r e d . No a t t e m p t however was made 142 t o d e r i v e c o n c l u s i o n s and p r e d i c t i o n s f r o m t h e d a t a . More s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s c o u l d have been p e r f o r m e d f r o m the d a t a a v a i l a b l e but g i v e n t he f o c u s o f t he e n t i r e s t u d y , t h e s e a d d i t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s were no t u n d e r t a k e n . In a d d i t i o n , c e r t a i n weakne s se s i n t he f o r m a t and w o r d i n g o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e we re n o t e d . An examp le o f poo r w o r d i n g can be f ound i n Q u e s t i o n C - l where t he o p e r a t o r was a s k e d how l o n g he had been i n b u s i n e s s when the i n t e n t was t o d e t e r m i n e t he age d f t h e campground a t t h a t l o c a t i o n . Format o f t he q u e s t i o n n a i r e made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r b i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s t o be u n d e r t a k e n . I t wou l d have been u s e f u l t o c o r r e l a t e o c c u -pancy r a t e s o f " r e s o r t " campgrounds w i t h t h o s e o f " t r a n s i e n t " campgrounds . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a c o r r e l a t i o n o f t he e c o n o m i c s u c c e s s o f campgrounds i n one r e g i o n w i t h t h o s e i n o t h e r r e g i o n s w o u l d have been o f v a l u e . S e v e r a l s i m i l a r b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s s h o u l d have been e x p l o r e d bu t g i v e n weak-ne s se s i n t he t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t , t h e i r v a l i d i t y w o u l d be somewhat q u e s t i o n -r a b l e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l s o f a i l e d t o a s k some q u e s t i o n s t h a t w o u l d have p r o v i d e d a d d i t i o n a l d a t a n e c e s s a r y t o more a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s the p r i v a t e campground i n d u s t r y . P a r t i c u l a r l y needed i s an a c c u r a t e a s s e s smen t o f t he t o t a l use o f p r i v a t e campgrounds t o d e t e r m i n e t he p r e s e n t unused c a p a c i t y . Too , a s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r m a t s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the p r o f i t -a b i l i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . The s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t o f r e venue e x c e e d -i n g expen se s i s an i n a d e q u a t e b a s i s f o r c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . O p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s o f l a b o r and c a p i t a l must be i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a n c i a l a n a l y s i s o f r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s . h 143 In a d d i t i o n , the s u r v e y does not i n d i c a t e how many campgrounds o f f e r few o r none o f the a s s o c i a t e d f a c i l i t i e s l i s t e d in T a b l e 13. Con -s e q u e n t l y , i t i s not p o s s i b l e to a d e q u a t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h between t r a v e l w a y and r e s o r t t ype campgrounds. If t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n were a v a i l a b l e , a mean ing -f u l c o r r e l a t i o n c o u l d be made to d e t e r m i n e the e f f e c t p r o v i s i o n o f a s s o c i a t e d s e r v i c e s has on the p r o f i t a b i l i t y o f the e n t e r p r i s e . P r o b a b l y e v i d e n t would be a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f f u l l c a p a c i t y needed to be f i l l e d each n i g h t f o r the e n t e r p r i s e to b r e a k - e v e n as opposed to t h o s e e n t e r p r i s e s tha t . o p e r a t e s o l e l y as a campground. In g e n e r a l , the s u r v e y r e s u l t s make i t q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t few p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s a r e o p e r a t e d s o l e l y as campgrounds. The m a j o r i t y o f f e r m u l t i p l e - r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . A d i v e r s i t y o f w e l l p l a n n e d s e r v i c e s appea r s to be a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r economic s u c c e s s . The p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f the o p e r a t o r w i t h some o t h e r b u s i n e s s c o n c e r n may p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n why campground s i z e i s g e n e r a l l y l e s s than f i f t y camp-s i t e s . Le s s than h a l f the p r i v a t e campgrounds r e p o r t e d they ea rned a p r o -f i t . G i ven the s m a l l a ve rage s i z e o f a t y p i c a l e n t e r p r i s e and t h e i r usage a t l e s s than f u l l c a p a c i t y , t h i s f i n d i n g i s not s u r p r i s i n g . S t i l l to be d e t e r m i n e d i s w h e t h e r campgrounds a r e sma l l because they a r e u n p r o f i t a b l e o r u n p r o f i t a b l e becau se they o p e r a t e below some optimum s i z e . A ma jor f e a t u r e o f p r i v a t e campgrounds in B r i t i s h Co lumbia i s t h e i r t endency to c l u s t e r near p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and near t h e i r f e l l o w c o m p e t i t o r s . T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t i f p r o p e r l y c o o r d i n a t e d , p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s can be an a s s e t r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i o n to the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . In t o t a l c a p a c i t y , p r i v a t e c a m p s i t e s outnumber p u b l i c c a m p s i t e s by a r a t i o 144 o f 4:1. However, t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f unused c a p a c i t y w i t h i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r t han w i t h i n the p u b l i c campground s y s t e m . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t a m i n o r i t y o f campground e n t e r p r i s e s e a r n a p r o f i t and a r e used t o c a p a c i t y , i t i s n o t a b l e t h a t a m a j o r i t y p l a n t o expand t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . A t f i r s t , i t m i gh t a p p e a r t h a t t h i s i s an unw i s e i n v e s t m e n t . However, i n C h a p t e r II when r e l a t i n g the p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n i n d u s t r y t o t he m o n o p o l i s t i c - c o m p e t i t i o n m a r k e t , i t was s t a t e d " E x c e s s c a p a c i t y i s , i n p a r t , a r e s u l t o f t oo many s m a l l , u n d e r f i n a n c e d e n t e r p r i s e s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and o f f e r i n g a s e r v i c e f o r w h i c h demand i s not p r e s e n t o r a d e q u a t e . " ( Bower s , 1969» p. 92) I t m i gh t be i n f e r r e d t h a t p r i v a t e campground o p e r a t o r s have r e c o g n i z e d t h i s f a c t and t h e i r e x p a n s i o n p l a n s a r e an e f f o r t t o upg rade t h e i r p r e s e n t f a c i l i t i e s t o e n a b l e them t o compete more e f f e c t i v e l y . I f t h i s i s t r u e , i t may e x p l a i n t h e s t r o n g demand by o p e r a t o r s f o r government i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e . T h i s may a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t a r e v i e w o f t a x a t i o n p o l i c i e s i s n e c e s s a r y t o make e x p a n s i o n p l a n s more f e a s i b l e . S t r o n g l y e v i d e n t was the f a c t t h a t p r i v a t e campground o p e r a t o r s f e l t t h a t t he i n s p e c t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , and deve l opmen t a s s i s t a n c e t a s k s a r e t he r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t he p r o v i n c i a l , r a t h e r than m u n i c i p a l o r f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s . The s u r v e y does no t r e v e a l a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r government p o l i c y but when g rouped t o g e t h e r , t h o s e campground management p r ob l ems r e l a t e d t o p u b l i c p o l i c i e s a c c o u n t f o r n e a r l y h a l f v o f a l l p r o b l e m s . In g e n e r a l , two a s p e c t s o f t h i s i s s u e emerge. F i r s t , t he o p e r a t o r s i n d i c a t e some c o n c e r n t h a t p o l i c i e s t owa rd t a x a t i o n , z o n i n g , s u b d i v i s i o n , 1*5 h i ghway r e g u l a t i o n s , h e a l t h r e g u l a t i o n s , s e r v i c e s , and p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be r e v i e w e d as t hey r e l a t e t o t he p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n i n d u s t r y . S e c o n d , t h e r e i s s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n t h a t p r o v i n c i a l government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e x p a n s i o n o f t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s w a r r a n t e d . A m a j o r i t y o f p r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t he p r o v i n c i a l government s h o u l d p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e v i a l o a n p r og r ams . In a d d i t i o n , o p e r a t o r s v o i c e d t he need f o r t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e t o a s s i s t i n t he l o c a t i o n , d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f a c i -l i t i e s b e t t e r s u i t e d t o meet p u b l i c demands. O u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n b o t h as a s o c i a l a c t i v i t y and as a m a j o r i n d u s t r y i s an a c c e p t e d use o f t he n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e b a s e . I t has been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h o s e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s h e l d under p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p a r e r e q u i r e d t o meet a p o r t i o n o f t h e demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s . I t may even be t h a t t he p r i v a t e s e c t o r , r a t h e r t han g o v e r n m e n t , w i l l p l a y t he l a r g e r r o l e i n m e e t i n g t h e r e c r e a t i o n needs o f the p u b l i c . P r i v a t e o p e r a t o r s r e c o g n i z e t h e need t o expand and upg rade t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s bu t t h e s p e c i a l n a t u r e o f t he e conom i c s o f t he o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n i n d u s t r y r e q u i r e s c l o s e c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h government p o l i c i e s and r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p -men t s . Government r e c o g n i t i o n o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r must be more t han j u s t t he i n c l u s i o n o f p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n t o u r i s t p r o m o t i o n c a m p a i g n s . The r e g u l a t o r y , p r o m o t i o n a l , and d e v e l o p m e n t a l r o l e s o f government r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n must not be s o l e l y p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h p o l i c y f o r the management o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e c o m p l e -m e n t a r y - c o m p e t i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s be u n d e r s t o o d so t h a t c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y p l a n n e d r e c r e a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s can make t he most e f f e c t i v e use o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . 1 4 6 B I B L I O G R A P H Y A n d e r s o n , R. L. ( 1 9 5 9 ) P r o b l e m s o f P r i v a t e L a n d U s e f o r R e c r e a t i o n i n  Wi s c o n s i n. U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n . B a k e r , W. M. ( 1 9 6 4 ) T h e ARDA P r o g r a m i n R e l a t i o n t o R e c r e a t i o n a n d  T o u r i sm. CR-No. 1 , D e p a r t m e n t o f F o r e s t r y , O t t a w a . B a k e r , W. M. ( 1 9 6 6 ) T h e ARDA P r o g r a m i n R e l a t i o n t o R e c r e a t i o n a n d  T o u r i sm. D e p a r t m e n t o f F o r e s t r y , O t t a w a . B i r d , R o n a l d ( 1 9 6 3 ) Income P o t e n t i a l o f V a r i o u s K i n d s o f F a r m R e c r e a - t i o n a l E n t e r p r i s e s i n M i s s o u r i . Pub 1 i c a t i o n No. B - 7 8 3 , A g r i -c u 1 t u r a 1 E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i . B o w e r s , R. T. ( 1 9 6 9 ) "A R e v i e w o f t h e C o m m e r c i a l R e c r e a t i o n I n d u s t r y . " M. S c . D i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , U n i v e r s i t y P a r k , P e n n s y l v a n i a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e ( 1 9 7 0 ) A g r i c u l t u r a l a n d  R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t A c t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A n n u a l R e p o r t ,  1 9 6 9 - 7 0 , V i c t o r i a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , P a r k s B r a n c h ( 1 9 7 0 ) F a c i 1 i t y I n v e n t o r y . D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n , V i c t o r i a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e s ( 1 9 5 7 ) D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n  a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t . C h a p t e r 1 1 0 , V i c t o r i a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n ( 1 9 7 0 ) A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f R e c r e a t i o n a n d C o n s e r v a - t i o n , 1961T V i c t o r i a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y ( 1 9 7 1 ) A n n u a l R e p o r t  o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a v e l I n d u s t r y , 1 9 7 0 . V i c t o r i a . B r o o k s , L. ( 1 9 6 7 ) " T h e R o l e o f G o v e r n m e n t — T h e F e d e r a l R o l e . 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" P a p e r p r e s e n t e d t o C a n a d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f F o r e s t r y , Vancouve r I s l a n d S e c t i o n , Duncan, J a n u a r y . M a t t y a s o v s k y , E. (1963) "Some P l a n n i n g A s p e c t s o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . " P l a n Canada , V o l . IV, No. 3, p. 126 -37 . McCurdy , D. R. and M i s c h o n , R. M. (1965) A Look a t t h e P r i v a t e Campground  U s e r . U. S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e R e s e a r c h Pape r C S - - 1 8 . U. S. Depar tment o f A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t S e r v i c e , C e n t r a l S t a t e s F o r e s t E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n , Co lumbus , O h i o . 149 Monroe, J . W. (1969) " R e c r e a t i o n i n Flux--Needs and Aims PUBLIC." A m e r i c a n F o r e s t s , A u g u s t , pp. 21, 22, 55"56. Moore, E. J . (1964) R u r a l R e c r e a t i o n E n t e r p r i s e s i n New En g l a n d : I n v e s t m e n t s , R e t u r n s and Proble m s . A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics. R e s e a r c h Report No. 56. Resource Development Economics D i v i s i o n , Economic R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , U. S. Department o f A g r i -c u l t u r e , Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. Mu r t h a , M. (1970) The Canada Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t y I n v e n t o r y i n  B r i t i s h Columb i a. U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t . P a r k s B r a n c h , D e p a r t -ment o f R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , V i c t o r i a . O utdoor R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Review Commission (1962) Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n  f o r A m e r i c a , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f Documents, W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Review Commission (1962) P r i v a t e Outdoor  R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s , Study R e p o r t No. 11 , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f Documents, W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. Owens, G e r a l d P. (1964) Income P o t e n t i a l from Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n E n t e r - p r i s e s i n R u r a l A r e a s i n Oh i o . B u l l e t i n 964, Ohio A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , W o oster, O h i o . P e a r s e , P. H. (1968) "A New Approach t o the E v a l u a t i o n o f N o n - P r i c e d R e c r e a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . " Land Econom i c s , V o l . XLIV, No. 1, P. 87-99. R e c r e a t i o n a l V e h i c l e I n d u s t r y (1969) F a c t s and T r e n d s . R e c r e a t i o n a l V e h i c l e I n s t i t u t e , Des P l a i n e s , I l l i n o i s . R e c r e a t i o n a l V e h i c l e P a r k s (1969) How t o B u i l d a P r o f i t a b l e F u t u r e . R e c r e a t i o n a l V e h i c l e Ins t i t u t e , Des P l a i n e s , 111i no i s. Res o u r c e s f o r Tomorrow C o n f e r e n c e (1963) P r o c e e d i n g s o f Canada's Resources  f o r Tomorrow C o n f e r e n c e , Volumes I, I I , I I I , M o n t r e a l . Schmedemann, I. W.; Wooten, A. B.; F r a n k l i n , W. D. (1964) Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n P o t e n t i a l i n E a s t Texas. P u b l i c a t i o n No. B-1013, Texas A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n , Texas A & M U n i v e r s i t y , C o l l e g e S t a t i o n , Texas. T a y l o r , G. P. (1965) " R e s e a r c h I n t o Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n on P r i v a t e Land." P a r k News, V o l . I, No. 3, November, pp. 10—13-T w a r d z i k , L. F. (1965) " E f f e c t s on P u b l i c P o l i c y o f Farm R e c r e a t i o n Development." J o u r n a l o f S o i l and Water C o n s e r v a t i o n , May-June, pp. 95"98. 150 T w a r d z i k , L. F. (1970)a A p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , E a s t L a n s i n g , M i c h i g a n , November 10. T w a r d z i k , L. F. (1970) " P u b l i c and P r i v a t e A g e n c i e s U n i t e d Can A s s a u l t the L e i s u r e E x p l o s i o n . " R e c r e a t i o n Canada, No. 28/3/, pp. 9 _13. U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e (1963) R u r a l R e c r e a t i o n : New O p p o r t u n i t i e s on P r i v a t e Land. M i s c e l l a n e o u s P u b l i c a t i o n No. 930, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e (1963) R u r a l R e c r e a t i o n f o r P r o f i t . A g r i c u l t u r a l I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n No. 277- Govern-ment P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C , O c t o b e r . U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress (1958) An A c t f o r the E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f N a t i o n a l  Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Review Commission. P u b l i c Law 85-470, 85th C o n g r e s s , S.846, June 28. U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress House (1963) An A c t t o Promote the C o o r d i n a t i o n and Development o f E f f e c t i v e Programs R e l a t i n g t o Outdoor  R e c r e a t i o n ] P u b l i c Law 88-29, 88th C o n g r e s s , S.20, May 28. Wagar, J . U. K. (1966) "Some Fundamental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n . " J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y , V o l . LXIV, No. 10, O c t o b e r , pp. 667-73. W o l f e , R. I. and E l l i s , J . B. (1968) A Short-Term E x p l a n a t o r y Study o f  Canadian S t a t i s t i c s on Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n and T o u r i s m . R. I. W o l f e and A s s o c i a t e s , T o r o n t o . Vancouver Sun (1971) A p r i l 1. A P P E N D I X A The f o l l o w i n g i s an e x c e r p t f r om t h e f i n a l r e p o r t o f the Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s Rev iew Commis s i on (ORRRC). The t e x t p r o v i d e s t he r a t i o n a l e f o r c r e a t i n g the Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . The b road f u n c t i o n o f the Bu reau s h o u l d be t o c o n -s i d e r t he needs o f t he A m e r i c a n p e o p l e f o r a l l phases o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n - - w i t h i n c i t i e s , i n r u r a l a r e a s , and t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n t r y . In the p a s t , r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g and deve l opment have t o o o f t e n been c o n t r o l l e d c h i e f l y by the p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n has l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d not o n l y the l o c a -t i o n but t he n a t u r e and q u a l i t y o f t he o p p o r t u n i -t i e s p r o v i d e d . But i n v i e w o f t he c h a n g i n g and e x p a n d -i ng r o l e o f r e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e i n t he y e a r s t o come, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t p l a n n i n g f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a -t i o n e m p h a s i z e more s t r o n g l y t he needs o f p e o p l e . R e s o u r c e deve l opment programs t h a t a f f e c t r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , b o t h d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y , s h o u l d be m o d i f i e d t o accommodate t h e s e need s . The b a s i c p u r p o s e o f a n a t i o n a l Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n w o u l d be t o p r o v i d e the l e a d e r s h i p , c o o r d i n a t i o n , and a s s i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d t o r e a l i z e t h i s g o a l . Why a New Bu reau T h e r e a r e now more than 20 F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s w i t h programs i n v o l v i n g some a s p e c t o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . A s i m i l a r m u l t i p l i c i t y i s f ound among S t a t e a g e n c i e s . W h i l e t he programs o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y w e l l p l a n n e d i n t h e m s e l v e s , l i t t l e t h ough t i s g i v e n i n any o f them t o t he o v e r - a l l deve l opmen t o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t he N a t i o n . Thus a c o m p l i c a t e d and d i f f i c u l t p a t t e r n o f i n t e r -g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s i s c r e a t e d , as numerous F e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s seek t o work i n d i v i d u a l l y and s e p a r a t e l y w i t h a v a r i e t y o f S t a t e and l o c a l a g e n c i e s . T h e r e i s a t p r e s e n t no f o c a l p o i n t f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y , p l a n n i n g , p r o g r a m s , o r management. O v e r - a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n i t i a t i n g and g u i d i n g a n a t i o n a l e f f o r t i n o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n has n e v e r been e x p l i c i t l y a s s i g n e d . . . . . . . I t seems i m p r a c t i c a b l e t o c h a r g e an e x i s t i n g o f f i c e w i t h t h e s e new f u n c t i o n s . The d u t i e s o f t he p r o p o s e d B u r e a u , n a t i o n w i d e i n s cope and r a n g i n g f r om the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g t o t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , c o u l d not be a d e q u a t e l y c a r r i e d o u t w i t h i n the f r amework o f any p r e s e n t a gency . These f a c t s a r gue i n f a v o r o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new bu reau w i t h i n an e x i s t i n g d e p a r t m e n t . W i t h a u t h o r i z -i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , s uch a bu reau c o u l d , t h r o u g h t h e S e c r e -t a r y o f i t s d e p a r t m e n t , d e a l w i t h a g e n c i e s i n o t h e r d e p a r t m e n t s as w e l l as w i t h bu reaus w i t h i n t he same d e p a r t m e n t . The most e f f e c t i v e l o c a t i o n f o r t he new Bu reau i s i n t he Depar tment o f t he I n t e r i o r . I t s v a r i o u s programs o f r e s o u r c e management, i t s g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , and t he r e c r e a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e and o t h e r I n t e r i o r bu reau s make t h i s t h e l o g i c a l c h o i c e . Many o t h e r r e s o u r c e manage-ment a g e n c i e s o f t he F e d e r a l Government a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n I n t e r i o r , and much o f t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n f u n c t i o n c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t w i t h i n t h e Depa r tmen t . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l change w o u l d not be a panacea f o r a l l t he p r ob l ems o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . T h e r e a r e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n p l a c i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n o f a l l F e d e r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a s i n g l e b u r e a u o f any d e p a r t m e n t . The new B u r e a u ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s t h a t p r o v i d e o r a f f e c t o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n wou l d be s e n s i t i v e , a t l e a s t a t t he o u t s e t . But t he t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s i n t h i s f i e l d must be o v e r -come, and t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new bu reau w o u l d h e l p , even though i t i s p l a c e d w i t h i n t h e o l d c o m p e t i t i v e f r amework . The Bu reau w o u l d a l s o work i n c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h n o n - F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s and p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h t h e S t a t e s , i n ways d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . W i t h o u t t h i s new o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f o v e r - a l l n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , F e d e r a l c o o r d i n a t i o n , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f an a i d p r o g r a m , and c o o r d i n a t e d r e s e a r c h w i l l be most d i f f i cu 11. . . . I t s C r e a t i o n and C o m p o s i t i o n . . . The new Bu reau s h o u l d be headed by a d i r e c t o r and s h o u l d have a s m a l l , h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d p l a n n i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f i n W a s h i n g t o n . Whereve r p o s s i b l e , t he Bu reau s h o u l d be s t a f f e d by t r a n s f e r o f e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n n e l f r o m e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s . R e g i o n a l o f f i c e s s h o u l d be l o c a t e d so as t o p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e a s s i s t a n c e t o o t h e r F e d e r a l and S t a t e a g e n c i e s . To a s s u r e t h a t r e c r e a t i o n p o l i c y and p l a n n i n g r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n a t a h i g h l e v e l and t o p romote i n t e r d e p a r t -m e n t a l c o o r d i n a t i o n , t h e r e s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d a R e c r e a t i o n A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e S e c r e -t a r i e s o f t h e I n t e r i o r , A g r i c u l t u r e , and D e f e n s e , w i t h t he S e c r e t a r y o f t he I n t e r i o r as c h a i r m a n . The se a g e n c i e s a r e recommended f o r permanent membersh ip on t h e C o u n c i l s i n c e each has i m p o r t a n t and c o n t i n u i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r t he management and d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e s o u r c e s w i t h m a j o r v a l u e s f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . O t h e r a g e n c i e s , s uch as t he Depar tment o f Commerce, Depa r tment o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e , and t h e H o u s i n g and Home F i n a n c e A g e n c y , wou l d be i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e on an ad hoc b a s i s when m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a r e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t he C o u n c i l . The R e c r e a t i o n A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l w o u l d p r o v i d e b r o a d p o l i c y g u i d a n c e on a l l m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and p rograms c a r r i e d o u t by t h e Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . The S e c r e t a r y o f t he I n t e r i o r s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o s eek such g u i d a n c e i n t he a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t he B u r e a u . A c t i n g w i t h i n t h i s p o l i c y , the Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n , under t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r , w o u l d work t oward c o o r d i n a t -i n g programs i n t h e more t han 20 F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s and t h e 50 S t a t e s . The p r o p o s e d Bu reau w o u l d have s i x m a j o r f u n c t i o n s : (1) c o o r d i n a t e r e l a t e d F e d e r a l p r o g r a m s ; (2) s t i m u l a t e and p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e i n S t a t e p l a n n i n g ; (3) a d m i n i s t e r g r a n t s - i n - a i d ; (A) s p o n s o r and c o n d u c t r e s e a r c h ; (5) e n c o u r a g e i n t e r s t a t e and r e g i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n ; and (6) f o r m u l a t e a n a t i o n w i d e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n on t h e b a s i s o f S t a t e , r e g i o n a l , and F e d e r a l p l a n s . I t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t he F e d e r a l house be pu t i n o r d e r . The g o a l i s t o a s s u r e c o o r d i n a t e d and e f f e c t i v e p r o g r ams . The r o l e o f the Bu reau wou l d be t o r e v i e w and c o o r d i -n a t e t he d i v e r s e F e d e r a l e f f o r t s . I t wou l d no t engage i n t h e management o f any l a n d s , w a t e r s , o r f a c i l i t i e s , w h i c h wou l d c o n t i n u e t o be t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t he F e d e r a l r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s t h a t now have t h o s e d u t i e s . The Bu reau w o u l d have no c o n t r o l o v e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s o f any e x i s t i n g depa r tmen t o r a g e n c y . I t w o u l d , howeve r , be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e v i e w i n g r e c r e a -t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t s c o n n e c t e d w i t h F e d e r a l l and s and p r o g r ams , and i t s w r i t t e n comments wou l d accompany p l a n s o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s s u b m i t t e d t o t he E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e and t o t he C o n g r e s s . The p r o p o s e d R e c r e a t i o n A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l w o u l d s e r v e t o a c h i e v e c o o p e r a t i o n among d e p a r t m e n t s , and between t h e s e v e r a l d e p a r t m e n t s and t he B u r e a u . S t i m u l a t e and P r o v i d e A s s i s t a n c e i n S t a t e P l a n n i n g . A b a s i c f u n c t i o n o f t he Bu reau w o u l d be t o e n c o u r a g e and s t i m u l a t e c o m p r e h e n s i v e , s t a t e w i d e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h i s o b j e c t i v e w o u l d depend l a r g e l y upon t he c o o p e r a t i o n o f t he S t a t e s . Each s h o u l d c h a r g e an o r g a n i z a t i o n o r o f f i c i a l w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y f o r c a r r y i n g o u t s t a t e w i d e p l a n n i n g i n t he f i e l d o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . T h i s c e n t e r o f S t a t e l e a d e r s h i p wou ld a l s o s e r v e as t he f o c a l p o i n t f o r w o r k i n g w i t h t h e F e d e r a l Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . A l t h o u g h m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t he deve l opmen t o f S t a t e p l a n s must r e s t w i t h t h e S t a t e s , t h e Bu reau o f Ou tdoo r R e c r e a t i o n w o u l d p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e and t e c h n i -c a l a s s i s t a n c e and w o u l d a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p i n g d a t a and i n f o r m a t i o n upon w h i c h p l a n s can be b a s e d . Bo th o r g a n i -z a t i o n s ( F e d e r a l and S t a t e ) s h o u l d be permanent a g e n c i e s , i n o r d e r t o a s s u r e c o n t i n u o u s p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n . P l a n s wou l d be d e v e l o p e d i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r m a n a g e r i a l a g e n c i e s , b o t h a t S t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l s - - n o t imposed upon them. P a r t s o f t he p l a n n i n g j o b m i gh t be r e f e r r e d t o a p p r o p r i -a t e F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s by t h e Bu reau o f O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n . In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , t he Bu reau m i gh t o r g a n i z e p l a n n i n g teams , composed o f s p e c i a l i s t s f r o m o t h e r a g e n c i e s , t o work w i t h t he S t a t e s . In no c a s e w o u l d t he Bu reau u n d e r t a k e i n t e n s i v e s i t e p l a n n i n g , such as wou l d be i n v o l v e d i n t he d e s i g n and l a y o u t o f s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t i e s . (ORRRC, R e p o r t t o t h e P r e s i d e n t , 1962, pp . 121-24) A P P E N D I X B OUTDOOR RECREATION ACT OF 1963 P u b l i c Law 88-29 88th C o n g r e s s , S.20 May 28, 1963 AN ACT To p romote t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n and deve l opment o f e f f e c t i v e programs r e l a t i n g t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , and f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s . Be i t e n a c t e d by t he S e n a t e and House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a i n Cong re s s a s s e m b l e d , Tha t t he Cong re s s f i n d s and d e c l a r e s i t t o be d e s i r a b l e t h a t a l l A m e r i c a n p e o p l e o f p r e s e n t and f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s be a s s u r e d a d e q u a t e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , and t h a t i t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r a l l l e v e l s o f government and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s t o t a k e prompt and c o o r d i n a t e d a c t i o n t o t h e e x t e n t p r a c t i c a b l e w i t h o u t d i m i n i s h i n g o r a f f e c t i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e powers and f u n c t i o n s t o c o n s e r v e , d e v e l o p , and u t i l i z e s uch r e s o u r c e s f o r the b e n e f i t and en joymen t o f t he A m e r i -can p e o p l e . SEC. 2. In o r d e r t o c a r r y o u t t he p u r p o s e s o f t h i s A c t , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r i s a u t h o r i z e d t o p e r f o r m t he f o l l o w i n g f u n c t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s : (a) INVENTORY. - -P repa re and m a i n t a i n a c o n t i n u i n g i n v e n t o r y and e v a l u a t i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n needs and r e s o u r c e s o f t he U n i t e d S t a t e s . (b) C L A S S I F I C A T I O N . - - P r e p a r e a s y s t e m f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s t o a s s i s t i n t he e f f e c t i v e and b e n e f i c i a l use and management o f s uch r e s o u r c e s . (c ) NATIONWIDE PLAN. — F o r m u l a t e and m a i n t a i n a c ompre -h e n s i v e n a t i o n w i d e o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t he p l a n s o f t he v a r i o u s F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , S t a t e s , and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s . The p l a n s h a l l s e t f o r t h t he needs and demands o f t he p u b l i c f o r o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n and t he c u r r e n t and f o r e s e e a b l e a v a i l a b i l i t y i n t he f u t u r e o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s t o meet t h o s e needs . The p l a n s h a l l i d e n t i f y c r i t i c a l o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n p r o b l e m s , recommend s o l u t i o n s , and recommend d e s i r a b l e a c t i o n s t o be t a k e n a t each l e v e l o f government and by p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s . The S e c r e t a r y s h a l l t r a n s m i t t he i n i t i a l p l a n , w h i c h s h a l l be p r e p a r e d as soon as p r a c t i c a b l e w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s h e r e a f t e r , t o the P r e s i d e n t f o r t r a n s m i t t a l t o t he C o n g r e s s . F u t u r e r e v i s i o n s o f t he p l a n s h a l l be s i m i l a r l y t r a n s m i t t e d a t s u c c e e d i n g f i v e -y e a r i n t e r v a l s . When a p l a n o r r e v i s i o n i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o t he C o n g r e s s , t h e S e c r e t a r y s h a l l t r a n s m i t c o p i e s t o t h e G o v e r n o r s o f t he s e v e r a l S t a t e s . (d) TECHNICAL ASS I S T A N C E . - - P r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e t o and c o o p e r a t e w i t h S t a t e s , p o l i t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n s , and p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s , i n c l u d i n g n o n -p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w i t h r e s p e c t t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . (e) REGIONAL COOPERATI O N . - - E n c o u r a g e i n t e r s t a t e and r e g i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n t he p l a n n i n g , a c q u i s i t i o n , and deve l opmen t o f o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . ( f ) RESEARCH AND EDUCATION.--(1) S p o n s o r , engage i n , and a s s i s t i n r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , d i r e c t l y o r by c o n t r a c t o r c o o p e r a t i v e a g r e e m e n t s , and make payments f o r such pu rpo se s w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f s e c t i o n 3648 o f t he R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s (31 U.S.C. 529) c o n c e r n i n g advance s o f f und s when he c o n s i d e r s s uch a c t i o n i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , (2) u n d e r t a k e s t u d i e s and a s s e m b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n -i n g o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n , d i r e c t l y o r by c o n t r a c t o r c o o p e r a t i v e a g r e e m e n t , and d i s s e m i n a t e s u ch i n f o r m a -t i o n w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t he p r o v i s i o n s o f s e c t i o n 4154, t i t l e 39, U n i t e d S t a t e s Code, and (3) c o o p e r a t e w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and o t h e r s i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g e d u c a t i o n p rograms and a c t i v i t i e s and t o e n c o u r a g e p u b l i c use and b e n e f i t s f r o m o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . (g) INTERDEPARTMENTAL COOPERATI O N . - - C o o p e r a t e w i t h and p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o F e d e r a l d e p a r t -ments and a g e n c i e s and o b t a i n f r om them i n f o r m a t i o n , d a t a , r e p o r t s , a d v i c e , and a s s i s t a n c e t h a t a r e needed and can r e a s o n a b l y be f u r n i s h e d i n c a r r y i n g o u t t he p u r p o s e s o f t h i s A c t , and (2) p romote c o o r d i n a t i o n o f F e d e r a l p l a n s and a c t i v i t i e s g e n e r a l l y r e l a t i n g t o o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . Any d e p a r t m e n t o r agency f u r n i s h i n g a d v i c e o r a s s i s t a n c e h e r e u n d e r may expend i t s own funds f o r s uch p u r p o s e s , w i t h o r w i t h o u t r e i m -b u r s e m e n t , as may be a g r e e d t o by t h a t a g e n c y . (h) DONATIONS. - -Accept and use d o n a t i o n s o f money, p r o p e r t y , p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s , o r f a c i l i t i e s f o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s A c t . SEC. 3- In o r d e r f u r t h e r t o c a r r y o u t t he p o l i c y d e c l a r e d i n s e c t i o n 1 o f t h i s A c t , t he heads o f F e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t s and i n d e p e n d e n t a g e n c i e s h a v i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o v e r a c t i v i t i e s o r r e s o u r c e s t h e c o n d u c t o r use o f w h i c h i s p e r t i n e n t t o f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h a t p o l i c y s h a l l , e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y o r as a g r o u p , (a) c o n s u l t w i t h and be c o n s u l t e d by t he S e c r e t a r y f r om t i m e t o t i m e bo th w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r c o n d u c t o f t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r u se o f t h o s e r e s o u r c e s and w i t h r e s p e c t t o t he a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h t he S e c r e t a r y o f t he I n t e r i o r c a r r i e s on unde r a u t h o r i t y o f t h i s A c t w h i c h a r e p e r t i n e n t t o t h e i r w o r k , and (b) c a r r y o u t such r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n g e n e r a l c on f o rmance w i t h t he n a t i o n w i d e p l a n a u t h o r i z e d under s e c t i o n 2 (c ) o f t h i s A c t . SEC. k. As used i n t h i s A c t , t h e te rm " U n i t e d S t a t e s " s h a l l i n c l u d e the D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a and the terms " U n i t e d S t a t e s " and " S t a t e s " may, t o t h e e x t e n t p r a c t i -c a b l e , i n c l u d e the Commonwealth o f P u e r t o R i c o , the V i r g i n I s l a n d s , Guam, and A m e r i c a n Samoa. A P P E N D I X C PRIVATE CAMPGROUND OPERATOR SURVEY I n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e : (a) Two l e t t e r s o f i n t r o d u c t i o n (b) I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r c o m p l e t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e (c ) The q u e s t i o n n a i r e BRITISH COLUMBIA MOTELS E RESORTS ASSOCIATION HEAD OFFICE: 1 2 8 1 K I N G S W A Y V A N C O U V E R I O . B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A P H O N E 8 7 9 7 8 3 3 January 26, 1970 The enclosed questionnaire i s being mailed to some five hundred t r a i l e r court, campground and resort operators i n this province. This Association and your own enterprise w i l l gain valuable information at no cost to ourselves. The entire cost of organizing the survey, printing and mailing the questionnaires and evaluating the returns i s being borne by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The results of the survey should be of use i n many ways: public. Help the industry improve the levels of services i t offers to the Improve the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of your business operations, 3. Help your Association know v/hat kinds of services i t should offer to i t s members. 4. Help the Association in i t s relations with the Provincial Govern-ment in order to obtain much needed changes in existing l e g i s l a t i o n and implementation of new p o l i c i e s and programs. Many recipients of this survey are not members of this Association. In the past, the major emphasis of the accommodation industry has been with motels and hotels, but the rapid increase in the number of recreational vehicles t r a v e l l i n g our highways has created demand for new f a c i l i t i e s in our industry. Hopefully, this survey i s an indication that this Association i s taking steps to meet these new trends and offer additional services to i t s members. Already, we have come into possession of several publications related to planning, construction and management of private recreation enterprises. I t i s our intention to make these materials available to our members. If you desire any of these materials, please write our o f f i c e and we can t e l l you where to obtain them. £TMWGG by tta ^ Dogwood — QjouA Jiost ttt ^ wtisd Colombia Page 2 Our A s s o c i a t i o n would l i k e to commend Mr. Anderson f o r h i s concern i n p r o v i d i n g f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l t r a v e l l e r and the amount of work put f o r t h i n o r g a n i z i n g t h i s survey. Your c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the questionnaire and a prompt r e t u r n are e s s e n t i a l to the success of t h i s p r o j e c t . Thank you f o r your cooperation. Mrs. Jean Dann Executive-Secretary T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A . V A N C O U V E R 8, C A N A D A S C H O O L O F C O M M U N I T Y & R E G I O N A L P L A N N I N U January 26, 1970 Dear Campground and Trailer Park Operator: The enclosed questionnaire is an important part of a research project being carried out by the School of Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia. As part of a graduate student research requirement, I am involved in a study of "Public Policy Towards Private Recreation F a c i l i t i e s . " Although private recreation f a c i l i t i e s can include a range from ski resorts to marinas, 1 am concentrating on campground and t r a i l e r park operations. In this respect, I am requesting that a l l private business operators who provide any sites to tents, t r a i l e r s , etc., cooperate in f i l l i n g out the questionnaire. The main purpose of this study is to investigate government policy towards private recreation f a c i l i t i e s . By government policy, I am not referring to those policies that involve inspection, regulation, and taxation of private recreation enterprises. I am more concerned with those policies designed to promote and encourage the establishment and upgrading of private recreation businesses. In particular, I am concerned about i n -vestigating those government policies and programs that offer technical assistance, financial advice, and management advice to those private operators who desire these services. I am inclined to believe that many present campgrounds and t r a i l e r parks are'at best marginal business propositions. As such, either the business-man operates at a small profit margin or the travelling public does not obtain the level of services he desires or both. In the United States through the Extension Department, U.S. Department of Agriculture, extensive programs are carried out to assist private recreation. Publications on how to build and manage campgrounds are made available to the public. Field Officers are employed to v i s i t private businesses and offer advice. Workshops are held where campground operators meet together to learn new techniques of management, advertising, and to discuss common problems. In addition, programs of low-cost loans are available to finance the establishment and expansion of private recreation enterprises. My present research indicates any similar programs are very Campground and T r a i l e r Park Operator Page 2 January 26, 1970 scarce i n Canada. Before any changes are made to c o r r e c t t h i s , much informa t i o n i s r e q u i r e d to f i n d out what problems e x i s t and what p o l i c i e s are de s i r e d and needed. This study i s designed to gain three kinds of i n f o r m a t i o n : 1. Facts and f i g u r e s about campgrounds i n B. C. ( s i z e , f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r e d , r a t e s , c a p a c i t y , management p r a c t i c e s , etc.) 2. An inventory of common management problems. 3. An assessment of what r o l e the p r i v a t e operators would l i k e to see played by the government. A r e t u r n of the m a j o r i t y of these questionnaires i s e s s e n t i a l f o r any meaningful i n f o r m a t i o n to r e s u l t . The computer s e r v i c e s here a t U. B. C. w i l l be used to compile your answers. You are NOT asked to s i g n your name to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e p l i e s of any p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l . Only the o v e r a l l t o t a l s w i l l be made p u b l i c . The r e s u l t s of t h i s survey w i l l be included i n my t h e s i s and given to the B. C. Motels and Resorts A s s o c i a t i o n . I r e a l i z e that the c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n needed to complete t h i s question-n a i r e i s an i m p o s i t i o n on your time. Hopefully, you may gain a few ideas as you read the questionnaire,and the end r e s u l t of your e f f o r t s should be a f i r s t step i n p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s f o r the t r a v e l l i n g p u b l i c , and i n c r e a s i n g p r o f i t a b i l i t y f o r your business. Thank you. \s "3 James D. Anderson Enclosures I N S T R U C T I O N S In the following questions, the phrases, "campground" and " t r a i l e r park" refer to any p r i v a t e l y operated business that provides space for customers that bring their own sh e l t e r . These customers may bring a tent, t e n t - t r a i l e r , t r a i l e r , camper-truck, etc., and usually stay only a few days at a time. The questionnaire i s not concerned with what may be termed a mobile home park where guests bring a large mobile home and intend to stay for periods of a month or more. When reference i s made to a " p u b l i c " campground, t h i s r e f e r s to those operated by the p r o v i n c i a l , municipal or federal government. 1. Nearly a l l questions are answered by i n d i c a t i n g with a check mark ) your choice. 2. In a few cases, a bLank i s provided where you are asked to write in a number, (example: no. of quests) 3. For some questions, rather than a YES or NO, you are given a variety of several answers from which you indicate your choice with a check. But, o c c a s i o n a l l y , the possible answers given are not suitable to you. In these cases, the answer OTHERS appears followed by a blank. Please write i n any a d d i t i o n a l answers you f e e l appropriate to that question. Please answer every question. REMEMBER, YOUR NAME WILL NOT APPEAR ON THE QUESTIONNAIRE AND ALL INDIVIDUAL RETURNS WILL REMAIN CONFIDENTIAL. When completed, f o l d the questionnaire and use the enclosed s e l f -addressed envelope to mail your return. A. TYPE AND LOCATION Please give the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the type and l o c a t i o n of your business. 1. In what general area of the province are you located? Check one. O Vancouver I s l a n d Q Region "E"(Kamloops) C p Greater Vancouver, Fraser V a l l e y , C Z J Cariboo Sunshine Coast CD Okanagan-Similkameen CD Northwest ( K i t i m a t ) £ZJ Kootenay-Boundary I 1 Peace River 2. Can your business be seen from a major highway or are d i r e c t i o n a l signs required? Check one. I ,i Frontage on highway (ZD D i r e c t i o n a l signs r e q u i r e d 3. (a) In Column I , i n d i c a t e how close you are to the nearest government ( f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , municipal) campground. Check the distance as measured on the main road. (b) In Column I I , i n d i c a t e how close you are to the nearest p r i v a t e l y -operated campground. ^ ^ Less than \ mile I I I 1 k to 1 mile C D CD 1 to 5 m i l e s ' CD CD 5 to 10 miles • • 10+ miles CD CD 4. (a) Does your business operate p r i m a r i l y f o r the purpose of YESCZ3 N0£Z3 s e r v i n g campers and overnight t r a i l e r s ? ' (b) I f NO, i s your campground and t r a i l e r park mainly i n conjunction w i t h which of the f o l l o w i n g : Check one. r~7 Motel or Auto Court I I Service S t a t i o n I I Restaurant C 3 'Farm I I Mobile Home Park I 1 Other (please CD Orchard » I General, Store t~~1 s p e c i f y ) 5. I n d i c a t e which of the f o l l o w i n g BEST describes your operating season: C3 Year-round (12 mos.) I i June 1 to Oct. 1 CZJ July to August B. SITE CHARACTERISTICS 1. I n d i c a t e the approximate t o t a l area ( i n d i v i d u a l tent and t r a i l e r s i t e s , washrooms, p a r k i n g , playgrounds, beach, etc.) of your campground and t r a i l e r park o p e r a t i o n . I J 2 - 3 acres CD 4 - 5 acres CD 6 - 1 0 acres I I 11 - 25 acres CD 26 - 50 acres CU 50+ acres Page 2 2. What i s your maximum capacity f o r one night i n terms of t o t a l number of tent and/or t r a i l e r s i t e s you can provide. ! : N o . of s i t e s 3. How many of these s i t e s are s e r v i c e d (water, sewer, e l e c t r i c i t y ) ? 4. (a) Does your campground or t r a i l e r park s i t e i n c l u d e water frontage (owned by you as part of the s i t e ) ? YES ( > NO CD (b) I f YES, i s i t on I T Lake? ~ CD Stream, River? CD Ocean? (c) I f NO, -can your guests reach waterfront w i t h i n a f i v e -minute walk? YES Q NO CZJ FOR THE REMAINDER OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE, YOUR ANSWERS SHOULD RELATE ONLY TO YOUR CAMPGROUND AND TRAILER PARK OPERATIONS. (Do NOT r e l a t e these to your motel, auto co u r t , farm, mobile home park, etc.) MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS 1.'- How long have you been i n business? I - l e s s than 1 year CD 4 to 5 years K-D 1 to 3 years CD more than 5 years 2. (a) Did you b u i l d your present f a c i l i t i e s .within 1 year? YES CD NO C Z J (b) I f NO, what p e r i o d of time did i t take to develop your present f a c i l i t i e s ? I I up to 2 years (ZD 3 to 4 years CZJ 5+ "years CZJ 2 to 3 years I—L 4 to 5 years 3. What i s the approximate s i z e of your investment? (a) Land value only ; $ (b) Improvements to the land ( i . e . c l e a r i n g , sewer, water, fences, landscaping, p i c n i c t a b l e s , l i g h t i n g , roads, b u i l d i n g s , e t c . ) . I f you l i v e on the same s i t e , do not i n c l u d e value of your own residence. 4. (a) Do you "consider the o p e r a t i o n of your campground arid t r a i l e r park, your major source of income? YES I—I NO CZJ (b) I f NO, what percentage of your income i s obtained from the operation of your campground and t r a i l e r court? CZJ Less than 10% Q 26 to 507. ' CZJ 751+ • U to 257. EZJ 51 to 757. Page 3 5. If your major source of income i s not from the operation of your campground or t r a i l e r , i s your main source of income from another business operated on the same piece of property? ( i . e . such as a motel, store, farm, etc.) YES4 i NO f I 6. Did you use credit to finance your development and expansion? YES pH NO t =3 7. If low-cost government financing were made av a i l a b l e for development and/or expansion of private recreation f a c i l i t i e s , would you use such funds? YES Q NO HD 8. Do you f e e l financing f or campgrounds and t r a i l e r parks i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain? YES Q NO Q 9. In the next year or two, do you plan expansion of your campground and t r a i l e r park operations? ( i . e . more s i t e s < or extra f a c i l i t i e s to o f f e r your guests) VF.Sf I NO I \ 10. Under e x i s t i n g municipal zoning and subdivision regula-t i o n s , would you be allowed to expand? YES • NO I I D. SERVICES OFFERED 1. Do, you provide: (Indicate with a check mark every service you o f f e r . ) (a)EZI boat launching (b}CZI beach for swimming I—I boat rentals for f i s h i n g CD horse-back r i d i n g ( l boat re n t a l s f or water s k i i n g I ! children's playground 1 i s a i l b o a t , "aqua cat" r e n t a l s (c) a'store, and/or lunch counter and/or d r i v e - i n where you s e l l i < basic e s s e n t i a l s (milk, bread, CZ3 f i s h i n g supplies i c e , soft drinks, etc.) l i g h t snacks (hamburgers, r~"l auto-gas and o i l chips, i c e cream, etc.) I 7 grocery store C3 f u l l meals (d) ( 1 supervised hunting t r i p s I 1 supervised f i s h i n g t r i p s (e) CZI laundry f a c i l i t i e s (coinwash or free-of-charge) I '\ shower f a c i l i t i e s (f) L_iOthers (please specify) £. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 1. What i s your d a i l y basic rate for a tent or t r a i l e r s i t e ? a 12.00 CU 92 .50 O 4 3 - 0 0 O& 3 - 5 0 0 ^ . 0 0 Page k 2. What is your extra charge for additional services at each site' Water, sewer hook-ups? Water, sewer, electricity hook-ups? Waterfront location? 3. Do you allow discounts for guests who stay for periods longer than 1 or 2 nights? (eg. weekly rates?) YES • NO C 4. Do you have an advance reservation system that i s used regularly? YES • NO £ ,5» Do you allow lower rates for the mid-week or off-season? YESJQ NO C 6. Do you give discounts to guests to encourage them to return? YES CTJ NO C 7. Do you keep records of your customers and follow-up with "~:-'> mailed advertising to encourage them to return (eg. brochures, - Christmas cards, etc.)? YES 'O NO C •3. OCCUPANCY 1. In the 1969 season, did you operate at a CD Loss? O Break -even? t | Profit? 2. What OVERALL occupancy rate (average of weekdays and weekends) for the entire season do you feel i s necessary for you to break-even? • -3056 • 3 1-40% rjkl-30% • 5 1 - 6 0 % Cj6l-75% f l 7 6%+ 3. ' Has your number of campers increased significantly over the last three years? . , YES CD NO C 4. Has the pr o f i t a b i l i t y of your operation increased over the last three years? , YES O NO C 5. In this last season, how many customers did you have? (Indicate only the number of sites rented, not the total number of guests.) What percentage of your total capacity do you feel this was? (Refer to Question #5) Approximately what percentage of your customers are Weekend and Holiday? Weekday? -What percentage of your guests come during _May-June? July? -August? - September-October' Page 5 9. During the summer holiday season (July-August), not including statutory holiday what are your occupancy rates? (i.e. volume of business) Check one. I I About the same weekends and weekdays I I Slightly higher on weekends CZl Much higher on weekends 10. What percentage of your guests were from British Columbia? Other Provinces? United States 11. Do you consider your campground to be an "overflow"? /travellers come to you when your nearby competitors (government or private) are ful]J7 YES CU NO CU 12. Listed below are methods of advertising. In Column I, indicate every method you use. In Column II. indicate the one method you feel is most successful. In C o l u m n TTI.T indicate the one method you feel is the second most effective for your business. I II III (If you (Most (Second use) Effective) Most E f f e c t i v e ) ,' " , ' C3 CZ? C U Radio • Q CZJ TV CZl I—I I 1 Newspapers • • cn Camping and recreation and out-door magazines CZl 1—I I—1 Printing your own folders, brochures a czt c n Local tourist associations and Chambers of Commerce • CZl d t B. .C. Motels & Resorts Provincial Directory (for which you pay $50) CD I—I I — L Listing in Provincial Government Tourist Directory ("The Green Book' • • CZL Follow-ups via the mail to previous customers Others (please specify) Page 6 MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS Below i s a l i s t of problems that may a f f e c t the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of your business and the l e v e l of service you o f f e r . ... ; In Column I, check ALL those problems which a f f e c t your business operations (both e s t a b l i s h i n g i t and operating i t ) . In Column II, check your ONE main problem. In Column I I I , check what you f e e l i s your SECOND MOST common problem. 1 II III' ( A l l problems) , (Main (Second problem): Most common ;:' - problem) CU CZJ . - O Vandalism , tZ? LTD CD • Theft •• CD CD L i a b i l i t y CD CD CD Short Season CD CD CD Weather CD \ | Q F a c i l i t y i s too smacQ-1 C J CD CD P o l l u t i o n : < 1 J 1 ) - I f Poor Location I I ,1 | I I Lack of services (hydro, water, sewer too expensive, d i f f i c u l t to obtain) ; I I \ I I 1 Too much competition from other private campgrounds' • CD ID Too much competition from other public campgrounds ••• CD (—I CD Taxation (property) j I I- I I I Zoning and subdivision regulations CD ... . . CD CD F u l f i l l m e nt of medical health regulations I—- t—' CD Other (please specify) Page 7 [. ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT 1. Governments directly or indirectly are involved in many act i v i t i e s affecting the operation of your campground. From the following l i s t of acti v i t i e s , indi-cate whether you feel each activity has been adequately f u l f i l l e d by the government. POOR ADEQUATE VERY GOOD a a O Advertising and Tourist Promotion CZJ CD cn Health Inspection CD CD CD Financial Assistance a CJ CD Providing services (hydro, phones, roads, water, garbage) • a a Technical Assistance to encourage good business practices (advice, information) 2. Which level of government do you feel should supervise private campgrounds? F l Local? - L Z 3 P r o v i n c i a l ? CZl Federal? 3. (a) The following l i s t s several services that.could possibly help campground operators improve the level of the services they provide to recreationists. In Column I, indicate whether you feel the government should participate. (Note: Government could act alone or in conjunction with your Association, but leadership, funds and man power would be provided mainly by the Government) In Column II, indicate whether you feel the task should be done by campground operator associations such as B. C. Motels, Resorts and Trailer Park Association. In Column III, indicate i f you feel neither should be involved and the matter should be l e f t to each private operator. I /eminent) CD I I i n • (Associations)(Neither) CZl CD Enforcing health and sanitary standards CD a CZJ Enforcing maximum capacity standards (preventing overcrowding) o CD Supervise fee ratesj • a a Program of low-cost loans CD a CZJ Technical advice (soil and drainage, campground design, water and sewer systems) a i n a Management advice (how to advertise, deal with guests, keep financial record L i a b i l i t y insurance MISHIT .T.ANr,CU3 In the f o l l o w i n g space, please w r i t e any a d d i t i o n a l comments 1. Comments on a d d i t i o n a l problems you face. 2. Comments on the qu e s t i o n n a i r e . 3. Comments on the r o l e of the government. 4. Comments on the r o l e of the B. C. Motels, Resorts and A s s o c i a t i o n . 

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